Recovering the lost 3Kingdoms Frontier Biographies

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Recovering the lost 3Kingdoms Frontier Biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Sat Feb 12, 2011 11:18 am

Hello everyone, I've received permission from James to go through the old site and bring back any SGZ biography I can get. I'll post up any author comments and will definitely post up the translator name and everything I can get my hands on.

Permission from James: viewtopic.php?p=532298#p532298

Now, if you guys want to contribute to this, it's fairly easy. Just go to this site:

Then, put this URL

Then just search the forum to get any SGZ biography and post it here, remember to give credits for the translator and post up any author comments and credits from there.

DISCLAIMER: Those translated SGZ biographies are the work of their translators, I receive no credit whatsoever for getting them back, posting them or anything. And I'm only posting them because we've received permission from the authors to host them here for educational purposes.

Alright so here how it goes, I'll post up the biographies in a semi-daily basis. I can post all the biographies quickly but that will ruin the fun lol. Also, please note that not all the biographies can be reached for some reason, but I'll get whatever I can.

Alright then, for a start I managed to find Zhuge Dan's SGZ. I'm not sure about the weird symbols but that's how they appear

Translator: Sun Bofu

Zhuge Dan's Biography

Zhuge Dan styled Gonxiu was a man from Yangdu in the region of Lang Xie.
He was a descendent of Zhuge Feng. In the beginning he served as a
Imperial Secretariat Cadet for the prefect of Ying Yang (1) He later became a Gentlemen Cadet for a Magistrate. ��������י���������Զ����֮�����е����������

ʧ��Ϊ��ᣬ����Ⱥ��Ī��������� Later he was promoted to become a Palace Attendant Assistant to the Imperial Secretariat. He became good friends with Xiahou Xuan and Deng Yang. Together they rose the ranks of the court. Later there was slander against them in the court. Mingdi [Cao Rui] dismissed [Zhuge] Dan. (2) When the Emperor collapsed, in the beginning of Zheng Shi [240-249], Xiahou Xuan got his position back. [Zhuge] Dan returned to his position of Palace Attendant Assistant to the Imperial Secretariat and was sent out to become the Inspector of Yangzhou. He was promoted to General who Manifest the Military.

1. The Spring and Autumn Chronicles of Wei Clans: [Zhuge] Dan served as a Gentleman Cadet and went to give Du Ji a test ride on a new boat. A sudden burst of wind tipped the boat over and [Zhuge] Dan was drowning. Hu Ben dove into the river to save him but [Zhuge] Dan said, ��Save the Marquis Du first!�� He later drifted ashore.

2. Shi Yi: That year there were many capable men in the court: Chief Clerk Xiahou Xuan, Imperial Secretariat, Zhuge Dan; and Deng Yang. They were members of groups, [Xiahou] Xuan and Chou were part of the ��Four
Intelligent People�� and [Zhuge] Dan and Bei were part of the ��Eight Achieved Individuals��. The Zhong Shu Jian Liu Feng��s son [Liu] Xi, Sun Zi��s son [Sun] Mi, and the Magistrate��s Imperial Secretariat Wei
Zhan��s son [Wei] Lie were three men who lived off their father��s positions. They were idle men. These 15 men the Emperor dismissed from office.

Wang Ling planned to rebel. The Grand Tutor Sima Xuanwang [Sima Yi] (i) led an eastern Campaign. [Zhuge] Dan was used to serve as the General Who Guards the East. He received Jie (ii) and was appointed the Chief Commandant of all military affairs of Yang Zhou. He was conferred as the Marquis of Shan Yang Pavilion. Zhuge Ke was stationed in the Eastern pass and [Zhuge] Dan was dispatched to punish him. He met him in battle but could not gain an advantage. His position was moved to become General Who Guards the South.

i. Sima Yi��s Posthumous Title for the Jin Dynasty was Xuanwang therefore in historical texts of time it would be proper to refer to him by his Official Dynastic name.

ii. Jie is a reward to military generals that gives them addition power. Most notably they can execute officers under martial law without having to send them to the capitol.

Later when Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin rose in rebellion, they sent a messenger to [Zhuge] Dan to levy and recruit people from Yuzhou. [Zhuge] Dan beheaded the messenger and knew that [Guanqiu] Jian and [Wen] Qin were traitors. The General-in-Chief Sima Jingwang [Sima Shi] (iii) began an Eastern Campaign and had [Zhuge] Dan supervise all military affairs of Yuzhou and cross over the river and go towards Shou Chun.
When [Guanqiu] Jian and [Wen] Qin had been routed and [Zhuge] Dan had already arrived at Shou Chun. Inside Shou Chun there were 100,000 people. When they heard that [Guanqiu] Jian and [Wen] Qin had been
defeated they afraid that they would be massacred. When they heard of the route they opened the city gates and fled, some going into the mountains and others going south to enter Wu. At this time, [Zhuge] Dan
had served some time in Huainan, when he was promoted to Genera-in-Chief Who Guards the East and becoming the Chief Controller of Yangzhou. Wu��s Generals Sun Jun, Lu Ju, and Liu Zan heard that Huainan was in a state of confusion and wished to meet up with Wen Qin. They brought their forces to [Wen] Qin and directed them towards Shou Chun. With [Zhuge] Dan already occupying the city with several armies they were
unable to attack and they lead their forces to retreat. [Zhuge] Dan dispatched General Jiang Ban to pursue them. He was able to behead [Liu] Zan and then took his head and seal. [Zhuge Dan] was thus promoted to
be conferred as the Marquis of Gao Ping and was given a fief of 3,500 households (iv). He also was shifted to become the General-in-Chief who Guards the South.

iii. Jingwang is Sima Shi��s Dynastic name (see note [i])

iv. A household is not a population state. However it is proportional to population and during the Three Kingdoms time was usually from 4.3-5 people per household.

[Zhuge] Dan had already become very close friends with [Xiahou] Xuan and [Deng] Yang as well as seeing the extermination of [Wang] Ling and [Guanqiu] Jian. �岻�԰����������ʩ�Խ����ģ������׸���������������ǧ��Ϊ��ʿ (1) In the 1st year of Gan Lu [256], the bandits [Wu] (v) wished to come out to Xu E. There was a plan for [Zhuge] Dan to lead the infantry and cavalry out to wait for them. He requested 100,000 soldiers be sent to Shou Chun. He also asked that a new city be built along the Huai to prepare for the Bandits. In his heart he wanted to protect Huainan. The Imperial Court perceived that [Zhuge] Dan had suspicious loyalties and desired for him to become a palace minister. In the 5th month of the 2nd year [257], [Zhuge] Dan was summoned to become the Minister of Works. When [Zhuge] Dan received the letter he became fearful and decided to rise up in rebellion. He
summoned his generals to led and attack on the Inspector of Yangzhou, Le Lin and killed him. (2) He collected the harvest from the commadaries of Huianan and Huaibei for enough food to feed 100,000 troops. The Yangzhou troops numbered 40,000-50,000 and they collected enough food for 1 year. He shut the gates and prepared for a defensive. He sent Chief Clerk Wu Gang and his young son [Zhuge] Jing to request aid from Wu. (3) The Wu people were very happy and sent Quan Duan, Quan Yi, Tang Zi and Wang Zuo to lead 30,000 troops and to meet up with Wen Qin to rescue [Zhuge] Dan. [Zhuge] Dan was given many ranks and awards: Left Protector of the Capitol, given Jie, Grand Minister over the Masses, Governor of Qingzhou, General of the Flying Cavalry, and conferred as the Marquis of Shouchun. At that time, the General Who Conquers the South, Wang Ji, arrived and used his several armies to besiege Shou Chun, but they had not yet combine. [Tang] Zi and [Wen] Qin from a north east approach from a mountain pass, were able to drive their forces into the castle.

1. Wei Shu: [Zhuge] Dan gave out rewards throughout the system. There was one man with an execution sentence which he pardoned.

2. Shi Yu: Sima Wenwang [Sima Zhao] (vi) already had control of government affairs when the Chief Clerk, Jia Chong, was dispatched to thank the soldiers who had taken part in the previous battle and arrived at Shou Chun. Jia Chong explained to [Sima] Wenwang, ��[Zhuge] Dan in Yangzhou has rank and power and the people love him. If you summon him and he does not come, it will be a minor problem. If you do not summon him, it will turn into a major problem.�� Then he decided to make him Minister of Works. When the letter arrived, [Zhuge] Dan said, ��I have worked hard for this nation. At the present they wish for me to serve as Minister of Works. They did not send me an envoy but only presented me with a letter. An envoy and troops were sent to Le Lin. This must be stopped!�� He then gathered several hundred men to arrive at Yangzhou. The Yangzhou people desired to shut the gates and [Zhuge] Dan shouted, ��Officer, it is not us who had done wrong!�� When they entered the city, [Le] Lin fled into a building. They pursued and beheaded him.

Wei Mo Zhuan: Jia Chong and Zhuge Dan had met before and had a discussion. [Jia] Chong told [Zhuge] Dan, ��Lately in Luoyang there has been much talk of replacing the Emperor. The Emperor knows this. Is this your opinion?�� [Zhuge] Dan said, ��You are the son of Jia Yuzhou (vii) and your family has received Wei��s Kindness. Now you speak of replacing the current government? If the state is in difficulty, then one ought to stand up for it even to the death!�� [Jia] Chong was then silent. [Zhuge] Dan had already been summoned when he asked his retainers to have a banquet. He shouted for all to join and they all became intoxicated. Then he said to the masses, ��First I will gather up 1,000 men in full battle array and then I will kill the traitor. Today we must undertake Luo and not return to it��s clutches. We will observe their show and listen and then the lords will be stopped.�� He then beat the drums and led 700 soldiers out to Yangzhou. When Le Lin heard he was coming he shut all the gates. [Zhuge] Dan came to the southern gate and shouted, ��B�� He then went to the Eastern Gate and it too had been shut. He then ordered his soldiers to attack the gate. The People inside fled and the troops entered. The wind caused the fire to spread and it set the armory on fire. They then went forth and killed [Le] Yin. [Zhuge] Dan then said, ��Ministers, we accept the nation��s weight with the troops we govern in the East. The Inspector of Yangzhou, Le Yin was a fraud. It is time to communicate with Wu and accept position with them. We have to receive the nation and we may die to establish it. I was angry that [Le] Yin was not loyal. I marched 700 men to punish him. I accomplished it in 6 days and took his head. If you were Ming ministers you were ministers of Wei. Now you are not Ming Ministers you are ministers of Wu.

Your Servant Pei Song Zhi considers the words of Wei Mo Zhuan to be rather coarse and doubt that [Zhuge] Dan would express words as such.

