Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 1)

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Re: BOOK 82

Unread postby Fornadan » Wed Nov 08, 2017 9:26 pm

Taishi Ci 2.0 wrote:〈解,戶買翻,姓也。春秋晉有大夫解揚。〉〈撓,攪也,擾也。〉〈張華使梁王肜殺秀而不遂,旣至洛陽,獨不能明正其罪而誅之邪!〉〈爲倫、秀殺華、頠、系張本。〉

(解, pronounced "hai (h-ai)", is a surname. There was a great minister of the state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn era named Hai Yang.


Hmm, this seems to be actually rather tricky.

Dictionaries list three different Modern Mandarin pronounciations for 解: jiě - jiè - xiè
According to zdic.net when used as a family name, 解 should be pronounced Xiè (same as hexagram 40)

http://www.zdic.net/z/24/js/89E3.htm

But then we have Hu Sanxing's claim that it should be pronounced 戶買
With Modern Mandarin pronounciation this becomes hù 戶 + mǎi 買 = hǎi - which is not in the dictionaries

But looking at the reconstructed Middle Chinese (MC) I find the following

解 heaX
戶 huX
買 meaX
huX + meaX = heaX

So it seems in Hu Sanxing's days, 解 was indeed pronounced 戶+買, but due to later sound changes this is no longer the case
(Compare 海 pinyin: hǎi MC: xojX)
Translations from the Book of Jin: http://bookofjin.tumblr.com/index
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-83-??)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Nov 08, 2017 10:12 pm

Yes, that's a surname that I was hesitant about parsing as "Hai". Hu Sanxing's note does seem to say h-ai rather clearly. But I could certainly be persuaded to go with Xie instead. HSX has a few such pronunciation notes that I am not sure which way to come down on.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-83-??)

Unread postby Fornadan » Sun Nov 12, 2017 10:36 pm

Taishi Ci 2.0 wrote:Yes, that's a surname that I was hesitant about parsing as "Hai". Hu Sanxing's note does seem to say h-ai rather clearly. But I could certainly be persuaded to go with Xie instead. HSX has a few such pronunciation notes that I am not sure which way to come down on.


Strictly speaking, he says the pronounciation is 戶買 which in his time was not quite "hai"
Translations from the Book of Jin: http://bookofjin.tumblr.com/index
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-83-??)

Unread postby DragonAtma » Mon Nov 13, 2017 12:31 am

KMA standard is Xie. http://kongming.net/encyclopedia/Xie-Piao

...in addition, if you go with "Hai" then every time I see that I'll think of "Zhai Rong", which really should be Ze Rong. >_>
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BOOK 84

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 13, 2017 3:23 am

永寧元年(辛酉、三○一)

The First Year of Yongning (The Xinyou Year, 301 AD)


〈此猶是永康二年;正月乙丑,趙王倫改元建始;四月,帝反正,始改元永寧。〉

(This year began as the second year of Yongkang. In the first month, on the day Yichou (February 3rd), Sima Lun changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianshi. In the fourth month, after Emperor Hui was restored to the throne, the reign era title was changed again, this time to the first year of Yongning.)


春,正月,以散騎常侍安定張軌爲涼州刺史。軌以時方多難,陰有保據河西之志,故求爲涼州。時州境盜賊縱橫,鮮卑爲寇;軌至,以宋配、氾瑗爲謀主,悉討破之,威著西土。

1. In spring, the first month, the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Zhang Gui of Anding, was appointed as Inspector of Liangzhou. Zhang Gui could see that the era he was living in was beset by many difficulties, and he also had the secret ambition to hold and possess the territories west of the Yellow River for himself. This was why he sought the command of Liangzhou.

During this time, Liangzhou was plagued by robbers and bandits across the whole region, not to mention raids by the Xianbei. When Zhang Gui arrived, he appointed Song Pei and Fan Yuan as his chief advisors, and he swept through all the province, campaigning against and smashing all of the bandits and invaders. So Zhang Gui's power was felt throughout the west.

〈楊正衡曰:氾,姓也。〉〈張氏保據涼土始此。嗚呼!世亂則人思自全,然求全而不能自全者亦多矣。竇融、張軌之求出河西,此求全而得全者也。謝晦、袁顗之求鎭荊、襄,此求全而不能自全者也。蓋竇融、張軌,始終一心以奉漢、晉,此固宜永終福祿、詒及子孫者也。謝晦、袁顗,志在據地險以全身,其用心非矣,天所不與也。然劉焉求牧益州,袁紹志圖冀部,石敬瑭心欲河東,皆以之潛規非望;至其成敗久速,則有非智慮所及者。〉

(Yang Zhengheng remarked, "氾 Fan is a surname."

Thus began the Zhang clan's long control of the territory of Liangzhou (as the de facto state of Former Liang).

Alas! In ages of turmoil, how often do men seek distant posts to preserve themselves. And yet, how often do they seek such things without being able to save themselves. If we consider Dou Rong of the Han era and Zhang Gui in this era, both of them asked to be assigned to Liangzhou, and they were examples of men who successfully maintained themselves during turmoil. On the other hand, if we consider Xie Hui or Yuan Kai of the Liu-Song era, they asked to garrison Jingzhou and Xiangyang, and they were examples of men who could not maintain themselves. This was because of the differences in their intentions. From beginning to end and with full hearts, Dou Rong and Zhang Gui sought to uphold their loyalty to Han and to Jin. Thanks to that, not only did they have lasting good fortune for themselves, but were even able to hand it down to their children and grandchildren. Meanwhile, Xie Hui and Yuan Kai sought their posts only because they wanted to occupy defensible terrain in order to protect themselves; their motives were base, and so Heaven was not with them. It was the same thing at the end of Han, when Liu Yan sought to govern Yizhou and Yuan Shao plotted to take Jizhou, and also during the turmoil after the end of Tang, when Shi Jingtong wished to have Hedong for himself. In all of these cases, their hidden plans went against the hopes of the times. Whether their ultimate defeats came swiftly or slowly, they were all men without intelligence or consideration.)


張軌,字士彥,安定烏氏人,漢常山王耳十七世孫。祖烈,魏外黃令,父溫,太官令。母隴西辛氏。軌少好學明經與同郡皇甫士安友善,拜太子舍人,與京兆杜預善,以所注《易》遺之。太康中,為尚書郎、太子洗馬、中庶子,遷散騎常侍,征西將軍司馬。軌以晉室多難,陰圖保據河西,追竇融故事。筮之,遇泰之觀,軌喜曰:「霸者之兆。」乃求為涼州。公卿亦舉軌,拜涼州剌史,課農桑,拔賢才,置崇文祭酒,徵九郡胄子五百人,立學校以教之。(16 Kingdoms)

Zhang Gui, styled Shiyan, was a native of Wushi in Anding commandary. He was a seventeenth-generation descendant of the Han dynasty's Prince Jing of Changshan, Zhang Er. His grandfather was Zhang Lie, Cao-Wei's Prefect of Waihuang County. His father was Zhang Wen, who served as the Court Provisioner. His mother was Lady Xin of Longxi commandary.

As a youth, Zhang Gui was well-educated and conversant in the Classics, and he was good friends with his fellow commandary native Huangfu Shi'an (Huangfu Mi). He was appointed as a Retainer to the Crown Prince, where he became friendly with Du Yu of Jingzhao commandary, who gave him his annotations to the Book of Changes as a gift. During the Taikang era (280-289), he was further appointed as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, as Horse-Washer to the Crown Prince, and as Palace Bodyguard. He was then transferred to be a Cavalier In Regular Attendance and the Army Director to the General Who Conquers The West.

Zhang Gui could see that the Jin royal family was beset by many difficulties, and he also had the secret ambition to hold and possess the territories west of the Yellow River for himself, following the example of Dou Rong of old. He took a milfoil divination, and the results were the Tai and Guan interpretations as listed in the Book of Changes. Zhang Gui joyously said, "This is the sign of a hegemon." So he asked to be trusted with Liangzhou. The court officials also recommended him, so he was appointed as Inspector of Liangzhou. He oversaw farming and silkworm production, as well as plucking out worthy and talented people. He created the post of Libationer of Sublime Culture, and summoned five hundred boys from nine commandaries and established a school to instruct them.

張軌,字士彥,安定烏氏人,漢常山景王耳十七代孫也。家世孝廉,以儒學顯。父溫,為太官令。軌少明敏好學,有器望,姿儀典則,與同郡皇甫謐善,隱于宜陽女幾山。泰始初,受叔父錫官五品。中書監張華與軌論經義及政事損益,甚器之,謂安定中正為蔽善抑才,乃美為之談,以為二品之精。衛將軍楊珧辟為掾,除太子舍人,累遷散騎常侍、征西軍司。軌以時方多難,陰圖據河西,筮之,遇《泰》之《觀》,乃投策喜曰:「霸者兆也。」於是求為涼州。公卿亦舉軌才堪禦遠。永甯初,出為護羌校尉、涼州刺史。于時鮮卑反叛,寇盜從橫,軌到官,即討破之,斬首萬餘級,遂威著西州,化行河右。以宋配、陰充、氾瑗、陰澹為股肱謀主,征九郡胄子五百人,立學校,始置崇文祭酒,位視別駕,春秋行鄉射之禮。秘書監繆世征、少府摯虞夜觀星象,相與言曰:「天下方亂,避難之國唯涼土耳。張涼州德量不恆,殆其人乎!」及河間、成都二王之難,遣兵三千,東赴京師。初,漢末金城人陽成遠殺太守以叛,郡人馮忠赴屍號哭,嘔血而死。張掖人吳詠為護羌校尉馬賢所辟,後為太尉龐參掾,參、賢相誣,罪應死,各引詠為證,詠計理無兩直,遂自刎而死。參、賢慚悔,自相和釋。軌皆祭其墓而旌其子孫。永興中,鮮卑若羅拔能皆為寇,軌遣司馬宋配擊之,斬拔能,俘十餘萬口,威名大震。惠帝遣加安西將軍,封安樂鄉侯,邑千戶。於是大城姑臧。其城本匈奴所築也,南北七里,東西三里,地有龍形,故名臥龍城。初,漢末博士敦煌侯瑾謂其門人曰:「後城西泉水當竭,有雙闕起其上,與東門相望。中有霸者出焉。」至魏嘉平中,郡官果起學館,築雙闕於泉上,與東門正相望矣。至是,張氏遂霸河西。(Book of Jin 86.1)

Zhang Gui, styled Shiyan, was a native of Wushi in Anding commandary. He was a seventeenth-generation descendant of the Han dynasty's Prince Jing of Changshan, Zhang Er. His family members had been nominated as Filial and Incorrupt candidates over the generations, and they became prominent for their Confucian learning. Zhang Gui's father was Zhang Wen, who served as the Court Provisioner.

As a youth, Zhang Gui was intelligent and well-educated, and he was both capable and well-known. He conducted himself with all due ceremony, and he was good friends with his fellow commandary native Huangfu Mi, who lived in seclusion at Mount Nüji in Yiyang near Luoyang.

At the beginning of the Taishi reign era (~265), Zhang Gui inherited his uncle Zhang Xi's official position in the Fifth Rank of the Nine-Ranks System. The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Hua, discussed the virtues of the Classics and the merits and faults of government policies with Zhang Gui, and greatly appreciated him, saying that the Rectifier evaluating official of Anding commandary had been hiding away a good man and keeping a talented fellow pressed down. He was so impressed by the beauty of Zhang Gui's discussions that he believed that Zhang Gui was worthy of a position of the Second Rank.

The Guard General, Yang Yao, recruited Zhang Gui as his subordinate. After that, he became first a Retainer to the Crown Prince, and then a Cavalier In Regular Attendance and the Army Director to the General Who Conquers The West.

Zhang Gui could see that the era he was living in was beset by many difficulties, and he also had the secret ambition to hold and possess the territories west of the Yellow River for himself. He took a milfoil divination, and the results were the Tai and Guan interpretations as listed in the Book of Changes. Zhang Gui joyously cast aside his utensils and said, "This is the sign of a hegemon." So he asked to be trusted with Liangzhou. The court officials agreed, noting that with Zhang Gui's talents, he was well-suited for defending distant places like Liangzhou. At the beginning of the Yongning reign era (301), Zhang Gui was dispatched to Liangzhou as Colonel Who Protects The Qiang and Inspector of Liangzhou.

At this time, the Xianbei had turned against Liangzhou and rebelled, and the whole region was plagued by robbers and bandits. So when Zhang Gui arrived at his post, he campaigned against these threats and routed them, taking more than ten thousand heads. His power was felt throughout the western provinces, and he restored proper behavior to the region west of the Yellow River.

Zhang Gui appointed Song Pei, Yin Chong, Fan Yuan, and Yin Dan as his chief advisors and top men. He summoned five hundred boys from nine commandaries and established a school for them, as well as newly creating the post of Libationer of Sublime Culture, in which role the youths would observe the workings of the Attendant Officers With Separate Carriage and conduct the ceremonies of the Spring and Autumn era at the various archery assemblies.

The Chief of the Imperial Library, Shi Zheng, and the Privy Treasurer, Zhi Yu, were interpreting the stars at night. They said to each other, "With all the troubles facing the realm, the only place one can go to escape from such things is Liangzhou. Inspector Zhang has uncommon capacity and virtue; he must be the one!"

When the Princes of Hejian (Sima Yong) and Chengdu (Sima Ying) were having trouble, Zhang Gui dispatched three thousand soldiers which marched east to the capital at Luoyang.

Zhang Gui also respected worthy natives of the region. There was one time many years earlier, during the last years of the Han dynasty, when a native of Jincheng, Yang Chengyuan, had killed the Administrator of that commandary and rebelled. Another fellow from that commandary, Feng Zhong, encountered the Administrator's corpse and wailed so greatly that he coughed up blood and so died.

At another time, a native of Zhangye commandary, Wu Yong, was recruited by the Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, Ma Xian, and later became a subordinate of the Grand Commandant, Pang Can. It so happened that Ma Xian and Pang Can accused one another of having commited crimes deserving death, and each of them asked Wu Yong to testify on their behalf. Considering that he could not side with either of his superiors at the expense of the other, Wu Yong cut his own throat and so died. Ma Xian and Pang Can were ashamed and regretful at this outcome, and so they made peace with each other and let the matter drop.

Zhang Gui honored these virtuous souls by conducting sacrifices at their tombs and granting honors to their descendants.


相國倫與孫秀使牙門趙奉詐傳宣帝神語云:「倫宜早入西宮。」散騎常侍義陽王威,望之孫也,素諂事倫,倫以威兼侍中,使威逼奪帝璽綬,作禪詔,又使尚書令滿奮持節、奉璽綬禪位於倫。左衞將軍王輿、前軍將軍司馬雅等帥甲士入殿,曉諭三部司馬,示以威賞,無敢違者。張林等屯守諸門。乙丑,倫備法駕入宮,卽帝位。赦天下,改元建始。帝自華林西門出居金墉城,倫使張衡將兵守之。

2. The Chancellor of State, Sima Lun, and his counselor Sun Xiu arranged for the General of the Standard, Zhao Feng, to forge a report recording Emperor Xuan's (Sima Yi's) spirit saying, "Sima Lun should enter the Western Palace at once."

The Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Prince of Yiyang, Sima Wey, was the grandson of Sima Wang. He had long curried favor with Sima Lun, so Sima Lun now appointed him as Palace Attendant and sent him to take away Emperor Hui's seals and ribbons by force. Sima Wey also composed an edict of abdication.

Sima Lun also had the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Man Fen, grasp the Staff of Authority as he presented the seals and ribbons to Sima Lun as tokens of Emperor Hui's abdication to him.

The Guard General of the Left, Wang Yu, the General of the Forward Army, Sima Ya, and others led armored soldiers into the palace hall. They issued instructions to the Marshals of the Three Divisions, speaking of their might and of rewards, so that there was no one who dared to go against them. Zhang Lin and others posted their soldiers to guard the various palace gates.

On the day Yichou (February 3rd), Sima Lun prepared an imperial carriage to bring him into the Western Palace, where he officially assumed the imperial throne. He issued an amnesty throughout the realm, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianshi.

Emperor Hui was led out through the western gate of the Hualin Garden and taken to the Jinyong fortress to reside there. Sima Lun sent Zhang Heng with soldiers to keep watch over him.

〈司馬懿,追諡宣皇帝。時倫以東宮爲相國府,謂禁中爲西宮。〉〈屯守宮城諸門也。〉〈《考異》曰:《三十國春秋》云:「倫將篡位,義陽王威執詔示嵇紹曰:『聖上法堯、舜之舉,卿其然乎?』紹厲聲曰:『有死而已,終不有二!』威怒,拔劍而出。及惠帝遷于金墉城,唯紹固志不從,直于金墉,絕不通倫,時人皆爲之懼。」《晉書‧忠義傳》云:「倫篡位,紹爲侍中,惠帝復祚,遂居其職。」二說不同,今皆不取。「復祚」之「祚」,當作「阼」。〉〈華林西門,華林園西門也。〉

(Sima Yi had been posthumously honored as Emperor Xuan by Sima Yan. At this time, Sima Lun was residing in the Chancellor of State's office in the Crown Prince's Eastern Palace, and the supposed remark was stating that he should now move his residence to the Western Palace, where Emperor Hui himself lived.

Zhang Lin's soldiers were guarding the gates of the palace walls.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms states, 'When Sima Lun was about to usurp the throne, Sima Wey was holding the edict of abdication, and he showed it to Ji Shao. He said to Ji Shao, "Might His Majesty not follow the example of Emperors Yao and Shun by abdicating? What say you?" Ji Shao sternly replied, "Even if I die, I will never recognize another as Emperor!" Sima Wey, furious, drew his sword and stalked off. When Emperor Hui was sent to the Jinyong fortress, Ji Shao was the only one to maintain his stance and refused to go along with Sima Lun. He went straight to the Jinyong fortress, and would not have any dealings with Sima Lun. The people of that time were all afraid for him.' However, Ji Shao's entry in the Loyal and Virtuous People section of the Book of Jin states, 'When Sima Lun usurped the throne, Ji Shao was appointed as Palace Attendant. After Emperor Hui was restored to his fortunes, Ji Shao kept this office.' Since these two accounts conflict, I chose not to include either. The Book of Jin's account says that Emperor Hui was 'restored to his fortunes', but it should say he was restored to 'the eastern steps (of the palace)'."

The “west gate of Hualin” was the west gate of the Hualin Garden.)


丙寅,尊帝爲太上皇,改金墉曰永昌宮,廢皇太孫爲濮陽王。立世子荂爲皇太子,封子馥爲京兆王,虔爲廣平王,詡爲霸城王,皆侍中將兵。以梁王肜爲宰衡,何劭爲太宰,孫秀爲侍中、中書監、票騎將軍、儀同三司,義陽王威爲中書令,張林爲衞將軍,其餘黨與,皆爲卿、將,超階越次,不可勝紀;下至奴卒,亦加爵位。每朝會,貂蟬盈座,時人爲之諺曰:「貂不足,狗尾續。」是歲,天下所舉賢良、秀才、孝廉皆不試;郡國計吏及太學生年十六以上皆署吏;守令赦日在職者皆封侯;郡綱紀並爲孝廉,縣綱紀並爲廉吏。府庫之儲,不足以供賜與。應侯者多,鑄印不給,或以白板封之。

3. On the day Bingyin (February 4th), Sima Lun honored Emperor Hui as the Grand Retired Emperor, and he changed the name of the Jinyong fortress to Yongchang Palace. He deposed the Crown Grandson, Sima Zang, as Prince of Puyang. Sima Lun appointed his own eldest son, Sima Fu, as the new Crown Prince. For his other sons, he appointed Sima Fuu as Prince of Jingzhao, Sima Qian as Prince of Guangping, and Sima Xu as Prince of Bacheng. All of them were also appointed as Palace Attendants and given command of soldiers.

The Prince of Lian, Sima Rong, was appointed as Grand Chancellor. He Shao was appointed as Grand Governor. Sun Xiu was appointed as Palace Attendant, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and General of Agile Cavalry, with equal authority to the Three Excellencies. Sima Wey was appointed as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. Zhang Lin was appointed as Guard General. The rest of Sima Lun's partisans and associates were all appointed to the various offices of the Nine Ministers and the Generals of the Household Gentlemen.

Everyone advanced in rank, regardless of any records of merits; even the servants and privates were moved up in rank. Whenever court was held, the air was filled with the sable tails and cicada ornaments on the ministers' caps. People of that time came up with the proverb, "When the sables will not do; dog's tail should be added too."

During this year, everyone who was nominated as Worthy and Excellent, Abundant Talent, or Filial and Incorrupt were all given office without being examined first. Accounting Clerks in the commandaries and princely fiefs and students at the Imperial Academy who were sixteen or older were all immediately placed in low-level offices. Anyone who was serving as an Administrator or a Prefect on the day when the amnesty was issued was granted noble title as a Marquis. Commandary subordinate officials were all named as Filial and Incorrupt, and county subordinate officials were all given special nominations as well.

So many people were appointed to offices at once that the government supplies were insufficient to give all of them their tokens of office. And many of those appointed as Marquis were not even given carved seals; some were merely given blank slates.

〈卿、將,列卿及諸中郎將也。〉〈武冠,一曰武弁,諸武官冠之。侍中、中常侍加黃金璫,附蟬爲文,貂尾爲飾,謂之「趙惠文冠」。胡廣說曰:趙武靈王效胡服,以金璫飾首,前插貂尾,爲貴職;秦滅趙,以其冠賜近臣。應劭《漢官》曰:說者以金取堅剛,百鍊不耗,蟬居高飲潔,口在腋下;貂內勁捍而外溫潤,此因物生義也。徐廣曰:趙武靈王胡服有此,秦、漢卽而用之。說者蟬取其清高飲露而不食,貂紫蔚采潤而毛采不彰,故於義亦取。胡廣又曰:意謂北方寒涼,本以貂皮暖額,附施於冠,因遂變成首飾。沈約曰:貂蟬之說,因物生義,非其實也。其實趙武靈王變胡服,秦滅趙,以其君冠賜侍臣,故秦、漢以來,侍臣有貂蟬也。〉〈《史記》曰:狐裘雖敝,不可補以黃狗之皮,亦此意。〉〈舊制,賢良、秀、孝皆試而後補官。〉〈郡綱紀,功曹之屬;縣綱紀,主簿、錄事史之屬。廉吏,亦選舉之一科。史言倫、秀欲以濫恩收衆心。〉

(The passage says that Sima Lun's partisans were appointed as "ministers and generals"; it means as ministers of the Nine Ministers ranks and as Generals of the Household Gentlemen.

The various military officials all wore the military hat, also called the military cap. Palace Attendants and Regular Attendants wore golden rings. The rings had cicadas attached as ornamentation, with sable tails for decoration. People called these hats "the civil caps of Zhao and Hui (Sima Lun and Emperor Hui)". Hu Guang remarked, "When King Ling of Zhao instituted the 'barbarian attire' for his court, the attire had metal rings as decoration for the head, with sable tails hanging from the front; these served as markers of holders of high office. After the state of Qin vanquished the state of Zhao, Qin bestowed these caps to their close ministers." Ying Shao's Han Offices states, "It is said that metal is firm and unyielding, and can be smelted a hundred times without being consumed. And the cicada is a creature that dwells in high places and drinks cleanly, with its mouth under its armpit. The sable is strong and durable within while being soft and smooth without, and so it is a thing that births righteousness." Xu Guang remarked, "When King Ling of Zhao instituted the barbarian attire, this was a part of it, and so Qin and Han kept it. It is said that the cicada drinks its dew while being on a clear and high place, though it does not eat. As for the sable, its dark coat is luxuriant and highly prized, yet its hair does not stand out conspicuously, so it obtains righteousness." Hu Guang also remarked, "Because the north is a cold and chilly place, originally the skin of the sable was used to warm the forehead, so it was attached to the cap as an ornament. From that, it became a general head decoration." Shen Yue remarked, "It is claimed that the sable and the cicada were chosen because they are things that birth righteousness, but this is not the case. The truth is that they appeared when King Ling of Zhao instituted the barbarian attire in his court. When Qin vanquished Zhao, their lord gave these caps to his close ministers. This was why, all through Qin and Han, the close ministers of the palace had these sables and cicadas as decorations."

The Records of the Grand Historian states, "Even if a fox coat has become worn and ragged, one cannot patch it up with the skin of a yellow dog." The ditty mentioned in this passage has the same meaning.

"A dog's tail to stand in for sable" is an idiom similar to the English idiom "gilding the lily".

Under the old system, those nominated as Worthy and Excellent, Abundant Talent, or Filial and Incorrupt were first examined before being appointed to office.

The "commandary subordinate officials" were the Merit Evaluators and those on down; the "county subordinate officials" were the Registrars, Ministers of Affairs, and those on down. The term 廉吏 used here means such people were also selected and raised up.

The purpose of this passage was to show how Sima Lun and Sun Xiu were bestowing excessive favors on every side in order to win people over to them.)


初,平南將軍孫旂之子弼、弟子髦、輔、琰皆附會孫秀,與之合族,旬月間致位通顯。及倫稱帝,四子皆爲將軍,封郡侯,以旂爲車騎將軍、開府。旂以弼等受倫官爵過差,必爲家禍,遣幼子回責之,弼等不從,旂不能制,慟哭而已。

4. The General Who Pacifies The South, Sun Qi, had a son, Sun Bi, and three nephews, Sun Mao, Sun Fu, and Sun Yan. Up until this time, all of these young men had been closely attached to Sun Xiu, and since they were all of the same clan, the young men had all obtained conspicuous offices within the space of a month. After Sima Lun usurped the throne, these four young men were all appointed as generals and named as Marquises over commandaries. Sun Bi was appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry and granted the privilege of opening a Separate Office.

Sun Qi worried that in accepting these ranks and titles from Sima Lun, Sun Bi and the others had gone too far, and they would certainly bring ruin upon their family. He sent his youngest son Sun Huy to rebuke them, but Sun Qi and the others would not listen. Sun Qi could not control them, but he did no more than wail in grief.

〈據《晉書》,孫旂四子,並以吏才稱於當世。附麗非人,至於滅族,擇木之難也。然孫旂先與孫秀親善,故諸子從而附會之。擇交之不審,何以詔其子哉!雖慟哭,無益也。孫族之赤,旂實爲之。〉

(According to the Book of Jin, these four sons and nephews of Sun Qi all had great ministerial talents of that age. They attached themselves to a villain, and went so far as to bring ruin upon their clan; that is the difficulty that comes when one chooses which branch to perch on. However, Sun Qi was certainly already friendly with Sun Xiu before this, and this was why these young men also found favor with him. When Sun Qi did not carefully consider his own relationships, how could he have expected to give such orders to his younger relatives? Though he wailed with grief, it did him no good. He brought this on himself.)


癸酉,殺濮陽哀王臧。

5. On the day Guiyou (February 11th), Sima Zang was killed. He was posthumously known as Prince Ai ("the Mourned") of Puyang.

孫秀專執朝政,倫所出詔令,秀輒改更與奪,自書青紙爲詔,或朝行夕改,百官轉易如流。張林素與秀不相能,且怨不得開府,潛與太子荂牋,言:「秀專權不合衆心,而功臣皆小人,撓亂朝廷,可悉誅之。」荂以書白倫,倫以示秀。秀勸倫收林,殺之,夷其三族。秀以齊王冏、成都王穎、河間王顒,各擁強兵,據方面,惡之,乃盡用其親黨爲三王參佐,加冏鎭東大將軍、穎征北大將軍,皆開府儀同三司,以寵安之。

6. Sun Xiu monopolized full control of court and state affairs. Whenever Sima Lun sent out an edict, Sun Xiu would take it first and then rewrite the edict however he liked on his own edict paper. He would sometimes shuffle the court overnight, changing out the court ministers as easily as flowing water.

Zhang Lin had long been on bad terms with Sun Xiu, and he was especially resentful that he had not been given the privilege of a Separate Office. He secretly sent a letter to Crown Prince Sima Fu, which said, "Sun Xiu has sole control over everything and does not act in accordance with what everyone believes. Furthermore, he gives merit and office to mere miscreants, and he causes disturbances and confusion within the court. He ought to be executed." Sima Fu showed his father the letter, and Sima Lun showed it to Sun Xiu. Sun Xiu urged Sima Lun to arrest Zhang Lin and execute him, along with his family to the third degree.

Sun Xiu was anxious about some of the other Princes. The Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong, the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, and the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, each had powerful soldiers under their command and occupied strategic locations. So Sun Xiu sent his own close partisans out to serve as advisors under the three princes. He also promoted Sima Jiong as Grand General Who Guards The East and Sima Ying as Grand General Who Conquers The North, and gave them both the privilege of Separate Offices with equal authority to the Three Excellencies, in order to mollify and appease them.

〈冏鎭許昌,穎鎭鄴,顒鎭關中。〉

(At this time, Sima Jiong was posted at Xuchang, Sima Ying was at Ye, and Sima Yong was in Guanzhong.)


趙王倫之篡也,進征北大將軍,加開府儀同三司。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, usurped the throne (in 301), he promoted Sima Ying to Grand General Who Conquers The North, and further granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal authority to the Three Excellencies.


李庠曉勇得衆心,趙廞浸忌之而未言。長史蜀郡杜淑、張粲說廞曰:「將軍起兵始爾,而據遣李庠握強兵於外。非我族類,其心必異,此倒戈授人也,宜早圖之。」會庠勸廞稱尊號,淑、粲因白廞以庠大逆不道,引斬之,幷其子姪十餘人。時李特、李流皆將兵在外,廞遣人慰撫之曰:「庠非所宜言,罪應死。兄弟罪不相及。」復以特、流爲督將。特、流怨廞,引兵歸緜竹。

6. Among the rebels in the Shu region, the Di leader Li Xiáng had won over many people to his side through his conspicuous bravery. The leader of the rebellion, Zhao Xin, had started to resent him, but had yet to actually express such sentiments.

Zhao Xin's Chief Clerks, Du Shu of Shu commandary and Zhang Can, warned him, "General, when you first rose up, the soldiers were all with you. But now you have sent this Li Xiáng away to take hold of powerful soldiers for himself. Do not forget the saying: 'if he be not of our kin, he is sure to have a different mind'. He is the kind of man who will turn on you. You ought to be rid of him at once."

And soon, Li Xiáng urged Zhao Xin to assume imperial title. Du Shu and Zhang Can said this was only further proof of his ill-intent and lack of principles. So Zhao Xin lured Li Xiáng in and then killed him, along with his sons and nephews, more than ten people.

At this time, Li Xiáng's brothers Li Te and Li Liu were both away with their soldiers. Zhao Xin sent men to console and soothe them, saying, "Li Xiáng was presumptuous and spoke out of turn, and his crime was worthy of death. But his crime does not extend to his brothers."

Zhao Xin meant to keep Li Te and Li Liu on as local commanders. But the two of them were furious with Zhao Xin, and they led their soldiers back to Mianzhu.

〈謂廞使庠招合壯勇以斷北道也。〉〈《考異》曰:《載記》曰:「及其子姪宗族三十餘人。」今從《華陽國志》。又《國志》,庠死在去年冬,《晉春秋》在今年春。今從之。〉

(Li Xiáng had been "sent away" in that Zhao Xin had sent him out to recruit brave men and to cut off the northern roads out of the Shu region.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Li Xiáng was killed, along with his sons and nephews, more than thirty men of his clan.' But I follow the account of the Huayang Guozhi. However, that text states that Li Xiáng died in the winter of the previous year (300), while the Annals of Jin states that it was in the spring of this year (301). In that case, I follow the Annals of Jin.")


庠素東羌之良將,曉兵法,部陣肅然。廞惡其齊整,殺之。復以特為督將,特兄弟既怨廞,引兵歸綿竹。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

Li Xiáng had long been a fine general under the Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes. He made the military laws very clear, and so his division respected him. Zhao Xin resented him for having such discipline, so he killed Li Xiáng. Zhao Xin then appointed Li Te as a commander, but Li Te and his brothers were now furious with Zhao Xin, and they led their soldiers back to Mianzhu.

庠素東羌良將,曉軍法,不用麾幟,舉矛為行伍,斬部下不用命者三人,部陣肅然。廞惡其齊整,欲殺之而未言。長史杜淑、司馬張粲言於廞曰:「傳云五大不在邊,將軍起兵始爾,便遣李庠握強兵於外,愚竊惑焉。且非我族類,其心必異,倒戈授人,竊以為不可,願將軍圖之。」廞斂容曰:「卿言正當吾意,可謂起予者商,此天使卿等成吾事也。」會庠在門,請見廞,廞大悅,引庠見之。庠欲觀廞意旨,再拜進曰:「今中國大亂,無復綱維,晉室當不可復興也。明公道格天地,德被區宇,湯、武之事,實在於今。宜應天時,順人心,拯百姓于塗炭,使物情知所歸,則天下可定,非但庸、蜀而已。」廞怒曰:「此豈人臣所宜言!」令淑等議之。於是淑等上庠大逆不道,廞乃殺之,及其子侄宗族三十餘人。廞慮特等為難,遣人喻之曰:「庠非所宜言,罪應至死,不及兄弟。」以庠屍還特,復以特兄弟為督將,以安其眾。特兄弟既以怨廞,引兵歸綿竹。(Book of Jin 120)

Li Xiáng had long been a fine general under the Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes. He made the military laws very clear. Rather than use a personal command banner, he kept his lance aloft to direct the rank and file soldiers. He killed three of his subordinates who did not obey orders, and so his division respected him.

Zhao Xin had resented him for having such discipline, and he wanted to kill Li Xiáng, but had not yet expressed such sentiments. Zhao Xin’s Chief Clerk, Du Shu, and his Marshal, Zhang Can, warned him, “Reports state that the Five Greats are not on the borders. General, when you first rose up, the soldiers were all with you. But now you have sent this Li Xiáng away to take hold of powerful soldiers for himself. We must humbly express our bewilderment at this. Furthermore, do not forget the saying: ‘if he be not of our kin, he is sure to have a different mind’. We believe that Li Xiáng is not the kind of man to throw down his spear and accept you. General, we ask that you get rid of him.”

Looking serious, Zhao Xin replied, “You speak just as I believe, as though you were expressing my own thoughts. Heaven has sent you men to help me carry this thing out.”

Soon, Li Xiáng himself was at the gate, asking to see Zhao Xin. Overjoyed, Zhao Xin had Li Xiáng brought in to see him.

Li Xiáng wanted to measure Zhao Xin’s intentions, so he saluted him again and stepped forward, saying, “The Middle Kingdom is now in great turmoil, and it cannot be tied back together again; the Jin dynasty cannot recover any longer. Your Excellency is as principled as Heaven and Earth, and your virtue is spread throughout the whole region. Now is the time to follow the examples of Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou by founding a new dynasty. You should heed the opportunity granted by Heaven and obey the wishes of the people. Save the common people from their misery, and they will recognize the situation and come to you. Then all the realm can be settled, and you need not claim merely the regions of Yong and Shu alone.”

Zhao Xin angrily replied, “How could a mere minister advocate such things?” He ordered Du Shu and the others to discuss the matter, and they concluded that Li Xiáng was a great traitor without principle. So Zhao Xin killed Li Xiáng, along with his sons, nephews, and other kinsmen, more than thirty people.

Zhao Xin was worried that Li Te and the others would be trouble, so he sent men to console them, saying, “Li Xiáng was presumptuous and spoke out of turn, and his crime was worthy of death. But his crime does not extend to his brothers.” He sent Li Xiáng’s body back to Li Te, and appointed Li Te and his brothers as commanders and generals, in order to keep them quiet. But Li Te and his brothers were now furious with Zhao Xin, and they led their soldiers back to Mianzhu.

被誅之日,六郡士庶莫不流涕,時年五十五。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Xiáng))

The day that Li Xiáng was executed, there was no one among the people of the six commandaries who did not weep for him. He was fifty-four when he died.

庠素東羌良將,曉軍陳,不用麾志,舉矛為行伍。庠勸稱大號漢。庠部下放攪,廞等忌之,張佳遂於會所斬庠,及其兄子弘等十餘人。慮特等為變,又命為督將,安慰其軍。還特庠喪。其夜,特、流徹眾散歸綿竹。廞遣故陰平令張衡、升遷費恕就綏納,皆為特所殺。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4)

Li Xiáng had long been a fine general under the Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes. He kept his army's defenses (or, formation) clear. Rather than use a personal command banner, he held his lance aloft to direct the rank and file soldiers. Li Xiáng urged Zhao Xin to assume imperial title as Emperor of Han. Li Xiáng's subordinates were undisciplined and rowdy, and Zhao Xin and others had resented him for that. Zhang Ji thus beheaded Li Xiáng at a meeting, along with his nephew Li Hong and others, more than ten people.

Zhao Xin was worried that Li Te and the others might start something, so he appointed them as commanders and generals, in order to keep their forces quiet. He sent Li Xiáng’s body back to Li Te for mourning.That night, Li Te and Li Liu led their forces to scatter and head back to Mianzhu. Zhao Xin sent the former Prefect of Yinping, Zhang Heng, and Fei Shu of Shengqian (or Waiqian) to pacify Li Te and the others and bring them back into the fold, but Li Te killed them both.

錢寫作「陣」。元豐本與錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本并如此。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本改作「不用麾幟、舉矛為行五。斬部下不用命者三人,部陣肅然」,接「廞等忌之」句。胤依《晉書‧李特載記》改也。浙本剜改五下十三字如宋舊。升: 張、吳、何、王、石本作外。浙本剜改作升。(HYGZ Commentary)

Regarding the character 陳 "defenses", the Qian edition writes it as 陣 "formation".

Regarding the sentence "Li Xiáng's subordinates were undisciplined and rowdy, and Zhao Xin and others had resented him for that", the Yuanfang and Qian, Liu, Li, 《函》, and Liao editions present it as is. But the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions change the first part to 斬部下不用命者三人,部陣肅然 "He killed three of his subordinates who did not obey orders, and so his division respected him", placing this before "Zhao Xin and others had resented him for that".

Regarding the sentence "Zhang Ji thus beheaded Li Xiáng at a meeting, along with his nephew Li Hong and others, more than ten people", the Yin edition replaces it with the account from the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin (that is, that Zhao Xin personally had Li Xiáng killed, along with more than thirty of his kinsmen). The Zhe edition removes the fifth through thirteenth characters to edit the account to comply with the old Song version.

Regarding the place name 升 Shengqian, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions have it as 外 Waiqian; the Zhe edition changes it to 升.


廞牙門將涪陵許弇求爲巴東監軍,杜淑、張粲固執不許,弇怒,手殺淑、粲於廞閤下,淑、粲左右復殺弇。三人,皆廞之腹心也,廞由是遂衰。

7. Zhao Xin's General of the Standard, Xu Yan of Fuling, asked to be appointed as Chief of Badong commandary. Du Shu and Zhang Can stubbornly refused him. In a fit of rage, Xu Yan killed Du Shu and Zhang Can beneath Zhao Xin's pavilion, but was then killed by their attendants in turn. These men had been Zhao Xin's most trusted officers, and with their deaths, Zhao Xin's cause began to decline.

〈涪陵縣,漢屬巴郡,蜀分爲涪陵郡。〉〈腹心旣死,廞無所倚,故其勢衰。〉

(During Han, Fuling County had been part of Ba commandary. Shu-Han had split it off as Fuling commandary.

Since his most trusted officers had died, Zhao Xin no longer had anyone whom he could rely upon, and so his power began to wane.)


牙門將許弇求為巴東監軍,杜淑、張粲固執不許。弇怒,于廞閣下手刃殺淑、粲,淑、粲左右又殺弇,皆廞腹心也。(Book of Jin 120)

Zhao Xin’s General of the Standard, Xu Yan, asked to be appointed as Chief of Badong commandary. Du Shu and Zhang Can stubbornly refused him. In a fit of rage, Xu Yan killed Du Shu and Zhang Can with his own blade beneath Zhao Xin’s pavilion, but was then killed by their attendants in turn. These men had been Zhao Xin’s most trusted officers.

許弇求為巴東監軍,杜淑、張粲逆不許。弇怒,於州閤下手刃殺淑、粲。即亦殺弇。二子,廞腹心也。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4)

(Zhao Xin’s General of the Standard), Xu Yan, asked to be appointed as Chief of Badong commandary. Du Shu and Zhang Can stubbornly refused him. In a fit of rage, Xu Yan killed Du Shu and Zhang Can with his own blade beneath Zhao Xin’s pavilion. Xu Yan was then killed in turn. These two men had been Zhao Xin’s most trusted officers.

許弇: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本俱有「牙門將」三字在許上。逆: 元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本作逆。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作「固執」二字。粲: 李本粲字皆作燦。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding Xu Yan, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions all preface his name here by noting he was "General of the Standard".

Regarding the character 逆 "opposed", the Yuanfeng and Qian, Liu, Li, 《函》, and Liao editions write it as such. But the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write it as 固執 "stubbornly".

Regarding Zhang 粲 Can's given name, the Li edition writes all instances of his given name as 燦 Can.)


廞遣長史犍爲費遠、蜀郡太守李苾、督護常俊督萬餘人斷北道,屯緜竹之石亭。李特密收兵得七千餘人,夜襲遠等軍,燒之,死者十八九,遂進攻成都。費遠、李苾及軍祭酒張微,夜斬關走,文武盡散。廞獨與妻乘小船走,至廣都,爲從者所殺。特入成都,縱兵大掠,遣使詣洛陽,陳廞罪狀。

8. Zhao Xin sent his Chief Clerk, Fei Yuan of Jianwei, the Administrator of Shu commandary, Li Bi, and his Protector, Chang Jun, to lead more than ten thousand soldiers to block the northern roads, and they camped at Shiting in Mianzhu. Li Te secretly gathered an army of more than seven thousand soldiers, and he raided their camp at night, setting fire to it. Eight or nine of every ten soldiers died.

Li Te then advanced to attack Chengdu. Fei Yuan, Li Bi, and the Army Libationer (or, Army-Consultant Libationer), Zhang Wei, cut their way out of the city gates during the night and fled, and the civil and military officials all scattered. Zhao Xin was left alone with his wife and children. They got into a small boat and fled, but when they reached Guangdu, they were killed by Zhao Xin's subordinate.

Li Te entered Chengdu, letting his soldiers loose to sack the city. He sent word to Luoyang, detailing the crimes Zhao Xin had committed.

〈苾,毗必翻。緜竹縣,漢屬廣漢郡,晉屬新都郡,唐屬漢州。〉〈【張:「軍」下脫「諮」字。】〉〈【章:甲十一行本「妻」下有「子」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉

(Li Bi's given name 苾 is pronounced "pi (p-i)".

During Han, Mianzhu County was part of Guanghan commandary. During Jin, it was part of Xindu commandary. During Tang, it was part of Hanzhou.

Some versions add that Zhang Wei was "Army-Consultant Libationer".

Some versions say that Zhao Xin was left with his wife "and children".)


廞恐朝廷疑己,遣長史費遠等督萬餘人斷北道,次綿竹之石亭,密收合得七千餘人,夜襲遠軍,遠軍大潰,因放火燒之,死者十八九。進攻成都,廞聞兵至,驚怕不知所為。李廞等夜斬關走,文武盡散。廞獨與妻子乘小船走至廣都,為其下人朱竺所殺。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

Zhao Xin was worried that the court would campaign against him, so he sent his Chief Clerk, Fei Yuan, and others to lead more than ten thousand soldiers to block the northern roads, and they camped at Shiting in Mianzhu. Li Te secretly gathered an army of more than seven thousand soldiers, and he raided Fei Yuan’s camp at night. Fei Yuan’s army was greatly scattered because the Li soldiers had set fire to the camp to burn it down, and eight or nine of every ten soldiers died.

Li Te then advanced to attack Chengdu. When Zhao Xin heard that Li Te’s soldiers had arrived, he was shocked and afraid and did not know what to do. Li Xin and others cut their way out of the city gates during the night and fled, and the civil and military officials all scattered. Zhao Xin was left alone with his wife. They got into a small boat and fled, but when they reached Guangdu, they were killed by Zhao Xin’s subordinate Zhu Zhu.

廞恐朝廷討己,遣長史費遠、犍為太守李苾、督護常俊督萬餘人斷北道,次綿竹之石亭。特密收合得七千餘人,夜襲遠軍,遠大潰,因放火燒之,死者十八九。進攻成都。廞聞兵至,驚懼不知所為。李苾、張征等夜斬關走出,文武盡散。廞獨與妻子乘小船走至廣都,為下人硃竺所殺。特至成都,縱兵大掠,害西夷護軍薑發,殺廞長史袁治及廞所置守長,遣其牙門王角、李基詣洛陽陳廞之罪狀。(Book of Jin 120)

Zhao Xin was worried that the court would campaign against him, so he sent his Chief Clerk, Fei Yuan, the Administrator of Jianwei commandary, Li Bi, and his Protector, Chang Jun, to lead more than ten thousand soldiers to block the northern roads, and they camped at Shiting in Mianzhu. Li Te secretly gathered an army of more than seven thousand soldiers, and he raided Fei Yuan’s camp at night. Fei Yuan’s army was greatly scattered because the Li soldiers had set fire to the camp to burn it down, and eight or nine of every ten soldiers died.

Li Te then advanced to attack Chengdu. When Zhao Xin heard that Li Te’s soldiers had arrived, he was shocked and afraid and did not know what to do. Li Bi, Zhang Zheng, and others cut their way out of the city gates during the night and fled, and the civil and military officials all scattered. Zhao Xin was left alone with his wife. They got into a small boat and fled, but when they reached Guangdu, they were killed by Zhao Xin’s subordinate Zhu Zhu.

Li Te entered Chengdu, letting his soldiers loose to sack the city. He did harm to the Protector of Western Yi Tribes, Jiang Fa, and he killed Zhao Xin’s Chief Clerk, Yuan Zhi, and the other local commanders that Zhao Xin had appointed. He sent his Generals of the Standard, Wang Jiao and Li Ji, to visit Luoyang, detailing the crimes Zhao Xin had committed.

永寧元年,春正月,廞遣萬餘人斷北道,次綿竹,以長史費遠為繼。前軍宿石亭。特等相合,得七百餘人,夜襲之,因放火,殺廞軍略盡。進〔攻〕成都。城中忷懼。中郎常美與費遠、李苾、張微錢、等夜斬關委廞走。文武散盡,廞獨與妻子乘小船順水至廣都,為下人朱竺所殺。廞字和叔,本巴西安漢人也。祖世隨張魯內移,家趙。趙王倫器之。歷長安令,天門、武陵太守,來臨州。長子昺在洛,亦見誅。特、流至成都,殺西夷護軍姜發及襲尼,成都令袁洽,因大抄掠。遣牙門王角、李基詣洛表狀。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4, 7.5)

In the first year of Yongning (301), in spring, the first month, Zhao Xin sent more than ten thousand soldiers to block the northern roads, passing through Mianzhu, with his Chief Clerk Fei Yuan acting as reserves. The vanguard of this army camped at Shiting. Li Te and the others banded together and gathered up more than seven hundred (or thousand) people, and he raided their camp at night. Because his soldiers set fire to the camp, they were able to kill nearly all of Zhao Xin's army.

Li Te then advanced to (attack) Chengdu. Those within the city were scared and frightened. The Household Gentleman, Chang Mei, as well as Fei Yuan, Li Bi, Zhang Wei, and others cut their way out of the city gates during the night and abandoned Zhao Xin and fled, and the civil and military officials all scattered. Zhao Xin was left alone with his wife. They got into a small boat and fled, but when they reached Guangdu, they were killed by Zhao Xin's subordinate Zhu Zhu.

Zhao Xin's style name was Heshu; he was a native of Anhan in Baxi commandary. His ancestors had come to join Zhang Lu at Hanzhong, where they formed the Zhao family. The Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, had appreciated Zhao Xin. He served successively as Prefect of Chang'an, Administrator of Tianmen, and Administrator of Wuling, before coming to his post as Inspector of Yizhou. His eldest son Zhao Bing was at Luoyang; he was also executed.

When Li Te and Li Liu reached Chengdu, they killed the Protector of Western Yi Tribes, Jiang Fa, as well as Xi (or Gong) Ni and the Prefect of Chengdu, Yuan Qia (or Zhi), because they sacked the city. Li Te sent his Generals of the Standard, Wang Jiao and Li Ji, to visit Luoyang with a petition explaining the situation.

《晉書‧載記》作千。此下廖本注云:「當有攻字。」元豐本與《函海》作惱。《函》本及浙補本作徵。襲: 舊各本作龔,浙本補刻同。廖本作襲。袁洽: 舊各本作洽,《函海》同,《晉書》作治。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Where the Huayang Guozhi states that Li Te had "more than seven hundred" soldiers for his night raid, the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin claims he had "more than seven thousand".

The Liao edition adds a note clarifying that Li Te advanced "and attacked" Chengdu.

Regarding the character 忷 "scared", the Yuanfeng edition and the 《函海》edition write it as 惱 "scared".

Once again, the 《函》and Zhe editions write Zhang Wei's given name here as Zheng.

Regarding 襲 Xi Ni's surname, the old editions all write it as 龔 Gong, and the Zhe edition has done the same. The Liao edition has it as 襲 Xi. And regarding Yuan 洽 Qia's given name, the old editions all write it as such, as does the 《函海》 edition. But the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin writes it as 治 Zhi.)


初,梁州刺史羅尚,聞趙廞反,表:「廞非雄才,蜀人不附,敗亡可計日而待。」詔拜尚平西將軍、益州刺史,督牙門將王敦、蜀郡太守徐儉、廣漢太守辛冉等七千餘人入蜀。特等聞尚來,甚懼,使其弟驤於道奉迎,幷獻珍玩,尚悅,以驤爲騎督。特、流復以牛酒勞尚於緜竹,王敦、辛冉說尚曰︰「特等專爲盜賊,宜因會斬之;不然,必爲後患。」尚不從。冉與特有舊,謂特曰:「故人相逢,不吉當凶矣。」特深自猜懼。

9. During the course of the rebellion, the Inspector of Lianzhou had been Luo Shang. When he had first heard that Zhao Xin had rebelled, he sent a petition to the court stating, "Zhao Xin is not a valiant or talented man, and the people of Shu will not side with him. You will hear of his defeat within a matter of days."

The court appointed Luo Shang as General Who Pacifies The West and as the new Inspector of Yizhou. The General of the Standard, Wang Dun, the Administrator of Shu commandary, Xu Jian, the Administrator of Guanghan, Xin Ran, and others were all placed under Luo Shang's command, and he entered Shu at the head of more than seven thousand soldiers.

When Li Te and the others heard that Luo Shang was coming, they were very afraid. Li Te sent his younger brother Li Xiang to offer welcome to Luo Shang along the road, presenting him with fine treasures as tribute. Luo Shang was pleased, and he kept Li Xiang with him as a Cavalry Commander. Li Te and Li Liu also treated Luo Shang with oxen and wine at Mianzhu.

Wang Dun and Xin Ran warned Luo Shang, "Li Te and his ilk are nothing more than bandits. You ought to gather them all up and behead them. Otherwise, they will pose a threat to you someday."

But Luo Shang did not listen to them.

Xin Ran had a long history with Li Te, and he told Li Te, "Old friend, we happen to meet one another again. But this is no blessing; it is a curse." So Li Te began to be very fearful and suspicious for himself.

〈此別一王敦。〉〈騎督,督騎兵。〉

(The Wang Dun mentioned here was a different Wang Dun from the more famous one.

A Cavalry Commander commanded cavalry soldiers.)


先是,梁州刺史羅尚聞廞叛,上表稱廞非雄才,又蜀人不願為亂,事終無成,願欲征之。惠帝遣尚為平西將軍、益州剌史,率七千餘人入蜀。特等聞尚來,甚懼,使其弟驤于道奉迎,并貢寶物,尚甚悅。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

Before this, when the Inspector of Lianzhou, Luo Shang, heard that Zhao Xin had rebelled, he sent up a petition to the court claiming that Zhao Xin had no heroic talents, and that the people of Shu would not join him in his rebellion, so he would fail in the end. Luo Shang thus wished to campaign against him. Emperor Hui appointed Luo Shang as General Who Pacifies The West and as the new Inspector of Yizhou, and Luo Shang led more than seven thousand people to enter Shu.

When Li Te and the others heard that Luo Shang was coming, they were very afraid. Li Te sent his younger brother Li Xiang to offer welcome to Luo Shang along the road, presenting him with fine treasures as tribute. Luo Shang was very pleased.

先是,惠帝以梁州刺史羅尚為平西將軍、領護西夷校尉、益州刺史,督牙門將王敦、上庸都尉義歆、蜀郡太守徐儉、廣漢太守辛冉等凡七千餘人入蜀。特等聞尚來,甚懼,使其弟驤于道奉迎,並貢寶物。尚甚悅,以驤為騎督。特及弟流復以牛酒勞尚於綿竹。王敦、辛冉並說尚曰:「特等流人,專為盜賊,急宜梟除,可因會斬之。」尚不納。冉先與特有舊,因謂特曰:「故人相逢,不吉當凶矣。」特深自猜懼。(Book of Jin 120)

Earlier, Emperor Hui had appointed the Inspector of Lianzhou, Luo Shang, as General Who Pacifies The West, as acting Colonel Who Protects Western Yi Tribes, and as the new Inspector of Yizhou. The General of the Standard, Wang Dun, the Commandant of Shangyong, Yi Xin, the Administrator of Shu commandary, Xu Jian, the Administrator of Guanghan, Xin Ran, and others were all placed under Luo Shang’s command, and he entered Shu at the head of more than seven thousand soldiers.

When Li Te and the others heard that Luo Shang was coming, they were very afraid. Li Te sent his younger brother Li Xiang to offer welcome to Luo Shang along the road, presenting him with fine treasures as tribute. Luo Shang was very pleased, and he kept Li Xiang with him as a Cavalry Commander. Li Te and his younger brother Li Liu also treated Luo Shang with oxen and wine at Mianzhu.

Wang Dun and Xin Ran warned Luo Shang, “Li Te and his ilk are nothing more than bandits. You ought to hang up all their heads and get rid of them, so you can take this chance to behead them.” But Luo Shang did not listen to them.

Xin Ran had a long history with Li Te, and he told Li Te, “Old friend, we happen to meet one another again. But this is no blessing; it is a curse.” So Li Te began to be very fearful and suspicious for himself.

初,梁州刺史羅尚聞廞反,表:「廞非雄才,又蜀人不願為亂,必無同者,事終無成,敗亡可計日而俟。」惠帝因拜尚平西將軍,假節,領護西夷校尉,益州刺史,給衛節兵一千,梁州兵二千,又配上庸都尉義部千五百人,合四千五百人。遷梓潼太守樂陵徐儉為蜀郡,揚烈將軍隴西辛冉為廣漢太守。尚又表請牙門將王敦兵七千餘人入蜀。特等聞尚來,甚懼,使弟驤奉迎。厚進寶物。尚以驤為騎督。特、流奉牛酒勞尚於綿竹。王敦說尚曰:「特等隴上塞盜劫賊,會所殺之。〔軍無後患也。〕」辛冉本趙王倫所用,非資次,召當還,欲〔以〕討廞「以自新」〔自為功〕,亦言之。尚不納。又冉謂特曰:「故人相逢,不吉當凶。」特自猜懼。(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

Earlier, when the Inspector of Lianzhou, Luo Shang, had heard that Zhao Xin had rebelled, he sent up a petition stating, "Zhao Xin is not a valiant or talented man, and the people of Shu will not join him in rebellion. He shall surely not have anyone stand by him, and so he will come to nothing in the end. You will hear of his defeat within a matter of days." So Emperor Hui appointed Luo Shang as General Who Pacifies The West, Credential Holder, acting Colonel-Protector of Western Yi Tribes, and as the new Inspector of Yizhou. He assigned Luo Shang a thousand guards from the 衛節 authority, two thousand soldiers from the Inspector of Lianzhou authority, and fifteen hundred soldiers from the 義部 authority of the Commandant of Shangyong; altogether Luo Shang had forty-five hundred soldiers. The Administrator of Zitong, Xu Jian of Leling commandary, was reassigned as (Administrator of) Shu commandary, and the General of Fierce Display, Xin Mao of Longxi commandary, was appointed as Administrator of Guanghan. Luo Shang further petitioned to have the more than seven thousand soldiers under the General of the Standard, Wang Dun, enter Shu as well.

When Li Te and the others heard that Luo Shang was coming, they were very afraid. Li Te sent his younger brother Li Xiang to offer welcome to Luo Shang, presenting him with fine treasures. Luo Shang appointed Li Xiang as a Cavalry Commander. Li Te and Li Liu also treated Luo Shang with oxen and wine at Mianzhu.

Wang Dun warned Luo Shang, "Li Te and his ilk are (oppressive) bandits from beyond the Long Mountains who occupy the passes. You should kill them quickly, so that they will not pose a threat to the army later on." And Xin Mao had once been used by the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, but he had not done anything yet to distinguish himself. Now that he had been summoned back, he had wished to claim the credit for the campaign against Zhao Xin (or, to make a fresh start by doing so). So he also offered this same advice to Luo Shang. But Luo Shang would not follow their counsel.

And Xin Mao told Li Te, "Old friend, we happen to meet one another again. But this is no blessing; it is a curse." So Li Te began to be very fearful and suspicious for himself.

蜀郡: 元豐本此下有太守二字,作小字,并排,蓋傳鈔者所加注。錢、劉、李、《函》本鐫成正文。廖本刪除。是。凡連舉太守,前者皆但稱郡,《常志》例也。揚: 《函海》作楊,並注云「應作揚」。厚: 錢、《函》二本作原。元豐與廖本,浙補刻本作厚。劉、李本作後。《函海》註云:「應作願。劉本作後,李本作後。惠校云:後一作原。」茲依廖本。盜劫賊: 浙補刻本作「盜賊」二字。軍無後患也。: 宜「軍無後患也」五字當移後。浙補刻本作「宜後患也」四字。移上文於此。自為功: 舊刻各本同謬亂。茲參載記文訂正。說詳注釋。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding Xu Jian's reassignment to Shu commandary, the Yuanfeng edition adds in the words "Administrator of", which it prints in small characters alongside as an added note. The Qian, Liu, Li, and 函 editions print them normally. The Liao edition removes them. So it is. Whenever bringing up someone's title as Administrator, the former editions merely mention the names of their commandaries, following the example of the 常志.

Regarding the title 揚 General Who Displays Ferocity, the 函海 writes the first character as 楊, although it includes a note saying, "this character should be 揚".

In the phrase 厚進寶物 "presenting him with fine treasures", the Qian and 函 editions write the first character as 原. The Yuanfeng, Liao, and Zhe editions write it as 厚. The Liu and Li editions write it as 後 "later". The 函海 adds a note reading, "It should be 願 'were willing to'. The Liu edition writes it as 後, as does the Li edition. And 惠校 states, "The 後 is also written as 原.'" I (the commentator) follow the example of the Liao edition.

In the phrase "oppressive bandits", the Zhe edition omits the character 劫. Regarding the phrase 軍無後患也 "so that they will not pose a threat to the army later on", I (the commentator) have moved it to the end of Wang Dun's quote, where it ought to be. The Zhe edition has the phrase as merely 宜後患也 "they will be a threat to us later on". Regarding the phrase 以自新 "to make a fresh start", the old editions all agree on this absurd phrase. I have rectified the sentence by writing it as自為功 "to claim the credit (for the campaign against Zhao Xin)". See my notes.)


三月,尚至成都。汶山羌反,尚遣王敦討之,爲羌所殺。

10. In the third month, Luo Shang arrived at Chengdu.

The Qiang tribes of Wenshan rebelled. Luo Shang sent Wang Dao to campaign against them, but Wang Dao was killed by the Qiang.

〈汶,音岷。《考異》曰:《帝紀》在八月,疑是洛陽始知。今從《華陽國志》。〉

(汶 is pronounced "min".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states that this campaign against the Qiang took place in the eighth month. But I suspect that was merely when Luoyang first learned of these events. So I follow the account of the Huayang Guozhi.")


三月,尚至州治。汶山羌反於都安之天拭山,遣王敦討之。殺數千人,大沒女弱為生口。敦單馬馳,為羌所殺。(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

In the third month, Luo Shang arrived at the provincial headquarters (at Chengdu).

The Qiang tribes of Wenshan commandary rebelled at Mount Tianshi in Du'an (or, Deng'an). Luo Shang sent Wang Dao to campaign against them. He killed several thousand of them, and many of the women and children were taken as slaves. But as Wang Dao was galloping on a lone horse, he was killed by the Qiang.

三: 浙補刻本作參。都: 浙補本誤作鄧。(HYGZ Commentary)

(In the phrase 三月 "the third month", the Zhe edition has written the 三 character as 參. In the place name 都 Du'an, the Zhe edition mistakenly writes the first character as 鄧 Deng.)


齊王冏謀討趙王倫,未發,會離狐王盛、潁川處穆聚衆於濁澤,百姓從之,日以萬數。倫以其將管襲爲齊王軍司,討盛、穆,斬之。冏因收襲,殺之,與豫州刺史何勗、龍驤將軍董艾等起兵,遣使告成都王穎、河間王顒、常山王乂及南中郎將新野公歆,移檄征、鎭、州、郡、縣、國,稱:「逆臣孫秀,迷誤趙王,當共誅討。有不從命者,誅及三族。」

11. Sima Jiong was planning to act against Sima Lun, but he had not yet launched his plot.

Before he could act, the Prince of Lihu, Sima Sheng, and Chu Mu of Yingchuan (or, Wang Chumu of Yingchuan) gathered a body of soldiers at Zhuo Marsh. The common people flocked to them, and in the space of a day they had more than ten thousand people. Sima Lun sent his general Guan Xi to serve as Sima Jiong's Army-Marshal, and Guan Xi marched against Sima Sheng and Chu Mu and beheaded them. Because of that, Sima Jiong arrested Guan Xi and killed him.

Sima Jiong then had his own soldiers rise up, along with the Inspector of Yuzhou, He Xu, the Dragon-Soaring General, Dong Ai, and others. He sent word around to inform the others of his plot: Sima Ying, Sima Yong, the Prince of Changshan, Sima Ai, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South and Duke of Xinye, Sima Xin.

Sima Jiong sent out a proclamation of his intentions to every general or minister, to all the Generals Who Conquer, Generals Who Guard, Inspectors, Administrators, Prefects, and Interior Ministers. His proclamation stated, "The disobedient minister Sun Xiu has befuddled and misled the Prince of Zhao, and I mean to punish them both. Whoever does not heed this order will have their families executed to the third degree."

