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BOOK 102

Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 11, 2017 8:24 pm
by Taishi Ci 2.0
太和四年(己巳,公元三六九年)

The Fourth Year of Taihe (The Jisi Year, 369 AD)


春,三月,大司馬溫請與徐、兗二州刺史郗愔、江州刺史桓沖、豫州刺史袁真等伐燕。初,愔在北府,溫常雲:「京口酒可飲,兵可用。」深不欲愔居之;而愔暗於事機,乃遺溫箋,欲共獎王室,請督所部出河上。愔子超為溫參軍,取視,寸寸毀裂,乃更作愔箋,自陳非將帥才,不堪軍旅,老病,乞閒地自養,勸溫並領己所統。溫得箋大喜,即轉愔冠軍將軍、會稽內史,溫自領徐、兗二州刺史。夏,四月,庚戌,溫帥步騎五萬發姑孰。

1. In spring, the third month, Grand Marshal Huan Wen, the Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Chi Yin, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Chong, the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yuan Zhen, and others launched a northern campaign against Yan.

Up until this time, Chi Yin had been in command of the Northern Garrison. Huan Wen often said, "Jingkou has fine wine, and fine soldiers." He was not at all happy that Chi Yin was posted there. However, Chi Yin knew nothing of Huan Wen’s reservations about him. He sent a letter to Huan Wen, asking to jointly seek the royal family's favor, and to be permitted to lead troops together across the Yellow River. Chi Yin's son Chi Chao was then serving as an advisor in Huan Wen's camp. When he saw the letter before it reached Huan Wen, he tore it to pieces, and then composed a new letter in his father's hand, disclaiming any special talent in leadership, and asking to be allowed to retire on account of age and infirmity, so that he could recuperate, and suggesting that Huan Wen himself should take control of his former forces. When Huan Wen saw this doctored letter, he was very pleased, and he had Chi Yin transferred to be Champion General and Interior Minister of Kuaiji. Huan Wen then took over the role of Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengxu (May 22nd), Huan Wen led fifty thousand horse and foot north out of his base at Gushu.

慕容恪死,溫乃伐燕,自謂相時而動,可以制勝,豈知爲慕容垂所敗哉!晉都建康,以京口爲北府,歷陽爲西府,姑孰爲南州。京口兵可用,蓋山川風氣然也,豈必至謝玄用之而後敵人知畏哉!會稽爲王國,改太守爲內史。

After Murong Ke's death, Huan Wen began his campaign against Yan. With the simultaneous advance of all these armies, he must have felt he had the advantage. But how was he to know that all of them would be defeated by Murong Chui?

Since the Eastern Jin capital was at Jiankang, Jingkou was called the "northern garrison", Liyang was called the "western garrison", and Gushe was called the "southern province".

The soldiers of Jingkou were able indeed, not to mention the atmosphere of the terrain. Who could have predicted that Xie Xuan would one day use them to strike fear in the hearts of his enemies?

After Kuaiji became a princely fiefdom, instead of an Administrator, it was administered by an Interior Minister.


甲子,燕主暐立皇後可足渾氏,太后從弟尚書令豫章公翼之女也。

2. On the day Jiazi (June 5th), Murong Wei honored his mother Lady Kezuhun as Empress Dowager, and married the daughter of her cousin, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Yuzhang, Kezuhun Yi.

大司馬溫自兗州伐燕。郗超曰:「道遠,汴水又淺,恐漕運難通。」溫不從。六月,辛丑,溫至金鄉,天旱,水道絕,溫使冠軍將軍毛虎生鑿鉅野三百裡,引汶水會於清水。虎生,寶之子也。溫引舟師自清水入河,舳艫數百裡。郗超曰:「清水入河,難以通運。若寇不戰,運道又絕,因敵為資,復無所得,此危道也。不若盡舉見眾直趨鄴城,彼畏公威名,必望風逃潰,北歸遼、碣。若能出戰,則事可立決。若欲城鄴而守之,則當此盛夏,難為功力。百姓布野,盡為官有,易水以南必交臂請命矣。但恐明公以此計輕銳,勝負難必,欲務持重,則莫若頓兵河、濟,控引漕運,俟資儲充備,至來夏乃進兵;雖如賒遲,然期於成功而已。捨此二策而連軍北上,進不速決,退必愆乏。賊因此勢以日月相引,漸及秋冬,水更澀滯。且北土早寒,三軍裘褐者少,恐於時所憂,非獨無食而已。」溫又不從。

3. Huan Wen marched north from Yanzhou on campaign against Yan. Chi Chao advised him, "The road to Yan is far, and the Pian River is shallow. I fear water transport will be difficult." Huan Wen did not heed him.

兵亂之餘,汴水塡淤,未嘗有人浚治,故淺。汴,皮變翻。

During the chaos caused by the errant soldiers from Murong Jun's draft in 359-60, the Pian River had become choked with silt, and no one had bothered to dredge the river since then, so it was still shallow. 汴 is pronounced "pian (p-ian)".


In the sixth month, on the day Xinchou (?), Huan Wen reached Jinxiang. There was a drought, and the water level dropped. Huan sent the Champion General, Mao Husheng, to carve a canal for three hundred li at Juye, to channel water from the Wen River to the Qing River. This Mao Husheng was the son of Mao Bao. Huan Wen ordered boats to sail up the Qing River to enter the Yellow River, and the convoy of these ships stretched for a hundred li.

金鄕縣,後漢屬山陽郡,晉屬高平郡,隋屬濟陰郡,唐屬兗州,我宋屬濟州,縣在州東南九十里。班固《地理志》,汶水出泰山萊蕪縣西南,入濟。《水經註》:濟水東北入鉅野,其故瀆又東北右合洪水;洪水上承鉅野薛訓渚,謂之桓公瀆,濟自是北注。杜佑曰:濟水,因王莽末渠涸不復截河過,今東平、濟南、淄川、北海界中有水流入海,謂之清河,實菏澤、汶水合流,亦曰濟河,蓋因舊名,非濟水也。汶,音問。毛寶預有平蘇峻之功。註又見前。

During Later Han, Jinxiang County was part of Shanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Gaoping commandary. During Sui, it was part of Jiyin commandary. During Tang, it was part of Yanzhou. In our time (that is, the Song dynasty) it is part of Jizhou, and is ninety li southeast of there.

Ban Gu's "Geographical Records" states, "The Wen River flows from Mount Tai southwest through Laiwu County, until it enters the Ji River." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ji River passes through Juye from the northeast, and it is said that it also drains into the Hong River in the northeast on its right bank. The Hong River flows out of the Xuexun Lake at Juye, and it is called the Huangong Drain; it fills in the Ji River to the north." Du You remarked, "Concerning the Ji River, since Wang Mang's canal had dried up before reaching the Yellow River, the region between modern Dongping, Jinan, Zichuan, and Beihai had rivers flowing into the sea, and so it was called Qinghe (for the Qing and Yellow Rivers). It was where the He Marsh linked up with the flow of the Wen River, so it was also called Jihe, and that was the source of this old name. But it had nothing to do with the Ji River." 汶 is pronounced "wen".

Mao Bao's accomplishments in helping to put down Su Jun's rebellion were listed earlier in the ZZTJ.


Chi Chao said, "Navigation is difficult where the Qing River enters the Yellow River. If we do not force a battle, and our supply line on this river is cut, then the enemy will benefit from it, while we will have trouble gaining more supplies. This situation places us in danger. We would do best to fall upon Ye with full haste. The enemy fears your martial reputation, and they will flee north to the safety of Liao and Jie. And if we can fight a battle, then the matter can even be decided quickly. Or if they attempt to hold out at Ye, then we may spread our influence among the Xia (ethnic Han), and it will be difficult for the enemy to accomplish anything. The common people and the ministers will come south of the Yi River to seek your orders.

“My fear is that you will think little of this plan, since it would be difficult to ensure its success, and you would rather attend to every detail, and secure every camp along the Yellow and Ji Rivers, establish supply lines, and require every preparation, not beginning the actual attack until the summer has passed you by. Although you will prepare credit for yourself, there will not be time enough to spend it.

“Remember the factor of difficulty in logistics and keeping the army supplied in the north when deciding between these two plans: if you cannot quickly force a decisive blow, then you will eventually be compelled to retreat by the lack of grain. The enemy's forces will gather day by day and month by month, and as autumn and winter approach, the river water will become even more shallow and stagnant. The north is suffering from a drought, and our three armies will not long be able to sustain themselves. I fear that time will work against us, and soon there will be no food to maintain the army." But again Huan Wen did not heed him.

自清水入河,皆是泝流,又道里回遠,故言難以通運。郗超之謀略,豈常人所及哉,宜桓溫重之也。重之而不從其計者,直趨鄴城,決勝負於一戰,溫所不敢;頓兵河、濟以待來年,使燕得爲備,溫亦不爲也。

Where the Qing River entered the Yellow River, the Jin ships would be sailing upstream all the way, and it would be a long route to return. This was what Chi Chao meant by transport difficulties.

Alas for Chi Chao's strategy. How could be that even a common man could have grasped it, and yet Huan Wen was too stubborn to accept it? If he had not been obstinate and had followed this strategy, then he might have rushed towards Ye, and decided the war with a single victory in battle. But Huan Wen was not the sort of man who dared to do that. In setting up camps for his soldiers along the Yellow and Ji Rivers, he let the year slip by, and gave Yan time to prepare themselves. He should not have done so.


溫遣建威將軍檀玄攻湖陸,拔之,獲燕寧東將軍慕容忠。燕主暐以下邳王厲為征討大都督,帥步騎二萬逆戰於黃墟,厲兵大敗,單馬奔還。高平太守徐翻舉郡來降。前鋒鄧遐、朱序敗燕將傅顏於林渚。暐復遣樂安王臧統諸軍拒溫,臧不能抗;乃遣散騎常侍李鳳求救於秦。

4. Huan Wen sent the General Who Establishes Valor, Tan Xuan, to attack Hulu, and Tan Xuan took it, capturing Yan's General Who Calms The East, Murong Zhong. Murong Wei appointed the Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, as Grand Commander of Conquest, and sent him with twenty thousand horse and foot to fight Huan Wen at Huangxu. Murong Li suffered a great defeat, and escaped alone on horseback. Yan’s Administrator of Gaoping, Xu Fan, surrendered his city to Huan Wen. Zhu Xu and the vanguard commander Deng Xia defeated the Yan general Fu Yan at Linzhu. Murong Wei then sent the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, with another army to oppose Huan Wen, but Murong Zang could not stop him. Murong Wei thus sent the Regular Attendant of 散騎 Li Feng to seek aid from Qin.

湖陸縣,前漢曰湖陵,屬山陽郡,章帝更名湖陸;晉分屬高平郡。賢曰:湖陸故城在今兗州方與縣東南。《水經註》:陳留小黃縣有黃鄕。杜預曰:外黃縣東有黃城,兵亂之後,城邑丘墟,故曰黃墟。《水經註》:華水東逕棐城北,卽北林亭也。《春秋》諸侯會于棐林以救鄭,遇于北林。按林鄕故城在新鄭北;又有白鴈陂,在長社東北,林鄕西南。

During Former Han, Hulu County was called Huling, and was part of Shanyang commandary. Emperor Zhang of Han changed its name to Hulu. Jin split it off as part of Gaoping commandary. Xian remarked, "The old city of Huling was southeast of Fangyu County in Yanzhou in our time."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In Xiaohuang County in Chenliu, there is Huangcheng." Du Yu remarked, "East of Waihuang County was Huangcheng.” After disturbances from the soldiers, the city and its suburbs were ruined, so it was renamed to Huangxu.

The Commentary on the Water Classic also states, "The Hua River flows east, north of Feicheng, at the place called Beilin Pavilion." The Spring and Autumn Annals mention that several of the marquises met at Feilin to rescue the state of Zheng, and that the meeting was at Beilin. The old city of Linxiang was north of Xinzheng. There was also Baiyan Pond, northeast of Changshe, and southwest of Linxiang.


秋,七月,溫屯武陽,燕故兗州刺史孫元帥其族黨起兵應溫。溫至枋頭,暐及太傅評大懼,謀奔和龍。吳王垂曰:「臣請擊之;若其不捷,走未晚也。」暐乃以垂代樂安王臧為使持節、南討大都督,帥征南將軍范陽王德等眾五萬以拒溫。垂表司徒左長史申胤、黃門侍郎封孚、尚書郎悉羅騰皆從軍。胤,鐘之子;孚,放之子也。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, Huan Wen camped at Wuyang. Yan's former Inspector of Yanzhou, Sun Yuan, and his clan and allies led their troops in rebellion against Yan to support Huan Wen.

When Huan Wen arrived at Fangtou, Murong Wei and the Grand Tutor Murong Ping were greatly afraid, and wished to flee to Helong. The Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, said, "Please allow me to fight a battle. If I do not meet with success, it will not be too late to flee." Murong Wei therefore appointed Murong Chui as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Grand Commander of Conquest, replacing Murong Zang, and sent him along along with the General Who Conquers The South and Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, and others, with an army of fifty thousand to oppose Huan Wen. For his officers, Murong Chui chose the Chief Clerk of the Left of the Minister Over The Masses, Shen Yin, the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Feng Fu, and one of the Gentlemen of the Master of Writing, Xiluo Teng. This Shen Yin was the son of Shen Zhong. This Feng Fu was the son of Feng Fang.

此東武陽也,漢屬東郡,魏、晉屬陽平郡,唐改曰朝城縣、屬魏州。悉羅騰,蓋夷人,以部落爲氏,如《魏書‧官氏志》所載,神元時餘部諸姓內入者叱羅氏、如羅氏之類。申鍾見九十五卷成帝咸和九年。封放見九十九卷穆帝永和七年。

"Wuyang" here means East Wuyang. During Han, it was part of Dong commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Tang renamed it to Chaocheng County, as part of Weizhou.

Xiluo Teng was a tribesman. The barbarians' tribes were each divided up into many clans, as attested in the "Records of Official Families" in the Book of Wei. In Shenyuan's time, the tribes were each divided into several different surnames, such as Chiluo or Ruluo.

Shen Zhong was first mentioned in Book 95, in Emperor Cheng's ninth year of Xianhe (334.21). Although he was originally a Later Zhao minister, he surrendered to Yan after Ran Min's defeat and served them. Feng Fang was mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's seventh year of Yonghe (351.14).


暐又遣散騎侍郎樂嵩請救於秦,許賂以虎牢以西之地。秦王堅引群臣議於東堂,皆曰:「昔桓溫伐我,至灞上,燕不我救。今溫伐燕,我何救焉!且燕不稱籓於我,我何為救之!」王猛密言於堅曰:「燕雖強大,慕容評非溫敵也。若溫舉山東,進屯洛邑,收幽、冀之兵,引並、豫之粟,觀兵崤、澠,則陛下大事去矣。今不如與燕合兵以退溫;溫退,燕亦病矣,然後我承其弊而取之,不亦善乎!」堅從之。八月,遣將軍苟池、洛州刺史鄧羌帥步騎二萬以救燕,出自洛陽,軍至穎川;又遣散騎侍郎姜撫報使於燕。以王猛為尚書令。

6. Murong Wei then sent his Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, Yue Song, to again beg assistance from Qin, offering all the territory west of Hulao (that is, the Luoyang region) in exchange. Fu Jian gathered his ministers for discussion in the Eastern Hall. They all said, "Years ago, when Huan Wen campaigned against us, and he came as far as Bashang, Yan did not assist us. Now Huan Wen is attacking Yan; why should we save them? Yan is no vassal of ours, so why should we help them?"

Wang Meng secretly said to Fu Jian, "Although Yan is very great and powerful, Murong Ping is no match for Huan Wen. If Huan Wen conquers everything east of the mountains, and advances into the Luoyang region, if he harnesses the soldiers of Youzhou and Jizhou, harvests the grain of Bingzhou and Yuzhou, and posts soldiers at the Xiao Mountains and the Mian River, Your Majesty will lose your chance at achieving your grand design. It would be better to stand with Yan today and repulse Huan Wen. For even after Huan Wen has been defeated, Yan will not have recovered from his invasion, and we may then take it for ourselves. Is that not also excellent?" Fu Jian agreed.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian sent General Gou Chi and the Inspector of Luozhou, Deng Qiang, with twenty thousand horse and foot to reinforce Yan. They marched out of Luoyang, and the Qin army was at Yingchuan. Fu Jian further sent his Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, Jiang Fu, to report back to Yan. Wang Meng was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

見九十九卷永和十年。王猛之取李儼,其計亦出此。潁州郡,治許昌。

Huan Wen's invasion of Qin was recounted in Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354.5).

This was the same sort of plan that Wang Meng had used to capture the rebel Li Yan.

Yingchuan commandary was administered from Xuchang.


太子太傅封孚問於申胤曰:「溫眾強士整,乘流直進,今大軍徒逡巡高岸,兵不接刃,未見克殄之理,事將何如?」胤曰:「以溫今日聲勢,似能有為。然在吾觀之,必無成功。何則?晉室衰弱,溫專制其國,晉之朝臣未必皆與之同心。故溫之得志,眾所不願也,必將乖阻以敗其事。又,溫驕而恃眾,怯於應變。大眾深入,值可乘之會,反更逍遙中流,不出赴利,欲望持久,坐取全勝;若糧廩愆懸,情見勢屈,必不戰自敗,此自然之數也。」 溫以燕降人段思為鄉導,悉羅騰與溫戰,生擒思。溫使故趙將李述徇趙、魏,騰又與虎賁中郎將染干津擊斬之,溫軍奪氣。

7. Yan’s Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Feng Fu, asked Shen Yin, "Huan Wen has a mighty host, constantly pressing forward, while our army hesitates to advance. We are on the brink, and no one knows whether victory or annihilation is in store. What will become of us?"

Shen Yin replied, "It would seem that Huan Wen currently has great power and influence, and that he might win. Yet in my view, he will not accomplish anything. How so? The Jin court is weak and vacillating, and if Huan Wen seeks to conquer other states, then the Jin court and ministers need to be of one mind. Yet I do not believe that they agree with Huan's ambitions, and any defeat will make them rein him in. Furthermore, Huan Wen has been overbearing towards them, and they are too timid to go along with any changes. His grand host has penetrated deep into the country, and by now his men will have become unruly. He does not march out to risk a battle, but wants to spend time attending to every possible thing, and will wait until he is certain of victory. If his army’s grain is exhausted, then their morale will drop, and they will be defeated even without fighting, as is natural."

Duan En defected to Huan Wen, and Huan appointed him as an army guide. Xiluo Teng battled with Huan Wen, and captured Duan En. Huan Wen sent the former Zhao general Li Shu to win over the regions of Zhao and Wei. Xiluo Teng then fought with Huan's General of the Household of 虎賁, Ran Ganjin, and killed him in battle. The morale of Huan Wen's army began to fall.

溫之爲計正如此,申胤料之審矣。溫攻秦而不渡霸水,攻燕而徘徊枋頭,人皆咎其不進;知彼知己,溫蓋臨敵而方有見乎此也。溫之智雖不足以禁暴定功,然其去衆人亦遠矣。

This was exactly what Huan Wen's plan was. Shen Yin displayed how keen his analysis was.

When Huan Wen attacked Qin, he hesitated to cross the Ba River. When he attacked Yan, he lingered at Fangtou. Men faulted him in both cases for not advancing. One must know the enemy and know oneself, and when Huan Wen came against his enemies, they could perceive this fault of his. But although Huan Wen's knowledge was insufficient for him to press his attacks and ensure his achievements, he still had many who followed him a long ways.


初,溫使豫州刺史袁真攻譙、梁,開石門以通水運,真克譙、梁而不能開石門,水運路塞。

8. Earlier, Huan Wen had sent the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yuan Zhen, to attack Qiao and Liang, and to then open Shimen to provide supplies by water. Yuan Zhen captured Qiao and Liang, but he could not open Shimin, and the water route was blocked.

譙、梁,譙郡及梁國也。

Qiao and Liang means Qiao commandary and Liangguo.


九月,燕范陽王德帥騎一萬、蘭台治書侍御史劉當帥騎五千屯石門,豫州刺史李邽帥州兵五千斷溫糧道。當,佩之子也。德使將軍慕容宙帥騎一千為前鋒,與晉兵遇。宙曰:「晉人輕剽,怯於陷敵,勇於乘退,宜設餌以釣之。」乃使二百騎挑戰,分餘騎為三伏。挑戰者兵未交而走,晉兵追之;宙帥伏以擊之,晉兵死者甚眾。

9. In the ninth month, Murong De led ten thousand cavalry to camp at Shimen, and the Imperial Secretary of the Attendants of Masters of Writing of Lantai, Liu Dang, led five thousand cavalry to the same place. Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou, Li Gui, led five thousand of his provincial troops to cut off Huan Wen's supply lines. This Liu Dang was the son of Liu Pei.

Murong De sent his general Murong Zhou to lead a thousand cavalry as vanguard leader, and they encountered Jin troops. Murong Zhou said, "Jin soldiers are cowards; they fear to truly face an enemy, but they are heroic in pursuing one. Let's prepare bait as a trap." So he sent two hundred riders to start a skirmish, while splitting up the others to prepare an ambush from three sides. The skirmishers engaged the Jin soldiers and then fled, and the soldiers pursued them. Then Murong Zhou launched the ambush, and all the Jin soldiers were killed.

【章:十二行本「臺」下有「治書」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】燕豫州刺史治許昌。劉佩爲慕容皝將,卻石虎,攻宇文,皆有功。

Some versions include 治書 after Lantai in the name of Liu Dang's title.

Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou administered his province from Xuchang.

Liu Pei was one of Murong Huang's generals. He had gained fame from defending against Shi Hu's invasion and attacking the Yuwen.


溫戰數不利,糧儲復竭,又聞秦兵將至,丙申,焚舟,棄輜重、鎧仗,自陸道奔還。以毛虎生督東燕等四郡諸軍事,領東燕太守。

10. Huan Wen fought several battles, but gained no victory, and his grain stores were running low. He also heard reports of the approaching Qin soldiers. On the day Bingshen (November 4th), he burned his ships, abandoned his impediments and equipment, and retreated by the land route. He sent Mao Husheng to handle military affairs in the four commandaries, including Dongyan, appointing him Administrator of Dongyan.

沈約曰:東燕郡,江左分濮陽所立也。余按石虎分東燕郡屬洛州,則是郡蓋祖逖在豫州時所置也。燕,於賢翻。

The Book of Liu-Song states, "Dongyan commandary was established at Puyang, north of the Yangzi." I believe that Shi Hu split Dongyan commandary off to be part of Luozhou, including the part of the commandary that Zu Ti held when he was Jin’s Administrator of Yuzhou. 燕 is pronounced "yan (w-ian)".


溫自東燕出倉垣,鑿井而飲,行七百餘里。燕之諸將爭欲追之,吳王垂曰:「不可。溫初退惶恐,必嚴設警備,簡精銳為後拒,擊之未必得志,不如緩之。彼幸吾未至,必晝夜疾趨;俟其士眾力盡氣衰,然後擊之,無不克矣。」乃帥八千騎徐行躡其後。溫果兼道而進。數日,垂告諸將曰:「溫可擊矣。」乃急追之,及溫於襄邑。范陽王德先帥勁騎四千伏於襄邑東澗中,與垂夾擊溫,又破之,死者復以萬計。秦苟池邀擊溫於譙,又破之,死者復以萬計。孫元遂據武陽以拒燕,燕左衛將軍孟高討擒之。

11. Huan Wen’s army fell back from Dongyan to Cangyuan, digging wells for water as they went, and marching over seven hundred li.

The Yan generals all wanted to pursue him at once. Murong Chui said, "We cannot. When Huan Wen first begins retreating, he will be in a great panic, and naturally he will have prepared strict defenses, and he will have his best troops protecting his rear. If we attack him now, we will not yet be able to achieve what we want. It would be better for us to shadow his army. Once they have fallen back some ways, then we can begin to needle them with night attacks. After their morale is completely exhausted, that will be the time for us to strike, and we cannot help but succeed." So he led eight thousand cavalry in a light pursuit.

Huan Wen therefore turned his thoughts toward retreating and increased his pace. After several days of this, Murong Chui said to his generals, "Now we may attack him." So they pressed their pursuit, following Huan Wen to Xiangyi. Murong De had earlier ridden to Xiangyi with four thousand cavalry to lie in ambush east of there at Jianzhong. He and Murong Chui both attacked Huan Wen at once, and completely routed his army, killing thirty thousand Jin soldiers.

The Qin general Gou Chi then launched his own attack against Huan Wen at Qiao, defeating his army again, and killing a further ten thousand soldiers. The defector Sun Yuan tried to hold Wuyang against Yan, but Yan's Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, attacked and captured it.

汴水、濟瀆皆自北而南,恐追兵毒其上流,故鑿井而飲。襄邑縣,自漢以來屬陳留郡。

The Pian River and the Ji Canal both flowed from north to south, and Huan Wen's soldiers feared that Yan would poison them from upstream, so they dug wells to obtain water instead.

During Han, Xiangyi County was part of Chenliu commandary.


冬,十月,己巳,大司馬溫收散卒,屯於山陽。溫深恥喪敗,乃歸罪於袁真,奏免真為庶人;又免冠軍將軍鄧遐官。真以溫誣己,不服,表溫罪狀,朝廷不報。真遂據壽春叛,降燕,且請救;亦遣使如秦。溫以毛虎生領淮南太守,守歷陽。

12. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jisi (December 7th), Huan Wen gathered up his remaining soldiers and camped at Shanyang.

Huan Wen was deeply ashamed and mournful of his defeat, and shifted the blame onto Yuan Zhen, asking that he be stripped of office and demoted to commoner status, and that his rank be given to the Champion General, Deng Xian. When Yuan Zhen heard Huan Wen's slander, he did not submit, but sent notice of Huan Wen's own crimes. The Jin court made no response. Yuan Zhen then took over Shouchun and rebelled, offering submission to Yan, and asking for aid; he also sent messengers to Qin. Huan Wen appointed Mao Yusheng as acting Administrator of Huainan, and had him defend Liyang.

劉昫曰:山陽,漢射陽縣地;晉置山陽郡,改爲山陽縣,唐爲楚州治所。以石門不開、糧運不繼爲眞罪。淮南太守本治壽春,壽春旣叛,以虎生領淮南而守歷陽。歷陽本淮南屬縣,虎生守之,外以備壽春,內以衞江南。

Liu Xu remarked, "Shanyang was the same place as the Han dynasty's Sheyang County. Jin made it Shanyang commandary, and then changed it to Shanyang County. During Tang, it was administered by Chuzhou."

Yuan Zhen's crime was that he had not opened Shimen or kept up the grain transports.

The Administrator of Huainan usually administered his territory from Shouchun. Since Shouchun was now in rebellion, Mao Husheng exercised his temporary authority from Liyang. Liyang had originally been a county under Huainan commandary, so Mao Husheng defended from there, both to prepare against Shouchun and to safeguard the region south of the Yangzi.


燕、秦既結好,使者數往來。燕散騎侍郎太原郝晷、給事黃門侍郎梁琛相繼如秦。晷與王猛有舊,猛接以平生,問晷東方之事。晷見燕政不修而秦大治,知燕將亡,陰欲自托於猛,頗洩其實。

13. Yan and Qin now enjoying good relations, they exchanged a series of envoys. Yan's Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, Hao Gui of Taiyuan, and Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate of 給事, Liang Chen, were sent to Qin one after the other. Hao Gui was old friends with Wang Meng, and they had long kept in touch.

Wang Meng asked Hao Gui about affairs in the east. Hao Gui saw that the Yan court was in disarray while Qin was well managed, and knew that Yan would soon fall, so he secretly spread word to Wang Meng, venting to him his true feelings.

【章:十二行本「郎」下有「太原」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】琛,丑林翻。【章:十二行本「治」下有「知燕將亡」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

Some versions identify Hao Gui as being "of Taiyuan".

琛 is pronounced "chen (ch-en)".

Some versions include the phrase "he knew Yan would soon fall".


琛至長安,秦王堅方畋於萬年,欲引見琛,琛曰:「秦使至燕,燕之君臣朝服備禮,灑掃宮庭,然後敢見。今秦王欲野見之,使臣不敢聞命!」尚書郎辛勁謂琛曰:「賓客入境,惟主人所以處之,君焉得專制其禮!且天子稱乘輿,所至曰行在所,何堂居之有!又,《春秋》亦有遇禮,何為不可乎!」琛曰:「晉室不綱,靈祚歸德,二方承運,俱受明命。而桓溫猖狂,窺我王略,燕危秦孤,勢不獨立,是以秦主同恤時患,要結好援。東朝君臣,引領西望,愧其不競,以為鄰憂,西使之辱,敬待有加。今強寇既退,交聘方始,謂宜崇禮篤義以固二國之歡;若忽慢使臣,是卑燕也,豈修好之義乎!夫天子以四海為家,故行曰乘輿,止曰行在。今海縣瓜裂,天光分曜,安得以乘輿、行在為言哉!禮,不期而見曰遇;蓋因事權行,其禮簡略,豈平居容與之所為哉!客使單行,誠勢屈於主人;然苟不以禮,亦不敢從也。」堅乃為之設行宮,百僚倍位,然後延客,如燕朝之儀。事畢,堅與之私宴,問:「東朝名臣為誰?」琛曰:「太傅上庸王評,明德茂親,光輔王室;車騎大將軍吳王垂,雄略冠世,折沖御侮;其餘或以文進,或以武用,官皆稱職,野無遺賢。」

14. When Liang Chen arrived at Chang'an, Fu Jian was out hunting at Wannian. He asked for Liang Chen to come see him. Liang Chen said, "When a Qin envoy comes to Yan, the full court prepares the rites for him, receives him in the palace, and afterward sees him off. Now the lord of Qin wishes to meet me in the field, and sends a servant instead, not daring to come hear me in person!"

萬年,秦之櫟陽,漢高帝更名,屬馮翊,晉屬京兆。

Wannian was known as Liyang during the Qin dynasty. Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had changed its name, and it became part of Pingyi. Under Jin, it was part of Jingzhao.


The Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Xin Jing, said to Liang Chen, “When a guest enters a sovereign's territory, only that ruler may set the circumstances of the guest's reception. Yet here you are demanding what sort of rites shall be followed by your own authority! The Son of Heaven rides his imperial carriage where he will, and wheresoever it stops is called his resting place, no matter where he may reside! Further, the Spring and Autumn Annals records these same sorts of reception ceremonies, so how can you say that they cannot be used?”

《春秋》:隱四年,公及宋公遇于清。《公羊傳》曰:遇者何?不期也。杜預曰:遇者,草次之期,二國各簡其禮,若道路相逢遇也。

The Spring and Autumn Annals state, "In the fourth year of Duke Yin's reign, he and the Duke of Song met at Qing." (Yin 4.3) The Gongyang Commentary on the Annals remarked, "What does the use of this word 'met' mean? It means that it was not an arranged conference." And Du Yu remarked, "By 'met', they mean a 'hurried arrangement'. Both states kept to minimal ceremonies, as though they had happened to encounter one another on the road."


Liang Chen replied, “Let us not be like the Jin royal family, with their phantom throne and their discarded virtues. Our two sides have both been ordained by Heaven and received its Mandate to rule. Huan Wen in his ferocity sought to get a glimpse of our 'royal grant'. With Yan threatened, Qin was in danger of standing alone, and in such a state it would not be able to last. That is why the lord of Qin sympathized with us and shared our burden against the dangers of that time, and formed a close covenant. The eastern court, lord and ministers, all placed their hopes in the west, ashamed that they themselves were not strong enough, but believing in their neighbor's sorrow at such a state of affairs. And the west, in order not to be disgraced, treated us with respect and good care. Now, since the strong invader has retreated, we have begun to exchange envoys with one another. This is the time to follow the sublime rites and display earnest righteousness, to promote the happiness and joy of both our states. Yet here you are suddenly sending me off; that is a slight against Yan, and how is that supposed to develop good virtues?

靈祚,猶班彪《王命論》所謂神明之祚也。《左傳》:侵敗王略。杜預《註》曰︰略,經略法度。余謂此略,封略也,如《左傳》「王與之武公之略」之略。

"Phantom throne" refers to the concept of the blessings of the divine mentioned in Ban Biao's "Discourse on the Royal Mandate".

The Zuo Commentary states, "They infringe upon and overreach their royal grants." (Cheng 2.12) In Du Yu's "Notes" on the Zuo Commentary he remarked, "'Grants' here refer to laws and standards. I believe this term 'grants' is also meant in the sense of feudal grants, such as its use in the passage elsewhere in the Zuo Commentary, 'The king granted him what had formerly been granted to Duke Wu'." (Zhuang 21.1)


"A true Son of Heaven takes the whole world within the four seas as his residence: it is indeed true that whatever he rides in is named the imperial carriage, and wherever he stops is called his resting place. But now, all the counties and provinces within the seas are split apart like gourds, and Heaven's splendor is divided among many. How then is it fitting to use such terms as 'imperial carriage' or 'resting place'? According to the Rites, an unarranged encounter is termed a 'meeting'. For such exceptional occasions as this affair, the rites may be simplified, but how can this be held up as the usual standard? I will submit to a simplified meeting place, where I may earnestly prostrate myself before your lord. But to go so far as to entirely neglect the rites, that I dare not abide.”

騶衍曰:中國有赤縣神州,赤縣神州內有九州,禹所敍九州是也;其外有裨海環之。海縣之說,蓋本諸此。

The philosopher Zou Yan said, "The Middle Kingdom has its crimson counties and its divine provinces. These crimson counties and divine provinces make up nine provinces together, the very same ones that Yu the Great laid out. Beyond them lie the the outer ring of seas." Liang Chen's phrase "All the counties and provinces within the seas" refers to this concept.


So Fu Jian constructed a temporary building, invited all the ministers to attend there, and then received his guest, just in the manner of the Yan court. After business had been concluded, Fu Jian invited everyone to a private feast, and asked Liang Chen, "Who are the worthies of the eastern court?"

Liang Chen replied, “The Grand Tutor and Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, is a bright and virtuous member of the royal family, fully capable of bringing splendid administration to the state. And the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, is heroic and insightful, a champion for our age, masterful at smashing the enemy and fending off foreign aggression. But even beyond these two, we have many who have advanced our civil affairs or find great use in our military affairs. Every office has been filled, and we have left no worthy fellow neglected.”

倣古私覿之禮也。

The building was modeled after private meeting sites from antiquity.


琛從兄弈為秦尚書郎,堅使典客館琛於弈捨。琛曰:「昔諸葛瑾為吳聘蜀,與諸葛亮惟公朝相見,退無私面,余竊慕之。今使之即安私室,所不敢也。」乃不果館。弈數來就邸捨,與琛臥起,閒問琛東國事。琛曰:「今二方分據,兄弟並蒙榮龐,論其本心,各有所在。琛欲言東國之美,恐非西國之所欲聞;欲言其惡,又非使臣之所得論也。兄何用問為!」

15. Liang Chen's cousin, Liang Yi, was serving as one of Qin’s Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. Fu Jian sent his Director of Guests to Liang Chen to see if Liang Chen would lodge with his cousin. Liang Chen replied, "When Zhuge Jin was serving Wu as envoy to Shu, he did not deign to visit his brother Zhuge Liang in private, but avoided such a meeting; this is to be admired. Now while I am serving as an envoy for the public good, how can I think of private family affairs? I dare not accept." Thus, he did not lodge with his cousin.

Even so, Liang Yi several times came to Liang Chen's residence, rising and sleeping when his cousin did, pestering Liang Chen to tell him about affairs in the eastern state. Liang Chen said, "We two serve different sides, and both of us have labored under and received the favor of our own lords. We would necessarily speak from our hearts, both saying all he could. Now if I were to speak of the splendor of the eastern state, I fear it will not be what the western state wants to hear; while if I were to speak of its failings, such talk is unbecoming of an envoy. What more is there for you to ask of me?"

漢有典客之官,後改爲大鴻臚。此特臨時使之典客耳。瑾,亮兄弟也。

The Han dynasty had the office of Director of Guests, but it later changed to Minister Herald, and no one held the original title afterwards. Fu Jian had made a special appointment of the office for this occasion.

Zhuge Jin was Zhuge Liang’s elder brother (and he also served as envoy from an eastern to a western state).


堅使太子延琛相見。秦人欲使琛拜太子,先諷之曰:「鄰國之君,猶其君也;鄰國之儲君,亦何以異乎!」琛曰:「天子之子視元士,欲其由賤以登貴也。尚不敢臣其父之臣,況它國之臣乎!苟無純敬,則禮有往來,情豈忘恭,但恐降屈為煩耳。」乃不果拜。

16. Fu Jian sent his 太子延 to meet with Liang Chen. The people of Qin wished for Liang Chen to come pay his respects to their Crown Prince. They chanted, "Each local state has their own crown, for lord to wear and then hand down. And nearby states have lords in store, for every lord births many more."

Liang Chen said of it, "Even the son of the Son of Heaven is only capped as a normal captain. Yet you seek to lift up even coarser stuff into fine products. I do not claim to recognize another man's father as my own; how much less will I claim to recognize another state's lord as my sovereign? I will not be careless of proper respect, and I will keep to the rites as before, for how can I forget to show reverence? But I fear I cannot trouble myself to so fully submit as that." So they gave up on having him pay his respects.

《禮記‧郊特牲》曰:天子之元子,士也,天下無生而貴者也。言當答拜也。

The "Single Victim at the Border Sacrifices" section of the Book of Rites states, "The eldest son of the Son of Heaven by his proper queen (was capped only as) an ordinary officer. There was nowhere such a thing as being born noble." (33)

This passage was Liang Chen's response to being asked to pay his respects to Qin's crown prince.


王猛勸堅留琛,堅不許。

17. Wang Meng urged Fu Jian to detain Liang Chen, but Fu Jian would not permit it.

燕主暐遣大鴻臚溫統拜袁真使持節、都督淮南諸軍事、征南大將軍、揚州刺史,封宣城公。統未逾淮而卒。 吳王垂自襄邑還鄴,威名益振,太傅評愈忌之。垂奏:「所募將士忘身立效,將軍孫蓋等摧鋒陷陳,應蒙殊賞。」評皆抑而不行。垂數以為言,與評廷爭,怨隙愈深。太後可足渾氏素惡垂,毀其戰功,與評密謀誅之。太宰恪之子楷及垂舅蘭建知之,以告垂曰:「先發制人,但除評及樂安王臧,餘無能為矣。」垂曰:「骨肉相殘而首亂於國,吾有死而已,不忍為也。」頃之,二人又以告,曰:「內意已決,不可不早發。」垂曰:「必不可彌縫,吾寧避之於外,餘非所議。」

18. It was earlier mentioned that the Jin general Yuan Zhen had rebelled in Shouchun. Murong Wei sent his Minister Herald, Wen Tong, to present Yuan Zhen with the ranks of Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of Huainan military affairs, Grand General Who Conquers The South, Inspector of Yangzhou, and Duke of Xuancheng. But before Wen Tong had crossed the Huai River, he passed away.

Murong Chui returned from the battlefield at Xiangyi back to Ye, with his victories having greatly bolstered his reputation. Murong Ping became exceedingly jealous of him. Murong Chui petitioned the court, stating, "All of our accomplishments were due to the efforts of General Sun Gai and others who faced many dangers. They ought to be rewarded." But Murong Ping refused to promote any of them. Murong Chui continued to advocate for them, getting into arguments with Murong Ping, and their enmity grew deeper.

Empress Dowager Kezuhun still hated Murong Chui, and wishing to wipe out his military accomplishments, she plotted with Murong Ping to kill him. Murong Ke's son, Murong Kai, and Murong Chui's uncle Lan Jian learned of the plot, and told Murong Chui, "’He who acts first controls men’. If you do not get rid of Murong Ping and the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, you will not be able to accomplish anything."

Murong Chui said, "They are my flesh and blood, and to fight with them would cause chaos at the head of the state. So long as I am not dead, I will endure it."

A short while later, the two of them said to him, "Things in the interior are already decided. There is nothing left to do but act at once."

Murong Chui said, "I must not gloss over mistakes. It would not be right for me to upset the stability of the state."

事見一百卷穆帝升平元年。《兵法》曰:先發制人,後發者人制之。內意,謂可足渾后之意也。

Empress Dowager Kezuhun's machinations against Murong Chui were mentioned in Book 100 in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (actually the second year, 358.17).

The Art of War states, "He who acts first controls men, while he who acts later is controlled by them."

"The interior" here refers to Empress Dowager Kezuhun's planning.


垂內以為憂,而未敢告諸子。世子令請曰:「尊比者如有憂色,豈非以主上幼沖,太傅疾賢,功高望重,愈見猜邪?」垂曰:「然。吾竭力致命以破強寇,本欲保全家國,豈知功成之後,返令身無所容。汝既知吾心,何以為吾謀?」令曰:「主上闇弱,委任太傅,一旦禍發,疾於駭機。今欲保族全身,不失大義,莫若逃之龍城,遜辭謝罪,以待主上之察,若周公之居東,庶幾可以感寤而得還,此幸之大者也。如其不然,則內撫燕、代,外懷群夷,守肥如之險以自保,亦其次也。」垂曰:「善!」

19. But Murong Chui continued to worry, and did not risk broaching the subject to his sons. His eldest son, Murong Ling, asked him, "You seem to have a worried countenance lately. Could there possibly be any other reason for it than because our lord is young, the Grand Tutor is mad, and your great accomplishments have been disregarded? Have I guessed right?"

Murong Chui said, "Just so. When I exerted myself to the utmost in following orders, and routed the powerful invading army, I did everything in order to protect my family and my state. How was I to know that, even being aware of my accomplishments, they still scorn me and cannot bear to put up with me? Since you could guess my heart, what plan do you suggest?"

Murong Ling said, "Our lord is weak, and the Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) has his ear. Calamity will fall upon them very soon, and the snap of the bowstring will catch them by surprise. You should first ensure the safety of yourself and your family, and not let the grand design slip away. Retreat to Longcheng, where you may with humble words ask forgiveness for your offenses and give our lord room to look into what has been said against you. That would be just like when the Duke of Zhou resided in the east, so that he could let good feelings develop before returning. That will also rebound to your great benefit. Or if that does not happen, you may still nurture the people of the regions of Yan and Dai within, and soothe the various tribes without, so as to make for yourself a secure place there, and await some other opportunity."

Murong Chui replied, "Excellent!"

《書》:武王有疾,周公册祝于太王、季王、文王,請以身代。武王旣喪,管叔及其羣弟流言曰:「公將不利於孺子。」周公東征之。周公居東二年,則罪人斯得,乃爲詩以詒王,名之曰《鴟鴞》;王亦未敢誚公。天大雷電以風,王啓金縢,得周公代武王之說,乃執書以泣,迎周公而歸。

In the Book of Documents (The Metal-Bound Coffer), it is written that when King Wu of Zhou once became ill, his brother the Duke of Zhou implored the spirits of his ancestors, King Tai, King Ji, and King Wen, that he might in his own body act as substitute for his elder brother’s illness, so that the royal line could endure. (The king recovered the next day.) The Duke left a record of his prayer in a metal-bound coffer.

When King Wu later died, Guan Shu and his younger brothers spread rumors saying, "The Duke will soon cause our young lord to come to grief." So the Duke of Zhou on his own initiative departed to the east. He resided there for two years, until the criminals were brought to justice, and then he composed a poem as a gift for the young king, the poem being named "The Owl". And so the young king did not dare to find fault with the Duke.

Then Heaven sent forth great lightning and winds, and the King burst open the metal-bound coffer, and within he found the Duke's prayer concerning his late father. He grasped the record with tears in his eyes, and he welcomed the Duke's return home.


十一月,辛亥朔,垂請畋於大陸,因微服出鄴,將趨龍城。至邯鄲,少子麟,素不為垂所愛,逃還告狀,垂左右多亡叛。太傅評白燕主暐,遣西平公強帥精騎追之,及於范陽。世子令斷後,強不敢逼。會日暮,令謂垂曰:「本欲保東都以自全,今事已洩,謀不及設。秦主方招延英傑,不如往歸之。」垂曰:「今日之計,捨此安之!」乃散騎滅跡,傍南山復還鄴,隱於趙之顯原陵。俄有獵者數百騎四面而來,抗之則不能敵,逃之則無路,不知所為。會獵者鷹皆飛揚,眾騎散去。垂乃殺白馬以祭天,且盟從者。

20. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Xinhai (?), Murong Chui asked leave to go hunting at Dalu. Dressed in that disguise, he and his family departed Ye, planning to hurry towards Longcheng. But when they had reached Handan, Murong Chui's youngest son, Murong Lin, whom he had long shown little regard for, fled back to Ye and informed on them, and everyone about Murong Chui turned on him. Murong Ping informed Murong Wei of the escape attempt, and sent the Duke of Xiping, Murong Qiang, with elite cavalry to pursue Murong Chui. These pursuit troops followed Murong Chui’s trail as far as Fanyang. There, Murong Ling cut them off, and Murong Qiang did not dare to pursue any further.

《續漢志》曰:鉅鹿,故大鹿,有大陸澤,卽廣阿澤。邯鄲縣,漢屬趙國,本趙都也;晉屬廣平郡,東魏廢,隋復置,唐屬磁州。邯鄲,音寒丹。

The 續漢志 states, "In Julu, also called Dalu, there is the Dalu Marsh, also called the Guang'a Marsh."