3. Shi Yu: At the end of Huang Chu [220-226] the people of Wu created a burial mound for the King of Changsha [Sun Ce]. They also built nearby in Lin Xiang a temple for Sun Jian. Later when [Wu] Gang was sent to Wu he said, ��The King of Changsha did much yet his burial mound is small �䣬����ɼ�֮������

v. Kingdoms usually just referred to their enemies as ��The Bandits�� as they all felt they were the legitimate kingdom and their enemies were just a case of banditry.

vi. Wenwang is Sima Zhao��s Dynastic Name (see note [i])

vii. Officials were commonly referred to by their location. Jia Yuzhou was a man from the Yuzhou region with the surname of Jia presumable with a high rank in that region.

In the 6th month, Wei led an Eastern Campaign. The General-in-Chief Sima Wenwang [Sima Zhao] oversaw armies totaling 260,000 troops to move towards Huai. The General-in-Chief stationed at Qiutou. He sent a messenger to [Wang] Ji and General who Tranquilizes the East, Chen Qian, to besiege all four sides of the city and build siege equipment. He also sent a messenger to the Advisor to the Army, Shi Bao, and the Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhou Tai, to serve as river troops and to prepare for the outside attacks by the bandits [Wu]. [Wen] Qin several times tried to sally the siege but was sent retreating each time. The Wu General, Zhu Yi, came with a large force to help [Zhuge] Dan. He tried to cross the river in several points but [Zhou] Tai countered and pushed him back at each location. Sun Lin saw that [Zhu] Yi��s fighting had not made any progress and in a fit of rage had him killed. Inside the castle food was running low and on the outside, aid could not reach them, so the populace had little trust. The Generals Jiang Ban and Jiao Yi abandoned [Zhuge] Dan and went over the wall to surrender to the General-in-Chief [Sima Zhao]. (1) The General-in-Chief then sent an envoy into the city. He met with Quan Yi and convinced him to open the gate and come out with several thousand men. Inside the castle there was great fear and they did not know what to do.

1. Han Jin Chun Qiu: Jiang Ban and Jiao Yi said to [Zhuge] Dan, ��Zhu Yi with his large army came but he could not advance. Sun Lin killed [Zhu] Yi and returned to Jiang Dong. On the outside they [Wu] dispatch troops and hand out ranks, but on the inside they are content to sit back while we perish. His return is evidence. At this time we should focus our strength to raise moral. We should focus on one side of the siege and attack. If we cannot overcome we can maintain our defense.�� Wen Qin scolded them. The two men began to fear and knew that [Zhuge] Dan would be defeated. In the 10th month, they surrendered.

In the 1st month of the 3rd year [258], [Zhuge] Dan, [Wen] Qin, and [Tang] Zi led a large attack on the siege equipment. For 6 days and nights they fought at the south wall to try and break through the siege. (1) Wei had several armies. As they drew near [Zhuge Dan] had catapults and bowmen fire rocks and fire arrows to burn the siege equipment. Rocks and arrows came down like rain. The dead covered the ground and the moat was red with blood. He returned into the castle. Inside the city the food was running low. Several hundred thousand men had already surrendered to the other side. [Wen] Qin desired to send out the Northern Army to conserve food and then to grant the Wu troops to lead a hard defense. [Zhuge] Dan ignored his advice and formed a dislike [for Wen Qin]. This event caused a split between [Wen] Qin and [Zhuge] Dan and there was mutual suspicion. [Wen] Qin saw [Zhuge] Dan��s plan and [Zhuge] Dan killed him. [Wen] Qin��s sons [Wen] Yang and [Wen] Hu and the general��s troops were located in the center of the city. When they heard of their father��s death they ordered their troops to go towards him but they did not follow. [Wen] Yang and [Wen] Hu alone slipped over the city wall and went to the General-in-Chief [Sima Zhao]. The officials said to kill him but the General-in-Chief said, ��For [Wen] Qin��s crimes, his sons should not suffer execution. Certainly [Wen] Yang and [Wen] Hu are in a poor position. The city had not yet succumbed and if we kill them their resolute will be hardened.�� [Wen] Yang and [Wen] Hu were then pardoned. They were dispatched with several hundred horsemen to go to the city walls. Inside the city people sighed and said, ��Wen Qin��s own sons were not killed, what is there to fear [in surrendering]?�� [Wen] Yang and [Wen] Hu were then made generals and Marquises of the Outer Passes. Inside the city there was great agitation and everyday the food ran lower. [Zhuge] Dan��s and Tang Zi��s power was waning. The General-in-Chief then approached the siege. At this time the drums began to beat with a clamor but no one in the city moved. [Zhuge] Dan alone rode his horse with a small guard through a small gate to escape. The General-in-Chief��s Major Hu Fen attacked him and beheaded him. His family was exterminated for three generations. There were several hundred of his guard that would not surrender. They all said, ��We serve Zhuge Dan to the death, we do not regret it.�� (2) Tang Zi and Wang Zuo various generals all came to surrender. The surrendered Wu troops numbered 10,000 and their equipment made a mountain.

1. Han Jin Chun Qiu: Wen Qin said, ��Jiang Ban and Jiao Yi told us we could not get out then fled. Quan Duan and Quan Yi led their forces to surrender. These people were wrong and we are still capable of fighting.�� [Zhuge] Dan and Tang Zi all together agreed. Together they led their forces out to attack.

2. Gan Bao Jin Ji: Many people had been beheaded until they went across the farm fields. There the Wu General Yu Quan said, ��A man takes his orders from his master. To take the troops to assist the city. As long as there are enemy at hands, I have not accomplished this.�� Then he took off his helmet and fought to the death.

Initially at the siege of Shou Chun, there was a discussion on how to attack him. The General-in-Chief considered that, ��The city had a well hardened force. To attack directly would most certainly bend out power. If there are attacks from outside bandits [Wu] then this would become quite a dangerous move. Now three rebellions have all centered in this Bastard City. �ᵱ��ȫ����֮���������Ҳ��[Zhuge] Dan rebelled in the 5th month of the 2nd year [257] and was pacified by the 2nd month of the 3rd year [258]. 6 army��s suited up, and [Zhuge] Dan hid behind tall walls and a moat, but in the end, it was not a large attack that defeated him. (1) After Shouchun was broken there was discussion on what to do with the rebels from Huainan. The soldier��s families were in Jiangnan. Some thought they could not be let go and should be buried. General-in-Chief considered that when the ancients made war, their policy was to maintain the state as a whole so it would be inhumane to slay them all. The troops were spared. The three rivers Commandary was divided into AnChu.

1. Gan Bao Jin Ji: Initially, Shou Chun always had a very rainy season and the Huai River would overflow. Frequently it would flood the whole district. When [Sima] Wenwang [Sima Zhao] began to build walls around the siege, [Zhuge] Dan snickered and said, ��Indeed they will not attack and let us defeat ourselves.�� When the grand army attacked, there was a drought for over a year. Once the city had already fallen there was a great rain and the wall was destroyed. [Zhuge] Dan��s son [Zhuge] Jing styled Zhongsi was given rank [in Jin] when Wu was pacified. [Zhuge] Jing��s son [Zhuge] Hui styled Daoming served as a Prefect Imperial Secretariat. Later he was promoted to become a Left Household Grandee.

Tang Zi was originally from Licheng. In the beginning of Huang Chu [], Li Cheng rebelled. The Grand Administrator Xu Ji was killed and [Tang] Zi was forced to follow them. Wendi [Cao Pi] sent various armies to punish them entered the ocean and when they were destroyed he entered Wu. He served as the General of the Left, conferred as a Marquis and given Jie. When [Zhuge] Dan and [Wen] Qin were killed [Tang] Zi was captured and thus all three rebellions were rapidly pacified. (1) [Tang] Zi kowtowed and was given the rank of General Who Pacifies the Outer Regions. He was given his former troops and the Wu people were pleased. When Jiang Dong heard of his surrender they did not kill his family. All the people who had followed [Zhuge] Dan were pardoned. Ting Yuan and Hu Shou together mourned for him and took his remains to be buried in a tomb.
Yang Dayang
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Joined: Sun Aug 01, 2010 8:06 pm
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Sat Feb 12, 2011 11:53 am

Actually scratch the semi-daily basis thing, not all biographies work all the time and I'll can miss a biography if I skip posting it. Found Ma Liang's SGZ, and Pang Tong's SGZ in their site (not forum).

Ma Liang's SGZ
Translator: Su Mingde

^ Cause I can't copy-paste that lol

Ma Liang, stylename Jichang, was a man of Xiangyang city. He had four brothers and together they possessed both talent and fame. The villagers often said, "Of the Ma family were five Changs, the one with white eyebrows is Ma Liang" (1). There were white hairs in the middle of Ma Liang's eyebrows which explains why he was referred to as such. When the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) governed Jingzhou, he appointed Ma Liang as Congshi. When the First Sovereign entered Shu and later, Zhuge Liang also went as well, Ma Liang was left to guard Jingzhou. Ma Liang wrote a letter to Zhuge Liang, "I have heard of the capture of Luocheng and believe this is a blessing from Heaven. Honourable elder brother, you should support the world and take part in the affairs of the glorious State in order to prove your ability. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that Ma Liang and Zhuge Liang were very close like brothers. Since Zhuge Liang was older in age thus Ma Liang refers to him as elder brother. Being able to adapt elegantly to changes in situation; to examine with clear understanding; and to select and use people of appropriate talent, are what is needed at this time. You should take this opportunity to spread your wisdom and virtue to everywhere between Heaven and Earth, so that they may listen and be won over by your principles. That is, to create a harmonious sound requires the unison of voices from Zheng and Wei (2). This harmony will be beneficial like the 'Guan Xian' together with the melody of the 'Ya' and 'Kuang' (3) Although not the best of all time, but you are very good." The First Sovereign appointed Ma Liang in the office of the General of the Left.

Later, Ma Liang was sent as an emissionary to Wu. He said to Zhuge Liang, "Today, the fate of our State and the co-operation of the two families (Shu and Wu) rests between me and General Sun Quan." Zhuge Liang replied, "Sir, you may try using writing." Right after this, Ma Liang wrote in a manuscript, "My lord has sent thy official, Ma Liang, to continue the friendly relations [between our two states] as well as encourage the exchanging of letters. My lord is always courteous to scholars. Governing the region of Jing-Chu (4), he has not the ability to cause havoc but rather has the ability and desire to co-operate, settle the minds as well as reassuring the soldiers." Sun Quan treated him with respect.

When the First Sovereign took the imperial throne, he made Ma Liang a Shizhong. On the Eastern Wu expedition, Ma Liang was sent into Wuling to recruit the barbarian tribes at Wuqi. The military leaders of the barbarians received an official seal and thus he executed the mission successfully according to his lord's wishes. Together with the First Sovereign, they were badly defeated at Yiling. Ma Liang was also killed here (5). The First Sovereign appointed Ma Liang's son, Ma Bing, to be Qi Douwei...Ma Liang died at age thirty-six.