〈離狐縣,前漢屬東郡,後漢、晉屬濟陰郡,唐天寶元年,改爲南華縣,屬鄆州。〉〈《晉書》作「王處穆」。【章:孔本「處」上正有「王」字;張校同。】〉〈濁澤在潁川長社縣。〉〈《考異》曰:《齊王冏傳》曰:「冏潛與盛、穆謀起兵誅倫,未發,恐事泄,乃與襲殺穆,送首於倫,以安其意。」今從《三十國春秋》。〉〈《晉志》曰:四中郎將,並後漢置;武帝以來,四中郎將或領刺史,或持節爲之。歆,扶風王駿之子也。〉〈征、鎭,四征、四鎭,居方面者。〉

(During Former Han, Lihu County was part of Dong commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Jiyin commandary. In Tang's first year of Tianbao (742), its name was changed to Nanhua County, as part of Yunzhou.

Regarding Chu Mu, the Book of Jin records him as "Wang Chumu of Yingchuan". And some versions of ZZTJ also include the word "Wang" here.

Zhuo Marsh was in Zhangshe Marsh in Yingchuan.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Jiong in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Jiong was planning to rise in rebellion together with Sima Sheng and Chu Mu to campaign against Sima Lun. As he had not acted upon his intentions yet, he feared that his plot would leak out, so he assisted Guan Xi in killing Chu Mu, and sent his head to Sima Lun, in order to reassure him.' But I follow the account of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms."

The Records of Jin states, "The Generals of the Household Gentlemen of the Four Directions were all created during Later Han. From the time of Sima Yan onwards, some of these generals also acted as Inspectors, and some also had authority as Credential Bearers."

Sima Xin was the son of the Prince of Fufeng, Sima Jun.

The Generals Who Conquer and Generals Who Guard all occupied strategic locations.)


使者至鄴,成都王穎召鄴令盧志謀之。志曰:「趙王篡逆,人神共憤,殿下收英俊以從人望,杖大順以討之,百姓必不召自至,攘臂爭進,蔑不克矣。」穎從之,以志爲諮議參軍,仍補左長史。志,毓之孫也。穎以兗州刺史王彥、冀州刺史李毅、督護趙驤、石超等爲前鋒,遠近響應;至朝歌,衆二十餘萬。超,苞之孫也。

12. When Sima Jiong's messenger reached Ye, Sima Ying summoned the Prefect of Ye, Lu Zhi, to plot strategy with him. Lu Zhi said, "The Prince of Zhao is a usurper and a traitor, and men and spirits are both moved to indignation by him. Your Highness should gather up talented heros and fulfill the hopes of the people. Demonstrate your great obedience by joining in this campaign, and the common people will come to you without you even needing to summon them. Push up your sleeves and advance to the fight, and there is nothing you will not overcome."

Sima Ying heeded his advice, and he appointed Lu Zhi as his Consultant Advisor, as well as his Chief Clerk of the Left. This Lu Zhi was the grandson of Lu Yu.

Sima Ying appointed several people to serve as officers in his vanguard: the Inspector of Yanzhou, Wang Yan, the Inspector of Jizhou, Li Yi, the Protectors, Zhao Xiang and Shi Chao, and others. Everyone, near and far, responded to his call. By the time Sima Ying's army reached Zhaoge, he had a host of more than two hundred thousand. This Shi Chao was the grandson of Shi Bao.

〈蔑,無也。〉〈諮議參軍,晉公府皆置之,蓋取諮詢謀議軍事也,其位在諸參軍之上。〉〈盧毓見七十三卷魏明帝景初元年。〉〈朝歌縣,前漢屬河內郡,晉分屬汲郡;隋大業二年,改朝歌縣爲衞縣,屬衞州;有紂所都朝歌城,在縣西。〉〈石苞事文帝、武帝,功參佐命。〉

(The term 蔑 here means "nothing".

The position of Consultant Advisor was created for the noble households of Jin. It handled the business of detailed consultation on matters of strategy and army affairs, and was superior to ordinary Army Advisors.

Lu Yu was a Cao-Wei minister, mentioned in Book 73, in Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei's (Cao Rui's) first year of Jingchu (237.29 in Fang's Chronicles).

During Former Han, Zhaoge County was part of Henei commandary. During Jin, it was split off as part of Ji commandary. In Sui's second year of Daye (606), Zhaoge County was changed to Wei County, as part of Weizhou. King Zhou of Shang's capital, the city Zhaoge, was in the west of the county.

Shi Bao was a general who had served under Sima Zhao and Sima Yan, who gained great merit under their commands.)


志字子道,初辟公府掾、尚書郎,出為鄴令。成都王穎之鎮鄴也,愛其才量,委以心膂,遂為謀主。齊王冏起義,遣使告穎。穎召志計事,志曰:「趙王無道,肆行篡逆,四海人神,莫不憤怒。今殿下總率三軍,應期電發,子來之眾,不召自至。掃夷凶逆,必有征無戰。然兵事至重,聖人所慎。宜旌賢任才,以收時望。」穎深然之,改選上佐,高辟掾屬,以志為諮議參軍,仍補左長史,專掌文翰。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

Lu Zhi (the great-grandson of Han’s Lu Zhi) was styled Zidao. He was first recruited as an official in the government office and as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, and was later sent out to serve as Prefect of Ye.

When the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, was sent to Ye as his defense post (in 299, according to ZZTJ), Sima Ying appreciated Lu Zhi for his talent and capacity. They trusted one another as close as the heart and spine, and so Lu Zhi became Sima Ying’s chief advisor.

When the Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong, launched his crusade against the usurper Sima Lun (in 301), he sent word to Sima Ying to tell him of his plans. Sima Ying summoned Lu Zhi to talk strategy with him. Lu Zhi said, “The Prince of Zhao (Sima Lun) is a man without principle, a usurper and a traitor, and all the men and spirits between the Four Seas burn with indignation and rage against him. Your Highness, you now command and lead the three armies, and you should respond to this call like a clap of thunder; people will come to you in great numbers, without you even needing to summon them. Sweep away and destroy the wicked traitors, and you will conquer them without even fighting a battle. But be mindful; military affairs are a serious business, and the wise man is prudent in tending to them. So employ the worthy and entrust the talented, thereby fulfilling the hopes of this age.”

Sima Ying deeply agreed with his sentiments, and so he shifted around and selected people to serve as superiors and assistants, recruiting exalted people as his officials and subordinates. He appointed Lu Zhi as his Consultant Advisor, as well as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and left Lu Zhi in charge of all his correspondence.

及齊王冏舉義,穎發兵應冏,以鄴令盧志為左長史,頓丘太守鄭琰為右長史,黃門郎程牧為左司馬,陽平太守和演為右司馬。使兗州刺史王彥,冀州刺史李毅,督護趙驤、石超等為前鋒。羽檄所及,莫不回應。至朝歌,眾二十餘萬。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When the Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong, launched his righteous crusade against Sima Lun, Sima Ying raised soldiers to join with Sima Jiong.

He appointed the Prefect of Ye, Lu Zhi, as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and the Administrator of Dunqiu, Zheng Yan, as his Chief Clerk of the Right. He also appointed the Yellow Gate Gentleman, Cheng Mu, as his Marshal of the Left, and the Administrator of Yangping, He Yan, as his Marshal of the Right. To serve as his vanguard commanders, he appointed the Inspector of Yanzhou, Wang Yan, the Inspector of Jizhou, Li Yi, the Commanders Zhao Xiang and Shi Chao, and others.

When Sima Ying sent out his feather proclamations declaring his intentions, there was no one who did not respond to his call. By the time Sima Ying’s army reached Zhaoge, he had a host of more than two hundred thousand.


常山王乂在其國,與太原內史劉暾各帥衆爲穎後繼。

13. Sima Ai was at his princely fief in Changshan. He and the Interior Minister of Taiyuan, Liu Tun, each led their soldiers to follow behind Sima Ying's army.

乂身長七尺五寸,開朗果斷,才力絕人,虛心下士,甚有名譽。三王之舉義也,乂率國兵應之,過趙國,房子令距守,乂殺之,進軍為成都後系。常山內史程恢將貳於乂,乂到鄴,斬恢及其五子。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

Sima Ai was seven 尺 and five 寸 in height. He had an open nature, while also being resolute and determined. His talents and abilities were greater than other men, yet he was modest to those of lower station, and this brought him a great reputation.

At the time of the uprising of the Three Princes (the Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong, the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, and the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong) against the usurper Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, in Luoyang, Sima Ai assembled the soldiers of his fief at Changshan to assist the Princes. As he passed through Sima Lun’s fief at Zhao, the Prefect of Fangzi barred the road against him, but Sima Ai killed him, and marched on to join the rearguard of Sima Ying’s army. The Interior Minister of Changshan, Cheng Hui, was about to betray Sima Ai, but when Sima Ai reached Ye, he beheaded Cheng Hui and his five sons.


新野公歆得冏檄,未知所從。嬖人王綏曰:「趙親而強,齊疏而弱,公宜從趙。」參軍孫詢大言於衆曰:「趙王凶逆,天下當共誅之,何親疏強弱之有!」歆乃從冏。

14. When Sima Xin received Sima Jiong's proclamation, he did not know whether he should respond to the call or not. His close companion Wang Sui said to him, "The Prince of Zhao is your close relative and strong besides, while the Prince of Qi is distant to you and also weak. You ought to support the Prince of Zhao."

But the Army Advisor, Sun Xun, shouted to all the people there, "The Prince of Zhao is a wicked traitor, and all the realm is coming together to punish him! How can you talk of things like your closeness and distance or their weakness and strength?"

So Sima Xun decided to support Sima Jiong.

〈歆父扶風王駿,與趙王倫皆宣帝子,歆於倫爲叔姪,其屬親;冏於歆爲從子,其屬視倫爲疏。〉

(Sima Xin's father was Sima Jun, and both he and Sima Lun were sons of Sima Yi, so Sima Lun was Sima Xin's uncle; thus they were close relatives. Sima Jiong was Sima Xin's nephew, and as a lower generation, he was more distant than Sima Lun.)


前安西參軍夏侯奭在始平,合衆數千人以應冏,遣使邀河間王顒。顒用長史李含謀,遣振武將軍河間張方討擒奭及其黨,腰斬之。冏檄至,顒執冏使送於倫,遣張方將兵助倫。方至華陰,顒聞二王兵盛,復召方還,更附二王。

15. A former Army Advisor to the General Who Maintains The West, Xiahou Shi, was at Shiping, where he gathered a host of several thousand men to aid Sima Jiong. He sent word to seek assistance from Sima Yong. Following the advice of his Chief Clerk, Li Han of Longxi, Sima Yong sent the General Who 振武, Zhang Fang of Hejian, to march against Xiahou Shi and his followers and capture them. Sima Yong had cut them in half at the waist.

When Sima Jiong's proclamation arrived, Sima Yong arrested Sima Jiong's envoys and sent them to Sima Lun, and he dispatched Zhang Fang to lead his soldiers to come to Sima Lun's aid. But by the time that Zhang Fang reached Hualin, Sima Yong heard that the armies of the other two princes were very numerous, so he ordered Zhang Fang to return, and to switch sides to support them instead.

〈【章:甲十一行本「李」上有「隴西」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈沈約《志》:振武將軍,始於西漢之末,王莽以命王況。〉〈二王,謂齊王冏、成都王穎。〉

(Some versions specify that Li Han was "of Longxi".

Shen Yue's Annotations states, "General Who 振武 was an office first created during the last years of Former Han, when Wang Mang appointed Wang Kuang to the office.”

The two princes mentioned are Sima Jiong and Sima Ying.)


及趙王倫篡位,齊王冏謀討之。前安西參軍夏侯奭自稱侍御史,在始平合眾,得數千人,以應冏,遣信要顒。顒遣主簿房陽、河間國人張方討擒奭,及其黨十數人,于長安市腰斬之。及冏檄至,顒執冏使,送之於倫。倫徵兵於顒,顒遣方率關右健將赴之。方至華陰,顒聞二王兵盛,乃加長史李含龍驤將軍,領督護席薳等追方軍回,以應二王。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

When the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, usurped the throne from Emperor Hui (in 301), the Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong, plotted to campaign against him.

A former Army Advisor to the General Who Maintains The West, Xiahou Shi, declared himself an Attendant Imperial Secretary and gathered troops together at Shiping, gaining several thousand men. He planned to support Sima Jiong in his efforts. Xiahou Shi sent a letter to Sima Yong to inform him as well. But Sima Yong sent his Registrar, Fang Yang, and a native of his fief at Hejian, Zhang Fang, to attack and capture Xiahou Shi, and he and more than ten of his partisans were cut in half at the waist in the Chang'an marketplace.

Then Sima Jiong's envoys arrived bearing his proclamation, but Sima Yong arrested them and sent them on to Sima Lun. Then Sima Lun demanded soldiers from Sima Yong, so Sima Yong sent Zhang Fang to lead his forces east to the Luoyang region to support Sima Lun. But by the time Zhang Fang's army had reached Huayin, Sima Yong had heard just how massive the forces were that were supporting Sima Jiong and his ally, the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying. So Sima Yong promoted his Chief Clerk, Li Han, to be Dragon-Soaring General, and he sent his Protector, Xi Wei, and others to chase after Zhang Fang's army and have them turn back to coordinate with Sima Jiong and Sima Ying instead.


冏檄至揚州,州人皆欲應冏。刺史郗隆,慮之玄孫也,以兄子鑒及諸子悉在洛陽,疑未決,悉召僚吏謀之。主簿淮南趙誘、前秀才虞潭皆曰:「趙王篡逆,海內所疾;今義兵四起,其敗必矣。爲明使君計,莫若自將精兵,徑赴許昌,上策也;遣將將兵會之,中策也;量遣小軍,隨形助勝,下策也。」隆退,密與別駕顧彥謀之,彥曰:「誘等下策,乃上計也。」治中留寶、主簿張褒、西曹留承聞之,請見,曰:「不審明使君今當何施?」隆曰:「我俱受二帝恩,無所偏助,欲守州而已。」承曰:「天下,世祖之天下也;太上承代已久,今上取之,不平,齊王順時舉事,成敗可見。使君不早發兵應之,狐疑遷延,變難將生,此州豈可保也!」隆不應。潭,翻之孫也。隆停檄六日不下,將士憤怨。參軍王邃鎭石頭,將士爭往歸之,隆遣從事於牛渚禁之,不能止。將士遂奉邃攻隆,隆父子及顧彥皆死,傳首於冏。

16. When Sima Jiong's proclamation reached Yangzhou, the people of that province all wanted to support Sima Jiong. The Inspector, Chi Long, was the great-great grandson of Chi Lü. His sons and his nephew Chi Jian were all at Luoyang, so he could not make up his mind what to do. He summoned all of his officials in order to discuss with them.

His Registrar, Zhao You of Huainan, and the former Abundant Talent nominee Yu Tan both said to him, "The Prince of Zhao is a usurper and a traitor, a plague upon all within the seas. Even now, soldiers are rising up for righteousness on every side, and he is certain to be defeated. Commissioner, if we may offer our strategies for you, the best plan would be to personally lead your best soldiers and meet up with the other loyalists at Xuchang. The next best would be to send another general to lead the men in your place. If you were to just send a small army, to assist in following up on the victory, that would be the third-best plan."

Chi Long withdrew from the discussion, and had a close talk with his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Gu Yan. Gu Yan said to him, "The least plan that they suggested to you is the one that I advise."

The 治中, Liu Bao, the Registrar, Zhang Bao, and the Western Manager, Liu Cheng, heard of this, and they asked to see Chi Long, telling him, "Commissioner, may we know which plan you intend to follow?"

Chi Long replied, "I have received favor from the two Emperors, and I cannot throw my support behind either side. I will defend my province, and do no more."

Liu Cheng said, "The realm is the one that has been handed down to us from Shizu (Sima Zhao). The Retired Emperor inherited the throne and has held it for a long time, while the one who is on the throne now has taken it and treated him unjustly. Now the Prince of Qi, acting obediently to the demands of the time, has already acted, and the outcome of this struggle is obvious. Yet rather than lead your soldiers at once to assist him, Commissioner, you would linger here and delay action. When further difficulties arise, how will you be able to defend the province?"

But Chi Long would not listen. This Yu Tan was the grandson of Yu Fan.

Chi Long held onto Sima Jiong's proclamation for six days without distributing it, and his generals became indignant and angry at him. The Army Advisor Wang Sui was garrisoned at the Shitou fortress, and the generals and soldiers of the province strove to flock to him instead. Chi Long sent his Attendant Officers to Niuzhu to forbid these things, but he could not stop them. The generals and soldiers supported Wang Sui and attacked Chi Long. Chi Long, his son, and Gu Yan all died, and their heads were sent to Sima Jiong.

〈郗,丑之翻。郗慮,漢獻帝時爲御史大夫。〉〈齊王冏時鎭許昌。〉〈二帝,謂宣帝、武帝。或曰:二帝,謂惠帝及趙王倫,非也。〉〈文帝廟號世祖。文帝平諸葛誕,滅蜀,始弘晉業。〉〈太上,謂惠帝,時號太上皇。〉〈今上,謂趙王倫。〉〈言齊王冏舉事必成,趙王倫必敗也。〉〈虞翻事吳主權,以直聞。〉〈停冏檄不下曹。〉〈平吳之後,揚州移鎭秣陵。今於牛渚禁將士往石頭,疑此時揚州又還治淮南也。〉

(Chi Long's surname 郗 is pronounced "chi (c-hi)". Chi Lü was an Imperial Counselor during the time of Emperor Xian of Han.

At this time, Sima Jiong was garrisoning Xuchang.

Chi Long speaks of the "two Emperors". He meant Emperors Xuan and Wu (Sima Yi and Sima Yan). Some say that he meant Emperor Hui and Sima Lun, but this is not so.

Sima Zhao's temple name was Shizu. He had pacified the rebel Zhuge Dan and conquered Shu-Han, and been the first to establish the enterprise of Jin.

"Retired Emperor" was what Emperor Hui was called at this time. "The one on the throne" was Sima Lun.

Liu Cheng was saying that since Sima Jiong had started to act, he would certainly be successful, while Sima Lun would certainly be defeated.

Yu Fan had served Sun Quan of Eastern Wu, and was a blunt talker.

Chi Long would not distribute Sima Jiong's proclamation through the province.

After the conquest of Eastern Wu, the administrative center of Yangzhou was moved to Moling (Jianye). Yet Chi Long was attempting to stop the generals and soldiers at Niuzhu from going to the Shitou fortress there. I, Hu Sanxing, suspect that at this time, the administrative center had returned to Huainan again.)


安南將軍、監沔北諸軍事孟觀,以爲紫宮帝座無他變,倫必不敗,乃爲之固守。

17. The General Who Maintains The South and Chief of military affairs in Mianbei, Meng Guan, observed the stars. He saw that there was no further change in the Imperial Seat part of the Purple Palace section of the night sky, so he felt that Sima Lun would certainly not be defeated. So he did no more than defend his own territory.

〈《晉志》:北極五星,鉤陳六星,皆在紫宮中。鉤陳中一星曰天皇大帝,大帝上九星曰華蓋,所以覆蔽大帝之座也。觀徒占天象而不察諸人事,此其所以死也。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The five stars of the Northern Pole constellation and the six stars of the Curved Array constellation are both in the Purple Palace section of the heavens. One of the stars in the Curved Array constellation is called the Heavenly Emperor and Grand Sovereign. Above this star are nine stars called the Splendid Canopy, which shelters the seat of the Grand Sovereign."

Meng Guan consulted the shape of the heavens, but he did not look into the affairs of men. This was why he died.)


倫、秀聞三王兵起,大懼,詐爲冏表曰:「不知何賊猝見攻圍,臣懦弱不能自固,乞中軍見救,庶得歸死。」以其表宣示內外;遣上軍將軍孫輔、折衝將軍李嚴帥兵七千自延壽關出,征虜將軍張泓、左軍將軍蔡璜、前軍將軍閭和帥兵九千自崿阪關出,鎭軍將軍司馬雅、揚威將軍莫原帥兵八千自成皋關出,以拒冏。遣孫秀子會督將軍士猗、許超帥宿衞兵三萬以拒穎。召東平王楙爲衞將軍,都督諸軍;又遣京兆王馥、廣平王虔帥兵八千爲三軍繼援。倫、秀日夜禱祈、厭勝以求福;使巫覡選戰日;又使人於嵩山著羽衣,詐稱仙人王喬,作書述倫祚長久,欲以惑衆。

18. When Sima Lun and Sun Xiu heard that the three Princes had risen up against them, they were very afraid. They forged a petition supposedly from Sima Jiong, which stated, "Through unknown means, bandits have suddenly appeared to attack and surround me. I am too weak to oppose them myself, so I beg to see the Central Army come to my relief, in order that I might escape death."

After showing off this petition near and far, they dispatched several armies to face the Princes. They sent the General of the Superior Army, Sun Fu, and the General Who Breaks And Charges, Li Yan, to march out through Yanshou Pass with seven thousand soldiers. They sent the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Zhang Hong, the General of the Left Army, Cai Huang, and the General of the Forward Army, Lü He, to march out through Eban Pass with nine thousand soldiers. And they sent the General Who Guards The Army, Sima Ya, and the General Who Displays Might, Mo Yuan, to march out through Chenggao Pass with eight thousand soldiers. All of these armies were marching to oppose Sima Jiong's army.

Meanwhile, they sent Sun Xiu's son Sun Hui, along with the generals Shi Yi and Xu Chao, to lead thirty thousand soldiers from the household guards in three columns to oppose Sima Ying's army. They summoned the Prince of Dongping, Sima Mao, to act as overall commander over these armies. They also sent the Princes of Jingzho and Guangping, Sima Lun's sons Sima Fuu and Sima Qian, to lead eight thousand soldiers as a reserve force for these three armies.

Sima Lun and Sun Xiu prayed day and night, earnestly hoping to receive blessings, and they had shamans select an auspicious day to fight a battle. They also sent men to Mount Song wearing feathered clothing, and they forged a letter from the immortal sage Prince Qiao, saying that Sima Lun was destined to enjoy a long reign, hoping to thus mislead the people.

〈三王,謂齊王冏、成都王穎、河間王顒也。〉〈魏、晉以禁兵爲中軍。〉〈上軍將軍,蓋當時所置。沈約《志》:折衝將軍,始於建安中,曹公以樂進爲之。〉〈《晉志》,河南緱氏縣有延壽城。〉〈《晉志》,河南陽城縣有崿阪關。杜佑曰:崿嶺在河南登封縣,登封,故嵩陽也。〉〈沈約《志》:揚威將軍,魏置。《姓譜》:莫姓,楚莫敖之後。〉〈《晉志》,河南成皋縣有成皋關。〉〈三路出兵以拒冏。〉〈孫會、士猗、許超三人所將之軍,爲三軍。〉〈嵩山,中嶽,在潁川陽城縣;漢武帝分置崈高縣,以奉中嶽,東漢省,併入陽城縣。晉陽城縣,屬河南郡。劉向《列仙傳》曰:王子喬,周靈王太子晉也,好吹笙,作鳳鳴。遊伊、洛間,道士浮丘公接上嵩山,三十餘年。後來於山上告桓良曰:「告我家,七月七日,待我於緱氏山頭。」果乘白鶴駐山巔,望之不得到,舉手謝時人而去。故倫、秀詐以惑衆。〉

(The three Princes were Sima Jiong, Sima Ying, and Sima Yong.

During Cao-Wei and Jin, the guard soldiers of the capital were called the Central Army.

The rank of General of the Superior Army was created at this time.

According to the Records of Jin, the city of Yanshou was in Goushi County in Henan commandary. Eban Pass was in Yangcheng County in Henan. Du You remarked, "The E Ridges are in Dengfeng County in Henan commandary." Dengfeng was originally called Songyang. And Chenggao Pass was in Chenggao County in Henan.

Shen Yue's Annotations states, "The rank of General Who Breaks And Charges was created during Han's Jian'an era (196-219), when Duke Cao Cao appointed Yue Jin to that title." They also state, "The rank of General Who Displays Might was created during Cao-Wei."

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 莫 Mo are the descendants of Mo Ao of the state of Chu."

Sima Lun's armies were advancing to oppose Sima Jiong along three different roads.

Sun Hui, Shi Yi, and Xu Chao each led their own armies, so these were the three armies which Sima Mao coordinated.

Mount Song is in Zhongyue, in Yangcheng County in Yingchuan commandary. Emperor Wu of Han had first split off and created Chonggao County, in order to honor Zhongyue. During Later Han, the county was abolished, folded back into Yangcheng County. During Jin, Yangcheng County was part of Henan commandary.

Liu Xiang's Lives Of Exemplary Sages states, "Prince Qiao was Crown Prince Jin, the son of King Ling of Zhou. He delighted in playing the reed pipe, and he would make the cries of the phoenix. He wandered through the Yin and Luo regions. The Daoist priest Fu Qiugong brought him to the top of Mount Song, where he lived for more than thirty years. Afterwards, from atop the mountain he said to Huan Liang, 'Tell my family to await me on top of Mount Goushi on the seventh day of the seventh month.' On the expected day, he climbed onto the back of a white crane perched on the summit of the mountain, and flew away to parts unknown, lifting his hand to apologize to the people of that time before he departed." Sima Lun and Sun Xiu borrowed his legacy in order to mislead the people at this time.)


閏月,丙戌朔,日有食之。自正月至于是月,五星互經天,縱橫無常。

19. In the intercalary month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (April 25th), there was an eclipse. From the first month of the year until this month, the Five Celestial Bodies (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) all shone brightly in the sky, moving about most unusually.

〈《志》曰:《傳》曰:日陽,君道也;星陰,臣道也。日出則星亡,臣不得專也。晝而星見午上爲經天,其占爲不臣,爲更王。今五星悉經天,天變所未有也。〉

(The Annotations states, "The Records states, 'When the Sun is vibrant, then the sovereign is principled; when the Celestial Bodies are faint, then the ministers are principled. When the Sun is supreme while the Celestial Bodies are withdrawn, then ministers cannot take control of affairs. But when the Sun is obscured, and a Celestial Body can be clearly seen even at noon, then it no longer hold the place of a minister; it becomes a king.'" At this time, all of the five Celestial Bodies were vibrant in the daytime sky. This was an unprecedented change in the heavens.)


張泓等進據陽翟,與齊王冏戰,屢破之。冏軍潁陰,夏,四月,泓乘勝逼之,冏遣兵逆戰。諸軍不動,而孫輔、徐建軍夜亂,徑歸洛自首曰:「齊王兵盛,不可當,泓等已沒矣!」趙王倫大恐,祕之,而召其子虔及許超還。會泓破冏露布至,倫乃復遣之。泓等悉帥諸軍濟潁攻冏營,冏出兵擊其別將孫髦、司馬譚等,破之,泓等乃退。孫秀詐稱已破冏營,擒得冏,令百官皆賀。

20. Zhang Hong and the other generals marching against Sima Jiong advanced to occupy Yangdi. They fought Sima Jiong's army there, routing them several times. Sima Jiong's army then camped at Yingyin.

In summer, the fourth month, Zhang Hong followed up on his victories to further threaten Sima Jiong, who sent soldiers forward to counter-attack him. The armies on both sides halted. However, during the night, there was a disturbance in the camps of Sun Fu and Xu Jian. They fled straight back to Luoyang, where they reported, "The Prince of Qi's army was too numerous; we could not oppose them! Zhang Hong and the others have already been lost!"

Sima Lun was greatly angered. He held them in secret, while sending out an order recalling the armies of Xu Chao and his son Sima Qian. But soon, after Zhang Hong had pushed Sima Jiong's army back as far as Lubu, Sima Lun sent the two of them back out again.

Zhang Hong and the other commanders all led their soldiers across the Ying River to attack Sima Jiong's camp. Sima Jiong sent out his soldiers to attack the generals Sun Mao and Sima Tan, who were separated from the main body, and routed them. Zhang Hong and the others then fell back. But Sun Xiu forged an edict stating that the army had already routed Sima Jiong's camp and even taken Sima Jiong captive, and he ordered the ministers to offer their congratulations.

〈陽翟縣,漢屬潁川郡,晉屬河南郡。〉〈潁陰縣,在潁川郡,潁陰去陽翟四十里。〉〈欲召河北之軍還以自衞。〉〈潁水出潁川陽城縣少室,東南流,過陽翟縣之北。〉

(During Han, Yangdi County was part of Yingchuan commandary; during Jin, it was part of Henan commandary.

Yingyin County was part of Yingchuan commandary, forty li from Yangdi.

Sima Lun wished to recall the armies that had been sent to Hebei back to protect himself.

The Ying River flowed out of Shaoshi in Yangcheng County in Yingchuan commandary. It flowed southeast, passing through the north of Yangdi County.)


成都王穎前鋒至黃橋,爲孫會、士猗、許超所敗,殺傷萬餘人,士衆震駭。穎欲退保朝歌,盧志、王彥曰:「今我軍失利,敵新得志,有輕我之心。我若退縮,士氣沮衂,不可復用。且戰何能無勝負!不若更選精兵,星行倍道,出敵不意,此用兵之奇也。」穎從之。倫賞黃橋之功,士猗、許超與孫會皆持節。由是各不相從,軍政不一,且恃勝輕穎而不設備。穎帥諸軍擊之,大戰于湨水,會等大敗,棄軍南走。穎乘勝長驅濟河。

21. When Sima Ying's vanguard arrived at Huangqiao, they were defeated by the armies under Sun Hui, Shi Yi, and Xu Chao; more than ten thousand were killed or wounded, and the soldiers were greatly shaken and unsettled by the defeat.

Sima Ying wanted to fall back to guard Zhaoge. But Lu Zhi and Wang Yan said to him, "Our army has just suffered a setback, and the enemy has just gotten a taste of victory, so they will now think little of our army. If we were to retreat now, then the morale of the soldiers will be sunk, and they will be no further use to us. Besides, can one be successful in every battle? What you ought to do is select picked troops and advance against the enemy by starlight, when they will not expect it. This is the best way to use the soldiers."

Sima Ying heeded their advice.

Now after the victory at Huangqiao, Sima Lun had awarded all three of the commanders by appointing each of them as Credential Bearers. This made them all unwilling to listen to the orders of the other, so the armies had no unified leadership. Furthermore, after their victory, they underestimated Sima Ying and did not prepare defenses against him.

Sima Ying led his armies to attack them, and fought a great battle at the Gu River. Sun Hui and the others were greatly defeated, and they abandoned their armies and fled south. Sima Ying pressed his advantage by quickly marching forward, and he crossed over the Yellow River.

〈朝歌西有黃澤,澤水右入蕩水,謂之黃雀溝。橋當在溝上。〉〈星行者,夜行戴星而行也。〉〈湨水出河內軹縣東南,至溫入河。湨,古闃翻。《考異》曰:《趙王倫傳》作「激水」。今從《帝紀》。〉

(West of Zhaoge was Huang Marsh. The source of the marshwater on the right side was the Dang River, so it was called the Huangque Ravine. The bridge at Huangqiao was over this ravine.

To "advance by starlight" means to march at night by following the light of the stars.

The Gu River emerged from the southeast of Zhi County in Henei commandary; it flowed to Wen, where it entered the Yellow River. 湨 is pronounced "gu (g-u)".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Lun in the Book of Jin says that this later battle took place at the 'Ji River'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin.")


穎前鋒都督趙驤為倫所敗,士眾震駭,議者多欲還保朝歌。志曰:「今我軍失利,敵新得勝,必有輕易陵轢之情,若頓兵不進,三軍畏衄,懼不可用。且戰何能無勝負,宜更選精兵,星行倍道,出賊不意,此用兵之奇也。」穎從之。穎從之。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

When Sima Ying’s Vanguard Commander, Zhao Xiang, was defeated by Sima Lun’s forces at the first battle of Huangqiao, Sima Ying’s officers and soldiers were greatly shaken, and many of those who discussed the situation wanted to fall back to defend Zhaoge. But Lu Zhi said, “Our army has just suffered a setback, and the enemy has just gotten a taste of victory, so they will now think they can easily push us around. If we were to halt the soldiers now instead of advancing, then the three armies will be so afraid of defeat that I fear they would be no further use to us. Besides, can one be successful in every battle? What you ought to do is select picked troops and advance against the enemy along several roads by starlight, when they will not expect it. This is the best way to use the soldiers.” Sima Ying followed his advice.

趙驤至黃橋,為倫將士猗、許超所敗,死者八千餘人,士眾震駭。穎欲退保朝歌,用盧志、王彥策,又使趙驤率眾八萬,與王彥俱進。倫復遣孫會、劉琨等率三萬人,與猗、超合兵距驤等,精甲耀日,鐵騎前驅。猗既戰勝,有輕驤之心。未及溫十餘里,復大戰,猗等奔潰。穎遂過河,乘勝長驅。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When Sima Ying's commander Zhao Xiang arrived at Huangqiao, he was defeated by Sima Lun’s generals Shi Yi and Xu Chao; more than eight thousand of his troops were killed, and the soldiers were greatly shaken and unsettled by the defeat. Sima Ying wanted to fall back to guard Zhaoge. However, following the strategy of Lu Zhi and Wang Yan, he sent Zhao Xiang forward again with an army of eighty thousand, and Zhao Xiang advanced together with Wang Yan. Sima Lun likewise sent forward Sun Hui, Liu Kun, and other commanders leading thirty thousand men, and they reinforced Shi Yi and Xu Chao’s men to resist Zhao Xiang and Sima Ying’s other generals. Their soldiers wore exceptional armor that was as bright as the sun, and their iron cavalry charged forward. However, since Shi Yi had already defeated Zhao Xiang once before, he now thought little of Zhao Xiang's capabilities. Sima Lun’s forces were less than ten li from Wen County when they fought another great battle against Sima Ying’s men, and this time Shi Yi and the rest ran away and scattered. Sima Ying then crossed over the Yellow River, and he pressed his advantage by quickly marching forward.


自冏等起兵,百官將士皆欲誅倫、秀,秀懼,不敢出中書省;及聞河北軍敗,憂懣不知所爲。孫會、許超、士猗等至,與秀謀,或欲收餘卒出戰;或欲焚宮室,誅不附己者,挾倫南就孫旂、孟觀;或欲乘船東走入海;計未決。辛酉,左衞將軍王輿與尚書廣陵公漼帥營兵七百餘人自南掖門入宮,三部司馬爲應於內,攻孫秀、許超、士猗於中書省,皆斬之,遂殺孫奇、孫弼及前將軍謝惔等。漼,伷之子也。王輿屯雲龍門,召八坐皆入殿中,使倫爲詔曰:「吾爲孫秀所誤,以怒三王;今已誅秀。其迎太上皇復位,吾歸老于農畝。」傳詔以騶虞幡敕將士解兵。黃門將倫自華林東門出,及太子荂皆還汶陽里第,遣甲士數千迎帝于金墉城。百姓咸稱萬歲。帝自端門入,升殿;羣臣頓首謝罪。詔送倫、荂等赴金墉城。廣平王虔自河北還,至九曲,聞變,棄軍,將數十人歸里第。

22. From the time when Sima Jiong and the others had first risen up, the ministers and generals in the capital all wished to execute Sima Lun and Sun Xiu. Sun Xiu, fearing for his life, did not dare to leave the Palace Secretariat office. And when he heard that the armies in Hebei had been defeated, he became so anxious and depressed that he did not know what to do.

When Sun Hui, Xu Chao, Shi Yi, and the other defeated Hebei commanders arrived back at Luoyang, they met with Sun Xiu and discussed what should be done. Some of them wanted to gather up all the remaining soldiers that they could and march out to risk a battle. Others wanted to burn the palaces, kill anyone who would not go along with them, and take Sima Lun to seek refuge with Sun Qi and Meng Guan. Still others wanted to get into boats and flee east to escape to the sea. But they could not make a decision.

On the day Xinyou (May 30th), the Guard General of the Left, Wang Yu, and the Master of Writing and Duke of Guangling, Sima Cui, led more than seven hundred of the guards to storm the palace complex through the southern Ye Gates, with the Marshals of the Three Divisions assisting them from the inside. They attacked Sun Xiu, Xu Chao, and Shi Yi at the Palace Secretariat office, and beheaded all of them. They also killed Sun Qi, Sun Bi, the General of the Front, Xie Tan, and others. This Sima Cui was the son of Sima Zhou.

Wang Yi camped his soldiers at the Yunlong Gate, and he summoned the Eight Ministers to enter the Central Hall. They forced Sima Lun to compose an edict, stating, "I was misled by Sun Xiu, and so I incurred the anger of the three Princes. I have already put Sun Xiu to death. Now I shall welcome the Retired Emperor back to the throne, and I myself shall live out my life tending a field."

Edict bearers were sent out, along with the Zouyu Banners, to order Sima Lun's commanders to have their soldiers stand down.

The Yellow Gate officials led Sima Lun out through the east gate of the Hualin Garden, and he and his sons, Sima Fu and the rest, all returned to his estate at Wenyang Village.

Several thousand armored soldiers were sent to receive Emperor Hui at the Jinyong fortress. The common people all cried, "Long live the Emperor!" Emperor Hui entered the palace complex through the Duan Gate, and ascended the palace steps. His ministers all kowtowed before him and begged forgiveness for their crimes.

An edict was issued ordering Sima Lun and his sons to be sent to the Jinyong fortress.

Sima Lun's son Sima Qian was on his way back from Hebei with his army. But when he reached Jiuqu, and heard about what had happened in Luoyang, he abandoned his army and returned to his father's estate with several dozen men.

〈孫旂在荊州,孟觀在宛。〉〈傳詔者,使之宣傳詔命,因以爲官名。〉〈將,引也。洛陽城中有汶陽里,倫私第在焉。楊正衡曰:汶,音問。〉〈《水經註》:九曲瀆,在河南鞏縣西。〉

(Sun Qi was in Jingzhou, and Meng Guan was at Wan.

The edict bearers were sent out to show the imperial commands, so this must have been the name of an office.

將 in this instance means "led".

There was a Wenyang Village within the walls of Luoyang, which was where Sima Lun had his private estate. Yang Zhengheng remarked, "汶 is pronounced 'wen'."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Jiuqu Ditch is in the west of Gong County in Henan commandary.")


左將軍王輿殺孫秀,幽趙王倫,迎天子反正。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

The General of the Left, Wang Yu, killed Sima Lun’s advisor Sun Xiu and placed Sima Lun under house arrest, and he restored the deposed Emperor Hui back to the throne.


癸亥,赦天下,改元,大酺五日。分遣使者慰勞三王。梁王肜等表:「趙王倫父子凶逆,宜伏誅。」丁卯,遣尚書袁敞持節賜倫死,收其子荂、馥、虔、詡,皆誅之。凡百官爲倫所用者皆斥免,臺、省、府、衞,僅有存者。是日,成都王穎至。己巳,河間王顒至。穎使趙驤、石超助齊王冏討張泓等於陽翟,泓等皆降。自兵興六十餘日,戰鬬死者近十萬人。斬張衡、閭和、孫髦于東市,蔡璜自殺。五月,誅義陽王威。襄陽太守宗岱承冏檄斬孫旂,永饒冶令空桐機斬孟觀,皆傳首洛陽,夷三族。

23. On the day Guihai (June 1st), an amnesty was declared throughout the realm, and the reign era title was changed. There was great feasting and drinking for five days. Several messengers were dispatched to bring tidings of recognition and thanks to the three Princes.

Sima Rong and others submitted a petition stating, "The Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, and his sons were all wicked traitors. They should be put to death." On the day Dingmao (June 5th), the Master of Writing, Yuan Chang, was sent bearing a Staff of Authority with orders to bestow death to Sima Lun. He arrested Sima Lun's sons Sima Fu, Sima Fuu, Sima Qian, and Sima Xu, and executed them all.

All of the ministers and officers who had been employed by Sima Lun were denounced and stripped of office. This left the Lantai, palace, Excellency, and guard bureaus with barely anyone remaining in office.

On the same day, Sima Ying arrived at Luoyang. On the day Jisi (June 7th), Sima Yong also arrived. Sima Ying sent Zhao Xiang and Shi Chao to help Sima Jiong fight Zhang Hong and the other enemy commanders at Yangdi; Zhang Hong and his fellows all surrendered. It had been more than sixty days since the Princes had first risen up against Sima Lun, and nearly a hundred thousand soldiers had died in the fighting.

Zhang Heng, Lü He, and Sun Mao were beheaded in the Eastern Market, while Cai Huang killed himself. In the fifth month, Sima Wey was executed as well.

Using Sima Jiong's proclamation as justification, the Administrator of Xiangyang, Zong Dai, beheaded Sun Qi. And the Prefect of Yongraoye, Kongtong Ji, beheaded Meng Guan. Both of their heads were sent to Luoyang, and their families were exterminated to the third degree.

〈改元永寧。〉〈尚書、御史、謁者,臺;門下、中書、祕書,省;府,諸公府也;衞,二衞及六軍也。〉〈沈約曰:魏武帝分南郡編縣以北及南陽之山都立襄陽郡。魚豢曰:魏文帝立。〉〈永饒冶當在南陽宛縣。空桐,姓;機,名。《姓譜》曰:漢覆姓有空桐、空相二氏。《世本》云:空同,子姓,蓋因崆峒山也。〉

(It was at this time that the reign era title became Yongning.

The Lantai was the bureaus for the Masters of Writing, the Imperial Secretaries, and the Internuncios. The palace bureaus were the Officials Beneath The Gate, the Palace Secretariat, and the Imperial Library. The Excellency bureaus were those officials serving the various Excellencies. The guard bureaus were those serving the two Guard Generals and the Generals of the Six Armies.

Shen Yue remarked, "Emperor Wu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) split off the northern part of Bian County in Nan commandary and Shandu in Nanyang commandary to form Xiangyang commandary." Yu Huan remarked, "The commandary was established by Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi)."

Yongraoye was in Wan County in Nanyang commandary.

空桐 Kongtong is a surname; 機 Ji was this man's given name. The Registry of Surnames states, "Two compound surnames of the Han era were Kongtong and Kongxiang." The Book of Origins states, "空同 Kongtong was a surname derived from a noble fief, taken from Mount 崆峒 Kongdong.")


及穎入京都,誅倫。使趙驤、石超等助齊王冏攻張泓于陽翟,泓等遂降。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When Sima Ying entered the capital, he executed Sima Lun. Then he sent Zhao Xiang, Shi Chao, and other generals to assist Sima Jiong by attacking Zhang Hong at Yangdi. This caused Zhang Hong and Sima Lun’s other commanders there to surrender.


立襄陽王尚爲皇太孫。

24. The Prince of Xiangyang, the late Crown Prince Sima Yu's son Sima Shang, was now appointed to the title of Crown Grandson.

六月,乙卯,齊王冏帥衆入洛陽,頓軍通章署,甲士數十萬,威震京都。

25. In the sixth month, on the day Yimao (July 23rd), Sima Jiong led his army into Luoyang, where he made arrangements for accommodating his soldiers. He had hundreds of thousands of armored soldiers, and his might shook the capital region.

〈晉避景帝諱,謂京師曰京都。〉

(This passage uses the term 京都 for "the capital region". The equivalent term for that had been 京師. But because the Jin dynasty observed a naming taboo on the given name of Emperor Wen (Sima 師 Shi), the term was changed to 京都.)


戊辰,赦天下。

26. On the day Wuchen (August 5th), an amnesty was declared throughout the realm.

復封賓徒王晏爲吳王。

27. The Prince of Bintu County, Sima Yan, had his title restored to Prince of Wu.

〈晏貶見上卷永康元年。《考異》曰:《晏傳》:「自賓徒徙封代王。倫誅,復本封。」今從《帝紀》。〉

(Sima Yan's demotion to Prince of Bintu County is mentioned in the previous book, in the first year of Yongkang (300.24).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Yan in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yan had his title changed from Prince of Bintu to Prince of Dai. After Sima Lun was executed, his original title was restored.' But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin.")


甲戌,詔以齊王冏爲大司馬,加九錫,備物典策,如宣、景、文、武輔魏故事;成都王穎爲大將軍,都督中外諸軍事,假黃鉞,錄尚書事,加九錫,入朝不趨,劍履上殿;河間王顒爲侍中、太尉,加三賜之禮;常山王乂爲撫軍大將軍,領左軍;進廣陵公漼爵爲王,領尚書,加侍中;進新野公歆爵爲王,都督荊州諸軍事,加鎭南大將軍。齊、成都、河間三府,各置掾屬四十人,武號森列,文官備員而已,識者知兵之未戢也。己卯,以梁王肜爲太宰,領司徒。

28. On the day Jiaxu (August 11th), an edict was issued appointing Sima Jiong as Grand Marshal and granting him the Nine Bestowments. He was granted regent authority to handle all canons and policies, just as Sima Yi, Sima Shi, Sima Zhao, and Sima Yan had once wielded such power on behalf of the government of Wei.

Sima Ying was appointed as Grand General, Commander of all military affairs, Bearer of the Golden Battle-axe, and Chief of the affairs of the Masters of Writing. He was granted the Nine Bestowments as well, and he was also given the right to enter court without hastening his step and to enter the palace without removing his sword or shoes.

Sima Yong was appointed as Palace Attendant and Grand Commandant, and he was shown the ceremony of the Three Bestowments.

Sima Ai was appointed as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and acting General of the Army of the Left.

Sima Cui had his title as Duke of Guangling advanced to Prince, and he was appointed as an acting Master of Writing and as a Palace Attendant. Sima Xin had his title as Duke of Xinye advanced to Prince, and he was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou and Grand General Who Guards The South.

The three chief Princes, Sima Jiong, Sima Ying, and Sima Yong, all created offices for their public staffs and appointed forty people each as their assistants and subordinates, and they were thick with military officers. Civil offices were filled only as needed, and those who held the offices retained their command of soldiers.

On the day Jimao (August 16th), Sima Rong was appointed as Grand Governor and acting Minister Over The Masses.

〈《考異》曰:《穎傳》曰:「至鄴,詔王粹加九錫,進位大將軍,都督中外;穎拜受徽號,讓殊禮。」按穎在洛,盧志已謂穎曰:「今當與齊王共輔朝政,」明已有錄尚書之命,但穎不受歸鄴,故朝廷使粹追命之耳。且穎功大於冏,不應獨賞冏而穎未賞也。今從《帝紀》。〉〈《記‧王制》:諸侯,賜弓矢然後征,賜鈇鉞然後殺,賜圭瓚然後爲鬯。〉〈左軍,卽左軍將軍所統。〉〈歆自南中郎將加鎭南。〉〈自東漢以來,公府皆有掾、有屬,但不帶武號耳。〉〈肜以太師領丞相之職。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Ying in the Book of Jin states, 'After Sima Ying returned to Ye, the edict went out awarding him for his services by granting him the Nine Bestowments and the ranks of Grand General and Commander of all military affairs. Sima Ying accepted the promotions in rank, but he declined to be shown such special ceremony.' But during the time that Sima Ying was still at Luoyang, his advisor Lu Zhi had already said to him, 'You and the Prince of Qi hold joint regency powers together'. From that we can see that Sima Ying had already accepted his appointment as Chief of the affairs of the Masters of Writing. But Sima Ying did not accept his role in Luoyang and returned to Ye, so the court was merely sending someone to commend him for obeying orders. Furthermore, Sima Ying's accomplishments in the campaign against Sima Lun were greater than those of Sima Jiong. It cannot be that only Sima Jiong would be rewarded at that time, and not Sima Ying as well. So I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

Regarding the ceremony of the Three Bestowments, the Royal Regulations chapter of the Book of Rites states, "The bow and arrows were conferred on a prince, so he could proceed to execute the royal justice. The hatchet and battle-axe were conferred, so he could proceed to inflict death. A large libation-cup was conferred, so he could make the spirits from the black millet for himself. (5.18)"

The passage states that Sima Ai was given command "of the Army of the Left". He was appointed as General of the Army of the Left.

Sima Xin was promoted from his original rank of General of the Household Gentlemen of the South.

Ever since Later Han, the noble staffs had all had assistants and subordinates, but they had not included military officers.

Sima Rong had been Grand Instructor and acting Prime Minister until now.)


至洛,拜撫軍大將軍,領左軍將軍。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

When Sima Ai arrived at Luoyang, he was appointed as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and acting General of the Army of the Left.

義兵至潼關,而倫、秀已誅,天子反正,含、方各率眾還。及冏論功,雖怒顒初不同,而終能濟義,進位侍中、太尉,加三賜之禮。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Sima Yong's army pressed on to Tong Gate, but by then, Sima Lun and his advisor Sun Xiu had already been executed and Emperor Hui had been restored to the throne. So Li Han and Zhang Fang brought their forces back again.

When Sima Jiong was discussing who had achieved merits in the crusade against Sima Lun, although he resented Sima Yong for not having supported his side from the beginning, he recognized that Sima Yong had rallied to the side of righteousness in the end. So he promoted him as Palace Attendant and Grand Commandant and granted him the honors of the Three Bestowments.


光祿大夫劉蕃女爲趙世子荂妻,故蕃及二子散騎侍郎輿、冠軍將軍琨皆爲趙王倫所委任。大司馬冏以琨父子有才望,特宥之,以輿爲中書郎,琨爲尚書左丞。又以前司徒王戎爲尚書令,劉暾爲御史中丞,王衍爲河南尹。

29. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Liu Fan, had a daughter who was the wife of Sima Lun's eldest son Sima Fu. So during Sima Lun's time in power, Liu Fan and his two sons, the Cavalier-Gentleman In Attendance, Liu Yu, and the Champion General, Liu Kun, had both been granted important offices. After Sima Jiong took power, he appreciated the great talents that Liu Kun and his father and brother had. So he granted them special pardons, and he appointed Liu Yu as a Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat and Liu Kun as Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

Sima Jiong also appointed the former Minister Over The Masses, Wang Rong, as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. He appointed Liu Tun as Minister of the Middle of the Imperial Secretaries. And he appointed Wang Yan as Intendant of Henan.

〈中書郎,卽中書侍郎。〉

(A Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat was the same as a Gentleman-Attendant of that bureau.)


新野王歆將之鎭,與冏同乘謁陵,因說冏曰:「成都王至親,同建大勳,今宜留之與輔政;若不能爾,當奪其兵權。」常山王乂與成都王穎俱拜陵,乂謂穎曰:「天下者,先帝之業,王宜維正之。」聞其言者莫不憂懼。盧志謂穎曰:「齊王衆號百萬,與張泓等相持不能決;大王逕前濟河,功無與貳。今齊王欲與大王共輔朝政。志聞兩雄不俱立,宜因太妃微疾,求還定省,委重齊王,以收四海之心,此計之上也。」穎從之。帝見穎于東堂,慰勞之。穎拜謝曰:「此大司馬冏之勳,臣無豫焉。」因表稱冏功德,宜委以萬機,自陳母疾,請歸藩。卽辭出,不復還營,便謁太廟,出自東陽城門,遂歸鄴。遣信與冏別,冏大驚,馳出送穎,至七里澗,及之。穎住車言別,流涕滂沱,惟以太妃疾苦爲憂,不及時事。由是士民之譽皆歸穎。

30. Sima Xin was about to return to his defense post. But first he went to pay his respects to the imperial tombs, together with Sima Jiong. He took the opportunity to warn Sima Jiong, "The Prince of Chengdu (Sima Ying) has very close blood ties to His Majesty, and he had just as much of a hand in the recent victory as you did. You ought to keep him close at hand and share the regency with him. But if you cannot do that, then take away his military authority."

Sima Ai and Sima Ying were themselves also paying their respects at the tombs, and Sima Ai said to Sima Ying, "The realm was united thanks to the endeavors of His Late Majesty (Sima Yan). Prince, you ought to protect it and make it right again."

There was no one who heard such things being said who was not anxious and afraid.

Sima Ying's advisor Lu Zhi said to him, "The Prince of Qi had an army said to be a million strong, and yet he was locked in stalemate with Zhang Hong and the other enemy commanders, unable to achieve a decisive victory over them. Compared to that, Prince, you advanced quickly and crossed over the Yellow River, and no one can compare with the achievements you had. Now the Prince of Qi wishes to share the regency of the government with you. I have heard that two roosters cannot share the same perch. You should say that you must go and tend to your mother's illness, and ask to return to your defense post. Leave the heavy responsibilities of state to the Prince of Qi, while you win the hearts of all within the Four Seas. This is the best plan to follow."

Sima Ying heeded his advice.

When Emperor Hui saw Sima Ying in the Eastern Hall, he praised him for his hard work. Sima Ying made obeisance to him and humbly said, "This was Grand Marshal Sima Jiong's undertaking; I can claim no share in it."

And Sima Ying submitted a petition extolling Sima Jiong's achievements and virtues, urging that he should be given authority over all affairs, while he himself asked to return to his border post, mentioning his mother's sick condition. Having said his piece, he did not even return to his barracks, but only went to pay his respects at the Ancestral Temple, and then left the city through the Dongyang Gate on his way back to Ye.

Sima Ying sent a letter bidding farewell to Sima Jiong. When Sima Jiong received the letter, he was greatly alarmed, and he rode quickly to overtake Sima Ying, finally catching up with him at Seven Li Gully. Sima Ying halted his carriage and said his goodbyes to Sima Jiong, weeping freely. He only spoke of his concerns for his mother's sickness and pain, and said nothing about the affairs of the times. Because of that, he earned the praise of all the gentry and the people.

〈將出鎭荊州也。〉〈帝弟之親,故曰至親。〉〈憂懼者,以冏與乂、穎必阻兵相圖,將罹其禍也。〉〈穎母程才人册爲成都太妃。《記‧曲禮》:凡爲人子者,冬溫而夏凊,昏定而晨省。〉〈委朝政之重於齊王,則四海之人謂穎功大不居,將歸心於穎。〉〈洛陽城東面北頭第二門曰東陽門。〉〈《水經註》:鴻臺陂在洛陽東北二十里,其水東流,左合七里澗。武帝泰始十年,立城東七里澗石橋。〉〈滂沱,淚下如雨也。〉

(Sima Xin was about to return to his post in Jingzhou.

Sima Ying was Emperor Hui's younger brother, and so he had "close blood ties" to him.

The people who were anxious and afraid at hearing the advice being given here believed that Sima Jiong on one side and Sima Ai and Sima Ying on the other were sure to come to blows with one another, and they feared this disaster would happen soon.

Lu Zhi identifies Sima Ying's mother as "Grand Concubine". Sima Ying was the Prince of Chengdu, and so his mother, the Talented Lady Lady Cheng, had been appointed Grand Concubine of Chengdu. The Rules of Propriety chapter of the Book of Rites states, "For all sons it is the rule: In winter, to warm (the bed for their parents), and to cool it in summer; in the evening, to adjust everything (for their repose), and to inquire (about their health) in the morning. (1.15)"

By leaving the responsibilities of government in the hands of Sima Jiong, everyone within the Four Seas would say that Sima Ying's achievements had not been fully recognized, and their hearts would soon turn to him.

The two gates in the northern corner of the east walls of Luoyang were called the Dongyang Gates.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Hongtai Pond is twenty li northeast of Luoyang. Its water flows east, flowing into Seven Li Gully on the right side. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) tenth year of Taishi (274), he raised a stone bridge east of the city at Seven Li Gully."

This passage uses the term 滂沱; it means "tears flowing down like rain".)


及倫敗,志勸穎曰:「齊王眾號百萬,與張泓等相持不能決,大王逕得濟河,此之大勳,莫之與比,而齊王今當與大王共輔朝政。志聞兩雄不俱處,功名不並立,今宜因太妃微疾,求還定省,推崇齊王,徐結四海之心,此計之上也。」穎納之,遂以母疾還籓,委重於冏。由是穎獲四海之譽,天下歸心。朝廷封志為武強侯,加散騎常侍。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

After Sima Lun was defeated, Lu Zhi urged Sima Ying, “The Prince of Qi (Sima Jiong) had an army said to be a million strong, and yet he was locked in stalemate with Zhang Hong and the other enemy commanders, unable to achieve a decisive victory over them. Compared to that, Prince, you advanced quickly and crossed over the Yellow River, and no one can compare with such a great achievement. Yet the Prince of Qi now wishes to share the regency of the government with you.

“I have heard that two roosters cannot share the same perch. In the same way, you cannot both stake your names and reputation on the same event. You should say that you must go and tend to your mother’s illness, and ask to return to your defense post. Urge honors upon the Prince of Qi, while you win the hearts of all within the Four Seas. This is the best plan to follow.”

Sima Ying heeded his advice. On account of his mother’s illness, he returned to his border post, leaving all chief responsibilities to Sima Jiong. It was from such things that Sima Ying won the praise of all within the Four Seas, and the realm turned their hearts towards him. The court awarded Lu Zhi with the title Marquis of Wuqiang, and promoted him as Cavalier In Regular Attendance.

乂見齊王冏漸專權,嘗與成都王穎俱拜陵,因謂穎曰:「天下者,先帝之業也,王宜維之。」時聞其言者皆憚之。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

Sima Ai noticed that Sima Jiong was gradually beginning to monopolize power in the capital. Once, when Sima Ai and Sima Ying were visiting the imperial tombs near Luoyang together, Sima Ai said to Sima Ying, “The realm was united thanks to the endeavors of His Late Majesty (Sima Yan). Prince, you ought to protect it.” There was no one who heard such things being said who was not afraid.

冏始率眾入洛,自以首建大謀,遂擅威權。穎營於太學,及入朝,天子親勞焉。穎拜謝曰:「此大司馬臣冏之勳,臣無豫焉。」見訖,即辭出,不復還營,便謁太廟,出自東陽城門,遂歸鄴。遣信與冏別,冏大驚,馳出送穎,至七里澗及之。穎住車言別,流涕,不及時事,惟乙太妃疾苦形于顏色,百姓觀者莫不傾心。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Since Sima Jiong considered himself to be the chief architect of the crusade against Sima Lun, after he brought his own troops into Luoyang, he used his military might to garner more power and authority. Sima Ying camped his soldiers at the Imperial Academy. When he entered the court, Emperor Hui personally thanked him for his efforts. Sima Ying made obeisance to thank him, saying, “This was Grand Marshal Sima Jiong’s undertaking; I can claim no share in it.”

After he had finished his court visit and took his leave, he did not return to the barracks he had set up. He only went to pay his respects at the Ancestral Temple, and then left the city through the Dongyang Gate, intending to return to Ye. Sima Ying sent a letter bidding farewell to Sima Jiong. When Sima Jiong received the letter, he was greatly alarmed, and he rode quickly to overtake Sima Ying, finally catching up with him at Seven Li Gully. Sima Ying halted his carriage and said his goodbyes to Sima Jiong, weeping freely. He said nothing about the affairs of the times, and only spoke of his concerns for his mother’s sickness and pain. None of the common people who saw this could resist turning their hearts towards him.


冏辟新興劉殷爲軍諮祭酒,洛陽令曹攄爲記室督,尚書郎江統、陽平太守河內苟晞參軍事,吳國張翰爲東曹掾,孫惠爲戶曹掾,前廷尉正顧榮及順陽王豹爲主簿。惠,賁之曾孫;榮,雍之孫也。殷幼孤貧,養曾祖母以孝聞,人以穀帛遺之,殷受而不謝,直云:「待後貴當相酧耳。」及長,博通經史,性倜儻有大志,儉而不陋,清而不介,望之頹然而不可侵也。冏以何勗爲中領軍,董艾典樞機,又封其將佐有功者葛旟、路秀、衞毅、劉眞、韓泰皆爲縣公,委以心膂,號曰「五公」。

31. Sima Jiong summoned Liu Yin of Xinxing to serve as his Libationer-Consultant for the Army, and he summoned the Prefect of Luoyang, Cao Shu, to serve as his 記室督. The Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Jiang Tong, and the Administrator of Yangping, Gou Xi of Henei, were appointed as his Army Advisors. Zhang Han of the Wu princely fief was appointed as Manager of the East, and Sun Hui was appointed as Manager of Households. The former 正 to the Minister of Justice, Gu Rong, and Wang Bao of Shunyang were appointed as his Registrars. This Sun Hui was the great-grandson of Sun Ben; this Gu Rong was the grandson of Gu Yong.

Liu Yin had been left orphaned and impoverished at a young age, and he was raised by his great-grandmother to be filial and attentive. When people offered him gifts of grain or silk, he would accept them without thanking them, only telling them, "Wait until I have become an exalted person, and then I shall repay you." After he grew up, he was learned and fluent in the classics and histories, and he had an exceptional nature and held great ambitions. He was thrifty, without being crude; he was concise, without being abrupt. His hopes were frustrated, but this could not deter him.

Sima Jiong appointed He Xu as General Who Leads The Army of the Center, and Dong Ai as 典樞機. He also granted noble titles to those of his generals and advisors who had achieved merits. Five of them were close companions to him: Ge Yu, Lu Xiu, Wei Yi, Liu Zhen, and Han Tai. He named them all as Dukes of counties, and they came to be called the "Five Dukes".

〈漢建安三年,曹公置軍謀祭酒。晉制:文武官公及諸方面征鎭府,皆置軍諮祭酒。漢三公及大將軍府,皆有記室令史,主上章表奏報書記。曹公輔漢,以陳琳、阮瑀管記室。晉諸公府皆有記室督。攄,抽居翻。〉〈晉諸公、諸從公爲持節都督,增參軍爲六員。〉〈晉制:東曹在倉曹之上,戶曹在倉曹之下。廷尉屬官有正、監、平。魏分南陽立南鄕郡,武帝太康中,更名順陽郡。豹,補敎翻。〉〈孫賁,吳主權從兄。〉〈顧雍,吳相也。〉〈倜儻,卓異也。劉殷後事劉聰貴顯,女充聰後宮,何足尚也!〉〈葛旟,牟平公。路秀,小黃公。衞毅,陰平公。劉眞,安鄕公。韓泰,封丘公。《考異》曰:「路秀」,《帝紀》作「路季」,今從《齊王冏傳》。〉

(In the Han dynasty's third year of Jian'an (198), Cao Cao had created the office of Libationer-Consultant for the Army. Under the Jin system, this was a subordinate office civil and military ministers and nobles, as well as on the staffs of generals posted at the borders, of the Generals Who Conquer and Who Guard sort.

During Han, the Three Excellencies and the Grand General all had the office of 記室令史 on their staffs. Their chief duties were to maintain records of the petitions and correspondence being sent out. When Cao Cao had been regent for the Han dynasty, he had employed Chen Lin and Ruan Yu in such roles. Under the Jin system, the various nobles had the similar office of 記室督 on their staffs.

Cao Shu's given name 攄 is pronounced "chu (ch-u)".

During Jin, the various nobles and ministers would have commanders bearing credentials, and so the number of their Army Advisors increased to six people.

Under the Jin system, the Eastern Manager was the superior office in matters of overseeing the management of storehouses, and the Household Manager was the inferior office.

