Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:01 am

太元二年(丁丑,公元三七七年)

The Second Year of Taiyuan (The Dingchou Year, 377 AD)


春,高句麗、新羅、西南夷皆遣使入貢於秦。

1. In spring, Goguryeo, Silla, and the tribes of the southwest all sent envoys to offer tribute to Qin.

新羅,弁韓苗裔也,居漢樂浪地。杜佑曰:新羅本辰韓種,魏時爲斬[新]盧國,晉、宋曰新羅。其國在百濟東南五百餘里,兼有沃沮、不耐、韓、濊地。

(Silla (Xinluo) was a successor state of the older Korean 韓 Han states, and it was in the Han dynasty's former Lelang territory. The Tongdian states, "Silla was originally part of the Jinhan states in Korea. During Cao-Wei it was called Siro (Xinlu), and during Jin and Liu-Song it was called Silla. This state was more than five hundred li southeast of Baekje, along with Okjeo, Bunai, Han, and Hui.")


十三年,太史奏有星見於外國之分,當有聖人之輔,中國得之者昌。堅聞西域有鳩摩羅什,襄陽有釋道安,並遣求之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the thirteenth year of Jianyuan (377), the Grand Astrologer sent up a memorial stating that judging by the pattern of stars seen in the parts of the heavens that symbolized foreign states, there were now sages living in those foreign lands who were worthy to help assist the state, and the Middle Kingdom would prosper if it could acquire these people. Fu Jian heard that Kumārajīva was living in the Western Reaches, and Shi Dao'an was living in Xiangyang, so he sent envoys to invite them both.


趙故將作功曹熊邈屢為秦王堅言石氏宮室器玩之盛,堅以邈為將作長史,領尚方丞,大修舟艦、兵器,飾以金銀,頗極精巧。慕容農私言於慕容垂曰:「自王猛之死,秦之法制,日以頹靡,今又重之以奢侈,殃將至矣,圖讖之言,行當有驗。大王宜結納英傑以承天意,時不可失也!」垂笑曰:「天下事非爾所及。」

2. Later Zhao's former Construction Overseer, Xiong Miao, repeatedly spoke to Fu Jian about the great abundance of the Shi clan’s extravagant palace adornments. Fu Jian appointed him as Chief Clerk of Architecture and as acting Minister Architect (or, Minister of the Palace Workshop). Xiong Miao set to work revamping the boats and ships, as well as the soldiers’ equipment, adorning everything in gold and silver, all with the most exquisite material and ingenious designs.

Murong Nong privately said to Murong Chui, "Ever since Wang Meng's death, Qin's system of laws has degraded by the day. Now they are even attaching importance to such extravagent things. Disaster will soon fall. The divinations spoke of this, and it will soon become reality. Great Prince, now is the time for you to acquaint yourself with great heroes and prepare to fulfill Heaven's will. There is no time to waste!"

Murong Chui said with a smile, "Surely the state of the realm is not what you make of it."

【章:十二行本「將作丞」作「尚方丞」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】晉將作大匠有丞,無長史;長史蓋秦所置。慕容農所見,猶紹、楷也。

(Some versions record the title that Fu Jian gave Xiong Miao as "Minister of the Palace Workshop" rather than "Minister Architect". Under the Jin system, the Grand Court Architect had Ministers, but it did not have Chief Clerks. This Chief Clerk office must have been a creation of Former Qin.

Murong Nong held the same views on Former Qin's fate as Murong Shao and Murong Kai (376.21).)


桓豁表兗州刺史朱序為梁州刺史,鎮襄陽。

3. In Jin, Huan Huo petitioned to have Zhu Xu appointed as Inspector of Lianzhou, and Zhu Xu was stationed at Xiangyang.

秋,七月,丁未,以尚書僕射謝安為司徒,安讓不拜;復加侍中、都督揚、豫、徐、兗、青五州諸軍事。

4. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Dingwei (?), Jin’s Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie An, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, but he declined the appointment. So he was instead promoted as Palace Attendant and Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou.

丙辰,征西大將軍、荊州刺史桓豁卒。冬,十月,辛丑,以桓沖都督江、荊、梁、益、寧、交、廣七州諸軍事,領荊州刺史;以沖子嗣為江州刺史。又以五兵尚書王蘊都督江南諸軍事,假節,領徐州刺史;征西司馬領南郡相謝玄為兗州刺史,領廣陵相,監江北諸軍事。

5. On the day Bingchen (?), Huan Huo passed away.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinchou (November 27th), Huan Chong was appointed Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou, Jingzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Ningzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou, and as acting Inspector of Jingzhou, replacing Huan Huo. Huang Chong's son Huan Si was appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou. The Master of Writing of the Five Regiments, Empress Wang’s father Wang Yun, was appointed as Commander of military affairs south of the Yangzi, Credential Holder, and acting Inspector of Xuzhou. The Marshal to the General Who Conquers The West and acting Chancellor of Nan commandary, Xie Xuan, was appointed as Inspector of Yanzhou, acting Chancellor of Guangling, and Chief of military affairs north of the Yangzi.

【章:十二行本「領」上有「假節」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】江南諸軍,謂晉陵諸軍也。桓豁爲征西將軍,以玄爲司馬。

(Some versions record that Wang Yun was further appointed as Credential Holder.

The phrase "military affairs south of the Yangzi" here means military affairs at Jinling.

Since Huan Huo had been the General Who Conquers The West, Xie Xuan had been his Marshal.)


桓沖以秦人強盛,欲移阻江南,奏自江陵徙鎮上明,使冠軍將軍劉波守江陵,咨議參軍楊亮守江夏。

6. Huan Chong felt that the Qin army was now very powerful and numerous, so he wished to shift his base to better take advantage of the Yangzi's natural defenses. He sent in a memorial asking for permission to relocate his base from Jiangling to Shangming, while he ordered the Champion General, Liu Bo, to defend Jiangling, and his Consultant-Advisor, Yang Liang, to defend Jiangxia.

此江南卽上明也。《晉志》:上明在漢武陵郡孱陵縣界。《水經註》:上明城在枝江縣,其地夷敞,北據大江,江汜枝分,東入大江,縣治洲上,故以枝江爲稱。杜佑曰:上明卽今江陵松滋縣西廢大明城,桓沖所築也。沖疏曰:「南平孱陵縣界,地名上明,田土膏良,可以資業軍人。在吳時樂鄕城以上四十餘里,北枕大江,西接三峽。」宋白曰:上明城,桓沖所築,在今松滋縣西。

("South of the Yangzi" in this passage means Shangming. The Records of Jin states, "During Han, Shangming was within Canling county in Wuling commandary." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Shangming is in Zhijiang county. It is a region which is both secure and spacious, and to the north it commands the Yangzi. At the place where the Yangzi and the Si River diverge, the Yangzi flows on to the east, and the county administers the islands there, so the county name became Zhijiang ('where the Yangzi diverges')." The Tongdian states, "Shangming is west of the ruined city of Daming, in Songzi county in Jiangling commandary. It was built by Huan Chong." Huan Chong's memorial stated, "In Canling county in Nanping commandary, there is a place called Shangming. The fields and earth there are rich and abundant, well suited to the task of sustaining soldiers. It is about forty li from the city of Lexiang built by Eastern Wu, and it us secured by the Yangzi to the north and the Three Gorges to the west." Song Bai remarked, "Shangming was built by Huan Chong, in the west of modern Songzi county.")


王蘊固讓徐州,謝安曰:「卿居後父之重,不應妄自菲薄,以虧時遇。」蘊乃受命。

7. Wang Yun wished to decline the offered post as Inspector of Xuzhou. But Xie An said, "As father to the Empress, you occupy a very important position. Do not be so quick to belittle yourself. That would not be to treat yourself kindly." So Wang Yun accepted the order.

時遇,謂一時之恩遇也。

(The phrase 時遇 here means to treat with kindness for a time.)


初,中書郎郗超自以其父愔位遇應在謝安之右,而安入掌機權,愔優遊散地,常憤邑形於辭色,由是與謝氏有隙。是時朝廷方以秦寇為憂,詔求文武良將可以鎮御北方者,謝安以兄子玄應詔。超聞之,歎曰:「安之明,乃能違眾舉親;玄之才,足以不負所舉。」眾鹹以為不然。超曰:「吾嘗與玄共在桓公府,見其使才,雖履屐間未嘗不得其任,是以知之。」

8. For many years, the Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Chi Chao, felt that his father Chi Yin's position ought to be equal to that of Xie An. Yet as the years went by, Xie An’s position became more supreme, while Chi Yin had fallen from a lofty post to a lesser one, and he often assumed an indignant demeanor. So there was always this friction between the Chi and the Xie clans.

At this time, the court was concerned about the threat of a Qin invasion, so they wished to summon a commander skilled in both civil and military affairs, one who would be able to defend the north against attack. Xie An suggested his nephew Xie Xuan could heed the call. When Chi Chao heard the suggestion, he sighed and said, "Xie An is wise indeed. He was able to go against the common sentiment, and even go so far to nominate his own relative. Xie Xuan has such talent that he could indeed bear this task."

Many others grumbled and did not believe this. But Chi Chao said, "I knew Xie Xuan when we served on Lord Huan Wen's staff together, and I saw how well he was able to draw out people’s talents. Even if it was a fellow just wearing sandals or clogs, Xie Xuan never failed to select the right man for the job. I know that he can do it.” So Xie Xuan was given the appointment.

郗愔自徐、兗二州刺史移鎭會稽。超、玄同府,事見一百一卷哀帝興寧元年。履,以皮爲之;屐,以木爲之。

(Chi Yin had once been Inspector of the border provinces Xuzhou and Yanzhou, but later on he had been sent to guard Kuaiji, an interior post.

Chi Chao's and Xie Xuan's service together on Huan Wen's staff is mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's first year of Xingning (363.4).

A 履 is a shoe made of leather; a 屐 is a shoe made of wood.)


郗超與謝玄不善。符堅將問晉鼎,既已狼噬梁、岐,又虎視淮陰矣。于時朝議遣玄北討,人間頗有異同之論。唯超曰:「是必濟事。吾昔嘗與共在桓宣武府,見使才皆盡,雖履屐之間,亦得其任。以此推之,容必能立勳。」元功既舉,時人咸嘆超之先覺,又重其不以愛憎匿善。(New Tales of the World 7.22)

Chi Chao was not on good terms with Xie Xuan. (In 377) when Fu Jian was about to "inquire after the Jin mandate", he had already devoured like a wolf the areas of Liang and Qi, and was now eyeing like a tiger the region south of the Huai River. It was at this point that the court at Jiankang was deliberating over whether to dispatch Xie Xuan north on a campaign. Among those present, several argued against it.

It was Chi Chao alone who said, "This man is sure to save the situation. I used to serve with him on Huan Wen's staff, and observed that he always made the utmost use of people's abilities. Even if they were only menials wearing sandals or clogs, he always picked the right man for every job. Drawing inferences from this, I feel he'll surely be able to establish his merit in this undertaking."

After Xie Xuan's great victory at the Fei River had been won (in 383), his contemporaries all sighed in admiration over Chi Chao's foresight. In particular, they honored the way in which he had not let his personal likes or dislikes conceal the good qualities of another. (tr. Richard Mather)


玄募驍勇之士,得彭城劉牢之等數人。以牢之為參軍,常領精銳為前鋒,戰無不捷。時號「北府兵」,敵人畏之。

9. Xie Xuan recruited brave and bold soldiers, and he obtained Liu Laozhi of Pengcheng and several others to serve as his commanders. He appointed Liu Laozhi as his Army Advisor, and Liu Laozhi often command his vanguard of elite troops, never knowing defeat in battle. Their army was called the Northern Garrison Army, and all their enemies feared them.

晉人謂京口爲北府。謝玄破俱難等,始兼領徐州。號北府兵者,史終言之。

(People in Jin called Jingkou the "Northern Garrison", thus the name of this army. When Xie Xuan routed Ju Nan and the other Former Qin commanders later on, that was when he also assumed command in Xuzhou. This passage is the only instance in the Zizhi Tongjian where this Northern Garrison Army is mentioned by name.)


壬寅,護軍將軍、散騎常侍王彪之卒。初,謝安欲增修宮室,彪之曰:「中興之初,即東府為宮,殊為儉陋。蘇峻之亂,成帝止蘭台都坐,殆不蔽寒暑,是以更營新宮。比之漢、魏則為儉,比之初過江則為侈矣。今寇敵方強,豈可大興功役,勞擾百姓邪!」安曰:「宮室弊陋,後世謂人無能。」彪之曰:「凡任天下之重者,當保國寧家,緝熙政事,乃以修室為能邪?」安不能奪其議,故終彪之之世,無所營造。

10. On the day Renyin (November 28th), Jin's General Who Protects The Army and Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Wang Biaozhi, passed away.

Before, when Xie An had wished to expand and repair the palace, Wang Biaozhi had said, "At the beginning of the restoration of the dynasty, the Eastern Bureau served as the palace. It was a place of exceptional frugality and humility. And after Su Jun's rebellion, Emperor Cheng took shelter in the council hall of the Lantai building, which could not even keep out the cold or the heat, until the new palace was constructed. Perhaps the current palace may be humble in comparison to the palaces of Han and Wei, but in comparison with the residences at the time when we first crossed over the Yangzi, it is already extravagant. And we are currently under threat from powerful enemies. How then could we possibly make such a great effort on a project like this, and inflict discomfort on the common people?"

Xie An had said, "If the palace remains crass and pathetic, later generations will say that we were incapable."

Wang Biaozhi had said, "The duty of those who oversee the realm should be to protect the the state and ensure peace for the people, and they must attend to the intricacies of administration. How would expanding the palace make you more capable?"

Xie An could not refute this reasoning, and so for as long as Wang Biaozhi was alive, there was no further palace construction.

東府,在建康臺城之東。蘭臺,御史臺也。都坐,御史臺官會坐之地。見九十四卷成帝咸和五年。

(The Eastern Bureau was east of the governmental complex in Jiankang.

The 蘭臺 Lantai was the Censorate Building. The council hall was where the officials of the Censorate would sit and meet.

The building of the new palace after Su Jun's rebellion is mentioned in Book 94, in Emperor Cheng's fifth year of Xianhe (330.16).)


十二月,臨海太守郗超卒。初,超黨於桓氏,以父愔忠於王室,不令知之。及病甚,出一箱書授門生曰:「公年尊,我死之後,若以哀惋害寢食者,可呈此箱;不爾,即焚之。」既而愔果哀惋成疾,門生呈箱,皆與桓溫往反密計。愔大怒曰:「小子死已晚矣!」遂不復哭。

11. In the twelfth month, Jin’s Administrator of Linhai, Chi Chao, passed away.

Before, Chi Chao had been a partisan of the Huan clan, while his father Chi Yin remained loyal to the royal family, and did not know what his son was up to. When Chi Chao was on his deathbed, he sent a chest of his documents to his student and said, "My father is old in years. After my death, if he grieves so much that he cannot eat or sleep, you may present this chest to him; if not, then burn it."

After Chi Chao’s death, Chi Yin indeed grieved and sighed so much that he became sick, so the student gave him the chest. It contained all of the secret rebellious plots that Chi Chao had schemed together with Huan Wen. Chi Yin angrily exclaimed, "My miscreant son should have died sooner!" And after that, he did not weep for his son any further.

臨海,本會稽東部都尉治。沈約曰:前漢都尉治鄞;後漢分會稽爲吳郡,疑是都尉徙治章安;孫亮太平二年,立臨海郡。

(Linhai had originally been administered by the Eastern Command Post of Kuaiji commandary. The Book of Liu-Song states, "During Former Han, the Commandant administered the region from Yin. During Later Han, Wu commandary was split off from Kuaiji, and I suspect that at that time, the Commandant's base was moved to Zhang'an. In Sun Liang of Eastern Wu's second year of Taiping (257), Linhai commandary was established.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 18, 2018 4:28 pm, edited 11 times in total.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:05 am

太元三年(戊寅,公元三七八年)

The Third Year of Taiyuan (The Wuyin Year; 378 AD)


春,二月,乙巳,作新宮,帝移居會稽王邸。

1. In spring, the second month, on the day Yisi (March 31st), construction of the new palace began in Jin, so Emperor Xiaowu moved to the Prince of Kuaiji’s residence.

秦王堅遣征南大將軍、都督征討諸軍事、守尚書令長樂公丕、武衛將軍苟萇、尚書慕容□帥步騎七萬寇襄陽,以荊州刺史楊安帥樊、鄧之眾為前鋒,征虜將軍始平石越帥精騎一萬出魯陽關,京兆尹慕容垂、揚武將軍姚萇帥眾五萬出南鄉,領軍將軍苟池、右將軍毛當、強弩將軍王顯帥眾四萬出武當,會攻襄陽。夏,四月,秦兵至沔北,梁州刺史朱序以秦無舟楫,不以為虞。既而石越帥騎五千浮渡漢水,序惶駭,固守中城。越克其外郭,獲船百餘艘以濟餘軍。長樂公丕督諸將攻中城。

2. Fu Jian sent his Grand General Who Conquers The South, Commander of the Expeditionary Force, acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Changle, his son Fu Pi, the Guard General of Valor, Gou Chang, and the Master of Writing, Murong Wei, to lead an army of seventy thousand horse and foot to attack Xiangyang. He also sent the Inspector of Jingzhou, Yang An, to attack Fan, with Deng Qiang leading the vanguard. He sent the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Shi Yue of Shiping, to lead ten thousand elite cavalry from Luyang Gate, he sent the Intendant of Jingzhao, Murong Chui, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Yao Chang, to lead fifty thousand soldiers from Nanxiang, and he sent the General Who Leads The Army, Gou Chi, the General of the Right, Mao Dang, and the General of Strong Crossbow, Wang Xian, to lead an army of forty thousand from Wudang. All these forces would join in the attack on Xiangyang.

In summer, the fourth month, the Qin troops reached the north bank of the Mian River. Zhu Xu believed that since Qin did not have any boats, they would not be able to cross the river, so he was not concerned about them. But Shi Yue led five thousand cavalry to swim across the Han River. Zhu Xu was caught off guard, and he withdrew into Xiangyang’s defenses. Shi Yue then occupied the outlying areas, and captured more than a hundred boats to use to ferry the rest of the Qin troops across. Fu Pi led the other generals to attack Xiangyang's inner city.

南陽郡魯陽縣,有魯陽關。

(Luyang Gate was in Luyang county in Nanyang commandary.)


堅後拜暐尚書。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian later appointed Murong Wei as a Master of Writing.

堅後拜暐尚書。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian later appointed Murong Wei as a Master of Writing.

堅遣其子長樂公丕攻襄陽。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian sent the Duke of Changle, his son Fu Pi, to attack Xiangyang.


序母韓氏聞秦兵將至,自登城履行,至西北隅,以為不固,帥百餘婢及城中女丁築邪城於其內。及秦兵至,西北隅果潰,眾移守新城,襄陽人謂之夫人城。

3. Zhu Xu's mother Lady Han heard that the Qin troops were coming, so she personally mounted the walls of Xiangyang to inspect the defenses. When she saw the northwest corner of the city, she believed it could not be held against an attack, so she led more than a hundred serving girls and the women from the city to build defensive works behind it. When the Qin army arrived, the northwest corner indeed fell, but the defenders shifted to guard the new defensive works instead, which the people of Xiangyang called the "Wives' Walls".

桓沖在上明,擁眾七萬,憚秦兵之強,不敢進。

4. Huan Chong was at Shangming, where he had gathered an army of seventy thousand. But he feared the Qin army's strength, and did not dare advance.

丕欲急攻襄陽,苟萇曰:「吾眾十倍於敵,糗糧山積,但稍遷漢、沔之民於許、洛,塞其運道,絕其援兵,譬如網中之禽,何患不獲。而多殺將士,急求成功哉!」丕從之。慕容垂拔南陽,執太守鄭裔,與丕會襄陽。

5. Fu Pi wished to press the assault against Xiangyang. But Gou Chang said, “We have ten times as many soldiers as the enemy does, and our grain and supplies are piled up like mountains. We need only shift the people living along the Han and Mian Rivers a short distance away to Xuchang and Luoyang, then block the enemy's supply lines and cut off any path for them to be reinforced. We have them caught like a beast in a net. What worry is there that we will not take them in the end? There's no point in getting so many of our officers and soldiers killed, just to be successful that much faster!" So Fu Pi listened to him.

Murong Chui took Nanyang and captured the Administrator there, Zheng Yi, before linking up with Fu Pi at Xiangyang.

秋,七月,新宮成;辛巳,帝入居之。

6. In autumn, the seventh month, the new palace in Jin was completed. On the day Xinsi (September 3rd), Emperor Xiaowu moved into it.

秦兗州刺史彭超請攻沛郡太守戴X於彭城,且曰:「願更遣重將攻淮南諸城,為征南棋劫之勢,東西並進,丹楊不足平也。」秦王堅從之,使都督東討諸軍事;後將軍俱難、右禁將軍毛盛、洛州刺史邵保帥步騎七萬寇淮陽、盱眙。超,越之弟;保,羌之從弟也。八月,彭超攻彭城,詔右將軍毛虎生帥眾五萬鎮姑孰以御秦兵。

7. Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Peng Chao, asked to attack Jin’s Administrator of Pei, Dai Lu, at Pengcheng. He added, "You should also send another general to attack the cities of Huainan, to support the Grand General Who Conquers The South by the nature of a jie fight in weiqi. If we strike in both east and west, Danyang (Jiankang) cannot respond to both." Fu Jian agreed, and he appointed Peng Chao as Commander of the Eastern Expeditionary Force. He was placed in command of seventy thousand troops under the General of the Rear, Ju Nan, the General of the Right 禁, Mao Sheng, and the Inspector of Luozhou, Shao Bao. Together, they invaded Huaiyang and Xuyi. This Peng Chao was the younger brother of Peng Yue; this Shao Bao was the cousin of Shao Qiang.

In the eighth month, Peng Chao attacked Pengcheng. The Jin court ordered the General of the Right, Mao Husheng, to lead the army of fifty thousand soldiers stationed at Gushu to oppose the Qin army.

X領沛郡太守,戍彭城。楊正衡曰:X,古遁字。征南,謂苻丕也,時督諸軍攻襄陽。棊劫者,以棊勢喻兵勢也。圍棊者,攻其右而敵手應之,則擊其左取之,謂之劫。晉都建康,漢丹陽秣陵縣地。俱,姓也。秦初以洛州刺史治陝城;《晉志》曰:滅燕之後,移洛州治豐陽。參考前鄧羌以洛州刺史鎭洛陽,則是時洛州刺史猶治洛陽。是後北海公重以豫州刺史及平原公暉以豫州牧鎭洛陽,洛州刺史始移治豐陽。「淮陽」,《晉書‧載記》作「淮陰」,當從之。淮陰、盱眙,前漢並屬臨淮郡;後漢、晉以淮陰屬廣陵。邵羌見一百一卷海西公太和二年。

(Dai Lu was acting Administrator of Pei, and he was camped at Pengcheng. Yang Zhengheng remarked, "X 'Lu' is an old, obscure character."


The character marked here as X cannot be printed on this forum.

The Grand General Who Conquers The South was Fu Pi, who was at that time commanding the Former Qin armies around Xiangyang.

A Jie Fight (Ko Fight) refers to a move made in the game of weiqi (go). In weiqi, one can attack on the right to force the enemy to respond to it, and thus secure a concurrent attack on the left. This is why it is called a Jie ("compulsion") Fight.

Jin's capital at Jiankang was in the Han dynasty's Moling county in Danyang commandary.

俱 Ju is a surname.

Former Qin's Inspector of Luozhou originally administered that territory from Shancheng. The Records of Jin states, "After Former Qin conquered Former Yan, they moved their administrative center of Luozhou to Fengyang." But it was mentioned earlier that when Deng Qiang was Inspector of Luozhou, his base was at Luoyang. It must be that at this time, the Inspector was still at Luoyang. Later on, we see that Former Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou and Duke of Beihai, Fu Chong, and the Governor of Yuzhou and Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui, are now based at Luoyang. That must have been the time when their Inspector of Luozhou moved its base to Fengyang.

The text here says "Huaiyang", but in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin it states "Huaiyin", and Huaiyin is repeatedly mentioned in the passages after this one. That must be the correct version. During Former Han, Huaiyin and Xuyi were both part of Linhuai commandary. During Later Han and Jin, Huaiyin was part of Guangling commandary.

Shao Qiang is mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Fei's second year of Taihe (367.3).


...兗州刺史彭超遣使上言於堅曰:「晉沛郡太守戴逯以卒數千戍彭城,臣請率精銳五萬攻之,願更遣重將討淮南諸城。」堅於是又遣其後將軍俱難率右將軍毛當、後禁毛盛、陵江邵保等步騎七萬寇淮陰、盱眙... (Book of Jin 113, Biography of Fu Jian)

Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Peng Chao, sent in a petition to Fu Jian stating, "Jin's Administrator of Pei, Dai Lu, is camped at Pengcheng with several thousand men. I ask to lead fifty thousand elite soldiers to attack him, and I also ask that you send another general to attack the cities south of the Huai River." So Fu Jian sent him against Pengcheng, and he sent the General of the Rear, Ju Nan, to lead seventy thousand men to invade Huaiyin and Xuyi, under the command of the General of the Right, Mao Dang, the General of the Rear 禁, Mao Sheng, Shao Bao of Jiangling, and others.


秦梁州刺史韋鐘圍魏興太守吉挹於西城。

8. Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Wei Zhong, besieged Jin's Administrator of Weixing, Ji Yi, at Xicheng.

杜佑曰:金州西城縣南九里,吉挹於峻山築壘。今其山曰魏山。

(The Tongdian states, "Nine li south of Xicheng County in Jinzhou, Ji Yi built a rampart in the tall mountains. This is the mountain that we now call Mount Wei.")


九月,秦王堅與群臣飲酒,以秘書監朱肜為正,命人人以極醉為限。秘書侍郎趙整作《酒德之歌》曰:「地列酒泉,天垂酒池,杜康妙識,儀狄先知。紂喪殷邦,桀傾夏國,由此言之,前危後則。」堅大悅,命整書之以為酒戒,自是宴群臣,禮飲而已。

9. In the ninth month, Fu Jian was drinking wine with his ministers. He appointed the Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, as the wine chief, and ordered every man to drink to their fullest.

The Gentleman-Attendant of the Private Library, Zhao Zheng, composed a song, Ode to The Virtues of Wine. He sang, "In earth there is a spring of wine, and in the sky hangs pools of wine. Before Du Kang practiced his craft, Yidi knew its potency. It was because of wine that Zhou mourned the loss of Yin, and Jie was cast out of Xia. Let the later man avoid the earlier man’s fate."

Fu Jian was overjoyed, and he ordered Zhao Zheng to be Wine Overseer. From then on, whenever Fu Jian held a feast with his ministers, they drank no more wine than was proper.

【章:十二行本「人」上有「命人」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】《九州春秋》曰:曹公禁酒,孔融以書嘲之曰:天有酒旗之星,地列酒泉之郡。《天文志》曰:軒轅右角南二星曰酒旗,酒官之旗也。此曰天垂酒池,旣曰垂矣,「池」當作「旗」。魏武樂府《短歌行》云:何以解憂?唯有杜康。《註》云:杜康,古之造酒者。《戰國策》曰:昔帝女儀狄作酒以進於禹,禹飲而甘之,遂疏儀狄,曰:後世必有以酒亡國者。紂爲酒池肉林長夜之飲以亡殷。史曰,夏桀淫驕,乃放鳴條,蓋亦以酒也。前危後則,謂前人之危,後人之法則也。禮,臣侍君宴,不過三爵。

(Some versions write that "Fu Jian ordered every man to drink to their fullest" instead of "every man drank to their fullest".

The Annals of the Nine Provinces states, "When Cao Cao forbade wine, Kong Rong ridiculed him in a letter stating, 'Isn't there a Wine Banner in the stars in the sky? And isn't there a Jiuquan ("wine spring") commandary on earth?'" The Astrological Records states, "In the right corner of the Yellow Emperor constellation, the two southern stars are called the Wine Banner. They are the banner of the wine officials." So in Zhao Zheng's phrase "In the sky hangs pools of wine", since it says "hangs", the text must have meant to put "banner" instead of "pools".

In Wu of Wei's (Cao Cao's) poem Short Song Style, there is this verse: "Who can unravel these sorrows of mine? I know of only one man, Du Kang." The Notes explain, "Du Kang was an ancient master of wine."

The Strategies of the Warring States records, "In ancient times, the Emperor's daughter, Yidi, prepared some wine and presented it to Yu the Great. Yu drank it and found that it was sweet. He gave it back to Yidi, saying, ‘Someday, such wine shall certainly be the ruin of a kingdom.’"

King Zhou of Yin/Shang had a Pool of Wine and a Forest of Meats. He spent long nights there, and so ruined Yin. And as the Records of the Grand Historian states, Jie of Xia was licentious and arrogant, which led to his overthrow at the Battle of Mingtiao; it must have been because of wine.

前危後則 means that those of modern times should take warning from the perils of those who had lived before them, and use it as a model of behavior to avoid.

According to tradition, when ministers and attendants feast with their sovereign, they do not drink more than three cups.)


秦涼州刺史梁熙遣使入西域,揚秦威德。冬,十月,大宛獻汗血馬。秦王堅曰:「吾嘗慕漢文帝之為人,用千里馬何為!」命群臣作《止馬之詩》而反之。

10. Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, sent envoys to the Western Reaches, to spread news of the power and virtue of Qin.

In winter, the tenth month, Dayuan in Ferghana sent blood-sweating horses to Qin as tribute. But Fu Jian said, "I once admired the conduct of a man like Emperor Wen of Han. What use would I have for horses that can travel a thousand li?" So he ordered his ministers to compose the Poem Where The Horses Halted, and sent the horses back.

文帝卻千里馬見十三卷元年。反則反之,何以作詩爲哉!此亦好名之過也。

(The story of Emperor Wen of Han receiving and returning the same thousand-li horses is mentioned in Book 13, in the first year of Emperor Wen's reign (179 BC).

Sending the horses back was one thing. But what purpose was there for Fu Jian to compose this poem as well? This, too, was merely to glorify his own name.)


巴西人趙寶起兵梁州,自稱晉西蠻校尉、巴郡太守。

11. A native of Baxi, Zhao Bao, rose in rebellion in Lianzhou (or, Liangzhou). He proclaimed himself Jin's Colonel of Western Man Tribes and Administrator of Ba.

【章:十二行本「涼」作「梁」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】史言蜀人思晉。

(Some versions write "Lianzhou" instead of "Liangzhou".

This passage indicates that the people of the Shu region longed for Jin.)


秦豫州刺史北海公重鎮洛陽,謀反。秦王堅曰:「長史呂光忠正,必不與之同。」即命光收重,檻車送長安,赦之,以公就第。重,洛之兄也。

12. Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou and Duke of Beihai, Fu Chong, was stationed at Luoyang. He plotted rebellion. Fu Jian said, "His Chief Clerk, Lü Guang, is loyal and true, and certainly will not go along with his plot." So he ordered Lü Guang to arrest Fu Chong. Fu Chong was sent back to Chang'an in a prison cart. Fu Jian pardoned him, though he ordered him sent to his estate. This Fu Chong was the elder brother of Fu Luo.

苻重之鎮洛陽,以光為長史。及重謀反,苻堅聞之,曰:「呂光忠孝方正,必不同也。」馳使命光檻重送之。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

When Fu Chong was stationed at Luoyang, Lü Guang was appointed as his Chief Clerk. Fu Chong plotted rebellion. When Fu Jian heard of it, he said, "Lü Guang is loyal, filial, upright, and true. He is certainly not part of this plot." So Fu Jian sent a fast courier to order Lü Guang to put Fu Chong in a cage cart and send him back.


十二月,秦御史中丞李柔劾秦:「長樂公丕等擁眾十萬,攻圍小城,日費萬金,久而無效,請微下廷尉。」秦王堅曰:「丕等廣費無成,實宜貶戮;但師已淹時,不可虛返,其特原之,令以成功贖罪。」使黃門侍郎韋華持節切讓丕等,賜丕劍曰:「來春不捷,汝可自裁,勿復持面見吾也!」

13. In the twelfth month, Qin's Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk, Li Rou, sent up a memorial stating, "The Duke of Changle and the others command an army of a hundred thousand. They are assaulting and besieging Xiangyang’s inner city. Every day, their army expends ten thousand gold, yet it has been this long and they still have not achieved success. I ask that you hand the Duke over to the Minister of Justice."

Fu Jian said, "For Fu Pi and the others to expend so much and yet not achieve success, that is truly something that merits either demotion or death. Yet the army has already been there for so long, and they should not return empty-handed. So I will make a special order, and command him to achieve success so that he may atone for his crime."

Fu Jian sent the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Wei Hua, bearing a staff of authority to compel Fu Pi and the others to hurry up. Wei Hua presented Fu Pi with a sword and announced Fu Jian's demand: "If you are not victorious by spring, then use this sword on yourself, and do not show your face before me again!"

周虓在秦,密與桓沖書,言秦陰計;又逃奔漢中,秦人獲而赦之。

14. The captured Jin minister Zhou Xiao was still in Qin. He secretly sent letters to Huan Chong, saying he would plot against Qin from the inside. He then fled to Hanzhong. Qin recaptured him, but pardoned him.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:11 am

太元四年(己卯,公元三七九年)

The Fourth Year of Taiyuan (The Jimao Year, 379 AD)


春,正月,辛酉,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 10th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

秦長樂公丕等得詔惶恐,乃命諸軍並力攻襄陽。秦王堅欲自將攻襄陽,詔陽平公融以關東六州之兵會壽春,梁熙以河西之兵為後繼。陽平公融諫曰:「陛下欲取江南,固當博謀熟慮,不可倉猝。若止取襄陽,又豈足親勞大駕乎?未有動天下之眾而為一城者,所謂以隨侯之珠彈千仞之雀也。」梁熙諫曰:「晉主之暴,未如孫皓,江山險固,易守難攻。陛下必欲廓清江表,亦不過分命將帥,引關東之兵,南臨淮、泗,下梁、益之卒,東出巴、峽,又何必親屈鸞輅,遠幸沮澤乎?昔漢光武誅公孫述,晉武帝擒孫皓,未聞二帝自統六師,親執枹鼓,蒙矢石也。」堅乃止。

2. Fu Pi and the other Qin generals at Xiangyang had received the imperial command with fear and trembling. They ordered all their armies to launch a full assault on Xiangyang.

Fu Jian wished to lead an attack against Xiangyang himself, and he ordered the Duke of Yangping, his brother Fu Rong, to send the soldiers of the six Guandong provinces to rendezvous at Shouchun, and ordered Liang Xi to bring up the soldiers of the Hexi region to act as reserves. Fu Rong criticized this plan, saying, "If Your Majesty wishes to take the Southland, then you must be sure to give this matter much more careful consideration. You cannot be too hasty. And if you only wish to take Xiangyang, then what would be the point of going so far as to exert yourself in person? There has never been a case where all the soldiers of the realm were flung against a single city. If you were to do so, that could truly be said to be the folly of 'the Marquis of Sui using a pearl to shoot at a bird a thousand feet away'!"

And Liang Xi also remonstrated with him, saying, “The lord of Jin does not compare with Sun Hao in cruelty. Furthermore, Jin has strong and defensible terrain, easy to hold and difficult to attack. If Your Majesty insists upon sweeping clear the Southland, you need do no more than simply send out orders to your various commanders. You could have the soldiers of Guandong march south to the banks of the Huai and Si Rivers, while the troops of Lianzhou and Yizhou march east out of Ba and the Gorges. Then what need would you have to bestir yourself, and in your own person get bogged down in the distant gloom and mire? In former times, although Emperor Guangwu of Han punished Gongsun Shu and Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) captured Sun Hao, I never heard that either of those two sovereigns actually led the six armies in person, and themselves beat the drums of attack or dodged the slings and arrows of the battlefield.”

So Fu Jian canceled his plan.

《呂氏春秋》曰:以隨侯之珠彈千仞之雀,世必笑之;所用重,所要輕也。《搜神記》曰:隨侯行,見大蛇傷,救而治之。其後蛇含珠以報之,徑盈寸,純白,而夜光可燭堂,故歷世稱隨珠焉。光武用岑彭、吳漢以滅公孫述,晉武帝用王濬、王渾以平孫晧。苻融、梁熙未嘗離所鎭,皆上疏以諫。

(The Annals of the Lü Clan states, "The Marquis of Sui used a pearl to shoot at a bird a thousand feet away. The whole world laughed at him for it, for he used something so precious to gain something so insignificant." In Search of the Supernatural has this story: "The Marquis of Sui was traveling, when he came upon a wounded snake. He rescued the snake, and nursed it back to health. Later, the snake returned holding a pearl in its mouth, to thank him for saving it. The pearl was several cun thick and pure-white, and at night it was bright enough to illuminate the room. It came to be known as the Pearl of the Marquis of Sui."

Emperor Guangwu of Han used Cen Peng and Wu Han to conquer Gongsun Shu, and Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) used Wang Jun and Wang Hun to defeat Sun Hao.

Fu Rong and Liang Xi did not leave their posts to come give these remonstrances, but sent in petitions.)


詔冠軍將軍南郡相劉波帥眾八千救襄陽,波畏秦,不敢進。朱序屢出戰,破秦兵,引退稍遠,序不設備。二月,襄陽督護李伯護密遣其子送款於秦,請為內應;長樂公丕命諸軍進攻之。戊午,克襄陽,執朱序,送長安。秦王堅以序能守節,拜度支尚書;以李伯護為不忠,斬之。

3. The Jin court ordered the Chancellor of Nan commandary, Liu Bo, to lead eight thousand soldiers to relieve Xiangyang. But Liu Bo feared Qin, and he did not dare to advance.

Several times, Zhu Xu would send his soldiers out of Xiangyang to try to rout the Qin soldiers, but they would only respond by falling back a little ways when the soldiers drew near. So Zhu Xu did not make any proper defenses against them.

In the second month, the Protector of Xiangyang, Li Bohu, secretly sent his son to bring word to Qin, offering to let them into the city. Fu Pi ordered his generals to advance and attack. On the day Wuwu (?), they took Xiangyang and captured Zhu Xu, sending him to Chang'an. Fu Jian respected Zhu Xu for fulfilling his duty to the end, so he appointed him as Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing. But since Fu Jian felt that Li Bohu had been disloyal, he beheaded him.

曹魏置度支尚書。

(Cao-Wei had created the office of Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing.)


丕克襄陽。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Pi captured Xiangyang.


秦將軍慕容越拔順陽,執太守譙國丁穆。堅欲官之,穆固辭不受。堅以中壘將軍梁成為荊州刺史,配兵一萬,鎮襄陽,選其才望,禮而用之。

4. The Qin general Murong Yue took Shunyang, and captured Jin’s Administrator there, Ding Mu of Qiao. Fu Jian wished to employ Ding Mu, but Ding Mu firmly refused his offers of appointment.

Fu Jian appointed the General of the Central Ramparts, Liang Cheng, as Inspector of Jingzhou, and Liang Cheng was assigned ten thousand soldiers and stationed at Xiangyang. He selected people of talent and employed them as suited.

《晉志》曰:太康中,置順陽郡;唐鄧州臨湍、菊潭二縣,古順陽地。

(The Records of Jin states, "During the Taikang reign era (280-9), Shunyang commandary was created." It was in the same location as the two counties of Lintuan and Jutan in the Tang dynasty's Dengzhou.)


桓沖以襄陽陷沒,上疏送章節,請解職;不許。詔免劉波官,俄復以為冠軍將軍。

5. Since Huan Chong had failed to save Xiangyang, he sent up a memorial returning his seal of office and asking to be relieved of command, but the court did not allow it. The court stripped Liu Bo of his titles, but he was later reappointed as Champion General.

秦以前將軍張蚝為并州刺史。

6. Qin appointed the General of the Front, Zhang Qi, as Inspector of Bingzhou.

兗州刺史謝玄帥眾萬餘救彭城,軍於泗口,欲遣間使報戴逯而不可得。部曲將田泓請沒水潛行趣彭城,玄遣之。泓為秦人所獲,厚賂之,使雲南軍已敗;泓偽許之,既而告城中曰:「南軍垂至,我單行來報,為賊所得。勉之!」秦人殺之。彭超置輜重於留城,謝玄揚聲遣後軍將軍何謙向留城。超聞之,釋彭城圍,引兵還保輜重。戴逯帥彭城之眾,隨謙奔玄,超遂據彭城,留兗州治中徐褒守之,南攻盱眙。俱難克淮陰,留邵保戍之。

7. Xie Xuan led an army of more than ten thousand soldiers to relieve Pengcheng.

When the Jin army reached Sikou, Xie Xuan wished to send a message to the Jin commander inside the city, Dai Lu, but could not. One of his subordinate officers, Tian Hong, offered to swim secretly across the river and inform Pengcheng, so Xie Xuan sent him. But Tian Hong was captured by the Qin soldiers. They bribed him heavily, asking him to tell those in Pengcheng that the southern army had already been defeated. Tian Hong pretended to agree, but then told those in the city, "The southern army is almost here; I came ahead on my own to report it, but I was captured the rebels. Exert yourselves!" The Qin soldiers killed him.

Peng Chao left his baggage train at Liucheng. Xie Xuan spread rumors that he had sent his General of the Rear Army, He Qian of Donghai, towards Liucheng. When Peng Chao heard the rumors, he broke off his siege of Pengcheng and led his troops back to defend his baggage train. Dai Lu then led his soldiers out of Pengcheng, and they fled to join together with Xie Xuan’s army. Peng Chao then returned and captured Pengcheng, leaving the 治中 of Yanzhou, Xu Bao, to defend it. Peng Chao marched south to attack Xuyi.

Ju Nan captured Huaiyin, and left Shao Bao to defend it.

留縣城也。自漢以來屬彭城郡。【章:十二行本「何」上有「東海」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】《考異》曰:《謝玄傳》云「何謙進解彭城圍」,又云「於是罷彭城、下邳二戍。」《帝紀》及諸傳皆不言此年彭城陷沒。而《十六國‧秦春秋》云:「超據彭城。」又云:「超分兵下邳,留徐褒守彭城。至七月,以毛當爲徐州刺史,鎭彭城,王顯爲揚州,戍下邳。」是二城俱陷也。《南北對境圖》曰:淮陰縣距淮五十步,北對清河口十里,進可以窺山東,內則蔽沿江,晉、宋以爲重鎭。

(Liucheng was the capital city of Liu county. Ever since the Han dynasty, it had been part of Pengcheng commandary.

Some versions add that He Qian was "of Donghai".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Xie Xuan in the Book of Jin states, 'He Qian advanced and lifted the siege of Pengcheng', and it also states, 'He cleared the two camps at Pengcheng and Xiapi.' Neither the Annals of Emperor Xiaowu in that text nor the biographies of the other generals involved state that Pengcheng was lost during this year. But the Annals of Former Qin in the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'Peng Chao captured Pengcheng.' And it also states, 'Peng Chao sent some of his soldiers to Xiapi, and he left Xu Bao to guard Pengcheng. By the seventh month, Mao Dang was appointed as Qin's Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was stationed at Pengcheng, while Wang Xian was appointed Inspector of Yangzhou, and was camped at Xiapi.' So both of these cities must have fallen."

The Maps of the North-South Border Regions states, "Huaiyin county is fifty paces from the Huai River, and faces Qinghe to the north by ten li. By advancing through it, one can observe the condition of the regions east of the mountains (east of Luoyang), and by holding it, one can cover the banks of the Yangzi. It was a critical line of defense for Jin and Liu-Song.")


三月,壬戌,詔以「疆埸多虞,年谷不登,其供御所須,事從儉約;九親供給,眾官廩俸,權可減半。凡諸役費,自非軍國事要,皆宜停省。」

8. In the third month, on the day Renxu (April 12th), the Jin court ordered, "There are many enemies on the borders, and the yearly grain has not been harvested. Until this situation can be resolved, we must become more frugal. Each family, to the nine kin, will provide grain, and the grain salaries of the officials will be cut in half. As for corvee service, all projects not related to military service shall be halted or canceled."

九親,卽九族。

(The "nine kin" meant each family to the ninth degree.)


癸未,使右將軍毛虎生帥眾三萬擊巴中,以救魏興。前鋒督護趙福等至巴西,為秦將張紹等所敗,亡七千餘人。虎生退屯巴東。蜀人李烏聚眾二萬,圍成都以應虎生,秦王堅使破虜將軍呂光擊滅之。夏,四月,戊申,韋鐘拔魏興,吉挹引刀欲自殺,左右奪其刀;會秦人至,執之,挹不言不食而死。秦王堅歎曰:「周孟威不屈於前,丁彥遠潔己於後,吉祖沖閉口而死,何晉氏之多忠臣也!」挹參軍史穎逃歸,得挹臨終手疏,詔贈益州刺史。

9. On the day Guiwei (?), the court sent Mao Husheng with thirty thousand soldiers to attack Bazhong, in order to relieve Weixing. But when the Protector of the Vanguard, Zhao Fu, and others arrived at Baxi, they were defeated by Qin's generals, Zhang Zhao and others, with more than seven thousand casualties. Mao Husheng fell back to camp at Badong.

A native of Shu, Li Wu, gathered together twenty thousand soldiers, and laid siege to Chengdu to support Mao Husheng. Fu Jian sent his General Who Routs The Caitiffs, Lü Guang, to attack and vanquish him.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Wushen (May 28th), the Qin general Wei Zhong captured Weixing. The Jin commander there, Ji Yi, grasped his blade and prepared to kill himself, but those around him seized the blade. When the Qin soldiers reached their position, they took Ji Yi captive, but he refused to say anything to them; he refused food, and starved himself to death. Fu Jian lamented, "Before, Zhou Mengwei was unyielding; later, Ding Yanyuan was incorruptible. Now Ji Zuchong has shut up his mouth and so died. How can Jin have so many loyal ministers?" Yi Ji's Army Advisor, Shi Ying, escaped and returned back to Jin, and presented a petition that Ji Yi had handwritten in his final moments. The Jin court posthumously named him Inspector of Yizhou.

巴中,卽巴郡。破虜將軍,蓋苻秦所置。周虓,字孟威;丁穆,字彥遠;吉挹,字祖沖。【章:十二行本「得」作「逃」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】

("Bazhong" means Ba commandary.

The title of General Who Routs The Caitiffs must have been created by the Fu clan of Former Qin.

Zhou Xiao's style name was Mengwei; he had been captured during the conquest of Yizhou (Book 103, 373.13). Ding Mu's style name was Yanyuan; he was captured during the campaign against Pengcheng and the Huainan region (379.4). Ji Yi's style name was Zuchong.

Some versions record that Shi Ying "escaped".)


光從王猛征討,稍遷破虜將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang followed Wang Meng on his campaigns, and he was promoted to General Who Routs The Caitiffs.


秦毛當、王顯帥眾二萬自襄陽東會俱難、彭超攻淮南。五月,乙丑,難、超拔盱眙,執高密內史毛璪之。秦兵六萬圍幽州刺史田洛於三阿,去廣陵百里;朝廷大震,臨江列戍,遣征虜將軍謝石帥舟師屯塗中。石,安之弟也。

10. Mao Dang and Wang Xian led twenty thousand soldiers from Xiangyang east to link up with Ju Nan and Peng Chao in an attack against Huainan.

In the fifth month, on the day Yichou (June 14th), Ju Nan and Peng Chao took Xuyi, and captured Jin’s Interior Minister of Gaomi, Mao Zaozhi.

Sixty thousand Qin soldiers besieged Jin's Inspector of Youzhou, Tian Luo, at San'a, a hundred li from Guangling. The Jin court was greatly disturbed, and they set up an array of camps all along the Yangzi. They sent the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Xie Shi, to lead ships to dock at Tuzhong. This Xie Shi was the younger brother of Xie An.

高密,僑國也;璪之領內史,戍盱眙。晉僑置幽、冀、青、幷四州於江北三阿,今寶應軍卽其地。

(Gaomi was a surrogate princely fief; Mao Zaozhi was its acting Interior Minister, and he was camped at Xuyi.

Jin had established surrogate versions of Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou north of the Yangzi at San'a. It was at the same place as the modern Baoying Garrison.


右衛將軍毛安之等帥眾四萬屯堂邑。秦毛當、毛盛帥騎二萬襲堂邑,安之等驚潰。兗州刺史謝玄自廣陵救三阿;丙子,難、超戰敗,退保盱眙。六月,戊子,玄與田洛帥眾五萬進攻盱眙,難、超又敗,退屯淮陰。玄遣何謙等帥舟師乘潮而上,夜,焚淮橋。邵保戰死,難,超退屯淮北,玄與何謙、戴逯、田洛共追之,戰於君川,復大破之,難、超北走,僅以身免。謝玄還廣陵,詔進號冠軍將軍,加領徐州刺史。

11. Jin's Guard General of the Right, Mao Anzhi, and others led forty thousand soldiers to camp at Tangyi. But Mao Dang and Mao Sheng led twenty thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack on Tangyi, and Mao Anzhi and the others panicked and scattered.

Xie Xuan marched from Guangling to rescue San'a. On the day Bingzi (June 25th), he defeated Ju Nan and Peng Chao, and they retreated to defend Xuyi. In the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (July 7th), Xie Xuan and Tian Luo led fifty thousand soldiers forward to attack Xuyi, and they again defeated Ju Nan and Peng Chao, who fled back to camp at Huaiyin. Xie Xuan sent He Qian and others to lead boats to sail up the river when the tide was right, and during the night, they burned the bridge over the Huai River. Shao Bao was killed in battle, and Ju Nan and Peng Chao fled to camp north of the Huai River. Xie Xuan, He Qian, Dai Lu, and Tian Luo all pursued them. They fought another battle at Junchuan, and again the Qin army was greatly routed. Ju Nan and Peng Chao continued to retreat north, barely escaping with their lives. Xie Xuan then returned to Guangling. The court promoted him to Champion General and acting Inspector of Xuzhou.

秦作橋於淮水以渡兵。今盱眙縣北六里有君山。此蓋君山之川也。

(Former Qin had built this bridge over the Huai River so that their troops could cross over.

Sixty li north of modern Xuyi county, there is a Mount Jun. So the battlefield mentioned here as "Junchuan" must have been around the river basin of this Mount Jun.)


秦王堅聞之,大怒。秋,七月,檻車征超下廷尉,超自殺。難削爵為民。

12. When Fu Jian heard of the debacle in Huainan, he was furious. In autumn, the seventh month, he summoned Peng Chao back to the capital in a cage cart and handed him over to the Minister of Justice. Peng Chao killed himself. Ju Nan was demoted to commoner status.

以毛當為徐州刺吏,鎮彭城;毛盛為兗州刺史,鎮胡陸;王顯為揚州刺史,戍下邳。

13. Fu Jian appointed Mao Dang as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was stationed at Pengcheng. He appointed Mao Sheng as Inspector of Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Hulu. He appointed Wang Xian as Inspector of Yangzhou, and he camped at Xiapi.

《續漢志》:湖陸,故湖陵,章帝更名。《前漢志》曰:王莽改曰湖陸。今按湖陸縣,漢屬山陽郡,晉分屬高平國。魏收《地形志》:高平縣有湖陵城。當在唐兗州任城縣界。

(The Continued Records of Han states, "Hulu, formerly Huling, had its name changed by Emperor Zhang." The Records of Former Han states, "Wang Mang changed its name to Huling." It is now Hulu county. During Han, it was part of Shanyang commandary, and during Jin it was split off as part of the Gaoping princely fief. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "In Gaoping county there is the city of Huling." It was within Renchang county in the Tang dynasty's Yanzhou.)


謝安為宰相,秦人屢入寇,邊兵失利,安每鎮之,以和靜。其為政,務舉大綱,不為小察。時人比安於王導,而謂其文雅過之。

14. Xie An was appointed as Grand Counsellor.

The Qin army invaded Jin's territory several times, and the border soldiers suffered many setbacks. The populace was stricken with terror. But Xie An always protected them, and he restored peace and quiet. In administering affairs, he gave directions in broad outlines, and did not obsess with small details. The people of that time compared him favorably with Wang Dao, and said that he exceeded Wang Dao in culture and elegance.

【章:十二行本「安」上有「衆心危懼」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】

(Some versions add the phrase "the populace was stricken with terror".)


八月,丁亥,以左將軍王蘊為尚書僕射,頃之,遷丹楊尹。蘊自以國姻,不欲在內,苦求外出;復以為都督浙江東五郡諸軍事、會稽內史。

15. In the eighth month, on the day Dinghai (September 4th), Jin appointed the General of the Left, Wang Yun, as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing. Shortly afterwards, he was transferred to be Intendent of Danyang. But because of Wang Yun’s close ties to the state, on account of his being the Empress’s father, he did not wish to be involved with internal affairs, and he begged to be sent out to a border post instead. So he was appointed as Commander of military affairs in five eastern commandaries of Zhejiang and as Interior Minister of Kuaiji.

蘊先督徐州,今復督浙東。

(Wang Yun had earlier been Commander in Xuzhou, and now he was Commander again, in Zhedong.)


是歲,秦大饑。

16. During this year, Qin suffered from a great famine.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:21 am

太元五年(庚辰,公元三八零年)

The Fifth Year of Taiyuan (The Gengchen Year, 380 AD)


春,正月,秦王堅復以北海公重為鎮北大將軍,鎮薊。

1. In spring, the first month, Fu Jian restored Fu Chong to office, now appointing him as Grand General Who Guards The North, and stationed him at Ji.

重謀反而不誅,復任之以方面,宜其與弟洛反也。

(Fu Chong had earlier plotted rebellion, but had not been executed (378.12). Furthermore, now he was again given a border command. This was how he was later in a position to later rebel, along with his younger brother Fu Luo.)


二月,作教武堂於渭城,命太學生明陰陽兵法者教授諸將。秘書監朱肜諫曰:「陛下東征西伐,所向無敵,四海之地,什得其八,雖江南未服,蓋不足言,是宜稍偃武事,增修文德。乃更始立學舍,教人戰鬥之術,殆非所以馴致昇平也。且諸將皆百戰之餘,何患不習於兵,而更使受教於書生,非所以強其志氣也。此無益於實而有損於名,惟陛下圖之!」堅乃止。

2. In the second month, Fu Jian established the Hall of Martial Instruction at Weicheng, and ordered the Imperial Academy students to instruct his generals in the elements of the Art of War and other such texts.

Zhu Yong remonstrated with him, saying, "Your Majesty is conquering in the east and campaigning in the west, and no enemy can stand before you. Of all the lands within the Four Seas, four-fifths are already yours. Although the Southland has not yet bowed to your command, they are not worth speaking of. Now is the time to put aside thoughts of war, and increase and cultivate culture and virtue. But here you wish to establish this new school, and instruct people in the arts of warfare. That will hardly bring peace to the land. Besides, your generals have already won more than a hundred victories for you. What makes you think that they are somehow ignorant in how to command their soldiers, that you would go so far as to compel them to be taught by these bookworms? That will hardly strengthen their morale. You are not doing this because it will lead to anything of real worth; you are only trying to bolster your reputation. No one wants this besides yourself!"

So Fu Jian halted his plans.

漢高帝元年,改咸陽曰新城;武帝元鼎三年,更名渭城;後漢、晉省;石勒置石安縣,苻秦復曰渭城。馴,從也,言從此而致升平也。

(In Emperor Gao of Han's (Liu Bang's) first year of his reign (202 BC), he renamed Xianyang county to Xincheng. In Emperor Wu's third year of Yuanding (114 BC), it was renamed again to Weicheng. During Later Han and Jin, it was abolished. Shi Le created Shi'an county, and the Fu clan restored its name to Weicheng.

馴 here means to follow; the text means to chart a course for peace.)


秦征北將軍、幽州刺史行唐公洛,勇而多力,能坐制奔牛,射洞犁耳;自以有滅代之功,求開府儀同三司,不得,由是怨憤。三月,秦王堅以洛為使持節、都督益、寧、西南夷諸軍事、征南大將軍、益州牧,使自伊闕趨襄陽,溯漢而上。洛謂官屬曰:「孤,帝室至親,不得入為將相,而常擯棄邊鄙。今又投之西裔,復不聽過京師,此必有陰計,欲使梁成沉孤於漢水耳。」幽州治中平規曰:「逆取順守,湯、武是也;因禍為福,桓、文是也。主上雖不為昏暴,然窮兵黷武,民思有所息肩者,十室而九。若明公神旗一建,必率土雲從。今跨據全燕,地盡東海,北總烏桓、鮮卑,東引句麗、百濟,控弦之士不減五十餘萬,奈何束手就征,蹈不測之禍乎!」洛攘袂大言曰:「孤計決矣,沮謀者斬!」於是自稱大將軍、大都督、秦王。以平規為幽州刺史,玄菟太守吉貞為左長史,遼東太守趙贊為左司馬,昌黎太守王蘊為右司馬,遼西太守王琳、北平太守皇甫傑、牧官都尉魏敷等為從事中郎。分遣使者徵兵於鮮卑、烏桓、高句麗、百濟、新羅、休忍諸國,遣兵三萬助北海公重戍薊。諸國皆曰:「吾為天子守籓,不能從行唐公為逆。」洛懼,欲止,猶豫未決。王縵、王琳、皇甫傑、魏敷知其無成,欲告之;洛皆殺之。吉貞、趙贊曰:「今諸國不從,事乖本圖。明公若憚益州之行者,當遣使奉表乞留,主上亦不慮不從。」平規曰:「今事形頗露,何可中止!宜聲言受詔,盡幽州之兵,南出常山,陽平公必郊迎;因而執之,進據冀州,總關東之眾以圖西土,天下可指麾而定也。」洛從之。夏,四月,洛帥眾七萬發和龍。

3. Qin's General Who Conquers The North, Inspector of Youzhou, and Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, was a bold man and possessed great strength. He could halt a charging bull, and shoot an arrow through the ear of a plow. Since he had helped Qin achieve success in the conquest of Dai, he asked to be granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. However, when this was denied, he became very angry and resentful.

In the third month, Fu Jian appointed Fu Luo as Commissioner Bearing, Commander of military affairs in Yizhou, Ningzhou, and among the southwestern Yi tribes, Grand General Who Conquers The South, and Governor of Yizhou. He ordered Fu Luo to go from Yique to Xiangyang, and from there proceed up the Han River to the Shu region. Fu Luo said to his subordinates, "I am a very close relative of the imperial family, yet rather than being entrusted with a position as a great minister or a leading general, I have often been shunted off to some distant border region. Now I am being cast away to the far west, without even the chance to pass through the capital on my way there. There must be some hidden plot behind this. He just wants Liang Cheng to drown me in the Han River! What do all of you suppose I should do?"

The 治中 of Youzhou, Ping Gui, said, "You might ‘defy the order and prepare your defenses’, as Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou did. Then you might turn disaster into good fortune, as Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin did. Although our ruler is not a foolish or evil man, he has weakened the soldiers and become obsessed with war. Nine-tenths of the people long for someone who can bring them rest. If you plant your standard, soldiers will spring up and flock to you. First you may firmly grasp all of the Yan region, and claim all the territory of the eastern sea. Then gather together the Wuhuan and Xianbei to the north, and beckon Goguryeo and Baekje to the east to aid you. You could certainly gather no less than five hundred thousand archers to your side. Why should you court disaster by binding your hands and heeding the summons?"

Fu Luo then pushed up his sleeves and declared, "I have made my decision; let anyone who disagrees part with his head!" And he proclaimed himself Grand General, Grand Commander, and King of Qin. He appointed Ping Gui as Inspector of Youzhou. He appointed the Administrator of Xuantu, Ji Zhen, as Chief Clerk of the Left. He appointed the Administrator of Liaodong, Zhao Zan, as Marshal of the Left. He appointed the Administrator of Changli, Wang Yun, as Marshal of the Right. He appointed the Administrator of Liaoxi, Wang Lin, the Administrator of Beiping, Huangfu Jie, the Commandant of Shepherd Officials, Wei Fu, and others as Attendant Officers of the Gentlemen of the Palace.

Fu Luo sent various envoys to ask for troops from the Xianbei, the Wuhuan, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, and Xiuren, and he sent thirty thousand soldiers to aid Fu Chong at Ji. But the various states and tribes all responded, "We are vassals of the Son of Heaven; we cannot follow the Duke of Xingtang against him." Fu Luo then became afraid, and wished to call off his plan, but he hesitated and could not make a decision. Wang Man, Wang Lin, Huangfu Jie, and Wei Fu all knew that there was no chance of success, and said as much to Fu Luo, but he killed all of them.

Ji Zhen and Zhao Zan said to Fu Luo, "Our original plan was not based upon a lack of support from the other states. If you still dread to go to Yizhou, you should send someone to beg that you be allowed to remain here. Our sovereign will not consider denying the request."

But Ping Gui argued, "The plan has already taken shape, and we can hardly stop halfway now! You should proclaim that you have received an imperial edict and march south into Changshan with all the soldiers of Youzhou. The Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong) will certainly come to meet you at the border, and then you can capture him and advance to occupy Jizhou. Once all the forces of Guandong are yours, then you may take the west in turn. You need only point your banners, and the realm will be conquered!"

Fu Luo heeded Ping Gui’s advice. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Luo led seventy thousand soldiers out of Helong.

洛以幽州刺史鎭和龍。行唐,戰國時趙邑,秦以爲縣,魏、晉因之。滅代,見上元年。洛,苻健兄子也。【章:十二行本「耳」下有「於諸君意何如」六字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】梁成時鎭襄陽。漢陸賈曰:湯、武逆取而順守之。齊桓、晉文皆因兄弟爭國,得國而霸。漢邊郡有牧官。秦置牧官都尉。陽平公融以冀州牧鎭鄴,平規使洛出中山以臨鄴。

(Fu Luo, as Inspector of Youzhou, was stationed at Helong. Xingtang was a city from the state of Zhao of the Warring States era. The Qin dynasty had made it a county, and Cao-Wei and Jin had done the same.

Former Qin's conquest of Dai is mentioned above, in the first year of Taiyuan (376).

Fu Luo was Fu Jiàn's nephew by one of his late elder brothers.

Some versions include the phrase "What do all of you suppose I should do?" at the end of Fu Luo's first dialogue.

At this time, Liang Cheng was stationed at Xiangyang.

Lu Jia of Han remarked, "Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou defied orders and prepared their defenses."

Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin had both contended with their brothers for control of their states, and after securing control, both went on to become one of the Hegemons of that era.

During the Han dynasty, border commandaries had Shepherd Officials. Former Qin had further created Commandants of Shepherd Officials.

