Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 98

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Mar 06, 2017 7:13 pm

永和六年(庚戌,公元三五零年)

The Sixth Year of Yonghe (The Gengxu Year, 350 AD)


春,正月,趙大將軍閔欲滅去石氏之迹,托以讖文有「繼趙李」,更國號曰衛,易姓李氏,大赦,改元青龍。太宰趙庶、太尉張舉、中軍將軍張春、光祿大夫石岳、撫軍石寧、武衛將軍張季及公侯、卿、校、龍騰等萬餘人,出奔襄國,汝陰王琨奔冀州。撫軍將軍張沈據滏口,張賀度據石瀆,建義將軍段勤據黎陽,寧南將軍楊群據桑壁,劉國據陽城,段龕據陳留,姚弋仲據灄頭,蒲洪據枋頭,衆各數萬,皆不附于閔。勤,末柸之子;龕,蘭之子也。

1. In spring, the first month, Shi Min wished to wipe out all remaining traces of the Shi clan. Relying on a prophecy that stated "after Zhao will come Li", he changed the name of the state from Zhao to Wey, and forced all members of the Shi clan to change their surname to Li. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Qinglong.

The Grand Governor, Zhao Shu, the Grand Commandant, Zhang Ju, the General of the Center Army, Zhang Chun, the Household Counselor, Shi Yue, the General Who Nurtures The Army, Shi Ning, the General of Valor and Defense, Zhang Ji, and countless others nobles, ministers, officials, and Dragon-Soaring soldiers, to the number of ten thousand, fled Ye to seek refuge with Shi Zhi in Xiangguo. Shi Kun fled to Jizhou.

Many Zhao generals remained at their command posts. The General Who Nurtures The Army, Zhang Chen, held Fukou. Zhang Hedu held the Shidu Weir. The General Who Establishes Righteousness, Duan Qin, held Liyang. The General Who Calms The South, Yang Qun, held Sangbi. Liu Guo held Yangcheng. Duan Kan held Chenliu. Yao Yizhong held Shetou. Pu Hong held Fangtou. Each of them commanded tens of thousands, and none of them submitted to Shi Min.

This Duan Qin was the son of Duan Mopei; this Duan Kan was the son of Duan Lan.

〈「撫軍」之下當有「將軍」也。〉〈從石祗也。〉〈趙之冀州治信都。〉趙之冀州治信都。〈滏口,滏水之口也。唐代宗永泰元年,薛嵩奏於滏口之右故臨水縣城置昭義縣,以屬磁州。〉魏收《地形志》,鄴縣有石竇堰。《括地志》:易州遂城縣界有桑丘城。又《水經註》:常山蒲吾縣東南有桑中縣故城,俗謂之石勒城。《續漢志》,中山蒲陰縣有陽城。據後劉國自繁陽引兵會石琨擊冉閔,則此陽城乃繁陽城也。建義將軍,蓋亦後趙所置。後趙蓋於征、鎭、安、平之外又置四寧。〈段末柸先據令支。段蘭自宇文入趙。〉

(Zhang Chen's rank is abbreviated in this passage; it should be General Who Nurtures The Army.

The people fleeing Ye all went to Xiangguo in order to join Shi Zhi.

Later Zhao's province of Jizhou was administered from Xindu.

Fukou was the mouth of the Fu River. In the Tang dynasty's first year of Yongtai (765), Xue Song petitioned to have the the cities on the right bank of Fukou in Linshui county organized as Zhaoyi county, as part of Cizhou.

According to the Geographical Records in Wei Shou's Book of Northern Wei, the Shidou Weir was in Ye county.

The Comprehensive Gazetteer states, "There was a city of Sangqiu in Suicheng county in Yizhou."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The old capital of Sanzhong county was in the southeast of Puwu county in Changshan commandary. It was commonly called Shi Le City."

Liu Guo is listed in this passage as occupying "Yangcheng". The Continued Records of Han states, "There was a city of Yangcheng in Puyin county in Changshan commandary." We later see Liu Guo lead troops from "Fanyang" to join with Shi Kun to attack Ran Min. So this Yangcheng must be the same place as that Fanyang.

General Who Establishes Righteousness must have also been an office created by Later Zhao.

In addition to the usual general ranks of General Who Conquers, Guards, Maintains, and Pacifies, Later Zhao must have also created the ranks of General Who Calms.

Duan Mopei was one of the leaders of the Duan domain; he had had his capital at Lingzhi.

Duan Lan was the younger brother of Duan Liao, the last independent leader of the Duan domain. He had originally fled to the Yuwen to seek refuge with them, but was later sent to Later Zhao.)


初,青龍元年正月,石閔欲滅二石之號,議曰:「孔子曰:『易姓而王七月者,七十有三國,繼趙李。』讖書炳然,且德星鎮衛,宜改號大魏,易姓李氏。」又大赦,閏月,改元。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Hu)

In the first year of Qinglong (350), the first month, Shi Min wanted to eliminate all trace of the names of Shi Le and Shi Hu. So he proposed, "Confucius said, 'There were seventy-three states whose rulers changed their names after seven months, and after Zhao came Li.' So in order to make manifest this prophecy and ensure the appearance of the celestial bodies, we should change the name of the state to Great Wei and change the ruling clan's surname to Li." A general amnesty was declared, and in the intercalary month, the reign era title was changed to the first year of Qinglong.

鑒號年青龍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Zun's elder brother Shi Jian killed him and took the throne. Shi Jian changed the reign era title to the first year of Qinglong.


王朗、麻秋自長安赴洛陽。秋承閔書,誅朗部胡千餘人。朗奔襄國。秋帥衆歸鄴,蒲洪使其子龍驤將軍雄迎擊,獲之,以爲軍師將軍。

2. Wang Lang and Ma Qiu marched from Chang'an to Luoyang. When Ma Qiu received Shi Min’s order regarding the tribesmen, he executed more than a thousand of them that were in Wang Lang’s division. Wang Lang fled to Xiangguo.

Ma Qiu led his soldiers towards Ye, but Pu Hong sent the Dragon-Soaring General, his son Pu Xiong, to intercept Ma Qiu and attack him. Ma Qiu was captured. Pu Hong appointed Ma Qiu as his General Who Directs The Army.

〈朗所部有胡兵千餘人,閔命秋誅之。〉

(There were more than a thousand tribal soldiers in Wang Lang's division; Shi Min's order was for Ma Qiu to execute them all.)


初,季龍以麻秋鎮枹罕,冉閔之亂,秋歸鄴,洪使子雄擊而獲之,以秋為軍師將軍。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Pu/Fu Hong)

Earlier, Shi Hu had left Ma Qiu in charge of guarding Fuhan. When Ran Min's turmoil began, Ma Qiu returned to Ye; Pu Hong sent his son Pu Xiong to attack and capture him, and he employed Ma Qiu as General Who Directs The Army.


汝陰王琨及張舉、王朗帥衆七萬伐鄴,大將軍閔帥騎千餘與戰于城北;閔操兩刃矛,馳騎擊之,所向摧陷,斬首三千級,琨等大敗而去。閔與李農帥騎三萬討張賀度于石瀆。

3. Shi Kun joined together with Zhang Ju and Wang Lang, and they led seventy thousand soldiers to attack Ye. Shi Min marched out at the head of more than a thousand cavalry to offer battle north of the city. Shi Min grasped his double-edged spear, rode into the fray and attacked, breaking through in every direction, and taking three thousand heads. Shi Kun and the others were greatly defeated, and they retreated. Shi Min and Li Nong then led thirty thousand cavalry to attack Zhang Hedu at the Shidu Weir.

〈兩刃矛者,鋏之兩旁皆利其刃。〉

(A double-edged spear has a keen edge on both sides of the blade.)


閏月,衛主鑒密遣宦者賫書召張沈等,使乘虛襲鄴。宦者以告閔、農,閔、農馳還,廢鑒,殺之,幷殺趙主虎三十八孫,盡滅石氏,姚弋仲子曜武將軍益、武衛將軍若帥禁兵數千斬關奔灄頭。弋仲帥衆討閔,軍于混轎。

4. In the intercalary month, Shi Jian secretly sent a eunuch to order Zhang Chen and others to come attack Ye, now that Shi Min was out of the city. But the eunuch instead went and informed Shi Min and Li Nong of the plot. Shi Min and Li Nong hurried back, deposed Shi Jian, and then killed him. They also killed Shi Hu's thirty-eight grandsons, and wiped out the Shi clan.

The General Who Illuminates Valor and the Guard General of Valor, Yao Yizhong's sons Yao Yi and Yao Ruo, led several thousand guards and soldiers to break out of the gates of Ye and flee to their father's base at Shetou. Yao Yizhong led his troops to attack Shi Min, and his army camped at Hunqiao.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》後云閏月;《三十國》、《晉春秋》皆云閏正月。按《長曆》,閏二月。《帝紀》,閏月有丁丑、己丑。按是歲正月癸酉朔,若閏正月,卽無丁丑、己丑。今以《長曆》爲據。〈《載記》曰:鑒立一百三日。〉〈《載記》曰:始勒以成帝咸和三年僭立,二主四子,凡二十三年。〉曜武、曜威,蓋皆石氏所置。

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Mu in the Book of Jin lists these events as occuring in 'the intercalary month', although it does not precisely specify which month this intercalary month followed. The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both place this intercalary month after the first month of this year, while according to the Calendar Records, the intercalary month was after the second month. If we examine the Annals of Emperor Mu closer, we note that it lists this intercalary month as having Dingchou and Jichou days. We already know that the first day of this year was on a Guiyou day. That being the case, if the intercalary month had been immediately after the first month of the year, it could not have had any Dingchou and Jichou days. So the Calendar Records must be correct in placing it after the second month."

The Biography of Shi Jian in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Shi Jian was on the throne of Later Zhao for a hundred and three days." And, "Beginning with Shi Le's proclaiming himself Emperor of Zhao in Emperor Cheng's third year of Xianhe (328), Later Zhao had two full sovereigns (Shi Le and Shi Hu) and four temporary rulers (Shi Hong, Shi Shi, Shi Zun, and Shi Jian), and the state lasted for twenty-three years (328 to 350)."

This seems to be an error; Shi Le declared himself Emperor in the fifth year of Xianhe (Book 94, 330.12).

The titles General Who Illuminates Valor and General Who Illuminates Might must have been creations of the Shi clan.)


閔廢鑒殺之,誅虎孫三十八人,盡殆石氏。鑒在位一百三日,鑒字大郎,虎第三子也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Min deposed Shi Jian and killed him; he also executed Shi Hu's thirty-eight grandsons, completely wiping out the Shi clan.

Shi Jian, styled Dalang, was Shi Hu's third son; he had been on the throne for a hundred and three days.

閔乃殺鑒而自立,盡滅石氏。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Min killed Shi Jian and claimed the throne. He entirely eliminated the Shi clan.

冉閔之亂,弋仲率眾討閔,次於混橋。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

During Ran Min's seizure of power, Yao Yizhong led his forces to attack Ran Min, and they advanced to Hunqiao.


司徒申鐘等上尊號于閔,閔以讓李農,農固辭。閔曰:「吾屬故晋人也,今晋室猶存,請與諸君分割州郡,各稱牧、守、公、侯,奉表迎晋天子還都洛陽,何如?」尚書胡睦進曰:「陛下聖德應天,宜登在位,晋氏衰微,遠竄江表,豈能總馭英雄,混壹四海乎!」閔曰:「胡尚書之言,可謂識機知命矣。」乃即皇帝位,大赦,改元永興,國號大魏。

5. Zhao's Minister Over The Masses, Shen Zhong, and others urged Shi Min to assume the throne. Shi Min offered Li Nong in his place, but Li Nong declined. Shi Min said, "I am a man of Jin, and the Jin dynasty still exists. Gentlemen, would it not be better for us to carve up the provinces and commandaries between ourselves, with each of us assuming titles as Governor, Administrator, Duke, and Marquis, and then welcome Jin's Son of Heaven to return to his seat in Luoyang? What say you?"

The Master of Writing, Hu Mu, stepped forward and replied, "Heaven approves of Your Majesty's sage virtue, and you ought to ascend to the throne. The Jin royal family is no more than a mere remnant that has scurried far away across the Yangzi. How could they rule over the heroes of the land, or bring all within the Four Seas back into one whole?"

Shi Min said, "Minister Hu’s words show an understanding of Heaven’s will." So he declared himself Emperor, proclaiming a general amnesty. He changed the reign era title to Yongxing, and renamed the state to Wei.

〈【章:十二行本「陽」下有「何如」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈冉閔,字永曾,子字棘奴,石虎之養孫也。父瞻,本姓冉,名良,魏郡內黃人。勒破陳午,獲瞻,時年十二,命虎子之。〉

(Some versions have Ran Min end his first statement with the question "What say you?"

Ran Min, styled Yongcheng, had the childhood name Jinu. He was Shi Hu's adopted grandson. His father, Shi Zhan, was originally named Ran Liang, thus Ran Min reverting to the surname Ran from Shi. Shi Zhan was a native of Neihuang county in Wei commandary. When Shi Le routed the Lifeseeker leader Chen Wu, he captured Shi Zhan, who at that time was eleven years old. Shi Le ordered Shi Hu to adopt Shi Zhan as his son, and so Ran Min was Shi Hu's adopted grandson.)


閏月,冉閔弑石鑒,僭稱天王,國號魏。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the intercalary month, Ran Min murdered Shi Jian, then usurped his title as Heavenly King and renamed the state to Wei.

十三年,魏郡人冉閔,殺石鑒僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the thirteenth year of Jianguo (350), a native of Wei commandary, Ran Min, killed Shi Jian and usurped his throne.

永興元年閏月,司徒申鐘、司空郎闇等四十八人上尊號于閔,僭皇帝位于南郊。大赦改元,號稱大魏。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the first year of Yongxing (350), the intercalary month, forty-eight people acclaimed Shi Min as Emperor of Later Zhao, including the Minister Over The Masses, Shen Zhong, and the Minister of Works, Lang An. Shi Min declared himself Emperor at the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongxing, and changed the name of the state to Great Wei.

閔自稱大魏,號年永興。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Min changed the name of the state to Great Wei, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongxing.


朝廷聞中原大亂,複謀進取。己醜,以揚州刺史殷浩爲中軍將軍、假節、都督揚、豫、徐、兗、青五州諸軍事,以蒲洪爲氐王、使持節、征北大將軍、都督河北諸軍事、冀州剌史、廣川郡公;蒲健爲假節、右將軍、監河北征討前鋒諸軍事、襄國公。

6. When the Jin court learned of the further chaos in Zhao, plans were laid for another expedition. On the day Jichou (April 11th), Yin Hao was named as General of the Center Army, Credential Holder, and Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou. Pu Hong was appointed as King of the Di, Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General Who Conquers The North, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow River, Inspector of Jizhou, and Duke of Guangchuan commandary. His son Pu Jian was appointed as Credential Holder, General of the Right, Chief of the expeditionary vanguard forces north of the Yellow river, and Duke of Xiangguo.