The Minister of Justice had the subordinate offices of 正s, Chiefs, and 平s.

Cao-Wei split off part of Nanyang commandary to form Nanxiang commandary. During Sima Yan's Taikang era (280-89), he changed the name of that commandary to Shunyang.

Wang Bao's given name 豹 is pronounced "biao (b-iao)".

Sun Ben was the elder cousin of Sun Quan, the Grand Emperor of Eastern Wu.

Gu Yong was a Prime Minister of Eastern Wu.

The term 倜儻 here means exceptional or remarkable.

This Liu Yin later served as an exalted minister to the Emperor of Han-Zhao, Liu Cong, and he even had his daughters sent to Liu Cong's rear palaces. What would have been enough to satisfy him?

Regarding these Five Dukes, Ge Yu was the Duke of Mouping County, Lu Xiu was the Duke of Xiaohuang County, Wei Yi was the Duke of Yinping County, Liu Zhen was the Duke of Anxiang County, and Han Tai was the duke of Fengqiu County.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The person listed here as Lu 秀 Xiu is listed in the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin as Lu 季 Ji. But I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Jiong in the Book of Jin.")


成都王穎至鄴,詔遣使者就申前命;穎受大將軍,讓九錫殊禮。表論興義功臣,皆封公侯。又表稱:「大司馬前在陽翟,與賊相持旣久,百姓困敝,乞運河北邸閣米十五萬斛,以賑陽翟饑民。」造棺八千餘枚,以成都國秩爲衣服,斂祭黃橋戰士,旌顯其家,加常戰亡二等。又命溫縣瘞趙王倫戰士萬四千餘人。皆盧志之謀也。穎貌美而神昏,不知書,然氣性敦厚,委事於志,故得成其美焉。詔復遣使諭穎入輔,幷使受九錫。穎嬖人孟玖不欲還洛,又,程太妃愛戀鄴都,故穎終辭不拜。

32. When Sima Ying arrived at Ye, an edict went out sending a messenger there who explained the previous orders regarding his appointments. Sima Ying did accept the rank of Grand General, but he declined to receive the special ceremony granted by the Nine Bestowments.

Sima Ying sent a petition to the court reporting on his ministers who had achieved righteous merits in his service, and all of them were appointed as Dukes or Marquises. He also sent another petition stating, "When the Grand Marshal was fighting at Yangdi before, locked in stalemate with the enemy for a long time, the common people of that region suffered from deprivations. I beg leave to send a hundred and fifty thousand 斛s of grain from the official stores of Hebei in order to provide for the people of Yangdi."

Sima Ying also had more than eight thousand coffins built, and used the funds of his princely fief in order to obtain clothing, in order to gather up and hold services for his fallen soldiers at Huangqiao. He bestowed honors and glory upon their families, and honored the fallen by advancing them two ranks. He even ordered Wen County to bury more than fourteen thousand of Sima Lun's fallen soldiers as well.

All of these things were the suggestions of Lu Zhi. Sima Ying himself had a beautiful appearance, but his mind was clouded, and he could not read. But he was honest and sincere in his temperament, and he trusted Lu Zhi with affairs, so he was able to achieve such luster.

Another edict was sent out commanding Sima Ying to return to Luoyang to help support the government, and once again granting him the Nine Bestowments. But Sima Ying's close companion Meng Jiu did not wish to go back to Luoyang, and his mother Lady Cheng had great longing and attachment for Ye. So Sima Ying eventually declined this offer as well.

〈穎亦表封盧志、和演、董洪、王彥、趙驤等。〉〈此湨水之戰也。溫縣屬河內郡;周司寇蘇忿生之國也。〉

(The ministers whom Sima Ying praised in this edict were Lu Zhi, He Yan, Dong Hong, Wang Yan, Zhao Xiang, and others.

The fallen from Sima Lun's army mentioned here were the ones who died in the battle of Ju River.

Wen County was part of Henei commandary. The Zhou dynasty's Minister of Criminal Affairs, Su Fen, was born in that state.)


至鄴,詔遣兼太尉王粹加九錫殊禮,進位大將軍、都督中外諸軍事、假節、加黃鉞、錄尚書事,入朝不趨,劍履上殿。穎拜受徽號,讓殊禮九錫,表論興義功臣盧志、和演、董洪、王彥、趙驤等五人,皆封開國公侯。又表稱:「大司馬前在陽翟,與強賊相持既久,百姓創痍,饑餓凍餒,宜急振救。乞差發郡縣車,一時運河北邸閣米十五萬斛,以振陽翟饑人。」盧志言於穎曰:「黃橋戰亡者有八千餘人,既經夏暑,露骨中野,可為傷惻。昔周王葬枯骨,故《詩》云'行有死人,尚或墐之'。況此等致死王事乎!」穎乃造棺八千餘枚,以成都國秩為衣服,斂祭,葬于黃橋北,樹枳籬為之塋域。又立都祭堂,刊石立碑,紀其赴義之功,使亡者之家四時祭祀有所。仍表其門閭,加常戰亡二等。又命河內溫縣埋藏趙倫戰死士卒萬四千餘人。穎形美而神昏,不知書,然器性敦厚,委事於志,故得成其美焉。及齊王冏驕侈無禮,於是眾望歸之。詔遣侍中馮蓀、中書令卞粹喻穎入輔政,並使受九錫。穎猶讓不拜。尋加太子太保。穎嬖人孟玖不欲還洛,又程太妃愛戀鄴都,以此議久不決。留義募將士既久,咸怨曠思歸,或有輒去者,乃題鄴城門云:「大事解散蠶欲遽。請且歸,赴時務。昔以義來,今以義去。若復有急更相語。」穎知不可留,因遣之,百姓乃安。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When Sima Ying arrived at Ye, an edict went out by way of Grand Commandant Wang Cui, granting Sima Ying the exceptional ceremonies of the Nine Bestowments. He was also promoted to Grand General, Commander of all military affairs, and Credential Holder, and was granted authority over the affairs of the Masters of Writing. Furthermore, he was granted the honors of entering court without hastening his step and without needing to remove his sword or shoes. Sima Ying did accept the offered ranks and titles, but he declined the ceremonies of the Nine Bestowments.

Sima Ying sent up a petition outlining the righteous merits achieved by his subordinates Lu Zhi, He Yan, Dong Hong, Wang Yan, Zhao Xiang, and five others, and fiefs were created for all of these people as Dukes or Marquises.

He also sent another petition stating, “When the Grand Marshal was fighting at Yangdi before, locked in stalemate with strong enemies for a long time, the common people of that region were devastated by the fighting. Even now, they are suffering from famine, hunger, and bitter cold, and they need the utmost assistance. I beg leave to send out carts from my commandaries and counties to transport a hundred and fifty thousand 斛s of grain currently in the official stores of Hebei, in order to provide for the people of Yangdi.”

Lu Zhi said to Sima Ying, “More than eight thousand men perished at the battle of Huangqiao, and now the heat of summer is upon us. With their bare bones lying exposed in the fields, there is a danger that their remains will waste away. In former times, the King of Zhou buried bleached bones, and this is why we find in the Book of Poetry the verse, ‘Dead men lie upon the road; one shall grant them grave’s abode. (Xiao Bian 6)’ Can we do any less for such men who died on your behalf?”

So Sima Ying had more than eight thousand coffins built, and used the funds of his princely fief in order to obtain clothing. He inspected the area to find the fallen bodies, and buried them north of Huangqiao, planting trees and hedges to serve as a fence around their graveyard. He also built the Hall of Great Sacrifice, where he carved a stone and raised a stele that listed the righteous achievements of these fallen soldiers, and arranged to have their families offer sacrifices to them four times a year. He also canvassed their towns and villages, and advanced the fallen soldiers by two ranks. He even ordered Wen County in Henei commandary to bury more than fourteen thousand of Sima Lun’s fallen soldiers as well.

Sima Ying himself had a beautiful appearance, but his mind was clouded, and he could not read. But he was honest and sincere in his temperament, and he trusted Lu Zhi with affairs, so he was able to achieve such luster.

With Sima Jiong becoming more arrogant and lacking in proper conduct, the people began to incline towards Sima Ying. Another edict was sent out by way of the Palace Attendant, Feng Sun, and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Bian Cui, commanding Sima Ying to return to Luoyang to help support the government, and once again granting him the Nine Bestowments. However, Sima Ying continued to decline this offer and would not accept.

He was soon promoted to Grand Guardian to the Crown Prince, Sima Tan. But Sima Ying’s close companion Meng Jiu did not wish to go back to Luoyang, and his mother Lady Cheng had great longing and attachment for Ye. Sima Ying discussed the matter for a long time, but could not make a decision.

By now, the soldiers that Sima Ying had recruited for the crusade against Sima Lun had been in service for a long time. They all resented their neglect and wanted to go back to their homes, and some of them outright deserted. So the soldiers wrote on the gates of Ye, “Since the great affair has been concluded, the silkworms want to hurry off. We ask that you allow us to depart, and let us tend to our own affairs. We came to serve justice, and it is now just to let us leave. If another emergency should break out, we shall speak of it then.” Sima Ying knew he could not keep the soldiers, so he let them depart, and the common people were thus settled.


初,大司馬冏疑中書郎陸機爲趙王倫撰禪詔,收,欲殺之;大將軍穎爲之辯理,得免死,因表爲平原內史,以其弟雲爲清河內史。機友人顧榮及廣陵戴淵,以中國多難,勸機還吳;機以受穎全濟之恩,且謂穎有時望,可與立功,遂留不去。

33. During his first days in Luoyang, Sima Jiong suspected that the Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Lu Ji, had composed the edict of abdication which Sima Lun had used when he deposed Emperor Hui. So Sima Jiong had arrested Lu Ji and wanted to kill him. But Sima Ying had argued on Lu Ji's behalf, and so Lu Ji escaped death. He was then appointed as Interior Minister of Pingyuan, and his younger brother Lu Yun was appointed as Interior Minister of Qinghe.

Lu Ji's friend Gu Rong and Dai Yuan of Guangling urged him that, since the Central Plains were facing so many difficulties, he ought to go back to the Wu region again. But Lu Ji was fully impressed by the grace he had been shown by Sima Ying, and he said that Sima Ying had the spirit of the age, so he would be able to achieve merit with him. Lu Ji stayed and would not return to Wu.

〈爲陸機、陸雲爲穎所殺張本。〉

(This was why Lu Ji and Lu Yun were later killed by Sima Ying.)


秋,七月,復封常山王乂爲長沙王,遷開府、驃騎將軍。

34. In autumn, the seventh month, Sima Ai had his original title as Prince of Changsha restored. He was granted a Separate Office, and appointed as General of Agile Cavalry.

〈武帝太康十年,封乂爲長沙王;楚王瑋之誅,乂以同母貶爲常山王;今復舊封。〉

(In Sima Yan's tenth year of Taikang (289.5), Sima Ai had been appointed as Prince of Changsha. After the Prince of Chu, Sima Wei, was executed by Jia Nanfeng, Sima Ai had his title demoted to Prince of Changshan because he was Sima Wei's brother by the same mother. His original title was now restored.)


頃之,遷驃騎將軍、開府,復本國。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

Shortly afterwards, Sima Ai was reassigned as General of Agile Cavalry, granted a Separate Office, and restored to his original fief as Prince of Changsha.


東萊王蕤,凶暴使酒,數陵侮大司馬冏,又從冏求開府不得而怨之,密表冏專權,與左衞將軍王輿謀廢冏。事覺,八月,詔廢蕤爲庶人,誅輿三族,徙蕤於上庸,上庸內史陳鍾承冏旨潛殺之。

35. The Prince of Donglai, Sima Ruy, was a violent man given to drinking. He had bullied and insulted Sima Jiong several times. He had also asked Sima Jiong to grant him the privilege of maintaining a Separate Office, but when this was denied him, he became resentful. He secretly sent in a petition stating that Sima Jiong was monopolizing power, and he plotted with the Guard General of the Left, Wang Yu, to depose Sima Jiong. When this affair was discovered, in the eighth month, an edict was issued demoting Sima Ruy to be a commoner. Wang Yu and his family were executed to the third degree. Sima Ruy was banished to Shangyong. The Interior Minister of Shangyong, Chen Zhong, used Sima Jiong's decree as justification to secretly kill Sima Ruy.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「六月,庚午,蕤與王輿謀廢冏,事覺得罪。甲戌,冏爲大司馬。」按誅輿詔已稱冏爲大司馬,則輿事覺不應在冏爲大司馬前。今從《三十國春秋》在八月。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'In the sixth month, on the day Gengwu (August 7th), Sima Ruy and Wang Yu plotted to depose Sima Jiong, but their plot was discovered and they were charged with crimes.' It then states, 'On the day Jiaxu (August 11th), Sima Jiong was appointed as Grand Marshal.' But the edict ordering Wang Yu's execution already identifies Sima Jiong as the Grand Marshal, so it cannot be the case that Wang Yu's execution took place before Sima Jiong received that appointment. So I follow the account of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and place this event in the eighth month.")


赦天下。

36. An amnesty was declared throughout the realm.

東武公澹坐不孝徙遼東。九月,徵其弟東安王繇復舊爵,拜尚書左僕射。繇舉東平王楙爲都督徐州諸軍事,鎭下邳。

37. The Duke of Dongwu, Sima Dan, was charged with lack of filial piety and was exiled to Liaodong.

In the ninth month, the Prince of Dong'an, Sima Dan's younger brother Sima Yao, was summoned to the capital and restored to his original fief. He was also appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

Sima Yao recommended the Prince of Dongping, Sima Mao, to serve as General Who Pacifies The East and Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou. Sima Mao was stationed at Xiapi.

〈繇廢徙,見八十二卷元康元年。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「爲」下有「平東將軍」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「八月,楙爲平東,督徐州;九月,繇復爵。」按《楙傳》,「繇爲僕射,舉楙爲平東」,故移在繇還後。〉

(Sima Yao's demotion to a commoner and exile to Daifeng is mentioned in Book 82, in the first year of Yuankang (291.12).

Some versions add that Sima Mao was also appointed as "General Who Pacifies The East".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'In the eighth month, Sima Mao was appointed as General Who Pacifies The East and Commander of Xuzhou.' It then states, 'In the ninth month, Sima Yao was restored to his original fief.' But according to the Biography of Sima Mao in the Book of Jin, 'When Sima Yao was Supervisor, he recommended Sima Mao as General Who Pacifies The East.' So I have placed this event after Sima Yao's return from exile.")


初,朝廷符下秦、雍州,使召還流民入蜀者,又遣御史馮該、張昌督之。李特兄輔自略陽至蜀,言中國方亂,不足復還。特然之,累遣天水閻式詣羅尚求權停至秋,又納賂於尚及馮該;尚、該許之。朝廷論討趙廞功,拜特宣威將軍,弟流奮武將軍,皆封侯。璽書下益州,條列六郡流民與特同討廞者,將加封賞。廣漢太守辛冉欲以滅廞爲己功,寢朝命,不以實上;衆咸怨之。

38. Now in the midst of all the tumult going on around the capital, the court had felt that the situation in Qinzhou and Yongzhou had been sufficiently resolved. So they sent notice that the refugees from those places who had gone into the Shu region were to return to their former homes, and they dispatched the Imperial Secretaries, Feng Gai and Zhang Chang, to oversee the refugees' return. At that time, Li Te's elder brother Li Fu also arrived in Shu from Lueyang. He told the people that the Central Plains were in the midst of great turmoil, and they could not go back north yet. Li Te believed him, so he sent Yan Shi of Tianshui to visit Luo Shang and ask that the refugees be allowed to remain where they were until autumn arrived. He also sent bribes to Luo Shang and to Feng Gai. Luo Shang and Feng Gai gave their permission for the refugees to stay.

When the court discussed who had achieved merits in the suppression of Zhao Xin's rebellion, they appointed Li Te as General Who Displays Might and his younger brother Li Liu as General Who Exerts Valor, and both of them were named Marquises. When the seals and letters regarding these appointments reached Yizhou, others among the refugees of the six commandaries who had also helped Li Te to put down Zhao Xin expected that they would receive ranks and rewards as well. But the Administrator of Guanghan, Xin Ran, felt that he deserved the real credit for having defeated Zhao Xin, so he prevented the imperial order from being carried out, and he did not reward anyone else either. This caused all of the refugees to resent him.

〈寢封拜特、流之命也。〉〈所條列者,不以實上。〉〈六郡之衆也。〉

(Xin Ran did not implement the order appointing Li Te and Li Liu to their ranks and titles. The other refugee leaders were not rewarded either. The people who thus resented him were the refugees of the six commandaries.)


李流字玄通,特第四子也。少好學,便弓馬,東羌校尉何攀稱流有賁、育之勇,舉為東羌校尉,平趙廞于成都。晉朝論功,拜奮威將軍,封武陽侯。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms (Li Liu))

Li Liu, styled Xuantong, was Li Te’s fourth younger brother. As a young man, he was well-educated, and also proficient at archery and riding. The Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes, He Pan, claimed that Li Liu had the same valor as the ancient heroes Meng Ben and Xia Yu. Li Liu was nominated as Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes, and he conquered Zhao Xin at Chengdu. When the Jin court discussed the merits for putting down Zhao Xin’s rebellion, they appointed Li Liu as General Who Exerts Might and Marquis of Wuyang.

尋有符下秦、雍州,凡流人入漢川者,皆下所在召還。特兄輔素留鄉里,托言迎家,既至蜀,謂特曰:「中國方亂,不足復還,」特以為然,乃有雄據巴、蜀之意。朝廷以討趙廞功,拜特宣威將軍,封長樂鄉侯,流為奮威將軍、武陽侯。璽書下益州,條列六郡流人與特協同討廞者,將加封賞。會辛冉以非次見征,不顧應召,又欲以滅廞為己功,乃寢朝命,不以實上。眾咸怨之。(Book of Jin 120)

An order soon arrived from the court that all the refugees from Qinzhou and Yongzhou who had gone into the region of the Han River basin were to return to their former homes. Li Te’s elder brother Li Fu had remained in their homeland in Lueyang all this time, and he was asked to go and collect his family as well. But when he arrived in Shu, he told Li Te, “ The Middle Kingdom is in the midst of great turmoil, and you cannot go back north yet.” Li Te believed him, so he intended to boldly occupy the regions of Ba and Shu for himself.

As reward for his merits in putting down Zhao Xin’s rebellion, Li Te was appointed as General Who Displays Might and Marquis of Changle Village by the court, and Li Liu was appointed as General Who Exerts Might and Marquis of Wuyang. When the seals and letters regarding these appointments reached Yizhou, others among the refugees of the six commandaries who had also helped Li Te to put down Zhao Xin expected that they would receive ranks and rewards as well. But since Xin Mao wished to claim credit for defeating Zhao Xin for himself, despite not having participated in the campaign against him or responding to the summons, he tabled the imperial order and prevented it from being carried out. This caused all of the refugees to resent him.

庠為廞所殺,流從特安慰流人,破常俊於綿竹,平趙廞于成都。朝廷論功,拜奮威將軍,封武陽侯。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

After Li Xiáng was killed by Zhao Xin, Li Liu followed Li Te and settled and reassured the refugees. He routed Chang Jun at Mianzhu, and conquered Zhao Xin at Chengdu. When the court discussed the merits for putting down Zhao Xin’s rebellion, they appointed Li Liu as General Who Exerts Might and Marquis of Wuyang.


羅尚遣從事督遣流民,限七月上道。時流民布在梁、益,爲人傭力,聞州郡逼遣,人人愁怨,不知所爲;且水潦方盛,年穀未登,無以爲行資。特復遣閻式詣尚,求停至冬;辛冉及犍爲太守李苾以爲不可。尚舉別駕杜弢秀才,式爲弢說逼移利害,弢亦欲寬流民一年;尚用冉、苾之謀,不從;弢乃致秀才板,出還家。冉性貪暴,欲殺流民首領,取其資貨,乃與苾白尚,言:「流民前因趙廞之亂,多所剽掠,宜因移設關以奪取之。」尚移書梓潼太守張演,於諸要施關,搜索寶貨。

39. Luo Shang sent out his Attendant Officers to oversee the refugees, planning to have them start back for the north as soon as autumn arrived in the seventh month. But at that time, the refugees were all spread out throughout Lianzhou and Yizhou, working as hired hands for the people. When they heard that the provinces and commandaries were going to force them to return, they were all anxious and resentful, not knowing what they would do. Furthermore, the rivers of the region were all greatly swollen by rains, while the yearly harvest had not been gathered yet. No one believed that they would have the means to undertake the journey north.

Li Te sent Yan Shi to visit Luo Shang again, asking that the refugees now be permitted to remain until winter. But Xin Ran and the Administrator of Jianwei, Li Bi, felt that this could not be permitted. Luo Shang had nominated a certain Du Tao of Shu commandary as an Abundant Talent candidate, and Yan Shi also spoke to Du Tao, listing the disparities in advantages and disadvantages that would come about if the refugees were compelled to journey north again now. Convinced by this, Du Tao wanted to extend the refugees a full year's grace period, but Luo Shang was more inclined to listen to Xin Ran and Li Bi, and he would not heed Du Tao's advice. In protest, Du Tao returned his Abundant Talent slate and went back home.

Xin Ran had a greedy and fierce nature, and he wished to kill the leaders of the refugees and take away all of their goods. So he and Li Bi reported to Luo Shang, saying, "The refugees engaged in much plundering earlier during Zhao Xin's rebellion. You ought to send out notice to construct checkpoints, so as to claim their stolen goods."

So Luo Shang wrote a letter to the Administrator of Zitong, Zhang Yan, ordering him to build such checkpoints at key locations and to confiscate any treasures that the refugees possessed.

〈【章:甲十一行本「杜」上有「蜀都」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈送至爲致。〉〈移,卽移書也。流民安於蜀土,雖以朝命驅使還本,猶恐其不去,況欲設關以奪取其資財,是速之爲亂也。〉〈蜀劉氏分廣漢立梓潼郡。諸要者,凡路所通,其地當往來之津要者。施關者,先未嘗立關,今特設之。〉

(Some versions add that Du Tao was "of Shu commandary".

Du Tao returned his slate in protest.

To "send out notice" was to send out letters ordering the local officials to prepare the walls and gates.

By this time, the refugees were already settled in the territory of Shu. Even when the court sent an order commanding them to quickly return to their original homes, they were still afraid and they would not move. How much worse of a policy was it to build walls and gates to contain them as a means to plunder them of their valuables? Turmoil soon followed.

Shu-Han had split off part of Guanghan commandary to form Zitong commandary.

The "key locations" were places along the roads where any flow of traffic in or out of that region could be controlled. Walls and gates had never before been erected at these places; they were being built now for this particular purpose.)


羅尚遣從事催遣流人,限七月上道,辛冉性貪暴,欲殺流人首領,取其資貨,乃移檄發遣。又令梓潼太守張演于諸要施關,搜索寶貨。特等固請,求至秋收。流人布在梁、益,為人傭力,及聞州郡逼遣,人人愁怨,不知所為。羅尚遣從事催遣流人,限七月上道,辛冉性貪暴,欲殺流人首領,取其資貨,乃移檄發遣。又令梓潼太守張演于諸要施關,搜索寶貨。特等固請,求至秋收。流人布在梁、益,為人傭力,及聞州郡逼遣,人人愁怨,不知所為。又知特兄弟頻請求停,皆感而恃之。且水雨將降,年穀未登,流人無以為行資,遂相與詣特。(Book of Jin 120)

Luo Shang sent out his Attendant Officers to hurry along the refugees, planning to have them start back for the north as soon as autumn arrived in the seventh month. Xin Ran had a greedy and fierce nature, and he wished to kill the leaders of the refugees and take away all of their goods. So he had many proclamations sent out. And he ordered the Administrator of Zitong, Zhang Yan, to build gates at key locations and to confiscate any treasures that the refugees possessed.

Li Te and the others asked for leniency, requesting that they be given until autumn to collect the people together. The refugees were all spread out throughout Lianzhou and Yizhou, working as hired hands for the people. When they heard that the provinces and commandaries were going to force them to return, they were all anxious and resentful, not knowing what they would do.

They also knew that Li Te and his brothers had frequently asked for the relocation order to be halted, and so the refugees all appreciated him and relied upon him. Furthermore, the rivers of the region were all greatly swollen by rains, while the yearly harvest had not been gathered yet. The refugees had no means to sustain themselves during any proposed relocation trip, and they all came to visit Li Te.

御史馮該、張昌攝秦、雍州從事,督移還流民,〔當〕徙者萬餘家。而特兄輔素留鄉里,託言迎家,「即」既至蜀,因謂特曰:「中國亂,不足還。」特遣天水閻式累詣尚,求弛領校,權停至秋。並進貨賂於尚、該。許之。及秋,又求至冬。辛冉、李苾以為不可,必欲移之。式為別駕杜弢說逼移利害。弢亦欲寬迸民一年。辛冉、李苾以為不可,尚從之。弢致秀才板出,還家,知計謀不行故也。時何義門過錄有白虹,頭在井里,尾在東山,拖「太」大城上。治中從事巴西馬休問閻式曰:「此何祥也?」式曰:「占言下有萬屍氣。甚迫於城,非佳應。天孽可違乎?平西若能寬迸民,災自消矣。」冉、苾又白尚:「流民前廞亂際,多所枉沒。宜因移,設關以奪取。」秋七月,尚移書梓潼,所在抱關。八月,關皆城。(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

The Imperial Secretaries, Feng Gai and Zhang Chang, assumed command for dealing with the affairs of Qinzhou and Yongzhou, and oversaw the return of the refugees back to their homelands, planning to move more than ten thousand such refugee families.

Li Te's elder brother Li Fu had remained in their homeland in the north all this time, and they trusted him to go and welcome his family back. But when Li Fu arrived in Shu, he told Li Te, "The Middle Kingdom is in turmoil; we cannot go back yet."

So Li Te sent Yan Shi of Tianshui to visit Luo Shang several times and ask for a relaxing of the order to return and that he allow the refugees to remain where they were until autumn arrived. He also sent bribes to Luo Shang and to Feng Gai. Luo Shang and Feng Gai gave their permission for the refugees to stay.

When autumn came, Li Te further asked for an extension until winter. But Xin Mao and Li Bi felt that this could not be done, and they wanted to ensure the refugees would depart. Yan Shi also spoke to the Abundant Talent candidate Du Tao, listing the disparities in advantages and disadvantages that would come about if the refugees were compelled to journey north again now. Convinced by this, Du Tao wanted to extend the refugees a full year's grace period, but Xin Mao and Li Bi believed that could not be done, and Luo Shang followed their advice. In protest, Du Tao returned his Abundant Talent slate (or board) and went back home, knowing that his plans could not be put into effect (or, carried out).

At this time, there was a white rainbow that passed through the Heyi Gate; its head was inside a well, while its tail was in the eastern hills, and it stretched across Chengdu's Greater City. The Attendant Officer of 治中, Ma Xiu of Baxi, asked Yan Shi, "Is this an auspicious sign?"

Yan Shi replied, "It is an omen that leaves an aura of ten thousand corpses beneath it. It poses a great threat to the city, not at all favorable. Can a disaster sent by Heaven be averted? But if the General Who Pacifies The West (Luo Shang) can be magnanimous to the people, then this calamity will pass of its own accord."

Xin Mao and Li Bi now said to Luo Shang, "During the chaos of Zhao Xin's rebellion earlier, many of the refugees plundered. Since you are moving them, you should construct checkpoints to take away their stolen goods."

In autumn, the seventh month, Luo Shang sent out notices to Zitong, ordering checkpoints to be built. By the eighth month, they had all been erected.

督: 此下,元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》及浙補刻本衍郵字。還: 元豐本及浙補刻本作遷。〔當〕徙: 元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》及浙補刻本並作從。茲依廖本,并補當字。託: 元豐與劉、李、廖本作託。錢、《函》作記。板: 錢寫作版。行: 劉、李本作可。《函海》注:「惠校云:可一作行。」(HYGZ Commentary)

In the phrase 督移還流民 "they oversaw the return of the refugees back to their homelands", the Yuanfeng and Qian, Liu, Li, 函, and Zhe editions redundantly add in the character 郵 after 督. And the Yuanfeng and Zhe editions write the character 還 "return" as 遷 "move". In the subsequent phrase 〔當〕徙 "planning to move", the Yuanfeng and Qian, Liu, Li, 函, and Zhe editions have combined these two characters into the single character 徙 "move, relocate". But following the example of the Liao edition, I have reinserted the 當 character. Regarding the word 託 "trusting", the Yuanfeng and Liu, Li and Liao editions write the character as such, while the Qian and 函 editions write it as 記 "recording". Regarding Du Tao's 板 "slate", the Qian edition writes this character as 版 "board". Regarding the phrase 計謀不行 "his plans could not be put into effect", the Li edition writes the character 行 "into effect" as 可 "carried out". The 函海 notes that "the 惠校 states that the character 可 can also be 行.


特數爲流民請留,流民皆感而恃之,多相帥歸特。特乃結大營於綿竹以處流民,移辛冉求自寬。冉大怒,遣人分牓通衢,購募特兄弟,許以重賞。特見之,悉取以歸,與弟驤改其購云:「能送六郡酋豪李、任、閻、趙、上官及氐、叟侯王一首,賞百匹。」於是流民大懼,歸特者愈衆,旬月間過二萬人。流亦聚衆數千人。

40. By now, since Li Te had argued several times on behalf of the refugees asking that they be allowed to stay, the refugees all began to depend on him, and many groups of them led one another to Li Te, seeing him as their natural leader. With so many people coming to him, Li Te built a great camp at Mianzhu in order to organize the refugees.

Li Te continued to appeal to Xin Ran to show leniency to him. Xin Ran was greatly angered, and he had notices posted up along all the roads listing a bounty on Li Te and his brothers, offering great rewards. When Li Te saw the notices, he gathered them up to edit them, and he and his younger brother Li Xiang changed the words to state, "Whoever can bring us the heads of one of the leaders of the great clans of the six commandaries, whether Li, Ren, Yan, Zhao, Yang, Shangguan, or one of the nobles of the Di or Sou peoples, will be rewarded with a hundred bolts of silk."

This caused the refugees to be greatly afraid, and so even more of them came to join Li Te. Within the space of a month, Li Te had more than twenty thousand people with him, and Li Liu also gathered several thousand people.

〈【章:甲十一行本「酋」作「之」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈【章:甲十一行本「上」上有「楊」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈蜀叟自是一種。〉

(Some versions include the character 之 between "leaders" and "of the great families". And some versions include "Yang" as one of the great clans of the six commandaries.

The Sou people of Shu were another branch of people.)


特乃結大營於綿竹,以處流人,移冉求自寬。冉大怒,遣人分榜通逵,購募特兄弟,許以重賞。特見,大懼,悉取以歸,與驤改其購云:「能送六郡之豪李、任、閻、趙、楊、上官及氐、叟侯王一首,賞百匹。」流人既不樂移,咸往歸特,騁馬屬鞬,同聲雲集,旬月間眾過二萬。流亦聚眾數千。(Book of Jin 120)

So Li Te formed a great camp at Mianzhu in order to manage the refugees, and he appealed to Xin Mao’s magnanimity. Xin Mao was enraged, and he had notices posted up along all the roads listing a bounty on Li Te and his brothers, offering great rewards. When Li Te saw the notices, he was greatly afraid. He gathered up the notices to edit them, and he and his younger brother Li Xiang changed the words to state, “Whoever can bring us the heads of one of the leaders of the great clans of the six commandaries, whether Li, Ren, Yan, Zhao, Yang, Shangguan, or one of the nobles of the Di or Sou peoples, will be rewarded with a hundred bolts of silk.”

Since the refugees were unhappy at being forced to move, they all came to Li Te, with galloping horses and filled quivers, with one sound like a gathering of clouds. Within the space of a month, Li Te had more than twenty thousand people with him, and Li Liu also gathered several thousand people.

九月,遣軍軍綿竹,揚言種麥,實備越逸。冉又購特、流首百匹。特、驤悉更其購云:「能送六郡大姓閻、趙、任、楊、李、上官及氐叟梁、竇、符、隗、董、費等首百匹。」流民本無還意,大驚駭,趣特。(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

In the ninth month, Luo Shang sent out an army to Mianzhu. This was ostensibly for collecting grain, but really to guard against the flight of the refugees.

Xin Mao also offered a bounty of a hundred bolts for Li Te and Li Liu. Li Te and Li Xiang edited all the bounty notices to read, "Whoever can bring us the heads of one of the leaders of the great clans of the six commandaries, whether Yan, Zhao, Ren, Yang, Li, Shangguan, or one of the nobles of the Di or Sou peoples, whether Liang, Dou, Fu, Kui, Dong, Fei, or others, will be rewarded with a hundred bolts.” The refugees had no intention of returning, and they were very shocked and afraid, so they flocked to Li Te.


特又遣閻式詣羅尚求申期,式見營栅衝要,謀揜流民,歎曰:「民心方危,今而速之,亂將作矣。」又知辛冉、李苾意不可回,乃辭尚還緜竹。尚謂式曰:「子且以吾意告諸流民,今聽寬矣。」式曰:「明公惑於姦說,恐無寬理。弱而不可輕者民也,今趣之不以理,衆怒難犯,恐爲禍不淺。」尚曰:「然。吾不欺子,子其行矣!」式至緜竹,言於特曰:「尚雖云爾,然未可信也。何者?尚威刑不立,冉等各擁強兵,一旦爲變,亦非尚所能制,深宜爲備。」特從之。冬,十月,特分爲二營,特居北營,流居東營,繕甲厲兵,戒嚴以待之。

41. Li Te once again sent Yan Shi to see Luo Shang to ask for an extension for the refugees. When Yan Shi saw the camps and barriers that had been set up on the roads and in important places, and heard the discussions of how to contain the refugees, he lamented, "The people's hearts were already in peril, and this will only speed things along. Chaos will break out before long."

And Yan Shi knew that Xin Ran and Li Bi were of a mind to not let him return again. So he told Luo Shang that he would be returning to Mianzhu.

Luo Shang said to him, "Sir, when you convey my words to the refugees, I hope we shall soon hear of peace and contentment."

Yan Shi replied, "Your Excellency, you have been misleading people with such wild talk that I fear there will be no cause for peace. The refugees may be weak, but they are not to be underestimated. But now you try to contain them like this for no reason. As it is said, 'it is difficult to go against the anger of all the crowd'. I fear the coming disaster will be serious indeed."

Luo Shang replied, "It may be so. Sir, I shall not force you; you are free to go."

When Yan Shi returned to Mianzhu, he said to Li Te, "Although Luo Shang claims such things, he still cannot be trusted. How could he be? His power and authority are not established, and Xin Ran and the others each command strong bodies of soldiers. Everything could change overnight, and Luo Shang would not be able to control the situation. We must prepare ourselves."

Li Te heeded his advice. In winter, the tenth month, Li Te split his original camp into two; he remained with the northern camp, while Li Liu oversaw the eastern camp. They maintained their armor and drilled their soldiers, staying in strict readiness for whatever might happen.

〈申,重也;求重爲期限,使流民得自寬也。〉〈《左傳》鄭子產之言。〉〈閻式已覘知冉等之情。〉

(The term 申 in this passage means "again"; that is, Li Te was asking for another extension of the timeline for when the refugees would be compelled to return north again.

The phrase "'it is difficult to go against the anger of all the crowd" is a quote from Zichan of the state of Zheng, in the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals (Xiang 10.8).

Yan Shi could already grasp the feelings of Xin Ran and the others.)


物乃分為二營,特居北營,流居東營。特遣閻式詣羅尚,求申期。式既至,見冉營柵沖要,謀掩流人,歎曰:「無寇而城,仇必保焉。今而速之,亂將作矣!」又知冉及李苾意不可回,乃辭尚還綿竹。尚謂式曰:「子且以吾意告諸流人,今聽寬矣。」式曰:「明公惑於奸說,恐無寬理。弱而不可輕者百姓也,今促之不以理,眾怒難犯,恐為禍不淺。」尚曰:「然。吾不欺子,子其行矣。」式至綿竹,言於特曰:「尚雖云爾,然未可必信也。何者?尚威刑不立,冉等各擁強兵,一旦為變,亦非尚所能制,深宜為備。」特納之。(Book of Jin 120)

Li Te split his camp into two halves; he himself resided in the northern camp, while Li Liu resided in the eastern camp.

Li Te sent Yan Shi to see Luo Shang to ask for an extension for the refugees. When Yan Shi arrived and saw the camps and barriers that Xin Mao had set up on the roads and in important places, and heard the discussions of how to contain the refugees, he lamented, “There are no invaders, and yet these walls are being raised, as though they are needed for defense against some enemy. This will only speed things along. Chaos will break out before long.” And Yan Shi knew that Xin Ran and Li Bi were of a mind to not let him return again. So he told Luo Shang that he would be returning to Mianzhu.

Luo Shang said to him, “Sir, when you convey my words to the refugees, I hope we shall soon hear of peace and contentment.”

Yan Shi replied, “Your Excellency, you have been misleading people with such wild talk that I fear there will be no cause for peace. The common people may be weak, but they are not to be underestimated. But now you try to contain them like this for no reason. As it is said, 'it is difficult to go against the anger of all the crowd’. I fear the coming disaster will be serious indeed.”

Luo Shang replied, “It may be so. Sir, I shall not force you; you are free to go.”

When Yan Shi returned to Mianzhu, he said to Li Te, “Although Luo Shang claims such things, he still cannot necessarily be trusted. How could he be? His power and authority are not established, and Xin Ran and the others each command strong bodies of soldiers. Everything could change overnight, and Luo Shang would not be able to control the situation. We truly must prepare ourselves.”

Li Te heeded his advice.


冉、苾相與謀曰:「羅侯貪而無斷,日復一日,令流民得展姦計。李特兄弟並有雄才,吾屬將爲所虜矣!宜爲決計,羅侯不足復問也。」乃遣廣漢都尉曾元、牙門張顯、劉並等潛帥步騎三萬襲特營;羅尚聞之,亦遣督護田佐助元。元等至,特安臥不動,待其衆半入,發伏擊之,死者甚衆。殺田佐、曾元、張顯,傳首以示尚、冉。尚謂將佐曰:「此虜成去矣,而廣漢不用吾言以張賊勢,今若之何!」

42. Xin Ran and Li Bi plotted with one another, saying, "Marquis Luo may be greedy, but he cannot make up his mind. He lets the days pass by one after another, as all the while, those refugees continue to develop their wicked plans. Li Te and his brothers are bold and talented fellows; we will all become his slaves sooner or later! Better for us to carry out our own plan at once and so decide the matter once and for all. There is no point in talking to Marquis Luo about it first."

So they sent the Commandant of Guanghan, Ceng Yuan, the General of the Standard, Zhang Xian, Liu Bing, and others to lead thirty thousand horse and foot on a surprise attack against Li Te's camp. When Luo Shang heard that these commanders were already on the move, he sent the Protector Tian Zuo to assist Ceng Yuan too.

When Ceng Yuan and the others arrived at Li Te's camp, Li Te was resting peacefully and did not stir himself. He waited until half of the enemies had poured into his camp. Then he launched an ambush to attack them, and a great number of the enemy soldiers were killed. Li Te killed Tian Zuo, Ceng Yuan, and Zhang Xian, and sent their heads as a warning to Luo Shang and Xin Ran.

Luo Shang said to his generals, "Those slaves were just on the point of leaving, yet Xin Ran ignored what I had said, and now the bandits' strength has only grown. How could things have come to this?"

〈欲一戰以決之也。〉〈謂特雖求申行期,而去計已成也。〉〈辛冉爲廣漢太守,故稱之。尚言冉輕用兵,爲特所敗,使其勢愈張也。〉

(Xin Ran and Li Bi wanted to decide things through a single battle.

Luo Shang identifies Xin Ran here as "Guanghan". Xin Ran was the Administrator of Guanghan, which was why Luo Shang called him this.

Luo Shang was saying that although Li Te had been asking for another extension, the plans for making the refugees leave had already been completed. He further meant that Xin Ran had rashly used soldiers against the refugees, and in being defeated by Li Te, he had merely strengthened the power of Li Te’s forces.)


冉、苾相與謀曰:「羅侯貪而無斷,日復一日,流人得展奸計。李特兄弟並有雄才,吾屬將為豎子虜矣。宜為決計,不足復問之。」乃遣廣漢都尉曾元、牙門張顯、劉並等潛率步騎三萬襲特營。羅尚聞之,亦遣督護田佐助元。特素知之,乃繕甲厲兵,戒嚴以待之。元等至,特安臥不動,待其眾半入,發伏擊之,殺傷者甚眾,害田佐、曾元、張顯,傳首以示尚、冉。尚謂將佐曰:「此虜成去矣,而廣漢不用吾言,以張賊勢,今將若之何!」(Book of Jin 120)

Xin Ran and Li Bi plotted with one another, saying, “Marquis Luo may be greedy, but he cannot make up his mind. He lets the days pass by one after another, and all the while, those refugees continue to develop their wicked plans. Li Te and his brothers are bold and talented fellows; we will all become his slaves sooner or later! Better for us to carry out our own plan at once and so decide the matter once and for all. There is no point in talking to Marquis Luo about it first.”

So they sent the Commandant of Guanghan, Ceng Yuan, the Generals of the Standard, Zhang Xian and Liu Bing, and others to lead thirty thousand horse and foot on a surprise attack against Li Te’s camp. When Luo Shang heard that these commanders were already on the move, he sent the Protector Tian Zuo to assist Ceng Yuan too.

But Li Te had long known what they were plotting, and so he had been maintaining his armor and drilling his soldiers, staying in strict readiness for whatever might happen. When Ceng Yuan and the others arrived at Li Te’s camp, Li Te was resting peacefully and did not stir himself. He waited until half of the enemies had poured into his camp. Then he launched an ambush to attack them, and a great number of the enemy soldiers were killed. Li Te killed Tian Zuo, Ceng Yuan, and Zhang Xian, and sent their heads as a warning to Luo Shang and Xin Ran.

Luo Shang said to his generals, “Those slaves were just on the point of leaving, yet the Administrator of Guanghan (Xin Ran) ignored what I had said, and now the bandits’ strength has only grown. How could things have come to this?”

辛冉遣護軍曾元攻之,為特所殺。尚遣督護田佐、牙門劉並助冉,復敗。(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

Xin Mao sent the Army Protector Ceng Yuan to attack Li Te, but Li Te killed him. Luo Shang sent the Protector Tian Zuo and the General of the Standard, Liu Bing, to assist Xin Mao, but they were also defeated.


於是六郡流民共推特行鎭北大將軍,承制封拜;以其弟流行鎭東大將軍,號東督護,以相鎭統;又以兄輔爲驃騎將軍,弟驤爲驍騎將軍,進兵攻冉於廣漢。尚遣李苾、費遠帥衆救冉,畏特,不敢進。冉出戰屢敗,潰圍奔德陽。特入據廣漢,以李超爲太守,進兵攻尚於成都。尚以書諭閻式,式復書曰:「辛冉傾巧,曾元小豎,李叔平非將帥之才。式前爲節下及杜景文論留、徙之宜。人懷桑梓,孰不願之!但往日初至,隨穀庸賃,一室五分,復值秋潦,乞須冬熟,而終不見聽。繩之太過,窮鹿抵虎,流民不肯延頸受刀,以致爲變。卽聽式言,寬使治嚴,不過去九月盡集,十月進道,令達鄕里,何有如此也!」

43. The refugees of the six commandaries, Li Han and others, all now acclaimed Li Te as acting Grand General Who Guards The North, with authority to enforce systems and grant appointments. Li Te appointed his younger brother Li Liu as acting Grand General Who Guards The East, and named him Protector of the East. Li Te and Li Liu collaborated in the protection and leadership of the people. Li Te also appointed his elder brother Li Fu as General of Agile Cavalry, and his younger brother Li Xiang as General of Fierce Cavalry.

Li Te's army advanced to attack Xin Ran at Guanghan County. Luo Shang sent Li Bi and Fei Yuan to lead troops to reinforce Xin Ran, but they feared Li Te and did not dare to advance. Xin Ran marched out to battle, but was defeated several times. He broke out of the encirclement and fled to Deyang County. Li Te entered Guanghan and occupied it, appointing Li Chao as the new Administrator.

His soldiers then advanced to attack Luo Shang at Chengdu.

Luo Shang sent a letter of instructions to Yan Shi. Yan Shi wrote back to him stating, "Xin Ran was inclined towards deceit, Ceng Yuan was a meager fellow, and Li Shuping (Li Bi) lacked the abilities to command an army. I warned you and Du Jingwen (Du Tao) before about what ought to have been done regarding letting the refugees stay or forcing them to return. Now people cherish their homelands, and who did not wish to see it again? But from since the first day we arrived in this region, the people had to go wherever they could find food and work, and a single family split into five parts. Furthermore, the autumn rains are upon us. We begged that we might be allowed until the midst of winter, but in the end, you would not heed our pleas.

“You pressed on, until you went too far. Even a weakened deer can fight off a tiger. The refugees were not willing to stretch out their necks for you to sink your blades into, and that is why the situation has come to this. If you had listened to my words before, extended grace to the refugees and prepared properly for their needs, you could have had everything in readiness before the ninth month was out, and they would have all been on the roads during the tenth month, each going back to their own counties and villages. Why did you do things like this instead?"

〈【章:甲十一行本「民」下有「李含等」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈廣漢郡治廣漢縣,後宋置遂寧郡,齊、梁加「東」字。後魏改廣漢縣爲方義縣;後周改東遂寧爲遂州,方義爲遂州治所。〉〈德陽縣,後漢置,屬廣漢郡;至唐,屬劍州。〉〈李苾,字叔平。〉〈晉人稱方面專征之將率曰節下。杜弢,字景文。〉〈桑梓,祖父之所樹以遺子孫者;故謂懷故鄕者爲懷桑梓。〉〈謂往日流民初至蜀之時,無以自給,隨所往逐糧,出力爲人傭作。賃,亦傭也。〉〈潦,雨水大貌。〉〈卽,就也。治嚴,猶云治裝也。〉〈日月已過者爲去。〉

(Some versions specify "Li Han and others" as particular people among the refugees who acclaimed Li Te.

Guanghan commandary administered Guanghan County. Liu-Song established that place as Suining commandary, and Qi and Liang changed it to Eastern Suining commandary. Northern Wei changed Guanghan County to Fangyi County, and Northern Zhou changed Eastern Suining to Suizhou. Fangyi County was administered by this Suizhou.

Deyang County was created during Later Han, as part of Guanghan commandary. During Tang, it was part of Jianzhou.

Li Bi's style name was Shuping. Du Tao's style name was Jingwen.

Yan Shi addresses Luo Shang in this letter as 節下. This was a term that the people of Jin used to address generals leading armies at border commands.

The term "mulberries and catalbas" is here used metaphorically to mean "homeland". The literal meaning comes from the trees planted by one's forefathers as legacies to leave behind to their descendants. For that reason, it is a term used to mean a cherished homeland.

Yan Shi was saying that when the refugees first arrived in Shu, they had no means to support themselves, so they had to go wherever there was grain available, spending their strength in working on behalf of others. The term 賃 also means a servant or laborer.

The term 潦 means the appearance of great storms.

卽 in this passage is meant in the sense of "if you had just". "Prepared properly" means prepared the needed supplies for the refugees' journey.

A day or a month that has already ended is said to have "gone out".)


於是六郡流人推特為主。特命六郡人部曲督李含、上邽令任臧、始昌令閻式、諫議大夫李攀、陳倉令李武、陰平令李遠、將兵都尉楊褒等上書,請依梁統奉竇融故事,推特行鎮北大將軍,承制封拜,其弟流行鎮東將軍,以相鎮統。於是進兵攻冉於廣漢。冉眾出戰,特每破之。尚遣李苾及費遠率眾救冉,憚特不敢進。冉智力既窘,出奔江陽。特入據廣漢,以李超為太守,進兵攻尚于成都。閻式遺尚書,責其信用讒構,欲討流人,又陳特兄弟立功王室,以寧益土。尚覽書,知特等將有大志,嬰城固守,求救于梁、寧二州。(Book of Jin 120)

The refugees of the six commandaries all now acclaimed Li Te as their leader. Li Te ordered the divisional leader of the people of the six commandaries, Li Han, the Prefect of Shanggui, Ren Zang, the Prefect of Shichang, Yan Shi, the Grandee Remonstrant, Li Pan, the Prefect of Chencang, Li Wu, the Prefect of Yinping, Li Yuan, the Commandant of Soldiers, Yang Bao, and others to send up a letter to the court in Luoyang, asking that Li Te be allowed to assume command of Lianzhou, following the example of Dou Rong of former times. These people all acclaimed Li Te as acting Grand General Who Guards The North, with authority to make his own appointments. They also acclaimed Li Liu as acting General Who Guards The East, and Li Te and Li Liu collaborated in the protection and leadership of the people.

Li Te led his soldiers to advance and attack Xin Mao at Guanghan. Xin Ran marched out to battle, but Li Te always routed him. Luo Shang sent Li Bi and Fei Yuan to lead troops to reinforce Xin Ran, but they feared Li Te and did not dare to advance. With Xin Mao’s intelligence exhausted, he broke out and fled to Jiangyang. Li Te entered Guanghan and occupied it, appointing Li Chao as the new Administrator.

His soldiers then advanced to attack Luo Shang at Chengdu. Yan Shi sent a letter to Luo Shang, blaming him for trusting in and using slander and fabrications and wanting to campaign against the refugees, and defending the actions of Li Te and his brothers as achieving merits on behalf of the Jin royal family, in order to bring peace to Yizhou. Luo Shang reflected upon this letter and realized that Li Te and the others had great ambitions indeed. So he withdrew into the city to hold out, and asked for reinforcements from Lianzhou and Ningzhou.

〔特等〕進圍廣漢。尚復遣犍為太守李苾、長史費遠助冉,不能克。冉託罪於綿竹令南郡岐苞,斬之,而潰圍走德陽。特等得廣漢,詐為表奏,稱引梁統推舉竇融故事,以自貴大。尚書檄告喻閻式。式答曰:「辛冉傾巧。「杜景」〔張顯〕曾元小豎。田佐血氣不治。李叔平「才經廊廟」無將帥之氣,討羸「之」乏羌,謂可長爾。式前為節下及杜景文論留徙之宜:人懷桑梓,孰不願之。但往初至,隨穀庸賃,一室五分。復值雨潦。乞須冬熟,而不見聽。必窮鹿抵虎。但恐繩之「大」太迸民不肯延頸受刃,其憂在後。即聽式言,寬使治嚴,不過去九月,盡集,十月「坐」進道,「令」〔今〕達鄉里。何有如此也?雅聽未察,卹彼過言。今辛冉奴亡,叔平長遯,支分勢解,事漸及己。所謂不寤曲突遠薪,而有焦爛之客也。」(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

(Li Te and the other refugees) advanced and besieged Guanghan. So Luo Shang further sent the Administrator of Jianwei, Li Bi, and his Chief Clerk, Fei Yuan, to assist Xin Mao, but they were unsuccessful. Xin Mao pinned the blame for his crimes on the Prefect of Mianzhu, Qi Bao of Nanjun, and beheaded him, then broke out of the encirclement and fled to Deyang.

Li Te and the others then captured Guanghan, where they falsely claimed to have a petition authorizing their actions, drawing upon the precedent of when Liang Tong acclaimed Dou Rong, in order to (greatly) glorify themselves.

Luo Shang (himself) wrote a letter to Yan Shi listing his instructions. Yan Shi's reply stated, "Xin Ran was inclined towards deceit, and Zhang Xian (or Du Jing) and Ceng Yuan were meager fellows. Tian Zuo was too hot-blooded to manage, and Li Shuping (Li Bi) lacked the spirit to command an army. Just because they campaigned against some weak and weary Qiang tribes before, they claimed to be worthy. I warned you and Du Jingwen (Du Tao) before about what ought to have been done regarding letting the refugees stay or forcing them to return. Now people cherish their homelands, and who did not wish to see it again? But since (the first day) we arrived in this region, the people had to go wherever they could find food and work, and a single family split into five parts. Furthermore, the autumn rains are upon us. We begged that we might be allowed until the midst of winter, but in the end, you would heed not our pleas. Even a (or, you are surely making a) weakened deer (can) fight off a tiger. I fear that you pressed on, until you went too far. The refugees were not willing to stretch out their necks for you to sink your blades (or swords) into, and that is why the situation has come to this. If you had listened to my words before, extended grace to the refugees and prepared properly for their needs, you could have had everything in readiness before the ninth month was out; they would have all been on the roads during the tenth month, and they would now be back in their own counties and villages. Why did you do things like this instead? You rashly listened to reports without investigating further, and you put your trust in their excessive claims. Now Xin Mao has fled like a slave, and Shuping has run far away. Your pillars of support have already fallen, and the whole affair is just about finished. It is as they say: unless you shut away the fireplace and move the kindling away, you will end up with burnt guests ere long."

貴大: 元豐與廖本、浙補刻本及顧觀光校補,無大字。劉、李、《函海》有。尚: 此下當有一自字。〔張顯〕: 按《晉書‧載記》,當作張顯,舊本並訛。狂發。《通鑑》引刪此句。「才經廊廟」: 四字當刪,說在注釋。無將帥之氣: 《通鑑》作「李叔平非將帥之才」。無下八字。「之」乏: 元豐、劉、李及浙補刻本作之。錢、《函》二本作乏。當作乏。謂可長爾: 元豐與浙補本作「調可長而」。但往:《通鑑》引有日字。賃: 錢、劉、李、《函》本誤作債。元豐、廖、及浙補作賃。「令」: 舊各本同《通鑑》作令,當是今字訛。遯: 浙補本作逝。(HYGZ Commentary)

(In the phrase 貴大 "to greatly glorify", the Yuanfeng, Liao, and Zhe editions and the 顧觀光校補 all omit the character 大 "greatly", while the Liu, Li, and 函海 editions have it.After the words "Luo Shang", there should be the character 自 "himself". The text of this letter in all the old editions mistakenly lists the second of Luo Shang's generals as 杜景 Du Jing, while if we go by the account of the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, the name listed should be Zhang Xian. I have presumed to remove Du Jing and replace it with Zhang Xian, and the Zizhi Tongjian also edits the sentence in this way. In describing Li Bi, the phrase 才經廊廟 "talent sufficient for the imperial court" should be removed; refer to my notes. Regarding the phrase 無將帥之氣 "lacked the spirit to command an army", the Zizhi Tongjian has this as 李叔平非將帥之才 "Li Shuping (Li Bi) lacked the abilities to command an army". It lacks these eight characters. In the sentence about the Qiang, the particle 之 which is present in the Yuanfeng, Liu, Li, and Zhe editions is written as 乏 "weary" in the Qian and 函 editions, as it should be. In the phrase 謂可長爾 "they claimed to be worthy", the Yuanfeng and Zhe editions have it as 調可長而. In the phrase 但往初至 "but since we arrived", the Zizhi Tongjian inserts the character 日 "the day" in the middle. In the phrase 庸賃 "seeking work", the Qian, Liu, Li, and 函 editions mistakenly write the character 債 "debt", while the Yuanfeng, Liao, and Zhe editions write it as 賃. In the phrase 令達鄉里 "back in their own counties and villages", the old editions and the Zizhi Tongjian all write the first character as 令, but this is a corruption of the character 今 "now". In the phrase 長遯 "run far away", the Zhe edition writes the first character as 逝 "pass".)


特以兄輔、弟驤、子始、蕩、雄及李含、含子國、離、任回、李攀、攀弟恭、上官晶、任臧、楊褒、上官惇等爲將帥,閻式、李遠等爲僚佐。羅尚素貪殘,爲百姓患。特與蜀民約法三章,施捨賑貸,禮賢拔滯,軍政肅然,蜀民大悅。尚頻爲特所敗,乃阻長圍,緣郫水作營,連延七百里,與特相拒,求救於梁州及南夷校尉。

44. Li Te appointed many people as his generals: his elder brother Li Fu, his younger brother Li Xiang, his sons Li Shi, Li Dang, and Li Xiong, Li Han, Li Han's sons Li Guo and Li Li, Ren Hui, Li Pan, Li Pan's younger brother Li Gong, Shangguan Jing, Ren Zang, Yang Bao, Shangguan Dun, and others. He also appointed Yan Shi, Li Yuan, and others as his assistant ministers.

Now Luo Shang had long been greedy and covetous, a burden upon the common people. But Li Te made a covenant with the people of Shu to only enforce the Three Regulations (of Liu Bang), and he gave out alms and funds to them. He treated the worthy with proper ceremony and plucked out the obscure, and he treated both the army and the government respectfully. So the people of Shu were very pleased with him.

Luo Shang was frequently defeated by Li Te, so he built long walls to protect himself, and he diverted the waters of the Pi River to serve as his ramparts. He defenses stretched for seven hundred li. Having brought Li Te to a stalemate, Luo Shang asked for reinforcements from Lianzhou and from the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes.

〈杜預曰:施恩惠,捨勞役。〉〈《水經註》:綿水西出綿竹縣,又與湔水合,亦謂之郫江。《載記》曰:尚緣水作營,自都安至犍爲七百里。〉〈南夷校尉統南中諸郡。〉

(Du You remarked, "He showed them grace and kindness, relieving them from corvee labor."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The western part of the Mian River comes out of Mianzhu County, and it joins with the Jian River, which is also called the Pi River."

The Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Luo Shang diverted the rivers to serve as his ramparts; his defenses stretched seven hundred li, from Du'an to Jianwei."

The Colonel of Southern Man Tribes commanded the soldiers of the commandaries of Nanzhong.)


冬十月,六郡流人推特行鎮北將軍,承制封拜。其弟流行鎮東將軍,弟驤驍騎將軍,少子雄為前將軍,以相統領,進兵攻尚于成都,頻為特所敗,乃阻長圍,緣水作營,自都安至犍為七百里,與特相拒。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

In winter, the tenth month, the refugees of the six commandaries acclaimed Li Te as acting General Who Guards The North, and Li Te claimed the authority to make his own appointments. He appointed his younger brother Li Liu as acting General Who Guards The East, his other younger brother Li Xiang as General of Agile Cavalry, and his youngest son Li Xiong as General of the Front, each of them leading their own forces.

They advanced to attack Luo Shang at Chengdu. Luo Shang was frequently defeated by Li Te, so he built long walls to protect himself, and he diverted the waters of the river to serve as his ramparts. He defenses stretched for seven hundred li, from Du'an to Jianwei. He and Li Te were locked in stalemate.

於是特自稱使持節、大都督、鎮北大將軍,承制封拜一依竇融在河西故事。兄輔為驃騎將軍,弟驤為驍騎將軍,長子始為武威將軍,次子蕩為鎮軍將軍,少子雄為前將軍,李含為西夷校尉,含子國離、任回、李恭、上官晶、李攀、費佗等為將帥,任臧、上官惇、楊褒、楊珪、王達、麹歆等為爪牙,李遠、李博、夕斌、嚴檉、上官琦、李濤、王懷等為僚屬,閻式為謀主,何世、趙肅為腹心。時羅尚貪殘,為百姓患,而特與蜀人約法三章,施捨振貸,禮賢拔滯,軍政肅然。百姓為之謠曰:「李特尚可,羅尚殺我。」尚頻為特所敗,乃阻長圍,緣水作營,自都安至犍為七百里,與特相距。(Book of Jin 120, Biography of Li Te)

Li Te appointed himself as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, and fully Grand General Who Guards The North, and he wielded authority to make his own appointments as Dou Rong had once done when he had occupied the Hexi region (in the northwest at Liangzhou). He appointed his elder brother Li Fu as General of Agile Cavalry, his youngest brother Li Xiang as General of Fierce Cavalry, his eldest son Li Shi as General of Might and Valor, his second son Li Dang as General Who Guards The Army, and his youngest son Li Xiong as General of the Front. He also appointed Li Han as Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, and he appointed Li Han’s sons Li Guo and Li Li, Ren Hui, Li Gong, Shangguan Jing, Li Pan, Fei Tuo, and others as generals and leaders as well. Ren Zang, Shangguan Dun, Yang Bao, Yang Gui, Wang Da, Qu Xin, and others served as his fangs and claws, while Li Yuan, Li Bo, Xi Bin, Yang Cheng, Shangguan Qi, Li Tao, Wang Huai, and others served as subordinates. Yan Shi was his chief advisor, and He Shi and Zhao Su were his right-hand men.

Now Luo Shang had long been greedy and covetous, a burden upon the common people. But Li Te made a covenant with the people of Shu to only enforce the Three Regulations (of Liu Bang), and he gave out alms and funds to them. He treated the worthy with proper ceremony and plucked out people living in obscurity, and he treated both the army and the government respectfully. The common people made a ditty which went, “Luo Shang’s blade is at our neck, but Li Te treats us with respect.”

Luo Shang was frequently defeated by Li Te, so he built long walls to protect himself, and he diverted the waters of the river to serve as his ramparts. He defenses stretched for seven hundred li, from Du'an to Jianwei. He and Li Te were locked in stalemate.

特之承制也,以流為鎮東將軍,居東營,號為東督護。特常使流督銳眾,與羅尚相持。(Book of Jin 120, Biography of Li Liu)

When Li Te assumed the authority to make his own appointments, he appointed Li Liu as General Who Guards The East, and since he resided with the eastern camp, he was called the Eastern Protector. Li Te often sent Li Liu to lead his best soldiers, and Li Liu often fought against Luo Shang.

李雄,字仲俊,特第三子也。母羅氏,夢雙虹自門升天,一虹中斷,既而生蕩。後羅氏因汲水,忽然如寐,又夢大蛇繞其身,遂有孕,十四月而生雄。常言吾二子若有先亡,在者必大貴。蕩竟前死。雄身長八尺三寸,美容貌。少以烈氣聞,每周旋鄉里,識達之士皆器重之。有劉化者,道術士也,每謂人曰:「關、隴之士皆當南移,李氏子中惟仲俊有奇表,終為人主。」(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong, styled Zhongjun, was Li Te's third son. His mother, Lady Luo, had once dreamed of a pair of rainbows that came out of the gate and mounted to the sky, but one of the rainbows suddenly stopped halfway through. She then gave birth to her elder son, Li Dang. Later on, as Lady Luo was drawing water, she suddenly swooned as though she were asleep. She dreamed again, this time that a great serpent coiled around her body. After this dream, she was pregnant, and fourteen months later she gave birth to Li Xiong. She often said that if one of her two sons died young, the one that lived would certainly become greatly honored. And as she had expected, Li Dang passed away at a young age. Li Xiong himself grew to be eight 尺 and three 寸 tall, and he had a beautiful appearance. He possessed a fierce spirit which people heard about even when he was very young, and whenever he passed through some place, the local gentry who knew about such things all praised him highly. There was a certain Liu Hua who was a Daoist master. He often told people, "The people of Guanzhong and Longyou shall go south. Among the sons of the Li clan, only Zhongjuan has remarkable talents. He shall become a leader of men in the end."

