Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:44 am

昇平三年(己未,公元三五九年)

The Third Year of Shengping (The Jiwei Year, 359 AD)


春,二月,燕主俊立子泓為濟北王,沖為中山王。

1. In spring, the second month, Murong Jun appointed his sons Murong Hong and Murong Chong as Prince of Jibei and Prince of Zhongshan.

燕人杀段勤,勤弟思来奔。

2. Yan killed Duan Qin; his younger brother Duan Si fled to Jin.

段勤降燕,見上卷永和八年。

Duan Qin's surrender to Former Yan is mentioned in Book 99, in the eighth year of Yonghe (352.14).


燕主俊宴群臣於蒲池,語及周太子晉,潸然流涕曰:「才子難得。自景先之亡,吾鬢髮中白。卿等謂景先何如?」司徒左長史李績對曰:「獻懷太子之在東宮,臣為中庶子,太子志業,敢不知之!太子大德有八:至孝,一也;聰敏,二也;沈毅,三也;疾諛喜直,四也;好學,五也;多藝,六也:謙恭,七也;好施,八也。」俊曰:「卿譽之雖過,然此兒在,吾死無憂矣。景茂何如?」時太子暐侍側,績曰:「皇太子天資岐嶷,雖八德已聞,然二闕未補,好游畋而樂絲竹,此其所以為損也。」俊顧謂暐曰:「伯陽之言,藥石之惠也,汝宜誡之!」暐甚不平。

3. It was earlier mentioned that Murong Jun's original heir, Murong Ye, had passed away.

At this time, Murong Jun held a banquet with his ministers at Pu Pond. When the subject of Crown Prince Jin of the Zhou dynasty was brought up, Murong Jun began to weep and said, "A talented son is a rare thing. Since Jingxian's (Murong Ye's) death, my hair has already turned half-white. What did you fellows make of Jingxian?"

The Chief Clerk of the Left of the Minister Over The Masses, Li Ji, said, "When Crown Prince Xianhuai was in the Eastern Palace, I was then the Crown Prince’s Attendant. How could I not have recognized his ambition and endeavor? The Crown Prince had eight great virtues: first, he was filial; second, he was intelligent; third, he was resolute; fourth, he was candid; fifth, he was studious; sixth, he was skilled; seventh, he was modest; and eighth, he was generous."

Murong Jun said, "Although your praise is exaggerated, if my son were still alive, I really could die without regrets. But what do you make of Jingmao (Murong Wei)?" At that time, Murong Wei himself was also present.

Li Ji said, "The Crown Prince has his talents as well as his shortcomings. Although he too possesses the eight virtues I have just mentioned, he does have two faults: his indulgence in hunting and in music. These detract from his virtues."

Murong Jun turned to Murong Wei and told him, "Boyang’s words are good medicine. You would do well to heed them!"

Murong Wei was very indignant.

蒲池在鄴。周靈王之太子曰晉,慧而早卒。《國語》諫壅穀、洛者,卽晉也。晉旣卒,弟貴立,是爲景王。景王崩,而子朝、子丐爭立,周遂以亂。燕太子曄,字景先。《晉志》曰:太子中庶子職如侍中。燕太子暐,字景茂。李績,字伯陽。爲李績以憂卒張本。

Pu Pond was at Ye.

King Ling of Zhou had a crown prince named Ji Jin, who was very intelligent. However, he died young. The Discourses of the States contains a speech criticizing the stopping up of the Gu and Luo Rivers, and this speech is attributed to Crown Prince Jin. (Speeches of Zhou Part 3, #27) When Crown Prince Jin died, his younger brother Gui took the throne in his place, becoming King Jing of Zhou. After King Jing's death, his sons Chao and Gai fought over the throne, throwing Zhou into chaos.

Yan's original Crown Prince was Murong Ye, styled Jingxian.

The Records of Jin states, "The office of the Crown Prince's Attendant was similar to one of the Emperor's Palace Attendants."

The new Crown Prince was Murong Wei, styled Jingmao.

Li Ji's style name was Boyang.

This was why Li Ji later died from worry (Book 101, 360.14).


This is the same Ji Jin who was mentioned earlier as supposedly being immortal, and who ascended to Heaven on the back of a crane.

俊夢趙主虎嚙其臂,乃發虎墓,求屍不獲,購以百金;鄴女子李菟知而告之,得屍於東明觀下,僵而不腐。俊蹋而罵之曰:「死胡,何敢怖生天子!」數其殘暴之罪而鞭之,投於漳水,屍倚橋柱不流。及秦滅燕,王猛為之誅李菟,收而葬之。

4. Murong Jun was troubled by a dream one night. He saw the former Emperor of Zhao, Shi Hu, who gnawed upon his arm. Upon waking, Murong Jun went to Shi Hu's tomb to exhume his corpse, but could not find his body there, so he offered a reward of a hundred gold for knowledge of where it was. A woman in Ye, Li Tu, said that the corpse was buried beneath the Daoist Dongming Temple.

Although Shi Hu's body was stiff in death, it had not rotted. Murong Jun trampled upon the corpse, shouting at it, "You dead barbarian, how dare you trouble a living Emperor?" He listed Shi Hu’s crimes of cruelty and tyranny and flogged the corpse. He then ordered the body to be thrown into the Zhang River, but the body caught on the bridge pillar there and did not flow further.

Years later (in 370), after Qin had conquered Yan, Fu Jian wished to avenge the wrong done to Shi Hu's body. Wang Meng had Li Tu put to death, and what remained of Shi Hu's body was reburied.

《水經註》:洹水東北流逕鄴城南,又東分爲二水,北逕東明觀下。《水經註》:漳水逕紫陌西。趙建武十一年,造紫陌浮橋,慕容儁投石虎尸處也。史終言之。

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Huan River flows northeast, passing south of Ye. To the east, it splits into two rivers, and the northern one flows past Dongming Temple."

In another place, the Commentary states, "The Zhang River flows west past Zimo." In Later Zhao's eleventh year of Jianwu (346), Shi Hu had tried to build a floating bridge at Zimo. This was the spot where Murong Jun cast Shi Hu's corpse into the river.

There is no further mention in the Zizhi Tongjian of the fate of Shi Hu's corpse.


This may have been another attempt at the floating bridge project mention in Book 95, 336.13.

二年三月,常山寺大樹自拔,根出,得璧二十七,圭七十三,光色精奇,有異常玉,雋以為岳神之命,遣尚書郎段勤以太牢祀之。五月,遼西獲黑兔。三年三月,雋夜夢石虎齒其臂,寤而惡之,命發其墓,部棺出屍,踏而罵之曰:「死人安敢夢生天子!」遣御史中尉楊約數其殘酷之罪,鞭而投之漳水。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the second year of Shouguang (358), in the third month, a great tree at a temple in Changshan uprooted itself, exposing twenty-seven jade discs and seventy-three jade tablets among its roots. The jade was of exceptional quality, and it had a fine sheen to it. Murong Jun felt that the spirit of the mountain was thus expressing itself, so he sent the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Duan Qin, to offer a grand sacrifice to it.

In the fifth month, a black rabbit was caught in Liaoxi.

In the third year (359), the third month, Murong Jun was troubled by a dream one night. He saw the former Emperor of Zhao, Shi Hu, who gnawed upon his arm. Upon waking, Murong Jun was vexed by the dream. He ordered Shi Hu's grave to be dug up, the coffin brought out, and the body pulled from the coffin. Murong Jun trampled upon the body, shouting at it, "How dare a dead man appear alive in the dreams of the Son of Heaven?" He had the Middle Commandant of the Imperial Secretary, Yang Yue, list out Shi Hu’s crimes of cruelty and tyranny, then flogged the corpse and threw it into the Zhang River.


秦平羌護軍高離據略陽叛,永安威公侯討之,未克而卒。夏,四月,驍騎將軍鄧羌、秦州刺史啖鐵討平之。

5. Qin's General Who Pacifies Qiang, Gao Li, took over Lüeyang and rebelled. Fu Hou campaigned against him, but died before he had vanquished Gao Li. Fu Hou was posthumously known as Duke Wei ("the Mighty") of Yong'an.

In summer, the fourth month, the General of Agile Cavalry, Deng Qiang, and the Inspector of Qinzhou, Dan Tie, campaigned against Gao Li and defeated him.

〈啖,氐姓也。〉

(啖 Dan was a Di surname.)


匈奴劉悉勿祈卒,弟衛辰殺其子而代之。

6. The Xiongnu chieftain Liu Xiwuqi passed away. His younger brother Liu Weichen killed his son and took over.

二十二年,夏四月,悉勿祈死,弟衞辰立。秋八月,衞辰遣子朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-second year of Jianguo (359), in summer, the fourth month, Liu Xiwuqi passed away, and his younger brother Liu Weichen took over.

In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Weichen sent his son to the Dai court bearing tribute.

悉勿祈死,弟衞辰代立。衞辰,務桓之第三子也。既立之後,遣子朝獻,昭成以女妻衞辰。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

After Liu Xiqusi passed away, his younger brother Liu Weichen succeeded him. Liu Weichen was the third son of Liu Wuhuan. After taking power, he sent his son to the Dai court bearing tribute, and Tuoba Shiyijian gave him his daughter to wed.


五月,秦王堅如河東;六月,大赦,改元甘露。

7. In the fifth month, Fu Jian returned to Hedong; in the sixth month, a general amnesty was declared, and the Qin reign era title was changed to Ganlu.

甘露元年正月,起明堂,禪南北郊。六月,甘露降,乃大赦改年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the first year of Ganlu (359), the first month, Fu Jian raised the Ming Hall and made sacrifices at the northern and southern suburbs. In the sixth month, sweet dew fell; Fu Jian declared a general amnesty and changed his reign era title to Ganlu ("sweet dew").

改年為甘露,時建國二十二年也。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the twenty-second year of Jianguo (359), Fu Jian changed Former Qin's reign era title to Ganlu.


涼州牧張瓘,猜忌苛虐,專以愛憎為賞罰。郎中殷郇諫之。瓘曰:「虎生三日,自能食肉,不須人教也。」由是人情不附。輔國將軍宋混,性忠鯁,瓘憚之,欲殺混及弟澄,因廢涼王玄靚而代之,徵兵數萬,集姑臧。混知之,與澄帥壯士楊和等四十餘騎奄入南城,宣告諸營曰:「張瓘謀逆,被太后令誅之。」俄而眾至二千。瓘帥眾出戰,混擊破之。瓘麾下玄臚刺混,不能穿甲,混擒之,瓘眾悉降。瓘與弟琚皆自殺,混夷其宗族。玄靚以混為使持節、都督中外諸軍事、驃騎大將軍、酒泉郡侯,代瓘輔政。混乃請玄靚去涼王之號,復稱涼州牧。混謂玄臚曰:「卿刺我,幸而不傷,今我輔政,卿其懼乎?」臚曰:「臚受瓘恩,唯恨刺節下不深耳,竊無所懼!」混義之,任為心膂。

8. In Liangzhou, Zhang Guan was paranoid and abusive, using his own personal whims to administer rewards or punishments. The Gentleman Attendant, Yin Xun, remonstrated with him for this. But Zhang Guan replied, "Even a newborn tiger cub only needs three days to learn how to eat meat; it needs no one to teach it." Thus, no one was willing to support him.

The General Who Upholds The State, Song Hun, was a loyal and outspoken man. Zhang Guan was afraid of him, and wished to kill him and his younger brother Song Cheng. So he deposed the Prince of Liang, Zhang Xuanjing, and took over his position. He drafted an army of tens of thousands to gather at Guzang. When Song Hun learned of it, he and Song Cheng led the strong man Yang He and others, more than forty riders in all, on a sudden dash to the southern palaces, and there declared among the camps, "Zhang Guan plots treason; we have orders from the Princess Dowager to punish him." They were able to gather up two thousand men.

Zhang Guan led his troops out to fight them, but Song Hun attacked and routed them. Zhang Guan's subordinate Xuan Lu stabbed Song Hun, but could not pierce his armor. Song Hun captured him, and the rest of Zhang Guan's forces surrendered. Zhang Guan and his younger brother Zhang Ju both killed themselves, and Song Hun slaughtered the rest of their part of the imperial clan.

Zhang Xuanjing appointed Song Hun as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Commander of all military affairs, and Marquis of Jiuquan, and asked him to take over Zhang Guan's former role as regent. Song Hun then asked Zhang Xuanjing to discard the title Prince of Liang and go back to being merely the Governor of Liangzhou.

Song Hun said to Xuan Lu, "You stabbed me, but fortunately did me no harm. Now I control the government; do you not fear me?"

Xuan Lu replied, "I received Zhang Guan's favor; my only regret is that I did not cut you deeper. What need have I to fear?"

Song Hun found this a just remark, and employed Xuan Lu as a close subordinate.

郇,須倫翻。王隱《晉書》曰:涼州城有龍形,故曰臥龍城,南北七里,東西二里,本匈奴所築。後張氏世居之,又增築四城,箱各千步,幷舊城爲五。又據《張駿傳》:駿於姑臧城南築作五殿,四面各依方色,四時遞居之。則南城張氏所居也。玄,姓也。《風俗通》:古諸侯有玄都國。臚,陵如翻。張祚始稱涼王,見九十九卷永和十年。張瓘推玄靚爲涼王,見上十一年。

郇 is pronounced "xun (x-un)".

This passage mentions that Song Hun and Song Cheng went to the "southern city" or "southern palace". The version of the Book of Jin written by Wang Yin states, "The capital city of Liangzhou resembled a dragon, so people called it Wolong ("Sleeping Dragon") City. It was seven li in length from north to south, and two li from east to west. It had originally been built by the Xiongnu. Later, the Zhang clan resided there, and they built four more cities, each a thousand paces square, so that the old city became five cities." And according to the Biography of Zhang Jun in the Book of Jin, Zhang Jun built five palaces south of Guzang; the main palace had four palaces on each side of it, each of a different color, and he moved between the palaces according to the four seasons. The Zhang clan family members all resided in these southern palaces.

玄 Xuan is a surname. The Fengsu Tong states, "One of the marquisates of the ancients was the fief of Xuandu."

臚 is pronounced "lu (l-u)".

Zhang Zuo's use of the title King of Liang is mentioned in Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354). Zhang Guan's insistence upon Zhang Xuanjing assuming the title Prince of Liang was mentioned earlier in this book, in the eleventh year (355.17).


又于姑臧城南築城,起謙光殿,畫以五色,飾以金玉,窮盡珍巧。殿之四面各起一殿,東曰宜陽青殿,以春三月居之,章服器物皆依方色;南曰硃陽赤殿,夏三月居之;西曰政刑白殿,秋三月居之;北曰玄武黑殿,冬三月居之。其傍皆有直省內官寺署,一同方色。及末年,任所遊處,不復依四時而居。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Jun)

Zhang Jun also built a city south of Guzang. In the city he built the Qianguang Palace, and painted it five different colors, and decked the halls with gold, jade, and unusual treasures. There were four palaces each built adjacent to this main one. The eastern palace was called the Xuanyang Green Palace, and he lived there during the three months of spring; all the clothing and items in the palace were the same color. The southern palace was the Zhuyang Red Palace, which he lived in for the three summer months. The western palace was the Zhengxing White Palace, and that was his residence for the three autumn months. The northern palace was the Xuanwu Black Palace, and he spent the three winter months there. Each palace had its smaller servants' quarters and temples, all of which shared the same color. In his later years, he would stay wherever he pleased, and no longer changed his dwellings by the season.

四年五月,東苑大冢上忽有災,池東天澤地燃,廣袤數丈。執法御史杜逸言於瓘曰:「此皆變之大者,可就禳之。」瓘徵兵數萬,集于姑臧,謀討宋氏。混與弟澄及左右壯士楊和等四十餘騎奔入南門外,令諸營曰:「張瓘得罪,被太后詔誅之。」俄而衆至二千,擁瓘率衆出戰,混擊敗之,衆悉去,瓘自殺。混入見玄靖,以混為使持節中外都督諸軍事、驃騎大將軍、酒泉郡侯,輔政。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

In the fifth month of the fourth year, there was a sudden natural phenomenon on the great mound in the Eastern Gardens; a fire sprang up in the Dongtian Marsh land, several zhang in length and breadth. The Imperial Secretary Who Upholds The Law, Du Yi, said to Zhang Guan, "These things are all signs of some great development. You may pray to avert it." Zhang Guan drafted several tens of thousands of soldiers, gathering them at Guzang, and he plotted to act against the Song clan.

Song Hun and his younger brother Song Cheng took Yang He and their other strong men attendants, more than forty in all, and rode out of the city through the south gate. They spread an order among the various camps, saying, "Zhang Guan has committed crimes, and we have an order from the Princess Dowager to execute him." When they soon had a host of two thousand men, they compelled Zhang Guan to lead his soldiers out to battle. Song Hun attacked and defeated this army, all of whom scattered, and Zhang Guan killed himself. Song Hun went into the city to see Zhang Xuanjing, who appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Marquis of Jiuquan, and regent over the government.

瓘兄弟強盛,負其勳力,有篡立之謀。輔國宋混與弟澄共討瓘,盡夷其屬,玄靚以混為都督中外諸軍事、車騎大將軍、假節,輔政。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

Zhang Guan and his brothers became stronger and stronger; relying upon their power, Zhang Guan formed plans to usurp Zhang Xuanjing. The General Who Upholds The State, Song Hun, and his younger brother Song Deng jointly campaigned against Zhang Guan, and they wiped out all of his subordinates. Zhang Xuanjing appointed Song Hun as Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Credential Holder, and regent over the government.


高昌不能拒燕,秋,七月,自白馬奔滎陽。

9. The warlord Gao Chang could not hold out against Yan. In autumn, the seventh month, he fell back from Baima to Xingyang.

秋七月,平北將軍高昌爲慕容儁所逼,自白馬奔于滎陽。

In autumn, the seventh month, the General Who Pacifies The North, Gao Chang, felt that his position was threatened by Murong Jun. He fell back from Baima to Xingyang.


秦王堅自河東還,以驍騎將軍鄧羌為御史中丞。八月,以咸陽內史王猛為侍中、中書令,領京兆尹。特進、光祿大夫強德,太后之弟也,酗酒,豪橫,掠人財貨、子女,為百姓患。猛下車收德,奏未及報,已陳屍於市,堅馳使赦之,不及。與鄧羌同志,疾惡糾案,無所顧忌,數旬之間,權豪、貴戚,殺戮、刑免者二十餘人,朝廷震慄,奸猾屏氣,路不拾遺。堅歎曰:「吾始今知天下之有法也!」

10. Fu Jian returned from Hedong. He appointed Deng Qiang as Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary. In the eighth month, he appointed the Interior Minister of Xianyang, Wang Meng, as Palace Attendant, Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and acting Intendant of Jingzhao.

The Specially Advanced and Household Counselor, Qiang De, was Empress Dowager Qiang's younger brother. He was an excessive drinker who oppressed the common people, plundering people’s possessions and children. He was a scourge on the common people. So as soon as Wang Meng stepped down from his carriage to take up his new office, he arrested Qiang De. And even before his memorial of the case had been delivered to Fu Jian, Qiang De’s corpse was already put on display in the marketplace. When Fu Jian received Wang Meng's memorial, he sent a swift rider to bring an order of pardon for Qiang De, but the order arrived too late.

Wang Meng was of one mind with Deng Qiang; they worked to bring the evil to justice and to clear up cases that had been mismanaged. Neither showed any fear or hesitation. Within the span of a few weeks, more than twenty high officials and powerful nobles were executed or removed from office. The court shook with fear, evildoers held their breath from fright, and things left forgotten by the roadside were not stolen. Fu Jian exclaimed, "Now I know what a land ruled by law is like!"

強太后,秦主健之后也。孔安國曰:以酒爲凶曰酗。賈公彥曰:據字,酒旁爲凶,是因酒爲凶者也。

(Empress Dowager Qiang was the widow of Fu Jiàn.

Kong Anguo remarked, "酗 means to become violent while drinking." Jia Gongyan also remarked, "This character 酗, which is 酒 (wine) with 凶 (to do violent things) beside it, is because people become violent when they drink.")


八月,堅下書曰:「咸陽內史猛言彰出納,所在著績,有臥龍之才,宜入贊百揆,絲綸王言。可徵拜侍中、中書令、領京兆尹。」中丞鄧羌,性鯁直,與猛協規齊志,於是百僚肅整,豪右屏風,風化大行。堅歎曰:「吾令始知天下之有法也。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the eighth month, Fu Jian sent out an edict stating, "The Interior Minister of Xianyang, Wang Meng, is clear and forthright in his words and accomplished in his deeds, and he has the talents of Sleeping Dragon (Zhuge Liang). He should be brought into the court to have a hand in government affairs and help to execute my royal commands. I hereby summon him to serve as Palace Attendant, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and acting Intendant of Jingzhao."

The Middle Minister, Deng Qiang, was a barbed and forthright man, and he was of one mind with Wang Meng and helped to fulfill his intentions. Through their efforts, the government officials became respectful and of proper conduct, and the gentry families folded before them, so that proper behavior became the general standard. Fu Jian exclaimed, "Now I know what a land ruled by law is like!"


泰山太守諸慕攸將水陸二萬擊燕,入自石門,屯於河渚。燕上庸王評、長樂太守傅顏帥步騎五萬與攸戰於東阿,攸兵大敗。

11. Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Zhuge You, advanced by land and water with twenty thousand men to attack Yan. They passed through Shimen and camped at He Islet. Murong Ping and Yan's Administrator of Changle, Fu Yan, led fifty thousand horse and foot to fight Zhuge You at Dong'a, where Zhuge You was greatly defeated.

冬,十月,詔謝萬軍下蔡,郗曇軍高平以擊燕。萬矜豪傲物,但以嘯詠自高,未嘗撫眾。兄安深憂之,謂萬曰:「汝為元帥,宜數接對諸將以悅其心,豈有傲誕如此而能濟事也!」萬乃召集諸將,一無所言,直以如意指四坐云:「諸將皆勁卒」。諸將益恨之。安慮萬不免,乃自隊帥以下,無不親造,厚相親托。既而萬帥眾入渦、穎以援洛陽,郗曇以病退屯彭城。萬以為燕兵大盛,故曇退,即引兵還,眾遂驚潰。萬狼狽單歸,軍士欲因其敗而圖之,以安故而止。既至,詔廢萬為庶人,降曇號建武將軍。於是許昌、穎川、譙、沛諸城相次皆沒於燕。

12. In winter, the tenth month, an edict ordered Xie Wan to camp at Xiacai and Chi Tan to camp at Gaoping, in order to attack Yan.

Xie Wan was a proud and conceited man, given to wild roaring and singing to show off his elevated status, and never concerned himself with the soldiers. His elder brother Xie An was deeply worried about him, and told him, "You are the army commander; you must interact with the officers frequently to please their hearts. How can you accomplish this business while being so haughty?"

Xie Wan thus gathered his generals, but without saying a word otherwise, he was satisfied to point all around with his ruyi scepter and say, "You men are all excellent grunts." The generals all hated him even more for this. Xie An worried Xie Wan could not avoid trouble, so he paid personal visits to everyone from the section commanders to those beneath them, and implored them earnestly, treating them with special favor like close relations.

Xie Wan then led his troops into the region between the Wo and Ying Rivers to aid Luoyang. Chi Tan became ill and fell back to camp at Pengcheng. Xie Wan believed that there were too many Yan forces in the region, so when Chi Tan retreated, he withdrew as well, but his men all panicked and scattered. Xie Wan escaped alone frantically. His men wanted to take advantage of him due to his loss, but only stopped for Xie An's sake.

Upon his return, Xie Wan was removed from office and demoted to commoner status, and Chi Tan's title was demoted to General who Establish Valor. The cities of Xuchang, Yingchuan, Qiao, and Pei thus fell to Yan one by one.

如意,鐵如意也。凡奮身行伍者,以兵與卒爲諱;旣爲將矣,而稱之爲卒,所以益恨也。渦水至山桑入淮,潁水至下蔡入淮。謝萬之兵,自下蔡而入渦、潁之間。進師易,退師難。是以善將者欲退師,必廣爲方略而後引退,不唯防敵人之追截,亦慮己衆之驚潰也。

Xie Wan's ruyi scepter was made of metal.

Among those military men who exerted themselves and surpassed others, calling them "soldiers" or "grunts" was taboo. Since Xie Wan called his generals "grunts", their grudge against him grew deeper.

The Wo River flowed into the Huai River at Shansang, and the Ying River flowed into it at Xiacai. Xie Wan's soldiers marched from Xiacai to the region between the Wo and Ying Rivers.

It is easy for a commander to advance, but difficult to retreat. If a good commander wishes to conduct a retreat, he must first develop a plan for it and afterwards carry it out. He cannot only defend against the enemy's pursuit troops, but must also ensure that his own soldiers do not panic and scatter.


冬十月慕容儁寇東阿,遣西中郎將謝萬次下蔡,北中郎將郗曇次高平以擊之,王師敗績。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Jun invaded Dong'a. The Jin court sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Xie Wan, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Chi Tan, forward to attack Murong Jun; Xie Wan advanced to Xiacai and Chi Tan advanced to Gaoping. But the royal armies were defeated.

謝中郎在壽春敗,臨奔走,猶求玉帖鐙。太傅在軍,前後初無損益之言。爾日猶云:「當今豈須煩此?」(New Tales of the World 10.21)

When Xie Wan was defeated at Shouchun in 359, even though he was about to flee for his life, he still demanded his jade-studden stirrups. His older brother Xie An, who was in the army, from first to last had never said anything whatever to Wan either of blame or of praise. But on that day he made a point of saying, “Right now what need is there to trouble yourself over this?” (tr. Richard Mather)

A commentary to this passage claims it is badly mistaken, because Xie An was still in hermitage at this time, but the above ZZTJ passage agrees with this one.

謝萬北征,常以嘯詠自高,未嘗撫慰眾士。謝公甚器愛萬,而審其必敗,乃俱行。從容謂萬曰:「汝為元帥,宜數喚諸將宴會,以說眾心。」萬從之。因召集諸將,都無所說,直以如意指四坐云:「諸君皆是勁卒。」諸將甚忿恨之。謝公欲深箸恩信,自隊主將帥以下,無不身造,厚相遜謝。及萬事敗,軍中因欲除之。復云:「當為隱士。」故幸而得免。(New Tales of the World 24.14)

When Xie Wan went on the northern expedition (against Former Yan in 358) he constantly demonstrated his superiority by whistling and chanting poems, and never showed any consideration for his officers or men. His elder brother, Xie An, highly respected and loved Wan, but sensing that Wan would surely be defeated, he accompanied him on the expedition. Very casually he said to Wan, “Since you’re the supreme commander, you should invite your generals to banquets now and then to cheer their morale.”

Xie Wan followed his advice and forthwith called together all the generals, but said nothing whatsoever to them, except to point toward those seated about him with his ju-i baton and remark, “You gentlemen are all stalwart foot soldiers.” The generals were highly incensed and resented him all the more for this. Xie An, wishing to make some profound demonstration of kindness and trust, went in person to every one, from the divisional commanders on down, to express his earnest apologies on behalf of his brother.

After Xie Wan was defeated (in 359), the rank and file wanted to use the occasion to get rid of him, but at the same time they said, “We should spare him for Xie An’s sake.” Thus by good fortune he escaped with his life.

(Hu Sanxing’s commentary on the above ZZTJ passage states that “All who had personally exerted themselves in the ranks considered the terms 兵 “man-at-arms”, and 士 ”foot soldier” to be taboo words. Now these men had already become generals, yet Wan was calling them “foot soldiers”, thereby intensifying their resentment.) (tr. by Richard Mather)


秦王堅以王猛為吏部尚書,尋遷太子詹事。十一月,為左僕射,餘官如故。

13. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, and later on transferred him to be Manager of the Crown Prince’s Palace. In the eleventh month, Wang Meng was further appointed Deputy Director of the Left, while keeping his previous positions.

堅歎曰:「吾令始知天下之有法也。」以猛為吏部尚書,遷太子詹事。十一月,以猛為司隸,侍中、領遷如故。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, and later on transferred him to be Manager of the Crown Prince’s Palace. In the eleventh month, Wang Meng was further appointed Colonel-Director and Palace Attendant, while keeping his previous positions.


十二月,封武陵王晞子㻱爲梁王。

14. In the twelfth month, Sima Jin, the son of Jin's Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Prince of Lian.

㻱,與璡同,音津。

Sima Jin's given name 㻱 is pronounced "jin" or "jin".


十二月,封武陵王晞子㻱爲梁王。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, Sima Jin, the son of Jin's Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Prince of Lian.


大旱。

15. There was a great drought in Jin.

辛酉,燕主俊寢疾,謂大司馬太原王恪曰:「吾病必不濟。今二方未平,景茂沖幼,國家多難,吾欲效宋宣公,以社稷屬汝,何如?」恪曰:「太子雖幼,勝殘致治之主也。臣實何人,敢干正統!」俊怒曰:「兄弟之間,豈虛飾邪!」恪曰:「陛下若以臣能荷天下之任者,豈不能輔少主乎!」俊喜曰:「汝能為周公,吾復何憂!李績清方忠亮,汝善遇之。」召吳王垂還鄴。

16. On the day Xinyou (January 21st of 360), Murong Jun became seriously ill. He said to Murong Ke, "This illness will be the death of me. We are still facing threats on two fronts. Jingmao is still young, and the state faces many dangers. So I wish to follow the example of Duke Xuan of Song, and pass the affairs of state on to you. What do you think?"

Murong Ke replied, "Although the Crown Prince is young, he will be a ruler who can defeat the wicked and bring about good governance. Who am I, that I dare to claim legitimacy over him?"

Murong Jun angrily said, "This is between we brothers; don't babble such false modesty!"

Murong Ke replied, "If you truly believe I am capable of being your successor, would I not also be capable of assisting the Crown Prince instead?"

Murong Jun happily replied, "Then you may be my Duke of Zhou, and I need have no regrets! Li Ji is honest, just, loyal, and bright; you must treat him well."

Murong Chui was summoned to Ye.

二方謂晉、秦也。宋宣公舍其子與夷而立其弟穆公。

The two threats were Jin and Former Qin.

During the Spring and Autumn era, Duke Xuan of Song passed over his son Yuyi and gave his position to his younger brother, Duke Mu of Song.


十二月,雋寢疾,謂大司馬恪曰:「吾患惙然,恐不濟,修短命也,復何所恨。但二寇未除,景茂沖幼,慮其未堪。家國多難,吾欲遠追宋宣,以社稷屬汝。」恪曰:「太子雖幼,天縱聰聖,必能勝殘去暴,不可以亂正統。」雋怒曰:「兄弟之間,豈虛飾乎?」恪曰:「陛下若以臣堪荷天下之任者,寧不能輔少主也!」雋曰:「若汝行周公之事,吾復何憂。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the twelfth month, Murong Jun was bedridden by illness. He said to the Grand Marshal, Murong Ke, "This illness has stricken me, and I fear I will not recover. So long as I can live a little longer, what shall I have to regret? But we are still facing threats on two fronts. Jingmao is still young, and I worry that he will not be able to handle such great responsibilities. The state is plagued by many difficulties. So I wish to follow the distant example of Duke Xuan of Song, and pass the affairs of state on to you."

Murong Ke replied, "Although the Crown Prince is young, he is naturally blessed with intelligence and wisdom. He will surely be able to overcome disorder and do away with violence. You cannot introduce confusion into the legitimate line of succession."

Murong Jun angrily said, "This is between we brothers; why babble such sophistry?"

Murong Ke replied, "If you truly believe I am capable of handling the responsibilities of the Son of Heaven, how could I not also be capable of assisting the young master instead?"

Murong Jun replied, "Then if you will be my Duke of Zhou, I shall have no regrets."


秦王堅以王猛為輔國將軍、司隸校尉、居中宿衛、僕射、詹事、侍中、中書令,領選如故。猛上疏辭讓,因薦散騎常侍陽平公融、光祿、散騎西河任群、處士京兆朱彤自代。堅不許,而以融為侍中、中書監、左僕射,任群為光祿大夫,領太子家令;朱彤為尚書侍郎、領太子庶子。猛時年三十六,歲中五遷,權傾內外;人有毀之者,堅輒罪之,於是群臣莫敢復言。以左僕射李威領護軍,右僕射梁平老為使持節、都督北垂諸軍事、鎮北大將軍,戍朔方之西;丞相司馬賈雍為雲中護軍,戍雲中之南。

17. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng to many additional posts, including General Who Upholds The State, Colonel-Director of Retainers, Guardian of the Inner Palace, Deputy Director, Manager of the Crown Prince’s Palace, Palace Attendant, and Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. Wang Meng would continue to perform his duties in the previously-granted positions.

Wang Meng sent a memorial asking to decline, offering as alternative suggestions the Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, the Household Counselor and Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Ren Qun of Xihe, or the hermit Zhu Tong of Jingzhao instead. Although Fu Jian did not agree to this request, he did appoint Fu Rong as Palace Attendant, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and Deputy Director of the Left; he appointed Ren Qun as Household Counselor and acting Prefect of the Crown Prince’s Household; and he appointed Zhu Tong as Gentleman Attendant of the Masters of Writing and as acting Crown Prince’s Attendant.

Wang Meng at this time was thirty-five. Within a single year he had been promoted five times, and his authority extended to every corner. Whenever anyone slandered him, Fu Jian invariably punished them, so none of the other ministers dared to speak against him.

Fu Jian appointed the Deputy Director of the Left, Li Wei, as acting Protector, and he appointed the Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Pinglao, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in the far north, and Grand General Who Guards The North, and he was stationed west of Shuofang. Fu Jian appointed the Marshal to the Prime Minister, Jia Yong, as Protector of Yunzhong, and he camped south of Yunzhong.