〈爲殷浩喪師張本。〉〈去年蒲洪遣使來降,今經略中原,故授任以懷來之。〉

(This was how Yin Hao was later in a position to lead a northern expedition, though it ended in defeat.

Pu Hong was granted these titles because he had sent envoys to Jin in the previous year offering to submit to them, and with the current plans for retaking the Central Plains being developed, the Jin court hoped to gain his assistance.)


己丑,加中軍將軍殷浩督揚豫徐兗青五州諸軍事、假節。氐帥苻洪遣使來降,以爲氐王,封廣川郡公。假洪子健節,監河北諸軍事、右將軍,封襄國縣公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

On the day Jichou (April 11th), the General of the Center Army, Yin Hao, was additionally appointed as Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou and as Credential Holder. The Di chieftain Fu Hong sent envoys asking to submit to Jin, and he was appointed as King of the Di and Duke of Guangchuan commandary. Fu Hong's son Fu Jiàn was appointed as Credential Holder, Chief of the expeditionary vanguard forces north of the Yellow river, General of the Right, and Duke of Xiangguo county.

永和六年,帝以洪為征北大將軍、都督河北諸軍事、冀州刺史、廣州郡公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Hong)

In the sixth year of Yonghe (350), Emperor Mu appointed Fu Hong as Grand General Who Conquers The North, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow River, Inspector of Jizhou, and Duke of Guangchuan commandary.

永和六年,帝以洪為征北大將軍、都督河北諸軍事、冀州刺史、廣川郡公。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Pu/Fu Hong)

In the sixth year of Yonghe (350 AD), Emperor Mu appointed Pu Hong as Grand General Who Conquers The North, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow river, Inspector of Jizhou, and Duke of Guangchuan commandary.


姚弋仲、蒲洪各有據關右之志。弋仲遣其子襄帥衆五萬擊洪,洪迎擊,破之,斬獲三萬餘級。洪自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、三秦王,改姓苻氏。以南安雷弱兒爲輔國將軍;安定梁欏爲前將軍,領左長史;馮翊魚遵爲右將軍,領右長史;京兆段陵爲左將軍,領左司馬;王墮爲右將軍,領右司馬;天水趙俱、隴西牛夷、北地辛牢皆爲從事中郎;氐酋毛貴爲單于輔相。

7. Yao Yizhong and Pu Hong both had ambitions of taking control of Guanyou. Yao Yizhong sent his son Yao Xiang with an army of fifty thousand to attack Pu Hong. Pu Hong met him in battle and routed him, killing or capturing more than thirty thousand.

Pu Hong then declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of the Three Qins. It was at this time that he changed the surname of his clan to Fu. Among his followers, Lei Ruo’er of Nan'an was appointed General Who Upholds The State, Liang Luo of Anding was appointed General of the Front and acting Chief Clerk of the Left, Yu Zun of Pingyi was appointed General of the Right (or, of the Rear) and acting Chief Clerk of the Right, Duan Ling of Jingzhao was appointed as General of the Left and acting Marshal of the Left, Wang Duo was appointed General of the Right and acting Marshal of the Right, Zhao Ju of Tianshui, Niu Yi of Longxi, and Xin Lao of Beidi were all appointed as Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen, and the Di chieftain Mao Gui was appointed as Chancellor to the Chanyu.

〈洪以讖文「草付應王」,又其孫堅背有「艸付」字,遂改姓苻氏。苻,上從「竹」者非。〉〈【章:十二行本「右」作「後」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈《風俗通》,宋公子魚之後,以王父字爲氏。〉〈【章:十二行本「馬」下有「王墮爲右將軍,領右司馬」十字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈「互」,卽「氐」字。〉

(Fu Hong had heard of a prophecy which stated, "The one marked by grass shall be King". And his grandson Fu Jian had the characters 艸付 "marked by grass" on his back. This was why Fu Hong changed the surname of his clan from Pu to Fu. This character, 苻 Fu, is a combination of the character for 付 "marked by" with the grass radical 艸 over it. There is a similar character, 符 Fu, which has the bamboo radical 竹 over it, but this was not the Fu character which this clan took as its name.

Some versions state that Yu Zun was appointed as General "of the Rear" rather than "of the Right".

According to the Fengsu Tongyi, the descendants of the son of the Duke of Song, styled Ziyu, took their father's style name as their clan name.

Some versions include the sentence "Wang Duo was appointed General of the Right and acting Marshal of the Right".

Regarding the mention of Mao Gui as a Di chieftain, some versions write the character 氐 Di as 互, but that is a mistake.)


時有說洪稱尊號者,洪亦以讖文有「草付應王」;又其孫堅背有草付字,遂改姓苻氏,自稱大將軍、大單于、三秦王。洪謂博士胡文曰:「孤率衆十萬,居形勝之地,冉閔、慕容雋可指辰而殄。姚襄父子,克之在吾數中。孤取天下,有易於漢祖矣。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Hong)

At this time, there were those who urged Fu Jian to declare himself Emperor. And Fu Hong also believed in a prophecy that said, "The one marked by grass shall be King." His grandson, Fu Jian, had on his back the characters 草付 "marked by grass". So he changed his clan's surname from Pu to Fu (combining the two characters 草 and 付 into 苻), and declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of the Three Qins. He said to his Court Academician, Hu Wen, "I command a hundred thousand soldiers, and I hold favorable ground. Ran Min and Murong Jun shall destroy each other, while I have defeated Yao Xiang and his father several times. I shall take the realm as easily as Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) did."

時有說洪稱尊號者,洪亦以讖文有「草付應王」,又其孫堅背有「草付」字,遂改姓苻氏,自稱大將軍、大單于、三秦王。洪謂博士胡文曰:「孤率眾十萬,居形勝之地,冉閔、慕容俊可指辰而殄,姚襄父子克之在吾數中,孤取天下,有易於漢祖。」(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Pu/Fu Hong)

At that time, there were many who said that Pu Hong should claim imperial title for himself. Pu Hong also believed in a prophecy that said, "The one marked by grass shall be King." His grandson, Fu Jian, had on his back the characters 草付 "marked by grass". He therefore changed his clan's surname from Pu to Fu (combining the two characters 草 and 付 into 苻), and declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of the Three Qins. He said to his Court Academician, Hu Wen, "I command a hundred thousand soldiers, and I hold favorable ground. Ran Min and Murong Jun shall destroy each other, while I have defeated Yao Xiang and his father several times. I shall take the realm as easily as Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) did."

洪自稱大將軍、大單于、三秦王。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Hong declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of the Three Qins.

王墮,字安生,京兆霸城人也。博學有雄才,明天文圖緯。苻洪征梁犢,以墮為司馬,謂洪曰:「讖言苻氏應王,公其人也。」洪深然之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Wang Duo)

Wang Duo, styled Ansheng, was a native of Bacheng county in Jingzhao commandary. He was an educated and learned man, with heroic talent, and adept at reading the heavens and understanding prophecies and predictions. When Fu Hong campaigned against Liang Du, he recruited Wang Duo to serve as his Marshal. Wang Duo said to Fu Hong, "The prophecies state that the Fu clan shall become Kings, and you are the very one." Fu Hong deeply believed him.


二月,燕王俊使慕容霸將兵二萬自東道出徒河,慕輿于自西道出蠮螉塞,俊自中道出盧龍塞,以伐趙。以慕容恪、鮮于亮爲前驅,命慕輿泥槎山通道。留世子曄守龍城,以內史劉斌爲大司農,與典書令皇甫真留統後事。

8. In the second month, Murong Jun sent Murong Ba with twenty thousand soldiers to march along the eastern road from Tuhe, while he sent Muyu Yu to march along the western road from Yeweng Pass, and he himself marched along the central road from Lulong Pass. All these movements were part of Yan's invasion of Zhao. Murong Ke and Xianyu Liang lead the army's vanguard, while Muyu Ni was ordered to hew paths and clear roads through the mountains. Murong Jun left his heir Murong Ye to guard Longcheng, and the Interior Minister, Liu Bin, was entrusted with the office of Grand Minister of Finance; Liu Bin handled affairs in the rear together with the Prefect of the Directors of Writing, Huangfu Zhen.

杜佑曰:盧龍塞在今平州城西北二百里。〈邪斫木曰槎。〉

Du You remarked, "Lulong Pass was two hundred li northwest of the capital city of modern Pingzhou."

To hew is to carve through like chopping trees.)


儁鑿山除道,入自盧龍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun bored roads through the mountains and entered Later Zhao's territory from Lulong.


霸軍至三陘,趙征東將軍鄧恒惶怖,焚倉庫,弃安樂遁去,與幽州刺史王午共保薊。徙河南部都尉孫泳急入安樂,撲滅餘火,籍其穀帛。霸收安樂、北平兵糧,與俊會臨渠。

9. When Murong Ba's army reached the Three Passes near Anle, Zhao's General Who Conquers The East, Deng Heng, panicked and burned the city warehouses before abandoning Anle's defenses and fleeing. He went to defend Ji, along with Zhao's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Wu. Yan's Colonel of the Southern Division at Tuhe, Sun Yong, quickly entered Anle, extinguished the remaining flames, and gathered up the grain. Murong Ba conscripted troops and grain from Anle and Beiping before rendezvousing with Murong Jun at Linqu.

〈「安樂」,當作「樂安」。果如慕容霸所料。〉樂安城在遼西遼陽縣東。魏收《地形志》:海陽縣有橫山,蓋卽三陘之地。臨渠城臨泃渠。泃水出右北平無終縣西山,東南至雍奴縣,入鮑丘水;魏武征蹋頓,從泃口鑿渠,逕雍奴、泉州以通河海者也。

As before, the instances of "Anle" in this passage should be "Le'an".

We see that Deng Heng fled, just as Murong Ba had predicted he would.

The city of Le'an was in the east of Liaoyang county in Liaoxi commandary. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "There is a Mount Heng in Haiyang county." This must have been where the Three Passes were.

The city of Linqu ("Along the Canal") was on the banks of the Gou Canal. The Gou River flows east out of the western mountains in Wuzhong county in Beiping commandary. From there, it flows southeast until it reaches Yongnu county, where it enters the Baoqiu River. When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) was campaigning against Tadun, he carved a canal from Goukou, to provide water access through Yongnu and Quanzhou out to the Yellow River and the sea.


三月,燕兵至無終。王午留其將王佗以數千人守薊,與鄧恒走保魯口。乙巳,俊拔薊,執王佗,斬之。俊欲悉坑其士卒千餘人,慕容霸諫曰:「趙爲暴虐,王興師伐之,將以拯民于塗炭而撫有中州也;今始得薊而坑其士卒,恐不可以爲王師之先聲也。」乃釋之。俊入都于薊,中州士女降者相繼。燕兵至范陽,范陽太守李産欲爲石氏拒燕,衆莫爲用,乃帥八城令長出降;俊複以産爲太守。

10. In the third month, the Yan soldiers reached Wuzhong. Wang Wu left his subordinate officer Wang Tuo with several thousand men to continue guarding Ji, while he and Deng Heng fell back to defend Lukou. On the day Yisi (April 27th), Murong Jun took Ji; he captured Wang Tuo and executed him.

Murong Jun also wished to bury alive more than a thousand of the enemy soldiers, but Murong Ba remonstrated with him, saying, "You led your army to attack Zhao because of that state’s great cruelty, and in order to save the people from their misery and bring comfort to the Central Provinces. Now if you bury alive these soldiers after we have only just taken Ji, I fear it will do much to harm your reputation." So Murong Jun released the soldiers instead.

Murong Jun shifted his capital forward to Ji, and men and women from the Central Provinces came to submit to him one after the other.

When the Yan soldiers reached Fanyang, Zhao's Administrator of Fanyang, Li Chan, wished to oppose Yan on behalf of the Shi clan. But when none of the people would support him, he led the Prefects and Chiefs of the eight counties of his commandary out of the city to surrender to Yan. Murong Jun confirmed him in his current post as Administrator.

〈范陽郡統涿、良鄕、方城、長鄕、遒、故安、范陽、容城八縣。〉

(The commandary of Fanyang administered eight counties: Zhuo, Liangxiang, Fangcheng, Zhangxiang, Qiu, Gu'an, Fanyang, and Rongcheng. These were where the eight leaders were from.)


儁克薊城而都之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun took the city of Ji and made it his capital.

俊既克幽州,將坑降卒,垂諫曰:「吊伐之義,先代常典。今方平中原,宜綏懷以德,坑戮之刑不可為王師之先聲。」俊從之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

After Murong Jun conquered Youzhou, he was about to bury alive the enemy soldiers who had surrendered. But Murong Chui remonstrated with him, saying, "When your conquest relies upon justice, you must first follow the common canons. As your aim is to settle the Central Plains, you should hold fast to and cherish virtue. You cannot let punishment of the innocent by burying them alive be what heralds the coming of the royal army." Murong Jun followed his advice.


産子績爲幽州別駕,弃其家從王午在魯口。鄧恒謂午曰:「績鄉里在北,父已降燕,今雖在此,恐終難相保,徒爲人累,不如去之。」午曰:「此何言也!夫以當今喪亂,而績乃能立義捐家,情節之重,雖古烈士無以過,乃欲以猜嫌害之?燕、趙之士聞之,謂我直相聚爲賊,了無意識。衆情一散,不可複集,此爲坐自屠潰也。」恒乃止。午猶慮諸將不與己同心,或致非意,乃遣績歸。績始辭午往見燕王俊,俊讓之曰:「卿不識天命,弃父邀名,今日乃始來邪!」對曰:「臣眷戀舊主,志存微節,官身所在,何事非君!殿下方以義取天下,臣未謂得見之晚也。」俊悅,善待之。

11. Li Chan's son Li Ji was appointed as Yan's Attendant Officer of Youzhou. However, he abandoned his family, and joined Wang Wu at Lukou.

Deng Heng said to Wang Wu, "Li Ji's homeland (Fanyang) is in the north, and his father has already surrendered to Yan. Although he is here with us for now, I fear that he will not be able to endure his conflicting loyalties. He will simply be a burden to us. It would be better to do away with him."