冬十月,特、流乃保赤祖,為二營。特稱鎮北、益州,流鎮東,皆大將軍。兄輔驃騎,弟驤驍騎,特長子蕩鎮軍,少子雄前軍,李含西夷校尉,含子國、離及任回、上官晶、李攀、費他皆將軍。以天水任臧、上官惇、楊褒、楊發、楊珪、王達、麴歆,陰平李遠,武都李博,略陽夕斌等參佐,而閻式、何巨、趙肅亦為賓從。其餘皆有官號。尚率其民盡渡郫水以南,「尚」阻長圍,自都安至犍為七百里,捍特。特等保廣漢。
(Huayang Guozhi 7.5)

In winter, the tenth month, Li Te and Li Liu established two camps at Chizu to protect themselves. Li Te declared himself General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Yizhou, while Li Liu declared himself General Who Guards The East, and both of them declared themselves as Grand General. Li Te appointed his elder brother Li Fu as General of Agile Cavalry, his youngest brother Li Xiang as General of Fierce Cavalry, his elder son Li Dang as General Who Guards The Army, and his younger son Li Xiong as General of the Front. He also appointed Li Han as Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, and he appointed Li Han’s sons Li Guo and Li Li, Ren Hui, Shangguan Jing, Li Pan, Fei Ta, and others as generals as well. Ren Zang of Tianshui, Shangguan Dun, Yang Bao, Yang Fa, Yang Gui, Wang Da, Qu Xin, Li Yuan of Yinping, Li Bo of Wudu, Xi Bin of Lueyang, and others as his advisors and assistants. Yan Shi, He Ju (or Chen), and Zhao Su were also his guests and followers. Others besides these people also held offices.

Luo Shang led all of his people to cross south of the Pi River, while he built long walls to protect himself. His defenses stretched seven hundred li, from Du'an to Jianwei, and he guarded against Li Te. Li Te and the others defended Guanghan.

含: 李本作舍。下同。李博: 劉、《函》二本作摶。何巨: 李本同《晉書》作臣。「尚」:當衍。犍為: 此指犍為郡治武陽。捍: 錢、《函》二本作「押」。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding Li 含 Han's given name, the Li edition writes it as 舍 She, and does so below as well. Regarding Li 博 Bo's given name, the Liu and 函 editions write it as 摶 Tuan. Regarding He 巨 Ju's given name, the Li edition and the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin writes it as 臣 Chen. In the phrase 尚阻長圍 "he built long walls to protect himself", the first character should be 衍 "spread out". This passage shows that the administrative center of Jianwei commandary was at Wuyang. In the phrase 捍特 "he guarded against Li Te", the Qian and 函 editions write the first character as 押 "press in".)


十二月,潁昌康公何卲薨。

45. In the twelfth month, He Shao passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Kang ("the Peaceful") of Yingchang.

封大司馬冏子冰爲樂安王,英爲濟陽王,超爲淮南王。

46. Sima Jiong's sons were granted noble titles: Sima Bing was appointed as Prince of Le'an, Sima Yinng was appointed Prince of Jiyang, and Sima Chao was appointed as Prince of Huainan.
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BOOK 84

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 13, 2017 3:30 am

太安元年(壬戌、三○二)

The First Year of Tai'an (The Renxu Year, 302 AD)


〈是年十二月,齊王冏死,方改元太安;此猶是永寧二年。〉

(The reign era title for this year was not changed to Tai'an until the twelfth month, after Sima Jiong's death. For most of the year, it was still the second year of Yongning.)


春,三月,沖太孫尚薨。

1. In spring, the third month, the Crown Grandson, Sima Shang, passed away. His posthumous name was Zhong ("the Spent").

〈沖,諡也。〉

(Zhong was Sima Shang's posthumous name.)


夏,五月,己酉,梁孝王肜薨。

2. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Jiyou (?) (or, the day Yiyou, June 18th), Sima Rong passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xiao ("the Filial") of Lian.

〈【章:甲十一行本「己」作「乙」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(Some versions say that this date was the day 乙 Yiyou instead of the day 己 Jiyou.)


以右光祿大夫劉寔爲太傅,尋以老病罷。

3. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Right, Liu Shi, was appointed as Grand Tutor. But he soon resigned his office on account of age and infirmity.

河間王顒遣督護衙博討李特,軍于梓潼;朝廷復以張微爲廣漢太守,軍于德陽;羅尚遣督護張龜軍于繁城。特使其子鎭軍將軍蕩等襲博,而自將擊龜,破之。蕩敗博兵於陽沔,梓潼太守張演委城走,巴西丞毛植以郡降。蕩進攻博於葭萌,博走,其衆盡降。河間王顒更以許雄爲梁州刺史。特自稱大將軍、益州牧、都督梁‧益二州諸軍事。

4. Sima Yong sent the Protector Ya Bo to campaign against Li Te, and Ya Bo's army marched to Zitong. The court also appointed Zhang Wei as Administrator of Guanghan, and Zhang Wei's army marched to Deyang. And Luo Shang sent the Protector Zhang Gui to march his army to Fancheng.

Li Te sent his General Who Guards The Army, his son Li Dang, and others to attack Ya Bo, while he himself went to attack Zhang Gui, and he routed Zhang Gui. Li Dang defeated Ya Bo's soldiers at Yangmian. The Administrator of Zitong, Zhang Yan, abandoned his city and fled, and the Minister of Baxi, Mao Zhi, surrendered his commandary to Li Te's forces. Li Dang advanced and attacked Ya Bo at Jiameng; Ya Bo fled, and his soldiers all surrendered.

Sima Yong then appointed Xu Xiong as Inspector of Lianzhou.

Li Te declared himself Grand General, Governor of Yizhou, and Commander of military affairs in Lianzhou and Yizhou.

〈《姓譜》:秦穆公子食采於衙,因氏焉。衙縣,漢屬馮翊。〉〈梓潼縣,漢屬廣漢郡;劉蜀分廣漢置梓潼郡。唐劍州之梓潼、普安、黃安、永歸、武連、臨津、劍門皆漢梓潼縣地。〉〈繁縣,屬蜀郡。劉昫曰:唐彭州九隴縣,漢繁縣地。宋白曰:益州新繁縣,本漢繁縣。〉〈巴西郡,唐爲閬、果二州之地。劉蜀改漢葭萌縣爲漢壽縣,晉又改爲晉壽。此本之漢舊縣名而書之。唐爲利州之緜谷、葭萌二縣地。〉

(The Registry of Surnames states, "The son of Duke Mu of Qin was granted 衙 Ya as his fief, and that became the name of his clan. During Han, this Ya County was part of Pingyi commandary."

During Han, Zitong County was part of Guanghan commandary. Shu-Han split part of Guanghan commandary off as Zitong commandary. The counties of Zitong, Pu'an, Huang'an, Yonggui, Wulian, Linjin, and Jianmen in Tang's Jianzhou were all part of Han's Zitong County.

Fan County was part of Shu commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Jiulong County in Tang's Pengzhou was the same as Han's Fan County." Song Bai remarked, "Xinfan County in Yizhou was originally Fan County during Han."

During Tang, Baxi commandary was split into Liangzhou and Guozhou.

Shu-Han renamed Han's Jiameng County to Hanshou County; Jin further changed its name to Jinshou. This passage uses the original Han name for that county. Tang's counties of Miangu and Jiameng in Lizhou were the same place as this.)


河間王顒遣督護衙博、廣漢太守張征討特,南夷校尉李毅又遣兵五千助尚,尚遣督護張龜軍繁城,三道攻特。特命蕩、雄襲博。特躬擊張龜,龜眾大敗。蕩又與博接戰連日,博亦敗績,死者太半。蕩追博至漢德,博走葭萌。蕩進寇巴西,巴西郡丞毛植、五官襄珍以郡降蕩。蕩撫恤初附,百姓安之。蕩進攻葭萌,博又遠遁,其眾盡降於蕩。太安元年,特自稱益州牧、都督梁、益二州諸軍事、大將軍、大都督,改年建初,赦其境內。(Book of Jin 120)

The Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, sent the Protector Ya Bo and the Administrator of Guanghan, Zhang Zheng, to campaign against Li Te. The Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes, Li Yi, also sent five thousand soldiers to reinforce Luo Shang. And Luo Shang sent the Protector Zhang Gui to march his army to Fancheng. So these three forces attacked Li Te along three routes.

Li Te ordered Li Dang and Li Xiong to attack Ya Bo. Li Te himself went to attack Zhang Gui, and he greatly defeated Zhang Gui.

Li Dang also fought a running battle against Ya Bo for several days, where Ya Bo suffered several defeats and more than half of his soldiers died. Li Dang pursued Ya Bo as far as Hande, and Ya Bo fled to Jiameng. Li Dang advanced and invaded Baxi commandary, where the Minister of Baxi, Mao Zhi, and the Director of the Five Offices, Xiang Zhen, surrendered the commandary to him. Li Dang reassured and relieved the commandary, since it had only just come over to his side, and thus the common people were settled. Then he advanced and attacked Jiameng. Ya Bo once more fled far away, and his forces all surrendered to Li Dang.

In the first year of Tai'an (302), Li Te declared himself Governor of Yizhou, Commander of military affairs in Lianzhou and Yizhou, Grand General, and Grand Commander. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianchu, and he declared an amnesty within his domain.

太安元年春,尚牙門夏匡攻李特於立石,失利。征西〔大將軍河間王〕遣督護衙博西征,討特。博次梓潼。晉復拜前廣漢太守張微廣漢太守,據德陽。尚遣督護巴西張龜督四十牙門軍繁城。博方遣參軍蒙紹誘特降。尚貽博書曰:「昔年得李流牋,降心款款。由時威帖,得還為寇。聞特委誠於下吏,而流、驤七八千人來寇日至。姦凶之態,詭譎不測。不可不重以持之也。」博不從,故為特所破於陽沔。梓潼太守張演委倉庫走巴西。巴西郡丞毛植、五官襄班舉郡降特。衙博才兼文武,「征西大將軍」河間初為陰平太守,為從事巴郡毛扶所免,怨梁州人。及西征,征西許雄以陽沔之役。寇尚未至,聞鶴鳴便退,博欲委罪梁州,託以自當作糧。不供給。梁州治中表之,博以是得罪。晉乃更用許雄為梁州刺史。(Huayang Guozhi 7.6)

In the first year of Tai'an (302), in the spring, Luo Shang sent his General of the Standard, Xia Kuang, to attack Li Te at Lishi, but Xia Kuang had the worse of the fighting.

The (Grand) General Who Guards The West (and Prince of Henan, Sima Yong) sent the Protector Ya Bo (on a western campaign) to march against Li Te, and Ya Bo advanced to Zitong. Jin also reappointed the former Administrator of Guanghan, Zhang Wei (or Zheng), to his former office, and Zhang Wei occupied Deyang. Luo Shang sent his Protector, Zhang Gui of Baxi, to lead forty Generals of the Standard to camp at Fancheng.

Ya Bo sent his Army Advisor Meng Shao to entice Li Te to surrender. Luo Shang sent Ya Bo a letter stating, "Last year I received a letter from Li Liu, where he expressed a sincere desire to surrender. But when his power later mounted, he once again became a foe. Now I have heard that Li Te is earnestly wishing to submit to you, but Li Liu and Li Xiang may come with seven or eight thousand men to attack the same day. They are wild and wicked people, cunning and treacherous and unwilling to submit. You cannot put much faith in Li Te."

Ya Bo did not listen to him, and thus he was routed by Li Te at Yangmian.

The Administrator of Zitong, Zhang Yan, abandoned his granaries and warehouses and fled to Baxi. The Minister of Baxi (or Zitong), Mao Zhi, and the Director of the Five Offices, Xiang Ban (or Zhen), offered up that commandary in surrender to Li Te.

As Ya Bo had been skilled in both civil and military affairs, Sima Yong had (deeply appreciated him. He was) originally appointed him as Administrator of Yinping, but he was removed from office by the Attendant Officer, Mao Fu of Ba commandary, and so he resented the people of Lianzhou. When he now went on this western campaign, the General Who Conquers The West, Xu Xiong, was setting up defenses at Yangmian. The enemy had not even arrived when, hearing the calls of cranes, Ya Bo retreated. Ya Bo then wanted to put the blame on the officials of Lianzhou, so he claimed that he had withdrawn because he had asked them for supplies, but they had not furnished them. But the 治中 of Lianzhou sent up a petition explaining the truth, and so Ya Bo admitted his own faults. Jin then appointed Xu Xiong as the Administrator of Lianzhou.

〔大將軍河間王〕: 依後文及《晉書》補。西征: 張、吳、何、王、石本刪「西征」二字。浙本剜補有。顧觀光校云「此二字原脫」。今按宋明他本并有。張微: 元豐、錢、《函》、廖本作微。劉、張、吳、何、李、王、浙、石本作徵。巴西: 此下廖本注云:「按,此複衍二字。下文郡丞,乃梓潼之郡丞。不得重巴西也。」顧廣圻校稿無此說,應是顧槐三意。然元豐以來各本重此二字。按《晉書‧惠紀》與《載記》,巴西、梓潼同時降於李特,則重字非衍文。襄班: 元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本作班。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本同《晉書‧載記》作珍。征西大將軍」河間: 元豐本作澗王深器之。免: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本無免字。元豐、錢、劉、諸本有。(HYGZ Commentary)

(In the first sentence where it merely states 征西 "(the General Who) Conquers The West", I have added in the characters 大將軍河間王 "the Grand General (Who Conquers The West) and Prince of Hejian (Sima Yong)", following the text of the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.

Where it says that Sima Yong sent Ya Bo 西征 "on a western campaign", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions have omitted the characters 西征, while the Zhe edition includes them. The 顧觀光校 notes that "These two characters were originally omitted". Following the example of the Song, Ming, and other editions, I have added them in.

The previous notes regarding Zhang 微 Wei and Zhang 徵 Zheng apply here.

Where it states that Mao Zhi was the Minister of 巴西 Baxi, the Liao edition notes after these two characters that "these characters 巴西 Baxi are redundantly added, and if we consult the text below, it becomes clear that Mao Zhi was the Minister of Zitong commandary, not Baxi. So 巴西 Baxi should not be repeated here." The 顧廣圻校 does not include these words, and follows the three principles of 顧槐. But ever since the Yuanfeng edition, the characters 巴西 Baxi have been included again at this point. Now if we consult the Annals of Emperor Hui and the Biography of Li Te, both in the Book of Jin, we see that Baxi and Zitong both surrendered to Li Te at this time, and so the repetition of 巴西 Baxi here is not actually a redundancy.

Regarding the given name of Xiang 班 Ban, the Yuanfeng and Qian, Liu, Li, 函, and Liao editions write it as such, while the Zhang, Wu, he, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions agree with the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin by writing it as 珍 Zhen.

In the sentence that mentions Ya Bo's initial appointment, the Yuanfeng edition writes that Sima Yong had 深器之 "deeply appreciated him".

Regarding the mention that Ya Bo had been 免 "removed from office", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions do not have this character, while the Yuanfeng, Qian, and Liu editions do have it.)


大司馬冏欲久專大政,以帝子孫俱盡,大將軍穎有次立之勢;清河王覃,遐之子也,方八歲,乃上表請立之。癸卯,立覃爲皇太子,以冏爲太子太師,東海王越爲司空,領中書監。

5. Now Sima Jiong wished to maintain his hold on the affairs of government, but Emperor Hui no longer had any male descendants. This made Sima Ying the natural choice for his heir. But Sima Jiong preferred the Prince of Qinghe, Sima Tan, the son of Sima Xia; he was only seven years old at this time. So Sima Jiong petitioned that Sima Tan be named as the new heir.

On the day Guimao (July 6th), Sima Tan was appointed as Crown Prince. Sima Jiong was appointed as Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, and the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, was appointed as Minister of Works and acting Chief of the Palace Secretariat.

〈太子遹死,帝無子矣;虨、臧、尚死,帝無孫矣。〉〈穎於帝諸弟之次當及。〉

(After Crown Prince Sima Yu died, Emperor Hui no longer had any sons, and after Sima Yu's sons Sima Bin, Sima Zang, and Sima Shang died, Emperor Hui no longer had any grandsons either.

Of Emperor Hui's younger brothers, Sima Ying was the next oldest after him.)


秋,八月,李特攻張微,微擊破之,遂進攻特營。李蕩引兵救之,山道險陿,蕩力戰而前,遂破微兵。特欲還涪,蕩及司馬王幸諫曰:「微軍已敗,智勇俱竭,宜乘銳氣遂禽之。」特復進攻微,殺之,生禽微子存,以微喪還之。

6. In autumn, the eighth month, Li Te attacked Zhang Wei. However, Zhang Wei struck back and routed Li Te, and then advanced to attack Li Te's camp. Li Dang led his soldiers back to come to his father's aid. Though the mountain roads were narrow and perilous, Li Dang exerted himself in battle and pushed forward, and he was able to rout Zhang Wei's soldiers.

Li Te wanted to fall back to Fu, but Li Dang and his Marshal Wang Xing remonstrated with him, saying, "Zhang Wei's army has just been defeated, and his cunning and valor are both exhausted. We should take advantage of the keen spirit of our soldiers to press our attack and capture him."

So Li Te advanced again and attacked Zhang Wei; he killed Zhang Wei, and captured alive his son Zhang Cun. Li Te released Zhang Cun to mourn for his father.

於是進攻張征。征依高據險,與特相持連日。時特與蕩分為二營,徵候特營空虛,遣步兵循山攻之,特逆戰不利,山險窘逼,眾不知所為。羅准、任道皆勸引退,特量蕩必來,故不許。征眾至稍多,山道至狹,唯可一二人行,蕩軍不得前,謂其司馬王辛曰:「父在深寇之中,是我死日也。」乃衣重鎧,持長矛,大呼直前,推鋒必死,殺十餘人。征眾來相救,蕩軍皆殊死戰,征軍遂潰。特議欲釋征還涪,蕩與王辛進曰:「征軍連戰,士卒傷殘,智勇俱竭,宜因其弊遂擒之。若舍而寬之,征養病收亡,餘眾更合,圖之未易也。」特從之,復進攻征,征潰圍走。蕩水陸追之,遂害征,生擒征子存,以征喪還之。(Book of Jin 120)

Then Li Te advanced and attacked Zhang Zheng. Zhang Zheng occupied strategic terrain in high places, and he was locked in battle with Li Te for several days. At this time, Li Te and Li Dang had split their forces into two camps. When Zhang Zheng noticed that Li Te’s camp was now left exposed, he sent infantry around the side of the mountain and attacked it. Li Te tried to counter-attack, but he got the worst of the fighting. Li Te now found himself pressed in by the narrow confines of the mountain, and his army did not know what to do. Luo Zhun and Ren Dao both urged Li Te to lead his soldiers away in retreat, but Li Te felt that Li Dang was certain to come and help him, so he refused to agree.

Although Zhang Zheng had somewhat more men on his side, the mountain roads were so narrow that only one or two men could advance along them at a time. Li Dang’s army could not press forward, but he said to his Marshal Wang Xin, “If my father perishes in the midst of these enemies, that shall be the day of my death too.” So putting on a heavy suit of armor and grasping a long spear, he gave a great shout and charged forward. He pressed forward even in the face of certain death, killing more than ten people. Zhang Zheng’s army all rushed forward to help each other, but Li Dang’s army fought a battle of life and death, until at last Zhang Zheng’s army scattered.

Li Te proposed letting Zhang Zheng go while they fell back to Fu, but Li Dang and Wang Xin stepped forward and said, “Zhang Zheng’s army has just fought many battles; his officers and soldiers have been greatly wounded, and his cunning and valor are both exhausted. We should take advantage of his weakness to capture him. If we stay here and let him escape, then Zhang Zheng will nurse his soldiers back to health and round up his stragglers. Then his army will grow even larger, and it will not be easy to overcome him.”

Li Te followed their advice, and advanced again and attacked Zhang Zheng. Zhang Zheng broke out of his encirclement and fled, but Li Dang pursued him by water; he killed Zhang Zheng and captured his son Zhang Cun alive, but released the son to return and mourn for the father.


特以其將寋碩守德陽。李驤軍毗橋,羅尚遣軍擊之,屢爲驤所敗。驤遂進攻成都,燒其門。李流軍成都之北。尚遣精勇萬人攻驤,驤與流合擊,大破之,還者什一二。許雄數遣軍攻特,不勝,特勢益盛。

7. Li Te assigned his general Jian Shuo to guard Deyang.

Li Xiang's army was at Piqiao. Luo Shang sent an army to attack them, but they were defeated several times by Li Xiang. Li Xiang then advanced to attack Chengdu, setting fire to its gates. Li Liu's army also arrived north of Chengdu. Luo Shang sent ten thousand of his bravest elite soldiers to attack Li Xiang, but Li Xiang and Li Liu attacked them together, greatly routing them; only one or two of every ten of the soldiers returned alive.

Xu Xiong sent armies to attack Li Te several times, but without success. Li Te's power only grew all the more.

〈寋,姓也。〉〈今懷安軍西北有中江,源從漢州彌牟、雒水、毗橋水三水會爲一江。懷安軍,漢廣漢新都縣之地。〉

(寋 Jian is a surname.

In the northwest part of the modern Huai'an Garrison is the Middle River, where the origins of the Mimou, Luoshui, and Piqiao Rivers flow from Hanzhou to join together as one river. The Huai'an Garrison is where Han's Xindu County in Guanghan commandary was.)


以騫碩為德陽太守,碩略地至巴郡之墊江。特之攻張征也,使李驤與李攀、任回、李恭屯軍毗橋,以備羅尚。尚遣軍挑戰,驤等破之。尚又遣數千人出戰,驤又陷破之,大獲器甲,攻燒其門。流進次成都之北。尚遣將張興偽降於驤,以觀虛實。時驤軍不過二千人,興夜歸白尚,尚遣精勇萬人銜枚隨興夜襲驤營。李攀逆戰死,驤及將士奔於流柵,與流並力回攻尚軍。尚軍亂,敗還者十一二。晉梁州刺史許雄遣軍攻特,特陷破之。(Book of Jin 120)

Li Te appointed Qian Shuo as Administrator of Deyang, and Qian Shuo surveyed the land as far as Dianjiang in Ba commandary.

When Li Te had gone to attack Zhang Zheng, he had sent Li Xiang, Li Pan, Ren Hui, and Li Gong to camp at Piqiao, to prepare defenses against Luo Shang. Luo Shang sent an army to offer battle to them, but Li Xiang and the others routed this army. Luo Shang once more sent several thousand soldiers out to fight, but Li Xiang again destroyed and routed them, greatly capturing their arms and armor. Then he attacked Luo Shang’s gates and set fire to them. Li Liu’s army also arrived north of Chengdu.

Luo Shang sent his general Zhang Xing to pretend to surrender to Li Xiang, but his real purpose was to scout out their camp and look for any weaknesses. By now, Li Xiang’s army numbered no more than two thousand people. Zhang Xing returned to Luo Shang during the night and reported this discovery to him, so Luo Shang sent ten thousand of his most elite and bravest soldiers to launch a night attack on Li Xiang’s camp, with Zhang Xing leading them; they kept sticks in their mouths to ensure silence as they approached. Li Pan fought back against them and died, while Li Xiang and his generals and soldiers fled to the defenses of Li Liu’s barricades. Then they joined their strength with Li Liu’s soldiers and marched back to attack Luo Shang’s army. Luo Shang’s army was thrown into a panic, and they were defeated; only one or two of every ten of the soldiers returned.

Jin’s new Inspector of Lianzhou, Xu Xiong, sent his own army to attack Li Te, but Li Te destroyed and routed it.

八月,特破德陽。流次成都北「上」〔郭〕。李驤在毗橋,尚遣將張興偽降於驤,覘士眾。還以告尚。尚遣叟兵襲驤,破之。流、驤并眾攻尚軍。軍失利,喪其器甲。梁州刺史許雄數遣軍討特。特備險不得進。征西乃遣監軍劉沈將西征,以中國有事,不果。而南夷校尉李毅遣叟兵助尚。〔尚〕軍數挫,特勢日盛。(Huayang Guozhi 7.6)

In the eighth month, Li Te captured Deyang.

Li Liu advanced to the north of Chengdu, while Li Xiang was at Piqiao. Luo Shang sent his general Zhang Xing to pretend to surrender to Li Xiang, so that Zhang Xing could observe Li Xiang's army (and scout out his defenses). Then Zhang Xing returned to inform Luo Shang of what he had learned. Luo Shang then sent old (or elite) soldiers to attack Li Xiang, and they routed him. But Li Xiang joined forces with Li Liu to counter-attack Luo Shang's army. Luo Shang's men were defeated, and they abandoned their arms and armor.

Xu Xiong sent his army to attack Li Te several times, but Li Te held the strategic places (or precipices), and Xu Xiong could not advance.

Sima Yong then sent the Army Chief Liu Chen to lead (soldiers) on a western campaign as well, but because of events in the Middle Kingdom (involving the War of the Eight Princes), Liu Chen never arrived. But the Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes, Li Yi, sent old (or elite) soldiers to reinforce Luo Shang.

Still, Luo Shang's army was defeated several times, while Li Te's power grew stronger by the day.

覘士眾: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本此下有「虛實」二字。元豐、錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本並無。叟: 張、吳、何、王、石本作精。元豐、錢、劉、李、《函》本作叟。浙本剜改叟。險: 宋、明各本作嶮。廖本作險。字通。劉沈將: 當有兵字。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Where it states that Zhang Xing was 覘士眾 "observing Li Xiang's army", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions further state 虛實 "and scout out his defenses", while the Yuanfeng, Qian, Liu, Li, 函, and Liao editions do not list those characters.

Regarding the character 叟 "old, or Shu", the Zhang, Wu, he, Wang, and Shi editions write it as 精 "elite", while the Yuanfeng, Qian, Liu, Li, and 函 editions have it as is, as does the Zhe edition.

Regarding the character 險 "strategic places", the Song and Ming editions have this as 嶮 "precipices", while the Liao edition has it as is; it is a corruption of the character.

Where it states 劉沈將 "Liu Chen led", there should be the character 兵 "soldiers".)


建寧大姓李叡、毛詵逐太守許俊,朱提大姓李猛逐太守雍約以應特,衆各數萬。南夷校尉李毅討破之,斬詵;李猛奉牋降,而辭意不遜,毅誘而殺之。冬,十一月,丙戌,復置寧州,以毅爲刺史。

8. Local leaders from Jianning commandary, Li Rui and Mao Shen, arrested the Administrator Xu Jun (or, Du Jun). And the local leader Li Meng of Zhuti commandary arrested the Administrator Yong Yue, intending to align himself with Li Te. Both of their groups had tens of thousands of soldiers.

The Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Li Yi, campaigned against these local rebels and routed them, beheading Mao Shen. Li Meng sent in notice of his surrender, but as his language was disrespectful, Li Yi lured him in and then killed him.

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Bingxu (December 16th), the province of Ningzhou was reestablished, and Li Yi was appointed as its Inspector.

〈【章:甲十一行本「許」作「杜」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉〈建寧,古滇王國之地,漢開置益州郡,劉蜀更名建寧郡,唐爲昆州之地。〉〈朱提縣,前漢屬犍爲郡,後漢屬犍爲屬國都尉,劉蜀分置朱提郡,唐爲曲州之地。朱提,蘇林音銖時。〉〈罷寧州見八十一卷武帝太康五年。〉

(Some versions record the name of the arrested Administrator of Jianning as 杜 Du Jun instead of 許 Xu Jun.

Jianning was once the old kingdom of the Dian people. After Han took the territory, it established it as Yizhou commandary. Shu-Han further renamed it as Jianning commandary. During Tang, it was the region of Kunzhou.

During Former Han, Zhuti County was part of Jianwei commandary, and during Later Han, it was part of the Jianwei Vassal State Colonel Post. Shu-Han split it off as Zhuti commandary. During Tang, it was the region of Quzhou. As for the name Zhuti itself, Su Lin pronounced it Zhushi.

Ningzhou as a province had last been abolished in Book 81, in the fifth year of Taikang (284.6).)


齊武閔王冏旣得志,頗驕奢擅權,大起府第,壞公私廬舍以百數,制與西宮等,中外失望。侍中嵇紹上疏曰:「存不忘亡,《易》之善戒也。臣願陛下無忘金墉,大司馬無忘潁上,大將軍無忘黃橋,則禍亂之萌無由而兆矣。」又與冏書,以爲:「唐、虞茅茨,夏禹卑宮。今大興第舍及爲三王立宅,豈今日之急邪!」冏遜辭謝之,然不能從。

9. Since Sima Jiong had now secured his ambitions, he became arrogant and indulgent, centering all power upon himself. He built a great estate for himself, with more than a hundred buildings between public and private usages, and he wielded control over those in the Western Palace. Everyone near and far began to lose hope.

The Palace Attendant Ji Shao sent up a petition stating, "The living must never forget the prospect of ruin; this is a wise warning from the Book of Changes. May Your Majesty never forget your time in the Jinyong fortress; may Grand Marshal Sima Jiong never forget the battles in Yingchuan; and may Grand General Sima Ying never forget the fighting at Huangqiao. Thus may the seeds of misfortune and turmoil never have cause to flourish."

And Ji Shao also wrote a letter to Sima Jiong, stating, "Tang and Yu (Yao and Shun) only lived in dwelling places with thatched roofs and earthen steps, and Yu of Xia (Yu the Great) had a lowly and crude palace. In your great building of an estate, it surely would have been enough for you to have built a residence to match the standards of these three kings of old. How can you have been so extravagant as this?"

Sima Jiong wrote back offering words of apology, but in the end he was not able to heed Ji Shao's admonitions.

〈《易‧大傳》:子曰:危者有其安者也,亡者保其存者也,亂者有其治者也。君子安而不忘危,存而不忘亡,治而不忘亂,然後身安而國家可保也。《易》曰:其亡其亡,繫于苞桑。〉〈齊桓公與鮑叔牙、管夷吾、甯戚飲酒酣,叔牙爲壽曰:「願君無忘在莒時,願管子無忘束縛於魯時,甯子無忘飯牛車下時。」嵇紹之言祖其意。〉〈唐、虞采椽不斲,茅茨不翦。禹卑宮室。〉

The Great Treatise on the Book of Changes states, "The Master said, 'He who keeps danger in mind is he who will rest safe in his seat; he who keeps ruin in mind is he who will preserve his interests secure; he who sets the danger of disorder before him is he who will maintain the state of order. Therefore the superior man, when resting in safety, does not forget that danger may come; when in a state of security, he does not forget the possibility of ruin; and when all is in a state of order, he does not forget that disorder may come. Thus his person is kept safe, and his states and all their clans can be preserved. This is according to what the Book of Changes says, "(Let him say), 'Shall I perish? shall I perish?' (so shall this state be firm, as if) bound to a clump of bushy mulberry trees.' (Xi Ci 2)"

When Duke Huan of Qi was drinking together with Bao Shuya, Guan Yiwu (Guan Zhong), and Ning Qi, Bao Shuya made this toast: "Lord, may you never forget your time of exile in the state of Ju; Sir Guan, may you never forget when you were bound in the state of Lu; and Sir Ning, may you never forget the time when you were feeding your ox and resting against your cart." All of these were moments of great adversity for those mentioned. Ji Shao wished to invoke the same sentiments as this toast.

Tang and Yu (Yao and Shun) had rafter beams that were uncut, and used unclipped thatch for roofing. Yu the Great lived in a crude palace.)


冏耽於宴樂,不入朝見;坐拜百官,符敕三臺;選用不均,嬖寵用事。殿中御史桓豹奏事,不先經冏府,卽加考竟。南陽處士鄭方上書諫冏曰:「今大王安不慮危,宴樂過度,一失也。宗室骨肉,當無纖介,今則不然,二失也。蠻夷不靜,大王謂功業已隆,不以爲念,三失也。兵革之後,百姓窮困,不聞賑救,四失也。大王與義兵盟約,事定之後,賞不踰時,而今猶有功未論者,五失也。」冏謝曰:「非子,孤不聞過。」

10. Sima Jiong indulged himself in feasts and music, and he did not go to attend court. At the same time, he reserved the power of appointing all the ministers, and he gave orders to the Three Terraces. When he chose people for office, he was not impartial, but used his favorites for every affair. The Imperial Secretary of the Central Hall, Huan Bao, submitted a petition without first sending it to Sima Jiong's office for review, for which he was submitted to interrogation.

A recluse of Nanyang, Zheng Fang, sent a letter to Sima Jiong outlining his Five Faults: "Prince, you are currently relaxed and not thinking of any danger, overindulging yourself in feasting and music; this is the first fault. You are as close to the royal family as flesh and blood, and there ought to be not the slightest distance between you, yet there currently is; this is the second fault. The Man and Yi tribes are restless, but you consider that all that need be done has already been done, and you give no thought to such things; this is the third fault. After the recent fighting, the common people were left in suffering and want, yet you would not hear of sending them aid and relief; this is the fourth fault. You made a covenant to rise up with others on behalf of justice, and it is a principle that 'rewards must be given as soon as they are due'. Yet there are some who achieved merit then who have still not been rewarded; this is the fifth fault."

Sima Jiong apologized to him, stating, "If not for you, Sir, I would not have heard of my trespasses."

〈坐受百官之拜也。一說:天子用三公、九卿、諸將軍,猶引而拜之;今冏安坐府第,拜授百官也。〉〈以私意選用,符敕三臺使奉行,不均之大者也。〉〈凡史書其人將敗,必先敍其致敗之由,此《左氏傳》例。〉〈魏制:蘭臺遣二御史居殿中,伺察非法;及晉,置四人。史言冏但欲專權,考竟殿中御史,不知無君之迹愈著。〉〈蠻夷不靜,謂李特等寇亂梁、益也。〉〈此一失蓋指成都王穎運米以收河南人心,而不敢察察言之耳。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「有」上重「有」字;乙十一行本同;張校同。】〉〈《兵法》曰:賞不踰時,欲民速得爲善之利也。此言潁上之功猶有未敍者。〉

(Sima Jiong reserved the power of appointment over the ministers. It is said, "The Son of Heaven has his Three Excellencies, his Nine Ministers, and his various generals, and he brings them in and confers their titles." But now Sima Jiong, remaining secure in his estate, claimed such powers for himself.

Sima Jiong appointed people for office based upon his personal interests, and he compelled the Three Terraces to do as he commanded; he was not one to be greatly impartial.

In many history texts, whenever there is some person who is soon to be ruined, the texts always outline the reasons behind their doom. This follows the precedent of the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals.

Under the Cao-Wei system, the Lantai bureau had two Imperial Secretaries posted in the Central Hall, who looked into violations of the law. By the time of Jin, there were four such people.

This passage shows how Sima Jiong wished to monopolize power, going so far as to interrogate the Imperial Secretary of the Central Hall, and not knowing he had not the slightest trace of a superior fellow any longer.

"The Man and Yi tribes" refers to Li Te and the others who were causing trouble in Lianzhou and Yizhou.

The fourth fault was an oblique reference to Sima Ying's attempts to win over the people of Henan through his grain shipments to the starving families there, although Zheng Fang did not dare to openly state that in as many words.

In the sentence "there are some who achieved merit then who have still not been rewarded," some versions repeat the character 有 "there are" two times.

The Art of War (specifically, The Methods of the Sima) states, "Rewards must be given as soon as they are due, so that the people speedily obtain the benefits of excellence." Zheng Fang was saying that some people who had won merits at the fighting in Yingchuan had not yet been reward for it.)


孫惠上書曰:「天下有五難、四不可,而明公皆居之:冒犯鋒刃,一難也;聚致英豪,二難也;與將士均勞苦,三難也;以弱勝強,四難也;興復皇業,五難也。大名不可久荷,大功不可久任,大權不可久執,大威不可久居。大王行其難而不以爲難,處其不可而謂之可,惠竊所不安也。明公宜思功成身退之道,崇親推近,委重長沙、成都二王,長揖歸藩,則太伯、子臧不專美於前矣。今乃忘高亢之可危,貪權勢以受疑,雖遨遊高臺之上,逍遙重墉之內,愚竊謂危亡之憂,過於在潁、翟之時也。」冏不能用,惠辭疾去。冏謂曹攄曰:「或勸吾委權還國,何如?」攄曰:「物禁太盛,大王誠能居高慮危,褰裳去之,斯善之善者也。」冏不聽。

11. Sun Hui also wrote Sima Jiong a letter, stating, "The realm currently faces five challenges, yet is hindered by four difficulties, and Your Highness remains relaxed. To deal with the disobedient is the first challenge; to gather together brave heroes is the second; to have an equal share of labor and toil with the generals and soldiers is the third; to help the weak overcome the strong is the fourth; to restore the imperial fortunes is the fifth. But those of great reputation cannot long maintain their responsibilities, those of great merit cannot long keep their offices, those of great influence cannot long grasp their authority, and those of great strength cannot long hold their positions; such are the difficulties we face. Prince, you face these challenges, but you act as though they are not challenges; these difficulties cannot be denied, yet you deny them. Foolish though I may be, I cannot feel at ease.

"Your Highness should consider the path of recognizing that your work is complete and withdrawing into obscurity. If you were to turn away from your sublime kinship with the royal family, cede your power to the two Princes of Changsha and Chengdu, bow deeply in obeisance, and return to your border post, then even the ancients Taibo and Zizang would not be able to place the glory of their own abdications before yours. But if you forget the dangers of the great precipice you are standing before, and through your hunger for power and influence you bring down suspicion upon yourself, then even if you were to venture to the top of a high terrace or seclude yourself behind rows of walls, I would still presume to fear for your safety, even more now than at the time of Yingchuan and Yangdi."

Sima Jiong would not follow this advice, so Sun Hui pleaded illness and withdrew.

Sima Jiong said to Cao Shu, "There are those who urge me to give up my power and return to my fief. What do you make of that?"

Cao Shu replied, "As it is said, 'the thing to avoid is becoming too great'. Prince, consider the danger you face by occupying so great a position. If you were to lift up your skirt and depart, that would be an excellence among excellence."

But Sima Jiong would not listen.

〈謂在潁上時也。〉〈惠之此言,婉而切。〉〈《老子》曰:功成、名遂、身退,天之道。〉〈吳太伯以天下讓,曹子臧以國讓。〉〈高極爲亢。〉〈潁、翟,謂潁川、陽翟也。〉

(Sun Hui was talking about Sima Jiong's time in Yingchuan. In using these words to describe the challenges and difficulties, he was being tactful while still being direct.

The Daodejing states, "When the work is done, and one's name is becoming distinguished, to withdraw into obscurity is the way of Heaven. (9)"

Taibo of Wu declined to accept the throne of all the realm, merely establishing the fief of Wu. Zizang of Cao declined the throne of that state.

A place of great height is called a precipice.

Sun Hui speaks of "Ying and Yang"; he means Yingchuan and Yangdi, where Sima Jiong fought Sima Lun's soldiers.)


張翰、顧榮皆慮及禍,翰因秋風起,思菰菜、蓴羹、鱸魚鱠,歎曰:「人生貴適志耳,富貴何爲!」卽引去。榮故酣飲,不省府事,長史葛旟以其廢職,白冏徙榮爲中書侍郎。潁川處士庾袞聞冏朞年不朝,歎曰:「晉室卑矣,禍亂將興!」帥妻子逃於林慮山中。

12. Zhang Han and Gu Rong were both anxious about the coming disaster.

Zhang Han saw the autumn winds beginning to blow, and it made him think of the wild rice, water-lily soup, and sliced perch in his former homeland in Wu. He lamented, "To live a good life is what ought to be desired; what good are power and glory?" And he went away.

Gu Rong indulged in drinking and so neglected his official duties. Chief Clerk Ge Yu removed him from office and had Sima Jiong send him away to serve as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat.

A recluse of Yingchuan, Yu Gun, heard that Sima Jiong had not attended court for a full year. He sighed, "How lowly the Jin royal family has become. Disaster will come about soon!" And he fled with his wife and children to live at Mount Linlü.

〈菰,一名蔣。《本草》曰:菰,又謂之茭,歲久,中心生白臺,謂之菰米,其臺中有黑者,謂之茭,至後結實,乃雕胡黑米也。蓴生水中,葉似鳧茨,春夏細長肥滑,三月至八月爲絲蓴,九月至十一月爲猪蓴。鱸魚出吳松江者佳,吳人以爲鱠,甚美。蓴,殊倫翻。〉〈《姓譜》:庾姓,堯時爲掌庾大夫,因氏焉。〉

(The 菰 plant is also called 蔣. The Classic of Roots and Grasses states, "The 菰, also called the 茭, is a perennial plant. In its core grow white sprouts, which are called 菰 rice. The insides of some of these sprouts are black, and those are called 茭. When these are mixed together, it is called carved barbarian black rice." And it states, "The water-lily plant grows in water. Its leaves resemble water vines. It grows long, thick, and slick during the spring and summer: from the third month to the eighth month it is the Silk 蓴, while from the ninth month to the eleventh month it is the Pig 蓴." It further states, "The perch from the Wusong River is excellent; the people of the Wu region call it 鱠, and they highly prize it." 蓴 is pronounced "shun (sh-un)".

The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 庾 Yu comes from the Minister Yu who was in the service of Emperor Yao; it became his clan's surname.")


張季鷹辟齊王東曹掾,在洛見秋風起,因思吳中菰菜羹、鱸魚膾,曰:「人生貴得適意爾,何能羈宦數千里以要名爵!」遂命駕便歸。俄而齊王敗,時人皆謂為見機。(New Tales 7.10)

Zhang Han was summoned to serve as an aide in the administration of the Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong (in 301). While he was in Luoyang, he saw the autumn winds rising. It was then that he longed for the wild rice, the water-lily soup, and the sliced perch of his old home in Wu. He said, "What a man values in life is just to find what suits his fancy, and nothing more. How can he tie himself down to an official post several thousand li from home, in pursuit of fame and rank?" Whereupon he ordered his carriage and proceeded to return home. Shortly thereafter, Sima Jiong was defeated and killed (in 302). Zhang Han's contemporaries all claimed he was clairvoyant. (tr. Richard Mather)


王豹致牋於冏曰:「伏思元康以來,宰相在位,未有一人獲終者,乃事勢使然,非皆爲不善也。今公克平禍亂,安國定家,乃復尋覆車之軌,欲冀長存,不亦難乎!今河間樹根於關右,成都盤桓於舊魏,新野大封於江、漢,三王方以方剛強盛之年,並典戎馬,處要害之地,而明公以難賞之功,挾震主之威,獨據京都,專執大權,進則亢龍有悔,退則據于蒺藜,冀此求安,未見其福也。」因請悉遣王侯之國,依周、召之法,以成都王爲北州伯,治鄴;冏自爲南州伯,治宛;分河爲界,各統王侯,以夾輔天子。冏優令答之。長沙王乂見豹牋,謂冏曰:「小子離間骨肉,何不銅駞下打殺!」冏乃奏豹讒內間外,坐生猜嫌,不忠不義,鞭殺之。豹將死,曰:「縣吾頭大司馬門,見兵之攻齊也!」

13. Wang Bao sent a letter to Sima Jiong, stating, "You should consider that ever since the beginning of the Yuankang reign era (291), no one who has ever held the post of Chancellor has ever been able to save himself in the end. Now the reason that these things came about was because these people acted improperly. You yourself have overcome and pacified disaster and turmoil, and brought peace to the state and stability to the royal family. Yet you are still continuing to follow the same path that overturned the carts before you. If you still intend to go on living a long time, will this not present difficulties for you?

“Now the Prince of Hejian is firmly settled in Guanyou, the Prince of Chengdu has a secure base in the old capital of Wei at Ye, and the Prince of Xinye is secure between the Yangzi and the Han River. These three Princes have been training strong armies for the past year, and each of them is well-stocked with arms and horses and occupies places where they may inflict great harm. On the other hand, though you have the merits of having overcome difficulties, and you have the power to compel your sovereign, you only occupy the capital region itself. Yet you continue to press for more power and greater authority. To go any further will mean 'the dragon exceeding the proper limits, and occasion for repentance', while to retreat will mean 'laying hold of thorns', and though you hope for aid and peace, you shall never see good fortune."

Having said these things, Wang Bao proposed sending all of the princes and nobles out to their fiefs, and then following the examples of the ancient Dukes of Zhou and Shao: Sima Ying should be appointed as Lord of the Northern Provinces and govern from Ye, while Sima Jiong should style himself the Lord of the Southern Provinces and govern from Wan, with the Yellow River as their dividing line. Each of them would wield authority over the other princes and nobles and so assist the Son of Heaven.

Sima Jiong thought that this was excellent advice and began preparing a response to Wang Bao. But when Sima Ai saw Wang Bao's letter, he said to Sima Jiong, "This miscreant wishes to split the realm asunder like slicing the flesh from the bone. Why do you not beat him to death beneath the Copper Camels?"

Sima Jiong then submitted a petition stating that Wang Bao meant to stir up slander within and dissension without. Charging him with wild speculations, and with being disloyal and unrighteous, he had Wang Bao whipped to death. When Wang Bao was about to die, he said, "Hang my head above the Grand Marshal's gate! I want to see when the soldiers come to attack him!”

〈元康元年,楊駿誅,繼而汝南王亮死。永康元年,張華、裴頠死。〉〈曹魏以鄴都基王業,故謂之舊魏。〉〈《易‧乾》上九《爻辭》。《象》曰:亢龍有悔,盈不可久也。〉〈《易‧困》六三《爻辭》。陶弘景曰:蒺藜多生道上,而葉布地,子有刺,狀若菱而小,有三角。長安最饒,人以故多著木屐。今軍家乃鑄鐵作之,以布敵路,亦呼爲蒺藜。《易》云:據于蒺藜,言其凶傷也。《爾雅翼》:茨,蒺藜。《詩》曰:牆有茨。〉〈豹因此語掇長沙王乂之怒,以殺其身。〉〈周之時,周、召分陝而治,爲二伯,以夾輔王室,故王豹欲依以爲法。〉〈昔伍子胥爲吳王夫差所殺,將死,曰:「縣吾目於吳東門,見越之入吳也。」豹倣此語。〉

(In the first year of the Yuankang era (291), Yang Jun was executed, and the Prince of Runan, Sima Liang, was killed not long after. And in the first year of Yongkang (300), Zhang Hua and Pei Wei had been killed.

During the rise of Cao-Wei, they had used Ye as their capital for their royal endeavor, and so Wang Bao here calls it "the old capital of Wei".

The Sixth Nine Undivided reading in the Book of Changes states, "The dragon exceeding the proper limits. There will be occasion for repentance." The commentary for this reading states, "'The dragon exceeds the proper limits; - there will be occasion for repentance:' - a state of fullness, that is, should not be indulged in long."

The Third Sixth Divided reading of the Book of Changes states, "He lays hold of thorns." Tao Hongjing remarked, "Many thorns grow by the roadside, and though their leaves cover the ground, their thorns have sharp points, and though the thorns seem small, they have three corners. They are so abundant around Chang'an that many people wear wooden clogs to avoid them. The modern army creates things of cast iron for the same purpose, to spread them on the enemy's roads, and these things are also called thorns. When the Book of Changes states, 'He lays hold of thorns,' it expresses misfortune and harm. The Erya dictionary states, 'The tribulus vine is thorny.' And the Book of Poetry has the verse, 'The tribulus grows on the wall. (Qiang You Ci 1)'"

Wang Bao incurred Sima Ai's anger by his suggestion to send the princes out to their fiefs, and so he was put to death.

During the Zhou dynasty, the Dukes of Zhou and Shao had divided the land and ruled separately, as the Two Lords, both in support of the royal house. This was the precedent that Wang Bao wished to have Sima Jiong follow.

During the Spring and Autumn era, the Wu minister Wu Zixiu was killed by King Fuchai of Wu. When Wu Zixiu was about to die, he said, "Hang my eyes above the Eastern Gate of Wu, so I can see when the soldiers of Yue enter Wu." Wang Bao was invoking this quote.)


冏以河間王顒本附趙王倫,心常恨之。梁州刺史安定皇甫商,與顒長史李含不平。含被徵爲翊軍校尉,時商參冏軍事,夏侯奭兄亦在冏府。含心不自安,又與冏右司馬趙驤有隙,遂單馬奔顒,詐稱受密詔,使顒誅冏,因說顒曰:「成都王至親,有大功,推讓還藩,甚得衆心。齊王越親而專政,朝廷側目。今檄長沙王使討齊,齊王必誅長沙,吾因以爲齊罪而討之,必可禽也。去齊立成都,除逼建親,以安社稷,大勳也。」顒從之。是時,武帝族弟范陽王虓都督豫州諸軍事。顒上表陳冏罪狀,且言:「勒兵十萬,欲與成都王穎、新野王歆、范陽王虓共會洛陽,請長沙王乂廢冏還第,以穎代冏輔政。」顒遂舉兵,以李含爲都督,帥張方等趨洛陽;復遣使邀穎,穎將應之,慮志諫,不聽。

14. Now since Sima Yong had originally been inclined to support Sima Lun during the recent fighting, Sima Jiong was often wary of him in his heart.

The Inspector of Lianzhou, Huangfu Shang of Anding, was on bad terms with Sima Yong's Chief Clerk, Li Han. Li Han was summoned to the capital to serve as Colonel of 翊軍, and at this time Huangfu Shang was advising Sima Jiong on military affairs, and Xiahou Shi's elder brother was also part of Sima Jiong's staff. Li Han felt that he would not be safe in the capital, and he also had a bad relationship with Sima Jiong's Marshal of the Right, Zhao Xiang.

So Li Han fled on a lone horse to Sima Yong, and showed him a supposed secret imperial decree which he had forged, ordering Sima Yong to execute Sima Jiong. Li Han further warned Sima Yong, "The Prince of Chengdu (Sima Ying) was the closest kin to Emperor Hui, and he had the greatest achievements in the recent fighting, but he declined power and went back to his border post, and so he won the hearts of all the people. Meanwhile, although the Prince of Qi (Sima Jiong) is kin to the royal family, he abuses his power, and all the court is wary of him.

"If you were to send a proclamation ordering the Prince of Changsha (Sima Ai) to punish the Prince of Qi, the Prince of Qi would surely execute the Prince of Changsha. We would then have a pretext to act, by marching against the Prince of Qi to punish him for his crime, and we would be certain to capture him. Then if you send away the Prince of Qi and set up the Prince of Chengdu in his place, you would both avoid misfortune and establish close ties for yourself, thus securing the fortunes of state. That would be a great achievement."

Sima Yong followed his advice.

At this time, the Prince of Fanyang, Sima Yan's younger kinsman Sima Xiao, was serving as Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou.

Sima Yong sent up a petition outlining Sima Jiong's crimes and misdeeds, further stating, "Marching at the head of a hundred thousand soldiers, I wish to join together with the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, the Prince of Xinye, Sima Xin, and the Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao, to combine our forces at Luoyang. I ask that the Prince of Changsha, Sima Ai, remove Sima Jiong from power and send him back to his estate, so that Sima Ying may replace him as regent over the government."

Sima Yong then prepared his soldiers to march, appointing Li Han as their commander to lead Zhang Fang and his other generals to Luoyang.

He also sent out a proclamation to Sima Ying informing him. When Sima Ying was about to heed this call, Lu Zhi remonstrated with him, but Sima Ying did not listen to him.

〈顒附趙王倫,奭爲顒所殺,事並見上永寧元年。〉〈虓,宣帝弟東武城侯馗之少子。〉

(When Sima Yong was still planning to support Sima Lun, he had killed Xiahou Shi and his spontaneously raised army, as mentioned above in the previous year (301.15).

Sima Xiao was the youngest son (actually grandson) of the late Marquis of Dongwucheng, Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Kui.)


及河間王顒納李含之說,欲內除二王,樹穎儲副,遣報穎,穎將應之,志正諫,不從。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

Later on, the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, followed the advice of Li Han (in 302). He wanted to do away with the two Princes (Sima Jiong and Sima Ai), and set up Sima Ying as the new heir to the throne. So Sima Yong sent word of his plans to Sima Ying. Sima Ying was about to act on the plan when Lu Zhi sternly rebuked him, but Sima Ying would not listen.

後含為翊軍校尉,與冏參軍皇甫商、司馬趙驤等有憾,遂奔顒,詭稱受密詔伐冏,因說利害。顒納之,便發兵,遣使邀成都王穎。。。檄長沙王乂討冏。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Sima Yong's general Li Han was later appointed as Colonel Who Assists The Army. But Li Han had some issues with Sima Jiong's Army Advisor, Huangfu Shang, his Marshal, Zhao Xiang, and others. So he fled to Sima Yong, where he claimed to have received a secret imperial edict ordering Sima Yong to replace Sima Jiong in the capital. Li Han used this claim to advance his own arguments for why Sima Yong should do so. Sima Yong accepted his judgment, and he raised his soldiers, while also sending word of his intentions to Sima Ying... Sima Yong also published a proclamation ordering the Prince of Changsha, Sima Ai, to attack Sima Jiong in the capital.


十二月,丁卯,顒表至;冏大懼,會百官議之,曰:「孤首唱義兵,臣子之節,信著神明。今二王信讒作難,將若之何?」尚書令王戎曰:「公勳業誠大;然賞不及勞,故人懷貳心。今二王兵盛,不可當也。若以王就第,委權崇讓,庶可求安。」冏從事中郎葛旟怒曰:「三臺納言,不恤王事。賞報稽緩,責不在府。讒言逆亂,當共誅討,柰何虛承僞書,遽令公就第乎!漢、魏以來,王侯就第,寧有得保妻子者邪!議者可斬!」百官震悚失色,戎僞藥發墮廁,得免。

15. In the twelfth month, on the day Dingmao (January 26th of 303), Sima Yong's petition arrived at Luoyang. Sima Jiong was greatly afraid, and he summoned a meeting of the ministers to discuss the matter. He said to them, "I sounded the call for soldiers to rise up on behalf of righteousness, and I hold only the authority of a mere minister, trusting upon the divine wisdom. Yet now these two Princes have returned my trust with slander and are causing trouble. What is to be done?"

The Prefect of the Master of Writing, Wang Rong, said, "Your achievements are indeed very grand; however, you did not reward people in accordance with the efforts they made. This is why people are half-hearted towards you. Furthermore, the armies of the two Princes are extensive, and you will not be able to overcome them. If you were to retire to your estate, and make a sublime abdication of your authority, then you could still secure yourself."

But Sima Jiong's Attendant Officer of the Palace Gentlemen, Ge Yu, angrily replied, "For a member of the Three Terraces to say such things shows how much you disregard the Prince's affairs. It is no fault of his that rewards have been slow in coming. Besides, those who speak slander and stir up chaos should all be put to death. How are we supposed to heed the empty orders of this presumptuous letter? And through all the time of Han and Wei, what prince that retired to his estate has ever been able to protect his wife and children? Anyone who suggests such a thing out to be beheaded!"

The ministers were greatly disturbed and lost color. Wang Rong, pretending to take medicine, went out to the lavatory and so escaped.

〈二王,謂河間王顒、成都王穎。〉〈謂尚書也。〉〈賞以報功,故曰賞報。稽,留也;緩,遲也。〉〈自謂過不在齊府也。〉

(The two Princes were Sima Yong and Sima Ying.

Ge Yu identifies Wang Rong as "a member of the Three Terraces"; he means the Masters of Writing.

To grant rewards as recompense for service is the term 賞報. 稽 means "detained" or "held up", and 緩 means "tardy". Ge Yu was saying that the fault for the delay in granting rewards was not with Sima Jiong's staff.)


李含屯陰盤,張方帥兵二萬軍新安,檄長沙王乂使討冏。冏遣董艾襲乂,乂將左右百餘人馳入宮,閉諸門,奉天子攻大司馬府,董艾陳兵宮西,縱火燒千秋神武門。冏使人執騶虞幡唱云:「長沙王乂矯詔。」乂又稱「大司馬謀反」。是夕,城內大戰,飛矢雨集,火光屬天。帝幸上東門,矢集御前,羣臣死者相枕。連戰三日,冏衆大敗,大司馬長史趙淵殺何勗,因執冏以降。冏至殿前,帝惻然,欲活之。乂叱左右趣牽出,斬於閶闔門外,徇首六軍,同黨皆夷三族,死者二千餘人。囚冏子超、冰、英於金墉城,廢冏弟北海王寔。赦天下,改元。李含等聞冏死,引兵還長安。

16. Li Han camped his soldiers at Yinpan, and Zhang Fang led twenty thousand soldiers to Xin'an. They sent the proclamation ordering Sima Ai to punish Sima Jiong.

Sima Jiong sent Dong Ai to attack Sima Ai, but Sima Ai rushed into the palace at the head of more than a hundred of his attendants. He closed all of the palace gates, and took Emperor Hui to attack the office of the Grand Marshal. Dong Ai arrayed his soldiers west of the palace, and set fire to the Qianqiu and Shenwu Gates.

Sima Jiong sent people bearing the Zouyu Banners to spread the message, "The Prince of Changsha, Sima Ai, has forged an imperial decree."

But Sima Ai also spread the message, "The Grand Marshal has plotted rebellion."

That night, there was great fighting within the city; flying arrows poured down like rain, and the glow of the fires outshone the heavens. Emperor Hui was at the Shangdong Gate when a flurry of arrows came his way, and his ministers died in their rush to block the arrows.

The fighting raged for three days, until Sima Jiong's forces were greatly defeated. His Chief Clerk, Zhao Yuan, killed He Xu, arrested Sima Jiong, and surrendered.

Sima Jiong was brought to the Front Hall. Emperor Hui, feeling sad for him, wished to let him live, but Sima Ai ordered those around him to lead Emperor Hui away, and he beheaded Sima Jiong outside the Changhe Gate. Sima Jiong was posthumously known as Prince Wumin ("the Martial and Pitied") of Qi.

Of the surrendered leaders of the Six Armies, those who were in league with Sima Jiong were executed with their families to the third degree, with the dead numbering more than two thousand. Sima Jiong's sons Sima Chao, Sima Bing, and Sima Yinng were imprisoned at the Jinyong fortress, and the Prince of Beihai, Sima Jiong's younger brother Sima Shi, was deposed.

An amnesty was then declared throughout the realm, and the reign era title was changed.

When Li Han and the other commanders heard of Sima Jiong's death, they led their soldiers back to Chang'an.

〈魏收《地形志》:陰盤縣,漢屬安定郡;晉屬京兆郡;鴻門、戲水皆在縣界。余按漢京兆與馮翊以渭水爲界。安定在馮翊之北,晉安得割安定之陰盤以屬京兆邪!此魏收之誤也。《水經註》:泠水逕陰盤、新豐兩原之間,北流注于渭。漢靈帝建寧三年,改新豐爲都鄕,封段熲爲侯國。後立陰槃城,其水際城北出,謂是水爲陰槃水。又北絕漕槃溝,注于渭,是則李含所屯之陰盤也。《五代史志》:隋廢後魏平涼郡,入陰盤縣。《地形志》,涇州有平涼郡,治陰縣。一《志》之間,兩陰盤並載而不覺其誤,以是見史學之難精也。劉昫曰:唐涇州良原縣,隋陰盤縣,是卽漢安定之陰盤縣。宋白曰:京兆昭應縣東十三里,有漢新豐縣故城,亦謂之陰盤城。後漢靈帝末,移安定陰盤縣寄理於此,是卽京兆之陰盤也。〉〈新安縣,漢屬弘農郡,晉屬河南郡。〉〈千秋神武門,宮西門也。東漢曰神虎,《晉》及《南》、《北》諸《史》,皆唐羣臣所定,唐太祖諱虎,避之,改爲「武」。〉〈【章:甲十一行本無「乂」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈此上東門非洛城之上東門,宮城之上東門也。〉〈何勗與冏同起兵,時爲中領軍。〉〈《水經註》曰:按禮,王有五門,謂皋門、庫門、雉門、應門、路門。魏明帝上法太極,於洛陽南宮起太極殿于漢崇德殿之故處,改雉門曰閶闔門。余按天門曰閶闔,法以名門。又按《晉志》,洛陽城西有廣陽、西明、閶闔三門,未知孰是。此時怱怱,奚暇牽冏出都城西門乎!此必宮城之閶闔門也。〉〈改元太安。〉

(Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "During Han, Yinpan County was part of Anding commandary. During Jin, it was part of Jingzhao commandary. The Hongmen and Xi Rivers were both within this county." From what I, Hu Sanxing, understand, the border between Jingzhao and Pingyi commandaries during Han was the Wei River. Anding commandary was north of Pingyi. How could Jin have carved Yinpan County out of Anding commandary to put it in Jingzhao? Wei Shou must have been mistaken. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ling River passes through the two plains of Yinpan and Xinfeng, and flows north to join with the Wei River. In Emperor Ling of Han's third year of Jianning (170), Xinfeng was changed to Duxiang, and granted to Duan Jiong as his marquisate. The city of Yinpan was later established there, and this river bordered the city on the northern side, so it was also called the Yinpan River. And to the north was carved the Caopan Canal, to join with the Wei River. This was the Yinpan where Li Han set his camp." The Historical Records of the Five Dynasties states, "Sui abolished Later Wei's Pingliang commandry, folding it into Yinpan County." The Geographical Records mentions that there was a Pingliang commandary in Jingzhou, administered from Yin County. It must be that these two Yinpans were both included without the error being realized, by which we can see the difficulties of the study of history. Liu Xu remarked, "Liangyuan County in Tang's Jingzhou was the same as Sui's Yinpan County, the same Yinpan County that was part of Anding commandary during Han." Song Bai remarked, "Thirteen li east of Zhaoying County in Jingzhao commandary, there was the old city of Han's Xinfeng County, also called Yinpan County. At the end of the reign of Emperor Ling during Later Han, the Yinpan County in Anding commandary was moved to this place, and so it was the Yinpan of Jingzhao commandary."

During Han, Xin'an County was part of Hongnong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Henan commandary.

The Qianqiu and Shenwu Gates were the western gates of the palace. During Later Han, it was called the Shenhu Gate. But the Book of Jin and the Histories of the Northern and Southern Dynasties were all written during the Tang dynasty, and Tang observed a naming taboo on the given name of their Emperor Taizu (Liu Hu), so to comply with the taboo, the name of this gate was changed to Shenwu.

In Sima Jiong's message in this passage, some versions do not explicitly include the character for Sima Ai's name.

The Shangdong Gate that Emperor Hui is mentioned as being at in this passage was not the Shangdong Gate of the walls of the city of Luoyang, but the Shangdong Gate of the palace complex.

