Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 1)

Best threads of the SGYYS, for your viewing pleasure.

BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:46 am

五年(乙卯、二九五)

The Fifth Year of Yuankang (The Yimao Year, 295 AD)


夏,六月,東海雨雹,深五寸。

1. In summer, the sixth month, it rained hailstones in Donghai, five 寸 thick.

荊、揚、兗、豫、青、徐六州大水。

2. There was great flooding in the six provinces of Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, and Xuzhou.

冬,十月,武庫火,焚累代之寶及二百萬人器械。十二月,丙戌,新作武庫,大調兵器。

3. In winter, the tenth month, a fire broke out at the Arsenal, and many treasures from past dynasties were burned up, not to mention two million weapons.

In the twelfth month, on the day Bingxu (January 22nd of 296), a new Arsenal was built, and a grand review was made of the weapons.

〈《考異》曰:《三十國》、《晉春秋》云「閏月」;《宋》、《晉‧五行志》云「閏月庚寅」,今從《晉書‧帝紀》。〉〈《華傳》曰:趙王倫、孫秀與華有隙,疾華如讎。武庫火,華懼因此變作,列兵固守,然後救之,故累代之寶及漢高祖斬白蛇劍、王莽頭、孔子屐等盡焚焉。據《通鑑》,則倫、秀之隙,開於明年。蓋數誅大臣,禍皆從中起,故華懼在變而列兵固守也。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin state that the fire at the Arsenal was in the intercalary month, and the Book of Liu-Song and the chapter on the Five Elements in the Book of Jin further state it was 'in the intercalary month on the day Gengyin'. But despite all that, I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

The Biography of Zhang Hua in the Book of Jin states, "The Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, and his follower Sun Xiu had long had enmity with Zhang Hua, and they hated Zhang Hua like an enemy. When the fire broke out at the Arsenal, Zhang Hua was afraid that it was because of some kind of uprising, so he first sent his soldiers to guard critical points around the city and only afterwards came to put out the fire at the Arsenal. Because of this delay, various treasures that had been stored there through former dynasties were entirely burned up. These included the sword which Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) had used in his youth to chop the White Serpent in half, the head of Wang Mang, the clogs of Confucius, and other treasures."

But as the Zizhi Tongjian has it, the enmity between Sima Lun and Sun Xiu on one hand and Zhang Hua on the other did not begin until the year after this incident. However, the recent overthrows and executions of great ministers had all come about because of coups from within. This must have been why Zhang Hua was afraid of some development and immediately sent his soldiers to guard places before tending to the fire.)


拓跋祿官分其國爲三部:一居上谷之北,濡源之西,自統之;一居代郡參合陂之北,使兄沙漠汗之子猗㐌統之;一居定襄之盛樂故城,使猗㐌弟猗盧統之。猗盧善用兵,西擊匈奴、烏桓諸部,皆破之。代人衞操與從子雄及同郡箕澹往依拓跋氏,說猗㐌、猗盧招納晉人。猗㐌悅之,任以國事,晉人附者稍衆。

4. Tuoba Luguan divided his state into three different divisions. The first division was the land north of Shanggu and west of Ruyuan, and he ruled this division directly. The second division was north of Canhe Slope in Dai commandary. Tuoba Shamohan had been Tuoba Luguan's elder brother, and Tuoba Luguan now sent Tuoba Shamohan's son Tuoba Yituo to administer this division. The last division was centered around the city of Shengle in Dingxiang. He sent Tuoba Yituo's younger brother Tuoba Yilu to administer this division. Tuoba Yilu was skilled at using troops; he marched west and attacked the various Xiongnu and Wuhuan tribes and routed them all.

A native of Dai commandary, Wei Cao, his nephew Wei Xiong, and their fellow commandary native, Ji Dan, went to join the Tuoba clan, and they advised Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu to recruit others from Jin. Tuoba Yituo was happy to receive them, and he employed them to assist with state affairs. Thanks to that, more and more of the people of Jin joined the Tuoba state.

〈《水經註》:濡水出禦夷鎭東南;鎭,拓跋魏太武時所置也。師古曰:濡,音乃官翻。〉〈參合陂,在代郡參合縣。後漢、晉省參合縣,拓跋魏復置縣,屬梁城郡。〉〈定襄之盛樂,二《漢志》曰「成樂」;《後漢志》屬雲中郡,魏、晉省,拓跋魏後置盛樂郡。㐌,徒河翻。〉〈《姓譜》:箕商,箕子之後。又晉有大夫箕鄭父。〉〈史言拓跋氏益強。當是時,晉朝大臣、宗室雖已自相屠,而四方未爲變,衞操、箕澹輩何爲去華就夷如是其早計也!中國之人可爲凜凜矣。漢嚴邊關之禁,懼有罪者亡命出塞耳。若威刑之迫乎其後,一旦去桑梓而逐水草,是必有見也。邊關不之詰,朝廷不之虞,晉之無政,亦可知矣。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ru River begins southeast of the Yuyi Command Post. This command post was created in the age of Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei." Yan Shigu remarked, "The name of this river, 濡, is pronounced 'nuan (n-uan)'."

Canhe Slope was in Canhe County in Dai commandary. Canhe County was abolished during Later Han and Jin. It was re-established during Northern Wei, now as part of Liangcheng commandary.

Regarding Shengle in Dingxiang, the two Records of Han record it as Chengle. The Records of Later Han states that it was part of Yunzhong commandary. It was abolished during Cao-Wei and Jin, but recreated by Northern Wei as Shengle commandary.

The 㐌 in Tuoba Yituo's name is pronounced "te (t-e)".

The Registry of Surnames states, "箕 Ji Shang was the descendant of Jizi. And there was the great minister Ji Zhengfu in the state of Jin."

This passage shows the growing strength of the Tuoba clan. At the time when these things were taking place, although the great ministers and royal family members of Jin were already slaughtering one another, there were not yet any great disturbances in the further corners of the realm. Yet Wei Cao, Ji Dan, and people of their sort were already planning to abandon the lands of the Hua (ethnic Han) in favor of the tribal lands at so early a date! The people of the Middle Kingdom could thus be awed. This was why the Han dynasty kept strict guard on the border passes, because they feared that those who had committed offenses might flee from imperial authority and go out beyond the borders. If they could escape from beyond the reach of imperial justice, then in a single day they would abandon their native place and flee by water and grass, as has certainly been seen. For the border posts to not question them, and the court to not be concerned by them, shows that Jin had no governance, as can also be known.)


分國為三部:帝自以一部居東,在上谷北,濡源之西,東接宇文部;以文帝之長子桓皇帝諱猗㐌統一部,居代郡之參合陂北;以桓帝之弟穆皇帝諱猗盧統一部,居定襄之盛樂故城。自始祖以來,與晉和好,百姓乂安,財畜富實,控弦騎士四十餘萬。是歲,穆帝始出并州,遷雜胡北徙雲中、五原、朔方。又西渡河擊匈奴、烏桓諸部。自杏城以北八十里,迄長城原,夾道立碣,與晉分界。(Book of Northern Wei 1)

Tuoba Luguan split the Tuoba state into three divisions. He himself resided in the eastern division, to the north of Shanggu and the west of Ruyuan, and with the Yuwen tribe adjacent to his east. He assigned another division to Tuoba Shamohan's eldest son, Emperor Huan, Tuoba Yituo, who resided to the north of Canhe Slope in Dai commandary. Tuoba Luguan assigned the last division to Tuoba Yituo's younger brother, Emperor Mu, Tuoba Yilu, who resided at the city of Shengle in Dingxiang.

Ever since Tuoba Liwei's era, the Tuoba state had enjoyed good relations with the Jin dynasty, and the common people had known peace. Goods and livestock were abundant and plenty, and the state boasted an army of more than four hundred thousand mounted archers.

During this year (295), Tuoba Yilu first went out from Bingzhou, shifting the various peoples north to Yunzhong, Wuyuan, and Shuofang. He also marched west across the Yellow River to attack the tribes of the Xiongnu and the Wuhuan. From Xingcheng north for eighty li, as far as the plains at the Great Wall, he raised stone tablets along the roads and marked the borders with Jin.

衞操,字德元,代人也。少通俠,有才略。晉征北將軍衞瓘以操為牙門將,數使於國,頗自結附。始祖崩後,與從子雄及其宗室鄉親姬澹等十數人,同來歸國,說桓穆二帝招納晉人,於是晉人附者稍眾。(Book of Northern Wei 23 (Wei Cao))

Wei Cao, styled Deyuan, was a native of Dai commandary. As a youth, he wandered as a brave-errant, and he possessed talent and cunning. Jin's General Who Conquers The North, Wei Guan, appointed him as one of his Generals of the Standard. Wei Cao often came to the Tuoba state as an envoy, and thus he began to form ties there.

After Tuoba Liwei passed away (in 277), Wei Cao came to serve the Tuoba state along with his nephew Wei Xiong and more than ten of his kinsman or fellow villagers, including Ji Dan. Wei Cao advised Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu to recruit and accept more natives of Jin (ethnic Han), and thus the people of Jin who came to serve the Tuoba state gradually increased.

雄字世遠,澹字世雅,並勇健多計畫,晉世州從事。既與衞操俱入國,桓帝壯其膂力,並以為將,常隨征伐,大著威名。桓帝之赴難也,表晉列其勳效,皆拜將軍。雄連有戰功,稍遷至左將軍、雲中侯。澹亦以勇績著名,桓帝末,至信義將軍、樓煩侯。穆帝初,並見委任。衞操卒後,俱為左右輔相。(Book of Northern Wei 23 (Wei Xiong & Ji Dan))

Wei Xiong, styled Shiyuan, and Ji Dan, styled Shiya, were both bold and stalwart fellows who developed many plans and strategies. During their time in Jin, they served as provincial Attendant Officers.

After they accompanied Wei Cao to join the Tuoba state, Tuoba Yituo approved of their physical strength and appointed them both as Generals. They often followed him on his campaigns, making a great name for themselves as mighty men. When Tuoba Yituo ran into difficulties, he petitioned Jin to recognize their achievements and devotion, and they were both granted ranks as Generals by Jin. Wei Xiong won many achievements in battle, and so he rose as high as General of the Left and Marquis of Yunzhong. Ji Dan also gained a name for himself through his heroism, and by the final years of Tuoba Yituo's reign, he rose as high as General of Trust and Righteousness and Marquis of Loufan.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Feb 22, 2018 8:23 am, edited 4 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:47 am

六年(丙辰、二九六)

The Sixth Year of Yuankang (The Bingchen Year, 296 AD)


春,正月,赦天下。

1. In spring, the first month, an amnesty was declared throughout the realm.

下邳獻王晃薨。以中書監張華爲司空。太尉隴西王泰行尚書令,徙封高密王。

2. Sima Huang passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xian ("the Presented") of Xiapi.

Zhang Hua was appointed as Minister of Works. The Grand Commandant, Sima Tai, was appointed as acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and his princely title was changed to Prince of Gaomi.

夏,郝散弟度元與馮翊、北地馬蘭羌、盧水胡俱反,殺北地太守張損,敗馮翊太守歐陽建。

3. In summer, the Xiongnu leader Hao San's younger brother Hao Duyuan launched a joint rebellion with the Malan Qiang of Beidi commandary and with the Lushui tribes. They killed the Administrator of Beidi, Zhang Sun, and defeated the Administrator of Pingyi, Ouyang Jian.

〈北地有馬蘭山,羌居其中,因爲種落之名。又按,馬蘭山,唐時屬同州界,時蓋屬馮翊、北地二郡界也。盧水胡居安定界。〉

(There was a Mount Malan in Beidi, where the Qiang resided, and so that tribe of the Qiang took their name from it. It is also said that during the Tang dynasty, Mount Malan was within Tongzhou, which at that time included the two commandaries of Pingyi and Beidi. The Lushui tribes resided within Anding commandary.)


征西大將軍趙王倫信用嬖人琅邪孫秀,與雍州刺史濟南解系爭軍事,更相表奏,歐陽建亦表倫罪惡。朝廷以倫撓亂關右,徵倫爲車騎將軍,以梁王肜爲征西大將軍、都督雍‧涼二州諸軍事。系與其弟御史中丞結,皆表請誅秀以謝氐、羌;張華以告梁王肜,使誅之,肜許諾。秀友人辛冉爲之說肜曰:「氐、羌自反,非秀之罪。」秀由是得免。倫至洛陽,用秀計,深交賈、郭,賈后大愛信之,倫因求錄尚書事,又求尚書令;張華、裴頠固執以爲不可,倫、秀由是怨之。

4. The Grand General Who Conquers The West and Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, had a close and trusted confidant, Sun Xiu of Langya. They often clashed with the Inspector of Yongzhou, Hai Xi of Jinan, regarding military affairs. Both sides kept sending in petitions blaming the other, and Ouyang Jian also sent in petitions charging Sima Lun with crimes and offenses. The court felt that Sima Lun was causing disturbances and turmoil in Guanyou, so they summoned him to the capital to serve as General of Chariots and Cavalry, and they appointed the Prince of Lian, Sima Rong, to take over as Grand General Who Conquers The West and Commander of military affairs in Yongzhou and Liangzhou.

Hai Xi and the Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, his younger brother Hai Jie, both submitted petitions asking that Sun Xiu be executed in order to appease the Di and Qiang. Zhang Hua informed Sima Rong and ordered him to execute Sun Xiu, and Sima Rong promised to do so. But Sun Xiu's friend Xin Ran spoke to Sima Rong on his behalf, saying, "The Di and Qiang rebelled on their own; Sun Xiu had nothing to do with it." Because of that, Sun Xiu escaped execution.

When Sima Lun arrived at Luoyang, he used Sun Xiu's advice, and so won the great love and trust of Jia Mi, Guo Zhang, and Empress Jia Nanfeng. Thanks to that, Sima Lun asked for the positions of Chief of the affairs of the Masters of Writing as well as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Zhang Hua and Pei Wei held fast to those offices and refused to give them up. This caused Sima Lun and Sun Xiu to bear a grudge against them.

〈解,戶買翻,姓也。春秋晉有大夫解揚。〉〈撓,攪也,擾也。〉〈張華使梁王肜殺秀而不遂,旣至洛陽,獨不能明正其罪而誅之邪!〉〈爲倫、秀殺華、頠、系張本。〉

(解, pronounced "hai (h-ai)", is a surname. There was a great minister of the state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn era named Hai Yang.

Disturbance means unrest or instability.

Zhang Hua had ordered Sima Rong to kill Sun Xiu, yet not only was Sun Xiu not killed, he came to Luoyang as well, and Zhang Hua was still unable to enforce the law against his crimes and execute him!

This was why Sima Lun and Sun Xiu later killed Zhang Hua, Pei Wei, and Hai Xi.)


秋,八月,解系爲郝度元所敗,秦、雍氐、羌悉反,立氐帥齊萬年爲帝,圍涇陽。御史中丞周處,彈劾不避權戚,梁王肜嘗違法,處按劾之。冬,十月,詔以處爲建威將軍,與振威將軍盧播俱隸安西將軍夏侯駿,以討齊萬年。中書令陳準言於朝曰:「駿及梁王皆貴戚,非將帥之才,進不求名,退不畏罪。周處吳人,忠直勇果,有仇無援。宜詔積弩將軍孟觀,以精兵萬人爲處前鋒,必能殄寇;不然,梁王當使處先驅,以不救而陷之,其敗必也。」朝廷不從。齊萬年聞處來,曰:「周府君嘗爲新平太守,有文武才,若專斷而來,不可當也;或受制於人,此成禽耳!」

5. In autumn, the eighth month, Hai Xi was defeated by Hao Duyuan. This brought about a general uprising of the Di and Qiang in Qinzhou and Yongzhou. The rebels raised up the Di leader Qiwannian as their Emperor, and they besieged Jingyang.

Now the Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, Zhou Chu, did not spare even the powerful and influential when he was judging cases. Sima Rong had once violated the law, and Zhou Chu accordingly charged him for it. In winter, the tenth (or, eleventh) month, an edict was issued appointing Zhou Chu as General Who Establishes Might. He and the General Who Arouses Might, Lu Bo, were both ordered to be subordinate to the General Who Maintains The West, Xiahou Jun, and to campaign against Qiwannian.

The Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Chen Zhun, said to the court, "Xiahou Jun and the Prince of Lian, Sima Rong, are both honored and powerful men, but neither of them has the talents of a battlefield commander. If they advance, they do not care about their reputation, and if they retreat, they have no fear of punishment. Now Zhou Chu is a man of Wu; he is a loyal, forthright, and brave fellow, and he can deal with this foe without concern. You should order the General Who Amasses Crossbows, Meng Guan, to assign ten thousand of his elite soldiers to serve as Zhou Chu's vanguard, and then Zhou Chu will be certain to destroy the enemy. Otherwise, the Prince of Lian will send Zhou Chu on ahead and then leave him in peril without assisting him, and then Zhou Chu will certainly be defeated."

But the court would not listen to him.

When Qiwannian heard that Zhou Chu was coming, he said, "This Zhou Chu was once the Administrator of Xinping, and he is talented in both civil and martial affairs. If he is empowered to act on his own, we shall not be able to withstand him. But if he is under the control of someone else, then we can capture him!"

〈涇陽縣,前漢屬安定郡,後漢、晉省。賢曰:涇陽故城,在今原州平涼縣南。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「十」下有「一」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈沈約《志》:振威將軍,始於東漢之時,宋登爲之。〉〈景懷皇后,夏侯氏也,故駿爲外戚。〉〈袁山松曰:漢獻帝興平元年,分安定之鶉觚、右扶風之漆置新平郡,唐爲邠州。〉

(During Former Han, Jingyang County was part of Anding commandary. It was abolished during Han and Jin. Li Xian remarked, "The city of Jingyang is in the south of modern Pingliang County in Yuanzhou."

Some versions say that Zhou Chu received this appointment in the eleventh month.

Shen Yue's Annotations states, "The rank of General Who Arouses Might first appeared during Later Han, when Song Deng was given that rank."

Empress Jinghuai, Sima Shi’s wife Xiahou Hui, was a member of the Xiahou family, and so Xiahou Jun was related to the imperial clan through that marriage.

Yuan Shangong remarked, "In Emperor Xian of Han's first year of Xingping (194), the counties of Chungu in Anding commandary and Qi in Youfufeng were split off to form Xinping commadary. Tang made that region Binzhou.")


關中饑、疫。

6. There was famine and pestilence in Guanzhong.

初,略陽清水氐楊駒始居仇池。仇池方百頃,其旁平地二十餘里,四面斗絕而高,爲羊腸蟠道三十六回而上。至其孫千萬附魏,封爲百頃王。千萬孫飛龍浸強盛,徙居略陽。飛龍以其甥令狐茂搜爲子,茂搜避齊萬年之亂,十二月,自略陽帥部落四千家還保仇池,自號輔國將軍、右賢王。關中人士避亂者多依之,茂搜迎接撫納;欲去者,衞護資送之。

7. Decades before this time, the leader of the Qingshui Di tribe from Lueyang, Yang Ju, had first begun residing in Chouchi. Chouchi was a region of a hundred 頃 square, and adjacent to it was some twenty li of flat land. It was surrounded by high and narrow places on all sides, so that the roads ran along coils like goat intestines for thirty-six times through the mountains.

When Yang Ju's grandson Yang Qianwan aligned himself with Cao-Wei, they granted him the title Prince of Baiqing, because of the hundred square 頃 of his territory. During the time of Yang Qianwan's grandson Yang Feilong, the people became stronger and more flourishing, and they moved to Lueyang. Yang Feilong adopted his sister's son Linghu Maosou as his own son.

During this time, Yang Maosou decided to take advantage of the turmoil caused by Qiwannian's rebellion. In the twelfth month, Yang Maosou led four thousand families from his tribe back to occupy Chouchi, where he declared himself General Who Upholds The State and Worthy Prince of the Right. Many of the people in Guanzhong who were uprooted by the chaos flocked to him, and Yang Maosou welcomed them and treated them well. If any of them wished to leave, he gave them the means to protect themselves and sent them on their way.

〈略陽縣,漢屬天水郡;後漢改天水郡爲漢陽郡,獻帝初平四年,分漢陽、上郡置永陽郡,魏改爲廣魏郡;武帝泰始中,更名略陽郡。清水縣,前漢屬天水郡;《後漢志》省,《晉志》復見。〉〈仇池,《漢書‧地理志》所謂天池大澤,在武都郡武都縣西,《水經註》所謂瞿塘者也。賢曰:仇池山,在今成州上祿縣南。《三秦記》曰:仇池山,在倉、洛二谷之間,常爲水所衝激,故下石而上土,形似覆壺。《仇池記》曰︰仇池百頃,周回九千四十步。天形四方,壁立千仞,自然樓櫓卻敵,分置調均,竦起數丈,有踰人力。東西二門。盤道下至上凡有七里。上則岡阜低昂,泉流交灌,煮土成鹽。〉〈是後楊氏遂世據仇池。〉

(During Han, Lueyang County was part of Tianshui commandary. During Later Han, Tianshui was changed to Hanyang. In Emperor Xian's fourth year of Chuping (193), parts of Hanyang and Shang commandaries were split off to form Yongyang commandary. Cao-Wei changed its name to Guangwei. During the Taishi era (265-74), its name was changed again to Lueyang commandary.

During Former Han, Qingshui County was also part of Tianshui commandary. The Records of Later Han mentions that it was abolished, but it reappears in the Records of Jin.

Regarding Chouchi, the Geographical Records in the Book of Han states that it was at the great marsh at Tianchi, in the west of Wudu County in Wudu commandary. The Commentary on the Water Classic states that it was at Qutang. Li Xian remarked, "Mount Chouchi is in the south of Shanglu County in modern Chengzhou." The Records of the Three Qins Region states, "Mount Chouchi is between Cang Valley and Luo Valley. It is often washed through by the river, which deposits stones below and earth above, so that it resembles an overturned kettle." The Records of Chouchi states, "Chouchi is a hundred square 頃, and it takes ninety-four hundred paces to walk around its length. It is naturally shaped like a square, with walls rising for a thousand 仞, natural towers and ramparts for resisting an enemy. There are several places flat places distributed about which rise several zhang tall, and may overcome men's power. The region has two gates, in the east and the west. Several of the coiled trails run seven li from bottom to top. The ridges and mounds above thus rise and fall, and the springs and flowing waters all join together, boiling the earth and forming salt."

This was why the Yang clan was able to maintain control of Chouchi for many generations.)


The Yang Qianwan mentioned here is presumably the same “King Qianwan of the Di” mentioned earlier in ZZTJ, in 214.A in de Crespigny’s To Establish Peace. While this passage suggests he aligned himself with Cao-Wei and was given the title King of Baiqing by them, the contemporary references to him in the earlier ZZTJ passage and in the Records of the Three Kingdoms all record him as being in league with one of Ma Chao’s rebellions and having fled to either Ma Chao or to Shu following his defeat by Xiahou Yuan.

是歲,以揚烈將軍巴西趙廞爲益州刺史,發梁、益兵糧助雍州討氐、羌。

8. During this year, the General Who Arouses Ferocity, Zhao Xin of Baxi, was appointed as Inspector of Yizhou. Zhao Xin sent soldiers and grain from Lianzhou and Yizhou to support the campaign against the Di and Qiang in Yongzhou.

〈爲趙廞亂蜀殺耿滕、陳總以啓巴氐張本。〉

(This was why Zhao Xin was later in a position to cause turmoil in Shu by killing Geng Teng and Chen Zong to win over the Di tribes of Ba.)


元康六年,復以梁益州為重州,遷益州刺史栗為梁州,加材官將軍。揚烈將軍趙廞為益州刺史,加折衝將軍。關中氐及馬蘭羌反,寇天水、略陽、扶風、始平、武都、陰平。發梁州及東羌、鎮西討之,不克。益州遣牙門馬玄、尹方捄援之。以鹿車運成都米給軍糧。(Huayang Guozhi 8.4)

In the sixth year of Yuankang (296), Yizhou and Lianzhou were once again designated as critical provinces. The current Inspector of Yizhou, Li X (or Kai), was transferred to be Inspector of Lianzhou as well as General of 材官. Meanwhile, the General Who Arouses Ferocity, Zhao Xin, was appointed as the new Inspector of Yizhou, as well as General Who Breaks And Charges.

The Di people of Guanzhong and the Qiang people of Malan rebelled, and they invaded the commandaries of Tianshui, Lueyang, Fufeng, Shiping, Wudu, and Yinping. The forces of the Inspector of Lianzhou, of the Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes, and of the General Who Guards The West were sent to put down the rebels, but they were unsuccessful. So Yizhou sent its Generals of the Standard, Ma Xuan and Yin Fang, to provide assistance. Deer carts were used to transport rice from Chengdu to serve as army provisions.

元豐、錢、廖本作。他各本作凱。、凱古今字。

(Regarding the given name of Li X, the Yuanfeng, Qian, and Liao editions write it as X, while the other editions write it as 凱 Kai. X and Kai are the ancient and modern versions of this character.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Aug 02, 2018 10:31 pm, edited 6 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:50 am

七年(丁巳、二九七)

The Seventh Year of Yuankang (The Dingsi Year, 297 AD)


春,正月,齊萬年屯梁山,有衆七萬;梁王肜、夏侯駿使周處以五千兵擊之。處曰:「軍無後繼,必敗,不徒亡身,爲國取恥。」肜、駿不聽,逼遣之。癸丑,處與盧播、解系攻萬年於六陌。處軍士未食,肜促令速進,自旦戰至暮,斬獲甚衆,弦絕矢盡,救兵不至。左右勸處退,處按劍曰:「是吾効節致命之日也!」遂力戰而死。朝廷雖以尤肜,而亦不能罪也。

1. In spring, the first month, Qiwannian camped at Mount Liang, and he had a host of seventy thousand.

Sima Rong and Xiahou Jun ordered Zhou Chu to lead five thousand soldiers to attack them. Zhou Chu said to them, "Without support from the rear, the army will certainly be defeated. It is not that I just want to save my own life, but suffering such a defeat would bring disgrace to the state."

But Sima Rong and Xiahou Jun would not listen, and they forced him to go.

On the day Guichou (February 12th), Zhou Chu, Lu Bo, and Hai Xi attacked Qiwannian at Liumo. Zhou Chu's soldiers had not yet even been supplied, yet Sima Rong compelled them to advance against the enemy at once. They fought from dawn until dusk, and killed or captured a great many, and kept on until their bow strings snapped and their arrows ran out. Even so, no reinforcements came to help them. Those who were with Zhou Chu urged him to escape, but Zhou Chu grasped his sword and said, "Today is the day that I fulfill my military orders to the fullest!" And he spent his strength in battle until he died.

Although the court knew Sima Rong was responsible, they could not charge him with the crime.

〈《前漢志》:扶風好畤縣有梁山。〉〈六陌,在馬嵬山西。〉〈尤,過也。〉

(The Records of Former Han states, "Mount Liang was in Haozhi County in Fufeng commandary."

Liumo was west of Mount Mawei.

尤 in this passage means transgression.)


秋,七月,雍、秦二州大旱,疾疫,米斛萬錢。

2. In autumn, the seventh month, there was great famine in the two provinces of Yongzhou and Qinzhou. Sickness and plague spread, and a 斛 of rice cost ten thousand cash.

丁丑,京陵元公王渾薨。九月,以尚書右僕射王戎爲司徒,太子太師何劭爲尚書左僕射。

3. On the day Dingchou (?), Wang Hun passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Yuan ("the Foremost") of Jingling.

In the ninth month, Wang Rong was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, and He Shao was appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

戎爲三公,與時浮沈,無所匡救,委事僚寀,輕出遊放。性復貪吝,園田徧天下,每自執牙籌,晝夜會計,常若不足。家有好李,賣之恐人得種,常鑽其核。凡所賞拔,專事虛名。阮咸之子瞻嘗見戎,戎問曰:「聖人貴名敎,老、莊明自然,其旨同異?」瞻曰:「將無同!」戎咨嗟良久,遂辟之。時人謂之「三語掾」。

4. When Wang Rong was one of the Three Excellencies, he drifted along with the trends of the times. He was irredeemable, and when tending to the affairs of his office, he would go out wandering for the slightest reasons. He had a grasping and stingy nature. He had gardens across the realm, and whenever he held an ivory counter, he would spend the whole night calculating his accounts, yet often felt that he did not have enough. His household had fine plums, but when he sold them to people, he was afraid that they would thus get the plum seeds, so he often bored out the core of the plums first. But he often distributed rewards, and so gained an empty reputation in handling affairs.

One time, when Ruan Xian's son Ruan Zhan met Wang Rong, Wang Rong asked him, "The Sage (Confucius) placed great honor upon reputation and education. Yet Laozi and Zhuangzi gained their wisdom naturally. What was the difference between them?"

Ruan Zhan replied, "About no difference!"

Wang Rong sighed for a long time in admiration of this answer, and he took on Ruan Zhan as his aide. People of that time gave Ruan Zhan the nickname "The Three Word Official".

〈《說文》曰:同官爲僚,同地爲寀。《爾雅》曰:寀,僚官。〉〈程大昌曰:不直云「同」而云「將無同」者,晉人語度自爾也。庾亮辟孟嘉爲從事,正旦大會,褚裒問嘉何在。亮曰:「但自覓之。」裒歷觀,指嘉曰:「將無是乎?」將無者,猶言殆是此人也,意以爲是而未敢自主也。阮瞻指孔、老爲同,亦此意。〉

(Regarding the term 僚寀, the Shuowen dictionary states, "Those of the same office are 僚, and those of the same place are 寀." The Erya dictionary states, "寀 is a 僚 office."

Cheng Dachang remarked, "The habit of saying things like 'about no difference' rather than directly saying 'the same' was a circumlocution used by people during Jin. For instance, there was the time when the Eastern Jin minister Yu Liang took on a certain Meng Jia as his Attendant Officer. At the grand New Year's Day meeting, the minister Chu Pou asked Yu Liang where this Meng Jia was. Yu Liang replied, "You should seek him out yourself." So Chu Pou looked around, and pointing at Meng Jia, he said, "Someone like him?" By which he meant to say he was indicating Meng Jia himself. So this "about" or "like" formulation was a way to express something without daring to express a definite answer. Ruan Zhan was saying that Confucius and Laozi were the same, and was expressing that thought in this indirect manner as well.")


阮宣子有令聞,太尉王夷甫見而問曰:「老莊與聖教同異?」對曰:「將無同!」太尉善其言,辟之為掾。世謂「三語掾」。衛玠嘲之曰:「一言可辟,何假於三?」宣子曰:「苟是天下人望,亦可無言而辟,復何假一?」遂相與為友。(New Tales 4.18)

Since Ruan Xiu had an excellent reputation, Grand Commandant Wang Yan went to visit him. He asked Ruan Xiu, "Are the teachings of Laozi and Zhuangzi and of the Sage (Confucius) the same, or different?"

Ruan Xiu replied, "About no difference."

Wang Yan liked his answer and appointed him as an Aide. The people of that time called him "The Three Word Aide".

Wei Jie teased him about it, saying, "You would have been appointed even if you had only said one word. Why bother with three?"

