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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 10:44 am

Zhang Yi
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Note: Some parts of the main text were adapted from notes in "Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms" by Achilles Fang.

Zhang Yi, stylename Bogong, was a native of Wuyang. His great great grandfather, Hao, was a Minister of Works (Sikong) and his great grandfather, Gang, was the Governor of Guangling, thus his family was well known.

[Chen Shou's] Yibu Qijiu Zhuan says: Zhang Hao, stylename Shuming, studied the Laws of Government and Annals of the Spring and Autumn in the capital. He was good friends with Tan Can of Guanghan, Li He of Hanzhong, and Zhang Ba of the Shu prefecture. The General-in-Chief, Deng Zhi, removed Zhang Hao, degrading him from Supervisor of the Masters of Writing (Shang Shu Pu She) to Governor (Xiang) of Pengcheng, and recommending hermits like Lu Qiumiao and others, as Commandant of Justice (Ting Wei). In the third year of Yan Guang [CE 124] (reign of Han An Di), Emperor An was discussing about abolishing his Crown Prince. Only Zhang Hao, together with the Grand Master of Ceremonies, (Tai Chang) Huan Yan, and the Grand Coachman (Tai Pu), Lai Li, opposed it. When Emperor Shun came to the throne [CE 126], he appointed Zhang Hao as Minister of Works (Sikong). He died at age eighty-three. [Sima Biao's] Xu Han Shu says: Zhang Gang, stylename Wenji, together with the third noble, Jing Ming, were recommended as the "Filial and Incorrupt" (Xiao Lian). Not long after, they were demoted by the Minister of Works (Sikong), appointing Gao Di as the Attendant Imperial Clerk (Shi Yu Shi). In the first year of Han An [CE 142], Zhang Gang was appointed as Imperial Household Grandee (Guang Lu Da Fu). Together with the Palace Attendant (Shi Zhong), Du Qiao and others, eight people in total, received an Imperial order to each go out and investigate and deal with corruption in the Empire. Various Inspectors (Ci Shi) and those with a rank of two thousand shi, all memorialised to the Throne, praising them as clear in judgement and loyal; their fame known throughout the Empire; and referred to them as the "Eight Eminent". At the time, the General-in-chief (Da Jiang Jun), Liang Ji, harrassed the common people. Qiao and six others received orders to go out [and investigate], but Zhang Gang himself stayed in Luoyang and refused to go. He said, "Ravenous wolves have occupied the path yet we are content to asking about the fox?" He sent up a memorial accusing Liang Ji. Everyone in the capital became frightened. Liang Ji's younger sister was, at the time, the Empress, and gave favours to Fang Cheng. Liang Ji and his brothers controlled enormous power and were like masters. Emperor Shun knew that Zhang Gang's words were not untrue but he did not have the heart to deal with Liang Ji. Liang Ji then deeply hated Zhang Gang. A bandit named Zhang Ying, led a group of ten thousand in Guangling and they killed the Inspector (Ci Shi) there, so Liang Ji wished to send Zhang Gang into this trap, by ordering the Imperial Secretariat (Shang Shu) to appoint Zhang Gang as Governor (taishou) of Guangling. If he was not killed by Zhang Ying, he would be dealt with under some law. The former Governor was asking for more troops. So an Imperial order came to ask Zhang Gang how many troops he needed. Zhang Gan replied that he was not going to use troops, but asked for a carriage attendant. Along, he saw Zhang Ying at the ramparts of the gates. Zhang Ying became greatly alarmed and ran back to close the gates. But Zhang Gang was outside the gates and he sent away his guards, accompanies by only ten or so of his attendants. He sent a message to an elder, Su, who was trusted by Zhang Ying. He asked to meet with Zhang Ying and hoped to convince him to change and showing him the kindness of the imperial order. Zhang Ying saw that Zhang Gang was sincere, so he went out to meet with him. Zhang Gang offered him a seat and said, "The former Governor was not an able person. Betraying the kindness of the State, he sought for their own personal benefit. These counties and prefectures are far away and the Son of Heaven is unable to ask about it day and night. I understand many of the common people gathered around you to avoid being harmed. The former Governor is guilty of this and he lacks righteousness. Loyal vassals do not deceive their Sovereign to receive honour for themselves. Filials sons do not hurt their father to receive good fortune. The Son of Heaven is a sacred person who spreads his good virtue. He has sent the new Governor here with the wish to offer you nobility and fortune but not punishment. Now I am here to weigh out the pros and cons. If [he] hears that you cannot accept this virtue, the Son of Heaven would rightly be furious, and send here a great army. How can that not be a danger? I am warning you of the consequences." When Zhang Ying heard this, he started to sob and said, "I, being an uncultivated and stupid person, was infringed and wronged by the past Governor many times. We could not bear his laxness so we gathered the people together to escape with their lives. You have such a clear understanding and this will allow Ying and the others to find new life. But we are afraid that when the day arrives to send troops to attack us, killings will be unavoidable." Zhang Gang replied, "How can that happen? [The Son of Heaven] commands all within Heaven and Earth and his promise is as heavenly as the sun and moon. He has officially offered nobility to you so how can there be the disaster you speak of?" Ying said, "If indeed my crime has been pardoned, I've kept my head, and remained a leader, I am very happy. But I did not expect to receive noble rank". Even though Zhang Ying was a great bandit who was frantic and knew he was going to die, after receiving the words from Zhang Gang, he was finally made to understand. The next day, Zhang Ying with his troops numbering about ten thousand, and together with his wife, came to surrender to Zhang Gang. Gang untied them and reassured them by saying, "Friends, now that you have been disbanded, you may feel confused, but after recording your names for official positions, you will be generous rewarded." Zhang Ying replied, "We wish to go back to our original posts rather than undertake great responsibility". Zhang Gang noted their sincerity and satisfied each person's own wishes, personally going around to each one and reassuring them. Those who wanted to undertake responsibility were allowed to work with him. Those who wanted to live as common people, [Gang] conferred them farming land. So everyone in Nanzhou was happy. Discussing about [Gang's] achievements, he certain deserved to be conferred an enfeofment of Marquis. But this never happened because of Liang Ji. The Son of Heaven greatly appreciated the merits of Zhang Gang and wanted to use him for important tasks. But Zhang Ying and others petitioned in the hope of letting Zhang Gang remain in the prefecture for another two years. In the first year of Jian Kang [CE 144], Zhang Gang died of sickness at the age of thirty-six. Zhang Ying with three hundred other people, accompanied the coffin on its trip to Luoyang. They attended the funeral and set up an ancestral temple for him, paying their respects four times a year [each season], and honouring him like their father. The Son of Heaven did not forget his achievement and enfeoffed him posthumously. Zhang Gang's only son was appointed as a Gentleman (Lang).

When the First Sovereign settled Yizhou and became the Imperial Protector, Zhang Yi was his Clerk. Towards the end of [the reign of] Jian An [CE 196-220], he was selected to be the Xiao Lian, and as magistrate (Chang) of Jiangyang, then moved to Lingling, then later as Governor (Taishou) of Zitong, then to Guang Han, as the Governor (Taishou) of the commandery of Shu. In the ninth year of Jian Xing [CE 231], he was the Chief Controller of Lai Xiang, and the Leader of the Gentlemen of the Palace who Pacifies Nanzhong. By nature, Zhang Yi was strict in the enforcement of laws. A chieftain, Liu Zhou rebelled and created disturbances. Zhang Yi led his troops to put down Zhou. Before Zhou was defeated, an order came for him to withdraw. All his subordinates thought that he ought to take to horse and hasten to receive his disgrace. Zhang Yi replied, "Not so. I am returning because with the Man barbarians in an upheaval I have not been able to execute my duties; but until my substitute comes, I must keep my post in the battlefield, transport and store provisions in preparation for exterminating the rebels. Shall I, merely because I am demoted, neglect the affairs of the State?" With this he continued to superintend and direct, without being remiss. With this foundation, Ma Zhong successfully defeated Zhou. When Zhuge Liang heard what happened, he commended Zhang Yi. Zhuge Liang proceeded to Wugong, Zhang Yi was made Chief Controller of the Front Army and Governor (Taishou) of Fufeng. Zhuge Liang died, and for his achievements against Liu Zhou, Zhang Yi was enfeoffed as Marquis Within the Passes (Guan Nei Hou). In the first year of Yanxi [CE 238], he entered the Imperial Secretariat (Shang Shu), later promoted as Du Jian Wei, Marquis (Dou Ting Hou), and General Who Conquers the West.

In the eighteenth year [CE 240], he, along with the General of the Guards (Wei Jiang Jun), Jiang Wei, returned to Chengdu. He criticised Jiang Wei for launching his troops on expedition. He believed that the common people of the kingdom were worn out and it was not appropriate to launch military expeditions. Jiang Wei did not listen and generals such as Zhang Yi went on expedition. Zhang Yi was made General Who Suppresses the South. Jiang Wei arrived at the Di Dao and defeated heavily the Wei general, Wang Jing. Up to ten thousand soldiers of Wang Jing died in the Tao river. Zhang Yi said, "It is time to stop now, we should not advance. If we advance, we might harm this great achievement". Jiang Wei was very angry. Zhang Yi replied, "You are drawing legs on a snake" (1). Jiang Wei unexpectedly surrounded Wang Jing at Di Dao but was unable to overcome him. Because of the advice from Zhang Yi, Jiang Wei felt in his heart that Zhang Yi was not good. But despite this, he still had [Yi] accompany him in command, so [Zhang] Yi had no choice but to go along. In the second year of Jingyao [CE 259], he was made General of the Right Chariots and Cavalry and Inspector (Ci Shi) of Jizhou. In the sixth year [CE 263], he was the Right Jian Ge of Wei county and later surrendered to Zhong Hui at Fu. In the next year [CE 264], first month, he accompanied Zhong Hui to Chengdu and was later killed by soldiers in the confusion that followed. [Chang Qu's] Huayang Guo Zhi says: Zhang Yi's son, Wei, was a sincere and studious person, and became the Governor of Guanghan.


(1) This refers to a proverb where a guy finished painting the picture of a snake before others did. So during his spare time, he added some legs to the snake. The others commented that snakes don't have legs so he's made the snake not look like a snake. Similarly, Zhang Yi is saying Jiang Wei was doing unnecessarily doing too much for no apparent gain.
(Many thanks to the member Guan_Xing for his interpretation)
Lu Su
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Lu Su, stylename Zijing, was a native of Lin Huai, Dong Cheng. When he was born, he had lost his father and so lived with his grandmother. The family was quite wealthy and he was well known to be a philantropist. Hence at the time, when the world was in disorder, Su did not manage family affairs but spent his money freely. He had many fields of grain which he used to relieve the poor, the starving, etc. hence received much praise from those in the village.

Zhou Yu was at Ju Chao with only several hundred men when he passed Lu Su and asked for some provisions. Su's family had two stores of rice, each having about three thousand carts. Lu Su indicated one store of rice for Zhou Yu. Zhou Yu knew this was a unique person and became very close friends with him. Yuan Shu heard of his reputation and immediately went to Dong Cheng. Lu Su noticed Yuan Shu had no discipline and was not one to establish great affairs, so he gathered up the old and weak troops and some brave young men, a hundred or so in number, and went South to Juchao where he saw Zhou Yu. And so Zhou Yu went East with him. [Wei Zhao's] Wu Shu says: Lu Su was a big man. He had high aspirations and had ability in strategy. Because there was chaos everywhere, Lu Su practised swordsmanship and horse archery. He organised together young men and took care of their needs (clothes and food). They often went hunting at Nanshan and provided military training. An elder of the village remarked, "The Lu family are in decay, but he is an ambitious one!" After this, with many heroes were on the rise, Zhong Zhou was causing disorder, so Lu Su said this to his people, "China is out of control. Bandits and thieves wreak havoc everywhere. The land between the Huai and Si [rivers] is not a suitable place build our lives. I have heard Jiangdong consists of ten thousand li of fertile land, where the people are prosperous and soldiers strong. We can avoid danger and live a peaceful and happy life there. We can then observe for a change in the situation, right?" Everyone in his group agreed. He then placed the weak and slender in the front, while the brave and strong were to guard the rear. Men and women, in total, consisting of about three hundred went with them. Lu Su's group was walking slowly when Zhou's cavalry caught up with them. Lu Su halted the army and called out to his pursuers, "You gentlemen know how to deal with the situation. The world is in great chaos today. You receive no benefit for your merits [in defeating us], and no punishment for failing to pursue, so why do you insist on fighting us?" He planted his shield in the ground, and pulled his bow back to fire. Each arrow pierced [the shield]. The pursuing cavalry thought Lu Su's words were good and besides knew they would be unable to overcome him, and so they withdrew. Lu Su crossed the Great River to see Sun Ce who also thought he was a unique person. He left his family in Que. He returned when his grandmother died and buried her at Dongcheng.

Liu Ziyang was friendly with Lu Su and left a letter for him which said, "In the world now, many heroes are on the rise. My friend, you have a lot of talent which is required in the current climate. You hurriedly returned to welcome your mother and when there is no problem, you stay leisurely in Dongcheng. Near here, there is one named Zheng Bao who lives at Chaohu. He has the support of ten thousand people and the area is fertile and spacious. There are many from Lujiang who depend on him, so it is not just me. I've observed the situation. Opportunities must not be lost and so you should decide early." Lu Su agreed with his plans. After the burial was completed, he returned to Que to prepare for his trip to the north. When he arrived, he heard that Zhou Yu had taken his mother to Wu and he was very thankful. At the time, Sun Ce had died and Sun Quan had taken over. Zhou Yu said to Lu Su, "In reply to [Emperor] Guangwu [of Latter Han, Liu Xiu], Ma Yuan said, `In today's world, not only do rulers choose their vassals, but vassals also choose their rulers'. Now my master is intimate with worthy people and uses the help of the wonderful and extraordinary. Moreover, I've heard secretly his vision that the Liu family will be replaced by someone from the southeast. Eventually the foundation of an Emperor to carry forth the Heavenly mandate will be the time where scholars and warriors rise like dragons and phoenixes. I have already begun and Sir, you should not let Ziyang's words obstruct your wishes." Lu Su agreed with him. It was because Zhou Yu recommended Lu Su for his suitable talents, that he went in search for comparable people, that he was succesful in his affairs and not let walk away.

Sun Quan came to meet with Lu Su and was very pleased by his words. When the other guests started to leave, Lu Su also bid his farewell. Sun Quan went himself to bring him back where they sat on the same couch and started drinking together. At this time, he secretly asked Su, "Now the house of Han is in danger of collapsing and the four corners are disturbed. It is my duty to support the foundation laid down by my father and brother so I'm thinking of imitating the achievements of Huan and Wen (1). Sir, you seem to care a lot, will you be able to assist me?" Lu Su replied, "Before when Gao Di [Liu Bang] wanted to serve the Righteous Emperor (Yi Di) [of Chu] (2), he was unable to because Xiang Yu's threat to his life. Today's Cao Cao is like Xiang Yu, so how will you, General, follow the path of Huan and Wen? Su's humble opinion is that the house of Han has no chance of being restored while Cao Cao cannot be removed. My plan for you, General, is to secure your lands of Jiangdong and observe the world happenings. If so your [lands] extend so far, then you should not be too disheartened. There is much turmoil in the north, and because of this, we can strike at Huang Zu, then advance to attack Liu Biao in order to control the length of the Great River. Then you may consolidate the empire and become the Son of Heaven. This was how the Gao Di (Liu Bang) build his State." Sun Quan replied, "Now, I'll exert my main strength in one direction in the hope (name) of assisting the Han. Don't let these words get outside." Zhang Zhao thought Lu Su was unmodest and seeked to defame him by commenting that Lu Su was too young and not suitable for responsibility. Sun Quan however did not mind this and continued treated him favourably as before. He conferred clothes, curtains, as well as other miscellaneous things to Lu Su's mother so they lived in riches, as before.

Liu Biao had died and Lu Su came to offer his advice, "Jingzhou is a direct neighbour to our state. The Yangzi and the mountains are difficult to approach and secure to defend, there are ten thousand li of fertile land and the people are prosperous. If we can take it and hold it, this can become the base of an empire. Now that Liu Biao has just died, his two sons are in disagreement, and the leaders of their army have divided loyalties. Liu Bei is a hero of the Empire. He quarrelled with Cao Cao and went to stay with Liu Biao, but Liu Biao was jealous of his abilities and never game him an important post. If Liu Bei joins Liu Biao's son, and if they can set things in order, then we should keep peace with them and make an alliance of friendship. If, on the other hand, they continue to disagree, we should make other plans to achieve the great design. I ask permission to take a message of condolence to Liu Biao's sons. While I am here, I can show our sympathies and make friends witht he men who hold authority in their army, and I shall urge Liu Bei to collect Liu Biao's forces and join us against Cao Cao. Liu Bei will certainly be pleased and will accept your call. If he agrees, the empire can be settled. If I do not leave at once, however, I fear Cao Cao may get there first." (RdeC) So Sun Quan dispatched Lu Su. He arrived at Xiakou and heard Cao Cao was already heading for Jingzhou, so he doubled his paces from day till night. By the time he arrived at Nanjun, Liu Biao's son, Cong, had surrendered to Lord Cao while Liu Bei was hurriedly running away, crossing the Great River and heading South. Lu Su caught up with them at Changban, in Dangyang. He put forward Sun Quan's ideas and how the Jiangdong was strong and so urged Liu Bei to ally with Sun Quan. Liu Bei was very pleased. At the time, Zhuge Liang agreed with Liu Bei on the matter, so Lu Su said to Liang, "I am a friend of Ziyu", and so instantly, they became friends. Liu Bei forthwith, arrived at Xiakou and dispatched Zhuge Liang as an ambassador to Sun Quan. Lu Su went with him also. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that Liu Bei allying with Sun Quan to resist the forces of China, was a strategy of Lu Su alone. He said to Zhuge Liang, "I am a friend of Ziyu", and afterwards, Zhuge Liang frequently asked about his brother. In the Shu Shu, chapter on Zhuge Liang, where it says, "Liang used his horizontal plan to convince Sun Quan and Quan was very happy.", seems to suggest the plan came from Zhuge Liang. It seems that historians from both kingdoms have recorded from their point of view in order to raise their kingdom's glory and merits. Since these two books were written by one person, yet the event is contradicted, then it does not represent good practice.

On his return, Sun Quan had just received a letter from Lord Cao and was discussing the matter with his various advisors. All of them urged him to accept [Cao Cao] but only Lu Su remained silent. Sun Quan rose to retire and Lu Su followed him closely. Sun Quan knew that Lu Su had his own opinion, so grabbing him by the hand, asked, "Sir, is there something you want to say?" Lu Su replied, "I have listened to their suggestions and those people are misleading you. You cannot make useful plans with them. I could welcome Cao Cao, but not you. Let me explain. If I surrender to Cao Cao, he will send me back to my home district, to be graded for name and rank, and at the very least I would become a junior Attendant Official. So I could ride in a carriage drawn by oxen, with an escort of soldiers, and could mingle with the gentry. Then I would be promoted and in the end I would be sure to finish with a province or a commandery. On the other hand, if you surrender to Cao Cao, where would you go? I urge you to decide this great plan before it is too late. Do not take those fellows' advice." Sun Quan signed with admiration, "They disappointed me but you set forth a grand strategy. That is just what I have been looking for." (RdeC) [Wang Shen's] Wei Shu and [Sima Biao's] Jiu Zhou Chun Qiu say: When Lord Cao conquered Jingzhou, Sun Quan was in great distress. Lu Su wanted to convince Sun Quan to repel Lord Cao and tried to incite him by saying, "Lord Cao has defeated his enemies and has now accumulated Yuan Shao's finest troops and horses. Riding on his wave of victories, he is attacking the country that is in disorder and is sure to conquer it. Why don't you dispatch your troops to assist him? Furthermore you should send your family (as hostage) too. If you don't, we will be in trouble." Sun Quan was very angry and was about to execute Lu Su, when the latter said, "The current situation is already worrying, why don't you dispatch your troops to assist Liu Bei instead of wanting to execute me?" Sun Quan agreed and sent Zhou Yu to assist Liu Bei. Sun Cheng says: (3) Both Wu Shu and Jiang Biao Zhuan record that when Lu Su saw Sun Quan, he tried to convince him to resist Lord Cao as well as offer a plan fit for Emperors and Kings. Liu Biao had died and he requested to be sent to observe the changing situation. There was no reason for him to try to persuade Sun Quan by inciting him. Also there were many who tried to convince Sun Quan to submit, but it said that only Lu Su was to be beheaded, thus these words did not come from Lu Su.

At the time, Zhou Yu was in Poyang so Lu Su urged Sun Quan to order him back. Forthwith, Zhou Yu was in charge with Lu Su as Colonel Who Assists the Army, to help in the planning. Lord Cao was defeated and retreated. Lu Su was the first to return and Sun Quan invited all his generals to welcome him back. Lu Su and his generals came to salute and Sun Quan got up and conferred gifts to them saying, "Zijing, I dismounted my horse to welcome you, is that enough prominence for you?" Lu Su quickly came and replied, "No, it is not enough". Everyone was startled by the reply. He went and sat down and slowly raising his whip, he said, "When your Honour's power and virtue stretches the four seas, to encompass the nine regions, and accomplish the State of an Emperor, that will be enough prominence." Sun Quan clapped his hands and laughed.

Later Bei went to Jing city to meet with Quan, asking to be able to govern Jingzhou. Lu Su always tried to convince Quan to lend it, so they could together resist Cao Cao. [Xi Zuochi's] Han Jin Chun Qiu says: Lu Fan kept urging [Quan] to keep Bei. Lu Su said, "We cannot do that. Even though General, you possess great martial ability, Cao Cao's power is very strong. Initially when he arrived in Jingzhou, he had not established prestige there. He should have used Bei to help calm the people. Now we can increase Cao Cao's enemies and broaden our party. This is the best plan." Sun Quan agreed and went ahead. Cao Cao heard that Sun Quan had shared land with Liu Bei. He was writing a letter and [due to his shock], his pen dropped onto the floor.

Zhou Yu fell critically ill and sent a memorial which said, "Currently in the world, there is much trouble, and this is something that Yu has been worried night and day. My worry comes before your Honour's and happiness after. Now Cao Cao is our enemy while Liu Bei is stationed nearby in Gong'an. The borders are close and the people are not swayed to us yet, so there needs to be a good advisor who can suppress these troubles. Lu Su's wisdom makes him suitable for the responsibility and so I beg that he take Yu's place. So the day that Yu dies, [Yu] shall have nothing to worry about. [Yu Pu's] Jiang Biao Zhuan says: Zhou Yu fell ill and sent Sun Quan a letter which said, "Yu has ordinary ability but formerly had been assigned the responsibility of launching a punitive expedition to capture Ba Shu and take Xiang Yang in order to show our strength. But I was not careful and met with sickness on the journey. It is being treated and hopefully will not get worse. But in every person's life, death will come at some stage so there is nothing to make a fuss about. My only regrets are that my humble ambitions are not yet achieved, and that I shall never again rceive your teaching and guidance. Now Cao Cao is in the north, and our borders have no peace. Liu Bei is lodging with us, and that is like feeding a tiger. We cannot tell how affairs with develop. This is a time when men at the court eat late, because they are concerned about trouble to come, and the ruler has constant concern. Lu Su is loyal and a man of noble spirit. He will never shirk responsibility. Let him take my place. If you can accept what I say, I shall not die in vain" (RdeC). [Pei Songzhi] notes that this letter, when compared with the one recorded in the present biography, has a similar purpose, but they are unusually different. Sun Quan appointed Lu Su as Colonel Who Displays Firmness, taking command of Zhou Yu's troops which consisted of about four thousand, and conferred a fief at Si county. Cheng Pu was appointed as Governor (Taishou) of Nanjun, and Lu Su initially stationed in Jiangling but later moved to Lukou with an increase of ten thousand troops and appointed as Governor (Taishou) of Hanchang and Pian Jiang Jun. In the nineteenth year [CE 214], on order from Sun Quan, he captured the city of Wan and received the title of General Who Stretches Across the Jiang.

Formerly, the Imperial Protector of Yizhou, Liu Zhang, was becoming lax in his administration, so Zhou Yu and Gan Ning urged Sun Quan to capture Shu. Sun Quan consulted Liu Bei but Bei had his own plans, and made the false reply saying, "Bei & Zhang are of the same clan, and we hope to use the authority and inspiration of our ancestors to revive the House of Han. Now Zhang has offended those around him, Bei on my own am fearful, and it is not something that I would dare hear of, I hope you would be extra understanding in this area. If you would not permit it, Bei would go into exile into the mountains and forests. (4) Later on, Liu Bei went west on his expedition against Liu Zhang, leaving Guan Yu to defend Jingzhou. Sun Quan exclaimed, "Cunning slave! To dare a trick like this!" (RdeC) Guan Yu and Lu Su shared the same boundary and so there was growing suspicion of treachery. But Lu Su was always friendly with Guan Yu. When Liu Bei had settled Yizhou, Sun Quan demanded for Changsha, Ling[ling], Gui[yang] but Bei did not accede to the demands. Sun Quan dispatched Lu Meng to lead his troops and capture these lands. When Liu Bei heard of this, he returned to Gong'an, and dispatched Guan Yu to retake the three prefectures. Lu Su was stationed in Yiyang where he faced Guan Yu. Lu Su invited Guan Yu to come and meet him so each brought about a hundred troops by their side but requested that the generals carry only swords to the meeting. So Lu Su repeatedly reproached Guan Yu saying, "The State has lent its territory to your family. Now your troops come from afar to be defeated as I do not believe you have the necessary resources. Currently, you have Yizhou and no desire to return, so we demanded only three prefectures but you did not accede to that". Before the speech had ended, one person called out, "Only the virtuous get hold of territory. Does that mean only you people?" (5) Lu Su exclaimed loudly and his face changed complexion. Guan Yu grabbed his sword and said to the person, "These are the affairs of the State, what would you know of them?". The observer then left. [Wei Zhao's] Wu Shu says: Lu Su wanted to talk with Guan Yu. His officers suspected there would be some trick, and advised him not to go, but Lu Su said, "At times like these, men should be prepared to face one another. Liu Bei owes a great deal to our state, rights and wrongs are not yet decided, and how could Guan Yu reject our good will?" Guan Yu said, "In the campaign at Wulin the General of the Left fought personally in the ranks, destroying the mighty and defeating the enemy. Why should he give such toil for nothing, and receive not a single clod of earth? Yet you come and want to take this territory". Lu Su replied, "Quite untrue. When I first met Yuzhou at Changban, his forces were no more than a colonel's command, he was at the end of his resources and he was desperately worried. His hopes were down, his power was weak, and he was planning to creep off and go far away. He completely lost heart. My master had pity for Yuzhou, that he had no place to rest. He was generous with land and fighting men, and gave Liu Bei everything he needed to protect himself and to relieve his danger. But now Yuzhou is acting selfishly. He glosses over facts, he offends virtue and he disregards good conduct. He has already put his hand on the western province, and now he wants to take Jingzhou as well. Even the most ordinary fellow would be ashamed, still more so a ruler who should arrange and order men and affairs!" Guan Yu had no reply. (RdeC) Liu Bei forthwith drew the Xiang river as the boundary and then withdrew his troops.