He Yu had risen up with Sima Jiong at the time of their rebellion against Sima Lun. By this time, he was General Who Leads The Army of the Center.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "According to tradition, the sovereign had five gates, called the Gao Gate, the Ku Gate, the Zhi Gate, the Ying Gate, and the Lu Gate. Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui), exalting in the law, built the Taiji Hall at the Southern Palace at Luoyang, where the Han dynasty's Chongde Hall had once stood, and he renamed the Zhi Gate to the Changhe Gate." I, Hu Sanxing, believe that the Tian Gate was called the Changhe Gate, so this must be the one. But according to the Records of Jin, the western walls of the city of Luoyang had the three gates of Guangyang, Ximing, and Changhe. We cannot be certain which of these Changhe gates is meant in this passage. But this was a very confused time, and how could there have been enough time to drag Sima Jiong all the way outside the capital through one of the western gates? So it must be that the Changhe Gate in this passage was the one in the walls of the palace complex.

It was at this time that the reign era title became the first year of Tai'an.)


及河間王顒將誅冏,傳檄以乂為內主。冏遣其將董艾襲乂,乂將左右百餘人,手斫車幰,露乘馳赴宮,閉諸門,奉天子與冏相攻,起火燒冏府,連戰三日,冏敗,斬之,並誅諸黨與二千餘人。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

When Sima Yong was about to march against Sima Jiong, he spread proclamations claiming that Sima Ai was his agent within the capital, so Sima Jiong sent his general Dong Ai to attack Sima Ai. But Sima Ai led more than a hundred of his close followers, ripped off the curtains of a carriage, and openly rode in haste to the palace. There he closed the palace gates and brought the Son of Heaven, Emperor Hui, with him as he and Sima Jiong attacked each other. The flames rose at Sima Jiong’s residence, and the fighting continued for three days, until Sima Jiong was defeated and Sima Ai beheaded him. He also executed Sima Jiong’s partisans and more than two thousand other people.

以含為都督,率諸軍屯陰盤,前鋒次於新安,去洛百二十里。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Sima Yong appointed Li Han as Commander, and Li Han led the various armies to camp at Yinpan. Their vanguard was at Xin'an, a hundred and twenty li from Luoyang.


長沙王乂雖在朝廷,事無巨細,皆就鄴諮大將軍穎。穎以孫惠爲參軍,陸雲爲右司馬。

17. Although Sima Ai was now in control of the court, he always referred every issue, no matter how great or small, to Sima Ying at Ye to first solicit his thoughts.

Sima Ying appointed Sun Hui as an Army Advisor, and Lu Yun as his Marshal of the Right.

及冏敗,穎懸執朝政,事無巨細,皆就鄴諮之。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

After Sima Jiong was defeated by Sima Ai (in 302), the affairs of state all passed into the hands of Sima Ying. No issue, no matter how insignificant, was resolved without first being referred to Sima Ying at Ye.


是歲,陳留王薨,諡曰魏元皇帝。

18. During this year, the Prince of Chenliu and former Emperor of Wei, Cao Huan, passed away. He was posthumously known as Emperor Yuan ("the Foremost") of Wei.

〈晉受魏禪,奉魏帝爲陳留王。〉

(When Jin had accepted the abdication from Cao-Wei, Cao Huan had been granted the title Prince of Chenliu.)


鮮卑宇文單于莫圭部衆強盛,遣其弟屈雲攻慕容廆,廆擊其別帥素怒延,破之。素怒延恥之,復發兵十萬,圍廆於棘城。廆衆皆懼,廆曰:「素怒延兵雖多而無法制,已在吾算中矣,諸君但爲力戰,無所憂也!」遂出擊,大破之,追奔百里,俘斬萬計。遼東孟暉,先沒於宇文部,帥其衆數千家降於廆,廆以爲建威將軍。廆以其臣慕輿句勤恪廉靖,使掌府庫;句心計默識,不按簿書,始終無漏。以慕輿河明敏精審,使典獄訟,覆訊清允。

19. The Chanyu of the Yuwen tribe of the Xianbei, Yuwen Mogui, had an army that was great and powerful. He sent his younger brother Yuwen Quyun to attack the rival Xianbei leader Murong Hui. But Murong Hui attacked the army of his commander Su Nuyan and routed him.

Su Nuyan, ashamed by this reverse, gathered up an army of a hundred thousand and marched against Murong Hui again, this time besieging him at Jicheng. Murong Hui's followers were all afraid. But Murong Hui told them, "Although Su Nuyan's soldiers are very numerous, they lack discipline or control. They have already walked into my trap. You gentlemen need only exert yourselves in battle, and there will be nothing to fear!" So he marched out and attacked Su Nuyan's army, greatly routing it. He pursued them for a hundred li, and the number of enemy dead or captured was reckoned in the tens of thousands.

A certain Meng Hui of Liaodong, who had originally been just another part of Yuwen Mogui's group, led several thousand families to surrender to Murong Hui, and Murong Hui appointed him as General Who Establishes Might.

Murong Hui esteemed his minister Muyu Gou, for he was diligent, respectful, honest, and unassuming, so Murong Hui trusted Muyu Gou with handling his treasury. Muyu Gou kept all the necessary figures memorized in his head, and although he never consulted any records books, his accounts were never once deficient or mistaken. And another of Murong Hui's ministers, Muyu He, was wise, discerning, meticulous, and inquisitive. So Murong Hui assigned him to handle the laws and canons, as well as prisons and law cases. Muyu He made careful investigations, and his decisions were clear and just.

〈《考異》曰:《載記》作「素延」,下云「素延怒,率衆圍棘城」。按《燕書‧紀》《傳》皆謂之「素怒延」,然則怒延是其名也。〉〈識,記也。〉〈慕輿蓋亦鮮卑之種,別爲一姓。史言慕容廆善用人。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Murong Hui in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin at first records the name of the humiliated Yuwen commander merely as 'Suyan', but later on it states, 'Suyannu (or possiblye 'Suyan, furious,') led his army to besiege Jicheng.' The biographies in the Records of the Book of Yan all identify him as 'Sunuyan'. It must be that Nuyan was his given name."

The term 識 in this instance means "to memorize".

The 慕輿 Muyu were another branch of the Xianbei, and Muyu thus became a surname.

This passage shows Murong Hui's skill in employing and using people.)
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BOOK 85

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 20, 2017 3:23 am

大安二年(癸亥、三○三)

The Second Year of Da'an (or, Tai'an) (The Guihai Year, 303 AD)


〈【章:甲十一行本「大」作「太」;乙十一行本同;熊校同。】〉

(Some versions record the reign era here as "太 Tai'an" instead of "大 Da'an".)


春,正月,李特潛渡江擊羅尚,水上軍皆散走。蜀郡太守徐儉以少城降,特入據之,惟取馬以供軍,餘無侵掠;赦其境內,改元建初。羅尚保太城,遣使求和於特。蜀民相聚爲塢者,皆送款於特,特遣使就撫之;以軍中糧少,乃分六郡流民於諸塢就食。李流言於特曰:「諸塢新附,人心未固,宜質其大姓子弟,聚兵自守,以備不虞。」又與特司馬上官惇書曰:「納降如受敵,不可易也。」前將軍雄亦以爲言。特怒曰:「大事已定,但當安民,何爲更逆加疑忌,使之離叛乎!」

1. In spring, the first month, the refugee leader Li Te secretly crossed the river and attacked Luo Shang, whose forces arrayed along the river scattered and fled. The Administrator of Shu commandary, Xu Jian, surrendered Chengdu's Lesser City to Li Te. When Li Te marched in to occupy it, he only claimed the horses for army purposes, but there was no further plunder. He declared an amnesty within the region under his control, and he declared a new reign era title as the first year of Jianchu. Luo Shang, still defending Chengdu's Greater City, sent agents to Li Te to arrange peace terms.

By this time, all of the people in the Shu region who had banded together inside of fortifications sent funds to support Li Te, who sent people in turn to visit them and tend to their concerns. Since the grain supplies in Li Te's army were running low, he dispersed the refugees from the six commandaries to stay in these various fortified places so they could feed themselves.

Li Liu said to Li Te, "These fortified places have only just come over to our side, and men's hearts are fickle things. We ought to have their leaders send us their sons and younger brothers as hostages, and we ought to keep our soldiers together in order to defend ourselves, so that we can be prepared if anything should happen."

He and Li Te's Major, Shangguan Dun, also wrote Li Te a letter, stating, "Accepting a surrender is like going to receive an enemy. This is not a thing to take lightly."

Li Te's General of the Front, his son Li Xiong, also expressed the same sentiments.

But Li Te angrily replied, "The whole business is already settled, and the thing to focus on now is bringing stability to the people. How can you go so far as to heap such doubts and suspicions upon them? That will drive them away and make them rebel!"

〈郫水上軍也。〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「太安元年五月,特自號大將軍。」《載記》:「太安元年,特稱大將軍,改元。」《後魏書‧李雄傳》云:「昭帝七年,特稱大將軍,號年建初。」昭帝七年,太安元年也。祖孝徵《修文殿御覽》云:「太安二年,特大赦,改年建初元年。特見殺。」《三十國》、《晉春秋》云:「太安二年正月,特僭位改年。」今從《御覽》等書。〉〈恐其詐降,當嚴爲之備,如待敵然。〉

(This passage mentions Luo Shang's forces "along the river"; it means the Pi River.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'In the fifth month of the first year of Tai'an (302), Li Te declared himself Grand General.' The Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'In the first year of Tai'an (302), Li Te declared himself Grand General and changed the reign era title.' The Biography of Li Xiong in the Book of Northern Wei states, 'In Emperor Zhao's seventh year, Li Te declared himself Grand General and changed the reign era title to Jianchu.' Emperor Zhao's seventh year would have been the first year of Tai'an (302). Zu Xiaoheng's Instructional Book of the Xiuwen Hall states, 'In the second year of Tai'an (303), Li Te declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianchu. He was soon killed.' The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both state, 'In the first month of the second year of Tai'an (303), Li Te falsely assumed the throne and changed the reign era title.' I follow the account of the Instructional Book and the other texts."

Li Liu and Shangguan Dun feared that the people were falsely surrendering to Li Te, and they wanted to keep the soldiers in strict readiness, as though they were about to receive the attack of an enemy.)


大安二年,部下推特為大將軍,大赦,改元為建初元年。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

In the second year of Da'an (or Tai'an; 303), Li Te’s subordinates acclaimed him as Grand General. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianchu.

進擊,破尚水上軍,遂寇成都。蜀郡太守徐儉以小城降,特以李瑾為蜀郡太守以撫之。羅尚據大城自守。流進屯江西,尚懼,遣使求和。是時蜀人危懼,並結村堡,請命於特,特遣人安撫之。(Book of Jin 120)

Then Li Te advanced and attacked, routing Luo Shang’s naval force, before invading Chengdu itself. The Administrator of Shu commandary, Xu Jian, surrendered Chengdu’s Lesser City to Li Te. Li Te appointed Li Jin as his own Administrator of Shu in order to nurture that region. Luo Shang occupied Chengdu’s Greater City and maintained the defense. But when Li Liu advanced to camp at Jiangxi, Luo Shang was frightened, and he sent messengers asking for peace terms.

By this time, because of the danger and fear across the region, the people of Shu had banded together into villages and fortifications. They asked for orders from Li Te, who sent men to settle and nurture them.

特之陷成都小城,使六郡流人分口入城,壯勇督領村堡。流言於特曰:「殿下神武,已克小城,然山藪未集,糧仗不多,宜錄州郡大姓子弟以為質任,送付廣漢,縶之二營,收集猛銳,嚴為防衛。」又書與特司馬上官惇,深陳納降若待敵之義。特不納。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

After Li Te captured Chengdu’s Lesser City, he sent the refugees from the six commandaries away in several groups, each to go into a city, and he had his strong soldiers guard the various villages and fortifications. Li Liu said to Li Te, “Your Highness, you have divine martial ability, and you have already taken the Lesser City. However, the last few pockets of resistance among the hills and shallows have not yet been dealt with, and we have little grain and few weapons on hand here. You should have the leaders of the great families of the provinces and commandaries send us their sons and younger brothers as hostages, whom you can send back to Guanghan. Then make ready the two camps and gather together fierce and keen soldiers, to keep a tight defense to protect ourselves.”

And he and Li Te’s Marshal, Shangguan Dun, also wrote Li Te a letter, explaining the principle of how accepting a surrender (as he was planning to do with Luo Shang) was like going to receive an enemy. But Li Te would not listen to them.

二年,春正月朔,特攻尚水上軍。特從盎底渡,黨徒從赤水渡,入郫及水西南。緣江守軍皆散走。太守徐儉逼降。尚保太城。特營少城,而流軍江西之檢上。蜀民先已結村保。特分人就主之。雄書諫特:「收質任,無得分散猛銳。」流亦諫之。特怒曰:「大事以定,但當安民。何緣疑動,而劫害不止。」(Huayang Guozhi 7.6)

In the second year (303), in spring, the new moon of the first month, Li Te attacked Luo Shang's naval forces. Li Te crossed over the river from Angdi, while his partisans crossed over from Chisui, and thus they crossed the Pi River and went southwest. Luo Shang's military camps on the river all scattered and fled. The Administrator, Xu Jian, surrendered to Li Te under the pressure. Luo Shang himself defended the Greater City at Chengdu. (Li Te camped his men inside the Lesser City, while) Li Liu's army was camped west of the Yangzi at Jianshang.

By this time, the people in the Shu region (out of fear) had banded together inside of villages for self-defense. Li Te split up his forces to send some to these places to supervise them. Li Xiong wrote a letter to Li Te remonstrating with him, stating, "You should take hostages from these groups, and you should not split up your keen soldiers." Li Liu also remonstrated with Li Te.

But Li Te angrily replied, "The whole business is (already) settled, and the thing to focus on now is bringing stability to the people. To heap doubts and suspicions upon them will only bring them further oppression and harm."

特營少城: 《晉書載記》,無此四字。流軍江西之檢上: 張、吳、何、王、石本無「特營少城」四字而作「流軍進屯江西之檢上」,張佳胤妄依《晉書》改也。廖刻與元豐、錢、劉、李、《函》本作此文。浙本剜改同。蜀民: 張、吳、何、王、石本此下有懼字。大事以定: 張、吳、何諸本改作已。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding the phrase 特營少城 "Li Te camped his men inside the Lesser City", the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin does not contain this phrase. The Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions do not list them either, and they simply state 流軍進屯江西之檢上 "Li Liu advanced and camped his forces at Jianshang west of the Yangzi." Zhang Jiayin presumed to alter the text to agree with the Book of Jin account. The Liao edition and the Yuanfeng, Qian, Liu, Li, and 函 editions write it the same way, as does the Zhe edition.

After the characters 蜀民 "the people of Shu", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions add the character 懼 "out of fear".

In the phrase 大事以定 "the whole business is settled", the Wu and He editions have changed it to 已 "already".)


朝廷遣荊州刺史宗岱、建平太守孫阜帥水軍三萬以救羅尚。岱以阜爲前鋒,進逼德陽;特遣李蕩及蜀郡太守李璜就德陽太守任臧共拒之。岱、阜軍勢甚盛,諸塢皆有貳志。益州兵曹從事蜀郡任叡言於尚曰:「李特散衆就食,驕怠無備,此天亡之時也。宜密約諸塢,刻期同發,內外擊之,破之必矣!」尚使叡夜縋出城,宣旨於諸塢,期以二月十日同擊特。叡因詣特詐降,特問城中虛實,叡曰:「糧儲將盡,但餘貨帛耳。」叡求出省家,特許之,遂還報尚。二月,尚遣兵掩襲特營,諸塢皆應之,特兵大敗,斬特及李輔、李遠,皆焚尸,傳首洛陽,流民大懼。李蕩、李雄收餘衆還保赤祖。流自稱大將軍、大都督、益州牧,保東營,蕩、雄保北營。孫阜破德陽,獲寋碩,任臧退屯涪陵。

2. The court ordered the Inspector of Jingzhou, Zong Dai, and the Administrator of Jianping, Sun Fu, to lead thirty thousand naval soldiers to reinforce Luo Shang. Zong Dai had Sun Fu serve as his vanguard, sending him forward to threaten Deyang. In response, Li Te sent his son Li Dang and the new Administrator of Shu commandary, Li Huang, to assist the defense of Deyang together with the Administrator there, Ren Zang.

Because of the great size of Zong Dai's and Sun Fu's army, the fortified places began to waver in their resolve of which side to support. The Attendant Officer to the Manager of Infantry of Yizhou, Ren Rui of Shu commandary, said to Luo Shang, "Li Te has dispersed his forces in order to keep them fed, and in his arrogance, he has made no preparations to defend himself. Heaven wills his downfall. You should make a secret accord with the fortified places. Set a time for a general rising, and we shall all attack him from every side. He shall certainly be defeated."

So Luo Shang had Ren Rui slip out of the city by rope during the night. Ren Rui went around to the fortified places, telling them Luo Shang's intentions, and he arranged that on the tenth day of the second month, they would all attack Li Te together.

Ren Rui also visited Li Te to feign his surrender, and Li Te asked him how conditions were inside Luo Shang's defenses. Ren Rui told him, "The grain stores are nearly exhausted; funds and silks are the only things there."

So Ren Rui asked that he be allowed to go back to his family, and Li Te allowed him to leave. Ren Rui then returned to Chengdu and informed Luo Shang of everything.

In the second month, Luo Shang sent his soldiers to launch a surprise attack on Li Te's camp, and the fortified places also supported him. Li Te's soldiers were greatly defeated. Li Te, Li Fu, and Li Yuan were all killed. Their bodies were burned, and their heads were sent to Luoyang.

The refugees were now greatly afraid. Li Liu, Li Dang, and Li Xiong gathered up the remaining soldiers and fell back to guard Chizu. Li Liu declared himself the new Grand General, Grand Commander, and Governor of Yizhou. He guarded the eastern camp, while Li Dang and Li Xiong guarded the northern camp.

Sun Fu broke into Deyang; Jian Shuo was captured, while Ren Zang retreated to camp at Fuling.

〈李特蓋又分廣漢立德陽郡。〉〈《考異》曰:《載記》作「任明」。《羅尚傳》作「任銳」。今從《華陽國志》。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「李」上有「李流」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦無。】〉〈赤祖,地名,當在緜竹東。祖,子邪翻。〉〈寋,姓也。〉〈此涪陵,乃漢廣漢郡之涪縣,晉梓潼郡之涪城縣,非涪陵郡之涪陵。廣漢梓潼之涪,今緜州,今人猶謂緜州爲涪陵,涪陵郡之涪陵,則今涪州涪陵縣也。〉

(Li Te had split off part of Guanghan commandary to form Deyang commandary.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding Luo Shang's agent in arranging this rising against Li Te, the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records his name as Ren Ming, and the Biography of Luo Shang in the Book of Jin records it as Ren 銳 Rui. But I follow the account of the Huayang Guozhi in naming him Ren 叡 Rui."

Some versions list Li Liu as one of the Li commanders who led their army back in the wake of Li Te's death.

Chizu was the name of a place, east of Mianzhu. 祖 is pronounced "zie (z-ie)".

寋 Jian is a surname.

The Fuling mentioned in the last sentence was the Fu County in Han's Guanghan commandary, the same as Fucheng County in Jin's Zitong commandary. It was not the Fuling in Fuling commandary. The Fu in Guanghan/Zitong is in the modern Mianzhou, and even today people call Mianzhou "Fuling". The Fuling in Fuling commandary is the Fuling County in modern Fuzhou.)


益州從事任回說尚曰:「特既凶逆,侵暴百姓,今又分散人衆,在諸村堡,驕怠無備,是天亡之時也。可告諸村,密刻期日,內外擊之,破之必矣。」尚從之,遣大衆奄襲特營。尚出逆戰,到官桑,特軍敗績,死之。雄稱成都王,追諡景王,及稱尊號,追尊曰景皇帝。廟號始祖。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms (Li Te))

The Attendant Officer of Yizhou, Ren Hui, advised Luo Shang, “Li Te is a wild and wicked traitor, and he has plundered and ravaged the common people. Now he has dispersed his forces to all the various villages and fortifications, and in his arrogance, he has made no preparations to defend himself. Heaven wills his downfall. You should make a accord with the villages. Set a secret time for a general rising, and we shall all attack him from every side. How could we not destroy him?”

Luo Shang followed his advice, and he sent out most of his forces to suddenly attack Li Te’s camp. Luo Shang then went out and counter-attacked Li Te, and when he arrived at Guansang, Li Te’s camp was defeated again, and he perished.

When his son Li Xiong assumed the title Prince of Chengdu, he posthumously named Li Te as Prince Jing (“the Splendid”), and when Li Xiong later claimed imperial title, he further posthumously honored Li Te as Emperor Jing. Li Te’s temple name was Shizu.

建初元年,特既見殺,流自大將軍、益州牧。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms (Li Liu))

In the first year of Jianchu (by 16K’s reckoning, 303), after Li Te’s death, Li Liu proclaimed himself as Grand General and Governor of Yizhou.

益州從事任明說尚曰:「特既凶逆,侵暴百姓,又分人散眾,在諸村堡,驕怠無備,是天亡之也。可告諸村,密克期日,內外擊之,破之必矣。」尚從之。明先偽降特,特問城中虛實,明曰:「米穀已欲盡,但有貨帛耳。」因求省家,特許之。明潛說諸村,諸村悉聽命。還報尚,尚許如期出軍,諸村亦許一時赴會。二年,惠帝遣荊州刺史宋岱、建平太守孫阜救尚。阜已次德陽,特遣蕩督李璜助任臧距阜。尚遣大眾奄襲特營,連戰二日,眾少不敵,特軍大敗,收合餘卒,引趣新繁。尚軍引還,特復追之,轉戰三十餘里,尚出大軍逆戰,特軍敗績,斬特及李輔、李遠,皆焚屍,傳首洛陽。在位二年。其子雄僭稱王,追諡特景王,及僭號,追尊曰景皇帝,廟號始祖。(Book of Jin 120)

The Attendant Officer of Yizhou, Ren Ming, advised Luo Shang, “Li Te is a wild and wicked traitor, and he has plundered and ravaged the common people. Now he has dispersed his forces to all the various villages and fortifications, and in his arrogance, he has made no preparations to defend himself. Heaven wills his downfall. You should make a accord with the villages. Set a secret time for a general rising, and we shall all attack him from every side. How could we not destroy him?”

Luo Shang agreed with him. So Ren Ming first visited Li Te to feign his surrender, and Li Te asked him what conditions were like inside Luo Shang’s defenses. Ren Ming replied, “The grain stores are nearly exhausted; funds and silks are the only things there.”

Then Ren Ming asked that he be allowed to go back to his family, and Li Te allowed him to leave. Ren Ming then secretly visited the villages and advised them of the plan, and all of those places heeded his orders. Then he returned to Chengdu and informed Luo Shang of everything. At the set time, Luo Shang would march out with his army, and the villages would all march out and join him at the same time.

In the second year of Tai'an (303), Emperor Hui ordered the Inspector of Jingzhou, Song Dai, and the Administrator of Jianping, Sun Fu, to go and reinforce Luo Shang. Sun Fu had already reached Deyang, so Li Te sent Li Dang to lead Li Huang to reinforce Ren Zang against Sun Fu.

Luo Shang then sent most of his forces to suddenly attack Li Te’s camp. They fought for two days, and with so few remaining soldiers, Li Te was no match for the enemy and his army was greatly defeated. Li Te gathered up his remaining men and fell back to Xinfan. Luo Shang then began to lead his own army back towards Chengdu. Li Te turned around and pursued him, and they fought a running battle for more than thirty li. Then Luo Shang brought his main army out again and counter-attacked, and Li Te’s army suffered another defeat. Li Te was killed, as well as Li Fu and Li Yuan. Their corpses were burned, and their heads were sent to Luoyang. Li Te had been in the second year of his reign.

When his son Li Xiong assumed title as Prince, he posthumously named Li Te as Prince Jing (“the Splendid”), and when Li Xiong later claimed imperial title, he further posthumously honored Li Te as Emperor Jing, with the temple name Shizu.

特既死,蜀人多叛,流人大懼。流與兄子蕩、雄收遺眾,還赤祖,流保東營,蕩、雄保北營。流自稱大將軍、大都督、益州牧。時宋岱水軍三萬,次於墊江,前鋒孫阜破德陽,獲特所置守將騫碩,太守任臧等退屯涪陵縣。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Following Li Te’s death, many of the natives of Shu turned against the rebels, and the refugees were greatly afraid. Li Liu and his nephews Li Dang and Li Xiong gathered up their remaining forces and fell back to Chizu, where Li Liu guarded the eastern camp and Li Dang and Li Xiong guarded the northern one. Li Liu proclaimed himself Grand General, Grand Commander, and Governor of Yizhou.

By this time, Song Dai’s naval force of thirty thousand had advanced to Dianjiang, and his vanguard under Sun Fu had captured Deyang, capturing Li Te’s Defensive General of that place, Qian Shuo. Li Te's Administrator of Deyang, Ren Zang, and the other rebel commanders retreated to camp at Fuling County.

尚從事蜀郡任叡說尚曰:「侵暴百姓,又分人眾散在諸村,怠忨無備,殆天亡特之秋也。可告諸村,密剋戰日,內外擊之。破特必矣。」尚從之。「從」〔夜〕縋出叡,使宣旨告諸村,期二月十日同時討特。手書隱語曰:「在彼「楊」〔揚〕水。」叡先詣特降,究觀虛實。特問城中。叡曰:「米穀已欲盡,但有貨帛耳。」因求省家。特與啟信。諸村悉從叡。叡還報。尚如期出軍討特,諸村亦起,大殺特眾。〔特眾〕破退。追及於繁之官桑,斬特及兄輔〔李〕遠等。「李」流歛餘眾還赤祖。尚「乘」〔雖〕勝,但施遊軍征盪。傳特首洛陽,焚其屍。李雄以李離為梓潼太守,眾還赤祖,推流為大將軍大都督。而荊州刺史宋岱水軍三萬助尚,次墊江。前鋒建平太守孫阜,破特德陽守將蹇碩、太守任臧,徑至涪。(Huayang Guozhi 7.6, 7.7)

Luo Shang's Attendant Officer, Ren Rui of Shu commandary, advised him, "Li Te (is a wild and wicked traitor, and he) has plundered and ravaged the common people. Now he has dispersed his forces among the villages, and in his arrogance and greed (or scarcity), he has made no preparations to defend himself. Heaven wills his downfall. You can inform the villages, and secretly set a day to fight a battle, when we shall all attack him from every side. His defeat will be certain." Luo Shang followed his advice.

So he let Ren Rui down over the walls during the night with a rope, and sent him to inform the villages of his decree and tell them his plans, setting the tenth day of the second month as the date for a general attack against Li Te. He secretly wrote on the letter, "When the enemy is at the river."

Ren Rui first visited Li Te to feign his surrender, and took the chance to see what conditions were like in Li Te's camp. Li Te asked him what conditions were like inside Luo Shang’s defenses. Ren Rui replied, “The grain stores are already nearly exhausted; funds and silks are the only things there.” Then Ren Rui asked that he be allowed to go back to his family. Li Te trusted him and allowed him to leave. The villages all agreed to Ren Rui's plan. Then Ren Rui returned and informed Luo Shang.

When the date arrived, Luo Shang sent his army out to attack Li Te, and the villages also rose up, greatly slaughtering Li Te's forces. Li Te's army broke and ran. They were pursued to Guansang in Fan, where Li Te, his elder brother Li Fu, Li Yuan, and others were all killed. Li Liu gathered up the remaining troops and returned to Chizu.

But although Luo Shang had won this battle, he did not have his army finish off the remaining enemy forces. He sent Li Te's head to Luoyang, and burned his body.

Li Xiong appointed Li Li as the Administrator of Zitong, while he led his forces back to Chizu, and he acclaimed Li Liu as Grand General and Grand Commander (and Governor of Yizhou).

However, Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Song (or Zong) Dai, had led thirty thousand soldiers by water to reinforce Luo Shang, and he arrived at Dianjiang. His Vanguard Commander, the Administrator of Jianping, Sun Fu, captured Li Te's Defensive General of Deyang, Jian (or Qian) Shuo, and his Administrator of Deyang, Ren Zang, and Sun Fu then advanced to Fu.

任叡: 原當避元帝諱改字。《晉書》作明。元豐、錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本作叡,當是依《蜀漢書》定。張、吳、何、王、石本作督,誤。下同。浙本剜改作叡。說尚曰: 《函海》本同。《晉書》有「特既凶逆」四字。他本無。忨: 元豐與浙本作荒。廖本改忨。當作忨。「從」〔夜〕: 各本舊有從字。當依《通鑑》作「夜」。縋: 張、吳、何、王、石本作縱。浙本剜改,依元豐諸本作縋。大殺特眾: 廖本注云:「當重有特眾二字。」茲補。〔李〕: 舊各本無李字。顧廣圻校稿云:「遠上有缺文。考上文云陰平李遠。非特兄也。」廖本亦注云:「當有李字。」茲補。「乘」〔雖〕: 於文當作雖。大都督: 廖本注云:「當有益州牧三字。」荊州刺史宋: 廖本注「當作宗,下同」。蹇: 錢本空此字。元豐、劉、李、《函》、廖本作蹇。張、吳、何、王、石本作騫。浙本剜改蹇。徑至涪: 《晉書》與《通鑑》作:「獲蹇碩。任臧退屯涪陵。」並誤。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding the given name of Ren 叡 Rui, his given name happened to run afoul of the naming taboo of Eastern Jin's Emperor Yuan, Sima 叡 Rui. The Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin thus wrote his given name as 明 Ming. The Yuanfeng, Qian, Liu, Li, 函, and Liao editions write his given name as 叡 Rui, following the example of the Book of Shu-Han. The Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions write his given name as 督 Du, but they are mistaken. The same below. The Zhe edition has changed his given name to 叡 Rui.

Regarding Ren Rui's advice to Luo Shang, the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin begins it with the phrase 特既凶逆 "Li Te is a wild and wicked traitor", while the other editions do not contain this phrase.

Regarding the character 忨 "greed", the Yuanfeng and Zhe editions write this as 荒 "scarcity". But the Liao edition changes this to 忨 "greed", and this is how it should be.

The old editions all use the character 從 "followed" when describing how Ren Rui slipped out of the Greater City, but the character should be 夜 "during the night", as the Zizhi Tongjian has it.

Regarding the character 縋 "by rope", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions write it as 縱. The Zhe edition changes it to 縋 "by rope", following the examples of the Yuanfeng and other editions.

Regarding the phrase 大殺特眾 "greatly slaughtering Li Te's forces", the Liao edition notes, "this phrase should be followed by repeating the characters 特眾 'Li Te's army'." I have thus added it in.

When listing Li Fu and then Li Yuan, the old editions have the text simply as 兄輔遠 "his elder brothers Li Fu and Li Yuan", thus implying that Li Yuan was also Li Te's elder brother. But the 顧廣圻校稿 notes, "There is a character missing before 遠 Yuan. If we examine the earlier text, we see that this Li Yuan was the person introduced as 'Li Yuan of Yinping', and was not an elder brother of Li Te." And the Liao edition also notes, "There should be a 李 Li character before Yuan (to emphasize he was not an elder brother of Li Te)." So I have added it in.

Where the last sentence uses the character 乘, it should be 雖 "although", considering the context.

In the list of titles that Li Xiong acclaims Li Liu as, the Liao edition notes "there should be the characters 益州牧 "Governor of Yizhou".

Regarding the surname of 宋 Song Dai, the Liao edition notes "the surname here and elsewhere should be 宗 Zong.

Regarding the surname of 蹇 Jian Shuo, the Qian edition does not print this character. The Yuanfeng, Liu, Li, 函, Zhe, and Liao editions write it as such, while the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions write it as 騫 Qian.

Regarding the account of Sun Fu 徑至涪 "advancing to Fu", the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and the account of this episode in the Zizhi Tongjian writes 獲蹇碩, 任臧退屯涪陵 "(Sun Fu) captured Jian Shuo, and Ren Zang fell back to camp at Fuling". But both of those accounts are mistaken. )


三月,羅尚遣督護何沖、常深攻李流,涪陵民藥紳亦起兵攻流。流與李驤拒紳,何沖乘虛攻北營,氐苻成、隗伯在營中,叛應之。蕩母羅氏擐甲拒戰,伯手刃傷其目,羅氏氣益壯;會流等破深、紳,引兵還,與沖戰,大破之。成、伯率其黨突出詣尚。流等乘勝進抵成都,尚復閉城自守。蕩馳馬逐北,中矛而死。

3. In the third month, Luo Shang sent his Protector He Chong and Chang Shen to attack Li Liu. A native of Fuling, Yao Shen, also rose up with soldiers to attack Li Liu. Li Liu sent Li Xiang to oppose Yao Shen (or, Li Liu sent Li Xiang to oppose Chang Shen, and sent Li Dang and Li Xiong to oppose Yao Shen).

Seeing that Li Liu's camp was now exposed, He Chong took the chance to attack the northern camp. The Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Bo, who were present in the camp, switched sides to support Luo Shang's men. Li Dang's mother Lady Luo put on armor and fought back against these enemies. Kui Bo injured Lady Luo in the eye with a blade, but this only made her fight all the stronger.

The camp was on the point of falling. By this time, Li Liu and the others had routed Chang Shen and Yao Shen, and they led their soldiers back to the camp. They fought He Chong and greatly defeated him. Fu Cheng and Kui Bo led their followers on a sudden charge to break out, and they went to present themselves to Luo Shang.

Li Liu and the others followed up on their victories by advancing to threaten Chengdu again. Luo Shang once more closed the gates to defend the city.

Li Dang was riding his horse on a quick pursuit north when he was struck by a spear and died.

〈【章:甲十一行本「拒」下有「深使李蕩李雄拒」七字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦脫此八字。按「八」當爲「七」字之誤。】〉〈【章:甲十一行本「壯」下有「營垂破」三字;乙十一行本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(Some versions expand the third sentence to read "Li Liu sent Li Xiang to oppose Chang Shen, and sent Li Dang and Li Xiong to oppose Yao Shen."

Some versions state that "The camp was on the point of falling".)


羅尚遣督護常深軍毗橋,牙門左氾、黃訇、何沖三道攻北營。流身率蕩、雄攻深柵,克之,深士眾星散。追至成都,尚閉門自守,蕩馳馬追擊,觸倚矛被傷死。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Luo Shang sent his Protector Chang Shen to lead his army to Piqiao, and he sent his Generals of the Standard, Zuo Fan, Huang Hong, and He Chong, along three roads to attack the refugees’ northern camp. Li Liu personally led Li Dang and Li Xiong to attack Chang Shen’s barricades, and they took them, with Chang Shen’s soldiers scattering like shooting stars. They pursued the enemy to Chengdu, where Luo Shang once more closed the gates to hold out.

Li Dang was rushing his horse ahead to pursue and attack the enemy when he was struck by a spear and died from the wound.

三月,尚遣督護張龜、何沖、左汜等軍繁城,而綿竹降。涪陵民藥紳、杜阿應尚。〔蕩、雄攻紳。〕尚又遣督護常深軍毗橋,為流、驤禦。「蕩雄,攻紳」深破驤,殺李攀。左汜、黃誾攻特北營。營中氐羌因符成、隗伯、石定叛應汜、誾,攻蕩、雄〔軍〕。時蕩、雄在外,但有軍留營中耳。蕩母羅,擐甲略陳。伯手刃羅,傷目,壯氣益烈。時成、伯戰於內,汜、誾攻其外,自晨至日中,營垂欲破;會流破深,蕩、雄破紳還,適與汜、誾會,大破之。成、伯將其黨突出詣尚。蕩策馬追退軍,為叟長矛所樁,死。羅、雄秘不發喪,以安眾心。(Huayang Guozhi 7.7)

In the third month, Luo Shang sent his Protectors Zhang Gui, He Chong, Zuo Si, and others to Fancheng, and Mianzhu surrendered to them.

Natives of Fuling, Yao (or Yue) Shen and Du A, joined with Luo Shang. Li Dang and Li Xiong attacked Yao Shen.

Luo Shang also sent his Protector Chang Shen to lead an army to Piqiao. Li Liu and Li Xiang opposed him, but Chang Shen routed Li Xiang and killed Li Pan.

Zuo Si and Huang Yin then attacked Li Te's northern camp. Inside the camp, the Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Bo and the Qiang leader Shi Ding switched sides to support Zuo Si and Huang Yin, and they attacked Li Dang's and Li Xiong's forces. At this time, Li Dang and Li Xiong themselves were away, and so only some of their forces were still at the camp. Li Dang's mother Lady Luo put on armor and organized the defense of the camp. Kui Bo personally struck Lady Luo with his blade and wounded her eye, but this only made her fight on all the fiercer. At this time, Fu Cheng and Kui Bo were fighting the rebels from within while Zuo Si and Huang Yin attacked them from without. The fighting went on from dawn until noon, when the camp was just about to fall. By then, Li Lui had routed Chang Shen and Li Dang and Li Xiong had routed Yao Shen; they all returned and clashed with Zuo Si and Huang Yin, greatly routing them. Fu Cheng and Kui Bo led their partisans to break out of the camp and go visit Luo Shang to surrender to him.

Li Dang was pressing his horse forward to pursue the retreating enemy army when he was pierced by a long spear, and he died. Lady Luo and Li Xiong kept his death a secret and did not hold mourning for him, in order to settle the hearts of the army.

涪陵民藥: 元豐與劉、李本作樂。〔蕩、雄攻紳。〕: 四字自後移此。四字移前。弟恭謬。: 李恭後為征東大將軍,未死於此。特北營: 顧廣圻校稿云:「特字衍。時特已死矣。考《載記》及《通鑑》,皆流保東營,蕩、雄保北營。或本其初而稱之歟?」今按:顧氏末語是也。特雖死,妻、子、故部仍保北營。時雄與蕩外出,故仍稱特北營也。廖本云「當衍」,非。〔軍〕: 舊本無軍字,當有。傷目: 廖本注云:「當重有羅字。」(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding the surname of 藥 Yao Shen, the Yuanfeng, Liu, and Li editions write it as 樂 Yue.

I have moved the location of the phrase 蕩、雄攻紳 "Li Dang and Li Xiong attacked Yao Shen" backwards to where it ought to be, immediately after the first mention of Yao Shen.

This passage claims that Li Pan's younger brother Li Gong was killed at the same time he was. But this is mistaken, since Li Gong was later appointed as Grand General Who Conquers The East, so he could not have died at this time.

Where this passage mentions the north camp as 特北營 "Li Te's northern camp", the 顧廣圻校稿 notes, "The character 特 (Li) Te here should be omitted. Li Te had already died by this time. If we consult the accounts of this episode in the Biography of Li Liu in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and in the Zizhi Tongjian, they both state that Li Liu was guarding the eastern camp, while Li Dang and Li Xiong were guarding the northern camp. Perhaps it is listed here because Li Te had originally formed that camp?" But in my view, it cannot be as Master Rong states. Although Li Te was indeed dead, his wife, sons, and former forces had assumed command of the camp. And at this time, Li Dang and Li Xiong were away from the camp, and so that is why it is here called "Li Te's camp". The Liao edition also notes that "this character should be omitted", but it should not be so.

The sentence where Fu Cheng, Kui Bo, and Shi Ding switch sides ends by noting that they attacked 蕩、雄 "Li Dang and Li Xiong". The character 軍 "('s) forces" should be added to the end of the sentence, as in "Li Dang's and Li Xiong's forces". The old editions do not contain this 軍 character, but it should be there.

Following the phrase 傷目 "(Kui Bo) wounded (Lady Luo's) eye", the Liao edition notes "the character 羅 (Lady) Luo should be repeated after this (to clarify that she was the one who 壯氣益烈 "fought on all the fiercer".)


朝廷遣侍中劉沈假節統羅尚、許雄等軍,討李流。行至長安,河間王顒留沈爲軍師,遣席X代之。

4. The court sent the Palace Attendant, Liu Chen of the Yan princely fief, bearing a Staff of Authority to oversee the armies of Luo Shang, Xu Xiong, and the others dealing with Li Liu's rebels. But when Liu Chen arrived at Chang'an, the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, kept Liu Chen there to serve as his Army Instructor, and he sent Xi Wei in Liu Chen's place.

〈【章:甲十一行本「劉」上有「燕國」二字;乙十一行本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈羅尚帥益州兵,許雄帥梁州兵。〉〈X,羽委翻。〉

(Some versions state that Liu Chen was "of the Yan princely fief".

Luo Shang was in command of the armies of Yizhou, while Xu Xiong was in command of the armies of Lianzhou.

X Wei is pronounced "yei (y-ei)".)


征西乃遣監軍劉沈將西征,以中國有事,不果。(Huayang Guozhi 7.6)

Sima Yong then sent the Army Chief Liu Chen to lead (soldiers) on a western campaign as well, but because of events in the Middle Kingdom (involving the War of the Eight Princes), Liu Chen never arrived.


李流以李特、李蕩繼死,宗岱、孫阜將至,甚懼。李含勸流降,流從之;李驤、李雄迭諫,不納。夏,五月,流遣其子世及含子胡爲質於阜軍;胡兄離爲梓潼太守,聞之,自郡馳還,欲諫不及。退,與雄謀襲阜軍,雄曰:「爲今計,當如是;而二翁不從,柰何?」離曰:「當劫之耳!」雄大喜,乃共說流民曰:「吾屬前已殘暴蜀民,今一旦束手,便爲魚肉,惟有同心襲阜以取富貴耳!」衆皆從之。雄遂與離襲擊阜軍,大破之。會宗岱卒於墊江,荊州軍遂退。流甚慙,由是奇雄才,軍事悉以任之。

5. Seeing as Li Te and Li Dang had died one after the other, and the armies of Zong Dai and Sun Fu were so close, Li Liu was very afraid. Li Han urged him to surrender, and Li Liu agreed with him. Li Xiang and Li Xiong sent remonstrations, but Li Liu would not heed them.

In summer, the fifth month, Li Liu sent his son Li Shi and Li Han's son Li Hu to Sun Fu's army as hostages. Li Hu's elder brother Li Li was then serving as the rebels' Administrator of Zitong, and when he heard that hostages had been sent, he quickly returned from his commandary to remonstrate with Li Liu and Li Han, but to no avail.

Li Li withdrew from them, and began plotting with Li Xiong to attack Sun Fu's army. Li Xiong said, "Sir, if we do as you suggest, things can be settled. But if our uncles refuse to go along, what shall we do?"

Li Li replied, "We'll force their hands!"

Li Xiong was greatly pleased. He gathered together the refugees and urged them, "It was just recently that we had our way over the people of Shu. But now the situation has changed overnight, and we have become fishbait! Whoever wishes to join us and attack Sun Fu, fame and fortune will be yours!"

The people all followed him. Li Xiong and Li Li then attacked Sun Fu's army, and greatly routed it. Zong Dai then passed away at Diejiang, and the Jingzhou army retreated back to their province.

Li Liu was deeply shamed by all this, but he also gained a great appreciation for Li Xiong's abilities. He trusted him with all military matters.

〈二翁,謂李流、李含也。〉〈墊,音疊。墊江縣自漢來屬巴郡,唐爲合州之地。〉

("Our uncles" meant Li Liu and Li Han.

墊 is pronounced "die". Ever since Han, Diejiang County had been part of Ba commandary. During Tang, it was part of Hezhou.)


流以特、蕩並死,而岱、阜又至,甚懼。太守李含又勸流降,流將從之。雄與李驤迭諫,不納,流遣子世及含子胡質於阜軍。胡兄含子離聞父欲降,自梓潼馳還,欲諫不及,退與雄謀襲阜軍,曰:「若功成事濟,約與君三年迭為主。」雄曰:「今計可定,二翁不從,將若之何?」離曰:「今當制之,若不可制,便行大事。翁雖是君叔,勢不得已,老父在君,夫復何言!」雄大喜,乃攻尚軍。尚保大城。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Now that Li Te and Li Dang were both dead, and the armies of Song Dai and Sun Fu were closing in, Li Liu was very afraid. The Administrator Li Han also urged him to surrender, and Li Liu was about to follow his advice. Li Xiong and Li Xiang sent remonstrations, but Li Liu would not heed them. He sent his son Li Shi and Li Han’s son Li Hu to Sun Fu’s army as hostages.

When Li Hu’s elder brother Li Li heard that his father wished to surrender, he quickly returned from Zitong to remonstrate with Li Liu and Li Han, but to no avail. Li Li withdrew from them, and began plotting with Li Xiong to attack Sun Fu’s army. He said, “If we can realize this achievement, I pledge to alternate with you as leader every three years.”

Li Xiong said, “I reckon we can accomplish it, but our uncles will not go along with it. What should we do?”

Li Li replied, “Now we shall have to force them. Otherwise, we will be throwing away the whole design. Our uncles may be the ones in charge, but their power does not compare with yours. With old men like them in charge, what more is there to say?”

Li Xiong was overjoyed, and so he attacked Luo Shang’s army. Luo Shang defended the Greater City.

五月,李流〔請〕降於孫阜,遣子為質。乃舉兵與李離襲阜。阜軍敗績。宋岱病卒墊江,〔荊〕州軍退。〔初〕,〔流以特、蕩死,而岱、阜並至,恐懼。李含勸流降,流從之。雄與驤諫之,不納。遣子世及含子胡質於阜。李離聞父、舅將降,自梓潼還,欲諫不及。雄與離謀襲阜,曰:「若功成事濟,當為人主,要三年一更。」雄曰:「與君計雖定,老子不從,若何?」離曰:「當制〕〔之。若不可,便行大事。雖君叔,〕〔事不得已。老父〕〔在君,夫復何言。」雄乃說六郡人士,激以尚之自侵〕,〔懼以共殘蜀民〕〔之禍,陳〕〔可富貴之利。〕〔得以破阜。阜軍死者甚眾。而岱病亡,荊州軍退。轉攻尚。流慚其短,軍事任雄。雄數破尚軍〕。「雄」逼攻尚,尚保「太」「城」〔成都〕「中」。(Huayang Guozhi 7.7)

In the fifth month, Li Liu initially asked to surrender to Sun Fu, and he sent his son to serve as a hostage. But Li Liu then raised his troops and attacked Sun Fu together with Li Li (or Li Xiong). Sun Fu's army was defeated several times, and Song (or Zong) Dai passed away from illness at Dianjiang, so the Jingzhou army retreated to their own territory again.

Before all this, since Li Te and Li Dang had now both died, and Song (or Zong) Dai and Sun Fu were both close at hand, Li Liu was very afraid. Li Han urged him to surrender, and Li Liu followed his advice. Li Xiong and Li Xiang remonstrated with him, but to no avail. Li Liu sent his son Li Shi and Li Han's son Li Hu to Sun Fu as hostages.

When Li Li heard that his father and uncle were about to surrender, he returned from Zitong, wanting to remonstrate with them, but they did not listen. Li Xiong then plotted with Li Li to attack Sun Fu's army. Li Li said, "If we can achieve this thing, then you will become a leader of men, and it can happen within three years."

Li Xiong replied, "Sir, with your plan, we might be able to settle things. But if our elders do not agree, what shall we do?"

Li Li said, "We shall have to control (or force) them. Otherwise, we will be throwing away the whole design. My lord uncle (Li Liu) may be the one in charge, but his power does not compare with yours. As for my old father (Li Han), what more is there to say?”

So Li Xiong spoke to the soldiers of the six commandaries, whipping them into a fervor to attack Luo Shang, warning them of the threat of ruin they faced if the natives of Shu all fought against them, and explaining how they might bring wealth and glory to themselves.

The rebels attacked Sun Fu and routed him, and Sun Fu's army suffered a great many deaths. Song (or Zong) Dai then fell ill and died, and so the Jingzhou army retreated back to their province. The rebels then turned and attacked Luo Shang.

Li Liu was ashamed of his shortcomings, and so he entrusted all military affairs to Li Xiong.

Li Xiong routed Luo Shang's army several times, and when he advanced to further threaten Luo Shang, Luo Shang withdrew into Chengdu to defend himself.

「當制〕: 《通鑑》作「劫」。君叔: 指流。老父: 指含。自侵: 今云相侵。蜀民: 字當作人,指官紳家。陳: 廖本此下注「當有襲字」。今按,原衍阜字。非脫襲字也。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Where Li Li states that they shall have to 制 "control" Li Liu and Li Han, the Zizhi Tongjian's account of this episode has the character 劫 "force".

By 君叔 "lord uncle", Li Li means Li Liu, and by 老父 "old father", he means Li Han.

Regarding the term 自侵, today we would say this as 相侵.

Where this passage uses the phrase 蜀民 "people of Shu", the second character should be 人, to indicate the government and gentry families of Shu rather than the mere common people.

At the point where this passage has Li Xiong 陳 "explaining", the Liao edition notes "following this character should be the character 襲 'to attack (Sun Fu)'." But in my view, that would be redundant considering the 阜 (Sun) Fu character, and it does not need to be added.)


新野莊王歆,爲政嚴急,失蠻夷心,義陽蠻張昌聚黨數千人,欲爲亂。荊州以壬午詔書發武勇赴益州討李流,號「壬午兵」。民憚遠征,皆不欲行。詔書督遣嚴急,所經之界停留五日者,二千石免官。由是郡縣官長皆親出驅逐;展轉不遠,輒復屯聚爲羣盜。時江夏大稔,民就食者數千口。張昌因之誑惑百姓,更姓名曰李辰,募衆於安陸石巖山,諸流民及避戍役者多從之。太守弓欽遣兵討之,不勝。昌遂攻郡,欽兵敗,與部將朱伺奔武昌。歆遣騎督靳滿討之,滿復敗走。

6. Now the Prince of Xinye, Sima Xin, had been strict and harsh in his administration of his territory, and so he had alienated the hearts of the Man and Yi tribes. A fellow of the Man people in Yiyang, Zhang Chang, gathered together several thousand of his followers, planning to rebel.

Jingzhou issued an edict on the day Renwu (June 10th) drafting strong fighting fellows for an army to fight Li Liu in Yizhou, and this came to be known as the Renwu Draft. The people did not want to go on a campaign so far away, and none of them wished to comply with the draft. But the enforcers of the edict were especially strict and exacting, and in the territories that they passed through and stayed in for five days, even those of Two Thousand 石 salary rank were stripped of office. Because of that, the commandary and county ministers and officials all personally came out to see them, but before the enforcers had gone very far, the officials all began to band together in outlaw groups.

And at this time, there was an abundant harvest in Jiangxia, and thousands of people came there seeking food.

Zhang Chang was thus able to deceive and mislead the common people. He changed his name to Li Chen, and he recruited followers at Mount Shiyan in Anling commandary. Many of the refugees and those avoiding the draft call flocked to his side.

The Administrator of Jiangxia, Gong Qin, sent soldiers to campaign against Zhang Chang, but without success. Zhang Chang then marched to attack the commandary capital. Gong Qin's soldiers were defeated, and he and his general Zhu Xi fled to Wuchang.

Sima Xin sent the Cavalry Commander Jin Man to attack the rebels, but Jin Man was also defeated and fled.

〈劉昫曰:義陽本漢平氏縣之義陽鄕。魏文帝黃初中,分立義陽縣,蓋治石城;後分南陽郡立義陽郡,治安昌城,領安昌、平林、平氏、義陽、平春五縣,唐爲申州義陽縣。〉〈《晉書‧張昌傳》云:石巖山去安陸郡八十里。《水經註》:溳水過江夏安陸縣西,又南逕石巖山北。今德安府南十里有石巖山。〉〈《姓譜》:弓姓,魯大夫叔弓之後。余按孔子弟子有仲弓,又有馯臂子弓,而獨以魯叔弓後,殊爲未通。〉〈伺,相吏翻。〉

(Liu Xu remarked, "Yiyang was originally Yiyang Village in Han's Pingshi County. During Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei's (Cao Pi's) Huangchu era (220-6), he split off Yiyang as Yiyang County, administered from Shicheng. Later on, part of Nanyang commandary was split off as Yiyang commandary, administered from Anchang, and composed of the five counties of Anchang, Pinglin, Pingshi, Yiyang, and Pingchun. During Tang, it was Yiyang County in Shenzhou."

The Biography of Zhang Chang in the Book of Jin states, "Mount Shiyan is eighty li from Anling commandary." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yun River passes through the west of Anling County in Jiangxia commandary, and flows south past the north of Mount Shiyan." There is a Mount Shiyan ten li south of the modern De'an Garrison.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 弓 Gong are the descendants of the great minister Shu Gong of the state of Lu." From what I, Hu Sanxing, understand, Confucius had a nephew named Zhonggong, and Han Bi's style name was Zigong, but it is not clear as to whether they were descendants of Shu Gong.

伺 is pronounced "Xi (x-i)".)


昌遂據江夏,造妖言云:「當有聖人出爲民主。」得山都縣吏丘沈,更其姓名曰劉尼,詐云漢後,奉以爲天子,曰:「此聖人也。」昌自爲相國,詐作鳳皇、玉璽之瑞,建元神鳳;郊祀、服色,悉依漢故事。有不應募者,族誅之,士民莫敢不從。又流言:「江、淮已南皆反,官軍大起,當悉誅之。」互相扇動,人情惶懼,江、沔間所在起兵以應昌,旬月間衆至三萬,皆著絳帽,以馬尾作髥。詔遣監軍華宏討之,敗于障山。

7. Zhang Chang then occupied Jiangxia, and he spread a false prophecy stating, "A sage shall appear to lead the people." He produced a certain official from Shandu County, Qiu Chen, and changed his name to Liu Ni, falsely claiming that he was a descendant of the royal line of Han. He raised up Qiu Chen as the Son of Heaven, saying, "Here is the sage."

Zhang Chang then named himself as Qiu Chen's Chancellor of State. He fashioned fake phoenix and jade ornaments for Qiu Chen, and he changed the reign era title to Shenfeng. The conducting of sacrifices and the clothing worn were all done in imitation of the old Han style. Whoever refused to serve in Zhang Chang's army was executed along with their clans, and so there was no one among the gentry or common people who dared not to go along with him.

A rumor spread: "Everywhere south of the Yangzi and the Huai River is already in rebellion, so the government will raise a great army and kill everyone."

This rumor spread rapidly, and so people became very afraid. Everyone living between the Yangzi and the Mian River rose up with soldiers and joined Zhang Chang, and in the space of a month his army swelled to thirty thousand. They all wore crimson caps and wore beards made of horse tails.

An edict was issued ordering the General Who Leads The Army, Hua Hong, to campaign against these rebels, but Hua Hong was defeated at Mount Zhang.

〈杜佑曰:漢江夏郡故城,在安州雲夢縣東南。〉〈山都縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉屬襄陽郡,其地屬唐襄州穀城縣界。杜佑曰:山都縣故城,在襄州義清縣東南。〉〈今安陸縣東四十里有章山。〉

(Du You remarked, "The capital city of Han's Jiangxia commandary was in the southeast of Yunmeng County in Anzhou."

During Han, Shandu County was part of Nanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Xiangyang commandary. Its territory was within Tang's Gucheng County in Xiangzhou. Du You remarked, "The capital city of Shandu County was in the southeast of Yiqing County in Xiangzhou."

There is a Mount Zhang forty li east of modern Anlu County.)


歆上言:「妖賊犬羊萬計,絳頭毛面,挑刀走戟,其鋒不可當。請臺敕諸軍三道救助。」朝廷以屯騎校尉劉喬爲豫州刺史,寧朔將軍沛國劉弘爲荊州刺史。又詔河間王顒遣雍州刺史劉沈將州兵萬人幷征西府五千人出藍田關以討昌。顒不奉詔;沈自領州兵至藍田,顒又逼奪其衆。於是劉喬屯汝南,劉弘及前將軍趙驤、平南將軍羊伊屯宛。昌遣其將黃林帥二萬人向豫州,劉喬擊卻之。

8. Sima Xin sent up a petition stating, "The dogs and sheep of the bandits number in the tens of thousands. They have crimson heads and hairy faces. They dance with their blades and shift stances with their halberds, and their spirit is too keen to be overcome. I ask that the court dispatch armies along three roads to reinforce us against them."

So the court appointed the Colonel of 屯騎, Liu Qiao, as Inspector of Yuzhou, and they appointed the General of 寧朔, Liu Hong, as Inspector of Jingzhou. They also ordered Sima Yong to send the Inspector of Yongzhou, Liu Chen, to lead ten thousand soldiers of his province, along with five thousand soldiers of the household guard of the General Who Conquers The West, to march through Lantian Pass and campaign against Zhang Chang. But Sima Yong would not obey the edict, and when Liu Chen brought his soldiers to Lantian, Sima Yong seized control of his army.

Liu Qiao camped his army at Runan, while Liu Hong, the General of the Front, Zhao Xiang, and the General Who Pacifies The South, Yang Yi, camped at Wan. Zhang Chang sent his general Huang Chen to lead twenty thousand soldiers towards Yuzhou, but Liu Qiao attacked them and drove them off.

〈挑刀,舞刀也。今鄕落悍民,兩手運雙刀,坐作進退,爲擊刺之勢,擲刀空中,高一二丈,以手接之。又善舞戟,左奔右赴,爲刺敵之勢;又環身盤戟,回轉如縈,又以戟矜柱地,跳過矜上,特爲儇捷,此所謂走戟也。〉〈寧朔將軍始見於此。〉〈藍田關在京兆藍田縣,卽秦之嶢關也。〉

(The term 挑刀 means "dancing blades". Modern brave fellows from the countryside will wield double-bladed weapons in both hands, moving forward and shifting back while remaining in one spot. In order to show their strength in swordfighting, they will cast their blades up into the air, as high as one or two zhang, and then catch them with their hands. They are also skilled at dancing with halberds, withdrawing on the left side while moving forward on the right side, in order to throw their enemy off balance. They also wrap their bodies in plates and halberds, turning and shifting as though entangled, and then plant the shaft of their halberd on the ground and leap over it. They are especially cunning and nimble, and so it is said that they "shift stances with their halberds".

The rank General of 寧朔 first appeared at this time.

Lantian Pass was in Lantian County in Jingzhao commandary, where the state of Qin's Yao Pass once was.)


初,歆與齊王冏善,冏敗,歆懼,自結於大將軍穎。及張昌作亂,歆表請討之。時長沙王乂已與穎有隙,疑歆與穎連謀,不聽歆出兵,昌衆日盛。從事中郎孫洵謂歆曰:「公爲岳牧,受閫外之託,拜表輒行,有何不可!而使姦凶滋蔓,禍釁不測,豈藩翰王室、鎭靜方夏之義乎!」歆將出兵,王綏曰:「昌等小賊,偏裨自足制之,何必違詔命,親矢石也!」昌至樊城,歆乃出拒之,衆潰,爲昌所殺。詔以劉弘代歆爲鎭南將軍,都督荊州諸軍事。六月,弘以南蠻長史陶侃爲大都護,參軍蒯恆爲義軍督護,牙門將皮初爲都戰帥,進據襄陽。張昌幷軍圍宛,敗趙驤軍,殺羊伊。劉弘退屯梁。昌進攻襄陽,不克。

9. During the time that Sima Jiong had been in power, Sima Xin had been on good terms with him. After Sima Jiong was overthrown, Sima Xin became afraid, and he had reached out to the Grand General, Sima Ying.

Now that Zhang Chang had started a rebellion, Sima Xin petitioned asking for permission to campaign against him. At this time, the relationship between Sima Ying and the Prince of Changsha, Sima Ai, had deteriorated. So when Sima Ai received this petition, he suspected that Sima Xin was trying to form common cause with Sima Ying against him, and he refused to listen to Sima Xin's request to move his troops.

Zhang Chang's army grew larger by the day. The Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Sun Xun, said to Sima Xin, "You are a border commander, entrusted with protecting the edges of the realm, and you have been sending in all these petitions. How can they forbid you like this? When wickedness and violence are growing on every side, and these disasters and disputes are unfathomable, how can the borders protect the royal family or safeguard the realm with righteousness?"

So Sima Xin was about to march out anyway, but Wang Sui said to him, "Zhang Chang and the others are just minor bandits. How can you, who are only a subordinate commander, take matters into your own hands, violate an imperial command, and expose yourself to the slings and arrows?"

When Zhang Chang reached Fancheng, Sima Xin insisted upon marching out to oppose him. But his army scattered, and he was killed by Zhang Chang. He was posthumously known as Prince Zhuang ("the Dignified") of Xinye.

An edict was issued appointing Liu Hong as Sima Xin's replacement as General Who Guards The South and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou.

In the sixth month, Liu Hong appointed the Chief Clerk to the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Tao Kan of Lujiang, as Grand Protector. He also appointed the Army Advisor Kuai Heng as Protector of the Volunteer Army, and he appointed the General of the Standard, Pi Chu, as 都戰帥.

Liu Hong advanced to occupy Xiangyang. Zhang Chang combined his forces to lay siege to Wan; he defeated Zhao Xiang's army and killed Yang Yi. Liu Hong fell back to camp at Liang County. Zhang Chang advanced to attack Xiangyang, but he could not take it.

〈事見上卷永寧元年。〉〈古有四岳、十二牧,各統其方諸侯之國,故後人謂專方面者爲岳牧。〉〈毛萇曰:藩,樊也,籬也。翰,榦也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「陶」上有「廬江」二字;乙十一行本同。】〉〈南蠻校尉有長史、司馬。〉〈義軍,蓋民兵也。督護之官,蓋創置於此時。〉〈杜佑曰:襄陽,漢中廬縣也。〉〈梁縣屬汝南郡,唐爲汝州治所。〉

(Sima Xin's cooperation with Sima Jiong in the campaign against Sima Lun is mentioned in the previous book, in the first year of Yongning (301).

Sun Xun says that Sima Xin is a 岳牧. In ancient times, the realm had four 岳s and twelve Governors, each of which led soldiers in defense of the feudal states. This was why people in later ages called those with border commands 岳牧s.

Mao Chang remarked, "藩 means border or fence. 翰 means trunk."

Some versions further state that Tao Kan was "of Lujiang".

The Colonel of Southern Man Tribes had Chief Clerks and Marshals as subordinates.

The Volunteer Army was made up of common people as soldiers. The duties of the Protectors were first split up at this time.

Du You remarked, "Xiangyang was Han's Zhonglu County."

Liang County was part of Runan commandary. During Tang, it was the administrative center of Ruzhou.)


李雄攻殺汶山太守陳圖,遂取郫城。

10. Li Xiong attacked and killed the Administrator of Wenshan, Chen Tu, and he then captured Picheng.

〈汶,音民。《考異》曰:《華陽國志》作「陳旹」,今從《載記》。〉〈郫縣屬蜀郡。李膺《益州記》:郫縣故城在今縣北。劉昫曰:唐益州溫江縣,漢郫縣地。〉

(汶 is pronounced "min".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Huayang Guozhi records this Administrator as Chen Shi. But I follow the account of the Biography of Li Liu in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin."

