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Posted: Mon Mar 06, 2017 7:13 pm
The Sixth Year of Yonghe (The Gengxu Year, 350 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Zhao's Grand General Shi Min wished to wipe out all remaining traces of the Shi clan. Pointing to a prophecy that stated "after Zhao, Li", he changed the name of the state from Zhao to 衛 Wei, and forced all members of the Shi clan to change their surname to Li. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign year changed to Qinglong.
The Grand Governor Zhao Shu, the Grand Commandant Zhang Ju, the General of the Center Army Zhang Chun, the Household Counsellor Shi Yue, the General Who Protects The Army Shi Ning, the General of 武衛 Zhang Ji, and countless others nobles, ministers, and officials, to the number of ten thousand, fled the city to seek refuge with Shi Zhi in Xiangguo. The Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, fled to Jizhou. Many Zhao generals remained at their command posts. The General Who Protects The Army Zhang Chen held Fukou, Zhang Hedu held the Shidu weir, the General Who Establishes Virtue Duan Qin held Liyang, the General Who Calms The South Yang Qun held Sangbi, Liu Guo held Yangcheng, Duan Kan held Chenliu, Yao Yizhong held Shetou, and Pu Hong held Fangtou. These forces commanded many tens of thousands of soldiers all together, and none of them submitted to Shi Min. Duan Qin was the son of Duan Mopei; Duan Kan was the son of Duan Lan.
During Zhao, Jizhou was administered from Xindu. Fukou was the mouth of the Fu River. According to the "Geographic Record" compiled during Northern Wei, the Shidou Weir was in Ye County. The 括地志 says, "Sangqiu was within the borders of Suicheng County in Yizhou." And the Commentary on the Water Classic says, "Sanzang was a city in Sanzhong County, southeast of Puwu County in Changshan. It was said to have been built by Shi Le." The 續漢志 says, "Yangcheng is in Puyin County in Changshan." Later on in this chapter, it mentions that Liu Guo lead troops from Fanyang to join with Shi Kun to attack Ran Min. This Yangcheng must be the same place as that Fanyang.
General Who Establishes Virtue was also an office created by Later Zhao. In addition to the earlier general ranks (that is, General Who Xs the Direction) of Conquers, Guards, Maintains, and Pacifies, Later Zhao also had the rank of Calms.
2. Wang Lang and Ma Qiu marched from Chang'an to Luoyang. When Ma Qiu received Shi Min’s order regarding the tribesmen, he executed over a thousand of them that were in Wang Lang’s division. Wang Lang fled to Xiangguo.
Ma Qiu led his soldiers towards Ye, but Pu Hong's son, the Dragon-Soaring General Pu Xiong, marched to meet him and attacked him. Ma Qiu was captured, and appointed as Pu Hong’s General Who Directs The Army.
3. The Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, marched along with Zhang Ju and Wang Lang, leading seventy thousand soldiers to attack Ye. Grand General Shi Min marched out at the head of over a thousand cavalry to offer battle north of the city. Shi Min grasped his double-edged spear, rode into the fray and attacked, breaking through in every direction, and taking three thousand heads. Shi Kun and the others were greatly defeated and retreated. Shi Min and Li Nong then led thirty thousand cavalry to attack Zhang Hedu at the Shidu weir.
4. In the intercalary month, Shi Jian secretly sent a eunuch to order Zhang Chen and others to attack Ye now that Shi Min was out of the city. But the eunuch instead went and informed Shi Min and Li Nong of the plot. Shi Min and Li Nong rode back, deposed Shi Jian and then killed him. They then killed Shi Hu's thirty eight grandsons, and wiped out the Shi clan.
The 考異 says, "According to the Imperial Record, this event was in the intercalary month. The Thirty Kingdoms and the Jin Annals both say that the intercalary month was the first month of that year. According to the 長曆, the intercalary month was the second month of the year. The Imperial Record says that this intercalary month had the days Dingchou and Jichou. Since the first month of the year begins on the new moon, if the intercalary month had been the first month of the year, it would not have had the days Dingchou and Jichou. So the account of the 長曆 must be correct."
Two of Yao Yizhong's sons who were still in Ye, the General Who Illuminates Valor Yao Yi and the General of 武衛 Yao Ruo, led several thousand troops to break through the gates and flee to Shetou. Yao Yizhong led his troops to attack Shi Min, and his army waited at Hunqiao.
The ranks General of 曜武 and General of 曜威 were creations of the Shi clan.
5. Zhao's Minister Over The Masses Shen Zhong and others wished for Shi Min to assume the throne. Shi Min offered Li Nong in his place, but Li Nong declined. Shi Min said, "I am a man of Jin, and the Jin dynasty yet exists. Should I not divide the land between the lords, each assuming their titles of Governor, Administrator, Duke, and Marquis, and welcome the Son of Heaven to return to his seat in Luoyang? What say you?"
The Master of Writing Hu Mujin replied, "Heaven approves of Your Majesty's saintly virtue, and you ought to rise to the throne. The Jin royal family has declined, and they have scurried far away across the Yangzi. How can they compare with a noble hero such as yourself, one able to bring order to chaos and pacify all within the four seas?"
Shi Min said, "Perhaps what Minister Hu has spoken is the will of Heaven made known." He therefore assumed the imperial throne, proclaiming a general amnesty. He changed the reign year to Yongxing, and renamed the state to 魏 Wei.
6. When the Jin court learned of the further chaos in Zhao, plans were laid for another expedition. On the day Jichou, the Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, was named as General of the Center and granted the Imperial Staff of Power, with authority over Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou affairs. Pu Hong was appointed King of the Di, Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General Who Conquers The North, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow River, Inspector of Jizhou, and Duke of Guangchuan. His son Pu Jian was offered the ranks of Credential Holder, General of the Left, command of the vanguard of expeditionary forces north of the Yellow river, and Duke of Xiangguo.
7. Yao Yizhong and Pu Hong both had ambitions of seizing control of Guanyou. Yao Yizhong sent his son Yao Xiang with an army of fifty thousand to attack Pu Hong. Pu Hong met him in battle and defeated him, killing or capturing more than thirty thousand.
Pu Hong then declared himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of the Three Qins. It was at this time that he changed the surname of his clan to Fu. Among his followers, Lei Ruo’er of Nan'an was appointed General Who Upholds The State, Liang Luo of Anding was appointed General of the Front and acting Chief Clerk of the Left, Yu Zun of Fengyi was appointed General of the Right and acting Chief Clerk of the Right, Duan Ling of Jingzhao was appointed as General of the Left and acting Marshal of the Left, Wang Duo was appointed General of the Right and acting Marshal of the Right, Zhao Ju of Tianshui, Niu Yi of Longxi, and Xin Lao of Beidi were all appointed as Assistant Palace Attendants, and the Di chieftain Mao Gui was appointed Chanyu Chancellor.
8. In the second month, Murong Jun sent Murong Ba with an army of twenty thousand to march along the eastern road from Tuhe, while he sent Muyu Yu to march along the western road from Yewengsai, and he himself marched along the central road from Lulongsai. All these movements were part of Yan's invasion of Zhao. Murong Ke and Xianyu Liang lead the army's vanguard, while Muyu Ni held the mountain passes. Murong Jun left his son Murong Ye to guard Longcheng, his Interior Minister Liu Bin was entrusted with the office of Minister of Finance, while his Prefect of the Directors of Writing Huangfu Zhen was left to manage rear affairs.
Du You says, "Lulongsai was two hundred li northwest of Pingzhou City."
9. When Murong Ba's army reached the Three Passes near Anle, Zhao's General Who Conquers The East, Deng Heng, panicked and burned the city warehouses before abandoning Anle's defenses and fleeing. He went to jointly guard Ji along with the Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Wu. The Colonel of the South at Tuhe, Sun Yong, quickly entered Anle, extinguished the remaining flames, and gathered up the grain. Murong Ba conscripted troops and grain from Anle and Beiping before joining up with Murong Jun at Linqu.
Anle was east of Liaoyang County in Liaoxi. According to the "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei, "Haiyang County has Mount Heng, which contains the Three Passes."
Linqu was on the banks of the Gou Canal. The Gou River flows east out of the western mountains in Wuzhong County in Beiping. From there it flows southeast until it reaches Yongnu County, where it enters the Baoqiu River. When Cao Cao was campaigning against Tadun, he carved a canal from Goukou, to provide the people of Yongnu and Quanzhou access to the rivers and sea.
10. In the third month, the Yan soldiers reached Wuzhong. Wang Wu left his subordinate officer Wang Tuo with a thousand men to continue guarding Ji, while he and Deng Heng marched to defend Lukou. On the day Yisi, Murong Jun took Ji; he captured Wang Tuo and executed him.
Murong Jun also wished to bury alive a thousand soldiers, but Murong Ba remonstrated, saying, "You led your army to attack Zhao because of the state’s great cruelty, and in order to save the people from their misery and bring comfort to the central provinces. Now if you bury alive these soldiers after we have only just taken Ji, I fear it will do much to harm your reputation." Murong Jun therefore decided against it.
Murong Jun shifted his capital forward to Ji, and the men and women of the central provinces successively went over to his side.
When the Yan soldiers reached Fanyang, the Administrator of Fanyang, Li Chan, wished to oppose Yan on behalf of the Shi clan, but none of the people would support him, so he presented himself along with eight other city officials to surrender. Murong Jun confirmed his current post as Administrator.
産子績爲幽州別駕，弃其家從王午在魯口。鄧恒謂午曰：“績鄉里在北，父已降燕，今雖在此，恐終難相保，徒爲人累，不如去之。”午曰：“此何言也！夫以當今喪 亂，而績乃能立義捐家，情節之重，雖古烈士無以過，乃欲以猜嫌害之？燕、趙之士聞之，謂我直相聚爲賊，了無意識。衆情一散，不可複集，此爲坐自屠潰也。” 恒乃止。午猶慮諸將不與己同心，或致非意，乃遣績歸。績始辭午往見燕王俊，俊讓之曰：“卿不識天命，弃父邀名，今日乃始來邪！”對曰：“臣眷戀舊主，志存微節，官身所在，何事非君！殿下方以義取天下，臣未謂得見之晚也。”俊悅，善待之。
11. Li Chan's son Li Ji was appointed as Yan's Attendant Officer of Youzhou. However, he fled with his family to Wang Wu at Lukou.
Deng Heng said to Wang Wu, "Li Ji's hometown (Fanyang) is in the north, and his father has already surrendered to Yan. Although he is here now, I fear that he will not be able to endure his conflicting loyalties. Rather than force him to stay here, it would be better to do away with him."
Wang Wu replied, "What nonsense is this? Li Ji came here because of the current civil strife, and he is able to uphold justice and support his family. Under such important circumstances, even if he were a hero of old, he would never do such a transgression. How can you second-guess him and try to harm his good name with these suspicions? If the people of Yan and Zhao hear of it, they will say that we have assembled together only to become rebels, and begin to believe it without thinking about it. They will all disperse, and we shall never be able to gather them together again. It would be a self-inflicted defeat." So Deng Heng ceased urging him.
However, Wang Wu still felt that the other generals did not agree with him. Worried that they would demand that he kill Li Ji, he eventually sent Li Ji away.
When Li Ji first came to meet with Murong Jun, Murong Jun said to him, "You have not heeded Heaven's command, since you abandoned your father to chase after reputation. Only now have you come to see me!"
Li Ji replied, "I was nostalgic for my old master, and in my slight sentiment I wished to go back. But I am here now, and what will I not do for you? Your Highness's side wishes to obtain the realm through justice, so I cannot say that I have seen you too late."
Murong Jun was happy with this response, and he treated Li Ji well.
12. Murong Jun appointed his younger brother Murong Yi as City Chief of Daijun, and appointed Sun Yong as Administrator of Guangning, as well as appointing other 守宰s in the commandaries and counties of Youzhou.
This was the same Daijun as under Qin and Han times, but not the same one as under Wei. This Daijun was administered from Dai, while Wei's Daijun was what had been known as Pingcheng under Qin and Han.
城郎 and 城大 were Xianbei titles, which designated the commanders of the inner and outer walls of a city. 郎 means chief.
13. On the day Jiazi, Murong Jun sent the 中部俟厘 Muyu Ju to take charge of affairs in Ji, while he himself went to attack Deng Heng at Lukou. When the army reached Qingliang, Deng Heng's general Lubo Zao launched a night attack on the Yan camp with several thousand men. When half of them had already entered the camp, suddenly Murong Ba appeared before them, and once the ambush had been sprung, Murong Ba launched a general attack. He personally killed more than ten men, and Lubo Zao was unable to advance thanks to the Yan army’s discipline.
Murong Jun said to Muyu Gen, "The enemy’s vanguard is keen; perhaps we should fall back." Muyu Gen with a stern countenance replied, "Our numbers are few, and our strength cannot match the enemy; if their remnants attack at night, Ji may be lost. But if we treat the bandits as bandits, and boldly assume the attack, what need will there be for further doubt? You should remain at ease, while we ministers crush them on your behalf!" Murong Jun could not calm his anxiety, so his Interior Minister Li Hong led him away from the camp, to wait at Gaozhong.
Muyu Gen lead those around him, several hundred braves, from Zhongya (where he had been speaking with Murong Jun) to attack Lubu Zao head-on, while Li Hong led cavalry to return and assist him, and Lubu Zao at last retreated. The army pursued him for over forty li, and only Lubu Zao escaped, while his remaining soldiers perished. Murong Jun led the army back to Ji.
Murong Jun's return to Ji must have been because of the keenness of Lubo Zao's attack, or else he would have pressed on to attack Lukou.
14. Shi Min changed his clan's surname to their former one, Ran. He honored his mother Lady Wang as Empress Dowager, and elevated his wife Lady Dong as Empress, while appointing his eldest son Ran Zhi as crown prince and his other sons Ran Yin and Ran Mingyu as princes. Li Nong was appointed as Grand Governor, acting Grand Commandant, and given command over the imperial secretariat. He was ennobled as Prince of Qi, and his sons were all named Dukes.
Ran Min dispatched many envoys with staffs of authority, offering pardons to the remaining regional army commanders, but they all refused the offer.
15. Ma Qiu said to Fu Hong, "Ran Min and Shi Zhi are battling for contention, so the Central Plains cannot yet be settled. It would be better to first take Guanzhong. Having established that as a base, then you may march east, and all the realm can be claimed. Who can oppose you?" Fu Hong deeply agreed with this.
Subsequently, Ma Qiu poisoned Fu Hong at a feast, for he wished to seize control of Fu Hong’s army. Fu Hong's son Fu Jiàn arrested Ma Qiu and executed him.
In order to differentiate 苻健 Fu Jian from his more famous nephew 苻堅 Fu Jian, the former’s name will be written as Jiàn, while the latter will be Jian.
Fu Hong said to Fu Jiàn, "I had wished to enter Guanzhong, and by doing so to pacify the Central Provinces. Now I must pass my burdens onto my sons. You and your brothers will not be able to manage the Central Provinces. Once I die, you must enter Guanzhong!" Having said this, he soon passed away.
Fu Jiàn assumed command over the army, but he did away with his father’s claims to the ranks of Grand Commander, Grand General, or Prince of the Three Qins. Instead, he pledged himself a Jin vassal, and sent his uncle Fu An to inform the Jin court of his mourning and to ask for their commands.
16. Zhao's Prince of Xinxing, Shi Zhi, proclaimed himself the Zhao Emperor at Xiangguo, and changed the reign year to Yongshou. He appointed the Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, as his Chancellor, and the various warlord commanders all inclined towards him.
Shi Zhi offered Yao Yizhong the ranks of Prime Minister of the Right and Prince Friendly to Zhao, and treated him well by sending him gifts.
Yao Yizhong's fifth son Yao Xiang, a bold and heroic man of many talents and tricks, enjoyed the favor of the gentry and the people. They asked Yao Yizhong to make Yao Xiang his heir, but because he was not Yao Yizhong’s eldest son, Yao did not consent. But after receiving over a thousand such supplicants in a day, Yao Yizhong at last placed Yao Xiang in command of his army. Shi Zhi named Yao Xiang as General of Cavalry, Inspector of Yuzhou, and Duke of Xinchang. He also offered to place Fu Jiàn in command of all military affairs south of the Yellow River, along with the ranks of Grand General Who Guards The South, with authority the Three Excellencies, Governor of Yanzhou, and Duke of Lüeyang.
The 考異 says, "According to the 'Records of the Jin Emperors', Shi Zhi claimed the throne in the intercalary month. The Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both say it was in the third month. According to the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, when Shi Zhi became Emperor, he offered ranks to Yao Yizhong and to Fu Jiàn, and it does not mention Fu Hong. Since Fu Hong died in the third month, that must have been the month when Shi Zhi claimed the throne.”
In summer, the fourth month, Shi Zhi sent Shi Kun with an army of a hundred thousand to attack Ran Min’s newly-declared Wei dynasty.
17. Ran Min killed Li Nong and his three sons, along with the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Wang Mo, the Palace Attendant Wang Yan, the Regular Attendant Yan Zhen, and Zhao Sheng.
Ran Min sent messengers to the bank of the Yangzi, to report to the Jin court, "I have already punished the barbarians who brought chaos to the Central Plains. If we can campaign together against them, you may send an army here." But the Jin court did not follow this suggestion.
18. In the fifth month, the Administrator of Lujiang, Yuan Zhen, successfully took Wei's Hefei, capturing many of the inhabitants before returning.
19. In the sixth month, Shi Kun advanced and captured Handan, and the General Who Guards The South Liu Guo marched from Fanyang to meet him. Wei's Guard General Wang Tai attacked Shi Kun, inflicting a great defeat; over ten thousand died. Liu Guo retreated to Fanyang.
20. It was earlier mentioned that Duan Lan’s soldiers had been stationed at Lingzhi by Shi Hu. His son Duan Kan had inherited the soldiers under his command. Now, because of the chaos within the Shi clan, Duan Kan abandoned his post and led the soldiers he commanded south. In autumn, the seventh month, Duan Kan led them to capture Guanggu (in Qingzhou), where he declared himself the Prince of Qi.
21. In the eighth month, a man from Daijun named Zhao Ke led over three hundred households in rebellion against Yan, going over to Zhao's Inspector of Bingzhou Zhang Ping. Murong Jun relocated the peoples of the two commandaries Guangning and Shanggu to Xuwu, and relocated the remaining people of Daijun to Fancheng (to stave off future rebellions).
22. When Wang Lang had left Chang'an, his Marshal, Du Hong of Jingzhao, had seized control of Chang'an, and proclaimed himself as Jin's General Who Conquers The North and Inspector of Yongzhou, appointing Zhang Ju of Fengyi as his own Marshal. The peoples of Guanxi, both Han and tribal, submitted to him.
Fu Jiàn wished to capture Guanzhong, but fearing that Du Hong would learn of it, he accepted the Zhao offices (that Shi Zhi had offered). Zhao Ju was named as Administrator of Henei, and garrisoned at Wen; Niu Yi was named as General Who Gathers Peace, and garrisoned Huai. Fu Jiàn built a palace at Fangtou, charged the people to begin planting crops, and displayed no intentions of designs on the west. If anyone who knew about the campaign thus refused to plant crops, Fu Jiàn killed them.
After some time had passed in this fashion, he proclaimed himself as Jin's General Who Conquers The West, in charge of all Guanzhong affairs, and Inspector of Yongzhou. He further appointed Jia Xuanshuo of Wuwei as Chief Clerk of the Left, Liang An of Luoyang as Chief Clerk, Duan Chun as Marshal of the Left, Xin Lao as Marshal of the Right, and Wang Yu of Jingzhao, Cheng Gong of Anding, and Hu Wen and others as Libationers Who Consult The Army, and prepared his army to march west.
Yu Zun was appointed to lead the vanguard, and the army marched to Meng Ford, planning to cross the Yellow River at Fuliang county. Fu Jiàn sent his younger brother, the General Who Upholds The State Fu Xiong, with five thousand troops to attack Tong Gate, while he sent his nephew, the General Who Displays Valor Fu Jing, with seven thousand troops to attack Zhi Gate. When they were parting on the river bank, he took Fu Jing's hand and said, "If this affair does not succeed, you shall die north of the river while I shall die south of it, and we will never see one another again."
After crossing the river, he burned the bridge, and personally lead the bulk of the army to follow after Fu Xiong.
23. When Du Hong learned of the matter, he wrote to Fu Jiàn sending insulting messages. He appointed Zhang Ju's younger brother Zhang Xian as General Who Conquers the Caitiffs, and Zhang Xian led an army of thirteen thousand men to battle north of Tong Gate. Zhang Xian's army suffered a great defeat, and he retreated back to Chang'an. Du Hong began drafting the people of Guanzhong in order to oppose Fu Jiàn.
Du Hong's younger brother Du Yu urged Du Hong to face Fu Jiàn in battle, but Du Hong refused. Du Yu led his subordinates to surrender to Fu Jiàn.
24. Fu Jiàn sent Fu Xiong to subdue the territories north of the Wei river. The Di chieftain Mao Shou guarded Gaoling, Xu Cuo guarded Haozhi, and the Qiang chieftain Bai Du guarded Huangbai; each of them commanded tens of thousands. All of them executed Du Hong's messengers and sent their sons to offer submission to Fu Jiàn. In all of the cities and towns that Fu Jing and Yu Zun passed through, there were none that did not submit to them. Du Hong, in fear, held fast to defending Chang'an.
25. Zhang Hedu, Duan Qin, Liu Guo, and Jin Tun assembled at Changcheng, planning to attack Ye. Ran Min himself marched out to attack them; they fought at Cangting, where Zhang Hedu and the others were greatly defeated, with twenty-eight thousand killed, and Jin Tun was killed during the pursuit while fleeing to Yin'an. The others gathered their remaining soldiers and returned as well.
Ran Min now commanded an army of over three hundred thousand, with the drums and banners extending for a hundred li. Even the Shi clan at its zenith could not compare with this.
26. Jin’s former 散騎常侍, Xin Mi of Longxi, was held in great esteem. During the rise and fall of both the Liu and the Shi clans (of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao), he had refused all offers of office.
Ran Min sent him gifts and offered to employ him as Minister of Ceremonies. Xin Mi sent Ran Min back a response stating, "Excesses go against rules, and to go too far invites danger. Your achievement is already accomplished. To properly honor it, you should submit yourself to the Jin court. As for me, I must keep to the simplicity of Xu You and Boyi, and enjoy the immortality of Master Red Pine and Prince Qiao." Because of that, he starved himself and passed away.
Xu You was a hermit living during great antiquity. Emperor Yao greatly admired him, and offered to give him the throne, but Xu You declined.
Boyi refers to the brothers Boyi and Shuqi, who lived together under the rule of King Wu of Zhou. When King Wu marched out to depose the last king of Shang and replace Shang with the Zhou dynasty, the brothers criticized him for his lack of filial piety and loyalty. After the Zhou dynasty became a fact, the brothers refused to eat "the grain of Zhou", and so starved themselves to death.
Master Red Pine and Ji Jin (also known as Prince Qiao) were Daoist sages who were said to have achieved immortality. Master Red Pine devised a method to grant himself eternal life, while Ji Jin was said to have ascended to Heaven on the back of a crane.
27. In the ninth month, Murong Jun was subduing the territory of Jizhou; he captured Zhangwu and Hejian.
When Jia Jian of Bohai had been a youth, he had displayed much moral courage and integrity, and so Zhao appointed him as 殿中督. Now that Zhao had collapsed into turmoil, Jia Jian fled from Ran Min to return to his home territory, where he gathered together several thousand families. When Murong Ping was subduing Bohai, he sent notice to Jia Jian asking for his surrender, but Jia Jian would not accept. Murong Ping fought him in battle, and captured him. Murong Jun appointed Murong Ping as Administrator of Zhangwu, and Feng Yi as Administrator of Hejian.
Murong Jun and Murong Ke both admired Jia Jian. At this time, Jia Jian was already over sixty-five. Murong Ke heard that Jia Jian was an excellent shot, so he placed a bull at a hundred paces from them and asked Jia to prove his mettle. Jia Jian said, "When I was younger, sometimes I would miss. But now that I am old, I never miss." So he shot an arrow, and then another. The first shot went over the bull, just brushing against its spine; the second shot went under it, just grazing its belly. Both of the arrows had touched the skin and even sliced off a few hairs, as though they had been the same arrow. Everyone who was watching it felt that he was a remarkable talent. Murong Jun made Jia Jian the Administrator of Leling, to govern Gaocheng.
28. Fu Jing fought Zhang Xian north of the Wei river, and captured him. The commanders of the fortified places within the Three Regions (around Chang’an) all went over to him.
In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jiàn's cavalry arrived at Chang'an. Du Hong and Zhang Ju fled to Sizhu.
29. Murong Jun returned to Ji, where he left his generals to manage the territory; he then further returned to Longcheng, where he paid respects at his ancestral temple.