Lu Su died at the age of forty-six, during the twenty-second year of Jian'an [CE 217]. Sun Quan organised a State funeral and personally attended his burial. Zhuge Liang also organised a funeral for him. [Wei Zhao's] Wu Shu says: [Lu] Su was strict with people and he never put up false display. He was also thrifty inside and outside and did not indulge himself in the bad excesses of life. He managed his troops in an orderly fashion and was certain to punish those who disobeyed. Even though he was working in the military, books never left his hand. He was very good at discussion and debate and was adept at using classical words. His vision and thoughts were very broad and liberal and his understanding surpassed others. [In terms of talent and achievement], Lu Su was only second to Zhou Yu. Sun Quan declared a call to honour [Lu Su], approaching the altar (4), and said to his ministers, "Formerly the things Lu Zijing frequently talked about show just how much he understood the present situation".

Born after his death, Lu Su had a son who was very strong who was praised by the supervisor of Ruxu, Zhang Cheng. In the middle of [the reign of] Yong An [CE 258 - 264], he was entitled the General Who is Illustrious and Martial (Zhao Wu Jiang Jun) and Marquis of the Chief Village (Dou Ting Hou), and supervisor of Wuchang. In the middle of [the reign of] Jian Heng [CE 269 - 271], he was promoted to supervise Xiakou where his administration was strict and orderly and this showed how capable he was. In the third year of Feng Huang [CE 274], he died. His son, Mu, was conferred a title of nobility and was in command of troops.


(RdeC) This translation was adapted from Rafe de Crespigny's book, "To Establish Peace", Volume 2, Australian National University, 1996.

(1) 'Huan' refers to Duke Huan of the Qi state (Qi Huan Gong) and 'Wen' refers to Duke Wen of the Jin state (Jin Wen Gong). Both dukes co-ordinated the affairs of China under the pretense of serving the King of Zhou. Thus they exercised considerable authority and so reached Hegemon status.

(2) During the last years of Qin, the rebel forces under Xiang Liang installed a grandson of the King Huai of the former Chu state. He was also known as King Huai. After the fall of the Qin capital, Liu Bang was banished to Nanzheng and Xiang Yu went back to the East, where he was not happy with King Huai. He gave him the title, Righteous Emperor (Yi Di), but then moved him and secretly had him assassinated.

(3) Sun Sheng was a distinguished Historian of the Eastern Jin dynasty.

(4) Many thanks to Franz Wong for help in translation of this part

(5) Adapted from Romance of the Three Kingdoms, translated by C.H. Brewitt-Taylor.

Jiang Wei
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

The first three paragraphs of the translation was done by Achilles Fang and presented in his book, "Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms"

Jiang Wei, stylename Boyue, was a native of Ji in Tian Shui. His father died while he was young and he lived with his mother. He was fond of the learning of Zheng Xuan. Fu Zi says: As a man, Jiang Wei was eager to win name and fame. Secretly he supported men who would lay down their life for him. He did not give his attention to the tasks appropriate to a commoner. He served in the Tian Shui prefecture as Shang Qi Yuan. The Imperial Protector of Liangzhou appointed him a Chong Shi. Because his father, Jiang Qiong, who had once been Gong Cao of the Tian Shui prefecture, with his own body protected the person of the prefect and commander of Tian Shui when the Qiang barbarians revolted, and thus died as a warrior, Jiang Wei was given the title of Zhonglang and appointed as Assistant in the Military Affairs of his own prefecture.

In the sixth year of Jian Xing [CE 228], the Prime Minister Zhuge Liang led his army to Qishan. At that time, the Governor of Tian Shui had gone on a tour of inspection; Jiang Wei as well as the Gong Cao, Liang Xu, the Zhu Pu, Yin Shang, and the Zhu Ji, Liang Qian etc. were in his suite. Hearing that the Shu army was about to arrive, and that the various counties of Tian Shui had revolted and joined the Shu, the Governor became suspicious that Jiang Wei and others would become disloyal. So that night he fled to Shang Bang. When they saw that the Governor had gone, Jiang Wei and his men went after him, but they came too late to the city gate of Shang Bang, which was already closed. Not being admitted, Jiang Wei and his men returned to Ji, which would not admit them either. In the end, Jiang Wei and his men all came to Zhuge Liang. At that time, Ma Su had been defeated at Jieting so Zhuge Liang returned, taking with him more than a thousand households of the Xi county as well as Jiang Wei and his men. It was thus that Jiang Wei lost his mother. [Yu Huan's] Wei Lue says: Ma Zun, the Governor of Tian Shui, leading Jiang Wei and various other subordinate officers, was in the company of Guo Huai, the Ci Shi (Governor) of Yongzhou on his way from the west to Lo Men on a tour of inspection. Hearing that Zhuge Liang had already reached Qishan, Guo Huai looked at Ma Zun and said, "This is not going to turn out well". He then led him to the east and returned to Shang Bang. Remembering that Ji county, the residence-city of his prefecture, was to the west, and fearing that the under-officials and people were inclined to be rebellious, Ma Zun followed Guo Huai and went. At that time, Jiang Wei said to Ma Zun, "Your Excellency ought to return to Ji county." Ma Zun said to Jiang Wei and the others, "You may all return. The rebels are indeed everywhere; let us scatter." Jiang Wei could do nothing with Ma Zun. But, his home being at Ji, he finally returned to Ji together with the under-officials of Tian Shui, such as Shangguan Zi Xiu and others. In Ji, the under-officials and the people were glad to see Jiang Wei and the others back. They then forced them to see Zhuge Liang. Being compelled, the two men came together to Zhuge Liang. Zhuge Liang was greatly pleased to see them and sent his subordinates to summon the people of Ji. At that time, the vanguard of Zhuge Liang was defeated by Zhang He and Fei Yu, etc., so that he retreated bringing with him Jiang Wei and others. Thus Jiang Wei could not return and finally entered Shu. The various Wei troops attacked Ji county and captured Jiang Wei's mother, wife, and children. But because Jiang Wei had not gone voluntarily, they did not kill the members of his family, but only imprisoned them to make him return. This account seems to be different to that given in SGZ.

Zhuge Liang appointed Jiang Wei his Cang Cao Yuan, gave him the added title of Feng Yi Jiang Jun, and had him enfeoffed as Lord (Ting Hou) of Tangyang. At that time, he was twenty-seven years old. Zhuge Liang wrote a letter to Zhang Yi, the Chang Shi of the Prime Minister's palace left behind, and Jiang Wan, the Can Jun saying, "Jiang Boyue is loyally assiduous towards the affairs of the day and his thoughts are fine and exact. As for his qualities, Yongnan (Li Shao) and Qichang (Ma Liang) are not his equals. He is a superior gentleman of Liangzhou". He again wrote to them, "Wait till I have him train the five or six thousand men of the Central Hu Bu detachment. Jiang Boyue is very competent in military affairs; not only is he courageous and proficient in warfare, but his heart is loyal to the House of Han and his talents combine those of other people. I shall instruct him thoroughly in warfare and shall also send him to the palace to be received in audience by the Sovereign." Sun Sheng's Za Ji: Earlier, when Jiang Wei came to Zhuge Liang, he lost his mother. Later he received a letter from her, ordering him to search for the Dang Gui (medicinal plant but also means "ought to return"). Jiang Wei said, "When there is a good land of a hundred jing, one should not stick to single mou. If one has a Yuan Zhi (also a medicinal plant but also means "great ambition"), one needs no Tang Gui." Later on, he was promoted to be Zhong Jian Jun and General Who Conquers the West.

In the twelth year of Jian Xing [CE 234], Zhuge Liang died suddenly. Jiang Wei returned to Chengdu and was appointed Instructor General of the Left in command of the army, General Who Assists the Han, and enfeoffed as Lord (Hou) of Ping Xiang. In the first year of Yan Xi [CE 238], he convinced the Grand Commander, Jiang Wan to station in Hanzhong. Jiang Wan had already appointed someone as Da Sima and thus appointed Jiang Wei as Sima. Numerous times, Jiang Wei led his auxiliary troops to enter the West. In the sixth year of Yan Xi [CE 243], he was appointed General Who Subdues the West and Inspector (Ci Shi) of Liangzhou. In the tenth year of Yan Xi [CE 247], he was appointed as General Who Protects and together with the Grand Commander, Fei Wei [Yi], they worked on matters of the Emperor's Secretariat (Shang Shu). In the same year, the Ping Kang barbarians of Wen Shan rebelled and Jiang Wei led a multitude of troops to subdue them. He again set forth to the Longxi, Nan An, and Jincheng boundary and battled with the Grand Commander of Wei, Guo Huai, Xiahou Ba, and others west of the Tao river. The King of the Hu barbarian, Zhi Wudai and his followers surrendered. Jiang Wei then returned with his troops. In the twelth year of Yan Xi [CE 249], he again advanced past Xiping but unable to conquer, he returned. Jiang Wei believed he was familiar the culture and military ways of the West, so that he could entice the Qiang and Hu tribes to act as his "wings" and thus capture the region west of Long (in Gansu province). Each time Jiang Wei wished to undertake a large military operation, Fei Wei always rejected it and fearing lest he did not follow, restricted Jiang Wei's troops to no more than ten thousand. [Xi Zuochi's] Han Jin Chun Qiu says: Fei Wei said to Jiang Wei, "We are far less comparable to the late Prime Minister. Even his schemes were not able to conquer the Zhong Xia (Middle Land), let alone us. Furthermore, we should protect the State, govern the people well, and guard the dynasty. Performing these duties we can wait till someone capable comes along. Do not have the thought that victory and defeat are determined by mere luck. If you are inferior, then it will be too late to regret."

In the spring of the sixteenth year [CE 253], Fei Wei died. In the summer, Jiang Wei led his troops, numbering to the tens of thousands, out of Shi Ying, passed Dong Ting, and surrounded Nan An. The Wei Governor (Ci Shi) of Yongzhou, Chen Tai, arrived at Luo Men to relieve the situation. Jiang Wei's supplies were exhausted and he returned. The next year [CE 254], all external and internal military affairs were added to his responsibilities. Again, he led his troops out of Longxi where Li Jian, who guarded Di Dao, surrendered the city. He advanced and surrounded Xiang Wu, confronting the Wei general, Xu Zhi. Beheading Xu Zhi, he defeated the Wei army who then retreated. After many victories, Jiang Wei accumulated a lot of surrendered people, so he selected the civilians of the three counties of He Jian, Di Dao and Lin Tao to return with him. After, in the eighteenth year [CE 255], together with the General of Chariots, Xiahou Ba and others, he again led his troops out to Di Dao and heavily defeated the Wei governor (Ci Shi) of Yongzhou, Wang Jing, at Tao Xi. Wang Jing's casualties amounted to tens of thousands. Wang Jing retreated and defended the city of Di Dao which was later surrounded by Jiang Wei. The Wei General Who Conquers the West, Chen Tai, advanced his troops to relieve the situation at Di Dao and Jiang Wei retreated to his station at Zhong Ti.

In the nineteenth year [CE 256], Spring, Jiang Wei was immediately appointed as the Grand Commander (Da Jiang Jun). Making preparations for another expedition, he arranged a date to meet with the General Who Subdues the West, Hu Ji at Shang Bang. But Hu Ji did not turn up hence Jiang Wei was heavily defeated by the Wei General, Deng Ai at Duan valley. Jiang Wei's troops were scattered and many had died. Many ordinary people complained and the region West of Long was constantly disturbed. Jiang Wei apologised and asked to be demoted. He was demoted to General of the Rear but assumed the responsibilities of the Grand Commander.

In the twentieth year [CE 257], the Wei General Who Conquers the East, Zhuge Dan, rebelled in Huainan, thus dividing up the troops of the Region within the Passes (Guanzhong). Jiang Wei wanted to take advantage of the vulnerable Qin Chuan (Region of Qin), and led tens of thousands of troops out through the Luo valley and arrived at Chen Ling. At the time, lots of grain was amassed at Chang Cheng (Great Wall?) while not a lot of soldiers guarded it. Hearing that Jiang Wei was about to arrive, lots of people became frightened. The Grand Commander of Wei, Sima Wang repelled him along with Deng Ai from Long You, all troops near the Chang Cheng. Jiang Wei stationed at Mang Shui (river), camping on the mountains. Sima Wang and Deng Ai were strongly stationed near the Wei river and were challenged repeatedly by Jiang Wei but were ignored. In the first year of Jing Yao [CE 258], Zhuge Dan was defeated, hence Jiang Wei returned to Chengdu. He was reinstated as Grand Commander.

(The next paragraph was adapted from the Zi Zhi Tong Jian, translated by Achilles Fang in "Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms)

Formerly, when the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) stationed Wei Yan in Hanzhong, he filled the various encampments with troops and thus warded the enemy off; when the enemy came to attack, they were prevented from entering the territory. At the battle of Xingshi, when Wang Ping offered resistance to Cao Shuang, this strategem was again adopted. When Jiang Wei came to direct affairs he proposed: "These various encampments indeed conform to the Zhou Yi principle of defence of the double gates, but are only sufficient to ward off the enemy; they do not bring us any extraordinary victory. A better is this: hearing of the approach of the enemy, we should withdraw our troops from these various encampmentsand assemble our grain in the two cities of Hancheng and Lecheng, to which the troops should also retreat, and allow the enemy to enter the plain; we should strengthen our garrison in the passes and thus ward the enemy off. On the day we are invaded, we should order the mobile detachments to make a simultaneous sally and look for the weak positions in the enemy's line. The enemy may attack but will not capture our passes; finding no stray grain in the field and having to transport their provisions from a distance of a thousand li (miles), they will naturally be reduced to extremity and fatigue. On the day they retreat, we should let our troops from these two cities make a simultaneous sally and uniting their strength with the mobile detachment strike at the enemy. This is the art of exterminating the enemy." Thereupon the Latter Sovereign ordered the commander of Hanzhong, Wu Qi, to withdraw to Hanshou, the Military Supervisor, Wang Han to Lecheng, and Jiang Bin to Hancheng while Xi'an, Jian Wei, Wu Wei, Shi Men, Wu Cheng, Jian Chang, and Lin Yuan were each to defend themselves.

In the fifth year [CE 262], Jiang Wei commanded his army out of Han and Hou He but was defeated by Deng Ai and thus retreated to Tazhong. Jiang Wei, originally from another kingdom, launched campaigns every year yet his accomplishments were very little. The eunuch, Huang Hao who controlled power from within the government and the General of the Right, Yan Yu co-operated together. Huang Hao wanted to remove Jiang Wei and Wei suspected this. Fearing this, he never returned to Chengdu. [Chang Qu's] Hua Yang Guo Zhi says: Jiang Wei loathed Huang Hao's hold on authority and asked the Latter Sovereign to execute him. The Latter Sovereign said, "Hao is only a small official. He was always at odds with Dong Yun and I hated him for that. Why would thy gentleman take notice of him?" Jiang Wei realised Huang Hao cannot removed, and fearing lest his words bring him danger, asked to leave. The Latter Sovereign ordered Huang Hao to apologise [to Jiang Wei]. Wei said to Huang Hao that he would go to Tazhong to grow wheat, thus he avoided internal conflicts. In the sixth year [CE 263], Jiang Wei memoralised to the Latter Sovereign saying, "I have heard Zhong Hui is in charge of the troops of Guanzhong and desires to advance on us. We should dispatch simultaneously Zhang Yi and Liao Hua to guard Yang An Pass and Yinping bridge in case they attack". Huang Hao believed in witchcraft and said the enemy would eventually be defeated and no action need be taken. He asked the Latter Sovereign to ignore the memorial and not let the various ministers know about it. Zhong Hui headed for Luo Valley while Deng Ai entered Tazhong. General of the Left Chariots, Liao Hua, was dispatched to Tazhong to assist Jiang Wei, General of the Left, Zhang Yi and General Who Assists the State, Dong Jue, and others hastened to Yang An Pass and hoped to assist from the outside. Arriving at Yinping, they heard the Wei general, Zhuge Xu, was attacking Jianwei and thus they waited to see what to do next. In the remainder of the month, Jiang Wei was severly defeated by Deng Ai and retreated to Yinping. Zhong Hui attacked the two cities of Hancheng and Lecheng, dispatching a force to attack the Pass. Jiang Shu opened up the city gates and surrendered while Fu Qian fought but died. [Xi Zuochi's] Han Jin Chun Qiu says: Jiang Shu's troops went out to surrender. [Before this] Jiang Shu craftily said to Fu Qian, "Now the enemy has arrived but has not attacked us yet we defend behind closed gates. This does not seem a good plan." Qian replied, "When accepting orders to defend the city, holding out is an achievement. But to disobey orders and go out to battle, the loss of the commander brings no benefit to the State." Shu said, "You can defend the city and hold out while I go out and engage the enemy and hopefully overcome them. We will each follow our own plans then." Then he led his troops out. Fu Qian heard that the Jiang Shu went to Yinping and surrendered to Hu Lie. Hu Lie took advantage of the lack of forces and raided the city. Fu Qian died during the struggle. [Qiao Zhou's] Shu Ji says: Jiang Shu was the Wu Xing Du but did not perform his duties well. The Shu government ordered someone replace him and he was left to assist in the defence of Hanzhong. Jiang Shu hated how he was treated, thus he opened up the gates and surrendered. Zhong Hui attacked Lecheng but was unable to capture it. Hearing that the other Passes had fallen, he pushed further. Zhang Yi and Dong Jue arrived in Hanshou while Jiang Wei and Liao Hua abandoned Yinping and retreated. Zhang Yi and Dong Jue together defended Jian Ge against Zhong Hui. Zhong Hui wrote to Jiang Wei saying, "Marquis, you are talented in both literature and the military and cherish great plans. Your aiding of Ba and Han resounds throughout the Middle Land and there is no-one near or far who has not heard of your name. Those of the past who are equals are Wu Zha and Zheng Qiao." Jiang Wei did not respond to his letter but arranged his camp to guard against danger. Zhong Hui could not capture him and since supplies were transported from a county far away, his generals discussed about whether or not to return.

(The next two paragraphs were translated by Lucy Zhang)

Since Deng Ai entered Shu from the road Jing Wu and passed Jinpoing, he defeated Zhuge Zhan at Mian Zhu. The Later Ruler asked to surrender to Deng Ai, thus he acquired Cheng Du. When Jiang Wei and others heard of the defeat of Zhuge Zhan, he also heard the rumor that the Later Ruler would defend Cheng Du, or he would go east to Wu or South to Jian Ning. Thus Jiang Wei led his troops to Guan Han and Qi Dao to seek the truth. When he heard the Later Ruler's edict, he laid down his armor and went to Zhong Hui before the army of Pei. The generals and soldiers got so angry that they tried to slice the rocks. Jin Ji: Zhong Hui asked Jiang Wei, "Why did you come so late?" Jiang Wei put on a solemn face and replied with tears, "It is fast for me to get here today!" Zhong Hui awed at that.

Zhong Hui treated Jiang Wei and others with generosity. He gave back their seals as authorities. Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei rode in the same cart and sat on the same blanket, Zhong Hui said to his secretary (Zhang Shi) Du Yu, "If I shall compare Bo Yue (Jiang Wei's style) to the scholars of the Middle Land, Gong Xiu (Zhuge Dan), Tai Chu cannot win over him." [Guo Song's Wei-Jin] Shi Yu: At that time the Shu officers are all talented from under the Heaven, yet none can surpass Jiang Wei. Zhong Hui then trapped Deng Ai and put him in a jail car. Then Hui and Jiang Wei arrived at Cheng Du, Zhong Hui declared himself Governor of Yizhou and rebelled. [Xi Zuochi's] Han Jin Chun Qiu: Zhong Hui always had evil ambitious. Jiang Wei, who was well aware of this, used it as a scheme to start turmoil so he can restore Han dynasty. Thus he said to Zhong Hui, "I have heard that ever since Huai Nan, you have never made a wrong move or calculation. Now that Jin is on the rise and all of that achievement belongs to you. Now you have conquered Shu, thus your morals and fame shook the world. The commoners praise your accomplishments while the master is afraid of your strategy, how can you achieve a peaceful end? Han Xin, since he refused to go against Han during the time of wars, got killed because of suspicion. Minister Wen Zhong did not follow Fan Zhu to the Five Lakes, so he died innocently under a sword. How can you say they are tyrannical masters and foolish subjects? It all comes down to the benefits. Now you have achieved great accomplishments and great morals, why not follow the example of Duke of Red Pottery and disappear from the world? You can keep all your fame and save your body while climbing up to the Mountain of EMei and follow the steps of Chi Song?" Zhong Hui replied, "Your words are too far away, I will not act upon it. Also, today's situation may not end right here.'' Wei said, ``All the rest are within your capability, thus I do not need to bother myself with it." Their relationship grow closer after this. [Chang Qu's] Hua Yang Guo Zhi: Jiang Wei told Zhong Hui to kill the generals who come from the North. After they are all dead, he would kill Zhong Hui and bury all the Wei soldiers to restore the Mandate of Shu. He secretly send a letter to the Later Ruler, "I wish Your Majesty can swallow the shame for several more days, your vassal will enable the country to rise again, and the suns and moons to shine after darkness." Sun Sheng's Jin Yang Qiu: Sheng followed the General who Pacifies the West to conquer Shu at the earlier years of Yong He [CE 345-356]. I saw the elders and Jiang Wei's secret letter to Liu Shan after he surrendered, which implies he pretended to serve Zhong Hui so he can kill him and restore the land of Shu. Yet Zhong Hui got defeated and destroyed. The people of Shu are still sad about it today. Sheng believes in the ancient saying, "Don't get into a predicament because then your name will be shamed, don't obtain what is not yours because then you will be in danger. If one is in shame and danger, his death will approach soon" fits Jiang Wei well. Deng Ai arrived at Jiang You with only a little soldiers. Jiang Wei can neither express his loyalty at the city of Mian Zhu nor command the five generals to support the ruler of Shu and think of ways to gain the land later. Yet he wavered back and forth. For a weak country, he can only march his soldiers at the border of Wei, but he laid hope for a great achievement based on a conquered country. How foolish that is! Your vassal Song Zhi does not agree with Sun Sheng's criticism regarding Jiang Wei. At that time, Zhong Hui's grand army is at Jian Ge. Jiang Wei and his generals camped at advantageous spots to prevent the advancement of Zhong Hui, who started to talk about retreating thus Shu could be saved. However, Deng Ai sneaked in through a side path and went to his rear. When Zhuge Zhan got defeated, Cheng Du was destroyed automatically. If Jiang Wei returned to save the capital, then Zhong Hui could attack from the rear. With the circumstance, how can he take care of both sides at once? Yet by criticizing Jiang Wei for not defending Mian Zhu or supportting the Later Ruler, it is against logic. Zhong Hui wanted to bury all the Wei generals alive and give Jiang Wei a large amount of troops to be the vanguard. If all the Wei generals were dead and the soldiers laid at the hand of [Jiang] Wei, then it would not be hard to kill Zhong Hui and restore Shu. One who's accomplishment outside of logic is considered to be strange, yet one cannot be judged because of the results. If Tian Dan's strategy did not work then he would be considered foolish as well. He wanted to give Jiang Wei five thousand troops and make him the vanguard. The Wei generals got angry and they killed Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei along with Jiang Wei's wife. [Guo Song's Wei-Jin] Shi Yu: When Jiang Wei is killed and his body torn apart. They found his gallbladder to be as big as a Dou.

Xi Zheng Zhu Lun commenting on Jiang Wei: Jiang Boyue had the burden of both a grand commander and as well as a minister. The house he lived in was very simple. He did not have much money. Though he had many concubines, they were all frugal. He did not arrange any music or entertainment. He was also frugal with the food he ate, the clothes he wore, the transportation he took, etc. After being paid his salary, he would have nothing left afterwards. But he was not corrupt, greedy, or lavish and did not restrain himself in order to give himself a good name. Thus he led a very simple and meagre life. The common people commented that he only looked up to those above while stepping on those below him. However, he may not have been as the people described and their views are inaccurate. For someone like Jiang Wei who dedicated himself to study and who led a very frugal and simple life, he should be set as an example for others to follow. Sun Sheng says: I do not agree with this commentary of Xi Shi! A gentleman should be conscious and careful when he is above others. There is nothing exceptional about him being filial and loyal since any person in that position should be. He was originally a servant of Wei but later went to Shu. Such a thing shows that he did it to gain benefits and hence cannot be considered by loyal. Since he was very frugal to others like his relatives, etc. this cannot be considered filial. To fight his original kingdom, this cannot be considered to be righteous. After he was defeated and surrounded [by the Shu troops], he did not commit suicide, thus he cannot be considered honourable. Achieving no merits, the people were put through a tough time by him. Raised to such a high position of authority, his enemies were still out about, thus this cannot be considered bravery. Of the five attributes of loyalty, filial piety, honour, righteousness, and bravery, Jiang Wei possesses none of them. He is a traitor of Wei and the shameless face of a dying State. His external disposition of being a great general, I have grave doubts about. While he likes to study, he is prone to being arrogant while not have any real knowledge. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes Xi Zheng's commentary on Jiang Wei can only be taken at face value but in reality, it is not an accurate reflection. His good attributes were that he loved to study and was very frugal in life. The books Ben Zhuan and Wei Lue both say that Jiang Wei had no rebellious thoughts when he surrendered to Shu. Sun Sheng's harsh commentary was only valid on the point of filial piety when Jiang Wei left his mother. But his other criticisms are considered excessive and inaccurate. Thus both commentaries tend to deviate from the truth.

Chen Shou comments: Jiang Wei was able as both a scholar and commander and desired a lot of fame. However he was mostly unsuccessful till his death. Lao Zi said: "To rule a large State is like cooking a small dish." You have to be patient and from the bottom, work your way up to the top before you can be successful. Gan Bao says: Jiang Wei was the Chancellor of Shu. His State was destroyed, his Sovereign surrendered, and he subsequently died. Alas, it is a pity! Unfortunately, it is not hard to die but hard to choose how to die. All martyrs in the past died in the end, not because they wanted to die, but because knowing that since life was short, it was better to die in an honourable way.
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 11:04 am

Cao Zhen's SGZ
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Cao Zhen

(Many thanks to FW for taking the time to edit my first draft of this biography to produce this professional translation.

