ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-106)

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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:44 am


The Third Year of Shengping (The Jiwei Year, 359 AD)


1. In spring, the second month, Murong Jun named his son Murong Hong as Prince of Jibei, and his son Murong Chong as Prince of Zhongshan.


2. Yan killed Duan Qin; his younger brother Duan Si fled to Jin.


Duan Qin's surrender to Yan was mentioned in the eighth year of Yonghe (352.14) in the last book (Book 99).


3. Murong Jun held a banquet with his ministers at Pu Pond. When the subject of Crown Prince Jin of Zhou was brought up, Murong Jun began to weep and said, "He was a rare talent. Since my son Jingxian's (Murong Ye) death, my hair has already turned half-white. What did you fellows make of Jingxian?"


Pu Pond was at Ye.

King Ling of Zhou had a crown prince named Ji Jin, who was very intelligent. However, he died young. The Discourses of the States contains a speech criticizing the stopping up of the Gu and Luo Rivers, and this speech is attributed to Crown Prince Jin. (Speeches of Zhou Part 3, #27) When Crown Prince Jin died, his younger brother Gui took the throne in his place, becoming King Jing of Zhou. After King Jing's death, his sons Chao and Gai fought over the throne, throwing Zhou into chaos.

This is the same Ji Jin who was mentioned earlier as supposedly being immortal, and who ascended to Heaven on the back of a crane.

Yan's original Crown Prince was Murong Ye, styled Jingxian.

The Chief Clerk of the Left of the Minister Over The Masses, Li Ji, said, "When Crown Prince Xianhuai was in the East Palace, I was then the Crown Prince’s Attendant. How could I not have recognized his ambition and endeavor? The Crown Prince had eight great virtues: first, he was filial; second, he was intelligent; third, he was resolute; fourth, he was candid; fifth, he was studious; sixth, he was skilled; seventh, he was modest; eighth, he was generous."

Murong Jun said, "Although your praise is exaggerated, if my son were still alive, I could die with no regrets. What do you make of Jingmao (Murong Wei)?" At that time Murong Wei was also present.

Li Ji said, "The Crown Prince has his talents as well as his shortcomings. Although he already possesses the eight virtues, yet he has two faults: his indulgence in hunting and in music. These detract from his virtues."

Murong Jun said to his son, "Boyang’s words are good medicine. You would do well to heed them!" Murong Wei was very indignant.


The Records of Jin states, "The Crown Prince's 中庶子 had a similar position as one of the Emperor's Palace Attendants."

The new Crown Prince was Murong Wei, styled Jingmao.

Li Ji's style name was Boyang.

This was why Li Ji later died from worry (Book 101, 360.14).


4. Murong Jun was troubled by a dream one night. He saw the former Emperor of Zhao, Shi Hu, who gnawed upon his arm. Upon waking, Murong Jun went to Shi Hu's tomb to exhume his corpse, but could not find his body there, so he offered a reward of a hundred gold for knowledge of where it was. A woman in Ye, Li Tu, said that the corpse was buried beneath the Daoist Dongming Temple.

Although Shi Hu's body was stiff in death, it had not rotted. Murong Jun trampled upon the corpse, shouting at it, "You dead barbarian, how dare you trouble a living Emperor?" He listed Shi Hu’s crimes of cruelty and tyranny and flogged the corpse. He then ordered the body to be thrown into the Zhang River, but the body caught on the bridge pillar there and did not flow further. Later (in 370), after Qin had conquered Yan, Fu Jian wished to avenge the wrong done to Shi Hu's body, Wang Meng had Li Tu put to death, and what remained of Shi Hu's body was reburied.


The Commentary on the Water Classic says, "The Huan River flows northeast, passing south of Ye. In the east, it splits into two rivers, and the northern one flows past Dongming Temple." And in another place it says, "The Zhang River flows west past Zimo."

In Zhao's eleventh year of Jianwu (346), Shi Hu had tried to build a floating bridge at Zimo. This was the spot where Murong Jun cast Shi Hu's corpse into the river. The text does not mention this incident any further.

This may have been another attempt at the floating bridge project mention in Book 95, 336.13. Fu Jian probably avenged the indignities to Shi Hu's corpse because Shi Hu had greatly favored his grandfather Fu Hong.


5. Qin's General Who Pacifies Qiang, Gao Li, took over Lüeyang and rebelled. Fu Hou campaigned against him, but died before he had vanquished Gao Li. Fu Hou was posthumously known as Duke Wei of Yong'an.

In summer, the fourth month, the General of Valiant Cavalry, Deng Qiang, and the Inspector of Qinzhou, Dan Tie, campaigned against Gao Li and defeated him.


6. The Xiongnu chieftain Liu Xiwuqi passed away. His younger brother Liu Weichen killed his son and took over.

In the fifth month, Fu Jian returned to Hedong; in the sixth month, a general amnesty was declared, and the Qin reign era title was changed to Ganlu.


7. The Governor of Liangzhou, Zhang Guan, was paranoid and abusive, using his own personal likes or dislikes to administer rewards or punishments. The Palace Attendant Yin Xun remonstrated with him. Zhang Guan said, "Once a tiger has lived three days, it is able to eat meat, and needs no one to teach it." Thus, no one was willing to support him.

The General Who Protects The State, Song Hun, was a loyal and outspoken man. Zhang Guan was afraid of him, and wished to kill him and his younger brother Song Cheng. So he deposed the Prince of Liang, Zhang Xuanjing, and took over his position. He drafted an army of tens of thousands to gather at Guzang. When Song Hun learned of it, he and Song Cheng led the strong man Yang He and others, more than forty riders in all, on a sudden dash to the southern palaces, and there declared among the camps, "Zhang Guan plots treason; we have orders from the Empress Dowager to punish him." They were able to gather up two thousand men.


郇 is pronounced "xun (x-un)".

According to Wang Yin's Book of Jin, "Liangzhou City resembled a dragon, so people called it Wolong City ("sleeping dragon"). It was seven li in length from north to south, and two li from east to west. It was originally built by the Xiongnu. Later, the Zhang clan resided there, and they built four more cities, each a thousand paces square, so that the old city became five." And according to the Biography of Zhang Jun in the Book of Jin, Zhang Jun built five palaces south of Guzang; the main palace had four palaces on each side, each of a different color, and he moved between the palaces according to the four seasons. The Zhang clan family members all resided in these southern palaces.

又于姑臧城南築城,起謙光殿,畫以五色,飾以金玉,窮盡珍巧。殿之四面各起一殿,東曰宜陽青殿,以春三月居之,章服器物皆依方色;南曰硃陽赤殿,夏三月居之;西曰政刑白殿,秋三月居之;北曰玄武黑殿,冬三月居之。其傍皆有直省內官寺署,一同方色。及末年,任所遊處,不復依四時而居。(Jinshu 86.35)

[Zhang Jun] also built a city south of Guzang. In the city he built the Qianguang Palace, and painted it five different colors, and decked the halls with gold, jade, and unusual treasures. There were four palaces each built adjacent to this main one. The eastern palace was called the Xuanyang Green Palace, and he lived there during the three months of spring; all the clothing and items in the palace were the same color. The southern palace was the Zhuyang Red Palace, which he lived in for the three summer months. The western palace was the Zhengxing White Palace, and that was his residence for the three autumn months. The northern palace was the Xuanwu Black Palace, and he spent the three winter months there. Each palace had its smaller servants' quarters and temples, all of which shared the same color. In his later years, he would stay wherever he pleased, and no longer changed his dwellings by the season.

Zhang Guan led his troops to fight them, and Song Hun attacked and routed them. Zhang Guan's underling Xuan Lu swung his sword at Song Hun, but could not pierce his armor. Song Hun captured him, and the rest of Zhang Guan's forces surrendered. Zhang Guan and his younger brother Zhang Ju both killed themselves, and Song Hun slaughtered the rest of their part of the imperial clan.

Zhang Xuanjing appointed Song Hun as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Grand General of Agile Cavalry, as well as Commander over all military affairs; he named him as Marquis of Jiuquan, and asked him to take over Zhang Guan's former role of administering the state. Song Hun then asked Zhang Xuanjing to discard the title Prince of Liang and go back to being the Governor of Liangzhou.

Song Hun said to Xuan Lu, "You struck me, but fortunately did me no harm. Now I control the state; do you not fear me?"

Xuan Lu replied, "I received Zhang Guan's favor; my only regret is that I did not cut you deeper. What need have I to fear?" Song Hun found this a just remark, and employed Xuan Lu as his right-hand man.


Xuan is a surname. The 風俗通 says, "One of the marquisates of the ancients was Xuandu."

臚 is pronounced "lu (l-u)".

Zhang Zuo's first use of the title Prince of Liang was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) in Book 99. Zhang Guan's insistence upon Zhang Xuanjing also assuming that title was mentioned earlier in this book, in the eleventh year (355.17).


In the fifth month of the fourth year, there was a sudden natural phenomenon on the great mound in the Eastern Gardens; a fire sprang up in the Dongtian Marsh land, several zhang in length and breadth. The Imperial Secretary Who Upholds The Law, Du Yi, said to Zhang Guan, "These things are all signs of a great change. You may pray to avert it." Zhang Guan drafted several tens of thousands of soldiers, gathering them at Guzang, and he plotted to act against the Song clan.

Song Hun and his younger brother Song Cheng took their strong men attendants, Yang He and others, more than forty in all, and rode out of the city through the south gate. They spread an order among the various camps, saying, "Zhang Guan has committed crimes, and we have an order from the Empress Dowager to execute him." When they soon had a host of two thousand men, they compelled Zhang Guan to lead his soldiers out to battle. Song Hun attacked and defeated this army, all of whom scattered, and Zhang Guan killed himself. Song Hun went into the city to see Zhang Xuanjing, who appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Marquis of Jiuquan, and regent over the government.

瓘兄弟強盛,負其勳力,有篡立之謀。輔國宋混與弟澄共討瓘,盡夷其屬,玄靚以混為都督中外諸軍事、車騎大將軍、假節,輔政。(Jinshu 86)

Zhang Guan and his brothers became strong and flourishing; relying upon their power, Zhang Guan formed plans to usurp Zhang Xuanjing. The General Who Upholds The State, Song Hun, and his younger brother Song Deng jointly campaigned against Zhang Guan, and they wiped out all of his subordinates. Zhang Xuanjing appointed Song Hun as Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Credential Holder, and regent over the government.


8. The warlord Gao Chang could not hold out against Yan. In autumn, the seventh month, he fled from Baima to Xingyang.


9. Fu Jian returned from Hedong. He appointed the General of Valiant Cavalry, Deng Qiang, as Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk. In the eighth month, he appointed the Interior Minister of Xianyang, Wang Meng, as Palace Attendant, Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and acting Intendant of Jingzhao.

The Specially Advanced and Household Counselor, Qiang De, who was the Empress Dowager's younger brother, was an excessive drinker who oppressed the common people, plundering people’s possessions, children, and womenfolk. He was a scourge on the common people. The very moment that Wang Meng arrived at his new office, he arrested Qiang De. And even before his memorial of the case had been delivered to Fu Jian, Qiang De’s corpse was already put on display in the marketplace. When Fu Jian received Wang Meng's memorial, he sent a swift rider to bring an order of pardon for Qiang De, but the order arrived too late.

Wang Meng was of one mind with Deng Qiang, condemning the evil, and setting right cases that were tried wrongly, without fear or hesitation. Within the span of a few weeks, more than twenty high officials and powerful nobles were executed or removed from office. The court shook with fear, evildoers held their breath from fright, and things left forgotten by the roadside were not stolen. Fu Jian exclaimed, "Now I know what a land ruled by law is like!"


Empress Dowager Qiang was the wife of Fu Jiàn.

Kong Anguo remarked, "酗 means to become violent while drinking." Jia Gongyan also remarked, "This character 酗, which is 酒 (wine) with 凶 (to do violent things) beside it, is because people become violent when they drink."


10. Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Zhuge You, advanced by land and water with twenty thousand men to attack Yan. They passed through Shimen and camped at He Islet. Yan's Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, and the Administrator of Changle, Fu Yan, led fifty thousand horse and foot to fight Zhuge You at Dong'a, where Zhuge You was greatly defeated.


11. In winter, the tenth month, an edict ordered Xie Wan to camp at Xiacai and Chi Tan to camp at Gaoping, in order to attack Yan.

Xie Wan was a proud and conceited man, given to wild roaring and singing to show off his elevated status, and did not concern himself with the crowd. His older brother Xie An was deeply worried about him, and told him, "You are the army commander; you must interact with the officers frequently to please their hearts. How can you accomplish this business being so haughty?"

Xie Wan thus gathered his generals, and without a word otherwise, was satisfied to point all around with his ruyi scepter and say, "You men are all excellent grunts." The generals all hated him even more for this. Xie An worried Xie Wan could not avoid trouble, so he paid personal visits to everyone from the section commanders to those beneath them, and implored them earnestly.


Xie Wan's ruyi scepter was made of metal.

Among those military men who exerted themselves and surpassed others, calling them "soldiers" or "grunts" was taboo. Since Xie Wan called his generals "grunts", their grudge against him grew deeper.

Xie Wan then led his troops into Wo and Yingchaun to aid Luoyang. Chi Tan became ill and fell back to camp at Pengcheng. Xie Wan believed that to be a sign of a buildup of Yan forces, so when Chi Tan retreated, he withdrew as well, but his men all panicked and scattered. Xie Wan escaped alone frantically. His men wanted to take advantage of him due to his loss, but only stopped because of Xie An.

Upon his return, Xie Wan was removed from office and demoted to commoner status, and Chi Tan was demoted to be the General who Establish Valor. Xuchang, Yingchuan, Qiao, and Pei thus fell to Yan one by one.


The Wo River flowed into the Huai River at Shansang, and the Ying River flowed into it at Xiacai. Xie Wan's soldiers marched from Xiacai to the region between the Wo and Ying Rivers.

It is easy for a commander to advance, but difficult to retreat. If a good commander wishes to conduct a retreat, he must first develop a plan for it and afterwards carry it out. He cannot only defend against the enemy's pursuit troops, but must also ensure that his own soldiers do not panic and scatter.

According to A New Account of the Tales of the World (V.55), Xie Wan was defeated at Xiacai, near Shouchun.

Tales, XXIV.14: When Xie Wan went on the northern expedition (against Former Yan in 358) he constantly demonstrated his superiority by whistling and chanting poems, and never showed any consideration for his officers or men. His elder brother, Xie An, highly respected and loved Wan, but sensing that Wan would surely be defeated, he accompanied him on the expedition. Very casually he said to Wan, “Since you’re the supreme commander, you should invite your generals to banquets now and then to cheer their morale.”
Wan followed his advice and forthwith called together all the generals, but said nothing whatsoever to them, except to point toward those seated about him with his ju-i baton and remark, “You gentlemen are all stalwart foot soldiers.” The generals were highly incensed and resented him all the more for this. Xie An, wishing to make some profound demonstration of kindness and trust, went in person to every one, from the divisional commanders on down, to express his earnest apologies on behalf of his brother.
After Xie Wan was defeated (in 359), the rank and file wanted to use the occasion to get rid of him, but at the same time they said, “We should spare him for Xie An’s sake.” Thus by good fortune he escaped with his life.
(Hu Sanxing’s commentary on the above ZZTJ passage states that “All who had personally exerted themselves in the ranks considered the terms 兵 “man-at-arms”, and 士 ”foot soldier” to be taboo words. Now these men had already become generals, yet Wan was calling them “foot soldiers”, thereby intensifying their resentment.)

Tales, X.21: When Xie Wan was defeated at Shouchun in 359, even though he was about to flee for his life, he still demanded his jade-studden stirrups. His older brother Xie An, who was in the army, from first to last had never said anything whatever to Wan either of blame or of praise. But on that day he made a point of saying, “Right now what need is there to trouble yourself over this?” A commentary to this passage claims it is badly mistaken, because Xie An was still in hermitage at this time, but the above ZZTJ passage agrees with this one.


12. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, and later on transferred him to be Manager of the Crown Prince’s Palace. In the eleventh month, Wang Meng was appointed Deputy Director of the Left, while keeping his previous positions.


13. In the twelfth month, Sima Jin, the son of Jin's Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Prince of Liang.


㻱 is pronounced "jin" or "jin".


14. There was a great drought in Jin.


15. On the day Xinyou (January 21st), Murong Jun became seriously ill. He said to the Grand Marshal and Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, "I shall certainly not recover from this illness. Now we face threats on two fronts. Jingmao is still young, and the state faces many dangers. I wish to follow the example of Duke Xuan of Song, and pass the affairs of state on to you. What do you think?"

Murong Ke said, "Although the Crown Prince is young, he will be a ruler who can defeat the wicked and bring about good governance. Who am I, that I dare to claim legitimacy over him?"

Murong Jun angrily said, "This is between we brothers; don't babble such false modesty!"

Murong Ke said, "If you believe I am capable of being your successor, how can I not be capable of assisting the Crown Prince instead?"

Murong Jun happily replied, "Then you may be a Duke of Zhou, and I need have no regrets! Li Ji is clear, loyal, and bright; you must treat him well."

Murong Chui was summoned to Ye.


The two threats were Jin and Qin.

During the Spring and Autumn era, Duke Xuan of Song passed over his son Yuyi and gave his position to his younger brother, Duke Mu of Song.


15. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng to many additional posts, including General Who Supports The State, Colonel Director of Retainers, Guardian of the Inner Palace, Deputy Director, Manager of the Crown Prince’s Palace, Palace Attendant, and Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. Wang Meng would continue to perform his duties in the previously-granted positions. Wang Meng sent a memorial asking to decline, offering as alternative suggestions the Cavalier in Regular Attendance and Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, the Household Counselor and Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Ren Qun of Xihe, or the virtuous man, Zhu Tong of Jingzhao, instead. But Fu Jian did not agree.

