SGZ Drafts Thread

Join the Romance of the Three Kingdoms discussion with our resident Scholars. Topics relating to the novel and history are both welcome. Don't forget to check the Forum Rules before posting.
Kongming’s Archives: Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms Officer Biographies
Three Kingdoms Officer Encyclopedia
Scholars of Shen Zhou Search Tool

Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby CaTigeReptile » Tue Aug 29, 2017 12:12 am

These are really so great and I'm extremely glad that you are doing them. It's awesome to see some new stuff and I love how in-depth you're going, doing not really just SGZ translations but really whole compilations of all of the available info/sources on these folks.

I'll try to see if there's anything I can do to try to check but I highly doubt I'll be able to figure something out if you haven't. I'm just so impressed with the work you've been doing on these and want to thank you again for sharing them!
User avatar
Posts: 580
Joined: Sat Aug 24, 2002 8:58 pm
Location: General who Stabs Evil People

Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Sun Fin » Tue Aug 29, 2017 7:49 am

Indeed, I do get the feeling that although the board itself is generally getting quieter the quality of stuff the board are contributing with translations and the like is at a particularly high point in the scholar's history.
Have a question about a book or academic article before you buy it? Maybe I have it!
Check out my library here for a list of Chinese history resources I have on hand!
User avatar
Sun Fin
Librarian of Shen Zhou
Posts: 7806
Joined: Sat Nov 10, 2007 9:20 pm
Location: Vicar Factory

Dong Zhuo & His Men; Wang Yun; Cai Yong; Shisun Rui & Meng

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Aug 30, 2017 12:46 am

Dong Zhuo & His Men; Wang Yun; Cai Yong; Shisun Rui & Meng

This is another update of an existing biography, in this case the Dong Zhuo biography from Empire Divided. Full credit goes to them for the base translation, I have only made updates to it. I also quote the relevant ZZTJ passages that I could find, translations of which come from de Crespigny's To Establish Peace.

It would appear that in some places, the ED translation has applied passages from de Crespigny's ZZTJ translation directly to the most related SGZ passages, although there are some inconsistancies between the base texts. In most cases I have tried to flesh those out; in some cases they remain as is when there is no difference in the base texts.

董卓字仲穎,隴西臨洮人也。 〈《英雄記》曰:卓父君雅,由微官為潁川綸氏尉。有三子:長子擢,字孟高,早卒;次即卓;卓弟旻字叔穎。 〉少好俠,嘗遊羌中,盡與諸豪帥相結。後歸耕於野,而豪帥有來從之者,卓與俱還,殺耕牛與相宴樂。諸豪帥感其意,歸相斂,得雜畜千餘頭以贈卓。 〈《吳書》曰:郡召卓為吏,使監領盜賊。胡嘗出鈔,多虜民人,涼州刺史成就闢卓為從事,使領兵騎討捕,大破之,斬獲千計。并州刺史段颎薦卓公府,司徒袁隗闢為掾。 〉漢桓帝末,以六郡良家子為羽林郎。卓有才武,旅力少比,雙帶兩鞬,左右馳射。為軍司馬,從中郎將張奐徵并州有功,拜郎中,賜縑九千匹,卓悉以分與吏士。遷廣武令,蜀郡北部都尉,西域戊己校尉,免。徵拜并州刺史、河東太守,〈《英雄記》曰:卓數討羌、胡,前後百餘戰。 〉遷中郎將,討黃巾,軍敗抵罪。韓遂等起涼州,復為中郎將,西拒遂。於望垣硤北,為羌、胡數万人所圍,糧食乏絕。卓偽欲捕魚,堰其還道當所渡水為池,使水渟滿數十里,默從堰下過其軍而決堰。比羌、胡聞知追逐,水已深,不得渡。時六軍上隴西,五軍敗績,卓獨全眾而還,屯住扶風。拜前將軍,封斄鄉侯,徵為并州牧。 〈《靈帝紀》曰:中平五年,徵卓為少府,敕以營吏士屬左將軍皇甫嵩,詣行在所。卓上言:「涼州擾亂,鯨鯢未滅,此臣奮發效命之秋。吏士踴躍,戀恩念報,各遮臣車,辭聲懇惻,未得​​即路也。輒且行前將軍事,盡心慰卹,效力行陳。」六年,以卓為并州牧,又敕以吏兵屬皇甫嵩。卓复上言:「臣掌戎十年,士卒大小,相狎彌久,戀臣畜養之恩,樂為國家奮一旦之命,乞將之州,效力邊陲。」卓再違詔敕,會為何進所召。 〉

Dong Zhuo, styled Zhongying, was from Lintao in Longxi. In his youth he was chivalrous. He once traveled to the Qiang tribes, where he made many friends with the commanders. Later, when he had returned home and was plowing in the field, some of these tribal leaders came to visit him. Dong Zhuo invited them into his home and killed his plow oxen to feast with them. The various leaders were moved by this. When they returned home, they gathered up various livestock, more than a thousand, and presented them to Dong Zhuo.

In the latter days of Emperor Huan’s reign, the sons of good families in the six commandaries were selected to be members of the Feathered Forest Guard. Dong Zhuo had talent and valor, and few could compare with him. He carried two quivers and could shoot arrows from either left or ride while riding a horse. He became a marshal in the army; serving in Bingzhou under the General of the Palace Gentlemen, Zhang Huan, where Dong Zhuo achieved merit. He was then appointed as a Palace Gentleman and awarded nine thousand bolts of silk, all of which he distributed among his subordinates and soldiers. He was successively the prefect of Guangwu, the Controller Commandant of the northern part of Shu commandary, and the Colonel of Wuji in the Western Regions, but was then relieved of office. Later he was called upon as Inspector of Bingzhou and Administrator of Hedong. He was transferred to General of the Palace Gentlemen and campaigned against the Yellow Turbans. When the army was defeated, he was held responsible.

When Han Sui and others rebelled in Liangzhou, Dong Zhuo was reinstated as a General of the Palace Gentlemen and sent west to resist Han Sui. North of Wangyuanxia, his army was surrounded by tens of thousands of the Qiang and other tribes, and the provisions ran low. Dong Zhuo made as if his army were going to fish, so he built a dam at the river and caused the flowing water to pool up, backing up more than ten li. He then quietly led his men under the dam and destroyed it when through. When the Qiang and tribes heard what had happened, they tried to pursue the Han army, but the water was too deep and they could not cross. At that time, there were six armies dispatched to Longxi. Five of them were utterly defeated. Dong Zhuo's was the lone army to return intact. He then stationed his troops at Fufeng. Due to his accomplishments he was appointed General of the Front, and conferred as Marquis of Lixiang, as well as Governor of Bingzhou.

(The Records of Heroes states, "Dong Zhuo’s father was Dong Junya. He was commissioned as the 綸氏尉 of Yingchuan. Dong Junya's eldest son, Dong Zhuuo, was styled Menggao; he died young. The next was Dong Zhuo. His younger brother, Dong Min, was styled Shuying." It further states, "Dong Zhuo frequently went on punitive expeditions against the Qiang and other tribes. In all, he fought more than a hundred battles."

The Book of Wu states, "The commandary government summoned Dong Zhuo to serve as a minor official and to supervise operations against bandits. There was once an incident where the tribes had gone out to pillage and had captured many people. The Inspector of Liangzhou, Cheng Jiu, appointed Dong Zhuo as Attendant Official and dispatched him with horse and foot on a punitive mission against the tribes. He greatly routed them, and the number of those he killed or captured was reckoned in the thousands. The Inspector of Bingzhou, Duan Jiong, recommend Dong Zhuo for a position on the ministerial staff. The Minister Over The Masses, Yuan Wei, appointed him as an official."

The Annals of Emperor Ling states, "In the fifth year of Zhongping (188), Dong Zhuo was promoted to Privy Treasurer. He was ordered to give his troops to the General of the Left, Huangfu Song, and to present himself. Dong Zhuo submitted a petition stating, 'Liangzhou is in turmoil and rebellion, and the enemy has not yet been pacified. I am still exerting myself to the utmost to complete the royal charge I was given. My subordinates and men, eager to repay my trust and return my favor, vie with one another to obstruct my cart and prevent my departure, calling out to me in sorrow and beseeching me to stay, so that I cannot even advance along the road. All of them wish to remain with their former general and carry out his work, pouring out their hearts and exhausting their energies, wielding their strength and advancing their defenses.'

“In the sixth year of Zhongping (189), when Dong Zhuo was appointed as Governor of Bingzhou, he was again ordered to turn over his current subordinates and soldiers to Huangfu Song. Dong Zhuo submitted another petition, stating, 'During the ten years that I have held military command, my officers and men of every rank have long been close to me. They appreciate my generous care, and they are eager to exert themselves at once on behalf of any command of the state. I beg to take them with me to my province, to assist in the defense of the frontier.' Dong Zhuo thus again disobeyed the Imperial decree. He was soon summoned by He Jin.")

初,靈帝徵董卓爲少府,〈據《卓傳》,中平六年徵卓爲少府。蓋卽是年也。〉卓上書言:「所將湟中義從及秦、胡兵皆詣臣言:『牢直不畢,稟賜斷絕,妻子飢凍。』牽挽臣車,使不得行。羌、胡憋腸狗態,〈賢曰:言羌、胡心腸憋惡,情態如狗也。《方言》云:憋,惡也。郭璞云:憋怤,急性也。〉臣不能禁止,輒將順安慰,增異復上。」〈賢曰:如其更增異志,當復聞上。洪氏《隸釋》曰:漢靈帝建寧二年,《魯相史晨祠孔廟奏》後云「增異輒上」,光和二年,樊毅《復華下民租口算奏》後云「增異復上」。此蓋當時奏文結末之常語。蓋言繼今事有增於此者,異於此者,將復上奏也。〉朝廷不能制。及帝寢疾,璽書拜卓幷州牧,令以兵屬皇甫嵩。卓復上書言:「臣誤蒙天恩,掌戎十年,士卒大小,相狎彌久,戀臣畜養之恩,爲臣奮一旦之命,乞將之北州,效力邊垂。」(ZZTJ 59, 189.11)

Before this, Emperor Ling had summoned Dong Zhuo to become Privy Treasurer, but Dong Zhuo sent in a memorial saying, "My Huangzhong auxiliaries and the Qiang and other barbarians from the northwest all came to me and said, 'Our wages have not been paid and the supplies have not come through. Our wives and children are hungry and cold.' They held my carriage so it could not move. The Qiang and their fellow barbarians have evil hearts and the nature of dogs. I could not bring them to order, so I am staying with them to keep them quiet. If there is anything different or unusual, I shall report again." The court could do nothing about him.

Then Emperor Ling became seriously ill and an imperial letter appointed Dong Zhuo as Governor of Bing province, with orders to leave his troops under the command of Huangfu Song. Dong Zhuo sent in another memorial, "Despite my lack of merit, I have received your heavenly favour and held military command for ten years. My officers and men of every rank have long been close to me. They appreciate my generous care, and they obey my commands at any emergency. I beg to take them with me to the northern provinces, to assist in the defence of the frontier."

(According to Dong Zhuo's biography, he received the appointment as Privy Treasurer in the sixth year of Zhongping (189). It was this same year. (The Biography seems to actually say the fifth year was for that appointment, and the sixth year was as Inspector of Bingzhou.)

Li Xian remarked, "In saying that the Qiang and other tribes had evil hearts, he meant they had temperaments like dogs." The 方言 states that 憋 means "evil". Guo Pu remarked, "憋怤 is an unrestrained nature."

Regarding the phrase 增異復上 "If there is anything different or unusual, I shall report again", Li Xian remarked, "By this one means that if anything develops, then they shall hear of it." Lord Hong's 隸釋 states, "In Emperor Ling of Han's second year of Jianning (169), the petition 魯相史晨祠孔廟奏 ends with the phrase 增異輒上. In the second year of Guanghe (179), Fan Yi's petition 復華下民租口算奏 ends with 增異復上. During this general time period, it was a common term to place at the end of a petition. The meaning was that if anything further should develop, another petition would be submitted regarding it.")

靈帝崩,少帝即位。大將軍何進與司隸校尉袁紹謀誅諸閹官,太后不從。進乃召卓使將兵詣京師,並密令上書曰:「中常侍張讓等竊幸乘寵,濁亂海內。昔趙鞅興晉陽之甲,以逐君側之惡。臣輒鳴鐘鼓如洛陽,即討讓等。」欲以脅迫太后。卓未至,進敗。 〈《續漢書》曰:進字遂高,南陽人,太后異母兄也。進本屠家子,父曰真。真死後,進以妹倚黃門得入掖庭,有寵,光和三年立為皇后,進由是貴幸。中平元年,黃巾起,拜進大將軍。典略載卓表曰:「臣伏惟天下所以有逆不止者,各由黃門常侍張讓等侮慢天常,操擅王命,父子兄弟並據州郡,一書出門,便獲千金,京畿諸郡數百萬膏腴美田皆屬讓等,至使怨氣上蒸,妖賊起。臣前奉詔討於扶羅,將士飢乏,不肯渡河,皆言欲詣京師先誅閹豎以除民害,從臺閣求乞資直。臣隨慰撫,以至新安。臣聞揚湯止沸,不如滅火去薪,潰癰雖痛,勝於養肉,及溺呼船,悔之無及。」〉中常侍段珪等劫帝走小平津,卓遂將其眾迎帝於北芒,還宮。

When Emperor Ling died, he was succeeded by the Young Emperor (Liu Bian). The Grand General, He Jin, and Colonel-Director of Retainers, Yuan Shao, planned to execute the eunuchs, but the Empress Dowager would not consent. He Jin them summoned Dong Zhuo to move his generals and troops into the capital, and also to secretly issue a memorial stating, “The Regular Palace Attendant, Zhang Rang, and his fellows have usurped favor and played for advantage. They have corrupted and disrupted all within the seas. In ancient times, Zhao Yang raised the armed men of Jinyang to drive away the wicked from the side of his lord. Now and at once I sound the bells and drums and march to Luoyang, to punish Zhang Rang and his fellows.” Thus he intended to coerce the Empress Dowager. Before Dong Zhuo had arrived, He Jin was defeated. The Palace Regular Attendant, Duan Gui, and others kidnapped the Young Emperor and fled to Xiaoping Ford. Dong Zhuo forthwith sent his army to receive the Young Emperor at Beimang, and returned him to the palace.

(The Continued Book of Han states, "He Jin, styled Suigao, was a man from Nanyang. The Empress Dowager was his aunt. He Jin’s father He Zhen was a butcher. After He Zhen died, He Jin's younger sister became a concubine and was shown favor. In the third year of Guanghe (180) she became Empress and He Jin's name thus became honored. In the first year of Zhongping (184), the Yellow Turbans rebelled and He Jin was promoted to Grand General."

The Dianlue contains this petition from Dong Zhuo: "I, lying prostrate before the realm, do charge that the source of those whose violations continue unabated are the Regular Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Zhang Rang, and his ilk. They have mocked the proper course of things, and wielded and usurped royal authority for themselves. They have placed their fathers, sons, older and younger brothers in command of provinces and commandaries, and by sending out a single edict, they are able to reap a thousand gold. In the commandaries around the capital, millions of fertile and beautiful land has been reserved for Zhang Rang and his fellows, enough to bring resentment to a boiling point and cause bandits and villains to spring up. I lately received a command to campaign against Yufuluo, but my officers and soldiers are hungry and weary, and they were not willing to cross over the Yellow River. All of them expressed their desire to come to the capital, first to execute these vile eunuchs and alleviate the suffering of the people, and then to request sustenance from the government. In order to soothe them, I have marched as far as Xin'an. I have heard that, rather than fan a flame to put it out, it is better to smother the flames and remove the firewood. Although it is painful to burst an abscess, better that than to allow malignant flesh to grow. If one calls for the boat only once one is drowning, it is too late for regrets."


Zhang Fan’s Record of the Han states, "In the eighth month, on the Gengwu day (September 24th), the Young Emperor was kidnapped by the eunuchs. They fled out the Gu Gate until they reached the Yellow River. Many of the eunuchs threw themselves in the river and drowned. At this time, the Young Emperor (Liu Bian) was fourteen years old, and the Prince of Chenliu (Emperor Xian) was nine years old. The brothers walked out in the night alone, trying to return to the palace. It was very dark until the fireflies came out and lit up the road. The pair walked several li until they came upon a commoner and rode in his cart. On the Xinwei day (September 25th), all the public servants and Dong Zhuo came to welcome the Young Emperor at Beimang Slope."

The Annals of Emperor Xian states, "There was a children’s rhyme:

'Though the emperor doesn't rule, though the prince no office fills,
Yet a brilliant cavalcade comes along from Beimang Hills.'

At this time Dong Zhuo arrived and stationed his troops in Xianyang park. When he heard that the Young Emperor had returned, he led his force to welcome him."

The Dianlue states, "The Young Emperor saw Dong Zhuo’s soldiers and began to cry. The various ministers said to Dong Zhuo, ‘There is an imperial order to withdraw troops.’

“Dong Zhuo replied, ‘You may be high ministers of state, but you could not keep the royal house in order, and you have made the Emperor a homeless wanderer. What is this about withdrawing troops?’ He then entered the palace unabated."

The Records of Emperor Xian states, "Dong Zhuo and the Young Emperor spoke, but Dong Zhuo could not a satisfying answer from him. He then spoke to the Prince of Chenliu and asked him about disorder. The prince then explained from beginning to end, leaving nothing out. Dong Zhuo was impressed, and then started to plot to put him on the throne."

The Book of Heroes states, "The Head of the Central Precinct of Henan, Min Gong, escorted the Young Emperor and the Prince of Chenliu as far as Luoshe. The Young Emperor rode one horse, and the Prince of Chenliu and Min Gong rode another one. From Luoshe, they traveled south. They were welcomed by the ministers and chief court officials beneath Beimang Slope, and the Grand Commandant, Cui Lie, then led the procession. Dong Zhuo arrived at the head of several thousand cavalry to receive them. Cui Lie sent a messenger to keep him away. Dong Zhuo scolded Cui Lie saying, 'I have traveled three hundred li through the night! Why do you tell me to stay away? Do you not trust me?' When Dong Zhuo saw the Young Emperor, he said to him, 'Your Majesty's orders to the Regular Attendants and the eunuchs has brought about this turmoil. Do you not bear more than a little responsibility for things having come to this?' Dong Zhuo then hastened to the Prince of Chenliu and said, 'I am Dong Zhuo; you may come with me.' So Min Gong turned the Prince over to him." It further states, "It was not that the Prince embraced Dong Zhuo, but that they rode together on the same horse while traveling.")

貢扶帝與陳留王夜步逐螢光南行,欲還宮,行數里,得民家露車,〈露車者,上無巾蓋,四旁無帷裳,蓋民家以載物者。〉共乘之,至雒舍止。〈雒舍,地名,在北芒之北。〉辛未,帝獨乘一馬,陳留王與貢共乘一馬,從雒舍南行,公卿稍有至者。董卓至顯陽苑,〈顯陽苑,桓帝延熹二年所造,在雒陽西。〉遠見火起,知有變,引兵急進;未明,到城西,聞帝在北,因與公卿往奉迎於北芒阪下。帝見卓將兵卒至,恐怖涕泣。羣公謂卓曰:「有詔卻兵。」卓曰:「公諸人爲國大臣,不能匡正王室,至使國家播蕩,〈東都羣臣謂天子爲國家。〉何卻兵之有!」卓與帝語,語不可了;乃更與陳留王語,問禍亂由起,王答,自初至終,無所遺失。卓大喜,以王爲賢,且爲董太后所養,卓自以與太后同族,遂有廢立之意。(ZZTJ 59, 189.11)

Seeking to return to the palace, Min Gong helped the Young Emperor and the King of Chenliu to go southwards on foot by night, guided by the light of glowworms. After several li they obtained a commoner's open cart and rode in it together as far as Luoshe.

On the day xinwei [25 Sep] the Young Emperor rode by himself on one horse, the King of Chenliu and Min Gong rode together on another, and they travelled south from Luoshe until some of the Excellencies and ministers came to meet them.

As Dong Zhuo came to the Park of Illustrious Light, he saw fires rising in the distance. Realising there was a revolt, he led his troops quickly forward and came to the west of the city before it was light. There he learnt that the Young Emperor was in the north, and with the Excellencies and ministers he went to receive him below the Beimang Slope. When the Young Emperor saw Dong Zhuo suddenly appear, leading armed men, he was frightened and wept.

The Excellencies said to Dong Zhuo, "There is an imperial order to withdraw troops." Dong Zhuo replied, "You may be high ministers of state, but you could not keep the royal house in order, and you have made the Emperor a homeless wanderer. What is this about withdrawing troops?"

Dong Zhuo spoke with the Young Emperor, but gained no clear account of what had happened. Then he talked to the King of Chenliu and asked about the causes of the misfortune and disorders. The King described events from first to last, with nothing left out, and Dong Zhuo was very pleased. He was impressed with the King, and since he had been brought up by the Empress-Dowager Dong, and since Dong Zhuo himself claimed to be of the same clan as the Empress-Dowager, he took it in mind to depose the Emperor and set up the King.

(An open cart had no tarp over it nor canopies around it; commoners used them to transport things.

Luoshe was the name of a place, north of Beimang.

The Xianyang Park, or Park of Illustrious Light, was built by Emperor Huan in his second year of Yanxi (159). It was west of Luoyang.

The people of the Eastern Capital (Luoyang) addressed the Son of Heaven as 國家 'the royal house'.)

時進弟車騎將軍苗為進眾所殺,〈《英雄記》云:苗,太后之同母兄,先嫁硃氏之子。進部曲將吳匡,素怨苗不與進同心,又疑其與宦官通謀,乃令軍中曰:「殺大將軍者,車騎也。」遂引兵與卓弟旻共攻殺苗於硃爵闕下。 〉進、苗部曲無所屬,皆詣卓。卓又使呂布殺執金吾丁原,併其眾,故京都兵權唯在卓。 〈《九州春秋》曰:卓初入洛陽,步騎不過三千,自嫌兵少,不為遠近所服;率四五日,輒夜遣兵出四城門,明日陳旌鼓而入,宣言云「西兵復入至洛中」。人不覺,謂卓兵不可勝數。 〉

At this time, the General of Chariots and Cavalry, He Jin's younger brother He Miao, was killed by He Jin's soldiers. All of those who had served under He Jin and He Miao went over to Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo then compelled Lu Bu to kill the Chief of Police, Ding Yuan. After he absorbed Ding Yuan’s army, he was the only major power in the capital.

(The Book of Heroes states, "He Miao was the Empress Dowager’s elder brother by the same mother. He was originally a son of the Zhu clan. One of He Jin's commanders, Wu Kuang, had been angry at He Miao for his failure to support He Jin (in his intention to attack the eunuchs), and he suspected him of plotting with the eunuchs. He announced to his troops, 'The man who killed the General-in-Chief was the General of Chariots and Cavalry (He Miao).' Together with Dong Zhuo's younger brother Dong Min, Wu Kuang led his men to attack and kill He Miao beneath the Tower of the Vermillion Bird."

The Annals of the Nine Provinces states, "When Dong Zhuo first entered Luoyang, he had no more than three thousand horse and foot. He suspected that he his force was too small to garner wide respect. For the next four or five days, therefore, he had his men quietly march out through the western gate each night to camp nearby, returning at dawn in great array of flags and drums to look as if more troops had come from the west. He then would declare that, 'More troops from the West have arrived at Luoyang.' The people were fooled and said that Dong Zhuo's troops were beyond reckoning.")

董卓之入也,步騎不過三千,自嫌兵少,恐不爲遠近所服,率四五日輒夜潛出軍近營,明旦,乃大陳旌鼓而還,以爲西兵復至,雒中無知者。俄而進及弟苗部曲皆歸於卓,卓又陰使丁原部曲司馬五原呂布殺原而幷其衆,卓兵於是大盛。(ZZTJ 59, 189.11)

When Dong Zhuo first reached the capital he had with him no more than three thousand foot-soldiers and horsemen, and he was concerned they might be too few to establish wide respect. For the first few days, therefore, he had his men go out quietly each night to camp nearby, returning at dawn in great array of flags and drums to look as if more troops had come from the west. Nobody in Luoyang saw through the trick, and in a very short time all the followers of He Jin and his brother He Miao had turned to Dong Zhuo. He also arranged in secret for Ding Yuan's own follower, the Major Lü Bu of Wuyuan, to kill Ding Yuan and take over his forces. So Dong Zhuo's army became very much stronger.


Earlier, He Jin had sent the Controller Commandant of Cavalry, Bao Xin of Taishan, to raise troops. When Bao Xin returned, he urged Yuan Shao, “Dong Zhuo has a large army, but his intentions are not righteous. If he is not killed early on, he will soon control everything. But as he has only just arrived here, his troops and horses are exhausted. If we strike now, we can capture him.” Yuan Shao feared Dong Zhuo and did not dare act. Bao Xin forthwith returned home.

騎都尉鮑信自泰山募兵適至,說袁紹曰:「董卓擁強兵,將有異志,今不早圖,必爲所制;及其新至疲勞,襲之,可禽也!」紹畏卓,不敢發。信乃引兵還泰山。(ZZTJ 59, 189.11)

The Chief Commandant of Cavalry Bao Xin had lately returned from recruiting troops in Taishan. He advised Yuan Shao that "Dong Zhuo has a strong army and will be inclined to rebellion. Unless you take precautions you will certainly fall into his hands. Now that he has just arrived, his men will be weary and exhausted. If you attack him by surprise, you can take him." Yuan Shao was afraid of Dong Zhuo and did not dare to act. Bao Xin led his troops back to Taishan.

於是以久不雨,策免司空劉弘而卓代之,俄遷太尉,假節鉞虎賁。遂廢帝為弘農王。尋又殺王及何太后。立靈帝少子陳留王,是為獻帝。 〈《獻帝紀》曰:卓謀廢帝,會群臣於朝堂,議曰:「大者天地,次者君臣,所以為治。今皇帝闇弱,不可以奉宗廟,為天下主。欲依伊尹、霍光故事,立陳留王,何如?」尚書盧植曰:「案尚書太甲既立不明,伊尹放之桐宮。昌邑王立二十七日,罪過千餘,故霍光廢之。今上富於春秋,行未有失,非前事之比也。」卓怒,罷坐,欲誅植,侍中蔡邕勸之,得免。九月甲戌,卓復大會群臣曰:「太后逼迫永樂太后,令以憂死,逆婦姑之禮,無孝順之節。天子幼質,軟弱不君。昔伊尹放太甲,霍光廢昌邑,著在典籍,僉以為善。今太后宜如太甲,皇帝宜如昌邑。陳留王仁孝,宜即尊皇祚。」

There was a long period of time without rain, so the Minister of Works, Liu Hong, was removed and replaced by Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo was then promoted to Grand Commandant. He also became Credential Bearer, and held the Battle-Axe of the Gentlemen Rapid as Tigers. He then deposed the Young Emperor and made him Prince of Hongnong. Soon he had the Prince and Empress Dowager He killed. He then put Emperor Ling's youngest son, the Prince of Chenliu, on the throne as Emperor Xian.

(The Records of Emperor Xian states, "Dong Zhuo planned to dispose the Young Emperor, and thus convened the court ministers in the palace hall. He said to them, 'The greatest one is Heaven, and we ministers are secondary; that is the natural order of things. But now, the Emperor is ignorant and weak. He is not capable of maintaining the imperial temples nor acting as master of the realm. I intend to follow the examples of Yi Yin and Huo Guang, and set the Prince of Chenliu upon the imperial throne. What is your opinion?'

"The Master of Writing, Lu Zhi, said, 'The records state that Tai Jia was unwise, and Yi Yin only sent him to Tong Palace. As for the Prince of Changyi, he ruled for only twenty-eight days, yet his faults numbered over a thousand. Thus Huo Guang deposed him. Our present Emperor, however, is rich in years, and he has done nothing to display a lack of virtue. There is no parallel with the past.' Dong Zhuo was angry, left his seat, and planned to kill Lu Zhi. The Palace Attendant, Cai Yong, advised against it and got him to stop.

"In the ninth month, on the day Jiaxu (September 28th), Dong Zhuo assembled the court again and said, 'The Empress Dowager made Empress Dowager Yongle (Lady Dong) uneasy and miserable, and even caused her to die of grief. This is contrary to the proper behavior of a daughter-in-law to a mother, nor is it filial. The Son of Heaven is young. He is weak and cannot rule. In the past Yi Yin put away Tai Jia and Huo Guang deposed the Prince of Changyi. These acts, recorded in the histories, were both shown to be good ones. In our day, the Empress Dowager is like Tai Jia and the Emperor is like the Prince of Changyi. The Prince of Chenliu is kind and filial, and should be put on the throne.'"

乃諷朝廷,以久雨,策免司空劉弘而代之。(ZZTJ 59, 189.11)

Then, on grounds that it had been raining a long time, Dong Zhuo criticised the Minister of Works Liu Hong before the court, implying that he should be dismissed. The order was duly issued, and Dong Zhuo took the vacant post.

九月,癸酉,卓大會百僚,奮首而言曰:「皇帝闇弱,不可以奉宗廟,爲天下主。今欲依伊尹、霍光故事,更立陳留王,何如?」公卿以下皆惶恐,莫敢對。卓又抗言曰:「昔霍光定策,延年按劍。有敢沮大議,皆以軍法從事!」〈沮,在呂翻。〉坐者震動。尚書盧植獨曰:「昔太甲旣立不明,昌邑罪過千餘,故有廢立之事。今上富於春秋,行無失德,非前事之比也。」卓大怒,罷坐。將殺植,蔡邕爲之請,議郎彭伯亦諫卓曰:「盧尚書海內大儒,人之望也;今先害之,天下震怖。」卓乃止,但免植官,植遂逃隱於上谷。卓以廢立議示太傅袁隗,隗報如議。(ZZTJ 59, 189.12)

In the ninth month on the day Guiyou (27 Sep), Dong Zhuo called a great assembly of the officials. He raised his head and said, "The Emperor is ignorant and weak. He is not capable of maintaining the imperial temples nor acting as master of the empire. I intend to follow the examples of Yi Yin and Huo Guang, and set [Liu Xie] the King of Chenliu upon the imperial throne. What is your opinion?" The Excellencies, ministers and men of lower rank were all frightened and confused. None dared speak against him.

Dong Zhuo said again, "In former times, when Huo Guang settled policy, Tian Yannian held the sword. Anyone who seeks to impede the grand design will be dealt with by military law." All those present were shaken.

Only the Master of Writing Lu Zhi said, "In former times, Taijia held position but lacked understanding, and the faults of [the King of] Changyi were more than a thousand, so there were reasons for the depositions. Our present Emperor, however, is rich in years, and his actions have shown no lack of virtue. There is no parallel with the past."

Dong Zhuo, furious, left his seat and was going to kill Lu Zhi. Cai Yong, however, pleaded for him, and the Gentleman-Consultant Peng Bo also argued, "Master of Writing Lu is a leading scholar of the empire. People look up to him. If you harm him, the whole country will be disturbed." So Dong Zhuo stopped, and did no more than dismiss Lu Zhi from office. Lu Zhi fled to Shanggu and lived there in seclusion.

Dong Zhuo advised the Grand Tutor Yuan Wei of his intention to depose the Emperor. Yuan Wei gave his consent.

董卓自爲太尉,領前將軍事,加節傳、斧鉞、虎賁,更封郿侯。〈郿縣,屬扶風。賢曰:今岐州縣。(ZZTJ 59, 189.14)

Dong Zhuo made himself Grand Commandant controlling the affairs of the General of the Van. He also took the Staff and Insignia, Battle-Axe, Ceremonial Axe and Gentlemen Rapid as Tigers, and changed his fief to become Marquis of Mei.

(Mei County was part of Fufeng commandary. Li Xian remarked, "It is the modern Qizhou County.")

《獻帝起居注》載策曰:「孝靈皇帝不究高宗眉壽之祚,早棄臣子。皇帝承紹,海內側望,而帝天姿輕佻,威儀不恪,在喪慢惰,衰如故焉;兇德既彰,淫穢發聞,損辱神器,忝污宗廟。皇太后教無母儀,統政荒亂。永樂太后暴崩,眾論惑焉。三綱之道,天地之紀,而乃有闕,罪之大者。陳留王協,聖德偉茂,規矩邈然,豐下兌上,有堯圖之表;居喪哀戚,言不及邪,岐嶷之性,有周成之懿。休聲美稱,天下所聞,宜承洪業,為萬世統,可以承宗廟。廢皇帝為弘農王。皇太后還政。」尚書讀冊畢,群臣莫有言,尚書丁宮曰:「天禍漢室,喪亂弘多。昔祭仲廢忽立突,春秋大其權。今大臣量宜為社稷計,誠合天人,請稱萬歲。」卓以太后見廢,故公卿以下不布服,會葬,素衣而已。 〉

The Annotations on the Daily Life of Emperor Xian contains this memorial: "'It was not the fate of Emperor Xiao-Ling to enjoy a long and enduring life; he has gone, leaving behind we subjects and his sons. The imperial legacy must continue; the hopes of those within the seas must be upheld. Yet, the new Emperor is of a frivolous character; he cannot be called majestic or imposing. In his mourning practices he is indolent and without purpose; though it is the mourning period, he acts as though nothing had changed. His abuses against virtue are evident, and rumors of his salaciousness have spread; he has brought disgrace and dishonor to the imperial throne, and besmirched the honor of the ancestral temple. Nor has the Empress Dowager provided instruction in the manner befitting a mother; rather, she has caused turmoil through her control of the government. And the untimely passing of Empress Dowager Yongle has been a subject of bewilderment among many. Heaven and Earth have recorded the three cardinal guides of behavior: a ruler guides his subjects, a father guides his son, and a husband guides his wife. Those who violate these guides commit the greatest of crimes.

"'Now there is the Prince of Chenliu, Liu Xie. His wisdom and virtue are profuse and abundant, and his behavior is most sublime. To bountify those below by exchanging those above: this was the plan set forth by Emperor Yao. Words cannot express the depths of the Prince's mourning for his late father. He has the nature of young brilliance, and the exemplary virtue of King Cheng of Zhou. All the realm has heard of his restful sound and beautiful appearance. He should be given command of all affairs, for the benefit of the ages, and he may handle the ancestral temple. Let the Emperor be deposed as Prince of Hongnong. Let the Empress Dowager be withdrawn from government.'

"When the Master of Writing had finished reading out the edict, the court ministers were all silent. Then one of the Masters of Writing, Ding Gong, said, 'Heaven has brought misfortune upon the house of Han. Lamentation and turmoil has spread and grown. In former times, Zhai of Zhong deposed Hu and raised up Tu in his place. This is a great precedent from the Spring and Autumn era. Now we great ministers of state ought to consider this plan on behalf of the fortunes of the dynasty. In sincere accordance with Heaven and men, let us hail him as lord.' So Dong Zhuo had the Empress Dowager deposed, and this was why the court ministers did not alter their clothing. When she was buried, they wore only normal clothing.)


卓又議:「太后踧迫永樂宮,至令憂死,逆婦姑之禮。」〈《左傳》曰:婦,養姑者也;虧姑以成婦,逆莫大焉。〉乃遷太后於永安宮。...丙子,卓酖殺何太后,公卿以下不布服,會葬,素衣而已。(ZZTJ 59, 189.12)

On the day Jiaxu (28 Sep), Dong Zhuo summoned all the officials to another assembly at the front apartments of the Hall of Exalted Virtue. There he compelled the Empress-Dowager to issue an edict dismissing the Little Emperor: "In mourning, the Emperor lacked the feelings of a true son, while his dignity and conduct are unworthy of a ruler. We now depose him to be
King of Hongnong and we establish Liu Xie, King of Chenliu, as Emperor."