光祿、散騎,以光祿大夫爲散騎常侍也。「朱彤」,當作「朱肜」。《晉志》曰:太子家令,主刑獄、穀貨、飲食,職比司農、少府。漢制:尚書有侍郎三十六人。尚書郎初從三署詣臺,試守尚書郎中,歲滿稱尚書郎,三年稱侍郎。《晉志》曰:庶子職比散騎常侍、中書監令。猛自尚書左丞遷咸陽內史;又遷侍中、中書令,領京兆尹;又遷吏部尚書;尋遷太子詹事,爲左僕射;及今凡五遷。

(光祿 and 散騎 are abbreviations for Household Counselor and Cavalier In Regular Attendance.

What is here written as 朱彤 Zhu Tong should be 朱肜 Zhu Yong, a Former Qin general who features heavily in subsequent history.

The Records of Jin states, "The Prefect of the Crown Prince's Household was responsible for punishments and cases, grain and funds, and food and drink. The office was comparable to that of the Minister of Finance or the Minister Steward."

According to the Han system, the Masters of Writing had thirty-six Gentleman Attendants. There were three subdivisions of ranks indicated. A new appointee was an Attendant of the Masters of Writing. After a year, they became a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. After three years, they were named Gentleman Attendant. The Records of Jin states, "The office of Crown Prince's Attendant was similar to that of a Cavalier In Regular Attendance or Prefect of Palace Secretaries."

Wang Meng had first been appointed as Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing. He then became Interior Minister of Xianyang; next became Palace Attendant, Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and acting Intendant of Jingzhao; after that he was Supervisor of the Masters of Writing; and last he became the Manager of the Crown Prince’s Palace and Deputy Director of the Left. These were his five promotions.)


猛上疏曰:「伏見陽平公融,明德懿親。光祿西河任羣,忠貞淑慎。處士朱彤,博識聰辨。並宜左右彌綸,暉贊九棘。愚臣庸鄙,請避賢路。」堅曰:「機務俟才,允屬明哲。朝野所望,豈容致辭。所舉融等,尋別銓授。」於是以融為侍中中書監兼右僕射。任羣為光祿大夫,領太子家令。朱彤為中書侍郎,領太子庶子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Wang Meng sent up a petition stating, "I venture to propose the Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong; he is wise, virtuous, talented, and close kin to you. There is also the Household Counselor, Ren Qun of Xihe; he is loyal, faithful, refined, and cautious. And there is the hermit Zhu Tong; he is educated, knowledgable, intelligent, and capable. All of them are fit to serve either as your close personal servants or among the nine brambles of the borders. Please allow your foolish minister, who is no more than a mediocre fellow, to make way for these worthy gentlemen instead."

Fu Jian replied, "There are numerous affairs that require many talents, and a great many needs for your wisdom and brilliance. Considering the state of affairs in the court and in the realm, how can I accept your offer to decline? But be assured that I shall choose suitable roles for Fu Rong and the others as well."

So Fu Jian appointed Fu Rong as Palace Attendant, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and combined Supervisor of the Right. He appointed Ren Qun as Household Counselor and acting Prefect of the Crown Prince's Household. And he appointed Zhu Tong as Gentleman-Attendant of the Masters of Writing and as acting Crown Prince’s Attendant.


燕所征郡國兵悉集鄴城。

18. All the soldiers that Yan drafted from their commandaries and princely fiefs now gathered at Ye.

去年所徵,今乃悉集。

The soldiers Former Yan drafted during the previous year were now being gathered.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:28 pm

升平四年(庚申,公元三六零年)

The Fourth Year of Shengping (The Gengshen Year, 360 AD)


春,正月,癸巳,燕主俊大閱於鄴,欲使大司馬恪、司空陽騖將之入寇;會疾篤,乃召恪、騖及司徒評、領軍將軍慕輿根等受遺詔輔政。甲午,卒。戊子,太子暐即位,年十一。大赦,改元建熙。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Guisi (February 22nd), Murong Jun held a grand inspection of his drafted troops at Ye. He wished for the Grand Marshal, Murong Ke, and the Minister of Works, Yang Wu, to lead them in an invasion against Jin. However, his illness became critical, so he summoned Murong Ke, Yang Wu, the Minister Over The Masses, Murong Ping, and the General Who Directs The Army, Muyu Gen, to serve as regents over the government. On the day Jiawu (February 23rd), he passed away.

On the day Wuzi (February 17th; probably actually the day Wuxu, February 27th), the Crown Prince, Murong Wei, ascended the throne. At that time he was ten years old. A general amnesty was declared in Yan, and the reign era title was changed to Jianxi.

年四十二。暐,字景茂,儁第三子。按《長曆》,是年正月,甲戌朔。今儁以甲午卒,則戊子在甲午前,卽位恐是戊戌。

(Murong Jun was forty-one when he died.

Murong Wei, styled Jingmao, was Murong Jun's third son.

According to the Calendar Records, the first month of this year began on a Jiaxu day (February 3rd). Now Murong Jun died on the Jiawu day (February 23rd). By the calendar reckoning, the Wuzi day (February 17th) comes before the Jiawu day, yet this passage claims that Murong Wei's ascension was on the Wuzi day (making Murong Wei rise to the throne before Murong Jun's death). I (Hu Sanxing) believe the actual day of Murong Wei's ascension was the Wuxu day (February 27th).)


四年春正月丙戌,慕容儁死,子暐嗣偽位。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fourth year of Shengping (360), in spring, the first month, on the day Bingxu (February 15th), Murong Jun passed away. His son Murong Wei succeeded him.

二十三年,慕容儁死,子暐立,遣使致賻。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-third year of Jianguo (360), Murong Jun passed away. His son Murong Wei succeeded him. Tuoba Shiyijian sent envoys to Yan bearing gifts of condolences.

四年正月,雋薨于應福前殿,年五十三,偽諡景昭皇帝,廟號烈祖,葬龍陵。雋雅好文籍,性嚴重,未曾以慢臨朝。雖閒居宴處,亦無懈怠之色。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the fourth year of Shouguang (359), the first month, Murong Jun passed away in the front hall of the Yingfu Palace. He was fifty-two years old. His posthumous title was Emperor Jingzhao, and his temple name was Liezu. He was buried at Long Tomb.

Murong Jun was refined, and enjoyed literary compositions. He had a serious temperament, and he was never once slow in presiding over court. And although he spent his free time in the feasting hall, he never had a sluggish appearance.

儁死,子暐統任。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

When Murong Jun passed away, his son Murong Wei succeeded him.

光壽四年,僭即帝位,大赦,改元建熙元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the fourth year of Shouguang (360), Murong Wei rose to the imperial throne. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Jianxi.

暐既僭立,號年建熙。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

When Murong Wei succeeded his father, he changed the reign era title to Jianxi.

俊寢疾,引恪與慕容評屬以後事。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

When Murong Jun was on his deathbed, he summoned Murong Ke and Murong Ping to instruct them on what should be done after his death.

俊臨終,與慕容恪等俱受顧托。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

When Murong Jun was about to die, he entrusted affairs to Huangfu Zhen, Murong Ke, and others.


秦王堅分司、隸置雍州,以河南公雙為都督雍、河、涼三州諸軍事、征西大將軍、雍州刺史,改封趙公,鎮安定。封弟忠為河南公。

2. Fu Jian split off parts of Sizhou and the capital province to form Yongzhou province. He appointed the Duke of Henan, Fu Shuang, as Commander of military affairs in Yongzhou, Hezhou, and Liangzou, Grand General Who Conquers The West, and Inspector of Yongzhou. Fu Shuang's title was raised to Duke of Zhao, and he was stationed at Anding. His younger brother Fu Zhong became the new Duke of Henan.

河、涼三州非秦土也。雙所督實土,惟安定五郡耳。爲雙以安定叛張本。

Hezhou and Liangzhou were not Former Qin territory; they were controlled by the Zhang clan in Former Liang. So the territory that Fu Shuang was assigned to was actually just Anding and other commandaries, five in all.

This was why, during the rebellion of the dukes later on, Fu Shuang began his rebellion at Anding (Book 101, 368.16).


仇池公楊俊卒,子世立。

3. The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Jun, passed away. His son Yang Shi inherited his title.

仇池公楊俊卒,子世嗣。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Jun, passed away. His son Yang Shi succeeded him.


二月,燕人尊可足渾後為皇太后。以太原王恪為太宰,專錄朝政;上庸王評為太傅,陽騖為太保,慕輿根為太師,參輔朝政。根性木強,自恃先朝勳舊,心不服恪,舉動倨傲。時太后可足渾氏頗預外事,根欲為亂,乃言於恪曰:「今主上幼沖,母后干政,殿下宜防意外之變,思有以自全。且定天下者,殿下之功也。兄亡弟及,古今成法,俟畢山陵,宜廢主上為王,殿下自踐尊位,以為大燕無窮之福。」恪曰:「公醉邪?何言之悖也!吾與公受先帝遺詔,雲何而遽有此議?」根愧謝而退。恪以告吳王垂,垂勸恪誅之。恪曰:「今新遭大喪,二鄰觀釁,而宰輔自相誅夷,恐乖遠近之望,且可忍之。」秘書監皇甫真言於恪曰:「根本庸豎,過蒙先帝厚恩,引參顧命。而小人無識,自國哀已來,驕很日甚,將成禍亂。明公今日居周公之地,當為社稷深謀,早為之所。」恪不聽。

4. In the second month, the people of Yan honored Empress Kezuhun as Empress Dowager. Murong Ke was appointed as Grand Governor, with general control over the government. Murong Ping was appointed as Grand Tutor, Yang Wu was appointed as Grand Guardian, and Muyu Gen was appointed as Grand Instructor. All of them assisted in administering the state.

Muyu Gen had a stubborn nature. Because of his longer service under the past two sovereigns, he did not respect Murong Ke, and he acted arrogant. At this time, Empress Dowager Kezuhun was quite involved in matters beyond the inner palace. Muyu Gen wanted to take advantage of that to stir up trouble, so he said to Murong Ke, "At the moment, our sovereign is still young, and the Empress Dowager is meddling in affairs. Your Highness should beware of unexpected turns for the worse, as well as consider how to preserve yourself. It was all thanks to your achievements that the state was settled. A younger brother succeeding an older brother has long been an accepted law. Once our late lord’s tomb has been completed, then you should depose the young lord as a Prince and make yourself the ruler. By your doing so, Yan will enjoy boundless fortune."

But Murong Ke replied, "Are you drunk? What wickedness are you speaking? We both received our late lord’s mandate to protect his son. Why do you rashly propose such a thing?"

Muyu Gen remorsefully apologized and withdrew. Murong Ke mentioned the incident to Murong Chui, and Murong Chui advocated executing Muyu Gen. But Murong Ke said, "Our late lord has only just passed away, and both of our neighbors are watching us for any internal dissensions that they can take advantage of. Both Muyu Gen and I were entrusted with the state, and if one regent were to execute another, I fear it would disappoint the trust that those near and far had placed in us. I shall simply have to put up with him for now."

The Chief of the Imperial Library, Huangfu Zhen, said to Murong Ke, “Muyu Gen was originally a base and unremarkable fellow. It’s only because our late lords granted him great favor that he was brought in to be involved with state affairs. But a miscreant like him lacks understanding, and ever since the state went into mourning, he has become increasingly arrogant and impudent by the day. He will soon cause disaster. Consider that you now occupy the same position as the Duke of Zhou. You should think carefully about what you must do for the good of the state, and carry it out at once."

But Murong Ke did not heed him.

自皝以來,根屢有戰功。此殷法也,非周法也。二鄰,謂晉、秦也。

(Muyu Gen had achieved many military successes ever since Murong Huang's era.

Muyu Gen's logic about the succession was in accordance with the laws of Yin (Shang), but not the laws of Zhou.

The two neighbors whom Murong Ke refers to were Jin and Former Qin.)


以太原王恪為太宰,錄尚書,行周公事,專百揆。上庸王評為太傅,贊朝政。司空陽騖為太保。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei appointed the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, as Grand Governor and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing; Murong Ke acted as the Duke of Zhou, handling the affairs of government. He appointed the Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, as Grand Tutor, and Murong Ping oversaw court affairs. He appointed the Minister of Works, Yang Wu, as Grand Guardian.

及暐之世,總攝朝權。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

During Murong Wei's reign, Murong Ke held general control over the government.

慕輿根將謀為亂,真陰察知之,乃言於恪,請除之。恪未忍顯其事。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

Muyu Gen was plotting to cause chaos. Huangfu Zhen secretly looked into the matter and found out what Muyu Gen was up to, so he reported the matter to Murong Ke, asking him to get rid of Muyu Gen. But Murong Ke could not bear to perform such an overt act just yet.


根又言於可足渾氏及燕主暐曰:「太宰、太傅將謀不軌,臣請帥禁兵以誅之。」可足渾氏將從之,暐曰:「二公,國之親賢,先帝選之,托以孤嫠,必不肯爾。安知非太師欲為亂也!」乃止。根又思戀東土,言於可足渾氏及暐曰:「今天下蕭條,外寇非一,國大憂深,不如還東。」恪聞之,乃與太傅評謀,密奏根罪狀,使右衛將軍傅顏就內省誅根,並其妻子、黨與。大赦。是時新遭大喪,誅夷狼籍,內外恟懼,太宰恪舉止如常,人不見其有憂色,每出入,一人步從。或說以宜自戒備,恪曰:「人情方懼,當安重以鎮之,奈何復自驚擾,眾將何仰!」由是人心稍定。

5. Muyu Gen then said to Murong Wei and to Lady Kezuhun, "The Grand Governor and Grand Tutor are plotting to commit treason. I ask to lead the palace guards to execute them."

Lady Kezuhun was about to agree with him, but Murong Wei said, "The two lords are close relatives to the throne and wise men. They were chosen by my late father, who grasped their arms on his deathbed to charge them with protecting me. They certainly could not do such a thing. Grand Instructor, how do we know whether it is not you who wishes to stir up such trouble?"

So Muyu Gen gave up on that attempt. But Muyu Gen also missed the eastern lands (around Longcheng), so he again went to Lady Kezuhun and Murong Wei and said, "The realm is currently desolate, and there are multiple states hostile to us. The greater our state grows, the more we have to worry about. It would be better to return to the east."

When Murong Ke heard of this matter, he discussed things with Murong Ping, and secretly sent in a memorial outlining Muyu Gen’s offenses. He sent the Guard General of the Right, Fu Yan, to interrogate and then execute Muyu Gen, along with his wife, his children, and his partisans. A general amnesty was declared.

At that time, the state was still newly in mourning, and with these executions and other disturbances, people near and far became afraid. But Murong Ke acted the same as normal, and no one saw him looking anxious. Whenever he went out, he only brought a single attendant to follow him. Someone suggested he should increase security, but Murong Ke said, “When people are full of fear, I need to be personally calm and steady in order to quiet them down. How could I act nervous and disturbed as well? If I did so, how would the people curb their fears?" Thus were the people's hearts laid at ease.

龍城在鄴城東北,故曰東土。旣誅根及其妻子黨與,恐衆心反側,故肆赦以安之。

(Muyu Gen meant for the Former Yan court to return to their former capital at Longcheng, which was northeast of Ye.

Since Murong Ke had executed Muyu Gen and his wife, children, and partisans, he feared that other people might consider rebellion, so he issued the amnesty in order to ease that threat.)


慕輿根之就誅也,內外危懼。恪容止如常,神色自若,出入往還,一人步從。或有諫之者,恪曰:「人情懷懼,且當自安以靖之。吾復不安,則眾何瞻仰哉!」於是人心稍定。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

In the immediate aftermath of Muyu Gen's execution, people near and far were disturbed and afraid. But Murong Ke acted the same as normal, keeping a serene expression as though nothing were amiss. Whenever he went out or in, somewhere or back again, he only brought a single attendant to follow him on foot. Some people remonstrated with him for this, but Murong Ke said, "When the people are nervous and afraid, I should be calm and at east in order to make them tranquil. If even I act unsettled, how will the people master their fears?" Thus were the people's hearts laid at ease.

俄而根謀發伏誅,恪謝真曰:「不從君言,幾成禍敗。」(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

Soon afterwards, Muyu Gen's plot came to light, so he was executed. Murong Ke apologized to Huangfu Zhen, saying, "I did not follow your advice, Sir, and that almost led to disaster."


恪雖綜大任,而朝廷之禮,兢兢嚴謹,每事必與司徒評議之,未嘗專決。虛心待士,咨詢善道,量才授任,人不逾位。官屬、朝臣或有過失,不顯其狀,隨宜他敘,不令失倫,唯以此為貶。時人以為大愧,莫敢犯者。或有小過,自相責曰:「爾復欲望宰公遷官邪!」朝廷初聞燕主俊卒,皆以為中原可圖。桓溫曰:「慕容恪尚在,憂方大耳。」

6. Although Murong Ke held a great rank, he acted cautiously and deliberately when it came to the court protocol, and he always consulted with Murong Ping in all matters before taking any action. He treated the scholar-officials well and modestly, and he sought out virtuous council. He appointed people to positions according to their abilities, ensuring that no one was assigned a task that they were incapable of fulfilling. If an official or a court minister made some transgression or error, he did not publicly denounce them, but would shuffle them to other positions according to the situation, and not let them lose their rank. By this method alone would he discipline them. The people of that time would take such treatment as great shame, and none dared to commit a fault. Whenever someone made a petty mistake, others would reproach them by saying, "Do you want the Governor-Excellency to change your position?"

When the Jin court first learned of Murong Jun's death, everyone believed that the Central Plains could now be retaken. But Huan Wen said, "So long as Murong Ke is there, we still have great cause for concern."

以敍遷爲他官,不令失其倫等也。恪爲太宰,故稱之爲宰公。史言慕容恪能輔幼主,桓溫能料敵。

(Murong Ke would transfer people to other positions of the same grade, and did not let them lose their social ranking.

Murong Ke was an Excellency, but he also held the office of Grand Governor, so people would call him the Governor-Excellency.

This passage demonstrates that Murong Ke was able to administer the state for a young lord, and that Huan Wen could tell a worthy foe when he saw one.)


初,建鄴聞俊死,曰:「中原可圖矣。」桓溫曰:「慕容恪尚存,所憂方為大耳。」...恪虛襟待物,諮詢善道,量才處任,使人不逾位。朝廷謹肅,進止有常度,雖執權政,每事必咨之於評。罷朝歸第,則盡心色養,手不釋卷。其百僚有過,未嘗顯之,自是庶僚化德,稀有犯者。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

At first, when the Jin capital at Jianye heard that Murong Jun had died, people said, "The Central Plains can now be retaken."

But Huan Wen said, "So long as Murong Ke is there, we still have great cause for concern."

Murong Ke was personally modest and courteous to people of merit, and he sought out virtuous council. He appointed people to positions according to their abilities, ensuring that no one was assigned a task that they were incapable of fulfilling. He was cautious and respectful among the court, and he put on no special airs in his conduct. So even though he held the reins of power, he was always receptive to criticism whatever the issue. And when he dissolved court and returned to his residence, he always maintained a full heart and a filial expression, and he was never without some text in hand. If one of his subordinates committed some transgression, he never publicly denounced them. Thus did the government ministers cultivate virtue, and rarely did anyone commit a fault.


三月,己卯,葬燕主俊於龍陵,謚曰景昭皇帝,廟號烈祖。所征郡國兵,以燕朝多難,互相驚動,往往擅自散歸,自鄴以南,道路斷塞。太宰恪以吳王垂為使持節、征南將軍、都督河南諸軍事、兗州牧、荊州刺史,鎮梁國之蠡台,孫希為并州刺史,傅顏為護軍將軍,帥騎二萬,觀兵河南,臨淮而還,境內乃安。希,泳之弟也。

7. In the third month, on the day Jimao (April 8th), Murong Jun was buried at Long Tomb. He was given the posthumous name Emperor Jingzhao ("the Splendid and Clear"), and his temple name was Liezu.

Because there were so many troubles in the Yan court, the soldiers who had been gathered for Murong Jun's planned campaign started to cause disturbances among each other, and they often wandered off without authorization, which clogged the roads south of Ye. So Murong Ke appointed Murong Chui as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Conquers The South, Commander of all military affairs south of the Yellow River, Governor of Yanzhou, and Inspector of Jingzhou, and he was stationed at Litai in Liangguo. Sun Xi was appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou, and Fu Yan was appointed as General Who Protects The Army. They led twenty thousand cavalry to stage a military parade in Henan, then traveled as far as the Huai River before returning. The Yan domain was thus settled. This Sun Xi was the younger brother of Sun Yong.

陵在龍城,因以爲名。史言恪當國有大憂、衆心危疑之際,處之有方。觀兵,曜兵以示之也。孫泳拒趙,見九十六卷成帝咸康四年。史書孫泳、鞠彭、宋燭之子弟,皆貴顯於燕,所以勸委質者能守死而不貳,子孫必獲其福也。

Since Murong Jun’s tomb was in Longcheng, it was called Long Tomb.

This passage demonstrates how, when Former Yan was besieged with great worries and the people were feeling uncertain, Murong Ke was able to handle matters properly.

The term 觀兵 means to display one's soldiers as a show of force.

Sun Yong was among the Former Yan officers who resisted the Later Zhao invasion, as mentioned in Book 96, in the fourth year of Xiankang (336). The histories mention that the sons and younger brothers of Sun Yong, Ju Peng, and Song Zhu, all of whom remained loyal to Former Yan during that difficult time, received great esteem and honor in Former Yan, in order to encourage others to defend their cities even unto death and not defect, knowing that their sons and grandsons would receive good fortune.


王垂為河南大都督,十州諸軍事、兗州牧,鎮梁國。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei appointed the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, as Grand Commander of military affairs in the ten provinces south of the Yellow River and Governor of Yanzhou, and Murong Chui was stationed at Liangguo.

又為征南將軍、荊、兗二州牧,有聲于梁、楚之南。再為司隸,偽王公已下莫不累跡。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui was later appointed as General Who Conquers The South and Governor of Jingzhou and Yanzhou, and his reputation spread as far south as the regions of Lian and Chu. And later on, after he became Director of Retainers, there was no one from the Former Yan nobles on down who were not fearful of him.


匈奴劉衛辰遣使降秦,請田內地,春來秋返;秦王堅許之。夏,四月,雲中護軍賈雍遣司馬徐贇帥騎襲之,大獲而還。堅怒曰:「朕方以恩信懷戎狄,而汝貪小利以敗之,何也!」黜雍以白衣領職,遣使還其所獲,慰撫之。衛辰於是居入塞內,貢獻相尋。

8. The Xiongnu leader Liu Weichen sent envoys offering to submit to Qin. He asked that Qin permit him the use of some farmland within Qin's borders; he would come to use it in the spring and then leave again after autumn. Fu Jian permitted it.

But in summer, the fourth month, Qin’s Protector of Yunzhong, Jia Yong, sent his Marshal, Xu Yun, to raid the Xiongnu farmers with cavalry; they took many of them captive and then returned. Fu Jian angrily said, "I had just started to demonstrate my grace and good faith to the tribes, when you, for the sake of petty greed, attacked them. What is the meaning of that?" He demoted Jia Yong to commoner status while retaining him in office, and he sent the captured people back to the Xiongnu and soothed them. Liu Weichen thus resided within the borders of the realm with his people, and regularly sent tribute to Qin.

衞辰潛通苻堅,堅以為左賢王。遣使請堅,求田內地,春來秋去,堅許之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

Liu Weichen was in secret communication with Fu Jian, who appointed him as Worthy King of the Left. He asked that Fu Jian permit him the use of some farmland within his borders; he would come to use it in the spring and then leave again after autumn. Fu Jian permitted it.


夏,六月,代王代翼犍妃慕容氏卒。秋,七月,劉衛辰如代會葬,因求婚,什翼犍以女妻之。

9. In summer, the sixth month, Tuoba Shiyijian's concubine Lady Murong passed away.

In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Weichen came to Dai to attend the funeral for Lady Murong. He took the occasion to ask for a wife, so Tuoba Shiyijian gave him his daughter to marry.

二十三年夏六月,皇后慕容氏崩。秋七月,衞辰來會葬,因而求婚,許之。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-third year of Jianguo (360), in summer, the sixth month, Empress Murong passed away.

In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Weichen came to attend the funeral for Lady Murong. He took the occasion to ask for a wife, so Tuoba Shiyijian gave him his daughter to marry.


八月,辛丑朔,日有食之,既。

10. In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou (August 28th), there was a total solar eclipse.

八月辛丑朔,日有蝕之,旣。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou (August 28th), there was a total solar eclipse.


謝安少有重名,前後征辟,皆不就,寓居會稽,以山水、文籍自娛。雖為布衣,時人皆以公輔期之,士大夫至相謂曰:「安石不出,當如蒼生何!」安每游東山,常以妓女自隨。司徒昱聞之,曰:「安石既與人同樂,必不得不與人同憂,召之必至。」安妻,劉惔之妹也,見家門貴盛而安獨靜退,謂曰:「丈夫不如此也?」安掩鼻曰:「恐不免耳。」及弟萬廢黜,安始有仕進之志,時已年四十餘。征西大將軍桓溫請為司馬,安乃赴召,溫大喜,深禮重之。

11. In Jin, Xie An had been famous since youth. Although he was often requested or summoned to take up office, he declined all the offers, and lived in seclusion in Kuaiji, where he found amusement among the hills and rivers and in writing. Although he lived as a commoner, people had expectations of him like a high minister of state, and they said to each other, "If Anshi does not take up office, then what are the common people to do?"

Whenever Xie An traveled through the eastern hills, he often had female singers and performers go with him. When Sima Yu heard of it, he said, "Since Anshi knows the pleasures of other men, he must also share their fears as well. If you summon him, he will come."

Xie An had a wife; she was the younger sister of Liu Tan. When she saw how honored and widespread Xie An's clan was, but that Xie An only kept to himself in hermitage, she said, “Shouldn't you be living that kind of life instead?”

Xie An pinched his nose and said, "I'm just afraid I won't be able to escape it either way."

After his younger brother Xie Wan was removed from office, Xie An began to have ambitions of his own. By this time, he was over forty years old. The Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, invited him to serve on his staff as his Marshal, and Xie An at last heeded the call. Huan Wen was greatly pleased, and treated Xie An with deep respect.

東山,在今紹興府上虞縣西南四十五里。安故居今爲國慶禪寺。言恐亦不免如諸兄弟也。劉惔以清談貴顯;而謝尚、謝奕、謝萬皆爲方伯,盛於一時。謝安,字安石。江東人士始焉所期望者殷浩,浩旣無以滿衆望矣,繼而所望者謝安,而安卒能匡輔晉室。世之論者,皆優安而劣浩。余謂盛名之下,其實難副。浩之所以敗,正以與桓溫齊名,其心易溫;又值石氏之亂,以爲可以立功,敗於輕率也。謝安當桓溫擅政之時,又身嘗爲之僚屬,而懲浩之所以失,戒溫而爲之備;溫旣死而值秦之強,兢兢焉爲自保之謀,常持懼心,此其所以濟也。史氏謂其能矯情鎭物,蓋因屐齒之折、白雞之夢而知之耳。

The eastern hills are fifteen miles southeast of Shangyu county in the modern Shaoxing Garrison. Xie An's former residence there is a national shrine in our times.

Xie An means to say he fears he cannot avoid serving in office as his other brothers did.

Liu Tan himself had been honored and renowned due to his skill in Pure Conversation, and Xie Shang, Xie Yi, and Xie Wan had all been border commanders. This is how their clan was so prominant.

Xie An's style name was Anshi.

The people of the Southland had all originally pinned their hopes on Yin Hao. But since Yin Hao had failed to live up to their expectations, they began to believe in Xie An. In the end, Xie An indeed succeeded in defending the Jin dynasty where Yin Hao had failed. So people who discussed such things all believed that Xie An was superior and Yin Hao was inferior. In my (Hu Sanxing's) view, when one has a lofty reputation, it is difficult to live up to it. Yin Hao's defeats came about because he was equally popular to Huan Wen, which made Yin Hao think little of Huan Wen. So, when chaos befell the Shi clan of Later Zhao, Yin Hao thought he could take advantage of that and achieve something, and so he was defeated from being rash and reckless. On the other hand, Xie An had already once before been a subordinate minister during the time that Huan Wen wielded power, so he was careful to avoid making the same mistakes as Yin Hao, and he guarded himself against Huan Wen. And just as Huan Wen died, Former Qin reached the zenith of its strength. But Xie An acted cautiously in order to protect himself, constantly maintaining a sense of apprehension, and that was why he was successful in the end. The historians say that Xie An was able to maintain a blank expression, holding back his emotions so people could not guess what he was thinking. And they must have known this because of the incidents of him breaking his sandal on his threshold and his having the dream about the white chicken.


The incident of Xie An banging his shoes upon the threshold of his house is mentioned later on, in Book 105, 383.16. The dream of the white chicken is not mentioned in ZZTJ; it is taken from Xie An's biography in the Book of Jin.

「昔桓溫在時,吾常懼不全。忽夢乘溫輿行十六里,見一白雞而止。乘溫輿者,代其位也。十六里,止今十六年矣。白雞主酉,今太歲在酉,吾病殆不起乎!」

Xie An said, "When Huan Wen was still here, I often lived in endless dread of him. There was one night when I dreamed that I was riding in Huan Wen’s carriage for sixteen li, but then stopped when I saw a white chicken. I see now that the fact that I was riding in Huan Wen’s carriage indicated that I was meant to take over his position. The sixteen li represented these past sixteen years. And the white chicken indicated a You year. Now this very year is a You year, so I don’t think I will recover from this illness!"


謝公在東山畜妓,簡文曰:「安石必出。既與人同樂,亦不得不與人同憂。」(New Tales of the World 7.21)

While Xie An was living in retirement in the Eastern Mountains, he kept a female entertainer on the premises. Sima Yu said, "Anshi is sure to come out of retirement. As long as he shares the same pleasures as other men, he can't help sharing their anxieties as well." (tr. Richard Mather).

初,謝安在東山居,布衣,時兄弟已有富貴者,翕集家門,傾動人物。劉夫人戲謂安曰:「大丈夫不當如此乎?」謝乃捉鼻曰:「但恐不免耳!」(New Tales of the World 25.27)

At first, while Xie An was living in the Eastern Mountains as a commoner, some of his older and younger brothers had already become wealthy and honorable. Whenever there was a gathering of the various branches of the family, it always created quite a stir among the populace.

Xie An's wife, Lady Liu, teased him, saying, "Shouldn't a great man like you be like this too?"

Xie An held his nose and replied, "My only fear is that I shan't escape it, that's all." (tr. Richard Mather)


冬,十月,烏桓獨孤部、鮮卑沒弈干各帥眾數萬降秦,秦王堅處之塞南。陽平公融諫曰:「戎狄人面獸心,不知仁義。其稽顙內附,實貪地利,非懷德也;不敢犯邊;實憚兵威,非感恩也。今處之塞內,與民雜居,彼窺郡縣虛實,必為邊患,不如徙之塞外以防未然。」堅從之。

12. In winter, the tenth month, Dugu Bu of the Wuhuan people and Meiyi Gan of the Xianbei both submitted to Qin with their tens of thousands of followers. Fu Jian settled them south of the borders of the realm.

The Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, remonstrated with this, saying, "The tribesmen have 'the faces of men but the hearts of beasts'; they do not know benevolence or righteousness. They may bow to you, but they are really only out for themselves, coveting our land and our bounty, not because they were inspired by your virtue. The only reason that they have not dared to attack our borders is because they fear the might of our soldiers, not because they have any respect for your grace. Now if you settle them within our territory, and they live mixed among the people, then they will spy on all the commandaries and the counties and discover all our weak points, which will certainly cause us trouble on the border. It would be better if you resettle them outside of the borders of the realm, in order to head off any trouble."

Fu Jian followed his advice.

十一月,封桓溫為南郡公,溫弟沖為豐城縣公,子濟為臨賀縣公。

13. In the eleventh month, Huan Wen was appointed as Duke of Nan commandary. His younger brother Huan Chong was appointed as Duke of Fengcheng county, and Huan Wen’s son Huan Ji was appointed as Duke of Linhe county.

十一月,封太尉桓溫爲南郡公,溫弟沖爲豐城縣公,子濟爲臨賀郡公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eleventh month, the Grand Commandant, Huan Wen, was appointed as Duke of Nan commandary. His younger brother Huan Chong was appointed as Duke of Fengcheng county, and Huan Wen’s son Huan Ji was appointed as Duke of Linhe commandary.


燕太宰恪欲以李績為右僕射,燕主暐不許。恪屢以為請,暐曰:「萬機之事,皆委之叔父,伯陽一人,暐請獨裁。」出為章武太守,以憂卒。

14. Murong Ke wished to appoint Li Ji as Deputy Director of the Right, but Murong Wei forbade it. When Murong Ke continued to ask for it, Murong Wei replied, "I leave most affairs in your hands, Uncle, but as for Boyang, allow me to decide for myself." Murong Wei sent Li Ji away to be Administrator of Zhangwu, and Li Ji died from worry.

暐不平李績事見上卷上年。

The source of Murong Wei's animosity for Li Ji is mentioned in Book 100, in the third year of Shengping (359.3).
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:34 pm

升平五年(辛酉,公元三六一年)

The Fifth Year of Shengping (The Xinyou Year, 361 AD)


春,正月,戊戌,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Wuxu (February 21st), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

五年春正月戊戌,大赦,賜鰥寡孤獨不能自存者,人米五斛。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fifth year of Shengping, in spring, the first month, on the day Wuxu (February 21st), a general amnesty was declared. Gifts were bestowed to widows, widowers, orphans, and those unable to take care of themselves, with five 斛 of rice per person.