(1) In most chinese families, the brothers often shared a common character in their names. In the Ma family, they shared the character 'Chang' in their stylenames. For example, we have Ma Jichang (Liang) and Ma Youchang (Ma Su).

(2) I assume that he is referring to the Zheng and Wei states which were once authoritative states in the very early stages of the Spring and Autumn period.

(3) The Guan Xian, Ya, and Kuang were probably ancient music instruments.

(4) Jingzhou occupied a region that used to be the ancient state of Chu in the Spring and Autumn/Warring States Period.

(5) According to the Zizhi Tongjian (ZZTJ), Ma Liang died in Wuqi which is where he went to recruit the barbarian tribes of Wuling.

Pang Tong's SGZ
Translator: Su Mingde


Pang Tong, stylename Shiyuan, was a native of Xiangyang. When he was young, he was very upright yet nobody knew of his talents. Sima Hui of Yingchuan was a man of distinction and could read people like a mirror. Pang Tong went to see him. When he met him, Sima Hui was picking mulberries on top of a tree while Pang Tong was seated below. They talked from day to evening. [Sima] Hui considered him a very unusual person and convinced him to become an official in Nanzhou. [Xi Zuochi's] Xiangyang Ji says: (1) Zhuge Liang was known as the Sleeping Dragon, Pang Tong was known as the Young Phoenix, and Sima Decao was known as the Water Mirror. These names were given by Pang Degong. Pang Degong was a man from Xiangyang. Each time Kongming went to his house, he made his prostrations at the front of his bed. Degong did not mind this. Decao wished to set Degong as an example. Once, Degong was away crossing the Mian river to worship his ancestors' tomb. Decao hurried into the room and called Degong's wife to quickly prepare some food and said "Xu Yuanzhi [Xu Shu] used to say that when guests have arrived, I greet them like Pang Gong". His wife saluted to each of the guests in the main hall and rushed about serving them. When Degong returned and entered into the room, [everyone was so at home] he did not know who was really the guest. Decao was ten years younger than Degong and so treated him as an elder brother, whom he called 'Pang Gong'. This led others to believe that 'Pang Gong' was Degong's name, but this was not the case. Degong had a son called Pang Shanmin who also was well-known and married Zhuge Kongming's elder sister. He worked in Wei as Huangmen Libu Lang and died young. He had a son called Pang Huan stylename Shiwen, who worked in the Taikang era of Jin as a Governor. Pang Tong was a nephew of Degong and was unknown by many when he was young. Degong treated him very well. When he was eighteen, he went to meet with Decao. Decao then said with a sigh, "Degong knows people well, that is such a good thing".

He later was promoted as the Gong Cao.He was known to be very concerned for the people and the elderly. His achievements even exceeded his talents, thus people were confused. Pang Tong said, "Today, there is much chaos in the world. Good people are few while bad people are many. Those that do not do these good deeds will not be well known. However, those who are not well known but do good deeds are very few. Hence those that do good deeds in order to leave a good name at least have done half a good deed". The Wu general, Zhou Yu, assisted the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) in taking Jingzhou, hence the First Sovereign recommended Zhou Yu as Governor of Nanjun. After Zhou Yu died, Pang Tong went to Wu to attend the funeral. Many people from Wu knew of Pang Tong's reputation. He later returned to the West and people who went to see him off were Lu Zhi, Gu Shao, and Quan Cong. Pang Tong said, "Lu Zi (Zhi) is like a worn horse who has the strength to ride away. Gu Zi (Shao) is like a worn ox who can transport for a long distance". Zhang Bo's Wu Lu says: Someone asked Pang Tong, "Is Lu Zhi a talented person?" Pang Tong responded, "Even though the horse has energy, it can only serve one person. Even though the ox Pang Tong can travel three hundred miles in a day, there is only one". Gu Shao heard Pang Tong's words and asked, "You seem to read us well, how do we compare to you?" Pang Tong responded, "Learning the cultures and reading talent, I cannot compare with you. However, if it was about affairs of Kings and Emperors, then you cannot compare with me". Quan Zhong replied, "Your fondness of admiring reputation seems like Fan Zizhao of Runan ... Jiang Ji Wan Ji Lun: Xu Zi's generals, claiming that their demotion was unfair, attached themselves to Fan Zizhao in order to restrict Xu Wenyou. Liu Ye said, "Zizhao was favourable with everyone. He was patient when in retreat, but conscious when advancing". Jiang Ji responded, "I do not agree. He is not a good as Xu Wenyou". ... Though with not much intellect, you are good for this time". Lu Zhi and Gu Shao said to Pang Tong, "If there was peace in the world, we should keep in contact with each other". Pang Tong replied, "Yes we should keep contact", and then he left.

The First Sovereign governed Jingzhou and Pang Tong was the magistrate of Leiyang. However, he governed it poorly and later was dismissed. Lu Su wrote a letter to the First Sovereign saying, "Pang Shiyuan's talent is much more than one who governs a hundred li (miles). He can be a Zhizhong or a Biejia". Zhuge Liang also advised the same to the First Sovereign. Hence the First Sovereign went to see him and made Pang Tong a Zhizhong. [Yu Pu's] Jiang Biao Zhuan says: (2) Liu Bei invited Pang Tong to dinner. He asked Pang Tong, "Sir, you were with Zhou Gongjin fighting Cao Cao. When I arrived in Wu, I heard that he secretly advised Sun Zhongmou to trap me there. Since you are working for me now, you need not have to conceal it anymore". Pang Tong replied, "Yes, it is true". Liu Bei sighed and said, "That time was desperate so I had to make the request hence I had no choice but to go. I nearly fell into Zhou Yu's hands! Wise men of the world think alike. Kongming admonished me not to go because he thought the idea of going alone was dangerous. I thought Zhongmou was concerned at guarding the north and would require my assistance and hence I suspected no danger. It seems this plan was a very dangerous one and is not one to be used again." Pang Tong was second to Zhuge Liang, but both were ranked the same as `Jun Shi Zhong Lang Jiang' (Generals of the Gentleman of the Household Masters of the Army). [Sima Biao's] Jiuzhou Chunqiu says: (3) Pang Tong said to Liu Bei, "Jingzhou is a poor area after so many years of war. To the east, there is Sun Quan. To the north, there is Cao Cao. It is difficult to establish the tripod. In Yizhou, the people are strong and wealthy with a million in population. The military there can be used and goods and commodities do not need to transported from outside. With this authority, you can accomplish great things". Liu Bei said, "Cao Cao is different to me like fire and water. Cao Cao is mean, I am generous. Cao Cao is violent, I am kind. Cao Cao is deceitful, I am loyal. Since I am the opposite of Cao Cao in everything, then the affair may be successful. If I take a petty advantage and lose the trust of the world, then I would rather not capture it". Pang Tong replied, "In times of disorder, one must be adaptable. Furthermore, you will taking over from the weak and attacking the stupid, and what you seize by rebellion you may hold with obedience. Men of the past have always respected this". So Liu Bei, forthwith, went ahead. (4) Zhuge Liang was left to guard Jingzhou while Pang Tong followed into Shu.

Imperial Protector of Yizhou, Liu Zhang, met the First Sovereign at Fucheng. Pang Tong offered a plan to the First Sovereign, "When we see Liu Zhang, we can capture him. We can take Yizhou without a single soldier being used". The First Sovereign replied, "I have only just arrived here and I have not been shown faith or favour yet, so we cannot do that" 4. Liu Zhang returned to Chengdu while the First Sovereign assisted Liu Zhang and led his troops on the expedition against Hanzhong. Pang Tong said, "We should secretly send some soldiers to surprise Chengdu. Liu Zhang is not a fighting man so this will ensure success. This is the top (best) plan. Yang Huai and Gao Pei are Liu Zhang's top generals and are responsible for defending Baishui Pass. These two people constantly wrote letters to Liu Zhang asking to send you back to Jingzhou. Now say that Jingzhou is in trouble and that you have to return. When you prepare to depart, these two generals, who admire your reputation, will be happy and come to see you off. Then you can arrest them and head for Chengdu. This is the middle plan. Or you can retreat to Baidicheng, then reinforced by the Jingzhou troops, make your way back. This is the bottom (worst) plan. We cannot stay here Pang Tong for long". The First Sovereign chose the middle plan and executing Yang Huai and Gao Pei, headed for Chengdu. During the assembly in Fucheng, they were celebrating with wine. The First Sovereign said to Pang Tong, "Today's celebration is a joyous one". Pang Tong admonished, "To attack someone's state and say you are happy is not from a righteous army". The First Sovereign was drunk at the time and was angry, "When Wu Wang was attacking Zhou 5, he was singing before and dancing afterwards, so was Wu Wang not a righteous person? Sir your words are improper so you should quickly go out!" Pang Tong got up and left. The First Sovereign regretted what he said and invited Pang Tong to come back where he was reinstated. Initially, Pang Tong in spite of what happened drank and ate normally as before. The First Sovereign said, "About our discussion, who was the one who was wrong?" Pang Tong replied, "Both minister and lordPang Tong were wrong". The First Sovereign laughed and they continued. Xi Zuochi says: A hegemon is a person who must include righteousness as his basis and have confidence and trust. If that person cannot achieve either one, then nothing can be accomplished. Liu Bei took Liu Zhang's territory in order to rule his domain, but he had lost trust as well as violated virtue and righteousness. Even though the achievement was grand, it seems he has been severely wounded and defeated just like the removal of arms from the body, so what is there to be happy about? Pang Tong knew his lord would eventually understand so in front of the many officials, he put aside his usual modesty and corrected his lord's faults in a very direct and open way, much like that of Jian E. One who supports his lord and is able to maintain the right Way is a true minister; one who after a victory is not boastful is an understanding person; the true minister is able to support his sovereign to the loftiest grandeur; the understanding person is always looked up to by others. Saying one thing which leads to three times as much good and understanding is a fine example for a hundred generations to follow and it can be said that he has achieved this in general. For one to find a small fault while ignoring previous achievements is foolish which will cut short any further success. A person like that to be able to successfully build up a State, there has never been one before. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that though the strategy to attack Liu Zhang came from Pang Tong, he realised the plan involved violating righteousness to gain victory, hence he already felt uneasy in his heart. Even though he showed happiness outside, he hid his true emotions inside. After he heard Liu Bei's words of joy, Pang Tong did not feel himself to be without fault either. But at the time when Liu Bei was drunk, he compared himself to Wu Wang while not feeling ashamed. Hence it was Liu Bei who was not right and Pang Tong who was not wrong in that instance. So when Pang Tong said, "Both minister and lord are wrong", it does make sense after reading between the lines. Xi Shi's (Zuochi) discussion is mostly correct, but there are some aspects which do not flow well either.