Ruan Xiu replied, "If this is what people in the world are looking for, then even for no words at all, I would have been appointed. Why bother with one?"

Whereupon they became fast friends. (tr. Richard Mather)

司徒王戎,既貴且富,區宅僮牧,膏田水碓之屬,洛下無比。契疏鞅掌,每與夫人燭下散籌算計。(New Tales 29.3)

Since the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Rong, was both noble and wealthy, he was unequaled in all Luoyang for his estates and houses, slaves, herdsmen, fertile fields, water mills, and the like. His bonds of indebtedness were so numerous that he spent all his time with his wife spreading out the counting rods under the lamp and calculating the sums. (tr. Richard Mather)

王戎有好李,賣之,恐人得其種,恆鑽其核。(New Tales 29.4)

At Wang Rong's place, there were some excellent plums which he frequently sold. But fearing lest other people might get possession of the pits, he always bored holes through their kernels. (tr. Richard Mather)


是時,王衍爲尚書令,南陽樂廣爲河南尹,皆善清談,宅心事外,名重當世,朝野之人,爭慕效之。衍與弟澄,好題品人物,舉世以爲儀準。衍神情明秀,少時,山濤見之,嗟歎良久,曰:「何物老嫗,生寧馨兒!然誤天下蒼生者,未必非此人也!」樂廣性沖約,與物無競。每談論,以約言析理,厭人之心,而其所不知,默如也。凡論人,必先稱其所長,則所短不言自見。王澄及阮咸、咸從子脩、泰山胡毋輔之、陳國謝鯤、城陽王X、新蔡畢卓,皆以任放爲達,至於醉狂裸體,不以爲非。胡毋輔之嘗酣飲,其子謙之闚而厲聲呼其父字曰:「彥國!年老,不得爲爾!」輔之歡笑,呼入共飲。畢卓嘗爲吏部郎,比舍郎釀熟,卓因醉,夜至甕間盜飲之,爲掌酒者所縛,明旦視之,乃畢吏部也。樂廣聞而笑之曰:「名敎內自有樂地,何必乃爾!」

5. At this time, Wang Yan was the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Yue Guang of Nanyang was the Intendant of Henan. They were both skilled at Pure Conversation, and they did not dwell on mundane affairs. They held a great reputation during that age, and everyone from the court on down strove to respect and imitate them.

Wang Yan and his younger brother Wang Cheng delighted in appraising people of the day, and they were universally regarded as being proper and particular men. Wang Yan himself had an outstanding expression. Shan Tao once saw him when he was still young, and Shan Tao sighed for a long time, saying, "How could such an old woman have given birth to such a beautiful child? And yet, he very well might be the one who misleads the people of the realm!"

Yue Guang was of an impetuous and indulgent, clear and distant nature, and he did not strive for anything. Whenever there was a discussion, he would use carefully selected words and studied logic to win over people's hearts without them even knowing it, because of how taciturn he was. Out of all those who discussed things, he was considered to be the most senior, and so he kept his words brief regarding himself.

Wang Yan, Ruan Xian and his nephew Ruan Xiu, Huwu Fuzhi of Taishan, Xie Kun of the Chen princely fief, Wang Ni of Chengyang, and Bi Zhuo of Xincai all considered it a good thing to act naturally and leisurely, to the point that they did not even consider it to be wrong for people to be drunk, insane, or naked.

Huwu Fuzhi was once drinking to his heart's delight when his son rebuked his faults and shouted at him, addressing his father by his style name: "Yanguo! You are old enough that you cannot act like this!" But Huwu Fuzhi only laughed, and called for his son to join him in drinking.

Bi Zhuo was once employed as a Gentleman in the ministerial bureau, employed with things like preparing wine. One night when Bi Zhuo was drunk, he stole wine from out of the urns by drinking it from his hands. When this was discovered the following morning, Bi Zhuo was stripped of his post. Yue Guang heard about it and laughed, "Paradise is found in one's name and education. Why be like this?"

〈宅,居也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「約」下有「清遠」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈厭,伏也。〉〈毋,音無。《姓譜》:齊宣王封母弟於毋鄕,其鄕本胡國,因曰胡毋氏。漢有太史胡毋恭。〉〈「X」,《晉書》作「尼」。按X,古仁字,又音夷。王X,字孝孫,或者當讀爲仁字乎?然永嘉三年,書河內王尼,卽此王X也。《晉書》曰:尼,城陽人,或云河內人。若作尼,則當音女夷翻。〉〈帝分汝陰置新蔡郡。任者,任物之自然;放者,縱其心而不制。〉〈比,近也。〉

(To dwell is to reside in.

Some versions add that Yue Guang was also "clear and distant".

To win over means to overcome.

毋 is pronounced "wu". The Registry of Surnames states, "King Xuan of Zhou gave his younger brother by the same mother the fiefdom of Wuxian. This place was originally a barbarian or "hu" state, and so the clan name came to be called Huwu. There was a Grand Astrologist Huwu Gong during Han."

This passage mentions a Wang X of Chengyang. In the Book of Jin, this fellow is recorded as Wang 尼 Ni. Regarding the character X, it is an old form for the character 仁 "ren", though it is also pronounced "yi". Perhaps the X of Wang X, styled Xiaosun, is meant to be pronounced as "ren"? But in the third year of Yongjia (309), the text mentions a Wang 尼 Ni of Henei, who must be the same person as the one here, for the Book of Jin states, "Wang Ni was a native of Chengyang, but was also said to be from Henei." So assuming that the Wang X mentioned here should be Wang 尼, then his given name should be pronounced "ni (n-i)".

During Emperor Hui's reign, part of Ruyin commandary was split off as Xincha commandary.

By "naturally", the passage means acting according to one's impulses; by "freely", it means following one's desires without restraint.

Things like means similar things.)


初,何晏等祖述老、莊,立論以爲:「天地萬物,皆以無爲本。無也者,開物成務,無往而不存者也。陰陽恃以化生,賢者恃以成德。故無之爲用,無爵而貴矣!」王衍之徒皆愛重之。由是朝廷士大夫皆以浮誕爲美,弛廢職業。裴頠著《崇有論》以釋其蔽曰:「夫利欲可損而未可絕有也,事務可節而未可全無也。蓋有飾爲高談之具者,深列有形之累,盛陳空無之美。形器之累有徵,空無之義難檢;辯巧之文可悅,似象之言足惑;衆聽眩焉,溺其成說。雖頗有異此心者,辭不獲濟,屈於所習,〈濟,通也。謂虛無習以成俗,崇有者辭不能通其意,遂爲所屈也。〉因謂虛無之理誠不可蓋。〈蓋,掩也。〉一唱百和,往而不反,遂薄綜世之務,賤功利〈【嚴:「利」改「烈」。】〉之用,高浮游之業,卑經實之賢。〈經實,謂有經世之實用者。〉人情所徇,名利從之,於是文者衍其辭,訥者贊其旨。立言藉於虛無,謂之玄妙;處官不親所職,謂之雅遠;奉身散其廉操,謂之曠達;故砥礪之風,彌以陵遲。〈砥礪,謂砥節礪行也。〉放者因斯,或悖吉凶之禮,忽容止之表,瀆長幼之序,混貴賤之級,甚者至於裸裎褻慢,無所不至,〈裸裎,露體也。裸,郎果翻。裎,馳成翻。〉士行又虧矣。夫萬物之有形者,雖生於無,然生以有爲已分,〈物之未生,則有無未分,旣生而有,則與無爲已分矣。〉則無是有之所遺者也。〈遺,棄也。〉故養旣化之有,非無用之所能全也;治旣有之衆,非無爲之所能脩也。〈治,直之翻。〉心非事也,而制事必由於心,然不可謂心爲無也;匠非器也,而制器必須於匠,然不可謂匠非有也。是以欲收重淵之鱗,非偃息之所能獲也;〈重,直龍翻。〉隕高墉之禽,非靜拱之所能捷也。由此而觀,濟有者皆有也,虛無奚益於已有之羣生哉!」然習俗已成,頠論亦不能救也。

6. During the Zhengshi era of Wei (240-49), He Yan and those of like mind had all followed the examples of Laozi and Zhuangzi. These were the beliefs they discussed: "The origin of Heaven, Earth, and all things is the Void. When one accords with the Void, then 'one grasps the knowledge of the issues of things'. The Void is near to non-existence. Yin and Yang rely upon it to form shapes, and the worthy rely upon it to complete their virtue. This is why the Void may be used, and no rank or title may compare with it in honor!"

Wang Yan and his followers all loved and cherished this sort of philosophy. Because of that, the great scholar-officials of the court all considered it a great thing to be flighty and absurd, and they had little regard for fulfilling their duties or endeavors.

Pei Wei compiled a "Discussion on the Sublime Existence" to expose the shortcomings of this philosophy. This is what he wrote:

[Left untranslated until I can better grasp Daoist philosophy.]

But the tradition had already set in, and despite Pei Wei's words, he was unable to save people from such thinking.

〈《易‧繫辭》曰:夫《易》開物成務。韓康伯《註》曰:言《易》通萬物之志,成天下之務。張氏曰:物,凡物也;務,事也。開,明之也;成,處之也。事無大小,不能明則何由處矣。楊萬里曰:開達物理,成就世務。余謂何晏之旨,以爲事事物物,自無而有。無者,物之未生,事之未形見者也。故曰無者開物成務,與諸儒說《易》之旨不同。〉

(He Yan quotes from the Great Treatise on the Book of Changes, which states, "The Book of Changes opens up (the knowledge of the issues of) things." Han Kangbo's Annotations states, "It is saying that the Book of Changes opens up the desires of all things and completes the affairs of all the realm." Master Zhang remarked, "The 'things' are all things; the 'affairs' are the issues. To 'open up' is to grasp the knowledge of all things; to 'complete' is to conduct the issues." No matter how great or small an issue may be, if one cannot perceive it, then how can one manage it?" Yang Wanli remarked, "It opens up and expresses all things and logic, and it completes and fulfills the affairs of the ages."

As for what I, Hu Sanxing, believe, judging by what He Yan said, he believed that the origin of all things sprung from out of the Void. This Void existed before any thing had taken form, before any affair had taken shape. This is why he said that through the Void, one grasps the knowledge of the issues of things. So when it came to the Book of Changes, his reasoning was different from these Confucian scholars I have quoted above.)


拓跋猗㐌度漠北巡,因西洛諸國,積五歲,降附者三十餘國。

7. Tuoba Yituo crossed the desert on a northern tour of inspection, which resulted in the submission of several western states. His campaign lasted for five years, and more than thirty states submitted to and aligned with him.

〈旣度漠北,遂西行略取諸國。〉

(Since Tuoba Yituo crossed north of the desert, he then went west with the aim of obtaining various states.)


七年,桓帝至自西略,諸降附者二十餘國,凡積五歲,今始東還。(Book of Northern Wei 1)

In the seventh year (301), Tuoba Yituo returned from his western campaign. More than twenty states had surrendered to or submitted to him. He had been away for five years, and now returned east again.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Mar 01, 2018 5:25 am, edited 3 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:51 am

八年(戊午、二九八)

The Eighth Year of Yuankang (The Wuwu Year, 298 AD)


春,三月,壬戌,赦天下。

1. In spring, the third month, on the day Renxu (April 17th), an amnesty was declared throughout the realm.

秋,九月,荊、豫、徐、揚、冀五州大水。

2. In autumn, the ninth month, there was great flooding in the five provinces of Jingzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yangzhou, and Jizhou.

初,張魯在漢中,賨人李氏自巴西宕渠往依之。魏武帝克漢中,李氏將五百餘家歸之,拜爲將軍,遷于略陽北土,號曰巴氐。其孫特、庠、流,皆有材武,善騎射,性任俠,州黨多附之。

3. About a century before this time (~190), while the warlord Zhang Lu had been in control of Hanzhong commandary, the Li clan of the Cong people left Dangqu County in Baxi commandary to join him. When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) conquered Hanzhong, the leader of the Li clan led more than five hundred families to submit to him, and he was given title as a general. The families were moved to the northern territory of Lueyang, and they were called the Ba-Di people or the Di from Ba.

This fellow's grandsons, Li Te, Li Xiáng, and Li Liu, were all men of martial talents. They were skilled at horseback archery, and were all gallant and chivalrous fellows, so many people from the provinces began to follow them.

〈宕渠縣,漢屬巴郡;蜀先主分置宕渠郡;晉屬巴西郡;唐爲渠州。今渠州流江縣東北七十里有古賨國城。李氏之先,廩君之苗裔也,世居巴中。秦幷天下,以爲黔中郡,薄賦斂之,口歲出錢四十。巴人呼賦爲賨,因謂之賨人焉。又按《晉志》:劉璋分巴郡墊江置巴西郡。劉備割巴郡之宕渠、宣漢、漢昌三縣,置宕渠郡,尋省,以縣並屬巴西郡。則宕渠之屬巴西,蓋晉時也。〉〈事見六十八卷漢獻帝建安二十年。〉〈魏分臨渭、平襄、略陽、清水四縣,置廣魏郡;晉泰始中,更名略陽郡。〉

(During Han, Dangqu County was part of Ba commandary. Liu Bei split the county off as Dangqu commandary. Jin folded it back into Baxi commandary. During Tang, it became Quzhou. The old cities of the Cong people's state can be found seventy li northeast of Liujiang County in modern Quzhou. This Master Li's ancestors were the descendants of the ancient Granary Lord, and for generations they resided in Ba. After Qin united the realm (~220 BC), their land became Qianzhong commandary, and they were levied only light taxes. The people of Ba use the term "cong" for taxes, and this was why this people became called the Cong people. And according to the Records of Jin, "Liu Zhang split off Dianjiang County from Ba commandary to form Baxi commandary. Liu Bei carved off the counties of Dangqu, Xuanhan, and Hanchang from Ba commandary to form Dangqu commandary. That commandary was later abolished, and its counties were folded back into Baxi commandary." So since this was during Jin times, Dangqu County was part of Baxi commandary.

Cao Cao's conquest of Hanzhong is mentioned in Book 68, in Emperor Xian of Han's twentieth year of Jian'an (215.B, H in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Cao-Wei had split the four counties of Linwei, Pingxiang, Lueyang, and Qingshui off to form Guangwei commandary. During Jin's Taishi era (265-74), it was renamed to Lueyang commandary.)


李特,字玄休,巴西宕渠人。其先廩君之苗裔,秦併天下,以為黔中郡,薄賦斂之,口歲出錢四十。巴人謂賦為賨,因謂之賨人焉。及高祖為漢王,始募賨人,平定三秦,既而不願出關,求還鄉里。高祖以其功,復同豐沛,更名其地為巴郡。土有鹽鐵丹漆之利,民用敦阜,俗性剽勇,善歌舞。高祖愛其舞,詔樂府習之,今巴渝舞是也。其後繁昌,分為數十姓。及魏武剋漢中,特祖父虎將五百家歸魏,魏武嘉之,遷略陽(一云洛陽),拜虎等為將軍。徙內者亦萬餘家,散居隴右諸郡及三輔、弘農,所在號巴氐。虎子慕為東羌獵將,慕生有五子,輔、特、庠、流、驤。特身長八尺,雄武善騎射,沉毅有大度。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Te)

Li Te, styled Xuanxiu, was a native of Dangqu in Baxi commandary. His ancestors were the descendants of the Granary Lord of old.

When the Qin dynasty annexed all the realm (~221 BC), they made this region into Qianzhong commandary, and they only lightly taxed it, with each person having to pay forty cash per year. The people of Ba called taxes “cong”, and so they became known as the Cong people.

During the time that Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) was Prince of Han (~206 BC), he recruited from among these Cong people in order to conquer the region of the Three Qins (around Chang'an). But since the people did not want to live in that region, they asked to return to their native land. In order to honor their achievement on his behalf and encourage their prosperity and flourishing, Gaozu renamed their land to Ba commandary. The land had an abundance of salt, iron, cinnabar, and lacquer, and the people there were honest and numerous, and naturally swift and brave. They also were experts at singing and dancing, and Gaozu loved their dancing so much that he ordered his Music Bureau to practice it, which led to the modern Ba-Yu Dance. The people flourished and multipled still further after that, and they split up into dozens of different surnames.

When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) captured Hanzhong (in 215 AD), Li Te’s grandfather Li Hu led five hundred families to go over to Cao-Wei. Emperor Wu commended him, and relocated him to Lueyang (some say Luoyang), appointing Li Hu and others as Generals. There were a further more than ten thousand such families who were also moved away from the interior, scattering out to reside in the various commandaries of Longyou, as well as the Three Adjuncts (Fufeng, Pingyi, and Jingzhao) and Hongnong commandary. They were all called the Di of Ba or Ba-Di.

Li Hu’s son was Li Mu, who served as Hunting General of the Eastern Qiang tribes. Li Mu himself had five sons: Li Fu, Li Te, Li Xiáng, Li Liu, and Li Xiang.

Li Te was eight 尺 in height, and he was a bold and martial man, skilled at horseback archery. He was a stalwart fellow, with great capacity.

李特,字玄休,巴西宕渠人,其先廩君之苗裔也。昔武落鐘離山崩,有石穴二所,其一赤如丹,一黑如漆。有人出於赤穴者,名曰務相,姓巴氏。有出於黑穴者,凡四姓:曰皥氏、樊氏、柏氏、鄭氏。五姓俱出,皆爭為神,於是相與以劍刺穴屋,能著者以為廩君。四姓莫著,而務相之劍懸焉。又以土為船,雕畫之而浮水中,曰:「若其船浮存者,以為廩君。」務相船又獨浮。於是遂稱廩君,乘其土船,將其徒卒,當夷水而下,至於鹽陽。鹽陽水神女子止廩君曰:「此魚鹽所有,地又廣大,與君俱生,可止無行。」廩君曰:「我當為君求廩地,不能止也。」鹽神夜從廩君宿,旦輒去為飛蟲,諸神皆從其飛,蔽日晝昏。廩君欲殺之不可,別又不知天地東西。如此者十日,廩君乃以青縷遺鹽神曰:「嬰此,即宜之,與汝俱生。弗宜,將去汝。」鹽神受而嬰之。廩君立碭石之上,望膺有青縷者,跪而射之,中鹽神。鹽神死,群神與俱飛者皆去,天乃開朗。廩君復乘土船,下及夷城。夷城石岸曲,泉水亦曲。廩君望如穴狀,歎曰:「我新從穴中出,今又入此,奈何!」岸即為崩,廣三丈餘,而階陛相乘,廩君登之。岸上有平石方一丈,長五尺,廩君休其上,投策計算,皆著石焉,因立城其旁而居之。其後種類遂繁。秦並天下,以為黔中郡,薄賦斂之,口歲出錢四十。巴人呼賦為賨,因謂之賨人焉。及漢高祖為漢王,募賨人平定三秦。既而求還鄉里,高祖以其功,復同豐、沛,不供賦稅,更名其地為巴郡。土有鹽鐵丹漆之饒,俗性剽勇,又善歌舞。高祖愛其舞,詔樂府習之,今《巴渝舞》是也。漢末,張魯居漢中,以鬼道教百姓,賨人敬信巫覡,多往奉之。值天下大亂,自巴西之宕渠遷于漢中楊車阪,抄掠行旅,百姓患之,號為楊車巴。魏武帝克漢中,特祖將五百餘家歸之,魏武帝拜為將軍,遷于略陽,北土復號之為巴氐。特父慕,為東羌獵將。特少仕州郡,見異當時,身長八尺,雄武善騎射,沈毅有大度。(Book of Jin 120, Biography of Li Te)

Li Te, styled Xuanxiu, was a native of Dangqu in Baxi commandary. His ancestors were the descendants of the Granary Lord of old.

In former times, part of Mount Wuluo Zhongli collapsed, and two stone caves appeared: one was red as cinnabar, and one was black as lacquer. There was one man who emerged from the red cave: his given name was Wuxiang, and his surname was Ba. And there were four men who emerged from the black cave: their surnames were Hao, Fan, Bai, and Zheng. After these five fellows came out of the caves, they argued with one another about who among them was divine. The five of them attempted to carve out a room from their caves using a blade, with the understanding that the one who could do so would be the Granary Lord. The other four fellows could not do it, but Wuxiang had an exceptional blade. These men also made boats out of earth and carved designs on them, then placed the boats into water, saying, “The one whose boat can float shall be the Granary Lord.” Again, Wuxiang’s boat was the only one to float. So they acclaimed him as the Granary Lord.

Then they climbed into his earthen boat, and acting as his followers, they sailed the boat down the Yi River until they came to Yanyang. There they met a goddess of river and salt who stopped the Granary Lord and said to him, “This place has fish and salt in abundance, and the land is both broad and large. Live here together with me, and you may end your journey here and wander no further.”

The Granary Lord replied, “I must be seeking land for a granary. I cannot stop here.”

During the night, the salt goddess followed the Granary Lord to his residence, and in the morning she suddenly became a flying insect. The other local spirits followed her into flight, and they blotted out the sun as though it were dusk. The Granary Lord wished to kill them, but he could not, and now he could no longer tell what was what, or where Heaven or Earth were. This went on for ten days, until at last the Granary Lord presented the salt goddess with a green thread, telling her, “Test this thread. If it is suitable, I shall live here together with you; if not, I shall soon leave you.” The salt goddess accepted the thread and tested it. Then the Granary Lord placed a large stone on top of it, and following the line of the thread, he knelt and shot an arrow, which struck the salt goddess. She then died, and the other spirits who had been flying with her all ran away, so the sky was clear once again.

The Granary Lord then got back into his earthen boat and sailed further down the river, until he reached Yicheng. At Yicheng, the river had stone banks and was bent, and the springwaters were also twisted. The Granary Lord felt that it was like back in his cave, and he lamented, “I had only just emerged from the cave, and now it is as though I am going back into it. How can this be?” This caused part of the bank to collapse, leaving a space of more than three zhang, with stairs that one could ascend. So the Granary Lord mounted these stairs. On top of the bank was a flat stone, one zhang square and five 尺 tall. The Granary Lord rested on this stone, throwing down his calculating instruments, which all made marks on the stone. This was why he built walls all around the stone to house it. And his descendants were bountiful and multiplied.

When the Qin dynasty annexed all the realm (~221 BC), they made this region into Qianzhong commandary, and they only lightly taxed it, with each person having to pay forty cash per year. The people of Ba called taxes “cong”, and so they became known as the Cong people.

During the time that Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) was Prince of Han (~206 BC), he recruited from among these Cong people in order to conquer the region of the Three Qins (around Chang'an). After this, the people asked to return to their native land, and so in order to honor their achievement on his behalf and encourage their prosperity and flourishing, Gaozu did not levy any taxes or corvee labor on them, and he also renamed their land to Ba commandary. The land had an abundance of salt, iron, cinnabar, and lacquer, and the people there were swift and brave. They also were experts at singing and dancing, and Gaozu loved their dancing so much that he ordered his Music Bureau to practice it, which led to the modern Ba-Yu Dance.

At the end of the Han dynasty (~189 AD), the warlord Zhang Lu occupied Hanzhong commandary. He instructed the common people in the ways of the spirits, and because the Cong people respected and trusted in witches and wizards, many of them came to follow him. The realm soon fell into turmoil, and so the Cong people moved from Dangqu in Baxi commandary to Yangche Slope in Hanzhong. There they plundered and wandered freely, making themselves a nuisance to the common people, who called them the Ba of Yangche.

When Emperor Wu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) took Hanzhong (in 215), Li Te’s grandfather led more than five hundred families to go over to him. Emperor Wu appointed him as a General and relocated him north to Lueyang, where the northerners called them the Di of Ba or Ba-Di. Li Te’s father was Li Mu, who served as Hunting General of the Eastern Qiang tribes.

As a young man, Li Te served in office in the commandary and the province, and during that time he was greatly appreciated. He was eight 尺 in height, and he was a bold and martial man, skilled at horseback archery. He was a stalwart fellow, with great capacity.

賨李雄,字仲儁,蓋廩君之苗裔也。其先居於巴西宕渠。秦并天下,為黔中郡,薄賦其民,口出錢三十,巴人謂賦為「賨」,因為名焉。後徙櫟陽。祖慕,魏東羌獵將。慕有五子,輔、特、庠、流、驤。(Book of Northern Wei 96, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong of the Cong people, styled Zhongjun, was a descendant of the Granary Lord of old. His ancestors lived in Dangqu in Baxi. When the Qin dynasty annexed all the realm (~221 BC), they made this region into Qianzhong commandary, and they only lightly taxed it, with each person having to pay thirty cash per year. The people of Ba called taxes "cong", and so they became known as the Cong people.

Li Xiong's ancestors later moved to Liyang. His grandfather, Li Mu, was Cao-Wei's Hunting General of the Eastern Qiang tribes. Li Mu had five sons: Li Hu, Li Te, Li Xiáng, Li Liu, and Li Xiang.

[ 口出錢三十] 晉書卷一二0李特載記、華陽國志卷九李特志「三十」並作「四十」。疑這裏「三」 字訛。 [後徙櫟陽] 晉書卷一二0李特載記、華陽國志卷九李特志「櫟陽」作「略陽」。按當時六郡流民 入蜀,略陽是六郡之一。櫟陽遠在長安東北〈今陝西富平〉,李特若徙居在此,距六郡〈今甘肅天水一帶至 陝西鳳翔一帶〉遙遠,與情勢不合。「櫟陽」乃「略陽」之訛。(Book of Northern Wei commentary)

(This passage states that the Qin dynasty taxed the people of Ba at the rate of "thirty" cash a head. The Biography of Li Te in Book 120 of the Book of Jin and the Records of Li Te in Book 9 of the Huayang Guozhi both state that the tax rate was "forty" cash a head. I suspect "thirty" is a corruption of the Book of Northern Wei.

This passage states that Li Xiong's ancestors moved to 櫟陽 Liyang. The Biography of Li Te in Book 120 of the Book of Jin and the Records of Li Te in Book 9 of the Huayang Guozhi both state that his ancestors moved to 略陽 Lueyang. Now when the people of the Six Commandaries came to the Shu region as refugees, Lueyang was one of these six. Meanwhile, Liyang was a long ways away, northeast of Chang'an (in Fuping in Shaanxi province of modern-day China). If we suppose Li Te had gone to live in that place, being so far away from the Six Commandaries that the refugees came from (which, in modern-day Chinese geography, stretched from Tianshui in Gansu province to Fengxiang in Shaanxi province), he could have had little influence over them. So Liyang must be a corruption for Lueyang.)


李特,字玄休,略陽臨渭人也。祖世本巴西宕渠賨民,種黨勁勇,俗好鬼巫。漢末,張魯居漢中,以鬼道教百姓,賨人敬信;值天下大亂,自巴西之宕渠移入漢中。魏武定漢中,曾祖父虎與杜〔濩〕、朴胡、〔袁〕約、楊車、李黑等移於略陽北土,復號曰巴「人」〔氐〕。特父慕,為東羌獵將。特兄弟五人:長兄輔,字玄政。次特。特弟庠,字玄序。庠弟流,字玄通。流弟驤,字玄龍。皆銳驍有武幹。特長子蕩,字仲平,好學,有容觀。少子雄,字仲雋。(Huayang Guozhi 9.1)

Li Te, styled Xuanxiu, was a native of Linwei in Lueyang commandary. His ancestors were originally members of the Cong people living in Dangqu in Baxi commandary. They were a bountiful people, nimble and bold, and they usually found delight in spirits and witchcraft.

At the end of the Han dynasty (~189 AD), the warlord Zhang Lu occupied Hanzhong commandary. He instructed the common people in the ways of the spirits, and the Cong people respected and trusted in him. The realm soon fell into turmoil, and so the Cong people moved from Dangqu in Baxi commandary to Hanzhong.

When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) conquered Hanzhong, Li Te's great-grandfather Li Hu, along with Du (Huo), Pu Hu, (Yuan) Yue, Yang Che, Li Hei, and others, all moved to the northern territory of Lueyang, where they were called the people (or Di) or Ba (or the Ba-Di).

Li Te's father was Li Mu, who served as Hunting General of the Eastern Qiang tribes. Li Te was one of five brothers. The eldest brother was Li Hu, styled Xuanzheng. Next was Li Te himself. Third was Li Xiáng, styled Xuanxu. Fourth was Li Liu, styled Xuantong. The youngest was Li Xiang, styled Xuanlong. They were all stalwart and valiant fellows, possessing martial talents. Li Te's elder son was Li Dang, styled Zhongping; he was well-educated, and had a remarkable appearance. His younger son was Li Xiong, styled Zhongjuan.

〈顧廣圻校稿云:「曾當作特。」廖本注云:「曾字不當有。」皆緣《晉書載記》有「魏武帝剋漢中,特祖將五百家歸之」句而疑之也。今按:魏武北徙巴氐距李特入蜀,已閱八十四年,應歷三世。又後文李雄追尊三代,至曾祖庸,不及虎,則虎為其父特之曾祖明矣。是此文不誤。《晉書》稱「特祖」乃誤。〉〈舊各本有脫字。顧廣圻稿云:「杜下當有濩字。約上當有袁字。見前。」廖本注同。茲補入二字。〉〈廖本注云,「當作氐」,亦依《晉書》也。本書《大同志》亦稱「巴氐」。茲據改。〉(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding the statement of Li Hu being Li Te's "great" grandfather, Gu Guangqi's Analysis states, "The character 曾 'great (grandfather)' here should be 特 '(Li) Te'." And Liao Ben's Annotations states, "The character 曾 should not be present." Both of them base this on the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, which states, "When Emperor Wu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) took Hanzhong (in 215), Li Te's grandfather led five hundred families to go over to him." However, I (the commentator) have reasons to doubt this sentence. Now consider: between the time when Wu of Wei moved the Ba-Di to the north (215) and the time when Li Te entered Shu (300) was a period of eighty-four years, which would indicate three generations (ie, down to Li Te's grandfather, father, and Li Te himself). And later on in the text, we note that Li Xiong honored the past three generations of his ancestors, as far back as his great-grandfather Li Yong. But Li Hu was not included (suggesting the people honored were Li Te, Li Mu, and this Li Yong). So clearly Li Hu must have been his father Li Te's great-grandfather (and so was four generations removed from Li Xiong). So this sentence in Huayang Guozhi is not mistaken. It is the Book of Jin which is mistaken when it calls Li Hu Li Te's "grandfather".

Regarding the other people listed with Li Hu, the old versions of Huayang Guozhi all listed the given name of the one surnamed Du as "Huo". And Gu Guangqi states, "The character 濩 Huo should be listed after Du, and the character 袁 Yuan should be listed before Yue. See above." Liao Ben's Annotations states the same thing. So I have added those two characters in.

Some versions of the final sentence identify the identity of Li Hu and the others as "people of Ba". Liao Ben's Annotations states, "The character 人 'people' should be 氐 'Di (people)'." The Book of Jin says the same thing. And so does the Records of the Great Accordance chapter of the Huayang Guozhi. So I have changed the character accordingly.)