Cao Zhen, styled Zidan, was nephew of The Great Ancestor�s clan. When the Grand Ancestor raised his troops, Zhen's father, Shao, was recruiting people but was killed in the region. [Yu Huan's] Wei Lue: Cao Zhen�s orginal surname was Qin, but was later adopted into the Cao clan. One reason was that Cao Zhen's father, Bonan, had been close to the Grand Ancestor since young. Towards the end of [the reign of] Xing Ping [CE 194 - 195], Yuan Shu's band was attacking robbing the Grand Ancestor, the Grand Ancestor left and was pursued by bandits, running to the Qin family Bonan opened the door and invited him in. The bandits came asking for the whereabouts of The Grand Ancestor. He answered: �I am the person you are looking for.�' And subsequently met with harm. Hence, the Grand Ancestor in remembrance of this meritorious deed changed his family name. Wei Shu says: Shao was sincerely loyal and had ability and wisdom, and was the Grand Ancestor's trusted confidant. In the beginning of [the reign of] Chu Ping [CE 190 -- 195], the Grand Ancestor raised his soldiers of righteousness, while Shao recruited multitudes of people to join The Grand Ancestor�s banner. At that time, the Inspector (Ci Shi) of Yuzhou, Huang Wan, desired to harm the Grand Ancestor, but The Grand Ancestor avoided it and left only Shao alone meet with harm. The Grand Ancestor grieved that Zhen was orphaned so young, adopted him raising him with his own sons, hence was together with Wendi (Cao Pi). Once out hunting, he was chased by a tiger, single handedly shot at the tiger, killing it. The Grand Ancestor was strengthen by his courage and made him head of the tiger and leopard riders. Took punitive actions against the bandits of Ling Qiu, and was conferred the title of Marquis of Lingshou Ting upon eradicating them. As Assistant General he led his troops to attacked Liu Bei's general at Bian, defeated him and was hence made General of Zhong Jian (Zhong Jian Jiang Jun). He was then sent to Chang'an to lead the Central Leading Army. At the time, Xiahou Yuan had perished at Yangping, which was worrying the Grand Ancestor. [The Grand Ancestor] sent Cao Zhen in the capacity as Army Protector of the Punitive Force against Shu to supervise Xu Huang and the others, beating Liu Bei's general Gao Xiang at Yangping. The Grand Ancestor having arrived at Hanzhong pulled out the army, sending Cao Zhen to Wudu to welcome Cao Hong and others on their return to encamp at Chencang. Wendi (Cao Pi) succeeded the kingship and made Cao Zhen General Who Suppresses the West, with the presented token of authority, Commander in Chief for all military affairs pertaining to Yongzhou and Liangzhou. In view of his records past and present, his title was upgraded to that of Marquis of Dong Xiang. Zhang Jin and others rebelled at Jiuquan, Cao Zhen sent Fei Yao to take punitive action against them and defeated them. Zhang Jin and the others were executed. In the third year of Huangchu [CE 222], he returned to the capital, was made The Great General of the First Army (Shang Jun Da Jiang Jun) supervising the various military affairs internally and externally, and presented with the ceremonial battle-axe (representation of military authority). With Xiahou Shang and others campaigned against Sun Quan, striking his encampment at Niuzhu and defeating him. He was reassigned and made The Great General of the Central Army (Zhong Jun Da Jiang Jun) with additional duties to do with central affairs. In the seventh year [of Huangchu] [CE 226], Wendi fell ill, Cao Zhen with Chen Qun, Sima Xuanwang (Sima Yi) and the others, received his will in the edict to assist in the affairs of the State. When Mingdi (Cao Rui) succeeded the throne, he upgraded his [Cao Zhen] title to that of the Marquis of Shaoling, Your subject Pei Song�s notes: Cao Zhen�s father was named Shao. To confer him as Marquis of Shaoling, unless the books are wrong, this matter cannot be dealt with. and was promoted to The Great General (Da Jiang Jun).

Zhuge Liang surrounded Qishan and the three commanderies of Nan An, Tian Shui, and An Ding rebelled to join Liang. The Emperor dispatched Cao Zhen to oversee the armies stationed at Mei, sending Zhang He to strike at Liang's general, Ma Su, greatly defeating them. An Ding�s citizen Yang Tiao, and others forced the officers and people to protect the city of Yue Zhi, as Cao Zhen advanced his troops to surround them. Tiao said to the masses:"The Great General has come in person, I am willing to surrender to him immediately", and subsequently had himself bound and went out to surrender. The three commanderies were thus pacified. Cao Zhen knew that having trounced [Zhuge] Liang at Qishan, his next attack would come via Chencang. So he dispatched general Hao Zhao and Wang Sheng to guard Chencang and administer the cities. In the spring of the following year, [Zhuge] Liang did indeed surround Chencang, as they were already well prepared, he was unable to breach their defences. [For his merits, Zhen's] His fief was increased by another two thousand nine hundred households. In the fourth year [of Taihe] [CE 230], in the court of Luoyang, he was promoted to Grand Minister of War (Da Sima) and given the privilege of wearing his sword and shoes in as well as not being required to hurry quick stepped to Court. Zhen with "Shu has continuously invaded our borders, it is a must that we take punitive expeditions against them. Jointly attacking them via various routes we shall subdue them totally.� The Emperor accepted this proposal. When Cao Zhen was about to set off on his punitive expedition in the West, the Emperor personally came to see him off. In the eighth month, Zhen deployed the troops from Chang'an and entered the south via the Ziwu route. Sima Xuanwang travelled upstream via the Han river, meeting up at Nanzheng. Of the army one group entered via the Xie valley route while another entered via Wu Wei. However, there was thirty days of continuous heavy rain, causing the pathway by the mountain routes to be cut off, and Cao Zhen was recalled back with the army.

In his youth, Cao Zhen with fellow clansmen Cao Zun, and fellow villager Zhu Zan worked together for the Grand Ancestor. Zun and Zan both died early. Zhen lamented and pitied their passing, and asked to portion out part of his fief to conferred upon the sons of Zun and Zan. The edict read: "The Grand Minister of War (Da Sima) has benevolence to be like an uncle in bring up orphans. Sincerely he has continued to hold an ordinary desire to partition his fief to others. A gentleman grants that which is desired, it is accepted that Zhen�s partition is bestowed upon the sons of Zun and Zan as Marquis Within the Passes (Guan Nei Hou) each with an allotment of hundred households." Whenever Cao Zhen went on campaigns, he toiled together with his men. When rewards for the army was not sufficient, he would always with the riches from his own house reward them again, and the men were all willing to be of use. Cao Zhen fell sick and returned to Luoyang. The Emperor came personally to inquire about his health. When Cao Zhen passed away, he was posthumously conferred as the Marquis of Yuan, which was inherited by his son Shuang. The Emperor in consideration of Cao Zhen's various achievements, issued an edict reading: "The Grand Minister of War was always loyal, serving two generations of our ancestors. Internally, he did not relied on being the favourite of relatives. Externally, neither was he arrogant towards people from foreign lands. It is commendable that he maintained his position despite his conferred surpluses, being hardworking and modest was just some of his virtues. Thus all of his five sons, Xi, Xun, Ze, Yan, and Ai are conferred as Marquises (Lie Hou)." Eariler, Wendi conferred two hundred households to Zhen, conferring upon his brother, Bin, as a Enumerated Marquis.

Tao Qian
By: By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

This is only a translation of his biography from the Hou Han Shu. I'm about 3/4ths of the way into his SGZ bio

Tao Qian, stylename Gongzu, was a man of Danyang. When he was young, he was a scholar and worked as an official in the region. Four times he was employed by the Che Qi Jiang Jun, Zhang Wen, and dispatched to the western boundary. The Yellow Turbans rose in Xuzhou, and Tao Qian was installed as the Inspector (Ci Shi) of Xuzhou. He broke the Yellow Turbans and they fled away in great defeat. Thus the region was peaceful again.

At the time, even though Dong Zhuo was removed, Li Jue and Guo Si were creating trouble in the Land Within the Passes (Guanzhong). With contact broken off, Tao Qian intermittently sent messengers to the Western capital to offer tribute. A memorial came, promoting Tao Qian as Imperial Protector (Mu) of Xuzhou in addition to the title of General of the East and enfeoffed as Marquis of Liyang. At this time, the people of the Xu region were prosperous, the grain stores were full, and lots of refugees came to seek shelter. However, Tao Qian was not credited for this since he was mostly negligent in administration. The Aide-de-camp (Bie Jia Cong Shi) Zhao Yu, who was a well-known scholar and righteous man, became the Governor of Guangling. Cao Hong however was an unscrupulous man and Tao Qian closely associated with him. He killed many innocent people which caused disturbances. Que Xuan of Xiapi declared himself the `Son of Heaven' and Tao Qian initially sided with him. However, later he killed Que Xuan and merged his forces with his own.

Initially, Cao Cao's father, Cao Song, seeked refuge at Lang Xie. At the time, Tao Qian left his generals to guard Yinping. Some soldiers stole Cao Song's treasures and killed the entire clan. In the fourth year of Chu Ping, Cao Cao attacked Tao Qian, defeating Fu Yang of Pengchang. Tao Qian retreated to Tan and Cao Cao, unable to overcome him, retreated. Cao Cao then went to capture [the counties of] Lu, Ju Ling, Xia Qiu, where he slaughtered everyone. Several hundreds of thousands of men and women were killed and not even dogs or chickens were spared. The flow of the Si river was blocked and the cities of five counties destroyed. Before this, many refugees from the West escaped the troubles of Li Jue to seek shelter with Tao Qian, and all of them were slaughtered.

In the first year of Xing Ping, Cao Cao again attacked Tao Qian. His strategy involved capturing Lang Xie and the various prefectures of Dong Hai. Tao Qian feared [defeat] was unavoidable and wanted to return to Danyang. With Zhang Miao and Lu Bu's capture of Rui Zhou, Cao Cao withdrew to attack Lu Bu. Tao Qian later died of sickness.

Initially, Ze Rong, who was a man from the same county, gathered a following of several hundred men to aid Tao Qian. Tao Qian appointed him to supervise the transport of supplies in Guangling, Xiapi, and Pengcheng. However, supplies from the three prefectures were instead disrupted [by Ze Rong who] built the Fu Tu temple, which was a temple of magnificence and grandeur that could hold three thousand people. Each time the Buddha was cleansed, lots of food was served, enough to feed about ten thousand men. When Cao Cao attacked Tao Qian, the Xu region was in turmoil. Ze Rong retreated to Guangling with soldiers numbering to ten thousand as well as three thousand horses. The Governor of Guangling, Zhao Yu, treated him as an honoured guest. Ze Rong wanted to take advantage of the supplies and resources of Guangling and so he made Zhao Yu drunk before assassinating him. Many troops plundered the city as they crossed the River into Yuzhang. Killing the Governor, Zhu Hao, he overtook over his city. He was later defeated by the Inspector of Yangzhou, Liu Yao. He escaped into the mountains and was later killed.

Empress Mu
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

This isnt my translation but is a SGZ biography translated by Achilles Fang and is contained in his book "Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms".

Pei Songzhi's inclusions were translated by me.

Empress Mu

The Empress Mu, Consort of the First Sovereign, was from Chenliu. Her elder brother, Wu Yi, lost his father while still young. Wu Yi's father was a friend of Liu Yan, so he and his entire family entered Shu to join him. Liu Yan, who cherished high ambitions, heard a skilled physiognomist say that the Empress would attain a very exalted position. At that time, Yan happened to have his son Liu Mao with him, and married him to her. After Liu Mao's death, the (later) Empress lived as a widow. The First Sovereign having conquered Yizhou, Lady Sun returned to Wu. Han-Jin Chunqiu: When the First Sovereign entered Yizhou, Wu had recalled Lady Sun. Lady Sun wanted to bring the Latter Sovereign with her back to Wu. Zhuge Liang sent Zhao Yun to intercept them across the Yangzi and brought back the Latter Sovereign. The officials all advised the First Sovereign to marry the (later) Empress. The First Sovereign hesitated, because he was of the same name as Liu Mao. Fa Zheng maintained that, "As your relation with him, is it any nearer than that between Duke Wen of Jin and Zi Yu?" Xi Zuochi says: The marriage of husband and wife is the beginning of the relationship between two people and also the foundation of the way of a King. An common person cannot be without rites, hence how can a monach do so? When Duke Wen of Jin ignored the rites for political reason, building up his kingdom, it happened because Zi Fan said to him, "If you intend to seek help from someone, you first have to follow their wishes. When a general has robbed you of your kingdom, what concern is there for a wife?" Thus it was not a case of violating the rites for no reason. The First Sovereign was not faced with a political issue and so the previous case is not an accurate example. Thus he was not able to demonstrate the Way of the Emperors Yao and Shun. The decision by the First Sovereign to accept their advice was thus wrong.

Therefore he took her as his fu ren (wife?). In the twenty fourth year of Jian'an [CE 219] he enthroned her as Queen Consort of the King of Hanzhong. In the first year of Zhangwu, summer, fifth month, he mader her his Emperors: "I, who in compliance with the heavenly mandate rule as highest person over the myriad states, hereby name the Queen Consort as Empress. I dispatch the Prime Minister Zhuge Liang with the Tally to confer the seal upon her. She shall offer sacrifices to the Ancestral Temple and be mother to the empire. May the Empress be reverant."

In the first year of Jian Xing [CE 223], having succeeded to the throne, the Latter Sovereign conferred on her the title of Empress Dowager, designating her palace as Chang Le Gong. Wu Yi attained the title of General of the Chariots and Cavalry (Che Ji Jiang Jun) and was enfeoffed as Xian lord.

In the eighth year of Yan Xi [CE 245], the Empress died and was buried together with the First Sovereign at the mausoleum of Hui Ling. Sun Sheng's Shushi Pu: Wu Yi's grandson, Wu Qiao, died thirty years into Li Xiong's reign and was not wronged by Xiong.

Li Dian
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
SGZ Biography of Li Dian

Li Dian, stylename Mancheng, was a man of Juye, Shanyang. He and his father, Li Qian, had heroic qualities and being host to about a thousand families, lived in Cheng Shi. In the middle of [the reign of] Chuping [CE 190-193], Li Dian along with many went to follow the Grand Ancestor (Cao Cao), breaking the Yellow Turbans at Shouzhang. And again, he was involved in the attack against Yuan Shu and the conquering of Xuzhou. During the troubles caused by Lu Bu, the Grand Ancestor sent Li Qian back to Cheng Shi and help reassure the various counties. The Aide-de-camp (Bie Jia) of Lu Bu, Xue Lan, and Secretary (Zhi Zhong) Li Feng, summoned Li Qian, hoping to rebel together. Li Qian did not listen to them and so he was killed. The Grand Ancestor sent Qian's son, Li Zheng, to lead their troops together with various generals to strike at Xue Lan and Li Feng. Xue Lan and Li Feng were defeated, and because of his achievements in pacifying the various counties of Yuzhou, he was moved to become Inspector (Ci Shi) of Qingzhou. Li Zheng died and Li Dian moved his residence to Yinling and became Gentleman of the Household (Zhong Lang Jiang) as well as taking over Zheng's army.....Wei Shu says: When Dian was young, he was very studious but did not like military matters. He studied the Zhuo's Commentary of the Annals of the Spring and Autumn Period (Zhuo Shi Zhuan) and read a broad range of other books. The Grand Ancestor thought this was very good and so he tested him on the politics involved in ruling the people.....and dispatched to become the Governor (Taishou) of Lihu.

At the time when the Grand Ancestor was facing Yuan Shao at Guan Du, Li Dian commanded his clan along with subordinates to transport grain and silk to support the army. Yuan Shao was defeated and Li Dian was made Bi Jiang Jun, stationed in Anmin. The Grand Ancestor attacked Yuan Tan while Yuan Shang was at Liyang. He dispatched Li Dian along with Cheng Yu and others to transport provisions via boat. Yuan Shang sent the Governor of Wei prefecture, Gao Fan, to station his troops on the Yellow River, blocking the water path. The Grand Ancestor ordered Li Dian and Cheng Yu, "If the boats are unable to pass, then dismount from the boats and take the land route". Li Dian along with his various generals discussed this, saying, "Gao Fan's troops have little armour but rely on the water. They are in a lax and delayed state. We will be certain to overcome them if we strike. Troops not being able to defend internally is detrimental to the State; we should strike at them immediately." Cheng Yu also agreed with this so together they attacked Gao Fan and defeated him. Thus the water route was cleared. Liao Biao ordered Liu Bei to invade the north where he arrived at Ye. The Grand Ancester sent Li Dian together with Xiahou Dun to repel him. Liu Bei suddenly set fire to his camp and retreated. Xiahou Dun led his troops to pursue him but Li Dian said, "The rebel had no reason to retreat so I suspect an ambush. The southern road is narrow with dense grass and wood. You must not pursue." Xiahou Dun did not listen to him but gave chase along with Yu Jin while Li Dian was left behind to guard. Indeed they fell into a rebel ambush and the battle was not favourable, so Li Dian went in to save them. Liu Bei saw the rescue, so he decided to retreat. After Ye (different Ye to above) was pacified after being surrounded, Li Dian and Yue Jin were sent to surround Gao Gan at Hu pass, and attack Guan Cheng at Chang Guang. In both cases, they defeated the enemy. He was promoted as General Who Captures Caitiffs (bu lu jiang jun) and made Marquis of a Chief Village (Dou Ting Hou). Li Dian's clan and subordinates consisted of about three thousand families, resident in Cheng Shi, so he request to be moved to the Wei prefecture. The Grand Ancestor laughed and said, "Sir, do you want to be like Geng Shun?" Li Dian thanked him by saying, "Dian believes my achievement is small, yet my rank and nobility is too high. I have raised my clan as a show of strength to handle the endless need for suppression. It is proper that we are solid internally in order to govern the Four Seas. Hence it is not that I admire [Geng] Shun." Forthwith, together with his clan and subordinates which numbered thirteen thousand people, they moved to Ye. The Grand Ancestor thought this was excellent and made him General Who Breaks the Caitiffs (po lu jiang jun). Together with Zhang Liao and Yue Jin, they stationed in Hefei. Sun Quan led his enormous army to surround them. Zhang Liao wanted to go out and attack them but he, Yue Jin, and Li Dian were not very friendly with each other. Zhang Liao was worried with their disagreement, but Li Dian kindly said, "This is an important affair of the State. After listening to your plan, how can my personal hatred make me neglect the common good?" Thus he and Zhang Liao led their troops to defeat Sun Quan who later retreated. His fief was increased by a hundred households where before he had three hundred.

Li Dian was very knowledgeable and was an elegant and noble scholar. He did not struggle with other generals to gain merit. He respected worthy scholars since he sincerely believed he was not as good as them. Within the army, everyone looked up to him as a leader. At the age of thirty-six, he died. His son, Li Zhen, succeeded him. The Scholarly Emperor (Cao Pi) recalled his merits at Hefei and increased the fief to Li Zhen by a hundred households. He also conferred one of Li Dian's sons as Marquis Within the Imperial Domain (Guan Nei Hou) with a hundred households. Li Dian was posthumously titled Marquis of Sympathy (Min Hou).

Chen Shou comments: Li Dian was a noble, esteemed, and elegant scholar who put righteousness first while forgetting any personal dislike. This is an admirable characteristic.

SGZ Biography of Xiahou Ba
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

(This is a sub-biography of Xiahou Ba, from the book Wei Lue, included in Xiahou Yuan's biography)

Xiahou Ba, stylename Zhongquan. [His father Xiahou] Yuan was killed by Shu, thus Ba was always grinding his teeth in rage and desired to take his revenge on Shu. In the middle of Huangchu [CE 220-226], he was the Lieutenant-General (Pian Jiang Jun). Serving in Ziwu, Xiahou Ba was called to lead the Van, where he advanced Xing Shi Wei. He settled his camp within the Qu valley. The Shu people knew that the general was Xiahou Ba so they pointed troops to attack him. Xiahou Ba personally got into battle in between Lu Jiao. Lai Jiu arrived and the siege was broken. Later he was made General of the Right (you jiang jun) stationed in West Long. He raised his troops well and thus won their hearts. Until the middle of [the reign of] Zheng Shi [CE 240-249], he replaced Xiahou Ru as Protector of the Army That Subdues Shu (zheng shu hu jun). At the time, the General Who Suppresses the West (zheng xi jiang jun), Xiahou Xuan, was a younger cousin of Xiahou Ba and Xuan was a cousin of Cao Shuang. When Sima Xuanwang (Sima Yi) executed Cao Shuang, he forthwith summoned Xiahou Xuan. Xiahou Xuan came to the east. Xiahou Ba heared that Cao Shuang was executed while Xiahou Xuan was summoned back, so he believed that disaster was certain to come his way and in his heart, he felt frightened. Also, initially, Xiahou Ba was not on good terms with Inspector (Ci Shi) of Yongzhou, Guo Huai. Since Guo Hua was sent to replace Xiahou Xuan as [General Who] Suppresses the West, Xiahou Ba felt uneasy so he hurrily went into Shu. He hastened south into Yinping but became lost, entering into the Qiong valley. With provisions exhausted, he killed his horse and later went on foot. He then broke his leg and laid under a rock. He sent someone out to ask for directions but he had no idea what to do. Shu had heard about this and sent a messenger to welcome Xiahou Ba. Initially, in the fifth year of Jian'an [CE 200], at the time Xiahou Ba had a younger cousin who was only thirteen or fourteen years of age and lived in the same prefecture. After going out to gather firewood, she was taken by Zhang Fei. Zhang Fei knew she was from a good family and so he married her, and she bore a daughter who was later Liu Shan's Empress (Empress Zhang). When Xiahou Yuan died, Zhang Fei's wife asked to be able to bury [her uncle]. When Xiahou Ba entered Shu, Liu Shan met with him personally, where he explained saying, "Sir, your father met his end in the processes of war and not under the blade of my ancestors." He pointed his finger to his own son and said, "Here is a [grand]-nephew of the Xiahou family". He was generously rewarded with noble rank.
SGZ Biography of Huo Jun
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Huo Jun, stylename Zhongmiao, was a man from Zhi Jiang, Nanjun. His elder brother, Huo Du, had a few hundred followers in his county division. After Huo Du died, the Imperial Protector (mu) of Jingzhou, Liu Biao ordered Huo Jun to collect his [brother's] followers. After Liu Biao died, Huo Jun led his followers to return to the First Sovereign. The First Sovereign made Huo Jun his General of the Gentlemen of the Household (Zhonglang Jiang). The First Sovereign personally headed south from Jiameng to attack Liu Zhang, leaving Huo Jun to guard the city of Jiameng. Zhang Lu dispatched his general, Yang Bo to entice Huo Jun, hoping to assist in the guarding of the city. Huo Jun replied, "You can have the head of a small fellow like me, but you cannot have the city." Yang Bo therefore retreated back. Later, Liu Zhang's generals Fu Jin and Xiang Cun led ten thousand or so men to follow up the Lang river and attack and surround Huo Jun. After a year, the city still did not fall. Huo Jun had within the city only several hundred solders and after waiting for the opportunity when the enemy became idle, he selected the best [of his soldiers] and made a quick strike, heavily defeating their enemy and beheading Xiang Cun. After the First Sovereign pacified Shu, he considered Huo Jun's achievements to be excellent, and divided the Guang Han into Zitong prefecture, making Huo Jun the Governor (taishou) of Zitong and Major-General (Pi Jiang Jun). He was a government official for three years before passing away at the age of forty. His body was returned and buried in Chengdu. The First Sovereign lamented very much and therefore issued an imperial order which was read out by Zhuge Liang: "Huo Jun was an excellent officer with many accomplishments for the State, hence I wish to carry out libation for him" Later, he personally led a group of officials to attend the ceremony. Therefore, they had stayed and lodged near the tomb which at the time, showed much honour.

His son, Huo Yi, stylename Shaoxian, was a servant of the Crown Prince during the First Sovereign's final year. Later the Crown Prince dismissed his servants. When the Prime Minister, Zhuge Liang went north to station in Hanzhong, he asked him to be personal secretary, as well as sending his son, Zhuge Qiao to go with him together. When Zhuge Liang died, he was made Gentleman Within the Yellow Gates (huangmen shilang). The Latter Sovereign made his son, Liu Xuan, as Crown Prince and Huo Yi was adopted as a son. Liu Xuan was very good with mounted archery but each time he left or entered, he was without standard. Huo Yi quoted ancient examples of righteousness. He put forward his remonstrances and thus exchange hiew views. Later he was made Advisor to the Army (Can Jun) and demoted to second deputy chief controller (fu er dao du), then again to Protector of the Army (hu jun), with the same responsibilities as before. At the time in Yongchang prefecture, the Liao barbarian tribes, taking advantage of the rugged terrain, refused to submit, and there was lots of banditry and killings. Hence Huo Yi was sent as Governor (taishou) of Yongchang and leading an auxiliary force went on a punitive expedition, beheading the rival commander and destroying the city. Hence the borders of the prefecture were peaceful again. He was made General of the Assistant Army (yi jun jiang jun), Governor (taishou) of Jianning, as well returning to his reponsibilities in the southern prefectures. In the sixth year of [the reign of] of Jingyao, he was honoured as General Who Pacifies the South (an nan jiang jun). A year later, Shu was combined into Wei. Huo Yi was heading the troops in East Ba, and together with Luo Xian of Xiangyang, they each guarded their positions. Both were close in personal terms. Both continued to remain in their former posts and were rewarded very generously. Han Jin Chun Qiu says: Huo Yi heard the arrival of the Wei troops and went straight to Chengdu. But the Latter Sovereign believed the preparation for the defences against the enemy were complete so he refused to listen. With no defences in Chengdu, Huo Yi dressed in clothes of mourning and loudy weeped in front of the city for three days. Various generals thought it was proper to surrender quickly, but Huo Yi said, "Now, the channels of communication have been cut and we do not know of the safety of our Sovereign, so we cannot rush through this quickly without careful thought. If our Sovereign wishes to make peace with Wei and he is received with dignity in order to maintain peace within the borders, then it is not too late. But if there is harm and humiliation, then we will fight them to our deaths, why even discuss about delayed or rapid plans?!!" After hearing the Latter Sovereign was moving to the East, Huo Yi, together with the generals from six prefectures, sent a memorial which said, "Your vassals believe that during a person's life there are three (??), but only one in matters. When danger and difficulty exists, then obviously we will devote our lives. Now your vassals' State has been defeated, and our Sovereign submitted, then there is no point in defending to the death. So we wish to submit and dare not have any ulterior motive." Jin Wen Wang (Sima Zhao) thought this was good and appointed Huo Yi as Chief Controller (dou du) of Nanzhong with the same responsibilities as before. Later he was dispatched to lead troops to support Lu Xing and pacify the three prefectures Jiaozhi, Rinan, and Jiuzhen. He was honoured as Marquis Within the Imperial Domain (guan nei hou). Huo Yi's grandson, Huo Biao, was Governor of Yue Sui in Jin. Xiangyang Ji: Luo Xian, stylename Lingze. His father, Luo Meng was forced by the confusion to enter Shu where he was appointed as Governor (taishou) of Guang Han...
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 11:11 am

By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
This bio is partially incomplete. Commentary from Xi Zuochi will take a while to translate

SGZ Biography of Fei Shi

Fei Shi, stylename Gongju, was a man of Jianwei, Nan An. At the time of Liu Zhang, he was the Magistrate (ling) of Mianzhu. When the First Sovereign attacked Mianzhu, Fei Shi chose to surrender the city. With Chengdu under control, the First Sovereign was made Imperial Protector (mu) of Yizhou while Fei Shi was made General Staff Supervising the Army (du jun cong shi) as well as Governor of Zang Ge, then in addition, he was the Major of the Forward Division of [Yi]zhou (zhou qian bu sima). The First Sovereign became Prince of Hanzhong and dispatched Fei Shi to carry the seal of General of the Front (qian jiang jun) to Guan Yu. Guan Yu heard that Huang Zhong was made General of the Back and was angry, saying, "A great man should not end up with the same rank as an old soldier!" and refused the appointment. Fei Shi replied, "When a man must establish a royal work, he cannot use one comrade alone. In former times Xiao He and Cao Can were boyhood friends of Gaozu, while Chen Ping and Han Xin came later as refugees. When ranking was discussed, Han Xin held the highest place, but I have no heard that either Xiao He or Cao Can were angry about it. If the Prince of Hanzhong, to honour the house of Han rewards someone for his achievement on another occassion, why must you think he regards you no differently to others? You and his majesty are so close you might have a single body, you feel the same joys and the same sorrows, you share good fortune and ill. I do not believe you should judge his feelings by the highs and lows of official titles or by the size of fiefs and gifts. I am nothing but an errand-boy, acting upon orders. If you refuse the appointment, I shall simply go back. Nonetheless, I shall be sorry for it, and I fear you may regret it too." Guan Yu was touched and recognised the error. He bowed at once to accept the appointment. (RdeC)

Later, various officials were discussing about pushing forward the Prince of Hanzhong to assume the title of Emperor. Fei Shi however memoralised, "It is because Cao Cao and his son have coerced their sovereign and usurped his throne that Your HIghness is wandering in this land ten thousand li distant from the capital, with soldiers around you, your intention being to punish the rebels. Now the arch-enemy is not yet put down, and you would first proclaim yourself Emperor. I am afraid that the people will become suspicious of you. Formerly, the Emperor Gaozu (Liu Bang) made an agreement with Chu (Xiang Yu) that he who the first destroys the Qin will be crowned as King. When he butchered Xianyang and seized Zi Ying, he still thought of declining the throne out of modesty. Now, Your Highness has not issued out of the narrow lmits of your domain, yet you would proclaim yourself Emperor! This is not what I, stupid though I am, should recommend you do" (AFang) Following this, Fei Shi was indicated to be disobedient and demoted as General Staff of the Division (congshi) in Yongchang. In the third year of Jian Xing, he followed Zhuge Liang in his southern expedition and later returned to the county (xian) of Hanyang where a surrendered person, Li Hong, came to see Liang. When Zhuge Liang saw Li Hong, Jiang Wan and Fei Shi were present as well. Li Hong said, "Meng Da has authorised me to come here. There is a man named Wang Chong who came from the south to meet with Meng Da, saying that Your Excellency is grinding your teeth with rage [at Meng Da's defection], and was about to execute Meng Da's wife, but did not since the First Sovereign did not agree. Meng Da then said, "Zhuge Liang is a considerate person so he cannot be like that." He refused to believe the words of Wang Chong, and now looks up to Your Excellency." Zhuge Liang then spoke to Jiang Wan and Fei Shi, saying, "Have you heard of any letters from Zidu (Meng Da) reach the capital?". Fei Shi said, "Meng Da, the little fellow, before was arrogant and disloyal, and later betrayed the First Sovereign. Being such a treacherous person, why would he sent letters?!!" Zhuge Liang made no reply but he wished to entice Meng Da to act as outside help, so he unexpectedly wrote to Meng Da, saying, "Last year I went on the Southern expedition. Not even a year went by and I have return to Hanyang where I met Li Hong. After hearing of the news, I made a long and sad sigh and remembered your understanding character. How can it be that you throw away your honourable name and leave? The truth is this happened because Liu Feng encroached upon you and injured the righteousness of the First Sovereign's treatment of his officers. Again, on Li Hong's account, Wang Chong was making up false rumours yet you, Sir, understand well my mind and rejected Chong's words. Now in the hope of clearing things up as well as pursuing our previous good relationship, I look to the East, dispatching this letter to you." When Meng Da received the letter from Zhuge Liang, he frequently communicated with him and pledged to rebel against Wei. Wei dispatched Sima Xuanwang (Sima Yi) to attack him and Meng Da was subsequently beheaded. Zhuge Liang also did not believe Meng Da was sincere in his heart so he did not sent reinforcements to assist him. When Jiang Wan managed affairs, he made Fei Shi an admonishing minister (jian yi dai fu). He later died in his home.