劉衛辰掠秦邊民五十餘口為奴婢以獻於秦;秦王堅責之,使歸所掠。衛辰由是叛秦,專附於代。

2. Liu Weichen raided Qin's border region and took more than fifty people as slaves, which he then presented to Qin as his tribute. Fu Jian blamed Liu Weichen for this and returned the people he had captured. So Liu Weichen rebelled against Qin, and once more inclined towards Dai.

史言夷狄反覆難保。

This passage shows how the barbarians went back on their word.


二十四年春,衞辰遣使朝聘。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-fourth year of Jianguo (361), in spring, Liu Weichen sent envoys to the Dai court to arrange a marriage alliance.

後掠堅邊民五十餘口為奴婢以獻於堅,堅讓歸之。乃背堅,專心歸國。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

Liu Weichen later raided Fu Jian's border region and took more than fifty people as slaves, which he then presented to Fu Jian as his tribute. Fu Jian blamed Liu Weichen for this and returned the people he had captured. So Liu Weichen turned against Qin, and once more inclined towards Dai.


東安簡伯郗曇卒。二月,以東陽太守范汪都督徐、兗、青、冀、幽五州諸軍事,兼徐、兗二州刺史。

3. In Jin, Chi Tan passed away. He was posthumously known as Earl Jian ("the Pure") of Dong’an.

In the second month, the Administrator of Dongyang, Fan Wang, was appointed Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and combined Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, to take over for Chi Tan.

北中郎將、都督徐兗青冀幽五州諸軍事、徐兗二州刺史郗曇卒。二月,以鎮軍將軍范汪爲都督徐兗青冀幽五州諸軍事、安北將軍、徐兗二州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

The General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Chi Tan, passed away.

In the second month, the General Who Guards The Army, Fan Wang, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, General Who Maintains The North, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, to take over for Chi Tan.


平陽人舉郡降燕。燕以建威將軍段剛為太守,遣督護韓苞將兵共守平陽。

4. The people of Pingyang surrendered their commandary to Yan. Yan's General Who Establishes Valor, Duan Gang, was appointed as Administrator of Pinygang, and they sent the Protector, Han Bao, with troops to help guard Pingyang.

平陽時屬張平。

At the time of this incident, Pingyang was under the control of the Bingzhou warlord Zhang Ping.


方士丁進有寵於燕主暐,欲求媚於太宰恪,說恪令殺太傅評;恪大怒,奏收斬之。

5. The magician Ding Jin had enjoyed the favor of Murong Wei (or, Murong Jun). He wished to curry favor with Murong Ke, so he told him to kill Murong Ping. Murong Ke was greatly angered, and ordered Ding Jin to be arrested and executed.

【章:十二行本「暐」作「儁」;乙十一行本同。】

Some versions state that Ding Jin had been favored by "Murong Jun" instead of "Murong Wei".


高昌卒,燕河內太守呂護並其眾,遣使來降;拜護冀州刺史。護欲引晉兵以襲鄴。三月,燕太宰恪將兵五萬,冠軍將軍皇甫真將兵萬人,共討之。燕兵至野王,護嬰城自守。護軍將軍傅顏請急攻之,以省大費。恪曰:「老賊經變多矣,觀其守備,未易猝攻。頃攻黎陽,多殺精銳,卒不能拔,自取困辱。護內無蓄積,外無救援,我深溝高壘,坐而守之,休兵養士,離間其黨,於我不勞而賊勢日蹙。不過十旬,取之必矣,何為多殺士卒以求旦夕之功乎!」乃築長圍守之。

6. The warlord Gao Chang passed away. Yan's Administrator of Henei, Lü Hu, took over Gao Chang’s soldiers, and sent word of his submission to Jin. The Jin court appointed him as Inspector of Jizhou.

Lü Hu wished to lead Jin forces to attack Ye. In the third month, Murong Ke led an army of fifty thousand men, while the Champion General, Huangfu Zhen, led another ten thousand, and they jointly campaigned against Lü Hu. When the Yan armies reached Yewang, Lü Hu withdrew into his city to defend it.

Fu Yan asked to fiercely press the assault, in order to save time. But Murong Ke replied, “That old rebel is crafty and experienced, and he is always looking to protect himself. He must have made preparations to defend the city, so we cannot be so quick to assault it. Remember what happened during the assault at Liyang: many of our best soldiers were killed, but in the end we could not capture the city, and it was the source of much misery and shame.

"Now on the other hand, consider these points. Within the city, Lü Hu has accumulated no stores of grain, while outside the city, he has no expectations of reinforcements. We may build deep trenches and high ramparts outside his walls, and then remain in place to keep him contained. We can sit and wait, resting our troops and tending to the local people while causing division among his supporters. With no exertion on our part, Lü Hu will be hemmed in further and further by the day. We will find ourselves masters of the city in fewer than a hundred days. Why then should we throw away countless lives just to slightly hasten our achievement?"

So the Yan army built siege lines around the city.

三年,高昌奔滎陽。

(Gao Chang had earlier fled to Xingyang, as was mentioned in Book 100, in the third year of Shengping (359.8).)


Murong Ke refers to Yang Wu's failed assault against Gao Chang at Liyang, mentioned in Book 100 (358.10).

呂護之叛,恪謀於朝曰:「遠人不服,修文德以來之。今護宜以恩詔降乎,不宜以兵戈取也?」真曰:「護九年之間三背王命,揆其奸心,凶勃未已。明公方飲馬江、湘,勒銘劍閣,況護蕞爾近幾而不梟戮,宜以兵算取之,不可復以文檄喻也。」恪從之。以真為冠軍將軍、別部都督。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

When Lü Hu rebelled, Murong Ke proposed to the court, "If distant people are not obedient to us, then we should cultivate our learning and virtue to attract them. Should we not encourage Lü Hu to surrender to us by an edict offering him grace, rather than taking him by force of arms?"

But Huangfu Zhen replied, "In the past nine years, Lü Hu has betrayed the royal mandate three times already. Considering his wicked heart, he will remain just as wild and brash as before. Is it not your intention to water your horses in the Yangzi and the Xiang River, and carve your way through Jiange Pass in Shu? Then how can you not execute such a meager and nearby threat as Lü Hu and display his head? It is by war and weapons that we shall get him; the time for civilized admonishments and instructions is over."

Murong Ke followed his advice, and he appointed Huangfu Zhen as Champion General and Commandant with an Independent Command.


夏,四月,桓溫以其弟黃門郎豁都督沔中七郡諸軍事,兼新野、義城二郡太守,將兵取許昌,破燕將慕容塵。

7. In summer, the fourth month, Huan Wen appointed the Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, his younger brother Huan Huo, as Commander of military affairs in seven commandaries along the Mian River. He was also made the combined Administrator of Xinye and Yicheng.

Huan Huo led troops to capture Xuchang, and he routed the Yan general Murong Chen.

【章:十二行本無「都」字;乙十一行本同。】魏置中書監、令,又置通事郎、黃門郎。沔中七郡,魏興、新城、上庸、襄陽、義成、竟陵、江夏也。城,當作成。

In some versions, the 都 in the term 都督 (Commander) is not written.

Cao-Wei created the offices of Chief and Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, as well as Gentleman of 通事 and Gentleman of the Yellow Gate.

These seven commandaries along the Mian River were Weixing, Xincheng, Shangyong, Xiangyang, Yicheng, Jingling, and Jiangxia.

In the name of the city 義城 Yicheng, 城 should be 成.


夏四月,太尉桓溫鎮宛,使其弟豁將兵取許昌。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, the Grand Commandant, Huan Wen, was stationed at Wan. He sent his younger brother Huan Huo to lead troops to capture Xuchang.


涼驃騎大將軍宋混疾甚,弦玄靚及其祖母馬氏往省之,曰:「將軍萬一不幸,寡婦孤兒將何所托!欲以林宗繼將軍,可乎?」混曰;「臣子林宗幼弱,不堪大任。殿下倘未棄臣門,臣弟澄政事愈於臣,但恐其儒緩,機事不稱耳。殿下策勵而使之,可也。」混戒澄及諸子曰:「吾家受國大恩,當以死報,無恃勢位以驕人。」又見朝臣,皆戒之以忠貞。及卒,行路為之揮涕。雲靚以澄為領軍將軍,輔政。

8. Liangzhou's Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Song Hun, became gravely ill. Zhang Xuanjing and his grandmother Lady Ma came to visit Song Hun, asking, "General, if anything should happen to you, who will be able to sustain an old woman and an orphan boy like us? Shall your son Song Linzhong take up your role?"

Song Hun replied, "My son Linzhong is young and weak; he could not bear such a great role. If Your Highness does not wish to cease relying upon my family, there is my younger brother Song Cheng. In matters of administering affairs, he is better than I am. But I fear that he has that scholarly placidity, and does not look out for opportunities. Your Highness must encourage him, then he can be used."

Song Hun also instructed Song Cheng and his sons, "Our family has enjoyed the favor of the state, so you must repay the state with your very lives. Do not act proud because of your influence." He also met with the court ministers, and charged them to act loyally. Soon after this, he passed away, and the streets were full of wailing and weeping.

Zhang Xuanjing appointed Song Cheng as General Who Directs The Army, acting as the new regent.

凡儒者多務爲舒緩,而不能應機以趨事赴功。

Many scholarly gentlemen were leisurely and unhurried in conducting affairs, and thus were unable to act quickly in response to opportunities for achievement.


六年,宋混卒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

In the sixth year, Song Hun passed away.

混卒,又以澄代之。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

When Song Hun passed away, Song Cheng replaced him.


五月,丁巳,帝崩,無嗣。皇太后令曰:「琅邪王丕,中興正統,義望情地,莫與為比,其以王奉大統!」於是百官備法駕迎於琅邪第。庚申,即皇帝位,大赦。壬戌,改封東海王弈為琅邪王。秋,七月,戊午,葬穆帝於永平陵,廟號教宗。

9. In the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 10th), Emperor Mu passed away.

Emperor Mu had not left an heir. So Empress Dowager Chu commanded, "The Prince of Langye, Sima Pi, is of the original line of the royal family that established the restoration of the dynasty. His virtue is clear, and he is beyond all others; let him rise to the throne!" Thus the ministers all prepared the imperial carriage to escort Sima Pi from his residence. On the day Gengshen (July 13th), he rose to the throne, and a general amnesty was declared. Sima Pi would be known as Emperor Ai.

On the day Renxu (July 15th), Emperor Ai passed on his former title as Prince of Langye to the Prince of Donghai, his younger brother Sima Yi.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuwu (September 9th), Emperor Mu was buried at Yongping Tomb; his temple name was Xiaozong.

年十九。元帝、明帝、成帝皆正統相傳。琅邪王丕,成帝長子也,故曰中興正統。

Emperor Mu was eighteen when he died.

Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had been the one to establish the restoration of the Jin dynasty. He was succeeded by his eldest son Sima Shao, who became Emperor Ming. He in turn was succeeded by his eldest son Sima Yan, who became Emperor Cheng. But after Emperor Cheng's death, the throne had passed to his younger brother Emperor Kang, and then to Emperor Kang's son Emperor Mu. The Prince of Langye, Sima Pi, was Emperor Cheng's eldest son, and so the Empress Dowager said this was restoring the original line of succession.


五月丁巳,帝崩于顯陽殿,時年十九。葬永平陵,廟號孝宗。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 10th), Emperor Mu passed away in the Xianyang Hall. He was eighteen years old. Emperor Mu was buried at Yongping Tomb, and his temple name was Xiaozong.

永和元年拜散騎常侍,十二年加中軍將軍,升平三年除驃騎將軍。五年五月丁巳,穆帝崩。皇太后令曰:「帝奄不救疾,胤嗣未建。琅邪王丕,中興正統,明德懋親。昔在咸康,屬當儲貳。以年在幼沖,未堪國難,故顯宗高讓。今義望情地,莫與爲比,其以王奉大統。」于是百官備法駕,迎于琅邪第。庚申,卽皇帝位,大赦。壬戌,詔曰:「朕獲承明命,入纂大統。顧惟先王宗廟,蒸嘗無主,太妃喪庭,廓然靡寄,悲痛感摧,五內抽割。宗國之尊,情禮兼隆,胤嗣之重,義無與二。東海王奕,戚屬親近,宜奉本統,其以奕爲琅邪王。」秋七月戊午,葬穆皇帝于永平陵。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the first year of Yonghe (345), Sima Pi was appointed as Cavalier In Regular Attendance. In the twelfth year of Yonghe (356), Sima Pi was promoted to General of the Central Army. In the third year of Shengping (359), Sima Pi was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry.

In the fifth year of Shengping (361), in the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 10th), Emperor Mu passed away.

Empress Dowager Chu commanded, "With the Emperor having died from a sudden illness, he had not had time to establish his heir. The Prince of Langye, Sima Pi, is of the original line of the royal family that established the restoration of the dynasty. He is wise, virtuous, majestic, and a close relation. At the end of the Xiankang era, it was he who by rights should have been his father's heir. But because the Prince was still very young then, he would not have been able to endure the hardships plaguing the state, and that is why Xianzong (Emperor Cheng) yielded the throne to another. But now, the Prince's virtue is clear, and he is beyond all others; let him rise to the throne!" Thus the ministers all prepared the imperial carriage to escort Sima Pi from his residence. On the day Gengshen (July 13th), he rose to the throne, and a general amnesty was declared. Sima Pi would be known as Emperor Ai.

On the day Renxu (July 15th), Emperor Ai issued an edict stating, "Having received a clear mandate, I venture to take charge of the imperial line. Yet I must consider the ancestral temple of the Princes of Langye before me, who have never lacked for someone to maintain their sacrifices. My mother the Consort Dowager is in the mourning hall, her feelings clear and quiet; the pain of grief is excrutiating, and the five viscera are in agony. In honoring the ancestors of a state, both feelings and propriety must be regarded; in the selection of an heir, righteousness cannot be divided. The Prince of Donghai, Sima Yi, is my own close kin. He ought to continue my former line. I hereby appoint Sima Yi as Prince of Langye in my stead."

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuwu (September 9th), Emperor Mu was buried at Yongping Tomb.

永和八年拜散騎常侍,尋加鎮軍將軍;升平四年拜車騎將軍。五年,改封琅邪王。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), Sima Yi was appointed as Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and soon afterwards, he was promoted to General Who Guards The Army. In the fourth year of Shengping (360), Sima Yi was appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry. In the fifth year (361), his title was changed to Prince of Langye.

是年,司馬聃死,衍子千齡僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year, Sima Dan (Emperor Mu) passed away. Sima Yan's (Emperor Cheng's) son Sima Qianling (Sima Pi; Emperor Ai) succeeded him.


燕人圍野王數月,呂護遣其將張興出戰,傅顏擊斬之,城中日蹙。皇甫真戒部將曰:「護勢窮奔突,必擇虛隙而投之;吾所部士卒多羸,器甲不精,宜深為之備。」乃多課櫓楯,親察行夜者。護食盡,果夜悉精銳趨真所部,突圍,不得出;太宰恪引兵擊之,護眾死傷殆盡,棄妻子奔滎陽。恪存撫降民,給其廩食;徙士人、將帥於鄴,自餘各隨所樂。以護參軍廣平梁琛為中書著作郎。

10. The Yan soldiers kept Yewang under siege for several months. Lü Hu sent his general Zhang Xing out to fight a battle, but Fu Yan fought and killed him. Things within the city became worse by the day. Huangfu Zhen warned his subordinate officers, "In Lü Hu's desperation, he will certainly attempt to flee by launching a sudden attack against one of our weak points. Most of the soldiers in our section are weak, and their equipment is not the best. We should really be on our guard against this possibility." So Huangfu Zhen tested the armaments numerous times, and personally inspected those patrolling at night.

When Lü Hu's food was exhausted, as Huangfu Zhen had expected, he gathered together all of his best troops and suddenly emerged from the city to launch an attack against Huangfu Zhen's division, but he could not break through the siege lines. Murong Ke led his soldiers to attack them, and almost all of Lü Hu's men were either killed or wounded. He himself escaped and fled to Xingyang, abandoning his wife and children.

Murong Ke soothed the people who surrendered, and supplied them with his own food. The leading scholarly and military families were sent to Ye, while Murong Ke allowed the rest of the people to go where they would. He appointed Lü Hu's former Army Advisor, Liang Chen of Guangping, as Gentleman-Author of the Palace Secretariat.

晉武帝以祕書幷中書省,故曰中書著作郎。

Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) had merged the Imperial Library into the Bureau of the Palace Secretariat; this was why the office mention in this passage was called the Gentleman-Author of the Palace Secretariat.


慕容恪攻陷野王,守將呂護退保滎陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

Murong Ke assaulted and captured Yewang. The defending general Lü Hu retreated to guard Xingyang.

真師還,拜鎮西將軍、并州刺史,領護匈奴中郎將。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

After returning from the campaign against Lü Hu, Huangfu Zhen was appointed as General Who Guards The West, Inspector of Bingzhou, and acting General of the Household Gentlemen Who Protects The Xiongnu.


九月,戊申,立妃王氏為皇後,後,濛之女也。穆帝何皇後稱穆皇後,居永安宮。

11. In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 29th), Emperor Ai’s concubine Lady Wang was honored as Empress. She was the daughter of Wang Méng. Emperor Mu's former empress, Lady He, was granted the title Empress Mu, and she retired to Yong'an Palace.

九月戊申,立皇后王氏。穆帝皇后何氏稱永安宮。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 29th), Emperor Ai’s concubine Lady Wang was honored as Empress. Emperor Mu's former empress, Lady He, was granted the title Empress of the Yong'an Palace.


涼右司馬張邕惡宋專政,起兵攻澄,殺之,並滅其族。張玄靚以邕為中護軍,叔父天錫為中領軍,同輔政。

12. Liangzhou's Marshal of the Right, Zhang Yong, hated Song Cheng for having control of affairs. He raised troops and attacked Song Cheng, killing him and wiping out his whole family. Zhang Xuanjing appointed Zhang Yong as Army Protector of the Center, and appointed his own uncle Zhang Tianxi as General Who Directs The Army of the Center; the two of them jointly ran the state.

宋澄豈特機事不稱哉,遂赤其族!以此知經世非儒緩者所能爲也。

Wasn’t this exactly Song Cheng not being able to react fast enough when the situation arose? And it led to his clan being wiped out! From this one can truly see that men of scholarly placidity cannot handle the affairs of state.


玄靚右司馬張邕惡澄專擅,殺之。遂滅宋氏,玄靚乃以邕為中護軍,叔父天錫為中領軍,共輔政。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

Zhang Xuanjing's Marshal of the Right, Zhang Yong, resented Song Cheng's usurpation of power, so he killed Song Cheng and wiped out the Song clan. Zhang Xuanjing then appointed Zhang Yong as Army Protector of the Center, and his own uncle Zhang Tianxi as Army Leader of the Center; the two of them served jointly as regents over the government.


張平襲燕平陽,殺段剛、韓苞;又攻雁門,殺太守單男。既而為秦所攻,平復謝罪於燕以求救。燕人以平反覆,弗救也,平遂為秦所滅。

13. The Bingzhou warlord Zhang Ping had earlier attacked Yan's Pingyang, where he killed Duan Gang and Han Bao. He had also attacked Yanmen, and killed its Administrator, Dan Nan. But at this time, when Zhang Ping was attacked by Qin, he asked Yan's forgiveness and pleaded for their aid. Yan did not trust Zhang Ping and refused to help him, so Zhang Ping was ultimately wiped out by Qin.

乙亥,秦大赦。

14. On the day Yihai (?), a general amnesty was declared in Qin.

三年九月,鳳凰集于東闕,大赦其境內。初,將為赦,與左僕射猛、右僕射融密議於露堂,悉屏左右,堅自為赦文,猛、融進紙筆。有一大蒼繩,入自牖間,鳴聲甚大,集於筆端,驅而復來堅所聽之,久而乃去,俄而長安街巷市里民相告曰:「官令大赦。」有司以聞,堅驚謂融、猛曰:「事何從而泄?」於是敕外推窮之,咸言有一小人,衣黑大呼於市,曰:「官令大赦。」須臾不見。堅歎曰:「其向蒼蠅乎!聲狀非常,吾固惡之。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the third year of Ganlu (361), the ninth month, phoenixes gathered at the Eastern Terrace. Fu Jian declared a general amnesty within his domain.

Earlier, when Fu Jian was about to issue the amnesty, he dismissed all his other attendants and secretly met with just the Supervisors of the Left and Right, Wang Meng and Fu Rong, in the Drying Chamber. Fu Jian himself composed the edict letter, while Wang Meng and Fu Rong brought him the sheets and brushes. A little blue fly flew in through the window, making a great buzz as it landed on the tip of Fu Jian's brush. He brushed it away, but it still flew around, so Fu Jian let it be. After a while, it flew away.

Soon, everyone in the streets and markets of Chang'an was telling one another, "The government is about to issue a general amnesty." When the officials reported this to Fu Jian, he was astonished. He said to Wang Meng and Fu Rong, "How could this have possibly leaked?" Fu Jian ordered his agents to investigate what had happened, and they all reported that a little man dressed in black had yelled in the marketplace, "The government is going to issue a general amnesty," then vanished without a trace. Fu Jian sighed and said, "It must have been that blue fly! It had such a strange sound and shape; that's why it vexed me so."


徐、兗二州刺史范汪,素為桓溫所惡,溫將北伐,命汪帥眾出梁國。冬,十月,坐失期,免為庶人,遂廢,卒於家。子寧,好儒學,性質直,常謂王弼、何晏之罪深於桀、紂。或以為貶之太過。寧曰:「王、何蔑棄典文,幽沈仁義,游辭浮說,波蕩後生,使搢紳之徒翻然改轍,以至禮壞樂崩,中原傾覆,遺風餘俗,至今為患。桀、紂縱暴一時,適足以喪身覆國,為後世戒,豈能回百姓之視聽哉!故吾以為一世之禍輕,歷代之患重,自喪之惡小,迷眾之罪大也。」

15. Huan Wen had long despised the new Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Fan Wang. When Huan Wen was about to go out on his northern expedition, he ordered Fan Wang to lead his troops out from Liangguo. In winter, the tenth month, after Huan Wen charged him with missing the deadline, Fan Wang was demoted to commoner status and stripped of office, and he died at home.

Fan Wang’s son was Fan Ning. This Fan Ning delighted in Confucian studies, and he had a forthright temperament. He often likened the crimes of the Wei scholars Wang Bi and He Yan to those of the ancient monarchs Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang. Someone once suggested that he went too far in his denunciations of them. But Fan Ning said, "Wang Bi and He Yan slighted and belittled the Classics, and they hid and shied away from benevolence and righteousness. They used flighty words and shallow rhetoric, and so misled young men to ruin. They drove away officials and altered the government, until the rites became dissolute and the music fallen. We have suffered these disasters, including the fall of the Central Plains and the handing down of vulgar traditions, thanks to them. Though Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang were wanton and tyrannical for a while, it was only enough to cause them to lose their lives and their rule, and to become a warning tale for later generations. Even they could not continue to twist the perceptions of the people in later times! That’s why I think that being the scourge of one generation is a trivial matter, while bringing threat to multiple ages is serious. Causing one’s own downfall is a petty crime, but deceiving the populace is a grave sin."

桓溫初以安西鎭上流,汪爲上佐;蓋惡其異己也。若汪於此時能立異,必知溫之心迹矣。

When Huan Wen had first become General Who Maintains The West and was stationed on the upper reaches of the Yangzi, Fan Wang was one of his chief subordinates; they must have been in opposition even back then. If Fan Wang could have objected to Huan Wen at this time, he would have found about about Huan Wen’s true intentions.


Wang Bi and He Yan were philosophers and ministers during the reign of Cao Rui of Cao-Wei. They proposed new interpretations of Confucian and Daoism, but were also known for their lax behavior.

冬十月,安北將軍范汪有罪,廢爲庶人。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In winter, the tenth month, the General Who Maintains The North, Fan Wang, was charged with a crime and demoted to commoner status.


呂護復叛,奔燕,燕人赦之,以為廣州刺史。

16. Lü Hu again rebelled against Jin, and fled to Yan. Yan pardoned him, making him the Inspector of Guangzhou.

燕無廣州,以刺史之名授護耳。

Former Yan obviously did not rule the far southern province of Guangzhou, so this title was only meant to bolster Lü Hu's name with some office.


九月,呂護叛奔于慕容暐。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the ninth month, Lü Hu rebelled against Jin and fled to Murong Wei.


涼張邕驕矜淫縱,樹黨專權,多所刑殺,國人患之。張天錫所親敦煌劉肅謂天錫曰:「國家事欲未靜!」天錫曰:「何謂也?」肅曰:「今護軍出入,有似長寧。」天錫驚曰:「我固疑之,未敢出口。計將安出?」肅曰:「正當速除之耳!」天錫曰:「安得其人?」肅曰:「肅即其人也!」肅時年未二十。天錫曰:「汝年少,更求其助。」肅曰:「趙白駒與肅二人足矣。」十一月,天錫與邕俱入朝,肅與白駒從天錫,值邕於門下,肅斫之不中,白駒繼之,又不克,二人與天錫俱入宮中,邕得逸走,帥甲士三百餘人攻宮門。天錫登屋大呼曰:「張邕兇逆無道,既滅宋氏,又欲傾覆我家。汝將士世為涼臣,何忍以兵相向邪!今所取者,止張邕耳,它無所問!」於是邕兵悉散走,邕自刎死,盡滅其族黨。玄靚以天錫為使持節、冠軍大將軍、都督中外諸軍事,輔政。十二月,始改建興四十九年,奉升平年號,詔以玄靚為大都督、督隴右諸軍事、涼州刺史、護羌校尉、西平公。

17. Liangzhou's regent Zhang Yong was arrogant and promiscuous. He spread his influence over the government by cultivating many partisans, and he put many other people to death. He was a bane to the people of Liangzhou.

Zhang Tianxi's close follower, Liu Shu of Dunhuang, said to him, "It seems like the state will never know peace!"

Zhang Tianxi asked him, "What do you mean?"

Liu Shu said, "Look at all of General Zhang Yong’s comings and goings. He is becoming another Marquis of Changning (Zhang Zuo)."

Zhang Tianxi, startled, said, "I have long had similar doubts, but I dared not say anything. But what is your plan to bring peace?"

Liu Shu said, "Simple: get rid of General Zhang at once!"

Zhang Tianxi said, "And who will be the man to do it?"

Liu Shu said, "I myself will do it!"

At that time, Liu Su was not yet nineteen years old. So Zhang Tianxi said, "You are young; you will need some help."

Liu Shu said, "It'll be enough if it's Zhao Baiju and me."

In the eleventh month, Zhang Tianxi and Zhang Yong entered court, with Liu Shu and Zhao Baiju following behind Zhang Tianxi. Just then, Zhang Yong was standing under the gate. Liu Shu swung his sword at Zhang Yong but did not hit him, and Zhao Baiju did so as well, but did not hit him either. They fled along with Zhang Tianxi into the palace.

Zhang Yong managed to escape, and he led more than three hundred armored guards to attack the palace gate. Zhang Tianxi climbed onto a building and shouted, "Zhang Yong is a wild and wicked man, lacking in principles. He wiped out the Song clan, and plans to do the same thing to our family too. Soldiers, you and your forefathers have all been loyal servants of Liangzhou. How could you bear to point your weapons at us? Our only target is Zhang Yong himself; no one else shall be blamed!" After hearing this, all of Zhang Yong’s troops dispersed. Zhang Yong then cut his own throat and so died, and his immediate family and his partisans were eliminated.

Zhang Xuanjing appointed Zhang Tianxi as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Champion General, Commander of all military affairs, and sole regent over the government. In the twelfth month, Zhang Tianxi changed the reign era title. Up until now, Liangzhou had continued to follow the reign era title of Emperor Min, so they were now in the forty-ninth year of Jianxing. Zhang Tianxi changed this to the current Eastern Jin reign era title, the fifth year of Shengping. The Jin court appointed Zhang Xuanjing as Grand Commander, Commander of military affairs in Longyou, Inspector of Liangzhou, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, and Duke of Xiping.

長寧侯張祚也。【章:十二行本「錫」下有「值邕於門下」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】自張重華沒後,張祚、張瓘、宋混以及張邕、張天錫,遞相屠滅,涼浸衰矣。

Marquis of Changning was the title of the usurper Zhang Zuo.

Some versions add "Just then, Zhang Yong was standing under the gate" after "they followed behind Zhang Tianxi".

Ever since the death of Zhang Chonghua, whenever the reins of power in Liangzhou changed hands, from Zhang Zuo, to Zhang Guan, to Song Hun, to Zhang Yong, and now to Zhang Tianxi, it was accompanied by the slaughter and extinguishment of the earlier man's family and supporters. And thus, Liangzhou gradually declined.


天錫以使持節都督諸軍輔政。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

Zhang Tianxi was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander over all military affairs, and regent over the government.

十二月,加涼州刺史張玄靚爲大都督隴右諸軍事、護羌校尉、西平公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the twelfth month, the Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Xuanjing, was further appointed as Grand Commander of military affairs in Longyou, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, and Duke of Xiping.

太和元年春二月己丑,以涼州刺史張天錫爲大將軍、都督隴右關中諸軍事、西平郡公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the first year of Taihe (366), in spring, the second month, on the day Jichou (March 18th), the Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Tianxi, was appointed as Grand General, Commander of military affairs in Longyou and Guanzhong, and Duke of Xiping commandary.

邕自以功大,驕矜淫縱,又通馬氏,樹黨專權。國人患之。天錫腹心郭增、劉肅二人,並年十八九,因寢,謂天錫曰:「天下事欲未靜。」天錫曰:「何謂也?」二人曰:「今護軍出入,有似長寧。」天錫大驚曰:「我早疑之,未敢出口。計當云何?」肅曰:「政當速除之耳。」天錫曰:「安得其人?」肅曰:「肅即是也。」天錫曰:「汝年少,更求可與謀者。」肅曰:「趙白駒及肅二人足以辦之矣。」於是天錫從兵四百人,與邕俱入朝,肅與白駒剔刀鞘出刃,從天錫入。值邕于門下,肅斫之不中,白駒繼之,又不克,二人與天錫俱入禁中。邕得逸走,因率甲士三百餘人反攻禁門。天錫上屋大呼,謂將士曰:「張邕凶逆,所行無道,諸宋何罪,盡誅滅之?傾覆國家,肆亂社稷。我不惜死,實懼先人廢祀,事不獲已故耳。我家門戶事,而將士豈可以干戈見向!今之所取,邕身而已。天地有靈,吾不食言。」邕眾聞之,悉散走,邕以劍自刎而死。於是悉誅邕黨。玄靚年既幼沖,性又仁弱,天錫既克邕,專掌朝政,改建興四十九年,奉升平之號。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

Since Zhang Yong had made this great achievement, he was arrogant and promiscuous. He had his way with Lady Ma, and his partisans held the reins of government. He was a bane to the people of Liangzhou. Zhang Tianxi had two close companions, Guo Zeng and Liu Su, both of whom were just eighteen or nineteen years old. In Zhang Tianxi's bedchamber, they said to him, "It seems like the state will never known peace."

Zhang Tianxi asked them, "What do you mean?"

The two of them said, "Look at all of General Zhang’s comings and goings. He is becoming another Marquis of Changning."

Zhang Tianxi, very startled, said to them, "I have long had similar doubts, but I dared not say anything. But what is your plan?"

Liu Shu said, "Simple: rid of General Zhang at once!"

Zhang Tianxi said, "And who will be the man to do it?"

Liu Shu said, "I myself will do it."

Zhang Tianxi said, "You are young; you will need some help to carry out the plot."

Liu Shu said, "It'll be enough to handle it if it's Zhao Baiju and me."

So Zhang Tianxi followed four hundred soldiers and entered court together with Zhang Yong. Liu Su and Zhao Baiju drew their swords from their scabbards and followed Zhang Tianxi inside. When Zhang Yong was standing under the gate, Liu Shu swung his sword at Zhang Yong but did not hit him, and Zhao Baiju did so as well, but did not hit him either. They fled along with Zhang Tianxi into the private chambers.

Zhang Yong managed to escape, and led more than three hundred armored guards to attack the chamber gate. Zhang Tianxi climbed onto a building and shouted, "Zhang Yong is a wild and wicked man, and in all he does he is lacking in principles. What clan did the Song clan commit, and yet he exterminated them all? He is bringing the state to ruin, and recklessly bringing turmoil to the altars of state. I do not fear death for myself, but I do lament seeing the sacrifices to my ancestors overturned, and that is the only reason I cannot let this matter stand. This is a matter of the royal family, and yet you soldiers and officers think to turn your weapons towards us! Our only object today is Zhang Yong himself and no other. If Heaven and Earth are conscious, then I will not eat my words."

After hearing this, all of Zhang Yong’s troops dispersed. Zhang Yong then cut his throat with his sword and so died, and his partisans were all eliminated.

Since Zhang Xuanjing was still young, and he was of a benevolent and weak nature, and as Zhang Tianxi had just overcome Zhang Yong, Zhang Tianxi monopolized power over the government and the court. The Liangzhou reign era title was then the forty-ninth year of Jianxing, but Zhang Tianxi changed it to the current Eastern Jin reign era title, Shengping.


燕大赦。

18. A general amnesty was declared in Yan.

秦王堅命牧伯守宰各舉孝悌、廉直、文學、政事,察其所舉,得人者賞之,非其人者罪之。由是人莫敢妄舉,而請托不行,士皆自勵;雖宗室外戚,無才能者皆棄不用。當是之時,內外之官,率皆稱職;田疇修辟,倉庫充實,盜賊屏息。

19. Fu Jian ordered the local officials to recommend to office people in the Filial and Respectful, Incorrupt and Forthright, Cultured and Learned, and Adept Administration categories. Fu Jian personally assessed the recommended people. He rewarded officials who recommended capable people, and punished those who recommended incapable ones. Thus no one dared to make careless recommendations, and no more did people ask for official positions as a favor. All scholars strived to excel. All those who were incompetent, even if they were members of the ruling family or related to them by marriage, were barred from office. At that time, all ministers within and without were suited to their posts. Fields were repaired, warehouses were well-stocked, and thieves and bandits held their breath in fear.