30. In the eleventh month, Ran Min led a hundred thousand cavalry to attack Xiangguo.
Ran Min appointed his son, the Prince of Taiyuan, Ran Yin, as Grand Chanyu and Grand General of Agile Cavalry, with a retinue of a thousand tribesmen who had surrendered. The Household Counsellor Wei Xiao remonstrated, saying, "We have gained the hatred of the barbarians (presumably because of Ran Min’s execution order), and although these ones come claiming to have submitted and to heed our orders, if anything should change, it will be too late for regrets! It would be better to execute the surrendered barbarians and discard the title of Chanyu, in order to wipe away their memory."
Ran Min wished to win over the various tribal groups, and he received this advice in a great fury. He executed Wei Xiao and his son Wei Boyang.
31. On the day Jiawu, Fu Jiàn entered Chang'an. Since the people's hearts still inclined towards Jin, he sent his Army Advisor Du Shanbo to Jiankang to report his triumph and ingratiate himself with Huan Wen. The peoples of Qin and Yong, both Han and tribal, all submitted to him. Only Zhao's Inspector of Liangzhou, Shi Ning, held out against him at Shanggui. In the twelfth month, Fu Xiong attacked Shi Ning and killed him.
蔡謨除司徒，三年不就職；詔書屢下，太后遣使諭意，謨終不受。于是帝臨軒，遣侍中紀據、黃門郎丁纂征謨；謨陳疾篤，使主簿謝攸陳讓。自旦至申，使者十餘返， 而謨不至。時帝方八歲，甚倦，問左右曰：“所召人何以至今不來？臨軒何時當竟？”太后以君臣俱疲，乃詔：“必不來者，宜罷朝。”中軍將軍殷浩奏免吏部尚書 江虨官。 會稽王昱令曹曰：“蔡公傲違上命，無人臣之禮。若人主卑屈于上，大義不行于下，亦不知所以爲政矣。”公卿乃奏：“謨悖慢傲上，罪同不臣，請送廷尉以正刑 書。”謨懼，帥子弟素服詣闕稽顙，自到廷尉待罪。殷浩欲加謨大辟。會徐州刺史荀羨入朝，浩以問羨，羨曰：“蔡公今日事危，明日必有桓、文之舉。”浩乃止。 下詔免謨爲庶人。
32. Cai Mo had declined the appointment as Minister Over The Masses, and for three years had refused to take office. Several edicts were sent commanding him to do so, and the Empress even sent messengers to instruct him to, but Cai Mo never accepted. After Emperor Mu formally rose to the throne, he sent the Palace Attendant Ji Ju and the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Ding Zuan, to order Cai Mo. Cai Mo pleaded illness, and sent the Registrar Xie You to decline on his behalf. From dawn until 申, messengers were sent more than ten times, but Cai Mo still refused to come.
At that time, Emperor Mu was eight years old, and so he became tired of the refusals. He asked those with him, "How is it that I summon someone and yet he does not come? Have I not ascended to the throne?" The Empress and the court ministers were exhausted, so they ordered, "If someone will not come to court, they must be expelled from it." The General of the Central Army, Yin Hao, sent a memorial to the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Jiang Bin, asking that Cai Mo be dismissed from office. The Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, ordered that, "Duke Cai has arrogantly refused his superior's command, and has not conducted himself as a man or minister. If he will not bow to his lord's commands, then justice will not move forward, and he will not know how to govern affairs." The ministers also sent in a petition: "Cai Mo has been slow to respond and haughty to his superior. This is a crime unbecoming of a minister. We ask that he be handed over to the Minister of Justice for his punishment."
Cai Mo was afraid, and he led his sons and younger brothers to present themselves to kowtow and admit their faults, and then turned himself over to the Minister of Justice to admit to his crime. Yin Hao wished to have Cai Mo executed. Just then, the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, entered the court. Yin Hao asked him for his opinion. Xun Xian said, "Since Duke Cai is in danger today, tomorrow he will lead the soldiers and so certainly achieve the feats of Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin." So Yin Hao ceased arguing for the death sentence. The Emperor ordered Cai Mo demoted to commoner status.
Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10
Posted: Thu Mar 09, 2017 8:53 pm
346: The year of the Lubo championship
2. 以社稷為己任 = he took the wellbeing of the state as his personal responsibility
所選用皆以功效 = He appointed (選用 = select for employment) people solely based on their efficacy
不私親舊 = and did not give privileges to those who were close to him (親舊 = those close to him and those who’ve been his people for a long time).
3. 俊居中指授，軍事皆以任恪 = Murong Jun coordinated things from the centre, while letting Murong Ke implement actual military manouevers.
謂所親曰 = saying to his close associates
「古人有釋衰絰從王者，以其才足干時故也。如和者，正足以虧孝道、傷風俗耳。」= “There were cases in ancient times when a person would take off his mourning clothes to follow a lord, but that was because his talents were so great that he could change the world. But as for someone like me, if I did the same, it would only serve to diminish the way of filial piety and offend tradition.”
識者美之 = Those who knew him praised him.
屬當厄運，危弊理極 = Being in this time of great misfortune, where dangers and corruptions are at their utmost
苟遂本懷，吾恐天下之事於此去矣。= If you only follow your own desires, I fear that all hopes for the world will be gone.
足下去就，即時之廢興，則家國不異 = Your decision to come or stay will decide whether the realm will perish or rise. You must treat the nation as your own family.
8. 惡 = dislike
朝覲以目相顧，不必復相過從談語。= When they met during court assembly, they only exchanged looks, and did not converse when passing by each other again.
9. “In our discussing the general to send”: not sure about this wording. How about “these days, when people recommend commanders, they tend to recommend those of long service”
非舊德也 = Not because of his past accomplishments
蓋明主之舉，舉無常人，才之所堪，則授以大事。 = When a sage lord appoints people, he does not follow set guidelines; but whoever’s talents are up to the task, he is entrusted with important responsibilities.
破趙以報: I think the 以報 part means to repay the honour (of being consulted)
10. 皆義士也 = They are both righteous people. (referring to both the guys who committed suicide)
11. 嘉寧 = Jianing (no apostrophe needed)
多居禁中 = He spent most of his time in his palace
佈滿山谷十餘萬落: This sounds incredible but literally it says there were hundreds of thousands of tribes (or settlements) in the mountains
12. 以為不可 = think it was not advisable (not impossible)
夫經略大事，固非常情所及 = When one organizes great ventures, he must rise beyond the common sentiments/ideas.
智者了於胸中，不必待眾言皆合也。= A wise man knows the course of action in his own heart, and does not need to wait for a consensus.
今為天下之患者，胡、蜀二寇而已。= Those who plague the realm are only the barbarians and the Shu.
將欲除之，宜先其易者 = If we want to be rid of them, we should first take out the easier target.
且恃其險遠，不修戰備 = Furthermore, he considers his land treacherous and far away, and thus he has not prepared for battle.
宜以精卒萬人輕繼疾趨 = We should send 10,000 crack troops to march swiftly and lightly
此似是而非 = This seems reasonable, but it’s not.
14. 不必得則不為 = He does not do anything if he is not certain of success
Posted: Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:53 pm
The Seventh Year of Yonghe (The Xinhai Year, 351 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, on the day Dingyou, there was an eclipse.
2. Fu Jiàn's Chief Clerk of the Left, Jia Xuanshuo, and others petitioned him that, in accordance with the precedent set when Liu Bei declared himself Prince of Hanzhong, Fu Jiàn himself should assume the titles of chief of Guanzhong affairs, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Qin (and that these should be titles declared under Jin authority). Fu Jiàn angrily replied, "How can I presume to declare myself Prince of Qin? Our envoy to the Jin court has not yet returned, so you have no way of knowing which ranks they have entitled me to."
Liu Bei had declared himself Prince of Hanzhong, under nominal Han authority, shortly after he captured that region from Cao Cao in 218.
But Fu Jiàn then secretly sent Liang An to incite Jia Xianshuo and the others to ask him to assume the imperial title instead. Although Fu Jiàn feigned three times his wish to decline the title, in the end he accepted them.
On the day Bingchen, Fu Jiàn declared himself as Heavenly Prince and Grand Chanyu; he declared the foundation of a state named Qin, and proclaimed a general amnesty. The reign year was changed to Huangshi.
He honored his late father Fu Hong as Emperor Wuhui, with the temple name Taizu. Fu Jiàn set up his wife Lady Qiang as Heavenly Princess, and named his son Fu Chang as crown prince. Among his other sons, Fu Jing was named Duke of Taiyuan, Fu Sheng was named Duke of Huainan, Fu Di was named Duke of Changle, Fu Fang was named Duke of Gaoyang, Fu Shuo was named Duke of Beiping, Fu Teng was named Duke of Huaiyang, Fu Liu was named Duke of Jin, Fu Tong was named Duke of Runan, Fu Sou was named Duke of Wei, Fu Wu was named Duke of Yan, and Fu You was named Duke of Zhao. His brother Fu Xiong was tasked with command of all military affairs, and named as Prime Minister, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Governor of Yongzhou, and Duke of Donghai. His nephew Fu Jing was appointed as Grand Guard General and Duke of Xiping, and Guardian of the Two Palaces (Fu Jiàn’s palace and Fu Chang’s palace). Lei Ruo’er was appointed as Grand Commandant, Mao Gui was appointed Minister of Works, Jiang Bozhou of Lüeyang was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Leng was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, Wang Duo was named Deputy Director of the Right, Yu Zun was entrusted as the crown prince's Grand Instructor, Qiang Ping was appointed as Grand Tutor, Duan Chun was named Grand Guardian, and Lü Polou was named 散騎常侍. Jiang Bozhou was Fu Jiàn's uncle on his mother's side, while Qiang Ping was Fu Jiàn's brother-in-law. Lü Polou had originally been a Di chieftain from Lüeyang.
The warlord Duan Kan, who ruled the city Guanggu in Qingzhou, requested from Jin the rank of 内附 of Qingzhou. In the second month, on the day Wuyin, he was appointed as Jin’s General Who Guards The North, with the title Duke of Qi.
3. Ran Min marched against Xiangguo, and besieged it for more than a hundred days. Shi Zhi, under extreme duress, resigned his title as Emperor and claimed only to be King of Zhao. He also sent his Grand Commandant Zhang Ju to beg for an army from Yan, offering to give them the Imperial Seal. His General of the Center Army, Zhang Chun, was also sent to beg for an army from Yao Yizhong. Yao sent his son Yao Xiang with twenty-eight thousand cavalry to ride to Xiangguo's relief.
Before Yao Xiang’s departure, Yao Yizhong said to his son, "Ran Min has thrown away virtue and cast off justice, wiping out the Shi clan. Because of the favor I have received from them, I must have vengeance against him, but old and infirm as I am, I cannot go myself. You are ten times as talented as Ran Min; if you do not capture him, do not show your face here again!"
Yao Yizhong also sent word to Yan, and Murong Jun dispatched his General Who Overcomes Difficulties Yue Wan with thirty thousand men to link up with him.
General Who Overcomes Difficulties was a title created by the Murong clan.
4. When Ran Min heard that Murong Jun was sending aid to Shi Zhi, he dispatched his Assistant 中郎 to the Grand Marshal, Chang Wei of Guangning, to Yan as his envoy. Murong Jun sent Feng Yu to say to Chang Wei, "Ran Min was raised by the Shi clan, and received their beneficence. How dare he overthrow them and proclaim his own state?"
Chang Wei said, "When Tang of Shang overthrew Jie of Xia, and King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, these were for the cause of founding the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Although Cao Mengde was raised by the palace officials of Han, who knew that after he grew up, he would provide the foundation for Wei? How can anyone achieve success if he goes against Heaven’s mandate? The overthrow being already a fact, what use is there to question it?"
Tang of Shang was a vassal of Jie of Xia, the last king of the mythic Xia dynasty. Because of Jie’s faults, Tang overthrew him and established the Shang dynasty.
Feng Yi said, "People say that when Ran Min first rose to the throne, he had cast a golden image, and had it divine whether he would succeed or fail, but the image said he would not succeed. Is it true?"
Chang Wei replied, “I have heard nothing of the sort.”
Feng Yi said, “Everyone coming from the south has reported the same thing. Why hide it?”
Chang Wei replied, “These are lies and slander, perpetrated by those evil ones who wish to besmirch Heaven's chosen, so they make much of reading fortunes or casting lots in the turtle shell. The Lord of Wei grasps the Imperial Seal, and controls the Central Provinces. Can there be any question that he has received the Mandate? But they wish to turn the truth into a lie, and say that he relies upon some golden image!”
The Imperial Seal was a symbol of the Emperor’s right to rule. It was carved from a precious jade by Qin Shihuang. After the fall of Qin, it had passed to Han, and during the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao took it from the upstart emperor Yuan Shu. The Seal had passed from Wei to Jin, and then first Han-Zhao and then Later Zhao had claimed it in turn when they captured Luoyang.
Feng Yi asked, "And where is the Imperial Seal now?"
Chang Wei said, "At Ye."
Feng Yi said, "Zhang Ju says it is at Xiangguo."
Chang Wei replied, "On the day the barbarians were killed, almost none of them survived in Ye. If any of them did escape the slaughter, it was only through hiding in some ditch or drain somewhere. How could any of them know where the Seal was? This fellow coming here to ask for your assistance is only spinning a wild tale. He cannot offer you anything at all, much less the Seal!"
5. Murong Jun still chose to believe Zhang Ju's claims. To intimidate Chang Wei, he began to gather up firewood beside him, and he sent Feng Yu to secretly remonstrate with him. Feng Yu said to him, "Master Chang, you ought to reconsider, lest you be engulfed by the flames."
Chang Wei sternly replied, "The Shi clan was wild and cruel, and Shi Hu personally led a grand army to attack Yan's own capital. Although he was unsuccessful then and had to retreat, he always held the ambition to conquer Yan. Countless stockpiles of grain, weapons, and soldiers were gathered in the northeast, all for the sake of this dream of conquest. Now the lord of Wei has snuffed out the Shi clan. Although it was not for the sake of Yan, I believe that by doing so, he has purged the source for the old feelings of enmity and resentment. Is this not just? Nor is it strange that he has entrusted me with this task!
"I have heard that when a man dies, though his flesh and bones are cast into the earth, even so his soul ascends to Heaven. Now my lord has already shown me his favor. So be quick to fetch the firewood for my pyre, and send someone to appeal to the Emperor!"
Those around Murong Jun asked for Chang Wei to be executed. But Murong Jun said, "He does not fear even to be killed and buried for the sake of his lord. What a loyal minister! So long as Ran Min's crime goes unpunished, how can I send such a man to his death before him?" So he sent Chang Wei away, putting him up in lodging for the night.
That night, Murong Jun sent a certain Zhao Zhan, who was from the same county as Chang Wei, to try to persuade him. Zhao Zhan said to Chang Wei, "Won't you listen to honest words? The Prince is angry at you, and he is considering exiling you to distant Liao and Jie. What do you think of that?"
Liao and Jie were regions in the far northeast.
Chang Wei replied, "Then I shall shave off my hair and depart. I will take no heed even of the commoners, much less rulers of men! I am not the sort of man who will allow his nature to be perverted. My word is honest and true, and they will not change that though they throw me in the eastern sea!" Having said his piece, Chang Wei reclined against the wall, and refused to say anything further to Zhao Zhan.
Zhao Zhan went to report the matter to Murong Jun. He put Chang Wei in prison at Longcheng.
6. Zhao's Inspector of Bingzhou, Zhang Ping, sent word of submission to Qin. Fu Jiàn appointed him as Grand General and Governor of Jizhou.
7. Murong Jun returned to Ji.
8. In the third month, Yao Xiang and Zhao's Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, jointly marched to Xiangguo's relief. Ran Min sent his General of Chariots and Cavalry, Hu Mu, to fight Yao Xiang at Zhanglu, while his general Sun Wei went to battle Shi Kun at Huangqiu. Both of Ran Min’s generals were defeated and fled, with great loss of life.
9. Since his subordinates had been defeated, Ran Min wished to go attack Yao Xiang and Shi Kun himself, but his Guard General Wang Tai remonstrated, saying, "Xiangguo has not yet fallen. Now these forces have come to relieve it. If we march to fight them, we will expose our rear to the enemy still inside Xiangguo, and there is a chance of danger. It would be better to hold fast to our defenses here, settle this matter first, and then turn to face them. If Your Majesty marches out personally, then if there is any defeat, the whole campaign may be lost."
Ran Min was about to agree to this, when the Daoist Fa Rao stepped forward and said, "Your Majesty has held Xiangguo under siege since last year, but we are no closer to success. Now the rebels have arrived, and if you do not go to fight them, who will be willing to fight hereafter? Venus is currently crossing the Mao quadrant, and this augurs the death of the barbarian king: you will meet a hundred victories in a hundred battles, and how can you lose?"
This decided Ran Min, and in a great voice he said, "I shall fight a decisive battle; let any who oppose this part with their heads!" Thus he gathered his troops and marched out to fight against Yao Xiang and Shi Kun.
Meanwhile, Yue Wan was marching towards them with reinforcements from Yan. When they were several li away from the Wei army, Yue Wan sent his cavalry to ride about. The horses dragged bundles of wood behind them, kicking up a great cloud of dust as though a massive army was approaching. The Wei troops were greatly afraid.
Yao Xiang, Shi Kun, and Yue Wan then attacked the Wei army from three sides, and Shi Zhi also marched out of the city and attacked them from behind. The Wei army suffered a great defeat. Ran Min escaped back to Ye with ten riders.
It was earlier mentioned that Ran Min’s son, the Grand Chanyu Ran Yin, had a thousand tribesmen as his personal soldiers. During this battle, the tribesman Litekang and others, planning to surrender to Shi Zhi, seized Ran Yin and the Deputy Director of the Left Liu Qi and went over to Xiangguo. Shi Zhi killed the two prisoners. Hu Mu, the Minister of Works Shi Pu, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Xu Ji, the Palace Secretary Lu Chen, and others all died in battle, and the Wei army's dead numbered in the tens of thousands.
It was not generally known whether Ran Min had survived, and Ye was plunged into fear, with rumors spreading that Ran Min had died. The Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Zhang Ai, asked Ran Min to personally go and calm the people's hearts. Ran Min agreed to do so, and the rumors of his death were squashed.
Ran Min executed Fa Rao, the Daoist who had urged him to fight, and his sons by dismemberment. He also posthumously named Wei Xiao as Grand Minister Over The Masses, because Wei Xiao had earlier warned him not to trust Litekang and the other tribesman whom he had entrusted to his son Ran Yin.
Yao Xiang returned to Shedou. Because he had not captured Ran Min, Yao Yizhong was furious and gave him a hundred floggings.
10. From the time when he first came to the throne, Ran Min tried to win over the people of Zhao, opening up the grain stores to distribute among them so as to gain their favor. At the same time, not a month passed when he did not fight against the Qiang and the other tribes.
All of those people, especially the Qiang and other tribes, who had been forced to move from Qingzhou, Yongzhou, Youzhou, and Jingzhou, several million in all, began to ignore the former Zhao laws and started traveling back to their homelands. The roads were clogged, and there was much killing; out of all those seeking to return home, only twenty to thirty percent reached their destinations. The Central Plains were in great turmoil. Because of plague, the people lacked food, and there was no one to till the soil.
11. Shi Zhi sent his general Liu Xian with seventy thousand soldiers to attack Ye. Liu Xian’s army reached Mingguang Palace, only twenty-three li from Ye.
Ran Min was afraid, so he summoned Wang Tai so that he could discuss strategies with him. But Wang Tai, angry that his earlier advice had been disregarded, feigned illness and would not go. Even when Ran Min went to see him in person, Wang Tai stubbornly maintained his pretended illness. Ran Min, furious, went back to the palace, and told those around him, "That Ba slave; how can I let him live? First I will vanquish those barbarians, and then I will come back and behead Wang Tai."
Ran Min gathered his troops and marched out to battle, and completely routed Liu Xian, pursuing his army as far as Yangping, and killing thirty thousand men. Liu Xian was greatly afraid, and he secretly offered to surrender to Ran, and even to kill Shi Zhi on his behalf, so Ran Min let him return to Xiangguo.
After returning to the city, upon hearing that Wang Tai wished to betray him and go over to Qin, Ran Min killed Wang Tai, and executed his clan to the third degree.
12. Fu Jiàn sent messengers to look into the people's suffering. He sought out those of remarkable talents, broadened the tax burden among the people, slacked the regulations on the palaces, discarded useless items, and threw out extravagant clothing. By such measures, he won over all those who had been used to living under Zhao's tyranny.
13. Du Hong and Zhang Ju, the Zhao generals whom Fu Jiàn had driven out of Guanzhong, sent requests asking Jin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Sima Xun, to come aid them.
In summer, the fourth month, Sima Xun led thirty thousand horse and foot to assist them. Fu Jiàn faced Sima Xun’s army at Wuzhang Plains. Sima Xun suffered several defeats there, and in the end he retreated back to Nanzheng.
Fu Jiàn began to believe that his Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Jia Xuanshuo, did not agree with his assuming regal title, and he resented it. When someone reported to him that Jia was secretly coordinating with Sima Xun, he had Jia and his sons executed.
14. Because of the chaos in the Zhao region, a man from Baohai, Pang Yue, led several thousand households over to Wei. Ran Min appointed Pang Yue as Administrator of Bohai, and sent him to capture that place. The original Administrator of Bohai was Liu Zhun, the nephew of Liu Kui, and a local gentleman also lived there, Feng Fang the younger brother of Feng Yi. They both gathered men to help defend the city. Ran Min appointed Liu Zhun as Inspector of Youzhou, and he sent him along with Pang Yue to jointly divide Bohai.
Murong Jun dispatched Feng Yi to attack Pang Yue, and sent the Administrator of Changli, Gao Kai, to fight Liu Zhun and Feng Fang. This Gao Kai was the son of Gao Zhan.
15. Feng Yi sent his soldiers to build ramparts to oppose Pang Yue. He sent someone to bring a message to Pang Yue: "We are both from the same county, although we have been divided for quite some time. Now even meeting one another is difficult. People have their own feelings regarding the harm or profit of this current business, and there is no need for further discussion. Let us meet together one on one, and write up a mutual agreement that will endure."
Pang Yue greatly trusted Feng Yi, so he went out, and met with Feng Yi outside of the city gate. They both dismissed their escort riders, and addressed one another from their horses. Feng Yi began to talk in his usual way, and thus said, "Both of us were born in the same county, and my respect for you runs deep. That is why I earnestly wish for your continued prosperity. Now that I have received the order to capture you, I cannot help but strive as best I can on your behalf.
“Now Ran Min has only emerged from the chaos of the Shi clan. He does not have the ability to succeed. He only wants to force the realm to bow down to his strength. He will only continue to cause chaos, even though he knows that it is Heaven's mandate that he will be defeated. On the other hand, I know well the virtue of the Prince of Yan. He has set forth to restore justice and quell the chaos, and there is no one who is a match for him. He has already captured Ji, and his armies are moving into the regions of Zhao and Wei. The people are flocking to him from near and far, carrying their children on their back to see him.
“The people are greatly suffering, yearning for the right path. Ran Min's demise is only a matter of time. It should be very clear to you which side will win and which will lose. Ever since the Prince of Yan began his royal design, he has shown himself to be modest, virtuous, and talented. Will you not change your allegiance and come over to our side? You may match the achievements of Zhou Bo and Guan Ying, and leave a legacy to your descendants. Better that than to be the general of a vanquished state, and by your stubbornness bring ruin to your city!"
Zhou Bo and Guan Ying were famous generals who served under Liu Bang.
When Pang Yue heard this, he was upset and could make no reply. Feng Yi had among his escorts a certain Zhang An, a man of powerful strength. Feng Yi admonished Pang Yue until, his spirits downcast, Pang Yue looked away. Zhang An then suddenly dashed forward and seized the reins of Pang Yue's horse, and with them in hand, he rode back to Feng Yi's camp while pulling Pang Yue's horse behind him.
When they returned to the army camp, Feng Yi sat down with Pang Yue. He told him, "It seemed that you would not come to a decision on your own, so I helped us reach the decision together. I did not wish to proclaim my victory over you; rather, what I wished for was for both of us to save the people together."
16. Gao Kai arrived at Bohai, where Liu Zhun and Feng Fang surrendered to him. Murong Jun appointed Feng Fang as Administer of Bohai, and Liu Zhun as Marshal of the Left, with Pang Yue as his army advisor. Murong Jun's fame further spread because of his ability to win over men like Pang Yue.
17. Liu Xian murdered Shi Zhi, along with his Prime Minister, the Prince of Anle Shi Bing, his Grand Governor Zhao Shu, and over ten others. He sent their heads to Ye. The General of Agile Cavalry Shi Ning fled to Boren. Ran Min burned Shi Zhi's head in Ye’s main street, and he appointed Liu Xian as Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Governor of Jizhou.
18. In the fifth month, Zhao's Inspector of Yanzhou, Liu Qi, fled from Juancheng to surrender to Jin.
19. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Xian once again led soldiers to attack Ye. Ran Min attacked and defeated him. Liu Xian retreated, and declared himself Emperor at Xiangguo.
20. In the eighth month, Wei's Inspector of Xuzhou, Zhou Cheng, their Inspector of Yanzhou, Wei Tong, their Inspector of Jingzhou, Yue Hong, and their Governor of Yuzhou, Zhang Yu, along with the cities of Linqiu, Xuchang, and others, all defected to Jin.
