Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 102

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Apr 11, 2017 8:24 pm

太和四年(己巳,公元三六九年)

The Fourth Year of Taihe (The Jisi Year, 369 AD)


春,三月,大司馬溫請與徐、兗二州刺史郗愔、江州刺史桓沖、豫州刺史袁真等伐燕。初,愔在北府,溫常雲:「京口酒可飲,兵可用。」深不欲愔居之;而愔暗於事機,乃遺溫箋,欲共獎王室,請督所部出河上。愔子超為溫參軍,取視,寸寸毀裂,乃更作愔箋,自陳非將帥才,不堪軍旅,老病,乞閒地自養,勸溫並領己所統。溫得箋大喜,即轉愔冠軍將軍、會稽內史,溫自領徐、兗二州刺史。夏,四月,庚戌,溫帥步騎五萬發姑孰。

1. In spring, the third month, Jin's Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, asked to launch a northern campaign against Yan, along with the Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Chi Yin, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Chong, the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yuan Zhen, and others.

Earlier, when Chi Yin had been in command of the Northern Garrison, Huan Wen had often said, "Jingkou has fine wine, and fine soldiers." He was not at all happy that Chi Yin was posted there. However, Chi Yin knew nothing of Huan Wen’s reservations about him. He sent a letter to Huan Wen, asking to work with him to support the royal house, and offered to march his troops north across the Yellow River. Chi Yin's son Chi Chao was then serving as an Army Advisor in Huan Wen's camp. When he saw the letter before it reached Huan Wen, he tore it to pieces, and then composed a new letter in his father's hand, disclaiming any special talent for military command, stating he was not suited for the army life, and asking to be allowed to retire on account of age and infirmity, so that he could recuperate. The new letter further suggested that Huan Wen himself should take control of Chi Yin's former forces. When Huan Wen saw this doctored letter, he was very pleased, and he had Chi Yin transferred to be Champion General and Interior Minister of Kuaiji. Huan Wen then took over Chi Yin's role as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengxu (May 22nd), Huan Wen led fifty thousand horse and foot north from his base at Gushu.

慕容恪死,溫乃伐燕,自謂相時而動,可以制勝,豈知爲慕容垂所敗哉!晉都建康,以京口爲北府,歷陽爲西府,姑孰爲南州。京口兵可用,蓋山川風氣然也,豈必至謝玄用之而後敵人知畏哉!會稽爲王國,改太守爲內史。

(Only after Murong Ke's death did Huan Wen began his campaign against Yan. Huan Wen thought that, since he had waited for the right opportunity before making a move, he would be sure to win. Little did he expect to be defeated by Murong Chui!

Since the Eastern Jin capital was at Jiankang, Jingkou was called the "northern garrison", Liyang was called the "western garrison", and Gushe was called the "southern province".

The reason that Jingkou had "fine soldiers" must have been because of the terrain and climate of that region. Surely they were already strong enough in themselves to strike fear in the hearts of their enemies, and did not need to wait until they later had Xie Xuan's guiding hand!

After Kuaiji became a princely fiefdom, instead of an Administrator, it was overseen by an Interior Minister.)


僭晉將桓溫率眾伐暐。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

The Jin general Huan Wen led an army to campaign against Murong Wei.

郗司空在北府,桓宣武惡其居兵權。郗於事機素暗,遣牋詣桓:「方欲共獎王室,脩復園陵。」世子嘉賓出行,於道上聞信至,急取牋,視竟,寸寸毀裂,便回。還更作牋,自陳老病,不堪人間,欲乞閑地自養。宣武得牋大喜,即詔轉公督五郡,會稽太守。(New Tales of the World 11.6)

While Chi Yin was stationed at the northern headquarters as General Who Conquers The North, Huan Wen resented his occupying such a position of military power. Chi Yin, who in his judgment of affairs was both simpleminded and dull, sent a memorandum to Huan Wen in which he proposed that they join in encouraging the royal house to recover the imperial tombs (of Western Jin in Luoyang).

Chi Yin's heir, Chi Chao, had just gone out (of Huan Wen's headquarters in Jiankang) and was traveling along the road, when he heard a messenger (from his father) had arrived. He hastily seized the memorandum, and after he had finished reading it, tore it inch by inch into shreds. Turning around, he went back and wrote another memorandum (in his father's name) in which he stated that because of old age and sickness he could no longer endure the company of men and wished only to beg for a quiet place where he might take care of himself.

When Huan Wen received the memorandum, he was greatly delighted, and Emperor Fei immediately gave orders to have Chi Yin transferred to supervise five commandaries and serve as Administrator of Kuaiji. (tr. Richard Mather)


甲子,燕主暐立皇後可足渾氏,太后從弟尚書令豫章公翼之女也。

2. On the day Jiazi (June 5th), the Emperor of Yan, Murong Wei, honored Lady Kezuhun as his empress. This Lady Kezuhun was the daughter of the Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Yuzhang, Kezuhun Yi, and Empress Dowager Kezuhun’s younger cousin.

十年四月,立貴妃可朱渾氏為皇后。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the tenth year of Jianxi (369), the fourth month, Murong Wei chose the Honored Concubine, Lady Kezuhun, as his Empress.


大司馬溫自兗州伐燕。郗超曰:「道遠,汴水又淺,恐漕運難通。」溫不從。六月,辛丑,溫至金鄉,天旱,水道絕,溫使冠軍將軍毛虎生鑿鉅野三百裡,引汶水會於清水。虎生,寶之子也。溫引舟師自清水入河,舳艫數百裡。郗超曰:「清水入河,難以通運。若寇不戰,運道又絕,因敵為資,復無所得,此危道也。不若盡舉見眾直趨鄴城,彼畏公威名,必望風逃潰,北歸遼、碣。若能出戰,則事可立決。若欲城鄴而守之,則當此盛夏,難為功力。百姓布野,盡為官有,易水以南必交臂請命矣。但恐明公以此計輕銳,勝負難必,欲務持重,則莫若頓兵河、濟,控引漕運,俟資儲充備,至來夏乃進兵;雖如賒遲,然期於成功而已。捨此二策而連軍北上,進不速決,退必愆乏。賊因此勢以日月相引,漸及秋冬,水更澀滯。且北土早寒,三軍裘褐者少,恐於時所憂,非獨無食而已。」溫又不從。

3. Huan Wen marched north from Yanzhou on campaign against Yan. Chi Chao advised him, "The road to Yan is far, and the Pian River is shallow. I fear water transport will be difficult." But Huan Wen did not heed him.

In the sixth month, on the day Xinchou (?), Huan Wen reached Jinxiang. There was a drought, and the water routes were dried up. So Huan sent the Champion General, Mao Husheng, to carve a canal for three hundred li at Juye, to channel water from the Wen River into the Qing River. This Mao Husheng was the son of Mao Bao. Huan Wen then led his boats to sail up the Qing River to enter the Yellow River, and the convoy of these ships stretched for several hundred li.

Chi Chao advised Huan Wen, "Navigation is difficult where the Qing River enters the Yellow River. If we invade the enemy's territory but are unable to force a battle, and our supply line on this river is cut, then we shall have to rely upon forage from the enemy to sustain ourselves; we might not obtain anything that way, so this course of action places us in danger.

"We would do best to gather all our forces together and fall upon Ye with full haste. The enemy fears your martial reputation, and they would certainly recognize the hopelessness of their situation and flee north to the safety of Liao and Jie. Or if they come to offer us battle, then the matter can even be decided quickly. Or if they attempt to hold out at Ye, then since it is currently the height of summer, it will be difficult for the enemy to accomplish anything. The commoners, who are spread all over the land during this season, will come under our influence, and all the land south of the Yi River will submit to our command.

“It may be that you would consider this plan careless and hasty, since it would be difficult to ensure its success, and you would rather attend to every detail first. In that case, the best thing you could do would be to place garrisons along the Yellow and Ji Rivers and better establish your supply lines. Wait until you stores are fully stocked and you have made all your preparations, and then you can advance next summer. Even though there would be a delay, it would be for the sake of fulfilling your achievement.

“But if you were to dismiss both these ideas and continue your march northward, if victory cannot be determined swiftly, you would suffer from blunders and shortages when you withdraw. For the enemy will draw out our engagement, by days and months, until autumn and winter arrive, when the river water will become even more shallow and stagnant. Furthermore, the northern lands become cold early, and few in our armies are equipped with warm jackets. I fear that, by then, we would have more to worry about than just the lack of food."

But again, Huan Wen did not heed him.

兵亂之餘,汴水塡淤,未嘗有人浚治,故淺。汴,皮變翻。金鄕縣,後漢屬山陽郡,晉屬高平郡,隋屬濟陰郡,唐屬兗州,我宋屬濟州,縣在州東南九十里。班固《地理志》,汶水出泰山萊蕪縣西南,入濟。《水經註》:濟水東北入鉅野,其故瀆又東北右合洪水;洪水上承鉅野薛訓渚,謂之桓公瀆,濟自是北注。杜佑曰:濟水,因王莽末渠涸不復截河過,今東平、濟南、淄川、北海界中有水流入海,謂之清河,實菏澤、汶水合流,亦曰濟河,蓋因舊名,非濟水也。毛寶預有平蘇峻之功。註又見前。自清水入河,皆是泝流,又道里回遠,故言難以通運。郗超之謀略,豈常人所及哉,宜桓溫重之也。重之而不從其計者,直趨鄴城,決勝負於一戰,溫所不敢;頓兵河、濟以待來年,使燕得爲備,溫亦不爲也。

(During the chaos caused by the errant soldiers from Murong Jun's draft in 359-60, the Pian River had become choked with silt, and no one had dredged the river since then, so it was still shallow. 汴 is pronounced "pian (p-ian)".

During Later Han, Jinxiang county was part of Shanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Gaoping commandary. During Sui, it was part of Jiyin commandary. During Tang, it was part of Yanzhou. In our time (that is, the Song dynasty) it is part of Jizhou, ninety li southeast of the modern county.

Ban Gu's Geographical Records states, "The Wen River flows out of Mount Tai and passes southwest through Laiwu county, until it enters the Ji River." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ji River flows northeast into Juye. At the Juye Canal, it also joins the Hong River to the northeast on its right bank. The Hong River flows out of the Xuexun Lake at Juye, at the place called the Duke Huan Canal, where it flows into the Ji River to the north." Du You remarked, "Concerning the Ji River, since Wang Mang's canal had dried up before reaching the Yellow River, the region between modern Dongping, Jinan, Zichuan, and Beihai had rivers flowing into the sea, and so it was called Qinghe (for the Qing and Yellow Rivers). It was where the He Marsh joined with the flow of the Wen River, so it was also called Jihe, and that was the source of this old name. But it had nothing to do with the Ji River."

Mao Bao's accomplishments in helping to put down Su Jun's rebellion are listed earlier, in Book 94.

Where the Qing River entered the Yellow River, the Jin ships would be sailing upstream all the way, and it would be a long route to return. This was what Chi Chao meant by transport difficulties.

Chi Chao was most adept at devising strategies and plans; even a common person could have recognized that, and indeed Huan Wen thought very highly of him. Yet even despite Huan Wen's appreciation for Chi Chao's talents, he did not follow his strategy for this campaign. If Huan Wen had charged straight for Ye, he could have decided the campaign in a single battle, but this was something Huan Wen did not dare to do. Nor was he the kind of man to encamp along the Yellow and Ji Rivers and wait for the following year, since that meant that Former Yan would also be given time to prepare themselves.)


五年六月,晉大司馬桓溫伐燕。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the fifth year of Jianyuan (369), Jin's Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, campaigned against Former Yan.


溫遣建威將軍檀玄攻湖陸,拔之,獲燕寧東將軍慕容忠。燕主暐以下邳王厲為征討大都督,帥步騎二萬逆戰於黃墟,厲兵大敗,單馬奔還。高平太守徐翻舉郡來降。前鋒鄧遐、朱序敗燕將傅顏於林渚。暐復遣樂安王臧統諸軍拒溫,臧不能抗;乃遣散騎常侍李鳳求救於秦。

4. Huan Wen sent the General Who Establishes Might, Tan Xuan, to attack Hulu, and Tan Xuan took it, capturing Yan's General Who Calms The East, Murong Zhong. Murong Wei appointed his Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, as Grand Commander of the Expeditionary Forces, and Murong Li led twenty thousand horse and foot to fight Huan Wen at Huangxu. But Murong Li's soldiers suffered a great defeat, and he fled back alone on horseback.

Yan’s Administrator of Gaoping, Xu Fan, surrendered his commandary to Huan Wen. The Jin Vanguard Commanders, Deng Xia and Zhu Xu, defeated the Yan general Fu Yan at Linzhu.

Murong Wei then sent the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, to lead more armies to oppose Huan Wen, but Murong Zang could not stop him. So Murong Wei sent the Cavalier In Regular Attendandance, Li Feng, to seek aid from Qin.

湖陸縣,前漢曰湖陵,屬山陽郡,章帝更名湖陸;晉分屬高平郡。賢曰:湖陸故城在今兗州方與縣東南。《水經註》:陳留小黃縣有黃鄕。杜預曰:外黃縣東有黃城,兵亂之後,城邑丘墟,故曰黃墟。《水經註》:華水東逕棐城北,卽北林亭也。《春秋》諸侯會于棐林以救鄭,遇于北林。按林鄕故城在新鄭北;又有白鴈陂,在長社東北,林鄕西南。

(During Former Han, Hulu county was called Huling, and was part of Shanyang commandary. Emperor Zhang of Han changed its name to Hulu. Jin split it off as part of Gaoping commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Huling county was in the southeast of Fangyu county in modern Yanzhou."

Regarding Huangxu, the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a Huangcheng in Xiaohuang county in Chenliu commandary." Du Yu remarked, “The city of Huangcheng was in the east of Waihuang County." After so much warfare and destruction in the region over the years, the city and its environs lay in ruins, and thus it was called Huangxu (“the ruins of Huang”).

The Commentary on the Water Classic also states, "The Hua River flows east, passing north of Feicheng, at the place called Beilin Pavilion." The Spring and Autumn Annals mention that when the feudal lords met at Feilin to rescue the state of Zheng, the meeting place was at Beilin (Xuan 1.8). The capital city of Linxiang was north of Xinzheng. There was also Baiyan Slope, which was northeast of Changshe and southwest of Linxiang.)


秋,七月,溫屯武陽,燕故兗州刺史孫元帥其族黨起兵應溫。溫至枋頭,暐及太傅評大懼,謀奔和龍。吳王垂曰:「臣請擊之;若其不捷,走未晚也。」暐乃以垂代樂安王臧為使持節、南討大都督,帥征南將軍范陽王德等眾五萬以拒溫。垂表司徒左長史申胤、黃門侍郎封孚、尚書郎悉羅騰皆從軍。胤,鐘之子;孚,放之子也。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, Huan Wen camped at Wuyang. Yan's former Inspector of Yanzhou, Sun Yuan, and his clan and partisans led their troops in rebellion against Yan to support Huan Wen.

When Huan Wen arrived at Fangtou, Murong Wei and the Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, were greatly afraid, and they planned to flee to Helong. But the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, said, "Please allow me to fight a battle. If I do not meet with success, it will not be too late to flee afterwards." So Murong Wei appointed Murong Chui as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Grand Commander of the Southern Expedition, replacing Murong Zang. Murong Chui, the General Who Conquers The South and Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, and others led an army of fifty thousand to oppose Huan Wen. For his officers, Murong Chui selected the Chief Clerk of the Left of the Minister Over The Masses, Shen Yin, the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Feng Fu, and one of the Gentlemen of the Master of Writing, Xiluo Teng. This Shen Yin was the son of Shen Zhong. This Feng Fu was the son of Feng Fang.

此東武陽也,漢屬東郡,魏、晉屬陽平郡,唐改曰朝城縣、屬魏州。悉羅騰,蓋夷人,以部落爲氏,如《魏書‧官氏志》所載,神元時餘部諸姓內入者叱羅氏、如羅氏之類。申鍾見九十五卷成帝咸和九年。封放見九十九卷穆帝永和七年。

("Wuyang" here means Eastern Wuyang county. During Han, it was part of Dong commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Tang renamed it to Chaocheng county, as part of Weizhou.

Judging by his name, Xiluo Teng must have been a tribesman who had adopted the name of his Xiluo tribe as his surname, a practice described in the Records of Official Families chapter of the Book of Northern Wei. During the era of Emperor Shenyuan of Northern Wei (Tuoba Liwei), there had been similarly-named tribes who came to join him and who formed surnames from their clan names, like the Chiluo or Ruluo tribes.

Shen Zhong is first mentioned in Book 95, in Emperor Cheng's ninth year of Xianhe (334.21). Although he was originally a Later Zhao minister, he surrendered to Former Yan after Ran Min's defeat and served them. Feng Fang is mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's seventh year of Yonghe (351.14).)


六月,晉大司馬桓溫率衆五萬來伐,遂至枋頭。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the sixth month, Jin's Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, led an army of fifty thousand to come campaign against Yan, and he marched as far as Fangtou.

桓溫至於枋頭。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Huan Wen marched as far as Fangtou.

桓溫次于枋頭,燕師屢敗。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Huan Wen advanced as far as Fangtou, defeating the Former Yan army several times.


暐又遣散騎侍郎樂嵩請救於秦,許賂以虎牢以西之地。秦王堅引群臣議於東堂,皆曰:「昔桓溫伐我,至灞上,燕不我救。今溫伐燕,我何救焉!且燕不稱籓於我,我何為救之!」王猛密言於堅曰:「燕雖強大,慕容評非溫敵也。若溫舉山東,進屯洛邑,收幽、冀之兵,引並、豫之粟,觀兵崤、澠,則陛下大事去矣。今不如與燕合兵以退溫;溫退,燕亦病矣,然後我承其弊而取之,不亦善乎!」堅從之。八月,遣將軍苟池、洛州刺史鄧羌帥步騎二萬以救燕,出自洛陽,軍至穎川;又遣散騎侍郎姜撫報使於燕。以王猛為尚書令。

6. Murong Wei then sent his Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Yue Song, to again beg assistance from Qin, offering to give them all the territory west of Hulao (that is, the Luoyang region) in exchange. Fu Jian gathered his ministers for discussion in the Eastern Hall. They all said, "Years ago, when Huan Wen campaigned against us, and he came as far as Bashang, Yan did not assist us. Now Huan Wen is attacking Yan; why should we save them? Besides, Yan is no vassal of ours, so why should we help them?"

But Wang Meng secretly said to Fu Jian, "Although Yan is great and powerful, Murong Ping is no match for Huan Wen. If Huan Wen conquers everything east of the mountains and advances into the Luoyang region, if he harnesses the soldiers of Youzhou and Jizhou and harvests the grain of Bingzhou and Yuzhou, if he posts soldiers at the Xiao Mountains and the Mian River, then Your Majesty will lose your chance at achieving your grand design. It would be better to join forces with Yan today and repulse Huan Wen. For even after Huan Wen has been defeated, Yan will not have recovered from his invasion, and we may then take advantage of their weakness to claim their land for ourselves. Is that not also excellent?" Fu Jian agreed.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian sent his general Gou Chi and his Inspector of Luozhou, Deng Qiang, with twenty thousand horse and foot to reinforce Yan. They marched out from Luoyang and camped at Yingchuan. Fu Jian also sent his Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Jiang Fu, to visit Yan as his own envoy. Wang Meng was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

見九十九卷永和十年。王猛之取李儼,其計亦出此。潁州郡,治許昌。

(Huan Wen's invasion of Former Qin is mentioned in Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354.5).

This was the same sort of plan that Wang Meng had used to capture the rebel Li Yan.

Yingchuan commandary was administered from Xuchang.)


燕遣散騎侍郎藥嵩來乞于堅,請割武牢以西之地。八月,遣將軍苟池、洛州刺史邵羌帥步騎救燕,溫敗歸。是月京兆尹王攸上書,獻十畧:一曰尹道宜明;二曰臣尚忠敬;三曰子貴孝養;四曰民生在勤;五曰教無偏黨;六曰養民在惠;七曰延聘耆賢;八曰懲惡顯善;九曰伐叛討逆;十曰易簡弘大。堅納之,以攸為諫議大夫。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Former Yan sent their Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Yao Song, to come beg for assistance from Fu Jian, offering to carve out their territory from Hulao west to give to him. In the eighth month, Fu Jian sent his general Gou Chi and his Inspector of Luozhou, Shao Qiang, to lead infantry and cavalry to reinforce Former Yan, and Huan Wen was defeated.

In the same month, the Intendant of Jingzhao, Wang You, sent up a letter listing ten good policies: "One, that administrators act with propriety and promote wisdom; two, that ministers esteem loyalty and respect; three, that children honor filial piety and taking care of their parents; four, that the common people be diligent in their livelihood; five, that instructors teach without being partial; six, that you nurture the common people with kindness; seven, that you invite and host the aged and the worthy; eight, that you shun the evil and exalt the good; nine, that you campaign against rebels and march against traitors; ten, that you reform the laws to be simple and broad." Fu Jian accepted these words, and he appointed Wang You as a Grandee Remonstrant.


太子太傅封孚問於申胤曰:「溫眾強士整,乘流直進,今大軍徒逡巡高岸,兵不接刃,未見克殄之理,事將何如?」胤曰:「以溫今日聲勢,似能有為。然在吾觀之,必無成功。何則?晉室衰弱,溫專制其國,晉之朝臣未必皆與之同心。故溫之得志,眾所不願也,必將乖阻以敗其事。又,溫驕而恃眾,怯於應變。大眾深入,值可乘之會,反更逍遙中流,不出赴利,欲望持久,坐取全勝;若糧廩愆懸,情見勢屈,必不戰自敗,此自然之數也。」

7. Yan’s Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Feng Fu, asked Shen Yin, "Huan Wen has a mighty host and full ranks of men, and he has gone from strength to strength as he charges ahead. Yet now, his large army is simply patrolling to and fro along the tall banks of the river, not crossing blades with us, and showing no signs of definite conquest. How do you think things will play out?"

Shen Yin replied, "Judging by Huan Wen’s currently growing power, it would seem like he should win. Yet in my view, he will not accomplish anything. How so? The Jin royal family is weak and vacillating, and Huan Wen exerts his will over their state, but the ministers of Jin are not yet all on his side. Therefore, they would not be willing to see Huan Wen get his way, and would definitely create hurdles and challenges to obstruct him. Furthermore, Huan Wen is haughty and overly confident in his superior numbers, but too timid to take advantage of changing circumstances. His grand host has penetrated deep into the country, and this is the most opportune time for them to act; instead, he lets his troops tarry along the way, rather than marching forth to secure victory. He wants to spend time attending to every possible thing, and will wait until he is certain of victory. If his army’s grain is exhausted, then their morale will drop, and they will fall apart even without fighting. Such is only natural."

溫之爲計正如此,申胤料之審矣。

(This was indeed what Huan Wen's plan was. Shen Yin displayed how keen his analysis was.)


溫以燕降人段思為鄉導,悉羅騰與溫戰,生擒思。溫使故趙將李述徇趙、魏,騰又與虎賁中郎將染干津擊斬之,溫軍奪氣。

8. Duan Si defected to Huan Wen, who appointed him as a guide for the army. But Xiluo Teng battled with Huan Wen, and captured Duan Si. Huan Wen sent the former Zhao general Li Shu to win over the regions of Zhao and Wei. Xiluo Teng then fought with Huan Wen's General of the Household Gentlemen Rapid As Tigers, Ran Ganjin, and killed him in battle. The morale of Huan Wen's army began to fall.

溫攻秦而不渡霸水,攻燕而徘徊枋頭,人皆咎其不進;知彼知己,溫蓋臨敵而方有見乎此也。溫之智雖不足以禁暴定功,然其去衆人亦遠矣。

(When Huan Wen attacked Former Qin, he hesitated to cross the Ba River. When he attacked Former Yan, he lingered at Fangtou. People faulted him in both cases for not advancing. One must know the enemy and know oneself, and when Huan Wen came against his enemies, they could perceive this fault of his. But although Huan Wen's knowledge was insufficient for him to press his attacks and ensure his achievements, he still had many who followed him a long ways.)


初,溫使豫州刺史袁真攻譙、梁,開石門以通水運,真克譙、梁而不能開石門,水運路塞。

9. Earlier, Huan Wen had sent Yuan Zhen to attack Qiao and Liang, and to then open Shimen to provide supplies by water. Yuan Zhen captured Qiao and Liang, but he could not open Shimen, and the water supply route was blocked.

譙、梁,譙郡及梁國也。

(Qiao and Liang means Qiao commandary and Liangguo.)


九月,燕范陽王德帥騎一萬、蘭台治書侍御史劉當帥騎五千屯石門,豫州刺史李邽帥州兵五千斷溫糧道。當,佩之子也。德使將軍慕容宙帥騎一千為前鋒,與晉兵遇。宙曰:「晉人輕剽,怯於陷敵,勇於乘退,宜設餌以釣之。」乃使二百騎挑戰,分餘騎為三伏。挑戰者兵未交而走,晉兵追之;宙帥伏以擊之,晉兵死者甚眾。

10. In the ninth month, Murong De led ten thousand cavalry to camp at Shimen, and Yan's Imperial Secretary of the Attendants of the Masters of Writing of Lantai, Liu Dang, led five thousand cavalry to the same place. Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou, Li Gui, led five thousand of his provincial troops to cut off Huan Wen's supply lines. This Liu Dang was the son of Liu Pei.

Murong De sent his general Murong Zhou to lead a thousand cavalry as vanguard leader, and they encountered Jin troops. Murong Zhou said, "Jin soldiers are rash and impulsive; they fear to truly face an enemy, but they are bold in pursuing one. Let's prepare bait as a trap." So he sent two hundred riders to start a skirmish, while splitting up the others to prepare an ambush from three sides. The skirmishers engaged the Jin soldiers and then fled, and the Jin soldiers pursued them. Then Murong Zhou launched the ambush, and a great many of the Jin soldiers were killed.

【章:十二行本「臺」下有「治書」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】燕豫州刺史治許昌。劉佩爲慕容皝將,卻石虎,攻宇文,皆有功。

(Some versions include "of the Masters of Writing" in Liu Dang's title.

Former Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou administered that province from Xuchang.

Liu Pei was one of Murong Huang's generals. He had gained fame from defending against Shi Hu's invasion and attacking the Yuwen (Book 96, 338.16).)


建熙十年以車騎大將軍敗桓溫于枋頭。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

In Former Yan's tenth year of Jianxi (369), Murong Chui was appointed as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and he defeated Huan Wen at Fangtou.

垂以車騎大將軍敗桓溫於枋頭。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui was appointed as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and he defeated Huan Wen at Fangtou.


溫戰數不利,糧儲復竭,又聞秦兵將至,丙申,焚舟,棄輜重、鎧仗,自陸道奔還。以毛虎生督東燕等四郡諸軍事,領東燕太守。

11. Huan Wen fought several more battles, but he had the worst of the fighting, and his grain stores were running low. He also heard reports of the approaching Qin soldiers. So on the day Bingshen (November 4th), he burned his ships, abandoned his supply train and equipment, and retreated by land. He appointed Mao Husheng as Commander of military affairs in four commandaries, including Eastern Yan, and as Administrator of Eastern Yan.

沈約曰:東燕郡,江左分濮陽所立也。余按石虎分東燕郡屬洛州,則是郡蓋祖逖在豫州時所置也。

(The Book of Liu-Song states, "Eastern Yan commandary was split off from Puyang commandary, north of the Yangzi." I (Hu Sanxing) believe that Shi Hu split Eastern Yan commandary off to be part of Luozhou. It must have been established by Zu Ti when he was Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou.)


溫自東燕出倉垣,鑿井而飲,行七百餘里。燕之諸將爭欲追之,吳王垂曰:「不可。溫初退惶恐,必嚴設警備,簡精銳為後拒,擊之未必得志,不如緩之。彼幸吾未至,必晝夜疾趨;俟其士眾力盡氣衰,然後擊之,無不克矣。」乃帥八千騎徐行躡其後。溫果兼道而進。數日,垂告諸將曰:「溫可擊矣。」乃急追之,及溫於襄邑。范陽王德先帥勁騎四千伏於襄邑東澗中,與垂夾擊溫,又破之,死者復以萬計。秦苟池邀擊溫於譙,又破之,死者復以萬計。孫元遂據武陽以拒燕,燕左衛將軍孟高討擒之。

12. Huan Wen’s army fell back from Eastern Yan to Cangyuan, digging wells for water as they went, and marching more than seven hundred li.

The Yan generals all wanted to pursue Huan Wen at once. But Murong Chui said, "We cannot. Since Huan Wen has only just begun his retreat, he will be concerned about being attacked, so naturally he will have prepared strict defenses, and he will have his best troops protecting his rear. If we attack him now, we cannot be certain of victory. It would be better for us to shadow his army. Once Huan Wen realizes that we are not going to attack him, then he will certainly begin fleeing swiftly day and night. After his soldiers are thus fatigued and their morale has been exhausted, that will be the time for us to strike, and we cannot help but succeed." So he led eight thousand cavalry in a slow pursuit.

Just as Murong Chui had predicted, Huan Wen began retreating at full speed along every road. After several days of this, Murong Chui said to his generals, "Now we may attack him." So they pressed their pursuit, and caught up with Huan Wen at Xiangyi. Murong De had earlier ridden to Xiangyi with four thousand cavalry to lie in ambush along the streams to the east. He and Murong Chui now attacked Huan Wen from both sides and routed his army, killing tens of thousands of Jin soldiers.

The Qin general Gou Chi then launched his own attack against Huan Wen at Qiao, routing his army again, and killing several more tens of thousands. The defector Sun Yuan tried to hold Wuyang against Yan, but Yan's Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, attacked and captured it.

汴水、濟瀆皆自北而南,恐追兵毒其上流,故鑿井而飲。襄邑縣,自漢以來屬陳留郡。

(The Pian River and the Ji Canal both flowed from north to south, and Huan Wen's soldiers feared that Former Yan would thus poison them from upstream, so they dug wells to obtain water instead.

Ever since Han, Xiangyi county had been part of Chenliu commandary.)


辛丑,慕容垂追敗溫後軍于襄邑。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

On the day Xinchou (November 9th), Murong Chui pursued Huan Wen and defeated his rearguard at Xiangyi.

吳王垂大敗之,斬獲三萬餘級,溫奔還淮南。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

The Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, greatly defeated Huan Wen, killing or capturing more than thirty thousand soldiers, and Huan Wen fled back south of the Huai River.

暐叔父垂擊走之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei's uncle Murong Chui attacked Huan Wen and drove him off.

德,字玄明,雅為兄垂所重。桓溫之至枋頭也,德與垂擊走之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De, styled Xuanming, was greatly appreciated by his elder brother Murong Chui. When Huan Wen arrived at Fangtou, Murong De joined with Murong Chui to attack Huan Wen and drive him off.

德兄垂甚壯之,因共論軍國大謀,言必切至。垂謂之曰:「汝器識長進,非復吳下阿蒙也。」枋頭之役,德以征南將軍與垂擊敗晉師。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De's elder brother Murong Chui greatly appreciated him, and because of that they often discussed great topics of the military or the state. Murong De's thinking would always correspond with Murong Chui's. Murong Chui said to him, "You have come so far and learned so much. 'Nothing like the old A-Meng (Lü Meng)', eh?"

During the conflict at Fangtou, Murong De was appointed as General Who Conquers The South, and he and Murong Chui attacked and defeated the Jin army.


冬,十月,己巳,大司馬溫收散卒,屯於山陽。溫深恥喪敗,乃歸罪於袁真,奏免真為庶人;又免冠軍將軍鄧遐官。真以溫誣己,不服,表溫罪狀,朝廷不報。真遂據壽春叛,降燕,且請救;亦遣使如秦。溫以毛虎生領淮南太守,守歷陽。

13. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jisi (December 7th), Huan Wen gathered up his remaining soldiers and camped at Shanyang.

Huan Wen was deeply ashamed and mournful of his defeat, and he shifted the blame onto Yuan Zhen, asking that he be stripped of office and demoted to commoner status; he also dismissed Deng Xia from office. Yuan Zhen said that Huan Wen was slandering him, so he did not submit, but sent notice of Huan Wen's own crimes. The Jin court made no response. Yuan Zhen then took over Shouchun and rebelled, offering submission to Yan and asking them for aid; he also sent messengers to Qin. Huan Wen appointed Mao Yusheng as acting Administrator of Huainan, and had him defend Liyang.

劉昫曰:山陽,漢射陽縣地;晉置山陽郡,改爲山陽縣,唐爲楚州治所。以石門不開、糧運不繼爲眞罪。淮南太守本治壽春,壽春旣叛,以虎生領淮南而守歷陽。歷陽本淮南屬縣,虎生守之,外以備壽春,內以衞江南。

(Liu Xu remarked, "Shanyang was the same place as the Han dynasty's Sheyang county. When Jin created Shanyang commandary, they renamed Sheyang county to Shanyang county. During Tang, it was administered by Chuzhou."

Yuan Zhen's supposed crime was that he had not opened Shimen or kept up the grain transports.

The Administrator of Huainan usually administered that territory from Shouchun. Since Shouchun was now in rebellion, Mao Husheng exercised his temporary authority from Liyang. Liyang had originally been a county under Huainan commandary, so Mao Husheng defended from there, both to prepare against Shouchun and to safeguard the region south of the Yangzi.)


冬十月己巳,溫收散卒,屯于山陽。豫州刺史袁眞以壽陽叛。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jisi (December 7th), Huan Wen gathered up his remaining soldiers and camped at Shanyang. The Inspector of Yuzhou, Yuan Zhen, rebelled at Shouyang.


燕、秦既結好,使者數往來。燕散騎侍郎太原郝晷、給事黃門侍郎梁琛相繼如秦。晷與王猛有舊,猛接以平生,問晷東方之事。晷見燕政不修而秦大治,知燕將亡,陰欲自托於猛,頗洩其實。

14. Yan and Qin now enjoying good relations, they exchanged a series of envoys. Yan sent two envoys in particular: their Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Hao Gui of Taiyuan, and their Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate Serving in the Palace, Liang Chen.

Hao Gui had a past relationship with Wang Meng, so Wang Meng talked about the old days with him, and then inquired about the affairs of the east. Hao Gui saw that the Yan court was in disarray while Qin was well managed, and he knew that Yan would soon fall. He secretly wanted to secure Wang Meng’s patronage, so he leaked a great deal of information to him.

【章:十二行本「郎」下有「太原」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】【章:十二行本「治」下有「知燕將亡」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

(Some versions identify Hao Gui as being "of Taiyuan".

Some versions include the phrase "he (Hao Gui) knew Yan would soon fall".)


琛至長安,秦王堅方畋於萬年,欲引見琛,琛曰:「秦使至燕,燕之君臣朝服備禮,灑掃宮庭,然後敢見。今秦王欲野見之,使臣不敢聞命!」尚書郎辛勁謂琛曰:「賓客入境,惟主人所以處之,君焉得專制其禮!且天子稱乘輿,所至曰行在所,何堂居之有!又,《春秋》亦有遇禮,何為不可乎!」琛曰:「晉室不綱,靈祚歸德,二方承運,俱受明命。而桓溫猖狂,窺我王略,燕危秦孤,勢不獨立,是以秦主同恤時患,要結好援。東朝君臣,引領西望,愧其不競,以為鄰憂,西使之辱,敬待有加。今強寇既退,交聘方始,謂宜崇禮篤義以固二國之歡;若忽慢使臣,是卑燕也,豈修好之義乎!夫天子以四海為家,故行曰乘輿,止曰行在。今海縣瓜裂,天光分曜,安得以乘輿、行在為言哉!禮,不期而見曰遇;蓋因事權行,其禮簡略,豈平居容與之所為哉!客使單行,誠勢屈於主人;然苟不以禮,亦不敢從也。」堅乃為之設行宮,百僚倍位,然後延客,如燕朝之儀。

15. When Liang Chen arrived at Chang'an, Fu Jian was out hunting at Wannian, so he asked for Liang Chen to come see him. But Liang Chen said, "When Qin envoys come to Yan, the sovereign of Yan and his ministers make sure to dress in their formal clothes, prepare the proper rites and ceremonies, and clean the halls and the palace grounds. Only then do they dare to receive the envoys. Yet now the sovereign of Qin wishes to receive me out in the fields? I dare not accept this invitation!"

Qin's Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Xin Jing, said to Liang Chen, “When a guest enters a sovereign's territory, only that ruler may set the circumstances of the guest's reception. Yet here you are demanding what sort of rites shall be followed, by your own authority! The Son of Heaven rides his imperial carriage where he will, and wherever it stops is called his resting place; he does not have to stay in his halls all the time! Further, the Spring and Autumn Annals records rites and ceremonies to be used for informal meetings. Are you saying that such rites cannot be used?”

Liang Chen replied, “The house of Jin has fallen into disorder, and the Mandate of Heaven has gone to those who are virtuous. Our two sides have both been ordained by Heaven and both received its Mandate to rule. Yet Huan Wen, violent as he was, sought to get a glimpse of our 'royal grant'. With Yan threatened, Qin was in danger of standing alone, and in such a state it would not be able to last. That is why the sovereign of Qin sympathized with us and shared our burden against the dangers of that time, and formed a close covenant. The eastern court, lord and ministers, all placed their hopes in the west, ashamed that they were not strong enough in themselves, and thus causing trouble for their neighbor. When the envoys from the west humbled themselves to visit us, we treated them with the utmost respect. Now, since the strong invader has retreated, a new relationship has developed between our states. This is the time to follow the sublime rites and display earnest righteousness, to promote the happiness and joy of both our states. For you to now slight an envoy means to besmirch Yan. How is this supposed to convey sincerity in building a good relationship?

"A true Son of Heaven takes all within the Four Seas as his residence: it is indeed the case that whatever he rides in is named the imperial carriage, and wherever he stops is called his resting place. But in our age, all the counties and provinces within the seas are split apart like gourds, and Heaven's splendor is divided among many. How then is it fitting to use such terms as 'imperial carriage' or 'resting place' to apply to your sovereign? And it is indeed true that an unarranged encounter is termed a 'meeting'. But in that kind of situation, the rites are simplified because they must be tailored to suit unexpected circumstances. How could this be applied in this case, when your sovereign is simply at his leisure? It is true that an envoy, travelling alone and away from his home, has less power than the host of the land; however, if he is not treated with propriety, he may not bow to the host’s demands.”

So Fu Jian constructed a temporary palace and had all the ministers be present before receiving his guest, and they conducted affairs in the same manner as the Yan court.

萬年,秦之櫟陽,漢高帝更名,屬馮翊,晉屬京兆。《春秋》:隱四年,公及宋公遇于清。《公羊傳》曰:遇者何?不期也。杜預曰:遇者,草次之期,二國各簡其禮,若道路相逢遇也。靈祚,猶班彪《王命論》所謂神明之祚也。《左傳》:侵敗王略。杜預《註》曰︰略,經略法度。余謂此略,封略也,如《左傳》「王與之武公之略」之略。騶衍曰:中國有赤縣神州,赤縣神州內有九州,禹所敍九州是也;其外有裨海環之。海縣之說,蓋本諸此。

(Wannian was known as Liyang during the Qin dynasty. Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had changed its name to Wannian, as part of Pingyi commandary. During Jin, it was part of Jingzhao commandary.

The Spring and Autumn Annals states, "In the fourth year of Duke Yin's reign, he and the Duke of Song 遇 'met' at Qing (Yin 4.3)." The Gongyang Commentary on the Annals remarked, "What does the use of this word 'met' mean? It means that it was not an arranged conference." And Du Yu's commentary on the Annals states, "By 'met', they mean a 'hurried arrangement'. Both states kept to minimal ceremonies, as though they had happened to encounter one another on the road."

Liang Chen more specifically uses the term "phantom throne". This refers to the concept of the blessings of the divine, as mentioned in Ban Biao's Discourse on the Royal Mandate.

The Zuo Commentary states, "They infringe upon and overreach their royal grants (Cheng 2.12)." In Du Yu's Annotations on the Zuo Commentary he remarks, "'Grants' here refer to laws and standards." I (Hu Sanxing) believe this term "grants" is also meant in the sense of feudal grants, such as its use in the passage elsewhere in the Zuo Commentary: "The king granted him what had formerly been granted to Duke Wu (Zhuang 21.1)".

The philosopher Zou Yan said, "The Middle Kingdom is made up of the Crimson Counties and the Sacred Provinces. These contain the Nine Provinces, the very same ones that Yu the Great laid out. Beyond them lie the the outer ring of seas." Liang Chen's phrase "All the counties and provinces within the seas" refers to this concept.)


事畢,堅與之私宴,問:「東朝名臣為誰?」琛曰:「太傅上庸王評,明德茂親,光輔王室;車騎大將軍吳王垂,雄略冠世,折沖御侮;其餘或以文進,或以武用,官皆稱職,野無遺賢。」

16. After court affairs had been concluded, Fu Jian invited Liang Chen to a private feast, and asked him, "Who are the worthies of the eastern court?"

Liang Chen replied, “The Grand Tutor and Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, is a bright and virtuous member of the royal family, fully capable of bringing splendid administration to the state. And the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, is heroic and insightful, a champion for our age, masterful at smashing the enemy and fending off foreign aggression. The rest have either been appointed by their administrative talents, or employed for their martial abilities. Every office is held by a person of suitable ability, and no worthy man is left unemployed.”

倣古私覿之禮也。

(The private feast was modeled after private meetings between a lord and a visiting envoy from antiquity.)


琛從兄弈為秦尚書郎,堅使典客館琛於弈捨。琛曰:「昔諸葛瑾為吳聘蜀,與諸葛亮惟公朝相見,退無私面,余竊慕之。今使之即安私室,所不敢也。」乃不果館。弈數來就邸捨,與琛臥起,閒問琛東國事。琛曰:「今二方分據,兄弟並蒙榮龐,論其本心,各有所在。琛欲言東國之美,恐非西國之所欲聞;欲言其惡,又非使臣之所得論也。兄何用問為!」

17. Liang Chen's cousin, Liang Yi, was serving as one of Qin’s Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. So Fu Jian had Liang Yi serve as the Director of Guests, and had him lodge Liang Chen at Liang Yi’s own house. But Liang Chen replied, "When Zhuge Jin was serving Wu as an envoy to Shu, he only met with his brother Zhuge Liang in public, during court, and never in private. I have admired him for that. Yet now you ask me to stay at your private lodgings; I dare not do that." Thus, he did not lodge with his cousin.

Even so, Liang Yi several times came to Liang Chen's residence, rising and sleeping when his cousin did, pestering Liang Chen to tell him about affairs in the eastern state. But Liang Chen said, "We two serve different sides, and both of us have labored under and received the favor of our own lords. Our hearts are with different places. Now if I were to speak of the splendor of the eastern state, I fear it will not be what the western state wants to hear, while if I were to speak of its failings, such talk is unbecoming of an envoy. What more is there for you to ask of me?"

漢有典客之官,後改爲大鴻臚。此特臨時使之典客耳。瑾,亮兄弟也。

(The Han dynasty had the office of Director of Guests, but it later changed to Minister Herald. This position was filled on a temporary basis for receiving special envoys.

Zhuge Jin was Zhuge Liang’s elder brother).


堅使太子延琛相見。秦人欲使琛拜太子,先諷之曰:「鄰國之君,猶其君也;鄰國之儲君,亦何以異乎!」琛曰:「天子之子視元士,欲其由賤以登貴也。尚不敢臣其父之臣,況它國之臣乎!苟無純敬,則禮有往來,情豈忘恭,但恐降屈為煩耳。」乃不果拜。

18. Fu Jian had his Crown Prince summon Liang Chen for an audience. The Qin staff wanted to make Liang Chen perform obeisance to the Crown Prince, so they admonished him ahead of time, "The lord of a neighboring state is just like one’s own lord. Why would you treat the heir of a neighboring state any differently?"

But Liang Chen replied, "Even the son of the Son of Heaven is considered like one of the common gentry, so that he may rise from a lowly place to the highest position; he cannot dare even to treat his father’s ministers as his own ministers, let alone ministers of another state! Between people who are sincerely respectful to each other, courtesy is reciprocated. It is not that I do not honor you in my heart, but just that I fear that, by so demeaning myself, I might cause trouble."

So they gave up on having him perform obeisance.

《禮記‧郊特牲》曰:天子之元子,士也,天下無生而貴者也。言當答拜也。

(The Single Victim at the Border Sacrifices section of the Book of Rites states, "The eldest son of the Son of Heaven by his proper queen (was capped only as) an ordinary officer. There was nowhere such a thing as being born noble (33)."

Liang Chen was saying that the Crown Prince ought to perform obeisance to him in turn.)


王猛勸堅留琛,堅不許。

19. Wang Meng urged Fu Jian to detain Liang Chen, but Fu Jian would not permit it.

燕主暐遣大鴻臚溫統拜袁真使持節、都督淮南諸軍事、征南大將軍、揚州刺史,封宣城公。統未逾淮而卒。

20. Murong Wei sent his Minister Herald, Wen Tong, to present Yuan Zhen with the ranks of Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs south of the Huai River, Grand General Who Conquers The South, Inspector of Yangzhou, and Duke of Xuancheng. But before Wen Tong had crossed the Huai River, he passed away.

吳王垂自襄邑還鄴,威名益振,太傅評愈忌之。垂奏:「所募將士忘身立效,將軍孫蓋等摧鋒陷陳,應蒙殊賞。」評皆抑而不行。垂數以為言,與評廷爭,怨隙愈深。太後可足渾氏素惡垂,毀其戰功,與評密謀誅之。太宰恪之子楷及垂舅蘭建知之,以告垂曰:「先發制人,但除評及樂安王臧,餘無能為矣。」垂曰:「骨肉相殘而首亂於國,吾有死而已,不忍為也。」頃之,二人又以告,曰:「內意已決,不可不早發。」垂曰:「必不可彌縫,吾寧避之於外,餘非所議。」

21. Murong Chui returned from the battlefield at Xiangyi back to Ye, with his victories having greatly bolstered his might and reputation. Murong Ping became exceedingly jealous of him. Murong Chui petitioned the court, stating, "The soldiers and officers that we recruited risked their lives and acted with full devotion, and Sun Gai and the other generals broke the enemy's vanguard and shattered their formation. They ought to be especially rewarded." But Murong Ping tabled these proposals and refused to carry them out. Murong Chui continued to advocate for them, getting into arguments with Murong Ping, and the enmity between them grew deeper.

Empress Dowager Kezuhun still hated Murong Chui, and wishing to wipe out his military accomplishments, she plotted with Murong Ping to execute him. Murong Ke's son Murong Kai and Murong Chui's uncle Lan Jian learned of the plot, and they told Murong Chui, "It is said, 'He who acts first controls men'. You only need to get rid of Murong Ping and Murong Zang, and then the others will not be able to do anything to you."

But Murong Chui said, "Infighting among flesh and blood is the chief cause of disaster for a state. If I am to die, so be it. But I cannot bear to do as you suggest."

A short while later, the two of them said to him, "Things in the interior are already decided. There is nothing left for you to do but act at once."

Murong Chui said, "If we really cannot mend the rift between us, I would rather exile myself to avoid them. Everything else is out of the question."

事見一百卷穆帝升平元年。《兵法》曰:先發制人,後發者人制之。內意,謂可足渾后之意也。

(Empress Dowager Kezuhun's machinations against Murong Chui were mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (actually the second year, 358.17).

The Art of War states, "He who acts first controls men, while he who acts later is controlled by them."

"The interior" here refers to Empress Dowager Kezuhun's planning.)


垂既敗溫,威德彌振,太傅評大不平之,太后遂與評謀殺垂。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Having defeated Huan Wen, Murong Chui's power and virtue spread near and far. The Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, was very uneasy of him. So he and the Empress Dowager plotted together to kill Murong Chui.

垂有大功,暐不能賞,方欲殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Chui had performed a great achievement, yet not only did Murong Wei not award him, he even wanted to kill him.

垂威名大震,太傅上庸王評深忌之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

After his victory over Huan Wen, Murong Chui's power and reputation shook the realm. The Grand Tutor and Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping was very jealous of him.

及敗桓溫於枋頭,威名大振。慕容評深忌惡之,乃謀誅垂。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

After Murong Chui defeated Huan Wen at Fangtou, his martial reputation reached its zenith. Murong Ping deeply suspected and envied Murong Chui, and went so far as to plot to execute him.

垂威名大震。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui's power and fame were at their zenith.


垂內以為憂,而未敢告諸子。世子令請曰:「尊比者如有憂色,豈非以主上幼沖,太傅疾賢,功高望重,愈見猜邪?」垂曰:「然。吾竭力致命以破強寇,本欲保全家國,豈知功成之後,返令身無所容。汝既知吾心,何以為吾謀?」令曰:「主上闇弱,委任太傅,一旦禍發,疾於駭機。今欲保族全身,不失大義,莫若逃之龍城,遜辭謝罪,以待主上之察,若周公之居東,庶幾可以感寤而得還,此幸之大者也。如其不然,則內撫燕、代,外懷群夷,守肥如之險以自保,亦其次也。」垂曰:「善!」

22. Although Murong Chui continued to worry, he did not risk broaching the subject to his sons. His eldest son, Murong Ling, asked him, "You seem to have a worried countenance lately. Could there possibly be any other reason for it than because our lord is young, the Grand Tutor is jealous of good people, and the greater your accomplishments and reputation, the more he distrusts you?"

Murong Chui replied, "Just so. When I exerted myself to the utmost in following orders, and routed the powerful invading army, I did everything in order to protect my family and my state. How was I to know that, even being aware of my accomplishments, they still scorn me and cannot bear to put up with me? Since you could guess my heart, what plan do you suggest?"

Murong Ling said, "Our lord is weak and does not see things as they are, and the Grand Tutor is in full control. Once they move against us, we won’t be able to respond in time. Now if you still wish to save yourself and ensure the safety of your clan, while still acting with propriety, the best thing you could do would be to retreat to Longcheng, where you may with humble words ask forgiveness for your offenses and give our lord room to look into what has been said against you. That would be just like when the Duke of Zhou resided in the east, so that he could let good feelings develop before returning. If the same thing happened for you, then that would be the most fortunate outcome. Even if that does not happen, you may still nurture the people of the regions of Yan and Dai within, and soothe the various tribes without, so as to make for yourself a secure place there. That would be the second best outcome."

Murong Chui replied, "Excellent!"

《書》:武王有疾,周公册祝于太王、季王、文王,請以身代。武王旣喪,管叔及其羣弟流言曰:「公將不利於孺子。」周公東征之。周公居東二年,則罪人斯得,乃爲詩以詒王,名之曰《鴟鴞》;王亦未敢誚公。天大雷電以風,王啓金縢,得周公代武王之說,乃執書以泣,迎周公而歸。

(In the Metal-Bound Coffer story of the Book of Documents, it is written that when King Wu of Zhou once became ill, his brother the Duke of Zhou implored the spirits of his ancestors, King Tai, King Ji, and King Wen, that he might in his own body act as substitute for his elder brother’s illness, so that the royal line could endure. (The king recovered the next day.) The Duke left a record of his prayer in a metal-bound coffer.

When King Wu later died, Guan Shu and his younger brothers spread rumors saying, "The Duke of Zhou will soon cause our young lord to come to grief." So the Duke of Zhou on his own initiative departed to the east. He resided there for two years, until the criminals were brought to justice, and then he composed a poem as a gift for the young king, the poem being named "The Owl". And so the young king did not dare to find fault with the Duke.

Then Heaven sent forth great lightning and winds, and the King burst open the metal-bound coffer, and within he found the Duke's prayer concerning his late father. He grasped the record with tears in his eyes, and he welcomed the Duke's return home.)


十一月,辛亥朔,垂請畋於大陸,因微服出鄴,將趨龍城。至邯鄲,少子麟,素不為垂所愛,逃還告狀,垂左右多亡叛。太傅評白燕主暐,遣西平公強帥精騎追之,及於范陽。世子令斷後,強不敢逼。會日暮,令謂垂曰:「本欲保東都以自全,今事已洩,謀不及設。秦主方招延英傑,不如往歸之。」垂曰:「今日之計,捨此安之!」乃散騎滅跡,傍南山復還鄴,隱於趙之顯原陵。俄有獵者數百騎四面而來,抗之則不能敵,逃之則無路,不知所為。會獵者鷹皆飛揚,眾騎散去。垂乃殺白馬以祭天,且盟從者。

23. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Xinhai (?), Murong Chui asked leave to go hunting at Dalu. Dressed in that disguise, he and his family departed Ye, planning to hurry towards Longcheng.

But when they had reached Handan, Murong Chui's youngest son Murong Lin, whom he had long shown little regard for, fled back to Ye and informed on them, and many of those with Murong Chui turned against him or abandoned him. Murong Ping informed Murong Wei of the escape attempt, and sent the Duke of Xiping, Murong Qiang, with elite cavalry to pursue Murong Chui. These pursuit troops followed Murong Chui’s trail as far as Fanyang. There, Murong Ling held the rear, and Murong Qiang did not dare to pursue any further.

When dusk came, Murong Ling said to his father, "We had originally planned to hold out at the eastern capital (Longcheng) in order to secure ourselves. But now that affairs have taken this course, that plan must be changed. There is still the sovereign of Qin; he has been gathering heroes and treating them well. It would be best to go to him now."

Murong Chui said, "What other choice do we have left?"

So they scattered their riders and destroyed the traces of the path they had taken, and went by the southern mountains back towards Ye, secretly making their way to Xianyuan Tomb in the Zhao region. Suddenly, some hundreds of hunters were riding towards them from all directions. Murong Chui, unable either to fight them off or to escape from them, did not know what to do. But just then, the hunters’ hawks all flew away, and the riders dispersed. So Murong Chui killed a white horse to offer as a sacrifice to Heaven, and made a covenant with his remaining followers.

《續漢志》曰:鉅鹿,故大鹿,有大陸澤,卽廣阿澤。邯鄲縣,漢屬趙國,本趙都也;晉屬廣平郡,東魏廢,隋復置,唐屬磁州。自范陽傍南山,蓋由中山、常山山谷間南還也。顯原陵,趙主石虎虛葬處。

(The Continued Records of Han states, "In Julu, also called Dalu, there is the Dalu Marsh, also called the Guang'a Marsh."

During Han, Handan county was part of the Zhao princely fief, and it had been the capital of the state of Zhao during the Warring States era before that. Jin made it part of Guangping commandary. It was abolished under Eastern Wei, but brought back during Sui, and during Tang it was part of Cizhou.

Judging by the fact that this passage describes Murong Chui as traveling from Hanyang through "the southern mountains", he must have taken the mountain valleys south through Zhongshan and Changshan commandaries.

Xianyuan Tomb was where Shi Hu had been falsely buried (since he was actually at Dongming Overlook).)


世子令言於垂曰:「太傅忌賢疾能,構事以來,人尤忿恨。今鄴城之中,莫知尊處,如嬰兒之思母,夷、夏同之。若順眾心,襲其無備,取之如指掌耳。事定之後,革弊簡能,大匡朝政,以輔主上,安國存家,功之大者也。今日之便,誠不可失,願給騎數人,足以辦之。」垂曰:「如汝之謀,事成誠為大福,不成悔之何及!不如西奔,可以萬全。」子馬奴潛謀逃歸,殺之而行。至河陽,為津吏所禁,斬之而濟。遂自洛陽與段夫人、世子令、令弟寶、農、隆、兄子楷、舅蘭建、郎中令高弼俱奔秦,留妃可足渾氏於鄴。乙泉戌主吳歸追及於閺鄉,世子令擊之而退。

24. Then Murong Ling said to his father, "The Grand Tutor already envied the talented and despised the able. Ever since he plotted against you, people have only become more furious at him. Now, in the city of Ye, none know of your whereabouts, and all are like infants who miss their mother. Both the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) feel the same way. You might heed the hearts of these multitudes, and strike at once while the city is unprepared to stop you. You could capture Ye as though it were already in the palm of your hand. Once you have Ye under your control, you can rid the city of fraud and abuse and set things right. Rectify the administration and support our lord, and then the state will know peace and your family will be safe. That would be a very grand achievement indeed. But the time to act on that is this very day; you cannot let the opportunity slip away. Please give me a few riders. That will be sufficient for me to handle this affair."

But Murong Chui replied, "If I followed your plan, we would indeed reap a great fortune if things turn out well. But should we fail, how greatly would we regret it! I say it would be better to flee to the west, where we can definitely be secure." Murong Chui’s son Murong Manu secretly plotted to go back to Ye, but Murong Chui killed him and then began marching west.

When the group reached Heyang, they were stopped by the official in charge of the crossing there, but they whacked his head off and crossed the river. And thus, from Luoyang, Murong Chui fled to Qin together with his second wife Lady Duan, his sons Murong Ling, Murong Bao, Murong Nong, and Murong Long, his nephew Murong Kai, his uncle Lan Jian, and his Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, Gao Bi. Murong Chui’s concubine Lady Kezuhun was left behind in Ye. Yan’s Commander of Yiquan Garrison, Wu Gui, sent troops to pursue the group and overtook them at Minxiang, but Murong Ling fought them off.