是歲,歸義侯李勢卒。

20. During this year, the Marquis of Guiyi and former Emperor of Cheng-Han, Li Shi, passed away.

永和三年,李勢降,至是而卒。

Li Shi had surrendered to Jin after Huan Wen's conquest of his state in Book 97, in the third year of Yonghe (347.4), but he did not die until now.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:38 pm

哀皇帝

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Ai, Sima Pi


諱丕,成帝長子也,字千齡;咸康八年,封琅邪王。《諡法》:恭仁短折曰哀。

(Emperor Ai was named Sima Pi. He was the eldest son of Emperor Cheng, and his style name was Qianling. He had been appointed Prince of Langye in the eighth year of Xiankang (342).

Concerning his posthumous title, the Law of Posthumous Names states, "One who is respectful and benevolent, but who dies young, may be called Ai ('Lamented').")


隆和元年(壬戌,公元三六二年)

The First Year of Longhe (The Renxu Year, 362 AD)


春,正月,壬子,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Renzi (March 2nd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Longhe.

隆和元年春正月壬子,大赦,改元。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the first year of Longhe (362), in spring, the first month, on the day Renzi (March 2nd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Longhe.


甲寅,減田租,畝收二升。

2. On the day Jiayin (March 4th), the farmland tax in Jin was decreased, so that now every taxable 畝 was taxed two 升 of rice.

成帝咸和五年,始度百姓田,畝取十分有一,率畝稅米三升;今減之,畝收二升。

(During Emperor Cheng's reign, in the fifth year of Xianhe (330), Jin had first surveyed the area of people’s farmlands. For every 畝 of land, a tax of ten percent was imposed, which converted to three 升 of rice per 畝 of land. At this time, the tax was decreased, so that every 畝 was taxed two 升.)


甲寅,減田稅,畝收二升。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

On the day Jiayin (March 4th), the farmland tax in Jin was decreased, so that now every taxable 畝 was taxed two 升 of rice.


燕豫州刺史孫興請攻洛陽,曰:「晉將陳祐弊卒千餘,介守孤城,不足取也!」燕人從其言,遣寧南將軍呂護屯河陰。

3. Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou, Sun Xing, asked to attack Luoyang. He said, "Jin’s commander at Luoyang, Chen You, only has some thousand weak soldiers. He defends just one isolated city. We can defeat him easily!" The Yan court agreed, and the General Who Calms The South, Lü Hu, was sent to camp at Heyin.

是月,慕容暐將呂護、傅末波攻陷小壘,以逼洛陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

During this month, Murong Wei's generals Lü Hu and Fu Mobo attacked and routed the small ramparts in the Luoyang region, threatening to capture Luoyang itself.


二月,辛未,以吳國內史庾希為北中郎將、徐、兗二州刺史,鎮下邳,龍驤將軍袁真為西中郎將、監護豫、司、並、冀四州諸軍事、豫州刺史,鎮汝南並假節。希,冰之子也。

4. In the second month, on the day Xinwei (March 21st), Jin's Interior Minister of Wu, Yu Xi, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Xiapi. The Dragon-Soaring General, Yuan Zhen, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Chief of military affairs in Yuzhou, Sizhou, Bingzhou, and Jizhou, and Inspector of Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Runan. Both of them were given staffs of authority. This Yu Xi was the son of Yu Bing.

希、眞旣並假節,職任宜同;疑希亦當帶監護之職,史逸之也。庾冰秉政於咸康。

(Since both Yu Xi and Yuan Zhen were given staffs of authority, they must have held equivalent ranks. So I (Hu Sanxing) suspect that Yu Xi had also been appointed as a Chief for his region, and this passage simply omits that title.

Yu Bing had run the Jin government during parts of the reigns of Emperor Cheng and Emperor Kang (339-344).)


二月辛未,以輔國將軍、吳國內史庾希爲北中郎將、徐兗二州刺史,鎮下邳;前鋒監軍、龍驤將軍袁眞爲西中郎將、監護豫司幷冀四州諸軍事、豫州刺史,鎮汝南,並假節。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the second month, on the day Xinwei (March 21st), the General Who Upholds The State and Interior Minister of Wu, Yu Xi, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Xiapi. The Vanguard Chief and Dragon-Soaring General, Yuan Zhen, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Chief of military affairs in Yuzhou, Sizhou, Bingzhou, and Jizhou, and Inspector of Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Runan. Both of them were given staffs of authority.


丙子,拜帝母周貴人為皇太妃,儀服擬於太后。

5. On the day Bingzi (March 26th), Emperor Ai honored his mother, Consort Zhou, as Consort Dowager, and she was treated with the same honor and ceremony as the Empress Dowager.

丙子,尊所生周氏爲皇太妃。(Book of JIn 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

On the day Bingzi (March 26th), Emperor Ai honored his birth mother, Lady Zhou, as Consort Dowager.


燕呂護攻洛陽。三月,乙酉,河南太守戴施奔宛,陳祐告急。五月,丁巳,桓溫遣庾希及竟陵太守鄧遐帥舟師三千人助祐守洛陽。遐,岳之子也。

6. Lü Hu attacked Luoyang. In the third month, on the day Yiyou (?; probably the day Yiyou in the fifth month, June 3rd), Jin's Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, fled to Wan, and Chen You asked for emergency reinforcements.

In the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 5th), Huan Wen sent Yu Xi and the Administrator of Jingling, Deng Xia, to lead three thousand soldiers by boat to help Chen You defend Luoyang. This Deng Xie was the son of Deng Yue.

永和十二年,桓溫留戴施戍洛陽。鄧嶽,王敦將也。敦敗後自歸,著功交、廣。

(Huan Wen had left Dai Shi and his men in the Luoyang region in Book 100, in the twelfth year of Yonghe (356.16).

Deng Yue was a commander under the rebel general Wang Dun. After Wang Dun's defeat, he submitted to the Jin court again, and he gained achievements governing the far southern provinces of Jiaozhou and Guangzhou.)


This ZZTJ passage lists Dai Shi's flight as being on 三月乙酉 "the third month, on the day Yiyou". But there would not have been a Yiyou day during that month of this year. Most likely, the date has been miswritten for 五月乙酉 "the fifth month, on the day Yiyou", or June 3rd.

夏四月,呂護復寇洛陽。乙酉,輔國將軍、河南太守戴施奔于宛。五月丁巳,遣北中郎將庾希、竟陵太守鄧遐以舟師救洛陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, Lü Hu once again attacked Luoyang. On the day Yiyou (?; probably the day Yiyou in the fifth month, June 3rd), the General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, fled to Wan.

In the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 5th), Jin sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Yu Xi, and the Administrator of Jingling, Deng Xia, to lead soldiers by boat to reinforce Luoyang.


溫上疏請遷都洛陽。自永嘉之亂播渡江表者,一切北徙,以實河南。朝廷畏溫,不敢為異。而北土蕭條,人情疑懼,雖並知不可,莫敢先諫。散騎常待領著作郎孫綽上疏曰:「昔中宗龍飛,非惟信順協於天人,實賴萬裡長江畫而守之耳。今自喪亂已來,六十餘年,河、洛丘墟,函夏蕭條。士民播流江表,已經數世,存者老子長孫,亡者丘隴成行,雖北風之思感其素心,目前之哀實為交切。若遷都旋軫之日,中興五陵,即復緬成遐域。秦山之安,既難以理保,烝烝之思,豈不纏於聖心哉!溫今此舉,誠欲大覽始終,為國遠圖;而百姓震駭,同懷危懼,豈不以反舊之樂賒,而趨死之憂促哉!何者?植根江外,數十年矣,一朝頓欲拔之,驅踧於窮荒之地。提挈萬裡,逾險浮深,離墳墓,棄生業,田宅不可復售,舟車無從而得。捨安樂之國,適習亂之鄉,將頓僕道塗,飄溺江川,僅有達者。此仁者所宜哀矜,國家所宜深慮也!臣之愚計,以為且宜遣將帥有威名、資實者,先鎮洛陽,掃平梁、許,清壹河南。運漕之路既通,開墾之積已豐,豺狼遠竄,中夏小康,然後可徐議遷徙耳。奈何捨百勝之長理,舉天下而一擲哉!」綽,楚之孫也。少慕高尚,嘗著《遂初賦》以見志。溫見綽表,不悅,曰:「致意興公,何不尋君《遂初賦》,而知人家國事邪!」

7. Huan Wen again sent up a petition requesting that the Jin capital be returned to Luoyang, and that all who had fled south of the Yangzi since the Disaster of Yongjia should be relocated back north, in order to repopulate the Henan region. The court ministers feared Huan Wen, and did not dare to disagree with him. The north was seen as desolate, and the people felt afraid. However, although the court ministers all knew Huan Wen's plan was impossible, none dared to be the first to criticize him.

Then the Cavalier in Regular Attendance and acting Gentleman Author, Sun Chuo, wrote a memorial stating, "When Emperor Zhongzong (Sima Rui) ascended like a dragon, it was not solely that he had 'the trust of the people and blessings from Heaven', but it was thanks in large part due to having the great length of the Yangzi to use as a bulwark. From the first days of the disaster until now, more than sixty years have passed; everywhere around the Yellow and Luo Rivers has been reduced to piles of ruins, and the homeland of the Xia (ethnic Han) is smothered by sorrow and desolation. It has already been several generations since the gentry and the common people fled here across the Yangzi. Of those people from back then who are still alive, their children are already old and their grandchildren are grown up; and of the dead, their graves lie in numerous rows. Though they still have affection and longing for the north in their hearts, it does not match the present grief. If some day we should remove to the capital back to where it once was, the five tombs of the emperors since the Restoration would then be left behind in a distant territory. Logically speaking, it would be difficult to ensure 'the security of Mount Tai'. And would the Emperor’s heart not also be seized with longing for his forebears?

“Huan Wen has no doubt earnestly proposed this idea according to his long-term considerations for the future benefits of the state. But the people are all alarmed, and everyone is full of dread and terror. Can that not be because the joy of returning to their former lands is far off, but the fear of impending death is nigh? Why is that so? Because the people have taken a firm root here beyond the Yangzi over these past few decades, yet he wishes to uproot them all at one go and drive them into a desolate wasteland. They would have to bring their families on long journeys, risking life and limb, leaving their buried dead behind and abandoning their livelihoods. They would have no one to sell their land and houses to, and nowhere would they be able to obtain transportation. They would be made to leave a land of peace and happiness, to travel to a place wracked by chaos; thus they would likely collapse by the wayside or drown in the great rivers; few of them would ever arrive. Such a prospect should be something that any benevolent person would mourn, and that the state should consider carefully!

“In my unworthy opinion, it would be better to first dispatch a commander of martial reputation and true worth, and have him secure the defenses of Luoyang, sweep clear the regions of Liangguo and Xuchang, and restore peace to Henan. Then let him open up paths for water transport, reclaim farmland and make it bountiful, send the lingering villains scurrying far away, and thus bring the Central Plains into an ideal state. Once that has taken place, then we may again consider moving the capital and relocating the people. Why should we abandon such a logical plan as that, which is certain to succeed, and instead bet the entire realm on one cast of the dice?"

This Sun Chuo was the grandson of Sun Chu. Since youth, he had admired the noble and the lofty. He once composed the work "Fulfilling My Original Resolve" to display his ambitions. When Huan Wen read Sun Chuo's petition, he was displeased, and he said, "Go and tell Sun Chuo that he ought to go implement his 'Fulfilling My Original Resolve', and keep his nose out of other people’s dealings in state affairs."

《晉志》曰:著作郎,周左史之任也。漢東京,圖籍在東觀,故使儒者著作東觀,有其名,尚未有官。魏明帝太和中,詔置著作郎,於此始有其官,隸中書省。晉惠帝置祕書監,併統著作省。蓋著作雖別置省,而猶隸祕書也。余按班固《西都賦》曰:承明、金馬,著作之廷。如是,則漢西都雖未置著作之官,而承明、金馬亦著作之所也。元帝,廟號中宗。《易‧大傳》曰:天之所助者順也,人之所助者信也。自賈后之廢,趙王倫之誅,繼而諸王交兵,胡、羯乘之而起,天下大亂,至是六十餘年矣。中興五陵,元帝建平陵、明帝武平陵、成帝興平陵、康帝崇平陵、穆帝永平陵,皆在江南。言以理觀之,遷都于洛,難以保泰山之安也。言若遷洛,纏心於江南陵寢,孝思進進也。中原以江南爲江外,亦曰江表。梁,謂梁國;許,謂許昌;皆當江南入洛之要路。

(The Records of Jin states, "The office of Gentleman Author was equivalent to the Records Official office from the Zhou dynasty. During Eastern Han, the maps and census records were kept at the Dongguan Pavilion. The court ordered scholars to author books at Dongguan, and thus the name of this office came about, though it was not yet an official position. During the Taihe era (227-233) of Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui), he officially created the office, and this was when the position was officially instated, as part of the Palace Secretariat. When Emperor Hui of Jin created the office of Chief of the Imperial Library, it took over the administration of the Authors' Bureau. But although the Authors had their own bureau, they were still under the Imperial Library. I (Hu Sanxing) note what Ban Gu has written in Rhapsody on the Western Capital: "Chengming and Jinma were the offices for the Authoring staff." From that, we can see that although Western Han did not yet have the office of Author, the Chengming and Jinma Halls still had Authors as well.

Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui) temple name was Zhongzong.

The 易‧大傳 states, "One who receives Heaven's aid has its blessing; one who receives Man's aid has their trust."

From the deposition of Empress Jia Nanfang and the Jia clan, and the execution of the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, the resulting civil war between the various princes, the rising up of the Xiongnu and Jie tribes, and the great chaos that engulfed the realm, until this moment, it had been more than sixty years (300-362).

The Five Tombs of the restored imperial clan were Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) at Jianping Tomb, Emperor Ming at Wuping Tomb, Emperor Cheng at Xingping Tomb, Emperor Kang at Chongping Tomb, and Emperor Mu at Yongping Tomb, all of which were in the Southland.

By Sun Chuo's logic, if the capital were moved to Luoyang, it would be difficult to ensure the same certain security as symbolized by Mount Tai. Furthermore, he felt that Huan Wen should have given thought to the difficulty of relocating the newer imperial tombs.

By the last expression here, Sun Chuo was saying that if they moved to Luoyang, the Emperor would miss the imperial tombs of his direct ancestors in the Southland, and be troubled by his filial thoughts.

The people of the Central Plains often called the region south the Yangzi the 江外, or the 江表.

Sun Chuo refers to "Liang and Xu". Liang was Liangguo, and Xu was Xuchang; both of them were important routes from moving from the Southland into the Luoyang region.)


Sun Chu was the subject of the "brush with rocks and sleep in streams" story from A New Account of the Tales of the World.

桓公欲遷都,以張拓定之業。孫長樂上表,諫此議甚有理。桓見表心服,而忿其為異,令人致意孫云:「君何不尋遂初賦,而彊知人家國事?」(New Tales of the World 26.16)

Huan Wen wanted to have the capital moved back to Luoyang, in order to promote the work of enlarging and pacifying the realm. Sun Chuo sent up a memorial warning against such a move in which the argumentation was extremely reasonable.

When Huan Wen saw the memorial, he mentally accepted it, but at the same time was angry with Sun Chuo for disagreeing with him. He sent someone to convey his thoughts to Sun Chuo, saying, "Why don't you reread your own 'Poetic Essay on Fulfilling My Original Resolve' instead of forcing your way into other people's and the state's business?" (tr. Richard Mather)


時朝廷憂懼,將遣侍中止溫,揚州刺史王述曰:「溫欲以虛聲威朝廷耳,非事實也;但從之,自無所至。」乃詔溫曰:「在昔喪亂,忽涉五紀,戎鍬肆暴,繼襲兇跡,眷言西顧,慨歎盈懷。知欲躬帥三軍,蕩滌氛穢,廓清中畿,光復舊京,非夫外身徇國,孰能若此?諸所處分,委之高算。但河洛丘墟,所營有廣,經始之勤,致勞懷也。」事果不行。

8. At that time, the court was apprehensive, and was about to send a Palace Attendant to stop Huan Wen. But the Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Shu, said, "This is all just a lot of sound and fury; Huan Wen only wishes to prop up his influence over the court, there is no substance to his talk. Just go ahead and let him have his way. Nothing will come of it."

So the court sent an edict to Huan Wen saying, "Since the cause of our original grief, five reigns have passed; the barbarians burst onto the scene, leaving their wild destruction everywhere, and when we think of those in the west, we are filled with remorse and sorrow. We know that you wish to lead forth the three armies, cleanse the land of this blight, sweep clean the Central Region, and restore luster to the old capital. How would anyone propose this who is not ready to give his life to the cause of the state? We will entrust all the necessarily planning for this to your esteemed abilities. However, there is much to do to restore the ruins between the Yellow and the Luo Rivers. You will have to work hard to manage them, and we expect this to be a heavy burden on your mind.”

As Wang Shu had predicted, nothing came of Huan Wen's proposal.

孔穎達曰:言在昔者,自下本上之辭;言昔在者,從上自下爲稱。自惠帝永興元年劉淵始亂,距是歲五十九年;自懷帝永嘉五年洛陽陷,距是歲五十年。中畿,王畿也。《周禮》九畿,王畿方千里,其外侯、甸、男、采、衞、蠻、夷、鎭、蕃,皆以五百里言之。王畿在九畿之中,故此曰中畿。

Kong Yingda remarked, "If one says '在昔', he is looking to the past from the present, while if one phrases it as '昔在', he is looking at the present from the point of view in the past." From the first year of Yongxing (304) under Emperor Hui, when Liu Yuan first began the chaos, until this moment, it had been fifty-nine years. From the fifth year of Yongjia (311) under Emperor Huai, when Luoyang had fallen, until this moment, it had been fifty years.

The Central Region means the royal region. The "Rites of Zhou" mention the Nine Regions. The Royal Region occupies a thousand li of land. Stretching out from there in succession, there is the Marquisates, the 甸s, the Earldoms, the 采s, the 衞s, the Man barbarians, the Yi barbarians, the Garrisons, and the Border Posts, all of which are five hundred li. The Royal Region of these nine is in the center, so it is also called the Central Region.


溫又議移洛陽鐘虡。述曰:「永嘉不競,暫都江左,方當蕩平區宇,旋軫舊京。若其不爾,宜改遷園陵,不應先事鐘虡!」溫乃止。

9. Huan Wen also proposed moving the Zhongju bells and bell-frames from Luoyang. Wang Shu said, “After our weakness during the Disaster of Yongjia, we relocated the capital south of the Yangzi for the time being. We should first pacify the realm and return the imperial seat to the former capital. If that cannot be done, then our first priority should be to move the imperial tombs here, and not the bells and bell-frames!” So Huan Wen gave it up.

These were presumably the same sorts of Zhongju bells and bell-frames as mentioned in Book 95, in 336.13.

朝廷以交、廣遼遠,改授溫都督並、司、冀三州;溫表辭不受。

10. Among the provinces which Huan Wen held Commander authority over were Jiaozhou and Guangzhou. Because these two were such distant provinces, the court proposed exchanging them and granting Huan Wen authority over Bingzhou, Sizhou, and Jizhou instead. But Huan Wen sent in a petition declining the offer.

溫督荊、司、雍、益、梁、寧、交、廣八州。

At that time, Huan Wen commanded the eight provinces of Jingzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Ningzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou.


秦王堅親臨太學,考第諸生經義,與博士講論,自是每月一至焉。

11. Fu Jian personally visited the Imperial Academy, quizzing and ranking the students in their studies on the Classics and discussing the lectures and subjects with the instructors. Beginning at this time, he paid a visit once a month.

六月,甲戌,燕征東參軍劉拔刺殺征東將軍、冀州刺史、范陽王友於信都。

12. In the sixth month, on the day Jiaxu (July 22nd), Yan's General Who Conquers The East, Inspector of Jizhou, and Prince of Fanyang, Murong You, was murdered at Xindu by his Army Advisor, Liu Ba.

秋,七月,呂護退守小平津,中流矢而卒。燕將段崇收軍北渡,屯於野王。鄧遐進屯新城。八月,西中郎將袁真進屯汝南,運米五萬斛以饋洛陽。

13. In autumn, the seventh month, Lü Hu retreated to defend Xiaoping Crossing, where he was hit by a stray arrow and died. The Yan general Duan Chong gathered up his troops and crossed north of the Yellow River, then camped at Yewang. Deng Xia advanced to camp at Xincheng.

In the eighth month, Yuan Zhen advanced and camped at Runan, and transported fifty thousand 斛s of rice to Luoyang to keep it supplied.

以晉援兵至也。新城,春秋戎蠻子之國也;自漢以來,屬河南,隋改爲伊闕縣。

Lü Hu retreated since the Jin reinforcements had arrived.

Xincheng had been founded by the Rong-Man tribes during the Spring and Autumn era. Since the Han dynasty, it had been part of Henan. Sui changed it to Yique county.


秋七月,呂護等退守小平津。鄧遐進屯新城,庾希部將何謙及慕容暐將劉則戰于檀丘,破之。八月,西中郎將袁眞進次汝南,運米五萬斛以饋洛陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In autumn, the seventh month, Lü Hu and the other Yan commanders retreated to defend Xiaoping Crossing. Deng Xia advanced to camp at Xincheng. Yu Xi's subordinate commander He Qian fought Murong Wei's general Liu Ze at Tanqiu and routed him.

In the eighth month, the General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Yuan Zhen, advanced and camped at Runan, and transported fifty thousand 斛s of rice to Luoyang to keep it supplied.


冬,十一月,代王什翼犍納女於燕,燕人亦以女妻之。

14. In winter, the eleventh month, Tuoba Shiyijian and Murong Wei exchanged their daughters to each other as wives.

二十五年,十一月,慕容暐薦女備後宮。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-fifth year of Jianguo (362), in winter, the eleventh month, Murong Wei offered his daughter to Tuoba Shiyijian as a concubine for his rear palace.


十二月,戊午朔,日有食之。

15. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (January 2nd of 363), there was an eclipse.

十二月戊午朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (January 2nd of 363), there was an eclipse.


庾希自下邳退屯山陽,袁真自汝南退屯壽陽。

16. Yu Xi fell back from Xiapi and camped at Shanyang. Yuan Zhen fell back from Runan to camp at Shouyang.

以洛陽兵解退屯,而燕兵尋復至矣。

(Since the Luoyang soldiers fell back, the Former Yan soldiers advanced again.)


庾希自下邳退鎮山陽,袁眞自汝南退鎮壽陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

Yu Xi fell back from Xiapi and camped at Shanyang. Yuan Zhen fell back from Runan to camp at Shouyang.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:41 pm

興寧元年(癸亥,公元三六三年)

The First Year of Xingning (The Guihai Year, 363 AD)


春,二月,己亥,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the second month, on the day Jihai (?), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the Jin reign era title was changed to the first year of Xingning.

興寧元年春二月己亥,大赦,改元。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the first year of Xingning, in spring, the second month, on the day Jihai (?), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Xingning.


三月,壬寅,皇太妃周氏薨於琅邪第。癸卯,帝就第治喪,詔司徒會稽王昱總內外眾務。帝欲為太妃服三年,僕射江虨啟:「於禮,應服緦麻。」又欲降服期,虨曰:「厭屈私情,所以上嚴祖考。」乃服緦麻。

2. In the third month, on the day Renyin (April 16th), Jin's Concubine Dowager, Lady Zhou, passed away at the Prince of Langye's residence. On the day Guimao (April 17th), Emperor Ai went into mourning at the residence, and ordered Sima Yu to assume command of affairs in his stead.

Emperor Ai wished to mourn for the Concubine Dowager for the full three years. But the Deputy Director, Jiang Bin, said, "According to the rites, you ought only to wear the fine hemp cloth of mourning." Emperor Ai then wished to only reduce the mourning period by one degree (to one year), but Jiang Bin said, "You must suppress your personal feelings, for in remaining devoted to duty, you show filial piety to your ancestors." So Emperor Ai only undertook the rite of wearing fine hemp.

《周禮》曰:王爲諸侯緦,縗弁而加環絰。又,《禮》,爲人後者爲之子,故爲所後服斬衰三年,而降其父母朞。虨以爲應服緦者,蓋以帝入後大宗,則周氏者琅邪之母,當以服諸侯者服之也。

The Rites of Zhou states, "A king mourns his deceased nobles by wearing fine hemp (for three months). He wears a plain white hat with a band of hemp." And the Book of Rites says, "When one is adopted to continue another person’s line, he is that person’s son. That is why he would wear coarse cloth without hems for three years in mourning for the one whose line he was continuing, while reducing the length of mourning for his parents by birth." Jiang Bin was of the opinion that Emperor Ai should thus wear fine hemp for three months, because he (as emperor) had been adopted into the main imperial line, while Lady Zhou was still the mother of the Prince of Langye. So Emperor Ai should only respect her passing by adopting the mourning rites appropriate for a deceased noble.


三月壬寅,皇太妃薨于琅邪第。癸卯,帝奔喪,詔司徒、會稽王昱總內外衆務。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the third month, on the day Renyin (April 16th), the Concubine Dowager, Lady Zhou, passed away at the Prince of Langye's residence. On the day Guimao (April 17th), Emperor Ai went into mourning for her, and ordered the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, to assume command of affairs in his stead.


夏,四月,燕寧東將軍慕容忠攻滎陽太守劉遠,遠奔魯陽。

3. In summer, the fourth month, Yan's General Who Calms The East, Murong Zhong, attacked Jin’s Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Yuan. Liu Yuan fled to Lüyang.

夏四月,慕容暐寇滎陽,太守劉遠奔魯陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In summer, the fourth month, Murong Wei invaded Xingyang. The Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Yuan, fled to Luyang.


五月,加征西大將軍桓溫侍中、大司馬、都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事,假黃鉞。溫以撫軍司馬王坦之為長史。坦之,述之子也。又以征西掾郗超為參軍,王珣為主簿,每事 必與二人謀之。府中為之語曰:「髯參軍,短主簿,能令公喜,能令公怒。」溫氣概高邁,罕有所推。與超言,常自謂不能測,傾身待之,超亦深自結納。珣,導之孫也,與謝玄皆為溫掾,溫俱重之。曰:「謝掾年四十必擁旄杖節,王掾當作黑頭公,皆未易才也。」玄,奕之子也。

4. In the fifth month, Huan Wen was promoted as Palace Attendant, Grand Marshal, Commander of all military affairs, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-Axe.

Huan Wen appointed the Marshal to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Wang Biaozhi, as his Chief Clerk. This Wang Biaozhi was the son of Wang Shu.

Huan Wen also appointed his Assistant in his capacity as Grand General Who Conquers The West, Chi Chao, as his Army Advisor, and Wang Xun was appointed as his Registrar. Huan Wen consulted with these two men on every matter. It was a common saying among Huan Wen's staff that "Advisor Beardy and Registrar Shorty can make Lord Huan happy or make him mad." Now Huan Wen was normally of an aloof mind, and he rarely praised anyone. But whenever he spoke with Chi Chao, he would often admit that he could not probe the depths of Chi Chao’s knowledge, and he treated him with full respect. Chi Chao, on his part, also took his friendship with Huan Wen seriously. This Wang Xun was the grandson of Wang Dao, and he and Xie Xuan both served as Huan Wen's assistants. Huan Wen valued them greatly, and said, "By the time Assistant Xie is forty years old, he'll certainly grasp the commander's standard and the marshal's baton. And Assistant Wang will become a 'black-haired ducal minister'. They are both people of rare talents." This Xie Xuan was the son of Xie Yi.

以超多髥而珣短也。

Chi Chao and Wang Xun were called "Beardy" and "Shorty" in this saying because Chi Chao had a full beard and Wang Xun was short.


Huan Wen’s ‘black-haired ducal minister’ comment meant that Wang Xun would achieve high office while still young enough for his hair not to have turned white.

五月,加征西大將軍桓溫侍中、大司馬、都督中外諸軍事、錄尚書事、假黃鉞。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the fifth month, the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, was promoted as Palace Attendant, Grand Marshal, Commander of all military affairs, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-Axe.

王珣、郗超並有奇才,為大司馬所眷拔。珣為主簿,超為記室參軍。超為人多鬚,珣狀短小。于時荊州為之語曰:「髯參軍,短主簿。能令公喜,能令公怒。」(New Tales of the World 22.3)

Wang Xun and Chi Chao both had remarkable ability and were singled out for affection by the Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, Wang Xun was his Registrar, and Chi Chao was his Recordskeeping Army Advisor. Chi Chao had a full beard, while Wang Xun's figure was short and squat. At the time, the people of Jingzhou made up a ditty about them:

The bewhiskered aide-de-camp
And the short records lad
Can make his lordship happy
Or make his lordship mad.
(tr. Richard Mather)


以西中郎將袁真都督司、冀、並三州諸軍事,北中郎將庾希都督青州諸軍事。

5. Yuan Zhen was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Sizhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou. Yu Xi was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou.

復以西中郎將袁眞都督司、冀、幷三州諸軍事,北中郎將廋希都督青州諸軍事。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

The General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Yuan Zhen, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Sizhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou. The General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Yu Xi, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou.


癸卯,燕人拔密城,劉遠奔江陵。

6. On the day Guimao (June 16th), Yan captured Micheng. Liu Yuan fled to Jiangling.

密縣,漢屬河南郡,晉屬滎陽郡。

During Han, Mi county was part of Henan commandary. During Jin, it was part of Xingyang commandary.


癸卯,慕容暐陷密城,滎陽太守劉遠奔于江陵。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

On the day Guimao (June 16th), Murong Wei captured Micheng. The Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Yuan, fled to Jiangling.


秋,八月,有星孛於角、亢。

7. In autumn, the eighth month, comets passed through the Horn and Neck constellations.

角,二星;亢,四星。《晉‧天文志》:角、亢、氐,鄭、兗州分。

The Horn constellation was two stars; the Neck constellation was four stars. The Astrological Records chapter of the Book of Jin states, "The Horn, Neck, and Root constellations correspond to the Zheng region and to Yanzhou."


八月,有星孛于角亢,入天市。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the eighth month, comets passed through the Horn and Neck constellations and entered the Heavenly Market enclosure.


張玄靚祖母氏卒,尊庶母郭氏為太妃。郭氏以張天錫專政,與大臣張欽等謀誅之。事洩,欽等皆死。玄靚懼,以位讓天錫,天錫不受。右將軍劉肅等勸天錫自立。閏月,天錫使肅等夜帥兵入宮,弒玄靚,宣言暴卒,謚曰沖公。天錫自稱使持節、大都督、大將軍、涼州牧、西平公,時年十八。尊母劉美人曰太妃。遣司馬綸騫奉章詣建康請命,並送御史俞歸東還。

8. Zhang Xuanjing's grandmother (presumably Lady Ma) passed away. He honored his father's concubine and his birth mother, Lady Guo, as Concubine Dowager. Since Zhang Tianxi had seized all power to himself, Lady Guo plotted with Zhang Qin and other chief ministers of Liangzhou to kill him. But their plot was discovered, and Zhang Qin and the others were killed. Zhang Xuanjing, afraid, offered his positions to Zhang Tianxi, but Zhang Tianxi did not accept it. The General of the Right, Liu Su, and others urged Zhang Tianxi to usurp Zhang Xuanjing's positions for himself.

In the intercalary month, Zhang Tianxi sent Liu Shu and others to lead soldiers into the palace at night. They murdered Zhang Xuanjing. It was announced that he had died from sudden illness; his posthumous title was Duke Chong.

Zhang Tianxi then declared himself Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. At that time, he was seventeen years old. He honored his mother, the Beauty Liu, as Consort Dowager. He sent his Marshal, Lun Qian, to present his seals at Jiankang and ask for instructions. He also released Jin’s Imperial Secretary, Yu Gui, whom Zhang Chonghua had kept imprisoned all this time, to return home to Jin.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》:天錫殺玄靚自立在七月。今從《晉春秋》。綸,姓也。《姓譜》曰:《魏志》:孫文端臣綸直。穆帝永和三年,歸使涼州,今乃還。

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Ai in the Book of Jin states that it was in the seventh month that Zhang Tianxi murdered Zhang Xuanjing and claimed his position. But I follow the account listed in the Annals of Jin."

綸 Lun is a surname. The Registry of Surnames states, "According to the Records of Wei, Sun Wenduan had a minister named Lun Zhi."

Emperor Mu had sent Yu Gui to Liangzhou in Book 97, in the third year of Yonghe (347.20), and he only now returned to Jin.


八月,右將軍齊南等議,以靖多難,務須立長君。勸天錫自立。閏月,天錫遣肅等夜害玄靖,時年十四,葬平陵,諡沖王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

In the eighth month, the General of the Right, Qi Nan, and others brought up that, considering the many difficulties, the affairs of state should be turned over to an adult sovereign, and they urged Zhang Tianxi to assume power. In the intercalary month, Zhang Tianxi sent Liu Su and others at night to kill Zhang Xuanjing.

Zhang Xuanjing was thirteen years old when he died. He was buried at Pingling, and his posthumous title was Prince Chong.

秋七月,張天錫弑涼州刺史、西平公張玄靚,自稱大將軍、護羌校尉、涼州牧、西平公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhang Tianxi murdered the Inspector of Liangzhou and Duke of Xiping, Zhang Xuanjing. Zhang Tianxi declared himself Grand General, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.