Wang Chong was a person of Guang Han. He was the General of the Standard (ya men jiang) and worked with the Administrator in Jiangzhou, Li Yan. Since he hated Li Yan and was afraid of being punished, he went and surrendered to Wei. Wei made him Governor (Taishou) of Yueling. Sun Sheng's Shu Shi Pu says: Fei Shi's son was called Fei Li. Later, in Yizhou, many of the well known Fei's were descendents of Fei Shi.


(RdeC) This conversation came from R. De Crespigny, "To Establish Peace", Vol. 2, ANU, 1996.
(AFang) This conversation came from A. Fang, "Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Vol. 1, Harvard-Yenching Institute.

SGZ Biography of Chen Dao -- By Empress Zhang

Chen Dao, styled Shu Zhi, is from RuNan. He followed the First Sovereign since YuZhou, his office usually right below Zhao Yun. They are both known for their loyalty and bravery. In the early year of JianXing [CE 223-227], he has the rank of commander of YuAn, General Who Conquers the West, and title of Duke.

SGZ Biography of Zhao Yun -- By Empress Zhang

Zhao Yun, styled Zilong, was from ZhenDing of Chang Shan. He was originally subordinate to Gongsun Zan. When Zan sent the First Emperor to defend Yuan Shao for Tian Kai, Zhao Yun went with him and become the main cavalry. Yun Bie Zhuan: Yun was eight feet tall with a magnificent appearance. He was elected to lead the official and soldiers to join Gongsun Zan. At that time, Yuan Shao was the governor of Jizhou, therefore Zan was worried that the people were going to side with Shao. When Yun came, he ridiculed him, �I heard the people of Guizhou all like the Yuan family, why would you return from a dead end?� Yun replied, �The country is in turmoil; no one winner is guaranteed and the people face hardships. My state talked about the good rulers and they prefer your lordship over lord Yuan.� At that time, the First Emperor was with Gongsun Zan as well. He received Yun well every time and formed a deep friendship. When Yun had to return home because of his brother�s funeral, the First Emperor knew he was not going to come back so he went to see him off. Yun said, �I will not betray your kindness.� When the First Emperor went to Yuan Shao, Yun met with him at city of Yi. The First Emperor slept on the same bed with Yun and secretly sent him to gather several hundred troops in the name of Left General (Liu Bei�s title); Yuan Shao did not know. He then followed the First Emperor to Jingzhou. When the First Emperor was pursued by Lord Cao at Changban, Dangyang, he left his wife behind to escape. Yun held the child, who was the Later Emperor, and protected Lady Gan, Later Emperor�s mother, so they both survived. He was promoted to General of Yamen. When the First Emperor went to Shu, Yun stayed at Jingzhou. Yun Bie Zhuan: When the First Emperor was defeated, some said that Yun traveled North (surrender to Cao Cao), the First Emperor threw his hand spear to the person and said, �Zilong would not leave me.� Soon, Yun came. He helped to conquer Southern Jingzhou and was promoted to General of Side and Governor of Guiyang instead of Zhao Fan. Fan�s widow sister-in-law was pretty and Fan wanted to marry her to Zhao Yun. Yun refused, �We have the same last name, so your brother is like my brother.� He refused severely. When someone advised Yun to marry her, Yun said, �Fan only surrendered because he has no other option, his true intention is not known; there are plenty of women in this world� and did not take her. When Fan escaped, Yun did not care much. At first, he fought with Xiahou Dun at Slope of Bowang and captured Xiahou Lan alive. Lan grew up in the same hometown Yun did and they know each since a young age. Knowing Lan is familiar with laws, he asked the First Emperor to release him and appoint him as military police. However, Yun never used Lan in any form, showing his caution. When the First Emperor went to Yizhou, Yun stayed behind as Sima. At that time Lady Sun, using her status as Sun Quan�s sister, allowed the Wu soldiers to act illegally. The First Emperor trusted Yun will be able to straighten up the chaos thus appointed him to be in charge of the internal affairs. When Sun Quan heard Liu Bei went west, he sent ships to take back his sister and Lady Sun wanted to bring the Later Emperor with him. Yun and Zhang Fei blocked the river and stopped the Later Emperor.

When the First Emperor attacked Liu Zhang from Jiameng, he summoned Zhuge Liang. Liang led Zhao Yun to travel west on the river where they conquered provinces together with Zhang Fei. When he arrived in Jiangzhou, he sent Yun to Jiangyang from Wai River; Yun united with Liang at ChengDu. When ChengDu was pacified, Yun was promoted to General of YuJun. Yun Bie Zhuan: When ChengDu was conquered, there were proposals to award generals with houses within the city and estates outside. Yun rejected, �Huo Qu Bing once said, �The Huns are not conquered, what is a family used for?� Today, the rebels are not only the Huns therefore it is not a time to seek comfort. When the country is united, people return to their homeland and farm there. The people of Yizhou suffered from wars, thus their estates should be returned and we ask them to restore their old occupation. Then can they be happy and obey to the rules.� The First Emperor followed the advice. When Xiahou Yuan was defeated, Lord Cao came to conquer Hanzhong; he stored several thousand bags of grain at the North Mountain. Huang Zhong believed it was conquerable so he went to raid the grain with Yun�s soldiers. When Zhong did not return by the agreed time, Yun led several tens of cavalries to find him. At the same time Lord Cao directed his troops to come out. When Yun was attacked by the vanguard, he just began fighting when the reinforcements came. Threatened by the massive army, Yun fought while retreating. Cao�s army was dissolved and united back, putting Yun in the middle, yet he was able to get out. General Zhang Zhuo was hurt so Yun went back to escort Zhuo back to the camp. Cao�s army pursued to the camp and Zhang Yi, associate to Yun, wanted to close the camp and take a defensive position. When Yun returned to the camp, he opened it up and hid all banners and drums. Lord Cao was suspicious that Yun had an ambush, so he retreated. Yun then sounded the drum and attacked the last region using arrows. Cao�s army got frightened and start fighting amongst themselves, thus many died in the River Han. When the First Emperor visited Zhao Yun�s camp the second day to see the battleground yesterday, he exclaimed, �Zilong has courage all over his body.� He invited Yun to a banquet until night and the army gave Zhao Yun the label of General of Tiger Warrior ever since. When Sun Quan attacked Jingzhou, the First Emperor got angry and wanted to attack Quan. Yun said, �The national rebel is Cao Cao, not Sun Quan, therefore Wei should be destroyed first, then Wu would submit itself. Also Cao Cao has died, his son Pi usurped the throne. Now it is time conquer Guan Zhong (1) and take and upper end of Yellow River and Wei River to wipe out the rebels. The warriors from the east of Pass (2) would welcome the army with grains and horses. Your Majesty should not let go of Wei and fight with Wu first because when the fire starts, it would be impossible to cease.� The First Emperor ignored his advice; he went east and kept Yun as Governor of Jiangzhou. When the First Emperor is defeated, Yun advanced his troops to Yong An; by then the Wu troops had already retreated. The first year of JianXing (3), Yun was promoted to Zhong Hu Jun and Zhen Nan Jiang Jun (General who Conquers South). He received the title of Marquis of Yun Chang Ting, later is promoted to Zhen Dong Jiang Jun (General who Defend the East). Fifth year, he camped with Zhuge Liang at Hanzhong. Next year, Liang started the northern campaign. He spread rumors that he was attacking the Xie Valley so Cao Zhen sent numerous troops to defend. Liang then ordered Yun and Deng Zhi to fight against them and attacked Qishan himself. Yun and Zhi lost at Ji Valley because of the overwhelming enemy, yet they were able to unite the rest and defend thus preventing a total defeat. When the army retreated, Yun was demoted to Zhen Jun Jiang Jun (General who Defend the Army). Yun Bie Zhuan: Liang said, �When the army retreated from Jie Ting, soldiers were lost; yet the army retreated from Ji Valley did not record any lost, why?� [Deng] Zhi replied, �Yun himself guarded the rear thus no supplies were left behind and no soldier was unable to find his general.� Yun has some silk in the military treasure, Liang wanted to give those to the generals, Yun said, �There are no success militarily, why should they receive rewards? I ask those to be kept in the treasury and distributed in October for winter rewards.� Liang praised his decision.

Yun died in the seventh year of JianXing (4). His posthumous title was Marquis of Shun Ping.

During the First Emperor�s time, Fa Zheng was the only one who received a posthumous title. When it came to the Later Emperor, Zhuge Liang, due to his achievements that overshadow the world, Jiang Wan and Fei Yi, because they took responsibility of the country, all received such title. Chen Di is liked by the emperor thus is granted this reward; Xiahou Ba came from faraway therefore he is entitled to this privilege. Therefore when Guan Yu, Zhang Fei, Ma Chao, Pang Tong, Huang Zhong, and Yun all received posthumous title, the people at that all regard this as an honor. Yun Bie Zhuan: The Later Emperor�s edict: �Yun served the late emperor and had amazing achievements. When I was young and in danger, I was able to escape due to Yun�s loyalty. Posthumous titles are for contributors, which would include Yun. Chief General Jiang Wei etc. discussed and believed when Yun served the late emperor and made great contributions. He helped manage the kingdom and obeyed the laws, thus his achievements are recordable. The battle of Dangyang showed his unwavering loyalty. A vassal should serve the emperor without the fear of death because the emperor would treat his subjects with manners and give rewards properly. The deceased ones should be remembered while the living ones should be encouraged to forget his own danger. Following the rules of posthumous titles: who is gentle, virtue, and kind should be named Shun; who is can carry out tasks orderly should be named Ping; who is able to put out disordered should be named Ping, thus it is proper to give the title of Marquis of Shun Ping to Yun.� Yun�s son Tong succeeded his father�s title and received rank up to Hu Guan Zhong Lang (5), and commander of the leading army. His second son Guang has the rank of Ya Men Jiang and died on battlefield when he followed Jiang Wei to Ta Zhong.

(1) Guan Zhong is the place around Chang An, which is west to the Pass of Han Gu.
(2) This pass is referring to the Pass of Han Gu, which is located east of Chang An but west of Luo Yang
(3) A.D. 223 JianXing indicated the first fifteen years of Liu Shan�s reign.
(4) The seventh year is A.D. 229. At that time Zhuge Liang is on his third campaign, thus contradicting the novel�s claim that Yun died before Liang�s second campaign.
(5) Hu Guan Zhong Lang is in charge of the emperor�s banners and guards. He is present at court meeting to guard the emperor�s safety.
Sum Gai posted this;
Note I do not take credit for this work. It was done by Liao Li at another board that is now defunct. If Liao Li sees this please come forward.

Quan Cong's bio

Quan Cong, familiar name Zihuang, came from one of Wu Jun's wealthy families. His father Quan Rou was elected during Han Emperor Ling's reign due to his honesty. He worked as a scholar's assistant, but due to the chaos caused by Dong Zhuo, he abandoned his government post and returned home. When the county broke up, he left his affairs, having received imperial orders to investigate the Chief Commandant of eastern areas. Sun Ce reached Wu, and Quan Rou attached his troops to Sun Ce's, so Sun Ce gave him the position of Chief Commandant of Dan Yang. When Sun Quan became General of the Eastern Cavalry, Quan Rou became Chief Clerk, moving to become Gui Yang Governor. Quan Rou moved one thousand hu of rice to Wu, making that city friendly. On arrival, it was distributed, and the ships returned empty. Quan Rou went into a rage, saying "I have made this city become angry, but the troop leaders have to contend with trouble from the counties, so it is easy to find support, and no time to report." Thus Quan Rou appeared even more strange.
At that time, Zhong Zhou's troops were preventing confusion in the south, while Quan Zong's family members numbered a hundred odd, so he inclined his family to give aid, leading them together, thus making his name well known. Later, Sun Quan gave Quan Cong the title of Colonel Who Displays Majesty, and the command of one thousand soldiers, employing him against the Shanyue. Due to a recruitment call, over ten thousand fine soldiers were gained, all moving to be stationed at Niu Zhu, and Quan Cong was changed to general.
In Rebuilt Tranquility 24, Liu Bei sent Guan Yu to surround Fan and Xiang Yang, Quan Cong went to submit a plan to repel Guan Yu. At this time, Sun Quan was planning with Lu Meng on a secret raid, but fearing that news of it would get out, stopped Quan Cong and gave no reply to him. After the defeat of Guan Yu, Sun Quan held a feast. He said to Quan Cong, "Formerly you proposed a plan, yet I did not reply. Today we celebrate a victory, yet you also play down your merits." Hence he was made Governor of Yang Hua.
In the first year of Yellow Might, Wei sent its navies to Dong Kou, Sun Quan sent Lu Fan in command of various generals to resist, with the barracks overlooking each other. Many times the enemy used light boats to attempt a raid, but Quan Cong often led his armoured troops, watching without rest. Just then, enemy troops numbering a thousand went into the river, Quan Cong routed them, killing their general Yi Lu. Quan Cong was made General Who Pacifies the South and Governor of Qian Tang. In the fourth year, he was given the superficial rank of Governor of the Nine Rivers. In the seventh year, Sun Quan arrived at Wan, sending Quan Cong with Lu Xun, General Who Upholds the State, to attack Cao Xiu, destroying him at Shi Ting. At that time, some people in Dan Yang, Wu and Hui Shan became bandits, attacking Mei Zhu prefecture, so Sun Quan made the dangerous areas of the three counties Dong An county, with Quan Cong as governor. There, he was just in giving rewards and punishments. He attracted many to surrender, so that by the middle of the year, they numbered over ten thousand. Sun Quan summoned Quan Cong to return to Niu Zhu, ceasing the existence of Dong An county. In the first year of Yellow Dragon, he was made General of the Guards, Left Commissioner Over the Army and Governor of Xu Zhou, in esteem of the princess.

In the second year of Fine Grain, Quan Cong led infantry and cavalry numbering fifty thousand to campaign against Liu An, Liu An's people all dispersed, resulting in various generals sending troops to catch them. Quan Cong said, "When you take advantage of danger to capture riches, the deed will not reflect upon you, but the nation will be blamed. Today you sent troops to arrest civilians, so the gains are halved, is that not so? Release those you have captured, since weak opponents are not worthy of the nation's reputation. If unexpectedly a loss with little wrongdoing is incurred, then it is better to accept blame, and I would willingly bear it with my body. I would not dare to make the nation shoulder the blame."

In the nineth year of Red Crow, Quan Cong was changed to Commander-in-chief of the Right Army and Army Instructor of the Left Army. He was respectful to all, accepted advise while maintaining his honour, and was never hasty in speech. Once, Sun Quan surrounded Zhu Ya with the intent of invading Yi Zhou*, Quan Cong was first asked. He said, "When the Emperor uses his strength, who can resist? Yet the Zhu area is a foreign land, completely isolated from the sea, with poison in the water, earth and air, having been like this since early times, when the soldiers enter the people will come out, and the soldiers will get sick, spreading the disease to each other. I fear that this is the case, so how many lives can we afford to devote to a victory? If numerous troops are lost on the bank of the river, hoping for a one in ten thousand chance of victory, your servant will not be at peace." Sun Quan did not listen. When the troops had gone for a year, some eighteen or nineteen of the military personnel died from disease, making Sun Quan deeply regretful. When he later mentioned his inferiority, Quan Zong replied, "At that time, if your servant did not remonstrate with you, then he can not be called loyal. Quan Cong's family was extensive, his kinsmen having been bewtowed rank, were granted a thousand gold, but they received them humbly, not creating an appearance of arrogance. He died in the twentieth year, his son Quan Yi succeeding to his posts. Later, he was made to lead raiding troops, was sent to rescue Zhuge Dan at Shou Chun, but instead surrendered to Wei, who made him General Who Pacifies the East. Quan Yi's sons Yi, Yi, Jing and others also surrendered to Wei, and all became Marquises of various counties.
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 11:21 am

Mi Heng posted this;
Since it seems it's legally ok for me to post bios from Empresses and Consorts so I will do just that. Only one though. If I posted them all that would be doing the authors a wrong since then no one would buy such a great book. Anyway, here it is:

The Empress of Illustrious Acheivements, Empress Gan

The Former Sovereign's Empress Gan was a native of Pei. When the Former Sovereign controlled Yu province and was living in Xiao Pei, he accepted her as his concubine. The Former Sovereign was bereaved of a primary wife on several occasions, and Empress Gan regularly took charge of affairs in the inner apartments. She accompanied the Former Sovereign to Jing province and gave birth to the Latter Sovereign (Hou zhu). When Duke Cao's [Cao Cao's] troops caught up with the Former Sovereign at Changban in Dangyang, being pressed at that point, he abandoned his empress and the Latter Sovereign. Thanks to the protection of Zhao Yun, they escaped harm.
The empress died and was buried at Nanjun. In Zhangwu[221/222], he posthumously named her the Lady of Imperial Regret (Huang Si furen) and was going to reinter her in Shu. Before her body could arrive, however, the Former Sovereign died. Chancellor Zhuge Liang memorialized:

The Lady of Imperial Regret conducted herself by cultivating benevolence, and she was pure and circumspect in her person. When the late emperor formerly was in supreme command, she became his consort and bore the Sacred Person [Liu Shan, the Latter Sovereign]. Her life was not long. When the late emperor was still alive, he was righteous and beneficent, and he was concerned that the divine pall of the Lady of Imperial Regret was adrift far away. He specially sent a commissioner to bring it back. But it has transpired that the late emperor has died. Now the divine pall of the Lady of Imperial Regret has arrived, and the emperor's own coffin is en route. The park and tumulus are complete, and the time for laying him to rest has been determined. I have discussed the matter with Grand Master of Ceremonies (taichang)Lai Gong and others. The Record of Rites says, "Establishing affection by beginning from one's parents is the way to teach the people filial piety. Establishing respect by beginning from one's elders is the way to teach the people obedience." It is from this that not forgetting one's parents is born. The intent of the Spring and Autumn Annals is, "A mother is respected in accordance with her son's rank." In the past, Gaozu posthumously venerated his father's Lady of Illustrious Spirit (Zhaoling furen) with the title of Empress of Illustrious Spirit (Zhaoling huanghou), and Emperor He the Filial reburied his mother, Honorable Lady Liang, and gave her the honorific Empress of Respectful Recollection (Gonghuai huanghou). Emperor Min the Filial also buried his mother Lady Wang and gave her the honorific Empress of Spiritual Recollection (Linghuai huanghou). Now, the Lady of Imperial Regret should also have a title of respect to assuage "the thoughts of the cold springs." Thus, along with Gong and the others, we have followed the method of bestowing posthumous titles, and she ought to be called the Empress of Illustrious Achievements (Zhaolie huanghou). The Classic of Poetry says, "While alive, they dwelled in separate chambers; / In death they share a grave."a Therefore, the Empress of Illustrious Achievements should be buried with the late emperor. I request that the grand commandant inform the imperial ancestors and announce it abroad. The preparations for the rituals and ceremonies will be memorialized separately.

The emperor granted permission.

a-The Record of Rites says that in high antiquity there was no burial together; from middle antiquity on, it existed at times.

From Empresses and Consorts by Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordan Cromwell. University of Hawaii Press. 1999. Pages 115-116.

Cao Ren's SGZ Biography
By: Great Deer

Cao Ren, styled Zi Xiao, was Cao Cao�s younger cousin. When Cao Ren was young, he was fond of horse riding and archery. When the warlords in different regions rose in power, Cao Ren secretly gathered a thousand plus youths and they were active in the Huai and Si region. Subsequently, Cao Ren joined Cao Cao and he was given the rank of Major with Separate Command (Bie Bu Si Ma), while undertaking the responsibility of Colonel of the Strict Vanguard (Li Feng Xiao Wei). In one of the battles against Yuan Shu, Cao Ren killed and captured the most number of enemies� soldiers. When Cao Ren followed Cao Cao in the expedition at Xu province, Cao Ren was often given command of the cavalry unit and he was the vanguard of the army. In another occasion, Cao Ren was attacked Tao Qian�s officer Lu You and he secured a big victory. After which, Cao Ren regrouped his troops with the rest of the army at the city of Peng where they served a great defeat to Tao Qian. Once again, Cao Ren was involved in expeditions with Cao Cao against counties (in Xu province) like Fei, Hua, Ji Mo, Kai Yang, etc. and Tao Qian sent his generals to reinforce those counties. These reinforcements were defeated by the cavalry unit led by Cao Ren. When Cao Cao went on the offensive against Lu Bu, Cao Ren led his own cavalry unit to Ju Yang and managed to capture Liu He, one of Lu Bu�s generals, alive, while emerging victorious. Not long after, some of the armies of the Yellow Turban Rebels were quelled and Cao Cao received the Han Emperor at the new capital, Xu Chang. All these were done with Cao Ren�s involvements and hence, Cao Ren was being appointed as the Grand Administrator of Guang Yang. Cao Cao valued Cao Ren�s bravery and strategies, and he did not want Cao Ren to be assign to govern the prefectures or counties. As such, Cao Ren was appointed as a Councellor (Yi Lang, one who would discuss the nation�s policies with the Emperor, usually appointed by the Emperor himself during the Han dynasty) and he was placed in charge of the cavalry unit. When Cao Cao attacked Zhang Xiu, Cao Ren was tasked to capture the neighbouring counties, and he managed to capture some 3000+ common folks. Subsequently, Cao Cao�s army was faced with difficulties and he retreated. During then, the morale of Cao Cao�s army was very low. Then, Cao Ren led some fierce and brave soldiers to the battle. Seeing that, the morale of Cao Cao�s army was boosted and they managed to defeat Zhang Xiu.

Some times later, Cao Cao and Yuan Shao squared off at Guan Du for a long period of time. Yuan Shao dispatched Liu Bei to attack the various counties at Yin Qiang region and most of the counties surrendered. As a result, both the officers and the common folks in Xu Chang and south of Xu Chang became greatly unsettled, and Cao Cao was worried. Cao Ren said, �The crisis at the southern region is due to the presence of a large enemy force, and this crisis cannot be averted. Liu Bei now leads some strong forces to our land and it is not surprising that the various counties surrendered. However, Liu Bei has been placed in charge of those Yuan Shao�s soldiers only recently and it is likely that he will not be able to lead them well. Hence, we will surely be able to defeat Liu Bei in the first attempt.� Cao Cao accepted Cao Ren�s suggestion and dispatched Cao Ren to lead his cavalry unit against Liu Bei�s forces. Cao Ren defeated Liu Bei in their first encounter, forcing Liu Bei to retreat, and Cao Ren managed to recover all the counties which surrendered earlier on. Yuan Shao subsequently sent Han Xun to cut off Cao Ren�s retreat at the western route. Both Cao Ren and Han Xun�s armies engaged at Ji Luo mountain and Cao Ren served a great defeat to Han Xun. Thereafter, Yuan Shao dared not send a separate force to attack Cao Cao. Cao Ren, together with Shi Huan and some other officers later managed to launch a sneak attack at Yuan Shao�s food convoy, burning all of the army supplies.

After He Bei was pacified, Cao Ren followed Cao Cao to attack Hu Pass. Cao Cao passed down the order which said, �After the city falls, all of the occupants are to be buried alive�. The siege lasted for several months but the city would not fall. Cao Ren said to Cao Cao, �When a siege is conducted against a city, the occupants of the city must be shown a path to survival. Now that you have passed down the order that all of them must die, they will fight on to protect themselves. Besides, this city is well defended and their supplies are plentiful. If we launch an attack, we will suffer casualties. If we merely lay a siege and wait, it may last too many days. All in all, you have ordered your soldiers to lay siege to a well defended city which is guarded by occupants who are only shown the path to death. This is surely not a sound plan.� Cao Cao accepted Cao Ren�s suggestion and he withdrew his previous order. The city surrendered and Cao Ren was given the title of the Marquis of Du Ting (or Du Ting Hou) for all his merits in that battle.