Wang Wu replied, "What nonsense is this? Li Ji came here because of the current civil strife, and he could even give up his family for the sake of righteousness. Not even the heroes of old could surpass his sense of duty and virtue. How can you second-guess him and try to harm his good name with these suspicions? If the people of the regions of Yan and Zhao hear of it, they will say that we have assembled together only to become rebels, lacking in wisdom. Once they start having second thoughts, we would not be able to bring their minds together again to our cause. It would be a self-inflicted defeat."

So Deng Heng ceased urging him. However, Wang Wu still felt that the other generals did not agree with him. Worried that they would demand that he kill Li Ji, he eventually sent Li Ji back home.

When Li Ji took his leave of Wang Wu and came to report to Murong Jun, Murong Jun said to him, "You have not heeded Heaven's command, since you abandoned your father to chase after reputation. Only now have you come to see me!"

Li Ji replied, "I still cherished my regard for my former lord, and I wished to continue carrying out all I could of my remaining duties. Whether it was my position or even my life, in what way have I acted improperly? Besides, Your Highness has only just begun your campaign for the realm through exerting your sense of righteousness, and therefore I would not say I came too late."

Murong Jun was pleased with this response, and he treated Li Ji well.

〈績,范陽入。范陽在魯口之北。〉〈去,謂殺之也。〉〈謂諸將殺之,非午之意。〉〈績謂其身爲官身,言委質事君,身非我有也。〉

(Li Ji was a native of Fanyang, which was north of Lukou.

Deng Heng's euphamism "do away with" meant "to kill" Li Ji.

Wang Wu was worried that the other generals were about to kill Li Ji, counter to his own intentions.

Li Ji was saying that his life belonged to the state, and he was like a hostage to his duty to his lord; his life did not belong to him.)


俊以弟宜爲代郡城郎,孫泳爲廣寧太守,悉置幽州郡縣守宰。

12. Murong Jun appointed his younger brother Murong Yi as City Chief of Dai commandary, and appointed Sun Yong as Administrator of Guangning. He also appointed other local administrators in the commandaries and counties of Youzhou.

此秦、漢以來之代郡,非後魏之代都。此代郡治代;後魏代都,乃秦、漢之平城也。城郎、城大,皆鮮卑所置,付以城郭之任。郎,主也。

This was Dai commandary as it had been known during Qin and Han times, not the Dai capital that existed during Northern Wei. This Dai commandary was administered from Dai county, while Northern Wei's Dai capital was what had been known as Pingcheng under Qin and Han.

城郎 and 城大 were Xianbei titles, which designated the commanders of the inner and outer walls of a city. 郎 means chief.


甲子,俊使中部俟厘慕輿句督薊中留事,自將擊鄧恒于魯口。軍至清梁,恒將鹿勃早將數千人夜襲燕營,半已得入,先犯前鋒都督慕容霸,突入幕下,霸起奮擊,手殺十餘人,早不能進。由是燕軍得嚴,俊謂慕輿根曰:「賊鋒甚銳,宜且避之。」根正色曰:「我衆彼寡,力不相敵,故乘夜來戰,冀萬一獲利。今求賊得賊,正當擊之,複何所疑!王但安臥,臣等自爲王破之!」俊不能自安,內史李洪從俊出營外,屯高冢上。根帥左右精勇數百人從中牙直前擊早,李洪徐整騎隊還助之,早乃退走。衆軍追擊四十餘裏,早僅以身免,所從士卒死亡略盡。俊引兵還薊。

13. On the day Jiazi (May 16th), Murong Jun sent the Qili of the Central Division, Muyu Gou, to take charge of affairs at Ji, while he himself marched to attack Deng Heng at Lukou. When the Yan army reached Qingliang, Deng Heng's general Lu Bozao launched a night raid on the Yan camp with several thousand men. When half of them had already entered the camp, they first went to assault the Vanguard Commander, Murong Ba. They rushed into Murong Ba’s tent. Murong Ba rose and fought back, killing more than ten of them with his bare hands. Lu Bozao could make no headway, and the Yan army was able to reinforce its defenses.

Murong Jun said to Muyu Gen, "The enemy’s vanguard is keen; we should fall back."

Muyu Gen sternly replied, "Our numbers are great, and they are few. Since they cannot defeat us openly, they resorted to attacking us by night, hoping to gain advantage over us despite the odds. We were already looking for the enemy, and now here they are at hand. This is the time to strike them. Why should have you have any further doubts? Prince, you may rest secure here; allow us to smash them for you!"

But Murong Jun could not calm his anxiety, so the Interior Minister, Li Hong, led him out of the camp, and they went to stay on top of a high mound.

Muyu Gen led those around him, several hundred elite braves, from the central tent (where he had been speaking with Murong Jun) to attack Lu Bozao head-on. Soon, Li Hong regrouped a cavalry unit and went back to help with the fighting, and Lu Bozao at last retreated. The army pursued him for over forty li, and Lu Bozao barely escaped with his life, while his remaining soldiers all died in battle.

Murong Jun led his army back to Ji.

〈俟釐,蓋亦鮮卑部帥之稱。〉〈魏收《地形志》:高陽蠡吾縣有清涼城。《水經註》:中山蒲陰縣東南有清梁亭。〉〈鹿,姓也。《風俗通》,後漢有巴郡太守鹿旗。〉〈謂得以嚴備也。〉〈中牙,儁所居也。〉儁之還薊,亦鹿勃早有以挫其銳,否則進攻魯口矣。

(This term 俟釐 Qili must have been the name for the leader of a Xianbei division of soldiers.

The location of this "Qingliang" is unclear. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "There was a city of Qingliang in Liwu county in Gaoyang commandary." But the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There was a Qingliang Point in the southeast of Puyin county in Zhongshan commandary."

鹿 Lu was this man's surname. According to the Fengsu Tongyi, there was a Lu Qi who served as Administrator of Ba commandary during Later Han.

The Yan army was able to shape up its defenses after Murong Ba held the enemy at bay.

The central tent had been Murong Jun's residence in the camp.

Murong Jun's return to Ji must have been partly due to Lu Bozao’s having dealt a blow to his morale, or else he would have pressed on to attack Lukou.)


魏主閔複姓冉氏,尊母王氏爲皇太后,立妻董氏爲皇后,子智爲皇太子,胤、明裕皆爲王。以李農爲太宰、領太尉、錄尚書事,封齊王,其子皆封縣公。遣使者持節赦諸軍屯,皆不從。

14. Shi Min changed his clan's surname to their former one, Ran. He honored his mother Lady Wang as Empress Dowager, and honored his wife Lady Dong as Empress, while appointing his son Ran Zhi as Crown Prince and his other sons Ran Yin, Ran Ming, and Ran Yu as Princes. Li Nong was appointed as Grand Governor, acting Grand Commandant, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Prince of Qi, and his sons were all named Dukes.

Ran Min dispatched many envoys bearing staffs of authority, offering pardons to the remaining regional army commanders, but they all refused the offer.

〈胤、明、裕,閔之三子。〉〈諸軍屯,張沈及蒲洪等也。〉

(Ran Yin, Ran Ming, and Ran Yu were three of Ran Min's sons.

The regional commanders were people like Zhang Chen, Fu Hong, and the others.)


閔復姓冉氏。追尊祖隆元皇帝,考瞻烈祖高皇帝。尊母王氏為太后,妻董氏為皇后,子智為皇太子。以司馬李農為太宰,諸子皆封為縣公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

Shi Min changed his clan's surname to their former one, Ran. He posthumously honored his grandfather Ran Long as Emperor Yuan and his father Shi Zhan as Emperor Gao and Liezu. He honored his mother Lady Wang as Empress Dowager, and honored his wife Lady Dong as Empress, while appointing his son Ran Zhi as Crown Prince and his other sons Ran Yin, Ran Ming, and Ran Yu as Princes. The Marshal, Li Nong, was appointed as Grand Governor, and his sons were all named as dukes of counties.

閔本姓冉,乃復其姓。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Min's surname had originally been Ran, so he changed back to that surname.


麻秋說苻洪曰:「冉閔、石祗方相持,中原之亂未可平也。不如先取關中,基業已固,然後東爭天下,誰能敵之!」洪深然之。既而秋因宴鴆洪,欲幷其衆;世子健收秋斬之。洪謂健曰:「吾所以未入關者,以爲中州可定;今不幸爲竪子所困。中州非汝兄弟所能辦,我死,汝急入關!」言終而卒。健代統其衆,乃去大都督、大將軍、三秦王之號,稱晋官爵,遣其叔父安來告喪,且請朝命。

15. Ma Qiu said to Fu Hong, "Ran Min and Shi Zhi are locked in struggle, so the Central Plains cannot be settled yet. It would be better for you to first take Guanzhong. Having established that as a base, then you may march east and contend for the realm. Who could oppose you?"

Fu Hong deeply agreed with this.

However, Ma Qiu then poisoned Fu Hong at a feast, for he wished to seize control of Fu Hong’s army. But Fu Hong's heir Fu Jiàn arrested Ma Qiu and executed him.

Fu Hong said to Fu Jiàn, "I had wished to enter Guanzhong, and by doing so to pacify the Central Provinces. But now, I have unfortunately fallen prey to this miscreant. You and your brothers will not be able to handle things here in the Central Provinces. Once I die, you must quickly enter Guanzhong!" Having said this, he soon passed away.

Fu Jiàn assumed command over the army, but he did away with his father’s claims to the ranks of Grand Commander, Grand General, or King of the Three Qins. Instead, he pledged himself a Jin vassal, and sent his uncle Fu An to inform the Jin court of his mourning and to ask for their commands.

三月,石季龍故將麻秋鴆殺苻洪于枋頭。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the third month, Shi Hu's former general Ma Qiu poisoned Fu Hong at Fangtou.

軍師將軍麻秋說洪西都長安,洪深然之。已而秋因宴鳩洪,將並其衆。世子健收斬秋。洪將死,謂健曰:「所以未入關者,言中州可指辰而定。今見困竪子,中原非汝兄弟所能辦。關中形勝,吾亡後,便可鼓行而西。」言終而死,年六十六。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Hong)

Fu Hong's General Who Directs The Army, Ma Qiu, advised Fu Hong to go west and make his capital at Chang'an, and Fu Hong deeply agreed. Ma Qiu then poisoned Fu Hong at a feast, hoping to seize his army, but he was caught and executed by Fu Hong's heir Fu Jiàn.

Before Fu Hong died, he said to Fu Jiàn, "After we have taken Guanzhong, the Central Provinces can then be pacified. But now I have been brought low by this miscreant, and you and your brothers will not be able to handle the Central Plains. Guanzhong is a land that has the character of victory. After my death, beat the drums and march west." Having said this, he died; he was sixty-five years old.

秋說洪西都長安,洪深然之。既而秋因宴鴆洪,將並其眾,世子健收而斬之。洪將死,謂健曰:「所以未入關者,言中州可指時而定。今見困豎子,中原非汝兄弟所能辦。關中形勝,吾亡後便可鼓行而西。」言終而死,年六十六。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Pu/Fu Hong)

Ma Qiu advised Fu Hong to go west and make his capital at Chang'an, and Fu Hong deeply agreed. Ma Qiu then poisoned Fu Hong at a feast, hoping to seize his army, but he was caught and executed by Fu Hong's heir Fu Jiàn.

Before Fu Hong died, he said to Fu Jiàn, "After we have taken Guanzhong, the Central Provinces can then be pacified. But now I have been brought low by this miscreant, and you and your brothers will not be able to handle the Central Plains. Guanzhong is a land that has the character of victory. After my death, beat the drums and march west." Having said this, he died; he was sixty-five years old.

苻健字建業,洪第三子也。初、母羌氏夢大羆而孕健。及長,勇果便弓馬,好施善事人,甚為石虎父子所親愛。虎雖外禮苻氏,心實忌之,乃陰殺其諸兄,而不害健。及洪死,健嗣位,去秦王之號。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn, styled Jianye, was the third son of Fu Hong. Before his birth, his mother Lady Jiang dreamed of a great brown bear and was then pregnant. When he grew up, he was brave and skilled with bow and horse, active and astute in handling both affairs and men. Because of this, Shi Hu greatly favored him and his father. Although Shi Hu outwardly lavished the Fu clan, he secretly feared them, and had Fu Jiàn's elder brothers secretly killed, but he did not harm Fu Jiàn.

After Fu Hong's death, Fu Jiàn took command of his forces. He cast off the title King of Qin.

苻健,字建業,洪第三子也。初,母薑氏夢大羆而孕之,及長,勇果便弓馬,好施,善事人,甚為石季龍父子所親愛。季龍雖外禮苻氏,心實忌之,乃陰殺其諸兄,而不害健也。及洪死,健嗣位,去秦王之號,稱晉爵,遣使告喪于京師,且聽王命。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn, styled Jianye, was the third son of Fu Hong. Before his birth, his mother Lady Jiang dreamed of a great brown bear and was then pregnant. When he grew up, he was brave and skilled with bow and horse, active and astute in handling both affairs and men. Because of this, Shi Hu greatly favored him and his father. Although Shi Hu outwardly lavished the Fu clan, he secretly feared them, and had Fu Jiàn's elder brothers secretly killed, but he did not harm Fu Jiàn.

After Fu Hong's death, Fu Jiàn took command of his forces. He cast off the title King of Qin and other titles, resubmitting to the Jin titles, and he sent envoys to the Jin capital announcing his mourning and his adherence to imperial commands.

洪既而為其將麻秋所鴆,臨死,謂健曰:「關中周漢舊都,形勝之國,進可以一同天下,退不失保全秦雍,吾死之後,便可鼓行而西。」健從之。健,初名羆,字世建,又避石虎外祖張羆之名,故改焉。健便弓馬,善於事人,石虎深愛之,歷位翼軍校尉、鎮軍將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Hong was then poisoned by his general Ma Qiu. When he was near death, he said to Fu Jiàn, "Guanzhong was the old capital of the Zhou and Han dynasties, and it is a region that has the characteristics of victory. If things go well, you could unite all the realm from there, and even if not, you could be sure of keeping all the territory of Qin and Yong under your control. After my death, you must beat the drums and march west." Fu Jiàn heeded his advice.

Fu Jiàn had originally been named Fu Pi, and his style name had been Shijian. But Shi Hu's maternal grandfather was named Zhang Pi, and so in order to avoid the naming taboo, Fu Jiàn changed his name. He was skilled with bow and horse, and astute at handling both affairs and men. Shi Hu deeply treasured him, and Fu Jiàn served Later Zhao as Colonel of the Winged Army and General Who Guards The Army.