Fu Jian appointed Fu Rong as Palace Attendant, Palace Secretary, and Deputy Director of the Left; he appointed Ren Qun as Household Counsellor and acting Prefect of the Crown Prince’s Household; he appointed Zhu Tong as Gentleman Attendant of the Masters of Writing and as acting Crown Prince’s Attendant.

Wang Meng at this time was thirty-six. Within one year he had been promoted five times, and his authority extended to every corner. Whenever anyone slandered him, Fu Jian invariably punished them, and none of the other ministers dared to repeat it.

Fu Jian appointed the Deputy Director of the Left, Li Wei, as acting Protector, and appointed the Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Pinglao, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of Beichui military affairs, and Grand General Who Guards The North, and he was stationed west of Shuofang. Fu Jian appointed the Marshal to the Prime Minister, Jia Yong, as Protector of Yunzhong, and he camped south of Yunzhong.


光祿 and 散騎 are abbreviations for Household Counselor and Cavalier in Regular Attendance.

What is here written as 朱彤 Zhu Tong should be 朱肜 Zhu Yong, a Qin general who features heavily in subsequent history.

The Records of Jin states, "The Prefect of the Crown Prince's Household was responsible for punishments and cases, grain and funds, and food and drink. The office was comparable to that of the Minister of Finance or the Minister Steward."

According to the Han system, the Masters of Writing had thirty-six Gentleman Attendants. There were three subdivisions of ranks indicated. A new appointee was a Attendant of the Masters of Writing. After a year, they became a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. After three years, they were named Gentleman Attendant. The "Records of Jin" says, "The office of 庶子 was similar to that of a Cavalier in Regular Attendance or Prefect of Palace Secretaries."

Wang Meng had first been appointed as Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing. He then became Interior Minister of Xianyang; next became Palace Attendant, Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and acting Intendant of Jingzhao; after that he was Supervisor of the Masters of Writing; and last he became the Crown Prince's 詹事 and Deputy Director of the Left. These were his five promotions.


16. All the soldiers that Yan drafted from the local states gathered at Ye.


The soldiers drafted from last year were only now gathered.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Feb 28, 2018 11:11 pm, edited 20 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:28 pm


The Fourth Year of Shengping (The Gengshen Year, 360 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, on the day Guisi (February 22nd), Murong Jun held a grand inspection of his drafted troops at Ye. He wished for the Grand Marshal, Murong Ke, and the Minister of Works, Yang Wu, to lead an invasion against Jin. However, his illness became critical, so he summoned Murong Ke, Yang Wu, the Minister Over The Masses, Murong Ping, and the General Who Directs The Army, Muyu Gen, as regents over the government. On the day Jiawu (February 23rd), he passed away.

On the day Wuzi (February 17th), the Crown Prince Murong Wei ascended the throne. At that time he was eleven years old. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title for Yan changed to Jianxi.


Murong Jun was forty-two when he died.

Murong Wei, styled Jingmao, was Murong Jun's third son.

According to the 長曆, the first month of this year began on the Jiaxu day (February 3rd). Now Murong Jun died on the Jiawu day (February 23rd). By the calendar reckoning, the Wuzi day (February 17th) comes before the Jiawu day, yet this passage claims that Murong Wei's ascension was on the Wuzi day. I believe the actual day of Murong Wei's ascension was the Wuqu day (February 27th).


2. Fu Jian reformed Yongzhou province from parts of Sizhou and the capital province. He appointed the Duke of Henan, Fu Shuang, as Commander over the three provinces of Yongzhou, Hezhou, and Liangzou, as well as granting him the ranks Grand General Who Conquers The West and Inspector of Yongzhou. Fu Shuang's title was raised to Duke of Zhao, and he was stationed at Anding. His younger brother Fu Zhong became the new Duke of Henan.


Hezhou and Liangzhou were not Qin territory; they were controlled by the Zhang clan in Former Liang. So the territory that Fu Shuang was assigned to was actually just the five commandaries around Anding.

This was why, during the rebellion of the dukes later on, Fu Shuang began his rebellion at Anding (Book 101, 368.16).


3. The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Jun, passed away. His son Yang Shi inherited his title.


4. In the second month, the people of Yan honored Empress Kezuhun as Empress Dowager. The Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, was named Grand Governor, with general control over the government. The Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, was named Grand Tutor; Yang Wu was named Grand Guardian; Muyu Gen was named Grand Instructor. All of them assisted in administering the state.

Muyu Gen was of a stubborn disposition. Because of his longer service under the past two sovereigns, he did not respect Murong Ke, and he acted arrogant. At that time, Empress Dowager Kezuhun was quite involved in matters beyond the inner palace. Muyu Gen wished to stir up trouble, so he said to Murong Ke, "At the moment, our lord is still young, and the Empress Dowager is meddling in affairs. Your Highness should beware of unexpected turns for the worse, as well as consider how to preserve yourself. It was thanks to your achievements that the state was settled. A younger brother succeeding an older brother has long been an accepted law. Once our late lord’s tomb has been completed, then you should depose the young lord and make yourself the ruler. By your doing so, Yan will enjoy boundless fortune."

Murong Ke replied, "Are you drunk? What wickedness are you speaking? We both received our late lord’s mandate to protect his son. Why do you suddenly propose such a thing?" Muyu Gen remorsefully withdrew.

Murong Ke mentioned the incident to the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, and Murong Chui advocated executing Muyu Gen. Murong Ke said, "Our late lord has only just passed away, and both of our neighbors are watching us for any pretext they can seize upon. Both Muyu Gen and I were entrusted with the state, and if regents begin executing one another, I fear it would disappoint the trust that those near and far had placed in us. I shall simply have to put up with him for now."

The 秘書監 Huangfu Zhen said to Murong Ke, “Muyu Gen was originally a base and unremarkable fellow. It’s only because our late lord granted him great favor that he was brought in to be involved with state affairs. However, as a base fellow, he is ignorant, and since the state went into mourning, he has been increasingly arrogant and impudent. He will soon cause disaster. Consider that you now occupy the same position as the Duke of Zhou. You should think carefully about what you must do for the good of the state, and carry it out at once." But Murong Ke did not heed him.


Muyu Gen had found success in battle ever since Murong Huang first took power.

Muyu Gen's logic about the succession was in accordance with the laws of Yin (Shang), but not the laws of Zhou.

The two neighbors were Jin and Qin.


5. Muyu Gen then said to Murong Wei and to Lady Kezuhun, "The Grand Governor and Grand Tutor are plotting against the law. I ask to lead the palace guards to execute them."

Lady Kezuhun was about to agree with him, but Murong Wei said, "The two lords are close relatives to the throne and wise men. They were chosen by our late lord, who grasped their arms to charge them with this final duty. They will certainly not do that kind of thing. Grand Instructor, how do we know whether it is not you who wishes to stir up such trouble?" So Muyu Gen gave up on that attempt.

But Muyu Gen also missed the eastern lands (around Longcheng), so he again went to Lady Kezuhun and Murong Wei and said, "The realm is currently desolate, and there are multiple states hostile to us. The greater our state grows, the more we have to worry about. It would be better to return to the east."

When Murong Ke heard of this matter, he discussed things with the Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, and secretly sent in a memorial outlining Muyu Gen’s offenses. He sent the Guard General of the Right, Fu Yan, to interrogate and then execute Muyu Gen, along with his wife, his children, and his partisans. A general amnesty was declared.

At that time, the nation was still newly in mourning, and with these executions and other disturbances, people near and far became afraid. But Murong Ke acted the same as normal, and no one saw him looking afraid. Whenever he went out, he only brought a single attendant to follow him. Someone suggested he should increase security, but Murong Ke said, “When people are full of fear, I need to be personally calm and steady in order to quiet them down. If we give people further cause for alarm, then who will they be able to turn to?" Thus were the people's hearts laid at ease.


Muyu Gen meant for the court to return to the former capital at Longcheng, which was northeast of Ye.

Since Murong Ke had executed Muyu Gen and his wife, children, and partisans, he feared that other people might consider rebellion, so he issued the amnesty in order to ease that threat.


6. Although Murong Ke held a great rank, he acted cautiously and deliberately when it came to the court protocol, and consulted with Murong Ping in all matters before taking any action. He treated the scholar-officials well and modestly, and he sought out virtuous council. He appointed people to positions according to their abilities, ensuring that no one was charged with more than he was able. If an official or a court minister made some error, he did not publicly denounce them, but would shuffle them to other positions according to the situation, and not let them lose their rank. By this alone would he discipline them. The people of that time would take such treatment as great shame, and none dared act against him. Whenever someone made a petty mistake, others would reproach them by saying, "Do you want the Governor-Excellency to change your position?"

When the Jin court learned of Murong Jun's death, everyone expected the Central Plains to be retaken. But Huan Wen said, "So long as Murong Ke is there, I fear we face a greater problem."


He transferred them to other positions of the same grade, and did not let them lose their social ranking.

Murong Ke was an Excellency, but he also held the office of Grand Governor, so people would call him the Governor-Excellency.

This passage demonstrates that Murong Ke was able to administer the state for a young lord, and that Huan Wen could tell a worthy foe when he saw one


7. In the third month, on the day Jimao (April 8th), Murong Jun was buried at Longling Tomb. He was given the posthumous name Emperor Jingzhao, and his temple name was Liezu.

Because there were so many troubles in Yan, the soldiers who had been gathered for Murong Jun's planned campaign would often caused disturbances among each other, and often wandered off without authorization, which clogged the roads south of Ye. Murong Ke appointed the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Conquers The South, Commander of all military affairs south of the Yellow River, Governor of Yanzhou, and Inspector of Jingzhou, and he was stationed at Litai in the Liang fief. Sun Xi was appointed Inspector of Bingzhou, and Fu Yan was appointed General Who Protects The Army. They led twenty thousand cavalry to stage a military parade in Henan, then traveled as far as the Huai River before returning. This Sun Xi was the younger brother of Sun Yong.


Since Murong Jun’s tomb was in Longcheng, it was so called (Longling).

The text is saying that in this time when the state was besieged with great worries and the people were feeling uncertain, Murong Ke was able to handle matters properly.

觀兵 means to hold up weapons to show them off.

Sun Yong was among the Yan officers who resisted the Zhao invasion, as was mentioned in the fourth year of Xiankang (336) in Book 96. The histories mention that the sons and younger brothers of Sun Yong, Ju Peng, and Song Zhu, all of whom remained loyal to Yan during that difficult time, received great esteem and honor in Yan, in order to encourage others to defend their cities even unto death and not defect, knowing that their sons and grandsons would receive good fortune.

又為征南將軍、荊、兗二州牧,有聲于梁、楚之南。再為司隸,偽王公已下莫不累跡。(Jinshu 123.2)

Murong Chui was later appointed as General Who Conquers The South and Governor of the two provinces of Jingzhou and Yanzhou, and his reputation spread as far south as Lianzhou and Chu. And later on, after he became Director of Retainers, there was no one from the false nobles on down who were not fearful of him.


8. The Xiongnu leader Liu Weichen sent messengers to submit to Qin. He asked that Qin permit him the use of some farmland within Qin's borders; he would come to use it in the spring and then leave again after autumn. Fu Jian permitted it.

In summer, the fourth month, Qin’s 雲中 Protector of the Army, Jia Yong, sent his Marshal Xu Yun to raid the Xiongnu farmers with cavalry; they took many of them captive and then returned. Fu Jian angrily said, "I had just started to show grace and good faith to the tribes, and you, for petty greed, attacked them. What is the meaning of that?" He demoted Jia Yong to commoner status while retaining him in office, while he sent the captured goods back to the Xiongnu, and soothed them. Liu Weichen thus resided within the borders with his people, and regularly sent tribute to Qin.


9. In summer, the sixth month, Lady Murong, who was the concubine of the King of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian, passed away. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Weichen returned to Dai to attend the funeral. He took the occasion to ask for a wife, so Tuoba Shiyijian gave him his daughter to marry.


10. In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou (August 28th), there was a total solar eclipse.


11. In Jin, Xie An had been famous since youth. Although he was often requested to take up office, he declined all the offers, and retired to Kuaiji, where he found amusement among the hills and rivers and in writing. Although he was a commoner, people had expectations of him like a high minister of the state, and they said to each other, "If Anshi does not take up office, then what are the common people to do?"

Whenever Xie An travelled in Mount Dong, he often had female singers and performers go with him. When Sima Yu heard of it, he said, "Since Anshi knows the pleasures of other men, he must also share their fears as well. If you summon him, he will come."

Xie An had a wife; she was the younger sister of Liu Tan.When she saw how honored Xie An's clan was, but that Xie An only kept to himself in hermitage, she said, “Isn't that how a man like you should live?”

Xie An pinched his nose and said, "I only fear I might not escape that fate."

After his younger brother Xie Wan was removed from office, Xie An began to have ambitions of his own. By this time, he was over forty. The Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, invited him to become his Marshal, and Xie An at last heeded the call. Huan Wen was greatly pleased, and treated Xie An with deep respect.


Mount Dong was fifteen miles southeast of modern-day Shaoxing in Shangyu County. Xie An's former residence there is a national shrine in our times.

Xie An means to say he fears he cannot avoid serving in office as his other brothers did.

Liu Tan became revered and prosperous due to his skill in Pure Conversation. He, Xie Shang, Xie Yi, and Xie Wan had all been border commanders, and they flourished during this time. 惔 is pronounced "tan (t-an)".

Xie An's style name was Anshi. The people of the Southland had all originally pinned their hopes on Yin Hao. But since Yin Hao had failed to live up to their expectations, they now began to believe in Xie An, certain that Xie An would be able to help support the Jin royal family. It was a household belief that Xie An was superior and Yin Hao was inferior. In my view, when one has a lofty reputation, it is difficult to live up to it. Yin Hao's defeats came about because he was equally popular to Huan Wen, which made Yin Hao think little of Huan Wen. And, when chaos befell the Shi clan, he thought he could take advantage of that and achieve something, and so he was defeated from being rash and reckless. Xie An had already once before been a subordinate minister during the time that Huan Wen wielded power, and he watched out for Huan Wen and guarded himself against him. Once Huan Wen had died, it was just when Qin was becoming strong. Xie An acted cautiously in order to protect himself, constantly maintaining a sense of apprehension, and that was what saved him. The historians say that Xie An was able to maintain a blank expression, holding back his emotions so people could not guess what he was thinking. And they knew this because of the incidents of him breaking his sandal and having the dream with the white chicken.

The incident of Xie An banging his shoes upon the threshold of his house is mentioned later on, in Book 105, 383.16. The dream of the white chicken is not mentioned in ZZTJ; it is taken from Xie An's biography in the Book of Jin.


Xie An said, "When Huan Wen was still here, I often lived in endless dread of him. There was one night when I dreamed that I was riding in Huan Wen’s carriage for sixteen li, but then stopped when I saw a white chicken. Riding in Huan Wen’s carriage means to take over his position. The sixteen li were these past sixteen years. And the white chicken indicates a You year. Now this very year is a You year, so I don’t think I will recover from this illness!"

謝公在東山畜妓,簡文曰:「安石必出。既與人同樂,亦不得不與人同憂。」(New Tales 7.21)

While Xie An was living in retirement in the Eastern Mountains, he kept a female entertainer on the premises. Sima Yu said, "Anshi is sure to come out of retirement. As long as he shares the same pleasures as other men, he can't help sharing their anxieties as well." (tr. Richard Mather).

初,謝安在東山居,布衣,時兄弟已有富貴者,翕集家門,傾動人物。劉夫人戲謂安曰:「大丈夫不當如此乎?」謝乃捉鼻曰:「但恐不免耳!」(New Tales 25.27)

At first, while Xie An was living in the Eastern Mountains as a commoner, some of his older and younger brothers had already become wealthy and honorable. Whenever there was a gathering of the various branches of the family, it always created quite a stir among the populace.

Xie An's wife, Lady Liu, teased him, saying, "Shouldn't a great man like you be like this too?"

Xie An held his nose and replied, "My only fear is that I shan't escape it, that's all." (tr. Richard Mather)


12. In winter, the tenth month, Dugu Bu of the Wuhuan and Meiyi Gan of the Xianbei both submitted to Qin with their tens of thousands of followers. Fu Jian placed them south of the borders. The Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, remonstrated with this, saying, "The tribesmen put on a good act, but they do not know benevolence or righteousness. They may bow to you, but they are really only out for themselves, coveting our land and our bounty, not because they were inspired by your virtue. The only reason that they have not dared to attack our borders is because they fear the might of our soldiers, not because they have any respect for your grace. Now if you put them within our territory, and they live mixed among the people, then they will spy on all the commandaries and the counties, knowing the true extent of them, which will certainly cause us trouble on the border. It would be better if you resettle them outside of our borders, in order to head off any trouble." Fu Jian followed his advice.


13. In the eleventh month, Huan Wen was named the Duke of Nanjun. His younger brother Huan Chong was named the Duke of Fengcheng, and Huan Wen’s son Huan Ji was named the Duke of Linhe.


14. Murong Ke wished to appoint Li Ji as Deputy Director of the Right, but Murong Wei forbade it. When Murong Ke continued to ask for it, Murong Wei replied, "Many affairs are in your hands, Uncle, but as for Boyang, allow me to decide for myself." He sent Li Ji away to be Administrator of Zhangwu. Li Ji died from worry.


The source of Murong Wei's animosity for Li Ji was mentioned in the last year of the last book (Book 100, 359.3)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Mar 01, 2018 4:07 am, edited 9 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:34 pm


The Fifth Year of Shengping (The Xinyou Year, 361 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, on the day Wuxu (February 21st), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


2. Liu Weichen raided Qin's borders and captured more than fifty people as slaves to be presented to Qin (as his tribute). Fu Jian blamed Liu Weichen for this and returned them. Liu Weichen thus rebelled against Qin, and once more inclined towards Dai.