At this time, Zhou Cheng captured Linqiu and Zhang Yu captured Xuchang.
Wei’s General Who Pacifies The South, Gao Chong, and their General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Lv Hu, arrested their Inspector of Luozhou, Zheng Xi, and then they also surrendered.
21. Murong Jun sent Murong Ke to attack Zhongshan, while sending Murong Ping to attack Wang Wu at Lukou.
Wei's Administrator of Zhongshan, Hou Kan of Shanggu, closed the gates and guarded the city. Murong Ke marched south and secured Changshan. When the army reached Jiumen, Wei's Administrator of Zhaojun, Li Gui of Liaoxi, surrendered to them, and Murong Ke graciously accepted him. He sent Li Gui back to besiege Zhongshan, whereupon Hou Kan surrendered. After Murong Ke entered Zhongshan, he sent several dozen of the major military and gentry families to report to Ji, while leaving the rest of the people to live in peace and security. He issued strict military orders to his soldiers, and so none of the people there were harmed.
When Murong Ping reached Nan'an, Wang Wu sent his officer Zheng Sheng to fight him, but Murong Ping defeated and killed Zheng Sheng.
22. Yue Wan returned from Xiangguo. Murong Jun then knew that Zhang Ju had been lying about Shi Zhi possessing the Imperial Seal, so he killed Zhang Ju.
Ran Min’s envoy to Yan, Chang Wei, had four sons and two daughters at Zhongshan. Since Chang Wei was his prisoner, Murong Jun sent Chang Wei’s children to see him. Chang Wei sent Murong Jun a memorial expressing his appreciation for such grace. Murong Jun sent a response by his own hand stating, "Before, you gave no thought to your own livelihood, careless of which province or place I would have sent you. But in the midst of this great chaos, your children have returned to you. How can that not be Heaven's regard for you? Even Heaven smiles upon you, not to mention myself!" He gave Chang Wei a concubine and three hundred 斛 of grain, and sent him to live in Fancheng.
Yan’s Administrator of Beiping, Sun Xing, was reassigned to be Administrator of Zhongshan. He administered it well, using peaceful and comforting methods, and Zhongshan became at peace.
23. Kuru Guanwei led a multitude from Shangdang to surrender to Yan.
24. Yao Yizhong sent notice asking to submit to Jin.
In winter, the eleventh month, Yao Yizhong was appointed by the Jin court as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander of the Six Tribes, Commander of Jiangbei affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, with staff equal in authority to the Three Excellencies, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Gaoling. His son Yao Xiang was appointed as Credential Bearer, General Who Pacifies The North, chief of Bingzhou affairs, Inspector of Bingzhou, and Duke of Pingxiang.
25. Pang Diao returned to Bohai, seeking to stir up the people against Yan. Yan’s Administrator of Leling, Jia Jian, sent someone to instruct the people, warning them of success and failure. Pang Diao's group scattered, and he himself fled.
26. Among the Tuyuhun, Murong Yeyan passed away, and his son Murong Suixi inherited his command.
The Tuyuhun were another branch of the Xianbei who settled around Lake Qinghai. Their founder, Murong Tuyuhun, was the brother of Former Yan’s founder Murong Hui.
27. Sometime earlier, when Huan Wen first learned of the chaos among the Shi clan, he sent notice to the court asking to lead a campaign to recover the Central Plains, but for a long time there had been no response.
Huan Wen knew that the court had employed Yin Hao to counter him, and was angry. He also knew the sort of man that Yin Hao was, so he did not fear him. Since there was no one else in the state who opposed him, the two of them had been locked in a stalemate for more than a year. Though Huan Wen kept up the appearance of a loyal minister, keeping his subordinates under control, the gentry of the eight provinces all believed that Huan was too dangerous to be employed on behalf of the state.
Despite Huan Wen’s repeated further requests for a northern campaign, none were heeded by the court. In the twelfth month, on the day Xinwei, on the pretext of paying his respects, Huan led forty or fifty thousand soldiers downstream, marching to Wuchang, and the court was greatly afraid.
28. Yin Hao wished to resign his position in favor of Huan Wen, and to send the Imperial Banner of Peace to Huan's army.
The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, said to the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, "Yin Hao’s requests are only to save himself, and not to safeguard the state. That must be Your Highness's plan. If Yin Hao resigns his office, then people will be greatly astonished, and the Son of Heaven will sit alone. In this time of peril, whoever holds office must continue to bear the burden, whether that be Your Highness or anyone else!"
Wang Biaozhi also said to Yin Hao, "If the enemy has anyone to condemn, it is you most of all. After you took up your position, this division sprang up. Yet now you wish to play the fool. Who are you fooling? We ought to find a way to ease the tensions. You ought to compose a letter to send to Huan Wen, to demonstrate your sincerity, for the sake of success or failure. Then Huan Wen will surely return back to his command post. If he does not listen to that, then you may issue an edict summoning him to court, and if he does not heed that either, then we will be able to see which side is truly just. What use is there in rushing to give in and acting at once without regard?"
Yin Hao replied, "How difficult it is to decide great affairs, and to grapple with such feelings of defeat. Having heard what you propose, now I believe it can be done."
This Wang Biaozhi was the son of Wang Bin.
29. Jin’s Marshal Who Protects The Army, Gao Song, said to Sima Yu, "You ought to send a letter to Huan Wen, instructing him of disasters and fortune. Then he will go back to his post on his own. If he does not go back, then we send the six armies against him, since his crime will have been made clear!"
Sima Yu thereupon composed a letter to Huan stating, "It is difficult to find a time to pacify the invaders, but the time will soon approach. When it comes to distant conquests on behalf of the state, drawing up grand plans and devising strategies to achieve them, and having the ability to carry them out, who else but yourself is worthy? However, in order to lead a great host on campaign, a foundation of resources must first be established. The ancients all struggled with the difficulties of such operations. It is not an easy thing to chart a new path. That is why I am most unclear on why you have come here.
“Now most unusual requests are being raised, the people are very unsettled, and there has been much talk between them. I believe that even you must have heard of some of it. Those who are careless and court disaster, and who are not held back by any scruples, or who are always on the lookout for some way to shake up affairs, will soon crumble to pieces. By doing so, they give cause for mourning on every side, and the affairs of state are abandoned.
“In these things, I am blind and weak, and my virtues are insufficient to safeguard and comfort the people, or to protect and defend the cities; thus my heart is filled with shame, and I feel ashamed towards my friends. That is why I must entrust you with these things, whether inside or out: the peace of the state and the protection of the dynasty are in your hands. Whether the realm will be safe or in peril depends upon you. First give thought to tranquility within the state, and then conquests beyond the borders may come afterwards. When the imperial tombs have been recovered, then justice will prevail in the world, and it will all be thanks to you. This is my earnest plea; how can you continue to doubt me, or to not do your utmost?"
Huan Wen sent back a reply fearfully stating his apologies, and returned his army to their post.
30. The Jin court planned to go offer sacrifices near the capital. Sima Yu asked Wang Biaozhi, "Should the sacrificial ceremony include an amnesty or not?"
Wang Biaozhi replied, "Since the restoration, the ceremony has always included an amnesty, although I have often said that it should not. Wild and evil men are always trying to test their luck, believing that the sacrifices will certainly have an amnesty again!" Sima Yu agreed with him.
31. Murong Jun returned to Longcheng.
32. Zhai Shu of the Dingling lead all his forces to submit to Yan; they appointed him as Prince of Guiyi.
The Dingling were another northern tribe of Turkish origin. They had lived for a long time under the Xiongnu.
Posted: Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:57 pm
The Eighth Year of Yonghe (The Renzi Year, 352 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinmao, there was an eclipse.
2. The Prime Minister of Qin, Fu Xiong, along with the other officials, asked Fu Jiàn to truly assume the imperial title, and that he should follow the old rites and ceremonies of Han and Jin, without using the new rites that the Shi clan had developed. Fu Jiàn assented, and assumed the imperial title, proclaiming a general amnesty. All those who had formerly been Dukes were raised to Princes. He announced that he would seek to unite the many tribal groups, and that he would no longer follow the commands of the Son of Heaven. His eldest son Fu Chang was named Crown Prince.
3. After the Jin general Sima Xun returned to Hanzhong, Du Hong and Zhang Ju were stationed at Yiqiu. Since Du Hong regarded himself as coming from a superior lineage, he slighted Zhang Ju. Zhang Ju killed Du Hong, and proclaimed himself Prince of Qin, changing his reign title to Jianchang.
4. The newly self-proclaimed Emperor of Zhao, Liu Xian, attacked Changshan. Ran Min left his Grand General, Jiang Gan, to guard his crown prince Ran Zhi and defend Ye, while he himself led eight thousand riders to relieve Changshan. Liu Xian's Grand Marshal, the Prince of Qinghe Shi Ning, surrendered to Wei at Zaoqiang. Ran Min attacked Liu Xian and defeated him, and pursued his army back to Xiangguo. There, Liu's Grand General Cao Fuju opened the gates and allowed Ran Min's army to enter. Ran Min killed Liu Xian and his nobles and ministers, more than a hundred men, and burned down the palaces in Xiangguo, before forcing all the people there to move to Ye.
Zhao's Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, fled the city with his wives and concubines and sought refuge in Jin, but he was beheaded at Jiankang in the marketplace. Thus was the Shi clan finally extinguished.
5. Jin’s Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Kong Yan, said to Yin Hao, "This state of affairs is very lamentable, and I do not know why you insist on keeping it so. I believe that you should understand your position. It was Han Xin and Peng Chao who led the campaigns, while Xiao He and Cao Shen administered affairs. Each man, inside and outside, had his own role, and all attended to their own duties. I pray you will consider the friendship that developed between Lian Po and Lin Xiangru, and the plans that Chen Ping and Zhou Bo made together. They were close friends with no issues between them, and thus they were able to keep the state secure. But it seems that that lately no one is willing to give way; everyone has been a beast in human form, with no prospect for closer ties. I fear it will be difficult to achieve that sense of benevolence." Yin Hao did not listen to him. This Kong Yan was the nephew of Kong Yu.
Xiao He and Cao Shen were Liu Bang’s first and second Prime Ministers. Chen Ping and Zhou Bo were two of his generals.
Lian Po and Lin Xiangru were two ministers of the state of Zhao during the Warring States era; Lian Po was one of the chief generals, while Lin Xiangru was a top official. Although they initially clashed, they later became close friends.
Kong Yu was an Eastern Jin minister of great renown.
6. Yin Hao petitioned to lead a campaign to reclaim Xuchang and Luoyang for Jin; the court gave its assent. He appointed General Who Maintains the West Xie Shang and 北中郎獎 Xun Xian as Protectors, and they advanced to camp at Shouchun.
It was earlier mentioned that the Zhao general Zhang Yu had surrendered the city of Xuchang to Jin. During this campaign, Xie Shang was unable to keep Zhang Yu supplied. Zhang Yu, furious, seized control of Xuchang and rebelled, and he sent his general Shangguan En to seize Luoyang. Yue Hong attacked the Protector Dai Shi at Cangyuan, and Yin Hao's army was unable to advance.
In the third month, Yin Hao ordered Xun Xian to defend Zhunyin (Huaiyin?), putting him in command of Qingzhou military affairs, and also made him Inspector of Yanzhou. Xun Xiao’s base was at Xiapi.
7. On the day Yisi, Murong Jun returned to Ji, and he moved his ministers, officers, soldiers, and many common families to Ji as well.
8. Yao Yizhong had forty-two sons. At this time, he became ill. He said to his sons, "The Shi clan gave me their benevolence, and I had wished to exert myself on their behalf. But now the Shi clan is extinguished, and the Central Plains is without a lord. When I die, you must go over to Jin; conduct yourselves as loyal ministers, and do nothing that is unjust!" Yao Yizhong then passed away.
His son Yao Xiang did not go into mourning, but first led their army of sixty thousand south, attacking Yangping, Yuancheng, and Faqian, breaking through all of them, until he camped at Que’ao Ford. He appointed Wang Liang of Taiyuan as his Chief Clerk, Yin Chi of Tianshui as his Marshal, and Xue Zan of Taiyuan and Quan Yi of Eyang as his army advisors. Yao Xiang fought with the Qin soldiers, defeating them, killing over thirty thousand, and marching south until he reached Xingyang; only then did he begin the mourning rituals for his father.
There was an incident when he was fighting against the Qin generals Gao Chang and Li Li at Matian. During this battle, his horse was shot from under him. His younger brother Yao Chang offered his own horse to him. Yao Xiang objected, "How then will you escape?" Yao Chang replied, "So long as you are alive, Elder Brother, they will not dare to harm me!" Their reinforcements then arrived, and they both escaped.
Yin Chi fled to Qin, who appointed him as Inspector of Bingzhou; his base was at Puban.
9. Yao Xiang led his forces into Jin, sending the Jin court five of his younger brothers as hostages. The court ordered Yao Xiang to garrison at Qiao.
Yao Xiang rode alone on horseback, crossing over the Huai River, to visit Xie Shang at Shouchun. Xie Shang knew Yao Xiang by his reputation, so he sent away his guards and attendants. He received Yao Xiang while wearing a common headscarf, and they welcomed one another as though they were old friends. Yao Xiang was erudite; his goodness was spoken of, and the people of Jiangdong all respected him.
10. Since Ran Min had successfully captured Xiangguo, many of the people near there fled to Changshan and Zhongshan commandaries. Zhao's General Who Establishes Virtue, Duan Qin, gathered many Jie and other tribesmen, more than ten thousand, and seized control of Yimu, declaring himself Emperor of Zhao.
In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiazi, Murong Jun sent Murong Ke to attack Wei and Murong Ba and others to attack Duan Qin.
11. Ran Min planned to do battle with the Yan army. His Grand General Dong Zhan and his General of Chariots and Cavalry Zhang Wen both objected, saying, "The Xianbei have won many victories and are keen fighters, and their numbers are many while we are few. Please forebear for a time, until they grow arrogant, and then we may profit by attacking them."
But Ran Min angrily replied, "I wish to use this army to pacify Yuzhou and cut off Murong Jun's head. If I hold back from fighting Murong Ke today, what will people say of me?"
The Minister Over The Masses, Liu Mao, and the Specially Advanced, Lang Kai, said to one another, "Our lord is setting out like this, and certainly he will not return; what use is there for us in waiting here to suffer humiliation?" So they killed themselves.
12. The Wei army marched to Anxi; Murong Ke led his troops there as well. Ran Min wished to take Changshan, while Murong Ke hoped to block him.
On the day Bingzi, they encountered each other at Liantai near Weichang. Ran Min's army fought the Yan army in ten engagements, and the Yan soldiers could never best him. Ran Min's ferocity was well-known, and so his troops were heartened, while the Yan soldiers dreaded him. Murong Ke patrolled his camp, saying to his officers and men, "Although Ran Min is heroic, he has no talent for planning; he is the only one to fear! As for his soldiers, by now they must be suffering from hunger and exhaustion. Although their armor is impressive, it is difficult for them to use. We can rout them!"
The bulk of Ran Min's army was infantry, while all of the Yan soldiers were cavalry. They lured Ran Min's soldiers to Linchong. Murong Ke's advisor Gao Kai said, "Our cavalry have the advantage on level ground, but if Ran Min enters the forests, we will forfeit this advantage. Let us have the light cavalry feign retreat, and lure the enemy onto level ground; then we may attack them." Murong Ke agreed. Once the Wei soldiers had been lured onto the plains, Murong Ke split his army into three portions, telling his men, "Ran Min thinks so little of me that he has set out with this few troops, still certain that he can kill me. I shall keep the central portion here to act as bait. Once the battle has begun, then the rest of you attack from the sides. Then victory shall be assured." He then picked out five thousand of the best archers from among the Xianbei, and posted them at the front along with iron-linked chariots and horses.
Ran Min soon appeared riding his horse Zhulong (Cinnabar Dragon), a horse capable of riding a thousand li in one day. Ran Min grasped a double-headed spear in his left hand, and a hooked halberd in his right. He plunged into battle against the Yan soldiers, slaying over three hundred of them himself. Soon he noticed the Yan central camp, and, knowing that this was where their headquarters was, he charged towards it; whereupon the other two Yan divisions appeared and attacked from either side, and the Wei army was greatly routed. Ran Min was surrounded by many soldiers. He broke out of the encirclement, riding hard to the east for more than twenty li. But then Zhulong suddenly perished, and Ran Min was taken captive by the Yan soldiers.
The Yan army killed Ran Min's Deputy Director Liu Qun during the battle. Dong Zhan and Zhang Wen were taken captive, and together with Ran Min they were all sent to Ji. Ran Min's son, Ran Cao, fled to seek refuge with Wang Wu at Lukou. Gao Kai suffered a mortal wound during the battle and passed away. Murong Ke moved his base to Changshan; Murong Jun ordered him to guard Zhongshan.
13. On the day Jimao, Ran Min arrived at Ji. Murong Jun issued a general amnesty; placing the blame all on Ran Min, he said to him, "How could a talentless slave like you claim the imperial throne?"
Ran Min replied, "The realm is in chaos, and even an upstart barbarian like you, hardly more than a beast, claims to be emperor. I am a hero of the Central Land, so how could I not assume the throne?"
Murong Jun was enraged, and he ordered Ran Min to be whipped three hundred times before being sent on to Longcheng.
14. Murong Ba's army arrived at Yimu. Duan Qin and his younger brother Duan Si offered up the city in surrender, along with their soldiers.
15. On the day Jiashen, Murong Jun sent Murong Ping and the Commandant of the Capital Hou Kan with ten thousand elite cavalry to attack Ye.
On the day Guisi, they arrived at Ye, and Jiang Gan and the crown prince Ran Zhi closed the gates of the city to hold out against them. Everyone outside of the city surrendered to Yan, and Liu Ning and his younger brother Liu Chong lead three thousand tribal cavalry to flee to Jinyang.
16. Qin recognized Zhang Yu as Grand General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Yuzhou.
17. In the fifth month, Fu Jiàn attacked Du Hong’s former subordinate Zhang Ju at Yiqiu, and killed him.
18. There was widespread hunger within Ye, and the people had no food; they resorted to cannibalism, and even the old Zhao palace attendants were eaten.
Ran Min’s informal regent, Jiang Gan, sent the Palace Attendant Mou Song and the 詹事 Liu Yi to offer submission to Jin, and to ask Xie Shang to come relieve the siege.
On the day Gengyin, Murong Jun sent the General Who Spreads Might, his uncle Murong Jun, the General of 殿中 Muyu Gen, and the Marshal of the Right Huangfu Zhen, among others, to lead another twenty thousand horse and foot to assist Murong Ping in capturing Ye.
19. On the day Xinmao, Yan executed Ran Min at Longcheng. A great drought and swarms of locusts suddenly appeared, and as Murong Jun believed that Ran Min's spirit was responsible, he wished to appease it, so he posthumously named Ran Min as Heavenly Prince Daowu.
20. Xie Shang had earlier dispatched Dai Shi to capture Fangtou. When Dai Shi heard of Jiang Gan's plea for aid, he marched on his own initiative from Cangyuan to camp at Ji Ford, and halted Jiang Gan’s envoys there, demanding to be given the Imperial Seal. Liu Yi sent Mou Song back to Ye to report to Jiang Gan. Jiang Gan believed that Xie Shang would not be able to come to their aid, and after sighing he agreed to Dai Shi’s request.
In the sixth month, Dai Shi lead over a hundred men to enter Ye, where they assisted the defenses. He said to Jiang Gan, "The invading Yan soldiers are outside the walls, and the roads are not easily traveled, so you would not be able to send the Seal to Jin yourself. If you will give the Seal to me, I will send a rider at once to inform the Son of Heaven. Once he learns that I possess the Seal, then he will believe that you are sincere, and he will certainly send ample men and grain to relieve the city." Jiang Gan, believing this, gave Dai the Seal. Dai then said he was sending his Protector He Rong to gather food, but he secretly gave He Rong the Seal to bring it back to Fangtou.
On the day Jiazi, Jiang Gan lead five thousand of his best troops, along with the Jin soldiers, out to offer battle; Murong Ping crushed them, killing four thousand, and Jiang Gan and the rest fled back into the city.
21. On the day Jiashen, Fu Jiàn returned to Chang'an.
22. Xie Shang and Yao Xiang jointly marched to attack Zhang Yu at Xuchang. Fu Jiàn sent his Prime Minister, the Prince of Donghai Fu Xiong, along with his Grand Guard General, the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing, to march into Guandong with twenty thousand horse and foot to relieve Zhang Yu.
On the day Dinghai, the two sides fought a battle at Chengqiao on the Ying river; Xie Shang and the others were completely routed, and the dead numbered fifteen thousand. Xie Shang fled back to Huainan, while Yao Xiang abandoned his baggage, and followed Xie Shang to Quepi. Xie Shang then left matters to Yao Xiang. When Yin Hao learned of Xie Shang's defeat, he fell back to camp at Shouchun.
In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Xiong moved Zhang Yu and the people of Chenliu, Yingchuan, Xuchang, and Luoyang, more than fifty thousand households, back with him into Guanzhong. Guard General of the Left Yang Qun was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, and charged to defend Xuchang.
Xie Shang surrendered his title of General Who Establishes Might.
23. Zhao's former 西中郎將 Wang Zhuo offered his submission to Jin; he was appointed as Inspector of Qinzhou.
24. On the day Dingyou, Jin's Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Grand Governor.
25. On the day Bingchen, Murong Jun returned to Zhongshan.
26. At Lukou, Wang Wu heard that Wei had been vanquished. By this time, Deng Heng had already passed away. Wang Wu declared himself the Prince of Anguo.
In the eighth month, on the day Wuchen, Murong Jun sent Murong Ke, Feng Yi, and Yang Wu to attack Wang Wu. Wang Wu closed the city gates and prepared to hold out, and he handed over Ran Min’s son Ran Cao, who had fled to Lukou, to the Yan army. The Yan soldiers gathered up the remaining grain before leaving.
27. On the day Gengwu, Wei's Colonel of 長水 Ma Yuan and others opened the gates of Ye and welcomed in the Yan army. Dai Shi and Jiang Gan hung ropes over the sides of the walls and so escaped, fleeing to Cangyuan.
Murong Ping sent the Wei Empress Dowager Lady Dong, the crown prince Ran Zhi, the Grand Commandant Shen Zhong, the Minister of Works Tiao You, and others who had been taken captive back to Ji. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing Wang Jian, the Deputy Director of the Left Zhang Qian, and the Deputy Director of the Right Lang Su all killed themselves.
Murong Jun, falsely proclaiming that Lady Dong had given the Imperial Seal to Yan, gave her the title of Lady Fengxi ("the lady who offered the Seal"), and named Ran Zhi as Marquis of Haibin. Shen Zhong was appointed as Chief Clerk of the Right to the Grand General. Murong Ping was ordered to defend Ye.
28. Huan Wen sent Sima Xun to assist Zhou Fu in attacking the rebel Xiao Jingwen at Fu. They killed Xiao.
29. Xie Shang sent the Imperial Seal from Fangtou on to Jiankang, and all the officials offered their congratulations.
30. In Qin, Lei Ruo’er was appointed as Grand Marshal, Mao Gui was appointed as Grand Commandant, and Zhang Yu was named as Minister of Works.
31. When Yin Hao had originally proposed his northern campaign, the General of the Center Army, Wang Yizhi, advised against it, but Yin Hao ignored him. The first campaign having come to nothing, Yin Hao advocated for another attempt.
Wang Yizhi wrote to Yin Hao stating, "As it stands, our territory has become quite weak; the realm is gripped by fear, and is only just holding out. Though we have striven greatly for military achievements, nothing has been accomplished.
“Now we have officials trying to swap places between inner and outer duties. They have not given careful consideration to their actions, and they have exhausted the resources that we must use as a foundation. Each fellow had their own ambitions, but none of them was able to realize anything worth mentioning, and their actions are driving the realm to the brink of collapse. How can it be that we are forcing all within the four seas to bear the burden of these men's schemes? Our armies have been defeated beyond the border, and our resources within are already exhausted.
“Now is the time to prepare our defenses, not to launch another campaign. Far better to guard the line of the Yangzi, and command every general to return to defend their old command posts. Let our vassals deal with matters beyond the Yangzi. You ought to focus on your own duties, and engage in good administration; lighten the burden of corvee labor, and attend to the people's needs. Only then may we rescue the people from their dire straits! You should put on cotton clothes, and focus on your duties towards the realm and good governance as befits your position.
“As for your regrettable defeat, I fear that there is not one worthy man in the court, but all side with those who slander you for it. If you continue to neglect your former duties, and insist upon another campaign, I fear that their ranks will grow until the whole universe could not contain them! Ignorant as I am, these are my thoughts; I pray you do not discard them."
32. Wang Yizhi also wrote to the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, saying, "What man or minister does not long for the grandeur of former ages, much less to strive to restore them? But our strength is not yet sufficient to do so. Can it be that you do not grasp the difficulty of such an endeavor? Although the current prospect of doing so is very pleasing, and appealing to everyone, even so the concerns must outweigh the joy. The achievement cannot yet be accomplished.