趙新興王祗即皇帝位于襄國,改元永守。以汝陰王琨爲相國,六夷據州郡擁兵者皆應之。祗以姚弋仲爲右丞相、親趙王,待以殊禮。弋仲子襄,雄勇多才略,士民愛之,請弋仲以爲嗣,弋仲以襄非長子,不許;請者日以千數,弋仲乃使之將兵。祗以襄爲驃騎將軍、豫州刺史、新昌公。又以苻健爲都督河南諸軍事、鎮南大將軍、 開府儀同三司,兗州牧、略陽郡公。

16. Shi Zhi proclaimed himself Emperor of Zhao at Xiangguo, and changed the reign era title to Yongshou. He appointed Shi Kun as his Chancellor of State, and the various commanders of the Six Tribes occupying the provinces and commandaries and leading soldiers all inclined towards him.

Shi Zhi appointed Yao Yizhong as Prime Minister of the Right and Prince Friendly to Zhao, and treated him well with special courtesy.

Yao Yizhong's son Yao Xiang, a bold and heroic man of many talents and tricks, enjoyed the favor of the gentry and the people. They asked Yao Yizhong to make Yao Xiang his heir, but because he was not Yao Yizhong’s eldest son, Yao Yizhong would not consent. But after receiving thousands of such supplicants by the day, Yao Yizhong at last placed Yao Xiang in command of his army. Shi Zhi appointed Yao Xiang as General of Agile Cavalry, Inspector of Yuzhou, and Duke of Xinchang. He also appointed Fu Jiàn as Commander of all military affairs south of the Yellow River, Grand General Who Guards The South, Governor of Yanzhou, and Duke of Lüeyang commandary, and granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

《考異》曰:《晉帝紀》,祗卽位在閏月;《三十國》、《晉春秋》皆在三月。按《十六國春秋》,祗稱帝,拜姚弋仲、苻健官,而不言苻洪。洪三月死,故疑祗以三月卽位。〈【章:十二行本「郡」下有「擁兵」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】〉〈六夷,胡、羯、氐、羌、段氏及巴蠻也。〉〈襄,弋仲之第五子。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Mu in the Book of Jin states that Shi Zhi claimed the throne of Later Zhao in the intercalary month (by its reckoning, before the third month). The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both state that it was in the third month. According to the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, when Shi Zhi declared himself Emperor, he offered titles to Yao Yizhong and to Fu Jiàn; it does not mention Fu Hong. Since Fu Hong died in the third month, I suspect that must have been the month when Shi Zhi claimed the throne.”

Some versions include the phrase that the commanders were "leading soldiers".

The Six Tribes were the Xiongnu, the Jie, the Di, the Qiang, the Duan clan of the Xianbei, and the Man peoples of the Ba region.

Yao Xiang was Yao Yizhong's fifth son.)


閏月,鑒弟祗僭帝號于襄國。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the intercalary month, Shi Jian's younger brother Shi Zhi declared himself Emperor of Zhao at Xiangguo.

新興王祗聞石鑒之死,稱尊號于襄國,改元永寧。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

When the Prince of Xinxing, Shi Zhi, heard of Shi Jian's death, he declared himself Emperor of Later Zhao at Xiangguo, and changed the reign era title to Yongning.

石祗稱尊號于襄國,以仲為右丞相。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

When Shi Zhi declared himself Emperor of Later Zhao at Xiangguo, he appointed Yao Yizhong as Prime Minister of the Right.

石祗僭號于襄國,以弋仲為右丞相,待以殊禮。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

When Shi Zhi declared himself Emperor of Later Zhao at Xiangguo, he appointed Yao Yizhong as Prime Minister of the Right, and treated him with exceptional courtesy.

姚襄字景國,戈仲第五子,雄武多才藝,能明察,善撫納,士民愛敬之,咸請為嗣。仲以襄非嫡,不許。石祗僭號,以襄為使持節驃騎將軍、護烏丸校尉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang, styled Jingguo, was Yao Yizhong's fifth son. He was a bold and heroic man of many talents and tricks, capable, wise, and meticulous. He enjoyed nurturing and accepting people, and he had the favor of the gentry and the common people. They all asked Yao Yizhong to make Yao Xiang his heir, but because he was the son of Yao Yizhong’s chief wife, Yao Yizhong would not consent.

When Shi Zhi declared himself Emperor of Later Zhao, he appointed Yao Xiang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General of Agile Cavalry, and Colonel Who Protects The Wuhuan.

襄字景國,弋仲之第五子也。年十七,身長八尺五寸,臂垂過膝,雄武多才藝,明察善撫納,士眾愛敬之,咸請為嗣。弋仲弗許,百姓固請者日有千數,乃授之以兵。石祗僭號,以襄為使持節、驃騎將軍、護烏丸校尉、豫州刺史、新昌公。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang, styled Jingguo, was Yao Yizhong's fifth son. By the time he was sixteen years old, he had grown to be eight chi five cun tall, and his arms hung down past his knees. He was a bold and martial man of many talents and tricks, wise and meticulous. He enjoyed nurturing and accepting people, and the gentry and the common people all loved and respected him. They all asked Yao Yizhong to make Yao Xiang his heir, but Yao Yizhong would not consent. Even so, thousands of commoners would come every day to plead on his behalf. So Yao Yizhong eventually put Yao Xiang in command of his soldiers.

When Shi Zhi declared himself Emperor of Later Zhao, he appointed Yao Xiang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General of Agile Cavalry, Colonel Who Protects The Wuhuan, Inspector of Yuzhou, and Duke of Xinchang.


夏,四月,趙主祗遣汝陰王琨將兵十萬伐魏。

17. In summer, the fourth month, Shi Zhi sent Shi Kun with an army of a hundred thousand to attack Ran Min’s newly-declared Wei dynasty.

石祗遣相國汝陰王石琨帥衆十萬伐鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

Shi Zhi sent his Chancellor of State and Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, to lead a hundred thousand soldiers to attack Ye.


魏主閔殺李農及其三子,幷尚書令王謨、侍中王衍、中常待嚴震、趙升。閔遣使臨江告晋曰:「逆胡亂中原,今已誅之;能共討者,可遣軍來也」。朝廷不應。

18. Ran Min killed Li Nong and his three sons, along with the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Mo, the Palace Attendant, Wang Yan, and the Palace Regular Attendants, Yan Zhen and Zhao Sheng.

Ran Min sent envoys to the bank of the Yangzi, to report to the Jin court, "I have already punished the traitorous barbarians who brought chaos to the Central Plains. If you are able to join us in fighting against them, you may send an army over." But the Jin court did not follow this suggestion.

五月,廬江太守袁真攻魏合肥,克之,虜其居民而還。

19. In the fifth month, the Administrator of Lujiang, Yuan Zhen, attacked Wei's city of Hefei and took it, capturing the inhabitants there before returning.

夏五月,大水。廬江太守袁眞攻合肥,克之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fifth month, the Administrator of Lujiang, Yuan Zhen, attacked Hefei and took it.


六月,趙汝陰王琨進據邯鄲,鎮南將軍劉國自繁陽會之。魏衛將軍王泰擊琨,大破之,死者萬餘人。劉國還繁陽。

20. In the sixth month, Shi Kun advanced and captured Handan, and the General Who Guards The South, Liu Guo, marched from Fanyang to meet him. Wei's Guard General, Wang Tai, attacked Shi Kun and greatly routed him; more than ten thousand died. Liu Guo returned to Fanyang.

〈繁陽縣,漢屬魏郡,晉屬頓丘郡;隋廢繁陽入相州內黃縣。〉

(During Han, Fanyang county was part of Wei commandary. During Jin, it was part of Dunqiu commandary. Sui abolished Fanyang county, folding it into Neihuang county in Xiangzhou.)


六月,石祗遣其弟琨攻冉閔將王泰于邯鄲,琨師敗績。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the sixth month, Shi Zhi sent his younger brother Shi Kun to attack Ran Min's general Wang Tai at Handan. But Shi Kun's army was defeated.

六月,琨進據邯鄲。閔盡衆拒之,琨軍大敗。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the sixth month, Shi Kun advanced and occupied Handan. Ran Min sent all his forces to oppose him, and Shi Kun's army was greatly defeated.


初,段蘭卒于令支,段龕代領其衆,因石氏之亂,擁部落南徙。秋,七月,龕引兵東據廣固,自稱齊王。

21. It was earlier mentioned that Duan Lan had been stationed at Lingzhi as a Zhao general. When he passed away, his son Duan Kan had inherited the soldiers under his command. Now, because of the chaos within the Shi clan, Duan Kan abandoned his post and led all the tribal people he commanded to the south. In autumn, the seventh month, Duan Kan led them to capture the city of Guanggu (in Qingzhou), where he declared himself the King of Qi.

〈段蘭屯令支,見上卷康帝建元元年。〉〈龕自陳留而東據廣固。〉

(After being handed over to Later Zhao by the Yuwen, Duan Lan had been stationed at Lingzhi as a buffer against Yan, as mentioned in Book 97, in Emperor Kang's first year of Jianyuan (343.10).

Duan Kan marched east from Chenliu to occupy Guanggu.)


鬱蘭死,子龕代之。及冉閔之亂,龕率眾南移,遂據齊地。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

After Duan Yulan passed away, his son Duan Kan succeeded him. During Ran Min's revolt (350-352), Duan Kan led his forces south, and they occupied the Qi region.


八月,代郡人趙榼帥三百餘家叛燕,歸趙幷州刺史張平。燕王俊徙廣寧、上穀二郡民于徐無,代郡民于凡城。

22. In the eighth month, a native of Dai commandary, Zhao Ke, led more than three hundred households in rebellion against Yan, going over to Zhao's Inspector of Bingzhou, Zhang Ping. Murong Jun relocated the people of the two commandaries Guangning and Shanggu to Xuwu, and relocated the remaining people of Dai commandary to Fancheng.

〈徐無縣,漢、晉屬右北平郡,後周廢,入無終縣,唐改無終爲玉田縣,屬薊州。〉〈恐其復叛歸趙,故徙之。〉

(During Han and Jin, Xuwu county was part of Zuobeiping commandary. Northern Zhou abolished it, folding it into Wuzhong county. Tang renamed Wuzhong to Yutian county, as part of Jizhou.

Murong Jun was worried about the prospect of future pro-Zhao rebellions, so he relocated these people.)


王朗之去長安也,朗司馬京兆杜洪據長安,自稱晋征北將軍、雍州刺史,以馮翊張琚爲司馬;關西夷、夏皆應之。苻健欲取之,恐洪知之,乃受趙官爵。以趙俱爲河內太守,戍溫;牛夷爲安集將軍,戍懷;治宮室于枋頭,課民種麥,示無西意,有知而不種者,健殺之以徇。既而自稱晋征西大將軍、都督關中諸軍事、雍州刺史;以武威賈玄碩爲左長史,洛陽梁安爲長史,段純爲左司馬,辛牢爲右司馬,京兆王魚、安定程肱、胡文等爲軍咨祭酒,悉衆而西。以魚遵爲前鋒,行至盟津,爲浮梁以濟。遣弟輔國將軍雄帥衆五千自潼關入,兄子揚武將軍菁帥衆七千自軹關入。臨別,執菁手曰:「若事不捷,汝死河北,我死河南,不復相見。」既濟,焚橋,自帥大衆隨雄而進。

23. After Wang Lang had left Chang'an, his Marshal, Du Hong of Jingzhao, had seized control of Chang'an and proclaimed himself Jin's General Who Conquers The North and Inspector of Yongzhou, appointing Zhang Ju of Pingyi as his own Marshal. The peoples of Guanxi, both Han and tribal, submitted to him.

Fu Jiàn wished to conquer Guanzhong, but fearing that Du Hong would learn of his intentions, he accepted the Zhao titles that Shi Zhi had offered him. He appointed Zhao Ju as Administrator of Henei, and stationed him at Wen; Niu Yi was named as General Who Gathers Peace, and stationed at Huai. Fu Jiàn built a palace at Fangtou, charged the people to begin planting crops, and displayed no intentions of designs on the west. If anyone who already knew about the coming campaign refused to plant crops, Fu Jiàn killed them to maintain the charade.

After some time had passed in this fashion, Fu Jiàn proclaimed himself Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West, Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong, and Inspector of Yongzhou. He further appointed Jia Xuanshuo of Wuwei as Chief Clerk of the Left, Liang An of Luoyang (or, of Lueyang) as Chief Clerk, Duan Chun as Marshal of the Left, Xin Lao as Marshal of the Right, and Wang Yu of Jingzhao, Cheng Gong of Anding, and Hu Wen and others as Army Libationer-Consultants, and prepared his army to march west.

Yu Zun was appointed to lead the vanguard, and the army marched to Meng Crossing, where they crossed the Yellow River with a floating bridge. Fu Jiàn sent the General Who Upholds The State, his younger brother Fu Xiong, with five thousand troops to attack Tong Gate, while he sent the General Who Displays Valor, his nephew Fu Jing, with seven thousand troops to attack Zhi Gate. When it came time for them to part, Fu Jiàn took Fu Jing's hand and said, "If this affair does not succeed, you shall die north of the river while I shall die south of it. This might very well be our final goodbye."

After crossing the river, Fu Jiàn burned the bridge, and personally lead the bulk of the army to follow after Fu Xiong.

〈【章:十二行本「杜」上有「京兆」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦脫。】〉〈趙主祗所授者也。〉〈安集將軍,苻氏置,以安集民夷爲號。溫縣、懷縣並屬河內郡。溫縣,唐屬孟州。懷縣故城在懷州武陟縣西。〉〈【章:十二行本「洛」作「略」;乙十一行本同;熊校同。】〉〈從河南入潼關至華陰,從河北入軹關,自蒲津西渡河至渭北,合兵以攻長安。〉

(Some versions state that Du Hong was a native "of Jingzhao".

The Zhao titles were the ones that Shi Zhi had granted him.

The title of General Who Gathers Peace was a creation of the Fu clan; the name was in the sense that the person settled and gathered together the various local and tribal people.

At this time, Wen and Huai counties were both part of Henei commandary. During Tang, Wen county was part of Mengzhou, while the capital city of Huai county was in the west of Wuzhi county in Huaizhou.

Some versions state that Liang An was a native of "Lueyang" rather than "Luoyang".

One wing of Fu Jiàn's army would march on the north side of the Yellow River, through Tong Gate to Huayin, while the other wing would march on the south side, through Zhi Gate. This second wing would then march west from Pu Crossing after crossing the Yellow River at that point, and converge with the first wing north of the Wei River to attack Chang'an.)


秋八月,苻健帥衆入關。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the eighth month, Fu Jiàn led his forces to enter Guanzhong.

健稱晉征西大將軍、都督關西諸軍事、雍州刺史。於是盡衆西行至盟津,起浮橋以濟,濟訖焚橋。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn declared himself Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West, Commander of military affairs in Guanxi, and Inspector of Yongzhou. He led his whole host west. They used a floating bridge to cross the Yellow River at Meng Crossing, then burned it behind them.