This passage shows how the barbarians went back on their word.


3. In Jin, Chi Tan passed away. He was posthumously known as Earl Jian of Dong’an.

In the second month, the Administrator of Dongyang, Fan Wang, was appointed Commander of military affairs for Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and was appointed Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou (to take over for Chi Tan).


4. The people of Pingyang surrendered their commandary to Yan. Yan's General Who Establishes Valor, Duan Gang, was appointed as Administrator of Pinyang, and they sent the Protector Han Bao with troops to help guard Pingyang.


At the time of this incident, Pingyang was under the control of the Bingzhou warlord Zhang Ping.


5. The magician Ding Jin had enjoyed the favor of Murong Wei (or Murong Jun). He wished to curry favor with Murong Ke, so he told him to kill the Grand Tutor Murong Ping. Murong Ke was greatly angered, and ordered Ding Jin to be arrested and executed.


Some versions say "Murong Jun" instead of "Murong Wei".


6. In Yan’s territory, the rebel warlord Gao Chang passed away.


Gao Chang had earlier fled to Xingyang, as was mentioned in the third year of Shengping (Book 100, 359.8).

Yan's Administrator of Henei, Lü Hu, took over Gao Chang’s soldiers, and sent word of submission to Jin. The Jin court made him Inspector of Jizhou. Lü Hu wished to lead Jin forces to attack Ye. In the third month, Murong Ke led an army of fifty thousand men, while the Champion General Huangfu Zhen led another ten thousand, and they jointly campaigned against Lü Hu. When the Yan armies reached Yewang, Lü Hu withdrew into his city to defend.

Yan’s General Who Protects The Army Fu Yan asked to fiercely press the assault, in order to save time. Murong Ke replied, “The old rebel is experienced, and he is always looking to protect himself. He must have made preparations to defend the city, so we cannot be so quick to assault it. Remember what happened during the assault at Liyang: many of our best soldiers were killed, but in the end we could not capture the city, and it was the source of much misery and shame.

"Now on the other hand, consider these points. Within the city, Lü Hu has accumulated no stores of grain, while outside the city, he has no expectations of reinforcements. We may build deep trenches and high ramparts outside his walls, and leave our men to hold them to ensure our own defenses. Then we may sit and wait, resting our troops while causing division among his supporters. With no exertion on our part, Lü Hu will be hemmed in further and further by the day. We will find ourselves masters of the city in less than a hundred days. Why then should we throw away countless lives just to slightly hasten our achievement?" So the Yan army built siege lines around the city.

Murong Ke refers to Yang Wu's failed assault against Gao Chang at Liyang, mentioned in Book 100 (358.10).


7. In summer, the fourth month, Huan Wen appointed the Yellow Gate Gentleman, his younger brother Huan Huo, as Commander of the seven commandaries along the Mian River. He was also made the Administrator of Xinye and Yicheng. Huan Wen led troops to capture Xuchang, and defeated the Yan general Murong Chen.


In some versions, the 都 in the term 都督 (Commander) is not written.

Cao-Wei created the offices of Palace Secretary and Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, as well as Gentleman of 通事 and Yellow Gate Gentleman.

The seven commandaries along the Mian River were Weixing, Xincheng, Shangyong, Xiangyang, Yicheng, Jingling, and Jiangxia.

In the name of the city 義城 Yicheng, 城 should be 成.


8. Liang's Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Song Hun, became gravely ill. Zhang Xuanjing and his grandmother Lady Ma came to visit Song Hun, asking, "General, if anything should happen to you, who will be able to sustain us? Shall your son Song Linzhong take up your role?"

Song Hun replied, "My son Linzhong is young and weak; he could not bear such a great role. If Your Highness does not wish to cease relying upon my family, there is my younger brother Song Cheng. In matters of administering affairs, he is better than I am. But I fear that he has that Confucian placidity, and does not look out for opportunities. Your Highness must encourage him, then he can be used."

Song Hun also said to Song Cheng and his sons, "Our family has enjoyed the favor of the state, so you must repay the state with your very lives. Do not act proud because of your influence." He also met with the court ministers, and charged them to act loyally. Soon after this, he passed away, and the streets were full of wailing and weeping. Zhang Xuanjing appointed Song Cheng as General Who Directs The Army, acting as the new regent.


Many Confucian gentlemen were leisurely and unhurried in conducting affairs, and thus were unable to act quickly in response to opportunities for achievement.


In the sixth year, Song Hun passed away.

混卒,又以澄代之。(Jinshu 86)

When Song Hun passed away, Song Cheng replaced him.


9. In the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 10th), Emperor Mu passed away. He did not leave an heir.

Empress Dowager Chu commanded, "The Prince of Langye, Sima Pi, is of the original line. His virtue is clear, and he is beyond all others; let him rise to the throne!" Thus the ministers all prepared the ceremonies to welcome Sima Pi to the throne. On the day Gengshen (July 13th), he became Emperor Ai, and a general amnesty was declared. On the day Renxu (July 15th), Emperor Ai passed on his former title of Prince of Langye to his younger brother, the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yi. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuwu (September 9th), the late Emperor Mu was buried at Yongping Tomb; his temple name was Jiaozong.


Emperor Mu was nineteen when he died.

Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had been succeeded by his eldest son Sima Shao, who became Emperor Ming. He in turn was succeeded by his eldest son Sima Yan, who became Emperor Cheng. But after Emperor Cheng's death, the throne had passed to his brother Emperor Kang, and then to Emperor Kang's son Emperor Mu. The Prince of Langye, Sima Pi, was Emperor Cheng's eldest son, and so the Empress Dowager said this was restoring the original line of succession.


10. The Yan soldiers kept Yewang under siege for some months. Lü Hu sent his general Zhang Xing out to fight a battle, but Fu Yan fought and killed him. Things within the city became worse by the day. Huangfu Zhen warned the other officers, "In Lü Hu's desperation, he will certainly attempt to flee by launching a sudden attack against one of our weak points. Most of the soldiers in my section are weak, and their equipment is not the best. We should really be on our guard against this possibility" So Huangfu Zhen tested the armaments numerous times, and personally inspected those patrolling at night.

Lü Hu's food was exhausted. He gathered together all of his best troops and suddenly emerged from the city to launch an attack, but he could not break out. Murong Ke led his soldiers to attack them, and all of Lü Hu's men were either killed or wounded. He himself escaped, abandoning his wife and children as he fled to Xingyang.

Murong Ke soothed the people who surrendered, and supplied them with his own food. The leading scholarly and military families were sent to Ye, while Murong Ke allowed the rest to go where they would. He appointed Lü Hu's former advisor, Liang Chen of Guangping, as Gentleman of the 著作 of the Palace Secretariat.


Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) had subsumed the office of 中書省 under 祕書, and it was now called Gentleman of the 著作 of the Palace Secretariat.

琛 is pronounced "chen (ch-en)".


11. In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 29th), Emperor Ai’s concubine Lady Wang was made the Empress of Jin. She was the daughter of Wang Meng (of Jin). Emperor Mu's former empress, Empress He, was renamed to Empress Mu, and she retired to Yong'an Palace.


12. Liang's Marshal of the Right, Zhang Yong, hated Song Chen having control of affairs. He raised troops and attacked Song Cheng, killing him, and wiping out his whole family. Zhang Xuanjing appointed Zhang Yong as Army Protector of the Center, and appointed his own uncle Zhang Tianxi as General Who Directs The Army of the Center; the two of them jointly ran the state.


Wasn’t this exactly Song Cheng not being able to react fast enough when the situation arose? And that it led to his clan being wiped out! From this one can truly see that men of Confucian placidity cannot handle the affairs of state.

玄靚右司馬張邕惡澄專擅,殺之。遂滅宋氏,玄靚乃以邕為中護軍,叔父天錫為中領軍,共輔政。(Jinshu 86)

Zhang Xuanjing's Marshal of the Right, Zhang Yong, resented Song Cheng's usurpation of power, so he killed Song Cheng and wiped out the Song clan. Zhang Xuanjing then appointed Zhang Yong as Army Protector of the Center, and his uncle Zhang Tianxi as Army Leader of the Center; the two of them served jointly as regents over the government.


13. The Bingzhou warlord Zhang Ping had earlier attacked Yan's Pingyang, where he killed Duan Gang and Han Bao. He had also attacked Yanmen, and killed its Administrator, Dan Nan. But after Zhang Ping was attacked by Qin, he asked Yan's forgiveness and pleaded for their aid. Yan did not trust Zhang Ping and refused to help him, so Zhang Ping was ultimately wiped out by Qin.


14. On the day Yihai (?), a general amnesty was declared in Qin.


15. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Fan Wang, was despised by Huan Wen. When Huan Wen went on his northern expedition, he ordered Fan Wang to lead his troops out from the Liang fief. In winter, the tenth month, after Huan Wen charged him with missing the deadline, Fan Wang was demoted to commoner status and stripped of office, and he died at home.

Fan Wang’s son was Fan Ning. Fan Ning delighted in Confucian studies, and he had a direct temperament. He often likened the crimes of Wang Bi and He Yan to those of Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang. Someone once suggested that he went too far in his denunciations of them. Fan Ning said, "Wang Bi and He Yan slighted and belittled the Classics, and they hid and shied away from benevolence and righteousness. They used flighty words and shallow rhetoric, and so misled young men to ruin. They drove away officials and altered the government, until the rites became dissolute and the music fallen. We have suffered these disasters, including the fall of the Central Plains and the handing down of vulgar traditions, thanks to them. Though Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang were wanton and tyrannical for a while, it was only enough to cause them to lose their lives and their rule, and to become a warning tale for later generations. They could not continue to twist the perceptions of the people in later times! That’s why I think that being the scourge of one generation is a trivial matter, while bringing threat to multiple ages is serious. Causing one’s own downfall is a petty crime, but deceiving the populace is a grave sin."


When Huan Wen first became General Who Guards The West, Fan Wang was his subordinate; this was because he disliked how he was in opposition to him. If Fan Wang could have objected, he would have found about about Huan Wen’s true intentions.

Wang Bi and He Yan were philosophers and ministers during the reign of Cao Rui who proposed new interpretations of Confucian and Daoism, but were also known for their lax behavior.


16. Lü Hu again rebelled against Jin, and fled to Yan. Yan pardoned him, making him the Inspector of Guangzhou.


Yan obviously did not rule the far southern province of Guangzhou, so this title was only meant to bolster Lü Hu's name with some office.


17. Liang's regent Zhang Yong was arrogant and promiscuous. He spread his influence over the government by cultivating many partisans, and he put many other people to death. He was a bane to the people of Liangzhou.

Zhang Tianxi's follower, Liu Shu of Dunhuang, said to Zhang Tianxi, "It seems like the state is still in turmoil!"

Zhang Tianxi asked him, "What do you mean?"

Liu Shu said, "Look at all of General Zhang Yong’s comings and goings. He is becoming another Marquis of Changning."


Marquis of Changning was the title of the usurper Zhang Zuo.

Zhang Tianxi, startled, said, "I have long had similar doubts, but I dared not say anything. But what is your plan to bring peace?"

Liu Shu said, "To get rid of General Zhang at once!"

Zhang Tianxi said, "And who will be the man to do it?"

Liu Shu said, "I myself will do it!"

At that time, Liu Su was not yet twenty years old. Zhang Tianxi said, "You are young; you will need some help."

Liu Shu said, "It'll be enough if it's Zhao Baiju and me."

In the eleventh month, Zhang Tianxi and Zhang Yong entered court, with Liu Shu and Zhao Baiju following behind Zhang Tianxi. Just then, Zhang Yong was standing under the gate. Liu Shu swung his sword at Zhang Yong but did not hit him, and Zhao Baiju did so as well, but did not hit him either. They fled along with Zhang Tianxi into the palace.


Some versions add "Just then, Zhang Yong was standing under the gate" after "they followed behind Zhang Tianxi".

Zhang Yong managed to escape, and led more than three hundred armored guards to attack the palace gate. Zhang Tianxi climbed onto a building and shouted, "Zhang Yong is a wild and wicked man, lacking in principles. He wiped out the Song clan, and plans to do the same thing to the royal family too. You and your forefathers have all been loyal servants of the Liang. How could you bear to point your weapons at us? Our only target is Zhang Yong himself; no one else shall be blamed!" After hearing this, all of Zhang Yong’s troops dispersed. Zhang Yong then killed himself, and his immediate family and his partisans were eliminated.

Zhang Xuanjing appointed Zhang Tianxi as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Champion General, Commander of all military affairs, and sole regent over the government. In the twelfth month, Zhang Tianxi changed the reign era title. Up until now, Liangzhou had continued to follow the reign era title of Emperor Min, so they were now in the forty-ninth year of Jianxing. Zhang Tianxi changed this to the current Eastern Jin reign era title, the fifth year of Shengping. The Jin court appointed Zhang Xuanjing as Grand Commander, Marshal of Longyou, Inspector of Liangzhou, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, and Duke of Xiping.


Ever since the death of Zhang Chonghua, whenever the reins of power in Liangzhou changed hands, from Zhang Zuo, to Zhang Guan, to Song Hun, to Zhang Yong, and then to Zhang Tianxi, it was accompanied by the slaughter and extinguishment of the earlier man's family and supporters. And thus, Liangzhou gradually declined.

邕自以功大,驕矜淫縱,又通馬氏,樹黨專權。國人患之。天錫腹心郭增、劉肅二人,並年十八九,因寢,謂天錫曰:「天下事欲未靜。」天錫曰:「何謂也?」二人曰:「今護軍出入,有似長寧。」天錫大驚曰:「我早疑之,未敢出口。計當云何?」肅曰:「政當速除之耳。」天錫曰:「安得其人?」肅曰:「肅即是也。」天錫曰:「汝年少,更求可與謀者。」肅曰:「趙白駒及肅二人足以辦之矣。」於是天錫從兵四百人,與邕俱入朝,肅與白駒剔刀鞘出刃,從天錫入。值邕于門下,肅斫之不中,白駒繼之,又不克,二人與天錫俱入禁中。邕得逸走,因率甲士三百餘人反攻禁門。天錫上屋大呼,謂將士曰:「張邕凶逆,所行無道,諸宋何罪,盡誅滅之?傾覆國家,肆亂社稷。我不惜死,實懼先人廢祀,事不獲已故耳。我家門戶事,而將士豈可以干戈見向!今之所取,邕身而已。天地有靈,吾不食言。」邕眾聞之,悉散走,邕以劍自刎而死。於是悉誅邕黨。(Jinshu 86)

Since Zhang Yong had made this great achievement, he was arrogant and promiscuous. He had his way with Lady Ma, and his partisans held the reins of government. He was a bane to the people of Liangzhou. Zhang Tianxi had two close companions, Guo Zeng and Liu Su, both of whom were just eighteen or nineteen years old. In Zhang Tianxi's bedchamber, they said to him, "It seems like the state is still in turmoil!"

Zhang Tianxi asked them, "What do you mean?"

The two of them said, "Look at all of the Army Protector’s comings and goings. He is becoming another Marquis of Changning."

Zhang Tianxi, very startled, said to them, "I have long had similar doubts, but I dared not say anything. But what is your plan?"

Liu Shu said, "To get rid of General Zhang at once!"

Zhang Tianxi said, "And who will be the man to do it?"

Liu Shu said, "I myself will do it."

Zhang Tianxi said, "You are young; you will need some help to carry out the plot."

Liu Shu said, "It'll be enough to handle it if it's Zhao Baiju and me."

So Zhang Tianxi followed four hundred soldiers and entered court together with Zhang Yong. Liu Su and Zhao Baiju drew their swords from their scabbards and followed Zhang Tianxi inside. When Zhang Yong was standing under the gate, Liu Shu swung his sword at Zhang Yong but did not hit him, and Zhao Baiju did so as well, but did not hit him either. They fled along with Zhang Tianxi into the private chambers.

Zhang Yong managed to escape, and led more than three hundred armored guards to attack the chamber gate. Zhang Tianxi climbed onto a building and shouted, "Zhang Yong is a wild and wicked man, and in all he does he is lacking in principles. What clan did the Song clan commit, and yet he exterminated them all? He is bringing the state to ruin, and recklessly bringing turmoil to the altars of state. I do not fear death for myself, but I do lament seeing the sacrifices to my ancestors overturned, and that is the only reason I cannot let this matter stand. This is a matter of the royal family, and yet you soldiers and officers think to turn your weapons towards us! Our only object today is Zhang Yong himself and no other. If Heaven and Earth are conscious, then I will not eat my words."

After hearing this, all of Zhang Yong’s troops dispersed. Zhang Yong then cut his throat with his sword and so died, and his partisans were all eliminated.


Zhang Tianxi was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander over all military affairs, and regent over the government.

玄靚年既幼沖,性又仁弱,天錫既克邕,專掌朝政,改建興四十九年,奉升平之號。(Jinshu 86)

Since Zhang Xuanjing was still young, and he was of a benevolent and weak nature, and as Zhang Tianxi had just overcome Zhang Yong, Zhang Tianxi monopolized power over the government and the court. The Liang reign era title was then the forty-ninth year of Jianxing, but Zhang Tianxi changed it to the current Eastern Jin reign era title, Shengping.


18. A general amnesty was declared in Yan.


19. Fu Jian ordered the local officials to recommend to office people in the Filial, Uprightness, Scholarship, and Administration categories. Fu Jian personally assessed the recommended people. He rewarded officials who recommended capable people, and punished those who recommended incapable ones. Thus no one dared to make careless recommendations, and no more did people ask for official positions as a favor. All scholars encouraged themselves to excel. All those who were incompetent, even if they were of the ruling family or related by marriage, were barred from office. At that time, among ministers within and without, all were suited to their posts. Fields were repaired, warehouses were well-stocked, and thieves and bandits held their breath in fear.