After surrounding and attacking Luo county, Pang Tong led his troops in to attack the city and died from a stray arrow at the age of thirty-six. The First Sovereign was in deep sorrow and weeped a lot. He entitled Pang Tong's father as Yilang and Ganyi Dafu. Zhuge Liang personally came and mourned for Pang Tong. Pang Tong was posthumously entited as Guannei Hou and later Jing Hou. His son, Pang Hong, stylename Jushi, was in conflict with a minister from the Shangshu and was restricted. When he died, he was Governor of Fu. Pang Tong's brother was Pang Lin. He was Zhizhong of Jingzhou and together with the General Who Supresses the North, Huang Quan, went in the Wu expedition. After being defeated, he followed Huang Quan and surrendered to Wei where he was entitled as Lie Hou. He was later made Governor of Julu. Xiangyang Ji comments: Pang Lin's wife was from the same prefecture and sister of Xi Jing. Xi Jing at Yang Xi was an advisor. When Cao Gong conquered Jingzhou, Pang Lin and his wife were separated. Pang Lin's wife, alone, took care of their daughter. Afterwards, Pang Lin followed Huang Quan and surrendered to Wei, where he was reunited with his wife. When Wei Wendi heard of this, he praised Pang Lin for being a faithful husband and sent many gifts to him.

(1) Xiangyang Qijiu Ji, better known as Xiangyang Ji, was a book written by Eastern Jin historian, Xi Zuochi, who also was author of the famous book, Han Jin Chun Qiu. Xi Zuochi was the first historian to argue that legitimacy rested with the Shu-Han kingdom while the Wei kingdom was one of usurpers, thus Han Jin Chun Qiu was written from this perspective. Most of his reasoning was presented in an elaborate memorial which is contained in his Jin Shu biography. Xi Zuochi was a native of Xiangyang.

(2) Jiang Biao Zhuan was written by Yu Pu of the third century.

(3) Jiuzhou Chunqiu was written by Sima Biao who also wrote Lingling Xianxian Zhuan and co-authored the Hou Han Shu with Fan Ye.

(3) This translation was done by Rafe De Crespigny in To Establish Peace

(4) This translation was done by Rafe De Crespigny in To Establish Peace

(5) Liu Bei is referring to Zhou Wu Wang (Martial King of Zhou) attacking Shang Zhou Wang (King Zhou of Shang). Wu Wang and his ancestors were formerly subjects of the Shang dynasty. Zhou Wu Wang, together with his talented commander, Jiang Ziya, attacked Shang Zhou Wang to rid China of tyrannical rule.


Xu Shu's biography just refuses to work >,>
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby XuSheng » Sun Feb 13, 2011 2:05 am

Does someone have the biography of Xiahou Yuan or Zhu Huan ?
I like to kill people in my dreams, so when I fall asleep be sure not to come too close.
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Elitemsh » Sun Feb 13, 2011 2:05 pm

''I've never fought for anyone but myself. I've got no purpose in life. No ultimate goal. It's only when I'm cheating death on the battlefield. The only time I feel truly alive.'' ~Solid Snake
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Sun Feb 13, 2011 2:25 pm

Yup, was just going to post that.

Hou Han Shu Biography of Empress Fu (Draft)
Translator: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Emperor Xian�s empress, Fu, was from Langya, Dongwu and was the eighth descendent of the Great Minister of Interior (Da Situ), Fu Zhan. Her father, Fu Wan, had great magnanimity. Inheriting his family�s nobility as Marquis of Buqi, he still served as Palace Attendant (Shi Zhong) of Princess Yangan, daughter of Emperor Huan.

In the first year of Chuping, [Empress Fu] followed the royal entourage during the shifting of the capital to Chang�an in the west. Later she entered the harem as �gui ren�. In the second year of Xingping, she was installed as Empress. The Emperor was contemplating on returning to the East. Li Jue, Guo Si, and others pursued the defeated Cheng (Sheng) Yu at Caoyang. At night, the Emperor escaped across the river with the officials of the six palaces following him. The Empress was leading a few horses with her hands. Dong Cheng dispatched Fu Jie to lead Sun Hui and using swords, they went to capture the horses. They killed the attendants there and blood sprayed onto the Empress� clothes. Arriving at Anyi, the Empress� clothes were worn out and she ate chestnuts as food. In the first year of Jianan, Fu Wan was instated as General Who Supports the State (Fu Guo Jiang Jun) whose authority compared with the Three Excellencies (San Si). Knowing that affairs were controlled by Cao Cao, Fu Wan personally disliked honouring relatives so he returned his seal. He was later instated as Zhongsan Dafu and later Colonal of Garrison Cavalry (tun qi jiao wei). He died in the fourteenth year and his son, Fu Dian, succeeded him.

Ever since the Emperor arrived in Xuchang, he could only maintain his own position but no more. Where he resided, those who guarded him had family connections to the Cao family. Zhao Yan, the Gentleman-consultant (Yi Lang), frequently discussed with the Emperor on affairs and policies. Cao Cao was angry with this and killed him. There were also many killings of the remaining officials, inside and outside. Later, Cao Cao went into Court to see the Emperor. The Emperor could not stand his indignance and said, �Sir, if you can assist me then that would be good. But if you cannot, please do not oppress me.� Cao Cao suddenly changed complexion and asked to leave. It was an old rule that whenever one of the Three Excellencies (san gong), who commanded the army, entered court, the Guards as Rapid as Tigers were required to hold their swords against them. Outside, Cao Cao looked around and sweat poured down his back. From that time onwards, Cao Cao never dared enter into Court. Dong Cheng�s daughter was a gui ren in the harem. When Cao Cao was executing [Dong] Cheng�s clan, he went to seek her out and kill her. She was pregnant with Emperor Xian�s child so the Emperor begged for mercy many times, but it was to no avail. The Empress became afraid and sent a letter to her father saying that Cao Cao was brutal and oppressive and he should make secret plans to eliminate him. But Fu Wan dared not act and it was until the nineteenth year, the plan was discovered. Cao Cao was very angry and tried to force the Emperor to abolish the Empress. He offered a false plan saying, [memorial omitted]. He ordered the Prefect of Masters of Writing (shang shu ling), Hua Xin, to be deputy to Chi Lu and they were to lead troops into the Palace and arrest the Empress. The Empress hid within the walls but Hua Xin led her out. At the time, the Emperor was outside in the Court receiving Chi Lu. The Empress� hair was disheveled; she was barefooted and weeping. As she went past, she said to the Emperor, �Can you not save me?� The Emperor replied, �I also do not know how long my life will last�. He then said to Chi Lu, �Lord Chi, under Heaven how can this happen?� Later the soldiers put the Empress in jail and she was later forced to commit suicide. The two Princes she had given birth to were also executed. The Empress was in her role for twenty years. Her brothers and her clan were all executed with the death toll numbering a hundred or so. Her mother and nineteen other people were exiled to the Zhuo prefecture.


Wang Ping's SGZ biography
Translator: Great Deer

Wang Ping styled Zi Jun, hailed from Dang Qu in Ba Xi. Wang Ping was raised by a He family (his external relatives) but later he reused the surname Wang. Wang Ping followed Du Huo and Du Hu to Luo Yang and was appointed as deputy Colonel. He served Cao Cao and joined the Han Zhong expedition where he subsequently surrendered to Liu Bei. Then, Wang Ping was conferred the appointment of Ya Men Jiang (General in charge of the Camp's Gate, Ya Men referred to the gate of the army's camp where the flag of the army was positioned) and given the rank of Pi Jiang Jun (or Assistant General). In Jian Xing 6th year, Wang Ping was part of the vanguard led by Ma Su. Ma Su abandoned the water sources and encamped up on the mountains. In addition, Ma Su's actions seemed to be disturbed as well as agitated. Wang Ping repeatedly advised Ma Su against such a move but his advice was not heeded. Ma Su was badly defeated at Jie Ting. The army dispersed and only the thousand soldiers led by Wang Ping stayed on and struck the drums. The Wei General, Zhang He, thought that there might be some ambushes and hence he did not urge his troops to advance further. Seeing that, Wang Ping carefully packed up some of the remaining equipments from the various camps and led his troops back. Zhuge Liang executed Ma Su as well as General Zhang Xiu and Li Sheng. Zhuge Liang also seized the troops which were under the command of Wang Xi. On the other hand, Wang Ping was given the appointment of Can Jun (or the General who played an advisory role in military matters) and made to head the five departments as well as the affairs of the army camp. Wang Ping was also promoted to the rank of Tao Kou Jiang Jun (General who attack the Bandits) and given the title of a Marqius (Ting Hou). In Jian Xing 9th year, Zhuge Liang surrounded Qi mountains (or Qi Shan) and Wang Ping was in charge of the southern encirclement. The General-in-Chief of Wei, Sima Yi, attacked Zhuge Liang and Zhang He was sent to attack Wang Ping. However, Zhang He was unable to overcome Wang Ping due to the latter's resilient defence. In Jian Xing 12th year, Zhuge Liang passed away in the middle of the battle and the Shu army retreated. Wei Yan created chaos but he was defeated in a single battle. The credit for that went to Wang Ping. Soon after, Wang Ping was given the appointment of Hou Dian Jun (one of the General in the Rear Army) and was promoted to An Han Jiang Jun (General who pacifies the Han). Together with the Deputy Ju Qi Jiang Jun (General of Chariots and Cavalry), Wu Yi, Wang Ping was stationed at Han Zhong and he was given the responsibility of Grand Administrator of Han Zhong. In Jian Xing 15th year, Wang Ping's title was advanced to An Han Hou (Marquis who pacifies the Han) and he was in charge of all Han Zhong's affairs in replacement of Wu Yi. In Yan Xi 1st year, the Shu General-in-Chief, Jiang Wan, stationed himself at Mian Yang and Wang Ping was repositioned to the Front Army as Qian Hu Jun. Wang Ping was also to administer the affairs pertaining to the General-in-Chief's office. In Yan Xi 6th year, Jiang Wan returned to Fu and Wang Ping was appointed as Qian Jian Jun (General who played a supervisory role in the Front Army) and promoted to the rank of Zhen Bei Da Jiang Jun (General who conquered the North). By then, Wang Ping was the overall-in-charge in Han Zhong.