及齊萬年反,關中荐饑,略陽、天水六郡民流移就穀入漢川者數萬家,道路有疾病窮乏者,特兄弟常營護振救之,由是得衆心。流民至漢中,上書求寄食巴、蜀,朝議不許,遣侍御史李苾持節慰勞,且監察之,不令入劍閣。苾至漢中,受流民賂,表言:「流民十萬餘口,非漢中一郡所能振贍;蜀有倉儲,人復豐稔,宜令就食。」朝廷從之。由是散在梁、益,不可禁止。李特至劍閣,太息曰:「劉禪有如此地,面縛於人,豈非庸才邪!」聞者異之。

4. At this time, because of Qiwannian's rebellion, Guanzhong suffered from famine and want. Several tens of thousands of families from Lueyang, Tianshui, and other places, six commandaries altogether, fled to the Han River basin region in search of grain. The roads were filled with those who were sick and weary from hunger. Li Te and his brothers did much to organize, protect, rally, and save these people, and so they won the hearts of the multitude.

When the refugees reached Hanzhong, a petition was sent up to the court asking that they be allowed to reside in the regions of Ba and Shu to eat the grain there. The court discussed the matter and would not grant their assent, and they sent the Resident Imperial Secretary, Li Bi, with a staff of authority to send their regards to the refugees. Li Bi had orders to investigate the situation, and to not permit the refugees to pass through Jian'ge Pass.

But when Li Bi arrived at Hanzhong, he received bribes from the refugees, and so he wrote a petition stating, "There are more than a hundred thousand refugees here, too many for Hanzhong commandary alone to sustain them. But the Shu region has plenty of grain stores, and the people there have just had a bountiful harvest. You should send the refugees there so that they may eat."

So the court followed his recommendation. The refugees scattered throughout Lianzhou and Yizhou, and no one could stop them.

When Li Te came to Jian'ge Pass, he sighed greatly when he saw it and mused, "Liu Shan had such defenses as this, and yet he still gave himself over in surrender to others. How could he not have been a man of inferior talents?" Those who heard this were amazed.

〈《爾雅》:仍饑爲荐。〉〈李特事始此。《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「元康七年,關中饑;八年,雍州有年。」而《華陽國志》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》,皆云「八手[年?],特就穀入蜀。」今從之。〉

(The Erya dictionary states, "To suffer from hunger is to be in want."

This is the first mention of Li Te.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'In the seventh year of Yuankang (297), there was famine in Guanzhong' and 'in the eighth year (298), Yongzhou had a year.' But the Huayang Guozhi, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all state, 'In the eighth year (298), Li Te entered Shu seeking grain.' I follow their accounts.")


元康中,氐齊萬年反,關西擾亂,天水、略陽、扶風、始平諸郡皆被兵,頻歲大饑,流移就穀,相與入漢川者數萬家。特至劍閣,顧盼嶮阻,曰:「劉禪有如此之地而面縛於人,豈非庸才耶!」同移者閻武等咸歎異之。初、流民既至漢中,上書求寄食巴蜀,朝廷從之。由是散在梁、益,不可禁止。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Te)

During the Yuankang reign era (~298), the Di leader Qiwannian rebelled, and the Guanxi region was thrown into great turmoil. The commandaries of Tianshui, Lueyang, Fufeng, and Shiping were all overrun by soldiers, and there was a great famine for several years. The common people became refugees in search of grain. Tens of thousands of families all led each other into the Han River basin for that reason.

When Li Te came to Jian'ge Pass, he looked about and marveled at the place’s stout defenses. He said, “Liu Shan had such defenses as this, and yet he still gave himself over in surrender to others. How could he not have been a man of inferior talents?” There were others who were on the move with him, including Yan Shi and others, and they all sighed in admiration of him.

Earlier, when the refugees had first arrived at Hanzhong, they sent up a letter to the court asking that they be granted refuge in the Ba and Shu regions. The court allowed it, and so the refugees scattered throughout Yizhou and Lianzhou, and no one could stop them.

元康中,氐齊萬年反,關西擾亂,頻歲大饑,百姓乃流移就穀,相與入漢川者數萬家。特隨流人將入於蜀,至劍閣,箕踞太息,顧眄險阻曰:「劉禪有如此之地而面縛於人,豈非庸才邪!」同移者閻式、趙肅、李遠、任回等咸歎異之。初,流人既至漢中,上書求寄食巴、蜀,朝議不許,遣侍御史李苾持節慰勞,且監察之,不令入劍閣。苾至漢中,受流人貨賂,反為表曰:「流人十萬餘口,非漢中一郡所能振贍,東下荊州,水湍迅險,又無舟船。蜀有倉儲,人復豐稔,宜令就食。」朝廷從之,由是散在益、梁,不可禁止。(Book of Jin 120, Biography of Li Te)

During the Yuankang reign era (~296), the Di leader Qiwannian rebelled, and the Guanxi region was thrown into great turmoil. For several years there was a great famine, and so the common people became refugees in search of grain. Tens of thousands of families all led each other into the Han River basin for that reason. Li Te followed the refugees and entered the Shu region, the former territory of the state of Shu-Han.

When he came to Jian'ge Pass, he took a great rest as he sat down with his legs stretched out and marveled at the place’s stout defenses. He said, “Liu Shan had such defenses as this, and yet he still gave himself over in surrender to others. How could he not have been a man of inferior talents?” There were others who were on the move with him, including Yan Shi, Zhao Su, Li Yuan, Ren Hui, and others, and they all sighed in admiration of him.

Earlier, when the refugees had first arrived at Hanzhong, they sent up a letter to the court asking that they be granted refuge in the Ba and Shu regions. The court would not grant their assent, and they sent the Resident Imperial Secretary, Li Bi, with a Staff of Authority to send their regards to the refugees. Li Bi had orders to investigate the situation, and to not permit the refugees to pass through Jian'ge Pass.

But when Li Bi arrived at Hanzhong, he took bribes from the refugees, and so he instead wrote the court a petition stating, “There are more than a hundred thousand refugees here, too many for Hanzhong commandary alone to sustain them. If you mean to have them go east into Jingzhou, the rivers are swift and with narrow rapids, and besides there are no boats to use. But Shu has plenty of grain stores, and the people there have just had a bountiful harvest. You should send the refugees there so that they may eat.”

So the court followed his recommendation. The refugees scattered throughout Yizhou and Lianzhou, and no one could stop them.

晉惠時,關西擾亂,頻歲大飢,特兄弟率流民數萬家就穀漢中,遂入巴蜀。(Book of Northern Wei 96, Biography of Li Xiong)

During the reign of Emperor Hui of Jin, there was chaos and upheaval in Guanzhong, and several years of great hunger. Li Te and his brothers led several tens of thousands of families from that region as refugees, and they went to Hanzhong in search of grain, afterwards entering the regions of Ba and Shu.

八年,廞至州。雖崇簡約,而性實奢泰。略陽、天水六郡民李特,及弟庠,閻式、趙肅、何巨、李遠等及氐叟、青叟數萬家,以群土連年軍荒,就穀入漢川,詔書不聽入蜀。益州敕關禁之。而「戶曹」〔侍御史〕李苾開關放入蜀,布散梁州及三蜀界。(Huayang Guozhi 8.4)

In the eighth year (298), Zhao Xin arrived in Yizhou. Although he put on a thrifty appearance, really he had an extravagant nature.

Over the past few years, there had been tens of thousands of families of the Di-Sou (or Di-X) and Qing-Sou people from Lueyang, Tianshui, and other northern commandaries, six in all, who had come into the Han River basin region in search of grain, because of the upheaval caused by the army in their homeland and the spreading famine there. These included Li Te, his younger brother Li Xiáng, Yan Shi, Zhao Su, He Ju (or Chen), Li Yuan, and others. An imperial edict had been issued forbidding these refugees from actually entering the Shu region, and Yizhou had ordered its passes to forbid them from passing through. But the 戶曹 (or, Attendant Imperial Secretary) Li Bi had opened the gates and allowed them into Shu, and the refugees then spread out throughout Lianzhou and the three Shu regions.


張華、陳準以趙王、梁王,相繼在關中,皆雍容驕貴,師老無功,乃薦孟觀沈毅文武才用,使討齊萬年。觀身當矢石,大戰十數,皆破之。

5. Zhang Hua and Cheng Zhun charged Sima Lun and Sima Rong with not attending to their military duties in Guanzhong. They felt that both of the Princes had been in Guanzhong for some time, and both of them were being reserved and arrogant, holding their commands for a long time without achieving anything.

They recommended the general Meng Guan as a stalwart and steady fellow, skilled and talented in both civil and military affairs. So Meng Guan was sent to campaign against Qiwannian. Meng Guan suffered wounds from slings and arrows, yet he fought the enemy dozens of times, always routing them.

〈雍容,和緩自得之貌。驕貴,以貴而自驕也。師久不決,坐自困敝爲老。言二王不任軍事。〉

(Reserved is meant in the sense of being calm and self-satisfied. Arrogant means assuming honors for oneself. They had been in command for a long time but had achieved nothing decisive, and were rather remaining in place, letting their armies go to ruin. This is how the two Princes were not attending to their military duties.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Jul 01, 2018 5:57 am, edited 8 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-82-??)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Sun Oct 22, 2017 6:37 pm

This thread made me sign up for this site. Your translation work is incredible and has aided my studies a lot! You're doing a great thing for students of 3K and Jin history. Thanks so much and I look forward to your future posts!
Have a question about a book or academic article before you buy it? Maybe I have it!
Check out my library here for a list of Chinese history resources I have on hand!
User avatar
Jia Nanfeng
Assistant
 
Posts: 128
Joined: Sun Oct 22, 2017 6:30 pm

Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-82-??)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 8:11 pm

Thanks for your support. This is just a hobby for me, but I'm glad to see it go appreciated.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

BOOK 83

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Nov 05, 2017 4:03 pm

元康九年(己未、二九九)

The Ninth Year of Yuankang (The Jiwei Year, 299 AD)


春,正月,孟觀大破氐衆於中亭,獲齊萬年。

1. In spring, the first month, Meng Guan greatly routed the rebel Di army at Zhongting, and captured Qiwannian.

〈《水經註》:扶風美陽縣有中亭水,亦謂之中亭川,在美陽縣西。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a Zhongting River in Meiyang County in Fufeng commandary. It is called both the Zhongting 水 River and the Zhongting 川 Rivers. It is in the west of Meiyang County.")


太子洗馬陳留江統以爲戎、狄亂華,宜早絕其原,乃作《徙戎論》以警朝廷曰:「夫夷、蠻、戎、狄,地在要荒,禹平九土而西戎卽敍。其性氣貪婪,凶悍不仁。四夷之中,戎、狄爲甚,弱則畏服,強則侵叛。當其強也,以漢高祖困於白登、孝文軍於霸上。及其弱也,以元、成之微而單于入朝。此其已然之效也。是以有道之君牧夷、狄也,惟以待之有備,禦之有常,雖稽顙執贄而邊城不弛固守,強暴爲寇而兵甲不加遠征,期令境內獲安,疆埸不侵而已。及至周室失統,諸侯專征,封疆不固,利害異心,戎、狄乘間,得入中國,或招誘安撫以爲己用,自是四夷交侵,與中國錯居。及秦始皇幷天下,兵威旁達,攘胡,走越,當是時,中國無復四夷也。漢建武中,馬援領隴西太守,討叛羌,徙其餘種於關中,居馮翊、河東空地。數歲之後,族類蕃息,旣恃其肥強,且苦漢人侵之;永初之元,羣羌叛亂,覆沒將守,屠破城邑,鄧騭敗北,侵及河內,十年之中,夷、夏俱敝,任尚、馬賢,僅乃克之。自此之後,餘燼不盡,小有際會,輒復侵叛,中世之寇,惟此爲大。魏興之初,與蜀分隔,疆埸之戎,一彼一此。武帝徙武都氐於秦川,欲以弱寇強國,扞禦蜀虜,此蓋權宜之計,非萬世之利也;今者當之,已受其敝矣。夫關中土沃物豐,帝王所居,未聞戎、狄宜在此土也。非我族類,其心必異。而因其衰敝,遷之畿服,士庶翫習,侮其輕弱,使其怨恨之氣毒於骨髓;至於蕃育衆盛,則坐生其心。以貪悍之性,挾憤怒之情,候隙乘便,輒爲橫逆;而居封域之內,無障塞之隔,掩不備之人,收散野之積,故能爲禍滋蔓,暴害不測,此必然之勢,已驗之事也。當今之宜,宜及兵威方盛,衆事未罷,徙馮翊、北地、新平、安定界內諸羌,著先零罕幵、析支之地,徙扶風、始平、京兆之氐,出還隴右,著陰平、武都之界,廩其道路之糧,令足自致,各附本種,反其舊土,使屬國、撫夷就安集之。戎、晉不雜,並得其所,縱有猾夏之心,風塵之警,則絕遠中國,隔閡山河,雖有寇暴,所害不廣矣。難者曰:氐寇新平,關中饑疫,百姓愁苦,咸望寧息;而欲使疲悴之衆,徙自猜之寇,恐勢盡力屈,緒業不卒,前害未及弭而後變復橫出矣。答曰:子以今者羣氐爲尚挾餘資,悔惡反善,懷我德惠而來柔附乎?將勢窮道盡,智力俱困,懼我兵誅以至於此乎?曰:無有餘力,勢窮道盡故也。然則我能制其短長之命而令其進退由己矣。夫樂其業者不易事,安其居者無遷志。方其自疑危懼,畏怖促遽,故可制以兵威,使之左右無違也。迨其死亡流散,離逷未鳩,與關中之人,戶皆爲讎,故可遐遷遠處,令其心不懷土也。夫聖賢之謀事也,爲之於未有,治之於未亂,道不著而平,德不顯而成。其次則能轉禍爲福,因敗爲功,值困必濟,遇否能通。今子遭敝事之終而不圖更制之始,愛易轍之勤而遵覆車之軌,何哉!且關中之人百餘萬口,率其少多,戎、狄居半,處之與遷,必須口實。若有窮乏,糝粒不繼者,故當傾關中之穀以全其生生之計,必無擠於溝壑而不爲侵掠之害也。今我遷之,傳食而至,附其種族,自使相贍,而秦地之人得其半穀,此爲濟行者以廩糧,遺居者以積倉,寬關中之逼,去盜賊之原,除旦夕之損,建終年之益。若憚蹔舉之小勞而忘永逸之弘策,惜日月之煩苦而遺累世之寇敵,非所謂能創業垂統,謀及子孫者也。幷州之胡,本實匈奴桀惡之寇也,建安中,使右賢王去卑誘質呼廚泉,聽其部落散居六郡。咸熙之際,以一部太強,分爲三率,泰始之初,又增爲四;於是劉猛內叛,連結外虜,近者郝散之變,發於穀遠。今五部之衆,戶至數萬,人口之盛,過於西戎;其天性驍勇,弓馬便利,倍於氐、羌。若有不虞風塵之慮,則幷州之域可爲寒心。正始中,毌丘儉討句驪,徙其餘種於滎陽。始徙之時,戶落百數;子孫孳息,今以千計;數世之後,必至殷熾。百姓失職,猶或亡叛,犬馬肥充,則有噬齧,況於夷、狄,能不爲變!但顧其微弱,勢力不逮耳。夫爲邦者,憂不在寡而在不安,以四海之廣,士民之富,豈須夷虜在內然後取足哉!此等皆可申諭發遣,還其本域,慰彼羈旅懷土之思,釋我華夏纖介之憂,『惠此中國,以綏四方,』德施永世,於計爲長也!」朝廷不能用。

2. The Horse-Washer to the Crown Prince, Jiang Tong of Chenliu, believed that the Rong and Di (the various tribes) were causing turmoil for the Hua (ethnic Han), and ought to be cut off from the interior plains of the Middle Kingdom. So he composed the "Discussion on Relocating the Rong Tribes" in order to warn the court of the danger posed by the tribes. This is what he wrote:

"The homelands of the tribes of the Yi, Man, Rong, and Di were in the Domain of Restraint and in the Domain of Wilderness. And when Yu the Great settled the Nine regions, then the Western Rong were also attested. The barbarians have a grasping and greedy nature and spirit; they are wild and fierce, lacking in benevolence.

"Out of all of them, the Rong and Di barbarians are the worst. When they happen to be weak, then they submit out of fear, but when they are strong, then they invade and rebel. It was at times of such strength that they caused grief for Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) at Baideng, and for Emperor Wen of Han's army at Bashang. But when they were weak, Emperors Yuan and Cheng of Han could summon their Chanyus to come to court. Such are the instances of their past behavior. So even if he commands the obedience of the barbarians, a wise ruler will still have defenses prepared against them and be able to resist them as he otherwise would. For although the barbarians might kowtow before him and offer him gifts, if the border cities do not have strong defenses prepared, then strong barbarians might still invade even if we were to launch distant retaliatory campaigns against them. But when the peace and security of the interior is established, then there will be no invasions across the border.

"After the Zhou dynasty lost control of affairs and the feudal lords all took power for themselves, the border fiefs were no longer held in strict defense. Since what helped one lord might hurt another, there was no agreement among them, and the Rong and Di tribes took advantage of that to slip into the Middle Kingdom. Some of the feudal lords went so far as to recruit and draft among the barbarians and appeased them, using them for their own purposes. It was because of such things that the barbarians became scattered about the realm, ending up in unnatural places within the Middle Kingdom. When Qin Shihuang united the realm, thanks to the great strength and power of his soldiers, he expelled the barbarians and drove them all out, and at that time, not a one of them still remained in the Middle Kingdom.

"During the Han dynasty's Jianwu era (25-56 AD), when Ma Yuan was acting as Administrator of Longxi, he campaigned against the rebellious Qiang. He relocated some of their tribes into Guanzhong, where they dwelt in the empty places in Pingyi and Hedong commandaries. Several years afterwards, when their clans had all grown fruitful and multiplied, they became bountiful and strong, and even burdened the native people with their depredations. At the beginning of the Yongchu era (107), these Qiang all rebelled and caused chaos. They overwhelmed the local generals and administrators, and slaughtered and destroyed towns and cities. After defeating the general Deng Zhi in the north, they invaded Henei commandary as well, and for ten years, both the tribesmen and the Xia (ethnic Han) were run ragged, until Ren Shang and Ma Xian were at last able to suppress the rebels. But even after that, the rest of the barbarians were not stamped out, and at the slightest opportunity they all turned to rebellion again. Thus have the invaders of those ages become so large as they are today.

"And during the rise of the Wei dynasty, when the border with Shu was made clear, there were Rong tribes living in that region, some on their side and some on ours. Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) relocated the Di tribes of Wudu to Qinchuan, wishing to thus strengthen his state at the expense of the enemy and gain a defensive advantage over the Shu rebels. But this was merely a plan of momentary expedience, not something of lasting benefit for generations. We who are living today are already suffering from the ill-effects of that decision.

"Now Guanzhong is a rich and fertile region, and it has always been the seat of kings and emperors. No one has ever suggested before that the Rong and Di tribes should dwell in such a place. As it is said, 'if they be not of our kin, they are sure to have a different mind'. Yet recently, because of the setbacks that the tribes have experienced, we have permitted them to move into this 'domain of the capital'. The local gentry and people have become so familiar with the tribes that they take advantage of them and bully them, seeing them as weak and no danger. The poison of anger and resentment has thus seeped into the very bones and marrow of the tribesmen, and this feeling has only grown within their hearts as their numbers grow across the land. When we consider that the barbarians are covetous and bold by nature, and now harbor feelings of resentment and hatred against us, so that they are looking for any division which they can exploit in their favor, even that much is an intolerable situation. But even worse than that, they are already dwelling on our very own fiefs and within our borders. There are no natural borders to obstruct them, no one has prepared any defenses to impede them, and they are free to amass their scattered numbers together. Such is the great and growing danger which they now pose. If they made any sudden actions, the damage would be beyond reckoning. This is an undeniable threat, of the kind which has already taken place before.

"What ought to be done now is to take advantage of the strength and power of our soldiers. Before we dispense with them, we should use our soldiers to force the relocation of the various Qiang tribes living in Pingyi, Beidi, Xinping, and Anding commandaries, and compel them to move to the Xianlian, Hankian, and Xizhi regions. We should likewise force the relocation of the various Di tribes in Fufeng, Shiping, and Jingzhao commandaries and send them back to Longyou, particularly to the territories of Yinping and Wudu. Provide them with enough grain for the journey and then compel them to go back, with each barbarian adhering to his own tribe and returning to his own homeland. Then appoint ministers and generals to administer them as vassal states and to comfort them such that they remain peaceful and gathered together. By doing so, we keep the barbarians separated from the people of Jin, and having done that, they will have no opportunity to cause turmoil among us. The menace of war will thus be cut off and far away from the Middle Kingdom, and kept at bay by mountains and rivers; even if the barbarians were to attempt an invasion, there would be little harm.

"There are those who will object, 'The Di rebels have only recently invaded Xinping, Guanzhong is suffering from hunger and plague, and the common people are already dejected; these things all call for tranquility and rest. Yet you wish to spread exhaustion and unhappiness among the people, and force their relocation merely upon your own suspicions of their being our enemies. We fear that even if we used all the strength we had to compel them, we would not see such a thing brought to conclusion. The harm we have already suffered has not even been healed, and yet you would cause the same thing to happen again.'

"To them I reply that the Di which lately rebelled against us must be considered a mere fraction of their people's potential. If they have repented of their evil and turned back to goodness, is it not because they cherish our virtue and mercy and so submit and adhere to us? Since their strength has been exhausted and their cunning is spent, how could they not fear the punishment of our soldiers?

"To this some will object, 'Their strength has been exhausted because they have no more of it, and thus we can control them: this is what has caused their advance or retreat. But among the barbarians in general, those who are happy with their affairs will not be easily swayed, and those who are secure in their dwelling places have no desire to move. The danger comes from your own fears and suspicions; carried away by terror, you would have us compel the barbarians by force of arms, and oppress even those of them who have done us no wrong.'

"But it is because the barbarians are now broken and routed, scattered to distant places without having had the chance to join together again, and having earned the enmity of the people of Guanzhong, that we now thus have the chance to compel them to move to distant places, so that their hearts will no longer covet our lands. When wise and worthy people make their plans, they account for things that have not yet happened, and they prepare for trouble before it even arrives. Their principles are not apparent, but they are proper; their virtues are not manifest, but they are complete. It is by acting in such a manner that we can turn misfortune into a blessing, make merit out of defeat, endure suffering in order to escape it, and make the impossible become possible. Having just seen the end of this rebellion, how could we not prepare now to deal with the next one? Do we so love following the same wheel tracks that, even when the front cart has toppled, the rear cart would rather follow that same path than find a new one?

"Now Guanzhong has a population of more than a million people. If we reckon their numbers, we find that the Rong and Di are half of that. If we are to move so may people, we shall certainly have to provide for them. If there is anyone impoverished among them who does not have enough rice or grain to sustain themselves, then we must necessarily use the grain of Guanzhong in order to ensure that they remain fed, lest we force them to dire straits and suffer from their raiding and pillaging. And when we move them, they must have enough food to make the trip, so that each of them can go back to their own tribes and clans. To sustain them all, the people of the Qin region shall have to give up half of their grain harvest. This grain will be distributed among the barbarians to ensure that they can complete their journeys successfully. But as those people being compelled to move will be giving up their grain stores, the burden will thus be spread broadly throughout Guanzhong. Besides, we will be sending the bandits back to their places of origin. The expenditure of a single day may thus secure the benefit of an entire year. But if you fear the exertion of a little effort and so ignore policy for the long term, and in failing to trouble yourselves for a handful of days or months you thus leave enemies behind to burden future generations, that cannot be called setting a good foundation to ensure the dynasty or making a good policy to pass down to your descendants.

"As for the barbarians in Bingzhou, their origins lie in the cruel and evil invaders of the Xiongnu. During the Jian'an era (196-220), the court sent the Worthy King of the Right, Qubei, to replace their leader Huchuquan, and Qubei was placed in command of all the tribes scattered among the six commandaries there. At the end of the Xianxi era (264), because the one division had grown too strong, it was split into three, and at the beginning of the Taishi era (265), it was further divided into four. They engaged in Liu Meng's rebellion within and constant contact with foreign enemies without. The latest of these was Hao San's uprising, which came out of Guyuan County. Now the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu have grown to several tens of thousands of households, and their population is even greater than that of the Western Rong. They are naturally brave and valiant people, and they are even more skilled with the horse and bow than the Di and Qiang are. If there is any unexpected hardship among them, then the Bingzhou region will be a source of danger.

"During the Zhengshi era (240-49), Guanqiu Jian campaigned against Goguryeo, and brought some of their tribes back to Xingyang. When they had first been moved there, they numbered merely a hundred-some households. But as their children and grandchildren have grown and multiplied, they are now reckoned in the thousands of households. Within a few generations, this fire will certainly burn all the brighter. The common people are losing their livelihoods, and some have even perished or turned to rebellion. Even among dogs and horses that are well-fed, there are some who bite the hand that feeds them. Can barbarians be expected to do any less? But considering their feebleness, their strength cannot capture anything yet.

"Those who regard the state should not fear poverty, but rather should fear instability. The land between the Four Seas is vast, and its people are wealthy. How could it not be that barbarians living among us would not take all of this for themselves? It is for all of these reasons that I have informed and instructed you on why they must be sent out and away, and returned back to their native territories, where they may be consoled for having lived so long away from home and brought to cherish it again. If we can dispel the slightest anxiety for our Huaxia, then 'let us cherish this Middle Kingdom, to secure the repose of the four quarters of it.' For virtue to endure forever, you must plan for the future!"

But the court could not use his suggestions.

〈《周禮》:九州之外,謂之蕃國,謂東夷、南蠻、西戎、北狄也。《國語》曰:蠻、夷要服,戎、狄荒服。韋昭《註》曰:要者,要結好信而服從之。荒者,言荒忽無常也。〉〈孔安國曰:言荒服之外,流沙之內,皆就次敍。班固曰:卽敍者,言就而敍之。〉〈《周禮》:蕃國世一見,各以其所貴寶爲贄。〉〈漢元帝時,匈奴單于請罷邊塞守備,侯應以爲不可。所謂不弛固守也。〉〈周宣王薄伐獫狁,至于太原,盡境而返,比於蟁蝱,驅之而已,所謂不加遠征也。〉〈如戎伐魯濟西,山戎病燕,狄伐衞、邢,長狄入三國之類。〉〈如申、繒以西戎攻殺周幽王,晉遷陸渾之戎於伊川,與之掎角,以敗秦師于殽,楚以蠻軍與晉戰于鄢陵。〉〈如徐夷在齊、晉、魯、宋之間,鮮虞介燕、晉之境,赤狄居上黨之地,陸渾戎居伊、洛之間,義渠、大荔居秦、晉之域,戎蠻子居梁、霍之地。〉〈事見《秦紀》。〉〈事並見《漢紀》。按漢光武十一年,馬援討羌,降之。安帝永初元年,羌反。自建武十一年至永初元年,凡七十三年。「數歲之後」,當作「數十歲之後」。〉〈事見六十八卷漢獻帝建安廿三年。〉〈周都豐、鎬,秦都咸陽,漢都長安,皆關中之地。〉〈畿服,謂邦畿千里之內。〉〈積,聚也。〉〈先零、罕幵、析支之地,自湟中西至賜支河首。陰平、武都,舊白馬氐地也。零,音憐。幵,苦堅翻。〉〈「廩」當作「稟」,給也。〉〈屬國都尉及撫夷護軍也。〉〈孔安國曰:猾,亂也;夏,華夏也。〉〈卒,終也。〉〈《爾雅》曰:逷,遠也。鳩,集也。〉〈謂氐、羌之反,暴掠平民,關中之人怨毒之,戶皆爲讎敵。〉〈車覆於前,不可遵其轍,當易路而行;若遵覆車之迹,則後車又將覆矣。〉〈率,約數也。〉〈口實,謂糧食也。〉〈糝,以米和羹也。〉〈氐、羌窮乏,勢必聚而侵掠,晉朝欲弭其害,故當傾穀以給之。〉〈謂所過郡縣遞給其食也。〉〈言關中居人,戎、狄居半,今遷使歸其舊地,則秦中百姓將食其所積之穀,以約率之,正得常居之半穀也。〉〈謂幷州所統六郡也。《晉書‧匈奴傳》曰:匈奴與晉人雜居,平陽、西河、太原、新興、上黨、樂平,莫不有焉。質呼廚泉事見六十七卷漢獻帝建安二十一年。質,音致。〉〈事見七十九卷武帝泰始七年、八年。〉〈穀遠縣,漢屬上黨郡,晉省,蓋其地猶存舊縣名也。劉昫曰:穀遠,今沁源縣。宋白曰:漢穀遠故縣,在沁源縣南百五十步,孤遠故城是也。《晉地記》云:穀遠,今名孤遠,後代語訛耳。郝散事見上卷四年。〉〈劉淵之禍,江統固逆知之矣。〉〈事見七十五卷魏邵陵厲公正始七年。〉〈民不得安於耕鑿,是失職也。〉〈顧,內顧也。〉〈《論語》:孔子曰:丘聞有國有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患貧而患不安。〉〈《詩‧大雅‧民勞》之辭。〉

(The Rites of Zhou states, "The places beyond the Nine Provinces are called the vassal states: they are the Eastern Yi, the Southern Man, the Western Rong, and the Northern Di." The Discourses of the States states, "The Man and Yi tribes occupy the Domain of Restraint, and the Rong and Di tribes occupy the Domain of Wilderness." Wei Zhao's Annotations adds, "Those living in the Domain of Restraint could be trusted and arranged with, for they were obedient. But those living in the Domain of Wilderness lived in a land of unusually wild and barren wastes."

Regarding the Western Rong, Kong Anguo remarked, "They came from even beyond the Domain of Wilderness, from out of the shifting sands, and so they were later attested." Ban Gu remarked, "They were 'thus attested' because they were attested later on."

The Rites of Zhou states, "When those from a vassal state made their visit on the occasion of a new generation, they each presented their valuable treasures as gifts."

During the time of Emperor Yuan of Han, the Xiongnu Chanyu asked that the border defenses be relaxed, but the Han nobles all felt that this could not be done. This is why this passage speaks of weakened border defenses.

When King Xuan of Zhou launched a minor campaign against the state of Xianyun in retaliation for Xianyun's invasion, his soldiers marched as far as Taiyuan, and they ravaged all the land before they turned back, like a swarm of insects driving all before them. This is why this passage speaks of "even if we were to launch distant campaigns against them".

Regarding the troubles the tribes caused for the feudal lords of the Spring and Autumn era, the Rong campaigned against Lu and western Qi, the Mountain Rong plagued Yan, the Di campaigned against Wey and Xing, and the Chang Di invaded the three states. And as for employing the tribes for their own purposes, the Marquises of Shen and Zeng used the Western Rong to attack and kill King You of Zhou, Jin moved the Rong tribes of Luhun to Yichuan and coordinated with them to defeat Qin's army at Xiao, and Chu arranged for the Man army to fight Jin at Yanling.

Regarding the tribes ending up in "unnatural places", the Xu Yi tribes wound up in the regions of Qi, Jin, Lu, and Song, the Xianyu were between Yan and Jin, the Red Di dwelt in the region around Shangdang, the Luhun Rong dwelt between the Yi and Luo rivers, the Yiqu and Dali tribes dwelt between Qin and Jin, and the Rong Manzi dwelt between Liang and Huo.