20. During this year, the Marquis of Guiyi, the former Emperor of (Cheng-)Han, Li Shi, passed away.


Li Shi had surrendered to Jin after Huan Wen's conquest of his state in the third year of Yonghe (Book 97, 347.4), but he did not die until now.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Sep 07, 2017 10:09 pm, edited 12 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:38 pm


The First Year of Longhe (The Renxu Year, 362 AD)


Emperor Ai's first name, 丕 Pi, now became taboo. He was the eldest son of Emperor Cheng, and his style name was Qianling. He had been appointed Prince of Langye in the eighth year of Xiankang (342).

Concerning his posthumous title, the Law of Posthumous Names states, "One who is respectful and benevolent, but who dies young, may be called Ai ('Lamented')."


1. In spring, the first month, on the day Renzi (March 2nd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed.


2. On the day Jiayin (March 4th), the farm rent in Jin was decreased, so that now every taxable 畝 was taxed two 升 of rice.


During Emperor Cheng's reign, in the fifth year of Xianhe (330), Jin first surveyed the area of people’s farmlands. For every 畝 of land, a tax of ten percent was imposed, which converted to three 升 of grain per 畝 of land. At this time, the tax was decreased, so that every 畝 was taxed two 升.


3. Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou, Sun Xing, requested to attack Luoyang. He said, "Jin’s commander at Luoyang, Chen You, only has only a thousand weak soldiers. He defends just one isolated city. We can defeat him easily!" This was agreed upon, and the General Who Calms The South, Lü Hu, was sent to camp at Heyin.


4. In the second month, on the day Xinwei (March 21st), Jin's Interior Minister of Wu, Yu Xi, was appointed as General of the Household of the North and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Xiapi. The Dragon-Soaring General, Yuan Zhen, was appointed as General of the Household of the West, to assist in command over Yuzhou, Sizhou, Bingzhou, and Jizhou, and he was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, and stationed at Runan. Both of them were given staffs of authority. This Yu Xi was the son of Yu Bing.


Since both Yu Xi and Yuan Zhen were given staffs of authority, their ranks must have had the same position. I doubt that Yu Xi also held the position of 監護, and the text avoids it.

Yu Bing had run the Jin government during part of the Xiankang era under Emperor Cheng and Emperor Kang (339-344).


5. On the day Bingzi (March 26th), Emperor Ai honored his mother, Consort Zhou, as Empress Consort Dowager, and she was treated with the same honor as any other Empress Dowager.


6. Lü Hu attacked Luoyang. In the third month, on the day Yiyou (?), Jin's Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, fled to Wan, and Chen You asked for emergency reinforcements. In the fifth month, on the day Dingsi (July 5th), Huan Wen sent Yu Xi and the Administrator of Jingling, Deng Xia, to led three thousand soldiers by boat to help Chen You defend Luoyang. This Deng Xie was the son of Deng Yue.


Huan Wen had left Dai Shi and his men at Luoyang in the twelfth year of Yonghe (Book 100, 356.16).

宛 is pronounced "wan (w-an)".

Deng Yue was a commander under the rebel general Wang Dun. After Wang Dun's defeat, he was sent to govern the far southern provinces of Jiaozhou and Guangzhou.


7. Huan Wen again requested that the Jin capital be returned to Luoyang, and that all who had fled south of the Yangzi since the Disaster of Yongjia should be relocated back north, in order to repopulate the Henan region. The court ministers feared Huan Wen, and did not dare to disagree with him. The north was seen as desolate, and the people felt afraid. However, although the court ministers all knew Huan Wen's plan was impossible, none dared to be the first in remonstrating against him.

The Cavalier in Regular Attendance and acting Gentleman Author, Sun Chuo, wrote a memorial stating, "When Emperor Zhongzong (Sima Rui) ascended like a dragon, it was not solely that he had 'the trust of the people and blessings from Heaven', but it was thanks in large part due to having the Yangzi to use as a bulwark. From the first days of the disaster until now, more than sixty years have passed; everywhere around the Yellow and Luo Rivers has been reduced to piles of ruins, and the homeland of the Xia (ethnic Han) is smothered by sorrow and desolation. It has already been several generations since the gentry and the people fled here across the Yangzi. Of those who are still alive, their children are already old and their grandchildren are grown; and of the dead, their graves lie in numerous rows. Though they still have affection and longing for the north in their hearts, it does not match the present grief. If some day we should remove to the capital back to where it once was, the five tombs of the emperors since the Restoration (i.e. Eastern Jin) would then be left behind in a distant territory. Logically speaking, it would be difficult to ensure 'the security of Mount Tai'. And would the Emperor’s heart not also be seized with longing for his forebears?

“It is true that Huan Wen has proposed this according to his long-term considerations for the future benefits of the state. But the people are all alarmed, and everyone is full of dread and terror. Can that not be because the joy of returning to their former lands is far off, but the fear of impending death is nigh? Why is that so? Because the people have taken a firm root here beyond the Yangzi over these past few decades, yet he wishes to uproot them all at one go. They would have to bring their families on long journeys, risking life and limb, leaving their buried dead and abandoning their means of living. They would have no one to sell their land and houses to, and nowhere would they be able to obtain transportation. They would be made to leave a land of peace and happiness, to travel to a place wracked by chaos; thus they would likely collapse by the wayside or drown in the great rivers; few of them would ever arrive. Such a prospect should be something that any benevolent person would mourn, and that the state should consider carefully!

“In my unworthy opinion, it would be better to first dispatch a commander of martial reputation and true worth, and have him secure the defenses of Luoyang, before sweeping clear the regions of Liang and Xu, and restoring peace to Henan. Then let him open up paths for water transport, reclaim farmland and make it bountiful, send the lingering villains scurrying far away, and thus bring the Central Plains into an ideal state. Once that has taken place, then we may again consider moving the capital. Why should we abandon such a logical plan as that, which is certain to succeed, and instead bet the entire realm on one cast of the dice?"

This Sun Chuo was the grandson of Sun Chu. Since youth, he had admired the noble and the lofty. He once composed the work "Fulfilling My Original Resolve" to display his ambitions. When Huan Wen read Sun Chuo's petition, he was displeased, and he said, "Go and tell Sun Chuo that he ought to go implement his 'Fulfilling My Original Resolve', and keep his nose out of other people’s dealings in state affairs."


The Records of Jin states, "The office of Gentleman Author was a Records Official office from the Zhou dynasty. During Eastern Han, the maps and census records were kept at Dongguan. The court ordered scholars to author books at Dongguan, and thus the name came about (著作 = to author, to write), though it was not yet an official position. During the Taihe era (227-233) of the Cao-Wei Emperor Ming (Cao Rui), he created the office, and this was when the position was officially instated. It reported to the Director of the Palace Secretariat. Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) created the office of 祕書監, which subsumed the office of Author. While Authoring was set as a distinct office, it was still under the Secretarial Office. I follow what Ban Gu has written in 西都賦: "Chengming and Jinma were the offices for the Authoring staff." From that, we can see that although Western Han did not yet have the office of Author, the Chengming and Jinma still had 著作s as well.

Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui) temple name was Zhongzong.

The 易‧大傳 states, "One who receives Heaven's aid has its blessing; one who receives Man's aid has their trust."

From the deposition of Empress Jia Nanfang and the Jia clan, and the execution of the Prince of Zhao Sima Lun, the resulting civil war between the various princes, the rising up of the Hu and Jie, and the great chaos that engulfed the realm, until this moment, it had been more than sixty years.

The Five Tombs of the restored imperial clan were Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) at Jianping Tomb, Emperor Ming at Wuping Tomb, Emperor Cheng at Xingping Tomb, Emperor Kang at Chongping Tomb, and Emperor Mu at Yongping Tomb, all of which were in the Southland.

By Sun Chuo's logic, if the capital were moved to Luoyang, it would be difficult to ensure the same certain security as symbolized by Mount Tai, and further that Huan Wen should have given thought to the difficulty of relocating the newer imperial tombs.

By the last expression here, Sun Chuo was saying that if they moved to Luoyang, the Emperor would miss the imperial tombs in the Southland, and be troubled by his filial thoughts.

The people of the Central Plains often called the region south the Yangzi the 江外, or the 江表.

Liang was Liangguo, and Xu was Xuchang; both of them were important routes from moving from the Southland into the Luoyang region.

Sun Chu was the subject of the "brush with rocks and sleep in streams" story from A New Account of the Tales of the World.

桓公欲遷都,以張拓定之業。孫長樂上表,諫此議甚有理。桓見表心服,而忿其為異,令人致意孫云:「君何不尋遂初賦,而彊知人家國事?」(New Tales 26.16)

(In 362) Huan Wen wanted to have the capital moved back to Luoyang, in order to promote the work of enlarging and pacifying the realm. Sun Chuo sent up a memorial warning against such a move in which the argumentation was extremely reasonable.

When Huan Wen saw the memorial, he mentally accepted it, but at the same time was angry with Sun Chuo for disagreeing with him. He sent someone to convey his thoughts to Sun Chuo, saying, "Why don't you reread your own 'Poetic Essay on Fulfilling My Original Resolve' instead of forcing your way into other people's and the state's business?" (tr. Richard Mather)


8. At that time, the court was apprehensive, and was about to send a Palace Attendant to stop Huan Wen. The Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Shu, said, "Huan Wen only wishes to prop up his influence over the court; there is no substance to his talk. Just go ahead and let him have his way. Nothing will come of it."

So the court sent an edict to Huan Wen saying, "Since the cause of our original grief, five decades have passed; the barbarians burst onto the scene, leaving their wild destruction everywhere, and when we think of those in the west, we are filled with remorse and sorrow. We know that you wish to lead forth the three armies, cleanse the land of this blight, sweep clean the Central Region, and restore luster to the old capital. How would anyone propose this who is not ready to give his life to the cause of the state? We will entrust all the necessarily planning for this to your esteemed abilities. However, there is much to do to restore the ruins between the Yellow and the Luo Rivers. You would have to work hard to manage them, and we expect this to be a heavy burden on your mind.” So the matter came to nothing.


Kong Yingda remarked, "If one says '在昔', he is looking to the past from the present, while if one phrases it as '昔在', he’s looking at the present from the point of view in the past." From the first year of Yongxing (305) under Emperor Hui, when Liu Yuan first began the chaos, until this moment, it had been fifty-nine years. From the fifth year of Yongjia (311) under Emperor Huai, when Luoyang had fallen, until this moment, it had been fifty years.

The Central Region means the royal region. The "Rites of Zhou" mention the Nine Regions. (Summer Officials) The Royal Region occupies a thousand li of land. Stretching out from there in succession, there is the Marquisates, the 甸s, the Earldoms, the 采s, the 衞s, the Man barbarians, the Yi barbarians, the Garrisons, and the Border Posts, all of which are five hundred li. The Royal Region of these nine is in the center, so it is also called the Central Region.


9. Huan Wen further proposed moving the bells and bell-stands to Luoyang. Wang Shu said, “After our weakness during the Disaster of Yongjia, we relocated the capital south of the Yangzi for the time being. We should first pacify the realm and return the imperial seat to the former capital. But if that doesn’t work, we should first move the imperial tombs here, and not the bells and bell-stands!” So Huan Wen gave it up.


10. The Jin court, because Jiaozhou and Guangzhou were distant provinces, proposed further granting to Huan Wen the provinces Bingzhou, Sizhou, and Jizhou. Huan Wen sent in a petition declining the offer.


At that time, Huan Wen commanded the eight provinces of Jingzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou (the Hanzhong area), Ningzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou.


11. Fu Jian personally visited the academies, quizzing the students in their subjects and discussing things with the instructors. He went to them every month.


12. In the sixth month, on the day Jiaxu (July 22nd), Yan's General Who Conquers The East, Inspector of Jizhou, and Prince of Fanyang, Murong You, was murdered at Xindu by his advisor Liu Ba.


13. In autumn, the seventh month, Lü Hu retreated to defend at Xiaoping Ford, where he was hit by a stray arrow and died. The Yan general Duan Chong gathered up his troops and crossed north of the river, and camped at Yewang. Deng Xian advanced to camp at Xincheng. In the eighth month, Jin's General of the Household of the West, Yuan Zhen, advanced and camped at Runan, and moved fifty thousand 斛s of rice to Luoyang to serve as a gift.


Lü Hu retreated since the Jin reinforcements had arrived.

Xincheng had been founded by the Rong-Man during the Spring and Autumn era. Since the Han dynasty, it had been part of Henan. Sui changed it to Yique County.


14. In winter, the eleventh month, Tuoba Shiyijian sent women as tribute to Yan. And Yan also sent him a woman to be his wife.


15. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (January 2nd), there was an eclipse.


16. Yu Xi fell back from Xiapi and camped at Shanyang. Yuan Zhen fell back from Runan to camp at Shouyang.


Since the Luoyang soldiers fell back, the Yan soldiers advanced again.

Shouyang was another name for Shouchun.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Mar 01, 2018 4:45 am, edited 6 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:41 pm


The First Year of Xingning (The Guihai Year, 363 AD)


1. In spring, the second month, on the day Jihai (?), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the Jin reign era title was changed.


2. In the third month, on the day Renyin (April 16th), Jin's Concubine Dowager, Lady Zhou, passed away at her residence in Langye. On the day Guimao (April 17th), Emperor Ai went into mourning, and ordered the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, to assume command of affairs in his stead. Emperor Ai wished to mourn for the Concubine Dowager for three years. The Deputy Director Jiang Bin said, "According to the rites, you ought only to wear the fine hemp cloth of mourning." Emperor Ai then wished to reduce the mourning period by one degree (to one year), but Jiang Bin said, "You must suppress your personal feelings, for in remaining devoted to duty, you show filial piety to your ancestors." And thus Emperor Ai undertook the rite of wearing fine hemp.


The Rites of Zhou states, "A king mourns his deceased nobles by wearing fine hemp (for three months). He wears a plain white hat with a band of hemp." And the Book of Rites says, "When one is adopted to continue another person’s line, he is that person’s son. That’s why he would wear coarse cloth without hems for three years in mourning for the one whose line he was continuing, while reducing the length of mourning for his parents by birth." Jiang Bin was of the opinion that Emperor Ai should thus wear fine hemp for three months, because he (the emperor) had been adopted into the main imperial line, while Lady Zhou was still the mother of the Prince of Langye. And thus Emperor Ai should respect her passing by adopting the mourning rites appropriate for a deceased noble.

Lady Wu Note: By Emperor Ai's original mourning suggestion of three years, he would basically not be doing anything else but staying by his parent’s grave and mourning, abstaining from meat and drink and sex and entertainment.


3. In summer, the fourth month, Yan's General Who Calms The East, Murong Zhong, attacked Jin’s Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Yuan. Liu Yuan fled to Lüyang.

五月,加征西大將軍桓溫侍中、大司馬、都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事,假黃鉞。溫以 撫軍司馬王坦之為長史。坦之,述之子也。又以征西掾郗超為參軍,王珣為主簿,每事 必與二人謀之。府中為之語曰:「髯參軍,短主簿,能令公喜,能令公怒。」溫氣概高邁,罕有所推。與超言,常自謂不能測,傾身待之,超亦深自結納。珣,導之孫也,與謝玄皆為溫掾,溫俱重之。曰:「謝掾年四十必擁旄杖節,王掾當作黑頭公,皆未易才也。」玄,奕之子也。

4. In the fifth month, Huan Wen, who was already Grand General Who Conquers The West, was further appointed Palace Attendant, Grand Marshal, Commander over all military affairs, chief of the imperial secretariat, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-Axe.

Huan Wen appointed his Marshal Who Nurtures The Army, Wang Biaozhi, as Chief Clerk. This Wang Biaozhi was the son of Wang Shu.

Huan Wen also appointed his assistant Chi Chao as Army Advisor, and Wang Xun was appointed as Registrar. Huan Wen consulted with these two men on every matter. It was said that "Advisor Beardy and Registrar Shorty can make Lord Huan happy or make him mad." Now Huan Wen was of a lofty mind, and he rarely praised anyone. But whenever he spoke with Chi Chao, he would admit that he could not probe the depths of Chi Chao’s knowledge, and he treated him with full respect. Chi Chao, on his part, also took his friendship with Huan Wen seriously. This Wang Xun was the grandson of Wang Dao, and he and Xie Xuan both served as Huan Wen's assistants. Huan Wen valued them greatly, and said, "By the time Assistant Xie is forty years old, he'll certainly grasp the commander's standard and the marshal's baton. And Assistant Wang will become a 'black-haired ducal minister'. They are both people of rare talents." This Xie Xuan was the son of Xie Yi.


This was because Chi Chao had a large beard, and Wang Xun was short.

Huan Wen’s ‘black-haired ducal minister’ comment meant that Wang Xun would achieve high office while still young enough for his hair not to have turned white.

王珣、郗超並有奇才,為大司馬所眷拔。珣為主簿,超為記室參軍。超為人多鬚,珣狀短小。于時荊州為之語曰:「髯參軍,短主簿。能令公喜,能令公怒。」(New Tales 22.3)

Wang Xun and Chi Chao both had remarkable ability and were singled out for affection by the Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, Wang Xun was his Registrar, and Chi Chao was his Recordskeeping Army Advisor. Chi Chao had a full beard, while Wang Xun's figure was short and squat. At the time (ca. 363), the people of Jingzhou made up a ditty about them:

The bewhiskered aide-de-camp
And the short records lad
Can make his lordship happy
Or make his lordship mad.
(tr. Richard Mather)


5. Jin's General of the Household of the West, Yuan Zhen, assumed command of affairs in Sizhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou, while the General of the Household of the North, Yu Xi, assumed command in Qingzhou.