During Han, Handan County was part of the Zhao princely fief, and it had been the capital of the state of Zhao during the Warring States before that. Jin made it part of Guangping commandary. It was abolished under Eastern Wei, but brought back during Sui, and during Tang it was part of Cizhou. 邯鄲 is pronounced "handan".


When dusk came, Murong Ling said to his father, "We originally planned to hold out at the eastern capital (Longcheng) in order to secure ourselves. But now that affairs have taken this course, the plan must be changed. Qin has been gathering heroes and treating them well; it would be best to go to them now."

Murong Chui said, "Who could have guessed how quickly today’s plan would have to be abandoned?"

So they scattered their cavalry and destroyed the traces of the path they had taken, and went by the southern mountains back towards Ye, secretly making their way to Xianyuan Tomb in the Zhao region. When the party grew hungry, they sent out several hundred hunters in all directions to forage, but the hunters could not resist the enemies they encountered, and after fleeing, they could not find their way back to the roads, and they were not heard from again. After it became clear that the hunters would not come back, the riders all scattered. Then Murong Chui killed a white horse to offer as sacrifice to Heaven, and made a covenant with his remaining followers.

自范陽傍南山,蓋由中山、常山山谷間南還也。顯原陵,趙主石虎虛葬處。

Fanyang was near the southern mountains, including Zhongshan and Changshan. Murong Chui's party rode south through these mountain valleys to return.

Xianyuan Tomb was where Shi Hu had been falsely buried (since he was actually at Dongming Overlook).


世子令言於垂曰:「太傅忌賢疾能,構事以來,人尤忿恨。今鄴城之中,莫知尊處,如嬰兒之思母,夷、夏同之。若順眾心,襲其無備,取之如指掌耳。事定之後,革弊簡能,大匡朝政,以輔主上,安國存家,功之大者也。今日之便,誠不可失,願給騎數人,足以辦之。」垂曰:「如汝之謀,事成誠為大福,不成悔之何及!不如西奔,可以萬全。」子馬奴潛謀逃歸,殺之而行。至河陽,為津吏所禁,斬之而濟。遂自洛陽與段夫人、世子令、令弟寶、農、隆、兄子楷、舅蘭建、郎中令高弼俱奔秦,留妃可足渾氏於鄴。乙泉戌主吳歸追及於閺鄉,世子令擊之而退。

21. Then Murong Ling said to his father, "The Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) already envied the talented and despised the able. Since affairs have taken this turn, you will bear the full brunt of his hatred. Within Ye right now, no one has any regard for those currently in charge. Instead, they are all like little infants, longing for their lost mother. Both the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) feel the same way. If you appeal to the hearts of the multitude, and strike at once while the city is unprepared, then you may capture Ye as though it were already in the palm of your hand. Once you have Ye under your control, you can rid the city of fraud and abuse and make the state able again. The whole court will be in your hands, and you may act as regent for our young lord. The state will know peace and your family will be safe. That would be a very grand achievement indeed. But the time to act on that is this very day; you cannot let the opportunity slip away. If you simply entrust the job to a few riders, that will be enough to handle the whole business.”

Murong Chui said, "If I followed your plan, we would indeed reap a great fortune if things turn out well. But should we fail, how greatly would we regret it! I say it would be better to flee to the west, where we can definitely be secure." Another son, Murong Manu, insisted on going back to Ye, but Murong Chui killed him and then began marching west.

When the party reached Heyang, the ford there across the Yellow River was blocked, but they cut their way through and so crossed. Then they met up with several others at Luoyang: Murong Chui’s second wife Lady Duan, and his sons Murong Ling, Murong Bao, Murong Nong, and Murong Long, his nephew Murong Kai, his uncle Lan Jian, and his Prefect of Palace Attendants, Gao Bi. All of them fled to Qin, while Murong Chui’s concubine Lady Kezuhun was left behind in Ye. Yan’s commander of Yiquan Garrison, Wu Gui, sent troops to pursue them towards Minxiang. Murong Ling fought him off before falling back towards the others.

謂搆殺垂之謀也。段夫人,垂前妃之女弟。可足渾妃,可足渾太后之妹也,詳見一百卷穆帝升平二年。高弼,垂之國卿。乙泉戍,卽魏該所保乙泉塢也,在宜陽縣西南,洛水之北原上。閺鄕在弘農湖縣。閺,音旻。

Murong Ling referred to Murong Ping's plan to kill Murong Chui.

This Lady Duan was the younger sister of the Lady Duan who was Murong Chui's original wife. Concubine Kezuhun was the Empress Dowager's younger sister. The affair of how Murong Chui was forced to annul his marriage to the younger Lady Duan and take Concubine Kezuhun as a wife was related in Book 100 in Emperor Mu's second year of Shenping (358.17). Gao Bi was a minister of Murong Chui's princely fief.

Yiquan Garrison was the same place as the defensive outpost Yiquan Fortress, as it had been known under Cao-Wei. It was in the southwest of Yiyang County, in the plains north of the Luo River. Minxiang was in Hu County in Hongnong. 閺 is pronounced "min".


及敗桓溫於枋頭,威名大振。慕容評深忌惡之,乃謀誅垂。垂懼禍及己,與世子全奔於苻堅。(Jinshu 123.2)

After Murong Chui defeated Huan Wen at Fangtou, his martial reputation reached its zenith. Murong Ping deeply suspected and envied Murong Chui, and went so far as to plot to execute him. Murong Chui feared disaster and for himself, and he and his eldest son Murong Quan both fled to Fu Jian.


初,秦王堅聞太宰恪卒,陰有圖燕之志,憚垂威名,不敢發。及聞垂至,大喜,郊迎,執手曰:「天生賢傑,必相與共成大功,此自然之數也。要當與卿共定天下,告成岱宗,然後還卿本邦,世封幽州,使卿去國不失為子之孝,歸朕不失事君之忠,不亦美乎!」垂謝曰;「羈旅之臣,免罪為幸。本邦之榮,非所敢望!」堅復愛世子令及慕容楷之才,皆厚禮之,賞賜巨萬,每進見,屬目觀之。關中士民素聞垂父子名,皆向慕之。王猛言於堅曰:「慕容垂父子,譬如龍虎,非可馴之物,若借以風雲,將不可複製,不如早除之。」堅曰:「吾方收攬英雄以清四海,奈何殺之!且其始來,吾已推誠納之矣。匹夫猶不棄言,況萬乘乎!」乃以垂為冠軍將軍,封賓徒侯,楷為積弩將軍。

22. Several years before, when Fu Jian learned of Murong Ke's death, he held secret ambitions of attacking Yan, but because he feared Murong Chui's martial reputation, he did not dare to actually attack Yan. Now, when he heard that Murong Chui had come to Qin, he was overjoyed, and went to welcome him at the border, grasping his hand and saying, “You are an outstanding hero, blessed by Heaven with virtue and skill. Together, we shall certainly be able to accomplish the grand design, and how much stems from our meeting today? The two of us will settle all the realm together, and then we may report our great success on Daizong (Mount Tai). Afterwards, you may return to your homeland, where I will grant you all of Youzhou as a fief. I would send you back so that you could remain a filial son, just as you came to me in order to remain a loyal minister. Is that not also beautiful?"

Murong Chui gratefully replied, "I am a stranger in a strange land; it would be my good fortune merely to avoid committing any offense. I dare not hope for an honor so great as my homeland!"

Fu Jian also greatly appreciated the talents of Murong Ling and Murong Kai, and honored them with feasts and ceremonies, numerous awards, and brought them with him whenever he went on patrol, to take in everything in Qin. The people of Guanzhong had long heard of the famous Murong Chui and his sons, and all respected them.

Wang Meng said to Fu Jian, "Sheltering Murong Chui and his sons is like sheltering dragons and tigers: they cannot be tamed. In treating them well, you are only lending clouds to the dragon and wind to the tiger. There are certainly plotting to be up to no good. It would be better to be rid of them at once."

Fu Jian replied, "I have got a great hero known throughout the four seas within my grasp, and now you want me to kill him? He has only just arrived here, and yet look how sincerely I have treated him. I would not talk of getting rid of him even if he were only a common sort of fellow, much less such a hero!“ And he appointed Murong Chui as Champion General and Marquis of Bintu, and appointed Murong Kai as General of 積弩.

賓徒,漢縣名,屬遼西郡。

Bintu was a county name during Han. It was part of Liaoxi commandary.


自恪卒後,堅密有圖暐之謀,憚垂威名而未發。及聞其至,堅大悅,郊迎執手,禮之甚重。堅相王猛惡垂雄略,勸堅殺之。堅不從,以為冠軍將軍,封賓都侯,食華陰之五百戶。(Jinshu 123.3)

After Murong Ke's death, Fu Jian secretly plotted to conquer Murong Wei. But he feared Murong Chui's martial reputation, so he did not act on the plans. When Fu Jian heard that Murong Chui had come to him, he was greatly pleased. He came to welcome Murong Chui at the border, taking him by the hand, and treating him with exceptional ceremony. Fu Jian's chancellor Wang Meng suspected Murong Chui because of his heroism and his cunning, and he urged Fu Jian to kill Murong Chui. But Fu Jian refused, and he appointed Murong Chui as Champion General and Marquis of Bindu, and assigned him five hundred households of Huayin to support him.


燕魏尹范陽王德素與垂善,及車騎從事中郎高泰等,皆坐免官。尚書右丞申紹言於太傅評曰:「今吳王出奔,外口籍籍,宜征王僚屬之賢者顯進之,粗可消謗。」評曰:「誰可者?」紹曰:「高泰其領袖也。」乃以泰為尚書郎。泰,瞻之從子;紹,胤之子也。

23. Yan's Intendent of Wei, Murong De, had always held Murong Chui in high regard, and so had the Palace Attendant Assistant Officer to the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Gao Tai, and others. They all resigned their offices.

The Minister of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Shen Shao, said to the Grand Tutor Murong Ping, "Since the Prince of Wu fled, affairs without are in an uproar. You ought to select some worthy person among the Prince's former ministers and conspicuously promote him, so that he can be the target of slanders."

Murong Ping asked, "Who would be suitable?"

Shen Shao said, "Gao Tai is the best choice." So Gao Tai was appointed as Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. This Gao Tai was the son of Gao Zhan. This Shen Shao was the son (or older brother) of Shen Yin.

垂在燕爲車騎大將軍,以泰爲從事中郎。高瞻見九十一卷元帝太興二年。【章:十二行本「子」作「兄」;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】

Murong Chui had been Yan's Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, so Gao Tai was his former officer.

Gao Zhan was mentioned in Book 91, in Emperor Yuan's second year of Taixing (319).

Some versions record Shen Shao as the older brother of Shen Yin instead of his son.


秦留梁琛月餘,乃遣歸。琛兼程而進,比至鄴,吳王垂已奔秦。琛言於太傅評曰:「秦人日閱軍旅,多聚糧於陝東。以琛觀之,為和必不能久。今吳王又往歸之,秦必有窺燕之謀,宜早為之備。」評曰:「秦豈肯受叛臣而敗和好哉!」琛曰:「今二國分據中原,常有相吞之志。桓溫之入寇,彼以計相救,非愛燕也。若燕有釁,彼豈忘其本志哉!」評曰:「秦主何如人?」琛曰:「明而善斷。」問王猛,曰:「名不虛得。」評皆不以為然。琛又以告燕主暐,暐亦不然之。以告皇甫真,真深憂之,上疏言:「苻堅雖聘問相尋,然實有窺上國之心,非能慕樂德義,不忘久要也。前出兵洛川,及使者繼至,國之險易虛實,彼皆得之矣。今吳王垂又往從之,為其謀主;伍員之禍,不可不備。洛陽、太原、壺關,皆宜選將益兵,以防未然。」暐召太傅評謀之,評曰:「秦國小力弱,恃我為援;且苻堅庶幾善道,終不肯納叛臣之言,絕二國之好。不宜輕自驚擾以啟寇心。」卒不為備。

24. It was earlier mentioned that Yan had sent the envoy Liang Chen to Qin. They retained Liang Chen as an envoy for over a month, before sending him back. Liang Chen traveled back home at double standard. But when he arrived at Ye, Murong Chui had already fled.

謂行者以二驛爲程,若一程而行四驛,是兼程也。

"Double standard" here means that Liang Chen took every other post station as his standard. If we consider that the usual standard was every fourth post station, then this can be called "double standard".


Liang Chen said to Murong Ping, "Qin has been holding daily troop inspections, and storing ample grain east of Shancheng (near their eastern border). Based on what I have seen, peace cannot last for long. Furthermore, now the Prince of Wu had fled to them, and they are certainly planning to find out everything about Yan that they can. We had better prepare for them at once."

Murong Ping replied, "How can it be that Qin is willing to harbor a rebel minister and break the peace?"

Liang Chen said, "Currently our two sides divide the Central Plains, and both sides wish to swallow the other. When Huan Wen invaded, Qin planned to send aid, but not because they have any love for Yan. If any sort of quarrel breaks out in Yan, do you think that Qin will forget about their original intentions to conquer it?"

苻堅、王猛之爲謀,梁琛固已窺見之矣。

Liang Chen had already surmised Fu Jian's and Wang Meng's plan to conquer Yan.


Murong Ping asked, "What sort of man is the ruler of Qin?"

Liang Chen replied, "Perceptive and benevolent."

Murong Ping asked about Wang Meng, and Liang Chen replied, "As good as they claim."

But Murong Ping did not believe him. Liang Chen further spoke to Murong Wei, but he did not believe Liang Chen either.

Liang Chen then spoke to Huangfu Zhen, and Huangfu Zhen was greatly worried. He sent in a petition stating, "Although Fu Jian has sent us envoys asking after mutual division of territory, he is really trying to find out more about our state. We cannot simply trust in his good intentions or his virtue and benevolence, for this war will soon become a reality. When they sent us reinforcements before, and passed through the Luoyang region, they sent men to scout out all the strategic places, and they saw how empty we have left them. They will definitely plan to take those. And the Prince of Wu has fled, so he is surely planning to make himself ruler. We cannot allow him to become another Wu Yuan. Troops and officers should be sent at once to reinforce the defenses of Luoyang, Taiyuan, and Huguan."

謂苟池、鄧羌救燕時也。伍員去楚奔吳,借吳兵以報楚入郢,事見《左傳》。秦後伐燕之路,果如眞所料。杜佑曰:潞州上黨縣,漢爲壺關縣。

Huangfu Zhen refers to the soldiers that Gou Chi and Deng Qiang led to reinforce Yan during Huan Wen's invasion.

During the Warring States era, the Chu minister Wu Yuan, better known as Wu Zixu, fled from Chu and sought refuge in Wu. He borrowed the might of the Wu army to enter the Chu capital at Ying and avenge himself, as mentioned in the Zuo Commentary.

Qin's avenues of invasions against Yan were exactly as Huangfu Zhen predicted. Du You remarked, "Shangdang County in Luzhou was known during Han as Huguan County."


Murong Wei ordered Murong Ping to develop a plan of defense. Murong Ping said, "Qin is a small and weak state that relies upon us for their protection. Although Fu Jian may not have entirely good intentions, in the end, he will not heed the words of traitorous ministers and so destroy the good relations between our two states. There's no need to panic and provoke them." So he made no preparations against them.

言苻堅雖未能純以善道交鄰,猶庶幾焉。

He is saying that Fu Jian did not have purely good intentions, so he used the term "although".


秦遣黃門郎石越聘於燕,太傅評示之以奢,欲以誇燕之富盛。高泰及太傅參軍河間劉靖言於評曰:「越言誕而視遠,非求好也,乃觀釁也。宜耀兵以示之,用折其謀。今乃示之以奢,益為其所輕矣。」評不從。泰遂謝病歸。

25. Qin sent their Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Shi Yue, as envoy to Yan, and Murong Ping treated him lavishly, wishing to show off Yan's wealth and bounty. Gao Tai and the Advisor to the Grand Tutor, Liu Jing of Hejian, remonstrated with Murong Ping and said, "Shi Yue has come all this way not to keep good relations, but to see if we have any internal disputes. You should dazzle him with troop displays, so as to forestall any of Qin’s plans. But by showing off our wealth, you treat him lightly." Murong Ping did not heed them. Gao Tai pleaded illness and withdrew from court.

是時太后可足渾氏侵橈國政,太傅評貪昧無厭,貨賂上流,官非才舉,群下怨憤。尚書左丞申紹上疏,以為:「守宰者,致治之本。今之守宰,率非其人,或武人出於行伍,或貴戚生長綺紈,既非鄉曲之選,又不更朝廷之職。加之黜陟無法,貪惰者無刑罰之懼,清修者無旌賞之勸。是以百姓困弊,寇盜棄斥,綱頹紀紊,莫相糾攝。又官吏猥多,逾於前世,公私紛然,不勝煩擾。大燕戶口,數兼二寇,弓馬之勁,四方莫及;而比者戰則屢北,皆由守宰賦調不平,侵漁無已,行留俱窘,莫肯致命故也。後宮之女四千餘人,僮侍廝役尚在其外,一日之費,厥直萬金。士民承風,競為奢靡。彼秦、吳僭僻,猶能條治所部,有兼併之心,而我上下因循,日失其序。我之不修,彼之願也。謂宜精擇守宰,並官省職,存恤兵家,使公私兩遂,節抑浮靡,愛惜用度,賞必當功,罰必當罪。如此,則溫、猛可梟,二方可取,豈特保境安民而已哉!又,索頭什翼犍疲病昏悖,雖乏貢御,無能為患;而勞兵遠戌,有損無益。不若移於並土,控制西河,南堅壺關,北重晉陽,西寇來則拒守,過則斷後,猶愈於戌孤城守無用之地也。」疏奏,不省。

26. During this time, Empress Dowager Kezuhun began to intrude more into government affairs, and Murong Ping’s corruption grew even more open and shameless. Bribes were demanded from anyone sending in petitions, talentless officials were promoted, and the people grew angry.

The Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Shen Shao, sent in a memorial stating, “Those who protect the state's fortunes are charged with governing it. But those who currently have that duty are unsuitable for their positions, whether it is unworthy men being placed over the soldiers or official's relatives being dressed in fine silks and fabrics. This would be unacceptable even if it were taking place in some backwater, much less among the officials of the court itself. Furthermore, ministers are being arbitrarily demoted or removed from office. Those who are corrupt or lax have no fear of being punished for their crimes, while those who work hard have no prospect of recognition or reward. The people still suffer from heavy burdens, and since the invaders have only just been thrown back out of our land, confusion and disorder still reign, and no one dares get mixed up with anyone else. In addition, the demands of the ministers and clerks have become more and more numerous, and compared to before, they have more often mixed public and private business together. The people cannot endure these disturbances.

“The population of Yan is several times greater than either of the two threats we face, and our bows and horses are second to none. Yet those who fought against the invaders recently were not rewarded equally by the people entrusted with our state's fortunes: they took all they wanted by force, while those who were ignored were left in dire straits, and no one was satisfied with what had been ordered. Now the rear palaces are filled with more than four thousand women, and the palace servants are rewarded for their service more than those far afield. In a single day, more than ten thousand jin is spent, and the gentry vie with one another to see who can be the most extravagant and wasteful. Meanwhile, even while Qin and Wu are in more isolated places than us, they still act to reform their policies, and both of them wish to increase what they have, while we lose more and more by the day, since everyone from top to bottom follows this trend. Our lack of reform is exactly what the other sides want. We must choose the best guardians to guide our state, combine offices and eliminate needless positions, give comfort and aid to the families of our soldiers, make clear the division between public and private affairs, restrain spending and curb expenditures, and show real appreciation for the systems we use by ensuring that those who achieve merit are rewarded while those who commit offenses are punished.

“If we do that, then no matter how capable Huan Wen or Wang Meng are, we will even be able to capture both of their states for ourselves, nevermind just ensuring the safety of our own territory and people! As for that braid-head Tuoba Shiyijian, he is a doddering codger by now. Though he pays us tribute to keep us away, and is incapable of posing a threat to us, it would trouble the soldiers to march so far to get at him; we would suffer much and gain little by it. It would be better for us to relocate the people who are currently in Bingzhou (on the border with Dai) to places where we could have them guard the region west of the Yellow River. In the south, they can defend Huguan, and in the north, they can guard Jinyang. When the western invaders come to attack us, these people can guard against them, and after the invaders pass by, they can emerge to cut off their rear. That would be a far better plan than to leave people in isolated cities in useless territory.”

Many memorials and petitions were sent in to that effect, but to no avail.

謂秦僭號而吳僻在一隅也。蕭子顯曰:鮮卑被髮左衽,故呼爲索頭。燕戍雲中以備代。

Shen Shao is referring to how Qin claims the imperial title while Wu (Eastern Jin) remains secluded in their territory.

Xiao Zixian remarked, "The Xianbei placed their hair on the left side of the front of their clothes, and so they were often called Suotou or 'braid-head'."

Yan had a garrison at Yunzhong to guard against Dai.


辛丑,丞相昱與大司馬溫會塗中,以謀後舉;以溫世子熙為豫州刺史、假節。

27. On the day Xinchou (January 8th), Jin’s Prime Minister, Sima Yu, and Huan Wen met at Chuzhong, developing plans for who should receive appointments. Huan Wen's eldest son, Huan Xi, was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou and Credential Holder.

楊正衡曰:涂,音除。涂中,今滁州全椒縣、眞州六合縣地。

Yang Zhengheng remarked, "涂 is pronounced 'chu'. Chuzhong covered the territory which is now split between Quanjiao County and Liuhe County in Chuzhou in our time.”


初,燕人許割虎牢以西賂秦。晉兵既退,燕人悔之,謂秦人曰:「行人失辭。有國有家者,分災救患,理之常也。」秦王堅大怒,遣輔國將軍王猛、建威將軍梁成、洛州刺史鄧羌帥步騎三萬伐燕。十二月,進攻洛陽。

28. Originally, Yan had agreed to hand over the territory west of Hulao (the Luoyang region) to Qin as reward for their help against Huan Wen. But after the Jin invasion had subsided, Yan regretted this decision, and they said to Qin, "The messenger we sent before misspoke. We have our state and our families, and to divide them invites calamity. That has long been a principle." Fu Jian was enraged, and he sent the General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, the General Who Establishes Valor, Liang Cheng, and the Inspector of Sizhou, Deng Qiang, with thirty thousand horse and foot to invade Yan. In the twelfth month, they advanced and attacked Luoyang.

謂使者許割地爲失辭也。《考異》曰:《燕少帝紀》,此年十二月,王猛攻洛,明年正月,拔洛。《十六國‧秦春秋》,十一月,王猛伐燕,遺慕容紀書,紀請降;十二月,猛受降而歸。今按《獻莊紀》云,慕容令之奔還鄴,建熙元年二月也,時王猛猶在洛。又猛遺紀書云:「去年桓溫起師。」故從《燕書》。

They are saying that the messenger who agreed to divide the territory misspoke.

Sima Guang commented in the Textual Analysis, "According to the Record of the Young Emperor of Yan (presumably in the Book of Yan), in the twelfth month of this year, Wang Meng attacked Luoyang, and in the first month of the following year, he took it. According to the Annals of Qin in the Sixteen Kingdoms, in the eleventh month, Wang Meng invaded Yan, and sent a letter to Murong Ji at Luoyang, demanding his surrender; in the twelfth month, Wang Meng received Murong Ji's surrender and returned. Now according to the 獻莊紀, when Murong Ling fled back to Ye (as part of Wang Meng’s plot, mentioned below), that was in the second month of the first year of Jianxi, when Wang Meng was still at Luoyang. And in Wang Meng's letter to Murong Ji he said, ‘Huan Wen invaded you last year’. So I follow the account in the Book of Yan."


大司馬溫發徐、兗州民築廣陵城,徙鎮之。時征役既頻,加之疫癘,死者什四五,百姓嗟怨。秘書監太原孫盛作《晉春秋》,直書時事;大司馬溫見之,怒,謂盛子曰:「枋頭誠為失利,何至乃如尊君所言!若此史遂行,自是關君門戶事!」其子遽拜謝,請改之。時盛年老家居,性方嚴,有軌度,子孫雖斑白,待之愈峻。至是諸子乃共號泣稽顙,請為百口切計。盛大怒,不許,諸子遂私改之。盛先已寫別本,傳之外國。及孝武帝購求異書,得之於遼東人,與見本不同,遂兩存之。

29. Huan Wen compelled the people of Xuzhou and Yanzhou to construct a fortress at Guangling, and to move there to defend it. At that time, there were frequent such demands of military and corvee service, and four or five of every ten people perished. The common people were greatly sorrowful.

The Custodian of the Private Library, Sun Sheng of Taiyuan, composed his “Annals of Jin", recording the events of that time. When Huan Wen saw it, he became angry, and said to Sun Sheng's son, "It may be true that I gained nothing at Fangtou, but how can your father go so far as to say such things? If he distributes this history, that will be the end of your family’s career!" Sun Sheng's son then paid a visit to his father, and asked him to change what he had written. But at that time Sun Sheng was old and already retired at his residence. He was of a stern temperament, and not inclined to turn away from his chosen path. Even though his sons and grandsons had grown old and grey, he still treated them severely. Although all his sons kowtowed before him with tears in their eyes, asking him to make the changes on their behalf, he angrily refused. They therefore made the changes to his writings on their own. However, Sun Sheng had already made another copy of his original text, which he sent out to the other states. Later on, Emperor Xiaowu tried to buy up all the copies of the book, but it had already reached as far as Liaodong, so that people could see the differences between the two versions, and both copies remained in circulation.

【章:十二行本「孫」上有「太原」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】漢桓帝置祕書監;晉武帝以祕書併中書省;惠帝復置祕書監,其屬有丞、有郎,幷統著作省。晉人於人子之前稱其父爲尊君、尊公。言欲滅其門也。史言桓溫雖以威逼改孫盛之書,終不能沒其實。

Some versions identify Sun Sheng as being "of Taiyuan".

Emperor Huan of Han had created the office of Custodian of the Private Library. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) had combined the Custodian with the office of Secretariat Supervisor. Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) had created the Custodian office again, and also assigned to it Ministers and Gentlemen as subordinate offices. All of them oversaw the Collected Works.

People in Jin would address a man's father in the third person as 尊君 or 尊公.

Huan Wen means to say that their family would be extinguished.

The text means that although Huan Wen tried mightily to censor Sun Sheng's work, in the end he was not able to erase its existence.

BOOK 102

Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 11, 2017 8:42 pm
by Taishi Ci 2.0
太和五年(庚午,公元三七零年)

The Fifth Year of Taihe (The Gengwu Year, 370 AD)


春,正月,己亥,袁真以梁國內史沛郡朱憲及弟汝南內史斌陰通大司馬溫,殺之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jihai (March 7th), the rebel general Yuan Zhen sent his Interior Minister of Liang, Zhu Xian of Pei, and his younger brother, the Interior Minister of Runan, Zhu Bin, to secretly meet with Huan Wen, but Huan Wen killed them.

斌,音彬。

斌 is pronounced "bin".


秦王猛遺燕荊州刺史武威王築書曰:「國家今已塞成皋之險,杜盟津之路,大駕虎旅百萬,自軹關取鄴都,金墉窮戍,外無救援,城下之師,將軍所監,豈三百弊卒所能支也!」築懼,以洛陽降,猛陳師受之。燕衛大將軍樂安王臧城新樂,破秦兵於石門,執秦將楊猛。

2. Wang Meng was still besieging Luoyang. He sent a letter to Yan's Inspector of Jingzhou and Prince of Wuwei, Murong Zhu, stating, "We have already cut off the routes to Chenggao and Dumeng Ford. While your ferocious soldiers lingered here, we already sent troops to capture Ye. You cannot hold out at Jinyong any longer, and there is no prospect of reinforcements for you. General, you have the lives of everyone in the city in your hands. How can it be that you will let them all come to harm?" Murong Zhu was afraid, and he surrendered Luoyang, which Wang Meng led his troops into the city to accept.

Yan's Grand Guard General, Murong Zang, guarded Xinle. He defeated a Qin army at Shimen, and captured the Qin general Yang Meng.

燕荊州治洛陽。石門在滎陽;新樂亦當在滎陽界。宋白曰:衞州新鄕縣治古新樂城。新樂城,十六國時,燕將樂安王臧所築。

Yan administered Jingzhou from Luoyang.

Shimen was at Xingyang. Xinle was also within the borders of Xingyang. Song Bai remarked, "The old city of Xinle is governed by Xinxiang County in Weizhou. Xinle was from the Sixteen Kingdoms era, when the Yan general and Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, built it."


王猛之發長安也,請慕容令參其軍事,以為鄉導。將行,造慕容垂飲酒,從容謂垂曰:「今當遠別,卿何以贈我,使我睹物思人?」垂脫佩刀贈之。猛至洛陽,賂垂所親金熙,使詐為垂使者,謂令曰:「吾父子來此,以逃死也。今王猛疾人如仇,讒毀日深;秦王雖外相厚善,其心難知。丈夫逃死而卒不免,將為天下笑。吾聞東朝比來始更悔悟,主、後相尤。吾今還東,故遣告汝;吾已行矣,便可速發。」令疑之,躊躇終日,又不可審覆。乃將舊騎,詐為出獵,遂奔樂安王臧於石門。猛表令叛狀,垂懼而出走,及藍田,為追騎所獲。秦王堅引見東堂,勞之曰:「卿家國失和,委身投朕。賢子心不忘本,猶懷首丘,亦各其志,不足深咎。然燕之將亡,非令所能存,惜其徒入虎口耳。且父子兄弟,罪不相及,卿何為過懼而狼狽如是乎!」待之如舊。燕人以令叛而復還,其父為秦所厚,疑令為反間,徙之沙城,在龍都東北六百裡。

3. When Wang Meng had left Chang'an, he had brought Murong Ling with him as an advisor, believing he could help serve as a guide. Before leaving, Wang Meng had a drink with Murong Chui, and leisurely said to him, "I will be a long ways from you; what would you like to give me, to serve as a reminder of you?" Murong Chui unbuckled his sword from his waist and gave it to Wang Meng.

When Wang Meng reached Luoyang, he bribed Murong Chui's attendant Jin Xi, and had him falsely act as a messenger from Murong Chui. Jin Xi conveyed this false message (presumably along with the sword) to Murong Ling from his father: "All of us fled to Qin only to escape death. But now Wang Meng holds a grudge against us, and slanders our reputation more each day. Although the Heavenly Prince of Qin seems benevolent on the outside, it is difficult to know what lies in his heart. Even though it is true that I was able to escape death, now I have only become the laughingstock of all the realm. I have heard that the Yan court has come to regret what happened, and our lord and the Empress Dowager regret it most of all. So now I wish to go back east again, and I have sent this message to inform you as well. By now I have already left, so you should hurry on."

Murong Ling was at first doubtful, and hesitated for several days, but in the end could not go against it. So he saddled up his old horse, pretending he was going out hunting, and fled to Murong Zang at Shimen.

謂燕主暐及可足渾后也。舊騎,自燕奔秦所從者。

The message refers to Murong Wei and Empress Dowager Kezuhun.

The old horse Murong Ling took was the one which he had ridden when he fled from Yan to Qin.


Wang Meng declared Murong Ling a traitor. Murong Chui, in a panic, tried to flee as well, but when he reached Lantian, pursuit troops overtook him and captured him. Fu Jian met with him in the Eastern Hall, and told him, “There was discord in your clan, and that is why you were cast out and came to me. But your worthy son could not forget where he came from, and he still yearned for his homeland. Everyone has their own desires, and this is no grave fault. Yet Yan will soon be destroyed. Your son disobeyed orders so that he could live, and what a pity that now he has thrown himself into the tiger's maw. But crimes do not extend between brother and brother or between father and son. What need did you have to fear that you were cornered like a wolf?” And so he treated Murong Chui just as before.

Although Murong Ling had rebelled and then had returned to Yan, since his father was still treated well in Qin, Yan wondered whether or not Murong Ling had only been sent to plot against them from within. So he was sent away to Shacheng, which was six hundred li northeast of Longdu.

《禮記‧檀弓》曰:太公封於齊,五世皆反葬於周。君子曰:樂樂其所自生,禮不忘其本。古之人有言曰:「狐死正丘首,仁也。」晉臼季薦冀缺於晉文公,公曰:「其父有罪,可乎?」對曰:「舜之罪也,殛鯀;其舉也,興禹。」《康誥》曰:父不慈,子不祗,兄不友,弟不共,不相及也。狼,進則跋其胡,退則疐其尾。狽,狼屬也。生子,欠一足。二者相附而後能行,故世謂進退不可而不能行者爲狼狽。沙城,在沙野。龍都,卽龍城。

Concerning Murong Ling's yearning for home, the Tan Gong section of the Book of Rites states, "Tai-gong was invested with his fief of Qi, but for five generations (his descendants, the marquises of Qi) were all taken back and buried in Zhou. A superior man has said, 'For music, we use that of him from whom we sprang; in ceremonies, we do not forget him to whom we trace our root.' The ancients had a saying, that a fox, when dying, points its head in the direction of the mound (where it was whelped); manifesting thereby (how it shares in the feeling of) humanity." (Tan Gong Part 1 #27)

It is mentioned in the Zuo Commentary (Duke Xi, 33.8) that in the ancient state of Jin, Ji of Jiu (Xu Chen) recommended Ji Que to Duke Wen of Jin. Duke Wen asked, "Considering that Ji Que's father tried to murder me, can I really give his son office?" The reply was, "The one whom Shun punished was Gun, but the one whom Shun raised to the imperial dignity was Gun's son Yu. In the Announcement to the Prince of Kang it is said, 'The father who is devoid of affection, and the son who is devoid of reverence; the elder brother who is unkind, and the younger who is disrespectful,' are all to be punished, but not one for the offense of the other."

When a wolf rushes forward, it stumbles over its beard, and when it darts away, it trips over its own tail. A 狽 bei is a kind of wolf. When one is born, it is not enough to use one foot. One must use both feet together in order to move forward. So 狼狽 was an expression to mean someone who can neither go forward nor backwards, and had no way to escape.

Shacheng was in Shaye. Longdu was another name for Longcheng, since it used to be the Yan capital.


王猛伐洛,引全為參軍。猛乃令人詭傳垂語于全曰:「吾已東還,汝可為計也。」全信之,乃奔暐。猛表全叛狀,垂懼而東奔,及藍田,為追騎所獲。堅引見東堂,慰勉之曰:「卿家國失和,委身投朕。賢子志不忘本,猶懷首丘。《書》不云乎:「父父子子,無相及也。」卿何為過懼而狼狽若斯也!」於是復垂爵位,恩待如初。(Jinshu 123.3)

When Wang Meng campaigned against Luoyang, he brought Murong Quan along as an advisor. Wang Meng then had a servant bring a false message to Murong Quan from Murong Chui, saying, "I have already returned east, and you ought to follow the same course." Murong Quan believed the message, so he fled to Murong Wei.

Wang Meng then sent in a petition charging Murong Quan as a traitor. Murong Chui became afraid and fled east, but he was overtaken by pursuit troops at Lantian and brought back to Qin. Fu Jian brought him to the Eastern Hall to see him, and he comforted and encouraged Murong Chui. Fu Jian said, "Your family and state suffered from discord, and that is why you threw yourself on my mercy. Your worthy son could not forget where he came from, and he cherished his old den in his heart. But does the Book of Documents not say, 'Fathers and sons are not charged for the faults of each other'? What need did you have to fear that you too were trapped?" And he restored Murong Chui to his old positions, and treated him with all the same grace as before.


臣光曰:昔周得微子而革商命,秦得由余而霸西戎,吳得伍員而克強楚,漢得陳平而誅項籍,魏得許攸而破袁紹。彼敵國之材臣,來為己用,進取之良資也。王猛知慕容垂之心久而難信,獨不念燕尚未滅,垂以材高功盛,無罪見疑,窮困歸秦,未有異心,遽以猜忌殺之,是助燕為無道而塞來者之門也,如何其可哉!故秦王堅禮以收燕望,親之以盡燕情,寵之以傾燕眾,信之以結燕心,未為過矣。猛何汲汲於殺垂,至乃為市井鬻賣之行,有如嫉其寵而讒之者,豈雅德君子所宜為哉!

4. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: At the end of the Yin (Shang) dynasty, Weizi rebelled against Yin’s orders. In the age of Duke Mu of Qin, You Yu’s defection led to the conquest of the Western Rong. In King Helü of Wu’s day, Wu Yuan’s (Wu Zixu's) flight led to Chu’s defeat. During the rise of Han, Chen Ping defected from and then helped to kill Xiang Ji (Xiang Yu). In the early days of Wei, Xu You’s defection led to the rout of Yuan Shao. When it comes to talented ministers of enemy states, it is helpful enough for them to leave their lords, and even more of a benefit to acquire them yourself.

Wang Meng knew of Murong Chui's heart and yet did not trust him, nor seek his aid to bring about Yan's downfall. Murong Chui was an officer of immense renown and talents, and had done nothing to arouse suspicion, but had earnestly fled to Qin in his adversity. Wang Meng had no cause to suspect him, and yet out of his paranoia he tried to arrange his death. Such a thing would have only helped Yan to no benefit, and deterred others from seeking refuge with Qin, and for what purpose?

Fu Jian had extended himself to gather Yan officers, personally worked to assuage their feelings, favored those working for Yan, and instilled good trust with them. Yet a thing like this came about. Why was Wang Meng so anxious to kill Murong Chui, even so far as to purchase his death with filthy lucre? Was he so jealous of the favor shown to Murong Chui that he slandered him? Is this how a virtuous gentleman is meant to act?

殷紂暴虐日甚,微子抱祭器而奔周。武王乃告諸侯曰:「殷有重罪,不可不伐。」遂伐紂,殺之,而革殷命。《史記》:戎使由余使於秦,繆公留由余而遺戎王女樂,戎王受而說之,繆公乃歸由余。由余數諫不聽,繆公使人間要由余,由余遂降秦。繆公問以伐戎之形,幷國十二,開地千里,遂霸西戎。楚殺伍奢,其子員奔吳,吳王闔閭用其謀而伐楚,破楚入郢。事見九卷漢高帝二年至四年。事見六十三卷漢獻帝建安五年。

King Zhou of Yin (Shang) became more and more cruel by the day. His brother Weizi cast away his sacrificial utensils and fled to Zhou. King Wu of Zhou then told his nobles, "Yin (Shang) bears a heavy crime. We are compelled to campaign against them." So he attacked King Zhou, and killed him. This was the reference for "rebelled against Yin's orders".

It is mentioned in the Records of the Grand Historian that the Western Rong sent You Yu as a messenger to Qin. Duke Mu of Qin retained You Yu for a time, in the meantime sending back to the Rong some royal song-girls, which the King of the Rong was happy to accept. Only then did Duke Mu send You Yu back as well. You Yu remonstrated with the King several times, but to no avail. Duke Mu then sent someone to demand You Yu, and You Yu submitted to Qin. Duke Mu asked You Yu how he might campaign against the Rong, and You Yu described to him their twelve states and the lay of their thousand li of land. Thus was Duke Mu able to conquer the Rong.

The state of Chu killed Wu She. His son Wu Yuan, or Wu Zixu, fled to their neighbor Wu, where King Helü used him to plot against Chu. The Wu army later routed Chu's army, and occupied their capital Ying.

Chen Ping's service under Han is mentioned in Book 9, in the second through fourth years of Emperor Gao's (Liu Bang) reign (205-3 BC).

Xu You's defection from Yuan Shao is mentioned in Book 63, in Emperor Xian of Han's fifth year of Jian'an (200).


This last incident is covered in 200.AA in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace.


樂安王臧進屯滎陽,王猛遣建威將軍梁成、洛州刺史鄧羌擊走之;留羌鎮金墉,以輔國司馬桓寅為弘農太守,代羌戍陝城而還。

5. Murong Zang advanced to camp at Xingyang. Wang Meng sent the General Who Establishes Might, Liang Cheng, and the Inspector of Luozhou, Deng Qiang, to attack him, and they drove him off. Deng Qiang remained behind to defend Jinyong, while the Marshal Who Upholds The State, Huan Yin, was appointed as Administrator of Hongnong, and went back to guard Shancheng in Deng Qiang's place.

猛爲輔國將軍,以寅爲司馬。秦初以洛州刺史鎭陝;今鄧羌旣進金屯金墉,故以桓寅代戍陝。

Wang Meng was still General Who Upholds The State, so Huan Yin was his direct subordinate as Marshal.

Up until now, Qin had governed Luozhou from Shancheng. Since the Inspector, Deng Qiang, had now advanced to camp at Jinyong, this was why Huan Yin took over for him in guarding Shancheng.


秦王堅以王猛為司徒,錄尚書事,封平陽郡侯。猛固辭曰:「今燕、吳未平,戎車方駕,而始得一城,即受三事之賞,若克殄二寇,將何以加之!」堅曰:「苟不暫抑朕心,何以顯卿謙光之美!已詔有司權聽所守;封爵酬庸,其勉從朕命!」

6. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Minister Over The Masses and Marquis of Pingyang, with authority over the imperial secretariat. But Wang Meng declined these appointments, saying, "Yan and Wu have not yet been pacified, and you are putting the cart before the horse. I have merely taken a single city, and yet you offer me these three things as a reward for it. Wait until we can overcome these two threats first, then it will be time to talk about promotions!"

Fu Jian replied, “Do you then trample on my heart, just to glorify your own modesty? I have already commanded the ministers to heed you in everything. Even in granting fiefs and conveying awards, you must strive to follow my orders!”

三事,三公也。

By the three things, Wang Meng meant the Three Excellencies (of which the Minister Over The Masses was one).


二月,癸酉,袁真卒。陳郡太守朱輔立真子瑾為建威將軍,豫州刺史,以保壽春,遣其子乾之及司馬爨亮如鄴請命。燕人以瑾為揚州刺史,輔為荊州刺史。

7. In the second month, on the day Guiyou (April 10th), the rebel general Yuan Zhen died. The Administrator of Chen, Zhu Fu, raised Yuan Zhen's son Yuan Qin as the new General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Yuzhou, leaving him to guard Shouchun, while he sent another son, Yuan Ganzhi, and the Marshal Cuan Liang to Ye to ask for aid. Yan recognized Yuan Qin as Inspector of Yuzhou, and Zhu Fu as Inspector of Yangzhou.

瑾,渠吝翻。

瑾 is pronounced "qin (q-in)".


三月,秦王堅以吏部尚書權翼為尚書右僕射。夏,四月,復以王猛為司徒,錄尚書事;猛固辭,乃止。

8. In the third month, Fu Jian appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Quan Yi, as Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing.

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian again tried to appoint Wang Meng as Minister Over The Masses and grant him authority over the imperial secretariat, but Wang Meng continued to decline, so Fu Jian gave up on the attempt.

燕、秦皆遣兵助袁瑾,大司馬溫遣督護竺瑤等御之。燕兵先至,瑤等與戰於武丘,破之。南頓太守桓石虔克其南城。石虔,溫之弟子也。

9. Yan and Qin both sent troops to aid Yuan Qin. Huan Wen sent his Protector Zhu Yao and others to block them. Of the two relief armies, the Yan soldiers arrived first; Zhu Yao and the others fought them at Wuqiu, and routed them. Jin's Administrator of Nandun, Huan Shiqian, then took the southern city. This Huan Shiqian was Huan Wen's nephew.

武丘,卽丘頭,文王平諸葛誕,改曰武丘,以旌武功。杜佑曰:丘頭卽潁州沈丘縣。惠帝分汝南,立南頓郡。南城,壽春南城也。

Wuqiu was originally called Qiutou. When Prince Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) put down Zhuge Dan's rebellion, he renamed the place to Wuqiu, to celebrate his martial (武 Wu) achievement. Du You remarked, "Wuqiu is in Chenqiu County in Yingzhou."

Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) divided Runan, and formed Nandun commandary from part of it. The "southern city" means the southern city of Shouchun.


秦王堅復遣王猛督鎮南將軍楊安等十將步騎六萬以伐燕。

10. Fu Jian sent reinforcements to Wang Meng, sixty thousand horse and foot under General Who Guards The South, Yang An, and nine other generals, to continue the campaign against Yan.

慕容令自度終不得免,密謀起兵,沙城中謫戍士數千人,令皆厚撫之。五月,庚午,令殺牙門孟媯。城大涉圭懼,請自效。令信之,引置左右。遂帥謫戍士東襲威德城,殺城郎慕容倉,據城部署,遣人招東西諸戍,翕然皆應之。鎮東將軍勃海王亮鎮龍城,令將襲之;其弟麟以告亮,亮閉城拒守。癸酉,涉圭因侍直擊令,令單馬走,其黨皆潰。涉圭追令至薛黎澤,擒而殺之,詣龍城白亮。亮為之誅涉圭,收令屍而葬之。

11. Murong Ling, unable to escape his situation in exile, secretly made plans to start an uprising. He built up support among many thousands of exiles in Shacheng, and treated them all well.

In the fifth month, on the day Gengwu (?), Murong Ling killed Meng Gui of Yanmen. The city chief She Gui was greatly afraid, and asked to join him. Murong Ling trusted She Gui, and made him one of his personal attendants. He sent his followers east to attack Weide, and killed the City Gentleman there, Murong Cang. Murong Ling then sent the people of that city to many places east and west, among the various army camps, and all of them went over to him.