In the spring of Yan Xi 7th year, the Wei General-in-Chief, Cao Shuang led 100,000+ soldiers to the Han Chuan region and the Wei's vanguard was already at Luo valley (or Luo Gu). During that time, the number of soldiers stationed at Han Zhong numbered less than 30,000 and the officers in Han Zhong were greatly alarmed. Some of them suggested,"Our strength is unable to resist the enemies, why don't we defend the cities of Han and Yue, luring the enemies in, and in due course, the reinforcements from Fu should be able to save the passes." Wang Ping replied,"No. The distance between Han Zhong and Fu was about 1000 li. It would be detrimental if the enemies captured the passes. Right now, we should dispatched General Liu (Lin Min was holding the appointment of Hu Jun) and General Du (who was the Can Jun) to stationed at Xing Shi while I, myself, will defend the rear; If the enemies split their forces and head towards Huang Jin, I will lead 1000 soldiers to resist them. In due course, the reinforcements from Fu will arrive and this is a better strategy." Liu Min agreed with Wang Ping and they proceeded as planned. The reinforcement from Fu was led personally by the General-in-Chief, Fei Yi, who came from Cheng Du and the army of Wei retreated according to Wang Ping's plan. In those days, Deng Zhi was situated in the East, Ma Zhong in the south and Wang Ping in the north, and all of them accomplished some famous deeds.

Wang Ping grew up in a military environment and he was illiterate. He could recognise not more than 10 characters but he gained his knowledge by others reciting the books to him. As such, Wang Ping would tell others to read the historical records to him while he listened. From there, Wang Ping was able to grasp the big picture and he could carry out discussions competently. Wang Ping always respected and followed the Laws of the States and he was always serious about what he said. Wang Ping often meditated from dawn till dusk, and he was unlike that of a typical military person. However, Wang Ping was known to be narrow-minded and tend to look down upon himself when dealing with others. These would be his main fallacies. Wang Ping passed away in Jian Xing 11th year and his son, Wang Xun was his heir.


Zhang Liao's SGZ Biography
Translator: The Historian

Zhang Liao stlye Wenyuan, native of Yanmen Mayi. Originally of Shen Yi's descendant changed their surname to avoid their enemies. In his youth was a lowly district runner. During the waning years of the Eastern Han dynasty Zhang Liao's exceptional martial prowess was noticed by Ding Yuan governor of Bingzhou. Zhang Liao was thus recruited into his service and stationed in the capital. Was given command of about 1000 men by He Jin when the latter started recruiting of troops from Hebei. When He Jin lost, Dong Zhuo took possession of the troops. When Dong Zhuo lost Lu Bu took possession of the troops, whereby Zhang Liao was made Qianqi Duwei (Commander of the Moving Riders). When Lu Bu lost to Li Jue, he followed his east and fled to Xuzhou, became Xiang of the prefecture. When Cao Cao broken Lu Bu at Xiapei, Zhang Liao surrended with the others and was made Zhonglang Jiang (Zhonglang general) and a Guan Nie Hou (Marquis with only household alotment but no land). Rendering merits in war was made Qianbi Jiangjun (Assistant Moving General). When Yuan Shao was broken, Zhang Liao pacified Lu Country and its counties. Together with Xiahou Yuan was sieging Chang Xi at Donghai. After a few months when provisions were also finished and Xiahou Yuan wanted to withdraw.

Zhang Liao told Xiahou Yuan "For the past few days, when out around the siege area, Xi has been observing me, there were many opportunities to attack us with arrows and yet do not, thus showing their uncertainty and refusing battle, I will speak with them if it is alright."

Upon which he proclaimed to Chang Xi "My master has orders and sent me here!" Chang Xi thus came and they spoke. Zhang Liao said "My lord's martial prowess is divine and his approach of virtue encampasses all four corners, those that submit first will be greatly rewarded!" Chang Xi thus submitted. Zhang Liao personally on his own went up Sangong Mountain and entered Chang Xi's house to meet his wife and son. This so greatly pleased Chang Xi that he went personally to pay homage to Cao Cao. When Chang Xi returned Cao Cao reproached Zhang Liao "That which you did was not in keeping with the behaviour of a general." In which Zhang Liao replied "My brilliant master's prestige is well known throughout the four seas, I was following imperial edicts and Chang Xi would not dare to harm me this was my rational."

From punishing Yuan Tan and Yuan Shang at Liyang, Zhang Liao won merit and was made Zhong Jian Jiang Jun. In attacking Ye, Yuan Shang would not budge. When Cao Cao returned to Xuchang, Zhang Liao and Yue Jin moved to Yin An and moved the citizens to Henan. After which they continued their attack on Ye and it surrendered. When Zhang Liao attacked Zhao Country, Chang Mountain, he accepted the surrender of the bandits from the Fates Mountains and Black Mountains. In attacking Yuan Tan, he broke Yuan Tan, conqured Haibing and broke the Liaodong bandits. Returning to Ye, Cao Cao came out personally to welcome his return, travelled together in carriage and made Zhang Liao Dang Kuo Jiang Jun (General who vanqishes bandits).

When assigned to invade Jingzhou and pacify the counties of Jiangxia again, was encamped at Lin Ying,was made a marquis with a Ting as his fief. In campaigning against Yuan Tan at Liucheng, many were dead or captured, Zhang Liao advised Cao Cao to war, the army spirit was arroused and strengthen by Cao Cao thanks to Zhang Liao. In attacking the enemy was thus overcame.

At the time, Jingzhou was not pacified and Zhang Liao returned make long term plans. However, it was discovered that there were rebellious elements in his army and a fire was started to create chaos. Zhang Liao tell his subordinates "Act not, It is not the whole camp in revolt, those in the army who are not rebellious will stay put, those rebelling will atempt to disrupt others" Zhang Liao then selected 10 confidants and waited. When certain, killed those involved.

Chen Lan, Mei Chen with the De (minority group from the north west) of 6 counties were in the revolt, and Cao Cao moved Yu Jin and Zan Ba to supress Mei Chen, Zhang He and Niu Gai to supress Chen Lan. Mei Chen faked a surrender. When Yu Jin withdrew, Mei Chen then moved his forces to aid Chen Lan passing the mountains. In the mountains there was a Heavenly Pillar mountain, with the highest peak reaching 20 over li (10 over km), the path was narrow & dangerous and one could only travel by foot Mei Chen and his forces had to pass by. Zhang Liao was expecting Yu Jin, his men reported to him "The path is dangerous and troops few, it is difficult to deploy them deep in." Zhang Liao replied "Such is a case of one on one, the braver one will have advantage" Following Yu Jin he established his camp at the foot of the mountain, when he attacked both Mei Chen and Chen Lan were killed and most of their men captured. Cao Cao when commending on their merits said "Scaling heaven's moutain, and overcoming its dangers to get Chen Lan and Mei Chen the credit goes to Zhang Liao." their allotments were increased and given leave.

When Cao Cao returned from campaigning against Sun Quan, he left Zhang Liao, Yue Jin and Li Dian with 7000 stationed at Hefei. When Cao Cao was campaigning against Zhang Lu, an inspector was sent to do a review and carried a pouch stating "to be opened when the bandits came". Sun Quan was leding a 100,000 army to surround Hefei and the inspector opened the pouch. It read "Should Sun Quan arrive, Zhang Liao and Li Dian is to attack while Yue Jin stay put to guard the army, you are not to take part." The generals were unsure of the plan but Zhang Liao said "Our lord is afar campaigning, when he returned to aid us it would be too late. This plan is to blunt the enemy's edge and stabilized our own morale so that we may hold out until reinforcements come. Success depends on this one battle what else is there to be unsure of?" Li Dian followed Zhang Liao. During the night Zhang Liao selected brave men from the army and 800 men were picked, a feast of beef was fed to the men and the great battle followed the next day. Zhang Liao readied his armour and weld his halberd, leding the van guard killed scores of men and killed 2 generals after which he anounced his name and charged in towards Sun Quan. Sun Quan was alarmed and before anybody knew what was happening, Sun Quan fled holding his long halberd for defense. Zhang Liao challaged Sun Quan to do battle but the latter dared not move, seeing that Zhang Liao's men were few an attempt was made to surround them with overwhelming odds. Zhang Liao and his followers broke out but the dozen men still trapped cried out "Is the general forsaking us?" Zhang Liao thus re-entered the the mass of enemy troops and brought them all out to safety. None of Sun Quan's men dared to block him. After having robbed the enemy of their morale he returned to prepare his defenses and the people were pacified and the generals convinced. Sun Quan laid seige to Hefei for 10 over days and the city would not fall and had to withdraw. Zhang Liao led his men in pursit and almost captured Sun Quan. Cao Cao thus commended Zhang Liao and made him General who Conqures the East.

In the 21 year of Jian An, Cao Cao renewed his war against Sun Quan and came to Hefei, reviewed Zhang Liao's battle areas gave a long sign. He then increased Zhang Liao's forces and left more generals to create agro-military colonies.

When Guan Yu was besieging Cao Ren at Wan, having met Sun Quan and received his pledge, Zhang Liao and others were summoned to save Cao Ren. Before Zhang Liao arrived Xu Huang had already broken Guan Yu and the siege was lifted. Cao Cao then met up with Zhang Liao. With his army present Cao Cao praised him for his efforts and Zhang Liao and his men returned to be stationed at Chen District. When Cao Pi became Emperor, Zhang Liao was promoted to General of the Van. His elder brother Zhang Fan and one son was made a marquis. When Sun Quan rebelled Zhang Liao was returned to Hefei and his marquis fiefdom upgraded to a Xiang. Zhang Liao gave his mother a carriage and armed escot to move his family to Heifei and his mother came out to welcome them. Those there were greatly honoured. Cao Pi later made him marquis of Jinyang increasing his allotment by 1000 households adding to his original 2600. During the 2nd year of Huangchu, Zhang Liao was granted an audience at the palace in Loyang. Cao Pi, brought Zhang Liao to Jianshi palace and personally asked him for his opinion as to how to break Wu. After which Cao Pi remarked to his men that "Such is a rare tiger in history!" A hall was built specially for Zhang Liao's mother and all of Zhang Liao's soldiers who were involved in breaking Wu were to be known as Hu Ben (tiger warriors). Sun Quan renewed his pledge and Zhang Liao returned to be stationed in Yongqu but fell ill. Cao Pi sent the imperial security Liu Ye and imperial physician to treat him, and his tiger warriors asked of new all along the way. While still ill, Cao Pi welcomed Zhang Liao to stay put and came personally to pay him a visit. Holding his hand bestowed him with imperial clothes and shared his imperial meals with him. While still not fully recovered he returned to his station. When Sun Quan again rebelled, Cao Pi sailed down river with Zhang Liao to meet up with Cao Xiu at Hailing Lingjiang. Sun Quan told his followers "Even though Zhang Liao is sick, still nothing can block him, prudence is called for!" Zhang Liao with the other generals defeated Sun Quan's general Lu Fan. Zhang Liao's illness took a turn for the worst and died. He was buried in Jiangdu. Cao Pi shed tears for him and gave him a title in death. Zhang Liao's son Zhang Hu inherited his titles.

In year 6, Cao Pi remembering Zhang Liao and Li Dian's merits at Hefei issued an edict "In the siege of Hefei Zhang Liao and Li Dian with 800 troops broke a force of 100,000 rebels, since ancient times this has never occured. Following which the enemy to this day has yet to recover from this, they are truely the claws and teeth of our state. Both Zhang Liao and Li Dian's allotment are to be increased by another 100 households and one son made a marquis (without fief)." Zhang Hu became Bian Jiang Jun (side General) and his son Zhang Tong inherited his titles.