謂搆殺垂之謀也。段夫人,垂前妃之女弟。可足渾妃,可足渾太后之妹也,詳見一百卷穆帝升平二年。高弼,垂之國卿。乙泉戍,卽魏該所保乙泉塢也,在宜陽縣西南,洛水之北原上。閺鄕在弘農湖縣。閺,音旻。

(Murong Ling referred to Murong Ping's plan to kill Murong Chui.

This Lady Duan was the younger sister of the Lady Duan who was Murong Chui's original wife. Concubine Kezuhun was Empress Dowager Kezuhun's younger sister. The affair of how Murong Chui was forced to annul his marriage to the younger Lady Duan and take Concubine Kezuhun as a wife is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's second year of Shenping (358.17). Gao Bi was a minister of Murong Chui's princely fief.

Yiquan Garrison was the same place as the Western Jin general Wei Gai's Yiquan Rampart. It was in the southwest of Yiyang county, in the plains north of the Luo River.

Minxiang was in Hu county in Hongnong. 閺 is pronounced "min".)


十二月,垂出奔秦。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the twelfth month, Murong Chui fled to Former Qin.

垂怒,奔苻堅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Chui was angry at how he was treated, so he fled to Fu Jian.

垂遂出奔秦。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui fled to Former Qin.

垂懼禍及己,與世子全奔於苻堅。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui feared disaster for himself, so he and his eldest son Murong Quan both fled to Fu Jian.

垂不容於暐,西奔苻堅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui could not put up with Murong Wei, so he fled west to Fu Jian.


初,秦王堅聞太宰恪卒,陰有圖燕之志,憚垂威名,不敢發。及聞垂至,大喜,郊迎,執手曰:「天生賢傑,必相與共成大功,此自然之數也。要當與卿共定天下,告成岱宗,然後還卿本邦,世封幽州,使卿去國不失為子之孝,歸朕不失事君之忠,不亦美乎!」垂謝曰;「羈旅之臣,免罪為幸。本邦之榮,非所敢望!」堅復愛世子令及慕容楷之才,皆厚禮之,賞賜巨萬,每進見,屬目觀之。關中士民素聞垂父子名,皆向慕之。王猛言於堅曰:「慕容垂父子,譬如龍虎,非可馴之物,若借以風雲,將不可複製,不如早除之。」堅曰:「吾方收攬英雄以清四海,奈何殺之!且其始來,吾已推誠納之矣。匹夫猶不棄言,況萬乘乎!」乃以垂為冠軍將軍,封賓徒侯,楷為積弩將軍。

25. Several years earlier, when Fu Jian had learned of Murong Ke's death, he had held secret ambitions of conquering Yan, but because he feared Murong Chui's martial reputation, he had not dared to actually attack Yan. Now, when he heard that Murong Chui had come to Qin, he was overjoyed, and went to welcome him at the outskirts, grasping his hand and saying, “You are an outstanding hero, blessed by Heaven with virtue and skill. Together, we shall certainly be able to accomplish great things. This is only the natural course of things. The two of us will settle all the realm together, and then we may report our great success on Daizong (Mount Tai). Afterwards, you may return to your homeland, where I will grant all of Youzhou as a fief to you and your descendants. In that way, though you left your state, you would not be considered unfilial as a son, and although you came to me, you would not be considered disloyal to your lord. Is that not also beautiful?"

Murong Chui apologetically replied, "I am a stranger in a strange land; it would be my good fortune merely to avoid committing any offense. To be honored with the bestowment of my homeland is not something I dare to wish for."

Fu Jian also greatly appreciated the talents of Murong Ling and Murong Kai, and treated them very well, granting them great sums of money. Every time they went to visit Fu Jian, he would look at them intently. The people of Guanzhong had long heard of the famous Murong Chui and his sons, and all respected them.

Wang Meng said to Fu Jian, "Sheltering Murong Chui and his sons is like sheltering dragons and tigers: they cannot be tamed. If they manage to get hold of wind and clouds, you will not be able to subdue them again. It would be better to be rid of them at once."

But Fu Jian replied, "What I desire is to recruit all the great heroes to assist me in pacifying the realm. How could I kill him? Furthermore, when he had just arrived, I had already accepted him with great sincerity. Even a common man does not go back on his word, let alone the ruler of a great state!" And he appointed Murong Chui as Champion General and Marquis of Bintu, and appointed Murong Kai as General Who Amasses Crossbows.

賓徒,漢縣名,屬遼西郡。

(Bintu was the name of a county during Han. It was part of Liaoxi commandary.)


十一月,燕車騎吳王垂奔秦。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the eleventh month, Former Yan's General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, fled to Former Qin.

慕容垂奔於堅,王猛勸堅殺之,堅不從。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Murong Chui fled to Fu Jian, Wang Meng urged Fu Jian to kill him, but Fu Jian did not listen.

苻堅聞垂至,大悅,郊迎,執手,禮之甚重。王猛惡垂雄略,勸堅殺之,堅不從。以為冠軍將軍,封賓都侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

Fu Jian was overjoyed when he heard that Murong Chui had come to join him. He came to welcome Murong Chui at the suburbs of the city; he took him by the hand and treated him with exceptional courtesy. Wang Meng was suspicious of Murong Chui because of his boldness and cunning, and he urged Fu Jian to kill him, but Fu Jian did not listen. He appointed Murong Chui as Champion General and Marquis of Bindu.

自恪卒後,堅密有圖暐之謀,憚垂威名而未發。及聞其至,堅大悅,郊迎執手,禮之甚重。堅相王猛惡垂雄略,勸堅殺之。堅不從,以為冠軍將軍,封賓都侯,食華陰之五百戶。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

After Murong Ke's death, Fu Jian secretly plotted to conquer Murong Wei. But he feared Murong Chui's martial reputation, so he did not act on the plans. When Fu Jian heard that Murong Chui had come to him, he was greatly pleased. He came to welcome Murong Chui at the outskirts, taking him by the hand, and treating him with exceptional ceremony. Fu Jian's chancellor Wang Meng suspected Murong Chui because of his ambition and astuteness, and he urged Fu Jian to kill Murong Chui. But Fu Jian refused, and he appointed Murong Chui as Champion General and Marquis of Bindu, and assigned him five hundred households of Huayin to support him.

堅甚重之,拜冠軍將軍,封賓都侯。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Fu Jian greatly appreciated Murong Chui, and appointed him as Champion General and Marquis of Bindu.


燕魏尹范陽王德素與垂善,及車騎從事中郎高泰等,皆坐免官。尚書右丞申紹言於太傅評曰:「今吳王出奔,外口籍籍,宜征王僚屬之賢者顯進之,粗可消謗。」評曰:「誰可者?」紹曰:「高泰其領袖也。」乃以泰為尚書郎。泰,瞻之從子;紹,胤之子也。

26. Yan's Intendant of Wei, Murong De, had always been on friendly terms with Murong Chui, and so had the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Gao Tai, and others. So they were all dismissed from office for their connection to Murong Chui.

The Assistant of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Shen Shao, said to Murong Ping, "Ever since the Prince of Wu fled, many rumors have been going around outside. You ought to select some worthy person among the Prince's former ministers and conspicuously promote him, and perhaps then you can dispel some of the rumors."

Murong Ping asked, "Who would be suitable?"

Shen Shao said, "Gao Tai is their leader."

So Gao Tai was appointed as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. This Gao Tai was the son of Gao Zhan. This Shen Shao was the son (or, elder brother) of Shen Yin.

垂在燕爲車騎大將軍,以泰爲從事中郎。高瞻見九十一卷元帝太興二年。【章:十二行本「子」作「兄」;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】

(Murong Chui had been Former Yan's Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, so Gao Tai was his former subordinate officer.

Gao Zhan is mentioned in Book 91, in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) second year of Taixing (319.21, 27).

Some versions record Shen Shao as the elder brother of Shen Yin instead of his son.)


及垂奔苻堅,德坐免職。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

When Murong Chui fled to Fu Jian, Murong De was blamed and stripped of office.


秦留梁琛月餘,乃遣歸。琛兼程而進,比至鄴,吳王垂已奔秦。琛言於太傅評曰:「秦人日閱軍旅,多聚糧於陝東。以琛觀之,為和必不能久。今吳王又往歸之,秦必有窺燕之謀,宜早為之備。」評曰:「秦豈肯受叛臣而敗和好哉!」琛曰:「今二國分據中原,常有相吞之志。桓溫之入寇,彼以計相救,非愛燕也。若燕有釁,彼豈忘其本志哉!」評曰:「秦主何如人?」琛曰:「明而善斷。」問王猛,曰:「名不虛得。」評皆不以為然。琛又以告燕主暐,暐亦不然之。以告皇甫真,真深憂之,上疏言:「苻堅雖聘問相尋,然實有窺上國之心,非能慕樂德義,不忘久要也。前出兵洛川,及使者繼至,國之險易虛實,彼皆得之矣。今吳王垂又往從之,為其謀主;伍員之禍,不可不備。洛陽、太原、壺關,皆宜選將益兵,以防未然。」暐召太傅評謀之,評曰:「秦國小力弱,恃我為援;且苻堅庶幾善道,終不肯納叛臣之言,絕二國之好。不宜輕自驚擾以啟寇心。」卒不為備。

27. Qin had retained Liang Chen as an envoy for over a month, before sending him back to Yan. Liang Chen traveled back home at double standard. But by the time he arrived at Ye, Murong Chui had already fled.

Liang Chen said to Murong Ping, "Qin has been holding daily troop inspections, and stockpiling ample grain east of Shancheng (near their eastern border with Yan). Based on what I have seen, peace cannot last for long. Furthermore, now the Prince of Wu has fled to them. Qin is certainly scheming to take advantage of Yan. We had better prepare for them at once."

Murong Ping replied, "Surely Qin would not be willing to break the peace just for the sake of a defector?"

Liang Chen said, "Currently our two sides divide the Central Plains, and both of us wish to swallow the other. When Huan Wen invaded, and Qin planned to send aid, it was not because they have any love for Yan. If any sort of quarrel breaks out in Yan, do you think that Qin will forget about their original intentions to conquer it?"

Murong Ping asked, "What sort of man is the ruler of Qin?"

Liang Chen replied, "Perceptive and decisive."

Murong Ping asked about Wang Meng, and Liang Chen replied, "As good as they claim."

But Murong Ping did not believe him. Liang Chen further spoke to Murong Wei, but he did not believe Liang Chen either.

Liang Chen then spoke to Huangfu Zhen, and Huangfu Zhen was greatly worried. He sent up a petition stating, "Although Fu Jian keeps sending envoys to convey Qin's regards, he is really trying to find out more about our state. He is not doing it for virtue and kindness, or to ensure everlasting friendship. Between their earlier march out of the Luoyang region, and the streams of envoys they are sending now, they have scouted out the lay of our land and all our defenses and vulnerable points. And now the Prince of Wu has gone to join them and to serve as their chief advisor. He is going to bring on the same disaster against us as Wu Yuan (Wu Zixiu) did to the ancient state of Chu, and we must be sure to prepare against that. We must reinforce the garrisons of Luoyang, Taiyuan, and Huguan and select proper generals to hold those places, in order to better defend them."

So Murong Wei summoned Murong Ping to discuss this matter. But Murong Ping said, "Qin is a small and weak state that relies upon us for their protection. Furthermore, Fu Jian has so far behaved more or less properly towards us. In the end, he will not heed the words of a traitorous minister and so destroy the good relations between our two states. There's no need to panic and provoke them." So he made no preparations against them.

謂行者以二驛爲程,若一程而行四驛,是兼程也。苻堅、王猛之爲謀,梁琛固已窺見之矣。謂苟池、鄧羌救燕時也。伍員去楚奔吳,借吳兵以報楚入郢,事見《左傳》。秦後伐燕之路,果如眞所料。杜佑曰:潞州上黨縣,漢爲壺關縣。言苻堅雖未能純以善道交鄰,猶庶幾焉。

(Generally, a traveler covers two post stations in a leg of a journey. If in one leg one covers four post stations, that is called "double standard".

Liang Chen had already surmised Fu Jian's and Wang Meng's plan to conquer Former Yan.

Huangfu Zhen refers to the soldiers that Gou Chi and Deng Qiang led to reinforce Former Yan during Huan Wen's invasion.

During the Warring States era, the Chu minister Wu Yuan, better known as Wu Zixu, fled from Chu and sought refuge in Wu. He borrowed the might of the Wu army to enter the Chu capital at Ying and avenge himself, as mentioned in the Zuo Commentary.

Former Qin's avenues of invasions against Former Yan were exactly as Huangfu Zhen here predicted. Du You remarked, "Shangdang county in Luzhou was known during Han as Huguan county."

Murong Ping was saying that, although Fu Jian hadn’t been able to treat his neighbors with complete decency, his conduct was ultimately acceptable.)


秦遣黃門郎石越聘於燕,太傅評示之以奢,欲以誇燕之富盛。高泰及太傅參軍河間劉靖言於評曰:「越言誕而視遠,非求好也,乃觀釁也。宜耀兵以示之,用折其謀。今乃示之以奢,益為其所輕矣。」評不從。泰遂謝病歸。

28. Qin sent their Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Shi Yue, as envoy to Yan, and Murong Ping treated him lavishly, wishing to show off Yan's wealth and bounty. Gao Tai and the Army Advisor to the Grand Tutor, Liu Jing of Hejian, remonstrated with Murong Ping and said, "Shi Yue talks wildly and his eyes are looking far away. He has come all this way not to keep good relations, but to see if we have any internal disputes. You should dazzle him with troop displays, so as to forestall any of Qin’s plans. But by showing off our wealth, we will be scorned by Qin even more." But Murong Ping did not heed them. Gao Tai pleaded illness and withdrew from court.

是時太后可足渾氏侵橈國政,太傅評貪昧無厭,貨賂上流,官非才舉,群下怨憤。尚書左丞申紹上疏,以為:「守宰者,致治之本。今之守宰,率非其人,或武人出於行伍,或貴戚生長綺紈,既非鄉曲之選,又不更朝廷之職。加之黜陟無法,貪惰者無刑罰之懼,清修者無旌賞之勸。是以百姓困弊,寇盜棄斥,綱頹紀紊,莫相糾攝。又官吏猥多,逾於前世,公私紛然,不勝煩擾。大燕戶口,數兼二寇,弓馬之勁,四方莫及;而比者戰則屢北,皆由守宰賦調不平,侵漁無已,行留俱窘,莫肯致命故也。後宮之女四千餘人,僮侍廝役尚在其外,一日之費,厥直萬金。士民承風,競為奢靡。彼秦、吳僭僻,猶能條治所部,有兼併之心,而我上下因循,日失其序。我之不修,彼之願也。謂宜精擇守宰,並官省職,存恤兵家,使公私兩遂,節抑浮靡,愛惜用度,賞必當功,罰必當罪。如此,則溫、猛可梟,二方可取,豈特保境安民而已哉!又,索頭什翼犍疲病昏悖,雖乏貢御,無能為患;而勞兵遠戌,有損無益。不若移於並土,控制西河,南堅壺關,北重晉陽,西寇來則拒守,過則斷後,猶愈於戌孤城守無用之地也。」疏奏,不省。

29. During this time, Empress Dowager Kezuhun began to intrude more into government affairs, and Murong Ping’s corruption grew even more open and shameless. Bribes were demanded from anyone sending in petitions, talentless officials were promoted, and the people grew angry and indignant.

The Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Shen Shao, sent in a memorial stating, “Those who hold provincial and commandary offices are the foundation for the governance of the state. But those who currently hold those offices are unsuited for their positions. Some of them are fighting men who were drawn from the ranks; some of them are aristocrats who grew up in luxury. Neither are they chosen by the local people, nor have they gained experience in government office. Furthermore, officials are being promoted or demoted arbitrarily. Those who are corrupt or lax have no fear of being punished for their crimes, while those who are honest and diligent have no prospect of recognition or reward. This is why the people are destitute, and marauding bandits fill the roads; our administration is in disorder and our laws are disrespected, and no one bothers to correct and regulate each other. In addition, the number of officials and clerks has increased dramatically, surpassing the numbers seen under the previous sovereigns, and compared to before, they have more often mixed public and private business together. The people cannot endure these disturbances.

“The population of Yan is more than that of our two enemies combined, and our bows and horses are second to none. And yet every time we do battle, we have lost. This is all because the local officials have been unfair in levying taxes from the people, endlessly exploiting and robbing the commoners. Both those who are conscripted and those who remain at home are destitute, and none is willing to devote their lives to our cause. Now the rear palaces are filled with more than four thousand women, to say nothing of the servants and errand-runners, and the palace servants are rewarded for their service more than those far afield. In a single day, more than ten thousand gold is spent, and the gentry and the commoners alike, thus influenced by the court, vie to be the most extravagant and wasteful. Qin claims the imperial title falsely, and Wu (Jin) is in a farflung place, yet they are able to govern their lands with order and aspire to conquer us, while in our lands, those in low places take after those in high places, and day by day we fall into disorder. Our lack of reform is exactly what the other sides want. I say that we should select our local officials carefully, combine offices and cut back on positions, give comfort and aid to the families of our soldiers, keep public and personal affairs separate, restrain spending and curb expenditures, treasure and cherish those who are useful and disciplined, and ensure that those who achieve merit are rewarded while those who commit offenses are punished. If we do that, we would even be able to take the heads of both Huan Wen and Wang Meng, nevermind just ensuring the safety of our own territory and people!

"As for that braid-head Tuoba Shiyijian, he is a doddering codger by now. Though he rarely pays tribute to us, he is incapable of being a threat. It would trouble the soldiers to march so far to get at him; we would suffer much and gain little by it. It would be better for us to move the troops near the border with his domain to Bingzhou, in order to control the region west of the Yellow River. In the south, they can defend Huguan, and in the north, they can guard Jinyang. If the western invaders come to attack those places, these people can guard against them, and if the invaders try to pass by them, they can emerge to cut off the enemy's rear. That would be a far better plan than to leave people in isolated cities in useless territory.”

The petition was submitted, but the court sent back no reply.

謂秦僭號而吳僻在一隅也。蕭子顯曰:鮮卑被髮左衽,故呼爲索頭。燕戍雲中以備代。

(Shen Shao was referring to how Former Qin claimed the imperial title while Wu (Eastern Jin) remained secluded in their corner of the realm.

Xiao Zixian remarked, "The Xianbei bind their hair and button their clothes with the lapels on the left, and so they were often called Suotou or 'braid-head'."

Former Yan had a garrison at Yunzhong to guard against Dai.)


辛丑,丞相昱與大司馬溫會塗中,以謀後舉;以溫世子熙為豫州刺史、假節。

30. On the day Xinchou (January 8th of 370), Jin’s Prime Minister, Sima Yu, met with Huan Wen at Chuzhong to plan the next move. Huan Wen's eldest son Huan Xi was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou and Credential Holder.

楊正衡曰:涂,音除。涂中,今滁州全椒縣、眞州六合縣地。

(Yang Zhengheng remarked, "涂 is pronounced 'chu'." Chuzhong covered the territory which is now split between Quanjiao county and Liuhe county in modern Chuzhou.)


十一月辛丑,桓溫自山陽及會稽王昱會于塗中,將謀後舉。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the eleventh month, on the day Xinchou (January 8th of 370), Huan Wen came from Shanyang to meet the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, at Chuzhong to plan the next move.


初,燕人許割虎牢以西賂秦。晉兵既退,燕人悔之,謂秦人曰:「行人失辭。有國有家者,分災救患,理之常也。」秦王堅大怒,遣輔國將軍王猛、建威將軍梁成、洛州刺史鄧羌帥步騎三萬伐燕。十二月,進攻洛陽。

31. Originally, Yan had agreed to hand over the territory west of Hulao (the Luoyang region) to Qin as reward for their help against Huan Wen. But after the Jin invasion had been turned back, Yan regretted this decision, and they said to Qin, "The messenger we sent before misspoke. It is only the reasonable thing to do for someone who has a state and a home to help those faced with disaster." Fu Jian was enraged, and he sent the General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, the General Who Establishes Might, Liang Cheng, and the Inspector of Sizhou, Deng Qiang, with thirty thousand horse and foot to invade Yan. In the twelfth month, they advanced and attacked Luoyang.

謂使者許割地爲失辭也。《考異》曰:《燕少帝紀》,此年十二月,王猛攻洛,明年正月,拔洛。《十六國‧秦春秋》,十一月,王猛伐燕,遺慕容紀書,紀請降;十二月,猛受降而歸。今按《獻莊紀》云,慕容令之奔還鄴,建熙元年二月也,時王猛猶在洛。又猛遺紀書云:「去年桓溫起師。」故從《燕書》。

(Former Yan was saying that the messenger who agreed to divide the territory misspoke.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "According to the Annals of the Young Emperor (Murong Wei) in the Book of Yan, in the twelfth month of this year (369), Wang Meng attacked Luoyang, and in the first month of the following year (370), he took it. According to the Annals of Former Qin in the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, in the eleventh month, Wang Meng invaded Former Yan, and sent a letter to Murong Ji at Luoyang, causing Murong Ji to offer to surrender; in the twelfth month, Wang Meng received Murong Ji's surrender and returned. Now according to the Biography of Xianzhuang (Murong Ling) in the Book of Yan, when Murong Ling fled back to Ye (as part of Wang Meng’s plot, mentioned below), that was in the second month of the first year of Jianxi, when Wang Meng was still at Luoyang. And in Wang Meng's letter to Murong Ji, he states, ‘Huan Wen invaded you last year’. So I follow the account in the Book of Yan.")


桓溫既走,慕容暐悔割河、滄之地以賂秦,乃曰:「行人失辭,分災救患,理之常也。」堅大怒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Now that Huan Wen had retreated, Murong Wei regretted his decision to split off the territory between the Yellow River and the Cang River to give to Former Qin. So his envoy told them, "The messenger we sent before misspoke. It is only natural for someone to help their neighbor when they are faced with disaster." Fu Jian was greatly angered.


大司馬溫發徐、兗州民築廣陵城,徙鎮之。時征役既頻,加之疫癘,死者什四五,百姓嗟怨。秘書監太原孫盛作《晉春秋》,直書時事;大司馬溫見之,怒,謂盛子曰:「枋頭誠為失利,何至乃如尊君所言!若此史遂行,自是關君門戶事!」其子遽拜謝,請改之。時盛年老家居,性方嚴,有軌度,子孫雖斑白,待之愈峻。至是諸子乃共號泣稽顙,請為百口切計。盛大怒,不許,諸子遂私改之。盛先已寫別本,傳之外國。及孝武帝購求異書,得之於遼東人,與見本不同,遂兩存之。

32. Huan Wen compelled the people of Xuzhou and Yanzhou to construct walls at Guangling, and to move there to defend it. At that time, there were frequently such demands of military and corvee service, and on top of that, there was an epidemic; four or five of every ten people perished. The common people were sorrowful and resentful.

The Custodian of the Private Library, Sun Sheng of Taiyuan, composed his Annals of Jin, giving an unbiased account of the events of the time. When Huan Wen saw it, he became angry, and said to Sun Sheng's sons, "It may be true that I gained nothing at Fangtou, but it’s not as bad as how your father put it! If he distributes this history, it will not go well for your family!" Sun Sheng’s sons hastily apologized and asked to be allowed to modify the text.

At that time, Sun Sheng was old and already retired at his residence. He was of a stern temperament, and not inclined to turn away from his chosen path. Even though his sons and grandsons had grown old and grey, he still treated them severely. So although all his sons kowtowed before him with tears in their eyes, asking him to make the changes on their behalf, he angrily refused. They therefore made the changes to his writings on their own. However, Sun Sheng had already made another copy of his original text, which he sent out to the other states. When Emperor Xiaowu later hunted for rare books, he got a copy of it from someone in Liaodong. Seeing that it was different from the copy he had, he kept both of them.

【章:十二行本「孫」上有「太原」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】漢桓帝置祕書監;晉武帝以祕書併中書省;惠帝復置祕書監,其屬有丞、有郎,幷統著作省。晉人於人子之前稱其父爲尊君、尊公。言欲滅其門也。史言桓溫雖以威逼改孫盛之書,終不能沒其實。

(Some versions identify Sun Sheng as being "of Taiyuan".

Emperor Huan of Han had created the office of Custodian of the Private Library. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) had merged the Custodian office into the Bureau of the Palace Secretariat. Emperor Hui had created the Custodian office again, and also assigned to it Assistants and Gentlemen as subordinate offices. All of them oversaw the Collected Works.

In Jin, people used the terms 尊君 or 尊公 to refer to someone in the third person when speaking to their son.

Huan Wen means to say that their family would be extinguished.

This passage demonstrates how, although Huan Wen tried mightily to censor Sun Sheng's work, in the end he was not able to erase its original content.)


十二月,遂城廣陵而居之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the twelfth month, Huan Wen fortified Guangling and resided there.
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BOOK 102

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Apr 11, 2017 8:42 pm

太和五年(庚午,公元三七零年)

The Fifth Year of Taihe (The Gengwu Year, 370 AD)


春,正月,己亥,袁真以梁國內史沛郡朱憲及弟汝南內史斌陰通大司馬溫,殺之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jihai (March 7th), the rebel general Yuan Zhen believed that the Interior Minister of Liangguo, Zhu Xian of Pei commandary, and the Interior Minister of Runan, Zhu Xian's younger brother Zhu Bin, were secretly communicating with Huan Wen, so he killed them.

五年春正月己亥,袁眞子雙之、愛之害梁國內史朱憲、汝南內史朱斌。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the fifth year of Taihe (370), in spring, the first month, on the day Jihai (March 7th), Yuan Zhen's sons Yuan Shuangzhi and Yuan Aizhi killed the Interior Minister of Liangguo, Zhu Xian, and the Interior Minister of Runan, Zhu Bin.


秦王猛遺燕荊州刺史武威王築書曰:「國家今已塞成皋之險,杜盟津之路,大駕虎旅百萬,自軹關取鄴都,金墉窮戍,外無救援,城下之師,將軍所監,豈三百弊卒所能支也!」築懼,以洛陽降,猛陳師受之。燕衛大將軍樂安王臧城新樂,破秦兵於石門,執秦將楊猛。

2. Wang Meng was still besieging Luoyang. He sent a letter to Yan's Inspector of Jingzhou and Prince of Wuwei, Murong Zhu, stating, "We have already cut off the routes to Chenggao and Dumeng Crossing. His Majesty, charging forward at the head of a million soldiers, has marched from Zhi Pass and has already captured Ye. You cannot maintain your position at Jinyong any longer, and there is no prospect of reinforcements for you. General, you can see for yourself how vast our army outside your walls is. Do you think you can really oppose us with your mere three hundred weary soldiers?" Murong Zhu was afraid, so he surrendered Luoyang. Wang Meng arrayed his soldiers and then accepted the surrender.

Yan's Grand Guard General, Murong Zang, built walls at Xinle. He routed a Qin army at Shimen, and captured the Qin general Yang Meng.

燕荊州治洛陽。〈監,視也。猶言目所見也。〉石門在滎陽;新樂亦當在滎陽界。宋白曰:衞州新鄕縣治古新樂城。新樂城,十六國時,燕將樂安王臧所築。

(Former Yan administered Jingzhou from Luoyang.

Wang Meng uses the term 監 here to mean "see", in the sense of "you may see for yourself".

Shimen was at Xingyang. Xinle was also within the borders of Xingyang. Song Bai remarked, "Xinxiang county in Weizhou governed the old city of Xinle. Xinle was from the Sixteen Kingdoms era, when the Former Yan general and Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, built it.")


王猛之發長安也,請慕容令參其軍事,以為鄉導。將行,造慕容垂飲酒,從容謂垂曰:「今當遠別,卿何以贈我,使我睹物思人?」垂脫佩刀贈之。猛至洛陽,賂垂所親金熙,使詐為垂使者,謂令曰:「吾父子來此,以逃死也。今王猛疾人如仇,讒毀日深;秦王雖外相厚善,其心難知。丈夫逃死而卒不免,將為天下笑。吾聞東朝比來始更悔悟,主、後相尤。吾今還東,故遣告汝;吾已行矣,便可速發。」令疑之,躊躇終日,又不可審覆。乃將舊騎,詐為出獵,遂奔樂安王臧於石門。猛表令叛狀,垂懼而出走,及藍田,為追騎所獲。秦王堅引見東堂,勞之曰:「卿家國失和,委身投朕。賢子心不忘本,猶懷首丘,亦各其志,不足深咎。然燕之將亡,非令所能存,惜其徒入虎口耳。且父子兄弟,罪不相及,卿何為過懼而狼狽如是乎!」待之如舊。燕人以令叛而復還,其父為秦所厚,疑令為反間,徙之沙城,在龍都東北六百裡。

3. When Wang Meng had left Chang'an, he had brought Murong Ling with him as an advisor, appointing him as a guide for the army. Before leaving, Wang Meng had a drink with Murong Chui, and leisurely said to him, "I will be a long ways from you; what would you like to give me, to serve as a reminder of you?" Murong Chui unbuckled his sword from his waist and gave it to Wang Meng.

When Wang Meng reached Luoyang, he bribed Murong Chui's associate Jin Xi, and had him falsely act as a messenger from Murong Chui. Jin Xi conveyed this false message (presumably along with the sword) to Murong Ling from his father: "All of us fled to Qin only to escape death. But now Wang Meng holds a grudge against us, and slanders our reputation more each day. Although the King of Qin seems benevolent on the outside, it is difficult to know what really lies in his heart. Having fled to Qin to escape my death, if I wound up dying at their hands in the end, I would become the laughingstock of all the realm. I have heard that the eastern court has come to regret what happened, and our lord and the Empress Dowager regret it most of all. So now I wish to go back east again, and I have sent this message to inform you as well. By now I will have already left, so you should hurry on too."

Murong Ling was at first doubtful, and hesitated for several days, but in the end could not go against it. So he saddled up his old horse, pretending he was going out hunting, and fled to Murong Zang at Shimen.

Wang Meng then sent up a petition denouncing Murong Ling as a traitor. Murong Chui, in a panic, tried to flee as well, but when he reached Lantian, Qin pursuit troops overtook him and captured him. Fu Jian met with him in the Eastern Hall, and reassured him, saying, “There was discord in your clan, and that is why you were cast out and came to me. It is only that your worthy son could not forget where he came from, and he still yearned for his homeland. Everyone has their own desires, and this is no grave fault. Yet Yan will soon be destroyed. Your son disobeyed orders so that he could live, and what a pity that now he has merely thrown himself into the tiger's maw. But crimes do not extend between brother and brother or between father and son. What transgression had you yourself committed, that made you fear that you were cornered like a wolf?” And so he treated Murong Chui just as before.

Although Murong Ling had abandoned Qin and returned to Yan, since his father was still treated well in Qin, Yan suspected that Murong Ling had only been sent to plot against them from within. So he was exiled to Shacheng, which was six hundred li northeast of Longdu.

〈主、后,謂燕主暐及可足渾后也。相尤,言相責過。〉舊騎,自燕奔秦所從者。《禮記‧檀弓》曰:太公封於齊,五世皆反葬於周。君子曰:樂樂其所自生,禮不忘其本。古之人有言曰:「狐死正丘首,仁也。」晉臼季薦冀缺於晉文公,公曰:「其父有罪,可乎?」對曰:「舜之罪也,殛鯀;其舉也,興禹。」《康誥》曰:父不慈,子不祗,兄不友,弟不共,不相及也。狼,進則跋其胡,退則疐其尾。狽,狼屬也。生子,欠一足。二者相附而後能行,故世謂進退不可而不能行者爲狼狽。沙城,在沙野。龍都,卽龍城。

(By "our lord and the Empress Dowager", the false message refers to Murong Wei and Empress Dowager Kezuhun, and how they had especially blamed themselves for being at fault for the dispute with Murong Chui.

The old horse Murong Ling took was the one which he had ridden when he fled from Former Yan to Former Qin.

Concerning Murong Ling's yearning for home, the Tan Gong section of the Book of Rites states, "Tai-gong was invested with his fief of Qi, but for five generations (his descendants, the marquises of Qi) were all taken back and buried in Zhou. A superior man has said, 'For music, we use that of him from whom we sprang; in ceremonies, we do not forget him to whom we trace our root.' The ancients had a saying, that a fox, when dying, points its head in the direction of the mound (where it was whelped); manifesting thereby (how it shares in the feeling of) humanity." (Tan Gong Part 1 #27)

It is mentioned in the Zuo Commentary (Duke Xi, 33.8) that in the ancient state of Jin, Ji of Jiu (Xu Chen) recommended Ji Que to Duke Wen of Jin. Duke Wen asked, "Considering that Ji Que's father tried to murder me, can I really give his son office?" Ji of Jiu replied, "The one whom Shun punished was Gun, but the one whom Shun raised to the imperial dignity was Gun's son Yu." And the Announcement to the Prince of Kang in the Book of Documents states, "The father who is devoid of affection, and the son who is devoid of reverence; the elder brother who is unkind, and the younger who is disrespectful, are all to be punished, but not one for the offense of the other."

When a wolf rushes forward, it stumbles over its beard, and when it darts away, it trips over its tail. A 狽 is a kind of wolf which, after birth and as a pup, lacks one of its feet, so it is compelled to move two feet together in order to move forward. So 狼狽 was an expression to mean someone who can neither go forward nor backwards, and had no way to escape.

Shacheng was in Shaye. Longdu was another name for Longcheng, since it used to be the Former Yan capital.)


王猛伐洛,引全為參軍。猛乃令人詭傳垂語于全曰:「吾已東還,汝可為計也。」全信之,乃奔暐。猛表全叛狀,垂懼而東奔,及藍田,為追騎所獲。堅引見東堂,慰勉之曰:「卿家國失和,委身投朕。賢子志不忘本,猶懷首丘。《書》不云乎:「父父子子,無相及也。」卿何為過懼而狼狽若斯也!」於是復垂爵位,恩待如初。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Wang Meng campaigned against Luoyang, he brought Murong Quan along as an Army Advisor. Wang Meng then had a servant bring a false message to Murong Quan from Murong Chui, saying, "I have already returned east, and you ought to follow the same course." Murong Quan believed the message, so he fled to Murong Wei.

Wang Meng then sent in a petition charging Murong Quan as a traitor. Murong Chui became afraid and fled east, but he was overtaken by pursuit troops at Lantian and brought back to Qin. Fu Jian brought him to the Eastern Hall to see him, and he comforted and encouraged Murong Chui. Fu Jian said, "Your family and state suffered from discord, and that is why you threw yourself on my mercy. It is only that your worthy son could not forget where he came from, and he cherished his old den in his heart. But does the Book of Documents not say, 'Fathers and sons are not charged for the faults of each other'? What transgression had you yourself committed, that made you fear that you were cornered like a wolf?" And he restored Murong Chui to his old ranks and titles, and treated him with all the same grace as before.

The actual line from the Book of Documents which Fu Jian here refers to is "Such great criminals are greatly abhorred, and how much more (detestable) are the unfilial and unbrotherly! - as the son who does not reverently discharge his duty to his father, but greatly wounds his father's heart, and the father who can (no longer) love his son, but hates him; as the younger brother who does not think of the manifest will of Heaven, and refuses to respect his elder brother, and the elder brother who does not think of the toil of their parents in bringing up their children, and is very unfriendly to his junior. If we who are charged with government do not treat parties who proceed to such wickedness as offenders, the laws (of our nature) given by Heaven to our people will be thrown into great disorder and destroyed." So Fu Jian does not quote a phrase which actually appears in the Book, but his formulation, with its interpretation that such crimes do not extend among family members, had precedent in other texts that quoted this same chapter of the Book of Documents, including the Zuo Commentary (Xi 33.8) and the Book of Later Han (4.81).)


臣光曰:昔周得微子而革商命,秦得由余而霸西戎,吳得伍員而克強楚,漢得陳平而誅項籍,魏得許攸而破袁紹。彼敵國之材臣,來為己用,進取之良資也。王猛知慕容垂之心久而難信,獨不念燕尚未滅,垂以材高功盛,無罪見疑,窮困歸秦,未有異心,遽以猜忌殺之,是助燕為無道而塞來者之門也,如何其可哉!故秦王堅禮以收燕望,親之以盡燕情,寵之以傾燕眾,信之以結燕心,未為過矣。猛何汲汲於殺垂,至乃為市井鬻賣之行,有如嫉其寵而讒之者,豈雅德君子所宜為哉!

4. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: When King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty, it was partly because the Viscount of Wey had rebelled against Shang’s orders and joined Zhou. In the age of Duke Mu of Qin, You Yu’s defection to Qin led to the conquest of the Western Rong tribes. In King Helü of Wu’s day, Wu Yuan’s (Wu Zixu's) flight from Chu to Wu led to Chu’s defeat. During the rise of the Han dynasty, Chen Ping defected from Xiang Ji (Xiang Yu) and then helped Liu Bang to kill him. In the early days of Cao-Wei, Xu You’s defection to Cao Cao led to the rout of Yuan Shao. There were thus many fine examples of talented ministers of enemy states who came to join the other side and thus helped their new masters to defeat their old ones.

But Wang Meng knew of Murong Chui's heart and yet did not trust him, nor seek his aid to bring about Former Yan's downfall. Murong Chui was an officer of immense renown and talents, and he had committed no crime and done nothing to arouse suspicion, but had earnestly fled to Former Qin in his adversity. Murong Chui had displayed no sign of being disloyal to Fu Jian, and yet Wang Meng in his paranoia tried to arrange Murong Chui's death. Such a thing would have only helped Former Yan to no benefit, and deterred others from seeking refuge with Former Qin, and for what purpose?

Fu Jian had treated Murong Chui well in order to win approval from the people of Yan, kept Murong Chui as a close associate to assuage their feelings, favored Murong Chui highly in order to turn them to his side, and trusted Murong Chui so as to bind their hearts to him. Murong Chui had committed no transgression. Why then was Wang Meng so anxious to kill him, even so far as to purchase his death with filthy lucre? Was he so jealous of the favor shown to Murong Chui that he slandered him? Is this how a virtuous gentleman is meant to act?

殷紂暴虐日甚,微子抱祭器而奔周。武王乃告諸侯曰:「殷有重罪,不可不伐。」遂伐紂,殺之,而革殷命。《史記》:戎使由余使於秦,繆公留由余而遺戎王女樂,戎王受而說之,繆公乃歸由余。由余數諫不聽,繆公使人間要由余,由余遂降秦。繆公問以伐戎之形,幷國十二,開地千里,遂霸西戎。楚殺伍奢,其子員奔吳,吳王闔閭用其謀而伐楚,破楚入郢。事見九卷漢高帝二年至四年。事見六十三卷漢獻帝建安五年。

(King Zhou of Yin (Shang) became more and more cruel by the day, causing the Viscount of Wey to cast away his sacrificial utensils and flee to Zhou. King Wu of Zhou then told the feudal lords, "Yin (Shang) bears a heavy crime. We are compelled to campaign against them." So he attacked King Zhou, and killed him. This was the way in which the Viscount of Wey "rebelled against Yin's orders".

It is mentioned in the Records of the Grand Scribe that the Western Rong tribes sent You Yu as an envoy to the state of Qin. Duke Mu of Qin retained You Yu for a time, while sending back to the Rong some royal song-girls, which the King of the Rong was happy to accept. Only then did Duke Mu send You Yu back as well. You Yu remonstrated with the King several times, but to no avail. Duke Mu then sent someone to demand You Yu, and You Yu submitted to Qin. Duke Mu asked You Yu how he might campaign against the Rong, and You Yu described to him their twelve states and the lay of their thousand li of land. Thus was Duke Mu able to conquer the Rong.

The state of Chu killed Wu She. His son Wu Yuan, or Wu Zixu, fled to their neighboring state Wu, where King Helü used him to plot against Chu. The Wu army later routed Chu's army, and occupied their capital Ying.

Chen Ping's service under the Han dynasty is mentioned in Book 9, in the second through fourth years of Emperor Gao's (Liu Bang) reign (205-203 BC).

Xu You's defection from Yuan Shao is mentioned in Book 63, in Emperor Xian of Han's fifth year of Jian'an (200.AA in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).)


樂安王臧進屯滎陽,王猛遣建威將軍梁成、洛州刺史鄧羌擊走之;留羌鎮金墉,以輔國司馬桓寅為弘農太守,代羌戍陝城而還。

5. Murong Zang advanced to camp at Xingyang. Wang Meng sent Liang Cheng and Deng Qiang to attack Murong Zang, and they drove him off. Deng Qiang remained behind to defend Jinyong, while the Marshal to the General Who Upholds The State, Huan Yin, was appointed as Administrator of Hongnong, and went back to guard Shancheng in Deng Qiang's place.

猛爲輔國將軍,以寅爲司馬。秦初以洛州刺史鎭陝;今鄧羌旣進金屯金墉,故以桓寅代戍陝。

(Wang Meng was still General Who Upholds The State, so Huan Yin was his subordinate as Marshal.

Up until now, Former Qin had governed Luozhou from Shancheng. Since their Inspector of Luozhou, Deng Qiang, had now advanced to camp at Jinyong, this was why Huan Yin took over for him in guarding Shancheng.)


秦王堅以王猛為司徒,錄尚書事,封平陽郡侯。猛固辭曰:「今燕、吳未平,戎車方駕,而始得一城,即受三事之賞,若克殄二寇,將何以加之!」堅曰:「苟不暫抑朕心,何以顯卿謙光之美!已詔有司權聽所守;封爵酬庸,其勉從朕命!」

6. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Minister Over The Masses, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Marquis of Pingyang commandary. But Wang Meng declined these appointments, saying, "Yan and Wu have not yet been pacified, and you are putting the cart before the horse. I have merely taken a single city, and yet you offer me one of the 'three things' as a reward for it. What will you have left to reward me with if I am able to destroy our two foes completely?"

Fu Jian replied, “Do you then trample on my heart, just to glorify your own modesty? I have already commanded the ministers to heed you in everything. I am granting fiefs and rewarding achievements so that you may strive to follow my orders!”

〈庸,功也。〉三事,三公也。

(The term 庸 here means "achievements".

By the "three things", Wang Meng meant the Three Excellencies (of which the Minister Over The Masses was one).)


二月,癸酉,袁真卒。陳郡太守朱輔立真子瑾為建威將軍,豫州刺史,以保壽春,遣其子乾之及司馬爨亮如鄴請命。燕人以瑾為揚州刺史,輔為荊州刺史。

7. In the second month, on the day Guiyou (April 10th), Yuan Zhen passed away. The Administrator of Chen commandary, Zhu Fu, acclaimed Yuan Zhen's son Yuan Qin as the new General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Yuzhou, leaving him to guard Shouchun, while he sent his son Zhu Ganzhi and his Marshal, Cuan Liang, to Ye to ask Yan for further orders. Yan appointed Yuan Qin as Inspector of Yuzhou, and Zhu Fu as Inspector of Yangzhou.

瑾,渠吝翻。

(Yuan Qin's given name 瑾 is pronounced "qin (q-in)".)


二月癸酉,袁眞死,陳郡太守朱輔立眞子瑾嗣事,求救于慕容暐。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the second month, on the day Guiyou (April 10th), Yuan Zhen passed away. The Administrator of Chen commandary, Zhu Fu, acclaimed Yuan Zhen's son Yuan Qin as the new leader, and he sought assistance from Murong Wei.


三月,秦王堅以吏部尚書權翼為尚書右僕射。夏,四月,復以王猛為司徒,錄尚書事;猛固辭,乃止。

8. In the third month, Fu Jian appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Quan Yi, as Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing.

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian again tried to appoint Wang Meng as Minister Over The Masses and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, but Wang Meng continued to decline, so Fu Jian gave it up.

燕、秦皆遣兵助袁瑾,大司馬溫遣督護竺瑤等御之。燕兵先至,瑤等與戰於武丘,破之。南頓太守桓石虔克其南城。石虔,溫之弟子也。

9. Yan and Qin both sent troops to aid Yuan Qin. Huan Wen sent his Protector, Zhu Yao, and others to block them. Of the two relief armies, the Yan soldiers arrived first; Zhu Yao and the others fought them at Wuqiu and routed them. Jin's Administrator of Nandun, Huan Shiqian, then took the southern city. This Huan Shiqian was Huan Wen's nephew.

武丘,卽丘頭,文王平諸葛誕,改曰武丘,以旌武功。杜佑曰:丘頭卽潁州沈丘縣。惠帝分汝南,立南頓郡。南城,壽春南城也。

(Wuqiu was originally called Qiutou. When King Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) put down Zhuge Dan's rebellion, he renamed the place to Wuqiu, to celebrate his martial (武 Wu) achievement. Du You remarked, "Wuqiu is in Chenqiu county in Yingzhou."

Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) split off part of Runan commandary to form Nandun commandary.

The "southern city" means the southern city of Shouchun.)


夏四月辛未,桓溫部將竺瑤破瑾于武丘。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Xinwei (June 7th), Huan Wen's subordinate general Zhu Yao routed Yuan Qin at Wuqiu.


秦王堅復遣王猛督鎮南將軍楊安等十將步騎六萬以伐燕。

10. Fu Jian sent reinforcements to Wang Meng, sixty thousand horse and foot under his General Who Guards The South, Yang An, and nine others to continue the campaign against Yan.

十一年六月,秦輔國將軍王猛、鎮南將軍楊安,率衆六萬來伐。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the eleventh year of Jianxi (370), the sixth month, Former Qin's General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, and their General Who Guards The South, Yang An, led sixty thousand soldiers to campaign against Yan.

堅遣將王猛伐鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian sent his general Wang Meng to campaign against Ye.

六年,令輔國王猛,帥鎮南陽安、虎牙將軍張蚝、建節鄧羌等步騎六萬討平燕冀。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the sixth year of Jianyuan (370), Fu Jian ordered the General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, to lead an army of sixty thousand horse and foot to campaign against Former Yan, under the command of the General Who Guards The South, Yang An, the General of Tiger Fang, Zhang Qi, the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, and others.


慕容令自度終不得免,密謀起兵,沙城中謫戍士數千人,令皆厚撫之。五月,庚午,令殺牙門孟媯。城大涉圭懼,請自效。令信之,引置左右。遂帥謫戍士東襲威德城,殺城郎慕容倉,據城部署,遣人招東西諸戍,翕然皆應之。鎮東將軍勃海王亮鎮龍城,令將襲之;其弟麟以告亮,亮閉城拒守。癸酉,涉圭因侍直擊令,令單馬走,其黨皆潰。涉圭追令至薛黎澤,擒而殺之,詣龍城白亮。亮為之誅涉圭,收令屍而葬之。

11. Murong Ling, unable to escape his situation in exile, secretly made plans to start an uprising. There were several thousand soldiers camped at Shacheng who had likewise been banished there, and Murong Ling treated them all well.

In the fifth month, on the day Gengwu (?), Murong Ling killed the General of the Serrated Gate, Meng Gui. The City Chief, She Gui, was greatly afraid, and asked how he might make amends to Murong Ling. Murong Ling trusted She Gui, and made him one of his personal attendants. He led the banished soldiers east to attack Weide, and killed the City Gentleman there, Murong Cang. Murong Ling then sent out agents east and west, enticing the various army camps, and all of them went over to him.

The General Who Guards The East and Prince of Bohai, Murong Liang, was guarding Longcheng. Murong Ling planned to launch a surprise attack on that city. However, his younger brother Murong Lin informed Murong Liang, and so Murong Liang closed the gates of the city and held fast.

On the day Guiyou (?), unsatisfied with his position, She Gui turned on Murong Ling and attacked him. Murong Ling fled alone on horseback, while all his partisans dispersed. She Gui pursued Murong Ling to Xueli Marsh, where he captured and killed him, and then went to Longcheng to report the deed to Murong Liang. But Murong Liang executed She Gui for having done so, and then had Murong Ling's body collected and buried.

《姓譜》:涉,姓也。《左傳》晉有大夫涉佗。〈威德城,卽宇文涉夜干所居城也,燕王皝改曰威德城。〉令引涉圭置左右,故得因侍直而擊之。

(The Registry of Surnames states, "涉 She is a surname. The Zuo Commentary mentions that the state of Jin had a minister named She Tuo."

The city of Weide had once been the residence of Yuwen Sheyegan. Murong Huang had renamed it to Weide.

Murong Ling had only made She Gui one of his personal attendants, and this was why She Gui was dissatisfied and attacked him.)


六月,乙卯,秦王堅送王猛於灞上,曰:「今委卿以關東之任,當先破壺關,平上黨,長驅取鄴,所謂『疾雷不及掩耳』。吾當親督萬眾,繼卿星發,舟車糧運,水陸俱進,卿勿以為後慮也。」猛曰:「臣杖威靈,奉成算,蕩平殘胡,如風掃葉,願不煩鑾輿親犯塵霧,但願速敕所司部置鮮卑之所。」堅大悅。

12. In the sixth month, on the day Yimao (July 21st), Fu Jian escorted Wang Meng to Bashang. He said to Wang Meng, "I leave all affairs in Guandong in your hands. First break through Huguan and pacify Shangdang, then make straight for Ye. You must be as the saying goes: 'one cannot cover their ears before the thunder roars’. I will personally oversee affairs in the rear and follow behind you by the light of the stars, keeping you supplied by boat and by cart and advancing by land and by water. So you need have no concern about your rear."

But Wang Meng replied, "You have charged me with wielding your authority, and so I will bring you a complete victory. I shall clear out these savage barbarians like the autumn wind blows aside the leaves. Why trouble yourself with getting swept up in such mundane matters like so many clouds of dust? Just designate which places shall serve as the residences for the Xianbei captives I shall bring you."

Fu Jian was delighted by this reponse.

魏收曰:秦置上黨郡,治壺關城,前漢治長子城,董卓治壺關城,慕容氏治安民城,後遷壺關城。《淮南子》之言。星發,謂戴星而發行也。言預爲治舍,以待其至。

(The Book of Northern Wei states, "The Qin dynasty created Shangdang commandary, which was administered from the city of Huguan. During Former Han, it was administered from the city of Zhangzi. Dong Zhuo changed its administrative headquarters back to Huguan. Under the Murong clan of Yan, it was originally administered from the city of Anmin, but afterwards it was moved to Huguan again."

Fu Jian's quote about the thunder is a saying from the Huainanzi (the Writings of the Masters of Huainan).

By "the light of the stars", Fu Jian meant that he would set out even through the night.

Wang Meng meant that Fu Jian should prepare houses for the Former Yan captives and await their arrival).


秋,七月,癸酉朔,日有食之。

13. In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Guiyou (August 8th), there was an eclipse.

秋七月癸酉朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Guiyou (August 8th), there was an eclipse.


秦王猛攻壺關,楊安攻晉陽。八月,燕主暐命太傅上庸王評將中外精兵三十萬以拒秦。暐以秦寇為憂,召散騎侍郎李鳳、黃門侍郎梁琛、中書侍郎樂嵩問曰:「秦兵眾寡何如?今大軍既出,秦能戰乎?」鳳曰:「秦國小兵弱,非王師之敵;景略常才,又非太傅之比,不足憂也。」琛、嵩曰:「勝敗在謀,不在眾寡。秦遠來為寇,安肯不戰!且吾當用謀以求勝,豈可冀其不戰而已乎!」暐不悅。王猛克壺關,執上黨太守南安王越,所過郡縣,皆望風降附,燕人大震。

14. Wang Meng attacked Huguan, while Yang An attacked Jinyang. In the eighth month, Murong Wei ordered Murong Ping to lead an army of three hundred thousand elite soldiers, the full might of Yan, to oppose Qin.

Murong Wei was concerned about Qin’s invasion, so he summoned the Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Li Feng, the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Liang Chen, and the Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Yue Song, to ask them: "How large is the Qin army? Now that our main army has marched to oppose them, would the Qin army still able to oppose them in battle?"

Li Feng answered, "Qin is a small state with weak soldiers; they are no match for our royal army. And Jinglüe (Wang Meng) has only ordinary talents, and cannot compare with the Grand Tutor. There is no cause for concern."

But Liang Chen and Yue Song replied, "It is strategy that determines victory or defeat, not numbers. The Qin soldiers have come a long way and are hungry for battle, so how could they turn it down? Besides, we ought to be coming up with a plan for victory, not simply hoping that the Qin army will not offer battle!"

But Murong Wei was not pleased by their response.

Wang Meng took Huguan, and captured Yan's Administrator of Shangdang and Prince of Nan’an, Murong Yue. As he advanced, the counties and commandaries he passed through all recognized the hopelessness of their situation and surrendered to him, and the people of Yan were greatly afraid.

《考異》曰:《載記》云「四十萬」,今從《晉春秋》。〈王猛,字景略。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Murong Wei in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that Murong Ping's army was 'four hundred thousand'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Jin."

Wang Meng's style name was Jinglüe.)


苻堅又使王猛、楊安率眾伐暐,猛攻壺關,安攻晉陽。暐使慕容評等率中外精卒四十餘萬距之。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian then sent Wang Meng and Yang An to lead troops to attack Murong Wei. Wang Meng attacked Huguan, and Yang An attacked Jinyang. Murong Wei sent Murong Ping and others to lead more than four hundred thousand elite soldiers, the full might of Yan, to oppose them.

八月,猛攻尅壺關,暐遣太傅上庸王評等帥四十萬屯於潞川。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the eighth month, Wang Meng attacked and captured Huguan. Murong Wei sent his Grand Tutor and Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, and others to lead four hundred thousand soldiers to camp at Luchuan.


黃門侍郎封孚問司徒長史申胤曰:「事將何如?」胤歎曰:「鄴必亡矣,吾屬今茲將為秦虜。然越得歲而吳伐之,卒受其禍。今福德在燕,秦雖得志,而燕之復建,不過一紀耳。」

15. In the Yan court, Feng Fu asked Shen Yin, "What will happen now?"

Shen Yin replied, "Ye will certainly fall, and we shall all be Qin's prisoners for a time. But remember that the ancient state of Yue had the Year Star (Jupiter) hanging over it when its neighbor Wu conquered it, and that led to Wu’s downfall in the end. Fortune and virtue are on the side of Yan, and although Qin may temporarily achieve their ambition, Yan will rise again and reestablish itself, less than a generation from now."

《左傳》:昭三十二年,吳伐越。史墨曰:「不及四十年,越其有吳乎!越得歲而吳伐之,必受其凶。」杜預《註》曰︰此年歲在星紀,星紀,吳、越之分也。歲星所在,其國有福,吳先用兵,故反受其殃。福德在燕,亦謂歲星在燕分也。後苻堅所謂「昔吾滅燕,亦犯歲而捷」是也。爲後燕復興張本。

(According to the Zuo Commentary, in the thirty-second year of the reign of Duke Zhao of Lu, Wu conquered Yue. The historiographer Cai Mo declared, "In less than forty years, Yue shall have possession of Wu! For the Year Star is now in Yue's quarter of the heavens, so Wu, by invading that state, is sure to experience an evil influence from it." Du Yu's Annotations states, "This 'year' means the 'Year Star' (Jupiter). It was then in the area of the heavens that symbolized Wu and Yue. Whichever state the Year Star hangs over, that state is bound to have good fortune. Yet Wu attacked Yue while Yue had the Year Star, and so it acted contrary to nature and suffered misfortune later on."

When Shen Yin mentions "fortune and virtue", he also means that the Year Star was hanging over Yan during this time. When Fu Jian later says, "When I conquered Yan, I also violated the Year Star, but we were still triumphant", he refers to this concept (Book 104, 382.13).

Shen Yin thus predicted the rise of Later Yan.)


大司馬溫自廣陵帥眾二萬討袁瑾;以襄城太守劉波為淮南內史,將五千人鎮石頭。波,隗之孫也。癸丑,溫敗瑾於壽春,遂圍之。燕左衛將軍孟高將騎兵救瑾,至淮北,未渡,會秦伐燕,燕召高還。

16. Huan Wen marched from Guangling with twenty thousand soldiers to campaign against Yuan Qin. He appointed the Administrator of Xiangcheng, Liu Bo, as Interior Minister of Huainan, and ordered him to guard the Shitou fortress with five thousand men. This Liu Bo was the grandson of Liu Wei.

On the day Guichou (September 17th), Huan Wen defeated Yuan Qin at Shouchun, and put the city under siege. Yan's Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, advanced with cavalry troops to aid Yuan Qin. When he reached the north bank of the Huai, he was preparing to cross it, but by then Qin's invasion of Yan had resumed, and he was ordered to return.

元帝之末,劉隗避王敦之難,因北奔于後趙。

(At the end of Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) reign, Liu Wei had fled Jin to escape from Wang Dun after his revolt, and he fled north to Later Zhao.)


八月癸丑,桓溫擊袁瑾于壽陽,敗之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the eighth month, on the day Guichou (September 17th), Huan Wen attacked Yuan Qin at Shouyang and defeated him.