Yuan Wei then removed the Emperor's seal and ribbon and presented them to the King of Chenliu, and he escorted the new king down to the body of the hall, where he faced north to acknowledge himself as subject. The Empress-Dowager muffled her sobs and the ministers restrained their grief. No-one dared speak.

Dong Zhuo also announced, "The Empress-Dowager made the Lady of the Palace of Perpetual Joy [the Empress-Dowager Dong] uneasy and miserable, and even caused her to die of grief. This is contrary to the proper behaviour of a daughter-in-law to a mother." He transferred the Empress-Dowager to the Palace of Perpetual Peace.

On the day bingzi (30 Sep) Dong Zhuo had the Empress-Dowager He killed by poison. The Excellencies, ministers and lower officials did not wear linen clothes [to court], and her buriaI ceremony was carried out simply in white clothing.

(The Zuo Commentary states, "A daughter-in-law takes care of her mother-in-law; the one who fails to do this commits the greatest offense.")

卓遷相國,封郿侯,贊拜不名,劍履上殿,又封卓母為池陽君,置家令、丞。卓既率精兵來,適值帝室大亂,得專廢立,據有武庫甲兵,國家珍寶,威震天下。卓性殘忍不仁,遂以嚴刑脅眾,睚眥之隙必報,人不自保。 〈《魏書》曰:卓所原無極,語賓客曰:「我相,貴無上也。」《英雄記》曰:卓欲震威,侍御史擾龍宗詣卓白事,不解劍,立撾殺之,京師震動。發何苗棺,出其屍,枝解節棄於道邊。又收苗母舞陽君殺之,棄屍於苑枳落中,不復收斂。 〉嘗遣軍到陽城。時適二月社,民各在其社下,悉就斷其男子頭,駕其車牛,載其婦女財物,以所斷頭系車轅軸,連軫而還洛,云攻賊大獲,稱萬歲。入開陽城門,焚燒其頭,以婦女與甲兵為婢妾。至於姦亂宮人公主。其凶逆如此。

Dong Zhuo was appointed Chancellor, and conferred as the Marquis of Mei. He also had the right to perform obeisance without calling his own name, and to stand in the hall of audience while wearing sword and shoes. Dong Zhuo's mother was also appointed as Lady of Chiyang, and household Prefects and Ministers were created for her.

Since Dong Zhuo had arrived with his elite troops just as the imperial family was in great disorder, he was able to carry out the deposing of the Young Emperor and setting up of the Prince of Chenliu. He occupied the military warehouses of arms and armor, as well as taking the national treasures. His power shook the realm. Dong Zhuo’s nature was merciless and without benevolence. He used severe punishments to threaten people and always took revenge even just for something like an angry stare. No one could defend themselves.

Dong Zhuo once sent an army to Yangcheng. The attack coincided with the sacrifices for the second month, when people were coming down each from their own sacrifices. Dong Zhuo's soldiers choped off men’s heads, confiscated their wagons and herds, kidnapped their wives and daughters, and plundered their valuables. They tied the heads along the sides of chariots or even on wheel spokes. When the line of carriages returned to Luoyang, it was claimed that they had attacked bandits and taken their booty, and they gave a great hail. When the army entered into the gates of Yangcheng, the heads were all burned, and the wives and daughters were given out among the soldiers as servants or concubines. Dong Zhuo went so far as to debauch the palace ladies and princesses. Such was his wild presumption.

(The Book of Wei states, "Dong Zhuo's nature was boundless. He would tell his guests, 'By my face, one can see that I will gain the highest honors!'"

The Book of Heroes states, "Dong Zhuo wished to display his power. When the Attendant Imperial Clerk, Raolong Zong, visited Dong Zhuo to make a report, he did not take off his sword. He was then beaten to death. Thus the capital was shaken. Dong Zhuo dug up He Miao's coffin, took out the body, broke up the joints and left it on the side of a road. He arrested and killed He Miao's mother, the Lady of Wuyang, and threw her corpse into some brambles in a park. There was no one to control him.")

十一月,以董卓爲相國,〈漢自蕭何爲相國後,不復除拜。〉贊拜不名,入朝不趨,劍履上殿。(ZZTJ 59, 189.21)

In the eleventh month, Dong Zhuo was made Chancellor of State, with the right to perform obeisance without calling his own name, to enter court without hastening step, and to stand in the hall of audience with sword and shoes.

(Xiao He had been Chancellor of State during the founding of Han, but since then, no one had held the title.)

卓遣軍至陽城,值民會於社下,〈此二月事也。陽城縣屬潁川郡。〉悉就斬之,駕其車重,載其婦女,以頭繫車轅,歌呼還雒,云攻賊大獲。卓焚燒其頭,以婦女與甲兵爲婢妾。(ZZTJ 59, 190.7)

Dong Zhuo sent his army against Yangcheng. The people had gathered for a ceremony at the local altar and the soldiers beheaded all the menfolk. They took heavy carts, loaded the women and girls, bound the heads to the shafts, and returned singing and shouting to Luo[yang] with the claim that they had attacked bandits and taken a great number of prisoners. Dong Zhuo set fire to the heads and burnt them, and he gave the females to his soldiers as servants and concubines.

(This incident was in the second month. Yangcheng County was part of Yingchuan commandary.)

董卓性殘忍,一旦專政,據有國家甲兵、珍寶,威震天下,所願無極,語賓客曰:「我相,貴無上也!」〈自言非人臣之相,其悖逆如此。語,牛倨翻。相,息亮翻。〉侍御史擾龍宗詣卓白事,不解劍,〈擾龍,姓也,蓋古擾龍氏之後。〉立檛殺之。(ZZTJ 59, 189.24)

Dong Zhuo was by nature cruel and vindictive, he had come suddenly to supreme power and he controlled all the arms and treasure of the empire. His authority shook the empire and his ambitions knew no limit. He said to his retainers, "It is written on my countenance that I should gain the highest honours."

The Attendant Imperial Clerk Raolong Zong went to Dong Zhuo to make a report, and he failed to take off his sword. He was immediately flogged to death.

(By saying such words unbecoming of a servant, Dong Zhuo thus demonstrated his treasonous intent.

擾龍 Raolong is a surname; it comes from the descendants of the Raolong clan of old.)

卓又發何苗棺,出其尸,支解節斷,棄於道邊,殺苗母舞陽君,棄尸於苑枳落中。〈落,籬落也。枳,似棘,多刺,江南爲橘,江北爲枳,人以栫籬。〉(ZZTJ 59, 189.12)

Dong Zhuo also dug up He Miao's coffin, took out the body, broke up the joints and left it on the side of a road. He killed He Miao's mother, the Lady of Wuyang, and threw her corpse into some brambles in a park.

(Here, a 落 is a bamboo fence. 枳 are plants that resemble brambles; people from south of the Yangzi call them 橘, and people from north of it call them 枳. They are used to line fences.)

初,卓信任尚書周毖,城門校尉伍瓊等,用其所舉韓馥、劉岱、孔伷、(張資)〔張諮〕、張邈等出宰州郡。而馥等至官,皆合兵將以討卓。卓聞之,以為毖、瓊等通情賣己,皆斬之。 〈《英雄記》曰:毖字仲遠,武威人。瓊字德瑜,汝南人。《謝承後漢書》曰:伍孚字德瑜,少有大節,為郡門下書佐。其本邑長有罪,太守使孚出教,敕曹下督郵收之。孚不肯受教,伏地仰諫曰:「君雖不君,臣不可不臣,明府奈何令孚受教,敕外收本邑長乎?更乞授他吏。」太守奇而聽之。後大將軍何進闢為東曹屬,稍遷侍中、河南尹、越騎校尉。董卓作亂,百僚震栗。孚著小鎧,於朝服裡挾佩刀見卓,欲伺便刺殺之。語闋辭去,卓送至閤中,孚因出刀刺之。卓多力,退卻不中,即收孚。卓曰:「卿欲反邪?」孚大言曰:「汝非吾君,吾非汝臣,何反之有?汝亂國篡主,罪盈惡大,今是吾死日,故來誅奸賊耳,恨不車裂汝於市朝以謝天下。」遂殺孚。謝承記孚字及本郡,則與瓊同,而致死事乃與孚異也,不知孚為瓊之別名,為別有伍孚也?蓋未詳之。 〉

At first, Dong Zhuo trusted and employed the Master of Writing, Zhou Bi, and the Colonel of the Gates, Wu Qiong. He followed their advice to put Han Fu, Liu Dai, Kong Zhou, Zhang Zi, Zhang Miao, and others in charge of the various provinces and commandaries. When Han Fu and the others arrived at their posts, they all joined their soldiers to launch a punitive expedition on Dong Zhuo. When Dong Zhuo heard of this, he felt betrayed by Zhou Bi and Wu Qiong and had them beheaded.

(The Book of Heroes states, "Zhou Bi, styled Zhongyuan, was from Wuwei. Wu Qiong, styled Deyu, was from Runan."

Xie Cheng’s version of the Book of Later Han states, "There was a certain Wu Fu, styled Deyu. As a young man, he possessed great fortitude. He served as a Scribal Aide on his local commandary's staff. When his town's mayor committed an offense, the Administrator summoned Wu Fu and instructed him to lead some men to arrest the mayor. Wu Fu, unable to accept this mission, prostrated himself on the ground and offered remonstration, saying, 'Even when a lord does not act as a lord, a minister cannot be anything but a minister. How can you assign me to such a mission, that I should be ordered to go out and arrest the mayor of my own town? I beg you to assign this task to another.' The Administrator was impressed, and heeded his advice. He acquired some fame. Later, the Grand General heard of him. He was promoted to Palace Attendant, Intendant of Henan, and finally Colonel of the Cavalry.

"When Dong Zhuo created disorder, the court was very fearful. Wu Fu had little armor, so he dressed in the garments of the Imperial Court, hiding a knife in his sleeve. He went to visit Dong Zhuo, planning to assassinate him. Wu Fu spoke of taking his leave, so Dong Zhuo escorted him to a side door, where Wu Fu brought out the knife and attacked. But Dong Zhuo was too strong, and he escaped without being injured. Wu Fu was arrested. Dong Zhuo said to him, 'What made you want to rebel?' Wu Fu loudly replied, 'You are not my liege, I am not your minister. Where is the rebellion? You have brought disorder to the country and usurped the throne. Your crimes and evils are great. Today is the day I die, having tried to punish a traitor! I am sorry I cannot tear you asunder with chariots to appease the wrath of the world!' Dong Zhuo forthwith killed Wu Fu."

The author, Xie Cheng, noted that Wu Fu had the same style name and native commandary as Wu Qiong; only the manner of their deaths was different. Was it that Wu Fu was another name for Wu Qiong? Or was he someone else altogether? The matter remains uncertain.)

河內太守王匡,遣泰山兵屯河陽津,將以圖卓。卓遣疑兵若將於平陰渡者,潛遣銳眾從小平北渡,繞擊其後,大破之津北,死者略盡。卓以山東豪傑並起,恐懼不寧。初平元年二月,乃徙天子都長安。焚燒洛陽宮室,悉發掘陵墓,取寶物。 〈《華嶠漢書》曰:卓欲遷長安,召公卿以下大議。司徒楊彪曰:「昔盤庚五遷,殷民胥怨,故作三篇以曉天下之民。(而)海內安穩,無故移都,恐百姓驚動,麋沸蟻聚為亂。」卓曰: 「關中肥饒,故秦得併吞六國。今徙西京,設令關東豪強敢有動者,以我強兵踧之,可使詣滄海。」彪曰:「海內動之甚易,安之甚難。又長安宮室壞敗,不可卒复。」卓曰:「武帝時居杜陵南山下,有成瓦窯數千處,引涼州材木東下以作宮室,為功不難。」卓意不得,便作色曰:「公欲沮我計邪?邊章、韓約有書來,欲令朝廷必徙都。若大兵(來)下,我不能復相救,公便可與袁氏西行。」彪曰:「西方自彪道徑也,顧未知天下何如耳!」議罷。卓敕司隸校尉宣璠以災異劾奏,因策免彪。《續漢書》曰:太尉黃琬、司徒楊彪、司空荀爽俱詣卓,卓言:「昔高祖都關中,十一世後中興,更都洛陽。從光武至今復十一世,案石苞室讖,宜復還都長安。」坐中皆驚愕,無敢應者。彪曰:「遷都改制,天下大事,皆當因民之心,隨時之宜。昔盤庚五遷,殷民胥怨,故作三篇以曉之。往者王莽篡逆,變亂五常,更始赤眉之時,焚燒長安,殘害百姓,民人流亡,百無一在。光武受命,更都​​洛邑,此其宜也。今方建立聖主,光隆漢祚,而無故捐宮廟,棄園陵,恐百姓驚愕,不解此意,必麋沸蟻聚以致擾亂。石苞室讖,妖邪之書,豈可信用?」卓作色曰:「楊公欲沮國家計邪?關東方亂,所在賊起。崤函險固,國之重防。又隴右取材,功夫不難。杜陵南山下有孝武故陶處,作磚瓦,一朝可辦。宮室官府,蓋何足言!百姓小民,何足與議。若有前卻,我以大兵驅之,豈得自在。」百寮恐怖失色。琬謂卓曰:「此大事。楊公之語,得無重思!」卓罷坐,即日令司隸奏彪及琬,皆免官。大駕即西。卓部兵燒洛陽城外面百里。又自將兵燒南北宮及宗廟、府庫、民家,城內掃地殄盡。又收諸富室,以罪惡沒入其財物;無辜而死者,不可勝計。

The Administrator of Henei, Wang Kuang, sent his troops from Taishan to station at Heyang Ford, planning to oppose Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo sent troops to pretend to cross the Yellow River at Pingyin. He secretly sent another unit north from Xiaoping to cross the river. They circled around and attacked from the rear. They greatly routed Wang Kuang’s army north of the ford, and the number of dead was beyond reckoning.

By this time, many of the brave and heroic men from east of the mountains had begun to form an alliance to oppose Dong Zhuo. This frightened and unnerved Dong Zhuo. In the second month of the first year of Chuping (190), Dong Zhuo moved the Son of Heaven and the capital to Chang'an. He set fire to the palaces at Luoyang, dug up all of the graves and tombs, and took all of the treasures.

(Hua Jiao’s Book of Han states, "Dong Zhuo wished to move to Chang'an, and assembled the Imperial Court to discuss it. The Minister over the Masses, Yang Biao, said, 'In ancient times, Pan'geng moved the capital from the five regions, and the people of Yin all resented it. This was why Pan'geng was compelled to write The Three Elucidations to explain himself to the people of the realm. Currently, all is calm within the four seas. If you now, without good reason, move the capital, then I am afraid the people will tremble in fear and there will surely be confusion like a stampede of deer or a swarm of ants.'

"Dong Zhuo said, 'Guanzhong is rich and abundant, and that is why Qin was able to conquer and annex its rival states. If we move the capital to the west, then if any of those upstarts of Guandong dares to stir up trouble, I shall set my powerful soldiers against them, and I can drive them all the way to the sea!'

"Yang Biao replied, 'It is easy to stir up the realm, but very difficult to soothe it down. Furthermore, the palaces of Chang'an are in disrepair; it will be no easy thing to restore them.'

"Dong Zhuo said, 'When Emperor Wu resided beneath the southern hills of Duling, he built several thousand pottery kilns. And we may bring in timber east from Liangzhou to rebuild the palaces. To accomplish this all would not be difficult!'

"But finding that he was not having his way, Dong Zhuo said even more forcefully, 'Do you wish to sabotage me? Bian Rang and Han Yue also sent in reports, asking that the capital must certainly be moved. If a large army arrives, I will not be able to save this place. Then you may go west with the Yuan clan.'

"Yang Biao said, 'If I were to go west, who knows what would become of the realm?'

"The discussion then ended. Dong Zhuo compelled the Colonel Director of Retainers, Xuan Fan, to present a memorial alleging ominous portents, to thus remove Yang Biao from office."

The Continued Book of Han states, "The Grand Commandant, Huang Wan, the Minister over the Masses, Yang Biao, and the Minister of Works, Xun Shuang, came to see Dong Zhuo together. Dong Zhuo said, 'In former times, Gaozu (Liu Bang) set the capital in Guanzhong, and eleven generations later after Guangwu restored the dynasty, he made his capital at Luoyang. Now another eleven generations have passed since then. According to the Shibao prophecies, we should shift the capital to Chang'an again.' All of the officials were shocked and none dared to speak.

"Yang Biao said, 'To shift the capital and to change the laws are great affairs of the realm. Because they are matters dear to the people's hearts, one must follow the accords of the times. In ancient times, Pan'geng moved the capital from the five regions, and the people of Yin all resented it. This was why Pan'geng was compelled to write the Three Elucidations to explain himself to the people of the realm. Later on, Wang Mang usurped authority, overturning and confusing the Five Constants (benevolence, virtue, ceremony, wisdom, and trust). That brought on the time of the Gengshi Emperor and the Red Eyebrows, when Chang'an was burned and the commoners slaughtered; the people all fled or perished, until not one man in a hundred remained. When Guangwu received the mandate, he moved the capital to Luoyang, and that is what is proper.

"'Now we have just established and lifted up a sagacious sovereign, and brought luster to the fortunes of Han. If you now, without good reason, make plans to abandon the temples of the imperial clan and to leave the imperial tombs, then I am afraid the people will tremble in fear. Unless you abandon this idea, there will surely be confusion like a stampede of deer or a swarm of ants. As for the Shibao prophecies, they are superstitious, apocryphal works. How can you trust them?'

"Dong Zhuo sternly replied, 'Lord Yang, do you wish to sabotage the plans of state? Guandong is in turmoil, and rebels have already risen up. The mountains are rugged and strong and would provide strong defense. Lumber can be obtained from Longyou, so it will not be hard to achieve. There are the pottery kilns of Emperor Xiao-Wu in the southern hills of Duling, which can be used for bricks and tiles. We can manage the work in a day. As for the palaces and government offices, what needs to be said about those? And as for the common people, who needs to consult them? If anyone is reluctant, I shall set my soldiers onto them, so they can cause no trouble.' The court was nervous and afraid, and they lost color.

"Huang Wan said to Dong Zhuo, 'This is a question of national importance. Should you not pay some thought to Lord Yang's argument?' Dong Zhuo then took his seat. He then had the Colonel Director of Retainers present petitions, and had Yang Biao and Huang Wan removed from office.

"The imperial carriage then set out for the west. Dong Zhuo’s soldiers burned Luoyang as well as one hundred li outside the city. He also sent his soldiers to burn the Northern and Southern Palaces as well as the Ancestral Temple, the storehouses, even the common people’s homes. Everything within the city was swept away. He also arrested the rich families, charged them with crimes, and confiscated their valuables. The amount of innocent people who died was too many to be counted.")

王匡屯河陽津,〈河陽津,卽孟津。〉董卓襲擊,大破之。(ZZTJ 59, 190.18)

Wang Kuang was camped at Heyang Crossing. Dong Zhuo made a surprise attack and completely defeated him.

(Heyang Crossing was Meng Crossing.)

卓大會公卿議,曰:「高祖都關中,十有一世,光武宮雒陽,於今亦十一世矣。按《石包讖》,〈當時緯書之外,又有《石包室讖》,蓋時人附益爲之,如《孔子閉房記》之類。〉宜徙都長安,以應天人之意。」百官皆默然。司徒楊彪曰:「移都改制,天下大事,故盤庚遷亳,殷民胥怨。〈《書序》曰:盤庚五遷,將治亳,殷民咨胥怨。〉昔關中遭王莽殘破,故光武更都雒邑,歷年已久,百姓安樂,今無故捐宗廟,棄園陵,恐百姓驚動,必有糜沸之亂。〈賢曰:如糜粥之沸也。《詩》云:如沸如羹。〉《石包讖》,妖邪之書,豈可信用!」卓曰:「關中肥饒,故秦得幷吞六國。且隴右材木自出,杜陵有武帝陶竈,幷功營之,可使一朝而辦。百姓何足與議!若有前卻,我以大兵驅之,可令詣滄海。」〈賢曰:言不敢避險難也。〉彪曰:「天下動之至易,安之甚難,惟明公慮焉!」卓作色曰:「公欲沮國計邪!」太尉黃琬曰:「此國之大事,楊公之言,得無可思!」卓不答。司空荀爽見卓意壯,恐害彪等,因從容言曰:「相國豈樂此邪!山東兵起,非一日可禁,故當遷以圖之,此秦、漢之勢也。」〈謂秦、漢都關中,因山河形勢以制天下。〉卓意小解。琬退,又爲駁議。二月,乙亥,卓以災異奏免琬、彪等,以光祿勳趙謙爲太尉,太僕王允爲司徒。(ZZTJ 59, 190.5)

Dong Zhuo called a great assembly of the senior officials and said, "Gaozu set the capital within the passes, and eleven generations later Guangwu made his palace at Luoyang. Now another eleven generations have passed. According to the Shibao prophecies we should shift the capital to Chang'an to follow the will of heaven and man." All the officials were silent.

The Minister over the Masses Yang Biao said, "To shift the capital and to change the laws are great affairs of the empire. In ancient times Pan'geng moved to Bo and the people of Yin all resented it. In former times, the land within the passes suffered from the ruin and destruction of Wang Mang, and so Guangwu changed the capital to the city of Luo. For many years the citizens have been at peace and contented here. If you now, without good reason, make plans to abandon the temples of the imperial clan and to leave the imperial tombs, then I am afraid the people will tremble in fear and there will surely be confusion like a boiling broth. The Shibao prophecies are superstitious, apocryphal works. How can you trust them?"

Dong Zhuo said, "The land within the passes is rich and abundant, and that is why Qin was able to conquer its rival states. Moreover, timber is produced west of Long Mountain and there are the pottery kilns of Emperor Wu at Duling. If all combine their efforts, we can manage the work in a day. As for the people, who needs to consult them? If anyone is reluctant I shall set my soldiers onto them, and I could make them go all the way to the sea!"

"It is easy to stir up the empire," replied Yang Biao, "but very difficult to soothe it down. Please think again."

"Would you obstruct the affairs of the state?" demanded Dong Zhuo, colouring.

The Grand Commandant Huang Wan said, "This is a question of national importance. Should you not pay some thought to Lord Yang's argument?" Dong Zhuo made no reply.

The Minister of Works Xun Shuang saw that Dong Zhuo had already made up his mind, and he was afraid he might harm Yang Biao and his supporters. He therefore said in placatory fashion, "Can the Chancellor of State enjoy this situation? The soldiers east of the mountains are in rebellion. We cannot put them down immediately, so we shift the capital to deal with them properly. This is just like the time of Qin and early Han."

Dong Zhuo became a little less angry.

Huang Wan left the assembly, but he continued to argue against the proposal. In the second month, on the day Yihai (28 Mar), Dong Zhuo memorialised that because of disasters and strange happenings, Huang Wan, Yang Biao and others should be dismissed. The Superintendent of the Imperial Household Zhao Qian was made Grand Commandant, and the Grand Coachman Wang Yun became Minister over the Masses.

(At that time, in addition to books of prophecy, there was also the 石包室讖. People of that time believed in it, for it was of the same sort as 孔子閉房記.

The 書序 states, "When Pan'geng moved the capital, and was about to govern from Bo, the people of Yin all resented it."

Regarding the boiling broth, Li Xian remarked, "It is like boiling gruel." The Book of Poetry has the verse, "like the bubbling of boiling soup" (Dang.6).

Regarding Dong Zhuo's threat, Li Xian remarked, "He means those who did not dare to shy away from difficulties."

The state of Qin and the Han dynasty both held Guanzhong, and with the position of the mountains and rivers there, they were able to control the realm.)

《獻帝紀》曰:卓獲山東兵,以豬膏塗佈十餘匹,用纏其身,然後燒之,先從足起。獲袁紹豫州從事李延,煮殺之。卓所愛胡,恃寵放縱,為司隸校尉趙謙所殺。卓大怒曰:「我愛狗,尚不欲令人呵之,而況人乎!」乃召司隸都官撾殺之。 〉卓至西京,為太師,號曰尚父。乘青蓋金華車,爪畫兩轓,時人號曰竿摩車。 〈《魏書》曰:言其逼天子也。《獻帝紀》曰;卓既為太師,复欲稱尚父,以問蔡邕。邕曰:「昔武王受命,太公為師,輔佐周室,以伐無道,是以天下尊之,稱為尚父。今公之功德誠為巍巍,宜須關東悉定,車駕東還,然後議之。」乃止。京師地震,卓又問邕。邕對曰:「地動陰盛,大臣踰制之所致也。公乘青蓋車,遠近以為非宜。」卓從之,更乘金華皁蓋車也。

When Dong Zhuo arrived at the western capital, he served as the Grand Master and called himself the Esteemed Father. His cart had azure colored covers with gold bands around the cart; his flags had images of flying dragons and dancing phoenixes. People called his cart, Ganmo Che or the Presumptuous Cart.

(The Records of Emperor Xian states, "When Dong Zhuo captured enemy soldiers from east of the mountains, he would take lard and daub it on a dozen rolls of cloth, then bound the cloth to their bodies and set light to them, beginning at the feet and going up. When he captured one of Yuan Shao's subordinates, the Attendant Clerk of Yuzhou, Li Yan, he was boiled to death. There was a tribesman of whom Dong Zhuo was very fond; he favored him and let him be unrestrained. When the Colonel Director of the Retainers, Zhao Qian, killed the man, Dong Zhuo furiously said, 'I even love dogs, and would never order a man to harm one, much less to harm a person!' And he ordered Zhao Qian's staff subordinates to beat him to death."

The Book of Wei states, "It was said that he controlled the Son of Heaven."

The Records of Emperor Xian states, "Since Dong Zhuo had become the Grand Master, he further wished to be called Esteemed Father. He asked Cai Yong about it. Cai Yong said, 'In former times, when King Wu of Zhou received the dynastic mandate, he appointed Taigong (Jiang Ziya) as the Grand Master, in which role Taigong supported the Zhou royal family. His successes in all things won him the respect of the realm, and thus was he called Esteemed Father. At the moment, you have great merits and virtues indeed, but it would be proper to first settle the trouble in Guandong. When the Emperor has returned to the east, then this matter can be discussed.' So Dong Zhuo gave up on the idea.

"In the capital region there was an earthquake. Dong Zhuo asked Cai Yong about this as well. Cai Yong replied, 'When the earth quakes through its hidden strength, that is a sign of a great minister overstepping his bounds. Now your carriage has a green canopy. Near and far, such a thing is considered wrong and improper.' Dong Zhuo followed his advice, and changed the canopy to the color black.")

二月,丁丑,以董卓爲太師,位在諸侯王上。(ZZTJ 60, 191.3)

In the second month, on the day dingchou (25 Mar) Dong Zhuo was appointed Grand Master, with rank above the kings.

卓獲山東兵,以猪膏塗布十餘匹,用纏其身,然後燒之,先從足起。(ZZTJ 59, 190.8)

Dong Zhuo captured some soldiers from the east of the mountains. He took lard and daubed it on a dozen rolls of cloth, then bound the cloth to their bodies and set light to them, beginning at the feet and going up.

卓黨欲尊卓比太公,稱尚父,卓以問蔡邕,邕曰:「明公威德,誠爲巍巍,然比之太公,愚意以爲未可,宜須關東平定,車駕還反舊京,然後議之。」卓乃止。(ZZTJ 60, 191.5)

Dong Zhuo's supporters wished to honour him as the Grand Duke and give him the title Honoured Uncle. Dong Zhuo asked Cai Yong what he thought of the proposal.

"Your excellency's majestic virtue, how truly imposing!" said Cai Yong. "In my humble opinion, however, it is not yet possible to make a comparison with the Grand Duke (Jiang Ziya). It would be better to wait until the east of the passes is settled and at peace, and the Emperor is returned to his former capital [at Luoyang]. Then we can talk about it." So Dong Zhuo gave up the idea.

六月,丙戌,地震。(ZZTJ 60, 191.6)

In the sixth month, on the day bingxu [1 Aug] there was an earthquake.

卓弟旻為左將軍,封鄠侯;兄子璜為侍中中軍校尉典兵;宗族內外並列朝廷。 〈《英雄記》曰:卓侍妾懷抱中子,皆封侯,弄以金紫。孫女名白,時尚未笄,封為渭陽君。於郿城東起壇,從廣二丈餘,高五六尺,使白乘軒金華青蓋車,都尉、中郎將、刺史千石在郿者,各令乘軒簪筆,為白導從,之壇上,使兄子璜為使者授印綬。 〉公卿見卓,謁拜車下,卓不為禮。召呼三台尚書以下自詣卓府啟事。 〈山陽公載記曰:初卓為前將軍,皇甫嵩為左將軍,俱征韓遂,各不相下。後卓徵為少府并州牧,兵當屬嵩,卓大怒。及為太師,嵩為御史中丞,拜於車下。卓問嵩:「義真服未乎?」嵩曰:「安知明公乃至於是!」卓曰:「鴻鵠固有遠志,但燕雀自不知耳。」嵩曰:「昔與明公俱為鴻鵠,不意今日變為鳳皇耳。」卓笑曰:「卿早服,今日可不拜也。」《張璠漢紀》曰:卓抵其手謂皇甫嵩曰:「義真怖未乎?」嵩對曰:「明公以德輔朝廷,大慶方至,何怖之有?若淫刑以逞,將天下皆懼,豈獨嵩乎?」卓默然,遂與嵩和解。

Dong Zhuo’s younger brother Dong Min served as General of the Left and was conferred as the Marquis of Hu. His nephew Dong Huang served as Palace Attendant and Colonel of the Center Army. All the members of his clan were part of the Imperial Court. When the ministers would go to see Dong Zhuo they would pay their respects before his carriage, but he would not treat them with courtesy. Dong Zhuo summoned the officials of the Three Terraces, Masters of Writing and below, and all went to his offices to report or receive instructions.

(The Book of Heroes states, "Dong Zhuo's sons, even those still in the arms of maidservants and concubines, were enfeoffed as marquises and played with gold tassels. He had a granddaughter, Dong Bai; though she was at the time still so young as to not yet be wearing hairpins, even so she was appointed as the Lady of Weiyang.

"Dong Zhuo built a fortress at Mei. The walls were twenty zhang wide and five or six chi tall. He went about riding in a carriage with golden wheels and green canopies. He had the Capital Commandants, General of the Gentleman of the Household, and Inspectors of a thousand 石 come to Mei. They all rode in adorned carriages, with Dong Bai leading the procession, to the walls of Mei, where his nephew Dong Huang granted them their seals."

The Parallel Annals of the Duke of Shangyong (Emperor Xian) states, "At first, when Dong Zhuo served as General of the Front and Huangfu Song served as General of the Left, they campaigned against Han Sui, but they did not coordinate with each other. Later, when Dong Zhuo was appointed as Privy Treasurer or as Inspector of Bingzhou and ordered to turn over his soldiers to Huangfu Song, he was very angry. Later, when Dong Zhuo served as Grand Master, Huangfu Song served as Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk. He came to pay his respects and bowed down. Dong Zhou asked him, 'Yizhen, do you fear me?'

"Huangfu Song replied, 'Who knows how far Your Excellency might go?'

"Dong Zhuo said, 'A swan possess grand and distant ambitions; it is only that a sparrow cannot perceive them.' [Likely a reference to Chen Sheng's boast, 'How can a sparrow perceive the ambitions of a swan?']

"Huangfu Song said, 'Your Excellency, there was a time when we were both swans. It is only that I did not realize that you would someday become a phoenix!'

"Dong Zhuo laughed and said, “You have been quick to submit. Today, there is no need for you to salute as well.”

Zhang Fan’s Book of Han states, "Dong Zhuo clapped his hands and said to Huangfu Song, 'Yizhen, are you afraid?'

"Huangfu Song said, 'If Your Excellency uses virtue to maintain the court, this will be a time of great blessing, and why then should I be afraid? If you govern badly and inflict arbitrary punishments, however, I shall not be the only person who is frightened.' Dong Zhuo was silent and forthwith was reconciled with Huangfu Song.")

董卓以其弟旻爲左將軍,兄子璜爲中軍校尉,皆典兵事,宗族內外並列朝廷。卓侍妾懷抱中子皆封侯,弄以金紫。卓車服僭擬天子,召呼三臺,〈三臺:尚書臺、御史臺、符節臺也。《晉書》曰:漢官:尚書爲中臺,御史爲憲臺,謁者爲外臺,是謂三臺。〉尚書以下皆自詣卓府啓事。(ZZTJ 60, 192.5)

Dong Zhuo appointed his younger brother Dong Min as General of the Left, while Dong Huang, son of his elder brother, was Colonel of the Centre Army. Both had control of military affairs.

All the members of the Dong clan or relations by marriage held rank at court. Dong Zhuo's sons, even those still in the arms of maidservants and concubines, were enfeoffed as marquises and played with gold seals and purple tassels. Dong Zhuo's chariot was adorned like an emperor's.

Dong Zhuo would summon the officials of the Three Terraces, Masters of Writing and below, and all went to his offices to report or receive instructions.

(The Three Terraces were the Terrace of the Masters of Writing, the Terrace of the Imperial Secretaries, and the Terrace of the Commissioners. The Book of Jin states, "Under the Han system, the Masters of Writing were the Central Terrace, the Imperial Secretaries were the Xian Terrace, and the 謁者s were the Outer Terrace; these were called the Three Terraces.")

夏,四月,董卓至長安,公卿皆迎拜車下。卓抵手謂御史中丞皇甫嵩曰:「義眞,怖未乎?」〈皇甫嵩,字義眞。怖,普布翻。〉嵩曰:「明公以德輔朝廷,大慶方至,何怖之有!若淫刑以逞,將天下皆懼,豈獨嵩乎!」〈《考異》曰:范《書‧嵩傳》及《山陽公載記》記嵩語與此不同,今從張璠《漢紀》。〉(ZZTJ 60, 191.5)

In the summer, in the fourth month Dong Zhuo came to Chang'an. The excellencies and ministers all came out to welcome him, and they bowed before his carriage. Dong Zhuo clapped his hands and said to the Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk Huangfu Song, "Yizhen, are you afraid?"

"If Your Excellency uses virtue to maintain the court, " replied Huangfu Song, "this will be a time of great blessing, and why then should I be afraid? If you govern badly and inflict arbitrary punishments, however, I shall not be the only person who is frightened."

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Neither Fan Ye's biography of Huangfu Song in his Book of Later Han nor the Parallel Records of the Duke of Shangyong (Emperor Xian) record Huangfu Song's words as they are here presented. But I follow the account from Zhang Fan's Records of Han.")