Fu Rong, the Duke of Yangping and Governor of Jizhou, was stationed at Ye. Ping Gui suggested marching into Zhongshan because it was adjacent to Ye.)


(Hu Sanxing says Zhongshan, but the text says Changshan.)

苻堅從弟行唐公洛鎮和龍,請謙之鎮。未幾,以繼母老辭還。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

When Former Qin's Duke of Xingtang, Fu Jian's cousin Fu Luo, was stationed at Helong, he asked for Xu Qian to join him there. But before Xu Qian could arrive there, he declined the post and went home to care for his old stepmother.

苻堅從弟行唐公洛鎮和龍,請謙之鎮。未幾,以繼母老辭還。(History of the Northern Dynasties 21, Biography of Xu Qian)

When Former Qin's Duke of Xingtang, Fu Jian's cousin Fu Luo, was stationed at Helong, he asked for Xu Qian to join him there. But before Xu Qian could arrive there, he declined the post and went home to care for his old stepmother.


秦王堅召群臣謀之,步兵校尉呂光曰:「行唐公以至親為逆,此天下所共疾。願假臣步騎五萬,取之如拾遺耳。」堅曰:「重、洛兄弟,據東北一隅,兵賦全資,未可輕也。」光曰:「彼眾迫於凶威,一時蟻聚耳。若以大軍臨之,勢必瓦解,不足憂也。」堅乃遺使讓洛,使還和龍,當以幽州永為世封。洛謂使者曰:「汝還白東海王,幽州褊狹,不足以容萬乘,須王秦中以承高祖之業。若能迎駕潼關者,當位為上公,爵歸本國。」堅怒,遣左將軍武都竇沖及呂光帥步騎四萬討之;右將軍都貴馳傳詣鄴,將冀州兵三萬為前鋒;以陽平公融為征討大都督。

4. Fu Jian summoned his ministers to discuss the rebellion. The Colonel of Infantry, Lü Guang, said, "Despite being such a close relative, the Duke of Xingtang has turned rebel. This is an affront to all the realm. Please grant me fifty thousand horse and foot, and I will capture him as easily as one picks something off the ground."

Fu Jian said, "Fu Chong and Fu Luo are brothers. They hold the northeast in their grasp, and their troops are well-equipped. They cannot be regarded lightly."

Lü Guang replied, "The enemy's army puffs up their might, but they are just a swarm of ants. As soon as our main army approaches, they will fall to pieces of their own accord. They are nothing to fear."

Fu Jian sent envoys to Fu Luo offering to make concessions, saying that if he would go back to Helong, he would be granted Youzhou as his permanent fief. But Fu Luo responded to the envoys, "You are the one who ought to go back to being Prince of Donghai. Youzhou is a cramped and narrow place, not suited for the lord of a state of ten thousand chariots, and I should possess the Qin region in order to continue Emperor Gaozu's (Fu Jiàn's) grand design. If you will come to welcome me at Tong Gate, then I shall appoint you as Grand Duke, and you may go back to your own fief."

Fu Jian was furious, and he sent the General of the Left, Dou Chong of Wudu, and Lü Guang with forty thousand horse and foot to campaign against Fu Luo and Fu Chong. The General of the Right, Dou Gui, rode quickly to return to Ye, and he led the thirty thousand soldiers of Jizhou as the vanguard. Fu Rong was appointed as Grand Commander of the Expeditionary Force.

堅本封東海王。苻健廟號高祖。都,姓;貴,名。鄭公孫閼字子都,子孫以爲氏。

(At the time that Fu Jian overthrew Fu Sheng, his title was Prince of Donghai.

Fu Jiàn's temple name was Gaozu.

This man's surname was 都 Dou and his given name 貴 Gui. During the Spring and Autumn era, Gongsun E of Zheng had the style name Zidou, and his descendants took their clan name from this.)


北海公重悉薊城之眾與洛會,屯中山,有眾十萬。五月,竇沖等與洛戰於中山,洛兵大敗,生擒洛,送長安。北海公重走還薊,呂光追斬之。屯騎校尉石越自東萊帥騎一萬,浮海襲和龍,斬平規,幽州悉平。堅赦洛不誅,徙涼州之西海郡。

5. Fu Chong led all the soldiers from Ji to link up with Fu Luo, and they camped at Zhongshan. Altogether, they had a hundred thousand men.

In the fifth month, Dou Chang and the other loyalists fought with Fu Luo at Zhongshan. Fu Luo's soldiers were greatly defeated, and he was captured alive and sent to Chang'an. Fu Chong fled back towards Ji, but Lü Guang pursued him and killed him. The Colonel of Camped Cavalry, Shi Yue, led ten thousand cavalry from Donglai, and they floated across the sea (presumably on pontoons) to launch a surprise attack on Helong. They executed Ping Gui, and all of Youzhou was pacified.

Fu Jian spared Fu Luo instead of executing him, but he was exiled to Xihai commandary in Liangzhou.

漢獻帝興平二年,武威太守張雅請置西海郡於居延。

(In Emperor Xian of Han's second year of Xingping (195), the Administrator of Wuwei, Zhang Ya, asked to establish a new commandary of Xihai at Juyan.)


苻洛反,光又擊平之,拜驍騎將軍。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

When Fu Luo rebelled, Lü Guang also attacked and put down his rebellion, for which he was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry.


臣光曰:夫有功不賞,有罪不誅,雖堯、舜不能為治,況他人乎!秦王堅每得反者輒宥之,使其臣狃於為逆,行險徼幸,雖力屈被擒,猶不憂死,亂何自而息哉!《書》曰:「威克厥愛,允濟;愛克厥威,允罔功。」《詩》云:「毋縱詭隨,以謹罔極;式遏寇虐,無俾作慝。」今堅違之,能無亡乎!

6. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: If achievements are not rewarded, and crimes are not punished, ‘not even Yao and Shun would be able to govern’, much less other men! Fu Jian always showed mercy when he captured a rebel. This only encouraged other ministers to disobey their orders and try their luck at the uncertain path of rebellion, since even if they were defeated and captured, they had no reason to believe they would die. How could this policy possibly bring an end to chaos? The Book of Documents states, "When sternness overcomes compassion, things are surely conducted to a successful issue. When compassion overcomes sternness, no merit can be achieved." The Book of Odes states, "Let us give no indulgence to the wily and obsequious, to make careful those who set no limit to themselves, and to repress robbers and oppressors; not allowing them to act out their evil." Fu Jian violated these principles; how could he not be destroyed?

用漢宣帝詔而略變其文。《書‧胤征》之辭。《詩‧民勞》第三章之辭。

(Sima Guang's quote "not even Yao and Shun would be able to govern" uses the words of Emperor Xuan of Han's edict, although Sima Guang has changed his wording. The quote from the Book of Documents is from the Punitive Expedition of Yin section, and the quote from the Book of Poetry is from the third stanza of the Woes of the People in the Decade of Sheng Min section.)


朝廷以秦兵之退為謝安、桓沖之功,拜安衛將軍,與沖皆開府儀同三司。

7. It was earlier mentioned that the Qin campaign against Huainan had failed. The Jin court attributed the Qin soldiers' retreat to Xie An's and Huan Chong's successes. They appointed Xie An as Guard General, and he and Huan Chong were both granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

六月,甲子,大赦。

8. In the sixth month, on the day Jiazi (August 6th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

丁卯,以會稽王道子為司徒;固讓不拜。

9. On the day Dingmao (August 9th), Jin’s Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, but he firmly declined the post and would not accept.

秦王堅召陽平公融為侍中、中書監、都督中外諸軍事、車騎大將軍、司隸校尉、錄尚書事;以征南大將軍、守尚書令長樂公丕為都督關東諸軍事、征東大將軍、冀州牧。堅以諸氐種類繁滋,秋,七月,分三原、九嵕、武都、汧、雍氐十五萬戶,使諸宗親各領之,散居方鎮,如古諸侯。長樂公丕領氐三千戶,以仇池氐酋射聲校尉楊膺為征東左司馬,九嵕氐酋長水校尉齊午為右司馬,各領一千五百戶,為長樂世卿。長樂國郎中令略陽垣敞為錄事參軍,侍講扶風韋干為參軍事,申紹為別駕。膺,丕之妃兄也;午,膺之妻父也。八月,分幽州置平州,以石越為平州刺史,鎮龍城。中書令梁讜為幽州刺史,鎮薊城。撫軍將軍毛興為都督河、秦二州諸軍事、河州刺史,鎮枹罕。長水校尉王騰為并州刺史,鎮晉陽。河、並二州各配氐戶三千。興、騰並苻氏婚姻,氐之崇望也。平原公暉為都督豫、洛、荊、南兗、東豫、揚六州諸軍事、鎮東大將軍、豫州牧,鎮洛陽。移洛州刺史治豐陽。以巨鹿公睿為雍州刺史,鎮蒲阪。各配氐戶三千二百。

10. Fu Jian summoned Fu Rong and appointed him as Palace Attendant, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Colonel-Director of Retainers, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed the acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Fu Pi, as Commander of military affairs in Guandong, Grand General Who Conquers The East, and Governor of Jizhou.

Fu Jian wished to disperse the various Di tribes across the state, and so in autumn, the seventh month, he divided the Di of Sanyuan, Jiuzong, Wudu, Qian, and Yongzhou, a hundred and fifty thousand households. Each group of Di was placed under the supervision of one of Fu Jian’s family or clan members, who all held various defensive posts, much like the feudal lords of old.

Fu Jian assigned three thousand Di households to Fu Pi, and he appointed the leader of the Di of Chouchi and Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Yang Ying, as Fu Pi's Marshal of the Left in his capacity as Grand General Who Conquers The East. He appointed the Di chieftain of Jiuzong and Colonel of the Chang River Regiment, Ji Wu, as Fu Pi's Marshal of the Right. Yang Ying and Ji Wu were both assigned fifteen hundred Di households, and they became hereditary ministers to Fu Pi. Fu Pi's Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, Yuan Chang of Lüeyang, was appointed as his Recordskeeping Army Advisor. Fu Pi's Lecturer-Attendant, Wei Gan of Fufeng, was appointed as his Army Advisory Director, and Shen Shao was appointed as his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage. This Yang Ying was the elder brother of Yang Pi by their father's concubine; this Ji Wu was Yang Ying's father-in-law.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian split Pingzhou off from Youzhou, and appointed Shi Yue as Inspector of Pingzhou, stationed at Longcheng. The Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Liang Dang, was appointed as Inspector of Youzhou, and he was stationed at Ji. The General Who Nurtures The Army, Mao Xing, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Hezhou and Qinzhou and as Inspector of Hezhou, and he was stationed at Fuhan. The Colonel of the Chang River Regiment, Wang Teng, was appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou, and he was stationed at Jinyang. Hezhou and Bingzhou were each assigned three thousand Di households. Mao Xing and Wang Teng were relatives of the Fu clan by marriage, and so they were also highly esteemed among the Di.

The Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou, Luozhou, Jingzhou, Southern Yanzhou, Eastern Yuzhou, and Yangzhou, as Grand General Who Guards The East, and as Governor of Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Luoyang. The administrative center of Luozhou was moved to Fengyang. The Duke of Julu, Fu Rui, was appointed Inspector of Yongzhou, and he was stationed at Puban. Both of them were assigned three thousand two hundred Di households.

九嵕山,在漢馮翊雲陽縣界,唐在醴泉縣。古者封建諸侯,命卿皆世其官。堅分諸宗親散居方鎭,各以種類爲世卿。垣,氐姓也,後隨宋武南歸,遂爲累世將家。《晉書》曰:按平州,《禹貢》冀州之域,於周爲幽州界,漢屬北平郡。後漢末,公孫度自號平州牧,至孫文懿爲魏所滅,因置平州,統遼東、昌黎、玄菟、帶方五郡,後還合於幽州。苻秦滅燕,復分幽州置平州。公孫淵,字文懿;唐避高祖諱,稱其字。秦兗州刺史鎭倉垣,南兗州鎭湖陸。又,秦初以豫州刺史鎭許昌,滅燕之後,以豫州刺史鎭洛陽,於許昌置東豫州。「陽」,當作「揚」。按《後魏書‧地形志》:天平初,始置陽州於宜陽。苻堅以王顯爲揚州刺史,戍下邳,正屬暉所統。苻秦初以洛州刺史鎭陝城,荊州刺史鎭豐陽。旣得襄陽,以爲荊州,徙洛州於豐陽。豐陽,漢上洛縣地也。宋白曰:豐陽,漢商縣地,晉泰始三年分置豐陽縣,在豐陽川。【章:十二行本「史」下有「鎭蒲坂」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

(Mount Jiuzong was within Yunyang county in the Han dynasty's Pingyi commandary. During Tang, it was in Liquan county.

In the feudal era before the Qin dynasty, when the ancient nobles were established, their ministers held office across several generations. When Fu Jian split up his border territories among his relatives, each of them had these sorts of hereditary ministers as well.

垣 Yuan was a Di surname. They would later follow Emperor Wu of Liu-Song (Liu Yu) south, and serve as a family of Liu-Song generals for many generations.

The Book of Jin states, "Pingzhou was within the region which the Tribute of Yu in the Book of Docuemts describes as Jizhou. During the Zhou dynasty, this region was part of Youzhou. During the Han dynasty, it was part of Beiping commandary. At the end of the Han dynasty, Gongsun Du proclaimed himself Governor of Pingzhou, and it existed until his grandson Gongsun Wenyi (Gongsun Yuan) was vanquished by Cao-Wei. Cao-Wei initially then created their own version of Pingzhou, made up of the commandaries of Liaodong, Changli, Xuantu, and Daifang. Pingzhou was later combined with Youzhou again. After the Fu clan of Former Qin conquered Former Yan, they once again divided Youzhou and restored Pingzhou." (Book of Jin 14) Gongsun 淵 Yuan's style name was Wenyi. The Book of Jin calls him "Gongsun Wenyi" because when it was written, there was still a naming taboo for the name of Emperor Gaozu of Tang (Li 淵 Yuan), and since they could not write the name "Yuan", they altered the name.

Former Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou administered that province from Cangyuan, and the Inspector of Southern Yanzhou from Hulu. As for Yuzhou, Former Qin originally administered it from Xuchang. After Former Qin conquered Former Yan, the Inspector of Yuzhou moved their base to Luoyang, and the region centered on Xuchang became Eastern Yuzhou.

In this passage, where it mentions that Fu Hui had Commander authority over Yangzhou, it writes the first character as 陽 when it should be 揚. According to the Geography chapter of the Book of Northern Wei, "At the beginning of the Tianping reign era (~534), the province of 陽 Yangzhou was created for the first time, at Yiyang." Fu Jian had earlier appointed Wang Xian as Inspector of 揚 Yangzhou, camped at Xiapi, and this must have been the Yangzhou that was under Fu Hui's authority.

Former Qin's province of Luozhou was originally administered from Shancheng, and their province of Jingzhou from Fengyang. After the capture of Xiangyang, that region was made Jingzhou, and Luozhou was moved to the region around Fengyang. Fengyang was in the Han dynasty's Shangluo county. Song Bai remarked, "Fengyang was in the Han dynasty's Shang county. In the Jin dynasty's third year of Taishi (267), it was split off to form Fengyang county, at Fengyangchuan."

Some versions mention that Fu Rui was "stationed at Puban".)


丕時出鎮于鄴,東夏安之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Pi)

When Fu Pi was sent out to govern Ye, the eastern half of the realm was secure.

堅以丕為征東將軍、冀州牧... 鎮鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Pi)

Fu Jian appointed Fu Pi as General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Jizhou, and stationed him at Ye.

苻丕牧冀州,為征東功曹。太原郝軒,世名知人,稱玄伯有王佐之才,近代所未有也。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Cui Hong)

When Fu Pi became Governor of Jizhou, he appointed Cui Hong as Merit Evaluator on his staff as General Who Conquers The East. A native of Taiyuan, Hao Xuan, had long been known for his skill at appraising people. He commended Cui Hong as a man suited to being the right hand of a king, without peer in recent history.


堅送丕至灞上,諸氐別其父兄,皆慟哭,哀感路人。趙整因侍宴,援琴而歌曰:「阿得脂,阿得脂,博勞舅父是仇綏,尾長翼短不能飛。遠徙種人留鮮卑,一旦緩急當語誰!」堅笑而不納。

11. Fu Jian accompanied Fu Pi as far as Bashang, and they observed the Di people going their separate ways, fathers and sons, elder and younger brothers being divided. All of them were wailing, and loud mourning filled the roads.

Because of all this, Zhao Zheng attended one of Fu Jian's feasts, where he plucked his qin and sang, "Adezhi, adezhi, the woes of fathers and sons is chousui. With a long tail but short wings, they cannot fly. Off go all those tribes, but the Xianbei remain. If an emergency happens someday, who shall we turn to?"

Although Fu Jian laughed, he did not accept Zhao Zheng's warning.

項安世《家說》:伏羲作琴,長三尺六寸六分,象三百六十六日也;廣六寸,象六合也。文,上曰池,下曰宕。池,水平也。前廣後狹,象尊卑也。上圜下方,法天地也。五弦,官也。大弦,君也,寬和而溫。小弦,臣也,清廉而不亂。文王加三弦,合君臣恩也。杜佑曰:《世本》云:琴,神農所造。《琴操》云:伏羲作琴,所以脩身理性,反其天眞。《白虎通》曰:琴,禁也;禁止於邪,以正人心也。《廣雅》曰:文王、武王加二絃,以合君臣之恩也。揚雄《琴清英》曰:舜彈五絃而天下化,堯加二絃以合君臣之恩。《爾雅》:鵙,伯勞。郭璞曰:伯勞似鶷鶡而大,飛不能翱翔,竦翅上下而已。《廣雅》曰:伯勞,一曰博勞,一名伯趙。仇綏,不知爲何物。謂徙諸氐而留慕容也。

(Xiang Anshi's Matters of the Home states, "Fuxi invented the qin. It is three chi, six cun, and six fen in length, like the three hundred and sixty-six days of the year. It is six cun in width, like the Six Directions. It has two gaps in the bottom, the upper of which is called the Pond, and the lower called the Hole. The Pond is in order to make the sound level. The front of the qin is wide while the back is narrow, like seniors and juniors. The top is round while the bottom is square, as in the laws of Heaven. Officially, the qin has five strings. The largest string is the Lord, and its sound is broad, harmonic, and warm. The smallest string is the Minister, and its sound is clear, clean, and not disorderly. King Wen added three strings, to harmonize with the Lord and Minister strings." The Tongdian states, "In the Book of Origins it is said that Shennong invented the qin, while the 琴操 says that Fuxi invented it, in order to nourish the body and accord with the temperament, as true to Heaven." The Baihu Tong states, "The qin is forbidden; forbid the evil, to rectify men's hearts." The Guangya dictionary states, "King Wen and King Wu added two strings, to harmonize with the Lord and Minister strings". Yang Xiong's 琴清英 states, "Shun plucked five strings and the world was changed; Yao added two strings to harmonize with the Lord and Minister."

The Erya dictionary states, "A 鵙 is a shrike." Guo Pu remarked, "A shrike is like a crossbill, but larger. Its wings do not allow it to hover, it can only fly up or down and no more." The Guangya dictionary states, "A 伯勞 bolao (shrike) is also called a 博勞 bolao or a 伯趙 bozhao."

As for the term 仇綏 chousui that Zhao Zheng uses, I do not know what this thing is.

Zhao Zheng was singing about the Di peoples being sent away, while the Murongs remained in the capital region.)


九月,癸未,皇后王氏崩。

12. In the ninth month, on the Guiwei day (October 24th), Jin’s Empress Wang passed away.

冬,十月,九真太守李遜據交州反。

13. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's Administrator of Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen), Li Xun, seized control of Jiaozhou in rebellion.

秦王堅以左禁將軍楊壁為秦州刺史,尚書趙遷為洛州刺史,南巴校尉姜宇為寧州刺史。

14. Fu Jian appointed the General of the Left 禁, Yang Bi, as Inspector of Qinzhou. He appointed the Master of Writing, Zhao Qian, as Inspector of Luozhou. And he appointed the Colonel of Southern Ba Tribes, Jiang Yu, as Inspector of Ningzhou.

苻秦於南中置南巴校尉。

(Former Qin had appointed the office of Colonel of Southern Ba Tribes in Nanzhong, south of the Shu region.)


十一月,乙酉,葬定皇后於隆平陵。

15. In the eleventh month, on the day Yiyou (December 25th), Empress Ding (Empress Wang) was buried at Longping Tomb.

十二月,秦以左將軍都貴為荊州刺史,鎮彭城。

16. In the twelfth month, Fu Jian appointed Dou Gui as Inspector of Jingzhou, and he was stationed at Pengcheng.

都貴鎭襄陽。彭城誤也。

(Dou Gui was actually stationed at Xiangyang. "Pengcheng" is an error.)


置東豫州,以毛當為刺史,鎮許昌。

17. Fu Jian created Eastern Yuzhou. He appointed Mao Dang as its Inspector, and he was stationed at Xuchang.

是歲,秦王堅遣高密太守毛璪之等二百餘人來歸。

18. During this year, Fu Jian sent the captured Administrator of Gaomi, Mao Zaozhi, with more than two hundred others to return home to Jin.

毛璪之被禽,見上四年。

(Mao Zaozhi's capture is mentioned above, in the fourth year of Taiyuan (379.10).)
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:23 am

太元六年(辛巳,公元三八一年)

The Sixth Year of Taiyuan (The Xinsi Year, 381 AD)


春,正月,帝初奉佛法,立精舍於殿內,引諸沙門居之。尚書左丞王雅表諫,不從。雅,肅之曾孫也。

1. In spring, the first month, Emperor Xiaowu began to sponsor Buddhism. He established a hall of refinement inside the palace, and gathered many sramana monks to reside there. The Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Ya, remonstrated with him in a petition, but Emperor Xiaowu did not listen to him. This Wang Ya was the great-grandson of Wang Su.

《後漢書‧姜肱傳》曰:就精廬求見徵君。賢曰:精廬,卽精舍也,蓋以專精講習所業爲義。今儒、釋肄業之地,通曰精舍。王肅仕曹魏,以經學著名。武帝,肅外孫也。

(The Biography of Jiang Gong in the Book of Later Han states, "He came to the abode of refinement and asked to see Lord Zheng." Commentary adds, "An abode of refinement was a house of refinement." It must have been a place to practice refinement as a means of achieving righteousness. Now it is a place of study for Confucians and Buddhists, and so it is called house of refinement.

Wang Su served Cao-Wei, where he was famous as a scholar of the Classics. Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) was his grandson through his daughter, Wang Yuanji.)


丁酉,以尚書謝石為僕射。

2. On the day Dingyou (March 7th), Jin’s Master of Writing, Xie Shi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

二月,東夷,西域六十二國入貢於秦。

3. In the second month, sixty-two states from the eastern tribes and the Western Reaches sent tribute to Qin.

十七年,正月不雨至於六月。徹樂減膳,出宮女以迎和氣。八月,堅收起居注及著作所錄而觀之,見苟太后、李威之事,慙怒,乃焚其書。著作郎董朏雖更書時事,然千不留一。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the seventeenth year of Jianyuan (381), there was no rain from the first month until the sixth month. So Fu Jian halted music and cut back on rations, and he sent the palace women away to welcome harmony.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian went to the palace archives, where he gathered up the recordings of daily life and the historical records of the state and looked through them. When he saw what had been recorded about Empress Dowager Gou and Li Wei, he was so ashamed and angry that he burned the books. Although the Gentleman-Author, Dong Fei, tried to recompile the books recording the events of the times, not even a thousandth of it was left.

堅觀其史書,見母苟氏通李威之事,慚怒,乃焚其書。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian went to view the history books of the palace archives. When he saw that the illicit affair between his mother Lady Gou and Li Wei had been mentioned, he was ashamed and furious, and he burned the books.


夏,六月,庚子朔,日有食之。

4. In summer, the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Gengzi (July 8th), there was an eclipse.

秋,七月,甲午,交趾太守杜瑗斬李遜,交州平。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiawu (August 31st), Jin's Administrator of Jiaozhi, Du Yuan, killed the rebel Li Xun, and Jiaozhou was pacified.

冬,十月,故武陵王晞卒於新安,追封新寧郡王,命其子遵為嗣。

6. In winter, the tenth month, Jin’s former Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, passed away at Xin'an. He was posthumously named as Prince of Xinning commandary, and his son Sima Zun inherited his title.

晞徙新安,見上卷簡文帝咸安元年。

(Sima Xi's exile to Xin'an is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.26).)


十一月,己亥,以前會稽內史郗愔為司空;愔固辭不起。

7. In the eleventh month, on the day Jihai (?), Jin’s former Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Minister of Works, but he firmly refused the position.

秦荊州刺史都貴遣其司馬閻振、中兵參軍吳仲帥眾二萬寇竟陵,桓沖遣南平太守桓石虔、衛軍參軍桓石民等帥水陸二萬拒之。石民,石虔之弟也。

8. Dou Gui sent his Marshal, Yan Zhen, and his Army Advisor of the Central Soldiers, Wu Zhong, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to invade Jingling. Huan Chong sent the Administrator of Nanping, Huan Shiqian, the Army Advisor to the General Who Guards The Army, Huan Shimin, and others with twenty thousand soldiers to march by land and by water to oppose them. This Huan Shimin was the younger brother of Huan Shiqian.

十二月,甲辰,石虔襲擊振、仲,大破之,振、仲退保管城。石虔進攻之,癸亥,拔管城,獲振、仲,斬首七千級,俘虜萬人。詔封桓沖子謙為宜陽侯,以桓石虔領河東太守。

9. In the twelfth month, on the day Jiachen (January 8th of 382), Huan Shiqian attacked Yan Zhen and Wu Zhong, greatly routing them. Yan Zhen and Wu Zhong retreated to defend Guancheng. Huan Shiqian advanced and attacked it. On the day Guihai (January 27th of 382), he took Guancheng, and captured Yan Zhen and Wu Zhong. He executed seven thousand soldiers, and took ten thousand captives.

The Jin court appointed Huan Chong's son Huan Qian as Marquis of Yiyang, and they appointed Huan Shiqian as acting Administrator of Hedong.

竟陵,侯國,前漢屬江夏郡;惠帝分立竟陵郡。據《載記》,石虔襲破振、仲于滶水,振、仲退保管城。又據《水經》,沔水逕郡縣故城南,又東,滶水注之;滶水西南注于沔,寔曰滶口。沔水又南逕石城西;城因山爲固,晉竟陵郡所治也。以此考之,管城當在滶水北。沈約曰:成帝咸康三年,征西將軍庾亮以司州僑戶立南河東郡,屬荊州。《五代志》:南郡松滋縣,江左置河東郡。

(Jingling had originally been a marquisate during the Spring and Autumn era. During Former Han, it was part of Jiangxia commandary. Emperor Hui of Jin split it off as Jingling commandary.

According to the Biography of Fu Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Huan Shiqian routed Ma Zhen and Wu Zhong at the Ao River, and the two of them retreated to defend Guancheng. And according to the Water Classic, the Mian River flows through the commandary and counties south of the cities mentioned, and continues on east, where the Ao River flows into it. The place where the Ao River fills into the Mian River in the southwest is called Aokou. The Mian River then flows south, west of Shicheng. That city is fortified because of the mountains, and Jin's Jinling commandary was administered from there. From this, we can deduce that Guancheng was north of the Ao River.

Regarding the Hedong commandary mentioned here, the Book of Liu-Song states, "In Emperor Cheng's third year of Xiankang (337), the General Who Conquers The West, Yu Liang, settled the refugee households from Sizhou in the newly-created Southern Hedong commandary, as part of Jingzhou." The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "A surrogate version of Hedong commandary was established south of the Yangzi, in Songxi county in Nan commandary.")


是歲,江東大饑。

10. During this year, there was a great famine in the Southland.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:29 am

太元七年(壬午,公元三八二年)

The Seventh Year of Taiyuan (The Renwu Year, 382 AD)


秦大司農東海公陽、員外散騎侍郎王皮、尚書郎周虓謀反,事覺,收下廷尉。陽,法之子;皮,猛之子也。秦王堅問其反狀,陽曰:「臣父哀公死不以罪,臣為父復仇耳。」堅泣曰:「哀公之死,事不在朕,卿豈不知之!」王皮曰:「臣父丞相,有佐命之勳,而臣不免貧賤,故欲圖富貴耳。」堅曰:「丞相臨終托卿,以十具牛為治田之資,未嘗為卿求官。知子莫若父,何其明也!」周虓曰:「虓世荷晉恩,生為晉鬼,復何問乎!」先是,虓屢謀反叛,左右皆請殺之。堅曰:「孟威烈士,秉志如此,豈憚死乎!殺之適足成其名耳!」皆赦,不誅,徙陽於涼州之高昌郡,皮、虓於朔方之北。虓卒於朔方。陽勇力兼人,尋復徙鄯善。及建元之末,秦國大亂,陽劫鄯善之相,欲求東歸,鄯善王殺之。

1. In spring, the third month, Qin's Minister of Finance and Duke of Donghai, Fu Yang, their Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant of 員外, Wang Pi, and their Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Xiao, all plotted rebellion together. Their plot was discovered, and they were arrested and handed over to the Minister of Justice. This Fu Yang was the son of Fu Fa; this Wang Pi was the son of Wang Meng.

Fu Jian asked the three of them their reasons for rebellion. Fu Yang said, "My father, Duke Ai (Fu Fa), was executed despite committing no crime. I am doing no more than avenging him."

Fu Jian tearfully replied, "Duke Ai’s death was never my intention; how could you not know that?"

Wang Pi said, "My father was your Prime Minister, and he was diligent in carrying out your commands. Yet now I am penniless. I only wished to have wealth and glory."

Fu Jian replied, "When the Prime Minister gave me his final wishes, at that time he possessed nothing more than ten oxen to till his fields, and never once did he ask me to grant you an office on his behalf. How was I to know how different the father was from the son?"

Zhou Xiao said, "All my life I have received the favor of Jin. Even in death, my ghost will still serve them. What more need be said?"

Zhou Xiao had plotted against Qin several times already, so those who were with Fu Jian asked that he be put to death. But Fu Jian said, "Mengwei just wishes to make a martyr of himself. Do you think a man as determined as he is fears death? If I kill him, that will only add to his reputation!"

Fu Jian pardoned the three plotters, and did not execute them. But he exiled Fu Yang to Gaochang commandary in Liangzhou, and he exiled Wang Pi and Zhou Xiao to the lands north of Shuofang. Zhou Xiao passed away at Shuofang.

Fu Yang was a man of both courage and strength. He afterwards moved to the kingdom of Shanshan (in modern Xinjiang). At the end of Qin's Jianyuan reign era (~385), when Qin was in great chaos, Fu Yang tried to compel the ministers of Shanshan, wishing to return east again, but the King of Shanshan killed him.

【章:十二行本「年」下有「春三月」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】《晉‧職官志》:散騎侍郎四人,魏初與散騎常侍同置;員外散騎侍郎,晉武帝置。法死見一百卷穆帝升平元年。徵諸《晉志》,河西張氏未嘗置高昌郡。苻堅之平河西也,以高昌楊幹爲高昌太守。疑張氏置是郡,苻氏因之。高昌,卽漢車師後部高昌壁之地,註又見後。建元十九年,堅伐晉而敗,秦遂以亂。二十年,堅死,是建元十八年也。史終言之。

(Some versions state that this event was "in spring, the third month".

The chapter on Government Service in the Book of Jin states, "There are four Cavalier Gentlemen-Attendants of 散騎. The office was created by Cao-Wei, along with the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) further created the office of Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant of 員外."

Fu Fa's death is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (357.24).

According to the Records of Jin, the Zhang clan of Former Liang never made a Gaochang commandary. But when Fu Jian conquered Hexi, he appointed Yang Gan of Gaochang as the Administrator of Gaochang. If the Zhang clan did not make this commandary, then the Fu clan of Former Qin must have. Gaochang commandary was established around the Gaochang fortress built by the descendants of the Jushi people from the Han era, as will be noted later.

In Former Qin's nineteenth year of Jianyuan (383), Fu Jian campaigned against Jin but was defeated, and Former Qin then fell into chaos. In the twentieth year (384), Fu Jian died. So this year (382) was the eighteenth year of Jianyuan.

This is the only passage in the Zizhi Tongjian that mentions Fu Yang's later fate.)


秦王堅徙鄴銅駝、銅馬、飛廉、翁仲於長安。

2. Fu Jian relocated the Bronze Camel, the Bronze Horse, the Feilian image, and the Bronze Men statues from Ye to Chang'an.

石虎所置於鄴者。

(These were the same statues that Shi Hu had moved from Luoyang to Ye, as noted in Book 95 (336.13).)


八年三月,徙鄴銅駝、銅馬、飛廉、翁仲于長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the eighteenth year of Jianyuan (382), the third month, Fu Jian relocated the Bronze Camel, the Bronze Horse, the Feilian image, and the Bronze Men statues from Ye to Chang'an.


夏,四月,堅扶風太守王永為幽刺史。永,皮之兄也。皮凶險無行,而永清修好學,故堅用之。以陽平公融為司徒,融固辭不受。堅方謀伐晉,乃以融為征南大將軍、開府儀同三司。

3. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian appointed the Administrator of Fufeng, Wang Yong, as Inspector of Youzhou. This Wang Yong was Wang Pi's older brother. Where Wang Pi was ruthless and lacking in proper conduct, Wang Yong was pure, amenable, and studious, and so Fu Jian made use of him.

Fu Jian appointed Fu Rong as Minister Over The Masses, but Fu Rong firmly declined the post. Fu Jian was planning for a grand campaign against Jin, so he appointed Fu Rong as Grand General Who Conquers The South and granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

五月,幽州蝗生,廣袤千里。秦王堅使散騎常侍彭城劉蘭發幽、冀、青、並民撲除之。

4. In the fifth month, locusts appeared in Youzhou, a swarm stretching for a thousand li. Fu Jian sent the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Liu Lan of Pengcheng, to help the people of Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou drive them away.

秋,八月,癸卯,大赦。

5. In autumn, the eight month, on the day Guimao (September 4th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

秦王堅以諫方大夫裴元略為巴西、樟潼二郡太守,使密具舟師。

6. Fu Jian appointed the Grandee Remonstrant, Pei Yuanlüe, as the Administrator of Baxi and Zhangtong, and sent him to secretly construct ships.

欲祖王濬之故智,順流東下而伐晉也。

(Fu Jian planned to use the same plan that Wang Jun had devised during the conquest of Eastern Wu: he would use these boats to sail east down the Yangzi for a campaign against Jin.)


九月,車師前部王彌窴、鄯善王休密馱入朝於秦,請為鄉導,以伐西域之不服者,因如漢法置都護以統理之。秦王堅以驍騎將軍呂光為使持節、都督西域征討諸軍事,與凌江將軍姜飛、輕車將軍彭晃、將軍杜進、康盛等總兵十萬,鐵騎五千,以伐西域。陽平公融諫曰:「西域荒遠,得其民不可使,得其地不可食,漢武征之,得不補失。今勞師萬里之外,以踵漢氏之過舉,臣竊惜之。」不聽。

7. In the ninth month, King Mitian of Nearer Jushi and King Xiumite of Shanshan, two states in the Western Reaches, came to the Qin court. They offered to serve as guides for the Qin army, asking that a campaign be launched against those in the Western Reaches who would not submit to Qin, just as when the Han dynasty had established its protectorates there. Fu Jian appointed the General of Agile Cavalry, Lü Guang, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Commander of the Expeditionary Force against the Western Reaches, and he sent him, the General Who Surpasses The Yangzi, Jiang Fei, the General of Light Chariots, Peng Huang, the generals Du Jin and Kang Sheng, and others to lead a hundred thousand soldiers and five thousand Iron Cavalry to campaign against the Western Reaches.

Fu Rong criticized the campaign, saying, "The Western Reaches are desolate and distant places. If we conquered the people there, we would not be able to use them. If we took the territory, we would not be able to keep it sustained. Emperor Wu of Han campaigned there, but he lost more than he gained from it. Now you, too, want to send an army ten thousand li into the distance? You would just be making the same mistake as Han did before you. I truly believe that you will regret this."

But Fu Jian did not listen to him.

馱,堂何翻。淩江將軍,晉文王所置,以授羅憲。杜進、康盛位至將軍,未有將軍號。謂漢武伐之[大]宛,破樓蘭、姑師,田車師也。

(The third character in Xiumite's name, 馱, is pronounced "te (t-e)".

General Who Surpasses The Yangzi was a title created by King Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao), to confer on Luo Xian, in recognition of his defensive victory at Yong'an against Eastern Wu (Book 78, 264.21 in Fang's Chronicles).

Du Jin and Kang Sheng were only Generals, and they did not have any particular General titles.

Fu Rong refers to Emperor Wu's campaign against Dayuan, where he conquered Krorän (Loulan) and Gushi and ruled over the Jushi.)


堅既平山東,士馬強盛,遂有圖西域之志,乃授光使持節、都督西討諸軍事,率將軍姜飛、彭晃、杜進、康盛等總兵七萬,鐵騎五千,以討西域,以隴西董方、馮翊郭抱、武威賈虔、弘農楊穎為四府佐將。堅太子宏執光手曰:「君器相非常,必有大福,宜深保愛。」(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Since Fu Jian had now pacified all the regions east of the mountains (east of Luoyang), and he had strong soldiers and horses in abundance, he harbored ambitions of conquering the Western Reaches. So he appointed Lü Guang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Commander of the Western Expeditionary Force. Lü Guang commanded an army of seventy thousand soldiers and five thousand Iron Cavalry to campaign against the Western Reaches, under the command of the generals Jiang Fei, Peng Huang, Du Jin, Kang Sheng, and others. Dong Fang of Longxi, Guo Bao of Pingyi, Jia Qian of Wuwei, and Yang Ying of Hongnong served as the Assistant Generals of the Four Garrisons. Fu Jian's Crown Prince, Fu Hong, took Lü Guang's hand and said, "Sir, your equipment is quite uncommon, and you will certainly meet with great fortune. You should deeply protect your love."

堅以光為驍騎將軍,率眾七千討西域。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Fu Jian appointed Lü Guang as General of Agile Cavalry and sent him with an army of seven thousand to campaign against the Western Reaches.


桓沖使揚威將軍朱綽擊秦荊州刺史都貴於襄陽,焚踐沔北屯田,掠六百餘戶而還。

8. Huan Chong sent the General Who Displays Might, Zhu Chuo, to attack Dou Gui at Xiangyang. The Jin army burned and pillaged the fields north of the Mian River, captured more than six hundred households, and returned.

冬,十月,秦王堅會群臣於太極殿,議曰:「自吾承業,垂三十載,四方略定,唯東南一隅,未沾王化。今略計吾士卒,可得九十七萬,吾欲自將以討之,何如?」秘書監朱肜曰:「陛下恭行天罰,必有征無戰,晉主不銜璧軍門,則走死江海,陛下返中國士民,使復其桑梓,然後回輿東巡,告成岱宗,此千載一時也!」堅喜曰:「是吾志也。」

9. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jian held a meeting of his ministers in the Taiji Palace. He began the discussion by saying, "It has been nearly three decades now since I took up the burden of state. The four corners of the realm are nearly pacified, and only the Southland in its corner remains untouched by royal authority. If we reckon the current amount of troops we possess, we have the capacity to field nine hundred and seventy thousand soldiers. I wish to personally lead them in a campaign to conquer Jin. What say you all?"

Zhu Yong said, "Your Majesty will march forth, acting as the bringer of Heaven's punishment, and your campaign will succeed without any need for battles. If the lord of Jin does not present himself before our army camp holding his jade in his mouth, then he shall merely flee to his death among the rivers and seas. Then Your Majesty may bring the people of the Middle Kingdom back to their former homes, and restore them to their homeland that they once knew. After that, you may make an imperial procession to the east, and report your deeds to your ancestors on Daizong (Mount Tai). This is an opportunity that only comes once in a thousand years!"

Fu Jian happily replied, "That is truly my ambition."

堅以升平元年自立,至是凡二十六年。惟年之久長,懼于不終,尚庶幾焉;乃欲疲民以逞,宜其亡也。謂永嘉之末避亂南渡之子孫也。杜佑曰:岱宗,東岳也。特謂太山爲岱宗者,以其處東北,居寅丑之間,萬物終始之地,陰陽交代之所,爲衆山之宗,故曰岱宗。

(Fu Jian had taken the throne of Former Qin in the first year of Shengping (357), so it had been twenty-six years since then. However, the coming year would be a long one, full of never-ending dread, as his just reward. But by bringing suffering to the people in order to satisfy his obsession, Fu Jian deserved his ruin.

Zhu Yong refers to the descendants of the people who had fled south across the Yangzi during the chaos of the Yongjia reign era.

The Tongdian states, "Daizong is the Eastern Mountain. In particular, Daizong refers to Mount Tai, which is in the northeast, and resides within Yinchou. It is the source of all creation, the place where Yin and Yang join, a mountain honored by the multitude, so it is called Daizong.")


十月,堅引羣臣於太極殿,議曰:「東南一隅,未賓王化。今欲起天下兵討之,計其精卒九十七萬,吾將先啓行,薄伐南裔。此行也,朕與陽平公之任,非諸將之事。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the tenth month, Fu Jian assembled his ministers in the Taiji Palace. He proposed to them, "Only the Southland in its corner remains untouched by royal authority. I now wish to raise the soldiers of the realm to campaign against them. If we reckon the current amount of troops we possess, we have the capacity to field nine hundred and seventy thousand elite soldiers. I wish to personally lead them on ahead, to conduct this little campaign against the southern regions. This shall be a task for me to share with the Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong); my other generals need not be involved."


尚書左僕射權翼曰:「昔紂為無道,三仁在朝,武王猶為之旋師。今晉雖微弱,未有大惡。謝安、桓沖皆江表偉人,君臣輯睦,內外同心。以臣觀之,未可圖也。」堅嘿然良久,曰:「諸君各言其志。」

10. The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Quan Yi, said, "In ancient times, King Zhou of Shang was without principle. But it was only after the three men of virtue in his court met their fates that King Wu of Zhou became the leader of the revolt against him. In our day, although Jin is indeed isolated and weak, they have not yet become so great an evil as King Zhou was. Xie An and Huan Chong are both powerful men of the Southland gentry, and the relations between lord and ministers are harmonious: all without and within are of one mind. In my view, this conquest cannot yet be accomplished."

Fu Jian was left silent for a long time, before saying, "Let the other gentlemen express their views as well."

《論語》:微子去之,箕子爲之奴,比干諫而死。孔子曰:「殷有三仁焉。」《史記》:武王卽位九年,東觀兵至于盟津,諸侯不期而會者八百,皆曰:「紂可伐矣。」武王曰:「未可也。」乃還師。居二年,紂暴虐滋甚,殺王子比干,囚箕子,微子奔周。武王告諸侯曰:「殷有重罪,不可不伐!」遂滅之。

(The Analects states, "The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Ji became a slave to King Zhou. Bigan remonstrated with him and died. Confucius said, 'The Yin (Shang) dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.' (Weizi 1)"

The Records of the Grand Historian states, "In the ninth year since King Wu of Zhou rose to the throne, he came east to Meng Crossing and reviewed his soldiers. Eight hundred nobles came to see him without any prior arrangement, and they all urged him, 'You can campaign against King Zhou.' But King Wu said, 'It cannot be done yet.' And he led his soldiers back. Over the next two years, King Zhou's cruelty and barbarism grew extreme. He killed Prince Bigan and imprisoned the Viscount of Ji, and the Viscount of Wei fled to Zhou. Then King Wu told the nobles, 'Now that Yin's crimes have grown so great, we can do nothing else but campaign against them!' And he extinguished Yin.")


太子左衛率石越曰:「今歲鎮守斗,福德在吳。伐之,必有天殃。且彼據長江之險,民為之用,殆未可伐也!」堅曰:「昔武王伐紂,逆歲違卜。天道幽遠,未易可知。夫差、孫皓皆保據江湖,不免於亡。今以吾之眾,投鞭於江,足斷其流,又何險之足恃乎!」對曰:「三國之君皆淫虐無道,故敵國取之,易於拾遺。今晉雖無德,未有大罪,願陛下且案兵積穀,以待其釁。」於是群臣各言利害,久之不決。堅曰:「此所謂築室道旁,無時可成。吾當內斷於心耳!」

11. The Crown Prince's Guard Leader of the Left, Shi Yue, said, "The Year Star and the Guard Star are currently residing in the Southern Dipper. This means that fortune and virtue lies with Wu. If we launch a campaign against them now, it will certainly invite Heaven's wrath. Furthermore, they possess the natural defenses of the Yangzi, and the common people support them. This campaign would be almost impossible!"

Fu Jian replied, "In ancient times, when King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, he violated the Year Star and he ignored the divinations, but he was still victorious. Heaven's course is hidden and distant, and not easily discerned. And King Fuchai of Wu and Sun Hao of Eastern Wu both held fast to defending their rivers and lakes, yet neither could avoid their doom. As for my own mighty host, if they all cast their whips into the Yangzi, that alone would stop its flow. Why then should we be afraid of natural defenses?"

Shi Yue said, "The three lords whom you have just mentioned were all licentious and cruel, and they did not follow the right path. It was for that reason that when their enemies conquered them, it was as easy as picking something off the ground. But in our time, even if Jin may have lost virtue, they have not committed any crimes as great as those old kings. I urge Your Majesty to only keep the soldiers prepared and the grain supplies in order, and await some new development or dispute in Jin to take advantage of."

The other ministers each had their own words to share of the advantages or disadvantages of the plan, and after a long time no decision had been reached. Fu Jian said, "This has just been ‘asking wayfarers on the road how to build one's own house’; this wasted time has achieved nothing. I must simply rely upon my own decision!"

歲,木星。鎭,土星。斗、牛、女,吳、越、揚州分。《荀子》曰:武王之誅紂也,東面而迎太歲。楊倞《註》曰:迎,謂逆太歲也。《尸子》曰:武王伐紂,魚辛諫曰:「歲在北方,不可北征。」武王不從。《史記‧齊世家》:武王將伐紂,卜龜,兆不吉,風雨暴至,羣公盡懼。唯太公強之,勸武王,武王遂行。三國之君,謂紂、夫差、孫晧。《詩》曰:如彼築室于道謀,是用不潰于成。

(The Year Star is Jupiter, and the Guard Star is Saturn. The Southern Dipper, Ox, and Girl constellations correspond to Wu, Yue, and Yangzhou.

The Xunzi states, "When King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, he met the Year Star hanging in the east." (儒效.18) Yang Jing's Annotations adds, "By 'met', it means that he violated the Year Star." The Shizi states, "When King Wu campaigned against King Zhou, Yu Xin remonstrated with him, saying, 'The Year Star is in the north. You may not campaign against the north.' King Wu did not heed him." The Hereditary Records of Qi in the Records of the Grand Historian states, "When King Wu was about to campaign against King Zhou, he consulted the tortoise shells in divination. The reading was unfavorable. Violent winds and rains came up, and all the lords were greatly afraid. Only the Grand Duke (Jiang Ziya) remained strong, and he urged King Wu to march, so King Wu followed his advice."

The three lords were King Zhou, Fuchai, and Sun Hao.

The Book of Poetry has this verse: "They are like one taking counsel with wayfarers about building a house, which will consequently never come to completion. (Decades of Sheng Min 4)")


群臣皆出,獨留陽平公融,謂之曰:「自古定大事者,不過一二臣而已。今眾言紛紛,徒亂人意,吾當與汝決之。」對曰:「今伐晉有三難:天道不順,一也;晉國無釁,二也;我數戰兵疲,民有畏敵之心,三也。群臣言晉不可伐者,皆忠臣也,願陛下聽之。」堅作色曰:「汝亦如此,吾復何望!吾強兵百萬,資仗如山;吾雖未為令主,亦非暗劣。乘累捷之勢,擊垂亡之國,何患不克,豈可復留此殘寇,使長為國家之憂哉!」融泣曰:「晉未可滅,昭然甚明。今勞師大舉,恐無萬全之功。且臣之所憂,不止於此。陛下寵育鮮卑、羌、羯,佈滿畿甸,此屬皆我之深仇。太子獨與弱卒數萬留守京師,臣懼有不虞之變生於腹心肘掖,不可悔也。臣之頑愚,誠不足采;王景略一時英傑,陛下常比之諸葛武侯,獨不記其臨沒之言乎!」堅不聽。於是朝臣進諫者眾,堅曰:「以吾擊晉,校其強弱之勢,猶疾風之掃秋葉,而朝廷內外皆言不可,誠吾所不解也!」

12. After all the other ministers had departed, Fu Jian had Fu Rong remain behind. Fu Jian said to him, "When the ancients decided on great endeavors, there was never need to discuss with more than one or two ministers. You see how this discussion just now has only caused confusion, and just caused everyone to be uncertain. So let us decide this matter just between the two of us."

Fu Rong replied, "This campaign against Jin has three difficulties. You would be violating Heaven's will, which is the first; there is no contention within Jin, which is the second; and our soldiers are weary from many battles, and the people fear the enemy in their hearts, which is the third. Those ministers who say that Jin cannot be campaigned against are loyal to you, and I pray that Your Majesty will listen to them."

Fu Jian, becoming agitated, said, "So, even you are the same way. So much for hoping otherwise! I have a million strong soldiers, and funds and weapons piled up like a mountain. I may not be the ideal ruler, but I am not some blind fool either. My power has grown from numerous victories, and I have attacked and taken many states. Why should I be worried that I will not succeed? How can I continue to permit these remaining enemies to exist, and let them bring worry and concern to our state?"

Fu Rong tearfully replied, "Jin cannot be extinguished yet; that is all too clear. If you insist upon this grand undertaking now, I fear you cannot ensure success. And that is not even the only thing that I am worried about. Your Majesty has favored and nurtured the Xianbei, the Qiang, and the Jie, and you have filled the capital region with them. But they are all our hated enemies. The Crown Prince would be left alone with only weak myriads of men to defend the capital. I fear that if those tribes should refuse to see themselves as our captives any longer, and strike against us in our very heart and stomach, it would be too late for regrets. Please forgive my foolishness, but I speak the truth. Wang Jinglüe (Wang Meng) was a hero in his time, and Your Majesty was always comparing him to the Marquis Wu, Zhuge Liang. But you have not remembered his final words to you!"

But Fu Jian did not listen to him.

There were a great many ministers who would step forward to remonstrate with Fu Jian, but he said to them, "When I attack Jin, we shall prove who is strong and who is weak. I shall blow them aside like autumn leaves before a gale! Yet every last one of you says that it cannot be done. I truly do not understand you!"

漢魏相有言:恃國家之大,矜人民之衆,欲見威於敵者,謂之驕兵,兵驕者滅。其苻堅之謂歟!見上卷寧康三年。

(Wei Xiang of Han had a saying: "The most important thing is to treat the state well and sympathize with the people. If you wish to see a powerful enemy, boast of your soldiers, for the soldiers you boast of will be vanquished." Yet Fu Jian could still say things like this!

Wang Meng's final words are mentioned in Book 103, in the third year of Ningkang (375.4).)


太子宏曰:「今歲在吳分,又晉君無罪,若大舉不捷,恐威名外挫,財力內竭,此群下所以疑也!」堅曰:「昔吾滅燕,亦犯歲而捷,天道固難知也。秦滅六國,六國之君豈皆暴虐乎!」

13. The Crown Prince, Fu Hong, said to Fu Jian, "The Year Star is hanging over Wu, and the lord of Jin has committed no offenses. If the great endeavor is not successful, I fear your martial reputation shall be tarnished without, and our resources and strength shall be exhausted within. This is why the ministers all question you!"

Fu Jian replied, "When I conquered Yan, I also violated the Year Star, but we were still triumphant. Heaven's course cannot easily be known. Besides, when the Qin dynasty conquered the other six states, do you mean to say that every one of those rulers was also a cruel tyrant?"

冠軍、京兆尹慕容垂言於堅曰:「弱並於強,小並於大,此理勢自然,非難知也。以陛下神武應期,威加海外,虎旅百萬,韓、白滿朝,而蕞爾江南,獨違王命,豈可復留之以遺子孫哉!《詩》云:『謀夫孔多,是用不集。』陛下斷自聖心足矣,何必廣詢朝眾!晉武平吳,所仗者張、杜二三臣而已,若從朝眾之言,豈有混壹之功乎!」堅大悅,曰:「與吾共定天下者,獨卿而已。」賜帛五百匹。

14. Murong Chui said to Fu Jian, "The weak yield to the strong, and the small to the mighty; this is the natural order of things, and who does not know it? Your Majesty has a divine martial talent that is suited to the age, and your might is felt beyond the seas. You have your million ferocious tigers, and there are many men in your court who are the equals of Bai Qi and Han Xin. Only the pitiful Southland remains in defiance of your royal command. How can you leave this threat behind for your descendants to deal with?

“The Book of Poetry states, 'The counsellors are very many, but on that account nothing is accomplished.' It is enough for you to follow your own sage counsel; why bother inquiring among the entire court? When Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) conquered Wu, he only consulted with two or three people like Zhang Hua and Du Yu; that was enough to decide him. Had he followed the words of his whole court, how would he ever have accomplished the final quelling of the chaos in the realm?"

Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and said, "You alone are the one who may settle the realm with me." And he gave Murong Chui five hundred bolts of silk.

《晉書‧載記》所書,率書將軍號而不繫將軍;《通鑑》因之。言秦多良將也。《詩‧小旻》之辭。事見八十卷武帝咸寧五年。

(This passage lists Murong Chui's rank as Champion General, but technically it only says "Champion" and not "General". In all the books of the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, it is sometimes the case that "General" is not added when listing the titles of generals. The Zizhi Tongjian has followed this example.

Murong Chui argues that Former Qin had many fine generals who were just as skilled as the ancient generals Bai Qi and Han Xin.

The quote from the Book of Poetry is from Xiao Min 3.

Jin's discussion concerning the feasibility of the conquest of Eastern Wu is mentioned in Book 80, in Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) fifth year of Xianning (279).)


堅銳意欲取江東,寢不能旦。陽平公融諫曰:「『知足不辱,知止不殆。』自古窮兵極武,未有不亡者。且國家本戎狄也,正朔會不歸人。江東雖微弱僅存,然中華正統,天意必不絕之。」堅曰:「帝王歷數,豈有常邪!惟德之所在耳!劉禪豈非漢之苗裔邪,終為魏所滅。汝所以不如吾者,正病此不達變通耳!」

15. After Fu Jian fixed his determination to conquer the Southland, he could no longer sleep; he remained awake until dawn. Fu Rong remonstrated with him, saying, "You must 'know when to move to avoid disgrace, and know when to stop to avoid danger'. Of all the rulers of old who spent their whole army in total aggression, every one of them was brought to ruin. Furthermore, our state’s origin comes from the Rong and Di people. The mandate of Heaven has been passed down among the Han people, and it cannot come to us. Although the Southland is weak and feeble, merely clinging to existence, it holds the legitimate mandate to rule over Zhonghua, and it is Heaven’s will that it continue to do so."

Fu Jian replied, "When has the succession of rulers ever been so fixed? Can one rule by virtue alone? And can it really be claimed that Liu Shan was not the successor to Han’s legacy? Yet he was overrun by Wei just the same. You cannot be compared with me; this obsession with legitimacy cannot adapt to the changing circumstances!"

《老子‧德經‧立戒篇》之辭。言大要中國正朔相傳,不歸夷狄也。

(Fu Rong quotes from the 立戒篇 section of Laozi's Dao De Jing. He is saying that the traditional mandate of the Middle Kingdom could not go to tribal peoples like them.)


堅素信重沙門道安,群臣使道安乘間進言。十一月,堅與道安同輦游於東苑,堅曰:「朕將與公南遊吳、越,泛長江,臨滄海,不亦樂乎!」安曰:「陛下應天御世,居中土而制四維,自足比隆堯、舜,何必櫛風沐雨,經略遐方乎!且東南卑濕,沴氣易構,虞舜游而不歸,大禹往而不復。何足以上勞大駕也!」堅曰:「天生烝民,而樹之君,使司牧之,朕豈敢憚勞,使彼一方獨不被澤乎!必如公言,是古之帝王皆無征伐也!」道安曰:「必不得已,陛下宜駐蹕洛陽,遣使者奉尺書於前,諸將總六師於後,彼必稽首入臣,不必親涉江、淮也。」堅不聽。

16. Fu Jian had long held the Buddhist sramana monk Dao'an in high regard. The ministers sent Dao'an to advance their cause to Fu Jian.

In the eleventh month, Fu Jian and Dao'an rode together in the same carriage through the Eastern Garden. Fu Jian said, "Soon you and I shall travel south into Wu and Yue, cross the Yangzi, and linger on the shore of the dark-green sea. Won't that also be a pleasing sight?"

Dao'an said, "Your Majesty should heed Heaven's wish for the world. You occupy the center, and you wield influence over the four sides. It would be best for you to emulate the examples of Yao and Shun. What need to let yourself be lashed by the wind or drenched by the rain, and venture off to distant lands? Besides, the southeast is an inferior, damp place, plagued with foul miasma. Remember that Yu Shun traveled there but did not return, and Yu the Great wandered there but never came back. Why expose yourself to such labors?"

Fu Jian replied, "When Heaven created the people, it cultivated a lord for them, to shepherd and guide them. How can I dare to shirk that burden, and not extend my favor even to the enemy in their corner of the realm? If rulers acted as you suggest, no kings and emperors of old would have ever conquered anyone!"

Dao'an said, "It need not be thus. It would be suitable for Your Majesty to linger at Luoyang, sending envoys before with word of your orders, and chiefs and generals to lead the six armies behind. Then the other side will surely kowtow to you and become your vassals, and you need not yourself wade across the Yangzi and the Huai River."

But Fu Jian did not listen to him.

道安在襄陽,堅破襄陽,輿而致之。五行之氣相克勝則爲沴氣。虞舜南巡狩,崩于蒼梧之野。禹東巡狩,至于會稽而崩。

(Dao'an had been living in Xiangyang. When Fu Jian captured Xiangyang (in 379), he brought Dao'an back with him.

In the Five Elements theory, the wind that surpasses the mutual overcoming is miasma.

When Yu Shun went on a hunting procession through the south, he perished in the field at Cangwu. And when Yu the Great went on a hunting procession in the east, he made it as far as Kuaiji and then perished.)


左右僕射權翼、沙門道安、陽平公融、尚書石越等上書固諫,前後數十,堅不納。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

The Supervisor of the Left and Right, Quan Yi, the sramana monk, Dao'an, the Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, the Master of Writing, Shi Yue, and others all sent up petitions firmly remonstrating with Fu Jian against the proposed campaign; there were dozens of them in all. But Fu Jian would not heed their advice.


堅所幸張夫人諫曰:「妾聞天地之生萬物,聖王之治天下,皆因其自然而順之,故功無不成。是以黃帝服牛乘馬,因其性也;禹浚九川,障九澤,因其勢也;後稷播殖百谷,因其時也;湯、武帥天下而攻桀、紂,因其心也。皆有因則成,無因則敗。今朝野之人皆言晉不可伐,陛下獨決意行之,妾不知陛下何所因也。《書》曰:『天聰明自我民聰明。』天猶因民,而況人乎!妾又聞王者出師,必上觀天道,下順人心。今人心既不然矣,請驗之天道。諺云:『雞夜鳴者不利行師,犬群嗥者宮室將空,兵動馬驚,軍敗不歸。』自秋、冬以來,眾雞夜鳴,群犬哀嗥,廄馬多驚,武庫兵器自動有聲,此皆非出師之祥也。」堅曰:「軍旅之事,非婦人所當預也!」

17. Fu Jian's consort, Lady Zhang, also remonstrated with him. She said, "I have heard that when Heaven and Earth bore all creation, and the sage kings governed the realm, everything and everyone followed the natural order of things, and so every endeavor was a success. The reason the Yellow Emperor could harness cattle and saddle horses because he treated them according to their nature; Yu the Great could tame the nine rivers and fill in the nine marshes because he channeled them according to their power; Houji could sow and spread the hundred grains because he planted them according to their proper timing; King Tang and King Wu could lead the realm to overthrow King Jie and King Zhou because they followed the inclinations of people’s hearts. All who have followed the natural order have known success; all who have not followed it have suffered defeat.

“Now everyone, both within the court and out in the country, all say that Jin cannot be conquered, yet Your Majesty still has your heart set on campaigning against them. I do not know Your Majesty's reasons for this. The Book of Documents states, 'Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see'. When even Heaven follows the people, how much more must mortals such as we! I have also heard that when a king leads his army, he must pay heed to Heaven's course above, and obey the people's wishes below. But now, men’s hearts do not accord with this campaign, and you have been told of Heaven’s dangers.

“The proverb says, 'When chickens cluck in the night, it is not favorable to send the army; when dogs howl, the palaces will soon be left empty. When the weapons rattle and the horses are restless, the army will be defeated and will not return.' Now all through the autumn and winter, there have been many chickens clucking at night, and many dogs howling mournfully. The stable horses have been very restless, and the soldiers' weapons in the Arsenal have been rattling all on their own. All this is a sign that the army should not be sent out."

But Fu Jian replied, "Army affairs are nothing for a wife to speak of!"

言因牛馬之性,故可引重而致遠。言因高下之勢,故可滌源而陂澤。因天時而播殖,則百穀成。因人心而用兵,則天下服。《書‧皋陶謨》之辭。

(Lady Zhang meant that because of the nature of cattle and horses, they can be tamed and brought far. Yu could use the nature of the heights to cleanse the rivers and fill the marshes. Because of the proper timing, Houji's seeds could sprout and multiply, and the hundred grains be harvested. Because of men’s hearts, the kings could use their soldiers, and the realm obeyed them.

The quote from the Book of Documents is from the Counsels of Gao Yao.)


苻堅妾張氏,不知何許人,明辯有才識。堅將入寇江左,群臣切諫不從。張氏進曰:「妾聞天地之生萬物,聖王之馭天下,莫不順其性而暢之,故黃帝服牛乘馬,因其性也,禹鑿龍門,決洪河,因水之勢也;後稷之播殖百穀,因地之氣也;湯武之滅夏商,因人之欲也。是以有因成,無因敗。今朝臣上下皆言不可,陛下復何所因也?書曰:'天聰明自我民聰明。'天猶若此,況於人主乎!妾聞人君有伐國之志者,必上觀乾象,下采眾祥。天道崇遠,非妾所知。以人事言之,未見其可。諺言:「雞夜鳴者不利行師,犬群唕者宮室必空,兵動馬驚,軍敗不歸。」秋冬已來,每夜群犬大嗥,眾雞夜鳴,伏聞廄馬驚逸,武庫兵器有聲,吉凶之理,誠非微妾所論,願陛下詳而思之。」堅曰:「軍旅之事非婦人所豫也。」遂興兵。(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Lady Zhang of Former Qin)

Fu Jian's consort was Lady Zhang; she was of unknown place of origin. She handled affairs perceptively, possessing ability and insight.