Qin's expulsion of the tribes is mentioned in the Qin section of ZZTJ.

The events regarding the Qiang which Ma Yuan settled in the Middle Kingdom are mentioned in the Han chapters of ZZTJ. The petition states that "several years afterwards", they rebelled. Now it was in Emperor Guangwu's eleventh year of Jianwu (35 AD) that Ma Yuan went on his campaign against the Qiang and accepted their surrender. Their rebellion was in Emperor An's first year of Yongchu (107). From the eleventh year of Jianwu to the first year of Yongchu was a period of seventy-three years. So rather than say "several years afterwards", the passage should really say "several decades afterwards".

Following Cao Cao's loss of the Hanzhong territory to Shu-Han, he relocated the Di living in Wudu to Qinchuan, in his own territory. This is mentioned in Book 68, in Emperor Xian of Han's twenty-third year of Jian'an (actually 219.H in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

The Zhou dynasty had its capitals at Han and Feng; Qin had its capital at Xianyang; Han had its capital at Chang'an. All of these places were in Guanzhong.

The "domain of the capital" means the thousand li of adjacent land surrounding the capital.

To amass means to gather.

The Xianlian, Hankian, and Xizhi regions are from Huangzhong west to the head of the Cizhi River. Yinping and Wudu were the homeland of the White Horse Di tribes. 零 is here pronounced "lian"; 幵 is pronounced "kian (k-ian)".

In the passage about providing the tribesmen with food for their journey, the petition uses the character 廩; it should be 稟, "to grant".

The specific offices which Jiang Tong meant for administering the tribes were the Colonels of Vassal States and the Army-Protectors Who Nurture The Tribes.

Kong Anguo remarked, "To be crafty is to make turmoil." By the term Xia, the passage means Huaxia (China itself).

To be brought to conclusion is to complete.

The Erya dictionary states, "逷 means 'distant'," and also, "鳩 means 'to gather'".

Jiang Tong was saying that the Di and Qiang rebels had earned the ire of the people of Guanzhong by attacking and plundering Xinping, and had thus become their enemies.

When the front cart topples over, one cannot follow behind its tracks, but must change course and only then advance. If one follows behind the toppled front cart, then the rear cart will also soon be toppled.

To reckon means to study numbers.

Jiang Tong mentions the food 糝 geng. This is a mix of rice and thick soup.

The Di and Qiang being impoverished, they might be forced by circumstances to raid and plunder for food. If the Jin court wished to avoid this danger, then they should provide the tribes with food pre-emptively to sustain them.

Jiang Tong was saying that of the people living in Guanzhong, the Rong and Di made up half of them, and in sending them back to their homelands, the common people living in the Qin region would soon have to provide them with their stores of grain, and as the tribesmen were half the population, they would necessarily need to take half the grain.

The "six commandaries" means the six that were administered by Bingzhou. The Account of the Xiongnu in the Book of Jin states, "The Xiongnu lived mixed together with the people of Jin. They dwelt in the commandaries of Pingyang, Xihe, Taiyuan, Xinxing, Shangdang, and Leping; there was no place where they were not present."

Cao Cao's replacement of Huchuquan with Qubei is mentioned in Book 67, in Emperor Xian of Han's twenty-first year of Jian'an (216.I in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Liu Meng's rebellion is mentioned in Book 79, in Sima Yan's seventh and eighth years of Taishi (271.1, 16, and 272.1). Hao San's rebellion is mentioned in Book 82, in the fourth year of Yuankang (294.2).

During Han, Guyuan County was part of Shangdang commandary. Officially, Jin had abolished the county, but the place was still known by its former name. Liu Xu remarked, "Guyuan County is the modern Qinyuan County." Song Bai remarked, "The old Quyuan County of Han times was a hundred and fifty paces south of Qinyuan County, the same place as the city of Guyuan." The Geographical Records of Jin states, "穀遠 Guyuan County is now called 孤遠 Guyuan County, through the corruption of later ages."

Jiang Tong well knew and opposed the danger posed by the Xiongnu leader Liu Yuan.

Guanqiu Jian's campaign against Goguryeo is mentioned in Book 75, in Cao Fang's seventh year of Zhengshi (246.2 in Fang's Chronicles).

When people have no security and thus cannot plow or work the land, then they lose their livelihoods.

顧 here means "to consider".

In the Analects, Confucius states, "I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. (16.1)"

'Let us cherish this Middle Kingdom, to secure the repose of the four quarters of it' is a verse from the Labors of the People poems in the Daya section of the Book of Poetry.)


散騎常侍賈謐侍講東宮,對太子倨傲,成都王穎見而叱之;謐怒,言於賈后,出穎爲平北將軍,鎭鄴。徵梁王肜爲大將軍、錄尚書事;以河間王顒爲鎭西將軍,鎭關中。初,武帝作石函之制,非至親不得鎭關中,顒輕財愛士,朝廷以爲賢,故用之。

3. The Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Jia Mi, was appointed the Resident Instructor of the Eastern Palace, where he often acted haughty and arrogant to Crown Prince Sima Yu. The Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, witnessed this and loudly rebuked Jia Mi. Angered by this, Jia Mi reported what had happened to Empress Jia Nanfeng. Sima Ying was sent away to garrison Ye as General Who Pacifies The North.

The Prince of Lian, Sima Rong, was summoned to the capital and appointed Grand General and chief over the Masters of Writing. The Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, was appointed General Who Guards The West, and sent to garrison Guanzhong in his place. Before, Sima Yan had made an edict written in stone that only members of his immediate family would be allowed to garrison Guanzhong. But Sima Yong was a generous man who had the love of the gentry, and the court believed him to be worthy, so they employed him in that role.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》云:「以穎爲鎭北大將軍。」今從《本傳》。〉〈顒,安平獻王孚之孫,太原烈王瓌之子也,初襲父爵,咸寧三年,改封河間。爲穎、顒各據方鎭以阻兵張本。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Ying was appointed Grand General Who Guards The North.' But I follow the account listed in the Biography of Sima Ying in the Book of Jin."

Sima Yong was the grandson of Prince Xian of Anping, Sima Fu, and the son of Prince Lie of Taiyuan, Sima Gui. He originally held his father's title, but in the third year of Xianning (277.7), his title was changed to Prince of Hejian.

This was why Sima Ying and Sima Yong both later held critical posts and commanded soldiers.)


賈謐嘗與皇太子博,爭道。穎在坐,厲聲呵謐曰:「皇太子國之儲君,賈謐何得無禮!」謐懼,由此出穎為平北將軍,鎮鄴。轉鎮北大將軍。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

At one point, Empress Jia Nanfeng’s brother Jia Mi served as a tutor to Crown Prince Sima Yu. But Jia Mi did not conduct himself with the proper respect towards Sima Yu. Sima Ying blamed him for this, charging him with a fierce voice, “The Crown Prince is the heir to the state! Jia Mi, how dare you not show him proper respect?” Jia Mi was afraid, and because of this incident he arranged for Sima Ying to be sent away from Luoyang, to serve as General Who Pacifies The North and to be stationed at Ye. Sima Ying was later appointed Grand General Who Guards The North.

少有清名,輕財愛士。與諸王俱來朝,武帝歎顒可以為諸國儀錶。元康初,為北中郎將,監鄴城。九年,代梁王肜為平西將軍,鎮關中。石函之制,非親親不得都督關中,顒于諸王為疏,特以賢舉。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Even as a young man, Sima Yong had a pure reputation; he thought little of wealth and esteemed gentlemen. When he came to court along with the other princes, Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) praised him as an example for the others to follow.

At the beginning of the Yuankang reign era (291), Sima Yong was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, and he oversaw affairs in Ye. In the ninth year (299), he replaced the Prince of Lian, Sima Rong, as General Who Guards The West and was stationed in Guanzhong. There was a rule written in stone that only members of the immediate imperial family would be allowed to wield authority in Guanzhong, and Sima Yong was a distant enough relation that he ought to have been excluded from consideration. But he was exempted because of his worthiness.


夏,六月,高密文獻王泰薨。

4. In summer, the sixth month, on the day Wuxu (July 17th), Sima Tai passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Wenxian ("the Cultured and Presented") of Gaomi.

〈【章:甲十一行本「月」下有「戊戌」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》云「隴西王」,《本傳》云:「泰爲尚書令,改封高密。」《紀》誤。〉

(Some versions further specify that this took place on "the day Wuxu (July 17th)".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin lists Sima Tai's title at the time of his death as 'Prince of Longxi'. But the Biography of Sima Tai in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Tai was appointed Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and his fief was changed to Gaomi.' The Annals are thus mistaken.")


賈后淫虐日甚,私於太醫令程據等;又以簏箱載道上年少入宮,復恐其漏泄,往往殺之。賈模恐禍及己,甚憂之。裴頠與模及張華議廢后,更立謝淑妃。模、華皆曰:「主上自無廢黜之意,而吾等專行之,儻上心不以爲然,將若之何!且諸王方強,朋黨各異,恐一旦禍起,身死國危,無益社稷。」頠曰:「誠如公言。然宮中逞其昏虐,亂可立待也。」華曰:「卿二人於中宮皆親戚,言或見信,宜數爲陳禍福之戒,庶無大悖,則天下尚未至於亂,吾曹得以優游卒歲而已。」頠旦夕說其從母廣城君,令戒諭賈后以親厚太子,賈模亦數爲后言禍福;后不能用,反以模爲毀己而疏之;模不得志,憂憤而卒。

5. Jia Nanfeng's wanton and cruel behavior grew worse by the day. She would secretly order the Prefect of the Imperial Physicians, Cheng Ju, and others to kidnap youths from off the road and spirit them into the palace inside of a box, and since she worried that the youths would reveal what had happened to them, she would have them killed off.

Jia Mo feared that disaster would result from this, and he was deeply distressed. So he, Pei Wei, and Zhang Hua discussed the prospect of deposing Jia Nanfeng and replacing her with Consort Xie Jiu.

Jia Mo and Zhang Hua both said, "Since the Emperor has no intention of deposing or demoting Empress Jia, we must take matters into our own hands. Unless there is a change above, will things not continue on like this? Furthermore, the Princes all occupy strong and strategic places, and they each have their own friends and supporters behind them. We fear if disaster should spring up one day, we would all perish and the state be thrust into danger. That would be of no benefit to the dynasty."

Pei Wei replied, "It is indeed as you say. Yet those within the palace are indulgent of Empress Jia's licentiousness. We must await some actual pretext before we can act."

Zhang Hua said, "Both of you are close adherents within the palace, so your words may meet with respect. You ought to admonish these people to guard themselves against disaster. The realm will not fall into chaos so long as there is no great offense committed against the people. If that can be done, then we may enjoy leisure in the years to come."

So Pei Wei spent day and night following after the Lady of Guangcheng, Jia Nanfeng's mother Guo Huai, urging her to instruct Jia Nanfeng to treat Crown Prince Sima Yu with intimacy and respect. And Jia Mo also often warned Jia Nanfeng herself about the potential for disaster. But not only did Jia Nanfeng not take his advice, she felt that Jia Mo was trying to slander her and so distanced herself from him. As Jia Mo was unable to carry out his wishes, his despair worsened, and he passed away.

〈《晉志》:太醫令,屬宗正。〉〈《說文》:竹高篋也。〉〈謝淑妃,太子之母也。《考異》曰:《賈后傳》曰︰「模與裴頠、王衍謀廢之,衍後悔而止。」今從《頠傳》。〉〈張華處昏亂之朝,位冠羣后,而持心如此,天殆假手於趙王倫而誅之也。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Prefect of the Imperial Physicians was subordinate to the Minister of the Imperial Household."

Concerning these sorts of boxes, the Shuowen dictionary states, "They are tall trunks made of bamboo."

Consort Xie Jiu was Crown Prince Sima Yu's mother.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Jia Nanfeng in the Book of Jin states, 'Jia Mo plotted with Pei Wei and Wang Yan to depose Empress Jia. But Wang Yan later regretted his involvement and put a stop to the plot.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Pei Wei in the Book of Jin."

Zhang Hua managed the affairs of a wanton and tempestuous court, and he had been given his position by such empresses, yet he could keep heart in check to such an extent as this. It was for this reason that Heaven borrowed the hand of Sima Lun to punish him.)


秋,八月,以裴頠爲尚書僕射。頠雖賈后親屬,然雅望素隆,四海惟恐其不居權位。尋詔頠專任門下事,頠上表固辭,以「賈模適亡,復以臣代之,崇外戚之望,彰偏私之舉,爲聖朝累。」不聽。或謂頠曰:「君可以言,當盡言於中宮;言而不從,當遠引而去。儻二者不立,雖有十表,難以免矣。」頠慨然久之,竟不能從。

6. In autumn, the eighth month, Pei Wei was appointed as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing.

Even though Pei Wei had already been on intimate terms with Jia Nanfeng, and his friendship and influence with her had grown since then, the one thing he feared was that he would not be able to keep his position. An edict soon went out transferring Pei Wei to managing the affairs below the gates. Pei Wei sent up a petition arguing against the edict, stating, "Jia Mo has only just passed away, and yet you would have me replace him. In so honoring a mere relative by marriage, you are acting by your personal inclinations, and tiring the court." But this petition was ignored.

Someone said to Pei Wei, "Sir, you ought to either speak in full accordance with the Central Palace, or if you will not do that, then you ought to make some reason for leaving and depart far away. Unless you do one or the other of these things, even if you sent up ten such petitions, it would be difficult for you to escape from your situation."

Pei Wei considered this advice for a long time, but in the end, he did not follow it.

〈晉制:侍中與給事黃門侍郎同管門下事。頠爲侍中,專任門下事,賈后之意也。〉〈史言華、頠顧戀祿位以殞首亡家。〉

(Under the Jin system, Palace Attendants, Attendant Officers, and Gentleman Attendants of the Yellow Gate all managed affairs "below the gates". Appointing Pei Wei as a Palace Attendant, and moving his position to one "below the gates", was Jia Nanfeng's intention.

This passage shows that Zhang Hua and Pei Wei were too fond of their salaries and positions, and so brought death upon themselves and ruin upon their families.)


帝爲人戇騃,嘗在華林園聞蝦蟆,謂左右曰:「此鳴者,爲官乎,爲私乎?」時天下荒饉,百姓餓死,帝聞之曰:「何不食肉糜!」由是權在羣下,政出多門,勢位之家,更相薦託,有如互市。賈、郭恣橫,貨賂公行。南陽魯褒作《錢神論》以譏之曰:「錢之爲體,有《乾》、《坤》之象,親之如兄,字曰孔方。無德而尊,無勢而熱,排金門,入紫闥,危可使安,死可使活,貴可使賤,生可使殺。是故忿爭非錢不勝,幽滯非錢不拔,怨讎非錢不解,令聞非錢不發。洛中朱衣、當塗之士,愛我家兄,皆無已已,執我之手,抱我終始。凡今之人,惟錢而已!」

7. Now Emperor Hui was a dull and foolish man. There was an incident where he was in the Hualin Garden and heard the croaking of frogs, and he asked those who were with him, "Do the frogs croak because they are ordered to, or because they want to?" And at this time, the realm was suffering from famine, and the common people were starving to death. When Emperor Hui heard of it, he asked, "Why do they not eat meat and porridge?"

So power was instead spread among those below, and the reins of government were held by many hands. Families gained power and station for themselves, and there was constant back and forth as though the government were some barter office. The Jia and Guo clans did as they pleased, and they took gifts and bribes to advance people in public offices.

Lü Bao of Nanyang composed some verses which he titled "Discussion on the Divinity of Money". This is how it went: "Money is like the rites; it has the images of Gan and Shen (Heaven and Earth). Money is close as an elder brother, and its style name is Kongfang. It has no virtue, yet it is honored; it has no influence, yet it is prized. It keeps close to the Golden Gate and enters into the Purple Door. With money, one can move from danger to peace, and from life to death; the honored can be made lowly, and the living can be made dead. Thus it is that among those who struggle, those without money cannot win. Among those in obscurity, those without money will not be plucked out. Among those who are hated enemies, those without money will not be released. And among those who wish to make themselves heard, those without money make no sound. For crimson clothes within Luoyang, exalted places of honor, and the love of our family, money is never exhausted; so long as you keep it in your hand, it will maintain you forever. So long as you have money, no one else matters!"

〈糜,粥也。〉〈錢圜函方,天圜而地方,故曰有《乾》、《坤》之象。孔方,亦以錢體言。〉〈晉制:諸王朱衣、絳紗襮。當塗之士,謂當路柄用者。〉

(糜 means "porridge".

Money is round while envelopes are square; Heaven is round while the Earth is square. Thus the verse says that money has 'the images of Gan and Shen (Heaven and Earth)'. The word Kongfang also describes money's shape.

The verse mentions "crimson clothes". Under the Jin system, the Princes wore crimson clothing with sheer sleeves of deep crimson. By "exalted places of honor", it means positions of influence.)


又,朝臣務以苛察相高,每有疑議,羣下各立私意,刑法不壹,獄訟繁滋。裴頠上表曰:「先王刑賞相稱,輕重無二,故下聽有常,羣吏安業。去元康四年大風,廟闕屋瓦有數枚傾落,免太常荀㝢;事輕責重,有違常典。五年二月有大風,蘭臺主者懲懼前事,求索阿棟之間,得瓦小邪十五處,遂禁止太常,復興刑獄。今年八月,陵上荊一枝圍七寸二分者被斫;司徒、太常奔走道路,雖知事小,而按劾難測,搔擾驅馳,各競免負,于今太常禁止未解。夫刑書之文有限而舛違之故無方,故有臨時議處之制,誠不能皆得循常也。至於此等,皆爲過當,恐姦吏因緣,得爲淺深也。」旣而曲議猶不止,三公尚書劉頌復上疏曰:「自近世以來,法漸多門,令甚不一,吏不知所守,下不知所避,姦僞者因以售其情,居上者難以檢其下,事同議異,獄犴不平。夫君臣之分,各有所司。法欲必奉,故令主者守文;理有窮塞,故使大臣釋滯;事有時宜,故人主權斷。主者守文,若釋之執犯蹕之平也;大臣釋滯,若公孫弘斷郭解之獄也;人主權斷,若漢祖戮丁公之爲也。天下萬事,自非此類,不得出意妄議,皆以律令從事。然後法信於下,人聽不惑,吏不容姦,可以言政矣。」乃下詔,「郎、令史復出法駁案者,隨事以聞,」然亦不能革也。

8. Furthermore, when attending to their duties, the court ministers were often at each other's throats, for they all had their own suspicions about one another, and their subordinates each had their own private ideas as well. The law was not uniformly applied, and lawsuits and accusations sprang up like a flood.

Pei Wei sent up a petition stating, "When the kings of old enforced punishments or granted rewards, all was done according to its proper measure, and no distinction was made between light and serious matters. This was why those below became accustomed to how they were enforced, and the various officials felt secure in their endeavors by the law.

"Recently, during the fourth year of Yuankang (294), there was that incident when a great wind tore off and smashed several tiles on buildings of the palace and ancestral temple. Just because of that, Minister of Ceremonies Xun Yu was dismissed from office. The incident was a minor thing, and yet the blame for it was severe; this was an offense against the common application of law. In the second month of the fifth year (295), another great wind blew in. The leaders of the Lantai bureau feared that the same thing would happen again and that they might be punished, so they sought out rope to bind up the corners and ridgepoles of the rooms, yet even so the tiles became chipped in fifteen places, so the same case was brought against the Minister of Ceremonies again. And in the eighth month of this year (299), a branch of one of the Jing trees at the tombs, seven 寸 and two 分 around, snapped off. Just because of that, the Minister Over The Masses and the Minister of Ceremonies both ran away and fled down the road, because even though they knew that the snapping of a branch was an insignificant thing, there was no telling how greatly they might be blamed for it having happened. So each of them was disturbed and driven out, so that they could avoid being held responsible, and even now the ban against the Minister of Ceremonies has not yet been lifted.

"Now, it is of course true that though the laws as written have their definite and set limits, the ways in which one may commit errors or offenses takes countless forms, and so at the time that the sentence must be passed, there is discussion as to the best way of handling the application of the laws. Naturally the same offense does not result in the same sentence in every single case. But to go so far as these things which I have just mentioned is itself a transgression against the laws. I fear that perverse officials are the cause of this, and the result has been alienation."

But as the arbitrary discussions still did not stop, the Master of Writing for the Three Excellencies, Liu Song, sent up his own petition stating, "From recent times up until now, the law has gradually spread to many doors, and its enforcement has been not the least bit uniform. Officials do not know how to defend themselves, and those below do not know how to avoid offense. The false and perverse thus work their intrigues, and those who hold higher offices find it difficult even to restrain their subordinates. The same sorts of incidents are resolved differently, and imprisonment is not evenly applied.

"Now when it comes to the law, a lord and his ministers each have their own duties to fulfill. The wishes of the law must be upheld, and so the justice officials protect the law as it is recorded. Where the reason of the law finds itself lacking or obstructed, then the great ministers must resolve the matter. And to ensure that it is resolved in accordance with the times, the sovereign makes his own judgments. When the justice officials protect the letter of the law, then we have such things as Zhang Shizhi's fair ruling on the violation against Emperor Wen's procession on the road. When the great ministers resolve affairs, then we have such things as Gongsun Hong's curtailment of Guo Xie's imprisonment. And when the sovereign makes his own judgements, then we have such things as the Founder of Han's (Liu Bang's) execution of Duke Ding.

"The affairs of the realm must be handled according to these standards, and not become beholden to ridiculous discussions, but rather follow the the proper course of the laws. Then those below will have faith in the law, the people will obey without anxiety, and the officials will not put up with wickedness. Only then can we speak of governance."

Because of these petitions, an edict went out stating, "Those Gentlemen and justice officials who have gone beyond the bounds of the law will heed these things and conduct their affairs accordingly." But even so, they could not change the situation.

〈蘭臺主者,御史臺主者也,卽令史之類。阿,屋之隈曲。棟,屋檼也。〉〈《說文》:荊,楚木也。司徒,漢丞相之職。漢制:丞相與太常掌圍陵。〉〈言法有一定之文,而罪有故、誤,情有輕、重,故制令臨時隨事情議處其罪。〉〈曲議,謂曲法而議,自爲淺深。〉〈《晉志》:漢成帝置三公尚書,主斷獄;光武以三公曹主歲盡考課州郡事。〉〈野獄曰犴。〉〈檢校,檢束也。〉〈事見十四卷漢文帝三年。〉〈事見十八卷漢武帝元朔二年。〉〈事見十一卷漢高祖五年。〉〈《考異》曰:《刑法志》敍頌奏,續頠表之下,而云「侍中太宰汝南王亮」。按頠表引元康八年事,時亮死已久,蓋《志》誤也。〉〈郎、令史,尚書郎及尚書、蘭臺令史也。出法駁案者,謂出於法之外而爲駁議也。〉

(The leaders of the Lantai bureau were the leaders of the Imperial Secretary bureau, of the kind that enforced orders. An 阿 is the corner of a room, and a 棟 is its ridgepole.

The Shuowen dictionary states, "[In such an instance as this] Jing trees means those trees of Chu wood (from Jingzhou)."

The office of Minister Over The Masses was the prime ministerial office during Han. Under the Han system, the Minister Over The Masses and the Minister of Ceremonies were both responsible for maintaining the gardens and tombs.

Pei Wei's last paragraph is saying that although the letter of the law is set, there are differences when it comes to crimes: some are intentional and some are accidental, some are of slight consequence and some are serious. This was why it was necessary to judge the cases in order to find the proper measure of sentence for the crime.

Arbitrary discussion means those discussions which went against the laws; the alienation came from these things.

The Records of Jin states, "Emperor Cheng of Han created the Masters of Writing to the Three Excellencies, and their duty was the examination of cases. Emperor Guangwu created the Chief Manager to the Three Excellencies, who examined and inspected the affairs of the provinces and commandaries each year."

To restrain is to restrict. A prison in the field is called a 犴.

When Emperor Wen of Han's procession was crossing a bridge, a man suddenly appeared, upsetting Emperor Wen's horse and almost causing him to fall. When the man was handed over to the Ministry of Justice, Emperor Wen expected a heavy punishment. But after examining the case, Zhang Shizhi merely charged the man a fine as he would have in any such case, citing the uniform enforcement of the laws. This incident is mentioned in Book 14, in Emperor Wen's third year of rule (177 BC).

Gongsun Hong's curtailment of Guo Xie's imprisonment is mentioned in Book 18, in Emperor Wu of Han's second year of Yuanshuo (127 BC).

During Liu Bang's war against Xiang Yu, Duke Ding defected from Xiang Yu's side to support Liu Bang. But after Liu Bang's victory, he executed Duke Ding because of his treason, even though it had been to his own benefit. This incident is mentioned in Book 11, in Liu Bang's fifth year of rule (202 BC).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Punishment and Law chapter of the Book of Jin places this petition from Liu Song immediately after the above petition from Pei Wei. It then lists another petition, supposedly from 'the Palace Attendant, Grand Governor, and Prince of Runan, Sima Liang'. But Pei Wei's petition lists events that took place in the eighth year of Yuankang (298), and Sima Liang had been long dead by then. So the Punishment and Law chapter is mistaken."

The "Gentlemen and justice ministers" mentioned in the edict were the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing and the justice officials of the Masters of Writing and of the Lantai bureau. They had "gone beyond the bounds of law" in that they were holding spurious discussions beyond what the law laid out.)


頌遷吏部尚書,建九班之制,欲令百官居職希遷,考課能否,明其賞罰。賈、郭用權,仕者欲速,事竟不行。

9. Liu Song was transferred to be Master of Writing to the Ministry of Personnel. He established a system of nine classes, wishing thereby to examine all of the ministers and others who held offices, to test whether they were able or not and how they should be rewarded or punished. Jia Mi and Guo Zhang exerted their influence, and those who held office wished to move quickly, but in the end the system could not be enforced.

裴頠薦平陽韋忠於張華,華辟之,忠辭疾不起。人問其故,忠曰:「張茂先華而不實,裴逸民慾而無厭,棄典禮而附賊后,此豈大丈夫之所爲哉!逸民每有心託我,我常恐其溺於深淵而餘波及我,況可褰裳而就之哉!」

10. Pei Wei recommended Wei Zhong of Pingyang to Zhang Hua. So Zhang Hua summoned him, but Wei Zhong pleaded illness and would not get up. People asked him why he had done so, and Wei Zhong told them, "Zhang Maoxian is flashy but without substance, and Pei Yimin is greedy without shame. They have cast aside the canons and ceremonies and aligned themselves with that bandit Empress. How could great ministers act in such ways? Whenever Yimin has a mind to strongarm me, I am often afraid that the waves of his deep abyss will lap up and catch me as well. How then could I lift up my skirt and go over to him?"

〈魏邵陵厲公正始八年,分河東郡之汾北爲平陽郡。〉〈張華,字茂先;裴頠,字逸民。〉

(In Cao Fang's eighth year of Zhengshi (247), the portion of Hedong commandary north of the Fen River was split off to form Pingyang commandary.

Zhang Hua's style name was Maoxian; Pei Wei's was Yimin.)


關內侯敦煌索靖,知天下將亂,指洛陽宮門銅駝歎曰:「會見汝在荊棘中耳!」

11. The Marquis of the Passes, Suo Jing of Dunhuang, knew that the realm would soon fall into chaos. He pointed at the Copper Camels at the palace gates of Luoyang and lamented, "We shall soon see you among the brambles and thickets!"

〈銅駝,魏明帝景初元年自長安徙之洛陽。〉

(The Copper Camels had originally been at Chang'an. In Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei's (Cao Rui's) first year of Jingchu (237), he had had them moved from Chang'an to Luoyang.)


冬,十一月,甲子朔,日有食之。

12. In winter, the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Jiazi (December 10th), there was an eclipse.

初,廣城君郭槐,以賈后無子,常勸后使慈愛太子。賈謐驕縱,數無禮於太子,廣城君恆切責之。廣城君欲以韓壽女爲太子妃,太子亦欲婚韓氏以自固;壽妻賈午及后皆不聽,而爲太子聘王衍少女。太子聞衍長女美,而后爲賈謐聘之,心不能平,頗以爲言。及廣城君病,臨終,執后手,令盡心於太子,言甚切至。又曰:「趙粲、賈午,必亂汝家事;我死後,勿復聽入。深記吾言!」后不從,更與粲、午謀害太子。

13. Now Jia Nanfeng had no sons of her own, and so her mother Guo Huai often urged her to treat Crown Prince Sima Yu with love and respect. Jia Mi was conceited and arrogant, and often treated Sima Yu without proper ceremony. Guo Huai rebuked him severely for this.

Guo Huai wished to arrange for Han Shou's daughter to become Sima Yu's concubine, and Sima Yu also wanted to marry Lady Han in order to safeguard himself. But neither Han Shou's wife Jia Wu nor Jia Nanfeng would listen to them, and instead they made an engagement between Sima Yu and Wang Yan's younger daughter. Sima Yu had heard that Wang Yan's older daughter was a beauty, and yet Jia Nanfeng had given her hand to Jia Mi instead of him, so Sima Yu was troubled in his heart and inclined to give word to his thoughts.

When Guo Huai became deathly ill, she grasped Jia Nanfeng's hand and ordered her to show the full measure of her devotion to Sima Yu, using very harsh language to express her point. She also told her, "Zhao Can and Jia Wu are certain to stir up trouble for your family's affairs. After I die, you must not listen to them any longer. Remember my words well!"

But Jia Nanfeng would not heed her warnings, and she only plotted all the more with Zhao Can and Jia Wu, planning to harm Sima Yu.

〈郭槐妬狠,而垂沒之時,所以告戒其女者如此,蓋多權數,故其智慮能及此耳。〉

(Guo Huai herself had been a very jealous and suspicious woman during her lifetime. Yet when her end approached, she could still give such warnings and admonishments to her daughter, because she had great authority, and this was why she was so concerned.)


太子幼有令名,及長,不好學,惟與左右嬉戲,賈后復使黃門輩誘之爲奢靡威虐。由是名譽浸減,驕慢益彰,或廢朝侍而縱遊逸,於宮中爲市,使人屠酤,手揣斤兩,輕重不差。其母,本屠家女也,故太子好之。東宮月俸錢五十萬,太子常探取二月,用之猶不足。又令西園賣葵菜、藍子、雞、麪等物而收其利。又好陰陽小數,多所拘忌。洗馬江統上書陳五事:「一曰雖有微苦,宜力疾朝侍。二曰宜勤見保傅,咨詢善道。三曰畫室之功,可宜減省,後園刻鏤雜作,一皆罷遣。四曰西園賣葵、藍之屬,虧敗國體,貶損令聞。五曰繕牆正瓦,不必拘攣小忌。」太子皆不從。中舍人杜錫,恐太子不得安其位,每盡忠諫,勸太子修德業,保令名,言辭懇切。太子患之,置針著錫常所坐氈中,刺之流血。錫,預之子也。

14. As a child, Sima Yu had made a name for himself for being precocious. But when he grew older, he did not care for studying, and merely spent his time playing with his attendants. Jia Nanfeng encouraged this by sending the Yellow Gate official Bei You to indulge him in his wantonness. Thus did Sima Yu's reputation slowly diminish as his arrogance grew clearer and clearer.