6. On the day Guimao (June 16th), Yan captured Micheng. Liu Yuan fled to Jiangling.


During Han, Mi County was part of Henan commandary. During Jin, it became part of Xingyang commandary.


7. In autumn, the eighth month, comets passed through the Horn and Neck constellations.


The Horn was two stars; the Neck was four stars. The Astrological Records of Jin states, "The Horn, Neck, and Root constellations correspond to Zhengzhou and Yanzhou."


8. Zhang Xuanjing's grandmother (presumably Lady Ma) passed away. He honored his father's concubine, who was his own mother, Lady Guo, as Concubine Dowager. Since Zhang Tianxi had seized all power to himself, Lady Guo plotted with Zhang Qin and others to kill him. But their plot was discovered, and Zhang Qin and the others were killed. Zhang Xuanjing, afraid, offered the throne to Zhang Tianxi, but he did not accept it. The General of the Right, Liu Su, and others urged Zhang Tianxi to take the throne for himself.

In the intercalary month, Zhang Tianxi sent Liu Shu and others to lead soldiers into the palace at night. They murdered Zhang Xuanjing. It was announced that he had died from sudden illness; his posthumous title was Duke Chong.

Zhang Tianxi then declared himself as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. At that time, he was eighteen years old. He honored his mother, the Beauty Liu, as Consort Dowager. He sent the Marshal Lun Qian to present his seals at Jiankang and ask for instructions. He also released Jin’s Imperial Secretary, Yu Gui, whom Zhang Chonghua had kept imprisoned all this time, to return home to Jin.


Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Imperial Records state that Zhang Tianxi killed Zhang Xuanjing and claimed the throne in the seventh month. But I follow the account listed in the Annals of Jin."

綸 Lun is a surname. The Registry of Surnames states, "According to the Records of Wei, Sun Wenduan had a minister named Lun Zhi."

Emperor Mu had sent Yu Gui to Liangzhou in the third year of Yonghe (Book 97, 347.20), and he only now returned to Jin.


In the eighth month, the General of the Right, Qi Nan, and others brought up that, considering the many difficulties, the affairs of state should be turned over to an adult sovereign, and they urged Zhang Tianxi to assume power. In the intercalary month, Zhang Tianxi sent Liu Su and others at night to kill Zhang Xuanjing. He was fourteen years old when he died. He was buried at Pingling, and his posthumous title was Prince Chong.

興甯元年,駿妻馬氏卒,玄靚以其庶母郭氏為太妃。郭氏以天錫專政,與大臣張欽等謀討之。事泄,欽等伏法。是歲,天錫率眾入禁門,潛害玄靚,宣言暴薨,時年十四。在位九年。私諡曰沖公,孝武帝賜諡曰敬悼公。(Jinshu 86)

In the first year of Xingning (363), Zhang Jun's wife Lady Ma passed away. Zhang Xuanjing honored his common mother Lady Guo as Concubine Dowager. Since Zhang Tianxi monopolized power, Lady Guo plotted with the great ministers, Zhang Qin and others, to move against him. The plot leaked out, and Zhang Qin and the others were put to death. The same year, Zhang Tianxi led soldiers into the private chambers, and had Zhang Xuanjing killed. He declared it had been a sudden illness. Zhang Xuanjing was fourteen years old when he died, and had been in power for nine years. Privately his posthumous title was Duke Chong. Emperor Xiaowu bestowed him the posthumous title of Duke Jingdao.


Zhang Tianxi, styled Chungu, was Zhang Jun's youngest son. His mother was named the Beauty Liu. When he succeeded Zhang Xuanjing, he was eighteen years old. He paid his respects at the ancestral temple, and he honored his mother Lady Liu as Princess Dowager.

天錫字純嘏,駿少子也,小名獨活。初字公純嘏,入朝,人笑其三字,因自改焉。玄靚死,國人立之,自號大將軍、校尉、涼州牧、西平公。遣司馬綸騫奉章請命,並送御史俞歸還京都。太和初,詔以天錫為大將軍、大都督、督隴右關中諸軍事、護羌校尉、涼州刺史、西平公。(Jinshu 86)

Zhang Tianxi, styled Chungu, was Zhang Jun's youngest son. His childhood name was Duhuo. His style name had originally been Gongchungu, but when he entered court, people laughed at his style name having three characters in it, so he changed it himself. After Zhang Xuanjing died, the people of the state raised him up, and he styled himself Grand General, Colonel, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. He sent his Marshal Lun Qian to present his seals to the Jin court and ask for orders, and he also sent the Grand Herald Yu Gui back to the capital.

At the beginning of the Taihe era (366), the Jin court issued an edict appointing Zhang Tianxi as Grand General, Grand Commander, Commander over military affiars in Longyou and Guanzhong, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.


9. On the day Guihai (?), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


10. In winter, the tenth month, Yan's General Who Guards The South, Murong Chen, attacked Jin's Administrator of Chenliu, Yuan Pi, at Changping. Jin’s Administrator of Runan, Zhu Bin, took advantage of this opportunity to attack Xuchang, and took it from Yan.


During Former Han, Changping County was part of Runan commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Chen commandary. Xian remarked, "The old city of Changping was northwest of Wanqiu County in Chenzhou from our time."

Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Book of Yan records Zhu Bin's name as Zhu Li. But I follow the Jin Imperial Records."


11. Tuoba Shiyijian attacked the Gaoche people, greatly routing them. He took captive more than ten thousand of them, along with millions of horses, cattle, and sheep.


The Gaoche people were the same as the Chile. Because of the tall wheels on their carts, they were also called the Gaoche ("tall carts"). Li Yanshou remarked, "The Gaoche were one of the old barbaric peoples. They were first called the 'Dili', and in the north they were the Gaoche Dingling. They moved about to follow fresh grass, and they wore skins and ate flesh, just like the Rouran people. But their cart wheels were taller and larger, and were of many spokes."


12. Jin's General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Huan Chong, was appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

In the eleventh month, Yao Xiang's former officer, Zhang Jun, killed Jin's Protector of Jiangzhou, Zhao Pi, and led his troops north in rebellion. Huan Chong marched against Zhang Jun and killed him.


When Huan Wen had routed Yao Xiang's forces (around Luoyang in 357), he captured several of his generals, including Zhang Jun and Yang Ning, and sent them to Xunyang.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Mar 01, 2018 3:46 am, edited 7 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:44 pm


The Second Year of Xingning (The Jiazi Year, 364 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, on the day Bingchen (February 24th), a general amnesty was declared in Yan.


2. In the second month, Yan's Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Li Hong, marched into Henan.


3. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Gengxu (April 18th), a census was taken in Jin. Everyone was recorded by their native territory, and strict laws and systems were imposed, which came to be called "the Gengxu System".


The order was for those who had migrated to the southeast from the northwest to be recorded and administered by their current place of habitation.

Some versions write "proscriptions" instead of "systems".


4. Emperor Ai trusted the words of a magician, seeking immortality by abstaining from all food and by consuming elixirs instead. The Palace Attendant Gao Song remonstrated with him, saying, "This is not what an Emperor should be doing. What Your Majesty is doing is as disastrous as an eclipse of the sun or the moon." Emperor Ai did not heed him. On the day Xinwei (May 9th), Emperor Ai vomited up the pills, and became unable to attend to his duties. Empress Dowager Chu assumed command of the government.


The Analects states, "Zi Gong said, 'The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon.'" (19.21)


5. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiachen (June 11th), Yan's general Li Hong attacked Xuchang and Runan, and defeated the Jin troops at Xuanhu. Jin’s Administrator of Yingchuan, Li Fu, was killed in battle, while the Administrator of Runan, Zhu Bin, fled to Shouchun, and the Administrator of Chenjun, Zhu Fu, fled to defend Pengcheng. Grand Commander Huan Wen sent the General of the Household of the West, Yuan Zhen, and others to help defend the area, while he himself led boats to camp at Hefei. Yan gained control of Xuchang, Runan, and Chen commandaries, and relocated more than ten thousand of the households there to Youzhou and Jizhou. Their General Who Guards The South, Murong Chen, marched to camp at Xuchang.


The Commentary on the Water Classic says, "Xuanhu is a city administered by Runan commandary. Northwest of the city, there is a branch of the Ru River which flows northwest. It also turns to the west and east, and to the southwest it meets with the Ru River. The area resembles a gourd hanging upside down, and thus it is named Xuanhu ("Hanging Gourd")." 瓠 is pronounced "hu" or "hu".

Huan Wen had received several promotions in the fifth month of the last year. At this point, the text begins to note him by his official title and no longer states his surname. This shows that his power had solidified.


6. In the fifth month, on the day Wuchen (July 5th), Jin's Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Shu, was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Grand Marshal Huan Wen was appointed as Governor of Yangzhou and granted authority over the imperial secretariat. On the day Renshen (July 9th), the court sent an order for Huan Wen to return to advise the court, but Huan Wen made an excuse and did not come.


7. Whenever Wang Shu accepted office, he did not first vacuously decline it, and whatever position he did decline, he would never accept. When Wang Shu was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, his son Wang Tanzhi told him, "You ought to decline it."

Wang Shu asked him, "You mean to say I would not be suited for it?"

Wang Tanzhi said, "No, but you ought to decline it for appearance’s sake."

Wang Shu replied, "Since you say I would be suited, then why should I decline it? People say you will come to surpass me, but I think you won’t even match me."

王述轉尚書令,事行便拜。文度曰:「故應讓杜許。」藍田云:「汝謂我堪此不?」文度曰:「何為不堪!但克讓自是美事,恐不可闕。」藍田慨然曰:「既云堪,何為復讓?人言汝勝我,定不如我。」(New Tales 5.47)

When Wang Shu was transferred to become Prefect of the Masters of Writing (in 364), as soon as his affairs were in order, he immediately took up his new post.

His son, Wang Tanzhi, said to him, "Surely you ought to have declined and dissembled a few times?"

Wang Shu said, "Would you say I'm fit for this post, or not?"

Wang Tanzhi said, "Why wouldn't you be fit for it? It's only that 'being able to decline' is in itself an excellent thing, and I daresay not to be neglected."

Sighing, Wang Shu replied, "Since you've said I'm fit for the post, why should I still decline? People say you're superior to me,
but it turns out you're not even my equal." (tr. Richard Mather)


8. In the sixth month, Fu Jian sent his Minister Herald to Liangzhou to confer upon Zhang Tianxi the Qin-granted titles of Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.


In the fourth month of the first year, Qin sent their Minister Herald Hui Guo to grant Zhang Tianxi the titles of Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.


9. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Dingmao (September 2nd), the Jin court again ordered Huan Wen to return to court. In the eighth month, Huan Wen arrived at Zheqi. The court then sent an order for Huan Wen to halt, so Huan Wen took up residence at Zheqi. He declined to exercise authority over the secretariat, instead becoming acting Governor of Yangzhou.


Zheqi was within the borders of Xuancheng. The History of the Southern Dynasties states, "Shen Youzhi advanced from Hukan Islet to attack Zheqi, and Tao Liang and others led troops from Quetou to assist." The Old Book of Tang states, "What is in our time Nanling County in Xuanzhou was, during the Han dynasty, Chungu County. The Liang dynasty made it Nanling County, and it used to be administered from Zheqi. During the Tang dynasty's fourth year of Chang'an (704), the administrative center moved to Qingyang." According to Huan Wen's "Memorial", "Zheqi in Chungu County is on the east bank of the Yangzi, twenty li from Ruxukou, and three hundred thirty li from the palaces at Jiankang. To the south I may receive news, and to the north I may camp at Gao'an." 圻 is pronounced "qi (q-i)".


10. Qin's Duke of Runan, Fu Teng, plotted rebellion, but he was intercepted and executed. This Fu Teng was Fu Sheng's younger brother. At that time, Fu Sheng's five other brothers, including the Duke of Jin, Fu Liu, were still alive. Wang Meng said to Fu Jian, "If you do not get rid of the five dukes, they will cause trouble someday." But Fu Jian did not heed him.


This was why Fu Liu and the others later rebelled (367.16).


11. Yan's Palace Attendant, Mulong Yu, went to Longcheng, and moved the ancestral temples and the remaining officials there to Ye.


12. Yan's Grand Governor, Murong Ke, planned to capture Luoyang. He first sent men to enlist the locals, and all the fortified places near and far submitted to him. Then he dispatched the Commander Yue Xi with an army to Meng Ford, and sent the Inspector of Yuzhou, Sun Xing, with another army to Chenggao.


Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Imperial Records state, 'Murong Wei invaded Luoyang', and before that, they state, 'Fu Jian sent his various commanders to march into Henan.' Now according to the events of the following year, after Murong Ke captured Luoyang, Fu Jian personally went to prepare defenses at Tong Gate, and he did not dare to contend with Yan for Henan. Fu Jian's biography in the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms does not mention such a thing either. I fear the Imperial Records are mistaken."


13. There lived a certain Shen Jing, the son of the Jin officer Shen Chong, one of the rebel Wang Dun's former officers who had died during Wang Dun's uprising. Shen Jing wished to make a name for himself and so wipe away his father’s dishonor and establish himself in his family’s former position. At this time he was over thirty years old, but because of the punishment against his family, he could not hold office.

The Administrator of Wuxing, Wang Huzhi, was appointed as Inspector of Sizhou. He sent in a memorial outlining Shen Jing's talents, and asked that his ban on holding office be lifted, and that he serve as an advisor to Wang Huzhi. The court assented. In the event, Wang Huzhi became sick and was unable to take up his office.

When the Yan army placed Luoyang under siege, it was defended by the Champion General Chen You, although he did not have more than two thousand soldiers. Shen Jing submitted a memorial asking to be assigned to serve under Chen You. The court appointed Shen Jing as Chief Clerk to the Champion General, ordered him to recruit men by himself and to set off after he had more than a thousand. Time after time, Shen Jing attacked the Yan army with a small force, and defeated them every time.

Luoyang's stores of grain then ran low. Chen You did not believe he would be able to hold Luoyang on his own. So in the ninth month, on the pretext of marching to Xuchang's aid, he left Shen Jing with five hundred men to hold Luoyang, while he marched east with the rest. Shen Jing happily said, "This is the day when I will achieve my ambition by sacrificing my life." When Chen You discovered that Xuchang had already fallen to Yan, he retreated to Xincheng. Yan's general Yue Xi led his troops to capture the various cities south of the Yellow River, and they all fell into his hands.


Shen Chong's involvement in Wang Dun's rebellion was mentioned in Book 93, in Emperor Ming's second year of Taining (324).

The Analects state, "Zi Zhang said, 'The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life.'" (19.1) Zhuzi remarked upon that, "This means that he holds fast to his orders, even so that he lays down his life."


升平中,慕容恪侵逼山陵。時冠軍將軍陳祐守洛陽,眾不過二千,勁自表求配祐效力,因以勁補冠軍長史,令自募壯士,得千餘人,以助祐擊賊,頻以寡制眾。而糧盡援絕,祐懼不能保全。會賊寇許昌,祐因以救許昌為名,興寧三年,留勁以五百人守城,祐率眾而東。會許昌已沒,祐因奔崖塢。勁志欲致命,欣獲死所。(Jinshu 89)

Shen Jing, styled Shijian, was a native of Wukang in Wuxing. His father Shen Chong was involved in Wang Dun's rebellion, but his army was defeated and he fled, and was killed by his subordinate general Wu Ru. Shen Jing thus had his father's crime held against him, so his neighbors used their funds to hide him and help him escape his fate. He was later able to achieve vengeance and killed his enemy. Even while young, Shen Jing was a man of great moral principles. He lamented his father's death from acting against virtue, and his ambition was to establish himself so as to wipe away his family's former shame. However, even after he was in his thirties, the punishment imposed on his family meant that he could not hold office.

A general from the commandary, Wang Huzhi, greatly appreciated Shen Jing. When Wang Huzhi was made General Who Pacifies The North and Inspector of Sima (probably a typo for Sili or Sizhou), and was about to assume his garrison post at Luoyang, he sent up a petition stating, "I have been assigned a border post at Shanling, to keep the Rong and Di barbarians in check. But though I command the people's hearts with virtue, men's thoughts go in a hundred different directions, and it would be strenuous to cut my way through the brambles and thorns. I wish to repay the favor the state has shown me, but these difficulties have exhausted me unto sickness, and I lack the talent to achieve what is sought. But there is a young man of Wuxing, Shen Jing, whose moral character is recognized throughout the towns and countryside; he is loyal and stalwart, and sufficient to handle affairs. Furthermore, I am currently in the west, where through my just handling of civil and military affairs, I have a great number of men of Wuxing under me. If you give the command for Shen Jing to advise me on affairs, then these people will see it and rejoice, and they will flock to our side out of justice until they form a great host. Now it is true that Shen Jing's father was guilty of a crime against the earlier court, but his family has now been wasting away for some time. I wonder whether or not some exception can be made in order to bring them back from the brink? May what I propose be allowed?" The court accepted his proposal. Since Shen Jing accepted the imperial command, Wang Huzhi resigned his office on account of illness.

During the Shengping era (357-361), Murong Ke (of Former Yan) advanced against and threatened Shanling. At that time, the Champion General Chen You was guarding Luoyang, but his army had no more than two thousand soldiers. Shen Jing submitted his own petition asking that he be allowed to go to Chen You's assistance. Because of this request, Shen Jing was appointed as Chief Clerk to the Champion General, and commanded to raise troops by his own resources; once he had obtained a thousand men, he went to help Chen You attack the enemy, and several times he overcame them despite having so few soldiers. Then the grain supplies were exhausted and cut off, and Chen You feared he would not be able to hold the city. At that time, the enemy were also attacking Xuchang, so because of that Chen You wanted to rescue Xuchang in order to gain fame. In the third year of Xingning (365), Chen You left Shen Jing with five hundred soldiers to hold the city, while he led the rest to the east. But by then, Xuchang had already fallen, so Chen You fled to Ya Fortress. Because of his ambition, Shen Jing was determined to fight on til the end, happy whether he would end up captured or killed.