興甯元年,駿妻馬氏卒,玄靚以其庶母郭氏為太妃。郭氏以天錫專政,與大臣張欽等謀討之。事泄,欽等伏法。是歲,天錫率眾入禁門,潛害玄靚,宣言暴薨,時年十四。在位九年。私諡曰沖公,孝武帝賜諡曰敬悼公。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

In the first year of Xingning (363), Zhang Jun's wife Lady Ma passed away. Zhang Xuanjing honored his father's concubine and his birth mother, Lady Guo, as Concubine Dowager. Since Zhang Tianxi monopolized power, Lady Guo plotted with the great ministers, Zhang Qin and others, to move against him. But the plot leaked out, and Zhang Qin and the others were put to death. The same year, Zhang Tianxi led soldiers into the private chambers and secretly killed Zhang Xuanjing. He declared it had been a sudden illness. Zhang Xuanjing was thirteen years old when he died, and had been in power for nine years. Privately, his posthumous title was Duke Chong. Emperor Xiaowu bestowed him the posthumous title of Duke Jingdao.

張天錫字純嘏,駿之少子。母曰劉美人,玄靖即位,年十八。謁于太廟,尊母劉氏為太后。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Tianxi)

Zhang Tianxi, styled Chungu, was Zhang Jun's youngest son. His mother was named the Beauty Liu. When he succeeded Zhang Xuanjing, he was seventeen years old. He paid his respects at the ancestral temple, and he honored his mother Lady Liu as Consort Dowager.

天錫字純嘏,駿少子也,小名獨活。初字公純嘏,入朝,人笑其三字,因自改焉。玄靚死,國人立之,自號大將軍、校尉、涼州牧、西平公。遣司馬綸騫奉章請命,並送御史俞歸還京都。太和初,詔以天錫為大將軍、大都督、督隴右關中諸軍事、護羌校尉、涼州刺史、西平公。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Tianxi)

Zhang Tianxi, styled Chungu, was Zhang Jun's youngest son. His childhood name was Duhuo. His style name had originally been Gongchungu, but when he entered court, people laughed at his style name having three characters in it, so he changed it. After Zhang Xuanjing died, the people of the state acclaimed him, and he styled himself Grand General, Colonel, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. He sent his Marshal, Lun Qian, to present his seals to the Jin court and ask for orders, and he also sent the Imperial Secretary, Yu Gui, back to the capital.

At the beginning of the Taihe era (366), the Jin court issued an edict appointing Zhang Tianxi as Grand General, Grand Commander, Commander of military affiars in Longyou and Guanzhong, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.

是年,張重華弟天錫殺玄靖而自立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year (363), Zhang Chonghua's younger brother Zhang Tianxi killed Zhang Xuanjing and took power for himself.


癸亥,大赦。

9. On the day Guihai (November 3rd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

九月癸亥,以皇子生,大赦。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the ninth month, on the day Guihai (November 3rd), an imperial son was born, so a general amnesty was declared.


冬,十月,燕鎮南將軍慕容塵攻陳留太守袁披於長平;汝南太守朱斌乘虛襲許昌,克之。

10. In winter, the tenth month, Yan's General Who Guards The South, Murong Chen, attacked Jin's Administrator of Chenliu, Yuan Pi, at Changping. Jin’s Administrator of Runan, Zhu Bin, took advantage of this opportunity to attack Xuchang, and took it from Yan.

長平縣,前漢屬汝南郡,後漢、晉屬陳郡。賢曰:長平故城,在今陳州宛丘縣西北。《考異》曰:《燕書》作「朱黎」。今從《晉‧帝紀》。

During Former Han, Changping county was part of Runan commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Chen commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Changping was in the northwest of Wanqiu county in modern Chenzhou."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Book of Yan records 朱斌 Zhu Bin's name as 朱黎 Zhu Li. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Ai in the Book of Jin."


是歲,慕容暐將慕容塵攻陳留太守袁披于長平。汝南太守朱斌承虛襲許昌,克之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

During this year, Murong Wei's general Murong Chen attacked the Administrator of Chenliu, Yuan Pi, at Changping. The Administrator of Runan, Zhu Bin, took advantage of this opportunity to attack Xuchang, and took it from Yan.


代王什冀犍擊高車,大破之,俘獲萬餘口,馬、牛、羊百餘萬頭。

11. Tuoba Shiyijian attacked the Gaoche people, greatly routing them. He took captive more than ten thousand of them, along with more than a million heads of horses, cattle, and sheep.

高車,卽敕勒也,俗乘高輪車,故亦號高車部。李延壽曰:高車,蓋古赤狄之餘種也。初號爲「狄歷」,北方以爲高車丁零。其遷徙隨水草,衣皮食肉,與柔然同,唯車輪高大,輻數至多。

The Gaoche people were the same as the Chile. Because of the tall wheels on their carts, they were also called the Gaoche ("tall carts"). Li Yanshou remarked, "The Gaoche must have been a branch of one of the old Red Di tribes. They were first called the 'Dili', and in the north they were the Gaoche Dingling. They changed their place of residence in keeping with the waters and grass, and they wore skins and ate flesh, just like the Rouran people. But their cart wheels were taller and larger, and had many spokes."


二十六年冬十月,帝討高車,大破之,獲萬口,馬牛羊百餘萬頭。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-sixth year of Jianguo (363), in winter, the tenth month, Tuoba Shiyijian campaigned against the Gaoche people, greatly routing them. He took captive ten thousand of them, along with more than a million heads of horses, cattle, and sheep.


以征虜將軍桓沖為江州刺史。十一月,姚襄故將張駿殺江州督護趙毘,帥其徒北叛;沖討斬之。

12. Jin's General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Huan Chong, was appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

In the eleventh month, Yao Xiang's former officer Zhang Jun killed Jin's Protector of Jiangzhou, Zhao Pi, and led his troops north in rebellion. Huan Chong marched against Zhang Jun and killed him.

桓溫之破姚襄,獲襄將張駿、楊凝等,徙于尋陽。

When Huan Wen had routed Yao Xiang's forces (around Luoyang in 357), he captured several of his generals, including Zhang Jun and Yang Ning, and sent them to Xunyang.


十一月,姚襄故將張駿殺江州督護趙毗,焚武昌,略府藏以叛,江州刺史桓沖討斬之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the eleventh month, Yao Xiang's former officer Zhang Jun killed Jin's Protector of Jiangzhou, Zhao Pi. He burned Wuchang and plundered the warehouses in rebellion. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Chong, marched against Zhang Jun and killed him.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:44 pm

興寧二年(甲子,公元三六四年)

The Second Year of Xingning (The Jiazi Year, 364 AD)


春,正月,丙辰,燕大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Bingchen (February 24th), a general amnesty was declared in Yan.

二月,燕太傅評、龍驤將軍李洪略地河南。

2. In the second month, Murong Ping and Yan's Dragon-Soaring General, Li Hong, marched into the region south of the Yellow River.

二年春二月,慕容暐將慕容評襲[河南]。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the second year of Xingning (364), in spring, the second month, Murong Wei's general Murong Ping attacked [the region south of the Yellow River].


三月,庚戌朔,大閱戶口,令所在土斷,嚴其法制,謂之《庚戌制》。

3. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Gengxu (April 18th), a census was taken in Jin. Everyone was recorded by their native territory, and strict laws and systems (or, proscriptions) were imposed, which came to be called "the Gengxu System".

令西北士民僑寓東南者,所在以土著爲斷也。【章:十二行本「制」作「禁」;乙十一行本同。】

(The order was for those who had migrated to the southeast from the northwest to be recorded and administered by their current place of habitation.

Some versions write "proscriptions" instead of "systems".)


三月庚戌朔,大閱戶人,嚴法禁,稱爲庚戌制。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the third month, on the new moon of the day Gengxu (April 18th), a census was taken in Jin. Strict laws and proscriptions were imposed, which came to be called "the Gengxu System".


帝信方士言,斷谷餌藥以求長生。侍中高崧諫曰:「此非成乘所宜為;陛下茲事,實日月之食。」不聽。辛未,帝以藥發,不能親萬機,褚太后復臨朝攝政。

4. Emperor Ai trusted the words of a magician, seeking immortality by abstaining from all food and by consuming elixirs instead. The Palace Attendant, Gao Song, remonstrated with him, saying, "This is not what an Emperor should be doing. What Your Majesty is doing is as disastrous as an eclipse of the sun or the moon." But Emperor Ai did not heed him. On the day Xinwei (May 9th), Emperor Ai vomited up the pills, and became unable to attend to his duties. Empress Dowager Chu once again assumed command of the government.

《論語》:子貢曰:君子之過也,如日月之食焉。

(The Analects states, "Zi Gong said, 'The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon (19.21).'")


Based on the description of abstaining from food and taking elixirs, Emperor Ai may have been persuaded of the theory of the Three Corpses demons, which are supposedly removed from the body through such a process, thus granting long life.

辛未,帝不悆。帝雅好黃老,斷穀,餌長生藥,服食過多,遂中毒,不識萬機,崇德太后復臨朝攝政。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

On the day Xinwei (May 9th), Emperor Ai was indisposed. Emperor Ai had long enjoyed believing in the ideas of Laozi and the Yellow Emperor, and he abstained from eating and took medicines for immortality. But he overdosed on these medicines, which poisoned him, and he became unable to attend to his duties. Empress Dowager Chongde (Empress Dowager Chu) once again assumed command of the government.


夏,四月,甲辰,燕李洪攻許昌、汝南,敗晉兵於懸瓠,穎川太守李福戰死,汝南太守朱斌奔壽春,陳郡太守朱輔退保彭城。大司馬溫遣西中郎將袁真等御之,溫帥舟師屯合肥。燕人遂拔許昌、汝南、陳郡,徙萬餘戶於幽、冀二州,遣鎮南將軍慕容塵屯許昌。

5. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiashen (June 11th), Yan's general Li Hong attacked Xuchang and Runan, and defeated the Jin troops at Xuanhu. Jin’s Administrator of Yingchuan, Li Fu, was killed in battle, while the Administrator of Runan, Zhu Bin, fled to Shouchun, and the Administrator of Chen commandary, Zhu Fu, retreated to defend Pengcheng. Huan Wen sent Yuan Zhen and others to help defend the area, while he himself led boats to camp at Hefei. Yan gained control of Xuchang, Runan, and Chen commandary, and relocated more than ten thousand of the households there to Youzhou and Jizhou. Their General Who Guards The South, Murong Chen, marched to camp at Xuchang.

《水經註》曰:懸瓠城,汝南郡治也。城之西北,汝水枝別左出,西北流,又屈西東轉,又西南會汝,形如垂瓠,因以名城。去年五月,加桓溫督、錄、假黃鉞,至是書其官名而不姓,堅冰至矣。

(The Commentary on the Water Classic says, "Xuanhu is a city administered by Runan commandary. Northwest of the city, there is a branch of the Ru River which flows northwest. It also turns to the west and east, and to the southwest it meets with the Ru River. The area resembles a gourd hanging upside down, and thus it is named Xuanhu ("Hanging Gourd")."

Huan Wen had received several significant promotions in the fifth month of the previous year. Beginning with this passage, the ZZTJ begins identifying Huan Wen as "the Grand Marshal, Wen" and no longer states his surname. This shows that his power had solidified. As they say, for Huan Wen, "the strong ice had come".)


二月,慕容暐將慕容評襲許昌,潁川太守李福死之。評遂侵汝南,太守朱斌遁于壽陽。又進圍陳郡,太守朱輔嬰城固守。桓溫遣江夏相劉岵擊退之... 夏四月甲申,慕容暐遣其將李洪侵許昌,王師敗績于懸瓠,朱斌奔于淮南,朱輔退保彭城。桓溫遣西中郎將袁眞、江夏相劉岵等鑿楊儀道以通運,溫帥舟師次于合肥,慕容塵復屯許昌。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the second month, Murong Wei's general Murong Ping attacked Xuchang. The Administrator of Yingchuan, Li Fu, died there. Murong Ping then invaded Runan. The Administrator of Runan, Zhu Bin, took refuge at Shouyang. Murong Ping also advanced and besieged Chen commandary. The Administrator of Chen, Zhu Fu, withdrew into the city to defend it. Huan Wen sent the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Liu Hu, to attack Murong Ping and drive him off.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiashen (June 11th), Murong Wei sent his general Li Hong to attack Xuchang. The royal army was defeated at Xuanhu. Zhu Bin fled to Huainan, and Zhu Fu retreated to guard Pengcheng. Huan Wen sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Yuan Zhen, the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Liu Hu, and others to carve out the Yangyi Road to transport supplies, while Huan Wen himself led a naval force forward to Hefei. Murong Chen once again camped at Xuchang.


五月,戊辰,以揚州刺史王述為尚書令。加大司馬溫揚州牧、錄尚書事。壬申,使侍中召溫入參朝政,溫辭不至。

6. In the fifth month, on the day Wuchen (July 5th), Jin's Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Shu, was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Huan Wen was appointed as Governor of Yangzhou and as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. On the day Renshen (July 9th), the court sent an order for Huan Wen to return to advise the court, but Huan Wen made an excuse and did not come.

五月,戊辰,以揚州刺史王述爲尚書令、衛將軍。以桓溫爲揚州牧、錄尚書事。壬申,遣使喻溫入相,溫不從。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the fifth month, on the day Wuchen (July 5th), Jin's Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Shu, was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Guard General. Huan Wen was appointed as the new Inspector of Yangzhou and as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. On the day Renshen (July 9th), the court sent an order for Huan Wen to return to serve as a court minister, but Huan Wen did not heed them.


王述每受職,不為虛讓,其所辭必於不受。及為尚書令,子坦之白述:「故事當讓。」述曰:「汝謂我不堪邪?」坦之曰:「非也,但克讓自美事耳!」述曰:「既謂堪之,何為復讓!人言汝勝我,定不及也。」

7. Whenever Wang Shu accepted office, he did not first vacuously decline it, and whatever position he did decline, he would never accept. When Wang Shu was now appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, his son Wang Tanzhi told him, "You ought to decline it."

Wang Shu asked him, "You mean to say I would not be suited for it?"

Wang Tanzhi said, "No, just that you ought to decline it for appearance’s sake."

Wang Shu replied, "Since you say I would be suited, then why should I decline it? People say you will come to surpass me, but I think you won’t even match me."

王述轉尚書令,事行便拜。文度曰:「故應讓杜許。」藍田云:「汝謂我堪此不?」文度曰:「何為不堪!但克讓自是美事,恐不可闕。」藍田慨然曰:「既云堪,何為復讓?人言汝勝我,定不如我。」(New Tales of the World 5.47)

When Wang Shu was transferred to become Prefect of the Masters of Writing (in 364), as soon as his affairs were in order, he immediately took up his new post.

His son, Wang Tanzhi, said to him, "Surely you ought to have declined and dissembled a few times?"

Wang Shu said, "Would you say I'm fit for this post, or not?"

Wang Tanzhi said, "Why wouldn't you be fit for it? It's only that 'being able to decline' is in itself an excellent thing, and I daresay not to be neglected."

Sighing, Wang Shu replied, "Since you've said I'm fit for the post, why should I still decline? People say you're superior to me,
but it turns out you're not even my equal." (tr. Richard Mather)


六月,秦王堅遣大鴻臚拜張天錫為大將軍、涼州牧、西平公。

8. In the sixth month, Fu Jian sent his Grand Herald to Liangzhou to appoint Zhang Tianxi as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping, but under Qin authority.

元年四月,秦遣鴻臚回國拜天錫大將軍、涼州牧、西平公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Tianxi)

In the fourth month of the first year, Qin sent their Herald, Hui Guo, to appoint Zhang Tianxi as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping, but under Qin authority.

四年七月,黃龍見於成紀,梁山崩。五年,白虎見天水。六年,遣鴻臚拜張天錫為大將軍、涼州牧、西平公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the fourth year of Ganlu (362), a yellow dragon was seen at Chengji, and Mount Liang collapsed. In the fifth year (363), a white tiger was seen at Tianshui.

In the sixth year (364), Fu Jian sent his Herald to appoint Zhang Tianxi as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.


秋,七月,丁卯,詔復征大司馬溫入朝。八月,溫至赭圻,詔尚書車灌止之,溫遂城赭圻居之,固讓內錄,遙領揚州牧。

9. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Dingmao (September 2nd), the Jin court again ordered Huan Wen to return to court. In the eighth month, Huan Wen arrived at Zheqi. The court sent the Master of Writing, Che Guan, to order Huan Wen to halt, so Huan Wen fortified Zheqi and took up residence there. He declined to exercise authority over the secretariat, and only acted from afar as Governor of Yangzhou.

赭圻在宣城界。《南史》,沈攸之自虎檻洲進攻赭圻,陶亮等自鵲頭引兵救之。劉昫曰:宣州南陵縣,漢春穀縣地;梁置南陵縣,舊治赭圻城;唐長安四年,移治青陽城。按溫《表》云:春穀縣之赭圻城,在江東岸,臨當濡須口上二十里,距建康宮三百三十里,南有聲里,北有高安戍。

(Zheqi was in Xuancheng commandary. The History of the Southern Dynasties mentions it: "Shen Youzhi advanced from Hukan Islet to attack Zheqi, and Tao Liang and others led troops from Quetou to reinforce it." The Old Book of Tang states, "What is in our time Nanling county in Xuanzhou was, during the Han dynasty, Chungu county. When the Liang dynasty created Nanling county, it was originally administered from Zheqi. In the Tang dynasty's fourth year of Chang'an (704), the administrative center moved to Qingyang." According to Huan Wen's "Memorial", "The city of Zheqi in Chungu county is on the east bank of the Yangzi, twenty li from Ruxukou, and three hundred thirty li from the palaces at Jiankang. To the south I may receive news, and to the north I may camp at Gao'an.")


秋七月丁卯,復徵溫入朝。八月,溫至赭圻,遂城而居之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Dingmao (September 2nd), the Jin court again ordered Huan Wen to return to court. In the eighth month, Huan Wen arrived at Zheqi, which he fortified and took up residence in.


秦汝南公騰謀反,伏誅。騰,秦主生之弟也。是時,生弟晉公柳等猶有五人,王猛言於堅日:「不去五公,終必為患。」堅不從。

10. Qin's Duke of Runan, Fu Teng, plotted rebellion, but he was intercepted and executed. This Fu Teng was Fu Sheng's younger brother. At that time, Fu Sheng's five other younger brothers were still alive, including the Duke of Jin, Fu Liu. Wang Meng said to Fu Jian, "If you do not get rid of the five dukes, they will cause trouble someday." But Fu Jian did not heed him.

爲後柳等反張本。

(This was why Fu Liu and the others later rebelled (367.16).)


燕侍中慕龍輿詣龍城,徙宗廟及所留百官皆詣鄴。

11. Yan's Palace Attendant, Mulong Yu, went to the former capital at Longcheng and moved the ancestral temples and the remaining officials there to Ye.

燕太宰恪將取洛陽,先遣人招納士民,遠近諸塢皆歸之;乃使司馬悅希軍於盟津,豫州刺史孫興軍於成皋。

12. Murong Ke planned to capture Luoyang. He first sent agents out to enlist and reassure the local gentry and people, and all the fortified places near and far submitted to him. Then he dispatched his Marshal, Yue Xi, with an army to Meng Crossing, and sent Sun Xing with another army to Chenggao.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「慕容暐寇洛陽。」上云「苻堅別帥侵河南。」按明年,恪拔洛陽,堅親將以備潼關,是未敢與燕爭河南也。《十六國春秋‧堅傳》亦無此舉;《帝紀》恐誤。

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "At this point, the Annals of Emperor Ai in the Book of Jin states, 'Murong Wei invaded Luoyang'. Immediately before this, the Annals states, 'Fu Jian launched his own invasion of the Henan region.' But according to the events of the following year (365), after Murong Ke captured Luoyang, Fu Jian personally went to prepare defenses at Tong Gate. If he needed to defend Tong Gate at that time, it must have been the case that he did not yet dare to contend with Former Yan for control of the Henan region at this time. Fu Jian's biography in the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms does not mention this incident either. I fear the Annals of Emperor Ai are mistaken.")


苻堅別帥侵河南,慕容暐寇洛陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

Fu Jian launched his own invasion of the Henan region, and Murong Wei invaded Luoyang.


初,沈充之子勁,以其父死於逆亂,志欲立功以雪舊恥;年三十餘,以刑家不得仕。吳興太守王胡之為司州刺史,上疏稱勁才行,請解禁錮,參其府事,朝廷許之。會胡之以病,不行。及燕人逼洛陽,冠軍將軍陳祐守之,眾不過二千。勁自表求配祐效力;詔以勁補冠軍長史,令自募壯士,得千餘人以行。勁屢以少擊燕眾,摧破之。而洛陽糧盡援絕,祐自度不能守,乃以救許昌為名,九月,留勁以五百人守洛陽,祐帥眾而東。勁喜曰:「吾志欲致命,今得之矣。」祐聞許昌已沒,遂奔新城。燕悅希引兵略河南諸城,盡取之。

13. It was earlier mentioned that during Wang Dun's rebellion against Sima Rui and Emperor Ming, one of his chief allies was Shen Chong, and that he had a son named Shen Jing. After Shen Chong died when Wang Dun's rebellion was crushed, Shen Jing had wished to make a name for himself and so wipe away his father’s dishonor and establish himself in his family’s former position. By now, he was over thirty years old. But because of the punishment against his family, he had not been able to hold office.

Around this time, the Administrator of Wuxing, Wang Huzhi, was appointed as Inspector of Sizhou. He sent up a memorial outlining Shen Jing's talents and good conduct, and asked that his ban on holding office be lifted, so that he could serve as an advisor on Wang Huzhi's staff. The court assented. But in the event, Wang Huzhi became sick and was unable to take up his office.

When the Yan army placed Luoyang under siege, it was defended by the Champion General, Chen You, who had no more than two thousand soldiers to guard the city. So Shen Jing himself submitted a memorial asking to be assigned to serve under Chen You. The court appointed Shen Jing as Chief Clerk to the Champion General, and ordered him to recruit his own men. After recruiting more than a thousand bold fellows, Shen Jing set out. Time after time, Shen Jing attacked the Yan army with his small force, and routed them every time.

But eventually, Luoyang's stores of grain were exhausted, and there was no further prospect of reinforcements. Chen You did not believe he would be able to hold Luoyang any longer. So in the ninth month, on the pretext of marching to Xuchang's aid, he left Shen Jing with five hundred men to hold Luoyang, while he marched east with the rest. Shen Jing happily said, "This is the day when I will achieve my ambition by sacrificing my life." When Chen You heard that Xuchang had already fallen to Yan, he retreated to Xincheng. The Yan general Yue Xi led his troops to capture the various cities south of the Yellow River, and they all fell into his hands.

見九十三卷明帝太寧二年。《論語》:子張曰:士見危致命。朱子曰:謂委致其命,猶言授命也。

(Shen Chong's involvement in Wang Dun's rebellion is mentioned in Book 93, in Emperor Ming's second year of Taining (324).

The Analects states, "Zi Zhang said, 'The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life (19.1).'" Zhuzi commented, "This means that he holds fast to his orders, even so that he lays down his life.")


九月,冠軍將軍陳祐留長史沈勁守洛陽,帥衆奔新城。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the ninth month, the Champion General, Chen You, left his Chief Clerk, Shen Jing, to hold Luoyang, while he led his forces to flee to Xincheng.

勁少有節操,哀父死于非義,志欲立勳以雪先恥。年三十餘,以刑家不得仕進。郡將王胡之深異之,及遷平北將軍、司州刺史,將鎮洛陽,上疏曰:「臣當籓衛山陵,式遏戎狄,雖義督群心,人思自百,然方翦荊棘,奉宣國恩,艱難急病,非才不濟。吳興男子沈勁,清操著於鄉邦,貞固足以幹事。且臣今西,文武義故,吳興人最多,若令勁參臣府事者,見人既悅,義附亦眾。勁父充昔雖得罪先朝,然其門戶累蒙曠蕩,不審可得特垂沛然,許臣所上否?」詔聽之。勁既應命,胡之以疾病解職。升平中,慕容恪侵逼山陵。時冠軍將軍陳祐守洛陽,眾不過二千,勁自表求配祐效力,因以勁補冠軍長史,令自募壯士,得千餘人,以助祐擊賊,頻以寡制眾。而糧盡援絕,祐懼不能保全。會賊寇許昌,祐因以救許昌為名,興寧三年,留勁以五百人守城,祐率眾而東。會許昌已沒,祐因奔崖塢。勁志欲致命,欣獲死所。(Book of Jin 89, Biography of Shen Jing)

Even while young, Shen Jing was a man of great moral principles. He lamented the fact that his father had died for the sake of an unjust cause, and his ambition was to establish himself so as to wipe away his family's former shame. However, even after he was in his thirties, the punishment imposed on his family meant that he could not hold office.

A general from his commandary, Wang Huzhi, greatly appreciated Shen Jing. When Wang Huzhi was appointed as General Who Pacifies The North and Inspector of Sizhou, and was about to assume his garrison post at Luoyang, he sent up a petition stating, "I have been assigned to protect the border, guard the imperial tombs, and keep the Rong and Di barbarians in check. But though I command the people's hearts with virtue, men's thoughts go in a hundred different directions, and it would be strenuous to cut my way through the brambles and thorns. I wish to repay the favor the state has shown me, but these difficulties have exhausted me unto sickness, and I lack the talent to achieve what is sought. But there is a young man of Wuxing, Shen Jing, whose moral character is recognized throughout the towns and countryside; he is loyal and stalwart, and sufficient to handle affairs. Furthermore, I am currently in the west, where through my just handling of civil and military affairs, I have a great number of men of Wuxing under me. If you give the command for Shen Jing to advise me on affairs, then these people will see it and rejoice, and they will flock to our side out of justice until they form a great host. Now it is true that Shen Jing's father Shen Chong was guilty of a crime against the earlier court, but his family has now been wasting away for some time. I wonder whether or not some exception can be made in order to bring them back from the brink? May what I propose be allowed?" The court accepted his proposal. Since Shen Jing accepted the imperial command, Wang Huzhi resigned his office on account of illness.

During the Shengping era (357-361), Murong Ke advanced against and threatened the imperial tombs at Luoyang. At that time, the Champion General, Chen You, was guarding Luoyang, but his army had no more than two thousand soldiers. Shen Jing submitted his own petition asking that he be allowed to go to Chen You's assistance. Because of this request, Shen Jing was appointed as Chief Clerk to the Champion General, and commanded to raise troops by his own resources; once he had obtained a thousand men, he went to help Chen You attack the enemy, and several times he overcame them despite having so few soldiers. But then the grain supplies were exhausted and there was no prospect of further reinforcements, and Chen You feared he would not be able to hold the city. At that time, the enemy were also attacking Xuchang, so Chen You decided to leave on the pretext of marching to reinforce Xuchang. In the third year of Xingning (365), Chen You left Shen Jing with five hundred soldiers to hold Luoyang, while he led the rest to the east. But by then, Xuchang had already fallen, so Chen You fled to Ya Fortress. Because of his ambition, Shen Jing was determined to fight on until the end, happy whether he would end up captured or killed.


秦王堅命公國各置三卿,並餘官皆聽自采辟,獨為置郎中令。富商趙掇等車服僭侈,諸公競引以為卿。黃門侍郎安定程憲言於堅,請治之。堅乃下詔稱:「本欲使諸公延選英儒,乃更猥濫如是!宜令有司推檢,辟召非其人者,悉降爵為侯,自今國官皆委之銓衡。自非命士已上,不得乘車馬;去京師百裡內,工商皁隸,不得服金銀、錦繡。犯者棄市!」於是平陽、平昌、九江、陳留、安樂五公皆降爵為侯。

14. Fu Jian ordered his dukes to each create the offices of the Three Ministers for their fiefs. He reserved the right to personally appoint their Prefects of Palace Gentlemen, but he let them make their own selections for the other offices. There were some rich merchants, Zhao Duo and others, who wore extravagant clothing and rode about in fine carriages, and the dukes all raced to recruit them to be their ministers. The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Cheng Xian of Anding, informed Fu Jian of this development and asked him to deal with it.

So Fu Jian issued an edict stating, “I had wished for the dukes to select men of heroic stature and Confucian learning, and yet they choose such men as these! I ought to have an office investigate into these selections, and any duke who was found to have selected unworthy people will be demoted to the rank of marquis. From now on, all officials of this state will be selected by the Office of Evaluations. Anyone who is not an appointed official or some higher title is forbidden from riding carriages. And within a hundred li of the capital, artisans, merchants, and servants shall be banned from wearing gold, silver, and brocade clothing. Those who violate this law will be executed in the marketplace!” The Dukes of Pingyang, Pingchang, Jiujiang, Chenliu, and Anle were all demoted to Marquis.

晉制:王國置郎中令、中尉、大農爲三卿;秦因其制。【章:十二行本「憲」下有「言於堅」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】銓衡,謂吏部尚書也。

(According to the Jin system, the princely fiefs each appointed their own Prefect of Gentlemen, Central Commandant, and Grand Minister of Finance; these were the Three Ministers. Former Qin thus had the same system.

Some versions add "said to Fu Jian" after "Cheng Xian".

By "the Office of Evaluations", Fu Jian means the Ministry of Personnel.)
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:49 pm

興寧三年(乙丑,公元三六五年)

The Third Year of Xingning (The Yichou Year, 365 AD)


春,正月,庚申,皇後王氏崩。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Gengshen (February 22nd), Jin's Empress Wang passed away.

三年春正月庚申,皇后王氏崩。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the third year of Xingning (365), in spring, the first month, on the day Gengshen (February 22nd), Empress Wang passed away.


劉衛辰復叛代,代王什翼犍東渡河,擊走之。

2. Liu Weichen once more turned against Dai. But Tuoba Shiyijian marched east across the Yellow River and attacked Liu Weichen, and drove him off.

劉衞辰附代,見上升平五年。

(It was mentioned how Liu Weichen had inclined towards Dai again earlier in this book, in the fifth year of Shengping (361.2).)


This passage seems to have reversed the geography of the two forces; Liu Weichen's domain was west of Dai.

二十八年春正月,衞辰謀反,東渡河。帝討之,衞辰懼而遁走。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-eighth year of Jianguo (365), in spring, the first month, Liu Weichen once again rebelled against Dai, and he marched east and crossed the Yellow River. But Tuoba Shiyijian campaigned against him, and Liu Weichen fled in fear.


什翼犍性寬厚,郎中令許謙盜絹二匹,什翼犍知而匿之,謂左長史燕鳳曰:「吾不忍視謙之面,卿慎勿洩。若謙慚而自殺,是吾以財殺士也。」嘗討西部叛者,流矢中目;既而獲射者,群臣欲臠割之,什翼犍曰:「彼各為其主斗耳,何罪!」遂釋之。

3. Tuoba Shiyijian had a tolerant nature.

His Prefect of Palace Gentlemen, Xu Qian, once stole two bolts of silk. When Tuoba Shiyijian learned of it, he kept the information to himself. He said to his Chief Clerk of the Left, Yan Feng, "I cannot bear to look upon Xu Qian's face. You must be careful not to reveal what you know. If he then feels ashamed and kills himself, then I would be guilty of killing a minister for the sake of material goods."

When Tuoba Shiyijian was campaigning against rebels in the west, one shot him in the eye. After the archer had been captured, his ministers wanted to carve him up, but Tuoba Shiyijian said, “He was only following his own lord's orders; what was his crime?" And so he released the man.

按《北史》,代國俗無繒帛,而謙盜之,其罪在不赦;而什翼犍能容之,故史以此言其寬厚之一端。【章:十二行本「面」下有「卿愼勿泄」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】

(According to the History of the Northern Dynasties, Dai was a coarse state lacking in silks. So by stealing silk, Xu Qian had committed an unpardonable crime. Yet Tuoba Shiyijian held off on punishing him for that. This passage uses this story to demonstrate his magnanimity.

Some versions add "you must be careful not to reveal what you know" after "I cannot bear to look at him".)


帝雅性寬厚,智勇仁恕。時國中少繒帛,代人許謙盜絹二匹,守者以告,帝匿之,謂燕鳳曰:「吾不忍視謙之面,卿勿泄言,謙或慚而自殺,為財辱士,非也。」帝嘗擊西部叛賊,流矢中目。賊破之後,諸大臣執射者,各持錐刀欲屠割之。帝曰:「彼各為其主,何罪也。」乃釋之。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Tuoba Shiyijian had a tolerant nature; he was certainly calculating and bold, but also benevolent and forgiving.

At this time, Dai had very few silks. A native of Dai, Xu Qian, stole two bolts of silk. The guards informed Tuoba Shiyijian of this fact, but he kept the information to himself. He said to Yan Feng, "I cannot bear to look upon Xu Qian's face. You must be careful not to reveal what you know. If he then feels ashamed and kills himself, then I would be guilty of killing a minister for the sake of material goods, and that would not be right."

When Tuoba Shiyijian was campaigning against rebels in the west, one shot him in the eye. After the rebels had been routed, his great ministers captured the archer, and they all grasped their awls and blades, wanting to cut the archer to pieces. But Tuoba Shiyijian said, “He was only following his own lord's orders; what was his crime?" And so he released the man.


大司馬溫移鎮姑孰。二月,乙未,以其弟右將軍豁監荊州、揚州之義城、雍州之京兆諸軍事,領荊州刺史,加江州刺史桓沖監江州及荊、豫八郡諸軍事,並假節。

4. Huan Wen moved his base to Gushu.

In the second month, on the day Yiwei (March 29th), the General of the Right, Huan Wen's younger brother Huan Huo, was appointed as Chief of military affairs in Yicheng commandary of Jingzhou and Yangzhou, and Jingzhao commandary in Yongzhou, and acting Inspector of Jingzhou. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Wen's younger brother Huan Chong, was promoted to Chief of military affairs in Jiangzhou and eight commandaries in Jingzhou and Yuzhou. Huan Huo and Huan Chong were both granted staffs of authority.