築郿塢,高與長安城埒,積穀為三十年儲,〈《英雄記》曰:郿去長安二百六十里。 〉云事成,雄據天下,不成,守此足以畢老。嘗至郿行塢,公卿已下祖道於橫門外。 〈橫音光。 〉卓豫施帳幔飲,誘降北地反者數百人,於坐中先斷其舌,或斬手足,或鑿眼,或鑊煮之,未死,偃轉杯案間,會者皆戰栗亡失匕箸,而卓飲食自若。太史望氣,言當有大臣戮死者。故太尉張溫時為衛尉,素不善卓,卓心怨之,因天有變,欲以塞咎,使人言溫與袁術交關,遂笞殺之。 〈傅子曰:靈帝時榜門賣官,於是太尉段颎、司徒崔烈、太尉樊陵、司空張溫之徒,皆入錢上千萬下五百萬以買三公。颎數征伐有大功,烈有北州重名,溫有傑才,陵能偶時,皆一時顯士,猶以貨取位,而況於劉囂、唐珍、張顥之黨乎!風俗通曰:司隸劉囂,以黨諸常侍,致位公輔。《續漢書》曰:唐珍,中常侍唐衡弟。張顥,中常侍張奉弟。

Dong Zhuo built the fortress Meiwu, with walls as tall as those of Chang'an, and amassed enough food for thirty years. He said that if he was successful, he would be a hero that grasped the realm; if not, the fortress could withstand siege for the rest of his life.

In one incident, Dong Zhuo went to the fortress at Mei, leading all the ministers to the outside of the Guang Gate, where he had set up curtains and drinks. At the gate were several hundred men, rebels from the north who had been tricked into surrendering. When they were seated, some had their tongues cut out, others had hands or feet cut off, still others had their eyes gouged out, and yet more others were boiled in a pot. As the men were dying, cups were passed around the table for the ministers, who were so shaken they could not pick up their food. Only Dong Zhuo could eat and drink normally.

The Grand Historian observed the sky and predicted that a notable minister would die. The former Grand Commandant, Zhang Wen, was then serving as the Commandant of the Guards; he and Dong Zhuo did not get along. Dong Zhuo harbored resentment, and wished to find fault in him, using the changes in the heavens as a pretext. He compelled a man to accuse Zhang Wen of being in collusion with Yuan Shu, and then had Zhang Wen beaten to death with sticks.

(The Book of Heroes states, "Mei was 260 li [80 miles] from Chang'an."

The Fuzi states, "During Emperor Ling’s reign he began to sell offices. As a result, Grand Commandant Duan Gui, Minister over the Masses Cui Lie, Grand Commandant Fan Ling, and Minister of Works Zhang Wen all paid between five and ten million coin to buy the Three Excellencies offices. Duan Gui gained prominence by launching several punitive expeditions. Cui Lie was very famous in the Northern provinces. Zhang Wen was a heroic talent, and Fan Ling was capable. They all at one time served as soldiers, yet even they still had to spend money to gain their seats, much less men of Liu Xiao, Tang Zhen, and Zhang Hao's faction!"

Regarding these last few men, the Fengsu Tong states, "The Colonel-Director Liu Xiao was part of the eunuchs' faction, and thus was able to achieve high offices." The Continued Book of Han states, "Tang Zhen was the younger brother of the Regular Palace Attendant, Tang Heng. Zhang Hao was the younger brother of the Regular Palace Attendant Zhang Feng.")

又築塢於郿,高厚皆七丈,積穀爲三十年儲,自云:「事成,雄據天下;不成,守此足以畢老。」(ZZTJ 60, 192.5)

Dong Zhuo also built a fortress at Mei, seventy feet high and seventy feet broad, storing thirty years supply of grain. "If things go well," he said, "I shall be master of the empire. Even if I fail, however, I can hold out here in comfort until I die of old age."

太史望氣,言當有大臣戮死者;董卓使人誣衞尉張溫與袁術交通,冬,十月,壬戌,笞殺溫於市以應之。〈張溫不能斬卓於西征之時,反死於卓手,可哀也已。(ZZTJ 60, 191.10)

The Grand Astrologer examined the omens, and foretold that a great minister would be executed. Dong Zhuo had false accusation made that the Commandant of the Guards, Zhang Wen, had been in contact with Yuan Shu. In the winter, in the tenth month on the day Renxu (5 Nov), Zhang Wen was flogged to death in the market-place to fulfill the prophecy.

(Zhang Wen had not been able to execute Dong Zhuo during the time of the western campaigns, and he was in turn killed at Dong Zhuo's hand; what a pity.)

法令苛酷,愛憎淫刑,更相被誣,冤死者千​​數。百姓嗷嗷,道路以目。 〈《魏書》曰:卓使司隸校尉劉囂籍吏民有為子不孝,為臣不忠,為吏不清,為弟不順,有應此者皆身誅,財物沒官。於是愛憎互起,民多冤死。 〉悉椎破銅人、鐘虡,及壞五銖錢。更鑄為小錢,大五分,無文章,肉好無輪郭,不磨鑢。於是貨輕而物貴,谷一斛至數十萬。自是後錢貨不行。

The decrees were strict, and the punishments harsh. Based on wild accusations, several thousand people were wrongfully killed. The common people could be heard wailing all through the streets. Dong Zhuo ordered to have the Bronze Men and Zhongju statues melted down and minted as wushu coins. This displaced the existing small coins in circulation. The newly minted coins had no emblem; the quality was better, but the handiwork was sloppier. It caused devaluation of coins and the inflation of prices. A 斛 of grain fetched as high as several hundred thousand coins. Soon, the monetary system crumbled.

(The Book of Wei states, "Dong Zhuo used Colonel Director of the Retainers, Liu Ao, to police the people. Any son who was not filial, any minister who was not loyal, any official who was not honest, any younger brother who was not obedient, and other such offenders were sentenced to death. Their belongings became state property. Because of that, accusations rose and many people wrongfully died.")

董卓壞五銖錢,〈賢曰:光武中興,除王莽貨泉,更用五銖錢。孔穎達曰:五銖者,其重五銖,凡十桼爲一絫,十絫爲一銖,二十四銖爲一兩。錢邊作五銖字。〉更鑄小錢,悉取雒陽及長安銅人、鐘虡、飛廉、銅馬之屬以鑄之,〈銅人,秦始皇所鑄也。賢曰:鐘虡,以銅爲之。《前書音義》曰:虡,鹿頭龍身,神獸也。《說文》:鐘鼓之跗,以猛獸爲飾也。武帝置飛廉館。《音義》曰:飛廉,神禽,身似鹿,頭如爵,有角,蛇尾,文如豹文。明帝永平五年,迎取長安飛廉、銅馬置上西門外,名平樂館。銅馬則東門京所作,置於金馬門外者也。余據馬援亦進銅馬。〉由是貨賤物貴,穀石至數萬錢。(ZZTJ 59, 190.16)

Dong Zhuo destroyed the Wushu currency and minted smaller coins. He melted down the statues of Luoyang and Chang'an, such as the Bronze Men, the Zhongju, the Feilian and the Bronze Horses, to cast the new money. So the currency was devalued and goods became dear: the price of a single shi of grain rose to several ten thousand cash.

(Li Xian remarked, "After Emperor Guangwu restored the Han dynasty, he did away with Wang Mang's huoquan coins and went back to using the wushu coins." Kong Yingda remarked, "The so-called wushu coins weighed five wu. Ten 桼 made a 絫, ten 絫 made a shu, and twenty-four shu made a 兩. The characters for 'wushu' were carved on the sides of the coins."

The Bronze Men were forged by Qin Shihuang. Li Xian remarked, "The Zhongju were made of bronze." The 前書音義 states, "The Ju had the heads of deer and the bodies of dragons; they were spirits and phantoms." The 說文 states, "Bells and drums were adorned on the sides by wild phantoms." Emperor Wu of Han made the Feilian houses. The 前書音義 states, "The Feilian were phantom birds; they had bodies like deer, heads like wine vessels but with horns, tails like snakes, and spots like leopards. In Emperor Ming's fifth year of Yongping (61 AD), he housed the Feilian and the Bronze Horses outside the western gates of Chang'an, at a place called the Pingle Lodge. The Bronze Horses were all built at the eastern gates of the capital, and set outside the Golden Horse Gate." I (Hu Sanxing) believe that Ma Yuan also advanced the Bronze Horses.)

卓使司隸校尉劉囂籍吏民有爲子不孝、爲臣不忠、爲吏不清、爲弟不順者,皆身誅,財物沒官。於是更相誣引,冤死者以千數。百姓囂囂,道路以目。(ZZTJ 60, 191.5)

Dong Zhuo had the Colonel Director of Retainers, Liu Ao, arrest those of the officials and people who had not been respectful sons, loyal subjects, honest officials or obedient younger brothers. All were executed and their wealth was confiscated. As a result, many false accusations were made by one against another, and thousands were put to death without good cause. The people were anxious and fearful: as they passed one another on the roads they did no more than exchange glances [not daring to speak].

三年四月,司徒王允、尚書僕射士孫瑞、卓將呂布共謀誅卓。是時,天子有疾新愈,大會未央殿。布使同郡騎都尉李肅等,將親兵十餘人,偽著衛士服守掖門。布懷詔書。卓至,肅等格卓。卓驚呼布所在。布曰「有詔」,遂殺卓,夷三族。主簿田景前趨卓屍,布又殺之;凡所殺三人,餘莫敢動。 〈《英雄記》曰:時有謠言曰:「千里草,何青青,十日卜,猶不生。」又作董逃之歌。又有道士書佈為「呂」字以示卓,卓不知其為呂布也。卓當入會,陳列步騎,自營至宮,朝服導引行其中。馬躓不前,卓心怪欲止,布勸使行,乃衷甲而入。卓既死,當時日月清淨,微風不起。旻、璜等及宗族老弱悉在郿,皆還,為其群下所斫射。卓母年九十,走至塢門曰「乞脫我死」,即斬首。袁氏門生故吏,改殯諸袁死於郿者,斂聚董氏屍於其側而焚之。暴卓屍於市。卓素肥,膏流浸地,草為之丹。守屍吏暝以為大炷,置卓臍中以為燈,光明達旦,如是積日。後卓故部曲收所燒者灰,並以一棺棺之,葬於郿。卓塢中金有二三萬斤,銀八九萬斤,珠玉錦綺奇玩雜物皆山崇阜積,不可知數。 〉長安士庶咸相慶賀,諸阿附卓者皆下獄死。

In the fourth month of the third year of Chuping (192), the Minister over the Masses, Wang Yun, the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Shisun Rui, and Dong Zhuo’s general Lu Bu conspired to kill Dong Zhuo. At that time, Emperor Xian was ill and just beginning to recover, so there was to be a grand meeting in the Central Hall. Lu Bu sent his fellow commandary native, the Cavalry Controller Commandant, Li Su, and others with around ten of his close soldiers. They posed as guards and took positions by the gate. Lu Bu kept an imperial edict close to his chest. When Dong Zhuo arrived for the meeting, Li Su and the others stopped him. Dong Zhuo, alarmed, called for Lu Bu. Lu Bu said, “Here is the edict,” and he killed Dong Zhuo, along with his clan to the third degree. The Registrar, Tian Jing, rushed to Dong Zhuo’s corpse. Lu Bu killed him as well. After three people were killed, no one else dared to make a move. The people of Chang'an all celebrated his death. People associated with Dong Zhuo were all imprisoned and killed.

(The Book of Heroes states, "At that time, there was a ditty going around: 'The grass in the meadow looks fresh now and green, yet wait but ten days, not a blade will be seen.' And there were songs on Dong Zhuo's fate. There was a Daoist priest who had a cloth with the word 'Lu' on it. He showed it to Dong Zhuo, but Dong Zhuo did not know that it meant Lu Bu.

"When Dong Zhuo was on his way to the meeting, he formed up a company of foot soldiers and riders, with court officials leading his way from his camp to the palace. When Dong Zhuo's horse stumbled and would not continue, Dong Zhuo was troubled in his heart and wanted to stop, but Lu Bu urged him to keep going, so Dong Zhuo put aside his worries and went to the meeting. When Dong Zhuo was killed, the sun and moon were both peaceful and quiet, and there was not the slightest trace of wind.

"Dong Min, Dong Huang, and the rest of Dong Zhuo's entire clan, even the old and infirm, were at Mei. When the soldiers returned to Mei, these clan members were all killed by them, either cut down or shot. Dong Zhuo’s mother was ninety years old. She fled as far as the gate of the fortress, saying, 'I beg you not to kill me.' But she was also killed. There had been many members of the Yuan clan who had died at Mei. Their followers among the officials moved their coffins from there. They collected the corpses of the Dong clan off to one side and burned them.

"Dong Zhuo’s body was torched in the city marketplace. Dong Zhuo had been fat, and in the heat his fat flowed onto the ground, staining the grass red. The men guarding the corpse made a great lamp and set it up on Dong Zhuo's navel and lit it, and it burned clear and bright till dawn. This went on for several days. Later when he had burned down to just ash, his remains were put in a single coffin and buried at Mei. In Dong Zhuo’s enclosure [at Mei] there were twenty or thirty thousand catties of gold, eighty or ninety thousand catties of silver, with brocade, fine silk and rare ornaments piled up like mounds and hills. They were too numerous to be counted."

夏,四月,丁巳,帝有疾新愈,大會未央殿。卓朝服乘車而入,陳兵夾道,自營至宮,左步右騎,屯衞周帀,〈帀,作答翻。〉令呂布等扞衞前後。王允使士孫瑞自書詔以授布,〈使尚書僕射自書詔者,懼其泄也。〉布令同郡騎都尉李肅〈《考異》曰:袁《紀》作「李順」,今從范《書》、《魏志》。〉與勇士秦誼、陳衞等十餘人僞著衞士服,守北掖門內以待卓。卓入門,肅以戟刺之;卓衷甲,不入,傷臂,墮車,顧大呼曰:「呂布何在!」布曰:「有詔討賊臣!」卓大罵曰:「庸狗,敢如是邪!」布應聲持矛刺卓,趣兵斬之。主簿田儀及卓倉頭前走其尸,布又殺之,凡所殺三人。布卽出懷中詔版以令吏士曰:「詔討卓耳,餘皆不問。」吏士皆正立不動,大稱萬歲。(ZZTJ 60, 192.5)

In the summer, in the fourth month on the day dingsi [miswritten for xinsi, 22 May], when Emperor Xian had been ill and was just recovered, there was a great assembly at the Weiyang Apartments. Wearing his robes of state, Dong Zhuo rode up in his chariot. His troops lined the road from the camp to the palace, foot-soldiers on the left and cavalry on the right, with camps and guards all around. Lü Bu and others were ordered to act as escort at the front and rear.

Wang Yun had Shisun Rui write an imperial order in his own hand to give to Lü Bu, and Lü Bu ordered the Chief Commandant of Cavalry Li Su, a man from his own commandery, with the swordsmen Qin Yi, Chen Wei and a dozen others, to disguise themselves in guards' uniforms and stand behind the Northern Lateral Gate to wait for Dong Zhuo. As he came to the gate, Li Su stabbed him with a lance.

Dong Zhuo had armour beneath his clothes, so the lance did not go in, but it wounded him in the arm and he fell from his chariot. He looked round, and called out, "Where is Lü Bu?"

Lü Bu said, "I have orders to kill a rebel minister!"

Dong Zhuo cursed him, "Useless dog, you dare do this?" For reply, Lü Bu stabbed Dong Zhuo with his spear and ordered the soldiers to cut his head off.

The Master of Records Tian Yi, and the head of Dong Zhuo's granary, came forward to attend his corpse and Lü Bu killed them as well. Altogether, three men were killed.

Lü Bu took the edict-block from his breast and used it to take command of the troops, saying, "The order requires that Dong Zhuo be executed, and that is all. For the rest, there are no questions asked." The men stood fast and made no move, but they all cried out, "Ten thousand years!"

(Wang Yun had Shisun Rui, who was the Director of the Masters of Writing, compose the edict in his own hand because he was afraid that the plot might otherwise leak out.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Yuan's Records records this man's name as Li Shun, but I follow the accounts of Fan Ye's Book of Later Han and of the Records of Wei.")

《謝承後漢書》曰:蔡邕在王允坐,聞卓死,有嘆惜之音。允責邕曰:「卓,國之大賊,殺主殘臣,天地所不祐,人神所同疾。君為王臣,世受漢恩,國主危難,曾不倒戈,卓受天誅,而更嗟痛乎?」便使收付廷尉。邕謝允曰:「雖以不忠,猶識大義,古今安危,耳所厭聞,口所常玩,豈當背國而向卓也?狂瞽之詞,謬出患入,原黥首為刑以繼漢史。」公卿惜邕才,咸共諫允。允曰:「昔武帝不殺司馬遷,使作謗書,流於後世。方今國祚中衰,戎馬在郊,不可令佞臣執筆在幼主左右,後令吾徒並受謗議。」遂殺邕。臣松之以為蔡邕雖為卓所親任,情必不黨。寧不知卓之姦兇,為天下所毒,聞其死亡,理無嘆惜。縱復令然,不應反言於王允之坐。斯殆謝承之妄記也。史遷紀傳,博有奇功於世,而云王允謂孝武應早殺遷,此非識者之言。但遷為不隱孝武之失,直書其事耳,何謗之有乎?王允之忠正,可謂內省不疚者矣,既無懼於謗,且欲殺邕,當論邕應死與不,豈可慮其謗己而枉戮善人哉!此皆誣罔不通之甚者。《張璠漢紀》曰:初,蔡邕以言事見徙,名聞天下,義動志士。及還,內寵惡之。邕恐,乃亡命海濱,往來依太山羊氏,積十年。卓為太尉,闢為掾,以高第為侍御史治書,三日中遂至尚書。後遷巴東太守,卓上留拜侍中,至長安為左中郎將。卓重其才,厚遇之。每有朝廷事,常令邕具草。及允將殺邕,時名士多為之言,允悔欲止,而邕已死。 〉

Xie Cheng’s Book of Later Han states, "Cai Yong was sitting with Wang Yun when he heard of Dong Zhuo’s death. He made sounds of regret. Wang Yun then scolded Cai Yong, saying, 'Dong Zhuo was a great rebel of the state. He killed his lord and troubled the ministers. Neither Heaven nor Earth could save him; both men and spirits despised him. Now you are a royal subject, and your family has enjoyed the favor of Han for generations. When the sovereign was in danger, you did not take up the blade. And now that Dong Zhuo has received Heaven's justice, you even go so far as to mourn him?' Wang Yun arrested Cai Yong and had him turned over to the Commandant of Justice.

"Cai Yong begged Wang Yun, 'Although I have not been loyal, even so I know the great principles. From ancient times until now, whether in times of peace or of strife, the ear often hears despicable things and yet the mouth responds with common pleasantries. How, then, could I work for Dong Zhuo and neglect my duty to the state? Wild and wicked words of sin: sends slander out, lets danger in. Let me have my face branded as punishment, but let me continue my work on the history of Han.' The ministers pitied Cai Yong because of his talents, and they admonished Wang Yun.

"Wang Yun said, 'In former times, Emperor Wu spared Sima Qian, with the result that many slanderous stories have been handed down to us. This is a trying period of great perplexity, when the fortunes of the state shall be decided. We dare not let a specious fellow like this wield his pen in criticism of those about the court of a youthful prince and abuse us as he will.' Cai Yong was forthwith executed."

Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that Cai Yong, while he did serve Dong Zhuo in a close role, was certainly not one of his partisans. He must have known of Dong Zhuo’s evil and that he was a blight upon the realm. When hearing that Dong Zhuo was dead, it would make sense for him not to show a sign of regret. If this record is correct, why would he respond as such to Wang Yun? This is just Xie Cheng's absurd story. Sima Qian's history is a masterpiece of marvelous achievement of the ages, yet Wang Yun allegedly said that Emperor Xiao-Wu should have killed him beforehand; such words are nonsense. Sima Qian accepted punishment from Emperor Xiao-Wu, only so that he could continue his work; wherein lies the slander in it? Wang Yun was loyal and just, the sort of man one could say had no inner remorse for himself, and who would therefore have no fear of slander. If he still wanted to kill Cai Yong, he would have discussed why Cai Yong deserved to follow Dong Zhuo in death or not. How could he have worried about slander against himself so much to perversely put a good man to death? This story itself is greatly illogical slander.

Zhang Fan’s Book of Later Han states, "Originally, Cai Yong mentioned that he wanted to travel and see things; his name became heard throughout the realm, and his virtues impressed people of integrity. When he returned, there were those who envied him because of his favor. Cai Yong feared them, so he abandoned his orders and fled to the coast. He took up residence with the Yang clan of Taishan, staying with them for ten years.

"When Dong Zhuo became Grand Commandant, he appointed Cai Yong as an official and later an Attendant Imperial Clerk. Within three days, Cai Yong was already a Master of Writing. Later he was assigned as the Administrator of Badong. Dong Zhuo then recalled him to serve as a Palace Attendant, and when he came to Chang'an he served as General of the Household Gentlemen of the Left. Dong Zhuo appreciated Cai Yong's talents and treated him generously. Whenever there was an Imperial Decree, he had Cai Yong write it. When Wang Yun was going to kill Cai Yong, there were many good things to be said about him. Wang Yun regretted his decision and wanted to stop it, but by then Cai Yong was already dead.")

卓之死也,左中郎將高陽侯蔡邕在王允坐,〈高陽縣,屬涿郡;又陳留圉縣有高陽亭。〉聞之驚歎。允勃然,叱之曰:「董卓國之大賊,幾亡漢室,君爲王臣,所宜同疾,而懷其私遇,反相傷痛,豈不共爲逆哉!」卽收付廷尉。邕謝曰:「身雖不忠,古今大義,耳所厭聞,口所常玩,豈當背國而嚮卓也!願黥首刖足,繼成漢史。」〈初,邕徙朔方,自徒中上書,乞續《漢書》諸志,蓋其所學所志者在此。〉士大夫多矜救之,不能得。...允曰:「昔武帝不殺司馬遷,使作謗書流於後世。方今國祚中衰,戎馬在郊,不可令佞臣執筆在幼主左右,旣無益聖德,復使吾黨蒙其訕議。」...邕遂死獄中。(ZZTJ 60, 192.5)

At the time of Dong Zhuo's death, Cai Yong, General of the Gentlemen of the Household on the Left and Marquis of Gaoyang, was sitting with Wang Yun. When he heard the news, he gasped in fright. Wang Yun was furious and attacked him, "Dong Zhuo, great bandit of the empire, almost destroyed the house of Han. You are an imperial servant and should share our hatred. But you maintain private friendship, and instead you mourn him. You too must be considered a rebel." Cai Yong was arrested and handed to the Commandant of Justice.

Cai Yong begged excuses: "Unworthy though I am, there are great principles constant from ancient times to the present, and I have heard and recited them too often to forget them. How, then, could I work for Dong Zhuo and neglect my duty to the state? Let me have my face branded and my feet cut off, anything but interrupt my work on the history of Han."

Many scholars and gentlemen were sympathetic and interceded for him, but they could do nothing to save him.


"In former times," replied Wang Yun, "Emperor Wu failed to kill Sima Qian, and so allowed him to write a book of slander which was passed down to later times. Particularly at this time, as the fortunes of the Emperor are in decline and there are war-horses in the suburbs, we cannot allow a treacherous minister to hold his brush among the attendants to a young emperor. It offers no advantage to the sage virtue of the ruler, and it will cause our party to suffer contempt and abuse."


Cai Yong died in prison.

(Gaoyang County was part of Zhuo commandary; there was also a Gaoyangting in Yu County in Chenliu commandary.

Before, when Cai Yong had been in exile at Shuofang, he had constantly submitted letters to the court asking for materials for a Book of Han. These were the things that he was concerned of having learned about.)

初,卓女婿中郎將牛輔典兵別屯陝,分遣校尉李傕、郭汜、張濟略陳留、潁川諸縣。卓死,呂布使李肅至陝,欲以詔命誅輔。輔等逆與肅戰,肅敗走弘農,布誅肅。 〈《魏書》曰:輔恇怯失守,不能自安。常把闢兵符,以鈇鑕致其旁,欲以自強。見客,先使相者相之,知有反氣與不,又筮知吉凶,然後乃見之。中郎將董越來就輔,輔使筮之,得兌下離上,筮者曰:「火勝金,外謀內之卦也。」即時殺越。《獻帝紀》云:筮人常為越所鞭,故因此以報之。 〉其後輔營兵有夜叛出者,營中驚,輔以為皆叛,乃取金寶,獨與素所厚(友)胡赤兒等五六人相隨,逾城北渡河,赤兒等利其金寶,斬首送長安。

Initially, the General of the Household Gentlemen, Dong Zhuo's son-in-law Niu Fu, was stationed with his troops at Shan. He dispatched Colonels Li Jue, Guo Si, and Zhang Ji to ravage the counties of Chenliu and Yingchuan commandaries. When Dong Zhuo died, Lu Bu sent Li Su as a messenger to Shan with an Imperial Order to punish Niu Fu. Niu Fu and others opposed Li Su in battle; Li Su was defeated and fled to Hongnong. Lu Bu then executed Li Su. That night, there was a revolt among the soldiers in Niu Fu's camp, and the camp was in an uproar. Niu Fu believed that all the soldiers were rebels, so he gathered his valuables and snuck off alone with (his friend) Hu Chi’er, whom he had treated well, and others, five or six men altogether. They went north out of the city to cross the Yellow River. Hu Chi’er and the others wanted Niu Fu's valuables, so they beheaded him and sent his head to Chang'an.

(The Book of Wei states, "Niu Fu was afraid and nervous that he would lose lose his guard, and could not find peace. He was always grasping his military tally, and kept an axe and chopping block by his side, wishing to strengthen himself. When he saw guests, he would first examine their physiognomy, to see if they had any rebellious intent or not. Then he would cast a milfoil divination to see what sort of fortune the person carried, and only afterwards would he see them. When the General of the Palace Gentlemen, Dong Yue, came to see Niu Fu, Niu Fu sent to have a milfoil divination cast. The result was combined below and divided above. The diviner told him, 'Fire overcomes metal; it is a sign of the outer plotting against the inner.' Niu Fu immediately killed Dong Yue." The Records of Emperor Xian adds, "This diviner had often been whipped by Dong Yue, and this was why he gave such a report to Niu Fu.")

呂布使李肅至陝,以詔命誅牛輔,輔等逆與肅戰,肅敗,走弘農,布誅殺之。輔恇怯失守,會營中無故自驚,輔欲走,爲左右所殺。(ZZTJ 60, 192.8)

Lü Bu sent Li Su to Shan with imperial orders to kill Niu Fu, but Niu Fu and his officers rebelled and attacked Li Su. Li Su was defeated and fled to Hongnong and Lü Bu had him arrested and killed. Then Niu Fu became frightened and lost control, and there was panic in his camp. He tried to run away and was killed by his own attendants.

比傕等還,輔已敗,眾無所依,欲各散歸。既無赦書,而聞長安中欲盡誅涼州人,憂恐不知所為。用賈詡策,遂將其眾而西,所在收兵,比至長安,眾十餘萬,〈《九州春秋》曰:傕等在陝,皆恐怖,急擁兵自守。胡文才、楊整脩皆涼州大人,而司徒王允素所不善也。及李傕之叛,允乃呼文才、整脩使東解釋之,不假藉以溫顏,謂曰:「關東鼠子欲何為邪?卿往呼之。」於是二人往,實召兵而還。 〉與卓故部曲樊稠、李蒙、王方等合圍長安城。十日城陷,與布戰城中,布敗走。傕等放兵略長安老少,殺之悉盡,死者狼籍。誅殺卓者,尸王允於市。 〈《張璠漢紀》曰:布兵敗,駐馬青瑣門外,謂允曰:「公可以去。」允曰:「安國家,吾之上原也,若不獲,則奉身以死。朝廷幼主恃我而已,臨難苟免,吾不為也。努力謝關東諸公,以國家為念。」傕、汜入長安城,屯南宮掖門,殺太僕魯馗、大鴻臚週奐、城門校尉崔烈、越騎校尉王頎。吏民死者不可勝數。司徒王允挾天子上宣平城門避兵,傕等於城門下拜,伏地叩頭。帝謂傕等曰:「卿無作威福,而乃放兵縱橫,欲何為乎?」傕等曰:「董卓忠於陛下,而無故為呂布所殺。臣等為卓報讎,弗敢為逆也。請事竟,詣廷尉受罪。」允窮逼出見傕,傕誅允及妻子宗族十餘人。長安城中男女大小莫不流涕。允字子師,太原祁人也。少有大節,郭泰見而奇之,曰:「王生一日千里,王佐之才也。」泰雖先達,遂與定交。三公並闢,歷豫州刺史,闢荀爽、孔融為從事,遷河南尹、尚書令。及為司徒,其所以扶持王室,甚得大臣之節,自天子以下,皆倚賴焉。卓亦推信之,委以朝廷。華嶠曰:夫士以正立,以謀濟,以義成,若王允之推董卓而分其權,伺其間而弊其罪。當此之時,天下之難解矣,本之皆主於忠義也,故推卓不為失正,分權不為不義,伺間不為狙詐,是以謀濟義成,而歸於正也。 〉葬卓於郿,大風暴雨震卓墓,水流入藏,漂其棺槨。傕為車騎將軍、池陽侯,領司隸校尉、假節。汜為後將軍、美陽侯。稠為右將軍、萬年侯。傕、汜、稠擅朝政。 〈《英雄記》曰:傕,北地人。汜,張掖人,一名多。 〉濟為驃騎將軍、平陽侯,屯弘農。

By the time Li Jue and the others returned, Niu Fu was already defeated. Their soldiers had no heart for fighting, and each man wanted to scatter and return home. Since the generals had received no letter of pardon, and had heard that all of the Liangzhou men in Chang'an had all been killed, they were very afraid and did not know what to do.

They decided to use Jia Xu's plan, and had their army march west. They collected more soldiers as they went, and by the time they reached Chang'an, their numbers had swelled to more than a hundred thousand men. They met up with Dong Zhuo’s former officers Fan Chou, Li Meng, Wang Fang, and others, and together they besieged Chang'an. Within ten days, the walls fell and they fought with Lu Bu inside the city. Lu Bu was defeated and retreated. Li Jue and the others released their soldiers on Chang'an, killing young and old alike; their slaughter was complete, and the dead were beyond reckoning. They killed those who had murdered Dong Zhuo, and left Wang Yun's body out in the market.

Dong Zhuo was buried at Mei. Great wind, fire, and rain shook his tomb; water flooded into the recesses, and his coffin was carried off in the floods.

Li Jue served as the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Marquis of Chiyang, acting Colonel Director of Retainers, and Credential Bearer. Guo Si was appointed General of the Rear and conferred as Marquis of Meiyang. Fan Chou was appointed General of the Left and conferred as Marquis of Wannian. Li Jue, Guo Si, and Fan Chou controlled all politics. Zhang Ji was appointed General of Agile Cavalry and conferred as Marquis of Pingyang. He was stationed at Hongnong.

(The Annals of the Nine Provinces states, "When Li Jue and the others were at Shan, they were scared and worried, so they amassed soldiers to defend themselves. Hu Wencai (Hu Zhen) and Yang Zhengxiu (Yang Ding) were two great leaders from Liangzhou, but the Minister over the Masses, Wang Yun, had not treated them well. When Li Jue rebelled, Wang Yun wished to send them east to resolve the situation, but he did not treat them warmly, simply telling them, 'Those Guandong mice wish to do something, do they? Go yell at them a bit.' But they gathered their soldiers and went home."

Zhang Fan’s Records of Han states, "Lu Bu’s soldiers were defeated and he halted outside the Qingsuo Gate. He said to Wang Yun, 'Minister, it is still possible to leave.'

"Wang Yun replied, 'If peace can be brought to the state, that is my highest wish. If this cannot be achieved, then I offer myself to die for it. The Emperor is young and weak, and I am the only person he can depend upon. Even when danger comes, I cannot run away. Try to get help from the leaders east of the passes. Urge them to think of the state.'

"When Li Jue and Guo Si entered Chang'an, they camped by the Lateral Gate of the Southern Palace. They killed the Grand Coachman Lu Kui, the Grand Herald Zhou Huan, the Colonel of the Gates, Cui Lie, and the Colonel of the Elite Cavalry, Wang Qi. A countless number of minor officials were killed.

"The Minister over the Masses, Wang Yun, helped Emperor Xian to climb atop the Xuanping Gate to escape the enemy. Li Jue and his men came to the gate and saluted them, then dropped to the ground and kowtowed. Emperor Xian said to Li Jue and the others, 'Gentlemen, you have abused your power without cause and set soldiers loose everywhere. What do you want?'

"Li Jue and the others replied, 'Dong Zhuo was loyal to Your Majesty but Lü Bu killed him without good cause. We are avenging Dong Zhuo; we would not dare make rebellion. We beg to finish this business, then go to the Commandant of Justice for punishment.' Wang Yun, exhausted, came out to see Li Jue. Li Jue killed Wang Yun, his wife and children, and his clan, totaling ten people. Inside the city, whether man or woman, great or small, there was no one who didn’t shed a tear.

"Wang Yun, styled Zishi, was from Qi in Taiyuan. As a youth, he had great fortitude. There was a scholar, Guo Tai, who saw Wang Yun and marveled at him, saying, 'This one moves a thousand li a day; he has the talents to serve beside a king.' Although Guo Tai was ahead of him in achievements, they soon became friends. When the Three Excellencies opened up, Wang Yun was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, and he chose Xun Shuang and Kong Rong to be his Attendant Officers. He was transferred to be Intendant of Henan, and then Prefect of the Masters of Writing. When he became Minister Over The Masses, he was supported by the royal family, and he exercised authority as a grand minister. From the Emperor on down, everyone relied on him. Dong Zhuo also trusted him, and employed him in the court."

Hua Jiao remarked, "In order for a gentleman to remain just, he must be clear in his planning and complete in his virtue. In Wang Yun's serving under Dong Zhuo while dividing his authority, he was watching for the right time to exploit Dong Zhuo's misdeeds. When that time arrived, the realm's troubles could be undone. This is the foundation true loyalty and virtue, and how Wang Yun could advise Dong Zhuo without losing his justice. Though he divided his authority, he did not become the less virtuous. In biding his time without giving in, his planning was clear and his virtue was complete. Thus was he able to return to justice."

The Book of Heroes states, "Li Jue was from Beidi. Guo Si was from Zhangye; he had several names.")

李傕等還,輔已死,傕等無所依,遣吏詣長安求赦。王允曰:「一歲不可再赦。」不許。傕等益懼,不知所爲,欲各解散,間行歸鄕里,討虜校尉武威賈詡曰:「諸君若棄軍單行,則一亭長能束君矣;不如相率而西,以攻長安,爲董公報仇,事濟,奉國家以正天下;若其不合,走未晚也。」傕等然之,乃相與結盟,率軍數千,晨夜西行。王允以胡文才、楊整脩皆涼州大人,召使東,解釋之,不假借以溫顏,謂曰:「關東鼠子,欲何爲邪?卿往呼之!」於是二人往,實召兵而還。(ZZTJ 60, 192.8)

By the time Li Jue and the others came back [from their raid into Yingchuan and Chenliu] Niu Fu was dead. Li Jue and the others had nowhere to go, so they sent a messenger to Chang'an asking for pardon. Wang Yun refused them, saying, "There cannot be two amnesties in a single year."

Li Jue and his fellows, increasingly worried, had no idea what to do. They were going to scatter and hurry by side-paths back to their homes, but the Colonel Who Exterminates Caitiffs, Jia Xu from Wuwei, said, "If you leave your troops and travel alone, then the chief of a single village can arrest you. The best thing to do is move west together, attack Chang'an and avenge Lord Dong. If you are successful you can serve the royal house and set the empire to rights. If you fail, there will still be time to run away."