廣漢妖賊李弘,詐稱漢歸義侯勢之子,聚眾萬餘人,自稱聖王,年號鳳凰。隴西人李高,詐稱成主雄之子,攻破涪城,逐梁州刺史楊亮。九月,益州刺史周楚遣子瓊討高,又使瓊子梓潼太守颺討弘,皆平之。

17. In the Shu region, the outlaw Li Hong of Guanghan proclaimed a restoration of Cheng-Han, falsely claiming to be the son of Li Shi, and he gathered more than ten thousand people to him. He declared himself the Sage King, and his reign era title was Fenghuang. A native of Longxi, Li Gao, then falsely claimed to be the son of Li Xiong, and he attacked and took Fucheng, driving out Jin’s Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang.

In the ninth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Chu, sent his son Zhou Qiong to attack Li Gao, and he sent the Administrator of Zitong, Zhou Qiong's son Zhou Yang, to attack Li Hong. Both of their rebellions were put down.

九月,廣漢妖賊李弘與益州妖賊李金根聚衆反,弘自稱聖王,衆萬餘人,梓潼太守周虓討平之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the ninth month, the outlaw Li Hong of Guanghan and the outlaw Li Jingen of Yizhou commandary gathered a rebel army. Li Hong declared himself the Sage King, and his forces numbered more than ten thousand people. The Administrator of Zitong, Zhou Xiao, campaigned against the rebels and crushed them.


秦楊安攻晉陽,晉陽兵多糧足,久之未下。王猛留屯騎校尉苟長戍壺關,引兵助安攻晉陽。為地道,使虎牙將軍張蚝帥壯士數百潛入城中,大呼斬關,納秦兵。辛巳,猛、安入晉陽,執燕并州刺史東海王莊。太傅評畏猛,不敢進,屯於潞川。冬,十月,辛亥,猛留將軍武都毛當戍晉陽,進兵潞川,與慕容評相持。

18. Yang An attacked Jinyang. However, Jinyang had many soldiers and ample supplies, and it held out for a long time. So Wang Meng left the Colonel of Garrisoned Cavalry, Gou Chang, to hold Huguan, while he led troops to assist Yang An at Jinyang. They dug a tunnel under the walls, and sent the General of Tiger Fangs, Zhang Qi, to secretly lead several hundred braves into the city. With a loud cry, Zhang Qi's men broke the gate open and let in the Qin army. On the day Xinsi (October 15th), Wang Meng and Yang An entered Jinyang, and captured Yan's Inspector of Bingzhou and Prince of Donghai, Murong Zhuang.

Murong Ping feared Wang Meng, and did not dare to advance, but camped at Luchuan. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinhai (November 14th), Wang Meng left the general Mao Dang of Wudu to guard Jinyang, while he advanced with his army to Luchuan. There, he settled into a stalemate with Murong Ping.

「苟長」,恐當作「苟萇」。據《水經註》:潞川在上黨潞縣北。闞駰曰:潞水,卽漳水也。爲冀州浸。

(This passage mentions a 苟長 Gou Chang. I (Hu Sanxing) believe it should be 苟萇 Gou Chang (a Former Qin general mentioned several times later on).

According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Luchuan was in the north of Lu county in Shangdang commandary. Kan Yin remarked, "The Lu River was the same as the Zhang River. It flowed through Jizhou.")


苻堅將猛伐慕容暐,陷其上黨。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the ninth month, Fu Jian's general Wang Meng campaigned against Murong Wei, capturing his commandary of Shangdang.

以太傅評、下邳王曆等帥精兵三十萬拒秦帥於潞川。州郡盜賊大起,鄴中怪異非常。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

The Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, the Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, and others led three hundred thousand elite soldiers to oppose the Former Qin invasion at Luchuan. A great many bandits and robbers rose up in the provinces and commandaries, and there were many strange sightings in Ye.


壬戌,猛遣將軍徐成覘燕軍形要,期以日中;及昏而返,猛怒,將斬之。鄧羌請之曰:「今賊眾我寡,詰朝將戰;成,大將也,宜且宥之。」猛曰:「若不殺成,軍法不立。」羌固請曰:「成,羌之郡將也,雖違期應斬,羌願與成效戰以贖之。」猛弗許。羌怒,還營,嚴鼓勒兵,將攻猛。猛問其故,羌曰:「受詔討遠賊;今有近賊,自相殺,欲先除之!」猛謂羌義而有勇,使語之曰:「將軍止,吾今赦之。」成既免,羌詣猛謝。猛執其手曰:「吾試將軍耳,將軍於郡將尚爾,況國家乎!吾不復憂賊矣!」

19. On the day Renwu (November 25th), Wang Meng sent the general Xu Cheng to scout out the Yan army’s layout and condition, ordering him to return at noon. But Xu Cheng was late, not returning until dusk. Wang Meng was furious, and was about to execute Xu Cheng.

But Deng Qiang asked him not to do so, and said to him, "Currently, the enemy are numerous and we few, and we are on the eve of battle. Furthermore, Xu Cheng is a high officer. You ought to show him mercy."

Wang Meng said, "If I do not kill him, the military law will not be upheld."

Deng Qiang stubbornly said, "Xu Cheng is an officer from my commandary. If he deserves death for not returning on time, I ask that you let him redeem himself by fighting alongside me in the coming battle."

But Wang Meng would not agree. Deng Qiang became angry, and returned to his camp, ordering his soldiers to beat their drums and arm themselves to prepare to attack Wang Meng. When Wang Meng inquired into the commotion, Deng Qiang said, "I have an order to attack a distant foe. Yet now that the enemy is at hand, we are planning to kill each other instead. If that’s the case, I might as well strike first!" Wang Meng commended Deng Qiang for being both righteous and bold, and he sent word stating, "Let the general halt; I will issue a pardon." So Xu Cheng escaped the death penalty.

Deng Qiang came to offer his apologies to Wang Meng. Wang Meng took him by the hand and said, "General, I was only testing you. Yet now I see how much you treasure even just a fellow general from your own commandary, much less the entire state! I no longer need fear the enemy!"

形者,見於外;要者,有諸中。覘見其形,未足以決勝負;覘見其要,則勝負之機決矣。成蓋爲羌本郡太守。〈効戰,謂効力決戰也。〉

(The layout means how things stood in terms of the enemy's camp layout, formations, and such. The condition means how things were among the actual enemy soldiers and commanders. Knowing just the physical layout of the enemy camp was not enough to determine victory. But knowing the condition of the enemy's soldiers and commanders would provide the means for victory.

Xu Cheng must have been the Administrator of Deng Qiang's native commandary.

The term 効戰 means to exert oneself in a decisive battle.)


太傅評以猛懸軍深入,欲以持久制之。評為人貪鄙,鄣固山泉,鬻樵及水,積錢帛如丘陵;士卒怨憤,莫有鬥志。猛聞之,笑曰:「慕容評真奴才,雖億兆之眾不足畏,況數十萬乎!吾今茲破之必矣。」乃遣游擊將軍郭慶帥騎五千,夜從間道出評營後,燒評輜重,火見鄴中。燕主暐懼,遣侍中蘭伊讓評曰:「王,高祖之子也,當以宗廟社稷為憂,奈何不撫戰士而榷賣樵水,專以貨殖為心乎!府庫之積,朕與王共之,何憂於貧!若賊兵遂進,家國喪亡,王持錢帛欲安所置之!」乃命悉以其錢帛散之軍士,且趨使戰。評大懼,遣使請戰於猛。

20. Murong Ping believed that Wang Meng was worried about how deep into Yan his army had marched, and that Wang Meng wished to maintain his position for some time in order to deal with the enemy. So Murong Ping began to brazenly extort his own soldiers. He blocked off the hills and springs, charged the soldiers for firewood and water, and piled up hills of money and silks. The Yan soldiers became angry and indignant, and none of them were keen to fight.

When Wang Meng heard of it, he laughed and said, "How truly base Murong Ping is! We would not need to fear him even if he had millions of soldiers, much less mere hundreds of thousands! Now I can rout him for sure." So he sent the General of Fierce Assault, Guo Qing, to lead a raid with five thousand riders. They rode at night by secret trails into the rear of Murong Ping's camp and set his baggage train on fire. The flames could be seen from Ye.

Murong Wei became afraid, and sent the Palace Attendant, Lan Yi, to reproach Murong Ping, saying, "Prince, you are one of the sons of Gaozu (Murong Hui), and so you ought to be concerned about the very survival of the state and the fate of the royal clan. How could you have gone so far as to vex the soldiers by charging them for firewood and water, and transformed yourself into a merchant? You had full access to all the government stores, so how could anything have been inadequate for you? If the enemy should advance and our state should perish, where could you flee to with your ill-gotten gains in hand?" And he ordered the money and silks to be distributed among the army, and for Murong Ping to fight a battle. Murong Ping was greatly afraid, and he sent messengers to Wang Meng offering battle.

山者,樵之所仰;泉者,汲之所仰。障固山泉,使軍士不得樵汲,而鬻薪水以牟利。賈公彥曰:高曰丘,大阜曰陵。潞川地形高而近鄴,且火盛,故鄴中望而見之。慕容廆廟號高祖。酈道元曰:評鬻水與軍人,絹匹,與水二石。

(Hills are a natural source of firewood, and springs a natural source of water. By "blocking off" the hills and springs, it means Murong Ping sent officers to stop anyone from collecting firewood or drawing water, and demanded money in exchange for access to them.

Jia Gongyan remarked, "A tall place can be called a mound, and a large mound can be called a tomb."

The area around Luchuan was high, and close to Ye. This was why when the fires spread, they could be seen from Ye.

Murong Hui's temple name was Gaozu.

Li Daoyuan remarked, "When Murong Ping extorted the soldiers, he charged a bolt of silk for two 石 of water.")


猛覘知評賣水鬻薪,不撫將士,有可乘之會,大笑,謂楊安等曰:「慕容評真奴才,雖億兆之衆,尚不足為慮,況十萬乎今破之必矣。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Wang Meng spied on Murong Ping, and learned that he was selling water and charging for firewood, not taking good care of his generals and soldiers, and he knew that there was an opportunity to take advantage of him. Wang Meng greatly laughed and said to Yang An and the others, "How truly base Murong Ping is! We would not need to fear him even if he had millions of soldiers, much less mere hundreds of thousands! Now I can rout him for sure."


甲子,猛陳於渭源而誓之曰:「王景略受國厚恩,任兼內外,今與諸君深入賊地,當竭力致死,有進無退,共立大功,以報國家。受爵明君之朝,稱觴父母之室,不亦美乎!」眾皆踴躍,破釜棄糧,大呼競進。

21. On the day Jiazi (November 27th), Wang Meng arrayed his soldiers at Weiyuan and swore this oath before them: "I, Wang Jinglüe, have received the blessings and favor of the state, and I have been given greater and greater responsibilities both within the court and among the army. Today, together with all of you, I have penetrated deep into enemy territory. I will exert my utmost to fight even unto death. We will always advance and never retreat, and together we shall be triumphant and report our victory to the state. Will it not be glorious when we receive our lord’s rewards, and share a cup of wine with our fathers and mothers?" The soldiers all lept up eagerly, each vying with one another to be first. They smashed their pots and abandoned their grain, and with a great shout they surged forward to battle.

按渭水不出潞縣。《水經註》有涅水出潞縣西覆甑山。或者「渭」字其「涅」字之誤乎?又按溫公《稽古錄》,書王猛破評于清原。杜預曰:河東聞喜縣北有清原。其地又與潞川相遠,姑存疑以待知者。杜佑《通典》作「潞源」。受爵明君之朝,謂有功而受賞於朝也。稱觴父母之室,謂受賞而歸,舉酒爲父母壽也。

(This passage mentions that this oath took place at "Weiyuan", but the Wei River did not pass through Lu county. But the Commentary on the Water Classic does mention a Nie River which flows out of Mount Fuzen in western Lu county. Perhaps the text mistakenly wrote 渭 Wei instead of 涅 Nie? Furthermore, Duke Wen's (Sima Guang's) Examing The Past Records lists Wang Meng as having routed Murong Ping at "Qingyuan". Du Yu remarked, "I have heard that there is a Qingyuan in the north of Xi county in Hedong commandary." But that place is relatively far from Luchuan, and I doubt many knew of it. Du You's Tongdian writes the name of the battle site here as "Luyuan".

By "receive our lord's reward", Wang Meng meant that once they achieved victory they would all receive rewards from the court. By "share a cup of wine", he meant that once they received their rewards and returned home, they could raise a toast to their parents' longevity.)


甲戌,陳於渭原,猛誓衆曰:「王景畧受國厚恩,任兼內外,今與諸君深入賊地,宜各勉進,不可退也。受爵明君之朝,慶觴父母之室,不亦美乎?」衆皆勇奮,破釜棄糧,大呼兢進。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

On the day Jiaxu (?), Wang Meng arrayed his soldiers at Weiyuan and swore this oath before them: "I, Wang Jinglüe, have received the blessings and favor of the state, and I have been given greater and greater responsibilities both within the court and among the army. Today, together with all of you, I have penetrated deep into enemy territory. Let us all exert ourselves to advance, for we cannot retreat. Will it not be glorious when we receive our lord’s rewards, and share a cup of wine with our fathers and mothers?" The soldiers all lept up eagerly, each vying with one another to be first. They smashed their pots and abandoned their grain, and with a great shout they surged forward to battle.


猛望燕兵之眾,謂鄧羌曰:「今日之事,非將軍不能破勍敵。成敗之機,在茲一舉,將軍勉之!」羌曰:「若能以司隸見與者,公勿以為憂。」猛曰:「此非吾所及也,必以安定太守、萬戶侯相處。」羌不悅而退。俄而兵交,猛召羌,羌寢弗應。猛馳就許之,羌乃大飲帳中,與張蚝、徐成等跨馬運矛,馳赴燕陳;出入數四,旁若無人,所殺傷數百。及日中,燕兵大敗,俘斬五萬餘人,乘勝追擊,所殺及降者又十萬餘人,評單騎走還鄴。

22. When Wang Meng saw how numerous the Yan army was, he said to Deng Qiang, "In today's affair, we will not be able to rout such a powerful enemy without your help. Victory or defeat is in the offing, General, so exert yourself!"

Deng Qiang replied, "If you can promote me to Colonel-Director of Retainers, then you shall have nothing to fear."

Wang Meng replied, "That is beyond what I can do, but I could certainly make you Administrator of Anding and a Marquis of ten thousand households."

But Deng Qiang was unsatisfied and withdrew.

When the battle began, Wang Meng called for Deng Qiang, but Deng Qiang was sleeping and would not heed the summons. So Wang Meng quickly rode to see Deng Qiang and assented to his earlier request. Deng Qiang then greatly drank in his tent before he, Zhang Qi, Xu Cheng, and others mounted their horses and took up their lances, and plunged into the Yan army's formation. He charged in and out of the enemy ranks several times, and even when he had no one else with him, he still killed or wounded several hundred foes.

By noon, the Yan army was greatly defeated, and more than fifty thousand of their soldiers were captured or killed. The Qin army pressed their victory and pursued the fleeing Yan soldiers, killing or accepting the surrender of more than another hundred thousand of them. Murong Ping fled alone on horseback to Ye.

秦雍州刺史治安定,安定在秦中爲大郡。

(Former Qin's Inspector of Yongzhou administered that province from Anding, which was one of Former Qin's largest commandaries.)


冬十月,王猛大破慕容暐將慕容評于潞川。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In winter, the tenth month, Wang Meng greatly routed Murong Wei's general Murong Ping at Luchuan.

十月,評及猛戰於潞川,評師敗績,單騎遁還。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the tenth month, Murong Ping and Wang Meng fought a battle at Luchuan. Murong Ping's army was defeated, and he fled back to Ye along on horseback.

猛望評師之衆,惡之,謂鄧羌曰:「今日之事,非將軍莫可以捷也。成敗之機,在斯一舉也。將軍其勉之。」羌曰:「若以司隸見與者,公無以為憂。」猛曰:「此非吾所及也。必以安定太守、萬戶侯相處。」羌不悅而退。俄而兵交,猛召羌,寢而不應。猛乃馳就,許之。於是大飲帳中,與張眊、徐成等跨馬運矛,馳入評軍,出入數四,傍若無人,攀旗斬將,殺傷甚重,戰及日中,燕師敗績。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

When Wang Meng saw how numerous the Former Yan army was, he was uneasy. He said to Deng Qiang, "In today's affair, we will not be able to rout such a powerful enemy without your help. Victory or defeat is in the offing. General, you must exert yourself."

Deng Qiang replied, "If you can promote me to Colonel-Director of Retainers, then you shall have nothing to fear."

Wang Meng replied, "That is beyond what I can do, but I could certainly make you Administrator of Anding and a Marquis of ten thousand households."

But Deng Qiang was unsatisfied and withdrew.

When the battle began, Wang Meng called for Deng Qiang, but Deng Qiang was sleeping and would not heed the summons. So Wang Meng quickly rode to see Deng Qiang and assented to his earlier request. Deng Qiang then greatly drank in his tent before he, Zhang Qi, Xu Cheng, and others mounted their horses and took up their lances, and plunged into Murong Ping's army's formation. He charged in and out of the enemy ranks several times, and even when he had no one else with him, he still seized enemy standards and killed enemy generals, killing and wounding a great many foes. The battle continued until noon, when the Former Yan army was defeated.


崔鴻曰:鄧羌請郡將以撓法,徇私也;勒兵欲攻王猛,無上也;臨戰豫求司隸,邀君也。有此三者,罪孰大焉!猛能容其所短,收其所長,若馴猛虎,馭悍馬,以成大功。《詩》雲:「采葑采菲,無以下體。」猛之謂矣。

23. Cui Hong, the compiler of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, made this remark: Deng Qiang asked for the laws to be relaxed on account of his fellow general and commandary native; this was partiality. He threatened to attack Wang Meng; this was insubordination. And on the eve of battle, he demanded the Colonel-Director of Retainers post; this was extortion. For these three offenses, he should have been harshly punished! Yet Wang Meng could tolerate these shortcomings and still draw out Deng Qiang’s advantages, like a man who can tame a fierce tiger or ride a wild stallion, and he thereby achieved great success. The Book of Poems says, "When we gather the turnips and radishes, we do not reject them because of their roots." Such could be said of Wang Meng's technique!

〈《詩‧谷風》之辭。毛氏曰:葑,須也;菲,芴也;下體,根莖也。鄭氏曰:此二菜者,蔓菁與葍之類也,皆上下可食,然而其根有美時,有惡時;采之者,不可以根惡時幷棄其葉。陸璣《草木疏》曰:葑,蕪菁也。菲,息菜。郭璞曰:葑,菘菜也。江南有菘,江北有蔓菁,相似而異。菲,芴,土瓜也。息菜似蕪菁,華紫赤色,可食。葍,大葉,白華,根如指,色白可食。〉

(Cui Hong quotes a verse from the Gufeng poem from the Odes of Bei. Master Mao's commentary on this poem states, "The turnip is a slow-growing plant, while the radish grows suddenly. Their 'lower bodies' are their roots." Master Zheng (Zheng Xuan?) states, "The two plants mentioned in this verse are of the same kind as turnips. One can eat both their upper and lower parts. There are times when the roots of these plants look fair, and times when they look foul. However, those who pluck them cannot throw them away just because they happen to pluck them at a time when their roots look foul." Lu Ji's Notes on Grasses and Trees states, "The 葑 'turnip' is the same as the 蕪菁 'turnip'; the radish is the same as the 息菜 plant." Guo Pu remarked, "The turnip is like the Chinese cabbage. This kind of plant grows south of the Yangzi, while the turnip grows north of the Yangzi; they seem similar, but they are different. The radish grows suddenly, like the earth melon. The 息菜 plant resembles the turnip; they bloom purple and red, and they are edible. They are weedy, with large leaves and white blooms. Their roots are like fingers and are edible when white.")


秦兵長驅而東,丁卯,圍鄴。猛上疏稱:「臣以甲子之日,大殲丑類。順陛下仁愛之志,使六州士庶,不覺易主,自非守迷違命,一無所害。」秦王堅報之曰:「將軍役不逾時,而元惡克舉,勳高前古。朕今親帥六軍,星言電赴。將軍其休養將士,以待朕至,然後取之。」

24. The Qin soldiers continued their rapid march to the east. On the day Dingmao (November 30th), they put Ye under siege.

Wang Meng sent up a memorial stating, "On the day Jiazi (November 27th), I completely destroyed the filth of Yan. Now I will heed Your Majesty's wishes for benevolence and love. I will appease the people of Yan's six provinces, so that they will not notice that one ruler has been exchanged for another. In doing so, I shall give no cause for confusion or disobedience, and no harm shall be done."

Fu Jian sent back a reply stating, “General, you boast of what has not yet been achieved. The chief evil has not been vanquished, and yet you are comparing yourself to the worthies of old. I myself shall follow behind you leading the six armies, setting out by starlight and rushing forward like lightning. General, let your soldiers rest and recuperate while you await my arrival. Then we may complete our achievement.”

謂甲子之日克勝,事同周武王克紂。《詩》曰:星言夙駕。謂早駕見星而行也。電赴,言其疾也。

(Wang Meng emphasized that his victory was on a Jiazi day because it was also on a Jiazi day that King Wu of Zhou defeated King Zhou of Shang.

The Book of Odes has this verse: "He yokes his carriage by starlight." (Ding Zhi Fang Zhong 3, Odes of Yong) It means to order one's carriage to set out immediately, even when the stars are still out. But Fu Jian has changed the verse, mentioning lightning instead of the carriage.)


猛乘勝追奔,長驅至鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Wang Meng's army pressed their victory and marched straight for Ye.

進師圍鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Wang Meng's army advanced to besiege Ye.


猛之未至也,鄴帝剽劫公行,及猛至,遠近貼然。號令嚴明,軍無私犯,法簡政寬,燕民各安其業,更相謂曰:「不圖今日復見太原王!」猛聞之,歎曰:「慕容玄恭信奇士也,可謂古之遺愛矣!」設太牢以祭之。

25. While Wang Meng was still on his way to Ye, the Yan soldiers had plundered the area and then fled. But once Wang Meng arrived, he provided aid and relief to areas near and far. He gave out orders for strict discipline, ordering the army not to plunder or harm anyone, and he was magnanimous in enforcing the law. When the people of Yan saw that their livelihoods were secure, they said to one another, "We never thought that the old Prince of Taiyuan (Murong Ke) would come again!" When Wang Meng heard of it, he sighed and said, "So this is the trust that Murong Xuangong once enjoyed from the people; even after all this time, they still love him!" He ordered a Grand Sacrifice (of a bull, a ram, and a pig) be made in honor of Murong Ke.

言軍士不敢私犯鄴民也。慕容恪,字玄恭,封太原王。

(Wang Meng ordered his soldiers so that they did not dare to harm anyone around Ye.

Murong Ke's style name was Xuangong, and his noble title was Prince of Taiyuan.)


十一月,秦王堅留李威輔太子守長安,陽平公融鎮洛陽,自帥精銳十萬赴鄴,七日而至安陽,宴祖父時故老。猛潛如安陽謁堅,堅曰:「昔周亞夫不迎漢文帝,今將軍臨敵而棄軍,何也?」猛曰:「亞夫前卻人主以求名,臣竊少之。且臣奉陛下威靈,擊垂亡之虜,譬如釜中之魚,何足慮也!監國沖幼,鸞駕遠臨,脫有不虞,悔之何及!陛下忘臣灞上之言邪!」

26. In the eleventh month, Fu Jian left Li Wei to guard Chang'an and support his Crown Prince, and he left the Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, to guard Luoyang, while he led another hundred thousand elite troops to Ye. In seven days, he reached Anyang, where he attended a feast for those veterans who had once served under his father and grandfather.

Wang Meng secretly came to Anyang to pay a visit to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said to him, "In former times, Zhou Yafu did not welcome Emperor Wen of Han at his army camp. General, our army is still before the enemy, yet you have abandoned your men to come here. How can that be?"

Wang Meng replied, “Zhou Yafu refused admittance to his lord because he sought to build a reputation for himself, but such a thing would be of little use to me. Your Majesty has already granted me a powerful authority, which I have used to annihilate the enemy. We have them contained like fish in a kettle. What then do I have to be worried about? Meanwhile, the Inspector of the State (the Crown Prince) is still a young child, while you have brought your imperial carriage all this way and so close to the enemy. If anything unexpected happened, would there be any time for regrets? Your Majesty has forgotten what I warned you about at Bashang!”

《晉志》:安陽縣屬魏郡。魏收《志》曰:天平初,併蕩陰、安陽屬鄴。又汲郡北脩武縣有安陽城。苻洪父子先屯枋頭,有故老尚存,聞堅之來,迎於安陽,故宴之。見十五卷漢文帝後六年。〈太子守曰監國。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "Anyang county was part of Wei commandary." The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "At the beginning of the Tianping reign era (534-537), Dangyin and Anyang counties were folded into Ye county." There was also a city of Anyang in the north of Xiuwu county in Ji commandary.

Fu Hong and his sons had earlier been camped at Fangtou, so there were many of their old veterans who still lived around there. When they heard that Fu Jian was coming, they came to welcome him at Anyang, so he held a feast for them.

This story about Zhou Yafu is mentioned in Book 15, in the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Wen of Han (158 BC).

"Inspector of the State" was one of the terms that referred to the Crown Prince; it was taken from the Zuo Commentary.)


When Emperor Wen went on an inspection of the military camps, all the other commanders left their camps to come welcome him, but Zhou Yafu kept his camp under strict discipline, and he did not welcome the Emperor's group or allow them to enter the camp except by the usual strict supervision. Emperor Wen was impressed, and Zhou Yafu was promoted.

十月,苻堅帥衆會猛來攻拔鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the tenth month, Fu Jian led another army to join Wang Meng in the assault on Ye.

七日,堅至於安陽故宅,引諸耆老語及祖父舊事,泫然流涕,乃停信宿。猛潛如安陽迎堅,堅謂之曰:「昔亞夫不出軍迎漢文,將軍何以臨敵而背衆乎?」猛曰:「臣每覽亞夫之事,常謂前卻人主,以此而為名將,竊未多之。臣奉陛下神算,出垂亡之虜,若摧枯拉朽,何足憂也。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In seven days, Fu Jian arrived at his former residence at Anyang, where he gathered together the old veterans of that place to talk with them about the old affairs of his father and grandfather, and they wept and cried together. So Fu Jian stayed there for two nights.

Wang Meng secretly came to Anyang to pay a visit to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said to him, "In former times, Zhou Yafu did not leave his army to come welcome Emperor Wen of Han. General, when our army is still before the enemy, how can you have abandoned your men to come here?"

Wang Meng replied, “Whenever I have reflected upon what Zhou Yafu did at that time, I have often remarked that the reason he halted his own sovereign before his camp was in order to make a name for himself as a general. I have no such need for that myself. Besides, I have upheld Your Majesty's divine plan thus far, and the enemy I have left is on the verge of destruction. It will be like smashing something decayed or breaking something rotten; what is there worth worrying about?"

堅使尚書令王猛伐鄴,堅親率大眾以繼之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian sent his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Meng, to campaign against Former Yan, while he followed behind with the main army as reserves.


初,燕宜都王桓帥眾萬餘屯沙亭,為太傅評後繼,聞評敗,引兵屯內黃。堅使鄧羌攻信都。丁丑,桓帥鮮卑五千奔龍城。戊寅,燕散騎侍郎餘蔚帥扶餘、高句麗及上黨質子五百餘人,夜,開鄴北門,納秦兵,燕主暐與上庸王評、樂安王臧、字襄王淵、左衛將軍孟高、殿中將軍艾朗等奔龍城。辛巳,秦王堅入鄴宮。

27. Earlier, Yan's Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, had led more than ten thousand soldiers to camp at Shating, to act as reserves for Murong Ping. When Murong Huan heard of Murong Ping’s defeat, he led his soldiers to camp at Neihuang. Fu Jian sent Deng Qiang to attack Xindu. On the day Dingchou (December 10th), Murong Huan fled to Longcheng with five thousand Xianbei.

On the day Wuyin (December 11th), Yan's Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Hae Yeoul, organized a group of more than five hundred people, made up of people from Buyeo, Goguryeo, and hostages from Shangdang. That night, they opened the north gate of Ye and welcomed in the Qin army. Murong Wei, Murong Ping, Murong Zang, the Prince of Zixiang, Murong Yuan, the Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, the General of the Palace Halls, Ai Lang, and others all fled towards Longcheng. On the day Xinsi (December 14th), Fu Jian entered the palace at Ye.

杜預曰:陽平元城縣有沙亭。內黃縣自漢以來屬魏郡。燕蓋遣兵戍上黨,取其子弟留於鄴以爲質。餘蔚,扶餘王子,故陰率諸質子開門以納秦兵。《姓譜》:艾姓,《晏子春秋》齊有大夫艾孔。《風俗通》有龐儉母艾氏。

(Du Yu remarked, "There is a Shating in Yuancheng county in Yangping commandary."

Ever since the Han dynasty, Neihuang county had been part of Wei commandary.

When Former Yan sent soldiers to guard Shangdang, they must have kept the soldiers’ sons and younger brothers behind at Ye as hostages.

Hae Yeoul was a son of the King of Buyeo, which was why he secretly led the hostages to open the gate and let in the Qin army.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Regarding the surname 艾 Ai, the Annals of Master Yan mentions that the state of Qi had a minister named Ai Kong, and the Fengsu Tong mentions a Pang Jian whose mother was named Lady Ai.")


城外亂,散騎侍郎徐蔚等率扶餘、高句麗及上黨質民子弟五百人,夜開城門引納秦師。暐與太傅評、左衛將軍孟高等數十騎出奔昌黎... 堅入鄴宮,升正陽殿。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

There was turmoil outside of Ye. The Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Hae Yeoul, and others led a group of five hundred people from Buyeo, Goguryeo, and hostages from Shangdang to open the gate of Ye during the night and let in the Former Qin army. Murong Wei fled towards Changli with several dozen riders, along with the Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, the Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, and others.

Fu Jian entered the palace at Ye and ascended the Zhengyang Hall.

戊寅,克鄴,慕容暐出奔... 辛己,堅入鄴宮。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

On the day Wuyin (December 11th), Ye was taken. Murong Wei fled the city. On the day Xinsi (December 14th), Fu Jian entered the palace at Ye.

堅克鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian captured Ye.


慕容垂見燕公卿大夫及故時僚吏,有慍色。高弼言於垂曰:「大王憑祖宗積累之資,負英傑高世之略,遭值迍阨,棲集外邦。今雖家國傾覆,安知其不為興運之始邪!愚謂國之舊人,宜恢江海之量,有以慰結其心,以立覆簣之基,成九仞之功,奈何以一怒捐之?愚竊為大王不取也!」垂悅,從之。

28. At first, when Murong Chui saw all the former Yan nobles, ministers, and servants, he looked at them resentfully. But his minister Gao Bi said to him, "Great Prince, you must depend upon the materials that your ancestors have left for you, and rely upon the heroes of the age to support you. If you drive these people into a corner, be assured that they will all flock to other branches elsewhere. Although our state has been destroyed for now, who knows whether or not it will rise again someday? In my humble view, you should display a boundless magnanimity towards the old Yan officials. Make yourself as broad as the Yangzi and as vast as the sea, and in so doing you can comfort the people and bind their hearts to you. Every person you win over will be another basket of earth towards your foundation, and soon enough your achievement will rise to a height of nine ren. What good would it do you to get rid of them all because of a moment's anger? But I worry that you will not follow such advice!"

Yet Murong Chui approved of this advice, and he heeded it.

言譬如爲山,自覆一簣而進成九仞之功。八尺曰仞。高弼先從垂奔秦,故敢進言。

(Gao Bi illustrates his point by talking about a mountain, saying that Murong Chui's achievement can, one basket of earth at a time, reach a height of nine ren. One ren equals eight chi. (In other words, nine ren was twenty-four miles.)

Gao Bi dared to offer such advice because he had earlier fled to Former Qin alongside Murong Chui.)


及堅擒暐,垂隨堅入鄴,收集諸子,對之悲慟,見其故吏,有不悅之色。前郎中令高弼私於垂曰:「大王以命世之姿,遭無妄之運,迍邅棲伏,艱亦至矣。天啟嘉會,靈命暫遷,此乃鴻漸之始,龍變之初,深願仁慈有以慰之。且夫高世之略必懷遺俗之規,方當網漏吞舟,以弘苞養之義;收納舊臣之胄,以成為山之功,奈何以一怒捐之?竊為大王不取。」垂深納之。垂在堅朝,歷位京兆尹,進封泉州侯,所在征伐,皆在大功。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Fu Jian captured Murong Wei, Murong Chui followed him into Ye. When he was reunited with his sons, he looked upon them with deep sorrow. And when he saw his former attendants, his expression was most displeased. But the former Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, Gao Bi, privately said to Murong Chui, "Great Prince, you must maintain an aspect that accords with the mandates of the age, and not take any rash actions. Yet if you hesitate and fail to take any action either, that too will end in difficulties. Heaven has provided this auspicious opportunity for you. But if you act contrary to its mandate, the moment will soon pass. This is the beginning of a swan's rise, the start of a dragon's ascent. I deeply hope that you will comfort these people with benevolent kindness. You must be certain to cherish and to keep the standards and the plans which your grand ancestors handed down to you. At times when the laws of state are lax, one does well to themselves cultivate bountiful virtue. If you take in these descendants of the old ministers, through them you may achieve the making of a mountain. How can you abandon them out of a moment's anger? Yet I fear you will not heed such advice." But Murong Chui deeply accepted his admonishment.

In Fu Jian's court, Murong Chui was first Intendent of Jingzhao and later Marquis of Quanzhou. In every campaign he went on, he was invariably greatly successful.


燕主暐之出鄴也,衛士猶千餘騎,既出城,皆散,惟十餘騎從行;秦王堅使游擊將軍郭慶追之。時道路艱難,孟高扶侍暐,經護二王,極其勤瘁,又所在遇盜,轉斗而前。數日,行至福祿,依塚解息,盜二十餘人猝至,皆挾弓矢,高持刀與戰,殺傷數人。高力極,自度必死,乃直前抱一賊,頓擊於地,大呼曰:「男兒窮矣!」餘賊從帝射高,殺之。艾朗見高獨戰,亦還趨賊,並死。暐失馬步走,郭慶追及於高陽,部將巨武將縛之,暐曰:「汝何小人,敢縛天子!」武曰:「我受詔追賊,何謂天子!」執以詣秦王堅。堅詰其不降而走之狀,對曰:「狐死首丘,欲歸死於先人墳墓耳。」堅哀而釋之,令還宮,帥文武出降。暐稱孟高、艾朗之忠於堅,堅命厚加斂葬,拜其子為郎中。

29. When Murong Wei first left Ye, he had more than a thousand guards riding with him, but after they fled from the city, the riders all scattered, and only some dozen remained to follow him. Fu Jian sent Guo Qing to pursue the royal fugitives. During that time, all the roads were filled with difficulties and disorders, so Meng Gao kept close to Murong Wei and protected the two Princes, diligently working himself even unto sickness. Whenever they encountered the enemy, Meng Gao would turn and charge forward to face them.

After several days, the group reached Fulu, where they stopped to rest their horses by a tomb. More than twenty enemy soldiers suddenly appeared, each shooting arrows at them. Meng Gao grasped his sword and fought them, killing or wounding several. But having exhausted himself, and seeing that his death was inevitable, he rushed upon one enemy and pulled him to the ground, crying out, "What pathetic men you all are!" The remaining enemies, ignoring Murong Wei, turned their bows against Meng Gao and killed him. When Ai Lang saw that Meng Gao had plunged into battle alone, he rushed to join him in fighting the enemies, until he too was killed.

Murong Wei had lost his horse, but he continued to flee on foot. Guo Qing pursued him and caught up to him at Gaoyang. Guo Qing's subordinate Ju Wu was about to tie Murong Wei up. Murong Wei said, "Who are you, you miscreant, that you dare tie up the Son of Heaven?"

Ju Wu replied, "I have orders to pursue a rebel; who said anything about a Son of Heaven?"

So they captured him and brought him back to see Fu Jian.

Fu Jian asked Murong Wei why he had refused to surrender and had tried to flee to the northeast. Murong Wei replied, "Even a fox dies with its face pointed towards its den. I merely wanted to die in front of my ancestors' tombs." Fu Jian sorrowfully released him, ordering him to return to his palace and then lead his civil and military officials out in formal surrender.

Murong Wei reported to Fu Jian on Meng Gao's and Ai Lang's loyalty to him. Fu Jian granted them honorable burials, and appointed their sons as Household Gentlemen.

二王,謂樂安王臧、定襄王淵也。解息,解鞍息馬也。《姓譜》:巨,姓也。慕容氏之先皆葬昌黎。晉穆帝永和八年,燕主儁改元稱帝,傳子暐,共十九年而亡。

(The two Princes were the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, and the Prince of Dingxiang, Murong Yuan.

When they stopped to rest, they removed the saddles from their horses and let them recover.

The Registry of Surnames states, "巨 Ju is a surname."

Murong Wei made this remark about his ancestors because the Murong clan members had all originally been buried at Changli, in the northeast.

From Emperor Mu's eighth year of Yonghe (352), when Murong Jun had first assumed the imperial title and then handed it down to his son Murong Wei, until this time, Former Yan had existed for nineteen years, and then perished.)


十一月,猛克鄴,獲慕容暐,盡有其地。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the eleventh month, Wang Meng took Ye, captured Murong Wei, and annexed all his territory.

三十三年,苻堅擒慕容暐。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirty-third year of Jianguo (370), Fu Jian captured Murong Wei.

堅遣將軍郭慶帥騎五千追之,及暐于高陽。秦將巨武執暐,將縛之。暐曰:「汝何小人,而敢縛天子?」武曰:「我梁山巨武,受詔縛賊,何謂天子耶?」執暐送鄴,堅問其奔狀。暐曰:「狐死首丘,欲歸死于先人陵墓耳。」堅哀而釋之,令還宮,率文武出降。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian sent his general Guo Qing to lead five thousand cavalry to pursue Murong Wei, and they caught up with him at Gaoyang. The Qin general Ju Wu captured Murong Wei and was about to tie him up. Murong Wei said, "Who are you, you miscreant, that you dare tie up the Son of Heaven?"

Ju Wu replied, "I, Ju Wu of Liangshan, have orders to tie up a rebel; who said anything about a Son of Heaven?" So he tied Murong Wei up and sent him back to Ye.

Fu Jian asked Murong Wei why he had run away. Murong Wei replied, "Even a fox dies with its face pointed towards its den. I merely wanted to die in front of my ancestors' tombs."

Fu Jian sorrowfully released him, ordering him to return to his palace and then lead his civil and military officials out in formal surrender.

王猛擒暐。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Wang Meng captured Murong Wei.

將軍郭慶執暐于高陽,送之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian's general Guo Qing captured Murong Wei at Gaoyang and sent him to Fu Jian.

堅擒慕容暐。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian captured Murong Wei.


郭慶進至龍城,太傅評奔高句麗,高句麗執評,送於秦。宜都王桓殺鎮東將軍勃海王亮,並其眾,奔遼東。遼東太守韓稠,先已降秦,桓至,不得入,攻之,不克。郭慶遣將軍朱嶷擊之,桓充眾單走,嶷獲而殺之。

30. When Guo Qing pressed on and arrived at Longcheng, Murong Ping fled to Goguryeo, but they apprehended him and sent him back to Qin.

Murong Huan killed Murong Liang and took over his soldiers, then fled to Liaodong. But Yan's Administrator of Liaodong, Han Chou, had already surrendered to Qin. When Murong Huan arrived, Han Chou would not allow him to enter the city; although Murong Huan tried to force his way in, he was unsuccessful. Guo Qing sent his general Zhu Yi to attack Murong Huan. Murong Huan abandoned his army and fled alone, but Zhu Yi caught and killed him.

二年二月,苻堅伐慕容桓于遼東,滅之。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

In the second year of Xian'an (372), in the second month, Fu Jian campaigned against Murong Huan at Liaodong and vanquished him.


諸州牧守及六夷渠帥盡降於秦,凡得郡百五十七,戶二百四十六萬,口九百九十九萬。以燕宮人、珍寶分賜將士。下詔大赦曰:「朕以寡薄,猥承休命,不能懷遠以德,柔服四維,至使戎車屢駕,有害斯民,雖百姓之過,然亦朕之罪也。其大赦天下,與之更始。」

31. Yan’s various governors, administrators, and tribal commanders all surrendered to Qin. Yan had possessed a hundred and fifty-seven commandaries, with a population of 2,460,000 households and 9,990,000 people. Yan's palace servants and treasures were distributed among the Qin generals and soldiers.

Fu Jian issued a general amnesty, proclaiming, "I say now regarding those few who are still in hiding, and who fear that they cannot submit to my authority, believing that my virtue does not extend to every distant corner, and cannot bring comfort to the four directions, that the weapons of war are now to be put away. Whoever harms one of these people, or trespasses against the commoners, will have also committed a crime against me. Thus do I extend this amnesty over all the realm, to offer a new beginning to all."

四維,東南維,西南維,東北維,西北維。

(The four directions were the southeast, the southwest, the northeast, and the northwest.)


堅大赦,閱其圖籍,凡郡百五十七,縣一千五百七十九,戶二百四十五萬八千九百六十九,口九百九十八萬七千九百三十五。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian declared a general amnesty. He reviewed the population figures of Former Yan: they possessed a hundred and fifty-seven commandaries and fifteen hundred seventy-nine counties, with a population of 2,458,969 households and 9,987,935 people.


初,梁琛之使秦也,以侍輦苟純為副。琛每應對,不先告純;純恨之,歸,言於燕主暐曰:「琛在長安,與王猛甚親善,疑有異謀。」琛又數稱秦王堅及王猛之美,且言秦將興師,宜為之備。已而秦果伐燕,皆如琛言,暐乃疑琛知其情。及慕容評敗,遂收琛系獄。秦王堅入鄴而釋之,除中書著作郎,引見,謂之曰:「卿昔言上庸王、吳王皆將相奇材,何為不能謀畫,自使亡國?」對曰:「天命廢興,豈二人所能移也!」堅曰:「卿不能見幾而作,虛稱燕美,忠不自防,返為身禍,可謂智乎?」對曰:「臣聞『幾者動之微,吉兇之先見者也。』如臣愚闇,實所不及。然為臣莫如忠,為子莫如孝,自非有一至之心者,莫能保忠孝之始終。是以古之烈士,臨危不改,見死不避,以徇君親。彼知幾者,心達安危,身擇去就,不顧家國,臣就使知之,尚不忍為,況非所及邪!」

32. Before the war, when Liang Chen had been an envoy to Qin, he had brought along the Carriage Attendant, Gou Chun, as his assistant. But whenever Liang Chen had made diplomatic replies in the Qin court, he had never told Gou Chun ahead of time what they would be, so Gou Chun had resented him. When they had returned to Yan, Gou Chun had said to Murong Wei, "When Liang Chen was at Chang'an, he became very close to Wang Meng. I suspect they may be plotting something." Liang Chen had then spoken several times of his great esteem for Fu Jian and Wang Meng, and he had emphasized the need to prepare for Qin's army, since he said they would invade soon.

When Qin indeed invaded Yan, everything went as Liang Chen had said, and Murong Wei then wondered why Liang Chen had known ahead of time that it would happen. So after Murong Ping's defeat at Luchuan, Murong Wei arrested Liang Chen and put him in jail. When Fu Jian entered Ye, he released Liang Chen and appointed him as a Gentleman-Author of the Palace Secretariat.

Fu Jian had Liang Chen brought to see him and asked him, "You told me before that the Prince of Shangyong (Murong Ping) and the Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) were both men of rare talents in both civil and military affairs. How was it that they could not come up with some plan to save their state?"

Liang Chen replied, "Heaven directs the rise and fall of states; how can a mere two men oppose its will?"

Fu Jian said, “The problem was that you acted without being able to recognize the circumstances. You vacuously spoke of Yan's splendor, but your loyalty could not protect you, and you even suffered personal misfortune. Are we meant to call that wisdom?”

Liang Chen replied, “I have heard it said that 'by studying the slightest movements of opportunity, good or ill fortune can be predicted.' It was true that I was blind and foolish, and so unable to meet that standard. Even so, it is fitting that a minister remain loyal, just as it is fitting that a son remain filial. No matter what conclusions his heart may come to, he must ensure his loyalty and his piety from beginning until end. The martyrs of old did not shrink from danger or blink at suffering death; they died alongside their lords. There are some among your side who, knowing what lay ahead, and choosing between danger and security, ran for their lives and took no heed of their state. But as for me, I could not endure such a thing, much less be given reward for it!”

侍輦之官,蓋燕所置近臣也。秦蓋循晉初之制,併祕書於中書省也。【章:十二行本「吉」下有「凶」字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】《易‧大傳》之辭。梁琛忠於所事,秦王堅不能顯而庸之,識者有以知秦祚之不長矣。

(The office of Carriage Attendant must have been created by Former Yan, as a minister's assistant.

Former Qin must have followed the system that Jin originally had, combining the offices of Custodian of the Private Library and Secretariat Supervisor together.

Liang Chen quotes from the Great Commentary to the Book of Changes. Some versions add "or ill (fortune)" to the quote.

There were those knowledgable people who, in Liang Chen's fierce loyalty in all things and Fu Jian's inability to employ him in a conspicuous position and having to sideline him, saw the imminent downfall of Former Qin's fortunes.)


堅聞悅綰之忠,恨不及見,拜其子為郎中。

33. When Fu Jian heard of Yue Wan's loyal service, he regretted not having been able to meet him. He appointed Yue Wan's sons as Household Gentlemen.

悅綰事見上卷三年。

(Yue Wan's reforms for Former Yan are mentioned in Book 101, in the third year of Taihe (368.12).)


堅以王猛為使持節、都督關東六州諸軍事、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、冀州牧,鎮鄴,進爵清河郡侯,悉以慕容評第中之物賜之。賜楊安爵博平縣侯;以鄧羌為使持節、征虜將軍、安定太守,賜爵真定郡侯;郭慶為持節、都督幽州諸軍事、幽州刺史,鎮薊,賜爵襄城侯。其餘將士封賞各有差。

34. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander over the six former Yan provinces, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Governor of Jizhou, with his headquarters at Ye, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. Fu Jian also promoted Wang Meng’s noble title to Marquis of Qinghe commandary, and granted him the former personal items and estates that had belonged to Murong Ping. He bestowed Yang An the title Marquis of Boping county. He appointed Deng Qiang as Credential Bearer (or, Commissioner Bearing Credentials), General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, and Administrator of Anding, and he was bestowed the title Marquis of Zhending commandary. He appointed Guo Qing as Credential Bearer, Commander of military affairs in Youzhou, and Inspector of Youzhou, with his headquarters at Ji, and he was bestowed the title Marquis of Xiangcheng. The other generals also received like rewards according to their merits.

【章:十二行本無「使」字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】賜爵者,賜之侯爵,非有國有土也。一曰:先未列爵,今始賜之。

(Some versions record Deng Qiang as receiving the rank "Commissioner Bearing Credentials" rather than "Credential Bearer".

To be "bestowed" a noble title meant to receive the actual title, but with no fief or territory along with it. It has also been argued, "Former Qin had earlier not divided up the land into various fiefs, and it was only at this time that it began to bestow them.")


堅以王猛為使持節都督關東六州諸軍事、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、冀州牧,鎮鄴,封清河郡侯。以燕太宰恪、太傅評之第、盡賜之。加美妾五人,上女妓十人,中妓三十八人。猛辭,堅曰:「昔魏絳和戎,猶有金石絲竹之賞,山甫翼周,實受四牡之錫。卿功超二子,任過管、葛,安得辭也。其敬受之。無逆朕命。」以鄧羌為散騎常侍、安定太守、真定郡侯,邑三千戶,賞潞川之功。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander over the six former Yan provinces, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Governor of Jizhou, with his headquarters at Ye, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies; he was stationed at Ye. Fu Jian also promoted Wang Meng’s noble title to Marquis of Qinghe commandary, and granted him all the former estates of Former Yan's Grand Governor, Murong Ke, and Grand Tutor, Murong Ping.

Fu Jian even granted Wang Meng five beautiful concubines, ten female slaves of the superior grade, and thirty-eight female slaves of the middle grade. Wang Meng tried to decline, but Fu Jian told him, "When Wei Jiang of the ancient state of Jin arranged peace with the Rong tribes, he was still rewarded with gold, stones, silks, and bamboo; when Shan Fu assisted the Zhou dynasty, he too accepted the bestowment of the four steeds. Now your achievement surpasses both of theirs, and you hold a higher office than did Guan Zhong and Zhuge Liang. How then can I accept your refusal? Show your respect by accepting them; do not violate my command."

Fu Jian appointed Deng Qiang as Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Administrator of Anding, and Marquis of Zhendu commandary, with a fief of three thousand households, as reward for his achievements at the battle of Luchuan.


堅以京兆韋鐘為魏郡太守,彭豹為陽平太守;其餘州縣牧、守、令、長,皆因舊而授之。以燕常山太守申紹為散騎侍郎,使與散騎侍郎京兆韋儒俱為繡衣使者,循行關東州郡,觀省風俗,勸課農桑,振恤窮困,收葬死亡,旌顯節行,燕政有不便於民者,皆變除之。

35. Fu Jian appointed Wei Zhong of Jingzhao as the new Administrator of Wei commandary, and he appointed Peng Bao as the new Administrator of Yangping. But the other former Yan Governors, Administrators, Prefects, and Chiefs were kept on in their former posts.

Fu Jian appointed Yan's Administrator of Changshan, Shen Shao, as Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, and sent him and another Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Wei Ruju of Jingzhao, to craft garments to distribute to the people, patrol through the Guandong provinces and commandaries, observe and reform the local customs, encourage the people in farming and silkworm cultivation, ease the suffering of the destitute, collect and bury the dead, and spread his authority throughout the region. Any parts of the Yan administration that did not benefit the people were changed or done away with.

燕都鄴,以魏郡太守爲京尹。陽平,輔郡也,故堅皆以秦人守之。盡易州縣牧、守、令、長,旣駭觀聽,且人情新舊不相安,故皆因舊。並用燕、秦之人爲繡衣使者。用燕人者,以其習關東風俗;用秦人者,使宣堅之德意也。

(Former Yan's capital Ye was in Wei commandary, so its Administrator had been the capital Intendent. Yangping commandary was an adjunct commandary to Wei, similar to the Three Adjuncts commandaries around Chang'an. This was why Fu Jian replaced the Administrators of those commandaries with Former Qin ministers. But if Fu Jian had replaced all of the remaining Former Yan local officials, that would have produced upheaval, and the old residents would be alienated from the new ones. This was why he retained the other Former Yan officials in their posts.

Both the people of Former Yan and the people of Former Qin were used to craft these garments for distribution. The people of Former Yan were used because they were practiced in the local customs of Guandong, while the people of Former Qin were used in order to display Fu Jian's sense of virtue.)


十二月,秦王堅遷慕容暐及燕後妃、王公、百官並鮮卑四萬餘戶於長安。

36. In the twelfth month, Fu Jian sent Murong Wei and his Empress and concubines, along with the former Yan nobles and officials and more than forty thousand Xianbei households, to Chang'an.

爲後鮮卑乘亂攻秦張本。

(These were the Xianbei who would later rebel in Guanzhong and attack Former Qin.)


堅徙暐及王公已下並諸鮮卑四萬餘戶于長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian relocated Murong Wei, his princes and nobles, and more than forty thousand households of the Xianbei to Chang'an.


王猛表留梁琛為主簿,領記室督。它日,猛與僚屬宴,語及燕朝使者,猛曰:「人心不同。昔梁君至長安,專美本朝;樂君但言桓溫軍盛;郝君微說國弊。」參軍馮誕曰:「今三子皆為國臣,敢問取臣之道何先?」猛曰:「郝君知幾為先。」誕曰:「然則明公賞丁公而誅季布也。」猛大笑。

37. Wang Meng asked that Liang Chen be appointed as his personal Registrar and acting Recordskeeping Chief.

That same day, Wang Meng held a feast with his subordinates, and he invited the former Yan court officials to attend. During the feast, he said to them, "Men's hearts are truly different. Not so long ago, three Yan ministers came to Qin as envoys. Lord Liang Chen spoke of his court's splendor; Lord Yue Song spoke of Huan Wen's army's great strength; Lord Hao Gui spoke of his state's iniquities."

The Army Advisor, Feng Yan, said, "All three of them are now Qin ministers. Might I ask which of them you most agreed with?"

Wang Meng said, "I would have to side with Lord Hao."

Feng Yan replied, "In that case, you would do well to 'reward Duke Ding and execute Ji Bu.'"

Wang Meng laughed heartily.

晉制:諸公府有主簿、記室督各一人。今猛以琛兼之。梁琛、樂嵩、郝晷也。言取臣之道,與漢高帝異。

(According to the Jin system, each Duke's household had both a Registrar and a Recordskeeping Chief. Wang Meng combined them in the person of Liang Chen.

The three envoys were Liang Chen, Yue Song, and Hao Gui.

Feng Yan gave the opposite advice regarding those two ministers to how Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had dealt with them.)


During the Chu-Han Contention between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, Ji Bu had remained loyal to Xiang Yu to the very end, while Duke Ding had betrayed him and helped Liu Bang. After the war ended, Liu Bang blamed Duke Ding for his disloyalty, saying that it was because of him that Xiang Yu had lost, and he executed him. Meanwhile, he pardoned Ji Bu on account of his loyal service.

秦王堅自鄴如枋頭,宴父老,改枋頭為永昌,復之終世。甲寅,至長安,封慕容暐為新興侯;以燕故臣慕容評為給事中,皇甫真為奉車都尉,李洪為駙馬都尉,皆奉朝請。李邽為尚書,封衡為尚書郎,慕容德為張掖太守,燕國平睿為宣威將軍,悉羅騰為三署郎。其餘封授各有差。衡,裕之子也.

38. Fu Jian returned from Ye to Fangtou, where he held a feast for his father’s veterans. He changed the name of the place from Fangtou to Yongchang, and exempted it from taxation for a generation.

On the day Jiayin (January 16th of 371), Fu Jian arrived at Chang'an, and appointed Murong Wei as Marquis of Xinxing. He appointed Murong Ping as Attendant Officer of the Palace, Huangfu Zhen as Commandant of the Chariots, and Li Hong as Commandant of 駙馬, and they all served in the court. He appointed Li Gui as a Master of Writing, Feng Heng as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Murong De as Administrator of Zhangye, Ping Rui of Yanguo as General Who Proclaims Might, and Xiluo Teng as 三署郎. Others were appointed as suited. This Feng Heng was the son of Feng Yu.

復,除賦役也;復除賦役,終秦王之世也。三人者,燕之三公也。爲德兄子超留張掖而入姚氏張本。漢有五官署郎、左署郎、右署郎,故曰三署郎。舊制:郎年五十以上,屬五官,其次分在左右署;秦遂以三署郎爲官稱。慕容皝之興也,封裕以忠諫顯。

(The term 復 here means to exempt from taxation. The "generation" meant during the lifetime of the current lord of Former Qin.

Murong Ping, Huangfu Zhen, and Li Hong had held the ranks of the Three Excellencies in Yan.

Murong De's appointment as Administrator of Zhangye was why his nephew Murong Chao later fled from Zhangye to the Yao clan.

Han had the offices of 五官署郎, 左署郎, and 右署郎, and so they were usually called the Three 署郎. Under the Jin system, Gentlemen that were over fifty years old were part of the 五官, subordinate to the 左署 or 右署. Former Qin used this same system of Three 署郎.

During Murong Huang's rise, Feng Yi had made many loyal remonstrances to him.)


堅封暐新興郡侯,邑五千戶。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian appointed Murong Wei as Marquis of Xinxing commandary, with a fief of five thousand households.

堅封暐新興侯。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Fu Jian appointed Murong Wei as Marquis of Xinxing.

王猛入鄴,真望馬首拜之。明日更見,語乃卿猛。猛曰:「昨拜今卿,何恭慢之相違也?」真答曰:「卿昨為賊,朝是國士,吾拜賊而卿國士,何所怪也?」猛大嘉之,謂權翼曰:「皇甫真故大器也。」從堅入關,為奉車都尉,數歲而死。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

On the day when Wang Meng entered Ye, Huangfu Zhen merely looked up at the head of his horse and saluted him. But on the following day, when they met again, Huangfu Zhen addressed Wang Meng as "thou minister", as suited for a fellow minister of the same court. Wang Meng said to him, "Yesterday, you saluted me; today, you address me like this. Why were you so tardy in showing proper courtesy, and violating mutual terms of respect?"

Huangfu Zhen replied, "Minister, yesterday you were my enemy, but this morning you became a fellow gentleman of my state. I saluted you were you were my enemy, but I call you minister as a fellow gentleman. What is so strange about that?"