溫又自赭圻而東鎭姑孰。義城郡置於襄陽,襄陽郡屬荊州,而義城郡領揚州淮南之平阿、下蔡。蓋桓宣先從祖約退屯淮南,後鎭襄陽,陶侃以其淮南部曲置義成郡於穀城,蓋有揚州之民而又置揚州僑縣於穀城;穀城,荊州統內之地也,故曰荊州、揚州之義成;曰義成者,言以義成軍,因而名郡。後人又於「成」字旁添「土」,失其初立郡之旨矣。京兆郡屬雍州,時亦僑立於襄陽。初,沖刺江州,領西陽、譙二郡太守;今加監荊州之江夏‧隨郡、豫州之汝南‧西陽‧新蔡‧潁川,凡六郡,通所鎭尋陽爲八郡。《考異》曰:《帝紀》云:「沖領南蠻校尉。」按江左唯荊州領南蠻。《沖傳》亦無,蓋《紀》因桓豁重出。今不取。

(Huan Wen had transferred his base east from Zheqi to Gushu.

Yicheng commandary was established at Xiangyang, and Xiangyang commandary was part of Jingzhou. However, Yicheng commandary was in charge of Ping’e and Xiacai of Huainan in the south of Yangzhou. This was because Huan Xuan had followed Zu Yue to first fall back to make his camp at Huainan, and from there they relocated to Xiangyang. Later, Tao Kan had the Huainan soldiers in Huan Xuan's army set up Yicheng commandary, with the seat of government at Gucheng. But because there were refugees from Yangzhou, they set up some of those “surrogate counties” at Gucheng as well (for the counties in Yangzhou that the refugees were from). In addition to Gucheng being the seat of this commandary, it also exercised authority over lands inside Jingzhou as well. That was why it was called “Yicheng of Jing and Yang provinces”.

義成 Yicheng was so called to signify the idea “using Righteousness (義) to build (成) an army”, and so that became the name of the commandary. But later people began to add the 土 radical next to 成, forming 城 ("city"), so the original intent in establishing the commandary was lost.

The actual Jingzhao commandary was part of Yongzhou, but at this time Jin had established a surrogate Jingzhao Commandary in Xiangyang.

Before this time, Huan Chong had been Inspector of Jiangzhou and was acting Administrator of Xiyang and Qiao commandaries. He was now granted Chief authority over Jiangxia and Sui commandaries in Jingzhou and Runan, Xiyang, Xincai, and Yingchuan commandaries in Yuzhou. These made six commandaries, and combined with his defense of Xunyang it made eight commandaries.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Ai in the Book of Jin states that at this time, Huan Chong was also appointed as 'acting Colonel of Southern Man Tribes'. But the only place in the Southland where someone would be appointed as Colonel of Southern Man Tribes was in Jingzhou, and Huan Chong was not stationed there. The Biography of Huan Chong in the Book of Jin does not mention it either. In fact, the same entry in the Annals of Emperor Ai even states that Huan Huo was also appointed as Colonel of Southern Man Tribes. So I have omitted this supposed appointment.")


二月乙未,以右將軍桓豁監荊州揚州之義城雍州之京兆諸軍事、領南蠻校尉、荊州刺史;桓沖監江州荊州之江夏隨郡豫州之汝南西陽新蔡潁川六郡諸軍事、南中郎將、江州刺史,領南蠻校尉,並假節。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

In the second month, on the day Yiwei (March 29th), the General of the Right, Huan Huo, was appointed as Chief of military affairs in Yicheng commandary of Jingzhou and Yangzhou, and Jingzhao commandary in Yongzhou, and acting Colonel of Southern Man Tribes and Inspector of Jingzhou. Huan Chong was promoted to Chief of military affairs in Jiangzhou, Jiangxia and Sui commandaries in Jingzhou, and Runan, Xiyang, Xincai, and Yingchuan commandaries in Yuzhou, and General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Inspector of Jiangzhou, and acting Colonel of Southern Man Tribes. Huan Huo and Huan Chong were both granted staffs of authority.


司徒昱聞陳祐棄洛陽,會大司馬溫於洌洲,共議征討。丙申,帝崩於西堂,事遂寢。帝無嗣,丁酉,皇太后詔以琅邪王奕承大統。百官奉迎於琅邪第,是日,即皇帝位,大赦。

5. When Sima Yu learned of Chen You's retreat from Luoyang, he met with Huan Wen at Liezhou, planning for a joint campaign to save the region. But on the day Bingshen (March 30th), Emperor Ai passed away in the Western Hall, so their plan was put aside.

Emperor Ai had left no heir, so on the day Dingyou (March 31st), Empress Dowager Chu ordered that the Prince of Langye, Sima Yi, be chosen. The officials all gathered to pay homage to Sima Yi at his residence, and that day, he rose to the imperial throne, and a general amnesty was declared. Sima Yi would be known as Emperor Fei, or the Duke of Haixi.

今姑孰江中有洌山,卽其地。年二十五。西堂,太極殿西堂也。建康太極殿有東西堂,東堂以見羣臣,西堂爲卽安之地。

There is a Lie Hill in the middle of the Yangzi at modern Gushu; this was the same place as this "Liezhou".

Emperor Ai was twenty-four when he died.

The Western Hall was the one in the Taiji Palace. Jiankang's Taiji Palace had Eastern and Western Halls. The Eastern Hall was for receiving the ministers, while the Western Hall was a place of repose.


丙申,帝崩于西堂,時年二十五。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

On the day Bingshen (March 30th), Emperor Ai passed away in the Western Hall. At that time, he was twenty-four years old.

隆和初,轉侍中、驃騎大將軍、開府儀同三司。興寧三年二月丙申,哀帝崩,無嗣。丁酉,皇太后詔曰:「帝遂不救厥疾,艱禍仍臻,遺緒泯然,哀慟切心。琅邪王奕,明德茂親,屬當儲嗣,宜奉祖宗,纂承大統。便速正大禮,以寧人神。」于是百官奉迎于琅邪第。是日,卽皇帝位,大赦。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

At the beginning of the Longhe reign era (362), Sima Yi was appointed as Palace Attendant and Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

In the third year of Xingning (365), in the second month, on the day Bingshen (March 30th), Emperor Ai passed away. He had left no heir. So on the day Dingchou (March 31st), Empress Dowager Chu issued a decree stating, "Ever since the Emperor fell into the coma we could not wake him from, we knew this day of misfortune would come. When I consider that the great enterprise of our ancestors might now be ended, I am wracked with grief and my heart trembles. The Prince of Langye, Sima Yi, is wise, virtuous, talented, and a close relative. He should serve as the heir, and carry on the mantle of his ancestors by taking up the imperial line. Let his accession ceremony take place at once, to settle the people and the spirits." The officials all gathered to pay homage to Sima Yi at his residence, and that day, he rose to the imperial throne, and a general amnesty was declared.

是歲,司馬千齡死,弟弈僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year, Sima Qianling (Sima Pi; Emperor Ai) passed away. His younger brother Sima Yi (Emperor Fei) succeeded him.


秦大赦,改元建元。

6. In Qin, a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Jianyuan.

建元元年正月,雍州秀才段鏗對策上第,拜吏部郎中。孝廉通經者十餘人,皆拜令長。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the first year of Jianyuan (365), the first month, an Abundant Talent candidate from Yongzhou, Duan Keng, proposed a plan for establishing ranks and was appointed as Supervisor of the Household Gentlemen. More than ten people, having been nominated as Filial and Incorrupt or as Conversant in the Classics, were all appointed as Prefects or Chiefs of Counties.

三[二]十八年,堅改為建元。堅遣使牛恬朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the twenty-eighth year of Jianguo (365), Fu Jian changed his reign era title to Jianyuan.

Fu Jian sent his envoy Niu Tian to pay tribute the court of Dai.


燕太宰恪、吳王垂共攻洛陽。恪謂諸將曰:「卿等常患吾不攻,今洛陽城高而兵弱,易克也,勿更畏懦而怠惰!」遂攻之。三月,克之,執揚武將軍沈勁。勁神氣自若,恪將宥之。中軍將軍慕輿虔曰:「勁雖奇士,觀其志度,終不為人用,今赦之,必為後患。」遂殺之。

7. Murong Ke and Murong Chui attacked Luoyang together. Murong Ke said to his officers, "All of you have often resented me for refusing to launch assaults. However, although Luoyang has high walls, their soldiers are weak. It would be easy to take the city by storm. The time is right, and let no one display cowardice or laziness!" So they assaulted the city. In the third month, they took it, and captured Jin's General Who Displays Valor, Shen Jing.

Shen Jing's expression looked unfazed, and Murong Ke was inclined to pardon him. But the General of the Central Army, Muyu Qian, said, "Although Shen Jing is a marvelous fellow, beware of his ambitions. He will never allow someone else to use him. If you pardon him now, he will certainly pose a threat to you later." So Murong Ke executed Shen Jing.

三月丙子,慕容暐將慕容恪陷洛陽,寧朔將軍竺瑤奔于襄陽,冠軍長史、揚武將軍沈勁死之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the third month, on the day Bingzi (?), Murong Wei's general Murong Ke took Luoyang. The General Who Calms Shuofang, Zhu Yao, fled to Xiangyang, while the Chief Clerk to the Champion General and General Who Displays Valor, Shen Jing, died there.

尋為恪所攻,城陷,被執,神氣自若。恪奇而將宥之,其中軍將軍慕容虔曰:「勁雖奇士,觀其志度,終不為人用。今若赦之,必為後患。」遂遇害。(Book of Jin 89, Biography of Shen Jing)

Luoyang was soon assaulted by Murong Ke; the walls were breached, and Shen Jing was captured, but his expression was unfazed. Murong Ke was amazed by him and wanted to pardon him, but his General of the Central Army, Murong Qian, said to him, "Although Shen Jing is a marvelous fellow, beware of his ambitions. He will never allow someone else to use him. If you pardon him now, he will certainly pose a threat to you later." Thus Shen Jing met his death.


恪略地至崤、澠,關中大震,秦王堅自將屯陝城以備之。

8. Murong Ke conquered all the land up to the Xiao Mountains and the Mian River, which were close to the border with Qin. In Guanzhong there was great disturbance due to this development. Fu Jian himself led troops to camp on the border at Shancheng.

恪之圖洛陽也,秦中大震,苻堅親將以備潼關,軍回乃定。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

After Murong Ke captured Luoyang, there was great disturbance in Qin. Fu Jian himself led troops to make defensive preparations at Tong Gate. Only after Murong Ke's army returned did the disturbances settle down.


燕人以左中郎將慕容築為洛州刺史,鎮金墉;吳王垂為都督荊、揚、洛、徐、兗、豫、雍、益、涼、秦十州諸軍事、征南大將軍、荊州牧,配兵一萬,鎮魯陽。

9. Yan's General of the Household Gentlemen of the Left, Murong Zhu, was appointed as Inspector of Luozhou, and was stationed at Jinyong. Murong Chui was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Luozhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou, and Qinzhou, Grand General Who Conquers The South, and Governor of Jingzhou. He was assigned ten thousand soldiers, and was stationed at Lüyang.

垂歷位鎮東、平州、征南大將軍、荊兗二州牧、司隸校尉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui successively served as General Who Guards The East, Inspector of Pingzhou, Grand General Who Conquers The South, Governor of Jingzhou and Yanzhou, and Colonel-Director of Retainers.


太宰恪還鄴,謂僚屬曰:「吾前平廣固,不能濟辟閭蔚;今定洛陽,使沈勁為戮;雖皆非本情,然身為元帥,實有愧於四海。」朝廷嘉勁之忠,贈東陽太守。

10. When Murong Ke returned to Ye, he lamented to his officers, "Before, when I pacified Guanggu, I could not save Pilü Yu. And now, when I captured Luoyang, I caused Shen Jing to be executed. Although neither was my original intention, in the end I am the commander. Truly, my shame fills the Four Seas."

The Jin court honored Shen Jing's loyalty, and posthumously appointed him as Administrator of Dongyang.

見上卷穆帝永和十二年。

(Pilü Yu was mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356.1).)


恪還,從容言于慕容晞曰:「前平廣固,不能濟辟閭,今定洛陽而殺沈勁,實有愧于四海。」朝廷聞而嘉之,贈東陽太守。子赤黔為大長秋。赤黔子叔任,義熙中為益州刺史。(Book of Jin 89, Biography of Shen Jing)

When Murong Ke returned, he mentioned to Murong Xi, "Before, when I pacified Guanggu, I could not obtain Pilü (Yu); now, although I have taken Luoyang, I had to kill Shen Jing. Truly, my shame fills the Four Seas."

The Jin court heard of Shen Jing's fate and commended him, posthumously appointing him Administrator of Dongyang. His son Shen Chiqian became the Manager of the Empress's Staff. And during the Yixi reign era (405-419), Shen Chiqian's son Shen Shuren became Inspector of Yizhou.


臣光曰:沈勁可謂能子矣!恥父之惡,致死以滌之,變兇逆之族為忠義之門。《易》曰:「干父之蠱,用譽。」《蔡仲之命》曰:「爾尚蓋前人之愆,惟忠惟孝。」其是之謂乎!

11. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: Shen Jing could truly be called an able son! With his death, he washed away his father's infamy, and transformed a wicked and traitorous family into a loyal and righteous one. The Book of Changes states, "In setting right what has been spoiled by the father, one meets with praise (18.5)." The Charge to Zhong of Cai states, "In order that you may cover the faults of your father, be loyal, be filial." Truly this could be said of Shen Jing!

《易‧蠱卦》六五《爻辭》,《象》曰:幹父用譽,承以德也。見《尚書》。

(In the fifth six divided divination of the Gu chapter of the Book of Changes, the Interpretation states, "One who is able to surpass their father's reputation does virtue."

The Charge to Zhong of Cai is in the Book of Zhou in the Book of Documents.)


太宰恪為將,不事威嚴,專用恩信,撫士卒務綜大要,不為苛令,使人人得便安。平時營中寬縱,似若可犯;然警備嚴密,敵至莫能近者,故未嘗負敗。

12. As a general, Murong Ke did not rule through awe or sheer dignity, but employed grace and trust. In nurturing his officers and troops, he attended to the main issues and did not make harsh or tedious orders, letting everyone be comfortable and at ease. In normal times, his camps were lax, and looked like they could be easily assaulted. But he had set keen watches and strong guards, so whenever enemies approached, none of them could come near. This was why he never met with defeat.

恪為將不尚威嚴,專以恩信禦物,務於大略,不以小令勞眾。軍士有犯法,密縱舍之,捕斬賊首以令軍。營內不整似可犯,而防禦甚嚴,終無喪敗。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

As a general, Murong Ke did not rule through awe or sheer dignity; it was through grace and trust that he restrained people. He tended to the main issues, not burdening his soldiers with petty ordinances. If someone in his army violated the law, he would have them secretly thrown out while only displaying the severed head of an enemy as a warning to the army. His camps were not kept in tight order, and appeared as though they could be assaulted. But he kept strict defensive preparations in place. So to the very end, he never knew defeat.


壬申,葬哀帝及靜皇後於安平陵。

13. On the day Renshen (May 5th), Emperor Ai and Empress Jing (the late Lady Wang) were buried together at Anping Tomb.

王皇后,諡曰靜。《晉書》作「靖」。

Empress Wang's posthumous name was 靜 Jing. The Book of Jin records it as 靖 Jing.


葬安平陵。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Ai)

Emperor Ai was buried at Anping Tomb.

三月壬申,葬哀皇帝于安平陵。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the third month, on the day Renshen (May 5th), Emperor Ai was buried at Anping Tomb.


夏,四月,壬午,燕太尉武平匡公封弈卒。以司空陽鶩為太尉,侍中、光祿大夫皇甫真為司空,領中書監。騖歷事四朝,年耆望重,自太宰恪以下皆拜之。而騖謙恭謹厚,過於少時;戒束子孫,雖朱紫羅列,無敢違犯其法度者。

14. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Renwu (June 15th), Yan's Grand Commandant, Feng Yi, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Kuang ("the Rectified") of Wuping.

The Minister of Works, Yang Wu, was appointed as the new Grand Commandant. The Palace Attendant and Household Counselor, Huangfu Zhen, was then appointed as the new Minister of Works and acting chief of the Palace Secretariat. Yang Wu had served under four generations of rulers, and held great seniority; everyone from Murong Ke down respected him. Yet even so, Yang Wu was more modest and courteous now than he had been in his youth. He charged his sons and grandsons to never go against the law, even despite their honored heritage.

《諡法》:貞心大度曰匡。廆、皝、儁、暐四朝。封奕事燕,亦歷事四朝,其宣勞過於陽騖,子孫貴顯亦過於陽氏。豈奕之謙德有愧於騖邪?或者史家因陽氏家傳書之,而封氏闕然無述也。

(The Laws of Posthumous Names says, "One who lives with complete and wholehearted sincerity may be named Kuang ('Rectified')."

The four generations of rulers that Yang Wu served under were Murong Hui, Murong Huang, Murong Jun, and Murong Wei.

Now Feng Yi had also served the Yan court for four generations; his honor and prestige surpassed that of Yang Wu, and his sons and grandsons were more highly esteemed than the Yang clan's were. And should we believe that Feng Yi's own sense of modesty and courtesy were put to shame by Yang Wu's? Perhaps the reason why less was said about him in history was because the historians had access to the biographical records of the Yang clan, while the Feng clan had failed to compile family records of their own.)


俊之將圖中原也,騖制勝之功亞于慕容恪。暐既嗣偽位,申以師傅之禮,親遇日隆。及為太尉,慨然而歎曰:「昔常林、徐邈先代名臣,猶以鼎足任重而終辭三事。以吾虛薄,何德以堪之!」固求罷職,言甚墾至,暐優答不許。騖清貞謙謹,老而彌篤,既以宿望舊齒,自慕容恪已下莫不畢拜。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Yang Wu)

During Murong Jun's conquest of the Central Plains, Yang Wu's martial achievements were second only to Murong Ke's.

After Murong Wei rose to the throne, Yang Wu was treated with the same respect shown to a Grand Instructor or Grand Tutor, and he was shown more and more personal favor by the day. When he was even appointed as Grand Commandant, he sighed with deep emotion and said, "In past dynasites, Chang Chen and Xu Miao both became famous ministers. Yet even when the realm was left as three legs of a tripod and they held high office, they still always declined to accept posts as one of the Three Excellencies. Who am I, some fellow of no account, that my virtue is sufficient to be worthy of such an office?" And he insisted on being allowed to give up the office, using very cultivated language. Murong Wei felt that this was an excellent response, but he did not agree.

Yang Wu was modest and courteous, even moreso in his old age. And because of his longstanding seniority, everyone from Murong Ke on down respected and performed obeisance to him.

真征還,拜侍中、光祿大夫。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

Huangfu Zhen was later summoned back to court, where he was initially appointed as Palace Attendant and Household Counselor.


六月,戊子,益州刺史建城襄公周撫卒。撫在益州三十餘年,甚有威惠。詔以其子犍為太守楚代之。

15. In the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (July 20th), Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Fu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xiang ("the Beneficial") of Jiancheng.

Zhou Fu had been in Yizhou for over thirty years, and the people of that region greatly loved and feared him. So the court ordered the Administrator of Jianwei, his son Zhou Chu, to take up his role.

《諡法》:因事有功曰襄。穆帝永和三年,桓溫平蜀,留撫鎭之,至是纔十九年。蓋晉未得蜀之前,置益州刺史於巴東,撫先已爲刺史;溫旣克蜀,撫仍爲益州刺史,鎭彭模。曰在益州三十餘年者,史通其鎭巴東、鎭彭模之年數之也。

(The Law of Posthumous Names states, "One who has achievements in their work may thus be named Xiang ('Beneficial')."

In Emperor Mu's third year of Yonghe (347), Huan Wen had conquered the Shu region, and left Zhou Fu there to guard it. From that year to this one, it had only been nineteen years, yet this passage claims that Zhou Fu had been in Yizhou for more than thirty years. It must have been the case that before Jin had conquered Cheng-Han, the headquarters for their Inspector of Yizhou was at Badong, and Zhou Fu had first served as Inspector there. When Huan Wen then conquered the whole Shu region, Zhou Fu naturally became its Inspector, and he was stationed at Pengmo. When this passage says that Zhou Fu was in Yizhou for over thirty years, it is combining his time spent at Badong and his years at Pengmo.)


夏六月戊子,使持節、都督益寧二州諸軍事、鎮西將軍、益州刺史、建城公周撫卒。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In summer, the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (July 20th), the Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Ningzhou, General Who Guards The West, Inspector of Yizhou, and Duke of Jiancheng, Zhou Fu, passed away.


秋,七月,己酉,徙會稽王昱復為琅邪王。

16. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiyou (August 10th), Sima Yu's title was changed from Prince of Kuaiji back to Prince of Langye again.

元帝以昱爲琅邪王,奉恭王祀。成帝咸和元年,王生母鄭夫人薨,王號慕請服,重徙封會稽王。是後,康帝、哀帝及今帝,皆自琅邪入繼大統。

(Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had originally named Sima Yu as Prince of Langye, in order to continue the family line of his own father, Prince Gong. In Emperor Cheng's first year of Xianhe (326), Sima Yu's birth mother Lady Zheng passed away. Sima Yu, grieving for her, asked to be allowed to mourn for her, so he was renamed Prince of Kuaiji. After that time, Emperor Kang, Emperor Ai, and the current Emperor had all first possessed the title Prince of Langye and then went on to become Emperor.)


秋七月己酉,改封會稽王昱爲琅邪王。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiyou (August 10th), Sima Yu's title was changed from Prince of Kuaiji back to Prince of Langye again.


壬子,立妃庾氏為皇後。後,冰之女也。

17. On the day Renzi (August 13th), Lady Yu was honored as Empress. This Lady Yu was the daughter of Yu Bing.

壬子,立皇后庾氏。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

On the day Renzi (August 13th), Lady Yu was honored as Empress.


甲申,立琅邪王昱子昌明為會稽王;昱固讓,猶自稱會稽王。

18. On the day Jiashen (?), Sima Yu's son Sima Changming (Sima Yao) was offered the title Prince of Kuaiji. But Sima Yu declined that title for his son, and he continued to refer to himself as Prince of Kuaiji.

封琅邪王昱子昌明爲會稽王。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

Sima Yu's son Sima Changming (Sima Yao) was appointed as Prince of Kuaiji.

廢帝卽位,以琅邪王絕嗣,復徙封琅邪,而封王子昌明爲會稽王。帝固讓,故雖封琅邪而不去會稽之號。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

After Emperor Fei came to the throne, since his previous noble line as Prince of Langye was now left without an heir, he restored Sima Yu's original title as Prince of Langye, and he appointed Sima Yu's son Sima Changming as Prince of Kuaiji. But Sima Yu declined these things, and although he had been appointed as Prince of Langye, he continued to refer to himself as Prince of Kuaiji.


匈奴右賢王曹轂、左賢王劉衛辰皆叛秦。轂帥眾二萬寇杏城,秦王堅自將討之,使衛大將軍李威、左僕射王猛輔太子宏留守長安。八月,堅擊轂,破之,斬轂弟活,轂請降,徙其豪傑六千餘戶於安。建節將軍鄧羌討衛辰,擒之於木根山。

19. The Xiongnu Worthy King of the Right, Cao Gu, and the Worthy King of the Left, Liu Weichen, both rebelled against Qin. Cao Gu led twenty thousand men to attack Xingcheng. Fu Jian personally led an army against him, while leaving the Grand Guard General, Li Wei, and the Deputy Director of the Left, Wang Meng, to support the Crown Prince, Fu Hong, and defend Chang'an.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian attacked Cao Gu and routed him. He killed Cao Gu's younger brother Cao Huo, and Cao Gu himself offered to surrender. Cao Gu and more than six thousand households were relocated to An (Chang'an?). Deng Qiang attacked Liu Weichen, and captured him at Mount Mugen.

木根山在朔方。

Mount Mugen is in Shuofang.


秋七月,匈奴左賢王衛辰、右賢王曹穀帥衆二萬侵苻堅杏城。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In autumn, the seventh month, the Xiongnu Worthy Kings of the Left and Right, Liu Weichen and Cao Gu, led twenty thousand of their troops to attack Fu Jian's territory of Xingcheng.

衞辰舉兵伐堅,堅遣其建節將軍鄧羌討擒之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

Liu Weichen raised troops and campaigned against Fu Jian, but Fu Jian sent his General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, to attack Liu Weichen and capture him.


九月,堅如朔方,巡撫諸胡。冬,十月,征北將軍、淮南公幼帥杏城之眾乘虛襲長安,李威擊斬之。

20. In the ninth month, Fu Jian went to Shuofang, to patrol and reassure the various tribes there.

In winter, the tenth month, Qin's General Who Conquers The North and Duke of Huainan, Fu You, took the remaining soldiers at Xingcheng to attack Chang'an while Fu Jian was away. But Li Wei fought and killed him.

幼,亦秦主生之弟也。

Fu You was another of Fu Sheng's younger brothers.


鮮卑禿髮椎斤卒,年一百一十,子思復鞬代統其眾。椎斤,樹機能從弟務丸之孫也。

21. The Xianbei leader Tufa Chuijin passed away; he was a hundred and nine years old. His son Tufa Sifujian took his place in command of his army. This Tufa Chuijin was the grandson of Tufa Shujineng's cousin Tufa Wuwan.

樹機能亂涼州,見《晉武帝紀》。

(Tufa Shujineng's rebellion in Liangzhou is mentioned in the reign of Emperor Wu (Sima Rui) in Books 79 and 80.)


能死,從弟務丸代立。丸死,孫推斤立。斤死,子思復鞬立。思復鞬部衆轉盛,遂據涼土。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

After Tufa Shujineng passed away, his cousin Tufa Wuwan succeeded him. Following Tufa Wuwan's death, his grandson Tufa Tuijin succeeded him. When Tufa Tuijin passed away, his son Tufa Sifujian succeeded him. Tufa Sifujian's forces became quite numerous, and he occupied territory in Liangzhou.

務丸曾孫思復犍,部眾稍盛。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wuwan's great-grandson was Tufa Sifujian, whose forces grew to be quite numerous.

務丸死,孫推斤立。死,子思復鞬立,部眾稍盛。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

After Tufa Wuwan passed away, his grandson Tufa Tuijin succeded him. And after his death, his son Tufa Sifujian succeeded him. Tufa Sifujian's forces grew to be quite numerous.


梁州刺史司馬勳,為政酷暴,治中、別駕及州之豪右,言語忤意,即於坐梟斬之,或親射殺之。常有據蜀之志,憚周撫,不敢發。及撫卒,勳遂舉兵反。別駕雍端、西戎司馬隗粹切諫,勳皆殺之,自號梁、益二州牧、成都王。十一月,勳引兵入劍閣,攻涪,西夷校尉毌丘暐棄城走。乙卯,圍益州刺史周楚於成都。大司馬溫表鷹揚將軍江夏相義陽朱序為征討都護以救之。

22. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Sima Xun, was cruel and harsh in administering his territory. If any of his assistants or the powerful people of the province offended him in speech, he would have them beheaded on the spot, or he would shoot them to death personally with a bow and arrow. He had long harbored ambitions of taking the Shu region for himself, but he had feared Zhou Fu, and dared not act against him.

After Zhou Fu's death, Sima Xun gathered troops and rebelled. His Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Yong Duan, and the Marshal of Western Rong Tribes, Wei Cui, both fiercely remonstrated with him, but Sima Xun killed them both. He declared himself the Governor of Lianzhou and Yizhou, and the King of Chengdu.

In the eleventh month, Sima Xun led his soldiers through Jian'ge Pass and attacked Fu. The Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Guanqiu Wei, abandoned the city and fled. On the day Yimao (December 14th), Sima Xun placed Zhou Chu under siege at Chengdu. Huan Wen petitioned to have the General of Hawkish Display and Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhu Xu of Yiyang, appointed as Commander-Protector of the Expeditionary Force to rescue Chengdu.

西戎司馬,西戎校尉之屬官也。晉初置西夷校尉,治汶山,今蓋治涪城。

The Marshal of Western Rong Tribes was a subordinate officer of the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes.

Jin had originally created the base of the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes at Wenshan. By now, it must have been shifted to Fucheng.


冬十月,梁州刺史司馬勳反,自稱成都王。十一月,帥衆入劍閣,攻涪,西夷校尉毌丘暐棄城而遁。乙卯,圍益州刺史周楚于成都,桓溫遣江夏相朱序救之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In winter, the tenth month, the Inspector of Lianzhou, Sima Xun, rebelled and declared himself the King of Chengdu. In the eleventh month, Sima Xun led his soldiers through Jian'ge Pass and attacked Fu. The Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Guanqiu Wei, abandoned the city and fled. On the day Yimao (December 14th), Sima Xun placed the Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Chu, under siege at Chengdu. Huan Wen sent the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhu Xu, to rescue Chengdu.


秦王堅還長安,以李威守太尉,加侍中。以曹轂為雁門公,劉衛辰為夏陽公,各使統其部落。

23. Fu Jian returned to Chang'an, and appointed Li Wei as Grand Commandant and Palace Attendant. He appointed Cao Gu as Duke of Yanmen and Liu Weichen as Duke of Xiayang, and both were sent back to lead their armies and tribes.

堅自至朔方,以衞辰為夏陽公,統其部落。衞辰以堅還復其國,復附於堅,雖於國貢使不絕,而誠敬有乖。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

When Fu Jian himself came to Shuofang, he appointed Liu Weichen as Duke of Xiayang and granted him control of his original forces. Since Fu Jian had thus restored Liu Weichen to his former region, Liu Weichen was inclined towards him. Although Liu Weichen did not stop sending tribute to Tuoba Shiyijian, he was really planning against him.


十二月,戊戌,以尚書王彪之為僕射。

24. In the twelfth month, on the day Wuxu (January 26th of 366), Jin's Master of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director.

十二月戊戌,以會稽內史王彪之爲尚書僕射。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the twelfth month, on the day Wuxu (January 26th of 366), the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:51 pm

海西公上

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Fei, Sima Yi, the Duke of Haixi


諱弈,字延齡,哀帝之母弟也;咸康八年,封爲東海王;穆帝升平五年,改封琅邪王;卽位後,桓溫廢爲海西公。

Emperor Fei's name was Sima Yi. His style name was Yanling. He was Emperor Ai's younger brother by the same mother. He became Prince of Donghai in the eighth year of Xiankang (342), and became Prince of Langye in Emperor Mu's fifth year of Shenping (361). In the end, Huan Wen deposed him, and he became Duke of Haixi.


太和元年(丙寅,公元三六六年)

The First Year of Taihe (The Bingyin Year, 366 AD)


春,三月,荊州刺史桓豁使督護桓羆攻南鄭,討司馬勳。

1. In spring, the third month, Huan Huo sent the Protector, Huan Pi, to attack Nanzheng, in order to campaign against Sima Xun.

三月,荊州刺史桓豁遣督護桓羆攻南鄭,魏興人畢欽舉兵以應羆。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the third month, the Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, sent the Protector, Huan Pi, to attack Nanzheng. A native of Weixing commandary, Bi Qin, raised troops to support Huan Pi.


燕太宰、大司馬恪,太傅、司徒評,稽首歸政,上章綬,請歸第;燕主暐不許。

2. Murong Ke and Murong Ping both offered to resign their powers over the Yan government, offer their seals to Murong Wei, and retire, but he did not accept their suggestion.

夏,五月,戊寅,皇後庾氏崩。

3. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Wuyin (July 5th), Empress Yu of Jin passed away.

五月戊寅,皇后庾氏崩。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the fifth month, on the day Wuyin (July 5th), Empress Yu passed away.


朱序、周楚擊司馬勳,破之,擒勳及其黨,送大司馬溫;溫皆斬之,傳首建康。

4. Zhu Xu and Zhou Chu attacked Sima Xun and defeated him. They captured Sima Xun and his supporters, and sent them to Huan Wen. Huan Wen beheaded them all, and sent the heads to Jiankang.

朱序攻司馬勳于成都,衆潰,執勳,斬之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

Zhu Xu attacked Sima Xun at Chengdu. Sima Xun's army scattered, and Zhu Xu captured Sima Xun and executed him.


代王什翼犍遣左長史燕鳳入貢於秦。

5. Tuoba Shiyijian sent his Chief Clerk of the Left, Yan Feng, to offer tribute to Qin.

二十九年夏五月,遣燕鳳使苻堅。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-ninth year of Jianguo (366), in summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Shiyijian sent Yan Feng as an envoy to visit Fu Jian.

苻堅遣使牛恬朝貢。令鳳報之。堅問鳳:「代王何如人?」鳳對曰:「寬和仁愛,經略高遠,一時之雄主,常有并吞天下之志。」堅曰:「卿輩北人,無鋼甲利器,敵弱則進,強即退走,安能并兼?」鳳曰:「北人壯悍,上馬持三仗,驅馳若飛。主上雄雋,率服北土,控弦百萬,號令若一。軍無輜重樵爨之苦,輕行速捷,因敵取資。此南方所以疲弊,而北方之所常勝也。」堅曰:「彼國人馬,實為多少?」鳳曰:「控弦之士數十萬,馬百萬匹。」堅曰:「卿言人眾可爾,說馬太多,是虛辭耳。」鳳曰:「雲中川自東山至西河二百里,北山至南山百有餘里,每歲孟秋,馬常大集,略為滿川。以此推之,使人之言,猶當未盡。」鳳還,堅厚加贈遺。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Yan Feng)

Fu Jian had sent his envoy Niu Tian to present tribute to the Dai court. To return the visit, Tuoba Shiyijian sent Yan Feng as envoy to visit Qin.