SGZ Biography of Pang De
by The Historian

Pang De stlye Jing Ming. Joint Ma Teng in pacifying the Qiang tribesmen early. Having earned merits was quickly promoted to colonel. When Yuan Tan rebelled Ma Teng and Ma Chao lead their forces to suppress them of which Pang De was the vanguard. After which Pang De promoted again and made a marquis. He continued to suppress rebels under Ma Teng and always won merit in battle. Following Ma Teng's promotion to a court position, Pang De stayed with Ma Chao in Xiliang. Following Ma Chao's defeat he joined Zhang Lu together with his former lord. When Zhang Lu surrendered, Pang De joined Cao Cao's forces. Cao Cao having heard of his valour promoted him and upgraded his title and increased his fief.

As Pang De's elder brother was in the service of Shu, many officers of Wei were not convinced of his loyalty. To ally their fears he remarked "I who has been indebted to the kindenss of the state am willing to die repaying this kindness. I will attack Guan Yu with all my might. This year I will kill Guan Yu or be killed by him!" As Pang De was always riding a white horse he was also known as the white horse general.

On Cao Ren's orders, Pang De made camp. However, it rained heavily for 10 days and the banks overflow and his camp was flooded. Guan Yu took the opportunity and attacked by boat. Having surrounded the flooded camp the forces of Guan Yu rained arrows upon the defenders. When 2 of Pang De's subbordinates advised surrender he executed them on the spot.

Pang De is said to have remarked "A good general who fears not death is his make up, a hero does not ruin his good name to live, thus today I die!"

Upon his capture Guan Yu told him "Your brother is and official of Shu and I am willing to vouch for you a high rank, why not surrender?"

In which this is his reply:

"Little man, what talk of you of surrender! The Prince of Wei has a million men and all under heaven trembles in the face of his prestige! Your welp Liu Bei is but a talentless vuglar oaf, how can he be of any threat! I rather become a ghost for my state than a cheap general!"

Cao Cao wept when he heard the account. Both Pang De's 2 sons were made marquis in honour of Pang De's bravery and loyalty.

HHS Biography of Cai Yan
By Great Deer

The wife of Dong Si (who hailed from Chen Liu prefecture) was the daughter of Cai Yong (who came from the same prefecture too). Her name was Yan and style Wen Ji [1]. Cai Yan was knowledgable, skilled in debates and had musical flair. When she was young, she was married to a guy named Wei Zhong Dao. However, her husband passed away and Cai Yan did not have any children from her first marriage. As such, Cai Yan returned back to her home.

In the middle of Xin Ping (either 194 A.D. or 195 A.D.), China was stricken with widespread chaos and Cai Yan was abducted by some horsemen from the Hu tribe. She ended up with Zuo Xian Wang (Left Virtuous King) of the southern Hun Tribe and as a result, she spent the next 12 years with the tribes. There, she gave birth to two children. Cao Cao used to be on friendly terms with Cai Yong (Cai Yan's daddy) and it pained him to see that the Cai's family had no descendent. As such, Cao Cao dispatched messagers to the tribes and offered gold in exchange for Cai Yan's return. When Cai Yan came back from the tribes, she remarried to Dong Si.

Annotation [1]: From Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, Cai Yan's style is Zhao Ji.


SGZ Biography of Yue Jin

By Great Deer

Yue Jin, styled Wen Qian, hailed from Yang Ping, Wei Guo (State of Wei). Yue Jin's appearance was small and short but he was brave and he joined Cao Cao's forces as a junior officer. He was tasked to return to his own prefecture to recruit soldiers for Cao Cao's army and he managed to gathered a thousand plus recruits. For that, Yue Jin was promoted to be a Major (Jun Jia Si Ma) and made a Chief Commandant (Xian Chen Du Wei, one of the many different types of Du Wei but generally, Du Wei is the military commander who assist the Grand Administrator of a prefecture in military affairs). Subsequently, Yue Jin distinguished himself in the offensives against Lu Bu at Pu Yang, Zhang Chao at Yong Qiu and Qiao Rui at Ku and he was made the Marquis of Guang Chang (Guang Chang Ting Hou). Thereafter, Yue Jin participated in the offensives against Zhang Xiu at An Zhong, Lu Bu at Xia Pi (where Lu Bu was beseiged and Yue Jin defeated some of his officers), Sui Gu at She Quan as well as Liu Bei at Pei, all of which were victorious campaigns. As such, Yue Jin was promoted to be a Colonel (Ji Kou Xiao Wei, or Colonel who counted the Bandits LOL). Next, Yue Jin crossed the river and attacked Huo Jia, which he later returned. Then, he participated in the battle of Guan Du where he fought intense battles and managed to killed Yuan Shao's general Chun Yu Qiong. After the battle of Guan Du, Yue Jin took part in the offensives against Yuan Tan and Yuan Shang at Li Yang, where he killed their main general Yan Jing and thus, he was made a General (You Ji Jiang Jun, or General of the Guerillas). Yue Jin proceeded to attacked the Yellow Turban rebels (remaining forces) and managed to defeat them and pacify Yue An prefecture. In the siege of the city of Ye, Yue Jin was involved and following which, Yue Jin assaulted Yuan Tan at Nan Pi. There, Yue Jin was the first to ascend the city gate via Yuan Tan's eastern gate. After defeating Yuan Tan, Yue Jin attacked Yong Nu (possibly forces made up of slaves) where he emerged the victor.

In the 11th year of Jian An, Cao Cao memorialised to the Han Emperor, praising Yue Jin, Yu Jin and Zhang Liao. Referring to the three generals, Cao Cao stated, "Excelling in martial arts, well endowed in tactics, possessing great loyalty, upholding high sense of discipline; in every battle, they often led by examples, and strived to overcome strong obstacles, dispelling all strong resistances, often striking their own drums, without showing any sign of fatigue in their hands. They were dispatched on expeditions, and made leaders of their units, where they managed to bring harmony and comfort to the multitudes, never defying orders, and were able to made timely decisions in the face of the enemies, with no sign of extravagance. Hence, based on their meritorous services (from the records of the court), it would be fitting if favours are bestowed to them." As such, Yue Jin was promoted to be Hu Wei Jiang Jun (Tiger Might General? LOL) while Yu Jin was promoted to be Zhe Zhong Jiang Jun and Zhang Liao was promoted to be Dang Kou Jiang Jun.

Subsequently, Yue Jin was tasked to attack Gao Gan. There, Yue Jin made a flank in which he took a northern route to Shang Dang and later reappeared at the rear of Gao Gan's forces. Gao Gan and his troops was forced to retreat to Hu Pass to put up a defence. Gao Gan was killed in subsequent battles. Before Gao Gan's strong defence capitulated, Yue Jin joined his forces with Cao Cao's (who personally led his troops up). Cao Cao led his army on an offensive against Guan Cheng as well as Jun Chun Yu and Yue Jin, together with Li Dian were given orders to attack the two forces. Guan Cheng was subsequently defeated and he escaped to some islands, thus bringing peace to the coastal regions (in the north).

During then, the majority of Jing Zhou were not under Cao Cao's control and Yue Jin was dispatched to station at Yang Di. When Cao Cao managed to control Jing Zhou (the northern portion), Yue Jin was stationed at Xiang Yang. From Xiang Yang, Yue Jin launched attacks at Guan Yu and Su Fei and both were forced to retreat. Following which, the various minority tribes in the mountainous regions of Nan prefecture came to surrender. Next, Yue Jin was involved in the expedition against Liu Bei at Ju Chang Du Pu and Jing Yang Chang Liang Da (not sure about these places at the moment), where Liu Bei was defeated. In subsequent years, Yue Jin took part in the expedition against Sun Quan, where he was given an Imperial Court Order (Jia Jing Jie). When Cao Cao returned (from his expedition), he stationed Yue Jin together with Zhang Liao and Li Dian at He Fei. Yue Jin was bestowed an additional 500 households to the original 1200 households that were under the jurisdiction of his fief. For his numerous meritorous service, Yue Jin was allowed to distribute 500 households to one of his sons who would be made a Marquis (not sure about this) and Yue Jin was promoted to be the General of the Right (You Jiang Jun). In the 23rd year of Jian An, Yue Jin passed away. Yue Jin was posthumously titled the Marquis of Might (Wei Hou). His son, Yue Shen (either that or can be pronounced as Chen or Lin), was made his heir. Yue Shen resembled closely to his father and he was made the Inspector of Yang Zhou. When Zhuge Dan rebelled, Yue Shen was killed by an ambush and the court passed an edict to mourn his death. Yue Shen was given the rank of Wei Wei (one of the Nine Ministers) and posthumously given the title of Marquis of Sympathy (Min Hou). Yue Shen's son, Yue Zhao was made his heir.
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Sun Feb 13, 2011 2:39 pm

Cao Chun (Zi He) (rought draft)
By: Jiuwan

Cao Ren's younger brother was named [Cao] Chun{1}{2}{3}. Before he was the yi lang can in Si Kong's army{4}. [Cao Chun's] Leopard Tiger Cavalry surrounded Nan Pi. When Yuan Tan came out to fight the battle, many soldiers died. [Cao Cao] desired to take things slow. So [Cao] Chun said: "We have travelled a thousand li's{5} to stamp out the enemy. We advance yet we can not overcome them. If we withdraw then we will surely lose our might. We are deep within and it's hard to sustain for a long time. Those victorius are haughty{6}, if we are defeated we fear. If we use a feint to make the enemy haughty then we would surely overcome them." [Cao Cao] understood the value of his words and quickly pressed on the attack. [Yuan] Tan was then defeated. [Cao] Chun got off his mounted steed and beheaded [Yuan] Tan. He was also there for the northern invasion to take the three commanderies. [Cao] Chun's division of cavalry seized Ta Dun. For his many merits from before and present, [Cao Chun] was bestowed as Marquis of Gao Ling Ting. His fiefdom was increased by three hundred households.

{1} Translator's notes: Cao Chun's San Guo Zhi biography is a sub biography of Cao Ren's biography.

{2} Translator's notes: Information taken from Cao Ren's SGZ bio: According to the Book of Wei (wei shu): [Cao] Ren's grandfather [Cao] Bao was the Grand Administrator (tai shou) of Ying Chuan. [Cao Ren's] father [Cao] Chi was a shi zhong (attendant of some sort??) and Colonel of the Chang River regiment.

Translator's notes: Under the Later Han, the Northern Army was made up of five regiments. They were the Archers who Shoot at Sounds (she sheng); the Foot Soldiers (bu bing); the Elite Cavalry (yue ji); the Garrison Cavalry (tun ji); and lastly the Chang River Regiment (chang shui). (Infomation taken from Rafe De Crespigny's Later Han Military Organisation).