The General Who Guards The East and Prince of Bohai, Murong Liang, was guarding Longcheng. Murong Ling planned to attack it. However, his younger brother Murong Lin informed Murong Liang, and so Murong Liang closed the gates of the city and held fast.

On the day Guiyou (?), She Gui turned on Murong Ling and attacked him. Murong Ling fled alone on horseback, while all his followers dispersed. She Gui pursued Murong Ling to Xueli Marsh, where he captured and killed him, and then went to Longcheng to report the deed to Murong Liang. Murong Liang executed She Gui, and then had Murong Ling's body collected and buried.

《姓譜》:涉,姓也。《左傳》晉有大夫涉佗。嬀,居爲翻。令引涉圭置左右,故得因侍直而擊之。

The Registry of Surnames states, "涉 She is a surname. The Zuo Commentary mentions that the state of Jin had a 'Master She Tuo'. (Duke Ding)" 嬀 is pronounced "gui (j-ei)".

Murong Ling had only made She Gui one of his personal attendants, and this was why She Gui was dissatisfied and attacked him.


六月,乙卯,秦王堅送王猛於灞上,曰:「今委卿以關東之任,當先破壺關,平上黨,長驅取鄴,所謂『疾雷不及掩耳』。吾當親督萬眾,繼卿星發,舟車糧運,水陸俱進,卿勿以為後慮也。」猛曰:「臣杖威靈,奉成算,蕩平殘胡,如風掃葉,願不煩鑾輿親犯塵霧,但願速敕所司部置鮮卑之所。」堅大悅。

12. In the sixth month, on the day Yimao (July 21st), Fu Jian sent for Wang Meng to meet him at Bashang. He said to Wang Meng, "You will be my agent in Guandong. First break through Huguan, pacify Shangdang, then push quickly against Ye, for they say 'one cannot cover their ears before the thunder roars’. I will personally oversee affairs in the rear, and follow behind in your wake. I will keep you supplied by carts and boats, and advance by land and sea, so that you may fall upon the enemy suddenly."

Wang Meng replied, "I shall wield your authority, and so bring you a victory. I shall clear out these savage barbarians like the autumn wind blows aside the leaves, so that you may drive your carriage through without even the dust to offend you. However, you must quickly order all the Xianbei under your authority." Fu Jian was greatly pleased.

魏收曰:秦置上黨郡,治壺關城,前漢治長子城,董卓治壺關城,慕容氏治安民城,後遷壺關城。《淮南子》之言。星發,謂戴星而發行也。言預爲治舍,以待其至。

The Book of Northern Wei states, "The Qin dynasty formed Shangdang commandary, which was administered from Huguan. During Former Han, it was administered from Zhangzi. Dong Zhuo changed it back to Huguan. Under the Murong clan, it was administered from Anmin, and afterwards it was moved to Huguan again."

Fu Jian quotes a saying from the Writings of the Masters of Huainan.

Wang Meng meant that Fu Jian needed to bring the Xianbei under control.


秋,七月,癸酉朔,日有食之。

13. In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Guiyou (August 8th), there was an eclipse.

秦王猛攻壺關,楊安攻晉陽。八月,燕主暐命太傅上庸王評將中外精兵三十萬以拒秦。暐以秦寇為憂,召散騎侍郎李鳳、黃門侍郎梁琛、中書侍郎樂嵩問曰:「秦兵眾寡何如?今大軍既出,秦能戰乎?」鳳曰:「秦國小兵弱,非王師之敵;景略常才,又非太傅之比,不足憂也。」琛、嵩曰:「勝敗在謀,不在眾寡。秦遠來為寇,安肯不戰!且吾當用謀以求勝,豈可冀其不戰而已乎!」暐不悅。王猛克壺關,執上黨太守南安王越,所過郡縣,皆望風降附,燕人大震。

14. Wang Meng attacked Huguan, while Yang An attacked Jinyang. In the eighth month, Murong Wei ordered the Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, to lead an army of three hundred thousand elite soldiers to oppose Qin.

《考異》曰:《載記》云「四十萬」,今從《晉春秋》。

Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Chronicles of the Book of Jin say that Murong Ping's army was four hundred thousand, but I follow the account of the Annals of Jin."


苻堅又使王猛、楊安率眾伐暐,猛攻壺關,安攻晉陽。暐使慕容評等率中外精卒四十餘萬距之。(Jinshu 111.24)

Fu Jian then sent Wang Meng and Yan An to lead troops to attack Murong Wei. Wang Meng attacked Huguan, and Yang An attacked Jinyang. Murong Wei sent Murong Ping and others to lead more than four hundred thousand elite soldiers to oppose them.


Murong Wei was concerned about Qin’s invasion, so he summoned the Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, Li Feng, the Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Liang Chen, and the Gentleman Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Yue Song, to ask them: "What are the Qin soldiers like? Our army has marched to oppose them; will Qin actually offer battle?"

Li Feng answered, "Qin is a small state with weak soldiers; they cannot stand up to our army. Jinglüe (Wang Meng) has only ordinary talent, and cannot compare with the Grand Tutor. There is no cause for concern."

But Liang Chen and Yue Song replied, "When determining victory or defeat, numbers are not important. The Qin soldiers have come a long way and are hungry for battle, and how could they turn it down? We ought to be coming up with a plan for victory, not simply hoping that the Qin army will not offer battle!" Murong Wei was not pleased.

Wang Meng took Huguan, and captured the Administrator of Shangdang and Prince of Nan’an, Murong Yue. As he advanced, the counties and commandaries he passed through all surrendered to him, and Yan was greatly afraid.

黃門侍郎封孚問司徒長史申胤曰:「事將何如?」胤歎曰:「鄴必亡矣,吾屬今茲將為秦虜。然越得歲而吳伐之,卒受其禍。今福德在燕,秦雖得志,而燕之復建,不過一紀耳。」

15. Yan's Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Feng Fu, asked the Chief Clerk to the Minister Over The Masses, Shen Yin, "What will happen now?"

Shen Yin replied, "Ye will certainly fall, and we shall all be taken captive by Qin. But remember that Yue had the Year Star (Jupiter) over it when Wu conquered it, and that led to Wu’s calamity. Fortune and virtue are on the side of Yan, and although Qin may temporarily achieve their ambition, Yan will rise again, less than a generation from now."

《左傳》:昭三十二年,吳伐越。史墨曰:「不及四十年,越其有吳乎!越得歲而吳伐之,必受其凶。」杜預《註》曰︰此年歲在星紀,星紀,吳、越之分也。歲星所在,其國有福,吳先用兵,故反受其殃。福德在燕,亦謂歲星在燕分也。後苻堅所謂「昔吾滅燕,亦犯歲而捷」是也。爲後燕復興張本。

According to the Zuo Commentary, in the thirty-second year of Duke Zhao, Wu conquered Yue. The historiographer Mo said, "In less than forty years, Yue is likely to have possession of Wu! The year is now in Yue's quarter of the heavens, and Wu, invading that State, is sure to experience an evil influence from it." Du Yu remarked in his Notes, "This 'year' means the 'Year Star' (Jupiter). It was divided between Wu and Yue then. Whichever state the Year Star hangs over, that state is bound to have good fortune. Wu attacked Yue while Yue had the Year Star, and so it acted contrary to nature and suffered misfortune later on."

When Shen Yin mentions "fortune and virtue", he also means that the Year Star was hanging over Yan during this time. When Fu Jian later says, "When I conquered Yan, I also violated the Year Star, but we were still triumphant", he refers to this concept (Book 104, 382.13).

This was the reason for the rise of Later Yan.


大司馬溫自廣陵帥眾二萬討袁瑾;以襄城太守劉波為淮南內史,將五千人鎮石頭。波,隗之孫也。癸丑,溫敗瑾於壽春,遂圍之。燕左衛將軍孟高將騎兵救瑾,至淮北,未渡,會秦伐燕,燕召高還。

16. Huan Wen marched from Guangling with twenty thousand soldiers against Yuan Qin. He appointed the Administrator of Xiangcheng, Liu Bo, as Interior Minister of Huainan, and ordered him to guard Shitou with five thousand men. This Liu Bo was the grandson of Liu Kui.

On the day Guichou (September 17th), Huan Wen defeated Yuan Qin at Shouchun, and put it under siege. Yan's Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, advanced with cavalry troops to aid Yuan Qin. When he reached the north bank of the Huai, he was preparing to cross it, but by then Qin's invasion of Yan had resumed, and he was ordered to return.

元帝之末,劉隗避王敦之難,因北奔于後趙。

After the death of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui), Liu Kui had suffered defeat during Wang Dun's revolt, and he fled north to Later Zhao.


(This was the same Liu Kui who was killed during Shi Sheng's rebellion, in Book 95, 333.14.)


廣漢妖賊李弘,詐稱漢歸義侯勢之子,聚眾萬餘人,自稱聖王,年號鳳凰。隴西人李高,詐稱成主雄之子,攻破涪城,逐梁州刺史楊亮。九月,益州刺史周楚遣子瓊討高,又使瓊子梓潼太守颺討弘,皆平之。

16. In Shu, the outlaw Li Hong of Guanghan proclaimed a restoration of Cheng-Han, falsely claiming to be the son of Li Shi, and he gathered several tens of thousands of men to him. He declared himself the Sagely King, and his reign era title was Fenghuang. Li Gao of Longxi then falsely claimed to be the son of Li Xiong, and attacked and conquered Fucheng, expelling Jin’s Inspector of Liangzhou, Yang Liang.

In the ninth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Chu, sent his son Zhou Qiong to attack Li Gao, and sent the Administrator of Zitong, Zhou Qiong's son Zhou Yang, to attack Li Hong. Both of them were crushed.

秦楊安攻晉陽,晉陽兵多糧足,久之未下。王猛留屯騎校尉苟長戍壺關,引兵助安攻晉陽。為地道,使虎牙將軍張蚝帥壯士數百潛入城中,大呼斬關,納秦兵。辛巳,猛、安入晉陽,執燕并州刺史東海王莊。太傅評畏猛,不敢進,屯於潞川。冬,十月,辛亥,猛留將軍武都毛當戍晉陽,進兵潞川,與慕容評相持。

17. Yang An attacked Jinyang. However, Jinyang had many soldiers and ample food, and would be able to hold out for a long time. Wang Meng left the Colonel of 屯騎, Gou Chang, to hold Huguan, while he led troops to assist Yang An at Jinyang. They dug a tunnel, and sent the General of Tiger Fangs, Zhang Qi, with several hundred braves to go into the city. With a loud cry, Zhang Qi's men broke the gate, and let in the Qin army. On the day Xinsi (October 15th), Wang Meng and Yang An entered Jinyang, and captured Yan's Inspector of Bingzhou and Prince of Donghai, Murong Zhuang.

Murong Ping feared Wang Meng, and did not dare to advance, but camped at Luchuan. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinhai (November 14th), Wang Meng left General Mao Dang of Wudu to guard Jinyang, while he advanced to Luchuan. There he began a stalemate with Murong Ping.

「苟長」,恐當作「苟萇」。據《水經註》:潞川在上黨潞縣北。闞駰曰:潞水,卽漳水也。爲冀州浸。

The text here writes 苟長 Gou Chang. I believe it should be 苟萇 Gou Chang (a Qin general mentioned several times later on).

According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Luchuan was in the north of Lu County in Shangdang. Kan Yin remarked, "The Lu River was the same as the Zhang River. It flowed through Jizhou."


壬戌,猛遣將軍徐成覘燕軍形要,期以日中;及昏而返,猛怒,將斬之。鄧羌請之曰:「今賊眾我寡,詰朝將戰;成,大將也,宜且宥之。」猛曰:「若不殺成,軍法不立。」羌固請曰:「成,羌之郡將也,雖違期應斬,羌願與成效戰以贖之。」猛弗許。羌怒,還營,嚴鼓勒兵,將攻猛。猛問其故,羌曰:「受詔討遠賊;今有近賊,自相殺,欲先除之!」猛謂羌義而有勇,使語之曰:「將軍止,吾今赦之。」成既免,羌詣猛謝。猛執其手曰:「吾試將軍耳,將軍於郡將尚爾,況國家乎!吾不復憂賊矣!」

18. On the day Renwu (November 25th), Wang Meng sent General Xu Cheng to scout out the Yan army’s layout and condition. Xu Cheng was out all day, not returning until dusk. Wang Meng was furious, and planned to execute him.

形者,見於外;要者,有諸中。覘見其形,未足以決勝負;覘見其要,則勝負之機決矣。

The layout means how things stood in terms of the enemy's camp layout, formations, and such. The condition means how things were among the actual enemy soldiers and commanders. Knowing just the physical layout of the enemy camp was not enough to determine victory. Knowing the condition of the enemy's soldiers and commanders, that would provide the means for victory.


Deng Qiang asked him not to execute Xu Cheng, and said to him, "Currently, the enemy are numerous and we few, and we are on the eve of battle. Further, Xu Cheng is a high officer, so show him mercy."

Wang Meng said, "If I do not kill him, the military law will not be upheld."

Deng Qiang stubbornly said, "Xu Cheng is an officer from my commandary. If he must die, I ask that you let him spend his life in this battle." But Wang Meng would not agree.

Deng Qiang became angry, and returned to his camp, ordering his soldiers to beat the drums and arm themselves, to prepare to attack Wang Meng. When Wang Meng inquired into the commotion, Deng Qiang said, "I have an order to attack a distant foe. Yet now that the enemy is at hand, we are planning to kill each other instead. If that’s the case, I might as well strike first!" Wang Meng spoke to Deng Qiang about his righteousness and his heroism, and he sent word stating, "Let the general halt; I will issue a pardon."

Xu Cheng then emerged, and Deng Qiang sent him to offer his apologies to Wang Meng. Wang Meng took him by the hand and said, "I was only testing General Deng, and yet see how much he treasures even you, just a man from his commandary, much less how much he treasures the entire state! I no longer need fear the enemy!"

成蓋爲羌本郡太守。

Xu Cheng was the Administrator of Deng Qiang's native commandary.


太傅評以猛懸軍深入,欲以持久制之。評為人貪鄙,鄣固山泉,鬻樵及水,積錢帛如丘陵;士卒怨憤,莫有鬥志。猛聞之,笑曰:「慕容評真奴才,雖億兆之眾不足畏,況數十萬乎!吾今茲破之必矣。」乃遣游擊將軍郭慶帥騎五千,夜從間道出評營後,燒評輜重,火見鄴中。燕主暐懼,遣侍中蘭伊讓評曰:「王,高祖之子也,當以宗廟社稷為憂,奈何不撫戰士而榷賣樵水,專以貨殖為心乎!府庫之積,朕與王共之,何憂於貧!若賊兵遂進,家國喪亡,王持錢帛欲安所置之!」乃命悉以其錢帛散之軍士,且趨使戰。評大懼,遣使請戰於猛。

19. Murong Ping believed that Wang Meng was worried about how deep into Yan his army had marched, and that he wished to maintain his position for some time. So Murong Ping began to brazenly extort his own soldiers. He blocked off the hills and springs, charged the soldiers for firewood and water, and piled up hills of money and silks. The Yan soldiers became indignant, and none of them were willing to fight.

山者,樵之所仰;泉者,汲之所仰。障固山泉,使軍士不得樵汲,而鬻薪水以牟利。賈公彥曰:高曰丘,大阜曰陵。

Hills are a natural source of firewood, and springs a natural source of water. By "blocking off" the hills and springs, it means he sent officers to stop anyone from collecting firewood or drawing water, and demanded money in exchange for access to them.

Jia Gongyan remarked, "Something tall can be called a mound, and a large mound can be called a tomb."


When Wang Meng heard of it, he laughed and said, "How base Murong Ping is! We would not need to fear him even if he had millions of soldiers, much less hundreds of thousands! Now I can definitely destroy him." So he sent the General of Fierce Assault, Guo Qing, to lead a raid with five thousand riders. At night, they rode by secret trails into the rear of Murong Ping's camp and set his supplies on fire. The flames could be seen from Ye.

Murong Wei became afraid, and sent the Palace Attendant Lan Yi to reproach Murong Ping, saying, "Prince, you are one of the sons of Emperor Gaozu (Murong Hui). You ought to be praying at the temple of your ancestors for the worries of the state. How could you have gone so far as to vex the soldiers by charging them for firewood and water, and transformed yourself into a merchant? You had full access to all the government stores, so how could anything have been inadequate for you? If the enemy should advance, and the state perish, what good will your money and your silks do you then?" And he ordered the misbegotten money and silks to be distributed amongst the army, and for Murong Ping to fight a battle. Murong Ping was greatly afraid, and requested that Wang Meng offer battle.

潞川地形高而近鄴,且火盛,故鄴中望而見之。慕容廆廟號高祖。酈道元曰:評鬻水與軍人,絹匹,與水二石。

The area around Luchuan was high, and close to Ye. This was why when the fires spread, they could be seen from Ye.

Murong Hui's temple name was Gaozu.

Li Daoyuan remarked, "When Murong Ping extorted the soldiers, he charged a roll of silk for two 石 of water."


甲子,猛陳於渭源而誓之曰:「王景略受國厚恩,任兼內外,今與諸君深入賊地,當竭力致死,有進無退,共立大功,以報國家。受爵明君之朝,稱觴父母之室,不亦美乎!」眾皆踴躍,破釜棄糧,大呼競進。

20. On the day Jiazi (November 27th), Wang Meng went to Weiyuan and swore this oath before the soldiers: "I, Wang Jinglüe, have received the favor of the state, and I have been given greater and greater responsibilities both within the court and among the army. Today, together with all of you, I have penetrated deep into enemy territory. I will exert my utmost to fight even unto death. We will always advance and never retreat, and together we shall be triumphant, and report our victory to the state. Will it not be glorious when we receive our lord’s favor, and share a cup of wine with our fathers and mothers?" And the multitude all lept up eagerly, each vying with one another to be first. They smashed their pots and abandoned their grain, and with a great shout they surged forward to battle.

按渭水不出潞縣。《水經註》有涅水出潞縣西覆甑山。或者「渭」字其「涅」字之誤乎?又按溫公《稽古錄》,書王猛破評于清原。杜預曰:河東聞喜縣北有清原。其地又與潞川相遠,姑存疑以待知者。杜佑《通典》作「潞源」。受爵明君之朝,謂有功而受賞於朝也。稱觴父母之室,謂受賞而歸,舉酒爲父母壽也。

The Wei River did not pass through Lu County. The Commentary on the Water Classic mentions a Nie River which flows through western Lu County from Mount Fuzeng. Perhaps the text mistakenly wrote 渭 Wei instead of 涅 Nie? Furthermore, according to Duke Wen's (Sima Guang) 稽古錄, it records Wang Meng as having routed Murong Ping at Qingyuan. Du Yu remarked, "I have heard that there is a Qingyuan in the north of Xi County in Hedong." The other place is relatively far from Luchuan, and I doubt many knew of it. Du You's Tongdian writes it as "Luyuan".

By "receive our lord's favor", he means that once they achieve victory they shall all receive rewards from the court. By "share a cup of wine", he means that once they receive their rewards and return, they may raise a toast to their parents' longevity.


猛望燕兵之眾,謂鄧羌曰:「今日之事,非將軍不能破勍敵。成敗之機,在茲一舉,將軍勉之!」羌曰:「若能以司隸見與者,公勿以為憂。」猛曰:「此非吾所及也,必以安定太守、萬戶侯相處。」羌不悅而退。俄而兵交,猛召羌,羌寢弗應。猛馳就許之,羌乃大飲帳中,與張蚝、徐成等跨馬運矛,馳赴燕陳;出入數四,旁若無人,所殺傷數百。及日中,燕兵大敗,俘斬五萬餘人,乘勝追擊,所殺及降者又十萬餘人,評單騎走還鄴。

21. When Wang Meng considered the Yan army, he said to Deng Qiang, "In today's affair, we will not be able to defeat the enemy without your help. Victory or defeat is in the offing, so General, exert yourself!"

Deng Qiang replied, "If you can promote me to Colonel Director of Retainers, then you shall have nothing to fear."

Wang Meng replied, "That is beyond what I can do, but I will certainly make you Administrator of Anding and a Marquis of ten thousand households." But Deng Qiang was unsatisfied and withdrew.

When the battle began, Wang Meng called for Deng Qiang, but Deng Qiang was sleeping and would not heed the summons. So Wang Meng quickly rode to see Deng Qiang and assented to his earlier request. Deng Qiang then eagerly joined the fight. Along with Zhang Qi, Xu Cheng, and others, he plunged into battle on horseback with spear in hand, riding amongst the Yan army. He went in and out among them four times, and no one could match him. In all, he killed or wounded several hundred.

In the end, the Yan army suffered a great defeat, and over fifty thousand of their soldiers were captured or killed. As they fled, Qin's forces pursued them, and killed or captured more than another hundred thousand. Murong Ping fled alone on horseback to Ye.

秦雍州刺史治安定,安定在秦中爲大郡。

Qin's Inspector of Yongzhou administered from Anding, which was Qin's largest commandary at that time.


崔鴻曰:鄧羌請郡將以撓法,徇私也;勒兵欲攻王猛,無上也;臨戰豫求司隸,邀君也。有此三者,罪孰大焉!猛能容其所短,收其所長,若馴猛虎,馭悍馬,以成大功。《詩》雲:「采葑采菲,無以下體。」猛之謂矣。

22. Cui Hong, the compiler of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, made this remark: Deng Qiang asked for the laws to be relaxed on account of his fellow officer and countryman, for selfish reasons; he even threatened to attack Wang Meng, baselessly; and on the eve of battle, he demanded the Colonel Director of Retainers post, and compelled his lord to give it to him. For these three reasons, he should have been harshly punished! Yet Wang Meng could contain these shortcomings, and still draw out Deng Qiang’s advantages, like a man who can tame a fierce tiger, or ride a wild stallion, and thereby achieve great success. The Book of Poems says, "When we gather the mustard plant and earth melons, we do not reject them because of their roots." Such could be said of Wang Meng.

《詩‧谷風》之辭。

This is a verse from the Gufeng poem from the Odes of Bei.


秦兵長驅而東,丁卯,圍鄴。猛上疏稱:「臣以甲子之日,大殲丑類。順陛下仁愛之志,使六州士庶,不覺易主,自非守迷違命,一無所害。」秦王堅報之曰:「將軍役不逾時,而元惡克舉,勳高前古。朕今親帥六軍,星言電赴。將軍其休養將士,以待朕至,然後取之。」

23. The Qin soldiers continued their rapid march to the east. On the day Dingmao (November 30th), they put Ye under siege.

Wang Meng sent in a memorial stating, "On the day of Jiazi (November 27th), I completely destroyed the filth of Yan. Now I will fulfill Your Majesty's wishes for benevolence and love. I will appease the people of Yan's six provinces, so that they will not notice the change of lords. In doing so, I shall give no cause for confusion or disobedience, and no harm shall be done."

When Fu Jian read this memorial, he sent back a reply stating, “General, you boast of what has not yet been achieved. The original evil has not been vanquished, and yet you are comparing yourself to the worthies of old. I myself shall follow behind you leading the six armies, ordering them forward like lightning when I see the morning starlight. General, let your soldiers rest and recuperate, and await my arrival. Then we may complete our achievement.”

謂甲子之日克勝,事同周武王克紂。《詩》曰:星言夙駕。謂早駕見星而行也。電赴,言其疾也。

Wang Meng emphasizes that his victory was on a Jiazi day because it was also on a Jiazi day that King Wu of Zhou defeated King Zhou of Shang.

The Book of Odes has this verse: "By starlight, in the morning, to yoke his carriage." (Ding Zhi Fang Zhong 3, Odes of Yong) It means to order the carriage to set out at first light, just after one sees the stars in the morning. Fu Jian has changed the verse, mentioning lightning instead of the carriage.


猛之未至也,鄴帝剽劫公行,及猛至,遠近貼然。號令嚴明,軍無私犯,法簡政寬,燕民各安其業,更相謂曰:「不圖今日復見太原王!」猛聞之,歎曰:「慕容玄恭信奇士也,可謂古之遺愛矣!」設太牢以祭之。

24. While Wang Meng was on his way to Ye, the Yan soldiers had plundered the area and then fled. Once Wang Meng arrived, he provided aid and relief to areas near and far. Wang Meng gave out orders for strict discipline, ordering the army not to plunder or harm anyone, and to tightly enforce the laws. When the people of Yan saw that all was at peace, they said to one another, "We never thought that the old Prince of Taiyuan (Murong Ke) would come again!" When Wang Meng heard of it, he sighed as he said, "So this is the trust that Murong Xuangong once enjoyed from the people!" He ordered a Grand Sacrifice (of a bull, a ram, and a pig) be made in honor of Murong Ke.

言軍士不敢私犯鄴民也。慕容恪,字玄恭,封太原王。

Wang Meng's soldiers did not dare to harm anyone around Ye.

Murong Ke's style name was Xuangong, and his noble title was Prince of Taiyuan.


十一月,秦王堅留李威輔太子守長安,陽平公融鎮洛陽,自帥精銳十萬赴鄴,七日而至安陽,宴祖父時故老。猛潛如安陽謁堅,堅曰:「昔周亞夫不迎漢文帝,今將軍臨敵而棄軍,何也?」猛曰:「亞夫前卻人主以求名,臣竊少之。且臣奉陛下威靈,擊垂亡之虜,譬如釜中之魚,何足慮也!監國沖幼,鸞駕遠臨,脫有不虞,悔之何及!陛下忘臣灞上之言邪!」

25. In the eleventh month, Fu Jian left Li Wei at Chang'an to take care of his Crown Prince, and the Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, to guard Luoyang, while he led another hundred thousand elite troops to Ye. In seven days, he reached Anyang, and there attended a feast for those veterans who had served his father and grandfather of old.

《晉志》:安陽縣屬魏郡。魏收《志》曰:天平初,併蕩陰、安陽屬鄴。又汲郡北脩武縣有安陽城。苻洪父子先屯枋頭,有故老尚存,聞堅之來,迎於安陽,故宴之。

The Records of Jin states, "Anyang County was part of Wei commandary." Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "At the beginning of the Tianping era (534-7), Dangyin and Anyang counties were folded into Ye." There was also an Anyang city in the north of Xiuwu County in Ji commandary.

Fu Hong and his sons had first set out from Fangtou, so there were many of their old veterans who still lived around there. When they heard that Fu Jian was coming, they came to welcome him at Anyang, and held a feast for him.


Wang Meng came to Anyang to pay his respects to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said to him, "In former times, Zhou Yafu did not welcome Emperor Wen of Han at his army camp. Now our army is still a before the enemy, yet you have abandoned your men to come here. How can that be?"

Wang Meng replied, “Zhou Yafu refused admittance to his lord because he sought to build a reputation for himself, but such a thing would be of little use to me. Your Majesty has already granted me a powerful authority, which I have used to annihilate the enemy like fish in a kettle. What then do I have to be worried about? But you, on the other hand, have left the state in the hands of your young son, and brought the imperial carriage so far as to come here. If anything unexpected happened, would there be any time for regrets? Your Majesty has forgotten what I warned you about at Bashang!”

見十五卷漢文帝後六年。

This story about Zhou Yafu is mentioned in Book 15, in Emperor Wen of Han's sixth year (158 BC).


When Emperor Wen went on an inspection of the military camps, all the other commanders left their camps to come welcome him, but Zhou Yafu kept his camp under strict discipline, and he did not welcome the Emperor's group or allow them to enter the camp except by the usual strict supervision. Emperor Wen was impressed, and Zhou Yafu was promoted.


初,燕宜都王桓帥眾萬餘屯沙亭,為太傅評後繼,聞評敗,引兵屯內黃。堅使鄧羌攻信都。丁丑,桓帥鮮卑五千奔龍城。戊寅,燕散騎侍郎餘蔚帥扶餘、高句麗及上黨質子五百餘人,夜,開鄴北門,納秦兵,燕主暐與上庸王評、樂安王臧、字襄王淵、左衛將軍孟高、殿中將軍艾朗等奔龍城。辛巳,秦王堅入鄴宮。

26. Before, Yan's Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, had led more than ten thousand soldiers to camp at Shating, to act as a rearguard for Murong Ping. When Murong Huan heard of Murong Ping’s defeat, he led his soldiers to camp at Neihuang. Fu Jian sent Deng Qiang to attack Xindu. On the day Dingchou (December 10th), Murong Huan fled to Longcheng with five thousand Xianbei.

杜預曰:陽平元城縣有沙亭。內黃縣自漢以來屬魏郡。

Du Yu remarked, "Shating is in Yuancheng County in Yangping commandary."

Since the Han era, Neihuang County had been part of Wei commandary.


On the day Wuyin (December 11th), Yan's Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, Hae Yeoul, led a group of more than five hundred people, made up of people from Buyeo, Goguryeo, and hostages from Shangdang, and that night, they opened the north gate of Ye and welcomed in the Qin army. Murong Wei, Murong Ping, Murong Zang, the Prince of Zixiang, Murong Yuan, the Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, the General of the Palace, Ai Lang, and others all fled towards Longcheng. On the day Xinsi (December 14th), Fu Jian entered the palace at Ye.

燕蓋遣兵戍上黨,取其子弟留於鄴以爲質。餘蔚,扶餘王子,故陰率諸質子開門以納秦兵。《姓譜》:艾姓,《晏子春秋》齊有大夫艾孔。《風俗通》有龐儉母艾氏。

When Yan had sent soldiers to guard Shangdang, they kept the soldiers’ sons and younger brothers at Ye as hostages. Hae Yeoul was a son of the King of Buyeo, and he secretly led the hostages to open the gate and let in the Qin army.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Regarding the surname Ai, the Annals of Master Yan mentions a Master Ai in Qi, and the Fengsu Tong mentions a Pang Jian whose mother was Lady Ai."


慕容垂見燕公卿大夫及故時僚吏,有慍色。高弼言於垂曰:「大王憑祖宗積累之資,負英傑高世之略,遭值迍阨,棲集外邦。今雖家國傾覆,安知其不為興運之始邪!愚謂國之舊人,宜恢江海之量,有以慰結其心,以立覆簣之基,成九仞之功,奈何以一怒捐之?愚竊為大王不取也!」垂悅,從之。

27. When Murong Chui saw all the former Yan nobles, ministers, and servants, he began to look resentful at them. But his minister Gao Bi said to him, "A great king depends upon the materials that his ancestors have left for him, and he relies upon the heroes of an age to support him. If he fails to make use of them when he finds them, be assured that they will all flock to other branches elsewhere. Although our state has been destroyed for now, who knows whether or not it will rise again someday? In my view, you should display a boundless magnanimity towards the old Yan officials. Make yourself as broad as the Yangzi and as vast as the sea, and in so doing you can comfort the people and bind their hearts to you. Every man you win over will be another basket of earth towards your foundation, and soon enough your achievement will rise to a height of nine ren. What good would it do you to get rid of them all because of your anger? That would never help you to become a great king!" Murong Chui approved of this advice, and followed it.

言譬如爲山,自覆一簣而進成九仞之功。八尺曰仞。高弼先從垂奔秦,故敢進言。

Gao Bi illustrates his point by talking about a mountain, saying that Murong Chui's achievement can, one basket of earth at a time, reach a height of nine ren. One ren equals eight chi. (In other words, nine ren was twenty-four miles.)

Gao Bi dared to offer such advice because he had earlier fled to Qin along with Murong Chui.


燕主暐之出鄴也,衛士猶千餘騎,既出城,皆散,惟十餘騎從行;秦王堅使游擊將軍郭慶追之。時道路艱難,孟高扶侍暐,經護二王,極其勤瘁,又所在遇盜,轉斗而前。數日,行至福祿,依塚解息,盜二十餘人猝至,皆挾弓矢,高持刀與戰,殺傷數人。高力極,自度必死,乃直前抱一賊,頓擊於地,大呼曰:「男兒窮矣!」餘賊從帝射高,殺之。艾朗見高獨戰,亦還趨賊,並死。暐失馬步走,郭慶追及於高陽,部將巨武將縛之,暐曰:「汝何小人,敢縛天子!」武曰:「我受詔追賊,何謂天子!」執以詣秦王堅。堅詰其不降而走之狀,對曰:「狐死首丘,欲歸死於先人墳墓耳。」堅哀而釋之,令還宮,帥文武出降。暐稱孟高、艾朗之忠於堅,堅命厚加斂葬,拜其子為郎中。

28. When Murong Wei fled from Ye, he had more than a thousand riders with him, but after they fled from the city, the riders all scattered, and only a few more than ten remained to follow him. Fu Jian sent the General of Fierce Assault, Guo Qing, to pursue the royal fugitives. During that time, all the roads were filled with difficulties and disorders, so Meng Gao worked to protect Murong Wei and the two Princes, diligently working himself even unto sickness. Whenever they encountered the enemy, Meng Gao would turn and charge forward to face them.

二王,謂樂安王臧、定襄王淵也。

The two Princes were the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, and the Prince of Dingxiang, Murong Yuan.


After several days, the group reached Fulu, where they stopped to rest their horses by a tomb. More than twenty enemy soldiers suddenly appeared, each firing arrows. Meng Gao grasped his sword and fought them, slaying or wounding several. But, having exhausted himself, and seeing that his death was inevitable, he rushed upon one enemy and pulled him to the ground, crying out, "What pathetic men you all are!" The remaining enemies, ignoring the emperor, turned their bows against Meng Gao and killed him. When Ai Lang saw that Meng Gao had plunged into battle alone, he rushed to join him in fighting the enemies, until he too was killed.

Murong Wei had lost his horse, but he continued to flee on foot. Guo Qing pursued him and caught up to him at Gaoyang, and ordered his officer Ju Wu to capture the emperor. Murong Wei said, "You miscreant, you dare lay hands on the Son of Heaven?" Ju Wu replied, "I have orders to pursue a rebel; who claims to be Son of Heaven?" So they captured him and brought him back to Fu Jian.

解息,解鞍息馬也。《姓譜》:巨,姓也。

When they stopped to rest, they removed the saddles from their horses and let them recover.

The Registry of Surnames states, "巨 Ju is a surname."


Fu Jian asked Murong Wei why he had refused to surrender and had tried to flee to the northeast. The response was, "A fox dies with its face towards its den. A man who seeks death must first find his tomb." Fu Jian sorrowfully released him, ordering him returned to the palace where the others who had surrendered were.

Murong Wei reported to Fu Jian on Meng Gao's and Ai Lang's loyalty to him. Fu Jian granted them honorable burials, and appointed their sons as Palace Attendants.

慕容氏之先皆葬昌黎。晉穆帝永和八年,燕主儁改元稱帝,傳子暐,共十九年而亡。

Murong Wei made this remark because the Murong clan members had all originally been buried at Changli, in the northeast.

From Emperor Mu's eighth year of Yonghe (352), when Murong Jun had first assumed the imperial title, and then handed it down to his son Murong Wei, until this time, Former Yan had existed for nineteen years, and then perished.


郭慶進至龍城,太傅評奔高句麗,高句麗執評,送於秦。宜都王桓殺鎮東將軍勃海王亮,並其眾,奔遼東。遼東太守韓稠,先已降秦,桓至,不得入,攻之,不克。郭慶遣將軍朱嶷擊之,桓充眾單走,嶷獲而殺之。

29. When Guo Qing pressed on and arrived at Longcheng, Murong Ping fled to Goguryeo, but they apprehended him and sent him back to Qin.

Murong Huan killed the General Who Guards The East, Murong Liang, and with his remaining soldiers fled to Liaodong. But the Administrator of Liaodong, Han Chou, had already surrendered to Qin. When Murong Huan arrived, Han Chou did not allow him to enter the city; although Murong Huan tried to force his way in, he was unsuccessful. Guo Qing sent his general Zhu Yi to attack Murong Huan. Murong Huan abandoned his army and fled alone, but Zhu Yi caught and killed him.

諸州牧守及六夷渠帥盡降於秦,凡得郡百五十七,戶二百四十六萬,口九百九十九萬。以燕宮人、珍寶分賜將士。下詔大赦曰:「朕以寡薄,猥承休命,不能懷遠以德,柔服四維,至使戎車屢駕,有害斯民,雖百姓之過,然亦朕之罪也。其大赦天下,與之更始。」

30. Yan’s various governors, administrators, and commanders all surrendered to Qin. In the various commandaries there were a hundred and fifty seven, with 2,460,000 households, and 9,990,000 people. Yan's palace attendants and treasures were distributed among the officers. Fu Jian issued a general pardon, proclaiming, "I say now regarding those few who are still in hiding, and who fear that they cannot submit to my authority, believing that my virtue does not extend to every distant corner, and cannot bring comfort to the four directions, that the weapons of war are now to be put away. Whoever harms one of these people, or trespasses against the commoners, he has also committed a crime against me. Thus do I extend this amnesty over the realm, to offer a new beginning to all."

四維,東南維,西南維,東北維,西北維。

The four directions were the southeast, the southwest, the northeast, and the northwest.


初,梁琛之使秦也,以侍輦苟純為副。琛每應對,不先告純;純恨之,歸,言於燕主暐曰:「琛在長安,與王猛甚親善,疑有異謀。」琛又數稱秦王堅及王猛之美,且言秦將興師,宜為之備。已而秦果伐燕,皆如琛言,暐乃疑琛知其情。及慕容評敗,遂收琛系獄。秦王堅入鄴而釋之,除中書著作郎,引見,謂之曰:「卿昔言上庸王、吳王皆將相奇材,何為不能謀畫,自使亡國?」對曰:「天命廢興,豈二人所能移也!」堅曰:「卿不能見幾而作,虛稱燕美,忠不自防,返為身禍,可謂智乎?」對曰:「臣聞『幾者動之微,吉兇之先見者也。』如臣愚闇,實所不及。然為臣莫如忠,為子莫如孝,自非有一至之心者,莫能保忠孝之始終。是以古之烈士,臨危不改,見死不避,以徇君親。彼知幾者,心達安危,身擇去就,不顧家國,臣就使知之,尚不忍為,況非所及邪!」

31. Before the war, when Liang Chen had been an envoy to Qin, he brought along the 侍輦 Gou Chun as his assistant. Whenever Liang Chen made a reply, he never told Gou Chun what it would be, so Gou Chun resented him. When they had returned to Yan, Gou Chun had said to Murong Wei, "When Liang Chen was at Chang'an, he became very close to Wang Meng. They may be plotting something." Liang Chen had then spoke several times of his great esteem for Fu Jian and Wang Meng, and had emphasized the need to prepare for Qin's army, since he said they would invade soon.

侍輦之官,蓋燕所置近臣也。

The office of 侍輦 was created by Yan. It was an office for a minister's assistant.


When Qin indeed invaded Yan, everyone remembered what Liang Chen had said, and Murong Wei then questioned why Liang Chen had known ahead of time that it would happen. After Murong Ping's defeat at Luchuan, he arrested Liang Chen and put him in jail. When Fu Jian entered Ye, he released Liang Chen, appointed him as 中書著作郎, and had him brought to him.

Fu Jian asked Liang Chen, "Before, you told me that Murong Ping and Murong Chui were both men of rare talents. How was it that they could not come up with some plan to save their state?"

Liang Chen replied, "Heaven directs the rise and fall of states; how can a mere two men oppose it?"

Fu Jian said, “You yourself were not able to find an opportunity to act. You vacuously spoke of Yan's splendor, but in your loyalty you could not save yourself, and rather suffered personal misfortune. Are we meant to call that wisdom?”

Liang Chen replied, “I have heard it said that 'By studying the slightest movements of opportunity, good or ill fortune can be predicted.' But as I am blind and foolish, I could not claim that much. It is fitting that a minister remain loyal, just as it is fitting that a son remain filial. No matter what conclusions his heart may come to, he must ensure his loyalty and his piety from beginning til end. The martyrs of old did not shrink from danger or blink at suffering death, but they died alongside their lords. There have been some among you who, knowing what lay ahead, and choosing between danger and security, they abandoned their state and took no heed of it. But as for me, I could not endure such a thing, much less be given reward for it!”

秦蓋循晉初之制,併祕書於中書省也。【章:十二行本「吉」下有「凶」字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】《易‧大傳》之辭。梁琛忠於所事,秦王堅不能顯而庸之,識者有以知秦祚之不長矣。

Qin had followed the system that Jin originally had, combining the offices of Custodian of the Private Library and Secretariat Supervisor together.

Some versions add "or ill (fortune)" to Liang Chen's quote.

Liang Chen quotes from the 易‧大傳.

There were many who saw in Liang Chen's fierce loyalty in all things, and Fu Jian's inability to employ the most worthy and having to settle for the mediocre, the imminent downfall of Qin's fortunes.


堅聞悅綰之忠,恨不及見,拜其子為郎中。

32. When Fu Jian heard of Yue Wan's loyal service, he regretted not having been able to meet him. He appointed Yue Wan's sons as Palace Attendants.

悅綰事見上卷三年。

The story about Yue Wan's reforms was mentioned in the last book, Book 101, in the third year (368.12).


堅以王猛為使持節、都督關東六州諸軍事、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、冀州牧,鎮鄴,進爵清河郡侯,悉以慕容評第中之物賜之。賜楊安爵博平縣侯;以鄧羌為使持節、征虜將軍、安定太守,賜爵真定郡侯;郭慶為持節、都督幽州諸軍事、幽州刺史,鎮薊,賜爵襄城侯。其餘將士封賞各有差。

33. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Credential Bearer, Commander over the six former Yan provinces, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, with authority equal to the Three Excellencies, and Governor of Jizhou, with his headquarters at Ye. He promoted Wang Meng’s noble title to Marquis of Qinghe, and granted him the former personal items of Murong Ping. He promoted Yang An to be Marquis of Boping; Deng Qiang to be Credential Bearer (or Commissioner Bearing Credentials), General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Administrator of Anding, and Marquis of Zhending; Guo Qing to be Credential Bearer, Commander of affairs in Youzhou, and Inspector of Youzhou, with his headquarters at Ji, and he was bestowed the title Marquis of Xiangcheng. The other generals also received like rewards according to their merits.

【章:十二行本無「使」字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】賜爵者,賜之侯爵,非有國有土也。一曰:先未列爵,今始賜之。

Some versions record Deng Qiang as receiving the rank "Commissioner Bearing Credentials" rather than "Credential Bearer".

To be "bestowed" a noble title meant to receive the actual title, but with no fief or territory along with it. Yi remarked, "At first we had yet to arrange titles, now we began to bestow them."


堅以京兆韋鐘為魏郡太守,彭豹為陽平太守;其餘州縣牧、守、令、長,皆因舊而授之。以燕常山太守申紹為散騎侍郎,使與散騎侍郎京兆韋儒俱為繡衣使者,循行關東州郡,觀省風俗,勸課農桑,振恤窮困,收葬死亡,旌顯節行,燕政有不便於民者,皆變除之。

34. Fu Jian appointed Wei Zhong of Jingzhao as Administrator of Wei, and Peng Bao as Administrator of Yangping. The other former Yan Governors, Administrators, Prefects, chiefs, and other officials were kept on in their former posts. He appointed Yan's Administrator of Changshan, Shen Shao, as Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, and sent him and the Gentleman Attendant of
散騎, Wei Ruju of Jingzhao, to craft garments to distribute to the people, patrol through the Guandong provinces and commandaries, observe and reform the local customs, help to cultivate farming and silkworm raising efforts, ease the suffering of the people, collect and bury the dead, and spread his authority throughout the region. Any parts of the Yan administration that did not benefit the people were changed.

燕都鄴,以魏郡太守爲京尹。陽平,輔郡也,故堅皆以秦人守之。盡易州縣牧、守、令、長,旣駭觀聽,且人情新舊不相安,故皆因舊。並用燕、秦之人爲繡衣使者。用燕人者,以其習關東風俗;用秦人者,使宣堅之德意也。

Ye was in Wei commandary, and its Administrator had been a capital Intendent under Yan. Yangping commandary was an adjunct to Wei. This was why Fu Jian changed the administrators of those commandaries.

The remaining former Yan officials were all still shocked and waiting to see what would happen, so in order to calm their anxieties, Fu Jian kept them on in their posts.

Both the people of Yan and Qin were used to craft the garments for distribution. The people in Yan followed the customs of Guandong, while the people in Qin did what appealed to Fu Jian's sense of virtue.


十二月,秦王堅遷慕容暐及燕後妃、王公、百官並鮮卑四萬餘戶於長安。

35. In the twelfth month, Fu Jian sent Murong Wei and Empress Dowager Kezuhun, along with the former Yan princes, dukes, and officials, and forty thousand Xianbei households, to Chang'an.

爲後鮮卑乘亂攻秦張本。

These were the Xianbei who would later rebel and attack Qin.


王猛表留梁琛為主簿,領記室督。它日,猛與僚屬宴,語及燕朝使者,猛曰:「人心不同。昔梁君至長安,專美本朝;樂君但言桓溫軍盛;郝君微說國弊。」參軍馮誕曰:「今三子皆為國臣,敢問取臣之道何先?」猛曰:「郝君知幾為先。」誕曰:「然則明公賞丁公而誅季布也。」猛大笑。

36. Wang Meng asked that Liang Chen be appointed as his household’s Registrar and acting 記室督. That day, he held a feast with his ministers where he invited the new ministers to attend. During the feast, he said to them, "Men's hearts are truly different. Not so long ago, three Yan ministers came to Qin as envoys. Lord Liang spoke of his court's splendor; Lord Yue spoke of how its army compared to Huan Wen's; Lord Hao spoke of its iniquities."