Li Jue and the others agreed. They made covenant together, and led their forces, several thousand men, marching west-wards day and night. Hu Wencai and Yang Zhengxiu [Yang Ding] were both powerful elders, respected by the men of Liang province. Calling them up, Wang Yun told them to go east and explain the situation, but not to show any leniency. "Those rats east of the passes," he said, "what do they want? Go and summons them." The two men left, but they did no more than collect their own troops and return [to their home province].

傕隨道收兵,比至長安,已十餘萬,與卓故部曲樊稠、李蒙等合圍長安城,城峻不可攻,守之八日。〈《考異》曰:《魏志》云十日,今從范《書》。〉呂布軍有叟兵內反,〈賢曰:叟兵卽蜀兵也;漢代謂蜀爲叟。〉六月,戊午,引傕衆入城,放兵虜掠。布與戰城中,不勝,將數百騎以卓頭繫馬鞍出走,駐馬青瑣門外,〈衞瓘曰:青瑣,戶邊青鏤也。一曰:天子門內有眉格再重,裏青畫曰瑣。〉招王允同去。允曰:「若蒙社稷之靈,上安國家,吾之願也;如其不獲,則奉身以死之。朝廷幼少,恃我而已,臨難苟免,吾不忍也。努力謝關東諸公,勤以國家爲念!」太常种拂曰:「爲國大臣,不能禁暴禦侮,使白刃向宮,去將安之!」遂戰而死。(ZZTJ 60, 192.8)

Li Jue recruited as he marched, and by the time he came to Chang'an he had more than a hundred thousand men. He joined Fan Chou, Li Meng, and others, former followers of Dong Zhuo, and besieged the city. The walls were too steep to be stormed, and the defences held out for eight days.

Among Lü Bu's army there were soldiers from Sou [i.e. Shu], and these men staged a mutiny. In the sixth month on the day Wuwu (28 Jun) they gave entry to Li Jue's army, and the soldiers broke loose to plunder. Lü Bu fought them within the walls but could do nothing to stop them. Leading a few hundred horsemen, and with the head of Dong Zhuo tied to his saddle, he fled from the city.

Halting his horse below the Gate Engraved in Blue, he called Wang Yun to come away with him. Wang Yun said, "If I have received blessing from the national altars, then my only wish would be to give peace to our country. If this cannot be achieved, then I offer myself to die for it. The Emperor is young and weak, and I am the only person he can depend upon. Even when danger comes, I cannot run away. Try to get help from the leaders east of the passes. Urge them to think of the nation."

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Records of Wei says that the siege took ten days; I follow the account in Fan Ye's Book of Later Han."

Li Xian remarked, "The 'Sou' soldiers were Shu soldiers; during the Han era, Shu was called Sou."

Wei Guan remarked, "The 青瑣 'Engraved In Blue' was the blue engraving beside a household." Yi remarked, "The interiors of the Son of Heaven's gates had many layers of lattice-work; those parts that were painted blue were called 瑣.")

傕、汜屯南宮掖門,殺太僕魯馗、大鴻臚周奐、城門校尉崔烈、越騎校尉王頎,吏民死者萬餘人,狼籍滿道。王允扶帝上宣平門避兵,〈《三輔黃圖》曰:長安城東面北頭門號宣平門。〉傕等於城門下伏地叩頭,帝謂傕等曰:「卿等放兵縱橫,欲何爲乎?」傕等曰:「董卓忠於陛下,而無故爲呂布所殺,臣等爲卓報讎,非敢爲逆也。請事畢詣廷尉受罪。」傕等圍門樓,共表請司徒王允出,問「太師何罪?」允窮蹙,乃下見之。己未,赦天下,以李傕爲揚武將軍,郭汜爲揚烈將軍,〈揚武將軍始於建武之初,馬成爲之。揚烈將軍蓋始於是時。〉樊稠等皆爲中郎將。傕等收司隸校尉黃琬,殺〈【章:甲十一行本「殺」上有「下獄」二字;乙十一行本同。】〉之。(ZZTJ 60, 192.8)

Li Jue and Guo Si camped by the Lateral Gates of the Southern Palace. They killed the Grand Coachman Lu Kui, the Grand Herald Zhou Huan, the Colonel of the City Gates, Cui Lie, and the Colonel of Elite Cavalry, Wang Qi. More than ten thousand officials and commoners died, the bodies scattered in the streets.

Wang Yun helped Emperor Xian to climb the tower of the Xuanping Gate to escape the enemy. Li Jue and his fellows came to the gate, fell to the ground and made the kowtow. Emperor Xian said to them, "Gentlemen, you have set soldiers loose everywhere, what do you want?"

Li Jue and his men replied, "Dong Zhuo was loyal to Your Majesty, but Lü Bu killed him without good cause. We are avenging Dong Zhuo; we would not dare make rebellion. We beg to finish this business, then go to the Commandant of Justice for punishment."

They surrounded the gate tower and asked that the Minister over the Masses, Wang Yun, come out, saying, "What fault had the Grand Master [Dong Zhuo]?" Wang Yun had no alternative but to go down and see them. On the day Jiwei (29 Jun) there was an amnesty for the empire. Li Jue was made General Who Manifests Firmness, and Guo Si General Who Manifests Courage. Fan Chou and the others were all Generals of the Gentleman of the Household.

Li Jue and his men arrested the Colonel Director of Retainers, Huang Wan, and killed him.

(The Yellow Description of the Three Adjuncts states, "The north head of the eastern gate of Chang'an's walls was called the Xuanping Gate."

The title General Who Manifests Firmness had its origins in the title General Who Establishes Valor, which had been awarded to Ma Cheng. General Who Manifests Courage was first created during this time.

Some versions say that Li Jue and the others imprisoned Huang Wan before they killed him.)

甲子,傕收允及翼、宏,幷殺之;允妻子皆死。(ZZTJ 60, 192.8)

On the day Jiazi (4 Jul), Li Jue arrested Wang Yun, Song Yi, and Wang Hong and killed them. Wang Yun's wife and family died too.

是歲,韓遂、馬騰等降,率眾詣長安。以遂為鎮西將軍,遣還涼州,騰征西將軍,屯郿。侍中馬宇與諫議大夫種邵、左中郎將劉範等謀,欲使騰襲長安,己為內應,以誅傕等。騰引兵至長平觀,宇等謀洩,出奔槐里。稠擊騰,騰敗走,還涼州;又攻槐里,宇等皆死。時三輔民尚數十萬戶,傕等放兵劫略,攻剽城邑,人民飢困,二年間相噉食略盡。 〈《獻帝紀》曰:是時新遷都,宮人多亡衣服,帝欲發禦府繒以與之,李傕弗欲,曰:「宮中有衣,胡為復作邪?」詔賣厩馬百餘匹,禦府大司農出雜繒二萬匹,與所賣厩馬直,賜公卿以下及貧民不能自存者。李傕曰「我邸閣儲偫少」,乃悉載置其營。賈詡曰「此上意,不可拒」,傕不從之。 〉

During this year, Han Sui, Ma Teng, and others surrendered and led their armies to Chang'an. Han Sui was appointed General Who Guards The West and dispatched back to Liangzhou. Ma Teng was appointed General Who Conquers the West and stationed at Mei.

Palace Attendant Ma Yu, the Grandee Remonstrant and Consultant, Chong Shao, the General of the Household Gentlemen of the Left, Liu Fan, and others plotted together. They wished to send a messenger to Ma Teng to have him attack Chang'an, with them acting to assist him from the inside, with the intention of executing Li Jue and the others. Ma Teng brought his soldiers as far as Changping Overlook, when the plot was discovered. Ma Yu and the other conspirators fled to Huaili. Fan Chou attacked Ma Teng. Ma Teng was defeated and withdrew back to Liangzhou. Fan Chou then attacked Huaili, and Ma Yu and the others all died.

At this time the people of the Three Adjuncts (around Chang'an) numbered several hundred thousand households. Li Jue and the others let their men plunder the area, attacking and pillaging the cities and towns. The people ran out of food. Within two years they were forced to cannibalism.

(The Records of Emperor Xian states, "At this time, since the capital had only just been moved, many of the palace people had lost their robes and clothing. Emperor Xian wished to send out the guards to obtain silks for them, but Li Jue would not permit it. He said, 'The palace has clothes; why must the tribes supply more?' An edict went out to sell off more than a hundred horses from the palace stables. The guards and the Minister of Finance went out and collected twenty thousand bolts of silk, along with the payments from the sold horses, and presented them to high ministers on down to poor people who could not support themselves. Li Jue said, 'The stores in my residence have gotten low,' and took all of the goods to his camp. Jia Xu warned him, 'If you do things like that, you cannot support yourself.' Li Jue ignored him.")

初,董卓入關,說韓遂、馬騰與共圖山東,遂、騰率衆詣長安。會卓死,李傕等以遂爲鎭西將軍,遣還金城;騰爲征西將軍,遣屯郿。〈《晉書‧職官志》曰:四征起於漢代,四鎭通於柔遠。〉(ZZTJ 60, 192.17)

Before this, when Dong Zhuo entered the passes [to Chang'an], he had persuaded Han Sui and Ma Teng to join him in dealing with the east of the mountains, and Han Sui and Ma Teng brought their forces to Chang'an. Soon afterwards, Dong Zhuo died, and now Li Jue and the others made Han Sui General Who Maintains the West in Peace and sent him back to Jincheng, while Ma Teng became General Who Subdues the West and was sent to camp at Mei.

(The chapter on Government Offices in the Book of Jin states, "The titles for the four Generals Who Conquer (North/South/East/West) arose during the Han dynasty. Together with the Generals Who Guard, they kept peace in distant places.")

諫議大夫种卲、侍中馬宇、左中郎將劉範謀使騰襲長安,己爲內應,以誅傕等。壬申,騰遂勒兵屯長平觀。卲等謀泄,出奔槐里。傕使樊稠、郭汜及兄子利擊之,騰、遂敗走,還涼州。又攻槐里,卲等皆死。(ZZTJ 61, 194.5)

The Grandee Remonstrant and Consultant Chong Shao, the Palace Attendant Ma Yu and the General of the Gentlemen of the Household on the Left, Liu Fan planned for Ma Teng to attack Chang'an. They would then act as his supporters inside the city and kill Li Jue and his allies.

[In the third month] on the day renshen [?gengshen = 21 Apr] Ma Teng brought his soldiers to camp at the Changping Observatory. Chong Shao and his fellow-conspirators were discovered and fled to Huaili. Li Jue sent Fan Chou, Guo Si and his elder brother's son Li Li to attack Ma Teng. Ma Teng was defeated and fled, and he went back to Liang province. The army then turned against Huaili, and Chong Shao and the others were all killed.

董卓初死,三輔民尚數十萬戶,李傕等放兵劫掠,加以饑饉,二年間,民相食略盡。(ZZTJ 61, 195.4)

At the time of Dong Zhuo's death, the population of the capital district was still numbered by hundreds of thousands of households. But Li Jue and his armies plundered far and wide, then there was famine, and within two years the people had been reduced to cannibalism. All but a very few left the territory or died of starvation.

諸將爭權,遂殺稠,併其眾。汜與傕轉相疑,戰鬥長安中。傕質天子於營,燒宮殿城門,略官寺,盡收乘輿服御物置其家。 傕使公卿詣汜請和,汜皆執之。 相攻擊連月,死者萬數。

The various generals fought for power; Fan Chou was killed and his troops absorbed. Guo Si and Li Jue began to distrust each other, and fought one another in Chang'an. Li Jue took Emperor Xian hostage in his camp. He burned the palace gates and plundered the offices and ministries, taking the goods of all their families for himself. Li Jue sent the chief ministers to Guo Si to offer peace, but Guo Si arrested all of them. The two generals fought each other for months, and the dead numbered several tens of thousands.

〈《九州春秋》曰:馬騰、韓遂之敗,樊稠追至陳倉。遂語稠曰:「天地反覆,未可知也。本所爭者非私怨,王家事耳。與足下州里人,今雖小違,要當大同,欲相與善語以別。邂逅萬一不如意,後可復相見乎!」俱卻騎前接馬,交臂相加,共語良久而別。傕兄子利隨稠,利還告傕,韓、樊交馬語,不知所道,意愛甚密。傕以是疑稠與韓遂私和而有異意。稠欲將兵東出關,從傕索益兵。因請稠會議,便於坐殺稠。 〉〈《典略》曰:傕數設酒請汜,或留汜止宿。汜妻懼傕與汜婢妾而奪己愛,思有以離間之。會傕送饋,妻乃以豉為藥,汜將食,妻曰:「食從外來,倘或有故!」遂摘藥示之,曰:「一棲不二雄,我固疑將軍之信李公也。」他日傕復請汜,大醉。汜疑傕藥之,絞糞汁飲之乃解。於是遂生嫌隙,而治兵相攻。

The Annals of the Nine Provinces states, "When Ma Teng and Han Sui were defeated; Fan Chou pursued them as far as Chencang. Han Sui wrote to Fan Chou, 'Heaven and Earth have turned upside down, and who knows what the outcome may be? We are fighting each other, but without having any reason to hate one another; it is a political affair between rulers. Let us speak with one another and resolve our differences. If it should happen that it goes against your intentions, then shall we meet again some other time!' Each of them sent away their attendant riders and rode forward until their horses touched, and the two of them locked arms and spoke at length together before parting.

"Now Li Jue's nephew Li Li was with Fan Chou, and when he returned, he told Li Jue what had happened, how Han Sui and Fan Chou had brought their horses together and spoke about something; he did not know what, but he was sure it was a very intimate matter. Li Jue thus suspected that Fan Chou and Han Sui had made some secret arrangement, and he became suspicious of Fan Chou. Then Fan Chou planned to take an army east out of the passes, and he asked Li Jue for additional troops. So Li Jue asked Fan Chou to come to a council meeting, and then killed Fan Chou as he was sitting."

The Dianlue states, "Li Jue often invited Guo Si to drink, and sometimes kept him to stay overnight. Guo Si's wife was afraid her husband might have his way with one of Li Jue's serving women, and she determined to break up their friendship. The time came that Li Jue sent a gift of some food. Guo Si's wife made salted beans into a poisonous drug. When Guo Si was about to eat the food, his wife told him, 'Someone sent you that food; what if there was a reason for that?' And she plucked out the beans to display them, saying, 'Two cocks cannot roost on the same branch. General, I truly do not believe you should be so trusting of Lord Li.' Another day, Li Jue invited Guo Si again, and Guo Si became very drunk. Guo Si suspected that he had been poisoned, so he made an emetic of liquid excrement and drank it. Thus did suspicion and animosity spring up, and both sides arrayed their troops against and attacked one another."

樊稠之擊馬騰、韓遂也,李利戰不甚力,稠叱之曰:「人欲截汝父頭,〈利,傕兄子也,故云然。〉何敢如此,我不能斬卿邪!」及騰、遂敗走,稠追至陳倉,遂語稠曰:「本所爭者非私怨,王家事耳。與足下州里人,〈韓遂,金城人,與樊稠皆涼州人也。〉欲相與善語而別。」乃俱卻騎,前接馬,交臂相加,共語良久而別。軍還,李利告傕,「韓、樊交馬語,不知所道,意愛甚密,」傕亦以稠勇而得衆,忌之。稠欲將兵東出關,從傕索益兵。二月,傕請稠會議,便於坐殺稠。由是諸將轉相疑貳。(ZZTJ 61, 195.4)

[In the previous year], when Fan Chou attacked Ma Teng and Han Sui, [Li Jue's nephew] Li Li had not shown well in the fighting. Fan Chou swore at him, "These men are coming to take your uncle's head. How can you behave like this? I should have you killed."

Then Ma Teng and Han Sui were defeated and fled, and Fan Chou pursued them to Chencang. Han Sui said to Fan Chou, "We may be at war, but we have no personal quarrel and both come from the same district. I would like to talk with you in private to say farewell." Each rode forward, set their horses together, linked arms and talked for a time apart. When the army returned, Li Li reported to Li Jue that "Han Sui and Fan Chou met on horseback and spoke together. I do not know what they said, but it looked friendly and was all very private." Li Jue, in any case, was jealous of Fan Chou because he was brave and had a considerable following.

Then Fan Chou planned to take an army east out of the passes, and he asked Li Jue for additional troops. In the second month Li Jue called him to a meeting, then killed him where he sat. So the leaders began to distrust one another.

(Li Li was Li Jue's nephew, which was why Fan Chou made this expression.

Han Sui was a native of Jincheng, and he and Fan Chou were both from Liangzhou.)

傕數設酒請郭汜,或留汜止宿。汜妻恐汜愛傕婢妾,思有以間之。會傕送饋,妻以豉爲藥,擿以示汜曰:「一栖不兩雄,我固疑將軍信李公也。」〈以雞爲喻也,一栖而兩雄,必鬬。〉他日,傕復請汜,飲大醉,汜疑其有毒,絞糞汁飲之,〈糞汁解衆毒。〉於是各治兵相攻矣。(ZZTJ 61, 195.4)

Li Jue often invited Guo Si to drink, and sometimes kept him to stay overnight. Guo Si's wife was afraid her husband might have an affair with one of Li Jue's serving women, and she determined to break it up.

The time came that Li Jue sent a gift of some food. Guo Si's wife made salted beans into a poisonous drug, then picked them out as if they had come with the present. Showing them to her husband, she said, "Two cocks cannot roost on the same branch. I do not believe you should be so trusting of Lord Li."

Soon afterwards, Li Jue invited Guo Si again, and Guo Si became very drunk. He suddenly suspected that he had been poisoned, so he made an emetic of liquid excrement and drank it. Each side now gathered troops to fight the other.

(Guo Si's wife used the expression of the cocks as an analogy; if two cocks roost on the same branch, they are certain to fight.

Guo Si took the emetic in order to vomit up the poison.)

〈《獻帝起居注》曰:初,汜謀迎天子幸其營,夜有亡告傕者,傕使兄子暹將數千兵圍宮,以車三乘迎天子。楊彪曰:「自古帝王無在人臣家者。舉事當合天下心,諸君作此,非是也。」暹曰:「將軍計定矣。」於是天子一乘,貴人伏氏一乘,賈詡、左靈一乘,其餘皆步從。是日,傕复移乘輿幸北塢,使校尉監塢門,內外隔絕。諸侍臣皆有飢色,時盛暑熱,人盡寒心。帝求米五斛、牛骨五具以賜左右,傕曰:「朝餔上飯,何用米為?」乃與腐牛骨,皆臭不可食。帝大怒,欲詰責之。侍中楊琦上封事曰:「傕,邊鄙之人,習於夷風,今又自知所犯悖逆,常有怏怏之色,欲輔車駕幸黃白城以紓其憤。臣原陛下忍之,未可顯其罪也。」帝納之。初,傕屯黃白城,故謀欲徙之。傕以司徒趙溫不與己同,乃內溫塢中。溫聞傕欲移乘輿,與傕書曰:「公前託為董公報仇,然實屠陷王城,殺戮大臣,天下不可家見而戶釋也。今爭睚眥之隙,以成千鈞之仇,民在塗炭,各不聊生,曾不改寤,遂成禍亂。朝廷仍下明詔,欲令和解,詔命不行,恩澤日損,而復欲輔乘輿於黃白城,此誠老夫所不解也。於易,一過為過,再為涉,三而弗改,滅其頂,兇。不如早共和解,引兵還屯,上安萬乘,下全生民,豈不幸甚!」傕大怒,欲遣人害溫。其從弟應,溫故掾也,諫之數日乃止。帝聞溫與傕書,問侍中常洽曰:「傕弗知臧否,溫言太切,可為寒心。」對曰:「李應已解之矣。」帝乃悅。 〉

Emperor Xian's Daily Life states, "Before, Guo Si was going to take Emperor Xian to his camp, but one of his soldiers deserted in the night and told Li Jue. Li Jue sent his nephew Li Xian to lead several thousand men to surround the palace and to take three chariots to collect Emperor Xian. Grand Commandant Yang Biao said, 'There has been a rule since ancient times that an emperor or a king should never take up residence in the house of one of his ministers. When you propose a measure, it ought to be one in accord with the Emperor's wishes. What you gentlemen propose goes against them.' Li Xian replied, "The general has made his decision." So Emperor Xian then rode in one of the carriages, his consort Lady Fu rode in another carriage, and Jia Xu and Zuo Ling rode in the third carriage. Everyone else walked behind the carriages on foot.

"The same day, Li Jue moved Emperor Xian to the northern fortress; he posted colonels to command the fortress gates, and restricted access in or out. The palace attendants and ministers all wore famished expressions; though it was a time of greater and greater hot weather, people all shivered in fear. Emperor Xian asked for five pecks of rice and five sets of cattle-bones to feed his attendants, but Li Jue replied, 'Morning and evening we send food. What do you want rice for?" And he gave nothing but old rotten bones; no one could stomach them enough to eat them. Emperor Xian was furious and wanted to denounce Li Jue, but the Palace Attendant Yang Qi submitted a petition stating, 'Li Jue is a man from the border regions, practiced in barbaric customs. And today, he himself knows that he does wrong by you and acts disobediently. He often has a sullen expression, and he wants to relocate you to Huangbai in order to relieve his tension. I advise Your Majesty to endure this for now; you cannot yet announce Li Jue's offenses.' So Emperor Xian restrained his anger. Li Jue had been camped at Huangbai before, which was why he wanted to move the imperial hostages there.

"Li Jue and the Minister over the Masses, Zhao Wen, had a disagreement, so Li Jue put him in the fortress. When Zhao Wen heard that Li Jue wished to move Emperor Xian, he wrote a letter to Li Jue saying, 'Lord, when you acted before, you claimed a charge to avenge Lord Dong's death. But in truth, you brought death and destruction to the royal city. You killed great ministers, and one cannot find any family of the realm which does not now number corpses among its members.

"'Now you have let divisions which sprung out of trifling incidents become the cause of countless grudges. The people are in great misery, and none of them can support themselves. If you do not wake up from this business, it will end in disaster and turmoil. The court is still handing down edicts, wishing that peace might be resolved, yet these edicts and commands are not put into effect. The favors you have received from the court have increased on a daily basis, yet you still want to go so far as to move the imperial entourage to Huangbai. This is something that an honest old fellow like myself cannot understand.

"'According to the Book of Changes, in first committing a mistake one crosses over the water; the second time, one wades into it; and if one does not change such that there is a third time, then the water flows over their head, and misfortune follows. It would be better to make peace quickly, and lead your soldiers back into their camps. Above, you may maintain the countless affairs, and below, you may let the people sustain themselves. Would this not be a fortunate result?'

"Li Jue was very angry and wished to send men to harm Zhao Wen. His cousin Li Ying, who was friends with Zhang Wen, admonished Li Jue for several days until he dropped the idea. When Emperor Xian heard of Zhao Wen’s letter to Li Jue, he asked the Palace Attendant, Chang Qia, 'Li Jue is unaware of his faults; Zhao Wen’s words are too cutting, and will disturb his heart.' Chang Qia replied, 'Li Ying already stopped him.' So Emperor Xian was pleased."

帝使侍中、尚書和傕、汜,傕、汜不從。汜謀迎帝幸其營,夜有亡者,告傕。三月,丙寅,傕使兄子暹將數千兵圍宮,以車三乘迎帝。太尉楊彪曰:「自古帝王無在人家者,諸君舉事,柰何如是!」暹曰:「將軍計定矣。」於是羣臣步從乘輿以出,兵卽入殿中,掠宮人、御物。帝至傕營,傕又徙御府金帛置其營,遂放火燒宮殿、官府、民居悉盡。帝復使公卿和傕、汜,汜留楊彪及司空張喜、尚書王隆、光祿勳劉淵、衞尉士孫瑞、太僕韓融、廷尉宣璠、大鴻臚榮郃、〈榮,姓也。《前書》有男子榮畜。《姓譜》:周榮公之後。〉大司農朱儁、將作大匠梁卲、屯騎校尉姜宣等於其營以爲質。朱儁憤懣發病死。(ZZTJ 61, 195.4)

Emperor Xian sent Palace Attendants and Masters of Writing to make peace, but neither would agree. Guo Si was going to take Emperor Xian to his camp, but one of his soldiers deserted in the night and told Li Jue.

In the third month on the day Bingyin (22 Apr) Li Jue sent his nephew Li Xian to lead several thousand men to surround the palace, and to take three chariots to collect the Emperor. Grand Commandant Yang Biao said, "There has been a rule since ancient times that an emperor or a king should never take up residence in another man's house. You gentlemen are engaged in a great cause. How can you act like this?" "The general has made his decision," replied Li Xian.

The ministers followed the imperial carriage on foot, and the soldiers went immediately into the palace, plundered the place and seized all the women.

As Emperor Xian arrived, Li Jue had all the gold and silk of the imperial treasury transferred to his own camp, and he set fire to the palaces and apartments, the offices and the people's houses. Everything was destroyed.

Again Emperor Xian sent his highest ministers to make peace between Li Jue and Guo Si, but Guo Si detained Yang Biao, the Minister of Works Zhang Xi, the Master of Writing Wang Long, the Superintendent of the Imperial Household Deng Yuan [miswritten as Liu Yuan], the Commandant of the Guards Shisun Rui, the Grand Coachman Han Rong, the Commandant of Justice Xuan Fan, the Grand Herald Rong Ge, the Grand Minister of Agriculture Zhu Jun, the Court Architect Liang Shao, and the Colonel of Garrison Cavalry Jiang Xuan, and he held them in his camp as hostages. Zhu Jun was so furious he became ill and died.

(榮 Rong is a surname. The 前書 mentions a boy named Rong Chu. The Registry of Surnames states, "They are the descendants of Duke Rong of Zhou.")

是日,傕復移乘輿幸北塢,〈據傕、汜和後,然後帝得出長安宣平門,則此塢蓋在長安城中;傕、汜於城中各築塢而居也。〉使校尉監塢門,內外隔絕,侍臣皆有飢色。帝求米五斗、牛骨五具以賜左右。傕曰:「朝晡上飰,何用米爲?」乃以臭牛骨與之。帝大怒,欲詰責之。侍中楊琦諫曰:「傕自知所犯悖逆,欲轉車駕幸池陽黃白城,〈池陽縣,屬馮翊。賢曰:故城在今涇陽縣西北。《水經註》曰:黃白城,本曲梁宮也。〉臣願陛下忍之。」帝乃止。司徒趙溫與傕書曰:「公前屠陷王城,殺戮大臣,今爭睚眥之隙,以成千鈞之讎,朝廷欲令和解,詔命不行,而復欲轉乘輿於黃白城,此誠老夫所不解也。於《易》,一爲過,再爲涉,三而弗改,滅其頂,凶。〈《易‧大過》上六曰:過,涉,滅頂,凶。溫依此而分一再三之義。〉不如早共和解。」傕大怒,欲殺溫,其弟應諫之,數日乃止。〈據《獻帝起居注》,應,溫故掾也。〉(ZZTJ 61, 195.6)

On this day [23 May] Li Jue shifted Emperor Xian once more, to the Northern Fort, and appointed a colonel to keep the gate.

Emperor Xian was now cut off from all contact with the outside. The faces of his personal attendants were drawn with hunger, but when he asked for just five dou of grain and five sets of cattle-bones to feed them, Li Jue replied, "Morning and evening we send food. What do you want grain for?" And he gave nothing but old rotten bones. Emperor Xian was furious and wanted to shout at him, but the Palace Attendant Yang Qi advised against it, "Li Jue knows he is acting like a rebel. He wants to shift Your Majesty to Huangbocheng in Chiyang. I beg that Your Majesty tolerate his insolence." So Emperor Xian restrained his anger.

The Minister over the Masses, Zhao Wen, sent a letter to Li Jue saying, "You began with massacre and looting in the imperial city, and you slaughtered the great ministers. Then you quarrelled over some trivial insult and have made it a battle of life and death. The court has tried to get you to make peace, but the imperial orders have no effect. Now you want to shift the Emperor to Huangbocheng, and I, an aging man, simply do not understand it. In the Book of Changes, once is a mistake, twice is going further in, and if a third time there is still no change then overwhelming misfortune will come. The only policy which remains to you is to renew the alliance as quickly as possible." Li Jue was very angry. He intended to kill Zhao Wen, but his younger brother Li Ying opposed it and after some days he gave up the idea.

(After Li Jue and Guo Si joined together and captured Emperor Xian at Chang'an's Xuanping Gate, they built fortresses within the walls of Chang'an. Li Jue and Guo Si each built their own fortress and resided there.

Chiyang County was part of Pingyi commandary. Li Xian remarked, "This city was northwest of modern Jingyang County." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Huangbaicheng was originally the Quliang Palace."

Zhao Wen quotes from the Daguo chapter of the Book of Changes: "The topmost SIX, divided, shows its subject with extraordinary (boldness) wading through a stream, till the water hides the crown of his head. There will be evil, but no ground for blame." He interprets these three things as three different steps.

According to the Daily Life of Emperor Xian, Li Ying was Zhao Wen's former assistant.)


Hua Jiao’s Book of Han states, "Guo Si gave a feast for the high ministers, and discussed an attack on Li Jue. Yang Biao said, 'The imperial subjects are fighting one another; one man has kidnapped the Son of Heaven while another holds the highest officials hostage. What sort of situation is this?' Guo Si, furious, snatched up a sword to attack him. But the General of the Household Gentlemen, Yang Mi, protested fiercely, so Guo Si stopped."

郭汜饗公卿,議攻李傕。楊彪曰:「羣臣共鬬,一人劫天子,一人質公卿,可行乎!」汜怒,欲手刃之。彪曰:「卿尚不奉國家,吾豈求生邪!」中郎將楊密固諫,汜乃止。(ZZTJ 61, 195.4)

Guo Si gave a feast for the high ministers, and discussed an attack on Li Jue. Yang Biao said, "The imperial subjects are fighting one another, one man has kidnapped the Son of Heaven while another holds the highest officials hostage. What sort of situation is this?"

Guo Si, furious, snatched up a sword to attack him. Yang Biao said, "You have no concern for the good of the state. Why should I live?" Yang Mi, however, General of the Gentlemen of the Household, protested fiercely, and Guo Si stopped.

《獻帝起居注》曰:傕性喜鬼怪左道之術,常有道人及女巫歌謳擊鼓下神,祠祭六丁,符劾厭勝之具,無所不為。又於朝廷省門外,為董卓作神坐,數以牛羊祠之,訖,過省閤問起居,求入見。傕帶三刀,手復與鞭合持一刃。侍中、侍郎見傕帶仗,皆惶恐,亦帶劍持刀,先入在帝側。傕對帝,或言「明陛下」,或言「明帝」,為帝說郭汜無狀,帝亦隨其意答應之。傕喜,出言「明陛下真賢聖主」,意遂自信,自謂良得天子歡心也。雖然,猶不欲令近臣帶劍在帝邊,謂人言「此曹子將欲圖我邪?而皆持刀也」。侍中李禎,傕州里,素與傕通,語傕「所以持刀者,軍中不可不爾,此國家故事」。傕意乃解。天子以謁者僕射皇甫酈涼州舊姓,有專對之才,遣令和傕、汜。酈先詣汜,汜受詔命。詣傕,傕不肯,曰:「我有呂布之功,輔政四年,三輔清靜,天下所知也。郭多,盜馬虜耳,何敢乃欲與吾等邪?必欲誅之。君為涼州人,觀吾方略士眾,足辦多不?多又劫質公卿,所為如是,而君苟欲利郭多,李傕有膽自知之。」酈答曰:「昔有窮后羿恃其善射,不思患難,以至於斃。近董公之強,明將軍目所見,內有王公以為內主,外有董旻、承、璜以為鯁毒,呂布受恩而反圖之,斯須之間,頭縣竿端,此有勇而無謀也。今將軍身為上將,把鉞仗節,子孫握權,宗族荷寵,國家好爵而皆據之。今郭多劫質公卿,將軍脅至尊,誰為輕重邪?張濟與郭多、楊定有謀,又為冠帶所附。楊奉,白波帥耳,猶知將軍所為非是,將軍雖拜寵之,猶不肯盡力也。」傕不納酈言,而呵之令出。酈出,詣省門,白傕不肯從詔,辭語不順。侍中胡邈為傕所幸,呼傳詔者令飾其辭。又謂酈曰:「李將軍於卿不薄,又皇甫公為太尉,李將軍力也。」酈答曰:「胡敬才,卿為國家常伯,輔弼之臣也,語言如此,寧可用邪? 」邈曰:「念卿失李將軍意,恐不易耳!我與卿何事者?」酈言:「我累世受恩,身又常在幃幄,君辱臣死,當坐國家,為李傕所殺,則天命也。」天子聞酈答語切,恐傕聞之,便敕遣酈。酈裁出營門,傕遣虎賁王昌呼之。昌知酈忠直,縱令去,還答傕,言追之不及。天子使左中郎將李固持節拜傕為大司馬,在三公之右。傕自以為得鬼神之力,乃厚賜諸巫。 〉

The Daily Life of Emperor Xian states, "Li Jue's nature was such that he believed in demons and the mystic arts of sorcerers. He would often have Daoists and female mystics chant odes and beat drums in order to dispel the spirits. He would offer sacrifices to the Six Ding spirits, and when it came to chanting intonations to control the spirits and finding people who could restrain them, there was nothing that he did not put his faith in. Outside the gates of the imperial residence, he raised a dwelling place to house Dong Zhuo's spirit, where several times he offered cows and sheep in sacrifice to him, and when the building was complete, he made a side door from it into the residence, so that he could ask Dong Zhuo's spirit to come in and see him.

"Li Jue wore three swords, and in his hands he held a whip along with a sword. Whenever the Palace Attendants and Palace Gentleman saw Li Jue wearing these weapons, they would all be very afraid. Furthermore, Li Jue would go into Emperor Xian's chamber while wearing these weapons and with sword in hand. Whenever he spoke to Emperor Xian, he would always address him as 'Your Wise Majesty' or 'Wise Emperor', and described Guo Si as wicked and recalcitrant. Emperor Xian replied suitably, and Li Jue was pleased and said, 'Your Wise Majesty is truly a worthy and saintly lord.' He then thought that he had Emperor Xian's favor, and so would say that he had captured Emperor Xian's heart with his finery. However, Li Jue still did not want for the close ministers to wear swords at Emperor Xian's side. He would say of them, 'Does this miscreant mean to plot against me? That is why they all grasp swords.' The Palace Attendant Li Zhen, who was from Li Jue's province and had long been in contact with him, said to him, 'Those people who grasp swords are all military men, and they cannot help but do so. This is a matter of state.' So Li Jue became less anxious about the issue.

The Supervisor of the Internuncios, Huangfu Li, came from a family of long standing in Liangzhou, and he had talents suited to this purpose, so Emperor Xian sent him to arrange for peace between Li Jue and Guo Si. Huangfu Li went first to Guo Si, and Guo Si accepted the imperial command. Then he went to Li Jue, but Li Jue refused, saying, 'I have the same achievements as Lu Bu. For four years, I have assisted the government and brought tranquility to the capital district. My accomplishments are known throughout the land. Guo Duo is nothing but a brigand and horse-thief. How dare he seek to be on the same level as me? I shall certainly punish him. Sir, you are a man of Liangzhou. Observe my plans and my forces. Are they not sufficient to deal with Guo Duo? Besides, Guo Duo has kidnapped the senior ministers and holds them hostage. He acts like this, and you still want to help him? I have the gall to know myself.'