14. Fu Jian ordered the dukes to fill the Three Offices of their fiefs, letting them make their own selections for the other offices, and only reserving for himself the selection of the Prefects of Palace Attendants. There were some rich merchants, including Zhao Duo, who wore extravagant clothing and rode about in fine carriages, and the dukes all raced to recommend them to be ministers. The Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Cheng Xian of Anding, informed Fu Jian of this development and asked him to deal with it.

So Fu Jian issued an edict, saying, “I had wished for the Dukes to select men of heroic stature and Confucian learning, and yet they choose such men as these! I ought to have an office investigate into these selections, and any duke who was found to have selected unworthy people will be demoted to the rank of marquis. From now on, all officials of this state will be selected by the office of Evaluations. Anyone who is not an appointed official is forbidden from riding carriages. And within a hundred li of the capital, artisans, merchants, and servants shall be banned from wearing gold-silver and brocade clothing. Those who violate this law will be executed in the marketplace!” The Dukes of Pingyang, Pingchang, Jiujiang, Chenliu, and Anle were all demoted to Marquis.


According to the system under Jin, royal fiefs each appointed their own Prefect of Palace Attendants, Central Commandant, and Minister of Finance. Qin thus had the same system.

Some versions add "said to Fu Jian" after "Cheng Xian".

By 銓衡, Fu Jian means the Ministry of Personnel.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Feb 28, 2018 3:45 am, edited 6 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:49 pm


The Third Year of Xingning (The Yichou Year, 365 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, on the day Gengshen (February 22nd), Jin's Empress Wang passed away.


2. Liu Weichen once more turned against Dai. Tuoba Shiyijian crossed the Yellow River and attacked him, and drove him off.


It was mentioned how Liu Weichen had inclined towards Dai again earlier in this book, in the fifth year of Shengping (361).


3. Tuoba Shiyijian had a tolerant nature. His Prefect of Palace Attendants, Xu Qian, once stole two bolts of silk. When Tuoba Shiyijian learned of it, he did not reveal that he knew. He said to his Chief Clerk of the Left, Yan Feng, "I cannot bear to look upon Xu Qian's face. You must be careful not to reveal what you know. If he then feels ashamed and kills himself, then I would be guilty of killing a minister for the sake of material goods."

When Tuoba Shiyijian was campaigning against rebels in the west, one shot him in the eye. After the archer had been captured, his ministers wanted to carve him up, but Tuoba Shiyijian said, “He was only following his own lord's orders; what was his crime?" And so he released the man.


According to the History of the Northern Dynasties, Dai was a coarse state without silks. In stealing silk, Xu Qian had committed an unpardonable crime. Yet Tuoba Shiyijian held off on punishing him for that. This passage uses this story to describe his magnanimity.

Some versions add "you must be careful not to reveal what you know" after "I cannot bear to look at him".


4. Jin's Grand Marshal, Huan Wen, moved his base to Gushu. In the second month, on the day Yiwei (March 29th), he placed the General of the Right, his younger brother Huan Huo, in charge of Yicheng of Jingzhou and Yangzhou, and Jingzhao in Yongzhou, and made him acting Inspector of Jingzhou. His brother Huan Chong, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, was also granted command of military affairs in the eight commandaries in Jingzhou and Yuzhou, and all of them were granted staffs of authority.


Huan Wen had transferred his base east from Zheqi to Gushu.

Yicheng commandary was established at Xiangyang, and Xiangyang commandary was part of Jingzhou. However, Yicheng commandary was in charge of Ping’e and Xiacai of Huainan in Yangzhou. This was because Huan Xuan had followed Zu Yue to first fall back to make his camp at Huainan, and from there they relocated to Xiangyang. Later, Tao Kan had the Huainan soldiers in Huan Xuan's army set up Yicheng commandary, with the seat of government at Gucheng. But because there were refugees from Yangzhou, they set up some of those “surrogate counties” at Gucheng as well (for the counties in Yangzhou that the refugees were from). In addition to Gucheng being the seat of this commandary, it also exercised authority over lands inside Jingzhou as well. That was why it was called “Yicheng of Jing and Yang provinces”.

義成 Yicheng was so called to signify the idea “using Righteousness (義) to build (成) an army”, and so that became the name of the commandary. But later people began to add the 土 radical next to 成, forming 城 ("city"), so the original intent in establishing the commandary was lost.

The actual Jingzhao commandary was part of Yongzhou, but at this time Jin had established a surrogate Jingzhao Commandary in Xiangyang.

Before this time, Huan Chong had administered Jiangzhou, and was acting Administrator of Xiyang and Qiao commandaries. He was now granted authority over Jiangxia and Sui commandaries in Jingzhou and Runan, Xiyang, Xincai, and Yingchuan commandaries in Yuzhou. These made six commandaries, and combined with his defense of Xunyang it made eight commandaries. Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Imperial Records state, 'Huan Chong was the acting Colonel of Southern Man Tribes'. Left of the Yangzi, only in Jingzhou would there be a commander of the Southern Man. The Biography of Huan Chong does not mention it either. The Records thus make Huan Huo too important. I do not follow it."


5. When Jin’s Minister Over The Masses, Sima Yu, learned of Chen You's retreat from Luoyang, he originally met with Huan Wen at Liezhou, planning for a joint campaign to save the region. But on the day Bingshen (March 20th), Emperor Ai passed away in the Western Hall, so their plan was put aside. Emperor Ai had left no heir, so the Empress Dowager ordered that the Prince of Langye, Sima Yi, be chosen. The officials all gathered to pay homage to the Prince of Langye, and that day, he rose to the imperial throne, and a general amnesty was declared.


At Gushu, there was a Mount Lie in the middle of the Yangzi; this was the place.

Emperor Ai was twenty-five when he died.

The Western Hall was the one in the Taiji Palace. Jiankang's Taiji Palace had Eastern and Western Halls. The Eastern Hall was for receiving the ministers, while the Western Hall was a place of repose.


6. In Qin, a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Jianyuan.


7. Yan's Grand Governor, Murong Ke, and the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, jointly attacked Luoyang. Murong Ke said to his officers, "All of you have often resented that I did not make assaults. Now, although Luoyang has high walls, their soldiers are weak. It will be easy to conquer. The time is right, and let no one display cowardice or laziness!" So they attacked the city. In the third month, they took it, and they captured Jin's General Who Displays Valor, Shen Jing.

Shen Jing's expression looked as though nothing had happened, and Murong Ke was inclined to pardon him. The General of the Central Army, Muyu Qian, said, "Although Shen Jing is a marvelous fellow, beware of his ambitions. He will never allow someone else to use him. If you pardon him now, he will certainly pose a threat to you later." So Murong Ke executed Shen Jing.

尋為恪所攻,城陷,被執,神氣自若。恪奇而將宥之,其中軍將軍慕容虔曰:「勁雖奇士,觀其志度,終不為人用。今若赦之,必為後患。」遂遇害。(Jinshu 89)

Luoyang was soon assaulted by Murong Ke; the walls were breached, and Shen Jing was captured, but his expression was as though nothing had happened. Murong Ke was amazed by him and wanted to pardon him, but his General of the Central Army, Murong Qian, said to him, "Although Shen Jing is a marvelous fellow, beware of his ambitions. He will never allow someone else to use him. If you pardon him now, he will certainly pose a threat to you later." Thus Shen Jing met his death.


8. Murong Ke conquered all the land up to the Xiao Mountains and the Mian River, which were close to the border with Qin. In Guanzhong there was general fear of this development. Fu Jian himself led troops to camp on the border at Shancheng.


9. In Yan, the General of the Household of the Left, Murong Zhu, was appointed as Inspector of Luozhou, and was stationed at Jinyong. The Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, was appointed as Commander over Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Luozhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou, and Qinzhou military affairs, and was named as Grand General Who Conquers The South and Governor of Jingzhou. He was given ten thousand soldiers, and was stationed at Lüyang.


10. When Murong Ke returned to Ye, he lamented to his officers, "Before, when I pacified Guanggu, I could not save Pilu Yu. And now, when I captured Luoyang, I caused Shen Jing to be executed. Although neither was my original intention, in the end I am the commander. Truly, my shame fills the Four Seas."

The court honored Shen Jing's loyalty, and posthumously named him Administrator of Dongyang.


Pilu Yu was mentioned in the last book (Book 100), in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356).

恪還,從容言于慕容晞曰:「前平廣固,不能濟辟閭,今定洛陽而殺沈勁,實有愧于四海。」朝廷聞而嘉之,贈東陽太守。子赤黔為大長秋。赤黔子叔任,義熙中為益州刺史。(Jinshu 89)

When Murong Ke returned, he instinctively said to Murong Xi, "Before, when I pacified Guanggu, I could not obtain Pilu (Yu); now, although I have taken Luoyang, I had to kill Shen Jing. Truly, my shame fills the Four Seas." The court heard of Shen Jing's fate and commended him, posthumously naming him Administrator of Dongyang. His son Shen Chiqian became the Grand Minister of the Empress. And during the Yixi era (405-419), Shen Chiqian's son Shenshu became Inspector of Yizhou.


11. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: Shen Jing could truly be called an able son! With his death, he washed away his father's infamy, and transformed a traitorous family into a loyal one. The Book of Changes states, "In setting right what has been spoiled by the father, one meets with praise." (18.5) The Charge to Zhong of Cai states, "In order that you may cover the faults of your father, be loyal, be filial." Truly this could be said of Shen Jing!


In the 爻辭 of the 易‧蠱卦, in the 象 it says, "One who is able to surpass their father's reputation does virtue."

The Charge to Zhong of Cai is in the Book of Zhou in the Book of Documents.


12. As a general, Murong Ke did not rule through awe or sheer dignity, but employed grace and trust. In nurturing his troops, he attended to the main issues and did not make harsh or tedious orders, letting everyone be comfortable and at ease. In normal times, his camps were lax, and looked like they could be easily assaulted. But he had set keen watches and strong guards, so whenever enemies approached, none of them could come near. This was why he never met with defeat.


13. On the day Renshen (June 5th), Emperor Ai and Empress Jing (the late Lady Wang) were buried together at Anping Tomb.


Empress Wang's posthumous name was 靜 Jing. The Book of Jin records it as 靖 Jing.


14. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Renwu (June 15th), Yan's Grand Commandant, Feng Yi, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Kuang of Wuping.

The Minister of Works, Yang Wu, was appointed as the new Grand Commandant. The Palace Attendant and Household Counselor, Huangfu Zhen, was then appointed as the new Minister of Works and acting Palace Secretary. Yang Wu had served under four generations of rulers, and held great seniority; everyone from Murong Ke down respected him. He was more modest and courteous than he was in his youth. He charged his sons and grandsons to never go against the law, even despite their honored heritage.


The Laws of Posthumous Names says, "One who lives with complete and wholehearted sincerity may be named Kuang ('Rectified')."

The four generations of rulers were Murong Hui, Murong Huang, Murong Jun, and Murong Wei.

Now Feng Yi had also served the Yan court for four generations; his honor and prestige surpassed that of Yang Wu, and his sons and grandsons were more highly esteemed than the Yang clan's were. Was it because Feng Yi was not as modest as Yang Wu was? It may have been because the historians had access to the biographical records of the Yang clan, while the Feng clan had failed to compile family records of their own.


15. In the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (July 20th), Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Fu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Count Xiang of Jiancheng.

Zhou Fu had been in Yizhou for over thirty years, and held great prestige. The court ordered the Administrator of Jianwei, his son Zhou Chu, to take up his role.


The Law of Posthumous Names states, "One who has achievements may thus be named Xiang (‘Assist’ or ‘Help’)."

In Emperor Mu's third year of Yonghe (347), Huan Wen had conquered the Shu region, and left Zhou Fu there to guard it. From that year to this one, it had only been nineteen years. Before Jin had conquered Shu, their post of Inspector of Yizhou was at Badong, which was where Zhou Fu first became Inspector. When Huan Wen then conquered Shu, Zhou Fu naturally became its Inspector, and he was stationed at Pengmo. When this passage says that Zhou Fu was in Yizhou for over thirty years, it is combining his time spent at Badong and his years at Pengmo.


16. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiyou (August 10th), the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, was transferred to be Prince of Langye again.


Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had originally named Sima Yu as Prince of Langye, in order to continue the family line of the Prince of Langye. In Emperor Cheng's first year of Xianhe (326), Sima Yu's birth mother Lady Zheng passed away. Sima Yu, grieving for her, asked to be allowed to mourn for her, so he was renamed Prince of Kuaiji. After that time, Emperor Kang, Emperor Ai, and the current Emperor had all first possessed the title Prince of Langye and then went on to become Emperor.


17. On the day Renzi (August 13th), Lady Yu became Empress. This Lady Yu was the daughter of Yu Bing.


18. On the day Jiashen (?), Sima Yu's son Sima Changming (Sima Yao) was offered the title Prince of Kuaiji. But Sima Yu declined that title for his son, and he continued to refer to himself as Prince of Kuaiji.


19. The Xiongnu Worthy Prince of the Right, Cao Gu, and the Worthy Prince of the Left, Liu Weichen, both rebelled against Qin. Cao Gu led twenty thousand men to attack Xingcheng. Fu Jian personally led an army against him, while leaving the Grand General Who Guards The Army, Li Wei, and the Deputy Director of the Left, Wang Meng, to protect the Crown Prince Fu Hong and defend Chang'an.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian attacked Cao Gu, and defeated him. He killed Cao Gu's younger brother Cao Huo, and Cao Gu himself offered to surrender. Cao Gu and more than six thousand households were relocated. The General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, attacked Liu Weichen, and captured him at Mount Mugen.


Mount Mugen is in Shuofang.


20. In the ninth month, Fu Jian went to Shuofang, to patrol among the various tribes. In winter, the tenth month, Qin's General Who Conquers The North and Duke of Huainan, Fu You, took the remaining soldiers at Xingcheng to attack Chang'an. Li Wei fought and killed him.


Fu You was another of Fu Sheng's younger brothers.


21. Tufa Chuijin of the Xianbei passed away; he was a hundred and ten years old. His son Tufa Sifujian took his place in command of the army. This Tufa Chuijin was the grandson of Tufa Shujineng's cousin Tufa Wuwan.


Tufa Shujineng's rebellion in Liangzhou is mentioned in the Records of Emperor Wu of Jin.


22. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Sima Xun, was cruel and harsh in administering his territory. If any of his assistants or the powerful people of the province offended him in speech, he would have them beheaded on the spot, or he would shoot them to death personally with a bow and arrow. He had long harbored ambitions of taking the Shu region for himself, but he feared Zhou Fu, and dared not act against him.

After Zhou Fu's death, Sima Xun gathered troops and rebelled. His Attendant Officer, Yong Duan, and the Marshal of Western Tribes, Kui Cui, both remonstrated with him, but Sima Xun killed them both. He declared himself the Governor of Lianzhou and Yizhou, and the Prince of Chengdu.

In the eleventh month, Sima Xun led his soldiers through Jian'ge Pass, and attacked Fu. The Colonel of Western Tribes, Guanqiu Wei, fled the city. On the day Yimao (December 14th), Sima Xun placed Zhou Chu under siege at Chengdu. Huan Wen ordered the General of 鷹揚 and Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhu Xu of Yiyang, to march west to rescue Chengdu.


The Marshal of Western Tribes was a subordinate officer of the Colonel of Western Tribes.

Jin's Colonel of Western Tribes had originally administered affairs from Wenshan, but now administered from Fu.


23. Fu Jian returned to Chang'an, and appointed Li Wei as Grand Commandant and Palace Attendant. He appointed Cao Gu as Duke of Yanmen, and Liu Weichen as Duke of Xiayang, and both were sent back to lead their armies.


24. In the twelfth month, on the day Wuxu (January 26th), Jin's Master of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:51 pm


The First Year of Taihe (The Bingyin Year, 366 AD)


Emperor Fei's given name was 弈 Yi. His style name was Yanling, and he was Emperor Ai's younger brother by the same mother. He became Prince of Donghai in the eighth year of Xiankang (342), and became Prince of Langye in Emperor Mu's fifth year of Shenping (361). After he was on the throne, Huan Wen deposed him, and he became Duke of Haixi.


1. In spring, the third month, Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, sent the Protector Huan Pi to attack Nanzheng, in order to campaign against Sima Xun.


2. Yan's Grand Guardian and Grand Marshal, Murong Ke, and Grand Tutor and Minister Over The Masses, Murong Ping, both offered to resign their powers over the government, offer their seals to Murong Wei, and retire, but he did not accept their suggestion.


3. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Wuyin (July 5th), Empress Yu of Jin passed away.


4. Zhu Xu and Zhou Chu attacked Sima Xun and defeated him. They captured Sima Xun and his supporters, and sent them to Huan Wen. Huan Wen beheaded them all, and sent the heads to Jiankang.


5. Tuoba Shiyijian sent his Chief Clerk of the Left, Yan Feng, to offer tribute to Yan.


6. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Guiyou (August 29th), Empress Xiao (the late Lady Yu) was buried at Jingping Tomb.


Empress Yu's posthumous name was Xiao ("Filial").


7. Qin's General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, the General of the Front, Yang An, the General Who Displays Valor, Yao Chang, and others led twenty thousand men on a raid into Jingzhou, and they attacked Nanxiang commandary. Jin’s Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, went to rescue the threatened territory. In the eighth month, the Jin army went to Xinye. The Qin army brought over ten thousand households from Anyang with them before returning.


During Han, Anyang County had been part of Hanzhong commandary. When Cao-Wei established Weixing commandary, Anyang became part of that. Jin abolished the commandary. Since Qin only attacked Nanxiang and then retreated, how could they have penetrated the country as far as to capture the people of Anyang? The Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the place as Hanyang, and says it was north of the Han River. The Chronicles must have the correct account.