Sometimes Sima Yu would rid himself of his court attendants and go wandering around, turning the palace grounds into a marketplace, where he would have people act as butchers and winesellers. He would hold two catties in his own hands, making no distinction of their weight. Since his mother had come from a family of butchers, he enjoyed such displays. The Eastern Palace was given an allowance of five hundred thousand catties every month, but Sima Yu would often take an advance allowance of two months' worth and still not find it to be sufficient for his purposes. He often sold off all the various grasses and herbs, chickens, scraps of grain, and other things from the Western Garden and kept the profits. He also found interest in the minor numbers of the Yin and Yang (Naturalist) philosophy, for he had many misgivings.

Sima Yu's Horse-Washer, Jiang Tong, submitted a petition to him outlining the five harms he was doing through this behavior: "The first is that when you have the slightest discomfort, you exert yourself to harry the court attendants. The second is that you ought to be diligent in what you see and guard what you are taught, and take your advice from proper counsel and wise principles. The third is that the achievements of the room paintings are being worn away, and furthermore that the various engravings in the rear courtyard are all ended. The fourth is that in your selling of the plants and herbs of the Western Garden, you are bringing losses and harm to the state and to ceremony, and belittling your own good reputation. The fifth is that you should be repairing the walls and mending the tiles, and not rigidly adhering to such slight suspicions."

But Sima Yu did not listen to any of these warnings.

The Palace Retainer Du Xi, fearing that Sima Yu would not be able to keep his position as Crown Prince secure, was always admonishing him with loyal rebukes, and urging him to change his ways and practice virtue and enterprise, in order to safeguard his good name, and in his words and phrases he was very earnest and blunt. Sima Yu did not like Du Xi, and he placed a needle in the middle of the felt seat where Du Xi often sat, which pricked him and caused him to bleed. This Du Xi was the son of Du Yu.

〈事見上卷武帝太康十年。〉〈古者擇女必求之名門,取其幽閒令淑者,良有以也。〉〈探取,預取也。〉〈葵,亦菜也。魯相公儀休拔園葵,漆室氏女曰「晉客馬踐吾葵,使吾終歲不食葵」是也。藍,草可以染青者也。《本草圖經》曰:藍實,人家蔬圃中作畦種蒔,三月、四月生,苗高三四尺許,葉似水蓼,花紅白色,實亦若蓼子而大,黑色。五月、六月採實。麪,屑麥爲之。〉〈班固曰:陰陽家蓋出於羲和之官,敬順昊天曆象日月星辰,敬授人時,此其所長也。及拘者爲之,則牽於禁忌,泥於小數,捨人事而任鬼神。〉〈苦,亦疾也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「宜」作「且」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈畫室,以五采繪畫。室,屋也。〉〈《晉志》:太子中舍人四人,咸寧四年置,以舍人才學美者爲之,與中庶子共掌文翰,職如黃門侍郎,在中庶子下,洗馬上。〉〈杜預,武帝時建平吳之功。〉

(Sima Yu had demonstrated his early perceptiveness during Sima Yan's reign, as seen in the previous book, in the tenth year of Taikang (289.6).

When the ancients selected a woman, they always asked after her family background, in order to obtain a woman who was graceful, serene, subservient, and refined; such was a woman's excellence.

To take an advance is to request funds ahead of time.

Of the grasses and herbs that Sima Yu sold, one was 葵, or herbs. When Duke Xiang of Lu spent his time of repose plucking herbs from the garden, a daughter of the house of Qishi said, "The guest horses of Jin trample our herbs, and cause us to have no herbs to eat all the year," this was the same term. As for 藍, this is grass that is dyed a green/blue color. Regarding it, the Classic of Roots and Grasses states, "Lanshi is grown in distinct plots in the family's garden plot. It grows out of the ground in the third or fourth month, and sprouts to a height of about three or four 尺, with leaves like water knotweeds. It is red and white in color, or it can be like when a knotweed seed has grown out, and so appear black. By the fifth or sixth month, it is ready to be plucked." And 麪 refers to scraps of grain.

Regarding the Naturalist School, Ban Gu remarked, "The School of Yin and Yang came from Xihe's management, in order to respect and submit to the heavens and the celestial movements across the days and months of the calendar, rather than to respect and follow the affairs of men of one's time; such is their advantage. When one adheres to them, one restrains oneself and becomes mired in the minor numbers, putting aside the affairs of men in favor of the gods and spirits."

Discomfort means illness or pain.

Some versions add in the phrase "and furthermore" in the third sentence of Jiang Tong's petition.

The room paintings were the paintings of the five palettes painting on the rooms. Courts also means rooms.

The Records of Jin states, "The Crown Prince had four men serve as his Palace Retainers. This office was created in the fourth year of Xianning (278). They were selected from the most talented, learned, and beautiful of the Servants. They handled correspondence duties along with the 中庶子, and they held responsibilities similar to the Gentlemen Attendants of the Yellow Gate. They were inferior to the 中庶子, superior to the Horse-Washer."

Du Yu had achieved merit in the conquest of Eastern Wu during Sima Yan's era.)


太子性剛,知賈謐恃中宮驕貴,不能假借之。謐時爲侍中,至東宮,或捨之,於後庭遊戲。詹事裴權諫曰:「謐,后所親昵,一旦交構,則事危矣。」不從。謐譖太子於后曰:「太子多畜私財以結小人者,爲賈氏故也。若宮車晏駕,彼居大位,依楊氏故事,誅臣等,廢后於金墉,如反手耳。不如早圖之,更立慈順者,可以自安。」后納其言,乃宣揚太子之短,布於遠近。又詐爲有娠,內藁物、產具,取妹夫韓壽子慰祖養之,欲以代太子。

15. Sima Yu had a willful nature. He knew that Jia Mi was arrogant because of his ties to the Central Palace (Empress Jia), and he was unwilling to submit to him. At that time, Jia Mi was a Palace Attendant, and when he came to the Eastern Palace, sometimes Sima Yu would avoid him in order to go enjoy himself in the Rear Court. His Attendant Pei Kai admonished him, "Jia Mi is close to the Empress, and they speak every day. You are putting yourself in danger." But Sima Yu would not listen.

Jia Mi slandered Sima Yu to Jia Nanfeng, telling her, "It is only because our Jia family tolerates him that the Crown Prince is able to amass these personal funds and gather miscreants about him. If His Majesty should happen to pass away, and the Crown Prince thus became supreme, then he would follow the same example as what was done to the Yang clan, killing the ministers and exiling you to the Jinyong fortress as easily as one turns over a hand. It would be better to do away with him before then, and set up someone more pliant and obedient in his place, in order to protect ourselves."

Jia Nanfeng approved of this thinking, so she had word of the Crown Prince’s shortcomings spread near and far. She also pretended that she was with child, filling herself with hay and other things as a disguise, and she took the son of her sister's husband Han Shou, the boy Han Weizu, to adopt as her own, hoping to use him to replace Sima Yu as Crown Prince.

〈詹事,秦官,掌太子家。晉初未置詹事,宮事無大小皆由二傅。咸寧元年,置詹事,掌宮事,二傅不復領官屬。〉〈賈后殺楊駿,廢太后,天地之所不容也。觀其姑姪之間所言若此,則其心固不能一息安也。〉〈娠,孕也。〉

(The Crown Prince's Attendant was a Qin office; he handled the household duties of the Crown Prince. At the beginning of Jin, the office had not yet been re-created, and the palace affairs were all handled by the Crown Prince's two Tutors, regardless of their significance. But in the first year of Xianning (275), the office was created and placed in charge of palace affairs, and the two Tutors no longer dealt with such subordinate offices.

Jia Nanfeng had killed Yang Jun and deposed Yang Zhi, and so Heaven and Earth could not put up with her. When Jia Mi gave his aunt a warning like this, then her heart could no longer find peace.

To be "with child" is to be pregnant.)


于時朝野咸知賈后有害太子之意,中護軍趙俊請太子廢后,太子不聽。左衞率東平劉卞,以賈后之謀問張華,華曰:「不聞。」卞曰:「卞自須昌小吏,受公成拔以至今日。士感知己,是以盡言;而公更有疑於卞邪!」華曰:「假令有此,君欲如何?」卞曰:「東宮俊乂如林,四率精兵萬人;公居阿衡之任,若得公命,皇太子因朝入錄尚書事,廢賈后於金墉城,兩黃門力耳。」華曰:「今天子當陽,太子,人子也,吾又不受阿衡之命,〈華自言事任不可以伊尹自居。〉忽相與行此,是無君父而以不孝示天下也。況權戚滿朝,威柄不一,成可必乎!」賈后常使親黨微服聽察於外,頗聞卞言,乃遷卞爲雍州刺史。卞知言泄,飲藥而死。

16. So up until this time, everyone inside the court and out knew that Jia Nanfeng planned to do harm to Sima Yu. The Army-Protector of the Palace, Zhao Jun, spoke with Sima Yu about deposing Jia Nanfeng, but Sima Yu would not listen to him.

The Guard Commander of the Left, Liu Bian of Dongping, asked Zhang Hua about Jia Nanfeng's plotting.

Zhang Hua told him, "I have heard nothing of the sort."

Liu Bian said, "From the time when I was just a minor official in Xuchang County until now, it was thanks to you that I became what I am. You have always been a close friend to me, and this was why I could talk freely with you. Yet now you doubt what I have to say!"

Zhang Hua replied, "Well, suppose things are as you say. Sir, what do you intend to do?"

Liu Bian said, "The Eastern Palace has a full forest of talented men, and the four guard companies have ten thousand elite soldiers. You yourself occupy the same position as A-heng (Yi Yin). If you would only give us your blessing, the Crown Prince could take control of the secretariat's affairs on behalf of the court, and Empress Jia could be banished to the Jinyong fortress. It would take no more strength than one uses to push open the two Yellow Gates."

Zhang Hua replied, "The Son of Heaven already occupies the throne, and the Crown Prince is just his son. Besides, I cannot give the same mandate as A-heng. If I were to suddenly do as you suggest, that would mean going against a sovereign and a father, and it would announce my lack of filial duty to all the realm. Even if the thing were successful, I still would not escape the crime, much less when their power and influence fills the court. When power is divided, how can there be success?"

Now Jia Nanfeng often had her close partisans snooping around and looking into whatever they could, so she found out what Liu Bian had said. She had him reassigned as Inspector of Yongzhou. Liu Bian knew that his words had gotten out, so he took poison and died.

〈帝在東宮置衞率,初曰中衞率,泰始五年,分爲左右,各領一軍,愍懷在東宮,又加前後二率,謂之四率。〉〈須昌縣,屬東平國。卞自縣小吏從令入洛,歷官至左衞率。〉〈時江統、潘滔、王敦等皆爲東宮官屬。馬融曰:才過千人曰俊,百人曰乂。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「也」下有「雖能有成猶不免罪」八字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈賈后剛悍,使聞卞言而張華不以告,則華必死於賈后之手,意卞言實華泄之也。〉

(Sima Yan had created the office of Guard Commander for the Eastern Palace. It was originally just called Guard Commander of the Palace, but in the fifth year of Taishi (269), it was divided into the two offices of Guard Commanders of the Left and Right, with each commanding their own army. During the time that Sima Yu was in the Eastern Palace, the offices of Guard Commanders of the Front and Rear were also added, so there were four such Commanders.

Xuchang County was part of the Dongping princely fief. Liu Bian had gone from being a minor official there to following a command to come to Luoyang, and had risen in office as far as Guard Commander of the Left.

Liu Bian describes the talented men of the Eastern Palace as 俊乂. Ma Rong remarked, "One who is a thousand times as talented as ordinary people is called 俊, and one a hundred times as much is called 乂." Such men included Jiang Tong, Pan Tao, Wang Dun, and others who were then serving as subordinate officials in the Eastern Palace.

Zhang Hua was saying that he did not consider himself to hold the same position and influence as Yi Yin had possessed.

Some versions have Zhang Hua saying of this proposed plot, "Even if the thing were successful, I still would not escape the crime".

Jia Nanfeng was a severe and ferocious woman. If she had found out what Liu Bian had said and Zhang Hua had not reported it to her, he certainly would have died at her hands. It must be that Zhang Hua himself was the one who leaked the conversation.)


十二月,太子長子虨病,太子爲虨求王爵,不許。虨疾篤,太子爲之禱祀求福。賈后聞之,乃詐稱帝不豫,召太子入朝。旣至,后不見,置于別室,遣婢陳舞以帝命賜太子酒三升,使盡飲之。太子辭以不能飲三升,舞逼之曰:「不孝邪!天賜汝酒而不飲,酒中有惡物邪!」太子不得已,強飲至盡,遂大醉。后使黃門侍郎潘岳作書草,令小婢承福,以紙筆及草,因太子醉,稱詔使書之,文曰:「陛下宜自了,不自了,吾當入了之。中宮又宜速自了,不自了,吾當手了之。幷與謝妃共要,刻期兩發,勿疑猶豫,以致後患。茹毛飲血於三辰之下,皇天許當掃除患害,立道文爲王,蔣氏爲內主。願成,當以三牲祠北君。」太子醉迷不覺,遂依而寫之。其字半不成,后補成之,以呈帝。

17. In the twelfth month, Sima Yu's eldest son Sima Bin became ill. Sima Yu asked that Sima Bin be granted a princely title, but this was refused. Sima Bin's illness then became critical, and Sima Yu prayed for him and offered sacrifices on his behalf, hoping to save him. When Jia Nanfeng heard of this, she falsely sent out word that Emperor Hui was indisposed, and summoned Sima Yu to come to court.

When Sima Yu arrived, Jia Nanfeng would not see him, and she sent him to stay in a separate residence. Then she sent her servant girl Chen Wu to present Sima Yu with three liters of wine that Emperor Hui had supposedly bestowed him, and indicated that he should drink all of the wine. Sima Yu started to say that he could not drink the full three liters, but Chen Wu compelled him, saying, "How unfilial! (The Son of) Heaven bestows you this wine and you will not drink it, as though there was something evil in the wine!" So faced with no other option, Sima Yu forced himself to drink all of the wine, and therefore became very drunk.

Next, Jia Nanfeng had the Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Pan Yue, compose a letter in his own handwriting. She gave this letter to her servant girl Cheng Fu, along with a writing brush and paper, and made her bring it to Sima Yu. Since Sima Yu was so drunk, he believed that there was an edict ordering him to write the letter.

This was what the letter said: "Your Majesty should make up your mind; if you do not, then I will. And the Central Palace (Empress Jia) should also make up her mind; if she does not, then I shall. Consort Xie and I are in agreement on this matter, and we express our joint opinion. Have no further doubts or hesitations, or you will leave a threat for the future. As I eat hair and drink blood beneath the Three Celestials (Sun, Moon, and Stars), may the Yellow Heaven approve and grant that I should sweep away and remove all dangers and threats, and establish Daowen (Sima Bin) as Prince and Lady Jiang (Sima Bin's mother) as Princess-in-Waiting. So that this may come to fruition, I make the Three Sacrifices and offer prayers to the Northern Sovereign."

Because Sima Yu was drunk, he was confused and did not realize what the letter said, so he went along with the request and wrote it down himself. But because of his drunkenness, half of the characters that he wrote were incomplete. Jia Nanfeng had to fill in the missing places herself. Then she showed the copied letter to Emperor Hui.

〈虨,甫斤翻,又方閑翻。〉〈臣子以君父爲天,故以君父之賜爲天賜。〉〈潘岳此事自當赤族,其後天假手於孫秀耳。〉〈謝妃,太子母也。要,約也,言幷以書與謝妃約,刻期內外俱發也。茹毛飲血,謂盟誓也。虨字道文。蔣氏,虨母蔣保林也。內主,言將立爲后也。三牲,牛、羊、豕也。北君,北帝也。按此書不惟無徵左,使常人觀之,亦知其僞爲而不可信。晉朝王、公、卿、尚書、黃、散視而不敢言。張華之諫,實亦不敢發賈氏之姦,姑引古義,依違而言之耳。裴頠請檢校傳書者,賈氏之姦無所逃矣,而亦不敢竟其說。上下相蒙,宜其大亂也。〉

(Sima Bin's given name 虨 is pronounced "fin (f-in)" or "fian (f-ian)".

A son who is also a minister considers his lord father as Heaven. This is why something bestowed by his lord father is considered "bestowed by Heaven".

For his involvement in this plot, Heaven allowed Pan Yue to later fall into the hands of Sun Xiu.

Consort Xie was Sima Yu's mother Xiu Jiu. Agreement means accord; it was saying that what he expressed in the letter had the agreement of Xie Jiu, and both of them shared the same feelings. To "eat hair and drink blood" means a sign of pledge. Sima Bin's style name was Daowen. Lady Jiang was Sima Bin's mother Jiang Jun. Princess-in-Waiting meant that she would soon become Empress. The Three Sacrifices were offerings of an ox, a sheep, and a pig. The Northern Sovereign was the Northern Emperor (Xuanwu).

Now this letter did not have the slightest hint of authenticity. Anyone could look at it and know that it was a fake, and not to be trusted. But even so, the Princes, Dukes, chief ministers, Masters of Writing, Yellow Gate Attendants, and Cavalier Attendants of the Jin court all saw it without daring to express any doubts. It is true that Zhang Hua offered a rebuke, but he did not dare to expose Jia Nanfeng's wickedness; he set aside his former virtues just to go along with her violations and said nothing. And though Pei Wei did ask that the letter be analyzed for evidence, and did not actively go along with Jia Nanfeng's wickedness, he also did not dare to express his true thoughts. Everyone withheld their thoughts. Thus did the great chaos come about.)


壬戌,帝幸式乾殿,召公卿入,使黃門令董猛以太子書及青紙詔示之曰:「遹書如此,今賜死。」徧示諸公王,莫有言者。張華曰:「此國之大禍,自古以來,常因廢黜正嫡以致喪亂。且國家有天下日淺,願陛下詳之!」裴頠以爲宜先檢校傳書者;又請比校太子手書,不然,恐有詐妄。賈后乃出太子啓事十餘紙,衆人比視,亦無敢言非者。賈后使董猛矯以長廣公主辭白帝曰:「事宜速決,而羣臣各不同,其不從詔者,宜以軍法從事。」議至日西,不決。后見華等意堅,懼事變,乃表免太子爲庶人,詔許之。於是使尚書和郁等持節詣東宮,廢太子爲庶人。太子改服出,拜受詔,步出承華門,乘粗犢車,東武公澹以兵仗送太子及妃王氏、三子虨、臧、尚同幽于金墉城。王衍自表離婚,許之,妃慟哭而歸。殺太子母謝淑媛及虨母保林蔣俊。

18. On the day Renxu (February 6th of 300), Emperor Hui was in the Shiqian Hall, where he summoned the nobles and court ministers. He had the Prefect of the Yellow Gates, Dong Meng, present Sima Yu's letter along with an edict written on green paper, stating, "Since Sima Yu has written a letter like this, he should be bestowed death." The letter and edict were passed around for the Princes and Dukes to look at it, and no one dared to utter a word.

Then Zhang Hua said, "This is a great misfortune for the state. Ever since ancient times, it has often been a source of mourning and turmoil whenever the eldest son is deposed or demoted. Furthermore, the dynasty has only possessed the realm for a short time. Your Majesty, please reconsider this!"

Pei Wei believed that the letter should first receive further inspection. He also asked that it be compared against a letter in Sima Yu's handwriting; otherwise, he feared, it could be a forgery. So Jia Nanfeng brought in letters which Sima Yu had written on about a dozen other matters, and everyone compared them with the main one. But still, no one dared to say that the handwriting was not the same.

Jia Nanfeng had Dong Meng pretend to bring a message from Princess Changguang to Emperor Hui, saying, "This is a matter that should be decided quickly, yet the ministers are not in agreement. This goes against the wishes expressed in the edict. The matter should be dealt with through military law."

But the discussion continued on until sunset, and still no decision was reached. Jia Nanfeng could see that Zhang Hua and the others were remaining firm in their intentions, and she feared that the situation might get out of control. So she submitted a petition that Sima Yu should merely be demoted to a commoner, and Emperor Hui agreed to it.

They sent the Master of Writing, He Yu, and others bearing the Staff of Authority to the Eastern Palace, where they deposed Sima Yu to be a commoner. Sima Yu changed his attire and went out to accept the edict, then walked out on foot through the Chenghua Gate. He climbed into a rough calf-drawn carriage, and was led away under escort by the Duke of Dongwu, Sima Dan, and his guards. Sima Yu, his concubine Lady Wang, and his three sons Sima Bin, Sima Zang, and Sima Shang were all sent to the Jinyong fortress.

On his own initiative, Lady Wang's father Wang Yan submitted a petition divorcing his daughter from Sima Yu, and the request was granted. Forced to return to the palace, Lady Wang left Sima Yu with tears and sorrow.

Jia Nanfeng also killed Sima Mu's mother Xie Jiu and Sima Bin's mother Jiang Jun.

〈諸公王,宗室諸王之爲公者。〉〈長廣公主,武帝女,下嫁甄德。〉〈欲以此言脅羣臣也。〉〈承華門,東宮門也。陸機詩所謂「振纓承華」是也。〉〈清談之禍,起於何晏。何晏猶與曹爽同禍福,若王衍者,又不逮何晏矣。〉〈保林、良娣,漢六宮十四等之數,魏、晉以下爲東宮女官品秩。師古曰:保林,言其可安衆如林也。〉

(The term 諸公王 here means the various princes of the royal family acting as court ministers.

Princess Changguang was Sima Yan's daughter, who was married to Zhen De. Her supposed letter was meant to coerce the debating court ministers.

The Chenghua Gate was the gate of the Eastern Palace. One of Lu Ji's poem has the verse "the shaking tassels of Chenghua"; it is the same place.

The disaster of the Pure Conversation philosophy first arose with He Yan. Now He Yan had shared Cao Shuang's fate through good fortune and ill. At this time, Wang Yan wished to avoid suffering the same fate He Yan had, so he made this request to divorce his daughter from Sima Yu.

Jiang Jun had the title Baolin, "guards the forest". Along with the title Refined Sister, it was one of the forty ranks of the six palaces during Han times. From the time of Cao-Wei and Jin onwards, it was a rank in the Eastern Palace. Yan Shigu remarked, "By Baolin, it means that she had as many ways to put one as ease as trees in a forest.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat May 05, 2018 11:49 am, edited 7 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

BOOK 83

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Nov 05, 2017 4:14 pm

永康元年(庚申、三○○)

The First Year of Yongkang (The Gengshen Year, 300 AD)


春,正月,癸亥朔,赦天下,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Guihai (February 7th), an amnesty was declared throughout the realm, and the reign era title was changed.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《天文志》皆有「己卯日食」,《宋志》無之。按《長曆》,己卯,十七日,安得日食。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui and the Astrological Records in the Book of Jin both state that 'on the day Jimao (February 23rd), there was an eclipse'. But the Records of Liu-Song does not list it. Now according to the Calendar Records, the day Jimao was the seventeenth day of this month. How could there have been an eclipse then?")


西戎校尉司馬閻纘輿棺詣闕上書,以爲:「漢戾太子稱兵拒命,言者猶曰罪當笞耳。今遹受罪之日,不敢失道,猶爲輕於戾太子。宜重選師傅,先加嚴誨,若不悛改,棄之未晚也。」書奏,不省。纘,圃之孫也。

2. The Marshal to the Colonel of Western Rong Tribes, Yan Zuan, bound himself to a coffin and visited the palace to present a petition stating, "Crown Prince Li ('the Unrepentant') of Han went so far as to take command of soldiers to oppose the imperial mandate by force, and yet it was only suggested that his punishment should be flogging. Now I would not dare to suggest that Sima Yu has not committed a crime this day, but surely it is not so serious as what Crown Prince Li did. You ought to select new Tutors and Instructors for him, and see whether or not they cannot discipline and instruct him. If he still does not repent or change his ways, it will not be too late to cast him out."

His petition was accepted, but no action was taken. This Yan Zuan was the grandson of Yan Pu.

〈武帝置南蠻校尉於襄陽,西戎校尉於長安,南夷校尉於寧州,各有長史、司馬。〉〈事見二十二卷漢武帝征和二年、三年。〉〈閻圃見六十七卷漢獻帝建安二十年。〉

(Sima Yan had placed the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes at Xiangyang, the Colonel of Western Rong Tribes at Chang'an, and the Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes at Ningzhou. Each of them had their own Chief Clerks and Marshals.

Crown Prince Li of Han was the son of Emperor Wu. He was forced into rebellion against his father. This is mentioned in Book 22, in Emperor Wu's second and third years of Zhenghe (91-90 BC).

Yan Pu was Zhang Lu's minister who surrendered to Cao Cao with him after Cao Cao captured Hanzhong. This is mentioned in Book 67, in Emperor Xian of Han's twentieth year of Jian'an (215.H, O-P in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).)


賈后使黃門自首欲與太子爲逆。詔以黃門首辭班示公卿,遣東武公澹以千兵防衞太子,幽于許昌宮,令持書御史劉振持節守之,詔宮臣不得辭送。洗馬江統、潘滔、舍人王敦、杜蕤、魯瑤等冒禁至伊水,拜辭涕泣。司隸校尉滿奮收縛統等送獄。其繫河南獄者,樂廣悉解遣之;繫洛陽縣獄者,猶未釋。都官從事孫琰說賈謐曰:「所以廢徙太子,以其爲惡故耳。今宮臣冒罪拜辭,而加以重辟;流聞四方,乃更彰太子之德也,不如釋之。」謐乃語洛陽令曹攄使釋之;廣亦不坐。敦,覽之孫;攄,肇之孫也。太子至許,遺王妃書,自陳誣枉,妃父衍不敢以聞。

3. Jia Nanfeng forced the Yellow Gate officials to confess that they had been part of Sima Yu's plot. An edict was issued containing their testimony to display it to the various nobles and court ministers. Sima Dan was sent with a thousand soldiers to escort Sima Yu to house arrest at the palace at Xuchang, and the Records-Keeping (or, Records-Managing) Imperial Clerk, Liu Zhen, was charged with authority to keep watch over him.

The edict ordered that none of the palace ministers were to see Sima Yu off when he left. However, the Horse-Washers Jiang Tong and Pan Tao, the Retainers Wang Dun, Du Rui, and Lü Yao, and others all disregarded the order and followed Sima Yu as far as the Yi River, where they saluted him and expressed themselves through tears. The Colonel-Director of Retainers, Man Fen, arrested Jiang Tong and the others and had them sent to prisons. Those of them that were sent to the prison at Henan were all released and let go by Yue Guang, but those of them who were sent to the prison in Luoyang remained imprisoned.

The Attendant Officer of Capital Affairs, Sun Tan, warned Jia Mi, "The reason you deposed and exiled the Crown Prince was because of his crimes alone, nothing more. But now, just because these palace officials have overstepped their bounds in going to see him off, you are piling on more oppressive measures. When word of this becomes generally known, it will only further extoll the Crown Prince's virtue. It would be better to release these prisoners."

So Jia Mi ordered the Prefect of Luoyang, Cao Shu, to release the prisoners in Luoyang, and Yue Guang was not reprimanded for having released the prisoners in Henan. This Wang Dun was the grandson of Wang Lan; this Cao Shu was the grandson of Cao Zhao.

When Sima Yu arrived at Xuchang, he sent a letter to his former wife Lady Wang, explaining how he had been framed and slandered. But her father Wang Yan did not dare to listen to his explanations.

〈【張:「持」作「治」。】〉〈持書御史,卽治書侍御史。〉〈《晉志》:太子舍人十六人,職比散騎、中書等侍郎。《水經註》:伊水過伊闕中,東北至洛陽縣南,北入于洛。〉〈樂廣時爲河南尹。〉〈付郡者,河南尹得解遣之;繫洛陽獄者,尹不得與,故未釋。〉〈王覽見七十七卷魏高貴鄕公甘露元年。〉〈曹肇見七十四卷魏明帝景初二年。〉

(Some versions record Liu Zhen's title as Records-Managing rather than Records-Keeping. The Records-Keeping Imperial Clerk was the same as the Records-Managing Attendant Imperial Clerk.

The Records of Jin states, "The Crown Prince had six men as Retainers. This office was similar to the Gentleman-Attendants of the Cavaliers in Regular Attendance, the Palace Secretariat, and other such bureaus."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yi River flows through Yique, and on northeast until it reaches the south of Luoyang County. From there, it flows north until it enters the Luo River."

At this time, Yue Guang was the Intendant of Henan. Releasing the prisoners in Henan fell within his authority as the leader of the commandary. But he had no authority to free those prisoners who were sent to Luoyang, and so they remained imprisoned.

Wang Lan was the younger stepbrother of the Cao-Wei and Jin minister Wang Xiang, one of the paragons of filial piety. He is mentioned in Book 77, in Cao Mao's first year of Ganlu (256.21 in Fang's Chronicles).

Cao Zhao was the son of the Cao-Wei general Cao Xiu. He is mentioned in Book 74, in Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei's (Cao Rui's) second year of Jingchu (238.41 in Fang's Chronicles).)


丙子,皇孫虨卒。

4. On the day Bingzi (February 20th), Sima Yu's son Sima Bin passed away.

〈非疾也。《考異》曰:《帝紀》「虨」作「霖」。按虨,字道文,不當作「霖」,今從《傳》。〉

(He died of remarkable illness.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin record Sima Bin's given name as Lin. But Sima Bin's style name was Daowen, so his given name could not have been Lin. I follow the account of the Biography of Crown Prince Minhuai (Sima Yu) in the Book of Jin.")


三月,尉氏雨血,妖星見南方,太白晝見,中台星拆。張華少子韙勸華遜位,華不從,曰:「天道幽遠,不如靜以待之。」

5. In the third month, there were several portents. It rained blood in Weishi County. An unusual star was spotted in the south. Venus shone exceptionally brightly. And the stars of the Middle Terrace constellation came apart.

Zhang Hua's youngest son Zhang Wei urged his father to resign his position, but Zhang Hua would not listen. Zhang Hua said, "Heaven's ways are distant and unknowable. It is better to be calm and await events."

〈尉氏縣,自漢以來屬陳留郡。應劭曰:古獄官曰尉氏,鄭之別獄也。臣瓚曰:鄭大夫尉氏之邑,故以爲邑名。師古曰:鄭大夫尉氏亦以掌獄之官故爲族耳,應說是也。〉〈星見妖而不知其名,故但曰妖星。〉〈《晉‧天文志》曰:太白晝見,與日爭明,強國弱,小國強,女主昌。〉〈《史記‧天官書》曰:魁下六星,兩兩而比者曰三台。三台色齊,君臣和;不齊,君臣乖戾。《漢‧天文志》曰:三台曰泰階:上階,上星爲天子,下星爲女主;中階,上星爲諸侯、三公,下星爲卿、大夫;下階,上星爲士,下星爲庶人。拆者,兩星不相比也。〉〈華所謂靜以待之者,欲何所待也!〉

(Ever since Han times, Weishi County had been part of Chenliu commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "In ancient times, the official in charges of prisons was called the Commandant Official (weishi), and Weishi County was where the state of Zheng had its detached prisons." Chen Zan remarked, "The town of the great minister of Zheng, Lord Wei (weishi), was in this place, and the town took its name from him." Yan Shigu remarked, "The great minister of Zheng, Lord Wei, was also in charge of the prisons, and this was the only reason for the name; everything followed from that."