Wang Meng greatly commended this response, and he said to Quan Yi, "Huangfu Zhen is as talented as they say."

Huangfu Zhen accompanied Fu Jian back to Qin, where he was appointed as Commandant of the Chariots. He passed away several years later.

秦滅燕,徙於長安。秦伐涼,德請徵自效,後為張掖太守。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

After Former Qin conquered Former Yan, Murong De was moved to Chang'an. When Former Qin conquered Liangzhou (376), Murong De asked to be assigned to a border command, so he was appointed the Administrator of Zhangye.

苻堅滅暐,以德為張掖太守。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

After Fu Jian conquered Murong Wei, he appointed Murong De as Administrator of Zhangye.

後遇敗,徙于長安,苻堅以為張掖太守,數歲免歸。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Later on, after Murong Wei was defeated, Murong De was moved to Chang'an. Fu Jian appointed him as Administrator of Zhangye, but after several years he returned.


燕故太史黃泓歎曰:「燕必中興,其在吳王乎!恨吾老,不及見耳!」汲郡趙秋曰:「天道在燕,而秦滅之。不及十五年,秦必復為燕有。」

39. Yan's former Grand Astrologist, Huang Hong, lamented, "Yan will surely rise again, thanks to the Prince of Wu (Murong Chui)! But I regret that, old as I am, I will not be able to witness it!"

And Zhao Qiu of Ji commandary declared, "Heaven favored Yan, yet Qin conquered it. In less than fifteen years, Qin will surely give way to Yan."

慕容之初興,黃泓歸之。及儁之取中原,黃泓贊其決:泓知數者也。謂歲星在燕分也。【章:十二行本「不」上有「而秦滅之」四字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦脫。】

(Huang Hong had come to Former Yan during the initial rise of the Murong clan. When Murong Jun seized the Central Plains, Huang Hong had helped him to make that decision. He made many such predictions.

Zhao Qiu refers to the Year Star (Jupiter), which was hanging over Former Yan at the time of its conquest.

Some versions add the words "yet Qin conquered it" to Zhao Qiu's prophecy.)


慕容桓之子鳳,年十一,陰有復仇之志。鮮卑、丁零有氣干者,皆傾身與之交結。權翼見而謂之曰:「兒方以才望自顯,勿效爾父不識天命!」鳳厲色曰:「先王欲建忠而不遂,此乃人臣之節;君侯之言,豈獎勸將來之義乎!」翼改容謝之,言於秦王堅曰:「慕容鳳忼慨有才器,但狼子野心,恐終不為人用耳。」

40. Murong Huan's son, Murong Feng, was ten years old. He secretly harbored a grudge against Qin. The Xianbei and the Dingling peoples had an affinity, and they often had social dealings with each other.

When the Qin minister Quan Yi saw Murong Feng, he said to him, "Child, you have exceptional talents and abilities. Don't be like your father, who went against Heaven's will!"

But Murong Feng fiercely replied, “My late father wished to act with loyalty. Although he failed, he behaved as a dutiful minister ought to. If people followed your advice, how could that steer them towards righteousness?”

Quan Yi quickly made his apologies to Murong Feng. He then mentioned the matter to Fu Jian, and told him, “Murong Feng has such abundant talent, but alas, 'a wolf-like child has a evil heart'. I fear he will never agree to serve another.”

爲後慕容鳳與丁零起兵攻秦張本。《左傳》:楚令尹子文曰:「狼子野心。」史言燕之臣子非久下人者。

(This was why Murong Feng later rose in rebellion, together with the Dingling, to attack Former Qin (Book 105, 383.32).

In the Zuo Commentary, the Chu minister Yin Ziwen says, "As the saying goes, 'a wolf-like child will have an evil heart' (Xuan 4.3)."

This passage demonstrates that the son of a Former Yan official could not long remain a Former Qin subordinate.)


秦省雍州。

41. Qin abolished Yongzhou.

秦置雍州於安定,今省雍州入司隸校尉。

(Former Qin had earlier organized a separate Yongzhou province around Anding commandary (Book 101, 360.2), but they now combined the Yongzhou territory back under the authority of the Colonel-Director of Retainers.)


是歲,仇池公楊世卒,子纂立,始與秦絕。叔父武都太守統與之爭國,起兵相攻。

42. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu, passed away. His son Yang Cuan inherited his position, and broke off relations with Qin. Then the Administrator of Wudu, Yang Cuan’s uncle Yang Tong, began to fight with him, and both sides raised troops and attacked each other.

爲秦攻仇池張本。

(This would be Former Qin's pretext for later invading Chouchi (Book 103, 371.6).)
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Sun Apr 16, 2017 2:37 am

My backlog is getting depressing.

347AD - The year of mass extinctions in Zhao

2. 將贏兵 = to lead weak soldiers

3. 昝堅至犍為,乃知與溫異道: Zan Jian should become friends with LoJW Zang Ba.

4. 笮橋 = suspension bridges made of bamboo

而鼓吏誤鳴進鼓 = the drum guy beat the drums for sounding the advance, by mistake (there was no order; I guess he meant to beat the gongs for retreating but got his percussion set mixed up)

舉賢旌善 = Huan Wen promoted the wise and praised the good

5. 侵刻胡商 = he bullied and took from the foreign merchants

又科調船材,雲欲有所討,由是諸國恚憤 = he also levied boats and building materials (from the people), saying that he was planning to launch a campaign; because of that,the whole state was angry and indignant.

7. 大事去矣: I hate these phrases about great causes and great achievements, and am wonder if it’d be better to translate this as something along the lines of “we’ll be done for”. The original phrase isn’t supposed to be read literally anyway.

8. 帥戶二萬降於趙 = I wonder if this is 20k households instead of 20k men.

乘軺車 = light carriage (civilian use—this and the white headdress were supposed to indicate that he’s in a chill scholar outfit and not taking Ma Qiu seriously)

鳴鼓而行 = had the drums sounded as he advanced

輕我也: more like “he’s making fun of me/he’s belittling me” than a personal hatred

黑槊龍驤: Best name for a unit/band name ever

胡床 = folding chair ( like what you bring to the beach)

獲首虜一萬三千級 = cut off 13k heads of enemy soldeirs

9. 行衛將軍 = Acting Guard General

遐為軍正將軍

12. 以妖異惑眾,蜀人多歸之 = They deluded the populace with occult and mystical things, and most of the people of Shu joined them.

13. 遂城長最 = And they built a walled city at Changzui.

謝艾建牙誓眾: 誓眾 = 誓師 = to rally the troops before a campaign, to make an oath for victory

吾以偏師定九州,今以九州之力困於枹罕 = I had conquered the Nine Provinces with just an auxiliary force, and yet today , with the combined strength of the Nine Provinces, I am stuck at Baohan.

討叛虜斯骨真等萬餘落,皆破平之。= He waged war against some 10k rebel tribes, including Siguzhen’s, and destroyed them all. [落 is technically a tribe, but maybe here it’d make more sense to translate it as “settlement”? Either way it’s a LOT of people. We had something like that back in Cheng-Han too. Makes me wonder if “tribe” was just the glorified term for a tribal family.]

15. What kind of Buddhist monk is this, to advocate enslaving people?!?!

白鹿七 = white deer or goats?

16. 命太子宣出祈福於山川,因行遊獵 = He ordered the Crown Prince to go make sacrifices for blessings around the land, and to go for hunts while he was at it. (don’t ask me why Shi Xuan had to be ordered to go out and play)

但抱子弄孫,日為樂耳 = [I can’t ask for more] but to spend my days enjoying playing with my sons and grandsons.

17. 宣所捨: 捨 should probably be 舍, as in “to stay”. I.e. “every place where Shi Xuan stayed at”

使文武跪立,重行圍守 = he had the civil and military officers to kneel upright (i.e. knees at 90 degrees) in a circle around the barrier

獸盡而止 = until all the animals had been killed

士卒饑凍死者萬有餘人,所過三州十五郡,資儲皆無孑遺: The way you broke up the sentence was a bit weird... should be “over 10k soldiers (not necessarily the locals) died of hunger or cold; in the 15 commandaries of the 3 provinces that Shi Xuan passed through, all the stores were depleted.”

18. 宣怒其與己鈞敵,愈嫉之。 = Shi Xuan was angry that Shi Tao was now put on the same footing as himself, and his jealousy grew.

20. 重華欲稱涼王,未肯受詔 = Zhang Chonghua was unwilling to accept the conferrals as he wanted to become Prince of Liang.

主公弈世為晉忠臣 = For generations, my lord’s family had been loyal servants to Jin

明台宜移河右,共勸州主為涼王。人臣出使,苟利社稷,專之可也。= Sir, why don’t you mobilize the people of the West of the Yellow River to jointly recommend the ruler of their province to become Prince of Liang. When a minister is sent out on a mission, it is all right for him to make such executive decisions as long as it is to the Nation’s benefit.

吾子失言!= Sir, wrongly have you spoken!

昔三代之王也,爵之貴者莫若上公 = During the reigns of the Three Dynasties (Xia/Shang/Zhou), the most noble rank conferred was High Duke.

及周之衰,吳、楚始僭號稱王,而諸侯亦不之非,蓋以蠻夷畜之也;= Only when the power of the Zhou began to fade did Wu and Chu start to assume the kingly title. The only reason why the other feudal lords put up with them was because they had treated Wu and Chu as mere barbarians.

借使齊、魯稱王,諸侯豈不四面攻之乎!= If rulers of states like Qi and Lu [i.e. the powerful and legit/original states] declared themselves kings, would the other lords not rush to attack them?

漢高祖封韓、彭為王,尋皆誅滅,蓋權時之宜,非厚之也。= When Emperor Gaozu of Han made kings of Han Xin and Peng Chao, he later executed them; he was just making them kings to buy time (or, just to deal with the situation at hand), and not because he meant to do them honour.

聖上以貴公忠賢,故爵以上公,任以方伯,寵榮極矣 = As your honourable lord is loyal and wise, His Majesty conferred the title of High Duke on him, entrusting him to the protection of a corner of the empire. This is the highest possible favour and honour.

今貴公始繼世而為王,若帥河右之眾,東平胡、羯,修復陵廟,迎天子返洛陽,將何以加之乎?= Now, your honourable lord has just inherited his position. If he is to be made Prince now, and later he goes on [and kicks ass and restores Jin in Luoyang], with what additional honour could he be rewarded?
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Tue Apr 18, 2017 1:13 am

348 – The year of jaw-dropping developments

2. 欲立之,以太子宣長,猶豫未决: The grammar is weird here, but I think this makes more sense to have Shi Hu as the subject of the sentence (“Shi Hu wanted to make Shi Tao his heir, but because Xuan was older, he couldn’t make a decision”)

韜由是益驕 = because of that, Shi Tao became increasingly more arrogant

造堂于太尉府 = He built a hall at the Grand Commandant’s residence (his own property)

號曰宣光殿 = 殿 is really more of a tall building or a lofty hall, so maybe call this “Xuanguang Hall”

梁 = beam (horizontal)

西宮: HSX’s comment here is actually useful—that was where Shi Hu lived, so Shi Xuan was saying “once I become emperor, I will give Shi Tao’s land to you”

3. 佛精舍: It’s really just a nice term for a Buddhist temple (maybe just say that here and omit the Hu note)

《水經註》:石氏... : 石氏should be read as “Mr. Shi”, aka Hu.

立東明觀於鄴東城上= built Dongming Pavilion by the eastern city walls of Ye

京師 = capital city (not necessarily inside the palace)

將委之以罪 = was planning to put the blame on them

哀過危惙 = was deathly ill from grief

虎悲怒彌甚,囚宣于席庫,以鐵環穿其頷而鏁之= Shi Hu’s grief and anger became even greater. He had Shi Xuan imprisoned in a storehouse for... sitting mats? chairs?, had a ring of iron put through his jaw and used that to lock him up

是重禍也 = you’d be doubling your misfortune

倚梯柴積 = a ladder was leaned against the firewood pile

使韜所幸宦者郝稚、劉霸拔其發,抽其舌,牽之登梯 = He had Shi Tao’s favourite eunuchs Hao Zhi and Liu Ba drag him up the ladder by his hair and tongue.

郝稚以繩貫其頷,鹿盧絞上。= Hao Zhi strung a rope through his jaw and used that and the pulley to hoist him up.

虎從昭儀已下數千人: Not sure where you got Empress Du from, but this is referring to some thousands of female attendants from the rank 昭儀and lower

取灰分置諸門交道中 = the ashes were gathered and spread at the main intersection of each city gate

銅爵臺 = 銅雀臺 (aka Cao Cao’s Hangout)

妻子九人 = 9 including wives and children

兒挽虎衣 大叫,至于絕帶 = The boy grabbed onto Shi Hu’s robes and screamed (as they tried to tear him away from Shi Hu), until [Shi Hu’s] belt broke [and the boy was taken away]

誅其四率已下三百人,宦者五十人 = He executed 300 soldiers under the Eastern Palace’s command and 50 of his eunuchs; they were all ripped apart by chariots

洿其東宮以養猪牛 = defiled the Eastern Palace and made it into a place for keeping livestock

有變 = there will be a disaster (變 can either mean change or disaster)

宜備之 = it’s advisable to be on guard for it

4.相與建行臺於密: 行臺 was the field office of the 尚書, like a local executive branch of the imperial court. 密 is a place name. See Book 87: “⑲司徒傅祗建行臺於河陰,司空荀藩在陽城,〈陽城縣,漢屬潁川郡,晉屬河南郡。〉河南尹華薈在成皋,汝陰太守平陽李矩爲之立屋,輸穀以給之。薈,歆之曾孫也。〈華,戶化翻。汝陰縣,漢屬汝南郡,魏分置汝陰郡,後廢,武帝泰始二年復爲郡。薈,烏外翻。爲,於僞翻。〉藩與弟組、族子中護軍崧,薈與弟中領軍恆建行臺於密,〈密縣,漢屬河南郡,晉屬滎陽郡。〉"

5. 朝野推服 = and is respected by all both in office and not in office

引爲心膂 = took him on to be a trusted supporter(心膂 = someone you trust and rely on like your own heart and spine)

與參綜朝權 = he had him get involved in deciding on affairs of the court

6. 王羲之 = this is a X之

to have them serve as his wings: Is this idiomatic in English? (Almost sounds like he’s going after a girl and needed them to be his wingmen...)

內外協和,然後國家可安 = only by having harmony between those responsible for internal affairs and those responsible for military affairs, can the nation be safe

7. 屬之 = admonished him (there’s no several times)

才堪任重,汝其委之,以成吾志 = he is talented and can be entrusted with weighty affairs. You should make make use of him, to achieve my ambition

皝嘗畋於西鄙 = Murong Huang once went hunting in the western region

見一父老,服硃衣,乘白馬 : GANDALF THE RED

舉手麾皝曰:「此非獵所,王其還也。」: [Gandalf] raised his hand and gestured to Murong Huang, saying, “This is not a hunting ground. You shall not pass You should turn around.”

秘之不言 = Murong Huang didn’t tell anyone about this

乃說所見 = and only then did he tell what he had seen

彭城公母前 以太子事廢 = The Duke of Pengcheng’s mother had been demoted before due to the former Crown Prince’s affair

臣恐不能無微恨 = I fear that [she] may not be completely free of grudge (i.e. she might bear a grudge)

位在左右衞上 = their positions are above those of the Guard of the Left and the Guard of the Right.

陛下再立太子,其母皆出于倡賤,故禍亂相尋 = When Your Majesty chose new crown princes in the past, their mothers were all of common blood, and that’s why disasters happened one after another.

今宜擇母貴子孝者立之 = You should now choose as your crown prince one who has a noble-born mother and who is filial himself.

虎再與群臣議于東堂 = Shi Hu gathered his ministers at the Eastern Hall to discuss the matter again.

何爲專生惡子 = why do I keep giving birth to evil sons?

乃與張舉、李農定議 = thus, he made a plan with Zhang Ju and Li Nong
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BOOK 103

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:21 am

太宗簡文皇帝

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Jianwen, Sima Yu, Taizong


諱昱,字道萬,元帝之少子也;封琅邪王,後徙封會稽王。海西卽位,琅邪絕嗣,復徙封琅邪,固讓;故雖封琅邪而不去會稽之號。《諡法》:一德不懈曰簡;道德博聞曰文。

Emperor Jianwen's name was Sima Yu. His style name was Daowan. He was the youngest son of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui). He had originally held the title Prince of Langye, but he had it changed to Prince of Kuaiji. When the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) inherited the throne, since his former title as Prince of Langye lapsed, he restored it to Sima Yu, although Sima Yu refused it. Sima Yu technically did become the Prince of Langye, but he continued to refer to himself as Prince of Kuaiji. Regarding his posthumous name, the Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is virtuous and not licentious may be called Jian ('Pure')" and "One who is principled, virtuous, skilled, and learned may be called Wen ('Cultured')".)


咸安元年(辛未,公元三七一年)

The First Year of Xian'an (The Xinwei Year, 371 AD)


是年十一月,海西廢,帝卽位,始改元咸安。《通鑑》編年,因以新元繫之。

(In the eleventh month of this year, the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) was deposed, and Sima Yu (Emperor Jianwen) inherited the throne. It was at that time that the new reign era Xian'an began. This is why the Zizhi Tongjian's chronology begins the new reign era in this year.)


春,正月,袁瑾、朱輔求救於秦,秦王堅以瑾為揚州刺史,輔為交州刺史,遣武衛將軍武都王鑒、前將軍張蚝帥步騎二萬救之。大司馬溫遣淮南太守桓伊、南頓太守桓石虔等擊鑒、蚝於石橋,大破之,秦兵退屯慎城。伊,宣之子也。丁亥,溫拔壽春。擒瑾及輔並其宗族,送建康斬之。

1. In spring, the first month, the Shouchun rebel leaders Yuan Qin and Zhu Fu requested aid from Qin. Fu Jian appointed Yuan Qin as Inspector of Yangzhou, and Zhu Fu as Inspector of Jiaozhou.

Fu Jian sent his Guard General of Valor, Wang Jian of Wudu, and his General of the Front, Zhang Qi, with twenty thousand horse and foot to reinforce Yuan Qin and Zhu Fu. But Jin's Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, sent the Administrator of Huainan, Huan Yi, the Administrator of Nandun, Huan Shiqian, and others to intercept Wang Jian and Zhang Qi at Shiqiao. They greatly routed the Qin forces, who retreated to camp at Shencheng. This Huan Yi was the son of Huan Xuan.

On the day Dinghai (February 18th), Huan Wen retook Shouchun. He captured Yuan Qin and Zhu Fu along with their entire clans, and sent them to Jiankang to be executed.

據《桓溫傳》,石橋在肥水北。愼縣,漢屬汝南郡,晉分屬汝陰郡。唐廬州之愼縣,則梁、魏之間南梁郡之愼縣,漢九江逡遒縣之地,非此愼城。桓宣佐祖逖,拒祖約,守襄陽,皆有功。

(According to the Biography of Huan Wen in the Book of Jin, Shiqiao was north of the Fei River.

During Han, Shen county was part of Runan commandary. Jin split it off as part of Ruyin commandary. There was a Shen county in the Tang dynasty's Luzhou, which was the same Shen county that was in Nanliang commandary on the border between Northern Wei and the Liang dynasty, but that Shen county was what had been known during Han as Qunqiu county in Jiujiang commandary, and it was not the same Shencheng mentioned in this passage.

Huan Xuan had been a Jin lieutenant commander under Zu Ti, had held out against the rebel Zu Yue, and had guarded Xiangyang against attacks from the northern states, and in all these things he was successful.)


六年春正月,苻堅遣將王鑒來援袁瑾,將軍桓伊逆擊,大破之。丁亥,桓溫克壽陽,斬袁瑾。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the sixth year of Taihe (371), in spring, the first month, Fu Jian sent his general Wang Jian to assist Yuan Qin. But the general Huan Yi attacked Wang Jian and greatly routed him.

On the day Dinghai (February 18th), Huan Wen retook Shouchun and executed Yuan Qin.

苻堅乃使其將王鑒、張蠔等率兵以救瑾,屯洛澗,先遣精騎五千次於肥水北。溫遣桓伊及弟子石虔等逆擊,大破之,瑾眾遂潰,生擒之,並其宗族數十人及硃輔送於京都而斬之,所侍養乞活數百人悉坑之,以妻子為賞。(Book of Jin 98, Biography of Huan Wen)

Fu Jian then sent his generals Wang Jian, Zhang Qi, and others with soldiers to reinforce Yuan Qin, and they camped at Luojian while sending five thousand elite riders ahead to the north of the Fei River. Huan Wen sent Huan Yi and his own nephew, Huan Shiqian, and others to intercept the Qin army, and greatly routed them. Yuan Qin's soldiers all scattered, and he was captured alive. He, several dozen of his clan members, and Zhu Fu were sent to the capital and beheaded, while several hundred Lifeseeker soldiers whom Yuan Qin had retained were all buried alive, and their wives and daughters were distributed as spoils of war.


秦王堅徙關東豪傑及雜夷十五萬戶於關中,處烏桓於馮翊、北地,丁零翟斌於新安、澠池。諸因亂流移、欲還舊業者,悉聽之。

2. Fu Jian relocated many gentry families and various tribes living in Guandong (the Central Plains), a hundred and fifty thousand households, to Guanzhong. He settled the Wuhuan in Pingyi and Beidi, and he settled the Dingling under Zhai Bin in Xin'an and Mianchi. There was much general confusion from this, with many wanting to return to their former homes, and everyone heard of it.

爲翟斌乘秦亂起兵張本。

(This was why Zhai Bin later took advantage of the chaos in Former Qin to launch his rebellion (Book 105, 383.27).)


二月,秦以魏郡太守韋鐘為青州刺史,中壘將軍梁成為兗州刺史,射聲校尉徐成為并州刺史,武衛將軍王鑒為豫州刺史,左將軍彭越為徐州刺史,太尉司馬皇甫覆為荊州刺史,屯騎校尉天水姜宇為涼州刺史,扶風內史王統為益州刺史,秦州刺史西縣侯雅為使持節、都督秦、晉、涼、雍州諸軍事、秦州牧,吏部尚書楊安為使持節、都督益、梁州諸軍事、梁州刺史。復置雍州,治蒲阪;以長樂公丕為使持節、征東大將軍、雍州刺史。成,平老之子;統,擢之子也。堅以關東初平,守令宜得人,令王猛以便宜簡召英俊,補六州守令,授訖,言台除正。

3. In the second month, Qin appointed the Administrator of Wei commandary, Wei Zhong, as Inspector of Qingzhou. The General of the Central Ramparts, Liang Cheng, was appointed as Inspector of Yanzhou. The Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Xu Cheng, was appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou. Wang Jian was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou. The General of the Left, Peng Yue, was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou. The Marshal to the Grand Commandant, Huangfu Fu, was appointed as Inspector of Jingzhou. The Colonel of 屯騎, Jiang Yu of Tianshui, was appointed as Inspector of Liangzhou. The Interior Minister of Fufeng, Wang Tong, was appointed Inspector of Yizhou. The Inspector of Qinzhou and Marquis of Xi county, Fu Ya, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Qinzhou, Jinzhou, Liangzhou, and Yongzhou, and Governor of Qinzhou. The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Yang An, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Lianzhou, and Inspector of Lianzhou. The Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General Who Conquers The East, and Inspector of Yongzhou. This Liang Cheng was the son of Liang Pinglao; this Wang Tong was the son of Wang Zhuo.

Yongzhou was reestablished, now administered from Puban.

Since Fu Jian had only just conquered Guandong, and he wanted to appoint the right people to serve as Administrators and Prefects in that region, he charged Wang Meng with gathering to him the honest, worthy, and talented people of that place to serve as the new Administrators and Prefects in the six Yan provinces, and to send word to the court of the new appointments once the process was completed.

青州刺史治廣固。《晉志》曰:秦旣滅燕,以兗州刺史鎭倉垣,幷州刺史鎭晉陽,豫州刺史鎭洛陽,徐州刺史鎭彭城。秦初以荊州刺史鎭豐陽,後移襄陽。余按此時秦未得襄陽,蓋仍燕之舊鎭魯陽也。涼州屬張天錫。益州,晉土也。秦蓋置涼州於天水界,置益州於扶風界。雅,苻氏也。前此未有晉州;涼之張氏分西平界置晉興郡,秦蓋於此置晉州也。堅欲進圖梁、益,故置梁、益二州刺史。楊安旣克仇池,始加督南秦州,鎭仇池。穆帝永和十年,王擢降秦。秦省雍州見上卷上年。奏上秦朝,除爲正官也。嗚呼!荀卿子有言:兼幷易也,堅凝之難。以苻堅之明,王猛之略,簡召六州英俊以補守令,然鮮卑乘亂一呼,翕然爲燕,以此知天下之勢,但觀人心向背何如耳。

(Former Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou administered that province from Guanggu.

The Records of Jin states, "After Former Qin conquered Former Yan, this was Former Qin's administrative structure: the Inspector of Yanzhou was stationed at Cangyuan; Bingzhou, at Jinyang; Yuzhou, at Luoyang; Xuzhou, at Pengcheng; and Jingzhou, originally at Fengyang (as it had been since Former Qin's founding), but now at Xiangyang (once Former Qin captured it)." But regarding Jingzhou, I (Hu Sanxing) believe that since Former Qin had not yet conquered Xiangyang at this time, they must have administered the province from Luyang, as Former Yan had done before them.

At this time, Liangzhou was still under the control of Zhang Tianxi and Former Liang, and Yizhou was Jin territory. So Former Qin must have organized their own version of Liangzhou around Tianshui commandary, and organized their own version of Yizhou around Fufeng commandary.

This Fu Ya was a member of the Fu royal family.

There had never been any such province as Jinzhou before now. But the Zhang clan of Liangzhou had split off part of Xiping commandary to form Jinxing commandary, and this must have been where Former Qin established this new "Jinzhou".

Fu Jian was announcing his intention to conquer the actual provinces of Lianzhou and Yizhou by establishing nominal versions of them within his own territory and appointing Inspectors for them. And after Yang An conquered Chouchi, he was appointed as Commander for "Southern Qinzhou", and was stationed at Chouchi.

The onetime Later Zhao general Wang Zhuo had surrendered to Former Qin in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's tenth year of Yonghe (354.28).

Former Qin had abolished Yongzhou in the previous year, as mentioned in Book 102 (370.40); it was now reestablished.

Wang Meng's orders were to send a memorial back to the Former Qin court with a report of the new holders of the local offices in the old Former Yan territory.

Alas for Fu Jian's intentions! Xunzi once said: "It is easy to conquer territory, but harder to assimilate and secure it (Xunzi 15.27)." Fu Jian was indeed insightful in his decision to select honest and talented people from the six Former Yan provinces to serve as the new Administrators and Prefects, and Wang Meng was meticulous in finding the right people for these roles. Yet when chaos engulfed Former Qin, it only took a single cry of the Xianbei rebels for all this territory to join the cause of Later Yan. Power over the realm is well and good, but how can it make people turn aside from the calling of their hearts?)


三月,壬辰,益州刺史建成定公周楚卒。

4. In the third month, on the day Renchen (April 24th), Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Chu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Ding ("the Stalwart") of Jiancheng.

《諡法》:大慮靜民曰定。

(The Laws of Posthumous Surnames states, "One who calms the cares and concerns of the people may be called 定 Ding ('Stalwart')".)


三月壬辰,監益寧二州諸軍事、冠軍將軍、益州刺史、建城公周楚卒。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the third month, on the day Renchen (April 24th), the Chief of military affairs in Yizhou and Ningzhou, Champion General, Inspector of Yizhou, and Duke of Jiancheng, Zhou Chu, passed away.


秦後將軍金城俱難攻蘭陵太守張閔子於桃山,大司馬溫遣兵擊卻之。

5. Qin's General of the Rear, Ju Nan of Jincheng, attacked Jin's Administrator of Lanling, Zhang Minzi, at Mount Tao. Huan Wen sent troops to attack him.

俱,姓;難,名。魏收《地形志》:蘭陵昌慮縣有桃山。

(俱 Ju was this man's surname and 難 Nan was his given name.

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Mount Tao is in Changlü county in Lanling commandary.")


秦西縣侯雅、楊安、五統、徐成及羽林左監朱肜、揚武將軍姚萇帥步騎七萬伐仇池公楊纂。

6. The Qin generals Fu Ya, Yang An, Wu Tong, Xu Cheng, the Chief of the Left of the Feathered Forest Imperial Guard, Zhu Yong, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Yao Chang, led seventy thousand horse and foot to campaign against the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Cuan.

肜,余中翻。

(肜 is pronounced "yong (y-ong)".)


夏四月,苻堅將苻雅伐仇池。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian's general Fu Fa campaigned against Chouchi.

堅使其右將軍楊安攻克漢中。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian sent his General of the Right, Yang An, to attack and capture Hanzhong.

潞川之戰,累有殊功,遷左衛將軍,累授幽州刺史。萇從堅征伐,頻有戰功,歷寧、幽、兗三州刺史,封益都侯,邑五百戶。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

Following the battle of Luchuan, and due to many exceptional successes afterwards, Yao Chang was later appointed as Guard General of the Left and then as Inspector of Youzhou. Yao Chang accompanied Fu Jian on his campaigns and won great achievements in battle. He was successively appointed as Inspector of Ningzhou, Youzhou, and Yanzhou, and he was appointed as Marquis of Yidu with a fief of five hundred households.

萇曆左衛將軍,隴東、汲郡、河東、武都、武威、巴西、扶風太守,甯、幽、兗三州刺史,復為揚武將軍,步兵校尉,封益都侯。為堅將,累有大功。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Yao Xiang died in battle, Yao Chang led his younger brothers to surrender to Fu Sheng. Fu Jian appointed Yao Chang as General Who Spreads Valor. Yao Chang served under Fu Jian successively as Guard General of the Left, Administrator of Longdong, Ji, Hedong, Wudu, Wuwei, Baxi, and Fufeng, and Inspector of Ningzhou, Youzhou, and Yanzhou. He later became General Who Spreads Valor again, as well as Colonel of Infantry and Marquis of Yidu. He won many great achievements while serving as Fu Jian's general.


代將長孫斤謀弒代王什翼犍,世子寔格之,傷脅,遂執斤,殺之。

7. In Dai, the general Zhangsun Jin plotted to murder the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. Tuoba’s eldest son, Tuoba Shi, blocked Zhangsun Jin’s attack and took a wound in his side, then apprehended Zhangsun Jin and killed him.

代之先拓跋鄰,以次兄爲拔跋氏,後改爲長孫氏。

(One of the ancestors of the Tuoba line was Tuoba Lin. His next-youngest brother's descendants (presumably as a cadet branch) changed their surname first to Baba, and then later to Zhangsun.)


三十四年春,長孫斤謀反,伏誅。斤之反也,拔刃向御座,太子獻明皇帝諱寔格之,傷脅。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirty-fourth year of Jianguo (371), Zhangsun Zhi plotted to rebel, but he was captured and executed. During his rebellion, he grabbed a blade from the imperial stock. The Crown Prince, Tuoba Shi, blocked his attack and took a wound in his side.


夏,四月,戊午,大赦。

8. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Wuwu (May 20th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

夏四月戊午,大赦,賜窮獨米,人五斛。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

On the day Wuwu (May 20th), a general amnesty was declared. Orphans and the destitute were granted gifts of rice, with five 斛 per person.


秦兵至鷲峽,楊纂帥眾五萬拒之。梁州刺史弘農楊亮遣督護郭寶、卜靖帥千餘騎助纂,與秦兵戰於峽中;纂兵大敗,死者什三、四。寶等亦沒,纂收散兵遁還。西縣侯雅進攻仇池,楊統帥武都之眾降秦。纂懼,面縛出降,雅送纂於長安。以統為南秦州刺史;加楊安都督南秦州諸軍事,鎮仇池。

9. When the invading Qin army reached Jiuxia, Yang Cuan led an army of fifty thousand to oppose them. Jin’s Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang of Hongnong, sent his Protectors, Guo Bao and Bo Jing, with more than a thousand cavalry to assist Yang Cuan. Their combined forces fought with the Qin army at Xiazhong. But Yang Cuan's army suffered a great defeat, and three or four of every ten of his soldiers were killed. Guo Bao and the others were also lost. Yang Cuan gathered up his scattered soldiers and fell back to defend.

Fu Ya advanced to attack Chouchi; Yang Tong came from Wudu with his men to surrender to Qin. Yang Cuan was greatly afraid, so he tied himself up and came out to surrender. Fu Ya sent him on to Chang'an. Yang Tong was appointed as Inspector of Southern Qinzhou. Yang An had Southern Qinzhou added to his area of responsibility as Commander, and he was stationed at Chouchi.

鷲峽在仇池北,亦謂之塞峽。統與纂爭國,見上卷上年。秦置秦州於上邽,仇池在其南,故置南秦州。

(Jiuxia was north of Chouchi; it was also called Saixia.

Yang Tong had been warring with his nephew Yang Cuan over Chouchi, as mentioned in the previous year, in Book 102 (370.41).

Former Qin had established the province of Qinzhou around Shanggui commandary. Since Chouchi was south of there, that region was thus organized as Southern Qinzhou.)


仇池公楊纂降之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Cuan, surrendered to Qin.


王猛之破張天錫於枹罕也,獲其將敦煌陰據及甲士五千人。秦王堅既克楊纂,遣據帥其甲士還涼州,使著作郎梁殊、閻負送之,因命王猛為書諭天錫曰:「昔貴先公稱籓劉、石者,惟審於強弱也。今論涼土之力,則損於往時;語大秦之德,則非二趙之匹;而將軍翻然自絕,無乃非宗廟之福也歟!以秦之威,旁振無外,可以回弱水使東流,返江、河使西注。關東既平,將移兵河右,恐非六郡士民所能抗也。劉表謂漢南可保,將軍謂西河可全,吉兇在身,元龜不遠,宜深算妙慮,自求多福,無使六世之業一旦而墜地也!」天錫大懼,遣使謝罪稱籓。堅拜天錫使持節、都督河右諸軍事、驃騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、涼州刺史、西平公。

10. When Wang Meng had earlier routed Zhang Tianxi at Fuhan during the Li Yan incident, he had captured Zhang Tianxi’s subordinate officer, Yin Ju of Dunhuang, and five thousand armored soldiers. Now, since Fu Jian had defeated Yang Cuan, he sent Yin Ju to lead the captured soldiers back to Liangzhou. He also sent his Gentleman-Authors, Liang Zhu and Yan Fu, to escort them and bring Zhang Tianxi a message from Wang Meng.

This was the message: “In past years, your honored ancestors, the Dukes of Xiping, submitted themselves as border vassals to the Liu and Shi clans (of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao), and they took this step because they knew the relative strength between themselves and these states. Now, if we discuss Liangzhou's current strength, it is even less now than it was back then; if we discuss Qin's virtue, it is not even in the same category as that of the two Zhao’s. For you, General, to so suddenly break off relations as you did before could not possibly bring good fortune to your ancestral clan! When it comes to Qin's might, no one can compare. Why, if we wished it, we could make the Ruo River flow back east, and the Yangzi and Yellow Rivers flow back west.

“Since we have already conquered Guandong, our troops will soon be moving to your region beyond the Yellow River, and I fear the people of your six commandaries will not be able to oppose them. Liu Biao once boasted, ‘In the south of Han, I can be safe’. General, perhaps you believe that beyond the Yellow River, you can be secure. Consider your own fortune; the 'prime tortoise' (of past examples) is not far off. You should give careful and considered thought to your situation. Add to your fortunes, and do not cast away in a single day the land your ancestors built up over six generations!”

Zhang Tianxi, greatly afraid, sent back envoys asking pardon for his offense and notice of his submission as a Qin vassal. Fu Jian appointed Zhang Tianxi as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs beyond the Yellow River, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping, and granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

事見一百一卷海西公太和元年。穆帝永和十二年,秦遣殊、負使涼,今復遣之。張茂稱藩於劉曜,事見九十二卷明帝太寧元年。張駿稱藩於石勒,事見九十四卷成帝咸和五年。絕秦見一百卷太和元年。禹之治水,高高下下,因天地之性,弱水西流,江、河東注。今言能反之回之,喻秦威力之強也。涼州六郡,以張軌初鎭河西之時,統治武威、張掖、酒泉、敦煌、西郡、西海六郡言之也。元康以後,張氏所分置,其爲郡多矣。事見《漢獻帝紀》。自張軌保據河西,至天錫凡九主。今言六世者,不以曜靈、祚、玄靚爲世數。

(The Li Yan incident was mentioned in Book 101, in the Duke of Haixi's (Emperor Fei's) first year of Taihe (366.12).

These were the same Liang Zhu and Yan Fu who had been sent as envoys to Liangzhou by Fu Sheng, as mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356.6). Fu Jian now sent them again.

Zhang Mao had submitted as vassal to Liu Yao of Han-Zhao, as mentioned in Book 92, in Emperor Ming's first year of Taining (323.15). Zhang Jun had submitted to Shi Le of Later Zhao, as mentioned in Book 94, in Emperor Cheng's fifth year of Xianhe (330.15).

Zhang Tianxi had severed ties with Former Qin in Book 100, in the first year of Taihe (366.10).

In great antiquity, Yu the Great had tamed the floodwaters. When he decided how to channel the rivers, because of their natural dispositions, he made the Ruo River flow west, and the Yangzi and Yellow Rivers flow east. In making the boast that Former Qin could make these rivers flow backwards to their sources, Wang Meng was speaking of the great power of Former Qin.

The mention of Liangzhou's "six commandaries" refers to the six commandaries which existed in that territory at the time when Zhang Gui and his clan first took control of it. These were Wuwei, Zhangye, Jiuquan, Dunhuang, Xi ("West"), and Xihai commandaries. But in the time since the Yuankang era (291-300), the Zhang clan had further divided up these commandaries, and made several new ones.

Liu Biao's career is mention in the parts of the Zizhi Tongjian dealing with the reign of Emperor Xian of Han (translated in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

From when Zhang Gui took control over Hexi until Zhang Tianxi, Liangzhou had had nine rulers. Yet Wang Meng only mentions "six generations"; he must be excluding Zhang Yaoling, Zhang Zuo, and Zhang Xuanjing.)


吐谷渾王辟奚聞楊纂敗,五月,遣使獻馬千匹、金銀五百斤於秦。秦以辟奚為安遠將軍、漒川侯。辟奚,葉延之子也,好學,仁厚而無威斷。三弟專恣,國人患之。長史鐘惡地,西漒羌豪也,謂司馬乞宿雲曰:「三弟縱橫,勢出王右,幾亡國矣。吾二人位為元輔,豈得坐而視之!詰朝月望,文武並會,吾將討焉。王之左右皆吾羌子,轉目一顧,立可擒也。」宿雲請先白王,惡地曰:「王仁而無斷,白之必不從。萬一事洩,吾屬無類矣。事已出口,何可中變!」遂於坐收三弟,殺之。辟奚驚怖,自投床下,惡地、宿雲趨而扶之曰:「臣昨夢先王刺臣雲:『三弟將為逆,不可不討。』故誅之耳。」辟奚由是發病恍惚,命世子視連曰:「吾禍及同生,何以見之於地下!國事大小,任汝治之,吾餘年殘命,寄食而已。」遂以憂卒。

11. It was earlier mentioned that Murong Tuyuhun had led many people to the far west, where they established their own kingdom as the Tuyuhun people. At this time, the current King of the Tuyuhun, Murong Pixi, heard that Yang Cuan had been defeated. So in the fifth month, he sent a thousand horses and five hundred catties of gold and silver as tribute to Qin. Qin appointed him as General Who Maintains Distant Lands and Marquis of Qiangchuan.

This Murong Pixi was the son of Murong Yeyan. He enjoyed learning, and he was benevolent and magnanimous, but he was also hesitant to exert his power. His third brother was unrestrained, and caused trouble for the people of their state.

Murong Pixi's Chief Clerk, Zhong Edi, was a Qiang from Xiqiang. He said to the Marshal, Qi Suyun, "The third brother is unrestrained, and his influence has grown nearly as great as the King's. He might bring ruin to the state. We two are our lord's chief ministers; how can we simply watch this happen and do nothing? Let us summon a full moon meeting (a mid-month meeting) of all the civil and military officials, and we can move against him there. Those around the King are all our own Qiang people, so they will not interfere. We will definitely capture the third brother then."

Qi Suyun asked to first inform the King about the plot. But Zhong Edi said, "The king is benevolent, and not ruthless; if you inform him of the plot, he will certainly not agree to it. If any leaks got out, that would be the end for us. This has already started, and we cannot change things now!"

So at the meeting, they seized the third brother, and killed him. Murong Pixi, shocked and terrified, threw himself under his bed. Zhong Edi and Qi Suyun hastened to help him and said, "We dreamed that His Late Majesty ordered us, 'The third brother will soon rebel, so you must strike first.' That is the only reason we punished him."

But Murong Pixi was overcome by his guilt, and he went into a stupor. He said to his eldest son, Murong Shilian, "I have brought calamity upon my own brother, and how can I bear to face him in the world below? All affairs of state, I now leave in your hands. All that remains for me is to live out my remaining years, eating food and awaiting the end." And he soon died from his sorrow.

谷,音浴。漒,其良翻。羌人據漒川之地,分爲東西。葉延見九十四卷成帝咸和四年。長史、司馬,府之元僚。日行遲,一年一周天;月行速,一月一周天而與日會。日月之會,謂之合朔。自合朔之後,月又先日而行,至十五日,日月相望,謂之月望。人無精爽,謂之恍惚。

(The second character in Tuyuhun, 谷, is pronounced "yu".

The first character in Qiangchuan, 漒, is pronounced "qiang (q-iang)". The Qiang people occupied the area around Qiangchuan as their territory, splitting it in half between east and west.

Murong Yeyan is mentioned in Book 94, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xianhe (329.23).

The Chief Clerk and the Marshal were the chief officials of a general's staff.

The sun moves through the heavens slowly, and completes a revolution once a year. The moon moves through the heavens quickly, and completes a revolution once a month, when it meets with the sun. This time when the sun and moon meet is called a "new moon meeting". After the new moon meeting, the moon moves ahead of the sun, until on the fifteenth day of the month, the sun and the moon are opposite of each other, and that is called a "full moon meeting".

When a man becomes muddle-headed and loses mental acuity, he is said to be in a trance or stupor.)


視連立,不飲酒游畋者七年,軍國之事,委之將佐。鐘惡地諫,以為:「人主當自娛樂,建威布德。」視連泣曰:「孤自先世以來,以仁孝忠恕相承。先王念友愛之不終,悲憤而亡。孤雖纂業,屍存而已,聲色游娛,豈所安也!威德之建,當付之將來耳。」

12. Murong Shilian then came to the throne. He refused to drink wine or go hunting for seven years, and he left all civil or military affairs in the hands of his generals and subordinates. Zhong Edi remonstrated with him, saying, "The ruler should find pleasure for himself, strengthen the state's might, and spread virtue."

But Murong Shilian tearfully replied, "Ever since my father's time, I have been benevolently filial and considerately loyal to all. Yet my father's love and affection were not sufficient for him, and he perished in his grief. And although I do now hold the throne, I need do no more than sustain my body. How can I take any pleasure in joyful sights and sounds, and what peace would I gain from them? As for establishing might or virtue, just leave such things to someone else."

辟奚之死,視連之立,其事非皆在是年。《通鑑》因辟奚入貢于秦,遂連而書之,以見辟奚父子天性仁孝,不可以夷狄異類視之也。

(Murong Pixi's death and Murong Shilian's ascension did not happen during this year (371). The Zizhi Tongjian only lists these incidents here because it has taken advantage of the mention of Murong Pixi's having sent tribute to Former Qin to insert the Tuyuhun into the narrative again.

From these passages, we can see that Murong Shilian and his father were both of a benevolent and filial nature, and not of the same sort as the other barbarians.)


代世子寔病傷而卒。

13. The Crown Prince of Dai, Tuoba Shi, passed away from his wounds.

格長孫斤而被傷也。

(These were the wounds he had suffered from Zhangsun Jin's attack earlier in the year.)


夏五月,薨,後追諡焉。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Shi passed away. He was later granted a posthumous title.


秋,七月,秦王堅如洛陽。

14. In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Jian went to Luoyang.

七月七日,堅如洛陽,下書曰:「士死知已,猶來格模。故喬公一言,魏祖追慟。趙司隸高平徐統往在鄴都,識朕于童稚,每思其殷勤之言,勿敢忘也。可召其子孫詣行所。」八年五月,以高平徐攀為琅琊太襯。攀,統之少子,以舊恩拔之也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the seventh year of Jianyuan (371), the seventh month, Fu Jian went to Luoyang. He issued an edict stating, "Memories of a gentlemen who truly understood you can still affect your behavior even after they have passed away; this is why Wei Zu looked back in grief whenever someone spoke a word of Lord Qiao. When Zhao's Colonel-Director, Xu Tong of Gaoping, was at their capital at Ye, he recognized my worth when I was still just a boy. I am always thinking about his hospitable words back then, nor would I dare to forget them. I hereby summon his sons and grandsons to visit and attend me."

In the eighth year of Jianyuan (372), the fifth month, Fu Jian appointed Xu Pan of Gaoping as 太襯 of Langye. This Xu Pan was the young son of Xu Tong; he was chosen for this role on account of his father's past grace.


代世子寔娶東部大人賀野干之女,有遺腹子,甲戌,生男,代王什翼犍為之赦境內,名曰涉圭。

15. The late Tuoba Shi had been married to the daughter of an eastern chief, He Yegan. His wife Lady He was pregnant at the time of his death. On the day Jiaxu (August 4th), she gave birth to a son. Tuoba Shiyijian declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he gave the boy the name Shegui.

據《北史》,賀野干,卽賀蘭部酋長。《魏書‧官氏志》,北方賀蘭,後改爲賀氏。拓跋珪造魏事始此。

(According to the History of the Northern Dynasties, He Yegan was the chief of the Helan clan. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei mentions this clan from the north was originally surnamed Helan, but later shortened their surname to He.

This is the first mention of Tuoba Gui, who would one day found Northern Wei.)


秋七月,皇孫珪生,大赦。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Shiyijian's grandson Tuoba Gui was born. A general amnesty was declared.

太祖道武皇帝,諱珪,昭成皇帝之嫡孫,獻明皇帝之子也。母曰獻明賀皇后。初因遷徙,遊于雲澤,既而寢息,夢日出室內,寤而見光自牖屬天,歘然有感。以建國三十四年七月七日,生太祖於參合陂北,其夜復有光明。昭成大悅,羣臣稱慶,大赦,告於祖宗。保者以帝體重倍於常兒,竊獨奇怪。明年有榆生於埋胞之坎,後遂成林。弱而能言,目有光曜,廣顙大耳,眾咸異之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui)

Emperor Daowu, with the temple name Taizu, was named Tuoba Gui. He was the grandson of Tuoba Shiyijian by his lawful wife, and the son of Tuoba Shi. His mother was Lady He, posthumously known as Empress Xianming. Tuoba Gui's people migrated and shifted their residence, wandering with the clouds and waters. Lady He was resting and asleep one day when she dreamed that the sun entered her chamber, and when she woke up, she saw a glow entering her window from the heavens. At that moment, she felt a sudden sensation. In the thirty-fourth year of Tuoba Shiyijian's Jianguo reign era (371), in the seventh month, on the seventh day, Tuoba Gui was born north of Canhe Slope. That night, there was another brilliant glow. Tuoba Shiyijian was delighted, and his ministers all congratulated him on the birth. He declared a general amnesty, and he reported the happy news to the spirits of his ancestors.

The nurses handling the new baby felt that Tuoba Gui weighed twice as much as a normal child, and they secretly felt that he was a remarkable child. The next year (372), an elm tree grew from the place where the placenta had been planted, which later developed into an entire forest. Even as a mere babe, Tuoba Gui was able to talk, and his eyes shone clear and bright. He had a wide forehead and large ears, and everyone marveled at him.


大司馬溫以梁、益多寇,周氏世有威名,八月,以寧州刺史周仲孫監益、梁二州諸軍事,領益州刺史。仲孫,光之子也。

16. There were many bandits in Lianzhou and Yizhou. Huan Wen felt that since the Zhou clan had long held fame in those regions, they could deal with this problem. So in the eighth month, he appointed the Inspector of Ningzhou, Zhou Zhongsun, as Chief of military affairs in Yizhou and Liangzhou and as acting Inspector of Yizhou. This Zhou Zhongsun was the son of Zhou Guang.

周訪、周撫、周楚皆著威名於梁、益。周光見九十三卷明帝太寧三年。

(Zhou Fang, Zhou Fu, and Zhou Chu were the members of that clan who had all made a mighty reputation for themselves in Lianzhou and Yizhou.

Zhou Guang is mentioned in Book 93, in Emperor Ming's third year of Taining (325.19, 21, 23).)


秋八月,以前寧州刺史周仕孫爲假節、監益梁二州諸軍事、益州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In autumn, the eighth month, the former Inspector of Ningzhou, Zhou Shisun, was appointed as Credential Holder, Chief of military affairs in Yizhou and Lianzhou, and Inspector of Yizhou.


秦以光祿勳李儼為河州刺史,鎮武始。

17. Qin appointed the Minister of the Household, the former rebel Li Yan, as Inspector of Hezhou, and he was stationed at Wushi.

河西張駿以興晉、金城、武始、南安、永晉、大夏、武城、漢中爲河州。武始郡,治狄道,亦張駿所置。

(Zhang Jun of Former Liang had organized the commandaries of Xingjin, Jincheng, Wushi, Nan'an, Yongjin, Daxia, Wucheng, and Hanzhong into the new province of Hezhou. Wushi commandary, which was administered from Didao, had itself also been created by Zhang Jun.)


王猛以潞川之功,請以鄧羌為司隸。秦王堅下詔曰:「司隸校尉,董牧皇畿,吏責甚重,非所以優禮名將。光武不以吏事處功臣,實貴之也。羌有廉、李之才,朕方委以征伐之事,北平匈奴,南蕩揚、越,羌之任也,司隸何足以嬰之!其進號鎮軍將軍,位特進。」

18. Wang Meng, by virtue of his victory over Yan at Luchuan, asked that Deng Qiang be given the title Director of Retainers, as per their earlier understanding.

But Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "The position of Colonel-Director of Retainers is charged with governing the region around the imperial capital. Its official duties are heavy, not suitable treatment for a renowned general. In the same way, Emperor Guangwu showed his true appreciation for his accomplished generals by the fact that he did not reward them with official posts. Now Deng Qiang has the talents of Lian Po and Li Mu. On my behalf, he has conquered, subduing the Xiongnu in the north and smiting the regions of Yang and Yue in the south. For a man in his position, can the office of Director of Retainers be suitable? Therefore I promote him as General Who Guards The Army, and he is honored as Specially Advanced."

見上卷上年。見四十三卷漢光武建武十三年。〈廉、李,謂廉頗、李牧。〉

(Wang Meng's victory at Luchuan is mentioned in Book 102, in the previous year (370.21).

This reference to Emperor Guangwu of Han, where after his reunification of the Han empire he pointedly did not reward his generals with ministerial posts, is mentioned in Book 43, in Emperor Guangwu's thirteenth year of Jianwu (37 AD).

Fu Jian refers to "Lian and Li"; he means Lian Po and Li Mu.)


九月,秦王堅還長安。歸安元侯李儼卒於上邽,堅復以儼子辯為河州刺史。

19. In the ninth month, Fu Jian returned to Chang'an.

Li Yan passed away at Shanggui. He was posthumously known as Marquis Yuan ("the Foremost") of Gui'an. Fu Jian appointed Li Yan's son Li Bian as the new Inspector of Hezhou.

《諡法》:能思辨衆曰元;行義說民曰元。晉武受禪,當時之臣死,多有諡元者,固非以行定諡也。

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is able to consider and control the multitude, or who can advance virtue and guide the people, may be called Yuan ('Foremost')." At the time when Sima Yan accepted the abdication of Wei, many ministers who died were given the posthumous name Yuan, and it was difficult to straighten them out.)


冬,十月,秦王堅如鄴,獵於西山,旬餘忘返。伶人王洛叩馬諫曰:「陛下群生所系,今久獵不歸,一旦患生不虞,奈太后、天下何!」堅為之罷獵還宮。王猛因進言曰:「畋獵誠非急務,王洛之言,不可忘也。」堅賜洛帛百匹,拜官箴左右,自是不復獵。

20. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jian went to Ye, where he went hunting in the western hills, and spent more than ten days without thinking of returning. The actor Wang Luo knocked his horse and remonstrated, saying, "Your Majesty is closely tied to all of us, yet you have been hunting this long without returning. If anything should befall you, what will happen to the Empress Dowager or the realm?"

Fu Jian therefore ended his hunt and went back to the palace. Wang Meng then stepped forward and said, "You have frivolously hunted and neglected affairs. Do not forget what Wang Luo has said to you." Fu Jian rewarded Wang Luo with a hundred bolts of silk, and he apologized to the ministers and accepted the admonishments of his attendants. From then on, he did not go hunting again.

鄭玄曰:伶官,樂官也。伶氏世掌樂官而善焉,故後世多號樂官爲伶官。《左傳》:昔周辛甲之爲太史,命百官官箴王闕,於《虞人之箴》曰:「芒芒禹迹,畫爲九州,經啓九道。民有寢廟,獸有茂草,各有攸處,德用不擾。在帝夷羿,冒于原獸,忘其國恤而思其麀牡。武不可重,用不恢于夏家。獸臣司原,敢告僕夫。」《虞箴》如是,以戒獵也。堅倣其意拜洛爲官箴左右。

(Zheng Xuan mentioned in his writings, "A 伶官 ('actor') is a 樂官 ('musician')." This is because the families of actors were originally skilled with musical instruments, and even later on many people called musicians 'actors'."

The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "Formerly, in the times of our own Zhou, when Xin Jia was Grand Scribe, he ordered each of the officers to write some lines reproving the king's defects. In the lines of the forester it was said,

'Wide and long Yu travelled about, When the nine regions he laid out, And through them led the nine-fold route.
The people then safe homes possessed; Beasts ranged the grassy plains with zest.
For man and beast sweet rest was found, And virtue reigned the empire round.
Then took Yi Yi the emperor's place, His sole pursuit the wild beasts' chase.
The people's care he quite forgot. Of does and stags alone he thought.
Wars and such pastimes kings should flee; Soon passed the power of Xia from Yi.
A forester, these lines I pen, And offer to my king's good men.'

Such were the lines of the forester; is there not matter of admonition in them?" (Cheng 4.7)

In like manner did Fu Jian reward Wang Luo and accept the admonishments of his attendants.)


大司馬溫恃其材略位望,陰蓄不臣之志,嘗撫枕歎曰:「男子不能流芳百世,亦當遺臭萬年!」術士杜炅能知人貴賤,溫問炅以己祿位所至,炅曰:「明公勳格宇宙,位極人臣。」溫不悅。溫欲先立功河朔,以收時望,還受九錫。及枋頭之敗,威名頓挫。既克壽春,謂參軍郗超曰:「足以雪枋頭之恥乎?」超曰:「未也。」久之,超就溫宿,中夜,謂溫曰:「明公都無所慮乎?」溫曰:「卿欲有言邪?」超曰:「明公當天下重任,今以六十之年,敗於大舉,不建不世之勳,不足以鎮愜民望!」溫曰:「然則奈何?」超曰:「明公不為伊、霍之舉者,無以立大威權,鎮壓四海。」溫素有心,深以為然,遂與之定議。以帝素謹無過,而床第易誣,乃言「帝早有痿疾,嬖人相龍、計好、朱炅寶等,參侍內寢,二美人田氏、孟氏生三男,將建儲立王,傾移皇基。」密播此言於民間,時人莫能審其虛實。

21. Based on both his talents and cunning and his position and influence, Huan Wen secretly harbored ambitions to be more than a minister. He once lay his head on a pillow and sighed, "If I can't leave a fragrance that endures for a hundred generations, I can at least leave a stench that will last for ten thousand years!"

The soothsayer Du Jiong could measure men's worth. Huan Wen asked Du Jiong what position he would ultimately achieve. Du Jiong said, "Your achievements will reach even to the cosmos, and you will achieve the highest position a minister can attain." But Huan Wen was not satisfied with this.

Huan Wen’s original plan had been to first garner merits for himself by recovering the lost territories north of the Yellow River, and then, when the time was right, he would return and accept the Nine Bestowments. But after his defeat at Fangtou, his martial glory was diminished. Having subdued the rebellion at Shouchun, he asked his Army Advisor, Chi Chao, "Has the shame of Fangtou been washed away?"

Chi Chao replied, "Not yet."

Later, Chi Chao came to Huan Wen's residence. In the middle of the night, he asked him, "Are you really not concerned at all?"

Huan Wen asked him, "What do you mean?"