使王猛、楊安等率眾二萬寇荊州北鄙諸郡,掠漢陽萬餘戶而還。(Jinshu 113.17)

[Fu Jian] sent Wang Meng, Yang An, and others with an army of twenty thousand to raid Jingzhou's northern border commandaries. They captured more than ten thousand households at Hanyang and then returned.


8. In the ninth month, on the day Jiawu (November 18th), Jin declared an amnesty in Lianzhou and Yizhou.


Since Sima Xun's rebellion had been crushed, this was a special amnesty for his supporters and those he had compelled to assist him.


9. In winter, the tenth month, Sima Yu was further appointed as Prime Minister, and granted authority over the imperial secretariat. He was permitted to enter the court without hurrying, without needing to wait for his name to be announced, and without removing his sword and shoes.


10. Zhang Tianxi, the ruler of Liangzhou, sent messengers to the border with Qin announcing he was severing ties with them.


Former Liang's ties with Qin were first established during the diplomatic visit of Yan Fu and Liang Shu to Liangzhou in the last book (Book 100) in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356.6).


11. Yan's General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, invaded Yanzhou. He captured several commandaries in Lu and Gaoping, and left garrisons to hold them before returning.


12. It was earlier mentioned that Li Yan of Longxi had rebelled against Zhang Guan, and had surrendered his territory to Qin. However, he later reestablished ties with Zhang Tianxi.

In the twelfth month, the Qiang chieftain Lian Qi and four thousand families from Lueyang rebelled against Qin, declaring themselves Li Yan's followers. Li Yan accepted the role as their Governor, and he broke off from Qin and Liang.


Li Yan's rebellion in Longxi was mentioned in the last book (Book 100) in the eleventh year of Yonghe (355.17).

The Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the Qiang rebel leader’s name as 斂岐 Lian Qi, but earlier in the Book of Jin, the Biography of Zhang Tianxi records it as 廉岐 Lian Qi. 斂 Lian was a surname among the Qiang.

羌廉岐自稱益州刺史,率略陽四千家背苻堅就李儼。(Jinshu 86.65)

The Qiang chieftain 廉岐 Lian Qi declared himself the Inspector of Yizhou. He led four thousand households from Lueyang to rebel against Fu Jian and go over to Li Yan.

羌斂岐叛堅,自稱益州刺史,率部落四千餘家西依張天錫叛將李儼。(Jinshu 113.17)

The Qiang chieftain 斂岐 Lian Qi rose in rebellion. He declared himself the Inspector of Yizhou, and he led more than four thousand households of his people to submit to Zhang Tianxi's rebel general Li Yan.


13. Jin’s Protector of Nanyang, Zhao Yi, seized control of Wan and surrendered to Yan. The Administrator, Huan Dan, fled to defend Xinye. Yan sent the General of the Household of the South, Zhao Pan, from Luyang to garrison Wan.


宛 is pronounced "wan (w-an)".


14. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Yu Xi, was of an honored family line, and he and his brothers acted haughtily. Huan Wen was wary of them.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 7:56 pm


The Second Year of Taihe (The Dingmao Year, 367 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, because Yu Xi was unable to rescue Lu and Gaoping, he was removed from office.


Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Imperial Records state that this month, because of Yu Xi's crime, he was exiled to the sea. But the 本傳 states that it was only after Emperor Fei was deposed as the Duke of Haixi that Yu Xi was exiled to Hailing, and at this time he was merely stripped of his office."


2. In the second month, Yan's General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, and General Who Guards The North and Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, raided the Chile (Tiele) peoples.


3. In Qin, Wang Meng, the Administrator of Longxi, Jiang Heng, the Administrator of Nan'an, Shao Qiang of Nan'an, the General Who Displays Valor, Yao Chang, and others led an army of seventeen thousand soldiers against Lian Qi.

In the third month, Zhang Tianxi sent his General of the Front, Yang Yu, towards Jincheng, his General Who Conquers The East, Chang Ju, towards Zuonan, and his General Of Fierce Assault, Zhang Tong, towards Baitu, while he himself led an army of thirty thousand to camp at Cangsong, to campaign against Li Yan.

Lian Qi's soldiers had all once served under Yao Yizhong, and when they heard his son Yao Chang had come, they all surrendered to him. Wang Meng marched on and attacked Lueyang. Lian Qi fled to Baima. Fu Jian appointed Yao Chang as Administrator of Longdong.


遹 is pronounced "yu".

Zhang Gui had created Zuonan County, which was part of Jinxing commandary. Kan Yin's "Records of the Thirteen Provinces" states, "A hundred and forty li west of Shicheng lies the city of Zuonan. The Yellow River passes south of it, so it is also called Zuonan Ford."

The Records of Jin state, "Baitu County is part of Jincheng commandary." And in the Records of the Thirteen Provinces it says, "Sixty li west of Zuonan Ford lies the city of Baitu. The city is north of the great Yellow River, and is close enough to the river to be a crossing place."

Ever since the Han dynasty, Cangsong County was a part of Wuwei commandary. During Later Liang, Lü Guang renamed it to Changsong County.

Baima ("White Horse") was the homeland of the White Horse Di people of Wudu.


4. In summer, the fourth month, Murong Chen raided Jingling. Jin’s Administrator of that place, Luo Chong, attacked and defeated him.


5. Zhang Tianxi attacked Li Yan's two commandaries, Daxia and Wushi, and took them. Chang Ju defeated Li Yan's soldiers at Kui Valley, and Zhang Tianxi advanced and camped at Zuonan. Li Yan, afraid, fled to hold out at Fuhan, and sent his nephew Li Chun to beg for forgiveness from Qin, and to ask for assistance. Fu Jian sent his General of the Front, Yang An, and General Who Establishes Valor, Wang Fu, to lead twenty thousand cavalry, and ordered Wang Meng to assist Li Yan.


Song Bai remarked, "In the eighteenth year of Zhang Jun's rule, he split off Wushi, Xingjin, and Guangwu to form Daxia commandary. During the Tang dynasty, it became Daxia County, as part of Hezhou. Zhang Jun also split off Didao County into Wushi commandary, which in our time is part of Xizhou."

Here, 夏 is pronounced "ha (h-a)". [The modern pronunciation is "xia"; this account will continue to call it Daxia.]


6. Wang Meng sent Shao Qiang to pursue Lian Qi, and ordered Wang Fu to guard Houhe and Jiang Heng to guard Baishi. He himself went with Yang An to relieve Li Yan at Fuhan. Zhang Tianxi sent Yang Yu to offer battle east of Fuhan, and Wang Meng attacked and greatly routed him, killing or capturing seventeen thousand. Following this defeat, Zhang Tianxi and Wang Meng remained in a stalemate outside the city. Shao Qiang captured Lian Qi at Baima, and sent him along.

Wang Meng wrote to Zhang Tianxi stating, "I have an order to rescue Li Yan, but I am not ordered to fight Liangzhou. Now I should strengthen our fortifications, in order to await further orders. If this continues, I fear both families will suffer, and no good will come of it. General, if your army will withdraw, I will take Li Yan and withdraw east, and your army may then move the people west. Would this not be a suitable idea?"

Zhang Tianxi said to his officers, "That is what Wang Meng’s letter says. I came originally to fight rebels, and not to fight with Qin." So he led his soldiers away.


During Former Han, Baishi County was part of Jincheng commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Longxi commandary. Li Xian remarked, "Mount Baishi is in our modern Lanzhou." And Song Bai remarked, "Fenglin County in Hezhou was originally Baishi County during the Han dynasty. In the eighth year of Zhang Jun's rule, he renamed it to Yonggu County."

The two "families" were Qin and Liang.


7. Li Yan had yet to admit the Qin army. Wang Meng, dressed in white clothing and riding in a carriage, went with several dozen men to the city, where he asked to meet with Li Yan. Li Yan opened the gate to bring someone inside, but before he could make any defense, the soldiers rushed in as well, and seized him. The General Who Founds Loyalty, Peng Yue, was appointed as General Who Pacifies The West and Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Fuhan.


General Who Founds Loyalty was an office created by Former Qin.


8. After Zhang Tianxi's army had fallen back to the west, but before Li Yan went to see Wang Meng, Li Yan's general He Zhun said to him, "You have a martial spirit, and your officers and soldiers are valiant and fierce. Why would you bind your own hands and give yourself up to another? Wang Meng's lone army has traveled a long way to reach us, and his soldiers are still exhausted. Since they came here to answer our request for assistance, they certainly would not have prepared any defenses against us. If you were to attack them now, you might attain your ambition."

Li Yan replied, "We requested aid to avoid difficulties. If, having avoided them because of the aid, we now attack those who came to help us, what would the realm say about me? Better to keep up our defenses so as to wear them out, and they will retreat of their own accord."

After Li Yan was captured, Wang Meng chastised Li Yan for not coming out to welcome them at once, and Li Yan mentioned He Zhun's proposal. Wang Meng put He Zhun to death, and brought Li Yan back as a captive. When Li Yan arrived at Chang'an, Fu Jian appointed Li Yan as Minister of the Household, and he was named as Marquis of Gui'an.


9. During this time, Murong Ke said to Murong Wei, "The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) is a talented man capable of being a great general and a prime minister. He is ten times greater than I am. Since I was second in age after our late lord, he made use of me first. But after my death, I hope that Your Majesty will support the state by listening to the Prince of Wu."

In the fifth month, on the day Renchen (?), Murong Ke became deathly ill. Murong Wei himself went to attend to him, and to listen to his final requests. Murong Ke said, "I have heard that there is no better way to repay the grace that one has received than to recommend a worthy man. A worthy man can become Chancellor even if he were some mere rampart builder, much less one of your own kin! The Prince of Wu's worth in both civil and military affairs is great, and he is second only to Guan Zhong and Xiao He. If Your Majesty places him in command of affairs, then the state will know peace. Otherwise, Qin and Jin will surely find some way to plot against us." Having said this, he passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Huan of Taiyuan.


The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who expands the territory and brings distant lands to submission may be called Huan ('Grand' or 'Pillar')".

Murong Ke's comment is a reference to Fu Yue, the minister of the Shang dynasty's King Gaozong (Wu Ding), who was known for mingling among the common people. When Gaozong was still Prince of Yin, he discovered Fu Yue among his rampart builders, and ordered him to become his Chancellor.

時莫容暐嗣偽位,慕容恪為太宰。恪甚重垂,常謂暐曰:「吳王將相之才十倍於臣,先帝以長幼之次,以臣先之,臣死之後,願陛下委政吳王,可謂親賢兼舉。」(Jinshu 123.2)

When Murong Wei inherited the false throne, Murong Ke was appointed as Grand Guardian. Murong Ke greatly appreciated Murong Chui, and he often told Murong Wei, "The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) has the talents of a general or prime minister. He is ten times greater than I am. Since I was second in age after our late lord, he made use of me first. But after my death, Your Majesty should entrust affairs to the Prince. That is what one could call raising up one who is both kin to you and a worthy man besides."


10. When Fu Jian learned of Murong Ke’s death, he secretly plotted to conquer Yan. He wished to see whether or not Yan would now be ripe for the taking. So he ordered the Xiongnu chieftain Cao Gu to send a caravan of tribute to the Yan court, and sent along the Registrar of Western Rong Tribes, Guo Bian of Pingyi, to pose as his assistant.


Cao Gu was the Xiongnu's Worthy Prince of the Right, who had surrendered to Qin in the previous year after his failed rebellion.

Some versions list Guo Bian as being "of Pingyi".

Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) created the office of Colonel of Western Tribes at Chang'an, and Qin had kept this office; the Registrar of Western Tribes was its subordinate office.

Yan's Minister of Works, Huangfu Zhen, had an older brother, Huangfu Tian. Both he and Huangfu Zhen’s nephews, Huangfu Fen and Huangfu Fu, held office in Qin, with Huangfu Tian being a Cavalier in Regular Attendance. When Guo Bian reached Yan, he had meetings with each of the Yan ministers in turn. When he met with Huangfu Zhen, he said, "I am a native of Qin, but my family was executed by them; that is why I am now under Prince Cao's command. Your honorable brother and your nephews are all friends of mine."


Although Huangfu Zhen held office in Yan, he was a native of Anding (in Qin's territory).

Huangfu Zhen angrily replied, "I have no dealings with foreign states; why do you tell me such things? You look like a sly sort. Are these your falsehoods?" He reported the matter to Murong Wei and asked him to thoroughly investigate the matter, but the Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, did not agree.

When Guo Bian returned to Qin, he said to Fu Jian, "The Yan court has no discipline; they are ripe to be attacked. The only knowledgable one we should be wary of is Huangfu Zhen."

Fu Jian said, "How can it be that, in all their six provinces, there is not a single man of wisdom?"


Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "In Yan's eighth year of Jianxi (368), Huangfu Zhen became Grand Commandant. The Book of Yan, the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, and the Biography of Huangfu Zhen all claim that when Guo Bian came to Yan on this mission, it was when Huangfu Zhen was the Grand Commandant. The Annals of Jin says that it was in the eighth month of the tenth year of Jianxi (370). I fear that all these sources are wrong, and that the event was when Cao Gu surrendered to Qin."

The six provinces which Yan controlled were Youzhou, Bingzhou, Jizhou, Sizhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou.

...征還,拜侍中、光祿大夫,累遷太尉、侍中。苻堅密謀兼併,欲觀審釁隙,乃遣其西戎主簿郭辯潛結匈奴左賢王曹轂,令轂遣使詣鄴,辯因從之... (Jinshu 111.36-7)

When Huangfu Zhen returned from the campaign, he was appointed as Palace Attendant and Household Counselor, and then was also appointed Grand Commandant. Fu Jian secretly wished to conquer Yan, and he wanted to see how their defenses stood. So he sent his Registrar of Western Tribes, Guo Bin, to become close to the Xiongnu Worthy Prince of the Left, Cao Gu, and join him on a tribute mission to Yan. Guo Bin agreed to do so.


11. The Xiongnu chieftain Cao Gu passed away. Qin split his forces into two, with each half being led by one of his sons. The two halves were called the Eastern Cao and the Western Cao.


When Fu Jian split Cao Gu's army into two halves, he had more than twenty thousand of them remain west of the city of Ercheng, and sent Cao Gu's older son Cao Xi to lead them. He had the other half, again more than twenty thousand, remain east of Ercheng, and sent Cao Gu's younger son Cao Yin to lead them.


12. Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, and Administrator of Jingling, Luo Chong, attacked Wan and retook it. The defector general Zhao Yi fled Wan, and the Yan general Zhao Pan retreated to Luyang. Huan Huo pursued Zhao Pan and attacked him at Zhicheng, where he captured him. He left a garrison at Wan before returning.


Ever since Han, Zhi County had been part of Nanyang commandary; the site was within the borders of Xiangcheng County in Dengzhou during the Tang dynasty. The New Records of Tang states, "Luyang Pass was eighty li north of Xiangcheng County."


13. In autumn, the seventh month, Yan's Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, and others attacked the Chile (Tiele) people again. They captured several tens of thousands of cattle and horses.


14. Earlier, when Murong Li's soldiers had passed through Dai (on their way to raid the Gaoche), they trampled over the corn millet fields there. This greatly angered Tuoba Shiyijian. Yan's General Who Pacifies The North and Duke of Wuqiang, Murong Ni, led troops from Youzhou to camp at Yunzhong. In the eighth month, Tuoba Shiyijian attacked Yuzhong, and Murong Ni abandoned the city and fled. Yan's General of 振威 Muyu Hexin died in battle.


穄 is another name for corn millet. In our time, people in the south call corn millet 穄. The northern regions are cold, and the five cereal crops (rice, two kinds of millet, wheat, and beans) cannot grow there. Only corn millet grows there, and this is what is called 穄. Xiang Anshi remarked, "There are two kinds of corn millet. The main type grows as large as foxtail millet, and it ripens in five months. This is what people in Jingzhou call corn millet, or they call it 穄. There is another type which grows especially tall and large, and its stalks are shaped like reeds, though they are actually more like 薏苡 (the Job's Tears plant). The people of Jing call this the 'invasive corn millet', or the 'reedy 穄'. It does not ripen until autumn, unlike the main type of corn millet."


15. In the ninth month, Jin's Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Youzhou, as well as at Jinling in Yangzhou. He was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Jingkou.


愔 is pronounced "yin (y-in)."

Chen Yue remarked, "During the Disaster of Yongjia, when the people of Jin fled from Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, Bingzhou, Yanzhou, and the part of Xuzhou north of the Huai River, there were also some who crossed the river at the boundaries of Jinling. In Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xianhe (330), Chi Jian relocated all of the refugees who were south of the Huai River into the counties of Jinling commandary. Others who had crossed south of the Yangzi or had remained north of it all set up refugee commandaries and counties, with their own governors. They had Xuzhou and Yanzhou governed (nominally) from the region north of the Yangzi, and also set up surrogate versions of Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou in the same area."


16. Qin's Duke of Huainan, Fu You, again turned rebel. This time, he was joined in rebellion by the the Grand General Who Conquers The East, Governor of Bingzhou, and Duke of Jin, Fu Liu, and the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Duke of Zhao, Fu Shuang. Since Fu Shuang was Fu Jian's younger brother by the same mother, and Fu Liu had been Fu Jiàn's beloved son, Fu Jian suppressed the matter and did not inquire into it.

Fu Liu and Fu Shuang then enticed the General Who Guards The East, Inspector of Luozhou, and Duke of Wei, Fu Sou, and the General Who Maintains The West, Inspector of Yongzhou, and Duke of Yan, Fu Wu, to join them as well. Fu Sou’s Registrar, Yao Tiao of Nan'an, remonstrated with him, saying, "You and our lord share 'the close kinship of Zhou and Shao', and you have accepted this border command. When the state is faced with difficulties, you ought to be exerting yourself to protect it, not adding to its woes!" Fu Sou did not listen.