When Fu Jian was about to begin his invasion across the Yangzi, his ministers all fiercely remonstrated with him, but Fu Jian ignored them. Lady Zhang said to him, "I have heard that when Heaven and Earth bore all creation, and the sage kings governed the realm, there was nothing that went against its nature and acted uninhibited. The reason the Yellow Emperor could harness cattle and saddle horses because he treated them according to their nature; Yu the Great could carve the Dragon Gate and master the flood waters of the Yellow River because he channeled them according to their power; Houji could sow and spread the hundred grains because he planted them according to their proper timing; King Tang and King Wu could lead the realm to overthrow King Jie and King Zhou because they followed the inclinations of people’s hearts. All who have followed the natural order have known success; all who have not followed it have suffered defeat.

"Now the ministers of the court all say that Jin cannot be attacked, so why does Your Majesty insist upon it? The Book of Documents states, 'Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see'. When even Heaven follows the people, how much more must mortals rulers do the same! I have also heard that when a king leads his army, he must pay heed to the portents and omens above and pick out the good fortune of the multitude below. Although Heaven's ways are sublime and distant, beyond my understanding, I have not yet seen any instance of the people saying that this campaign will be possible.

"The proverb says, 'When chickens cluck in the night, it is not favorable to send the army; when dogs howl, the palaces will soon be left empty. When the weapons rattle and the horses are restless, the army will be defeated and will not return.' Now all through the autumn and winter, every night many dogs have been howling greatly, and all the chickens cluck in the night. And I have heard that the stable horses have been very restless, and the soldiers' weapons in the Arsenal have been rattling. These are signs of ill fortune. Please do not disregard all that I have brought up. May Your Majesty ponder these things and reconsider."

But Fu Jian replied, "Army affairs are nothing for a wife to speak of." And he sent out the soldiers.


堅幼子中山公詵最有寵,亦諫曰:「臣聞國之興亡,系賢人之用捨。今陽平公,國之謀主,而陛下違之;晉有謝安、桓沖,而陛下伐之,臣竊惑之。」堅曰:「天下大事,孺子安知!」

18. Out of all of Fu Jian's sons, his most favorite was his youngest, the Duke of Zhongshan, Fu Shen. But Fu Shen also remonstrated with his father. He said, "I have heard that the rise and fall of states depends upon whether or not it employs worthy men. Now the Duke of Yangping is the leading advisor of the state, but Your Majesty goes against him. Jin has Xie An and Huan Chong, and yet Your Majesty would campaign against them. I must relate my bewilderment."

But Fu Jian replied, "What does a child know of great affairs of the realm?"

秦劉蘭討蝗,經秋冬不能滅。十二月,有司奏請征蘭下廷尉。秦王堅曰:「災降自天,非人力所能除,此由朕之失政,蘭何罪乎?」

19. In Youzhou, Liu Lan tried to eradicate the locusts, but autumn and winter had passed and he still was not able to exterminate them. In the twelfth month, the ministers sent in a petition asking Liu Lan to be summoned back to the capital and handed over to the Minister of Justice. But Fu Jian replied, "Calamities are sent from Heaven; they cannot be overcome by human effort. These locusts are a sign of my misrule. What crime has Liu Lan committed?"

是歲,秦大熟,上田畝收七十石,下者三十石,蝗不出幽州境,不食麻豆,上田畝收百石,下者五十石。

20. During this year, Qin had an exceptional harvest. The better fields yielded seventy 石 per 畝, while the lesser fields yielded thirty 石 per 畝. The locusts did not go beyond Youzhou, nor did they consume the flax or beans. Crop yields there were a hundred 石 per 畝 in the better fields, or fifty 石 per 畝 in the lesser fields.

物反常爲妖。蝗之爲災尚矣,蝗生而不食五穀,妖之大者也。農人服田力穡,至於有秋,自古以來,未有畝收百石、七十石之理,而畝收五十石、三十石,亦未之聞也。使其誠有之,又豈非反常之大者乎!使其無之,則州縣相與誣飾以罔上,亦不祥之大者也,秦亡宜矣!

(What this passage claims is simply an outlandish lie. Locusts are a scourge. What greater lie could there be than to say that locusts came, but they did not eat any of the five grains? Furthermore, it has been the case since antiquity that whenever the farmers exert themselves in their field work, by the time autumn approaches, it is completely unreasonable to expect them to harvest seventy or a hundred 石 per 畝, and not even fifty or thirty 石 per 畝 has been heard of. If what this passage claims was the truth, then it would have been an absolutely extraordinary occurrence! But if we assume that it is false, then the county ministers and the overseers must have been deceiving their superiors, who for their part did not look into the matter too closely. Former Qin deserved to fall!)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Sep 23, 2018 6:34 am, edited 18 times in total.
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BOOK 105

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 06, 2017 5:08 pm

太元八年(癸未,公元三八三年)

The Eighth Year of Taiyuan (The Guiwei Year, 383 AD)


春,正月,秦呂光發長安,以鄯善王休密馱、車師前部王彌窴為鄉導。

1. In spring, the first month, the Qin general Lü Guang set out from Chang'an to the Western Reaches with his army, with the King of Shanshan, Xiumite, and the King of Nearer Jushi, Mitian, to serve as his guides.

三月,丁巳,大赦。

2. In the third month, on the day Dingsi (May 16th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

夏,五月,桓沖帥眾十萬伐秦,攻襄陽;遣前將軍劉波等攻沔北諸城;輔國將軍楊亮攻蜀,拔五城,進攻涪城;鷹揚將軍郭銓攻武當。六月,沖別將攻萬歲、築陽,拔之。秦王堅遣征南將軍巨鹿公睿、冠軍將軍慕容垂等帥步騎五萬救襄陽,兗州刺史張崇救武當,後將軍張蚝、步兵校尉姚萇救涪城;睿軍於新野,垂軍於鄧城。桓沖退屯沔南。秋,七月,郭銓及冠軍將軍桓石虔敗張崇於武當,掠二千戶以歸。巨鹿公睿遣慕容垂為前鋒,進臨沔水。垂夜命軍士人持十炬,繫於樹枝,光照數十里。沖懼,退還上明。張蚝出斜谷,楊亮引兵還。沖表其兄子石民領襄城太守,戍夏口,沖自求領江州刺史;詔許之。

3. In summer, the fifth month, Huan Chong led a hundred thousand soldiers to campaign against Qin, and he attacked Xiangyang. He sent the General of the Front, Liu Bo, and others to attack the cities north of the Mian River. The General Who Upholds The State, Yang Liang, attacked Qin's territory in the Shu region, where he captured Wucheng, and then advanced to attack Fu. The General of Hawkish Display, Guo Quan, attacked Wudang. In the sixth month, Huan Chong's other generals attacked Wansui and Zhuyang, and captured them.

Fu Jian sent his General Who Conquers The South and Duke of Julu, Fu Rui, his Champion General, Murong Chui, and others with fifty thousand horse and foot to relieve Xiangyang. He sent his Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhang Chong, to relieve Wudang, and he sent his General of the Rear, Zhang Qi, and his Colonel of Infantry, Yao Chang, to relieve Fu. Fu Rui's army marched to Xinye, and Murong Chui's army marched to Dengcheng. Huan Chong retreated to camp south of the Mian River.

In autumn, the seventh month, Guo Quan and Jin’s Champion General, Huan Shiqian, defeated Zhang Chong at Wudang, taking two thousand households captive before marching back. Fu Rui sent Murong Chui as his vanguard leader, and advanced to the banks of the Mian River. During the dark of night, Murong Chui ordered his soldiers to fasten ten torches to the branches of every tree, and the lights shone for several dozen li. Huan Chong was afraid of this display, and he fell back to his original base at Shangming. Zhang Qi marched out of Xie Valley, and Yang Liang also led his soldiers in retreat.

Huan Chong petitioned that his nephew Huan Shimin be appointed as acting Administrator of Xiangcheng, and for him to camp at Xiakou, while Huan Chong himself would serve as acting Inspector of Jiangzhou. The court granted these requests.

萬歲,城名,蓋近筑陽。筑陽縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉屬順陽郡;春秋穀伯之國也;唐爲襄州穀城縣。鄧城縣,屬襄陽郡,蓋晉置也。沖鎭上明見上卷二年。【張:「城」作「陽」。】

(Wansui here is the name of a place; it must have been near Zhuyang. During Han, Zhuyang county was part of Nanyang commandary, and during Jin it was part of Shunyang commandary. It was the fief of the Count of Gu during the Spring and Autumn era, and so during Tang, it was known as Gucheng county in Xiangzhou.

Dengcheng county was part of Xiangyang commandary. It must have been established by Jin.

Huan Chong's relocation of his base to Shangming is mentioned in Book 104, in the second year of Taiyuan (377.6).

This passage states that Huan Shiqian was appointed Administrator of Xiangcheng commandary, but it should say Xiangyang commandary.)


十九年,晉車騎桓沖率衆十萬寇襄陽,遣其前將軍劉波攻沔北。堅大怒,遣其子征南鉅鹿公叡、冠軍慕容垂、左衛毛當等將步卒五萬救襄陽。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the nineteenth year of Jianyuan (383), Jin's General of Chariots and Cavalry, Huan Chong, led a hundred thousand soldiers to attack Xiangyang, and sent his General of the Front, Liu Bo, to attack north of the Mian River. Furious, Fu Jian sent the General Who Conquers The South and Duke of Julu, his son Fu Rui, the Champion General, Murong Chui, the Guard General of the Left, Mao Dang, and others with fifty thousand infantry to reinforce Xiangyang.


秦王堅下詔大舉入寇,民每十丁遣一兵;其良家子年二十已下,有材勇者,皆拜羽林郎。又曰:「其以司馬昌明為尚書左僕射,謝安為吏部尚書,桓沖為侍中;勢還不遠,可先為起第。」良家子至者三萬餘騎,拜秦州主簿,趙盛之為少年都統。是時,朝臣皆不欲堅行,獨慕容垂、姚萇及良家子勸之。陽平公融言於堅曰:「鮮卑、羌虜,我之仇讎,常思風塵之變以逞其志,所陳策畫,何可從也!良家少年皆富饒子弟,不閒軍旅,苟為諂諛之言以會陛下之意耳。今陛下信而用之,輕舉大事,臣恐功既不成,仍有後患,悔無及也!」堅不聽。

4. Fu Jian issued an edict announcing a grand invasion. He demanded that one of every ten military-age men be drafted as a soldier. Among the young men of good family, those who were twenty years or younger, anyone who was strong or brave enough was drafted into Fu Jian’s Gentlemen of the Feathered Forest.

Fu Jian also boasted, "I shall appoint Sima Changming (Emperor Xiaowu) as my Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Xie An as my Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, and Huan Chong as a Palace Attendant. With my power, it not take long before I have returned, so I shall first have residences built to house these new ministers."

More than thirty thousand cavalry were drafted from among the young men of good family, and he appointed the Registrar of Qinzhou, Zhao Sheng of Jincheng, to act as Commander of the Youths.

At this time, none of the court ministers wished for Fu Jian to launch this campaign. Only Murong Chui, Yao Chang, and the young noblemen urged him on. Fu Rong said to him, "Our Xianbei and Qiang subjects are really our enemies. I have often worried that the uncertainty of war might provide them with an opportunity to carry out their ambitions. What we should be doing is making plans to provide against that. How can you go so far as to listen to their encouragement? And these noble boys are just pampered youths who know nothing of the realities of war, who are merely flattering Your Majesty by humoring your ideas. Yet Your Majesty is trusting and employing them, and lightly setting out on this grand endeavor. I fear that if we are less than successful, then when disasters spring up afterwards, it will be too late for regrets!"

But Fu Jian did not listen.

謂以勢言之,克晉之期,近在旦夕,還師不遠也。【章:十二行本「簿」下有「金城」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】慕容垂,鮮卑也;姚萇,羌也;其國皆爲秦所滅,雖曰臣服,其實仇讎。

(Fu Jian was saying that because of his power, he would be able to overcome Jin in almost a single day, and so it would not be long before he brought his army back home again.

Some versions identify Zhao Sheng as being "of Jincheng".

Murong Chui was a Xianbei, and Yao Chang was a Qiang. Both of their former states had been conquered by Former Qin, and though they claimed to be loyal servants, they were really seeking revenge.)


堅下書曰:「吳人敢恃江山,屢寇王境,宜時進討,以清宇內。便可戒嚴,速脩戎備,發州民,則十丁遣一,兵居門在灼然者,為崇文義從。朕將登會稽,復禹績,伐國存君,義同三王。其以司馬昌明為左僕射,謝安為吏部尚書,桓沖為侍郎,勢還不遠,可並為起第。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "The people of Wu, relying upon their natural defenses for protection, dare to repeatedly invade the royal domain. Now is the time for us to advance and campaign against them, to bring peace and tranquility to the land. I hereby order all soldiers to drill for war and to speedily make all military preparations. A draft will be required from the people of all provinces; one of every ten military-age men will be drafted as a soldier, and the gates of those households that have provided a soldier shall be illuminated, in order to demonstrate their righteousness and good service. I myself shall ascend Kuaiji and repeat the achievement of Yu the Great; by campaigning with my whole state and being personally present, I shall match the just actions of the Three Sovereigns. I hereby appoint Sima Changming (Emperor Xiaowu) as Deputy Director of the Left, Xie An as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, and Huan Chong as a Gentleman-Attendant. Since my power will make this a short campaign, I shall have residences prepared for all of them to live in."


八月,戊午,堅遣陽平公融督張蚝、慕容垂等步騎二十五萬為前鋒;以兗州刺史姚萇為龍驤將軍,督益、梁州諸軍事。堅謂萇曰:「昔朕以龍驤建業,未嘗輕以授人,卿其勉之!」左將軍竇沖曰:「王者無戲言,此不祥之征也!」堅默然。

5. In the eighth month, on the day Wuwu (September 14th), Fu Jian sent Fu Rong to lead Zhang Qi, Murong Chui, and others with two hundred and fifty thousand horse and foot as the army's vanguard. He appointed the Inspector of Yanzhou, Yao Chang, as Dragon-Soaring General and Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Lianzhou.

When Fu Jian made this appointment, he said to Yao Chang, "I, too, was once Dragon-Soaring General, when I first established myself on the throne. I have not lightly bestowed this rank upon anyone else since then, so you must exert yourself to live up to it!"

The General of the Left, Dou Chong, said, "Kings should not joke; this is not a good sign for the campaign!"

Fu Jian could make no reply.

堅以龍驤將軍殺符生,得秦國。

(Fu Jian had been Dragon-Soaring General when he killed Fu Sheng, and took the Former Qin throne.)


八月戊午,遣征南大將軍陽平公融、騎從張蠔、撫軍大將軍高陽公苻方、衛軍梁成、平南慕容暐、冠軍慕容垂,步騎二十五萬為前鋒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the eighth month, on the day Wuwu (September 14th), Fu Jian sent the Grand General Who Conquers The South and Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, to lead the General of Agile Cavalry, Zhang Qi, the Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Gaoyang, Fu Fang, the Guard General, Liang Cheng, the General Who Pacifies The South, Murong Wei, and the Champion General, Murong Chui, with two hundred and fifty thousand horse and foot as the army's vanguard.

苻堅伐晉,以萇為龍驤將軍,督益、梁二州諸軍事。謂萇曰:「朕本以龍驤建業,龍驤之號,未曾假人。今特以相授。山南之事,一以委卿。」堅左將軍竇沖進曰:「王者無戲言,此將不祥之徵也。」堅默然。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Fu Jian campaigned against Jin, he appointed Yao Chang as Dragon-Soaring General and Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Lianzhou.

When Fu Jian made this appointment, he said to Yao Chang, "I, too, was once Dragon-Soaring General, when I first established myself on the throne. I have not lightly bestowed this rank upon anyone else since then, but I now grant it especially to you. I leave all affairs south of the mountains in your hands."

The General of the Left, Dou Chong, stepped forward and said, "Kings should not joke; this is not a good sign for the campaign."

Fu Jian could make no reply.

及苻堅寇晉,以萇為龍驤將軍、督益、梁州諸軍事,謂萇曰:「朕本以龍驤建業,龍驤之號未曾假人,今特以相授,山南之事一以委卿。」堅左將軍竇沖進曰:「王者無戲言,此將不祥之征也,惟陛下察之。」堅默然。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Fu Jian launched his campaign against Jin, he appointed Yao Chang as Dragon-Soaring General and Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Lianzhou.

When Fu Jian made this appointment, he said to Yao Chang, "I, too, was once Dragon-Soaring General, when I first established myself on the throne. I have not lightly bestowed this rank upon anyone else since then, but I now grant it especially to you. I leave all affairs south of the mountains in your hands."

The General of the Left, Dou Chong, stepped forward and said, "Kings should not joke; this is not a good sign for the campaign. I ask Your Majesty to reconsider this."

Fu Jian could make no reply.

苻堅伐司馬昌明,以萇為龍驤將軍,督益梁州諸軍事。謂萇曰:「朕本以龍驤建業,龍驤之號,初未假人,今特以相授。山南之事,一以委卿。」堅左將軍竇衝進曰:「王者無戲言,此將不臧之徵也,惟陛下察之。」堅默然。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Fu Jian launched his campaign against Emperor Xiaowu, he appointed Yao Chang as Dragon-Soaring General and Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Lianzhou.

When Fu Jian made this appointment, he said to Yao Chang, "I, too, was once Dragon-Soaring General, when I first established myself on the throne. I have not lightly bestowed this rank upon anyone else since then, but I now grant it especially to you. I leave all affairs south of the mountains in your hands."

The General of the Left, Dou Chong, stepped forward and said, "Kings should not joke; this is not a good sign for the campaign. I ask Your Majesty to reconsider this."

Fu Jian could make no reply.


慕容楷、慕容紹言於慕容垂曰:「主上驕矜已甚,叔父建中興之業,在此行也!」垂曰:「然。非汝,誰與成之!」

6. Murong Kai and Murong Shao said to Murong Chui, "See how arrogant our lord has already become. Uncle, the time when you will accomplish the revival of our state is close at hand!"

Murong Chui replied, "Indeed. Without you, how shall I succeed?"

至此,垂知堅必敗,方與兄子明言之。

(By now, Murong Chui knew that Fu Jian would certainly be defeated. This is why he spoke so openly with his nephews.)


甲子,堅發長安,戎卒六十餘萬,騎二十七萬,旗鼓相望,前後千里。九月,堅至項城,涼州之兵始達咸陽,蜀、漢之兵方順流而下,幽、冀之兵至於彭城,東西萬里,水陸齊進,運漕萬艘。陽平公融等兵三十萬,先至穎口。

7. On the day Jiazi (September 20th), Fu Jian set forth from Chang'an, leading an army of more than six hundred thousand soldiers, along with two hundred and seventy thousand cavalry. Banners and drums were everywhere, and from front to rear the army covered a thousand li.

In the ninth month, by the time Fu Jian arrived at Xiangcheng, the soldiers from Liangzhou had only just reached Xianyang. The soldiers from the Shu and Han regions marched east downriver, while the soldiers from Youzhou and Jizhou marched south to Pengcheng. Altogether, Qin’s front line stretched ten thousand li from east to west, and the soldiers advanced by water and by land, with ten thousand boats to transport supplies. Fu Rong and others led three hundred thousand soldiers, and their vanguard was at Yingkou.

潁水入淮之口也。《地理志》:潁水出陽城縣陽乾山,東至下蔡入淮。

(Yingkou was the mouth of the Ying River, where it entered the Huai River. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The Ying River comes out of Mount Yanggan in Yangcheng county, and flows east until it enters the Huai River at Xiacai.")


甲子,堅發長安,戎長戎卒六十餘萬,騎二十七萬,前後千里。九月,堅至項城,涼州之兵始達咸陽。蜀漢之軍,順流而下。幽冀之衆,至於彭城,東西萬里,水陸齊進。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

On the day Jiazi (September 20th), Fu Jian set forth from Chang'an, leading an army of more than six hundred thousand soldiers, along with two hundred and seventy thousand cavalry. From front to rear, the army covered a thousand li.

In the ninth month, by the time Fu Jian arrived at Xiangcheng, the soldiers from Liangzhou had only just reached Xianyang. The soldiers from the Shu and Han regions marched east downriver, while the soldiers from Youzhou and Jizhou marched south to Pengcheng. Altogether, Qin’s front line stretched ten thousand li from east to west, and the soldiers advanced by water and by land.

堅南伐司馬昌明,戎卒六十萬,騎二十七萬,前後千里,旗鼓相望。堅至項城,涼州兵始達咸陽,蜀漢之軍,順流而下,幽冀之眾,至于彭城,東西萬里,水陸齊進,運漕萬艘,自河入石門,達于汝潁。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Fu Jian launched his southern campaign against Sima Changming (Emperor Xiaowu), he commanded an army of six hundred thousand infantry and two hundred seventy thousand cavalry. The army stretched a thousand li from front to rear, with banners and drums all along the length. By the time Fu Jian arrived at Xiangcheng, the soldiers from Liangzhou had only just reached Xianyang. The soldiers from the Shu and Han regions marched east downriver, while the soldiers from Youzhou and Jizhou marched south to Pengcheng. Altogether, Qin’s front line stretched ten thousand li from east to west, and the soldiers advanced by water and by land. There were ten thousand boats to transport supplies; they sailed from the Yellow River through the Stone Gate and traveled along the Ru and Ying Rivers.


詔以尚書僕射謝石為征虜將軍、征討大都督,以徐、兗二州刺史謝玄為前鋒都督,與輔國將軍謝琰、西中郎將桓伊等眾共八萬拒之;使龍驤將軍胡彬以水軍五千援壽陽。琰,安之子也。

8. The Jin court appointed the Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie Shi, as General Who Conquers the Caitiffs and Grand Commander of the Expeditionary Force. The Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Xie Xuan, was appointed as Vanguard Commander, and he, the General Who Upholds The State, Xie Yan, the General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Huan Yi, and others led eighty thousand soldiers together to oppose Qin. The court also sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Hu Bin, to sail five thousand soldiers to assist Shouyang. This Xie Yan was the son of Xie An.

融等攻壽春,晉遣都督謝石、徐州刺史謝玄、豫州刺史桓伊、水陸七萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Rong and others attacked Shouchun. Jin sent the Commander, Xie Shi, the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xie Xuan, and the Inspector of Yuzhou, Huan Yi, to advance by land and water with seventy thousand soldiers.


是時,秦兵既盛,都下震恐。謝玄入,問計於謝安,安夷然,答曰:「已別有旨。」既而寂然。玄不敢復言,乃令張玄重請。安遂命駕出遊山墅,親朋畢集,與圍棋賭墅。安棋常劣於玄,是日,玄懼,便為敵手而又不勝。安遂游陟,至夜乃還。桓沖深以根本為憂,遣精銳三千入援京師。謝安固卻之,曰:「朝廷處分已定,兵甲無闕,西籓宜留以為防。」沖對佐吏歎曰:「謝安右有廟堂之量,不閒將略。今大敵垂至,方游談不暇,遣諸不經事少年拒之,眾又寡弱,天下事已可知,吾其左衽矣!」

9. At this time, because of the sheer size of the Qin invasion, Jin’s capital region shook with fear. Xie Xuan entered the city, and went to ask Xie An what his plan was. Xie An remained calm, and simply told him, "I have already prepared the decree," and said nothing further. Xie Xuan did not dare to ask the same question again, so he ordered Zhang Xuan to repeat the request. Xie An then summoned his carriage, and he and Xie Xuan rode to Xie An’s mountain villa. When Xie An's friends and relatives had finished gathering there, he played a game of weiqi against Xie Xuan, gambling his villa as the stakes. Xie An usually lost against Xie Xuan when they played weiqi together, but on this day, Xie Xuan was so frightened that he lost to his opponent instead. Xie An then went out walking, not returning until night.

Huan Chong felt very concerned about the Qin invasion, and he sent three thousand elite troops to the capital as reinforcements. But Xie An refused them, saying, "The capital's defensive dispositions are already settled; we have no need for further soldiers or armor, so they should remain on the western border to defend it."

Huan Chong sighed to his Staff Supervisors and said, "Xie Anshi has been entrusted with such great responsibility by the court, yet he does not understand anything about military matters. We are about to clash with such a powerful foe, but he wanders and talks instead of doing anything, and sends a bunch of inexperienced youths to handle the critical task of defense. Our numbers are few and our soldiers are weak. The fate of the realm is already set. We shall all be buttoning our garments on the left soon!"

夷,坦也,平也。言坦然無異平日也。敵手,謂下子爭行劫,智算相敵也。玄意不在棋,故不能勝安。諸藩府參佐爲佐吏。

(The term 夷 here means placid or peaceful. The text means that Xie An spoke calmly, with no change from his peaceful expression.

An opponent is someone in the world who is able to match you, and who is smart enough to be a worthy foe. Xie Xuan's mind was not on the game, and so he could not defeat Xie An.

Staff advisory officers to the border commanders were called Staff Supervisors.)


以琅邪王道子錄尚書六條事。

10. Jin's Prince of Langye, Sima Daozi, was appointed as chief of affairs of the Six Bureaus of the Masters of Writing.

錄尚書六條事,始於劉聰。

(The office of chief of affairs of the Six Bureaus of the Masters of Writing had first been created by Liu Cong of Han-Zhao.)


冬,十月,秦陽平公融等攻壽陽;癸酉,克之,執平虜將軍徐元喜等。融以其參軍河南郭褒為淮南太守。慕容垂拔鄖城。胡彬聞壽陽陷,退保硤石,融進攻之。秦衛將軍梁成等帥眾五萬屯於洛澗,柵淮以遏東兵。謝石、謝玄等去洛澗二十五里而軍,憚成,不敢進。胡彬糧盡,潛遣使告石等曰:「今賊盛,糧盡,恐不復見大軍!」秦人獲之,送於陽平公融。融馳使白秦王堅曰:「賊少易擒,但恐逃去,宜速赴之!」堅乃留大軍於項城,引輕騎八千,兼道就融於壽陽。遣尚書朱序來說謝石等以「強弱異勢,不如速降。」序私謂石等曰:「若秦百萬之眾盡至,誠難與為敵。今乘諸軍未集,宜速擊之;若敗其前鋒,則彼已奪氣,可遂破也。」

11. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Rong and the others in the vanguard attacked Shouyang; on the day Guiyou (November 28th), they took it. They captured Jin's General Who Pacifies The Caitiffs, Xu Yuanxi, and others. Fu Rong appointed his Army Advisor, Guo Bao of Henan, as Administrator of Huainan. Murong Chui captured Yuncheng. When Hu Bin heard that Shouyang had fallen, he retreated to defend Xiashi. Fu Rong advanced to attack him.

Qin's Guard General, Liang Cheng, and others led fifty thousand soldiers to camp at Luojian, setting up barricades to keep back the eastern army. Xie Shi, Xie Xuan and the other Jin commanders marched their troops to within twenty-five li from Luojian, but because they feared Liang Cheng, they dared not advance any closer.

Hu Bin's grain ran out, so he secretly sent word to Xie Shi and the rest saying, "The enemy is here in great numbers, and my grain is exhausted. I fear I will not see the main army again!" The Qin soldiers captured him, and sent him to Fu Rong.

Fu Rong sent a fast courier to bring word of the situation at Shouyang to Fu Jian, reporting, "The enemy here are few, and easily captured. However, I fear they may escape us. You must move quickly to engage them!" So Fu Jian left his main army at Xiangcheng, while he rode ahead with eight thousand light cavalry along multiple roads at once to join Fu Rong at Shouyang.

Fu Jian sent the Master of Writing, the former Jin commander Zhu Xu, to speak with Xie Shi and the others in the Jin camp. Fu Jian intended for Zhu Xu to tell them, "See how vast the difference in strength between the two sides is. It would be best to surrender at once." However, Zhu Xu secretly told Xie Shi and the others, "If the million soldiers of the Qin army are allowed to concentrate their forces, it will be truly difficult to oppose them. But now, their forces are divided, so you should attack this army at once. If you can defeat their vanguard, then the enemy's morale will waver, and you can rout them."

淮南郡本治壽陽,秦旣得之,以郭褒爲太守。杜預曰:江夏雲杜縣東南有鄖城。《水經註》:淮水東過壽春縣北,右合肥水;又北逕山峽中,謂之峽石,對岸山上結二城,以防津要。杜佑曰:硤石,今汝陰郡下蔡縣。《水經註》:洛澗上承死馬塘水,北歷秦墟,下注淮,謂之洛口。融持議以爲晉不可伐,今臨敵乃輕脫如此,亦天奪其鑒也。三年,堅執朱序於襄陽,拜爲度支尚書。

(Huainan commandary was normally administered from Shouyang. Since Former Qin had just captured it, Guo Bao was appointed as Administrator considering the exceptional circumstances.

Du Yu remarked, "There was a Yuncheng in the southeast of Yundu county in Jiangxia."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "As the Huai River flows east, it passes through the north of Shouchun county, and on the right it joins with the Fei River. It further flows north through the mountain gorges, and so that place is called Xiashi ('Gorge of Stone'). Two forts were built on the banks on either side of the river, to protect the crossing there." The Tongdian states, "Xiashi is in Xiacai county in modern Ruyin commandary."

It further states, "At Luojian there is the Dead Horse Dyke on the river, and to the north there are several Qin ruins. Below that point, the river empties into the Huai River, so it is called Luokou ('mouth of the Luo River')."

Fu Rong had been adamant in his belief that Jin could not be defeated. Yet now, faced with the enemy, he so greatly underestimated them. Heaven must have stripped him of his powers of reflection, just the same as Fu Jian.

In the third year of Taiyuan (actually the fourth year; 379.3), Fu Jian had captured Zhu Xu at Xiangyang, and appointed him as Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing.)


堅弟陽平公融攻壽春,克之。融馳使白堅曰:「賊少易俘,但懼越逸,宜速進軍。」堅大悅,捨大軍于項城,輕騎八千,兼道赴之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian's Duke of Yangping, his younger brother Fu Rong, attacked Shouchun and took it. Fu Rong sent a fast courier to bring word of the situation at Shouyang to Fu Jian, reporting, "The enemy here are few, and easily captured. However, I fear they may escape us. You must move quickly to engage them." Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and he left his main army at Xiangcheng, while he rode ahead with eight thousand light cavalry along multiple roads at once to join Fu Rong at Shouchun.


石聞堅在壽陽,甚懼,欲不戰以老秦師。謝琰勸石從序言。十一月,謝玄遣廣陵相劉牢之帥精兵五千人趣洛澗,未至十里,梁成阻澗為陳以待之。牢之直前渡水,擊成,大破之,斬成及弋陽太守王詠,又分兵斷其歸津,秦步騎崩潰,爭赴淮水,士卒死者萬五千人。執秦揚州刺史王顯等,盡收其器械軍實。於是謝石等諸軍水陸繼進。秦王堅與陽平公融登壽陽城望之。見晉兵部陣嚴整,又望見八公山上草木,皆以為晉兵,顧謂融曰:「此亦勁敵,何謂弱也!」憮然始有懼色。

12. When Xie Shi heard that Fu Jian himself was at Shouyang, he was greatly afraid, not wishing to fight a battle against the leader of Qin himself. But Xie Yan urged Xie Shi to heed Zhu Xu's words.

In the eleventh month, Xie Xuan sent the Chancellor of Guangling, Liu Laozhi, at the head of five thousand elite troops to attack Luojian. When they approached to within ten li of the Qin position, Liang Cheng fortified the ravines to defend against them. But Liu Laozhi advanced straight ahead across the water and attacked Liang Cheng, greatly routing his army. He killed Liang Cheng and Qin’s Administrator of Yiyang, Wang Yong. Liu Laozhi then divided up his soldiers to block passage at all of the river fords. Liang Cheng’s remaining infantry and cavalry collapsed and scattered, struggling with each other to cross back across the Huai River. The Qin dead numbered fifteen thousand. Liu Laozhi also captured Qin's Administrator of Yangzhou, Wang Xian, and others, and took all the enemy's equipment and army valuables.

Xie Shi and the others then advanced along land and water to join their forces with Liu Laozhi's soldiers. Fu Jian and Fu Rong mounted the walls of Shouyang to observe them. When they saw the Jin soldiers in all their strict arrays and formations, they even started to believe that every tree or blade of grass on Mount Bagong was another Jin soldier. Fu Jian turned to Fu Rong and said, "Even here, the enemy is so fierce; why did you say they were few?" And he was so startled by this sight that he began to look worried.

曹魏分西陽、蘄春,置弋陽郡;秦未能有其地也,王詠領太守耳。弋陽,唐爲光、蘄、黃三州之地。八公山在今壽春縣北四里。世傳漢淮南王安好神仙,忽有八公皆鬚眉皓素,詣門求見。門者曰:「吾王好長生,今先生無駐衰之術,未敢以聞。」八公皆變成童。遂立廟於山上。或言今廟食于此山者,乃左吳、朱驕、伍被、雷被等八人,皆淮南王客,世以八公爲仙,誤也。

(Cao-Wei split off part of Xiyang and Qichun commandaries and formed Yiyang commandary. But Former Qin could not yet have possessed this territory, so Wang Yong was just the nominal Administrator of it. During Tang, Yiyang was split across the three provinces Guangzhou, Qizhou, and Huangzhou.

Mount Bagong ("Eight Gentlemen") is four li to the northwest of modern Shouchun county. Legend has it that Han's Prince of Huainan, Liu An, enjoyed the company of immortal sages of the mountains. There was an instance when eight gentlemen, all with white hair and eyebrows, suddenly came to his gate to call upon him. The gate attendant said, "The Prince desires to learn about immortality. Unless you gentlemen have the power to keep one from aging, I dare not disturb him." The eight gentlemen then transformed themselves into little boys. A temple was then set up on the mountain, and some say that the modern temple on Mount Bagong is the very same one. Liu An had eight friends, Zuo Wu, Zhu Jiao, Wu Bei, Lei Bei, and others, who were resident guests of his. People claim that these Eight Gentlemen were the same immortals, but that is wrong.)


堅與融登城,望昌明將謝石軍,又望八公山上草木皆類人形,顧謂融曰:「此亦勁敵也,何謂少乎!」憮然有懼色。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian and Fu Rong mounted the walls of Shouyang. When they saw the army of Sima Changming's general Xie Shi, they even started to believe that every tree or blade of grass on Mount Bagong was another Jin soldier. Fu Jian turned to Fu Rong and said, "Even here, the enemy is so fierce; why did you say they were few?" And he was so startled by this sight that he began to look worried.


秦兵逼肥水而陳,晉兵不得渡。謝玄遣使謂陽平公融曰:「君懸軍深入,而置陳逼水,此乃持久之計,非欲速戰者也。若移陳小卻,使晉兵得渡,以決勝負,不亦善乎!」秦諸將皆曰:「我眾彼寡,不如遏之,使不得上,可以萬全。」堅曰:「但引兵少卻,使之半渡,我以鐵騎蹙而殺之,蔑不勝矣!」融亦以為然,遂麾兵使卻。秦兵遂退,不可復止,謝玄、謝琰、桓伊等引兵渡水擊之。融馳騎略陳,欲以帥退者,馬倒,為晉兵所殺,秦兵遂潰。玄等乘勝追擊,至於青岡。秦兵大敗,自相蹈藉而死者,蔽野塞川。其走者聞風聲鶴唳,皆以為晉兵且至,晝夜不敢息,草行露宿,重以饑凍,死者什七、八。初,秦兵小卻,朱序在陳後呼曰:「秦兵敗矣!」眾遂大奔。序因與張天錫、徐元喜皆來奔。獲秦王堅所乘雲母車。復取壽陽,執其淮南太守郭褒。

13. The Qin soldiers were in battle formation right up against the line of the Fei River, and the Jin soldiers could not cross. So Xie Xuan sent a messenger to Fu Rong, saying, "Sir, your army has traveled so deep into this country, yet now you have set up your formation right against the river. This is the plan of someone who wishes to conduct a stalemate, not someone who wants to start a battle soon. If you will withdraw your formation a short distance, and allow the Jin soldiers to cross over the river, then we may have the decisive battle between us. Is this not the better outcome?"

The Qin generals all told Fu Jian, "We are many and they few. It is better for us to hold this line. If they cannot cross over, then we hold the advantage."

But Fu Jian replied, "We need only move the soldiers back a short way. Once the enemy has crossed half of their army over, our Iron Cavalry will charge in and slaughter them. How could we not be victorious?"

Fu Rong agreed as well, so he commanded the soldiers to fall back. But when they began to retreat, no one could halt them again. Xie Xuan, Xie Yan, Huan Yi, and the other Jin commanders led their troops across the river and attacked. Fu Rong rode among the soldiers, trying to get them to hold the line so that they could conduct an orderly retreat, but his horse collapsed and he was killed by the Jin soldiers. The Qin soldiers then scattered. Xie Xuan and the others pressed their victory and pursued the enemy, attacking the Qin soldiers as far as Qinggang.

The Qin soldiers were greatly defeated, and many died from being trampled during the stampede, or hid themselves among the fields and rivers. Even when they merely heard the rush of the wind or the hoot of an owl, they thought that they were hearing the arrival of the Jin soldiers. They fled all through the night, not daring to stop to rest. Passing through tall grass and laying down among the dew, they were weighed down by hunger and cold, and seven or eight of every ten of the fleeing soldiers died.

Earlier, when the Qin army was just starting to slightly fall back, Zhu Xu cried out from the rear of the formation, "The Qin army has been defeated!" This caused the whole host to truly run away. Zhu Xu, Zhang Tianxi, and Xu Yuanxi were then able to make their escape from the Qin camp.

The Jin soldiers captured Fu Jian's Mica Carriage, and clothing, equipment, army items, treasures, and livestock beyond measure. Shouyang was retaken, and Qin’s Administrator of Huainan, Guo Bao, was captured.

兩陳相向,退者先敗,此用兵之常勢也。青岡去今壽春縣三十里。言敗兵自相蹈踐,枕藉而死也。草行者,涉草而行,不敢由路;露宿者,宿於野次,不敢入人家;皆懼追兵也。【章:十二行本「車」下有「及儀服、器械、軍資、珍寶、畜產不可勝計」十五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】晉制:雲母車,以雲母飾犢車;臣下不得乘,以賜王公耳。趙彥絟《續古今註》:石虎皇后乘輦,以純雲母代紗,四望皆通徹。晉復取壽陽,故秦所置太守見執。

(When two armies are facing one another, the first to retreat will be the one that loses. This is a common principle of warfare.

Qinggang is thirty li from modern Shouchun county.

The text means that the soldiers were knocked over and stepped on in the rush of the stampede, and so died.

"Grass travelers" means those who fled through the grass, not daring to take the roads; "dew sleepers" means those who slept out in the field, not daring to enter into anyone's home. In both cases it was because they feared the pursuit troops.

Some versions further add "and clothing, equipment, army items, treasures, and livestock beyond measure". According to the Jin system, the Mica Carriage was a calf cart adorned with mica ornaments. Mere ministers were forbidden from riding in it; it was only granted to Princes and Dukes. Zhao Yanquan's Assorted Ancient and Modern Notes states, "Shi Hu made a carriage for his empress, bedecked in mica and gauze, and it was transparent all around."

Since Guo Bao had been stationed at Shouyang, Jin captured him when they retook the city.)


太祖之七年,苻堅敗於淮南。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

In Tuoba Gui's seventh year (383), Fu Jian was defeated at Huainan.

敗堅於肥水。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

The Jin generals defeated Fu Jian at Fei River.

謝石欲戰,苻融陳逼肥水,石遣使謂融曰:「君若小退師,令將士周旋,僕與君公緩轡而觀之,不亦美也?」融於是麾軍却陳,欲因其濟,覆而取之。軍遂奔退,制之不可止。融馬倒見殺,軍遂大敗。謝石乘勝追擊,至于青岡,死者相枕。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Xie Shi wanted to fight a battle, but Fu Rong had his troops in formation right up along the line of the Fei River. So Xie Shi sent envoys to tell Fu Rong, "Sir, if you will have your soldiers back up a short distance and tell your generals and soldiers to grant me some space, then I shall come across to your side, and we will see how affairs stand then. Would that not be agreeable?"

So Fu Rong ordered his army to shift their formation back, planning to let the Jin army begin crossing, then turn on them and destroy them. But once the Former Qin army began falling back, they could no longer be controlled. Then Fu Rong's horse collapsed and he was killed, and the Former Qin army was greatly defeated.

Xie Shi pressed his victory to pursue and attacking the fleeing Former Qin soldiers, pursuing them as far as Qinggang. The dead lay within sight of each other.


堅中流矢,單騎走至淮北,饑甚,民有進壺飧、豚髀者,堅食之,賜帛十匹,綿十斤。辭曰:「陛下厭苦安樂,自取危困。臣為陛下子,陛下為臣父,安有子飼其父而求報乎?」弗顧而去。堅謂張夫人曰:「吾今復何面目治天下乎!」潸然流涕。

14. Fu Jian had been struck by a stray arrow. He fled alone on horseback until he crossed north of the Huai River. He was exceedingly hungry, when he encountered a commoner who was boiling a kettle and preparing pig thighs for supper, and so Fu Jian ate some of the meal. He offered to compensate them with ten bolts of silk and ten 斤 of cotton. But they declined, saying, "Your Majesty, you have found yourself in this grave situation because you were not satisfied with your peace and happiness. I am Your Majesty's son, and Your Majesty is my father. What son would demand reward for feeding his father?" And they left without another look.

Fu Jian said to Lady Zhang, "How can I show my face or govern the realm any longer?" And he wept freely.

熟食曰飧。《字林》曰:水澆飯也。

(A cooked meal is called a 飧. The Forest of Characters states, "It means a boiled meal.")


張氏請從。(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Lady Zhang of Former Qin)

Lady Zhang asked to accompany Fu Jian (during his campaign).

堅為流矢所中,單騎遁還于淮北,顧謂夫人張氏曰:「朕若用朝臣之言,豈見今日之事邪,當何面目復臨天下乎!」潸然流涕。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian had been struck by a stray arrow. He fled alone on horseback until he crossed north of the Huai River. He turned to his wife Lady Zhang and said, "If I had only listened to my ministers' words, how could all this have happened? How can I show my face before the realm any longer?" And he wept freely.

堅單騎遁還淮北。初,謠言曰:「堅不出項。」羣臣勸堅停項,為六軍聲鎮,堅不從。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian fled alone on horseback until he crossed north of the Huai River.

There had earlier been a ditty going around: "Jian will not leave Xiang." So now, when Fu Jian's ministers urged him to stop at Xiangcheng so that he could rally his six armies to him, Fu Jian would not agree.


是時,諸軍皆潰,惟慕容垂所將三萬人獨全,堅以千餘騎赴之。世子寶言於垂曰:「家國傾覆,天命人心皆歸至尊,但時運未至,故晦跡自藏耳。今秦主兵敗,委身於我,是天借之便以復燕祚,此時不可失也,願不以意氣微恩忘社稷之重!」垂曰:「汝言是也。然彼以赤心投命於我,若之何害之!天苟棄之,何患不亡?不若保護其危以報德,徐俟其釁而圖之!既不負宿心,且可以義取天下。」奮威將軍慕容德曰:「秦強而並燕,秦弱而圖之,此為報仇雪恥,非負宿心也;兄奈何得而不取,釋數萬之眾以授人乎?」垂曰:「吾昔為太傅所不容,置身無所,逃死於秦,秦主以國士遇我,恩禮備至。後復為王猛所賣,無以自明。秦主獨能明之,此恩何可忘也!若氐運必窮,吾當懷集關東,以復先業耳,關西會非吾有也。」冠軍行參軍趙秋曰:「明公當紹復燕祚,著於圖讖。今天時已至,尚復何待!若殺秦主,據鄴都,鼓行而西,三秦亦非苻氏之有也!」垂親黨多勸垂殺堅,垂皆不從,悉以兵授堅。平南將軍慕容□屯鄖城,聞堅敗,棄其眾遁去;至滎陽,慕容德復說□起兵以復燕祚,□不從。

15. At this time, the various Qin armies had all scattered. Only Murong Chui had kept his army of thirty thousand soldiers in good order. Fu Jian came to join him, at the head of more than a thousand cavalry.

Murong Chui's heir Murong Bao said to him, "Ever since our state was overthrown, both Heaven’s will and the hopes of the people have turned to you. It was only that the right moment to act had not yet arrived, and so they were merely watching and waiting. Now the lord of Qin's soldiers have been defeated, and he himself is within our grasp. This is an act of Heaven that will allow you to restore the fortunes of Yan. You cannot throw this opportunity away. Do not put your personal feelings of loyalty and gratitude ahead of the good of our state!"

But Murong Chui replied, "What you say is true. Yet he took us in when our lives were in danger, and he was sincere with us. How can I do him harm? We already know that Heaven has abandoned him, so how could he not be doomed in the end? But I should protect him from his present danger in order to repay his virtue. Then I may wait for some conflict to break out and take advantage of it! By doing so, I will avoid violating his hospitality, and I may grasp hold of the realm with a clean conscience."

The General Who Grasps Might, Murong De, said, "When Qin was strong, it annexed Yan; now Qin is weak, and you may rise against it. This is merely avenging our defeat and wiping away our shame. Feelings of hospitalty have nothing to do with it. Elder Brother, why do you not claim this man when he is in your power, and give up control of these tens of thousands just to help him?"

Murong Chui replied, "Before, the Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) could not put up with me. Though I had done nothing, I was forced to flee for my life to Qin. The lord of Qin welcomed me at the head of the gentry of his state, and he showed me great favor and courtesy. Later, when Wang Meng tried to sell me out, I could offer no defense. Only the lord of Qin could see the truth. How could I ever forget such grace? If the reign of the Di must end, then I ought to gather all of our people in Guandong, and only there begin our revival. Guanxi is not for us to have."

Murong Chui’s provisional Army Advisor, Zhao Qiu, said, "You are the one who shall revive Yan's fortunes, just as has been foretold. That very moment is at hand, so how can you put it off? If you kill the lord of Qin, capture Ye, beat the drums of campaign, and march west, the Fu clan will not even be able to keep the region of the Three Qins from you!"

Many of Murong Chui's relatives and partisans continued to urge him to kill Fu Jian, but he refused to listen to any of them. He ordered his soldiers to protect Fu Jian.

Qin’s General Who Pacifies The South, Murong Wei, was then camped at Yuncheng. When he heard of Fu Jian's defeat, he abandoned his soldiers and fled. When he reached Xingyang, Murong De spoke to him, again urging that he should raise troops in rebellion to restore Yan. But Murong Wei did not heed him.

垂別擊鄖城,不與淝水之戰,且持軍嚴整,故諸軍皆潰而垂軍獨全。意氣微恩,謂堅厚禮垂父子也。慕容垂此言,猶有君人之度。見一百二卷海西公太和四年。見太和五年。

(Murong Chui had been with a separate command to attack Yuncheng, and he had not been present at the Battle of Fei River. He further kept his troops under strict discipline. This was why, although the other armies all scattered, Murong Chui's army remained intact.

By personal feelings and gratitude, Murong Bao means how Fu Jian had treated Murong Chui and his sons with special favor and courtesy.

By his words here, we can see that Murong Chui still held the standards of a superior man.

Murong Chui's escape to Former Qin is mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fourth year of Taihe (369.21). Wang Meng's plot against Murong Chui and his panicked flight are mentioned in the fifth year of Taihe (370.3).)


堅征臺城,為平南將軍別部都督。淮南之敗, 隨堅還長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

When Fu Jian campaigned against Jin, he appointed Murong Wei as General Who Pacifies The South and had him command another army. After Fu Jian's defeat at Huainan, Murong Wei followed him back to Chang'an.

堅諸軍悉潰,惟慕容垂一軍獨全。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian's armies had all scattered; only Murong Chui's division remained completely intact.

堅諸軍悉潰,唯其冠軍慕容垂一軍獨全,堅以千餘騎赴之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

At this time, Fu Jian's armies had all scattered. Only his Champion General, Murong Chui, had kept his army in good order. Fu Jian came to join him, at the head of more than a thousand cavalry.

堅之敗於淮南也,垂軍獨全,堅以千餘騎奔垂。垂世子寶言於垂曰:「家國傾喪,皇綱廢馳,至尊明命著之圖籙,當隆中興之業,建少康之功。但時來之運未至,故韜光俟奮耳。今天厭亂德,凶眾土崩,可謂乾啟神機,授之於我。千載一時,今其會也,宜恭承皇天之意,因而取之。且夫立大功者不顧小節,行大仁者不念小惠。秦既蕩覆二京,空辱神器,仇恥之深,莫甚於此,願不以意氣微恩而忘社稷之重。五木之祥,今其至矣。」垂曰:「汝言是也。然彼以赤心投命,若何害之!苟天所棄,圖之多便。且縱令北還,更待其釁,既不負宿心,可以義取天下。」垂弟德進曰:「夫鄰國相吞,有自來矣。秦強而並燕,秦弱而圖之,此為報仇雪辱,豈所謂負宿心也!昔鄧祁侯不納三甥之言,終為楚所滅;吳王夫差違子胥之諫,取禍句踐。前事之不忘,後事之師表也。願不棄湯、武之成蹤,追韓信之敗跡,乘彼土崩,恭行天罰,斬逆氐,復宗祀,建中興,繼洪烈,天下大機,弗宜失也。若釋數萬之眾,授幹將之柄,是郤天時而待後害,非至計也。語曰:'當斷不斷,反受其亂。'願兄無疑。」垂曰:「吾昔為太傅所不容,投身于秦主,又為王猛所譖,復見昭亮,國士之禮每深,報德之分未一。如使秦運必窮,歷數歸我者,授首之便,何慮無之。關西之地,會非吾有,自當有擾之者,吾可端拱而定關東。君子不怙亂,不為禍先,且可觀之。」乃以兵屬堅。初,寶在長安,與韓黃、李根等因讌摴蒱,寶危坐整容,誓之曰:「世云摴蒱有神,豈虛也哉!若富貴可期,頻得三盧。」於是三擲盡盧,寶拜而受賜,故云五木之祥。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

After Fu Jian's defeat at Huainan, only Murong Chui's army remained completely intact. Fu Jian fled to him with more than a thousand riders. Murong Chui's heir Murong Bao said to him, "Ever since our state came to grief, and the imperial essence was lost, the mandate for devising the restoration has passed to you, Father. You must bring about the restoration of our state and establish the same achievement as Shaokang. It was only that the right time to act had not yet arrived, so you kept your brilliance hidden away and waited to make any move. But now, Heaven's disgust has put ruin to Qin's virtue, smashed their armies and broken their land. This is what one could call an opportunity sent by Heaven, in order to aid us. Such a rare opportunity is now before us. You must respect the divine mandate of Heaven, and seize this chance. Furthermore, when one wishes to establish greet deeds, one cannot remain bound by thoughts of meager duties; when one takes action, grand benevolence must come before little mercies. Qin were the ones who violated the two capitals (Ye and Helong) and brought disgrace to our arms. Who does not deeply wish for vengeance against them? I pray that you shall not give greater consideration to the grace shown toward you personally and thus forget the greater importance of our state. Remember the auspicious prediction of the Five Wooden Dice; this is the very moment."

But Murong Chui replied, "It is indeed as you say. Yet he took us in when our lives were in danger, and he was sincere with us, so how could I do him harm? If Heaven has abandoned him, there will be many people who will act against him. I shall escort him back to the north, and then wait to take advantage of further dissension. Thus I may avoid violating his hospitality, yet still attain the realm with justice."

Then Murong Chui's younger brother Murong De stepped forward and said, "Neighboring states swallow each other up; this has always been so. When Qin was strong, they annexed Yan. Now that Qin is weak, we should plan against them. By doing so, we avenge our past shame. How can you possibly speak of hospitality? In ancient times, Marquis Qi of Zheng did not listen to the words of his three nephews-in-law, and in the end Zheng was conquered by Chu (Zuo Commentary, Zhuang 7.5). King Fuchai of Wu did not listen to Wu Zixu's admonishments, and so Goujian brought him to misfortune. One who does not forget the events of the past is one who sets a good example for the future. Do not abandon the paths taken by Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou; do not follow Han Xin down the road to ruin. Destroy the enemy's land, and so act as the instrument of Heaven's punishment. Behead the traitorous Di people, restore the ancestral sacrifices, establish the restoration of the state, and fulfill the grand design of your ancestors. This is a great opportunity for the realm; it cannot be lost. But if you dismiss your army of tens of thousands and hand aside your authority as general, that would be to throw away this heaven-sent opportunity and wait for future trouble for yourself, and the plan would never come to fruition. It is said, 'if you do not act when you should, you will be the one to suffer misfortune'. Elder Brother, please have no doubts."

But Murong Chui replied, "Before, the Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) could not put up with me, and I had to throw myself on the lord of Qin's mercy. And when Wang Meng slandered me, he still perceived the truth. He always treated me with the greatest ceremonies of state, and I have yet to repay a single measure of his virtue to me. If Qin's doom is already certain, then people will come one after the other and bow to us of their own accord, so how can you worry that such a thing will not come to pass? Besides, the territory of Guanxi is not for us to have. Since I imposed upon his hospitality, I may repay him and then settle Guandong. A superior man does not take advantage of chaos, nor is he the first to inflict misfortune. Let us see what happens." So he ordered his soldiers to escort Fu Jian.

Before, when Murong Bao had been at Chang'an, he had been playing the game chupu with Han Huang, Li Gen, and others at a feast. At one point, Murong Bao had sat bolt upright and tidied himself up, and he had made this oath: "They say chupu has an element of the divine to it; how could that not be true? If I am ever to become rich and powerful, then let me roll three Lu." So he had cast the dice three times, and each time he scored a Lu combination (an extremely unlikely result). Murong Bao had performed obeisance before accepting his winnings. This was why at this time, he mentioned "the auspicious prediction of the Five Wooden Dice".


謝安得驛書,知秦兵已敗,時方與客圍棋,攝書置床上,了無喜色,圍棋如故。客問之,徐答曰:「小兒輩遂已破賊。」既罷,還內,過戶限,不覺屐齒之折。

16. Xie An received a letter from a courier, and learned that the Qin army had already been defeated. At the time, he was playing a weiqi match with a guest. He placed the letter on his couch, but his expression showed no sign of joy, and he continued to play weiqi just as before. When his guest asked him about the letter, he casually replied, "The young folks have already routed the enemy." After the match ended, he went back inside, but as he was passing the door’s threshold, without thinking he smashed his clog on it.

言其喜甚也。史言安矯情鎭物。人臣以安社稷爲悅者也,大敵壓境,一戰而破之,安得不喜乎!屐齒之折,亦非安之訾也。

(This last incident was to show how delighted Xie An really was. This passage states that Xie An was remarkably nonchalant about the matter. But any minister is happy when they know that their state is safe. A great enemy was massed on the border, and then it had been routed in a single battle. How could Xie An not have been happy? The fact that he smashed his clog is no black mark against him.)


謝公與人圍棊,俄而謝玄淮上信至。看書竟,默然無言,徐向局。客問淮上利害?答曰:「小兒輩大破賊。」意色舉止,不異於常。(New Tales of the World 6.35)

Xie An was playing weiqi with someone, when suddenly a messenger arrived from Xie Xuan on the Huai River. Xie An read the letter to the end in silence, and without saying a word, calmly turned back to the playing board. When his guests asked whether the news from the Huai was good or bad, he replied, "My little boys have inflicted a crushing defeat on the invader." As he spoke, his mood and expression and demeanor were no different from usual. (tr. Richard Mather)


丁亥,謝石等歸建康,得秦樂工,能習舊聲,於是宗廟始備金石之樂。乙未,以張天錫為散騎常侍,朱序為琅邪內史。

17. On the day Dinghai (December 12th), Xie Shi and the other Jin generals returned to Jiankang. They had captured some Qin musicians, and so these musicians were able to teach the court musicians how to play the old melodies that had once been known in the old Jin court at Luoyang. And now that the court had these instruments, the Ancestral Temple was once again filled with the sounds of instruments of gold.

On the day Yiwei (December 20th), Zhang Tianxi was appointed as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and Zhu Xu was appointed as Interior Minister of Langye.

永嘉之亂,伶官樂器皆沒於劉、石。江左初立,宗廟以無雅樂及伶人,省太樂幷鼓吹令;是後頗得登歌食舉之樂,猶有未備。太寧末,明帝又訪阮孚等增益之。咸和中,成帝乃復置太樂官,鳩集遺工,而尚未有金石也。及慕容儁平冉閔,兵戈之際,鄴下樂人頗亦有來者。謝尚鎭壽陽,採拾樂人以備太樂,幷制石磬,雅樂始頗具。而王猛平鄴,慕容氏所得樂聲,又入關右;今破苻堅,獲其樂工楊蜀等,閑習舊樂,於是金石始備焉。

(During the Disaster of Yongjia (~311), the Jin court's musicians and musical instruments all fell into the hands of the Liu and Shi clans of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao. When the Jin court was first re-established in the Southland, the ancestral temple had no refined instruments or musicians, so the Musical Bureau was compelled to merely beat the drums and make chants, and even when later on they raised up songs and offered food, they still could not prepare any of the old instruments. At the end of the Taining reign era (~326), Emperor Ming sought out Ruan Fu and others to improve the situation. During the Xianhe reign era (326-335), Emperor Cheng re-established the Musical Bureau, and he was able to gather together some musicians, but they still had no means to make the golden instruments. After Murong Jun vanquished Ran Min (in 352), his soldiers took what they would, and many of the musicians in Ye also came to him. When Xie Shang was guarding Shouchun, he gathered musicians to prepare them for the Musical Bureau, and they used stone bells, so this was the beginning of the use of refined instruments again. When Wang Meng took Ye (in 370), the Murong clan had many musical instruments there, and they were brought into Guanyou. Now that Jin had routed Fu Jian, and captured Yang Shu and the other musicians among his camp, they could learn the old court music once again, and they now had golden instruments.)


秦王堅收集離散,比至洛陽,眾十餘萬,百官、儀物,軍容粗備。

18. Fu Jian gathered up what stragglers he could. By the time they reached Luoyang, there were more than a hundred thousand soldiers, and some slight semblance of civil organization, ceremony, and military discipline was reestablished.

比至洛陽,百官威儀、軍容粗備。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

By the time Fu Jian reached Luoyang, some slight semblance of civil organization, ceremony, and military discipline was reestablished.

堅收集離散,比至洛陽,眾十餘萬。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian gathered up what stragglers he could. By the time they reached Luoyang, there were more than a hundred thousand soldiers.


慕容農謂慕容垂曰:「尊不迫人於險,其義聲足以感動天地。農聞秘記曰:『燕復興當在河陽。』夫取果於未熟與自落,不過晚旬日之間,然其難易美惡,相去遠矣!」垂心善其言,行至澠池,言於堅曰:「北鄙之民,聞王師不利,輕相扇動,臣請奉詔書以鎮慰安集之,因過謁陵廟。」堅許之。權翼諫曰:「國兵新破,四方皆有離心,宜徵集名將,置之京師,以固根本,鎮枝葉。垂勇略過人,世豪東夏,頃以避禍而來,其心豈止欲作冠軍而已哉!譬如養鷹,饑則附人,每聞風飆之起,常有陵霄之志,正宜謹其絛籠,豈可解縱,任其所欲哉!」堅曰:「卿言是也。然朕已許之,匹夫猶不食言,況萬乘乎?若天命有廢興,固非智力所能移也。」翼曰:「陛下重小信而輕社稷,臣見其往而不返,關東之亂,自此始矣。」堅不聽,遣將軍李蠻、閔亮、尹固帥眾三千送垂。又遣驍騎將軍石越帥精卒三千戍鄴,驃騎將軍張蚝帥羽林五千戍并州,鎮軍將軍毛當帥眾四千戌洛陽。權翼密遣壯士邀垂於河橋南空倉中,垂疑之,自涼馬台結草筏以渡,使典軍程同衣己衣,乘己馬,與僮僕趣河橋。伏兵發,同馳馬獲免。

19. Murong Nong said to Murong Chui, "You did not take advantage of these men when they were in danger; the virtue that you have thus displayed is surely enough to impress Heaven and Earth. I have heard a prophecy say, 'The place where Yan will be revived is Heyang.' When you find that a fruit has fallen before it is ripe, you do not wait for days on end; you find out at once whether it is easy or hard, beautiful or ugly!"

Murong Chui in his heart felt that Murong Nong spoke well, so when the Qin army was passing through Mianchi, he said to Fu Jian, "When the people on the northern border hear that the royal army has had the worst of it in the campaign, they may be quick to stir up sudden risings. Please grant me your edict to go keep an eye on them and keep them secure in one place, and let me take the opportunity to pay homage to my ancestors' temple and tombs."

Fu Jian agreed with his request, but Quan Yi remonstrated with Fu Jian, saying, "The state's soldiers have just been routed, and confusion and dissension reign in every corner. You should be gathering your soldiers and your famed generals at the capital, in order to secure the roots and guard the branches and leaves. Murong Chui is more bold and cunning than most, and his family has long been respected by the people of the east. They will be quick to flock to him in order to escape from the turmoil, and once that happens, would he really be satisfied to just remain as your Champion General and go no further than that? When one raises a hawk, one must keep it hungry so that it will stay close. Every time it hears the whirlwind rising, it will always wish to soar into the clouds. That is why you must only gradually remove the binding over it. How can you simply let it free to do whatever it wishes?"

Fu Jian replied, "What you say has merit. Yet I have already given him my permission. Even a common fellow does not go back on his word, much less a ruler of a state of ten thousand chariots! If Heaven wills that someone shall rise or fall, how much can man’s cunning or strength oppose it?"

Quan Yi said, "Your Majesty, you place more value in your personal trust for this man than you do in the fortune of the state. I believe that once he leaves, he will never return. Guandong shall be thrown into chaos because of this."

But Fu Jian did not listen to him.

Fu Jian sent the generals Li Man, Min Liang, and Yin Gu (or Guo) to lead three thousand soldiers to escort Murong Chui. He also sent the General of Agile Cavalry, Shi Yue, to lead three thousand elite cavalry to camp at Ye, and he sent the General of Valiant Cavalry, Zhang Qi, to lead five thousand of the Feathered Forest guards to defend Bingzhou. He also sent the General Who Guards The Army, Mao Dang, to lead four thousand soldiers to camp at Luoyang.