When one sees some remarkable star but does not know its name, one calls it an unusual star.

The Astrological Records in the Book of Jin states, "When Venus shines exceptionally brightly, it is contending with the Sun to outshine it. This heralds a strong state becoming weaker and a weak state becoming stronger, and also the flourishing of a queen."

The Astrological Records further states, "The lower part of the Kui constellation has six stars, in three pairs of two, called the Three Terraces. When the pairs of the Three Terraces are alike in color, it shows harmony between the lord and his ministers. But when they are not alike, it shows discord between them." The Astrological Records in the Book of Han states, "The Three Terraces are called the Steps of Qin. Of the two stars of the Upper Step, the upper star is the Son of Heaven and the lower star is his Queen. Of the two stars of the Middle Step, the upper star is the various nobles and the Three Excellencies and the lower star is the lesser court ministers and officials. Of the two stars of the Lower Step, the upper star is the gentry and the lower star is the common people." When the passage says that the stars of the Middle Terrace "came apart", it means they were not alike in color.

Zhang Hua spoke of being calm and awaiting events. Just what was it that he was waiting for?)


太子旣廢,衆情憤怒。右衞督司馬雅、常從督許超,皆嘗給事東宮,與殿中中郎士猗等謀廢賈后,復太子。以張華、裴頠安常保位,難與行權,右軍將軍趙王倫執兵柄,性貪冒,可假以濟事。乃說孫秀曰:「中宮凶妬無道,與賈謐等共誣廢太子。今國無嫡嗣,社稷將危,大臣將起大事,而公名奉事中宮,與賈、郭親善,太子之廢,皆云豫知,一朝事起,禍必相及,何不先謀之乎!」秀許諾,言於倫,倫納焉,遂告通事令史張林及省事張衡等,使爲內應。

6. Sima Yu's removal as Crown Prince stirred up indignation and anger among many. The Guard Marshal of the Right, Sima Ya, and the 常從督, Xu Chao, had both once served Sima Yu in the Eastern Palace. They hatched a plot with the Palace Gentleman of the Central Hall, Shi Yi, and others to depose Jia Nanfeng and restore Sima Yu as Crown Prince.

Now Zhang Hua and Pei Wei were too complacent with affairs and wanted to retain their current status, so it would be hard to accomplish anything with them. But the General of the Army of the Right and Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, had military power as well, and he was a covetous and greedy man. The plotters felt that if they had him on their side, they could succeed.

So they approached Sima Lun's subordinate Sun Xiu, and said to him, "The Central Palace (Jia Nanfeng) is wild, jealous, and without principles. She plotted together with Jia Mi and the others to slander and depose the Crown Prince. Now the state no longer has a legitimate heir, and the dynasty will soon be in danger. The great ministers will rise up soon because of this. Sir, your lord is known as a supporter of the Empress, and he is closely related to the Jia and Guo clans. People will all say that he must have had a hand in the Crown Prince being deposed. When things take their natural course, misfortune will overtake him as well. Would it not be better for him to carry out his own plan before that can happen?"

Sun Xiu agreed to speak on their behalf, and when he talked to Sima Lun, Sima Lun approved of the plot.

The plotters also sent word of their intentions to the 通事令史, Zhang Lin, the 省事, Zhang Heng, and others, so that these people could coordinate with them from the inside.

〈右衞督、常從督、殿中中郎,皆屬二衞。武帝甚重兵官,殿中軍校,多選朝廷清望之士居之。司馬雅,宗室之疏屬也。〉〈言倫、秀豫知廢太子之謀。〉〈通事令史,中書令史也。中書侍郎本通事郎,官名雖改,令史猶以通事冠之。陸機《惠帝起居注》曰:張林者,黑山賊張燕之曾孫。〉〈省事,亦吏職也。賈充爲尚書令,以目疾表置省事吏四員,省事蓋自此始。〉

(The Guard Marshal of the Right, the 常從督, and the Palace Gentleman of the Central Hall were all offices subordinate to the two Commanders of the Guards. Sima Yan had greatly valued guard offices, and for the commanders of the guards of the Central Hall, he selected renowned members of the court to fill those offices.

Sima Ya was a distant junior relative of the imperial clan.

The plotters were saying that people would claim that Sima Lun and Sun Xiu would surely have known about the plot to depose Sima Yu.

The 通事令史 was the 令史 of the Palace Secretariat. The Gentlemen-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat were originally called the Gentleman of 通事. Although their name had changed, they were still subordinate to the 令史.

Lu Ji's Daily Life of Emperor Hui states, "This Zhang Lin was the great-grandson of the leader of the Black Mountain Bandits, Zhang Yan."

省事 was also the name of an official position. When Jia Chong had been Prefect of the Masters of Writing, he created four officials to handle irritating petitions, and this was the start of this 省事 position.)


事將起,孫秀言於倫曰:「太子聰明剛猛,若還東宮,必不受制於人。明公素黨於賈后,道路皆知之,今雖建大功於太子,太子謂公特逼於百姓之望,翻覆以免罪耳,雖含忍宿忿,必不能深德明公,若有瑕釁,猶不免誅。不若遷延緩期,〈遲其事而遷延未發也。〉賈后必害太子,然後廢賈后,爲太子報讎,非徒免禍而已,乃更可以得志。」倫然之。

7. The plotters were about to act.

But then Sun Xiu said to Sima Lun, "The Crown Prince is an intelligent man, and willful and assertive too. If he were to be restored to the Eastern Palace, he would certainly not let anyone else control him. You have long been associated with Empress Jia, as even people on the street are aware. Even if you help to make this plot succeed and so restore the Crown Prince, he will just say that you felt pressed to act by the hopes of the common people, and you were only helping him now because you wanted to avoid being punished for your crimes. He might tolerate you for a time, but he would still hold a grudge against you, and if the slightest pretext came up, you would not be able to avoid execution. Why not wait a while longer first? Empress Jia will surely kill the Crown Prince, and once she does, then you can depose her, saying you were avenging him. By doing that, not only would you avoid misfortune, but you would even be able to achieve your ambitions."

Sima Lun agreed with him.

〈言百姓望太子復,倫等畏逼,故背賈氏復太子以求自免罪。〉

(Sun Xiu was saying that the common people all hoped to see Sima Yu restored as Crown Prince, and Sima Lun and the others would only be acting out of fear and pressure, betraying the Jia clan and restoring Sima Yu just to save themselves from being condemned.)


秀因使人行反間,言殿中人欲廢皇后,立太子,賈后數遣宮婢微服於民間聽察,聞之甚懼。倫、秀因勸謐等早除太子以絕衆望。癸未,賈后使太醫令程據和毒藥,矯詔使黃門孫慮至許昌毒太子。太子自廢黜,恐被毒,常自煑食於前;慮以告劉振,振乃徙太子於小坊中,絕其食,宮人猶竊於牆上過食與之。慮逼太子以藥,太子不肯服,慮以藥杵椎殺之。有司請以庶人禮葬,賈后表請以廣陵王禮葬之。

8. So Sun Xiu sent someone to sow discord in the palace, saying that the people in the palace wanted to depose Jia Nanfeng and restore Sima Yu. Jia Nanfeng sent her servant girls out several times to eavesdrop on conversations around the palace, and when she heard these rumors she was greatly afraid. Then Sima Lun and Sun Xiu urged Jia Mi and others that they should be quick to get rid of Sima Yu in order to dash the hopes of his restoration.

On the day Guiwei (April 27th), Jia Nanfeng forced the Prefect of the Imperial Physicians, Cheng Ju, to provide her with some poisonous medicine, and she forged an edict ordering the Yellow Gate official Sun Lü to go to Xuchang and poison Sima Yu. Now ever since Sima Yu had been deposed and exiled, he had been afraid he might be poisoned, so he often boiled his food before eating it. Sun Lü told Liu Zhen about his orders, so Liu Zhen had Sima Yu moved to a small enclosure and cut off his food supply. But the palace officials would steal food and then throw it over the wall so that Sima Yu could eat it. Sun Lü tried to force the medicine on Sima Yu, but Sima Yu refused to give in. Sun Lü then used the medicine's pestle stick to kill him.

The officials asked that Sima Yu be buried as a commoner, but Jia Nanfeng petitioned that he be buried with princely rites, as the Prince of Guangling.

〈司馬雅、許超、士猗皆殿中人也。〉

(Sima Ya, Xu Chao, Shi Yi, and the others were people inside the Central Hall.)


夏,四月,辛卯朔,日有食之。

9. In summer, the fourth month, on the new moon of the day Xinmao (May 5th), there was an eclipse.

趙王倫、孫秀將討賈后,告右衞佽飛督閭和,和從之,期以癸巳丙夜一籌,以鼓聲爲應。癸巳,秀使司馬雅告張華曰:「趙王欲與公共匡社稷,爲天下除害,使雅以告。」華拒之。雅怒曰:「刃將在頸,猶爲是言邪!」不顧而出。

10. Sima Lun and Sun Xiu were now set to act against Jia Nanfeng. They informed the Ci Fei Marshal to the Guard Commander of the Right, Lü He, of their intentions, and Lü He agreed to go along with them. They set the time to act as the first minute of the third watch on the night of the day Guisi (May 7th), and the signal to act would be the sound of the drums.

When the day came, Sun Xiu sent Sima Ya on ahead to tell Zhang Hua, "The Prince of Zhao wishes to work together with you for the benefit of the state, and to remove a danger to the realm. I was sent to let you know."

But Zhang Hua rebuffed his offer.

Sima Ya became angry and said, "The blade is almost upon your neck, and still you would say such things!"

But Zhang Hua ignored him and left.

〈晉制:右衞有佽飛、虎賁二督。佽飛,荊人,赴江斬蛟,古勇士也;自漢以來以爲衞士之號。佽,日四翻。〉〈丙夜,夜三鼓;丙夜一籌,三更一點也。〉〈華素有籌略,雅辭氣之悖如此而無以處之,蓋亦知衆怒不可遏,而己爲賈后用心,不敢背之,搏手無策,待死而已。〉

(Under the Jin system, the Guard Commander of the Right had two Marshals, the Ci Fei Marshal and the Rapid As Tigers Marshal. Ci Fei was the name of a man from Jing; he was an ancient hero who vaulted rivers and slew serpents. Ever since Han times, his name had become a byword for the guards. His surname 佽 is pronounced "ri (r-i)".

The Bingye watch was the third watch of the evening. The term 一籌 in the passage means one minute after the third watch had begun.

Zhang Hua had long been involved in Jia Nanfeng's planning. Sima Ya expressed such sentiments to him to try to win him over, but to no avail. Zhang Hua knew that he would not be able to stop the anger of the plotters, but he had already exerted himself for so long on behalf of the Empress, and he did not dare to turn his back on her. Thus caught between two fires with no way out, he merely waited for death.)


及期,倫矯詔敕三部司馬曰:「中宮與賈謐等殺吾太子,今使車騎入廢中宮,汝等皆當從命,事畢,賜爵關中侯,不從者誅三族。」衆皆從之。又矯詔開門,夜入,陳兵道南,遣翊軍校尉齊王冏將百人排閤而入,華林令駱休爲內應,迎帝幸東堂,以詔召賈謐於殿前,將誅之。謐走入西鍾下,呼曰:「阿后救我!」就斬之。賈后見齊王冏,驚曰:「卿何爲來?」冏曰:「有詔收后。」后曰:「詔當從我出,何詔也!」后至上閤,遙呼帝曰:「陛下有婦,使人廢之,亦行自廢矣。」是時,梁王肜亦預其謀,后問冏曰:「起事者誰?」冏曰:「梁、趙。」后曰:「繫狗當繫頸,反繫其尾,何得不然!」遂廢后爲庶人,幽之於建始殿。收趙粲、賈午等付暴室考竟。詔尚書收捕賈氏親黨,召中書監、侍中、黃門侍郎、八座皆夜入殿。尚書始疑詔有詐,郎師景露版奏請手詔,倫等斬之以徇。

11. When the moment for the plot had arrived, Sima Lun presented a forged imperial edict with orders to the Marshals of the Three Divisions: "The Central Palace (Empress Jia) plotted with Jia Mi and others to kill my son, the Crown Prince. I now order the General of Chariots and Cavalry to depose her. When this affair is concluded, those of you who heeded my command shall be appointed as Marquises of the Passes; those who did not heed my commands shall have their clans exterminated to the third degree." All of them heeded the command.

Sima Lun also forged an edict ordering the palace gates to be opened, and he entered the palace that night. He posted his soldiers on the southern road, while he sent the Colonel of 翊軍 and Prince of Qi, Sima Jiong, at the head of a hundred men to force his way into the imperial apartments. They received assistance from within from the Prefect of the Hualin Garden, Luo Xiu, and received Emperor Hui at the Xidong Hall.

Sima Jiong presented an edict summoning Jia Mi to the front of the Hall, because he was about to kill him. Jia Mi fled under the Western Bells, crying out, "O Empress, save me!" But he was taken and beheaded.

When Jia Nanfeng saw Sima Jiong, she castigated him, "What are you doing here?"

Sima Jiong replied, "I have an edict to arrest the Empress."

Jia Nanfeng said, "Edicts come from me; how could you have one?"

And she climbed atop the residence, crying out a long ways off to Emperor Hui, "Your Majesty, I am your wife! If you make these people depose me, they will depose you too!"

Now by this time, the Prince of Lian, Sima Rong, was also in on the plot. So Jia Nanfeng asked Sima Jiong, "Who is behind all this?"

Sima Jiong replied, "The Princes of Lian and Zhao."

Jia Nanfeng lamented, "When binding a dog, you must bind it by the neck. If you bind it by the tail, what else could happen but this?"

Jia Nanfeng was deposed to be a commoner, and she was kept under house arrest in the Jianshi Hall. Zhao Can, Jia Wu, and others were also arrested and sent to the Drying House to be questioned.

An edict was issued ordering the rounding up and arrest of all of the Jia clan's intimates and partisans, and all of the Palace Secretariat officials, Palace Attendants, Gentlemen-Attendants of the Yellow Gate, and the ministers of the Eight Places were ordered into the hall that night. The Masters of Writing initially suspected that the edict was a forgery, and the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Shi Jing, put in a request asking to see the edict for himself. Sima Lun and the other plotters killed him to silence the others.

〈晉二衞有前驅、由基、強弩三部司馬。〉〈時趙王倫以車騎將軍領右軍將軍。〉〈御道之南也。〉〈武帝太康元年,置翊軍校尉。〉〈華林令,華林園令也。魏起芳林園,後避齊王芳諱,改曰華林園。有天淵池,池中有魏文帝九花叢殿。《晉志》:華林令屬鴻臚。《姓譜》︰齊太公之後,有公子駱,子孫以爲氏。又秦之先有大駱。〉〈恨不先誅梁、趙也。〉〈《晉志》:暴室令,屬光祿勳。〉〈郎,尚書郎也。師,姓;景,名。〉

(Under the Jin system, the two Guard Commanders had Marshals commanding the Three Divisions: these were the 前驅, 由基, and Strong Crossbows Divisions.

At this time, Sima Lun was General of Chariots and Cavalry and acting General of the Army of the Right.

Sima Lun's soldiers were blocking the carriage road south.

In Sima Yan's first year of Taikang (280), he had created the office of Colonel of 翊軍.

The Prefect of Hualin was the Prefect of the Hualin Garden. Cao-Wei had originally created this garden as the Fanglin Garden. Later, to avoid the taboo on Cao Fang's name, its name was changed to the Hualin Garden. The garden had the Tianyuan Pool, in the midst of which was Emperor Wen's (Cao Pi's) Nine Flower Thickets Hall. The Records of Jin states, "The Prefect of Hualin was subordinate to the Grand Herald."

The Registry of Surnames states, "Regarding the surname 駱 Luo, among the descendants of the Grand Duke of Qi (Jiang Ziya), there was the Duke's son Luo. And one of the forebearers of the state of Qin was Daluo."

Jia Nanfeng's comment about dogs was expressing her regret that she had not killed Sima Rong and Sima Lun sooner.

The Records of Jin states, "The Prefect of the Drying House was subordinate to the 光祿勳."

The passage says that Shi Jing was a "Gentleman"; it means "of the Masters of Writing". Shi was his surname and Jing his given name.)


倫陰與秀謀篡位,欲先除朝望,且報宿怨,乃執張華、裴頠、解系、解結等於殿前。華謂張林曰:「卿欲害忠臣邪?」林稱詔詰之曰:「卿爲宰相,太子之廢,不能死節,何也?」華曰:「式乾之議,臣諫事具存,可覆按也。」林曰:「諫而不從,何不去位?」華無以對。遂皆斬之,仍夷三族。解結女適裴氏,明日當嫁而禍起,裴氏欲認活之,女曰:「家旣如此,我何以活爲!」亦坐死。朝廷由是議革舊制,女不從死。甲午,倫坐端門,遣尚書和郁持節送賈庶人于金墉;誅劉振、董猛、孫慮、程據等;司徒王戎及內外官坐張、裴親黨黜免者甚衆。閻纘撫張華尸慟哭曰:「早語君遜位而不肯,今果不免,命也!」

12. Now Sima Lun was secretly plotting with Sun Xiu to usurp the throne. To that end, he first wanted to curtail the power of the court, as well as settle old grudges. So he had Zhang Hua, Pei Wei, Hai Xi, Hai Jie, and other ministers brought to the front of the Palace Hall.

Zhang Hua said to Zhang Lin, "Do you intend to do harm to a loyal minister?"

Referring to the edict, Zhang Lin asked him, "You were a chief minister of state, and yet when the Crown Prince was deposed, you could not insist upon your principles even unto death. Why was that?"

Zhang Hua replied, "During the discussion at the Shiqian Hall, I offered my full remonstrations in every case, as you may ascertain for yourself."

Zhang Lin retorted, "And when your remonstrations were ignored, why did you not resign your office?"

To this Zhang Hua could make no reply. All of these ministers were beheaded, along with their clans to the third degree.

Hai Jie's daughter had been engaged to the Pei clan. She had been scheduled to join their family in marriage the next day, yet this disaster had come up during the night. The Pei clan wanted to adopt her so that she would be spared, but she said, "When such a thing is happening to my family, how can I live?" So she also accepted the death sentence. Because of that, the court discussed amending the original system, so that daughters would not have to follow their families into death.

On the day Jiawu (May 8th), Sima Lun placed himself at the Duan Gate of the palace, and sent the Master of Writing, He Yu, with a Staff of Authority to escort the commoner Jia Nanfeng to the Jinyong fortress. He executed Liu Zhen, Dong Meng, Sun Lü, Cheng Ju, and others who were associated with her. The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Rong, placed blame upon any officials, inside or out, that had any ties to Zhang Hua or Pei Wei, and a considerable number of them were demoted or stripped of office.

Yan Zuan stroked his hand against Zhang Hua's body, wailing through tears, "I warned you before to give up your office, Sir, but you would not do it. It was fate that you could not avoid your death!"

〈倫、秀怨華、頠、系,事見上卷元康六年。結,系弟也。秀亂關中,結議秀罪應誅,故亦怨之。〉〈不從父母家坐死也。〉〈宮門正南門曰端門。〉〈楊太后、太子遹之廢,史皆不書爲庶人,此獨書賈庶人者,正其罪也。〉

(Sima Lun and Sun Xiu resented Zhang Hua, Pei Wei, and Hai Xi for their resistance to their efforts at court, as mentioned in the previous book in the sixth year of Yuankang (296.4). Hai Jie was Hai Xi's younger brother. When Sun Xiu had been causing mischief in Guanzhong, Hai Jie had proposed charging Sun Xiu with a crime and executing him, so Sun Xiu also bore a grudge against him.

The court ministers proposed that the daughter of a family not follow her birth parents' family into death.

The main southern gate of the palace was called the Duan Gate.

Up until this passage, the ZZTJ has called Jia Nanfeng "Empress Jia". Even during the times when she deposed Empress Yang Zi and deposed Crown Prince Sima Yu, the text did not refer to her by her ultimate title of "the commoner Jia Nanfeng". But it does so here, because she had now been charged with her crimes.)


於是趙王倫稱詔赦天下,自爲使持節、都督中外諸軍事、相國、侍中,一依宣、文輔魏故事,置府兵萬人,以其世子散騎常侍荂領宂從僕射,子馥爲前將軍,封濟陽王;虔爲黃門郎,封汝陰王;詡爲散騎侍郎,封霸城侯。孫秀等皆封大郡,並據兵權,文武官封侯者數千人,百官總己以聽於倫。倫素庸愚,復受制於孫秀。秀爲中書令,威權振朝廷,天下皆事秀而無求於倫。

13. Sima Lun issued an edict declaring an amnesty throughout the realm. He appointed himself as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Chancellor of State, and Palace Attendant, following the precedents of when Sima Yi and Sima Zhao had held their regency powers over the government of Wei. He created a household guard of ten thousand soldiers, and he appointed the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, his eldest son Sima Fu, as Deputy Director of 宂從. Among his other sons, he appointed Sima Fuu as General of the Front and Prince of Jiyang, he appointed Sima Qian as a Gentleman of the Yellow Gate and Prince of Ruyin, and he appointed Sima Xu as Cavalier-Gentleman In Attendance and Marquis of Bacheng. Sun Xiu and Sima Lun's other allies were all granted noble titles over large commandaries, and each of them held military authority. Civil and military offices and noble titles were distributed out among several thousand people, so that all of the ministers were compelled to heed Sima Lun's commands in order to retain their offices.

Now Sima Lun had long been a mediocre and dull man, and he entrusted all power over the government with Sun Xiu. So Sun Xiu was further appointed as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and his power and influence shook the court; all matters of the realm were handled by him without being referred to Sima Lun.

〈《晉志》曰:丞相、相國,秦官也,晉受魏禪,並不置。自惠帝之後,省置無恆,爲之者趙王倫、梁王肜、成都王穎、南陽王保、王敦、王導之徒,非復人臣之職也。今按宣王懿以丞相輔魏,文王昭以相國輔魏,皆非人臣之職。〉〈荂,枯花翻;楊正衡音孚。《晉志》:宂從僕射,屬光祿動。〉〈黃門郎,卽黃門侍郎。散騎侍郎,魏初與散騎常侍同置。自魏至晉,散騎常侍、侍郎與侍中、黃門侍郎共平尚書奏事,皆要官也。〉〈朱氏曰:總己,謂總攝己職。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The offices of Prime Minister and Chancellor of State were originally Qin offices. They did not initially exist at the time when Jin accepted the abdication from Cao-Wei. But from the time of Emperor Hui onwards, from time to time someone was appointed to one or the other of them: the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun; the Prince of Liang, Sima Rong; the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying; the Prince of Nanyang, Sima Bao; Wang Dun; Wang Dao; and those afterwards. But it was not a regularly appointed office." This passage refers to Sima Yi and Sima Zhao. Sima Yi was appointed Prime Minister during Cao-Wei, and Sima Zhao was appointed Chancellor of State. They were both extraordinary appointments.

Regarding Sima Lun's eldest son’s given name, 荂 is pronounced "kua (k-ua)", but Yang Zhengheng says that it is pronounced "fu".

The Records of Jin states, "The Deputy Director of 宂從 was subordinate to the 光祿動."

A Gentleman of the Yellow Gate was a Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate. When Cao-Wei had first created the office of Cavalier In Regular Attendance, they had created the complimentary office of Gentleman-Cavalier In Attendance. From that time on into Jin, all of these offices, as well as the Palace Attendants, worked to fairly execute the wishes of the Masters of Writing. They were all important offices.

Master Zhu remarked, "The term 'to maintain themselves' (in this passage) means that they heeded orders in order to retain their offices.")


詔追復故太子遹位號,使尚書和郁帥東宮官屬迎太子喪於許昌,追封遹子虨爲南陽王,封虨弟臧爲臨淮王,尚爲襄陽王。

14. An edict was issued posthumously restoring Sima Yu to his position as Crown Prince. The Master of Writing, He Yu, was sent to lead the officials and subordinates of the Eastern Palace to welcome Sima Yu in mourning at Xuchang. Sima Yu's late son Sima Bin was posthumously named the Prince of Nanyang. His surviving sons Sima Zang and Sima Shang were appointed as Prince of Linhuai and Prince of Xiangyang.

有司奏:「尚書令王衍備位大臣,太子被誣,志在苟免,請禁錮終身。」從之。

15. The ministers petitioned, "The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yan, sought to secure himself in office as a great minister. When the Crown Prince was slandered, Wang Yan thought only of keeping out of danger. We ask that he be barred from holding office for the rest of his life." Their request was granted.

〈謂太子遺王妃書,自陳誣枉,衍不敢以聞也。〉

(The petition refers to how when Sima Yu had sent a letter to his former wife Lady Wang explaining how he had been framed and slandered, Wang Yan had not dared to pay any heed to it.)


相國倫欲收人望,選用海內名德之士,以前平陽太守李重、滎陽太守荀組爲左、右長史,東平王堪、沛國劉謨爲左、右司馬,尚書郎陽平束晳爲記室,淮南王文學荀崧、殿中郎陸機爲參軍。組,勗之子;崧,彧之玄孫也。李重知倫有異志,辭疾不就,倫逼之不已,憂憤成疾,扶曳受拜,數日而卒。

16. Sima Lun wished to win over people to his side, so he sought out gentlemen famous for their virtue in order to employ them. He employed the former Administrator of Pingyang, Li Zhong, and the Administrator of Xingyang, Xun Zu, as his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right. He employed Wang Kan of Dongping and Liu Mo of the Pei princely fief as his Marshals of the Left and Right. He employed the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Shu Xi of Yangping, as his 記室. He employed the Literary Scholar to the Prince of Huainan, Xun Song, and the Gentleman of the Central Hall, Lu Ji, as his army advisors. This Xun Zu was the son of Xun Xu; this Xun Song was the great-great grandson of Xun Yu.

Li Zhong knew that Sima Lun had sinister intentions, so he pleaded illness and would not accept his appointment. Sima Lun pressured him to accept, but to no avail. Through his anxiety and indignation, Li Zhong really did develop an illness, and had to be supported by the arm in order to salute. He passed away after a few days.

〈魏文帝黃初二年,分魏郡置陽平郡。記室,主文翰。束晳,漢太子太傅疎廣之後。廣曾孫避難,因去疎字之「足」,改姓爲束。《續漢志》曰:記室,主上章表報書記。〉〈殿中郎,尚書郎也,主殿中曹。〉〈勗爲晉初佐命之臣。〉〈荀彧爲魏初佐命之官。〉

(In Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei's (Cao Pi's) second year of Huangchu (221), he had split off part of Wei commandary as Pingyang commandary.

The office of 記室 was in charge of official documents and correspondence. The Continued Records of Han states, "The 記室 was in charge of recording petitions and responses."

Shu Xi was a descendant of the Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince of Han, Shu Guang. Shu Guang wrote his surname as 疎, but when his great-grandson encountered difficulties, he changed the surname by removing the 足 radical, so that it was written as 束.

The Gentleman of the Central Hall was the same as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. Its duties were managing affairs within the Central Hall.

Xun Xu was a chief minister of Jin during its first years.

Xun Yu was a chief minister of the warlord Cao Cao in the years leading up to Cao-Wei.)


丁酉,以梁王肜爲太宰,左光祿大夫何劭爲司徒,右光祿大夫劉寔爲司空。

17. On the day Dingyou (May 11th), Sima Rong was appointed as Grand Guardian, the Household Counselor of the Left, He Shao, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, and the Household Counselor of the Right, Liu Shi, was appointed Minister of Works.

〈《晉志》:左、右光祿大夫,假金章紫綬,品秩第二,祿賜、班位、冠幘、車服、佩玉,置吏卒羽林。後之金紫光祿大夫,蓋魏、晉之左、右光祿大夫也。但魏、晉之大夫皆爲專官,後世則爲寄祿官耳。杜佑曰:魏、晉以來,左右光祿三大夫皆銀印青綬,其重者,詔加金章紫綬者,則謂之金紫光祿大夫。重者旣有金紫之號,故謂本光祿爲銀青光祿大夫。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Household Counselors of the Left and Right had golden seals and purple tassels. They occupied the second rank of the Nine Ranks system, and were granted salaries, regular seats, hats and headdresses, carriages and canopies, and jade belt pendants, and were assigned guards from the Feathered Forest guards. During Cao-Wei and Jin, they were assigned as Of the Right and Of the Left. But during that time, the great officials were all reassigned, and in later ages the Counselors merely handled salary affairs. Du You remarked, "From the time of Cao-Wei and Jin on, the Household Counselor and his fellows Of the Left and Of the Right all had silver seals and green tassels. The most important of them were additionally granted golden seals and tassels, and so they came to be called Household Counselors With Golden Tassels. Since the important ones were called this name, the original offices then began to be called Household Counselors With Silver or Green Tassels.")


太子遹之廢也,將立淮南王允爲太弟,議者不合。會趙王倫廢賈后,乃以允爲驃騎將軍、開府儀同三司,領中護軍。

18. After Sima Yu had been deposed as Crown Prince, there had been talk of setting up the Prince of Huainan, Sima Yun, as the new Crown Prince, under the title of Crown Younger Brother. But after discussing the matter, there had been no consensus.

Later, after Sima Lun deposed Empress Jia Nanfeng, he appointed Sima Yun as General of Agile Cavalry and acting Army Protector of the Palace, with equal authority to the Three Excellencies.

〈言有持異議者也。〉

(It was saying that there was a debate over the subject.)


己亥,相國倫矯詔遣尚書劉弘齎金屑酒賜賈后死于金墉城。

19. On the day Jihai (May 13th), Sima Lun forged an edict ordering the Master of Writing, Liu Hong, to present Jia Nanfeng with the Gold-Flecked Wine at the Jinyong fortress, thus bestowing her with death.

五月,己巳,詔立臨海王臧爲皇太孫,還妃王氏以母之;太子官屬卽轉爲太孫官屬,相國倫行太孫太傅。

20. In the fifth month, on the day Jisi (June 12th), an edict was issued appointing Sima Yu's son Sima Zang as Crown Prince, under the title Crown Grandson, and Sima Yu's former wife Lady Wang was sent to serve as his mother. Sima Yu's former officials and subordinates as Crown Prince were now reassigned to serve Sima Zang, and Sima Lun himself took on the role of acting Grand Tutor to him.

〈太子之廢也,歸王妃于父母家。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「海」作「淮」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

After Sima Yu had been deposed, Lady Wang had been sent back to her parent's family.

(The passage lists Sima Zang's title as Prince of Linhai, but some versions have it as Prince of Linhuai.)


己卯,諡故太子曰愍懷;六月,壬寅,葬于顯平陵。

21. On the day Jimao (June 22nd), Sima Yu was given the posthumous name Minhuai ("the Pitied and Cherished").

In the sixth month, on the day Renyin (July 15th), Sima Yu was reburied at Xianping Tomb.