Fu Jian asked Yan Feng, "What sort of man is the Prince of Dai?"

Yan Feng replied, "He is magnanimous, agreeable, benevolent, and loving, and he is capable of great and lofty plans and strategies. He is the heroic sovereign of our age, and he often harbors the ambition of swallowing up all the realm."

Fu Jian said, "You northerners are all the same; you are unaccustomed to wearing steel armor or wielding special gear. You advance when your enemy is weak, but when they are strong you turn and flee. How could you annex all the realm?"

Yan Feng replied, "The men of the north are bold and brave; they wield the Three Weapons while mounted on horseback, and when they ride they move as though flying. And our sovereign is a great hero who commands the full obedience of the north. He has a host of a hundred thousand mounted archers, and when he gives the command they move as one. Nor does our army have any baggage train or cooking gear to slow us down; we move swiftly and score quick victories, then feed on the resources of our enemies. It is by such means that the south is laid low, while the north is ever victorious."

Fu Jian asked, "How many men and horses does your state really possess?"

Yan Feng replied, "Several tens of thousands of mounted archers, and a million horses."

Fu Jian said, "You may be right about the number of men, but surely you're just making empty claims about the number of horses."

Yan Feng replied, "The Yunzhong basin alone is two hundred li from the eastern hills to the Yellow River in the west and more than a hundred li from the northern hills to the southern ones. Yet at the beginning of every autumn, when the horses gather there, they fill the whole basin. Considering that, my claim of their numbers might not even have gone far enough."

When it was time for Yan Feng to return, Fu Jian treated him well and granted him many gifts.

嘗使苻堅,堅問鳳曰:「代王何如人?」對曰:「寬和仁愛,經略高遠,一時雄主也。常有併吞天下之志。」堅曰:「卿輩北人,無剛甲利兵,敵弱則進,敵強則退,安能並兼邪?」鳳曰:「北人壯悍,上馬持三仗,驅馳若飛。主上雄雋,率服北土,控弦百萬,號令若一。軍無輜重樵爨之苦,輕行速捷,因敵取資。此南方所以疲弊,北方所以常勝也。」堅曰:「彼國人馬多少?」鳳曰:「控弦之士數十萬,見馬一百萬匹。」堅曰:「卿言人眾則可,說馬太多。」鳳曰:「雲中川自東山至西河二百里,北山至南山百餘里,每歲孟秋,馬常大集,略為滿川。以此推之,使人言猶未盡。」鳳還,堅厚加贈遺。(History of the Northern Dynasties 21, Biography of Yan Feng)

Yan Feng once served as an envoy to visit Qin. Fu Jian asked Yan Feng, "What sort of man is the Prince of Dai?"

Yan Feng replied, "He is magnanimous, agreeable, benevolent, and loving, and he is capable of great and lofty plans and strategies. He is the heroic sovereign of our age, and he often harbors the ambition of swallowing up all the realm."

Fu Jian said, "You northerners are all the same; you are unaccustomed to wearing steel armor or wielding special gear. You advance when your enemy is weak, but when they are strong you turn and flee. How could you annex all the realm?"

Yan Feng replied, "The men of the north are bold and brave; they wield the Three Weapons while mounted on horseback, and when they ride they move as though flying. And our sovereign is a great hero who commands the full obedience of the north. He has a host of a hundred thousand mounted archers, and when he gives the command they move as one. Nor does our army have any baggage train or cooking gear to slow us down; we move swiftly and score quick victories, then feed on the resources of our enemies. It is by such means that the south is laid low, while the north is ever victorious."

Fu Jian asked, "How many men and horses does your state possess?"

Yan Feng replied, "Several tens of thousands of mounted archers, and a million horses."

Fu Jian said, "You may be right about the number of men, but you exaggerate the number of horses."

Yan Feng replied, "The Yunzhong basin alone is two hundred li from the eastern hills to the Yellow River in the west and more than a hundred li from the northern hills to the southern ones. Yet at the beginning of every autumn, when the horses gather there, they fill the whole basin. Considering that, my claim of their numbers might not even have gone far enough."

When it was time for Yan Feng to return, Fu Jian treated him well and granted him many gifts.


秋,七月,癸酉,葬孝皇後於敬平陵。

6. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Guiyou (August 29th), Empress Xiao (the late Lady Yu) was buried at Jingping Tomb.

庾后,諡曰孝。

Empress Yu's posthumous name was Xiao ("Filial").


秋七月癸酉,葬孝皇后于敬平陵。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Guiyou (August 29th), Empress Xiao (the late Lady Yu) was buried at Jingping Tomb.


秦輔國將軍王猛、前將軍楊安、揚武將軍姚萇等帥眾二萬寇荊州,攻南鄉郡,荊州刺史桓豁救之;八月,軍於新野。秦兵掠安陽民萬餘戶而還。

7. Qin's General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, the General of the Front, Yang An, the General Who Spreads Valor, Yao Chang, and others led twenty thousand men on a raid into Jingzhou, and they attacked Nanxiang commandary. Huan Huo went to rescue the threatened territory. In the eighth month, the Jin army went to Xinye. The Qin army brought more than ten thousand households from Anyang with them before returning.

安陽縣,漢屬漢中郡。魏置魏興郡,安陽屬焉;晉省。秦攻南鄕而退,安能深入山阻,掠安陽之民乎!《載記》作「漢陽」,謂漢水之北也。當從《載記》爲是。

(During Han, Anyang county was part of Hanzhong commandary. When Cao-Wei established Weixing commandary, Anyang became part of that. Jin abolished the county.

Since Former Qin only attacked Nanxiang and then retreated, how could they have penetrated the country as far as to capture the people of Anyang? The Biography of Fu Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the place as "Hanyang", that is to say, the region north of the Han River. That must be the correct account.)


冬十月辛丑,苻堅將王猛、楊安攻南鄉,荊州刺史桓豁救之,師次新野而猛、安退。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinchou (November 25th), Fu Jian's generals Wang Meng and Yang An attacked Nanxiang. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, marched to reinforce it. When he led his forces to Xinye, Wang Meng and Yang An retreated.

使王猛、楊安等率眾二萬寇荊州北鄙諸郡,掠漢陽萬餘戶而還。(Book of Jin 113, Biography of Fu Jian Pt. 1)

Fu Jian sent Wang Meng, Yang An, and others with an army of twenty thousand to raid Jingzhou's northern border commandaries. They captured more than ten thousand households north of the Han River and then returned.

堅以萇為揚武將軍、步兵校尉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Jian appointed Yao Chang as General Who Spreads Valor and Colonel of Infantry.

苻堅以萇為揚武將軍。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Jian appointed Yao Chang as General Who Spreads Valor.


九月,甲午,曲赦梁、益二州。

8. In the ninth month, on the day Jiawu (November 18th), Jin declared an amnesty in Lianzhou and Yizhou.

司馬勳初平,赦其支黨及脅從者。

Since Sima Xun's rebellion had just been crushed, this was a special amnesty for his supporters and those he had compelled to assist him.


九月甲午,曲赦梁、益二州。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the ninth month, on the day Jiawu (November 18th), Jin declared an amnesty in Lianzhou and Yizhou.


冬,十月,加司徒昱丞相、錄尚書事,入朝不趨,贊拜不名,劍履上殿。

9. In winter, the tenth month, Sima Yu was further appointed as Prime Minister and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He was permitted to enter the court without hurrying, without needing to wait for his name to be announced, and without removing his sword and shoes.

冬十月,以會稽王昱爲丞相。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In winter, the tenth month, the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, was appointed as Prime Minister.

太和元年,進位丞相、錄尚書事,入朝不趨,贊拜不名,劍履上殿,給羽葆鼓吹班劍六十人,又固讓。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

In the first year of Taihe (366), Sima Yu was promoted to Prime Minister and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He was permitted to enter the court without hurrying, without needing to wait for his name to be announced, and without removing his sword and shoes. He was also assigned sixty attendants to shade him with feathers, beat drums and blow instruments, and bear blades. But Sima Yu declined these things.


張天錫遣使至秦境上,告絕於秦。

10. Zhang Tianxi sent messengers to the border with Qin, announcing he was severing ties with them.

涼與秦通,見上卷穆帝永和十二年。

Former Liang's ties with Former Qin were first established during the diplomatic visit of Yan Fu and Liang Shu to Liangzhou in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356.6).


燕撫軍將軍下邳王厲寇兗州,拔魯、高平數郡,置守宰而還。

11. Yan's General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, invaded Yanzhou. He captured Lu and Gaoping commandaries, and left garrisons to hold them before returning.

十二月,慕容暐將慕容厲陷魯郡、高平。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the twelfth month, Murong Wei's general Murong Li captured Lu and Gaoping commandaries.


初,隴西李儼以郡降秦,既而復通於張天錫。十二月,羌斂岐以略陽四千家叛秦,稱臣於儼;儼於是拜置牧守,與秦、涼絕。

12. It was earlier mentioned that Li Yan of Longxi had rebelled against Zhang Guan, and had surrendered his commandary to Qin. However, he later reestablished ties with Zhang Tianxi.

In the twelfth month, the Qiang chieftain Lian Qi and four thousand families from Lueyang rebelled against Qin, declaring themselves Li Yan's subjects. Li Yan made appointments among them as Governors and Administrators, and he broke off from Qin and Liangzhou.

李儼據隴西,事始上卷永和十一年。《載記》作「斂岐」。《張天錫傳》作「廉岐」。斂,羌姓也。

(Li Yan's rebellion in Longxi is mentioned in Book 100, in the eleventh year of Yonghe (355.17).

The Biography of Fu Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the Qiang rebel leader’s name as 斂岐 Lian Qi, but the Biography of Zhang Tianxi in that text records it as 廉岐 Lian Qi. 斂 Lian was a surname among the Qiang.)


羌廉岐自稱益州刺史,率略陽四千家背苻堅就李儼。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Tianxi)

The Qiang chieftain 廉岐 Lian Qi declared himself the Inspector of Yizhou. He led four thousand households from Lueyang to rebel against Fu Jian and go over to Li Yan.

羌斂岐叛堅,自稱益州刺史,率部落四千餘家西依張天錫叛將李儼。(Book of Jin 113, Biography of Fu Jian Pt. 1)

The Qiang chieftain 斂岐 Lian Qi rose in rebellion. He declared himself the Inspector of Yizhou, and he led more than four thousand households of his people to submit to Zhang Tianxi's rebel general Li Yan.


南陽督護趙億據宛城降燕,太守桓澹走保新野;燕人遣南中郎將趙盤自魯陽戌宛。

13. Jin’s Protector of Nanyang, Zhao Yi, seized control of Wan and surrendered to Yan. The Administrator, Huan Dan, fled to defend Xinye. Yan sent their General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Zhao Pan, from Luyang to garrison Wan.

十二月,南陽人趙弘、趙憶等據宛城反,太守桓澹走保新野。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the twelfth month, Zhao Hong, Zhao Yi, and other natives of Nanyang commandary seized control of Wan and rebelled. The Administrator, Huan Dan, fled to defend Xinye.


徐、兗二州刺史庾希,以後族故,兄弟貴顯,大司馬溫忌之。

14. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Yu Xi, was of an honored family line, and he and his brothers acted haughtily. Huan Wen was wary of them.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:56 pm

太和二年(丁卯,公元三六七年)

The Second Year of Taihe (The Dingmao Year, 367 AD)


春,正月,庾希坐不能救魯、高平,免官。

1. In spring, the first month, Yu Xi was blamed for the loss of Lu and Gaoping, and he was removed from office.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》,是月,希有罪,走入海。按《本傳》,海西廢後,希始逃于海陵,此時才坐免官耳。

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "When the Annals of Emperor Fei in the Book of Jin mentions this incident, it further states that Yu Xi was 'exiled to the sea'. But the Biography of Yu Xi in that text states that it was only after Emperor Fei was deposed as the Duke of Haixi that Yu Xi was exiled to Hailing, and at this time he was merely stripped of his office.")


二年春正月,北中郎將庾稀有罪,走入于海。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the second year of Taihe (367), in spring, the first month, the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Yu Xi, was charged with a crime and exiled to the sea.


二月,燕撫軍將軍下邳王厲、鎮北將軍宜都王桓襲敕勒。

2. In the second month, Murong Li and Yan's General Who Guards The North and Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, raided the Chile (Tiele) people.

秦輔國將軍王猛、隴西太守姜衡、南安太守南安邵羌、揚武將軍姚萇等帥眾萬七千討斂岐。三月,張天錫遣前將軍楊遹向金城,征東將軍常據向左南,游擊將軍張統向白土,天錫自將三萬人屯倉松,以討李儼。斂岐部落先屬姚弋仲,聞姚萇至,皆降;王猛遂猛攻略陽。斂岐奔白馬。秦王堅以萇為隴東太守。

3. In Qin, Wang Meng, Yao Chang, the Administrator of Longxi, Jiang Heng, the Administrator of Nan'an, Shao Qiang of Nan'an, and others led an army of seventeen thousand soldiers against Lian Qi.

In the third month, Zhang Tianxi sent his General of the Front, Yang Yu, towards Jincheng, his General Who Conquers The East, Chang Ju, towards Zuonan, and his General Of Fierce Assault, Zhang Tong, towards Baitu, while he himself led an army of thirty thousand to camp at Cangsong, to campaign against Li Yan.

Lian Qi's soldiers and followers had all once served under Yao Yizhong, and when they heard his son Yao Chang had come, they all surrendered to him. Wang Meng marched on and attacked Lueyang. Lian Qi fled to Baima. Fu Jian appointed Yao Chang as Administrator of Longdong.

張軌置左南縣,屬晉興郡。闞駰《十三州志》曰:石城西一百四十里,有左南城,河水逕其南,曰左南津。《晉志》,白土縣屬金城郡。《十三州志》:左南津西六十里有白土城,城在大河之北,爲緣河濟渡之地。倉松縣,自漢以來屬武威郡,後涼呂光改曰昌松縣。白馬,卽武都白馬氐之地。

(Zhang Gui had created Zuonan county, as part of Jinxing commandary. Kan Yin's Records of the Thirteen Provinces states, "A hundred and forty li west of Shicheng lies the city of Zuonan. The Yellow River passes south of it, at the place called Zuonan Crossing."

The Records of Jin states, "Baitu county is part of Jincheng commandary." And in the Records of the Thirteen Provinces it says, "Sixty li west of Zuonan Crossing lies the city of Baitu. The city is north of the great Yellow River, and is close enough to the river to be a crossing place."

Ever since the Han dynasty, Cangsong county had been a part of Wuwei commandary. During Later Liang, Lü Guang renamed it to Changsong county.

Baima ("White Horse") was the homeland of the White Horse Di people of Wudu.)


夏,四月,燕慕容塵寇竟陵,太守羅崇擊破之。

4. In summer, the fourth month, Murong Chen invaded Jingling. Jin’s Administrator of Jingling, Luo Chong, attacked and routed him.

夏四月,慕容暐將慕容塵寇竟陵,太守羅崇擊破之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In summer, the fourth month, Murong Wei's general Murong Chen invaded Jiangling. The Administrator of Jingling, Luo Chong, attacked and routed him.


張天錫攻李儼大夏、武始二郡,下之。常據敗儼兵於葵谷,天錫進屯左南。儼懼,退守枹罕,遣其兄子純謝罪於秦,且請救。秦王堅使前將軍楊安、建威將軍王撫帥騎二萬,會王猛以救儼。

5. Zhang Tianxi attacked Li Yan's two commandaries, Daxia and Wushi, and took them. Chang Ju defeated Li Yan's soldiers at Kui Valley, and Zhang Tianxi advanced and camped at Zuonan. Li Yan, afraid, fled to hold out at Fuhan, and sent his nephew Li Chun to beg for forgiveness from Qin and to ask them for assistance. Fu Jian sent Yang An and his General Who Establishes Valor, Wang Fu, to lead another twenty thousand cavalry forward to join with Wang Meng to assist Li Yan.

宋白曰:張駿十八年,分武始、興晉、廣武置大夏郡;唐爲大夏縣,屬河州。張駿以狄道縣置武始郡,今熙州卽其地。

(Song Bai remarked, "In the eighteenth year of Zhang Jun's rule (341), he split off parts of Wushi, Xingjin, and Guangwu commandaries to form Daxia commandary. During the Tang dynasty, it became Daxia county, as part of Hezhou. Zhang Jun also organized Didao county into Wushi commandary, which is part of modern Xizhou.")


猛遣邵羌追斂岐,王撫守侯和,姜衡守白石,猛與楊安救枹罕。天錫遣楊遹逆戰於枹罕東,猛大破之,俘斬萬七千級,與天錫相持於城下。邵羌禽斂岐於白馬,送之。猛遺天錫書曰:「吾受詔救儼,不令與京州戰,今當深壁高壘,以聽後詔。曠曰持久,恐二家俱弊,非良算也。若將軍退捨,吾執儼而東,將軍徙民西旋,不亦可乎!」天錫謂諸將曰:「猛書如此;吾本來伐叛,不來與秦戰。」遂引兵歸。

6. Wang Meng sent Shao Qiang to pursue Lian Qi, and ordered Wang Fu to guard Houhe and Jiang Heng to guard Baishi. He himself went with Yang An to relieve Li Yan at Fuhan. Zhang Tianxi sent Yang Yu to offer battle east of Fuhan, but Wang Meng greatly routed him, killing or capturing seventeen thousand. Following this defeat, Zhang Tianxi and Wang Meng remained in a stalemate outside the city. Shao Qiang captured Lian Qi at Baima, and sent him along.

Wang Meng wrote to Zhang Tianxi stating, "I received an imperial edict ordering me to rescue Li Yan, but I am not so ordered to fight Liangzhou. Now I must strengthen my ramparts and raise my fortifications, and await further orders. If this situation continues, I fear both our families will suffer, and no good will come of it. General, if your army will fall back, I will take Li Yan and withdraw east, and you may then relocate the people here to the west. Would this not be a suitable idea?"

Zhang Tianxi said to his generals, "Such is what Wang Meng’s letter states. Nor did I intend to fight Qin; my original purpose was merely to crush the rebels." So he led his soldiers away.

白石縣,前漢屬金城郡,後漢屬隴西郡。賢曰:白石山在今蘭州。宋白曰:河州鳳林縣,本漢白石縣地,張駿八年,改爲永固縣。二家,謂秦、涼也。

(During Former Han, Baishi county was part of Jincheng commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Longxi commandary. Li Xian remarked, "Mount Baishi is in modern Lanzhou." And Song Bai remarked, "Fenglin county in Hezhou was originally Baishi county during the Han dynasty. In the eighth year of Zhang Jun's rule (331), he renamed it to Yonggu county."

The two "families" were Qin and Liang.)


苻堅將王猛寇涼州,張天錫距之,猛師敗績。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

Fu Jian's general Wang Meng invaded Liangzhou, but Zhang Tianxi opposed him, and Wang Meng's army was defeated.


李儼猶未納秦師,王猛白服乘輿,從者數十人,請與儼相見。儼開門延之,未及為備,將士繼入,遂執儼。以立忠將軍彭越為平西將軍、涼州刺史,鎮枹罕。

7. Li Yan had yet to admit the Qin army into Fuhan. Wang Meng, dressed in white clothing and riding in a carriage, went with several dozen followers to the city, where he asked to meet with Li Yan. Li Yan opened the gate to bring him inside, but since he had not prepared any defenses against Qin, the soldiers rushed in as well and seized him.

Qin's General Who Founds Loyalty, Peng Yue, was appointed as General Who Pacifies The West and Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Fuhan.

立忠將軍,苻秦所創置。

(General Who Founds Loyalty was an office created by Former Qin.)


張天錫之西歸也,李儼將賀肫說儼曰:「以明公神武,將士驍悍,奈何束手於人!王猛孤軍遠來,士卒疲弊,且以我請救,必不設備,若乘其怠而擊之,可以得志。」儼曰:「求救於人以免難,難既免而擊之,天下其謂我何!不若因守以老之,彼將自退」。猛責儼以不即出迎,儼以賀肫之謀告;猛斬肫,以儼歸。至長安,堅以儼為光祿勳,賜爵歸安侯。

8. After Zhang Tianxi's army had fallen back to the west, but before Li Yan went to see Wang Meng, Li Yan's general He Zhun had advised him, "You have divine martial skill, and your officers and soldiers are valiant and fierce. Why would you bind your own hands and give yourself up to another? Wang Meng's isolated army has traveled a long way to reach us, and his soldiers are still exhausted. Since they came here to answer our request for assistance, they certainly would not have prepared any defenses against us. If you were to take advantage of their complacency and attack them now, you could attain your ambition."

But Li Yan replied, "We requested their aid to get out of the danger we were in. If, now that the danger has passed, we attack those who came to help us, what would the realm say about me? Better to keep up our defenses so as to wear them out, and they will retreat of their own accord."

After Li Yan was captured, Wang Meng chastised Li Yan for not coming out to welcome them at once, and Li Yan mentioned He Zhun's proposal. Wang Meng put He Zhun to death, and brought Li Yan back as a captive. When Li Yan arrived at Chang'an, Fu Jian appointed Li Yan as Minister of the Household and Marquis of Gui'an.

燕太原桓王恪言於燕主暐曰:「吳王垂,將相之才,十倍於臣。先帝以長幼之次,故臣得先之。臣死之後,願陛下舉國以聽吳王。」五月,壬辰,恪疾篤。暐親視之,問以後事。恪曰:「臣聞報恩莫大於薦賢,賢者雖在板築,猶可為相,況至親乎!吳王文武兼資,管、蕭之亞。陛下若任以大政,國家可安。不然,秦、晉必有窺窬之計。」言終而卒。

9. Around this time, Murong Ke said to Murong Wei, "The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) is a talented man capable of being a great general and a prime minister. He is ten times greater than I am. It was only because I was His Late Majesty's next-youngest brother that he treated me more highly than the Prince of Wu. But after my death, I hope that Your Majesty will support the state by listening to the Prince of Wu."

In the fifth month, on the day Renchen (?), Murong Ke became deathly ill. Murong Wei himself went to attend to him, and to listen to his final requests. Murong Ke said, "I have heard that there is no better way to repay the grace that one has received than to recommend a worthy man. If a man is worthy enough, you ought to make him Chancellor even if he were some mere rampart builder, much less one of your own kin! The Prince of Wu's worth in both civil and military affairs is great, and he is second only to Guan Zhong and Xiao He. If Your Majesty places him in overall command of affairs, then the state will know peace. Otherwise, Qin and Jin will surely find some way to plot against us."

Having said this, Murong Ke passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Huan ("the Grand") of Taiyuan.

《諡法》:辟土服遠曰桓。謂殷王高宗起傅說於板築之間,命以爲相。

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who expands the territory and brings distant lands to submission may be called Huan ('the Grand' or 'the Pillar')".

By "a mere rampart builder", Murong Ke refers to Fu Yue, the minister of the Shang dynasty's King Gaozong (Wu Ding), who was known for mingling among the common people. When Gaozong was still Prince of Yin, he discovered Fu Yue among his rampart builders, and ordered him to become his Chancellor.)


四年正月,暐南郊。十月,太尉奕迎神于和龍。初,暐委政太宰恪,專受經于博士王勸、助教尚鋒、秘書郎社銓,並以明經,講論左右。至是通諸經,祀孔子於東堂,以勸為國子祭酒,鋒國子博士,銓散騎侍郎。其執經侍講,皆有拜授。八年,太宰恪卒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the fourth year of Jianxi (363), Murong Wei conducted the southern suburbs sacrifices.

In the tenth month, the Grand Commandant, Feng Yi, welcomed the spirits at Helong.

Earlier, when Murong Wei had entrusted control of the government to the Grand Governor, Murong Ke, he himself had received instruction in the Classics from the Court Academician, Wang Quan, the Assisting Instructor, Shang Feng, and the Gentleman of the Imperial Library, She Quan, all of whom were learned in the Classics and lectured and discussed them with those around them. After Murong Wei became conversant in the Classics, he offered sacrifices to Confucius in the Eastern Hall. He appointed Wang Quan as Libationer for the Imperial Youth, he appointed Shang Feng as Academician for the Imperial Youth, and he appointed She Quan as a Cavalier Attendant-Gentleman. They attended him and instructed him in the Classics, and all of them received appointments and rewards.

In the eighth year of Jianxi (367), Murong Ke passed away.

臨終,暐親臨問以後事,恪曰:「臣聞報恩莫大薦士,板築猶可,而況國之懿籓!吳王文武兼才,管、蕭之亞,陛下若任之以政,國其少安。不然,臣恐二寇必有窺窬之計。」言終而死。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

When Murong Ke was on his deathbed, Murong Wei himself came to ask him what should be done after his death. Murong Ke said, "I have heard that there is no better way to repay the grace that one has received than to recommend a good man. Even a rampart builder would serve, much less the worthy people of our state! The Prince of Wu is talented in both civil and military affairs, and he is second only to Guan Zhong and Xiao He. If Your Majesty places him in command of affairs, then the state will know a little peace. Otherwise, I fear our two foes will surely find some way to plot against us."

Having said this, Murong Ke passed away.

時莫容暐嗣偽位,慕容恪為太宰。恪甚重垂,常謂暐曰:「吳王將相之才十倍於臣,先帝以長幼之次,以臣先之,臣死之後,願陛下委政吳王,可謂親賢兼舉。」(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Wei inherited the Yan throne, Murong Ke was appointed as Grand Guardian. Murong Ke greatly appreciated Murong Chui, and he often told Murong Wei, "The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) has the talents of a general or prime minister. He is ten times greater than I am. Since I was second in age after our late lord, he made use of me first. But after my death, Your Majesty should entrust affairs to the Prince. That is what one could call raising up one who is both kin to you and a worthy man besides."


秦王堅聞恪卒,陰有圖燕之計,欲覘其可否,命匈奴曹轂發使如燕朝貢,以西戎主簿馮翊郭辯為之副。燕司空皇甫真兄腆及從子奮、覆皆仕秦,腆為散騎常侍。辯至燕,歷造公卿,謂真曰:「僕本秦人,家為秦所誅,故寄命曹王,貴兄常侍及奮、覆兄弟並相知有素。」真怒曰:「臣無境外之交,此言何以及我!君似奸人,得無因緣假托乎!」白暐,請窮治之,太傅評不許。辯還,為堅言:「燕朝政無綱紀,實可圖也。鑒機識變,唯皇甫真耳。」堅曰:「以六州之眾,豈得不使有智士一人哉!」

10. When Fu Jian learned of Murong Ke’s death, he secretly plotted to conquer Yan. He wished to scout out whether or not Yan would now be ripe for the taking. So he ordered the Xiongnu chieftain Cao Gu to send a caravan of tribute to the Yan court, and sent along his Registrar to the Colonel of Western Rong Tribes, Guo Bian of Pingyi, to pose as Cao Gu's assistant.

Yan's Minister of Works was Huangfu Zhen. He had an elder brother, Huangfu Tian, and two nephews, Huangfu Fen and Huangfu Fu, who all held office in Qin, with Huangfu Tian serving as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance. When Guo Bian reached Yan, he had meetings with each of the Yan ministers in turn. When he met with Huangfu Zhen, he said, "I am a native of Qin, but my family was executed by them; that is why I entrusted my life to King Cao. Your honorable elder brother and your nephews are all friends of mine."

But Huangfu Zhen angrily replied, "A loyal minister has no dealings with foreign states; why do you tell me such things? You look like a sly sort. Are these your falsehoods?" He reported the matter to Murong Wei and asked him to thoroughly investigate the matter, but Murong Ping would not allow it.

When Guo Bian returned to Qin, he said to Fu Jian, "The Yan court is poorly governed; they are ripe to be attacked. The only knowledgable one we should be wary of is Huangfu Zhen."

Fu Jian said, "How can it be that, in all their six provinces, they could not obtain a single man of wisdom?"

曹轂,匈奴右賢王也,前年降於秦。【章:十二行本「簿」下有「馮翊」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】晉武帝置西戎校尉於長安,秦蓋因之;主簿,其屬也。皇甫眞,本安定人,仕於燕。《考異》曰:燕建熙八年,皇甫眞爲太尉。《燕書》及《載記》、《眞傳》,郭辯至燕,皆在眞爲太尉下。《晉春秋》在建熙十年八月。恐皆非是,故附曹轂降秦下。六州:幽、幷、冀、司、兗、豫也。

(Cao Gu was the Xiongnu's Worthy King of the Right, who had surrendered to Former Qin in the previous year after his failed rebellion.

Some versions list Guo Bian as being "of Pingyi".

Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) had created the office of Colonel of Western Rong Tribes at Chang'an, and Former Qin must have kept this office; the Registrar was its subordinate office.

Although Huangfu Zhen held office in Former Yan, he was originally a native of Anding commandary, now in Former Qin's territory.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "It was in Former Yan's eighth year of Jianxi (368) that Huangfu Zhen became Grand Commandant. The Book of Yan, the Biography of Fu Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, and the Biography of Huangfu Zhen in that text all claim that when Guo Bian came to Former Yan on this mission, it was when Huangfu Zhen was the Grand Commandant. The Annals of Jin says that it was in the eighth month of the tenth year of Jianxi (370). But I fear that all these sources are wrong, and that is why I have placed this event immediately after Cao Gu surrendered to Qin."

The six provinces which Former Yan controlled were Youzhou, Bingzhou, Jizhou, Sizhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou.)


九年十二月,有神降於鄴,自稱湘女,有聲,與人相接,數日而去。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

In the ninth year of Jianxi (368), the twelfth month, a spirit descended to Ye, calling itself the Lady of the Lake. It made sounds, and it interacted with people for several days before departing.

暐政無綱紀,時人知其將滅。有神降於鄴,自稱「湖女」,有聲,與人相接,數日而去。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei poorly governed his state, and the people of that time knew that he would soon fall.

A spirit descended to Ye, calling itself the Lady of the Lake. It made sounds, and it interacted with people for several days before departing.

苻堅密謀兼併,欲觀審釁隙,乃遣其西戎主簿郭辯潛結匈奴左賢王曹轂,令轂遣使詣鄴,辯因從之。真兄典仕苻堅為散騎常侍,從子奮、覆並顯關西。辯既至鄴,曆造公卿,言於真曰:「辯家為秦所誅,故寄命曹王,貴兄常侍及奮、覆兄弟並相知在素。」真怒曰:「臣無境外之交,斯言何以及我!君似奸人,得無因緣假託乎!」乃白暐請窮詰之,暐、評不許。辯還謂堅曰:「燕朝無綱紀,實可圖之。鑒機識變,唯皇甫真耳。」堅曰:「以六州之地,豈無智識士一人哉!真亦秦人,而燕用之,固知關西多君子矣。」真性清儉寡欲,不營產業,飲酒至石餘不亂,雅好屬文,凡著詩賦四十餘篇。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

Fu Jian secretly plotted to annex Yan, and he wanted to see if there were any divisions within Yan that he could exploit. So he secretly sent his Registrar to the Colonel of Western Rong Tribes, Guo Bian, to join the Xiongnu Worthy King of the Left, Cao Gu. Fu Jian then ordered Cao Gu to send envoys to visit Ye, and Guo Bian accompanied them.

Huangfu Zhen's elder brother Huangfu Dian served under Fu Jian as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and his nephews Huangfu Fen and Huangfu Fu were also prominent in Guanxi. So when Guo Bian arrived at Ye, as he was meeting with each of the nobles and chief ministers, he said to Huangfu Zhen, "My family was executed by Qin, so I entrusted my life to King Cao. Your honored elder brother is a Regular Attendant in Qin, and he and your nephews are all friends of mine."

But Huangfu Zhen angrily replied, "A loyal minister has no dealings with foreign states; why do you tell me such things? You look like a sly sort. Are these your falsehoods?" He reported the matter to Murong Wei and asked him to thoroughly investigate and question Guo Bian. But Murong Wei and Murong Ping would not agree.

When Guo Bian returned to Qin, he said to Fu Jian, "The Yan court is poorly governed; they are ripe to be attacked. The only knowledgable one we should be wary of is Huangfu Zhen."

Fu Jian said, "How can it be that, in all their six provinces, they could not obtain a single man of wisdom? Even Huangfu Zhen is a native of Qin, yet the Yan court uses him. That assures me all the more just how many worthy fellows are in Guanxi."

Huangfu Zhen was a pure and frugal man of few desires, and he did not tend to any industry. He was measured in his drinking, and he was refined and skilled at writing compositions; he composed more than forty volumes of poems and rhapsodies.


曹轂尋卒,秦分其部落為二,使其二子分統之,號東、西曹。

11. Cao Gu soon passed away. Qin split his forces and followers into two groups, with each half being led by one of his sons. The two halves were called the Eastern Cao and the Western Cao.

堅分轂部落,貳城以西二萬餘落,使轂長子璽統之;貳城以東二萬餘落,使轂小子寅統之。

(When Fu Jian split Cao Gu's forces and followers into two halves, he had more than twenty thousand of them remain west of the city of Ercheng, and sent Cao Gu's elder son Cao Xi to lead them. He had the other half, again more than twenty thousand, remain east of Ercheng, and sent Cao Gu's younger son Cao Yin to lead them.)


荊州刺史桓豁、竟陵太守羅崇攻宛,拔之。趙億走,趙盤退歸魯陽。豁追擊盤於雉城,擒之,留兵戌宛而還。

12. In Jin, Huan Huo and Luo Chong attacked Wan and retook it. The defector general Zhao Yi fled, while the Yan general Zhao Pan retreated back to Luyang. Huan Huo pursued Zhao Pan and attacked him at Zhicheng, where he captured him. He left a garrison at Wan before returning.