"Huangfu Li responded, 'In ancient days, there was the exemplary Houyi. Proud of and confident in his archer's skill, he gave no thought to perils and difficulties, and so he perished. In our times, General, there was the strength of Lord Dong, which you have seen for yourself. But within there was Lord Wang Yun, whom Dong Zhuo thought was his confidant, and without there was Dong Min, Dong Cheng, and Dong Huang, whom Dong Zhuo thought could save him. Lu Bu received his favor, yet plotted against him. Within a short time, his head was hanging from the county pole. Such is the fate of those who are brave but without strategy.

"'Of late, General, you yourself have become the chief commander, with the axes and whips and all the symbols of rank and high office; your descendants and all your clan occupy distinguished positions. You must confess that the state has rewarded you liberally. True, Guo Si has seized the officers of state, but you have done the same to the 'Most Revered.' Who is worse than the other? Zhang Ji has made plans with Guo Duo and Yang Ding, and will soon be aligned with them. As for Yang Feng, he is just the leader of the White Wave soldiers, but even he knows that you are in the wrong. Although you have favored him and granted him rank, he will not give his all on your behalf.' But Li Jue would not listen to him, and shouted for him to get out. So Huangfu Li left.

"When Huangfu Li came to the gate of the imperial residence, he reported that Li Jue would not obey an Imperial Order, and was using many adverse words. Now the Palace Attendant, Hu Miao, had been favored by Li Jue, and the court criers announced his orders. Hu Miao said to Huangfu Li, 'General Li has not been unkind to you. Lord Huangfu, the fact that you are Grand Commandant now is thanks to his power.'

"Huangfu Li replied, 'Hu Jingcai, you are a close servant of the state, a minister who helps in the administration of affairs. Yet you say such things; what use are you?'

"Hu Miao said, 'I was only afraid on your behalf for what might happen if you went against General Li's intentions. What quarrel do I have with you?'

"Huangfu Li replied, 'I have received the grace of the state for several generations, and I have often personally been present at the imperial chambers and tent. Though my prince is put to shame and I suffer death, I will remain in service to the state. If it be my lot to suffer death at the hands of Li Jue, it is the will of Heaven.'

"When Emperor Xian heard of Huangfu Li's brusque responses, he feared that Li Jue would hear of it as well, so he ordered Huangfu Li sent away. When Huangfu Li was at the camp gate, Li Jue sent a Guard of the Rapid Tigers, Wang Chang, to recall him. Wang Chang knew that Huangfu Li was loyal and direct, so he allowed Huangfu Li to escape, then returned to Li Jue and said that they tried to pursue Huangfu Li but could not catch up with him. Emperor Xian sent the General of the Palace Gentlemen of the Left, Li Gu, to confer Li Jue the staff of authority and appoint him Grand Marshal, with rank above the Three Excellencies. Li Jue believed this had happened thanks to the power of the spirits, so he treated and rewarded the mystics.”

傕信巫覡厭勝之術,〈《國語》:在女曰巫,在男曰覡。〉常以三牲祠董卓於省門外;每對帝或言「明陛下」,或言「明帝」,爲帝說郭汜無狀,帝亦隨其意應答之。傕喜,自謂良得天子歡心也。(ZZTJ 61, 195.6)

Li Jue believed in the arts of witches and wizards and in the use of black magic to ward off ill fortune. He regularly offered triple sacrifice to Dong Zhuo outside the gate of the palace. Whenever he spoke to Emperor Xian, he would always address him as "Wise Majesty" or "Wise Emperor," and described Guo Si as wicked and recalcitrant. Emperor Xian replied suitably and Li Jue was pleased, thinking that he had truly gained his favour.

(According to the Discourses of the States, "Regarding practitioners of magic, women are called 巫, men are called 覡.")

閏月,己卯,帝使謁者僕射皇甫酈和傕、汜。〈《考異》曰:袁《紀》「酈」作「麗」。今從范《書》。〉酈先詣汜,汜從命;又詣傕,傕不肯,曰:「郭多,盜馬虜耳,〈《英雄記》曰:郭汜,一名多。〉何敢欲與吾等邪,必誅之!君觀吾方略士衆,足辦郭多否邪?郭多又劫質公卿,所爲如是,而君苟欲左右之邪!」酈曰:「近者董公之強,將軍所知也;呂布受恩而反圖之,斯須之間,身首異處,此有勇而無謀也。今將軍身爲上將,荷國寵榮,汜質公卿而將軍脅主,誰輕重乎!張濟與汜有謀,楊奉,白波賊帥耳,猶知將軍所爲非是,將軍雖寵之,猶不爲用也。」傕呵之令出。酈出,詣省門,白「傕不肯奉詔,辭語不順。」〈天子所居曰禁中,亦曰省中;省門,卽禁門也。〉帝恐傕聞之,亟令酈去。傕遣虎賁王昌呼,欲殺之,昌知酈忠直,縱令去,還答傕,言「追之不及」。辛巳,以車騎將軍李傕爲大司馬,在三公之右。(ZZTJ 61, 195.6)

In the intercalary [fifth] month on the day jimao (4 Jul), Emperor Xian sent the Supervisor of the Internuncios, Huangfu Li, to make peace between Li Jue and Guo Si. Huangfu Li went first to Guo Si, and Guo Si accepted the message. Then he went to Li Jue but Li Jue refused, saying, "Guo Duo is nothing but a brigand and horse-thief. How dare he seek to rank with me? I shall certainly punish him. You see my plans and my forces. Are they not sufficient to deal with Guo Duo? Besides, Guo Duo has kidnapped the senior ministers and holds them hostage. He acts like this and you still want to help him?"

"Think back," replied Huangfu Li. "My general will surely recall how strong was Dong Zhuo just a short time ago. Lü Bu was his favourite, but then he led a plot against him, and before very long Dong Zhuo's head and body were in different places. This is what happens to men who have adequate courage but who fail to make proper plans.

"Now you are the chief commander, with all the favour and honour of the state. Guo Si holds the chief ministers, but you have taken the Emperor: which is more serious? Zhang Ji has joined Guo Si. Yang Feng is no more than a leader of the Bobo bandits but even he realises you are in the wrong. Though you have treated him well, but he will soon be no use to you." Li Jue cursed him and told him to leave.

As Huangfu Li made his departure, he went to the gate of the palace and told the Emperor, "Li Jue refuses the imperial orders, and his speech is insubordinate." Emperor Xian was afraid Li Jue would hear of it, and he ordered Huangfu Li to leave at once.

Li Jue sent Wang Chang, one of the Guards Rapid As Tigers, to call Huangfu Li back, intending to kill him. Wang Chang, however, realised Huangfu Li was loyal and honest. So he let him go and then told Li Jue that "We chased him but could not catch him."

On the day xinsi [6 Jul] the General of Chariots and Cavalry Li Jue became Commander-in-Chief, with rank above the Three Excellencies.

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding Huangfu Li, Yuan's Records records his given name as 麗; I follow Fan Ye's Book of Later Han, which has it as 酈."

Regarding Guo Si being called "Guo Duo" here, the Record of Heroes states, "Guo Si had many names."

Whichever place the Emperor resided in was called the 禁中, or the 省中. So the gate of the 省 was the gate of the 禁; in other words, the imperial residence.)

傕將楊奉與傕軍吏宋果等謀殺傕,事泄,遂將兵​​叛傕。傕眾叛,稍衰弱。張濟自陝和解之,天子乃得出,至新豐、霸陵間。 郭汜复欲脅天子還都郿。天子奔奉營,奉擊汜破之。汜走南山,奉及將軍董承以天子還洛陽。傕、汜悔遣天子,復相與和,追及天子於弘農之曹陽。奉急招河東故白波帥韓暹、胡才、李樂等合,與傕、汜大戰。奉兵敗,傕等縱兵殺公卿百官,略宮人入弘農。天子走陝,北渡河,失輜重,步行,唯皇后貴人從,至大陽,止人家屋中。 奉、暹等遂以天子都安邑,禦乘牛車。太尉楊彪、太僕韓融近臣從者十餘人。以暹為征東、才為征西、樂征北將軍,並與奉、承持政。遣融至弘農,與傕、汜等連和,還所略宮人公卿百官,及乘輿車馬數乘。是時蝗蟲起,歲旱無谷,從官食棗菜。諸將不能相率,上下亂,糧食盡。奉、暹、承乃以天子還洛陽。出箕關,下軹道,張楊以食迎道路,拜大司馬。語在楊傳。天子入洛陽,宮室燒盡,街陌荒蕪,百官披荊棘,依丘牆間。州郡各擁兵自衛,莫有至者。飢窮稍甚,尚書郎以下,自出樵採,或飢死牆壁間。

Li Jue’s general Yang Feng made a plot with Li Jue's army official Song Guo and others to kill Li Jue. The plot leaked out, so instead Yang Feng’s troops rebelled against Li Jue. With some of his troops betraying, Li Jue’s force was weakened a little.

Zhang Ji came from Shan to make peace between the two sides. Emperor Xian was then able to come out, and he went between Xinfeng and Baling. Guo Si again expressed his desire for Emperor Xian to return to Mei. Emperor Xian fled to Yang Feng’s camp, and Yang Feng attacked Guo Si and routed him. Guo Si withdrew to the southern hills.

Yang Feng and General Dong Cheng brought Emperor Xian back to Luoyang. Guo Si and Li Jue regretted letting Emperor Xian get away, so they joined forces. They pursued him to Caoyang in Hongnong. Yang Feng summoned the leaders of the White Wave bandits that were in Hedong, Han Xian, Hu Cai, Li Yue, and others, to join forces, and they fought a great battle against Li Jue and Guo Si. Yang Feng’s soldiers were defeated, and the soldiers of Li Jue and the others pressed their attack, killing high ministers and officials and bringing the captured palace attendants into Hongnong.

Emperor Xian fled to Shan. To the north, they crossed over the Yellow River, where they abandoned their supplies and kept going on foot, with only the Empress's attendants following them. They kept going until they reached Dayang, where they stopped in someone's house for a while. Yang Feng, Han Xian, and the others then made Anyi into the imperial capital, and the carriages were drawn by oxen. The Grand Commandant, Yang Biao, and the Grand Coachman, Han Rong, followed with around ten guards. Han Xian was appointed General Who Conquers the East, Hu Cai was appointed General Who Conquers the West, and Li Yue was appointed General Who Conquers the North. Together with Yang Feng and Dong Cheng, they controlled the government.

Han Rong was sent to Hongnong to create peace with Li Jue and Guo Si. He returned with the palace attendants and high officials that had been held prisoner, together with the carriages, robes, insignia and other goods that had been seized from the court.

During this time, locusts sprang up; it had been a drought year, and there was no grain. The officials all ate dates and herbs. The various loyalist generals did not work together well and there was disorder, so the food supplies were soon exhausted. Yang Biao, Han Xian, and Dong Cheng had Emperor Xian go to Luoyang. As they exited Ji Pass and were going down the road, Zhang Yang welcomed them on the roadside with food; this account is recorded in Zhang Yang’s biography.

When Emperor Xian entered Luoyang, the palace was burned down and the streets and roads were overgrown. The officials hacked through the brambles and stayed between the walls and the mounds. The provinces and commandaries had all amassed troops to protect themselves, and no one came to Luoyang. Hunger and want became so extreme that everyone from Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing on down went out personally to gather firewood, and some starved between the walls.

李傕、郭汜相攻連月,死者以萬數。六月,傕將楊奉謀殺傕,事泄,遂將兵叛傕,傕衆稍衰。〈果如皇甫酈之言。〉庚午,鎭東將軍張濟自陝至,〈陝縣,屬弘農,張濟初平三年出戍焉。〉欲和傕、汜,遷乘輿權幸弘農。(ZZTJ 61, 195.8)

Li Jue and Guo Si had fought each other for months on end, and the dead were numbered in tens of thousands. In the sixth month Li Jue's officer Yang Feng made plans to kill him. The plot was discovered, but Yang Feng led his men in a mutiny and so Li Jue's army was somewhat weakened. On the day Gengwu (24 Aug) the General Who Maintains the East in Peace, Zhang Ji, arrived from Shan. He wanted to make peace between Li Jue and Guo Si and to shift Emperor Xian temporarily to Hongnong.

(Yang Feng betrayed Li Jue, just as Huangfu Li had predicted.

Shan County was part of Hongnong commandary. Zhang Ji had gone out to Shan in the third year of Chuping (192).)

八月,甲辰,車駕幸新豐。丙子,郭汜復謀脅帝還都郿. (ZZTJ 61, 195.8)

In the eighth month on the day jiachen [27 Sep] Emperor Xian went to Xinfeng. On the day bingzi [bingwu = 29 Sep?] Guo Si again planned to force Emperor Xian back to take up residence at Mei.

楊定、董承將兵迎天子幸楊奉營. (ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

Yang Ding and Dong Cheng brought their troops to escort Emperor Xian to the camp of Yang Feng.

十二月,帝幸弘農,張濟、李傕、郭汜共追乘輿,大戰於弘農東澗,承、奉軍敗,百官士卒死者,不可勝數,棄御物、符策、典籍,略無所遺。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

In the twelfth month [miswritten for the eleventh], as Emperor Xian reached Hongnong. Zhang Ji, Li Jue and Guo Si came in pursuit. There was a great battle at Dongjian in Hongnong, and the armies of Dong Cheng and Yang Feng were defeated. The officials, lower officers and commoners that died could not be counted. They abandoned the imperial insignia and tallies, the tablets for appointment, the records and books. Almost nothing remained.

壬申,帝露次曹陽。〈賢曰:曹陽,澗名,在今陝州西南七里,俗謂之七里澗。崔浩云:自南山北通於河。魏武帝改曰好陽。杜佑曰:陝郡西四十五里有曹陽澗。以下文觀之,杜佑說是。〉承、奉乃譎傕等與連和,而密遣間使至河東,招故白波帥李樂、韓暹、胡才及南匈奴右賢王去卑;並率其衆數千騎來,與承、奉共擊傕等,大破之,斬首數千級。於是董承等以新破傕等,可復東引。庚申,車駕發東,董承、李樂衞乘輿,胡才、楊奉、韓暹、匈奴右賢王於後爲拒。傕等復來戰,奉等大敗,死者甚於東澗。光祿鄧淵、廷尉宣璠、少府田芬、大司農張義皆死。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

On the day renshen [24 Dec] Emperor Xian came without shelter to Caoyang. Dong Cheng and Yang Feng now pretended to make peace with Li Jue and the others, but they sent secretly to Hedong to call the former leaders of the Bobo bandits Li Le, Han Xian and Hu Cai, and the Worthy King of the West of the Southern Xiongnu, Qubei. These came with their troops of several thousand horsemen. They joined Dong Cheng and Yang Feng in attacking Li Jue and his fellows, completely defeated them, and killed several thousand.

As a result of this new defeat of Li Jue and his fellows, Dong Cheng and the others thought to continue their journey.

On the day gengshen [I Jan 196?] Emperor Xian came out [from Caoyang] and went east. Dong Cheng and Li Le guarded the imperial carriage, Hu Cai, Yang Feng, Han Xian and the Worthy King of the West of the Xiongnu were in the rear as guards. Li Jue and his fellows came again to the attack, and this time Yang Feng and the allies were utterly defeated, with greater casualties than at Dongjian. The Superintendent of the Imperial Household Deng Yuan, the Commandant of Justice Xuan Fan, the Privy Treasurer Tian Fen, and the Grand Minister of Agriculture Zhang Yi all died.

(Li Xian remarked, "Caoyang is the name of a ravine. It is seven li southwest of modern Shanzhou, so it is commonly called Seven Li Ravine." Cui Hao remarked, "The ravine runs from the southern hills north to join the Yellow River. Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) renamed it to Haoyang." Du You remarked, "Caoyang Ravine is forty-five li west of Shan commandary." Judging by the subsequent text in the main account, it must be the place that Du You refers to.)

旣到大陽,〈賢曰:大陽縣,屬河東郡。《前書音義》曰:在大河之陽,卽今陝州河北縣是也。〉幸李樂營。河內太守張楊使數千人負米來貢餉。乙亥,帝御牛車,幸安邑,〈安邑縣,屬河東郡。〉河東太守王邑奉獻綿帛,悉賦公卿以下,封邑爲列侯,拜胡才爲征東將軍,張楊爲安國將軍,〈安國將軍之號,蓋始於此。〉皆假節開府。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

On the day yihai [miswritten for dinghai = 27 Dec?] Emperor Xian came to Anyi riding in an oxcart. Wang Yi, Grand Administrator of Hedong, offered tribute of cotton and silk; all was given to the ministers and officials, and Wang Yi was enfeoffed as a marquis. Hu Cai was made General Who Subdues the East and Zhang Yang became General Who Gives Tranquillity to the State. Both were granted the Staff of Authority and the right to maintain offices.

(Li Xian remarked, "Dayang County was part of Hedong commandary." The 前書音義 states, "It was north of the Great River, where Hebei County in Shanzhou now is."

Anyi County was part of Hedong commandary.

General Who Gives Tranquility To The State was a title that arose during this time.)

帝又遣太僕韓融至弘農與傕、汜等連和,傕乃放遣公卿百官,頗歸所掠宮人及乘輿器服。已而糧穀盡,宮人皆食菜果。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

The Emperor sent the Grand Coachman Han Rong back to Hongnong to make peace with Li Jue and Guo Si. Li Jue released the high officials he had held prisoner, and he also sent back some of the palace women, together with the carriages, robes, insignia and other goods that had been seized from the court. The supplies of grain were soon exhausted, and all the attendants ate vegetables and fruit.

〈《獻帝起居注》曰:初,天子出到宣平門,當度橋,汜兵數百人遮橋問「是天子邪」?車不得前。傕兵數百人皆持大戟在乘輿車左右,侍中劉艾大呼云:「是天子也。」使侍中楊琦高舉車帷。帝言諸兵:「汝不卻,何敢迫近至尊邪?」汜等兵乃卻。既度橋,士眾咸呼萬歲。 〉〈《獻帝紀》曰:時尚書令士孫瑞為亂兵所害。三輔決錄注曰:瑞字君榮,扶風人,世為學門。瑞少傳家業,博達無所不通,仕歷顯位。卓既誅,遷大司農,為國三老。每三公缺,瑞常在選中。太尉周忠、皇甫嵩,司徒淳于嘉、趙溫,司空楊彪、張喜等為公,皆辭拜讓瑞。天子都許,追論瑞功,封子萌澹津亭侯。萌字文始,亦有才學,與王粲善。臨當就國,粲作詩以贈萌,萌有答,在粲集中。 〉

The Daily Life of Emperor Xian states, "Earlier, when Emperor Xian came out to the Xuanping Gate and was about to cross the bridge, several hundred of Guo Si's men blocked the way and said, "Isn't this the Son of Heaven?" His carriage could not advance. Several hundred of Li Jue's men, armed with great halberds, were marching in front of the imperial carriage, and the two groups were about to fight when the Palace Attendant Liu Ai called out in a loud voice, “This is the Son of Heaven!” He had the Palace Attendant Yang Qi raise up the curtains of the carriage, and Emperor Xian said to the soldiers, "You do not withdraw; how dare you crowd our honorable person?" Guo Si's men drew back, and as the cortege crossed the bridge they all cried out, “Long live!”

The Records of Emperor Xian states, "At this time, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Shisun Rui, was killed by rebellious soldiers." The Annotations to the Decisive Records of the Three Adjuncts Districts states, "Shisun Rui, styled Junrong, was from Fufeng, from a long line of scholar-officials. When he was young, he was given charge of his family's affairs. In scholarship and learning, there was nothing that he was not familiar with, and he held several public offices. After Dong Zhuo was executed, Shisun Rui became the Minister of Finance and served as one of the Three Elders. Whenever there was an opening in the Three Excellences, Shisun Rui was frequently one of those considered. During the times that the Grand Commandants, Zhou Zhong and Huangfu Song, the Ministers over the Masses, Chunyu Jia and Zhao Wen, the Ministers of Works, Yang Biao and Zhang Xi, and others all served as Excellencies, they all offered their positions to Shisun Rui. When Emperor Xian's capital was at Xu, he posthumously acclaimed Shisun Rui's deeds, and conferred his son, Shisun Meng, as Marquis of Danjinting. Shisun Meng, styled Wenshi, was also a talented scholar, and got on well with Wang Can. When Shisun Meng was just about to go to his fief, Wang Can composed a poem as a gift for him. Shisun Meng wrote back a response, which is in Wang Can's collection."

衞尉士孫瑞爲傕所殺。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

The Commandant of the Guards, Shisun Rui, was killed by Li Jue.

秋,七月,甲子,車駕出宣平門,〈宣平門,長安城東出北頭第一門。〉當渡橋,汜兵數百人遮橋曰:「此天子非也?」車不得前。傕兵數百人,皆持大戟在乘輿車前,兵欲交,侍中劉艾大呼曰:「是天子也!」使侍中楊琦高舉車帷,帝曰:「諸君〈【章:甲十一行本「君」作「兵」;乙十一行本同。】〉何敢迫近至尊邪?」汜兵乃卻。旣渡橋,士衆皆稱萬歲。(ZZTJ 61, 195.8)

In the autumn, in the seventh month on the day jiazi [miswritten for jiawu = 17 Sep], Emperor Xian came out by the Xuanping Gate. As he was about to cross the bridge, several hundred of Guo Si's men blocked the way and said, "Isn't this the Son of Heaven?" Several hundred of Li Jue's men, armed with great halberds, were marching in front of the imperial carriage, and the two groups were about to fight when the Palace Attendant Liu Ai called out in a loud voice, "This is the Son of Heaven!" He had the Palace Attendant Yang Qi raise up the curtains of the carriage, and the Emperor said, "You gentlemen, how dare you crowd our honourable person?" Guo Si's men drew back, and as the cortege crossed the bridge they all cried out, "Ten thousand years!"

(The Xuanping Gate was the northernmost gate on Chang'an's eastern wall.

Some versions has Emperor Xian address Guo Si's men as "you soldiers" rather than "you gentlemen".)

〈《獻帝紀》曰:初,議者欲令天子浮河東下,太尉楊彪曰:「臣弘農人,從此已東,有三十六灘,非萬乘所當從也。」劉艾曰:「臣前為陝令,知其危險,有師猶有傾覆,況今無師,太尉謀是也。」乃止。及當北渡,使李樂具船。天子步行趨河岸,岸高不得下,董承等謀欲以馬羈相續以系帝腰。時中宮僕伏德扶中宮,一手持十匹絹,乃取德絹連續為輦。行軍校尉尚弘多力,令弘居前負帝,乃得下登船。其餘不得渡者甚眾,復遣船收諸不得渡者,皆爭攀船,船上人以刃櫟斷其指,舟中之指可掬。 〉〈《魏書》曰:乘輿時居棘籬中,門戶無關閉。天子與群臣會,兵士伏籬上觀,互相鎮壓以為笑。諸將專權,或擅笞殺尚書。司隸校尉出入,民兵抵擲之。諸將或遣婢詣省閤,或自齎酒啖,過天子飲,侍中不通,喧呼罵詈,遂不能止。又競表拜諸營壁民為部曲,求其禮遺。醫師、走卒,皆為校尉,御史刻印不供,乃以錐畫,示有文字,或不時得也。

The Records of Emperor Xian states, "At first, there was an idea to float east down the Yellow River. The Grand Commandant, Yang Biao, said, 'I am from Hongnong. Going east from here, there are thirty-six shoals. It would not be a suitable plan.'

"Liu Ai said, 'I originally served as Prefect of Shan. I know of these dangers. Even if we had a specialist, we could still capsize. Moreover, we don’t have a specialist. The Grand Commandant is right.' Thus the idea was dropped.

"So the group went north to cross the river, and sent Li Yue to find a boat. Since Emperor Xian had to walk to the shore on foot, Dong Cheng and others wished to make an impromptu carriage using silk tied between horse bridles. During the time that the Supervisor of the Central Palace, Fu De, had served there, he had gotten ten bolts of silk; the bolts of silk were now taken from him so they could be used to fashion a carriage. The Colonel Who Marches the Army, Shang Hong, was a very strong man. He was ordered to go forward, bearing Emperor Xian, and then lower him down into the boat.

"Of the others, there were a great many people who could not cross the river, so the boat was sent back to bring those people across. But they fought with one another to climb into the boat, such that the people in the boat would chop off the fingers of those trying to get in, and the inside of the boat was littered with the chopped-off fingers."

The Book of Wei states, "During this time, Emperor Xian dwelt among the brambles and hedges, and the gates could not even be closed. Whenever Emperor Xian and the ministers held a meeting, soldiers and officers would peek in at them from over the hedges, and everyone was forced to suppress their laughter.

"The various generals held all the power. Some took it upon themselves to thrash and even kill some of the Masters of Writing. Whenever the Colonel-Director of Retainers went in or out, the people and soldiers would throw things at him. Of the various generals, some sent their servant girls to visit the court building, and some gave themselves over to drinking and eating; they went so far as to take food from Emperor Xian, and despite the loud curses and rebukes of the Palace Attendants, nothing could be done to stop them. Many petitions were sent in from all sides, each side contending for their personal followers to be granted rank and status. Doctors and minions were all made into Colonels, so much so that the imperial clerks could not carve enough seals for all of them. So they used awls instead and showed them off with the writing on them, but some did not even obtain those.")

李樂懼,欲令車駕御船過砥柱,出孟津,〈《水經註》:河水逕大陽縣南,又東過底柱間。底柱,山名也。昔禹治洪水,山陵當水者鑿之,故破山以通河。河水分流,包山而過,山見水中,若柱然,故曰底柱。三穿旣決,水勢疏分,指狀表目,亦曰三門山;在虢城東北,大陽城東。自底柱而下至五戶灘,其間一百二十里,有一十九灘,水流濬急,破舟船,自古所患。河水又東過平陰縣北,又東過河陽縣南,則孟津也。〉楊彪以爲河道險難,非萬乘所宜乘;乃使李樂夜渡,潛具船,舉火爲應。上與公卿步出營,皇后兄伏德扶后,一手挾絹十匹。董承使符節令孫徽從人間斫之,殺旁侍者,血濺后衣。河岸高十餘丈,不得下,乃以絹爲輦,使人居前負帝,餘皆匍匐而下,或從上自投,冠幘皆壞。旣至河邊,士卒爭赴舟,董承、李樂以戈擊之,手指於舟中可掬。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

Li Le, extremely concerned, proposed Emperor Xian take a boat down past Dizhu and out by the Meng Crossing. Yang Biao, however, thought the Yellow River was too dangerous for Emperor Xian to travel along. So he had Li Le cross the river by night, get a boat ready quietly and then light a fire [as a sign of the landing place they should aim for].

As Emperor Xian and his ministers left the camp on foot, the Empress' elder brother Fu De was escorting her, and he carryed ten rolls of silk under his arm. Dong Cheng sent the Prefect of Insignia and Credentials Sun Hui to cut him down in the midst of the crowd. They killed one of the attendants and blood splashed on the Empress's clothes.

The river bank was over a hundred feet high and the people could not get down. A carriage chair was made from the silk, a man in front supported Emperor Xian, and others made their way as best they could. Some jumped from above, and their caps and headgear were all ruined.

As they came to the water's edge, men struggled to get in the boat. Dong Cheng and Li Le took dagger-axes to keep them back, and cut-off fingers in the boat [from those who had tried to grasp the gunwales] could be gathered by handfuls.

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yellow River flows south of Dayang County, and further east between Dizhu. Dizhu is the name of a mountain. In former times, when Yu managed the floodwaters, he carved a canal out at Shanling for the waters, and this is why the Yellow River now flows through those mountains. The river waters are divided, flowing around and through the mountains. If one stands on the mountains and observes the river, it is like standing on a pillar, thus the place is called Dizhu. After passing through three places, the river waters combine once more; the shape of the land resembles an eye, and it is also called Three Gates Mountain. The place is northeast of Guocheng, east of Dayang. From Dizhu, one descends until one reaches Five Bodies Rapids. This stretch of a hundred and twenty li contains nineteen rapids, where the flowing water is most fierce and wild; it wrecks boats, and has been a menace since ancient times. Beyond there, the Yellow River continues east, passing through the north of Pingyin County, and further east, passing through the south of Heyang County, where Meng Crossing is.")

乘輿居棘籬中,門戶無關閉,天子與羣臣會,兵士伏籬上觀,互相鎭壓以爲笑。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

Emperor Xian lodged among thorns and wattles, his gates could not be fastened, and when the Son of Heaven met with his ministers, common soldiers hid in the bushes to watch, pushing and jostling each other to make a laugh.

其壘壁羣帥競求拜職,刻印不給,至乃以錐畫之。(ZZTJ 61, 195.11)

Every leader with a troop under his command competed for appointments. There was such great demand for seals, and such a shortage of engravers, that some were scratched with an awl.

太祖乃迎天子都許。暹、奉不能奉王法,各出奔,寇徐、揚間,為劉備所殺。 〈《英雄記》曰:備誘奉與相見,因於坐上執之。暹失奉勢孤,時欲走還并州,為杼秋屯帥張宣所邀殺。 〉董承從太祖歲餘,誅。建安二年,遣謁者僕射裴茂率關西諸將誅傕,夷三族。 〈《典略》曰:傕頭至,有詔高縣。 〉汜為其將五習所襲,死於郿。濟飢餓,至南陽寇略,為穰人所殺,從子繡攝其眾。才、樂留河東,才為怨家所殺,樂病死。遂、騰自還涼州,更相寇,後騰入為衛尉,子超領其部曲。十六年,超與關中諸將及遂等反,太祖徵破之。語在武紀。遂奔金城,為其將所殺。超據漢陽,騰坐夷三族。趙衢等舉義兵討超,超走漢中從張魯,後奔劉備,死於蜀。

Then Cao Cao received Emperor Xian at Xu, making it the capital. Yang Feng and Han Xian could not stand to be bound by royal laws, so they each left, becoming bandits between Xuzhou and Yangzhou. They were later killed by Liu Bei. Dong Cheng was with Cao Cao for several years, but was then executed.

In the second year of Jian'an, the Supervisor of the Internuncios, Pei Mao, was sent west to lead several generals of Guanxi to kill Li Jue and execute his clan to the third degree. Guo Si was attacked by his general Wu Xi, and he died at Mei. Zhang Ji ran out of supplies and became a bandit in Nanyang. He was killed attacking Rang. His nephew Zhang Xiu assumed control of his force.

Hu Cai and Li Yue stayed in Hedong. Hu Cai was killed in a feud. Li Yue died of illness.

Han Sui and Ma Teng returned to Liangzhou and became bandits again. Later, Ma Teng became Commandant of the Guards. His son Ma Chao remained in charge of his forces. In the sixteenth year (211), Ma Chao, Han Sui, and the various generals of Guanzhong started a rebellion. Cao Cao attacked and routed them, as is mentioned in the Records of Emperor Wu (Cao Cao). Han Sui fled to Jincheng and was killed by a subordinate. Ma Chao seized Hanyang, while Ma Teng was charged and executed, along with his clan to the third degree. Zhao Qu and others raised righteous soldiers to punish Ma Chao. Ma Chao fled to Zhang Lu in Han Zhong, and later fled to Liu Bei. He died in Shu.

(The Book of Heroes states, "Liu Bei enticed Yang Feng to meet with him. As soon as he sat down he was arrested. Han Xian, isolated without Yang Feng's strength, wished to go back to Bingzhou. He was killed by the commander of Zhuqiu County, Zhang Xuan."

The Dianlue states, "When Li Jue’s head arrived, an edict announced it through the counties.")

董卓狼戾賊忍,暴虐不仁,自書契已來,殆未之有也。 〈《英雄記》曰:昔大人見臨洮而銅人鑄,臨洮生卓而銅人毀;世有卓而大亂作,大亂作而卓身滅,抑有以也。

Chen Shou's Appraisal: Dong Zhuo was mean, calculated, violent and a terror. He suppressed the virtuous and righteous. Since mankind developed the writing system, no one has been so dangerous as him.

(The Records of Heroes states, "In former times, giants were seen at Lintao, and so the Bronze Men were forged; Dong Zhuo was born in Lintao, and he destroyed the Bronze Men. When an age has a Dong Zhuo, great chaos is brought about; great chaos being brought, he meets his own end. This is how he is restrained.")
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
Posts: 854
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

Wang Ling, Wang Guang & Brothers, Shan Gu

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat Sep 02, 2017 11:21 pm

Wang Ling, Wang Guang & Brothers, Shan Gu

In this case, I made an entire SGZ draft myself, but Achilles Fang also translated the bulk of this biography for comparison's sake with the ZZTJ entries concerning Wang Ling's rebellion. I have included all of his SGZ translations, and the ZZTJ passages are also his.


Wang Ling, styled Yanyun, was a native of Qi in Taiyuan. His uncle was Wang Yun, who served as Han's Minister Over The Masses and executed Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo's generals, Li Jue, Guo Si, and others, avenged him by entering Chang'an and killing Wang Yun, along with his entire family. But Wang Ling and his elder brother Wang Chen, who were young at that time, escaped the city and so saved their lives. They sought refuge in their home county.

Wang Ling was recommended as Filial and Incorrupt. He was first appointed as Mayor of Fagan, and moved up in office as far as Administrator of Zhongshan; in all these offices, he governed well. Cao Cao appointed him as an official in the Prime Minister's staff.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of the first portion of this passage is: Wang Ling, zi Yanyun, was a man of Qi in Taiyuan. His father's younger brother, Wang Yun, Minister Over The Masses under the Han dynasty, had put Dong Zhuo to death. Dong Zhuo's generals, Li Jue and Guo Fan, avenging Dong Zhuo, entered Chang'an, killed Wang Yun and annihilated the members of his family. Wang Ling and his elder brother Wang Zhen, who at the time were still young, scaled the city wall and fled to their own district.]

(The Weilue states, "While Wang Ling was serving as Mayor, whenever some incident occurred, he sentenced the guilty to five years' worth of compelled shaving of the head as punishment, and also made them clean the streets. When Cao Cao's carriage was passing through the area, he inquired into this, and those with him informed him of the situation. Cao Cao mused, 'So this is Zishu's (Wang Yun's) nephew; even in prosecuting, he is just.' It was because of this that Wang Ling received an appointment as Registrar to the General of Agile Cavalry.")


After Cao Pi became Emperor, Wang Ling was appointed as Cavalier in Regular Attendance. He was sent out to serve as Inspector of Yanzhou, and he went with Zhang Liao and the other Cao-Wei generals to campaign against Sun Quan at Guangling. Along the Yangzi, a great wind sprang up during the night, causing the boats of Lü Fan and other Wu generals to float across to the north bank. Wang Ling and the other Cao-Wei generals counter-attacked them, and they took many heads and captives, as well as seizing the boats. For these achievements, Wang Ling was granted the title Marquis of Xuanchengting, promoted to General Who Establishes Valor, and transferred to Qingzhou.

At that time, there had been several disturbances along the coast, and order had not yet been restored. Wang Ling imposed administration and spread instruction, rewarding the good and punishing the evil; law and order were deeply enforced. The common people commended him, and nothing bad could be said.

Later, when Cao Xiu campaigned against Wu, he encountered the enemy at Jiashi; Cao Xiu's army had the worst of it, but Wang Ling exerted his strength and broke through the enemy encirclement, so Cao Xiu was able to escape from the danger. Wang Ling then served as Inspector of Yangzhou and Yuzhou, and in every case he won the hearts of the army and the people.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of this passage is: Afterwards, Wang Ling followed Cao Xiu in his campaign against Wu, and encountered the enemy at Jiashi. Cao Xiu's troops were defeated. Wang Ling fought strenuously and pierced through the encirclement, so Cao Xiu was rescued from difficulties. Afterwards Wang Ling was transferred to be cishi (Governor) of Yuzhou and then of Yangzhou. In each case he won the hearts of the people.]