Quan Yi secretly sent brave warriors to intercept Murong Chui at the bridge across the Yellow River south of Kongcang. But Murong Chui suspected something of this sort, so he went to Liangma Point to gather straw to bind together for rafts, and he used the rafts to cross the river instead. Meanwhile, he had his 典軍, Cheng Tong, put on his clothes and ride his horse, and Cheng Tong led the army’s boy attendants to attempt to cross over the bridge. Quan Yi’s soldiers sprang their ambush, but Cheng Tong galloped away and escaped capture.

尊,謂其父垂也。慕容令亦呼垂爲尊,蓋其父子間常稱也。垂欲因行自謁其祖父陵廟也。飊,扶搖風也。《釋》曰:疾風自下而上曰飊。絛,絲繩也,所以紲鷹。孔安國曰:食言者,食盡其言,僞不實。【章:十二行本「固」作「國」;乙十一行本同。】《水經註》:東郡白馬縣有涼城,河水逕其北;有神馬亭,西去白馬津可二十許里,實中層峙,南北二百步,東西五十許步。今按神馬亭旣在東郡,白馬正對黎陽岸,垂安得越滎、洛而至此渡河乎!此涼馬臺蓋在富平津橋之西也。涼馬臺,由昔人於河渚浴馬,浴竟,驅馬就高納涼,因名。典軍,蓋王國官,垂在燕爲吳王時所置也。

(In this passage, Murong Nong addresses his father Murong Chui as 尊 "Your Honor". Murong Ling had also addressed his father by this term. It must have been a common term of address between father and son.

Murong Chui wished to travel to Ye in order to pay his respects at the tombs and temple of his ancestors.

A 飊 whirlwind is a steeply-rising wind. The Elucidation states, "A gale that rises from bottom to top is called a whirlwind.” A 絛 binding is a cord or thread, used to bind a hawk.

Kong Anguo remarked, "One who eats their words is one who goes back on what they say. They are false and not true."

Some versions call this man Yin 國 Guo instead of Yin 固 Gu.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In Baima county in Dong commandary, there is a place called Liangcheng. The Yellow River flows north of there. And in this place there is a Shenma Point, about twenty li west of Baima Ford. There is a tower right in the middle of it, and the place is twenty paces from north to south and about fifty paces from east to west." Now if Shenma Point was in Dong commandary, and Baima was right across the riverbank from Liyang, then how could Murong Chui have come from Xingyang or Luoyang to cross the Yellow River at this point? So this Liangma Point must have been west of the bridge crossing at Fuping Crossing. It is called Liangma Point because the ancients would wash their horses there among the river islands, and they did so there because the horses much enjoyed the cool air there, so it was called Liangma ("Chilled/Cool Horses") Point.

The office of 典軍 must have been one of a Prince's fief officials, a holdover from Murong Chui's time as Prince of Wu during Former Yan.)


堅未及關而垂有二志,說堅請巡撫燕岱,並求拜墓,堅許之。權翼固諫以為不可,堅不從。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian's armies had all scattered; only Murong Chui's division remained completely intact. By the time they reached Luoyang, some slight semblance of civil organization, ceremony, and military discipline was reestablished. Fu Jian's army had not yet entered Guanzhong when Murong Chui began to develop ulterior motives. He persuaded Fu Jian to let him go and patrol through the regions of Yan and Dai in order to reassure the people there, as well as pay his respects at the tombs of his ancestors. Fu Jian gave his permission. Quan Yi firmly remonstrated against this, saying that he could not let Murong Chui leave, but Fu Jian did not listen to him.

行未及關,垂有貳志,說堅請巡撫燕代,并求拜墓,許之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian had not yet returned to Guanzhong before Murong Chui developed ulterior motives. He persuaded Fu Jian to let him go and patrol through the regions of Yan and Dai to reassure the people, as well as pay his respects at the tombs of his ancestors. Fu Jian granted his permission.

堅至澠池,垂請至鄴展拜陵墓,因張國威刑,以安戎狄。堅許之,權翼諫曰:「垂爪牙名將,所謂今之韓、白,世豪東夏,志不為人用。頃以避禍歸誠,非慕德而至,列土幹城未可以滿其志,冠軍之號豈足以稱其心!且垂猶鷹也,饑則附人,飽便高颺,遇風塵之會,必有陵霄之志。惟宜急其羈靽,不可任其所欲。」堅不從,遣其將李蠻、閔亮、尹國率眾三千送垂,又遣石越戍鄴,張蠔戍并州。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Fu Jian reached Mianchi, Murong Chui asked that he be permitted to travel to Ye to restore and pay respects at the tombs of his ancestors, and that by his reputation throughout the state for power and punishment, he would settle the Rong and Di tribes. Fu Jian agreed to his request.

Quan Yi remonstrated with Fu Jian, saying, "Murong Chui is a famous general, one of your own fangs and claws, and they call him the modern equal of Han Xin and Bai Qi. His family has long been renowned among the eastern Xia, and he has ambitions to be more than a subordinate. People will soon come to him to escape from the turmoil; it will not be a sense of them recognizing his virtue and coming to him. Even if you split your territory and your cities, that would not enough to satisfy his ambition; how could he ever be satisfied with just the title of Champion General? Besides, Murong Chui is like a hawk: when it is hungry it will remain close to humans, but when it is full it will take flight to the skies. Whenever it encounters the whirlwind rising, it will certainly wish to soar into the clouds. You must keep a firm grasp on its bridle, and not allow it to do whatever it wishes."

But Fu Jian did not listen to him. He sent his generals Li Man, Min Liang, and Yin Guo with three thousand soldiers to escort Murong Chui. He also sent Shi Yue to camp at Ye, and Zhang Hao to camp at Bingzhou.


十二月,秦王堅至長安,哭陽平公融而後入,謚曰哀公。大赦,復死事者家。

20. In the twelfth month, Fu Jian arrived at Chang'an. He wept for the loss of Fu Rong before entering, and posthumously named him Duke Ai (“the Mourned”). He declared a general amnesty, and he exempted the families of the dead from taxes or corvee labor.

〈復,復其家之賦役也。〉

(Fu Jian exempted the families of the dead from taxes and corvee labor.)


堅至自淮南,次於長安東之行宮,入告罪子太廟。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Fu Jian returned to Chang'an from Huainan, he stopped at the provisional palace east of the city, where he reported on the tragedy at the ancestral temple and listed his crimes.


庚午,大赦。以謝石為尚書令。進謝玄號前將軍,固讓不受。

21. On the day Gengwu (January 24th of 384), a general amnesty was declared in Jin. Xie Shi was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Xie Xuan was promoted to General of the Front, but he firmly declined the office and did not accept it.

謝安婿王國寶,坦之之子也;安惡其為人,每抑而不用,以為尚書郎。國寶自以望族,故事唯作吏部,不為餘曹,固辭不拜,由是怨安。國寶從妹為會稽王道子妃,帝與道子皆嗜酒,狎暱邪諂,國寶乃譖安於道子,使離間之於帝。安功名既盛,而險詖求進之徒,多毀短安,帝由是稍疏忌之。

22. Xie An's son-in-law, Wang Guobao, was the son of Wang Tanzhi. Xie An hated the way he acted, and always restrained him and did not use him, only appointing him as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. But because Wang Guobao came from an influential clan, he only wanted to receive appointment as Supervisor, not as one of the other department managers, so he declined to accept the office, and he resented Xie An because of this snub.

Wang Guobao's cousin was the concubine of the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, and Emperor Xiaowu and Sima Daozi loved to go drinking. During such times, they were susceptible to flattery. So Wang Guobao slandered Xie An to Sima Daozi, in order to cause a rift between Xie An and Emperor Xiaowu. Xie An had widespread achievements and fame, but he kept denying the requests for promotion of unworthy people, and many of them slandered and slighted him. So Emperor Xiaowu began to suspect him.

尚書郎,晉制三十五曹,置郎二十三人,更相統攝。及江左,無直事、右民、屯田、車部、別兵、都兵、騎兵、左‧右士、運曹十曹郎。康、穆以後,又無虞曹、二千石二郎,但有殿中、祠部、吏部、儀曹、三公、比部、金部、倉部、度支、都官、左民、起部、水部、主客、駕部、庫部、中兵、外兵十八曹。後又省主客、起部、水部,餘十五曹,而吏部最爲清選。

(According to the Jin system, the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing handled thirty-five departments, and there were twenty-three Gentlemen, so some wielded extra authority. After the court was re-established in the Southland, they had abolished the managers for the departments of 直事、右民、屯田、車部、別兵、都兵、騎兵、左‧右士、and 運曹. After the reigns of Emperors Kang and Mu, they also abolished the managers for the department of 虞曹. There were two Gentleman of the Two Thousand 石 salary rank, but there were also eighteen managers of 殿中、祠部、吏部、儀曹、三公、比部、金部、倉部、度支、都官、左民、起部、水部、主客、駕部、庫部、中兵、and 外兵. Jin later also abolished the managers for the departments of 主客、起部、and 水部. So in the end, there were more than fifteen managers, but the Supervisor was the highest post.)


初開酒禁,增民稅米,口五石。

23. Jin now imposed a ban on wine, and increased the head tax on people to five 石 of rice per head.

漢建安中,曹公嚴酒禁。咸和五年,成帝始度百姓田,取十分之一,率畝稅米三升。哀帝卽位,減田租,畝收二升。太元二年,帝除度田收租之制,公王以下,口稅三斛,唯蠲在役之身。至是年,又增稅米,口五石。

(During the Han dynasty's Jian'an reign era (196-219), Cao Cao had strictly enforced a ban on wine.

In the fifth year of Xianhe (330), Emperor Cheng had first set up a system of land taxes on the farmland of the common people; the rate was set at ten percent of the yield, or three 升 of rice per 畝. After Emperor Ai came to the throne, the tax rate was lowered to two 升 of rice per 畝 (362.2). In the second year of Taiyuan, Emperor Xiaowu abolished the land tax and imposed a universal head tax instead, at a rate of three 斛 of rice per head, with exemptions only for those in corvee labor (376.12). During this year, the head tax was increased again, to a rate of five 斛 per head.)


秦呂光行越流沙三百餘里,焉耆等諸國皆降。惟龜茲王帛純拒之,嬰城固守,光進軍攻之。

24. The Qin general Lü Guang advanced his army more than three hundred li through the shifting sands of the Western Reaches. Karasahr and the other local states all submitted to him. Only the King of Kucha, Bochun, held out against him, and stubbornly manned the walls of his city. Lü Guang advanced his army to attack him.

自玉門出,渡流沙,西行至鄯善,北行至車師。又,且末國在鄯善西,其國之西北,有流沙數百里,夏日有熱風,爲行旅之患。風之所至,唯老駝預知之,卽嗔而聚立,埋其口鼻於沙中,人每以爲候,亦卽將氈擁蔽鼻口。其風迅駛,斯須過盡,若不防者,必致危斃。桑欽曰:流沙地在張掖居延縣西北。杜佑曰:流沙在沙州,敦煌郡西八十里。酈道元曰:弱水入流沙。流沙,與水流行也。亦言出鍾山,西行極崦嵫之山,在西海郡北;流沙又逕浮渚,歷壑市之國,又逕于鳥山之東朝雲國,西歷崐山,西南出于過瀛之山。《大荒山經》曰:西南海之外,流沙出焉。

(After you pass through the Yumen Gate and enter the shifting sands, if you travel west you shall reach Shanshan, while if you go north you shall reach Jushi. Beyond those, the state of Qiemo lies west of Shanshan, and there are other states to the northwest. But they are many hundreds of li through the shifting sands, and the summer days have hot winds, so travel becomes dangerous. When the winds are about to arrive, the old camels will sense it, and they will gather together and bury their snouts in the sand. When men recognize this, then they too will wrap felt around their noses and mouths. The winds blow at high speeds, and it only takes a moment before they blow through everything. If you do not protect yourself, you shall certainly die from it. Sang Qin remarked, "The region of the shifting sands is northwest of Juyan county in Zhangye commandary." The Tongdian states, "The shifting sands are in Shazhou ('Sand Province'), eighty li west of Dunhuang commandary." Li Daoyuan remarked, "The Ruo River flows in from the shifting sands; these shifting sands flow in the same way that water does." He also says the river comes out of Mount Zhong, and its western extremity is at the mountains at Yanzi, north of Xihai commandary. The shifting sands also have a few oases, and market states spring up around these pools, including the Chaoyun state east of Mount Niao, Kunshan west of there, and southwest beyond the mountains at Ying. The Classic of the Great Wastes and Mountains states, "Beyond the Western Sea (presumably Lake Qinghai) stretches the shifting sands.")


行至高昌,聞堅寇晉,光欲更須後命。部將杜進曰:「節下受任金方,赴機宜速,有何不了,而更留乎!」光乃進及流沙,三百餘里無水,將士失色。光曰:「吾聞李廣利精誠玄感,飛泉湧出,吾等豈獨無感致乎!皇天必將有濟,諸君不足憂也。」俄而大雨,平地三尺。進兵至焉耆,其王泥流率其旁國請降。龜茲王帛純距光,光軍其城南,五里為一營,深溝高壘,廣設疑兵,以木為人,被之以甲,羅之壘上。帛純驅徙城外人入于城中,附庸侯王各嬰城自守。至是,光左臂內脈起成字,文曰「巨霸」。營外夜有一黑物,大如斷堤,搖動有頭角,目光若電,及明而雲霧四周,遂不復見。旦視其處,南北五里,東西三十餘步,鱗甲隱地之所,昭然猶在。光笑曰:「黑龍也。」俄而雲起西北,暴雨滅其跡。杜進言於光曰:「龍者神獸,人君利見之象。《易》曰:『見龍在田,德施普也。』斯誠明將軍道合靈和,德符幽顯。願將軍勉之,以成大慶。」光有喜色。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

The Qin army had advanced as far as Gaochang when they heard that Fu Jian had invaded Jin. Lü Guang wished to await further orders. His subordinate Du Jin said to him, "Commissioner, you have been entrusted with a post of great responsibility. When opportunity presents itself, you must advance at once. What reason do you have not to do so, and to go so far as to stay put here?" So Lü Guang continued to march into the shifting sands.

After advancing more than three hundred li, there was no longer any water. Both the officers and the soldiers were losing color. Lü Guang said, "I have heard that Li Guang's earnest sincerity moved the spirits, and caused a spring of water to gush forth. Who among us is not likewise honest and devoted? The Yellow Heaven will surely soon provide for us, so there is no need for any of you gentlemen to worry." Soon, a great storm came up, and three inches of rain fell.

The army continued to advance, and reached Karasahr. The King there, Niuli, sent around to the neighboring states, asking them to submit. But the King of Kucha, Bochun, opposed Lü Guang, so Lü Guang marched his army to the south of that city. There he set up a camp stretching across five li, and he piled up earth to form a tall rampart. He also fashioned fake soldiers, making the men out of wood and their armor out of cloth, and set them up all along the rampart. King Bochun forced all of the people outside of the city to move into the city, and his vassal nobles also manned his walls and guarded his city.

By now, the mark on Lü Guang's left elbow had risen to form complete characters, the two words "great hegemon". Outside the camp that night, there was some black being, massive as a dyke. It shook and had horns on its head, and its eyes glowed like lightning, and it was bright with clouds and mists all about it. It soon disappeared, but when dawn came, its form could still be seen. From north to south it stretched five li, and from east to west it stretched more than thirty paces. Its scales and shell were all hidden in the earth, but they shined as though the being were still there. Lü Guang smiled and said, "It is a black dragon." Soon, a cloud rose in the northwest, and a fierce storm washed away all traces of the being. Du Jin said to Lü Guang, "Dragons are divine beings, and it is good fortune for men and lords to see one. The Book of Changes states, 'The dragon appears in the field - the diffusion of virtuous influence has been wide. (Qian 3)' This demonstrates that you, General, adhere to the Way and are in accordance with the sublime. Your virtue and authority, once hidden, are now laid bare. General, if you will now exert yourself, you will carry out a great achievement." And Lü Guang had a joyful expression.

光所經諸國,莫不降附。光至龜茲,王帛純拒之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang passed through several states in the Western Reaches, and not a single one of them did not submit to him and come over to his side. But when Lü Guang reached Kucha, the King of Kucha, Bochun, opposed him.


秦王堅之入寇也,以乞伏國仁為前將軍,領先鋒騎。會國仁叔父步頹反於隴西,堅遣國仁還討之。步頹聞之,大喜,迎國仁於路。國仁置酒,大言曰:「苻氏疲民逞兵,殆將亡矣,吾當與諸君共建一方之業。」及堅敗,國仁遂迫脅諸部,有不從者,擊而並之,眾至十餘萬。

25. When Fu Jian had set out on his campaign against Jin, he had appointed Qifu Guoren as General of the Front, and was going to send him to lead the vanguard cavalry. But Qifu Guoren's uncle Qifu Butui rebelled in Longxi, so Fu Jian sent Qifu Guoren back to campaign against him. When Qifu Butui heard of it, he was very pleased, and he came to welcome Qifu Guoren on the road. They drank together, and Qifu Guoren declared, "The Fu clan's people are exhausted and their troops are undisciplined. Soon they shall fall. I shall work together with you gentlemen to establish our own endeavor."

After Fu Jian was defeated, Qifu Guoren compelled the various local tribes to obey him. Those who refused to do so, he attacked and took over. In the end, he had more than a hundred thousand soldiers.

國仁代司繁鎭勇士,見上卷元年。

(Qifu Guoren's replacement of Qifu Sifan as Protector of Yongshi is mentioned in Book 104, in the first year (376.25).)


聞堅征晉奔敗,國仁收衆至十餘萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

When Qifu Guoren heard that Fu Jian had retreated from his failed campaign against Jin, he gathered together a host of more than a hundred thousand.

及堅興壽春之役,徵為前將軍,領先鋒騎。會國仁叔父步頹叛於隴西,堅遣國仁還討之。步頹聞而大悅,迎國仁于路。國仁置酒高會,攘袂大言曰:「苻氏往因趙石之亂,遂妄竊名號,窮兵極武,跨僭八州。疆宇既寧,宜綏以德,方虛廣威聲,勤心遠略,騷動蒼生,疲弊中國,違天怒人,將何以濟!且物極則虧、禍盈而覆者,天之道也。以吾量之,是役也,難以免矣。當與諸君成一方之業。」及堅敗歸,乃招集諸部,有不附者,討而並之,眾至十餘萬。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

When Fu Jian made his plans to attack Shouchun, he appointed Qifu Guoren as General of the Front and acting leader of the vanguard cavalry. But at that time, Qifu Guoren's uncle Qifu Butui rebelled in Longxi, so Fu Jian sent Qifu Guoren to campaign against him. When Qifu Butui heard of it, he was overjoyed, and he came to welcome Qifu Guoren on the road.

Qifu Guoren held a great wine feast, where he pushed up his sleeves and declared, "The Fu clan rose by taking advantage of the turmoil during the Shi clan of Zhao's demise. Though obscure, they laid claim to a lofty title. Though weak, their soldiers became mighty. In the end, they straddled eight provinces. Once their territory had been settled, they ought to have cultivated their virtue. But instead, they heralded their vacuous military pretensions, and cast away plans for the long-term good of the realm. They disturbed the common people, and brought exhaustion and abuse to the Middle Kingdom. They have ignored Heaven and infuriated men; how can they go on much longer? It is the will of Heaven that when such a thing brings down such disaster and misfortune, it must be overthrown. The way has been prepared for me, and it would be hard for me to avoid it. I shall work together with you gentlemen to establish our own endeavor."

After Fu Jian returned from his defeat, Qifu Guoren summoned many of the local tribes and gathered them to him. He campaigned against those who would not submit and annexed them, until he commanded a host of more than a hundred thousand.


慕容垂至安陽,遣參軍田山修箋於長樂公丕。丕聞垂北來,疑其欲為亂,然猶身自迎之。趙秋勸垂於座取丕,因據鄴起兵,垂不從。丕謀襲擊垂,侍郎天水姜讓諫曰:「垂反形未著,而明公擅殺之,非臣子之義;不如待以上賓之禮,嚴兵衛之,密表情狀,聽敕而後圖之。」丕從之,館垂於鄴西。

26. When Murong Chui reached Anyang, he sent his Army Advisor, Tian Shan, to try to improve relations with the Duke of Changle, Fu Jian's son Fu Pi. When Fu Pi heard that Murong Chui was coming north, he suspected him and believed that he was planning rebellion, but Fu Pi still came in person to welcome him. Zhao Qiu urged Murong Chui to seize Fu Pi when he sat down, then take over Ye and raise troops in rebellion, but Murong Chui did not heed him. Fu Pi plotted to launch a surprise attack on Murong Chui, but his Gentleman-Attendant, Jiang Rang of Tianshui, remonstrated with him, saying, "Murong Chui has not yet shown himself to be a rebel, and for you to personally kill him is not befitting a loyal son. It would be better to treat him well at first, and keep our soldiers in strict order to guard against him, then secretly inform them of the circumstances. Once they hear our command, then they may do away with him." Fu Pi agreed with him, so he hosted Murong Chui west of Ye.

安陽在鄴城西南。晉制,王國置侍郎二人。

(Anyang was southwest of Ye.

According to the Jin system, princely fiefs each had two Gentlemen-Attendants.)


垂潛與燕之故臣謀復燕祚,會丁零翟斌起兵叛秦,謀攻豫州牧平原公暉於洛陽,秦王堅驛書使垂將兵討之。石越言於丕曰:「王師新敗,民心未安,負罪亡匿之徒,思亂者眾,故丁零一唱,旬日之中,眾已數千,此其驗也。慕容垂,燕之宿望,有興復舊業之心。今復資之以兵,此為虎傅翼也。」丕曰:「垂在鄴如藉虎寢蛟,常恐為肘腋之變。今遠之於外,不猶愈乎!且翟斌凶悖,必不肯為垂下,使兩虎相斃,吾從而制之,此卞莊子之術也。」乃以羸兵二千及鎧仗之弊者給垂,又遣廣武將軍苻飛龍帥氐騎一千為垂之副,密戒飛龍曰:「垂為三軍之帥,卿為謀垂之將,行矣,勉之!」

27. Murong Chui then began secretly plotting with Yan's former ministers to restore Yan. Meanwhile, the Dingling chieftain Zhai Bin raised his own troops and rebelled against Qin, plotting to attack the Governor of Yuzhou and Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui, at Luoyang. Fu Jian sent a courier with a letter ordering Murong Chui to lead troops against Zhai Bin.

Shi Yue said to Fu Pi, "The royal army has recently been defeated, and the people's hearts are not yet settled. There are many convicts and fugitives who long for such turmoil. That is why, although the Dingling have sounded the call of rebellion for a mere ten days, they already have this many thousands. Such is the danger we are already faced with. Now Murong Chui is the hope of Yan, and his ambition is to revive his former state and continue the designs of his ancestors. If you furnish him with troops now, it will only be giving wings to a tiger."

But Fu Pi replied, "So long as Murong Chui is at Ye, he is like a crouching tiger or a sleeping dragon. We will always have to be on the lookout for some development close at hand. So if I send him far away, is that not an improvement? Furthermore, Zhai Bin is brash and wild; he will never consent to serve under Murong Chui. I am only sending two tigers to fight one another, and then I can control whichever one wins. This is the same skill as Bian Zhuangzi."

So he sent two thousand frail soldiers and some faulty weapons and armor to give to Murong Chui, and he sent the General of Broad Valor, Fu Feilong, with a thousand Di cavalry to be Murong Chui's adjutant. He secretly instructed Fu Feilong, "Murong Chui will be the leader of the three armies, but you will serve under him for the sake of my plan. When the moment comes, exert yourself!"

丁零種落,本居中山,苻堅之滅燕也,徙於新安。斌仕秦爲衞軍從事中郎。成都王穎使和演圖王浚,殷浩使魏憬圖姚襄,苻丕使苻飛龍圖慕容垂,智略不足以濟,其敗同一轍也。

(The tribes of the Dingling people had originally resided in Zhongshan commandary. After Fu Jian conquered Former Yan, he had relocated the Dingling to Xin'an commandary (Book 103, 371.2). Zhai Bin had held office under Former Qin as Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the Guard General.

When Jin's Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, sent He Yan to deal with Wang Jun (Book 85, 304.14), when Yin Hao sent Wei Jing to deal with Yao Xiang (Book 99, 353.14), and when Fu Pi sent Fu Feilong to deal with Murong Chui, none of their plans actually worked out, and each of them was defeated the same way.)


Bian Zhuangzi had once wished to kill two tigers. He enticed them into fighting one another, and held back to observe them. One of the tigers killed the other one, but it was so exhausted afterwards that Bian Zhuangzi could easily walk up and kill it too.

丁零翟斌反于河南,長樂公苻丕遣慕容垂及苻飛龍討之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

The Dingling leader Zhai Bin rebelled at Henan. The Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, sent Murong Chui and Fu Feilong to campaign against him.

時堅子丕先在鄴,及垂至,丕館之於鄴西,垂具說淮南敗狀。會堅將苻暉告丁零翟斌聚眾謀逼洛陽,歪謂垂曰:「惟斌兄弟因王師小失,敢肆凶勃,子母之軍,殆難為敵,非冠軍英略,莫可以滅也。欲相煩一行可乎?」垂曰:「下官殿下之鷹犬,敢不惟命是聽。」於是大賜金帛,一無所受,惟請舊田園。丕許之,配垂兵二千,遣其將苻飛龍率氐騎一千為垂之副。丕戒飛龍曰:「卿王室肺腑,年秩雖卑,其實帥也。垂為三軍之統,卿為謀垂之主,用兵制勝之權,防微杜貳之略,委之於卿,卿其勉之。」(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

At this time, Fu Jian's son Fu Pi was already at Ye. When Murong Chui arrived, Fu Pi hosted him west of Ye, and Murong Chui informed him of what had happened at the defeat at Huainan.

Meanwhile, Fu Jian's general Fu Hui reported that he was threatened by the Dingling leader Zhai Bin, whose army was approaching Luoyang. Fu Pi said to Murong Chui, "Zhai Bin and his brothers only dare to take this wild and brash act because of the slight reverse the royal army has suffered. But my brother's army is in dire straits because of this enemy. Champion General, you are a bold and cunning man, and no one can defeat you. Can I trouble you to move against these foes?"

Murong Chui replied, "Your Highness, I am merely your dog or hawk. I would not dare to disregard your orders." Murong Chui was offered great rewards of gold and silk, but he did not accept any of them. He only asked for his old fields and gardens. Fu Pi agreed.

Fu Pi assigned two thousand soldiers to Murong Chui, and also sent his general Fu Feilong with a thousand Di cavalry to act as Murong Chui's adjutant. Fu Pi instructed Fu Feilong, "You are a core member of the royal family. Although you are young and hold a lowly rank, you will hold the actual command. Murong Chui will lead the three armies, while you will take him as your leader for the sake of my plan. Use the soldiers to achieve a victory, and guard against the threat of rebellion. I entrust this role to you; you must exert yourself in it."


垂請入鄴城拜廟,丕弗許,乃潛服而入;亭吏禁之,垂怒,斬吏燒亭而去。石越言於丕曰:「垂敢輕侮方鎮,殺吏燒亭,反形已露,可因此除之。」丕曰:「淮南之敗,垂侍衛乘輿,此功不可忘也。」越曰:「垂尚不忠於燕,安能盡忠於我?失今不取,必為後患。」丕不從。越退,告人曰:「公父子好為小仁,不顧大計,終當為人擒耳。」

28. Murong Chui asked to enter Ye in order to pay respects at the Ancestral Temple of Yan, but Fu Pi denied him. Murong Chui put on a disguise and tried to enter the city anyway, but the pavilion attendants forbade it, and Murong Chui became angry; he killed the attendants and set fire to the pavilion before leaving.

Shi Yue then said to Fu Pi, "When Murong Chui dared to leave his defense post, force his way in and kill the attendants, and burn the pavilion, that showed his true nature. Now you can get rid of him."

But Fu Pi said, "After the defeat at Huainan, Murong Chui attended and guarded the imperial carriage. That achievement cannot be forgotten."

Shi Yue said, "If Murong Chui was able to betray Yan, how could he be fully loyal to us? If you lose this chance, he will certainly pose a threat to us later."

But Fu Pi did not heed him. Shi Yue withdrew, telling others, "Both the father and the son put more importance in these petty acts of benevolence than they do in the greater affairs. We shall be someone's captives in the end."

燕都鄴,故廟在鄴城。丕父子後卒如越之言。

(Former Yan's capital had been at Ye, so that was where their ancestral temple was.

Both Fu Jian and Fu Pi later perished, just as Shi Yue here predicted.)


垂請入鄴城拜廟,丕不許。乃潛服而入,亭吏禁之,垂怒,斬吏燒亭而去。石越言於丕曰:「垂之在燕,破國亂家,及投命聖朝,蒙超常之遇,忽敢輕侮方鎮,殺吏焚亭,反形已露,終為亂階。將老兵疲,可襲而取之矣。」歪曰:「淮南之敗,眾散親離,而垂侍衛聖躬,誠不可忘。」越曰:「垂既不忠於燕,其肯盡忠於我乎!且其亡虜也,主上寵同功舊,不能銘澤誓忠,而首謀為亂,今不擊之,必為後害。」丕不從。越退而告人曰:「公父子好存小仁,不顧天下大計,吾屬終當為鮮卑虜矣。」(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui asked to enter Ye to pay his respects at the ancestral temple, but Fu Pi would not allow it. So Murong Chui disguised himself to enter the city, but the terrace guards barred him. Murong Chui was enraged; he killed the guards and burned the terraces before returning to his camp.

Shi Yue said to Fu Pi, "When Murong Chui was in Yan, he broke his state and caused discord in his family. Then when he threw himself on our court's mercy, he concealed his great ambitions. Now he has suddenly dared to lightly abandon his post, kill the guards and burn the terraces. He thus reveals his true intentions. He will become a rebel in the end. He is an old man and his troops are exhausted; launch a surprise attack, and you can take him."

But Fu Pi said, "After the defeat at Huainan, the armies all scattered their own ways. But Murong Chui attended and protected the imperial personage. His honesty cannot be forgotten."

Shi Yue replied, "Murong Chui was not even loyal to Yan; how can he fully loyal to us? When he was a doomed captive, our lord treated him with the same favor as an old accomplished minister. But he was never able to ascertain Murong Chui's vow of loyalty, and he is now plotting rebellion. If you do not attack him now, he will become a threat later on."

Fu Pi would not agree. Shi Yue withdrew, telling other people, "Both the father and the son put more importance in these petty acts of benevolence than they do in the great plans of the realm. We shall all be the slaves of the Xianbei in the end."


垂留慕容農、慕容楷、慕容紹於鄴,行至安陽之湯池,閔亮、李毘自鄴來,以丕與苻飛龍所謀告垂。垂因激怒其眾曰:「吾盡忠於苻氏,而彼專欲圖吾父子,吾雖欲已,得乎!」乃託言兵少,停河內募兵,旬日間,有眾八千。

29. Murong Chui left Murong Nong, Murong Kai, and Murong Shao at Ye. When he reached Tangchi in Anyang, Min Liang and Li Pi arrived from Ye, and informed Murong Chui of Fu Pi's plotting with Fu Feilong. Because of this, Murong Chui angrily said to his soldiers, "I have been fully loyal to the Fu clan, yet now they wish to destroy me and my sons. No matter what I had once hoped for, this is what we are faced with now!" So he claimed that he had too few soldiers, and he lingered in Henei to recruit more. Within ten days, he had eight thousand soldiers.

幾事不密則害成。苻飛龍固不足以辦垂,況其謀已泄邪!

(Plans which are not kept secret are doomed to failure. Not only could Fu Feilong not deal with Murong Chui, he could not even keep the secret from getting out!)


平原公暉遣使讓垂,趣使進兵。垂謂飛龍曰:「今寇賊不遠,當晝止夜行,襲其不意。」飛龍以為然。壬午,夜,垂遣世子寶將兵居前,少子隆勒兵從己,令氐兵五人為伍;陰與寶約,聞鼓聲,前後合擊氐兵及飛龍,盡殺之,參佐家在西者皆遣還,並以書遺秦王堅,言所以殺飛龍之故。

30. Fu Hui sent messengers to halt Murong Chui, but Murong Chui intercepted the messengers and continued his advance.

Murong Chui said to Fu Feilong, "The rebels are now quite close. We should pretend that we are halting, and then march on at night; they will not expect an attack." Fu Feilong believed him.

On the night of the day Renwu (February 5th of 384), Murong Chui had Murong Bao lead the soldiers in the front of the army and had his youngest son Murong Long lead the ones in the rear, with the five hundred Di soldiers in between. Then he made a secret arrangement with Murong Bao. At the sound of the drums, the front and the rear soldiers both attacked the Di soldiers and Fu Feilong in between them, killing them all. The officers to the west all fled, and sent word to inform Fu Jian, saying that Fu Feilong and all the rest had been killed.

河內距新安、洛陽,止隔大河耳,故云然。蓋言丕使飛龍圖己,故殺之也。

(Henei was only cut off from Xin'an and Luoyang by the Yellow River, so Murong Chui's ostensible reason was believable.

The officers must have reported on Fu Pi having sent Fu Feiling to deal with Murong Chui, and that was why he had killed Fu Feilong.)


垂南... 殺飛龍,盡坑其衆。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

After marching south, Murong Chui killed Fu Feilong and buried his entire army alive.


初,垂從堅入鄴,以其子麟屢嘗告變於燕,立殺其母,然猶不忍殺麟,置之外捨,希得侍見。乃殺苻飛龍,麟屢進策畫,啟發垂意,垂更奇之,寵待與諸子均矣。

31. Years earlier, when Murong Chui had entered Ye after Qin’s conquest of Yan, he had encountered his son Murong Lin again. Since Murong Lin had been responsible for ruining his original plan, Murong Chui killed Murong Lin's mother, but he still could not bear to kill Murong Lin. So he only expelled Murong Lin from his household, forcing him to be a servant.

After Murong Chui killed Fu Feilong, Murong Lin several times stepped forward and offered strategies to him, and this changed Murong Chui's view of him. He began to appreciate Murong Lin more, and favored him the same as his other sons.

見一百二卷海西公太和五年。事見太和四年。垂意所欲爲,而思慮偶有所未及,麟能迎其機言之,故謂之啓發。爲後麟亂燕張本。

(Murong Chui entered Ye after Former Qin's conquest of Former Yan in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.27). Murong Lin had been the one to inform Former Yan about Murong Chui's original plans when he fled Ye the year before (369.20).

This was what Murong Chui had hoped for, but there had been no opportunity yet to express his feelings. But Murong Lin was able to take advantage of this opportunity and offer advice, so his words inspired Murong Chui.

This was why Murong Lin was able to later rebel against Later Yan.)


慕容鳳及燕故臣之子燕郡王騰、遼西段延等聞翟斌起兵,各帥部曲歸之。平原公暉使武平武侯毛當討斌。慕容鳳曰:「鳳今將雪先王之恥,請為斬此氐奴。」乃擐甲直進,丁零之眾隨之,大敗秦兵,斬毛當;遂進攻陵雲台戍,克之,收萬餘人甲仗。

32. When Murong Feng and the other sons of former Yan ministers, Wang Teng of Yan commandary, Duan Yan of Liaoxi, and others heard that Zhai Bin had risen in rebellion, they all led their own forces to join him. Fu Hui sent Mao Dang to campaign against Zhai Bin. Murong Feng said, "Now I may wipe away my late father’s shame. Let us kill this Di slave." So he put on his armor and charged straight ahead, with the Dingling following behind him. They inflicted a great defeat upon the Qin soldiers, and killed Mao Dang. Then they advanced to attack the Qin camp at Lingyun Terrace, and took it, capturing more than ten thousand soldiers and their arms and armor. Mao Dang was posthumously known as Marquis Wu (“the Martial”) of Wuping.

段延蓋段國之種。燕之亡也,鳳父桓死難,事見一百二卷海西公太和五年。陵雲臺,魏文帝所築,在洛城西,秦置戍焉。

(Duan Yan must have been from the Duan clan that ruled that former warlord state.

After the fall of Former Yan, Murong Feng's father Murong Huan had been killed by Former Qin. This incident is mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.29).

Lingyun Terrace had been built by Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi), west of Luoyang's walls. The Former Qin soldiers were camped there.)


垂遂殺鎮軍將軍毛當。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chui killed Fu Jian's General Who Guards The Army, Mao Dang.


癸未,慕容垂濟河焚橋,有眾三萬,留遼東鮮卑可足渾潭集兵於河內之沙城。垂遣田山如鄴,密告慕容農等使起兵相應。時日已暮,農與慕容楷留宿鄴中;慕容紹先出,至蒲池,盜丕駿馬數百匹以待農、楷。甲申晦,農、楷將數十騎微服出鄴,遂同奔列人。

33. On the day Guiwei (February 6th of 384), Murong Chui crossed the Yellow River and burned the bridge behind him. By now, he commanded thirty thousand soldiers. He left the Xianbei leader, Kezuhun Tan of Liaodong, to gather soldiers at Shacheng in Henei.

Murong Chui sent Tian Shan back to Ye, to secretly tell Murong Nong and the others to each go out and raise troops as well. By the time Tian Shan arrived at Ye, it was already dusk. Murong Nong and Murong Kai remained inside their homes in Ye. Murong Shao went out first, going to Pu Pond, where he stole hundreds of Fu Pi's fine steeds and waited for Murong Nong and Murong Kai. On the eve of the new year (February 7th of 364), Murong Nong and Murong Kai led several dozen horsemen out of Ye in disguise, all of them riding towards Lieren.

言河內,以別魏郡之沙城。燕主皝后可足渾氏,譚蓋亦燕之戚黨也。蒲池在鄴城外,慕容儁與羣臣宴處。列人縣,漢屬鉅鹿郡,魏、晉屬廣平郡,其地在鄴城東北。魏收《地形志》:魏郡臨漳縣有列人城;又別有列人縣,亦屬魏郡。

(Since this passage specifies "Henei", it does not mean the Shacheng in Wei commandary.

The Empress Dowager of Former Yan had been Lady Kezuhun, so this Kezuhun Tan must have also been some close kin or partisan to Former Yan.

Pu Pond was outside Ye. Murong Jun had held a feast for his ministers there (Book 100, 359.3).

During Han, Lieren county was part of Julu commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Guangping commandary. It was northeast of Ye. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The city of Lieren is in Linzhang county in Wei commandary. There is also a separate Lieren county, which is also in Wei commandary.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Sep 23, 2018 6:37 am, edited 31 times in total.
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BOOK 105

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 06, 2017 5:26 pm

太元九年(甲申,公元三八四年)

The Ninth Year of Taiyuan (The Jiashen Year, 384 AD)


春,正月,乙酉朔,秦長樂公丕大會賓客,請慕容農不得,始覺有變。遣人四出求之,三日,乃知其在列人,已起兵矣。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yiyou (February 8th), Fu Pi summoned a general meeting of all his guests. When he asked around why Murong Nong and the others were not present, Fu Pi then realized what had happened. He sent agents out in all directions to look into where they were. After three days, he learned that the fugitives were at Lieren, and were already raising troops.

慕容鳳、王騰、段延皆勸翟斌奉慕容垂為盟主;斌從之。垂欲襲洛陽,且未知斌之誠偽,乃拒之曰:「吾來救豫州,不來赴君。君既建大事,成享其福,敗受其禍,吾無預焉。」丙戌,垂至洛陽,平原公暉聞其殺苻飛龍,閉門拒之。翟斌復遣長史郭通往說垂,垂猶未許。通曰:「將軍所以拒通者,豈非以翟斌兄弟山野異類,無奇才遠略,必無所成故邪?獨不念將軍今日憑之,可以濟大業乎!」垂乃許之。於是斌帥其眾來與垂會,勸垂稱尊號。垂曰:「新興侯,吾主也,當迎歸返正耳。」

2. Murong Feng, Wang Teng, and Duan Yan all urged Zhai Bin to join forces with Murong Chui and recognize him as leader of their combined forces, and Zhai Bin agreed to do so.

Murong Chui wished to launch a surprise attack against Luoyang, and he was not yet certain of Zhai Bin's sincerity, so he put him off, saying, "I have come to rescue the Inspector of Yuzhou (Fu Hui), not to join together with you. Since you wish to establish this great affair, you should enjoy fortune if you succeed and endure misfortune if you fail, but I will have no part of it."

On the day Bingxu (February 9th), Murong Chui arrived at Luoyang. But Fu Hui had heard that Murong Chui had killed Fu Feilong, so he closed the gates against Murong Chui and held to his defenses.

Zhai Bin sent his Chief Clerk, Guo Tong, to speak to Murong Chui again, yet Murong Chui still would not agree to join together with the rebels. So Guo Tong said to him, "General, isn't the only reason you refuse to join us because Zhai Bin and his brothers are all different folks of various regions, lacking in any special talent for forming long-term plans, and so doomed to failure? But even so, if we can rely upon you this day, General, we can still achieve the grand design!"

So Murong Chui finally agreed.

Zhai Bin then led his soldiers to come join Murong Chui's army. He urged Murong Chui to claim the imperial title. But Murong Chui replied, "The Marquis of Xinxing (Murong Wei) is my lord. I ought to welcome his return and restore him to the throne."

秦平原公暉以豫州牧鎭洛陽。謂憑其衆可以成功也。秦獲慕容暐,封爲新興侯。

(Fu Hui was stationed at Luoyang in his capacity as Former Qin’s Inspector of Yuzhou.

Guo Tong was saying that Zhai Bin and the others could succeed if they relied upon Murong Chui's forces.

After Former Qin had captured Murong Wei, they had given him the title Marquis of Xinxing.)


垂結丁零。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chui made an agreement with the Dingling.


垂以洛陽四面受敵,欲取鄴而據之,乃引兵而東。故扶餘王餘蔚為滎陽太守,及昌黎鮮卑衛駒各帥其眾降垂。垂至滎陽,群下固請上尊號,垂乃依晉中宗故事,稱大將軍、大都督、燕王,承製行事,謂之統府。群下稱臣,文表奏誥,封拜官爵,皆如王者。以弟德為車騎大將軍,封范陽王;兄子楷為征西大將軍,封太原王;翟斌為建義大將軍,封河南王;餘蔚為征東將軍,統府左司馬,封扶餘王;衛駒為鷹揚將軍,慕容鳳為建策將軍。帥眾二十餘萬,自石門濟河,長驅向鄴。

3. Since Murong Chui would be surrounded by enemies if he remained at Luoyang, he wished to go back to Ye and capture it as his base, so he led his soldiers back east again. He appointed the former King of Buyeo, Hae Yeoul, as Administrator of Xingyang, and he and the Xianbei leader, Wei Ju of Changli, both led their forces to submit to Murong Chui.

When Murong Chui reached Xingyang, his subordinates continued to insist that he assume the imperial title. Because of that, Murong Chui decided to follow the example of Emperor Zhongzong of Jin (Sima Rui). He declared himself Grand General, Grand Commander, and Prince of Yan, and he began making provisional appointments, although he said that this was just for his personal command staff. But his subordinates all considered themselves his subjects, and they submitted petitions to him and he conferred appointments upon them just the same as an actual sovereign.

Murong Chui appointed his younger brother Murong De as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Fanyang. He appointed his nephew Murong Kai as Grand General Who Conquers The West and Prince of Taiyuan. He appointed Zhai Bin as Grand General Who Establishes Righteousness and Prince of Henan. He appointed Hae Yeoul as General Who Conquers The East, Marshal of the Left of his command staff, and King of Buyeo. He appointed Wei Ju as General of Hawkish Display, and Murong Feng as General Who Establishes Planning.

By now, Murong Chui commanded an army of more than two hundred thousand soldiers. They crossed over the Yellow River again at Shimen, marching hard towards Ye.

餘蔚,卽太和五年開鄴北門納秦兵者。晉元帝廟號中宗。晉元帝稱王承制,見九十卷建武元年。燕本封德爲范陽王,今復其故。楷,恪子也;恪封太原王,今令楷襲父爵。建策將軍,亦慕容垂一時所署置也。

(Hae Yeoul was the Former Yan officer who had opened the north gate of Ye to let in the Former Qin army during the conquest of Former Yan, as mentioned in Book 102, in the fifth year of Taihe (370.26).

Emperor Yuan of Jin's (Sima Rui's) temple name was Zhongzong. The details of his declaring himself Prince of Jin and claiming his own powers of authority are mentioned in Book 90, in the first year of Jianwu (317.8).

Murong De had originally been Prince of Fanyang under Former Yan, and so Murong Chui was restoring that title to him. Murong Kai was Murong Ke's son; since Murong Ke had been Prince of Taiyuan, the same title was now granted to his son.

General Who Establishes Righteousness was a title that Murong Chui had invented on the spur of the moment.)


垂叛,攻苻丕於鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Chui rebelled against Fu Jian, and he attacked Fu Pi at Ye.

垂引丁零、烏丸之衆二十餘萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chui recruited from among the Dingling and Wuhuan, forming an army of more than two hundred thousand soldiers.

垂遂引丁零之眾攻堅子長樂公丕於鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chui led the army of the Dingling to attack the Duke of Changle, Fu Jian's son Fu Pi, at Ye.


慕容農之奔列人也,止於烏桓魯利家,利為之置饌,農笑而不食。利謂其妻曰:「惡奴,郎貴人,家貧無以饌之,奈何?」妻曰:「郎有雄才大志,今無故而至,必將有異,非為飲食來也。君亟出,遠望以備非常。」利從之。農謂利曰:「吾欲集兵列人以圖興復,卿能從我乎?」利曰:「死生唯郎是從。」農乃詣烏桓張驤,說之曰:「家王已舉大事,翟斌等鹹相推奉,遠近響應,故來相告耳。」驤再拜曰:「得舊主而奉之,敢不盡死!」於是農驅列人居民為士卒,斬桑榆為兵,裂襜裳為旗,使趙秋說屠各畢聰。聰與屠各卜勝、張延、李白、郭超及東夷餘和、敕勒、易陽烏桓劉大各帥部眾數千赴之。農假張驤輔國將軍,劉大安遠將軍,魯利建威將軍。農自將攻破館陶,收其軍資器械,遣蘭汗、段贊、趙秋、慕輿悕略取康台牧馬數千匹。汗,燕王垂之從舅;贊,聰之子也。於是步騎雲集,眾至數萬,驤等共推農為使持節、都督河北諸軍事、驃騎大將軍,監統諸將,隨才部署,上下肅然。農以燕王垂未至,不敢封賞將士。趙秋曰:「軍無賞,士不往。今之來者,皆欲建一時之功,規萬世之利,宜承製封拜,以廣中興之基。」農從之,於是赴者相繼;垂聞而善之。農西招庫辱官偉於上黨,東引乞特歸於東阿,北召光烈將軍平睿及睿兄汝陽太守幼於燕國;偉等皆應之。又遣蘭汗等攻頓丘,克之。農號令整肅,軍無私掠,士女喜悅。

4. Murong Nong had gone to Lieren. He stopped to visit the home of the Wuhuan leader Lü Li. Lü Li offered him some cooked food, but Murong Nong laughed and did not eat it. Lü Li said to his wife, "Wife, this young nobleman came to our poor home but did not eat. What do you make of it?"

His wife replied, "This young fellow has bold talent and grand ambitions. He did not come here for no reason, but must soon have something special planned, and he is not here just to eat and drink. You had better go out at once and see what remarkable plans he is up to." Lü Li agreed.

Murong Nong said to Lü Li, "I wish to gather soldiers at Lieren to carry out the restoration of our state. Will you follow us?"

Lü Li replied, "In life and death, young lord, I will follow you."

Murong Nong then went to visit the Wuhuan leader Zhang Xiang, and said to him, "Our family and our lord have already begun the great task. Zhai Bin and the others have all sworn themselves to him, and the call is going out near and far, so I have come to tell you about it too."

Zhang Xiang then saluted him and said, "In order to regain our old ruler and restore him, I will not dare shrink even from death!"

By such means did Murong Nong recruit all the families of Lieren as soldiers. They chopped down the mulberry trees to fashion weapons, and they cut up their skirts to use as banners. Murong Nong sent Zhao Qiu to speak to the leader of the Xiongnu's Chuge tribe, Bi Cong. Other leaders, including Bo Sheng, Zhang Yan, Li Bai, and Guo Chao of the Chuge, Yu He and Chi Lei of the eastern tribes, and the Wuhuan leader, Liu Da of Yiyang, all came with their own thousands of soldiers to join together with Murong Nong. Murong Nong appointed Zhang Xiang as General Who Upholds The State, he appointed Liu Da as General Who Maintains Distant Places, and he appointed Lü Li as General Who Establishes Might.

Murong Nong then led his army to attack and capture Guantao, where they collected a stash of army weapons and materials. Meanwhile, he sent Lan Han, Duan Zan, Zhao Qiu, and Muyu Xi to deviously capture Kangtai and gather up several thousand horses there. This Lan Han was Murong Chui's uncle; this Duan Zan was the son of Duan Cong. By the time the infantry and cavalry gathered together, the army had swelled to some tens of thousands. Zhang Xiang and the others all acclaimed Murong Nong as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow River, and Grand General of Valiant Cavalry. Murong Nong served as the leader for the other generals, appointing people to subordinate offices according to their talents, and he was respected by all.

Murong Nong was hesitant to grant titles or confer rewards on his own authority, before Murong Chui had returned first. But Zhao Qiu said to him, "If the army is not given rewards, then the soldiers will not move. Everyone who has come here to join you hopes that we can achieve something quickly. You should go ahead and make appointments and grant rewards as you deem fit, in order to secure a firm base for the restoration, and that will make your achievement last for countless generations." Murong Nong follow this advice, and so everyone who had come to join him stuck by him. When Murong Chui heard of it, he approved.

From his central positions, Murong Nong sent out further calls to arms. To the west he beckoned Kuru Guanwei from Shangdang, to the east he summoned Qite Gui from Dong'a, to the north he called the General of Brilliant Ferocity, Ping Rui, and the Administrator of Ruyang, Ping Rui's elder brother Ping You, from Yanguo. Kuru Guanwei and the others all agreed to follow him.

Murong Nong also sent Lan Han and others to attack Dunqiu, and they took it. Murong Nong issued orders for strict military discipline, and the army did not plunder the people, so the people were happy and pleased with him.

魯利本烏桓種,而家於列人。惡奴,蓋詈其妻之語。今世俗多呼其主爲郎主,又呼其主之子爲郎君。《爾雅》曰:衣蔽前也。郭璞曰:衣蔽膝也。易陽縣,漢屬趙國,魏、晉屬陽平郡。劉昫曰:唐洺州臨洺縣,古易陽縣也,隋開皇六年更名。館陶縣,漢屬魏郡,魏、晉屬陽平郡。魏收《地形志》:廣平郡平恩縣有康臺澤。杜預曰:不以道取曰略。言無賞以獎激之,則士不往赴戰也。【章:十二行本「間」作「西」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】【嚴:「庫」改「厙」,下同。】遣間使招之也。東阿縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬濟北郡,唐屬濟州。汝陽縣,漢、晉屬汝南郡,後分爲汝陽郡。平幼蓋先嘗爲汝陽太守時居燕國也。偉等皆燕之舊臣,故招之而應。光烈將軍,蓋亦前燕以授平叡。頓丘縣,漢屬東郡;武帝泰始二年,分置頓丘郡。言其軍不敢掠居民而私其物。

(Lü Li was from one of the Wuhuan tribes, and his home was at Lieren.

Lü Li more specifically addresses his wife as 惡奴 "evil slave". This must have been a way of addressing one's wife.

At that time, it was a common vulgar expression to address one's lord as 郎主 "young lord", or to address his son as 郎君 "young master".

Regarding 襜裳 "skirts", the Erya dictionary states, "It is clothing that covers the front." And Guo Pu remarked, "It is clothing that covers the knees."

During Han, Yiyang county was part of the Zhao princely fief. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. The Old Book of Tang states, "Linming county in Tang's Mingzhou was once known as Yiyang county. Its name was changed in Sui's sixth year of Kaihuang (586)."

During Han, Guantao county was part of Wei commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary.

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "There is a Kangtai Marsh in Ping'en county in Guangping commandary." The Tongdian remarks, "To take something without principle is to be 略 'devious'."

Zhao Qiu was saying that if the soldiers were not rewarded for having answered the call to arms, they would not be willing to advance together and fight a battle.

Some versions replace "from his central position" with "to the west".

Some versions list 庫辱 Kuru Guangui's surname as 厙辱 Sheru.

Murong Nong sent out envoys to summon all of these people.

During Han, Dong'a county was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Jibei commandary, and during Tang, it was part of Jizhou.

During Han and Jin, Ruyang county was part of Runan commandary. It was later split off as its own Ruyang commandary. So Ping You must have been the first person to be Administrator of Ruyang, when he was residing in Yanguo.

Kuru Guanwei and the others were all former ministers of Former Yan, and this is why they answered the call to arms. Ping Rui must have originally been General of Brilliant Ferocity when he served Former Yan.

During Han, Dunqiu county was part of Dong commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), he split it off as Dunqiu commandary.

This passage is saying that Murong Nong's army did not dare to plunder the people or take anything for themselves.)


長樂公丕使石越將步騎萬餘討之。農曰:「越有智勇之名,今不南拒大軍而來此,是畏王而陵我也;必不設備,可以計取之。」眾請治列人城,農曰:「善用兵者,結士以心,不以異物。今起義兵,唯敵是求,當以山河為城池,何列人之足治也!」辛卯,越至列人西,農使趙秋及參軍綦毋滕擊越前鋒,破之。參軍太原趙謙言於農曰:「越甲仗雖精,人心危駭,易破也,宜急擊之。」農曰:「彼甲在外,我甲在心,晝戰,則士卒見其外貌而憚之,不如待暮擊之,可以必克。」令軍士嚴備以待,毋得妄動。越立柵自固,農笑謂諸將曰:「越兵精士眾,不乘其初至之銳以擊我,方更立柵,吾知其無能為也。」向暮,農鼓噪出,陳於城西。牙門劉木請先攻越柵,農笑曰:「凡人見美食,誰不欲之,何得獨請!然汝猛銳可嘉,當以先鋒惠汝。」木乃帥壯士四百騰柵而入,秦兵披靡;農督大眾隨之,大敗秦兵,斬越,送首於垂。越與毛當,皆秦之驍將也,故秦王堅使助二子鎮守;既而相繼敗沒,人情騷動,所在盜賊群起。

5. Fu Pi sent Shi Yue with more than ten thousand horse and foot to campaign against Murong Nong’s rebels. Murong Nong said, "Shi Yue is known to be cunning and bold. Yet by coming here to fight us instead of guarding against the Great Prince's (Murong Chui’s) army coming up from the south, he shows that he fears the Prince but thinks little of me. He has certainly not prepared anything against me, so I aim to capture him."

There were many who asked Murong Nong to remain and defend Lieren. But Murong Nong said, "Those who are skilled at using soldiers focus on binding their hearts together above all else. Now we have risen up on behalf of righteousness, and the only thing we lack is an enemy to fight. Let the mountains and the rivers serve as our ramparts and moats. What good would it do just to remain at Lieren?"

On the day Xinmao (February 14th), Shi Yue arrived west of Lieren. Murong Nong sent Zhao Qiu and his Army Advisor, Qiwu Teng, to attack Shi Yue’s vanguard, and they routed it. Another Army Advisor, Zhao Qian of Taiyuan, then said to Murong Nong, "Although Shi Yue’s soldiers have exceptional arms and armor, his soldiers themselves are fearful and disturbed. We may easily rout them, so let us fiercely attack them."

Murong Nong said, "The enemy's armor is on the outside, but our armor is in our hearts. If we draw up for battle right away, our soldiers will be afraid of the enemy just because of how fearsome they look. It would be better to wait until twilight and then attack, and then we may certainly be successful." So he ordered the soldiers to prepare defenses and await further orders, and forbade any rash movements.

Shi Yue set up barriers and kept to his own defense. Murong Nong laughed at them and said to his generals, "Shi Yue commands these elite soldiers, but not only does he not attack us as soon as they arrive, but he even sets up these barriers. Now I know that he is incapable."

When dusk came, Murong Nong beat the drums and sounded the call to advance, and his soldiers formed up west of the city. The General of the Serrated Gate, Liu Mu, asked to lead the attack against Shi Yue's barriers. Murong Nong laughed and replied, "When someone sees a delicious morsel before them, who stops to ask first before gobbling it up? But, to humor your fierce energy, I will be gracious enough to grant you the vanguard." Liu Mu then led four hundred braves to smash through the barriers, and they swept the Qin soldiers before them; Murong Nong then followed behind with the main body. The Qin army was greatly defeated, and Shi Yue was killed; Murong Nong sent his head to Murong Chui.

Shi Yue and Mao Dang were both valiant generals of Qin, and that was why Fu Jian had sent them to help defend vital places. Now that both had been defeated and killed one after the other, the people were greatly disturbed, and bandits and outlaws sprang up everywhere.

異物,猶言別物也。越之氣已挫矣。士心欲鬬,則雖無甲冑而勇於赴戰,故曰甲在心。

(Murong Nong uses the term 異物; it means "any other thing" or object of concern.

Shi Yue's spirit was already sapped by the initial defeat of his vanguard.

Murong Nong's soldiers had the desire for battle, and although they lacked armor or helmets, they marched into their fights bravely. This was why he said their armor was in their hearts.)


垂遂殺堅驍騎將軍石越。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chui killed Fu Jian's General of Agile Cavalry, Shi Yue.


庚戌,燕王垂至鄴,改秦建元二十年為燕元年,服色朝儀,皆如舊章。以前岷山公庫辱官偉為左長史,肖尚書段崇為右長史,滎陽鄭豁等為從事中郎。慕容農引兵會垂於鄴,垂因其所稱之官而授之。立世子寶為太子,封從弟拔等十七人及甥宇文輸、舅子蘭審皆為王;其餘宗族及功臣封公者三十七人,侯、伯、子,男者八十九人。可足渾潭集兵得二萬餘人,攻野王,拔之,引兵會攻鄴。平幼及弟睿、規亦帥眾數萬會垂於鄴。

6. On the day Gengxu (March 4th), Murong Chui arrived at Ye. He declared that the reign era title would now be changed, from Qin's twentieth year of Jianyuan to Yan's first year. He began to assume all the old clothing styles and court ceremonies as the old Yan court.

Murong Chui appointed Yan's former Duke of Minshan, Kuru Guanwei, as Chief Clerk of the Left, and the provisional Master of Writing, Duan Chong, as Chief Clerk of the Right. He appointed Zheng Huo of Xingyang and others as Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen. Murong Nong led his troops to join with Murong Chui at Ye, and Murong Chui confirmed the titles that Murong Nong held by acclamation. Murong Chui appointed his heir Murong Bao as Crown Prince, and appointed seventeen other men as Princes, including his cousin Murong Ba, his nephew Yuwen Han (or Yuwen Shu), his brother-in-law Lan Shen, and others. He appointed the other members of his clan, as well as accomplished ministers, to other noble titles: there were thirty-seven Dukes, and eighty-nine Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons.

Kezuhun Tan gathered together more than twenty thousand soldiers and attacked Yewang, capturing it. He then led his soldiers to join the attack on Ye. Ping You and his younger brothers Ping Rui and Ping Gui also led their tens of thousands of soldiers to join Murong Chui at Ye.

凡帶前字者,皆前燕所授官也。卽張驤等所推之官也。【嚴:「輸」改「翰」。】垂使譚集兵於河內之沙城,遂因而攻拔野王。

(By "former", it means that these were ranks these people had held under Former Yan.

This passage refers to the titles that Zhang Xiang and the others had all acclaimed Murong Nong as.

Some versions list Yuwen 翰 Han's given name as Yuwen 輸 Shu.

Murong Chui had left Kezuhun Tan to gather soldiers at Shacheng in Henei, and this was why he had attacked and captured Yewang.)


長樂公丕使姜讓誚讓燕王垂,且說之曰:「過而能改,今猶未晚也。」垂曰:「孤受主上不世之恩,故欲安全長樂公,使盡眾赴京師,然後修復國家之業,與秦永為鄰好。何故暗於機運,不以鄴城見歸?若迷而不復,當窮極兵勢,恐單馬求生,亦不可得也。」讓厲色責之曰:「將軍不容於家國,投命聖朝,燕之尺土,將軍豈有分乎?主上與將軍風殊類別,一見傾心,親如宗戚,寵逾勳舊,自古君臣際遇,有如是之厚者乎?一旦因王師小敗,遽有異圖。長樂公,主上元子,受分陝之任,寧可束手輸將軍以百城之地乎?將軍欲裂冠毀冕,自可極其兵勢,奚更云云!但惜將軍以七十之年,懸首白旗,高世之忠,更為逆鬼耳!」垂默然。左右請殺之,垂曰:「彼各為其主耳,何罪!」禮而歸之,遺丕書及上秦王堅表,陳述利害,請送丕歸長安。堅及丕怒,復書切責之。

7. Fu Pi sent Jiang Rang to denounce Murong Chui. Jiang Rang said to Murong Chui, "You have committed these transgressions, but you may yet change. It is not yet too late to go back."

Murong Chui replied, "I have received my lord's boundless grace, so I wish to ensure the Duke of Changle's perfect safety. You should send your whole host back to the capital region (at Chang'an), and after I have accomplished the restoration of my state, Yan and Qin shall maintain friendly relations forever. Why look down upon this opportunity, and not allow me to return to Ye? If you continue down this path, there will not be another such opportunity. Should you oppose me with such weak soldiers, I am afraid that you will not even be able to flee for your life alone on horseback."

But Jiang Rang sternly censured him, saying, "General, when your own state could not put up with you, it was our court that you fled to in order to save your life. What makes you think you can lay claim to even a single inch of Yan territory? General, when you came to Qin, our lord had nothing in common with you. You were neither of the same people as him, nor did the same wind blow on both your homes. Yet even so, he admired you from first sight, and you were like family to him. He favored you as though you were one of his longserving, diligent followers. It has always been the principle that lord and minister share good times and bad together, and what minister has been treated as well as you have? Yet, after our lord’s army had suffered a minor setback, in a single day you hatched this wild scheme. Furthermore, the Duke of Changle is our lord's firstborn son, and he has been entrusted to defend this half of the state. Is he to simply bind his hands and surrender all the cities of this place to you, General? You just want to ‘tear the cap and break the crown’ so you can increase your own power. What more need be said? But it is too bad for you, General. By the time you are seventy, ‘your head will hang before the white banner’. Though you served loyally in life, in death you will be no more than a treasonous spirit!"

To these charges, Murong Chui could make no reply.