Soon after, Cao Ren followed Cao Cao in the southern offensive at Jing province. Cao Cao conferred Cao Ren the rank of General who Conquered the South (Zheng Nan Jiang Jun) and Cao Ren was stationed at Jiang Ling in order to resist Zhou Yu of Wu. Zhou Yu led several tens of thousand troops to attack Jiang Ling and the vanguard of several thousands soldiers was near the city of Jiang Ling. Cao Ren mounted the city wall and looked afar for sights of the enemies. Seeing the arrival of the vanguard, Cao Ren proceeded to recruit some 300 soldiers and dispatched Niu Jin to lead them to battle. The enemies were overwhelming in numbers and the troops led by Niu Jin were few. Very soon, Niu Jin was surrounded by the enemies. Chen Qiao, the Chief Secretary (Chang Shi), stood on the city to observe the battle with some of the other officers. They were terrified when they saw Niu Jin's troops being engulfed by the enemies. On the contrary, Cao Ren's anger rose and he shouted for his horse. Seeing that, Chen Qiao and the rest of the officers appealed to Cao Ren, "The enemies are many! It's better to sacrifice the life of the few hundreds than to risk the life of the General!". Cao Ren refused to heed their words. Doning his armour, Cao Ren mounted his horse and handpicked tens of the fitter soldiers under his command and they rode out of the city. When the riders were near the city's moat (some hundred steps away from the enemies), Chen Qiao thought that Cao Ren would position himself there to rally Niu Jin's hard-pressed troops. To his surprise, the riders did not stop. Leading his riders, Cao Ren crossed the moat and dashed right into the enemies encirclement! Niu Jin was soon rescued out of the encirclement. However, some of Niu Jin's troops remained trapped inside. Instead of abandoning them, Cao Ren made repeated dashes to rescue them, killing numerous enemy soldiers along the way. The enemies were forced to retreat soon after. Seeing that Cao Ren had safely returned to the city while successfully rescued Niu Jin despite the overwhelming odds, Chen Qiao and the rest of the officers exclaimed,"The General indeed behaves like a God from the Heaven!". All the three armies were convinced of Cao Ren's courage. After that incident, Cao Cao valued Cao Ren even more and Cao Ren was given the title of Marquis of Ping An (Ping An Ting Hou).

When Cao Cao launched an expedition against Ma Chao, Cao Ren was given the rank of General who Pacifies the West (An Xi Jiang Jun). Cao Ren led the rest of the officers to resist the enemies at Tong Pass and defeated Ma Chao�s army at Wei Nan. When Su Bo, Tian Yin and some others rebelled, Cao Ren was tasked to undertake the responsibility of General of the Strong Cavalry (Xiao Qi Jiang Jun) and to lead the seven armies against the rebels. Subsequently, the rebels were defeated. Following which, Cao Ren was once again given the responsibility of (note that this is different from being appointed, the word used here is Xing) the General who Conquers the South (Zheng Nan Jiang Jun). Cao Ren was given the Imperial Court Order (Fu Jie) and he was stationed at the city of Fan to defend Jing province. Later, Hou Yin rebelled at the city of Wan and he committed plunder against several thousands of common people living in the neighbouring counties. Cao Ren led his army and defeated Hou Yin. After executing Hou Yin, Cao Ren returned back to the city of Fan and he was formerly appointed as the General who Conquers the South (Zheng Nan Jiang Jun). Not long after, Guan Yu attacked the city of Fan and the Han river flooded its banks. As a result, Yu Jin and his seven armies were defeated and Yu Jin surrendered to Guan Yu. Cao Ren led some 1000+ soldiers to defend the city of Fan and the city was almost completely flooded by the river water. Guan Yu boarded the vessels and used them to attack the city. The city was surrounded several times and contact with the outside world was effectively cut off. The food supplies were also running out and the reinforcements had not arrived. Cao Ren rallied his soldiers and saying that he was willing to lay down his life to defend the city. His soldiers were greatly touched and none of them had any doubt anymore. By the time the reinforcement led by Xu Huang arrived, the river water had somewhat receded. Xu Huang attacked Guan Yu from the outside and Cao Ren managed to break free of the siege. Guan Yu was thus forced to retreat.

When Cao Ren was young, he was frivolous and ill-disciplined. However, when Cao Ren was made a General, he followed and discharged the laws of the State closely and he often placed the codes of conduct by his side. Before the Duke of Yan Ling, Cao Zhang, went on the northern expedition against the Wuwan tribes, The Scholarly Emperor (Cao Pi) wrote him a letter from the Eastern Palace, advising him, �As a General, shouldn�t one follow the laws of the State like the General who Conquers the South (referring to Cao Ren)?�. When Cao Pi became the King of Wei, he gave Cao Ren the rank of General of Chariots and Cavalry (Ju Qi Jiang Jun). Cao Ren was also assigned as the overall command of the military affairs that concerned the Jing, Yang and Yi provinces, and he was given the title of Marqius of Chen. In addition, 2000 households were conferred to Cao Ren, adding onto the previous number of 3500. Cao Ren�s father, Cao Chi, was also posthumously given the title of Marquis of Chen Mu (Chen Mu Hou) and ten families were relocated to look after Cao Chi�s tomb. Subsequently, Cao Ren was tasked to defend the city of Wan. Sun Quan sent Chen Shao to occupy Xiang Yang and the Scholarly Emperor dispatched Cao Ren to attack him. Cao Ren, together with Xu Huang, defeated Chen Shao and stationed their armies at Xiang Yang. Then, Cao Ren sent General Gao Qian to move the common folks residing at Han Nan to Han Bei. The Scholarly Emperor promptly sent a messenger to confer the title of the General-in-Chief (Da Jiang Jun) to Cao Ren. Cao Ren was later ordered to station at Lin Ying and given the appointment of Da Si Ma (one of the Three Excellencies, equivalent to Tai Wei but mutually exclusive, chief of the military) while being in charge of the armies guarding the River Wei Wu. Finally, Cao Ren was stationed at He Fei. In Huang Chu 4th Year (223 A.D.), Cao Ren passed away. He was given the posthumous title of Marquis of Loyalty. His son, Cao Tai, was his heir and Cao Tai held the rank of General who Suppress the East (Zhen Dong Jiang Jun) as well as the Imperial Court Order. Cao Tai was later given the title of Marquis of Ning Ling. When Cao Tai passed away, his son Cao Chu was made the heir. Cao Tai�s brothers, Cao Kai and Cao Fan were also given titles of Marquises. Niu Jin last held the rank of General of the Rear (Hou Jiang Jun).

By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
(This is a rough translation of Dong Xi's biography. There are one or two sentences which I'm not certain about yet)
SGZ Biography of Dong Xi

Dong Xi, stylename Yuandai, was a man of Yuyao, Kuaiji. He was eight feet (chi) tall and his warrior skills surpassed many. Xie Cheng�s Hou Han Shu describes Dong Xi as very generous and liberal with the very striking martial attributes as a hero. When Sun Ce entered the prefecture, Dong Xi welcomed him at Gaoqian village. At the time, in Shanyin, there were bandits like Huanglong Luo and Zhou Bo who gathered a few thousand men. Sun Ce personally went out to attack them while Dong Xi beheaded both Luo and Bo. When he returned, he was promoted as Senior Majors with a Separate Command (biebu sima), with command over several thousand troops. Later he was made Chief Commandant Who Manifests Firmness (yangwu duwei). Together with Sun Ce, they attacked Wan and then Liu Xun at Xunyang.

Sun Ce died and Sun Quan was young. Initially when he start to handle affairs, the Grand Concubine (taifei) was worried and met with Zhang Zhao and Dong Xi, asking if the lands East of the Yangzi were able to be protected. Dong Xi replied, �Jiangdong's terrain, has mountains and rivers as its security, and in taking punitive actions against the disobedient you bring glory to your residence, with kindness and virtue in the people. (1) After dealing with bandits, one should employ people, great or small. Zhang Zhao can handle a myriad of affairs while others like Xi can act as the claws and teeth. This is the land to get public support so there is no need to be extremely worried.�

In Poyang, there was a bandit named Peng Hu who had a tens of thousands of followers. Dong Xi along with Ling Tong, Bu Zhi, and Jiang Qin went on separate divisions on an expedition against them. Dong Xi was known to always defeat his enemies. When Hu and others went and saw the flags and banners, they scattered and fled. In ten days, the region was pacified. He was promoted as Colonel Who Awes the Yue (weiyue jiaowei) and Lieutenant-General (pian jiangjun).

In the thirteenth year of Jianan [CE 208], Sun Quan led a punitive expedition against Huang Zu. Huang Zu set two ships covered with ox-hide to guard the channel across Miankou, and he had a great rope of coir-palm fibre, with stones attached as anchors. Above all this were a thousand crossbow men to give covering fire. The arrows poured down like rain and the army could not get forward. Dong Xi along with Ling Tong were together in the Van, each in command of a hundred volunteers in double armour. They boarded a great barge, charged the covered ships, and Dong Xi cut the two ropes with his sword. (RdeC) The main body of the army then advanced. Huang Zu escaped through a gate but was pursued and beheaded by enemy troops. At a great gathering the next day, Sun Quan raised his goblet to Dong Xi saying, �Today�s gathering is to celebrate the achievement of the one who cut the two ropes!�

Lord Cao came to Ruxu and Dong Xi went there with Sun Quan. Sun Quan sent Dong Xi to command the �five-storied ship� and station at the mouth of Ruxu. During the night, there was a large storm and the �five storied ship� was about to overturn. His subordinates scattered and fled and pleaded for Dong Xi to come out. Dong Xi replied sternly, �As generals who have received responsibility to get ready to face the rebels, how can anyone flee? Anyone who dares utter this will be beheaded!� And so no one dared to disobey. But during the night, their ship was defeated and Dong Xi was killed. Sun Quan dressed in clothes of mourning to oversee the funeral and made a large amount of sacrificial offerings.

By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
This is a quick translation of Hao Zhao's subbiography, from the Wei Lue contained in SGZ-Wei-Cao Rui.

SGZ Sub Biography of Hao Zhao

Prior to this, [Cao Zhen] sent the general, Hao Zhao, to station in Chencang city. When Zhuge Liang came and surrounded the city, he was unable to capture it.

Hao Zhao, stylename Bodao, was a man from Taiyuan and he was heroic and strong. When he was young, he entered the army as a commander of a division (buqu du) and had many military accomplishments. He was made General of Miscellaneous Title (zahao jiangjun) and was stationed in Hexi for ten or so years. The common people as well as foreign tribes were in awe of him. Zhuge Liang surrounded Chencang, sending a man from the same county as Hao Zhao, Jin Xiang, who outside the walls of the city, called out to try and persuade him to surrender. Hao Zhao answered him, �You are well acquainted with the laws of the House of Wei, and you know very well what kind of man I am. I have received much grace from the state and my house is important. There is nothing you can say; I have only to die. Return and thank Zhuge Liang for me; he may launch his attack.� (Afang) Jin Xiang relayed those words to Zhuge Liang who later sent Jin Xiang again to persuade Hao Zhao, telling him that his troops were no match so why should he die for nothing. Hao Zhao replied, �My previous words to you are now fixed. My friend, I know you well but my arrows do not�. And so Jin Xiang left.

Zhuge Liang knew his forces consisted of several tens of thousand while he estimated Hao Zhao�s force to consist of a thousand or so. Also, he predicted that reinforcements to Hao Zhao would not arrive in time so he mobilized his troops and attacked Zhao. Using ladders (yunti) and movable towers (chongche), they raided the city. Hao Zhao countered using fire arrows against the ladders which caught fire and burned to death the soldiers climbing them. Hao Zhao also had stones tied up using rope which he used to smash the movable towers. The towers broke.

Zhuge Liang then made wooden frameworks of double cross-pieces (jinglan) which he catapulted inside the walls, and filled up the city moat with earth wishing to scale the walls directly. (AFang) Hao Zhao countered this by building another wall from the inside.

Zhuge Liang then started making tunnels in the hope of coming up inside the city. But Hao Zhao countered this by digging his own tunnels and intercepting Liang�s. Day and night, both continued the fight for twenty-odd days. Running out of ideas and with Wei reinforcements arriving, Zhuge Liang withdrew. Hao Zhao was commended for his excellent defence and was conferred with the noble rank of Marquis (liehou). When he returned, the Emperor led Zhao to see him where he offered him gifts. Turning to his Prefect of the Palace Writer (zhongshuling), Sun Zi, he said, �Sir, your county has produced such an exceptional general, what worries should I have?� So Hao Zhao�s services were used a lot. When he was about to die in sickness, he said to his son, Hao Kai, �I as a general, know what a general should not do. I have opened up many a gravemound, obtaining their wood to be used in making equipment in attacks during battle, and thus I know a grand funeral is of no use to the dead. You are to dress my body in everyday clothes. In life the living has a place of dwelling, in death where do they go? Today going to my grave is far away, north south east and west, it is up to you.� (1)

Translator's notes

(AFang) This passage came from Achilles Fang's "Chronicle of the Three kingdoms", vol 1, Harvard-Yenching Institute, 1956.

(1) Many thanks to Franz Wong for his help in translating Hao Zhao's final words.
Translator's Notes

(RdeC) This passage came from R. de Crespigny, To Establish Peace, Vol 2, ANU, 1996.

(1) Many thanks to Franz Wong for his assistance in translation here.
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 11:37 am

By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
This is a biography of Luo Xian from Xi Zuochi's book, Xiangyang Ji, quoted by Pei Songzhi in SGZ-Shu-Huo Jun.

Subbiography of Luo Xian

Luo Xian, stylename Lingze. His father, Luo Meng, entered Shu to avoid the chaos and was made Governor (taishou) of Guanghan. When Luo Xian was young, he was well known to be talented and well learned. At the age of thirteen, he was able enough to join the government. When the Latter Sovereign (Liu Shan) appointed his crown prince, Luo Xian was made a patron, then later a bodyguard (shuzi), and Gentleman of the Masters of Writing (shangshu libu lang). As Colonel of Xuanxin (xuanxin xiaowei), he was sent as emissary to Wu and the people of Wu thought he had admirable attributes. At the time when Huang Hao dominated politics, many had gone to attach to Huang Hao but Luo Xian, alone, refused to do the same. Huang Hao became angry and shifted him to Badong to act as Governor. At the time when the General of the Right, Yan Yu, was in control of the troops at Badong, the Latter Sovereign instated Luo Xian as Yan Yu�s deputy. When Wei attacked Shu, Yan Yu was ordered to return to the west, leaving behind two thousand troops. Luo Xian was ordered to guard Yongan. Reports came that Chengdu had fallen and people in the city [of Yongan] became unsettled with many officials from the counties near the Jiang river fleeing away. Luo Xian beheaded the person who reported it and the people were became more settled. When word had come that the Latter Sovereign had surrendered, Luo Xian personally led the officials of the villages to mourn for three days. Wu heard that Shu had fallen and so mobilized its troops in the West, on the pretense of assisting Shu, but the real motive was to capture it. Luo Xian said, �Our dynasty has fallen. Wu are as close to us as lips are with teeth. Rather than coming to assist us when we are in such difficult times, they come merely for their own interests. This is a violation of the alliance. Moreover, the Han has perished, how long can Wu hope to keep us captive?� Luo Xian�s defensive position overlooked the Jiang river. Being unable to repel the Wu troops from there, he dispatched the Advisor to the Army (canjun), Yang Zong, to make a dash out through the north to inform the General Who Gives Tranquility to the East (andong jiangjun), Chen Qian, as well as deliver his civil and military seals to the Prince of Jin (Sima Zhao). [Bu] Xie attacked the city and Luo Xian came out to offer battle, heavily defeating Bu Xie�s army. Sun Xiu became angry and sent Lu Kang with an additional thirty thousand troops to increase the siege. Luo Xian was besieged for about six months but still no reinforcements had come and half of the city was suffering from disease. When persuaded a plan to flee, Luo Xian replied, �A ruler is one who is looked up to by the common people. Being unable to relieve them of danger while abandoning them is not something a gentleman would do. My fate will be determined here.� Chen Qian told the Prince of Jin the situation, and so the Inspector (cishi) of Jingzhou, Hu Lie, was dispatched to help Luo Xian. And so Lu Kang and the others withdrew. The Prince of Jin immediately entrusted him with his previous responsibility, and recommended him as General Who Rides the Jiang (lingjiang jiangjun) as well as Marquis of Wannian village (wannian tinghou). He went to the Si country in Wuling to incite the people to rebel against Wu, and so he was instated as Governor (taishou) of Wuling as well as supervising the troops at Badong. In the first year of Taishi [AD 265], Luo Xian was conferred as Marquis of Xie county (xiexian hou). Luo Xian sent his wife to reside in Luoyang. The Martial Emperor (Sima Yan) made Luo Xian�s son, Luo Xi, a Palace Attendant (shizhong). In the third year [AD 267], winter, Luo Xian arrived at Court and was promoted as General of the Crown Army (guanjun jiangjun). In the fourth year [AD 268], third month, the Emperor together with Luo Xian feasted in the Hualin garden. An imperial order was issued to the ministers who came from Shu, asking them to recommend competent people. Luo Xian recommended Chang Ji, Du Zhen, and Shou Liang, all from the Shu prefecture; as well as Chen Shou of Badong, Gao Gui of Nanjun, Lu Ya and Xu Guo of Nanyang, Fei Gong of Jiangxia, Zhuge Jing of Langxie (Langya?), and Chen Yu of Runan. Immediately these people were employed and all of them became very prominent in their time. When Luo Xian returned, he presented a plan to attack Wu and subsequently made a surprise attack on Wucheng. Luo Xian�s methods were very strict, tirelessly working with his troops. Luo Xian himself was very generous and distributed his money as rewards. In the sixth year [AD 270], he died and posthumously promoted as General Who Brings Tranquility to the South as well as conferred as Marquis (liehou). His son, Luo Xi, was made General Who Rides the Jiang (lingjiang jiangjun) and supervising an army division, died early, and posthumously promoted as Governor (taishou) of Guangling. Luo Xi�s son, Luo Hui, worked as an imperial historian. In the fifth year of Yongjia [AD 311], he was killed by Wang Ru.

SGZ Biography of Dong Yun and Chen Zhi

By Empress Zhang

Dong Yun, styled Xiu Zhao, was the son of the Director General Dong He. When the First Emperor appointed crown prince, he was selected as She Ren, and later become Xi Ma (1). When the Later Emperor succeeded the throne, he got promoted to Huang Men Shi Lang (2). When Prime Minister Liang was about to advance north and camped at Hanzhong, he was afraid the Later Emperor is unable to recognize good from evil, therefore he appoint Yun, whom he believed was just and unselfish, to be in charge of the palace affairs. Liang memorialized, �Shi Zhong (3) Fei Yi, Guo Youzhi, and Dong Yun are honest men, devotedly anxious to be loyal to the last degree; wherefore His Late Majesty chose them in his testament. My advice is to consult them in all Palace matters, great or small, before taking action. Your Majesty will reap the enormous advantage of having any failings corrected.� (4) When Zhuge Liang asked Fei Yi, his military advisor (Can Jun), Dong Yun got promoted to Shi Zhong. He also took the position of Hu Guan Zhong Lang Jiang (Director General of the Palace Guards) and was in charge of the palace guards. Guo Youzhi was gentle and agreeable, therefore he was only a back-up. Chu Guo Xian Xian Zhuan: Guo Youzhi was from Nanyang, he was well known at the time for his tolerance. Therefore Yun himself was in charge of all the responsibilities for advising. Yun, having knowledge on saving and correcting, modeled his behavior on prevention. The Later Emperor always wanted to pick girls to fill up his inner court, Yun argued the traditional manner of the emperor cannot have more than twelve concubines, and now the inner palace is full thus it is inappropriate to add more. The Later Emperor was fearful of him. When Imperial Secretary Jiang Wan took office of Governor of Yizhou, he petitioned to give his position to Fei Yi and Dong Yun, he said, �Yun has served as inner advisor for years and is a wing to the imperial family. It is proper to award him title and land in return to his hard work.� Yun refused and wouldn�t take the title. When the Later Emperor matured, he liked the eunuch Huang Hao. Therefore Hao acted on his wish. Yun advised against this preference to the Later Emperor and he scolded Hao repeatedly. Hao was afraid of Yun, and dared not to act harmfully. Throughout Yun�s life, Hao only has office up to Huang Men Cheng. (5)

Yun once set an appointment with Imperial Secretary Fei Yi, Zhong Dian Yun (6) Hu Ji and had a feast. When he was about to leave, Dong Hui of Xiang Yan came to see him. Hui was young and was a low official. He saw Yun was about to leave for somewhere so he bid farewell. Yun would not let him go, and said, �It is only a social gathering that caused me to go out. Now you already lowered yourself to come here, it is illogical to abandon your discussion and went to their feast.� He then ordered the horses to be put back and Wei, hearing this, cancelled the feast. This was an example of his humble treatment toward others. Xiang Yang Ji: Dong Hui, styled Xiu Xue, originated from Xiang Yang. When he came to Shu, he served as an assistant to Fei Yi as the ambassador to Wu. Sun Quan got drunk often, and he asked Wei, �Yang Yi and Wei Yan are deceitful people. Although they contributed some useful crowing to the times, they cannot let go of their powers easily. Once the court does not have Zhuge Liang, they will become great harms. Yet you gentlemen never thought of prevention, how can you claim yourself to be not lacking in schemes?� Wei looked around and could not answer. Hui looked at Wei and said, �You can say Yi and Yan�s conflict came from their personal animosity. They do not have uncontrollable hearts such as Jing and Xin (7). Now it is time to destroy the rebels and unite the country, the achievements come from talents, and talents need to be recognized. If we do not use them because we are afraid of the future, then it is like we will not use boat because we are afraid of storms. Such is not a long-term strategy.� Quan laughed. Zhuge Liang recognized this speech. He promoted Hui to Assistant to Prime Minister and Governor of BaJun within three days. Pei Songzhi: Han Jin Chun Qiu also recorded this incident, but it did not say Dong Hui told Fei Yi this speech with some variation in it. Those two books from the same author differ. The biography said, �Hui is young and holds a low office.� If he is already employee to Prime Minister Office and governor of BaJun, then he does not hold a low office. Such it is suspected that Xi does not look over his words. Sixth year of Yan Xie, he was named General of Assisting the Country (Fu Guo). Seventh year, he took the position of Imperial Secretary as Shi Zhong and acted as deputy to Chief General Fei Yi. Ninth year, he died. Hua Yang Guo Zhi: At that time the people of Shu gave the title of Four Ministers to Zhuge Liang, Jiang Wan, Fei Yi, and Dong Yun, or they called them Four Heroes.

Chen Zhi become Shi Zhong after Yun�s death; he conspired alliance with Huang Hao, making Hao possible to join the affairs. After Zhi�s death, Hao was promoted from Huang Men Ling (8) to Zhong Chang Shi (9), Feng Che Duwei (10); he grasped the power and later finally led to the fall of the kingdom. People of Shu all thought back to Yun. When Deng Ai reached Shu, he heard Hao�s wrongs and wanted to kill him; but Hao bribed people around Ai and he got spared.

Chen Zhi, styled Feng Zhong, was from Runan; he was the grandson of the brother of Xu Jing. He became an orphan at a young age so he grow up at the family of Jing. His fame was known when he is twenty. He had many talents and knew few ways. Fei Yi looked upon him highly and picked him as the successor to Dong Yun. When Lu Yi died, Zhi also got to be Imperial Secretary and General of Zhen Jun. Chief General Jiang Wei, had a rank higher than Zhi, yet his absence from the court due to his campaigns made him rarely interfere with the court affairs. Zhi was liked by the emperor and allied with the eunuch, making his power greater than Wei�s. He died the first year of Jing Yao (A.D. 258). The Late Emperor was very sad, issued an edict, �Zhi is in the leadership position of 12th year. He executes the laws orderly and has clear accomplishments. I am very sad his life did not last long. I hereby give him the posthumous title of Lord of Loyal�. His son was given the title of duke and his second son was promoted to Huang Men Shi Lang. Ever since Zhi was liked by the emperor, the Late Emperor had hated Yun. His grandson Hong was later named as Protector of BaXi. Pei Song Zhi: Your servant Song observed that Chen Tai, son of Chen Qun, Lu Xun�s son Kang all have their biographies as an extension of their father�s. Wang Su, Du Shu, Zhang Cheng, Lu Zhao, etc. all show the same trend except for Dong Yun, without any whole reason. Is it because Yun�s fame and positive exceeds his father�s? However, both Xiahou Xuan and Liu Biao�s positions exceeds their fathers, yet their situation is like Chen Tai�s. Wei Shu has a volume called �All Caos and Xiahous�.

(1) She Ren is usually picked from the children among good families. They are in charge of the guards to the crown prince. There are usually thirteen of them. Xi Ma accompanying the crown prince and adds to his status when the crown prince went out. There are usually sixteen of them.

(2) Huang Men Shi Lang is in charge of the attendants to the emperor. He provides a connection between the inner court and the outer court. Whenever there is a prince come to court, they direct them to their sitting spot. During Xian Di�s reign, he abolished the office of Huang Men Shi Lang and used Shi Lang instead. They act as the emperor�s advisors and imperial secretaries.

(3) Shi Zhong are advisors to the emperor. Xian Di, when abolishing the office of Huang Men Shi Lang, used Shi Zhong as that position as well.

(4) This is part of Zhuge Liang�s memorial.

(5) Huang Men Cheng is assistants to Huang Men Ling, who is in charge of all the eunuchs. Huang Men Cheng is mostly in charge of the entering and exiting of the inner palace.

(6) I could not find its job description in HHS, but I think Zhong Dian Yun should be in charge of the banner of the emperor when he went out of the palace.

(7) Han Xin and Jing Pu were generals under Han Gao Zu, Liu Bang. Although they helped him establish the dynasty, later they proved to be disloyal and are executed for treason.

(8) Huang Men Ling is an office in charge of the entering and exiting of the inner palace. In ancient china, everyone, even the emperor, went in and out the inner palace must be recorded.

(9) Zhong Chang Shi is in charge of the attendants to the emperor and is an advisor to the emperor.

(10) Feng Che Duwei is in charge of the emperor�s carriages.
Sun Bofu posted

My pitiful attempts at translating something. To those who can translate please tell me if these are good or horribly horribly wrong. If they are pretty close then I'll try some more. If they aren't even close then its not really worth it.

These are bios without any notes or commentary. I may add them later if the bios themselves look good.

Scroll 51 Book of Wu 6

Xie Jing styled Shufa. Zhe was a man from NanYang. In the county he controled the people. As a minor official the people praised him. He thought the front needed to try to stimulate effort. Several years later he died.

I only did this one because I was trying Sun Lu and this was a tiny one right above it. I will finish Lu's later but there is a memorial that I was having trouble on.