When he first came to Yuzhou, he honored the worthy elders of old, while he sought out people who had not yet been able to display themselves, each with their own educations, and with abundant virtues and justice. Wang Ling had been good friends with Sima Lang and Jia Kui, and when he served as Inspector of Yuzhou and Yanzhou [offices that Sima Lang and Jia Kui had respectively held], he lived up to the same good legacies that they had left.

At the beginning of the Zhengshi era (240), Wang Ling was appointed as General Who Conquers The East, Credential Bearer, and Commander of the armies of Yangzhou. In the second year (241), Wu's great general Quan Cong led several tens of thousands of soldiers to invade Shao Slope. Wang Ling led his armies to counter-attack them. They fought the enemy for possession of the dyke there; after several days of intense fighting, the enemy was driven off. Wang Ling's title was advanced to Marquis of Nanxiang, and his fief was 1,350 households. He was promoted to General of Chariots and Cavalry, with equal authority to the Three Excellencies.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of most of this passage is: At the beginning of Zhengshi, Wang Ling was appointed zhengdong jiangjun, and as a Plenipotentiary in Military Affairs (jiajie) became Commander-in-chief in charge of the various military affairs in Yangzhou. In the second year, Quan Cong, a Great General of Wu, with several ten thousand men, invaded Shaopo. At the head of the various troops, Wang Ling met and attacked them and contended with the enemy for the dike. He fought arduously several days; the enemy withdrew and fled.]

征東將軍王淩、揚州刺史孫禮與全琮戰於芍陂,琮敗走。(ZZTJ 74, 241.1)

Wang Ling, the General Who Conquers The East, and Sun Li, Inspector of Yangzhou, fought against Quan Zhong at Shapo. Quan Zong was defeated and fled.


At this time, due to his abilities, Wang Ling's nephew Linghu Yu was appointed as Inspector of Yanzhou, and camped at Ping'a. Uncle and nephew both held large commands, and together held a firm grip on Huainan.

Wang Ling was then appointed as Minister of Works. After Sima Yi executed Cao Shuang, he promoted Wang Ling to be Grand Commandant, granting him the military tally and battle-axe.

[Achilles Fang translates this passage as: Wang Ling was promoted to be sigong (see 248 AD, section 4). Having put Cao Shuang to death, Sima Xuanwang had Wang Ling promoted to be taiyu, with the Tally. (But Fang says that this passage “does not fit the sequence of the narrative and is incorrect in its chronology, hence was omitted in ZZTJ.”)]

Wang Ling and Linghu Yu developed a secret plan together. They felt that the Prince of Qi (Cao Fang) was not suited for his heavenly office. Since they considered the Prince of Chu, Cao Biao, would be more suited because he was a grown man and talented besides, they wanted to receive him at Xuchang and make him the new sovereign.

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: Wang Ling and Linghu Yu secretly deliberated that the Prince of Qi was not competent for the Celestial position, while the Prince of Chu was elderly and able; they wished to enthrone Cao Biao, with Xuchang as capital.]

In the ninth month of the first year of Jiaping (249), Linghu Yu sent his general Zhang Shi to Baima, where he kept up a dialogue with Cao Biao. Wang Ling also sent his retainer Lao Jing to visit Luoyang, where Lao Jing could speak to Wang Ling's son Wang Guang. Wang Guang told him, "Deposing one lord and setting up another is a serious matter. Do not stir up such a disaster."

In the eleventh month of that year, Linghu Yu once again sent Zhang Shi to see Cao Biao, but before Zhang Shi could return this time, Linghu Yu suddenly fell ill and died.

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: In the eleventh month of the same year, Linghu Yu sent Zhang Shi to Cao Biao; before he returned, it happened that Linghu Yu died of illness.]

In the second year of Jiaping (250), Mars was seen in the Southern Dipper part of the sky. Wang Ling said, "When a celestial body is in the Dipper, that means the downfall of an honored person."

In the spring of the third year (251), Wu blocked up the Tu River. So Wang Ling began to act; he started mustering all his soldiers, and he sent up a petition asking to campaign against the enemy. However, the court denied his request.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of part of this passage is: In the spring of the third year of Jiaping, the Wu rebels dammed the waters of the Tu; Wang Ling wished to take this opportunity to go into action (i.e. with his plot).]

With Wang Ling's hidden plot continuing apace, he sent his general Yang Hong to discuss the matter of deposing Cao Fang and raising up Cao Biao with the Inspector of Yanzhou, Huang Hua. But Huang Hua and Yang Hong instead both signed an account and reported to the Grand Tutor, Sima Yi, as to what was going on. Sima Yi prepared the Central Army to move by water routes on a campaign against Wang Ling. But first, he sent ahead a pardon for Wang Ling's crimes, and he also sent the Master of Writing, Wang Ling's son Wang Guang, armed with a letter explaining the situation to Wang Ling. Sima Yi marched the army to Baichi in order to pressure Wang Ling.

Knowing that the game was up, Wang Ling went ahead by himself on a boat to welcome Sima Yi. He sent ahead his assistant Wang Yu to plead forgiveness for his crimes, and to turn over his seals of office and his military tally and battle-axe. By the time Sima Yi's army reached Qiutou, Wang Ling had tied himself up and was facing them from the waterside. Sima Yi displayed the imperial edict, and sent a Registrar to loosen Wang Ling's binds and restore his normal clothing. When Sima Yi then met with Wang Ling, because of the past services that Wang Ling had performed, Sima Yi returned Wang Ling's seals of office and his military tally and battle-axe. He sent Wang Ling with six hundred horse and foot to be escorted back to the capital. When Wang Ling reached Xiang, he consumed poison and died.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of the last portion of this passage is: Sima Xuanwang (Yi), in accordance with an imperial command, sent his jubu to free him from his bonds and to tender repeated condolences to Wang Ling. He returned him his Tally and Ax, and sent six hundred foot and horse to escort him to the capital. When he came to Xiang, Wang Ling drank poison and died.]

Sima Yi then continued on to Shouchun. Zhang Shi and the other conspirators gave themselves up, so they were made to divulge the whole plot. Cao Biao was compelled to commit suicide, and his associates were executed, along with their clans to the third degree.

In discussing the whole affair, the court believed that the principles of the Spring and Autumn era ought to be followed: namely, the precedents of Cui Zhu of Qi and Gui Sheng of Zheng, both of whom had received posthumous punishments, where their bodies were displayed and their coffins smashed, as was mentioned in the ancient texts. The court held that Wang Ling and Linghu Yu should suffer the same fate as stated by these ancient canons. So they exhumed Wang Ling's and Linghu Yu's bodies, tore apart their coffins, displayed their bodies in the nearest marketplace for three days, burned up their seals of office and court clothing, and then buried the bodies in packed earth.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of the beginning of this passage is: The Court Officials all maintained that according to the usages of Chunqiu times, Cui Shu of Qi and Gui Sheng of Zheng were punished after their death by having their corpses exposed and their coffins chopped open, as is mentioned in the Annals, and that the crimes of Wang Ling and Linghu Yu ought to be treated in accordance with the ancient records. So…]

Yang Hong and Huang Hua were made county marquises for their efforts. Wang Guang had held lofty ambitions and was studious and virtuous; when he died, he was more than forty years old.

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: Yang Hong and Huang Hua were promoted to be county Lords (xianghou). Wang Guang cherished high aims and was a man of learning and good conduct. When he died (rather, he was put to death because of his father, Wang Ling), he was over forty.]

秋,九月,以車騎將軍王淩爲司空。(ZZTJ 75, 248.4)

In autumn, the ninth month (Oct. 5 – Nov. 2), the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Ling, was appointed Minister of Works.

兗州刺史令狐愚,〈《姓譜》:周文王之子高封於畢,其後有畢萬。萬子犨封於魏,爲魏氏。犨子顆封於令狐,爲令狐氏。〉司空王淩之甥也,屯於平阿,〈《水經註》:淮水過當塗縣北,又北沙水注之,淮之西有平阿縣故城。《晉志》,平阿縣屬淮南郡,有塗山。〉甥舅並典重兵,專淮南之任。淩與愚陰謀,以帝闇弱,制於強臣,聞楚王彪有智勇,欲共立之,迎都許昌。九月,愚遣其將張式至白馬,與彪相聞。〈楚王彪,武帝子,黃初三年,徙王白馬。白馬縣屬東郡。〉淩又遣舍人勞精詣洛陽,〈勞,姓也;精,名也。《姓譜》:其先居東海勞山,因氏焉。後漢有琅邪勞丙。〉語其子廣... 冬,十一月,令狐愚復遣張式詣楚王,未還,會愚病卒。十二月,辛卯,卽拜王淩爲太尉。(ZZTJ 75, 249.9-10)

The Inspector of Yanzhou, Linghu Yu, son of a sister of the Minister of Works, Wang Ling, had been stationed at Ping'a. Both the nephew and his uncle held important military positions south of the Huai river.

Wang Ling and Linghu Yu, regarding the emperor (Cao Fang) as unintelligent, weak, and controlled by a powerful minister (Sima Yi), and hearing that Cao Biao, Prince of Chu, was intelligent and courageous, plotted to enthrone the latter, with Xuchang as capital.

In the ninth month (Oct. 24 – Nov. 21), Linghu Yu sent his subordinate general Zhang Shi to Baima to contact the Prince of Chu. Wang Ling also sent his subordinate official Lao Jing to Luoyang to tell his son Wang Guang.


In winter, the eleventh month (Dec. 22, 249 – Jan. 19, 250). Linghu Yu again sent Zhang Shi to the Prince of Chu; before he had returned, it happened that Linghu Yu died of illness. In the twelfth month, on the day xinmao (Jan. 28, 250), while still at his post at Shouchun, Wang Ling was given the appointment of Grand Commandant.

(The Registry of Surnames states, 'One of the sons of King Wen of Zhou, Gao, was granted Bi as his fief, and his descendants included Bi Wan [an official of [url]Duke Xian of Jin[/url]]. Bi Wan's son Chou received his fief at Wei, and that formed the 魏 Wei clan. Chou's son Ke received his fief at Linghu, and that formed the 令狐 Linghu clan."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Huai River flows through the north of Tu County, north until it meets with the Sha River. West of the Huai is the city named for Ping'a County." According to the Records of Jin, Ping'a County was part of Huainan commandary, and was at Mount Tu.

The Prince of Chu, Cao Biao, was a son of Emperor Wu (Cao Cao). In the third year of Huangchu (222), he was sent away to his royal fief at Baima. Baima County was part of Dong commandary.

Regarding Wang Ling's subordinate, 勞 Lao is a surname, and 精 is his given name. The Registry of Surnames states, "Their ancestors resided on Mount Lao at Donghai, thus the name of their clan." In Later Han there was a Lao Bing of Langya.)

太尉王淩聞吳人塞涂水,〈卽前所作堂邑塗塘也。據今滁河,自滁州至眞州。〉欲因此發兵,大嚴諸軍,表求討賊;詔報不聽。淩遣將軍楊弘以廢立事告兗州刺史黃華,華、弘連名以白司馬懿,懿將中軍乘水道討淩,先下赦赦淩罪,又爲書諭淩,已而大軍掩至百尺。〈《水經註》:沙水東南過陳縣,又東南流注于潁,謂之交口。水次有大堰,卽古百尺堰;司馬宣王討王淩,大軍掩至百尺,卽此地。杜佑曰:百尺在陳州宛丘縣。不意其至而至曰掩至;掩者,掩其不備也。我朝析汝陰之百尺鎭置萬壽縣。〉淩自知勢窮,乃乘船單出迎懿,遣掾王彧謝罪,送印綬、節鉞。懿軍到丘頭,〈《水經》:潁水過南頓縣,又東逕丘頭,丘頭南枕水。《魏書‧郡國志》曰:王淩面縛於此,故號武丘。杜知曰:卽今潁州沈丘縣。〉淩面縛水次,懿承詔遣主簿解其縛。(ZZTJ 75, 251.5)

The Grand Commandant Wang Ling, learning that the Wu were obstructing the water of the Tu, wanted to take this opportunity to put troops into action (for his own purposes). He affected a large-scale mobilization of the various forces and memorialized requesting a campaign against the rebels. But the Emperor made no response.

Wang Ling, growing bolder in his conspiracy, sent his general Yang Hong to acquaint the Inspector of Yanzhou, Huang Hua, with this plan for deposing the Emperor and enthroning the Prince of Chu. Huang Hua and Yang Hong signed their names together and reported the matter to Sima Yi. Sima Yi took the Central Army down the river for punitive action against Wang Ling. First he proclaimed a pardon absolving Wang Ling of his crime, and then sent a letter remonstrating with him; then suddenly the main forces arrived at Baichi.

Knowing he was at the end of his resources, Wang Ling took a boat and came out alone to welcome Sima Yi. He sent ahead his yuan Wang Yu to plead guilty for him, and returned his seal as well as his Tally and Ax. When Sima Yi’s army reached Qiutou, Wang Ling came to the bank of the Ying River and there had himself bound. Sima Yi, in accordance with an imperial command, sent his Registrar to free him from his bonds.

(Wu had earlier built a dyke on the Tu River. The modern flow of that river is from Chuzhou to Zhenzhou.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Sha River flows southeast through Chen County, and further southeast to where it flows into the Ying River, at the place called Jiaokou. There is a great weir at that place which from old times was called Baichi Weir. When Sima Yi led his army on campaign against Wang Ling, and his army went to 'Baichi', this was the place." Du You remarked, "Baichi was in Wanqiu County in Chenzhou." An arrival that is unexpected is a 掩至 surprise arrival; to surprise means to catch someone unawares. The Baichi Garrison that is currently south of the Ru River in our time is in Wanshou County.

The Commentary further states, "The Ying River flows through the south of Dun County, and further east through Qiutou; south of Qiutou is the Zhen River." The chapter on Commandaries and Fiefs in the Book of Wei states, "This was the place where Wang Ling bound himself, and so it is called Wuqiu." Du Zhi remarked, "It is in Zhenqiu County in modern Yingzhou.")

懿進至壽春,張式等皆自首。懿窮治其事,諸相連者悉夷三族。發淩、愚冢,剖棺暴尸於所近市三日,燒其印綬、章服,親土埋之。〈《孟子》曰:比化者毋使土親膚。親土者,臝葬也。(ZZTJ 75, 251.5)

Sima Yi moved on to Shouchun. Zhang Shi and other all confessed their crime. Sima Yi investigated the case to the bottom. All incriminated in the case, and their relatives to the third degree, were exterminated.

The tombs of Wang Ling and Linghu Yu were opened, their coffins chopped apart, and their corpses exposed in the nearest market place for three days. Their seals and Court garments were burned and their corpses buried in bare ground.

(Regarding the importance of coffins, the Mengzi states, "And moreover, is there no satisfaction to the natural feelings of a man, in preventing the earth from getting near to the bodies of his dead?")

六月,賜楚王彪死。(ZZTJ 75, 251.7)

Sixth month (July 6 – Aug 3). The Prince of Chu, Cao Biao was commanded to commit suicide.


(The Annals of Han and Jin states, "When Wang Ling and Linghu Yu hatched their plot, it was because they felt that the Emperor (Cao Fang) was a young man under the control of powerful ministers, and he could not handle being the sovereign. On the other hand, the Prince of Chu, Cao Biao, was a man grown and talented as well. So they wanted to welcome him and make him the new sovereign, to restore the Cao clan.

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: Wang Ling and Linghu Yu, regarding the Emperor, who was still young and controlled by a powerful minister, as hence not worthy to be a Sovereign, and regarding Cao Biao, Prince of Chu, as mature and able, plotted to enthrone the latter, so that the House of the Cao might flourish.]

“Wang Ling sent someone to inform Wang Guang of the plot. Wang Guang said, 'Whenever one undertakes a grand affair, one must be sure to be in accord with the feelings of the people. Now Cao Shuang was arrogant and decadent, and so he lost the people. He Pingshu (He Yan) was vacuous and uncontrollable, and although Ding Mi, Bi Gui, Huan Fan, and Deng Yang together all had long-standing influence, they struggled among each other. This is not to mention how this group overturned the understood canons of court and compelled many changes in policy. No matter how lofty their intentions were, their policies could not be carried out. The people are practiced in the traditions, and there can be no one who does not go along with them. This is why, although their group's influence spread throughout the four seas, and their words shook the whole realm, every one of them suffered death on the same day. Half the noted scholars were lost, but the people were settled by it. There is no one who, although they might mourn their loss, would lose the people on their account.

"'Now although it may be hard to put up with Sima Yi, he has yet to do anything actually disobedient. Furthermore, he has raised up the useful and valued the able, he has established those who surpass him, he has adhered to the mandates of the former court, and he has followed the desires of the multitude and responded to them. Anything evil which Cao Shuang did, he has been certain to change it. Sima Yi is working tirelessly day and night, with the relief of the people being the forefront of his thoughts. All his family, fathers and sons, elder and younger brothers, grasp the vital military powers. It would not yet be easy to dislodge them.' But Wang Ling did not follow this counsel."

Your servant Pei Songzhi notes that this speech, not contained in earlier histories, was still inserted by Master Xi Zuochi (author of the Annals of Han and Jin). Furthermore, the syntax and composition do not resemble the old style (of the earlier histories, from a century before Xi's work). I suspect they are Xi Zuochi's own words.

[Xi Zuochi believed that dynastic legitimacy stemmed from unification of the realm and good governance; abdication of an earlier dynasty was insufficient and irrelevant. He held that Han and Jin were legitimate dynasties, while Cao-Wei, which had failed to unite the realm, was not. Hence he may have had motive to craft his Annals of Han and Jin in ways that portrayed Sima Yi in a good light and Cao Shuang in a bad one. Pei Songzhi has several criticisms of his scholarship in SGZ.]

廣曰:「凡舉大事,應本人情。曹爽以驕奢失民,何平叔虛華不治,丁、畢、桓、鄧雖並有宿望,皆專競於世。加變易朝典,政令數改,所存雖高而事不下接,〈言雖存心於高曠而不切事情,與下不接也。〉民習於舊,衆莫之從,故雖勢傾四海,聲震天下,同日斬戮,名士減半,而百姓安之,莫之或哀,失民故也。今司馬懿情雖難量,事未有逆,而擢用賢能,廣樹勝己,〈謂蔣濟、高柔、孫禮、陳泰、郭淮、鄧艾等。〉脩先朝之政令,副衆心之所求。爽之所以爲惡者,彼莫不必改,夙夜匪懈,以恤民爲先,父子兄弟,並握兵要,未易亡也。」淩不從。(ZZTJ 74, 249.9)

Wang Guang said, “In embarking on a great venture, one must take as basis the sentiments of men. Cao Shuang lost his popularity with the people because of his arrogance and luxury; He Pingshu (He Yan) was vain and ungoverned. Ding Mi, Bi Gui, Huan Fan, and Deng Yang were all men of renown, but they made too much of themselves in the world. Besides, they time and again altered governmental institutions and changed the laws – all of which may have been from high aims, but had no connection with the sentiments of those below; the people were accustomed to the ancient usages, and did not follow them. Therefore, in spite of the fact that their power extended over the land within the four seas and their renown shook the empire; they were all put to death on the same day. With such famous men halved in number, the people found peace, and none pitied them. All this was because they lost popularity with the people.

"Now Sima Yi cannot be fathomed, but what he does never runs contrary to the situation. He gives his assignments to the worthy and capable, and liberally credits those who are better than he; he practices the laws of the former rulers and satisfies the people’s desire. Of whatever Cao Shuang did wrong, he has left nothing uncorrected. He does not relax his efforts day and night, his primary aim being to soothe the people. He and his sons all wield military power; it will not be easy to ruin them.” Wang Ling did not follow this advice.

(Regarding the line "all of which may have been from high aims, but had no connection with the sentiments of those below", Wang Guang meant that although the reforms had been done with great personal intentions, since they did not accord with the feelings of the people, they were not carried out.

The people whom Sima Yi "liberally credited" were Jiang Ji, Gao Rou, Sun Li, Chen Tai, Guo Huai, Deng Ai, and others.)


The Book of Wei states, "Linghu Yu, styled Gongzhi, originally had the given name Jun. During the Huangchu era (220-226), he was appointed Army Protector Who Assuages The Barbarians.The Colonel Who Protects The Wuhuan, Tian Yu, campaigned against the tribes and had great success. But there was an instance where he somewhat exceeded the bounds of his authority. In accordance with the regulations, Linghu Yu had him bound. Cao Pi was infuriated; he had Linghu Yu throw in prison, stripped of office, and charged with a crime, and the edict had the line 'How foolish Jun is!' And Cao Pi changed his given name to Yu ('foolish'). During the Zhengshi era (240-249), he became Cao Shuang's Chief Clerk, and later was sent out to be Inspector of Yanzhou."

The Weilue states, "Linghu Yu heard that the Prince of Chu, Cao Biao, was clever and heroic. For some time, a certain rumor had been spreading through Dong commandary: 'At Baima, a monstrous horse emerged from out of the Yellow River. During the night, it ran through the government stables, neighing and snorting, and all the horses there followed after it. When daylight came, people could see its traces, and it was as massive as a 斛. It traveled several li, then returned and went back into the river.' And this ballad was also popular: 'Bound and bridled, that white horse, headed on a southwest course. Who's the one that sits astride? Crimson tiger claims the ride.' Now Cao Biao's childhood name was Zhuhu ('crimson tiger'), and this was why Linghu Yu and Wang Ling made their secret plan to set him up as sovereign. So they first sent someone to express their intentions to Cao Biao, telling him, 'We high officials send our thanks to the Prince. The realm cannot know of this matter; Prince, may you consider yourself!' Cao Biao also secretly knew their intentions, so his response was, 'Officials, thank you for your regards; I know and welcome your purpose.'"


It further states, "Wang Ling heard that a man from Dongping, Hao Xiang, knew how to interpret the stars, so he summoned Hao Xiang to ask him for his interpretation of these celestial events (Mars residing in the Southern Dipper). Hao Xiang suspected that Wang Ling was coercing him, and wanted to hear something that would agree with his intentions. So Hao Xiang did not mention that the Wu region would experience death and mourning. Instead, he explained that since Huainan was a part of Chu, and as Chu and Wu now made up the same region, the stars heralded the rise of a king (王 was also Wang Ling's surname). This was why Wang Ling decided upon his plot."


The Weilue contains this letter that Wang Ling sent to Sima Yi: "My soldiers have heard that your esteemed army had set out in secret, and is already at Baichi. Yet although one knows that the imperial mandate must be carried out to its full extent, I have been tardy in coming to meet you face to face. Even if my head and my body were now to be separated, I would not regret it.

"Several times by now, I have sent messengers to you bringing my letters, but as of yet I have received no response from you; I rock on my heels, looking hopefully towards the west, but there has been nothing to guide me. After sending my letter yesterday, I prepared a boat to come and receive you in lodging at Qiutou. At dawn, I shall set out from Pukou; I shall bear and display your letter of pardon, further obtaining the conditions of the twenty-third day, with every letter providing instruction. When I heard the imperial command, I received it with great fear and trembling, and my five viscera were most unsettled: what place had I found myself in?

"I lie prostrate before the lengthy and unearned grace which I have received from the court; despite many endeavors which were of no avail, I have been given charge of arms and horses, commanding the armies of the east. There have been times when I have fallen short, and where my heart has violated virtue; I have three hundred faults, and with my wife and sons being equally culpable, we have no one to whom we can pray. Little did I expect to receive your saintly grace, encompassing the heavens and sustaining the earth; thanks to your unexpected reprieve, I may find myself at ease, and look upon the sun and moon again.

"My late nephew Linghu Yu was led astray by the words of small men, yet, as I have already restrained his actions, let nothing more be said on his account. Since the things which men know are reflected by the divine, know that I have no matter which remains secret. In setting out my soldiers upon the road, I knew that this was a capital offense. The ones who birthed me were my parents, but the one who has saved my life is yourself." [Possibly echoing Guan Zhong’s statement about his best friend Bao Shuya: “The ones who birthed me were my parents, but the one who best understands me is Bao Shuya.”]

Wang Ling sent another letter which stated, "I was in danger of being punished for my crimes, yet I have received the favor of your pardon. I now send my assistant to bring to you my seals of office. When you arrive, in accordance with the imperial command, I shall have bound myself and await submission to proper authority. My friend, though you are partial to me, the official law has its divisions."

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: “Wang Ling's letter to the taifu Sima Yi read: 'I have unexpectedly heard that your spirit-like army has started secretly and already reached Bozhi. Knowing that my fate is in the balance and that I have too long delayed meeting you, I now have no regret even if I am to be decapitated. In the past I sent several envoys with my letters to you, but so far have received no answer; kicking my heels, I look toward the west and wait your answer most keenly. Yesterday, having sent you a letter, I took a boat and came here to welcome you. I passed the night at Qiutou and this morning I sailed forth.

Coming to Pukou, I received your proclamation pardoning me, and also your letter of admonition dated the twenty-third day. Reading your instructions, I was taken by surprise; I am completely upset and am at a loss as to where I stand. I have long been receiving imperial favors and have proved myself unworthy after a series of official duties; in commanding troops and governing East China, I have neglected matters and in my heart I infringed upon righteousness. My crime is clearly shown in the Three Hundred Codes; my wife and children also cannot escape the consequence. Indeed, I have none to whom I can pray (from the Analects: “He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray”).

But the Imperial grace covers like Heaven and supports like Earth; though undeserving, I am given pardon, and so can look at the sun and the moon again. My late nephew, Linghu Yu, was misled by the words of petty people; at that time I reprimanded him and stopped him from speaking out his mind to the end. This was witnessed by men and is known to the spirits. Things of this world may be concealed, but in the end they will be exposed. I know well that mine is a crime deserving capital punishment. My parents gave me birth, but it is you who have preserved my life.'

He further said, 'Though I am guilty and deserve to be punished, I have received your pardon. I herewith send my yuan to carry my seal. When I come, in accordance with the Imperial command, I will bind and surrender myself. You may perhaps show me partiality, but the law of the land is imperative.'

When he came, he acted as he said in his letter. The taifu sent a man to free him from his bonds.” ]

The Weilue continues its account as such: "When Sima Yi arrived, everything was as Wang Ling's letters had said. Sima Yi sent someone to release Wang Ling from his binds. Since Wang Ling had received the pardon, he regained his former good spirits. Not himself suspecting anything was amiss, he got into his small boat and went to meet with Sima Yi. Sima Yi had sent men to intercept his boat, and they halted the craft in the middle of the Huai River so that the two of them were ten zhang apart. Wang Ling saw what was going on, and from a long distance away he yelled to Sima Yi, 'If you had summoned me with just a chopped simplified slip, would I have dared not to come? Yet you have brought your army here!' Sima Yi replied, 'You are not the sort that would come on account of that kind of thing.' Wang Ling said, 'You have betrayed me!' Sima Yi replied, 'Better that I betray you than that I betray the state.' And he arranged for soldiers to escort Wang Ling back to the west.

Wang Ling then understood that his crime was serious, so he requested coffin nails, to show his intent to Sima Yi, and Sima Yi gave them to him. When Wang Ling's escort party reached Xiang, during the night he wailed to his followers, 'Eighty years old, and now both my body and my reputation will be snuffed out!' And he killed himself."

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: Knowing well his was a serious crime, as a feeler Wang Ling asked for nails for his coffin in order to see what the taifu's intention was; the taifu had them given to him. Having reached Xiang on the way, in the middle of the night, Wang Ling summoned his subordinates and said to them, 'At the age of eighty, shall I have both my person and my name ruined?' He then committed suicide.]

Gan Bao's Records of Jin states, "When Wang Ling reached Xiang, he saw the shrine to Jia Kui that had been set up there by the side of the river. Wang Ling sighed and said, 'Jia Liangdao! I, Wang Ling, have ever been a loyal servant of the altars of Wei. But only you believed in me, and knew it.' The same year, in the eighth month, Sima Yi became ill. He dreamed that Wang Ling and Jia Kui had brought the plague upon him, for they greatly hated him. He died not long after."

淩旣蒙赦,加恃舊好,不復自疑,徑乘小船欲趨懿。懿使人逆止之,住船淮中,〈《水經註》:潁水自丘頭東南至愼縣,又東南入于淮。懿蓋進軍已近淮。〉相去十餘丈。淩知見外,〈淩與懿同爲公,初以爲蒙赦而欲趨懿;懿逆拒之,乃知以罪而見外。〉乃遙謂懿曰:「卿直以折簡召我,我當敢不至邪,而乃引軍來乎!」懿曰:「以卿非肯逐折簡者故也。」〈古者簡長二尺四寸,短者半之。漢制,簡長二尺,短者半之。蓋單執一札謂之簡;折簡者,折半之簡,言其禮輕也。又按《南史》,孔闇爲孔珪草表,珪以示謝朓,朓嗟吟良久,手自折簡寫之。〉淩曰:「卿負我!」懿曰:「我寧負卿,不負國家!」遂遣步騎六百送淩西詣京師,〈自潁河泝流而西,詣洛陽。〉淩試索棺釘以觀懿意,懿命給之。〈給棺釘者,示之以必死。〉五月,甲寅,淩行到項,遂飲藥死。(ZZTJ 75, 251.5)

Having received his pardon, and in addition relying on his old friendship with Sima Yi, Wang Ling was no longer dubious, and forthwith got into a small boat intending to go to Sima Yi. Sima Yi sent a man to stop him. He halted his boat on the Huai a hundred odd feet away from Sima Yi. Perceiving that the latter was not friendly toward him, Wang Ling addressed Sima Yi from this distance, “If you had summoned me by a wooden slip, could I have dared not to come? Why do you have to come with the army?” Sima Yi said, “Because you are not one to obey the call of a wooden slip.” Wang Ling said, “You have failed me!” Sima Yi said, “I would rather fail you than fail the State.” In the end, he sent six hundred foot and horse to escort him west to the capital. As a feeler, Wang Ling asked for nails for his coffin, in order to see what Sima Yi’s intentions were; Sima Yi had them given to him. Fifth month. On the day jiayin (June 15), Wang Ling, having reached Xiang on the way, drank poison and died.

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "From Qiutou, the Ying River flows southeast to Shen County, and then further southeast into the Huai River." So Sima Yi's army had already advanced this close to the Huai.

At this time, Wang Ling and Sima Yi were both Excellencies, and since Wang Ling had been given the pardon, he wished to meet with Sima Yi. With Sima Yi sending someone to prevent Wang Ling from reaching him, Wang Ling then realized his crime and understood that Sima Yi was 見外 "not friendly to him".

Wang Ling and Sima Yi speak of the 折簡 versions of wooden report slips. In ancient times, the standard wooden slips were two chi and four cun in length, with the shorter ones half that length. Under the Han system, the slips were two chi in length, and the shorter ones again half as long. Versions of this slip that were small enough for just a single letter were called 簡 simplified; a 折簡 chopped simplified version, therefore, was half the length of even the simplified one, used for the most brief and unadorned messages. And according to the History of the Southern Dynasties, when Kong An would compose petitions for Kong Gui, Kong Gui would show them to Xie Tiao, Xie Tiao would lament their great length, and he would himself compose them on these chopped simplified slips.

By going west upstream along the Ying River, they meant to bring Wang Ling to Luoyang.

By requesting coffin nails, Wang Ling demonstrated his intention of certain death.)


The Weilue also has this account: "Shan Gu of Shanyang, styled Gongxia, was perceived by people to have a great capacity for truth. During the Zhengshi era (240-249), since the Inspector of Yanzhou, Linghu Yu, was good friends with Shan Gu's father Shan Bolong, he summoned Shan Gu, for he wished to employ him as an Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage. But Shan Gu had no heart to serve as a provincial official, and he declined the post, claiming illness. Although Linghu Yu treated him with courtesy and favor, still Shan Gu did not wish to go along with his wishes. Shan Gu's mother Lady Xiahou said to him, 'The Inspector and your father are old friends, and this is why he orders you not to linger here. For the same reason, you ought to take up his offer, for it will allow you to advance yourself.' Faced with no choice, Shan Gu accepted the offer, and as he advanced, he and the Attendant Officer Yang Kang governed together and become close confidantes of Linghu Yu.

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: Shan Gu of Shanyang, zi Gongxia, was a man of solid character. During the Zhengshi period, the cishi of Yanzhou, Linghu Yu, was on intimate terms with Shan Gu's father, Shan Bolong (this must be his zi). He appointed Shan Gu as his biejia. Shan Gu did not care to be a provincial underling and declined to accept the appointment on the grounds of ill health. Linghu Yu showed him all the more attention, but Shan Gu was not inclined to accept the appointment. Shan Gu's mother, nee Xiahou, said to Shan Gu, 'It is because of his long-standing friendship with your father that the Governor persists in offering you an appointment. And you must indeed take an official career. You had better go and accept the appointment.' Thus he was compelled to go.]

“Later on, when Linghu Yu hatched his plan with Wang Ling, Yang Kang and Shan Gu were both aware of the plot. When Linghu Yu then became ill, Yang Kang heeded the summons of the Minister Over The Masses and went to visit Luoyang, and Shan Gu also declined his salary on account of illness. While at the capital, Yang Kang revealed the plot, and so Sima Yi marched east to deal with Wang Ling. When Sima Yi reached Shouchun, Shan Gu came to visit him. Sima Yi asked him, 'What did you know of this plot?' Shan Gu replied that he had known nothing of it. Sima Yi said, 'It was a matter close at hand to you. I ask you, was Linghu a rebel?' Shan Gu again gave no response. But Yang Kang revealed everything, and said that Shan Gu was associated with the plot. So Shan Gu and his family and adherents were all arrested and imprisoned by the ministry of justice. Shan Gu was interrogated dozens of times, but still he would not confess to anything. Then Sima Yi took down Yang Kang’s testimony, and compared it against Shan Gu’s statements. Not being able to hold back any longer, Shan Gu reviled Yang Kang, saying, 'You hireling! You betrayed the Inspector and caused the ruin of my family, yet you suppose you will be allowed to live!' After the interrogation was over, the case was sent to the ministry of justice.

[Achilles Fang’s translation of the first sentence is: When afterwards Linghu Yu and Wang Ling formed a conspiracy, Yang Kang and Shan Gu both knew of the plot.]

“According to old standards, Shan Gu was permitted to have his mother, wife, and children come visit him. When his mother came to see him, Shan Gu could not bear to look up at her. His mother knew the shame that her son felt. Addressing him by his style name, she said to him, 'Gongxia, I know that you originally did not want to serve in the province and commandary; it was only because I forced you into it. In your conduct as an official, you have only done what you thought was right. Even if it means the end of our family, I have no regrets. Please tell me your thoughts.' But in the end, Shan Gu could not look up at her, nor did he say anything, until the time of his death.

[Achilles Fang’s translation is: The examination completed, the case was transferred to the tingyu. In the meanwhile he was permitted, in accordance with usage, to meet his mother, wife and children. When he saw his mother, Shan Gu would not raise his face to her. Knowing that he was ashamed, his mother said to him, 'Gongxia, you originally did not wish to be a provincial under-official. It was I who compelled you to it. As a subordinate official, you have acted as you ought. That our family is going to be diminished does not make me regretful. Speak out your mind to me.' To the end Shan Gu did not look up at her, nor did he speak a word. And thus he went to his death.]