{3} According to Records of the Heroes (Ying Xiong Ji): [Cao] Chun is style named Zi He. At the age of fourteen his father died. He lived separate from his elder brother [Cao] Ren. He inherited his father's profession and lived a life of luxury. He had servants and clients in the several hundreds. [Cao] Chun was well ogranised and logical, his fellow villagers thought he was an able man. He was well educated and had a fond respect for scholars. At the age of eighteen, he became the Gentleman of the Attendant at the Yellow Gates (huang men shi lang). At the age of twenty, he followed [Cao Cao] to Xiang Yi to recruit soldiers and thereupon was in battles.

Translator's notes: It seems Cao Chun inherited his father's position of Colonel of the Chang River Regiment at the age of fourteen from Ying Xiong Ji and Wei Shu. Four years later, he became the Gentleman of the Attendant at the Yellow Gates. Both of those positions were in the capital. After that, two years later when he was twenty, it seems he gave up the position to follow Cao Cao from then on.

{4} Translator's notes: Si Kong's army should be referring to Cao Cao.

{5} Translator's notes: One chinese li is equivalent to 0.50km of the metric system or approximately 0.3107miles in the imperial system. So Cao Cao's army has travelled 500km in the metric system or approximately 310.70 miles in the imperial system. Also keep in mind that this distance was an round estimate used in the speech, so the actual distance should be different.

{6} Translator's notes: I have purposely used the word "haughty" instead of "cocky". Haughty means too proud of oneself and scornful of others; showing too great of pride of oneself and scorn for others. In modern day "slang" cocky is that word with the same meaning, but haughty is the proper word that should be used. Also because the original text is written traditionally and without slang.

On the attack on Jing Zhou, they pursued Liu Bei to Chang Ban. They seized [Liu Bei's] two wives and supply carts as well as the dispersed troops. After advancing to Jiang Ling for the surrender [of Liu Zong], he returned to Qiao.

In the fifthteen year of Jian An [210AD] [Cao Chun] died. When the Literary Emperor [Cao Pi] assumed the throne, he further added the title Marquis of Wei{7} [to Cao Chun's title]. {8}. His son [Cao] Yan inherited the title and was General who Guides the Army (ling jun jiang jun). In the middle of the reign Zheng Yuan{9} [Cao Yan] was further bestowed Marquis of Ping Le Xiang. When [Cao] Yan died, his son, [Cao] Liang inherited his titles.

{7} Translator's notes: This "Wei" is not the same chinese character as the "Wei" kingdom of Cao Pi's. Instead this "wei" means might, powerful etc., same pinyin used in english, but very different chinese characters.

[8} According to the Book of Wei (wei shu): [Cao] Chun's Leopard Tiger Cavalry was valiant and keen in All under Heaven. It would be hard for [Cao Cao] to replace him. The reason why [Cao] Chun was chosen as the leader [of that division] was that he had the people's love. In choosing the replacement [Cao Cao] spoke: "In comparison to [Cao] Chun, how can I have him again! Am I not to have another?" Thereafter no selection was made.

{9} Translator's notes: The reign style of Zheng Yuan replaced Jia Ping in 254AD. Zheng Yuan was then replaced by the reign style Gan Lu in 256AD. So that would make it the year 255AD when Cao Yan was bestowed as Marquis of Ping Le Xiang.

Found loads of others by Jiuwan like Cao Ang, Dian Wei, Xu Chu, Zhang He, etc.. but all of them are on Only Chun's isn't =)
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Elitemsh » Sun Feb 13, 2011 3:23 pm

There is one confusing thing with the above biography. It is this passage:

On the attack on Jing Zhou, they pursued Liu Bei to Chang Ban. They seized [Liu Bei's] two wives and supply carts as well as the dispersed troops. After advancing to Jiang Ling for the surrender [of Liu Zong], he returned to Qiao.

I think this is meant to be that they seized Liu Bei's two daughters not wives. I find that it very interesting that Liu Bei's two daughters were captured by this general but the wife and son escaped capture. I would expect either the whole family to have been taken or none of them at all. It's weird that half were rescued and half were captured.
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Rydain » Sun Feb 13, 2011 5:52 pm

Thanks for this entire thread! Cao Chun's biography is one I've been wanting to see for a while. I knew the highlights of his career and his former position as a palace attendant, but I was unaware of those additional details of his early life. I only wish I would have seen this before taking my best attempt at historical fiction about Cao Ren's early career. If I'd known that Chun inherited his father's commander position at such an early age, it would have been quite a different story. :|

This part of his timeline confuses me in general. Rafe's tome states that Cao Ren and Cao Chun were born in 168, with Ren the elder twin and Chun the younger. Their father Cao Chi died in 177, thereby making the brothers 10 years old by the Chinese system. Would Chun have taken the actual job duties then, or later at a more typical age of adulthood, such as the 14 mentioned in the text? Since Ren was the elder brother, why was it not passed on to him instead? I gather that Ren's early misbehavior had something to do with that, especially as contrasted with Chun's moderate conduct and scholarly sensibility.
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 10:23 am

-- Someone delete this --
Last edited by Yang Dayang on Tue Feb 22, 2011 10:24 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recovering the lost biographies

Unread postby Yang Dayang » Tue Feb 22, 2011 10:23 am

XuSheng: Here, found Zhu Huan's SGZ in Empire Divided: ... huhuan.htm

Rydain: No problem, glad you're liking it.

Pretty much found all's SGZs here: ... eadid=9127

Cao Cao's
By: Empress Zhang and the Historian ... ao_Cao.pdf
(Can't copy-paste it for some reason)


Ma Su's
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Ma Su, stylename Youchang, was the Chongshi of Jingzhou when he followed with the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) into Shu. He defeated and removed the county magistrates (Ling) of Mianzhu and Chengdu as well as the Governor of Yuejun. With his talents exceeding his person and being fond of discussing military strategy, the Prime Minister, Zhuge Liang, admired him greatly. When the First Sovereign was close to death, he said to Zhuge Liang, "Ma Su's words exceed his talents and you must not use him in important tasks. That is how I read him!" Zhuge Liang said this was not so and later made Ma Su, Advisor of Military Affairs (Can Jun). Zhuge Liang discussed with him numerous times from day till night. (1) [Xi Zuochi's] Xiang Yang Ji: In the third year of Jian Xing [CE 225], Zhuge Liang was about to launch an expedition in Nanzhong and Ma Su accompanied him tens of miles outside the city. Zhuge Liang asked, "We have discussed strategies for sometime so feel free to offer your opinion". Ma Su replied, "Nanzhong is far away and dangerous, thus they do not recognise our authority. Even though today, you can defeat them, tomorrow, they will rebel again. When your Excellency is on expedition in the North, they will sure to take advantage of the void here and rebel. If we go and exterminate them in order to remove future problems, it is not something a humane person would do. One who follows the Way of War knows that it is best to attack the heart rather than to attack a city; battling the heart is better than battling with troops; it is thus best for your Excellency to win over their hearts". Zhuge Liang accepted this plan. He pardoned Meng Huo and won the hearts of the South. During Zhuge Liang's lifetime, the South did not rebel.

In the sixth year of Jian Xing [CE 228], Zhuge Liang led his troops toward Qishan. At the time, he had generals like Wei Yan, Wu Yi, etc. which everyone thought were most suitable to lead the van. Zhuge Liang however went against popular opinion and selected Ma Su, who brought his troops forward and fought with the Wei general, Zhang He, at Jieting. He was defeated by Zhang He and his troops scattered. Zhuge Liang could not advance as there was no place to seize, so he retreated to Hanzhong. Ma Su was imprisoned and Zhuge Liang cried heavily. Ma Liang died at age thirty-six while Ma Su died at age thirty-nine. [Xi Zuochi's] Xiang Yang Ji: Just before the execution, Ma Su wrote to Zhuge Liang saying: "Your Excellency treats Su as like his son. Su treats Your Excellency as if you were my father. Your justice is profound, just like when Gun was put to death which led to the flourishing of Yu. (2) In normal life, we are good friends so Su shall have no hatred when buried in the earth". At the time, troops numbering to the hundreds of thousands all weeped for Ma Su and Zhuge Liang personally made the ceremonial offering and from then on, took care of Ma Su's children. Jiang Wan came to Hanzhong and asked Zhuge Liang, "In the past, Chu executed its able ministers and Wen Gong was happy when he heard this. The world has not been settled yet a capable person has been executed, is that not a pity?" (3) Zhuge Liang replied, "Sun Wu was able to achieve many successes because he established a good set of laws. On the other hand, Yang Gan's laws were disorderly and Wei Jiang killed this person's servant. The world is split apart and soldiers are just beginning to fight. If we use disorderly laws, how are we going to launch an expedition against the bandits?" Xi Zuochi says: Zhuge Liang was not able to maintain a strong kingdom, how can that be? Before, after the rule of Lin Fu of Jin, the laws were relaxed in favour of merit. Chu Cheng [Wang], on the other hand, killed his able ministers, hence he was defeated. Now Shu was weak and occupied a small corner of the land. People of talent were not as numerous as in a strong kingdom yet he killed one able person. With effective laws coming before talent and not being perturbed by the thought of possible future defeats, is it really not difficult in establishing a state? Furthermore, the First Sovereign prohibited the using of Ma Su in important tasks so does that not indicate this person lacked talent? Zhuge Liang accepted the orders from his lord but did not act on them since he personally felt it hard to dismiss Ma Su. As a person who solely administered the State and was always recruiting men of talent, he failed to assign these men to the suitable positions as well as making the mistake of letting them work independently. This was a big mistake for he neglected the commands from his enlightened ruler and in the end, it resulted in the killing of a capable and useful person. It makes it hard to judge whether Zhuge Liang was a person of wisdom or not.


(1) Xiang Yang Qijiu Ji or Xiang Yang Ji as it is commonly referred to, is a local historical text written by Xi Zuochi of Jin, who was a native of Xiang Yang. He is also author to the famous Han Jin Chun Qiu.

(2) Emperor Yao had a minister called Gun who failed to devise plans to relieve parts of the country which were flooded and was subsequently executed. His son, Yu, was later recommended by Shun to Emperor Yao. After Shun, who became Emperor, died, he passed it on to Yu who was the founder of the great Xia dynasty.

(3) This refers to the battle between the Chu state and the Jin state during the Spring and Autumn period. Duke Wen of Jin (Jin Wen Gong), also known as Chong Er, fought a war with King Cheng of Chu (Chu Cheng Wang). Jin was the ultimate victor in this war.