“Yet we are dashing our troops against the enemy to no profit, we are incessantly pressing labor demands upon the people, and we are drafting men day after day. Nine-tenths of the length and breadth of Wu and Yue have already been exhausted; when is it to end? We have not taken honest stock of our limits. I cannot pretend otherwise, for there is no one who has seen the suffering the realm endures, and hears the cries and lamentations of the people, who can utter anything other than the truth.
“The Analects states, 'As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided against. (18.5)' I ask that Your Highness reconsider, and first put us in a position where we cannot be defeated. Once our power has grown, then it will not be too late to plan an offensive. But if you do not follow this path, I fear that you will trod the path of the deer, and will not stop even in the woods and marshes! I ask that Your Highness put aside thoughts of distant campaigns for now, and focus on rescuing the people from their plight. Thus may we exchange life for death, and turn calamity into fortune."
But neither Yin Hao nor Sima Yu listened to his advice.
The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy. (The Art of War, 4.1)
33. In the ninth month, Yin Hao garrisoned at Sikou. He sent the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, to capture Shimen, while the Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Dun, was tasked with capturing Cangyuan.
When Yin Hao assembled his army, he sent away the Imperial Academy students, and the school was thus closed down.
34. In winter, the tenth month, Xie Shang sent the Champion General Wang Xie to attack Xuchang, and Wang took it. Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou, Yang Qun, retreated to camp at Hongnong. Xie Shang was promoted to 給事中, and he moved to Shitou.
35. On the day Dingmao, Murong Jun returned to Ji.
36. Many of the former Zhao generals who still commanded troops and controlled provinces or commandaries began submitting to Yan. Murong Jun appointed Wang Zhuo as Inspector of Yizhou, and appointed Kui Yi as Inspector of Qinzhou; Zhang Ping was named Inspector of Bingzhou, Li Shi was made Inspector of Yanzhou, Gao Chang was named General Who Maintains the West, and Liu Ning was appointed General of Chariots and Cavalry.
37. Murong Ke was camped at Anping, gathering grain and building siege engines, preparing to attacking Wang Wu.
On the day Bingxu, a man of Zhongshan named Su Lin rose up with troops and proclaimed himself the Son of Heaven. Murong Ke returned from Lukou to put down this uprising. In the intercalary month, on the day Wuzi, Murong Jun sent the General Who Spreads Might Muyu Gen to assist Murong Ke in attacking Su Lin, and together they killed him.
Wang Wu was killed by his general Qin Xing. Lü Hu then killed Qin Xing, and proclaimed himself as the Prince of Anguo.
38. Yan's ministers and generals jointly petitioned that Murong Jun should proclaim himself as Emperor. Murong Jun assented.
In the eleventh month, on the day Dingmao, the ministers were risen to new ranks. The Chancellor Feng Yi was appointed as Grand Commandant; the Chief Clerk of the Left Yang Wu was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing; the Marshal of the Right Huangfu Zhen was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing; the Prefect of the Directors of Writing Zhang Xi was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right. Many other civil and military ranks were given out as well.
On the day Wuchen, Murong Jun officially assumed the imperial title, and a general amnesty was declared. Proclaiming that he had received the Imperial Seal, Murong Jun changed the reign title to Yuanxi. He elevated the posthumous titles of his father and grandfather. Murong Hui, who had been Prince Wuxuan, became Emperor Wuxuan with the temple name Gaozu; Murong Huang, who had been Prince Wenming, became Emperor Wenming with the temple name Taizu.
At that time, messengers from Jin had arrived in Yan. Murong Jun said to them, "When you return, tell your Son of Heaven this: I have proclaimed myself independent, and at the urging of all within the Middle Kingdom, I have proclaimed myself Emperor!"
He changed the name of Sizhou (the capital province surrounding Ye) to Zhongzhou, and constructed terraces at Longdu (the former capital Longcheng). The Administrator of Xuantu, Yi Yi, was appointed as Master of Writing, and charged with directing a committee of affairs.
39. Fu Xiong attacked Wang Zhuo at Longxi. Wang Zhuo fled to Liangzhou, and Fu Xiong returned to garrison at Longdong. Zhang Chonghua appointed Wang Zhuo as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Qinzhou, and treated him with special favor.
Posted: Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:59 pm
The Ninth Year of Yonghe (The Guichou Year, 353 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yimao, a general amnesty was declared in Jin.
2. In the second month, on the day Gengzi, Murong Jun established his concubine, Lady Kezuhun, as Empress, and made his son by her, Murong Wei, his crown prince. All moved from Longcheng to the palaces at Ji.
3. Zhang Chonghua sent his generals Zhang Hong and Song Xiu to link up with Wang Zhuo; together, they lead fifteen thousand cavalry to attack Qin. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing defended against them, and greatly defeated the Liang soldiers at Longli, killing twelve thousand of them. Zhang Hong, Song Xiu, and Wang Zhuo all abandoned Qinzhou, fleeing to Guzang. Fu Jiàn appointed the General Who Directs The Army Fu Yuan as Inspector of Qinzhou, guarding Shanggui.
4. In the third month, Jin’s Inspector of Jiaozhou, Nguyen Phu (Ruan Fu), attacked Lâm Ấp, breaking more than fifty fortified places.
5. Zhao's former Guard Colonel, Li Du of Changshan, gathered together several thousand men and rebelled against Yan.
6. Among the tribesmen of the western reaches, a man named Liu Kang falsely claimed that he was the son of the Han-Zhao emperor Liu Yao. He gathered troops at Pingyang and proclaimed himself the Prince of Jin.
In summer, the fourth month, Qin's Guard General of the Left Fu Fei campaigned against Liu Kang and captured him.
7. Jin’s General Who Maintains the West Xie Shang was appointed as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.
8. In the fifth month, Zhang Chonghua again sent Wang Zhuo with twenty thousand men to attack Shanggui. The counties and commandaries of Qinzhou all went over to him. Fu Yuan attacked Wang Zhuo, but was defeated in battle, and fled back to Chang'an.
Zhang Chonghua then requested permission from Jin to campaign against Qin. The Jin court proclaimed Zhang Chonghua as Governor of Liangzhou.
9. Murong Jun sent the Guard General Murong Ke to campaign against the rebel Li Du. Li submitted, and Murong Ke returned east to attack Lü Hu at Lukou.
10. In the sixth month, the Qin general Fu Fei attacked the Di ruler of Chouchi, Yang Chu, but he was defeated by Yang Chu. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing brought forty thousand horse and foot to camp at Longdong.
11. It was earlier mentioned that, after Qin had sent reinforcements to Xuchang to reinforce the general Zhang Yu against Yin Hao’s army, Zhang Yu had gone back to Guandong with the Qin army.
Fu Jiàn held high regard for Zhang Yu's stepmother, Lady Han, and made her a consort. In the midst of the ministers, he said to Zhang Yu, "It seems you are now my stepson as well." Zhang Yu was vexed by this. Since Fu Xiong and the other generals had their troops far away at Longdong, Zhang Yu plotted to recruit men from the nearby areas in Guanzhong and then suddenly snuff out the Fu clan, before offering up the land in submission to Jin.
In autumn, the seventh month, Zhang Yu plotted with the Yellow Gate Attendant Liu Chao to secretly attack Fu Jiàn at night. Liu Chao's task would be to open the gate to let Zhang Yu's troops in. But then Fu Jiàn suddenly ordered Liu Chao to move to a distant assignment, and although Liu Chao protested, he had no choice but to go. Zhang Yu, unaware of this development, led his troops to the gate, but the gate would not open. The plot being discovered, Zhang Yu was caught and executed.
This led to further uprisings; Kong Te rose up at Chiyang, Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian rose up at Hu, Qiao Bing rose up at Yong, Huyan Chi rose up at Sizhu, and Huyan Du rose up at Bacheng. Altogether they had some tens of thousands of men, and each sent out messengers to recruit more troops.
12. Qin's Deputy Director of the Left Yu Zun was appointed as Minister of Works.
13. In the ninth month, Prime Minister Fu Xiong led twenty thousand troops back to Chang'an, and sent the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing to keep peace in the Luoyang region, while at Fengyang in Jingzhou, the Colonel of Infantry, Guo Jing of Jincheng, was appointed Inspector there. Fu Xiong, the Prince of Qinghe Fu Fa, and Fu Fei each campaigned against Kong Te and the other rebels.
14. Yao Xiang was camped at Liyang. Although Yan and Qin were currently strong, Yao harbored ambitions of campaigning against them someday. To that end, he established many military agricultural camps along the Huai River, and continued to draft men and officers.
Yin Hao was at Shouchun; he feared Yao Xiang's growing strength, so he imprisoned Yao Xiang’s younger brothers. He sent many assassins to kill Yao Xiang, but the assassins all respected Yao Xiang and informed him of the plot instead.
It was earlier mentioned that the Zhao general Wei Tong had defected to Jin along with his troops. He had been appointed by Jin as General Who Maintains The North. After Wei Tong passed away, his younger brother Wei Jing took up his post. Yin Hao arranged for Wei Jing to launch a sudden attack against Yao Xiang with five thousand soldiers. But Yao Xiang killed Wei Jing, and took over his troops. Yin Hao, now greatly afraid of Yao Xiang, sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Liu Qi, to defend Qiao. He ordered Yao Xiang to relocate to Litai in Liang, appointing him Interior Minister of Liang.
15. Wei Jing's sons and younger brothers fled back to Shouchun. Yao Xiang, concerned about what might come about because of this, sent his army advisor Quan Yi to Shouchun to speak to Yin Hao. Yin Hao said, “General Yao and I are both royal servants, and we share weal and woe together. But what is the meaning of his army’s dispositions? Where is the sense in losing your own support?”
Quan Yi replied, “General Yao is a hero for the ages, and he brought his tens of thousands of soldiers a long distance in order to join with the imperial family. Since the court is pursuing this path, he felt it is only prudent to make these dispositions. Yet you, General, are so quick to believe in slanderous words, and cause this division between yourself and General Yao. I hope that I may allay your suspicions, and that such things will not continue.”
Yin Hao said, “General Yao himself is indeed a worthy hero, but he has taken upon himself decisions of life or death. Furthermore, he has allowed some miscreant among his soldiers to make off with my horse. Is this the sort of company that a royal servant keeps?”
Quan Yi replied, “General Yao came to obey the orders of the sagely court. How could he possibly put to death anyone who was innocent? When the law cannot hold back evildoers, how can they not suffer death?”
Yin Hao said, “And as for my stolen horse?”
Quan Yi replied, “General, you have said before that General Yao is a bold and wild fellow, difficult to control. You are certainly planning to act against him someday. He was only taking a horse so that he could protect himself.”
Yin Hao said with a laugh, “Now how could that be?”
16. Earlier, Yin Hao had secretly sent men to speak with Qin's generals Liang An and Lei Ruo’er, enticing them to kill Fu Jiàn, in exchange for being given command over Guanyou. Lei Ruo’er pretended to go along with this plot, asking Yin Hao to send troops to link up with him.
Later, when Yin Hao heard of the unrest following the matter of Zhang Yu, he learned that Fu Jiàn's nephew by one of his elder brothers, the General Who Protects The State, Fu Huangmei, had left Luoyang and marched west with his army, to help put down the uprisings.
In winter, the tenth month, Yin Hao marched from Shouchun with seventy thousand men on another northern campaign. He wished to retake Luoyang and recover the imperial tombs. The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, wrote to the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, stating his belief that, "Lei Ruo’er and the others have much craft among them; Yin Hao should not be so quick to advance." But this was ignored.
Yin Hao placed Yao Xiang’s army in the vanguard. Yao Xiang marched his soldiers north; then, when Yin's army was nearby, Yao Xiang hatched a plan to feign retreat during the night, but secretly instructed his soldiers to lay ambushs. When Yin Hao learned of this, he pursued Yao Xiang to Shansang. Yao Xiang's soldiers then suddenly emerged from their ambushs to fight, and Yin Hao was greatly defeated; abandoning his supplies and luggage, he fled to Qiao to defend from there. Yao Xiang killed or captured over ten thousand soldiers; then, after claiming the supplies and weapons that Yin Hao’s army had abandoned, he left his brother Yao Yi to guard Shansang while he marched south again to move back into Huainan.
Sima Yu said to Wang Biaozhi, "It happened just as you said. Even Zhang Liang and Chen Ping could not surpass you!"
Meanwhile, Duke Liegong of Xiping, Zhang Chonghua, had fallen ill. Although his son Zhang Yaoling was only ten years old, he was appointed as his father's heir, and a general amnesty was proclaimed within Liang's territory.
Zhang Chonghua had an elder brother by his father’s concubine, the Marquis of Changning Zhang Zuo, who was both brave and knowledgeable. He ably handled affairs both foreign and domestic, and treated Zhao Zhang, Wei Ji, and Zhang Chonghua's other favored attendants like brothers. The Capital Commandant Chang Ju asked that Zhang Zuo be sent away, but Zhang Chonghua told him, "Zhang Zuo is my own Duke of Zhou, and he will protect my son; what nonsense do you speak?"
17. Xie Ai had found favor with Zhang Chonghua after his success defending Baohan. Around the time of Zhang Chonghua’s illness, Zhang Zuo slandered Xie Ai, and had him sent away as Administrator of Jiuquan. Xie Ai submitted a petition stating, "It was thanks to good fortune that I was given office. Now the ducal family will soon be in trouble; I pray you heed your minister's' words." He further wrote, "The Marquis of Changning is plotting rebellion with Zhao Zhang and others; you must send him away."
In the eleventh month, on the day Jiwei, Zhang Chonghua's illness grew worse. He personally prepared an order for Xie Ai to be appointed as Guard General, with command over all military affairs, and trusted him with administering the state. However, Zhang Zuo, Zhao Zhang, and others blocked the order from going out.
18. On the day Dingmao, Zhang Chonghua passed away.
His son Zhang Yaoling rose to the throne, claiming as his titles Grand Marshal, Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. Zhao Zhang and the others forged an edict from Zhang Chonghua, appointing Zhang Zuo as supreme commander over all military affairs, as Grand General Who Protects The Army, and as regent.
19. Yin Hao dispatched his subordinates Liu Qi and Wang Binzhi to attack Yao Yi at Shansang. Yao Xiang marched from Huainan to attack them, and both were killed. Yao Xiang then advanced and captured Shaobei.
20. During the downfall of Zhao, Zhu Tu of Leling, Du Neng of Pingyuan, Ding Rao of Qinghe, and Sun Yuan of Yangping had each seized control of cities and counties. In the end, they all submitted to Yan's control. Murong Jun appointed Zhu Tu as Inspector of Qingzhou, Du Neng as Administrator of Pingyuan, Ding Rao as General Who Demonstrates Fortitude, and Sun Yuan as Inspector of Yanzhou. Each were left in control of their personal commands.
21. Fu Xiong captured Chiyang, and killed the rebel Kong Te.
In the twelfth month, Fu Fa and Fu Fei captured Hu, killing the rebels Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian.
22. Yao Xiang crossed the Huai River, camping at Xuyi; he gathered up the refugees, to the number of seventy thousand, and split them among different areas, urging them to begin planting and cultivating. Yao Xiang sent a messenger to Jiankang demanding that Yin Hao pay for his transgressions, while making apologies for his own actions.
The court appointed Xie Shang as Commander of Jiangxi and Huainan affairs, and as Inspector of Yuzhou; he camped at Liyang.
23. Liangzhou's Chief Clerk of the Right, Zhao Zhang, and others held a council, saying to one another, "These are difficult times, and the barbarians have not yet been vanquished. For such times, we must have an adult ruler. Zhang Yaoling is young and wild, so let us raise up the Marquis of Changning, Zhang Zuo, in his place."
Zhang Zuo sought assent from Zhang Chonghua's mother Lady Ma, and she granted her permission, so they deposed Zhang Yaoling to become Marquis of Liangning, and gave his former position to Zhang Zuo instead. Zhang Zuo proclaimed himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Liang.
Zhang Zuo's true nature now emerged, as he proved himself to be cruel and abusive. He killed both Zhang Chonghua's consort Lady Pei and Xie Ai.
24. Yan's Guard General Murong Ke, General Who Protects The Army Murong Jun, and General of the Left Murong Biao all petitioned their lord, stating that the Attendant of the Yellow Gate Murong Ba had exceptional talent and should be granted larger roles. During this year, Murong Jun granted Murong Ba the Staff of Authority, and appointed him as General Who Maintains the East and Inspector of Northern Jizhou. He was based at Changshan.
Posted: Thu Mar 16, 2017 8:02 pm
The Tenth Year of Yonghe (The Jiayin Year, 354 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Zhang Zuo proclaimed himself as Prince of Liang. He changed the reign era from the Western Jin title of the forty-second year of Jianxing to the first year of his own reign era, Heping. He established his wife Lady Xin as Princess, made his son Zhang Taihe his crown prince, ennobled his younger brother Zhang Tianxi as Marquis of Changning, appointed his son Zhang Tingjian as Marquis of Jiankang, and appointed Zhang Yaoling's younger brother Zhang Xuanjing as Marquis of Liangwu. The ministers made sacrificial rites to Heaven and earth, following the rituals of the Son of Heaven.
The Master of Writing Ma Ji remonstrated, and he was dismissed from office. The Palace Attendant Ding Qi also remonstrated, saying, "I have been a loyal minister for over fifty years, ever since the days of Duke Wu (Zhang Gui). The Zhang family has remained loyal, and never once sought to declare their own state. They were able to unite the province and stand against the depredations of the barbarians. Thanks to their actions, the people here have not yet known misery. Your Highness's virtue is inferior to that of the Dukes who came before you, yet now you unveil these plans for great changes. I cannot stand idly by and watch you do so. Even if the people obey your orders, and those from every corner turn towards you, I will still keep my loyalty to the Jin royal family. But you honor yourself, and cause division between us and others. How can a mere backwater stand opposed to as strong an enemy as the Son of Heaven?" Zhang Zuo was greatly angered, and had Ding Qi executed at the palace gates.
2. It was earlier mentioned that the Wei general Zhou Cheng had defected to Jin with his command. At this time, he rebelled; he marched from Wan to suddenly attack Luoyang. On the day Xinyou, the Administrator of Henan Dai Shi fled to Weizhu.
Fu Xiong attacked the rebels at Sizhu. Huyang Chi fled to Bacheng, and sought refuge under Huyan Du.
3. Jin’s General of the Center Army and Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, had launched successive northern campaigns across the last two years, all of which had come to ruin. Much grain and military equipment had thus been exhausted. General Who Conquers The West Huan Wen was thus angry at the court, and he sent in many missives stating Yin Hao’s faults and asking for his dismissal. The court, faced with no other option, dismissed Yin Hao from office and made him a commoner, and he went into exile at Xin’an in Dongyang. From that time on, all matters of state inside or out fell under the sway of Huan Wen.
4. Yin Hao had not enjoyed the same reputation as Huan Wen, so he was not inclined to consider himself inferior, and Huan Wen was not often concerned about him. Although Yin had been removed from power, and was melancholy, he did not keep a grave countenance, but often wrote little ditties.
Not long after Yin Hao’s dismissal, Huan Wen said to Chi Chao, "Yin Hao has virtue and is clever; perhaps he can still be given some other rank, attending to ceremonies and to punishments, and the court thus make use of his talents." So Huan Wen arranged for Yin Hao’s appointment as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he sent a letter to Yin Hao informing him of it. Yin Hao fretted over how to respond; whenever he was about to send a letter, suddenly there would be some mistake or error. He often began and then rewrote a letter, doing so more than ten times, before at last sending a blank letter. This greatly enraged Huan Wen, who from then on refused to employ Yin Hao, and he died in exile.
The former Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Shu, was appointed Inspector of Yangzhou.
5. In the second month, on the day Yichou, Huan Wen marched out of Jiangling with forty thousand horse and foot to attack Qin. A naval force also sailed from Xiangyang through Junkou, until it reached Nanxian. The infantry marched from Xichuan to capture Wuguan.
Huan Wen also ordered Sima Xun, who was in command in Liangzhou (the Hanzhong province), to attack Qin by way of Ziwu Valley.
6. Yan's Guard General, Murong Ke, surrounded Lukou. In the third month, he captured it. Lü Hu fled to Yewang, and then he sent his younger brother Lü Feng to place himself at Yan's mercy. Yan appointed Lü Hu as Administrator of Henei.
7. Yao Xiang offered his submission to Yan.
8. Murong Jun appointed his uncle Murong Ping as General Who Guards The South, in charge of military affairs for Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou, Jiangzhou, Yangzhou, Jingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou, and ordered him to guard the Luo River. His uncle Murong Qiang was appointed as Vanguard Commander, in charge of Jingzhou and Xuzhou affairs, as well as handling the army affairs around the Huai River, and he advanced to capture Henan.
9. Huan Wen marched north, attacking by way of the upper Luo River, and captured Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Guo Jing. He then advanced against Qingni, and took it.
Sima Xun attacked Qin's western border, while Liang's Inspector of Qinzhou, Wang Zhuo, attacked Qin at Chencang in support of Huan Wen.
Fu Jiàn sent his crown prince Fu Chang, the Prime Minister Fu Xiong, the Prince of Huainan Fu Sheng, the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing, and the Prince of Beiping Fu Shuo with an army of fifty thousand men to Yaoliu to meet Huan Wen's attack. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yihai, Huan Wen and the Qin army fought a battle at Lantian. Fu Sheng plunged into the battle alone on horseback, charging in and out of the fray more than ten times, and killing many Jin soldiers. But through Huan Wen's superior leadership, the Qin army suffered a great defeat.
General Huan Chong also defeated Prime Minister Fu Xiong's army at Bailu Plains. This Huan Chong was Huan Wen's younger brother.
Huan Wen continued his advance after his victory at Lantian. On the day Renyin, his army reached Bashang near Chang’an. Fu Chang and the others retreated to camp south of Chang'an, while Fu Jiàn held the inner city with six thousand old and weak men, along with a reserve of thirty thousand. He sent Grand Marshal Lei Ruo’er and others to jointly face Huan Wen along with Fu Chang.
All the counties around Chang'an began to surrender to Huan Wen, and he provided them with comfort and security, sending messengers to assure them that the rebirth of Jin was at hand. They freely welcomed him with meat and wine, and men and women swept the streets for him, while old men wept, saying, "We did not believe we would live to see the old army return again!"
10. Fu Xiong, leading seven thousand cavalry, attacked Sima Xun at Ziwu Valley and routed him. Sima Xun retreated to camp at Nuwa Fort.
11. On the day Wushen, Murong Jun granted his uncle, the General Who Protects The Army Murong Jun, the title of Prince of Xiangyang, and his uncle the General of the Left Murong Peng the title Prince of Wuchang. Guard General Murong Ke was made Grand Marshal, Grand Commander, Palace Attendant, authority over the imperial secretariat, and Prince of Taiyuan. General Who Guards The South Murong Ping was named as Minister Over The Masses, General of Agile Cavalry, and Prince of Shangyong. General Who Maintains The East Murong Ba was named Prince of Wu. The Worthy Prince of the Left, Murong You, was named Prince of Fanyang. The 散騎常侍 Murong Li was named Prince of Xiapi. The 散騎常侍 Murong Yi was named Prince of Lujiang. General Who Calms The North Murong Du was named Prince of Lelang.
As for Murong Jun’s brothers, he named Murong Huan as Prince of Yidu, Murong Dai as Prince of Linhe, Murong Hui as Prince of Hejian, Murong Long as Prince of Liyang, Murong Na as Prince of Beihai, Murong Xiu as Prince of Lanling, Murong Yue as Prince of Anfeng, Murong De as Duke of Liang, Murong Mo as Duke of Shi'an, and Murong Lou as Duke of Nankang.
For his sons, he named Murong Xian as Prince of Le'an, Murong Liang as Prince of Bohai, Murong Wen as Prince of Daifang, Murong She as Prince of Yuyang, and Murong Wei as Prince of Zhongshan. He also named the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Yang Wu as Minister of Works, though he still kept his role as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.
It was around this time that Murong Jun changed his brother Murong Ba’s name to Murong Chui. Murong Jun further had him sent away to govern Xindu. When he and Murong Ba were still children, their father Murong Huang had greatly favored Murong Ba for his talents, and this was why he named him Murong Ba (霸 Ba means “hegemon” or “conqueror”). Murong Huang had even considered making Murong Ba his heir, but his ministers persuaded him against this, so he agreed to make his eldest son Murong Jun his heir.
Murong Jun had resented his brother for this, and after Murong Ba lost a tooth after falling off a horse, Murong Jun wanted to rename him Murong Que (for "missing"), but upon learning that this was an auspicious term, he further renamed him to Murong Chui. He originally made him a Palace Attendant, making him handle palace affairs, and then sent him away to guard Longcheng. But when Murong Chui began to receive the regard of the people of the northeast, Murong Jun feared what further mischief he might do, so he recalled him.
12. In the fifth month, more than a thousand Jiangxi refugees under Guo Chang and other leaders arrested Jin’s Interior Minister of Chenliu, Liu Shi, and offered up the city to Yao Xiang. Jiankang was greatly shocked, and the court appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing Zhou Min to be General of the Center Army. Zhou Min camped at Zhongtang. The Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, also marched from Liyang to defend Jingshi, and to guard the line of the Yangzi.