Those who were with Murong Chui asked him to kill Jiang Rang, but Murong Chui said, "Each of us is only advocating for our own lords. What is his crime?" He treated Jiang Rang well and sent him back to Fu Pi.

Murong Chui sent a letter to Fu Pi and a petition to Fu Jian defending his actions and explaining the situation, and offering to escort Fu Pi back to Chang'an. But these letters only enraged Fu Jian and Fu Pi, and they sent back strong condemnations.

言氐處關西,鮮卑在東北,旣不同風,族類又別也。《左傳》,晉率陰戎伐潁。景王使詹桓伯辭於晉曰:「我在伯父,猶衣服之有冠冕,木水之有本原,民人之有謀主也。伯父若裂冠毀冕,拔本塞原,專棄謀主,雖戎狄,其何有余一人!」武王斬紂首,懸於大白之旗。姜讓之辭直,垂心內愧,故默然無以答。

(By the "same people and same wind" phrasing, Jiang Rang was pointing out that the Di people were from Guanxi, while the Xianbei were from the northeast, and so not only were they different peoples, but their regions were far apart enough that the same wind did not blow through both of them.

"Tear the cap and break the crown" refers to a story from the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals. There was an incident when the state of Jin sent the Yin-Rong tribes to attack Ying. King Jing of Zhou sent Huanbo of Zhan to remonstrate with Jin. Huanbo addressed Duke Hui of Jin on behalf of King Jing: "Uncle, I am to you as the cap or crown is to the other garments, as the root is to the tree, or the spring is to the stream, as their counselor is to the people. Uncle, if you tear the cap and break the crown in pieces, pull up the root, stop up the spring, and take it on you to cast the counselor away, then though you have the Rong and the Di, what other fellow will support you? (Zhao 9)"

When King Wu of Zhou beheaded King Zhou of Shang, he hung King Zhou's head in front of a great white banner.

Murong Chui felt guilt in his heart because of Jiang Rang's blunt words, and that was why it says he remained silent and made no response to them.)


鷹揚將軍劉牢之攻秦譙城,拔之。桓沖遣上庸太守郭寶攻秦魏興、上庸、新城三郡,拔之。將軍楊佺期進據成固,擊秦梁州刺史潘猛,走之。佺期,亮之子也。

8. Jin's General of Hawkish Display, Liu Laozhi, attacked Qin's city of Qiao and took it. Huan Chong sent the Administrator of Shangyong, Guo Bao, to attack Qin's commandaries of Weixing, Shangyong, and Xincheng, and Guo Bao captured all of them. The general Yang Quanqi then advanced and occupied Chenggu, where he attacked Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Pan Meng, and drove him off. This Yang Quanqi was the son of Yang Liang.

楊亮見上卷太元二年。

(Yang Liang is last mentioned in Book 104, in the second year of Taiyuan (377.6; he was first mentioned in 370.17).)


壬子,燕王垂攻鄴,拔其外郭,長樂公丕退守中城。關東六州郡縣多送任請降於燕。癸丑,垂以陳留王紹行冀州刺史,屯廣阿。

9. On the day Renzi (March 6th), Murong Chui attacked Ye. He captured the outlying suburbs, but Fu Pi fell back to defend the inner city. Many of the commandaries and counties of the six provinces of Guandong sent hostages and offered their submission to Yan. On the day Guichou (March 7th), Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Chenliu, Murong Shao, as provisional Inspector of Jizhou, and he camped at Guang'a.

廣阿縣,前漢屬鉅鹿郡,後漢併入鉅鹿縣。有廣阿澤,在鉅鹿縣界,卽大陸澤也。

(During Former Han, Guang'a county was part of Julu commandary. During Later Han, it was folded into Julu county. There is a Guang'a Marsh within Julu county, which is also called Daling Marsh.)


豐城宣穆公桓沖聞謝玄等有功,自以失言,慚恨成疾;二月,辛巳,卒。朝議欲以謝玄為荊、江二州刺史。謝安自以父子名位太盛,又懼桓氏失職怨望,乃以梁郡太守桓石民為荊州刺史,河東太守桓石虔為豫州刺史,豫州刺史桓伊為江州刺史。

10. When Huan Chong heard of the success of Xie Xuan and the others at Fei River, he was at a loss for words, and he became ill because of his deep shame and self-loathing. In the second month, on the day Xinsi (April 4th), he passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xuanmu ("the Understanding and Solemn") of Fengcheng.

The court wished to appoint Xie Xuan as Inspector of Jingzhou and Jiangzhou. But Xie An knew that he and his relatives had all gained a great deal of power and reputation, and he feared that the Huan clan would resent their lost status. To appease them, he appointed the Administrator of Liang commandary, Huan Shimin, as the new Inspector of Jingzhou, the Administrator of Hedong, Huan Shiqian, as the new Inspector of Yuzhou, and the current Inspector of Yuzhou, Huan Yin, as the new Inspector of Jiangzhou.

謂去年「吾其左衽」之言也。

(Huan Chong felt shame because of his "we shall all be buttoning our garments on the left soon!" comment and his sense of defeatism before the battle of Fei River.)


桓車騎在上明畋獵。東信至,傳淮上大捷。語左右云:「群謝年少,大破賊。」因發病薨。談者以為此死,賢於讓揚之荊。(New Tales of the World 33.16)

Huan Chong was hunting at Shangming when a letter from the east arrived, relating the news of the great victory on the Huai River. Speaking to his attendants, Huan Chong said, "The striplings of the Xie family (Xie Xuan and Xie Shi) have roundly defeated the rebels." Whereupon he took sick and passed away.

Conversationalists considered this death to have been a more worthy act than his yielding of the governorship of Yangzhou to Xie An (in 375), or his going to Jingzhou (in 377). (tr. Richard Mather)


燕王垂引丁零、烏桓之眾二十餘萬為飛梯地道以攻鄴,不拔;乃築長圍守之,分處老弱於肥鄉,築新興城以置輜重。

11. Murong Chui led more than two hundred thousand of the Dingling and Wuhuan to assault Ye using flying ladders and tunnels, but they could not capture the city. So Murong Chui built long siege works around the city, and sent his old and frail soldiers to Feixiang. He built walls at Xinxing to guard his baggage train.

《晉志》,肥鄕縣屬廣平郡。魏收曰:天平初,併入魏郡臨漳縣。隋復分置肥鄕縣,唐屬洺州。

(According to the Records of Jin, Feixiang county was part of Guangping commandary. The Book of Northern Wei states, "At the beginning of the Tianping reign era (534), Feixiang was merged with Linzhang county in Wei commandary." Sui split Feixiang County off again, and during Tang it was part of Mingzhou.)


垂為飛梯地道以攻鄴城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chui assaulted Ye using flying ladders and tunnels.


秦征東府官屬疑參軍高泰,燕之舊臣,有貳心。泰懼,與同郡虞曹從事吳韶逃歸勃海。韶曰:「燕軍近在肥鄉,宜從之。」泰曰:「吾以避禍耳;去一君,事一君,吾所不為也!」申紹見而歎曰:「去就以道,可謂君子矣!」

12. Fu Pi had a certain Army Advisor on his staff as Grand General Who Conquers The East, Guo Tai. Because Guo Tai had once been a minister of Yan, the rest of Fu Pi's staff was suspicious of him, wondering if he had divided loyalties. Afraid, Guo Tai fled back to Bohai with the Attendant Officer of Field Management, Wu Shao, who was from the same commandary as him. Wu Shao said, "The Yan army is nearby at Feixiang. We should join them."

But Guo Tai replied, "I only wish to avoid disaster; I can neither go to one lord nor serve the other!"

When Shen Shao learned this, he lamented, "So that is the path he has taken. He could truly be called a superior man!"

苻丕爲征東大將軍。高泰先仕燕,慕容垂以爲從事中郎。秦征東府置虞曹從事,掌所部山澤。泰與韶,皆勃海人也。

(At this time, Fu Pi was Grand General Who Conquers The East, so Guo Tai was part of his staff. But Guo Tai had originally held office under Former Yan, and Murong Chui had appointed him as an Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen.

The Attendant Officers of Field Management of Fu Pi's staff as General were responsible for the mountains and marshes.

Guo Tai and Wu Shao were both from Bohai commandary.)


燕范陽王德擊秦枋頭,取之,置戍而還。

13. Murong De attacked Qin's city of Fangtou, and took it. He left a garrison there and returned.

東胡王晏據館陶,為鄴中聲援,鮮卑、烏桓及郡縣民據塢壁不從燕者尚眾;燕王垂遣太原王楷與鎮南將軍陳留王紹討之。楷謂紹曰:「鮮卑、烏桓及冀州之民,本皆燕臣。今大業始爾,人心未洽,所以小異。唯宜綏之以德,不可震之以威。吾當止一處,為軍聲之本,汝巡撫民夷,示以大義,彼必當聽從。」楷乃屯於辟陽。紹帥騎數百往說王晏,為陳禍福,晏隨紹詣楷降,於是鮮卑、烏桓及塢民降者數十萬口。楷留其老弱,置守宰以撫之,發其丁壯十餘萬,與王晏詣鄴。垂大悅,曰:「汝兄弟才兼文武,足以繼先王矣!」

14. Wang Yan of the eastern tribes occupied Guantao and expressed his support for the Qin loyalists in Ye. He gathered a large army of those Xianbei, Wuhuan, and people of the various local commandaries and counties who were occupying forts or ramparts and refused to obey the Yan army. Murong Chui sent Murong Kai and the General Who Guards The South, Murong Shao, to campaign against this threat.

Murong Kai said to Murong Shao, "The Xianbei, Wuhuan, and people of Jizhou were all once the subjects of Yan. It is merely that we have only just set out on realizing the restoration of Yan, and the hearts of the people are not yet been settled; this is why they are somewhat suspicious of us. We must win them over with virtue, not cower them with might. I will halt at a certain place, and keep the army close at hand to support you, while you go patrol among the people and the tribes so as to comfort them. Express to them the great righteousness of our cause, and then they will certainly listen and join us."

So Murong Kai camped at Piyang, while Murong Shao led several hundred riders to speak to Wang Yan, and convince him to turn disaster into fortune. Wang Yan went with Murong Shao and surrendered himself to Murong Kai, and hundreds of thousands of the Xianbei, Wuhuan, and people in the forts and ramparts all surrendered as well. Murong Kai left his old and weak soldiers behind and appointed local officials in order to reassure the people, while he drafted more than a hundred thousand of the strong men among the population and returned to Ye with Wang Yan. Murong Chui was very pleased, and said, "How skilled you brothers are in both military and civil affairs! You are worthy to carry on your father’s legacy!"

《地理風俗記》曰:廣川西南六十里有辟陽亭,故縣也,漢高帝封審食其爲侯國。魏收《地形志》,長樂郡信都縣有辟陽城。

(The Records of Local Geography and Customs states, "There is a Piyang Point sixty li southwest of Guangchuan; it is also the name of a county. Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) gave this place to Shen Shiqi as his marquisate." The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The city of Piyang is in Xindu county in Changle commandary.")


三月,以衛將軍謝安為太保。

15. In the third month, Jin's Guard General, Xie An, was appointed as Grand Guardian.

秦北地長史慕容泓聞燕王垂攻鄴,亡奔關東,收集鮮卑,眾至數千。還屯華陰,敗秦將軍強永,其眾遂盛。自稱都督陝西諸軍事、大將軍、雍州牧、濟北王,推垂為丞相、都督陝東諸軍事、領大司馬、冀州牧、吳王。

16. When Qin's Chief Clerk of Beidi, Murong Hong, heard of Murong Chui's attack on Ye, he fled to Guandong. There he gathered together the Xianbei of the area under him, until he had an army of several thousand. They marched back to camp at Huayin, where they defeated the Qin general Qiang Yong, and their numbers swelled even greater. Murong Hong declared himself the Commander of military affairs west of Shan (west of Luoyang), Grand General, Governor of Yongzhou, and Prince of Jibei. He acclaimed Murong Chui as Prime Minister, Commander of military affairs east of Shan, acting Grand Marshal, Governor of Jizhou, and Prince of Wu.

暐弟濟北王泓,先為北地長史,聞垂攻鄴,亡奔關東,收諸馬牧鮮卑,眾至數千,還屯華陰。暐乃潛使諸弟及宗人起兵於外。堅遣將軍張永步騎五千擊之,為泓所敗。泓眾遂盛,自稱使持節、大都督、陝西諸軍事、大將軍、雍州牧、濟北王,推垂為丞相、都督陝東諸軍事、領大司馬、冀州牧、吳王。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

The Prince of Jibei, Murong Wei's younger brother Murong Hong, had earlier been appointed as Former Qin's Chief Clerk of Beidi. When he heard that Murong Chui was attacking Ye, he gathered together the Xianbei of the area under him, until he had an army of several thousand. They marched back to camp at Huayin. Murong Wei secretly had his younger brothers and relatives to raise troops in rebellion in the countryside. Fu Jian sent his general Zhang Yong to lead five thousand horse and foot to attack Murong Hong, but Murong Hong defeated him. His numbers swelled even greater. Murong Hong declared himself Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, Commander of military affairs west of Shan (west of Luoyang), Grand General, Governor of Yongzhou, and Prince of Jibei. He acclaimed Murong Chui as Prime Minister, Commander of military affairs east of Shan, acting Grand Marshal, Governor of Jizhou, and Prince of Wu.

慕容暐弟泓先為北城長史,聞垂攻鄴,亡命奔關東,收諸馬牧鮮卑,衆至數千,還屯華陰。暐乃潛使諸弟及宗人起兵於外,堅遣將軍強永率騎擊之,為泓所敗,泓衆遂盛,自稱大都督、雍州牧、濟北王,推叔父垂為丞相、大司馬、冀州牧、吳王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Wei's younger brother Murong Hong had earlier been appointed as Former Qin's Chief Clerk of Beicheng. When he heard that Murong Chui was attacking Ye, he abandoned his post and fled to Guandong. There he gathered together the Xianbei horse shepherds of the area under him, until he had an army of several thousand. They marched back to camp at Huayin. Murong Wei secretly had his younger brothers and relatives to raise troops in rebellion in the countryside. Fu Jian sent his general Qiang Yong to lead cavalry to attack them, but Murong Hong defeated him. His numbers swelled even greater. Murong Hong declared himself Grand Commander, Governor of Yongzhou, and Prince of Jibei. He acclaimed his uncle Murong Chui as Prime Minister, Grand Marshal, Governor of Jizhou, and Prince of Wu.

慕容泓、沖起兵華澤。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Hong and Murong Chong rose up with soldiers at Hua Marsh.


秦王堅謂權翼曰:「不用卿言,使鮮卑至此。關東之地,吾不復與之爭,將若泓何?」乃以廣平公熙為雍州刺史,鎮蒲阪。征雍州牧巨鹿公睿為都督中外諸軍事、衛大將軍、錄尚書事,配兵五萬;以左將軍竇沖為長史,龍驤將軍姚萇為司馬,以討泓。

17. Fu Jian said to Quan Yi, "I did not use your advice before, and now the Xianbei are stirred up like this. I will not contend with them for control of Guandong any further. But what are we to do about Murong Hong?" So he appointed the Duke of Guangping, Fu Xi, as Inspector of Yongzhou, and had him guard Puban. He summoned the Governor of Yongzhou and Duke of Julu, Fu Rui, and appointed him as Commander of all military affairs, Grand Guard General, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and assigned him fifty thousand soldiers. Fu Jian appointed Dou Chong as Fu Rui's Chief Clerk and Yao Chang as his Marshal, and he sent all of them to campaign against Murong Hong.

謂不用翼之言而遣慕容垂也。

(Fu Jian had not listened to Quan Yi's earlier warning, and he had let Murong Chui leave for Ye.)


堅遣子鉅鹿公叡伐泓。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian sent the Duke of Julu, his son Fu Rui, to campaign against Murong Hong.

堅謂權翼曰:「吾不從卿言,鮮卑至是。關東之地,吾不復與之爭,若將泓何?」翼曰:「寇不可長,慕容垂正可據山東為亂,不暇近逼,今暐及宗族種類,盡在京師,鮮卑之衆,布於畿甸,實社稷之憂,宜遣重將討之。」堅乃以廣平公熙鎮蒲阪。苻睿為都督,配兵五萬,姚萇為司馬,討泓于華澤。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian said to Quan Yi, "I did not use your advice before, and now the Xianbei are stirred up like this. I will not contend with them for control of Guandong any further. But what are we to do about Murong Hong?"

Quan Yi replied, "The invaders have no real long-term strategy. Murong Chui is just determined to occupy the region east of the mountains and cause chaos, so he does not pose any close threat. But Murong Wei and his various kinfolk are all concentrated in the capital region, and the Xianbei forces cover the area. They pose the real threat to the fortunes of state. You should send your generals to campaign against them."

So Fu Jian sent the Duke of Guangping, Fu Xi, to guard Puban. He appointed Fu Rui as Commander and assigned him fifty thousand troops, with Yao Chang serving as his Marshal, and sent him to campaign against Murong Hong at Hua Marsh.

堅遣子叡、暉前後擊泓。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian sent his sons Fu Rui and Fu Hui to attack Fu Hong from front and rear.

白雀元年,慕容泓起兵叛堅,堅遣子叡討之,以萇為司馬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In Yao Chang's first year of Baique (384), when Murong Hong raised soldiers in rebellion against Fu Jian, Fu Jian sent his son Fu Rui to campaign against him, with Yao Chang serving as his Marshal.

堅既敗於淮南,歸長安,慕容泓起兵叛堅。堅遣子叡討之,以萇為司馬。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

After Fu Jian was defeated at Huainan, he returned to Chang'an. Murong Hong raised troops in rebellion against him. Fu Jian sent his son Fu Rui to campaign against Murong Hong, with Yao Chang serving as his Marshal.

及慕容泓起兵華澤,堅遣子衞大將軍叡討之... 時萇為叡司馬。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Murong Hong raised troops at Hua Marsh, Fu Jian sent the Grand Guard General, his son Fu Rui, to campaign against him. At that time, Yao Chang was serving as Fu Rui's Marshal.


平陽太守慕容沖亦起兵於平陽,有眾二萬,進攻蒲阪;堅使竇沖討之。

18. Qin’s Administrator of Pingyang, Murong Chong, also raised troops in rebellion at Pingyang, and he gathered an army of twenty thousand. He advanced and attacked Puban. Fu Jian sent Dou Chong to campaign against him.

泓弟中山王沖,先為平陽太守,亦起兵河東,有眾二萬。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

The Prince of Zhongshan, Murong Hong's younger brother Murong Chong, had earlier been appointed as Former Qin's Administrator of Pingyang. He also raised troops in rebellion at Hedong, and he gathered an army of twenty thousand.

平陽太守慕容沖起兵河東,有衆二萬,進攻蒲阪,命竇沖討之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Former Qin’s Administrator of Pingyang, Murong Chong, also raised troops in rebellion at Hedong, and he gathered an army of twenty thousand. He advanced and attacked Puban. Fu Jian sent Dou Chong to campaign against him.


庫辱官偉帥營部數萬至鄴,燕王垂封偉為安定王。

19. Kuru Guanwei led his soldiers, tens of thousands from various camps, to Murong Chui’s siege lines at Ye. Murong Chui appointed him as Prince of Anding.

秦冀州刺史阜城侯定守信都,高城男紹在其國,高邑侯亮、重合侯謨守常山,固安侯鑒守中山。燕王垂遣前將軍、樂浪王溫督諸軍攻信都,不克;夏,四月,丙辰,遣撫軍大將軍麟益兵助之。定、鑒,秦王堅之從叔;紹、謨,從弟;亮,從子也。溫,燕王垂之弟子也。

20. Qin's Inspector of Jizhou and Marquis of Fucheng, Fu Ding, guarded Xindu. The Baron of Gaocheng, Fu Shao, was at his fief. The Marquis of Gaoyi, Fu Liang, and the Marquis of Chonghe, Fu Mo, guarded Changshan. The Marquis of Gu'an, Fu Jiann, guarded Zhongshan. Fu Ding and Fu Jiann were Fu Jian's uncles; Fu Shao and Fu Mo were his cousins; Fu Liang was his nephew.

Murong Chui sent his General of the Front and Prince of Lelang, Murong Wen, to lead an army to attack Xindu, but Murong Wen could not capture it. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Bingchen (May 9th), Murong Chui sent his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong Lin, with more troops to aid Murong Wen. This Murong Wen was Murong Chui's nephew.

高城縣屬勃海郡,唐爲滄州鹽山縣。

(Gaocheng county was part of Bohai commandary. During Tang, it was Yanshan county in Cangzhou.)


慕容泓聞秦兵且至,懼,帥眾將奔關東。秦巨鹿愍公睿粗猛輕敵,欲馳兵邀之。姚萇諫曰:「鮮卑皆有思歸之志,故起而為亂,宜驅令出關,不可遏也。夫執鼷鼠之尾,猶能反噬於人。彼自知困窮,致死於我;萬一失利,悔將何及!但可鳴鼓隨之,彼將奔敗不暇矣。」睿弗從,戰於華澤,睿兵敗,為泓所殺。萇遣龍驤長史趙都、參軍姜協詣秦王堅謝罪;堅怒,殺之。萇懼,奔渭北馬牧。於是天水尹緯、尹詳、南龐演等糾扇羌豪,帥其戶口歸萇者五萬餘家,推萇為盟主。萇自稱大將軍、大單于、萬年秦王,大赦,改元白雀,以尹詳、龐演為左、右長史,南安姚晃及尹緯為左、右司馬,天水狄伯支等為從事中郎,羌訓等為掾屬,王據等為參軍,王欽盧、姚方成等為將帥。

21. When Murong Hong heard that Qin soldiers were approaching, he was afraid, and he led his soldiers to hurry towards Guandong.

Fu Rui was a coarse and brash man who thought little of his enemies, and he wished to rush his own troops forward to intercept them. Yao Chang remonstrated with him, saying, “The only thing that the Xianbei wish to do is to return home, and that is why they rose up and caused trouble. You ought to harry them from behind and chase them out of Guanxi, but on no account should you try to intercept their march. If you catch a shrew by its tail, it can still turn around and bite you. If you force the enemy into a tough spot, they will fight us to the death, and if that battle goes against us, it will be too late for regrets! But if we merely roll the drums and drive them before us, they will be too busy fleeing to bother with us."

But Fu Rui did not heed his advice. He fought against the Xianbei at Hua Marsh, but his soldiers were defeated, and he was killed by Murong Hong. Fu Rui was posthumously known as Duke Min ("the Pitied") of Julu.

Yao Chang sent his personal Chief Clerk, Zhao Du, and his Army Advisor, Jiang Xie, to report to Fu Jian and beg forgiveness for his crime, but Fu Jian was enraged when he heard what had happened, and he killed both of them. Yao Chang then feared for his own life, and he fled north of the Wei River to the horse-grazing pastures.

Then Yin Wei and Yin Xiang of Tianshui, Pang Yan of Nan’an, and others gathered together the people of the Qiang, and led their people and households to join Yao Chang, more than fifty thousand families altogether. They acclaimed Yao Chang as their leader. Yao Chang then declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Millennial King of Qin. He declared a general amnesty, and proclaimed his own reign year era of Baique. He appointed Yin Xiang and Pang Yan as his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right. He appointed Yao Guang of Nan'an and Yin Wei as his Marshals of the Left and Right. He appointed the Di leader, Bo Zhi of Tianshui, and others as his Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen, and he appointed Qiang Xun and others as his officials and subordinates. He appointed Wang Ju and others as his Army Advisors, and he appointed Wang Qinlu, Yao Fangcheng, and others as his army commanders.

鼷鼠,一名甘口鼠,食物不痛。《爾雅》曰:有螫毒者。使苻叡能用姚萇之言,慕容泓必東奔,慕容沖敗而無所歸,必亦就禽矣。華澤卽華陰之澤也。馬牧,牧馬之地,猶漢之牧苑也。《通鑑目錄》:年經國緯,自此以後,姚萇繫之後秦。

(The shrew is also called the "sweet-mouth mouse", for it does not hurt when it bites you. The Erya dictionary states, "It has a poisonous sting."

If Fu Rui had listened to Yao Chang's advice, then Murong Hong would certainly have fled east, and Murong Chong would have not been able to recover from his defeat mentioned below, so he certainly would have been captured.

Hua Marsh was the marsh at Huayin.

The grazing pastures were the places for shepherding horses. They were the old pasturage lands that the Han dynasty had maintained.

Sima Guang's commentary in his Notes states, "Since at this time Yao Chang declared a new reign era title and formed his own state, from this point on, I will refer to Yao Chang's forces as Later Qin.")


泓大破叡軍,斬叡。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Hong greatly routed Fu Rui's army and killed Fu Rui.

苻睿勇果輕敵,至華澤,敗績,被殺。堅大怒,萇懼誅,遂叛。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Rui was a bold and stalwart man who thought little of his enemies. When he arrived at Hua Marsh, he was defeated by Murong Hong and killed. Fu Jian was furious, and Yao Chang was afraid that he would be executed, so he rebelled.

叡、暉為泓所敗。長安鬼夜哭三旬。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Rui and Fu Hui were defeated by Murong Hong.

There was ghostly wailing at night in Chang'an for a month.

既而為泓所敗,叡死之。萇遣參軍薑協謝罪,堅怒殺之。萇懼,奔于渭北,歸者五萬餘家,咸推萇為盟主,自稱大將軍、大單于、萬年秦王。大赦改元,稱制行事。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Fu Rui was defeated by Murong Hong, he died in battle. Yao Chang sent his Army Advisor, Jiang Xie, to apologize to Fu Jian for his crimes, but Fu Jian killed Jiang Xie out of anger. Afraid, Yao Chang fled north of the Wei River. More than fifty thousand families came to join him, and they all acclaimed Yao Chang as the leader of their alliance. So Yao Chang declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Millennial King of Qin. He declared a general amnesty, changed the reign era title, and assumed imperial authority over affairs.

叡為泓所敗,叡死之。萇遣龍驤長史趙都詣堅謝罪,堅怒,殺之。萇懼,奔於渭北,遂如馬牧。西州豪族尹詳、趙曜、王欽盧、王欽盧、牛雙、狄廣、張乾等率五萬餘家,咸推萇為盟主。萇將距之,天水尹緯說萇曰:「今百六之數既臻,秦亡之兆已見,以將軍威靈命世,必能匡濟時艱,故豪傑驅馳,咸同推仰。明公宜降心從議,以副群望,不可坐觀沈溺而不拯救之。」萇乃從緯謀,乙太元九年自稱大將軍、大單于、萬年秦王,大赦境內,年號白雀,稱制行事。以天水尹詳、南安龐演為左右長史,南安姚晃、尹緯為左右司馬,天水狄伯支、焦虔、梁希、龐魏、任謙為從事中郎,姜訓、閻遵為掾屬,王據、焦世、蔣秀、尹延年、牛雙、張乾為參軍,王欽盧、姚方成、王破虜、楊難、尹嵩、裴騎、趙曜、狄廣、黨刪等為帥。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Rui was defeated by Murong Hong and died in battle. Yao Chang sent his Chief Clerk as Dragon-Soaring General, Zhao Du, to visit Fu Jian and apologize for his crimes, but Fu Jian killed Zhao Du out of anger. Afraid, Yao Chang fled north of the Wei River and returned to the horse pastures.

Local gentry leaders of the western provinces came to join him, including Yin Xiang, Zhao Yao, Wang Qinlu, Niu Shuang, Di Guang, and Zhang Gan, leading more than fifty thousand families. They all acclaimed Yao Chang as the leader of their alliance. Yao Chang was about to stop them, but Yin Wei of Tianshui persuaded him, saying, "We are already past the 106th Day festival, and we have already seen the omens foretelling the doom of Qin. General, your might and prestige are known throughout the age, and you would certainly be able to steer us through this difficult time. That is why all these great families have rushed to gather here, and all acclaim you as their common leader. You must put aside your own inclinations and heed the wishes of your councilors and the will of the people. You cannot sit by and watch them drown when you could have saved them."

So Yao Chang followed Yin Wei's plan. In the ninth year of Taiyuan (384), he declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Millennial King of Qin. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, he changed the reign era title to Baique, and he assumed imperial authority.

Yao Chang appointed Yin Xiang of Tianshui and Pang Yan of Nan'an as his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right. He appointed Yao Guang of Nan'an and Yin Wei as his Marshals of the Left and Right. He appointed Di leaders of Tianshui, Bo Zhi, Jiao Qian, Liang Xi, Pang Wei, and Ren Qian, as his Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen. He appointed Jiang Xun and Yan Zun as his Officials. He appointed Wang Ju, Jiao Shi, Jiang Xiu, Yin Yannian, Niu Shuang, and Zhang Qian as his Army Advisors, and he appointed Wang Qinlu, Yao Fangcheng, Wang Polu, Yang Nan, Yin Song, Pei Qi, Zhao Yao, Di Guang, Dang Shan, and others as his army commanders.

叡戰敗,為泓所殺... 萇懼罪奔馬牧,聚眾萬餘,自稱大將軍、大單于、萬年秦王,號年白雀。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Rui was defeated in battle and killed by Murong Hong. Yao Chang was afraid that he would be punished, so he fled to the horse pastures. He gathered an army of more than ten thousand, then declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Millennial King of Qin. He changed the reign era title to Baique.

尹緯,字景亮,天水人也。少有大志,不營產業。身長八尺,腰帶十圍,魁梧有爽氣。每覽書傳至宰相立勳之際,常輟書而歎。苻堅以尹赤之降姚襄,諸尹皆禁錮不仕。緯晚乃為吏部令史,風志豪邁,郎皆憚之。堅末年,祅星見於東井,緯知堅將滅,喜甚,向天再拜,既而流涕長歎。友人略陽桓識怪而問之,緯曰:「天時如此,正是霸王龍飛之秋,吾徒杖策之日。然知己難遭,恐不得展吾才志,是以欣懼交懷。」及姚萇奔馬牧,緯與尹詳、龐演等扇動群豪,推萇為盟主,遂為佐命元功。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yin Wei)

Yin Wei, styled Jingliang, was a native of Tianshui commandary. Even as a youth, he had grand ambitions, not tending to any industry. He was eight chi tall and about a meter around in girth, a man of large build and straightforward personality. Whenever he was reading history books and he came to the biographies of the great ministers of old, and how they had established themselves and what services they performed, he often put down the book and sighed. For his relative Yin Chi had once surrendered his territory to the warlord Yao Xiang, and for a long time Fu Jian had punished the Yin clan by barring them all from office. So Yin Wei began his official career late in life, when he eventually became a Clerk in Former Qin's Personnel Bureau. He was bold and proud in manner and bearing, and the Gentlemen of the bureau all feared him.

In the last years of Fu Jian's reign, a shooting star was seen in the Eastern Well constellation of the night sky, which symbolized the Qin region. Yin Wei knew that this heralded the doom of Fu Jian, and he was so pleased at the prospect that at first he saluted towards Heaven in thanks. But afterwards, he began to weep and heave long sighs. Yin Wei's friend, Huan Shi of Lüeyang, was puzzled by this behavior and asked him about it. Yin Wei replied, "When the heavens and the circumstances of the time are like this, it tells me that now is the season when a hegemon king shall ascend like a dragon, and so it will also be my time to wield the baton and devise plans as his strategist. But I also know that there will be hard times ahead, and I fear that my talents and my ambitions might still not be fulfilled. That is why I feel sorrow mixed with joy."

When Yao Chang fled to the horse pastures, Yin Wei stirred up many of the local leaders to come support his cause, along with Yin Xiang, Pang Yan, and others, and they acclaimed Yao Chang as the leader of their alliance. So Yin Wei won the greatest merit on Yao Chang's behalf, and became one of his chief ministers.


秦竇衝擊慕容沖於河東,大破之;沖帥鮮卑騎八千奔慕容泓。泓眾至十餘萬,遣使謂秦王堅曰:「吳王已定關東,可速資備大駕,奉送家兄皇帝,泓當帥關中燕人翼衛乘輿,還返鄴都,與秦以虎牢為界,永為鄰好。」堅大怒,召慕容□責之曰:「今泓書如此,卿欲去者,朕當相資。卿之宗族,可謂人面獸心,不可以國士期也!」□叩頭流血,涕泣陳謝。堅久之曰:「此自三豎所為,非卿之過。」復其位,待之如初。命□以書招諭泓、沖及垂。□密遣使謂泓曰:「吾籠中之人,必無還理;且燕室之罪人也,不足復顧。汝勉建大業,以吳王為相國,中山王為太宰、領大司馬,汝可為大將軍、領司徒,承製封拜,聽吾死問,汝便即尊位。」泓於是進向長安,改元燕興。

22. Dou Chong attacked Murong Chong at Hedong, and greatly routed him. Murong Chong fled with eight thousand Xianbei cavalry to join Murong Hong.

By now, Murong Hong had more than a hundred thousand soldiers. He sent word to Fu Jian stating, "The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) has already settled Guandong. Be quick to prepare the imperial carriage and send us my elder brother the Emperor (Murong Wei), and I shall lead all the Yan people of Guanzhong to escort and protect him, and return to our capital at Ye. Then we will set our border with Qin at Hulao, and we shall be good neighbors forever."

Fu Jian was furious, and summoned Murong Wei to blame him for everything, saying, "How could Murong Hong have written such things unless you really did plan to go back? I should hold you equally accountable. This is the brutish nature of you and your clan; the faces of men, but the hearts of beasts! You will not divide the state!" Murong Wei knocked his head on the ground until blood flowed, tearfully begging forgiveness. At length, Fu Jian said, "This is the fault of your three minions, but you have done nothing wrong." So he restored Murong Wei’s position, treating him like before.

Fu Jian ordered Murong Wei to convey his instructions to Murong Hong, Murong Chong, and Murong Chui. But Murong Wei secretly wrote to Murong Hong saying, "I am already a prisoner caged, and there is no sense in my returning. Besides, I am the criminal responsible for bringing Yan’s royal family to ruin, so you should take no further thought of me. You must strive to complete the great endeavor. The Prince of Wu shall be Prime Minister, and the Prince of Zhongshan (Murong Chong) shall be Grand Governor and acting Grand Marshal. You yourself shall be Grand General and acting Minister Over The Masses. Wield authority as you will. Once you hear of my death, then ascend the throne yourself."

Murong Hong then began advancing towards Chang'an, and styled his reign era title as Yanxing.

暐,泓之兄也。三豎,謂垂、泓、沖。暐不能保燕之社稷,故自謂爲罪人。

(Murong Wei was Murong Hong's elder brother.

The three minions were Murong Chui, Murong Hong, and Murong Chong.

Murong Wei had been unable to protect Former Yan from being conquered, so he called himself a criminal.)


沖為堅將竇衝所破,棄其步眾,率鮮卑騎八千奔於泓軍。泓眾至十餘萬。遣使謂堅曰:「秦為無道,滅我社稷。今天誘其衷,秦師傾敗,將欲興復大燕。吳王已定關東。可速資備大駕,奉送乘輿并宗室功臣之家,泓當率關中燕人翼衞皇帝,還返鄴都。與秦以虎牢為界,分王天下,永為鄰好,不復為秦之患也。」堅怒責暐曰:「卿雖曰破滅,其實若歸,奈何因王師小敗,猖悖若是!泓書如此,卿欲去者,朕當相資。」暐叩頭流血,涕泣陳謝。堅久之曰:「此自三豎之罪,非卿之過。」復其位,待之如初。命暐以書招喻垂及泓、沖,使息兵還長安,恕其反叛之咎。而暐密遣使謂泓曰:「今秦數已終,社稷不輕,勉建大業。可以吳王為大將軍,領司徒,承制封拜。聽吾死問,汝便即尊位。」泓於是進向長安,年號燕興。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Chong was routed by Fu Jian's general Dou Chong. He abandoned his infantry and led eight thousand cavalry to flee to Murong Hong's army.

By now, Murong Hong had more than a hundred thousand soldiers. He sent word to Fu Jian stating, "Qin acted without principle when it destroyed our altars of state. Heaven is now making its feelings known; by leading Qin to defeat, it wishes to restore Yan once again. The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) has already settled Guandong. Be quick to prepare the imperial carriage, and send us our Emperor, along with his family members and the families of his accomplished ministers. I shall lead all the Yan people of Guanzhong to escort and guard him, and we shall return to our capital at Ye. Then we will set our border with Qin at Hulao, with both Kings dividing the realm between themselves, and we shall be good neighbors forever and never again cause trouble for Qin."

Fu Jian was furious, and summoned Murong Wei to blame him for everything, saying, "You claimed to be bowed and broken, but you really want to return to your state again. How dare you act so perversely when my army has merely suffered a slight defeat! How could Murong Hong have written such things unless you really did plan to go back? I should hold you equally accountable." Murong Wei knocked his head on the ground until blood flowed, tearfully begging forgiveness. At length, Fu Jian said, "This is the fault of your three minions, but you have done nothing wrong." So he restored Murong Wei’s position, treating him like before.

Fu Jian ordered Murong Wei to convey his instructions to Murong Hong, Murong Chong, and Murong Chui, that if they disbanded their armies and returned to Chang'an, he would forgive them for rebelling. But Murong Wei secretly wrote to Murong Hong saying, "Although Qin is already close to doom, its fortunes are not so easily shaken. You must strive to establish the great endeavor. The Prince of Wu shall be Grand General and acting Minister Over The Masses and granted authority to make appointments. Once you hear of my death, then ascend the throne yourself."

Murong Hong then began advancing towards Chang'an, and styled his reign era title as Yanxing.

竇衝擊慕容沖於河東,大破之,沖奔於泓。泓至十萬餘,遣使謂堅曰:「秦師傾敗,將興復大燕,吳王以定關東,可速資備大駕,奉送家兄皇帝返鄴都,與秦以虎牢為界,分王天下。」堅怒,召暐責之,暐叩頭流血陳謝。堅久之曰:「此自三豎之罪,非卿之過。」復其位,待之如初。命暐以書招諭垂及泓、沖,使息兵還長安,恕其反叛之罪。而暐遣使謂泓曰:「今秦數已終,當不復能久立,吾既籠中之人,必無還理,勉建大業,以興復為務。」泓於是進向長安,改年曰燕興。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Dou Chong attacked Murong Chong at Hedong, and greatly routed him. Murong Chong fled to join Murong Hong.

By now, Murong Hong had more than a hundred thousand soldiers. He sent word to Fu Jian stating, "The Qin armies have been defeated, and now is the time for the revival of Great Yan. The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) has already settled Guandong. Be quick to prepare the imperial carriage and send us my elder brother the Emperor (Murong Wei) to return to our capital at Ye. Then we will set our border with Qin at Hulao, and each ruler shall have their share of the realm."

Fu Jian was furious, and summoned Murong Wei to blame him for everything. Murong Wei knocked his head on the ground until blood flowed, begging forgiveness. At length, Fu Jian said, "This is the fault of your three minions, but you have done nothing wrong." So he restored Murong Wei’s position, treating him like before.

Fu Jian ordered Murong Wei to convey his instructions to Murong Hong, Murong Chong, and Murong Chui: if they would disband their armies and return to Chang'an, Fu Jian would forgive them for their crimes of rebellion. But Murong Wei secretly wrote to Murong Hong saying, "Qin is already close to doom, and they cannot survive for much longer. I am already a prisoner caged, and there is no sense in my returning. You must strive to complete the great endeavor; restoring our state shall be your duty."

Murong Hong then began advancing towards Chang'an, and styled his reign era title as Yanxing.


燕王垂以鄴城猶固,會僚佐議之。右司馬封衡請引漳水灌之;從之。垂行圍,因飲於華林園,秦人密出兵掩之,矢下如雨,垂幾不得出,冠軍大將軍隆將騎沖之,垂僅而得免。

23. Murong Chui believed that Ye would be difficult to capture, so he held a meeting with his subordinates to discuss their next move. His Marshal of the Right, Feng Heng, suggested diverting the Zhang River to form a moat around the city, and Murong Chui agreed.

Murong Chui left his siege lines and went to the Hualin Gardens to forage. The people of Qin secretly sent out soldiers to attack him by surprise, and volleys of arrows descended like rain. Murong Chui tried to leave several times but could not get out. Then Murong Long cut a way through with his cavalry, and so Murong Chui was barely able to get out.

用曹操攻鄴故智也。洛都、鄴都皆有華林園;鄴之華林,則魏武所築也。

(Feng Heng suggested the same plan that Cao Cao had used when he took Ye (Book 64, 204.D in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Both Luoyang and Ye had Hualin Gardens. The ones at Ye were all built by Wu of Wei (Cao Cao).)


竟陵太守趙統攻襄陽,秦荊州刺史都貴奔魯陽。

24. Jin's Administrator of Jingling, Zhao Tong, attacked Xiangyang. Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Dou Gui, fled to Luyang.

五月,秦洛州刺史張五虎據豐陽來降。

25. In the fifth month, Qin's Inspector of Luozhou, Zhang Wuhu, occupied Fengyang and then surrendered to Jin.

梁州刺史楊亮帥眾五萬伐蜀,遣巴西太守費統等將水陸兵三萬為前鋒。亮屯巴郡,秦益州刺史王廣遣巴西太守康回等拒之。

26. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang, led fifty thousand troops into the Shu region. He sent the Administrator of Baxi, Fei Tong, and others to advance by land and water with thirty thousand soldiers as the vanguard. Yang Liang camped at Ba. Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Guang, sent Qin's Administrator of Baxi, Kang Hui, and others to oppose the invasion.

《姓譜》:西胡自有康姓。

(The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 康 Kang comes from the western tribes.")


秦苻定、苻紹皆降於燕,燕慕容麟引兵西攻常山。

27. Fu Ding and Fu Shao both surrendered to Yan. Murong Lin led his troops west to attack Changshan.

定以信都降,紹以高城降。苻謨守常山。

(Fu Ding surrendered Xindu, and Fu Shao surrendered Gaocheng. Fu Mo was guarding Changshan.)


後秦王萇進屯北地,秦華陰、北地、新平、安定羌胡降之者十餘萬。

28. Yao Chang advanced to camp at Beidi. More than a hundred thousand of the Qiang and other tribes from Huayin, Beidi, Xinping, and Anding all submitted to him.

姚萇書後秦,以別於苻秦也。

(From now on, the Zizhi Tongjian distinguishes Yao Chang as the ruler of Later Qin, as opposed to the Fu clan's Former Qin.)


姚萇叛於北地。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Yao Chang rebelled at Beidi.

數月之間,萇眾至十餘萬... 進屯北地。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

After several months, Yao Chang's forces had swelled to more than a hundred thousand. He advanced to camp at Beidi.


六月,癸丑朔,崇德太后褚氏崩。

29. In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Guichou (July 5th), Jin's Empress Dowager Chongde, Lady Chu, passed away.

秦王堅自帥步騎二萬以擊後秦,軍於趙氏塢,使護軍將軍楊璧等分道攻之;後秦兵屢敗,斬後秦王萇之弟鎮軍將軍尹買。後秦軍中無井,秦人塞安公谷、堰同官水以固之。後秦人恟懼,有渴死者。會天大雨,後秦營中水三尺,繞營百步之外,寸餘而已,後秦軍復振。秦王堅歎曰:「天亦佑賊乎!」

30. Fu Jian personally led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack the Later Qin army. His army marched to Fort Zhaoshi. Fu Jian sent his General Who Protects The Army, Yang Bi, and others to attack the Later Qin army from along different roads. The Later Qin army suffered several defeats, and their General Who Guards The Army, Yao Chang's younger brother Yao Yinmai, was killed.

The Later Qin army had no access to wells, and the Qin soldiers blocked their access to Angong Valley or the Tongguan River. The Later Qin soldiers were nervous and frightened, and some died of thirst. But suddenly there was a great storm from the heavens, and three chi of rain fell directly onto the Later Qin camp, while little more than a cun of rain fell anywhere beyond a hundred paces around the camp. This helped to restore the Later Qin soldiers' morale. Fu Jian lamented, "Even Heaven is supporting the rebels!"

據《晉書‧載記》,趙氏塢在北地。安公谷、同官水皆在今耀州界。魏收《地形志》,北地郡有銅官縣,眞君七年置。杜佑曰:銅官本漢祋祤縣地,晉爲頻陽;苻秦於祋祤北銅官川置銅官護軍,後魏太武罷護軍,置銅官縣;後周武帝移於今所;隋以後,唯作同官。天不助秦,不可復支矣。

(According to the Biography of Fu Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Fort Zhaoshi ("Zhao Clan's Fort") was in Beidi commandary.

Angong Valley and the Tongguan River are both within modern Yaozhou. According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a Tongguan county in Beidi commandary, which was created in the seventh year of the Taipingzhenjun reign era (446). The Tongdian states, "Tongguan county was originally Han's Duiyu county, and Jin's Pinyang county. Former Qin split off the part of Pinyang north of the Tongguan River as the Tongguan Defense Post, and Northern Wei's Emperor Taiwu removed its defense post status and made it into Tongguan county. Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu moved it to its current location. From Sui onwards, it has only been called Tongguan."

Heaven did not help Former Qin because it did not want Former Qin to rise again.)


堅率步騎二萬討姚萇於北地。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian personally led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack Yao Chang at Beidi.


慕容泓謀臣高蓋等以泓德望不如慕容沖,且持法苛峻,乃殺泓,立沖為皇太弟,承製行事,置百官;以蓋為尚書令。後秦王萇遣其子嵩為質於沖以請和。

31. Murong Hong's advisor, Gao Gai, plotted with several others against him. They felt that Murong Hong was not as virtuous or influential as Murong Chong, and that he was too harsh in enforcing the law. So they killed Murong Hong, and acclaimed Murong Chong as the Crown Younger Brother. Murong Chong wielded authority, and he created the imperial offices. He appointed Gao Gai as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

Yao Chang sent his son Yao Song to Murong Chong as a hostage, in order to arrange for peaceful relations between them.

欲連兵以斃秦,且畏沖兵之強也。

(Yao Chang wanted to join forces with Murong Chong's soldiers to destroy Former Qin, and he also feared the strength of Murong Chong's army.)


泓謀臣高蓋、宿勤崇等以泓德望後沖,且持法苛峻,乃殺泓,立沖為皇太弟,承制行事,置百官。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Hong's advisors, Gao Gai and Su Qinchong, and others felt that Murong Hong was not as virtuous or influential as Murong Chong, and that he was too harsh in enforcing the law. So they killed Murong Hong, and acclaimed Murong Chong as the Crown Younger Brother. Murong Chong wielded authority, and he created the imperial offices.

姚萇與沖連和。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Yao Chang arranged peaceful relations with Murong Chong.

時慕容沖與苻堅相攻,眾甚盛。萇將西上,恐沖遏之,乃遣使通和,以子崇為質於沖。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

At that time, Murong Chong and Fu Jian were fighting one another, and Murong Chong's forces were considerable. Yao Chang wanted to lead his own forces west, but he was afraid that Murong Chong might move to intercept him. So he sent envoys to Murong Chong to arrange peace terms, sending his son Yao Chong to serve as a hostage.

萇與慕容沖連和。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang arranged peaceful terms with Murong Chong.


將軍劉春攻魯陽,都貴奔還長安。

32. The Jin general Liu Chun attacked Luyang. Dou Gui fled back to Chang'an.

後秦王萇帥眾七萬擊秦,秦王堅遣楊璧等拒之,為萇所敗;獲楊璧及右將軍徐成、鎮軍將軍毛盛等將吏數十人,萇皆禮而遣之。

33. Yao Chang led seventy thousand Later Qin soldiers to attack Qin. Fu Jian sent Yang Bi and others to oppose them, but they were all defeated by Yao Chang. Yao Chang captured Yang Bi, the General of the Right, Xu Cheng, the General Who Guards The Army, Mao Sheng, and several dozen other generals and officials. He treated them well and sent them back to Fu Jian.

姚萇率衆七萬來攻,堅為萇所敗。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian personally led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack Yao Chang at Beidi. Yao Chang led seventy thousand Later Qin soldiers to come attack Fu Jian, who was defeated.

萇進屯北地,厲兵積粟,以觀時變。苻堅先徙晉人李祥等數千戶于敷陸,至是,降於萇,北地、新平、安定羌胡降者十餘萬戶。堅率諸將攻之,不能克。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang advanced to camp at Beidi, where he drilled his soldiers and gathered grain while awaiting further developments. Fu Jian had earlier relocated several thousand Jin households, Li Xiang and others, to Fulu. When Yao Chang now arrived, they submitted to him. More than a hundred thousand households of the Qiang and other tribes in Beidi, Xinping, and Anding commandaries all surrendered to Yao Chang as well.

Fu Jian sent several generals to attack Yao Chang, but they were unsuccessful.


燕慕容麟撥常山,秦苻亮、苻謨皆降。麟進圍中山,秋,七月,克之,執苻鑒。麟威聲大振,留屯中山。

34. Murong Lin captured Changshan; Fu Liang and Fu Mo surrendered to him. Murong Lin then advanced to besiege Zhongshan. In autumn, the seventh month, he took it, and captured Fu Jiann. Word of Murong Lin's might now spread near and far. He remained camped at Zhongshan.

冀州皆爲燕有,惟苻丕守鄴而已。

(All of Jizhou thus came under Later Yan's control, except for Fu Pi at Ye.)


秦幽州刺史王永、平州刺史苻沖帥二州之眾以擊燕。燕王垂遣平朔將軍平規擊永,永遣昌黎太守宋敞逆戰於范陽,敞兵敗,規進據薊南。

35. Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, and Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, led the soldiers of their two provinces to attack Yan. Murong Chui sent his General Who Pacifies The Northern Frontier (or, Who Calms The Northern Frontier), Ping Gui, to attack Wang Yong. Wang Yong sent the Administrator of Changli, Song Chang, to launch a counterattack at Fanyang. But Song Chang's soldiers were defeated, and Ping Gui advanced and seized everything south of Ji.

【章:十二行本「平」作「甯」;乙十一行本同;張校同。】此平規別是一平規,平幼之弟,非與苻洛同反之平規也。

(Some versions write Ping Gui's title as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier instead of General Who Pacifies The Northern Frontier.

This Ping Gui is the one mentioned above in 384.6, who joined Later Yan along with his elder brother Ping You. He is not the same Ping Gui who rebelled against Former Qin along with Fu Luo in Book 104, in 380.3-5.)


秦平原公暉帥洛陽、陝城之眾七萬歸於長安。

36. Fu Hui led the seventy thousand Qin soldiers in Luoyang and Shancheng back to Chang'an.

益州刺史王廣遣將軍王虯帥蜀漢之眾三萬北救長安。

36a. Wang Guang sent his general Wang Qiu to lead thirty thousand soldiers from the Shu region north to relieve Chang'an.


【章:十二行本「秦」上有「益州刺史王廣遣將軍王虬帥蜀漢之衆三萬北救長安」二十二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

(Some versions include this passage here.)


秦王堅聞慕容沖去長安浸近,乃引兵歸,遣撫軍大將軍方戍驪山,拜平原公暉為都督中外諸軍事、車騎大將軍、錄尚書事,配兵五萬以拒沖。沖與暉戰於鄭西,大破之。堅又遣前將軍姜宇與少子河間公琳帥眾三萬拒沖於灞上;琳、宇皆敗死,沖遂據阿房城。

37. When Fu Jian heard that Murong Chong was approaching Chang'an, he led his own troops back there. He sent his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Gaoyang, Fu Fang, to defend Lishan. He appointed Fu Hui as Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and chief of affairs of the masters of writing, and gave him fifty thousand soldiers to oppose Murong Chong. Murong Chong and Fu Hui battled at Zhangxi, where Fu Hui was greatly routed. Fu Jian then sent his General of the Front, Jiang Yu, and the Duke of Hejian, his young son Fu Lin, to lead thirty thousand soldiers to stop Murong Chong at Bashang. But Fu Lin and Jiang Yu were both defeated and killed, and Murong Chong then occupied Epang Palace.

歸自北地趙氏塢,使沖不逼長安,堅尚與萇相持,勝負之勢,未有所定也。沖兵旣逼,堅不容不還長安,萇得收嶺北以爲資;堅、沖血戰而萇伺其敝;堅死而鮮卑東出,萇坐而取關中;眞所謂鷸蚌相持,漁人之利也。【章:十二行本「方」上有「高陽公」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】卽秦之阿房宮城。

(Fu Jian returned from Fort Zhaoshi at Beidi in order to protect Chang'an from Murong Chong's advance. Fu Jian and Yao Chang had been locked in stalemate, and the victor between them had not yet been determined. But since Murong Chong was threatening Chang'an, Fu Jian had no choice but to return there, and so Yao Chang was able to secure everything north of the mountain ranges. While Fu Jian and Murong Chong were locked in their bloody struggle, Yao Chang was able to remain a mere observer. And after Fu Jian's death and the Xianbei's departure to the east, Yao Chang remained behind and became master of Guanzhong. This is similar to how people say when the snipe and the clam are at a stalemate, then the fisherman claims the advantage (because the fisherman can overcome them both with little effort on his part).

Some versions state that Fu Fang was "Duke of Gaoyang".

Epang was the palace built by Qin Shihuang of the Qin dynasty.)


沖去長安二百里,堅遣子平原公暉拒之,沖大破暉軍,進據阿房... 長安又謠曰:「鳳皇,鳳皇,止阿房。」堅以鳳皇非梧桐不栖,非竹實不食,乃蒔梧竹數十萬株于阿房城,以待鳳皇之至。沖小字鳳皇,至是終為堅賊,入止阿城焉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Chong marched to within two hundred li of Chang'an. Fu Jian sent the Duke of Pingyuan, his son Fu Hui, to oppose Murong Chong. But Murong Chong greatly routed Fu Hui's army. He then advanced and occupied Epang Palace.

There had earlier been a ditty in Chang'an which went, "The phoenix, the phoenix, will stop at Epang." Fu Jian was worried that there were no phoenix trees at Epang for this phoenix to live in, and no bamboo there for it to eat, so he had several tens of thousands of phoenix and bamboo trees moved to Epang Palace so that they would be in place when the phoenix came. Murong Chong's childhood name had been Fenghuang ("phoenix"), and in the end, when he turned against Fu Jian, he entered Epang Palace and stopped there.

堅聞慕容沖去長安一百餘里,引師而歸,使苻方戍驪山,拜苻暉都督中外諸軍事,配兵五萬,拒沖。暉師敗績。堅入,以尚書姜宇與苻琳率衆三萬擊沖於灞上,為沖所敗,宇死之,琳中流矢,沖遂據阿房城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Fu Jian heard that Murong Chong was within a hundred li of Chang'an, he led his own troops back there. He sent Fu Fang to defend Lishan. He appointed Fu Hui as Commander of all military affairs and gave him fifty thousand soldiers to oppose Murong Chong. But Fu Hui's army was defeated. After he entered Chang'an, Fu Jian sent the Master of Writing, Jiang Yu, and Fu Lin to lead thirty thousand soldiers to stop Murong Chong at Bashang. But Fu Lin and Jiang Yu were defeated; Jiang Yu was killed, and Fu Lin was struck by a stray arrow. Murong Chong then occupied Epang Palace.

沖又擊殺堅將姜宇於灞上,遂屯阿房。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chong defeated and killed Fu Jian's general Jiang Yu at Bashang, then advanced to camp at Epang.


泰康回兵數敗,退還成都。梓潼太守壘襲以涪城來降。荊州刺史桓石民據魯陽,遣河南太守高茂北戍洛陽。

38. In the Shu region, the Qin general Kang Hui was defeated several times by the invading Jin army, and he retreated back to Chengdu. Qin’s Administrator of Zitong, Lei Xi, surrendered the city of Fu to Jin.

Huan Shimin captured Luyang, and he sent the Administrator of Henan, Gao Mao, north to camp at Luoyang.

此晉西師之捷。《姓譜》曰:《後趙錄》有壘澄,本姓裴氏。此晉自襄、沔北向之師也。

(Thus was the western prong of Jin's counter-invasion of Former Qin a success.

The Registry of Surnames states, "In the Records of Later Zhao there is a 壘 Lei Cheng, originally of the Pei clan."

Huan Shimin was leading the central prong of Jin's invasion, north from Xiangyang and across the Mian River.)


己酉,葬康獻皇后於崇平陵。

39. On the day Jiyou (August 30th), Empress Dowager Kangxian of Jin (Lady Chu) was buried at Chongping Tomb.

燕翟斌恃功驕縱,邀求無厭;又以鄴城久不下,潛有貳心。太子寶請除之,燕王垂曰:「河南之盟,不可負也。若其為難,罪由於斌。今事未有形而殺之,人必謂我忌憚其功能;吾方收攬豪傑以隆大業,不可示人以狹,失天下之望也。藉彼有謀,吾以智防之,無能為也。」范陽王德、陳留王紹、驃騎大將軍農皆曰:「翟斌兄弟恃功而驕,必為國患。」垂曰:「驕則速敗,焉能為患?彼有大功,當聽其自斃耳。」禮遇彌重。

40. Among Murong Chui’s generals, Zhai Bin became arrogant and unrestrained because of his achievements, and he constantly made shameless demands. After he arrived at Ye, it was not long before he secretly harbored divided loyalties.

Murong Bao asked for Murong Chui to get rid of Zhai Bin. But Murong Chui said, "We all formed an alliance together in Henan, and I cannot cast it off so easily. If there is anyone who must be seen as to blame for rupturing the alliance, it must be Zhai Bin himself. If I were to kill him now, before he has actually done anything, people will say that I only feared him because of his achievements and ability. The people that have submitted to and joined me on account of our grand endeavor will not believe in me any longer if I seem to be such a petty person, and I will lose the hope of the realm. So let him plot; I know how to guard against him, and he will not be able to accomplish anything."

Murong De, Murong Shao, and Murong Nong all said, "Zhai Bin and his brothers have grown proud because of their achievements. They will certainly threaten the state."

But Murong Chui replied, "Pride comes before the fall. What is there to worry about? The greater their achievements, the more it will lead to their own ruin." So he continued to treat Zhai Bin with courtesy and respect.

斌引兵會垂於洛陽,垂與之盟,蓋在河南縣。

(Zhai Bin had led his troops to join together with Murong Chui at Luoyang, and they formed an alliance under Murong Chui's leadership. The place where they sealed their agreement must have been in Henan county.)


斌諷丁零及其黨請斌為尚書令。垂曰:「翟王之功,宜居上輔;但台既未建,此官不可遽置耳。」斌努,密與前秦長樂公丕通謀,使丁零決堤潰水;事覺,垂殺斌及其弟檀、敏,餘皆赦之。斌兄子真,夜將營眾北奔邯鄲,引兵還向鄴圍,欲與丕內外相應。太子寶與冠軍大將軍隆擊破之,真還走邯鄲。

41. Zhai Bin incited the Dingling and his other partisans into demanding that Murong Chui appoint Zhai Bin as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. But Murong Chui said, "Considering Prince Zhai's accomplishments, he certainly deserves to occupy one of the highest positions of state. But before the edifice of government has actually been set up, there can be no premature talk of offices."

Zhai Bin was angry, and he secretly communicated with Fu Pi, plotting to send the Dingling to burst the dyke and disperse the water around Ye. But his plot was discovered, and Murong Chui executed Zhai Bin and his younger brothers Zhai Tan and Zhai Min. The rest of his followers were pardoned.

Zhai Bin's nephew Zhai Zhen fled the Yan camp at night with his soldiers, marching north to Handan. He gathered more soldiers there and then returned to the siege lines at Ye, wishing to coordinate with Fu Pi for a mutual attack against Murong Chui. But Murong Bao and Murong Long attacked and routed him, and Zhai Zhen fled back to Handan.

《通鑑》凡苻秦事,書曰秦;此「前」字衍。燕引漳水以灌鄴,故斌欲決隄以潰之。

(This passage happens to identify Fu Pi as being of "Former Qin". But it has been the constant policy to refer to the Qin state ruled by the Fu clan as merely "Qin" in the body of the Zizhi Tongjian, so this particular instance of "Former Qin" is a redundancy.

Murong Chui had diverted the waters of the Zhang River to make a moat around Ye. Zhai Bin's plan was to break the dyke that Murong Chui had created so the river waters would disperse.)


太原王楷、陳留王紹言於垂曰:「丁零非有大志,但寵過為亂耳。今急之則屯聚為寇,緩之則自散。散而擊之,無不克矣。」垂從之。

42. Murong Kai and Murong Shao said to Murong Chui, "The Dingling have no great ambitions; it is just that they were shown too much favor, and now they are rowdy. If you press them, they will all band together to fight us, but if you leave them be for now, they will scatter on their own. And if we attack them after they have all scattered, we cannot fail to win." Murong Chui agreed.

龜茲王帛純窘急,重賂獪胡以求救;獪胡王遣其弟吶龍、侯將馗帥騎二十餘萬,並引溫宿、尉頭等諸國兵合七十餘萬以救龜茲;秦呂光與戰於城西,大破之。帛純出走,王侯降者三十餘國。光入其城,城如長安市邑,宮室甚盛。光撫寧西域,威恩甚著,遠方諸國,前世所不能服者,皆來歸附,上漢所賜節傳。光皆表而易之,立帛純弟震為龜茲王。

43. In the Western Reaches, the King of Kucha, Bochun, found himself hard pressed by Lü Guang’s invasion, so he bribed the state of Gaihu to come to his aid. The King of Gaihu sent his younger brother Nielong and his Marquis-General, Kui, to lead more than two hundred thousand cavalry to reinforce Kucha. He also had Wensu, Weitou (or Weixu), and other local states come to Kucha's aid, and they jointly sent more than seven hundred thousand soldiers in relief. Lü Guang fought with them west of the city, and greatly routed them. Bochun left the city and fled, while the kings and nobles of more than thirty states surrendered.

After Lü Guang entered the city, he saw that the walls were set up like those of Chang'an and other cities, and the palace was very expansive. Lü Guang nurtured and settled the Western Reaches, and all bowed to his might and his grace. Many distant states, even ones that had never submitted to past dynasties, all came in submission to him, and they handed over the staffs of authority they had once been given by the Han dynasty. Lü Guang exchanged all the staffs, and he appointed Bochun's younger brother Bozhen as the new King of Kucha.

獪胡,蓋又在龜茲之西。楊正衡曰:獪,古邁翻。吶龍一人,馗又一人,侯將,官稱也;漢時西域諸國,各有輔國侯,安國侯、左‧右將,其後蓋併侯將爲一官。吶,女劣翻,又女鬱翻。【嚴:「頭」改「須」。】

(Gaihu must have been a state west of Kucha. Yang Zhengheng remarked, "The first character of Gaihu, 獪, is pronounced 'gai (g-ai)'."