清河康王遐薨。

22. Sima Xia passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Kang ("the Peaceful") of Qinghe.

中護軍淮南王允,性沈毅,宿衞將士皆畏服之。允知相國倫及孫秀有異志,陰養死士,謀討之。倫、秀深憚之。秋,八月,轉允爲太尉,外示優崇,實奪其兵權。允稱疾不拜。秀遣御史劉機逼允,收其官屬以下,劾以拒詔,大逆不敬。允視詔,乃秀手書也,大怒,收御史,將斬之。御史走免,斬其令史二人。厲色謂左右曰:「趙王欲破我家!」遂帥國兵及帳下七百人直出,大呼曰:「趙王反,我將討之,從我者左袒。」於是歸之者甚衆。允將赴宮,尚書左丞王輿閉掖門,允不得入,遂圍相府。允所將兵皆精銳,倫與戰屢敗,死者千餘人。太子左率陳徽勒東宮兵鼓譟於內以應允。允結陳於承華門前,弓弩齊發,射倫,飛矢雨下。主書司馬眭祕以身蔽倫,箭中其背而死。倫官屬皆隱樹而立,每樹輒中數百箭,自辰至未。中書令陳淮,徽之兄也,欲應允,言於帝曰:「宜遣白虎幡以解鬬。」乃使司馬督護伏胤將騎四百持幡從宮中出,侍中汝陰王虔在門下省,陰與胤誓曰:「富貴當與卿共之。」胤乃懷空版出,詐言有詔助淮南王。允不之覺,開陣內之,下車受詔,胤因殺之,幷殺允子秦王郁、漢王迪,坐允夷滅者數千人。曲赦洛陽。

23. Now Sima Yun was a stalwart fellow, and all the commanders and officers of the household guards all feared him and heeded his orders. Sima Yun knew that Sima Lun and Sun Xiu were up to no good, so he secretly trained men who were prepared to die for him, planning to use them against the two of them. Sima Lun and Sun Xiu both dreaded him.

In autumn, the eighth month, they had Sima Yun appointed as the Grand Commandant. This was ostensibly to glorify and honor him, but their real intent was to take away his military authority. Sima Yun claimed illness and would not accept the appointment.

Sun Xiu sent the Imperial Secretary Liu Ji to pressure Sima Yun, and Liu Ji arrested Sima Yun's subordinates, accused him of acting contrary to an imperial edict, and charged him with the great offense of gross disrespect. When Sima Yun looked at the edict, he could tell that Sun Xiu had written it. Furious, he arrested Liu Ji and was about to behead him. Liu Ji managed to escape, but Sima Yun killed his two Clerks.

In a very stern voice, Sima Yun said to those around him, "The Prince of Zhao wants to destroy my family!" And he marched out at the head of seven hundred soldiers from his princely garrison and from his official staff, shouting, "The Prince of Zhao is a rebel, and I mean to punish him! Let those who agree with me join my side!" A great body of men soon gathered around him.

Sima Yun was almost at the palace when the Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, closed the Ye Gates, and Sima Yun could not force his way in. So he went to surround the Chancellor's Office. All of Sima Yun's soldiers were elite troops, and though Sima Lun's soldiers fought them, they were defeated several times, with more than a thousand of them killed. The Guard Commander of the Left, Chen Hui, rallied the soldiers of the Eastern Palace with a roll of the drums, and they marched to join Sima Yun's men.

Sima Yun arrayed his troops before the Chenghua Gate, and had his men shoot bows and crossbows, ordering them to shoot Sima Lun. The arrows fell like rain. The Marshal of 主書s, Sui Mi, covered Sima Lun with his body; he was hit in the back by an arrow and died. Sima Lun's officials and subordinates all hid behind trees, and all of the trees were filled with hundreds of arrows. The battle kept up from the early morning to the afternoon.

The Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Chen Huai (or Chen Zhun), was Chen Hui's elder brother. He wished to support Sima Yun, so he said to Emperor Hui, "We should bring the White Tiger Banners to the battle to break up the fighting." And he sent the Marshal-Commander Fu Yin to lead four hundred cavalry bearing the banners out of the palace.

Sima Lun's son Sima Qian was standing below the gate, and he secretly vowed to Fu Yin, "Wealth and power will be yours if you help us." So Fu Yin produced a blank edict sheet, and forged an edict saying that he was leading his forces to come help Sima Yun. Sima Yun, not suspecting anything amiss, opened a gap in his formation to receive these reinforcements, and he alighted from his carriage to receive the edict. Taking advantage of this opening, Fu Yin killed Sima Yun, and also killed his sons Sima Yu and Sima Di, the Princes of Qin and Han.

Several thousand people were blamed for having supported Sima Yun and were killed. A limited amnesty was then issued for Luoyang.

〈中護軍掌兵,轉太尉則兵權去矣。〉〈此蘭臺令史也。〉〈國兵,淮南國兵也。帳下,中護軍帳下也。〉〈宮門端門之左曰左掖門,右曰右掖門。〉〈時倫以東宮爲相府。〉〈左率,卽左衞率。〉〈《續漢志》:尚書三十六曹郎,曹有三主書。此主書司馬,蓋相國府官屬,倫所自署置。眭,姓也。〉〈前有中書令陳準,「淮」,蓋「準」字之誤也。〉〈白虎幡以麾軍進戰,非以解鬬也。陳準蓋以帝庸愚,故請以白虎幡麾軍,欲倫兵見之,以爲允之攻倫,出於帝命,將自潰也。否則何以應允。〉〈司馬督護,亦殿中將校,屬二衞。〉〈空版,不書詔之版,本無詔書,而別取空版懷之以出也。〉〈不普赦天下,而獨赦洛陽,故曰曲赦。〉

(The Army Protector of the Palace was in charge of soldiers; by appointing Sima Yun as grand Commandant, Sima Lun and Sun Xiu wanted to make him give up command of these soldiers.

The Clerks mentioned were Clerks of the Lantai bureau.

Of Sima Lun's initial soldiers, the "princely garrison" were the ones from his fief as Prince of Huainan, and the "official staff" were the soldiers under his command as Army Protector of the Palace.

The palace gate to the left of the Duan Gate was the Left Ye Gate, and the one to the right was called the Right Ye Gate.

At this time, Sima Lun was in the Chancellor's office in the Eastern Palace.

The "Commander of the Left" was the Guard Commander of the Left.

The Continued Records of Han states, "The Masters of Writing had thirty-six Manager-Gentlemen, and these Gentlemen each had three 主書." This Marshal of 主書s was a subordinate office of the Chancellor of State, created by Sima Lun.

眭 Sui is a surname.

The ZZTJ had earlier stated (296.5) that the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat was Chen 準 Zhun. Here it says he was Chen 淮 Huai. The passage has probably miswritten 準 as 淮.

The purpose of the White Tiger Banner was to encourage the soldiers on to battle, not to break up fighting. But Chen Zhun knew that Emperor Hui was an inferior and dull man, and so he felt he could ask to send out the White Tiger Banners. His intent was that when Sima Lun's troops saw the presence of the White Tiger Banners among Sima Yun's soldiers, encouraging them to attack Sima Lun, they would realize he had Emperor Hui's support, and then they would all scatter of their own accord. What else could he have intended but to support Sima Yun?

The Marshal-Commander and the Colonel-General of the Central Hall were both subordinate to the two Guard Commanders.

The blank sheet was a sheet that had not yet had an edict written upon it. Fu Yin did not originally have a genuine edict, but he carried a blank edict sheet with him, which he now produced.

The amnesty was not a general one for the whole realm, but purely for Luoyang, so it says it was a limited edict.)


初,孫秀嘗爲小吏,事黃門郎潘岳,岳屢撻之。衞尉石崇之甥歐陽建素與相國倫有隙,崇有愛妾曰綠珠,孫秀使求之,崇不與。及淮南王允敗,秀因稱石崇、潘岳、歐陽建奉允爲亂,收之。崇歎曰:「奴輩利吾財爾!」收者曰:「知財爲禍,何不早散之!」崇不能答。初,潘岳母常誚責岳曰:「汝當知足,而乾沒不已乎!」及敗,岳謝母曰:「負阿母。」遂與崇、建皆族誅,籍沒崇家。相國倫收淮南王母弟吳王晏,欲殺之。光祿大夫傅祗爭之於朝堂,衆皆諫止,倫乃貶晏爲賓徒縣王。

24. When Sun Xiu had previously been nothing more than a minor official, he had once had to handle affairs for the Yellow Gate Gentleman, Pan Yue, who had flogged him several times. The Commandant of the Guards, Shi Chong, had a nephew, Ouyang Jian, who had long had bad blood with Sima Lun. And Shi Chong himself had a beautiful woman named Lüzhu whom he loved; Sun Xiu had asked Shi Chong to give Lüzhu to him, but Shi Chong refused.

After Sima Yun's coup had failed, Sun Xiu took the opportunity to blame Pan Yue, Ouyang Jian, and Shi Chong for having put Sima Yun up to it, and he had them all arrested.

Shi Chong lamented, "You slaves, you are only after my wealth!"

The guards arresting him replied, "If you knew your wealth would bring disaster, why didn't you get rid of it earlier?"

Shi Chong could give no answer.

Before, Pan Yue's mother had often rebuked her son, saying, "You should be satisfied with what you have, yet you keep trying to push your luck!"

After they were arrested, Pan Yue apologized to his mother, saying, "O Mother, I have failed you."

Pan Yue, Shi Chong, and Ouyang Jian were all executed, along with their clans, and Shi Chong's family was entirely destroyed.

Sima Lun arrested Sima Yun's younger brother by the same mother, the Prince of Wu, Sima Yan, and he was about to kill him. But the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Fu Zhi, argued against this during court, and the other ministers all rebuked Sima Lun as well and asked him to stop. So Sima Lun did not kill him, but only demoted Sima Yan to Prince of Bintu County.

〈孫秀,琅邪人。潘岳爲琅邪內史,秀爲小吏,給岳,狡黠自喜。岳惡其爲人,數撻辱之。〉〈建表倫罪惡,見上卷元康六年。〉〈綠珠善吹笛。《太平廣記》曰:今白州雙角山下有綠珠井。昔梁氏之女有容貌,石崇使交州,以眞珠三斛買之。梁氏之居,舊井存焉,汲飲者必誕美女。里閭以美女無益,遂以石塡之。〉〈《考異》曰:《崇傳》曰:「崇、建潛知其計,陰勸淮南王允、齊王冏圖趙王倫。」若崇果與允同謀,允敗,崇應惶懼,不應被收時,方宴於樓上。蓋倫、秀以舊怨誣殺之耳。今按《石崇傳》:「孫秀索綠珠,崇不許,秀怒,乃勸倫誅崇。崇正宴於樓上,介士到門,崇謂綠珠曰:『我今爲爾得罪。』綠珠泣曰:『當效死於君前。』因自投於樓下而死。」〉〈蓋戒岳乘時射利,不知止也。服虔曰:乾沒,射成敗也。如淳曰:得利爲乾,失利爲沒。一說:以水爲喻也,言其視利而趨,雖乾而在陸,沒而滅頂,皆所不顧也。〉〈賓徒縣,前漢屬遼西郡,後漢屬遼東屬國都尉,晉屬昌黎郡。〉

(Sun Xiu was a native of Langye. During the time when Pan Yue was the Interior Minister of Langye, Sun Xiu was serving as a minor official there, and he was assigned to Pan Yue. Sun Xiu was sly, cunning, and sought his own pleasure. Pan Yue was displeased by his behavior, and flogged him several times to humiliate him.

Ouyang Jian had submitted petitions charging Sima Lun with offenses in Guanzhong, as seen in the previous book, in the sixth year of Yuankang (296.4).

The lady Lüzhu was fond of playing the flute. The Taiping Guangji states, "In modern Baizhou, at the base of Mount Shuangjiao, there is the Well of Lüzhu. In former times, there was a daughter of the Liang clan who had an exceptional appearance. Shi Chong sent someone to Jiaozhou to purchase her, with a pearl of three 斛 as his payment. At the place where the Liang clan lived, there was an old well, and whoever drank the water from this well was certain to give birth to a beautiful girl. But there was no use for beautiful women in that place, so she was given to Shi Chong."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shi Chong in the Book of Jin states, 'Shi Chong and Ouyang Jian knew that Sun Xiu and Sima Lun meant to do them harm, so they secretly plotted with Sima Yun and Sima Jiong to move against Sima Lun.' Now if Shi Chong had really been in collusion with Sima Yun, then after Sima Yun was defeated, Shi Chong would naturally have feared for his life; he would not have simply waited to be arrested, especially going so far as to hold a feast atop a tower. Sun Xiu and Sima Lun were simply fulfilling their old grudges when they slandered and killed him. The Biography continues, 'Sun Xiu had long been enamored by Lüzhu, but Shi Chong would not give him to her. Furious, Sun Xiu urged Sima Lun to execute Shi Chong. As Shi Chong was holding a feast atop a tower, armored soldiers arrived at the gates. Shi Chong said to Lüzhu, "For your sake, I have been charged with a crime." Lüzhu wept and said, "Lord, I ought to give up my life before yours." And she flung herself from the top of the tower and perished.'"

Pan Yue's mother's complaint was that Pan Yue kept trying to seek advantages for himself during this time, and did not know when to stop. Fu Qian remarked, "To test one's luck is to shoot for either success or failure." Ru Chun remarked, "This term is called 乾沒. To attain advantage is 乾, and to lose it is 沒." It is also said, "The term uses a river as an analogy. It is saying that one sees benefits of the river, but hurries along instead of using it. Although dry, one is still on solid ground, rather than being sunk in the water up past their head. It is all in the sense of acting heedless of consequences."

During Former Han, Bintu County was part of Liaoxi commandary, and during Later Han it was part of the Liaodong Vassal State Command Post. During Jin, it was part of Changli commandary.)


齊王冏以功遷游擊將軍,冏意不滿,有恨色,孫秀覺之,且憚其在內,乃出爲平東將軍,鎭許昌。

25. For his assistance in the coup against Jia Nanfeng, Sima Jiong had been appointed as General of Fierce Assault. But Sima Jiong was not satisfied by this, and he often looked resentful. When Sun Xiu realized this, he was afraid to keep Sima Jiong too close at hand, so he had him sent away as General Who Pacifies The East and had him garrison Xuchang.

〈《晉志》:驍騎將軍、游擊將軍,並漢雜號將軍也,魏置爲中軍。及晉,以領、護、左‧右衞、驍騎、游擊爲六軍。〉〈爲冏自許昌起兵討倫張本。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The titles of General of Agile Cavalry and General of Fierce Assault were both irregular titles for generals during Han. Cao-Wei assigned them as positions with the Central Army. During Jin, there were six such titles: these two, General Who Leads The Army, General Who Protects The Army, and Guard Generals of the Left and Right. These six positions led the Six Armies."

This was why Sima Jiong was in a position to raise his troops at Xuchang later to campaign against Sima Lun.)


以光祿大夫陳準爲太尉,錄尚書事;未幾,薨。

26. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Chen Zhun, was appointed as Grand Commandant and granted authority over the Masters of Writing. But before he could take up these appointments, he passed away.

孫秀議加相國倫九錫,百官莫敢異議。吏部尚書劉頌曰:「昔漢之錫魏,魏之錫晉,皆一時之用,非可通行。周勃、霍光,其功至大,皆不聞有九鍚之命也。」張林積忿不已,以頌爲張華之黨,將殺之。孫秀曰:「殺張、裴已傷時望,不可復殺頌。」林乃止。以頌爲光祿大夫。遂下詔加倫九錫,復加其子荂撫軍將軍,虔中軍將軍,詡爲侍中。又加孫秀侍中、輔國將軍,相國司馬、右率如故。張林等並居顯要。增相府兵爲二萬人,與宿衞同,幷所隱匿之兵,數踰三萬。

27. Sun Xiu broached the subject of granting Sima Lun the Nine Bestowments. None of the ministers dared to speak against the proposal.

But then the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Liu Song, said, "It is true that in former times, the Han dynasty granted the Bestowments to Wei, and Wei granted them to Jin. But these were things only done in the moment, and they cannot set a common precedent. Were the accomplishments of Zhou Bo and Huo Guang of Han not exceptional indeed? Yet there was never the suggestion that they should receive the Bestowments."

Zhang Lin had become more and more angry with Liu Song, and he now accused Liu Song of having been one of Zhang Hua's partisans, and was about to kill him. Sun Xiu warned him, "You already did harm to the hopes of the times by killing Zhang Hua and Pei Wei. You cannot kill Liu Song as well." So Zhang Lin held back. Liu Song was appointed as Household Counselor With Golden Tassel.

An edict was issued granting Sima Lun the Nine Bestowments, and further promoting his sons: his eldest son Sima Fu was appointed General Who Nurtures The Army, Sima Qian was appointed General of the Central Army, and Sima Xu was appointed Palace Attendant. Sun Xiu was promoted as Palace Attendant, General Who Upholds The State, and Marshal to the Chancellor of State, while retaining his original authority as Guard Commander of the Right. Zhang Lin and others were all assigned to conspicuous and important places.

The guards of the Chancellor's office were increased to twenty thousand men. Combined with the household guards, as well as other soldiers who were retained in secret, there were more than thirty thousand altogether.

〈謂禪代然後有九錫,非常典也。〉〈謂周勃、霍光定策以安漢室,且不聞有九錫之命,所以折倫、秀之姦謀也。〉〈《晉志》:光祿大夫與卿同,秩中二千石,著進賢兩梁冠,黑介幘,五時朝服,佩水蒼玉。《考異》曰:《三十國春秋》云:「倫黨大怒,謀害頌,頌懼,自殺。」《頌傳》云:「頌爲光祿,尋病卒。」今從《傳》。〉〈撫軍將軍,文帝以授武帝,遂以代魏。倫以加其世子,意趣爲何?〉〈武帝受禪,置中軍將軍,統宿衞七軍,尋罷,已而復置。〉〈右率,右衞率也。不解此官者,欲握東宮兵。〉

(Liu Song was saying that the Nine Bestowments were a sign of dynastic abdication, and not a common canon. Regarding Zhou Bo and Huo Guang, these men had maintained peace and plotted strategy to secure the royal family of Han, but there had been no mention of them having been granted the Nine Bestowments. Liu Song meant to quash Sima Lun's and Sun Xiu's wicked schemes.

The Records of Jin states, "The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel was the equal of the great ministers. His salary rank was Fully Two Thousand 石. In advancing the worthy, he wore a double-ridged cap, a black shell headdress, court clothing of the Five Ages, and a water-green jade at his waist."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms states, 'Sima Lun's followers were very angry at Liu Song, and they plotted for how they might kill him. Liu Song, afraid, killed himself.' But the Biography of Liu Song in the Book of Jin states, 'Liu Song was appointed Household Counselor with Golden Tassel, but he soon passed away from illness.' I follow that account."

It should be noted that Sima Zhao had appointed his son Sima Yan as General Who Nurtures The Army, and Sima Yan later accepted the abdication from Cao-Wei. When Sima Lun granted his eldest son this same rank, what else could his intentions have been?

When Sima Yan had accepted the abdication of Cao-Wei, he created the rank of General of the Central Army, with command over the seven armies of household guards. The rank was soon abolished, but by now had been brought back again.

The passage says that Sun Xiu retained his authority as "Commander of the Right"; it means Guard Commander of the Right. He did not give up this office because he wanted to maintain his control on the soldiers of the Eastern Palace.)


九月,改司徒爲丞相,以梁王肜爲之,肜固辭不受。

28. In the ninth month, the office of Minister Over The Masses was changed to Prime Minister. Sima Rong was appointed to this office, but he declined and would not accept it.

倫及諸子皆頑鄙無識,秀狡黠貪淫,所與共事者,皆邪佞之士,惟競榮利,無遠謀深略,志趣乖異,互相憎嫉。秀子會爲射聲校尉,形貌短陋,如奴僕之下者,秀使尚帝女河東公主。

29. Sima Lun and his sons were all stupid and vulgar fellows who knew nothing, while Sun Xiu was a cunning and crafty man, greedy and licentious. He worked together only with those who were willing to flatter and cater to him, and he thought only of how he might benefit himself, never giving thought to long-term affairs or carefully considered plans. He was disposed to hate and abhor anything that went against him.

Sun Xiu's son Sun Hui was appointed as Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound. Sun Hui was short and ugly in appearance, like something less than a slave or servant, but Sun Xiu married him to Emperor Hui's daughter, the Princess of Hedong.

〈史言倫、秀兵已在頸,乃圖非望。〉

(This passage shows how, relying upon their military authority, Sima Lun and Sun Xiu were abusing their power.)


冬,十一月,甲子,立皇后羊氏,赦天下。后,尚書郎泰山羊玄之之女也。外祖平南將軍樂安孫旂,與孫秀善,故秀立之。拜玄之光祿大夫、特進、散騎常侍,封興晉侯。

30. In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Jiazi (December 4th), Yang Xianrong was made the new Empress, and an amnesty was declared throughout the realm. She was the daughter of the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Yang Xuanzhi of Taishan. Her maternal grandfather was the General Who Pacifies The South, Sun Qi of Le'an. She was on good terms with Sun Xiu, which was why he arranged for her to become Empress. Yang Xuanzhi was honored with appointments as Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Specially Advanced, and Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and named as Marquis of Xingjin.

〈《晉志》:光祿大夫,假銀章青綬者,品秩第三;加特進,則品秩與左右光祿大夫同矣。晉置興晉郡,在唐河州界。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel had silver seals and green tassels, and was in the third rank of the Nine Ranks system. With the additional designation of Specially Advanced, its salary increased to be equal to that of the Household Counselors With Golden Tassels of the Left and Right."

Jin had created Xingjin commandary. It was within the Tang dynasty's Hezhou.)


詔徵益州刺史趙廞爲大長秋,以成都內史中山耿滕爲益州刺史。廞,賈后之姻親也。聞徵,甚懼,且以晉室衰亂,陰有據蜀之志,乃傾倉廩,賑流民,以收衆心。以李特兄弟材武,其黨類皆巴西人,與廞同郡,厚遇之以爲爪牙。特等憑恃廞勢,專聚衆爲盜,蜀人患之。滕數密表:「流民剛剽,蜀人愞弱,主不能制客,必爲亂階,宜使還本居。若留之險地,恐秦、雍之禍更移於梁、益矣。」廞聞而惡之。

31. An edict was issued summoning the Inspector of Yizhou, Zhao Xin, back to the capital to serve as Manager of the Empress's Palace. The Interior Minister of Chengdu, Geng Teng of Zhongshan, was to become the new Inspector of Yizhou.

Now Zhao Xin was related to Jia Nanfeng by marriage, and when he heard about the summons, he was very afraid. Beyond that, he felt that the Jin royal family was suffering from grief and turmoil, and he had secret ambitions of taking over the Shu region for himself. So he opened the government storehouses and distributed food among the refugees from the north, in order to win the hearts of the people.

The Ba-Di leader Li Te and his brothers were all men skilled in military matters, and he and his partisans and followers were all natives of Baxi, the same commandary as Zhao Xin hailed from. So Zhao Xin treated them well, in order to keep them as his fangs and claws. Thanks to Zhao Xin's support, Li Te and the others gathered people together to become bandits, and the natives of Shu suffered from them.

Geng Teng secretly sent up several petitions to the court, stating, "The refugees are bold and strong, while the natives of Shu are timid and weak. When the host is unable to control the guest, chaos in the proper hierarchy is sure to follow. You should send them back to their original homes again. If they were to remain in such a strategic region, I fear the recent troubles in Qinzhou and Yongzhou might be repeated on an even worse scale in Lianzhou and Yizhou."

When Zhao Xin heard about these petitions, he resented Geng Teng.

〈晉諸王國置內史,猶漢王國相也。武帝太康九年,改諸王國相爲內史。《考異》曰:《帝紀》作「耿勝」,《載記》、《華陽國志》作「滕」。今從之。〉〈懼以賈后親黨連坐。〉〈李特黨類本巴氐,趙廞亦巴西人也。〉〈特等入蜀事,始上卷元康八年。〉〈蜀地阻險。〉〈流民本居秦、雍。〉

(When Jin created the princely fiefs for its princes, the officials in charge of administering them were called Interior Ministers; these were the same as the Chancellors who administered princely fiefs during Han times. Sima Yan changed the name of the office to Interior Minister in the ninth year of Taikang (288).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin records the name of the Interior Minister mentioned here as Geng 勝 Sheng, but the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and the Huayang Guozhi both record his name as Geng 滕 Teng. I follow their accounts."

Zhao Xin feared that he would be blamed for his family ties and association with Jia Nanfeng.

Li Te and his followers were all Ba-Di people from Baxi, and Zhao Xin was also a native of Baxi.

Li Te's entry into the Shu region with the refugees fleeing from the turmoil in Guanzhong is mentioned in Book 82, in the eighth year of Yuankang (298.4).

The Shu region was a place of difficult and defensible terrain.

The refugees now in Yizhou had originally come from Qinzhou and Yongzhou.)


永康元年,詔徵益州刺史趙廞為大長秋,以成都內史耿滕代廞。廞遂謀叛,潛有劉氏割據之志。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

In the first year of the Yongkang reign era (300), an edict was issued summoning the Inspector of Yizhou, Zhao Xin, back to the capital to serve as Manager of the Empress’s Palace. The Interior Minister of Chengdu, Geng Teng, was to become the new Inspector of Yizhou. Zhao Xin plotted to rebel instead, and he secretly had ambitions of carving out and holding the territory of Yizhou for himself, as the Liu clan had once done (Liu Yan, Liu Zhang, Liu Bei, and Liu Shan).

永康元年,詔征益州刺史趙廞為大長秋,以成都內史耿滕代廞。廞遂謀叛,潛有劉氏割據之志,乃傾倉廩,振施流人,以收眾心。特之党類皆巴西人,與廞同郡,率多勇壯,廞厚遇之,以為爪牙,故特等聚眾,專為寇盜,蜀人患之。滕密上表,以為流人剛剽而蜀人懦弱,客主不能相制,必為亂階,宜使移還其本。若致之險地,將恐秦雍之禍萃于梁益,必貽聖朝西顧之憂。廞聞而惡之。(Book of Jin 120)

In the first year of the Yongkang reign era (300), an edict was issued summoning the Inspector of Yizhou, Zhao Xin, back to the capital to serve as Manager of the Empress’s Palace. The Interior Minister of Chengdu, Geng Teng of Zhongshan, was to become the new Inspector of Yizhou.

Zhao Xin plotted to rebel instead, and he secretly had ambitions of carving out and holding the territory of Yizhou for himself, as the Liu clan had once done (Liu Yan, Liu Zhang, Liu Bei, and Liu Shan). So he opened the government storehouses and distributed food among the refugees from the north, in order to win the hearts of the people.

Li Te and his partisans and followers were all natives of Baxi, the same commandary as Zhao Xin hailed from, and he led many brave fellows. So Zhao Xin treated them well, in order to keep them as his claws and fangs. Thanks to Zhao Xin’s support, Li Te and the others gathered people together to become bandits, and the natives of Shu suffered from them.

Geng Teng secretly sent up a petition, stating that the refugees were bold and strong, while the natives of Shu were timid and weak; when the hosts and guests were unable to control one another, chaos in the proper hierarchy was sure to follow. He said that the refugees should be sent back to their original homes again. If they were to remain in such a strategic region, he feared the recent troubles in Qinzhou and Yongzhou (from Qiwannian’s rebellion) might be repeated on an even worse scale in Lianzhou and Yizhou, which would certainly leave a source of anxiety for the court whenever they looked to the west. Zhao Xin found out about the petition and resented Geng Teng.

永康元年,詔徵刺史廞為大長秋。遷成都內史中山耿滕為益州刺史、折衝將軍,因廞所服佩。初,廞以晉政衰而趙星黃,占曰:「星黃者王。」陰懷異計。「蜀土四塞,可以自安。」乃傾倉賑施流民,以收眾心。以李特弟庠衛六郡人,勇壯此下當有者字。厚卹遇之。流民恃此,專為劫盜。蜀民患之。滕數密表:「流民剛戇,而蜀人懦弱,客主不能相饒,宜移還其本土。不者,與東三郡隘地。觀其情態,漸不可長,將移秦雍之禍於梁益矣。」又言:「倉庫虛竭,無以應鋒鏑之急。必益聖朝西顧之憂。」由是廞惡滕。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4)

In the first year of Yongkang (300), an edict was issued summoning the Inspector of Yizhou, Zhao Xin, back to the capital to serve as Manager of the Empress's Palace. The Interior Minister of Chengdu, Geng Teng of Zhongshan, was to become the new Inspector of Yizhou and the General Who Breaks And Charges, to serve as Zhao Xin's replacement.

Before this time, Zhao Xin had noted Jin's dreadful governance, and he also saw that the star which represented the Zhao region (the same as his own surname) glowed brightly. There was a prophecy which stated, "The one whose star shines bright shall be king (or, chief)." So Zhao Xin also nurtured his own plans, thinking, "Within the four confines of the Shu region, I can secure myself." He opened the government storehouses and distributed food among the refugees from the north, in order to win the hearts of the people.

Zhao Xin had Li Te's younger brother Li Xiáng guard the refugees of the six northern commandaries, for Li Xiáng was renowned for his courage and strength. Zhao Xin treated Li Xiáng with great favor. So the refugees came to rely upon him, and they became bandits, becoming a nuisance to the natives of Shu.

Geng Teng secretly sent up several petitions to the court, stating, "The refugees are bold and strong, while the natives of Shu are timid and weak. Since there is not enough to provide for both the guests and the hosts (or, since the guests and the hosts cannot control each other), you should send the refugees back to their original homes again (or, you should move them away). Otherwise, they will occupy the narrow places of the eastern three commandaries. Considering their spirit (or, their overbearingness or overbearing assertiveness), I am afraid that before long, the recent troubles in Qinzhou and Yongzhou might be repeated on an even worse scale in Lianzhou and Yizhou."

He also stated, "Our granaries and warehouses lie empty and barren, and we are not prepared to match the ferocity of a zealous foe (or, to meet this foe). (If any emergency should happen,) This will certainly increase the court's anxiety whenever they look to the west."

Zhao Xin thus resented him for sending these petitions.

張、吳、何、王、浙石本王作主。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作制。他各本作饒。元豐本作「移遷」。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作「遷還」。 劉本作熊。李本作「倩熊」。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本改作「倉庫虛,無以應敵。萬一告急,必益聖朝西顧之慮」。(HYGZ Commentary)

(Regarding the prophecy, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write the character 王 "king" as 主 "chief".

For the character 饒 "provide" in Geng Teng's first petition, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions have this character as 制 "control". Other editions all write it as 饒.

For the characters 移還 "move them back again" later in the petition, the Yuanfeng edition writes them as 移遷 "move them away", and the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write them as 遷還 "move them back again".

For the character 態 "spirit" in the petition, the Liu edition writes it as 熊 "overbearingness", and the Li edition has 倩熊 "assertive overbearingness".

Regarding the second petition, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions change the text to "Our granaries and warehouses lie empty, and we are unprepared to meet this foe. If any emergency should happen..." etc.)