時京兆杜洪竊據長安,自稱晉征北將軍、雍州刺史,戎夏多歸之。健密圖關中,懼洪知之,乃偽受石祗官,繕宮室於枋頭,課所部種麥,示無西意,有知而不種者,健殺之以徇。既而自稱晉征西大將軍、都督關中諸軍事、雍州刺史,盡眾西行,起浮橋於盟津以濟。遣其弟雄率步騎五千入潼關,兄子菁自軹關入河東。健執菁手曰:「事若不捷,汝死河北,我死河南,不及黃泉,無相見也。」既濟,焚橋,自統大眾繼雄而進。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

At that time, Chang'an had been occupied by Du Hong of Jingzhao, who proclaimed himself to be Jin's General Who Conquers The North and Inspector of Yongzhou. Many of the tribal and ethnic Han people flocked to him.

Fu Jiàn secretly planned to attack Guanzhong. However, fearing that Du Hong might learn of it, he outwardly claimed to accept the titles granted by Shi Zhi, and began construction of palaces and other buildings at Fangtou. He ordered his men to begin planting, and displayed nothing to indicate he was considering the west. If anyone who already knew about the planned campaign refused to plant crops, he killed them to keep the secret.

When the time came, Fu Jiàn proclaimed himself Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West, Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong, and Inspector of Yongzhou, and he led his whole host west. They used a floating bridge to cross the Yellow River at Meng Crossing. Fu Jiàn sent his younger brother Fu Xiong with five thousand horse and foot to enter Tong Gate, while he sent his nephew Fu Jing from Zhi Gate to enter Hedong. Fu Jiàn grasped Fu Jing's hand and said, "If this endeavor should fail, then you will die north of the river, while I die south of it; we shall not meet again until the Golden Springs." After crossing the bridge, they burned it behind them, so that there would be no retreat; all must advance.

時京兆杜洪竊據長安,關中雄儁皆應之。健密圖關中,懼洪之知也,乃繕宮室於枋頭,課民種麥,示無西意。既而自稱征西大將軍、雍州刺史,盡眾西行。至盟津,起浮橋以濟,遣弟輔國將軍雄率步騎五千入自潼關,兄子揚武將軍菁率眾七千自軹關入河東。執菁手曰:「若事不捷,汝死河北,我死河南,不及黃泉,無相見也。」濟訖,焚橋;自統大眾,繼雄而進。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

At this time, Du Hong of Jingzhao had seized control of Chang'an, and the heroes and talents of Guanzhong all supported him. Fu Jiàn secretly wished to conquer Guanzhong, but fearing that Du Hong would learn of his intentions, he built a palace at Fangtou, charged the people to begin planting crops, and displayed no intentions of designs on the west.

After some time had passed in this fashion, Fu Jiàn proclaimed himself Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West and Inspector of Yongzhou. He led his whole army to the west.

When the army reached Meng Crossing, they raised a floating bridge to cross the Yellow River. Fu Jiàn sent the General Who Upholds The State, his younger brother Fu Xiong, with five thousand horse and foot to pass through Tong Gate, while he sent the General Who Displays Valor, his nephew Fu Jing, with seven thousand troops to pass through Zhi Gate and enter Hedong. Fu Jiàn took Fu Jing's hand and said, "If this affair does not succeed, you shall die north of the river while I shall die south of it. We might not see each other again until we reach the Golden Springs."

After crossing the river, Fu Jiàn burned the bridge, and personally lead the bulk of the army to follow after Fu Xiong.


杜洪聞之,與健書,侮嫚之。以張琚弟先爲征虜將軍,帥衆萬三千逆戰于潼關之北。先兵大敗,走還長安。洪悉召關中之衆以拒健。洪弟郁勸洪迎健,洪不從;郁帥所部降于健。

24. When Du Hong learned of the invasion, he wrote to Fu Jiàn sending insulting messages. He appointed Zhang Ju's younger brother Zhang Xian as General Who Conquers the Caitiffs, and Zhang Xian led an army of thirteen thousand men to intercept the enemy north of Tong Gate. But Zhang Xian's army suffered a great defeat, and he retreated back to Chang'an. Du Hong summoned all the forces of Guanzhong in order to oppose Fu Jiàn.

Du Hong's younger brother Du Yu urged Du Hong to face Fu Jiàn in battle, but Du Hong refused. Du Yu then led his subordinates to surrender to Fu Jiàn.

杜洪遣其將張先要健於潼關,健逆擊破之。健雖戰勝,猶修箋于洪,並送名馬珍寶,請至長安上尊號。洪曰:「幣重言甘,誘我也。」乃盡召關中之眾來距。健筮之,遇《泰》之《臨》,健曰:「小往大來,吉亨。昔往東而小,今還西而大,吉孰大焉!」是時眾星夾河西流,占者以為百姓還西之象。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Du Hong sent his general Zhang Xian to oppose Fu Jiàn at Tong Gate, but Fu Jiàn attacked and defeated him. Although Fu Jiàn had won the battle, he wrote messages to Du Hong, and even sent him a prized horse, pearls, and jewelry, asking to come to Chang'an and proclaim himself Emperor. Du Hong said, "These gifts and sweet words are only meant to beguile me." So he summoned all the forces of Guanzhong to come to his defense.

Fu Jiàn took a divination (by the methods of the Book of Changes), revealing "Peace" and "Approaching" (the 19th and 11th trigrams). He interpreted it: "'The little goes and the great comes; good fortune.' Before was the little going when we went east; now our returning west is the great coming. Truly we will have great fortune!" At that time a myriad of stars were all flowing west of the Yellow River, and people believed it pointed to a great western migration of families.

杜洪遣將軍張光逆健于潼關,雄擊破之。洪盡召關中之眾以拒健,健聞而筮之,遇泰之臨。健曰:「小往大來,吉亨。昔往東而小,今還西而大,吉孰大焉。諸君知不?此則漢祖屠秦之機也。」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Du Hong sent his general Zhang Guang to intercept Fu Jiàn at Tong Gate, but Fu Xiong attacked Zhang Guang and routed him.

Du Hong then summoned all the forces of Guanzhong to oppose Fu Jiàn. When Fu Jiàn heard this, he took a divination (by the methods of the Book of Changes), revealing "Peace" and "Approaching" (the 19th and 11th trigrams). He interpreted it: "'The little goes and the great comes; good fortune.' Before was the little going when we went east; now our returning west is the great coming. Truly we will have great fortune. Gentlemen, were you aware? This was the same omen that Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) received when he slaughtered the Qin dynasty."


健遣苻雄徇渭北。氐酋毛受屯高陵,徐磋屯好畤,羌酋白犢屯黃白,衆各數萬,皆斬洪使,遣子降于健。苻菁、魚遵所過城邑,無不降附。洪懼,固守長安。

25. Fu Jiàn sent Fu Xiong to subdue the territories north of the Wei River. At this time, the Di chieftain Mao Shou held Gaoling, Xu Cuo held Haozhi, and the Qiang chieftain Bai Du held Huangbai; each of them commanded tens of thousands. All of them executed Du Hong's messengers and sent their own sons to offer submission to Fu Jiàn. All the cities and towns that Fu Jing and Yu Zun passed through surrendered to them. Du Hong, in fear, held fast to defending Chang'an.

〈高陵縣,漢屬馮翊;晉改曰高陸,屬京兆。〉〈好畤縣,前漢屬右扶風,後漢、晉省。〉〈卽黃白城。〉

(During Han, Gaoling county was part of Pingyi commandary. Jin changed its name to Gaolu, and it became part of Jingzhao commandary.

During Former Han, Haozhi county was part of Fufeng commandary. It was abolished during Later Han and Jin.

"Huangbai" refers to the city of Huangbai.)


健遂進軍,次赤水,遣雄略地渭北。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn's army continued to advance; when they reached the Red River, he sent Fu Xiong to travel north of the Wei River.


張賀度、段勤、劉國、靳豚會于昌城,將攻鄴。魏主閔自將擊之,戰于蒼亭,賀度等大敗,死者二萬八千人,追斬靳豚于陰安,盡俘其衆而歸。閔戎卒三十餘萬,旌旗、鉦鼓綿亘百餘裏,雖石氏之盛,無以過也。

26. Zhang Hedu, Duan Qin, Liu Guo, and Jin Tun assembled at Changcheng, planning to attack Ye. Ran Min himself marched out to attack them; they fought at Cangting, where Zhang Hedu and the others were greatly defeated, with twenty-eight thousand killed. Jin Tun was killed at Yin'an by pursuit troops. Ran Min captured all their soldiers and returned.

Ran Min now commanded an army of over three hundred thousand soldiers, with the drums and banners extending for more than a hundred li. Even the Shi clan at its zenith had never surpassed this.

〈魏收《地形志》:魏郡昌樂縣有昌城。昌樂縣,後魏太和二十一年分魏縣置。〉〈蒼亭在河上,西南至東阿六十里。〉〈陰安縣,漢屬魏郡,晉屬頓丘郡。劉昫曰:陰安城在澶州頓丘縣北。〉

(The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "There was a city of Changcheng in Changle county in Wei commandary." Changle county was split off from Wei county in Northern Wei's twenty-first year of Taihe (497).

Cangting was at the Yellow River, sixty li northeast of Dong'a.

During Han, Yin'an county was part of Wei commandary. During Jin, it was part of Dunqiu commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "The city of Yin'an was in the north of Dunqiu county in Chanzhou.")


故晋散騎常侍隴西辛謐,有高名,曆劉、石之世,征辟皆不就;閔備禮征爲太常。謐遺閔書,以爲:「物極則反,致至則危。君王功已成矣,宜因茲大捷,歸身晋朝,必有由、夷之廉,享松、喬之壽矣。」因不食而卒。

27. Jin’s former Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Xin Mi of Longxi, was held in great esteem. During the rise and fall of both the Liu and the Shi clans (of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao), he had refused all offers of office.

Ran Min sent him gifts and offered to employ him as Minister of Ceremonies. Xin Mi sent Ran Min back a response stating, "It is said, 'when anything reaches its climax, it returns; when the extreme point has been reached, there is danger'. Sir, your achievement is already a fact. You should use this victory as an occasion to submit yourself to the Jin court. Then you would certainly possess the purity of Xu You and Boyi, and enjoy the longevity of Master Red Pine and Prince Qiao." Because of that, Xin Mi starved himself and passed away.

〈《戰國策》曰:物至而反,冬夏是也。致至則危,累碁是也。高誘《註》曰︰冬至生,夏至殺,故曰反。致,極也。〉〈由、夷,許由、伯夷也。松、喬,赤松子、王子喬也。〉

(Xin Mi quotes from the Strategies of the Warring States: "When anything reaches its climax, it returns; so it is with winter and summer. When the extreme point has been reached, there is danger; so it is with a pile of chess pieces (Qin 4, 10.1)." Gao You's Annotations to that text adds, "The onset of winter means the death of summer; this is what is meant by the first sentence. And the extreme point means the most serious point."

Xin Mi refers to You, Yi, Pine, and Qiao. He means Xu You, Boyi, Master Red Pine, and Prince Ziqiao (Crown Prince Ji Jin, the son of King Ling of Zhou).)


Xu You was a hermit living during great antiquity. Emperor Yao greatly admired him, and offered to give him the throne, but Xu You declined.

Boyi refers to the brothers Boyi and Shuqi, who lived together under the rule of King Wu of Zhou. When King Wu marched out to depose the last king of Shang and replace Shang with the Zhou dynasty, the brothers criticized him for his lack of filial piety and loyalty. After the Zhou dynasty became a fact, the brothers refused to eat "the grain of Zhou", and so starved themselves to death.

Master Red Pine and Ji Jin (also known as Prince Qiao) were Daoist sages who were said to have achieved immortality. Master Red Pine devised a method to grant himself eternal life, while Ji Jin was said to have ascended to Heaven on the back of a crane.


九月,燕王俊南徇冀州,取章武、河間。初,勃海賈堅,少尚氣節,仕趙爲殿中督。趙亡,堅弃魏主閔還鄉里,擁部曲數千家。燕慕容評徇勃海,遣使招之,堅終不降。評與戰,擒之。俊以評爲章武太守,封裕爲河間太守。俊與慕容恪皆愛賈堅之材。堅時年六十餘,恪聞其善射,置牛百步上以試之。堅曰:「少之時能令不中, 今老矣,往往中之。」乃射再發,一矢拂脊,一矢磨腹,皆附膚落毛,上下如一,觀者鹹服其妙。俊以堅爲樂陵太守,治高城。

28. In the ninth month, Murong Jun marched into Jizhou; he captured Zhangwu and Hejian.

There lived a certain Jia Jian of Bohai. As a youth, he had displayed much moral courage and integrity, and so Zhao had appointed him as Commander of the Palace Hall. Now that Zhao had collapsed into turmoil, Jia Jian fled from Ran Min to return to his home territory, where he gathered together soldiers from several thousand families. When Murong Ping was subduing Bohai, he sent notice to Jia Jian asking for his surrender, but Jia Jian would not accept. Murong Ping then fought him in battle, and captured him. Murong Jun appointed Murong Ping as Administrator of Zhangwu, and Feng Yi as Administrator of Hejian.

Murong Jun and Murong Ke both admired Jia Jian's talents. By now, Jia Jian was already over sixty years old. Murong Ke heard that Jia Jian was an excellent shot, so he placed a bull at a hundred paces from them and asked Jia to prove his mettle. Jia Jian said, "When I was younger, I could make it so that my shots miss the bull. But now I’m old, and more often than not I’ll hit it." So he shot an arrow, and then another. The first shot went over the bull, just brushing against its spine; the second shot went under it, just grazing its belly. Both of the arrows had touched the skin and even sliced off a few hairs, as though they had been the same shot. Everyone who was watching it felt that he was a remarkable talent. Murong Jun made Jia Jian the Administrator of Leling commandary, governed from Gaocheng.

〈晉武帝泰始元年,分勃海置章武國。《五代志》:後魏以河間置瀛州,統內有平舒縣,舊置章武郡。〉〈高城縣,自漢以來屬勃海郡。賢曰:高城故城,在今滄州鹽山縣南。〉

(In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), part of Bohai commandary had been split off to form the Zhangwu princely fief. The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "Northern Wei converted Hejian commandary into Yingzhou. Within that province was a Pingshu county; this had been where the old Zhangwu commandary was created."

Ever since Han, Gaocheng county had been part of Bohai commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Gaocheng was in the south of Yanshan county in modern Cangzhou.")