13. Wang Zhuo captured Chencang, and killed Qin's Interior Minister of Fufeng, Mao Nan.
14. There lived a certain Wang Meng of Beihai. As a youth, he was very studious. Although he possessed high ambitions, he disdained meticulous work, and people looked down on him. Living a life of leisurely repose, he took up the hermit's life at Huayin in Guanzhong.
When he heard that Huan Wen's army had entered Guanzhong, he went to be received by that general, and conversed with him while picking lice out of his hair, as though no one were around to notice. Huan Wen was intrigued by him, so he asked Wang, "I bear the commission of the Son of Heaven, and my hundred thousand soldiers have driven the rebels from the field in order to protect the common people. Yet the people of the Three Qins hesitate to receive me; why is this?"
Wang Meng replied, "Duke, you have traveled nearly a thousand li, and are deep within enemy territory. Chang'an is now within your grasp. Yet you hesitate to cross the Ba River. The people are not sure of your intent, and so do not come to you."
Huan Wen for some time could make no reply, until at last he said, "In all the Southland there is no one like you!" And he kept Wang Meng with him as a Libationer, making plans with him.
15. Huan Wen fought another battle at Bailu Plains against Fu Xiong and other Qin officers, and this time Huan's troops were not the victors; their dead numbered over ten thousand.
Earlier, when word had spread of Huan's intentions to attack Qin, the people of Qin had harvested their grain, and so none was now left to be foraged. Huan's army thus lacked supplies, and the soldiers grew hungry.
In the sixth month, on the day Dingchou, Huan's army began to retreat from Guanzhong, accompanied by over three thousand households. He offered to make Wang Meng a high official in his entourage, if he would go back with him, but Wang Meng demurred.
16. The rebel Huyan Du led ten thousand men to follow Huan Wen back to Jin. Fu Chang and the others followed Huan Wen to attack him. When they reached Tong Gate, Huan Wen's army suffered several more defeats, and lost another ten thousand casualties.
17. While Huan Wen had been camped at Ba River, the Administrator of Shunyang, Xue Zhen, urged Huan Wen to advance to put pressure on Chang’an, but Huan Wen would not do it. So Xue Zhen brought his division over the river by themselves, and they captured a few places.
After Huan Wen’s army retreated, Xue Zhen was constantly talking among the army, puffing up his own importance and courage while faulting Huan Wen for his excessive caution. Huan Wen had him killed.
18. Fu Xiong attacked Sima Xun and Wang Zhuo at Chencang. Sima Xun fled to Hanzhong, while Wang Zhuo fled to Lüeyang.
19. Qin appointed the Household Counsellor Zhao Ju as Inspector of Luoyang, defending Yiyang.
20. Qin's Prince Jingwu of Donghai, Fu Xiong, was wounded during battle at Yong. On the day Bingshen, he passed away. Fu Jiàn wept and coughed up blood, wailing, "Is it Heaven's wish that I shall not pacify the four seas? Why else has it taken my Yuancai from me so soon?"
Fu Xiong was posthumously honored as the Prince of Wei, and his funeral was conducted the same way as Jin's Prince Xian of Anping (Sima Fu). Fu Xiong carried out his orders without difficulties. Although he held high civil and military offices, and was equal in authority to his lord, Fu Xiong remained humble and loving, and firmly established lawful rule. Thus Fu Jiàn placed great importance upon his brother, often saying of him, "Yuancai is my own Duke of Zhou."
Fu Xiong's son, Fu Jian, inherited his titles. This younger Fu Jian was of a filial nature, and although young, he possessed great ambition; he was learned and very capable, and thus attracted the attention of many heroes. Lü Polou, Qiang Wang, and Liang Pinglao of Lüeyang all favored him.
A reminder that this is the first appearance of the more famous Fu Jian, whose name will be written without tone marks.
21. Yan's Administrator of Leling, Murong Gou, was the son of Murong Han (the elder). He greatly detested the new Inspector of Qingzhou, Zhu Tu, and the feeling was mutual. Because Murong Gou was of the royal family, he often lorded it over Zhu Tu. Zhu, no longer able to put up with this behavior, attacked and killed Murong Gou in autumn, the seventh month, and then fled south to Duan Kan.
22. Fu Jiàn's crown prince, Fu Chang, attacked the rebel Qiao Bing at Yong. In the eighth month, he executed Qiao Bing, and Guanzhong was once again at peace. Fu Jiàn, wishing to reward his commanders for successfully repulsing Huan Wen's invasion, appointed Lei Ruo’er as Prime Minister, Mao Gui as Grand Tutor, Yu Zun as Grand Commandant, the Prince of Huainan Fu Sheng as Grand General of the Center Army, and the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing as Minister of Works.
Fu Jiàn was diligent in governance, often soliciting the advice of his nobles and ministers on which steps to take. He punished those people of Zhao (the native Chinese) who were cruel or extravagant, while he rewarded and encouraged frugality. He also followed the rites and practices of Confucian learning. Thus the people of Qin were satisfied with him.
23. Yan issued a great draft of soldiers. Because the day that the imperial edict went out was the Bingqu day, it became known as the “Bingqu Draft”.
24. In the ninth month, Huan Wen returned from his campaign against Qin. The Emperor sent the Palace Attendant and Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Lao Wen, to Xiangyang.
25. In Yan, someone informed Murong Jun that the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Song Bin, was plotting with others to start a rebellion, using Ran Min’s son Ran Zhi as the figurehead for a restoration. All of them were executed. This Song Bin was the son of Song Zhu.
Song Zhu was a Yan minister who had been killed during Zhao’s invasion of Yan in 338.
26. During Fu Chang's pursuit of Huan Wen, he had been struck by a stray arrow. In winter, the tenth month, he passed away from the wound. His posthumous name was Xian’ai.
27. Murong Jun returned to Longcheng.
28. When Huan Wen had entered Guanzhong, Wang Zhuo had sent word to the Prince of Liang, Zhang Zuo, informing him of Huan Wen's great skill in commanding troops. He also reported that Huan Wen's ambition was uncertain. Zhang Zuo, afraid of this estimation, believed that Wang Zhuo himself might be planning to betray him, so he sent an agent to kill Wang Zhuo. But the plot leaked out.
Zhang Zuo became even more afraid, and began drafting a large army, ostensibly to march east to attack Qin, but really to march west so that Zhang Zuo would be able to hold out at Dunhuang if Liangzhou were invaded. However, when Huan Wen went back to Qin, Zhang Zuo canceled the draft.
He then sent his Inspector of Qinzhou, Niu Ba, and others with three thousand troops to attack Wang Zhuo, and routed him. In the eleventh month, Wang Zhuo and his men surrendered to Qin, where he was appointed as Master of Writing, and his assistant Dan Tie was appointed Inspector of Qinzhou.
29. Fu Jiàn had earlier sent his uncle, the Prince of Wudu Fu An, to Jin as a hostage. Fu An had attempted to return to Qin, but was captured by Yao Xiang along the way, who made him his Inspector of Luozhou.
In the eleventh month, Fu An escaped and at last reached Qin. Fu Jiàn appointed him as Grand Marshal, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and Inspector of Bingzhou, and charged him with guarding Puban.
30. During this year, there was a great famine in Qin, and a 升 of rice cost a roll of cloth.
Posted: Wed Mar 22, 2017 11:51 pm
The Eleventh Year of Yonghe (The Yimao Year, 355 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Yang Songnu, who was the younger brother of the former Duke of Chouchi, Yang Yi, sent his cousin Liang Shiwang to kill the current Duke, Yang Chu. Yang Chu's son, Yang Guo, killed Liang Shiwang and Yang Songnu, and declared himself the new Duke of Chouchi. Huan Wen petitioned for Yang Guo to be appointed as General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Qinzhou.
2. In the second month, Qin was plagued by locusts. All the grass was lost, and the cattle and horses each resorted to eating hair.
3. In summer, the fourth month, Murong Jun returned to Ji from Helong.
Murong Jun went to Longcheng in the last year (354) of the previous book (Book 99).
Earlier, after the people of Youzhou and Jizhou heard that Murong Jun was going east and before he had returned, disturbances broke out, and the result was some chaos. The ministers asked Murong Jun to campaign against this, but he said to them, "This is merely the cause of a few miscreants who, hearing that I was going east on patrol, thought that they could take the chance to stir up some chaos. Now that I have returned, they will settle down on their own, so there is no need for a campaign."
Helong was east of Ji.
4. Among those former Zhao officials who had still not yet gone over to anyone, the Administrator of Lanling, Sun Hei, the Administrator of Jibei, Gao Zhu, the Administrator of Jianxing, Gao Weng/Pen, Qin’s Administrator of Henei, Wang Hui, and the Administrator of Liyang, Han Gao, all submitted to Yan.
濟 is pronounced "Zi (Z-i)". 瓫 is pronounced "pen (p-en)".
The text is saying that because of Yan's strength, all these holdouts went over to it.
Despite Hu Sanxing’s claim here, I continue to use “Jibei” for 濟北. I have seen the Administrator of Jianxing’s name here written as either 甕 Weng or 瓫 Pen.
5. Qin's Prince of Huainan, Fu Sheng, was blind in one eye, and he possessed an explosive temperament.
His grandfather Fu Hong used to tease him by asking, "I heard you only cry from one eye; is it true?" Fu Sheng, angry, pulled out the blade he was carrying and drew blood from himself, saying, "This is how the other eye sheds tears." Fu Hong was greatly angered by this, and whipped Fu Sheng. Fu Sheng said, "I can shrug off any sword or spear, only spare me your lashing!" Fu Hong warned his son Fu Jiàn, "This wild child will bring harm to you; deal with him before he destroys your family." So Fu Jiàn planned to kill Fu Sheng, but his younger brother Fu Xiong objected, saying, "When he grows up, he will change his ways; how can you think of doing this?" Fu Sheng grew up to be a powerful warrior, incredibly strong, adept on foot or on horseback, skilled in fighting with the sword and the bow.
After the untimely death of Crown Prince Fu Chang, Empress Qiang wanted to appoint the Prince of Jin, Fu Liu, as the heir. However, Fu Jiàn believed in a prophecy stating that "three goats have five eyes", so he made Fu Sheng his crown prince instead. The Minister of Works and Prince of Pingchang, Fu Jing, was appointed Grand Commandant; the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Duo, was appointed the new Minister of Works; the Colonel Director of Retainers, Liang Leng, was appointed the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing.
Crown Prince Fu Chang was posthumously known as Prince Xian'ai, "the Mourned" (as was mentioned in the last book).
It was because of Fu Sheng's brutality that he did not last very long on the throne.
楞 is pronounced "leng (l-eng)".
6. Many of Yao Xiang's followers urged him to march north, and he heeded their advice. In the fifth month, he attacked Jin’s Champion General Gao Ji at Waihuang. Gao Ji was killed, and Yao Xiang advanced and captured Xuchang.
Since Han times, Waihuang County had been in Chenliu commandary. Xian remarked: "The old city of Waihuang was in the eastern part of Yongqiu County in modern Bianzhou."
Bianzhou covered the region around modern Kaifeng.
7. In the sixth month, on the day Bingzhi, Fu Jiàn became deathly ill.
On the day Gengchen, the Prince of Pingchang, Fu Jing, led troops and entered the Eastern Palace, intending to kill Fu Sheng and take the throne in his place. However, at that time, Fu Sheng was attending to Fu Jiàn’s illness in the Western Palace. Fu Jing believed that Fu Jiàn had already died, so he attacked the Dongye gate. When Fu Jiàn heard of this development, he presented himself at the gate, and led the soldiers to defend it. When Fu Jing’s men saw Fu Jiàn, they became afraid, and they abandoned Fu Jing. Fu Jiàn seized Fu Jing, killing him and several others, while sparing the rest.
In the phrase "Prince of Pingchang", some versions say "Duke" instead of "Prince".
The Western Palace was the residence of the lord of Qin (as opposed to the Eastern Palace, which was the residence of the Crown Prince).
8. On the day Renwu, Fu An, Qin’s Grand Marshal and Prince of Wudu, was placed in command of all military affairs.
After Fu Xiong's death, Fu Jiàn had appointed Fu Jing as Commander over military affairs. Now that Fu Jing had been executed, Fu An was appointed in his place.
On the day Jiashen, Fu Jiàn appointed as a council of regents the Grand Tutor Yu Zun, the Prime Minister Lei Ruo'er, the Grand Commandant Mao Gui, the Minister of Works Wang Duo, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Liang Leng, the Deputy Director of the Left Liang An, the Deputy Director of the Right Duan Chun, and the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing Xin Lao.
Fu Jiàn told his son Fu Sheng, "These six chiefs and high ministers hold great power. If they do not heed your orders, gradually do away with them."
This was why Fu Sheng later slaughtered these high ministers.
9. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: The purpose of appointing such ministers is to assist the new prince, so that they might act as his wings. To give a prince such wings and then instruct him to clip them; how could they not perish? If he did not trust them, he should not have appointed them to such roles. But having appointed them, to encourage doubts and second-guessing against them only made him cause more trouble.
From time to time, Sima Guang provides his own commentary on the historical narrative. He usually does so to praise or criticize some person, or otherwise offer moral judgment on events.
10. On the day Yiyou, Fu Jiàn passed away. His posthumous name was Emperor Jingming, and his temple name was Gaozu.
He was thirty-nine.
On the day Bingxu, the crown prince Fu Sheng rose to the throne. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign title to Shouguang. The ministers counseled him, "It is inauspicious to change the reign title during the middle of an existing reign year." Fu Sheng was angered by this; he blamed the chief advocate of this position, the Deputy Director of the Right Duan Chun, and killed him.
Fu Sheng, styled Changsheng, was Fu Jian's third son.
It was ancient tradition that after a ruler was buried, his eldest son would inherit his throne, and at the beginning of a new year would declare a new reign era title.
11. In autumn, the seventh month, Jin’s Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min, was appointed Deputy Director of the Left.
12. In Jin, someone said to Sima Yu, "The Prince of Wuling has been gathering weapons and equipment. He must be plotting something unusual soon."
Sima Yu went to the Master of Ceremonies Wang Biaozhi, who said to him, "The Prince of Wuling's desire is only to drive a few pigs before him, nothing more. Think on this and be at ease. This is no different from remaining at peace, so there is no need for further discussion." Sima Yu was appeased.
The Prince of Wuling was Sima Xi.
This was why the Prince of Wuling later met with misfortune, and Wang Biaozhi was unable to save him.
13. Fu Sheng honored his mother, Lady Qiang, as Empress Dowager. He honored his wife, Lady Liang, as Empress. Lady Liang was the daughter of Liang An.
Among Fu Sheng’s personal servants from his time as Crown Prince, he appointed Zhao Shao of Nan'an as Deputy Director of the Right, the Crown Prince’s Attendant Zhao Hui as Protector of the Army of the Center, and the 著作郎 Dong Song as Master of Writing.
The 續漢志 states, "The two 大夫 of the Crown Prince's servants act as 郎將s."
14. The Prince of Liang, Zhang Zuo, was cruel and without principle. He suspected all around him. He feared the power of the Inspector of Hezhou, Zhang Guan, so he sent the Administrator of Zhangye, Xe Fu, to take over the command of Fuhan in Zhang Guan's place, while he ordered Zhang Guan to campaign against rebellious barbarians.
Zhang Guan administered Hezhou from the city of Fuhun.
索 is pronounced "Xe (x-e)". 枹 is pronounced "Fu".
He then sent his generals Yi Chuai and Zhang Ling with thirty thousand horse and foot to attack Zhang Guan. A man of Zhangye, Wang Luan, who knew several mystic arts warned Zhang Zuo, "If this army goes out, it will certainly shall not return. Then Liang will soon face great peril." But despite three warnings, Zhang Zuo did not listen. In fact, he became so angry that he accused Wang Luan of treasonous talk, and had him put to death. As Wang Luan was being lead to his execution, he said, "So sure as I die, the army without will be defeated, and the lord within will die; this is certain!" Zhang Zuo extinguished his clan as well.
易 is read like the character (yi), and is a surname. 揣 is pronounced "chuai (ch-ei)". 玲 is pronounced "ling (l-ing)".
When Zhang Guan heard the news of the approaching army, he executed Xe Fu and began raising troops to attack Zhang Zuo. He sent out proclamations among the provinces and commandaries, declaring his intent to depose Zhang Zuo, and restore the former ruler, the Marquis of Liangning Zhang Yaoling, to the throne. Zhang Guan attacked Yi Chuai and Zhang Lun's army as it was crossing the Yellow River, and defeated them. Yi Chuai and a few others escaped alone on horseback. Zhang Guan pursued their retreating forces, and Guzang was gripped by fear.
Zhang Yaoling's removal was described in the last year of the previous book (Book 99).
The General of Valiant Cavalry, Song Hun of Dunhuang, and his elder brother Song Xiu, also had their problems with Zhang Zuo, and feared disaster. In the eighth month, Song Hun and his younger brother Song Deng marched west, joining forces with more than ten thousand soldiers under Zhang Guan, before they all marched towards Guzang.
敦 is pronounced "ten (t-en)".
Despite Hu Sanxing’s comment, “Dunhuang” is the more accepted pronunciation.
Zhang Zuo sent Yang Chuhu to take Zhang Yaoling to the Eastern Garden, where he was beaten to death; he was buried in the sand, and his posthumous name was Duke Ai (“the Lamented”).
15. In Qin, Fu Sheng appointed the Grand Guard General, Fu Huangmei, as Prince of Guangping, the General of the Front Fu Fei as Prince of Xinxing, and others with like rewards. The Grand Conquering Marshal, the Prince of Wudu Fu An, was appointed as Grand Commandant. The Prince of Jin, Fu Liu, was appointed Grand General Who Conquers the East and Governor of Bingzhou, and he was garrisoned at Puban. The Prince of Wei, Fu Sou, was appointed Grand General Who Guards the East and Governor of Yuzhou, and was garrisoned at Shancheng.
Fu Jiàn had appointed Fu An to the role of Commander on his deathbed, and he was sent to Puban. Fu Sheng was now summoning him back.
阪 is pronounced similar to "fan". 廋 is pronounced "sou (sh-iu)". 陝 is pronounced "shan (sh-an)".
Shancheng is the modern city of Sanmenxia in Henan province.
The Palace Secretary Hu Wen and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yu, said to Fu Sheng, "There have been shooting stars in the Great Horn quadrant, and Mars has entered the Eastern Well. The Great Horn is the seat of Emperors, and Qinzhou lies within the boundaries of the Eastern Well. Within three years, the state will soon face a great death, with many great ministers dying; we implore Your Majesty to cultivate virtue and offer up prayers!"
The “Records on Astrology” say, "The Great Horn lies within the 攝提, and it signifies heavenly princes." And in another place, "The Eastern Well is a constellation of eight stars." And elsewhere, "The Eastern Well and the Carriage Ghost constellations correspond to Qinzhou and Yongzhou."
But Fu Sheng replied, "The Empress commands the realm along with me; she may serve as the 'great burial'. Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An conduct many affairs of state; they may serve as these 'great ministers'." So in the ninth month, Fu Sheng executed Empress Liang, Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An. Mao Gui was the Empress's uncle.
Deputy Director of the Right Zhao Shao and Protector of the Army of the Center Zhao Hui had a cousin, the Inspector of Luozhou, Zhao Ju, who also received Fu Sheng’s favor, and he appointed Zhao Ju as the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing. But Zhao Ju pleaded illness to refuse the post, and he said to Zhao Shao and Zhao Hui, "How can you go along with this plot of the royal family, to let entire families be exterminated? What crime did Mao or Liang commit, to deserve death? What achievement have I, to take their place? You men may follow your own course, but I must simply die!" He soon became sick with worry and passed away.
Zhao Ju's appointment to guard Yiyang was mentioned in the last year of the previous book (Book 99).
16. In Liang, Song Hun's army was at the great marsh at Wushi, where they went into mourning for Zhang Yaoling.
One of the earlier lords of Former Liang, Zhang Jun, had split the original Didao commandary, making part of it into Wushi commandary. When Song Hun marched west, his soldiers certainly did not march east towards Didao.
The Water Classic says, "Duye Marsh was in the northeast of Wuwei County." The Commentary to the Water Classic adds, "It was three hundred li north of Guzang." Duye corresponds to the "Zhuye Marsh" mentioned in the Tribute of Yu (Book of Documents, Tribute of Yu #10), which flows into the Wushi Marsh of Guzang, so this marsh was west of Guzang.
In the intercalary month, Song Hun's army reached Guzang. Zhang Zuo ordered Zhang Guan's brother Zhang Ju and son Zhang Song to be arrested, planning to kill them. When the two of them learned of it, they gathered together many people, and proclaimed, "Zhang Zuo is without principle; our older brother's grand army is already east of the city, and let anyone who dares oppose them suffer death with their whole clan!" Having said this, they rushed to open the western gate and let in Song Hun’s army.
The General Who Directs The Army Zhang Chang and others, fearing to suffer punishment, entered the palace and begged Zhang Chonghua's mother, Lady Ma, to shelter them in the palace, and offered to make the Marquis of Wu, Zhang Xuanjing, the new lord. Yi Chuai and others forced their troops into the palace, took hold of Zhang Chang and the others, and killed them.
Zhao Chang was the one who asked that Zhang Zuo take the throne: this was the crime he feared for.
靚 is pronounced "jing (j-ing)", or "jeng (j-eng)".
Zhang Zuo grasped his sword and ran out of the palace, giving a great shout, and calling on those around him to fight hard. But he had already lost the hearts of the people, and there was no one left who was willing to fight for him, so he was killed by the soldiers. Song Hun and the others cut off Zhang Zuo's head, proclaimed his death throughout all of Liangzhou’s territory, and burned his body by the side of the road. Everyone inside the city praised Song Hun’s name. Zhang Zuo was buried with the rites fit for a commoner, and his two sons were also put to death.
Song Hun and Zhang Ju raised up Zhang Xuanjing as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. A general amnesty was declared within Liang, and the former Western Jin reign title was restored, so that it was now the forty-third year of Jianxing. At this time, Zhang Xuanjing was seven years old.
Zhang Zuo had changed the reign era title to Jianxing at the beginning of the year, as mentioned in the last year of the previous book (Book 99).
17. When Zhang Guan reached Guzang, he pushed to make Zhang Xuanjing Prince of Liang, while he claimed for himself the titles of 使持節, Commander of all military affairs, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Zhangye. Song Hun was given the rank of Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.
A man from Longxi, Li Yan, refused to recognize Zhang Guan's rule; he took over his local territory, insisted on following the current Jin reign title as it was in the Southland, and summoned many men to his side.
That is to say, he used the reign title Yonghe. This was why Li Yan inclined towards Qin.
Zhang Guan sent his general Niu Ba to campaign against Li Yan, but when they were about to arrive at his territory, another man from Xiping named Wei Chen took over a commandary as well and rose in rebellion. Niu Ba's troops scattered, and he fled back to Guzang. Zhang Guan then dispatched his younger brother Zhang Ju to attack Wei Chen, and Wei was defeated. The Administrator of Jiuquan, Ma Ji, raised troops in an effort to assist Wei Chen, but Zhang Guan sent his Marshal Zhang Yao and Wang Guo against him, and they attacked and killed Ma Ji.
綝 is pronounced "chen (ch-in)".
The character 綝 is commonly pronounced either as Chen or as Lin. There seems to be no definite consensus.
18. In winter, the tenth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou Xie Shang was given command over Bingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou. He was stationed at Shouchun.
At that time, there were many refugees in Jin who had earlier fled from Qingzhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, and Youzhou, which were all provinces north of the Yangzi.
When the forces of Jin had first crossed to the south side of the Yangzi (after 311), Zu Tu was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered things from Qiao. In the first year of Yongchang (322), Zu Yue fell back to defend from Shouchun. In the fourth year of Xianhe during Emperor Cheng's reign (330), Yu Liang was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered the territory from Wuhu. In the fourth year of Xiankang (338), Mao Bao was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered from Zhucheng. In the sixth year (340), Yu Yi was the Inspector, and he administered from Wuhu again. In the first year of Yonghe (345), Zhao Yin was the Inspector, and he administered from Niuzhu. In the second year (346), Xie Shang was the Inspector, and he administered from Wuhu yet again. Now, in 355, Xie Shang advanced to Shouchun, which was the western border territory for Jiankang. Since his army was garrisoned at Shouchun, it could now defend the Yangzi better than at many places like Liyang and Wuhu.
Wuhu is still a city in modern Anhui. It is on the southern bank of the Yangzi near Nanjing, while Shouchun is to the northwest of it across the river, some ways west of Nanjing. Zhucheng was the city mentioned earlier in Book 96 (339.22), when Yu Liang sent Mao Bao to command a garrison there and provoked a preemptive attack from Shi Hu. Niuzhu is the modern city of Ma’anshan, slightly northeast of Wuhu.