Wei Yan's (yay!)
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Wei Yan, stylename Wenchang, was a native of Yiyang. As the Company of the Division (Bu Qu), he followed the First Sovereign into Shu. He had many military accomplishments and was assigned as General of the Standard (Ya Men Jiang Jun). The First Sovereign became Prince of Hanzhong and was about to leave for Chengdu. As for selecting the general who would guard Han Chuan (Hanzhong), many considered Zhang Fei to be the likely candidate and Fei himself thought he was likely to be chosen. However, the First Sovereign named Wei Yan as the General Who Maintains Distant Lands in Peace, as well as the Governor of Hanzhong, to the astonishment of many in the army. The First Sovereign said in front of the various ministers, "Now I am entrusting a great responsibility on you, Sir, do you have anything that you want to say?". Yan replied, "If Cao Cao with the entire world was coming here, I request that I smite him on behalf of Your Highness. If it was an auxiliary force of a hundred thousand, I request that I swallow them on behalf of Your Highness." The First Sovereign was very pleased and everyone else cried out boldly in agreement. The First Sovereign honoured Wei Yan with the title, General Who Suppresses the North. In the first year of Jian Xing [CE 223], he was enfeoffed as Marquis of a Chief Village (Dou Ting Hou). In the fifth year [CE 227], Zhuge Liang stationed in Hanzhong and Wei Yan was to supervise the front division with the rank of Major of the Prime Minister (Cheng Xiang Sima) and Inspector (Ci Shi) of Liangzhou. In the eighth year [CE 230], he was sent as ambassador into the Qiang tribes, where the Wei General of the Rear Army, Fei Yao, and the Inspector of Yongzhou, Guo Huai, battled with him at Yang Qi. Wei Yan heavily defeated them and was promoted as Advisor of the Front Army (Qian Jun Shi), General Who Conquers the West, and Marquis of Nanzheng.

Each time he accompanied Zhuge Liang on expedition, he always wanted to lead ten thousand and go along different paths to meet up with Liang at the Tong Pass, based on the previous strategy of Han Xin. But Zhuge Liang never allowed this plan and Wei Yan often said Liang was faint-hearted. He sighed that his talents were not used to their full potential. Wei Lue says: Xiahou Mao was the General Who Pacifies the West stationed in Chang'an. Zhuge Liang was in Nanzheng discussing strategy with his generals. Wei Yan said, "I have heard this Xiahou Mao is the son-in-law of their sovereign; he is faint-hearted and without counsel. Yan wishes to take five thousand troops, another five thousand to carry supplies, to march out of Baozhong eastward along the Qin Ling mountains, and then turn north up Ziwu. I will reach Chang'an within ten days. When Mao hears of my sudden arrival, he is certain to take take a boat and flee. In Chang'an, there is only Counsellor (Yu Shi) and the Governor (Taishou) of Jingshao left to defend. The grain in the storehouses of Heng Men and those left behind by the people who scatter will be enough for us. It will take about twenty days for our main force to meet up with the force in the East, to which Your Excellency, taking the road out of Xie valley will reach the place. This way, the region west of Xianyang will be settled in one stroke." Zhuge Liang considered this county to be dangerous and preferred to travel along the flat roads and so that Longyou could be taken easily. He was certain that ten times out of ten, this plan was certain to work without any worry, and so he did not accept Wei Yan's plan. Wei Yan was very good to his soldiers and was braver than others. He was boastful of his talents and many tended to avoid him. However, Yang Yi alone made no concession to him and Yan was extremely resentful of him. They were like fire and water. In the twelth year [CE 234], Zhuge Liang marched out of the mouth of the North valley, with Wei Yan leading the Van. At ten miles away from Zhuge Liang's tent, Wei Yan dreamed that horns grew out of his head. So he asked Zhao Zhi for the meaning of this dream and Zhi gave him a false reply, "Every Qilin (chinese unicorn) has horns but has no need for them. This means that without need for battle, the rebels will become defeated themselves." However, others interpret the dream as, "The character 'jiao' (horn), is shaped like a downward knife. To have a knife above one's head is a very onimous sign for him."

In the autumn, Zhuge Liang fell sick and sent secret orders to the Chief Clerk (Chang Shi), Yang Yi, the Major, Fei Yi, and the Protector of the Army, Jiang Wei for the army's retreat after his death. Wei Yan was to guard the rear with Jiang Wei after him. If Wei Yan refused to accept the order, they were to retreat without him. Zhuge Liang died but his death was kept secret. Yang Yi ordered Fei Yi to go to Wei Yan and discover his intentions. Wei Yan said, "Although the Prime Minister had died, I am still here. The officials belonging to the Office of Prime Minister may carry his mortal remains to be buried. I on the other hand should command the various troops and strike at the rebels. Because of the death of one man, must we neglect the affairs of the State? Besides, who am I, Wei Yan, that I should be commanded by Yang Yi to serve as general of the rearguard?" So he and Fei Yi took charge of the troops left behind and had Yi write a letter to be signed by both of them which was to be announced to the various generals. Fei Yi said to Wei Yan, "I should go on your behalf and explain this to the Chief Clerk, Yang Yi. The Chief Clerk is a civil official and is not experience in military affairs, so is certain to not disobey you." Fei Yi galloped quickly out the gate and Wei Yan regretted letting him go, so he went after him but could not catch up. He then sent someone to Yang Yi and the others, who were following Zhuge Liang's plan, so the various encampments were returning. Wei Yan was very angry and before Yang Yi had started, he led his troops back to the South before them, and burnt the plank roads. Both Wei Yan and Yang Yi sent memorials, each accusing each other of rebelling. Within the same day, their memorials arrived and the Latter Sovereign asked the Clerk (Shi Zhong), Dong Yun and the left behind Chief Clerk of the Office of Prime Minister, Jiang Wan. Both of them supported Yang Yi while were suspicious of Wei Yan. Yang Yi had trees hewn to make roads and marched day and night to get close behind Wei Yan. Wei Yan arrived first at the Southern Valley and ordered his troops to attack Yang Yi and the others. Yang Yi ordered He Ping (Wang Ping) (1) forward to resist Wei Yan. [Wang] Ping scolded at Wei Yan, "His Excellency so lately died that his body is not yet cold; how dare you act this way!" Wei Yan's soldiers knew their leader was in the wrong and no-one dared to act and so they scattered. Wei Yan, along with his sons and a few followers, fled to Hanzhong. Yang Yi sent Ma Dai to give chase. Dai chopped Wei Yan's head off and sent it to Yang Yi. Yang Yi stepped on it and said, "You slave! Can you do your wicked deeds anymore?" He ordered the execution of Wei Yan's family to the third degree. Before, Jiang Wan had led the various camps of the imperial bodyguards north to cope with the disorders. He travelled about ten li (miles) when he heard news of Wei Yan's death, and so he returned. In the beginning, Wei Yan did not go north to Wei but instead returned to the South. But his only desire was to kill Yang Yi and the others in disagreement with him, with thee hope that opinion of the time would make him Zhuge Liang's successor. This was his actual aim and he did not think of rebelling. Wei Lue says: When Zhuge Liang died, he said to Wei Yan and the others, "After I am dead, be cautious in guarding but do no return here". Wei Yan was ordered to be assist in the operations and keep his death a secret and so he did as told. When they reached the entrace of Bao, the death was announced and a funeral held. Zhuge Liang's Chief Clerk, Yang Yi, was never in agreement with Wei Yan, and after noticing that Yan was in charge of military affairs, feared that he would be harmed. So he made rumours that Wei Yan was going to submit to the North and led his troops to attack him. In reality, Wei Yan had no intention to do such a thing, and so offered no resistance. He was later caught and killed. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that this is definitely an unsubstantiated rumour coming from an enemy state and must not be used contradict the contents of this biography.


(1) Wang Ping was also known as He Ping. Apparently later, he change his family name back to its original, Wang.

Yi Ji
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di

Yi Ji, stylename Jibo, was a native of Shanyang. When he was young, he depended on the General Who Suppresses the South, Liu Biao. When the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) was in Jingzhou, Yi Ji frequently associated with him. When Liu Biao died, he then followed the First Sovereign to cross the Great River in the South, and later went into Yizhou. When Yizhou was pacified, Yi Ji was given the post of General of the Left and Gentleman of the General Staff, second to Jian Yong, Sun Qian, and others. He was sent as an ambassador to Wu and Sun Quan heard of his talent at debating and was anxious to test him. Right after Yi Ji made his salutations, Sun Quan said, "Is it hard serving a ruler who has no morals?". Yi Ji responded instantly, "I only needed to salute once and rise once, of course it is not hard." (1) Sun Quan was amazed at this quick and witty response and thus admired him very much. Afterwards, he became Zhaowen Jiangjun and together with Zhuge Liang, Fa Zheng, Liu Ba, and Li Yan started the Shu Examination system. Thus the examination system of Shu resulted from the efforts of these five people.


(1) Sun Quan's question was putting down Liu Bei. Whether he answered "yes" or "no", Yi Ji would have recognised that Liu Bei was a ruler with no morals. Hence by saying he only needed to salute once and rise once, he was actually referring to the ruler he just saluted (Sun Quan) as the one with no morals. (Many thanks to Lucy Zhang for the interpretation)


Xu Shu
By: Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
Sub-biography of Xu Yuanzhi >From Wei Lue by Yu Huan (Jin) (quoted in SGZ-Shu-Zhuge Liang)

(Edited by Empress Zhang)

Wei Lue: Xu Shu, styled Yuanzhi, was originally named Fu and was son from the Shan family. At a young age he was chivalrous and likes swordplay. Toward the end of Zhongping [184 � 189], he revenged for someone else and is captured by the authority when he tried to escape with his hair down. When asked who he was, he gave no reply. The officials tied him up on a cart and brought him through the market to ask if people knew him, none dared to recognize him. However, his friend, Wu Gongcuan, came and saved him. After thanked his friend, Fu gave up swordsmanship and dedicated his life to scholarly knowledge. When he went to school, the scholars there heard he was a criminal and distanced themselves from him. Fu then wake up early each morning and did all the cleaning. He listened closely to the lectures and grasped other's heart. As a result, he knew the materials inside-out and excelled in his study. He became great friends with a man named, Shi Tou, styled Guangyuan. In the middle of Chuping [190 - 193], there was a lot of uprising in Zhongzhou. So they left for Jingzhou where they met and built a friendship with Zhuge Liang. When Jingzhou was surrendered, Kongming followed Liu Bei but Fu and Tou came north. In the middle of Huangchu [220 - 226 AD], Shi Tou was a magistrate and Dian Nong Jiao Wei. Xu Shu became You Zhong Lang Jiang and Yu Shi Zhong Cheng. In the middle of Dahe [227 - 233], Zhuge Liang arrived in Longyou and heard that Xu Yuanzhi and Shi Guangyuan receive rank as such, he sighed, "Alas! Wei has many talents! Or else why were they not used?" After a few years, Xu Shu died of sickness. His epitaph is now in Pangcheng until now.
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