苻菁與張先戰于渭北,擒之,三輔郡縣堡壁皆降。冬,十月,苻健長驅至長安,杜洪、張琚奔司竹。

29. Fu Jing fought Zhang Xian north of the Wei River, and captured him. The leaders of the commandaries and counties and the commanders of the fortified places within the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an) all surrendered to him.

In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jiàn rushed forward and arrived at Chang'an. Du Hong and Zhang Ju fled to Sizhu.

〈扶風盩厔縣有司竹園。宋白曰:竹在鄠、盩厔之間。漢官有竹丞,魏置司守之官,後魏有司竹都尉。〉

(There was a Sizhu Park in Zhouzhi county in Fufeng commandary. Song Bai remarked, "There is bamboo between Hu and Zhouzhi." The Han dynasty had an Assistant for Bamboo; Cao-Wei created an Overseer for that purpose; Northern Wei had a Commandant of Sizhu.)


三輔堡壁悉降。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

The fortified places within the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an) all surrendered to Fu Jiàn.

又敗張先于陰槃,擒之,諸城盡陷,菁所至無不降者,三輔略定。健引兵至長安,洪奔司竹。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn again defeated Zhang Xian at Yinpan, and captured him. Many cities were taken, while Fu Jing received the surrender of every place that he passed through. Thus was the whole Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an) pacified.

Fu Jiàn then led his troops to Chang'an, and Du Hong fled to Sizhu.

健長驅至長安,杜洪奔司竹。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn rushed forward to Chang'an. Du Hong fled to Sizhu.


燕王俊還薊,留諸將守之;俊還龍城,謁陵廟。

30. Murong Jun returned to Ji, leaving his generals to manage the captured territory; he then further returned to Longcheng, where he paid respects at the tombs of his ancestors and at the ancestral temple.

十一月,魏主閔帥騎十萬攻襄國。署其子太原王胤爲大單于、驃騎大將軍,以降胡一千配之爲麾下。光祿大夫韋謏諫曰:「胡、羯皆我之仇敵,今來歸附,苟存性命耳;萬一爲變,悔之何及!請誅屏降胡,去單于之號,以防微杜漸。」閔方欲撫納群胡,大怒,誅謏及其子伯陽。

31. In the eleventh month, Ran Min led a hundred thousand cavalry to attack Xiangguo.

Ran Min appointed the Prince of Taiyuan, his son Ran Yin, as Grand Chanyu and Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and granted him a retinue of a thousand tribesmen who had surrendered. The Household Counselor, Wei Xiao, remonstrated with him, saying, "The Xiongnu and the Jie are our hated enemies. These ones have submitted to us just to save their own lives. If anything should happen, it will be too late for regrets! It would be better to execute the surrendered barbarians and discard the title of Chanyu, to avoid problems from developing."

But Ran Min wished to win over the various tribal groups, so he was furious when he heard this advice. He executed Wei Xiao and his son Wei Boyang.

〈閔先誅胡、羯,故謏云然。〉〈爲下降胡執胤降趙張本。〉

(Wei Xiao describes the Xiongnu and Jie as hated enemies because Ran Min had earlier ordered their fullscale slaughter.

These tribesmen were the same ones who would later take Ran Yin prisoner when they surrendered to Shi Zhi.)


冬十一月,冉閔圍襄國。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the eleventh month, Ran Min besieged Xiangguo.


甲午,苻健入長安,以民心思晋,乃遣參軍杜山伯詣建康獻捷,幷修好于桓溫。于是秦、雍夷夏皆附之。趙凉州刺史石寧獨據上邽不下,十二月,苻雄擊斬之。

32. On the day Jiawu (?), Fu Jiàn entered Chang'an. Since the people's hearts still inclined towards Jin, he sent his Army Advisor, Du Shanbo, to Jiankang to report his triumph and ingratiate himself with Huan Wen. The peoples of Qinzhou and Yongzhou, both Xia (Han) and tribal, all submitted to him.

Only Zhao's Inspector of Liangzhou, Shi Ning, held out against Fu Jiàn at Shanggui. In the twelfth month, Fu Xiong attacked Shi Ning and killed him.

〈夷夏皆附健,以其歸晉也。〉

(The tribal and native people all submitted to Fu Jiàn because they wanted to return to Jin authority.)


十一月,入都長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the eleventh month, Fu Jiàn entered Chang'an and made it his capital.

健入而都之,遣使獻捷京師,並修好于桓溫。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn entered Chang'an and made it his capital. He sent envoys to inform the Jin capital of his triumph, as well as ingratiate himself with Huan Wen.

健遂入都。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn then entered Chang'an, and made it his capital.


蔡謨除司徒,三年不就職;詔書屢下,太后遣使諭意,謨終不受。于是帝臨軒,遣侍中紀據、黃門郎丁纂征謨;謨陳疾篤,使主簿謝攸陳讓。自旦至申,使者十餘返, 而謨不至。時帝方八歲,甚倦,問左右曰:「所召人何以至今不來?臨軒何時當竟?」太后以君臣俱疲,乃詔:「必不來者,宜罷朝。」中軍將軍殷浩奏免吏部尚書江虨官。 會稽王昱令曹曰:「蔡公傲違上命,無人臣之禮。若人主卑屈于上,大義不行于下,亦不知所以爲政矣。」公卿乃奏:「謨悖慢傲上,罪同不臣,請送廷尉以正刑書。」謨懼,帥子弟素服詣闕稽顙,自到廷尉待罪。殷浩欲加謨大辟。會徐州刺史荀羨入朝,浩以問羨,羨曰:「蔡公今日事危,明日必有桓、文之舉。」浩乃止。 下詔免謨爲庶人。

33. It was earlier mentioned that Cai Mo had been appointed as Jin's Minister over the Masses. However, for three years by now, he had declined to take up that office. Several edicts were sent commanding him to do so, and Empress Dowager Chu even sent messengers to instruct him to accept the office, but Cai Mo never accepted. At this time, when Emperor Mu held court, he sent the Palace Attendant, Ji Ju, and the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Ding Zuan, to order Cai Mo to report to court. Cai Mo pleaded illness, and sent the Registrar, Xie You, to decline on his behalf. From dawn until the 9th hour (3-4pm), messengers were sent to Cai Mo more than ten times, but Cai Mo still refused to come.

Emperor Mu, being merely seven years old, was getting tired. He asked his attendants, “Why is the person I’m summoning still not here? When is court over?”

Empress Dowager Chu, considering how emperor and ministers alike were getting tired, decreed, "He’s not coming, so let’s dismiss court."

The General of the Central Army, Yin Hao, petitioned to have the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Jiang Bin, dismissed from office.

Sima Yu sent out an order stating, "Lord Cai, in his arrogance, has disobeyed the Emperor’s orders, and displayed a lack of proper behavior for a minister. If the ruler of men must resort to groveling, and his subordinates continue not to act in accordance to their station, how can we consider this governance?"

So the lords and ministers petitioned stating, "Cai Mo has been haughty and contemptuous towards his lord. His crime is on a par with sedition. We ask that he be handed over to the Minister of Justice for his punishment."

Cai Mo was afraid, and he led his sons and younger brothers to dress in plain clothing and present themselves to kowtow and admit their faults, then turned himself over to the Minister of Justice to await his punishment. Yin Hao wished to have Cai Mo executed. Just then, the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, entered the court. Yin Hao asked him for his opinion. Xun Xian said, "Since Duke Cai is in danger today, tomorrow he will lead the soldiers and so certainly achieve the feats of Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin." So Yin Hao ceased arguing for the death sentence. But Emperor Mu ordered Cai Mo demoted to commoner status.

〈四年,謨除司徒。〉〈下令於尚書曹也。昱時錄尚書六條事。〉〈【章:十二行本「詣」上有「素服」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈羨自京口朝建康。〉〈謂謨死也。〉〈言將舉兵以問其罪。〉

(Cai Mo had been appointed as Minister Over The Masses in the fourth year of Yonghe (348.11).

Sima Yu sent out this order by way of the Manager of the Masters of Writing. At this time, Sima Yu was still chief of affairs of the Six Bureaus of the Masters of Writing.

Some versions add that Cai Mo and his relatives "dressed in plain clothing".

Xun Xian had come to Jiankang from Jingkou.

By "danger", Xun Xian meant that Cai Mo was in danger of suffering capital punishment; by "the feats of Huan and Wen", he meant that Cai Mo would attempt to emulate the feats of Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin by leading troops to save the dynasty, in order to answer for his present crime.)


十二月,免司徒蔡謨爲庶人。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, the Minister Over The Masses, Cai Mo, was stripped of office and reduced to commoner status.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Thu Mar 09, 2017 8:53 pm

346: The year of the Lubo championship

2. 以社稷為己任 = he took the wellbeing of the state as his personal responsibility

所選用皆以功效 = He appointed (選用 = select for employment) people solely based on their efficacy

不私親舊 = and did not give privileges to those who were close to him (親舊 = those close to him and those who’ve been his people for a long time).

3. 俊居中指授,軍事皆以任恪 = Murong Jun coordinated things from the centre, while letting Murong Ke implement actual military manouevers.

謂所親曰 = saying to his close associates
「古人有釋衰絰從王者,以其才足干時故也。如和者,正足以虧孝道、傷風俗耳。」= “There were cases in ancient times when a person would take off his mourning clothes to follow a lord, but that was because his talents were so great that he could change the world. But as for someone like me, if I did the same, it would only serve to diminish the way of filial piety and offend tradition.”

識者美之 = Those who knew him praised him.

屬當厄運,危弊理極 = Being in this time of great misfortune, where dangers and corruptions are at their utmost

苟遂本懷,吾恐天下之事於此去矣。= If you only follow your own desires, I fear that all hopes for the world will be gone.

足下去就,即時之廢興,則家國不異 = Your decision to come or stay will decide whether the realm will perish or rise. You must treat the nation as your own family.

8. 惡 = dislike

朝覲以目相顧,不必復相過從談語。= When they met during court assembly, they only exchanged looks, and did not converse when passing by each other again.

9. “In our discussing the general to send”: not sure about this wording. How about “these days, when people recommend commanders, they tend to recommend those of long service”

非舊德也 = Not because of his past accomplishments

蓋明主之舉,舉無常人,才之所堪,則授以大事。 = When a sage lord appoints people, he does not follow set guidelines; but whoever’s talents are up to the task, he is entrusted with important responsibilities.

破趙以報: I think the 以報 part means to repay the honour (of being consulted)

10. 皆義士也 = They are both righteous people. (referring to both the guys who committed suicide)

11. 嘉寧 = Jianing (no apostrophe needed)

多居禁中 = He spent most of his time in his palace

佈滿山谷十餘萬落: This sounds incredible but literally it says there were hundreds of thousands of tribes (or settlements) in the mountains

12. 以為不可 = think it was not advisable (not impossible)

夫經略大事,固非常情所及 = When one organizes great ventures, he must rise beyond the common sentiments/ideas.

智者了於胸中,不必待眾言皆合也。= A wise man knows the course of action in his own heart, and does not need to wait for a consensus.

今為天下之患者,胡、蜀二寇而已。= Those who plague the realm are only the barbarians and the Shu.

將欲除之,宜先其易者 = If we want to be rid of them, we should first take out the easier target.

且恃其險遠,不修戰備 = Furthermore, he considers his land treacherous and far away, and thus he has not prepared for battle.

宜以精卒萬人輕繼疾趨 = We should send 10,000 crack troops to march swiftly and lightly

此似是而非 = This seems reasonable, but it’s not.

14. 不必得則不為 = He does not do anything if he is not certain of success
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:53 pm

永和七年(辛亥,公元三五一年)

The Seventh Year of Yonghe (The Xinhai Year, 351 AD)


春,正月,丁酉,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Dingyou (February 13th), there was an eclipse.

七年春正月丁酉,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), in spring, the first month, on the day Dingyou (February 13th), there was an eclipse.


苻健左長史賈玄碩等請依劉備稱漢中王故事,表健為都督關中諸軍事、大將軍、大單于、秦王。健怒曰:「吾豈堪為秦王邪!且晉使未返,我之官爵,非汝曹所知也。」既而密使梁安諷玄碩等上尊號,健辭讓再三,然後許之。丙辰,健即天王、大單于位,國號大秦,大赦,改元皇始。追尊父洪為武惠皇帝,廟號太祖;立妻強氏為天王后,子萇為太子,靚為平原公,生為淮南公,覿為長樂公,方為高陽公,碩為北平公,騰為淮陽公,柳為晉公,桐為汝南公,廋為魏公,武為燕公,幼為趙公。以苻雄為都督中外諸軍事、丞相、領車騎大將軍、雍州牧、東海公;苻菁為衛大將軍、平昌公,宿衛二宮;雷弱兒為太尉,毛貴為司空,略陽姜伯周為尚書令,梁楞為左僕射,王墮為右僕射,魚遵為太子太師,強平為太傅,段純為太保,呂婆樓為散騎常侍。伯周,健之舅;平,王后之弟;婆樓,本略陽氐酋也。

2. Fu Jiàn's Chief Clerk of the Left, Jia Xuanshuo, and others petitioned him that, in accordance with the precedent set when Liu Bei declared himself Prince of Hanzhong, Fu Jiàn himself should assume the titles of Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Qin (and that these should be titles declared under Jin authority). Fu Jiàn angrily replied, "How can I presume to declare myself Prince of Qin? Our envoy to the Jin court has not yet returned, so you have no way of knowing which ranks they have entitled me to."

But Fu Jiàn then secretly sent Liang An to persuade Jia Xianshuo and the others to ask him to assume the imperial title instead. Although Fu Jiàn feigned three times his wish to decline the title, in the end he accepted it.

On the day Bingchen (March 4th), Fu Jiàn declared himself as Heavenly King and Grand Chanyu; he declared the foundation of a state named Qin, and proclaimed a general amnesty. The reign era title was changed to Huangshi.

Fu Jiàn posthumously honored his father Fu Hong as Emperor Wuhui ("the Martial and Kind"), with the temple name Taizu. Fu Jiàn honored his wife Lady Qiang as Heavenly Empress, and named his son Fu Chang as Crown Prince. Among his other sons, Fu Jìng was named Duke of Taiyuan, Fu Sheng was named Duke of Huainan, Fu Di was named Duke of Changle, Fu Fang was named Duke of Gaoyang, Fu Shuo was named Duke of Beiping, Fu Teng was named Duke of Huaiyang, Fu Liu was named Duke of Jin, Fu Tong was named Duke of Runan, Fu Sou was named Duke of Wei, Fu Wu was named Duke of Yan, and Fu You was named Duke of Zhao. His brother Fu Xiong was appointed as Commander of all military affairs, Prime Minister, acting Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Governor of Yongzhou, and Duke of Donghai. His nephew Fu Jing was appointed as Grand Guard General, Duke of Xiping, and Guardian of the Two Palaces. Lei Ruo’er was appointed as Grand Commandant, Mao Gui was appointed as Minister of Works, Jiang Bozhou of Lüeyang was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Leng was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, Wang Duo was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right, Yu Zun was appointed as Grand Instructor to the Crown Prince, Qiang Ping was appointed as Grand Tutor, Duan Chun was appointed as Grand Guardian, and Lü Polou was appointed as Cavalier In Regular Attendance. This Jiang Bozhou was Fu Jiàn's uncle on his mother's side; this Qiang Ping was Fu Jiàn's brother-in-law. Lü Polou had originally been a Di chieftain from Lüeyang.