晉制:諸公府有主簿、記室督各一人。今猛以琛兼之。梁琛、樂嵩、郝晷也。

According to the Jin system, each Duke's household had both a Registrar and a 記室督. Wang Meng combined them in the person of Liang Chen.

The three envoys were Liang Chen, Yue Song, and Hao Gui.


Feng Yan said, "All three of them are now Qin ministers. Might I ask which of them you most agreed with?"

Wang Meng said, "I would have to side with Lord Hao."

Feng Yan replied, "In that case, you would do well to 'reward Duke Ding and punish Ji Bu.'" And Wang Meng laughed heartily.

言取臣之道,與漢高帝異。

Feng Yan gave the opposite advice regarding those two ministers to how Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had dealt with them.


During the Chu-Han Contention between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, Ji Bu had remained loyal to Xiang Yu to the very end, while Duke Ding had betrayed him and helped Liu Bang. After the war ended, Liu Bang blamed Duke Ding for his disloyalty, saying that it was because of him that Xiang Yu lost, and he executed him. Meanwhile, he pardoned Ji Bu on account of his loyal service.


秦王堅自鄴如枋頭,宴父老,改枋頭為永昌,復之終世。甲寅,至長安,封慕容暐為新興侯;以燕故臣慕容評為給事中,皇甫真為奉車都尉,李洪為駙馬都尉,皆奉朝請。李邽為尚書,封衡為尚書郎,慕容德為張掖太守,燕國平睿為宣威將軍,悉羅騰為三署郎。其餘封授各有差。衡,裕之子也.

37. Fu Jian went from Ye to Fangtou, where he held a feast for his father’s veterans, and changed the name of the place from Fangtou to Yongchang, and exempted it from taxation for a generation.

On the day Jiayin (January 16th), he arrived at Chang'an, and granted Murong Wei the title of Marquis of Xinxing. He appointed Murong Ping as 給事中, Huangfu Zhen as Commandant of 奉車, and Li Hong as Commandant of 駙馬, and all served the court. He appointed Li Gui as Master of Writing, Feng Heng as Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Murong De as Administrator of Zhangye, Ping Rui of Yanguo as General Who 宣 Might, and Xiluo Teng as 三署郎. Others were appointed as needed. Feng Heng was the son of Feng Yu.

復,除賦役也;復除賦役,終秦王之世也。三人者,燕之三公也。爲德兄子超留張掖而入姚氏張本。漢有五官署郎、左署郎、右署郎,故曰三署郎。舊制:郎年五十以上,屬五官,其次分在左右署;秦遂以三署郎爲官稱。慕容皝之興也,封裕以忠諫顯。

復 here means to exempt from taxation. The "generation" meant during the lifetime of the current lord of Qin.

Murong Ping, Huangfu Zhen, and Li Hong had held the ranks of the Three Excellencies in Yan.

Murong De's appointment as Administrator of Zhangye was why his nephew Murong Chao later fled from Zhangye to the Yao clan.

Han had the offices of 五官署郎, 左署郎, and 右署郎, and so they were usually called the Three 署郎. Under the Jin system, Gentlemen that were over fifty years old were part of the 五官, subordinate to the 左署 or 右署. Qin used this same system of Three 署郎.

During Murong Huang's rise, Feng Yi had made many loyal remonstrances to him.


燕故太史黃泓歎曰:「燕必中興,其在吳王乎!恨吾老,不及見耳!」汲郡趙秋曰:「天道在燕,而秦滅之。不及十五年,秦必復為燕有。」

38. Yan's former Court Historian, Huang Hong, said with a sigh, "Yan will rise again, thanks to the Prince of Wu (Murong Chui)! But I regret that, old as I am, I will not be able to witness it!"

And Zhao Qiu of Jijun said, "Heaven lies with Yan, and Qin must crumble. In less than fifteen years, Qin will give way to Yan."

慕容之初興,黃泓歸之。及儁之取中原,黃泓贊其決:泓知數者也。謂歲星在燕分也。【章:十二行本「不」上有「而秦滅之」四字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦脫。】

Huang Hong had come to Yan during the initial rise of the Murong clan. When Murong Jun seized the Central Plains, Huang Hong approved of the decision. Many knew of his predictions.

Zhao Qiu refers to the year-star (Jupiter) hanging over Yan at the time of its conquest.

Some versions add the words "and Qin must crumble" to Zhao Qiu's prophecy.


慕容桓之子鳳,年十一,陰有復仇之志。鮮卑、丁零有氣干者,皆傾身與之交結。權翼見而謂之曰:「兒方以才望自顯,勿效爾父不識天命!」鳳厲色曰:「先王欲建忠而不遂,此乃人臣之節;君侯之言,豈獎勸將來之義乎!」翼改容謝之,言於秦王堅曰:「慕容鳳忼慨有才器,但狼子野心,恐終不為人用耳。」

39. Murong Huan's son, Murong Feng, was then eleven years old. He secretly harbored a grudge against Qin. The Xianbei and the Dingling peoples had an affinity, and they often had social dealings with each other.

When the Qin minister Quan Yi saw Murong Feng, he said to him, "Child, you have exceptional talents and abilities. Don't be like your father, who went against Heaven's will!"

Feng Yi fiercely replied, “My late father wished to act with loyalty. Although he failed, he behaved as a loyal servant ought to. If I followed your advice, how could that steer me towards virtue?”

Quan Yi quickly made his apologies to Murong Feng. He then mentioned the matter to Fu Jian, and told him, “Murong Feng has such abundant talent, but alas, a wolf-like child has a evil heart. I fear you will not be able to use him.”

爲後慕容鳳與丁零起兵攻秦張本。《左傳》:楚令尹子文曰:「狼子野心。」史言燕之臣子非久下人者。

This was why Murong Feng later rose in rebellion together with the Dingling to attack Qin (Book 105, 383.32).

In the Zuo Commentary, the Chu minister Ziwen says, "A wolf-like child will have an evil heart." (Huan 4) The text means that the son of a Yan official could not long remain a Qin subordinate.


秦省雍州。

40. Qin abolished Yongzhou.

秦置雍州於安定,今省雍州入司隸校尉。

Qin had originally split Yongzhou off from Anding, but they now combined the Yongzhou territory back under the region of the Colonel Director of Retainers.


是歲,仇池公楊世卒,子纂立,始與秦絕。叔父武都太守統與之爭國,起兵相攻。

41. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu, passed away. His son Yang Cuan inherited his position, and broke off relations with Qin. Yang Cuan’s uncle, the Administrator of Wudu, Yang Tong, began to fight with him, and both sides raised troops and attacked each other.

爲秦攻仇池張本。

This would be Qin's cassus belli for invading Chouchi (Book 103, 371.6).

Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postPosted: Sun Apr 16, 2017 2:37 am
by Lady Wu
My backlog is getting depressing.

347AD - The year of mass extinctions in Zhao

2. 將贏兵 = to lead weak soldiers

3. 昝堅至犍為,乃知與溫異道: Zan Jian should become friends with LoJW Zang Ba.

4. 笮橋 = suspension bridges made of bamboo

而鼓吏誤鳴進鼓 = the drum guy beat the drums for sounding the advance, by mistake (there was no order; I guess he meant to beat the gongs for retreating but got his percussion set mixed up)

舉賢旌善 = Huan Wen promoted the wise and praised the good

5. 侵刻胡商 = he bullied and took from the foreign merchants

又科調船材,雲欲有所討,由是諸國恚憤 = he also levied boats and building materials (from the people), saying that he was planning to launch a campaign; because of that,the whole state was angry and indignant.

7. 大事去矣: I hate these phrases about great causes and great achievements, and am wonder if it’d be better to translate this as something along the lines of “we’ll be done for”. The original phrase isn’t supposed to be read literally anyway.

8. 帥戶二萬降於趙 = I wonder if this is 20k households instead of 20k men.

乘軺車 = light carriage (civilian use—this and the white headdress were supposed to indicate that he’s in a chill scholar outfit and not taking Ma Qiu seriously)

鳴鼓而行 = had the drums sounded as he advanced

輕我也: more like “he’s making fun of me/he’s belittling me” than a personal hatred

黑槊龍驤: Best name for a unit/band name ever

胡床 = folding chair ( like what you bring to the beach)

獲首虜一萬三千級 = cut off 13k heads of enemy soldeirs

9. 行衛將軍 = Acting Guard General

遐為軍正將軍

12. 以妖異惑眾,蜀人多歸之 = They deluded the populace with occult and mystical things, and most of the people of Shu joined them.

13. 遂城長最 = And they built a walled city at Changzui.

謝艾建牙誓眾: 誓眾 = 誓師 = to rally the troops before a campaign, to make an oath for victory

吾以偏師定九州,今以九州之力困於枹罕 = I had conquered the Nine Provinces with just an auxiliary force, and yet today , with the combined strength of the Nine Provinces, I am stuck at Baohan.

討叛虜斯骨真等萬餘落,皆破平之。= He waged war against some 10k rebel tribes, including Siguzhen’s, and destroyed them all. [落 is technically a tribe, but maybe here it’d make more sense to translate it as “settlement”? Either way it’s a LOT of people. We had something like that back in Cheng-Han too. Makes me wonder if “tribe” was just the glorified term for a tribal family.]

15. What kind of Buddhist monk is this, to advocate enslaving people?!?!

白鹿七 = white deer or goats?

16. 命太子宣出祈福於山川,因行遊獵 = He ordered the Crown Prince to go make sacrifices for blessings around the land, and to go for hunts while he was at it. (don’t ask me why Shi Xuan had to be ordered to go out and play)

但抱子弄孫,日為樂耳 = [I can’t ask for more] but to spend my days enjoying playing with my sons and grandsons.

17. 宣所捨: 捨 should probably be 舍, as in “to stay”. I.e. “every place where Shi Xuan stayed at”

使文武跪立,重行圍守 = he had the civil and military officers to kneel upright (i.e. knees at 90 degrees) in a circle around the barrier

獸盡而止 = until all the animals had been killed

士卒饑凍死者萬有餘人,所過三州十五郡,資儲皆無孑遺: The way you broke up the sentence was a bit weird... should be “over 10k soldiers (not necessarily the locals) died of hunger or cold; in the 15 commandaries of the 3 provinces that Shi Xuan passed through, all the stores were depleted.”

18. 宣怒其與己鈞敵,愈嫉之。 = Shi Xuan was angry that Shi Tao was now put on the same footing as himself, and his jealousy grew.

20. 重華欲稱涼王,未肯受詔 = Zhang Chonghua was unwilling to accept the conferrals as he wanted to become Prince of Liang.

主公弈世為晉忠臣 = For generations, my lord’s family had been loyal servants to Jin

明台宜移河右,共勸州主為涼王。人臣出使,苟利社稷,專之可也。= Sir, why don’t you mobilize the people of the West of the Yellow River to jointly recommend the ruler of their province to become Prince of Liang. When a minister is sent out on a mission, it is all right for him to make such executive decisions as long as it is to the Nation’s benefit.

吾子失言!= Sir, wrongly have you spoken!

昔三代之王也,爵之貴者莫若上公 = During the reigns of the Three Dynasties (Xia/Shang/Zhou), the most noble rank conferred was High Duke.

及周之衰,吳、楚始僭號稱王,而諸侯亦不之非,蓋以蠻夷畜之也;= Only when the power of the Zhou began to fade did Wu and Chu start to assume the kingly title. The only reason why the other feudal lords put up with them was because they had treated Wu and Chu as mere barbarians.

借使齊、魯稱王,諸侯豈不四面攻之乎!= If rulers of states like Qi and Lu [i.e. the powerful and legit/original states] declared themselves kings, would the other lords not rush to attack them?

漢高祖封韓、彭為王,尋皆誅滅,蓋權時之宜,非厚之也。= When Emperor Gaozu of Han made kings of Han Xin and Peng Chao, he later executed them; he was just making them kings to buy time (or, just to deal with the situation at hand), and not because he meant to do them honour.

聖上以貴公忠賢,故爵以上公,任以方伯,寵榮極矣 = As your honourable lord is loyal and wise, His Majesty conferred the title of High Duke on him, entrusting him to the protection of a corner of the empire. This is the highest possible favour and honour.

今貴公始繼世而為王,若帥河右之眾,東平胡、羯,修復陵廟,迎天子返洛陽,將何以加之乎?= Now, your honourable lord has just inherited his position. If he is to be made Prince now, and later he goes on [and kicks ass and restores Jin in Luoyang], with what additional honour could he be rewarded?

Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 18, 2017 1:13 am
by Lady Wu
348 – The year of jaw-dropping developments

2. 欲立之,以太子宣長,猶豫未决: The grammar is weird here, but I think this makes more sense to have Shi Hu as the subject of the sentence (“Shi Hu wanted to make Shi Tao his heir, but because Xuan was older, he couldn’t make a decision”)

韜由是益驕 = because of that, Shi Tao became increasingly more arrogant

造堂于太尉府 = He built a hall at the Grand Commandant’s residence (his own property)

號曰宣光殿 = 殿 is really more of a tall building or a lofty hall, so maybe call this “Xuanguang Hall”

梁 = beam (horizontal)

西宮: HSX’s comment here is actually useful—that was where Shi Hu lived, so Shi Xuan was saying “once I become emperor, I will give Shi Tao’s land to you”

3. 佛精舍: It’s really just a nice term for a Buddhist temple (maybe just say that here and omit the Hu note)

《水經註》:石氏... : 石氏should be read as “Mr. Shi”, aka Hu.

立東明觀於鄴東城上= built Dongming Pavilion by the eastern city walls of Ye

京師 = capital city (not necessarily inside the palace)

將委之以罪 = was planning to put the blame on them

哀過危惙 = was deathly ill from grief

虎悲怒彌甚,囚宣于席庫,以鐵環穿其頷而鏁之= Shi Hu’s grief and anger became even greater. He had Shi Xuan imprisoned in a storehouse for... sitting mats? chairs?, had a ring of iron put through his jaw and used that to lock him up

是重禍也 = you’d be doubling your misfortune

倚梯柴積 = a ladder was leaned against the firewood pile

使韜所幸宦者郝稚、劉霸拔其發,抽其舌,牽之登梯 = He had Shi Tao’s favourite eunuchs Hao Zhi and Liu Ba drag him up the ladder by his hair and tongue.

郝稚以繩貫其頷,鹿盧絞上。= Hao Zhi strung a rope through his jaw and used that and the pulley to hoist him up.

虎從昭儀已下數千人: Not sure where you got Empress Du from, but this is referring to some thousands of female attendants from the rank 昭儀and lower

取灰分置諸門交道中 = the ashes were gathered and spread at the main intersection of each city gate

銅爵臺 = 銅雀臺 (aka Cao Cao’s Hangout)

妻子九人 = 9 including wives and children

兒挽虎衣 大叫,至于絕帶 = The boy grabbed onto Shi Hu’s robes and screamed (as they tried to tear him away from Shi Hu), until [Shi Hu’s] belt broke [and the boy was taken away]

誅其四率已下三百人,宦者五十人 = He executed 300 soldiers under the Eastern Palace’s command and 50 of his eunuchs; they were all ripped apart by chariots

洿其東宮以養猪牛 = defiled the Eastern Palace and made it into a place for keeping livestock

有變 = there will be a disaster (變 can either mean change or disaster)

宜備之 = it’s advisable to be on guard for it

4.相與建行臺於密: 行臺 was the field office of the 尚書, like a local executive branch of the imperial court. 密 is a place name. See Book 87: “⑲司徒傅祗建行臺於河陰,司空荀藩在陽城,〈陽城縣,漢屬潁川郡,晉屬河南郡。〉河南尹華薈在成皋,汝陰太守平陽李矩爲之立屋,輸穀以給之。薈,歆之曾孫也。〈華,戶化翻。汝陰縣,漢屬汝南郡,魏分置汝陰郡,後廢,武帝泰始二年復爲郡。薈,烏外翻。爲,於僞翻。〉藩與弟組、族子中護軍崧,薈與弟中領軍恆建行臺於密,〈密縣,漢屬河南郡,晉屬滎陽郡。〉"

5. 朝野推服 = and is respected by all both in office and not in office

引爲心膂 = took him on to be a trusted supporter(心膂 = someone you trust and rely on like your own heart and spine)

與參綜朝權 = he had him get involved in deciding on affairs of the court

6. 王羲之 = this is a X之

to have them serve as his wings: Is this idiomatic in English? (Almost sounds like he’s going after a girl and needed them to be his wingmen...)

內外協和,然後國家可安 = only by having harmony between those responsible for internal affairs and those responsible for military affairs, can the nation be safe

7. 屬之 = admonished him (there’s no several times)

才堪任重,汝其委之,以成吾志 = he is talented and can be entrusted with weighty affairs. You should make make use of him, to achieve my ambition

皝嘗畋於西鄙 = Murong Huang once went hunting in the western region

見一父老,服硃衣,乘白馬 : GANDALF THE RED

舉手麾皝曰:「此非獵所,王其還也。」: [Gandalf] raised his hand and gestured to Murong Huang, saying, “This is not a hunting ground. You shall not pass You should turn around.”

秘之不言 = Murong Huang didn’t tell anyone about this

乃說所見 = and only then did he tell what he had seen

彭城公母前 以太子事廢 = The Duke of Pengcheng’s mother had been demoted before due to the former Crown Prince’s affair

臣恐不能無微恨 = I fear that [she] may not be completely free of grudge (i.e. she might bear a grudge)

位在左右衞上 = their positions are above those of the Guard of the Left and the Guard of the Right.

陛下再立太子,其母皆出于倡賤,故禍亂相尋 = When Your Majesty chose new crown princes in the past, their mothers were all of common blood, and that’s why disasters happened one after another.

今宜擇母貴子孝者立之 = You should now choose as your crown prince one who has a noble-born mother and who is filial himself.

虎再與群臣議于東堂 = Shi Hu gathered his ministers at the Eastern Hall to discuss the matter again.

何爲專生惡子 = why do I keep giving birth to evil sons?

乃與張舉、李農定議 = thus, he made a plan with Zhang Ju and Li Nong

BOOK 103

Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:21 am
by Taishi Ci 2.0
咸安元年(辛未,公元三七一年)

The First Year of Xian'an (The Xinwei Year, 371 AD)


諱昱,字道萬,元帝之少子也;封琅邪王,後徙封會稽王。海西卽位,琅邪絕嗣,復徙封琅邪,固讓;故雖封琅邪而不去會稽之號。《諡法》:一德不懈曰簡;道德博聞曰文。是年十一月,海西廢,帝卽位,始改元咸安。《通鑑》編年,因以新元繫之。

Sima Yu's personal name, 昱 Yu, now became taboo (upon his ascension in the eleventh month of this year). His style name was Daowan, and he was the youngest son of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui). He had originally had the title Prince of Langye, but he had it changed to Prince of Kuaiji. When the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) inherited the throne, since his former title as Prince of Langye lapsed, he gave it to Sima Yu, although Sima Yu refused it. Sima Yu technically did become the Prince of Langye, but he continued to refer to himself as Prince of Kuaiji. Regarding his posthumous name, the Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is virtuous and not licentious may be called 簡 Jian (Simple)" and "One whose virtue is skilled and learned may be called 文 Wen (Cultured)".

In the eleventh month of this year, the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) was deposed, and Sima Yu (Emperor Jianwen) inherited the throne, so the new reign era Xian'an began. This is why the Tongdian's chronology begins the new reign era at this time.


春,正月,袁瑾、朱輔求救於秦,秦王堅以瑾為揚州刺史,輔為交州刺史,遣武衛將軍武都王鑒、前將軍張蚝帥步騎二萬救之。大司馬溫遣淮南太守桓伊、南頓太守桓石虔等擊鑒、蚝於石橋,大破之,秦兵退屯慎城。伊,宣之子也。丁亥,溫拔壽春。擒瑾及輔並其宗族,送建康斬之。

1. In spring, the first month, the Shouchun rebel leaders Yuan Qin and Zhu Fu requested aid from Qin. Fu Jian recognized Yuan Qin as Inspector of Yangzhou, and Zhu Fu as Inspector of Jiaozhou.

Fu Jian sent his General of 武衛, Wang Jian of Wudu, and his General of the Front, Zhang Qi, with twenty thousand horse and foot to relieve Yuan Qin and Zhu Fu. Grand Marshal Huan Wen sent the Administrator of Huainan, Huan Yi, the Administrator of Nandun, Huan Shiqian, and others to intercept Wang Jian and Zhang Qi at Shiqiao. They greatly routed the Qin forces, who retreated to camp at Shencheng. This Huan Yi was the son of Huan Xuan.

On the day Dinghai (February 18th), Huan Wen retook Shouchun. He captured Yuan Qin and Zhu Fu along with their entire clans, and sent them to Jiankang to be executed.

據《桓溫傳》,石橋在肥水北。愼縣,漢屬汝南郡,晉分屬汝陰郡。唐廬州之愼縣,則梁、魏之間南梁郡之愼縣,漢九江逡遒縣之地,非此愼城。桓宣佐祖逖,拒祖約,守襄陽,皆有功。

According to the Biography of Huan Wen in the Book of Jin, Shiqiao was north of the Fei River.

During Han, Shen County was part of Runan commandary. Jin split it off into Ruyin commandary. There was a Shen County in the Tang dynasty's Luzhou, which was the same Shen County that was in Nanliang commandary on the border between Northern Wei and the Southern Liang dynasty, but that Shen County was what had been known during Han as Qunqiu County in Jiujiang, and it is not the same Shen County mentioned in this passage.

Huan Xuan had been a lieutenant commander under Zu Ti, held out against Zu Yue, and guarded Xiangyang against attacks, and in all these things he was successful.


苻堅乃使其將王鑒、張蠔等率兵以救瑾,屯洛澗,先遣精騎五千次於肥水北。溫遣桓伊及弟子石虔等逆擊,大破之,瑾眾遂潰,生擒之,並其宗族數十人及硃輔送於京都而斬之,所侍養乞活數百人悉坑之,以妻子為賞。(Jinshu 98.64)

Fu Jian then sent his generals Wang Jian, Zhang Qi, and others with soldiers to reinforce Yuan Qin, and they camped at Luojian while sending five thousand elite riders ahead to the north of the Fei River. Huan Wen sent Huan Yi and his own nephew, Huan Shiqian, and others to intercept the Qin army, and greatly routed them. Yuan Qin's soldiers all scattered, and he was captured alive. He, several dozen of his family members, and Zhu Fu were sent to the capital and beheaded, while several hundred of his dependants were all buried alive, and their wives and daughters were distributed as spoils of war.


秦王堅徙關東豪傑及雜夷十五萬戶於關中,處烏桓於馮翊、北地,丁零翟斌於新安、澠池。諸因亂流移、欲還舊業者,悉聽之。

2. Fu Jian relocated many local people and various tribes living in Guandong (the Central Plains), a hundred and fifty thousand households, to Guanzhong. He settled the Wuhuan in Pingyi and Beidi, and he settled the Dingling under Zhai Bin in Xin'an and Mianchi. There was much general confusion from this, with many wanting to return to their former areas, and everyone heard of it.

爲翟斌乘秦亂起兵張本。澠,彌兗翻。

This was the reason for Zhai Bin's later rebellion (Book 105, 383.27).

澠 is pronounced "mian (m-an)".


二月,秦以魏郡太守韋鐘為青州刺史,中壘將軍梁成為兗州刺史,射聲校尉徐成為并州刺史,武衛將軍王鑒為豫州刺史,左將軍彭越為徐州刺史,太尉司馬皇甫覆為荊州刺史,屯騎校尉天水姜宇為涼州刺史,扶風內史王統為益州刺史,秦州刺史西縣侯雅為使持節、都督秦、晉、涼、雍州諸軍事、秦州牧,吏部尚書楊安為使持節、都督益、梁州諸軍事、梁州刺史。復置雍州,治蒲阪;以長樂公丕為使持節、征東大將軍、雍州刺史。成,平老之子;統,擢之子也。堅以關東初平,守令宜得人,令王猛以便宜簡召英俊,補六州守令,授訖,言台除正。

3. In the second month, Qin appointed the Administrator of Wei, Wei Zhong, as Inspector of Qingzhou. The General of 中壘, Liang Cheng, was appointed Inspector of Yanzhou, the Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Xu Cheng, was appointed Inspector of Bingzhou, the General of 武衛, Wang Jian, was appointed Inspector of Yuzhou, the General of the Left, Peng Yue, was appointed Inspector of Xuzhou, the Marshal of the Grand Commandant, Huangfu Fu, was appointed Inspector of Jingzhou, the Colonel of 屯騎, Jiang Yu of Tianshui, was appointed Inspector of Liangzhou, and the Interior Minister of Fufeng, Wang Tong, was appointed Inspector of Yizhou. The Inspector of Qinzhou and Marquis of Xixuan, Fu Ya, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Qinzhou, Jinzhou, Liangzhou, and Yongzhou, and Governor of Qinzhou. The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Yang An, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Liangzhou, and Inspector of Liangzhou. The Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General Who Conquers The East, and Inspector of Yongzhou. This Liang Cheng was the son of Liang Pinglao. This Wang Tong was the son of Wang Zhuo.

Yongzhou was reestablished, and it was administered from Puban.

Since Fu Jian had only just conquered Guandong, he wished to appoint a worthy viceroy to keep the territory in order. So he selected Wang Meng, and charged him to gather to him the worthy and talented people of that place and act as viceroy over the six Yan provinces, help to put things in order, and wield authority by his own word.

青州刺史治廣固。《晉志》曰:秦旣滅燕,以兗州刺史鎭倉垣,幷州刺史鎭晉陽,豫州刺史鎭洛陽,徐州刺史鎭彭城。秦初以荊州刺史鎭豐陽,後移襄陽。余按此時秦未得襄陽,蓋仍燕之舊鎭魯陽也。涼州屬張天錫。益州,晉土也。秦蓋置涼州於天水界,置益州於扶風界。雅,苻氏也。前此未有晉州;涼之張氏分西平界置晉興郡,秦蓋於此置晉州也。堅欲進圖梁、益,故置梁、益二州刺史。楊安旣克仇池,始加督南秦州,鎭仇池。穆帝永和十年,王擢降秦。秦省雍州見上卷上年。奏上秦朝,除爲正官也。嗚呼!荀卿子有言:兼幷易也,堅凝之難。以苻堅之明,王猛之略,簡召六州英俊以補守令,然鮮卑乘亂一呼,翕然爲燕,以此知天下之勢,但觀人心向背何如耳。

The Inspector of Qingzhou administered the province from Guanggu.

The Records of Jin states, "After Qin conquered Yan, this was their administrative structure: the Inspector of Yanzhou was stationed at Cangyuan; Bingzhou, at Jinyang; Yuzhou, at Luoyang; Xuzhou, at Pengcheng; and Jingzhou, originally at Fengyang (as it had been since Qin's founding), but later at Xiangyang (once Qin captured it)." But regarding Jingzhou, I believe that before Qin conquered Xiangyang, they administered it from Luyang, as Yan had done before them.

At this time, Liangzhou was still under the control of Zhang Tianxi, and Yizhou was Jin territory. Qin's border with Liangzhou was at Tianshui, and their border with Yizhou was at Fufeng.

Fu Ya was a member of the Fu royal family. There had not been any such province as 晉州 Jinzhou before now. The Zhang clan of Liangzhou had split the western half of Xiping into Jinxing commandary, and this was what Qin called "Jinzhou".

Fu Jian was announcing his intention to conquer Liangzhou and Yizhou by appointing Inspectors over those provinces. After Yang An conquered Chouchi, he was given further control over "Southern Qinzhou", and was stationed at Chouchi.

Wang Zhuo had surrendered to Qin in Emperor Mu's tenth year of Yonghe (354.28).

Qin had abolished Yongzhou in the previous year, as mentioned in the last chapter (370.40)

Wang Meng was sent out of the Qin court, to become an actual official. But alas! Xun Qingzi once said: "It is easy to conquer the land, but harder to assimilate the people.” (Xunzi 15.27) Fu Jian's foresight, and Wang Meng's craft, their administration of the six provinces and gathering of talents, and the great hue and cry of the Xianbei, all turned out to be for the benefit of Yan. Fu Jian could envision the trends of the realm, but he was unable to see what burdens the people could bear.


三月,壬辰,益州刺史建成定公周楚卒。

4. In the third month, on the day Renchen (April 24th), Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Chu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Ding of Jiancheng.

《諡法》:大慮靜民曰定。

The Laws of Posthumous Surnames states, "One who calms the cares and concerns of the people may be called 定 Ding (Settled)".


秦後將軍金城俱難攻蘭陵太守張閔子於桃山,大司馬溫遣兵擊卻之。

5. Qin's General of the Rear, Ju Nan of Jincheng, attacked Jin's Administrator of Lanling, Zhang Minzi, at Taoshan. Grand Marshal Huan Wen sent troops to attack him.

俱,姓;難,名。魏收《地形志》:蘭陵昌慮縣有桃山。

俱 Ju was this man's surname and 難 Nan was his given name.

Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "Taoshan is in Changlü County in Lanling commandary."


秦西縣侯雅、楊安、五統、徐成及羽林左監朱肜、揚武將軍姚萇帥步騎七萬伐仇池公楊纂。

6. Qin's Marquis of Xixian, Fu Ya, Yang An, Wu Tong, Xu Cheng, the Left Inspector of the Feathered Forest Imperial Guard, Zhu Yong, and the General Who Displays Valor, Yao Chang, led seventy thousand horse and foot to campaign against the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Cuan.

肜,余中翻。

肜 is pronounced "yong (y-ong)".


代將長孫斤謀弒代王什翼犍,世子寔格之,傷脅,遂執斤,殺之。

7. In Dai, the general Zhangsun Jin plotted to kill the King of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. Tuoba’s eldest son, Tuoba Shi, blocked Zhangsun Jin’s attack and took a wound in his side. Zhangsun Jin was captured and killed.

代之先拓跋鄰,以次兄爲拔跋氏,後改爲長孫氏。

One of the ancestors of the Tuoba line was Tuoba Lin. His brother's descendants (presumably as a cadet branch) changed their surname first to Baba, and then later again to Zhangsun.


夏,四月,戊午,大赦。

8. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Wuwu (May 20th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

秦兵至鷲峽,楊纂帥眾五萬拒之。梁州刺史弘農楊亮遣督護郭寶、卜靖帥千餘騎助纂,與秦兵戰於峽中;纂兵大敗,死者什三、四。寶等亦沒,纂收散兵遁還。西縣侯雅進攻仇池,楊統帥武都之眾降秦。纂懼,面縛出降,雅送纂於長安。以統為南秦州刺史;加楊安都督南秦州諸軍事,鎮仇池。

9. When the invading Qin army reached Jiuxia, Yang Cuan led an army of fifty thousand to oppose them. Jin’s Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang of Hongnong, sent his Protectors Guo Bao and Bo Jing with more than a thousand cavalry to assist Yang Cuan. They fought with the Qin army at Xiazhong. Yang Cuan's army suffered a great defeat, and three or four of every ten of his men were killed. Guo Bao and the others were also lost. Yang Cuan gathered his men and fell back to defend.

Fu Ya advanced to attack Chouchi; Yang Tong came from Wudu with his men to surrender to Qin. Yang Cuan was greatly afraid, and presented himself in surrender. Fu Ya sent him on to Chang'an. Yang Tong was appointed as Inspector of Southern Qinzhou. Yang An had Southern Qinzhou added to his area of responsibility as Commander, and he was stationed at Chouchi.

鷲峽在仇池北,亦謂之塞峽。鷲,音就。統與纂爭國,見上卷上年。秦置秦州於上邽,仇池在其南,故置南秦州。

Jiuxia was north of Chouchi; it was also called Saixia. 鷲 is pronounced "jiu".

It was mentioned in the previous year, in the last book (370.41), that Yang Tong was warring with his nephew Yang Cuan over Chouchi.

Qin administered Qinzhou from Shanggui. Since Chouchi was south of there, that region was called Southern Qinzhou.


王猛之破張天錫於枹罕也,獲其將敦煌陰據及甲士五千人。秦王堅既克楊纂,遣據帥其甲士還涼州,使著作郎梁殊、閻負送之,因命王猛為書諭天錫曰:「昔貴先公稱籓劉、石者,惟審於強弱也。今論涼土之力,則損於往時;語大秦之德,則非二趙之匹;而將軍翻然自絕,無乃非宗廟之福也歟!以秦之威,旁振無外,可以回弱水使東流,返江、河使西注。關東既平,將移兵河右,恐非六郡士民所能抗也。劉表謂漢南可保,將軍謂西河可全,吉兇在身,元龜不遠,宜深算妙慮,自求多福,無使六世之業一旦而墜地也!」天錫大懼,遣使謝罪稱籓。堅拜天錫使持節、都督河右諸軍事、驃騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、涼州刺史、西平公。

10. When Wang Meng had defeated Zhang Tianxi at Fuhan during the Li Yan incident, he had captured Zhang Tianxi’s subordinate officer, Yin Ju of Dunhuang, and about five thousand other soldiers. Now, since Fu Jian had defeated Yang Cuan, he sent Yin Ju and the captives back to Liangzhou. He also dispatched his 著作郎s Liang Zhu and Yan Fu there, to bring Zhang Tianxi a message from Wang Meng.

事見一百一卷海西公太和元年。穆帝永和十二年,秦遣殊、負使涼,今復遣之。

The Li Yan incident was mentioned in Book 101, in the Duke of Haixi's (Emperor Fei's) first year of Taihe (366.12).

These were the same Liang Zhu and Yan Fu who had been sent as envoys to Liangzhou by Fu Sheng, as mentioned in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356.6). Fu Jian had sent them again.


This was the message: “In past years, your ancestors submitted themselves as border vassals to the Liu clan of Han-Zhao and the Shi clan of Later Zhao, and they took this step because they knew the relative strength between themselves and these states. Now, if we discuss Liangzhou's strength, it is less now than it was back then; if we discuss Qin's virtue, it is much greater than that of the two Zhao’s; and for you, General, to so suddenly break off relations as you did before could not possibly bring good fortune to your royal clan! When it comes to Qin's might, no one can compare. Why, if we wished it, we could make the Ruo River flow back east, and the Yangzi and Yellow Rivers flow back west.

“Since we have already conquered Guandong, our troops will soon be moving to Heyou, and I fear the people of your six commandaries will not be able to oppose them. Liu Biao once said, ‘In the south of Han, I can be safe’. General, you may believe that west of the Yellow River, you can be secure. But consider your own fortune, and remember that the old tortoise is not far off. You should give careful and considered thought to your situation. Add to your fortunes, and do not cast away in a single day the land your ancestors built up over six generations!”

Zhang Tianxi, afraid, sent back a message asking pardon for his offense and notice of his submission. Fu Jian appointed Zhang Tianxi as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of affairs in Heyou, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, with authority equal to the Three Excellencies, as Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.

張茂稱藩於劉曜,事見九十二卷明帝太寧元年。張駿稱藩於石勒,事見九十四卷成帝咸和五年。絕秦見一百卷太和元年。禹之治水,高高下下,因天地之性,弱水西流,江、河東注。今言能反之回之,喻秦威力之強也。涼州六郡,以張軌初鎭河西之時,統治武威、張掖、酒泉、敦煌、西郡、西海六郡言之也。元康以後,張氏所分置,其爲郡多矣。事見《漢獻帝紀》。自張軌保據河西,至天錫凡九主。今言六世者,不以曜靈、祚、玄靚爲世數。

Zhang Mao had submitted as vassal to Liu Yao, as mentioned in Book 92 in Emperor Ming's first year of Taining (323). Zhang Jun had submitted to Shi Le, as mentioned in Book 94 in Emperor Cheng's fifth year of Xianhe (330).

Zhang Tianxi had severed ties with Qin in Book 100, in the first year of Taihe (366.10).

In great antiquity, Yu the Great had tamed the floodwaters. When he decided how to channel the rivers, because of their natural dispositions, he made the Ruo River flow west, and the Yangzi and Yellow Rivers flow east. In making the boast that Qin could make these rivers flow backwards to their sources, Wang Meng was speaking of the great power of Qin.

The mention of Liangzhou's "six commandaries" refers to the six commandaries which existed in that territory at the time when Zhang Gui and his clan first took control of it. They were Wuwei, Zhangye, Jiuquan, Dunhuang, Xi ("West"), and Xihai commandaries. But after the Yuankang era (291-300) had passed, the Zhang clan had divided up these commandaries, and made several new ones.

This Liu Biao reference is from the "Records of Emperor Xian of Han".

From when Zhang Gui took control over Hexi until Zhang Tianxi, Liangzhou had had nine masters. When Wang Meng says "six generations", he must be excluding Zhang Yaoling, Zhang Zuo, and Zhang Xuanjing.


吐谷渾王辟奚聞楊纂敗,五月,遣使獻馬千匹、金銀五百斤於秦。秦以辟奚為安遠將軍、漒川侯。辟奚,葉延之子也,好學,仁厚而無威斷。三弟專恣,國人患之。長史鐘惡地,西漒羌豪也,謂司馬乞宿雲曰:「三弟縱橫,勢出王右,幾亡國矣。吾二人位為元輔,豈得坐而視之!詰朝月望,文武並會,吾將討焉。王之左右皆吾羌子,轉目一顧,立可擒也。」宿雲請先白王,惡地曰:「王仁而無斷,白之必不從。萬一事洩,吾屬無類矣。事已出口,何可中變!」遂於坐收三弟,殺之。辟奚驚怖,自投床下,惡地、宿雲趨而扶之曰:「臣昨夢先王刺臣雲:『三弟將為逆,不可不討。』故誅之耳。」辟奚由是發病恍惚,命世子視連曰:「吾禍及同生,何以見之於地下!國事大小,任汝治之,吾餘年殘命,寄食而已。」遂以憂卒。

11. The king of the Tuyuhun, Murong Pixi, heard that Yang Cuan had been defeated. In the fifth month, he sent four thousand horses and five hundred catties of gold and silver as tribute to Qin. Qin appointed him as General Who Calms Distant Lands and Marquis of Qiangchuan.

This Murong Pixi was the son of Murong Yeyan. He was well educated, honest and kindhearted, and not oppressive. But his third brother was unrestrained, and caused trouble for the people of the state.

吐,從暾入聲。谷,音浴。漒,其良翻。羌人據漒川之地,分爲東西。葉延見九十四卷成帝咸和四年。

吐 is a sound from 暾 (is pronounced t-u?). 谷 is pronounced "yu". 漒 is pronounced "qiang (q-iang)". The Qiang occupied the area around Qiangchuan as their territory, splitting it in half between east and west.

Tuoba Yeyan is mentioned in Book 94, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xianhe (329).


His Chief Clerk, Zhong Edi, a Qiang from Xiqiang (western Qiangchuan), said to the Marshal Qi Suyun, "The third brother is unrestrained and his influence spreads far. He has often threatened the state. We two are the chief ministers of our lord’s household; how can we simply watch this happen and do nothing? Let us summon a full moon meeting (a mid-month meeting) of all the officers and ministers, and we can move against him there. Those around the king are all Qiang, and they will help us. We will definitely capture the third brother then."

Qi Suyun asked to first inform the king about the plot. Zhong Edi said, "The king is benevolent and not ruthless; if you inform him of the plot, he will certainly not agree. If any leaks got out, that would be the end for us. This has already started, and we cannot change things now!"

So at the meeting, they seized the third brother, and killed him. Murong Pixi, terrified, threw himself under the bed. Zhong Edi and Qi Suyun hastened to help him and said, "We dreamed that our late lord ordered us, 'The third brother will soon go against us, and it cannot be helped but to strike first.' That is the only reason we punished him."

But Murong Pixi was overcome by his guilt, and he went into a stupor. He said to his eldest son, Murong Shilian, "I have brought calamity upon my own family, and how can I bear to face them in the world below? All affairs of state, I now leave in your hands. All that remains for me is to live out my remaining years, eating food and awaiting the end." And he died from his sorrow.

長史、司馬,府之元僚。日行遲,一年一周天;月行速,一月一周天而與日會。日月之會,謂之合朔。自合朔之後,月又先日而行,至十五日,日月相望,謂之月望。人無精爽,謂之恍惚。

Chief Clerk and Major were the chief officials of the royal household.

The sun moves through the heavens slowly, and completes a revolution once a year. The moon moves through the heavens quickly, and completes a revolution once a month, when it meets with the sun. This time when the sun and moon meet is called a "new moon meeting". After the new moon meeting, the moon moves ahead of the sun, until on the fifteenth day of the month, the sun and the moon are opposite of each other, and that is called a "full moon meeting".

When a man becomes muddle-headed and loses mental acuity, he is said to be in a trance or stupor.


視連立,不飲酒游畋者七年,軍國之事,委之將佐。鐘惡地諫,以為:「人主當自娛樂,建威布德。」視連泣曰:「孤自先世以來,以仁孝忠恕相承。先王念友愛之不終,悲憤而亡。孤雖纂業,屍存而已,聲色游娛,豈所安也!威德之建,當付之將來耳。」

12. After Tuoba Shilian came to the throne, he refused to drink wine or go hunting for seven years, and he left all matters of civil or military affairs in the hands of his subordinates. Zhong Edi remonstrated with him, saying that the ruler should find pleasure for himself, strengthen the state's might, and spread virtue. Tuoba Shilian tearfully replied, "Ever since my father's time, I have been benevolently filial and considerately loyal to all. Yet my father's love and affection were not sufficient for him, and he perished in his grief. And although I do now hold the throne, and my body does exist, how can I take any pleasure in joyful sights and sounds, and what peace would I gain from them? As for establishing might or virtue, just leave such things to someone else."

辟奚之死,視連之立,其事非皆在是年。《通鑑》因辟奚入貢于秦,遂連而書之,以見辟奚父子天性仁孝,不可以夷狄異類視之也。

Murong Pixi's death, Murong Shilian's ascension, and the other affairs mentioned did not happen in the same year. The Tongdian mentions that when Tuoba Pixi began sending tribute to Qin, it was continuously recorded. From that, we can see that Murong Pixi and his son were both of a benevolent and filial nature, and not of the same sort as the other barbarians.


代世子寔病傷而卒。

13. The Crown Prince of Dai, Tuoba Shi, passed away from his wounds.

格長孫斤而被傷也。

These were the wounds he had suffered from Zhangsun Jin's attack earlier in the year.


秋,七月,秦王堅如洛陽。

14. In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Jian went to Luoyang.

代世子寔娶東部大人賀野干之女,有遺腹子,甲戌,生男,代王什翼犍為之赦境內,名曰涉圭。

15. The late Tuoba Shi had been married to the daughter of an eastern chief, He Yegan. His wife was pregnant at the time of his death. On the day Jiaxu (August 4th), she gave birth to a son. Tuoba Shiyijian declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he gave the boy the name Shegui.

據《北史》,賀野干,卽賀蘭部酋長。《魏書‧官氏志》,北方賀蘭,後改爲賀氏。拓跋珪造魏事始此。

According to the History of the Northern Dynasties, He Yegan was the chief of the Helan clan. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei mentions this northern clan was originally surnamed Helan, but later shortened their surname to He.

Tuoba Gui's establishment of Northern Wei began here (since he was the infant Shegui).


大司馬溫以梁、益多寇,周氏世有威名,八月,以寧州刺史周仲孫監益、梁二州諸軍事,領益州刺史。仲孫,光之子也。

16. Huan Wen was troubled by many bandits in Lianzhou and Yizhou. The Zhou clan had long held fame in those regions. In the eighth month, he appointed the Inspector of Ningzhou, Zhou Zhongsun, as chief over Yizhou and Liangzhou affairs, appointing him as acting Inspector of Yizhou. This Zhou Zhongsun was the son of Zhou Guang.

周訪、周撫、周楚皆著威名於梁、益。周光見九十三卷明帝太寧三年。

Zhou Fang, Zhou Fu, and Zhou Chu were the members of that clan who had all made a mighty reputation for themselves in Liangzhou and Yizhou.

Zhou Guang is mentioned in Book 93, in Emperor Ming's third year of Taining (325).


秦以光祿勳李儼為河州刺史,鎮武始。

17. Qin appointed the Minister of the Household, the former rebel Li Yan, as Inspector of Hezhou, and he was (ostensibly) stationed at Wushi.

河西張駿以興晉、金城、武始、南安、永晉、大夏、武城、漢中爲河州。武始郡,治狄道,亦張駿所置。

Zhang Jun had combined the commandaries of Xingjin, Jincheng, Wushi, Nan'an, Yongjin, Daya, Wucheng, and Hanzhong into Hezhou. Wushi commandary, which was administered from Didao, was also created by Zhang Jun.


王猛以潞川之功,請以鄧羌為司隸。秦王堅下詔曰:「司隸校尉,董牧皇畿,吏責甚重,非所以優禮名將。光武不以吏事處功臣,實貴之也。羌有廉、李之才,朕方委以征伐之事,北平匈奴,南蕩揚、越,羌之任也,司隸何足以嬰之!其進號鎮軍將軍,位特進。」

18. Wang Meng, by virtue of his victory over Yan at Luchuan, asked that Deng Qiang be given the title Director of Retainers, as per their earlier understanding.

Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "The position of Colonel Director of Retainers is charged with governing the region around the imperial capital. Its official duties are heavy, not suitable treatment for a renowned general. In the same way, Emperor Guangwu showed his true appreciation for his accomplished generals by the fact that he did not reward them with official posts. Now Deng Qiang has the talents of Lian Po and Li Mu. On my behalf, he has conquered, subduing the Xiongnu in the north and smiting Yangzhou and Yue in the south. For a man in his position, can the office of Director of Retainers be suitable? Therefore I appoint him as General Who Guards The Army, and he is honored as Specially Advanced."

見上卷上年。見四十三卷漢光武建武十三年。

Wang Meng's victory at Luchuan was mentioned in the previous year (370.21), in the last book (Book 102).

This reference to Emperor Guangwu of Han, where after his reunification of the Han empire he pointedly did not reward his generals with ministerial posts, is mentioned in Book 43, in Emperor Guangwu's thirteenth year of Jianwu (37 AD).


九月,秦王堅還長安。歸安元侯李儼卒於上邽,堅復以儼子辯為河州刺史。

19. In the ninth month, Fu Jian returned to Chang'an.

The Qin officer and former rebel Li Yan passed away at Shanggui. He was posthumously known as Marquis Yuan of Gui'an. Fu Jian appointed Li Yan's son, Li Bian, as Inspector of Hezhou.

《諡法》:能思辨衆曰元;行義說民曰元。晉武受禪,當時之臣死,多有諡元者,固非以行定諡也。

The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is able to consider and control the multitude, or who can advance virtue and guide the people, may be called 元 Yuan (Original or Foremost)." At the time when Sima Yan accepted the abdication of Wei, many ministers who died were given the posthumous name Yuan, and it was difficult to settle this.


冬,十月,秦王堅如鄴,獵於西山,旬餘忘返。伶人王洛叩馬諫曰:「陛下群生所系,今久獵不歸,一旦患生不虞,奈太后、天下何!」堅為之罷獵還宮。王猛因進言曰:「畋獵誠非急務,王洛之言,不可忘也。」堅賜洛帛百匹,拜官箴左右,自是不復獵。

20. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jian went to Ye, where he went hunting in the western hills, and spent more than ten days without thinking of returning. The actor Wang Luo knocked his horse and remonstrated, saying, "Your Majesty is closely tied to all of us, yet you have been hunting this long without returning. If anything should befall you, what will happen to the Empress Dowager or the realm?"

Fu Jian therefore ended his hunt and went back to the palace. Wang Meng said to him, "You have frivolously hunted and neglected affairs. Do not forget what Wang Luo has said to you." Fu Jian rewarded Wang Luo with a hundred rolls of silk, and accepted the admonishments of his officials. From then on, he did not go hunting again.

鄭玄曰:伶官,樂官也。伶氏世掌樂官而善焉,故後世多號樂官爲伶官。《左傳》:昔周辛甲之爲太史,命百官官箴王闕,於《虞人之箴》曰:「芒芒禹迹,畫爲九州,經啓九道。民有寢廟,獸有茂草,各有攸處,德用不擾。在帝夷羿,冒于原獸,忘其國恤而思其麀牡。武不可重,用不恢于夏家。獸臣司原,敢告僕夫。」《虞箴》如是,以戒獵也。堅倣其意拜洛爲官箴左右。

Zheng Xuan mentioned in his writings, "A 伶官 ('actor') is a 樂官 ('musician')." This is because the families of actors were originally skilled with musical instruments, and even later on many people called musicians "actors".

The Zuo Commentary states, "Formerly, in the times of our own Zhou, when Xin Jia was grand historiographer, he ordered each of the officers to write some lines reproving the king's defects. In the lines of the forester it was said,

'Wide and long Yu travelled about, When the nine regions he laid out, And through them led the nine-fold route.
The people then safe homes possessed; Beasts ranged the grassy plains with zest.
For man and beast sweet rest was found, And virtue reigned the empire round.
Then took Yi Yi the emperor's place, His sole pursuit the wild beasts' chase.
The people's care he quite forgot. Of does and stags alone he thought.
Wars and such pastimes kings should flee; Soon passed the power of Xia from Yi.
A forester, these lines I pen, And offer to my king's good men.'

Such were the lines of the forester; is there not matter of admonition in them?" (Cheng 4.7)

In like manner did Fu Jian reward Wang Luo and accept the admonishments of his attendants.


大司馬溫恃其材略位望,陰蓄不臣之志,嘗撫枕歎曰:「男子不能流芳百世,亦當遺臭萬年!」術士杜炅能知人貴賤,溫問炅以己祿位所至,炅曰:「明公勳格宇宙,位極人臣。」溫不悅。溫欲先立功河朔,以收時望,還受九錫。及枋頭之敗,威名頓挫。既克壽春,謂參軍郗超曰:「足以雪枋頭之恥乎?」超曰:「未也。」久之,超就溫宿,中夜,謂溫曰:「明公都無所慮乎?」溫曰:「卿欲有言邪?」超曰:「明公當天下重任,今以六十之年,敗於大舉,不建不世之勳,不足以鎮愜民望!」溫曰:「然則奈何?」超曰:「明公不為伊、霍之舉者,無以立大威權,鎮壓四海。」溫素有心,深以為然,遂與之定議。以帝素謹無過,而床第易誣,乃言「帝早有痿疾,嬖人相龍、計好、朱炅寶等,參侍內寢,二美人田氏、孟氏生三男,將建儲立王,傾移皇基。」密播此言於民間,時人莫能審其虛實。

21. Huan Wen was grasping at power, and he secretly harbored ambitions to be more than a minister. The 嘗撫 Zhen Tan said, "This boy will not leave a good name that lasts a hundred centuries; rather, his stench will endure for ten thousand years!"

The soothsayer Du Gui could measure men's worth. Huan Wen asked Du Gui what position he would achieve. Du Gui said, "Your Grace will move through the cosmos, and achieve the highest position a minister can attain." But Huan Wen was not satisfied with this.

桓溫心迹,固不畏人之知之也,然而不獲逞者,制於命也,孰謂天位可以智力奸邪!炅,古迥翻。其志願不止於此,故不悅。

Huan Wen was unafraid to let people know his true ambitions. In the end, he did not attain what he desired. But if he had, and the imperial throne became his, who knows what his evil genius might have accomplished?

炅 is pronounced "gui (g-iong)".

Huan Wen was not satisfied because his ambitions went further than this prediction.


Huan Wen’s plan was to first achieve success by recovering the lost territories north of the Yangzi, and then when the time was right, demand to receive the Nine Bestowments. But after his defeat at Fangtou, his glory was diminished. Having subdued the rebellion at Shouchun, he asked his advisor Chi Chao, "Has the shame of Fangtou been washed away?" Chi Chao replied, "Not yet."

枋頭之敗,事見上卷太和四年。

Huan Wen's defeat at Fangtou against Yan was mentioned in the last book, Book 102, in the fourth year of Taihe (369.10).


Later, Chi Chao went to Huan Wen's residence in the middle of the night, and asked him, "Are you willing to do whatever it takes?"

Huan Wen asked him, "What are you suggesting?"

Chi Chao replied, "Right now, you occupy a weighty position in the realm. But it has been sixty years since the barbarians captured the north, and with this defeat, things have not been established, and it is not sufficient to protect or satisfy the people!"

Huan Wen asked, "Then what is to be done?"

Chi Chao replied, "You would do well to take up the role of Yi Yin and Huo Guang, and establish a worthy person on the throne. Then all within the Four Seas can be settled." Huan Wen himself also deeply agreed with this idea, so he began to discuss things openly with Chi Chao.

超知溫心而迎合之,溫遂與定議。

Chi Chao knew of Huan Wen's ambitions and he catered to them, so Huan Wen could discuss things openly with him.


Huan Wen subtly began to spread rumors about Emperor Fei, to the effect of: "The Emperor has long had the ‘hidden numbness’, and his attendants Xiang Long, Ji Hao, Zhu Guibao, and others have been sleeping with his women. The beauties Lady Tian and Lady Meng have birthed three sons by them, and he plans to establish them as princes, and set aside the true line." He secretly spread these rumors among the common people, and soon no one knew what the truth was.

楊正衡曰:《字林》:痿,痹也。余謂此蓋言陰痿也。相與計,皆姓也。何承天《姓苑》,相,悉良翻。范曄《後漢書》有計子勳。

Yang Zhengheng remarked, "The 'Forest of Characters' mentions that 痿 means 'paralysis' or 'numbness'." I believe that this includes what is mentioned here as the "hidden numbness". (Presumably erectile dysfunction.)

In the above passage, 相 Xiang and 計 Ji are both surnames. He Chengtian's 'Garden of Surnames' states that 相 is pronounced "xiang (x-iang)". Fan Ye's Book of Later Han mentions a certain 計子勳 Ji Zixun.


十一月,癸卯,溫自廣陵將還姑孰,屯於白石。丁未,詣建康,諷褚太后,請廢帝,立丞相會稽王昱,並作令草呈之。太后方在佛屋燒香,內侍啟雲:「外有急奏。」太后出,倚戶視奏數行,乃曰:「我本自疑此!」至半,便止,索筆益之曰:「未亡人不幸罹此百憂,感念存沒,心焉如割。」

22. In the eleventh month, on the day Guimao (December 31st), Huan Wen returned from Guangling back to Gushu, and camped at Baishi.

On the day Dingwei (January 4th), Huan Wen reported to Jiankang, and went to see Empress Dowager Chu. He asked her to depose Emperor Fei, and to place the Prime Minister and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, on the throne in his stead, and to compose an edict to that effect. Empress Dowager Chu went to burn incense in the palace’s Buddha chamber. Her attendants there whispered to her, “Those people outside are anxious to receive your edict.” When she went out, many flatterers followed after her offering to compose the edict, but she said, "I shall do it myself." So they stopped. In addition to what had been demanded, she had added the lines, "This widow has suffered more than a hundred kinds of grief. I consider those who have died and those who still live, and my heart is like being cut by knives."

此白石蓋在牛渚西南桓玄破譙王尚之處,非陶侃令庾亮所守白石壘也。先草定太后令而呈之於太后。建屋於宮中以奉佛,故謂之佛屋。杜預曰:婦人旣寡,自稱未亡人。

This is the same Baishi, southwest of Niu Islet, where Huan Xuan later routed the army of the Prince of Qiao, Sima Wang. But it is not the same Baishi Rampart which Tao Kan charged Yu Liang with guarding (during Su Jun's revolt?).

That is to say, Huan Wen wanted the Empress Dowager to compose the edict for him in her own hand.

The room set up inside the palace for offering worship to the Buddha was called the Buddha chamber.

Du Yu remarked, "When a wife is left widowed, she may refer to herself as a 未亡人 (literally 'not yet dead person')." This is the term which Empress Dowager Chu used in her edict to refer to herself.


己酉,溫集百官於朝堂。廢立既曠代所無,莫有識其故典者,百官震心栗。溫亦色動,不知所為。尚書僕射王彪之知事不可止,乃謂溫曰:「公阿衡皇家,當倚傍先代。」乃命取《霍光傳》,禮度儀制,定於須臾。彪之朝服當階,神彩毅然,曾無懼容。文武儀准,莫不取定,朝廷以此服之。於是宣太后令,廢帝為東海王,以丞相、錄尚書事、會稽王昱統承皇極。百官入太極前殿,溫使督護竺瑤、散騎侍郎劉亨收帝璽綬。帝著白帢單衣,步下西堂,乘犢車出神虎門,群臣拜辭,莫不歔欷。侍御史、殿中監將兵百人衛送東海第。溫帥百官具乘輿法駕,迎會稽王於會稽邸。王於朝堂變服,著平巾幘、單衣,東向流涕,拜受璽綬,是日,即皇帝位,改元。溫出次中堂,分兵屯衛。溫有足疾,詔乘輿入殿。溫撰辭,欲陳述廢立本意,帝引見,便泣下數十行,溫兢懼,竟不能一言而出。

23. On the day Jiyou (January 6th), Huan Wen gathered all the court officials in the palace court. He charged Emperor Fei as being uniquely unqualified for his position, one who was in no way in compliance with the standards he was meant to follow. After making this charge, all the court officials shuddered with hearts full of fear. Huan Wen himself also had an uncertain expression, not knowing how his charge would be received.

Then the Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, spoke up. He knew that he could not stop what Huan Wen was doing, so he said to him, "A Heng (Yi Yin) also judged his imperial sovereign. We should follow his precedent." So it was ordered for someone to fetch the Biography of Huo Guang from the Book of Han, so that everyone could be done in accordance with the methods and ceremonies that he had used in his own time, and the process could be handled quickly. Wang Biaozhi stood on the palace steps in court attire through it all, assuming a divine countenance, and not fearing to handle anything. So all the civil and military officials were prepared to follow the rites, and there was nothing that was not taken care of peaceably. Thus was the court handled.

伊尹曰阿衡,放太甲于桐。喻溫廢立,行伊尹之事也。用霍光廢昌邑王故事。晉朝以此服王彪之,余甚恨彪之得此名於晉朝也。彪之父彬,不畏死以折王敦,此爲可服耳。

Yi Yin, also called A Heng, had deposed his prince Taijia. Wang Biaozhi suggests that in Huan Wen's deposition of the Emperor, he should follow Yi Yin's precedent.

They consulted the story of Huo Guang's deposition of the Prince of Changyi.

I regret that Wang Biaozhi gained this reputation as a Jin minister through his actions over the court at this time. His father, Wang Bin, did not bow to the rebel Wang Dun even unto death, and that is the true mark of a minister.


In accordance with the order given by the Empress Dowager, Emperor Fei was demoted to Prince of Donghai, while the Prime Minister, chief of the imperial secretariat, and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, was given the imperial dignity. The officials all entered the front hall of Taiji Palace, and Huan Wen sent his Protector Zhu Yao and his Gentleman Attendant of 散騎, Liu Heng, to collect the imperial seals of office. The deposed Emperor Fei, wearing a white unlined garment, walked down through the Western Hall, and rode in a calf-cart out through the Shenhu Gate. All the ministers gathered to take their leave of him, and there was not a one of them who did not sob at the sight. Then the Attendant Imperial Secretary and the chief of the palace guards, leading a hundred soldiers, escorted him to the Donghai Residence. Meanwhile, Huang Wen sent the officials, together with the imperial carriage, to go welcome Sima Yu at the Kuaiji Residence. Sima Yu changed out of his court attire, putting on a flat headdress and an unlined garment, and wept as he faced toward the east. Then he received the seals, and on that day, he ascended the throne as Emperor Jianwen, and the reign era title was changed.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《三十國春秋》,「亨」皆作「享」。《後魏書‧僭晉傳》作「亨」,今從之。晉制,諸公給朝車、安車、皁輪犢車各一乘。東漢都雒陽,宮有廣義、神虎門。賢《註》曰:廣義、神虎,洛陽宮西門也,在金商門外。然則神虎門亦建康宮西門乎?殿中監,掌監天子服御之事。平巾幘,蓋卽平上幘。單衣,江左諸人所以見尊者之服,所謂巾褠也。改元咸安。

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "According to the Imperial Records and the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, Huan Wen's subordinate is written as Liu 享 Xiang. But the 僭晉傳 chapter in the Book of Later Wei records it as Liu 亨 Heng, and I follow it."

According to the Jin traditions, the dukes were granted court carriages, 安車s, and black-wheeled calf-carts, one of each.

During Eastern Han, when the capital was at Luoyang, the palace had the Guangyi and the Shenhu Gates. Xian's "Notes" states, "The Guangyi and Shenhu Gates were the western palace gates in Luoyang, beyond the Jinshang Gate." Could the Shenhu Gate also have been the Jiankang palace's western gate?

The chief of the palace guards was in charge of the Son of Heaven's personal defenses.

The 平巾幘 headdress also includes the 平上幘 headdress. An "unlined garment" was what the people north of the Yangzi all saw an honored person wear. So this combination was called a 巾褠.

The reign era title was changed to the beginning of Xian'an.


Huan Wen took up residence in the Central Hall, and sent out troops to various places to stand guard. At that time, he had a kind of foot illness, so he summoned a carriage to bring him into the palace. He had chosen his words carefully, wishing to outline his reasons for why he had carried out Emperor Fei's deposition and the new Emperor's ascension. But when Emperor Jianwen saw him, he wept several more times. Huan Wen, cautious and afraid, could say nothing further, and he left.

預撰辭,欲入見而陳之。

Huan Wen had carefully chosen his words, because he wished to see the Emperor and defend his actions.


太宰武陵王晞,好習武事,為溫所忌,欲廢之,以事示王彪之。彪之曰:「武陵親尊,未有顯罪,不可以猜嫌之間便相廢徙。公建立聖明,當崇獎王室,與伊、周同美;此大事,宜更深詳。」溫曰:「此已成事,卿勿復言!」乙卯,溫表「晞聚納輕剽,息綜矜忍;袁真叛逆,事相連染。頃日猜懼,將成亂階。請免晞官,以王歸籓。」從之,並免其世子綜、梁王□逢等官。溫使魏郡太守毛安之帥所領宿衛殿中。安之,虎生之弟也。

24. The Grand Governor and Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was practiced in military affairs. Huan Wen was very suspicious of him, and he wished to depose him. He brought the matter up with Wang Biaozhi. Wang Biaozhi warned him, "The Prince is a close member of the imperial family, and he has not yet committed any fault. He cannot be removed or gotten rid off based purely on idle speculations. You have just established a sagely ruler, and so you must show proper respect and reverence to the imperial clan. Follow the worthy examples of Yi Yin and the Duke of Zhou. As for what you suggest, I ask that you give it careful reconsideration."

Huan Wen replied, "This matter is already an accomplished fact, so don't say another word about it!"

On the day Yimao (January 12th), Huan Wen sent in a petition, which stated, "Sima Xi is forming a faction to upset affairs, and this is not something that should be put up with. When Yuan Zhen became disobedient and rebelled, that affected all other matters as well. What is today only a source of fear and suspicion will soon become a reality of rebellion. I ask that you strip Sima Xi of office, and exile him to his fief." This was done so, and Sima Xi, his eldest son Sima Zong, the Prince of Liang, Sima Jin, and others were all stripped of their offices. Huan Wen sent the Administrator of Weijun, Mao Anzhi, to lead guards to protect the palace. This Mao Anzhi was the younger brother of Mao Husheng.

武陵王晞,亦元帝子,出繼武陵王喆後。王彪之能全晞於會稽輔政之時,而不能全之於會稽纘服之日,會稽可以理喻,而習武者桓溫之所忌也。溫以此誣晞。㻱,與璡同,音津。沈約曰:[文帝元嘉八年,更以江北為南兗州,江南為南徐州,治京口,割揚州之晉陵、兗州之九郡僑在江南者屬焉,故]南徐州備有徐、兗、幽、冀、青、幷、揚七州郡邑。

The Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was another son of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui). He had been selected to continue the family line of the earlier Prince of Wuling, Sima Zhe, when the latter had died.

Wang Biaozhi could protect Sima Xi while he was helping Sima Yu to administer the state, but he could not protect Sima Yu from inheriting the throne. Sima Yu could reason, but Huan Wen was so suspicious of Sima Xi because of his military skills.

This was Huan Wen's slander against Sima Xi.

㻱 is pronounced "jin" or "jin".

In the Book of Liang, Shen Yue remarked, "In Emperor Wen's eighth year of Yuanjia (431), there was established Southern Yanzhou, north of the Yangzi, and Southern Xuzhou, south of the Yangzi. The latter was administered from Jingkou, and it was formed from Yangzhou's Jinling commandary and Yanzhou's seven 'refugee' or 'settler' commandaries that were south of the Yangzi. So Southern Xuzhou had commandaries named after the ones from the settlers' province of origin, being Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, Bingzhou, and Yangzhou." (Liangshu 35.102) (So Mao Anzhi was not given a nominal title over the original Wei commandary in the north, but was the actual Administrator over the "settler" Wei commandary in this region.)


庚戌,尊褚太后曰崇德太后。

25. On the day Gengxu (January 7th), Jin’s Empress Dowager Chu, Emperor Kang’s wife, was honored as Empress Dowager Chongde.

初,殷浩卒,大司馬溫使人齎書吊之。浩子涓不答,亦不詣溫,而與武陵王晞游。廣州刺史庾蘊,希之弟也,素與溫有隙。溫惡殷、庾宗強,欲去之。辛亥,使其弟祕逼新蔡王晃詣西堂叩頭自列,稱與晞及子綜、著作郎殷涓、太宰長史庾倩、掾曹秀、捨人劉強、散騎常侍庾柔等謀反;帝對之流涕,溫皆收付廷尉。倩、柔,皆蘊之弟也。癸丑,溫殺東海王三子及其母。甲寅,御史中丞譙王恬承溫旨,請依律誅武陵王晞。詔曰:「悲惋惶怛,非所忍聞,況言之哉!其更詳議!」恬,承之孫也。乙卯,溫重表固請誅晞,詞甚酷切。帝乃賜溫手詔曰:「若晉祚靈長,公便宜奉行前詔;如其大運去矣,請避賢路。」溫覽之,流汗變色,乃奏廢晞及三子,家屬皆徙新安郡。丙辰,免新蔡王晃為庶人,徙衡陽;殷涓、庾倩、曹秀、劉強、庾柔皆族誅,庾蘊飲鴆死。蘊兄東陽太守友子婦,桓豁之女也,故溫特赦之。庾希聞難,與弟會稽王參軍邈及子攸之逃於海陵陂澤中。

26. Earlier, when Yin Hao had died, Huan Wen had sent a messenger to express his written condolences. Yin Hao's son Yin Guan did not respond, nor did he call on Huan Wen, but went traveling with the Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi. The Inspector of Guangzhou, Yu Yun, was the younger brother of Yu Xi, and there had long been enmity between him and Huan Wen. Because of the strength of Yin Guan's and Yu Yun's clans, Huan Wen wished to get rid of them.

On the day Xinhai (January 8th), Huan Wen sent his younger brother Huan Bi to force the Prince of Xincai, Sima Huang, to come to the Western Hall. Sima Huang was compelled to kowtow and reveal what he knew: he claimed that Sima Xi and his son Sima Zong, the 著作郎 Yin Guan, the Chief Clerk to the Grand Governor, Yu Qian, the 掾 Cao Xiu, the 捨人 Liu Qiang, and the Regular Attendant of 散騎, Yu Rou, and others were all plotting rebellion. Emperor Jianwen tearfully assenting, Huan Wen had all of them handed over to the Commandant of Justice. Yu Qian and Yu Rou were the younger brothers of Yu Yun.

涓,圭淵翻。晃父邈,本汝南王祐之子也,嗣新蔡王後。西堂,太極殿西堂也。自列,自陳列其事。倩,千甸翻。

涓 is pronounced "Guan (g-uan)".

Sima Huang's father was Sima Miao. He had originally been the son of the Prince of Runan, Sima You, but he had been chosen to continue the line of the Prince of Xincai.

The Western Hall was the Western Hall of Taiji Palace, the Emperor's residence. The text refers to Sima Huang's self-incrimination.

倩 is pronounced "qian (q-ian)".


On the day Guichou (January 10th), Huan Wen killed Emperor Fei’s three sons and their mothers.

卽田氏、孟氏及所生三男也。

These were Lady Tian, Lady Meng, and their three sons.


On the day Jiayin (January 11th), the Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk and Prince of Qiao, Sima Tian, presented a petition on behalf of Huan Wen, asking that Sima Xi be executed in accordance with the law. Emperor Jianwen’s edict in response stated, "I receive your request with mournful sigh and frightful distress. I cannot bear even to hear such a proposal, much less give the command myself! Let this be reconsidered!" This Sima Tian was the grandson of Sima Cheng.

譙王氶死於王敦之難。

The earlier Prince of Qiao, Sima Zheng, had perished during Wang Dun's rebellion. His name 承 Zheng is also written, as in the text, as 承 Cheng.


On the day Yimao (January 12th), Huan Wen sent in another memorial further demanding Sima Xi’s execution, listing very oppressive charges against him. Emperor Jianwen then personally grasped Huan Wen's hand and replied, “If Jin's fortunes are to linger on, then I ask that you adhere to my earlier command. And if the Mandate has passed from Jin, then I ask that I may give way to some more worthy fellow." Huan Wen’s expression changed as he sweated in response to this statement. He therefore only removed Sima Xi and his three sons from their positions, and banished the family to Xin'an commandary.

吳孫權分丹楊立新都郡,武帝太康元年,更名新安郡,唐爲歙州,今之徽州。

Sun Quan of Eastern Wu formed Xindu commandary from Danyang commandary. During Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280), its name was changed to Xin'an commandary. During Tang, it was part of 歙州 Shezhou. In our time, it is part of 徽州 Huizhou.


On the day Bingchen (January 13th), Huan Wen demoted the Prince of Xinhai, Sima Huang, to commoner status, and exiled him to Hengyang. Yin Guan, Yu Qian, Cao Xiu, Liu Qiang, and Yu Rou were all executed, along with their families. Yu Yun drank poisoned wine and died. Yu Yun's older brother, the Administrator of Dongyang, Yu You, had a son who was married to Huan Huo's daughter, and for that reason Huan Wen exempted him from the execution order. When Yu Xi heard of the difficulty, he, his younger brother, the Army Advisor of Kuaiji (or the Army Advisor to the Prince of Kuaiji), Yu Miao, and Yu Miao's son Yu You all fled to Bei Marsh in Hailing.

吳孫亮分長沙西部都尉置衡陽郡,今之衡州。【章:十二行本「稽」下有「王」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】海陵縣,前漢屬臨淮郡,後漢、晉屬廣陵郡,今泰州卽其地。

Sun Liang of Eastern Wu had formed Hengyang out of the western part of Changsha, in our modern 衡州 Hengzhou.

Some versions say that Yu Miao was the Army Advisor to the Prince of Kuaiji, rather than just "of Kuaiji".

During Former Han, Hailing County was part of Linhuai commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Guangling commandary. In our time, it is a place in 泰州 Taizhou.


溫既誅殷、庾,威勢翕赫,侍中謝安見溫遙拜。溫驚曰:「安石,卿何事乃爾?」安曰:「未有君拜於前,臣揖於後。」

27. After having purged the Yin and Yu clans, Huan Wen's influence continued to grow. The Palace Attendant Xie An saluted Huan Wen after he had gone some ways past. Huan Wen, alarmed, asked him, "Anshi, what is the meaning of this?"

Xie An replied, "Since you are not yet lord, I cannot salute you to your face, so I waited until after you went by."

當是時,晉之君臣,蓋可知矣。《春秋》之義所謂微而顯者也。

At that time, this was the Jin tradition between lord and minister, as they both knew. As the Chunqiu states, even the smallest virtues are obvious ones.


戊午,大赦,增文武位二等。

28. On the day Wuwu (January 15th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and all civil and military officials were advanced by two ranks.

己未,溫如白石,上書求歸姑孰。庚申,詔進溫丞相,大司馬如故,留京師輔政;溫固辭,仍請還鎮。辛酉,溫自白石還姑孰。

29. On the day Jiwei (January 16th), Huan Wen returned to Baishi. He sent a message asking to return to Gushu. On the day Gengshen (January 17th), Emperor Jianwen advanced Huan Wen to the rank of Prime Minister, with authority as Grand Marshal, and left affairs of state in the capital in his hands. Huan Wen declined the offers, instead asking to return to his command. On the day Xinyou (January 18th), Huan Wen left from Baishi and returned to Gushu.

秦王堅聞溫廢立,謂群臣曰:「溫前敗灞上,後敗枋頭,不能思愆自貶以謝百姓,方更廢君以自說,六十之叟,舉動如此,將何以自容於四海乎!諺曰:『怒其室而作色於父。』其桓溫之謂矣。」

30. When Fu Jian heard that Huan Wen had deposed Emperor Fei, he said to his ministers, "Huan Wen was first defeated at Bashang, and later defeated again at Fangtou. He was not able to advance himself based upon the appreciation of the people, so instead he has deposed his lord by his own command (or, for his own pleasure). He is an old man of sixty, and yet he advances himself like this. How can the Four Seas contain him? The proverb says, 'showing anger is the father to the family of rage.' That could well describe Huan Wen."

見九十九卷穆帝太和十年。見上卷太和四年。「說」,《載記》作「悅」,讀當從悅。

Huan Wen's defeat at Bashang against Qin is mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's tenth year of Yonghe (354). His defeat at Fangtou against Yan is mentioned in the last book, Book 102, in the fourth year of Taihe (369).

What is recorded here as 說 "to speak" is instead recorded in Fu Jian's Biography in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin as 悅 "pleasure", and it should be understood that way.


秦車騎大將軍王猛,以六州任重,言於秦王堅,請改授親賢;及府選便宜,輒已停寢,別乞一州自效。堅報曰:「朕之於卿,義則君臣,親逾骨肉,雖復桓、昭之有管、樂,玄德之有孔明,自謂逾之。夫人主勞於求才,逸於得士。既以六州相委,則朕無東顧之憂,非所以為優崇,乃朕自求安逸也。夫取之不易,守之亦難,苟任非其人,患生慮表,豈獨朕之憂,亦卿之責也,故虛位台鼎而以分陝為先。卿未照朕心,殊乖素望。新政俟才,宜速銓補;俟東方化洽,當袞衣西歸。」仍遣侍中梁讜詣鄴諭旨,猛乃視事如故。

31. Qin's Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Meng, had the duty of administering the six former provinces of Yan. He sent word to Fu Jian, asking that someone more suited be sent to take his place; he often requested that he be sent away, as he was no longer sleeping, or that he be left to one province.

Fu Jian responded to him, "Out of all my ministers, we two most embody the principles of lord and minister, as close as flesh and bone. Although Duke Huan had Guan Zhong, Duke Zhao had Yue Yi, and Xuande (Liu Bei) had Kongming (Zhuge Liang), to me, you surpass them. 'My chief exertion is in finding worthy talents, and then I may take my rest in employing them'.

“So long as the six provinces are in your hands, I can look to the east without worry. But you do not see this as honoring you, and so you ask me for repose. What you conquered was not gained easily, and now, securing and defending it is no less difficult. No one else is suited for your post, or able to carefully consider how to react to developing threats. How can this be purely my anxiety? It is also your duty. The tripod will be left empty, and Shan will become the frontier. You have not understood my intentions, but try to act counter to them. A newly-established administration needs a talented hand to guide it, in order to speedily discern the best foundations. Once you have brought the east to harmony, then you may ‘put aside your ducal robe and return west’."

Fu Jian sent the Palace Attendant Liang Dang to Ye to present the messge to Wang Meng, and thereafter Wang Meng handled things as before.

堅先是命猛以便宜選賢俊補六州郡縣守令。王褒《聖主得賢人頌》曰:君人者,勤於求賢,而逸於得人。周公東征,周大夫爲作《九罭》之詩,其辭曰:「九罭之魚鱒魴,我覯之子,袞衣繡裳。」又曰:「是以有袞衣兮,無以我公歸兮,無使我心悲兮。」《箋》云:王迎周公當以上公之服。史言苻堅、王猛君臣相與之至,所以猛得展其才。

Fu Jian had earlier sent Wang Meng with orders to select worthy men to fill the offices of Prefects and Administrators for the six former provinces of Yan.

Wang Bao's 聖主得賢人頌 states, "The superior man exerts himself in his search for worthy men and takes his rest in employing them."

When the Duke of Zhou conquered the east, Master Zhou composed his poem "Nine Nets". It contains this verse: "In the net with its nine bags, are rud and bream. We see this prince, with his grand-ducal robe and embroidered skirt." Along with the comment, "That fellow with the ducal robe, he will not return to us, he will not bring our hearts grief." (Book of Odes 154) The "箋" states, "This was the garment that the King welcomed the Duke of Zhou to his new title with."

The text means that Fu Jian and Wang Meng had formed such a close bond as lord and minister that Wang Meng continued to apply his talents.


十二月,大司馬溫奏:「廢放之人,屏之以遠,不可以臨黎元。東海王宜依昌邑故事,築第吳郡。」太后詔曰:「使為庶人,情有不忍,可特封王。」溫又奏:「可封海西縣侯。」庚寅,封海西縣公。

32. In the twelfth month, Huan Wen memorialized the following: "That fellow who was deposed from the throne (the former Emperor Fei) should be sent far away, and not kept near the court. The Prince of Donghai should follow the example of what was done with the Prince of Changyi, and be sent to a residence in Wu commandary.”

The Empress Dowager replied, "As for making him a commoner, I cannot bear to countenance that. Let the exception be made that he remain a Prince."

Huang Wen then memorialized: "May he be appointed Marquis of Haixi." On the day Gengyin (February 16th), he was appointed as Duke of Haixi.

昌邑事見二十四卷漢昭帝元平元年。《考異》曰:《海西公紀》云:「咸安二年,正月,降封,」今從《簡文帝紀》。

The treatment of the Prince of Changyi, the Emperor whom Huo Guang deposed, is mentioned in Book 24, in Emperor Zhao of Han's first year of Yuanping (74 BC).


Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Records of the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) states, 'In the second year of Xian'an (372), the first month, he surrendered his title.' But I follow the Records of Emperor Jianwen."


溫威振內外,帝雖處尊位,拱默而已,常懼廢黜。先是,熒惑守太微端門,逾月而海西廢。辛卯,熒惑逆行入太微,帝甚惡之。中書侍郎郗超在直,帝謂超曰:「命之修短,本所不計,故當無復近日事邪?」超曰:「大司馬臣溫,方內固社稷,外恢經略,非常之事,臣以百口保之。」及超請急省其父,帝曰:「致意尊公,家國之事,遂至於此,由吾不能以道匡衛,愧歎之深,言何能諭!」因詠庾闡詩雲:「志士痛朝危,忠臣哀主辱。」遂泣下沾襟。帝美風儀,善容止,留心典籍,凝塵滿席,湛如也。雖神識恬暢,然無濟世大略,謝安以為惠帝之流,但清談差勝耳。

33. Huan Wen's power and influence now spread far and wide. Although Emperor Jianwen held the actual throne, he was afraid to make any objections, and was in constant fear of being deposed.

It had been only a short time earlier when Mars had entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure constellation through the Duan Gate, and that same month, Emperor Fei was deposed to become Duke of Haixi. Later, on the Xinmao day (February 17th), Mars made a retrograde motion and once again entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure. Emperor Jianwen was greatly vexed at this. Huan Wen's officer Chi Chao was then in the palace as one of the Gentleman Attendants of the Palace Secretariat. So Emperor Jianwen asked him, "Command has only just been restored, and a foundation has not yet been secured. But are we meant to have a repeat of that day's events?"

Chi Chao replied, "The Grand Marshal Huan Wen plans to guard the state within and implement his strategies without. I ensure you that no such extraordinary event shall take place."

《天文志》:太微南蕃中二星間曰端門。帝之爲撫軍也,辟超爲掾,故於今敢以情問之。

The Astrological Records states, "The two stars on the southern border of the Supreme Palace Enclosure are called the Duan Gate."

When Sima Yu had been General Who Nurtures The Army, Chi Chao had been his assistant, so this was why he dared to ask Chi Chao such a question now.


Chi Chao then asked that his father's sentence be reduced, but Emperor Jianwen replied, "As regards your honored father, that is a state affair. Only this much can be done, for I cannot even rectify or protect the way. I can only deeply sigh on account of my shame, and what use could there be in saying more?" Because of that, he began to chant the poem of the poet Yu Chan: "The true gentleman aches at the court's danger; the loyal minister grieves his lord's fate." And he wiped his tears on his sleeves.

Emperor Jianwen was graceful in following the rites and customs, and he had an excellent bearing about him. He lost himself in the ancient records, since he always doubted that he would be able to keep his throne, such was his profundity. Although he seemed happy and comfortable in his office, he could find no means to benefit the state or put great plans into action. Xie An could talk of Emperor Hui (Sima Zhong), but Pure Conversation was not sufficient to achieve anything.

《晉令》:急假者,五日一急,一歲以六十日爲限。史書所稱取急、請急,皆謂假也。此亦清談,但情溢於言外耳。清談無益於國事;謝安當此之時,能立此論,可謂拔乎流俗者也。

The "晉令" states, "When asking for a reduced sentence, five days may be reduced, up to the limit of sixty days for every year." This is what the histories refer to whenever this is brought up.

Yu Chan’s poem was also a Pure Conversation poem, but it was brimming with more emotion in its words.

Pure Conversation was of no benefit to the state. At this time, Xie An could compose such poems and hold such discussions, but that was merely following the trend of the time.


郗超以溫故,朝中皆畏事之。謝安嘗與左衛將軍王坦之共詣超,日旰未得前,坦之欲去,安曰:「獨不能為性命忍須臾邪?」

34. Chi Chao acted as Huan Wen's agent at court, and everyone there feared what he might do. Xie An and the Guard General of the Left, Wang Tanzhi, once went to visit Chi Chao. It was not yet late at night, but Wang Tanzhi wished to depart. Xie An said to him, "Can you still not bear with it for a little longer, even to save your life?"

史言謝安於風流之中,能處事應物。又郗超勢燄如此,桓溫旣死之後,超得終於牖下,蓋以智免也。

This passage shows that Xie An knew the trends of the times, and was able to deal with them. Chi Chao had such influence at this time, but after Huan Wen's death, Chi Chao's power would diminish, as would his knowledge.


秦以河州刺史李辯領興晉太守,還鎮枹罕。徙涼州治金城。張天錫聞秦有兼併之志,大懼,立壇於姑臧南,刑三牲。帥其官屬,遙與晉三公盟。遣從事中郎韓博奉表送盟文,並獻書於大司馬溫,期以明年夏同大舉,會於上邽。

35. Qin appointed the Inspector of Hezhou, Li Bian, as acting Administrator of Xingjin, and he was stationed at Fuhan. Li Bian relocated the people of Liangzhou to Jincheng.

When Zhang Tianxi heard of Qin's ambitions to annex further territory, he became greatly afraid, and set up an altar south of Guzang, where he offered the Three Sacrifices. He summoned his ministers, and had them swear loyalty to the Three Excellencies of Jin in absentia. He sent word of this news to the Jin court through his Attendant Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Han Bo, and further wrote to Grand Marshal Huan Wen, asking for a meeting to be set for summer of the following year for a common grand undertaking at Shanggui.

興晉、枹罕,河西張氏皆置爲郡。興晉亦當近枹罕界。自天水徙治金城。以秦徙鎭逼之,故懼。【章:十二行本「會」上有「同大舉」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】欲使晉起兵攻蜀而出會于上邽也。

The commandaries of Xingjin, Fuhan, and Hexi had all been established by the Zhang clan. Xingjin was adjacent to Fuhan.

That is, Li Bian relocated the people from Tianshui to be governed at Jinchang.

Zhang Tianxi became afraid because of Qin's relocation actions on his border.

Some versions insert the phrase "for a common grand undertaking" before “at Shanggui".

Zhang Tianxi wished for Jin to send troops to attack from Shu and so meet up with him at Shanggui.


是歲,秦益州刺史王統攻隴西鮮卑乞伏司繁於度堅山,司繁帥騎三萬拒統於苑川。統潛襲度堅山,司繁部落五萬餘皆降於統;其眾聞妻子已降秦,不戰而潰。司繁無所歸,亦詣統降。秦王堅以司繁為南單于,留之長安;以司繁從叔吐雷為勇士護軍,撫其部眾。

36. During this year, Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Tong, attacked the Xianbei tribe of Qifu Sifan at Mount Dujian in Longxi. Qifu Sifan led thirty thousand cavalry to oppose Wang Tong at Yuanchuan. Wang Tong secretly attacked Mount Dujian, and Qifu Sifan's more than fifty thousand tribes there all surrendered to him. When the men of his army learned that their wives and children had surrendered to Qin, they melted away without fighting. Since Qifu Sifan had no place to flee to, he also came and surrendered himself to Wang Tong. Fu Jian appointed Qifu Sifan as Southern Chanyu, and kept him at Chang'an; he also appointed Qifu Sifan's uncle Qifu Tulei as Protector of Yongshi, and he nurtured their tribes.

乞伏氏先自漠北南出、屯高平川,又自高平西南遷麥田山,司繁又自麥田遷于度堅山。《水經註》:苑川在天水勇士縣界。杜佑曰:在蘭州五泉縣界。以下文乞伏吐雷爲勇士護軍觀之,則《水經註》爲是。勇士,漢縣,晉省。此因漢縣名而置護軍。爲後乞伏步頹以鮮卑叛秦張本。

The Qifu clan had first come south out of the northern desert, and camped at the rivers at Gaopingchuan. Then they came from Gaoping southwest to relocate to Mount Maitian. Qifu Sifan had then moved from Mount Maitian to Mount Dujian.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Yuanchuan is within Yongshi county in Tianshui commandary." Du You remarked, "The place is within Wuquan county in Lanzhou." We see in the text immediately below this that Qifu Tulei is appointed as Protector of Yongshi, and so the Commentary must be correct. Yongshi was a county during Han; it was abolished by Jin. Qifu Tulei was given this title from the Han name of the place.

This was why Qifu Butui and his Xianbei later rebelled against Qin (Book 105, 383.25).


乞伏國仁,隴西鮮卑人,其先自漠北南出太陰山。五世有祐鄰者,晉太始初,率戶五萬,遷居高平川。鄰卒,子結權立,遷於牽屯。結權卒,子利那立。利那卒,弟祁埿立。祁埿卒,利那子述延立,遷於苑川。述延卒,祁埿子傉太寒立。石勒之滅劉曜也,懼而遷於麥田元孤山。太寒卒,子司繁立,秦皇始中,遷於度堅山。建元七年,秦將王統來伐,繁率騎三萬拒統於苑川,統潛襲度堅山,部民五萬餘落,悉降於統。司繁乃詣統歸降,苻堅拜南單于,留之長安。(16K 14.1)

Qifu Guoren was a Xianbei from Longxi. His ancestors came from the northern deserts south to Mount Taiyin.

Five generations removed from Qifu Guoren was Qifu Youlin. At the beginning of Jin's Taishi era (265), he led fifty thousand households and settled at Gaopingyuan.

After Qifu Youlin's death, his son Qifu Jiequan succeeded him, and relocated to Qiantun. After Qifu Jiequan's death, his son Qifu Lina succeeded him. After Qifu Lina's death, his younger brother Qifu Qini succeeded him. After Qifu Qini's death, Qifu Lina's son Qifu Shuyan succeeded him, and relocated to Yuanchuan. After Qifu Shuyan's death, Qifu Qini's son Qifu Nutaihan succeeded him. When Shi Le vanquished Liu Yao, Qifu Nutaihan was afraid of him and so moved to Mount Yuandu at Maitian. After Qifu Nutaihan's death, his son Qifu Sifan succeeded him.

During Qin's Huangshi era (351-5), Qifu Sifan moved to Mount Dujian. In the seventh year of Jianyuan (371), the Qin general Wang Tong came to campaign against Qifu Sifan. Qifu Sifan led thirty thousand cavalry to oppose Wang Tong at Yuanchuan. Wang Tong slipped by him and attacked Mount Dujian, where the Qifu families were, more than fifty thousand tribes, all of whom surrendered to him. Qifu Sifan then presented himself to Wang Tong to surrender. Fu Jian appointed him as Southern Chanyu, and kept him at Chang'an.

乞伏國仁,隴西鮮卑人也。在昔有如弗斯、出連、叱盧三部,自漠北南出大陰山,遇一巨蟲于路,狀若神龜,大如陵阜,乃殺馬而祭之,祝曰:「若善神也,便開路;惡神也,遂塞不通。」俄而不見,乃有一小兒在焉。時又有乞伏部有老父無子者,請養為子,眾咸許之。老父欣然自以有所依憑,字之曰紇幹。紇幹者,夏言依倚也。年十歲,驍勇善騎射,彎弓五百斤。四部服其雄武,推為統主,號之曰乞伏可汗托鐸莫何。托鐸者,言非神非人之稱也。其後有祐鄰者,即國仁五世祖也。泰始初,率戶五千遷于夏緣,部眾稍盛。鮮卑鹿結七萬餘落,屯于高平川,與祐鄰迭相攻擊。鹿結敗,南奔略陽,祐鄰盡並其眾,固居高平川。祐鄰死,子結權立,徙於牽屯。結權死,子利那立,擊鮮卑吐賴于烏樹山,討尉遲渴權于大非川,收眾三萬餘落。利那死,弟祁埿立。祁埿死,利那子述延立。討鮮卑莫侯于苑川,大破之,降其眾二萬餘落,固居苑川。以叔父軻埿為師傅,委以國政,斯引烏埿為左輔將軍,鎮蔡園川,出連高胡為右輔將軍,鎮至便川,叱盧那胡為率義將軍,鎮牽屯山。述延死,子傉大寒立。會石勒滅劉曜,懼而遷于麥田無孤山。大寒死,子司繁立,始遷於度堅山。尋為苻堅將王統所襲,部眾叛降於統。司繁歎謂左右曰:「智不距敵,德不撫眾,劍騎未交而本根已敗,見眾分散,勢亦難全。若奔諸部,必不我容,吾將為呼韓邪之計矣。」乃詣統降於堅。堅大悅,署為南單于,留之長安。以司繁叔父吐雷為勇士護軍,撫其部眾。(Jinshu 125.1)

Qifu Guoren was a Xianbei from Longxi. Of old, there were the three tribes of Rufusi, Chulian, and Chilu which came from the northern deserts south to Mount Dayin. They encountered a giant insect on the road, which resembled a divine tortoise, and was enormous as a funeral mound. So they killed a horse and offered it up as a sacrifice, praying, "If it is a good spirit, then it will permit us passage on this road. If it is an evil one, then we shall not pass through here." The being soon disappeared, with only a small one remaining there.