19. The warlord Duan Kan, nominally Jin’s General Who Guards The North, wrote a missive to Murong Jun, criticizing his conducting of rites, and opposing his declaration as Emperor. Murong Jun was greatly enraged by this. In the eleventh month, he appointed the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, as Grand Marshal and General Who Protects The Army, with Yang Wu serving as his adjutant. They went to attack Duan Kan.
Since Murong Jun was a descendant of the Duan clan, Duan Kan felt free to criticize his conducting of rites.
龕 is pronounced "kan (k-an)". 騖 is pronounced similar to "wu".
Murong Huang’s wife was Lady Duan, and she was probably Murong Jun’s mother. Even if not, his grandfather Murong Hui’s wife was also from the Duan clan.
20. In Qin, Xin Lao was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing (since Zhao Ju had refused it). Zhao Shao was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, the Master of writing Dong Rong became Deputy Director of the Right, and the Protector of the Army of the Center Zhao Hui became the Colonel Director of Retainers.
21. In the twelfth month, the King of Goguryeo Go Soe sent tribute to Yan, and asked for the release of his mother. Murong Jun agreed to this, and sent his General of the Central Palace Diao Kan to escort Lady Ju back to her own state. He further granted Go Soe the titles of Grand General Who Conquers The East, Inspector of Yingzhou, and Duke of Lelang, and treated him like a prince.
The imprisonment of Go Soe's mother was mentioned in the eighth year of Xiankang (342.13) in Book 97.
樂浪 is pronounced like "luolang".
That is to say, he treated Go Soe as Prince of Goguryeo.
Most sources pronounce 樂浪 as Lelang. In Korean it is Naglang.
22. Feng Yang of Shangdang cast out Yan's Administrator of that place, Duan Gang. He seized control of Anmin, declaring himself its Administrator, and sent an offer of submission to Jin.
The "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei states, "During Yan, the Administrators of Shangdang administered the territory from Anmin. Anmin city was in Xiangyuan County. During the Yongjia era (307-313), Liu Kun sent Zhang Yi to build it, and since its purpose was to calm the people of Shangdang, he named it Anmin (literally "calm the people")."
23. The Prime Minister of Qin, Lei Ruo'er, was of an upright and outspoken nature. He always reported the loose governance of Zhao Shao and Dong Rong to the court, and they gnashed their teeth whenever they saw him. They appealed to Fu Sheng, and he killed Lei Ruo'er along with his nine sons and twenty-seven grandsons. Many of the Qiang greatly opposed this, because Lei had been one of the Qiang as well.
Lei Ruo'er was a chieftain of the Qiang of Nan'an. Since he had been killed even though he committed no crime, this alienated the various Qiang tribes.
Although Fu Sheng was normally of a calm disposition, he could quickly change in front of all his ministers. He kept ready at hand various tools for when he wished to harm others, including hammers, pincers, saws, and chisels. After coming to the throne, when he wished to dispose of empresses, consorts, or ministers, killing more than five hundred of them, he would cut off their shins, slash their sides, saw their necks, rip out their unborn child, and other behavior of this nature.
24. Murong Jun was concerned about the strength of Duan Kan's defenses. He said to Murong Ke, "If Duan Kan’s army holds the line of the Yellow River, you do not need to force a crossing; it will be enough to capture Lü Hu and then return." Murong Ke split off several light detachments to reach the river, and they used boats to observe Duan Kan's plans.
Lü Hu still held control over Yewang.
Yewang is the modern city of Qinyang in Henan province. At this time, it was presumably north of the Yellow River, whose course has changed drastically over the centuries.
Duan Kan had a younger brother, Duan Pi, heroic and skilled in planning. Duan Pi said to his brother, "Murong Ke knows well how to use his soldiers, and he has many of them at hand. If he crosses the river and advances to the city, I fear even if you beg to surrender, it will be denied you. Elder Brother, please keep a steady defense; if you lead your best soldiers to guard the line of the river, and fight to maintain it, then your numbers will swell, and victory is assured. If you refuse to do so, then it would be better to surrender at once; it would not be too late to still hold title as Marquis over a thousand households." But Duan Kan did not heed him. Duan Pi’s repeated requests of this nature were ignored, until Duan Kan, greatly angered, killed him.
Posted: Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:07 am
The Twelfth Year of Yonghe (The Bingchen Year, 356 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Murong Ke led his troops across the Yellow River. When they were still over a hundred li away from Duan Kan’s capital at Guanggu, Duan Kan brought thirty thousand men against them in battle. On the day Bingshen, Murong Ke greatly routed Duan Kan at Zishui; he captured his younger brother Duan Qin, and killed his Chief Clerk of the Left Yuan Fan and others.
The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Murong Ke routed Duan Kan south of the Ji River." (Jinshu 110.17) The above passage in ZZTJ mentions that Murong Ke was still over a hundred li from Guanggu, and that the two armies fought the battle at the Zi River. The Water Classic says, "The Zhuo River passes west of Guanggu city, and flows east until it reaches Guangrao, where it enters Lake Judian. To the north, it also joins with the Zi River."
The Zi or Zihe River and Guangrao are both still places in modern Shandong. Lake Judian was northwest of modern Shouguang in Shandong.
Among Duan’s commanders was the 王友, Pilu Yu, who performed many great achievements during the battle. When Murong Ke heard of this man's worth, he sent men to look for him, but by then Pilu Yu had already died, and many thousands of the enemy soldiers had surrendered. Duan Kan fled back to defend Guanggu, and Murong Ke pursued him and put the city under siege.
When Duan Kan declared himself Prince of Qi, he also created the office of 王友.
蔚 is pronounced "yu (y-u)".
2. Qin's Minister of Works, Wang Duo, was of a stern nature. He burned with rage against the Deputy Director of the Right Dong Rong and the Palace Attendant Qiang Guo for their sophistry. Whenever he was at court, Dong Rong never tried to utter a word. Someone said to him, "Lord Dong is a worthy man without peer; you should not be so harsh with him." Wang Duo replied, "Dong Long nothing but a chicken or a dog, and yet he thinks he can order around ministers of state!"
Long was Dong Rong's childhood name.
At that time, there were sudden changes in the heavens. Dong Rong and Qiang Guo said to Fu Sheng, "The movements of the constellations are very serious. A worthy minister must be offered up." Fu Sheng asked, "Should this worthy minister be the Grand Marshal or the Minister of Works?" Dong Rong replied, "The Grand Marshal is indispensable to the state; he cannot be killed."
The Grand Marshal refers to the Prince of Wudu, Fu An, who was Fu Sheng's uncle.
In the final sentence here, some versions have "(Qiang) Guo" instead of "(Dong) Rong".
Fu Sheng therefore executed Wang Guo. While Wang Guo was being led out to be executed, Dong Rong said to him, "Do you dare to still say that Dong Long is just a chicken or dog?" Wang Duo only glared at him and loudly rebuked him.
The Inspector of Luozhou, Du Yu, was Wang Duo's nephew. The Deputy Director of the Left Zhao Shao disliked him, so he accused Du Yu to Fu Sheng of planning to defect to Jin, and Fu Sheng executed him.
3. On the day Renxu, Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the Taiji Palace. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xin Lao, was put in charge of distributing the wine. After becoming drunk, Fu Sheng was angry and said, "How can such weak men drink and yet still be in their seats?" So he shot an arrow at Xin Lao, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to drink; they all fell forward out of their seats and onto their faces. Fu Sheng was thereafter greatly pleased.
4. The Xiongnu chieftain Liu Wuhuan passed away. His younger brother Liu Etou took over his command, planning to go over to Dai. In the second month, the King of Dai, Tufa Shijian, marched his soldiers west to Linhe. Liu Etou was afraid and offered submission.
犍 is pronounced "jian (j-an)". 閼 is pronounced "e (w-e)".
5. Murong Ke offered amnesty to Duan Kan's cities.
Before Murong Ke had besieged Guanggu, he first offered amnesty and regained control over Duan Kan's other cities.
On the day Yichou, Wang Teng, Duan Kan's Inspector of Xuzhou and Duke of Yangdu, brought his forces in to submit. Murong Ke ordered Wang Teng to return to garrison Yangdu.
Duan Kan split Yangdu County off from Langye in Xuzhou. Du You remarked, "Under Han, the old city of Yangdu County was south of Yishui County in Yizhou."
Yangdu is part of the modern city of Linyi in Shandong. Du You (735-812) was a scholar during the Tang dynasty.
6. Qin's Grand General Who Conquers The East, the Prince of Jin Fu Liu, sent his advisors Yan Fu and Liang Shu to Liang, to speak with the Prince of Liang, Zhang Xuanjing. When Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at Guzang, Zhang Guan received them. He said, "I am a subject of Jin; a subject has no dealings with foreign states, so why do the two of you come to insult me?"
Yan and Liang replied, "Your lordship and the Prince of Jin are neighbors; although mountains and rivers create barriers, the same wind blows through both realms. We have come to improve relations; why is your lordship so combative?"
Qin had sent Fu Liu to guard Puban (near Luoyang), which was not on the border with Liangzhou, so this passage about winds blowing through both realms was just talk.
Zhang Guan said, "We are utterly loyal to Jin, and have been so for six different lords. To treat with General Fu is to abandon the wishes of our late lord, and to ruin the happiness of the people; what sense is there in that?"
Counting Zhang Gui, Zhang Shi, Zhang Mao, Zhang Jun, Zhang Chonghua, Zhang Yaoling, and Zhang Zuo, Former Liang had thus far had seven lords. Yet Zhang Guan says six; by this he means not to include Zhang Zuo among the other lords.
Yan and Liang replied, "The Jin dynasty has declined; it has surrendered Heaven's mandate, and merely lingers on. Two of your own lords recognized the supremacy of the north, and inclined towards the two Zhaos. Now our state of Qin has grown virtuous and prosperous. If the Prince of Liang wishes to proclaim himself Emperor of all territory west of the river, he cannot but make a foe of Qin. But if he abandons minor affairs for greater, and forswears Jin loyalty in favor of Qin, he can assuredly safeguard his destiny!"
Zhang Mao had earlier called himself a vassal of Han-Zhao, and Zhang Jun had done the same for Later Zhao.
Zhang Guan said, “The Central Provinces ate their words before. By the time our carriages had returned from the Shi clan, their soldiers and cavalry were already on our doorstep. I dare not believe you."
In the second year of Yonghe (346), when Zhang Chonghua came to the throne, he sent his tokens of submission to Shi Hu, yet Shi Hu sent Wang Zhuo to invade Liang.
Yan and Liang replied, "Since ancient times, when kings and emperors have taken hold of the Central Provinces, they have transformed all aspects of government. Where Zhao became evil, Qin has restored trust and virtue. How could you believe that we would give you the same treatment as Zhao? Witness what happened when Zhang Xian and Yang Chu both raised soldiers and refused to submit; our late lord campaigned against them, but he offered amnesty to the other criminals, and favored them with office. That was most unlike the Shi clan."
Qin had treated everyone with the sword thus far, which was the same as Zhao. Such talk cannot get much lower.
Zhang Xian's capture was mentioned in the eighth year of Yonghe in Book 98 (350.28), but Qin had not actually captured Yang Chu. (In their last attempt, their army had been defeated, as seen in Book 99, 353.10) This was more of Yan Fu's and Liang Shu's rhetoric.
Zhang Guan said, "If it is as you say, and Qin truly displays virtue without equal, then why do you not first conquer the Southland, and take the whole realm under Qin's grasp? Why does General Fu shirk the duties of the mandate?"
Yan and Liang replied, "The people of the Southland tattoo their bodies; its paths defile and betray, and transform the grand into meager. If your lordship can provide soldiers for the Southland, then your lands may contain virtue in their bosom, and serve as an example to all. But if your lordship ignores Heaven's mandate, and insists upon the Southland being conquered before its allotted time, then we fear what may happen to your lordship's people."
In ancient times (from the Warring States era and before), it was the custom of the barbarians of Jing (or Chu) to cut their hair and tattoo their bodies in order to avoid the wrath of the flood dragon. This is what Yan Fu and Liang Shu are alluding to. Yet, at the very time they were speaking, those who wore civilized clothing were all in the Southland, and had been for some time. Yan Fu and Liang Shu were thus blathering on as though they represented Yao criticizing the licentious, while knowing full well what sort of man their own lord was!
Zheng Xuan has said, "Foulness can still kill." The Book of Changes says, "When Gaozong of Shang campaigned against Guifang, it took him three years to subdue it." (63.4) There were those who said that the people of Jing and Chu were not very brave, but that the roads themselves would fight against invaders, and turn the grand into the meagre. This was how Yan Fu and Liang Shu were also criticizing the Southland.
Yao was one of the Three Rulers and Five Sovereigns, often said to be the exemplar of moral and upright behavior.
Zheng Xuan was a scholar during the final years of the Han dynasty. He wrote numerous commentaries that were critical for later interpretations of Confucianism.
Guifang was a realm near the ancient Shang dynasty. Its inhabitants are probably the same as those later known as the Xiongnu.
Zhang Guan retorted, "I control three provinces, and have outfitted a hundred thousand men; to the west I am guarded by verdant mountains, and to the east by the great river. If any wish to attack, I am well prepared to defend; what fear need I have of Qin?"
The three provinces were Liangzhou, Hezhou, and Shazhou (the Western Reaches), which Zhang Mao and Zhang Jun had split off from the original Liangzhou.
Yan and Liang replied, "You speak of mountains and rivers; how do yours compare with the Xiao Mountains and the Han(?)? You boast of the people's bounty; how do yours compare with the produce of Qinzhou and Yongzhou? Du Hong and Zhang Ju had the resources of Zhao at their disposal; their soldiers were strong and their resources plenty. But with the ambition of first taking Guanzhong, and then rolling up all within the four seas, our late lord raised his banners to the west. Ice melted and clouds parted; within the space of a month, no one failed to acknowledge his rule. If your lordship remains stubborn on account of your lands, our current lord will grow exceedingly angry, and fling his million troops against you, beating the drums to march west, and then who can say what might happen to your territory?"
The account of Fu Jian's conquest of Guanzhong was related in the sixth year of Yonghe (350) in Book 98.
The Xiao (or Yao) Mountains are a mountain range stretching north from the Luo River to Puban, on the eastern border of Qin.
Zhang Guan smiled and said, "But this is a matter for the Prince to decide, not me."
Yan and Liang said, "The Prince is indeed a worthy hero of noble character, but in the end he is still young. With your lordship in the role of Yi Yan and Huo Guang, the state will know peace; we pray you lend us your ear."
Zhang Guan was afraid, and so he sent orders on behalf of Zhang Xuanjing professing submission to Qin. Qin therefore confirmed Zhang Xuanjing's titles and offices.
7. General Liu Du attacked Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Wang Lang, at Lushi. Yan's General Muyu Zhangqing made a supporting movement, attacking Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Qiang Zhe, at Peishibao. Fu Sheng sent his General of the Front, the Prince of Xinxing Fu Fei, to oppose Liu Du, while he sent his General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, to oppose Muyu Zhangqing. Fu Fei was eventually forced to retreat by Liu Du. Deng Qiang met Muyu Zhangqing in battle and won a great victory, capturing Muyu and bringing back over two thousand heads and equipment.
During Han, Lushi County was part of Hongnong commandary. Jin had placed it in Shangluo commandary. The Tang dynasty would later make it part of Guozhou.
During the Chaos of Yongjia (310-316), the Pei clan (of Yingchuan) built a fortress for self-defense to escape from the danger. Later on, whenever soldiers camped there, they still called the old fort Peishibao (literally "Pei Clan's Fort"). It was on the border with Hedong.
長 is pronounced "zhang (zh-ang)".
The Wang Lang mentioned here has the same name as the Wang Lang who had served Later Zhao and was last mentioned fleeing to Xiangguo. It is possible it is the same person, but that does not seem to be clear.
8. Huan Wen requested that the Jin capital be returned to Luoyang, so that the old imperial tombs could be repaired. He made the request more than ten times, but the court did not agree. Huan was appointed as Grand Commander, with authority over Sizhou and Jizhou, and planned to campaign against Yao Xiang.
9. In the third month, Fu Sheng ordered the people of the Three Regions (around Chang’an) to construct bridges over the Wei River. The Household Counsellor With Golden Tassel, Cheng Gong, remonstrated with him, saying that the corvee labor would hinder farming. Fu Sheng killed him.
10. In summer, the fourth month, a great storm whipped Chang'an, and the houses were struck by wood. There was great fear in the palace, that perhaps thieves might slip in, and so the palace gates were shut even during daytime, only opening again after five days.
The wind snatched tiles off the roofs of houses, and pulled the eaves off of them.
Fu Sheng warned the thieves that he would carve out their hearts. The Household Counsellor of the Left Qiang Ping remonstrated with him: "Heaven sent this disaster upon us. Your Majesty must win back the hearts of the people and appease the gods. Now is the time to offer forgiveness in order to reestablish virtue, and thus end the disturbances." Fu Sheng became angry, and grasped a hammer and smote Qiang Ping to death with it.
The Guard General, Prince of Guangping Fu Huangmei, the General of the Front, Prince of Xinxing Fu Fei, and the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, kowtowed before Fu Sheng and remonstrated with him, because Qiang Ping had been Empress Dowager Qiang's younger brother. Fu Sheng did not heed them, and even ordered the three of them banished: Fu Huangmei to Western Pingyi, Fu Fei to Eastern Fufeng, and Deng Qiang to be the Administrator of Xianyang. However, respecting their bravery, he did not order them executed.
There had been a Weicheng County as part of Fufeng under Former Han, which was the same place as Xianyang under the Qin dynasty. Later Han and Jin had abolished it. According to the "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei, "Xianyang commandary is administered from Shian County. It was known as Weicheng during Han, but Shi Le renamed it. It was one of several commandaries that the several tribes created after the Disaster of Yongjia."
In the fifth month, the Empress Dowager, Lady Qiang, passed away out of grief; her posthumous name was Empress Dowager Mingde.
11. Yao Xiang marched from Xuchang to attack Zhou Cheng at Luoyang.
Zhou Cheng's seizure of Luoyang was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) during the last book (Book 99, 354.2).
12. In the sixth month, Fu Sheng sent out a proclamation stating, "I have received the mandate of the Yellow Heaven, and countless lords bow to me. Yet since I came to the throne, whenever something bad happened, slanders and rumors began to spread, and now the realm is filled with them! I have not killed even a thousand people, yet people say I am cruel! If we walk together, then we may still have hope. Wherever someone is sternly punished for a great crime, there too am I!"
During that spring, from Tong Gate west up until Chang'an, tigers and wolves became violent, and they filled the roads. At night they would burst into houses, and rather than eat one of the Six Livestock, they would turn on and eat people, and over seven hundred people died in this manner. The people abandoned their farming and silkworm cultivating, instead gathering together into towns and cities, so that they would not have to fear being harmed. In autumn, the seventh month, several Qin ministers sent in petitions requesting that something be done to halt the calamity. Fu Sheng said, "It's only natural that wild beasts that are starving will eat people. They will stop once they've filled their bellies. How can I avert such a thing? Rather, this is Heaven showing its love for the people; those who died were all criminals, and Heaven was only helping me to kill them all!"
That is to say, the roads were filled with tigers and wolves. Some versions say "blocked" instead of "filled".
The text is saying that Fu Sheng's cruelty matched that of Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang.
The Six Livestock are horses, cattle, sheep, chickens, dogs, and pigs.
13. On the day Bingzi, Yan's Crown Prince, Murong Ye, passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xianhuai (“the Cherished”).
Yao Xiang attacked Luoyang, but despite assaulting it for over a month, he could not capture it. His Chief Clerk, Wang Liang, remonstrated, saying, "You have a heroic legacy and are well-regarded; your soldiers are strong and your people numerous. But now you camp here outside this city, expending your strength upon assaults, and exposing yourself to bandits. This course can only lead to ruin!" Yao Xiang did not listen to him.
14. Huan Wen marched north from Jiangling. He sent his Protector Gao Wu to capture Luyang, and his General Who Upholds The State Dai Shi to camp along the river, while he himself led the bulk of his army forward.
As they passed the crude shacks that now dotted the Central Plains, with deep emotion Huan Wen stood on the upper deck of his ship and said to his subordinates, "For causing the Central Plains to fall into the grasp of the barbarians and lie in ruin for a hundred years, Wang Yan and his ilk bear a heavy burden!"
The upper deck was a part of large ships.
Wang Yan and the other advocates of the "Pure Conversation" school during Western Jin had not busied themselves with state affairs, and it was because of that that the barbarians rebelled against the Hua (the ethnic Han) people.
Qingtan, or Pure Conversation, was a Daoist philosophical school of thought that arose during the Wei-Jin era, and continued to be popular through the Southern and Northern dynasties.
Huan Wen's 記室, Yuan Hong of Chenjun, said, "Fate naturally brings its falls and rises; why were Wang Yan and his friends necessarily to blame?"
The Dukes and other noble families of Jin each had their 記室, who was responsible for composing memorials, compiling records, and distributing proclamations.
Huan Wen sternly replied, "In bygone days, Liu Jingsheng (Biao) owned a large ox weighing a thousand catties. It ate ten times as much fodder and beans as ordinary oxen. Yet when it came to bearing heavy burdens or traveling long distances, it wasn't even the equal of a sick calf. When Cao Cao invaded Jingzhou, he cooked the beast and fed it to his men, and everyone rejoiced."
Huan Wen was using the story of the cattle as a metaphor to instruct Yuan Hong, and was really talking about people who drew government salaries yet were useless for administration.
Liu Biao's style name was Jingsheng.
The account of Cao Cao's entry into Jingzhou is described in the thirteenth year of Jian'an, in Book 65.
This anecdote is also referenced in A New Account of the Tales of the World. For an English reference of Cao Cao’s entry into Jingzhou, see To Establish Peace by Dr. Rafe de Crespigny.
15. In the eighth month, on the day Yihai, Huan Wen reached the Yi River.
The Yi River is south of Luoyang.
Yao Xiang broke off his siege of Luoyang and marched his best troops to the woods on the north bank of the Yi River. He sent a messenger to Huan Wen, with the message, "I see you have led the royal troops here. I am prepared to return to royal authority, turn over my three small armies, and offer my submission by the side of the road."
Huan Wen's reply was, "I have come to recover the Central Plains, and to offer my respects at the imperial tombs, not to appease you. If you wish to present yourself, you ought to come in person; why bother sending another in your place?"
Yao Xiang therefore prepared to fight a battle at the Yi River. Huan Wen prepared his soldiers and came against Yao Xiang, casting off his own armor in order to lead his soldiers. Yao Xiang suffered a great defeat, losing several thousand men. He fled with several thousand of his remaining cavalry to seek refuge in the northern hills of Luoyang. During the nights, many of the local people sent their wives and children to join him, more than five thousand.
The northern hills of Luoyang means the Beimang Hills.
Yao Xiang was regarded as so much a hero that, although he continued to suffer defeats to Huan Wen, the people knew that he was still there; he comforted the old and cherished the young, and those who fled he gathered together. So Huan Wen’s army spread a rumor that Yao Xiang had fallen ill and had already died, and his soldiers seized all the women and children still in Xuchang and Luoyang, who shed tears whenever they looked to the north.
The text is saying how greatly Yao Xiang had captured the hearts of the people.
Yao Xiang fled to the west. Huan Wen’s soldiers pursued Yao Xiang, but they could not catch him. During the pursuit, a certain Yang Liang of Hongnong left Yao's band and went over to Huan Wen. Huan asked him what sort of man Yao Xiang was. Yang Liang responded, "He has the bearing of an immortal; in heroism and in valor, he even surpasses men like Sun Ce."
16. Zhou Cheng led his troops out of Luoyang to submit. Huan Wen camped his men in front of the Taiji Palace, before relocating to Jinyong. On the day Yichou, he visited all the imperial tombs, repairing the places that had been damaged, and appointing a Tomb Prefect for each.
During Han, the imperial tombs had their villages, and each village had a Prefect. Later, the several tombs would each have a Tomb Prefect, and they were subordinate to the Minister of Ceremonies.
He gave orders for General Who Guards The West Xie Shang to be in command of affairs in Sizhou, and to garrison at Luoyang. Once Xie Shang had arrived, he left the Administrator of Yingchuan Mao Muzhi, the Protector Chen Wu, and the Administrator of Henan Dai Shi with two thousand troops to form a garrison for Luoyang and to protect the imperial tombs. He brought over three thousand families from that region to the area between the Yangzi and the Han River, and Zhou Cheng was taken there as well.
17. Yao Xiang fled to Pingyang, where Qin's Inspector of Bingzhou, his former subordinate Yi Chi, once again surrendered to him with his troops. Yao Xiang then captured Xiangling. Qin's Grand General, Zhang Ping, attacked Yao Xiang, but Yao defeated him. Following this, the two of them swore brotherhood, each leading his own troops.
It was mentioned that Yin Chi had abandoned Yao Xiang in the eighth year of Yonghe (352) in the last book (Book 99).
During Han, Xiangling County had been part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Later on, Northern Wei changed its name from Xiangling to Qinchang County, and under Sui and Tang its name was changed back to Xiangling.
In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), Zhang Ping had submitted to Qin, but then had switched over to Yan. The "Tongdian" says that Qin had won him over again with new titles.