Chi Chao replied, "Right now, you occupy a weighty position in the realm. But you are already fifty-nine years old, and having been defeated in your great undertaking, you were unable to achieve uncommon success or fulfill and safeguard the hopes of the people!"

Huan Wen said, "That is so. But what is to be done?"

Chi Chao replied, "You would do well to take up the role of Yi Yin and Huo Guang. That would greatly shore up your power and influence. Then all within the Four Seas can be settled." Huan Wen had long felt the same way, and he deeply agreed with this idea, so he and Chi Chao developed their plan together.

It was true that Emperor Fei had long been a cautious man, and he had committed no transgressions such as the sovereigns that Yi Yin and Huo Guang had deposed. However, he was vulnerable to slander regarding matters of the bedroom. So they invented these rumors: "The Emperor has long had the ‘hidden numbness’; it is his favorites Xiang Long, Ji Hao, Zhu Guibao, and others who really have been sleeping with his women. The beauties Lady Tian and Lady Meng have birthed three sons by them, and he plans to establish one of them as his heir and set aside the true line." They secretly spread these rumors among the common people, and soon no one knew what the truth was.

桓溫心迹,固不畏人之知之也,然而不獲逞者,制於命也,孰謂天位可以智力奸邪!〈據孔安國《尚書註》,格,至也。〉其志願不止於此,故不悅。枋頭之敗,事見上卷太和四年。超知溫心而迎合之,溫遂與定議。楊正衡曰:《字林》:痿,痹也。余謂此蓋言陰痿也。相與計,皆姓也。范曄《後漢書》有計子勳。

(Huan Wen was unafraid to let people know his true ambitions. Yet in the end, he did not attain what he desired. Fate had a hand in that. For how could a villain like him usurp the heavenly throne purely through cunning and might?

Du Jiong uses the term 格 in his prophecy. According to Kong Anguo's Notes on the Masters of Writing, in this sense, 格 means "as far as, even to".

Huan Wen was unwilling to remain purely a minister, so he was not pleased with Du Jiong's prophecy.

Huan Wen's defeat at Fangtou against Former Yan is mentioned in Book 102, in the fourth year of Taihe (369.10).

Chi Chao knew of Huan Wen's ambitions and he catered to them, so the two of them settled their plan together.

Regarding this charge of the 痿疾 "numbing disease", Yang Zhengheng remarked, "The Forest of Characters text mentions that 痿 means 'limpness'." I (Hu Sanxing) believe that this must have been what Huan Wen and Chi Chao were talking about. (Presumably erectile dysfunction.)

In the above passage, 相 Xiang and 計 Ji are both surnames. Fan Ye's Book of Later Han mentions a certain Ji Zixun.)


桓溫誣帝在籓夙有痿疾,嬖人相龍、計好、朱靈寶等參侍內寢,而二美人田氏、孟氏生三男,長欲封樹,時人惑之... 初,桓溫有不臣之心,欲先立功河朔,以收時望。及枋頭之敗,威名頓挫,逐潛謀廢立,以長威權。然憚帝守道,恐招時議。以宮闡重悶,床笫易誣,乃言帝爲閹,遂行廢辱。初,帝平生每以爲慮,嘗召術人扈謙筮之,卦成,答曰:「晉室有磐石之固,陛下有出宮之象。」竟如其言。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

Huan Wen slandered Emperor Fei, claiming that he had long had the "numbing disease", and that his favorites Xiang Long, Ji Hao, Zhu Lingbao, and others really had been sleeping with his women. He claimed the beauties Lady Tian and Lady Meng had birthed three sons by them, and that Emperor Fei planned to make them his heirs once they had grown up. The people of that time were thus led astray.

Huan Wen had long intended to be more than a minister. His original plan had been to first garner merits for himself by recovering the lost territories north of the Yellow River, and then act when the time was right. But after his defeat at Fangtou, his martial glory was diminished. So he secretly plotted to depose Emperor Fei and replace him with Sima Yu, to shore up his prestige. Yet Huan Wen was worried, because Emperor Fei had maintained proper conduct, and Huan Wen was concerned that by deposing him without a good pretext, he would incur the criticism of the people of that time. However, he could be vulnerable regarding matters of the bedroom, for what went on in the palace chambers was mostly kept secret. So he spread a rumor that Emperor Fei was impotent, in order to demean and shame him.

Emperor Fei had long worried about the extent of his own life. He once summoned the diviner Hu Qian to cast a divination for him. When it was complete, Hu Qian told him, "The foundation of the Jin royal family seems firm as a boulder. But I see an omen of Your Majesty leaving the palace." And events turned out just as he predicted.

桓公臥語曰:「作此寂寂,將為文、景所笑!」既而屈起坐曰:「既不能流芳後世,亦不足復遺臭萬載邪?」(New Tales of the World 33.13)

As he was reclining on his bed, Huan Wen once said, "If I keep on doing like this, doing nothing, I'll be the laughingstock of Emperors Wen and Jing (Sima Zhao and Sima Shi)." Then, after crouching and getting up from his seat, he continued, "Even if I can't let my fragrance be wafted down to later generations, does that mean I'm incapable of leaving behind a stench for ten thousand years?" (tr. Richard Mather)


十一月,癸卯,溫自廣陵將還姑孰,屯於白石。丁未,詣建康,諷褚太后,請廢帝,立丞相會稽王昱,並作令草呈之。太后方在佛屋燒香,內侍啟雲:「外有急奏。」太后出,倚戶視奏數行,乃曰:「我本自疑此!」至半,便止,索筆益之曰:「未亡人不幸罹此百憂,感念存沒,心焉如割。」

22. In the eleventh month, on the day Guimao (December 31st), Huan Wen returned from Guangling back to Gushu, and he camped at Baishi.

On the day Dingwei (January 4th of 372), Huan Wen came to Jiankang. He wrote an edict in the voice of Empress Dowager Chu, deposing Emperor Fei and placing the Prime Minister and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, on the throne in his stead. Then he sent the edict to her, along with an order to copy it out in her own hand.

Empress Dowager Chu was then burning incense in the palace’s Buddha chamber. The palace servants whispered to her, “There is an urgent memorial outside for you.” When she went out to look at the memorial, she read several lines before exclaiming, "I'd always feared that things would come to this!" And when she was halfway through the memorial, she stopped, took a brush, and added these lines: "What misfortune this widow has suffered, to be subjected to so much grief. When I think back on the living and the dead, I feel my heart being cut."

此白石蓋在牛渚西南桓玄破譙王尚之處,非陶侃令庾亮所守白石壘也。先草定太后令而呈之於太后。建屋於宮中以奉佛,故謂之佛屋。杜預曰:婦人旣寡,自稱未亡人。

(In this instance, "Baishi" must have been the place with that name, southwest of Niu Islet, where Huan Xuan later routed the army of the Prince of Qiao, Sima Wang, not the Baishi Rampart which Tao Kan charged Yu Liang with guarding during Su Jun's revolt.

That is to say, Huan Wen wanted the Empress Dowager to compose the edict for him in her own hand.

This room was set up inside the palace for offering worship to the Buddha, so it was called the Buddha chamber.

Du Yu remarked, "When a wife is left widowed, she may refer to herself as a 未亡人 (literally 'not yet dead person')." This is the term which Empress Dowager Chu used in the edict to refer to herself.)


十一月癸卯,桓溫自廣陵屯于白石。丁未,詣闕,因圖廢立... 溫因諷太后以伊霍之舉。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the eleventh month, on the day Guimao (December 31st), Huan Wen returned from Guangling and camped at Baishi.

On the day Dingwei (January 4th of 372), Huan Wen visited the palace, where he plotted to depose Emperor Fei and replace him with Sima Yu. He took advantage of the slander against Emperor Fei to make Empress Dowager Chu carry out the same act as Yi Yin and Huo Guang (by deposing Emperor Fei).


己酉,溫集百官於朝堂。廢立既曠代所無,莫有識其故典者,百官震心栗。溫亦色動,不知所為。尚書僕射王彪之知事不可止,乃謂溫曰:「公阿衡皇家,當倚傍先代。」乃命取《霍光傳》,禮度儀制,定於須臾。彪之朝服當階,神彩毅然,曾無懼容。文武儀准,莫不取定,朝廷以此服之。於是宣太后令,廢帝為東海王,以丞相、錄尚書事、會稽王昱統承皇極。百官入太極前殿,溫使督護竺瑤、散騎侍郎劉亨收帝璽綬。帝著白帢單衣,步下西堂,乘犢車出神虎門,群臣拜辭,莫不歔欷。侍御史、殿中監將兵百人衛送東海第。溫帥百官具乘輿法駕,迎會稽王於會稽邸。王於朝堂變服,著平巾幘、單衣,東向流涕,拜受璽綬,是日,即皇帝位,改元。溫出次中堂,分兵屯衛。溫有足疾,詔乘輿入殿。溫撰辭,欲陳述廢立本意,帝引見,便泣下數十行,溫兢懼,竟不能一言而出。

23. On the day Jiyou (January 6th of 372), Huan Wen gathered all the court officials in the palace court to carry out Emperor Fei's removal from the throne. However, it had been such a long time since such a thing had been done before that no one present was familiar with the procedures that had been used in those earlier instances. So the officials all trembled and shuddered, and Huan Wen also looked uncertain, not knowing what he should be doing. Then the Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, spoke up. He knew that he could not stop what Huan Wen was doing, so he said to him, "A-Heng (Yi Yin) also judged his imperial sovereign. We should follow his precedents." So it was ordered for someone to fetch the Biography of Huo Guang from the Book of Han, so that everyone could be done in accordance with the methods and ceremonies that he had used in his own time, and the process could be settled quickly. Wang Biaozhi stood on the palace steps in court attire through it all, assuming a divine countenance and not showing the least fear. So all the civil and military officials were prepared to follow the rites, and there was nothing that was not taken care of peaceably. Thus was the ceremony carried out.

In accordance with the edict given by the Empress Dowager, Emperor Fei was deposed to be the Prince of Donghai, while the Prime Minister, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, was given the imperial dignity. The ministers all entered the front hall of Taiji Palace, and Huan Wen sent his Protector, Zhu Yao, and his Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Liu Heng, to take the imperial seals of office from Emperor Fei. Then Emperor Fei, wearing a white unlined garment, walked down through the Western Hall and rode in a calf-cart out through the Shenhu Gate. All the ministers were gathered to perform obeisance and take their leave of him, and there was not a one of them who did not sob at the sight. Then the Attendant Imperial Secretary and the Chief of the Palace Guards, leading a hundred soldiers, escorted him to his residence as Prince of Donghai. Meanwhile, Huan Wen led the officials, together with the imperial carriage, to go welcome Sima Yu at his estate as Prince of Kuaiji. Sima Yu changed his attire in the court hall, putting on a flat-topped headdress and an unlined garment, and wept as he faced toward the east. Then he saluted them and received the seals of office, and on that day, he ascended the throne. He would be known as Emperor Jianwen. The reign era title was changed to the first year of Xian'an.

Huan Wen then went to the Central Hall, and sent out troops to camp at various places and stand guard. At that time, he had a kind of foot illness, so he summoned a carriage to bring him into the palace. He was rehearsing his words carefully, planning to outline his reasons for why he had carried out Emperor Fei's deposition and the new Emperor's ascension. But when Emperor Jianwen saw him, he wept copiously in several streams. Huan Wen, cautious and afraid, could say nothing further, and he left without another word.

伊尹曰阿衡,放太甲于桐。喻溫廢立,行伊尹之事也。用霍光廢昌邑王故事。晉朝以此服王彪之,余甚恨彪之得此名於晉朝也。彪之父彬,不畏死以折王敦,此爲可服耳。《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《三十國春秋》,「亨」皆作「享」。《後魏書‧僭晉傳》作「亨」,今從之。晉制,諸公給朝車、安車、皁輪犢車各一乘。東漢都雒陽,宮有廣義、神虎門。賢《註》曰:廣義、神虎,洛陽宮西門也,在金商門外。然則神虎門亦建康宮西門乎?殿中監,掌監天子服御之事。平巾幘,蓋卽平上幘。單衣,江左諸人所以見尊者之服,所謂巾褠也。改元咸安。預撰辭,欲入見而陳之。

(Yi Yin, also called A-Heng, had deposed his sovereign Taijia and banished him to Tong Palace. Wang Biaozhi thus suggests that in Huan Wen's deposition of Emperor Fei, he should follow Yi Yin's precedent.

The ministers consulted the account of Huo Guang's deposition of the Prince of Changyi.

I (Hu Sanxing) regret that Wang Biaozhi gained this good reputation as a Jin minister through his actions in leading the court at this time. His father, Wang Bin, had criticized the would-be usurper Wang Dun in his own day, even in the face of death, and Wang Biaozhi should have done the same.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "According to the Annals of Emperor Fei in the Book of Jin and the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, Huan Wen's subordinate was named Liu 享 Xiang. But the Biography of Emperor Fei in the Book of Northern Wei records his name as Liu 亨 Heng, and I follow its account."

According to the Jin system, the dukes were granted court carriages, comfort carriages, and black-wheeled calf-carts, one of each.

During Later Han, when the capital was at Luoyang, the palace had the Guangyi and the Shenhu Gates. Li Xian's Notes states, "The Guangyi and Shenhu Gates were the western gates of the palace at Luoyang, outside of the Jinshang Gate." Could the Shenhu Gate mentioned in this passage thus also have been the Jiankang palace's western gate?

The Chief of the Palace Guards was in charge of the Son of Heaven's personal defenses.

What this passage calls a 平巾幘 "flat scarf headdress" must have been the 平上幘 "flat-top headdress". And a "unlined garment" was what the people north of the Yangzi all wore when they went to see an honored person. So this combination was called a "cap and dress".

The reign era title was changed to the beginning of Xian'an.

Huan Wen was rehearsing his words because he was planning to defend his actions to Emperor Jianwen.)


己酉,集百官于朝堂,宣崇德太后令曰:「王室艱難,穆、哀短祚,國嗣不育儲宮靡立。琅邪王奕親則母弟,故以入纂大位。不圖德之不建,乃至于斯。昏濁潰亂,動違禮度。有此三孽,莫知誰子。人倫道喪,醜聲遐布。旣不可以奉守社稷,敬承宗廟,且昏孽並大,便欲建樹儲籓。誣罔祖宗,頌移皇基,是而可忍,孰不可懷!今廢奕爲東海王,以王還第,供衛之儀,皆如漢朝昌邑故事。但未亡人不幸,罹此百憂,感念存沒,心焉如割。社稷大計,義不獲已。臨紙悲塞,如何可言。」于是百官入太極前殿,卽日桓溫使散騎侍郎劉享收帝璽綬。帝著白帢單衣,步下西堂,乘犢車出神獸門。羣臣拜辭,莫不覷欷。侍御史、殿中監將兵百人衛送東海第。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

On the day Jiyou (January 6th of 372), Huan Wen gathered all the court officials in the palace court, and displayed Empress Dowager Chongde's (Empress Dowager Chu's) edict: "Due to the royal family's adversity, Emperors Mu and Ai had their lives cut short too soon, and no heir for the state had been prepared to occupy the palace. As the Prince of Langye, Sima Yi, was born of the same mother as his elder brother Emperor Ai, he was chosen to inherit the highest office. We hardly predicted that he would be so lacking in virtue that affairs have come to such a sorry state. In his violations of what is right and proper, he has unleashed much confusion, chaos, and corruption. Now there are these three spawn that he claims, and none knows who their true father is. He has perverted the proper order of human relations, spreading his ghastly sound far and wide. Nor has he merely thus failed the uphold and safeguard the fortunes of state or to respect and revere his ancestors before him. Even worse, when these abominations of his grow up, he plans to establish them as his own heirs and set aside the trueborn line. He means to deceive and disgrace his ancestors and shift the foundation of the dynasty. If this can be endured, what things do we not cherish? Therefore, I now depose Sima Yi to be Prince of Langye and order him to return to that estate, and the manner of his sustenance and oversight shall be the same as that of Prince Changyi of the Han dynasty. But what misfortune this widow has suffered, to be subjected to so much grief. When I think back on the living and the dead, I feel my heart being cut. Yet the fortunes of state must take precedence, and one act righteously by considering only one's own personal feelings. It is with sorrow and coldness that I conclude this edict. What more can be said?"

Then the ministers all entered the front hall of Taiji Palace, and that same day, Huan Wen sent the Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Liu Xiang, to take the imperial seals of office from Emperor Fei. Then Emperor Fei, wearing a white unlined garment, walked down through the Western Hall and rode in a calf-cart out through the Shenshou Gate. All the ministers were gathered to perform obeisance and take their leave of him, and there was not a one of them who did not sob at the sight. Then the Attendant Imperial Secretary and the Chief of the Palace Guards, leading a hundred soldiers, escorted him to his residence as Prince of Donghai.

及廢帝廢,皇太后詔曰:「丞相、錄尚書、會稽王體自中宗,明德劭令,英秀玄虛,神棲事外。以具瞻允塞,故阿衡三世。道化宣流,人望攸歸,爲日已久。宜從天人之心,以統皇極。主者明依舊典,以時施行。」于是大司馬桓溫率百官進太極前殿,具乘輿法駕,奉迎帝于會稽邸,于朝堂變服,著平巾幘單衣,東向拜受璽綬。咸安元年冬十一月己酉,卽皇帝位。桓溫出次中堂,令兵屯衛... 改元爲咸安... 初,帝以沖虛簡貴,歷宰三世,溫素所敬憚。及初卽位,溫乃撰辭欲自陳述,帝引見,對之悲泣,溫懼不能言。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

After Emperor Fei was deposed, Empress Dowager Chongde issued an edict stating, "The Prime Minister, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Prince of Kuaiji (Sima Yu) is one of Zhongzong's (Sima Rui's) own sons. He is wise, virtuous, admirable, and excellent; he is heroic, outstanding, sublime, and modest; he is perched above affairs and among the divine. He is capable, courageous, just, and stalwart, and so he has served in the role of A-heng (Yi Yin) for the last three reigns. His principle is transforming, his wisdom flowing; the people have looked to him and reformed themselves, awaiting just such a day as this. Let us follow the wishes of Heaven and of the people and entrust him with the imperial dignity. Our sovereign will be wise in adhering to the old canons and judicious in executing them according to the times."

Then the Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, led the officials to advance to the front hall of the Taiji Palace, where they prepared the imperial carriage, and they brought it to go welcome Sima Yu at his estate as Prince of Kuaiji. Sima Yu changed his attire in the court hall, putting on a flat-topped headdress and an unlined garment, and faced toward the east as he saluted them and received the seals of office.

In the first year of Xian'an (371), in winter, the eleventh month, on the day Jiyou (January 6th of 372), Sima Yu became Emperor. He would be known as Emperor Jianwen. Huan Wen went out to the Central Hall, and he stationed soldiers at the camps and guard posts.

The reign era title was changed to the first year of Xian'an.

Up until now, Emperor Jianwen had been unassuming, modest, simple, and esteemed, and he had served as a chief minister of state through the reigns of three Emperors. Huan Wen had long respected and feared him. Now that Emperor Jianwen had taken the throne, Huan Wen was rehearsing his words carefully, planning to outline his reasons for why he had carried out Emperor Fei's deposition and the new Emperor's ascension. But when Emperor Jianwen saw him, he wept copiously in several streams. Huan Wen, afraid, could say nothing further.

是年,司馬弈臣桓溫,廢弈為海西公,立叡子昱。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year, Sima Yi's (Emperor Fei's) minister Huan Wen deposed him as the Duke of Haixi, and replaced him with Sima Rui's son Sima Yu (Emperor Jianwen).

桓宣武對簡文帝,不甚得語。廢海西後,宜自申敘,乃豫撰數百語,陳廢立之意。既見簡文,簡文便泣下數十行。宣武矜愧,不得一言。(New Tales of the World 33.12)

Whenever Huan Wen came face to face with Emperor Jianwen, he could never say very much. But after he had deposed the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei), it became necessary to explain his reasons, so he prepared in advance to say several hundred words, setting forth the pros and cons of deposing or establishing the emperor. But after he saw Emperor Jianwen, the latter immediately burst into tears which coursed down his cheeks in several tens of streams. Mortified and ashamed, Huan Wen could not get to say a word. (tr. Richard Mather)


太宰武陵王晞,好習武事,為溫所忌,欲廢之,以事示王彪之。彪之曰:「武陵親尊,未有顯罪,不可以猜嫌之間便相廢徙。公建立聖明,當崇獎王室,與伊、周同美;此大事,宜更深詳。」溫曰:「此已成事,卿勿復言!」乙卯,溫表「晞聚納輕剽,息綜矜忍;袁真叛逆,事相連染。頃日猜懼,將成亂階。請免晞官,以王歸籓。」從之,並免其世子綜、梁王X等官。溫使魏郡太守毛安之帥所領宿衛殿中。安之,虎生之弟也。

24. The Grand Governor and Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was practiced in military affairs. Huan Wen was very suspicious of him, and he wished to depose him as well. He brought the matter up with Wang Biaozhi. Wang Biaozhi warned him, "The Prince is a close and honored member of the imperial family, and he has not yet committed any conspicious fault. He cannot be removed or banished based purely on idle speculations. You have just established a sage ruler, and so you must show proper respect and reverence to the imperial clan. Follow the worthy examples of Yi Yin and the Duke of Zhou. As for what you suggest, I ask that you give it careful reconsideration."

But Huan Wen replied, "It's already a done deal, so don't say another word about it!"

On the day Yimao (January 12th of 372), Huan Wen sent up a petition stating, "Sima Xi is forming a faction to upset affairs, and this is not something that should be put up with. When Yuan Zhen turned traitor and rebelled, there had been telling signs of his intentions beforehand. What is today only a source of fear and suspicion will soon become actual rebellion. I ask that you strip Sima Xi of office, and exile him to his fief." The court assented, and Sima Xi, his eldest son Sima Zong, the Prince of Liang, Sima Jin, and others were all stripped of their offices.

Huan Wen sent the Administrator of Wei commandary, Mao Anzhi, to lead his household soldiers into the palace to serve as guards. This Mao Anzhi was the younger brother of Mao Husheng.

武陵王晞,亦元帝子,出繼武陵王喆後。王彪之能全晞於會稽輔政之時,而不能全之於會稽纘服之日,會稽可以理喻,而習武者桓溫之所忌也。溫以此誣晞。㻱,與璡同,音津。沈約曰:[文帝元嘉八年,更以江北為南兗州,江南為南徐州,治京口,割揚州之晉陵、兗州之九郡僑在江南者屬焉,故]南徐州備有徐、兗、幽、冀、青、幷、揚七州郡邑。

(The Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was another son of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui). He had been selected to continue the family line of the earlier Prince of Wuling, Sima Zhe, when the latter had died.

Wang Biaozhi had been able to protect Sima Xi while Sima Yu was still actually in charge of the state, but he could no longer do so after Sima Yu inherited the throne. Sima Yu could reason as he liked, but Huan Wen would have suspected anyone who was as practiced in military affairs as Sima Xi was.

This was Huan Wen's slander against Sima Xi.

Sima Jin's given name 㻱 is pronounced "jin" or "jin".

Shen Yue remarked, "In Emperor Wen's eighth year of Yuanjia (431), there was established Southern Yanzhou, north of the Yangzi, and Southern Xuzhou, south of the Yangzi. The latter was administered from Jingkou, and it was formed from Yangzhou's Jinling commandary and Yanzhou's nine 'emigre' or 'surrogate' commandaries that were south of the Yangzi. This was why Southern Xuzhou had commandaries named after the ones from the settlers' province of origin, in the original provinces of Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, Bingzhou, and Yangzhou." (Liangshu 35.102) (So Mao Anzhi was not given a nominal title over the original Wei commandary in the north, but was the actual Administrator over the "emigre" Wei commandary in this region.)


乙卯,溫奏廢太宰、武陵王晞及子總。詔魏郡太守毛安之帥所領宿衛殿內。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

On the day Yimao (January 12th of 372), Huan Wen sent up a memorial deposing the Grand Governor and Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, and his son Sima Zong. Emperor Jianwen ordered the Administrator of Wei commandary, Mao Anzhi, to lead the household soldiers into the palace to serve as guards.


庚戌,尊褚太后曰崇德太后。

25. On the day Gengxu (January 7th of 372), Empress Dowager Chu was honored as Empress Dowager Chongde.

庚戌,使兼太尉周頤告于太廟。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

On the day Gengxu (January 7th), Emperor Jianwen sent the combined Grand Commandant, Zhou Yi, to report the recent events at the Grand Ancestral Temple.


初,殷浩卒,大司馬溫使人齎書吊之。浩子涓不答,亦不詣溫,而與武陵王晞游。廣州刺史庾蘊,希之弟也,素與溫有隙。溫惡殷、庾宗強,欲去之。辛亥,使其弟祕逼新蔡王晃詣西堂叩頭自列,稱與晞及子綜、著作郎殷涓、太宰長史庾倩、掾曹秀、捨人劉強、散騎常侍庾柔等謀反;帝對之流涕,溫皆收付廷尉。倩、柔,皆蘊之弟也。癸丑,溫殺東海王三子及其母。甲寅,御史中丞譙王恬承溫旨,請依律誅武陵王晞。詔曰:「悲惋惶怛,非所忍聞,況言之哉!其更詳議!」恬,承之孫也。乙卯,溫重表固請誅晞,詞甚酷切。帝乃賜溫手詔曰:「若晉祚靈長,公便宜奉行前詔;如其大運去矣,請避賢路。」溫覽之,流汗變色,乃奏廢晞及三子,家屬皆徙新安郡。丙辰,免新蔡王晃為庶人,徙衡陽;殷涓、庾倩、曹秀、劉強、庾柔皆族誅,庾蘊飲鴆死。蘊兄東陽太守友子婦,桓豁之女也,故溫特赦之。庾希聞難,與弟會稽王參軍邈及子攸之逃於海陵陂澤中。

26. Earlier, when Yin Hao had died, Huan Wen had sent a messenger to express his written condolences. But Yin Hao's son Yin Guan had not respond, nor had he called upon Huan Wen. In fact, he went traveling with Sima Xi. And the Inspector of Guangzhou, Yu Yun, was the younger brother of Yu Xi, so he too had a grudge against Huan Wen. Since the Yin and Yu clans were still powerful, Huan Wen was wary of them, and he wished to get rid of them.

On the day Xinhai (January 8th of 372), Huan Wen sent his younger brother Huan Bi to force the Prince of Xincai, Sima Huang, to come to the Western Hall. Sima Huang was compelled to kowtow and incriminate himself: he claimed that he had been plotting a rebellion together with Sima Xi and his son Sima Zong, the Gentleman-Author, Yin Guan, the Chief Clerk to the Grand Governor, Yu Qian, the Official, Cao Xiu, the Retainer, Liu Qiang, the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Yu Rou, and others. Emperor Jianwen tearfully assenting, Huan Wen had all of these people arrested and handed over to the Commandant of Justice. Yu Qian and Yu Rou were the younger brothers of Yu Yun.

On the day Guichou (January 10th of 372), Huan Wen killed Emperor Fei’s three sons and their mothers.

On the day Jiayin (January 11th of 372), the Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary and Prince of Qiao, Sima Tian, presented a petition on behalf of Huan Wen, asking that Sima Xi be executed in accordance with the law. But Emperor Jianwen’s edict in response stated, "I receive your request with mournful sigh and frightful distress. I cannot bear even to hear such a proposal, much less give the command to carry it out! Let this be reconsidered!" This Sima Tian was the grandson of Sima Zheng.

On the day Yimao (January 12th of 372), Huan Wen sent in another memorial further demanding Sima Xi’s execution, listing very oppressive charges against him. But Emperor Jianwen then personally wrote an edict and gave it to Huan Wen, stating, “If Jin's fortunes are to endure, then I ask that you adhere to my earlier command. But if the Mandate has passed from Jin, then I ask that I may give way to some more worthy fellow." When Huan Wen read this edict, his expression changed as he sweated profusely. So he only stripped Sima Xi and his three sons from their titles as Princes, and banished the family and their dependents to Xin'an commandary.

On the day Bingchen (January 13th of 372), Huan Wen demoted Sima Huang to commoner status and exiled him to Hengyang. Yin Guan, Yu Qian, Cao Xiu, Liu Qiang, and Yu Rou were all executed, along with their clans. Yu Yun drank poisoned wine and died. The Administrator of Dongyang, Yu Yun's elder brother Yu You, had a son who was married to Huan Huo's daughter, and for that reason Huan Wen exempted him from the execution order. When Yu Xi heard what was going on, he, the Army Advisor of Kuaiji (or, the Army Advisor to the Prince of Kuaiji), his younger brother Yu Miao, and Yu Miao's son Yu Yōu all fled to Bei Marsh in Hailing.

涓,圭淵翻。晃父邈,本汝南王祐之子也,嗣新蔡王後。西堂,太極殿西堂也。自列,自陳列其事。卽田氏、孟氏及所生三男也。譙王氶死於王敦之難。「承」,當作「氶」,音註見前。吳孫權分丹楊立新都郡,武帝太康元年,更名新安郡,唐爲歙州,今之徽州。吳孫亮分長沙西部都尉置衡陽郡,今之衡州。【章:十二行本「稽」下有「王」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】海陵縣,前漢屬臨淮郡,後漢、晉屬廣陵郡,今泰州卽其地。

(Yu Guan's given name 涓 is pronounced "Guan (g-uan)".

Sima Huang's father was Sima Miao. He had originally been the son of the Prince of Runan, Sima You, but he had been chosen to continue the line of the Prince of Xincai.

The Western Hall was the Western Hall of Taiji Palace, the Emperor's residence.

To incriminate oneself is to give an account of one's actions.

The mothers and sons whom Huan Wen killed were Lady Tian and Lady Meng and their three sons.

The earlier Prince of Qiao, Sima Zheng, had perished during Wang Dun's rebellion. As has been mentioned before, his given name here written as 承 Cheng should be 氶 Zheng.

Sun Quan of Eastern Wu split off part of Danyang commandary to form Xindu commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280), its name was changed to Xin'an commandary. During Tang, it was part of Shezhou. It is now modern Huizhou.

Sun Liang of Eastern Wu split off the Western Command Post of Changsha commandary to form Hengyang commandary. It is now modern Hengzhou.

Some versions state that Yu Miao was the Army Advisor "to the Prince of Kuaiji", rather than just "of Kuaiji".

During Former Han, Hailing County was part of Linhuai commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Guangling commandary. It is now part of modern Taizhou.)


辛亥,桓溫遣弟秘逼新蔡王晃詣西堂,自列與太宰、武陵王晞等謀反。帝對之流涕,溫皆收付廷尉。癸丑,殺東海二子及其母... 至是,有司承其旨,奏誅武陵王晞,帝不許。溫固執至于再三,帝手詔報曰:「若晉祚靈長,公便宜奉行前詔。如其大運去矣,請避賢路。」溫覽之,流汗變色,不復敢言。乙卯,廢晞及其三子,徙于新安。丙辰,放新葵王晁于衡陽。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

On the day Xinhai (January 8th of 372), Huan Wen sent his younger brother Huan Bi to force the Prince of Xincai, Sima Huang, to come to the Western Hall. Sima Huang was compelled to kowtow and incriminate himself: he claimed that he had been plotting a rebellion together with the Grand Governor and Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, and others. Emperor Jianwen tearfully assenting, Huan Wen had all of these people arrested and handed over to the Commandant of Justice.

On the day Guichou (January 10th of 372), Huan Wen killed Emperor Fei’s two sons and their mothers.

At this time, the officials presented a petition on behalf of Huan Wen, asking that Sima Xi be executed. But Emperor Jianwen would not permit it. Huan Wen tried another three times to compel Emperor Jianwen to order the execution. But Emperor Jianwen then personally wrote an edict stating, “If Jin's fortunes are to endure, then I ask that you adhere to my earlier command. But if the Mandate has passed from Jin, then I ask that I may give way to some more worthy fellow." When Huan Wen read this edict, his expression changed as he sweated profusely, and he dared not say another word.

On the day Yimao (January 12th of 372), Sima Xi and his three sons were stripped of their titles as Princes and exiled to Xin'an commandary.

On the day Bingchen (January 13th of 372), Sima Huang was demoted to commoner status and exiled to Hengyang.

桓宣武既廢太宰父子,仍上表曰:「應割近情,以存遠計。若除太宰父子,可無後憂。」簡文手答表曰:「所不忍言,況過於言?」宣武又重表,辭轉苦切。簡文更答曰:「若晉室靈長,明公便宜奉行此詔。如大運去矣,請避賢路!」桓公讀詔,手戰流汗,於此乃止。太宰父子,遠徙新安。(New Tales of the World 28.7)

After Huan Wen had deposed the Grand Governor, Sima Xi, and his son, Sima Zong (in 371), he proceeded to send up a memorial, stating, "It is fitting to cut off one's closer sentiments in order to preserve long-range plans. If we get rid of the Grand Governor and his son, we may be spared later regrets." Emperor Jianwen responded to the memorial in his own hand, "I have not the heart even to speak of the matter, much less go beyond words."

Huan Wen continued to send up further memorials whose language grew successively more insistent and stringent. Emperor Jianwen finally replied, "If the House of Jin is to remain vital and enduring, then Your Excellency should obey this rescript. But if the great mandate has passed from me, then I request to make way for a more worthy man."

When Huan Wen read the rescript, his hands trembled and the sweat poured down his face. After that, he desisted. The Grand Governor and his son were exiled to distant Xin'an. (tr. Richard Mather)


溫既誅殷、庾,威勢翕赫,侍中謝安見溫遙拜。溫驚曰:「安石,卿何事乃爾?」安曰:「未有君拜於前,臣揖於後。」

27. Having purged the Yin and Yu clans, Huan Wen's power and influence continued to grow. The Palace Attendant, Xie An, saw Huan Wen and performed obeisance towards him from far away. Alarmed, Huan Wen asked him, "Anshi, what is the meaning of this?"

Xie An replied, "There has never been a case where the ruler performed obeisance before someone in front while his minister merely bowed with hands clasped behind."

當是時,晉之君臣,蓋可知矣。《春秋》之義所謂微而顯者也。

(Everyone must have understood who was really in charge of Jin by that time. As the Spring and Autumn Annals attests, even the smallest virtues are conspicuous ones.)


桓公既廢海西,立簡文,侍中謝公見桓公拜。桓驚笑曰:「安石,卿何事至爾?」謝曰:「未有君拜於前,臣立於後!」(New Tales of the World 25.38)

After Huan Wen had deposed Emperor Fei and established Emperor Jianwen, the Palace Attendant Xie An had an interview with Huan Wen, at which he prostrated himself before him. Huan Wen was startled and said with a laugh, "Anshi, what are you doing, going to such lengths?"

Xie An replied, "I've never seen a case where the ruler prostrated himself in front, while his minister stood upright behind." (tr. Richard Mather)


戊午,大赦,增文武位二等。

28. On the day Wuwu (January 15th of 372), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and all civil and military officials were advanced by two ranks.

戊午,詔曰:「王室多故,穆哀早世,皇胤夙遷,神器無主。東海王以母弟近屬,入纂大統,嗣位經年,昏闇亂常,人倫虧喪,大禍將及,則我祖宗之靈靡知所託。皇太后深懼皇基,時定大計。大司馬因順天人,協同神略,親帥羣后,恭承明命。雲霧旣除,皇極載清,乃顧朕躬,仰承弘緒。雖伊尹之寧殷朝,博陸之安漢室,無以尚也。朕以寡德,猥居元首,實懼眇然,不克負荷,戰戰兢兢,罔知攸濟。思與兆庶更始,其大赦天下,大酺五日,增文武位二等,孝順忠貞鰥寡孤獨米人五斛。」(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

On the day Wuwu (January 15th of 372), Emperor Jianwen issued an edict stating, "The royal house suffered many difficulties: Emperors Mu and Ai having passed away at early ages, and imperial heirs had not been established, so the divine throne was left without a master. The Prince of Donghai (Emperor Fei), being Emperor Ai's own younger brother by the same mother, was chosen to assume the imperial dignity. But he had inherited the throne for a meager few years before he brought about constant turmoil through his confused and blinded rule. Human relationships were brought to grief, and great disaster was fast approaching. Thus were we compelled to rely upon the mystic knowledge of the spirits of our ancestors.

"The Empress Dowager was deeply worried about the imperial foundation, and so the time had come to carry out the great plan. The Grand Marshal (Huan Wen) heeding the wishes of Heaven and the people and bolstered by the support of the spirits, personally led the ministers and the Empress to respectfully fulfill the wise decree of the Empress Dowager. Once the clouds and mist had been swept away and the imperial throne was left pure, they then bowed to me and lifted me into the grand undertaking. Even Yi Yin's actions in stabilizing the court of Yin (Shang) and Boling's (Huo Guang's) deeds in calming the Han royal family were not so honorable as the Grand Marshal's acts.

"I myself am of scant virtue, quite unworthy to occupy the highest position, and my worth is so little that I fear I shall not be able to bear the weight of my title. I tremble and shiver, for I know little and can achieve less. Cognizant of the signs and omens recognizing a new beginning, I hereby declare a general amnesty across the realm. There shall be five days of celebration, and all civil and military officials shall be advanced by two ranks. The filial, obedient, loyal, and true, as well as widows, widowers, orphans, and the lonesome, shall each be granted five 斛 of rice."


己未,溫如白石,上書求歸姑孰。庚申,詔進溫丞相,大司馬如故,留京師輔政;溫固辭,仍請還鎮。辛酉,溫自白石還姑孰。

29. On the day Jiwei (January 16th of 372), Huan Wen returned to Baishi. He sent a message asking to return to Gushu. On the day Gengshen (January 17th of 372), Emperor Jianwen advanced Huan Wen to the rank of Prime Minister while retaining his authority as Grand Marshal, and asked to keep him at the capital to held administer the government. But Huan Wen declined the offers, instead asking to return to his border post. On the day Xinyou (January 18th of 372), Huan Wen left from Baishi and returned to Gushu.

己未,賜溫軍三萬人,人布一匹,米一斛。庚申,加大司馬桓溫爲丞相,不受。辛酉,溫旋自白石,因鎮姑孰。以冠軍將軍毛武生都督荊州之沔中、揚州之義城諸軍事。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

On the day Jiwei (January 16th of 372), Emperor Jianwen awarded one bolt of cloth and one measure of rice to each of the thirty thousand soldiers in Huan Wen's army.

On the day Gengshen (January 17th of 372), Emperor Jianwen advanced Huan Wen to the rank of Prime Minister. But Huan Wen declined this title.

On the day Xinyou (January 18th of 372), Huan Wen left from Baishi and returned to guard Gushu. The Champion General, Mao Husheng, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou north of the Mian River and in Yicheng in Yangzhou.


秦王堅聞溫廢立,謂群臣曰:「溫前敗灞上,後敗枋頭,不能思愆自貶以謝百姓,方更廢君以自說,六十之叟,舉動如此,將何以自容於四海乎!諺曰:『怒其室而作色於父。』其桓溫之謂矣。」

30. When Fu Jian heard that Huan Wen had deposed Emperor Fei, he said to his ministers, "Huan Wen suffered two great defeats: first at Bashang, and then at Fangtou. Yet rather than reflect on his failures and demote himself in order to apologize to the people, he has now even gone so far as to depose his sovereign in order to raise his own stature (or, for his own pleasure). He is an old man of fifty-nine, and yet this is the way he acts. How can the Four Seas put up with him? He is just like the old proverb says: 'angry at his wife, but lashing out at his father'."

見九十九卷穆帝太和十年。見上卷太和四年。「說」,《載記》作「悅」,讀當從悅。

(Huan Wen's defeat at Bashang against Former Qin is mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's tenth year of Yonghe (354). His defeat at Fangtou against Former Yan is mentioned in Book 102, in the fourth year of Taihe (369).

What is recorded here as 說 "to speak" is instead recorded in Fu Jian's Biography in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin as 悅 "pleasure", and it should be understood that way.)


秦車騎大將軍王猛,以六州任重,言於秦王堅,請改授親賢;及府選便宜,輒已停寢,別乞一州自效。堅報曰:「朕之於卿,義則君臣,親逾骨肉,雖復桓、昭之有管、樂,玄德之有孔明,自謂逾之。夫人主勞於求才,逸於得士。既以六州相委,則朕無東顧之憂,非所以為優崇,乃朕自求安逸也。夫取之不易,守之亦難,苟任非其人,患生慮表,豈獨朕之憂,亦卿之責也,故虛位台鼎而以分陝為先。卿未照朕心,殊乖素望。新政俟才,宜速銓補;俟東方化洽,當袞衣西歸。」仍遣侍中梁讜詣鄴諭旨,猛乃視事如故。

31. Qin's Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Meng, had the duty of administering the six former provinces of Yan. He sent word to Fu Jian, asking that someone more suited be sent to take his place; the process of selecting worthy people to fill the local offices had already caused him to lose sleep. He begged to be assigned to a single province instead, in order to make up for his shortcomings.

But Fu Jian responded to him, "Out of all my ministers, we two most embody the principles of lord and minister, as close as flesh and bone. Although Duke Huan of Qi had Guan Zhong, King Zhao of Yan had Yue Yi, and Xuande (Liu Bei) had Kongming (Zhuge Liang), to me, you surpass them.

"As it is said, 'my chief exertion is in finding worthy talents, and then I may take my rest in employing them'. So long as the six provinces are in your hands, I can look to the east without worry. I did not assign you to such a post in order to honor and exalt you; I did it so that I myself could be sure of peace and tranquility. What you conquered was not gained easily, and now, securing and defending it is no less difficult. No one else is suited for your post, or able to carefully consider how to react to developing threats or foreign concerns. How can this be purely my worry alone? It is also your burden as well. That is why I have humbled myself and granted you this share of the realm, with Shan as the boundary. Did you not see that I wished to harness your great prestige? A newly-established administration needs a talented hand to guide it, in order to speedily discern the best foundations. Once you have brought the east to harmony, then you may ‘put aside your ducal robe and return west’."

Fu Jian sent the Palace Attendant, Liang Dang, to Ye to present this decree and his instructions to Wang Meng, and thereafter Wang Meng handled things as before.

堅先是命猛以便宜選賢俊補六州郡縣守令。王褒《聖主得賢人頌》曰:君人者,勤於求賢,而逸於得人。周公東征,周大夫爲作《九罭》之詩,其辭曰:「九罭之魚鱒魴,我覯之子,袞衣繡裳。」又曰:「是以有袞衣兮,無以我公歸兮,無使我心悲兮。」《箋》云:王迎周公當以上公之服。史言苻堅、王猛君臣相與之至,所以猛得展其才。

(Fu Jian had earlier sent Wang Meng with orders to select worthy men to fill the offices of Prefects and Administrators for the six former provinces of Former Yan.

Wang Bao's Ode of the Sage Ruler Acquiring The Worthy Man states, "The superior man exerts himself in his search for worthy men and takes his rest in employing them."

When the Duke of Zhou went on his eastern campaign, Master Zhou composed his poem "Nine Nets". It contains this verse: "In the net with its nine bags, are rud and bream. We see this prince, with his grand-ducal robe and embroidered skirt." And, "Was it all because he had a broidered robe? Do not deprive us of our Duke. Do not fill our hearts with grief (Book of Odes 154)." Zheng Xuan's Commentary on this verse states, "This was the garment that the King granted the Duke of Zhou when he welcomed him as Grand Duke."

This passage demonstrates how Fu Jian and Wang Meng had formed such a close bond as lord and minister that Wang Meng continued to expand his talents.)


十二月,大司馬溫奏:「廢放之人,屏之以遠,不可以臨黎元。東海王宜依昌邑故事,築第吳郡。」太后詔曰:「使為庶人,情有不忍,可特封王。」溫又奏:「可封海西縣侯。」庚寅,封海西縣公。

32. In the twelfth month, Huan Wen submitted a memorial stating, "One who has been deposed should be sent far away, and not kept near the multitude of the people. The Prince of Donghai (Emperor Fei) should follow the example of what was done with the Prince of Changyi, and be sent away to an estate in Wu commandary.”

Empress Dowager Chu replied, "As for making him a commoner, I cannot bear to countenance that. Let the exception be made that he remain a Prince."

Huang Wen then memorialized, "He could be appointed as Marquis of Haixi county."

On the day Gengyin (February 16th of 372), Emperor Fei was appointed as Duke of Haixi county.

昌邑事見二十四卷漢昭帝元平元年。《考異》曰:《海西公紀》云:「咸安二年,正月,降封,」今從《簡文帝紀》。

(The treatment of the Prince of Changyi, the Emperor whom Huo Guang deposed, is mentioned in Book 24, in Emperor Zhao of Han's first year of Yuanping (74 BC).)

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Fei in the Book of Jin states that it was 'in the second year of Xian'an (372), the first month' that 'his title was demoted to Duke of Haixi.' But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Jianwen in that text.")


咸安二年正月,降封帝爲海西縣公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the second year of Xian'an (372), the first month, Emperor Fei's title was demoted from Prince of Donghai to Duke of Haixi county.

十二月戊子,詔以京都有經年之儲,權停一年之運。庚寅,廢東海王奕爲海西公,食邑四千戶。辛卯,初薦酃淥酒於太廟。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

In the twelfth month, on the day Wuzi (February 14th of 372), a edict was issued stating that since the capital region had amassed several years' worth of grain, transport duties would be halted for one year.

On the day Gengyin (February 16th of 372), the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yi (Emperor Fei), was demoted to Duke of Haixi, with a fief of four thousand households.

On the day Xinmao (February 17th of 372), zhilinglu wine began to be offered in sacrifices at the Grand Ancestral Temple.


溫威振內外,帝雖處尊位,拱默而已,常懼廢黜。先是,熒惑守太微端門,逾月而海西廢。辛卯,熒惑逆行入太微,帝甚惡之。中書侍郎郗超在直,帝謂超曰:「命之修短,本所不計,故當無復近日事邪?」超曰:「大司馬臣溫,方內固社稷,外恢經略,非常之事,臣以百口保之。」及超請急省其父,帝曰:「致意尊公,家國之事,遂至於此,由吾不能以道匡衛,愧歎之深,言何能諭!」因詠庾闡詩雲:「志士痛朝危,忠臣哀主辱。」遂泣下沾襟。帝美風儀,善容止,留心典籍,凝塵滿席,湛如也。雖神識恬暢,然無濟世大略,謝安以為惠帝之流,但清談差勝耳。

33. Huan Wen's power and influence now spread far and wide. Although Emperor Jianwen held the actual throne, he was afraid to make any objections, and was in constant fear of being deposed or demoted.

It had been only a short time earlier when Mars had entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure constellation through the Duan Gate, and that same month, Emperor Fei was deposed to become Duke of Haixi. Later, on the day Xinmao (February 17th of 372), Mars made a retrograde motion and once again entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure. Emperor Jianwen was greatly vexed at this. Huan Wen's advisor Chi Chao was then serving in the palace as one of the Gentleman-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat. So Emperor Jianwen asked him, "Man proposes and Heaven disposes; such is fate. Are we now meant to have a repeat of recent events?"

But Chi Chao replied, "The Grand Marshal is now securing the fortunes of the state within and implementing his strategies without. I swear on the lives of all my family that no such extraordinary event shall take place."

Chi Chao then asked leave to visit his father. Emperor Jianwen replied, "Tell your honored father that since the affairs of state have come to this, I can no longer rectify or protect the way. I can only deeply sigh on account of my shame, and what use could there be in saying more?" Because of that, he began to chant Yu Chan's poem: "The true gentleman aches at the court's danger; the loyal minister grieves his lord's shame." And his flowing tears stained his lapel.

Emperor Jianwen was graceful in following the rites and customs, and he had an excellent bearing about him. He lost himself in the ancient records until his mats were covered with dust, so great was his placidity. Such a man of uncommon intellect, and yet he could not benefit the state or put great plans into action! Xie An considered him another Emperor Hui: a comparative master of Pure Conversation, but nothing more.

《天文志》:太微南蕃中二星間曰端門。帝之爲撫軍也,辟超爲掾,故於今敢以情問之。《晉令》:急假者,五日一急,一歲以六十日爲限。史書所稱取急、請急,皆謂假也。此亦清談,但情溢於言外耳。清談無益於國事;謝安當此之時,能立此論,可謂拔乎流俗者也。

(The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states, "The two stars on the southern border of the Supreme Palace Enclosure are called the Duan Gate."

When Sima Yu had been General Who Nurtures The Army, he had recruited Chi Chao as his assistant, so this was why he dared to ask Chi Chao such a question now.

The Ordinances of Jin states, "When asking for leave from office, a term of five days is called 急. The officials were allowed a limit of sixty days of leave per year." Whenever the histories talk of "gaining 急" or "requesting 急", they mean in this sense of asking for leave.

Emperor Jianwen's quoting of this poem was also mere Pure Conversation, an outpouring of expression and nothing more.

Emperor Jianwen was adept at Pure Conversation, but could bring no benefit to the state. For Xie An to have made such a statement despite having lived through this time, one could say that he surpassed the trends of this era.)


帝少有風儀,善容止,留心典籍,不以居處爲意,凝塵滿席,湛如也。嘗與桓溫及武陵王晞同載遊版橋,溫遽令鳴鼓吹角,車馳卒奔,欲觀其所爲。晞大恐,求下車,而帝安然無懼色,溫由此憚服。溫旣仗文武之任,屢建大功,加以廢立,威振內外。帝雖處尊位,拱默守道而已,常懼廢黜。先是,熒惑入太微,尋而海西廢。及帝登阼,熒惑又入太微,帝甚惡焉。時中書郎郗超在直,帝乃引入,謂曰:「命之修短,本所不計,故當無復近日事邪!」超曰:「大司馬臣溫方內固社稷,外恢經略,非常之事,臣以百口保之。」及超請急省其父,帝謂之曰:「致意尊公,家國之事,遂至於此!由吾不能以道匡衛,愧歎之深,言何能喻。」因詠庾闡詩云「志士痛朝危,忠臣哀主辱」,遂泣下霑襟。帝雖神識恬暢,而無濟世大略,故謝安稱爲惠帝之流,清談差勝耳。沙門支道林嘗言「會稽有遠體而無遠神」。謝靈運迹其行事,亦以爲赧獻之輩云。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

Even in his youth, Emperor Jianwen was graceful in following the rites and customs, and he had an excellent bearing about him. He lost himself in the ancient records, giving no thought to his dwelling place, until his mats were covered with dust, so great was his placidity.

Emperor Jianwen once rode in the same carriage together with Huan Wen and the Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, as they wandered through Banqiao. Huan Wen suddenly ordered his soldiers to beat the drums and sound the horns so that the carriage would suddenly rush forward, just to see how his two guests would react. Sima Xi was greatly frightened and asked to get down from the carriage, but Emperor Jianwen remained calm and showed no hint of fear. This was what caused Huan Wen to begin fearing and obeying him.

Huan Wen later wielded great civil and military authority, and he had established himself through great deeds; he went so far as to depose one Emperor and set up another in his place, and his power spread near and far. Although Emperor Jianwen himself held the exalted seat, he did no more than fold his hands and remain silent, maintaining his proper conduct, for he often feared he would be deposed or demoted.

It had been only a short time earlier when Mars had entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure constellation, and soon afterwards, Emperor Fei was deposed to become Duke of Haixi. Then, after Emperor Jianwen ascended the throne, Mars once again entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure. Emperor Jianwen was greatly vexed at this. At that time, Chi Chao was then serving in the palace as one of the Gentleman-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat. So Emperor Jianwen summoned Chi Chao and asked him, "Man proposes and Heaven disposes; such is fate. Are we now meant to have a repeat of recent events?"

But Chi Chao replied, "The Grand Marshal (Huan Wen) is now securing the fortunes of the state within and implementing his strategies without. I swear on the lives of all my family that no such extraordinary event shall take place."

Chi Chao then asked leave to visit his father. Emperor Jianwen replied, "Tell your honored father what the affairs of state have come to! I can no longer rectify or protect the way. I can only deeply sigh on account of my shame, and what use could there be in saying more?" Because of that, he began to chant Yu Chan's poem: "The true gentleman aches at the court's danger; the loyal minister grieves his lord's shame." And his flowing tears stained his lapel.

Such a man of uncommon intellect, and yet he could not benefit the state or put great plans into action! Xie An considered him another Emperor Hui: a comparative master of Pure Conversation, but nothing more. The sramana monk Zhidaolin once said of him, "The Prince of Kuaiji had a long life, but not a long spirit." And when Xie Lingyun considered his acts and affairs, he placed Emperor Jianwen in the same company as King Nan of Zhou and Emperor Xian of Han.

初,熒惑入太微,尋廢海西。簡文登阼,復入太微,帝惡之。時郗超為中書在直。引超入曰:「天命脩短,故非所計,政當無復近日事不?」超曰:「大司馬方將外固封疆,內鎮社稷,必無若此之慮。臣為陛下以百口保之。」帝因誦庾仲初詩曰:「志士痛朝危,忠臣哀主辱。」聲甚悽厲。郗受假還東,帝曰:「致意尊公,家國之事,遂至於此!由是身不能以道匡衛,思患預防,愧嘆之深,言何能喻?」因泣下流襟。(New Tales of the World 2.59)

Sometime earlier, Mars had entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure, and shortly thereafter Huan Wen had deposed Emperor Fei. After Emperor Jianwen succeeded him on the throne, Mars reentered the Enclosure, and Emperor Jianwen was upset by this.

At the time, Chi Chao was working in the Palace Secretariat and was in attendance. Emperor Jianwen summoned him for an audience and said, "The length or shortness of the heavenly mandate is basically not within human control. Surely there will not be a repetition of recent events?"

Chi Chao replied, "The Grand Marshal has newly strengthened the frontiers without and pacified the gods of soil and grain within. There is surely no cause for any such anxiety. I guarentee it for Your Majesty with all the people of my household."

Emperor Jianwen responded by chanting the words of Yu Chan's poem:

The determined knight is pained when the court is in peril;
The loyal minister grieves when his lord is disgraced.

As he chanted the words, Emperor Jianwen became intensely poignant and piercing.

When Chi Chao obtained leave to return east to Kuaiji, Emperor Jianwen said to him, "Inform your honored father Chi Yin that since the affairs of family and state have come to this pass, from now on, I am unable to personally rescue or defend them according to the Way, and my thoughts are plagued with foreboding. How can words describe the depths of my shame and sighing?" As he spoke, the tears coursed down his lapel. (Tr. Richard Mather)


郗超以溫故,朝中皆畏事之。謝安嘗與左衛將軍王坦之共詣超,日旰未得前,坦之欲去,安曰:「獨不能為性命忍須臾邪?」

34. Chi Chao acted as Huan Wen's agent at court, and everyone there feared what he might do.

Xie An and the Guard General of the Left, Wang Tanzhi, once went to visit Chi Chao together. Evening was coming on before they had even gotten the chance to see him, but Wang Tanzhi already wished to depart. Xie An said to him, "Can you still not bear with it for a little longer, even to save your life?"

史言謝安於風流之中,能處事應物。又郗超勢燄如此,桓溫旣死之後,超得終於牖下,蓋以智免也。

(This passage shows that Xie An knew the trends of the times, and was able to deal with them. Chi Chao had such influence at this time, but after Huan Wen's death, Chi Chao's power would diminish. Xie An must have recognized this.)


謝太傅與王文度共詣郗超,日旰未得前,王便欲去。謝曰:「不能為性命忍俄頃?」(New Tales of the World 6.30)

Xie An and Wang Tanzhi went together to visit Chi Chao. The day was growing late and they had not yet gotten an opportunity to go in. Wang Tanzhi was on the point of leaving, when Xie An said, "Aren't you able, for the sake of your life, to be patient a few moments?" (tr. Richard Mather)


秦以河州刺史李辯領興晉太守,還鎮枹罕。徙涼州治金城。張天錫聞秦有兼併之志,大懼,立壇於姑臧南,刑三牲。帥其官屬,遙與晉三公盟。遣從事中郎韓博奉表送盟文,並獻書於大司馬溫,期以明年夏同大舉,會於上邽。

35. Qin appointed the Inspector of Hezhou, Li Bian, as acting Administrator of Xingjin, and he was stationed at Fuhan again. Li Bian shifted the people of Qin's province of Liangzhou to Jincheng commandary.

When Zhang Tianxi heard of Qin's ambitions to annex further territory, he became greatly afraid. He set up an altar south of Guzang, where he offered the Three Sacrifices, then led his ministers in swearing an oath of loyalty to the Three Excellencies of Jin in absentia. He sent word of this news to the Jin court through his Attendant Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Han Bo, and further wrote to Huan Wen, arranging a date the following summer for a common grand undertaking to meet at Shanggui.

興晉、枹罕,河西張氏皆置爲郡。興晉亦當近枹罕界。自天水徙治金城。以秦徙鎭逼之,故懼。【章:十二行本「會」上有「同大舉」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】欲使晉起兵攻蜀而出會于上邽也。

(The commandaries of Xingjin, Fuhan, and Hexi had all been established by the Zhang clan of Former Liang. Xingjin was adjacent to Fuhan.