At that time, there was an old man among the Qifu tribe who had no son. He asked that he be allowed to adopt a son, and the group approved of it because of his honesty. The old man was delighted to have someone whom he could now rely on, and he named his son Gegan. This word Gegan in the Xia (Han) language means 依倚 "reliable". By the time Gegan was ten years old, he was brave and heroic, skilled at riding and at archery, and he could bend a bow of five hundred 斤. Everyone among the tribes considered him to be a mighty hero, and they acclaimed him as their leader, and he was called the Qifu Khan, Tuoduo Mohe. This word Tuoduo means a title given by neither spirits nor men.

Later on, there was a Qifu Youlin, who was five generations removed from Qifu Guoren. At the beginning of the Taishi era (265), Qifu Youlin led five thousand households to move to Xialu, and from that place his tribe grew large and flourishing. The Xianbei leader Lujie was camped at Gaopingchuan with more than seventy thousand tribes, and he fought repeatedly with Qifu Youlin. Lujie was defeated and fled south to Lüeyang, while Qifu Youlin took over all of his people and resided at Gaopingchuan himself.

After Qifu Youlin's death, his son Qifu Jiequan succeeded him, and moved to Qiantun. After Qifu Jiequan's death, his son Qifu Lina succeeded him. Qifu Lina attacked the Xianbei leader Tulai at Mount Wushu, and campaigned against Yuchi Kequan at Dafeichuan. Altogether he gathered up more than thirty thousand tribes. After Qifu Lina's death, his younger brother Qifu Qini succeeded him.

After Qifu Qini's death, Qifu Lina's son Qifu Shuyan succeeded him. Qifu Shuyan campaigned against the Xianbei leader Mohou at Yuanchuan, and greatly routed him. He captured more than twenty thousand of Mohou's tribes, and he settled at Yuanchuan. Qifu Shuyan appointed his uncle Qifu Keni as Directing Instructor, and charged him with helping to run the state. He appointed Siyin Wuni as General Who Supports of the Left, and Siyin Wuni was staioned at Caiyuanchuan. He appointed Chulian Gaohu as General Who Supports of the Right, and Chulian Gaohu was stationed at Bianchuan. He appointed Chilu Nahu as General Who Spreads Righteousness, and Chilu Nahu was stationed at Mount Qiantun.

After Qifu Shuyan's death, his son Qifu Nudahan succeeded him. Soon afterwards, Shi Le vanquished Liu Yao. Out of fear of him, Qifu Nudahan moved to Mount Wudu at Maitian.

After Qifu Nudahan's death, his son Qifu Sifan succeeded him, and this was when the group first moved to Mount Dujian. There he was attacked by Fu Jian's general Wang Tong, and his people all rebelled against him and surrendered to Wang Tong. Qifu Sifan sighed and said to those around him, "My intelligence is not enough to oppose the enemy, and my virtue is not enough to nurture the people. Before there was even a clash of sword and steed, I have already lost my very foundation. See how my people have all scattered in different directions. It would be very hard to gather them together again. No matter where I might try to flee to, they would certainly not harbor me. I shall have to follow the same plan as Huhanye." So he also presented himself to Wang Tong to surrender to Fu Jian. Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and he appointed Qifu Sifan as Southern Chanyu, and kept him at Chang'an. Qifu Sifan's uncle Qifu Tulei was appointed as Protector of Yongshi, and he oversaw the Qifu tribe.

(Huhanye was a Xiongnu prince who submitted to the Han dynasty for protection against his rivals, and was appointed by them as Southern Chanyu.)

BOOK 103

Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:31 am
by Taishi Ci 2.0
咸安二年(壬申,公元三七二年)

The Second Year of Xian'an (The Renshen Year, 372 AD)


春,二月,秦以清河房曠為尚書左丞,征曠兄默及清河崔逞、燕國韓胤為尚書郎,北平陽陟、田勰、陽瑤為著作佐郎,郝略為清河相,皆關東士望,王猛所薦也。瑤,騖之子也。

1. In spring, the second month, Qin appointed Fang Kuang of Qinghe as Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and advanced Fang Kuang's older brother Fang Mo, Cui Cheng of Qinghe, and Han Yin of Yan as Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. Qin appointed Fang Zhi of Beiping, Tian Xie, and Yang Yao as 著作佐郎, and Hao Lüe as Chancellor of Qinghe. All of them were Guandong men (from the Yan territories), recommended by Wang Meng. This Yang Yao was the son of Yang Wu.

《晉志》:著作郎一人,謂之大著作,專掌史任。又置佐著作郎八人。勰,音協。陽騖仕燕,歷事三朝。

The Records of Jin states, "There is a single 著作郎, also called a 大著作, who is a historian official. Under him he has eight 佐著作郎s."

勰 is pronounced "xie".

Yang Wu was a Yan minister, who had served under three rulers (Murong Huang, Murong Ren, and Murong Wei).


冠軍將軍慕容垂言於秦王堅曰:「臣叔父評,燕之惡來輩也,不宜復污聖朝,願陛下為燕戮之。」堅乃出評為范陽太守,燕之諸王悉補邊郡。

2. Qin's Champion General, Murong Chui, said to Fu Jian, "My uncle Murong Ping was the Elai Bei of Yan. In order that he does not pollute the court here, I ask that Your Majesty slay him on behalf of Yan." But Fu Jian sent Murong Ping away by appointing him Administrator of Fanyang, and Yan's various princes were sent to distant border commandaries.

惡來以多力事紂,紂嬖之以亡國。「惡來輩」,一作「惡來革」。《史記》曰:惡來善毀讒,諸侯以此益疏。「輩」,當作「革」。

Elai was a strong bodyguard for King Zhou of Shang, and King Zhou's oppression caused the ruin of his own state. What is here written as "Elai Bei" is elsewhere "Elai Ge". The Records of the Grand Historian states, "Elai was adept at destroying men through slander, so the various nobles all sought to remain on his good side." So instead of "Bei", it should be written "Ge".


This is the same Elai whom Cao Cao compared Dian Wei to in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.


臣光曰:古之人,滅人之國而人悅,何哉?為人除害故也。彼慕容評者,蔽君專政,忌賢疾功,愚闇貪虐,以喪其國,國亡不死,逃遁見擒。秦王堅不以為誅首,又從而寵秩之,是愛一人而不愛一國之人也,其失人心多矣。是以施恩於人而人莫之恩,盡誠於人而人莫之誠。卒於功名不遂,容身無所,由不得其道故也。

3. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: Since ancient times, what has brought happiness to the people of a fallen state? It is to see those who were responsible for the fall punished. Regarding Murong Ping, he shoved aside his lord and monopolized power for himself, feared the worthy and envied the successful. Foolish, dull, greedy, and cruel, he caused the nation to mourn. And after the state fell, he fled but was still captured. But Fu Jian did not execute him, and even showed favor upon such a man. In loving this man, he failed to love the people of his state, and so lost the hearts of the multitude. This is to show grace to men who will not return it, and to show honesty to men who will not be honest in turn. One's position will be lost; one shall have no place to take shelter; the course of events will slip from one's grasp.

此惟湯、武足以當之,下此則漢高帝猶庶幾焉。事見上卷海西公太和五年。

This principle ("to see those who were responsible for the fall of the former state punished") may have been sufficient for Tang of Shang (who overthrew Jie of Xia) or King Wu of Zhou (who overthrew King Zhou of Shang). But if Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had followed this principle, he would still be a commoner.

The incident of Murong Ping's flight from Yan was mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.29).


三月,戊午,遣侍中王坦之征大司馬溫入輔,溫復辭。

4. In the third month, on the day Wuwu (May 14th), the Jin court sent the Palace Attendant Wang Tanzhi to again promote Grand Marshal Huan Wen into the administration, but Huan Wen again declined.

秦王堅詔:「關東之民學通一經,才成一藝者,在所郡縣以禮送之。在官百石以上,學不通一經,才不成一藝者,罷遣還民。」

5. Fu Jian issued a decree stating, "Among the people of Guandong, let those who are learned in the classics and who possess abundant talent be dutifully received into administration among the counties and commandaries. And among those current officials at the grade of one hundred 石 or higher, let those who are not learned in the classics and who are lacking in abundant talents be dismissed and sent back amongst the people."

【章:十二行本「以」上有「郡縣」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】苻堅之政如此而猶不能終,況不及苻堅者乎!

Some versions include the phrase "among the counties and commandaries" in the first sentence.

Even a man of Fu Jian's calibur would never be able to fully realize a policy like this, much less those who were not as great as him!


夏,四月,徙海西公於吳縣西柴裡,敕吳國內史刁彝防衛,又遣御史顧允監察之。彝,協之子也。

6. In summer, the fourth month, Jin’s Duke of Haixi (the deposed Emperor Fei) was moved to the rough western regions of Wu County. The court ordered the Interior Minister of Wu, Diao Yi, to guard him, and sent the Imperial Secretary Gu Yun to keep watch over him. This Diao Yi was the son of Diao Xie.

刁協,元帝信用之。

Diao Xie was one of Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) trusted assistants.


六月,癸酉,秦以王猛為丞相、中書監、尚書令、太子太傅、司隸校尉,特進、常侍、持節、將軍、侯如故;陽平公融為使持節、都督六州諸軍事、鎮東大將軍、冀州牧。

6. In the sixth month, on the day Guiyou (July 28th), Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Prime Minister, Supervisor of the Palace Secretariat, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Colonel Director of Retainers, Specially Advanced, Regular Attendant, and Credential Bearer, with powers as a General and Marquis. The Duke of Yangping, Fu Rou, was appointed as Credential Bearer, Commander over the six former provinces of Yan, Grand General Who Guards The East, and Governor of Jizhou.

仍帶特進、散騎常侍、使持節、車騎大將軍、清河郡侯印綬也。代王猛鎭鄴。

Wang Meng's ranks here were in addition to the seals he possessed as Specially Advanced, Regular Attendant of 散騎, Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Marquis of Qinghe.

Fu Rong was stationed at Ye in place of Wang Meng.


庾希、庾邈與故青州刺史武沈之子遵,聚眾夜入京口城,晉陵太守卞眈逾城奔曲阿。希詐稱受海西公密旨誅大司馬溫。建康震擾,內外戒嚴。卞眈發諸縣兵二千人擊希,希敗,閉城自守。溫遣東海內史周少孫討之。秋,七月,壬辰,拔其城,擒希、邈及其親黨,皆斬之。眈,壺之子也。

7. In Jin, Yu Xi, Yu Miao, and Wu Zun (who was the son of the former Inspector of Qingzhou, Wu Chen) gathered a host of men and entered Jingkou together at night. The Administrator of Jinling, Bian Dan, abandoned the city and fled to Qu'a. Yu Xi falsely claimed that the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) had given him a secret edict to execute Huan Wen. Jiankang shook with fear, and everywhere inside and out were all placed under martial law. Bian Dan sent two thousand soldiers from various counties to attack Yu Xi. Yu Xi was defeated in battle, and he closed Jingkou’s gates to hold out in defense. Huan Wen sent the Interior Minister of Donghai, Zhou Shaosun, to attack the rebels. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renchen (August 16th), they captured the city, and arrested Yu Xi, Yu Miao, and their partisans. All of them were beheaded. This Bian Dan was the son of Bian Kun.

沈,持林翻。眈,丁含翻。沈約曰:吳時分無錫以西爲毗陵郡,治丹徒,後復還毗陵。東海王越世子名毗。東海國故食毗陵,永嘉五年,改爲晉陵;太興初,郡及丹徒縣悉治京口。元帝割吳郡海虞縣之北境爲東海郡。庾亮之後滅矣。卞壼事元、明二帝,死於蘇峻之難。

沈 is pronounced "chen (ch-en)". 眈 is pronounced "dan (d-an)".

Shen Yue remarked, "Eastern Wu split off the western part of Wuxi to form Piling commandary, which was administered first from Dantu, and then later from Piling again. Jin's Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, had an eldest son with the first name Pi, so while he was alive, his fief of Donghai subsumed Piling into it. In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), it was changed to Jinling. In the first year of Taixing (318), both Jinling commandary and Dantu County were administered from Jingkou.”

Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) carved off the northern border of Wu commandary's Haiyu County to be Donghai commandary.

With these executions, Yu Liang's descendants were extinguished.

Bian Kun had served Emperor Yuan and Emperor Ming, and had died during Su Jun's rebellion.


甲寅,帝不豫,急召大司馬溫入輔,一日一夜發四詔。溫辭不至。初,帝為會稽王,娶王述從妹為妃,生世子道生及弟俞生。道生疏躁無行,母子皆以幽廢死。餘三子,郁、朱生、天流,皆早夭。諸姬絕孕將十年,王使善相者視之,皆曰:「非其人。」又使視諸婢媵,有李陵容者,在織坊中,黑而長,宮人謂之「崑崙」,相者驚曰:「此其人也!」王召之侍寢,生子昌明及道子。己未,立昌明為皇太子,生十年矣。以道子為琅邪王,領會稽國,以奉帝母鄭太妃之祀。遺詔:「大司馬溫依周公居攝故事。」又曰:「少子可輔者輔之,如不可,君自取之。」侍中王坦之自持詔入,於帝前毀之。帝曰:「天下,倘來之運,卿何所嫌!」坦之曰:「天下,宣、元之天下,陛下何得專之!」帝乃使坦之改詔曰:「家國事一稟大司馬,如諸葛武侯、王丞相故事。」是日,帝崩。

8. On the day Jiayin (September 7th), Emperor Jianwen did not appear in court. Huan Wen was urgently summoned to come settle the affairs of state. In a single day and night, four imperial edicts were sent to summon him. But Huan Wen still refused and would not come to the capital.

Before, when Sima Yu was still the Prince of Kuaiji, he took a cousin of Wang Shu as his concubine, and she bore him his eldest son, Sima Daosheng, and his second son, Sima Shusheng. Sima Daosheng was rash and impetuous without recourse, and Lady Wang and her sons were all quietly deposed and died.

Sima Yu next had three other sons, Sima Yu, Sima Zhusheng, and Sima Tianliu, but all of them died young. His other concubines had not bore him any children in ten years. So Sima Yu employed a physiognomist to inspect his concubines to see which one would next bear him a son, but the man said of all of them, "Not this one."

Among Sima Yu’s servant maids, there was a certain Li Lingrong, who was employed in weaving. She was black and tall, and the palace people called her "Kunlun". The physiognomist saw her and exclaimed, "This is the one!" So Sima Yu summoned her to his bedroom, and she bore him his sons Sima Changming (Sima Yao) and Sima Daozi.

謂其人如崑崙也。崑崙國,在南海外。崙,盧昆翻。《晉書》曰:初,簡文帝見讖曰:「晉祚盡昌明。」及孝武帝之在孕也,李太后夢神人謂之曰:汝生男,以昌明爲字。及產,東方始明,因以爲名焉。帝後悟,乃流涕。及孝武帝崩,晉自此傾矣。

The term "Kunlun" meant to say that she was like the people of Kunlun. Kunlun was a state beyond the South Sea (presumably the Moluccas). 崙 is pronounced "lun (l-un)".

The Book of Jin states, "Originally, Sima Yu had seen a prophecy which stated, 'Jin's fortunes shall be exhausted by Changming'. When Emperor Xiaowu (Sima Changming) was still in the womb, Empress Dowager Li (Lingru) dreamed that a spirit said to her, "You will bear a son, and he shall be named Changming". And when she gave birth to him, just then it was first light in the east, so she gave him the style name Changming. When Sima Yu realized this, he wept. And indeed, following Emperor Xiaowu's death, the Jin dynasty met its end." (Jinshu 9, Xiaowu, Taiyuan 21.7)


On the day Jiwei (September 12th), Emperor Jianwen appointed Sima Changming as his Crown Prince; at that time, Sima Changming was ten years old. He appointed Sima Daozi as Prince of Langye, and sent him to govern the fief of Kuaiji, to continue the line of Sima Yu's own mother, Concubine Dowager Zheng.

帝封琅邪王,所生母鄭夫人薨,固請服重,徙封會稽王,追號鄭夫人爲會稽太妃。

Sima Yu himself had originally been Prince of Langye. But when his birth mother Lady Zheng died, he asked to exchange his title so that he could mourn for her. So his title was changed to Prince of Kuaiji, and Lady Zhen's title was changed to Concubine Dowager of Kuaiji.


In the present, Emperor Jianwen composed a decree he planned to send out, stating, "Grand Marshal Huan Wen will follow the example set forth by the Duke of Zhou." It also said, "If the young man can be supported, support him; if not, take the throne yourself." But the Palace Attendant Wang Tanzhi snatched this edict from Emperor Jianwen’s hands and tore it up in front of him.

Emperor Jianwen said, "If the realm is to pass into the hands of another, what is that to you?"

Wang Tanzhi replied, "The realm has been handed down to us by Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) and Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui); how can Your Majesty think of giving it away?"

So Emperor Jianwen had Wang Tanzhi send out a different edict, which read, "All affairs of state shall be referred to Grand Marshal Huan Wen, in the manner of Marquis Wu (Zhuge Liang) and Prime Minister Wang Dao."

That same day, Emperor Jianwen passed away.

用漢昭烈屬諸葛亮之言。宣帝肇基帝業,元帝中興,故云然。年五十三。

The particular words that Emperor Jianwen used in his original edict ("If the young man can be supported...") were those originally spoken by Emperor Zhaolie of Han (Liu Bei) to Zhuge Liang (when Liu Bei was on his deathbed).

Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) had laid the foundations for the imperial design, and Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had restored the dynasty, thus Wang Tanzhi's remark.

Sima Yu was fifty-three when he died.


群臣疑惑,未敢立嗣,或曰:「當須大司馬處分。」尚書僕射王彪之正色曰:「天子崩,太子代立,大司馬何容得異!若先面咨,必反為所責。」朝議乃定。太子即皇帝位,大赦。崇德太后令,以帝沖幼,加在諒闇,令溫依周公居攝故事。事已施行,王彪之曰:「此異常大事,大司馬必當固讓,使萬機停滯,稽廢山陵,未敢奉令,謹具封還。」事遂不行。

9. Many Jin ministers were uncertain, and did not dare to carry out the succession as planned, with some saying, "We should wait to see what the Grand Marshal does."

But The Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, sternly replied, "The Son of Heaven has perished, and his Crown Prince is ready to assume the throne. What does it matter what the Grand Marshal thinks? If he is first consulted, he must oppose claiming the responsibility." So the court's discussion was settled. The Crown Prince, Sima Changming, became Emperor Xiaowu, and a general amnesty was declared.

Because of Emperor Xiaowu's youth, and the general confusion of the state, Empress Dowager Chongde suggested that Huan Wen should take up the role of the Duke of Zhou. But as matters had already come this far, Wang Biaozhi said to her, "This is an issue of the greatest importance. The Grand Marshal would certainly decline. He would come up with countless reasons to put it off, and would be cautious to the point of ruin, yet still not dare to accept the order." So it was not done.

康獻褚太后旣歸政于穆帝,居崇德宮,及哀帝、海西公之世,復臨朝稱制。海西旣廢,簡文卽位,尊后爲崇德太后。此事卽封還詔書之始也。

When Empress Dowager Chu had relinquished the regency powers she had been given following Emperor Kang's death back to Emperor Mu, she resided in the Chongde Palace. And during the minorities of Emperor Ai and the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei), she had again wielded authority over court affairs. Following the Duke of Haixi's deposition and Emperor Jianwen coming to the throne, Empress Dowager Chu was honored as Empress Dowager Chongde.

This was the beginning of the edicts offering to give regency power to Huan Wen.


溫望簡文臨終禪位於己,不爾便當居攝。既不副所望,甚憤怨,與弟沖書曰:「遺詔使吾依武侯、王公故事耳。」溫疑王坦之、謝安所為,心銜之。詔謝安征溫入輔,溫又辭。

10. Huan Wen had hoped that Emperor Jianwen would abdicate the throne to him on his deathbed, not instead place him in a regency role. Since his hopes had been dashed, he became resentful. He wrote to his younger brother Huan Chong, "The court sends me notice that I am to act in the same role as Marquis Wu (Zhuge Liang) and Duke Wang Dao." Huan Wen suspected Wang Tanzhi and Xie An were behind this development, and he could not bear to put up with them. Xie An sent another edict asking that Huan Wen join the administration, but Huan Wen again declined.

八月,秦丞相猛至長安,復加都督中外諸軍事。猛辭曰:「元相之重,儲傅之尊,端右事繁,京牧任大,總督戎機,出納帝命,文武兩寄,鉅細並關,以伊、呂、蕭、鄧之賢,尚不能兼,況臣猛之無似!」章三四上,秦王堅不許,曰:「朕方混壹四海,非卿誰可委者?卿之不得辭宰相,猶朕不得辭天下也。」

11. In the eighth month, Qin's Prime Minister Wang Meng arrived at Chang’an. He was again offered control of all military affairs. Wang Meng declined, saying "You seek someone worthy of the gravity of the Chief Minister and the reverence of the Imperial Instructor, one who can attend to the innumerable affairs of the 端右 and the heavy responsibilities of the Capital Governor, one who can act as chief over all military matters and speaks with the Emperor's voice, one who can be relied upon in both civil and military affairs and can attend to any matter no matter how big or small. Yi Yin, Lü Wang (Jiang Ziya), Xiao He, and Deng Yu were worthy enough to meet that standard. But who is there today who can match them? Certainly not myself!"

Several times Wang Meng tried to return the seals of office, but Fu Jian would not accept them, saying, “I have not yet settled all the disorder within the Four Seas, and if not you, whom else can I entrust this task to? You may not refuse this role, no more than I may refuse the realm."

元相,丞相也。儲傅,太子太傅也。端右,尚書令也。京牧,司隸校尉也。總督戎機,都督中外諸軍事也。出納帝命,中書監、常侍之職也。無似,猶言不肖也。

Chief Minister meant Prime Minister. Imperial Instructor meant the Crown Prince's Tutor. 端右 meant Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Capital Governor meant Colonel Director of Retainers. Chief of military affairs meant Commander over them. One who speaks with the Emperor's voice meant the positions of Supervisor of the Palace Secretariat and Regular Attendant.

Wang Meng means to say that he does not resemble any of the worthies named.


Each of the worthies that Wang Meng named were possibly the most important ministers of the lords they served. Yi Yin served Tang of Shang, founder of that dynasty; Lü Wang or Jiang Ziya served King Wen of Zhou and his son King Wu, who founded Zhou; Xiao He served Liu Bang, founder of the Han dynasty; and Deng Yu served Liu Xie or Emperor Guangwu, the restorer of the Han after Wang Mang's failed usurpation.


猛為相,堅端拱於上,成官總己於下,軍國內外之事,無不由之。猛剛明清肅,善惡著白,放黜屍素,顯拔幽滯,勸課農桑,練習軍旅,官必當才,刑必當罪。由是國富兵強,戰無不克,秦國大治。堅敕太子宏及長樂公丕等曰:「汝事王公,如事我也。」

12. Wang Meng then accepted the offices, and Fu Jian consulted with him in everything, from the selection of all officials to the handling of all military and national affairs; nothing was done without his input. Wang Meng made everything clear, and discerned the good and the evil. He cast out of office the layabouts, drew out the worthy and banished the sluggish, developed farming and silkworm cultivation, trained and disciplined the army, promoted the talented into office, and punished the wicked according to their crimes. Thus was the state made prosperous and the army strong; battles were never without victory, and the state of Qin was well-administered. Fu Jian instructed his Crown Prince Fu Hong, the Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, and others, "You all must treat Duke Wang just as you treat me."

尸素,尸位素餐者也。

尸素 "Layabouts" were those who held office and drew official salaries but without doing work.


陽平公融在冀州,高選綱紀,以尚書郎房默、河間相申紹為治中別駕,清河崔宏為州從事,管記室。融年少,為政好新奇,貴苛察;申紹數規正,導以寬和,融雖敬之,未能盡從。後紹出為濟北太守,融屢以過失聞,數致譴讓,乃自恨不用紹言。

13. When Fu Rong was in charge of affairs in Jizhou, he was very disciplined. The Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Fang Mo, and the Chancellor of Hejian, Shen Shao, were appointed as his Internal Assistant Officers; Cui Hong of Qinghe was appointed as his Provincial Assistant Officer, and administered the records bureau. Fu Rong was young; he introduced much novel good governance, and he was especially harsh on the honored families. Shen Shao often admonished him, instructing him to be gentler, kinder, and more broad-minded. Although Fu Rong respected him, in the end, he could not always follow such advice. Later, after Shen Shao had departed to be Administrator of Jibei, Fu Rong often missed his advice, and whenever he was forced to give ground and correct himself, he blamed himself for not following Shen Shao's suggestions.

綱紀,謂官屬綱紀衆事者也。《姓譜》:房姓本自丹朱,舜封爲房邑侯,子陵以父封爲氏。

綱紀 "Disciplined" here means that he was exacting towards those officials under him.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those of the surname 房 Fang are descended from the ancient Danzhu. When Emperor Shun appointed Danzhu as Marquis of Fang, his son Ling took his father's title as his clan's name."


融嘗坐擅起學捨為有司所糾,遣主簿李纂詣長安自理;纂憂懼,道卒。融問申紹:「誰可使者?」紹曰:「燕尚書郎高泰,清辯有膽智,可使也。」先是丞相猛及融屢辟泰,泰不起;至是,融謂泰曰:「君子救人之急,卿不得復辭!」泰乃從命。至長安,丞相猛見之,笑曰:「高子伯於今乃來,何其遲也!」泰曰:「罪人來就刑,何問遲速!」猛曰:「何謂也?」泰曰:「昔魯僖公以泮宮發頌,齊宣王以稷下垂聲。今陽平公開建學宮,追蹤齊、魯,未聞明詔褒美,乃更煩有司舉劾。明公阿衡聖朝,懲勸如此,下吏何所逃其罪乎!」猛曰:「是吾過也。」事遂得釋。猛因歎曰:「高子伯豈陽平所宜吏乎!」言於秦王堅。堅召見,悅之,問以為治之本,對曰:「治本在得人,得人在審舉,審舉在核真,未有官得其人而國家不治者也。」堅曰:「可謂辭簡而理博矣。」以為尚書郎。秦固請還州,堅許之。

14. Fu Rong once wished to try setting up his own school to train students to use as officials. However, he could not get official approval for it. He sent the Registrar Li Zuan to Chang'an to clear up the matter, but Li Zuan was worried and apprehensive, and died on the road there.

Then Fu Rong asked Shen Shao, "Who else can be sent to deal with this?"

Shen Shao replied, "There is Yan's former Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Gao Tai. In matters of debate, he is forthright and wise. He may be sent."

Before now, both Wang Meng and Fu Rong had repeatedly tried to summon Gao Tai to come serve under them, but he would not go to them. When this matter of getting the school approved came up, Fu Rong said to Gao Tai, "When your lord asks for your efforts on his behalf, you may not keep refusing!" So Gao Tai finally obeyed the order.

When Gao Tai arrived at Chang'an, Wang Meng met with him and joked, "So Gao Zibo has come at last. Why so late to arrive?"

高泰,字子伯。

Gao Tai's style name was Zibo.


Gao Tai replied, "When a criminal comes to face his punishment, who speaks of him being early or late?"

Wang Meng said, "What do you mean?"

Gao Tai replied, "In former times, Duke Xi of Song won universal praise when he established the Water College, and King Xuan of Qi spread his influence through the Jixia Academy. Now the Duke of Yangping wishes to open a palace school, and so follow in the footsteps of King Xuan and Duke Xi, but he has yet to hear a clear edict approving of his actions, and he has to go to so much trouble as to send officials to speak on his behalf. Yet you have the sage wisdom of A Heng (Yi Yin), and you punish and reward people justly, as he did. How then am I able to avoid committing an offense?"

Wang Meng said, "The fault was with me." So the matter was cleared up.

《詩‧魯頌‧泮水》,頌僖公能脩泮宮也。《史記》:齊宣王喜文學遊說之士,騶衍、淳于髡、田騈、愼到、接子、環淵之徒七十六人,皆賜列第,稷下學士且數百千人。劉向《別錄》曰:齊有稷門,城門也。談說之士,期會於稷下也。虞喜曰:齊有稷山,立館其下以待遊士。

In the Panshui poems in the Odes of Lu in the Book of Poetry, they tell of how Duke Xi was extolled for founding the Water College in the palace.

In the Records of the Grand Historian, it mentions how King Xuan of Qi loved to speak with learned wandering scholars, and he gave special distinctions to seventy men, including Zou Yan, Chunyu Kun, Tian Pian, Shen Dao, Jiezi, and Huan Yan. He also established the Jixia Academy, which had several hundred or even a thousand scholars. Liu Xiang's Abstracts states, "Qi had a Ji Gate, one of the gates of the city. The place where people would come to meet and talk was below this Ji Gate, thus the name Jixia (‘below Ji’)." Yu Xi remarked, "Qi had a Mount Ji, and a building was built at the foot of it for wanderers to lodge in (so this could also be ‘below Ji’)."


Wang Meng sighed and said to himself, "How can the Duke of Yangping keep a man as worthy as Gao Zibo all to himself?" So he mentioned Gao Tai to Fu Jian, who summoned Gao Tai, and was greatly pleased by him.

Fu Jian asked Gao Tai for his thoughts on governance. Gao Tai told him, "Governance comes from finding good people; good people come from careful examination; examination comes from knowing the true worth. Otherwise, one will acquire officials who are incapable of governing the state."

Fu Jian said, "By your words, you have made it all seem so clear." He offered to re-appoint Gao Tai as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing under Qin. But Gao Tai declined and wished to return to his home province, so Fu Jian allowed him to depart.

還冀州也。

His home province was Jizhou.


九月,甲寅,追尊故會稽王妃王氏曰順皇後,尊帝母李氏為淑妃。

15. In the ninth month, on the day Jiayin (November 6th), Emperor Xiaowu honored his late father's original wife, Concubine Wang, as Empress Dowager Shun. He honored his own mother, Li Lingrong, as Concubine Shu.

【章:十二行本「月」下有「甲寅」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】卽王述從妹也。

Some versions include the specific day "Jiayin" in this passage.

This was the same Lady Wang who was Wang Shu's cousin.


冬,十月,丁卯,葬簡文帝於高平陵。

16. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Dingmao (November 19th), the late Emperor Jianwen was buried at Gaoping Tomb.

彭城妖人盧悚自稱大道祭酒,事之者八百餘家。十一月,遣弟子許龍如吳,晨,到海西公門,稱太后密詔,奉迎興復;公初欲從之,納保母諫而止。龍曰:「大事垂捷,焉用兒女子言乎!」公曰:「我得罪於此,幸蒙寬宥,豈敢妄動!且太后有詔,便應官屬來,何獨使汝也?汝必為亂!」因叱左右縛之,龍懼而走。甲午,悚帥眾三百人,晨攻廣莫門。詐稱海西公還,由雲龍門突入殿庭,略取武庫甲仗,門下吏士駭愕不知所為。游擊將軍毛安之聞難,帥眾直入雲龍門,手自奮擊;左衛將軍殷康,中領軍桓秘入止車門,與安之並力討誅之,並黨與死者數百人。海西公深慮橫禍,專飲酒,恣聲色,有子不育,時人憐之。朝廷以其安於屈辱,故不復為虞。

17. In Jin, a certain miscreant from Pengcheng, Lu Song, declared himself as Libationer of the Great Way, and took more than eight hundred families into his confidence. In the eleventh month, he sent his nephew Xu Long to sneak into Wu.

晉氏南渡,僑置彭城郡於晉陵界。

When the Jin imperial family had fled to the south, a refugee community of people from Pengcheng commandary was established within Jinling.


At dawn, Xu Long came to the gate of the Duke of Haixi's (Emperor Fei’s) residence, claiming to have a secret edict from the Empress Dowager, with authority to receive the Duke and restore him to the imperial throne. The Duke initially wished to believe him, but after being reprimanded by his nurse, he stopped.

Xu Long said, "Great affairs are afoot; what use are the words of a girl?"

The Duke replied, "I am here because of my crime, and I was already fortunate enough to receive pardon. How dare I attempt such foolishness? If the Empress Dowager had summoned me, she would have sent officials to fetch me. Would she really have just sent you alone? You are just some rebel!" He cried loudly for others, and Xu Long became afraid and fled.

On the day Jiawu (December 16th), Lu Song gathered a crowd of three hundred people, and at dawn they attacked the Guangmo Gate. They falsely claimed that the Duke of Haixi had returned. At the Yunlong Gate they were able to enter the palace grounds, where they captured war carts, weapons, and armor. The gate commanders were astonished at this and did not know what to do. When the General of Fierce Assault, Mao Anzhi, heard of the disturbance, he led his men straight into the Yunlong Gate, and personally led an attack. The Guard General of the Left, Yan Kang, and the 中領軍, Huan Mi, entered the palace grounds and stopped the carts at the gate, and they joined forces with Mao Anzhi and attacked. The rebel ringleaders and several hundred of their partisans were killed.

The Duke of Haixi, deeply afraid that he would meet with misfortune, began to eat and drink without restraint, showing an unconcerned front. When he had children, he would not raise them (so they died). The people of that time pitied him. The court took note of his humiliation, and loosened their restrictions upon him.

廣莫門,建康城北門也。雲龍門,建康宮門也。吏士守衞雲龍門者也。

The Guangmo Gate was the north gate of Jiankang.

The Yunlong Gate was the palace gate in Jiankang. These gate commanders were guarding the Yunlong Gate.


秦都督北蕃諸軍事、鎮北大將軍、開府儀同三司、朔方桓侯梁平老卒。平老在鎮十餘年,鮮卑、匈奴憚而愛之。

18. In Qin, Liang Pinglao passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Huan of Shuofang. At the time of his death, he had been the Commander of military affairs on Qin’s northern border, Grand General Who Guards The North, and held power equal to the Three Excellencies. He had kept the north safe for over ten years, and the Xianbei and Xiongnu feared and loved him.

平老鎭朔方,始一百卷穆帝升平三年。

Liang Pinglao had first been stationed at Shuofang, Qin's northern frontier, in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's third year of Shengping (357).


三吳大旱,饑,人多餓死。

19. In Jin, there was a great drought in the Three Wu. There was famine, and many people starved to death.

【章:十二行本「旱」下有「饑」字;乙十一行本同。】吳郡、吳興、義興爲三吳,註已見前。

Some versions add the phrase "there was famine" in this passage.

The Three Wu were Wu commandary, Wuxing commandary, and Yixing commandary, as has been noted before.

BOOK 103

Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:39 am
by Taishi Ci 2.0
寧康元年(癸酉,公元三七三年)

The First Year of Ningkang (The Guiyou Year, 373 AD)


諱曜,字昌明,簡文帝第三子。《諡法》:五宗安之曰孝;克定禍亂曰武。

Sima Yao's given name now became taboo. His style name was Changming, and he was Emperor Jianwen's (Sima Yu's) third son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who maintains reverence for the five ancestors may be called 孝 Xiao ('Filial')" and "One who overcomes and pacifies disaster and disorder may be called 武 Wu ('Martial')."


春,正月,己丑朔,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jichou (February 9th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed.

【嚴:「卯」改「丑」。】

What is here written as 'chou' should actually be 'mao'.


二月,大司馬溫來朝。辛巳,詔吏部尚書謝安、侍中王坦之迎於新亭。是時,都下人情恟恟,或雲欲誅王、謝,因移晉室。坦之甚懼,安神色不變,曰:「晉祚存亡,決於此行。」溫既至,百官拜於道側。溫大陳兵衛,延見朝士,有位望者皆戰懾失色,坦之流汗沾衣,倒執手版。安從容就席,坐定,謂溫曰:「安聞諸侯有道,守在四鄰,明公何須壁後置人邪!」溫笑曰:「正自不能不爾。」遂命左右撤之,與安笑語移日。郗超常為溫謀主,安與坦之見溫,溫使超臥帳中聽其言。風動帳開,安笑曰:「郗生可謂入幕之賓矣。」時天子幼弱,外有強臣,安與坦之盡忠輔衛,卒安晉室。

2. In the second month, Grand Marshal Huan Wen came to court.

On the day Xinsi (April 2nd), he summoned the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Xie An, and the Palace Attendant Wang Tanzhi to receive him at Xinting. At that time, all the officials were greatly afraid, and some feared that Huan Wen wished to execute Wang Tanzhi and Xie An, because of their close connections to the royal family. Wang Tanzhi was afraid, but Xie An kept a serene, unchanging expression. He said, "Whether Jin lives or dies all depends upon this."

When Huan Wen arrived, all the officials welcomed him along the road. Huan Wen commanded a large army, and when those who held places of dignity or had reputation saw it, their faces all turned pale in awe of his prowess. Wang Tanzhi sweated so much that it soaked his clothes, and he held his hand tablet upside down.

位,列位也;中庭左右謂之位。孟子曰:賢者在位,能者在職,則有位者公卿大臣也。望,名望也。沈約曰:手版則古笏矣。尚書令、僕射、尚書,手版頭復有白筆,以紫皮裹之,名笏。

The term 位 "places of dignity" here means those who held office in the court. Mencius stated, "Give the worthiest among them 位 'places of dignity', and the able offices of trust." (Mengzi, Gongsun Chou 1.4) So those who held 'places of dignity' were the great ministers of state. And 望 here means "reputation".

Shen Yue remarked, "A 手版 was an old hand tablet. For Prefects, Deputy Directors, and other members of the Masters of Writing, they would hold the tablet with a white brush on top of it, with a purple cover wrapped around it, and their name on it."


Xie An followed Huan Wen into the banquet that had been prepared. After everyone had been seated, he said to Huan Wen, "I have heard that when the feudal states held sway, their defenses were their four neighbors. So what need did you have to hide these men behind your walls?"

Huan Wen laughed and said, “Just because I can’t do otherwise." Then he ordered all the hidden guards around them to be dismissed, and he laughed and spoke with Xie An for the rest of the day.

《左傳》:楚沈尹戌曰:天子守在四夷,諸侯守在四鄰。史言王坦之雖忠於晉室而識度劣於謝安。移日,言笑語之久,不覺日晷之移。

The Zuo Commentary states, "Chu's Intendent of Shen, Xu, said, 'The Son of Heaven's defenses are the four barbarians, and the feudal lords' defenses are their four neighbors." (Zhao 23.10)

This passage demonstrates that although Wang Tanzhi was a loyal Jin minister, he was inferior in his duties to Xie An.

移日 here means that they spoke and laughed together for a long time, heedless of the position of the sun dial.


Chi Chao often plotted to help make Huan Wen the sovereign. When Xie An and Wang Tanzhi would meet with Huan Wen, Huan Wen had Chi Chao hide behind his bed curtains and listen in. It happened that a breeze blew back the curtain, and Xie An joked, "We might be able to say that Chi Chao is your ‘guest within the curtains’."

At that time, Emperor Xiaowu was still young, and strong ministers held authority on the borders. So Xie An and Wang Tanzhi were strenuously loyal in their support, and thus kept peace in the royal family.

溫治盧悚入宮事,收尚書陸始付廷尉,免桓秘官,連坐者甚眾;遷毛安之為右衛將軍,桓秘由是怨溫。三月,溫有疾,停建康十四日,甲午,還姑孰。

3. After Huan Wen had dealt with the Lu Song affair, he arrested the Master of Writing, Lu Shi, and handed him over to the Minister of Justice, and dismissed Huan Mi from office, as well as punishing anyone associated with them. At the same time, he promoted Mao Anzhi to be Guard General of the Right, and because of this, Huan Mi resented Huan Wen.

In the third month, Huan Wen became ill. He stayed in Jiankang for fourteen days, until on the day Jiawu (April 15th), he returned to Gushu.

夏,代王什翼犍使燕鳳入貢於秦。

4. In summer, the King of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian, sent Yan Feng to offer tribute to Qin.

燕,於賢翻,姓也。

燕 Yan is pronounced "yan (y-ian)", and in this instance it is a surname.


秋,七月,己亥,南郡宣武公桓溫薨。初,溫疾篤,諷朝廷求九錫,屢使人趣之。謝安、王坦之故緩其事,使袁宏具草。宏以示王彪之,彪之歎其文辭之美,因曰:「卿固大才,安可以此示人!」謝安見其草,輒改之,由是歷旬不就。宏密謀於彪之,彪之曰:「聞彼病日增,亦當不復支久,自可更小遲回。」宏從之。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jihai (August 18th), Huan Wen passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xuanwu of Nanjun.

Earlier, when Huan Wen had become ill, he asked the court to grant him the Nine Bestowments, and repeatedly sent messengers to demand them. Xie An and Wang Tanzhi wished to delay the matter, so they called Yuan Hong to help them by composing a draft response. Yuan Hong then showed his draft to Wang Biaozhi, but Wang Biaozhi lamented the draft's lack of literary grace, and told him, "How could a man with such fine talents as yourself use this as a response?" And when Xie An saw it, he began making edits to it. Even after many days, he had not finished changing parts of it. Yuan Hong considered making secret plans with Wang Biaozhi for something else, but Wang Biaozhi said, "I have heard that Huan Wen's illness grows worse by the day. He may not be able to hold out for very much longer. Perhaps we ourselves only need to delay things a bit more." So Yuan Hong agreed.

有心爲之謂之故。言不當爲此文也。安晉之功,人皆歸之謝安、王坦之,彪之實預有力於其間。【章:十二行本「溫」上有「宏從之」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

That is to say, Xie An and Wang Tanzhi intentionally meant to delay the matter.

Wang Biaozhi was saying that Yuan Hong's draft was not sufficient.

People acclaim Xie An and Wang Tanzhi as those who saved Jin during this time, but Wang Biaozhi's foresight should also be remembered.

Some versions add the sentence "So Yuan Hong agreed" to the end of this passage.


溫弟江州刺史沖,問溫以謝安、王坦之所任,溫曰:「渠等不為汝所處分。」其意以為,己存,彼必不敢立異,死則非沖所制;若害之,無益於沖,更失時望故也。

6. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Wen's younger brother Huan Chong, asked him what should be done about Xie An and Wang Tanzhi. Huan Wen replied, "Those fellows are not anything you need concern yourself with." This was because Huan Wen believed that as long as he himself was still alive, Xie An and the others would not dare to do anything hasty, and after Huan Wen was dead, they would not treat Huan Chong any worse than others. If Huan Chong tried to act against them, it would be of no profit to himself, and would only squander their hopes.

吳俗謂他人爲渠儂。觀桓溫所以待安、坦之者如此,二人者豈易及哉!

Huan Wen here uses the term 渠 to mean "them". It was common in Wu to address other people as 儂 for "you" or 渠 for "he/she".

We see here how Huan Wen treated Xie An and Wang Tanzhi. How can those two be compared with him?


溫以世子熙才弱,使沖領其眾。於是桓秘與熙弟濟謀共殺沖,沖密知之,不敢入。俄頃,溫薨,沖先遣力士拘錄熙、濟而後臨喪。秘遂被廢棄,熙、濟俱徙長沙。詔葬溫依漢霍光及安平獻王故事。沖稱溫遺命,以少子玄為嗣,時方五歲,襲封南郡公。

7. Huan Wen's eldest son Huan Xi was lacking in talents, so Huan Wen put Huan Chong in charge of his troops instead. Huan Mi and Huan Xi's younger brother Huan Ji plotted to kill Huan Chong together. However, Huan Chong secretly knew about it, and did not dare to go into the camp. Soon, after Huan Wen had passed away, Huan Chong sent strong men to arrest Huan Xi and Huan Ji and force them into mourning before their father’s body. Huan Mi was stripped of his positions and exiled, while Huan Xi and Huan Ji were both sent to Changsha.

The court ordered the late Huan Wen to be buried using the same funeral rites as Huo Guang of Han and Prince Xian of Anping (Sima Fu). Huan Chong wielded authority on his late brother’s behalf, and appointed Huan Wen's youngest son Huan Xuan to inherit his father’s positions. At that time, Huan Xuan was only five years old. He was named as Duke of Nanjun.

爲桓玄篡晉張本。

This was the means by which Huan Xuan would later usurp the Jin throne.


庚戌,加右將軍、荊州刺史桓豁征西將軍,督荊、楊、雍、交、廣五州諸軍事。以江州刺史桓沖為中軍將軍、都督揚、豫、江三州諸軍事、揚、豫二州刺史,鎮姑孰;竟陵太守桓石秀為寧遠將軍、江州刺史,鎮尋陽。石秀,豁之子也。沖既代溫居任,盡忠王室,或勸沖誅除時望,專執時權,沖不從。始,溫在鎮,死罪皆專決不請。沖以為生殺之重,當歸朝廷,凡大辟皆先上,須報,然後行之。

8. On the day Gengqu (August 29th), Jin's General of the Right and Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, was promoted as General Who Conquers The West, with military authority over the five provinces of Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Yongzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Chong, was appointed as General of the Center Army and as Commander over the three provinces of Yangzhou, Yuzhou, and Jiangzhou, as well as being named Inspector of Yangzhou and Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Gushu. The Administrator of Jingling, Huan Shixiu, was appointed as General Who Calms Distant Places and Inspector of Jiangzhou, and was stationed at Xunyang. This Huan Shixiu was Huan Huo's son.