Pi County was part of Shu commandary. Li Ying's Records of Yizhou states, "The capital of Pi County was in the north of the modern county." Liu Xu remarked, "Wenjiang County in Tang's Yizhou was the Pi County of Han.")


雄渡江害汶山太守陳圖。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Li Xiong crossed over the Yangzi and killed the Administrator of Wenshan, Chen Tu.

六月,雄從帛羊頹渡,攻殺汶山太守陳「圖」〔圖〕,「據」〔趣〕郫城。(Huayang Guozhi 7.7)

In the sixth month, Li Xiong crossed the river at Boyangtui (or Maoyangtui). He attacked and killed Jin's Administrator of Wenshan, Chen Tu, and then assembled his forces at Picheng.

帛: 李本作冒。趣: 於文不當作據。蓋本趣字,音訛。(HYGZ Commentary)

(In the name of the place where Li Xiong crossed the river, the Li edition writes the first character as 冒 Mao.

This passage states that Li Xiong 據 "occupied" Picheng after killing Chen Tu, but this character should be 趣 "assembled", because considering the context of the later sentences, he could not have first occupied the city and only afterwards entered it. The character has been corrupted.)


秋,七月,李流徙屯郫。蜀民皆保險結塢,或南入寧州,或東下荊州,城邑皆空,野無煙火,流虜掠無所得,士衆飢乏。唯涪陵千餘家,依青城山處士范長生;平西參軍涪陵徐轝說羅尚,求爲汶山太守,邀結長生,與共討流。尚不許,轝怒,出降於流,流以轝爲安西將軍。轝說長生,使資給流軍糧,長生從之;流軍由是復振。

11. In autumn, the seventh month, Li Liu moved his camp to Pi County. The people of Shu had all withdrawn into the fortified places to protect themselves, while some of them had fled south into Ningzhou or east into Jingzhou. The cities and villages were all left empty, and there was no cooked food to be had in the field. Li Liu foraged all around, but he could not obtain any supplies, and the soldiers suffered from hunger and exhaustion.

The only place with more than a thousand families left was Fuling, where they had gathered at Mount Qingcheng under the leadership of the hermit Fan Changsheng. The Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The West, Xu Yu of Fuling, had asked Luo Shang to appoint him as Administrator of Wenshan, so that he could form an alliance with Fan Changsheng that they might attack Li Liu together. But Luo Shang would not give his permission. Xu Yu, angry at this, went to offer his surrender to Li Liu instead, and Li Liu appointed him as the General Who Maintains The West of the rebels. Xu Yu then spoke to Fan Changsheng, urging him to send grain to keep Li Liu's army supplied. Fan Changsheng followed his advice, and so Li Liu's army was restored to fighting form.

〈青城山,在汶山郡都安縣,今在永康軍青城縣北三十二里。杜光庭作《青城山記》曰:岷山連峯接岫,千里不絕,青城乃第一峯也。范長生,涪陵人,率衆保之。《考異》曰:《華陽國志》作「范賢」。今從《載記》。〉〈尚爲平西將軍,以徐轝爲參軍。《考異》曰:《華陽國志》作「徐輿」。今從《載記》。〉

(Mount Qingcheng is in Du'an County in Wenshan commandary, thirty-two li north of Qingcheng County in modern Yongkang Garrison. Du Guangting wrote the Records of Mount Qingcheng, stating, "The Min Mountains stretch from peak to peak and from cave to cave, unbroken for a thousand li. Mount Qingcheng is the highest of these peaks."

Fan Changsheng was a native of Fuling; he had led the people there to Mount Qingcheng for protection.

Luo Shang was himself the General Who Pacifies The West, so Xu Yu was his Army Advisor.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Huayang Guozhi records the name of this hermit as Fan Jian, and it records the name of Luo Shang's Army Advisor as Xu 輿 Yu rather than Xu 轝 Yu. But in both these cases I follow the account of the Biography of Li Liu in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.")


遂入郫城,流移營據之。三蜀百姓並保險結塢,城邑皆空,流野無所略,士眾饑困。涪陵人范長生率千餘家依青城山,尚參軍涪陵徐轝求為汶山太守,欲要結長生等,與尚掎角討流。尚不許,轝怨之,求使江西,遂降於流,說長生等使資給流軍糧。長生從之,故流軍復振。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Li Xiong entered Picheng, and the refugees moved their camp there and occupied it.

The people of Shu had all withdrawn into the fortified places to protect themselves, leaving their cities and villages empty. Li Liu foraged all around, but he could not obtain any supplies, and the soldiers suffered from hunger and exhaustion.

A native of Fuling commandary, Fan Changsheng, had led more than a thousand families to seek refuge at Mount Qingcheng. Luo Shang’s Army Advisor, Xu Yu of Fuling, asked Luo Shang to appoint him as the new Administrator of Wenshan, as he wanted to form an alliance with Fan Changsheng and others in order to attack Li Liu together from many sides. But Luo Shang would not permit it, and so Xu Yu resented him. He sent word to Jiangxi, and so surrendered to Li Liu, advising Fan Changsheng and the others to send grain to keep Li Liu’s army supplied. Fan Changsheng followed his advice, and so Li Liu’s army was restored to fighting form.

秋七月朔,雄入郫城,流盡移營據之。三蜀民流迸,南入,東下,野無煙火,鹵掠無處,亦尋飢餓。唯涪陵民千餘家在江西,依青城山處土范賢自守。平西參軍涪陵徐輿求為汶山太守,撫帥江西民,與官掎角討雄。尚不許。輿怨之,求使江西,因叛降雄。雄以為安西將軍。〔說賢〕給其軍糧,雄得以振。(Huayang Guozhi 7.7)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon, Li Xiong entered Picheng, and Li Liu moved all of his camps to occupy that place as well.

The people of the three Shu regions had all fled, with some going south and some east; the fields were left bare of food. Although Li Liu foraged, he could not obtain anything, so the soldiers suffered from hunger and exhaustion.

The only place with more than a thousand families left was Fuling west of the Yangzi, where they had gathered at Mount Qingcheng under the leadership of the hermit Fan Jian (Fan Changsheng). The Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The West, Xu Yu of Fuling, had asked Luo Shang to appoint him as the new Administrator of Wenshan, so that he could nurture these people in Fuling and lead them, that they might attack Li Liu together with the government (or, Luo Shang's) army. But Luo Shang would not give his permission. Xu Yu, angry at this, asked to be sent to Jiangxi, and because of that he rebelled and went to offer his surrender to Li Xiong (or Li Liu) instead. Li Xiong (or Li Liu) appointed him as the General Who Maintains The West of the rebels. Xu Yu then spoke to Fan Jian (Fan Changsheng), urging him to send grain to keep Li Liu's army supplied, and so Li Xiong's (or Li Liu's) army was restored to fighting form.

流迸: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作併。當作迸。汶山: 吳、何、王、石本誤作水。官: 元豐、錢、劉、李、《函》、廖、浙諸本作官。張、吳、何諸本作尚。降雄: 《晉書》與《通鑑》作流。安西將軍: 廖本注云:「當有說賢二字。」茲補。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Where it says that the people of Shu 迸 "advanced", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write it as 併 "combined", but it should be the former character.

Where Xu Yu asks to be appointed as Administrator of 汶山 Wenshan, the Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions miswrite the second character as 水 Shui.

Regarding the mention of Xu Yu coordinating with the 官 "government" army, the Yuanfeng, Qian, Liu, Li, 函, and Zhe editions write it as such, while the Zhang, Wu, and He editions write this character as 尚 (Luo) Shang.

Where this passage states that Xu Yu surrendered to 雄 (Li) Xiong, the account of this episode in the Biography of Li Liu in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and in the Zizhi Tongjian write this character as 流 (Li) Liu.

Following Xu Yu's appointment by Li Xiong, the Liao edition notes "the characters 說賢 'he advised Fan Jian to' should be inserted (as in, 'he advised Fan Jian to (provide food to the rebels)')." I have inserted those characters.)


初,李含以長沙王乂微弱,必爲齊王冏所殺,因欲以爲冏罪而討之,遂廢帝,立大將軍穎,以河間王顒爲宰相,己得用事。旣而冏爲乂所殺,穎、顒猶守藩,不如所謀。穎恃功驕奢,百度弛廢,甚於冏時;猶嫌乂在內,不得逞其欲,欲去之。時皇甫商復爲乂參軍,商兄重爲秦州刺史。含說顒曰:「商爲乂所任,重終不爲人用,宜早除之。可表遷重爲內職,因其過長安執之。」重知之,露檄上尚書,發隴上兵以討含。乂以兵方少息,遣使詔重罷兵,徵含爲河南尹。含就徵而重不奉詔,顒遣金城太守游楷、隴西太守韓稚等合四郡攻之。顒密使含與侍中馮蓀、中書令卞粹謀殺乂;皇甫商以告乂,收含、蓀、粹,殺之。驃騎從事琅邪諸葛玫、前司徒長史武邑牽秀皆出奔鄴。

12. During the previous year, Sima Yong's advisor Li Han had believed that Sima Ai was so weak and feeble that Sima Jiong would have easily killed him when provoked, and then Sima Yong would have cause to punish Sima Jiong for this crime. Then Sima Yong could depose Emperor Hui and set up Sima Ying in his place, with Sima Yong wielding power as Sima Ying's Chancellor. So they had attempted this plot. But, contrary to Li Han's expectations, Sima Jiong was killed by Sima Ai instead. So Sima Ying and Sima Yong were still merely guarding their border commands, uncertain of what to do next.

By this time, Sima Ying had grown arrogant based on his achievements, and he was lax in enforcing things, even worse than Sima Jiong had been. But he resented the fact that Sima Ai was still at the center of power and he could not do whatever he liked, so Sima Ying wanted to get rid of him.

At the same time, Huangfu Shang was now serving as Sima Ai's Army Advisor, and his elder brother Huangfu Zhong had been appointed as Inspector of Qinzhou. Li Han warned Sima Yong, "Huangfu Shang is employed by Sima Ai, and Huangfu Zhong will ultimately not allow you to control him. You should do away with both of them at once. You could petition that Huangfu Zhong be transferred to a post in the capital, and then when he passes through Chang'an on his way to Luoyang, you can arrest him."

But Huangfu Zhong knew what they intended for him, and so after sending a letter to the court stating his intentions, he raised the soldiers of Longxi to attack Li Han.

Because Sima Ai had few soldiers himself, he attempted to resolve the situation by both issuing an edict ordering Huangfu Zhong to disperse his soldiers and summoning Li Han to Luoyang to serve as Intendant of Henan. Li Han obeyed the summons, but Huangfu Zhong ignored the edict. Sima Yong sent the Administrator of Jincheng, You Kai, the Administrator of Longxi, Han Zhi, and the other ministers from four commandaries to attack Huangfu Zhong.

Sima Yong also secretly ordered Li Han, the Palace Attendant Feng Sun, and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Bian Cui, to plot together to kill Sima Ai. Huangfu Shang informed Sima Ai of the plot, and all three of them were arrested and executed. The Attendant Officer to the General of Agile Cavalry, Zhuge Mei, and the former Chief Clerk to the Minister Over The Masses, Qian Xiu of Wuyi, both fled the city and ran to Ye.

〈事見上卷上年。〉〈商、含不平事見上卷元年。〉〈自隴以西六郡統於秦州。〉〈《考異》曰:《含傳》云:「河間王顒表含爲河南尹。」今從《皇甫重傳》。〉〈秦州刺史鎭冀城。〉〈從事,從事中郎也。武邑縣,前漢屬信都郡,後漢、晉屬安平國,武帝分立武邑郡,唐爲縣,屬冀州。〉

(Li Han's poor relationship with Huangfu Shang, and his plot to have Sima Jiong kill Sima Ai to give a pretext for war against Sima Jiong, are mentioned in the previous book, in the first year of Tai'an (302.14).

The six commandaries west of the Long Mountains were governed by Qinzhou.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Li Han in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yong petitioned that Li Han be appointed as Intendant of Henan.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Huangfu Zhong in the Book of Jin."

The Inspector of Qinzhou had his headquarters at Jicheng.

Zhuge Mei is noted as being the "Attendant Officer"; he was the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen.

During Former Han, Wuyi County was part of Xindu commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of the Anping princely fief. Sima Yan had split off Wuyi as its own commandary. During Tang it became a county again, as part of Jizhou.)


顒本以乂弱冏強,冀乂為冏所擒,然後以乂為辭,宣告四方共討之,因廢帝立成都王,己為宰相,專制天下。即而乂殺冏,其計不果,乃潛使侍中馮蓀、河南尹李含、中書令卞粹等襲乂。乂並誅之。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

Sima Yong had originally believed that since Sima Ai was weak and Sima Jiong was strong, Sima Jiong would naturally have taken Sima Ai captive. Then Sima Yong himself could declare vengeance for Sima Ai, and spread word to all four corners of the realm for a joint campaign against Sima Jiong. After that, he could depose Emperor Hui and set up Sima Ying on the throne in his place, while Sima Yong served as his Chancellor wielding control over the realm. However, since Sima Ai was actually the one who executed Sima Jiong, this original plan did not come to fruition.

So Sima Yong secretly arranged for the Palace Attendant, Feng Sun, the Intendant of Henan, Li Han, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Bian Cui, and others to attack Sima Ai. But Sima Ai put all of them to death.

既恃功驕奢,百度弛廢,甚于冏時。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

By this time, resting on his laurels, Sima Ying had become proud and arrogant, and he allowed affairs to become lax or neglected, worse than Sima Jiong had been.

及冏敗,顒以含為河南尹,使與馮蓀、卞粹等潛圖害乂。商知含前矯妄及與顒陰謀,具以告乂。乂乃誅含等。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

When, against expectations, Sima Ai actually did defeat Sima Jiong, Sima Yong appointed Li Han as Intendant of Henan and sent him and Feng Sun, Bian Cui, and others to Luoyang to secretly plot to get rid of Sima Ai as well. But Huangfu Shang knew of Li Han's former deception and mischief, and he was aware that Li Han was secretly plotting on Sima Yong's behalf, so he informed Sima Ai of the plot. Sima Ai then executed Li Han and the others.


張昌黨石冰寇揚州,敗刺史陳徽,諸郡盡沒;又攻破江州,別將陳貞攻武陵、零陵、豫章、武昌、長沙,皆陷之,臨淮人封雲起兵寇徐州以應冰。於是荊、江、徐、揚、豫五州之境,多爲昌所據。昌更置牧守,皆桀盜小人,專以劫掠爲務。

13. Zhang Chang's follower Shi Bing invaded Yangzhou, where he defeated the Inspector, Chen Hui, and completely ravaged several commandaries. He also attacked and broke into Jiangzhou, and his fellow commander Chen Zhen attacked Wuling, Lingling, Yuzhang, Wuchang, and Changsha; all of these places fell to the rebels. A native of Linhuai, Feng Yun, raised troops to invade Xuzhou in support of Shi Bing.

Most of the territory of the five provinces of Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, Xuzhou, Yangzhou, and Yuzhou was thus occupied by Zhang Chang's men. Zhang Chang appointed his own Governors and Administrators; they were all cruel brigands and miscreants, and their only duties were how they could plunder their territories.

〈江州時治豫章。漢置臨淮郡,章帝以合下邳國,晉太康元年,復置臨淮郡。《姓譜》:封姓,夏封父之後。〉

(At this time, Jiangzhou was administered from Yuzhang.

Han had created Linhuai commandary. Emperor Zhang combined it into the Xiapi princely fief. In Jin's first year of Taikang (280), they had restored Linhuai commandary.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 封 Feng are the descendants of Fengfu of Xia.")


劉弘遣陶侃等攻昌於竟陵,劉喬遣其將李楊等向江夏。侃等屢與昌戰,大破之,前後斬首數萬級,昌逃于下儁山,其衆悉降。

14. Liu Hong sent Tao Kan and his other commanders to attack Zhang Chang at Jingling, while Liu Qiao sent his generals Li Yang and others to march towards Jiangxia. Tao Kan and the others fought several times with Zhang Chang, and greatly routed him; they took several tens of thousands of heads altogether. Zhang Chang fled to Mount Xiajun, while his soldiers all surrendered.

〈竟陵縣屬江夏郡。孫宗鑑曰:自蔡州南至信陽軍,始有山路,迤邐至安陸;又兩驛至復州,皆平地,南至大江,並無丘陵之阻。渡江至石首,始有淺山。謂之竟陵者,陵至此而竟;謂之石首,石至此而首也。古竟陵,今復州。〉〈長沙下儁縣之山也。師古曰:儁,字兗翻,又辭兗翻。《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「八月庚申,劉弘及張昌戰于清水,斬之。」《昌傳》云:「昌敗,竄于下儁山。明年秋,禽斬之。」按弘《斬張奕表》云:「張昌姦黨初平,昌未梟首。」故從《昌本傳》。〉

(Jingling County was part of Jiangxia commandary. Sun Zongjian remarked, "When one travels from Caizhou south to the Xinyang Garrison, the road begins as a mountain path, meandering all the way to Anling. From there, the road is two courier stations in length until one reaches Fuzhou, and it is flat land all the way. Then south until the Yangzi, there is not a hill or mound to block one's way. From crossing the Yangzi until one reaches Shitou, one first begins passing through shallow hills. 竟陵 Yingling is so called because there are 陵 hills until one reaches here, where they 竟 cease. And 石首 Shitou is so named because because the 石 rocks and boulders continue until they come to a 首 head here. The Yingling of old is in modern Fuzhou."

Mount Xiajun was in Xiajun County in Changsha commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "儁 is pronounced 'zan (z-an)' or 'can (c-an)'."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'In the eighth month, on the day Gengshen (September 16th), Liu Hong fought Zhang Chang at the Qing River, and beheaded him.' The Biography of Zhang Chang in the Book of Jin states, 'Zhang Chang was defeated, and he scurried away to Mount Xiajun. The autumn of the following year, he was captured and beheaded.' Now according to Liu Hong's Petition Regarding The Beheading Of Zhang Yi (an event described below, in this same year), he states, 'Zhang Chang's wicked followers have only just been put down, and Zhang Chang himself has not yet had his head displayed.' So I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Chang.")


初,陶侃少孤貧,爲郡督郵,長沙太守萬嗣過廬江,見而異之,命其子結友而去。後察孝廉,至洛陽,豫章國郎中令楊晫薦之於顧榮,侃由是知名。旣克張昌,劉弘謂侃曰:「吾昔爲羊公參軍,謂吾後當居身處。今觀卿,必繼老夫矣。」

15. As a child, this Tao Kan had been a poor orphan. During the time that he served as a courier commander in his commandary, the Administrator of Changsha, Wan Si, was passing through Lujiang. He saw Tao Kan and marveled at him, and he ordered his son to befriend the young man before leaving.

Later on, Tao Kan was nominated as Filial and Incorrupt. When he arrived at Luoyang, the Prefect of the Household Gentleman for the Prince of Yuzhang, Yang Diao, recommended him to Gu Rong, and thus did Tao Kan gain a reputation.

After Tao Kan overcame Zhang Chang, Liu Hong said to him, "When I was younger, I once served as an Army Advisor to Lord Yang Hu, and he told me that someday I would fill the same office that he had. Sir, seeing you like this, I know that you will be the one who succeeds me too."

〈帝弟熾,封豫章王。晫,丁角翻。〉〈羊公,謂羊祜也。〉〈晉人多自謂爲身。〉

(Sima Yan's younger brother Sima Chi was the Prince of Yuzhang; he would later become Emperor Huai.

晫 is pronounced "diao (d-iao)".

"Lord Yang" meant Yang Hu.

Many people of Jin referred to themselves as 身 "this body". Yang Hu's remark was "you will someday hold the same position that this body does.")


弘之退屯於梁也,征南將軍范陽王虓遣前長水校尉張奕領荊州。弘至,奕不受代,舉兵拒弘;弘討奕,斬之。時荊部守宰多缺,弘請補選,詔許之。弘敍功銓德,隨才授任,人皆服其公當。弘表皮初補襄陽太守,朝廷以初雖有功而望淺,更以弘壻前東平太守夏侯陟爲襄陽太守。弘下敎曰:「夫治一國者,宜以一國爲心,必若親姻然後可用,則荊州十郡,安得十女壻然後爲政哉!」乃表:「陟姻親,舊制不得相監;皮初之勳,宜見酬報。」詔聽之。弘於是勸課農桑,寬刑省賦,公私給足,百姓愛悅。

16. When Liu Hong had fallen back to camp at Liang, the General Who Conquers The South and Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao, had sent the former Colonel of 長水, Zhang Yi, to assume command of Jingzhou. When Liu Hong now arrived in Jingzhou, Zhang Yi refused to turn command over to him, and he even raised troops to oppose Liu Hong. Liu Hong marched against Zhang Yi and beheaded him.

At that time, there were many vacant offices among the administrative posts in Jingzhou. Liu Song asked that he be allowed to select people to fill these offices, and the court granted their consent. Liu Hong selected people of merit and virtue, choosing people whose abilities were suited to their offices, and everyone he chose conducted themselves in accordance with their public duties.

Liu Hong petitioned that Pi Chu be appointed to fill the office of Administrator of Xiangyang. But although Pi Chu had merits to his name, he had little influence at court, and they instead appointed the former Administrator of Dongping, Liu Hong's son-in-law Xiahou Zhi, as the Administrator of Xiangyang. Liu Song mused, "He who would govern a state must take the whole state as his heart. Now Jingzhou has ten commandaries. If I must first be bound in marriage ties to a man before I can entrust him with a commandary, then must I have ten sons-in-law first before I can govern the province?"

And he submitted a petition stating, "When a marital relative is promoted, it has been the tradition not to have mutual supervision with him. Pi Chu's accomplishments ought to be recognized and rewarded."

So the court heeded his suggestion.

Liu Hong encouraged and supervised the people in farming and raising silkworms, he lightened punishments and lowered taxes, and he gave proper notice to both public and private affairs. So the common people all loved and treasured him.

〈范陽王虓鎭豫州。〉〈銓,量也,選也。〉〈《姓譜》:皮姓,樊仲皮之後。〉〈按《晉志》,荊州統二十二郡,時已分桂陽、武昌、安成三郡屬江州,尚統十九郡。又分新城、魏興、上庸三郡屬梁州,尚統十六郡。至懷帝,分長沙、衡陽、湘東、零陵、邵陵、桂陽六郡屬湘州,此時荊州猶統十一郡。此蓋言當時缺守者十郡也。〉

(Sima Xiao was based in Yuzhou.

The term 銓 means to gain the measure of, or to select.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 皮 Pi are the descendants of Zhongpi of the state of Fan."

According to the Records of Jin, Jingzhou originally administered twenty-two commandaries. In time, the three commandaries of Guiyang, Wuchang, and Ancheng were split off as part of Jiangzhou, leaving nineteen commandaries. Then three more commandaries, Xincheng, Weixing, and Shangyong, were split off as part of Lianzhou, leaving sixteen commandaries. By the reign of Emperor Huai, the six commandaries of Changsha, Hengyang, Xiangdong, Lingling, Shaoling, and Guiyang were formed into Xiangzhou. At that time, Jingzhou still had eleven commandaries. So in Liu Hong's remark here, he has shorted himself a commandary. (There seems to be some confusion over Guiyang, listed twice here.))


河間王顒聞李含等死,卽起兵討長沙王乂。大將軍穎上表請討張昌,許之;聞昌已平,因欲與顒共攻乂。盧志諫曰:「公前有大功而委權辭寵,時望美矣。今若頓軍關外,文服入朝,此霸主之事也。」參軍魏郡邵續曰:「人之有兄弟,如左右手。明公欲當天下之敵而先去其一手,可乎!」穎皆不從。八月,顒、穎共表:「乂論功不平,與右僕射羊玄之、左將軍皇甫商專擅朝政,殺害忠良,請誅玄之、商,遣乂還國。」詔曰:「顒敢舉大兵,內向京輦,吾當親率六軍以誅姦逆。其以乂爲太尉、都督中外諸軍事以禦之。」

17. When Sima Yong heard that Li Han and the other plotters in Luoyang were dead, he raised his troops to campaign against Sima Ai.

Now Sima Ying had earlier petitioned the court asking that he be allowed to prepare his army to march against the rebel Zhang Chang, and the court had granted their permission. But by the time he was ready, he heard both that Zhang Chang had already been defeated and that Sima Yong was now marching against Sima Ai. Sima Ying thus wished to join in the campaign against Sima Ai.

His advisor Lu Zhi remonstrated with him, saying, "Lord, you had great achievements before, and yet you gave up power and declined favor, and thus you gained great appreciation. If you were to now (or, you ought to now) leave your army outside the passes and enter the court wearing civil attire, (then) that would be the business of a hegemon."

And his Army Advisor, Shao Xu of Wei commandary, also said, "A man's brothers are as important to him as the right and left hands are to the body. Yet rather than face the enemies of all the realm, Your Highness plans to first cut off one of your own hands. How can this be?"

But Sima Ying would not listen to them.

In the eighth month, Sima Yong and Sima Ying submitted a joint petition, stating, "Sima Ai has not been just in recognizing and rewarding achievements, and he is monopolizing the reins of power together with the Supervisor of the Right, Yang Xuanzhi, and the General of the Left, Huangfu Shang. He has even killed loyal and esteemed officials. We ask that Yang Xuanzhi and Huangfu Shang be put to death, and that Sima Ai be sent away to his fief."

An imperial edict in Emperor Hui's voice was issued responding, "Sima Yong has presumed to raise a great army and turn his banners towards the capital and the imperial carriage. I shall personally lead the Six Armies to punish this wicked traitor. Sima Ai is hereby appointed as Grand Commandant and as Commander of all military affairs, in order to confront this enemy."

〈事見上卷永寧元年。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「若」作「宜」;乙十行本同。】〉〈關外,謂郊關之外。〉〈謂殺李含等。〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「太安元年十二月,乂誅齊王冏,卽以乂爲太尉、都督中外。」《晉春秋》:「二年七月,顒、穎起兵,乃以乂爲太尉、都督以討之。」按齊王死後,穎懸執朝政,乂未應都督中外。又顒見爲太尉,乂不應更爲太尉。今從《晉春秋》。〉

(Sima Ying's resignation from his initial role as co-regent with Sima Jiong and his return to Ye is mention in the previous book, in the first year of Yongning (301.30).

Some versions parse Lu Zhi's phrase "if you were to now" as "you ought to now".

"Outside the passes" means beyond the suburbs and passes of the capital.

The "loyal and esteemed officials" mentioned in the joint petition refers to Li Han and the other plotters, executed by Sima Ai before their plot could be carried out.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'In the twelfth month of the first year of Tai'an (302), Sima Ai executed Sima Jiong, and he was then appointed as Grand Commandant and as Commander of all military affairs.' The Annals of Jin states, 'In the seventh month of the second year of Tai'an (303), Sima Yong and Sima Ying rose up with their soldiers. In response to this, Sima Ai was appointed as Grand Commandant and as Commander in order to campaign against them.' Now in the aftermath of Sima Jiong's death, Sima Ying still had a light grasp on court affairs, and so Sima Ai would not have had a reason to become Commander of all military affairs then. Furthermore, we saw earlier (301.28) that Sima Yong had already been appointed Grand Commandant, so Sima Ai could not have been appointed to that either before Sima Yong rose up. So I follow the account of the Annals of Jin.")


及冏滅,穎遙執期權,遂懷觖望之心。以長沙王乂在內,不得恣其所欲,密欲去乂。時荊州有張昌之亂,穎表求親征,朝廷許之。會昌等平,乃回兵以討乂。志諫曰:「公前有復皇祚之大勳,及事平,歸功於齊,辭九錫之賞,不當朝政之權,振陽翟饑人,葬黃橋白骨,皆盛德之事,四海之人莫不荷賴矣。逆寇縱肆,猾擾荊、楚,今公掃清群難,南土以寧,振旅而旋,頓軍關外,文服入朝,此霸王者之事也。」穎不納。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

Following Sima Jiong’s death, Sima Ying wielded power over the government from affair, where he began to grow dissatisfied and resentful. With the Prince of Changsha, Sima Ai, still in the capital at Luoyang, Sima Ying was unable to do whatever he wished, so he secretly wanted to be rid of Sima Ai.

At this time, Zhang Chang’s rebellion broke out in Jingzhou. Sima Ying sent in a petition asking that he be allowed to lead an expedition to put down the rebellion, and the court gave their permission. However, Zhang Chang and the other rebels were quickly put down, and so Sima Ying simply turned the soldiers he had raised for that purpose against Sima Ai instead. Lu Zhi remonstrated with him, saying, “Lord, you achieved a great thing before in restoring the imperial fortunes. Yet after the affair was concluded, you yielded your merits to the Prince of Qi, and you declined the rewards of the Nine Bestowments. You did not take part in court affairs, you provided sustenance to the starving people of Yangdi, and you buried the bleached bones of the fallen from Huangqiao. All of these were things which augmented your virtue, and there was no one within the Four Seas who was not grateful to you for them.

“Traitors and invaders are currently laying waste and having their way, causing trouble in the regions of Jing and Chu through their cunning. Lord, you should be sweeping away and purging the land of its many difficulties, and restoring tranquility to the southern lands. Then, having concluded your adventure and returned, you should leave your army outside the passes and enter the court wearing civil attire. That would be the business of a hegemon king.”

But Sima Ying would not listen to him.

顒遂與穎同伐京都。穎遣刺客圖乂,時長沙國左常侍王矩侍直,見客色動,遂殺之。詔以乂為大都督以距顒。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

Sima Yong then launched a joint campaign, together with Sima Ying, to attack Sima Ai at Luoyang.

Sima Ying dispatched an assassin to murder Sima Ai. At that time, Sima Ai’s Regular Attendant of the Left from his fief, Wang Ju, was constantly with Sima Ai. When he saw that there was something suspicious about the assassin’s movements, he killed the assassin.

An imperial edict was issued appointing Sima Ai as Grand Commander to oppose Sima Yong.

後張昌擾亂荊土,穎拜表南征,所在響赴。。。穎方恣其欲,而憚長沙王乂在內,遂與河間王顒表請誅後父羊玄之、左將軍皇甫商等,檄乂使就第。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When the rebel Zhang Chang caused turmoil and pillaging in the Jing region (in 303), Sima Ying petitioned that he lead a campaign south against him, making great noises to that effect... Sima Ying was inclined to indulge whatever he desired. But he was worried about the Prince of Changsha, Sima Ai, who was still in the capital. So he and the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, submitted a petition requesting the executions of Empress Yang Xianrong’s father Yang Xuanzhi, the General of the Left, Huangfu Shang, and others. They also demanded that Sima Ai be sent back to his fief.

顒聞含死,即起兵以討商為名。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

When Sima Yong heard that Li Han was dead, he raised his troops to launch a campaign against the capital, claiming that Huangfu Shang was his target.


顒以張方爲都督,將精兵七萬,自函谷東趨洛陽。穎引兵屯朝歌,以平原內史陸機爲前將軍、前鋒都督,督北中郎將王粹、冠軍將軍牽秀、中護軍石超等軍二十餘萬,南向洛陽。機以羇旅事穎,一旦頓居諸將之右,王粹等心皆不服。白沙督孫惠與機親厚,勸機讓都督於粹。機曰:「彼將謂吾首鼠兩端,適所以速禍也。」遂行。穎列軍自朝歌至河橋,鼓聲聞數百里。

18. Sima Yong appointed Zhang Fang as Commander, placing him in charge of an army of seventy thousand elite soldiers. Zhang Fang marched east from Hangu towards Luoyang.

Sima Ying brought his troops to camp at Zhaoge. He appointed the Interior Minister of Pingyuan, Lu Ji, as General of the Front and Commander of the Vanguard. Sima Ying selected others, including the General of the Household Gentlemen Who Commands The North, Wang Cui, the Champion General, Qian Xiu, the Army Protector of the Center, Shi Chao, and others to lead an army of more than two hundred thousand soldiers, and they marched south towards Luoyang.

Now Lu Ji was somewhat of a recent recruit to Sima Ying's banner, and yet he had thus been placed ahead of several generals overnight, so Wang Cui and the others were not inclined to obey him. The Commandant of Baisha, Sun Hui, was a close friend to Lu Ji, and he urged Lu Ji to resign his command in favor of Wang Cui. But Lu Ji told him, "The generals already say that I am like a mouse with my head looking this way and that. If I were to further do as you suggest, that would only bring me misfortune all the quicker." So he accepted his role.

Sima Ying had his forces arrayed from Zhaoge to Heqiao, and the beatings of their drums could be heard for several hundred li.

〈沈約曰:楚懷王以宋義爲卿子冠軍,冠軍之號自此始。魏以文欽爲冠軍將軍。〉〈白沙,在鄴城東南。〉〈首鼠兩端,漢田蚡語。服虔曰:首鼠,一前一卻也。陸佃《埤雅》曰:舊說,鼠性疑,出穴多不果,故持兩端謂之首鼠。〉〈河橋,卽富平津河橋。〉

(Shen Yue remarked, "The title of Champion General first appeared when King Huai of Chu appointed Song Yi as Champion General of 卿子. Cao-Wei had appointed Wen Qin as Champion General."

Baisha was southeast of Ye.

"The mouse's head looks both ways" was a common vulgar saying during Han. Fu Qian remarked, "The mouse's head turns now forwards, now backwards." Lu Dian's Piya text states, "This is an old saying. The mouse is a suspicious creature; it often peeps out of its den without deciding to really come out. So it is said that the mouse's head is always looking both ways, hither and thither."

The Heqiao mentioned in this passage was the Heqiao at Fuping Crossing.)


乃與顒將張方伐京都,以平原內史陸機為前鋒都督、前將軍、假節。穎次朝歌,每夜矛戟有光若火,其壘井中皆有龍象。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying then joined with Sima Yong’s general Zhang Fang in a campaign against the capital. Sima Ying appointed the Interior Minister of Pingyuan, Lu Ji, as his Vanguard Commander, General of the Front, and Credential Holder. Sima Ying advanced to Zhaoge, where every night his spears and halberds shined like fire and the wells within his ramparts all looked like dragons.

使張方為都督,領精卒七萬向洛。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Sima Yong sent Zhang Fang as Commander of the army, and Zhang Fang led seventy thousand elite troops towards Luoyang.


乙丑,帝如十三里橋。太尉乂使皇甫商將萬餘人拒張方於宜陽。己巳,帝還宣武場。庚午,舍于石樓。九月,丁丑,屯于河橋。壬子,張方襲皇甫商,敗之。甲申,帝軍于芒山。丁亥,帝幸偃師;辛卯,舍于豆田。大將軍穎進屯河南,阻清水爲壘。癸巳,羊玄之憂懼而卒,帝旋軍城東;丙申,幸緱氏,擊牽秀,走之。大赦。張方入京城,大掠,死者萬計。

19. On the day Yichou (September 21st), Emperor Hui went to Thirteen Li Bridge. Grand Commandant Sima Ai sent Huangfu Shang at the head of more than ten thousand soldiers to resist Zhang Fang at Yiyang.

On the day Jisi (September 25th), Emperor Hui returned to the Xuanwu Platform. On the day Gengwu (September 26th), he took up residence at Shilou. In the ninth month, on the day Dingchou (October 3rd), he camped at Heqiao.

On the day Renzi (?) (or, the day Renwu, October 8th), Zhang Fang attacked Huangfu Shang and defeated him.

On the day Jiashen (October 10th), Emperor Hui's army was at the Mang Hills. On the day Dinghai (October 13th), Emperor Hui was at Yanshi County. On the day Xinmao (October 17th), he took up residence at Doutian.

Sima Ying advanced to camp south of the Yellow River, using the Qing River as his rampart.

On the day Guisi (October 19th), Yang Xuanzhi was so anxious and afraid that he passed away, and Emperor Hui brought the army back to Luoyang's eastern walls. On the day Bingshen (October 22nd), Emperor Hui was at Goushi, where he attacked Qian Xiu and drove him off. A general amnesty was declared.

Zhang Fang entered the outskirts of Luoyang. There was great plundering, and the dead numbered tens of thousands.

〈橋在洛城西,去城十三里,因以爲名。〉〈《水經註》:大夏門東宣武觀,憑城結構,南望天淵池,北矚宣武場;場西故賈充宅。〉〈【嚴:「子」改「午」。】〉〈偃師縣,漢屬河南郡,晉省,隋復置,在洛城東北。〉〈據《晉書‧五行志》,洛陽城東有豆田壁。〉〈此河南,謂黃河之南,非河南縣也。清水,蓋清濟之水。〉

(Thirteen Li Bridge was west of Luoyang, thirteen li from the walls, thus its name.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "East of Luoyang's Daxia Gate is the Xuanwu Overlook, built into the walls. To the south it overlooks the Tianyuan Pond, and to the north it gazes down on the Xuanwu Platform. Jia Chong's former residence was west of this platform.”

Some versions record the day Ren 子 zi as Ren 午 wu.

During Han, Yanshi County was part of Henan commandary. Jin abolished it, but Sui restored it. It was northeast of Luoyang.

According to the Five Elements chapter of the Book of Jin, there was a Doutian Rampart east of Luoyang.

This passage describes Sima Ying's army as moving "to Henan", by which it means that he crossed south of the Yellow River (He) at Heqiao, not that he went to Henan County. The Qing River mentioned here was the Qingji River.)


進軍屯河南,阻清水為壘,造浮橋以通河北,以大木函盛石,沈之以系橋,名曰石鱉。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying advanced to camp south of the Yellow River, using the Qing River as his rampart. He built a floating bridge to cross into Hebei. To form this bridge, he enveloped large wood into great stones, and sank them in the river to form a bridge fasted together, which he called Shibie (“Stone Turtle”).

方攻商,商距戰而潰。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Zhang Fang attacked Huangfu Shang, who attempted to oppose him in battle, but his army melted away.


李流疾篤,謂諸將曰:「驍騎仁明,固足以濟大事;然前軍英武,殆天所相,可共受事於前軍。」流卒,衆推李雄爲大都督、大將軍、益州牧,治郫城。雄使武都朴泰紿羅尚,使襲郫城,云己爲內應。尚使隗伯將兵攻郫,泰約舉火爲應,李驤伏兵於道,泰出長梯於外。隗伯兵見火起,爭緣梯上,驤縱兵擊,大破之。追奔夜至城下,詐稱萬歲,曰:「已得郫城矣!」入少城,尚乃覺之,退保太城。隗伯創甚,雄生獲之,赦不殺。李驤攻犍爲,斷尚運道。獲太守襲恢,殺之。

20. In Shu, Li Liu became deathly ill. He said to his generals, "The General of Agile Cavalry, Li Xiang, is benevolent and wise, and he would be enough to see this affair to fruition. But the General of the Front, Li Xiong, is a brave and heroic man, almost the equal of Heaven. May all of you entrust affairs to the General of the Front."

Li Liu then passed away, and the rebels all acclaimed Li Xiong as Grand Commander, Grand General, and Governor of Yizhou, with his base at Picheng.

Li Xiong sent Pu Tai of Wudu to deceive Luo Shang. Pu Tai convinced Luo Shang to launch an attack on Picheng, saying that he would assist Luo Shang's army from inside the city. Luo Shang sent Kui Bo to lead an army to attack Picheng. Pu Tai had arranged that he would light a fire within the city to draw out Li Xiang's troops into the streets, and then he would drop down siege ladders for Kui Bo's men to climb up. When Kui Bo's men saw the fires rising, they strove to scale the ladders, but they were then flank attacked by Li Xiang's soldiers and greatly routed. Li Xiang's men pursued their fleeing enemies through the night until they reached the walls of Chengdu, where they falsely hailed a cry of victory, saying, "We have already taken Picheng!" They were let inside the Lesser City, but when Luo Shang realized what had happened, he withdrew into the Greater City to hold out there. Kui Bo was severely injured, and Li Xiong captured him alive, but he pardoned Kui Bo and did not kill him.

Li Xiang attacked Jianwei and so cut off Luo Shang's supply lines. He captured the Administrator there, Xi Hui, and killed him.

〈李特以弟驤爲驍騎將軍,少子雄爲前將軍。〉〈朴,姓也,板楯七姓蠻之一也。孫盛曰:朴,音浮。〉〈隗伯本亦流民之豪帥,叛歸羅尚。〉

(Li Te's younger brother Li Xiang had been appointed as General of Agile Cavalry, and his youngest son Li Xiong had been appointed as General of the Front.

朴 Pu was a surname, one of the seven surnames of the Bandun Man people. Sun Sheng remarked, "朴 is pronounced 'fu'."

Kui Bo had originally been one of the refugee commanders, but he had defected to Luo Shang.)


九月,流疾篤,謂諸將曰:「驍騎高明仁愛,識量多奇,固足以濟大事,然前軍英武,殆天所相,可共受事於前軍,以為成都王也。」遂薨,年五十六。諸將共立雄為主,雄稱尊,追諡流秦文王,子龍嗣。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms (Li Liu))

In the ninth month, Li Liu became deathly ill, and he told his generals, “The General of the Agile Cavalry, Liu Xiang, has great wisdom, benevolence, and love; he is knowledgeable, decisive, and very remarkable. He would be enough to see this affair to fruition. But the General of the Front, Li Xiong, is a brave and heroic man, almost the equal of Heaven. May all of you entrust affairs to the General of the Front, and make him the Prince of Chengdu.”

Li Liu soon passed away; he was fifty-five years old. His generals all acclaimed Li Xiong as their leader.

After Li Xiong claimed imperial title, he posthumously named Li Liu as Prince Wen (“the Cultured”) of Qin. His son Li Long inherited his position.

流素重雄有長者之德,每云:「興吾家者,必此人也。」敕諸子尊奉之。流疾篤,謂諸將曰:「驍騎高明仁愛,識斷多奇,固足以濟大事,然前軍英武,殆天所相,可共受事於前軍,以為成都王。」遂死,時年五十六。諸將共立雄為主。雄僭號,追諡流秦文王。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Li Liu had long appreciated Li Xiong for his great virtue and other qualities, and he always said, “The one who shall make our family rise is this man.” He ordered his own sons to submit to Li Xiong.

When Li Liu became deathly ill, he told his generals, “The General of the Agile Cavalry, Liu Xiang, has great wisdom, benevolence, and love; he is knowledgeable, decisive, and very remarkable. He would be enough to see this affair to fruition. But the General of the Front, Li Xiong, is a brave and heroic man, almost the equal of Heaven. May all of you entrust affairs to the General of the Front, and make him the Prince of Chengdu.”

Li Liu soon passed away; he was fifty-five years old. His generals all acclaimed Li Xiong as their leader.

After Li Xiong claimed princely title, he posthumously named Li Liu as Prince Wen (“the Cultured”) of Qin.

九月,流病死。(Huayang Guozhi 7.7)

In the ninth month, Li Liu fell ill and passed away.


石超進逼緱氏。冬,十月,壬寅,帝還宮。丁未,敗牽秀於東陽門外。大將軍穎遣將軍馬咸助陸機。戊申,太尉乂奉帝與機戰于建春門。乂司馬王瑚使數千騎繫戟於馬,以突咸陳,咸軍亂,執而斬之。機軍大敗,赴七里澗,死者如積,水爲之不流。斬其大將賈崇等十六人,石超遁去。

21. Sima Jing's general Shi Chao advanced to threaten Goushi. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Renyin (October 28th), Emperor Hui returned to the palace. On the day Dingwei (November 2nd), the imperial army defeated Sima Ying’s general Qian Xiu outside the Dongyang Gate.

Sima Ying sent his general Ma Xian to assist Lu Ji. On the day Wushen (November 3rd), Sima Ai brought Emperor Hui with him to fight Lu Ji at the Jianchun Gate. Sima Ai's Marshal Wang Hu sent several thousand cavalry with halberds fastened to their mounts to break through Ma Xian's formation. Ma Xian's army was thrown into confusion, and he was captured and killed. Lu Ji's army suffered a great defeat, and they withdrew to Seven Li Gully. The dead lay in piles, and the river was choked with their corpses. Sima Ai executed Jia Chong and Lu Ji's other chief commanders, sixteen men in all. Shi Chao escaped and got away.

〈《水經註》曰:東陽門,漢洛陽城之中東門也。〉〈《水經註》:建春門,漢雒城之上東門也。穀水逕其前,水上有石橋。《考異》曰:《陸機傳》云「戰于鹿苑」,今從《帝紀》。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Dongyang Gate was the middle gate on Luoyang's eastern walls during Han." It further states, "The Jianchun Gate was the upper gate on the eastern walls. The Gu River passed in front of it, and there was a stone bridge over the river."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Lu Ji in the Book of Jin states, 'They fought at Luyuan'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin.")


初,宦人孟玖有寵於大將軍穎,玖欲用其父爲邯鄲令,左長史盧志等皆不敢違,右司馬陸雲固執不許,曰:「此縣,公府掾資,豈有黃門父居之邪!」玖深怨之。玖弟超,領萬人爲小督,未戰,縱兵大掠,陸機錄其主者;超將鐵騎百餘人直入機麾下,奪之,顧謂機曰:「貉奴,能作督不!」機司馬吳郡孫拯勸機殺之,機不能用。超宣言於衆曰:「陸機將反。」又還書與玖,言機持兩端,故軍不速決。及戰,超不受機節度,輕兵獨進,敗沒。玖疑機殺之,譖之於穎曰:「機有二心於長沙。」牽秀素諂事玖,將軍王闡、郝昌、帳下督陽平公師藩皆玖所引用,相與共證之。穎大怒,使秀將兵收機,參軍事王彰諫曰:「今日之舉,強弱異勢,庸人猶知必克,況機之明達乎!但機吳人,殿下用之太過,北土舊將皆疾之耳。」穎不從。機聞秀至,釋戎服,著白帢,與秀相見,爲牋辭穎,旣而歎曰:「華亭鶴唳,可復聞乎!」秀遂殺之。穎又收機弟清河內史雲、平東祭酒耽及孫拯,皆下獄。

22. During all this time, the eunuch Meng Jiu had received the favor of Sima Ying.

There had been an instance where Meng Jiu wanted to have his father appointed as Prefect of Handan. Sima Ying's Chief Clerk of the Left, Lu Zhi, and his other subordinates did not dare to speak out against this proposal. But then the Marshal of the Right, Lu Ji's brother Lu Yun, refused to give his approval and would not consent to the idea, saying, "Handan County is suited for one of Your Highness's officials. How could it be given to the father of a member of the Yellow Gate?" Meng Jiu deeply resented this.

Meng Jiu had a younger brother, Meng Chao, who was serving as a subcommander in Lu Ji's army in charge of ten thousand men. Before the army had fought a battle, the soldiers were engaging in great plunder. Lu Ji arrested the ringleaders. Meng Chao led more than a hundred iron cavalry straight into Lu Ji's section of the camp and liberated the men he had arrested, turning his head towards Lu Ji to say, "You raccoon dog slave, can you lead or can't you?"

Lu Ji's Marshal, Sun Zheng of Wu commandary, urged Lu Ji to kill Meng Chao, but Lu Ji could not follow his advice. Meng Chao began spreading a rumor through the army: "Lu Ji is about to rebel." And he wrote a letter to Meng Jiu, saying that Lu Ji was a hesitant and overly cautious man, and that was why the army was so slow to do anything.

During the battle, Meng Chao would not accept Lu Ji's orders, and he rashly moved his soldiers forward on his own. He was lost when the army was defeated. Meng Jiu suspected that Lu Ji had killed him, so he slandered Lu Ji to Sima Ying by saying, "Lu Ji is of two minds regarding the Prince of Changsha (Sima Ai)."

Qian Xiu had long curried favored with Meng Jiu, and the generals Wang Chan and Hao Chang and the subordinate commander Gongshi Fan had all become his pawns; each of these men testified on Meng Jiu's behalf. Sima Ying became very angry, and he sent Qian Xiu to lead soldiers to arrest Lu Ji. Sima Ying's advisor Wang Zhang remonstrated with him, saying, "The difference in strength between us and the enemy today is so great that we could use anyone at all against them and know we would still be ultimately successful, much less a man as clever and accomplished as Lu Ji! The only issue is that Lu Ji is a fellow from Wu, and Your Highness has used him more than was proper, so now the veteran generals from the north all resent him."

But Sima Ying would not listen.

When Lu Ji heard that Qian Xiu had come for him, he removed his military clothing and put on a white cap. Then he went to meet with Qian Xiu, and when he saw the letter from Sima Ying, he lamented, "If only I could hear the call of the cranes of Huating again!"

Qian Xiu then killed him.

Sima Ying also arrested Lu Ji's younger brothers, the Interior Minister of Qinghe, Lu Yun, and the Libationer to the General Who Pacifies The East, Lu Dan, as well as Sun Zheng. He put all of them in prison.

〈邯鄲縣,漢屬趙國,魏、晉屬廣平郡,隋、唐屬磁州。〉〈言歷此縣者,其資級可得公府掾。〉〈機爲都督,與黃門之弟共事,可以辭去矣。〉〈錄,收也。〉〈楊正衡曰:貉,音鶴,獸名,善睡,似狐。余謂超蓋詈機爲貉奴。〉〈使機能用孫拯之言斬孟超,是穰苴之戮莊賈也,由此爲穎所殺,豈不光明俊偉哉!〉〈諸王公領兵及任方面者,皆有帳下督,統帳下兵。魏文帝黃初二年,分魏郡置陽平郡。公師,複姓也。〉〈帢,帽也。弁缺四隅謂之帢。《晉志》曰:魏武以天下凶荒,資財乏匱,擬古皮弁,裁縑帛以爲帢,以色辨其貴賤。本施軍飾,非爲國容。徐爰曰:俗說帢本未有岐,荀文若巾之行,觸樹枝成岐,謂之爲善。今通爲慶弔服。〉〈機發此言,有咸陽市上歎黃犬之意。華亭時屬吳郡。嘉興縣界有華亭谷、華亭水,至唐始分嘉興縣爲華亭縣。今縣東七十里,其地出鶴,土人謂之曰鶴窠。〉〈按《晉書‧陸雲傳》:雲自清河內史轉大將軍右司馬。此當書右司馬雲。《考異》曰:「孫拯」,《晉春秋》作「孫承」。今從《晉書‧傳》。〉

(During Han, Handan County was part of the Zhao princely fief. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Guangping commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was part of Cizhou.

Li Yun's remark meant that counties like Handan County were sufficient to support a member of a noble's staff.

Lu Ji was a Commander, and yet he had to conduct affairs with the younger brother of a Yellow Gate official; he could have just resigned.

錄 means to arrest.

Yang Zhengheng remarked, "'Raccoon dog' is the name of an animal; it delights in sleeping, much like the fox." I, Hu Sanxing, believe that Meng Chao was comparing Lu Ji to a raccoon dog.

If Lu Ji had been able to heed Sun Zheng's advice and beheaded Meng Chao, that would have been like when Sima Rangxu executed Zhuang Jia. It was for this reason that Lu Ji was killed by Sima Ying. How could he not have been an earnest and talented man?

The various princes and nobles in command of troops, and those officials who held border posts, all had subordinates who were "below the tent" commanders, who commanded those soldiers "below the tent".

In Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei's (Cao Pi) second year of Huangchu (221), he split off part of Wei commandary to form Yangping commandary.

公師 Gongshi is a compound surname.

Lu Ji is noted as wearing a white 帢. A 帢 is a kind of cap; a cap with four depressed corners is called a 帢. The Records of Jin states, "During the time when the realm was in disorder and in want, Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) was lacking in goods, so he devised an old leather cap, and cut fine silk for it to produce a 帢, in order to distinguish its worth. It was originally an army ornamentation, not intended for general use." Xu Yuan remarked, "It is said that the 帢 cap did not originally have a raised place in it. But when Xun Wenruo (Xun Yu) was wearing it, he took a branch and hit the hat with it until he had created a raised place, and called it good. It is now worn as part of congratulatory or mourning occasions."

Lu Ji's words about the cranes of Huating recall Li Si's lament about his yellow dog shortly before his execution in the marketplace of Xianyang.

At the time of this passage, Huating was part of Wu commandary. Huating Valley and the Huating River had been within Jiaxing County, but at the beginning of Tang, Huating County was split off from Jiaxing County. It was seventy li east of where the modern county is. Cranes fly out of this place, and people call it the Crane's Nest.

According to the Biography of Lu Yun in the Book of Jin, Lu Yun had been transferred from his post as Interior Minister of Qinghe to serve as the Marshal of the Right to the Grand General, which was Sima Ying's rank. This passage ought to identify him as Marshal of the Right rather than Interior Minister of Qinghe.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding Sun 拯 Zheng, the Annals of Jin identifies him as Sun 承 Cheng. But I follow the account of the Biography of Sun Zheng in the Book of Jin.")


陸機戰敗,死者甚眾,機又為孟玖所譖,穎收機斬之,夷其三族。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Lu Ji was defeated in battle, suffering a great many deaths in the fighting. Lu Ji had also been slandered by Meng Jiu, so Sima Ying arrested Lu Ji and beheaded him, as well as killing his family to the third degree.

陸平原河橋敗,為盧志所讒,被誅。臨刑嘆曰:「欲聞華亭鶴唳,可復得乎!」(New Tales 33.3)

When Lu Ji was defeated at Heqiao, he was slandered by Lu Zhi and sentenced to death (in 303). On the eve of his execution, he sighed and said, "Would that I might hear once more the cry of the cranes at Huating! But will I ever again get to do so?" (tr. Richard Mather)


記室江統、陳留蔡克、潁川棗嵩等上疏,以爲:「陸機淺謀致敗,殺之可也。至於反逆,則衆共知其不然。宜先檢校機反狀,若有徵驗,誅雲等未晚也。」統等懇請不已,穎遲迴者三日。蔡克入,至穎前,叩頭流血曰:「雲爲孟玖所怨,遠近莫不聞;今果見殺,竊爲明公惜之!」僚屬隨克入者數十人,流涕固請,穎惻然,有宥雲色。孟玖扶穎入,催令殺雲、耽,夷機三族。獄吏考掠孫拯數百,兩踝骨見,終言機冤。吏知拯義烈,謂拯曰:「二陸之枉,誰不知之!君可不愛身乎?」拯仰天歎曰:「陸君兄弟,世之奇士,吾蒙知愛。今旣不能救其死,忍復從而誣之乎!」玖等知拯不可屈,乃令獄吏詐爲拯辭。穎旣殺機,意常悔之,及見拯辭,大喜,謂玖等曰:「非卿之忠,不能窮此姦。」遂夷拯三族。拯門人費慈、宰意二人詣獄明拯冤,拯譬遣之曰:「吾義不負二陸,死自吾分;卿何爲爾邪!」曰:「君旣不負二陸,僕又安可負君!」固言拯冤,玖又殺之。

23. Sima Ying’s 記室, Jiang Tong, Cai Ke of Chenliu, Zao Song of Yingchuan, and others all submitted a petition to Sima Ying, stating, "Lu Ji's lack of proper planning resulted in defeat, and if you intended to kill him for that, it would have been sufficient. But as for him going so far as to plot rebellion and treason, the whole army knows that this was not so. We ask that before you do anything further, you first investigate these accusations of Lu Ji's supposed rebel intent. If there is the slightest evidence to substantiate them, it will not be too late to execute Lu Yun and the others as well."

Jiang Tong and these others continued to plead with Sima Ying incessantly, but Sima Ying put them off for three days. Then Cai Ke was given an audience, and when he came before Sima Ying, he kowtowed until blood flowed from his head as he begged, "Lu Yun is the target of Meng Jiu's resentment; everyone near and far knows this. If you will kill him even so, Your Highness, how greatly will this foolish minister pity you!"

Dozens of Sima Ying's officials and subordinates followed Cai Ke into the audience, all pleading with him through tears. Sima Ying was moved by this display, and he looked as though he were about to pardon Lu Yun. But Meng Jiu hustled Sima Ying away, and he gave an expedited order to put Lu Yun and Lu Dan to death, along with Lu Ji's family to the third degree.

The prison officials tortured Sun Zheng hundreds of times, until the bones showed through on his ankles, but to the very end he insisted Lu Ji was innocent. The prison officials knew that Sun Zheng was righteous and indomitable, and they said to him, "Who does not know of the wickedness of Lu Ji and Lu Yun? Sir, do you care nothing for your own life?"

Sun Zheng lifted his head towards Heaven and lamented, "Sir Lu and his brother were great talents of the age, and I received their attention and their love. Since I could not save them from death, how could I possibly bear to slander them?"

Meng Jiu and the others knew that Sun Zheng would not bend, so they ordered the prison officials to forge a confession in Sun Zheng's hand. After Sima Ying had killed Lu Ji, he often regretted his decision. But when he saw the forged confession from Sun Zheng, he was greatly pleased, and he said to Meng Jiu and the others, "If not for your loyalty, I could not have gotten rid of this wicked fellow."

Sun Zheng was executed, along with his family to the third degree.

During Sun Zheng's imprisonment, his two students, Fei Ci and Zai Yi, had visited the prison officials to attest to Sun Zheng's innocence. Sun Zheng had tried to send them away, telling them, "My sense of righteousness does not allow me to abandon the Lu brothers, and so death shall be my share. Why are you doing this for me?"

They replied, "Sir, if you cannot abandon the Lu brothers, neither can we abandon you!"

They had continued to insist on Sun Zheng's innocence, until Meng Jiu had them killed as well.

〈腿兩旁曰內外踝。〉〈宰,以官爲氏,春秋周有宰咺,孔子弟子有宰予。〉

(The two sides of the foot, inside and out, are called the ankles.

The surname 宰 Zai was originally the name of a government office, and it later became a clan name. During the Spring and Autumn era, Zhou had a Zai Xuan, and Confucius had a nephew named Zai Yu.)


太尉乂奉帝攻張方,方兵望見乘輿,皆退走,方遂大敗,死者五千餘人。方退屯十三里橋,衆懼,欲夜遁,方曰:「勝負兵家之常,善用兵者能因敗爲成。今我更前作壘,出其不意,此奇策也。」乃夜潛逼洛城七里,築壘數重,外引廩穀以足軍食。乂旣戰勝,以爲方不足憂。聞方壘成,十一月,引兵攻之,不利。朝議以爲乂、穎兄弟,可辭說而釋,乃使中書令王衍等往說穎,令與乂分陝而居,穎不從。乂因致書於穎,爲陳利害,欲與之和解。穎復書,「請斬皇甫商等首,則引兵還鄴,」乂不可。

24. Sima Ai brought Emperor Hui to attack Zhang Fang. When Zhang Fang's soldiers saw the imperial carriage was with the enemy army, they all retreated and fled, so Zhang Fang was greatly defeated, with more than five thousand of his soldiers killed.

Zhang Fang retreated to camp at Thirteen Li Bridge. His soldiers were afraid, and wanted to flee by cover of night. Zhang Fang said to them, "Victory and defeat are both the common lot of an army. But one who is skilled at using soldiers can turn a defeat into a success. If I were to now advance and then build a rampart, so as to catch the enemy off guard, that would be a great plan."

So, taking advantage of the dark of the night, he secretly marched his soldiers back to within seven li of Luoyang, and then built rampart walls several rows thick, while foraging for grain and fruit to keep his army fed. Since Sima Ai had just won a victory over Zhang Fang, he believed there was nothing left to fear from him. But in the eleventh month, when Sima Ai heard that Zhang Fang had completed these ramparts, he led his soldiers to attack him again, but without success.

The court discussed how, seeing as Sima Ai and Sima Ying were brothers, the court might be able to mediate between them to resolve their conflict. So they sent the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yan, and others to go and speak to Sima Ying, with the proposal that he and Sima Ai could divide up the realm with Shan as their border, each of them residing in their own domains. But Sima Ying would not agree to their proposal.

Sima Ai then wrote his own letter to Sima Ying, outlining the advantages and disadvantages, and wishing to arrange peace terms with him. Sima Ying wrote back, "If you will send me the heads of Huangfu Shang and the others, then I will take my troops back to Ye."

But Sima Ai could not do this.

〈《考異》曰:《河間王顒傳》云「駃水橋」。今從《帝紀》。〉〈周公、召公分陝爲二伯。陝在弘農。此言分陝,引周、召事,欲令穎、乂爲二伯耳,非分陝地而居也。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Yong in the Book of Jin identifies the place that Zhang Fang retreated to as 'the bridge over the Jue River'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

The Dukes of Zhou and Shao had divided the realm at Shan and styled themselves the Two Lords. Shan was at Hongnong. By this proposal of dividing the realm at Shan and invoking the examples of the Dukes of Zhou and Shao, the court merely wished to have Sima Ai and Sima Ying follow their examples as the Two Lords, and did not mean for them to actually divide the realm at Shan.)


連戰自八月至十月,朝議以乂、穎兄弟,可以辭說而釋,乃使中書令王衍行太尉,光祿勳石陋行司徒,使說穎,令與乂分陝而居,穎不從。乂因致書於穎曰:「先帝應乾撫運,統攝四海,勤身苦己,克成帝業,六合清泰,慶流子孫。孫秀作逆,反易天常,卿興義眾,還復帝位。齊王恃功,肆行非法,上無宰相之心,下無忠臣之行,遂其讒惡,離逖骨肉,主上怨傷,尋已蕩除。吾之與卿,友于十人,同產皇室,受封外都,各不能闡敷王教,經濟遠略。今卿復與太尉共起大眾,阻兵百萬,重圍宮城。群臣同忿,聊即命將,示宣國威,未擬摧殄。自投溝澗,蕩平山谷,死者日萬,酷痛無罪。豈國恩之不慈,則用刑之有常。卿所遣陸機不樂受卿節鉞,將其所領,私通國家。想來逆者,當前行一尺,卻行一丈,卿宜還鎮,以甯四海,令宗族無羞,子孫之福也。如其不然,念骨肉分裂之痛,故復遣書。」穎復書曰:「文、景受圖,武皇乘運,庶幾堯、舜,共康政道,恩隆洪業,本枝百世。豈期骨肉豫禍,後族專權,楊、賈縱毒,齊、趙內篡。幸以誅夷,而未靜息。每憂王室,心悸肝爛。羊玄之、皇甫商等恃寵作禍,能不興慨!於是征西羽檄,四海雲應。本謂仁兄同其所懷,便當內擒商等,收級遠送。如何迷惑,自為戎首!上矯君詔,下離愛弟,推移輦轂,妄動兵威,還任豺狼,棄戮親善。行惡求福,如何自勉!前遣陸機董督節鉞,雖黃橋之退,而溫南收勝,一彼一此,未足增慶也。今武士百萬,良將銳猛,要當與兄整頓海內。若能從太尉之命,斬商等首,投戈退讓,自求多福,穎亦自歸鄴都,與兄同之。奉覽來告,緬然慷慨。慎哉大兄,深思進退也!」(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

The fighting between Sima Ai on one side and Sima Ying and Sima Yong on the other continued from the eighth month to the tenth month. Then the court discussed how, since Sima Ai and Sima Ying were brothers, the court might be able to mediate between them. So they appointed the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yan, as acting Grand Commandant, and the Counselor With Golden Tassel, Shi Lou, as acting Minister Over The Masses, and sent these two to speak to Sima Ying. Their proposal was for Sima Ying and Sima Ai to divide the realm at Shan, each Prince residing in his own half, but Sima Ying would not go along with the idea.