Scroll 51 Book of Wu 6

Sun Fu styled Guoyi was the younger brother of Sun Ben. Fu raised a military force and helped Sun Ce settle three regions. Sun Ce sent a punitive expedition to Dan Yang and its 7 districts. He sent a letter west to Fu telling him to station his soldiers at LiYang to resist Yuan Shu. Furthermore that he should recruit people for the army. Again he obeyed Sun Ce and went on an expedition to LingYang. Sun Ce raided west the city of LuJiang, governed by Liu Xin and Fu followed him. He advanced hurriedly and won many merits. Sun Ce set up Fu to serve as LuLing Taishou (Grand Adminstrator). Sun Fu fixed the city walls. He split up the ranks into minor officials. Sun Fu was promoted to General who pacifies the South.

He sent an envoy to Cao Cao. Sun Quan had him form a relationship with Cao Cao. Several years later he died. His sons Xing, Zhao, Wei, and Xin all gained positions.

Sun Kuang styled Jizou. Kuang was the younger brother of Sun Yi (as well as Sun Ce and Sun Quan). He was cited as Filial Pious and Incorrupt. He was not tested and died at the age of 20.

His son Tai was married to the sister of Cao Cao�s son. He serves as Colonel of the Chang River regiment. In the third year of Jia He [235] Sun Quan surround Xin Cheng. Tai moves to circulate but is killed by an arrow.

His grandson Xiu, served as qian jiang jun (General of the Front). Xiu takes public office. Sun Hao wished he had a son as capable. In the 2nd year of Jian Heng [270] Sun Hao dispatchwd the general with 5,000 men to Xiakou. The people talked to Sun Xiu. Xiu and several hundred soldiers rush to Jin. Jin uses Xiu to serve as the General of the Flying Calvary. After a ceremony with 3 parts he was seen as honorable.

In Sun Kuang's bio there were some parts that I had some trouble with. That last few parts I had trouble on so if anyone could check on that I would really like to know if it is right or wrong.
By Empress Zhang

Chen Wu, styled Zilie, was a native from Songzi of Longjiang. With a height of 7 feet and 7 inches, he went to Sun Ce at age 18 when Ce was at Shou Chun. His accomplishments through crossing the river earned his the position of Bei Bu SiMa(1). When Sun Ce defeated Liu Xun, he received many people from Longjiang and made Wu the commander of the best of them, this army always fought at the frontline. When Sun Quan succeeded, he turned to command WuXiao(2). His kindness and generosity caused many from near and far to seek help from him. Sun Quan liked Wu a lot and even came to his house several times. Wu��s accomplishments built up and earned his the position of Pian Jiangjun (General of the Side ƫ����). At twentieth year of JianAn [A.D.215], he went on the campaign to attack Hefei and fought to death. Sun Quan went to his funeral personally to mourn. Jiang Biao Zhuan: Quan ordered his beloved concubine to commit suicide with him and disassembled over two hundred of his guests. Sun Sheng: when the three countries surrendered to Qin Mu Gong, the Qing army did not attack them. When Wei��s cucubine was married Du Hui was captured(3). Thus both good and bad deeds will be redeemed. Sun used his power and ordered people to follow from live to death, thus it is not a coincidence his kingdom lasted only shortly.

(1)Bie Bu Sima (��˾��) acts as an advisor to the General-in-chief but also commands some soldiers.
(2)WuXiaos are Dunqi Xiaowei (����Уξ),YuQi Xiaowei (Խ��Уξ), BuBing Xiaowei (����Уξ), Changsui Xiaowei (��ˮУξ), and SheSheng Xiaowei(����Уξ). They are all in charge of the palace guards.
(3)In the Spring and Autumn period, a general of Jin, Wei Wu Zi, had a beloved cucubine named Zu Ji. He often told his son, Wei Ke, that once he died, Ke would married Zu Ji to someone else. However, right before he died he told Ke to make Zu Ji commit suicide so he and reunite with her after death. After Wei Wu Zi��s death, Wei Ke married Zu Ji off, saying he cannot obey his father��s order when Wu Zi��s sickness clouded his mind, but instead will follow the order that is made when his father has a clear mind. When Wei Ke went a battle against Qin, whose commander is Du Hui. He saw an old man use grass to trap Du Hui, so he capture Hui and achieved a victory for Jin. At the night, he dreamed the old man approaching him and said, ��I am Zu Ji��s father, here to repay you following your father��s clear order and married my daughter.��
Yu Jin's SGZ
By: Sun Zhongmou

Yu Jin, styled Wen Ze, is from the Tai Mountain prefecture at the Ju Ping county. During the Yellow Turban rebellion, Bao Xin gathered the people to fight against the threat. Yu Jin initially wanted to serve under him. However, when Cao Cao took over Jizhou, Yu Jin and his friend went to serve him. He was placed under Wang Lang as Du Po. Wang Lang treated Yu Jin with the greatest respect and recommended him for the position of a general. After Cao Cao met Yu Jin for a talk, he appointed the latter as a Jun Si Ma. Cao Cao then ordered Yu Jin to march to Xuzhou to attack Guangwei. He was then promoted to Xian Chen Du Wei.

Yu Jin went with Cao Cao to Pu Yang to attack Lu Bu. He defeated two camps of troops under Lu Bu. He also scored a major victory against Gao Ya. He later followed Cao Cao to attack Shou Zhang, Ting Tao, Li Gu and other areas. He surrounded Zhang Chao at Yangqiu and returned triumphant. Yu Jin went with Cao Cao to attack the Yellow Turbans, Liu Pi and Huang Shao. He stationed his troops at Pan Liang. Huang Shao and the rest attempted an ambush on Cao Cao during the night. However, Yu Jin rallied his troops to fight off the attackers and defeated them. He killed Huang Shao and his people while managing to capture all their troops. As a result, he was promoted to Ping Lu Jiao Wei.

Later, Yu Jin went with Cao Cao to Ku county to surround Qiao Rui. He killed four of Qiao Rui's generals. Following this, he followed Cao Cao to Wan to get Zhang Xiu to surrender. However, Zhang Xiu unexpectedly rebelled and Cao Cao was repeatedly defeated in battle. The army then retreated to Wu Yin. At that time, the army was in a total chaos. Everyone was trying to escape back to Cao Cao's military base using the backroads. Only Yu Jin continued to fight while the army withdrew. His troops retreated in an orderly fashion without scattering. Eventually, when the enemy troops halted their pursuit, Yu Jin was able to relax and to reorganize his troop formation. After that, he sounded the drums to order for the return to base. However, on his journey back, Yu Jin encountered a score of people with their clothes completely stripped from them. They were also injured. When Yu Jin queried them about the matter, they replied:

�We were robbed by the soldiers of Qingzhou and we were also injured by them�.

When the Yellow Turbans surrendered earlier on, they called themselves the soldiers of Qingzhou. As Cao Cao was too lenient with them, they started to get bold and began to cause trouble. They also also committed robbery in a brazen and open manner. Yu Jin became very angry after he learn about the matter and said to his men:

�Although the Qingzhou soldiers also serve under Lord Cao together with us, they dare to cause trouble by committing banditry.�

He then led his men to attack the Qingzhou soldiers and to denounce their crimes. The Qingzhou soldiers immediately ran to Cao Cao to make accusations against Yu Jin. When Yu Jin returned to base, he did not see Cao Cao immediately. He first ordered his troops to set up camp.

Someone then advised Yu Jin: "The Qingzhou soldiers had already said bad things about you in front of Lord Cao. You should clarify the matter immediately with him.�

Yu Jin replied: "The enemy soldiers are right behind us. They could catch up at anytime. If we do not prepare to face them first, how can we deal with them later on? Anyway, our lord is discriminating and he will not believe their lies.�

He continued to supervise his troops to set up camp and to dig trenches. When it was settled, only did he went to meet Cao Cao and reported the matter to him. Cao Cao was very happy after he heard the matter and said to Yu Jin:

�The trouble at Yu Shui is my direst hour. You have managed to control your troops amidst such chaos to fight off these enemies and to hold the position. You have shown the virtue of loyalty and steadfastness. Even the generals of ancient times are no match for you.�

Thus, Cao Cao recorded Yu Jin's achievements from the past and the present and appointed the latter as the Marquis of Continuous Longetivity.

Yu Jin followed Cao Cao to Rang county to attack Zhang Xiu and then to Xia Pi to capture Lu Bu. Futhermore, he also attacked Gui Gu at Si Quan together with Shi Huan and Cao Ren. He achieved a great victory and killed Gui Gu.

When Cao Cao began his campaign against Yuan Shao, the latter's military power was very powerful. Yu Jin proclaimed his bravery and volunteered to become the vanguard. Cao Cao greatly praised Yu Jin and assigned him to defend against Yuan Shao at Yan Jin. Cao Cao himself returned with his troops to Guan Du. When Liu Bei created an uprising in Xuzhou, Cao Cao went to put it down. Yuan Shao took advantage of this to attack Yu Jin. Yu Jin defended his position fiercely and Yuan Shao was unable to prevail. Moreover, Yu Jin together with Yue Jin led 5,000 infantry and calvary troops to attack Yuan Shao's military camps nearby - starting from the southwest of Yan Jin, along the Yellow River until the two counties of Ji and Hu Jia. They burned a total of over 30 fortifications while killing and capturing thousands of men. They also caused two of Yuan Shao's great generals, He Mao and Wang Mo, to surrender.

Cao Cao then ordered Yu Jin to station his troops at Yuan Wu to attack Yuan Shao's military bases near Du Shi Jun. He also achieved victory in the matter. He was then promoted to Major-General. After that, he followed Cao Cao back to Guan Du. The camps of both Cao Cao and Yuan Shao were very close to each other. Both sides had built a mound of earth to oppose each other. Yuan Shao attacked Cao Cao's camps with arrows and killed a lot of his soldiers. The soldiers became very afraid as a result. Yu Jin supervised the troops to defend the mound and gave fierce resistance to Yuan Shao's troops. He managed to increase the momentum and he finally defeated Yuan Shao. He was promoted as Liutenant-General.

When Yizhou was pacified, Cheng Xi started a rebellion. Cao Cao sent Yu Jin to put down the rebellion again. Yu Jin rushed to attack Cheng Xi and the latter was unable to prevail. As Cheng Xi and Yu Jin were friends, the former decided to surrender to Yu Jin. All of the generals feel that Cheng Xi should be sent to Cao Cao to be dealt with as he had already surrendered. Yu Jin said:

�Have you forgotten what Lord Cao usually exhorts us to do? A man who surrenders after he is surrounded cannot be pardoned. Carrying out the law is the duty of a vassal in obeying his lord. Although Cheng Xi is my old friend, how can I forget my duty as a vassal?�

He personally visited Cheng Xi to bid farewell. He wept whiled he had Cheng Xi executed. At that time, Cao Cao was stationed at Chun Yu. When he heard news about the matter, he sighed and said:

�Cheng Xi wanted to surrender but he doesn't come to me. Instead he went to Yu Jin. Isn't his death fated?

From then on, Cao Cao made even greater use of Yu Jin. He appointed Yu Jin to become the General of Tiger's Might after the latter pacified Tong Hai.

Later on, Yu Jin attacked Mei Cheng together with Zang Ba. Zhang Liao, Zhang He and the rest was sent on a punitive expedition on Chen Lan. When Yu Jin arrived, Mei Cheng surrendered to him with his 3,000 men. However, he revolted again later and brought his men to seek refuge with Chen Lan. Zhang Liao and the others could not prevail for long against Chen Lan as their provisions were dwindling. Yu Jin transported the provisions in assistance and this enabled Zhang Liao to defeat Chen Lan and Mei Cheng. As a result, Cao Cao increased Yu Jin's holdings to 200 households. This is a total of 1,200 households from previous rewards.

At that time, Yu Jin together with Zhang Liao, Yue Jin, Zhang He and Xu Huang were all of Cao Cao's famous generals. Each time Cao Cao set out on his campaigns, they will become the vanguard and when retreating, they are the rearguard. Yu Jin is extremely strict when it comes to military discipline. Everytime he obtains the the valuables of an enemy, he will not hoard it for himself. As a result, Yu Jin's rewards were extremely favourable. But as he was too strict, he could not entirely win the heart of his men.

Cao Cao often bore a grudge against Zhu Ling and he intended to stripped the latter's military powers. As Zhu Ling was in awe of Yu Jin's reputation, he did not dare to revolt. Thus, Cao Cao assigned Zhu Ling to serve under Yu Jin. All respected the decision. This clearly shows the awe in which Yu Jin was held by people in general. Cao Cao then promoted Yu Jin to the General of the Left and rewarded him with a ceremonial axe and assigned 500 households to him. One of Yu Jin's son was enfeoffed as a ranking marquis.

In the 24th year of Jian An (219 AD), Cao Cao, who was at Chang An at the time, sent Cao Ren on a punitive expedition against Guan Yu at Fan castle. He sent Yu Jin to assist Cao Ren. There was heavy rain during the autumn season for that year and Han Shui overflowed. The level terrain was flooded by more than a few zhang (one zhang is about 3 1/3 metres) high. Yu Jin and the other troops climbed to high ground to monitor the flood and there were no place to escape. Guan Yu later attacked them in a huge boat. Yu Jin were unable to prevail and he surrendered. Only Pang De refused to surrender and was killed. When Cao Cao received news about the matter, he sighed for a long time and said:

�I have used Yu Jin for thirty years and I never expect him to surrender at the last moment and betraying his honour. He is unable to equal Pang De.�

At the same time, Sun Quan captured Guan Yu and his subordinates. Yu Jin surrendered to Wu. When Cao Pi ascended the throne, Sun Quan submitted as his vassal and he sent Yu Jin back. Wen Di (Cao Pi) gave an audience to Yu Jin. His hair has turned white and he looked very exhausted. When Yu Jin saw Wen Di, he collapsed and wept. Cao Pi consoled him and used the example of Xun Ling Fu and Meng Ming Shi as a precedent (meaning that the defeat at Fan castle was caused by the flood and not Yu Jin's fault) and pardoned Yu Jin. He appointed Yu Jin as the General who Pacifies Far-Off Lands and sent him as an emissary to Wu. He (Cao Pi) first ordered Yu Jin to pay his respects at Cao Cao's mausoleum at Ye. Cao Pi had earlier sent workmen to paint on the walls of the mausoleum showing the victory of Guan Yu with Pang De in anger and Yu Jin surrendering. When Yu Jin saw the drawing, he felt extremely shameful, then fell sick and died. His son, Yu Gui, succeeded his position and was appointed as the Marquis of Continuous Longetivity. Yu Jin was posthumously appointed as the Marquis of Severity.

Wang Lian SGZ Bio (Shu)
By: WilliamL

Wang Lian, styled Wen Yi, was a man from NanYang. During Liu Zhang��s time he entered to Shu and held the position of Zitong Lin (�� �� �O). Then when the First Ruler raised his troops from JiaMeng and marched towards the South, Lian closed his city gates and refused to surrender. Seeing that he was a man of principle, the First Ruler showed him mercy. After ChengDu was secured, Lian was made ��( Shi or She?)˨ Lin (�O)and was transferred to GuangDu where he proved himself to be worthy. Consequently he was promoted Chief Commandant Si Yan (�q �Q �� �L) and was in charge of the salt and the iron assessment, the income being oversufficient and the country being advantaged of it. Thereafter, he looked for qualified people who became his subordinates. Among these people there were Lu Yi, Du Qi and Liu Gan , and they were all raised up by Wang Liang and ended up all being high-ranking officers. Afterwards, he was made governor of Shu Jun, Xing Ye Jiang Jun (�� �~ �N _x)(General of Rising Business) and continued to be in charge of the Salt office. In the First year of Jian Xing (AD 223), he was appointed as Colonel of the Garrison Cavalry (�� �M �� �L), he became the Chief Clerk of the office of the Prime Minister (�� �� �� �� �v) and given the title of Marquis of District of PingYang. (�_�� �F �J)

At the time, various prefectures from the south showed instability, and Zhuge Liang decided to lead a campaign. Wang Lian admonished: The southlands are barren and reek with malaria, it is improper for thou to risk your life, the kingdom��s hope relies on you. Liang [Zhuge Liang] was afraid that none was able to handle the situation like he did and was determined to go. However, Wang Lian spoke many times with his utmost sincerity, thus Liang changed his mind and stayed there for a long time�CLiang then died and his son, Wang Shan, succeeded him and was appointed as the Governor of JiangYang

Wu Yi and Wu Ban in SGZ-Shu-15
By: ZhangRen

Wu Ziyuan name was Yi, originally from Chenliu. Followed Liu Yan to Shu. During Liu Zhang time, he held the position of General of the Gentlement of the Household (Zhonglang Jiang), and was one of the general who oppose the First Sovereign at Fu, later surrender. After the First Sovereign pacified Yizhou, Wu Yi was made General who Attack the Rebel of the Support Army (Hujun Taoni Jiangjun) and Wu Yi's younger sister was taken in [by the First Sovereign] as wife.

Zhang Wu first year, Wu Yi was made the commander of Guanzhong. Jianxing 8th year, Wu Yi with Wei Yan entered the region of Nanan, destroyed Wei's General Fei Yao there and was promoted from Marquis of District (Tinghou) to Marquis of the Greater District of Gaoyang (Gaoyang Xiang Hou) and General of the Left. Jianxing 12th year, Prime Minister Zhuge Liang die and Wu Yi was made commandant at Hanzhong, General of Chariots and Cavalries, the provinsional governor of Yongzhou (Yongzhou was still in Wei's hand) and was promote Marquis of Qiyang.

Wu Yi die in Jianxing 15th year, he die while on duties without an heir.

Wu Yi's younger cousin Wu Ban was a son of Wu Kuang, an official under Great General He Jin, was well known for his great chivalrous act, and his rank often right below Wu Yi. During the reign of the First Soveriegn, Wu Ban was made garrison commander (Lingjun). During the reign of the Latter Sovereign, Wu Ban was promoted up to the rank of General of the Elite Cavalries (Piaoqi Jiangjun) and was made provinsional Marquis of Mianzhu (probably another place that Wei's held).
SGZ Biography of Liu Zhang

Liu Zhang, stylename Jiyu, inherited [his father Liu] Yan's position but Zhang Lu became arrogant and would not obey his orders. Liu Zhang killed Zhang Lu's mother and brother and so they became enemies. Liu Zhang, cumbersomely dispatched Pang Xi and others to attack Zhang Lu, but they were defeated numerous times. Zhang Lu had a lot of generals in West Ba (Ba Xi), and so [Pang] Xi was made Governor there to defend against Lu. Ying Xiong Ji: Pang Xi was an old friend of Liu Zhang and once saved Zhang's sons from trouble. So Zhang treated him very generously and made him Governor of Baxi. However, despite the good friendship, both still had differences. Zhao Wei raised a band of troops and rebelled, where many people were either killed or had scattered. In each case, Liu Zhang made very few good decisions but was prone to listening to outside talk. Ying Xiong Ji: Before, tens of thousands of families from Nanyang and Sanfu were flowing into Yizhou. The people were collected and enlisted as troops, where the division was named the Dongzhou (Eastern Region) troops. Liu Zhang by nature was lenient and soft, hence he had no great plans. The people of the Eastern Region suddenly plundered the local people. Liu Zhang was unable to stop it, his authority and orders had lots of deficiencies, and there were lots of complaints in Yizhou. Zhao Wei had won the hearts of the people and so Liu Zhang appointed him. Because of the complaints from the people, Zhao Wei planned to rebel and generously bribed [Liu] Jingzhou to ask for peace while forming ties with the great clans of [Yi]zhou to raise a band of troops. He then attacked Liu Zhang and the prefectures of Shu, Guang Han, and Jianwei all responded to Zhao Wei. Liu Zhang hurriedly galloped into Chengdu city to defend it. The people of the Eastern Region feared the might [of the rebels], so all of them were willing to combine their forces and assist Liu Zhang. All of them fought battles to the death where they successfully defeated the rebels. They attacked Zhao Wei in Jiangzhou. Two generals under Zhao Wei, Pang Yue and Li Yi turned around and attacked Zhao Wei's troops, beheading Zhao Wei. Han Xian Di Chun Qiu: The Han dynasty heard of the troubles in Yizhou, and sent the General of the Gentlemen of the Household of All Purposes (wuguan zhonglang jiang), Niu Dan, as the Inspector (cishi) of Yizhou while making Liu Zhang as a minister, but he did not arrive there. Liu Zhang heard Lord Cao attack Jingzhou and had already captured Hanzhong, so he dispatched Yin Pu of Henei to greet Lord Cao. Liu Zhang was promoted to General Who Inspires Awe (Zhen Wei Jiangjun) while his brother, Liu Mao, was promoted as General Who Pacifies Criminals (pingkou jianjun). But Liu Mao became angry at the "wu gu". Your vassal Pei Songzhi wishes to comment on the meaning of "wu gu". Gao Tanglong replied. "I've heard from my master: 'wu' means none. 'gu' means a matter. Therefore the words mean it was an impossible matter. Liu Zhang dispatched the Aide-de-camp (biejia chongshi) Zhang Su of Shu prefecture to send three hundred veterans to present tribute to Lord Cao. Lord Cao recommended Zhang Su to be Governor (taishou) of Guanghan prefecture. Liu Zhang later sent Zhang Song to Lord Cao. At the time, Lord Cao had already settled Jingzhou with Liu Bei fleeing away, and so he did not give proper courtesy to Zhang Song. So Zhang Song complained [about his treatment]. When Lord Cao's troops were in an infavourable situation in Chibi together with the many deaths from epidemic, Zhang Song returned and determined to destroy Lord Cao, urging Liu Zhang to cut off relations. Han Shu Chunqiu: Zhang Song met with Lord Cao, Lord Cao was very boastful and so did not treat Zhang Song with proper courtesy. Hence Zhang Song returned and urged Liu Zhang to cut off relations. Xi Zuochi says: In the past, [Duke] Huan of Qi once boasted of his own good work, and so nine states turned rebel. For a short time, Lord Cao made show of his pride and so he empire divided into three. Both worked hard for so many years, and yet they lost in all in a nod. Is that not sad? (RdeC) A true gentlemen should work hard and be modest; to show concern to the people below; to be humble despite their achievements being great; to impress upon others that he is inferior despite being a person of high honour. When one expresses concern to those around, then despite their nobility, the other people will not mind his higher status. Therefore, the gentlemen will strike accord with the common crowd and his domains will extend under the Heavens and everyone will be happy to celebrate with him. Hence, this enables the gentlemen to be prosperous, to protect his lands, to become very prominent, passing good fortune to a hundred latter generations. Is that not something to be proud and boastful about? The true gentleman will know that Cao Cao was incapable of succeeding in capturing both the world and its people. So Zhang Song said to Liu Zhang, "Liu of Yuzhou is a gentleman of renown. We should establish communications with him." Liu Zhang agreed with this idea and sent Fa Zheng to form a good relationship with the First Sovereign. He also ordered Fa Zheng and Meng Da to deliver a few thousand troops to assist the First Sovereign in defense. Fa Zheng later returned. Afterwards, Zhang Song again advised Liu Zhang, "Today, the generals within our regions, Pang Xi, Li Yi, and others pride on their achievements and have become proud and arrogant and may have ulterior motives. If we cannot obtain the help of [Liu] Yuzhou, then our enemies will attack us from the outside while the civilians will cause trouble from the inside. This is the path to certain defeat." Liu Zhang was persuaded again and dispatched Fa Zheng to invite the First Sovereign. Liu Zhang's Master of Records, Huang Quan, explained the dangers of this plan while the Attendant Official (congshi) of Guang Han, Wang Lei, hung himself upside down at the gates of the capital in protest (RdeC). Liu Zhang did not accept their remonstrance but went to greet the First Sovereign. When the First Sovereign entered, it was like he was returning. The First Sovereign arrived to the north of Jiangzhou, where he travelled along the Dianjiang River to Fu. (RdeC) He then travelled three hundred and sixty li to Chengdu. That year was the sixteenth year of Jian An [CE 211]. Liu Zhang led thirty thousand cavalry with chariots and canopies brilliant as the sun, to meet him. (RdeC) The First Sovereign's troops were very well equipped. When they arrived, they celebrated with wine for a hundred or so days. Liu Zhang provided supplies for the First Sovereign to undertake a punitive expedition against Zhang Lu. Wu Shu: Liu Zhang had two hundred thousand carts of rice, a thousand horses and chariots as well as silk and embroidments sent to Liu Bei.

The next year [CE 212], the First Sovereign was at Jiameng and directed his troops to the South and was winning everywhere. In the nineteenth year [of Jian An] [CE 214], Chengdu was surrounded for several tens of days. In the city, there was a contingent of thirty thousand elite soldiers with grain and silk to last a year. The officials all desired to fight a battle to the death but Liu Zhang said, "Father and son, my family has been in this province over twenty years; yet we have shown the people neither grace nor virtue. Now they have suffered three years of war, and their bodies are scattered in the wilderness. All this has happened because of me. How can I be easy in my mind?" (RdeC) So he opened the gates and came to surrender. But none of his officials shed any tears. The First Sovereign sent Liu Zhang to Gong An, returning his treasure and allowing him to wear the seal and tassel of General Who Inspires Awe (zhenwei jiangjun) (RdeC). Sun Quan killed Guan Yu and captured Jingzhou, recommending Liu Zhang to be Imperial Protector of Yizhou, stationed in Zi Gui prefecture. When Liu Zhang died, a leader of Nanzhong, Yong Kai, rebelled in the Yi prefecture and allied with Wu. Sun Quan made Liu Zhang's son, Liu Chan, as Imperial Protector of Yizhou and stationed on the border of Jiaozhou and Yizhou. The Prime Minister (chengxiang), Zhuge Liang pacified the southern region and Liu Chan returned to Wu and became Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk (yushi zhongcheng). Wu Shu: Liu Chan was very respectful to people. He was generous and affectionate with others. Thus he was a person of modesty. He died of sickness in his home. Before this, the wife of Liu Zhang's eldest son, Liu Xun, was the daughter of Pang Xi. When the First Sovereign settled Shu, Pang Xi was promoted as a Major of the General of the Left (zuo jiangjun sima). Liu Zhang left his son, Xun with Pang Xi. The First Sovereign promoted Liu Xun as General of the Gentlemen of the Household (feng che zhonglang jiang). Thus Liu Zhang's two sons, Liu Xun and Liu Chan, lived separately in Wu and Shu.

Chen Shou comments: Liu Zhang did not have heroic qualities and was present in a time of confusion and chaos. Unable to deal with bandits, it was only natural for him to see his region taken away. So it was not a misfortune for him. Zhang Fan says: Liu Zhang was stupid and weak but he kept his promise. He may be like Duke Xiang of Song and King Yan of Xu, but he was not a ruler without principle. As for Zhang Song and Fa Zheng, though their relationship with Liu Zhang as a ruler and vassal was not compatible, they still persisted in being by his side, misleading him about the true situation. Consider the incident of Han Song, Liu Guang, and Liu Xian persuading Liu Biao but then running away without informing him because they were afraid of death; and the incident of Chen Ping and Han Xin leaving Xiang Yu. If in both cases, it was judged that they were running their own plans and thus were disloyal, then this crime [of Zhang Song and Fa Zheng] was even more serious.