「楊」,恐當作「梁」。【章:十二行本「桓」上有「以江州刺史」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】三分溫所統以授其弟姪。

The text lists Huan Huo as having Commander authority over "Yangzhou". I fear this was an error, and the text meant to say "Lianzhou". (Huan Chong is also listed as having Commander authority over Yangzhou.)

Some versions reiterate here that Huan Chong was "Inspector of Jiangzhou".

Huan Wen's former very extensive area of command authority was thus divided up into three parts between his brothers and relatives.


Although Huan Chong had assumed Huan Wen’s former post, he was fully loyal to the imperial family. There were those who urged Huan Chong to purge the court and seize the momentum, and grasp all authority over affairs in his own hands, but Huan Chong refused to go along with such plots.

When Huan Wen had been alive, he ordered executions and made other such important decisions without first seeking permission from the court. But now, since Huan Chong believed that matters as weighty as life and death must first be referred to the court, in all great matters he first reported to them, and only after hearing back from them did he carry out the decisions.

史言桓沖事晉朝忠順。

This passage shows Huan Chong's loyal obedience to the Jin court.


謝安以天子幼沖,新喪元輔,欲請崇德太后臨朝。王彪之曰:「前世人主幼在襁褓,母子一體,故可臨朝;太后亦不能決事,要須顧問大臣。今上年出十歲,垂及冠婚,反令從嫂臨朝,示人君幼弱,豈所以光揚聖德乎!諸公必欲行此,豈僕所制,所惜者大體耳。」安不欲委任桓沖,故使太后臨朝,己得以專獻替裁決,遂不從彪之之言。八月,壬子,太后復臨朝懾政。

9. Because Emperor Xiaowu was still young, and was in the first year of mourning for his late father, Xie An wished to ask Empress Dowager Chongde to resume her regency role over the court.

Wang Biaozhi said to him, "In past times, when a ruler was still a youth in swaddling clothes, mother and son were always together as though of one body, so how could his mother attend court? And even Empress Dowager Chongde is not able to decide upon affairs by herself, since she would have to defer to the opinions of the great ministers. Now the Emperor has just turned ten years old in the last year, and he will experience his capping ceremony and his betrothal before long. Yet you want to place his cousin's wife in command of the court, and so announce to the world how young and frail our sovereign is; how could such a thing as that propagate saintly virtue? That would be just what all the Dukes want to see happen. To think of a servant being in charge! That would be more the pity for all of us."

But Xie An wished to keep Huan Chong from the role, so he had already sent for Empress Dowager Chongde to return to court. Since he did not want to risk handing over his own power to someone else, he did not follow Wang Biaozhi's advice. In the eighth month, on the day Renzi, Empress Dowager Chongde resumed leading the court in handling affairs.

帝元帝之孫,於康帝爲從弟,故太后爲從嫂。史言彪之所陳者正義,謝安所行者時宜。

Emperor Xiaowu was Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) grandson by Emperor Jianwen (Sima Yu), while Emperor Kang was another grandson by Emperor Ming, so Xiaowu and Kang were cousins. This made Empress Dowager Chongde the Emperor's 從嫂 "cousin's wife".

This passage shows that Wang Biaozhi was trying to uphold true justice, while Xie An was only trying to advance himself.


梁州刺史楊亮遣其子廣襲仇池,與秦梁州刺史楊安戰,廣兵敗,沮水諸戌皆委城奔潰。亮懼,退守磬險。九月,安進攻漢川。

10. Jin’s Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang, sent his son Yang Guang to invade Chouchi. Yang Guang fought with Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang An, but Yang Guang's soldiers were defeated. This caused many Jin outposts along the Zu River to be abandoned. Yang Liang, afraid, fell back to defend Qingxian. In the ninth month, Yang An advanced and attacked Hanchuan.

簡文帝咸安元年,秦取仇池。班《志》,沮水出武都沮縣東狼谷,東流合爲漢水。晉蓋阻沮水列戍以備秦。沮,子余翻。漢川卽漢中郡之地。

Qin had conquered Chouchi, as mentioned earlier in this book, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.9).

According to the Ban family's Notes, the Zu River flowed out of Zu County in Wudu and went east through Wolf Valley, and on east from there until it joined with the Han River. Jin had placed several outposts along the line of the Zu River to guard against Qin. 沮 is pronounced "zu (z-u)".

Hanchuan refers to a place in Hanzhong commandary.


丙申,以王彪之為尚書令,謝安為僕射,領吏部,共掌朝政。安每歎曰:「朝廷大事,眾所不能決者,以咨王公,無不立決。」

11. On the day Bingshen (October 14th), Wang Biaozhi was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Xie An was appointed as Deputy Director and acting Supervisor. They jointly managed the affairs of court. Xie An often lamented, "There is no one else able to handle these great affairs. If we consulted with the princes and dukes, every one of them would want to be in charge."

以吳國內史刁彝為徐、兗二州刺史,鎮廣陵。

12. Jin's Interior Minister of Wu, Diao Yi, was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and stationed at Guangling.

冬,秦王堅使益州刺史王統、秘書監朱肜帥卒二萬出漢川,前禁將軍毛當、鷹揚將軍徐成帥卒三萬出劍門,入寇梁、益;梁州刺史楊亮帥巴獠萬餘拒之,戰於青谷。亮兵敗,奔固西城。肜遂拔漢中。徐成攻劍門,克之。楊安進攻梓潼,梓潼太守周虓固守涪城,遣步騎數千送母、妻自漢水趣江陵,朱肜邀而獲之,虓遂降於安。十一月,安克梓潼。荊州刺史桓豁遣江夏相竺瑤救梁、益;瑤聞廣漢太守趙長戰死,引兵退。益州刺史周仲孫勒兵拒朱肜於綿竹,聞毛當將至成都,仲孫帥騎五千奔於南中。奉遂取梁、益二州,邛、莋、夜郎皆附於秦。秦王堅以楊安為益州牧,鎮成都;毛當為州刺史,鎮漢中;姚萇為寧州刺史,屯墊江;王統為南秦州刺史,鎮仇池。

13. In winter, Fu Jian sent the Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Tong, and the Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, to lead an army of twenty thousand men to Hanchuan, while the General of the Front 禁, Mao Dang, and the General of 鷹揚, Xu Cheng, led an army of thirty thousand to Jianmen, in order to invade Lianzhou and Yizhou. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang, led more than ten thousand of the Ba-Lao people to defend against the Qin invaders, and fought a battle at Qing Valley. But Yang Liang was defeated, and he fled to defend Xicheng. Zhu Yong then captured Hanzhong. Xu Cheng attacked Jiange (or Jianmen), and took it.

肜,余沖翻。秦置左、右、前、後四禁將軍。蜀先無獠,李勢之時,始自山出。《新唐志》:洋州眞符縣,本華陽縣,開元十八年,析興道置。天寶八載,開清水谷路。興道縣,卽興勢之地。西城縣,漢屬漢中郡,魏、晉屬魏興郡。奔固者,奔西城以自固也。【章:十二行本「閣」作「門」;乙十一行本同。】

肜 is pronounced "yong (y-ong)".

Qin had Generals of the Left, Right, Front, and Rear 禁.

There had not originally been any Lao people in Shu, but during Li Shi of Cheng-Han's era, they first began to enter the region. (Book 97, 346.11)

The New Records of Tang states, "In 洋州 Yangzhou there is a Zhenfu County. It was originally Huayang County. In the eighteenth year of Kaiyuan (730), Xingdao County was split off from it. In the eighth year of Tianbao (749), a road was made through there in the Qing River Valley." This Xingdao County is the same as Xingshi in our time.

During Han, Xicheng County had been part of Hanzhong commandary. Cao-Wei and Jin had made it part of Weixing commandary. The phrase 奔固者 here means that Yang Liang fled to Xicheng to protect himself there.

Some versions write the name 劍閣 Jiange as 劍門 Jianmen.


Yang An advanced and attacked Zitong. Jin's Administrator of Zitong, Zhou Xiao, stubbornly defended Fucheng, and sent several thousand horse and foot to escort his mother and wife along the Han River to Jiangling. But Zhu Yong intercepted the group and captured it, and so Zhou Xiao surrendered to Yang An. In the eleventh month, Yang An captured Zitong.

此漢水,蓋蜀人所謂西漢水也,與涪水會,至渝州入江,順江而下,則達江陵。然朱肜克漢中,因得邀虓母、妻,則又似自漢中之漢水趣江陵。但秦兵已至梓潼,自涪以北,皆爲秦有,虓母、妻安能越劍閣,取漢水路而趣江陵乎!意謂當以此漢水爲西漢水。虓,虛交翻。梓潼縣,漢屬廣漢郡。劉蜀分爲梓潼郡,治涪。潼,音同。

The "Han River" mentioned here is what the people of Shu called the Western Han River. It joins with the Fu River, and in 渝州 Yuzhou it enters the Yangzi. Then the Yangzi turns down, where Jiangling is. Since Zhu Yong had captured Hanzhong, when he went to intercept the group escorting Zhao Xiao's mother and wife, he went from Hanzhong down the Han River to reach Jiangling before them. But the Qin soldiers were already at Zitong, and everything north of Fu had fallen to them. How could Zhou Xiao's mother and wife have gotten past Jiange, and taken the Han River route to try to reach Jiangling? So it must be that what is here called the Han River is really the Western Han River. 虓 is pronounced "xiao (x-iao)".

During Han, Zitong County was part of Guanghan commandary. Shu-Han had split it off as Zitong commandary, and it was administered from Fu. 潼 is pronounced "tong".


The person identified here for the first time as 周虓 Zhou Xiao is named 周颺 Zhou Yang in some versions of ZZTJ.


Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, sent the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhu Yao, to rescue Lianzhou and Yizhou. But when Zhu Yao heard that the Administrator of Guanghan, Zhao Zhang, had died in battle, he led his own soldiers in retreat.

Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Zhongsun, led his soldiers to oppose Zhu Yong at Mianzhu. But when he heard that Mao Dang was about to arrive at Chengdu, Zhou Zhongsun led five thousand riders to flee to Nanzhong. With that, Qin captured Lianzhou and Yizhou. Qiong, Ce, Yelang, and other places all submitted to Qin.

Fu Jian appointed Yang An as Governor of Yizhou, with his base at Chengdu; Mao Dang was appointed as Inspector, based at Hanzhong; Yao Chang was appointed Inspector of Ningzhou, with his base at Diejiang; Wang Tong was appointed Inspector of Southern Qinzhou, with his base at Chouchi.

邛,渠容翻。莋,才各翻。墊,音疊。

邛 is pronounced "qiong (q-ong)". 莋 is pronounced "ce (c-e)". 墊 is pronounced "die".


秦王堅欲以周虓為尚書郎。虓曰:「蒙晉厚恩,但老母見獲,失節於此,母子獲全,秦之惠也。雖公侯之貴,不以為榮,況郎官乎!」遂不仕。每見堅,或箕踞而坐,呼為氐賊。嘗值元會,儀衛甚盛,堅問之曰:「晉朝元會,與此何如?」虓攘袂厲聲曰:「犬羊相聚,何敢比擬天朝!」秦人以虓不遜,屢請殺之,堅待之彌厚。

14. Fu Jian wished to appointed the captured Zhou Xiao as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. But Zhou Xiao said to him, "I have received boundless grace from Jin. It is only that you have captured my old mother and spirited her away here. Mother and son should share their burdens, which you have imposed on us. No matter how exalted you are, I will not honor you, much less serve under you!" And he would not accept the office. Every time Zhou Xiao saw Fu Jian, or sat on the floor with his legs stretched out, he would shout “Di rebel!” at him.

Fu Jian once wished to hold a New Year’s Day Meeting for his court, and his honor guard was very flourishing and impressive. He asked Zhou Xiao, "When the Jin court holds this kind of meeting, how does it compare with mine?"

Zhou Xiao rose indignantly and said in a stern voice, "You dare to compare this pack of dogs and goats with the heavenly court?" Many in Qin were thus treated rudely by Zhou Xiao, and there were many requests to kill him. But Fu Jian continued to treat him generously.

堅本氐也,故以氐賊呼之。此必虓母死後事。正月一日爲元日,是日朝會爲元會。秦之君臣,皆六夷也,故詆之爲犬羊。天朝,謂晉也。

Fu Jian was a Di, so Zhou Xiao called him "Di rebel". But this sort of thing must surely have been after Zhou Xiao's mother had already died.

The first day of the first month of the year was called the 元 day. For the court to convene on that day would thus be a 元會, or a 'New Year's Day Meeting'.

The lords and ministers of Qin were all from the six tribes, and so Zhou Xiao called them dogs and goats. The “heavenly court” was the Jin court.


周仲孫坐失守免官。桓沖以冠軍將軍毛虎生為益州刺史,領建平太守,以虎生子球為梓潼太守。虎生與球代秦,至巴西,以糧乏,退屯巴東。

15. Jin’s Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Zhongsun, resigned his office after the fall of his province to Qin. Huan Chong appointed the Champion General, Mao Husheng, as the new Inspector of Yizhou and as acting Administrator of Jianping. He appointed Mao Husheng's son Mao Qiu as Administrator of Zitong. Mao Husheng and Mao Qiu went to campaign against Qin, but when they arrived at Baxi, their grain had run low, so they fell back to camp at Badong.

以侍中王坦之為中書令,領丹楊尹。

16. Jin’s Palace Attendant Wang Tanzhi was appointed as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and acting Intendant of Danyang.

是歲,鮮卑勃寒寇掠隴右,秦王堅使乞伏司繁討之。勃寒請降,遂使司繁鎮勇士川。

17. During this year, the Xianbei leader Bohan invaded and plundered Longyou. Fu Jian sent Qifu Sifan to campaign against him. Bohan asked to surrender, and thereafter Qifu Sifan was sent to garrison Yongshichuan.

勃寒,亦隴西鮮卑也。勇士川卽漢天水勇士縣之地。

Bohan was one of the Xianbei of Longxi.

Yongshichuan was a place in Yongshi County in Tianshui during Han.


後以為鎮西將軍,鎮勇士川。甚有威惠之稱。(16K 14.1)

Qifu Sifan was later appointed as General Who Guards The West and stationed at Yongshichuan. He gained a great reputation for both might and magnanimity.

俄而鮮卑勃寒侵斥隴右,堅以司繁為使持節、都督討西胡諸軍事、鎮西將軍以討之。勃寒懼而請降,司繁遂鎮勇士川,甚有威惠。(Jinshu 125.1)

Later, when the Xianbei leader Bohan invaded Longyou, Fu Jian appointed Qifu Sifan as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Expeditionary Commander against the Western Hu, and General Who Guards The West, and sent him to campaign against Bohan. Bohan feared Qifu Sifan and asked to surrender to him, and thereafter Qifu Sifan was stationed at Yongshichuan, where he gained a great reputation for both might and magnanimity.


有彗星出於尾箕,長十餘丈,經太微,掃東井;自四月始見,及秋冬不滅。秦太史令張孟言於秦王堅曰:「尾、箕,燕分;東井,秦分也。令彗起尾、箕而掃東井,十年之後,燕當滅秦;二十年之後,代當滅燕。慕容暐父子兄弟,我之仇敵,而布列朝廷,貴盛莫二,臣竊憂之,宜翦其抱魁桀者,以消天變。」堅不聽。

18. Comets appeared in the Tail and Winnowing Basket constellations, with trails more than ten zhang in length. They passed through the Supreme Palace enclosure, and into the Eastern Well. They were first seen in the fourth month, and remained in sight until the end of autumn. Qin's Court Historian, Zhang Meng, said to Fu Jian, "The Tail and Winnowing Basket are aspects of Yan; the Eastern Well represents Qin. By the comets coming out of the Tail and Winnowing Basket and entering the Eastern Well, they foretell that within ten years, Yan will overcome Qin, and within twenty years, Dai will overcome Yan. Now Murong Wei and his whole family are our hated enemies. In the imperial court, two men cannot be equally exalted. I must admit that I have some secret concerns. You ought to do away with their leader, to cancel out the changes in the heavens." Fu Jian did not heed him.

【嚴:「孟」改「猛」。】《天文志》:尾九星,箕四星,燕、幽州分。東井八星,秦、雍州分。按《天文志》,雲中入東井一度,定襄入東井八度,鴈門入東井十六度,代郡入東井二十八度,是皆拓跋氏所有之地也。所以知代當滅燕者,天道好還,彗起燕分而掃秦分,此燕滅秦之徵。秦已滅矣,代乘天道好還之運,反而滅燕,自然之大數也。太元十年,慕容沖破長安,距是歲僅十一年。安帝隆安元年,拓跋珪克中山,距是歲二十三年。

Zhang Meng's given name has been written here as 孟 Meng instead of 猛 Meng.

The Astrological Records states that the Tail constellation has nine stars and the Winnowing Basket constellation has four, and that they correspond to the regions of Yan and Youzhou. And the Eastern Well constellation has eight stars, and it corresponds to Qinzhou and Yongzhou.

Also according to the Records, Yunzhong enters the Eastern Well in the first 度, Dingxiang enters it in the eighth 度, Yanmen enters it in the sixteenth 度, and Dai commandary enters it in the twenty-eighth 度. At the time of this interpretation, all of those places were controlled by the Tuoba clan of Dai. So it would accord with the natural order for Dai to extinguish Yan, and for the comets to come from Yan's part of the heavens to Qin's part was a further portent of Yan extinguishing Qin. Once Qin had been extinguished, then Dai could act to restore the natural order, and extinguish Yan in turn; all these things would be natural. In the tenth year of Taiyuan (Book 105, 385.34), Murong Chong would sack Chang'an, and from that time to this was a period of only eleven years. And in Emperor An's first year of Longan (397), Tuoba Gui would capture the Later Yan capital of Zhongshan, and from that time to this was twenty-three years.


陽平公融上疏曰:「東胡跨據六州,南面稱帝,陛下勞師累年,然後得之,本非慕義而來。今陛下親而幸之,使其父子兄弟森然滿朝,執權履職,勢傾勳舊。臣愚以為狼虎之心,終不可養,星變如此,願少留意。」堅報曰:「朕方混六合為一家,視夷狄為赤子。汝宜息慮,勿懷耿介。夫惟修德可以禳災,苟能內求諸己,何懼外患乎!」

19. Qin’s Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, sent in a memorial stating: "The eastern barbarians once held sway over these six provinces, and they faced south and called themselves Emperors. It took two long years of fighting for Your Majesty's soldiers to take the territory from them, but even after obtaining them, they do not seek after righteousness. And now Your Majesty has been favoring them, until now the court is full of them, fathers and sons, elder and younger brothers, like a thick forest. They grasp at influence and fill offices, and they threaten to overturn the old order. Foolish as I am, I believe that they have a wild beast's heart, and they can never be tamed. You have seen the changes in the stars. I pray you give this matter further consideration."

鮮卑,東胡之餘種也。事見上卷海西公太和四年、五年。木多爲森。森然,猶林然也。

By the "eastern barbarians", Fu Rong meant the Xianbei.

Fu Rong refers to the campaign against Yan, which was mentioned in Book 102 in the Duke of Haixi's (Emperor Fei's) fourth and fifth years of Taihe (36-70).

A place with many trees is a forest. So 森然 and 林然 both mean "thick with trees" either literally or figuratively.


Fu Jian's response to him stated: “I intend to assimilate all the peoples of the six directions together into one family, and I view the Rong and Di as newborn children. You should put aside your worries, so that you will not have 'an anxious heart, full of trouble'. I aim to repair virtue and so avert disaster. If everything within the state can be put into order, what foreign threat would we have cause to fear?"

《詩》曰:憂心耿耿。賢曰:介介,猶耿耿也。史言苻堅養虎自遺患,爲悔不用融言張本。

The Book of Poetry has this verse: "My anxious heart, full of trouble." The learned man remarks, "介介 means the same as 耿耿."

The text shows that Fu Jian was raising a tiger and so bringing about trouble for himself later on. That was why he did not use Fu Rong's advice.

BOOK 103

Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:42 am
by Taishi Ci 2.0
寧康二年(甲戌,公元三七四年)

The Second Year of Ningkang (The Jiaxu Year, 374 AD)


春,正月,癸未朔,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Guiwei (January 29th), there was a general amnesty in Jin.

己酉,刁彝卒。二月,癸丑,以王坦之為都督徐、兗、青三州諸軍事、徐、兗二州刺史,鎮廣陵。詔謝安總中書。安好聲律,期功之慘,不廢絲竹,士大夫效之,遂以成俗。王坦之屢以書苦諫之曰:「天下之寶,當為天下惜之。」安不能從。

2. On the day Jiyou (February 24th), the Jin minister Diao Yi died.

In the second month, on the day Guichou (February 28th), Wang Tanshi was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou, and as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou; he was stationed at Guangling. The court appointed Xie An as 總中書. Xie An well heard the law, marked the proper periods of mourning, maintained the imperial musical instruments, followed the examples of the scholar-officials, and so had all these things become the custom. Wang Tanzhi often sent in reports wearily remonstrating, saying, "What had been the realm’s treasure has now become its burden." Xie An could not heed him.

王坦之出鎭,安兼總中書。期功,期及大功、小功之喪也。言禮法爲天下之寶。

When Wang Tanzhi went out to his post, Xie An was also made the 總中書.

By 期功 the text means the funerals and mournings for those of great or slight accomplishments.

Wang Tanzhi refers to the realm's customs and laws as its "treasure".


三月,秦太尉建寧列公李威卒。

3. In the third month, Qin's Grand Commandant, Li Wei, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Lie of Jianning.

夏,五月,蜀人張育、楊光起兵擊秦,有眾二萬,遣使來請兵。秦王堅遣鎮軍將軍鄧羌帥甲士五萬討之。益州刺史竺瑤、威遠將軍桓石虔帥眾三萬攻墊江,姚萇兵敗,退屯五城。瑤、石虔屯巴東。張育自號蜀王,與巴獠酋帥張重、尹萬等五萬餘人進圍成都。六月,育改元黑龍。秋,七月,張育與張重等爭權,舉兵相攻,秦楊安、鄧羌襲育,敗之,育與楊光退屯綿竹。八月,鄧羌敗晉兵於涪西。九月,楊安敗張重、尹萬於成都南,重死,斬首二萬三千級。鄧羌擊張育、楊光於綿竹,皆斬之。益州復入於秦。

4. In summer, the fifth month, two natives of Shu, Zhang Yu and Yang Guang, rose in rebellion there. They attacked Qin, and their army numbered twenty thousand. They sent messengers asking for aid from Jin. Fu Jian sent his General Who Guards The Army, Deng Qiang, with fifty thousand infantry to campaign against them. Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhu Yao, and the General of Distant Might, Huan Shiqian, led thirty thousand soldiers to attack Diejiang. Yao Chang's soldiers were defeated there, and he retreated to camp at Wucheng. Zhu Yao and Huan Shiqian camped at Badong. Zhang Yu proclaimed himself King of Shu, and along with the Ba-Lao chieftains Zhang Zhong, Yin Wan, and others, he besieged Chengdu with over fifty thousand men.

In the sixth month, Zhang Yu declared his reign era title would be Heilong.

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhang Yu began to quarrel with Zhang Zhong and the others, and both sides raised troops and attacked one another. Qin's Yang An and Deng Qiang attacked Zhang Yu and defeated him, and Zhang Yu and Yang Guang fled to camp at Mianzhu.

In the eighth month, Deng Qiang defeated the Jin soldiers west of Fu.

In the ninth month, Yang An defeated Zhang Zhong and Yin Wan south of Chengdu. Zhang Zhong died, and over twenty-three thousand heads were taken. Deng Qiang attacked Zhang Yu and Yang Guang at Mianzhu, and beheaded both of them. Yizhou thus returned to Qin's control.

《晉志》,廣漢郡有五城縣,武帝咸寧四年立,唐梓州之玄武縣也。《華陽國志》云:漢時立倉於此,發五縣人尉部主之,後因以爲五城縣,有五城山。

The "Records of Jin" mentions a Wucheng County in Guanghan commandary. It was formed during Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) fourth year of Xianning (279). During Tang, it was Xuanwu County in 梓州 Zizhou. And the Chronicles of Huayang relates that during the Han era, storehouses were set up there, from which people from the five counties there could be controlled. Thereafter it came to be called Wucheng County (“Five Cities”), and there was also a Mount Wucheng. (Huayang Guozhi 14.5)


冬,十二月,有人入秦明光殿大呼曰:「甲申、乙酉,魚羊食人,悲哉無復遺!」秦王堅命執之,不獲。秘書監朱肜、秘書侍郎略陽趙整固請誅諸鮮卑,堅不聽。整,宦官也,博聞強記,能屬文,好直言,上書及面諫,前後五十餘事。慕容垂夫人得幸於堅,堅與之同輦游於後庭,整歌曰:「不見雀來入燕室,但見浮雲蔽白日。」堅改容謝之,命夫人下輦。

5. In winter, the twelfth month, a stranger entered Qin's Mingguang Palace. He chanted, "In Jiashen and Yiyou, fish and goats will eat humans! How deep will regrets be then?" Fu Jian ordered him to be arrested, but he could not be apprehended. The Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, and the Gentleman Attendant of the Private Library, Zhao Zheng of Lüeyang, insisted on executing the various Xianbei, but Fu Jian did not listen to them.

「魚羊」合成「鮮」人,謂鮮卑也。是後慕容起兵攻秦,果在甲申、乙酉之歲。晉祕書省有丞、有郎,無侍郎。秦以整爲祕書郎,內侍左右,故曰侍郎。

The characters for 魚 "fish" and 羊 "goat" combine to form 鮮, the first part of the word 鮮卑 Xianbei. Later on, when the Xianbei of the Murong clan rose up and attacked Qin, it would be in the Jiashen and Yiyou years (384-5).

Under the Jin system, the Private Library had Ministers and Gentlemen, but it did not have Gentlemen Attendants. When Qin revised the office of Gentleman of the Private Library, they added Attendants of the Left and Right, which were commonly called Gentleman Attendants.


Zhao Zheng was a eunuch; he possessed wide learning and had a strong memory. He was skilled in composition, and he was good at speaking directly. He often presented criticisms to Fu Jian in writing and in person, and did so altogether over fifty times. Fu Jian showed favor to Murong Chui’s wife, and there was an instance where Fu Jian offered to let her ride with him to court in the imperial carriage. Zhao Zheng sang, "I’ve never seen a sparrow enter a swallow’s den, but I’ve seen floating clouds obscure the sun." Fu Jian apologized to him, and he ordered the woman out of the carriage.

卽段夫人也。

This woman was the younger Lady Duan, sister of the elder Lady Duan, whom Murong Chui had married and brought with him to Qin.


是歲,代王什翼犍擊劉衛辰,南走。

6. During this year, the King of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian, attacked Liu Weichen, who fled south.

「衞辰」之下更有「衞辰」字,文意乃足。爲下衞辰求救於秦張本。

In the text, "Weichen" is repeated twice, but the meaning is already sufficient.

This was why Liu Weichen later sought aid from Qin (Book 104, 376.14).

BOOK 103

Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 24, 2017 5:45 am
by Taishi Ci 2.0
寧康三年(乙亥,公元三七五年)

The Third Year of Ningkang (The Yihai Year, 375 AD)


春,正月,辛亥,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinhai (February 21st), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

夏,五月,丙午,藍田獻侯王坦之卒;臨終與謝安、桓沖書,惟以國家為憂,言不及私。

2. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Bingwu (June 16th), Wang Tanzhi passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Xian of Lantian.

Court affairs were then left to Xie An and Huan Chong. Their concerns were purely for the betterment of the state, and they said nothing of private matters.

桓沖以謝安素有重望,欲以揚州讓之,自求外出。桓氏族黨皆以為非計,莫不扼腕苦諫,郗超亦深止之,沖皆不聽,處之澹然。甲寅,詔以沖都督徐、豫、兗、青、揚五州諸軍事、徐州刺史,鎮京口;以安領揚州刺史,並加侍中。

3. Since Huan Chong had high hopes for Xie An, he wished to resign his position in Yangzhou, and ask to be sent to another command. The family members and partisans of the Huan clan all believed that this must not be done, and they all strenuously remonstrated with him, and Chi Chao was deeply opposed as well. But Huan Chong did not listen to any of them, and ignored their complaints. On the day Jiayin (June 24th), the court placed Huan Chong in command of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Yangzhou, appointing him as Inspector of Xuzhou. He was stationed at Jingkou. Xie An was then appointed as acting Inspector of Yangzhou, combined with his role as Palace Attendant.

揚州統攝京畿,權任要重,故皆止沖。

Controlling Yangzhou meant controlling the capital region itself, and it was a post of great power. This was why everyone tried to stop Huan Chong.


六月,秦清河武侯王猛寢疾,秦王堅親為之祈南、北郊及宗廟、社稷,分遣侍臣遍禱河、岳諸神。猛疾少療,為之赦殊死以下。猛上疏曰:「不圖陛下以臣之命而虧天地之德,威烈振乎八荒,聲敎光乎六合,九州百郡,十居其七,平燕定蜀,有如拾芥。夫善作者不必善成,善始者不必善終,是以古先哲王,知功業之不易,戰戰兢兢,如臨深谷。伏惟陛下,追蹤前聖,天下幸甚。」堅覽之悲慟。秋,七月,堅親至猛第視疾,訪以後事。猛曰:「晉雖僻處江南,然正朔相承,上下安和,臣沒之後,願勿以晉為圖。鮮卑、西羌,我之仇敵,終為人患,宜漸除之,以便社稷。」言終而卒。堅比斂,三臨哭,謂太子宏曰:「天不欲使吾平壹六合耶!何奪吾景略之速也!」葬之如漢霍光故事。

4. In the sixth month, Wang Meng became deathly ill. Fu Jian personally prayed for him at the northern and southern ancestral temples as well as the sacrificial altars. He also sent ministers to pray to the spirits of the rivers and mountains. Wang Meng's illness somewhat abated, and Fu Jian proclaimed a general amnesty forgiving crimes up until those sentenced to decapitation.

蓋黃河及華嶽諸神,不盡徧四嶽也。身首橫分爲殊死。

This included the spirits of the Yellow River and of Mount Hua, but not the other four sacred mountains.

To sever the head from the body was decapitation.


Wang Meng sent his lord a memorial stating: "I do not intend for Your Majesty's orders to cost you Heaven's virtue. Your might is heard throughout the Eight Desolates. Word of your greatness has spread through all the six directions, and of the nine provinces and hundred commandaries, you possess seven-tenths. You have conquered Yan and taken Shu as easily as picking a thing up off the ground. But those who excel at doing do not necessarily excel at completing, and those who excel at beginning do not necessarily excel at finishing. Even the sage kings of antiquity knew that seeing a task to fruition was not easy. Be ‘apprehensive and cautious’, 'as though on the edge of a valley'. Now I must yield everything to Your Majesty. Follow in the footsteps of the sages of old, and the realm shall be blessed." Fu Jian read it with deep grief and anguish.

八方之外爲八荒。《爾雅》:觚竹、北戶、西王母、日下,謂之四荒。六合,天、地、東、西、南、北。師古曰:草芥之橫在地上者,俛而拾之,言易而必得也。樂毅《答燕惠王書》之言。《詩‧小宛》:惴惴小心,如臨于谷;戰戰兢兢,如履薄冰。

The eight places beyond the borders of the realm were called the Eight Desolates. The Erya dictionary states, "Guzhu, Beihu, Xiwangmu, and Rixia may be called the Four Desolates".

The six directions were Heaven, Earth, east, west, south, and north.

The teachers of old said, "Grass grows straight up from the ground, and one can reach down and grab it." The saying means something that is so easy as to be certainly accomplished.

The phrase "Those who excel at doing..." was a quote from Yue Yi in the "Book of Replies to King Hui of Yan".

The 小宛 section of the Book of Poetry has the verse, "We must be anxious and careful, as if we were on the brink of a valley. We must be apprehensive and cautious, as if we were treading upon thin ice."


In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Jian constantly went to personally tend to Wang Meng in his illness, and only after seeing him would he then handle state affairs. Wang Meng said to him, "Although Jin is secluded in the Southland, they have just passed on to a new leader, and all their land is at peace. After I am no more, give no thought to campaigns against Jin. Our real enemies are the Xianbei and the Qiang. They will bring calamity in the end. You must gradually do away with them, for the good of the state."

And with these words, Wang Meng perished. He was posthumously known as Marquis Wu of Qinghe.

Fu Jian then lost his composure, and wept copiously. He said to his crown prince Fu Hong, "Heaven does not wish for me to pacify the world! How quickly it has snatched away my Jinglüe from me!"

Wang Meng received burial in the same manner as Huo Guang of Han.

王猛事秦,亦知正統之在江南。徐光之論非矣。後卒如猛言。

Wang Meng served Qin, but he also knew that legitimate rule lay with Jin in the Southland. This was the opposite of what Xu Guang had said to Shi Le (in Book 95, 332.6).

Events afterwards would turn out just as Wang Meng predicted.


Marquis Wu was the same posthumous title that Zhuge Liang had been given.


八月,癸巳,立皇後王氏,大赦。後,濛之孫也。以後父晉陵太守蘊為光祿大夫,領五兵尚書,封建昌侯,蘊固辭不受。

5. In the eighth month, on the day Guisi (October 1st), Emperor Xiaowu honored his wife Lady Wang (Fahui) as Empress, and proclaimed a general amnesty. Empress Wang was the granddaughter of Wang Meng (of Jin). Emperor Xiaowu appointed the Administrator of Jinling, her father Wang Yun, as the Household Counsellor and acting Master of the Five Divisions, as well as offering to make him the Marquis of Jianchang County, but Wang Yun firmly declined all the offered titles.

魏始置五兵尚書,謂總錄中兵、外兵、別兵、都兵、騎兵事也。【章:十二行本「昌」下有「縣」字;乙十一行本同。】

Cao-Wei had first created the office Master of the Five Divisions, which was in charge of the Central Division, the Outer Division, the Assorted Division, the Capital Division, and the Cavalry Division.

Some versions specify the noble title here as being Marquis of Jianchang "County".


九月,帝講《孝經》,始覽典和籍,延儒士。謝安薦東莞徐邈補中書捨人,每被顧問,多所匡益。帝或宴集,酣樂之後,好為手詔詩章以賜侍臣,或文詞率爾,所言穢雜;邈應時收斂還省刊削,皆使可觀,經帝重覽,然後出之,時議以此多邈。

6. In the ninth month, Emperor Xiaowu read the Classic of Filial Piety and first began reviewing the census and other records, so he asked for a Confucian scholar. Xie An recommended Xu Miao of Dongguan, who was then a 捨人 in the Palace Secretariat. So Xu Miao was always sought out for assistance, and he was able to rectify his lord and do much good. Whenever Emperor Xiaowu was out hunting, or after he had just enjoyed wine and song, he liked to compose his letters or edicts by hand and then give them to his attendant servants, and they were often written hastily, with the words in a jumble or at random. At those times, Xu Miao would pare back the wording and remove the excess lines, and then they would be suitable for review. This pairing, of a frivolous emperor with a serious advisor, would later become generally known, and the people of that time would discuss many things about Xu Miao.

晉初,中書置通事、舍人各一人,掌呈奏案及掌詔命。沈約曰:晉置中書侍郎,又置舍人一人,通事一人。江左初合舍人、通事,謂之通事舍人,掌呈案奏章;後省通事。謂中書省。

At the beginning of Jin, the Palace Secretariat had two persons, the 通事 and the 舍人, with one in charge of presenting petitions to be submitted and the other with edicts to be sent out. Shen Yue remarked, "Among Jin's Gentlemen Attendants of the Palace Secretariat, the 舍人 and the 通事 were different people. After Jin first relocated to the Southland, these offices were combined into the sole person called the 通事舍人, who handled both affairs. Later on, the office of 通事 was revived."

Xu Miao handled the revisions through the Palace Secretariat.


冬,十月,癸酉朔,日有食之。

7. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guiyou (November 10th), there was an eclipse.

秦王堅下詔曰:「新喪賢輔,百司或未稱朕心,可置聽訟觀於未央南,朕五日一臨,以求民隱。今天下雖未大定,權可偃武修文,以稱武侯雅旨。其增崇儒教,禁老、莊、圖讖之學,犯者棄市。」妙簡學生,太子及公侯百僚之子皆就學受業;中外四禁、二衛、四軍長上將士,皆令受學。二十人給一經生,教讀音句,後宮置典學以教掖庭,選閹人及女隸敏慧者詣博士授經。尚書郎王佩讀讖,堅殺之,學讖者遂絕。

8. Fu Jian issued an edict stating: "We have newly lost a virtuous man who upheld the state, and the ministers cannot yet comprehend my sorrow. I shall be in mourning for five days at Tongming Overlook, south of Weiyang, and I ask for the people's assistance. Although the realm has not yet been completely settled, now is the time to let martial matters abate and restore civil affairs, as Marquis Wu (Wang Meng) would have wished. The wisdom of Confucius shall be propagated, while the teachings of Laozi, Zhuangzi, and divination shall be forbidden. Violators shall be cast out in the marketplace."

To improve their learning, the Crown Prince and the children of the nobles and chief ministers all studied according to this order, as did the chief officers among the Generals of the Four 禁, the Two Guards, and the Four Armies. Twenty men gave instruction on the classics, instructing by reading aloud the sounds and phrases, and the residents of the rear palace’s lateral courts were also taught, with eunuchs and palace servant girls chosen welcome the learned instructors and learn the classics.

The Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Wang Pei, studied divination despite the edict. Fu Jian killed him, and others who were learning divination then stopped.

王猛諡武侯。秦有中軍、外軍將軍。前禁、後禁、左禁、右禁將軍,是爲四禁。左衞、右衞將軍,是爲二衞。衞軍、撫軍、鎭軍、冠軍將軍,是爲四軍。長上者,長上宿衞將士也。女隸,沒入爲官婢者,奚官女是也。

Marquis Wu was Wang Meng's posthumous title.

Qin had Generals of the Central Army and the Outer Army. The Four 禁 were the Generals of the Front 禁, Rear 禁, Left 禁, and Right 禁. The Two Guards were the Guard Generals of the Left and Right. The Four Armies were the Generals Who Guards The Army, Nurtures the Army, Protects the Army, and Champion of the Army. 長上者 means the chief officers of their households. 女隸 were servant girls who had not yet entered the palace, so they were the servants of officials.

BOOK 104

Unread postPosted: Mon May 01, 2017 1:57 am
by Taishi Ci 2.0
太元元年(丙子,公元三七六年)

The First Year of Taiyuan (The Bingzi Year, 376 AD)


春,正月,壬寅朔,帝加元服,皇太后下詔歸政,復稱崇德太后。甲辰,大赦,改元。丙午,帝始臨朝。以會稽內史郗愔為鎮軍大將軍、都督浙江東五郡諸軍事;徐州刺史桓沖為車騎將軍、都督豫、江二州之六郡諸軍事,自京口徙鎮姑孰。謝安欲以王蘊為方伯,故先解沖徐州。乙卯,加謝安中書監,錄尚書事。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renyin (February 7th), Emperor Xiaowu had his capping ceremony, and the Empress Dowager returned control of the government over to him, again assuming her title of Empress Dowager Chongde. On the day Jiachen (February 9th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed. On the day Bingwu (February 11th), Emperor Xiaowu first began to hold court.

The Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Grand General Who Defends The Army and Commander of military affairs in five eastern commandaries of Zhejiang. The Inspector of Xuzhou, Huan Chong, was appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Commander of military affairs in six commandaries of the two provinces Yuzhou and Jiangzhou, and his base was moved from Jingkou to Gushu. Xie An wished to appointed Wang Yun as a marcher lord, and this was why he had first removed Huan Chong from Xuzhou. On the day Yimao (February 20th), Xie An was promoted as Supervisor of the Palace Secretariat and granted authority over the Masters of Writing.

太后攝政,見上卷上年。浙江東五郡,會稽、東陽、臨海、永嘉、新安也。豫州之歷陽、淮南、廬江、安豐、襄城及江州之尋陽,共六郡。

Empress Dowager Chongde's resumption of her regency role was mentioned in the last book, Book 103, in the previous year (375.9).

The five eastern commandaries of Zhejiang were Kuaiji, Dongyang, Linhai, Yongjia, and Xin'an.

The six commandaries of Yuzhou and Jiangzhou were Liyang, Huainan, Lujiang, and Xiangcheng in Yuzhou and Xunyang in Jiangzhou.


二月,辛卯,秦王堅下詔曰:「朕聞王者勞於求賢,逸於得士,斯言何其驗也!往得丞相,常謂帝王易為。自丞相違世,鬚髮中白,每一念之,不覺酸慟。今天下既無丞相,或政教淪替,可分遣侍臣周巡郡縣,問民疾苦。」

2. In the second month, on the day Xinmao (March 27th), Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "I have heard that ‘a king exerts himself in his search for worthy men, and takes his rest in employing them’. How greatly does that saying agree with my experience! Ever since I gained the Prime Minister, I could often say that my imperial labors had been greatly eased. But now that the Prime Minister has left us, my hair has already turned half-white, and whenever I think of it, I cannot help but feel a bitter sorrow. Now that the realm is left without the Prime Minister, the state of everything may fall into a deep malaise. I shall dispatch ministers to make a circuit pass through all the counties and commandaries, and inquire into the people's hardships.”

齊桓公用管仲之言。丞相,謂王猛。

Fu Jian's quote was what Duke Huan of Qi had once said to his minister Guan Zhong. (Discourses on Salt and Iron, 10.5) The Prime Minister mentioned here was Wang Meng.


三月,秦兵寇南鄉,拔之,山蠻三萬戶降秦。

3. In the third month, Qin troops invaded Nanxiang and captured it. Thirty thousand households of the Hill Man tribes surrendered to Qin.

自春秋之時,伊、洛以南,巴、巫、漢、沔以北,大山長谷,皆蠻居之。文公十六年,庸人率羣蠻以叛楚。庸,則漢之上庸縣也。哀公四年,楚人襲梁及霍以圍蠻氏,執蠻子赤。梁,則漢河南之梁縣;霍,則梁縣南之霍陽山也。漢高帝用巴渝蠻以定三秦,則板楯蠻也。後漢祭遵攻新城蠻、柏華蠻,破霍陽聚,則春秋蠻氏之聚落也。其後又有巫蠻、南郡蠻、江夏蠻。襄陽以西,中廬、宜城之西山,皆蠻居之,所謂山蠻也。宋、齊以後,謂之雍州蠻。

Ever since the Spring and Autumn era, in the region between the Yi and Luo Rivers to the north and the Ba, Wu, Han, and Mian Rivers to the south, there were tall hills and long valleys, and all of these places served as homes to the 蠻 Man tribes.

In the sixteenth year of Duke Wen of Lu (611 BC), the people of Yong stirred up the Man tribes in revolt against Chu. ("The people of Yong, [at the same time], headed all the tribes of the Man in a revolt against Chu, while those of Jun led on the many tribes of the Pu, and collected at Xuan, intending to invade it." Zuo Zhuan, Wen 16.6) This Yong was the Han dynasty's Shangyong County.

In the fourth year of Duke Ai of Lu (491 BC), the people of Chu laid siege to the Man tribes in their cities of Liang and Huo, and captured the Man Viscount, Chi. ("...[Chu] took by surprise Liang and Huo, [cities of the Man Rong]. [They] laid siege to [the chief town of] the Man, the people of which dispersed, while Chi, the viscount, fled to Yindi in Jin... While the viscount was waiting for the result, [Jin] seized him and his five great officers, and delivered them to the army of Chu at Sanhu." Zuo Zhuan, Ai 4.6) These places, Liang and Huo, were the Han dynasty's Liang County in Henan and Mount Huoyang in the south of that county.

Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) used the Bayu Man tribe, also called the Bandun Man tribe, to settle the regions of the Three Qins. In Later Han, Zhai Zun attacked the Man tribes of Xincheng and Baihua, and routed their host at Huoyang, which had been the settlement of the Man tribes of the Spring and Autumn era.

There were also the Wu Man, Nanjun Man, and Jiangxia Man tribes. West of Xiangyang, the western hills of Zhonglu and Yicheng were all home to the Man tribes, and this group was called the Hill Man. After the Liu-Song and Southern Liang dynasties, they were called the Yongzhou Man.