That is, Li Bian relocated the people from Tianshui to be overseen at Jinchang.

Zhang Tianxi became afraid because of Former Qin's shifting people on his border.

Some versions insert the phrase "for a common grand undertaking" before “to meet at Shanggui".

Zhang Tianxi wished for Jin to send troops to attack from the Shu region and so meet up with him at Shanggui.)


是歲,秦益州刺史王統攻隴西鮮卑乞伏司繁於度堅山,司繁帥騎三萬拒統於苑川。統潛襲度堅山,司繁部落五萬餘皆降於統;其眾聞妻子已降秦,不戰而潰。司繁無所歸,亦詣統降。秦王堅以司繁為南單于,留之長安;以司繁從叔吐雷為勇士護軍,撫其部眾。

36. During this year, Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Tong, attacked the Xianbei tribe of Qifu Sifan at Mount Dujian in Longxi. Qifu Sifan led thirty thousand cavalry to oppose Wang Tong at Yuanchuan. But Wang Tong secretly raided Mount Dujian, and Qifu Sifan's more than fifty thousand tribes there all surrendered to him. When the men of his army learned that their wives and children had already surrendered to Qin, they melted away without fighting. Since Qifu Sifan had no place to flee to, he also came and surrendered himself to Wang Tong. Fu Jian appointed Qifu Sifan as Southern Chanyu, and kept him at Chang'an; he also appointed Qifu Sifan's uncle Qifu Tulei as Protector of Yongshi, and had him keep watch over the Qifu tribes.

乞伏氏先自漠北南出、屯高平川,又自高平西南遷麥田山,司繁又自麥田遷于度堅山。《水經註》:苑川在天水勇士縣界。杜佑曰:在蘭州五泉縣界。以下文乞伏吐雷爲勇士護軍觀之,則《水經註》爲是。勇士,漢縣,晉省。此因漢縣名而置護軍。爲後乞伏步頹以鮮卑叛秦張本。

(The Qifu clan had first come south out of the northern desert, and camped at the rivers at Gaopingchuan. Then they came from Gaoping southwest to relocate to Mount Maitian. Qifu Sifan had then moved from Mount Maitian to Mount Dujian.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Yuanchuan is within Yongshi county in Tianshui commandary." Du You does state, "Yuanchuan is within Wuquan county in Lanzhou." But we see at the end of this passage that Qifu Tulei is appointed as Protector of Yongshi, and so the Commentary must be correct. Yongshi was a county during Han; it was abolished by Jin. Qifu Tulei was given this title based on the Han name of the place.

This was why Qifu Butui and his forces were later able to rebel against Former Qin (Book 105, 383.25).


秦皇始中,[繁立]遷於度堅山。建元七年,秦將王統來伐,繁率騎三萬拒統於苑川,統潛襲度堅山,部民五萬餘落,悉降於統。司繁乃詣統歸降,苻堅拜南單于,留之長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

During Former Qin's Huangshi era (351-5), Qifu Sifan moved to Mount Dujian.

In the seventh year of Jianyuan (371), the Qin general Wang Tong came to campaign against Qifu Sifan. Qifu Sifan led thirty thousand cavalry to oppose Wang Tong at Yuanchuan. Wang Tong slipped by him and attacked Mount Dujian, where the Qifu families were, more than fifty thousand tribes, all of whom surrendered to him. Qifu Sifan then presented himself to Wang Tong to surrender. Fu Jian appointed him as Southern Chanyu and kept him at Chang'an.

司繁擁部落降於苻堅,以為南單于。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Qifu Sifan led his tribes to surrender to Fu Jian, who appointed him as Southern Chanyu.

尋為苻堅將王統所襲,部眾叛降於統。司繁歎謂左右曰:「智不距敵,德不撫眾,劍騎未交而本根已敗,見眾分散,勢亦難全。若奔諸部,必不我容,吾將為呼韓邪之計矣。」乃詣統降於堅。堅大悅,署為南單于,留之長安。以司繁叔父吐雷為勇士護軍,撫其部眾。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Qifu Sifan was later raided by Fu Jian's general Wang Tong, and his people all rebelled against him and surrendered to Wang Tong. Qifu Sifan sighed and said to those around him, "My intelligence is not enough to oppose the enemy, and my virtue is not enough to nurture the people. Before there was even a clash of sword and steed, I have already lost my very foundation. See how my people have all scattered in different directions. It would be very hard to gather them together again. No matter where I might try to flee to, they would certainly not harbor me. I shall have to follow the same plan as the Huhanxie Chanyu, and become Qin's vassal." So he also presented himself to Wang Tong to surrender to Fu Jian. Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and he appointed Qifu Sifan as Southern Chanyu and kept him at Chang'an. Qifu Sifan's uncle Qifu Tulei was appointed as Protector of Yongshi, and he oversaw the Qifu tribe's forces.
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BOOK 103

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:31 am

咸安二年(壬申,公元三七二年)

The Second Year of Xian'an (The Renshen Year, 372 AD)


春,二月,秦以清河房曠為尚書左丞,征曠兄默及清河崔逞、燕國韓胤為尚書郎,北平陽陟、田勰、陽瑤為著作佐郎,郝略為清河相,皆關東士望,王猛所薦也。瑤,騖之子也。

1. In spring, the second month, Qin appointed Fang Kuang of Qinghe as Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing. They summoned Fang Kuang's elder brother Fang Mo, Cui Cheng of Qinghe, and Han Yin of Yanguo as Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. They appointed Fang Zhi of Beiping, Tian Xie, and Yang Yao as Assistant Gentlemen-Authors, and Hao Lüe as Chancellor of Qinghe. All of them were gentry from Guandong, recommended by Wang Meng. This Yang Yao was the son of Yang Wu.

《晉志》:著作郎一人,謂之大著作,專掌史任。又置佐著作郎八人。陽騖仕燕,歷事三朝。

(The Records of Jin states, "There is a single Gentleman-Author, also called a Grand Author, who oversees the scribal works. Under him he has eight Assistant Gentlemen-Authors."

Yang Wu was a Former Yan minister, who had served under three rulers (Murong Huang, Murong Jun, and Murong Wei).)


冠軍將軍慕容垂言於秦王堅曰:「臣叔父評,燕之惡來輩也,不宜復污聖朝,願陛下為燕戮之。」堅乃出評為范陽太守,燕之諸王悉補邊郡。

2. Qin's Champion General, Murong Chui, said to Fu Jian, "My uncle Murong Ping was the Elai of Yan. In order that he does not pollute the court here as well, I ask that Your Majesty slay him on behalf of Yan." But Fu Jian sent Murong Ping away by appointing him Administrator of Fanyang, and Yan's various princes were all sent out to fill distant border commandaries.

惡來以多力事紂,紂嬖之以亡國。「惡來輩」,一作「惡來革」。《史記》曰:惡來善毀讒,諸侯以此益疏。「輩」,當作「革」。

(Elai was a strong bodyguard for King Zhou of Shang, whose favor for him caused the ruin of his own state. The term that Murong Chui uses here to compare him to Murong Ping, 惡來輩 "a modern-day Elai", is also written as 惡來革; indeed, that is how it should be written here. The Records of the Grand Historian states, "Elai was adept at destroying men through slander, so the various nobles all sought to remain on his good side.")


This is the same Elai whom Cao Cao compared Dian Wei to in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

臣光曰:古之人,滅人之國而人悅,何哉?為人除害故也。彼慕容評者,蔽君專政,忌賢疾功,愚闇貪虐,以喪其國,國亡不死,逃遁見擒。秦王堅不以為誅首,又從而寵秩之,是愛一人而不愛一國之人也,其失人心多矣。是以施恩於人而人莫之恩,盡誠於人而人莫之誠。卒於功名不遂,容身無所,由不得其道故也。

3. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: In ancient times, there were instances of a state being conquered and yet the people of that state being pleased by it. Why was that? Because it meant the people who had brought harm to them would thus be removed. If we consider Murong Ping, he shoved aside his lord and monopolized power for himself, and he suspected the worthy and envied the successful. Foolish, dull, greedy, and cruel, he inflicted grief upon his state. And after the state fell, he ran and hid rather than die, but was still captured. Yet rather than execute Murong Ping and display his head, Fu Jian went so far as to pardon him and grant him salary. He treasured the life of this one man rather than treasure the feelings of the whole state he had just conquered, and so he lost the hearts of many of their people. This is to show grace to men who will not return it, and to pour out honest regard to men who will not be honest in turn. This was why Fu Jian's cause came to ruin and he found no place to shelter him, because he had not kept to the proper way.

此惟湯、武足以當之,下此則漢高帝猶庶幾焉。事見上卷海西公太和五年。

(This concept ("the people who had brought harm to them would thus be removed") only applied to Tang of Shang (who overthrew Jie of Xia) or King Wu of Zhou (who overthrew King Zhou of Shang). If Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had followed this principle, he would still be a commoner.

Murong Ping's flight from Former Yan is mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.29).)


三月,戊午,遣侍中王坦之征大司馬溫入輔,溫復辭。

4. In the third month, on the day Wuwu (May 14th), the Jin court sent the Palace Attendant, Wang Tanzhi, to again summon Huan Wen to serve in the court, but Huan Wen again declined.

秦王堅詔:「關東之民學通一經,才成一藝者,在所郡縣以禮送之。在官百石以上,學不通一經,才不成一藝者,罷遣還民。」

5. Fu Jian issued a decree stating, "Among the people of Guandong, let those who are learned in one of the Classics or who are accomplished in some talent be courteously received in the counties and commandaries. And among those current officials at the salary rank of one hundred 石 or higher, let those who are not learned in any of the Classics and who lack any definite talent be dismissed and sent back amongst the people."

【章:十二行本「以」上有「郡縣」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】苻堅之政如此而猶不能終,況不及苻堅者乎!

(Some versions include the phrase "in the counties and commandaries" in the first sentence.

Fu Jian governed in such a way, and yet even he was unsuccessful in the end. Could it have been any different for those who were not even his equals?)


夏,四月,徙海西公於吳縣西柴裡,敕吳國內史刁彝防衛,又遣御史顧允監察之。彝,協之子也。

6. In summer, the fourth month, Jin’s Duke of Haixi (the deposed Emperor Fei) was exiled to Xiali village in Wu county. The court ordered the Interior Minister of Wu, Diao Yi, to guard him, and sent the Imperial Secretary, Gu Yun, to keep watch over him. This Diao Yi was the son of Diao Xie.

刁協,元帝信用之。

(Diao Xie was one of Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) trusted assistants.)


四月,徙居吳縣,敕吳國內史刁彝防衛,又遣御史顧允監察之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the fourth month, the Duke of Haixi was exiled to live in Wu county. The court ordered the Interior Minister of Wu, Diao Yi, to guard him, and sent the Imperial Secretary, Gu Yun, to keep watch over him.

夏四月,徙海西公於吳縣西柴里。追貶庾后曰夫人。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

In summer, the fourth month, the Duke of Haixi was exiled to Xiali village in Wu county. Empress Yu was posthumously demoted to commoner status.


六月,癸酉,秦以王猛為丞相、中書監、尚書令、太子太傅、司隸校尉,特進、常侍、持節、將軍、侯如故;陽平公融為使持節、都督六州諸軍事、鎮東大將軍、冀州牧。

7. In the sixth month, on the day Guiyou (July 28th), Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Prime Minister, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Colonel-Director of Retainers, Specially Advanced, Regular Attendant, and Credential Bearer; he retained his original authority as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and as Marquis of Qinghe. The Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in the six former provinces of Yan, Grand General Who Guards The East, and Governor of Jizhou.

仍帶特進、散騎常侍、使持節、車騎大將軍、清河郡侯印綬也。代王猛鎭鄴。

(Wang Meng's ranks here were in addition to the seals he possessed as Specially Advanced, Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Marquis of Qinghe.

Fu Rong was stationed at Ye in place of Wang Meng.)


六月,冀州牧猛入為丞相、中書監、司隸校尉。猛固辭丞相,改授司徒,又固辭不拜。乃停司徒之授。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the sixth month, Fu Jian appointed the Governor of Jizhou, Wang Meng, as Prime Minister, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and Colonel-Director of Retainers. But Wang Meng firmly declined the position of Prime Minister; when Fu Jian tried to appoint him as Minister Over The Masses, he continued to decline that as well. So Fu Jian stopped trying to appoint him to that office.


庾希、庾邈與故青州刺史武沈之子遵,聚眾夜入京口城,晉陵太守卞眈逾城奔曲阿。希詐稱受海西公密旨誅大司馬溫。建康震擾,內外戒嚴。卞眈發諸縣兵二千人擊希,希敗,閉城自守。溫遣東海內史周少孫討之。秋,七月,壬辰,拔其城,擒希、邈及其親黨,皆斬之。眈,壺之子也。

8. It was earlier mentioned that after the purge of the Yu clan in Jin, Yu Xi and Yu Miao had fled into hiding. At this time, they joined with Wu Zun, the son of the former Inspector of Qingzhou, Wu Chen. They gathered a host of men and entered the city of Jingkou together at night. The Administrator of Jinling, Bian Dan, abandoned the city and fled to Qu'a. Yu Xi falsely claimed that the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) had given him a secret edict to execute Huan Wen. Jiankang shook with fear, and all areas were placed under martial law. Bian Dan raised two thousand soldiers from various counties to attack Yu Xi. Yu Xi was defeated in battle, so he closed Jingkou’s gates to hold out in defense. Huan Wen sent the Interior Minister of Donghai, Zhou Shaosun, to attack the rebels. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renchen (August 16th), they retook the city and captured Yu Xi, Yu Miao, and their associates and partisans. All of them were beheaded. This Bian Dan was the son of Bian Kun.

沈約曰:吳時分無錫以西爲毗陵郡,治丹徒,後復還毗陵。東海王越世子名毗。東海國故食毗陵,永嘉五年,改爲晉陵;太興初,郡及丹徒縣悉治京口。元帝割吳郡海虞縣之北境爲東海郡。庾亮之後滅矣。卞壼事元、明二帝,死於蘇峻之難。

(The Book of Liu-Song states, "Eastern Wu split off the western part of Wuxi to form Piling commandary, which was administered first from Dantu, and then later from Piling again. Jin's Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, had an eldest son with the given name Pi, so his fief as Prince contained Piling commandary. In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), its name was changed to Jinling. By the first year of Taixing (318), both Jinling commandary and Dantu county were administered from Jingkou.”

Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) carved off the northern border of Wu commandary's Haiyu county to be Donghai commandary.

With these executions, Yu Liang's descendants were now extinguished.

Bian Kun had served Emperor Yuan and Emperor Ming, and had died during Su Jun's rebellion.)


六月,戊子,前護軍將軍庾希舉兵反,自海陵入京口,晉陵太守卞眈奔于曲阿。秋七月壬辰,桓溫遣東海內史周少孫討希,擒之,斬于建康市。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

In the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (August 12th), the former General Who Protects The Army, Yu Xi, raised troops in rebellion. He marched from Hailing and entered Jingkou. The Administrator of Jinling, Bian Dan, fled to Qu'a.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renchen (August 16th), Huan Wen sent the Interior Minister of Donghai, Zhou Shaosun, to campaign against Yu Xi. He captured Yu Xi, who was beheaded in the marketplace at Jiankang.


甲寅,帝不豫,急召大司馬溫入輔,一日一夜發四詔。溫辭不至。初,帝為會稽王,娶王述從妹為妃,生世子道生及弟俞生。道生疏躁無行,母子皆以幽廢死。餘三子,郁、朱生、天流,皆早夭。諸姬絕孕將十年,王使善相者視之,皆曰:「非其人。」又使視諸婢媵,有李陵容者,在織坊中,黑而長,宮人謂之「崑崙」,相者驚曰:「此其人也!」王召之侍寢,生子昌明及道子。己未,立昌明為皇太子,生十年矣。以道子為琅邪王,領會稽國,以奉帝母鄭太妃之祀。遺詔:「大司馬溫依周公居攝故事。」又曰:「少子可輔者輔之,如不可,君自取之。」侍中王坦之自持詔入,於帝前毀之。帝曰:「天下,倘來之運,卿何所嫌!」坦之曰:「天下,宣、元之天下,陛下何得專之!」帝乃使坦之改詔曰:「家國事一稟大司馬,如諸葛武侯、王丞相故事。」是日,帝崩。

9. On the day Jiayin (September 7th), Emperor Jianwen became indisposed. Huan Wen was urgently summoned to come settle the affairs of state. In a single day and night, four imperial edicts were sent to summon him. But Huan Wen still refused and would not come to the capital.

Before, when Sima Yu was still the Prince of Kuaiji, he took a cousin of Wang Shu as his concubine, and she bore him his eldest son, Sima Daosheng, and his second son, Sima Shusheng. But Sima Daosheng was rash and impetuous and did not behave properly, so Lady Wang and her sons were all quietly deposed and died.

Sima Yu then had three other sons, Sima Yù, Sima Zhusheng, and Sima Tianliu, but all of them died young. His other concubines had not bore him any children in ten years. So Sima Yu employed a physiognomist to inspect his concubines to see which one would next bear him a son, but the man said of all of them, "Not this one."

Sima Yu then had the physiognomist examine his servant maids. Among them was a certain Li Lingrong, who was employed in weaving. She was black and tall, and the palace servants called her "Kunlun". The physiognomist saw her and exclaimed, "This is the one!" So Sima Yu summoned her to his bedroom, and she bore him his sons Sima Changming (Sima Yao) and Sima Daozi.

On the day Jiwei (September 12th), Emperor Jianwen appointed Sima Changming as his Crown Prince; at that time, Sima Changming was nine years old. He appointed Sima Daozi as Prince of Langye, and sent him to govern the fief of Kuaiji, to continue the line of Sima Yu's own mother, Concubine Dowager Zheng.

Emperor Jianwen composed a decree he planned to send out, stating, "Grand Marshal Huan Wen will oversee affairs, following the example set forth by the Duke of Zhou." It also stated, "If the young man can be supported, support him; if not, take the throne yourself." But Wang Tanzhi snatched this edict from Emperor Jianwen’s hands and tore it up in front of him.

Emperor Jianwen said, "If the realm is to pass into the hands of another, what is that to you?"

Wang Tanzhi replied, "The realm has been handed down to us by Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) and Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui); how can Your Majesty think of giving it away?"

So Emperor Jianwen had Wang Tanzhi send out a different edict, which read, "All affairs of state shall be referred to Grand Marshal Huan Wen, in the manner of Zhuge the Marquis Wu (Zhuge Liang) and Prime Minister Wang Dao."

That same day, Emperor Jianwen passed away.

謂其人如崑崙也。崑崙國,在南海外。《晉書》曰:初,簡文帝見讖曰:「晉祚盡昌明。」及孝武帝之在孕也,李太后夢神人謂之曰:汝生男,以昌明爲字。及產,東方始明,因以爲名焉。帝後悟,乃流涕。及孝武帝崩,晉自此傾矣。帝封琅邪王,所生母鄭夫人薨,固請服重,徙封會稽王,追號鄭夫人爲會稽太妃。用漢昭烈屬諸葛亮之言。宣帝肇基帝業,元帝中興,故云然。年五十三。

(The term "Kunlun" meant to say that she was like the people of Kunlun. Kunlun was a state beyond the South Sea.

The Annals of Emperor Xiaowu in the Book of Jin states, "Originally, Emperor Jianwen had seen a prophecy which stated, 'Jin's fortunes shall be exhausted by Changming'. When Emperor Xiaowu (Sima Changming) was still in the womb, Empress Dowager Li (Li Lingru) dreamed that a spirit said to her, 'You will bear a son, and his style name shall be Changming'. And when she gave birth to him, just then it was the first light of dawn in the east, so she gave him the style name Changming ('dawning'). When Sima Yu realized this, he wept. And indeed, following Emperor Xiaowu's death, the Jin dynasty met its end."

Sima Yu himself had originally been Prince of Langye. But when his birth mother Lady Zheng died, he insisted on changing his title so that he could mourn for her. So his title was changed to Prince of Kuaiji, and Lady Zheng was posthumously appointed as Concubine Dowager of Kuaiji.

The particular words that Emperor Jianwen used in his original edict ("If the young man can be supported...") were those originally spoken by Emperor Zhaolie of Han (Liu Bei) to Zhuge Liang (when Liu Bei was on his deathbed).

Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) had laid the foundations for the imperial design, and Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had restored the dynasty, thus Wang Tanzhi's remark.

Emperor Jianwen was fifty-two years old when he died.)


己未,立會稽王昌明爲皇太子,皇子道子爲琅邪王,領會稽內史。是日,帝崩于東堂,時年五十三... 遺詔以桓溫輔政,依諸葛亮、王導故事。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

On the day Jiwei (September 12th), Emperor Jianwen appointed the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Changming, as his Crown Prince. He appointed his son Sima Daozi as Prince of Langye and acting Interior Minister of Kuaiji.

The same day, Emperor Jianwen passed away in the Eastern Hall. He was fifty-two years old.

He left a will appointing Huan Wen as regent over the government, following the examples of Zhuge Liang and Wang Dao.


群臣疑惑,未敢立嗣,或曰:「當須大司馬處分。」尚書僕射王彪之正色曰:「天子崩,太子代立,大司馬何容得異!若先面咨,必反為所責。」朝議乃定。太子即皇帝位,大赦。崇德太后令,以帝沖幼,加在諒闇,令溫依周公居攝故事。事已施行,王彪之曰:「此異常大事,大司馬必當固讓,使萬機停滯,稽廢山陵,未敢奉令,謹具封還。」事遂不行。

10. The Jin ministers were uncertain and confused, and did not yet dare to carry out the succession as planned, with some saying, "We should wait to see what the Grand Marshal does."

But Wang Biaozhi sternly replied, "When the Son of Heaven has perished, his Crown Prince succeeds him. How could the Grand Marshal think any differently? If we were to consult him first, we would certainly be going against our duty." So the court's discussion was settled. The Crown Prince, Sima Changming, became the new Emperor, and a general amnesty was declared. He would be known as Emperor Xiaowu.

Because Emperor Xiaowu was still a mere youth, and he would now be spending time in the mourning shed lamenting the loss of his father, Empress Dowager Chongde prepared an edict ordering that Huan Wen should take up the role of the Duke of Zhou and oversee affairs. But as matters had already come this far, Wang Biaozhi said to her, "This is an issue of the greatest importance. The Grand Marshal would certainly decline, and that would cause everything to come to a halt. Even after waiting until after the burial, he would still not dare to accept the order. Let us have the edict sealed." So the edict was not sent out.

康獻褚太后旣歸政于穆帝,居崇德宮,及哀帝、海西公之世,復臨朝稱制。海西旣廢,簡文卽位,尊后爲崇德太后。此事卽封還詔書之始也。

(When Empress Dowager Chu had relinquished the regency powers she had been given following Emperor Kang's death back to Emperor Mu, she resided in the Chongde Palace. And during the minorities of Emperor Ai and the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei), she had again wielded authority over court affairs. Following the Duke of Haixi's deposition and Emperor Jianwen coming to the throne, Empress Dowager Chu was honored as Empress Dowager Chongde.

This was the first of these recalled edicts to Huan Wen.)


三十五年,司馬昱死,子昌明僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirty-fifth year of Jianguo (372), Sima Yu (Emperor Jianwen) passed away. His son Sima Changming (Emperor Xiaowu) succeeded him.


溫望簡文臨終禪位於己,不爾便當居攝。既不副所望,甚憤怨,與弟沖書曰:「遺詔使吾依武侯、王公故事耳。」溫疑王坦之、謝安所為,心銜之。詔謝安征溫入輔,溫又辭。

11. Huan Wen had hoped that Emperor Jianwen would abdicate the throne to him on his deathbed, not instead place him in a regency role. Hardly wishing to thus remain second to another, he was deeply resentful and angry. He wrote to his younger brother Huan Chong, "The court has sent me an edict stating that I am to be no more than another Marquis Wu (Zhuge Liang) or Duke Wang Dao." Huan Wen suspected Wang Tanzhi and Xie An were behind this development, and he could not bear to put up with them. Xie An sent another edict summoning Huan Wen to join the administration, but Huan Wen again declined.

八月,秦丞相猛至長安,復加都督中外諸軍事。猛辭曰:「元相之重,儲傅之尊,端右事繁,京牧任大,總督戎機,出納帝命,文武兩寄,鉅細並關,以伊、呂、蕭、鄧之賢,尚不能兼,況臣猛之無似!」章三四上,秦王堅不許,曰:「朕方混壹四海,非卿誰可委者?卿之不得辭宰相,猶朕不得辭天下也。」

12. In the eighth month, Wang Meng arrived at Chang’an. Fu Jian wished to further appoint him as Commander of all military affairs. Wang Meng declined, saying, "You would have me all at once assume the gravity of the Chief Minister and the reverence of the Imperial Instructor, the innumerable duties of the 端右 and the heavy responsibilities of the Capital Governor, oversee and command all military matters and promulgate and enforce the imperial will; ultimately, you would have me be an absolute master of both civil and military affairs, attending to every matter, no matter how great or small. Even such worthies as Yi Yin, Lü Wang (Jiang Ziya), Xiao He, or Deng Yu would be unable to handle all of that at once, much less someone like me, who cannot compare to them!"

Several times Wang Meng tried to return the seals of office, but Fu Jian would not accept them, saying, “I have not yet united all within the Four Seas, and if not you, whom else can I entrust such tasks to? You may not refuse this role as my chief minister, no more than I may refuse the realm."

元相,丞相也。儲傅,太子太傅也。端右,尚書令也。京牧,司隸校尉也。總督戎機,都督中外諸軍事也。出納帝命,中書監、常侍之職也。無似,猶言不肖也。

(Chief Minister meant Prime Minister. Imperial Instructor meant the Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince. 端右 meant Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Capital Governor meant Colonel-Director of Retainers. "Oversee and command all military affairs" meant in the role of Commander. "Promulgate and enforce the imperial will" meant the positions of Chief of the Palace Secretariat and Regular Attendant.

Wang Meng meant to say that he does not resemble any of the worthies he named.)


Each of the worthies that Wang Meng named were possibly the most important ministers of the lords they served. Yi Yin served Tang of Shang, founder of that dynasty; Lü Wang or Jiang Ziya served King Wen of Zhou and his son King Wu, who founded Zhou; Xiao He served Liu Bang, founder of the Han dynasty; and Deng Yu served Liu Xie or Emperor Guangwu, the restorer of the Han after Wang Mang's failed usurpation.

猛為相,堅端拱於上,成官總己於下,軍國內外之事,無不由之。猛剛明清肅,善惡著白,放黜屍素,顯拔幽滯,勸課農桑,練習軍旅,官必當才,刑必當罪。由是國富兵強,戰無不克,秦國大治。堅敕太子宏及長樂公丕等曰:「汝事王公,如事我也。」

13. Wang Meng then accepted the offices, and Fu Jian consulted with him in everything, from the selection of all officials to the handling of all military and national affairs; nothing was done without his input. Wang Meng was stern, wise, pure, and solemn, and he discerned the good from the evil. He cast layabouts out of their sinecures, while recognizing and advancing those whose careers had languished in obscurity. He encouraged the people in farming and silkworm cultivation, and trained and disciplined the army. He employed everyone according to their talents, and punished people according to their crimes. Thus was the state made prosperous and the army strong; battles were never without victory, and the state of Qin was well-administered. Fu Jian instructed his Crown Prince, Fu Hong, the Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, and others, "You all must treat Duke Wang just as you treat me."

尸素,尸位素餐者也。

(尸素 "Layabouts" were those who held office and drew official salaries but without doing work.)


陽平公融在冀州,高選綱紀,以尚書郎房默、河間相申紹為治中別駕,清河崔宏為州從事,管記室。融年少,為政好新奇,貴苛察;申紹數規正,導以寬和,融雖敬之,未能盡從。後紹出為濟北太守,融屢以過失聞,數致譴讓,乃自恨不用紹言。

14. When Fu Rong was in charge of affairs in Jizhou, he greatly enforced law and order. He appointed the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Fang Mo, and the Chancellor of Hejian, Shen Shao, as his Attendant Officers of Internal Affairs With Separate Carriages, and he appointed Cui Hong of Qinghe as his Provincial Attendant Officer and his Recordskeeping Supervisor.

As Fu Rong was young, he was enamored with many novel and new reforms, and he favored harsh and inquisitive methods. Shen Shao often admonished him, instructing him to be gentler, kinder, and more broad-minded. Although Fu Rong respected him, in the end, he could not always follow such advice. Later, after Shen Shao had departed to be Administrator of Jibei, Fu Rong often missed his advice, and whenever he was forced to give ground and correct himself, he blamed himself for not following Shen Shao's suggestions.

綱紀,謂官屬綱紀衆事者也。《姓譜》:房姓本自丹朱,舜封爲房邑侯,子陵以父封爲氏。

(綱紀 "law and order" here means that his officials and subordinates kept a firm account of what the multitude were doing.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 房 Fang are descended from the ancient Danzhu. When Emperor Shun appointed Danzhu as Marquis of Fang, his son Ling took his father's title as his clan's name.")


崔玄伯,清河東武城人也,名犯高祖廟諱,魏司空林六世孫也。祖悅,仕石虎,官至司徒左長史、關內侯。父潛,仕慕容暐,為黃門侍郎,並有才學之稱。玄伯少有儁才,號曰冀州神童。苻融牧冀州,虛心禮敬,拜陽平公侍郎,領冀州從事,管征東記室。出總庶事,入為賓友,眾務修理,處斷無滯。苻堅聞而奇之,徵為太子舍人,辭以母疾不就,左遷著作佐郎。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Cui Hong)

Cui Hong was a native of the city of Dongwu in Qinghe commandary. Because his given name violated the naming taboo of Emperor Gaozu's (Tuoba Shiyijian's) temple name, he is referred to in the Book of Northern Wei by his style name, Cui Xuanbo. Cui Hong was the sixth-generation descendant of Cao-Wei's Minister of Works, Cui Lin. His grandfather, Cui Yue, had served Shi Hu of Later Zhao and had risen in office in that state as high as Chief Clerk of the Left of the Minister Over The Masses and as a Marquis Within The Passes. His father, Cui Qian, had served Murong Wei of Former Yan as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and he was commended for both his talents and his learning. And Cui Hong himself possessed abundant talents even as a youth, so much so that people called the Prodigy of Jizhou.

During the time that Former Qin's Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, served as Governor of Jizhou, he approved of Cui Hong's modesty, propriety, and respect, and he appointed Cui Hong as Attendant-Gentleman to his ducal staff, acting Attendant Officer of Jizhou, and Recordskeeping Supervisor to his staff as General Who Conquers The East. Cui Hong was both adept at his professional duties and a guest and friend to Fu Rong personally; he tended to his affairs so well that things were quickly decided and everything flowed smoothly. When the ruler of Former Qin, Fu Jian, heard about Cui Hong, he was amazed and wanted to summon him to the capital to serve as a Retainer to the Crown Prince. But Cui Hong declined this post on account of his mother's infirmity, so he was instead appointed as an Assistant Gentleman-Author.


融嘗坐擅起學捨為有司所糾,遣主簿李纂詣長安自理;纂憂懼,道卒。融問申紹:「誰可使者?」紹曰:「燕尚書郎高泰,清辯有膽智,可使也。」先是丞相猛及融屢辟泰,泰不起;至是,融謂泰曰:「君子救人之急,卿不得復辭!」泰乃從命。至長安,丞相猛見之,笑曰:「高子伯於今乃來,何其遲也!」泰曰:「罪人來就刑,何問遲速!」猛曰:「何謂也?」泰曰:「昔魯僖公以泮宮發頌,齊宣王以稷下垂聲。今陽平公開建學宮,追蹤齊、魯,未聞明詔褒美,乃更煩有司舉劾。明公阿衡聖朝,懲勸如此,下吏何所逃其罪乎!」猛曰:「是吾過也。」事遂得釋。猛因歎曰:「高子伯豈陽平所宜吏乎!」言於秦王堅。堅召見,悅之,問以為治之本,對曰:「治本在得人,得人在審舉,審舉在核真,未有官得其人而國家不治者也。」堅曰:「可謂辭簡而理博矣。」以為尚書郎。秦固請還州,堅許之。

15. Fu Rong once wished to try setting up his own school to train students to serve as officials. However, he could not get official approval for it. He sent his Registrar, Li Zuan, to visit Chang'an to clear up the matter, but Li Zuan was worried and apprehensive, and died on the way there.

Then Fu Rong asked Shen Shao, "Who else can be sent to deal with this?"

Shen Shao replied, "There is Yan's former Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Gao Tai. In matters of debate, he is clear, forthright, and sharp. He may be sent."

Before now, both Wang Meng and Fu Rong had repeatedly tried to summon Gao Tai to come serve under them, but he would not go to them. When this matter of getting the school approved came up, Fu Rong said to Gao Tai, "When a good man asks for your efforts on his behalf, you may not keep refusing!" So Gao Tai finally obeyed the order.

When Gao Tai arrived at Chang'an, Wang Meng met with him and joked, "So Gao Zibo has come at last. Why so late to arrive?"

Gao Tai replied, "When a criminal comes to face his punishment, who speaks of him being early or late?"

Wang Meng said, "What do you mean?"

Gao Tai replied, "In former times, Duke Xi of Lu won universal praise when he established the Water College, and King Xuan of Qi spread his influence through the Jixia Academy. Now the Duke of Yangping wishes to open a palace school, and so follow in the footsteps of King Xuan and Duke Xi, but he has yet to hear a clear edict approving of his actions, and he has to go to so much trouble as to send officials to speak on his behalf. Yet you have the sage wisdom of A Heng (Yi Yin), and you punish and reward people justly, as he did. How then am I able to avoid committing an offense?"

Wang Meng said, "The fault was with me." So the matter was cleared up.

Wang Meng sighed and said to himself, "How can the Duke of Yangping keep a man as worthy as Gao Zibo all to himself?" So he mentioned Gao Tai to Fu Jian, who summoned Gao Tai, and was greatly pleased by him.

Fu Jian asked Gao Tai what he thought the foundation of governance was. Gao Tai told him, "The foundation of governance comes from finding good people; finding good people comes from careful examination; careful examination comes from knowing the true worth. There has never been a state that was poorly governed that had the right people serving in office."

Fu Jian said, "You speak so simply, but your logic is so impeccable." He offered to re-appoint Gao Tai as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing under Qin. But Gao Tai declined and wished to return to his home province, so Fu Jian allowed him to depart.

高泰,字子伯。《詩‧魯頌‧泮水》,頌僖公能脩泮宮也。《史記》:齊宣王喜文學遊說之士,騶衍、淳于髡、田騈、愼到、接子、環淵之徒七十六人,皆賜列第,稷下學士且數百千人。劉向《別錄》曰:齊有稷門,城門也。談說之士,期會於稷下也。虞喜曰:齊有稷山,立館其下以待遊士。還冀州也。

(Gao Tai's style name was Zibo.

In the Panshui poems in the Odes of Lu in the Book of Poetry, they tell of how Duke Xi was extolled for founding the Water College in the palace.

In the Records of the Grand Historian, it mentions how King Xuan of Qi loved to speak with learned wandering scholars, and he gave special distinctions to seventy-six men, including Zou Yan, Chunyu Kun, Tian Pian, Shen Dao, Jiezi, and Huan Yan and their disciples. He also established the Jixia Academy, which had several hundred or even a thousand scholars. Liu Xiang's Abstracts states, "Qi had a Ji Gate, one of the gates of the city. The place where people would come to meet and talk was below this Ji Gate, thus the name Jixia (‘below Ji’)." Yu Xi remarked, "Qi had a Mount Ji, and a building was built at the foot of it for wanderers to lodge in (so this could also be ‘below Ji’)."

Gao Tai's home province was Jizhou.)


九月,甲寅,追尊故會稽王妃王氏曰順皇後,尊帝母李氏為淑妃。

16. In the ninth month, on the day Jiayin (November 6th), Emperor Xiaowu posthumously honored Emperor Jianwen's original wife, Concubine Wang, as Empress Dowager Shun. He honored his own mother, Li Lingrong, as Concubine Shu.

【章:十二行本「月」下有「甲寅」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】卽王述從妹也。

(Some versions include the specific day "Jiayin" in this passage.

This was the same Lady Wang who was Wang Shu's cousin.)


冬,十月,丁卯,葬簡文帝於高平陵。

17. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Dingmao (November 19th), Emperor Jianwen was buried at Gaoping Tomb.

葬高平陵,廟號太宗。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

Emperor Jianwen was buried at Gaoping Tomb, and his temple name was Taizong.


彭城妖人盧悚自稱大道祭酒,事之者八百餘家。十一月,遣弟子許龍如吳,晨,到海西公門,稱太后密詔,奉迎興復;公初欲從之,納保母諫而止。龍曰:「大事垂捷,焉用兒女子言乎!」公曰:「我得罪於此,幸蒙寬宥,豈敢妄動!且太后有詔,便應官屬來,何獨使汝也?汝必為亂!」因叱左右縛之,龍懼而走。甲午,悚帥眾三百人,晨攻廣莫門。詐稱海西公還,由雲龍門突入殿庭,略取武庫甲仗,門下吏士駭愕不知所為。游擊將軍毛安之聞難,帥眾直入雲龍門,手自奮擊;左衛將軍殷康,中領軍桓秘入止車門,與安之並力討誅之,並黨與死者數百人。海西公深慮橫禍,專飲酒,恣聲色,有子不育,時人憐之。朝廷以其安於屈辱,故不復為虞。

18. In Jin, a certain sorcerer from Pengcheng, Lu Song, declared himself as Libationer of the Great Way, and took more than eight hundred families into his confidence. In the eleventh month, he sent his nephew Xu Long to go to Wu.

At dawn, Xu Long came to the gate of the Duke of Haixi's (Emperor Fei’s) residence, claiming to have a secret edict from the Empress Dowager, with authority to receive the Duke and restore him to the imperial throne. The Duke initially wished to believe him, but after being reprimanded by his nurse, he stopped.

Xu Long objected, "We are nearly on the point of succeeding at this great endeavor; what use are the words of a girl?"

The Duke replied, "I am here because of my crime, and I was already fortunate enough to receive pardon. Would I dare to attempt such foolishness? Besides, if the Empress Dowager had truly summoned me, she would have sent officials to fetch me. Why would she have just sent you alone? You are just some rebel!" He called for his attendants to tie Xu Long up, and Xu Long became afraid and fled.

On the day Jiawu (December 16th), Lu Song gathered a crowd of three hundred people at Jiankang, and at dawn they attacked the Guangmo Gate. They falsely claimed that the Duke of Haixi had returned. At the Yunlong Gate they were able to enter the palace grounds, where they looted arms and armor from the Arsenal. The gate commanders were astonished at this and did not know what to do. When the General of Fierce Assault, Mao Anzhi, heard of the disturbance, he led his men straight into the Yunlong Gate, and personally led an attack. The Guard General of the Left, Yan Kang, and the General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Huan Mi, marched in through the Zhiche Gate, and they joined forces with Mao Anzhi and attacked. The rebel leaders and several hundred of their partisans were killed.

The Duke of Haixi, deeply afraid that he would meet with misfortune, began to eat and drink without restraint, showing an unconcerned front. When he had children, he would not raise them (so they died). The people of that time pitied him. The court saw that he was now settled into his humiliation and shame, so they were no longer concerned about him.

晉氏南渡,僑置彭城郡於晉陵界。廣莫門,建康城北門也。雲龍門,建康宮門也。吏士守衞雲龍門者也。

(After the Jin imperial family fled to the south, an emigre version of Pengcheng commandary was established within Jinling commandary.

The Guangmo Gate was the north gate of the city walls of Jiankang.

The Yunlong Gate was the palace gate in Jiankang. These gate commanders were guarding the Yunlong Gate.)


十一月,妖賊盧悚遣弟子殿中監許龍晨到其門,稱太后密詔,奉迎興復。帝初欲從之,納保母諫而止。龍曰:「大事將捷,焉用兒女子言乎?」帝曰:「我得罪于此,幸蒙寬宥,豈敢妄動哉!且太后有詔,便應官屬來,何獨使汝也?汝必爲亂。」因叱左右縛之,龍懼而走。帝知天命不可再,深慮橫禍,乃杜塞聰明,無思無慮,終日酣暢,耽于內寵,有子不育,庶保天年。時人憐之,爲作歌焉。朝廷以帝安于屈辱,不復爲虞。(Book of Jin 8, ANnals of Emperor Fei)

In the eleventh month, the sorcerous bandit Lu Song sent the Chief of the Palace Halls, his nephew Xu Long, to approach the Duke of Haixi's household gate at dawn. Xu Long claimed to have a secret edict from the Empress Dowager, with authority to receive the Duke and restore him to the imperial throne. The Duke initially wished to believe him, but after being reprimanded by his nurse, he stopped.

Xu Long objected, "We are nearly on the point of succeeding at this great endeavor; what use are the words of a girl?"

The Duke replied, "I am here because of my crime, and I was already fortunate enough to receive pardon. Would I dare to attempt such foolishness? Besides, if the Empress Dowager had truly summoned me, she would have sent officials to fetch me. Why would she have just sent you alone? You are just some rebel!" He called for his attendants to tie Xu Long up, and Xu Long became afraid and fled.

The Duke knew that he would never return to the throne, and he was deeply afraid that he would meet with misfortune. So he hid any signs of his intelligence or perception, and he acted as though he had no cares or concerns at all. He spent all day in drinking and debauchery, and he indulged in his favored women. When he had children, he would not raise them, in order to ensure he would live out his remaining years. The people of that time pitied him, and wrote songs about him. The court saw that he was now settled into his humiliation and shame, so they were no longer concerned about him.


秦都督北蕃諸軍事、鎮北大將軍、開府儀同三司、朔方桓侯梁平老卒。平老在鎮十餘年,鮮卑、匈奴憚而愛之。

19. In Qin, Liang Pinglao passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Huan ("the Grand") of Shuofang. At the time of his death, he had been the Commander of military affairs on Qin’s northern border and Grand General Who Guards The North, and he had the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. He had kept the north safe for over ten years, and the Xianbei and Xiongnu feared and loved him.

平老鎭朔方,始一百卷穆帝升平三年。

(Liang Pinglao had first been stationed at Shuofang, Former Qin's northern frontier, in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's third year of Shengping (357).)


三吳大旱,饑,人多餓死。

20. In Jin, there was a great drought in the Three Wu region. There was famine, and many people starved to death.

【章:十二行本「旱」下有「饑」字;乙十一行本同。】吳郡、吳興、義興爲三吳,註已見前。

(Some versions add the phrase "there was famine" in this passage.

The Three Wu region was Wu commandary, Wuxing commandary, and Yixing commandary, as has been noted before.)
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BOOK 103

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:39 am

烈宗孝武皇帝上之上

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Xiaowu, Sima Changming, Liezong


諱曜,字昌明,簡文帝第三子。《諡法》:五宗安之曰孝;克定禍亂曰武。

(Emperor Xiaowu's given name was Yao. His style name was Changming. He was Emperor Jianwen's third son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who maintains reverence for the five ancestors may be called 孝 Xiao ('Filial')" and "One who overcomes and pacifies disaster and disorder may be called 武 Wu ('Martial').")


寧康元年(癸酉,公元三七三年)

The First Year of Ningkang (The Guiyou Year, 373 AD)


春,正月,己丑朔,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jichou (February 9th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Ningkang.

【嚴:「卯」改「丑」。】

(Some editions write the date for this amnesty as "Jimao" rather than "Jichou". (But a Jimao date would be out of range for this month and year.))


二月,大司馬溫來朝。辛巳,詔吏部尚書謝安、侍中王坦之迎於新亭。是時,都下人情恟恟,或雲欲誅王、謝,因移晉室。坦之甚懼,安神色不變,曰:「晉祚存亡,決於此行。」溫既至,百官拜於道側。溫大陳兵衛,延見朝士,有位望者皆戰懾失色,坦之流汗沾衣,倒執手版。安從容就席,坐定,謂溫曰:「安聞諸侯有道,守在四鄰,明公何須壁後置人邪!」溫笑曰:「正自不能不爾。」遂命左右撤之,與安笑語移日。郗超常為溫謀主,安與坦之見溫,溫使超臥帳中聽其言。風動帳開,安笑曰:「郗生可謂入幕之賓矣。」時天子幼弱,外有強臣,安與坦之盡忠輔衛,卒安晉室。

2. In the second month, Huan Wen came to court.

On the day Xinsi (April 2nd), the court ordered the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Xie An, and Wang Tanzhi to receive Huan Wen at Xinting. At that time, all the capital officials were greatly afraid, and some feared that Huan Wen wished to execute Wang Tanzhi and Xie An, because of their constant support for the royal family. Wang Tanzhi himself was deeply afraid, but Xie An kept a serene, unchanging expression. He said, "Whether Jin lives or dies all depends upon this."

When Huan Wen arrived, all the officials performed obeisance to him along the road. Huan Wen commanded a large formation of soldiers, and when he received the court officials, those who held high office or had influence all turned pale in fear. Wang Tanzhi sweated so much that it soaked his clothes, and he held his hand tablet upside down. But Xie An just unrolled his mat, and after sitting down, he said to Huan Wen, "I have heard that when the feudal states held sway, their defenses were their four neighbors. So why have you placed these picked men within the walls of this building?"

Huan Wen laughed and said, “Just because I can’t do otherwise." Then he dismissed his attendant soldiers, and he laughed and talked with Xie An for the rest of the day.

Chi Chao and Huan Wen often discussed their plots together. On this occasion, when Xie An and Wang Tanzhi met with Huan Wen, Huan Wen had Chi Chao hide behind his bed curtains and listen in. It happened that a breeze blew back the curtain, and Xie An joked, "We might be able to say that Chi Chao is your ‘guest within the curtains’."

At that time, Emperor Xiaowu was still young, and he was threatened by such a powerful minister. But Xie An and Wang Tanzhi were strenuously loyal in their support and protection, so in the end, the royal family's position remained secure.

位,列位也;中庭左右謂之位。孟子曰:賢者在位,能者在職,則有位者公卿大臣也。望,名望也。沈約曰:手版則古笏矣。尚書令、僕射、尚書,手版頭復有白筆,以紫皮裹之,名笏。《左傳》:楚沈尹戌曰:天子守在四夷,諸侯守在四鄰。史言王坦之雖忠於晉室而識度劣於謝安。移日,言笑語之久,不覺日晷之移。

(The term 位 "places of dignity" here means those who held office in the court. Mencius stated, "Give the worthiest among them 位 'places of dignity', and the able offices of trust (Gongsun Chou 1.4)." So those who held 'places of dignity' were the great ministers of state. And 望 here means "reputation and influence".

Shen Yue remarked, "A 手版 was an old hand tablet. For Prefects, Deputy Directors, and other members of the Masters of Writing, they would hold the tablet with a white brush on top of it, with a purple cover wrapped around it, and their name on it."

The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "Chu's Intendent of Shen, Xu, said, 'The Son of Heaven's defenses are the four barbarians, and the feudal lords' defenses are their four neighbors (Zhao 23.10)."

This passage demonstrates that although Wang Tanzhi was a loyal Jin minister, he was not as astute as Xie An.

The term 移日 here means that they talked and laughed together for a long time, heedless of the movement of the sun dial.)


桓公伏甲設饌,廣延朝士,因此欲誅謝安、王坦之。王甚遽,問謝曰:「當作何計?」謝神意不變,謂文度曰:「晉阼存亡,在此一行。」相與俱前。王之恐狀,轉見於色。謝之寬容,愈表於貌。望階趨席,方作洛生詠,諷「浩浩洪流」。桓憚其曠遠,乃趣解兵。王、謝舊齊名,於此始判優劣。(New Tales of the World 6.29)

Huan Wen held a feast with armed men concealed about the premises, and extended invitations widely to the gentlemen of the court, with the intention of killing Xie An and Wang Tanzhi. Wang Tanzhi was extremely apprehensive, and asked Xie An, "What plan should we make?"

Xie An, his spirit and mood showing no change, said to Wang Tanzhi, "Whether the Jin mandate survives or perishes will be determined by this one move."

As they went in together, Wang Tanzhi's fears grew more and more apparent in his face, while Xie An's cultivated tolerance became more and more evident in his manner. Gazing up the stairs, he proceeded to his seat, then started to hum a poem in the manner of the scholars of Luoyang, reciting the lines by Ji Kang: "Flowing, flowing mighty streams." Huan Wen, in awe of his untrammeled remoteness, thereupon hastened to disband the armed men.

Wang Tanzhi and Xie An had hitherto been of equal reputation; it was only after this that they were distinguished as superior and inferior. (tr. Richard Mather)

桓宣武與郗超議芟夷朝臣,條牒既定,其夜同宿。明晨起,呼謝安、王坦之入,擲疏示之。郗猶在帳內,謝都無言,王直擲還,云:多!宣武取筆欲除,郗不覺竊從帳中與宣武言。謝含笑曰:「郗生可謂入幕賓也。」(New Tales of the World 6.27)

Huan Wen and Chi Chao were deliberating over the weeding out and purging of the court ministers. After it had been determined which names should be entered on the document, that night they slept in the same room. Early next morning,
Huan Wen got up and called in Xie An and Wang Tanzhi. He tossed them the memorandum to look over, while Chi Chao was still inside the bed curtains.

Xie An said absolutely nothing. Wang Tanzhi immediately tossed it back, stating that there were too many names.

Huan Wen took a brush and was on the point of crossing off some, when Chi Chao, without thinking, started to talk privately with Huan Wen from inside the curtains.

Xie An, repressing his laughter, said, "Master Chi is what might call the 'guest within the curtains'." (tr. Richard Mather)


溫治盧悚入宮事,收尚書陸始付廷尉,免桓秘官,連坐者甚眾;遷毛安之為右衛將軍,桓秘由是怨溫。三月,溫有疾,停建康十四日,甲午,還姑孰。

3. After Huan Wen had dealt with the Lu Song affair, he arrested the Master of Writing, Lu Shi, and handed him over to the Minister of Justice. He also dismissed Huan Mi from office, and a great many other people were implicated as well. At the same time, he promoted Mao Anzhi to be Guard General of the Right. Because of this, Huan Mi resented Huan Wen.

In the third month, Huan Wen became ill. He stayed in Jiankang for fourteen days, until on the day Jiawu (April 15th), he returned to Gushu.

夏,代王什翼犍使燕鳳入貢於秦。

4. In summer, Tuoba Shiyijian sent Yan Feng to offer tribute to Qin.

燕,姓也。

(燕 Yan is a surname.)


三十六年夏五月,遣燕鳳使苻堅。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirty-sixth year of Jianguo (373), in summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Shiyijian sent Yan Feng as an envoy to visit Fu Jian.


秋,七月,己亥,南郡宣武公桓溫薨。初,溫疾篤,諷朝廷求九錫,屢使人趣之。謝安、王坦之故緩其事,使袁宏具草。宏以示王彪之,彪之歎其文辭之美,因曰:「卿固大才,安可以此示人!」謝安見其草,輒改之,由是歷旬不就。宏密謀於彪之,彪之曰:「聞彼病日增,亦當不復支久,自可更小遲回。」宏從之。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jihai (August 18th), Huan Wen passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xuanwu ("the Understanding and Martial") of Nan commandary.

Earlier, when Huan Wen had become ill, he asked the court to grant him the Nine Bestowments, and repeatedly sent messengers to demand them. Xie An and Wang Tanzhi wished to delay the matter, so they called Yuan Hong to help them by composing a draft response. Yuan Hong then showed his draft to Wang Biaozhi, but Wang Biaozhi lamented the draft's lack of literary grace, and told him, "How could a man with such fine talents as yourself use this as a response?" And whenever Xie An saw it, he made edits to it. So even after many days, nothing had gone out. Yuan Hong considered making secret plans with Wang Biaozhi for something else, but Wang Biaozhi said, "I have heard that Huan Wen's illness grows worse by the day. He may not be able to hold out for very much longer. Perhaps we ourselves only need to delay things a bit more." So Yuan Hong agreed.

有心爲之謂之故。言不當爲此文也。安晉之功,人皆歸之謝安、王坦之,彪之實預有力於其間。【章:十二行本「溫」上有「宏從之」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

(That is to say, Xie An and Wang Tanzhi intentionally meant to delay the matter.

Wang Biaozhi was saying that Yuan Hong's draft was not sufficient for such a reponse.

People acclaim Xie An and Wang Tanzhi as those who saved Jin during this time, but Wang Biaozhi's foresight should also be remembered.

Some versions add the sentence "So Yuan Hong agreed" to the end of this passage.)


溫弟江州刺史沖,問溫以謝安、王坦之所任,溫曰:「渠等不為汝所處分。」其意以為,己存,彼必不敢立異,死則非沖所制;若害之,無益於沖,更失時望故也。

6. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Wen's younger brother Huan Chong, asked him what should be done about Xie An and Wang Tanzhi. Huan Wen replied, "Those fellows are not anything you need concern yourself with." This was because Huan Wen believed that as long as he himself was still alive, Xie An and the others would not dare to do anything against him, and after Huan Wen was dead, Huan Chong would not be able to control them anyway. If Huan Chong tried to act against them, it would be of no profit to himself, and would only squander his clan's influence.

吳俗謂他人爲渠儂。觀桓溫所以待安、坦之者如此,二人者豈易及哉!

(Huan Wen here uses the term 渠 to mean "them". It was common in the Wu region to address other people as 渠儂 "he/she".

Considering how Huan Wen treated Xie An and Wang Tanzhi, how could two men of their calibur be easily replaced?)


溫以世子熙才弱,使沖領其眾。於是桓秘與熙弟濟謀共殺沖,沖密知之,不敢入。俄頃,溫薨,沖先遣力士拘錄熙、濟而後臨喪。秘遂被廢棄,熙、濟俱徙長沙。詔葬溫依漢霍光及安平獻王故事。沖稱溫遺命,以少子玄為嗣,時方五歲,襲封南郡公。

7. Huan Wen's eldest son Huan Xi was lacking in talents, so Huan Wen left Huan Chong in charge of his troops instead. So Huan Mi and Huan Xi's younger brother Huan Ji plotted to kill Huan Chong together. However, Huan Chong secretly knew about it, and did not dare to go into the camp. And then, just after Huan Wen had passed away, Huan Chong first sent strong men to arrest Huan Xi and Huan Ji before beginning the mourning for his brother. Huan Mi was cast out of the clan, while Huan Xi and Huan Ji were both exiled to Changsha.

The court ordered Huan Wen to be buried using the same funeral rites as Huo Guang of Han and Prince Xian of Anping (Sima Fu). Huan Chong wielded authority on his late brother’s behalf, and appointed Huan Wen's youngest son Huan Xuan to inherit his father’s positions. At that time, Huan Xuan was only four years old. He was appointed as Duke of Nan commandary.

爲桓玄篡晉張本。

(This was the means by which Huan Xuan would later usurp the Jin throne.)


庚戌,加右將軍、荊州刺史桓豁征西將軍,督荊、楊、雍、交、廣五州諸軍事。以江州刺史桓沖為中軍將軍、都督揚、豫、江三州諸軍事、揚、豫二州刺史,鎮姑孰;竟陵太守桓石秀為寧遠將軍、江州刺史,鎮尋陽。石秀,豁之子也。沖既代溫居任,盡忠王室,或勸沖誅除時望,專執時權,沖不從。始,溫在鎮,死罪皆專決不請。沖以為生殺之重,當歸朝廷,凡大辟皆先上,須報,然後行之。

8. On the day Gengqu (August 29th), the General of the Right and Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, was promoted as General Who Conquers The West and Commander of miltiary affairs in Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Yongzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou. Huan Chong was appointed as General of the Central Army, Commander of military affair in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, and Jiangzhou, and Inspector of Yangzhou and Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Gushu. The Administrator of Jingling, Huan Shixiu, was appointed as General Who Calms Distant Places and Inspector of Jiangzhou, and he was stationed at Xunyang. This Huan Shixiu was the son of Huan Huo.

Although Huan Chong had assumed Huan Wen’s former post, he was fully loyal to the royal family. There were those who urged Huan Chong to purge the court and seize the momentum, and grasp all authority over affairs in his own hands, but Huan Chong refused to go along with such plots.

When Huan Wen had been alive, he had ordered executions and made other such important decisions without first seeking permission from the court. But now, since Huan Chong believed that matters as weighty as life and death must first be referred to the court, in all great matters he first reported to them, and only after hearing back from them did he carry out the decisions.

「楊」,恐當作「梁」。【章:十二行本「桓」上有「以江州刺史」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】三分溫所統以授其弟姪。史言桓沖事晉朝忠順。

(This passage lists Huan Huo as having Commander authority over "Yangzhou". I (Hu Sanxing) suspect this was an error, and the text meant to say "Lianzhou". (Huan Chong is also listed as having Commander authority over Yangzhou.)