“Now since Yang Kang had on his own initiative reported the plot, he had hoped that he would be rewarded with rank and titles. But later on, because of some of his testimony being inconsistent, he too was beheaded. Before the sentence was passed, both he and Shan Gu were languishing in prison together. Shan Gu reviled Yang Kang again, saying, 'You old slave, you brought your death on your own head. If the departed still know people, how will you ever be able to face the world below?'"

愚在兗州,辟山陽單固爲別駕,〈單,音善。〉與治中楊康並爲愚腹心。及愚卒,康應司徒辟,至洛陽,露愚陰事,愚由是敗。懿至壽春,見單固,問曰:「令狐反乎?」曰:「無有。」楊康白事,事與固連,〈康所白愚陰事,事與固連也。〉遂收捕固及家屬皆繫廷尉,考實數十,固固云無有。懿錄楊康,與固對相詰,固辭窮,乃罵康曰:「老傭!〈傭,雇也。奴僕受雇者曰傭。老傭,猶言老奴也。〉旣負使君,又滅我族,顧汝當活邪!」康初自冀封侯,後以辭頗參錯,〈言獄辭與單固參雜也。〉亦幷斬之。臨刑,俱出獄,固又罵康曰:「老奴!汝死自分耳。若令死者有知,汝何面目以行地下乎!」(ZZTJ 75, 251.5)

While he was in Yanzhou, Linghu Yu had appointed Shan Gu of Shanyang as his biejia. He and the zhizhong Yang Kang both became Linghu Yu’s trusted men. After Linghu Yu’s death, Yang Kang was given an appointment by the Minister Over The Masses and came to Luoyang, where he divulged the conspiracy of Linghu Yu. It was through this that Linghu Yu was undone. When he came to Shouchun, Sima Yi saw Shan Gu and asked him, “Did Linghu Yu plot a rebellion?” Shan Gu said he did not. However, Yang Kang had reported that Shan Gu was involved in the conspiracy, so Shan Gu and his family were all arrested and given in charge of the tingyu.

Tortured and questioned dozens of times, Shan Gu remained firm in his denial. Sima Yi called in Yang Kang and checked Shan Gu’s statement with his. No longer able to parry, Shan Gu abused Yang Kang, “You old slave, you have first betrayed the Prefect and then would exterminate my family. Do you think you will be kept alive?”

At first Yang Kang hoped to be enfeoffed. As it turned out, because of his inconsistent statements he also was sentenced to death. Going to be executed, they both came out of the prison together. Shan Gu again abused Yang Kang, “You old slave, your death is only just. If the dead are conscious, how will you have the face to go to the underworld?”

(The surname 單 is here pronounced "Shan".

When Yang Kang had revealed the plot, he had said that Shan Gu was also involved.

Shan Gu first calls Yang Kang a 傭; this means a hireling. A slave or servant who has been hired on is called a 傭. By "old 傭", he means "old slave".

There were some inconsistencies between Yang Kang's testimony compared to what Shan Gu had said, thus he was condemned.)


Gan Bao's Records of Jin also has this story: "There was a military official of Yanzhou, Ma Long of Dongping, who claimed to be a house-guest of Linghu Yu. He spent his own money to properly bury Linghu Yu, and he held mourning for him for three years. He also planted pine and cypress trees. The people of the whole province were shamed by him."


The Annals of the Clans of Wei states, "Wang Guang was styled Gongyuan. His younger brothers, Wang Feixiao and Wang Jinhu, were both men talented in military pursuits. On a lark, Sima Yi once asked Jiang Ji about the family, and Jiang Ji told him, 'Wang Ling has abundant talent in both civil and military affairs; there is no one who is currently a match for him. And Wang Guang's and his brother's ambitions and power are just as pleasing as their father's.' But afterwards, Jiang Ji regretted saying this, and he told those close to him, 'By saying such things, I have caused the ruin of this man's family.'"

The Records of the End of Wei states, "Wang Ling's youngest son was styled Mingshan. He was extremely knowledgeable, an adept scholar, and had numerous talents. Whoever saw his writings accepted them as standards. He fled towards Taiyuan, with the army pursuing him. By the time they overtook him, he was among a great flock of birds sitting in some mulberry trees. He followed them among the branches, raising his bow to shoot arrows at anyone who drew near. The pursuit troops were thus halted and could not advance. Wang Mingshan took shelter with his in-laws for food, but they reported to the officials, who came and arrested him."
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
Posts: 854
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant


Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 16, 2020 9:55 pm



Sun Ce was styled Bofu.

When Sun Jian first rose up with his troops, Sun Ce led his mother to shift their residence to Shu county (in Lujiang commandary in Yangzhou). Sun Ce was close friends with Zhou Yu, and he gathered the local gentlemen of that region to his cause, so that everyone between the Huai River and the Yangzi were inclined to support him.

After Sun Jian’s death, his body was brought back to be buried at Qu’a. Then Sun Ce crossed north of the Yangzi and shifted his family’s residence to Jiangdu county (in Xuzhou).


(The Records of the Southland (Jiangbiaozhuan) states, “Zhu Jun presented a petition to the court on Sun Ce’s behalf, getting him an appointment as a subordinate general. Sun Jian left his family behind at Shouchun.

“At that time, Sun Ce was just past nine years old, yet he had already formed close ties with local gentlemen and gained a good reputation for himself, so that people were all familiar with him. In particular, there was Zhou Yu, another youth of a heroic and refined spirit, who was the same age as Sun Ce. Zhou Yu came from Shu county to meet with Sun Ce. They formed a close bond, so dear to one another that ‘their united purpose could cleave metal’. Zhou Yu urged Sun Ce to move his family to Shu, and Sun Ce took his advice.”

The Book of Wei states, “Sun Jian had been Marquis of Wucheng at the time of his death. Sun Ce thus would have been entitled to inherit this title. But he declined to do so, letting his younger brother Sun Kuang inherit it instead.”)


However, the Governor of Xuzhou, Tao Qian, was deeply suspicious of Sun Ce. At the same time, Sun Ce’s maternal uncle Wu Jing was serving as Administrator of Danyang. So Sun Ce decided to first escort his mother back to Qu’a, then went to visit Wu Jing, bringing Lü Fan and Sun He along with him. After arriving in Danyang, Sun Ce began to recruit local troops, eventually gathering a few hundred men.

In the first year of Xingping (194), Sun Ce went to visit Yuan Shu. Yuan Shu was deeply impressed by Sun Ce, and he returned Sun Jian’s former troops to Sun Ce. It was during this time that the Grand Tutor, Ma Midi, was visiting the regions east of the mountains (east of Luoyang) with a Staff of Authority in order to restore order on behalf of the court, and while Ma Midi was visiting Yuan Shu’s base at Shouchun, he was courteous to Sun Ce and sent back a petition to the court asking that Sun Ce be appointed as Colonel Who Cherishes Righteousness. And Yuan Shu’s leading generals, Qiao Rui and Zhang Xun, were also exceptionally respectful to Sun Ce. Even Yuan Shu was known to sigh and say, “If only I had a son like Young Master Sun, I could die without regrets!”

There was an incident where one of Sun Ce’s cavalry officers, having committed some offense, tried to seek refuge in Yuan Shu’s camp and hid inside the stables there. Sun Ce directed one of his agents to immediately apprehend the offender and behead him. This was a presumptuous act, so Sun Ce then went to see Yuan Shu to apologize. But Yuan Shu only said, “Soldiers are always causing trouble, and I despise such mischief as much as you do. Why apologize for taking such measures?” Thus the soldiers feared and dreaded Sun Ce all the more.

Yuan Shu had originally agreed to appoint Sun Ce as Administrator of Jiujiang. However, when the time came to make the appointment, Yuan Shu chose Chen Ji of Danyang commandary instead. Later, Yuan Shu was planning to attack Xuzhou and so requested thirty thousand bushels of rice from the Administrator of Lujiang, Lu Kang, but Lu Kang refused to supply him, greatly angering Yuan Shu. For his part, Sun Ce also had a grudge against Lu Kang, because there had been an occasion when Sun Ce had tried to visit him but Lu Kang had simply sent his Registrar to receive Sun Ce instead. Yuan Shu thus decided to have Sun Ce attack Lu Kang, telling him, “I regret that I wasn’t able to keep my promise to you before, when I appointed Chen Ji instead; I was wrong. But now, if you capture Lu Kang, Lujiang will be all yours.” Sun Ce thus attacked Lu Kang and captured him. However, Yuan Shu once again broke his word, this time appointing his former official Liu Xun as Administrator of Lujiang instead. Sun Ce became more and more disillusioned with Yuan Shu.


(The Annals of Wu (Wuli) states, “During the time that Sun Ce was living at Jiangdu, he knew of a certain local, Zhang Hong. At that time, Zhang Hong’s mother had recently passed away, so he was living at home observing the ritual period of mourning for her. Sun Ce took the occasion to pay several visits to Zhang Hong and discuss the affairs of the day with him.

“Sun Ce said to Zhang Hong, ‘The fortunes of the Han dynasty are in decline, and the realm is wracked by turmoil and confusion. Bold heroes and great talents are gathering troops on every side, seeking to chase after their own interests. No one knows who will ultimately prove capable of quelling this chaos.

“’My late father joined with the Yuan clan, and together they smashed Dong Zhuo. Alas, before my father’s merits and endeavors could be fulfilled, he was cut down by Huang Zu. Yet I too have some small measure of ambition, and though I may be nothing more than a blind youth, still I will do what I can. Thus I intend to go to see the Inspector of Yangzhou, Yuan Shu, and ask him to grant me the soldiers who once served my father, and I shall also go to visit my uncle’s family in Danyang. My aim is to gather together all the scattered soldiers of my father’s day, march east and occupy Wu and Kuaiji, avenge the shame and disgrace of my father’s death, and serve the imperial court as a frontier vassal. Sir, could you advise me on such things?’

“Zhang Hong tried to wave him off, saying, ‘I have never been anything more than a meager fellow of no account. Besides, I am still wearing the clothes of mourning. There are no fine plans or strategies that I could offer you.’

“But Sun Ce insisted, saying, ‘Sir, you have a great reputation known far and wide, and everyone cherishes your thoughts. You are the only one who would be able to help me achieve my wishes. Will you not take pity on me by offering your advice, and assist me in my high hopes? If I could only achieve my simple ambitions and avenge the shame of my family, it would be all thanks to your efforts. Such is my deepest desire.’ And he began to weep freely, nor did his expression betray any hint of insincerity.

“Zhang Hong recognized that Sun Ce was expressing his innermost loyalty and manly spirit, and he sympathized with the young man and was moved by his words of ambition. So Zhang Hong at last replied, ‘In ancient times, the Zhou dynasty too lost their way and fell into decline. Yet there were the hegemons, Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin, who exerted their efforts to sustain the dynasty. They were so successful in preserving the royal house of Zhou that all the feudal lords continued to send tribute to the royal court and recognize its sovereignty.

“’It might be much the same with you, young sir. For I see that you have inherited the integrity of the late marquis your father, and you have established a reputation as a valiant and martial fellow. If you indeed traveled to Danyang and gathered soldiers from Wu and Kuaiji, then eventually you could bring all of Yangzhou and Jingzhou under your control, and you could smite your foes and achieve your vengeance. From there, you could use the line of the Yangzi as your bulwark, exert your power and virtue over the realm, destroy and root out the various miscreants of the age, and rectify and restore the royal house of Han. Then your achievements would be a match for Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin. Why should you be satisfied to simply be no more than a ‘frontier vassal’?

“’This is an age of chaos and many hardships. But if it will mean helping you to achieve success and establish yourself, then I too should help to support your noble cause.’

“Sun Ce said, ‘Then Sir, let us swear to be united in our purpose and boundless in our resolve. I shall begin at once. And if I may entrust my aged mother and my tender younger brothers to your care, Sir, then I will never have cause to look back in worry.’”

The Records of the Southland states, “Sun Ce traveled to Shouchun to meet Yuan Shu. He wept as he said to Yuan Shu, ‘When my later father marched from Changsha to join the campaign against Dong Zhuo, Worthy Commissioner, he joined forces with you at Nanyang, and you were firm allies and good friends. Alas that he met with misfortune, and he was never able to realize his achievements or ambition. I have always been thinking about how indebted he was to your patronage, and thus I wish to serve under you myself. Worthy Commissioner, I hope you will recognize my sincerity.’

“Yuan Shu was indeed very impressed by Sun Ce and marveled at him. However, he was not yet willing to give Sun Ce back the soldiers who had once served under Sun Jian. He only told Sun Ce, ‘I earlier appointed your honorable uncle (Wu Jing) as Administrator of Danyang, and your worthy cousin, Boyang (Sun Ben), as Commandant of Danyang. Danyang is a place which has excellent soldiers. You might go there and draft from among the locals.’

“Sun Ce thus went to visit his uncle at Danyang, and he recruited a few hundred people there. However, he was suddenly attacked by a leader from Jing county, Zu Lang, and nearly came to grief. So Sun Ce went back to visit Yuan Shu again, and by now Yuan Shu was willing to assign him more than a thousand of Sun Jian’s old troops.”)


Sometime earlier, the court had appointed Liu Yao as Inspector of Yangzhou. Traditionally, the headquarters for the Inspector of Yangzhou was at Shouchun. But since Yuan Shu had already occupied Shouchun as his own base, Liu Yao crossed south of the Yangzi and used Qu'a as his headquarters instead. Wu Jing and Sun Ce's elder cousin Sun Ben had only recently been appointed by Yuan Shu as Administrator and Commandant of Danyang, and when Liu Yao arrived, he drove them out of Danyang. They fell back to a new base at Liyang. Liu Yao then sent Fan Neng and Yu Mi east to camp at Hengjiang Crossing and Zhang Ying to camp at Danglikou, in order to prevent any further encroachment by Yuan Shu against his territory. Yuan Shu responded by appointing one of his former officials, Hui Qu of Langye commandary, as his own Inspector of Yangzhou, and he reappointed Wu Jing as Army Commander and General of the Household Gentlemen. He ordered these two to join with Sun Ben and lead troops to attack Zhang Ying and Liu Yao's other generals, yet for more than a year they had had no success.

Sun Ce thus persuaded Yuan Shu, begging that he might be allowed to help Wu Jing and the others pacify and settle the Southland. Yuan Shu agreed to his request. He submitted a petition to the court asking for Sun Ce to be appointed as Colonel Who Breaks And Charges and as provisional General Who Smites Invaders. He granted about a thousand soldiers, with suitable supplies, and a few dozen cavalry; several hundred of Yuan Shu's retainers and guests also volunteered to go with him. By the time Sun Ce had reached Liyang, his army had swelled to five or six thousand.

Sun Ce's mother had earlier left Qu'a and come to Liyang; Sun Ce now had her relocated to Fuling. Then Sun Ce crossed south of the Yangzi, and he marched on the warpath. He swept all before him, and no one dared to face the might of his vanguard. Yet Sun Ce enforced strict discipline and order among his troops, so the common people cherished him.


(The Records of the Southland states, "Sun Ce persuaded Yuan Shu, saying, "There are many in the east who are indebted to my family. I beg leave to help my uncle campaign against Hengjiang. If we can take Hengjiang, then I shall go back to my homeland and recruit troops, perhaps as many as thirty thousand, which I would use to help you restore the royal house of Han, Wise Commissioner.'

“Yuan Shu knew that this was just a pretext, and that Sun Ce was resentful of him. But since Liu Yao was occupying Qu'a and Wang Lang held Kuaiji, Yuan Shu felt that Sun Ce would not necessarily be able to conquer the whole region. So he agreed to let him go.

"Sun Ce crossed south of the Yangzi and attacked Liu Yao's garrison at Niuzhu, where he captured all the grain stores and military equipment; this was in the second year of Xingping (195).

"At that time, the Chancellor of Pengcheng, Xue Li, and the Chancellor of Xiapi, Zhai Rong, were supporting Liu Yao as the leader of an alliance among themselves; Xue Li was occupying the city of Moling and Zhai Rong was camped in the south of that county. Sun Ce chose to attack Zhai Rong first. Zhai Rong initially came out to offer battle, but Sun Ce took more than five hundred heads, and Zhai Rong brought his remaining forces back within his ramparts, shut his gates, and refused to venture forth any further. Sun Ce then crossed the Yangzi to attack Xue Li next, and Xue Li fled.

"However, during Sun Ce's absence, Fan Neng, Yu Mi, and others had regrouped their forces. They launched a surprise attack against Niuzhu and retook it. When Sun Ce heard that Niuzhu had fallen, he marched back to attack Fan Neng and the others; he routed them, capturing more than ten thousand men and women.

"Sun Ce then resumed his campaign against Zhai Rong. However, during the fighting this time, he was struck by a stray arrow and wounded in the thigh, so that he was unable to ride a horse. Sun Ce had himself brought back to his camp at Niuzhu in a cart. Some of his soldiers defected to Zhai Rong and told him, 'Young Master Sun was struck and killed by an arrow.' Zhai Rong was overjoyed, and he sent his general Yu Zi to finish off Sun Ce's forces. Sun Ce sent a few hundred horse and foot forward to clash with the enemy, while preparing ambush troops in the rear. When Yu Zi's soldiers arrived, they moved to attack Sun Ce's vanguard. Yet before there had been any clash of arms, Sun Ce's vanguard pretended to flee. The enemy troops pursued them, but soon stumbled into the ambush and were greatly routed, with the loss of more than a thousand soldiers. Sun Ce then led a counterattack to drive the enemy back to Zhai Rong's camp, ordering his attendants to shout, 'What do you say about Young Master Sun now?' The enemies were so astonished and afraid that they fled through the night. When Zhai Rong heard that Sun Ce was still alive, he deepened his moats and raised his ramparts, holding fast to his defenses. Sun Ce felt that the ground around Zhai Rong's camp was too formidable to assault, so he gave up on the idea. But he did attack one of Liu Yao's subordinate generals at Hailing, then pressed on to attack Hushu [Gushu?] and Jiangcheng and subdued them all.")


Sun Ce had a fair figure and countenance, and he enjoyed joking and chatting with people. He was naturally broad-minded and receptive, and he was skilled at getting the best use out of people. No one who met him, whether gentry or commoner, failed to devote themselves fully to him; indeed, they were happy to give their very lives for him.

Liu Yao abandoned his army and ran away, and the Administrators of the local commandaries followed suit by fleeing their cities. However, there were several people who each gathered armies of more than ten thousand people and camped in various places, including a native of Wu commandary, Yan Baihu. Wu Jing and others wanted to attack and rout these local armies first, before moving on to Kuaiji. But Sun Ce told them, "Yan Baihu and the rest are just so many bandits; they have no grand ambitions. We've already got them in our grasp." And he led his troops to cross the river at Zhejiang. He occupied Kuaiji and sacked Dongye, then attacked Yan Baihu and the other local leaders and routed them.

Sun Ce filled all the now-vacant local offices with his own appointments. He appointed himself as acting Administrator of Kuaiji, he reappointed Wu Jing as Administrator of Danyang, he appointed Sun Ben as Administrator of Yuzhang, he split off part of Yuzhang as Luling commandary and appointed Sun Ben's younger brother Sun Fu as its Administrator, and he appointed Zhu Zhi of Danyang commandary as Administrator of Wu. Zhang Zhao of Pengcheng commandary, Zhang Hong of Guangling commandary, Qin Song, Chen Duan, and others served as his chief advisors.


(The Records of the Southland states, "Since Sun Ce was a young man, people invariably ignored whatever his official title happened to be and just called him Young Master Sun. His notoriety was such that whenever people heard that 'Young Master Sun is coming', they all shook with fright; the Chief Clerks would flee their cities and run and hide among the hills and grasses when his army drew near. But whenever Sun Ce's army actually came to a place, his soldiers observed strict discipline and did not dare to engage in pillaging; they did not even harm dogs or chickens or steal vegetables. Thus the people were overjoyed with Sun Ce, and they would often bring oxen and wine to his camp.

"After Liu Yao had fled and Sun Ce entered Qu'a, he honored the achievements of his generals and officers and granted them rewards. He sent his general Chen Bao to visit Fuling and bring his mother and younger brothers back to Qu'a. He also issued a letter of pardon, declaring to all the local counties, 'Anyone who was the neighbor of, or who has previously served under, Liu Yao, Zhai Rong, or others who now comes to surrender to me will be accepted without any further question. Those who are willing to join my army shall have their service rewarded with exemption for their household from taxation or corvee labor demands; those who are not willing to join my army will not be compelled to do so.' Thus in little more than a week, so many people came to see Sun Ce that it was like a gathering of clouds from all sides. He obtained more than twenty thousand infantry for his army and more than a thousand cavalry. His power shook the Southland, and the form of his authority grew greater still."

The Records of Wu (Wulu) states, "Regarding the local forces in the Southland, at this time they included Zou Tuo and Qian Tong of Wucheng and the former Administrator of Hepu, Wang Cheng of Jiaxing commandary; each of them had forces ranging from several thousand to more than ten thousand. Sun Ce led his troops to deal with these local threats, and he attacked them and routed them all.

"Having captured Wang Cheng, Sun Ce was going to execute him. But Sun Ce's mother Lady Wu pleaded with him, saying, 'Wang Cheng was a rival of your father for my affection. And by now, his sons and his brothers have all already been executed. This old fellow is the only one left. What further need do you have to fear any danger from him?' So Sun Ce released Wang Cheng, but he executed all of the others along with their clans.

"Sun Ce personally marched to deal with Yan Baihu. However, Yan Baihu only raised his ramparts and fortified his defenses, while sending his brother Yan Yu to ask for peace terms with Sun Ce. Sun Ce agreed to meet with him. Yan Yu asked that he meet with Sun Ce face to face in order to arrange the terms. When Yan Yu arrived, Sun Ce drew a white sword and chopped at a seat. Yan Yu was visibly startled. Sun Ce laughed and said, 'I heard that you were so uncommonly nimble that you could even leap to your feet. I was only messing with you!'

"Yan Yu replied, 'I was just startled by the blade, that's all.'

"Sun Ce then knew that Yan Yu was worthless. So he took a hand-halberd and threw it at him, killing him where he stood. Yan Yu had been a bold and strong fellow, so when Yan Baihu's soldiers saw that Yan Yu was dead, they were very afraid. Sun Ce then pressed forward to attack them, and he routed them.

"Yan Baihu fled to Yuhang, where he sought refuge with Xu Zhao. Cheng Pu thus asked Sun Ce to attack Xu Zhao. But Sun Ce said, 'Xu Zhao has both done right by his former lord and been true to an old friend. That's just the sort of thing a real man should do.' So he did not attack him."

Your servant Pei Songzhi notes that Sun Ce's final comment in this account refers to two different incidents. The second compliment, that Xu Zhao had 'been true to an old friend', was the one that referred to his sheltering of Yan Baihu. The first one, that he had 'done right by his former lord', refers to his saving of Sheng Xian, which is mentioned later on.

The Records of the Southland continues, "Sun Ce sent his Commandant Who Upholds Rectitude, Liu You, and his Official For All Purposes, Gao Cheng, to visit the court at Xu, present a record of his activities, and offer tribute of local products.")


At this time, Yuan Shu presumed to declare himself Emperor. Sun Ce sent him a letter rebuking him, and he broke ties with Yuan Shu.


(Regarding this letter from Sun Ce to Yuan Shu, the Records of Wu and the Dianlue both preserve it; it is written below. The Records of Wu states that it was Zhang Hong who wrote this letter for Sun Ce, while the Dianlue claims that it was Zhang Zhao. Your servant Pei Songzhi, though admitting that Zhang Zhao enjoyed a greater reputation than Zhang Hong, feels that Zhang Zhao was not so sublime at composition as Zhang Hong was, thus I believe that Zhang Hong was indeed the author.

“When Heaven above took notice of the affairs of the world below and signified its displeasure by sending down natural disasters, the sage rulers of old would set up the Criticism Drum in order to invite remonstrations against their conduct. In order to guard against going down the wrong path, even the most strident denunciations were permitted. Why was this? Because though everyone has their strengths, they also have their faults.

“Last winter, when we received word of the great step you were preparing to take, everyone here was trembling with fear at what might result. Happily, we soon learned that you were still intending to send tribute to the court, and everyone was most relieved. Yet now, we hear that you are once again proposing the same intention, to such an extent that you have already picked out the month of your decision. Now we are even more afraid and disturbed, feeling that this is a rash idea indeed. If you are determined to act in such a manner, what hope will the people have? Thus I offer up nine criticisms to you, Commissioner; I pray you will receive them.

“On the day when you raised your troops to join the uprising against Dong Zhuo, what were his crimes that caused all good people of the realm to rally against him? That he had monopolized power, presumed to depose one Emperor and enthrone another, killed the Empress Dowager (Lady He) and the Prince of Hongnong (Liu Bian), defiled the palace women, and dug up the graves and tombs of the capital. So vile was his treason and tyranny that heroes from provinces and commandaries across the realm heeded the call to crusade against him. With such divine martial prowess rising against him from without, Dong Zhuo’s destruction from within was only a matter of time.

“After this chief evil of the realm had been annihilated, our tender young sovereign (Emperor Xian) looked to the east and sent out word of his will to the local powers, hoping to restore peace and bring the armies of the warlords to heel. Yet his words fell on deaf ears. The miscreants north of the Yellow River plotted their schemes in the Black Mountains, Cao Cao poured out his poison in eastern Xuzhou, Liu Biao stirred up chaos in southern Jingzhou, Gongsun Zan roiled the land in northern Youzhou, Liu Yao imposed his will in the Southland, and Liu Bei strove for supremacy along the Huai River. Not one of them was willing to heed the imperial order by casting aside their bow and setting down their spear. Yet witness their fates: Liu Bei and Liu Yao have been smashed, while Cao Cao and the rest are suffering from hunger and famine. This is the very time when you ought to join together with all the realm to smite these evildoers. Yet, rather than contribute to this common effort, you are instead nurturing your own selfish ambitions and ignoring the wishes of the people of the realm. This is my first criticism.

“In ancient times, when Cheng Tang (Tang of Shang) led his uprising against Jie of Xia, his cause for war was that the Xia dynasty had committed many crimes against the realm. Likewise, when King Wu of Zhou campaigned against []King Zhou of Yin (Shang)[/url], he too announced the many crimes of Yin and that he intended to punish them. Now it is certainly true that both of these rulers were sage and virtuous men and were suited to ruling as sovereigns over the age. However, even so, they never would have become rulers if the circumstances of their eras had not justified their actions. Commissioner, whether or not you consider yourself the equal of those two ancient worthies, still you must admit that our young sovereign has done the realm no wrong; he is simply a pawn because of his youth, at the mercy of his powerful ministers. If, even so, you insist upon usurping his position, I fear that your actions will not be justified as those of Cheng Tang and King Zhou were. This is my second criticism.

“Dong Zhuo was a wild and wicked man, yet he never took that ultimate step of pushing aside his sovereign and setting himself up as ruler instead. Even so, the tyranny and cruelty that he did commit still shocked the realm, who banded together and were of one heart to oppose him. Should the people of the interior, who had little experience of warfare, have stood any chance against Dong Zhuo’s bold and elite veterans from the border regions? Yet now, Dong Zhuo is no more than a wandering ghost. It is the same situation with the warlords of our own time, who love to fight one another and are constantly engaged in warfare. The reason why we will be able to prevail over them in the end is because they seek chaos where we pursue order, they are traitors while we are loyal subjects. Yet you would abandon the legitimacy which we now enjoy and, casting aside this spiritual support, resort to a mere contest of strength with the warlords. That will simply bring disaster upon you. This is my third criticism.

“It is great foolishness to act first and simply expect the realm or the gods to support you. One must gain the approval of Heaven and the support of the people first before anything can be accomplished. Why was it that Tang of Yin had the blessing of the white dove, King Wu of Zhou received the omen of the red crow, Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) witnessed the conjunction of the planets, and Shizu (Emperor Guangwu of Han) was shown the divine glow? It was because the people were suffering under the harsh rule of Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang, because they were toiling under the strain of the First Emperor of Qin and of the usurper Wang Mang. That was the reason why these rulers were able to rise up, uproot and cast out the wicked, and fulfill their ambitions. But what evils has our young sovereign inflicted upon the realm, and what signs have you been given that shows that Heaven has granted you its mandate? Yet this will not stop you from ascending to the throne and claiming imperial title overnight? No one who has done such a thing has ever prevailed. This is my fourth criticism.

“The Son of Heaven enjoys peerless honor, and the realm is full of riches. Who would not wish to possess such an exalted title and to claim all the riches of the Four Seas as their own? Yet no one can ever reach that summit, no matter how powerful, if they lack legitimacy. People like Chen Sheng, Xiang Ji (Xiang Yu), Wang Mang, and Gongsun Shu all faced south and declared themselves the sovereign for a time. But not one of them was ultimately successful. Becoming the ruler is not a passing fancy to be indulged. This is my fifth criticism.

“Our young sovereign is a sharp and perceptive man. Though he is currently in a perilous state, if only he could rid himself of the pressures upon him and do away with his current predicament, he would certainly be able to restore the dynasty to its former glory. And one who helped such a sovereign, the equal of King Cheng of Zhou, to restore the realm to splendor could count himself the equal of Dan or Shi (King Cheng’s uncles, the Dukes of Zhou and Shao). Commissioner, that is precisely what I hope to see you achieve. And even supposing that our young sovereign himself proves to be an inferior man, even so you might still uplift the other members of the royal clan and surround him with worthy and excellent servants, in order to continue the lineage of the Liu family and preserve the house of Han. If you did these things, then records of your deeds would be carved in gold, and your faithfulness would be as precious as treasures; your legacy would endure forever, and your name would echo through the ages. Yet rather than do this, you are only going to make things more difficult for him. It seems abundantly clear to me that you will never be able to endure this. This is my sixth criticism.

"Your clan has enjoyed high status as supreme officials of the state for five generations; it wields immense authority and considerable influence, so great that no other in the realm can compare. If you were a truly loyal and faithful subject of the state, then all your thoughts, day and night, would be bent towards the sole consideration of how you might help the royal family to rise from this downfall and how you might preserve the fortunes of state from destruction, in order to carry on the ambitions of your ancestors and repay the mercy and grace which the house of Han has shown you and your clan. Yet now you plan to abandon this path of the dutiful servant and simply claim whatever you seek by force. It is though you are claiming, 'The whole realm is already either subjects of my family or clients of our clan; who would ever go against us? All the leaders of the realm are either my servants or my bondsmen; who would ever disobey me? With all the influence that our clan has gathered through generations, how could my rise be stopped or my will denied?' Yet I reckon that these are two very different things, and one cannot but look closely into the true situation. This is my seventh criticism.

"What was it that led someone to be honored as a wise and sagacious person? It was because they were always sure to carefully consider the circumstances and what ought to be done, and they were cautious in undertaking any affair or arrangement. When success would prove strenuous, justification would be difficult, the passion of one's foes would be incited, and the hearts of the people would be dismayed, then justice and righteousness required that it not be carried out, nor could any private gain be sought or attained. I venture to state that your current stance does not demonstrate such wisdom or sagacity. This is my eighth criticism.

"Through the ages, there have been many people who were misled by books of prophecy and beguiled by strange predictions. They sought to interpret events in line with these prophecies in order to flatter their sovereigns and deceive the masses. But in the end, they always came to grief. Never once has there been a case where such things did not end badly. Yet you yourself are indulging in these kinds of beliefs rather than carefully consider what has happened before. This is my ninth criticism.

"Such are my nine criticisms. Commissioner, I hope that you will take note of them, applying those which are suitable and providing for anything forgotten. Though loyal words offend the ear, blessed are those who take them to heart!")


Cao Cao petitioned the court to have Sun Ce appointed as General Who Punishes Rebels and Marquis of Wu.


(The Records of the Southland states, “In the second year of Jian’an (197), in the summer, the Han court sent a Gentleman-Consultant, Wang Bu, to present the imperial edict of the Wuchen day to Sun Ce. The edict stated, ‘Dong Zhuo was a traitor and a rebel who troubled the state and harmed the people. The late general, Sun Jian, sought to campaign against and punish this foe. Alas, that his noble intention never reached fruition. But all have heard of his splendid works. Now you his son, Sun Ce, have honored propriety and practiced good conduct, “seeking for happiness by no crooked ways”. Thus we hereby appoint you as Cavalry Commandant and as acting Administrator of Kuaiji, and you shall succeed your late father’s title as Marquis of Wucheng.’

“Wang Bu also presented another edict to Sun Ce, instructing him on what he should do next. This edict stated, ‘The former General of the Left, Yuan Shu, has displayed a complete lack of gratitude towards the grace which the Han court has shown him and his family and has set out on the path of treason and evil. He has claimed for himself a false and empty title as sovereign, planning to stir up chaos with his soldiers and deceive the common people. When we first heard of such things, we could hardly believe them. Yet we have been sufficiently informed of his intentions by the Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Pacifies The East, acting Governor of Xuzhou, and Marquis of Wen, Lü Bu, who has confirmed that Yuan Shu has beguiled the masses with his wicked and perverse actions. Thus we know that Yuan Shu is like an owl, a beast willing to consume its own kind, and he is totally lacking in principles. Even now, he has usurped the prerogatives of the Son of Heaven by building a palace for himself, appointing Excellencies and chief ministers of his false court, and offering prayers and sacrifices to Heaven and Earth under his own authority. He is a blight upon the people and the land, a source of great cruelty and disaster.

“’Marquis Lü has often informed us that you, Sun Ce, have always been loyal to the Han court, and that you now wish to campaign against Yuan Shu in order to demonstrate your duty to the state and make clear that you take no part in his treason. It is for talents and achievements that anyone is granted the marquisate of a county, yet diligent efforts may compare to this. Thus we have shown you exceptional favor and reward by our first edict granting you the marquisate of your late father and appointing you as Administrator of a great commandary (Kuaiji). As you have been shown such glory and honor, we now expect you to devote your full efforts to uphold our commands. We hereby command you to do your utmost. Join with Marquis Lü and the acting Administrator of Wu and General Who Maintains The East, Chen Yu; devote your full strength together and be of one heart by campaigning together against this foe.’

“But Sun Ce, who until this time had personally commanded large numbers of men and horses, felt that these appointments as Cavalry Commandant and acting Administrator were insufficient titles for him; he wanted to be officially appointed as a general. Thus he had his agents induce Wang Bu to grant him a provisional title as General Who Glorifies Han.

“At this time, the Administrator of Wu just mentioned, Chen Yu, had his forces camped at Haixi (in Xuzhou). Sun Ce was fully intending to obey the edict ordering him to make common cause with Lü Bu and Chen Yu, and he put his troops in order and marched as far as Qiantang, planning to join forces with the two of them against Yuan Shu. However, Chen Yu was secretly planning to make a move against Sun Ce himself. He sent his Commandant, Wan Huang, and other agents to secretly go south of the Yangzi and meet with local malcontents, bearing seals and more than thirty tokens of authority to distribute among them to lend legitimacy to their efforts. They made contact with bandit leaders in several critical counties: Danyang, Xuancheng, Jing, Lingyang, Shi’an, Yi, and She. They also reached out to the leaders Zu Lang and Jiao Yi, to Yan Baihu of Wucheng county in Wu commandary, and others. Chen Yu intended to have all of these local leaders support him from within Sun Ce’s domain; as soon as Sun Ce’s army departed for their campaign against Yuan Shu, Chen Yu intended for these allies to rise up, attack, and capture the various commandaries under Sun Ce’s control. However, Sun Ce learned of the plot. He sent Lü Fan and Xu Yi to attack Chen Yu at Haixi; they greatly routed him, capturing four thousand of his officials or their wives and children.”