Nielong and Kui were the names of individuals. Marquis-General was a title. During the Han era, the states of the Western Reaches each had the titles Marquis Who Supports The State, Marquis Who Maintains The State, and Generals of the Left and Right. By this time, their successors must have merged all these titles into the single office of Marquis-General. The first character of Nielong's name, 吶, is pronounced "nie (n-ie)" or "nu (n-u)".

Some versions write the name of the state 尉頭 Weitou as 尉須 Weixu.)


二十年五月,帛純乃傾國財寶,請救于獪胡,獪胡王遣弟吶龍侯將馗率騎二十餘萬救之。胡便弓馬,善矛槊,鎧如連鎖,射不可入,乃以草索為羂,策馬擲人,多有中者。衆甚憚之。姑默,宿尉頭等國及諸胡內外七十萬人,光遷營相接陣,為勾鎖之法,精騎為遊軍彌縫其闕。秋七月,戰於城西,大敗之,帛純逃奔,王侯降者三十餘國。光入其城,城有三重,廣輪與長安城等。城中塔廟千數,帛純宮室壯麗,煥若神居。胡人奢侈,富于生養,家有蒲桃酒,至千斛,經十年不敗。士卒淪沒酒藏者相繼。諸國貢款屬路,立帛純弟震為王以安之。光撫寧西域,威恩甚著。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the fifth month of the twentieth year of Former Qin's reign era Jianyuan (384), Bochun poured out the wealth and treasures of his state, seeking aid from Kuaihu. The King of Kuaihu sent his younger brother Nalong and his Marquis-General, Kui, with more than two hundred thousand cavalry to come to Kucha's rescue. These foreigners were adept in mounted archery, and skilled with the lance and spear. They wore armor that was linked together, and arrows could not pierce it. They used leather cords as snares, and cast them at men from horses, with many people being caught in this fashion. Lü Guang's army was greatly afraid of them. Gumo (Aksu), Suweitou, and other states and foreigners from near and far sent their own soldiers too, seven hundred thousand altogether.

Lü Guang moved his camps to form a tighter defense formation, in the arrangement of a interlocking chain. He kept his elite cavalry as a mobile reserve, to plug any gaps that might form. In autumn, the seventh month, the two sides fought a battle west of the city. Lü Guang greatly defeated them. Bochun fled the city, and the kings and marquises from more than thirty states surrendered.

When Lü Guang entered the city, he saw that there were three lines of walls, as wide around as the walls of Chang'an and other cities. There were more than a thousand Buddhist pagodas in the city, and Bochun's palace was very ostentatious, shining like the residence of a divinity. The foreigners who lived there were very extravagant, and they had abundant things for enjoying themselves. Their homes had grape wine; some had as many as a thousand 斛 of this wine, and would not have exhausted it even after ten years. There were many soldiers who drowned themselves on wine, one after the other.

The various states filled the roads with tributes and funds, so Lü Guang appointed Bochun's younger brother Bozhen as King in order to calm them. Lü Guang nurtured and calmed the Western Reaches, and all bowed to his might and his grace.

又進攻龜茲城,夜夢金象飛越城外。光曰:「此謂佛神去之,胡必亡矣。」光攻城既急,帛純乃傾國財寶請救獪胡。獪胡弟呐龍、侯將馗率騎二十餘萬,並引溫宿、尉頭等國王,合七十餘萬以救之。胡便弓馬,善矛槊,鎧如連鎖,射不可入,以革索為羂,策馬擲人,多有中者。眾甚憚之。諸將咸欲每營結陣,案兵以距之。光曰:「彼眾我寡,營又相遠,勢分力散,非良策也。」於是遷營相接陣,為勾鎖之法,精騎為遊軍,彌縫其闕。戰於城西,大敗之,斬萬餘級。帛純收其珍寶而走,王侯降者三十餘國。光入其城,大饗將士,賦詩言志。見其宮室壯麗,命參軍京兆段業著《龜茲宮賦》以譏之。胡人奢侈,厚於養生,家有蒲桃酒,或至千斛,經十年不敗,士卒淪沒酒藏者相繼矣。諸國憚光威名,貢款屬路,乃立帛純弟震為王以安之。光撫寧西域,威恩甚著,桀黠胡王昔所未賓者,不遠萬里皆來歸附,上漢所賜節傳,光皆表而易之。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang advanced and attacked the walls of Kucha. At night, he dreamed that a golden image flew out of the city. Lü Guang said, "This means that the spirit of the Buddha has left them. Now the barbarians' defeat is certain."

Because of the ferocity of Lü Guang's assault, Bochun poured out the wealth and treasures of his state, seeking aid from Kuaihu. Kuaihu's younger brother Nalong and his Marquis-General, Kui, led more than two hundred cavalry, and they joined together with Wensu, Weitou, and the kings of other states. Combined, they led more than seven hundred thousand soldiers to rescue Kucha. These foreigners were adept in mounted archery, and skilled with the lance and spear. They wore armor that was linked together, and arrows could not pierce it. They used leather cords as snares, and cast them at men from horses, with many being caught in this fashion. Lü Guang's army was greatly afraid of them.

Lü Guang's generals all wished to combine all the camps into formation, to rest the soldiers and oppose the enemy. But Lü Guang said, "They are many and we few, and the camps are all relatively far apart. It would be no fine plan for us to divide our strength in that way." So he moved the camps to form a tighter defense formation, in the arrangement of a interlocking chain. He kept his elite cavalry as a mobile reserve, to plug any gaps that might form. The two sides fought a battle west of the city, and Lü Guang greatly defeated the enemy, taking more than ten thousand heads. Bochun gathered up his treasures in the city and fled, and the kings and marquises from more than thirty states surrendered to Lü Guang.

When Lü Guang entered the city, he held a great feast for his officers and men, and composed rhapsodies and poems expressing his ambition. When Lü Guang saw how ostentatious the palace was, he ordered his Army Advisor, Duan Ye of Jingzhao, to compose a "Ode to the Palace of Kucha" mocking it. The foreigners living in Kucha were very extravagant; they were generous in supplying their lives, and their houses were stocked with grape wine. Some had as many as a thousand 斛 of this wine, and would not have exhausted it even after ten years. There were many soldiers who drowned themselves on wine, one after the other.

The local states feared Lü Guang's martial reputation, and the roads were full of their tributes and funds, so Lü Guang appointed Bochun's younger brother Bozhen as King in order to calm them. Lü Guang nurtured and calmed the Western Reaches, and all bowed to his might and his grace. Even the cruel and cunning foreign kings who had never before bowed to anyone all submitted, "not thinking that ten thousand li was too far" to come in submission to him. Lü Guang accepted the staffs of authority that the Han dynasty had once given these states and exchanged them with new ones.

西域諸胡救帛純者,七十餘萬人。光乃結陳為勾鎖之法,戰於城西,大破之,斬級萬餘,帛純逃走,降者三十餘國。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

The various foreigners of the Western Reaches sent Bochun reinforcements, more than seven hundred thousand altogether. Lü Guang moved his camps to form a tighter defense formation, in the arrangement of a interlocking chain. He fought them west of the city and greatly routed them, taking more than ten thousand heads. Bochun fled and hid, and more than thirty states surrendered to Lü Guang.


八月,翟真自邯鄲北走,燕王垂遣太原王楷、驃騎大將軍農帥騎馬追之,及於下邑。楷欲戰,農曰:「士卒饑倦,且視賊營不見丁壯,殆有他伏。」楷不從,進戰,燕兵大敗。真北趨中山,屯於承營。

44. In the eighth month, Zhai Zhen fled north from Handan. Murong Chui sent Murong Kai and Murong Nong to pursue him with cavalry. On the day Jiayin (September 4th), they caught up with him at Xiayi. Murong Kai wished to fight, but Murong Nong said, "Our soldiers are hungry and tired, and though we have found the enemy's camp, there is no sign of his warriors. Zhai Zhen must have laid an ambush." But Murong Kai did not heed him, and advanced to battle; the Yan soldiers suffered a serious defeat. Zhai Zhen then fled further north to Zhongshan, and he camped at Chengying.

【章:十二行本「及」上有「甲寅」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】羸師示弱者,必有伏兵,衆所通知也,然而往往墮其中而不自覺以致覆軍者多矣。

(Some versions add that Murong Kai and Murong Nong caught up with Zhai Zhen "on the day Jiayin".

When you only see a small force with weak soldiers in view, there must be an ambush in place. Although everyone knows this, charging in among the enemy without thinking has been the ruin of many an army.)


鄴中芻糧俱盡,削松木以飼馬。燕王垂謂諸將曰:「苻丕窮寇,必無降理,不如退屯新城,開丕西歸之路,以謝秦王疇昔之恩,且為討翟真之計。」丙寅夜,垂解圍趨新城。遣慕容農徇清河、平原,征督租賦,農明立約束,均適有無,軍令嚴整,無所侵暴,由是谷帛屬路,軍資豐給。

45. The grain supplies in Ye ran low, and Fu Pi’s soldiers began to chop down the pine trees to use as fodder for the horses. Murong Chui said to his generals, "Fu Pi is now in dire straits, but even so he will never surrender. It would be best for us to fall back to camp at Xincheng, and permit Fu Pi to escape back to his homeland along the western road. By doing so, I can repay the King of Qin's grace from the time I served under him, and at the same time take the opportunity to campaign against Zhai Zhen." On the night of the day Bingyin (September 16th), Murong Chui’s army lifted the siege of Ye and moved to Xincheng.

Murong Chui sent Murong Nong to capture Qinghe and Taiyuan, and then handle the taxes and levies in that region. Murong Nong kept his men restrained, and he requisitioned no more than needed. His commands were disciplined and strict, and there were no instances of intrusion or violence. Thus, along all the valley roads he passed through, his army was granted ample provisions.

卽肥鄕之新興城也。

(This Xinxing was the city of Xinxing in Feixiang.)


長樂公苻丕在鄴,糧竭、馬又無草,削松木而食之。會丁零叛,慕容垂引師去鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

The Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, was at Ye. The grain supplies in Ye ran low, and the horses had no fodder, so Fu Pi’s soldiers began to chop down the pine trees to feed them. At that time, the Dingling rebelled against Murong Chui, so he lifted the siege around Ye to go march against them.


戊寅,南昌文穆公郗愔薨。

46. On the day Wuyin (September 28th), the Jin minister Chi Yin passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wenmu ("the Cultured and Solemn") of Nanchang.

太保安奏請乘苻氏傾敗,開拓中原,以徐、兗二州刺史謝玄為前鋒都督,帥豫州刺史桓石虔等伐秦。玄至下邳,秦徐州刺史趙遷棄彭城走,充進據彭城。

47. Xie An sent in a memorial stating that in light of the Fu clan's many defeats, an effort should be undertaken to recover the Central Plains. He appointed Xie Xuan as Vanguard Commander, so that he would lead Huan Shiqian and others to campaign against Qin. When Xie Xuan reached Xiapi, Qin's Inspector of Xuzhou, Zhao Qian, abandoned Pengcheng and fled, so Xie Xuan advanced and retook Pengcheng.

此晉自淮、泗北向之師也。

(This was the eastern prong of Jin's counter-invasion, moving north from the Huai and Si Rivers.)


秦王堅聞呂光平西域,以光為都督玉門以西諸軍事、西域校尉;道絕,不通。

48. When Fu Jian heard that Lü Guang had pacified the Western Reaches, he appointed Lü Guang as Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass and Colonel of the Western Reaches. But the roads were blocked, and the commission could not get to him.

秦以光為使持節、散騎常侍、都督玉門已西諸軍事、安西將軍、西域校尉,進封順鄉侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

Former Qin appointed Lü Guang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass, General Who Maintains The West, and Colonel of the Western Reaches, and Du Jin was appointed as Marquis of Shunxiang.

堅聞光平西域,以為使持節、散騎常侍、都督玉門已西諸軍事,安西將軍、西域校尉,道絕不通。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

When Fu Jian heard that Lü Guang had pacified the Western Reaches, he appointed Lü Guang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass, General Who Maintains The West, and Colonel of the Western Reaches. But the roads were blocked, and the commission could not get through.


秦幽州刺史王永求救於振威將軍劉庫仁,庫仁遣其妻兄公孫希帥騎三千救之,大破平規於薊南,乘勝長驅,進據唐城。

49. Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, asked for aid from the General Who Spreads Might, Liu Kuren. Liu Kuren sent his brother-in-law Gongsun Xi to lead three thousand cavalry as reinforcements. They greatly routed Murong Chui’s general Ping Gui south of Ji, then pressed their victory to march on, until they advanced and occupied Tangcheng. From there, they maintained a stalemate with Murong Lin.

先是,秦蓋授劉庫仁振武將軍。【章:十二行本「城」下有「與慕容麟相持」六字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】中山郡之唐縣城也。

(Former Qin had earlier appointed Liu Kuren as General Who Spreads Might.

Some versions add in the final sentence "From there, they maintained a stalemate with Murong Lin." The city of Tangxian was in Zhongshan commandary, and Murong Lin was at Zhongshan.)


後慕容垂圍苻丕于鄴,又遣將平規攻堅幽州刺史王永于薊,庫仁自以受堅爵命,遣妻兄公孫希率騎三千,助永擊規,大破之,阬規降卒五千餘人。乘勝長驅,進據唐城,與垂子麟相持。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

When Murong Chui later besieged Fu Pi at Ye, Murong Chui also sent his general Ping Gui to attack Fu Jian's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, at Ji. Since Liu Kuren had received his titles and commission from Fu Jian, he sent his brother-in-law Gongsun Xi to lead three thousand cavalry to help Wang Yong and attack Ping Gui. Gongsun Xi greatly routed Ping Kui, and buried alive more than five thousand of his soldiers who surrendered. He then pressed his victory to march on, and he advanced and occupied Tangcheng, then maintained a stalemate with Murong Chui's son Murong Lin.

慕容垂圍苻丕於鄴,又遣將平規攻堅幽州刺史王永于薊。庫仁遣妻兄公孫希助永擊規,大破之。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

When Murong Chui besieged Fu Pi at Ye, Murong Chui also sent his general Ping Gui to attack Fu Jian's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, at Ji. Liu Kuren sent his brother-in-law Gongsun Xi to help Wang Yong and attack Ping Gui. Gongsun Xi greatly routed Ping Kui.


九月,謝玄使彭城內史劉牢之攻秦兗州刺史張崇。辛卯,崇棄鄄城奔燕。寧之據鄄城,河南城堡皆來歸附。

50. In the ninth month, Xie Xuan sent the Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Laozhi, to attack Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhang Chong. On the day Xinmao (October 11th), Zhang Chong abandoned Juancheng and fled to Yan. Liu Laozhi retook Juancheng, and the other Qin cities and forts south of the Yellow River all came to offer their surrender.

太保安上疏自求北征。加安都督揚、江等十五州諸軍事,加黃鉞。

51. Xie An sent up a memorial asking that he himself be allowed to lead a northern expedition. On the day Jiawu (October 14th), he was further appointed as Commander of the fifteen provincial armies, including Yangzhou and Jiangzhou, and he was granted the Yellow Battle-Axe.

【章:十二行本征下有「甲午」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】十五州,蓋揚、徐、南徐、兗、南兗、豫、南豫、江、青、冀、幽、幷、司、荊、雍也。

(Some versions add that the day of Xie An's appointment was "the day Jiawu".

The fifteen provinces mentioned here must have been Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Southern Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Southern Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Southern Yuzhou, Jiangzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, Sizhou, Jingzhou, and Yongzhou.)


慕容沖進逼長安,秦王堅登城觀之,歎曰:「此虜何從出哉!」大呼責沖曰:「奴何苦來送死!」沖曰:「奴厭奴苦,欲取汝為代耳!」沖少有寵於堅,堅遣使以錦袍稱詔遺之。沖遺詹事稱皇太弟令答之曰:「孤今心在天下,豈顧一袍小惠!苟能知命,君臣束手,早送皇帝!自當寬貸苻氏,以酬曩好。」堅大怒曰:「吾不用王景略、陽平公之言,使白虜敢至於此!」

52. Murong Chong’s army advanced to threaten Chang'an. Fu Jian climbed the walls of Chang’an to observe them. He lamented, "How dare this knave come against me like this?" And with a great shout he yelled to Murong Chong, "You slave, why are you toiling so hard just to seek death?"

Murong Chong shouted back, "A slave's shame and a slave's suffering; I merely wish to capture you to demonstrate them!"

When he had been younger, Murong Chong has been favored by Fu Jian. Fu Jian now sent him an imperial edict, along with a brocade robe as a token of command. But Murong Chong sent back his response identifying himself as Crown Younger Brother, stating, "My heart now lies with the realm; how can a meager kindness like sending me a robe make me change my mind? If you recognize the will of Heaven, then may you and your ministers bind your hands and send us the Emperor (Murong Wei) at once! Then we will pardon the Fu clan, and toast to our old friendship."

Fu Jian furiously said, "It is all because I did not heed the words of Wang Jinglüe (Wang Meng) and the Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong) that this white slave dares to act like this!"

沖少有龍陽之色,得幸於堅。事見一百三卷寧康三年及上卷太元七年。《載記》曰:秦人率謂鮮卑爲白虜。

(When Murong Chong was younger, he had "the flush of Longyang", and this was the manner in which Fu Jian had favored him. (The implication is a homosexual relationship. Lord Longyang was a favored youth of King Anxi of Wei during the Warring States era, as mentioned in the Strategies of the Warring States (Wei.24).)

Wang Meng and Fu Rong had earlier given Fu Jian warnings about the Xianbei, as mentioned in the third year of Ningkang (375.4) in Book 103 and the seventh year of Taiyuan (382.12) in Book 104.

The Biography of Fu Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "The people of Former Qin called the Xianbei 'bailü (white slaves)'.")


初,堅之滅燕,沖姊清河公主年十四,有殊色,納之,寵冠後庭。沖年十二,亦有龍陽之姿,堅又幸之。姊弟專寵,宮人莫進,長安歌之曰:「一雌復一雄,雙飛入紫宮。」咸懼為亂。王猛切諫,堅乃出沖。及其母卒,葬之以燕后之禮。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Earlier, when Fu Jian had conquered Former Yan, Former Yan's Princess of Qinghe, Murong Chong's sister, was thirteen years old. She had an exceptional appearance, and Fu Jian took her and favored her highly in his harem in the rear palace. Murong Chong was then eleven years old, and he too had "the flush of Longyang", so Fu Jian also favored him. With this brother and sister so highly favored, none of the other palace servants could advance, and there was a song in Chang'an which went, "The maiden and the youth have both flown into the purple palace." Everyone was worried that this situation would lead to turmoil. Wang Meng harshly rebuked Fu Jian about it, so at last Fu Jian sent Murong Chong away. When Murong Chong's mother passed away, he buried her with the funeral rites suited to an Empress of Yan.

沖進逼長安。堅登城觀之,歎曰:「此虜從何出也,吾不用王景畧、陽平公之言,使白虜敢至於此。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chong’s army advanced to threaten Chang'an. Fu Jian climbed the walls of Chang’an to observe them. He lamented, "How dare this knave come against me like this? It is all because I did not heed the words of Wang Jinglüe (Wang Meng) and the Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong) that this white slave dares to act like this!"

沖進逼長安。堅登城觀之,歎曰:「此虜何從而出?其強若斯!」大言責沖曰:「爾輩羣奴,正可牧牛羊,何為送死!」沖曰:「奴則奴矣,既厭奴苦,取爾見代。」堅遣使送錦袍一領遺沖,使者稱有詔:「古人兵交,使在其間。卿遠來草創,得無勞乎?今送一袍,以明本懷。朕於卿恩分如何,而於一朝忽為此變?」沖命詹事答之,亦稱皇太弟有令:「孤今心在天下,豈顧一袍小惠。苟能知命,便可君臣束手,早送皇帝。自當寬貸苻氏,以酬曩好,終不使既往之事,獨美於前。」堅大怒曰:「朕不用王景略、陽平公之言,使白虜敢至於此!」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chong’s army advanced to threaten Chang'an. Fu Jian climbed the walls of Chang’an to observe them. He lamented, "How dare this knave come against me like this? How is he so strong?" And with a great shout he castigated Murong Chong, yelling, "You are all just a bunch of slaves, a shepherd leading a flock of cattle and sheep! Why do you seek death?"

Murong Chong shouted back, "If I am a slave, I am a slave, but I understand a slave's shame and suffering. Now I want to capture you to demonstrate them."

Fu Jian sent an envoy out to Murong Chong to bring him a brocade robe, as well as read an edict to him: "When the ancients had a clash of arms, it was because of the grievances between them. You have come a long way on your enterprise; how could it have happened without some toil? I now send you this robe, as a sign of my original affection. When I have shown you such grace and favor, what made you so suddenly turn against me in a single morning?"

But Murong Chong ordered his officials to send back his response identifying himself as Crown Younger Brother, stating, "My heart now lies with the realm; how can a meager kindness like sending me a robe make me change my mind? If you recognize the will of Heaven, then may you and your ministers bind your hands and send us the Emperor (Murong Wei) at once! Then we will pardon the Fu clan, and toast to our old friendship; there shall be no further ill intention between us, and we shall return to the good state of affairs we once enjoyed."

Fu Jian furiously said, "It is all because I did not heed the words of Wang Jinglüe (Wang Meng) and the Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong) that this white slave dares to act like this!"


冬,十月,辛亥朔,日有食之。

53. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Xinhai (October 31st), there was an eclipse.

乙丑,大赦。

54. On the day Yichou (November 14th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

謝玄遣陰陵太守高素攻秦青州刺史苻郎,軍至琅邪,朗來降。朗,堅之從子也。

55. Xie Xuan sent the Administrator of Yinling, Gao Su, to attack Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Fu Lang. When the Jin army reached Langye, Fu Lang came to them and surrendered. This Fu Lang was the nephew of Fu Jian.

陰陵縣,漢屬九江郡。《晉書‧謝玄傳》作「淮陵」。淮陵縣,前漢屬臨淮郡,後漢屬下邳郡,晉復屬臨淮郡,惠帝元康七年,分置淮陵郡。「陰」,當作「淮」。

(During Han, Yinling county was part of Jiujiang commandary. However, the Biography of Xie Xuan in the Book of Jin states that Gao Su was Administrator of "Huailing". During Former Han, Huailing county was part of Linhuai commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Xiapi commandary. Jin moved it back to Linhuai commandary, and in Emperor Hui's seventh year of Yuankang (297) it was split off as its own Huailing commandary. So instead of Yinling, this passage should say Huailing.)


翟真在承營,與公孫希、宋敞遙相首尾。長樂公丕遣宦者冗從僕射清河光祚,將兵數百赴中山,與真相結。又遣陽平太守邵興將數千騎,招集冀州故郡縣,與祚期會襄國。是時,燕軍疲弊,秦勢復振,冀州郡縣皆觀望成敗,趙郡人趙粟等起兵柏鄉以應興。燕王垂遣冠軍大將軍隆、龍驤將軍張崇將兵邀擊興,命驃騎大將軍農自清河引兵會之。隆與興戰於襄國,大破之;興走至廣阿,遇慕容農,執之。光祚聞之,循西山走歸鄴。隆遂擊趙粟等,皆破之,冀州郡縣復從燕。

56. Zhai Zhen was at Chengying. He advanced together with Gongsun Xi and Song Chang.

Fu Pi sent the Deputy Director of 冗從, the eunuch Guang Zuo of Qinghe, with several hundred soldiers to march to Zhongshan, where they joined forces with Zhai Zhen. He also sent Qin’s Administrator of Yangping, Shao Xing, to ride out with several thousand cavalry, and they gathered together the forces of the commandaries and counties of Jizhou, setting a time to join Guang Zuo at Xiangguo. At that time, the Yan army was weary, while the Qin army's morale was revived, so the various commandaries and counties of Jizhou were all watching to see which side would win and which would lose.

A native of Zhao commandary, Zhao Su, and some others raised troops at Baixiang, planning to join Shao Xing. Murong Chui sent Murong Long and the Dragon-Soaring General, Zhang Chong, with troops to intercept and attack Shao Xing, and he ordered Murong Nong to march from Qinghe to join in the fighting. Murong Long fought with Shao Xing at Xiangguo and greatly routed him. Shao Xing fled to Guang'a, where he encountered Murong Nong and was captured. When Guang Zuo heard of it, he fled through the western hills back to Ye. Murong Long then attacked Zhao Su and the others, and routed them all. Control of the commandaries and counties of Jizhou thus returned to Yan.

公孫希,劉庫仁所遣;宋敞,王永所遣。《姓譜》:光姓,燕人田光之後,秦末子孫避地,以光爲氏。魏收《地形志》:南趙郡柏人縣有柏鄕城。《九域志》曰:柏鄕故城,春秋時晉鄗邑。《五代志》:隋文帝開皇十六年,置柏鄕縣,屬趙郡。

(Gongsun Xi was Liu Kuren's subordinate, and Song Chang was Wang Yong's subordinate.

The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 光 Guang comes from Tian Guang of the state of Yan from the Warring States era. Near the end of the Qin dynasty, when his descendants were in hiding, they took Guang as their clan name."

The Geographic Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The city of Baixiang is in Bairen county in Southern Zhao commandary." The Records of the Nine Regions states, "The capital city of Baixiang was the town of Haoyi in the state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn era." The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "In Emperor Wen of Sui's sixteenth year of Kaihuang (596), he created Baixiang county, as part of Zhao commandary.")


劉庫仁聞公孫希已破平規,欲大舉兵以救長樂公丕,發雁門、上谷、代郡兵,屯繁畤。燕太子太保慕輿句之子文、零陵公慕輿虔之子常時在庫仁所,知三郡兵不樂遠所,因作亂,夜,攻庫仁,殺之,竊其駿馬奔燕。公孫希之眾聞亂自潰,希奔翟真。庫仁弟頭眷代領庫仁部眾。

57. When Liu Kuren heard that Gongsun Xi had already routed Ping Gui, he wished to assemble all his troops to come to Fu Pi's aid. He drafted soldiers from Yanmen, Shanggu, and Dai commandaries, and they camped at Fanzhi.

Among Liu Kuren’s army at this time were Muyu Wen and Muyu Chang, the sons of Yan's Grand Guardian to the Crown Prince, Muyu Gou, and their Duke of Lingling, Muyu Qian. The two of them knew that the soldiers from those three commandaries were not happy at the prospect of being sent so far away, so they stirred up rebellion. At night, they attacked Liu Kuren and killed him, stole his prized horses, and fled to Yan.

When Gongsun Xi's men heard of the disaster, they all scattered, and Gongsun Xi fled to Zhai Zhen. Liu Kuren's younger brother Liu Toujuan took over command of his soldiers.

慕輿句見九十八卷穆帝永和六年。慕輿虔見一百一卷哀帝興寧三年。句,音鉤。

(Muyu Gou is mentioned in Book 98, in Emperor Mu's sixth year of Yonghe (351.13). His given name, 句, is pronounced "gou". Muyu Qian is mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's third year of Xingning (365.7).)


庫仁聞希破規,復將大舉以救丕。發雁門、上谷、代郡兵,次於繁畤。先是,慕容文等當徙長安,遁依庫仁部,常思東歸,其計無由。至是役也,知人不樂,文等乃夜率三郡人,攻庫仁。庫仁匿於馬廐,文執殺之。乘其駿馬,奔慕容垂。公孫希聞亂,自唐城走於丁零。庫仁弟眷,繼攝國事。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

When Liu Kuren heard that Gongsun Xi had routed Ping Gui, he assembled a greater army to come rescue Fu Pi. He drafted soldiers from Yanmen, Shanggu, and Dai commandaries, then advanced to Fanzhi.

Earlier, when Murong Wen and others were supposed to have been relocated to Chang'an, they fled and joined Liu Kuren's forces instead. They had often longed to return home in the east, but there had been no opportunity for their plans to do so. But at this time, they knew that the people would not be pleased by this draft. So one night, Murong Wen and the others led three hundred natives of the three commandaries to attack Liu Kuren. Liu Kuren hid in a horse stable, but Murong Wen captured and killed him. The rebels then took Liu Kuren's prized horses and fled to Murong Chui.

When Gongsun Xi heard of the rebellion, he fled from Tangcheng to the Dingling. Liu Kuren's younger brother Liu Juan took control of his domain.

庫仁復將大舉以救丕。發雁門、上穀、代郡兵,次於繁畤。先是,慕容文等當徙長安,遁依庫仁部,常思東歸。是役也,文等夜率三郡人,攻殺庫仁,乘其駿馬,奔慕容垂。公孫希聞亂走丁零。庫仁弟眷,繼攝國事。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Kuren assembled a greater army to come rescue Fu Pi. He drafted soldiers from Yanmen, Shanggu, and Dai commandaries, then advanced to Fanzhi.

Earlier, when Murong Wen and others were supposed to have been relocated to Chang'an, they fled and joined Liu Kuren's forces instead. They had often longed to return home in the east. During this draft, one night, Murong Wen and the others led three hundred natives of the three commandaries to attack and kill Liu Kuren. The rebels then took Liu Kuren's prized horses and fled to Murong Chui.

When Gongsun Xi heard of the rebellion, he fled to the Dingling. Liu Kuren's younger brother Liu Juan took control of his domain.


秦長樂公丕遣光祚及參軍封孚召驃騎將軍張蚝、并州刺史王騰於晉陽以自救,蚝、騰以眾少不能赴。丕進退路窮,謀於僚佐。司馬楊膺請自歸於晉,丕未許。會謝玄遣龍驤將軍劉牢之等據碻磝,濟陽太守郭滿據滑台,將軍顏肱、劉襲軍於河北;丕遣將軍桑據屯黎陽以據之。劉襲夜襲據,走之,遂克黎陽。丕懼,乃遣從弟就與參軍焦逵請救於玄,致書稱「欲假途求糧,西赴國難,須援軍既接,以鄴與之。若西路不通,長安陷沒,請帥所領保守鄴城。」逵與參軍姜讓密謂楊膺曰:「今喪敗如此,長安阻絕,存亡不可知。屈節竭誠以求糧援,猶懼不獲;而公豪氣不除,方設兩端,事必無成。宜正書為表,許以王師之至,當致身南歸;如其不從,可逼縛與之。」膺自以力能制丕,乃改書而遣之。

58. Fu Pi sent Guang Zuo and his Army Advisor, Feng Fu, to summon Zhang Qi and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Wang Teng, to march from Jinyang to reinforce him. However, Zhang Qi and Wang Teng had too few soldiers and could not reach him.

Feeling that he could neither advance nor retreat, Fu Pi discussed matters with his subordinates. His Marshal, Yang Ying, proposed that he offer to submit to Jin, but Fu Pi would not yet permit that.

At this time, Xie Xuan sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Liu Laozhi, and others to capture Qiaoniao. Jin's Administrator of Jiyang, Guo Man, captured Huatai, and the generals Yan Gong and Liu Xi marched north of the Yellow River. Fu Pi sent his general Sang Ju to camp at Liyang to secure it. But Liu Xi attacked Sang Ju at night and drove him off, then took Liyang.

Fu Pi was afraid, so he sent his cousin Fu Jiu and his Army Advisor, Jiao Kui, to ask for aid from Xie Xuan. His letter to Xie Xuan stated, "I wish to make a show of submission in order to ask for grain, and then go west to attend to my state's difficulties. If your army will provide me with assistance in doing so, then I will turn over Ye to you. If the road west is blocked, or Chang'an has fallen, then I ask to lead my army back to defend Ye."

Jiao Kui and Jiang Rang secretly told Yang Ying, "We are in a wretched state here. We are cut off from Chang'an, and we do not know whether or not it has fallen. Even if we earnestly give up our duty here and genuinely surrender to Jin in order to ask them for grain and aid, we fear that still might not be enough. If the Duke insists on refusing to submit and tries to play both sides, the scheme is bound to fail. You should write a new letter as a petition, asking that if the Jin army comes, we will submit to Jin once again. If the Duke will not go along with the plan, you may force the matter."

Yang Ying felt that he would be able to deal with Fu Pi if matters came to that, so he changed the letter and sent it.

秦以鄧羌、張蚝爲萬人敵。是時鄧羌死矣,張蚝卒不能救秦之亡。是知徒勇而無謀者,無益於成敗之數也。碻磝城,濟北郡治所,沿河要地也。碻,丘交翻。磝,牛交翻。楊正衡曰:碻,口勞翻。杜佑曰:碻,口交翻。磝,音敖。沈約曰:晉惠帝分陳留爲濟陽國。滑臺,漢之白馬,唐之滑州也。宋南渡後,遣范成大北使,時河已南徙,滑州及白馬縣皆在河北,古滑州已淪於河中矣。剩水在濬州西南,積水若湖;對濬州城,卽黎陽山。河北,滑臺之北岸也。楊膺,丕之妃兄,故自以爲力能制丕。

(Deng Qiang and Zhang Qi of Former Qin had been called "the Foes of Ten Thousands". But at this time, Deng Qiang was already dead, and Zhang Qi's soldiers could not prevent Qin's fall. Thus may we know that though a man possesses great bravery, if he has no art for strategy, he will have little effect on victories or defeats.

Qiaoniao was the administrative center of Jibei commandary, at a vital point on the Yellow River. 碻 is pronounced "qiao (q-iao)", and 磝 is pronounced "niao (n-iao)". Yang Zhengheng remarked, "碻 is pronounced 'kao (k-ao)'." The Tongdian states, "碻 is pronounced 'kiao (k-iao)', and 磝 is pronounced 'ao'."

The Book of Liu-Song states, "Emperor Hui of Jin split off part of Chenliu to form the Jiyang fief."

Huatai was known as Baima during Han, and it was in Huazhou during Tang. After the Song dynasty fled south, when Fan Chengda went north, by then the Yellow River's path had already shifted south, and Huazhou and Baima counties were both now north of it, while the old Hezhou had been split by the Yellow River. Some of the remaining water had pooled southwest of Junzhou, gathered up like a lake. Across from the city of Junzhou was Mount Liyang.

The Jin generals went to Huatai, on the north bank of the Yellow River.

Yang Ying was Fu Pi's brother-in-law, and this was why he thought he would be able to force Fu Pi to go along with this plan.)


丕始具西問,知長安危逼,乃遣從弟求救于謝玄。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

After the siege against Ye had been lifted, Fu Pi first learned about events in the west and how Chang'an was in great danger. So he sent his cousin to ask for aid from Xie Xuan.


謝玄遣晉陵太守滕恬之渡河守黎陽。恬之,修之曾孫也。朝廷以兗、青、司、豫既平,加玄都督徐、兗、青、司、冀、幽、並七州諸軍事。

59. Xie Xuan sent the Administrator of Jinling, Teng Tianzhi, to cross the Yellow River and guard Liyang. This Teng Tianzhi was the great-grandson of Teng Xiu.

The Jin court, noting that Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Sizhou, and Yuzhou had all been pacified, further appointed Xie Xuan as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Sizhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou.

滕脩爲吳將,孫晧之亡,脩歸晉。

(Teng Xiu was a general of Eastern Wu. After the fall of Sun Hao, he submitted to Jin.)


後秦王萇聞慕容沖攻長安,會群僚議進止,皆曰:「大王宜先取長安,建立根本,然後經營四方。」萇曰:「不然。燕人因其眾有思歸之心以起兵,若得其志,必不久留關中。吾當移屯嶺北,廣收資實,以待秦亡燕去,然後拱手取之耳。」乃留其長子興守北地,使寧北將軍姚穆守同官川,自將其眾攻新平。

60. When Yao Chang heard of Murong Chong's attack on Chang'an, he held a meeting with his ministers and subordinates on whether he should advance on Chang’an as well or hold back. They all said, "Great King, capturing Chang'an should be your first step, so it may serve as the foundation for your rise. You may then expand in every direction from there."

But Yao Chang replied, "Not so. The Yan soldiers have a deep longing to return home, and that is why they rose up in the first place. If they have the means to go home again, they will certainly not remain in Guanzhong for long. I should shift my camp north of the mountain ranges, and gather supplies and materials. Once Qin has been extinguished and the Yan soldiers have departed, then I can easily reach out and take Chang’an for myself."

So he left his eldest son Yao Xing to guard Beidi, and he sent his General Who Calms The North, Yao Mu, to guard the Tongguan River basin, while he led the rest of his soldiers to attack Xinping.

嶺北,謂九嵕之北,凡新平、北地、安定之地皆是也。

("North of the mountain ranges" meant north of the Jiuzong Mountains. In particular, Xinping, Beidi, and Anding.)


姚萇合攻長安。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Yao Chang rebelled at Beidi. Yao Chang joined Murong Chong in the attack on Chang'an.

萇聞容慕沖攻長安,議進趨之計,群下咸曰:「宜先據咸陽以制天下。」萇曰:「燕因懷舊之士而起兵,若功成事捷,咸有東歸之思,安能久固秦川!吾欲移兵嶺北,廣收資實,須秦弊燕回,然後垂拱取之。兵不血刃,坐定天下,此卞莊得二之義也。」堅甯朔將軍宋方率騎三千從雲中將赴長安,萇自貳縣要破之,方單馬奔免,其司馬田晃率眾降萇。萇遣諸將攻新平。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Yao Chang heard of Murong Chong's attack on Chang'an, he held a meeting with his ministers and subordinates on whether he should advance on Chang’an as well or hold back. They all said, "You should first occupy Xianyang in order to control the realm."

But Yao Chang replied, "The Yan soldiers have a deep longing to return home, and that is why they rose up in the first place. If they are able to triumph in their current campaign, they will all want to return east again; how could they stay in Qinchuan for long? I want to shift my soldiers north of the mountain ranges, and gather supplies and materials. Once Qin has been extinguished and the Yan soldiers have departed, then I can easily reach out and take Chang’an for myself. I can sit astride the realm without my soldiers having even dirtied their blades. This is the method by which Bian Zhuang overcame two opponents."

Fu Jian's General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Song Fang, led three thousand cavalry from Yunzhong to ride towards Chang'an. But Yao Chang marched from Er county and intercepted them; he routed them, and Song Fang made his escape on a lone horse, while his Marshal, Tian Huang, led his troops to surrender to Yao Chang.

Yao Chang sent several generals to attack Xinping.


初,新平人殺其郡將,秦王堅缺其城角以恥之,新平民望深以為病,欲立忠義以雪之。及後秦王萇至新平,新平太守南安苟輔欲降之,郡人遼西太守馮傑、蓮勺令馮羽、尚書郎趙義、汶山太守馮苗諫曰:「昔田單以一城存齊。今秦之州鎮,猶連城過百,奈何遽為叛臣乎!」輔喜曰:「此吾志也,但恐久而無救,郡人橫被無辜。諸君能爾,吾豈顧生哉!」於是憑城固守。後秦為土山地道,輔亦於內為之,或戰地下,或戰山上,後秦眾死者萬餘人。輔詐降以誘萇,萇將入城,覺之而返;輔仗兵邀擊,幾獲之,又殺萬餘人。

61. Years earlier, when the people of Xinping had killed their commandery general, Fu Jian had torn down the corners of their walls to shame them. The people of Xinping had felt deeply hurt by this shame, and they had wished to demonstrate their loyalty and righteousness to wipe it away.

When Yao Chang arrived at Xinping, the Administrator of Xinping, Gou Fu of Nan'an, planned to surrender to him. But several natives of Xiping, including the Administrator of Liaoxi, Feng Jie, the Prefect of Lianshao, Feng Yu, the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Zhao Yi, and the Administrator of Wenshan, Feng Miao, all remonstrated with him. They said, "In ancient times, Tian Dan was able to revive the state of Qi even when he only held a single city. Qin still commands more than a hundred cities within sight of each other across its provinces and garrisons. Why be so hasty to surrender to this traitor?"

Gou Fu happily replied, "I feel the same as you do. But I feared that we would not receive anyone reinforcements for a long time, and so the people of the commandary would suffer misfortune. Yet since you gentlemen are like this, how can I think of my own life?" And he manned the walls and prepared to defend the city.

The Later Qin soldiers tried to assault the city by piling up mounds of earth against the walls or digging tunnels under them, but Gou Fu was prepared to meet them, whether by fighting them in the tunnels or on top of the mounds. More than ten thousand Later Qin soldiers were killed in these assaults.

Gou Fu then falsely offered his surrender to deceive Yao Chang. Yao Chang led his troops to enter the city, but then he realized what was going on and turned back, but Gou Fu's soldiers ambushed him and intercepted his path. They nearly captured Yao Chang, and more than ten thousand more Later Qin soldiers were killed.

石虎之末,清河崔悅爲新平相,爲郡人所殺。悅子液仕堅,爲尚書郎,自表父仇,不同天地,請還冀州。堅愍之,禁錮新平人,缺其城角以恥之。民望,郡之賢豪,爲一郡所宗嚮者。苟輔,氐也,秦之外戚。傑等皆新平人。《太康地志》曰:汶山郡,漢武帝立;孝宣地節三年,合蜀郡;劉蜀又立郡。汶,讀曰岷。田單事見四卷周赧王三十六年。

(During the last years of Shi Hu's reign, Cui Yue of Qinghe had been appointed as Later Zhao's Chancellor of Xinping, but he had been killed by the people of that commandary. Cui Yue's son Cui Ye held office under Fu Jian, where he was appointed as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. He submitted a memorial stating his wish that because of his father's murder, he could not share the same earth or sky with his killers, so he asked to return to Jizhou. Fu Jian sympathized with him, and he barred anyone from Xinping from holding office and tore down the corners of their walls to shame them. The "people of Xinping" were the worthy fellows who served as models for the rest of the commandary.

Gou Fu was of the Di people. He was a relative of Former Qin's royal family through Empress Dowager Gou's family.

Feng Jie and the rest were all natives of Xinping.

The Geographical Records of the Taikang Era states, "Wenshan commandary was established by Emperor Wu of Han. In Emperor Xuan of Han's third year of Dijie (67 BC), it was combined with Shu commandary. Shu-Han reestablished it as its own commandary." The first character of Wenshan, 汶, is pronounced "min".

The story of Tian Dan is mentioned in Book 4, in the thirty-sixth year of the reign of King Nan of Zhou (279 BC).)


隴西處士王嘉,隱居倒虎山,有異術,能知未然,秦人神之。秦王堅、後秦王萇及慕容沖皆遣使迎之。十一月,嘉入長安,眾聞之,以為堅有福,故聖人助之,三輔堡壁及四山氐、羌歸堅者四萬餘人。堅置嘉及沙門道安於外殿,動靜咨之。

62. There was a certain hermit in Longxi, Wang Jia, who lived in obscurity on Mount Daohu. He had mystic powers, and was able to know the future. The people of Qin considered him an immortal. Fu Jian, Yao Chang, and Murong Chong all sent envoys to convince him to come to them.

In the eleventh month, Wang Jia entered Chang'an. When people heard this, they believed that fortune was with Fu Jian, because he had the aid of this sage. Many of the fortified places in the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an) and the Di and Qiang of the western hills all flocked to Fu Jian, more than forty thousand people in all. Fu Jian hosted Wang Jia and the monk Dao'an in the outer hall, and he actively consulted with them.

《水經註》:倒虎山在新豐縣南。

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Mount Daohu is in the south of Xinfeng county.")


燕慕容農自信都西擊丁零翟遼於魯口,破之。遼退屯無極,農屯蒿城以逼之。遼,真之從兄也。

63. Murong Nong marched west from Xindu to attack the Dingling under Zhai Liao at Lukou, and he routed their army. Zhai Liao fled to camp at Wuji, and Murong Nong camped at Haocheng to keep pressure on him. This Zhai Liao was the cousin of Zhai Zhen.

無極縣,漢屬中山,晉省;後魏復置無極縣,唐末爲祁州治所。藁城縣,前漢屬眞定,後漢屬鉅鹿,晉省。今所屯蓋故縣城也。唐復置藁城縣,屬恆州。

(During Han, Wuji county was part of Zhongshan commandary. Jin abolished it. Northern Wei formed it again, and at the end of Tang it was the administrative center of Qizhou.

During Former Han, Gaocheng county was part of Zhending commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Julu commandary. Jin abolished it. Murong Nong must have camped where the capital city of the former county was. Tang restored Gaocheng county, as part of Hengzhou.)


鮮卑在長安城中者猶千餘人,慕容紹之兄肅,與慕容□陰謀結鮮卑為亂。十二月,□白堅,以其子新昏,請堅幸其家,置酒,欲伏兵殺之。堅許之,會天大雨,不果往。事覺,堅召□及肅,肅曰:「事必洩矣,入則俱死。今城內已嚴,不如殺使者馳出,既得出門,大眾便集。」□不從,遂俱入。堅曰:「吾相待何如,而起此意」?□飾辭以對。肅曰:「家國事重,何論意氣!」堅先殺肅,乃殺□及其宗族,城內鮮卑無少長、男女,皆殺之。燕王垂幼子柔,養於宦者宋牙家為牙子,故得不坐,與太子寶之子盛乘間得出,奔慕容沖。

64. There were still more than a thousand Xianbei inside Chang'an. Murong Shao's elder brother Murong Su secretly plotted with Murong Wei, planning to bring all the Xianbei together to start a rebellion.

In the twelfth month, Murong Wei reported to Fu Jian. He said that since his son was newly married, he wished to invite Fu Jian to enjoy the festivities of his household. He planned to get Fu Jian drunk, then have soldiers spring from hiding and kill him. Fu Jian agreed, but then a heavy storm broke out, so he did not come as expected.

Then the plot leaked out. Fu Jian summoned Murong Wei and Murong Su. Murong Su said to Murong Wei, "The plot must have leaked, so answering this summons means our deaths. The city is already under martial law. It would be better for us to kill these messengers and flee. If we can escape through one of the gates, then we can join the main army outside."

But Murong Wei did not heed him, so they both went to see Fu Jian.

Fu Jian said, "How have I mistreated you, that you hatch this idea?"

Murong Wei responded with some excuse, but Murong Su exclaimed, "It is one's state and one's family that matter most. Why speak of mere personal feelings?"

Fu Jian first killed Murong Su, and then killed Murong Wei and the rest of his clan. Then all the Xianbei inside Chang'an were killed, whether young or old, man or woman.

Murong Chui's youngest son Murong Rou had been adopted by the family of the eunuch Song Ya as his son, so he was not blamed like the rest of the Xianbei. He and Murong Bao's son Murong Sheng took advantage of an opening and escaped the city, then fled to Murong Chong.

已嚴者,謂鮮卑之衆也。意氣,謂堅相待之厚。爲後慕容盛等自長子歸燕張本。

(Chang'an was under martial law to guard against the Xianbei.

By personal feelings, Murong Su meant Fu Jian's personal treatment of them.

This was why Murong Sheng and the others were able to return to Later Yan from Western Yan's base at Zhangzi.)


既而吳王垂攻苻丕於鄴,中山王沖起兵關中,暐謀殺堅,事發,為堅所誅,年三十五歲。及德僭稱尊號,偽諡幽皇帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

After the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, attacked Fu Pi at Ye, and the Prince of Zhongshan, Murong Chong, rose in rebellion in Guanzhong, Murong Wei plotted to kill Fu Jian. But the plot was discovered, and he was executed by Fu Jian. He was thirty-four years old.

When Murong De later declared himself Emperor of Southern Yan, he gave Murong Wei the posthumous title Emperor You.

暐入見堅,稽首謝曰:「弟沖不識義方,孤背國恩,臣罪應萬死。陛下垂天地之容,臣蒙更生之惠。臣二子昨婚,明當三日,愚欲暫屈鑾駕,幸臣私第。」堅許之。暐出,術士王嘉曰:「椎蘆作籧篨,不成文章;會天大雨,不得殺羊。」言暐將殺堅而不果也。堅與羣臣莫之能解。是夜大雨,晨不果出。初,暐之遣諸弟起兵於外也,謀欲伏兵請堅殺之。時鮮卑在城者猶有千餘人,暐令其帥悉羅騰、屈突鐵侯等潛告之曰:「官今使吾外鎮,聽舊人悉隨。可於某日會集某處。」鮮卑信之。北部人突賢之妹,為堅左將軍竇衝小妻,賢與妹別,妹請衝留其兄。衝馳入白堅,堅大驚,召騰問之,騰具首服。乃誅暐父子及其宗族,城內鮮卑無少長男女皆殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei came to see Fu Jian. He kowtowed by way of apology and said, "For my younger brother Murong Chong's failure to recognize the principles of righteousness and proper conduct, and my betrayal of the grace which I have been shown by the state, I have committed crimes which deserve ten thousand deaths. Yet Your Majesty, showing me the magnanimity of Heaven and Earth, has seen fit to spare my life. My two sons became married yesterday, and tomorrow we will begin the three days of festivities. I, your humble servant, would be honored if you might halt your imperial carriage at my personal residence for a time and favor us with your presence."

Fu Jian agreed to attend the festivities. After Murong Wei went out, the mystic Wang Jia remarked, "Spines and reeds serve as the mat, but the composition will not be completed; a great storm will come from the heavens, and the sheep will not be slaughtered." By this, he meant to say that Murong Wei was about to kill Fu Jian, but his plan would not go as expected. But neither Fu Jian nor any of his ministers could decipher his words. That night, there was a great storm, so when dawn came Fu Jian did not go to visit Murong Wei as planned.

Earlier, Murong Wei had sent his younger brothers out to raise troops, because he was plotting to have troops lay in ambush, then invite Fu Jian to come and then kill him. At this time, there were still more than a thousand Xianbei inside of Chang'an. Murong Wei ordered Xiluo Teng, Qutu Tiehou, and his other commanders to secretly tell the Xianbei, "The government is going to send me out to a distant post, and have my old followers all come to me. Then we may set a certain date to gather in a certain place." The Xianbei believed them.

One of the members of the northern tribes, Tu Xian, had a younger sister who was the concubine of Fu Jian's General of the Left, Dou Chong. Tu Xian and his sister did not get along, so his sister asked Dou Chong to detain her elder brother. Dou Chong rushed to inform Fu Jian of the situation, and Fu Jian was greatly astonished. He summoned Xiluo Teng and questioned him, and Xiluo Teng confessed to the plot. So Fu Jian executed Murong Wei and his sons and clan members. All of the Xianbei inside the city were killed, whether young or old, man or woman.


燕慕容麟、慕容農合兵襲翟遼,大破之,遼單騎奔翟真。

65. Murong Lin and Murong Nong joined forces to surprise attack Zhai Liao, and they greatly routed him. Zhai Liao fled alone on horseback to Zhai Zhen.

燕王垂以秦長樂公丕猶據鄴不去,乃更引兵圍鄴,開其西走之路。焦逵見謝玄,玄欲征丕任子,然後出兵;逵固陳丕款誠,並述楊膺之意,玄乃遣劉牢之、滕恬之等帥眾二萬救鄴。丕告饑,玄水陸運米二千斛以饋之。

66. Since Fu Pi still held Ye and had not left the city yet, Murong Chui led his soldiers back to set up the siege around Ye again, but he left open the road to the west.

When Jiao Kuai met with Xie Xuan, Xie Xuan demanded that Fu Pi must send his son as a hostage, and only then would Xie Xuan send troops. But Jiao Kuai stressed Fu Pi's honesty and sincerity, and he related the message from Yang Ying. So Xie Xuan sent Liu Laozhi, Teng Tianzhi, and others to lead twenty thousand soldiers to assist Ye. Fu Pi reported his shortage of food, so Xie Xuan sent two thousand 斛 of rice by land and water to supply him.

垂志在得鄴,故開其走路,所謂圍城爲之缺也。

(Murong Chui wished to obtain Ye, but also to leave open a route of escape for the Former Qin army in Ye, so this passage states that he made a gap in his siege lines.)


秦梁州刺史潘猛棄漢中,奔長安。

67. Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Pan Meng, abandoned Hanzhong and fled to Chang'an.

梁州之地,自此復歸于晉。

(Lianzhou now came back under Jin's control.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Sep 23, 2018 6:40 am, edited 33 times in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Sun May 14, 2017 2:33 am

349: When the Shi hits the fan

2. 又敕雍州剌史張茂送之 = It was decreed that the Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhang Mao, was to escort them

使之步推鹿車, 致糧戍所 = and made them push deer carts on foot to transport grain to where they were to be stationed.

高力督定陽梁犢 = Liang Du of Dingyang, a captain of the “Strong Men”

謀作亂: what about just “plotted to rebel”

踴抃大呼 = leaped and shouted for joy

風俗通: Compendium of Customs and Traditions ?

高力皆 多力 = The Strong Men were... strong ?

[Wait, they’re good at shooting, but they had no weapons and had to steal axes from peasants... so what’s the point of mentioning their archery skills?]

[衆已十萬: I wonder if these were from the originally-stated 100k]

盡銳拒之 = defended against them with all his crack troops

趙主虎以李農爲大都督、行大將軍事,統衛軍將軍張賀度等: You skipped their ranks :(

3. 引入領軍省,賜以己所禦食。: 禦 = mistraditionalization of 御. Shi Hu had him brought to the military HQ and granted him food reserved for the royal table (literally: “the royal food reserved for Shi Hu)

當面見授方略 = so he should meet me in person to instruct me of his plans

(your lines for Yao aren’t wrong in meaning, just that I feel the tone or the angle isn’t quite right)

兒死,愁邪?= “What, your son died and you’re sad?”

何爲而病?= “Why else would you be sick?”

兒幼時不擇善人教之,使至于爲逆 = “You didn’t get good people to teach your son when he’s young, and that’s why he became disobedient.”

既爲逆而誅之,又何愁焉!= “You killed him because he was disobedient, so what are you so sad about?”

犢等窮困思歸,相聚爲盜,所過殘暴,何所能至!= “Liang Du and his guys banded together and rebelled because they were desperate and homesick. They’ve been killing and pillaging wherever they’ve gone. They can’t accomplish anything great.”

人無貴賤皆“汝”之 = addressing people directly as “you” regardless of whether they’re his superiors or subordinates

于坐授使持節、侍中、征西大將軍賜 以鎧馬。= He granted [blahblah ranks] to Yao right there on the spot, and granted him with a set of armour and a fine horse. (Note: Usually the promotion of someone to high military position would involve Ceremonies and Standing Outside on a Platform etc., which is why the “sitting right there” was worth mentioning.)

乃被鎧跨馬于庭中,因策馬南馳,不辭而出。= He donned the armour and mounted the steed right there in the courtyard, and, without taking leave (不辭), he rode quickly away southward.

滎陽 = Xingyang (you have Chengmao)

4. 始平人爲勖: Should be 始平人馬勖, “One Ma Xu from Shiping”

9. 劉氏與豺因矯詔稱斌無忠教之心... = Thereupon, Lady Liu and Zhang Chai issued a fake edict saying that Shi Bin blahblablah (Good, get to check off the “fake edict” box on my bingo sheet)

10. 敕朝堂受拜 = He was ordered to receive his new position in the main hall (as opposed to seeing Shi Hu)

虎曰:“恨不見之!”: Shi Hu was regretting that he couldn’t see Shi Zun, but your wording makes it sound a bit like Shi Hu had ordered the stuff before this. I think what happened was Shi Hu had no idea Empress Liu and co. organized the above, and now he’s like “oh shucks that’s too bad I didn’t get to see him.”

11.列拜于前 = lay prostrate before him (they’re there to beg for something, not to pay their respects)

皆曰 = Together they said

或言:“乞爲皇太子。” = And some of them added, “We beg you to make him the crown prince”

劉氏複矯詔 = Lady Liu issued yet another false edict (Ok I only needed to check that box once. We can stop with the fake edicts now.)

12. 吾無爲預之 = “There’s no need for me to be part of it.”

13. 以慰其心: Less to deflect criticism, but to pacify Shi Zun and Shi Jian

14. 乞活: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B9%9E ... B%E8%BB%8D (a militia composed mainly of refugees, active in the north during the Jins)

15. 彭城王遵至河內,聞喪 (the order of your sentence seems backwards): When Shi Zun arrived at Henei, he heard the news of Shi Hu’s passing.

姚弋仲、蒲洪、劉寧及征虜將軍石閔、武衛將軍王鸞等討梁犢還,遇遵于李城: When Yao Yizhong et al were coming home after defeating Liang Du, they ran into Shi Zun at Licheng.

共說遵曰: 說 is most often used as “to persuade, to lobby” in Classical Chinese

鼓行而討之 = March against him while sounding the drums along the way

16. 假劉氏令曰: No seriously 349 there are enough fake edicts already. We can stop now.

樂平王苞爲大司馬: “the Prince of Leping, Shi Bao, was named as Minister of Finance” Minister of Finance??

武興公閔: I’m disappointed that Hu Sanxing did not spoil Shi Min’s story for us.

17. 震雷,雨雹大如盂升。= Thunder roared; hailstones as large as basins and scoops (used as measurement of volume; 10 sheng to a dou) fell.

太武輝華殿灾,及諸門觀閣蕩然無餘: 灾 = fire. A fire broke out at the Taiwu and Huihua Palaces, and all the gates, terraces, and pavilions it reached were burnt to the ground.

乘輿服禦,燒者太半= Most of the carriages and items of clothing were burnt

金石皆盡 = Precious metals and stones alike were destroyed.

火月餘乃滅。= It took over a month to extinguish the flames.

18. 皆吾弟也 = Shi Shi and Shi Zun are both my younger brothers.

何爲複相殘乎!= Is there any point in us trying to destroy the other still?

篡弑自尊 = murdered [the rightful heir] and usurped the throne

19. 今以洪鎮關中,臣恐秦、雍之地非複國家之有。= With Pu Hong guarding the Guanzhong area, I fear that the lands of Qin and Yong will not be under the State’s control very much longer.

此雖先帝臨終之命,然陛下踐祚,自宜改圖。 = Even though he was appointed there by the late Emperor’s last will, it is well for Your Majesty to alter the appointment as you have come to the throne.”

20. 餘燼僅存,自相魚肉 = Whatever embers remain of his are attacking each other. (魚肉 = to abuse, attack, like cutting up fish or meat on a chopping board)

難得而易失者,時也。: I feel that “timing” or “right opportunity” is the more appropriate translation here.

或有英雄據其成資 = or some hero takes over their ready-made base

豈惟失此大利: maybe “missing out on this great advantage/opportunity”

亦恐更爲後患 = I fear it will spell trouble for us in the future.

當由盧龍 = we will have to go by the Lulong way

盧龍山徑險狹,虜乘高斷要,首尾爲患,將若之何?= But the path through the mountains of Lulong are narrow and dangerous. If the enemy holds the higher elevation and cuts off our path, and attack us from either end of the path, what would we do?

上不過閉門自守,下 不免弃城逃潰: I like your attempt, but I think this is really “If they’re smart, they’d just shut the gates to preserve their own lives, but if they’re dumb, they’d abandon the city and flee. Either way, they would have no spare time to fight against us."

五材將軍: it is what is says: “General of the Five Elements”. Likely derived from a line in the Zuo Commentary: “天生五材,民並用之,廢一不可,誰能去兵?” (Nature produces the five elements (metal, wood, water, fire, earth), and the people use them all equally. Not one of them can be dispensed with. [By the same token,] who can dispense with military might? )

是故以大吞 小,猶狼之食豚也;以治易亂,猶日之消雪也。= And thus, if you use a larger force to swallow up a smaller force, it is [as easy] as a wolf eating a pig. Likewise, if you use order to replace chaos, it will be [as easy] as the sun melting the snow.

大王自上世以來= Since the reign of the former Prince, Your Highness has been...

遺民 = people who have lost their state

whom among the people: should be “who among the people” (“who” is the subject of “will not welcome...”)

凶黨將望旗冰碎,安能爲害乎!= The evildoers, upon seeing your banners, will splinter and be crushed like brittle ice. How could they cause you any harm?

歲集畢北 = Jupiter remains north of the Net (constellation)

天下易主,陰國受命,此必然之驗也 = This is an unerring sign that the rule of the land will change hands and a northern state will receive the Mandate.

咸思易主以救湯火之急 = They all dream about having a new ruler to save them from imminent tragedy.

更複顧慮 = and instead worry about one thing after another

豈天意未欲使海內平定邪,將大王不欲取天下也?= would it mean that Heaven has not yet willed for the realm to be pacified, or that Your Highness has no desire to conquer the empire?

“三輔”= “The Three Upholders”?

講武戒嚴 = they are trained in military matters and made ready to deploy (I don’t think there was the concept of martial law back then... 戒嚴 may refer more to something like being in a high DEFCON level)

21. 遣諸將經營北方: 經營 = to plan, to operate. This is more than setting up outposts; this could also be coordinating with people in the area, running propaganda campaigns, recruiting defectors, setting up supply routes, etc., basically doing Stuff in the north to get ready for the campaign.

戒嚴: see last section

朝議以裒事任貴重,不宜深入,宜先遣偏師。: The court’s opinion was that as Chu Pou held a high position, it is unfit for him to penetrate enemy country himself; rather, a separate force should be sent instead.

前已遣前鋒督護王頤之等徑造彭城,後遣督護麋嶷進據下邳。: “I have already first sent Wang Yizhi and others to make straight for Pengcheng, and after that I sent Mi Yi to capture Xiapi. “

今宜速發 = “So now we should move quickly”

22. 光祿大夫蔡謨獨謂所親曰 = Cai Mo alone said to those close to him

何謂也 = why do you say that?

謨曰:’夫能順天乘時,濟群生于艱難者,非上 聖與英雄不能爲也,自餘則莫若度德量力。觀今日之事,殆非時賢所及,必將經營分表,疲民以逞;既而材略疏短,不能副心,財殫力竭,智勇俱困,安得不憂及朝 廷乎!”= Cai Mo replied, “Only if one is the most preeminent of sages and heroes can he rescue the populace from great calamity, by following Heaven’s will and taking advantage of the opportunities of the times. The rest of us should just do an honest reckoning of our own virtues and abilities. I do not see this current matter [of invading Zhao] as something accomplishable by anyone of our times. All that will happen is that the operation will be run piecemeal and incoherently, with glory pursued at the expense of exhausting the populace. At the end, due to a lack of talent and knowledge, nothing will be achieved as desired; when money and strength are used up, and wits and courage depleted, how can the court be spared from worry?”

23. 乞自貶 = asked to be demoted

解征討都督 = removed from him the position of Grand Commander of the Campaign

遺民二十餘萬口渡河欲來歸附= 200,000 people crossed the River in order to join Jin

會裒已還 = But Chu Pou had already withdrawn

25. 賴重餌之故,得戰士死力,僅保社稷。= It was only because large rewards were given that our warriors fought with all their might, and our state was barely saved.

章奏詣闕,報不終日 = When reports and petitions arrive at his desk, he would reply to them before the end of the day.

今章奏停滯,動經時月,下情不得上通,沉冤困于囹圄,殆非明主之事也。= But these days, reports and petitions are backlogged for months. Information from below do not make it to you, while the innocent languish in prison. This, I fear, is not how a wise lord should act.