The Tongdian was an enormous encyclopedia about Chinese history up through the Tang dynasty. It was written by the scholar Du You, mentioned earlier.
18. Duan Kan sent his subordinate Duan Yun to plead for aid from Jin. The Jin court ordered the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, to bring his troops back with Duan Yun to assist Duan Kan.
Some versions write 薀 as 蘊. 薀 is pronounced "yun (y-en)".
When Xun Xian reached Langye, he feared the strength of Yan's soldiers, so he did not dare advance. Wang Teng invaded Juancheng. Xun Xian advanced to attack Yangdu. There were heavy rains then, and the city was flooded. Xun Xian captured Wang Teng and executed him.
This was the old Langye.
This Juancheng County had been part of Dong Commandary under Han, and it was under Puyang during Jin. It is not the ancient Juancheng County, which was at this time called Qiao County.
Duan Kan had earlier appointed this Wang Teng as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was camped at Yangdu. At this time, he had surrendered to Yan, and it was on behalf of Yan that he was invading.
19. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi, there was an eclipse.
20. Fu Sheng ate a large quantity of red dates one night. In the morning, he felt sick, so he sent for the Prefect of Imperial Doctors, Cheng Yan, to diagnose him. Cheng Yan said, "Your Majesty is not truly sick; you must have eaten too many red dates." Fu Sheng said, "You are not a magician; how could you know I was eating red dates?" He ordered Cheng Yan's execution.
21. Murong Ke kept Duan Kan under siege at Guanggu.
His officers asked him to launch an assault on the city. Murong Ke said, “When using soldiers, there are courses one should pursue and courses one should avoid, and the two cannot be mistaken for one another. If we and the enemy are equally strong, then if they receive any reinforcement, I fear it will pose a threat to our rear, so we would not be able to risk an attack. If we are strong and the enemy is weak, and they do not have any reinforcements, then it is enough for us to contain them, while we also ensure the defenses of our other territories. By such means we can defeat them.
“The Art of War states, 'When you have ten times the enemy's numbers, surround them; when five times, attack'. Although Duan Kan has numerous soldiers, they are ultimately conflicted. At the battle at Jinan, although they fought well, Duan Kan did not use them well, and so received a defeat. Now that we have them besieged, they will hold fast to the defense, and if we launch a vigorous assault, we would need to account for many days to capture the city, and we would necessarily suffer many casualties.
Murong Ke means the battle at the Zi River. He calls it Jinan because it was at the boundary between the north and south of the Ji River.
Some versions say "tens of days" instead of "days".
“Ever since we captured the Central Plains, the soldiers have not had a moment's rest, but you are always demanding more of them. If they forget to sleep at night, they will be of little use before they drop dead! So if you want to take the city, you must not demand to achieve things so quickly!”
His officers said, "We will demand this no more." When this discussion became generally known in the camp, the people rejoiced. Thus they kept up their siege lines, and the people of Qi worked to keep the Yan army provided with grain.
It is curious to note that Murong Ke almost always advocated besieging cities and not assaulting them, a direct repudiation of one of the Art of War's tenets. "Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities. The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets, movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over against the walls will take three months more. The general, unable to control his irritation, will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, with the result that one-third of his men are slain, while the town still remains untaken. Such are the disastrous effects of a siege." (3.2)
22. Duan Kan defended at Yingcheng. He stripped the roads bare of firewood, and the people within the city began to eat each other. Duan Kan gathered his host and went forth to battle. Murong Ke routed him between the walls, first sending out riders to guard each gate. Duan Kan himself slipped away, alone escaping into the city, while his soldiers did not. Morale within the city plummeted, and no one was willing to defend the city.
At that time, the Yan army had constructed siege walls outside the city, so the battle was between the walls.
The text means the several gates of Guanggu.
In the eleventh month, on the day Bingzi, Duan Kan bound himself and went out to offer his surrender, and sent Zhi Zhu, who had killed Murong Han's son Murong Gou, to Ji. Murong Ke calmed the people and pacified the Qi region. He relocated more than three thousand households of Xianbei, Hu, and Jie to Ji. Murong Jun subjected Zhi Zhu to the five punishments, and appointed Duan Kan as General Who Lays In Ambush. Murong Ke left Murong Chen to guard Guanggu, and appointed the Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing Ju Yin as Administrator of Donglai. He also appointed Xianyu Liang, the current Administrator of Zhangwu, as Administrator of Jijun, before returning to Ji.
The account of Zhu Tu killing Murong Gou and fleeing to Duan Kan was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (344) in the last book (Book 99).
This is presumably the same Xianyu Liang as was mentioned in earlier Yan accounts.
23. This Ju Yin whom Murong Ke left to govern Donglai was the son of Ju Peng. At this time, Ju Peng was Yan's 大長秋. He wrote to his son warning him, "Wang Mi and Cao Yi must still have descendants in the area. You must treat them well and comfort them, for if you do not ease the old hatreds, then the chaos will only continue!"
嶷 is pronounced "yi (y-i)".
Ju Yin agreed, and sought out Wang Mi's son Wang Li and Cao Yi's grandson Cao Yan at Zhongshan. There he met with them, and affected deep feelings all around. Ju Peng subsequently sent to them gifts of carts, horses, and clothing. The people of that area thus knew peace.
The account of Ju Peng's flight from Donglai to Yan is recounted in the second year of Taixing (319) from Sima Rui's era, in Book 91.
This is the same Ju Peng who was mentioned during Zhao’s 338 invasion of Yan as leading two hundred braves to Jicheng. In 319, he had been Jin’s Administrator of Donglai. Back then, he was attacked by Cao Yi and Wang Mi. Ju Peng’s strength was about equal to Cao Yi’s, and he had the support of the people. But in order to prevent senseless fighting, he left Donglai behind and fled north to Liaodong.
24. When Xun Xian heard that Duan Kan had already been defeated, he retreated back to Xiapi, and left Zhuge You and the Administrator of Gaoping, Liu Zhuang, with three thousand men to hold Langye. The Army Advisor of Qiao, Dai Dun, and others held Qinshan with two thousand men.
Biancheng later became the city Junyi. I believe that 汴 is properly written as 卞. It is the same city as Bianxian from the state of Lu (from the Spring and Autumn era). Liu Xu remarked, "The old city of Bianxian is in Sishui County in Yanzhou."
Liu Xu was a prominent official during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period that followed the Tang dynasty. He was the chief editor of the Old Book of Tang, one of the main histories of that dynasty.
The Yan general Murong Lan camped at Biancheng. Xun Xian marched to attack him and killed him.
25. The Jin court ordered the 兼 Minister of Works and Regular Attendant of 散 Cavalry, Che Guan, and others to go to Luoyang with staffs of authority and repair the five imperial tombs there. In the twelfth month, on the day Gengxu, the Emperor and his ministers all dressed in fine linen, and spent three days at the Taiji Palace.
These were the five Jin imperial tombs: the tomb of Emperor Xuan, Sima Yi, at Mount Shouyang in Heyin; the tomb of Emperor Jing, Sima Shi, called Junping; the tomb of Emperor Wen, Sima Zhao, called Chongyang; the tomb of Emperor Wu, Sima Yan, called Junyang; and the tomb of Emperor Hui, Sima Zhong, called Taiyang.
車 is pronounced "che (ch-e)".
For fine linen, one uses fifteen rolls of cloth, taking out the better half.
26. Xie Shang, Jin’s Commander of military affairs in Sizhou, had still not recovered from his illness, so he had the Lord of Danyang, Wang Huzhi, act in his place, but he died before he could set out. This Wang Huzhi was the son of Wang Yi.
Some copies add "but he died before he set out" at the end of this passage.
Wang Yi was Wang Dun's cousin; he was mentioned in the third year of Jianxing of Emperor Mindi (316) in Book 89. 廙 is pronounced "yi (y-i)" or "yi (y-i)".
27. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Guo, was killed by his uncle Yang Jun, who set himself up. Yang Jun was recognized as the new Duke of Chouchi. Yang Guo's son Yang An fled to Qin.
Qin would later use Yang An to capture Chouchi. How could he not have been Yang Guo's son?
Posted: Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:08 am
The First Year of Shengping (The Dingsi Year, 357 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renxu, Emperor Mu of Jin had his rite of passage as an adult. Empress Dowager Chu resigned her role over the government. There was a general amnesty and a changing of the reign title, and Empress Dowager Chu retired to the Chongde Palace.
2. Murong Jun appointed the Inspector of Youzhou, Yi Yi, as Household Counsellor of the Left. Before they set out for the capital, Yi Yi’s wife and concubines all rode in deer-drawn carriages, and his son Yi Zhang followed behind with ten horses and dressed in fine splendor, welcoming his father on the road. Yi Yi was furious, and he shut himself up inside his carriage without saying anything. When they reached the city, Yi Yi held deep responsibility, but Yi Zhang was still not satisfied.
By the city, the text means Ji. In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), the capital of Yan was moved to Ji, while only the terraces remained at Longcheng. Yi Yi stayed behind there to handle affairs, and he had guarded Longcheng as Inspector of Youzhou.
Yi Yi often worried about defeats, but Yi Zhang constantly got himself promoted, first to Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and then to Secretary to the Middle Minister. Yi Yi lamented, "When I was young, I studied to improve myself, and I guarded the way by which I gained success. Only thus was I able to avoid causing any offense. But my son does not conduct himself frugally, but lavishly follows the latests trends, and lives flashily. How can these things only be my son's ill-gotten good luck? Truly it is a sign of the decline of the times."
3. In the second month, on the day Guichou, Murong Jun appointed his son Murong Wei, the Prince of Zhongshan, as Crown Prince. There was a general amnesty, and the reign title in Yan was changed to Guangshou.
4. Venus entered the Eastern Well quadrant of the sky. The Qin astrologers said, "Venus is the bringer of punishment, and Qinzhou's star lies within the Eastern Well. This points to an uprising of soldiers against the capital." Fu Sheng said, "So Venus went into the well; it must be thirsty. What's strange about that?"
5. Yao Xiang planned to conquer Guanzhong. In summer, the fourth month, he marched from Beiju to camp at Xingcheng.
During Han, Beiju was part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "屈 is pronounced 'ju (j-u)'." During the Spring and Autumn era, the young Duke Yiwu of Jin (Duke Hui of Jin) lived there. According to the "Records" and the "Tribute of Yu" in the Book of Documents, Mount Hukou was in the southeast of Beiju County. According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, "Beiju is ten li west of the Yellow River, and the river has a source at Mount Mengmen." So Yao Xiang crossed over the Yellow River in traveling from Beiju to camp at Shacheng. The History of the Five Dynasties says, "Mount Hukou is in Changning County in Fenzhou." Song Bai remarked, "In Cizhou there is Jixiang County, which during Han was called Beiju County; the modern county is twenty-one li north of the old city, which was Hanli."
The "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei says, "Xingcheng is in Chengcheng County." According to Yan Shigu, "Chengcheng was known during the Han as Zheng County in Pingyi." 徵 is pronounced similar to "cheng". According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Shacheng was north of Mount Malan. Du You remarked, "The Shacheng which Yao Chang guarded was seven li west of modern Fangzhou."
Yao Xiang sent his General Who Upholds The State Yao Lan to attack Fucheng, and sent his General of 曜武 Yao Yisheng and his General of the Left Wang Qin to respectively attack the Qiang and the Hu. Yao Lan was Yao Xiang's cousin; Yao Yisheng was his elder brother.
This Fucheng was the same as Fucheng County in the Tang dynasty's Fangzhou. Northern Wei changed its name to 敷城 (Fucheng), and Sui changed it further to 鄜城 (Fucheng).
More than fifty thousand households of Qiang, Hu, and other people of Qin fled. The Qin general Fu Feilong attacked Yao Lan, and captured him. Yao Xiang brought his troops forward and captured Huangluo. Fu Sheng sent his Grand Guard General, the Prince of Guangping Fu Huangmei, against him with fifty thousand horse and foot, and along with Fu Huangmei went the General Who Pacifies The North Fu Dao, the Dragon-Soaring General and Prince of Donghai Fu Jian, and the General Who Establishes Fortitude Deng Qiang. Yao Xiang remained behind his walls and did not offer battle.
Deng Qiang's title, General Who Establishes Fortitude, was originally General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Establishes Fortitude during Han and Cao-Wei. It later became the title for a full general.
Deng Qiang said to Fu Huangmei, "Yao Xiang has been defeated before by Huan Wen and Zhang Ping, and this nettles him. He will wish to prove himself a strong wolf before others. If you beat the drums and wave the banners, and show yourselves before the ramparts, you must provoke him into coming out, and then you can capture him in a single battle."
In the fifth month, Deng Qiang led three thousand cavalry up to Yao Xiang's rampart gate and carried out this display to taunt Yao Xiang. Yao was greatly angered and ventured out to fight a battle. Deng Qiang feigned defeat and ran away, and Yao Xiang pursued him, until they reached Sanyuan. Deng Qiang's horsemen then wheeled about and attacked, and Fu Huangmei and the others also appeared with the main body. Yao Xiang's soldiers suffered a great defeat.
Sanyuan was on the border of Chiyang County in Pingyi during Han. Song Bai remarked, "Fu Jian led his army at Sanyuan north of Kuinie. Later Zhou named this place as Sanyuan County."
Yao Xiang fled on his fine steed, Limeigua (roughly “Sallow-Browed Piebald”), but the horse fell; the Qin soldiers captured Yao Xiang and killed him. His younger brother Yao Chang brought the remaining soldiers in to offer submission.
黧 is pronounced similar to "li", and can also be pronounced "li (l-i)". 黧 means a color that is black and yet yellow. 騧 is pronounced "gua (g-ua)". It was a yellow horse with a black mouth, so it was called 騧 ("piebald").
萇 is pronounced "zhang (zh-ang)".
Yao Xiang had kept the body of his father Yao Yizhong with his army. When his surrendered soldiers reached Qin, Fu Sheng had Yao Yizhong’s body buried at Gupan with funeral rites suited for a prince, and he buried Yao Xiang with ducal funeral rites.
Yao Yizhong's body was laid bare when there was a bed for it, and it was kept in a coffin when the army was on the move.
Gupan was on the border of Ji County in Tianshui.
Some versions say "Prince of Guangping" instead of "Yao Xiang".
When Fu Huangmei and the others returned to Chang'an, Fu Sheng did not reward them for their services, and many people insulted Fu Huangmei. Fu was greatly enraged, and plotted to kill Fu Sheng; but his plot was discovered, and he was executed. Even those who were connected with the plot, whether prince or duke, or other family members, were killed.
6. On the day Wuyin, Murong Jun sent his General Who Nurtures The Army Murong Chui, his General of the Center Army Murong Qian, and his General Who Protects The Army Murong Ping with fifty thousand horse and foot to attack the Chile (or Tiele; they were related to the Dingling) people at Saibei. They greatly defeated the Chile, killing over ten thousand, and capturing thirteen thousand horses and millions of sheep and cattle.
The New Book of Tang says, "The Chile were originally part of the Xiongnu. During the era of Emperor Yuan of Wei (Cao Huan), they were called the Gaoche, and later on their name changed to the 'Tiele'. During the Tang, there were fifteen different types of the Tiele." The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "The 'Le' came from the Chile of the Dingling."
7. The Xiongnu chanyu Helai Tou led his thirty-five thousand people to submit to Yan. They were settled at Pingshu in Dai commandary.
Since the Eastern Han, the Xiongnu territory contained nineteen different types of Xiongnu. The Helai were one of these.
During Han, Dai commandary contained Pingshu County, and Bohai had an eastern Pingshu County. The eastern Pingshu became part of the Henan region during Later Han, and under Jin it became part of the Zhangwu region. The Pingshu of Dai commandary had not been changed. When one writes of Dai commandary, that Pingshu is not the one in Zhangwu. The Pingshu in Dai was the northern border of Wei during Tang.
8. It happened one night that Fu Sheng dreamt of a large fish eating a bullrush plant. (This was significant to him because the character for fish, 魚 Yu, was the same as the surname of Yu Zun, while the character for bullrush, 蒲 Pu, had also been Fu Sheng’s family’s surname before Fu Hong changed it. According to the Book of Jin, Fu Hong’s childhood home had a large bullrush on the grounds.) At that time, there was a popular ditty in Chang'an: "From eastern sea a fish will rise, and like a soaring dragon fly. His sons will wear the princely crown, his daughters dress in regal gown." Because of his dream, Fu Sheng believed that this song was talking about the Grand Tutor, chief of the imperial secretariat, and Duke of Guangning, Yu Zun, so he put Yu Zun to death, along with his seven sons and ten grandsons.
The song probably meant to refer to Fu Sheng's cousin Fu Jian. At this time, Fu Jian held noble title as Prince of Donghai (literally "eastern sea") and his rank was Dragon-Soaring General.
The Household Counsellor with Golden Tassel, Niu Yi, feared calamity, so he asked to be sent to Jingzhou, but Fu Sheng did not agree, instead making him General of the Center Army. He said to Niu Yi, "It's in a bull's nature to be slow and steady, and he is best suited for drawing a cart. Although he lacks the grace of a fine steed, he can better endure the rocks and stones." (The character for bull, 牛 Niu, was the same as Niu Yi’s surname.) Niu Yi said, "Although it is a fine cart, I would fear future difficulties. Rather grant me the heavier burden, and I will bear it proudly knowing what I might achieve." Fu Sheng jokingly replied, "Why so eager, that you scorn the lighter load? Perhaps I should grant you Duke Yu's old offices." Niu Yi became afraid at this; he withdrew and killed himself.
Qin's Jingzhou was administered from Fengyangchuan.
9. Fu Sheng drank regardless of night or day, and often kept on drinking for a month. Qin's affairs were left unmanaged, as Fu Sheng often fell down drunk, or made his decisions under the influence of wine. Those around him were villainous, and so rewards and punishments were not handled suitably. Sometimes Fu Sheng would attend court while still drunk, and this led to many executions being ordered.
Because of his blind eye, he forbade the use of the words "missing," "lacking," "slanted," "less," and "without"; anyone who mistakenly used these words was put to death, regardless of service. He enjoyed skinning alive cows, sheep, donkeys, or horses, or boiling chickens, pigs, geese, and ducks, and he boiled several dozen people in front of the palace in this manner. He would sometimes flay the skin from people, and then have them sing and dance for him while he enjoyed the music.
Fu Sheng asked those around him, "Since the realm became mine, what have you heard said about me?" Someone said, "Your rule is sagacious, your rewards and punishments most suited, and the realm sings songs of peace." He angrily replied, "You flatterer!" and had that person executed. When he again asked the question, another person said, "Your Majesty punishes people harshly." Fu Sheng replied, "You slanderer!" and had him executed. Even family members were not spared, and punishments were all harsh. For the ministers, enduring each day was like living through ten years.
10. Qin’s Prince of Donghai, Fu Jian, had a good reputation, and so won the loyalty of Xue Zan and Quan Yi, some of Yao Xiang's former officers who had surrendered to Qin. Xue Zan and Quan Yi secretly said to him, "Your ruler is nothing but a wild beast, and everyone has turned against him. Qin deserves a better lord, and who else but Your Highness? You should act at once, and not let some other family seize control!"
Fu Jian had a reputation among the people of that time for great beauty.
Fu Jian asked the Master of Writing Lü Polou. Lü Polou said, "I am only a bladed ring; I would not do for handling grand affairs. But there is a certain Wang Meng from my village. He is not of this world, and no one else can compare with him for developing plans. Your Highness ought to meet with him." Fu Jian thus went to see Wang Meng; as soon as they saw one another, they were like old friends, speaking together at length. Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and said that this was just like when Liu Xuande first met Zhuge Kongming.
During Cao-Wei and Jin, soldiers would use a bladed ring to kill people. So Lü Polou was saying that he was only useful for killing Fu Sheng. In other words, the blade itself was useful, but outside of the ring it had no purpose. This was how Lü Polou appraised himself.
By "not of this world", he meant that Wang Meng was an exceptional fellow.
Liu Bei's first meeting with Zhuge Liang is recounted in the twelfth year of Jian'an of the Han Emperor Xian (207) in Book 65.
The English translation of this meeting is in To Establish Peace, by Dr. Rafe de Crespigny.
11. In the sixth month, Qin’s Court Historian Kang Quan said to Fu Sheng, "Last night, as the third watch was beginning, a comet entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure, crossing into the Eastern Well. For more than ten days, since last month up until now, there has been deep darkness without rain. This foretells the danger that a subordinate is plotting against you." Fu Sheng grew angry, believing that these were distortions, so he had Kang Quan executed.
The "Registry of Surnames" says, "The surname Kang comes from Weikang Shu (a younger brother of King Wu of Zhou). It is also a surname among the western Hu."
This reading of the astrological signs corresponds with that listed in the Movements of the Five Elements, in the Great Plan (which is in the Book of Documents).
12. The Specially Advanced and acting Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk, Liang Pinglao, and others said to Fu Jian, "Our ruler has abandoned virtue, and everyone weeps at it. The people wish for a change. Yan and Jin are still on our borders, waiting for an opportunity to move against us. I fear if some calamity occurs, the state will be destroyed. Your Highness must recognize this, and act at once!" Although Fu Jian felt the same way, he feared Fu Sheng's awesome strength, and did not dare to act right away.
嗷嗷 means a wail of sorrow.
Fu Sheng said to his palace maidens one night, "A-Fa and his brother cannot be trusted. I will deal with them tomorrow." The maidens went and told Fu Jian and his brother Fu Fa the news. Fu Fa and Liang Pinglao, along with the Household Counsellor and Specially Advanced Qiang Wang, led several hundred people into the Yunlong Gate, while Fu Jian and Lü Polou led their three hundred followers to beat drums and call the advance. The gate guards all threw down their weapons and flocked to Fu Jian.
When Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) built his palace at Luoyang, the southern main gate of his palace was named the Yunlong Gate. When the Fu clan entered Chang'an, they also named the southern main gate of their palace Yunlong.
Fu Sheng was in the midst of his drunkenness. When Fu Jian's soldiers arrived, Fu Sheng fearfully asked those around him, "Who goes there?" They told him, "Rebels!" Fu Sheng said, "Why do they not submit?" Fu Jian's soldiers all laughed. Fu Sheng cried out, "Whoever does not submit at once will be killed!" Fu Jian's soldiers took Fu Sheng into another room, and he was deposed to be the Prince of Yue. He was then killed, and his posthumous name was Prince Li (“the Harsh”).
He was twenty-three.
13. The throne being now vacant, Fu Jian offered it to Fu Fa. Fu Fa said, "You are most worthy, and furthermore you were born from Father's wife; you should lead." Fu Jian said, "You are the elder brother; the throne should be yours."
Fu Jian's mother Lady Gou was Fu Xiong's chief wife, and that is why Fu Fa said Fu Jian was entitled to the throne as the son of the wife.
Fu Jian's mother, Lady Gou, said to the gathered ministers with tears in her eyes, "My son knows that he is little prepared to handle such great affairs. This being such a regretful day, I leave the decision to you all." The ministers all made obeisance to Fu Jian and asked him to take the throne. Fu Jian thereupon set aside the title of Emperor, instead claiming for himself the title Heavenly Prince of Qin, and taking Taiji Palace as his seat.
Fu Jian, styled Yonggu, was Fu Xiong's son.
He put to death Fu Sheng's minions, the Palace Secretary Dong Rong, the Deputy Director of the Left Zhao Shao, and more than twenty others. A general amnesty was declared, and the Qin reign title was changed to Yongxing. He honored his late father Fu Xiong as Emperor Wenhuan and his mother Lady Gou as Empress Dowager, his wife Lady Gou as Empress, and his son Fu Hong as Crown Prince.
Fu Fa was given command of all military affairs and named as Prime Minister, command over the imperial secretariat, and appointed as Duke of Donghai. All the other Princes were demoted to Dukes. He named his grand-uncle Fu Hou, the Household Counsellor of the Right and Duke of Yong'an, as Grand Commandant; the Duke of Jin Fu Liu was named Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He named his younger brother Fu Rong as Duke of Yangping, and his younger brother Fu Shuang as Duke of Henan. Among his sons, he named Fu Pi as Duke of Changle, Fu Hui as Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Xi as Duke of Guangping, and Fu Rui as Duke of Julu. He named Li Wei of Hanyang as Deputy Director of the Left and Liang Pinglao as Deputy Director of the Right; Qiang Wang was named General Who Directs The Army; Lü Polou was named Colonel Director of Retainers; Wang Meng was named Gentleman Attendant of the Palace Secretariat.
Li Wei received 'the favor of Piyang' from Fu Jian's mother, which he used to advance his position.
‘The favor of Piyang’ refers to the illicit love affair between Liu Bang’s wife, Empress Lü, and the Han minister Shen Yiji. One of the titles that the Empress favored him with was Marquis of Piyang. The phrase refers to a man who becomes the lover of an Empress in order to advance his position.
14. Fu Jian’s brother Fu Rong was well-versed in studies and very discerning and perceptive; what he once heard he always remembered, and whatever he saw he never forgot. He was strong as a hundred foes, and was adept in horseback archery. Few could match his reputation. Fu Jian greatly treasured him, and often collaborated with him on state affairs. Fu Rong made his mark in both domestic and foreign matters, clearly correcting governmental problems, recommending the talented and removing obstructions, and spread many benefits. Fu Jian’s son Fu Pi was also talented in both civil and military affairs, and in administration and justice, he was second only to Fu Rong.