Some versions reiterate here that Huan Chong was "Inspector of Jiangzhou".

Huan Wen's former very extensive area of command authority was thus divided up into three parts between his younger brothers and relatives.

This passage shows Huan Chong's loyal obedience to the Jin court.)


謝安以天子幼沖,新喪元輔,欲請崇德太后臨朝。王彪之曰:「前世人主幼在襁褓,母子一體,故可臨朝;太后亦不能決事,要須顧問大臣。今上年出十歲,垂及冠婚,反令從嫂臨朝,示人君幼弱,豈所以光揚聖德乎!諸公必欲行此,豈僕所制,所惜者大體耳。」安不欲委任桓沖,故使太后臨朝,己得以專獻替裁決,遂不從彪之之言。八月,壬子,太后復臨朝懾政。

9. Because Emperor Xiaowu was still young, and the regent Huan Wen had just passed away, Xie An wished to ask Empress Dowager Chongde to resume her regency role over the court.

Wang Biaozhi said to him, "During Emperor Mu's reign, our ruler was no more than a babe in swaddling clothes, so mother and son were always together as though of one body. That was why she was able to preside over the court before. And even Empress Dowager Chongde is not able to decide upon affairs by herself, since she would have to defer to the opinions of the great ministers. Now our current Emperor has just turned nine years old in the last year, and he will experience his capping ceremony and his betrothal before long. Yet you want to place his cousin's wife in command of the court, and so announce to the world how young and frail our sovereign is; how could such a thing as that propagate saintly virtue? That would be just what all the Dukes want to see happen. To think of a servant being in charge! That would be more the pity for all of us."

But Xie An wished to keep Huan Chong from the role, so he made Empress Dowager Chongde once again preside over the court. Since he did not want to risk handing over his own power to someone else, he did not follow Wang Biaozhi's advice. In the eighth month, on the day Renzi (?), Empress Dowager Chongde resumed leading the court in handling affairs.

帝元帝之孫,於康帝爲從弟,故太后爲從嫂。史言彪之所陳者正義,謝安所行者時宜。

(Emperor Xiaowu was Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) grandson by Emperor Jianwen (Sima Yu), while Emperor Kang was another grandson by Emperor Ming, so Xiaowu and Kang were cousins. Since she had been Emperor Kang's wife, this made Empress Dowager Chongde the Emperor's 從嫂 "cousin's wife".

This passage shows that Wang Biaozhi was trying to uphold proper conduct and justice, while Xie An was acting according to circumstances.)


梁州刺史楊亮遣其子廣襲仇池,與秦梁州刺史楊安戰,廣兵敗,沮水諸戌皆委城奔潰。亮懼,退守磬險。九月,安進攻漢川。

10. Jin’s Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang, sent his son Yang Guang to invade Chouchi. Yang Guang fought with Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang An, but Yang Guang's soldiers were defeated. All of Jin's outposts along the Zu River scattered and fled. Yang Liang, afraid, fell back to defend Qingxian. In the ninth month, Yang An advanced and attacked Hanchuan.

簡文帝咸安元年,秦取仇池。班《志》,沮水出武都沮縣東狼谷,東流合爲漢水。晉蓋阻沮水列戍以備秦。沮,子余翻。漢川卽漢中郡之地。

(Former Qin had conquered Chouchi, as mentioned above, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.9).

According to the Ban family's Notes, the Zu River flowed out of Donglang Valley in Zu county in Wudu commandary, and on east from there until it joined with the Han River. Jin must have placed several outposts along the line of the Zu River to guard against Former Qin. 沮 is pronounced "zu (z-u)".

Hanchuan means the territory of Hanzhong commandary.)


丙申,以王彪之為尚書令,謝安為僕射,領吏部,共掌朝政。安每歎曰:「朝廷大事,眾所不能決者,以咨王公,無不立決。」

11. On the day Bingshen (October 14th), Wang Biaozhi was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Xie An was appointed as Deputy Director and acting Supervisor. They jointly managed the affairs of court. Xie An often lamented, "There is no one else able to handle these great affairs of court. If we consulted with the princes and dukes, every one of them would want to be in charge."

以吳國內史刁彝為徐、兗二州刺史,鎮廣陵。

12. Diao Yi was appointed as Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Guangling.

冬,秦王堅使益州刺史王統、秘書監朱肜帥卒二萬出漢川,前禁將軍毛當、鷹揚將軍徐成帥卒三萬出劍門,入寇梁、益;梁州刺史楊亮帥巴獠萬餘拒之,戰於青谷。亮兵敗,奔固西城。肜遂拔漢中。徐成攻劍門,克之。楊安進攻梓潼,梓潼太守周虓固守涪城,遣步騎數千送母、妻自漢水趣江陵,朱肜邀而獲之,虓遂降於安。十一月,安克梓潼。荊州刺史桓豁遣江夏相竺瑤救梁、益;瑤聞廣漢太守趙長戰死,引兵退。益州刺史周仲孫勒兵拒朱肜於綿竹,聞毛當將至成都,仲孫帥騎五千奔於南中。奉遂取梁、益二州,邛、莋、夜郎皆附於秦。秦王堅以楊安為益州牧,鎮成都;毛當為州刺史,鎮漢中;姚萇為寧州刺史,屯墊江;王統為南秦州刺史,鎮仇池。

13. In winter, Fu Jian launched an invasion of Jin's territory in Lianzhou and Yizhou. He ordered Wang Tong and the Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, to lead an army of twenty thousand soldiers towards Hanchuan, and he ordered the General of the Front 禁, Mao Dang, and the General of Hawkish Display, Xu Cheng, led an army of thirty thousand soldiers towards Jianmen. Yang Liang led more than ten thousand of the Ba-Lao people to defend against the Qin invaders, and they fought a battle at Qing Valley. But Yang Liang's soldiers were defeated, and he fled to defend Xicheng. Zhu Yong then captured Hanzhong. Xu Cheng attacked Jiange (or Jianmen), and took it.

Yang An advanced and attacked Zitong commandary. Jin's Administrator of Zitong, Zhou Xiao, stubbornly defended Fucheng, and sent several thousand horse and foot to escort his mother and wife along the Han River to Jiangling. But Zhu Yong intercepted the group and captured them, so Zhou Xiao surrendered to Yang An. In the eleventh month, Yang An captured Zitong.

Huan Huo sent the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhu Yao, to rescue Lianzhou and Yizhou. But when Zhu Yao heard that the Administrator of Guanghan, Zhao Zhang, had died in battle, he led his own soldiers in retreat.

Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Zhongsun, led his soldiers to oppose Zhu Yong at Mianzhu. But when he heard that Mao Dang was about to arrive at Chengdu, Zhou Zhongsun led five thousand riders to flee to Nanzhong. With that, Qin captured Lianzhou and Yizhou. The far southern regions of Qiong, Ce, and Yelang all submitted to Qin.

Fu Jian appointed Yang An as Governor of Yizhou, stationed at Chengdu; he appointed Mao Dang as Inspector of Lianzhou, stationed at Hanzhong; he appointed Yao Chang as Inspector of Ningzhou, stationed at Diejiang; and he appointed Wang Tong as Inspector of Southern Qinzhou, stationed at Chouchi.

肜,余沖翻。秦置左、右、前、後四禁將軍。蜀先無獠,李勢之時,始自山出。《新唐志》:洋州眞符縣,本華陽縣,開元十八年,析興道置。天寶八載,開清水谷路。興道縣,卽興勢之地。西城縣,漢屬漢中郡,魏、晉屬魏興郡。奔固者,奔西城以自固也。【章:十二行本「閣」作「門」;乙十一行本同。】此漢水,蓋蜀人所謂西漢水也,與涪水會,至渝州入江,順江而下,則達江陵。然朱肜克漢中,因得邀虓母、妻,則又似自漢中之漢水趣江陵。但秦兵已至梓潼,自涪以北,皆爲秦有,虓母、妻安能越劍閣,取漢水路而趣江陵乎!意謂當以此漢水爲西漢水。梓潼縣,漢屬廣漢郡。劉蜀分爲梓潼郡,治涪。莋,才各翻。墊,音疊。

(Zhu Yong's given name 肜 is pronounced "yong (y-ong)".

Former Qin had Generals of the Left, Right, Front, and Rear 禁.

There had not originally been any Lao people in Shu, but during Li Shi of Cheng-Han's era, they first began to enter the region. (Book 97, 346.11)

The New Records of Tang states, "Zhenfu county in Yangzhou was originally Huayang county. In the eighteenth year of Kaiyuan (730), it was split off as Xingdao county. In the eighth year of Tianbao (749), a road was made through there in the Qing River Valley." This Xingdao county was the same area as Xingshi (where Wang Ping of Shu-Han had fought against Cao Shuang of Cao-Wei).

During Han, Xicheng county was part of Hanzhong commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Weixing commandary. The phrase 奔固 here means that Yang Liang fled to Xicheng to protect himself there.

Some versions write the name of the place Xu Cheng attacked as 劍門 "Jianmen" rather than 劍閣 "Jiange".

The "Han River" mentioned here must have been what the people of the Shu region called the Western Han River. It joins with the Fu River, and in Yuzhou it enters the Yangzi. From there, one can follow the Yangzi downriver to Jiangling. I (Hu Sanxing) make this argument because if, since Zhu Yong had captured Hanzhong, if he went to intercept the group escorting Zhao Xiao's mother and wife along the actual Han River, it would make sense for him to move along the Han River from Hanzhong to Jiangling. But the Former Qin soldiers were already at Zitong commandary, so they would have already occupied all the territory north of Fu. How then could Zhou Xiao's mother and wife have gotten past Jiange to reach the Han River route to head for Jiangling that way? That is why what is here called the Han River must really be the Western Han River.

During Han, Zitong county was part of Guanghan commandary. Shu-Han split it off as Zitong commandary, administered from Fu.

The name of the southern region Ce, 莋, is pronounced "ce (c-e)".

The first character of Diejiang, 墊, is pronounced "die".)


The person introduced here as 周虓 Zhou Xiao is named 周颺 Zhou Yang in some versions of the Zizhi Tongjian.

堅仍平蜀。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian then conquered the Shu region.

初,萇隨楊安伐蜀,嘗晝寢水旁,上有神光煥然,左右咸異之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Yao Chang accompanied Yang An in Former Qin's campaign in the Shu region, he took a nap beside a river. A divine glow appeared above him and then vanished, and everyone who saw it was amazed.


秦王堅欲以周虓為尚書郎。虓曰:「蒙晉厚恩,但老母見獲,失節於此,母子獲全,秦之惠也。雖公侯之貴,不以為榮,況郎官乎!」遂不仕。每見堅,或箕踞而坐,呼為氐賊。嘗值元會,儀衛甚盛,堅問之曰:「晉朝元會,與此何如?」虓攘袂厲聲曰:「犬羊相聚,何敢比擬天朝!」秦人以虓不遜,屢請殺之,堅待之彌厚。

14. Fu Jian wished to appoint his new captive Zhou Xiao as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. But Zhou Xiao said to him, "I have received boundless grace from Jin. It is only because you captured my old mother that I set aside my duty to come here. It is kind of you to spare both a mother and her son. But I will accept no honors from you even if you wanted to make me a duke or a marquis, much less just having me serve in office as a Gentleman!" So he did not accept the office. Whenever Zhou Xiao saw Fu Jian, he would sometimes sit on the floor with his legs stretched out and shout “Di rebel!” at him.

Fu Jian held a New Year’s Day Meeting for his court, and the granduer and pomp were most impressive. He asked Zhou Xiao, "When the Jin court holds this kind of meeting, how does theirs compare with mine?"

But Zhou Xiao shook out his sleeves and said in a stern voice, "You dare to compare this pack of dogs and goats with the heavenly court?"
The people of Qin often asked Fu Jian to kill Zhou Xiao because of his brazen behavior. But Fu Jian tolerated him and treated him generously.

堅本氐也,故以氐賊呼之。此必虓母死後事。正月一日爲元日,是日朝會爲元會。秦之君臣,皆六夷也,故詆之爲犬羊。天朝,謂晉也。

(Fu Jian was of the Di people, so Zhou Xiao called him "Di rebel". But this sort of thing must surely have been after Zhou Xiao's mother had already died.

The first day of the first month of the year was called the Prime Day. The court meeting on that day was thus a Prime Assembly, or a 'New Year's Day Meeting'.

Fu Jian himself and the ministers of Former Qin were all from the six tribes, so Zhou Xiao called them mere "dogs and goats". The “heavenly court” was the Jin court.)


周仲孫坐失守免官。桓沖以冠軍將軍毛虎生為益州刺史,領建平太守,以虎生子球為梓潼太守。虎生與球代秦,至巴西,以糧乏,退屯巴東。

15. Zhou Zhongsun was blamed for the fall of his province to Qin and stripped of office. Huan Chong appointed the Champion General, Mao Husheng, as the new Inspector of Yizhou and as acting Administrator of Jianping. He appointed Mao Husheng's son Mao Qiu as the new Administrator of Zitong. Mao Husheng and Mao Qiu went to campaign against Qin, but when they arrived at Baxi, their grain had run low, so they fell back to camp at Badong.

以侍中王坦之為中書令,領丹楊尹。

16. Wang Tanzhi was appointed as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and acting Intendant of Danyang.

是歲,鮮卑勃寒寇掠隴右,秦王堅使乞伏司繁討之。勃寒請降,遂使司繁鎮勇士川。

17. During this year, the Bohan tribe of the Xianbei invaded and plundered the Longyou region. Fu Jian sent Qifu Sifan to campaign against him. The Bohan asked to surrender, and thereafter Qifu Sifan was sent to garrison Yongshichuan.

勃寒,亦隴西鮮卑也。勇士川卽漢天水勇士縣之地。

(The Bohan were one of the Xianbei tribes of Longxi.

Yongshichuan was the region of Yongshi county in Tianshui commandary during Han.)


後以為鎮西將軍,鎮勇士川。甚有威惠之稱。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Qifu Sifan was later appointed as Former Qin's General Who Guards The West and stationed at Yongshichuan. He gained a great reputation for both might and magnanimity.

苻堅又拜鎮西將軍,鎮勇士川。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Fu Jian also appointed Qifu Sifan as General Who Guards The West, and stationed him at Yongshichuan.

俄而鮮卑勃寒侵斥隴右,堅以司繁為使持節、都督討西胡諸軍事、鎮西將軍以討之。勃寒懼而請降,司繁遂鎮勇士川,甚有威惠。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Later, when the Bohan tribe of the Xianbei invaded the Longyou region, Fu Jian appointed Qifu Sifan as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of the Expeditionary Force Against the Western Tribes, and General Who Guards The West, and sent him to campaign against them. The Bohan were afraid and asked to surrender, and thereafter Qifu Sifan was stationed at Yongshichuan, where he gained a great reputation for both might and magnanimity.


有彗星出於尾箕,長十餘丈,經太微,掃東井;自四月始見,及秋冬不滅。秦太史令張孟言於秦王堅曰:「尾、箕,燕分;東井,秦分也。令彗起尾、箕而掃東井,十年之後,燕當滅秦;二十年之後,代當滅燕。慕容暐父子兄弟,我之仇敵,而布列朝廷,貴盛莫二,臣竊憂之,宜翦其抱魁桀者,以消天變。」堅不聽。

18. Comets appeared in the Tail and Winnowing Basket constellations, with trails more than ten zhang in length. They passed through the Supreme Palace enclosure and into the Eastern Well. They were first seen in the fourth month, and remained in sight through the autumn and winter.

Qin's Grand Astrologist, Zhang Meng, said to Fu Jian, "The Tail and Winnowing Basket represent Yan; the Eastern Well represents Qin. By the comets coming out of the Tail and Winnowing Basket and entering the Eastern Well, they foretell that within ten years, Yan will extinguish Qin, and within twenty years, Dai will extinguish Yan. Now Murong Wei and his whole family are our hated enemies, yet you have filled the court with them, such that no other group can match their power and glory. I must admit that I am worried about them. You ought to do away with this chief evil you have nurtured, to cancel out these developments in the heavens."

But Fu Jian did not heed him.

【嚴:「孟」改「猛」。】《天文志》:尾九星,箕四星,燕、幽州分。東井八星,秦、雍州分。按《天文志》,雲中入東井一度,定襄入東井八度,鴈門入東井十六度,代郡入東井二十八度,是皆拓跋氏所有之地也。所以知代當滅燕者,天道好還,彗起燕分而掃秦分,此燕滅秦之徵。秦已滅矣,代乘天道好還之運,反而滅燕,自然之大數也。太元十年,慕容沖破長安,距是歲僅十一年。安帝隆安元年,拓跋珪克中山,距是歲二十三年。

(Some versions list Zhang Meng's given name as 孟 Meng instead of 猛 Meng.

The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states that the Tail constellation has nine stars and the Winnowing Basket constellation has four, and that they correspond to the regions of Yan and Youzhou. And the Eastern Well constellation has eight stars, and it corresponds to Qinzhou and Yongzhou.

Also according to the Records, Yunzhong enters the Eastern Well in the first 度, Dingxiang enters it in the eighth 度, Yanmen enters it in the sixteenth 度, and Dai commandary enters it in the twenty-eighth 度. At the time of this interpretation, all of those places were controlled by the Tuoba clan of Dai. So it would accord with the natural order for Dai to extinguish Yan, and for the comets to come from Yan's part of the heavens to Qin's part was a further portent of Yan extinguishing Former Qin. Once Former Qin had been extinguished, then Dai could act to restore the natural order, and extinguish Yan in turn; all these things would be natural. Indeed, in the tenth year of Taiyuan (Book 105, 385.34), Murong Chong would sack Chang'an, and from that time to this was a period of only eleven years. And in Emperor An's first year of Longan (397), Tuoba Gui would capture the Later Yan capital of Zhongshan, and from that time to this was twenty-three years.)


四月,天鼓鳴,彗出於箕尾,長十餘丈,或名蚩尤旗,經太微,掃東井,自夏及秋冬不滅。太史令張猛言於堅曰:「尾,燕之分野,而掃東井。東井,秦之分。災深禍大,十年之後,燕滅秦之象。二十年之後,燕當為代所滅。慕容暐父子兄弟,亡虜也,而布列朝廷,貴盛莫二,宜除渠帥,以寧王秦。若旦誅鮮卑,不夕滅客彗者,臣請就妖言之戮。」堅不納,更以暐為尚書,垂為京兆尹,沖為平陽太守。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the fourth month, there was a sound of drums from the heavens. Comets appeared in the Tail and Winnowing Basket constellations, with trails more than ten zhang in length; some called them the Banner of Chi You. They passed through the Supreme Palace enclosure and into the Eastern Well. They were first seen in summer, and remained in sight through the autumn and winter.

Qin's Grand Astrologist, Zhang Meng, said to Fu Jian, "The Tail represents Yan; the Eastern Well represents Qin. This poses a serious disaster and great misfortune; it is an omen that within ten years, Yan will extinguish Qin, and within twenty years, Dai will extinguish Yan. Now Murong Wei and his whole family are our conquered enemies, yet you have filled the court with them, such that no other group can match their power and glory. I must admit that I am worried about them. You ought to do away with this chief evil, in order to bring stability to Qin. If, on the morning that you execute the Xianbei, the shooting stars do not vanish from the heavens that same evening, then I ask you to execute me for my wild words."

But Fu Jian did not heed him. He even appointed Murong Wei as a Master of Writing, Murong Chui as Intendant of Jingzhao, and Murong Chong as Administrator of Pingyang.


陽平公融上疏曰:「東胡跨據六州,南面稱帝,陛下勞師累年,然後得之,本非慕義而來。今陛下親而幸之,使其父子兄弟森然滿朝,執權履職,勢傾勳舊。臣愚以為狼虎之心,終不可養,星變如此,願少留意。」堅報曰:「朕方混六合為一家,視夷狄為赤子。汝宜息慮,勿懷耿介。夫惟修德可以禳災,苟能內求諸己,何懼外患乎!」

19. Fu Rong sent up a memorial from Ye stating, "The eastern barbarians (the Xianbei) once stood astride these six provinces, and they faced south and called themselves Emperors. It was only after two years of hard fighting that Your Majesty was able to wrest the territory from them; it was not a case of them respecting your righteousness and coming to serve you of their own accord. Yet Your Majesty has been favoring them, until now the court is full of them, fathers and sons, elder and younger brothers, like a thick forest. They grasp at influence and fill offices, and their power surpasses your diligent and long-serving ministers. I humbly attest my belief that they have wild beasts' heart, and they can never be tamed. You have seen the changes in the stars. I pray you give this matter further consideration."

But Fu Jian's response to him stated, “I intend to assimilate all the peoples of the Six Directions together into one family, and I view the Rong and Di tribes as newborn children. You should put aside your worries, so that you will not have 'an anxious heart, full of trouble'. One need only cultivate virtue in order to avert disaster. If everything within the state can be put into order, what foreign threat would we have cause to fear?"

鮮卑,東胡之餘種也。事見上卷海西公太和四年、五年。木多爲森。森然,猶林然也。《詩》曰:憂心耿耿。賢曰:介介,猶耿耿也。史言苻堅養虎自遺患,爲悔不用融言張本。

(By the "eastern barbarians", Fu Rong meant the Xianbei, who were an offshoot of the Eastern Hu tribes of old.

Fu Rong refers to the campaign against Former Yan, mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fourth and fifth years of Taihe (369-370).

A place with many trees is a forest. So 森然 and 林然 both mean "thick with trees" either literally or figuratively.

The Book of Poetry has this verse: "My anxious heart, full of trouble (Bo Zhou 4)." The learned man remarks, "介介 means the same as 耿耿."

This passage shows how Fu Jian was raising a tiger and so bringing about trouble for himself later on. He would regret that he had not followed Fu Rong's advice.)
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BOOK 103

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:42 am

寧康二年(甲戌,公元三七四年)

The Second Year of Ningkang (The Jiaxu Year, 374 AD)


春,正月,癸未朔,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Guiwei (January 29th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

己酉,刁彝卒。二月,癸丑,以王坦之為都督徐、兗、青三州諸軍事、徐、兗二州刺史,鎮廣陵。詔謝安總中書。安好聲律,期功之慘,不廢絲竹,士大夫效之,遂以成俗。王坦之屢以書苦諫之曰:「天下之寶,當為天下惜之。」安不能從。

2. On the day Jiyou (February 24th), the Jin minister Diao Yi passed away.

In the second month, on the day Guichou (February 28th), Wang Tanzhi was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Guangling. The court appointed Xie An as Overseer of the Palace Secretariat.

Xie An enjoyed the shenglü style of poetry, and even during the periods of mourning according to one's merits, he would not put aside the sizhu musical instruments. The gentry and scholar-officials all followed his example, and so these things become the established custom. Wang Tanzhi often wrote to Xie An bitterly remonstrating with him, stating, "What had been the realm’s treasures will now become its regrets." But Xie An could not heed him.

王坦之出鎭,安兼總中書。期功,期及大功、小功之喪也。言禮法爲天下之寶。

(When Wang Tanzhi went out to his border post, Xie An took over his duties at the Palace Secretariat, thus becoming the Overseer of that bureau.

By "periods of mourning", this passage means during the mourning periods for those of great or slight accomplishments.

Wang Tanzhi refers to the realm's customs and laws as its "treasures".)


三月,秦太尉建寧列公李威卒。

3. In the third month, Qin's Grand Commandant, Li Wei, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Lie ("the Zealous") of Jianning.

十年三月,侍中太尉李威卒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the tenth year of Jianyuan (374), the third month, the Palace Attendant and Grand Commandant, Li Wei, passed away.


夏,五月,蜀人張育、楊光起兵擊秦,有眾二萬,遣使來請兵。秦王堅遣鎮軍將軍鄧羌帥甲士五萬討之。益州刺史竺瑤、威遠將軍桓石虔帥眾三萬攻墊江,姚萇兵敗,退屯五城。瑤、石虔屯巴東。張育自號蜀王,與巴獠酋帥張重、尹萬等五萬餘人進圍成都。六月,育改元黑龍。秋,七月,張育與張重等爭權,舉兵相攻,秦楊安、鄧羌襲育,敗之,育與楊光退屯綿竹。八月,鄧羌敗晉兵於涪西。九月,楊安敗張重、尹萬於成都南,重死,斬首二萬三千級。鄧羌擊張育、楊光於綿竹,皆斬之。益州復入於秦。

4. In summer, the fifth month, two natives of the Shu region, Zhang Yu and Yang Guang, rose in rebellion there. They attacked Qin, and their army numbered twenty thousand. They sent messengers asking for aid from Jin. Fu Jian sent his General Who Guards The Army, Deng Qiang, with fifty thousand infantry to campaign against them. Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhu Yao, and the General Who Overawes Distant Places, Huan Shiqian, led thirty thousand soldiers to attack Diejiang. Yao Chang's soldiers were defeated there, and he retreated to camp at Wucheng. Zhu Yao and Huan Shiqian camped at Badong. Zhang Yu proclaimed himself King of Shu, and he joined with the Ba-Lao chieftains Zhang Zhong, Yin Wan, and others. They advanced and besieged Chengdu with more than fifty thousand soldiers.

In the sixth month, Zhang Yu declared his reign era title would be Heilong.

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhang Yu began to quarrel with Zhang Zhong and the others, and both sides raised troops and attacked one another. Then Yang An and Deng Qiang attacked Zhang Yu and defeated him, and Zhang Yu and Yang Guang fled to camp at Mianzhu.

In the eighth month, Deng Qiang defeated the Jin soldiers west of Fu.

In the ninth month, Yang An defeated Zhang Zhong and Yin Wan south of Chengdu. Zhang Zhong died, and twenty-three thousand heads were taken. Deng Qiang attacked Zhang Yu and Yang Guang at Mianzhu, and beheaded both of them. Yizhou thus returned to Qin's control.

《晉志》,廣漢郡有五城縣,武帝咸寧四年立,唐梓州之玄武縣也。《華陽國志》云:漢時立倉於此,發五縣人尉部主之,後因以爲五城縣,有五城山。

(The Records of Jin mentions a Wucheng county in Guanghan commandary. It was formed during Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) fourth year of Xianning (279). During Tang, it was Xuanwu county in Zizhou. And the Chronicles of Huayang relates that during the Han era, storehouses were set up there, from which people from the five counties there could be controlled. Thereafter it came to be called Wucheng county (“Five Cities”), and there was also a Mount Wucheng there. (Huayang Guozhi 14.5))


夏四月,堅下書曰:「巴夷險逆,寇亂益州,招引吳軍,為唇齒之勢。特進、鎮軍將軍、護羌校尉鄧羌,可帥甲士五萬,星夜赴討。」五月,蜀人張育、楊光等起兵二萬,以應巴獠。晉威遠將軍桓石虔帥衆二萬入據墊江,張育自號蜀王,稱藩于晉。八月,鄧羌敗晉師於涪西,擊張育、楊光,屯於綿竹,皆斬之,益州平,羌勒銘于岷山而還。十二月,羌至自成都,堅引見東堂,謂之曰:「將軍之先仲華,遇漢世祖於前;將軍復逢朕於後,何鄧氏之多幸。」羌曰:「臣常謂光武之遇仲華,非獨仲華遭光武。」堅笑曰:「將軍蓋以自況,非直將軍之幸,亦朕之遇賢。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "The tribes of Ba are taking advantage of the rugged terrain of that region to rise in rebellion; they are invading and causing trouble in Yizhou, and they are beckoning the armies of Wu to come and join them, in order to have the combined power of the teeth joined by the lips. I hereby order the Specially Advanced, General Who Guards The Army, and Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, Deng Qiang, to lead fifty thousand armored soldiers and march by starlight to campaign against them."

In the fifth month, natives of the Shu region, Zhang Yu, Yang Guang, and others, raised twenty thousand soldiers and joined the Lao people of Ba in their rebellion. Jin's General Who Awes Distant Places, Hua Shiqian, led twenty thousand soldiers into the region to occupy Dianjiang. Zhang Yu declared himself King of Shu, as a vassal of Jin.

In the eighth month, Deng Qiang defeated the Jin soldiers west of Fu. He attacked Zhang Yu and Yang Guang, who were camped at Mianzhu, and killed them both. Yizhou was thus pacified. Deng Qiang carved a stele at the Min Mountains before returning.

In the twelfth month, Deng Qiang returned from Chengdu. Fu Jian summoned him into the East Hall and said to him, "General, long ago, your ancestor Zhonghua (Deng Yu) met Shizu of Han (Emperor Guangwu). And now, in our time, you too have met me. How fortunate the Deng clan is."

Deng Qiang replied, "I've often said that it was Emperor Guangwu who met Zhonghua, not Zhonghua who met Guangwu."

Fu Jian laughed and said, "In that case, General, I should not say that you are fortunate; it is I who is blessed to have met such a worthy man."


冬,十二月,有人入秦明光殿大呼曰:「甲申、乙酉,魚羊食人,悲哉無復遺!」秦王堅命執之,不獲。秘書監朱肜、秘書侍郎略陽趙整固請誅諸鮮卑,堅不聽。整,宦官也,博聞強記,能屬文,好直言,上書及面諫,前後五十餘事。慕容垂夫人得幸於堅,堅與之同輦游於後庭,整歌曰:「不見雀來入燕室,但見浮雲蔽白日。」堅改容謝之,命夫人下輦。

5. In winter, the twelfth month, strangers entered Qin's Mingguang Palace. They chanted, "In Jiashen and Yiyou, fish and goats will eat humans! Regret, for there shall be nothing left to pass on!" Fu Jian ordered them to be arrested, but they could not be apprehended. Zhu Yong and the Gentleman-Attendant of the Private Library, Zhao Zheng of Lüeyang, insisted on executing the various Xianbei, but Fu Jian did not listen to them.

This Zhao Zheng was a eunuch; he possessed wide learning and had a strong memory. He was skilled in composition, and he was good at speaking directly. He often presented criticisms to Fu Jian in writing and in person, and did so altogether more than fifty times. When Murong Chui’s wife paid a visit to Fu Jian, they rode in the same carriage together as they traveled about the rear courtyard. But Zhao Zheng sang, "I’ve never seen a sparrow enter a swallow’s den, but I’ve seen floating clouds obscure the white sun." Fu Jian changed his expression and apologized to him, and he ordered the woman out of the carriage.

「魚羊」合成「鮮」人,謂鮮卑也。是後慕容起兵攻秦,果在甲申、乙酉之歲。晉祕書省有丞、有郎,無侍郎。秦以整爲祕書郎,內侍左右,故曰侍郎。卽段夫人也。

(The characters for 魚 "fish" and 羊 "goat" combine to form 鮮, the first character of the word 鮮卑 Xianbei. And indeed, when the Xianbei of the Murong clan later rose up and attacked Former Qin, it would be in the Jiashen and Yiyou years (384-5).

Under the Jin system, the Private Library had Assistants and Gentlemen, but it did not have Gentlemen-Attendants. When Former Qin appointed Zhao Zheng as a Gentleman of the Private Library, they added Attendants of the Left and Right, and so he was called a Gentleman-Attendant.

"Murong Chui's wife" was the younger Lady Duan, sister of the elder Lady Duan. Murong Chui had married her and brought with him to Former Qin.)


是歲,代王什翼犍擊劉衛辰,南走。

6. During this year, Tuoba Shiyijian attacked Liu Weichen, who fled south.

「衞辰」之下更有「衞辰」字,文意乃足。爲下衞辰求救於秦張本。

(This passage should have another instance of "Liu Weichen" before "fled south", in order to make clear that he was the one who did so.

This was why Liu Weichen later sought aid from Former Qin (Book 104, 376.14).)


三十七年,帝征衞辰,衞辰南走。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirty-seventh year of Jianguo (374), Tuoba Shiyijian campaigned against Liu Weichen. Liu Weichen fled south.
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BOOK 103

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:45 am

寧康三年(乙亥,公元三七五年)

The Third Year of Ningkang (The Yihai Year, 375 AD)


春,正月,辛亥,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinhai (February 21st), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

夏,五月,丙午,藍田獻侯王坦之卒;臨終與謝安、桓沖書,惟以國家為憂,言不及私。

2. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Bingwu (June 16th), Wang Tanzhi passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Xian ("the Presented") of Lantian.

On his deathbed, Wang Tanzhi wrote letters to Xie An and to Huan Chong, charging them to concern themselves purely with affairs of state, and not to say anything of personal affairs.

桓沖以謝安素有重望,欲以揚州讓之,自求外出。桓氏族黨皆以為非計,莫不扼腕苦諫,郗超亦深止之,沖皆不聽,處之澹然。甲寅,詔以沖都督徐、豫、兗、青、揚五州諸軍事、徐州刺史,鎮京口;以安領揚州刺史,並加侍中。

3. Since Huan Chong had long held high regard for Xie An, he wished to resign his position in Yangzhou in Xie An's favor, and he asked to be sent to another command. The family members and partisans of the Huan clan all believed that this was a bad idea, and they all strenuously remonstrated with him. Chi Chao tried his best to stop Huan Chong as well. But Huan Chong did not listen to any of them, and ignored their complaints. On the day Jiayin (June 24th), the court appointed Huan Chong as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Yangzhou and as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was stationed at Jingkou. Xie An was then appointed as acting Inspector of Yangzhou, combined with his role as Palace Attendant.

揚州統攝京畿,權任要重,故皆止沖。

(Controlling Yangzhou meant controlling the capital region itself, and it was a post of great power. This was why everyone tried to stop Huan Chong.)


六月,秦清河武侯王猛寢疾,秦王堅親為之祈南、北郊及宗廟、社稷,分遣侍臣遍禱河、岳諸神。猛疾少療,為之赦殊死以下。猛上疏曰:「不圖陛下以臣之命而虧天地之德,威烈振乎八荒,聲敎光乎六合,九州百郡,十居其七,平燕定蜀,有如拾芥。夫善作者不必善成,善始者不必善終,是以古先哲王,知功業之不易,戰戰兢兢,如臨深谷。伏惟陛下,追蹤前聖,天下幸甚。」堅覽之悲慟。秋,七月,堅親至猛第視疾,訪以後事。猛曰:「晉雖僻處江南,然正朔相承,上下安和,臣沒之後,願勿以晉為圖。鮮卑、西羌,我之仇敵,終為人患,宜漸除之,以便社稷。」言終而卒。堅比斂,三臨哭,謂太子宏曰:「天不欲使吾平壹六合耶!何奪吾景略之速也!」葬之如漢霍光故事。

4. In the sixth month, Wang Meng was confined to bed by illness. Fu Jian personally prayed for him at the sacrificial altars of the northern and southern suburbs and at the Ancestral Temple and the altars of the spirits of earth and grain. He even sent his attendants and ministers to pray to the spirits of the rivers and mountains. Wang Meng's illness somewhat abated, and Fu Jian proclaimed a general amnesty forgiving crimes up until those sentenced to decapitation.

Wang Meng sent up a memorial stating, "Your Majesty, do not let the fate of your minister cause you to lose the virtues of Heaven and Earth. It is true that your power and might are felt throughout the Eight Desolates, and your word and your instruction glow throughout the Six Directions. Of the nine provinces and hundred commandaries, you possess seven-tenths, and you have conquered Yan and taken Shu as easily as picking a thing up off the ground. But those who excel at doing do not necessarily excel at completing, and those who excel at beginning do not necessarily excel at finishing. Even the sage kings of antiquity knew that seeing a task to fruition was not easy. Be ‘apprehensive and cautious’, 'as though on the edge of a valley'. My sole wish is that Your Majesty will follow in the footsteps of these sages of old, so that the realm shall be blessed." Fu Jian read it with deep grief and anguish.

In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Jian went to Wang Meng's residence to personally tend to his illness, and to hear his final thoughts for what should happen after his death. Wang Meng said to him, "Although Jin is secluded in the Southland, they have still continued to uphold their original legitimacy, and all their land is at peace and harmony. After I am no more, give no thought to campaigns against Jin. Our true enemies are the Xianbei and the Qiang. They will bring calamity in the end. You must gradually do away with them, for the good of the state."

Having said this, Wang Meng passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Wu ("the Martial") of Qinghe.

Fu Jian then lost his composure, and wept copiously. He said to his Crown Prince, Fu Hong, "Heaven does not wish for me to pacify the world! How quickly it has snatched away my Jinglüe from me!"

Wang Meng received burial in the same manner as Huo Guang of Han.

蓋黃河及華嶽諸神,不盡徧四嶽也。身首橫分爲殊死。八方之外爲八荒。《爾雅》:觚竹、北戶、西王母、日下,謂之四荒。六合,天、地、東、西、南、北。師古曰:草芥之橫在地上者,俛而拾之,言易而必得也。樂毅《答燕惠王書》之言。《詩‧小宛》:惴惴小心,如臨于谷;戰戰兢兢,如履薄冰。王猛事秦,亦知正統之在江南。徐光之論非矣。後卒如猛言。

(These "spirits of the rivers and mountains" must have been the spirits of the Yellow River and of Mount Hua, but not all of the four sacred mountains.

To sever the head from the body was decapitation.

The eight places beyond the borders of the realm were called the Eight Desolates. The Erya dictionary states, "Guzhu, Beihu, Xiwangmu, and Rixia may be called the Four Desolates".

The Six Directions were Heaven, Earth, east, west, south, and north.

Yan Shigu remarked, "When grass grows straight up from the ground, one can reach down and grab it; the saying means something that is so easy as to be certainly accomplished."

The phrase "Those who excel at doing..." is a quote from Yue Yi's letter Reply to King Hui of Yan.

The Xiaowan section of the Book of Poetry has the verse, "We must be anxious and careful, as if we were on the brink of a valley. We must be apprehensive and cautious, as if we were treading upon thin ice."

Wang Meng served Former Qin, but he also knew that the Jin dynasty in the Southland still possessed legitimacy. This was the opposite advice of what Xu Guang had said to Shi Le (Book 95, 332.6).

Events afterwards would turn out just as Wang Meng here predicted.)


Marquis Wu was the same posthumous title that Zhuge Liang had been given.

五月,猛寢疾,堅親祈南北郊、宗廟、社稷,分遺侍臣禱河岳諸神,無不周備。以猛少瘳,赦殊死。七月,堅臨省疾,問以後事。猛曰:「晉僻陋吳越,乃正朔相承。臣歿之後,願不以晉為圖。鮮卑、羌虜,我之仇讎,終為大患,宜漸除之,以便社稷。」言終而卒,時年五十一。堅哭之慟。謂太子宏曰:「天不欲使吾平一六合,何奪吾景畧之速也。」贈侍中、丞相,餘如故,諡武襄。朝野巷哭三日。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Wang Meng)

In the fifth month, Wang Meng was confined to bed by illness. Fu Jian personally prayed for him at the sacrificial altars of the northern and southern suburbs and at the Ancestral Temple and the altars of the spirits of earth and grain. He even sent his attendants and ministers to pray to the spirits of the rivers and mountains; everything was done by the full standard. Wang Meng's illness somewhat abated, and Fu Jian proclaimed a general amnesty forgiving crimes up until those sentenced to death.

In the seventh month, Fu Jian went to personally tend to Wang Meng's illness, and to hear his final thoughts for what should happen after his death. Wang Meng said to him, "Although Jin is secluded in the regions of Wu and Yue, they have still continued to uphold their original legitimacy. After I am no more, give no thought to campaigns against Jin. Our true enemies are the Xianbei and the Qiang. They will bring calamity in the end. You must gradually do away with them, for the good of the state."

Having said this, Wang Meng passed away; he was fifty years old. Fu Jian wept with grief for him. He said to his Crown Prince, Fu Hong, "Heaven does not wish for me to pacify the world! How quickly it has snatched away my Jinglüe from me!"

Wang Meng was posthumously appointed as Palace Attendant and Prime Minister, keeping his old offices as before. His posthumous title was Wuxiang. Everyone in the court, the streets, and the countryside wept for him for three days.


八月,癸巳,立皇後王氏,大赦。後,濛之孫也。以後父晉陵太守蘊為光祿大夫,領五兵尚書,封建昌侯,蘊固辭不受。

5. In the eighth month, on the day Guisi (October 1st), Emperor Xiaowu honored his wife Lady Wang (Fahui) as Empress, and proclaimed a general amnesty. Empress Wang was the granddaughter of Wang Méng. Emperor Xiaowu appointed the Administrator of Jinling, her father Wang Yun, as the Household Counsellor and acting Master of Writing of the Five Regiments, as well as offering to make him the Marquis of Jianchang county, but Wang Yun firmly declined all the offered titles and would not accept them.

魏始置五兵尚書,謂總錄中兵、外兵、別兵、都兵、騎兵事也。【章:十二行本「昌」下有「縣」字;乙十一行本同。】

(Cao-Wei had first created the office Master of Writing of the Five Regiments, which was in charge of the Central Regiment, the Outer Regiment, the Detached Regiment, the Capital Regiment, and the Cavalry Regiment.

Some versions specify the noble title here as being Marquis of Jianchang "county".)


九月,帝講《孝經》,始覽典和籍,延儒士。謝安薦東莞徐邈補中書捨人,每被顧問,多所匡益。帝或宴集,酣樂之後,好為手詔詩章以賜侍臣,或文詞率爾,所言穢雜;邈應時收斂還省刊削,皆使可觀,經帝重覽,然後出之,時議以此多邈。

6. In the ninth month, Emperor Xiaowu read the Classic of Filial Piety and first began reviewing the census and other records, so he asked for a Confucian scholar. Xie An recommended Xu Miao of Dongguan, who was then appointed as the Retainer of the Palace Secretariat. Whenever Xu Miao was sought out for assistance, and he was able to rectify his lord and do much good.

Emperor Xiaowu sometimes held feasts and gatherings, and after he had had his fill of wine and song, he liked to compose his letters or edicts by hand and then give them to his attendant servants. These compositions were sometimes written hastily, with the words in a jumble or at random. At those times, Xu Miao would gather up the wording according to the circumstances and then send the composition back to the bureau to make cuts and revisions, and then they would be suitable for review. Then the compositions would be reassembled and sent back to Emperor Xiaowu for him to review it, and only afterwards would it be sent out. There were many such things discussed about Xu Miao.

晉初,中書置通事、舍人各一人,掌呈奏案及掌詔命。沈約曰:晉置中書侍郎,又置舍人一人,通事一人。江左初合舍人、通事,謂之通事舍人,掌呈案奏章;後省通事。謂中書省。

(At the beginning of Jin, the Palace Secretariat had the offices of the 通事 and the Retainer, each held by one person, with one in charge of presenting petitions to be submitted and the other with edicts to be sent out. Shen Yue remarked, "Jin created the Gentlemen-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat, and then created the Reatiner and the 通事 of that bureau, each one person. After Jin first relocated to the Southland, these offices were combined into the sole person called the 通事舍人, who handled both affairs. Later on, the office of 通事 was revived."

The "bureau" that Xu Miao sent the compositions back to was the Palace Secretariat.)


冬,十月,癸酉朔,日有食之。

7. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guiyou (November 10th), there was an eclipse.

秦王堅下詔曰:「新喪賢輔,百司或未稱朕心,可置聽訟觀於未央南,朕五日一臨,以求民隱。今天下雖未大定,權可偃武修文,以稱武侯雅旨。其增崇儒教,禁老、莊、圖讖之學,犯者棄市。」妙簡學生,太子及公侯百僚之子皆就學受業;中外四禁、二衛、四軍長上將士,皆令受學。二十人給一經生,教讀音句,後宮置典學以教掖庭,選閹人及女隸敏慧者詣博士授經。尚書郎王佩讀讖,堅殺之,學讖者遂絕。

8. Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "We have newly lost a virtuous man who upheld the state, and the ministers cannot yet comprehend my sorrow. I shall be in mourning for five days at Tongming Overlook, south of Weiyang, to ask for relief for the people's suffering. Although the realm has not yet been completely settled, now is the time to put away martial matters and cultivate civil affairs, as Marquis Wu (Wang Meng) would have wished. The teachings of Confucius shall be honored and increased, while the learning of Laozi, Zhuangzi, and divination shall be forbidden. Violators shall be cast out in the marketplace for execution."

To improve their learning, the Crown Prince and the children of the nobles and chief ministers all studied according to this order, as did the chief officers among the Generals of the Four 禁, the Two Guards, and the Four Armies. Twenty men gave instruction on the Classics, instructing by reading aloud the sounds and phrases. Even the rear palace’s lateral courts established teachings on the canons, and the most intelligent of the eunuchs and palace servant girls were chosen to visit the instructors and learn the Classics.

A Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Wang Pei, studied divination despite the edict. Fu Jian killed him, and others who were learning divination then stopped.

王猛諡武侯。秦有中軍、外軍將軍。前禁、後禁、左禁、右禁將軍,是爲四禁。左衞、右衞將軍,是爲二衞。衞軍、撫軍、鎭軍、冠軍將軍,是爲四軍。長上者,長上宿衞將士也。女隸,沒入爲官婢者,奚官女是也。

(Marquis Wu was Wang Meng's posthumous title.

Former Qin had Generals of the Central Army and the Outer Army. The Four 禁 were the Generals of the Front 禁, Rear 禁, Left 禁, and Right 禁. The Two Guards were the Guard Generals of the Left and Right. The Four Armies were the Generals Who Guards The Army, Nurtures the Army, Protects the Army, and Champion of the Army (also called the Champion General). The term 長上者 means the chief officers of the household guards. 女隸 were servant girls who had not yet entered the palace, so they were the servants of officials.)


十一年正月,以安車蒲輪徵隱士樂陵王勸為國子祭酒。堅雅好文學,英儒畢集,純博之精,莫如勸也。終於太子少傅。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the eleventh year of Jianyuan (375), the first month, Fu Jian sent a comfort carriage with cattail wheels to summon the hermit, Wang Quan of Leling, to serve as a Libationer for the National Youth. Fu Jian himself was refined and fond of literary learning, and he gathered a great many great scholars. But when it came to pure excellence in education, no one could match Wang Quan. He eventually became Lesser Tutor to the Crown Prince.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 18, 2018 5:27 am, edited 3 times in total.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 1:57 am

太元元年(丙子,公元三七六年)

The First Year of Taiyuan (The Bingzi Year, 376 AD)


春,正月,壬寅朔,帝加元服,皇太后下詔歸政,復稱崇德太后。甲辰,大赦,改元。丙午,帝始臨朝。以會稽內史郗愔為鎮軍大將軍、都督浙江東五郡諸軍事;徐州刺史桓沖為車騎將軍、都督豫、江二州之六郡諸軍事,自京口徙鎮姑孰。謝安欲以王蘊為方伯,故先解沖徐州。乙卯,加謝安中書監,錄尚書事。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renyin (February 7th), Emperor Xiaowu conducted his coming-of-age capping ceremony. Empress Dowager Chu returned control of the government over to him, again assuming her title as Empress Dowager Chongde. On the day Jiachen (February 9th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Taiyuan. On the day Bingwu (February 11th), Emperor Xiaowu first presided over the court.

The Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Grand General Who Guards The Army and Commander of military affairs in five eastern commandaries of Zhejiang. The Inspector of Xuzhou, Huan Chong, was appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Commander of military affairs in six commandaries in Yuzhou and Jiangzhou, and his base was moved from Jingkou to Gushu. Xie An wished to appointed Wang Yun as a border commander, and this was why he removed Xuzhou from Huan Chong's area of command. On the day Yimao (February 20th), Xie An was promoted as Chief of the Palace Secretariat and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

太后攝政,見上卷上年。浙江東五郡,會稽、東陽、臨海、永嘉、新安也。豫州之歷陽、淮南、廬江、安豐、襄城及江州之尋陽,共六郡。

(Empress Dowager Chongde had resumed her role as regent after Emperor Jianwen's death, as mentioned in Book 103, in the previous year (375.9).

The five eastern commandaries of Zhejiang were Kuaiji, Dongyang, Linhai, Yongjia, and Xin'an.

The six commandaries in Yuzhou and Jiangzhou were Liyang, Huainan, Lujiang, Anfeng, and Xiangcheng in Yuzhou and Xunyang in Jiangzhou.)


二月,辛卯,秦王堅下詔曰:「朕聞王者勞於求賢,逸於得士,斯言何其驗也!往得丞相,常謂帝王易為。自丞相違世,鬚髮中白,每一念之,不覺酸慟。今天下既無丞相,或政教淪替,可分遣侍臣周巡郡縣,問民疾苦。」

2. In the second month, on the day Xinmao (March 27th), Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "I have heard that ‘a king exerts himself in his search for worthy men, and takes his rest in employing them’. How greatly does that saying agree with my experience! Ever since I gained the Prime Minister, I could often say that my imperial labors had been greatly eased. But now that the Prime Minister has left us, my hair has already turned half-white, and whenever I think of him, I cannot help but feel a bitter sorrow. Now that the realm is left without the Prime Minister, there have been areas in administration and in education that have fallen into decline. I shall dispatch ministers to make a circuit pass through all the counties and commandaries, and inquire into the people's hardships.”

齊桓公用管仲之言。丞相,謂王猛。

(Fu Jian's quote was what Duke Huan of Qi had once said to his minister Guan Zhong. (Discourses on Salt and Iron, 10.5) The Prime Minister mentioned here was Wang Meng.)


三月,秦兵寇南鄉,拔之,山蠻三萬戶降秦。

3. In the third month, Qin troops invaded Nanxiang and captured it. Thirty thousand households of the Hill Man tribes surrendered to Qin.

自春秋之時,伊、洛以南,巴、巫、漢、沔以北,大山長谷,皆蠻居之。文公十六年,庸人率羣蠻以叛楚。庸,則漢之上庸縣也。哀公四年,楚人襲梁及霍以圍蠻氏,執蠻子赤。梁,則漢河南之梁縣;霍,則梁縣南之霍陽山也。漢高帝用巴渝蠻以定三秦,則板楯蠻也。後漢祭遵攻新城蠻、柏華蠻,破霍陽聚,則春秋蠻氏之聚落也。其後又有巫蠻、南郡蠻、江夏蠻。襄陽以西,中廬、宜城之西山,皆蠻居之,所謂山蠻也。宋、齊以後,謂之雍州蠻。

(Ever since the Spring and Autumn era, the tall hills and wide valleys in the region between the Yi and Luo Rivers to the north and the Ba, Wu, Han, and Mian Rivers to the south had served as homes to the Man tribes.

In the sixteenth year of the reign of Duke Wen of Lu (611 BC), the people of Yong stirred up the Man tribes in revolt against Chu. ("The people of Yong, [at the same time], headed all the tribes of the Man in a revolt against Chu, while those of Jun led on the many tribes of the Pu, and collected at Xuan, intending to invade it." Zuo Commentary, Wen 16.6) This Yong was the Han dynasty's Shangyong county.

In the fourth year of the reign of Duke Ai of Lu (491 BC), the people of Chu laid siege to the Man tribes in their cities of Liang and Huo, and captured the Man Viscount, Chi. ("...[Chu] took by surprise Liang and Huo, [cities of the Man Rong]. [They] laid siege to [the chief town of] the Man, the people of which dispersed, while Chi, the viscount, fled to Yindi in Jin... While the viscount was waiting for the result, [Jin] seized him and his five great officers, and delivered them to the army of Chu at Sanhu." Zuo Commentary, Ai 4.6) These places, Liang and Huo, were the Han dynasty's Liang county in Henan and Mount Huoyang in the south of that county.

Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) used the Bayu Man tribe, also called the Bandun Man tribe, to conquer the regions of the Three Qins. In Later Han, Zhai Zun attacked the Man tribes of Xincheng and Baihua, and routed their host at Huoyang, which had been the settlement of the Man tribes of the Spring and Autumn era.

There were later also the Wu Man, Nan commandary Man, and Jiangxia Man tribes. West of Xiangyang, the western hills of Zhonglu and Yicheng were all home to the Man tribes, and this group was called the Hill Man. After the Liu-Song and Southern Liang dynasties, they were called the Yongzhou Man.)


夏,五月,甲寅,大赦。

4. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Jiayin (June 18th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

初,張天錫之殺張邕也,劉肅及安定梁景皆有功,二人由是有寵,賜姓張氏,以為己子,使預政事。天錫荒於酒色,不親庶務,黜世子大懷而立嬖妾焦氏之子大豫,以焦氏為左夫人,人情憤怨。從弟從事中郎憲輿櫬切諫,不聽。

5. Earlier, when Zhang Tianxi of Liangzhou had killed Zhang Yong, Liu Su and Liang Jing of Anding had both assisted him, and so gained his favor. Zhang Tianxi went so far as to bestow his surname Zhang on them, and treated them like his own sons, and he used them to administer affairs. Zhang Tianxi often lost himself in women and wine, and he did not attend to the affairs of the common people. He deposed his eldest son, Zhang Dahuai, and instead set up Zhang Dayu, the son of his favored concubine Lady Qiao, as his heir, naming Lady Qiao as his Wife of the Left. The people were angry and indignant at him. The Attendant Officer of the Palace Gentlemen, his cousin Xian Yu, personally remonstrated harshly with him, but to no avail.

事見一百一卷穆帝升平五年。【章:十二行本「妾」下有「焦氏」二字;乙十一行本同;張校同。】

(Zhang Tianxi's overthrow of Zhang Yong is mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Mu's fifth year of Shengping (361.17).

Some versions specify that Lady Qiao was the mother of Zhang Dayu.)


秦王堅下詔曰:「張天錫雖稱籓受位,然臣道未純,可遣使持節、武衛將軍武都苟萇、左將軍毛盛、中書令梁熙、步兵校尉姚萇等將兵臨西河,尚書郎閻負、梁殊奉詔征天錫入朝,若有違王命,即進師撲討。」是時,秦步騎十三萬,軍司段鏗謂周虓曰:「以此眾戰,誰能敵之!」虓曰:「戎狄以來,未之有也。」堅又命秦州刺史苟池、河州刺史李辯、涼州刺史王統帥三州之眾為苟萇後繼。

6. Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "Although Zhang Tianxi claims to be our vassal and accept our offices, he has abandoned the path of a proper minister. Therefore, I shall send the Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Guard General of Valor, Gou Chang, the General of the Left, Mao Sheng of Wudu, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Liang Xi, the Colonel of Infantry, Yao Chang, and others to march to the border of the Hexi region beyond the Yellow River, while the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Yan Fu and Liang Shu, shall present my edict to order Zhang Tianxi to report to me at court. If he should disobey this royal edict, then my troops will advance and punish him."

For this campaign, Qin assembled an army of a hundred and thirty thousand horse and foot. Qin’s Military-Director, Duan Keng, boasted to the captive Jin minister Zhou Xiao, "With an army like this, who can oppose us?"

Zhou Xiao replied, "There has never been a greater host since the Rong and Di barbarians."

Fu Jian also ordered the Inspector of Qinzhou, Gou Chi, the Inspector of Hezhou, Li Bian, and the Inspector of Liangzhou, Wang Tong, to send the soldiers of their three provinces to act as reserves for Gou Chang's army.

【章:十二行本「軍」下有「武都」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】河水過敦煌、酒泉、張掖郡南,武威郡東北,爲西河。用《左傳》齊桓公之言。周虓拘執於秦,其尊本朝之心,雖造次不忘也。《考異》曰:《虓傳》曰:「呂光征西域,堅出餞之,戎士二十萬,旌旗數百里。問虓曰:『朕衆力何如?』虓曰:『戎夷以來,未之有也。』」按建元十八年,二月,虓謀反,徙朔方。十九年,正月,呂光發長安。故知在伐涼州時。今從《十六國春秋》。

(Some versions describe Mao Sheng as being "of Wudu".

The region to the northwest of the Yellow River, including the commandaries of Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangye, and Wuwei, was called Hexi ("west of the Yellow River").

Duan Keng uses the same boast that Duke Huan of Qi made in the Zuo Commentary: "With this gathered host, who can withstand us? No matter what city we attack, which will not fall? (Xi 3.2)"

Though Zhou Xiao was a captive in Former Qin, he always revered the Jin court in his heart, and never forgot it no matter where he was.

Regarding this exchange between Duan Keng and Zhou Xiao, Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Zhou Xiao in the Book of Jin states, ‘When Lü Guang campaigned against the Western Reaches (in 383), Fu Jian went to see the army off. Lü Guang commanded a host of two hundred thousand men, and their flags and banners stretched for several hundred li. Fu Jian asked Zhou Xiao, "Who can compare with the strength of my army?" Zhou Xiao replied, "There has never been a greater host since the Rong and Di barbarians."’ However, we know that in Fu Jian's eighteenth year of Jianyuan (382), in the second month, Zhou Xiao participated in Fu Ya's and Wang Pi's plot, and as a result was exiled to Shuofang. And it was in the first month of the following year (383) that Lü Guang set out from Chang'an on his campaign. So we can be sure that Zhou Xiao's retort would have taken place at the time of the campaign against Liangzhou. So I follow the account of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms.")