27. 夷、夏宿將皆憚之 = All veteran commanders both from the tribes and the Chinese lands feared him.

總內外兵權 = He held power over both the army and the palace troops

乃撫循殿中將士,皆奏爲殿中員外將軍,爵關外侯。= He placated (? appeased? bought over?) the captains and soldiers of the palace by petitioning for them to made Supernumerary Palace Generals and granted a marquisate within the Passes.

遵弗之疑,而更題名善惡以挫抑之= Shi Zun didn’t think too much about that, but instead he started to suppress Shi Min by... (I’m not 100% sure, but I think Shi Zun was evaluating those promoted people at will, giving them good and bad labels, to show Shi Min who’s still boss.)

稍奪閔兵權 = to slightly curtail Shi Min’s military authority

閔益恨望 = Shi Min became increasingly disgruntled.

28. 入議于鄭太后前 = ... to a council before his mother, Empress Zheng Yingtao (he wouldn’t summon his mother)

閔不臣之迹漸著 = Signs of Shi Min’s disloyalty are becoming more and more evident

小驕縱之 = If he is a bit arrogant, you should just let him be

閔遂劫李農及右衛將軍王基密謀廢遵 = Shi Min held Li Nong and Wang Ji by force (kidnap...) to plan blahblah with them.

遵方與婦人彈棋: likely just one woman

義陽王鑒當立 = Shi Jian should ascend the throne.

我尚如是,鑒能幾時!= I’m still around. It’s not Jian’s time yet!

遂殺之于琨華殿 = Thus they slew him at Kunhua Palace

幷殺鄭太后、張後、太子衍、孟准、王鸞及上光祿張斐 = They also slew [...]

Copper Bird Terrace: Copper? Bronze?

29. 引樸斬之 = He had Cheng Pu dragged out and decapitated. (I like the description of the action...)

30. 還至京口 = returned to Jingkou

皆代陂死者之家也 = they’re all families of those who died at the Battle of Daibei

中興方伯未有如羨之少者 = Of those appointed to leading border defence after the Revitalization of Jin (???), none had been as young as he was.

31.幷殺苞: I don’t know if “executed” is the best word here... I’m sure he didn’t condemn him to die openly, or else Shi Bao would have said “hey but it was you who told me to do it”. Probably just “he had Shi Bao killed as well”?

33. 伏都帥三十餘人將升台挾鑒以攻之 = Sun Fudu led 30 men towards the terrace, planning to ascend, hold Shi Jian hostage, and force him to join the attack on Shi Min.

鑒見伏都毀閣道 = When Shi Jian saw Sun Fudu destroy the walkway

謹先啓知 = Thus I would like to inform you first.

卿是功臣,好爲官陳力。朕從臺上觀, 卿勿慮無報也 = You are an accomplished minister. Go ahead and fight hard for Us (官 is like 官家 in an earlier book). We will watch you from the terrace. Do not worry about the reward after.

馳招閔、農: Not sure he he rode himself... where would he get a horse from? It was probably just “he hurried to welcome Shi Min and Li Nong”

34. 懸食以給之 = They brought food to Shi Jian by hoisting it up with a rope.

支黨伏誅,良善一無預也 = They and their co-conspirators have all been brought to justice. No good and innocent person was involved in this.

與官同心者留,不同者各任所 之 = Those whose hearts are with the court (see earlier on官) may stay, and others may go where they please.

悉爲野犬豺狼所食: what about just “wild beasts”? I mean, literally it’s “wild dogs, dholes, and wolves”.

其屯戍四方者,閔皆以書命趙人爲將帥者誅之: As for tribemen garrisoned on the borders, Shi Min wrote to all the commanders who were of Zhao ethnicity, ordering them to kill their tribesman subordinates.
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BOOK 106

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun May 14, 2017 6:06 pm

太元十年(乙酉,公元三八五年)

The Tenth Year of Taiyuan (The Yiyou Year, 385 AD)


春,正月,秦王堅朝饗群臣,時長安饑,人相食,諸將歸,吐肉以飼妻子。

1. In spring, the first month, Fu Jian held a feast for his ministers. At that time, there was widespread hunger in Chang'an, and people were eating each other. Many of the generals who attended the feast came home and spat up the meat they had eaten to feed their wives and children.

窮匱如此,外無救援,烏得不敗乎!

(Considering the city was in such dire hunger and want, and had no hope of outside assistance, is it any wonder that they were defeated?)


長安大飢,人民相食。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

There was great hunger in Chang'an, and people ate each other.


慕容沖卽皇帝位于阿房,改元更始。沖有自得之志,賞罰任情。慕容盛年十三,謂慕容柔曰:「夫十人之長,亦須才過九人,然後得安。今中山王才不逮人,功未有成,而驕汰已甚,殆難濟乎!」

2. At Epang Palace, Murong Chong proclaimed himself Emperor of Yan, and he changed the reign era title to Gengshi. He acted however he pleased, and he rewarded or punished people by his own whims.

Murong Sheng and Murong Rou had fled to Murong Chong's army. At this time, Murong Sheng was only twelve years old. He said to Murong Rou, "Even someone who seeks to be the leader of ten people must have enough talent to surpass the other nine, and only then can they know peace. The Prince of Zhongshan (Murong Chong) has no special talent, and he has no actual accomplishments to speak of. Yet look how arrogant and extravagant he has become. It will not end well for him!"

是爲西燕。沖在前燕時封中山王。汰,侈也,溢也。史言慕容盛幼而有識略,所以能自奮而有國。盛、柔歸沖,見上卷上年。

(This was the beginning of the state later known as Western Yan (as opposed to Murong Chui's forces, known to history as Later Yan).

Murong Chong has been Prince of Zhongshan during Former Yan.

The term 汰 means "wasteful" or "extravagant".

This passage demonstrates that, although Murong Sheng was still young, he had excellent foresight, and thus he was able to exert himself and so gain a state (since he was later Emperor of Later Yan).

Murong Sheng's and Murong Rou's flight from the slaughter of the Xianbei in Chang'an to reach Murong Chong's army at Epang is mentioned in Book 105, in the previous year (366.64).)


二十一年,慕容沖僭稱尊號于阿房,改年更始。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the twenty-first year of Jianyuan (385), Murong Chong declared himself Emperor at Epang Palace, and he changed the reign era title to Gengshi.


後秦王萇留諸將攻新平,自引兵擊安定,擒秦安西將軍勃海公珍,嶺北諸城悉降之。

3. The King of Later Qin, Yao Chang, left several of his generals to continue the assault on Xinping, while he himself led soldiers to attack Anding. He captured Qin's General Who Maintains The West and Duke of Bohai, Fu Zhen. All of the other Qin cities north of the mountain ranges surrendered to him.

萇略地至安定,嶺北諸城盡降之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang conquered as far as Anding. All the cities north of the mountain ranges surrendered to him.


甲寅,秦王堅與西燕主沖戰于仇班渠,大破之。乙卯,戰于雀桑,又破之。甲子,戰于白渠,秦兵大敗。西燕兵圍秦王堅,殿中將軍鄧邁力戰卻之,堅乃得免。壬申,沖遣尚書令高蓋夜襲長安,入其南城,左將軍竇衝、前禁將軍李辯等擊破之,斬首八百級,分其屍而食之。乙亥,高蓋引兵攻渭北諸壘,太子宏與戰於成貳壁,大破之,斬首三萬。

4. On the day Jiayin (?), Fu Jian fought Murong Chong at Chouban Canal and greatly routed him. On the day Yimao (?), they fought again at Quesang, and Murong Chong was routed once more.

On the day Jiazi (?), there was another battle at Bai Canal, but this time the Qin soldiers were greatly defeated. The Western Yan soldiers surrounded Fu Jian, but Fu Jian's General of the Palace Halls, Deng Mai, fought fiercely to protect him, and so Fu Jian was able to escape.

On the day Renshen (?), Murong Chong sent his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Gao Gai, to surprise attack Chang'an by night, and Gao Gai's troops entered the south walls. But Qin's General of the Left, Dou Chong, their General of the Front 禁, Li Bian, and others fought back and routed them. They took the heads of eight hundred soldiers, then cut up their bodies and ate them.

On the day Yihai (?), Gao Gai led soldiers to attack the Qin forts north of the Wei River. Qin's Crown Prince, Fu Hong, fought Gao Gai at Fort Cheng'er and greatly routed him, taking thirty thousand heads.

慕容垂復興於山東,而沖稱號於關中,故書西燕以別之。白渠,卽漢時白公所鑿者也。成貳,蓋人姓名;關中大亂,立壁自保,因爲地名。

(Murong Chui had restored Yan east of the mountains (in Guandong, as Later Yan), while Murong Chong had styled himself Emperor of Yan west of the mountains (Guanzhong), and so the Zizhi Tongjian distinguishes Murong Chong's forces by calling them Western Yan.

Bai Canal was so named because it was carved out by the Duke of Bai during the Han dynasty.

Cheng Er must have been the name of a person. During the general chaos in Guandong, he must have built a fort to protect himself, and so it was named after him.)


燕帶方王佐與寧朔將軍平規共攻薊,王永兵屢敗。二月,永使宋敞燒和龍及薊城宮室,帥衆三萬奔壺關;佐等入薊。

5. In Guandong, Murong Chui’s Prince of Daifang, Murong Zuo, and his General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Ping Gui, attacked Qin's city of Ji. Several times they defeated the soldiers of Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong.

In the second month, Wang Yong sent Song Chang to torch the palaces in Ji and Helong (Longcheng), and then Wang Yong led thirty thousand troops to flee to Huguan. Murong Zuo and the other Yan generals then occupied Ji.

慕容農引兵會慕容麟於中山,與共攻翟眞。麟、農先帥數千騎至承營,觀察形勢。翟眞望見,陳兵而出。諸將欲退,農曰:「丁零非不勁勇,而翟眞懦弱,今簡精銳,望眞所在而衝之,眞走,衆必散矣,乃邀門而蹙之,可盡殺也。」使驍騎將軍慕容國帥百餘騎衝之,眞走,其衆爭門,自相蹈藉,死者太半,遂拔承營外郭。

6. Murong Nong led his soldiers to join with Murong Lin at Zhongshan, and together they attacked the Dingling warlord Zhai Zhen.

Murong Lin and Murong Nong first led several thousand cavalry ahead to Chengying, in order to scout out the situation. Zhai Zhen soon spotted them, and he put his soldiers into formation and marched out. The other Yan commanders wished to flee, but Murong Nong said, "The Dingling are certainly strong and valiant soldiers, but Zhai Zhen himself is a coward. See how he has brought out his best troops. If we charge straight for Zhai Zhen, he will flee, and then his host will surely fall to pieces. They will swarm together at the gates all seeking to get away, and then they will be ripe for slaughter."

So he sent the General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Guo, to lead more than a hundred cavalry to charge towards Zhai Zhen. Zhai Zhen fled, and his soldiers all struggled with one another at the gates. More than half of them were trampled to death in the stampede. So all the suburbs at Chengying were captured.

癸未,秦王堅與西燕主沖戰于城西,大破之,追奔至阿城。諸將請乘勝入城,堅恐爲沖所掩,引兵還。

7. On the day Guiwei (?), Fu Jian fought Murong Chong again, west of the city. Murong Chong was greatly routed, and the victorious Qin troops pursued him as far as Echeng. The Qin generals asked that they continue the pursuit into the city there, but Fu Jian feared that Murong Chong had some trick hiding in wait, so he led his soldiers back again.

長安城西也。阿城,卽阿房宮城,沖之巢穴也。萬乘之主,固不可乘危徼幸;然秦喪敗若此,乘諸將之勝氣以圖萬一之功,可也;引兵而還,何歟!

(By "west of the city", it means west of Chang'an.

Echeng was the city around Epang Palace, which was Murong Chong's lair.

The ruler of countless responsibilities cannot help but take risks and try their luck. It was because of such things as this incident that people soon mourned Former Qin's defeat. When the Former Qin generals had their blood up and keenly felt that they could win, if there was even the slightest chance of victory, Fu Jian should have taken it. Yet he merely led his soldiers back again?)


乙酉,秦益州刺史王廣以蜀人江陽太守李丕爲益州刺史,守成都。己丑,廣帥所部奔還隴西,蜀人隨之者三萬餘人。

8. On the day Yiyou (?), Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Guang, appointed the Administrator of Jiangyang, Li Pi of Shu commandary, as the new Inspector of Yizhou, and had him guard Chengdu. On the day Jichou (?), Wang Guang led all of his soldiers to flee back to Longxi, to seek refuge with Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou, his elder brother Wang Tong. More than thirty thousand people from the Shu region followed behind him.

沈約曰:江陽郡,劉璋分犍爲立。【章:十二行本「西」下有「依其兄秦州刺史統」八字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

(Shen Yue remarked, "Liu Zhang split off part of Jianwen commandary to form Jiangyang commandary."

Some versions include the sentence "He sought refuge with Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou, his elder brother Wang Tong."
[/spoiler]

劉牢之至枋頭。楊膺、姜讓謀泄,長樂公丕收殺之。牢之聞之,盤桓不進。

9. The Jin general Liu Laozhi arrived at Fangtou. At that time, the plotting that Fu Pi's subordinates Yang Ying and Jiang Rang had done to change the details of Fu Pi's surrender proposal to Jin leaked out, and Fu Pi arrested and executed them. When Liu Laozhi heard of it, he halted his march and advanced no further.

膺、讓謀見上卷上年。

(Yang Ying's and Jiang Rang's plotting is mentioned in Book 105, in the previous year (370.58, 66).)


秦平原悼公暉數爲西燕主沖所敗,秦王堅讓之曰:「汝,吾之才子也,擁大衆與白虜小兒戰,而屢敗,何用生爲!」三月,暉憤恚自殺。

10. By now, Fu Hui had suffered several defeats against Murong Chong's forces. Fu Jian criticized him, saying, "Aren't you my talented son? Yet even though you had such a great army to use against those 'white slave' whelps in battle, you keep suffering defeats. What good is your life anymore?" In the third month, wracked with indignation and anger, Fu Hui took his own life. He was posthumously known as Duke Dao ("the Grieved") of Pingyuan.

堅責怒暉,欲其死戰耳,豈意其自殺哉!

(Fu Jian had put the blame on Fu Hui so harshly simply because he wanted Fu Hui to give his life in battle. Surely he did not intend for Fu Hui to kill himself!)


前禁將軍李辯、都水使者隴西彭和正恐長安不守,召集西州人屯于韮園;堅召之,不至。

11. Li Bian and the Manager of the Capital Waterways, Peng Hezheng of Longxi, both feared that Chang'an could not be defended, and they summoned all the people of the western provinces together to camp with them at Jiuyuan. Fu Jian ordered them to come to him, but they would not do so.

《晉書‧職官志》:都水長,屬大司農。沈約《志》:都水使者,掌舟航及運部。李辯,李儼之子,亦隴西人也。爲後堅襲韮園張本。

(According to the Government Offices chapter of the Book of Jin, the Manager of the Capital Waterways is subordinate to the Minister of Finance. Shen Yue's Annotations states, "The Manager of the Capital Waterways is in charge of naval shipping and logistics."

This was the same Li Bian who was the son of the rebel Li Yan, from the Fuhan incident (367.3, 5-8). He was also a native of Longxi.

This was why Fu Jian later raided Jiuyuan.)


西燕主沖攻秦高陽愍公方於驪山,殺之,執秦尚書韋鍾,以其子謙爲馮翊太守,使招集三輔之民。馮翊壘主邵安民等責謙曰:「君雍州望族,今乃從賊,與之爲不忠不義,何面目以行於世乎!」謙以告鍾,鍾自殺,謙來奔。

12. Murong Chong attacked Fu Fang at Lishan and killed him. Fu Fang was posthumously known as Duke Min ("the Pitied") of Gaoyang.

Murong Chong captured Qin's Master of Writing, Wei Zhong, and he appointed Wei Zhong's son Wei Qian as Administrator of Pingyi and sent him out to gather together all the people of the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang'an). A rampart master from Pingyi, Shao Anmin, and others criticized Wei Qian. They said to him, "Sir, you come from a good family of Yongzhou, yet now you take orders from these rebels. To join them is neither loyal nor just, and how can you look anyone in the eye in the world to come?" Wei Qian told Wei Zhong about it. Wei Zhong killed himself, and Wei Qian ran away.

苻方戍驪山,見上卷上年七月。七相五公,雍州之望族,鍾蓋韋賢後也。

(Fu Fang was camped at Lishan, as mention in Book 105, in the seventh month of the previous year (384.37).

The Wei clan of Yongzhou boasted seven Chancellors and five Dukes among their ancestors, and Wei Zhong must have been a descendant of the Former Han minister Wei Xian.)


秦左將軍苟池、右將軍俱石子與西燕主沖戰於驪山,兵敗。西燕將軍慕容永斬苟池,俱石子奔鄴。永,廆弟運之孫;石子,難之弟也。秦王堅遣領軍將軍楊定擊沖,大破之,虜鮮卑萬餘人而還,悉阬之。定,佛奴之孫也。

13. Qin's General of the Left, Gou Chi, and their General of the Right, Ju Shizi, fought with Murong Chong at Lishan, but they were defeated. The Western Yan general Murong Yong beheaded Gou Chi, and Ju Shizi fled to Ye. This Murong Yong was the grandson of Murong Hui's younger brother Murong Yun; this Ju Shizi was the younger brother of Ju Nan.

Fu Jian sent his General Who Directs The Army, Yang Ding, to attack Murong Chong, and Yang Ding greatly routed him. Yang Ding took more than ten thousand Xianbei captives and brought them back, and they were all buried alive. This Yang Ding was Yang Fonu's grandson, and Fu Jian's son-in-law.

俱難見一百四卷太元三年。【章:十二行本「孫」下有「堅之壻」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】《北史》曰:定,佛奴之子;佛奴,宋奴之子也。

(Ju Nan was one of the leading Former Qin generals in the underwhelming Huainan campaign against Jin, in Book 104, in the third year of Taiyuan (378).

Some versions say that Yang Ding was "Fu Jian's son-in-law".

The History of the Northern Dynasties states, "Yang Ding was Yang Fonu's son, and Yang Fonu was Yang Songnu's son.")


滎陽人鄭燮以郡來降。

14. A native of Xingyang, Ren Zheng, surrendered that commandary to Jin.

燕王垂攻鄴,久不下,將北詣冀州,乃命撫軍大將軍麟屯信都,樂浪王溫屯中山,召驃騎大將軍農還鄴;於是遠近聞之,以燕爲不振,頗懷去就。

15. Murong Chui had been attacking Ye, but even after some time, it still had not fallen. Since his main generals had all gone north into Jizhou, he now ordered his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong Lin, to camp at Xindu, and he ordered the Prince of Lelang, Murong Wen, to camp at Zhongshan, while he ordered the Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Nong, to come back to Ye. When people near and far heard this, they believed that Yan was losing the momentum, and they considered resigning their offices.

農至高邑,遣從事中郎眭邃近出,違期不還。長史張攀言於農曰:「邃目下參佐,敢欺罔不還,請回軍討之。」農不應,敕備假版,以邃爲高陽太守,參佐家在趙北者,悉假署遣歸。凡舉補太守三人,長史二十餘人,退謂攀曰:「君所見殊誤,當今豈可自相魚肉!俟吾北還,邃等自當迎於道左,君但觀之。」

16. When Murong Nong reached Gaoyi, he sent his Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Sui Sui, to go out. But Sui Sui did not return by the appointed time. Murong Nong's Chief Clerk, Zhang Pan, said to him, "Sui Sui acts under your personal supervision, and yet he dares to cheat you and not return. I ask that you turn the army back to punish him." But Murong Nong did not follow his suggestion.

Instead, he prepared a provisional order appointing Sui Sui as Administrator of Gaoyang, and he ordered that all of his own subordinates with family in the north of the Zhao region would be granted provisional local appointments and sent back to their home region. In this way, he filled the posts for three Administrators and more than twenty Chief Clerks.

Murong Nong returned and said to Zhang Pan, "Sir, you will soon see how grossly mistaken you were, to propose that we make mincemeat out of each other! Wait until I go back north, and Sui Sui and the others will surely be waiting to welcome me by the side of the road. Then you will see."

高邑本鄗縣,漢光武卽位于此,改曰高邑,屬常山;《晉志》屬趙國。目下參佐,言其近在眼前也。趙北,趙國以北也。假署者,權時以假版署置其官,未以白燕王垂也。爲後邃等迎農張本。

(Gaoyi was originally called Hao county. When Emperor Wu of Han came to the throne, he renamed it to Gaoyi, as a part of Changshan commandary. The Records of Jin states that it was part of the Zhao princely fief.

By personal supervision, Zhao Pan meant within Murong Nong's own sight.

The north of Zhao meant the north of the Zhao princely fief.

Provisional appointments meant that these people were being temporarily appointed to their offices, without their appointments being presented to Murong Chui.

This was why Sui Sui and the others later welcomed Murong Nong. (385.24))


樂浪王溫在中山,兵力甚弱,丁零四布,分據諸城;溫謂諸將曰:「以吾之衆,攻則不足,守則有餘。驃騎、撫軍,首尾連兵,會須滅賊,但應聚糧厲兵以俟時耳。」於是撫舊招新,勸課農桑,民歸附者相繼,郡縣壁壘爭送軍糧,倉庫充溢。翟眞夜襲中山,溫擊破之,自是不敢復至。溫乃遣兵一萬運糧以餉垂,且營中山宮室。

17. When Murong Wen went to Zhongshan, he only had a handful of soldiers, while the Dingling were all around him, each band of them holding different cities. Murong Wen said to his commanders, "Considering the size of our army, we don't have enough soldiers to launch attacks, and yet we have too many soldiers just to be defending the city. If Murong Nong or Murong Lin were here with us, we would be able to coordinate with them to eliminate the rebels. But until then, I shall just have to gather more grain and instill more discipline in the soldiers first."

So he nurtured those soldiers who had served Yan for a long time and recruited new soldiers as well, and he encouraged and instructed the people in farming and silkworm cultivation. People came to join him one after another, and the forts and ramparts in the various counties and commandaries all sent him military provisions, until the warehouses were filled to the brim. Zhai Zhen launched a surprise attack on Zhongshan during the night, but Murong Wen attacked and routed him, and from then on Zhai Zhen did not dare to return. Murong Wen sent ten thousand soldiers to transport grain to sustain Murong Chui's army, and he also built palaces at Zhongshan.

欲迎垂都中山也。

(Murong Wen wished for Murong Chui to welcome the idea of Zhongshan as the capital.)


劉牢之攻燕黎陽太守劉撫于孫就栅,燕王垂留慕容農守鄴圍,自引兵救之。秦長樂公丕聞之,出兵乘虛夜襲燕營,農擊敗之。劉牢之與垂戰,不勝,退屯黎陽,垂復還鄴。

18. Liu Laozhi attacked Yan's Administrator of Liyang, Liu Fu, at Sunjiu Palisade. Murong Chui left Murong Nong to hold the siege lines at Ye, while he led soldiers to reinforce Liu Fu. When Fu Pi heard that Murong Chui had left, he tried to take advantage of his absence by sending his soldiers to launch a sudden night attack against the Yan camps, but Murong Nong fought back and defeated the Qin soldiers. Liu Laozhi fought with Murong Chui, but was unsuccessful, and he retreated to camp at Liyang. Murong Chui then returned to Ye.

孫就,人姓名,蓋立栅于黎陽界,劉撫因屯焉。

(Sun Jiu was the name of a person. He must have raised this Palisade within Liyang, and this was why Liu Fu was camped there.)


呂光以龜茲饒樂,欲留居之。天竺沙門鳩摩羅什謂光曰:「此凶亡之地,不足留也;將軍但東歸,中道自有福地可居。」光乃大饗將士,議進止,衆皆欲還。乃以駝二萬餘頭載外國珍寶奇玩,驅駿馬萬餘匹而還。

19. In the Western Reaches, Lü Guang found the kingdom of Kucha to be bountiful and delightful, and he considered staying there and making it his home. But the Indian sramana monk Kumārajīva (Jinmoluo Shen) warned him, "This is a wild place of ruin, not fitting for you to stay. But General, if you return east again, along the road back you will found a place of good fortune, suitable for you to live there." So Lü Guang held a great feast for his generals and officers, and discussed with them whether they should go back or remain. All of them wished to return. That being decided, he gathered more than ten thousand fine steeds and loaded down more than twenty thousand camels with many foreign treasures and wondrous things, and with all these things he started back for Qin.

據《載記》,鳩摩羅,姓也;什,其名。鳩摩羅什知數,知呂光必得涼州之地而據之。

(According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this monk's surname was Jinmoluo, and Shen was his given name.

Kumārajīva knew many things, and he also knew that Lü Guang would certainly be able to take Liangzhou for himself and occupy it.)


二十一年正月,大饗文武,博議進止,衆咸請還。光從之。三月,引還,以駝二萬餘頭致外國珍異千餘品,駿馬萬餘匹而還。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the twenty-first year of Jianyuan (385), the first month, Lü Guang held a great feast for his civil and military officials, where he held a discussion on whether to return home or remain in Kucha. Everyone asked to return, so Lü Guang followed their suggestions. In the third month, he started back for Qin. He gathered more than twenty thousand camels to transport all the strange and wondrous treasures and trinkets, as well as more than ten thousand fine horses.

光既平龜茲,有留焉之志。時始獲鳩摩羅什,羅什勸之東還,語在《西夷傳》。光於是大饗文武,博議進止。眾咸請還,光從之,以駝二萬餘頭致外國珍寶及奇伎異戲、殊禽怪獸千有餘品,駿馬萬餘匹。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

After Lü Guang conquered Kucha, he had the desire to remain there. At that time, he had just captured Kumārajīva, and Kumārajīva urged him to return to the east, as mentioned in the Accounts of the Western Tribes. Lü Guang held a great feast for his civil and military officials, where he held a discussion on whether to return to Qin or remain in Kucha. Everyone asked to return, so Lü Guang followed their suggestions. He gathered more than twenty thousand camels to transport all the strange performers and wondrous treasures and trinkets, as well as more than a thousand unusual birds and beasts and more than ten thousand fine horses.

光以駝二千餘頭,致外國珍寶及奇伎、異戲、殊禽、怪獸千有餘品,駿馬萬餘匹而還。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang returned from the Western Reaches; he gathered more than twenty thousand camels to transport all the strange performers and wondrous foreign treasures and trinkets, as well as more than a thousand unusual birds and beasts and more than ten thousand fine horses.


夏,四月,劉牢之進兵至鄴,燕王垂逆戰而敗,遂撤圍,退屯新城,乙卯,自新城北遁。牢之不告秦長樂公丕,卽引兵追之。丕聞之,發兵繼進。庚申,牢之追及垂於董唐淵。垂曰:「秦、晉瓦合,相待爲強,一勝則俱豪,一失則俱潰,非同心也。今兩軍相繼,勢旣未合,宜急擊之。」牢之軍疾趨二百里,至五橋澤,爭燕輜重,垂邀擊,大破之,斬首數千級;牢之單馬走,會秦救至,得免。

20. In summer, the fourth month, Liu Laozhi's soldiers advanced to Ye. Murong Chui came to attack him, but he was defeated, so he lifted his siege of Ye and retreated to Xincheng. On the day Yimao (May 3rd), he left Xincheng and fled further north.

Liu Laozhi led his soldiers in pursuit of Murong Chui without troubling to inform Fu Pi about it. When Fu Pi heard what happened, he sent his soldiers out to advance as well. By the day Gengshen (May 8th), Liu Laozhi had caught up with Murong Chui at Dongtang Swamp. Murong Chui said to his men, "Qin and Jin are joined like tiles, and they rely upon each other for their strength. If one of them wins, then both will take heart. If one of them loses, then both of them will scatter. They have no common regard. Now their two armies are both advancing, but their strength has yet to combine. We should strike at once."

Liu Laozhi's soldiers were weary from the long pursuit march of more than two hundred li. When they reached Wuqiao Marsh, they attacked the Yan supply train. Murong Chui intercepted them and attacked, and he greatly routed them, taking several thousand heads. Liu Laozhi fled alone on horseback, until he reached the Qin soldiers coming as reinforcements, so he escaped the danger.

瓦合,言其勢不膠固,觸而動之,一瓦墜碎,則衆瓦俱解矣。五橋澤,在臨漳縣北。《兵法》,百里而趨利者蹶上將;況二百里乎!

(By "joined like tiles", Murong Chui meant that they were not closely stuck together, but could both be impacted if struck. If one tile falls and shatters, then all the tiles will come loose.

Wuqiao Marsh was in the north of Linzhang county.

The Art of War states, "If you march your soldiers a hundred li in order to wrest an advantage, the leaders of all your three divisions will fall into the hands of the enemy. (7.7)" This is even more applicable when you march them two hundred li!)


燕冠軍將軍宜都王鳳每戰奮不顧身,前後大小二百五十七戰,未嘗無功。垂戒之曰:「今大業甫濟,汝當先自愛!」使爲車騎將軍德之副以抑其銳。

21. Yan's Champion General and Prince of Yidu, Murong Feng, always charged into battle without regard for his life. Altogether, in two hundred and fifty-seven battles, whether large or small, he always had some personal distinction. Murong Chui admonished him, saying, "We have only just set out on the grand endeavor. You should have more regard for your life!" And he sent the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Murong De, to assist Murong Feng and curb his passion.

以德持重也。

(Murong Chui chose Murong De for his caution.)


鄴中饑甚,長樂公丕帥衆就晉穀於枋頭。劉牢之入鄴城,收集亡散,兵復少振;坐軍敗,徵還。

22. There was great hunger in Ye. Fu Pi led troops to Fangtou to ask for grain from Jin. Liu Laozhi entered Ye and gathered up his scattered troops, but the Jin soldiers were in low spirits. Liu Laozhi was blamed for his earlier defeat and recalled.

堅敗歸長安,丕為慕容垂所逼,自鄴奔于枋頭。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Pi)

After Fu Jian was defeated in his campaign against Jin and returned to Chang'an, Fu Pi was under threat from Murong Chui. So he fled from Ye to Fangtou.


燕、秦相持經年,幽、冀大饑,人相食,邑落蕭條。燕之軍士多餓死;燕王垂禁民養蠶,以桑椹爲軍糧。

23. By now, Yan and Qin had been locked in a stalemate for a year. There was great hunger in Youzhou and Jizhou. People ate one another, and the towns and settlements fell into desolation. Many of the Yan soldiers starved to death. Murong Chui forbade the people from raising silkworms, and he harvested the fruits from the mulberry trees to use as food for the army.

去年正月,垂攻鄴。

(Murong Chui's siege of Ye had begun in the first month of the previous year.)


Mulberry trees are used to raise silkworms.

垂將北趣中山,以驃騎大將軍農爲前驅,前所假授吏眭邃等皆來迎候,上下如初,李攀乃服農之智略。

24. Murong Chui was about to move north to Zhongshan. He sent Murong Nong on ahead of him as the advance guard. As Murong Nong advanced, Sui Sui and the other people whom Murong Nong had earlier provisionally appointed to the local offices all came to welcome his arrival, and everything was like new. Li Pan then realized Murong Nong's perceptiveness.

【嚴:「李」改「張」。】前作「張攀」,此作「李攀」,未知孰是。

(Some versions write Li Pan's surname as Zhang.

We have seen above (385.16) that the name of Murong Nong's subordinate who accused Sui Sui was Zhang Pan. Yet in this passage, his name is listed as Li Pan. I (Hu Sanxing) do not know which name is correct.)


會稽王道子好專權,復爲姦諂者所構扇,與太保安有隙。安欲避之,會秦王堅來求救,安乃請自將救之。壬戌,出鎭廣陵之步丘,築壘曰新城而居之。

25. Jin's Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, liked to monopolize power for himself. He favored those who perverted themselves flattering him, while he held a grudge against the Grand Guardian, Xie An, so Xie An wished to keep away from him. Then Fu Jian sent word to Jin asking for aid, and Xie An wished to answer the call himself. On the day Renxu (May 10th), Xie An was sent to guard Buqiu in Guangling. He built a fort there called Xincheng and resided there.

今揚州邵伯鎭,卽其地也,在揚州城北六十里。《晉史》云:安於步丘築埭,後人謂之召伯埭。

(This place is the Shaobo Defense Post in modern Yangzhou. It was sixty li north of Yangzhou City. The History of Jin states, "Xie An built a dam at Buqiu, and later people called it the Zhaobo Dam.")


蜀郡太守任權攻拔成都,斬秦益州刺史李丕,復取益州。

26. Jin's Administrator of Shu commandary, Ren Quan, attacked and captured Chengdu, and beheaded Li Pi. Jin thus regained Yizhou.

秦取益州見一百三卷寧康元年。

(Former Qin had captured Yizhou from Jin in Book 103, in the first year of Ningkang (373.13).)


新平糧竭矢盡,外救不至。後秦王萇使人謂苟輔曰:「吾方以義取天下,豈讎忠臣邪!卿但帥城中之人還長安,吾正欲得此城耳。」輔以爲然,帥民五千口出城,萇圍而阬之,男女無遺。獨馮傑子終得脫,奔長安。秦王堅追贈輔等官爵,皆諡曰節愍侯,以終爲新平太守。

27. By now, Xinping had exhausted their grain supply and were out of arrows, and no help had come from outside. Yao Chang sent a messenger to say to the commander there, Gou Fu, "I intend to obtain the realm through righteousness. How could I hate such a loyal minister? You may lead the people in the city back to Chang'an. I only wish to obtain the city itself." Gou Fu believed him, so he led the remaining five thousand people in Xinping out of the city. But Yao Chang surrounded them and buried them all alive, and neither man nor woman was spared. Only Feng Jie's son Feng Zhong survived, and he fled to Chang'an. Fu Jian awarded posthumous offices to Gou Fu and the others, and they were all posthumously named Marquis Jiemin ("the Dutiful and Pitied"). Feng Zhong was appointed as Administrator of Xinping.

後秦自去年攻新平。馮傑勸輔拒後秦事見上卷上年。

(Later Qin had kept Xinping under siege since the previous year. Feng Jie was one of the people who had urged Gou Fu not to immediately surrender Xinping, in Book 105, in the previous year (384.61).)


萇克新平。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang took Xinping.


翟眞自承營徙屯行唐,眞司馬鮮于乞殺眞及諸翟,自立爲趙王。營人共殺乞,立眞從弟成爲主;其衆多降於燕。

28. Zhai Zhen moved his camp from Chengying to Xingtang. Then Zhai Zhen's Marshal, Xianyu Qi, killed him and the other Zhai leaders, and he declared himself King of Zhao. But the camp soldiers all killed Xianyu Qi, and they acclaimed Zhai Zen's cousin Zhai Cheng as their new leader. Many of the Dingling soldiers surrendered to Yan.

卽漢之南行唐縣也,屬常山郡。燕王垂趣中山,眞爲所逼,故徙屯。

(Ever since the Han dynasty, Southern Xingtang county had been part of Changshan commandary.

When Murong Chui moved to Zhongshan, Zhai Zhen was forced to fall back, and that is why he moved to camp at Xingtang.)


五月,西燕主沖攻長安,秦王堅身自督戰,飛矢滿體,流血淋漓。沖縱兵暴掠,關中士民流散,道路斷絕,千里無煙。有堡壁三十餘,推平遠將軍趙敖爲主,相與結盟,冒難遣兵糧助堅,多爲西燕所殺。堅謂之曰:「聞來者率不善達,此誠忠臣之義,然今寇難殷繁,非一人之力所能濟也,徒相隨入虎口,何益!汝曹宜爲國自愛,畜糧厲兵,以俟天時,庶幾善不終否,有時而泰也!」

29. In the fifth month, Murong Chong attacked Chang'an again. Fu Jian personally commanded his soldiers. His body was struck by many stray arrows, and his blood flowed freely.

Murong Chong's soldiers acted wildly and without restraint. The people of Guandong fled and scattered in all directions, and all the roads were choked with traffic. There was no smoke within a thousand li.

More than thirty fortified places joined together, acclaiming the General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Zhao Ao, as their leader. They rashly sent out soldiers and grain to help Fu Jian despite the dangers, but most of them were killed by Western Yan. Fu Jian said to them, "I've heard most of those who came here met an unfortunate end. That is indeed the measure of a truly loyal minister. Yet we currently face so many enemies and such great difficulties that the situation is beyond any one person's power to save. You were only driving yourselves into the tiger's maw, and to what end? You all should have protected yourselves on behalf of the state, stockpiled your grain and strengthened your soldiers, and waited for a time appointed by Heaven, so that you might have known peace instead of meeting with this fate!"

安遠、平遠,二將軍號,蓋皆當時所置。

(General Who Maintains Distant Places and General Who Pacifies Distant Places were rank names. They must have been created on the spur of the moment.)


沖率衆登城,堅身貫甲胄,督戰拒之,飛矢滿身,流血被體。時雖兵寇危逼,馮翊諸堡壁,猶有負糧冒難而至者,多為賊所殺。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Murong Chong led his soldiers to assault the walls of Chang'an. Fu Jian himself put on armor and helmet to lead his forces into battle to oppose them; he was stuck by several arrows, and his blood flowed freely across his body. At that time, even despite the threat and danger posed by the invading soldiers, there were several forts and ramparts in Pingyi commandary, who still supported Fu Jian. They tried to brave the dangers to bring supplies to Chang'an, but most of them were killed by the enemy.


三輔之民爲沖所略者,遣人密告堅,請遣兵攻沖,欲縱火爲內應。堅曰:「甚哀諸卿忠誠!然吾猛士如虎豹,利兵如霜雪,困於烏合之虜,豈非天乎!恐徒使諸卿坐致夷滅,吾不忍也!」其人固請不已,乃遣七百騎赴之。沖營縱火者,反爲風火所燒,其得免者什一、二,堅祭而哭之。

30. The people of the Three Adjuncts region who lived under Murong Chong's occupation sent people to secretly tell Fu Jian about his doings. They asked Fu Jian to send out troops to attack Murong Chong, saying they would start fires from within Murong Chong’s camp to support the attack. Fu Jian said, "Alas, how earnestly loyal all of you are! Yet even when I had soldiers as fierce as tigers and leopards and weapons piled up like snow and frost, I was still brought to this sorry state by a mere mob of slaves. Is this not the will of Heaven? I fear that if I had all of you do this, you would only be wiped out by the barbarians, and I could not bear that!"

But the messengers pleaded with Fu Jian not to give up on their plot, so he sent seven hundred riders to meet them. However, when the plotters started fires in Murong Chong's camp, they themselves were caught in the flames by the wind and burned, and only one or two of every ten of them escaped. Fu Jian made sacrifices on their behalf, and he wept for them.

史言關中之人,乃心爲堅,而力不能濟,蓋天棄秦也。

(This passage demonstrates that the hearts of the people of Guanzhong still belonged to Fu Jian. But even so, their strength was not enough to overcome the dangers. Heaven must have willed Former Qin's destruction.)


衞將軍楊定與沖戰于城西,爲沖所擒。定,秦之驍將也。堅大懼,以讖書云:「帝出五將久長得。」乃留太子宏守長安,謂之曰:「天其或者欲導予出外。汝善守城,勿與賊爭利,吾當出隴收兵運糧以給汝。」遂帥騎數百與張夫人及中山公詵、二女寶、錦出奔五將山,宣告州郡,期以孟冬救長安。堅過襲韮園,李辯奔燕,彭和正慙,自殺。

31. Qin's Guard General, Yang Ding, fought Murong Chong west of the city, but he was captured by Murong Chong. Yang Ding was a fierce Qin general.

Fu Jian was now greatly afraid. He read a prophecy which said, "If the Emperor goes out to Wujiang, he shall long endure." So Fu Jian left Fu Hong to guard Chang'an, and he told him, "Perhaps Heaven thus intends to show me the way out. You must do well to guard the city, and do not try to fight it out with the rebels. When I get to the Long mountains, I shall gather soldiers and grain to send to you." Then he rode out of the city at the head of several hundred riders, along with Lady Zhang, the Duke of Zhongshan, his son Fu Shen, and his two daughters, Fu Bao and Fu Jin. They fled towards Mount Wujiang, and they sent word out to the provinces and commandaries to send relief to Chang'an by the first of winter.

Fu Jian launched a surprise attack on Jiuyuan as he passed by it. Li Bian fled to Yan, while Peng Hezheng killed himself out of shame.

《新唐書‧地理志》:京兆醴泉縣有武將山。《水經註》:扶風杜陽縣有五將山。又按唐杜佑,鳳翔府岐山縣有五將山。奔西燕也。據《載記》,此讖書謂之《古符傳賈錄》。秦王堅始也禁人學讖,及喪敗之極,乃欲用讖書,奔五將山以求免,其顚倒錯繆甚矣,蓋死期將至也。

(The Geographical Records in the New Book of Tang states, "There is a Mount 武將 Wujiang in Liquan county in Jingzhao commandary." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a Mount 五將 Wujiang in Duyang county in Fufeng commandary." And according to Du You, there was a Mount 五將 Wujiang in Qishan county in the Fengxiang Garrison.

Li Bian fled to Western Yan.

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this prophecy was from the Old Seal Records of Jia.

Fu Jian had originally banned people from studying prophecies, but after being driven to this extent by so many defeats, he too wished to use the prophecy texts. He fled to Mount Wujiang in order to seek an escape, but this was only to further compound his mistakes. The time of his death must have been fast approaching.)


先是,每夜有人周城大呼曰:「楊定健兒應屬我,宮殿台觀應坐我,父子同出不共汝。」旦尋而不見人跡。城中有書曰:「《古符傳賈錄》載『帝出五將久長得』。」又謠曰:「堅入五將山長得。」堅大信之,告其太子宏曰:「脫如此言,天或導予。今留汝兼總戎政,勿與賊爭利,吾當出隴,收兵運糧以給汝。」自將張夫人及中山公詵率騎數百出如五將山。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Earlier, there had been a man who ran around the walls of Chang'an during the night shouting, "Yang Dingjian should be supporting us, and the palace and ministries should be here with us, but father and son have both abandoned you." By morning, there was no trace of him.

There was a prophecy in the city which stated, "The Old Record Books of Jia mention that 'If the Emperor goes out to Wujiang, he shall long endure.'" And there was a ditty in the city which went, "If Jian goes to Mount Wujiang, he shall endure." Fu Jian greatly trusted in these prophecies. He told his Crown Prince, Fu Hong, "Perhaps by these words, Heaven intends to show me the way out. I now leave you in charge of all military and government affairs. Do not try to fight it out with the rebels. When I get to the Long mountains, I shall gather soliders and grain to send to you." Then he rode out of the city at the head of several hundred riders, along with Lady Zhang and the Duke of Zhongshan, Fu Shen. They went to Mount Wujiang.

有羣烏數萬,鳴於長安城上,其聲甚悲,占者以為不終年,有甲兵入城之象。每夜有人周城大呼曰:「楊定健兒應屬我,宮殿臺觀應坐我,父子同出不共汝。」旦遣尋求,不見人跡。先是,又謠曰:「堅入五將山長得。」堅大信之,告其太子永道曰:「天或導予,脫如謠言。留汝兼總戎政,勿與賊爭利。吾當出隴收兵,運糧以給汝。天其或者正訓予也。」遣其衞將軍楊定擊沖於城西,為沖所擒。堅彌懼,付永道以後事,率騎數百出如五將,宣告州郡,期救長安。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Flocks of countless crows cawed from atop the walls of Chang'an, making a very mournful sound. The diviners believed that this was an omen that by the end of the year, armored soldiers would enter the city. And every night, there was a man who ran around the walls of Chang'an shouting, "Yang Dingjian should be supporting us, and the palace and ministries should be here with us, but father and son have both abandoned you." But when people looked for him during the morning, there was no trace of him.

Earlier, there had been a ditty which went, "If Jian goes to Mount Wujiang, he shall endure."

Fu Jian greatly believed in it. He told his Crown Prince, Fu Hong, "Perhaps Heaven intends to show me the way out, judging by these words. I now leave you in charge of all military and government affairs. Do not try to fight it out with the rebels. When I get to the Long mountains, I shall gather soliders and send you grain to sustain you. All this may have been Heaven's trial for me."

Fu Jian sent his Guard General, Yang Ding, to attack Murong Chong west of the city, but Yang Ding was captured by Chang'an. Now greatly afraid, Fu Jian left all further affairs to Fu Hong. Then he rode out of the city at the head of several hundred riders. They fled towards Wujiang, and they sent word out to the provinces and commandaries to send relief to Chang'an by a set date.

時苻堅為慕容沖所逼,走入五將山。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

At this time, because of the threat posed by Murong Chong, Fu Jian fled to Mount Wujiang.


閏月,以廣州刺史羅友爲益州刺史,鎭成都。

32. In the intercalary month, Jin's Inspector of Guangzhou, Luo You, was appointed as Inspector of Yizhou, and he was stationed at Chengdu.

庚戌,燕王垂至常山,圍翟成於行唐。命帶方王佐鎭龍城。六月,高句麗寇遼東,佐遣司馬郝景將兵救之,爲高句麗所敗,高句麗遂陷遼東、玄菟。

33. On the day Gengxu (June 27th), Murong Chui arrived at Changshan, and he besieged Zhai Cheng at Xingtang. He ordered Murong Zuo to guard Longcheng.

In the sixth month, Goguryeo invaded Liaodong. Murong Zuo sent his Marshal, Hao Jing, to lead troops to reinforce Liaodong, but they were defeated by Goguryeo, who then captured Liaodong and Xuantu commandaries.

自此燕不能勝高句麗。

(Yan was no longer able to overcome Goguryeo.)


秦太子宏不能守長安,將數千騎與母、妻、宗室西奔下辨;百官逃散,司隸校尉權翼等數百人奔後秦。西燕主沖入據長安,縱兵大掠,死者不可勝計。

34. Fu Hong could not hold Chang'an, and he fled west to Xiabian with several thousand riders, along with his mother, his wife, and the royal family. The remaining Qin officials in Chang'an all fled and scattered, with the Colonel-Director of Retainers, Quan Yi, and several hundred others fleeing to Later Qin.

Murong Chong entered Chang'an and captured it. His soldiers sacked the city, and the dead were beyond counting.

權翼本姚襄僚屬,苻氏旣敗,故奔後秦。

(Quan Yi had originally been one of Yao Xiang's subordinates. Now that the Fu clan was finished, he fled to Later Qin, since Yao Chang was Yao Xiang's brother.)


六月,太子宏尋將母妻宗室男女數千騎出奔,沖入據長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the sixth month, the Crown Prince, Fu Hong, soon fled Chang'an at the head of several thousand riders, along with his mother, his wife, and the men and women of the royal family. Murong Chong then occupied Chang'an.

月餘,永道尋將母妻、宗室、男女數千騎出奔武都,遂假道入司馬昌明。慕容沖入據長安。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

A little over a month after Fu Jian had left, Fu Hong fled Chang'an; he led several thousand riders, along with his wife, mother, and the members of the royal family, to flee to Wudu. He took secret roads to flee to Sima Changming's territory. Murong Chong then entered and occupied Chang'an.

二年六月,慕容沖入長安,司隸崔翼、尚書趙遷等數百人來奔。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the second year of Baique (385), the sixth month, Murong Chong entered Chang'an. The Colonel-Director, Cui Yi, the Master of Writing, Zhao Qian, and others led several hundred people to flee to Yao Chang.

沖入長安。堅司隸校尉權翼、尚書趙遷、大鴻臚皇甫覆、光祿大夫薛贊、扶風太守段鏗等文武數百人奔於萇。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Murong Chong entered Chang'an. Hundreds of Fu Jian's civil and military officials fled to Yao Chang, including the Colonel-Director of Retainers, Quan Yi, the Master of Writing, Zhao Qian, the Grand Herald, Huangfu Fu, the Household Counselor, Xue Zan, and the Administrator of Fufeng, Duan Keng.


秋,七月,旱,饑,井皆竭。

35. In autumn, the seventh month, there was a drought. Hunger was rampant, and all the wells were exhausted.

後秦王萇自故縣如新平。

36. Yao Chang returned from the former Anding county to Xinping.

漢安定郡有安定縣,後漢、晉省,故曰故縣。

(There had been an Anding county in Anding commandary during Former Han, but it was abolished under Later Han and Jin. This is why this passage calls it the "former" county.)


萇自故縣如新平。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang returned from the former Anding county to Xinping.

萇如新平。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang returned to Xinping.


秦王堅至五將山,後秦王萇遣驍騎將軍吳忠帥騎圍之。秦兵皆散走,獨侍御十數人在側,堅神色自若,坐而待之,召宰人進食。俄而忠至,執之,送詣新平,幽於別室。

37. When Fu Jian arrived at Mount Wujiang, Yao Chang sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Wu Zhong, to lead cavalry there to surround it. The Qin soldiers all scattered and fled, and barely a dozen attendants remained at Fu Jian's side. Fu Jian kept a calm expression, and simply sat down to await the end. He ordered his attendants to prepare a meal and eat. Wu Zhong soon arrived, and he captured Fu Jian. He sent Fu Jian to Xinping, where he was secluded in a separate residence.

堅至五將山,姚萇遣將軍吳忠圍之,堅衆奔散,獨侍御十數人而已,神色自若,坐而待之,召宰人進食。俄而忠至,執堅以歸新平縣,幽之別室。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Fu Jian arrived at Mount Wujiang, Yao Chang sent his general Wu Zhong to surround it. Fu Jian's soldiers all scattered and fled, and barely a dozen attendants remained at Fu Jian's side. Fu Jian kept a calm expression, and simply sat down to await the end. He ordered his attendants to prepare a meal and eat. Wu Zhong soon arrived, and he captured Fu Jian. He sent Fu Jian to Xinping county, where he was secluded in a separate residence.

堅至五將山,姚萇遣其將吳忠圍之。堅眾奔散,獨左右十數人,神色自若,坐而待之,召宰人進食。俄而兵至,執堅及其夫人張氏與少女寶錦,送詣姚萇。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Fu Jian arrived at Mount Wujiang, Yao Chang sent his general Wu Zhong to surround it. The Former Qin soldiers all scattered and fled, and barely a dozen attendants remained at Fu Jian's side. Fu Jian kept a calm expression, and simply sat down to await the end. He ordered his attendants to prepare a meal and eat. Wu Zhong soon arrived, and he captured Fu Jian, his wife Lady Zhang, and his young daughters Fu Bao and Fu Jin. He sent them to visit Yao Chang.

萇聞苻堅在五將山,遣驍騎吳忠率騎圍之,吳忠執堅送之。(Annals of the Sixtee Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Yao Chang heard that Fu Jian was at Mount Wujiang, he sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Wu Zhong, to lead cavalry to surround it. Wu Zhong captured Fu Jian and sent him to Yao Chang.

萇遣驍騎將軍吳忠率騎圍堅... 俄而忠執堅,送之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Wu Zhong, to lead cavalry to surround Fu Jian. Wu Zhong soon captured Fu Jian and sent him to Yao Chang.

苻堅出至五將山,萇執之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Fu Jian went out to Mount Wujiang, Yao Chang captured him.


太子宏至下辨,南秦州刺史楊璧拒之。璧妻,堅之女順陽公主也,棄其夫從宏。宏奔武都,投氐豪強熙,假道來奔,詔處之江州。

38. When Fu Hong reached Xiabian, Qin's Inspector of Southern Qinzhou, Yang Bi, barred his passage. Yang Bi's wife was the Princess of Shunyang, Fu Jian's daughter, and she left him to go with Fu Hong. Fu Hong fled to Wudu, but he was cast out by the Di chieftain Qiang Xi. He fled by hidden byways. The Jin court granted him residence in Jiangzhou.

苻堅破仇池,置南秦州。楊璧,氐之種類,仕秦尚主,任居方面,以宏奔敗,拒而不納。《孟子》曰:「寡助之至,親戚叛之。」信哉斯言!爲苻宏附桓玄而誅張本。

(When Fu Jian conquered Chouchi, he created the province of Southern Qinzhou.

Yang Bi was from one of the Di tribes, just like Fu Jian. He served in high office under Former Qin, and he held one of their border commands. But when Fu Hong fled to him in defeat, Yang Bi turned Fu Hong away and would not accept him. Mencius said, "He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. He who loses the proper course has few to assist him. When this - the fellow assisted by few - reaches its extreme point, even his own relations revolt from the prince. (Gongsun Chou II.10)" How true such words prove to be!

This was why Fu Hong was later in a position to support the Jin usurper Huan Xuan, and to be executed.)


初,太子之逩也,假道歸晉,歷位輔國將軍,桓玄篡位,以為梁州刺史。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Earlier, when the Crown Prince, Fu Hong, had fled from Chang'an, he took secret roads to flee to Jin. He served Jin, eventually becoming General Who Upholds The State. When Huan Xuan usurped the throne of Jin, he appointed Fu Hong as Inspector of Lianzhou.

永道既奔昌明,處之江州,桓玄以為梁州刺史,後為劉裕所誅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

After fleeing to Jin, Fu Hong was placed in Jiangzhou. When Huan Xuan usurped the throne of Jin, he appointed Fu Hong as Inspector of Lianzhou. Fu Hong was later executed by Liu Yu.


長樂公丕帥衆三萬自枋頭將歸鄴城,龍驤將軍檀玄擊之,戰于谷口,玄兵敗,丕復入鄴城。

39. Fu Pi led thirty thousand soldiers from Fangtou to return to Ye. But Jin's Dragon-Soaring General, Tan Xuan, attacked them. They fought at Gukou, where Tan Xuan's soldiers were defeated. Fu Pi then returned to and entered Ye.

檀玄,晉將也。谷口在枋頭西。

(Tan Xuan was a Jin general.

Gukou was west of Fangtou.)


燕建節將軍餘巖叛,自武邑北趣幽州。燕王垂馳使敕幽州將平規曰:「固守勿戰,俟吾破丁零自討之。」規出戰,爲巖所敗。巖入薊,掠千餘戶而去,遂據令支。癸酉,翟成長史鮮于得斬成出降,垂屠行唐,盡阬成衆。

40. Yan's General Who Establishes Fortitude, Yu Yan, rebelled. He marched north from Wuyi to capture Youzhou. Murong Chui sent a courier to warn Ping Gui in Youzhou, "Hold to your defenses and do not fight a battle. Wait until I have defeated the Dingling, and then I will come deal with Yu Yan." But Ping Gui did march out to battle, and he was defeated by Yu Yan. Then Yu Yan entered Ji, took more than a thousand households prisoner before leaving, and marched on and captured Lingzhi.

On the day Guiyou (September 18th), Zhai Cheng's Chief Clerk, Xianyu De, executed Zhai Cheng and came to surrender to Yan. Murong Chui slaughtered Xingtang, and he buried all of Zhai Cheng's men alive.

支,音祁。去年丁零叛燕,至是而滅。

(The second character in Lingzhi, 支, is pronounced "qi".

The Dingling had started their rebellion against Later Yan in the previous year, and they lasted this long before being vanquished.)


太保安有疾求還,詔許之;八月,安至建康。

41. Xie An asked to return due to illness, which the court permitted. In the eighth month, he returned to Jiankang.

安屯廣陵步丘。

(Xie An had been camped at Buqiu in Guangling.)


甲午,大赦。

42. On the day Jiawu (October 9th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

丁酉,建昌文靖公謝安薨。詔加殊禮,如大司馬溫故事。庚子,以司徒琅邪王道子領揚州刺史、錄尚書、都督中外諸軍事;以尚書令謝石爲衞將軍。

43. On the day Dingyou (October 12th), Xie An passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wenjing ("the Cultured and Tranquil") of Jianchang. The court honored him with special rites, treating him the same way as the late Grand Marshal, Huan Wen.

On the day Gengzi (October 15th), the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Langye, Sima Daozi, was appointed as acting Inspector of Yangzhou, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Commander of all military affairs. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xie Shi, was appointed as Guard General.

《諡法》:柔德安衆曰靖;寬樂令終曰靖。晉以此崇寵謝安;安之雅志豈願與桓溫同哉!道子得權,晉自此亂。

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who maintains peaceful virtues and calms the multitude, or one who broadens happiness to a good end, may be called Jing ('Tranquil')."

Jin thus showed great honor and favor Xie An. Yet how could a man of Xie An's refinement and desires be treated the same way as Huan Wen had been?

Since Sima Daozi now held unchecked power, Jin began its decline into chaos.)


後秦王萇使求傳國璽於秦王堅曰:「萇次應曆數,可以爲惠。」堅瞋目叱之曰:「小羌敢逼天子,五胡次序,無汝羌名。璽已送晉,不可得也!」萇復遣右司馬尹緯說堅,求爲禪代;堅曰:「禪代,聖賢之事,姚萇叛賊,何得爲之!」堅與緯語,問緯:「在朕朝何官?」緯曰:「尚書令史。」堅歎曰:「卿,王景略之儔,宰相才也,而朕不知卿,宜其亡也。」堅自以平生遇萇有恩,尤忿之,數罵萇求死,謂張夫人曰:「豈可令羌奴辱吾兒。」乃先殺寶、錦。辛丑,萇遣人縊堅於新平佛寺。張夫人、中山公詵皆自殺。後秦將士皆爲之哀慟。萇欲隱其名,諡堅曰壯烈天王。

44. Yao Chang sent messengers to ask Fu Jian to hand over the Imperial Seal to him. They said to Fu Jian, "Yao Chang wishes to follow the sequence of the tribes, and he will treat you well."

But Fu Jian angrily glared at them and shouted, "You miscreant Qiang dare to oppress the Son of Heaven. In the sequence of the five tribes, the names of you Qiang are not mentioned. The Seal has already been sent to Jin, so you cannot get it!"

Yao Chang then sent his Marshal of the Right, Yin Wei, to persuade Fu Jian and ask him to abdicate in favor of Yao Chang. But Fu Jian said, "Abdication is a matter between worthy sages. Yao Chang is a treasonous rebel; how could he qualify for that?"

As Fu Jian was speaking to Yin Wei, he asked him, "What office did you hold in my court?"

Yin Wei replied, "I was a Clerk of the Masters of Writing."

Fu Jian lamented, "You are the equal of Wang Jinglüe, and you have enough talent to be the chief minister of state. Yet I did not know about you. I deserve my ruin."

Fu Jian had shown Yao Chang his favor ever since they had met, and so he was particularly indignant against him now. Many times, he cursed Yao Chang and begged him to kill him. Fu Jian said to Lady Zhang, "How can I let these Qiang slaves disgrace my children?" So he killed his daughters, Fu Bao and Fu Jin, before that could happen.

On the day Xinchou (October 16th), Yao Chang sent people to strangle Fu Jian to death at the Buddhist temple in Xinping. Lady Zhang and Fu Shen killed themselves.

The Later Qin soldiers and generals all deeply mourned Fu Jian's death. Yao Chang wished to hide his responsibility for it, so he posthumously named Fu Jian as Heavenly King Zhuanglie.

胡、羯、鮮卑、氐、羌,五胡之次序也。無汝羌名,謂讖文耳。姚萇自謂次應曆數,堅故亦以讖文爲言。後漢以來尚書有令史十八人,秩二百石。堅自知身死之後,女必當歸姚萇也。年四十八。

(The sequence of the five tribes was the Hu (Xiongnu), the Jie, the Xianbei, the Di, and the Qiang. By "the names of you Qiang are not mentioned", Fu Jian was merely refering to the prophecy. Yao Chang claimed he was following the sequence of the tribes, while Fu Jian claimed to be following the prophecy.

Ever since Later Han, the Masters of Writing employed eighteen Clerks, who each earned a salry of Two Hundred 石.

Fu Jian knew that after he was dead, his daughters would certainly fall into Yao Chang's hands.

Fu Jian was forty-seven years old when he died.)


堅是大敗于壽春,張氏乃自殺。(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Lady Zhang of Former Qin)

After Fu Jian's great defeat at Shouchun, Lady Zhang killed herself.

萇求國璽於堅曰:「萇次膺籙可以為惠。」堅嗔目叱之曰:「小羌乃敢於逼天子,豈以傳國璽授汝羌乎!五胡次序,無汝羌名,違天不祥,其能久乎!璽已送晉,不可得也。」萇又遣右僕射尹緯說堅,求為堯舜禪代之事。堅曰:「姚萇叛賊, 奈何擬之古人。」因問緯曰:「卿于朕朝作何官?」對曰:「尚書令史。」堅歎曰:「卿宰相才,王景畧之流,而朕不知卿,亡也不亦宜乎」。八月,縊于新平佛寺中,時年四十八。張夫人、中山公詵等皆自殺。三軍莫不哀慟。萇欲匿殺之名,乃諡為莊烈天王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Yao Chang sent messengers to ask Fu Jian to hand over the Imperial Seal to him. They said to Fu Jian, "Yao Chang wishes to follow the sequence of the tribes, and he will treat you well."

But Fu Jian angrily glared at them and shouted, "You miscreant Qiang dare to oppress the Son of Heaven. How could I give the Seal to you Qiang? In the sequence of the five tribes, the names of you Qiang are not mentioned. When you violate the will of Heaven and ignore the auguries, how long can you expect to endure? The Seal has already been sent to Jin, so you cannot get it."

Yao Chang then sent his Deputy Director of the Right, Yin Wei, to persuade Fu Jian and ask him to abdicate in favor of Yao Chang, following the ancient example of Emperor Yao abdicating to Emperor Shun. But Fu Jian said, "Yao Chang is a treasonous rebel; how could he imitate the ancients like that?"

As Fu Jian was speaking to Yin Wei, he asked him, "What office did you hold in my court?"

Yin Wei replied, "I was a Clerk of the Masters of Writing."

Fu Jian lamented, "You are the equal of Wang Jinglüe, and you have enough talent to be the chief minister of state. Yet I did not know about you. Do I not deserve my ruin?"

In the eighth month, Fu Jian was strangled to death at the Buddhist temple in Xinping; he was forty-seven years old. Lady Zhang, the Duke of Zhongshan, Fu Shen, and the others all killed themselves.

There was no one among Yao Chang's soliders who did not mourn Fu Jian's death. Yao Chang wished to hide his responsibility for it, so he posthumously named Fu Jian as Heavenly King Zhuanglie.

萇囚之,將害焉。堅自以平生遇萇厚,忿之,厲聲大罵,謂張氏曰:「豈令羌奴辱吾兒!」於是殺寶錦。姚萇乃縊堅於新平佛寺。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Yao Chang imprisoned Fu Jian and the others, about to kill them. Fu Jian had shown Yao Chang his favor ever since they had met, and so he was particularly indignant against him now, and he loudly cursed Yao Chang in a stern voice. Fu Jian said to Lady Zhang, "How can I let these Qiang slaves disgrace my children?" So he killed his daughters, Fu Bao and Fu Jin, before that could happen. Yao Chang then strangled Fu Jian in the Buddhist temple at Xinping.