The text is saying that without the aid of this son and younger brother, Fu Jian's kingdom would be lost, and the next day all would be discarded. No one could match their talents.
15. Li Wei was Empress Dowager Gou's cousin, and he had been friendly with the Prince of Wei Fu Xiong. When Fu Sheng wished to kill Fu Jian, it was often Li Wei who begged him to desist. Li Wei had the favor of Empress Dowager Gou, and Fu Jian considered him as a second father. Li Wei knew Wang Meng's worth, and often advised Fu Jian to grant him a role in state affairs. Fu Jian said to Wang Meng, "Duke Li knows your worth, just as Bao Shuya knew Guan Zhong's worth." And he considered Wang Meng like a brother.
The Records of the Grand Historian says, “When they were young, Guan Zhong and Bao Shuya traveled together. Bao Shuya knew Guan Zhong's worth, and was glad to meet him. Guan Zhong said of him, ‘When I was first in difficulty, I did business together with Bao Shuya. When I took more than my share, Bao Shuya did not consider me greedy, but knew my poverty. When I first wished to plan things with Bao Shuya, and afterwards suffered hardships, Bao Shuya did not see me as a burden, but knew that some times brought profit and some did not. When I thrice sought office and was thrice sent away, Bao Shuya did not consider me unworthy, but knew that it was not yet my time. When I thrice fled from battle, Bao Shuya knew that I was not cowardly, but that I had an old mother to consider. When I supported the Duke's son who met with defeat, yet I avoided death and languished in a prison instead, Bao Shuya knew that I was not shameless, but that such a small affair could not shame my reputation and my achievements in the world. It was my parents who gave birth to me, but it is Bao Shuya who truly knows me.’” (Book 62)
16. Murong Jun executed Duan Kan, and buried alive over three thousand others.
19. In autumn, the seventh month, Qin's Grand General and Inspector of Jizhou, Zhang Ping, sent messengers to offer submission to Jin. He was appointed as Jin’s Inspector of Bingzhou.
20. In the eighth month, on the day Dingwei, Lady He (He Fani, 法倪) was made Empress of Jin. She was the daughter of the former 散騎侍郎, He Huai of Lujiang. The rites were conducted similar to those of Xiankang.
Lady Du had been made Empress by Emperor Cheng in the second year of Xiankang.
21. Fu Jian appointed Quan Yi as Assistant Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and Xue Zan as Gentleman Attendants of the Palace Secretariat, and he often discussed secret matters with Wang Meng hand in hand. In the ninth month, he posthumously restored the former titles to Yu Zun and the other executed ministers, reburying them with the proper rites, and their surviving sons and grandsons were promoted or placed in office.
Quan Yi served under Qin for a long time, though long afterwards (in 385) he went back to the Yao clan. Though he accepted Fu Jian's trust, even if he did not quite hear the "bird's cry of Yue from the old home" as do those of a fallen state, he certainly still held some of the old loyalty in his heart.
22. Zhang Ping held Xinxing, Yanmen, Xihe, Taiyuan, Shangdang, and Shangjun as his territory, and had more than three hundred fortified places. His territory had over a hundred thousand Yi (tribal) and Xia (ethnic Han) households. Jin had appointed him as a chief general (of the rank of Conquers… or Guards…), and he considered Yan and Qin as enemy states.
In winter, the tenth month, Zhang Ping invaded Qin territory. Fu Jian granted Fu Liu control over Bingzhou and Jizhou military affairs, as well as making him Governor of Bingzhou, and sent him to defend Puban.
Fortified places were areas built where people who had been separated by the wars could gathered together to defend one another. The Shi clan had used Zhang Ping in Bingzhou, and that was how he held command of so many places and so many people.
After the fall of the Shi clan, Zhang Ping vacillated between Yan and Qin. But now that he felt he had grown stronger, he wished to fight against both Yan and Qin.
Zhang Ping thought that he could take advantage of the upheaval within Qin. Little did he know that it would lead to his destruction!
23. In the eleventh month, on the day Guiyou, Murong Jun moved the capital from Ji to Ye.
24. Empress Dowager Gou traveled to the Xuanming Terrace. Seeing that the gate of Fu Fa’s residence had many carriages rolling in and out of it, she feared that he might someday cause trouble for Fu Jian, so she and Li Wei plotted together, and arranged for Fu Fa to commit suicide. When Fu Jian decided upon Fu Fa’s fate in the Eastern Hall, he wept greatly and coughed up blood.
Fu Fa was posthumously named Duke Xian’ai (“the Mourned”), and his sons Fu Yang and Fu Fu were named Duke of Donghai and Duke of Qinghe.
This was the cause for Fu Yang's later attempt at revenge.
25. In the twelfth month, on the day Yisi, Murong Jun entered the palace in Ye. A general amnesty was declared. The Bronze Bird Terrace was restored.
Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) had ruled his princely fief at Ye, where he built the Bronze Bird Terrace, and the Shi clan had added to it. During the chaos surrounding the fall of Zhao, the Terrace had collapsed in ruins. When the Murong clan moved their capital to Ye, they rebuilt it, just as it was before.
26. Jin's Minister of Ceremonies, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left.
27. Fu Jian went to visit the Masters of Writing, and did not use a clerk to handle those matters. He removed the Minister of the Left, Cheng Zhuo, from office, and had Wang Meng take over his duties. Fu Jian employed rare talents, and filled lapsed posts. He encouraged the people in their farming and silkworm cultivation, and sympathized with their sufferings and difficulties. He conducted rites to the hundred spirits, and founded academies of learning. Thus did he display his virtues, and prove himself an exceptional man. The people of Qin were very pleased.
The text is saying that Fu Jian was able to use Wang Meng to govern Qin.
Posted: Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:09 am
The Second Year of Shengping (The Wuwu Year, 358 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Jin's Minister Over The Masses Sima Yu offered to resign his governmental responsibilities, but Emperor Mu declined.
2. It was earlier mentioned (355.22) that Feng Yang had taken over Shangdang and submitted himself to Jin. Later, he allied with Zhang Ping; after that, he went over to Yan. In the end, he rebelled against Yan. In the second month, Yan's Minister Over The Masses, Wang Ping of Shangyong, campaigned against him, but was unsuccessful.
3. Fu Jian went himself to campaign against Zhang Ping, and sent Deng Qiang to command his vanguard force. Deng led five thousand cavalry, with the main army following behind to Fenshang. Zhang Ping sent his adopted son Zhang Qi ahead to oppose Deng Qiang. Zhang Qi was a very strong and agile man, able to drag back a bull and turn it away. No one in the city could compare with him; he surpassed them all. Zhang Qi was locked in a stalemate with Deng Qiang for more than ten days, with neither side able to claim the advantage.
Fenshang was on the Fen River. 蚝 is pronounced "qi (q-i)".
In the third month, Fu Jian arrived at Tongbi. Zhang Ping went forward with his host to offer battle. Zhang Qi rode out alone to the Qin lines and with a great shout challenged them; he did this four or five times. Fu Jian asked for a volunteer to go forward, and the General of Hawkish Display, Lü Guang, went out to battle Zhang Qi. In the midst of this, Deng Qiang captured Zhang Qi and displayed him, and Zhang Ping's army melted away. Zhang Ping, frightened, offered to surrender. Fu Jian appointed Zhang Ping as General of the Right, and appointed Zhang Qi as Lively Tiger General of the Household.
The city of Tongchuan lies between the Yellow and Fen Rivers. When people encountered trouble, they built copper walls to protect themselves, so it was called Tongbi ("Copper Walls").
Tongchuan is still a city in modern China, in Shaanxi province.
Zhang Qi's surname had originally been Gong, and he was a native of Shangdang. Fu Jian favored him greatly, and he was often by Fu Jian's side. The people of Qin called Zhang Hao and Deng Qiang "Foe of Ten Thousands". Lü Guang was the son of Lü Polou. Fu Jian relocated more than three thousand of Zhang Ping's households to Chang'an.
The "Registry of Surnames" says, "The surname Gong comes from Shu Gong of the state of Lü."
Shu Gong is mentioned in the Zuo Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals (Duke Zhao’s book).
萬人敵 or “Foe of Ten Thousands” was earlier used to describe Xiang Yu, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei.
4. On the day Jiaxu, Murong Jun sent his General Who Lead The Army Muyu Gen and his Minister Over The Masses Murong Ping to attack Feng Yang. Muyu Gen wished to boldly attack. Murong Ping said, "Feng Yang has a stout defense. It would be better not to."
Muyu Gen replied, "Not so. You have been outside the city for nearly a month already, and yet you have not yet had a taste of battle. The rebels are already at the limit of their strength; even with all their men combined, they would be fortunate to hold the city against us. My own soldiers have just arrived here, and so the situation has changed. The rebels all quake with fear, and all of them have their hearts divided. Let us consider how to pacify them, and then launch our attack. We cannot help but win."
He is saying Feng Yang believes that only by a fluke could he defend the city.
So they fiercely attacked. Feng Yang and his partisans all suspected one another, so they did not fight together. Feng Yang fled to Yewang to seek refuge under Lü Hu, and then offered his submission.
5. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian went to Yong, to make the five sacrifices; in the sixth month, he went to Hedong, to make sacrifices to the Earth.
He used the old Han rites.
6. In autumn, the eighth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Yi, passed away. Xie Yi was the older brother of Xie An. The Minister Over The Masses Sima Yu appointed the General Who Establishes Valor, Huan Yun, in his stead. Huan Yun was Huan Wen's younger brother.
The Deputy Director Wang Biaozhi was asked his opinion. Wang Biaozhi said, "Huan Yun is quite untalented. Furthermore, his brother Huan Wen already controls the flow of memorials, and half the realm is under his hand, and his other brothers are on the western border. Placing so much military authority in their hands is certainly no basis for 'deep roots and a firm stem'. One can never have too many talented ministers, but he would act against Your Highness's interests." Sima Yu nodded and said, "It is just as you say."
During Eastern Jin, Yuzhou guarded the western bank of the Yangzi, while the capital Jiankang was on the eastern bank. So Yuzhou was considered the western border of the state.
On the day Renshen, the Administrator of Wuxing, Xie Wan, was appointed as 西中郎將, with control of military affairs in Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou, as well as being made Inspector of Yuzhou.
Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou were all controlled by vassal commanders.
7. Wang Xizhi wrote to Huan Wen, saying, “Xie Wan is a man of abundant talents and open communication, and he has been dispatched by the imperial court in order to prove his excellence. I ask that you now condescend to work with him, in order to exchange waste for abundance. Lately, everything has been ‘pervert the talented and neglect affairs’.”
He is saying that Xie Wan's talents can be used for managing the state, and that many people of the time believe him to be sensible.
He is saying that the people of the border commandaries have all had their surplus wasted by the soldiers, wasting away without recovering and suffering from deprivations and the difficulties of moving around, and that Huan Wen should go along to get along here. Xie Wan is being used despite not having very much talent, which is what he means by "pervert the talented". Xie Wan's abilities were suited for the imperial court, but in being sent to the border regions, the court was thus "neglecting affairs".
Wang Xizhi also wrote to Xie Wan, saying, “You are striving towards that disdainful tune, of one who respects those equal to him but smashes to pieces those below him, and it is difficult for you to be honest. Remember your position when you speak, and conduct yourself as befitting your office. If you share all the joys and the sorrows of your officers and your men, then you be able to accomplish much good.” But Xie Wan could not follow his advice.
He is warning Xie Wan not to consider himself too self-important or to be too proud to focus on the details of army affairs.
8. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Xun Xian, was ill. The Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk, Chi Tan, was appointed as Xun Xian's Army Adjutant. Chi Tan was the son of Chi Jian.
This was why Xie Wan and Chi Tan were unsuccessful when they were in office.
Some versions of the second sentence say "Xun's army adjutant" or "Xun Xian's army adjutant" instead of simply “adjutant".
Sima Guang's commentary in the 考異 says, "According to the Annals of the Emperors, 'Xie Wan became Inspector of Xuzhou,' and it later says, 'Chi Tan became General of the Gentlemen of the Household of the North, Commander of the military affairs of five provinces, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.' According to the Record of Chi Tan, 'Xun Xian became ill, so Chi Tan was appointed as his adjutant. Shortly afterwards, Xun Xian was recalled, and so Chi Tan remained as General of the Gentlemen of the Household of the North, Commander, and Inspector.' In another place in the Annals of the Emperors, it says, 'In the twelfth month, the General of the Gentlemen of the Household of the North Xun Xian fought Murong Jun at Shanshi, but the royal army suffered defeat.' The Book of Yan says, 'In the twelfth month, Xun Xian invaded Taishan, and killed the Administrator Jia Jian.' The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Xun Xian killed Jia Jian,' and later on, 'Xun Xian was defeated, and Shanshi was recovered.' Since Chi Tan had yet to become Inspector of Xuzhou or Yanzhou by the eighth month, I must conclude that he was first Xun Xian's adjutant."
During this year, the Jin general Xun Xian attacked Shanshi, and took it. He executed Murong Jun's Administrator of Taishan, Jia Jian. Murong Jun's Inspector of Qingzhou, Murong Chen, sent the Marshal Yue Ming to relieve it. Xun Xian's army was defeated, and Shanshi was recovered.
In the ninth month, on the day Gengchen, Fu Jian returned to Chang'an, and appointed the Grand Commandant Fu Hou as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.
This was the Duke of Yong'an, Fu Hou.
There was a great drought in Qin. Fu Jian cut meals and halted music, and ordered the women of the imperial household to cease using nets and fine silks. He harnessed the benefits of the mountains and marshes, mixed public and private concerns, rested the soldiers and nurtured the people, and thus the drought did not become a calamity.
Yang Shigu remarked, "'Fine silk' is what we would now call 'thin silk'."
9. In Qin, Wang Meng saw special favor on a daily basis, and this annoyed the old retainers of the imperial clan.
The Specially Advanced and Marquis of Guzang, Fan Shi, was a Di retainer who had helped Fu Jiàn in pacifying Guanzhong. He said to Wang Meng, "Will you eat the harvest that we plowed?" Wang Meng replied, "It’s better to say that what you all plowed, I will soon send you to cook!" Fan Shi angrily said, "I will see your head hanging from the gate of Chang’an, or else I am not Fan Shi!"
Wang Meng mentioned the matter to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said, "I must kill this old Di, so that the other ministers will respect me." Later, when Fan Shi went to discuss something with Fu Jian, he got into an argument with Wang Meng in front of Fu Jian, and wished to strike him. Fu Jian, angry, had him executed. After that, all the ministers held their breath in fear whenever they saw Wang Meng.
10. After Zhao collapsed, the generals Zhang Ping, Li Li, and Gao Chang first submitted to Yan, then went over to Jin, and afterwards submitted to Qin, receiving offices from each state, for all of these men wished to maintain their own status.
Li Li and Gao Chang had first submitted to Jin, while Zhang Ping had submitted to Qin; this was in the seventh year of Yonghe (351). In the eighth year (352), Li Li and Gao Chang had submitted to Qin, and that same year they along with Zhang Ping went over to Yan. After Fu Sheng's death, Zhang Ping submitted to Jin. This was how each of these men received titles from all three states.
Li Li and Gao Chang were the Qin generals whom Yao Xiang was fighting against when Yao Chang offered him his horse to escape (352.8).
Murong Jun sent the Minister Over The Masses Murong Ping to attack Zhang Ping in Bingzhou, he sent the Minister of Works Yang Wu to attack Gao Chang in Dongyan, and he sent the Prince of Le'an Murong Zang to attack Li Li at Pu. Yang Wu attacked Gao Chang at Liyang, but could not defeat him. Li Li fled to Xingyang, and from there he and his men surrendered. More than a hundred of Bingzhou's fortified places surrendered to Yan. Murong Jun appointed the Deputy Director of the Right Yue Wan as the Inspector of Bingzhou to nurture the people there. Zhang Ping's General Who Conquers The West, Zhuge Xiang, and a hundred and thirty-eight fortified places surrender to Yan; Murong Jun kept them in their positions. Zhang Ping himself fled to Pingyang with three thousand men, and then asked to surrender to Yan.
11. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Zhuge You, attacked Yan's Dong commandary, and entered Wuyang. Murong Jun sent the Grand Marshal Murong Ke, with Yang Wu and the Prince of Le'an Murong Zang to attack him. Zhuge You was defeated and fled back to Taishan. Murong Ke recrossed the Yellow River, in order to defend Henan, and he split off defending garrisons.
During Han, Dong commandary was administered from Wuyang. In the second year of Xiankang (277) under Emperor Wu (Sima Yan), it was awarded to his son Sima Yun as a fief, but "Dong" could not serve as the name of a princely fief, so since Dong commandary had a Puyang County, the fief was called Puyang. Later, when Sima Yun became the Prince of Huainan, the name of the commandary changed back to Dong. When the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, seized the throne, he sent the deposed Crown Grandson Sima Zang to be Prince of Puyang, and Dong commandary once again had its name changed to Puyang. We can see from the text here that Yan had changed the commandary name back to Dong again.
Hu Sanxing presumably meant the second year of 咸寧 Xianning; Sima Yan did not have a Xiankang reign era. It may be someone else's transcription mistake.
The "Records of Jin" says, "Wuyang County was split off as part of Pingyang commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "During Northern Wei, the province was ruled from Chaocheng County; during Sui, it was Wuyang County. During Tang, in the seventh year of Tianbao (748), its name was changed again."
12. Murong Jun wished to gather an army to conquer Qin and Jin. In the twelfth month, he sent out orders among the 校實 of all the provinces and commandaries to inspect every household, and that every household was to send the army all its suitable men, leaving only one to remain home, so that the rest could be conscripted. He hoped to draft an army of a million and a half men, and set a date for the coming spring for them all to gather at Luoyang.
The office of 校實 was responsible for ensuring accurate counts.
Liu Gui of Wuyi sent in a petition, stating, "The common people are under pressure, and this conscription goes against law. This will cause the land to collapse." Murong Jun accepted this, and thus ordered only that three of every five would become soldiers, and set a date for them to gather that winter at Ye.
There was not yet a law permitting drafting all but one man from every household.
13. At that time, numerous affairs were underway in Yan, and each minister and officer sent out their messengers in every direction. The roads and streets were filled with them, and the commandaries and counties had trouble accommodating them all.
The Grand Commandant and acting Palace Secretary Feng Yi said to Murong Jun, "This is not a time of strict military discipline, so there is no need to dispatch so many messengers. If there is any trouble with bandits, let the provinces and commandaries take care of those burdens. The officers should restrict themselves to sending their messengers to their commanders at the borders. Then everything will be taken care of." Murong Jun followed his suggestion.
14. Yan's Administrator of Taishan, Jia Jian, camped at Shanshi. Xun Xiao led troops to attack him. Jia Jian had only a little more than seven hundred men, while Xun Xiao had ten times as many.
Shanshi had been known during Former Han as Shi County, as part of Taishan commandary. During Later Han, its name was changed to Shanshi.
茌 is pronounced "shi (sh-i)".
Jia Jian was about to go out to battle. His men said to him, "We are few; better to keep to the defensive." Jia Jian said, "We cannot avoid defending; better to go out and fight." So they went to battle, with Jia Jian leading the charge, and they killed more than a thousand of Xun Xiao's men before going back into the city.
Xun Xiao advanced to attack the city, and Jia Jian lamented, "What a knot I’ve tied us into! I wished to make a name for myself, and have thus weakened this strategic point. Surely I was disobedient! Better for me to remain faithful even unto death rather than grovel to save my life."
Jia Jian wished to smash Xun Xian's vanguard and make him retreat out of fear. However, Xun Xian continued to advance, so Jia Jian's plan failed.
So he said to his men, "We are in grave danger, and no plan can extricate us. All of you may flee from here. I will remain behind and die." The soldiers all wept and said, "If you will not leave, then we will all die with you." Thus they helped Jia Jian onto a horse. He said to them, "If I am to escape, give no consideration to me. Now that it is up to you gentlemen to decide whether to fight, if you cannot maintain this place, then flee, and take no heed of me!" He thus opened the gate and went out.
Xun Xiao's soldiers surrounded the place on four sides. Jia Jian stood on his horse atop the bridge, and shot his arrows in either direction. With every twang of the bowstring, he felled another man. But Xun Xiao’s men were too numerous, and some of them went down and cut the bridge supports, so Jia Jian and his horse went tumbling into the pit. He was captured alive, and Shanshi was taken.
Xun Xiao said to Jia Jian, "Your father and grandfather both served Jin. Why do you turn your back on your homeland and refuse to surrender?"
Jia Jian replied, "Jin abandoned the Central Plains; I am no rebel. The people were left without a lord, and the strong did what they would. How could I accept this? It was by my own ‘dried meat’ that I sustained myself, enduring Zhao and experiencing Yan, but never once surrendering my ambitions. How can you be so quick to ask me to surrender?"
When Jia Jian said these words, many of the generals of the Southland looked at one another with shame.
Jia Jian is saying that learning comes from the Teacher (Confucius), but his ambitions came from himself. He is referencing a line from the Analects: "The Master said, 'I have never refused my instructions to anyone, even the man who merely offers me his bundle of dried meat.'(7.7)" The commentator Zhuzi said, "修 means 'dried meat', and a group of ten of them makes a bundle. In ancient times, it was custom to provide the Teachers with a bundle of dried meat."
Recall that Jia Jian had not surrendered to Yan, but had been captured by them. This account was mentioned in the sixth year of Yonghe (350) in Book 98.
Xun Xiao continued to ask him, but Jia Jian angrily responded, "Son, leave your old man alone!" Xun Xiao grew angry and tied up Jia Jian, leaving him exposed to the rain. Over the course of several days, Jia Jian greatly lamented and so died.
By calling himself ‘old man', Jia Jian is treating Xun Xian as though he were his own child. By 御, he is speaking as though he were instructing a child.
15. Yan's Inspector of Qingzhou, Murong Chen, sent the Marshal Yue Ming to relieve Taishan. Xun Xiao suffered a great defeat, and Yan recovered Shanshi. Murong Jun appointed Jia Jian's son Jia Huo as Administrator of Rencheng.
16. Xun Xian's illness returned, so he was recalled. Chi Tan was appointed as 北中郎將, Commander over Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was garrisoned at Xiapi.
Of these five provinces, only Xuzhou was actually Jin territory.
郗 is pronounced "chi (ch-i)". 曇 is pronounced "tan (t-an)".
17. Yan's Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, married the daughter of Duan Mopei. By her, he had two sons, Murong Ling and Murong Bao. Lady Duan was of a haughty and fierce temperment, and because of her fine lineage, she did not honor Empress Kezuhun, who bore a grudge against her because of it. Murong Jun also did not like Murong Chui.
The Duan and the Murong clans had originally fought for control of the territory, and this is why Duan was an honored name.
Murong Jun's reasons for disliking Murong Chui were mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) in the last book (Book 99).
The Regular Attendant Nie Hao therefore slandered Lady Duan and the Prefect of the Directors of Writing of Wu (that is, of Murong Chui’s household), Gao Bi of Liaodong, as magicians, hoping to implicate Murong Chui as well. Murong Jun had both of them turned over to the 大長秋 to be put on trial, but despite the accusations, in the end they admitted to nothing.
涅 is pronounced "nie (n-ie)"; it is a surname.
According to the Jin system, a princely fief had a 典書, a 典祠, and a 學官令. This was why the Murong clan also had these offices. The 典書令 was the fief's equivalent of the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing for the imperial court. The "Record of the Prince of Qi, Sima You" says, "The fief Chancellor's Chief Clerk lacked a 典書令, so he asked for one to be selected." This is the same office. During Western Jin, the 典書令 was above the Regular Attendants and Palace Attendants. After Jin retreated across the Yangzi, Palace Attendants became second to Regular Attendants, and the 典書令 held the third rank.
After they were subjected to several days of fierce treatment, Murong Chui lamented their fate, and secretly sent a messenger to Lady Duan saying, "A person can choose to end their life at once; why continue to suffer this poison? Better to tear your clothes." Lady Duan lamented, "I am prepared to die! But if I confess, then I shame my family and implicate my lord; that I cannot allow!" Thanks to this response, Murong Chui was able to avoid disaster, but Lady Duan still died in the prison.
To tear one’s clothes is to implicate oneself and accept blame.
Murong Chui was sent to be Inspector of Pingzhou, and he was stationed at Liaodong. He married Lady Duan's sister as his second wife. But Empress Kezuhun dissolved this marriage, and made Murong Chui marry her own younger sister instead. Murong Chui was displeased, and grew to dislike her.
This was why Murong Chui later fled.
18. Many of the Xiongnu chieftain Liu Etou’s soldiers rebelled against him. Afraid, he fled to the east, hoping to cross over the frozen Yellow river. When he was halfway across, the ice broke. As the forces of Liu Xiwuqi were pursuing them, Liu Etou fled to Dai. Liu Xiwuqi was the son of Liu Wuhuan.
Dai was east of the northern Yellow River.