十二年正月癸巳,高陸民穿井得龜,大三尺六寸,背有八卦文,命太卜池養之,食之以粟。四月,堅下書曰:「涼州刺史張天錫,雖稱藩受位,而臣道未純,可遣步兵校尉姚萇等自石城津伐天錫。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the twelfth year of Jianyuan (376), the first month, on the day Guisi (?), the people of Gaolu county discovered a tortoise while they were digging a well. The tortoise was three cun six chi large, and it had the characters for the Eight Trigrams printed on its back. Fu Jian ordered the Grand Auger to build a pond for the tortoise to live in and to feed it with millet.

In the fourth month, Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "Although the Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Tianxi, claims to be our vassal and accept our offices, he has abandoned the path of a proper minister. Therefore, I shall send the Colonel of Infantry, Yao Chang, and others to march from Shicheng Crossing to punish him."

堅遣其武衞將軍苟萇西伐涼州。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian sent his Guard General of Valor, Gou Chang, west to campaign against Liangzhou.


秋,七月,閻負、梁殊至姑臧。張天錫會官屬謀之,曰:「今入朝,必不返;如其不從,秦兵必至,將若之何?」禁中錄事席仂曰:「以愛子為質,賂以重寶,以退其師,然後徐為之計,此屈伸之術也。」眾皆怒曰:「吾世事晉朝,忠節著於海內。今一旦委身賊庭,辱及祖宗,丑莫大焉!且河西天險,百年無虞,若悉境內精兵,右招西域,北引匈奴,以拒之,何遽知其不捷也!」天錫攘袂大言曰:「孤計決矣,言降者斬!」使謂閻負、梁殊曰:「君欲生歸乎,死歸乎?」殊等辭氣不屈,天錫怒,縛之軍門,命軍士交射之,曰:「射而不中,不與我同心者也。」其母嚴氏泣曰:「秦主以一州之地,橫制天下,東平鮮卑,南取巴、蜀,兵不留行。汝若降之,猶可延數年之命。今以蕞爾一隅,抗衡大國,又殺其使者,亡無日矣!」天錫使龍驤將軍馬建帥眾二萬拒秦。

7. In autumn, the seventh month, the Qin envoys Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at the Liangzhou capital at Guzang. Before receiving them, Zhang Tianxi met with his ministers to consider what they would do. He told his ministers, "If I were to go to the court at Chang’an, I would certainly never return. But if I do not go, then the Qin soldiers will surely come here. What should be done?"

His 禁中錄事, Xi Le, suggested, "You might hand over your beloved son as a hostage, and bribe the envoys with costly treasures, to forestall the arrival of the enemy army. That would buy us some time to come up with a plan at a later date. This is the art of gaining space through submission."

But all the other ministers angrily responded, "We have been faithful to Jin for generations, loyally maintaining their authority within the Four Seas. Will you, in a single day, make yourself the captive of a rebel court and disgrace your ancestors? Nothing could be more shameful than that! Furthermore, thanks to the natural defenses of the Hexi region, we have remained free men for a hundred years. If we choose to oppose this invasion by assembling all the elite soldiers from within our domain, recruiting troops from the Western Regions, and summoning the aid of the northern Xiongnu, who fears that we will not be victorious?"

So Zhang Tianxi pushed up his sleeves and shouted, "Then that shall be my decision. Anyone who advocates surrender will be executed!"

Then Zhang Tianxi sent for Yan Fu and Liang Shu, and he demanded them, "Do you gentlemen wish to return with your lives or with your coffins?" But they zealously opposed him and refused to submit, and this made him furious, so he had the two of them tied up at the gate of the army camp. He ordered his soldiers to shoot arrows at them, saying to the soldiers, "Whoever shoots his arrow and does not hit them goes against my wishes."

Zhang Tianxi’s mother, Lady Yan, wept and said, "Though he started with just one province, the lord of Qin has become master of the realm. He conquered the Xianbei in the east, and he seized Ba and Shu in the south. His soldiers cannot be stopped, and no one is a match for them. If you had submitted to Qin, you might have extended the life of the state for many years. But now, for our small corner of the realm to contend with a great state, and even to kill their envoys, means that our end is fast approaching!"

Zhang Tianxi sent his Dragon-Soaring General, Ma Jian, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to oppose the Qin invasion.

禁中錄事,張氏所置,使總錄禁中事也。仂,與力同,又音勒。【章:十二行本「汝」上有「所向無敵」四字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦說。】

(The office of 禁中錄事 was a creation of the Zhang clan of Liangzhou. It handled the affairs of the 總錄禁中.

Xi Le's given name 仂 is pronounced "li" or "le".

Some versions include the phrase "no one is a match for them" in Lady Yan’s lament.)


秦人聞天錫殺閻負、梁殊,八月,梁熙、姚萇、王統、李辯濟自清石津,攻涼驍烈將軍梁濟於河會城,降之。甲申,苟萇濟自石城津,與梁熙等會攻纏縮城,拔之。馬建懼,自楊非退屯清塞。天錫又遣征東將軍掌據帥眾三萬軍於洪池,天錫自將餘眾五萬,軍於金昌城。安西將軍敦煌宋皓言於天錫曰:「臣晝察人事,夜觀天文,秦兵不可敵也,不如降之。」天錫怒,貶皓為宣威護軍。廣武太守辛章曰:「馬建出於行陳,必不為國家用。」苟萇使姚萇帥甲士三千為前驅。庚寅,馬建帥萬人迎降,餘兵皆散走。辛卯,苟萇及掌據戰於洪池,據兵敗,馬為亂兵所殺,其屬董儒授之以馬,據曰:「吾三督諸軍,再秉節鉞,八將禁旅,十總外兵,寵任極矣。今卒困於此,此吾之死地也,尚安之乎!」乃就帳免冑,西向稽首,伏劍而死。秦兵殺軍司席仂。癸巳,秦兵入清塞,天錫遣司兵趙充哲帥眾拒之。秦兵與充哲戰於赤岸,大破之,俘斬三萬八千級,充哲死。天錫出城自戰,城內又叛。天錫與數千騎奔還姑臧。甲午,秦兵至姑臧,天錫素車白馬,面縛輿櫬,降於軍門。苟萇釋縛焚梓,送於長安。涼州郡縣悉降於秦。

8. Qin soon heard of the deaths of Yan Fu and Liang Shu.

In the eighth month, Liang Xi, Yao Chang, Wang Tong, and Li Bian crossed over the Yellow River at Qingshi Crossing. They attacked Liangzhou's General of Valiant Ferocity, Liang Ji, at Hehui, and he surrendered to them.

On the day Jiashen (September 16th), Gou Chang crossed the river at Shicheng Crossing, and he joined Liang Xi and the others. They attacked Chansuo together, and took it. The Liangzhou general Ma Jian was afraid, and he fell back from Yangfei to camp at Qingsai.

Zhang Tianxi then sent out his General Who Conquers The East, Zhang Ju, with thirty thousand men to march to Hongchi. Zhang Tianxi himself marched with another army of fifty thousand, and his army went to Jinchang. His General Who Maintains The West, Song Hao of Dunhuang, said to him, "I have fully investigated into everything that is going on, and I have studied the night sky. We are no match for the Qin soldiers. It would be best to surrender." Zhang Tianxi, furious, demoted Song Hao to 宣威護軍.

The Administrator of Guangwu, Xin Zhang, said, "Ma Jian has marched away to defend himself; he will certainly be of no use to the state." Gou Chang sent Yao Chang to lead three thousand armored soldiers as the vanguard. On the day Gengyin (September 22nd), Ma Jian led ten thousand soldiers to offer their surrender to Qin, and his other soldiers all scattered and fled.

On the day Xinmao (September 23rd), Gou Chang fought with Zhang Ju at Hongchi. Zhang Ju’s army was defeated, and in the chaos of the soldiers, Zhang Ju’s horse was killed. His subordinate Dong Ru offered to give Zhang Ju his own horse. But Zhang Ju said, “I have thrice been commander of the armies, and I have often wielded the Staff of Authority and the Military Battle-Axe. Eight times have I ventured forth, ten times driven back the enemy. I have received the highest favors and positions of the state. Now I have suffered this reverse, so let this be the place of my death. That shall be enough for me!” He then pulled back his curtain and took off his helmet, turned and kowtowed toward the west, then drew his sword and killed himself.

The Qin soldiers killed Xi Le.

On the day Guisi (September 25th), the Qin soldiers entered Qingsai. Zhang Tianxi sent his Director of Regiments, Zhao Chongzhe, to lead the remaining soldiers to oppose them. The Qin soldiers fought with Zhao Chongze at Chi'an, and greatly routed him; they captured or killed thirty-eight thousand, and Zhao Chongzhe died as well. Zhang Tianxi marched out of the city himself to offer battle, but then those inside the city rebelled against him, and so he fled with several thousand riders back to Guzang.

On the day Jiawu (September 26th), the Qin soldiers reached Guzang. Zhang Tianxi prepared a plain cart and a white horse, bound himself in chains to a coffin, and presented himself for surrender at the Qin army camp gate. Gou Chang loosed his chains and burned the coffin, and sent him to Chang'an.

All of the commandaries and counties of Liangzhou submitted to Qin.

驍烈將軍,蓋張氏置。《五代志》:允吾縣有青巖山。《水經註》:湟河至允吾,與大河會。意者清石津在青巖山之下,河會城在二河之會歟?闞駰曰:石城津在金城西北。《水經註》:逆水出允吾縣之參街谷,東南流逕街亭城南,又東南逕陽非亭北,又東南逕廣武城西。據《載記》,楊非在支陽東北三百餘里。洪池,嶺名,在姑臧南。「掌據」,《晉書》作「常據」,當從之。金昌城在赤岸西北。張寔分金城之令居、枝陽,置廣武郡。宋白曰:蘭州廣武縣本漢枝陽縣地,張駿分晉興置廣武郡。【章:十二行本「禁」作「外」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】天錫之攻李儼也,常據首破其兵;蓋河西推爲良將,故其言如此。河西張氏置官僚,擬於王者而微異其名。司兵,蓋晉五兵尚書之職也。《水經註》:河水自左南而東,逕赤岸北,亦謂之河夾岸。《秦州記》曰:枹罕有河夾岸。惠帝永寧元年,張軌爲涼州刺史,遂有涼土,共九主,七十五年而亡。

(The title General of Valiant Ferocity must have been a creation of the Zhang clan of Liangzhou.

The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "There is a Mount Qingyan in Yunwu county." And the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "When the Huang River reaches Yunwu, it joins with the Yellow River." Perhaps this means that Qingshi Crossing was at the base of this Mount Qingyan, and the city of Hehui ("rivers meet") was at the place where these two rivers meet?

Kan Yin remarked, "Shicheng Crossing is northwest of Jincheng."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states that the 逆 Ni River flows out of the Canjie Valley in Yunwu county, flowing southeast south of the city of Jieting, and further southeast north of Yangfei-ting, and still further southeast west of the city of Guangwu. According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this Yangfei was more than three hundred li northeast of Zhiyang.

Hongchi was the name of a mountain range south of Guzang.

This passage mentions the general 掌據 Zhang Ju. His surname is written 常 Chang both in the Book of Jin and in earlier passages of the Zizhi Tongjian (367.3,5), and it should also be Chang here.

Jinchang was northwest of Chi'an.

The earlier Liangzhou ruler Zhang Shi had split off Lingju and Zhiyang counties from Jincheng commandary and organized them into Guangwu commandary. Song Bai remarked, "Guangwu county in Lanzhou was originally the Han dynasty's Zhiyang county. Zhang Jun of Former Liang had split off part of Jinxing commandary to form Guangwu commandary."

In Chang Ju's final speech, some versions write the second 禁 as 外.

When Zhang Tianxi had campaigned against Li Yan, it was Chang Ju who won the first victory against him, as mentioned above. He must have been the premier general of Hexi, and this was why he said such things.

The Zhang clan of Hexi had made several novel offices in anticipation of being Princes. This office of Director of Regiments must have been equivalent to Jin's Five Regiments of the Masters of Writing.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states that as the Yellow River flowed south and then east, it passed by Chi'an to the north, so the place was also called Hejia'an ("bank between the Yellow River"). The Records of Qinzhou states, "Hejia'an is in Fuhan."

From Emperor Hui's first year of Yongning (Book 84, 301.1), when Zhang Gui had been made Inspector of Liangzhou and thus held the Liang territory, altogether Former Liang had nine rulers and lasted for seventy-five years, and then perished.)


是歲,苻堅滅張天錫。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year (376), Fu Jian conquered Zhang Tianxi.

天錫率勁勇五萬來拒,戰於赤岸,涼師大潰。天錫率騎數千,奔還姑臧,致箋請降於萇。甲午,大軍至姑臧,天錫乘素車白馬面縛舁櫬,降於軍門。萇釋縛焚櫬,送之長安。諸郡縣悉降,涼州平。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Zhang Tianxi led fifty thousand strong soldiers to come oppose the Former Qin invasion. They fought at Chi'an, where the Liangzhou army greatly scattered. Zhang Tianxi fled with several thousand riders back to Guzang, then wrote a letter asking to surrender to Yao Chang. On the day Jiawu (September 26th), the Former Qin main army reached Guzang. Zhang Tianxi prepared a plain cart and a white horse, had himself tied to a coffin, and presented himself for surrender at the Qin army camp gate. Yao Chang loosed his ropes and burned the coffin, and sent him to Chang'an. All of the commandaries and counties of Liangzhou submitted to Qin, so Liangzhou was pacified.

苟萇降張天錫。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Gou Chang accepted the surrender of Zhang Tianxi.


九月,秦王堅以梁熙為涼州刺史,鎮姑臧。徙豪右七千餘戶於關中,餘皆按堵如故。封天錫為歸義侯,拜北部尚書。初,秦兵之出也,先為天錫築第於長安,至則居之。以天錫晉興太守隴西彭和正為黃門侍郎,治中從事武興蘇膺、敦煌太守張烈為尚書郎,西平太守金城趙凝為金城太守,高昌楊干為高昌太守;餘皆隨才擢敘。

9. In the ninth month, Fu Jian appointed Liang Xi as Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Guzang. Fu Jian relocated more than seven thousand gentry households from there to Guanzhong, but the rest of the people were left undisturbed.

Zhang Tianxi was appointed as Marquis of Guiyi, and he was assigned to the Northern Department of the Masters of Writing. Before the campaign, a residence had been built for Zhang Tianxi at Chang'an, and he was now sent to reside there.

Zhang Tianxi's former Administrator of Jinxing, Peng Hezheng of Longxi, was appointed as Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate. The 治中從事, Su Ying of Wuxing, and the Administrator of Dunhuang, Zhang Lie, were appointed as Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. The Administrator of Xiping, Zhao Ning of Jincheng, was appointed as Administrator of Jincheng. Yang Gan of Gaochang was appointed as Administrator of Gaochang. Others were granted similar offices as appropriate.

秦置北部尚書,以掌北蕃。張軌分西平界,置晉興郡。張軌以秦、雍移人於姑臧西北,置武興郡。高昌,漢車師之高昌壁也,張氏始置郡,後爲高昌國,唐以其地置西州。

(Former Qin had formed this Northern Department of the Masters of Writing to deal with their northern frontier.

Zhang Gui split off part of Xinping commandary to form Jinxing commandary. He had also moved many people from Qinzhou and Yongzhou to the area northwest of Guzang, and organized that area into Wuxing commandary.

As for Gaochang, it was originally the Gaochang Fortress created by the Jushi people during the Han dynasty. The Zhang clan were the first to organize it as Gaochang commandary. Later on, Gaochang became an independent state. During Tang, it was organized as Xizhou.)


九月,以梁熙為持節、西中郎將、涼州刺史,鎮姑臧。徒豪右七千餘戶於關中。封天錫重光縣之東寧鄉二百戶,號歸義侯,拜北部尚書,遷右僕射。初,萇等將征天錫,堅為其立第于長安,至是而居之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the ninth month, Fu Jian appointed Liang Xi as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, and Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Guzang.

Fu Jian relocated more than seven thousand gentry households from there to Guanzhong.

Zhang Tianxi was appointed as Marquis of Guiyi, with two hundred households from Dongning district in Zhongguang county as his fief, and he was assigned to the Northern Department of the Masters of Writing. He later became Supervisor of the Right. Before Yao Chang and the others had left for the Liangzhou campaign, Fu Jian had built a residence for Zhang Tianxi at Chang'an, and he was now sent to reside there.


梁熙清儉愛民,河右安之,以天錫武威太守敦煌索泮為別駕,宋皓為主簿。西平郭護起兵攻秦,熙以皓為折衝將軍,討平之。

10. Liang Xi was pure and frugal, treasuring the common people, and he kept peace in Heyou. He appointed Zhang Tianxi's former Administrator of Wuwei, Suo Pan of Dunhuang, as his Attendant Officer, and he appointed Song Hao as his Registrar.

Guo Hu of Xiping raised troops in rebellion and attacked Qin. Liang Xi appointed Song Hao as General Who Breaks and Charges, and Song Hao crushed the uprising.

爲梁熙爲呂光所殺張本。索,昔各翻。

(Liang Xi's popular support in the region was why Lü Guang later killed him (Book 105, 385.56).

Suo Pan's surname 索 is pronounced "sok (s-ok)".)


桓沖聞秦攻涼州,遣兗州刺史朱序、江州刺史桓石秀與荊州督護桓羆遊軍沔、漢,為涼州聲援;又遣豫州刺史桓伊帥眾向壽陽,淮南太守劉波泛舟淮、泗,欲橈秦以救涼。聞涼州敗沒,皆罷兵。

11. When Huan Chong heard that Qin was attacking Liangzhou, he sent the Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhu Xu, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Shixiu, and the Protector of Jingzhou, Huan Pi, to move their troops up the Mian and Han rivers, in order to provide support for Liangzhou. He also ordered the Inspector of Yuzhou, Huan Yi, to lead his troops from Shouyang, and ordered the Administrator of Huainan, Liu Bo, to send boats along the Huai and Si rivers, in order to ferry troops into Qin to relieve Liangzhou. But when he then heard that Liangzhou had already fallen, the troops were ordered to return.

初,哀帝減田租,畝收二升。乙巳,除度田收租之制,王公以下,口稅米三斛,蠲在役之身。

12. It was earlier mentioned that during Emperor Ai's reign, the land tax rate had been reduced to two 升 per 畝. This month, on the day Yisi (October 7th), the land tax system was entirely abolished. From princes and dukes on down, each person was instead now charged a head tax of three 斛 of rice per head, with exemptions for those working on corvee labor.

見一百一卷隆和元年。

(The reduction in the land tax rate is mentioned in Book 101, in the first year of Longhe (362.2).)


冬,十月,移淮北民於准南。

13. In winter, the tenth month, Jin relocated the people north of the Huai River to the region south of it.

畏秦也。

(This was done out of fear of the threat posed by Former Qin to the north.)


劉衛辰為代所逼,求救於秦,秦王堅以幽州刺史行唐公洛為北討大都督,帥幽、冀兵十萬擊代;使并州刺史俱難、鎮軍將軍鄧羌、尚書趙遷、李柔、前將軍朱肜、前禁將軍張蚝、右禁將軍郭慶帥步騎二十萬,東出和龍,西出上都,皆與洛會,以衛辰為鄉導。洛,菁之弟也。

14. It was earlier mentioned that the Xiongnu leader Liu Weichen was under threat from Dai. Because of that, he asked for help from Qin against them.

Fu Jian appointed his Inspector of Youzhou and Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, as Grand Commander of the Northern Expedition, and Fu Luo led a hundred thousand soldiers from Youzhou and Jizhou to attack Dai. Fu Jian also sent his Inspector of Bingzhou, Ju Nan, his General Who Guards The Army, Deng Qiang, his Masters of Writing, Zhao Qian and Li Rou, his General of the Front, Zhu Yong, his General of the Front 禁, Zhang Qi, and his General of the Right 禁, Guo Qing, to lead two hundred thousand horse and foot altogether as well. These armies marched from Helong in the east and Shangdu in the west, moving to join with Fu Luo's army. Liu Weichen was appointed as a guide for the army. This Fu Luo was the younger brother of Fu Jing.

秦主健之入關,菁有功焉。健之垂沒也,菁以逆誅。

(When Fu Jiàn had led his army into Guanzhong, his nephew by one of his late elder brothers, Fu Jing, had achieved much in his service. But when Fu Jiàn was near death, Fu Jing had tried to launch a coup, but was killed (Book 100, 355.7). (So in relation to Fu Jian, Fu Luo was his elder cousin.))


三十八年,衞辰求援於苻堅。三十九年,苻堅遣其大司馬苻洛率眾二十萬及朱彤、張蚝、鄧羌等諸道來寇,侵逼南境。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirty-eighth year of Jianguo (375), Liu Weichen asked for help from Fu Jian.

In the thirty-ninth year of Jianguo (376), Fu Jian sent his Grand Marshal, Fu Luo, to lead two hundred thousand soldiers along several roads to invade Dai, along with Zhu Yong, Zhang Qi, Deng Qiang, and others. They plundered and threatened the southern part of Dai.

昭成末,衞辰導苻堅來寇南境,王師敗績。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

At the end of Tuoba Shiyijian's reign, Liu Weichen guided Fu Jian's army during their invasion of Dai's southern region, and the Dai army was defeated.


苟萇之伐涼州也,遣揚武將軍馬暉、建武將軍杜周帥八千騎西出恩宿,邀張天錫走路,期會姑臧。暉等行澤中,值水失期,於法應斬,有司奏征下獄。秦王堅曰:「水春冬耗竭。秋夏盛漲,此乃苟萇量事失宜,非暉等罪。今天下方有事,宜宥過責功。命暉等回赴北軍,擊索虜以自贖。」眾鹹以為萬里召將,非所以應速。堅曰:「暉等喜於免死,不可以常事疑也。」暉等果倍道疾驅,遂及東軍。

15. When Gou Chang had led the Qin army against Liangzhou earlier, he had sent the General Who Spreads Valor, Ma Hui, and the General Who Establishes Valor, Du Zhou, to lead eight thousand cavalry west out of Ensu. The plan was for them to cut off Zhang Tianxi's line of retreat, and they were supposed to meet the rest of the army at Guzang. But when Ma Hui and the others passed through a marsh, they had gotten bogged down in the waters, and so they failed to arrive on time.

By law, they deserved execution, and the officials petitioned that they be summoned and thrown into prison. But Fu Jian said, "It is the nature of waters to recede in spring and winter, and to swell up in autumn and summer. This was a mistake on Gou Chang's part, and Ma Hui and the rest have committed no offense. Considering there is still work to be done to settle the realm, I should pardon them on account of their past services. So I order Ma Hui and the rest to go and rejoin the northern army, and redeem themselves through attacking the Suolu."

Many people thought that, since reaching the army would require traveling a great distance, the pardoned officers would not be very quick to reach it. But Fu Jian said, "Ma Hui and the others will be happy to have escaped death. Do not be so quick to doubt them." And indeed, Ma Hui and the rest traveled at a blistering pace, much faster than the usual travel time, and so they arrived in time to join the eastern army against Dai.

代本鮮卑索頭種,故謂之索虜。暉等自西方回,故謂伐代之軍爲東軍。

(The Xianbei of Dai were part of what were called the Suotou ("braid-head") Xianbei, and so Fu Jian called them Suolu ("braid slaves").

Since Ma Hui and the others traveled from the west to rejoin the army in the east, the text says that they were rejoining the "eastern" army.)


十一月,己巳朔,日有食之。

16. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Jisi (?), there was an eclipse.

代王什翼犍使白部、獨孤部南御秦兵,皆不勝,又使南部大人劉庫仁將十萬騎御之。庫仁者,衛辰之族,什翼犍之甥也,與秦兵戰於石子嶺,庫仁大敗。什翼犍病,不能自將,乃帥諸部奔陰山之北。高車雜種盡叛,四面寇鈔,不得芻牧,什翼犍復渡漠南。聞秦兵稍退,十二月,什翼犍還雲中。

17. At first, Tuoba Shiyijian sent the Bai and Dugu tribes south to guard against the Qin armies, but neither of them were successful. He then sent the leader of the southern tribe, Liu Kuren, with a hundred thousand cavalry to oppose Qin. This Liu Kuren was Liu Weichen's kinsman, but he was also Tuoba Shiyijian's nephew. He fought with the Qin soldiers at the Shizi mountain range, but he too was greatly defeated.

Tuoba Shiyijian was ill, and could not lead troops himself, so he led several tribes to flee to north of Mount Yin. But the various Gaoche peoples there all rebelled, and danger was on every side; it was impossible to find grazing feed there, so Tuoba Shiyijian moved on to the southern deserts. But when he heard that the Qin soldiers had somewhat fallen back from their advance, in the twelfth month, Tuoba Shiyijian returned to Yunzhong.

鮮卑有白部。後漢時鮮卑居白山者,最爲強盛,後因曰白部。令狐德棻曰:魏氏之初,三十六部,其先伏留屯者,與魏俱起,爲部落大人,遂爲獨孤部。石子嶺當雲中盛樂西南。《新唐書》曰:自夏州北渡烏水,一百二十里至可朱渾水源,又百餘里至石子嶺。李延壽曰:高車,蓋赤狄之餘種也,北方以爲高車丁零。其先,匈奴甥也。其遷徙隨水草,衣皮食肉,牛羊畜產並與柔然同;唯車輪高大,輻數至多,因以爲號。

(One of the Xianbei clans was the Bai tribe. During Later Han, there were some Xianbei who had resided at Mount Bai. They had grown very strong and numerous, and they were later called the Bai tribe.

Linghu Defen, author of the Book of (Northern) Zhou, remarked, "When the clans of Northern Wei first began, there were thirty-six of them. The first group that submitted to them and were left to hold posts, and who rose together along with Northern Wei, became their tribal chiefs, and they were the Dugu clan.”

The Shizi mountain range was southwest of Shengle in Yunzhong. The New Book of Tang states, "If one crosses the Wu River north of Xiazhou, after a hundred and twenty li one arrives at the source of the Kezhuhun River, and more than a hundred li further on from there, one reaches the Shizi mountain range."

Li Yanshou, author of the History of the Southern Dynasties, remarked, "The Gaoche people must have been one of the offshoots of the old Red Di tribes. In the north, these offshoots became the Gaoche and the Dingling. Originally, they were intermarried with the Xiongnu. They are nomads who follow the seasons of the waters and the grasses. They wear skins and eat flesh, and they raise cattle and sheep with equal gentleness. It is only that they make their wheels very tall and large, and with a great many spokes, and that is why they are called Gaoche ('tall carts').")


冬十一月,白部、獨孤部禦之,敗績。南部大人劉庫仁走雲中。帝復遣庫仁率騎十萬逆戰於石子嶺,王師不利。帝時不豫,羣臣莫可任者,乃率國人避於陰山之北。高車雜種盡叛,四面寇鈔,不得芻牧。復度漠南。堅軍稍退,乃還。十二月,至雲中。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In winter, the eleventh month, the Bai and Dugu tribes opposed the Qin invasion, but they were defeated. The chief of the southern tribe, Liu Kuren, fled to Yunzhong. Tuoba Shiyijian sent Liu Kuren out again to lead a hundred thousand cavalry to fight the Qin invasion at the Shizi mountain range, but he had the worst of the fighting.

At this time, Tuoba Shiyijian himself was indisposed, and none of his ministers were suited to take command either. So he led the people of his state to seek refuge north of Mount Yin. But the various Gaoche peoples there all rebelled, and danger was on every side; it was impossible to find grazing feed there, so Tuoba Shiyijian moved on to the southern deserts. But Fu Jian's soldiers then withdrew some distance, so Tuoba Shiyijian returned. In the twelfth month, Tuoba Shiyijian returned to Yunzhong.

劉庫仁,本字沒根,劉虎之宗也,一名洛垂。少豪爽,有智略。母平文皇帝之女。昭成皇帝復以宗女妻之,為南部大人。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Kuren was a kinsman of Liu Hu. His style name was originally Meigen, and he was also called Liu Luochui. He was bold even as a youth, and he was calculating and cunning as well. He was a grandson of Tuoba Yulü by one of his daughters. And Tuoba Shiyijian also gave him one of the women of his clan as a wife, and made him the chief of the southern tribes of his domain.

劉庫仁字沒根,獨孤部人,劉武之宗也。少豪俠,有智略。母平文皇帝之女。昭成皇帝復以宗女妻之,為南部大人。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Kuren, styled Meigen, was of the Dugu tribe. He was a kinsman of Liu Hu. He was bold even as a youth, and he was calculating and cunning as well. He was a grandson of Tuoba Yulü by one of his daughters. And Tuoba Shiyijian also gave him one of the women of his clan as a wife, and made him the chief of the southern tribes of his domain.


初,什翼犍分國之半以授弟孤,孤卒,子斤失職怨望。世子寔及弟翰早卒,寔子珪尚幼,慕容妃之子閼婆、壽鳩、紇根、地干、力真、窟咄皆長,繼嗣未定。時秦兵尚在君子津,諸子每夜執兵警衛。斤因說什翼犍之庶長子寔君曰:「王將立慕容妃之子,欲先殺汝,故頃來諸子每夜戎服,以兵繞廬帳,伺便將發耳。」寔君信之,遂殺諸弟,並弒什翼犍。是夜,諸子婦及部人奔告秦軍,秦李柔、張蚝勒兵趨雲中;部眾逃潰,國中大亂。珪母賀氏以珪走依賀訥。訥,野干之子也。

18. It was earlier mentioned that, at the time of Tuoba Shiyijian’s ascension, there had been some contention over whether he or his brother Tuoba Gu would inherit the throne of Dai. To compromise, Tuoba Shiyijian had divided the territory of Dai in half between himself and Tuoba Gu. But after Tuoba Gu's death, his son Tuoba Jin had not kept the same power given to his father, so Tuoba Jin was very envious.

Tuoba Shiyijian's original heir, Tuoba Shi, and Tuoba Shi’s younger brother Tuoba Han had both died early deaths, and Tuoba Shi's son, Tuoba Gui, was still very young. Tuoba Shiyijian had several other sons by Lady Murong: Tuoba Epo, Tuoba Shoujiu, Tuoba Hegen, Tuoba Degan, Tuoba Lizhen, and Tuoba Kudei. All of them were now grown, but the matter of the succession had not been resolved. At this time, the Qin soldiers were at Junzi Crossing, and these sons all took command of soldiers and caused an alarm every night.

Because of the commotion these brothers were causing, Tuoba Jin warned Tuoba Shiyijian's eldest son born of a concubine, Tuoba Shijun, "The Prince will soon select one of Lady Murong's sons to be his heir. Before then, he plans to kill you first. That is why these sons make a ruckus every night, and surround their canopy houses with soldiers, waiting to see what might develop." Tuoba Shijun believed him, and so he went and killed all of his younger brothers, and then murdered Tuoba Shiyijian too.

That night, the concubines and kinsmen of the slain brothers fled the city and went to alert the Qin army. Li Rou and Zhang Qi then rushed their soldiers forward to capture Yunzhong. The tribes all scattered, and the whole state was thrown into total chaos.

Tuoba Gui's mother, Lady He, fled with her son to seek refuge with He Na. This He Na was the son of her father He Yegan.

事見九十六卷成帝咸康四年。不復得國之半,故自以爲失職而怨。慕容妃,燕女也。什翼犍娶燕女爲妃,見九十七卷康帝建元二年。寔卒見上卷簡文帝咸安元年。咄,當沒翻。《水經》:河水南入雲中楨陵縣西北,又南過赤城東,又南過定襄桐過縣西。河水於二縣之間,濟有君子之名。酈道元《註》曰:昔漢桓帝西幸榆中,東行代地,洛陽大賈賫金貨隨帝後行,夜,迷失道,往投津長,曰子封,送之渡河。賈人卒死,津長埋之。其子尋求父喪,發冢舉尸,資貨一無所損。其子悉以金與之,津長不受。事聞於帝,曰:「君子也。」卽名其津爲君子濟。在雲中城西南二百餘里。北狄之長,居大氈帳,環設兵衞。氈帳,漢人謂之穹廬,因曰廬帳。賀野干見上卷簡文帝咸安元年。

(The compromise between Tuoba Shiyijian and Tuoba Gu is mentioned in Book 96, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xiankang (338.27). Tuoba Jin was angered because he had not also been able to remain in command of half of Dai.

Concubine Murong was a princess of Former Yan. Tuoba Shiyijian's marriage to her is mentioned in Book 97, in Emperor Kang's second year of Jianyuan (344.8).

Tuoba Shi's death, caused by the would-be assassin Zhangsun Jin, is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.7, 13)

The second character in Tuoba Kudei's given name, 咄, is pronounced "dei (d-ei)".

The Water Classic states, "The Yellow River, flowing south, enters Yunzhong in the the northwest of Zhenling county, and further south it passes through Chicheng to the east, and still further south it passes through Dingxiang in the west of Tongguo county. In the stretch of the Yellow River where it passes through these two counties, there is a crossing called Junzi." Li Daoyuan's Commentary adds, "During the time of Emperor Huan of Han, this part of the river went from Yunzhong in the west to the Dai region in the east. At that time, a great merchant in Luoyang was bestowed articles of gold by Emperor Huan. The merchant left to travel, but one night, he became confused and lost his way. At a long crossing place, called Zifeng, he fell into the river. The merchant perished there, and the crossing became his tomb. But his son came to look for his father's body to mourn. He made a burial mound for his father's body, and he did not lose any of his father's goods. The son recovered all of the gold, and none of it was left in the crossing. When the incident was reported to Emperor Huan, he mused, 'A superior man'. So the name of that crossing then became Junzi ('superior man')." It was more than two hundred li southwest of the city of Yunzhong.

The chiefs of the northern Di people all lived under large felt canopies, surrounded by guard houses. The Han people all called these dwellings "round houses" (yurts), and this is why Tuoba Jin calls them "canopy houses".

He Yegan is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.15).)


旬有二日,帝崩,時年五十七。太祖即位,尊曰高祖。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

On the twenty-second day of the twelfth month, Tuoba Shiyijian passed away. He was fifty-six years old. When Taizu (Tuoba Gui) later became Emperor of Wei, he gave Tuoba Shiyijian the temple name Gaozu.


秦王堅召代長史燕鳳,問代所以亂故,鳳具以狀對。堅曰:「天下之惡一也。」乃執寔君及斤,至長安,車裂之。堅欲遷珪於長安,鳳固請曰:「代王初亡,群下叛散,遺孫沖幼,莫相統攝。其別部大人劉庫仁,勇而有智;鐵弗衛辰,狡猾多變,皆不可獨任。宜分諸部為二,令此兩人統之;兩人素有深仇,其勢莫敢先發。俟其孫稍長,引而立之,是陛下有存亡繼絕之德於代,使其子子孫孫永為不侵不叛之臣,此安邊之良策也。」堅從之,分代民為二部,自河以東屬庫仁,自河以西屬衛辰,各拜官爵,使統其眾。賀氏以珪歸獨孤部,與南部大人長孫嵩、元佗等皆依庫仁。行唐公洛以什翼犍子窟咄年長,遷之長安。堅使窟咄入太學讀書。

19. Fu Jian summoned Dai's Chief Clerk, Yan Feng, and asked him about the source of the disturbance in Dai. When Yan Feng told him the causes, Fu Jian mused, "Wickedness is the same all under heaven." He arrested Tuoba Jin and Tuoba Shijun and sent them to Chang'an, where they were pulled apart by chariots.

Fu Jian also wished to bring Tuoba Gui to Chang'an, but Yan Feng implored him, "The Prince of Dai has only just perished, and all his subordinates have scattered to plot rebellion. Since his grandson is still young, there is not a one of them who does not hope to seize control. The two most to be feared are the chieftain Liu Kuren, who is bold and clever besides, and the Tiefu leader Liu Weichen, who has constantly shifted his allegiance. Neither of them can be made supreme.

“Therefore, you ought to divide the tribes between them, and let man each rule his own half. The enmity between them runs deep, and considering how much power they both wield, neither will dare to make the first move. Then, when Tuoba Shiyijian’s grandson has grown up, you may send for him and establish him, and by doing so, Your Majesty will have justly handled the transition of Dai: its sons and grandsons will be your subjects who ‘will never make inroads and never rebel’. This is the best plan to ensure a stable border."

Fu Jian agreed with him. He divided up the people of Dai into two halves; the lands east of the Yellow River were given to Liu Kuren, and the lands west of it to Liu Weichen, and each appointed their own officials and commanded their own armies.

Lady He and Tuoba Gui returned to the Dugu clan, and they and the Southern Chieftain, Zhangsun Song, Yuan Tuo, and others joined Liu Kuren.

Since Tuoba Shiyijian's son Tuoba Kudei was already an adult, Fu Luo sent him to Chang'an, and Fu Jian sent him to study at the Imperial Academy.

《左傳》載石祁子之言。劉衞辰本匈奴鐵弗種。李延壽曰:鐵弗,南單于苗裔。衞辰者,左賢王去卑之玄孫。北人謂[胡]父、爲(衍)鮮卑母爲鐵弗,因以爲姓。用《左傳》戎子駒支之言。拓跋鬱律生二子:長曰沙莫雄,次曰什翼犍。沙莫雄爲南部大人,後改名仁,號爲拔拔氏,生嵩。道武以嵩宗室之長,改爲長孫氏。此言長孫所出,與前註略不同。

(Fu Jian quotes the words of Shi Qizi of Dai from the Zuo Commentary (Zhuang 12.2).

Liu Weichen had come from the Tiefu branch of the Xiongnu. Li Yanshou remarked, "The Tiefu were the descendents of the Southern Chanyu of the Xiongnu. Liu Weichen was the great-great-grandson of the Worthy King of the Left, Qubei. The people of the north called someone with a Xiongnu father and a Xianbei mother a Tiefu, thus the surname."

Yan Feng's "will never make inroads and never rebel" is a quote from Juzhi, the viscount of the Rong tribe, in the Zuo Commentary (Xiang 14.1).

Tuoba Yulü had two sons. The elder one was Tuoba Shamoxiong, and the younger one was Tuoba Shiyijian. Tuoba Shamoxiong became the chieftain of the southern tribe, and he later changed his given name to Ren, and his clan's name to Baba. Baba Ren then had his own son, Baba Song. Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) grew up as part of Baba Song's family, and his surname was changed to Zhangsun. This is not to be confused with the Zhangsun clan which has been noted before.)


年六歲,昭成崩。苻堅遣將內侮,將遷帝於長安,既而獲免。語在燕鳳傳。堅軍既還,國眾離散。堅使劉庫仁、劉衞辰分攝國事。南部大人長孫嵩及元他等,盡將故民南依庫仁,帝於是轉幸獨孤部。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui)

When Tuoba Gui was five years old (376), Tuoba Shiyijian passed away. Fu Jian sent his generals to ravage the territory of Dai, and they were about to take Tuoba Gui away to Chang'an, but he was able to make his escape. This is mentioned further in the Biography of Yan Feng.

By the time Fu Jian's army withdrew, the forces of Dai had split apart and scattered. So Fu Jian assigned Liu Kuren and Liu Weichen to each control a part of the region. The Southern Chieftain, Zhangsun Song, Yuan Ta, and others all led their people south to join Liu Kuren, and Tuoba Gui was raised with the Dugu clan.

建國三十九年,昭成暴崩,太祖未立,苻堅以庫仁為陵江將軍、關內侯,令與衞辰分國部眾而統之。自河以西屬衞辰,自河以東屬庫仁。於是獻明皇后攜太祖及衞秦二王自賀蘭部來居焉。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

In the thirty-ninth year of Jianguo (376), Tuoba Shiyijian had just passed away, and Tuoba Gui had not yet been established as King. Fu Jian appointed Liu Kuren as General of Lingjiang and a Marquis Within The Passes, and ordered him to split control of the tribes of Dai with Liu Weichen, each to rule his own forces. The region west of the Yellow River was assigned to Liu Weichen, and the region east of the Yellow River to Liu Kuren. Lady Helan brought Tuoba Gui and the two Princes of Wey and Qin from the Helan tribe to come live under Liu Kuren.

建國三十九年,照成暴崩,道武未立,苻堅以庫仁為陵江將軍、關內侯。令與衛辰分國眾統之,河西屬衛辰,河東屬庫仁。於是獻明皇后攜道武及衛、秦二王自賀蘭部來居焉。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

In the thirty-ninth year of Jianguo (376), Tuoba Shiyijian had just passed away, and Tuoba Gui had not yet been established as King. Fu Jian appointed Liu Kuren as General of Lingjiang and a Marquis Within The Passes. He ordered him to split control of the tribes of Dai with Liu Weichen, each to rule his own forces. The region west of the Yellow River was assigned to Liu Weichen, and the region east of the Yellow River to Liu Kuren. Lady Helan brought Tuoba Gui and the two Princes of Wey and Qin from the Helan tribe to come live under Liu Kuren.

及昭成崩,太祖將遷長安。鳳以太祖幼弱,固請於苻堅曰:「代主初崩,臣子亡叛,遺孫沖幼,莫相輔立。其別部大人劉庫仁勇而有智,鐵弗衞辰狡猾多變,皆不可獨任。宜分諸部為二,令此兩人統之。兩人素有深讎,其勢莫敢先發。此禦邊之良策。待其孫長,乃存而立之,是陛下施大惠於亡國也。」堅從之。鳳尋東還。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Yan Feng)

After Tuoba Shiyijian's death, Tuoba Gui was about to be moved to Chang'an. But because Tuoba Gui was still young and frail, Yan Feng implored Fu Jian, "The Prince of Dai has only just perished, and his ministers and sons have either died or rebelled. Since his grandson is still young, there is not a one of them who does not hope to set himself up as regent. The two most to be feared are the chieftain Liu Kuren, who is bold and clever besides, and the Tiefu leader Liu Weichen, who has constantly shifted his allegiance. Neither of them can be made supreme.

"Therefore, you ought to divide the tribes between them, and let man each rule his own half. The enmity between them runs deep, and considering how much power they both wield, neither will dare to make the first move. That would be a fine plan to guard the border. Then, when Tuoba Shiyijian’s grandson has grown up, you may send for him and establish him. By doing so, Your Majesty will have shown great kindness to a fallen state."

Fu Jian agreed. Yan Feng soon returned to the east.

及昭成崩,道武將遷長安。鳳以道武幼弱,固請於苻堅曰:「代主初崩,臣子亡叛,遺孫沖幼,莫相輔立。其別部大人劉庫仁勇而有智,鐵弗衛辰狡猾多端,皆不可獨任。宜分部為二,令人統之。兩人素有深仇,其勢莫能先發,此禦邊之上策。待其孫長,乃存而立之,是陛下大惠于亡國也。」堅從之。鳳尋東還。(History of the Northern Dynasties 21, Biography of Yan Feng)

After Tuoba Shiyijian's death, Tuoba Gui was about to be moved to Chang'an. But because Tuoba Gui was still young and frail, Yan Feng implored Fu Jian, "The Prince of Dai has only just perished, and his ministers and sons have either died or rebelled. Since his grandson is still young, there is not a one of them who does not hope to set himself up as regent. The two most to be feared are the chieftain Liu Kuren, who is bold and clever besides, and the Tiefu leader Liu Weichen, who has constantly shifted his allegiance. Neither of them can be made supreme.

"Therefore, you ought to divide the tribes between them, and let man each rule his own half. The enmity between them runs deep, and considering how much power they both wield, neither will dare to make the first move. That would be a fine plan to guard the border. Then, when Tuoba Shiyijian’s grandson has grown up, you may send for him and establish him. By doing so, Your Majesty will have shown great kindness to a fallen state."

Fu Jian agreed. Yan Feng soon returned to the east.

昭成崩後,謙徙長安。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

After Tuoba Shiyijian's death, Xu Qian was relocated to Chang'an.

昭成崩後,謙徙長安。(History of the Northern Dynasties 21, Biography of Xu Qian)

After Tuoba Shiyijian's death, Xu Qian was relocated to Chang'an.

堅遂分國民為二部,自河以西屬之衞辰,自河以東屬之劉庫仁。語在燕鳳傳。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

Fu Jian then split Dai in half; he assigned the part of it west of the Yellow River to Liu Weichen, and the part of it east of the Yellow River to Liu Kuren. This is further mentioned in the Biography of Yan Feng.


下詔曰:「張天錫承祖父之資,藉百年之業,擅命河右,叛換偏隅。索頭世跨朔北,中分區域,東賓穢貊,西引烏孫,控弦百萬,虎視雲中。爰命兩師,分討黠虜,役不淹歲,窮殄二凶,俘降百萬,闢土九千,五帝之所未賓,周、漢之所未至,莫不重譯來王,懷風率職。有司可速班功受爵,戎士悉復之五歲,賜爵三級。」於是加行唐公洛征西將軍,以鄧羌為并州刺史。

20. Fu Jian issued an edict stating, “Zhang Tianxi possessed the resources left to him by his ancestors, the accumulation of a hundred years of endeavor. He arrogantly monopolized power in Heyou, and became a tyrant in his corner of the realm. The Suotou have stood astride Shuofang and the north for generations, and the region was filled with their camps. They had the Yemaek as their guests to the east, and the Wusun as their recruits to their west; they fielded an army of a million archers, with their tiger's eye watching from Yunzhong. Yet I ordered forth my two generals, to campaign against each crafty foe in turn, and neither one could hold my soldiers back for even a year. I have put an end to these two threats, captured or accepted the surrender of a million foes, and expanded my territory by a further nine thousand li. These are people whom the Five Emperors of ancient times never claimed as subjects, nor did the Zhou and Han dynasties encompass their lands. But not a one of these people does not now call me King, or yearn to serve in my armies and offices. Let the officials quickly confer awards and titles according to merits, the soldiers all be returned for five years, and everyone bestowed three ranks.”

Fu Jian promoted Fu Luo to General Who Conquers The West, and appointed Deng Qiang as Inspector of Bingzhou.

鄭康成曰:叛換,猶跋扈也。「穢」,當作「濊」。《韓詩》曰:叛換,武強也。兩師,謂苟萇伐河西之師,行唐公洛伐代之師也。杜預曰:班,次也。「受」,當作「授」。

(Zheng Kangcheng remarked, "This term 叛換 means 'domineering'." And the Poems of Hann states, "叛換 means 'militarily powerful'."

The first character of Yemaek is written 穢 in the text. It ought to be 濊.

The 'two generals' were Gou Chang against Liangzhou and Fu Luo against Dai.

Du Yu remarked, "班 means 'arrayed'." And the character 受 "accept" here should be 授 "award".)


陽平國常侍慕容紹私謂其兄楷曰:「秦恃其強大,務勝不休,北戍雲中,南守蜀、漢,轉運萬里,道殣相望。兵疲於外,民困於內,危亡近矣。冠軍叔仁智度英拔,必能恢復燕祚,吾屬但當愛身以待時耳!」

21. Qin’s Regular Attendant of the Yangping fief, Murong Shao, privately told his elder brother Murong Kai, “Qin is growing complacent from its growing strength, winning battle after battle without letting its soldiers rest. In the north it occupies Yunzhong, and in the south it guards the regions of Shu and Han. But though they swallow up ten thousand li of land, in the end they will 'starve to death along the roads’. Their soldiers without are exhausted, and their people within are weary. Their danger and doom are close at hand. Our uncle, the Champion General (Murong Chui), is crafty and heroic. He will certainly be able to revive the fortunes of Yan, and for us it will only be a matter of staying alive and waiting for that day to come!”

《左傳》之言。《詩》云:行有死人,尚或殣之。毛氏曰:墐,路冢也。《說文》曰:道中死人,人所覆也。又,餓殍爲殣。秦以慕容垂爲冠軍將軍,楷、紹之叔父也。「叔仁」,當作「叔父」。史言鮮卑窺秦,有乘釁報復之志。

("They starve to death along the roads" is a quote from the Zuo Commentary (Zhao 3.3). The Book of Poems has the verse, “I pass by a dead man; perhaps he starved." Master Mao remarked, "A 墐 is a burial mound on the road." The Shuowen dictionary states, "殣 means someone who has died on the road, and men cover him up in a mound. Or, it means the body of one who has starved."

Former Qin had appointed Murong Chui as their Champion General, and he was Murong Kai's and Murong Shao's uncle. This passage writes the word uncle as 叔仁, but it ought to say 叔父.

This passage shows how the Xianbei from Former Yan were observing Former Qin from within, looking for dissensions to flare up that they could take advantage of to avenge themselves and revive their state.)


初,秦人既克涼州,議討西障氐、羌。秦王堅曰:「彼種落雜居,不相統壹,不能為中國大患。宜先撫諭,征其租稅。若不從命,然後討之。」乃使殿中將軍張旬前行宣慰,庭中將軍魏曷飛帥騎二萬七千隨之。曷飛忿其恃險不服,縱兵擊之,大掠而歸。堅怒其違命,鞭之二百,斬前鋒督護儲安以謝氐、羌。氐、羌大悅,降附貢獻者八萬三千餘落。雍州士族先因亂流寓河西者,皆聽還本。

22. Earlier, after Qin had conquered Liangzhou, there was discussion over whether to campaign against the Di and Qiang of the western barrier as well.

Fu Jian said, "There are many of these different tribes scattered across many dwelling places, and they have no common leadership. They would not be able to pose much of a threat to the Middle Kingdom. Let us first offer them comforting words, and see whether or not we can tax and levy them. If they do not accept that, then we may campaign against them."

So he sent his General of the Palace Halls, Zhang Xun, to first go to explain to and console the tribes, while the General of the Court, Wei Hefei, led twenty-seven thousand cavalry behind him. But Wei Hefei, exasperated that the tribes relied on their natural defenses and remained disobedient, let loose his troops to attack them, and they plundered the tribes greatly before returning. Fu Jian was furious that Wei Hefei had disobeyed his orders, so he had him whipped two hundred times, and he beheaded the Vanguard Protector, Chu An, in order to appease the Di and Qiang. They were very appreciative, and more than eighty-three thousand tribes submitted to Qin and sent tribute.

There had been many local clans from Yongzhou who had fled as refugees to Hexi because of the earlier chaos in the realm, but when they heard how it had been resolved, they all returned to their homes.

西障,西邊也。庭中將軍,秦所置,蓋立仗殿庭中者也。

(The western barrier meant the western border of the state.

General of the Court was a title created by Former Qin. It included all the palace guards of the court.)


劉庫仁分招撫離散,恩信甚著,奉事拓跋珪恩勤周備,不以廢興易意,常謂諸子曰:「此兒有高天下之志,必能恢隆祖業,汝曹當謹遇之。」秦王堅賞其功,加廣武將軍,給幢麾鼓蓋。

23. Liu Kuren comforted and accepted those who had scattered after the conquest of Dai, and so he greatly gained their trust and appreciation. He further showed special kindness and proper ceremony to Tuoba Gui, and he did not change his regard for him. He often said to his sons, "This boy has ambitions to surmount the world. He will certainly be able to bring his ancestors’ enterprise to even greater heights. All of you must be careful around him."

Fu Jian rewarded Liu Kuren's achievements; he promoted him to General of Broad Valor, and gave him pennant banners and drum covers.

天下之英雄,雖在童穉中,固不與羣兒同也。

(Among heroes of the world, even when they are mixed with other children, they stand out from the crowd.)


元年,葬昭成皇帝於金陵,營梓宮,木柹盡生成林。帝雖沖幼,而嶷然不羣。庫仁常謂其子曰:帝有高天下之志,興復洪業,光揚祖宗者,必此主也。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Biography of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui)

In the first year of Tuoba Gui's reign (377), Tuoba Shiyijian was buried at Jin Tomb. His coffin was made of catalpa wood, and the wood suddenly sprouted and became a whole forest.

Although Tuoba Gui was still a young child, he stood out from others. Liu Kuren often told his own sons, "This boy has ambitions to surmount the world. He will certainly be a leader who can restore his ancestors’ enterprise and extend and glorify their legacy."

庫仁盡忠奉事,不以興廢易節,撫納離散,恩信甚彰。苻堅進庫仁廣武將軍,給幢麾鼓蓋,儀比諸侯。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Kuren was fully loyal and upheld his commission, and he remained steadfast to his duty. He comforted and accepted those who had scattered and fled, greatly earning their trust and appreciation. Fu Jian promoted Liu Kuren as General of Broad Valor, gave him pennant banners and drum covers, and showed him the same ceremonial as one of the old feudal lords.

庫仁盡忠奉事,不以興廢易節。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Kuren was fully loyal and upheld his commission, and he remained steadfast to his duty.


劉衛辰恥在庫仁之下,怒,殺秦五原太守而叛。庫仁擊衛辰,破之,追至陰山西北千餘里,獲其妻子。又西擊庫狄部,徙其部落,置之桑乾川。久之,堅以衛辰為西單于,督攝河西雜類,屯代來城。

24. Liu Weichen felt ashamed in seeing himself lower in status than Liu Kuren. In his anger, he killed Qin's Administrator of Wuyuan and rebelled. Liu Kuren attacked Liu Weichen and routed him, then pursued him more than a thousand li, as far as northwest of Mount Yin, and he captured Liu Weichen's wife and children. Liu Kuren continued west and attacked the Kudi tribe, and relocated them to Sangganchuan.

Not long after, Fu Jian appointed Liu Weichen as Western Chanyu and Commander of the peoples west of the Yellow River, and he camped at Dailai.

五原,漢郡也;魏、晉省,棄其地於荒外;秦復置郡;隋、唐爲豐、鹽二州。桑乾縣,漢屬代郡,晉省。孟康曰:乾,音干。拓跋魏後置桑乾郡;唐屬朔州善陽縣界。魏收《志》,拓跋力微時,次南諸部有庫狄部,後改爲狄氏。代來城,在北河西,蓋秦築以居衞辰。言自代來者居此城也。

(Wuyuan was a commandary during Han. It was abolished under Cao-Wei and Jin, because they had abandoned the territory since it was too desolate and distant. Former Qin revived the commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was part of Fengzhou and Yanzhou.

During Han, Sanggan county was part of Dai commandary. Jin abolished it. Regarding the second character of this name, 乾, Meng Kang remarked, "乾 is pronounced 'gan'." Northern Wei later established a Sanggan commandary. During Tang, it was within the borders of Shanyang county in Shuozhou.

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, when the Tuoba clan's strength was still small, some of them gathered in the south as the Kudi clan, which was afterwards renamed the Du clan.

The city of Dailai was in the north of Hexi. Former Qin must have built it as a dwelling place for Liu Weichen. The name Dailai ("came from Dai") was meant in the sense that Liu Weichen had come from Dai to reside there.)


處衞辰在庫仁之下。衞辰怒,殺堅五原太守而叛,攻庫仁西部。庫仁又伐衞辰破之,追至陰山西北千餘里,獲其妻子,盡收其眾。庫仁西征庫狄部,大獲畜產,徙其部落,置之桑乾川。苻堅賜庫仁妻公孫氏,厚其資送。庫仁又詣堅,加庫仁振威將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Liu Weichen was thus lower in status than Liu Kuren. Angry at this situation, Liu Weichen killed Fu Jian's Administrator of Wuyuan and rebelled, and he attacked Liu Kuren's western domain. Liu Kuren marched against Liu Weichen and routed him; he pursued Liu Weichen more than a thousand li, as far as northwest of Mount Yin, he captured his wife and children, and he captured his entire army. Liu Kuren continued west and attacked the Kudi tribe, greatly capturing their livestock and produce, and relocated them to Sangganchuan.

Fu Jian gave him a Lady Gongsun as a wife, and he sent him many gifts. Liu Kuren also came to visit Fu Jian, who promoted him as General Who Spreads Valor.

苻堅處衛辰在庫仁下,衛辰怒,叛,攻庫仁。庫仁伐衛辰,破之。苻堅賜庫仁妻公孫氏,厚其資送。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Liu Kuren)

Fu Jian placed Liu Weichen in a lower position than Liu Kuren. Furious, Liu Weichen rebelled and attacked Liu Kuren. Liu Kuren marched against Liu Weichen and routed him.

Fu Jian gave Liu Kuren a Lady Gongsun as a wife, and he sent him many gifts.

堅後以衞辰為西單于,督攝河西雜類,屯代來城。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

Fu Jian later appointed Liu Weichen as Western Chanyu and Commander of the peoples west of the Yellow River, and he camped at the city of Dailai.


是歲,乞伏司繁卒,子國仁立.

25. During this year, the Xianbei leader Qifu Sifan died. His son Qifu Guoren inherited his position.

爲乞伏國仁乘秦亂據隴西張本。

(This was why Qifu Guoren was later able to take advantage of the chaos in Former Qin to occupy Longxi (Book 105, 385.25).)


司繁卒,國仁即位。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

After Qifu Sifan's death, Qifu Guoren succeeded him.

司繁死,國仁代統任。(Book of Jin 99, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

After Qifu Sifan's death, Qifu Guoren inherited his command.

司繁卒,國仁代鎮。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

After Qifu Sifan's death, Qifu Guoren inherited his command.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Nov 09, 2018 9:12 pm, edited 31 times in total.
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