Qin's Inspectors administered Bingzhou from Puban, Qinzhou from Shanggui, Luozhou from Shancheng, and Yongzhou from Anding.

Fu Sou and Fu Wu were both Fu Jiàn’s sons.

The Duke of Zhou had a brother, Ji Shi, whom he appointed as Duke of Zhao.

When Fu Jian learned of the planned rebellion, he ordered Fu Liu and the others to come to Chang'an. Instead, in winter, the tenth month, Fu Liu seized Puban, Fu Shuang seized Shanggui, Fu Sou seized Shancheng, and Fu Wu seized Anding. They all began to raise further troops in rebellion. Fu Jian sent messengers to them saying, "I have treated you with the utmost favour; why then trouble yourselves to rebel? Now I revoke my order for you to come. You should halt your military actions and go back to your own positions, and all will be as before.” He demanded a 'gnawed pear' from each of them as a sign of trust, but they all refused.


A pear is fragile, easy to bite into. It means that when relatives fought one another, it made the state weak and fragile, and weak against opportunistic enemies. So in demanding a gnawed pear from Fu Liu and the others, Fu Jian was demanding a sign of their trust in him.

Michael Rogers (The Chronicle of Fu Jian: A Case of Exemplar History) argues that, contrary to Hu Sanxing's literal interpretation, the phrase "gnawed pear" is an abbreviation of a blood-letting ceremony where one cuts the arm and scratches the face, as a pledge of faith, and not an actual pear.


17. The King of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian, brought his troops to Shuofang to attack Liu Weichen. They needed to cross over the Yellow River to reach the Xiongnu. At that time, the river had not yet frozen, so Tuoba Shiyijian ordered reed ropes to be made to restrict the flow of water in the river. This soon caused the river to begin freezing into chunks of ice, but it was not yet firm, so he had reeds scattered over the ice and bound the chunks of ice together into a column, until it formed a floating bridge over the river. The Dai soldiers then crossed over it. Liu Weichen did not expect for the Dai soldiers to arrive so suddenly, so he fled west with his family. Tuoba Shiyijian captured sixty to seventy percent of his soldiers before returning to Dai. Liu Weichen fled to Qin, where Fu Jian sent him back to Shuofang, along with soldiers to defend it.


When Dai attacked the Xiongnu in Shuofang, they crossed west over the Yellow River, and they named the crossing place Junzi Ford.


18. In the twelfth month, on the day Jiazi (?), Yan's Grand Commandant, Yang Wu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Jing of Jianning.

Huangfu Zhen was appointed as the new Palace Attendant and Grand Commandant, and the Household Counsellor Li Hong became the new Minister of Works.


The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who acts well and in accordance with the laws, or one who remains vigilant day and night, may be called Jing ('Respected')."
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Aug 09, 2017 8:47 pm, edited 6 times in total.
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BOOK 101

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Mar 31, 2017 8:05 pm


The Third Year of Taihe (The Wuchen Year, 368 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, Fu Jian sent the General of the Rear, Yang Chengshi, and the General of the Left, Mao Song, to march against Shanggui and Anding. He sent the General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, and the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, to attack Puban. He sent the General of the Front, Yang An, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Zhang Qi, to attack Shancheng.

Fu Jian ordered the Puban and Shancheng armies to fortify themselves thirty li from those cities, hoard supplies and avoid battle, and wait until Qinzhou and Yongzhou were first pacified, so that their forces could be used as well.


2. Before, when Murong Ke became ill, as he believed that since Murong Wei was young and weak, not personally holding the power of state, and that Murong Ping was too paranoid, Murong Ke therefore feared that the role of Grand Marshal would not be granted to a suitable man. So he said to the Prince of Anle, Murong Wei's older brother Murong Zang, "At the moment, the remnants of Jin are in the south, and Qin is strong in the west. Both these states harbor ambitions to expand and conquer, and it is only that they have not yet seen any rifts in our state to exploit. Whether our state shall rise or fall depends upon the ministers charged with guarding it. The post of Grand Marshal commands the six armies; it cannot be given to an unsuitable man.

“After my death, according to the closeness of kinship, my position should go to you and Murong Chong. Although you are talented and knowledgeable, you are still young, and have not experienced many difficulties. The Prince of Wu is a man of outstanding talent and majesty, with surpassing wisdom and resourcefulness. If you are able to make him the Grand Marshal, he will even be able to bring peace to all the realm within the four seas, much less merely protect us against invasion. Then there will be no cause for concern. Take care you do not chase after personal gain and forget about potential dangers, not thinking about what is best for the state."

Murong Ke gave the same advice to Murong Ping. But after Murong Ke's death, Murong Ping did not follow his advice. In the second month, he appointed the General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Zhongshan, Murong Chong, as Grand Marshal. Murong Chong was Murong Wei's younger brother. Murong Chui, who was then Inspector of Jingzhou and Prince of Wu, was appointed as Palace Attendant and Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, with equal power to the Three Excellencies.


To chase after gains and forget about dangers means one who seeks personal gain by gathering military influence, such as by claiming the mantle of Grand Marshal, and forgets about the dangers that would destroy both family and state.

This was the source of Murong Ping's and Murong Chui's discord.


3. Qin's Duke of Wei, Fu Sou, sent a message from Shancheng offering submission to Yan, and asking for reinforcements. The people of Qin, greatly afraid, gathered troops to defend Huayin.


Huayin County was west of Shancheng, and the pass at Tong Gate was there.


4. Yan's Intendent of Wei and Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, sent in a memorial stating, "Our late lord received Heaven's mandate, and had ambitions of pacifying the six directions; as his heir, Your Majesty should continue his work. Now the Fu clan is rotting from the inside, torn by divisions, and split into five parts. Take the offered cities into hand. One following another, they are coming over to join us or asking for our aid. This is Heaven delivering Qin to Yan. 'Take not what Heaven offers, and you invite disaster.' The example of Wu and Yue of old is sufficient proof of that. You need only move. Order Huangfu Zhen to lead the troops of Bingzhou and Jizhou to relieve Puban, send the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, with the troops of Xuzhou and Luozhou to break the siege of Fu Sou, and dispatch the Grand Tutor, Murong Ping, to lead the capital troops to act as a reserve for the two armies. Proclaim your intentions to restore order to the Three Regions (around Chang’an). Explain to them how they could invite disaster or gain good fortune for themselves, and they are sure to flock to your banner. The time for us to unite the world is here!"

At that time, many people in Yan were asking for Shancheng to be reinforced, as a step towards conquering Guanzhong. But Murong Ping said, "Qin is a great state; although it is currently facing difficulties, it will not be easily conquered. Although ‘the court’ is wise, he does not yet compare with our late emperor; though we his ministers are resourceful, we cannot yet compare with the Grand Governor (Murong Ke). It is sufficient for us to defend our borders. Conquering Qin is not for us to do."


Since the Yan capital Ye was in Wei, Yan called the Administrator of Wei the Intendant of Wei.

The five parts were the five areas each under control of a different member of the Qin royal family: Puban, Shancheng, Shanggui, Anding, and the capital Chang'an.

In the Discoures of the States, Fan Li of Yue said, "Before, Heaven bestowed Yue to Wu, but Wu did not dare to take it. Now, Heaven bestows Wu to Yue, and Yue must not go against Heaven's will!"

People in Yan called their ruler "the court".

慕容德字玄明,皝之少子。皝每對諸宮人言,婦人妊娠夢日入懷,必生天子。公孫夫人方姙。夢日入臍中,獨喜而不敢言。晉咸康二年晝寢,生德,左右以告,方寢而起。皝曰:「此兒易生,似鄭莊公,長必有大德。」遂以德為名。年十二而皝薨,哀毀過禮。年十八,長八尺二寸,額上有日角偃月重文。元璽初,封梁公。建熙初,進號安北將軍,封范陽王。入為魏尹。(16K 13.1)

Murong De, styled Xuanming, was Murong Huang's youngest son. Murong Huang often said to the people of his palace that if a married woman became pregnant, and during her pregnancy, she dreamed of the sun entering her bosom, then she would certainly give birth to a Son of Heaven. When Consort Gongsun became pregnant, she dreamed of the sun entering into her naval. She was very happy, but she dared not speak of her dream. In Jin's second year of Xiankang (336), she was sleeping during the day when she suddenly gave birth to her son. Those around her all told her about it, and she awoke from her sleep and arose. Murong Huang said, "How easily this child was born, like Duke Zhuang of Zheng. When he grows up, he shall certainly possess great virtue." So he named the boy De, meaning virtue.

When Murong De was twelve years old, Murong Huang passed away, and Murong De gave himself over to grief beyond the usual rites. By the time Murong De was eighteen, he was eight chi and two cun tall, and on his forehead he had deep lines like a crescent moon. At the beginning of the Yuanxi era (353), he was appointed as Duke of Liang. At the beginning of the Jianxi era (360), he was promoted to General Who Maintains The North and Prince of Fanyang. He later became the Intendant of Wei commandary.


5. Qin's Duke of Wei, Fu Sou, wrote to Murong Chui and Huangfu Zhen, saying, "Fu Jian and Wang Meng are more than ordinary men. They are plotting Yan's imminent destruction. If you do not seize this opportunity now, I fear that soon, Yan's lords, ministers, and generals will experience ‘the regret of Yongdong’!"

Murong Chui said to Huangfu Zhen, "The greatest threat of our time is certainly Qin. But our lord is still young in years. And considering the Grand Tutor’s level of insight and disposition, do you think we are truly a match for Fu Jian and Wang Meng?"

Huangfu Zhen replied, "That is so. But even if I know it, what can I do if no one listens to me? "


According to the Zuo Commentary, "When Wu invaded Yue, the Count of Yue held out at Kuaiji. He offered to make peace with Wu, and the Count of Wu accepted it. Wu Zixu objected to this, but was ignored. Later, when Yue invaded Wu, they demanded that the King of Wu be exiled to Yongdong. The King of Wu lamented, ‘I am old, and cannot serve another king. I regret that I did not follow Wu Zixu's advice, or else it would not have come to this!’ And he hanged himself." Jia Kui remarked, "Yongdong was a village of Yue. It was on the east side of the Yong River." The 索隱 states, "It is the same as our modern Mao County." 甬 is pronounced "yong (y-ong)."


6. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (April 4th), there was a lunar eclipse.


7. On the day Guihai (April 10th), there was a general amnesty declared in Jin.


8. Qin's general Yang Chengshi was defeated by Fu Shuang's general Gou Xing, and Mao Song was also defeated by Fu Wu. Both of them fled back. So Fu Jian sent the Guard General of Valor, Wang Jian, the General of 寧朔, Lü Guang, General Guo Jiang of Pingyi, Di Nu, and others with thirty thousand troops to campaign against these foes.

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Shuang and Fu Wu marched with their victorious troops to Yumei, with Gou Xing commanding their vanguard. Wang Jian wished to attack at once. Lü Guang said, "Gou Xing is newly spirited, and his men’s morale is quite high. We should not be hasty to attack. Once his grain is exhausted he must retreat, and then we may pursue him and attack without worry!"

After twenty days, Gou Xing retreated. Lü Guang said, "Now we may attack him." So they pursued, and Gou Xing was defeated. They then attacked Fu Shuang and Fu Wu, and greatly routed them, capturing or killing fifteen thousand. Fu Wu abandoned Anding, and he and Fu Shuang fled to Shanggui. Wang Jian and the others moved forward and attacked them.

苻雙反于秦州,堅將楊成世為雙將苟興所敗,光與王鑒討之。鑒欲速戰,光曰:「興初破成世,奸氣漸張,宜持重以待其弊。興乘勝輕來,糧竭必退,退而擊之,可以破也。」二旬而興退,諸將不知所為,光曰:「揆其奸計,必攻榆眉。若得榆眉,據城斷路,資儲復贍,非國之利也,宜速進師。若興攻城,尤須赴救。如其奔也,彼糧既盡,可以滅之。」鑒從焉。果敗興軍。(Jinshu 122.2)

When Fu Shuang rebelled at Qinzhou, Fu Jian's general Yang Chengshi was defeated by Fu Shuang's general Gou Xing. Lü Guang and Wang Jian campaigned against him. Wang Jian wished to attack at once, but Lü Guang said, "Gou Xing has just routed Yang Chengshi, and his wicked spirit has gradually swelled. We should wait for a time, until it fades away. Since Gou Xing has won a victory, he will be quick to rush forward. That means that he cannot have many supplies, and he will be compelled to fall back. When he does, then we should attack him, and we can rout him."

After twenty days, Gou Xing fell back. The generals were uncertain why this was. Lü Guang said, "If I had to guess what his wicked design is, he must be planning to attack Yumei. If he gains Yumei, then he will occupy the city and cut off the road, and he will be able to gather up an abundance of supplies. To permit that would be no benefit to our state, so we should march against him at once. If he really is attacking the city, then it will certainly need our assistance. And if he is only retreating, that means his supplies are totally exhausted, and we can vanquish him." Wang Jian agreed. As expected, they defeated Gou Xing's army.


9. Qin's rebel Duke of Jin, Fu Liu, several times marched out to offer battle, but Wang Meng refused him. Fu Liu began to believe that Wang Meng feared him.

In the fifth month, Fu Liu left his son Fu Liang to guard Puban, while he led twenty thousand soldiers west to attack Chang'an. When he was a hundred li out from Puban, Deng Qiang led a night raid against him with seven thousand elite cavalry, and defeated him. Fu Liu led his army back, but Wang Meng marched to intercept him, and captured all of his men. Fu Liu escaped into the city with a few hundred riders, and Wang Meng and Deng Qiang marched forward to assault the city.


10. In autumn, the seventh month, Wang Jian and the others captured Shanggui. They killed Fu Shuang and Fu Wu, but spared their wives and children. The Guard General of the Left, Fu Ya, was appointed as Inspector of Qinzhou. In the eighth month, the Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, was appointed as Inspector of Yongzhou.


11. In the ninth month, Wang Meng and the others captured Puban. They executed Fu Liu and his wife and children. Wang Meng remained camped at Puban, while he sent Deng Qiang, Wang Jian, and the others to attack Shancheng.


12. The nobility and high officials of Yan kept many commoners on their personal fiefs, and the state's official household rolls began to shrink compared to these private household rolls. The public grain stores were used up, and public expenses could not be covered from taxes.

The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Guangxin, Yue Wan, said, "The realm is currently split into three, and each side seeks to swallow up the others. Currently, our state's administration is not functioning well. The venal nobility are seeking their own profits, to the extent of exhausting the efforts of the people. Funds of office have not been contributed, the salaries of state officials have been halted, and food supplies to the soldiers have been cut off, while the local officials have to borrow grain and silk to feed and clothe themselves. We must not let our neighboring enemies know about this, for this is no way to run a government. The keeping of people on private fiefs should cease at once, and they should all be returned to their former commandaries and counties."

Murong Wei agreed, and he sent Yue Wan to implement the reforms. Yue Wan uncovered the villainous ministers, and no one dared to conceal anything from him. He thus restored over two hundred thousand people to the public rolls, but earned the ire of the court officials. Yue Wan had been sick, and in his exertions to personally verify the census rolls, his illness worsened. In winter, the eleventh month, he passed away.


According to the system under Jin, government ministers were divided into nine ranks. Each rank had its own pay and occupied its own measure of land, and each rank was allowed to extend benefits to various degrees of family relations. Those at the top could extend their benefits to family relations of the ninth degree; those with fewer, just to two generations. Royal family members, honored guests of the state, worthy sages, and the descendants of the gentry were also the same way: each had some of these private families to provide them with clothing and food or to work their fields.

The three sides were Yan, Jin, and Qin.


13. In the twelfth month, Wang Meng and the others retook Shancheng. Fu Sou was captured and sent to Chang'an.

Fu Jian asked him why he had rebelled. Fu Sou replied, "I originally had no intention of rebelling. But when my brothers and cousins plotted their uprising, I feared I would be killed, and so I went along."

Fu Jian wept and said, "You have always been an honest man, so I know you did not mean to do it. And it cannot be that Emperor Gaozu will have no descendants." So though he compelled Fu Sou to take his own life, he spared Fu Sou's seven sons. Fu Sou’s eldest son inherited his title as Duke of Wei, and the others were also granted ducal titles, in order to prevent cutting off the line of Fu Sheng and Fu Jian’s other cousins.

Empress Dowager Gou asked Fu Jian, "Your cousin Fu Sou and your brother Fu Shuang both rebelled. Yet Fu Shuang alone was not given an heir. Why is this?"

Fu Jian answered, "The realm belongs to Emperor Gaozu, so I cannot cut off his descendants. But as for Zhongqun (Fu Shuang), he did not think about you. He plotted to bring danger to the royal family. I cannot ignore the laws of the realm for the sake of personal feelings."

Fu Jian appointed the Duke of Fanyang, Fu Yi, as Grand General Who Conquers The East and Inspector of Bingzhou, and stationed him at Puban. Deng Qiang was appointed as General Who Establishes Valor and Inspector of Luozhou, and he was stationed at Shancheng. Fu Sou’s advisor Yao Tiao, who had warned him against rebellion, was promoted as Administrator of Jijun.


Gaozu was Fu Jiàn's temple name.

Fu Shuang's style name was Zhongqun.


14. Huan Wen was honored with exceptional ceremony, and his position was elevated to be above all the other lords and princes.


15. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Shi, was appointed as Jin's Inspector of Qinzhou, and his younger brother Yang Tong as Administrator of Wudu. Yang Shi also declared himself a vassal of Qin, and they appointed him as Inspector of Southern Qinzhou.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Aug 09, 2017 9:19 pm, edited 4 times in total.
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