So Sima Ai himself wrote a letter to Sima Ying, which stated, “His Late Majesty (Sima Yan), heeding fate and embracing fortune, presided over and brought together all within the Four Seas. Through personal diligence and bodily exertion, he completed the imperial endeavor, bring peace and light to the Six Directions and leaving a great legacy for his sons and grandsons.

"Sima Lun’s counselor Sun Qiu acted the traitor, casting aside the heavenly traditions. Sir, you yourself also rose up together with the righteous armies and came to restore the Emperor to his throne. The Prince of Qi (Sima Jiong), clinging to his achievements in that campaign, began to act without restraint and contrary to the law. Above, he did not display the heart of a chancellor of the state; below, he did not conduct himself as a loyal minister ought. Because of his slander and evil, he separated himself from others like flesh cleaving itself from the bone. Our sovereign was moved to indignation against him, and so the Prince of Qi was soon swallowed up and was no more.

"Sir, you and I share a friendship ten times greater than those between ordinary men, and we were both born into the imperial family. Both of us received our fiefs away from the capital, and neither of us felt ourselves sufficient to expound the royal instruction, or plot distant policies for the health of the state.

"But now, I find that you have made common cause with the Grand Commandant (Sima Yong) and have raised your armies together, mustering a hundred thousand soldiers all told, and have laid a heavy siege upon the imperial city. All the servants of the state are turned to resentment against one another, and each one now plays the part of a general. But though the full might of the state is now displayed, no plan has yet been conceived to smash them. Men fling themselves into the ravines until the mountain valleys become filled up and level; ten thousand men die by the day, and bitter pain is inflicted against those who have committed no crimes. How can the mercy of the state be so powerless that these sorts of punishments have become so commonplace? You yourself compelled Lu Ji, against his wishes, to accept your staff and battle-axe of authority and made him command your armies, simply to advance the interests of your fief and your kin.

"Those who harbor thoughts of treason may advance a few steps at first, but in the end they shall be driven back by a league. You ought to return back to your border post, in order to bring tranquility back to all within the Four Seas. Order your family members not to do anything shameful, and you will bring good fortune to all your descendants. If you do otherwise, consider the great pain that will result when the flesh and bone of the state are torn apart. For such reasons, I ask that you write me a response to this letter.”

Sima Ying indeed wrote a response back, which stated, “It was Emperor Wen (Sima Zhao) and Emperor Jing (Sima Shi) who accepted the great design, and Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) who fulfilled their plans, thus acting as the ancients Yao and Shun did. They all brought peaceful and good governance to the realm, realizing their vast enterprise with mercy and favor, and leaving the roots for a tree that may branch out for a hundred generations. How could they have known that the flesh and bone of their family would soon meet with misfortune, when their descendants would seize power, the Yang and Jia clans (of Yang Jun and Jia Nanfeng) would spread their poison, and the Princes of Zhao and Qi (Sima Lun and Sima Jiong) would become usurpers from within?

"Sir, you may have punished these villains, but you have yet to bring peace and stability back to the realm. Whenever I worry for the sake of the royal clan, my heart flutters and my liver festers. Yang Xuanzhi, Huangfu Shang, and the other miscreants in the court rely upon your favor for them so that they may work their mischief; how can one think about such things without becoming indignant? It was thus that I began this western campaign and sent out my feather dispatches, drawing together all the clouds from within the Four Seas to me. My benevolent older brother, I speak to you now as one who cherishes the same things that you do: arrest these inner nuisances, Huangfu Shang and the rest, bind them in ropes and send them far away.

"How can you act so naive, when you yourself were the one to instigate this war? Above, you forged the edicts of your lord; below, you alienated the affections of your beloved younger brother. You shirked your duties to the imperial carriage, did as you liked through the might of your soldiers, and placed jackals and wolves into the offices of state, while casting out or executing those of intimate and good character. How can you so flatter yourself that, doing such evil things, you would still hope for good fortune?

"As for when I granted Lu Ji my staff and battle-axe before, although he suffered a reverse at Huangqiao, he did gain a victory at Wennan. One victory and one defeat does not give you sufficient grounds to congratulate yourself yet. I still command a hundred thousand fighting fellows, and my excellent generals are keen for battle. We shall straighten out the affairs of all within the seas together with you, Elder Brother.

"But if you will heed the orders of the Grand Commandant (Sima Yong), behead Huangfu Shang and the others, cast aside your spear and withdraw and give up your power, you shall bring much good fortune upon yourself. Then I shall also withdraw back to Ye of my own accord, and we shall be as brothers again.

"I present these words to you as a token of my generosity to you. Great Elder Brother, consider them well. Think carefully of your next move!”

方遂進攻西明門。乂率中軍左右衛擊之,方眾大敗,死者五千餘人。方初于駃水橋西為營,於是築壘數重,外引廩穀,以足軍資。乂復從天子出攻方,戰輒不利。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Zhang Fang then advanced and attacked the Ximing Gate of Luoyang. Sima Ai, leading the Guard Commanders of the Left and Right of the palace guards, attacked Zhang Fang, whose army was greatly defeated; more than five thousand soldiers were killed. At first, Zhang Fang set his camp west of the bridge over the Jue River. But then he built several lines of ramparts, and brought in grain from far away, enough to sustain his army's operations. Sima Ai, bringing Emperor Hui with him, went out to attack Zhang Fang again, but he could not gain any advantage.


穎進兵逼京師,張方決千金堨,水碓皆涸。乃發王公奴婢手舂給兵,一品已下不從征者,男子十三以上皆從役,又發奴助兵;公私窮踧,米石萬錢。詔命所行,一城而已。驃騎主簿范陽祖逖言於乂曰:「劉沈忠義果毅,雍州兵力足制河間,宜啓上爲詔與沈,使發兵襲顒。顒窘急,必召張方以自救,此良策也。」乂從之。沈奉詔馳檄四境,諸郡多起兵應之。沈合七郡之衆凡萬餘人,趣長安。

25. Sima Ying advanced his army to once again threaten the capital region, while Zhang Fang breached the Qianjin Dam, so the water mills all ran dry. He also sent the slave girls of the noble families to grind up food by hand and distribute it to his soldiers. Any officials who were not actively campaigning, from the highest ranks on down, as well as any boys thirteen years or older, were forced into corvee labor, and slaves were sent out to assist the soldiers.

Both public and private matters were so impoverished and pressured that a single 石 of rice now cost ten thousand cash. The will of imperial edicts could now only be enforced in Luoyang alone.

The Registrar to the General of Agile Cavalry, Zu Ti of Fanyang, said to Sima Ai, "Liu Chen is a loyal and righteous man, firm and resolute, and Yongzhou has enough soldiers to control Hejian. You should send out an edict to Liu Chen, ordering him to raise his troops and attack Sima Yong. When Sima Yong feels such pressure, he will certainly recall Zhang Fang to come save him. This would be an excellent plan."

Sima Ai agreed with his suggestion. Liu Chen heeded the edict and spread notice to all corners of his province, and most of the commandaries of Yongzhou brought their troops to him. With the combined forces of seven commandaries, Liu Chen had tens of thousands of soldiers, and he led them towards Chang'an.

〈《水經註》:河南縣城東十五里有千金堨。《洛陽記》曰:千金堨舊堰穀水,魏時更修此堰,謂之千金堨。〉〈京師危蹙如此,乂雖戰勝,安得久邪!〉〈乂爲驃騎將軍,以逖爲主簿。〉〈雍州統七郡,治安定;或曰:時治新平。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Qianjin Dam is fifteen li east of the capital of Henan County." The Records of Luoyang states, "Qianjin Dam was an old weir for controlling the Gu River. During Cao-Wei, the weir was restored, and named Qianjin Dam."

With the capital region in such dire straits, no matter how many battles he won, how could Sima Ai have prevailed?

At this time, Sima Ai was himself the General of Agile Cavalry, so Zu Ti was his own Registrar.

Yongzhou administered seven commandaries, with its headquarters at Anding; some say that at this time, it was at Xinping.)


於是進攻京城。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying then pressed on and attacked Luoyang.


乂又使皇甫商間行,齎帝手詔,命游楷等罷兵,敕皇甫重進軍討顒。商間行至新平,遇其從甥;從甥素憎商,以告顒,顒捕商,殺之。

26. Sima Ai also sent Huangfu Shang to travel along byroads, bearing an edict written in Emperor Hui's own hand, ordering You Kai and Sima Yong's other generals campaigning against Huangfu Zhong to disband their armies, and giving Huangfu Zhong the command to advance his army to attack Sima Yong. Huangfu Shang went along these byroads as far as Xinping, where he encountered his uncle. This uncle had long hated Huangfu Shang, and he sent word to Sima Yong, who arrested Huangfu Shang and killed him.

十二月,議郎周玘、前南平內史長沙王矩起兵江東以討石冰,推前吳興太守吳郡顧祕都督揚州九郡諸軍事,傳檄州郡,殺冰所署將吏。於是前侍御史賀循起兵於會稽,廬江內史廣陵華譚及丹陽葛洪、甘卓皆起以應祕。玘,處之子;循,卲之子;卓,寧之曾孫也。

27. In the twelfth month, the Gentleman-Consultant Zhou Qi and the former Interior Minister of Nanping, Wang Ju, raised troops in the Southland to campaign against Zhang Chang's erstwhile commander Shi Bing. They acclaimed the former Administrator of Wuxing, Gu Mi of Wu commandary, as Commander of military affairs of nine commandaries of Yangzhou. They spread proclamations through the provinces and commandaries, and killed all the officials that Shi Bing had appointed. The former Imperial Secretary, He Xun, then raised troops in Kuaiji as well, and the Interior Minister of Lujiang, Hua Tan of Guangling, Ge Hong of Danyang, and Gan Zhuo all rose up in support of Gu Mi too. This Zhou Qi was the son of Zhou Chu; this He Xun was the son of He Shao; this Gan Zhuo was the great-grandson of Gan Ning.

〈吳置南郡於江南,晉平吳,改曰南平,以別江北之南郡。玘,口紀翻。〉〈揚州統郡十八;帝割豫章、鄱陽、廬陵、臨川、建安、南康、晉安屬江州,揚州統十一郡。今止推祕督丹陽、宣城、毗陵、吳、吳興、會稽、東陽、新安、臨海九郡;淮南、廬江在江北,不與也。〉〈周處見八十二卷元康六年、七年。賀卲事吳主晧,爲晧所殺。甘寧事吳主權,爲將以勇聞。三家皆吳之強宗也。〉

(Eastern Wu had created Nan commandary south of the Yangzi. After Jin conquered Eastern Wu, they renamed this commandary to Nanping, and they created a new Nan commandary north of the Yangzi.

Zhou Qi's given name 玘 is pronounced "ki (k-i)".

Yangzhou originally administered eighteen commandaries. Sima Yan had carved out the commandaries of Yuzhang, Poyang, Luling, Linchuan, Jian'an, Nankang, and Jin'an as part of the new Jiangzhou, leaving Yangzhou with eleven commandaries. In this passage, the loyalists acclaim Gu Mi as only the Commander of the nine commandaries of Danyang, Xuancheng, Piling, Wu, Wuxing, Kuaiji, Dongyang, Xin'an, and Linhuai. Since Huainan and Lujiang commandaries were north of the Yangzi, they were not included.

Zhou Chu's service in the campaign against the rebel Qiwannian is mentioned in Book 82, in the sixth and seventh years of Yuankang (296.5 and 297.1). He Shao served the final Emperor of Eastern Wu, Sun Hao, who had He Shao killed. Gan Ning served the Grand Emperor of Eastern Wu, Sun Quan, and was renowned as a bold commander. These three descendants were thus from powerful clans of the Wu region.)


冰遣其將羌毒帥兵數萬拒玘,玘擊斬之。冰自臨淮趨壽春。征東將軍劉準聞冰至,惶懼不知所爲。廣陵度支廬江陳敏統衆在壽春,謂準曰:「此等本不樂遠戍,逼迫成賊,烏合之衆,其勢易離,敏請督運兵爲公破之。」準乃益敏兵,使擊之。

28. Shi Bing sent his general Qiang Du to lead several tens of thousands of soldiers to oppose Zhou Qi, but Zhou Qi attacked and killed Qiang Du.

Shi Bing then marched from Linhuai to Shouchun. When the General Who Conquers The East, Liu Zhun, heard that Shi Bing was coming, he became afraid and did not know what to do.

The Logistical Director of Guangling, Chen Min of Lujiang, led his soldiers to Shouchun, and he told Liu Zhun, "These people are not happy to be camped so far from home; they have only been forced into it by the bandits. They are nothing but a flock of crows, and we can easily scatter them. Allow me to lead the soldiers to rout them on your behalf."

So Liu Zhun turned over his soldiers to Chen Min, and sent him to attack Shi Bing.

〈《姓譜》:羌,姓也。〉〈陳敏自尚書令史出爲合肥度支,漕運南方米穀以濟中州,遷廣陵度支。〉

(The Registry of Surnames states, "羌 Qiang is a surname."

Chen Min had originally been a 令史 of the Masters of Writing, and was then sent out to be the Logistical Director of Hefei, where he transported the grain and rice of the south to the north by rivers to support the central provinces. He was then moved to be Logistical of Guangling.)


閏月,李雄急攻羅尚。尚軍無食,留牙門張羅守城,夜,由牛鞞水東走,羅開門降。雄入成都,軍士飢甚,乃帥衆就穀於郪,掘野芋而食之。許雄坐討賊不進,徵卽罪。

29. In the intercalary month, Li Xiong pressed his assault against Luo Shang at Chengdu. Luo Shang's army had no food. So Luo Sheng left the General of the Standard, Zhang Luo, to hold the city, while he fled during the night east down the Niubing River. Zhang Luo opened the gates of the city and surrendered to Li Xiong.

When Li Xiong entered Chengdu, his soldiers and people were hungry and exhausted, so he led his soldiers to forage at Qi County, where they dug up wild taros and ate them.

Xu Xiong had sat on his hands and done nothing to advance against the rebels in Shu, so he was summoned to the capital to answer for his crimes.

〈《考異》曰:《載記》作「羅特」,今從《華陽國志》。〉〈《水經》曰:牛鞞水在犍爲牛鞞縣。劉昫曰:洛水,一名牛鞞水。杜佑曰:簡州陽安縣,漢牛鞞縣地。孟康曰:鞞,音髀。師古曰:音必爾翻。〉〈郪縣,漢屬廣漢郡,晉省立。《五代史志》:郪縣舊曰伍城,隋大業改曰郪縣,唐爲梓州治所。宋白曰:漢舊郪縣城在今縣南九十里,臨江,郪王城基址見在,以郪江爲縣名。〉〈所謂㟭山之下有蹲鴟也。〉〈許雄刺梁州,見上卷太安元年。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the name of Luo Shang's General of the Standard as Luo Te. But I follow the account of the Huayang Guozhi."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Niubing River is in Niubing County in Jianwei commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "Another name for the Luo River is the Niubing River." Du You remarked, "Yang'an County in Jianzhou was Han's Niubing County". Meng Kang remarked, "鞞 is pronounced 'bi'." Yan Shigu remarked, "鞞 is pronounced 'ber (b-er)'."

During Han, Qi County was part of Guanghan commandary. Jin abolished it. The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "Qi County was once called Wucheng. Emperor Daye of Sui (Yang Guang) renamed it Qi County. During Tang, it was administered by Zizhou." Song Bai remarked, "The capital of Han's old Qi County was ninety li south of the modern county. It was along the Yangzi, where the site of the old city of the King of Qi can be seen, so Qijiang became the name of the county."

It was said that these "squatting owls (taros)" were below Mount Min.

Xu Xiong's appointment as Inspector of Lianzhou is mentioned in the previous book, in the first year of Tai'an (302.4).)


安北將軍、都督幽州諸軍事王浚,以天下方亂,欲結援夷狄,乃以一女妻鮮卑段務勿塵,一女妻素怒延,又表以遼西郡封務勿塵爲遼西公。浚,沈之子也。

30. The General Who Maintains The North and Commander of military affairs in Youzhou was Wang Jun. Since he could see that the realm was engulfed by turmoil, he wanted to arrange ties with the local tribes. So he gave one of his daughters in marriage to the Xianbei leader Duan Wuwuchen, and another daughter to the Yuwen general Sunuyan. He also petitioned Liaoxi commandary to appoint Duan Wuwuchen as Duke of Liaoxi. This Wang Jun was the son of Wang Chen.

〈宇文國有別帥曰素怒延。〉〈爲王浚用段氏以攻成都王穎及石勒張本。〉〈王沈比晉以弒魏高貴鄕公。〉

(The Yuwen state had a general named Su Nuyan, mentioned in the last book (302.19).

This was why Wang Jun was later able to use the forces of the Duan clan to attack Sima Ying and Shi Le.

Wang Chen was a minister of Cao-Wei; he had participated in the murder of the Duke of Gaogui (Emperor Cao Mao) on behalf of Sima Zhao.)


毛詵之死也,李叡奔五苓夷帥于陵丞,于陵丞詣李毅爲叡請命,毅許之。叡至,毅殺之。于陵丞怒,帥諸夷反攻毅。

31. It was earlier mentioned that Li Rui and other local leaders in Ningzhou had rebelled on behalf of Li Te. After Mao Shen and the other local leaders had been killed by the Inspector of Ningzhou, Li Yi, Li Rui had fled to the leader of the tribes of Wuling, Yulingcheng.

Yulingcheng visited Li Yi to ask for a pardon on Li Rui's behalf, and Li Yi permitted it. But when Li Rui arrived to receive the pardon, Li Yi killed him instead. Yulingcheng was furious, and he led the tribes in rebellion to attack Li Yi.

〈事見上卷太安元年。〉〈五苓夷,寧州附塞部落之名。〉

(This local uprising is mentioned in the previous book, in the first year of Tai'an (302.8).

The Wuling tribe was the name of a tribe close to the borders of Ningzhou.)


尚書令樂廣女爲成都王妃,或譖諸太尉乂;乂問廣,廣神色不動,徐曰:「廣豈以五男易一女哉!」乂猶疑之。

32. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yue Guang, had a daughter who was Sima Ying's concubine. Someone slandered him to Sima Ai because of that. Sima Ai asked Yue Guang about it, but Yue Guang's expression was unchanged, and he only said, "Shall I give up my five sons on behalf of one daughter?"

But Sima Ai still suspected him.

〈謂附穎則五男被誅。〉

(Yue Guang was saying that if he were in league with Sima Ying, his five sons would be executed.)


樂令女適大將軍成都王穎。王兄長沙王執權於洛,遂構兵相圖。長沙王親近小人,遠外君子,凡在朝者,人懷危懼。樂令既允朝望,加有婚親,群小讒於長沙。長沙嘗問樂令,樂令神色自若,徐荅曰:「豈以五男易一女?」由是釋然,無復疑慮。(New Tales 2.25)

Yue Guang's daughter was married to the Grand General and Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying. The Prince of Changsha, Sima Ying's elder brother Sima Ai, held power in Luoyang, and the two sides were locked in struggle. Sima Ai was friendly and intimate with petty men, but distant and aloof towards gentlemen, so that everyone at court harbored a sense of danger and fear towards him. Since Yue Guang enjoyed the respect of the court, and also was related to Sima Ying through his daughter's marriage, all the petty people slandered him to Sima Ai, charging him as being in collusion with Sima Ying.

When Sima Ai asked him about it, Yue Guang's spirit and expression remained self-composed, and he replied mildly, "Would I exchange five sons for one daughter?"

From then on, Sima Ying was relieved and no longer felt suspicious or anxious about him. (Tr. Richard Mather)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Jun 20, 2018 6:46 am, edited 18 times in total.
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BOOK 85

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 20, 2017 3:42 am

永興元年(甲子、三○四)

The First Year of Yongxing (The Jiazi Year, 304 AD)


〈長沙王乂之死,改元永安;西遷長安,方改元永興。〉

(After Sima Ai's death, the reign era title was first changed to Yong'an. After Emperor Hui was moved to Chang'an, then the reign era title was changed to Yongxing.)


春,正月,丙午,樂廣以憂卒。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Bingwu (February 29th), Yue Guang passed away from anxiety.

長沙厲王乂屢與大將軍穎戰,破之,前後斬獲六、七萬人。而乂未嘗虧奉上之禮;城中糧食日窘,而士卒無離心。張方以爲洛陽未可克,欲還長安。而東海王越慮事不濟,癸亥,潛與殿中諸將夜收乂送別省。甲子,越啓帝,下詔免乂官,置金墉城。大赦,改元。城旣開,殿中將士見外兵不盛,悔之,更謀劫出乂以拒穎。越懼,欲殺乂以絕衆心。黃門侍郎潘滔曰:「不可,將自有靜之者。」乃遣人密告張方。丙寅,方取乂於金墉城,至營,炙而殺之,方軍士亦爲之流涕。

2. Sima Ai fought against Sima Ying's army several times; he routed them, and altogether he captured or killed sixty or seventy thousand soldiers. Sima Ai had never once failed to properly conduct himself with ceremony, and though the food supplies within the city grew smaller by the day, the officers and soldiers never lost heart. Zhang Fang, believing that Luoyang could not yet be taken, wanted to return to Chang'an.

But the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, was concerned that Sima Ai would not prevail. So on the day Guihai (March 17th), Sima Yue secretly assembled several palace officials and arrested Sima Ai, sending him to a branch ministry.

On the day Jiazi (March 18th), Sima Yue informed Emperor Hui of the situation. An edict was issued stripping Sima Ai of his offices and sending him to the Jinyong fortress. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Yong'an.

When the gates of Luoyang were opened, the generals and soldiers of the household guards could see that the enemy armies outside were not very numerous. They regretted what had happened, and they planned to liberate Sima Ai and carry on the fight against Sima Ying.

Sima Yue, fearing that this might come to pass, wanted to kill Sima Ai to forestall the hopes of the soldiers. The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Pan Tao, told him, "You cannot kill him yourself; your hands must remain clean of this."

So Sima Yue sent men to secretly make arrangements with Zhang Fang. On the day Bingyin (March 20th), Zhang Fang claimed Sima Ai from out of the Jinyong fortress. When Sima Ai was brought to Zhang Fang's camp, Zhang Fang had him burned to death. Even the officers and soldiers of Zhang Fang's army wept for Sima Ai. Sima Ai was posthumously known as Prince Li ("the Harsh") of Changsha.

〈長沙王乂不得其死,穎、顒之黨加以惡諡耳。〉〈《考異》曰:《越傳》云:「殿中諸將及三部司馬,疲於戰守,密與左衞將軍朱默夜收乂別省,逼越爲主。」今從《乂傳》。〉〈改元永安。《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「太安二年十二月甲子,大赦。」「永興元年正月,大赦,改元。」疑是一事。〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》云:「太安二年十二月,殺乂。」《乂傳》曰:「初,乂執權之始,洛下謠曰:『草木萌芽,殺長沙。』乂以正月二十五日廢,二十七日死,如謠言焉。」《樂廣傳》云:「成都王穎,廣之壻也,及與長沙王乂遘難,而廣旣處朝望,羣小讒謗之,廣以憂卒。」《惠帝紀》:「永興元年,正月,丙午,樂廣卒。」若廣卒時乂未死,卽《乂傳》正月二十五日廢爲是,合移在永興元年正月。而《晉春秋》:「太安二年,八月,樂廣自裁。」按《帝紀》,今年正月,以穎爲丞相,遣兵屯城門代宿衞者,疑此皆乂初死時事。又今年正月末,亦有甲子、丙寅。今從《乂傳》。〉

(After Sima Ai's death, it was the partisans of Sima Ying and Sima Yong who arranged to heap this loathsome posthumous name (Li, "the Harsh") on him.

It was at this time that the reign era title was changed to Yong'an.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the nighttime plot against Sima Ai, the Biography of Sima Yue in the Book of Jin states, 'The generals of the palace and the Marshals of the Three Divisions, sick of the long fighting and defense of the city, secretly worked together with the Guard General of the Left, Zhu Mo, to arrest Sima Ai during the night and send him to a branch ministry. They compelled Sima Yue to be their leader.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Ai in the Book of Jin, which has Sima Yue as the active instigator of the plot.

"Regarding the order of a general amnesty and the changing of the reign era title to Yong'an, the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin has these two entries: first, 'In the twelfth month of the second year of Tai'an (303), on the day Jiazi (January 18th of 304), a general amnesty was declared.' And second, 'In the first month of the first year of Yongxing (304), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed (to Yong'an).' I suspect that these were actually the same event.

"Regarding the timing of Sima Ai's death, the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all state, 'In the twelfth month of the second year of Tai'an (303), Sima Ai was killed.' But the Biography of Sima Ai in the Book of Jin states, 'Earlier, when Sima Ai had first taken hold of power, a rumor spread through Luoyang: "When the grasses and trees begin to sprout, Sima Ai will be killed." Sima Ai was deposed on the twenty-fifth day of the first month (of Yong'an, 304), and died on the twenty-seventh day, just as this rumor foretold.' Now the Biography of Yue Guang in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Ying was Yue Guang's son-in-law, and this created friction between Yue Guang and Sima Ai. As Yue Guang was involved with court affairs, some people spread slander and hearsay against him. Yue Guang passed away from the anxiety.' With this as a reference point, if we look back to the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin, it states, 'In the first year of Yongxing (304), in the first month, on the day Bingwu (February 29th), Yue Guang passed away.' If at the time of Yue Guang's death, Sima Ai were still alive, then the record of his being deposed on the twenty-fifth day of the first month of this year is valid, and so I have moved this event to the first month of Yongxing. Though I note that the Annals of Jin states, 'In the eighth month of the second year of Tai'an (303), Yue Guang took his own life.' Additionally, according to the Annals of Emperor Hui, it was during the first month of this year (304) that Sima Ying was appointed as Prime Minister and sent his troops to occupy the city gates in place of the household guards. I suspect that such things would have all been done in the immediate aftermath of Sima Ai's death. Lastly, there were indeed a Jiazi and a Bingyin day near the end of the first month of this year (304). For all these reasons, I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Ai.")


乂前後破穎軍,斬獲六七萬人。戰久糧乏,城中大饑,雖曰疲弊,將士同心,皆願效死。而乂奉上之禮未有虧失,張方以為未可克,欲還長安。而東海王越慮事不濟,潛與殿中將收乂送金墉城。乂表曰:「陛下篤睦,委臣朝事。臣小心忠孝,神祇所鑒。諸王承謬,率眾見責,朝臣無正,各慮私困,收臣別省,送臣幽宮。臣不惜軀命,但念大晉衰微,枝黨欲盡,陛下孤危。若臣死國寧,亦家之利。但恐快凶人之志:無益于陛下耳。」殿中左右恨乂功垂成而敗,謀劫出之,更以距穎。越懼難作,欲遂誅乂。黃門郎潘滔勸越密告張方,方遣部將郅輔勒兵三千,就金墉收乂,至營,炙而殺之。乂冤痛之聲達於左右,三軍莫不為之垂涕。時年二十八。乂將殯於城東,官屬莫敢往,故掾劉佑獨送之,步持喪車,悲號斷絕,哀感路人。張方以其義士,不之問也。初,乂執權之始,洛下謠曰:「草木萌牙殺長沙。」乂以正月二十五日廢,二十七日死,如謠言焉。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ai))

Throughout the fighting, Sima Ai routed Sima Ying’s armies several times, killing or capturing sixty or seventy thousand men. The fighting lasted so long that Sima Ai’s provisions ran low, and great hunger spread inside Luoyang. But although there was talk of reaching a breaking point, the generals and the soldiers of Sima Ai’s army were of one heart, and they all resolved to endure until death. And Sima Ai kept up the same traditions without a hint of loss. Sima Yong’s commander Zhang Fang thus believed that he could not yet overcome Sima Ai, and he wanted to withdraw to Sima Yong’s base at Chang'an.

However, the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, was inside Luoyang with Sima Ai, and he was worried that Sima Ai’s cause would fail. So he secretly plotted with the generals of the palace, and they arrested Sima Ai and sent him to the Jinyong fortress.

Sima Ai submitted a petition to Emperor Hui, which stated, “Your Majesty being sincere and peaceful, I have handled the affairs of court on your behalf. I have been careful to be loyal and filial to you, as the gods and spirits may all attest. The Princes, being led astray, have mustered their soldiers and come to lay the blame upon me. Meanwhile, the court ministers have acted unjustly, each worrying only about their own personal concerns, and so they have detained me in this branch office and kept me isolated from the palace.

"I have no concern for whether I myself shall survive. But I worry that the Jin dynasty will come to grief and ruin, for every branch and partisan of the clan wants to claim the whole for himself, and Your Majesty is left alone and in danger. If my death can restore tranquility to the state, then that shall also benefit our family. But I fear the ambitions of impulsive and violent men; Your Majesty will find no benefit in them.”

The others within the palace all regretted the fact that Sima Ai had been so defeated when he was on the cusp of victory, and so they plotted to release him and begin the struggle anew to oppose Sima Ying. Sima Yue feared what might happen if this came to pass, and he wanted to execute Sima Ai. But the Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Pan Tao, urged him to instead secretly send word to Zhang Fang. Having received notice of the situation, Zhang Fang sent his general Zhi Fu to lead three thousand soldiers to the Jinyong fortress, where they claimed Sima Ai. When Sima Ai was brought back to Zhang Fang’s camp, Zhang Fang had him burned to death. Sima Ai’s cries of bitter anguish could be heard all around, and there was no one among the soldiers of any of the three armies who did not hang their heads and weep for him. Sima Ai was twenty-seven years old when he died.

When Sima Ai’s coffin was about to be brought to burial east of Luoyang’s walls, none of his officials or subordinates dared to attend it. Only his former subordinate Liu You accompanied the coffin, walking on foot while grasping the mourning cart; he wailed and moaned in fits, and his lamentations touched all of those he encountered on the road. Zhang Fang could see that Liu You was a righteous fellow, and so he did not ask after him.

Before, when Sima Ai had first grasped power, a rumor spread through Luoyang: “When the grasses and trees begin to sprout, Sima Ai will be killed.” Sima Ai was deposed on the twenty-fifth day of the first month, and died on the twenty-seventh day, just as this rumor foretold.


公卿皆詣鄴謝罪;大將軍穎入京師,復還鎭于鄴。詔以穎爲丞相;加東海王越守尚書令。穎遣奮武將軍石超等率兵五萬屯十二城門,殿中宿所忌者,穎皆殺之;悉代去宿衞兵。表盧志爲中書監,留鄴,參署丞相府事。

3. The nobles and officials all came to Ye to see Sima Ying and beg forgiveness for their crimes. Sima Ying entered the capital, but then returned to his post at Ye. An edict was issued appointing Sima Ying as Prime Minister, and Sima Yue was promoted to Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

Sima Ying sent the General Who Seizes Valor, Shi Chao, and his other generals to lead fifty thousand soldiers to occupy the twelve gates of Luoyang. Anyone in the palace whom he suspected was put to death, and all of the household guards and soldiers were replaced.

Sima Ying petitioned that Lu Zhi be appointed as the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and he kept Lu Zhi with him at Ye, in order to provide advice for his duties as Prime Minister.

〈洛陽城東有建春、東陽、清明三門,南有開陽、津陽、平昌、宣陽四門,西有廣陽、西明、閶闔三門,北有大夏、廣莫二門,凡十二門。〉

(The walls of Luoyang had twelve gates. The eastern gates were the three Jianchun, Dongyang, and Qingming Gates. The southern gates were the four Kaiyang, Jinyang, Pingchang, and Xuanyang Gates. The western gates were the three Guangyang, Ximing, and Changhe Gates. The northern gates were the two Daxia and Guangmo Gates. These were the twelve gates.)


及乂死,穎表志為中書監,留鄴,參署相府事。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

After Sima Ai’s death (in 304), Sima Ying petitioned to have Lu Zhi appointed as Chief of the Palace Secretariat. He kept Lu Zhi in Ye, as an advisor for the affairs of the office of Prime Minister.

穎既入京師,復旋鎮於鄴,增封二十郡,拜丞相。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying entered Luoyang for a time, before returning to his post at Ye. His fief was increased to twenty commandaries, and he was appointed Prime Minister.


河間王顒頓軍於鄭,爲東軍聲援,聞劉沈兵起,還鎭渭城,遣督護虞夔逆戰於好畤。夔兵敗,顒懼,退入長安,急召張方。方掠洛中官私奴婢萬餘人而西。軍中乏食,殺人雜牛馬肉食之。

4. Sima Yong's personal army was camped at Zheng County, in order to remain in contact with the eastern armies and provide any needed aid. But when Sima Yong heard that Liu Chen had risen against him, he fell back to guard Weicheng County. Sima Yong sent his Protector Yu Kui to counter-attack Liu Chen at Haozhi County. But Yu Kui's army was defeated, and Sima Yong, afraid, withdrew back into Chang'an and ordered Zhang Fang to return with his army.

Zhang Fang took more than ten thousand slave girls from both public and private sources around Luoyang before marching back west. In order to supply his army, he killed people and mixed their flesh with beef and horse meat to feed his soldiers.

〈鄭縣,屬京兆郡,周宣王弟鄭桓公封邑;唐屬華州。〉〈渭城縣,故秦咸陽也;前漢屬扶風,後漢省,而地名猶在;石勒置石安縣;唐復爲咸陽縣,屬京兆。〉〈好畤縣,前漢屬扶風,後漢、晉省;唐武德二年,復分醴泉置好畤縣,屬京兆。〉

(At this time, Zheng County was part of Jingzhao commandary, on the site of the fief that King Xuan of Zhou had granted to his younger brother, Duke Huan of Zheng. During Tang, it was part of Huazhou.

Weicheng County was where the old Xianyang of the Qin dynasty was. During Former Han, it was part of Fufeng commandary. It was abolished during Later Han, but the name of the place still lingered. Shi Le recreated it as Shi'an County. During Tang, its name was changed back to Xianyang County, as part of Jingzhao.

During Former Han, Haozhi County was part of Fufeng commandary. It was abolished during Later Han and Jin. In Tang's second year of Wude (619), the territory was split off from Liquan County to reform Haozhi County, as part of Jingzhao.)


及乂死,方還長安。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

After Sima Ai's death, Zhang Fang returned to Chang'an.


劉沈渡渭而軍,與顒戰,顒屢敗。沈使安定太守衙博、功曹皇甫澹以精甲五千襲長安,入其門,力戰至顒帳下。沈兵來遲,馮翊太守張輔見其無繼,引兵橫擊之,殺博及澹,兵遂敗,收餘卒而退。張方遣其將敦偉夜擊之,沈軍驚潰,沈與麾下南走,追獲之。沈謂顒曰:「知己之惠輕,君臣之義重,沈不可以違天子之詔,量強弱以苟全。投袂之日,期之必死,葅醢之戮,其甘如薺。」顒怒,鞭之而後腰斬。新平太守江夏張光數爲沈畫計,顒執而詰之,光曰:「劉雍州不用鄙計,故令大王後有今日!」顒壯之,引與歡宴,表爲右衞司馬。

5. Liu Chen crossed the Wei River with his army, and fought Sima Yong, who suffered several defeats.

Liu Chen sent the Prefect of Anding, Ya (or Wei) Bo, and the Merit Evaluator, Huangfu Dan, to lead five thousand elite armored soldiers to attack Chang'an. This army entered the gates of the city and even fought their way to Sima Yong's own canopy. But Liu Chen's main body was slow in coming up to reinforce them, and when the Administrator of Pingyi, Zhang Fu, saw that this advance army had no reserves, he led his own soldiers to flank attack them. Ya (or Wei) Bo and Huangfu Dan were killed, and their (or, Liu Chen's) army was defeated, with the remaining soldiers banding together and retreating.

Zhang Fang sent his general Dun Wei to attack these soldiers during the night. Liu Chen's army, taken by surprise, scattered. Liu Chen himself fled to the south with his personal followers, but he was pursued and captured.

When Liu Chen was brought before Sima Yong, he said to him, "Even if I had received some slight courtesy from you, the sense of justice between a minister and his sovereign is a still greater matter. I could not disobey an edict of the Son of Heaven, no matter what measure of strength the contest would entail. The day I shook out my sleeves in determination was the day that I resolved to die. Even if you slice me up into mincemeat, my death will be 'as sweet as the shepherd's purse'."

Sima Yong, furious, had Liu Chen whipped before cutting him in half at the waist.

The Administrator of Xinping, Zhang Guang of Jiangxia, had several times devised plans on behalf of Liu Chen. Sima Yong arrested Zhang Guang and questioned him about it. Zhang Guang replied, "Inspector Liu never used my humble advice, and that is why Your Highness is where you are today!"

Sima Yong approved of this, and treated Zhang Guang to feasts, while petitioning for him to be appointed as Marshal to the Guard General of the Right.

〈【張:「衙」作「衞」。】〉〈澹,徒覽翻,又徒濫翻。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「兵」上有「沈」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈敦,姓也。〉〈顒留沈爲軍師,遂爲雍州刺史。〉〈《左傳》:宋殺楚使,楚子聞之,投袂而起。〉〈《詩》云:誰謂荼苦,其甘如薺。〉

(Some versions record the name of this Prefect of Anding as 衞 Wei instead of 衙 Ya.

Huangfu Dan's given name 澹 is pronounced "tan (t-an)" or "tan (t-an)".

Some versions add the clarification that "Liu Chen's" army was the one who was defeated and retreated in the wake of Zhang Fu's flank attack.

敦 Dun is a surname.

Liu Chen's mention of "slight courtesy" refers to Sima Yong retaining him as an Army Instructor and then as Inspector of Yongzhou.

The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "Song put to death the envoy of Chu. When the Viscount of Chu heard of it, he shook out his sleeves and rose from his seat. (Huan 14.4)"

The Book of Poetry has the verse, "Who says that the sowthistle is bitter? It is as sweet as the shepherd's purse. (Gu Feng 2)")


羅尚逃至江陽,遣使表狀;詔尚權統巴東、巴郡、涪陵以供軍賦。尚遣別駕李興詣鎭南將軍劉弘求糧,弘綱紀以運道阻遠,且荊州自空乏,欲以零陵米五千斛與尚。弘曰:「天下一家,彼此無異,吾今給之,則無西顧之憂矣。」遂以三萬斛給之,尚賴以自存。李興願留爲弘參軍,弘奪其手版而遣之。又遣治中何松領兵屯巴東爲尚後繼。于時流民在荊州者十餘萬戶,羈旅貧乏,多爲盜賊,弘大給其田及種糧,擢其賢才,隨資敍用,流民遂安。

6. In the Shu region, Luo Shang had retreated as far as Jiangyang. He sent word to the court of the current situation, and an edict was issued granting Luo Shang authority over the soldiers and taxes of Badong, Ba, and Fuling commandaries.

Luo Shang sent his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Li Xing, to visit Liu Hong in Jingzhou and ask him for food supplies. Seeing as the supply lines between the two commanders were distant and obstructed, and Jingzhou itself was already suffering from shortages, Liu Hong's accounts-keepers wanted to only send Luo Shang five thousand 斛s of rice from Lingling commandary. But Liu Hong told them, "The whole realm is all part of the same family, and we cannot work at cross purposes. If I give Luo Shang these supplies now, then I will no longer have cause for concern on my western border." And he instead sent Luo Shang thirty thousand 斛s of rice, with which he could sustain himself.

Li Xing hoped that he would be able to remain in Jingzhou as an Army Advisor for Liu Hong, but Liu Hong took away his hand tablet and sent him on his way back to Luo Shang. Liu Hong also dispatched the 治中 He Song to lead soldiers to camp at Badong as a reserve force for Luo Shang.

At this time, there were more than a hundred thousand people who had come to Jingzhou as refugees. Because they were in an unfamiliar land and they were impoverished, many of them turned to banditry. But Liu Hong was generous in supplying the refugees with fields and seed stores, and he employed those among them who were worthy and talented, with anyone so selected being employed according to their abilities. So the refugees became tranquil and stable.

〈《華陽國志》曰:瀘州瀘川縣,本漢江陽縣。又江安縣,亦漢江陽縣也。〉〈三郡,本屬梁州,尚權統之。〉〈綱紀,謂弘參佐操持一府之綱紀者。〉〈謂尚在巴、涪,則爲荊州屛蔽,無西顧之憂。〉〈手版,卽古笏也。參佐施敬府公,故持手版。今奪興手版遣之,不許其去尚而事己也。〉

(The Huayang Guozhi states, "Luchuan County in Luzhou was originally Han's Jiangyang County. The modern Jiang'an County was also part of the old Jiangyang County."

The three commandaries Badong, Ba, and Fuling were normally part of Lianzhou. Luo Shang had now been given authority and command over them.

The "accounts-keepers" were those officials who assisted and advised Liu Hong on the affairs of his department.

Liu Hong was saying that, with Luo Shang at Ba and Fuling, he could serve as a buffer or shield for Jingzhou to the west, and thus Liu Hong would not need to worry about that border.

The "hand tablet" was an old tablet. When officials respectfully offered advice on government or noble affairs, they held this tablet up. By Liu Hong taking away Li Xing's tablet, he showed that he would not permit Li Xing to abandon Luo Shang's affairs to work under him instead.)


三月,乙酉,丞相穎表廢皇后羊氏,幽于金墉城;廢皇太子覃爲清河王。

7. In the third (or, second) month, on the day Yiyou (May 17th, or ?), Sima Ying petitioned that Empress Yang Xianrong be deposed and kept under house arrest at the Jinyong fortress. He also asked that Crown Prince Sima Tan be demoted back to his former title as Prince of Qinghe.

〈【章:甲十一行本「三」作「二」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈羊后立見八十三卷永康元年。覃立見上卷太安元年。〉

(Some versions record this event as being in the second month instead of the third.

Yang Xianrong's selection as Empress is mentioned in Book 83, in the first year of Yongkang (300.30). Sima Tan's selection as Crown Prince is mentioned in Book 84, in the first year of Tai'an (302.5).)


This event probably took place in the second month, because the third month is mentioned again in the following passage, and the date of Sima Ying’s appointment as Crown Younger Brother in the passage after that would have taken place before the date listed here if it were the third month.

陳敏與石冰戰數十合,冰衆十倍於敏,敏擊之,所向皆捷,遂與周玘合攻冰於建康。三月,冰北走,投封雲,雲司馬張統斬冰及雲以降,揚、徐二州平。周玘、賀循皆散衆還家,不言功賞。朝廷以陳敏爲廣陵相。

8. In Yangzhou, Chen Min fought with the bandit general Shi Bing dozens of times. Even though Shi Bing's host was ten times the size of Chen Min's army, whenever Chen Min attacked him, he always won a victory.

Chen Min and Zhou Qi attacked Shi Bing together at Jiankang (Jianye). In the third month, Shi Bing fled north, seeking refuge with Feng Yun. But Feng Yun's Marshal, Zhang Tong, beheaded both Feng Yun and Shi Bing, and then offered his surrender. Yangzhou and Xuzhou were thus pacified.

Zhou Qi and He Xun then disbanded their forces and returned home, saying nothing about their accomplishments or any rewards. The court appointed Chen Min as Chancellor of Guangling.

〈封雲,徐州賊應冰者。〉

(This Feng Yun was a bandit leader in Xuzhou who supported Shi Bing.)


河間王顒表請立丞相穎爲太弟。戊申,詔以穎爲皇太弟,都督中外諸軍事,丞相如故。大赦。乘輿服御皆遷于鄴,制度一如魏武帝故事。以顒爲太宰、大都督、雍州牧;前太傅劉寔爲太尉。寔以老,固讓不拜。

9. As the role of Crown Prince was now vacant, Sima Yong petitioned that Sima Ying be appointed to fill it, as the Crown Younger Brother. On the day Wushen (May 1st), an edict was issued appointed Sima Ying as Crown Younger Brother and Commander of all military affairs, while keeping his authority as Prime Minister. A general amnesty was declared. The imperial carriages, clothing, and other ornaments were all moved to Ye, and Sima Ying wielded power as Cao Cao once had during the Han dynasty.

Sima Yong was appointed as Grand Governor, Grand Commander, and Governor of Yongzhou.

The former Grand Tutor, Liu Shi, was appointed as Grand Commandant. But Liu Shi declined this post on account of his old age.

〈天子在洛而建儲于鄴,則旣非矣;乘輿服御亦遷而就之,何居!〉

(For the Son of Heaven to stay in Luoyang while his heir set himself up at Ye was contrary to principle. And how could it be proper that all the imperial accouterments were sent there as well?)


河間王顒表穎宜為儲副,遂廢太子覃,立穎為皇太弟,丞相如故,制度一依魏武故事,乘輿服御皆遷於鄴。表罷宿衛兵屬相府,更以王官宿衛。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Yong then petitioned that Sima Ying ought to be appointed as the new heir to the throne. So Crown Prince Sima Tan was deposed, and Sima Ying was appointed as Crown Younger Brother, with the same authority as Prime Minister he already possessed. He managed the state in the same manner as Wu of Wei (Cao Cao), and the imperial carriages and clothing were all moved to Ye. He petitioned to have the household guard soldiers be made subordinate to his own office as Prime Minister, as well as the household guards of the princes.

詔以顒為太宰、大都督、雍州牧。顒廢皇太子覃,立成都王穎為太弟,改年,大赦。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

An imperial edict was issued appointed Sima Yong as Grand Governor, Grand Commander, and Governor of Yongzhou. He deposed the current Crown Prince, Sima Tan, and replaced him with Sima Ying as the Crown Younger Brother. He also changed the reign era title, and declared a general amnesty.


太弟穎僭侈日甚,嬖倖用事,大失衆望。司空東海王越,與右衞將軍陳眕及長沙故將上官巳等謀討之。秋,七月,丙申朔,陳眕勒兵入雲龍門,以詔召三公百僚及殿中,戒嚴討穎。石超奔鄴。戊戌,大赦,復皇后羊氏及太子覃。己亥,越奉帝北征。以越爲大都督。徵前侍中嵇紹詣行在。侍中秦準謂紹曰:「今往,安危難測,卿有佳馬乎?」紹正色曰:「臣子扈衞乘輿,死生以之,佳馬何爲!」

10. Crown Younger Brother Sima Ying grew more presumptuous and extravagant by the day. He used his personal favorites to handle affairs, and he lost much of the goodwill among the people that he once had. So Sima Yue entered into a plot to campaign against Sima Ying, together with the Guard General of the Right, Chen Zhen, the former General of Changsha, Shangguan Si, and others.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Wuxu (August 17th), Chen Zhen brought his soldiers into the Yunlong Gate of the palace, and an edict was issued summoning the Three Excellencies, the government officials, and the people of the palace, placing all of them under military readiness to campaign against Sima Ying. Shi Chao fled to Ye.

On the day Wuxu (August 19th), a general amnesty was declared, and Yang Xianrong and Sima Tan were restored to their titles as Empress and Crown Prince.

On the day Jihai (August 20th), Sima Yue brought Emperor Hui with him as he set out on his northern campaign against Sima Ying. Sima Yue himself was appointed as Grand Commander.

The former Palace Attendant, Ji Shao, was summoned to accompany Emperor Hui's procession. Another Palace Attendant, Qin Zhun, said to Ji Shao, "You are setting out with this army now, and it is hard to know whether it will go well or ill for them. If anything should happen, do you have a good horse ready?"

Ji Shao sternly replied, "My charge is to accompany and protect the imperial carriage, and I shall live or die with it. What need would I have for a good horse?"

〈時人望穎以匡輔帝室,今乃若此,故大失衆望。〉〈殿中者,三部諸將也。〉〈長沙王乂當國,以紹爲侍中;乂死,紹黜免爲庶人。今討穎,故復徵詣行在。〉

(After Sima Ai's death, the people of this time hoped that Sima Ying would rectify and support the imperial family. But his misbehavior was to such an extent as this that he lost much of the goodwill of the people.

The "people of the palace" were the commanders of the Three Divisions.

During the time that Sima Ai had been in power, he had appointed Ji Shao as a Palace Attendant. After Sima Ai's death, Ji Shao was stripped of office and demoted to be a commoner. But now that Sima Yue was setting out against Sima Ying, he recalled Ji Shao to accompany the procession.)


僭侈日甚,有無君之心,委任孟玖等,大失眾望。永興初,左衛將軍陳,殿中中郎褾苞、成輔及長沙故將上官巳等,奉大駕討穎。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying's presumption and extravagance grew more and more by the day, and he had a heart that knew no sovereign. He also trusted in Meng Jiu and other such men. So he lost much of the hopes of the people that he had earlier enjoyed. At the beginning of the Yongxing era (~304), the General of the Left, Chen XX [眕 Zhen, according to ZZTJ], the Generals of the Gentlemen of the Central Hall, Biao Bao and Cheng Fu, the former General of Changsha, Shangguan Si, and others brought Emperor Hui with them to campaign against Sima Ying.


越檄召四方兵,赴者雲集,比至安陽,衆十餘萬,鄴中震恐。穎會羣僚問計,東安王繇曰:「天子親征,宜釋甲縞素出迎請罪。」穎不從,遣石超帥衆五萬拒戰。折衝將軍喬智明勸穎奉迎乘輿,穎怒曰:「卿名曉事,投身事孤;今主上爲羣小所逼,卿柰何欲使孤束手就刑邪!」

11. Sima Yue sent out proclamations summoning soldiers from every corner to join him. Bodies of men flocked to his side, until by the time Sima Yue reached Anyang, his host had swelled to more than a hundred thousand men. Everyone in Ye was shocked and afraid.

Sima Ying held a meeting with his ministers to ask them for plans of what to do. The Prince of Dong'an, Sima Yao, told him, "The Son of Heaven is accompanying this army. You ought to remove your armor, bind yourself in ropes, and go out to welcome them and beg forgiveness for your crimes."

Sima Ying refused to listen to that. He sent Shi Chao to lead an army of fifty thousand soldiers to oppose Sima Yue.

The General Who Breaks And Charges, Qiao Zhiming, urged Sima Ying to go out to welcome the imperial carriage. But Sima Ying angrily replied, "You are known as an intelligent man, and so you offer me advice. But our lord is simply being forced by miscreants to do what they demand. Why then would you have me tie my hands and present myself to their judgment?"

〈《晉志》:安陽縣,屬魏郡。《魏土地記》曰:鄴城南四十里有安陽城。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "Anyang County was part of Wei commandary." The Geographical Records of Wei states, "The city of Anyang was forty li south of Ye.")


馳檄四方,赴者雲集。軍次安陽,眾十餘萬,鄴中震懼。穎欲走,其掾步熊有道術,曰:「勿動!南軍必敗。」穎會其眾問計,東安王繇乃曰:「天子親征,宜罷甲,縞素出迎請罪。」司馬王混、參軍崔曠勸穎距戰,穎從之,乃遣奮武將軍石超率眾五萬,次於蕩陰。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Yue's couriers sent his proclamation out to every corner, and people came to join him like gathering clouds. By the time his army arrived at Anyang, it had swelled to more than a hundred thousand people.

Everyone in Ye was shocked and afraid. Sima Ying wanted to flee, but his Official Bu Xiong was capable and skilled, and he advised, “Do not run! The southern army is sure to be defeated.”

So Sima Ying held a meeting with his ministers to ask them for plans of what to do. The Prince of Dong'an, Sima Yao, told him, “The Son of Heaven is accompanying this army. You ought to remove your armor, bind yourself in ropes, and go out to welcome them and beg forgiveness for your crimes.”

But the Marshal Wang Hun and the Army Advisor Cui Kuang urged Sima Ying to meet the enemy in battle, and Sima Ying followed their advice. He sent the General of Martial Display, Shi Chao, to lead an army of fifty thousand soldiers to oppose the enemy, and Shi Chao advanced to Dangyin.


陳眕二弟匡、規自鄴赴行在,云鄴中皆已離散,由是不甚設備。己未,石超軍奄至,乘輿敗績於蕩陰,帝傷頰,中三矢,百官侍御皆散。嵇紹朝服,下馬登輦,以身衞帝,兵人引紹於轅中斫之。帝曰:「忠臣也,勿殺!」對曰:「奉太弟令,惟不犯陛下一人耳。」遂殺紹,血濺帝衣。帝墮於草中,亡六璽。石超奉帝幸其營,帝餒甚,超進水,左右奉秋桃。穎遣盧志迎帝;庚申,入鄴。大赦,改元曰建武。左右欲浣帝衣,帝曰:「嵇侍中血,勿浣也!」

12. Chen Zhen's two younger brothers Chen Kuang and Chen Gui came from Ye to join Sima Yue's army. They said that everyone inside Ye had already scattered. Because of that, Sima Yue did not prepare much in the way of defenses.

On the day Jiwei (September 9th), Shi Chao's army suddenly appeared, and Sima Yue's army was totally routed at Dangyin.

Emperor Hui was injured on the cheek, and he was hit by three arrows. All of the ministers, attendants, and guards who were with him scattered. But Ji Shao, wearing his court dress, got off his horse and climbed onto Emperor Hui's carriage, shielding Emperor Hui with his own body. Sima Ying's soldiers impaled Ji Shao on the shafts of the carriage, which broke off. Emperor Hui begged them, "He is a loyal minister; do not kill him!"

But the soldiers replied, "According to the Crown Younger Brother's orders, Your Majesty is the only person we cannot harm."

So they killed Ji Shao, and his blood splashed on Emperor Hui's clothes. Emperor Hui collapsed into the grass, and he lost his six seals.

Shi Chao brought Emperor Hui back to his own camp. Emperor Hui was greatly famished, so Shi Chao took him to the river, and his attendants fed him autumn-ripened peaches.

Sima Ying sent Lu Zhi to welcome Emperor Hui. On the day Gengshen (September 10th), Emperor Hui entered Ye. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Jianwu.

Emperor Hui's attendants wanted to wash the blood off of his clothing. But Emperor Hui refused them, saying, "This is Palace Attendant Ji Shao's blood; do not wash it out!"

〈蕩陰縣,漢屬河內郡,晉屬魏郡,唐爲相州蕩陰縣。按《水經註》:湯陰縣因湯水爲名。宋白曰:古湯陰縣在湯水南,漢初廢安陽縣入湯陰,隋又廢湯陰入安陽,則安陽、湯陰二縣接境也。師古曰:蕩,音湯。〉〈轅,輈也。《方言》曰:楚、衞謂之輈。〉〈桃以夏熟者進御;秋桃非所以奉至尊,而奉之,恤所無也。〉〈浣,濯也。〉〈孰謂帝爲戇愚哉!〉

(During Han, Dangyin County was part of Henei commandary. During Jin, it was part of Wei commandary. During Tang, it was Dangyin County in Xiangzhou. According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, this county took its name from the Tang River. Song Bai remarked, "The old Tangyin County was south of the Tang River. During Han, Anyang County was folded into Tangyin, but during Sui, Tangyin was folded into Anyang. So the two counties, Anyang and Tangyin, were adjacent to one another." Yan Shigu remarked, "蕩 is pronounced 'tang'."

The term 轅 means the carriage shafts. According to the Local Dialects, 轅 is the term which the people of the Chu and Wey regions use for this concept.

Peaches which ripen in the summer are fit for Emperors to eat, while autumn-ripened peaches are not suitable for one so exalted. But they gave these to Emperor Hui because they had no pity for him.

The term 浣 means "to wash".

Emperor Hui could say such things as this; who says that he was a dullard or a dolt?)


乘與敗于蕩陰,穎遣志督兵迎帝。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

When the royal army under the command of Sima Yue, campaigning against Sima Ying, was defeated by Sima Ying’s forces at Dangyin (304), Sima Ying sent Lu Zhi to lead soldiers to escort the captured Emperor Hui to Ye.

二弟匡、規自鄴赴王師,云:「鄴中皆已離散。」由是不甚設備。超眾奄至,王師敗績,矢及乘輿,侍中嵇紹死於帝側,左右皆奔散,乃棄天子于槁中。超遂奉帝幸鄴。穎改元建武。。。署置百官,殺生自己,立郊于鄴南。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Chen Zhen’s two younger brothers Chen Kuang and Chen Gui came from Ye to join his army, and they said, “Everyone inside Ye had already scattered.” Because of that, Chen Zhen did not prepare much in the way of defenses. Then Shi Chao’s army suddenly appeared, and the royal army was defeated. Emperor Hui was struck by an arrow, and the Palace Attendant Ji Shao died beside him. Everyone around the imperial carriage scattered and fled, abandoning Emperor Hui among the weeds. Shi Chao then brought Emperor Hui back with him to Ye.

Sima Ying changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianwu... He also made his own assignments to the imperial offices, and decisions of life and death were all left up to him. Sacrifices were set up south of Ye.


陳眕、上官巳等奉太子覃守洛陽。司空越奔下邳,徐州都督東平王楙不納,越徑還東海。太弟穎以越兄弟宗室之望,下令招之,越不應命。前奮威將軍孫惠上書勸越要結藩方,同獎王室,越以惠爲記室參軍,與參謀議。北軍中候苟晞奔范陽王虓,虓承制以晞行兗州刺史。

13. Chen Zhen, Shangguan Si, and Sima Yue's other generals brought Sima Tan back to Luoyang to guard it.

Sima Yue himself fled to Xiapi, but the Commander of Xuzhou and Prince of Dongping, Sima Mao, would not admit him. So Sima Yue continued his flight and went back to his fief at Donghai. Sima Ying, leaning on Sima Yue's brothers, issued an order summoning him, but Sima Yue would not obey the order. The former General Who Seizes Valor, Sun Hui, wrote Sima Yue a letter urging him to tend to his border post for the general benefit of the royal clan. Sima Yue employed Sun Hui as his 記室 Army Advisor, and he consulted and discussed things with him.

The Palace Marquis of the Northern Army, Gou Xi, fled to the Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao. On his own authority, Sima Xiao appointed Gou Xi as the acting Inspector of Yanzhou.

〈越、騰、略、模,皆有聲稱於諸宗室中。〉〈范陽王虓時鎭許昌。〉

(Sima Yue, Sima Teng, Sima Lue, and Sima Mo were all proclaimed members of the royal clan.

At this time, Sima Xiao was guarding Xuchang.)


初,三王之起兵討趙王倫也,王浚擁衆挾兩端,禁所部士民不得赴三王召募。太弟穎欲討之而未能,浚心亦欲圖穎。穎以右司馬和演爲幽州刺史,密使殺浚。演與烏桓單于審登謀與浚游薊城南清泉,因而圖之。會天暴雨,兵器霑濕,不果而還。審登以爲浚得天助,乃以演謀告浚。浚與審登密嚴兵,約幷州刺史東嬴公騰共圍演,殺之,自領幽州營兵。騰,越之弟也。太弟穎稱詔徵浚,浚與鮮卑段務勿塵、烏桓羯朱及東嬴公騰同起討穎,穎遣北中郎將王斌及石超擊之。

14. It was earlier mentioned that the Commander of Youzhou was Wang Jun. When the three Princes Sima Jiong, Sima Ying, and Sima Yong had risen up against Sima Lun, Wang Jun had kept his soldiers at hand without responding to either side, and he forbade any of the gentry or people of his region from responding to the Princes' call for soldiers. Sima Ying had wished to campaign against him, but was unable to. Wang Jun also desired to move against Sima Ying.

Sima Ying now appointed his Marshal of the Right, He Yan, as the Inspector of Youzhou, with secret orders to kill Wang Jun. He Yan arranged a plot with the Chanyu of the Wuhuan, Shen Deng, to go traveling with Sima Ying to the Qing Spring south of Jicheng, and there do away with him. But when the appointed day came, there was a heavy storm; the soldier's equipment was soaked and damp, so they could not set out as expected.

Shen Deng believed that this was a sign that Heaven was helping Wang Jun, so he informed Wang Jun of He Yan's plot. Wang Jun and Shen Deng then secretly set their troops in order, and made arrangements with the Inspector of Bingzhou and Duke of Dongying, Sima Teng. They all surrounded He Yan and killed him, before directing the soldiers of Youzhou back to their camps. This Sima Teng was Sima Yue's younger brother.

Sima Ying then issued an edict summoning Wang Jun. But Wang Jun and Sima Teng, along with the Xianbei leader Duan Wuwuchen and the Wuhuan leader Jiezhu, all marched together on a campaign against Sima Ying. Sima Ying sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Wang Bin, and Shi Chao to attack them.

〈事見上卷永寧元年。〉〈使穎兄弟不自內相圖,聲浚之罪而討之,固有餘力矣,何未能邪!〉〈和演與穎謀起兵討趙王倫,穎之腹心也。〉〈幽州刺史營兵也。〉

(The joint campaign of the Princes against Sima Lun is mentioned in the previous book, in the first year of Yongning (330.11-22).

If Sima Ying had not been warring with his brothers, and had simply denounced Wang Jun's crimes and marched against him, he would have had plenty of strength to do so; how could it be that he 'was unable to'?

This He Yan had advised Sima Ying to rise up with his soldiers to campaign against Sima Lun; he was a close confidant to Sima Ying.

They directed the soldiers of Youzhou, who had been under He Yan's command.)


安北將軍王浚、甯北將軍東嬴公騰殺穎所置幽州刺史和演,穎征浚,浚屯冀州不進,與騰及烏丸、羯硃襲穎。候騎至鄴,穎遣幽州刺史王斌及石超、李毅等距浚。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

The General Who Maintains The North, Wang Jun, and the General Who Tranquilizes The North and Duke of Dongying, Sima Teng, killed Sima Ying’s appointee as Inspector of Youzhou, He Yan. So Sima Ying marched against Wang Jun. Wang Jun camped in Jizhou and did not advance; he joined together with Sima Teng, the Wuwan, and Jiezhu (ZZTJ has this as “the Wuhuan leader Jiezhu”) to attack Sima Ying.

When Wang Jun’s advance riders reached Ye, Sima Ying sent his new Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Bin, along with Shi Chao, Li Yi, and others to resist Wang Jun’s attack.