雉縣,自漢以來屬南陽郡,其地當在唐鄧州向城縣界。《新唐志》曰:向城縣北八十里有魯陽關。

(Ever since Han, Zhi county had been part of Nanyang commandary; the site was within the borders of Xiangcheng county in Dengzhou during the Tang dynasty. The New Records of Tang states, "Luyang Pass was eighty li north of Xiangcheng county.")


五月,右將軍桓豁擊趙憶,走之,進獲慕容暐將趙槃,送于京師。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the fifth month, the General of the Right, Huan Huo, attacked Zhao Yi and drove him off. He then advanced and captured Murong Wei's general Zhao Pan, and sent him back to the capital.


秋,七月,燕下邳王厲等破敕勒,獲馬牛數萬頭。

13. In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Li and other Yan generals routed the Chile (Tiele) people again. They captured several tens of thousands of cattle and horses.

初,厲兵過代地,犯其穄田;代王什翼犍怒。燕平北將軍武強公泥以幽州兵戌雲中。八月,什翼犍攻雲中,泥棄城走,振威將軍慕輿賀辛戰沒。

14. Earlier, when Murong Li's soldiers had passed through the territory of Dai on their way to raid the Gaoche, they had trampled over the corn millet fields there. This had greatly angered Tuoba Shiyijian.

Yan's General Who Pacifies The North and Duke of Wuqiang, Murong Ni, led troops from Youzhou to camp at Yunzhong. In the eighth month, Tuoba Shiyijian attacked Yunzhong, and Murong Ni abandoned the city and fled. Yan's General Who Displays Might, Muyu Hexin, was lost in battle.

今南人呼黍爲穄。北方地寒,五穀不生,惟黍生之,故有穄出。項安世曰:黍有二種:正黍似粟而大,以五月熟,今荊人專謂之黍,又謂之黍穄是也。又一種尤高大,稈之狀至如蘆,實之狀至如薏苡,荊人謂之討黍,又謂之蘆穄,然以秋熟,非正黍也。

(穄 is another name for corn millet. In our time, people in the south call corn millet 穄. The northern regions are cold, and the five cereal crops (rice, two kinds of millet, wheat, and beans) cannot grow there. Only corn millet grows there, and this is what is called 穄. Xiang Anshi remarked, "There are two kinds of corn millet. The main type grows as large as foxtail millet, and it ripens in five months. This is what people in Jingzhou call corn millet, or they call it 穄. There is another type which grows especially tall and large, and its stalks are shaped like reeds, though they are actually more like 薏苡 (the Job's Tears plant). The people of Jing call this the 'invasive corn millet', or the 'reedy 穄'. It does not ripen until autumn, unlike the main type of corn millet.")


九月,以會稽內史郗愔為都督徐、兗、青、幽、揚州之晉陵諸軍事、徐、兗二州刺史,鎮京口。

15. In the ninth month, Jin's Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Youzhou, as well as Jinling commandary in Yangzhou. He was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Jingkou.

沈約曰:晉永嘉大亂,幽、冀、青、幷、兗州及徐州之淮北流民相率過淮,亦有過江在晉陵界者。成帝咸和四年,郗鑒又徙流民之在淮南者於晉陵諸縣。其徙過江南及留在江北者,並立僑郡縣以司牧之。徐、兗二州,或治江北,江北又僑立幽、冀、青、幷四州。

(Shen Yue remarked, "During the Disaster of Yongjia, when the people of Jin fled from Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, Bingzhou, Yanzhou, and the part of Xuzhou north of the Huai River and crossed south of that river, there were also some who crossed the Yangzi at the boundaries of Jinling. In Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xianhe (330), Chi Jian further relocated all of the refugees who were south of the Huai River into the counties of Jinling commandary. Others who had crossed south of the Yangzi or had remained north of it all set up refugee commandaries and counties, with their own governors. They had Xuzhou and Yanzhou governed (nominally) from the region north of the Yangzi, and also set up surrogate versions of Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou in the same area.")


秋九月,以會稽內史郗愔爲都督徐兗青幽四州諸軍事、平北將軍、徐州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In autumn, the ninth month, the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Youzhou, General Who Pacifies The North, and Inspector of Xuzhou.


秦淮南公幼之反也,征東大將軍、并州牧、晉公柳、征西大將軍、秦州刺史趙公雙,皆與之通謀。秦王堅以雙、母弟至親,柳,健之愛子,隱而不問。柳、雙復與鎮東將軍、洛州刺史魏公廋、安西將軍、雍州刺史燕公武謀作亂,鎮東主簿南安姚眺諫曰:「明公以周、邵之親,受方面之任,國家有難,當竭力除之,況自為難乎!」廋不聽。堅聞之,征柳等詣長安。冬,十月,柳卯據蒲阪,雙據上邽,廋據陝城,武據安定,皆舉兵反。堅遣使諭之曰:「吾待卿等,恩亦至矣,何苦而反!今止不征,卿宜罷兵,各安其位,一切如故。」各嚙梨以為信。皆不從。

16. It was earlier mentioned that Qin's Duke of Huainan, Fu You, had rebelled against Fu Jian. At that time, the Grand General Who Conquers The East, Governor of Bingzhou, and Duke of Jin, Fu Liu, and the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Duke of Zhao, Fu Shuang, had both been in talks with Fu You as part of his plot. But since Fu Shuang was Fu Jian's younger brother by the same mother, and Fu Liu had been Fu Jiàn's beloved son, Fu Jian had suppressed the matter and did not inquire into it.

At this time, Fu Liu and Fu Shuang enticed the General Who Guards The East, Inspector of Luozhou, and Duke of Wei, Fu Sou, and the General Who Maintains The West, Inspector of Yongzhou, and Duke of Yan, Fu Wu, to join them in another rebellion. Fu Sou’s Registrar, Yao Tiao of Nan'an, remonstrated with him, saying, "You and our lord share 'the close kinship of Zhou and Shao', and you have accepted this border command. When the state is faced with difficulties, you ought to be exerting yourself to protect it, not adding to its woes!" But Fu Sou did not listen.

When Fu Jian learned of the planned rebellion, he ordered Fu Liu and the others to come to Chang'an. Instead, in winter, the tenth month, Fu Liu seized Puban, Fu Shuang seized Shanggui, Fu Sou seized Shancheng, and Fu Wu seized Anding. They all began to raise further troops in rebellion. Fu Jian sent messengers to admonish them, saying, "I have treated you all with the utmost favour; what cause for complaint have you had, that drives you to rebellion? But I revoke my order summoning you. You need only disband your armies and go back to your original posts, and all will be as before.” And he demanded a "gnawed pear" from each of them as a sign of trust. But they all refused.

秦幷州刺史治蒲阪,秦州刺史治上邽,洛州刺史治陝,雍州刺史治安定。廋、武,皆健子也。棃肉脆而齧之易入,以喻親戚離叛,則國力脆弱,將爲敵人所乘,故齧棃付使者,賜柳等以爲信也。

(Former Qin's Inspectors administered Bingzhou from Puban, Qinzhou from Shanggui, Luozhou from Shancheng, and Yongzhou from Anding.

Fu Sou and Fu Wu were both Fu Jiàn’s sons.

A pear is fragile, easy to bite into. It means that when relatives fought one another, it made the state weak and fragile, and vulnerable against opportunistic enemies. So in demanding a gnawed pear from Fu Liu and the others, Fu Jian was demanding a sign of their trust in him.)


The Duke of Zhou had a brother, Ji Shi, whom he appointed as Duke of Shao. The close kinship and loyalty between the two of them led to the phrase "the close kinship of Zhou and Shao".

Michael Rogers (The Chronicle of Fu Jian: A Case of Exemplar History) argues that, contrary to Hu Sanxing's literal interpretation, the phrase "gnawed pear" is an abbreviation of a blood-letting ceremony where one cuts the arm and scratches the face, as a pledge of faith, and not an actual pear.


堅從弟晉公柳反於蒲坂,魏公庾反於陝,燕公武反於安定,堅弟趙公雙反於上邽。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian's cousins rebelled against him. the Duke of Jin, Fu Liu, rebelled at Puban; the Duke of Wei, Fu Sou, rebelled at Shan, and the Duke of Yan, Fu Wu, rebelled at Anding. And the Duke of Zhao, Fu Jian's younger brother Fu Shuang, rebelled at Shanggui.


代王什翼犍擊劉衞辰,河冰未合,什翼犍命以葦絚約流澌。俄而冰合,然猶未堅,乃散葦於其上,冰草相結,有如浮梁,代兵乘之以渡。衞辰不意兵猝至,與宗族西走,什翼犍收其部落什六七而還。衞辰奔秦,秦王堅送衞辰還朔方,遣兵戍之。

17. Tuoba Shiyijian led his troops to attack Liu Weichen. They needed to cross over the Yellow River to reach the Xiongnu. But that time, the river had not yet frozen over. So Tuoba Shiyijian ordered reed ropes to be made to restrict the flow of water in the river. This soon caused the river to begin freezing into chunks of ice, but it was not yet firm, so he had reeds scattered over the ice and bound the chunks of ice together into a column, until it formed a floating bridge over the river. The Dai soldiers then crossed over it. Liu Weichen did not expect for the Dai soldiers to arrive so suddenly, so he fled west with his clan. Tuoba Shiyijian captured sixty to seventy percent of his soldiers and followers before returning to Dai.

Liu Weichen fled to Qin, where Fu Jian sent him back to Shuofang, along with soldiers to defend it.

自代擊朔方,西渡大河,其津曰君子津。

(When Dai attacked the Xiongnu in Shuofang, they crossed west over the Yellow River, at the ford named Junzi Crossing.)


三十年冬十月,帝征衞辰。時河冰未成,帝乃以葦絙約澌,俄然冰合,猶未能堅,乃散葦於上,冰草相結,如浮橋焉。眾軍利涉,出其不意,衞辰與宗族西走,收其部落而還,俘獲生口及馬牛羊數十萬頭。三十一年春,帝至自西伐,班賞各有差。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirtieth year of Jianguo (367), in winter, the tenth month, Tuoba Shiyijian led his troops to attack Liu Weichen. They needed to cross over the Yellow River to reach the Xiongnu. But that time, the river had not yet frozen over. So Tuoba Shiyijian ordered reed ropes to be made to restrict the flow of water in the river. This soon caused the river to begin freezing into chunks of ice, but it was not yet firm, so he had reeds scattered over the ice and bound the chunks of ice together into a column, until it formed a floating bridge over the river. The Dai soldiers then crossed over it and launched a surprise attack. Liu Weichen fled west with his clan. Tuoba Shiyijian captured his soldiers and followers before returning to Dai, and he also captured several hundred thousand slaves, horses, oxen, and sheep.

In the thirty-first year of Jianguo (368), Tuoba Shiyijian returned from his western campaign. He distributed titles and rewards to his followers as appropriate.

從征衞辰,以功賜僮隸三十戶。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

Xu Qian accompanied Tuoba Shiyijian on his campaign against Liu Weichen, for which he was rewarded with thirty households of servants.

帝討衞辰,大破之,收其部落十六七焉。衞辰奔苻堅,堅送還朔方,遣兵戍之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Weichen)

Tuoba Shiyijian campaigned against Liu Weichen and greatly routed him, capturing sixty to seventy percent of his forces. Liu Weichen fled to Fu Jian, who sent him back to Shuofang and sent troops to camp there.


十二月,甲子,燕太尉建寧敬公陽騖卒。以司空皇甫眞爲侍中、太尉,光祿大夫李洪爲司空。

18. In the twelfth month, on the day Jiazi (?), Yan's Grand Commandant, Yang Wu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Jing ("the Respected") of Jianning.

Huangfu Zhen was appointed as Palace Attendant and as the new Grand Commandant, and the Household Counselor, Li Hong, replaced Huangfu Zhen as Minister of Works.

《諡法》:合善典法曰敬;夙夜警戒曰敬。

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who acts well and in accordance with the laws, or one who remains vigilant day and night, may be called Jing ('Respected').")


騖性儉約,常乘弊車瘠馬,及死,無斂財。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Yang Wu)

Yang Wu was a thrifty man, and often rode in a shabby carrige with a worn-out horse. And when he died, he had no stores of wealth.

真累遷太尉、侍中。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

Huangfu Zhen was later appointed as Grand Commandant and Palace Attendant.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 8:05 pm

太和三年(戊辰,公元三六八年)

The Third Year of Taihe (The Wuchen Year, 368 AD)


春,正月,秦王堅遣後將軍楊成世、左將軍毛嵩分討上邽、安定,輔國將軍王猛、建節將軍鄧羌攻蒲阪、前將軍楊安、廣武將軍張蚝攻陝城。堅命蒲、陝之軍皆距城三十裡,堅壁勿戰,俟秦、雍已平,然後並力取之。

1. In spring, the first month, Fu Jian sent the General of the Rear, Yang Chengshi, and the General of the Left, Mao Song, to march against Shanggui and Anding. He sent Wang Meng and Deng Qiang to attack Puban. He sent Yang An and the General Who Spreads Valor, Zhang Qi, to attack Shancheng.

Fu Jian ordered the Puban and Shancheng armies to fortify themselves thirty li from those cities, hoard supplies and avoid battle, and wait until Qinzhou and Yongzhou were pacified first, so that they could all combine their forces to take the remaining cities.

初,燕太宰恪有疾,以燕主暐幼弱,政不在己,太傅評多猜忌,恐大司馬之任不當其人,謂暐兄樂安王臧曰:「今南有遺晉,西有強秦,二國常蓄進取之志,顧我未有隙耳。夫國之興衰,系於輔相。大司馬總統六軍,不可任非其人。我死之後,以親疏言之,當在汝及沖。汝曹雖才識明敏,然年少,未堪多難。吳王天資英傑,智略超世,汝曹若能推大司馬以授之,必能混壹四海,況外寇,不足憚也;慎無冒利而忘害,不以國家為意也。」又以語太傅評。及恪卒,評不用其言。二月,以車騎將軍中山王沖為大司馬。沖,暐之弟也。以荊州刺史吳王垂為侍中、車騎大將軍、儀同三司。

2. Towards the end of his life, Murong Ke had recognized that Murong Wei was still young and weak, not personally exercising control of the state, and Murong Ping was too paranoid and suspicious. Murong Ke therefore feared that his role of Grand Marshal would not be granted to a suitable man after he was gone. So he said to the Prince of Anle, Murong Wei's elder brother Murong Zang, "The remnants of Jin are still in the south, and Qin is growing strong in the west. Both these states harbor ambitions to expand and conquer, and it is only that they have not yet seen any rifts in our state to exploit. Whether a state rises or falls depends upon the ministers charged with guarding it. The post of Grand Marshal commands the six armies; it cannot be given to an unsuitable man.

“After my death, according to the closeness of kinship, my position would normally pass to you and to Murong Chong. But although you are talented and knowledgeable, you are still young, and you would not able to endure the many difficulties that we face. The Prince of Wu is a man of outstanding talent and majesty, with surpassing wisdom and resourcefulness. If you are able to make him the Grand Marshal and support him, he would certainly even be able to united all within the Four Seas, much less merely protect us against invasion. Then there will be no cause for concern. Take care you do not chase after personal gain and forget about potential dangers, not thinking about what is best for the state." And Murong Ke gave the same advice to Murong Ping.

But after Murong Ke's death, Murong Ping did not follow his advice. In the second month, he appointed the General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Zhongshan, Murong Chong, as the new Grand Marshal. This Murong Chong was Murong Wei's younger brother. Murong Chui, who was then Inspector of Jingzhou, was appointed as Palace Attendant and Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

冒利而忘害者,謂利在於得兵權,而冒當大司馬之任,而忘亡國敗家之害也。爲評、垂有隙張本。

(To "chase after gains and forget about dangers" means one who seeks personal gain by gathering military influence, such as by claiming the mantle of Grand Marshal, and forgets about the dangers that would destroy both family and state.

This was the source of Murong Ping's and Murong Chui's later discord.)


秦魏公廋以陝城降燕,請兵應接;秦人大懼,盛兵守華陰。

3. Fu Sou sent a message from Shancheng offering submission to Yan, and asking them for reinforcements. The people of Qin, greatly afraid, gathered troops to defend Huayin.

華陰縣在陝城之西,有潼關之險。

(Huayin county was west of Shancheng, and the pass at Tong Gate was there.)


燕魏尹范陽王德上疏,以為:「先帝應天受命,志平六合;陛下纂統,當繼而成之。今苻氏骨肉乖離,國分為五,投誠請援,前後相尋,是天以秦賜燕也。天與不取,反受其殃,吳、越之事,足以觀矣。宜命皇甫真引並、冀之眾徑趨蒲阪,吳王垂引許、洛之兵馳解廋圍,太傅總京師虎旅為二年後繼,傳檄三輔,示以禍福,明立購賞,彼必望風響應。渾一之期,於此乎在矣!」時燕人多請救陝,因圖關中者,太傅評曰:「秦,大國也,今雖有難,未易可圖。朝廷雖明,未如先帝;吾等智略,又非太宰之比。但能閉關保境足矣,平秦非吾事也。」

4. Yan's Intendent of Wei and Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, sent up a memorial stating, "His Late Majesty heeded Heaven and received its mandate, and he had ambitions of pacifying the Six Directions; as his heir, Your Majesty should continue and complete his work. Now the Fu clan is rotting from the inside, torn by divisions, and is now split into five parts. One after another, the rebels are coming over to join us or asking for our aid. This is Heaven delivering Qin to Yan. As it is said, 'take not what Heaven offers, and you invite disaster.' The example of the ancient states of Wu and Yue of old is sufficient proof of that. You should order Huangfu Zhen to lead the troops of Bingzhou and Jizhou to relieve Puban, send the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, with the troops of Xuzhou and Luozhou to break the siege of Fu Sou, and dispatch the Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, to lead the capital troops to act as a reserve for the two armies. Proclaim your intentions to restore order to the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an). Explain to them how they could invite disaster or gain good fortune for themselves, how you will establish the wise and reward the worthy, and they are sure to flock to your banner. The time for us to unite the world is here!"

At that time, many people in Yan were asking for Shancheng to be reinforced, as a step towards conquering Guanzhong. But Murong Ping said, "Qin is a great state; although it is currently facing difficulties, it cannot be easily conquered. Although His Majesty is wise, he does not yet compare with our late emperor; though we his ministers are resourceful, we cannot yet compare with the Grand Governor (Murong Ke). It is sufficient for us to close the passes and defend our borders. Conquering Qin is not for us to do."

燕都鄴,以魏郡太守爲魏尹。蒲阪、陝城、上邽、安定與長安爲五。《國語》:越范蠡曰:昔天以越賜吳,吳不敢取;今天以吳賜越,越其敢逆天乎!燕人謂其主爲朝廷。

(Since the Former Yan capital Ye was in Wei commandary, Former Yan renamed the title of Administrator of Wei to Intendant of Wei, since the Administrator of the capital commandary was called the Intendant.

The "five parts" were the five areas each under control of a different member of the Former Qin royal family: Puban, Shancheng, Shanggui, Anding, and the capital Chang'an.

In the Discourses of the States, Fan Li of Yue states, "Before, Heaven bestowed Yue to Wu, but Wu did not dare to take it. Now, Heaven bestows Wu to Yue, and Yue must not go against Heaven's will!"

Murong Ping here more specifically refers to Murong Wei as 朝廷 "the court". People in Former Yan often addressed their ruler by this term "the court".


建熙初,進號安北將軍,封范陽王。入為魏尹。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

At the beginning of the Jianxi reign era (~360), Murong De was promoted to General Who Maintains The North and Prince of Fanyang. He later entered the court as Intendant of Wei commandary.

德曆幽州刺史、左衛將軍。及嗣位,改范陽王,稍遷魏尹,加散騎常侍。俄而苻堅將苻雙據陝以叛,堅將苻柳起兵枹罕,將應之。德勸乘釁討堅,辭旨慷慨,識者言其有遠略,竟不能用。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De successively served as Inspector of Youzhou and Guard General of the Left. After Murong Wei succeeded Murong Jun, Murong De's title was changed to Prince of Fanyang, and he was made Intendant of Wei commandary and promoted to Cavalier in Regular Attendance.

Not long afterwards, Fu Jian's general Fu Shuang occupied the border passes between Former Qin and Former Yan in rebellion, and Fu Jian's general Fu Liu rose in rebellion at Fuhan as well, in support of Fu Shuang. Murong De urged Murong Wei to take advantage of Qin's inner dissension to campaign against Fu Jian, making many passionate petitions to that effect, knowing that this would benefit Yan in the long term. But Murong Wei could not use his advice.


魏公廋遺吳王垂及皇甫真箋曰:「苻堅、王猛,皆人傑也,謀為燕患久矣;今不乘機取之,恐異日燕之君臣將有甬東之悔矣!」垂謂真曰:「方今為人患者必在於秦。主上富於春秋,觀太傅識度,豈能敵苻堅、王猛乎?」真曰:「然,吾雖知之,如言不用何!」

5. Fu Sou wrote to Murong Chui and Huangfu Zhen, stating, "Fu Jian and Wang Meng are more than ordinary men. They are plotting Yan's imminent destruction. If you do not seize this opportunity now, I fear that soon, Yan's lords, ministers, and generals will experience ‘the regret of Yongdong’!"

Murong Chui said to Huangfu Zhen, "The greatest threat of our time is certainly Qin. But our lord is still young in years. And considering the Grand Tutor’s level of insight and disposition, how could he be a match for Fu Jian and Wang Meng?"

Huangfu Zhen replied, "That is so. But even if I know it, what can I do if no one listens to me? "

《左傳》:吳入越,越子保于會稽,使行成於吳,吳子許之。伍子胥諫,不聽。其後越入吳,請使吳王居甬東。吳王曰:「孤老矣,不能事君王也。吾悔不用子胥之言,自令陷此!」乃縊。賈逵曰:甬東,越鄙,甬江東也。《索隱》曰:今鄮縣卽其處。

(According to the Zuo Commentary, when the state of Wu invaded Yue, the Viscount of Yue held out at Kuaiji. He offered to make peace with Wu, and the Viscount of Wu accepted it. The Wu minister Wu Zixu objected to this, but was ignored. Later, when Yue invaded Wu, they demanded that the King of Wu be exiled to Yongdong. The King of Wu lamented, "I am old, and cannot serve another king. I regret that I did not follow Wu Zixu's advice, or else things would not have come to this!" And he hanged himself. Regarding the location of this Yongdong, Jia Kui remarked, "Yongdong was a village of Yue. It was on the east side of the Yong River." The 索隱 states, "It was within modern Mao County.")


三月,丁巳朔,日月食之。

6. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (April 4th), there was a lunar eclipse.

三年春三月丁巳朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the third year of Taihe (368), in spring, the third month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (April 4th), there was an eclipse.


癸亥,大赦。

7. On the day Guihai (April 10th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

癸亥,大赦。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Fei)

In the third year of Taihe (368), in spring, the third month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (April 4th), there was an eclipse. On the day Guihai (April 10th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


秦楊成世為趙公雙將苟興所敗,毛嵩亦為燕公武所敗,奔還。秦王堅復遣武衛將軍王鑒、寧朔將軍呂光、將軍馮翊郭將、翟辱等帥眾三萬討之。夏,四月,雙、武乘勝至於榆眉,以苟興為前鋒。王鑒欲速戰,呂光曰:「興新得志,氣勢方銳,宜持重以待之。彼糧盡必退,退而擊之,蔑不濟矣!」二旬而興退。光曰:「興可擊矣。」遂追之,興敗。因擊雙、武,大破之,斬獲萬五千級。武棄安定,與雙皆奔上邽,鑒等進攻之。

8. Yang Chengshi was defeated by Fu Shuang's general Gou Xing, and Mao Song was also defeated by Fu Wu. Both of them fled back. So Fu Jian sent the Guard General of Valor, Wang Jian, the General Who Calms Shuofang, Lü Guang, the generals Guo Jiang and Di Nu of Pingyi, and others with thirty thousand troops to campaign against these foes.

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Shuang and Fu Wu marched with their victorious troops to Yumei, with Gou Xing commanding their vanguard. Wang Jian wished to attack them at once. But Lü Guang said, "Gou Xing is newly spirited, and his men’s morale is quite high. We should fortify our lines and wait them out. Once Gou Xing's grain is exhausted he must retreat, and then we may pursue him and attack without worry!"

After twenty days, Gou Xing retreated. Lü Guang said, "Now we may attack him." So they pursued, and Gou Xing was defeated. They then attacked Fu Shuang and Fu Wu, and greatly routed them, capturing or killing fifteen thousand. Fu Wu abandoned Anding, and he and Fu Shuang fled to Shanggui. Wang Jian and the others moved forward to assault the city.

苻雙反于秦州,堅將楊成世為雙將苟興所敗,光與王鑒討之。鑒欲速戰,光曰:「興初破成世,奸氣漸張,宜持重以待其弊。興乘勝輕來,糧竭必退,退而擊之,可以破也。」二旬而興退,諸將不知所為,光曰:「揆其奸計,必攻榆眉。若得榆眉,據城斷路,資儲復贍,非國之利也,宜速進師。若興攻城,尤須赴救。如其奔也,彼糧既盡,可以滅之。」鑒從焉。果敗興軍。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

When Fu Shuang rebelled at Qinzhou, Fu Jian's general Yang Chengshi was defeated by Fu Shuang's general Gou Xing. Lü Guang and Wang Jian campaigned against Gou Xing. Wang Jian wished to attack at once, but Lü Guang said, "Gou Xing has just routed Yang Chengshi, and his wicked spirit has gradually swelled. We should fortify our lines and wait them out, until their morale runs low. Since Gou Xing has just won a victory, he will have been quick to rush forward. That means that he cannot have brought many supplies, and he will soon be compelled to fall back. When he does, then we should attack him, and we can rout him."

After twenty days, Gou Xing retreated. The Qin generals were uncertain why this was. Lü Guang said, "If I had to guess what his wicked design is, he must be planning to attack Yumei. If he gains Yumei, then he will occupy the city and cut off the road, and he will be able to gather up an abundance of supplies. To permit that would be no benefit to our state, so we should march to Yumei at once. If he really is attacking the city, then it will certainly need our assistance. And if he is only retreating, that means his supplies are totally exhausted, and we can vanquish him." Wang Jian agreed. As expected, they defeated Gou Xing's army.


晉公柳數出挑戰,王猛不應。柳以猛為畏之。五月,留其世子良守蒲阪,帥眾二萬西趨長安。去蒲阪百餘里,鄧羌帥銳騎七千夜襲,敗之。柳引軍還,猛邀擊之,盡俘其眾。柳與數百騎入城,猛、羌進攻之。

9. At Puban, Fu Liu several times marched out to offer battle, but Wang Meng refused him. So Fu Liu began to believe that Wang Meng feared him.

In the fifth month, Fu Liu left his heir Fu Liang to guard Puban, while he led twenty thousand soldiers west to attack Chang'an. When he was around a hundred li out from Puban, Deng Qiang led a night raid against him with seven thousand elite cavalry, and defeated him. Fu Liu led his army back, but Wang Meng marched to intercept him, and captured all of his men. Fu Liu escaped back into the city with a few hundred riders, and Wang Meng and Deng Qiang marched forward to assault the city.

秋,七月,王鑒等拔上邽,斬雙、武,宥其妻子。以左衛將軍苻雅為秦州刺史。八月,以長樂丕為雍州刺史。

10. In autumn, the seventh month, Wang Jian and the others captured Shanggui. They executed Fu Shuang and Fu Wu, but spared their wives and children. The Guard General of the Left, Fu Ya, was appointed as Inspector of Qinzhou. In the eighth month, the Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, was appointed as Inspector of Yongzhou.

九月,王猛等拔蒲阪,斬晉公柳及其妻子。猛屯蒲阪,遣鄧羌與王鑒等會攻陝城。

11. In the ninth month, Wang Meng and the others captured Puban. They executed Fu Liu and his wife and children. Wang Meng remained camped at Puban, while he sent Deng Qiang, Wang Jian, and the others to join the attack on Shancheng.

燕王公、貴戚多占民為廕戶,國之戶口少於私家,倉庫空竭,用度不足。尚書左僕射廣信公悅綰曰:「今三方鼎峙,各有吞併之心。而國家政法不立,豪貴恣橫,至使民戶殫盡,委輸無入,吏斷常俸,戰士絕廩,官貸粟帛以自贍給;既不可聞於鄰敵,且非所以為治,宜一切罷斷諸廕戶,盡還郡縣。」燕主暐從之,使綰專治其事,糾擿奸伏,無敢蔽匿,出戶二十餘萬,舉朝怨怒。綰先有疾,自力厘校戶籍,疾遂亟。冬,十一月,卒。

12. The nobility and high officials of Yan kept many commoners on their personal fiefs, and the state's official household rolls began to shrink compared to these private household rolls. The public grain stores were used up, and public expenses could not be covered from taxes.

The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Guangxin, Yue Wan, said, "The realm is currently split into three, and each side seeks to swallow up the others. Currently, our state's administration is not functioning well. The venal nobility are seeking their own profits, to the extent of exhausting the efforts of the people. Funds of office have not been contributed, the salaries of state officials have often gone unpaid, and food supplies to the soldiers have been cut off, while the local officials have to borrow grain and silk to feed and clothe themselves. We must not let our neighboring enemies know about this, for this is no way to run a government. The keeping of people on private fiefs should cease at once, and they should all be returned to their former commandaries and counties."

Murong Wei agreed, and he ordered Yue Wan to implement these reforms. Yue Wan uncovered the villainous ministers, and no one dared to conceal anything from him. He thus restored more than two hundred thousand people to the public rolls, but earned the ire of the court officials. Yue Wan had already been sick, and in his exertions to personally verify the census rolls, his illness worsened. In winter, the eleventh month, he passed away.

晉制:官品自第一至第九,各以貴賤占田有差,而又各以品之高卑蔭其親屬,多者及九族,少者二世;宗室、國賓、先賢之後,及士人子孫亦如之;而又得蔭人以爲衣食客及佃客。三方,謂燕、晉、秦也。

(According to the system under Jin, government ministers were divided into nine ranks. Each rank had its own scale of pay and occupied its own measure of land, and each rank was allowed to extend benefits to various degrees of family relations. Those at the top could extend their benefits to family relations of the ninth degree; those with fewer, just to two generations. Royal family members, honored guests of the state, the descendants of worthy sages, and the sons and grandsons of the gentry were also the same way: each had some of these private families to provide them with clothing and food or to work their fields.

The three sides were Former Yan, Jin, and Former Qin.)


十二月,秦王猛等拔陝城,獲魏公廋,送長安。秦王堅問其所以反,對曰:「臣本無反心,但以弟兄屢謀逆亂,臣懼並死,故謀反耳。」堅泣曰:「汝素長者,固知非汝心也;且高祖不可以無後。」乃賜廋死,原其七子,以長子襲魏公,餘子皆封縣公,以嗣越厲王及諸弟之無後者。苟太后曰:「廋與雙俱反,雙獨不得置後,何也?」堅曰:「天下者,高祖之天下,高祖之子不可以無後。至於仲群,不顧太后,謀危宗廟,天下之法,不可私也。」以范陽公抑為征東大將軍、并州刺史,鎮蒲阪;鄧羌為建武將軍、洛州刺史,鎮陝城。擢姚眺為汲郡太守。

13. In the twelfth month, Wang Meng and the others retook Shancheng. Fu Sou was captured and sent to Chang'an.

Fu Jian asked him why he had rebelled. Fu Sou replied, "I originally had no intention of rebelling. But when my brothers and cousins plotted their uprising, I feared I would be killed, and so I went along with them."

Fu Jian wept and said, "You have always been an honest man, so I know you did not mean to do it. And I cannot allow Gaozu (Fu Jiàn) not to have any descendants." So though he compelled Fu Sou to take his own life, he spared Fu Sou's seven sons. Fu Sou’s eldest son inherited his title as Duke of Wei, and the others were also appointed as dukes of counties, in order to prevent cutting off the lines of Fu Sheng and his younger brothers.

Empress Dowager Gou asked Fu Jian, "Your cousin Fu Sou and your brother Fu Shuang both rebelled. Yet Fu Shuang alone was not given an heir. Why is this?"

Fu Jian answered, "We owe the realm to Gaozu, so I cannot cut off his descendants. But as for Zhongqun (Fu Shuang), he did not think about you. He plotted to bring danger to the royal family. I cannot ignore the laws of the realm for the sake of personal feelings."

Fu Jian appointed the Duke of Fanyang, Fu Yi, as Grand General Who Conquers The East and Inspector of Bingzhou, and stationed him at Puban. Deng Qiang was appointed as General Who Establishes Valor and Inspector of Luozhou, and he was stationed at Shancheng. Fu Sou’s advisor Yao Tiao, who had warned him against rebellion, was promoted as Administrator of Ji commandary.

苻健廟號高祖。苻雙,字仲羣。

(Gaozu was Fu Jiàn's temple name.

Fu Shuang's style name was Zhongqun.)


堅皆討平之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian campaigned against and pacified all of the rebel dukes.


加大司馬溫殊禮,位在諸侯王上。

14. Huan Wen was honored with exceptional ceremony, and his position was elevated to be above all the other lords and princes.

是歲,以仇池公楊世為秦州刺史,世弟統為武都太守。世亦稱臣於秦,秦以世為南秦州刺史。

15. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Shi, was appointed as Jin's Inspector of Qinzhou, and his younger brother Yang Tong was appointed as Administrator of Wudu. But Yang Shi also declared himself a vassal of Qin, and they appointed him as their Inspector of Southern Qinzhou.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Nov 08, 2018 4:54 am, edited 11 times in total.
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