萇將求禪代,堅不許。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang asked Fu Jian to abdicate to him, but Fu Jian refused to do so.

萇殺苻堅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang killed Fu Jian.

萇既敗苻堅,遣緯說堅,求禪代之事。堅問緯曰:「卿于朕何官?」緯曰:「尚書令史。」堅歎曰:「宰相之才也,王景略之儔。而朕不知卿,亡也不亦宜乎!」(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yin Wei)

After Yao Chang defeated Fu Jian, he sent Yin Wei to persuade Fu Jian and ask him to abdicate in favor of Yao Chang. Fu Jian asked him, "What office did you hold in my court?"

Yin Wei replied, "I was a Clerk of the Masters of Writing."

Fu Jian lamented, "You are the equal of Wang Jinglüe (Wang Meng), and you have enough talent to be the chief minister of state. Yet I did not know about you. Do I not deserve my ruin?"


臣光曰:論者皆以爲秦王堅之亡,由不殺慕容垂、姚萇故也。臣獨以爲不然。許劭謂魏武帝治世之能臣,亂世之姦雄。使堅治國無失其道,則垂、萇皆秦之能臣也,烏能爲亂哉!堅之所以亡,由驟勝而驕故也。魏文侯問李克,吳之所以亡,對曰:「數戰數勝。」文侯曰:「數戰數勝,國之福也,何故亡?」對曰:「數戰則民疲,數勝則主驕,以驕主御疲民,未有不亡者也。」秦王堅似之矣。

45. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: Those who discuss Fu Jian all say that the cause of his downfall was that he did not kill Murong Chui and Yao Chang. However, I do not believe that this was the case. After all, Xu Shao once said of Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) that he would be an able minister in times of peace, but a crafty hero in times of turmoil. If Fu Jian had ruled the state well and not strayed from the right path, then Murong Chui and Yao Chang would also have remained able ministers of Former Qin, and then how could there have been any turmoil?

The true cause of Fu Jian's downfall was his pride stemming from his sudden string of victories. Marquis Wen of Wei once asked Li Ke what the reason was for the state of Wu's downfall. Li Ke replied, "It was because they won many victories in many wars."

Marquis Wen said, "To win many victories in many wars is something that benefits the state. How could it be the cause of its downfall?"

Li Ke replied, "Many wars means an exhausted people, and many victories means a proud lord. There has never yet been a state with a proud lord and an exhausted people that did not fall." This was what had happened to Fu Jian.

事見五十八卷漢靈帝中平元年。

(Xu Shao's appraisal of Cao Cao is mentioned in Book 58, in Emperor Ling of Han's first year of Zhongping (184.R in de Crespigny’s Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling).)


長樂公丕在鄴,將西赴長安,幽州刺史王永在壺關,遣使招丕,丕乃帥鄴中男女六萬餘口西如潞川,驃騎將軍張蚝、幷州刺史王騰迎之入晉陽。丕始知長安不守,堅已死,乃發喪,卽皇帝位,追諡堅曰宣昭皇帝,廟號世祖,大赦,改元大安。

46. Fu Pi was at Ye, and was about to march west to meet up with the other Qin forces at Chang'an. Wang Yong was at Huguan, and he sent word for Fu Pi to come join him. So Fu Pi led the men and women inside Ye, more than sixty thousand households, west to Luchuan. The General of Agile Cavalry, Zhang Qi, and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Wang Teng, came to welcome him at Jinyang. Wang Yong left the Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, to guard Huguan, and he himself led ten thousand riders to join Fu Pi at Jinyang.

It was at this time that Fu Pi first learned that Chang'an had fallen and Fu Jian was already dead. So Fu Pi went into mourning, and he declared himself the new Emperor of Qin. He gave Fu Jian the posthumous name Emperor Xuanzhao, and the temple name Shizu. He declared a general amnesty in Qin, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Da'an.

是年春,王永自幽州奔壺關。【章:十二行本「丕」上有「王永留平州刺史苻沖守壺關,自帥騎一萬會丕于晉陽」二十二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】丕字永叔,堅之庶長子也。

(Wang Yong had fled from Youzhou to Huguan during the spring.

Some versions include the sentence "Wang Yong left the Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, to guard Huguan, and he himself led ten thousand riders to join Fu Pi at Jinyang."

Fu Pi, styled Yongshu, was Fu Jian's eldest son, born of a concubine.)


長樂稱號,偽諡堅為世祖宣昭皇帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

The Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, declared himself the new Emperor, and he gave Fu Jian the posthumous title Emperor Xuanzhao and the temple name Shizu.

堅之死也,建元二十一年,丕復入鄴城,將收兵趙魏,西赴長安。會平州刺史苻沖帥幽并人衆擊慕容垂,頻為垂將帶方等所敗,乃率衆三萬進屯壺關,使招丕。丕乃去鄴,帥兵六萬進潞州,驃騎將軍張蠔、并州刺史王騰迎之入據晉陽。始知長安不守,堅為姚萇所殺,乃舉哀晉陽,僭即皇帝于晉陽南,立堅行廟,大赦,改建元二十一年為太平元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Pi)

After Fu Jian's death, in the twenty-first year of Jianyuan, Fu Pi reentered Ye. He gathered together the soldiers of the Zhao and Wei regions, preparing to march west to Chang'an. Meanwhile, the Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, led the forces of Youzhou and Bingzhou to attack Murong Chui, but he was frequently defeated by Dai Fang and Murong Chui's other generals. So he led thirty thousand soldiers to advance and camp at Huguan, where he sent word asking Fu Pi to join him. Fu Pi then led sixty thousand soldiers from Ye to advance to Luchuan. The General of Agile Cavalry, Zhang Qi, and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Wang Teng, welcomed him, and they entered and occupied Jinyang.

It was at this time that Fu Pi first learned that Chang'an had fallen and Fu Jian had been killed by Yao Chang. So Fu Pi went into mourning at Jinyang, and he declared himself the new Emperor of Qin south of Jinyang. He established a provisional ancestral temple for Fu Jian. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title from the twenty-first year of Jianyuan to the first year of Taiping.

為慕容垂圍逼,丕乃去鄴,率男女六萬餘口進如潞川。堅驃騎將軍張蚝、并州刺史王騰迎丕入據晉陽。堅既為姚萇所殺,太祖九年,丕乃僭稱尊號,改年太安。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Pi)

When Fu Pi was besieged by Murong Chui at Ye, he left the city, leading more than sixty thousand men and women to advance to Luchuan. Fu Jian's General of Agile Cavalry, Zhang Qi, and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Wang Teng, welcomed him, and they entered and occupied Jinyang.

Since Fu Jian had been killed by Yao Chang, Fu Pi declared himself Emperor of Former Qin, and he changed the reign era title to Tai'an; this was in the ninth year of Taizu's (Tuoba Gui's) reign (385).


燕王垂以魯王和爲南中郎將,鎭鄴。遣慕容農出蠮螉塞,歷凡城,趣龍城,會兵討餘巖,慕容麟、慕容隆自信都徇勃海、清河。麟擊勃海太守封懿,執之,因屯歷口。懿,放之子也。

47. Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Lu, Murong He, as General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, and Murong He was stationed at Ye.

Murong Chui sent Murong Nong to march through Yeweng Pass, pass through Fancheng, capture Longcheng, and join the soldiers there to campaign against Yu Yan. Murong Lin and Murong Long were ordered to march from Xindu to subdue Bohai and Qinghe. Murong Lin attacked Qin's Administrator of Bohai, Feng Yi, and captured him, then camped at Likou. This Feng Yi was the son of Feng Fang.

《水經註》:清河自廣川東北流,逕歷縣故城南,前漢信都國之屬縣也。應劭曰:廣川縣西北三十里有歷城亭,故縣也。今亭在縣東津濟之所,謂之歷口渡。封放見九十九卷穆帝永和七年。

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Qing River flows northeast from Guangchuan, passing south of the capital city of Li county, which was part of the Xindu fief during Former Han." The Fengsu Tongyi states, "There is a Licheng Point thirty li northwest of Guangchuan county; it is also the name of a county. This point is now near the eastern fords of the county, so it is called the Likou Crossing."

Feng Fang is mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's seventh year of Yonghe (351.14).)


鮮卑劉頭眷擊破賀蘭部於善無,又破柔然於意親山。頭眷子羅辰言於頭眷曰:「比來行兵,所向無敵;然心腹之疾,願早圖之!」頭眷曰:「誰也?」羅辰曰:「從兄顯,忍人也,必將爲亂。」頭眷不聽。顯,庫仁之子也。

48. After Liu Kuren's death, his younger brother Liu Toujuan had taken over his command. Liu Toujuan attacked and routed the Helan tribe at Shanwu, and he routed the Rouran at Mount Yiqin.

Liu Toujuan's son Liu Luochen said to him, "In your recent expeditions, no one has been able to stand against you. However, you face a threat to your vitals from within. You ought to get rid of it soon!"

Liu Toujuan asked him, "Who is the threat?"

Liu Luochen replied, "My cousin Liu Xian. He is capable of anything, and he will certainly start a rebellion soon."

But Liu Toujuan did not listen to him. This Liu Xian was the son of Liu Kuren.

善無縣,前漢屬鴈門郡,後漢屬定襄郡,漢末日棄之荒外。意親山蓋卽意辛山,親、辛語相近。按《魏書‧帝紀》,道武登國五年,四月,幸意辛山,與質驎討賀蘭、紇突鄰、紇奚諸部,大破之,六月,還幸牛川。則意辛山在牛川之北。

(During Former Han, Shanwu county was part of Yanmen commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Dingxiang commandary. In the last days of the Han dynasty, it was abandoned since it was too distant and desolate.

Mount Yiqin must have been the same place as Mount Yixin, since 親 "qin" and 辛 "xin" are relatively close in pronunciation. According to the Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) in the Book of Northern Wei, in the fifth year of Dengguo (390), the fourth month, he went to a Mount Yixin. Then, alongside Zhi Lin, he campaigned against the forces of the Helan, the Hetulin, and the Hexizhu, and greatly routed them all. In the sixth month, he returned and visited Niuchuan. So Mount Yixin was north of Niuchuan.)


白部大人絜佛叛,眷力不能討。乃引苻堅并州刺史張蚝擊佛,破之。眷又破賀蘭部于善無,又擊蠕蠕別帥肺渥于意親山,破之,獲牛羊數十萬頭。眷第二子羅辰,性機警,有智謀,謂眷曰:「比來行兵,所向無敵,心腹之疾,願早圖之。」眷曰:「誰也?」曰:「從兄顯,忍人也,為亂非旦則夕耳。」眷不以為意。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

The leader of the Bai tribe, Jiefu, rebelled, and Liu Juan was not strong enough to overcome him. So he asked for assitance from Fu Jian's Inspector of Bingzhou, Zhang Hao, and they attacked Jiefu and routed him. Liu Juan also routed the Helan tribte at Shanwu, and he attacked the Rouran division commander Feiwo at Mount Yiqin and routed him, capturing several tens of thousands of cattle and sheep.

Liu Juan's second son, Liu Luochen, was naturally sharp-witted and had a mind for planning. He said to Liu Juan, "In your recent expeditions, no one has been able to stand against you. However, you face a threat to your vitals from within. You ought to get rid of it soon!"

Liu Toujuan asked him, "Who is the threat?"

Liu Luochen replied, "My cousin Liu Xian. He is capable of anything, and he might rebel at any instant."

But Liu Toujuan did not listen to him.

眷第三子羅辰,機警有智謀,謂眷曰:「從兄顯,忍人也,願早圖之。」眷不以為意。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Juan's third son, Liu Luochen, was naturally sharp-witted and had a mind for planning. He said to Liu Juan, "My cousin Liu Xian is capable of anything. You should get rid of him at once." But Liu Juan did not believe him.


頃之,顯果殺頭眷自立。又將殺拓跋珪,顯弟亢埿妻,珪之姑也,以告珪母賀氏。顯謀主梁六眷,代王什翼犍之甥也,亦使其部人穆崇、奚牧密告珪,且以其愛妻、駿馬付崇曰:「事泄,當以此自明。」賀氏夜飲顯酒,令醉,使珪陰與舊臣長孫犍、元他、羅結輕騎亡去。向晨,賀氏故驚廐中羣馬,使顯起視之。賀氏哭曰:「吾子適在此,今皆不見,汝等誰殺之邪?」顯以故不急追。珪遂奔賀蘭部,依其舅賀訥。訥驚喜曰:「復國之後,當念老臣!」珪笑曰:「誠如舅言,不敢忘也。」

49. Soon, just as predicted, Liu Xian killed Liu Toujuan and set himself up as chief.

It was earlier mentioned that Tuoba Shiyijian's grandson Tuoba Gui and his mother Lady He had taken refuge with Liu Kuren after the fall of Dai to Qin. At this time, having seized control of Liu Kuren's forces, Liu Xian also planned to kill Tuoba Gui. But the wife of Liu Xian's younger brother Liu Kangni was Tuoba Gui's aunt, and she went to tell Lady He about the plan. Tuoba Xian's chief advisor, Liang Liujuan, was also Tuoba Shiyijian's nephew, so he also sent his subordinates Mu Chong and Xi Mu to secretly tell Tuoba Gui about it. Tuoba Gui handed over his beloved wives and his fine steeds to Mu Chong, saying to him, "Once Liu Xian finds out what has happened, use these to clear things up."

Then one night, Lady He served wine to Liu Xian until he was drunk, and then sent Tuoba Gui and his old retainers, Zhangsun Jian, Yuan Te, and Luo Jie, to secretly escape on light horses. When dawn came, Lady He caused a commotion among the horses in the stable, until Liu Xian got up to see what was going on. She wept as she asked him, "My son should be here, but now I do not see him anywhere. Which of you has killed him?" Because of this, Liu Xian did not look too closely into what exactly had happened.

Tuoba Gui fled to the Helan tribe, now under the command of his uncle He Ne. He Ne was astonished and overjoyed to see him, and he said, "After you have restored the state again, do not forget about this old minister!"

Tuoba Gui laughed and said, "Uncle, you have spoken earnestly. I dare not forget it."

珪依劉庫仁見一百四卷太元元年。《魏書‧官氏志》,拓跋氏之先,兼幷他國,各有本部,部中別族爲內姓。丘穆陵氏,後改爲穆氏。又拓跋鄰以弟爲達奚氏,後改爲奚氏。元他、羅結,二人也。他,唐何翻。賀訥本賀蘭訥,後魏孝文帝改北方舊姓,以賀蘭氏爲賀氏,史因簡便而書之,如上文穆崇、奚牧之類皆是也。

(Tuoba Gui and Lady He had sought refuge under Liu Kuren, as mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.23).

According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, when the ancestors of the Tuoba clan had united the various local Xianbei states, each of the states had its own founding tribe, and within each tribe there were many different clan names used as surnames. The Qiumuling clan later shortened its name to the Mu clan. And Tuoba Lin's younger brother was part of the Daxi clan, later shortened to the Xi clan.

Yuan Te and Luo Jie are the names of individuals. Yuan Te's given name, 他, is pronounced "te (t-e)".

He Ne was really named Helan Ne. After Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei changed the old Xianbei surnames, the name Helan was shortened to He. The Zizhi Tongjian has anachronistically simplified his name here, the same as Mu Chong and Xi Mu above.)


其後,徙牧于牛川,庫仁子顯,果殺眷而代立。羅辰奔太祖,事在外戚傳。顯,本名醜伐,既殺眷代立,又欲謀逆,語在太祖紀。顯弟亢埿,事在皇后傳。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

After this, when Liu Juan moved his pasturage to Niuchuan, Liu Kuren's son Liu Xian killed Liu Juan and set himself up as chief, just as Liu Luochen had predicted. Liu Luochen fled to Tuoba Gui, as further mentioned in the Biographies of Imperial Marital Relatives.

Liu Xian was originally named Liu Choufa. After having killed Liu Juan and taken over his forces, he also planned to kill Tuoba Gui. This is further mentioned in the Annals of Tuoba Gui.

Liu Xian's younger brother Liu Kangni is further mentioned in the Biographies of Empresses and Consorts.

後庫仁子顯果殺眷而代立。顯既殺眷,又謀逆。羅辰即宣穆皇后兄也。顯既殺眷,羅辰遂奔道武。顯恃強,每謀逆,羅辰輒先聞奏。拜南部大人。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Later, Liu Kuren's son Liu Xian indeed killed Liu Juan and set himself up as chief. Having killed Liu Juan, he also plotted against Tuoba Gui.

Liu Luochen was the elder brother of Tuoba Gui's Empress Xuanmu, Lady Liu. After Liu Xian killed Liu Juan, Liu Luochen fled to Tuoba Gui. Liu Xian relied on brute force for his strategies, but whenever he plotted against Tuoba Gui, Liu Luochen always predicted his actions and reported them. Tuoba Gui appointed him as Southern Chieftain.


顯疑梁六眷泄其謀,將囚之。穆崇宣言曰:「六眷不顧恩義,助顯爲逆,我掠得其妻馬,足以解忿。」顯乃捨之。

50. Liu Xian suspected that Liang Liujuan had leaked the plot to kill Tuoba Gui, so he was going to imprison Liang Liujuan. But Mu Chong spread word saying, "Liang Liujuan was a ungrateful and unjust man, and he helped Liu Xian in his treason. But we have plundered his wives and horses, and that has eased our ire at him." This accusation made Liu Xian less suspicious of Liang Liujuan, so he released him.

賀氏從弟外朝大人賀悅舉所部以奉珪。顯怒,將殺賀氏,賀氏奔亢埿家,匿神車中三日,亢埿舉家爲之請,乃得免。

51. The Chief of the Outer Court, Lady He's cousin He Yue, brought all his forces together to support Tuoba Gui. Liu Xian was furious, and he was about to kill Lady He, but she fled to Liu Kangni's household, where she hid inside the spirit cart for three days. Then Liu Kangni brought his family to plead with Liu Xian on her behalf, so she was able to escape.

賀悅,蓋什翼犍時爲外朝大人。《魏書‧官氏志》曰:登國二年,因舊制置南北大人,對治二部;又置外朝大人,無常員,主受詔命,外使,出禁中,國有大喪大禮,皆與參知,隨所典焉。北人無室屋,逐水草,置神於車中而嚴事之,因謂之神車。

(He Yue must have been appointed as Chief of the Outer Court during Tuoba Shiyijian's reign. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "In the second year of Dengguo (387), following the old system of governance, the region was split between northern and southern chiefs, and each ruled over their own people. A Chief of the Outer Court was also appointed. They did not have any fixed duties, but they handled their lord's commands, attended to outside affairs, watched over the guards, led the state in conducting times of great mourning, and other such matters in an advisory role, according to the canons."

The people of the north had no fixed residence; they migrated with the waters and the grass. They kept their spirits in strict order inside a cart, and so it was called the spirit cart.)


故南部大人長孫嵩帥所部七百餘家叛顯,奔五原。時拓跋寔君之子渥亦聚衆自立,嵩欲從之;烏渥謂嵩曰:「逆父之子,不足從也。不如歸珪。」嵩從之。久之,劉顯所部有亂,故中部大人庾和辰奉賀氏奔珪。

52. The former Southern Chieftain, Zhangsun Song, rose in rebellion against Liu Xian with all his people, more than seven hundred families, and he fled (or, was about to flee) to Wuyuan. At that time, Tuoba Shijun's son Tuoba Wo had also gathered a host of men and set himself up as chief. Zhangsun Song wished to join him. But Wu Wo said to Zhangsun Song, "Tuoba Wo is the son of a traitor. It would not do to join him. Better to go to Tuoba Gui." So Zhangsun Song followed his advice.

Not long afterwards, there was turmoil among Liu XIan's forces. The former Central Chieftain, Yu Hechen, brought Lady He to escape to Tuoba Gui.

【章:十二行本「顯」下有「將」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】嵩依劉氏,亦見一百四卷太元元年。五原,秦郡,魏、晉棄之荒外。寔君殺什翼犍,見太元元年。史言長孫嵩由此遂爲拓跋珪佐命功臣,福流子孫。凡言故者,皆什翼犍舊所署置也。《魏書‧官氏志》:拓跋詰汾時餘部諸姓內入者,自有庾氏,非中國之庾氏也。

(Some versions state that Zhangsun Song was only "about to flee" to Wuyuan.

Zhangsun Song had also gone to join Liu Kuren after the fall of Dai, as mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.19).

The Qin dynasty had established Wuyuan commandary. Cao-Wei and Jin had abandoned it as being too distant and desolate.

Tuoba Shijun's murder of his father Tuoba Shiyijian is also mentioned in Book 104 (376.18).

This passage shows that by Zhangsun Song aligning himself with Tuoba Gui at this time and acting as his loyal and accomplished minister, his good fortune thus spread even to his descendants.

Judging by how Zhangsun Song and Yu Hechen are described as the "former" chiefs, they must have originally been granted those titles by Tuoba Shiyijian. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "There were many tribes who joined together at the Fen River under the reign of the Tuoba clan. One of them was the Yu clan, not to be confused with the Yu clan of the Middle Kingdom (presumably Yu Liang's family in Jin).")


賀訥弟染干以珪得衆心,忌之,使其黨侯引七突殺珪;代人尉古眞知之,以告珪,侯引七突不敢發。染干疑古眞泄其謀,執而訊之,以兩車輪夾其頭,傷一目,不伏,乃免之。染干遂舉兵圍珪,賀氏出,謂染干曰:「汝等欲於何置我,而殺吾子乎!」染干慙而去。

53. He Ne had a younger brother, He Rangan. When He Rangan saw how Tuoba Gui was gaining the support of many people, he began to be suspicious of him. So he sent his partisan Hou Yinqitu to kill Tuoba Gui. But a native of Dai, Yu Guzhen, learned of the plot, and he told Tuoba Gui about it. Hou Yinqitu did not dare to act.

He Rangan suspected that Yu Guzhen had leaked the plot, so he apprehended Yu Guzhen and interrogated him. He had a two-wheeled (or, two-axled) cart press against Yu Guzhen's head and injure his eye, but Yu Guzhen refused to give in, so he was dismissed.

Then He Rangan brought his troops to surround Tuoba Gui, but Lady He came out to see him. She said to him, "What do all of you wish to do to us, that you want to kill my son?" He Rangan was ashamed, and he left.

【嚴:「七」改「乙」;下同。】侯引七突,《官氏志》無此氏。《志》云:諸姓年世稍久,互以改易,興衰存滅,間有之;今舉其可知者,則其不可知而不舉者亦有之矣。西方尉遲氏,後改爲尉氏。尉,讀如鬱。【章:十二行本「輪」作「軸」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】史言賀訥兄弟不能舉部以奉拓跋珪,爲珪攻賀蘭部張本。夫以珪備嘗險阻艱難以成大業,而卒斃於賀蘭氏,豈天道邪!

(In all instances of the name Hou Yinqitu, some versions have the second character of his given name, 七 qi, as 乙 yi.

Regarding the name Hou Yinqitu, the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei makes no mention of such a clan. The Annotations states, "In later years, there were many surnames that were either simplified or abolished altogether. Of the ones that survived or disappeared, we know only a part. Now, there are some who would know, but there are other names which are not known and have no one who would know them."

Regarding Yu Guzhen, the Yuchi clan of the west later had its name shortened to Yu. In this case, 尉 is pronounced "yu".

Some versions say that the cart was "two-axled" rather than two-wheeled.

This passage shows how He Ne and his brothers could not make their forces support Tuoba Gui, and that is why Tuoba Gui later attacked the Helan clan. How could it be the will of Heaven that one such as Tuoba Gui experienced such trials and tribulations and yet was able to accomplish his grand design, and yet the Helan clan was brought to doom?)


九月,秦主丕以張蚝爲侍中、司空,王永爲侍中、都督中外諸軍事、車騎大將軍、尚書令,王騰爲中軍大將軍、司隸校尉,苻沖爲尚書左僕射,封西平王;又以左長史楊輔爲右僕射,右長史王亮爲護軍將軍,立妃楊氏爲皇后,子寧爲皇太子,壽爲長樂王,鏘爲平原王,懿爲勃海王,昶爲濟北王。

54. In the ninth month, Fu Pi appointed Zhang Qi as Palace Attendant and Minister of Works. He appointed Wang Yong as Palace Attendant, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Wang Teng as Grand General of the Central Army and Colonel-Director of Retainers. He appointed Fu Chong as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing and Prince of Xiping. He appointed the Chief Clerk of the Left, Yang Fu, as Deputy Director of the Right. He appointed the Chief Clerk of the Right, Wang Liang, as General Who Protects The Army.

Fu Pi honored his wife Lady Yang as his Empress. Among his sons, he named Fu Ning as his Crown Prince, Fu Shou as Prince of Changle, Fu Qiang as Prince of Pingyuan, Fu Yi as Prince of Bohai, and Fu Chang as Prince of Jibei.

九月,丕置百官。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Pi)

In the ninth month, Fu Pi created the imperial offices.

先是,王猛子幽州刺史永亦率眾赴之,丕以永為司徒、錄尚書事,張蚝為司空,王騰為司隸。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Pi)

Earlier, the Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Meng's son Wang Yong, had also led his forces to join Fu Pi and the others. Fu Pi appointed Wang Yong as Minister Over The Masses and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Zhang Qi as Minister of Works, and he appointed Wang Teng as Colonel-Director.


呂光自龜茲還至宜禾,秦涼州刺史梁熙謀閉境拒之。高昌太守楊翰言於熙曰:「呂光新破西域,兵強氣銳,聞中原喪亂,必有異圖。河西地方萬里,帶甲十萬,足以自保。若光出流沙,其勢難敵。高梧谷口險阻之要,宜先守之而奪其水;彼旣窮渴,可以坐制。如以爲遠,伊吾關亦可拒也。度此二阨,雖有子房之策,無所施矣!」熙弗聽。美水令犍爲張統謂熙曰:「今關中大亂,京師存亡不可知。呂光之來,其志難測,將軍何以抗之?」熙曰:「憂之,未知所出。」統曰:「光智略過人,今擁思歸之士,乘戰勝之氣,其鋒未易當也。將軍世受大恩,忠誠夙著,立勳王室,宜在今日。行唐公洛,上之從弟,勇冠一時,爲將軍計,莫若奉爲盟主以收衆望,推忠義以帥羣豪,則光雖至,不敢有異心也。資其精銳,東兼毛興,連王統、楊璧,合四州之衆,掃兇逆,寧帝室,此桓、文之舉也。」熙又弗聽,殺洛于西海。

55. Lü Guang returned from Kucha and arrived at Yihe.

Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, considered sealing off his borders and keeping Lü Guang at bay. The Administrator of Gaochang, Yang Han, said to him, "Lü Guang has just conquered the Western Reaches, and his soldiers are strong and full of fighting spirit. He has heard of the grievous disasters in the Central Plains, and he certainly must be planning to carve out land for himself. Now the territory of Hexi stretches for ten thousand square li, and we have a hundred thousand men at arms. This is enough to protect ourselves. When Lü Guang was out in the shifting sands, others found it hard to oppose him. However, we have the natural defenses of the mouth of Gaowu Valley on our side. We can set up a first line of defense there and constrict all the sources of water. Lü Guang's soldiers will soon become weak from thirst, and then we can deal with them. Or even if that place is too far away, there is still Yiwu Pass that we can use for our defense. So long as we have these two defiles, even if Lü Guang had the strategies of Zifang (Zhang Liang) on his side, he could never accomplish anything!"

But Liang Xi did not listen to him.

The Prefect of Meishui, Zhang Tong of Jianwei, said to Liang Xi, "Guanzhong is in complete chaos right now, and we do not even know whether the capital has fallen or not. Now Lü Guang is coming here, and it is difficult to know what his intentions are. General, how shall you oppose him?"

Liang Xi replied, "Unfortunately, I do not know yet."

Zhang Tong said, "In cunning and in strategy, Lü Guang surpasses other men. And his soldiers currently have a great desire to return home again. They still have the high morale of victorious soldiers, and it would not be easy to stand against their zeal. General, you have received great favor from the state, and now is the time to make clear your loyalty to it. You must advance the cause of the royal house this very day. There is the Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, close at hand to you. He is our lord's own cousin, and his boldness surpasses the age. Have him devise a strategy with you. You can use Fu Luo to gather together all the forces here in alliance, and they will all join with you for loyal and righteous service. Then even if Lü Guang comes here, he will not dare to do anything untoward. Then you may organize your skilled soldiers, call on Mao Xing to the east and Wang Tong and Yang Bi to the south, gather together all the soldiers of these combined four provinces, sweep the disobedient before you, and save the imperial family. You would thus be doing the same good works as Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin."

But Liang Xi still would not listen, and he even killed Fu Luo at Xihai.

班《志》:敦煌郡廣至縣昆侖障,宜禾都尉治,晉分爲宜禾縣,屬晉昌郡。劉昫曰:瓜州常樂縣,漢廣至縣;魏分廣至置宜禾縣;李暠於此置涼興郡,隋廢,置常樂鎭,武德五年,改鎭爲縣。李延壽曰:高昌者,車師前王之故地。昔漢武帝遣兵西討,師旅頓弊,其中尤困者住焉,地勢高敞,人庶昌盛,因名高昌。其地有漢時高昌壘。晉爲高昌郡;後因爲國名。高梧谷口,當在高昌西界。伊吾縣,晉置,屬晉昌郡,有伊吾關。言地險旣失,雖有張良之計,無所用也。長安已陷,而涼州不知,道梗故也。毛興時刺河州。王統時刺秦州,楊璧時刺南秦州。洛徙西海見一百四卷太元五年。梁熙旣欲拒呂光,又殺苻洛,不過欲保據涼州,非有扶顚持危之志也。

(According to the Ban family's Annotations, there was a Kunlun Barrier in Guangzhi county in Dunhuang commandary, which was administered by the Yihe Defense Post. Jin had split this place off into Yihe county, as part of Jinchang commandary. The Old Book of Tang states, "Changle county in Guazhou was known as Guangzhi county during Han. Cao-Wei split off part of Guangzhi county and formed Yihe county. Li Gao formed Liangxing commandary from it. It was abolished by Sui, who instead created Changle Garrison there. In the fifth year of Wude (619), it was changed from a Garrison into a county."

Li Yanshou remarked, "The place now called Gaochang was made by the early kings of the Jushi people. In former times, when Emperor Wu of Han sent his troops on his western campaign, these people suffered many hardships. Those who were under extreme duress gathered together in a certain place. It was grand and spacious in size, and the people there were prosperous and flourishing, so that was why it was called Gaochang ('grand and prosperous'). During Han, it was the Gaochang Fortress. During Jin, it became Gaochang commandary, and later on, Gaochang was the name of the independent state there."

The mouth of Gaowu Valley was in the west of Gaochang's territory.

Yiwu county had been created by Jin, as part of Jinchang commandary, and Yiwu Pass was there.

Yang Han meant that because of Liang Xi’s natural defenses, even if Lü Guang had Zhang Liang to devise plans for him, it would do him no good.

Chang'an had already fallen, but Liangzhou did not know this, because the roads were blocked.

At this time, Mao Xing was Inspector of Hezhou, Wang Tong was Inspector of Qinzhou, and Yang Bi was Inspector of Southern Qinzhou.

Fu Luo’s banishment to Xihai after his failed rebellion is mentioned in Book 104, in the fifth year of Taiyuan (380.5).

Liang Xi wanted to oppose Lü Guang, and yet he killed Fu Luo, because he wished to do no more than protect Liangzhou itself. He had no ambition to "raise the fallen and support the tottering" and thus preserve the whole state.)


是月,安西呂光自西域還師。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Pi)

In the ninth month, the General Who Maintains The West, Lü Guang, led his army back from the Western Reaches.

而苻堅高昌太守楊翰說其涼州刺史梁熙距守高桐、伊吾二關,熙不從。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Fu Jian's Administrator of Gaochang, Yang Han, urged his Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, to guard the two passes of Gaotong and Yiwu, but Liang Xi would not follow his advice.


光聞楊翰之謀,懼,不敢進。杜進曰:「梁熙文雅有餘,機鑒不足,終不能用翰之謀,不足憂也。宜及其上下離心,速進以取之。」光從之。進至高昌,楊翰以郡迎降。至玉門,熙移檄責光擅命還師,以子胤爲鷹揚將軍,與振威將軍南安姚皓、別駕衞翰帥衆五萬拒光于酒泉。敦煌太守姚靜、晉昌太守李純以郡降光。光報檄涼州,責熙無赴難之志而遏歸國之衆;遣彭晃、杜進、姜飛爲前鋒,與胤戰于安彌,大破,擒之。於是四山胡、夷皆附於光。武威太守彭濟執熙以降,光殺之。

56. When Lü Guang heard about Yang Han's plan, he was afraid, and he did not dare to advance. Du Jin said to him, "In culture and refinement, Liang Xi is quite superior. But when it comes to seizing the moment, he will not do. He will never agree to use Yang Han's plan, so you do not need to worry. Do not allow yourself to be uncertain like him. Advance quickly, and you can take him." Lü Guang followed his advice. When he reached Gaochang, Yang Han was there to surrender the commandary and welcome him.

By the time Lü Guang reached Yumen, Liang Xi had been spreading proclamations charging Lü Guang with disobeying his orders by coming back with his army. Liang Xi appointed his son Liang Yin as General of Hawkish Display, and he sent Liang Yin, the General Who Spreads Might, Yao Hao of Nan'an, and the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Wei Han, to lead a army of fifty thousand soldiers to oppose Lü Guang at Jiuquan. The Administrator of Dunhuang, Yao Jing, and the Administrator of Jinchang, Li Chun, both surrendered their commandaries to Lü Guang. Then Lü Guang sent out his own proclamations, placing the blame on Liang Xi for the quarrel and stating that Liang Xi wanted to stop the soldiers from returning to their home state again. Lü Guang sent Peng Guang, Du Jin, and Jiang Fei to lead his vanguard, and they fought with Liang Yin at Anmi. They greatly routed Liang Yin and captured him. This caused the various tribes of the four mountains to all come over to Lü Guang.

The Administrator of Wuwei, Peng Ji, arrested Liang Xi and surrendered to Lü Guang. Lü Guang killed Liang Xi.

熙不能用楊翰之謀,翰遂降於光。安彌縣自漢以來屬酒泉郡。

(Since Liang Xi was not able to use Yang Han's plan, Yang Han surrendered to Lü Guang.

Anmi county had been part of Jiuquan commandary since the Han dynasty.)


光至高昌,翰以郡迎降。初,光聞翰之說,惡之,又聞苻堅喪敗,長安危逼,謀欲停師。杜進諫曰:「梁熙文雅有餘,機鑒不足,終不能納善從說也,願不足憂之。聞其上下未同,宜在速進,進而不捷,請受過言之誅。」光從之。及至玉門,梁熙傳檄責光擅命還師,遣子胤與振威姚皓、別駕衛翰率眾五萬,距光於灑泉。光報檄涼州,責熙無赴難之誠,數其遏歸師之罪。遣彭晃、杜進、姜飛等為前鋒,擊胤,大敗之。胤輕將麾下數百騎東奔,杜進追擒之。於是四山胡夷皆來款附。武威太守彭濟執熙請降。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

When Lü Guang reached Gaochang, Yang Han welcomed him and surrendered his commandary. Earlier, when Lü Guang had heard about what Yang Han had suggested, he was wary because of it. And when Lü Guang further heard about Fu Jian's disastrous defeat and the peril that Chang'an was facing, he considered halting the army. Du Jin remonstrated with him, saying, "Although Liang Xi is a man of abundant virtue and cultivation, he cannot recognize opportunities. In the end, he will not be able to accept good ideas or follow advice, so there is no need for you to worry. From what we have heard of him, he cannot make up his mind. I urge you to advance quickly. If you advance and yet are not successful, then I ask you to execute me for what I have just said." So Lü Guang took his advice.

By the time Lü Guang's army reached Yumen, Liang Xi had been sending out proclamations blaming Lü Guang for violating his orders by bringing his army back. Liang Xi sent his son Liang Yin, his General Who Spreads Might, Yao Hao, and his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Wei Han, to lead fifty thousand soldiers, and they opposed Lü Guang at Saquan. Lü Guang distributed his own proclamations, blaming Liang Xi for not attending to his army's difficulties and even the crime of going so far as to repeatedly prevent it from returning home. Then Lü Guang sent Peng Huang, Du Jin, Jiang Fei, and others as his vanguard, and they attacked Liang Yin and greatly defeated him. Liang Yin fled east with several hundred of his light cavalry subordinates, but Du Jin pursued him and captured him. Then the tribesmen of the four mountains all came to receive and come over to Lü Guang. The Administrator of Wuwei, Peng Huang, arrested Liang Xi and asked to surrender to Lü Guang.

苻堅涼州刺史梁熙遣兵拒之,光擊破熙軍,遂入姑臧。斬熙。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Fu Jian's Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, sent troops to oppose Lü Guang. But Lü Guang routed Liang Xi's army, then entered Guzang. He beheaded Liang Xi.


光入姑臧,自領涼州刺史,表杜進爲武威太守,自餘將佐,各受職位。涼州郡縣皆降於光,獨酒泉太守宋皓、西郡太守宋泮城守不下。光攻而執之,讓泮曰:「吾受詔平西域,而梁熙絕我歸路,此朝廷之罪人,卿何爲附之?」泮曰:「將軍受詔平西域,不受詔亂涼州,梁公何罪而將軍殺之?泮但苦力不足,不能報君父之讎耳,豈肯如逆氐彭濟之所爲乎!主滅臣死,固其常也。」光殺泮及皓。

57. When Lü Guang entered Guzang, he appointed himself as acting Inspector of Liangzhou. He petitioned for Du Jin to be appointed as Administrator of Wuwei, while he himself appointed the other military and administrative offices, and each person received their role. All the commandaries and counties of Liangzhou submitted to him.

Only the Administrator of Jiuquan, Song Hao, and the Administrator of Xi commandary, Song (or Suo) Pan, held their cities and refused to submit. Lü Guang attacked them and captured them. He demanded Song/Suo Pan, "I held a commission to pacify the Western Reaches, and yet Liang Xi barred the road home against me. He was a criminal against the court. How could you side with him?"

Song/Suo Pan replied, "You did indeed receive a commission to pacify the Western Reaches. But you had no orders to start a rebellion in Liangzhou. What crime had Lord Liang committed, General, that you killed him? I only regret that my efforts were not enough, and I could not avenge my lord father. How could I stand to be like that traitorous Di, Peng Ji, and all the rest of them? When a lord is vanquished, his minister dies. This is how it should be."

Lü Guang killed him and Song Hao.

【章:十二行本「宋」作「索」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】《晉志》曰:漢分張掖之日勒、删丹等縣置西郡,其地當嶺要。

(Some versions write 宋 Song Pan's surname as 索 Suo.

The Records of Jin states, "Han split Rilei, Shandan, and other counties off from Zhangye commandary to form Xi commandary. It was located at an important place within the mountain ranges.")


九月,光入姑臧,自領涼州剌史、護羌校尉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the ninth month, Lü Guang entered Guzang, where he appointed himself as acting Inspector of Liangzhou and Colonel Who Protects The Qiang.

光入姑臧,自領涼州刺史、護羌校尉,表杜進為輔國將軍、武威太守,封武始侯,自余封拜各有差。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang entered Guzang, and appointed himself as acting Inspector of Liangzhou and Colonel Who Protects The Qiang. He petitioned to appoint Du Jin as General Who Upholds The State, Administrator of Wuwei, and Marquis of Wushi, and appointed others with suitable titles on his own authority.

光自署護羌校尉、涼州刺史。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang appointed himself as Colonel Who Protects The Qiang and Inspector of Liangzhou.


主簿尉祐,姦佞傾險,與彭濟俱執梁熙,光寵信之;祐譖殺名士姚皓等十餘人,涼州人由是不悅。光以祐爲金城太守,祐至允吾,襲據其城以叛;姜飛擊破之,祐奔據興城。

58. Lü Guang's Registrar, Wei You, used perverted flattery to get his way. He had colluded with Peng Ji to arrest Liang Xi, and so Lü Guang favored and trusted him. Thanks to Wei You's slander, more than ten renowned people were killed, including Yao Hao, making the people of Liangzhou upset.

Lü Guang appointed Wei You as Administrator of Jincheng. When Wei You came to Qianya, he suddenly occupied the city and rebelled. Jiang Fei attacked and routed him, and Wei You ran away and occupied Xingcheng.

尉,姓也。昔齊人伐燕,勝之。孟子曰:「取之而燕民悅,則取之;取之而燕民不悅,則勿取。」其後燕卒報齊。呂光始得涼土而無以收涼人之心,宜其有國不永也。允吾,漢縣,屬金城郡,晉省。據《水經註》,允吾在廣武西北,其地在當時蓋屬廣武郡界。劉昫曰:唐鄯州龍支縣,本漢允吾縣,後漢改曰龍耆,後魏改曰金城,又改曰龍支。積石山在今縣南。允,音鉛。吾,音牙。以《載記》參考《水經》,興城當在允吾之西,白土之東。

(尉 Wei is a surname.

In former times, the state of Qi had campaigned against Yan, and they were victorious over them. Mencius remarked, "If you take Yan and the people are happy, then you have truly taken it. If you take Yan and the people are not happy, then you have not truly taken it." Later, Yan avenged themselves against Qi. Now Lü Guang had newly taken the territory of Liangzhou, but he did not bring the hearts of the people there over to him. From that, one could see that he would not possess the state forever.

Qianya was a county during Han, as part of Jincheng commandary. Jin abolished it. According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Qianya was northwest of Guangwu; it must have been within Guangwu commandary. The Old Book of Tang states, "Longzhi county in Tang's Shanzhou was originally Qianya county during Han. In Later Han, its name was changed to Longqi. During Northern Wei, its name was changed to Jincheng, and then changed again to Longqi." Mount Jishi is in the south of the modern county. The first character in Qianya, 允, is pronounced "qian". The second character, 吾, is pronounced "ya".

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and the Water Classic, Xingcheng was west of Qianya and east of Baitu.)


光主簿尉祐,奸佞傾薄人也,見棄前朝,與彭齊同謀執梁熙,光深見寵任,乃譖誅南安姚皓、天水尹景等名士十餘人,遠近頗以此離貳。光尋擢祐為甯遠將軍、金城太守。祐次允吾,襲據外城以叛,祐從弟隨據鸇陰以應之。光遣其將魏真討隨,隨敗,奔祐,光將姜飛又擊敗祐眾。祐奔據興城,扇動百姓,夷夏多從之。飛司馬張象、參軍郭雅謀殺飛應祐,發覺,逃奔。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang's Registrar, Wei You, was a man who used wicked flattery to advance himself and ruin others. He had abandoned his former superior, by colluding with Peng Ji to arrest Liang Xi. Lü Guang deeply appreciated him and granted him office. Wei You then slandered and brought about the executions of more than ten renowned people, including Yao Hao of Nan'an and Yin Jing of Tianshui. Many people near and far turned away from Lü Guang on account of this. Lü Guang then appointed Wei You as General Who Calms Distant Places and Administrator of Jincheng.

When Wei You came to Qianya, he suddenly occupied the outer city and then rebelled. His cousin Wei Sui also occupied Zhanyin and supported him. Lü Guang sent his general Wei Zhen to campaign against Wei Sui, and Wei Sui was defeated and fled to Wei You. Lü Guang's general Jiang Fei also attacked Wei You, and defeated his army. Wei You fled and occupied Xingcheng, where he stirred up the common people, and many of the tribes and the Xia (Han) people followed him. Jiang Fei's Marshal, Zhang Xiang, and his Army Advisor, Guo Ya, plotted to kill Jiang Fei in support of Wei You, but when their plot was discovered, they escaped and fled.

主簿尉祐,姦佞淺薄,光寵任之,譖誅姚皓、尹景等名士十餘人。於是遠近失望,人懷離貳。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang's Registrar, Wei You, was a man who used wicked flattery to advance himself and ruin others, but Lü Guang favored and employed him. Wei You then slandered and brought about the executions of more than ten renowned people, including Yin Jing. Many people near and far turned away from Lü Guang on account of this, and he lost the affections of the people.


乞伏國仁自稱大都督、大將軍、單于、領秦‧河二州牧,改元建義,以乙旃童埿爲左相,屋引出支爲右相,獨孤匹蹄爲左輔,武羣勇士爲右輔,弟乾歸爲上將軍,分其地置武城等十二郡,築勇士城而都之。

59. Qifu Guoren declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Chanyu, and acting Governor of Qinzhou and Hezhou. He set his own reign era title as Jianyi. He appointed Yizhan Tongni as Chancellor of the Left, Wuyin Chuzhi as Chancellor of the Right, Dugu Piti as Steward of the Left, and Wuqun Yongshi as Steward of the Right. He appointed his younger brother Qifu Gangui as General-in-Chief. Qifu Guoren divided his territory into twelve commandaries, Wucheng and the rest, and he built a city at Yongshi to be his capital.

乙旃、屋引、獨孤、武羣,皆夷人複姓。乞伏與拓跋同出於鮮卑,故其部人亦有乙旃、獨孤二姓。《載記》曰:置武城、武陽、安固、武始、漢陽、天水、略陽、漒川、甘松、匡朋、白馬、苑川十二郡。《水經註》:苑川水出勇士縣之子城南山,北逕牧師苑,故漢牧苑之地也,有東、西二苑城,其城相去七里;西城卽乞伏所都。

(乙旃 Yizhan, 屋引 Wuyin, 獨孤 Dugu, and 武羣 Wuqun were all tribal surnames. The Qifu clan were Xianbei, just like the Tuoba clan, who also had tribes with the surnames Yizhan and Dugu.

According to the Biography of Qifu Guoren in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, these twelve commandaries were Wucheng, Wuyang, Angu, Wushi, Hanyang, Tianshui, Lüeyang, Qiangchuan, Gansong, Kuangpeng, Baima, and Yuanchuan.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yuanchuan River comes from the mountains south of Zicheng in Yongshi county. It flows north through Mushiyuan, which was called Muyuan during Han. There are two Yuanchengs on either side of the river, seven li from one another. The western one was the one the Qifu clan made their capital.")


又聞堅為姚萇所殺,於是自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、領秦河二州牧,改秦建元二十一年為建義元年,置武陵、苑川等十一郡,築勇士都城以都之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

When Qifu Guoren heard that Fu Jian had been killed by Yao Chang, he proclaimed himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and acting Governor of Qinzhou and Hezhou. He changed the reign era title from Former Qin's twenty-first year of Jianyuan (385) to the first year of Jianyi. He created eleven commandaries, Wuling, Yuanchuan, and the rest, and he built a capital city at Yongshichuan for his capital.

及堅為姚萇所殺,國仁謂其豪帥曰:「苻氏以高世之姿而困於烏合之眾,可謂天也。夫守常迷運,先達恥之;見機而作,英豪之舉。吾雖薄德,藉累世之資,豈可睹時來之運而不作乎!」以孝武太元十年自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、領秦、河二州牧,建元曰建義。以其將乙旃音埿為左相,屋引出支為右相,獨孤匹蹄為左輔,武群勇士為右輔,弟乾歸為上將軍,自余拜授各有差。置武城、武陽、安固、武始、漢陽、天水、略陽、漒川、甘松、匡朋、白馬、苑川十二郡,築勇士城以居之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

After Fu Jian was killed by Yao Chang, Qifu Guoren said to his commanders, "The Fu clan had a grand lineage, yet they were laid low by a disorderly mob. One could call that Heaven's will. A man who hesitates to act and holds fast to safety shames the worthies of the past. But a man who sees opportunity and acts on it will have the support of the heroes of his age. Though I have only slight virtue and a meager lineage, how could I see what the times have come to and not act?" So in Emperor Xiaowu's tenth year of Taiyuan (385), he proclaimed himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and acting Governor of Qinzhou and Hezhou. He set his reign era title as Jianyi.

Qifu Guoren appointed his general Yizhan Yinni as Chancellor of the Left, Wuyin Chuzhi as Chancellor of the Right, Dugu Piti as Steward of the Left, and Wuqun Yongshi as Steward of the Right. He appointed his younger brother Qifu Gangui as General-in-Chief, and others were all appointed accordingly. He created the twelve commandaries of Wucheng, Wuyang, Angu, Wushi, Hanyang, Tianshui, Lüeyang, Qiangchuan, Gansong, Kuangpeng, Baima, and Yuanchuan. He built a city at Yongshi and resided there.


秦尚書令、魏昌公纂自關中奔晉陽;秦主丕拜纂太尉,封東海王。

60. Qin's Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Weichang, Fu Zuan, fled from Guanzhong to Jinyang. Fu Pi appointed him as Grand Commandant and Prince of Donghai.

冬,十月,西燕主沖遣尚書令高蓋帥衆五萬伐後秦,戰于新平南,蓋大敗,降於後秦。初,蓋以楊定爲子,及蓋敗,定亡奔隴右,復收集其舊衆。定爲西燕禽,財六月耳。

61. In winter, the tenth month, Murong Chong sent Gao Gai to lead fifty thousand soldiers to campaign against Later Qin. The two sides fought south of Xinping, and Gao Gai was greatly defeated. He surrendered to Later Qin.

Before, Gao Gai had considered Yang Ding as his son. When Gao Gai was defeated, Yang Ding fled from Western Yan to Longyou, and gathered up his old host again. Yang Ding was the grandson of Yang Fonu. He had been in the employ of Western Yan for a mere six months before he abandoned them.

【張:「衆」下脫「定,佛奴之孫也」。】

(Some versions add the sentence "Yang Ding was the grandson of Yang Fonu.")


慕容沖遣車騎大將軍尚書令高蓋來戰於新平,大破之,蓋率麾下數千人來降。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

Murong Chong sent his Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Gao Gai, to come fight Yao Chang at Xinping, but Yao Chang greatly routed him. Gao Gai led several thousand of his subordinates to come surrender to him.

慕容沖遣其車騎大將軍高蓋率眾五萬來伐,戰于新平南,大破之,蓋率麾下數千人來降,拜散騎常侍。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Murong Chong sent his Grand General of the Chariots and Cavalry, Gao Gai, to lead fifty thousand soldiers to campaign against Yao Chang. The two sides fought south of Xinping, and Gao Gai was greatly routed. He led several thousand of his subordinates to come surrender to Yao Chang, and Yao Chang appointed him as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance.


苻定、苻紹、苻謨、苻亮聞秦主丕卽位,皆自河北遣使謝罪;中山太守王兗,本新平氐也,固守博陵,爲秦拒燕。十一月,丕以兗爲平州刺史,定爲冀州牧,紹爲冀州都督,謨爲幽州牧,亮爲幽、平二州都督,並進爵郡公。左將軍竇衝據茲川,有衆數萬,與秦州刺史王統、河州刺史毛興、益州刺史王廣、南秦州刺史楊璧、衞將軍楊定皆自隴右遣使邀丕,共擊後秦。丕以定爲雍州牧,衝爲梁州牧,加統鎭西大將軍,興車騎大將軍,璧征南大將軍,並開府儀同三司,加廣安西將軍,皆進位州牧。

62. When Fu Ding, Fu Shao, Fu Mo, and Fu Liang heard that Fu Pi had ascended the Qin throne, they all sent messengers to him from Hebei, apologizing for their crimes. The Administrator of Zhongshan, Wang Yan, was originally a member of the Di people from Xinping. He was stubbornly defending Boling, holding out against Yan on behalf of Qin. In the eleventh month, Fu Pi appointed Wang Yan as Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Ding as Governor of Jizhou, Fu Shao as Commander of Jizhou, Fu Mo as Governor of Youzhou, and Fu Liang as Commander of Youzhou and Pingzhou, and all of them were advanced in rank to be Dukes of commandaries.

Dou Chong captured Zichuan, where he gathered a host of several tens of thousands. Dou Chong, Wang Tong, Mao Xing, Wang Guang, Yang Bi, and Yang Ding all sent messengers from Longyou to ask Fu Pi to join them in a joint attack against Later Qin. Fu Pi appointed Yang Ding as Governor of Yongzhou, Dou Chong as Governor of Lianzhou, Wang Tong as Grand General Who Guards The West, Mao Xing as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Yang Bi as Grand General Who Conquers The South, and each of them were granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. He also appointed Wang Guang as General Who Maintains the West, and he was advanced to Governor of his province like the rest.

定、紹、謨、亮降燕,見上卷上年。茲川,卽霸川也;霸水,古曰滋水。秦穆公之霸也,更滋水曰霸水以顯霸功。今曰茲川,因古名也。

(Fu Ding, Fu Shao, Fu Mo, and Fu Liang had earlier surrendered to Later Yan, as mentioned in Book 105, in the previous year (384.34).

Zichuan was also called Bachuan. The Ba River was once called the Zi River. After Duke Mu of Qin became Hegemon, he renamed the river from Zi to Ba ("hegemon") in honor of his triumphs. The place is still called Zichuan, to reflect its old name.)


楊定尋徙治歷城,置儲蓄於百頃,自稱龍驤將軍、仇池公,遣使來稱藩;詔因其所號假之。其後又取天水、略陽之地,自稱秦州刺史、隴西王。

63. Yang Ding soon moved his base to Licheng, and he made a supply depot at Baiqing. He proclaimed himself Dragon-Soaring General and Duke of Chouchi. He sent word to Jin declaring himself their vassal, so the Jin court approved his provisional titles. Later on, he also seized Tianshui and Lüeyang, and then he proclaimed himself Inspector of Qinzhou and Prince of Longxi.

百頃,自楊茂搜以來,保爲巢穴。

(Ever since Yang Maosou, Baoqing had been a defensive lair.)


繹幕人蔡匡據城以叛燕,燕慕容麟、慕容隆共攻之。泰山太守任泰潛師救匡,至匡壘南八里,燕人乃覺之。諸將以匡未下而外敵奄至,甚患之。隆曰:「匡恃外救,故不時下。今計泰之兵不過數千人,及其未合,擊之,泰敗,匡自降矣。」乃釋匡擊泰,大破之,斬首千餘級。匡遂降,燕王垂殺之,且屠其壘。

64. A native of Yimu, Cai Kuang, occupied that city and rebelled against Yan. Murong Lin and Murong Long attacked him together. Qin’s Administrator of Taishan, Ren Tai, secretly led troops to rescue Cai Kuang. When he was eight li south of Cai Kuang’s fortress, the Yan troops realized he was approaching. The Yan generals felt that they were greatly threatened, since they had not yet dealt with Cai Kuang and yet this other enemy was closing in on them. But Murong Long said, "Cai Kuang depends upon this rescue from without, and that is why we have not finished him yet. But consider that Ren Tai does not have more than several thousand men. Before these two forces can combine, we should attack him. Once Ren Tai is defeated, then Cai Kuang will surrender of his own accord." So they left Cai Kuang to go attack Ren Kai, and greatly routed him, taking more than a thousand heads. Cai Kuang then surrendered. Murong Chui killed him, and massacred his fortress.

繹幕縣,自漢以來屬清河郡,至隋廢,入德州安樂縣。

(Ever since Han, Yimu county had been part of Qinghe commandary. Sui abolished it, and it was folded into Anle county in Dezhou.)


慕容農至龍城,休士馬十餘日。諸將皆曰:「殿下之來,取道甚速,今至此久留不進,何也?」農曰:「吾來速者,恐餘巖過山鈔盜,侵擾良民耳。巖才不踰人,誑誘飢兒,烏集爲羣,非有綱紀;吾已扼其喉,久將離散,無能爲也。今此田善熟,未取而行,徒自耗損,當俟收畢,往則梟之,亦不出旬日耳。」頃之,農將步騎三萬至令支,巖衆震駭,稍稍踰城歸農。巖計窮出降,農斬之;進擊高句麗,復遼東、玄菟二郡。還至龍城,上疏請繕脩陵廟。

65. When Murong Nong reached Longcheng, he rested his soldiers and horses for more than ten days. His generals all said to him, "Your Highness, when you were on the way here, you marched swiftly along the road. But now that we are here, you linger for a long time and do not advance. Why?"

Murong Nong replied, "I came here so quickly merely because I feared that Yu Yan might cross over the mountain and oppress the good people as a bandit. Yu Yan is only a fellow of common talent, and he has beguiled some hungry people into going along with him. Though he has gathered many soldiers, they have no discipline. Now I already have him by the throat. His men will all fall apart and scatter before long, and then he will not be able to do anything. However, the fields here have just turned ripe, and the people have not yet had time to bring in the harvest. If we advance now, it could result in much waste. Let us wait until they have finished gathering the harvest. Then we can advance, and we will have him in less than a week."

When the harvest had been collected, Murong Nong advanced with thirty thousand horse and foot to Lingzhi. Yu Yan's army trembled at his approach, and little by little they climbed down the walls of the city and went over to Murong Nong. Yu Yan found that he was too weak to oppose Murong Nong, so he came out to surrender. Murong Nong beheaded him. Then Murong Nong advanced further and attacked Goguryeo, and recovered the two commandaries Liaodong and Xuantu. After that, he returned to Longcheng, and sent up a petition asking to repair the tombs and ancestral temples there.

自蠮螉塞歷凡城,至龍城。此山,謂白狼山。郝景之敗,高句麗陷遼東、玄菟。燕自慕容皝以前皆葬遼西,故陵廟在焉。

(Murong Nong had advanced from Yeweng Pass and through Fancheng, and had now reached Longcheng.

The mountain mentioned here was White Wolf Mountain.

After Hao Jing's defeat, Goguryeo had occupied Liaodong and Xuantu. (385.33)

All the members of the Murong clan from Murong Huang and earlier had been buried in Liaoxi, and that was why there were Yan tombs and temples there.)


燕王垂以農爲使持節、都督幽‧平二州‧北狄諸軍事、幽州牧,鎭龍城。徙平州刺史帶方王佐鎭平郭。農於是創立法制,事從寬簡,清刑獄,省賦役,勸課農桑,居民富贍,四方民前後至者數萬口。先是幽、冀流民多入高句麗,農以驃騎司馬范陽龐淵爲遼東太守,招撫之。

66. Murong Chui appointed Murong Nong as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Youzhou, Pingzhou, and among the northern tribes, and Governor of Youzhou, and he was stationed at Longcheng. He shifted the Inspector of Pingzhou, Murong Zuo, to be stationed at Pingguo.

Murong Nong implemented and formalized laws and regulations in that region, was tolerant and accomodating in administration, was honest in punishments and criminal cases, cut back on taxes and corvee labor, encouraged and instructed the people in farming and silkworm cultivation, and brought prosperity and abundance to the people living there. Many tens of thousands of people came from all directions to live under him. Up until now, many refugees from Youzhou and Jizhou had fled from those areas to live in Goguryeo territory. After Murong Nong had recovered those regions, he sent his Marshal to the General of Agile Cavalry, Pang Yuan of Fanyang, to be Administrator of Liaodong, and Pang Yuan comforted and nurtured those people.

慕容麟攻王兗于博陵,城中糧竭矢盡,功曹張猗踰城出,聚衆以應麟。兗臨城數之曰:「卿是秦民,吾是卿君,卿起兵應賊,自號『義兵』,何名實之相違也?古人求忠臣必於孝子之門,卿母在城,棄而不顧,吾何有焉!今人取卿一切之功則可矣;寧能忘卿不忠不孝之事乎?不意中州禮義之邦,乃有如卿者也!」十二月,麟拔博陵,執兗及苻鑑,殺之。昌黎太守宋敞帥烏桓、索頭之衆救兗,不及而還。秦主丕以敞爲平州刺史。

67. Murong Lin attacked Wang Yan at Boling. The food inside the city ran low, and all the arrows were used up.

Wang Yan's Merit Evaluator, Zhang Yu, climbed down the walls of the city and gathered a host of people to go over to Murong Lin. Wang Yan shouted at him from atop the walls, "You are a man of Qin, and I am your superior. Yet though you are raising troops to go over to the rebels, you claim to be organize a 'righteous uprising'. What could be further from the truth? The ancients said, 'A loyal minister must be a filial son at the gate.' Now your mother is still inside the city, yet you have abandoned her without any consideration. What am I to make of that? Whoever captures you now will have done a great deed. Do you think I shall ever forget that you were neither loyal nor filial? The Central Provinces are no longer 'neighbors to justice and properity', when men like you exist!"

In the twelfth month, Murong Lin took Boling. He captured Wang Yan and Fu Jiann, and killed them.

Qin's Administrator of Changli, Song Chang, had been leading an army of Wuhuan and Suotou to rescue Wang Yan, but since he did not arrive in time, he went back. Fu Pi appointed Song Chang as the new Inspector of Pingzhou to replace Wang Yan.

後漢韋彪之言。敞時從王永在壺關。

("A loyal minister must be a filial son at the gate" was a saying of Wei Biao of Later Han.

At this time, Song Chang had followed Wang Yong to Huguan.)


燕主垂北如中山,謂諸將曰:「樂浪王招流離,實倉廩,外給軍糧,內營宮室,雖蕭何之功,何以加之!」丙申,垂始定都中山。

68. When Murong Chui arrived at Zhongshan, he said to his generals, "The Prince of Lelang (Murong Wen) has gathered up the refugees and filled his warehouses. He has supplied our armies in the field and built barracks and palaces within the city. Could even Xiao He have surpassed his achievements?" On the day Bingshen (February 8th of 386), Murong Chui decided upon Zhongshan as his capital.

樂浪王溫之功詳見上。漢高祖與項羽相拒,蕭何鎭撫關中,爲之根本。杜佑曰:後燕都中山,今博陵郡唐昌縣。

(Murong Wen's achievements in Zhongshan were mentioned earlier.

During the Chu-Han contention, when Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) and Xiang Yu were contending for the realm, Xiao He had secured and built up Guanzhong, to serve as the foundation for Emperor Gao's conquest.

The Tongdian states, "Later Yan's capital was at Zhongshan, which was in modern Tangchang county in Boling commandary.")


秦苻定據信都以拒燕,燕王垂以從弟北地王精爲冀州刺史,將兵攻之。

69. Fu Ding occupied Xindu and opposed Yan. Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Beidi, his cousin Murong Jing, as Inspector of Jizhou, and he sent Murong Jing with soldiers to attack Fu Ding.

拓跋珪從曾祖紇羅與其弟建及諸部大人共請賀訥推珪爲主。

70. Tuoba Gui's great-uncle Tuoba Heluo, Tuoba Heluo's younger brother Tuoba Jian, and the other tribal chieftains all urged He Ne to acclaim Tuoba Gui as their leader.
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