太弟穎怨東安王繇前議,八月,戊辰,收繇,殺之。初,繇兄琅邪恭王覲薨,子睿嗣。睿沈敏有度量,爲左將軍,與東海參軍王導善。導,敦之從父弟也;識量清遠,以朝廷多故,每勸睿之國。及繇死,睿從帝在鄴,恐及禍,將逃歸。穎先敕關津,無得出貴人,睿至河陽,爲津吏所止。從者宋典自後來,以鞭拂睿而笑曰:「舍長,官禁貴人,汝亦被拘邪?」吏乃聽過。至洛陽,迎太妃夏侯氏俱歸國。

15. Sima Ying was angry that Sima Yao had counseled him to surrender. In the eighth month, on the day Wuchen (September 18th), he arrested Sima Yao and killed him.

Earlier, when Prince Gong ("the Respectful") of Langye, Sima Yao's elder brother Sima Jin, had passed away, Sima Jin's son Sima Rui had inherited that title. This Sima Rui was a profound and nimble fellow with great capacity. During the time that he served as General of the Left, he became good friends with Sima Yue's Army Advisor, Wang Dao. This Wang Dao was the cousin of Wang Dun. He was very knowledgeable and perceptive in his foresight. Seeing all the difficulties that the court was under, Wang Dao often urged Sima Rui to return to his fief.

After Sima Yao's death, Sima Rui had followed Emperor Hui at Ye. Afraid that disaster might befall him, he was about to flee back to his fief. But Sima Ying had previously issued orders barring passage at all the gates and all the river crossings, so that no nobles or exalted ministers would be allowed to leave. When Sima Rui came to Heyang, he was stopped by the officials guarding the river crossing there. His follower Song Dian came up behind him and struck him with a whip, laughing at him and saying, "You servant-master, these officials are supposed to be stopping honorable people. What are they holding you up for?" The officials, deceived, allowed him to pass through. When Sima Rui reached Luoyang, he found his wife Lady Xiahou, and together they fled back to his fief.

〈怨其使己縞素迎天子請罪也。〉〈導參東海王越軍事。〉〈關立於經塗要會處,以譏出入。津者,濟渡江河所必由之處。〉〈舍長,守舍之長也。〉〈元帝中興事始此。〉

(Sima Ying was angry at Sima Yao's suggestion that he tie himself up and welcome the Son of Heaven to apologize for his crimes.

Wang Dao was the Army Advisor to the Prince of Donghai, which was Sima Yue's title.

The gates were set up at important points along the road to control passage in or out; the river crossings were to control anyone crossing over the rivers.

A servant-master was the overseer of a household's servants.

Thus began Sima Rui's rise as the later Emperor Yuan, who would revive Jin in the south as Eastern Jin.)


害東安王繇。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying had the Prince of Dong'an, Sima Yao, put to death.


丞相從事中郎王澄發孟玖姦利事,勸太弟穎誅之,穎從之。

16. The Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen of the Prime Minister's Staff, Wang Cheng, announced Meng Jiu's perverse and greedy affairs. He urged Sima Ying to execute Meng Jiu. Sima Ying did as he advised.

上官巳在洛陽,殘暴縱橫。守河南尹周馥,浚之從父弟也,與司隸滿奮等謀誅之,事洩,奮等死,馥走,得免。司空越之討太弟穎也,太宰顒遣右將軍、馮翊太守張方將兵二萬救之,聞帝已入鄴,因命方鎭洛陽。巳與別將苗願拒之,大敗而還。太子覃夜襲巳、願,巳、願出走;方入洛陽。覃於廣陽門迎方而拜,方下車扶止之,復廢覃及羊后。

17. At Luoyang, Shangguan Si became cruel and unrestrained. The acting Intendant of Henan, Zhou Fu, was the cousin of Zhou Jun. He plotted with the Colonel-Director, Man Fen, and others to execute Shangguan Si. But their plot was discovered; Man Fen and the other plotters died, but Zhou Fu fled and so made his escape.

When Sima Yue had marched out on campaign against Sima Ying, Grand Governor Sima Yong had sent the General of the Right and Administrator of Pingyi, Zhang Fang, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to save Sima Ying. But when Sima Yong heard that Emperor Hui had entered Ye, he ordered Zhang Fang to guard Luoyang instead. Shangguan Si and his general Miao Yuan opposed Zhang Fang, but they were greatly defeated and withdrew back into the city. Crown Prince Sima Tan then attacked Shangguan Si and Miao Yuan during the night, and they both fled.

Zhang Fang entered Luoyang. Sima Tan waited at the Guangyang Gate to welcome Zhang Fang and saluted him. Zhang Fang got down off his carriage and stopped Sima Tan. But he deposed Sima Tan and Empress Yang Xianrong once again.

〈周浚從王渾伐吳有戰功。〉〈洛城西面南頭第一門曰廣陽門。〉

(Zhou Jun had won merits in battle under Wang Hun, during the campaign against Eastern Jin (Book 81, 280).

The first southern gate on Luoyang's western wall was called the Guangyang Gate.)


左衛將軍陳奉天子伐穎,顒又遣方率兵二萬救鄴。天子已幸鄴。方屯兵洛陽。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

The Guard General of the Left, Chen X (likely Chen Zhen), brought Emperor Hui with him on a campaign against Sima Ying at Ye. Sima Yong once again sent Zhang Fang to lead twenty thousand soldiers to save Ye. However, Emperor Hui's army had already been defeated at Ye, so Zhang Fang camped his soldiers at Luoyang.


初,太弟穎表匈奴左賢王劉淵爲冠軍將軍,監五部軍事,使將兵在鄴。淵子聰,驍勇絕人,博涉經史,善屬文,彎弓三百斤;弱冠游京師,名士莫不與交。穎以聰爲積弩將軍。

18. Sometime before this, Sima Ying had petitioned to have the Xiongnu's Worthy King of the Left, Liu Yuan, appointed as Champion General and as chief over the military affairs of the Five Divisions of the Southern Xiongnu, and Sima Ying had had Liu Yuan bring his soldiers to Ye.

Liu Yuan's son Liu Cong was a brave and valiant fellow who surpassed other men, while also being learned and steeped in the classics and the histories. Not only did he delight in composition, he could also draw back a bow of three hundred 斤. Following his coming-of-age capping ceremony, he came to the capital region, and he interacted with every man of renown. Sima Ying appointed Liu Cong as General Who Amasses Crossbows.

〈楊駿輔政,以劉淵爲五部大都督;元康末,坐部人叛出塞,免官;穎鎭鄴,表監五部軍事。〉〈《記‧曲禮》曰:人生十年曰幼學,二十曰弱冠。〉

(During the time that Yang Jun was regent over the government, he had appointed Liu Yuan as Grand Commander of the Five Divisions. At the end of the Yuankang era (~300), Liu Yuan had been blamed for the rebellion of some of his people and stripped of that office. After Sima Ying was posted in Ye, he petitioned that Liu Yuan be granted this post as chief of the Five Divisions.

The Book of Rites states, "When one is ten years old, we call him a boy; he goes (out) to school. When he is twenty, we call him a youth; he is capped. (Rules of Propriety 1.12)")


淵從祖右賢王宣謂其族人曰:「自漢亡以來,我單于徒有虛號,無復尺土;自餘王侯,降同編戶。今吾衆雖衰,猶不減二萬,柰何斂首就役,奄過百年!左賢王英武超世,天苟不欲興匈奴,必不虛生此人也。今司馬氏骨肉相殘,四海鼎沸,復呼韓邪之業,此其時矣!」乃相與謀,推淵爲大單于,使其黨呼延攸詣鄴告之。

19. In the midst of the civil strife in Jin, the Xiongnu's Worthy King of the Right, Liu Yuan's great-uncle Liu Xuan, had said to his kinsmen, "Ever since the fall of the Han dynasty, our titles as Chanyus have been empty ones, and we have not gained a further foot of land. Though we have been given plenty of supposedly noble titles, in reality, all of our households are equally lowly. But though our numbers have declined, we still have at least twenty thousand men who can fight. Why then have we bowed our heads and accepted that we must labor on these people's behalf, lingering in obscurity for more than a hundred years?

"Now the Worthy King of the Left is a brave and martial man who can stand astride the age. If Heaven did not wish for we Xiongnu to rise, why would it have sent us such a man as him? The Sima clan is rending itself apart, the flesh from the bones, and all within the Four Seas boils over in confusion and calamity. This is just the time for us to revive the old endeavors of the Huhanxie!"

So they had plotted amongst themselves, and they had acclaimed Liu Yuan as the Grand Chanyu. They had sent their partisan Huyan Xiu to visit Ye to inform Liu Yuan of what was going on.

〈事見六十七卷漢獻帝建安二十一年。〉〈編,相聯次也。民謂之編民,亦謂之編戶者,言比屋聯次而居,編於民籍,無高下之差。〉〈【章:甲十一行本作「手受」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈奄,忽也,遽也。〉〈漢宣帝時,稽侯狦來朝,稱呼韓邪單于;光武時日逐王比內附,亦稱呼韓邪單于。〉〈師古曰:《漢書》匈奴中貴種有呼銜氏,卽今之呼延氏。〉

(The Southern Xiongnu's organization into the Five Divisions under the overlordship of Han is mentioned in Book 67, in Emperor Xian of Han's twenty-first year of Jian'an (216.I in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Liu Xuan uses the term 編戶. 編 here means "in equal sequence". People call them "men in equal sequence", or "households in equal sequence", by which they mean that their rooms are all linked together in sequence; they are registered all the same, with no distinction of superiority or inferiority among them.

Some versions include the phrase "accept".

The term 奄 here means "obscurity" or "in fright".

During the time of Emperor Xuan of Han, the Xiongnu leader Jihoushan came to his court, and he was styled the Huhanxie Chanyu. And during Emperor Guangwu's day, the Xiongnu's King Who Chases The Sun, Bi, also aligned himself with the Middle Kingdom, and he was also styled the Huhanxie Chanyu.

Yan Shigu remarked, "The Book of Han mentions that one of the exalted tribes of the Xiongnu was the Huxian clan; they became the modern Huyan clan.")


淵白穎,請歸會葬,穎弗許。淵令攸先歸,告宣等使招集五部及雜胡,聲言助穎,實欲叛之。及王浚、東嬴公騰起兵,淵說穎曰:「今二鎭跋扈,衆十餘萬,恐非宿衞及近郡士衆所能禦也,請爲殿下還說五部以赴國難。」穎曰:「五部之衆,果可發否?就能發之,鮮卑、烏桓,未易當也。吾欲奉乘輿還洛陽以避其鋒,徐傳檄天下,以逆順制之,君意何如?」淵曰:「殿下武皇帝之子,有大勳於王室,威恩遠著,四海之內,孰不願爲殿下盡死力者!何難發之有!王浚豎子,東嬴疏屬,豈能與殿下爭衡邪!殿下一發鄴宮,示弱於人,洛陽不可得而至;雖至洛陽,威權不復在殿下也。願殿下撫勉士衆,靖以鎭之,淵請爲殿下以二部摧東嬴,三部梟王浚,二豎之首,可指日而懸也。」穎悅,拜淵爲北單于、參丞相軍事。

20. At that time, Liu Yuan had bowed before Sima Ying and asked leave to go back to his territory to attend a funeral, but Sima Ying had rebuffed him. So Liu Yuan had ordered Huyan Xiu to go on back first, to tell Liu Xuan and the others to begin gathering together the warriors of the Five Divisions and of other tribes. Ostensibly, they would be doing this to provide assistance for Sima Ying, but in reality, this would be a prelude to rebellion.

Now, with Wang Yun and Sima Teng having risen up with soldiers and marching against Sima Ying, Liu Yuan urged Sima Ying, "The forces of these two command posts, Youzhou and Bingzhou, are considerable, and they number more than a hundred thousand men. I fear that your personal guards and the soldiers of the local comandaries will not be able to withstand them. Your Highness, please grant me leave to return to my territory and persuade the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu to come to the aid of the state."

Sima Ying replied, "Can you really muster the strength of the Five Divisions? Even if you can, the Xianbei and the Wuhuan are not so easily overcome. I plan to bring the imperial carriage back to Luoyang to blunt the ardor of the enemy. From there, I can send out proclamations across the realm, summoning the loyal to deal with the traitors. Sir, what do you think of that?"

Liu Yuan told him, "Your Highness, you are Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) own son. You have performed great deeds on behalf of the royal family, and your power and grace extend near and far. Who within the Four Seas will not fight even unto death on Your Highness' behalf? How could I have any difficulty in mustering the Five Divisions for you? As for your enemies, Wang Jun is a mediocre sort of fellow, and the Duke of Dongying (Sima Teng) is just some distant and inferior relative of the royal clan. How could they contend with Your Highness? But if you were to abandon the palace at Ye, you would display weakness before men, and you would not reach Luoyang. Even if you did get to Luoyang, you would not be able to recover your lost power and authority.

"I ask Your Highness to nurture and rally the officers and soldiers of your present command, to ensure that you may maintain your position here. Allow me to bring two of the Divisions to smite the Duke of Dongying and the other three Divisions to behead Wang Jun. When I have the heads of those two miscreants, they shall be hung up and displayed as quickly as one points towards the sun."

Sima Ying, pleased by Liu Yuan's words, appointed him as Northern Chanyu and Advisor to the Prime Minister's household.

〈二鎭,謂幽、幷。〉〈言見力不足以制二鎭,欲檄徵天下兵,杖順制逆。〉〈東嬴公騰,宣帝弟東武侯馗之孫,故云疏屬。〉〈穎奔敗而失權,卒如淵之言。〉

(The two "command posts" that Liu Yuan mentions were Youzhou and Bingzhou.

Sima Ying was arguing that he did not have enough strength to withstand the assault of both Wang Jun and Sima Teng, and he wanted to send proclamations throughout the realm to gain more soldiers, in order to use the loyal to deal with the traitors.

Sima Teng was the grandson of the Marquis of Dongwu, Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Kui; this was why Liu Yuan calls him "an inferior and distant relative".

When Sima Ying fled after his defeat and lost his authority, it was just as Liu Yuan here predicted.)


淵至左國城,劉宣等上大單于號,二旬之間,有衆五萬,都於離石,以聰爲鹿蠡王。遣左於陸王宏帥精騎五千,會穎將王粹拒東嬴公騰。粹已爲騰所敗,宏無及而歸。

21. When Liu Yuan arrived at the city of Zuoguo, Liu Xuan and the others hailed him as the Grand Chanyu. Within twenty days, Liu Yuan gathered a host of fifty thousand men, with their base at Lishi. Liu Yuan appointed his son Liu Cong as Prince of Luli.

Liu Yuan sent five thousand elite cavalry under the Prince of Wulu of the Left, Liu Hong, to go on ahead to reinforce Sima Ying's general Wang Cui and oppose Sima Teng. But when Liu Hong found that Wang Cui had already been defeated by Sima Teng, he could do no more than come back again.

〈左國城,蓋匈奴左部所居城也。據《晉書‧載記》,光武建武之初,南單于入居西河之美稷,今離石左國城,單于所徙庭也。《水經註》曰:左國城在汾州之右,介休縣西南。杜佑曰:左國城在石州離石縣。宋白曰:離石縣東北有離石水,因以爲名。〉〈離石縣自漢以來屬西河郡。〉〈師古曰:蠡,音盧奚翻。鹿蠡王,卽仍漢時谷蠡王號也。谷、鹿字雖不同,而音則同耳。〉

(The city of Zuoguo was the capital city of the Xiongnu's Division of the Left. According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, at the beginning of Emperor Guangwu of Han's Jianwu era (~25 AD), the Southern Chanyu of the Xiongnu had come to dwell west of the Yellow River at Meiji. The Zuoguo which was now in Lishi was where the court of the Chanyu had relocated to. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Zuoguo is on the right bank of the Fen River, southwest of Jiexiu County." Du You remarked, "Zuoguo is in Lishi County in Shizhou." Song Bai remarked, "There is a Lishi River in the northeast of Lishi County, from which the county takes its name." Ever since Han, Lishi County had been part of Xihe commandary.

Yan Shigu remarked, "蠡 is pronounced 'li (l-i)." This title Prince of Luli was the same as the title Prince of Guli during the Han era. Although the characters 谷 Gu and 鹿 Lu are not the same, they are pronounced the same.)


王浚、東嬴公騰合兵擊王斌,大破之。浚以主簿祁弘爲前鋒,敗石超于平棘,乘勝進軍。候騎至鄴,鄴中大震,百僚奔走,士卒分散。盧志勸穎奉帝還洛陽。時甲士尚有萬五千人。志夜部分,至曉將發,而程太妃戀鄴不欲去,穎狐疑未決。俄而衆潰,穎遂將帳下數十騎與志奉帝御犢車南奔洛陽。倉猝上下無齎,中黃門被囊中齎私錢三千,詔貸之,於道中買飯,夜則御中黃門布被,食以瓦盆。至溫,將謁陵,帝喪履,納從者之履,下拜流涕。及濟河,張方自洛陽遣其子羆帥騎三千,以所乘車奉迎帝。至芒山下,方自帥萬餘騎迎帝。方將拜謁,帝下車自止之。帝還宮,奔散者稍還,百官粗備。辛巳,大赦。

22. Wang Jun and Sima Teng joined their forces to attack Wang Bin, who was greatly routed. Wang Jun appointed his Registrar Qi Hong as leader of the vanguard, and Qi Hong defeated Shi Chao at Pingji. Wang Jun then pressed his victory to march his army forward.

When Wang Jun's outriders reached Ye, everyone in the city was greatly disturbed; the officials all ran for their lives, and the officers and soldiers all scattered. Lu Zhi urged Sima Ying to take Emperor Hui with him back to Luoyang. At that time, Sima Ying still had fifteen thousand armored soldiers at hand. During the night, Lu Zhi split these soldiers into divisions, and by dawn, they were about to set out. But Sima Ying's mother Lady Cheng, who was still very attached to Ye, did not want to leave, and Sima Ying thus hesitated and could not make a final decision. Within a short time, even these remaining soldiers all scattered as well. Sima Ying could only lead several dozen of his personal cavalry followers, with Lu Zhi bringing Emperor Hui in tow in a calf-drawn cart. They fled to the south towards Luoyang.

In their hasty flight, none of them had brought any supplies. But the Yellow Gate attendants had three thousand cash in their bags as personal funds, and by imperial edict these were confiscated and used to purchase food along the road; the party ate by night by spreading out the clothes of the Yellow Gate attendants as quilts, and they ate off tiles and out of basins.

When the party arrived at Wen County, they were about to pay their respects at the imperial tombs there. Emperor Hui had lost his shoes, and when he accepted the shoes of one of his followers, he took them with tears in his eyes.

After the imperial party crossed the Yellow River, Zhang Fang sent his son Zhang Pi with three thousand riders from Luoyang to escort them, and they welcomed Emperor Hui with a proper imperial carriage. By the time the party was below the Mang Hills north of Luoyang, Zhang Fang himself brought more than ten thousand riders to welcome Emperor Hui's arrival. Zhang Fang was about to make a full obeisance when Emperor Hui descended from his carriage and personally stopped him.

Once Emperor Hui arrived at the palace, a few of his attendants who had earlier fled now returned, and so the functions of government could be roughly maintained. On the day Xinsi (October 1st), a general amnesty was declared.

〈《姓譜》:祁姓,黃帝二十五子之一也;又晉獻侯四世孫奚食邑於祁,曰祁奚。〉〈平棘縣,漢屬常山郡,晉屬趙國。劉昫曰:漢平棘縣在今趙州平棘縣南。〉〈晉制:皁輪犢車,諸公乘之。〉〈貸,假借也。〉〈帝之先,河內溫縣孝敬里人,自京兆尹防以上,皆葬于溫。〉〈甚於夷王下堂而見諸侯矣。〉

(The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 祁 Qi came from the name of the Yellow Emperor's twenty-fifth son. Furthermore, the fourth-generation descendant of Marquis Xian of Jin, Xi, was granted his fief at Qi, and so he became known as Qi Xi."

During Han, Pingji County was part of Changshan commandary. During Jin, it was part of the Zhao princely fief. Liu Xu remarked, "Han's Pingji County was south of the modern Pingyi County in Zhaozhou."

Regarding the calf-drawn cart, under the Jin system, this would have been a black-wheeled calf-drawn cart, which the various nobles rode in.

The term 貸 here means to borrow or confiscate.

Emperor Hui's ancestors of the Sima clan were natives of Xiaojing Village in Wen County in Henei. All of them from the Intendant of Henan, Emperor Hui's great-great grandfather Sima Fang, and further back were buried in Wen County.

The Book of Rites states, "According to the rules for audiences, the Son of Heaven did not go down from the hall and meet the princes. To descend from the hall and meet the princes, was an error on the part of the Son of Heaven, which began with King Yi, and was afterwards observed. (Border Sacrifices 10)" Yet Emperor Hui did such a thing in this passage. How greatly was this an instance of "King Yi descending from the hall to meet the princes".)


及王浚攻鄴,志勸穎奉天子還洛陽。時甲士尚萬五千人,志夜部分,至曉,眾皆成列,而程太妃戀鄴不欲去,穎未能決。俄而眾潰,唯志與子謐、兄子綝、殿中武賁千人而已,志復勸穎早發。時有道士姓黃,號曰聖人,太妃信之。及使呼人,道士求兩杯酒,飲訖,拋杯而去,於是志計始決。而人馬復散,志于營陣間尋索,得數乘鹿車,司馬督韓玄收集黃門,得百餘人。志入,帝問志曰:「何故散敗至此?」志曰:「賊去鄴尚八十里,而人士一朝駭散,太弟今欲奉陛下還洛陽。」帝曰:「甚佳。」於是禦犢車便發。屯騎校尉郝昌先領兵八千守洛陽,帝召之,至汲郡而昌至,兵仗甚盛。志喜於復振,啟天子宜下赦書,與百姓同其休慶。既達洛陽,志啟以滿奮為司隸校尉。奔散者多還,百官粗備,帝悅,賜志絹二百匹、綿百斤、衣一襲、鶴綾袍一領。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

When Wang Jun attacked Sima Ying's base at Ye, Lu Zhi urged Sima Ying to take Emperor Hui back to Luoyang. At that time, Sima Ying still had fifteen thousand armored soldiers at hand. During the night, Lu Zhi split these soldiers into divisions, and by dawn, they were prepared to set out. But Sima Ying’s mother Lady Cheng, who was still very attached to Ye, did not want to leave, and Sima Ying thus hesitated and could not make a final decision. Within a short time, these soldiers all scattered as well. Only Lu Zhi, his son Lu Mi, his nephew Lu Chen, and a thousand of the Martial and Valiant soldiers of the Central Hall remained behind.

Lu Zhi again urged Sima Ying to set out as soon as possible. There was a Daoist fellow in the area at this time, surnamed Huang; people called him a sage, and Lady Cheng trusted him. When someone came to call upon him, this Daoist asked for two cups of wine; after he drank them, he cast aside the cups and departed. So Lu Zhi’s plan was finally carried out.

By now, all of the porters and draft horses had already scattered, so Lu Zhi went into the barracks and obtained several lengths of rope, as well as several deer carts. The Marshal-Commander Han Xuan also gathered up the servants of the Yellow Gate, and got together a hundred such men.

When Lu Zhi went in to see Emperor Hui, he asked Lu Zhi, “How is it that we have been so scattered and beaten as this?”

Lu Zhi told him, “The enemy is about eighty li from Ye now, and the people and soldiers have all scattered from shock. Now the Crown Younger Brother wishes to have Your Majesty return to Luoyang.”

Emperor Hui replied, “Very good.” And so they set out in a calf-drawn cart.

The Colonel of 屯騎, Hao Chang, had earlier led eight thousand soldiers to guard Luoyang. Emperor Hui summoned him, and by the time their party reached Ji commandary, Hao Chang’s group arrived, well supplied in men and arms. Lu Zhi was pleased that their party was now so reinvigorated, and he advised Emperor Hui to issue a letter of amnesty, so that the common people would sustain and congratulate him.

When the party reached Luoyang, Lu Zhi advised that Man Fen be appointed as Colonel-Director of Retainers. Most of those who had earlier fled now returned, and so the functions of government could be roughly maintained. Emperor Hui was pleased, and he rewarded Lu Zhi with two hundred bolts of think silk, a hundred 斤 of cotton, a set of clothing, and a silk crane robe.

為羯硃等所敗。鄴中大震,百僚奔走,士卒分散。穎懼,將帳下數十騎,擁天子,與中書監慮志單車而走,五日至洛。羯硃追至朝歌,不及而還。河間王顒遣張方率甲卒二萬救穎。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Ying's generals were defeated by Jiezhu and Wang Jun's other allies.

Everyone in Ye was greatly disturbed; the officials all ran for their lives, and the officers and soldiers all scattered. Sima Ying, also afraid, led several dozen of his personal riders out of the city, taking Emperor Hui with him. Accompanied by his Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Lu Zhi, bringing a lone cart, they fled, reaching Luoyang five days later. Jiezhu pursued them as far as Zhaoge, but when he could not catch up with them, he turned back. Sima Yong sent Zhang Fang to bring twenty thousand armored soldiers to escort Sima Ying.


王浚入鄴,士衆暴掠,死者甚衆。使烏桓羯朱追太弟穎,至朝歌,不及。浚還薊,以鮮卑多掠人婦女,命:「敢有挾藏者斬!」於是沈於易水者八千人。

23. Wang Jun entered Ye, and his army sacked the city; a great many people died. Wang Jun sent the Wuhuan leader Jiezhu to pursue Sima Ying. Jiezhu pursued Sima Ying's party as far as Zhaoge, but he could not overtake them.

Wang Jun returned to Ji. His Xianbei soldiers pillaged the people and took women for themselves, and he ordered, "Anyone who dares to keep anything hidden shall be beheaded!" Eight thousand bodies thus filled the Yi River.

〈王浚進不成勤王,而縱鮮卑、烏桓猾夏亂華,其死於石勒之手,晚矣。〉

(Wang Jun advanced, but he was unable to rescue his sovereign. But even worse, he let the Xianbei and the Wuhuan oppress the Xia and trouble the Hua (ethnic Han). His death at Shi Le's hand was too long in coming.)


東嬴公騰乞師於拓跋猗㐌以擊劉淵,猗㐌與弟猗盧合兵擊淵於西河,破之,與騰盟于汾東而還。

24. Sima Teng requested military assistance from the Xianbei leader Tuoba Yituo, asking him to attack Liu Yuan. Tuoba Yituo and his younger brother Tuoba Yilu joined their forces and attacked Liu Yuan at Xihe, routing him. They made an alliance with Sima Teng at Fendong before returning to their territory.

〈自此拓跋氏屢以兵助幷州。〉

(This was the first instance of the Tuoba clan's military support for Bingzhou.)


十年,晉惠帝為成都王穎逼留在鄴。匈奴別種劉淵反於離石,自號漢王。并州刺史司馬騰來乞師,桓帝率十餘萬騎,帝亦同時大舉以助之,大破淵眾於西河、上黨。會惠帝還洛,騰乃辭師。桓帝與騰盟於汾東而還。乃使輔相衞雄、段繁,於參合陂西累石為亭,樹碑以記行焉。(Book of Northern Wei 1)

In the tenth year (304), Emperor Hui of Jin was taken captive by Sima Ying at Ye (because of Sima Yue's failed campaign against Sima Ying).

A leader of the Xiongnu, Liu Yuan, rebelled against Jin at Lishi, proclaiming himself the King of Han. Sima Teng begged the Tuoba state for military assistance, so Tuoba Yituo led more than a hundred thousand cavalry to aid him, and Tuoba Luguan also raised a great body of troops to help as well. They greatly routed Liu Yuan's forces at Xihe and Shangdang.

Soon after, Emperor Hui returned to Luoyang, so Sima Teng dismissed his allies. Tuoba Yituo and Sima Teng made a pact of alliance at Fendong before Tuoba Yituo returned to his domain. He sent the Ministers of State, Wei Xiong and Duan Fan, to establish a park at Leishi west of Canhe Slope, where they raised a stele to record the experience.


劉淵聞太弟穎去鄴,歎曰:「不用吾言,逆自奔潰,眞奴才也!然吾與之有言矣,不可以不救。」將發兵擊鮮卑、烏桓,劉宣等諫曰:「晉人奴隸御我,今其骨肉相殘,是天棄彼而使我復呼韓邪之業也。鮮卑、烏桓,我之氣類,可以爲援,柰何擊之!」淵曰:「善!大丈夫當爲漢高、魏武,呼韓邪何足效哉!」宣等稽首曰:「非所及也!」

25. When Liu Yuan heard that Sima Ying had abandoned Ye, he lamented, "Sima Ying did not heed my advice, but followed his own counsel. Now he has fled and his forces have scattered. What a slave he is! But I did give him my word, and I can do no less than come to his assistance."

And he was on the point of marching his soldiers out to attack the Xianbei and the Wuhuan. But Liu Xuan and the other Xianbei leaders remonstrated with Liu Yuan, telling him, "The people of Jin made slaves out of we Xiongnu to oppress us. Now they are destroying one another, flesh and bone. Heaven has abandoned them, and it calls to us to revive the endeavors of the Huhanxie. The Xianbei and the Wuhuan are of the same affinity as us, and they could help us. Why should you attack them?"

Liu Yuan replied, "You all speak well! But a true leader would follow the examples of Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) and Wu of Wei (Cao Cao). Why merely settle for being like the Huhanxie?"

Liu Xuan and the others kowtowed to him and said, "They were not your equals!"

〈鮮卑、烏桓,東胡之種,與匈奴同稟北方剛強之氣,又同類也。〉

(The Xianbei and the Wuhuan were branches of the general "Eastern Hu" tribes. Like the Xiongnu, they had the same spirit of hard strength of the northern people. This was why Liu Xuan and the others said that they were "of the same affinity".)


荊州兵擒斬張昌,同黨皆夷三族。

26. The soldiers of Jingzhou captured and beheaded the former rebel leader Zhang Chang, and all of his partisans were executed with their families to the third degree.

〈去年昌逃于下儁山,至是方禽滅。〉

(Zhang Chang had fled to Mount Xiajun in the previous year; at this time, he was captured and vanquished.)


李雄以范長生有名德,爲蜀人所重,欲迎以爲君而臣之,長生不可。諸將固請雄卽尊位,冬,十月,雄卽成都王位,大赦,改元建興。除晉法,約法七章。以其叔父驤爲太傅,兄始爲太保,李離爲太尉,李雲爲司徒,李璜爲司空,李國爲太宰,閻式爲尚書令,楊褒爲僕射。尊母羅氏爲王太后,追尊父特爲成都景王。雄以李國、李離有智謀,凡事必咨而後行,然國、離事雄彌謹。

27. In the Shu region, Li Xiong considered his next move. Seeing as the local leader Fan Changsheng was famous for his virtue and was held in high esteem by the people of Shu, Li Xiong wanted to welcome Fan Changsheng as his sovereign and subordinate himself as a minister to him. But Fan Changsheng would not accept his offer. Li Xiong's generals all asked that he himself should assume the imperial title.

In winter, the tenth month, Li Xiong styled himself as the King of Chengdu. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianxing. He abolished the laws of Jin, replacing them with the Seven Standards of law.

Li Xiong appointed his uncle Li Xiang as Grand Tutor and his elder brother Li Shi as Grand Guardian. Among his other kinsmen and commanders, he appointed Li Li as Grand Commandant, Li Yun as Minister Over The Masses, Li Huang as Minister of Works, Li Guo as Grand Governor, Yan Shi as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Yang Bao as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing.

Li Xiong honored his mother Lady Luo as Queen Dowager, and he posthumously honored his father Li Te as King Jing ("the Splendid") of Chengdu.

Because Li Xiong appreciated the clever plans that Li Guo and Li Li could devise, in all matters he always consulted them first and only afterwards carried out his plans. But even so, Li Guo and Li Li conducted themselves properly and only became even more cautious in their behavior.

〈史言諸李守君臣之分以相保固,所謂盜亦有道也。〉

(This passage shows how the various Li leaders maintained the distinctions between sovereign and ministers and worked to uphold one another, thus showing that there is honor even among thieves.)


劉淵遷都左國城。胡、晉歸之者愈衆。淵謂羣臣曰:「昔漢有天下久長,恩結於民。吾,漢氏之甥,約爲兄弟;兄亡弟紹,不亦可乎!」乃建國號曰漢。劉宣等請上尊號,淵曰:「今四方未定,且可依高祖稱漢王。」於是卽漢王位,大赦,改元曰元熙。追尊安樂公禪爲孝懷皇帝,作漢三祖、五宗神主而祭之。立其妻呼延氏爲王后。以右賢王宣爲丞相,崔游爲御史大夫,左於陸王宏爲太尉,范隆爲大鴻臚,朱紀爲太常,上黨崔懿之、後部人陳元達皆爲黃門郎,族子曜爲建武將軍;游固辭不就。

28. Liu Yuan moved his capital to Zuoguo. More and more tribal and Jin people flocked to his side.

Liu Yuan announced to his ministers, "From ancient times, the Han dynasty possessed the realm for many ages, and their grace was woven into the hearts of the people. I myself am a nephew of the imperial line of Han, and we are as close to one another as an older and a younger brother. When the older brother has died, is it not proper that the younger brother shall take up his inheritance?"

So Liu Yuan established his own state, and named it Han. Liu Xuan and the others urged Liu Yuan to assume the imperial title, but he told them, "The four corners of the realm have not yet been settled. I shall merely follow the example of Gaozu (Liu Bang) and style myself King of Han."

Thus did Liu Yuan claim the throne as King of Han. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yuanxi. He posthumously honored the late Duke of Anle, Liu Shan, as Emperor Xiaohuai ("the Filial and Cherished"), and he built altars to the Three Founders and Five Ancestors of Han and offered sacrifices to them.

Liu Yuan honored his wife Lady Huyan as Queen. He appointed Liu Xuan as Prime Minister, Cui You as Imperial Secretary, Liu Hong as Grand Commandant, Fan Long as Grand Herald, and Zhu Ji as Minister of Ceremonies. Cui Yizhi of Shangdang and Chen Yuanda of the Rear Division of the Xiongnu were both appointed as Gentlemen of the Yellow Gates. Liu Yuan appointed his junior kinsman Liu Yao as General Who Establishes Valor.

Cui You declined his appointment and would not accept it.

〈《考異》曰:下云「離石大饑,遷于黎亭」,則是淵猶在離石也。按杜佑《通典》:離石有南單于庭左國城。然則淵雖遷左國,猶在離石縣境內也。〉〈劉淵,字元海。《考異》曰:《帝紀》,李雄、劉淵稱王,皆在十一月惠帝入長安後。《華陽國志》,李雄十月稱王,一本作十二月。《三十國》、《晉春秋》、《十六國鈔》皆在十月。今從之。〉〈淵以漢高祖、世祖、昭烈爲三祖,太宗、世宗、中宗、顯宗、肅宗爲五宗。〉〈劉淵皆用漢官制。後部,卽匈奴北部也,居新興。〉〈崔游,淵之師也;范隆、朱紀,同門生。崔游旣能以師道不爲淵屈,且又得不變於夷之義。沈約《志》,魏置建武將軍。〉

(Liu Yuan was styled Yuanhai.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the location of Liu Yuan's capital, in the next book of ZZTJ I have written, 'There was great famine in Lishi, and Liu Yuan relocated to Liting'. So Liu Yuan must have still been at Lishi. According to Du You's Tongdian encyclopedia, 'The court of the Southern Chanyu at Zuoguo was in Lishi.' So although Liu Yuan was noted as having moved to Zuoguo, he must have still been within Lishi County.

"Regarding the timing of the foundings of Han-Zhao and Cheng-Han, according to the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin, Li Xiong and Liu Yuan declared themselves as Kings in the eleventh month, after Emperor Hui had been moved to Chang'an. But according to the Huayang Guozhi, Li Xiong declared himself King in the tenth month, with one version saying it was in the twelfth month. And the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, the Annals of Jin, and the Notes on the Sixteen Kingdoms all state that it was in the tenth month. I follow their accounts."

Liu Yuan considered the Three Founders of Han to be Gaozu (Liu Bang), Shizu (Emperor Guangwu), and Zhaolie (Liu Bei). He considered the Five Ancestors to be Taizong (Emperor Wen), Shizong (Emperor Wu), Zhongzong (Emperor Zhao), Xianzong (Emperor Ming), and Suzong (Emperor Zhang).

Liu Yuan thus followed the Han model in all his appointments and systems of government.

The "Rear Division" was the Northern Division of the Southern Xiongnu, based at Xinxing.

Cui You had been Liu Yuan's teacher; Fan Long and Zhu Ji had been his fellow students. Since Cui You had been able to instruct Liu Yuan in principles, but he could not bow to Liu Yuan, he could not adapt himself to the virtues of a tribesman.

Shen Yue's Annotations states that Cao-Wei had created the rank of General Who Establishes Valor.)


元達少有志操,淵嘗招之,元達不答。及淵爲漢王,或謂元達曰:「君其懼乎?」元達笑曰:「吾知其人久矣,彼亦亮吾之心;但恐不過三、二日,驛書必至。」其暮,淵果徵元達。元達事淵,屢進忠言,退而削草,雖子弟莫得知也。

29. This Chen Yuanda had had great ambitions since youth. Liu Yuan had once tried to recruit him, but Chen Yuanda had not responded to him then. After Liu Yuan became King of Han, someone said to Chen Yuanda, "Sir, shouldn't you be afraid?"

Chen Yuanda laughed and replied, "I've had the measure of that man for a long time, and he also holds me in high esteem. You may be sure that within two or three days, the courier will deliver his letter to me."

The very next morning, Liu Yuan's letter summoning Chen Yuanda arrived just as he had predicted. So Chen Yuanda worked for Liu Yuan, often stepping forward to provide loyal words before withdrawing to compose private petitions. Even the sons or younger brothers of people all knew about him.

〈草,奏藁也。〉

This passage states that Chen Yuanda would "carve grass"; the "grass" here was the stalks used in the composition of petitions and memorials.)


曜生而眉白,目有赤光,幼聰慧,有膽量,早孤,養於淵。及長,儀觀魁偉,性拓落高亮,與衆不羣,好讀書,善屬文,鐵厚一寸,射而洞之。常自比樂毅及蕭、曹,時人莫之許也;惟劉聰重之,曰:「永明,漢世祖、魏武之流,數公何足道哉!」

30. This Liu Yao had been born with white eyebrows, and there was a red glow to his eyes. He was a precocious youth, and possessed great bravery. He was orphaned as a child, so Liu Yuan raised him. When Liu Yao grew up, he had a very stalwart look to him, and his nature was magnanimous, upright, and exalted, so that he stood out from the crowd. He delighted in reading books, and was skilled at composition. But he was skilled with the bow as well; he could shoot an arrow at a piece of iron one 寸 thick and still have the arrow pierce right through it.

Liu Yao often compared himself to the ancients Yue Yi, Xiao He, and Cao Shen. At that time, there was no one who agreed with his self-estimation. Liu Cong was the only one who appreciated him, and he told Liu Yao, "Yongming, you should follow in the footsteps of Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) and Wu of Wei (Cao Cao); why settle for just being like those other honored gentlemen?"

〈拓,恢拓也。落,磊落也。〉〈劉曜,字永明。數公,謂樂毅、蕭、曹。〉

(The term 拓 here means magnanimous; the term 落 means upright.

Liu Yao's style name was Yongming. "Those other honored gentlemen" refers to Yue Yi, Xiao He, and Cao Shen.)


帝旣還洛陽,張方擁兵專制朝政,太弟穎不得復豫事。豫州都督范陽王虓、徐州都督東平王楙等上言:「穎弗克負荷,宜降封一邑,特全其命。太宰宜委以關右之任,自州郡以下,選舉授任,一皆仰成;朝之大事,廢興損益,每輒疇咨。張方爲國效節,而不達變通,未卽西還,宜遣還郡,所加方官,請悉如舊。司徒戎、司空越,並忠國小心,宜幹機事,委以朝政。王浚有定社稷之勳,宜特崇重,遂撫幽朔,長爲北藩。臣等竭力扞城,藩屛皇家,則陛下垂拱,四海自正矣。」

31. Now that Emperor Hui had returned to Luoyang, Zhang Fang wielded control over the affairs of state thanks to his command over the soldiers, and Sima Ying no longer had any power.

The Commander of Yuzhou and Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao, the Commander of Xuzhou and Prince of Dongping, Sima Mao, and others sent up a petition stating, "As Sima Ying has failed to achieve the burden of victory, he should have his fief demoted by one city, in special compliance with this order. Grand Governor Sima Yong should take charge of the affairs of Guanyou, and in the selection and choosing of aid or employment in all of the provinces and commandaries, all such matters should first be referred to him. In all the great affairs of the court, whether deposing or promoting, adding or subtracting, Sima Ying should always be consulted for every kind.

"Zhang Fang has authority to guard the borders of the state, but he has now overstepped his bounds and has not returned to the west. He ought to be sent back to his commandary, and all the changes that he has made should be reverted to what they were before. The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Rong, and the Minister of Works, Sima Yue, are both loyal to the state and careful men. They should be granted responsibilities of state as well and employed in the business of the court. Wang Jun has done good deeds to bring stability to the fortunes of state, and he should be especially honored; let him keep hold of Youzhou and Shuofang and maintain his position as guardian of the northern borders.

"With we your ministers doing our utmost to safeguard the city, and the borders all in hands of members of the imperial family, Your Majesty may find repose in loosened robe and clasped hands, while all within the Four Seas rectifies itself."

〈《考異》曰:《虓傳》云:「與鎭東將軍周馥同上言。」按《馥傳》:「帝自長安還,馥出爲平東將軍,都督揚州,代劉準爲鎭東。」據此表,張方猶存,蓋自鄴還洛陽時也。〉〈河間王顒時爲太宰,故稱之。〉〈言關右州郡,聽顒選舉,朝政亦咨而後行。孔安國曰:疇,誰也。顏師古曰:疇,誰也。咨,謀也。言謀於衆人,誰可爲事也。余按此所謂疇咨,恐非孔、顏《註》義。蓋疇,類也。咨,問也。言朝之大事,類以問顒。〉〈方本爲馮翊太守。〉〈謂舉兵討穎也。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Xiao in the Book of Jin notes that 'This petition was submitted together with the General Who Guards The East, Zhou Fu.' Now according to the Biography of Zhou Fu in the Book of Jin, 'When Emperor Hui returned to Luoyang from Chang'an, Zhou Fu was sent out and appointed as General Who Pacifies The East and Commander of Yangzhou, replacing Liu Zhun as the General Who Guards The East.' And this petition mentions Zhang Fang as still being alive. So it must have been submitted at the time when Emperor Hui returned to Luoyang from Ye."

At this time, Sima Yong was the Grand Governor, which is why he is so called here.

The intent of this petition was that the provinces and commandaries of Guanyou would listen to Sima Yong before doing anything, and the court would also first consult with him before executing any action.

Let us consider the phrase 疇咨. Kong Anguo claims that "疇 means 'who, whoever'." And Yan Shigu claims that "疇 means 'who, whoever', and 咨 means 'plan, plot'." By their logic, then, the phrase 每輒疇咨 would be parsed as "the plans proposed by anyone in each instance". But I, Hu Sanxing, fear that both of them are wrong in their annotations. I would say that 疇 means "kind, sort" and 咨 means "ask, inquire". In other words, any great affairs of the court, of any kind, would first need to be consulted with Sima Yong.

Zhang Fang's actual office was Administrator of Pingyi, thus the demand that he return to "his commandary".

Wang Jun's "good deeds" here were his raising of soldiers to attack Sima Ying.)


張方在洛旣久,兵士剽掠殆竭,衆情喧喧,無復留意,議欲奉帝遷都長安;恐帝及公卿不從,欲須帝出而劫之。乃請帝謁廟,帝不許。十一月,乙未,方引兵入殿,以所乘車迎帝,帝馳避後園竹中。軍人引帝出,逼使上車,帝垂泣從之。方於馬上稽首曰:「今寇賊縱橫,宿衞單少,願陛下幸臣壘,臣盡死力以備不虞。」時羣臣皆逃匿,唯中書監盧志侍側,曰:「陛下今日之事,當一從右將軍。」帝遂幸方壘,令方具車載宮人、寶物。軍人因妻略後宮,分爭府藏,割流蘇、武帳爲馬帴,魏、晉以來蓄積,掃地無遺。方將焚宗廟、宮室以絕人返顧之心,盧志曰:「董卓無道,焚燒洛陽,怨毒之聲,百年猶存,何爲襲之!」乃止。

32. By now, Zhang Fang had been at Luoyang for a long time; his soldiers had had their fill of pillaging. They were all restless, none wanting to remain in Luoyang any longer, so they discussed bringing Emperor Hui back to Chang'an with them and making that the capital. But Zhang Fang feared that Emperor Hui and the court nobles and ministers would not go along with it, so he wanted to wait for Emperor Hui to expose himself so he could force him into it. He asked Emperor Hui to go pay his respects at the Ancestral Temple, but Emperor Hui refused.

In the eleventh month, on the day Yiwei (December 14th), Zhang Fang sent his soldiers into the palace, bringing an imperial carriage to receive Emperor Hui. Emperor Hui fled from them and hid among the bamboo in the rear gardens, but the soldiers brought him back out and forced him to climb into the carriage. Emperor Hui wept as he did so.

From horseback, Zhang Fang kowtowed to Emperor Hui and said, "The invaders and bandits are spread thickly, and the household guards are too few here. I invite Your Majesty to view my ramparts, which I have spent my whole strength to prepare against anything that might happen."

At this time, all of the ministers had fled and hidden themselves. Only the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Lu Zhi, remained in attendance with Emperor Hui. He told Emperor Hui, "Your Majesty, all you can do today is go along with the General of the Right's demands." So Emperor Hui went to visit Zhang Fang's ramparts, and he ordered Zhang Fang to prepare transport carts for all the palace servants and treasures.

Seeking wives for themselves, the soldiers of Zhang Fang's army raided the rear palaces, fighting with one another to enter all the hidden places. They cut up all the flowing ornaments and martial banners to use as reins for their horses. Everything that had been accumulated all down through Wei and Jin was now plundered; nothing was left behind.

Zhang Fang was even about to set fire to the Ancestral Temple and the palace grounds in order to discourage anyone from returning there. But Lu Zhi said to him, "Dong Zhuo was a man without principles, and he burned Luoyang to the ground. The enormity of his name is still with us, a hundred years later. How could you do the same thing he did?" So Zhang Fang stopped.

〈衆情,謂方之軍情也。〉〈張方時爲右將軍。〉〈毛晃曰:流蘇,盤線繪繡之毬,五采錯爲之,同心而下垂者是也。蘇,猶鬚也;又散貌,以其橤下垂,故曰蘇。今人謂絛頭橤爲蘇。孟康曰:今御武帳置兵,闌五兵於帳中。帴,馬藉也。〉〈事見五十九卷漢獻帝初平元年。〉

(The "feelings of the crowd" were those of Zhang Fang's soldiers.

At this time, Zhang Fang was General of the Right.

Mao Huang remarked, "The flowing ornaments were round objects painted and embroidered with balls, borrowing from the Five Hues, and all alike hanging down. They were called 'flowing' because they also contained hair, which added to the appearance of one's hair, and hung down as it did, thus the term 'flowing'. People today call braiding the head in this fashion as 'ornaments'." Meng Kang remarked, "The war banners were assigned to soldiers, with every five under one banner." A 帴 is a horse rein or bridle.

Dong Zhuo's burning of Luoyang as he moved the capital to Chang'an is mentioned in Book 59, in Emperor Xian of Han's first year of Chuping (189.J in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).)


初,河間王顒聞王浚起兵,遣右將軍張方救鄴。方聞成都軍敗,頓兵洛陽,不敢進,縱兵虜掠,密欲遷都長安,將焚宗廟宮室,以絕人心。志說方曰:「昔董卓無道,焚燒洛陽,怨毒之聲,百年猶存,何為襲之!」乃止。方遂逼天子幸其壘。帝垂泣就輿,唯志侍側,曰:「陛下今日之事,當一從右將軍。臣駑怯,無所雲補,唯知盡微誠,不離左右而已。」(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

Earlier, when Sima Yong had heard that Wang Jun had risen up to attack Sima Ying, he had sent his General of the Right, Zhang Fang, to bring reinforcements to Ye. But when Zhang Fang then heard that Sima Ying’s army had been defeated, he camped his soldiers at Luoyang and did not dare to advance any further. Instead, he let his soldiers steal and pillage as they liked, and he secretly wanted to move the capital to Chang'an.

Zhang Fang was even about to set fire to the Ancestral Temple and the palace grounds in order to discourage anyone from returning there. But Lu Zhi said to him, “In former times, Dong Zhuo was a man without principles, and he burned Luoyang to the ground. The enormity of his name is still with us, a hundred years later. How could you do the same thing he did?” So Zhang Fang stopped.

Zhang Fang forced Emperor Hui to move to the ramparts that he had built near Luoyang before. Emperor Hui hung his head and wept as he climbed into his carriage, with only Lu Zhi remaining at his side, advising him, “Your Majesty, all you can do today is go along with the General of the Right’s demands. I, your servant, am a dull and timid fellow, unworthy to lend aid to one so lofty. But what I do know is how to express the full measure of my meager sincerity. At least I shall not abandon you like the others.”

及王浚等伐穎,穎挾天子歸洛陽。方將兵入殿中,逼帝幸其壘,掠府庫,將焚宮廟以絕眾心。盧志諫,乃止。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

When Wang Jun and others then attacked Sima Ying, Sima Ying fled Ye and took Emperor Hui with him back to Luoyang. Zhang Fang led his soldiers into the palace and forced Emperor Hui to move to the ramparts which he had built earlier. In the meantime, he plundered the government ministries and arsenals. He was even about to set fire to the palaces and ancestral temples to sever the people's attachment to Luoyang, but Lu Zhi remonstrated with him, so he decided against it.


帝停方壘三日,方擁帝及太弟穎、豫章王熾等趨長安,王戎出奔郟。太宰顒帥官屬步騎三萬迎于霸上,顒前拜謁,帝下車止之。帝入長安,以征西府爲宮。唯尚書僕射荀藩、司隸劉暾、河南尹周馥在洛陽爲留臺,承制行事,號東、西臺。藩,勗之子也。丙午,留臺大赦,改元復爲永安。辛丑,復皇后羊氏。

33. Emperor Hui remained at Zhang Fang's ramparts for three days. Zhang Fang then forced Emperor Hui, Sima Ying, the Prince of Yuzhang, Sima Chi, and others to come with him to Chang'an. Wang Rong fled to Jia County.

Sima Yong led his ministers and officials and thirty thousand horse and foot to welcome Emperor Hui at Bashang. Sima Yong stood before Emperor Hui and performed obeisance, and Emperor Hui climbed down from his carriage and stopped Sima Yong. Emperor Hui then entered Chang'an, and the household of the General Who Conquers The West was converted into his palace.

Only the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Xun Fan, the Colonel-Director, Liu Tun, and the Intendant of Henan, Zhou Fu, were left behind in Luoyang to function as a Separate Terrace. In the administration of affairs, the two places were called the Eastern and Western Terraces. This Xun Fan was the son of Xun Xu.

On the day Bingwu (December 25th), the Separate Terrace issued a general amnesty, and the reign era title was changed back to Yong'an.

On the day Xinchou (December 20th), Yang Xianrong was restored to her position as Empress.

〈郟縣,前漢屬潁川郡,後漢省,晉屬襄城郡,隋、唐爲汝州郟城縣。〉〈征西府,征西將軍府,顒所居也。〉〈洛陽爲東臺,長安爲西臺。〉〈荀勗朋比賈充,貴顯於晉初。〉

(During Former Han, Jia County was part of Yingchuan commandary. It was abolished during Later Han, but during Jin it was part of Xiangcheng commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was Jiacheng County in Ruzhou.

The household of the General Who Conquers The West had been Sima Rong's residence.

Luoyang was the Eastern Terrace, and Chang'an the Western Terrace.

Xun Xu was friends with Jia Chong, and gained honor and glory during the rise of Jin.)


停方壘三日便西,志復從至長安。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

Emperor Hui remained at Zhang Fang’s ramparts for three days before heading west, and Lu Zhi also followed him to Chang'an.

至洛,方乃挾帝,擁穎及豫章王並高光、慮志等歸於長安。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

When Sima Ying's party reached Luoyang, Zhang Fang forced Emperor Hui to do as he wished. He compelled Sima Ying, the Prince of Yuzhang (Sima Chi), Gao Guang, Lu Zhi, and others to return with him to Chang'an.

方又逼天子幸長安。顒及選置百官,改秦州為定州。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Zhang Fang then forced Emperor Hui to move to Chang'an. Sima Yong now assumed authority to create the imperial offices and select appointees for them, and he renamed Qinzhou to Dingzhou.


羅尚移屯巴郡,遣兵掠蜀中,獲李驤妻昝氏及子壽。

34. In Shu, Luo Shang moved his camp to Ba commandary. He sent his soldiers to pillage the Shu region, and they captured Li Xiang's wife Lady Zan and his son Li Shou.

〈昝,姓也。〉

(昝 Zan is a surname.)


十二月,丁亥,詔太弟穎以成都王還第;更立豫章王熾爲皇太弟。帝兄弟二十五人,時存者惟穎、熾及吳王晏。晏材資庸下,熾沖素好學,故太宰顒立之。詔以司空越爲太傅,與顒夾輔帝室,王戎參錄朝政。又以光祿大夫王衍爲尚書左僕射。高密王略爲鎭南將軍,領司隸校尉,權鎭洛陽。東中郎將模爲寧北將軍,都督冀州諸軍事,鎭鄴。百官各還本職。令州郡蠲除苛政,愛民務本,清通之後,當還東京。大赦,改元。略、模,皆越之弟也。王浚旣去鄴,越使模鎭之。顒以四方乖離,禍難不已,故下此詔和解之,冀獲少安。越辭太傅不受。又詔以太宰顒都督中外諸軍事。張方爲中領軍、錄尚書事,領京兆太守。

35. In the twelfth month, on the day Dinghai (February 4th of 305), an edict was issued demoting Sima Ying from his position as Crown Younger Brother; he was once again Prince of Chengdu, and he was ordered to his estate. In his place, Sima Chi was named as the new Crown Younger Brother. Emperor Hui had originally had twenty-five brothers, but by now, only Sima Ying, Sima Chi, and the Prince of Wu, Sima Yann, were still alive. Sima Yann was an inferior sort of man, but Sima Chi had long delighted in learning even as a youth, and so he was chosen to replace Sima Ying.

An edict was issued appointing Sima Yue as Grand Tutor, so that he could assist Sima Yong in upholding the royal clan, with Wang Rong acting as an advisor to court affairs. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Wang Yan, was appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing. The Prince of Gaomi, Sima Lue, was appointed as General Who Guards The South and acting Colonel-Director of Retainers, and charged with guarding Luoyang. The General of the Household Gentlemen of the East, Sima Mo, was appointed as General Who Tranquilizes The North and Commander of military affairs in Jizhou, and charged with guarding Ye.

The government officials all returned to their former posts. The provinces and commandaries were ordered to abolish wasteful governance, love the people, and tend to their fundamental duties. After all had been made ready, then they would return to the eastern capital (Luoyang). A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed again (to Yongxing). This Sima Lue and this Sima Mo were both the younger brothers of Sima Yue.

Since Wang Jun had left Ye, Sima Yue sent Sima Mo to guard it.

Seeing as all the realm was turned against one another, and difficulties and disasters kept on coming, Sima Yong now had an edict issued ordering peace between everyone, hoping to gain some sense of stability.

Sima Yue declined his appointment as Grand Tutor.

Another edict was issued appointing Sima Yong as Commander of all military affairs. Zhang Fang was appointed as General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Chief of the Masters of Writing, and acting Administrator of Jingzhao.

〈《考異》曰:《惠紀》作「高密王簡」。按《宗室傳》,高密孝王略,字元簡,時都督青州,後遷都督荊州,未嘗鎭洛陽。蓋簡卽略也,時雖有朝命而略不至,或嘗鎭洛陽而《本傳》遺脫耳。以余觀之,時朝廷命令不行於方鎭,略蓋未嘗赴洛也。〉〈《晉書‧帝紀》作「東中郎將」,《模傳》作「北中郎將」。又按晉制,方面之任,有四征、四鎭、四安、四平,無四寧也。「寧」,恐當作「安」。〉〈謂阻兵者解兵,道路清通之後也。帝時在長安,故謂洛陽爲東京。〉〈改元永興。〉〈顒欲和解兄弟,當在乂、穎搆隙之時,及事不可爲,而顒亦不免矣。〉〈時帝在長安,京兆太守實掌輦轂下。張方握兵,顒所親倚,故使領京兆。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin record the Prince of Gaomi at this time as 'Sima Jian'. According to the Biographies of the Imperial Relatives, Prince Xiao of Gaomi, Sima Lue, had the style name Yuanjian. At this time he was Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, and later moved his base to Jingzhou, but there was no record of his ever having been based in Luoyang. Yet if the Sima Jian mentioned here is Sima Lue, what are we to make of this order if he had not come to Luoyang? Perhaps he was in Luoyang at one time, and his biography simply failed to mention it." As for what I, Hu Sanxing, believe, during this time the orders of the court did not reach the border posts, and so Sima Lue was simply never at Luoyang.

Regarding Sima Mo, the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states that at this time he was "General of the Household Gentlemen of the East", but the Biography of Sima Mo in the Book of Jin states that he was "General of the Household Gentlemen of the North". Furthermore, according to the Jin system, the Generals of the Four Directions were either the Generals Who Conquer, Guard, Maintain, or Pacify; there were no Generals Who Tranquilize. I fear that this mention of Sima Mo as "General Who Tranquilizes" should have been "General Who Maintains".

Sima Yong was saying that once the soldiers obstructing the roads had stood down, then the way would be clear for the return to Luoyang. Since Emperor Hui was in Chang'an at this time, Luoyang was called the "eastern capital".

It was at this time that the reign era title became Yongxing.

If Sima Yong wanted to arrange peace between brothers, he should have done so during the time of friction between Sima Ai and Sima Ying. But he did nothing then, and it was too late now.

Since Emperor Hui was in Chang'an, the Administrator of Jingzhao was really in control of the imperial carriage. Zhang Fang had command of soldiers and the favor of Sima Yong, and so he was made acting Administrator of Jingzhao.)


穎被黜,志亦免官。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

When Sima Ying was demoted from his position as Crown Younger Brother, Lu Zhi was also stripped of office.

顒廢穎歸籓,以豫章王為皇太弟。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Yong stripped Sima Ying of his place as Crown Younger Brother and ordered him sent to a border post, replacing him with Sima Chi as the new Crown Younger Brother.


東嬴公騰遣將軍聶玄擊漢王淵,戰於大陵,玄兵大敗。

36. Sima Teng sent his general Nie Xuan to attack the King of Han, Liu Yuan. They fought a battle at Daling, where Nie Xuan's soldiers were greatly defeated.

〈大陵縣,自漢以來屬太原郡。魏收《地形志》:太原郡統內受陽縣有大陵城,其地蓋在唐遼、幷二州界。杜佑曰:文水縣,漢大陵縣。〉

(Ever since Han, Daling County had been part of Taiyuan commandary. Wei Shou's Geographical Records states that there was the city of Daling in the Shouyang County that was administrated by Taiyuan commandary. It was in a place between Tang's Liaozhou and Bingzhou. Du You remarked, "Wenshui County is Han's Daling County.")


淵遣劉曜寇太原,取泫氏、屯留、長子、中都。又遣冠軍將軍喬晞寇西河,取介休。介休令賈渾不降,晞殺之;將納其妻宗氏,宗氏罵晞而哭,晞又殺之。淵聞之,大怒曰:「使天道有知,喬晞望有種乎!」追還,降秩四等,收渾屍,葬之。

37. Liu Yuan sent Liu Yao to invade Taiyuan commandary, and Liu Yao captured Xuanshi, Tunliu, Zhangzi, and Zhongdou counties.

Liu Yuan also sent his Champion General, Qiao Xi, to invade Xihe commandary, and Qiao Xi captured Jiexiu County. The Prefect of Jiexiu, Jia Hun, refused to surrender, so Qiao Xi killed him. Qiao Xi was about to rape Jia Hun's widow Lady Zong, but she upbraided him as she wailed, so Qiao Xi killed her as well.

When Liu Yuan heard about all this, he was furious; he said, "If Heaven takes notice of men's affairs, Qiao Xi will bear a heavy weight!" He had Qiao Xi recalled and demoted by four ranks, and he had Jia Hun's body collected and given a burial.

〈泫氏、屯留、長子屬上黨郡;中都屬太原郡。賢曰:泫氏,今澤州高平縣。劉昫曰:澤州陵川縣,漢泫氏縣。高平,漢泫氏縣地。屯留、長子,唐皆屬潞州。師古曰:泫,音工玄翻。屯,音純。長,讀如長短之長,陸德明讀如長幼之長。〉〈介休縣,漢屬太原郡,晉屬西河郡,唐屬汾州。〉

(Xuanshi, Tunliu, and Zhangzi counties were part of Shangdang commandary; Zhongdu County was part of Taiyuan commandary. Li Xian remarked, "Xuanshi County is our modern Gaoping County in Zezhou." Liu Xu remarked, "Lingchuan County in Zezhou was Han's Xuanshi County. Gaoping was within the territory of Han's Xuanshi." During Tang, Tunliu and Zhangzi were both part of Luozhou. Yan Shigu remarked, "泫 is pronounced 'guan (g-uan)". 屯 is pronounced 'chun'. 長 in this instance is pronounced like the Chang in changduan; Lu Deming pronounces it like the Zhang in zhangyou."

During Han, Jiexiu County was part of Taiyuan commandary. During Jin, it was part of Xihe commandary. During Tang, it was part of Fenzhou.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Jun 15, 2018 3:10 am, edited 14 times in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 20, 2017 3:43 am

An image of the "flowing ornaments":

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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Fornadan » Mon Nov 20, 2017 6:12 am

In the third (or, second) month, on the day Yiyou (May 17th, or ?), Sima Ying petitioned that Empress Yang Xianrong be deposed and kept under house arrest at the Jinyong fortress. He also asked that Crown Prince Sima Tan be demoted back to his former title as Prince of Qinghe.

〈【章:甲十一行本「三」作「二」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈羊后立見八十三卷永康元年。覃立見上卷太安元年。〉

(Some versions record this event as being in the second month instead of the third.

Yang Xianrong's selection as Empress is mentioned in Book 83, in the first year of Yongkang (300.30). Sima Tan's selection as Crown Prince is mentioned in Book 84, in the first year of Tai'an (302.5).)

This event probably took place in the second month, because the third month is mentioned again in the following passage, and the date of Sima Ying’s appointment as Crown Younger Brother in the passage after that would have taken place before the date listed here if it were the third month.
JS004 dates it to 2nd Month, yiyou = 8 April
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