事見六十八卷漢獻帝建安二十四年。玄碩欲表言之於晉朝。苻健,字建業,洪第三子。強,其兩翻,氐姓也。廋,所鳩翻。二宮,健所居及子萇所居也。

Liu Bei's assumption of the title Prince of Hanzhong is mentioned in Book 68, in Emperor Xian of Han's twenty-fourth year of Jian'an (219.J in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Jia Xuanshuo wished for the claiming of these titles to be a statement of Fu Jiàn's submission to Jin.

Fu Jiàn, styled Jianye, was Fu Hong's third son.

強 Qiang was a Di surname.

廋 is pronounced "sou (s-iu)".

Fu Jing's title Guardian of the Two Palaces refered to Fu Jiàn’s palace and Fu Chang’s palace.


苻健僭稱王,國號秦。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Fu Jiàn declared himself King, calling his state Qin.

十四年,氐苻健僭稱大位,自號大秦。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fourteenth year of Jianguo (351), the Di leader Fu Jiàn declared himself sovereign, and called his state Great Qin.

健僭位,偽諡惠武帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Hong)

After Fu Jiàn became Heavenly King, he posthumously named Fu Hong as Emperor Huiwu.

於是長史賈玄碩等依諸葛亮、劉備故事,表健為秦王。玄碩等為上尊號,健偽讓再三,乃從之。皇始元年正月,僭即天王位於南郊,大赦,改晉永和七年為皇始元年。追尊父洪為太祖武惠皇帝,繕宗廟社稷于長安。立妾強氏為天王皇后,子萇為天王太子,菁為平原公,生為淮南公,弟雄為丞相,東海公。其餘封授各有差。是年,野蠶成繭,野禾被原,百姓采野繭而衣,野粟而食,關西家給人足。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn's Chief Clerk, Jia Xuanshuo, and others petitioned that, in accordance with the example set by Zhuge Liang and Liu Bei, Fu Jiàn should assume the title Prince of Qin. Jia Xuanshuo and others then urged Fu Jiàn to assume the supreme title. Fu Jiàn pretended to decline three times, but eventually accepted.

In the first year of Huangshi, the first month, Fu Jiàn declared himself Heavenly King at the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title from Jin's seventh year of Yonghe (351) to his first year of Huangshi. He posthumously named his father Fu Hong as Emperor Wuhui, with the temple name Taizu, and he prepared an ancestral temple and an altar of soil and grain to him at Chang'an. He honored his wife Lady Qiang as Empress to the Heavenly King, and he appointed his son Fu Chang as Crown Prince. He named his other sons Fu Jing and Fu Sheng as Duke of Pingyuan and Duke of Huainan. He named his younger brother Fu Xiong as Prime Minister and Duke of Donghai. His other ministers received ranks and titles as appropriate.

During this year, wild silkworms formed cocoons all on their own, and wild grain sowed itself in the fields. The common people gathered the cocoons for their clothing, and they ate the wild grain. So the people of Guanxi were provided with sustenance.

健軍師將軍賈玄碩等表健為侍中、大都督關中諸軍事、大單于、秦王,健怒曰:「我官位輕重,非若等所知。」既而潛使諷玄碩等使上尊號。永和七年,僭稱天王、大單于,赦境內死罪,建元皇始,繕宗廟社稷,置百官于長安。立妻強氏為天王皇后,子萇為天王皇太子,弟雄為丞相、都督中外諸軍事、車騎大將軍、領雍州刺史,自余封授各有差。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn's General Who Directs The Army, Jia Xuanshuo, and others sent up a petition asking that he assume the titles of Palace Attendant, Grand Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Qin. But Fu Jiàn angrily replied, "Whether Jin shall grant me great offices or meager, we have no way of knowing yet." He then secretly sent someone to incite Jia Xuanshuo and the others to ask him to claim imperial title instead.

In the seventh year of Yonghe (351 AD), Fu Jiàn declared himself Heavenly King and Grand Chanyu, and declared a general amnesty within his domain, up until those sentenced to death. He declared his reign era title as Huangshi, and began construction on an ancestral temple and sacrificial shrine. He created the imperial offices.

Fu Jiàn honored his wife Lady Qiang as Empress to the Heavenly King, and his son Fu Chang as Crown Prince to the Heavenly King. He made his brother Fu Xiong his Prime Minister, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Acting Inspector of Yongzhou. Others were also rewarded as was suitable.

建國十四年,乃僭稱天王,號年皇始,國號大秦,置百官。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the fourteenth year of Jianguo (351), Fu Jiàn declared himself Heavenly King. He changed the reign era title to Huangshi, named his state Great Qin, and established the imperial offices.

墮及為宰相,著匪躬之稱。健常歎曰:「天下群官皆如王令君者,陰陽曷不和乎!」甚敬重之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Wang Duo)

Wang Duo later became a chief minister of Qin, where he was commended for his inflexibility. Fu Jiàn often sighed and said, "If only all the officials of the realm were like Commissioner Wang, how could the world not know peace?" And he deeply respected and valued him.


段龕請以青州內附;二月,戊寅,以龕為鎮北將軍,封齊公。

3. The warlord Duan Kan, who ruled the city Guanggu in Qingzhou, offered to submit to Jin along with that province. In the second month, on the day Wuyin (March 26th), he was appointed as the General Who Guards The North and Duke of Qi.

段龕據廣固,始上卷上年。

Duan Kan's capture of Guanggu was first mentioned in the the previous year, in Book 98 (350.20).


正月辛丑,鮮卑段龕以青州來降... 二月戊寅,以段龕爲鎮北將軍,封齊公。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the first month, on the day Xinchou (February 17th), the Xianbei leader Duan Kan offered up Qingzhou in surrender. In the second month, on the day Wuyin (March 26th), Duan Kan was appointed as Jin’s General Who Guards The North and Duke of Qi.


魏主閔攻圍襄國百餘日,趙主祗危急,乃去皇帝之號,稱趙王;遣太尉張舉乞師於燕,許送傳國璽,中軍將軍張春乞師於姚弋仲。弋仲遣其子襄帥騎二萬八千救趙,誡之曰:「冉閔棄仁背義,屠滅石氏。我受人厚遇,當為復仇,老病不能自行;汝才十倍於閔,若不梟擒以來,不必復見我也!」弋仲亦遣使告於燕,燕主俊遣御難將軍悅綰將兵三萬往會之。

4. Ran Min marched against Xiangguo, and besieged it for more than a hundred days. Shi Zhi, under extreme duress, resigned his title as Emperor and claimed only to be King of Zhao. He also sent his Grand Commandant, Zhang Ju, to beg for an army from Yan, offering to give them the Imperial Seal. His General of the Center Army, Zhang Chun, was also sent to beg for an army from Yao Yizhong. Yao Yizhong sent his son Yao Xiang with twenty-eight thousand cavalry to ride to Xiangguo's relief.

Before Yao Xiang’s departure, Yao Yizhong said to his son, "Ran Min has thrown away virtue and cast off justice, massacring and wiping out the Shi clan. Because of the favor I have received from them, I must have vengeance against him, but old and infirm as I am, I cannot go myself. You are ten times as talented as Ran Min; if you do not capture him or take his head, do not show your face here again!"

Yao Yizhong also sent word to Yan, and Murong Jun dispatched his General Who Overcomes Difficulties, Yue Wan, with thirty thousand soldiers to link up with him.

去年十一月,閔攻襄國。事見上卷五年、六年。謂石虎遇之厚也。禦難將軍,蓋慕容氏創置。

(Ran Min had begun his attack on Xiangguo in the eleventh month of the previous year (Book 98, 350.30).

Ran Min's overthrow of the Shi clan was mentioned in the fifth and sixth years of Yonghe (Book 98, 349-350).

Yao Yizhong refers to the favor he received from Shi Hu.

General Who Overcomes Difficulties must have been a title created by the Murong clan.)


二年三[二]月,閔攻襄國百餘日,祗怯,乃去皇帝之號,改稱趙王。遣太尉張奉乞帥于慕容雋。中軍張春請救于姚弋仲... 雋遣將軍悅綰帥甲士三萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the second year of Yongxing (351), the second month, Ran Min attacked Xiangguo for more than a hundred days. Afraid, Shi Zhi put away his title as Emperor and merely called himself King of Zhao. He sent his Grand Commandant, Zhang Feng, to beg for an army from Murong Jun, and he sent his General of the Central Army, Zhang Chun, to ask for reinforcements from Yao Yizhong. Murong Jun sent his general Yue Wan to lead thirty thousand armored soldiers.

祗與閔相攻,弋仲遣其子襄救祗,戒襄曰:「汝才十倍于閔,若不梟擒,不須復見我也。」(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

During the time that Shi Zhi and Ran Min were fighting each other, Yao Yizhong sent his son Yao Xiang to assist Shi Zhi. He warned Yao Xiang, "You are ten times as talented as Ran Min; if you do not capture him or take his head, do not show your face before me again."


冉閔聞俊欲救趙,遣大司馬從事中郎廣寧常煒使於燕。俊使封裕詰之曰:「冉閔,石氏養息,負恩作逆,何敢輒稱大號?」煒曰:「湯放桀,武王伐紂,以興商、周之業;曹孟德養於宦官,莫知所出,卒立魏氏之基。苟非天命,安能成功!推此而言,何必致問!」裕曰:「人言冉閔初立,鑄金為己像,以卜成敗,而像不成,信乎?」煒曰:「不聞。」裕曰:「南來者皆雲如是,何故隱之?」煒曰:「奸偽之人欲矯天命以惑人者,乃假符瑞、托蓍龜以自重,魏主握符璽,據中州,受命何疑;而更反真為偽,取決於金像乎!」裕曰:「傳國璽果安在?」煒曰:「在鄴」。裕曰:「張舉言在襄國。」煒曰:「殺胡之日,在鄴者殆無孑遺;時有迸漏者,皆潛伏溝瀆中耳,彼安知璽之所在乎!彼求救者,為妄誕之辭,無所不可,況一璽乎!」

5. When Ran Min heard that Murong Jun was sending aid to Shi Zhi, he dispatched his Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the Grand Marshal, Chang Wei of Guangning, to visit Yan as his envoy. Murong Jun sent Feng Yu to say to Chang Wei, "Ran Min was himself raised by the Shi clan, yet he repaid their grace with treason against them. And who is he, that he dares to proclaim his own state?"

Chang Wei replied, "When Tang of Shang overthrew Jie of Xia, and King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, they were originally the vassals of those lords, yet they turned against them; it was all for the cause of founding the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Cao Mengde (Cao Cao) was raised by a eunuch, and no one knows what his true lineage was, yet he laid the foundation of Wei in the end. If these men had not had the Mandate of Heaven, how could they have succeeded? If you follow this logic, what need have you for these questions?"

Feng Yi said, "People say that when Ran Min first rose to the throne, he cast a golden statue, in order to divine whether he would succeed or fail, but the statue was never completed. Is it true?"

Chang Wei replied, “I have heard nothing of the sort.”

Feng Yi said, “Everyone coming from the south has reported the same thing. Why hide it?”

Chang Wei replied, “When evil men try to influence the populace by falsifying Heaven’s Mandate, they all rely upon auspicious omens or results of divinations to puff up themselves. But the Lord of Wei has the Imperial Seal, and he controls the Central Provinces. By possessing these things, how could there be any question that he has received the Mandate? So what need has he for confusing truth and falsehoods, and having some golden statue decide his destiny?"

Feng Yi asked, "And where is the Imperial Seal now?"

Chang Wei said, "At Ye."

Feng Yi said, "Zhang Ju says it is at Xiangguo."

Chang Wei replied, "On the day the barbarians were killed, almost none of them who were in Ye survived. If any of them did escape the slaughter, it was only through hiding in some gully or ditch somewhere. How could any of them know where the Seal was? People like him who are asking for aid are inclined to spin wild tales. Nothing is beyond the possibility of their tales, not even the Seal!"

操事見五十八卷漢靈帝中平元年。操,字孟德。言無孤單得遺者。《爾雅》:水注谷曰溝,水注澮曰瀆。

The story of Cao Cao's origin is mentioned in Book 58, in Emperor Ling of Han's first year of Zhongping (184.P in de Crespigny's Emperors Huan and Ling). His style name was Mengde.

In Chang Wei's account of the slaughter, he means to say that none of them would have survived to bring the Seal with them.

Regarding the terms 溝 and 瀆, the Erya dictionary states, "Water which flows into a valley is called a gully or ravine, and water that flows through the fields is called a ditch or drain."


Tang of Shang was a vassal of Jie of Xia, the last king of the mythic Xia dynasty. Because of Jie’s faults, Tang overthrew him and established the Shang dynasty.

The Imperial Seal was a symbol of the Emperor’s right to rule. It was carved from a precious jade by Qin Shihuang. After the fall of Qin, it had passed to Han, and during the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao took it from the upstart emperor Yuan Shu. The Seal had passed from Wei to Jin, and then first Han-Zhao and then Later Zhao had claimed it in turn when they captured Luoyang.


俊猶以張舉之言為信,乃積柴其旁,使裕以其私誘之,曰:「君更熟思,無為徒取灰滅!」煒正色曰:「石氏貪暴,親帥大兵攻燕國都。雖不克而返,然志在必取。故運資糧、聚器械於東北者,非以相資,乃欲相滅也。魏主誅剪石氏,雖不為燕,臣子之心,聞仇讎之滅,義當如何?而更為彼責我,不亦異乎!吾聞死者骨肉下於土,精魂升於天。蒙君之惠,速益薪縱火,使僕得上訴於帝足矣!」左右請殺之,俊曰:「彼不憚殺身而徇其主,忠臣也!且冉閔有罪,使臣何預焉!」使出就館。夜,使其鄉人趙瞻往勞之,且曰:「君何不以實言?王怒,欲處君於遼、碣之表,奈何?」煒曰:「吾結髮以來,尚不欺布衣,況人主乎!曲意苟合,性所不能。直情盡言,雖沉東海,不敢避也!」遂臥向壁,不復與瞻言。瞻具以白俊,俊乃囚煒於龍城。

6. Murong Jun still chose to believe Zhang Ju's claims. To intimidate Chang Wei, he began to gather up firewood beside him, and he sent Feng Yu to use Chang Wei’s personal interests to sway him. Feng Yu said to him, "Master Chang, you ought to reconsider, lest you be engulfed by the flames."