Translator notes:

(RdeC) This passage came from R. de Crespigny, To Establish Peace, Vol. 1, ANU, 1996.
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 11:45 am

Miscelleneous Shu biographies
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

These are just rough drafts of some of the miscellaneous biographies contained in the last book of Shu in the SGZ. I'll edit them when I have time but they are first drafts only.

Chen Shou has quoted the praises of Yang Xi's book, Ji Han Fuchen Zan, or the "Praises of the Serving Officials of the Third Han" and has himself included short biographies of the people.

Wang Guoshan, named Fu, was man from Qi in Guanghan prefecture. He liked discussing with others. At the time of Liu Zhang, he was Zhou Shu Zuo. After the First Sovereign settled Shu, he was made Magistrate (ling) of Mianzhu. Also, he was the yicao congshi of Jingzhou. He followed the First Sovereign on his expedition against Wu where he died at a defeated battle in Zi Gui. His son, Wang You, resembled his father and was made Gentlemen of the Right of the Masters of Writing (shangshu you xuanlang).

Li Yongnan, named Shao, was from Qi in Guanghan prefecture. After the First Sovereign settled Shu, he was the Zhou Shu Bu Cong Shi. In the first year of Jianxing, the Prime Minister [Zhuge] Liang made him as Xi Cao Yuan. When Zhuge Liang went on his southern expedition, he left Shao as zhizhong congshi. After a year, he died.

Ma Chengheng, named Xun, and Ma Chengbo, named Qi, were from Liangzhong in Baxi. At the time of Liu Zhang, Ma Xun was the zhoushuzuo. When the First Sovereign settled Shu, he joined the office of the General of the Left and later made Aide-de-camp of the region. (zhou biejia congshi) and died not long after. Ma Qi was the gongcao of the Governor (taishou), Zhang Fei. When Zhang Fei offered tribute to the First Sovereign, he was made Gentleman of the Masters of Writing (shangshu lang). In the middle of the reign of Jianxing, he became an official in the Prime Minister's office, later made Governor of Guanghan, and later as Advisor of the Flying Army. When Zhuge Liang died, he was made the Master of Writing (shangshu). Both Ma Xu and Ma Qi both showed prominent ability and thus had the trust of everyone, unlike Yao You.

Li Sunde, named Fu, was man of Fu in Zitong prefecture. After the First Sovereign had settled Shu, Li Fu was made shuzuo and Chief of Xichong and Magistrate of Chengdu. In the first year of Jianxing, he was made Governor of Baxi, then Controller (du) of Jiangzhou and General Who Manifests Majesty (yangwei jiangjun), then Supervisor of Masters of Writing (shangshu pushe), and later conferred as Marquis of Pingyang. In the beginning of the reign of Yanxi, the General-in-Chief (dajiangjun), Jiang Wan, led hs expedition from Hanzhong, Li Fu was made Supervisor of the Front army (qian jianjun) and died not long after.

Feng Xiuyuan, named Xi, was a man of Nanjun. He followed the First Sovereign into Shu. The First Sovereign went on his Eastern expedition against Wu. Feng Xi was leading his troops and together with various other divisions, suffered a large defeat at Xiaoting.

Zhang Wenjin, named Nan, also was from Jingzhou and followed the First Sovereign into Shu. He commanded his troops together with the First Sovereign on an expedition to attack Wu where he died with Feng Xi.

At the time, there was also Fu Rong of Yiyang. When the First Sovereign retreated his army, Fu Rong defended the rear and put up a fight. His troops were all killed. The Wu general asked Rong to surrender. But [Fu] Rong scolded back, "How can a General of the Han surrender to the dogs of Wu?" He died in the battle. His son, Fu Qian was made Gentlemen of the Left (zuozhonglang). Later he was made Controller of Guanzhong (guanzhong dudu). In the sixth year of Jingyao, he was given a very important orders at a time of crisis.

Hao Pu, stylename Zitai, was a man of Yiyang. The First Sovereign personally entered Shu from Jingzhou and made Hao Pu as Governor (taishou) of Lingling. He was later deceived by the Wu general, Lu Meng, into opening the city gates.
SGZ Biography of Huang Quan
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Huang Quan, stylename Gongheng, was from Liangzhong in Baxi. When he was young, he worked as an official in the prefecture. Later, the Imperial Protector of the region, Liu Zhang, summoned him to be Master of Records (zhubu). At the time, the Aide-de-camp (biejia), Zhang Song was proposing the idea of inviting the First Sovereign to attack Zhang Lu. Huang Quan admonished, "The General of the Left has a great reputation for bravery and you are inviting him here. If you treat him as a dependent you can never satisfy his ambition, but if you behave towards him as your guest and equal, it will be difficult for one state to hold two lords. If the guest has a position safe as Mount Tai, the authority fo the ruler is unstable as a pile of eggs. Far better to close your borders and wait until everything is sorted out". Liu Zhang paid no attention and he sent Huang Quan away to be Chief of Guanghan. (RdeC) When the First Sovereign captured Yizhou, the various prefectures and counties saw the change in situation and submitted to him. But Huang Quan closed his gates and continued to guard his city. Only after Liu Zhang had surrendered, did he go and submit to the First Sovereign. The First Sovereign made Huang Quan his Lieutenant-General (pianjiangjun). Xu Zhong comments: Huang Quan had loyally tried to admonish his ruler and later continued to defend his city, thus he was received with dignity by a Sovereign. The Martial King [of Zhou] stepped down from his chariot to confer Bi Gan's tomb, expressing his respect for the Shang. This highlighted loyal and worthy men, and clearly showed that they were considered very highly. When the First Sovereign appointed Huang Quan as a general, it was a good move, but it was too little and was not able to manifest the high value of loyalty and righteousness as well as move, in a dramatic way, the hearts of good men. When Lord Cao defeated Zhang Lu, Lu retreated into Bazhong. Huang Quan said, "If we lose Hanzhong, then the three Ba will not be safe. This will be like cutting off a portion of Shu." Consequently, the First Sovereign made Huang Quan the Protector of the Army (hujun) and sent him to lead various general to welcome Zhang Lu. But Zhang Lu had already returned to Nanzheng in the north to surrender to Lord Cao. In spite of this, the defeat of Du Huo and Po Hu, the killing of Xiahou Yuan, and the seizing of Hanzhong, all were based on Huang Quan's original plans.

The First Sovereign became Prince of Hanzhong as well as acting as Imperial Protector of Yizhou where Huang Quan was made Palace Attendant of the General Staff (shizhong congshi). After ascending the Throne, he proposed an eastward expedtion to against Wu. Huang Quan admonished, "The Wu are stout-hearted fighters; floating downstream we will advance with facility but it will be hard to retreat. I ask permission to lead the vanguard and make contact with the enemy. Your Majesty should stay behind to guard the rear". (AFang) The First Sovereign did not accept the advice and made Quan as General Who Suppresses the North (zhenbei jiangjun), supervising the troops on the north bank of the Yangzi to guard against Wei. The First Sovereign was himself position south of the Yangzi. After the Wu general, Lu Yi (Xun) rode the stream and cut the encampments, the army in the South was defeated and the First Sovereign retreated. Huang Quan could not return because the road was cut off. (AFang). So he led his troops to submit to Wei. The law officials [in Shu] requested that Huang Quan's wife be arrested. But the First Sovereign replied, "It is I that has wronged Huang Quan. Quan has not wronged me." Huang Quan's family was treated as before. Your vassal Pei Songzhi comments that Emperor Wu of Han used deceiving words and exterminated Li Ling's family. The First Sovereign rejected his law officer's advice and forgave Huang Quan's family. The second ruler's attitude on gains and losses far surpassed that of the former. The Odes say: "Joy is merely for gentlemen who protects another's family line", thus the sayings of the Master Liu. (1)

The Scholarly Emperor of Wei (Cao Pi) spoke to Huang Quan, "You have left the rebels to submit yourself to us. Do you intend to follow in the footsteps of Chen [Ping] and Han [Xin]?" Huang Quan replied, "I have abundantly received cordial treatment from my Sovereign Liu [Bei]. I could not surrender to Wu, nor was there a road for me to take and return to Shu, hence I surrendered to You. Being a general of the defeated army, I deem it my good fortune to have escaped from death. How can I pretend to emulate the ancients?" The Scholarly Emperor commended him for this. (AFang). He appointed Huang Quan as General Who Suppresses the South (zhennan jiangjun) and conferred as Marquis of Yuyang, promoted as Palace Attendant and gave him a seat in his carriage. Some Shu troops who had surrendered said that Huang Quan's family was punished but Quan knew that these were false rumours and did not hold mourning. Han-Jin Chunqiu: The Scholarly Emperor ordered Quan to hold mourning, but Quan replied, "The relationship between me, Liu [Bei], and [Zhu]Ge [Liang] is based on sincerity and trust; they clearly understand my mind. This news I presume to suspect as untrue, and request to wait. (AFang) After more detailed news had come, it had just been what Huang Quan said. When news of the First Sovereign's death had arrived, crowds of Wei officials all celebrated except for Huang Quan alone. The Scholarly Emperor observed that Huang Quan knew how to deal with situations effectively. He decided to test him by sending his attendants to summon Huang Quan. During the time before [Quan] arrived, he kept urging his attendants to hurry. The horses galloped quickly and being rushed, they often went in the wrong direction. Many court officials were frightened by the hurry and disorder, but Huang Quan later appeared with a calm complexion. Later he was appointed as Inspector (cishi) of Yizhou stationed in Henan. The General-in-Chief, Sima Xuanwang (Sima Yi) thought very highly of him and asked Huang Quan, "In Shu, how many are there that are like you?" Huang Quan laughed and replied, "Sir, I never knew you look upon me so highly!". Sima Xuanwang wrote a letter to Zhuge Liang which said, "Huang Gongheng is a very quick officer. Each time he sits or rises, he talks about you and never leaves room for gossip." In the third year of Jingchu or second year of Yanxi [CE 239] in Shu, Huang Quan was made General of the Cavalry and Chariots (cheqi jiangjun) with the same rites as the three Si (Situ, Sima, Sikong). Shu Ji: The Enlightened Emperor of Wei (Cao Rui) asked Huang Quan, "With the world setup as a tripod, where is the legitimacy?" Huang Quan replied, "Legitimacy is to be determined by the stars. Since the past, there was the 'Ying Huo Shou Xin' (2) and the Scholarly Emperor then passed away, while in Wu and Shu, the two rulers are safe and sound, henceforth here is your proof". (3) The next year, he died and was conferred the title "Bright Marquis" (jing hou). His son, Huang Yong inherited his title. But Huang Yong had no sons and so the family line was broken.

Huang Quan left a son, Huang Chong in Shu who worked as Gentleman of the Masters of Writing (shangshulang). He followed the General of the Guards (weijiangjun), Zhuge Zhan, to resist Deng Ai. Arriving at Fu county, Zhuge Zhan decided to wait and not advance. Huang Chong persistantly advised Zhuge Zhan that they should rush to seize the strategic positions and not let the enemy enter the flat terrain. But Zhuge Zhan did not accept the plan and Huang Chong was brought to tears. Deng Ai had driven deep [into Shu] and Zhuge Zhan fought with him at Mianzhu. Huang Chong commanded his soldiers very harshly. Seeing that they were certain to die anyway, they turned on him and killed him.

Translator notes

(RdeC) This passage came from R. de Crespigny, To Establish Peace, Vol. 2, ANU, 1996.

(AFang) This passage came from A. Fang, Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Vol. 1, Harvard-Yenching Institute, 1956.

(1) Many thanks to Lucy Zhang and Franz Wong for their assistance in the translation of this commentary, esp. the translating of the poem from Shi Jing which was found to come from "nanshan you tai".

(2) Yin Hou is the name of Mars. Many thanks to Lucy Zhang who explained the meaning of "ying hou shou xin": "...ancient name for Mars.
Because of the distance of Mars from Earth, sometimes it seems dark and sometimes it is bright to the people
on Earth. When it is bright, ancient people think something bad is going to happen.....Ying Hou Shou Xin. Throughout Chinese history, this was known as the most unlucky view of astronomy. This is known as the
heaven's warning for punishment of the emperor because he did not do a good job. During Han dynasty, one
prime minister even commited suicide after viewing this incident. However, this is completely all superstition because Ying Hou Shou Xin simply means that Mars is in a specific constellation."

(3) Also many thanks to Franz Wong for putting it into context as well as assisting in the translation of this passage.

Corrections: Thanks to Lady Wu for pointing out the mistakes.
Ma Long
By: Empress Zhang

Ma Long, styled Xiaoxing, is a native of Pinglu(1). At an early age, he is known for his intelligence and bravery and established a reputation for himself. When Wei��s inspector(2) of Yanzhou(3), Linghu Yu, was found guilty of a crime and punished(4), no one within the state dared to give him a proper burial. Long, a martial clerk at the time, claimed to be serving under Yu and gave him a burial with his own fortune. He also dressed in mourning for three years and planted pines and mulberrys in Yu��s remembrance, only to return after all the proper rituals have being performance. His actions are praised within the entire Yanzhou. Ma Long was then appointed to martial and bravery assistant(5) to the inspector.

During the middle of era of Taizhi [A.D.265-274], right before the campaign of Wu, an imperial edict was issued: ��Wu is not yet pacified, hence it is beneficial to seek the assistance of brave men. Even those recommendations are made in the past, not all talents are found. Thus an order is given to the states and provinces: if there are any that are reputable for their prowess and bravery, recommend them and they will be promoted and utilized accordingly. If such men do exist, do not limit the number of recommendations.�� As a result, Yanzhou recommended Ma Long, who is promoted to Commander Inspector(6).

When the inspector of Liangzhou(7), Yang Xin, caused disharmony with the Qiang(8) tribes, Long claimed he will definitely be defeated. Soon, Xin was defeated and killed by the barbarians and the route to the west is blocked. The emperor, often concerned with the west, exclaimed during court, ��Who can conquer the barbarians and liangzhou for me?�� No officials responded. Long said, ��If your majestic is willing to offer command to me, your subject and pacify them.�� The emperory replied, ��Should you be able to destroy the rebels, why wouldn��t you be given the position? I am only concerned about your strategies.�� Long said, ��If your majesty is willing to give commands, please follow your subject��s advise.�� Emperor said, ��What��s in your mind?�� Long said, ��Your subject ask for recruitment of 3000 brave men without any regard to their origins. I shall lead them west with the drums beating on the way. Given your majesty��s fame, those mere rebels will be defeated in no time.�� The emperor agreed to the petition and promoted Long to Protector(9) of Wuwei(10). Many officials responded to this promotion, ��The army is already vast in size and each province has its own troops, all can be used. It is not proper to give out extra awards that can disrupt the established system. Long is low-ranked official who exaggerated and his advice should not be followed.�� The emperor did not listen to any of them.

When Long recruited warriors, his limited to those who can open up crossbows that weight 36 Jun(11) without powers from waist up. Then he gave them each a bow weight 4 Jun and tested their aim with a target. He recruited from the morning to mid-day and got 3500 people. He said, ��This is enough�� and went to the weapon storage to pick his own equipments. The head of weapon storage refused to allow him entry and they got into an argument. Assistant of Imperial Presentation(12) petitioned against Long, who replied, ��Your servant is about to endanger his life on battlefield and hence he should be well-equipped. The head of the weapon storage only give me rotten wooden sticks from Wei that cannot be used. Surely such an act went against your majesty��s will of having me destroy the rebels.�� The emperor agreed and gave him additional three years worth of supply.

Long then traveled west and crossed the River and Wen(13). The rebel Shujineng(14) lead an army of several tens of thousands and they often either stopped Long from advancing by stationing at grounds to their advantage or ambushed Long from behind. Long made cargos that contained wooden tents which are based the theory of Eight Gate Formations. If he reaches a wide area, he would set up a formation for camping. If he reached a narrow area, he would put the tents on top of the cargoes and advance as they fight. The arrows of Jin army caused great casualties amongst the rebels. Long��s tactics often caught the enemy out of their guard. He would place magnets on the roads, hence stopping the rebels, who wore heavy armors, from advancing. Long��s army equipped themselves with armor made from hippocrate hides and hence are not affected. The rebels instead thought they were gods. He traveled thousands of li and killed several thousand people.

Ever since Long traveled west, the communication between him and the court were cut off and there were concerned about his safety and rumors that he was killed. Then when Long��s envoy arrives, the emperor clapped his hands and laughed. He called together the court and said, ��If I agreed with you all, there wouldn��t be Qinzhou(15) and Liangzhou anymore.�� An imperial edict was issued, ��Long, with a side army and little men, was undaunted by the great difficulty and made a great facing dangers. Hence he would be given the imperial regent(16) and is promoted to General of Announcing Fame(17). He is allowed to use the Red Banners, Bended Covers, and drums in his procession. (18)"

When Lo arrived at Wuwei, the rebels ZuBahen, QieWaneng surrendered with a little more than ten thousand people. Throughout his campaign, Long killed or surrendered roughly 10,000 men. He then commanded MuGuneng(19) and fought against Shu Jineng, whom he executed and hence pacifying Liangzhou. The court, upon receiving the news, discussed ways of awarding Long and his people. Some official suggested that Long received high awards for their previous accomplishments and should not be further awarded.

Lieutenant General(20) Yang Yao(21) rebuted, ��When Long was recruiting men for this campaign, few of them were awarded for their previous battle and it is instead used as a motivation tool. Now Long��s army have achieved complete victory and pacifying all lands of the west, the two achievements should not be confused with each other and should be rewarded accordingly to established a honest policy.�� The court agreed with Yao and Long��s army received awards accordingly.

In the early times of Taikang [A.D. 280-289], the court believed that Xiping(22) was ruined by war and should be reconstructed. Therefore the emperor named Ma Long to be Commander that Pacifies the Barbarians(23) and Protector of Xiping. On top of the army he already commands, Long was giving an additional region and was stationed at Xiping. At the time, the southern barbarians, a tribe of Chengxi, often invades that area. When Ma Long arrived, he led an army to attack them. The barbarians guarded the strategic places and refuse to fight. Long then ordered his troops to carry agricultural tools on their back and pretend they are about to go farming. The barbarians assumed that Long had no intention to attack them and relaxed their defense. Immediately, Long seized their opportunity and defeated them. As a result, the tribe dare now attack under Long��s administration.

In the era of Taixi [A.D. 290], Long was given the title Marquis of Fenggao County(24), and the rank Colonel of East Qiang(25) was added. Over ten years he stationed at the border and his fame spread in the Longyou area(26). Then, Protector of Lueyang(27),Yan Shu ( not bio information available) from Fengxiang(28), plotted with his relative, Yang Jun(29), to take Long��s place. Hence they together spoke ill of Ma Long and claim he was too old to be in the army. The emperor agreed and called Long back, giving his position to Shu. Upon hearing the news, the tribes of Shi(30) and Qiang gathered, spreading fears amongst the common people. The emperor, afraid a renewal of attack on Longyou, sent Long back to his original position, which Long held until his death.

His son, Ma Xian succeeded his title and was also known for bravey. When the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying attacked Prince of Changsha, Sima Yi(31), Ying appointed Xian was General of the Flying Eagles(32) and ordered him to station his troops in the middle of a bridge. Xian was defeated by Wang Hu (no bio information available), Yi��s general, and was killed on battlefield.

(1) Pinglu (ƽ½) is a county (xian: ��) of the Dongping (��ƽ) province (jun: ��). Dongping is one of the eight provinces of Yanzhou (����). According to the census in Jin Wudi��s reign, Dongpin providence has 6400 families.
(2) An inspector (cishi: ��ʷ), is the head of civil administration of a state, or zhou (��). His rank is below those of governor, or mu (��) as the governor f a state has both civil of military power but the inspector only has administrative powers. However, the power of the inspector is greatly increased during the RTK era and in many instances it is viewed the same as the governor.
(3) One of the first nine states of China, Yanzhou is located near the mouth of the Yellow River. It includes part of today��s Shangdong (west), Hebei (south), and Henan (northeast) provinces.
(4) Linghu Yu plotted with his uncle against Sima Yi after he killed Cao Shuang. Linghu Yu died before the plot can be executed and Sima Yi become aware of it two years afterwards so he ordered to have Yu��s coffin opened and his body exposed as a punishment. The original Chinese text suggests that Linghu Yu was actually executed for this crime but this is not the case.
(5) Martial and Bravery assistant (Wumeng Cushi: ���ʹ���) is one of the 41 clerks that works under the inspector and one of the 8 assistants (congshi: ����) . Its duties is not properly described in Jin Shu. However, as the power of the inspectors grew in later Han era, the assistants act as advisors to the inspector (in many cases the inspectors are warlords). The Martial and Bravery Assistance (quite a literal translation) is probably a type of military advisor, although there are although military advisors within the 8 assistants as well (Military Assistance for example). On the lists of assistants, Wumeng is usually listed as last, hence probably indicated it does not enjoy as much a prominent position as some of the others.
(6) Command Inspector (Sima Du: ˾��) is one of the military office that is in charge of imperial guards.
(7) Liangzhou (���) was originally located to the west Yongzhou (Ӻ��), one of the original nine states. It is officially recognized as a state in Western Han era, after the Huns leaders who occupied that area surrendered to Han Wudi. It is the only route to the western regions. Collapsed into Yongzhou briefly during later Han, Liangzhou borders the Qiang tribes on the south and the area is widely known for its instability.
(8) Qiang tribe (Ǽ) is a minority in northwestern china. They were a nomadic tribe with their own language but not their own writing system. Today, they reside in the northern part of Szechuan province. They tend to live amongst themselves although some do live together or Han, Tibetans, or Muslims.
(9) Protector (Taishou: ̫��) is the highest administration of a province. Also civil officers, protectors can also control a limited amount of army so they can fight against bandits and assure the peace of the province. The number of clerks the protector is allowed to have varies by the size of the province.
(10) Wuwei (����) is a province of Liangzhou and is established in Han as one of the original four provinces of Liangzhou. Early Jin census showed the province has seven counties and 5900 households.
(11) Jun (��) is a classical weighting measurement. It is equivalent to 30 Ji, or approximately 15 kilograms today. (although classical Ji, I believe, is less heavy than its modern counterpart).
(12) Assistance of Imperial Presentation (Yushi Zhongcheng: ��ʷ��ة) is the deputy to Senior Minister of Imperial Presentation (Yushi Dafu: ��ʷ���). Their department is in charge of supervising the actions of officials and report the emperor any appropriate act they found. It is a very highly ranked department and the Senior Minister of Imperial Presentation is considered of the Three Ministers with his rank only below the Prime Minister.
(13) River of Wen (Wenshui: ��ˮ) is a river in Liangzhou, near Wuwei.
(14) Shujineng (�����), was a tribal leader of Xianpei. He was the great-grandson of Pihu, head of the Tufa tribe (hence he is also known as Tufa Shujineng). After succeeding his grandfather to tribal leader, he lead various campaigns against Jin, capturing many places and triggered many other tribes to join him against Jin. Even though he was later defeated by Ma Long, he had caused great disturbance in Jin and helped to pave the way for later invasions that finally ended Western Jin.
(15) Qinzhou (����) was originally part of Yongzhou. Wei established this new state from the area of Longyou (see note 20). It was briefly regrouped with Yongzhou in the early part of Taishi but was later re-established with Shangyong act as the capital of the state. It has six provinces, 24 counties, and 32,100 families. Some provinces that are seen in the novel are Tianshui, Shangyong, and Yinpin.
(16) The imperial regent, or jie (��) is a honor bestowed to the most important and most trusted officials at court. With the imperial regent, the official can kill certain level of officials without the consent of the emperor first.
(17) General of Announcing Fame (Xuanwei Jiangjun: ��������) is one of the several generals without a specific rank or duty. Those type of generals are generally viewed as the lowest ones and are used are only given commands are deemed appropriate by the emperor.
(18) In imperial China, a official procession had strict guidelines of what can or cannot be used. The number and style of banners that can be used varies with rank. In this case, Jin Wudi is giving Ma Long special privileges by granting him the use some of the things that are only granted to nobilities during his procession. It is often given to generals who had achieved a large victory.
(19) Zu Bahan, Qie Waneng, and Mu Guneng are all tribal leaders of Qiang. No information on them was found.
(20) Lieutenant General (Wei Jiangjun: �����), a very highly ranked general established in Han Wendi era. Lieutenant General is the considered a second -class general, under the three first-class generals: Grand General, General of Flying Cavalries, and General of Riding Chariots. However, unlike the previous three which can sometimes be purely honorary ranks, Lieutenant General is usually appointed with some commands, typically the imperial guards.
(21) Yang Yao (����)was the younger brother of Yang Jun and an important official during Sima Yan��s reign. Besides being the Lieutenant General (a military rank), Yao was also named Head Imperial Secretary, one of the top civil ranks. Along with this brothers, they come to dominant the court after Sima Yan��s death. However, unlike his elder brother, Yang Yao was concerned about the fame of the Yang family and advised his brother to act cautiously. Yang Yao also advised against using the minority Liu Yuan against Wu, claiming those who are not Han could not be trusted. (Liu Yuan later rebelled against Jin and conquered Luoyang, ending western Jin)
(22) Xiping (��ƽ) is a province of Liangzhou. It is established in Wei when Liangzhou was separated once again from Yongzhou. The early Jin census showed Xiping encompassed four counties with 4000 families.
(23) Commander that Pacifies the Barbarians (Pinglu Hujun: ƽ²����) is a middle level commander. They are usually a commander of the imperial guards hence this title to Ma Long is probably just honorary and allow him some control of the army even though he is now within the capital.
(24) Marquis (hou: ��) is the second highest nobility ranks (first of duke), typically given to someone who had great achievements to the emperor. Marquises are usually preceded by a place name and that person would receive the taxes from that place but they are usually not given governance of that place.
(25) Colonel of East Qiang (Dongqiang Jiaowei: ��ǼУξ) is a military rank. Colonel is a high military rank and is often given his own command or serves under the command of a high-ranked general.
(26) Longyou (¤��) is the area that generally refers to the northwestern china (Qinzhou) in Jin time, and Gansu province in modern China. Directing bordered the cultural central plain area. Longyou was known to be a mysterious place in ancient china where it is rumors that many god or goddess originated in that area.
(27) Lueyang (����) is a province of Qinzhou Lueyang was originally established in Wei but has its name changed in the era of Taishi. The early Jin census showed it had 4 counties and 9320 families.
(28) Feng Xiang (���) is a province of Yongzhou and one of the two provinces that borders Chang��an. Early Jin census showed it has eight provinces and 7700 families.
(29) Yang Jun (�), father of Empress Yang (wife of Sima Yan) and was later named Grand General. He was killed at the beginning of the Turmoil of Eight Princes.
(30) Tribe of Shi (��) is a minority tribe near Qiang. Their numbers are rather limited in Jin era and was later absorbed by either the Qiang tribe or joined Han.
(31) Sima Ying and Sima Yi are two princes that are part of the Turmoil of the Eight Princes. Please see my note on the Turmoil of the Eight Princes.
(32) General of the Flying Eagles (Yingyang Jiangju: ӥ�ォ��) is one of the several generals without a specific rank or duty.
Zhang Lu
By: Sun Bofu

Zhang Lu styled Gongqi was a man from Feng in Peiguo. When his Grandfather Zhang Ling came to Shu he studied Taoism in Shan Zhong. He made a book of it for the people. Those who followed his Taoism came to be known as the 5 pecks of Rice. When Zhang Ling died, his son Zhang Heng seceded him as head of the sect. When Heng died, Zhang Lu in turn took his place. The Governor of Yizhou, Liu Yan, appointed Zhang Lu as Major who Supervises Righteousness. Together with the Major Zhang Xiu he was sent to attack the Grand Administrator of Han Zhong, Su Gu. Zhang Lu turned on Zhang Xiu, killed him and absorbed his armies. When Liu Yan died, his son Liu Zhang inherited his position. He wished to use Zhang Lu, but Lu did not listen. Liu Zhang then killed his wife and mother. Zhang Lu forthwith seized Han Zhong. He preached his teachings about demons and spirits to the people and declared himself ��Commissioner��.{1} The people who came to learn the ways were at first called ��Guizu��. Those who had accepted the faith were called ��Jijiu�� (Libationers). They would preside over a ministry. Zhang Lu taught superstition. Those who were sick were required to confess their sins, and he said prayers for them. It was no practical help in curing them, but masses of ignorant people, confused and foolish, vied with one another to serve him. Those who offended the law were granted pardon three times before they were punished, while he did not appoint civil officials, but all were governed by Libationers. Both Chinese and non-Chinese people were pleased with this, and none of the refugees that came to live in this area dared to disobey his teachings.{R} Generally they were very similar to the Yellow Turbans. They ran it as such, free of the Han, for 30 years. (1)

1. Dian Lue: During Xi Ping [172-178], bandits rose up and in Sanfu there was Luo Yao. During Guang He [178-183], in the east there arose a Zhang Jue and in Han Zhong a Zhang Xiu. Luo Yao taught the people Buddhist ideals, Zhang Jue taught Taiping Taoism, and Zhang Xiu established the 5 pecks of Rice. In Taiping Taoism, they establish 9 rituals. Zhang Jue had sick people kneels down and pray, then drink magic water so that they could be healed. They had many other customs. Zhang Xiu modeled his customs after Zhang Jue�_ [There is more on the teachings on the 5 pecks of rice organization and how they compare to the Yellow Turbans.]�_

Your Servant Pei Song Zhi believes that Zhang Xiu is Zhang Heng. It is probably an error in Dian Lue.