夏,五月,甲寅,大赦。

4. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Jiayin (June 18th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

初,張天錫之殺張邕也,劉肅及安定梁景皆有功,二人由是有寵,賜姓張氏,以為己子,使預政事。天錫荒於酒色,不親庶務,黜世子大懷而立嬖妾焦氏之子大豫,以焦氏為左夫人,人情憤怨。從弟從事中郎憲輿櫬切諫,不聽。

5. Earlier, when the ruler of Liangzhou, Zhang Tianxi, had killed Zhang Yong, Liu Su and Liang Jing of Anding had both assisted him, and so gained his favor. Zhang Tianxi went so far as to bestow the royal surname Zhang on them, and treated them like his own sons, and he used them to administer affairs. Zhang Tianxi often lost himself in women and wine, and did not attend to the affairs of the common people. He deposed his eldest son, Zhang Dahuai, and instead set up Zhang Dayu, the son of his favored concubine Lady Qiao, as his heir, naming Lady Qiao as his 左夫人. This produced much enmity from others. The Assistant Officer of the Palace Gentlemen, his cousin Xian Yu, personally remonstrated harshly with him, but to no avail.

事見一百一卷穆帝升平五年。【章:十二行本「妾」下有「焦氏」二字;乙十一行本同;張校同。】

Zhang Tianxi's overthrow of Zhang Yong was mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Mu's fifth year of Shengping (361.17).

Some versions specify Lady Qiao as the mother of Zhang Dayu.


秦王堅下詔曰:「張天錫雖稱籓受位,然臣道未純,可遣使持節、武衛將軍武都苟萇、左將軍毛盛、中書令梁熙、步兵校尉姚萇等將兵臨西河,尚書郎閻負、梁殊奉詔征天錫入朝,若有違王命,即進師撲討。」是時,秦步騎十三萬,軍司段鏗謂周虓曰:「以此眾戰,誰能敵之!」虓曰:「戎狄以來,未之有也。」堅又命秦州刺史苟池、河州刺史李辯、涼州刺史王統帥三州之眾為苟萇後繼。

6. Fu Jian issued an edict stating, "Although Zhang Tianxi claims to be our vassal, he has abandoned the path of a proper minister. Therefore, I shall send the Credential Bearer and General of 武衛, Gou Chang, the General of the Left, Mao Sheng of Wudu, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Liang Xi, the Colonel of Infantry, Yao Chang, and others to march into the Hexi region, while the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Yan Fu and Liang Shu, shall present my edict to order Zhang Tianxi to report to me at court. If he should disobey this royal edict, then my troops will advance and punish him."

At this time, Qin assembled an army of a hundred and thirty thousand horse and foot. Qin’s 軍司, Duan Keng, boasted to the captive Jin minister Zhou Xiao, "With an army like this, who can oppose us?" Zhou Xiao replied, "There has never been a greater host since the Rong and Di barbarians."

Fu Jian also ordered Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou, Gou Chi, the Inspector of Hezhou, Li Bian, and the Inspector of Liangzhou, Wang Tong, to send the soldiers of their three provinces to act as Gou Chang's rearguard.

【章:十二行本「軍」下有「武都」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】河水過敦煌、酒泉、張掖郡南,武威郡東北,爲西河。萇,仲良翻。用《左傳》齊桓公之言。周虓拘執於秦,其尊本朝之心,雖造次不忘也。《考異》曰:《虓傳》曰:「呂光征西域,堅出餞之,戎士二十萬,旌旗數百里。問虓曰:『朕衆力何如?』虓曰:『戎夷以來,未之有也。』」按建元十八年,二月,虓謀反,徙朔方。十九年,正月,呂光發長安。故知在伐涼州時。今從《十六國春秋》。

Some versions describe Mao Sheng as being "of Wudu".

The region to the northwest of the Yellow River, including Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangye, and Wuwei, was called Hexi ("west of the Yellow River").

萇 is pronounced "chang (zh-ang)".

Duan Keng uses the same boast that Duke Huan of Qi made in the Zuo Commentary: "With this gathered host, who can withstand us? No matter what city we attack, which will not fall?" (Xi 3.2).

Zhou Xiao never bowed to Qin, and he always revered the Jin court in his heart, and never forgot it no matter where he was.

Regarding this story, Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Biography of Zhou Xiao says,

‘When Lü Guang campaigned against the Western Reaches (in 383), Fu Jian went to see the army off. Lü Guang commanded a host of two hundred thousand men, and their flags and banners stretched for several hundred li. Fu Jian asked Zhou Xiao, "Who can compare with the strength of my army?" Zhou Xiao replied, "There has never been a greater host since the Rong and Di barbarians."’

“However, we know that in Fu Jian's eighteenth year of Jianyuan (382), in the second month, Zhou Xiao participated in the plotted rebellion at that time, and as a result was exiled to Shuofang. And it was in the first month of the following year (383) that Lü Guang set out from Chang'an on this campaign. So I place this anecdote of Zhou Xiao's retort at the time of the campaign against Liangzhou. This follows the account of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms."


秋,七月,閻負、梁殊至姑臧。張天錫會官屬謀之,曰:「今入朝,必不返;如其不從,秦兵必至,將若之何?」禁中錄事席仂曰:「以愛子為質,賂以重寶,以退其師,然後徐為之計,此屈伸之術也。」眾皆怒曰:「吾世事晉朝,忠節著於海內。今一旦委身賊庭,辱及祖宗,丑莫大焉!且河西天險,百年無虞,若悉境內精兵,右招西域,北引匈奴,以拒之,何遽知其不捷也!」天錫攘袂大言曰:「孤計決矣,言降者斬!」使謂閻負、梁殊曰:「君欲生歸乎,死歸乎?」殊等辭氣不屈,天錫怒,縛之軍門,命軍士交射之,曰:「射而不中,不與我同心者也。」其母嚴氏泣曰:「秦主以一州之地,橫制天下,東平鮮卑,南取巴、蜀,兵不留行。汝若降之,猶可延數年之命。今以蕞爾一隅,抗衡大國,又殺其使者,亡無日矣!」天錫使龍驤將軍馬建帥眾二萬拒秦。

7. In autumn, the seventh month, the Qin envoys Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at the Liangzhou capital at Guzang. Before receiving them, Zhang Tianxi met with his ministers to consider what they would do. He told his ministers, "If I were to go to the court at Chang’an, I would certainly never return. But if I do not go, then the Qin soldiers will surely come here. What should be done?"

His 禁中錄事, Xi Le, suggested, "You might hand over your beloved son as a hostage, and bribe the envoys with costly treasures, to forestall the arrival of the enemy army. That would buy us some time to come up with a plan at a later date. This is the art of gaining space through submission."

But all the other ministers angrily responded, "We have been faithful to Jin for generations, loyally maintaining their authority within the Four Seas. Will you, in a single day, make yourself the captive of a rebel court and disgrace your ancestors? Nothing could be more shameful than that! Thanks to the natural defenses of the Hexi region, we have remained free men for a hundred years. The whole territory is filled with our elite soldiers, and if need be, we can recruit men from the Western Regions or summon the aid of the northern Xiongnu. If we oppose this invasion, who fears that we will not be victorious?"

So Zhang Tianxi pushed up his sleeves and shouted, "Then that shall be my decision. Anyone who advocates surrender will be executed!"

Then Zhang Tianxi sent for Yan Fu and Liang Shu, and he asked them, "Do you wish to live, or to die?" They refused to submit to him, and this made him furious, so he had the two of them tied up at the gate of the army camp. He ordered his soldiers to shoot arrows at them, saying to the soldiers, "Whoever shoots his arrow and does not hit them goes against my wishes."

Zhang Tianxi’s mother, Lady Yan, wept and said, "Though he started with just one province, the lord of Qin has become master of the realm. He conquered the Xianbei in the east, and he seized Ba and Shu in the south. His soldiers cannot be stopped, and no one is a match for them. If you had submitted to Qin, you might have extended the life of the state for many years. But now, for our small corner to contend with a great state, and even to kill their envoys, means that our end is fast approaching!"

Zhang Tianxi sent his General of Dragon Cavalry, Ma Jian, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to oppose the Qin invasion.

禁中錄事,張氏所置,使總錄禁中事也。仂,與力同,又音勒。【章:十二行本「汝」上有「所向無敵」四字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦說。】

The office of 禁中錄事 was a creation of the Zhang clan of Liangzhou. It handled the affairs of the 總錄禁中. 仂 is pronounced "li" or "le".

Some versions add the phrase "no one is a match for them" in Lady Yan’s lament.


秦人聞天錫殺閻負、梁殊,八月,梁熙、姚萇、王統、李辯濟自清石津,攻涼驍烈將軍梁濟於河會城,降之。甲申,苟萇濟自石城津,與梁熙等會攻纏縮城,拔之。馬建懼,自楊非退屯清塞。天錫又遣征東將軍掌據帥眾三萬軍於洪池,天錫自將餘眾五萬,軍於金昌城。安西將軍敦煌宋皓言於天錫曰:「臣晝察人事,夜觀天文,秦兵不可敵也,不如降之。」天錫怒,貶皓為宣威護軍。廣武太守辛章曰:「馬建出於行陳,必不為國家用。」苟萇使姚萇帥甲士三千為前驅。庚寅,馬建帥萬人迎降,餘兵皆散走。辛卯,苟萇及掌據戰於洪池,據兵敗,馬為亂兵所殺,其屬董儒授之以馬,據曰:「吾三督諸軍,再秉節鉞,八將禁旅,十總外兵,寵任極矣。今卒困於此,此吾之死地也,尚安之乎!」乃就帳免冑,西向稽首,伏劍而死。秦兵殺軍司席仂。癸巳,秦兵入清塞,天錫遣司兵趙充哲帥眾拒之。秦兵與充哲戰於赤岸,大破之,俘斬三萬八千級,充哲死。天錫出城自戰,城內又叛。天錫與數千騎奔還姑臧。甲午,秦兵至姑臧,天錫素車白馬,面縛輿櫬,降於軍門。苟萇釋縛焚梓,送於長安。涼州郡縣悉降於秦。

8. Qin soon heard of the deaths of Yan Fu and Liang Shu.

In the eighth month, Liang Xi, Yao Chang, Wang Tong, and Li Bian crossed over the Yellow River at Qingshi Ford. They attacked Liangzhou's General of Valiant Ferocity, Liang Ji, at Hehui, and he surrendered to them.

驍烈將軍,蓋張氏置。《五代志》:允吾縣有青巖山。《水經註》:湟河至允吾,與大河會。意者清石津在青巖山之下,河會城在二河之會歟?

The rank of General of Valiant Ferocity was a creation of the Zhang clan.

The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "In Yunwu County, there is a Mount Qingyan." And the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "When the Huang River reaches Yunwu, it joins with the Yellow River." Perhaps this means that Qingshi Ford was at the base of this Mount Qingyan, and Hehui ("rivers meet") was at the place where these two rivers meet?


On the day Jiashen (September 16th), Gou Chang crossed over at Shicheng Ford, and he and Liang Xi joined together and attacked Chansuo, and took it. The Liangzhou general Ma Jian was afraid, and he fell back from Yangfei to camp at Qingsai.

闞駰曰:石城津在金城西北。《水經註》:逆水出允吾縣之參街谷,東南流逕街亭城南,又東南逕陽非亭北,又東南逕廣武城西。據《載記》,楊非在支陽東北三百餘里。

Kan Yin remarked, "Shicheng Ford is northwest of Jincheng."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states that the 逆 Ni River flows through the Canjie Valley in Yunwu County, flowing southeast south of Jieting (the site of Ma Su's battle in 228), and further southeast north of Yangfei-ting, and still further southeast west of Guangwu. According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this Yangfei was more than three hundred li northeast of Zhiyang.


Zhang Tianxi then sent out his General Who Conquers The East, Zhang Ju, with thirty thousand men to march to Hongchi. Zhang Tianxi himself marched with another army of fifty thousand, and his army went to Jinchang. His General Who Calms The West, Song Hao of Dunhuang, said to him, "I have consulted with the astronomers, and they have studied the night sky. We are no match for the Qin soldiers. It would be best to surrender." Zhang Tianxi, furious, demoted Song Hao to 宣威護軍.

洪池,嶺名,在姑臧南。「掌據」,《晉書》作「常據」,當從之。金昌城在赤岸西北。

Hongchi was the name of a mountain range south of Guzang.

The text here mentions the general 掌據 Zhang Ju. His surname is written 常 Chang both in the Book of Jin and earlier in ZZTJ (367.3,5), and it should also be 常 here.

Jinchang was northwest of Chi'an.


The Administrator of Guangwu, Xin Zhang, said, "Ma Jian has marched away to defend himself; he is of no use to the state." Gou Chang sent Yao Chang to lead three thousand infantry as an advance force. On the day Gengyin (September 22nd), Ma Jian arrived with ten thousand men to offer their surrender to Qin, and his other men all scattered and fled.

張寔分金城之令居、枝陽,置廣武郡。宋白曰:蘭州廣武縣本漢枝陽縣地,張駿分晉興置廣武郡。

Zhang Shi had split off Lingju and Zhiyang counties from Jincheng commandary, and formed Guangwu commandary out of them. Song Bai remarked, "蘭州 Lanzhou's Guangwu County was originally the Han dynasty's Zhiyang County. Zhang Jun formed Guangwu commandary out of Jinxing commandary."


On the day Xinmao (September 23rd), Gou Chang fought with Zhang Ju at Hongchi. Zhang Ju’s army was defeated, and in the chaos of the soldiers, Zhang Ju’s horse was killed. His subordinate Dong Ru offered to give Zhang Ju his own horse. But Zhang Ju said, “I have thrice been commander of the armies, and I have often wielded military authority. Eight times have I ventured forth, ten times driven back the enemy. I have received the highest favors and positions of the state. Now I have suffered this reverse, so let this be the place of my death. That shall be enough for me!” He then took off his helmet, turned and kowtowed toward the west, drew his sword and killed himself. The Qin soldiers killed the 軍司 Xi Le.

【章:十二行本「禁」作「外」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】天錫之攻李儼也,常據首破其兵;蓋河西推爲良將,故其言如此。

In Chang Ju's final speech, some versions write the second 禁 as 外.

When Zhang Tianxi had campaigned against Li Yan, it was Chang Ju who won the first victory against him, as mentioned above. He was the premier general of Hexi, and this was why he said this.


On the day Guisi (September 25th), the Qin soldiers entered Qingsai. Zhang Tianxi sent his 司兵, Zhao Chongzhe, to lead the remaining soldiers in defense. The Qin soldiers fought with Zhao Chongze at Chi'an, and greatly defeated him; they captured or killed thirty-eight thousand, and Zhao Chongzhe died as well. Zhang Tianxi marched out of the city himself to offer battle, but then those inside the city rebelled against him, and so he fled with several thousand riders back to Guzang.

河西張氏置官僚,擬於王者而微異其名。司兵,蓋晉五兵尚書之職也。《水經註》:河水自左南而東,逕赤岸北,亦謂之河夾岸。《秦州記》曰:枹罕有河夾岸。

The Zhang clan of Hexi had made several novel offices in anticipation of being Princes. 司兵 was one of Jin's Five Divisions offices.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states that as the Yellow River flowed south and then east, it passed by Chi'an to the north, so the place was also called Hejia'an. The Records of Qinzhou states, "Near Fuhan is Hejia'an."


On the day Jiawu (September 26th), the Qin soldiers reached Guzang. Zhang Tianxi hitched up a white horse to his chariot, bound himself in chains to a coffin, and presented himself for surrender at the Qin army camp gate. Gou Chang loosed his chains and burned the coffin, and sent him to Chang'an.

All of the commandaries and counties of Liangzhou submitted to Qin.

惠帝永寧元年,張軌爲涼州刺史,遂有涼土,共九主,七十五年而亡。

From Emperor Hui's first year of Yongning (301), when Zhang Gui had been made Inspector of Liangzhou, and thus held the Liang territory, altogether Former Liang had had nine rulers and had lasted for seventy-five years, and then perished.


九月,秦王堅以梁熙為涼州刺史,鎮姑臧。徙豪右七千餘戶於關中,餘皆按堵如故。封天錫為歸義侯,拜北部尚書。初,秦兵之出也,先為天錫築第於長安,至則居之。以天錫晉興太守隴西彭和正為黃門侍郎,治中從事武興蘇膺、敦煌太守張烈為尚書郎,西平太守金城趙凝為金城太守,高昌楊干為高昌太守;餘皆隨才擢敘。

9. In the ninth month, Fu Jian appointed Liang Xi as Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Guzang. Fu Jian relocated seven thousand of the households there to Guanzhong, with the rest being kept as before.

Zhang Tianxi was appointed as Marquis of Guiyi, and assigned to the Northern Department of the Masters of Writing. Before the campaign, as the Qin soldiers had marched out, a residence was being built for Zhang Tianxi at Chang'an, and he was now sent to reside there.

Zhang Tianxi's former Administrator of Jinxing, Peng Hezheng of Longxi, was appointed as Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate. The 治中從事, Su Ying of Wuxing, and the Administrator of Dunhuang, Zhang Lie, were appointed as Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. The Administrator of Xiping, Zhao Ning of Jincheng, was appointed as Administrator of Jincheng. Yang Gan of Gaochang was appointed Administrator of Gaochang. Others of similar talents were granted similar offices.

秦置北部尚書,以掌北蕃。張軌分西平界,置晉興郡。張軌以秦、雍移人於姑臧西北,置武興郡。高昌,漢車師之高昌壁也,張氏始置郡,後爲高昌國,唐以其地置西州。

Qin had formed this Northern Department to deal with the northern border.

Zhang Gui had split Jinxing commandary off from Xinping. He had also moved many people from Qinzhou and Yongzhou to the northwest of Guzang, and made that region Wuxing commandary.

As for Gaochang, it was originally a fortress created by the Jushi people during the Han dynasty. The Zhang clan had formed a commandary there, and later on Gaochang became an independent state. During Tang, it was a place in 西州 Xizhou.


梁熙清儉愛民,河右安之,以天錫武威太守敦煌索泮為別駕,宋皓為主簿。西平郭護起兵攻秦,熙以皓為折衝將軍,討平之。

10. Liang Xi was clear and frugal, winning the hearts of the people, and he kept peace in Heyou. He appointed Zhang Tianxi's former Administrator of Wuwei, She Pan of Dunhuang, as his Attendant Officer, and appointed Song Hao as his Registrar.

Guo Hu of Xiping raised troops in rebellion and attacked Qin. Liang Xi appointed Song Hao as General Who Breaks and Charges, and Song Hao crushed the uprising.

爲梁熙爲呂光所殺張本。索,昔各翻。

Liang Xi's popular support in the region was why Lü Guang later killed him (Book 105, 385.56).

In this instance, 索 is pronounced "sok (s-ok)".


桓沖聞秦攻涼州,遣兗州刺史朱序、江州刺史桓石秀與荊州督護桓羆遊軍沔、漢,為涼州聲援;又遣豫州刺史桓伊帥眾向壽陽,淮南太守劉波泛舟淮、泗,欲橈秦以救涼。聞涼州敗沒,皆罷兵。

11. When Huan Chong heard that Qin was attacking Liangzhou, he sent the Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhu Xu, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Shixiu, and the Protector of Jingzhou, Huan Pi, to move their troops up to the Miao and Han rivers, in order to provide support for Liangzhou. He also sent the Inspector of Yuzhou, Huan Yi, to lead troops towards Shouyang, and sent the Administrator of Huainan, Liu Bo, to send boats along the Huai and Si rivers, in order to ferry troops into Qin to relieve Liangzhou. But when he then heard that Liangzhou had already fallen, the troops were ordered to return.

初,哀帝減田租,畝收二升。乙巳,除度田收租之制,王公以下,口稅米三斛,蠲在役之身。

12. It was earlier mentioned that during Emperor Ai's reign, the farm tax rate had been reduced to two 升 per 畝. This month, on the day Yisi (October 7th), the farm tax system was entirely abolished. From princes and dukes on down, each person was instead charged a head tax of three 斛 of rice per head, with exemptions for those on corvee labor.

見一百一卷隆和元年。

The reduction in the farm tax rate was mentioned in Book 101, in the first year of Longhe (362.2).


冬,十月,移淮北民於准南。

13. In winter, the tenth month, Jin relocated the people north of the Huai River to the region south of it.

畏秦也。

This was done out of fear of the threat posed by Qin to the north.


劉衛辰為代所逼,求救於秦,秦王堅以幽州刺史行唐公洛為北討大都督,帥幽、冀兵十萬擊代;使并州刺史俱難、鎮軍將軍鄧羌、尚書趙遷、李柔、前將軍朱肜、前禁將軍張蚝、右禁將軍郭慶帥步騎二十萬,東出和龍,西出上都,皆與洛會,以衛辰為鄉導。洛,菁之弟也。

14. It was earlier mentioned that the Xiongnu leader Liu Weichen was under threat from Dai. Because of that, he asked for help from Qin against them.

Fu Jian appointed his Inspector of Youzhou and 行 Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, as Grand Commander Who Campaigns Against The North, and sent him with one hundred thousand soldiers from Youzhou and Jizhou to attack Dai. Fu Jian also sent his Inspector of Bingzhou, Ju Nan, his General Who Guards The Army, Deng Qiang, his Masters of Writing, Zhao Qian and Li Rou, his General of the Front, Zhu Yong, his General of the Front 禁, Zhang Qi, and his General of the Right 禁, Guo Qing, to lead two hundred thousand horse and foot altogether as well. These armies marched from Helong in the east and Shangdu in the west, to link up with Fu Luo. Liu Weichen was appointed as guide for the army. This Fu Luo was the younger brother of Fu Jing.

秦主健之入關,菁有功焉。健之垂沒也,菁以逆誅。

When Fu Jiàn had led his army into Guanzhong, his nephew by one of his late older brothers, Fu Jing, had achieved much in his service. But when Fu Jiàn was near death, Fu Jing had tried to launch a coup, but was killed (Book 100, 355.7). So in relation to Fu Jian, Fu Luo was his cousin.


苟萇之伐涼州也,遣揚武將軍馬暉、建武將軍杜周帥八千騎西出恩宿,邀張天錫走路,期會姑臧。暉等行澤中,值水失期,於法應斬,有司奏征下獄。秦王堅曰:「水春冬耗竭。秋夏盛漲,此乃苟萇量事失宜,非暉等罪。今天下方有事,宜宥過責功。命暉等回赴北軍,擊索虜以自贖。」眾鹹以為萬里召將,非所以應速。堅曰:「暉等喜於免死,不可以常事疑也。」暉等果倍道疾驅,遂及東軍。

15. When Gou Chang had led the Qin army against Liangzhou earlier, he had sent the General Who Spreads Valor, Ma Hui, and the General Who Establishes Valor, Du Zhou, to lead eight thousand cavalry west out of Ensu. The plan was for them to cut off Zhang Tianxi's line of retreat, and link up at Guzang. But when Ma Hui and the others passed through a marsh, they had lost time getting stuck in the waters, and so the mission failed.

By law, they deserved execution, and the officials petitioned that they be thrown into prison. Fu Jian said, "It is the nature of waters to recede in spring and winter, and to swell up in autumn and summer. This was a mistake on Gou Chang's part, and Ma Hui and the rest have committed no offense. When something like this happens, pardons should be issued on account of past services. So I order Ma Hui and the rest to go and rejoin the northern army, and redeem themselves through attacking the Suolu."

Many people thought that, since reaching the army would require a trip of ten thousand li, the pardoned officers would not be very quick to reach it. Fu Jian said, "Ma Hui and the others are happy to have escaped death. Do not be so quick to doubt them." And indeed, Ma Hui and the rest traveled at a blistering speed, much faster than the usual travel time, and so rejoined the eastern army.

代本鮮卑索頭種,故謂之索虜。暉等自西方回,故謂伐代之軍爲東軍。

The Xianbei of Dai were part of what were called the Suotou Xianbei, and so Fu Jian called them Suolu ("braid slaves").

Since Ma Hui and the others traveled from the west to rejoin the army in the east, the text says that they were rejoining the "eastern" army.


十一月,己巳朔,日有食之。

16. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Jisi (?), there was an eclipse.

代王什翼犍使白部、獨孤部南御秦兵,皆不勝,又使南部大人劉庫仁將十萬騎御之。庫仁者,衛辰之族,什翼犍之甥也,與秦兵戰於石子嶺,庫仁大敗。什翼犍病,不能自將,乃帥諸部奔陰山之北。高車雜種盡叛,四面寇鈔,不得芻牧,什翼犍復渡漠南。聞秦兵稍退,十二月,什翼犍還雲中。

17. At first, Tuoba Shiyijian sent the Bai and Dugu tribes south to guard against the Qin armies, but neither of them were successful. He then sent the leader of the southern tribe, Liu Kuren, with a hundred thousand cavalry to oppose Qin. This Liu Kuren was Liu Weichen's kinsman, but also Tuoba Shiyijian's nephew. He fought with the Qin soldiers at the Shizi mountain range, but he too was defeated.

Tuoba Shiyijian was ill, and could not march at the head of troops himself, so he led several tribes to flee to north of Mount Yin. But the various Gaoche peoples there all rebelled, and danger was on every side; it was impossible to find grazing feed there, so Tuoba Shiyijian crossed into Monan. But when he heard that the Qin soldiers had somewhat fallen back from their advance, in the twelfth month, Tuoba Shiyijian returned to Yunzhong.

鮮卑有白部。後漢時鮮卑居白山者,最爲強盛,後因曰白部。令狐德棻曰:魏氏之初,三十六部,其先伏留屯者,與魏俱起,爲部落大人,遂爲獨孤部。石子嶺當雲中盛樂西南。《新唐書》曰:自夏州北渡烏水,一百二十里至可朱渾水源,又百餘里至石子嶺。李延壽曰:高車,蓋赤狄之餘種也,北方以爲高車丁零。其先,匈奴甥也。其遷徙隨水草,衣皮食肉,牛羊畜產並與柔然同;唯車輪高大,輻數至多,因以爲號。

One of the Xianbei clans was the Bai tribe. During Later Han, there were some Xianbei who had resided at Mount Bai. They had grown very strong and flourishing, and so they were called the Bai tribe. Linghu Defen, author of the Book of (Northern) Zhou, remarked, "When the clans of Northern Wei first began, there were thirty-six of them. The first group that submitted to them and were left to hold posts, and who rose together along with Wei, along with their tribal chiefs, were called the Dugu clan.”

The Shizi mountain range was southwest of Yunzhong and Shengle. The New Book of Tang states, "If one crosses the 烏 Wu River north of 夏州 Xiazhou, after a hundred and twenty li one arrives at the source of the Kezhuhun River, and more than a hundred li further on from there, one reaches the Shizi mountain range."

Li Yanshou, author of the History of the Southern Dynasties, remarked, "The Gaoche are one of the offshoots of the old Red Di tribes. In the north, these offshoots became the Gaoche and the Dingling. Originally, they were nephews to the Xiongnu. They are nomads who follow the seasons of the waters and the grasses. They wear skins and eat flesh, and they raise cattle and sheep with equal gentleness. It is only that they make their wheels very tall and large, and with a great many spokes, and that is why they are called Gaoche ('tall carts')."


初,什翼犍分國之半以授弟孤,孤卒,子斤失職怨望。世子寔及弟翰早卒,寔子珪尚幼,慕容妃之子閼婆、壽鳩、紇根、地干、力真、窟咄皆長,繼嗣未定。時秦兵尚在君子津,諸子每夜執兵警衛。斤因說什翼犍之庶長子寔君曰:「王將立慕容妃之子,欲先殺汝,故頃來諸子每夜戎服,以兵繞廬帳,伺便將發耳。」寔君信之,遂殺諸弟,並弒什翼犍。是夜,諸子婦及部人奔告秦軍,秦李柔、張蚝勒兵趨雲中;部眾逃潰,國中大亂。珪母賀氏以珪走依賀訥。訥,野干之子也。

18. It was earlier mentioned that, at the time of Tuoba Shiyijian’s ascension, there had been some contention over whether he or his brother Tuoba Gu would inherit the throne of Dai. To compromise, Tuoba Shiyijian had divided the territory of Dai between himself and Tuoba Gu. But after Tuoba Gu's death, his son Tuoba Jin had not kept the same power given to his father, so Tuoba Jin was very envious.

事見九十六卷成帝咸康四年。不復得國之半,故自以爲失職而怨。

The compromise between Tuoba Shiyijian and Tuoba Gu was mentioned in Book 96, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xiankang (338.27). Tuoba Jin was angered because he had not also been able to remain in command of half of Dai.


Tuoba Shiyijian's eldest son by his late wife Lady Murong, Tuoba Shi, and Tuoba Shi’s younger brother Tuoba Han had both died early deaths, and Tuoba Shi's son, Tuoba Gui, was still very young. Tuoba Shiyijian had several other sons by Lady Murong: Tuoba Epo, Tuoba Shoujiu, Tuoba Hegen, Tuoba Degan, Tuoba Lizhen, and Tuoba Kudei. All of them were now grown, and the matter of the succession had not been resolved. During the time when the Qin soldiers were at Junzi Ford, these sons all took command of soldiers and caused an alarm every night.

慕容妃,燕女也。什翼犍娶燕女爲妃,見九十七卷康帝建元二年。寔卒見上卷簡文帝咸安元年。閼,於葛翻。紇,下沒翻。窟,苦骨翻。咄,當沒翻。《水經》:河水南入雲中楨陵縣西北,又南過赤城東,又南過定襄桐過縣西。河水於二縣之間,濟有君子之名。酈道元《註》曰:昔漢桓帝西幸榆中,東行代地,洛陽大賈賫金貨隨帝後行,夜,迷失道,往投津長,曰子封,送之渡河。賈人卒死,津長埋之。其子尋求父喪,發冢舉尸,資貨一無所損。其子悉以金與之,津長不受。事聞於帝,曰:「君子也。」卽名其津爲君子濟。在雲中城西南二百餘里。

Concubine Murong was a princess of Yan. Tuoba Shiyijian's marriage to a Yan princess as his concubine was mentioned in Book 97, in Emperor Kang's second year of Jianyuan (344.8).

Tuoba Shi's death caused by the would-be assassin Zhangsun Jin was mentioned in the previous book, Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.7, 13)

閼 is pronounced "e (w-e)". 紇 is pronounced "he (x-ei)". 窟 is pronounced "ku (k-u)". 咄 is pronounced "dei (d-ei)".

The Water Classic states, "The Yellow River, flowing south, enters Yunzhong in the the northwest of Zhenling County, and further south it passes through Chicheng to the east, and still further south it passes through Dingxiang in the west of Tongguo County. In the stretch of the Yellow River where it passes through these two counties, there is a crossing called Junzi." Li Daoyuan's Commentary adds, "During the time of Emperor Huan of Han, this part of the river went from Yunzhong in the west to the Dai region in the east. At that time, a great merchant in Luoyang was bestowed articles of gold by Emperor Huan. The merchant left to travel, but one night, he became confused and lost his way. At a long crossing place, called Zifeng, he fell into the river. The merchant perished there, and the crossing became his tomb. But his son came to look for his father's body to mourn. He made a burial mound for his father's body, and he did not lose any of his father's goods. The son recovered all of the gold, and none of it was left in the crossing. When the incident was reported to Emperor Huan, he mused, 'A superior man'. So the name of that crossing then became Junzi ('superior man')." It was more than two hundred li southwest of Yunzhong.


Because of the commotion these brothers were causing, Tuoba Jin warned Tuoba Shiyijian's eldest son, Tuoba Shijun, who was born of a concubine, "The King will soon select one of Lady Murong's sons to be his heir. Before then, he plans to kill you first. That is why these sons make a ruckus every night, and surround their canopy houses with soldiers, waiting to see what might develop." Tuoba Shijun believed him, and so he went and killed all of his younger brothers, and then killed his father Tuoba Shiyijian too.

That night, the concubines and kinsmen of the slain brothers fled the city and went to alert the Qin army. Li Rou and Zhang Qi then rushed their soldiers forward to capture Yunzhong. The tribes all scattered, and the whole state was thrown into chaos. Tuoba Gui's mother, Lady He, fled with her son to seek refuge with He Na. This He Na was the son of her father He Yegan.

北狄之長,居大氈帳,環設兵衞。氈帳,漢人謂之穹廬,因曰廬帳。賀野干見上卷簡文帝咸安元年。

The chiefs of the northern Di all lived under large felt canopies, surrounded by guard houses. The Han people all called these dwellings "round houses" (yurts), and this is why Tuoba Jin calls them "canopy houses".

He Yegan was mentioned in the previous book, Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.15).


秦王堅召代長史燕鳳,問代所以亂故,鳳具以狀對。堅曰:「天下之惡一也。」乃執寔君及斤,至長安,車裂之。堅欲遷珪於長安,鳳固請曰:「代王初亡,群下叛散,遺孫沖幼,莫相統攝。其別部大人劉庫仁,勇而有智;鐵弗衛辰,狡猾多變,皆不可獨任。宜分諸部為二,令此兩人統之;兩人素有深仇,其勢莫敢先發。俟其孫稍長,引而立之,是陛下有存亡繼絕之德於代,使其子子孫孫永為不侵不叛之臣,此安邊之良策也。」堅從之,分代民為二部,自河以東屬庫仁,自河以西屬衛辰,各拜官爵,使統其眾。賀氏以珪歸獨孤部,與南部大人長孫嵩、元佗等皆依庫仁。行唐公洛以什翼犍子窟咄年長,遷之長安。堅使窟咄入太學讀書。

19. Fu Jian summoned Dai's Chief Clerk, Yan Feng, and asked him about the source of the disturbance in Dai. When Yan Feng told him the causes, Fu Jian mused, "Wickedness is the same all under heaven." He arrested Tuoba Jin and Tuoba Shijun, and sent them to Chang'an, where they were pulled apart by chariots.

《左傳》載石祁子之言。

Fu Jian quotes the words of Shi Qizi of Dai from the Zuo Commentary (Zhuang 12.2).


Fu Jian also wished to bring Tuoba Gui to Chang'an, but Yan Feng admonished him, saying, "The King of Dai has only just perished, and all his ministers have scattered to plot rebellion. Since his grandson is still young, there is not a one of them who does not hope to seize control. The two most to be feared are the chieftain Liu Kuren, who is heroic and clever besides, and the Tiefu leader Liu Weichen, who has constantly shifted his allegiance. Neither of them can be made supreme.

“Therefore, you ought to divide the tribes between them, and let man each rule his own half. The enmity between them runs deep, and neither will dare to make the first move. Then, when Tuoba Shiyijian’s grandson has grown up, you may establish him, and by doing so, Your Majesty will have justly handled the transition of Dai: its sons and grandsons ‘will never make inroads and never rebel’. This is the best plan to ensure a stable border."

Fu Jian agreed with him. He divided up the people of Dai into two halves; the lands east of the Yellow River were given to Liu Kuren, and the lands west of it to Liu Weichen, and each appointed their own officials and commanded their own armies.

劉衞辰本匈奴鐵弗種。李延壽曰:鐵弗,南單于苗裔。衞辰者,左賢王去卑之玄孫。北人謂[胡]父、爲(衍)鮮卑母爲鐵弗,因以爲姓。用《左傳》戎子駒支之言。

Liu Weichen had come from the Tiefu Xiongnu. Li Yanshou remarked, "The Tiefu were the progeny of the Southern Chanyu. Liu Weichen was the great-great-grandson of the Worthy Prince of the Left, Liu Qubei. The people of the north called someone with a Hu/Xiongnu father and a Xianbei mother a Tiefu, thus the surname."

Yan Feng's "will never make inroads and never rebel" is a quote from Juzhi, the viscount of the Rong tribe, in the Zuo Commentary (Xiang 14.1).


Lady He and Tuoba Gui returned to the Dugu tribe, with the southern tribal leaders Zhangsun Song, Yuan Tuo, and others who served under Liu Kuren.

When Tuoba Shiyijian's son Tuoba Kudei grew up, Fu Luo sent him to Chang'an, and Fu Jian sent him to study at the Imperial University.

拓跋鬱律生二子:長曰沙莫雄,次曰什翼犍。沙莫雄爲南部大人,後改名仁,號爲拔拔氏,生嵩。道武以嵩宗室之長,改爲長孫氏。此言長孫所出,與前註略不同。

Tuoba Yulü had two sons. The elder one was named Tuoba Shamoxiong, and the younger one was named Tuoba Shiyijian. Tuoba Shamoxiong became the chieftain of the southern tribe, and he later changed his given name to Ren, and his clan's name to Baba. Baba Ren then had his son Baba Song. Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) grew up as part of Baba Song's family, and his surname was changed to Zhangsun. This is not to be confused with the Zhangsun clan which has been noted before.


下詔曰:「張天錫承祖父之資,藉百年之業,擅命河右,叛換偏隅。索頭世跨朔北,中分區域,東賓穢貊,西引烏孫,控弦百萬,虎視雲中。爰命兩師,分討黠虜,役不淹歲,窮殄二凶,俘降百萬,闢土九千,五帝之所未賓,周、漢之所未至,莫不重譯來王,懷風率職。有司可速班功受爵,戎士悉復之五歲,賜爵三級。」於是加行唐公洛征西將軍,以鄧羌為并州刺史。

20. Fu Jian issued an edict stating, “Zhang Tianxi possessed the resources left to him by his ancestors, the accumulation of a hundred years of endeavor. He arrogantly monopolized power in Heyou, and became a tyrant in his territory. The Suotou have held Shuofang and the north for generations, and the region was filled with their camps. They had the Yemaek as their guests to the east, and the Wusun to their west; they had a million men in check, with their tiger's eye watching from Yunzhong. Yet I ordered forth my two generals, to campaign against each crafty foe in turn, and neither one could hold my soldiers back for even a year. I have put an end to these two threats, taken captive a million, and expanded my territory by a further nine thousand. These are people whom the Five Emperors never claimed as subjects, nor did the Zhou and Han dynasties encompass their lands. But not a one of these people does not now call me King, or yearn to serve in my armies and offices. Let the officials quickly confer awards, the soldiers all be returned for five years, and everyone bestowed three ranks.”

He promoted Fu Luo to General Who Conquers The West, and appointed Deng Qiang as Inspector of Bingzhou.

鄭康成曰:叛換,猶跋扈也。「穢」,當作「濊」。《韓詩》曰:叛換,武強也。兩師,謂苟萇伐河西之師,行唐公洛伐代之師也。杜預曰:班,次也。「受」,當作「授」。

Zheng Kangcheng remarked, "This term 叛換 means 'domineering'." And the 韓詩 states, "叛換 means 'militarily powerful'."

The first character of Yemaek is written 穢 in the text. It ought to be 濊.

The 'two generals' were Gou Chang against Liangzhou and the Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, against Dai.

Du Yu remarked, "班 means 'second'." And the character 受 "accept" here should be 授 "award".


陽平國常侍慕容紹私謂其兄楷曰:「秦恃其強大,務勝不休,北戍雲中,南守蜀、漢,轉運萬里,道殣相望。兵疲於外,民困於內,危亡近矣。冠軍叔仁智度英拔,必能恢復燕祚,吾屬但當愛身以待時耳!」

21. Qin’s Regular Attendant of the Yangping fief, Murong Shao, privately told his older brother Murong Kai, “Qin is forced to rely upon its growing strength, winning battle after battle. In the north it occupies Yunzhong, and in the south it guards Shu and Han. But though they swallow up ten thousand li of land, ‘they starve to death along the roads’. The soldiers without are exhausted, and the people within are weary. Danger and doom are close at hand. Our uncle, the Champion General, is very crafty and heroic. He will certainly be able to revive the fortunes of Yan, and for us it will only be a matter of waiting for that day to come!”

《左傳》之言。《詩》云:行有死人,尚或殣之。毛氏曰:墐,路冢也。《說文》曰:道中死人,人所覆也。又,餓殍爲殣。秦以慕容垂爲冠軍將軍,楷、紹之叔父也。「叔仁」,當作「叔父」。史言鮮卑窺秦,有乘釁報復之志。

"They starve to death along the roads" is from the Zuo Commentary (Zhao 3.3). The Book of Poems has the verse, “I pass by a dead man; perhaps he starved." Mao Shi remarked, "A 墐 is a burial mound on the road." The Shuowen dictionary states, "殣 means someone who has died on the road, and men cover him up in a mound. Or, it means the body of one who has starved."

Qin had appointed Murong Chui as the Champion General, and he was Murong Kai's and Murong Shao's uncle. The text writes 叔仁, but it ought to say 叔父 ("uncle").

The passage means that the Xianbei of Yan were observing Qin from within, looking for dissensions to flare up that they could take advantage of.


初,秦人既克涼州,議討西障氐、羌。秦王堅曰:「彼種落雜居,不相統壹,不能為中國大患。宜先撫諭,征其租稅。若不從命,然後討之。」乃使殿中將軍張旬前行宣慰,庭中將軍魏曷飛帥騎二萬七千隨之。曷飛忿其恃險不服,縱兵擊之,大掠而歸。堅怒其違命,鞭之二百,斬前鋒督護儲安以謝氐、羌。氐、羌大悅,降附貢獻者八萬三千餘落。雍州士族先因亂流寓河西者,皆聽還本。

22. Earlier, when Qin was planning to attack Liangzhou, there was discussion over whether to campaign against the Di and Qiang of the western barrier.

Fu Jian said, "There are many of these different tribes, and they have no common leadership. They would not be able to pose much of a threat to the Middle Kingdom. Let us first offer them comforting words, and see whether or not we can tax and levy them. If they do not accept that, then we may campaign against them."

So he sent his General of the Palace, Zhang Xun, to first console the tribes, while the General of the Court, Wei Hefei, led twenty-seven thousand cavalry behind. But Wei Hefei, not willing to face danger, ordered his troops to attack, and they plundered greatly before returning. Fu Jian was furious that Wei Hefei had disobeyed his orders, so he had him whipped two hundred times, and he executed the Vanguard Protector, Chu An, in order to appease the Di and Qiang. They were very appreciative, and more than eighty-three thousand tribes submitted and sent tribute. There had been many people in Yongzhou who fled to Hexi because of the chaos from the plundering, but when they heard how it had been resolved, they all returned to their homes.

西障,西邊也。庭中將軍,秦所置,蓋立仗殿庭中者也。

The western barrier meant the western border.

General of the Court was a rank created by Qin. It included all the palace guards of the court.


劉庫仁分招撫離散,恩信甚著,奉事拓跋珪恩勤周備,不以廢興易意,常謂諸子曰:「此兒有高天下之志,必能恢隆祖業,汝曹當謹遇之。」秦王堅賞其功,加廣武將軍,給幢麾鼓蓋。

23. The Xiongnu leader Liu Kuren offered amnesty and enlistment to those who had scattered after the conquest of Dai, and so gained their trust and appreciation. He further showed special kindness and regard to Tuoba Gui, as though he had not been deposed. He often said to his children, "This boy has ambitions to surmount the world. He will certainly be able to bring his ancestors’ enterprise to even greater heights. All of you must be careful around him."

Fu Jian wished to show appreciation for Liu Kuren's successes, so he promoted him to General Who Spreads Valor, and gave him pennant banners and drum covers.

天下之英雄,雖在童穉中,固不與羣兒同也。

Among heroes of the realm, even when they are mixed with other children, they stand out from the crowd.


劉衛辰恥在庫仁之下,怒,殺秦五原太守而叛。庫仁擊衛辰,破之,追至陰山西北千餘里,獲其妻子。又西擊庫狄部,徙其部落,置之桑乾川。久之,堅以衛辰為西單于,督攝河西雜類,屯代來城。

24. Liu Weichen felt ashamed in seeing himself lower than Liu Kuren. In his anger, he killed Qin's Administrator of Wuyuan and rebelled. Liu Kuren attacked Liu Weichen, and routed him. Liu Weichen fled to more than a thousand li northwest of Mount Yin, while his wife and sons were taken prisoner. Liu Kuren continued west and attacked the Kudi tribe, and relocated them to Sangganchuan. Not long after, Fu Jian appointed Liu Weichen as Western Chanyu, with command over the areas west of the Yellow River, and he camped at Dailai.

五原,漢郡也;魏、晉省,棄其地於荒外;秦復置郡;隋、唐爲豐、鹽二州。桑乾縣,漢屬代郡,晉省。孟康曰:乾,音干。拓跋魏後置桑乾郡;唐屬朔州善陽縣界。魏收《志》,拓跋力微時,次南諸部有庫狄部,後改爲狄氏。代來城,在北河西,蓋秦築以居衞辰。言自代來者居此城也。

Wuyuan was a Han commandary. It was abolished under Cao-Wei and Jin, because the land became too desolate and distant. Qin revived the commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was part of 豐州 Fengzhou and 鹽州 Yanzhou.

During Han, Sanggan County was part of Dai commandary. Jin abolished it. Meng Kang remarked, "乾 is pronounced 'gan'." Northern Wei established a Sanggan commandary. During Tang, it was within the borders of Shanyang County in Shuozhou. According to Wei Shou's Geographical Records, when the Tuoba clan's strength was still small, some of them gathered in the south as the Kudi clan, which was afterwards renamed the Du clan.

The city of Dailai was in the north of Hexi, including the forts made by Qin that Liu Weichen resided in. That is the Dailai being referred to here.


是歲,乞伏司繁卒,子國仁立.

25. During this year, the former Xianbei rebel Qifu Sifan died. His son Qifu Guoren inherited his position.

爲乞伏國仁乘秦亂據隴西張本。

This was why Qifu Guoren was later able to start a rebellion in Longxi (Book 105, 385.25).


司繁卒,國仁即位。(16K 14.1)

After Qifu Sifan's death, Qifu Guoren succeeded him.

司繁卒,國仁代鎮。(Jinshu 125.2)

After Qifu Sifan's death, Qifu Guoren inherited his command.