州被詔書,遣文武千餘人迎滕。是時,成都治少城,益州治太城,廞猶在太城,未去。滕欲入州,功曹陳恂諫曰:「今州、郡搆怨日深,入城必有大禍,不如留少城以觀其變,檄諸縣合村保以備秦氐,陳西夷行至,且當待之。不然,退保犍爲,西渡江源,以防非常。」滕不從。是日,帥衆入州,廞遣兵逆之,戰于西門,滕敗死,郡吏皆竄走,惟陳恂面縛詣廞,請滕死;廞義而許之。

32. When the summons edict arrived, more than a thousand civil and military officials went to attend to Geng Teng. At this time, the administrative center for Chengdu commandary was in the Lesser City, while the center for Yizhou was in the Greater City. Zhao Xin remained inside the Greater City and did not yet go out.

Geng Teng wished to go to the provincial center, but his Merit Evaluator, Chen Xun, remonstrated with him, saying, "Resentment between you and Zhao Xin has been piling up more and more by the day. If you enter the Greater City, you are certain to meet with great disaster. It would be better for you to remain in the Lesser City for now and await developments. Send out a proclamation to all the counties warning them to band together in defense against the Di from the Qin region. The Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Chen Zong, is on his way here, and you should wait for him to arrive. Or if you do not want to do that, then fall back from here to defend yourself at Jianwei, or head west and cross over to Jiangyuan, so that you can guard against anything unusual."

But Geng Teng did not listen to his advice.

The same day, Geng Teng led his people to try to enter the provincial center. Zhao Xin sent soldiers to block them, and they fought at the West Gate, where Geng Teng was defeated and killed. All of the commandary officials scurried away like mice. Only Chen Xun remained; he tied himself up and then presented himself to Zhao Xin, asking to be given Geng Teng's body. Zhao Xin respected his request and granted it.

〈二城皆秦張儀所築。儀旣築太城,後一年又築少城。太城今成都府子城也,少城唯西南北三壁,東卽太城之西墉也。〉〈州,謂益州;郡,謂成都。此言廞、滕搆怨也。〉〈李特等本巴氐,蜀人以其徙居秦州界,因謂之秦氐。〉〈陳西夷,謂西夷校尉陳總也。行至,言總來領西夷校尉之職,行且至成都也。晉置西夷校尉於汶山,平越中郎將於廣州,南蠻校尉於襄陽,南夷校尉於寧州。〉〈江源縣,漢屬蜀郡,後李雄分立江源郡,晉改爲多融縣,又改爲晉原縣。唐蜀州之晉原、青城、唐安三縣,皆漢江源縣地。〉〈《考異》曰:《華陽國志》曰:「戰於廣漢宣化亭,殺傳詔。」按州郡俱治成都,不容戰於廣漢。又趙廞若已與滕戰,不應欲直入州。今從《載記》。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「死」作「喪」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】請其屍而葬之。死,讀曰屍。〉

(The Greater City and the Lesser City were both built by Zhang Yi of the state of Qin. Having first built the Greater City, Zhang Yi also built the Lesser City a year later. The Greater City is now the minor city of the modern Chengdu Command Post, and the Lesser City only has its western, southern, and northern ramparts remaining, since its eastern rampart was incorporated into the city wall of the Greater City.

Chen Xun speaks of a quarrel between "the province" and "the commandary". He meant Yizhou and Chengdu commandary, or more specifically, the resentment building up between Zhao Xin and Geng Teng.

Li Te and the others were originally Di people from the Ba region, but they had since been living within Qinzhou, and this was why Chen Xun calls them "the Di from the Qin region".

Chen Xun refers to "Colonel Chen"; he means the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Chen Zong. By "on his way", he means that Chen Zong was close at hand in his capacity as Colonel, and was near to Chengdu. Jin had posted the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes at Wenshan. The General of the Household Gentlemen Who Pacifies The Yue Tribes was at Guangzhou, the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes was at Xiangyang, and the Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes was at Ningzhou.

During Han, Jiangyuan County was part of Shu commandary. During Li Xiong's reign, he split it off to form Jiangyuan commandary. When Jin regained the Shu region, they changed it to Duorong County, and later changed it to Jinyuan County. Tang's Jinyuan, Qingcheng, and Tang'an Counties in Shuzhou were all within the territory of Han's Jiangyuan County.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Huayang Guozhi states, 'There was a battle at Xuanhua Village in Guanghan, where the bearer of the edict was killed.' But seeing as the provincial and commandary centers were both in Chengdu, there could not have been the occasion for a battle at Guanghan. And if Zhao Xin had already just fought Geng Teng, he would not have gone straightaway out into the province. So I follow the account in the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin."

Chen Xun more specifically asked for Geng Teng's "deceasedness", or some versions say "mournfulness"; this was a way of saying his corpse. He wished to receive the corpse to bury it.)


滕率衆入內,廞遣衆迎之,戰于西門,滕敗走,廞獲殺之。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

Geng Teng led his forces into the provincial administration center (at Chengdu), but Zhao Xin sent his own troops to oppose Geng Teng. They fought at the West Gate, where Geng Teng was defeated, and Zhao Xin captured and killed him.

時益州文武千餘人已往迎滕,滕率眾入州,廞遣眾逆滕,戰于西門,滕敗,死之。(Book of Jin 120)

By this time, more than a thousand civil and military officials had already welcomed Geng Teng as the new Inspector. Geng Teng led his forces into the provincial administration center (at Chengdu), but Zhao Xin sent his own troops to oppose Geng Teng. They fought at the West Gate, where Geng Teng was defeated and killed.

州被詔書,已遣文武士千餘人迎滕。滕以廞未出州,故在郡。廞募庠黨羅安、王利等劫滕,〔殺傳詔者,〕大敗於「廣漢」宣化亭。「殺傳詔者」滕議欲入州城。功曹陳恂諫曰:「今州郡并治兵,怨搆日深。入城必有大禍。不如安住少城,檄諸縣合村保,以備秦氐。陳西夷行至。且觀其變。不爾,可退住犍為,西渡江原,以防非常。」滕不從。冬十有二月,滕入城,登西門。廞遣親近代茂取滕。茂告之而去。廞又遣兵討滕。滕軍敗績,自投少城「上」〔死〕。吏左雄負滕子奇依民宋寧藏。廞購千金,寧不出。廞尋敗,得免。郡吏皆竄走,惟陳恂面縛詣廞,請滕死喪。廞義而不殺也。恂與戶曹掾常敞共備棺冢葬之。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4)

By the time the edict letter arrived in Yizhou, more than a thousand civil and military people (or, officials) had gone over to Geng Teng. Since Zhao Xin had not yet vacated the provincial headquarters, Geng Teng was still in the commandary headquarters. Zhao Xin recruited some of Li Xiáng partisans, Luo An, Wang Li, and others, to raid Geng Teng, and they inflicted a great defeat at Xuanhua Village and killed the edict-bearer.

Geng Teng discussed going into the provincial headquarters. His Merit Evaluator, Chen Xun, remonstrated with him, saying, "Resentment between you and Zhao Xin has been piling up more and more by the day. If you enter the Greater City, you are certain to meet with great disaster. It would be better for you to remain secure in the Lesser City for now. Send out a proclamation to all the counties, warning them to band together in defense against the Di from the Qin region. The Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Chen (Zong), is on his way here. You should watch and see what develops. Or if you do not want to do that, you can fall back from here towards Jianwei, or head west and cross over to Jiangyuan, so that you can guard against anything unusual."

But Geng Teng did not listen to his advice.

In winter, the twelfth month, Geng Teng entered the Greater City and mounted the West Gate. Zhao Xin sent his personal associate Dai Mao to apprehend Geng Teng, but Dai Mao simply informed Geng Teng of what was going on and then left. So Zhao Xin sent soldiers to attack Geng Teng. Geng Teng's army was defeated several times, and he fell back to (atop) the Lesser City (and died).

The official Zuo Xiong took Geng Teng's son Geng Qi and sent him to hide with the peasant Song Ning. Zhao Xin offered Song Ning a thousand gold, but Song Ning would not produce Geng Qi. Since Zhao Xin was soon defeated, Geng Qi was able to escape.

All of the commandary officials scurried away like mice. Only Chen Xun remained; he tied himself up and then presented himself to Zhao Xin, asking to be given Geng Teng's body. Zhao Xin respected his request and did not kill him. Chen Xun and the 戶曹掾, Chang (or Shang) Chang, prepared a coffin and tomb together and buried Geng Teng.

當有吏字。張、吳、何、王、浙本此誤作滕。下同。舊各本同誤,茲刪移訂正。說詳注釋。張、吳、何、王、石本無此五字。元豐等舊本有。浙本擠補。舊各本作上。按上下文,當作死。錢寫脫尋字。廖本作「廞尋敗」。他各本作「尋廞敗」。(HYGZ Commentary)

(For the phrase 文武士 "civil and military people", the character 吏 "officials" should be added before 士 to clarify it.

In the sentence "Geng Teng was still in the commandary headquarters...", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Zhe editions have mistakenly written the character 滕 (Geng) Teng as 滕 Teng, and they repeat the error below.

The old editions have all mistakenly placed the phrase 殺傳詔者 "they killed the edict-bearer" at the beginning of the sentence which goes on to say "they inflicted a great defeat at Xuanhua Pavilion". I have moved the phrase to the end of that sentence to rectify the error. Refer to my notes.

Regarding the sentence "The Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Chen (Zong), is on his way here", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions do not contain this sentence. But the Yuanfeng and other old editions do contain it. The Zhe edition has packed it in.

Regarding Geng Teng's fate, the old editions all end the sentence with the character 上 "atop", as in "he fell back to atop the Lesser City". But considering the context of the rest of this passage, it ought to be 死 "died", as in "he fell back to the Lesser City and died".

Regarding the phrase 廞尋敗 "Zhao Xin was soon defeated", Qian has ommitted the character 尋 "soon". The Liao edition writes it as 廞尋敗, while the other editions write it as 尋廞敗 "soon, Zhao Xin was defeated".

Regarding the other man who helped bury Geng Teng, here written with the surname 常 Chang, the Yuanfeng edition writes his surname as 尚 Shang.)


廞又遣兵逆西夷校尉陳總。總至江陽,聞廞有異志,主簿蜀郡趙模曰:「今州郡不協,必生大變,當速行赴之。府是兵要,助順討逆,誰敢動者!」總更緣道停留,比至南安魚涪津,已遇廞軍,模白總:「散財募士以拒戰,若克州軍,則州可得;不克,順流而退,必無害也。」總曰:「趙益州忿耿侯,故殺之;與吾無嫌,何爲如此!」模曰:「今州起事,必當殺君以立威,雖不戰,無益也。」言至垂涕,總不聽,衆遂自潰。總逃草中,模著總服格戰;廞兵殺模,見其非是,更搜求得總,殺之。

33. Zhao Xin then sent troops to oppose the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Chen Zong.

Chen Zong had reached Jiangyang when he heard of Zhao Xin's sinister intentions. His Registrar, Zhao Mo of Shu commandary, said to him, "The Inspector and the Interior Minister are currently at odds, and there is sure to be some great development. You should hurry to where they are to receive them. Sir, you have a critical body of soldiers, and you should be assisting the loyal and punishing the disloyal. Who would dare to move against you?"

But Chen Zong's advance was held up by the roads, causing him to linger. By the time he came to Yufu Crossing in Nan'an County, Zhao Xin's army was already there.

Zhao Mo warned Chen Zong, "You should spread wealth around and so recruit more soldiers to your side in order to fight the enemy. If you can overcome the provincial army, then the province will be yours. But even if you cannot defeat them, then the loyalists will just all scatter and flee, and no harm will come to them."

But Chen Zong replied, "Inspector Zhao hated Geng Teng, and that was why he killed him. But he has no quarrel with me. How can I do as you suggest?"

Zhao Mo said, "Zhao Xin has already launched his rebellion, and he will certainly kill you in order to augment his power. If you do not fight him, you will gain nothing." And Zhao Mo continued to beg, hanging his head and weeping, but Chen Zong still would not listen.

Chen Zong's troops began to melt away of their own accord, and Chen Zong himself fled to hide among the grass. Zhao Mo put on Chen Zong's clothing to attempt to direct the battle, but Zhao Xin's soldiers killed him. When they saw that he was not actually Chen Zong, they went in search of him, and found Chen Zong and killed him.

〈江陽縣,漢屬犍爲郡,劉璋分江陽郡;唐瀘州瀘川、綿水二縣,漢江陽之地也。〉〈言西夷府總蜀兵之要,順,謂耿滕,逆,謂趙廞,使總助滕討廞也。〉〈南安縣,屬犍爲郡,有魚涪津。唐眉州青神縣,漢南安縣地。宋白曰:榮州應靈縣、資官縣、嘉州龍游,皆漢南安縣。〉〈言破廞軍則益州可取,罪人斯得矣。〉〈言順流而退,廞軍勢不能追,必無所害。〉〈兵臨其前,猶發是言,陳總特庸人耳。〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「廞又殺犍爲太守李密、汶山太守霍固。」按《華陽國志》,犍爲太守李苾、汶山太守楊邠,非密、固也。《載記》亦作「李苾」,蓋《紀》誤。〉

(During Han, Jiangyang County was part of Jianwei commandary. Liu Zhang split it off as Jiangyang commandary. Tang's Luchuan and Mianshui Counties in Luzhou were within the territory of Han's Jiangyang County.

Zhao Mo was saying that Chen Zong commanded a critical body of soldiers in the Shu region. By "the loyal" he meant Geng Teng, and by "the disloyal" he meant Zhao Xin. He was urging Chen Zong to aid Geng Teng and punish Zhao Xin.

Nan'an County was part of Jianwei commandary; Yufu Crossing was in that county. Tang's Qingshen County in Meizhou was the same county as Nan'an. Song Bai remarked, "Yingling and Ziguan Counties in Rongzhou and Longyou County in Jiazhou were all part of Han's Nan'an County."

Regarding his battle advice, Zhao Mo was saying that if Chen Zong defeated Zhao Xin's army, he could secure the province and deal with all of the traitors, while if the loyalists were forced to run away after a defeat, Zhao Xin's army was not strong enough to pursue them, so they would not be harmed.

Chen Zong's army was immediately before the enemy, and yet he could say something like this. Was he not an exceptionally inferior sort of man?

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin states, 'Zhao Xin also killed the Administrator of Jianwei, Li Mi, and the Administrator of Wenshan, Huo Gu.' But according to the Huayang Guozhi, the Administrator of Jianwei at this time was Li Bi, not Li Mi, and the Administrator of Wenshan was Yang Bin, not Huo Gu. The Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin also lists Li Bi as the Administrator of Jianwei. The Annals of Emperor Hui must be mistaken.")


廞義而不殺也。恂與戶曹掾常敞共備棺冢葬之。廞又遣軍逆陳總。總至江陽,聞廞有異志。主簿趙模進曰:「今州郡不協,必生大變。惟當速行。府是兵要,助順討逆,莫有動者也。」總更緣道遲留。至南安魚涪津,以與廞軍遇。模白總:「散財貨,募士卒距錢寫作拒。戰。若克州軍,則州可得。不克,順流而退,必無害也。」總不能更,曰:「趙益州忿耿侯,故殺之。與吾無嫌,何為如此。」模曰:「今州起事,必當立威。雖不戰,無益也。」言至垂涕。總不聽。眾弛。總逃草中。模衣總服格戰。廞兵殺模,見非總,乃搜求總殺之。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4)

Zhao Xin then sent troops to oppose the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Chen Zong.

Chen Zong had reached Jiangyang when he heard of Zhao Xin's sinister intentions. His Registrar, Zhao Mo, stepped forward and said to him, "The Inspector and the Interior Minister are currently at odds, and there is sure to be some great development. You can only hurry to where they are to receive them. Sir, you have a critical body of soldiers, and you should be assisting the loyal and punishing the disloyal. No one would dare to move against you. (or, Who would dare to move against you?)"

But Chen Zong's advance was held up by the roads, causing him to linger. By the time he reached Yufu Crossing in Nan'an County, Zhao Xin's army was already there (or, he had already encountered Zhao Xin's army).

Zhao Mo (or, Someone) warned Chen Zong, "You should spread wealth around and so recruit more soldiers to your side in order to avoid (or, fight) the enemy. If you can overcome the provincial army, then the province will be yours. But even if you cannot defeat them, then the loyalists will just all scatter and flee, and no harm will come to them."

But Chen Zong could not be moved, and he replied, "Inspector Zhao hated Geng Teng, and that was why he killed him. But he has no quarrel with me. How can I do as you suggest?"

Zhao Mo said, "Zhao Xin has already launched his rebellion, and he will certainly augment his power. Even if you do not fight him, you will gain nothing." And Zhao Mo continued to beg, hanging his head and weeping, but Chen Zong still would not listen.

Chen Zong's army scattered (or, delayed, or melted away of their own accord). Chen Zong himself fled to hide among the grass. Zhao Mo put on Chen Zong's clothing to attempt to direct the battle, but Zhao Xin's soldiers killed him. When they saw that he was not actually Chen Zong, they went in search of Chen Zong and killed him (or, they found Chen Zong and killed him).

《通鑑》作「誰敢動者」。《通鑑》作「已遇廞軍」。以、已字通。舊各本無此模字。廖本同,《通鑑》有。距: 錢寫作拒。更,改其本意也。張、吳、何、王、浙、本字作拖。《通鑑》作「眾逐自潰」。《通鑑》作:「更搜求得總,殺之。」(HYGZ Commentary)

(In Zhao Mo's initial suggestion, the Tongdian encyclopedia records his last line as 「誰敢動者」"Who would dare to move against you?"

Regarding the phrase 以與廞軍遇 "Zhao Xin's army was already there", the Tongdian encyclopedia records this line as 已遇廞軍 "he had already encountered Zhao Xin's army". The 以 character has been modified into 已.

The old editions do not record Jia Mo himself as having given the second set of advice to Chen Zong. But the Liao edition does have it, and so does the Tongdian encyclopedia.

Regarding the character 距 "avoid", Qian writes this character as 拒 "oppose".

In the phrase "Chen Zong could not be moved", in this case 更 "moved" meant "to change his original intention".

Regarding the phrase 眾弛 "the army scattered", the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Zhe editions write the second character as 拖 "delayed". The Tongdian encyclapedia records this line as 眾逐自潰 "the army began to melt away of their own accord".

Regarding the phrase 乃搜求總殺之 "they went in search of Chen Zong and killed him", the Tongdian encyclopedia records this line as 更搜求得總,殺之 "they went in search of him, and found Chen Zong and killed him.")


廞自稱大都督、大將軍、益州牧,署置僚屬,改易守令,王官被召,無敢不往。李庠帥妹壻李含、天水任回、上官晶、扶風李攀、始平費他、氐苻成、隗伯等四千騎歸廞。廞以庠爲威寇將軍,封陽泉亭侯,委以心膂,使招合六郡壯勇至萬餘人,以斷北道。

34. Zhao Xin declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, and Governor of Yizhou. He made his own appointments for his subordinate offices, changing out people as Administrators and Prefects, and if he summoned anyone who already held a royal appointment, none of them dared not to come.

Li Te's younger brother Li Xiáng, at the head of four thousand cavalry, came to join Zhao Xin along with many others: his brother-in-law Li Han, Ren Hui of Tianshui, Shangguan Jing, Li Pan of Fufeng, Fei Ta of Shiping, the Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Bo, and others. Zhao Xin appointed Li Xiáng as General Who Awes Invaders and named him Marquis of Yangqiu Village, and kept him as a close confidant. He sent Li Xiáng out to round up brave fellows from the six commandaries, until he had more than ten thousand men, and he had Li Xiáng block the roads to the north.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》云「建號太平元年」,他書無之,今不取。〉〈王官,謂晉朝所命者。〉〈武帝泰始二年,分扶風置始平郡。〉〈沈約《志》:威寇將軍,四十號之第七。〉〈六郡,卽天水、略陽等六郡。壯勇,流民之壯勇者。北道,自關中入蜀之道。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin claims that at this time, 'Zhao Xin established his own reign era title, as the first year of Taiping'. But other texts do not mention such a thing, so I do not include it."

Those who held "royal appointments" had been appointed by the Jin court.

In Sima Yan's second year of Taishi (266), part of Fufeng commandary had been split off as Shiping commandary.

Shen Yue's Records states, "General Who Awes Invaders was the seventh tier of the forty General ranks."

The six commandaries mentioned here were Tianshui, Lueyang, and the other commandaries in the north. The "brave fellows" were among the refugees from those places. The roads north were those leading between Guanzhong and Shu.)


廞自稱大將軍、益州牧。特弟李庠與兄弟及妹夫李含、任回等以四千騎歸廞,廞以庠為滅寇將軍,使斷北道。(Annals of 16 Kingdoms)

Zhao Xin declared himself Grand General and Governor of Yizhou. Li Te’s younger brother Li Xiáng, at the head of four thousand cavalry, came to join Zhao Xin along with many others: his brother-in-law Li Han, Ren Hui, and others. Zhao Xin appointed Li Xiáng as General Who Vanquishes Invaders, and had him block the roads to the north.

廞自稱大都督、大將軍、益州牧。特弟庠與兄弟及妹夫李含、任回、上官惇、扶風李攀、始平費佗、氐苻成、隗伯等以四千騎歸廞。廞以庠為威寇將軍,使斷北道。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Te))

Zhao Xin declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, and Governor of Yizhou. Li Te’s younger brother Li Xiáng, at the head of four thousand cavalry, came to join Zhao Xin along with many others: his brother-in-law Li Han, Ren Hui, Shangguan Dun, Li Pan of Fufeng commandary, Fei Tuo of Shiping, the Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Bo, and others. Zhao Xin appointed Li Xiáng as General Who Awes Invaders, and had him block the roads to the north.

李流,字玄通,特第四弟也。少好學,便弓馬,東羌校尉何攀稱流有賁育之勇,舉為東羌督。及避地益州,刺史趙廞器異之。廞之使庠合部眾也,流亦招鄉里子弟得數千人。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Liu))

Li Liu, styled Xuantong, was Li Te’s younger brother, the fourth of the five brothers. As a young man, he was well-educated, and also proficient at archery and riding. The Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes, He Pan, claimed that Li Liu had the same valor as the ancient heroes Meng Ben and Xia Yu, and he nominated him as a subordinate Director under him.

Later on, when Li Liu followed the other refugees into Yizhou, the Inspector Zhao Xin marveled at him and appreciated him. When Zhao Xin ordered Li Xiáng to form an army, Li Liu recruited his own host of several thousand men from among the sons and younger brothers of natives of his hometown.

驤李庠,字玄序,特第三弟也。少以烈氣聞。仕郡督郵、主簿,皆有當官之稱。元康四年,察孝廉,不就。後以善騎射,舉良將,亦不就。州以庠才兼文武,舉秀異,固以疾辭。州郡不聽,以其名上聞,中護軍切征,不得已而應之,拜中軍騎督。弓馬便捷,膂力過人,時論方之文鴦。以洛陽方亂,稱疾去官。性在任俠,好濟人之難,州黨爭附之。與六郡流人避難梁、益,道路有饑病者,庠常營護隱恤,振施窮乏,大收眾心。至蜀,趙廞深器之,與論兵法,無不稱善,每謂所親曰:「李玄序蓋亦一時之關、張也。」及將有異志,委以心膂之任,乃表庠為部曲督,使招合六郡壯勇,至萬餘人。以討叛羌功,表庠為威寇將軍,假赤幢曲蓋,封陽泉亭侯,賜錢百萬,馬五十匹。(Book of Jin 120 (Li Xiáng))

Li Xiáng, styled Xuanzu, was Li Te’s younger brother, the third of the five brothers. Even when he was a young man, people had heard of his fierce spirit. He served in his commandary as a Courier Commander and as Registrar, and in both instances he was praised for his good work. In the fourth year of Yuankang (294), he was examined as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, but he did not accept. Later, since he was adept at mounted archery, he was nominated as a fine general, but again he did not accept.

His province, noting Li Xiáng’s talents in both civil and military affairs, nominated him as Exceptional and Remarkable, but even still he declined on account of illness. However, this time the province and commandary would not listen to his request, and when his name was called out, the Army Protector of the Center compelled him, so that he had no choice but to heed the call to service, and he was appointed as a Cavalry Commander of the Central Army. He was remarkably nimble at riding and with a bow, and his arm strength was more than human. The people of that time compared him to Wen Yang.

When Luoyang fell into turmoil, he resigned his office by claiming illness. Li Xiáng was naturally suited to a life of gallant chivalry, and he liked to help people to overcome difficulties, so people all through the province struggled against each other to be the first to come join him.

When Li Xiáng followed the other refugees and entered the Shu region, Zhao Xin deeply appreciated him. He would discusses the arts of war with Li Xiáng, and there was nothing Li Xiáng said that Zhao Xin could find fault with. Zhao Xin was always telling his associates, “Li Xuanzu is the Guan Yu or Zhang Fei of our age.” And since Zhao Xin soon developed sinister intentions, he kept Li Xiáng in a trusted position, as close to himself as the heart and spine, and he petitioned to make Li Xiáng a Divisional Commander. He sent Li Xiáng to recruit brave fellows from among the refugees of the six commandaries, until Li Xiáng had a host of more than ten thousand people. For Li Xiáng’s success in campaigning against rebellious Qiang, Zhao Xin petitioned to have him appointed as General Who Awes Invaders. He granted Li Xiáng a crimson banner and a bent canopy, appointed him as Marquis of Yangquan Village, and rewarded him with a million cash and fifty horses.

廞自稱大將軍益州牧。以武陽令蜀郡杜淑、別駕張粲、巴西張龜、西夷司馬襲尼、江原令犍為費遠等為左、右長史,司馬,參軍。徙犍為太守李庠為威寇將軍。召臨邛令涪陵許弇為牙門將。召諸王官,莫敢不往。又以廣漢太守張微、汶山太守楊邠、成都令費立為軍祭酒。時庠與兄〔特〕、弟流、驤、妹婿李含、天水任回、上官晶、張佳、扶風李攀、始平費他、氐符成、隗伯、董勝等四千騎在北門。廞使庠斷北道。(Huayang Guozhi 7.4)

Zhao Xin declared himself Grand General, (Grand Commander), and Governor of Yizhou. He appointed several people as his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right, as Marshals, and as Army Advisors, including the Prefect of Wuyang, Du Shu of Shu commandary, the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Zhang Can, Zhang Gui of Baxi commandary, the Marshal to the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Xi (or Gong) Ni, the Prefect of Jiangyuan, Fei Yuan of Jianwei commandary, and others. He transferred the Administrator of Jianwei, Li Xiáng, to be General Who Awes Invaders. He summoned the Prefect of Linqiong, Xu Yan of Fuling commandary, to be his General of the Standard. Whenever he summoned anyone who already held a royal appointment, none of them dared not to come. He also appointed the Administrator of Guanghan, Zhang Wei, the Administrator of Wenshan, Yang Bin, and the Prefect of Chengdu, Fei Li, to have them all serve as Army Libationers.

At this time, Li Xiáng, at the head of four thousand cavalry, came to join Zhao Xin at the North Gate, along with many others: his brothers (or, his elder brother Li Te and) Li Liu and Li Xiang, his brother-in-law Li Han, Ren Hui of Tianshui commandary, Shangguan Jing, Zhang Ji (or Shangguan Dun), Li Pan of Fufeng commandary, Fei Ta (or Tuo) of Shiping commandary, the Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Bo, Dong Sheng, and others. Zhao Xin had Li Xiáng block the roads to the north.

此下廖本註云:「當有都督大三字。」各舊本俱作龔,廖本獨作襲。廖本有注云:「《後賢志》及《目錄》皆作徵。」今按:《晉書惠帝紀》太安元年作微,《載記》作徵。《常志》舊本中,元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》本作微。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作徵。查裴松之《三國志‧張翼傳》注引《華陽國志》,作微。則徵字訛也。兄: 廖本注云:「當有特字。」張佳: 胤註云:「按《晉書》作上官惇。」吳、何、王、浙、石本俱有此注。費他: 元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本作他。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作佗。錢寫作「陣」。元豐本與錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本并如此。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本改作「不用麾幟、舉矛為行五。斬部下不用命者三人,部陣肅然」,接「廞等忌之」句。胤依《晉書‧李特載記》改也。浙本剜改五下十三字如宋舊。升: 張、吳、何、王、石本作外。浙本剜改作升。許弇: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本俱有「牙門將」三字在許上。逆: 元豐與錢、劉、李、《函》、廖本作逆。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作「固執」二字。粲: 李本粲字皆作燦。(HYGZ Commentary)

(In the list of titles which Zhao Xin proclaimed himself, the Liao edition includes a note stating 當有都督大三字 “the characters for Grand Commander should be listed here”.

Regarding this 襲 Xi Ni, the old editions all write his surname as 龔 Gong, and only the Liao edition writes it as 襲.

Regarding this Zhang 微 Wei, the Liao edition includes a note which states, "The Biographies of Later Worthies chapter and the 目錄 section of the Huayang Guozhi both record this man's given name as 徵 Zheng." Here I (the commentator) will note: The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin records this man's given name as 微 Wei in the first year of Tai'an (302), while the Biography of Li Te in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records his given name as 徵 Zheng. And in the original edition of the 常志, the Yuanfeng and Qian, Liu, Li, and 《函》 editions all write it as 微 Wei, while the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write it as 徵 Zheng. If we consult Pei Songzhi's quoting of the Huayang Guozhi in his additions to the Biography of Zhang Yi (Bogong) in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, he writes the name as 微 Wei. So the instances where it is written as 徵 Zheng are a corruption of the original character.

Where the original text has 兄弟 "brothers", the Liao edition adds a note stating, "The character 特 Te should go between them (that is, to make the phrase into 'his elder brother Li Te and his younger brothers...')."

Where this list includes Zhang Ji, Yin adds a note stating, "According to the same account in the Biography of Li Te in the Book of Jin, the name at this point should be Shangguan Dun." The Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions all have the same note as well.

Regarding the given name of Fei 他 Ta, the Yuanfeng and Qian, Liu, Li, 《函》, and Liao editions write the character as 他 Ta, but the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write it as 佗 Tuo.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Aug 02, 2018 10:32 pm, edited 12 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 773
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-83-??)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Sun Nov 05, 2017 5:13 pm

Once again you blow my mind. I've got a lot to read...!

And it's so typical that they'd beat around the bush with Jia Nanfeng's relatively stable* and successful reign (albeit as puppeteer), yet dedicate entire tomes to her downfall. Granted, the war between the Princes is a big deal, but still! :P

* China was relatively stable, I mean. Maybe not so much her court.
Have a question about a book or academic article before you buy it? Maybe I have it!
Check out my library here for a list of Chinese history resources I have on hand!
User avatar
Jia Nanfeng
Assistant
 
Posts: 128
Joined: Sun Oct 22, 2017 6:30 pm

Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-83-??)

Unread postby qqdonut » Mon Nov 06, 2017 4:14 am

This is amazing. Thanks for posting these!
qqdonut
Tyro
 
Posts: 9
Joined: Sun Nov 05, 2017 10:24 am

PreviousNext

Return to Sanguo Yanyi Symposium Archives

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests

Copyright © 2002–2008 Kongming’s Archives. All Rights Reserved