The Records of the Duke of Shanyang (Emperor Xian) elaborates upon the fate of Chen Yu: “Chen Yu fled on a lone horse north to Jizhou, taking refuge under Yuan Shao, who appointed him as Commandant of Gu’an county (in Youzhou).”

The Records of Wu contains Sun Ce’s petition of thanks back to Emperor Xian. It states, “I am a most meager fellow, an orphan merely possessing some distant corner of the border. Your Majesty has been most gracious in deigning to take note of me. Though my trifling service is of little account, still you have seen fit to grant me the inheritance of my late father, as well as appoint me to a renowned commandary. I bow before the honors you heap upon me and greatly regard the favor which you have shown; it is nearly more than I can bear.

“It is true that, in the second year of Xingping (195), in the twelfth month, on the twentieth day (February 6th, 196), at Qu’a county in Wu commandary, I accepted title as provisional General Who Smites Invaders from Yuan Shu, who I was given to understand had presented a petition to that effect to the court. Yet now that I have received Your Majesty’s edict, I know that this was a false and presumptive act by Yuan Shu. Though I renounce this improper appointment fully and completely, even so I tremble at the idea that I ever accepted it.

“I was just sixteen years old when I lost my father, who would have kept me on the right path. In my weakness, I was afraid that I would remain obscure and never be able to establish a name for myself; the prospect that I might be consigned to a fate of chopping firewood, rather than emulating the military careers of Huo Qubing, who had already performed great deeds by the time he was seventeen, or Shizu (Emperor Guangwu), who was leading troops and striving for the mandate before he had come of age, was more than I could accept. And when I myself first began to lead troops, I too was a mere child who had not had his capping ceremony. Perhaps I may console myself that, though I trembled in fear and showed no martial greatness, at least I was attentive to my orders and devoted in my efforts. Yet I cannot deny that I was led astray by Yuan Shu, that great source of evil.

“Thus I now swear to Your Majesty that, relying upon your spiritual support, I shall execute your command, punish this traitor for his crimes, and send word to you of my triumph. May this repay the favor and rewards which you have bestowed upon me.”

Your servant Pei Songzhi here takes the opportunity to point out that Chen Shou’s biography of Sun Jian states that it was in the third year of Chuping (192) that Sun Jian died, and his biography of Sun Ce states that Sun Ce died in the fifth year of Jian’an (200), at the age of twenty-five. If these dates are correct, then Sun Ce would have been seventeen years old when Sun Jian died. Yet notice that in the above petition, Sun Ce states that he was sixteen years old at that time. These figures are irreconcilable. Perhaps Zhang Fan’s Records of Later Han and the Records of Wu, which both state that Sun Jian died in the second year of Chuping (191), are correct. Then we would have to conclude that Chen Shou’s biography of Sun Jian was mistaken.

The Records of the Southland also states, “In the third year of Jian’an (198), Sun Ce sent another tribute mission to the court, presenting twice as much tribute as in the first year (196). The same year, the court issued an edict appointing Sun Ce as General Who Punishes Rebels and changing his fief to Marquis of Wu.”)


After Yuan Shu’s death, his Chief Clerk, Yang Hong, his leading general, Zhang Xun, and others led his former troops to go to Sun Ce. But the Administrator of Lujiang, Liu Xun, intercepted them and captured them all, along with their treasures, and he took them back to Lujiang. When Sun Ce learned of this, he pretended to establish good ties with Liu Xun.

At that time, since Liu Xun had just obtained Yuan Shu’s former army for himself and there were more than ten thousand families living in the Southland at Shangliao in Yuzhang commandary, Sun Ce urged Liu Xun to attack Shangliao and capture it. After Liu Xun had set out to attack Shangliao, Sun Ce sent light troops to march day and night to launch a surprise attack against his base at Lujiang, and they captured it. Liu Xun’s forces all surrendered to Sun Ce, while Liu Xun fled with a few hundred of his subordinates to join Cao Cao.


(The Records of the Southland states, “Sun Ce had received an edict of instructions from the court, commanding him to join forces with the Minister of Works, Cao Cao, the Guard General, Dong Cheng, the Governor of Yizhou, Liu Zhang, and others to campaign against Yuan Shu and Liu Biao. Sun Ce had put his troops in order and was about to set out, but just then Yuan Shu died. His cousin Yuan Yin, his brother-in-law Huang Yi, and others were afraid of Cao Cao and did not dare to hold Yuan Shu’s base at Shouchun. So they went to join Liu Xun at Huancheng, taking with them Yuan Shu’s coffin, his wife and children, and the men and women of his forces.

“Since Liu Xun did not have much food with him, and he currently had no allies who might be able to support him, he decided to send his cousin Liu Xie to visit the Administrator of Yuzhang, Hua Xin, and ask to purchase food from him. Hua Xin had never had much grain himself, but he did know that the people living at Shangliao in Haihun county had food to spare. So he had his officials lead Liu Xie to visit Shangliao, and ordered the clan leaders there to provide Liu Xie with thirty thousand bushels of rice. Yet although Liu Xie remained in Shangliao for more than a month, he was only able to procure a few thousand bushels of rice. So he sent word back to Liu Xun, reporting what had happened. He also described the local terrain and layout to Liu Xun, and urged him to launch a surprise attack on Shangliao to capture it. After receiving Liu Xie’s letter, Liu Xun secretly sent an army to Haihun to subdue the region. However, the clan leaders at Shangliao were aware that he was coming, and they abandoned their ramparts and went into hiding, so that Liu Xun was unable to capture any of their supplies.

“At that time, Sun Ce happened to be marching west to campaign against Huang Zu, and had gotten as far as Shicheng. But there, he heard that Liu Xun had rashly led his army out to attack Haihun. So Sun Ce sent his cousins Sun Ben and Sun Fu to lead eight thousand troops to Pengze to cut off Liu Xun’s rear, while Sun Ce and Zhou Yu led another twenty thousand infantry to launch a surprise attack on Liu Xun’s base at Huancheng. They captured the city, along with the artisans, musicians, and more than thirty thousand soldiers of Yuan Shu’s former army. They also took Yuan Shu’s and Liu Xun’s wives and children prisoner. Sun Ce petitioned the court to have Li Shu of Runan commandary appointed as Administrator of Lujiang, and he gave him three thousand soldiers to hold Huan, while Sun Ce brought all of the people he had captured back east to Wu commandary.

“Sun Ben and Sun Fu routed Liu Xun’s army at Pengze. Liu Xun fled to Chujiang, then marched from Xunyang up to Zhima Point. There, he learned that Sun Ce had already captured Huan, so he fled towards Xisai. When he reached Yi, he built ramparts to defend himself, while sending word of his distress to Liu Biao and asking for help from Huang Zu. Huang Zu sent his heir Huang She to lead a naval force of five thousand troops to support Liu Xun. However, Sun Ce arrived and attacked them, and he greatly routed Liu Xun. Liu Xun and Liu Xie fled north to Cao Cao, while Huang She ran away as well. Sun Ce captured more than two thousand of Liu Xun’s soldiers and a thousand of his ships.

“Sun Ce then advanced further to attack Huang Zu at Xiakou. Liu Biao sent his cousin’s son Liu Hu and Han Xi of Ruyang to lead five thousand long-lancers to serve as Huang Zu’s vanguard. But Sun Ce fought them and greatly routed them.”

The Records of Wu contains the petition which Sun Ce sent to the court to report his triumph over Huang Zu: "I campaigned against Huang Zu, and in the twelfth month, on the eighth day, I arrived at his camp at Shaxian county. Liu Biao had sent his generals to support Huang Zu, and together they advanced to face me.

"On the eleventh day, at the break of dawn, I advanced together with my subordinates, including the acting Administrator of Jiangxia and provisional General of the Household Gentlemen Who Establishes Might, Zhou Yu, the acting Administrator of Guiyang and provisional General of the Household Gentlemen Who Campaigns Against The Caitiffs, Lü Fan, the acting Administrator of Lingling and provisional General of the Household Gentlemen Who Drowns Invaders, Cheng Pu, the provisional Colonel Who Establishes The Enterprise, Sun Quan, the provisional Colonel Who Leads The Front, Han Dang, and the provisional Colonel of Valorous Vanguard, Huang Gai. I personally rode a horse and directed my formation, and I fiercely beat the battle drum in order to spur my troops forward. My officers and men were so stimulated with zeal that they surged forward, emboldened a hundred-fold; their hearts and their spirits were filled with determination, each eager to heed my commands. They leapt across the deep moats of the enemy with the vigor of dragons; they took advantage of the winds and set fires, then plunged forward through the smoke; they loosed their bows and crossbows in such unison that the arrows fell upon the foe like rain. By morning, Huang Zu's army was entirely scattered and destroyed, whether cut down by our swords or burned by our raging fires; we captured or killed all before us. Huang Zu himself managed to slip away, but we captured his wife and six of his sons and daughters. We also took the heads of Liu Hu, Han Xi, and more than twenty thousand of Huang Zu's soldiers, while more than ten thousand more of them threw themselves into the river and drowned. We captured more than six thousand ships, as well as a pile of goods and supplies.

"It is true that I have not yet captured Liu Biao himself. But Huang Zu, crafty and cunning as he is, has long been one of Liu Biao's closest servants, and Liu Biao had sent Huang Zu out to serve as his fangs and claws. Where Liu Biao has been the mastermind, Huang Zu has been his instrument. Yet now we have swept the field before us, and all of Huang Zu's family and forces are now our prisoners. Liu Biao is now left isolated, waiting to be captured; he is no more than a walking corpse, about to become a ghost.

"My own efforts have been slight. It has all been thanks to the divine martial prowess of the royal court which, lending its support to me from afar, has allowed me to succeed in this endeavor and punish these criminals.”)


By this time, Yuan Shao's power in the north was at its zenith, while Sun Ce had conquered all of the Southland. Faced with these two potent threats, Cao Cao felt that he was not yet strong enough to deal with both of them at once. Thus he wished to reassure Sun Ce. He had his younger brother's daughter marry Sun Ce's youngest brother Sun Kuang, he had his son Cao Zhang marry Sun Ben's daughter, he submitted generous recommendations to the court for Sun Ce's younger brothers Sun Quan and Sun Yi, and he ordered the Inspector of Yangzhou, Yan Xiang, to nominate Sun Quan as an Abundant Talent candidate.


(The Annals of Wu states, "When Cao Cao heard that Sun Ce had conquered and settled the Southland, he was greatly concerned about him, and was often heard to say, 'It will be difficult to deal with that wolf pup.'")


In the fifth year of Jian'an (200), Cao Cao and Yuan Shao were locked in combat at Guandu. Sun Ce secretly planned to launch a surprise attack against Cao Cao's capital at Xu, where he would take possession of Emperor Xian. He secretly drilled his soldiers and selected generals to prepare for the campaign. But before he could carry out his design, he was suddenly killed by retainers of the former Administrator of Wu commandary, Xu Gong.


(The Records of Wu states, "It was around this time that Sun Ce had an encounter with a certain Gao Dai.

"This Gao Dai, styled Kongwen, was a native of Wu commandary. He was intelligent and perceptive by nature, and he disdained material wealth while honoring people of good character. His gentry friends, who found him to be remarkable, plucked him from obscurity; he became part of a group of eight friends, all of whom were renowned during this era for their talent and heroism. The Administrator of Wu commandary, Sheng Xian, appointed Gao Dai as a counting clerk for the commandary and nominated him to the court as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate.

"When Xu Gong came to Wu commandary to serve as its acting Administrator, Gao Dai led Sheng Xian to hide out from Xu Gong with Xu Zhao's family. Gao Dai also went to see Tao Qian to request aid from him against Xu Gong. When Tao Qian hesitated to help him, Gao Dai pushed himself to the limit to beg him; he became thin and pale, he wept tears of blood, and he refused to eat or drink anything. Tao Qian was moved by his loyal nature and stout resolve, feeling that he was displaying the same earnest desire to save his homeland as Shen Baoxu of old, and he agreed to send troops and to write a letter to Xu Gong.

"Gao Dai thus returned with Tao Qian's letter. However, while he had been away, Xu Gong had imprisoned his mother. All the people of Wu commandary felt that this meant great danger for Gao Dai, for Xu Gong must have done such a thing because he now held a grudge against Gao Dai, and if Gao Dai were to go to visit him, he would surely come to harm. But Gao Dai told them that if he acted like a gentleman, he would be treated like a gentleman; besides, since his mother was in prison, this was precisely the time to go and see Xu Gong. He felt sure that so long as he could obtain a meeting, he would be able to resolve the situation. So he sent the letter to Xu Gong, who agreed to meet with him. Gao Dai was so skilled at speaking and nimble of mind that he easily defended himself and made suitable apologies to Xu Gong, who immediately released Gao Dai's mother.

"When Gao Dai had been about to go visit Xu Gong, his friends Zhang Yun and Shen Hun had told him to prepare a boat, for they were certain that, although Gao Dai might persuade Xu Gong to let him and his mother go at first, Xu Gong would eventually regret it and send someone to chase them down. So after leaving Xu Gong, Gao Dai and his mother got into the boat and fled by taking a different route. Xu Gong soon sent someone to pursue them, with orders that if they caught up with Gao Dai's boat, they should kill him at once if he was still in the middle of crossing the Yangzi, but let him go if he had already crossed to the other side. But the pursuers took the wrong route, so Gao Dai and his mother were able to escape.

"As for Sun Ce, it was sometime after the above events that Gao Dai began living in seclusion in Yuyao county (in Kuaiji commandary). Sun Ce heard that Gao Dai was an expert on the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, and as Sun Ce himself had dabbled in that text, he wanted to discuss it with Gao Dai. So he ordered Gao Dai to come visit him; he left the affair up to the Assistant of Kuaiji, Lu Zhao, while he simply waited for Gao Dai to come.

"Someone advised Sun Ce, 'General, Gao Dai considers you to be nothing more than some bold fellow, skilled at war but utterly lacking in cultural refinement. You will know he is slighting you if, while you are discussing the Commentary, he claims to have no opinion on some point or other.'

“This same person also advised Gao Dai, 'General Sun is the sort of person who hates to be contradicted. If he asks you what you think about something, you should say that you have not come to your own opinion on it, and just agree with whatever he thinks. If you argue forcefully in favor of your own thinking, it will only endanger you.'

"Gao Dai trusted this person's advice, thus when he met with Sun Ce and they began talking about the Commentary, sometimes he responded that he had no strong feelings on this point or that. But these responses only enraged Sun Ce, who believed that Gao Dai was looking down on him. So he threw Gao Dai into prison. This caused learned and influential people to flock to Sun Ce to ask him to release Gao Dai; there were so many of them that when Sun Ce climbed a tower to look out at them, he saw that several square li were full of these people. But Sun Ce was only further unnerved by this show of popular support that Gao Dai enjoyed, so he had Gao Dai killed. Gao Dai was somewhere over thirty years old when he died."

There are also several accounts of a certain Yu Ji which should be mentioned. Regarding him, the Records of the Southland states, "At this time there was a Daoist, Yu Ji of Langye commandary, who had earlier taken up residence in the east and traveled between the commandaries of Wu and Kuaiji. He set up houses of refinement, he burned incense while reading from Daoist texts, and he created holy water which he used to treat illnesses. Many people in Wu and Kuaiji supported him.

"On one occasion, Sun Ce was standing atop the tower above the gate of the commandary capital, holding an assembly of his generals and officers and his other guests. Then Yu Ji suddenly came below the gate, wearing his full regalia and carrying a small box covered in lacquer, which supposedly contained the spade of an immortal. At his appearance, two-thirds of those assembled went to the bottom of the tower to welcome Yu Ji and salute him; although the assembly organizers yelled at them and tried to halt them from moving, it was no use.

"Sun Ce thus had Yu Ji arrested. All those who served Yu Ji then sent their wives and daughters to see Sun Ce and plead with him on Yu Ji's behalf, and even Sun Ce's mother said to him, 'Master Yu brings blessings to our army and provides medical assistance and protection to our generals and officers. You cannot kill him.'

"But Sun Ce told her, 'He's just some mystic fraud who has won over the masses through his nonsense. Sooner or later, he will make all my generals forget who their true lord is. You saw how they flocked to him beneath the tower, ignoring their duties to me. I must do away with him.'

"Sun Ce's generals then all signed a petition defending Yu Ji and begging for his release. But Sun Ce told them, 'When Zhang Jin of Nanyang commandary served as Inspector of Jiaozhou, he threw out the teachings and instructions of the ancient sages and cast aside the laws and customs of the Han dynasty and put his faith in mysticism instead. He wrapped a purple-red turban around his head, played the drums and the pipa, burned incense, and read from the gibberish of the Daoist texts. He claimed that all these things would help transform the culture of the region. Yet in the end, he wound up killed by the southern tribes anyway. So such things are extremely useless; it's just that you gentlemen don't realize that yet. And that man is already marked for death, so don't waste any more paper or ink on pleading for him.'

"Sun Ce then immediately had Yu Ji beheaded, and he had Yu Ji's head hung up in the marketplace. Yet even despite this clear display, Yu Ji's followers told one another that Yu Ji had not died, but that his spirit had merely shed his mortal flesh, and they continued to pray to him and ask him for blessings."

Yu Xi's Forest of Texts mentions a Yu Ji as well, saying of him, "At the beginning of the reign of Emperor Shun of Han (~125), Gong Cheng of Langye commandary visited the gates of the palace and presented a text. This text was supposedly a divine text which the teacher Yu Ji had obtained on the banks of the Yangquan River; it was called the Way of Great Peace and Divine Guidance, with white silk and red borders, and was more than a hundred chapters long.

"Now it would have been fifty or sixty years between the reign of Emperor Shun and the Jian'an era (~196), so that Yu Ji by this time would have been nearly a hundred years old. A man so old as that already has one foot in the grave, and it was not customary to sentence anyone so aged to execution. Besides, when the Son of Heaven went on tours of inspection and happened to hear that someone as old as a hundred years was nearby, he would go and meet with the person and show them the utmost respect and love; this was the proper example set by the sage kings of ancient times. The crime that Yu Ji had committed did not warrant execution, yet Sun Ce was so cruel as to put him to death at once. One cannot approve of this; it was not execution, but murder.

"According to my (Yu Xi's) reckoning, King Huan's (Sun Ce's) death took place in the fifth year of Jian'an (200), in the fourth month, on the fourth day. At that time, Cao Cao and Yuan Shao were still locked in combat, and neither side had proved the victor. Yet there also exists a letter written by Xiahou Yuanrang (Xiahou Dun) to Shi Weize, a letter which I note was written after Yuan Shao had been defeated. This letter contains the sentence, 'Grant Changsha to Sun Ben and Lingling to Zhang Jin.' This serves as proof that Zhang Jian did not die until after King Huan did, so it cannot have been the case that King Huan used the circumstances of Zhang Jin's death as an example."

Your servant Pei Songzhi adds to Yu Xi's second point by noting that in the eighth year of Taikang (287), the Jin dynasty's Grand Rectifier of Guangzhou, Wang Fan, presented to the court his yearly records of the administrations of Guangzhou and Jiaozhou. These records list Zhang Jin as still being the Governor of Jiaozhou in the sixth year of Jian'an (201). So Yu Xi must be correct in his assertion, and the Records of the Southland mistaken.

Yet another account of Yu Ji comes from Gan Bao's text In Search of the Supernatural. This account states, "When Sun Ce was planning to cross north of the Yangzi and launch a surprise attack against Cao Cao's base at Xu, Yu Ji accompanied his army. During the march, there was a great drought, leaving everything dried out and parched, so Sun Ce ordered his generals and officers to immediately go help bring up ships of supplies. Some of them went to fetch ships at once, but Sun Ce noticed that a great many of them went to see Yu Ji and ask his permission. This made Sun Ce angry, and he said to himself, 'Am I so inferior to this Yu Ji, that they rush to serve him before me?' So he ordered Yu Ji to be arrested.

"After Yu Ji was brought before him, Sun Ce announced, 'The heavens have dried up and failed to rain, leading to this parched and barren terrain and preventing us from moving forward quickly. Now is the time when my subjects should be going at once to help solve the problem. Yet you, failing to share the concerns of the rest of the army, were simply sitting at ease on your ship and practicing your mysticism. You are hampering the duties of my soldiers, and I intend to get rid of you.'

"Sun Ce ordered his agents to bind Yu Ji to the ground, intending to have him die of exposure from the heat. He even taunted Yu Ji and told him to pray for rain, saying that he would pardon and release him if the heavens took pity on him and sent down rain by noon, but he would summarily execute him if not. However, clouds began to gather and mist began to form, such that the air became humid, and by the time noon came, great torrents rained down, filling the gullies and ravines with water. Sun Ce's generals and officers were all overjoyed to see this, since they were certain that Yu Ji would now be pardoned, and they began to congratulate and reassure him. However, Sun Ce immediately killed Yu Ji anyway.

"Sun Ce's generals and officers mourned and lamented for Yu Ji, and together they covered his body. Then during that night, a cloud suddenly sprang up over the area where they had placed his body, and when morning came and they checked again, the body was nowhere to be found."

This account and that of the Records of the Southland are naturally contradictory. It is unclear which one is actually correct.)


Earlier, Sun Ce had killed Xu Gong, and Xu Gong's young son and his retainers had gone into hiding along the Yangzi. Later, while Sun Ce was out riding alone, he suddenly encountered these retainers, who attacked Sun Ce and wounded him.

When it became clear that the wound was mortal, Sun Ce summoned Zhang Zhao and others and told them, "The Central States are still in turmoil, while we possess the hosts of the Wu and Yue regions and have the Three Rivers to serve as our defenses. At the very least, you will be able to watch and see who proves the victor. All of you, do your utmost to support my younger brother!" And he called over Sun Quan and attached his seal and ribbons to him, telling Sun Quan, "When it comes to raising the troops of the Southland, breaking through battle lines to seize opportunities, and contending for control of the realm, you are not as good as me. But when it comes to recommending the worthy and employing the able, winning over the hearts of the people, and protecting the Southland, I am not as good as you."

That night, Sun Ce passed away. He was twenty-five years old.


(Regarding the circumstances of Sun Ce's death, the Records of the Southland states, "It was earlier mentioned that Sun Ce had foiled Chen Yu's plot to cause uprisings from within his territory and had killed Chen Yu. By this time, the Administrator of Guangling was Chen Yu's cousin's son, Chen Deng; he governed his commandary from Sheyang. While Sun Ce was away on his western campaign, Chen Deng secretly once again contacted local malcontents in Sun Ce's domain, distributing seals and ribbons to the remaining partisans of Yan Baihu. He hoped to destroy Sun Ce from behind, in order to avenge Chen Yu's death and wipe away his shame. Thus when Sun Ce returned from the west, he next planned to campaign against Chen Deng.

"Sometime earlier, the Administrator of Wu commandary, Xu Gong, had sent a petition to Emperor Xian, stating, 'Sun Ce is a valiant hero, the peer of Xiang Ji (Xiang Yu) of old. You ought to show him great honor and favor by summoning him back to the capital. Having received your edict, he will have no choice but to come. By no means can you leave him to do as he wishes, or it will cause problems for future generations.'

"However, Sun Ce's scouts had intercepted Xu Gong's messenger and obtained this petition, then showed it to Sun Ce. Sun Ce had thus summoned Xu Gong to a meeting, then denounced him. When Xu Gong had claimed that he had never written the petition, Sun Ce had ordered a warrior to strangle Xu Gong to death. Xu Gong's slaves and retainers had gone into hiding among the common people, and they had planned to avenge him someday.

"In the present, Sun Ce led an army to campaign against Chen Deng. His army marched to Dantu, where they stopped for a time to wait for supplies to be brought up. Sun Ce naturally loved to hunt, and he usually went out hunting escorted by a few followers riders and footsoldiers. One day, Sun Ce was riding quickly in pursuit of a deer, and because his horse was so exceptional, his escort riders could not keep up with him and he became separated. Then he suddenly encountered three men, who happened to be retainers of Xu Gong.

"Sun Ce asked the men, 'Whose men are you?'

"They replied, 'We are Han Dang's soldiers; we're just out here shooting deer.'

"But Sun Ce said, "I know all of Han Dang's soldiers, but I've never seen you fellows before.' And he at once strung his bow and shot one of the men, who fell dead at the snap of the bowstring. The other two, panicking, immediately lifted their own bows and shot at Sun Ce, piercing him in the cheek. By then, Sun Ce's escort riders had caught up, and they stabbed the other two and killed them."

The Annals of the Nine Provinces states, "When Sun Ce heard that Cao Cao was campaigning in the north at Liucheng, he mustered all the soldiers of the Southland and declared himself Grand Marshal, planning to march north and launch a surprise attack against Cao Cao's base at Xu. However, arrogant and brash, he advanced without making proper safeguards, and this was why he came to grief."

In his commentary on Sun Ce in his text Records of Textual Comparisons, Sun Sheng makes the following objections to these various accounts: "Each of these texts contains some error. It may very well have been true that Sun Ce's power held sway over all the Southland. However, in the end, he only controlled six commandaries. Huang Zu was still a threat to him from upriver on the Yangzi, Chen Deng was looking for any opportunity to strike Sun Ce's heartland, and there were still the powerful local clans, relying on their strong natural defenses, whom Sun Ce had not yet fully stamped out. With such threats still present, how could Sun Ce have possibly 'mustered all the soldiers of the Southland' to attack someone else entirely? It was Cao Cao and Yuan Shao who were the real powers, and they were fighting one another like tigers, their power shaking the mountains and the seas. How could Sun Ce have had enough of a free hand to march all the way to Runan or Yingchuan and then bring the Emperor back to the regions of Wu and Yue? Even the most average person could have recognized the folly of such a scheme; would a man as adept as Sun Ce have failed to grasp this?

"I further object to the supposed timeline of these accounts. Yuan Shao did not even reach Liyang until the fifth year of Jian'an (200), and Sun Ce was already dead by the fourth month of that year. Yet the records state that Sun Ce's impetus for launching this scheme was hearing that Cao Cao and Yuan Shao were locked in combat at Guandu, which had not happened yet; thus this is an error. They must have been confusing Sun Ce's actual campaign against Chen Deng with his supposed campaign against Cao Cao.

"The Records of the Southland contains the absurd detail of Sun Ce claiming that he personally recognized all of Han Dang's soldiers, and that he shot the first retainer because he suspected that they were lying. But wouldn't it be only natural that his generals and officers would be receiving new recruits all the time? Besides, Sun Ce was the commander, so how could he possibly have recognized every soldier? So I cannot accept this account of suspecting the retainer and shooting him.

"Yet another issue comes from the Records of the Nine Provinces claiming that the time of Sun Ce's march north was when Cao Cao was on campaign 'at Liucheng'. Sun Ce was killed in the fifth year of Jian'an (200), yet Cao Cao did not march on Liucheng until the twelfth year (207). What a gross error!"

I (Pei Songzhi) am afraid that I cannot agree with most of Sun Sheng’s objections, though I will at least grant the validity of his objection about Liucheng. Even Fu Xuan’s text Fuzi repeats this claim. How inconceivable that multiple authors would be so far from the mark!

Sun Sheng objects to Sun Ce having the opportunity to attack Cao Cao because he was still dealing with Huang Zu, Chen Deng, and the local elements within his own domain. Now regarding Huang Zu, Sun Ce had just routed him, so he certainly lacked any spirit to make a move against Sun Ce. Besides, neither Liu Biao nor his subordinates ever displayed any ambition of taking over the Southland for themselves. Even if they did happen to be upriver from Sun Ce’s domain, by what logic would they have had designs on Wu or Kuaiji? As for Chen Deng, certainly he was a threat, but as Sun Sheng himself stated, this northern campaign was itself how Sun Ce was planning to deal with Chen Deng. And while it is true that that must have been the initial aim of the campaign, it is not necessarily the case that Sun Ce only intended to attack Chen Deng and do no more. Why couldn’t he have pressed on further north? And the threat of the “local elements” was also overblown. By this time, the major threats like Zu Lang or Yan Baihu had already been dealt with, and the only ones still opposing Sun Ce’s authority were the mountain tribes. Why should they have been any concern? So I argue that Sun Ce could reasonably have marched north, and it was no certainty that he had no free hand to act.

As for what might have been the ultimate outcome of this planned northern campaign, if Sun Ce had achieved his ambitions and taken the Emperor into his possession, why should it necessarily have been the case that he would have brought him all the way back to the Southland? Sun Ce would have wielded such power that he could have made a capital for himself anywhere he wished between the Huai River and the Si River. Why should he have limited his ambitions to simply possessing the Southland?

Sun Sheng claims that Cao Cao and Yuan Shao did not really begin fighting at Guandu until after Sun Ce was dead. Yet according to the Annals of Cao Cao in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao had already camped his forces at Guandu by the fourth year of Jian’an (199), before Sun Ce’s death. So by the fourth month of the following year, it would have been reasonable to characterize him and Yuan Shao as having been “locked in conflict”, and the assertion to that effect in Chen Shou’s text is not necessarily a mistake.

Lastly, I must offer some measure of praise for Xu Gong. These retainers of his were obscure fellows, completely unknown. Yet they were still so moved and touched by the grace that Xu Gong had shown them that they willingly risked their lives for the sake of a righteous cause in avenging him, and when the time came, they seized the moment. They were peers of the martyrs of old. And does the Book of Poetry not have the verse, ‘If the master is worthy, his followers will emulate him’? So Xu Gong too must have been a worthy man.

Regarding Sun Ce’s wound, the Annals of Wu states, “Although Sun Ce had been grievously wounded, a doctor diagnosed him and told him that he could still recover, so long as he made sure to take care of himself and not stir for a hundred days. Yet when Sun Ce had a mirror brought to him and looked at his reflection, he despaired and said to those around him, ‘How will I ever achieve anything else with a face like this?’ And he smashed the mirror to pieces. This caused his wounds to split open, and that night he passed away.”

In Search of the Supernatural has this account: “After Sun Ce had killed Yu Ji, every time he sat down by himself, he felt like he saw Yu Ji nearby. He was greatly disturbed by this, thinking it abnormal.

“After Sun Ce suffered his injury, he had a mirror brought to him to look at his reflection. He saw Yu Ji in the mirror, but when he turned his head, no one was there. Three times this happened, until at last Sun Ce smashed the mirror with a great cry. His wounds then split open, and he soon passed away.”)


After Sun Quan declared himself Emperor (in 229), he gave Sun Ce the posthumous title King Huan of Changsha. He appointed Sun Ce’s son Sun Shao as Marquis of Wu; Sun Shao’s title was later changed to Marquis of Shangyu.

After Sun Shao’s death, his son Sun Feng succeeded him. During the reign of Sun Hao, there was a rumor that Sun Feng ought to inherit the throne, so Sun Hao executed Sun Feng.


Chen Shou’s Appraisal: Sun Jian was a bold, earnest, stern, and resolute man who rose from obscure and humble beginnings to make a name for himself. He proved himself a loyal and stalwart man through his advice to Zhang Wen to execute Dong Zhuo and through his repairs and restorations of the imperial tombs at Luoyang. And Sun Ce too had a heroic spirit and outstanding talent. His valiant spirit surpassed the age, he was skilled at perceiving the unusual and taking the unexpected path, and he held ambitions to conquer the Central Plains. Yet both of them were quick to rush headlong into peril, and in both cases they were brought to ruin through death.

Still, it must be admitted that it was thanks to the foundation which Sun Ce prepared that his successors carved out and occupied the Southland for themselves. Yet when Sun Quan claimed the imperial title, he gave Sun Ce’s son no higher title than marquis. This was too meager a reward for the good service of his brother, an unworthy act.


(Sun Sheng rebukes Chen Shou for his criticism of Sun Quan in not granting Sun Ce’s son a higher title. Sun Sheng states, “The brothers of the Sun clan were both wise fellows who grasped the nuances of rule. Certainly it was the case that Sun Ce had been the one to prepare the foundation of their domain. Yet on the day of his death, Sun Ce willingly gave this inheritance to his brother Sun Quan rather than to his son.

“One might naturally object that, when even people who have no further relationship between one another except ties of friendship might still forge such a close bond that they are willing to die together, how could it have been the case that Sun Quan, who shared a deep love with his brother and owed so much to his heroism and his consideration, could have possibly been so stingy with a title for Sun Ce’s son and violated the natural feelings between them? Why, when in so many cases Sun Quan acted short-sightedly, did he refrain from granting Sun Shao a generous title? It was because the clarification and rectification of names and titles are the great defenses for a state’s future; preventing and cutting off any hint of doubt or uncertainty are the sources of excellent plans.

“History is not wanting for counter-examples. In the ancient state of Lu, when the Duke died and his heir was too young to inherit, his elder son Duke Yin had to take his place. Duke Yin, who took pity on his younger brother and felt he ought to be the next ruler, tried to make him his heir. But this only led to Duke Yin being murdered by the traitor Yufu. Likewise, Duke Xuan of Song cherished benevolence and made his brother his heir, yet afterwards when his brother felt that Duke Xuan’s son should be the one to succeed him, his own son contested the succession and Song experienced years of war with Zheng. These things all happened because the rulers put personal sentiments ahead of the demands of state; though their hearts were in the right places, their actions led to disaster. They only thought of what should be done immediately, but did not consider the long-term consequences. To act in such ways could be called to think lightly of one’s duty as lord of a state of a thousand chariots, and all those who do so come to a bad end.

“As for the Sun clan, by what right did they possess their land? Merely that they had seized it by force of arms in order to indulge their ambitions. They had no foundation of generations of virtue with which to lend legitimacy to their rule, and they had no solid foundation to support themselves. So long as they maintained their power, their legacy would endure, yet if they gave into sentiment, disaster and turmoil would have sprung up. So how could they have failed to guard against any budding problems or think about difficulties before they had arisen? Strength was needed!

“Sun Ce indeed established the state, yet he did so as the first among equals, and his generals and ministers served him because they had known him for a long time. But after Sun Ce died, his son was still a tender child, too young to bear the burdens of rule. If he had been made the new ruler, things would have ended up the same way as Duke Huan of Lu or Tian Shi of Qi; even if he had been granted a lofty title, it would have been no different as what happened with Yuyi or Wei Zifeng. This was why Sun Quan made sure to clarify and rectify names and titles by only appointing Sun Shao as a marquis, in order to make clear distinctions between the exalted and the lowly. By doing so, he prevented the possibility that Sun Shao might someday violate the law or covet the position as heir through jealousy. There was no prospect that anyone might advocate for Sun Shao's cause, or that he would ever be able to indulge a wicked design. Though the act itself seemed like Sun Quan was showing little regard for his own flesh and blood and being cheap with honors for the offspring of his brother, in fact it produced a long-term benefit for the state and helped to ensure its stability. This is the sort of thing people mean when they talk about preventing an issue before it shows any signs of ever coming up, or dealing with a problem which has not even manifested yet. Master Chen Shou's criticism was unfounded!")
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
Posts: 854
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Dong Zhou » Mon Feb 17, 2020 3:58 pm

Great work Taishi, very enjoyable read, lots of new things (I had never seen the Gao Dai story in full so that was a particular delight) and loved the rows between the historians to come near the end
User avatar
Dong Zhou
Posts: 17241
Joined: Sun Apr 10, 2005 12:32 pm
Location: "Now we must die. May Your Majesty maintain yourself"


Return to Sanguo Yanyi Symposium

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 7 guests

Copyright © 2002–2008 Kongming’s Archives. All Rights Reserved