At the end of the Han, the dynasty did not have the power to attack Zhang Lu and thus appointed him Central Gentleman General who Guards the People and become the Grand Administrator of Han Ning {2} He paid tribute but that was all. The people there produced a Jade seal and desired to have Zhang Lu serve as King of Han Ning. Zhang Lu��s Officer of the Department of Merits, Yan Pu of Ba Xi, admonished him saying, ��The Han valley contains over a hundred thousand households. The people are prosperous, the soil is rich, and on all four sides we have strong barriers against attack. If you give aid to the Son of Heaven above, then you play the part of Duke Huan and Duke Wen. For next best you could emulate Dou Rong, and you will never lack for wealth or honor. At present, with authority to make appointments and sufficient power to maintain your independence, you have no need for a royal title. I ask you not to take it at this time, for if you do you will bring down misfortune.�� {R} Zhang Lu followed his advice. When Han Sui and Ma Chao fought, several tens of thousands of people fled down the Ziwu valley to Lu.

In the 20th year of Jian An [216], Cao Cao from San Guan went to Wu Du to attack him, finally arriving at Yang Ping Pass. Zhang Lu wanted to surrender Han Zhong, but his younger brother Zhang Wei was not willing. Zhang Wei led a force numbering several tens of thousands to defend the pass. Cao Cao broke through and forthwith entered Shu. (2) When Zhang Lu heard that Yang Ping had fallen he wanted to go surrender. Yan Pu spoke up and said, ��"If you go now, under pressure, there will be no great credit for it. The best thing to do is join Duhu and Fuhu. Oppose Cao Cao together, then send tribute. He will be all the more pleased when you do submit.�� Thereupon he rushed to Nan mountain to enter Ba Zhong. Zhang Lu's attendants were going to burn all the stores of treasure and grain, but Zhang Lu said, "It is my real intention to hand over government to central authority, but I have not yet been able to arrange it. I am fleeing now to escape sharp weapons, but I have no wish to make trouble. Treasure and granaries are the property of the state." {R} So he sealed up the stores and went away.

2. Your Servant presents a memorial from Dong Zhao: ��When Emperor Wu [Cao Cao], took Liangzhuo and Wudu the people surrendered. They said, ��Zhang Lu is easy to attack. The mountains north and south of Yang Ping are far apart. The pass is indefensible.�� Taking this to be true Cao Cao advanced to Yang Ping. When he arrived he saw that this was not true and sigh, ��When other people discuss plans they seldom see it the way one does oneself.�� When he attacked Yang Ping it was very difficult and he had to pull back. Many soldiers were injured or killed. Emperor Wu��s plans were ruined and he desired to pull out, regroup, then return. He sent the General-in-Chief Xiahou Dun and general Xu Chu to call back the soldiers on the mountain. They did not return but instead got lost in the night. They stumbled upon the bandit��s [Zhang Wei] camp and the bandits scattered and fled. Palace Attendant, Xin Pi, and Liu Ye at the rear of the troops reported to Xiahou Dun and Xu Chu, ��Our government troops have taken the chief camps of the enemy, and the rebels are running away."{R} The generals could not believe it. Xiahou Dun went to see it himself, then reported to Cao Cao. Thereupon they sent the troops to attack and thoroughly routed them. This account is all that I know.

Shi yu: Zhang Lu dispatched 5 officials to go and surrender. His younger brother at Hengshan built fortifications at Yang Ping to resist. When he did not permit the officials to surrender, Zhang Lu withdrew to Bazhong. When the supplies were almost exhausted, Cao Cao came again to attack. His officials said, ��You cannot [attack]. Zhang Lu has all but surrendered. You should send a messenger to request he end this rebellion. Zhang Wei is different. He will stand up and fight. If you advance your army they will be overcome and you will surely have to retreat.�� That night he led several thousand men out and raided Zhang Wei��s camp. Zhang Wei��s army was greatly frightened. Another night, Cao Cao covertly sent Gao Zuo to sneak up on Zhang Wei��s army. Guo Zuo when he approached had all his men beat drums and blow horns. Zhang Wei began to fear and thought that there was a huge army approaching. He forthwith surrendered.

When Cao Cao entered Nanzheng he was extremely pleased. Realizing Zhang Lu meant well, he sent messengers to put his mind at ease. Zhang Lu then surrendered. Cao Cao made him General who Suppresses the South and conferred as the Marquis of LangZhong. His fief was 10,000 households. Cao Cao also conferred Zhang Lu��s 5 sons and Yan Pu as Marquises. Zhang Lu then married his daughter into Cao Cao��s family. (3) When Zhang Lu died, he was posthumous conferred as the Marquis of Yuan. His son, Zhang Fu, inherited his position. (4)

3. Your servant Pei Song Zhi believes that even though Zhang Lu was of a good heart, by resisting before surrendering, it was too much to have his 5 sons conferred as Marquises.

Xi Zuochi discusses it: Yan Pu advised Zhang Lu not to take the title of king, and Cao Cao remembered this and enfeoffed him. What man of the future will not be inspired to follow the right Way? Dam the source, and the furthest end of the stream will cease to flow: surely this is the meaning of it! If, on the other hand, the ruler fails to appreciate this, praising only men of physical bravery, and reserving great fiefs and rich rewards for his men of war, then people will find advantage in disorder, they will learn to compete in fighting and killing, and they will rely on military might and trust to strength. In such a case, shields and weapons will never be put away. When Lord Cao enfeoffed Yan Pu, we may say that he showed true understanding of the bases for rewards and punishments. {R}

Wei Lue: During the Huang Chu period [220-226], Yan Pu��s fief was increased. Ten years later he died.

4. Wei Lue: Liu Xiong was a man of Lantian. When he was young he enjoyed collecting medicines and hunting. He resided at the base of Fuche mountain. Every morning he would go out into the clouds and mist, but through the power of Taoism he would not get lost. Because of this, people thought that he could control the clouds and mist. When Guo and Li were in chaos people gravitated towards him. During Jian An [196-220] he joined government service and was recommended to become a minor general. When Ma Chao rebelled he was not willing to join him. Ma Chao then routed him. Later he went to submit to Cao Cao. Cao Cao grabbed his hand and praised him. He was then made a general and sent back to his position. The people had not wished to surrender and thus Liu Xiong rebelled. Cao Cao sent Xiahou Yuan on a punitive expedition against him. Liu Xiong then fled to Han Zhong. When Han Zhong was defeated, he was broken and exhausted. Thus he surrendered once again to Cao Cao. Cao Cao grabbed his beard and said, ��Cunning thief! Now I truly have you!�� He again was employed by the government and moved to Bo Hai. At this time there were also some men Cheng Yin, Hou Xuan, Li Kan who were from He Dong. When Xing Ping was in chaos they rallied a force of a thousand men. In the 16th year of Jian An [212], they joined forces with Ma Chao. When Ma Chao was defeated and fled, Li Kan was executed. Cheng Yin and Hou Xuan fled south to Zhang Lu. When Han Zhong was defeated they surrendered and were given ranks.

{1} - Rafe de Crespigny renders this phrase guidao as "teachings about demons and spirits". The term gui is not necessarily pejorative here, and it frequently appears in descriptions of the Zhang group and the Five Dou of Rice Sect.

{2} �V During Zhang Lu��s reign in Han Zhong, the region was known as Han Ning to the local population, though still generally referred to as Han Zhong.

{R} �V This passage is adapted from Rafe de Crespigny��s translation of Zi Zi Tong Jian, To Establish Peace.
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 11:51 am

Guo Jia's SGZ
By: Akatsuki

Guo Jia, styled Feng Xiao, was a native of Yingchuan Yangdi [1]. In the beginning, he met Yuan Shao in the north. To Yuan Shao��s advisors, Xin Ping and Guo Tu, he cautioned them saying, ��A wise person should be careful in gauging his master, so that he could accomplish all his tasks successfully and make a good reputation for himself. Lord Yuan desires to emulate Duke Zhou��s virtue of treating subordinates with respect but he knows not how to make full use of his men. He has many resources but little ambition; he adores strategies but is not decisive. If you desire to share the burdens of the world with him and together establish an empire, it will be difficult!�� Henceforth, he left. Prior to this, Xi Zhi Cai, a strategist from Yingchuan, was greatly valued by the Founding Lord (Cao Cao). He (Xi Zhi Cai) died early. The Founding Lord wrote a letter to Xun Yu saying, ��Ever since the passing of Zhi Cai, there are few people like him whom I can discuss matters with. There are many brilliant scholars in Runan and Yingchuan, who can succeed him?�� Xun Yu recommended Guo Jia. Cao Cao summoned him and they discussed worldly affairs together. The Founding Lord commented, ��If there is anyone who can help me succeed in my ambition, that person can only be him.�� As soon as Guo Jia departed from his meeting, he happily remarked, ��He is indeed my lord.�� Guo Jia was bestowed the rank of Head Officer (Ji Jiu) in the Minister of Works (Si Kong) army [2].

Annotation 1: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��Guo Jia had great potential even as a youth. The country was falling apart towards the end of Han period. Since young, he maintained a low profile even though he befriended talented individuals in private and stayed away from the masses. This is the reason why few people knew about him and among those who knew him, marveled his brilliance. At the age of twenty seven, he held a post in the Minister of Education (Situ)��s office.

Annotation 2: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��The Founding Lord asked (Guo) Jia, ��Ben Chu (referring to Yuan Shao) amassed the troops in Yizhou and Qingzhou and Bingzhou were pacified by him. His lands are vast, his troops are formidable and there is no question of his prowess. I wish to conquer him but my strength is insufficient, what should I do?�� The reply was, ��My lord should know why Xiang Yu was unable to conquer Liu Bang. The Founding Emperor of Han counted on strategy to win, therefore even though Xiang Yu was more powerful, he was defeated. Your humble servant would like to put forth his assumption that, (Yuan) Shao has ten reasons for defeat while my lord has ten reasons for victory. Though his troops are formidable, they are futile. Shao pays too much attention to protocols but my lord is more flexible, hence ��method�� scores your first victory. Shao moves against the climate but my lord adheres to what the world desires, hence ��righteousness�� gains you the second victory. The late Han government fails due to lax administration. Yet, Shao used liberal means to deal with lax administration, whereas my lord employs stricter measures to ensure compliance from all ranks, hence ��sound administration�� brings the third victory. Shao appears to be magnanimous but inwardly he is petty and does not trust those he commands except for his close relatives. My lord is easy-going but careful; you do not suspect those who serve you and practice meritocracy regardless of kinship ties, hence the fourth victory is won in ��magnanimity��. Shao has many plans but little decisiveness and would fail eventually; my lord executes plans swiftly and can react flexibly, thus a fifth victory is achieved in ��strategy��. Shao carries with him his family legacy and paved his way through reputation, thus attracting the service of many vain men. My lord treats others with the honesty of your heart, your action driven by sincerity and never for empty glory, thus humbling those who serve you. You are not miserly in rewarding to those who contribute; therefore capable people are willing to serve under you. With that, ��virtue�� brings about the sixth victory. When Shao witnesses people suffering from cold and hunger, his empathy is etched only on his face. Whatever he sees not, he cares not. This is what is called the ��empathy of a woman��. My lord may miss small details in front of his eyes at times but when it comes to great matters, your vision connects the four seas, spreading your benevolence to all and missing no one. You may not see every individual person but your concern leaves no one untouched. Thus, ��benevolence�� gives us the seventh victory. Shao��s senior officers wrestle with one another for power, spreading slanders and lies, but my lord rules with principle, giving no room to slanders, hence your ��clear-sightedness�� attains the eighth victory. Shao does not differentiate good from evil but my lord honours the good and punishes the wrongdoers thus our ninth victory lies in ��civility��. Shao cares only about how mighty an army appears on the exterior but knows not how to utilize his troops. My lord is able overcome a larger force with a smaller army; your brilliance in military deployment is feared by army masses and dreaded by the enemy, with ��might�� as the reason for our tenth victory.�� The Founding Lord laughed and said, ��What virtues do I possess to justify your words?�� Jia continued, saying, ��Shao is currently engaged in a conflict with Gongsun Zan in the north. We can take advantage of their conquest to attack Lu Bu in the east. If we do not eliminate Lu Bu first, consequently, should Shao become our enemy with Bu as his reinforcement, it will be a great calamity for us.�� The Founding Lord said, ��I agree.��

An attack was launched on Lu Bu and within three battles he was defeated and forced to defend. During this time, the soldiers were fatigued and the Founding Lord contemplated to retreat. Jia advised the Founding Lord to attack swiftly and capture Bu. This event is recorded in Xun You��s biography [3].

Annotation 3: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��The Founding Lord wanted to withdraw, but Jia said, ��In the past, Xiang Ji fought in seventy over battles, and never once tasted defeat. However, in one single defeat he lost his life and his nation was vanquished, proving that he was all brawn and no brains. Now, Lu Bu was defeated in every battle, his energy is spent, defenses broken inside out. Bu was not as mighty as Xiang Ji and since he has already tasted defeat, we should continue with this momentum to crush him further, and capture him.�� The Founding Lord said, ��I agree.����

In the Book of Wei, it says that, ��Liu Bei came to seek refuge and he was made the governor of Yuzhou. Some cautioned the Founding Lord that, ��Bei had heroic ambitions. If he is not removed soon enough, he will because a problem in the future.�� The Founding Lord asked Jia for his opinion and Jia said, ��Yes indeed. However, my lord has rallied troops to fight for the civilians, ridding them of brutal rule, and garnering the support of talents through sincerity and trust, hence there is no need to be anxious. Since Bei possesses heroic reputation, harming him will only tarnish your name. Astute individuals will bear self-doubt and re-choose their lord. In that case, who will assist my lord to pacify the world? To remove harm for oneself, but tarnishing your repute across the four seas in the process, is a matter with underlying dire consequences, thus it must be given thorough consideration!�� The Founding Lord laughed, ��You have spoken well.��

The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��Initially when Liu Bei surrendered, the Founding Lord treated him amicably as a guest and appointed him as governor of Yuzhou. Jia spoke to the Founding Lord, ��(Liu) Bei is heroic and gains the support of many. Invincible warriors like Zhang Fei and Guan Yu who can conquer a thousand men, would fight to the death for him. In my humble observation, Bei would not end up serving others and what he plans to do is difficult to foretell. There is an old saying, ��let the enemy be for one day and calamity will befall you for numerous generations��; it is better to take action now.�� At that moment, the Founding Lord was showing support to the emperor in order to pacify the other warlords, hence he did not adopt Jia��s plan. When the Founding Lord commanded Bei to lead an attack against Yuan Shu, Jia and Cheng Yu simultaneously petitioned to the Founding Lord that, ��Releasing Bei and he will revolt!�� By then, Bei had already left and raised an army against Cao Cao. The Founding Lord was deeply regretful for not listening to Jia��s advice.

The statements given in the Book of Wei and Fu Zi are directly in conflict.

Sun Ce��s campaign stretched over a large area and soon possessed the entire Jiangdong region. He had news of the Founding Lord and Yuan Shao immersed in battle at Guandu and planned to cross the river to attack Xu (Du). Everyone was terrified by the news but Jia predicted that, ��Ce newly acquired Jiangdong and those he killed were all heroes. However, Ce is young and without defence. Although he had masses of army under his command, (his attempt to lead a northern campaign) is no different from him entering the Central Plains alone. If an assassin lies in wait, it will be sufficient to eliminate him. In my humble opinion, he will die in the hands of a brute.�� Before Ce could reach the banks of the river, he was indeed assassinated by one of Xu Gong��s retainers [4].

Annotation 4: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��The Founding Lord wanted to lead a pursuit after Liu Bei, but there were those who believed that once the army marches out, Yuan Shao would attack from the rear. As a result, not only would the attack become a failure, the base would be lost. This is recorded in Wu Ji. The Founding Lord was in doubt and consulted Jia. Jia advised the Founding Lord, ��Shao is slow to react and suspicious in nature, even if he attacks, he would not be swift. Bei has just established himself and has not gained the trust of his men yet. A speedy attack will defeat him surely. This is a matter of life and death; you must not miss this opportunity.�� The Founding Lord said, ��I agree�� and led his army eastwards to conquer Bei. Bei was defeated and he fled to Yuan Shao��s lands. Shao indeed did not launch an attack.

Your humble servant Song Zhi analysed Wu Ji and conclude that, the idea to attack Liu Bei and predicting that Shao would not mobilize his troops all originated from the Founding Lord. The attribution of these words to Jia, makes the situation entirely different. In addition, this record claimed that Jia predicted Sun Ce��s early death and that he would die in the hands of a brute seemed to imply of an uncanny ability to foresee the outcome of things. However, (Guo Jia) was not a saint and could not possibly know when a person would die. His words were passed in the same year when (Sun Ce) attacked Xu Du and died, hence it could merely be a coincidence.

After defeating Yuan Shao, Shao passed away. Following that, (Cao Cao) fought (Yuan) Tan and (Yuan) Shang at Liyang, defeating them in several battles continuously. Many of the generals wanted to take the opportunity to finish them, but Jia said, ��Yuan Shao doted on these two sons and had not chosen either as the heir. With advisors like Guo Tu and Feng Ji around, they would be torn apart by the factions. If we attack them too quickly, they will unite against us; if we slower our pace, internal strife will develop amongst them. Instead, we can launch a conquest southwards against Liu Biao at Jingzhou and wait for changes. After the developments are complete, we will attack them and finish them in one stroke.�� The Founding Lord said, ��I agree�� and attacked south. When the army reached Xiping, Tan and Shang were indeed fighting against each other for Yuzhou. Tan was defeated by Shang��s army and he fled to Pingyuan, sending Xin Pi as emissary to beg for surrender. The Founding Lord returned to save him and from that pacified Ye. From there, (Cao Cao) attacked Tan at Nanpi and pacified Yuzhou. He bestowed Jia the nobility of Honourable Marquis of Weiyang (Weiyang Tinghou)[5]. (Note: ��Tinghou�� is a title given to those with substantial achievements, but lesser than that of Shi Xian and Shi Xiang.)

Annotation 5: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��As soon as the lands north of the Yellow River were pacified, the Founding Lord summoned many esteemed men from the states of Qing, Yi, You and Bing and gradually employed them under his service. All these plannings were contributed by Jia.

The Founding Lord was about to launch an offense at Yuan Shang and the three Wuwan states, but there were many who feared that Liu Biao might seize the opportunity to command Liu Bei to attack Xu Du while they were at war. Jia said, ��The prowess of my lord may be known by others far and wide but the Hu people, having deep faith in the geographical distance between us, may be unprepared for war. Given the enemy��s unpreparedness, a swift and sudden attack will wipe them out. Moreover, Yuan Shao was benevolent to the common folks and Shang and his brother are still alive. Now, the natives of the four states were threatened but unappeased. Leaving them alone to campaign south will allow Shang to exploit Wuwan��s resources, rally the retainers of their late master and once the Hu people are mobilized, the commoners will also react. This may well fulfill Ta Dun��s wishes and as a result, the states of Qing, Yi, etc will not be ours to claim anymore. Biao, is a person who merely talks; he knows his abilities could not match Bei��s. While he is fearful that (Liu Bei) could not be controlled if given too much power, delegating (Liu Bei) with only simple tasks will not be sufficient to keep him under his command. Hence, though the state is left unguarded during this faraway campaign, my lord has nothing to worry.�� Having arrived at Yi, Jia said, ��An army is formidable only if it is swift. As we have come a long way to fight the enemy, we brought along many bulky provisions thus it is difficult for us to gain an upper hand; should the enemy know about this, they will be prepared for our attack. Instead, we should leave the provisions behind, and deploy light troops to attack from small roads and take the enemy by surprise.�� The Founding Lord thus secretly departed from Lu Long Fortifications and led his troops straight into the Hu leader��s base. The slave troops got news of the Founding Lord��s arrival and were terrified during the engagement. The enemy was crushed and Ta Dun and the Hu leader Si Xia were executed. Shang and his brother Xi fled to Liaodong.

Jia was a deeply analytical person and could decipher matters well. The Founding Lord commented, ��Only Feng Xiao understands my intentions.�� At the age of thirty eight, he was fatally ill on the way back from Liu Cheng. The Founding Lord enquired where he could meet the sick man en route. Thereafter, he (Guo Jia) passed away. (The Founding Lord) attended his funeral and was deeply aggrieved. He lamented to Xun You and others, saying, ��All of you are still in your bachelor years, only that Feng Xiao was the youngest. I would have entrusted the future to him but alas, he died in his prime!�� He memorialized, ��the Head Officer (Ji Jiu) Guo Jia, since the start of the campaign, had served for a total of eleven years. In every counsel, he was able to come up with a plan to take on the enemy. Should I be undecided on a matter, Jia was able to fill in this gap. Strategic planning is valued most highly in conquest. Given his unfortunate and premature death, our quest remains unfinished. The memory of Jia��s deeds will not be forgotten lightly. His lands shall be increased by eight hundred houses, making it a total of one thousand houses.��[6] Guo Jia was given a posthumous title of Marquis Zhen and was succeeded by his son Yi [7].

Annotation 6: The Book of Wei recorded the memorial by the Founding Lord, which wrote, ��Your humble servant is aware that rewards to the loyal and wise may not necessarily be bestowed onto the person in question, but can be given to those descendants who succeed him, based on the contributions recorded. In the past, the son of Sun Shu was handsomely rewarded by the lord of Chu after his father��s passing; on Cen Peng��s demise, his nobility was passed on to his relatives. The previous Head Officer (Ji Jiu) Guo Jia was both loyal and virtuous, and was exceptional in his abilities. In every meeting, his opinions graced the halls; he carried out his task well and never once did his strategies fail. He was present in the army for ten years or more, traveling together, and dining with me on the same table. Together, we captured Lu Bu in the east and Gui Gu in the west, executed Yuan Tan, pacified the northern people, crossed over dangerous lands to conquer the Wuwan, thus heightening our reputation in Liaodong as we attacked Yuan Shang. Though acting on behalf of Heaven gave us the mandate for victory, the task of facing the enemy, fulfilling our mission and overcoming the dangers should be attributed to Guo Jia. Just as he was about to be rewarded for his contributions, he passed away prematurely. It was first and foremost a loss of an excellent for the imperial court and on a personal level, the loss of an extraordinary partner. I propose to posthumously increase Jia��s current lands to a total of one thousand houses. Rewarding the dead is done for the sake of their living descendants, so that they in turn will serve us well in the future.��

Annotation 7: The Book of Wei claimed that Guo Yi possessed a deep understanding of matters. Yi��s style was Bo Yi, see also Wang Chang��s writings, Jia Jie.

Thereafter, the Founding Lord returned from his expedition of Jingzhou and he encountered an epidemic at Baqiu and his ships were burned. He sighed, ��If Guo Feng Xiao is still around, I would not have ended up like this.�� [8] Initially, Chen Qun disapproved of Jia for his lack of self-discipline and had on many occasions criticized Jia on this matter in court but Jia did not mind. The Founding Lord valued Jia for his talent but since Qun was a just man, he was also contented [9]. Yi was the literary and civil aide to the Crown Prince (Tai Zi Wen Xue) but he died early. He was succeeded by his son, Shen. After Shen died, he was succeeded by his son, Lie [10].

Annotation 8: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��The Founding Lord also said, ��I mourn for Feng Xiao! I am pained for Feng Xiao! I grieve for Feng Xiao!����

Annotation 9: The records of Fu Zi mentioned, ��The Founding Lord wrote a letter to Xun Yu to grieve over Jia, he wrote, ��Guo Feng Xiao was not even forty (when he died). We were together for eleven years, going through all kinds of hardships and difficulties. When we exchanged opinions, his ideas were not stagnated and I hoped to entrust him with the future but little did I realized that death would cause me to lose him. This saddens me greatly. Presently, I memorialize for his son to own a thousand houses, but as to how I should reward the dead, I could only remember him deep in my heart. Moreover, Feng Xiao knew me well; few people in the world could be called your confidante, thus another reason for me to grieve. Alas, what can I do?�� He wrote another letter to Xun Yu, ��My grief for Feng Xiao could not leave my heart. The way he viewed military matters and worldly affairs was way beyond most people. When many people congregate, there will be a fear of sickness. There is an epidemic in the south and also a common saying, ��If you go south, you will not come back alive.�� However, when we discussed about strategy, he said I should first of all conquer Jing (zhou). This proves the devotion underlying his strategies, and his determination to succeed in our goals and overcome the power of fate. This is thus his person and heart, how can anyone forget him?����

Annotation 10: Shi Yu recorded that, ��Jia��s grandson Chang, styled Tai Zhong, was a knowledgeable person. He held the position of San Qi Chang Shi (an officer who accompanied the emperor and had the authority of admonition).
Liu Bei's SGZ ... liubei.pdf
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
Zhuge Liang's SGZ ... _Liang.pdf
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di and Empress Zhang

There, all SGZ/HHS/Jin Shu biographies in =)
Yang Dayang
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby vvill79 » Tue Feb 22, 2011 3:54 pm

Awesome! Thanks for all your hard work getting these recovered. I had some saved on an old HDD but no idea where...
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