Chang Wei sternly replied, "The Shi clan was wild and cruel, and Shi Hu personally led a grand army to attack Yan's own capital. Although he was unsuccessful then and had to retreat, he always held the ambition to conquer Yan. He kept sending funds and grain to the northeast, and stockpiling war equipment there, not for supplying you, but for destroying you. Now the Lord of Wei has snuffed out the Shi clan. It is true that he did not do this for the sake of Yan. But as you are a minister of Yan, how should you act when you hear of the destruction of your state’s enemies? Yet instead, you chastise us for their sake. Is that not a strange thing?

"I have heard that when a man dies, though his flesh and bones are cast into the earth, even so his soul ascends to Heaven. If you would be so kind, please hurry up; bring more firewood and get the fire going, so I can bring my case before the Lord of Heaven!"

The Yan ministers alongside Murong Jun asked for Chang Wei to be executed. But Murong Jun said, "He does not fear even to be killed and buried for the sake of his lord. What a loyal minister! Though Ran Min is a criminal, his messenger does not share his crime." So he sent Chang Wei away, putting him up in lodging for the night.

That night, Murong Jun sent a certain Zhao Zhan, who was from the same district as Chang Wei, to try to console him. Zhao Zhan said to Chang Wei, "Why don’t you tell the truth? The Prince is angry with you, and is considering exiling you to the lands beyond Liao and Jieshi. What would you do then?"

Chang Wei replied, "Ever since I became a man, I have not lied to even a commoner, let alone a ruler of men! I am incapable of bending my principles just to ingratiate myself to someone. I am a straightforward man and I speak all and only all I know. Even if they throw me into the East Sea, I will not seek to escape my fate!" Having said his piece, Chang Wei lay down facing the wall, and refused to say anything further to Zhao Zhan.

Zhao Zhan went to report the matter to Murong Jun, who put Chang Wei in prison at Longcheng.

事見九十六卷成帝咸康四年。事見九十六卷咸康四年、六年。遼海及碣石爲遼、碣。杜佑曰:盧龍,漢肥如縣,有碣石山,碣然而立在海旁。秦築長城所起自碣石,在今高麗舊界,非此碣石也。趙瞻所謂遼、碣,蓋卽杜佑所言者也。

Shi Hu's unsuccessful first campaign against Yan is mentioned in Book 96, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xiankang (338.11-14). His further stockpiling and preparations for more campaigns are mentioned in that same year and in the following year (338.18, 338.30-34, 339.26).

"Liao and Jie" meant Liaohai and Jieshi. Du You remarked, "In Lulong, which was Han's Feiru County, there is a Mount Jieshi, whose edge abutts the sea. When Qin built the Great Wall, it ended at Jieshi. But this is not to be confused with the Jieshi which is within the old territory of modern Goryeo." The Jieshi which Zhao Zhan mentions here is the same one that Du You meant.


趙并州刺史張平遣使降秦,秦王以平為大將軍、冀州牧。

7. Zhao's Inspector of Bingzhou, Zhang Ping, sent word of submission to Qin. Fu Jiàn appointed him as Grand General and Governor of Jizhou.

燕王逡還薊。

8. Murong Jun returned to Ji.

自龍城還薊。

Murong Jun was returning to Ji from Longcheng.


三月,姚襄及趙汝陰王琨各引兵救襄國。冉閔遣車騎將軍胡睦拒襄於長蘆,將軍孫威拒琨於黃丘,皆敗還,士卒略盡。

9. In the third month, Yao Xiang and Shi Kun each marched to Xiangguo's relief. Ran Min sent his General of Chariots and Cavalry, Hu Mu, to fight Yao Xiang at Zhanglu, while his general Sun Wei went to battle Shi Kun at Huangqiu. Both of Ran Min’s generals were defeated and fled, with great loss of life.

琨自信都進兵救襄國。《水經註》:漳水過堂陽縣西,分爲二水,其右水東北注出石門,謂之長蘆水。長蘆水西逕堂陽縣故城南,又東逕九門陂,又東逕扶都縣。《五代志》:隋置長蘆縣,屬河間郡。劉昫曰:長蘆,漢參戶縣地。魏收《地形志》:鉅鹿郡郻縣有黃丘。郻,苦幺翻。

(Shi Kun advanced from Xindu to come to Xiangguo's aid.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zhang River passes through the west of Tangyang county, where it splits into two rivers. The right river flows northeast, where it enters Shimen ("the stone gate"), and this river is called the Zhanglu River. The Zhanglu River then flows west, south of the capital city Tangyang county, and east past Jiumen Slope, and further east through Fudou county." The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "Sui formed Zhanglu county, as part of Hejian commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "Zhanglu was Han's Canhu county."

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "There is a Huangqiu in Qiao county in Julu commandary." This 郻 is pronounced "Qiao (k-ao)".)


三月,祗相國汝陰王琨自冀州救祗,弋仲復遣子襄帥騎三萬八千。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the third month, Shi Zhi's Chancellor of State and Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, marched from Jizhou to reinforce Shi Zhi, and Yao Yizhong sent his son Yao Xiang to lead thirty-eight thousand cavalry as well.


閔欲自出擊之,衛將軍王泰諫曰:「今襄國未下,外救雲集,若我出戰,必覆背受敵,此危道也。不若固壘以挫其銳,徐觀其釁而擊之。且陛下親臨行陳,如失萬全,則大事去矣。」閔將止,道士法饒進曰:「陛下圍襄國經年,無尺寸之功,今賊至,又避不擊,將何以使將士乎!且太白入昴,當殺胡王,百戰百克,不可失也!」閔攘袂大言曰:「吾戰決矣,敢沮眾者斬!」乃悉眾出,與襄、琨戰。悅綰適以燕兵至,去魏兵數里,疏布騎卒,曳柴揚塵,魏人望之恟懼,襄、琨、綰三面擊之,趙王祗自後沖之,魏兵大敗,閔與十餘騎走還鄴。降胡栗特康等執大單于胤及左僕射劉琦以降趙,趙王祗殺之。胡睦及司空石璞、尚書令徐機、中書監盧諶等並將士死者凡十餘萬人。閔潛還,人無知者。鄴另震恐,訛言閔已沒。射聲校尉張艾請閔親郊以安眾心。閔從之,訛言乃息。閔支解法饒父子,贈韋謏大司徒。姚襄還還灄頭,姚弋仲怒其不擒閔,杖之一百。

10. Since his subordinates had been defeated, Ran Min wished to go attack Yao Xiang and Shi Kun himself. But his Guard General, Wang Tai, remonstrated with him, saying, "Xiangguo has not yet fallen. Now these forces have come to relieve it. If we march to fight them, we will certainly be attacked from both sides. This would be the path to disaster. It would be better to strengthen our defenses here until the initial ardor of their attack has been sapped. Then we can gradually look for rifts among them, and strike them then. Furthermore, Your Majesty is here with us among the army. If anything should happen to you, then our state would be lost."

Ran Min was about to agree to this, when the Daoist Fa Rao suggested, "Your Majesty has held Xiangguo under siege since last year, but we are no closer to success. Now theses rebels have arrived as well. If you do not go to fight them, how will you be able to inspire your troops afterwards? Besides, Venus is currently residing in the Mao constellation, and this augurs the death of the barbarian king: you will meet a hundred victories in a hundred battles. You must not let this opportunity pass you by!"

This decided Ran Min, and he rolled up his sleeves and declared in a loud voice, "I have decided to give battle. Whoever dares to demoralize the troops will part with his head!" So he gathered his troops and marched out to fight against Yao Xiang and Shi Kun.

Just then, Yue Wan arrived with the reinforcements from Yan. When they were several li away from the Wei army, Yue Wan sent his cavalry to ride about. The horses dragged bundles of wood behind them, kicking up a great cloud of dust as though a massive army were approaching. The Wei troops were greatly afraid.

Yao Xiang, Shi Kun, and Yue Wan then attacked the Wei army from three sides, and Shi Zhi also marched out of the city and attacked them from behind. The Wei army suffered a great defeat. Ran Min fled back to Ye with a dozen riders.

It was earlier mentioned that the Grand Chanyu, Ran Min’s son Ran Yin, had a thousand tribesmen as his personal soldiers. During this battle, the tribesman Litekang and others, planning to surrender to Shi Zhi, seized Ran Yin and the Deputy Director of the Left, Liu Qi, and went over to Xiangguo. Shi Zhi killed the two prisoners. Among Ran Min's ministers, Hu Mu, the Minister of Works, Shi Pu, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xu Ji, the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Lu Shen, and others all died in battle, and the Wei army's dead numbered more than a hundred thousand.

Ran Min snuck back into to Ye without anyone knowing. Ye was plunged into fear, with rumors spreading that Ran Min had died. The Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Zhang Ai, asked Ran Min to personally lead the sacrifices in order to calm the people's hearts. Ran Min agreed to do so, and the rumors of his death were squashed.

Ran Min executed Fa Rao and his sons by dismemberment. He also posthumously appointed Wei Xiao as Grand Minister Over The Masses.

Yao Xiang returned to Shetou. Because Yao Xiang had not captured Ran Min, Yao Yizhong was furious and gave him a hundred floggings.

「覆」,當作「腹」。【章:孔本正作「腹」;十二行本、乙十一行本仍作「覆」。】《晉‧天文志》:昴七星,爲旄頭,胡星也。自棘城之敗,趙人固畏燕兵,見其至而勢盛,故恟懼。果如王泰之言,腹背受敵而敗。果如韋謏之言。史言冉閔不能用羣策以取敗。劉隗、盧諶不能爲晉死而卒死於兵。人誰不死,貴得其死所耳!親郊,親出郊祀也。解剝其支體而殺之。謏死,見上卷上年。謏,蘇鳥翻。

(The character 覆 ("overturn") here should be 腹 ("vitals").

The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states, "The Mao constellation has seven stars. It symbolizes a hairy head, and for that reason it is the sign of the barbarians."

Ever since their defeat at Jicheng (in 338), the Later Zhao soldiers had long feared the Former Yan soldiers. Now that they saw them coming in such strength, they panicked.

Just as Wang Tai had predicted, the Ran-Wei army was struck from both front and rear and so defeated. (This was why 腹 was the correct character earlier, as part of 腹背 "vitals and back" or "front and rear").

This was just as Wei Xiao had earlier warned (to not employ the thousand tribesmen as his son's personal retinue).

This passage shows how Ran Min was unable to use his subordinate's advice, and so he suffered defeats.

Alas, that the former Jin ministers Liu Wei (Book 95, 333.14) and Lu Shen never had the chance to die on behalf of Jin, and instead met their ends in squabbles between the Later Zhao princes. All men die, but is it not better to die with glory?

To "personally sacrifice" meant to personally conduct the offering of sacrifices.

Fa Rao's punishment meant to peel off the skin and dismember the body before killing.

Ran Min had killed Wei Xiao for suggesting that the surrendered tribesmen under Ran Yin's command might turn against him, as mentioned in the previous year, in Book 99 (350.30). 謏 is pronounced "xiao (s-iao)".)


石祗大敗冉閔于襄國。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Shi Zhi greatly defeated Ran Min at Xiangguo.

勁卒十三萬,四方攻之,祗沖其後,閔帥大敗。閔與十餘騎奔還鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

The combined reinforcements numbered a hundred and thirty thousand, and they attacked Ran Min from all sides. Shi Zhi also struck him in the rear. Ran Min's army was greatly defeated. He fled back to Ye with a dozen riders.

襄擊閔于常盧澤,大破之而歸。弋仲怒襄之不擒閔也,杖之一百。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

Yao Xiang attacked Ran Min at Changlu Marsh and greatly routed him before returning. But Yao Yizhong was furious that Yao Xiang had not captured Ran Min, so he flogged him a hundred times.


初,閔之為趙相也,悉散倉庫以樹私恩,與羌、胡相攻,無月不戰。趙所徙青、雍、幽、荊四州人民及氐、羌、胡蠻數百萬口,以趙法禁不行,各還本土;道路交錯,互相殺掠,其能達者什有二、三。中原大亂。因以饑疫,人相食,無復耕者。

11. Earlier, when Ran Min was serving Zhao, he had given away the contents of the storehouses and granaries to have people indebted to him. At the same time, not a month passed when he did not fight against the Qiang and the other tribes.

The people that Zhao had forced to relocate, including the people of Qingzhou, Yongzhou, Youzhou, and Jingzhou, as well as tribesmen of the Di, Qiang, and other northern and southern tribes—several millions in all—began to travel back to their homelands, as the laws of Zhao were no longer enforced. But as their paths crossed, they killed and robbed each other; out of all those seeking to return home, only twenty to thirty percent reached their destinations. The Central Plains were in great turmoil. Thus there was a great famine and plague. The people resorted to cannibalism, and there were no people left to till the fields.

石虎破曹嶷,徙青州之民;破劉胤、石生,再徙雍州之民;破段匹磾及爲燕所敗,徙幽州之民;石勒南掠江、漢,徙荊州之民。

When Shi Hu had routed Cao Yi (Book 92, 323.14), he had forcibly relocated the people of Qingzhou; when he smashed Liu Yin and Shi Sheng (Book 94 and 95, 329.19 and 333.13-14), he did the same thing to the people of Yongzhou; when he destroyed Duan Pidi (Book 91, 321.4-5) and when he suffered his defeats against Yan (Book 96), he also did the same thing to the people of Youzhou; and when Shi Le had raided south across the Yangzi and Han Rivers, he had also forcibly relocated the people of Jingzhou.


趙王祗使其將劉顯帥眾七萬攻鄴,軍於明光宮,去鄴二十三里。魏主閔恐,召王泰,欲與之謀。泰恚前言之不從,辭以瘡甚。閔親臨問之,泰固稱疾篤。閔怒,還宮,謂左右曰:「巴奴,乃公豈假汝為命邪!要將先滅群胡,卻斬王泰。」乃悉眾出戰,大破顯軍,追奔至陽平,斬首三萬餘級。顯懼,密使請降,求殺祗以自效,閔乃引歸。會有告王泰欲叛入秦者,閔殺之,夷其三族。

12. Shi Zhi sent his general Liu Xian with seventy thousand soldiers to attack Ye. Liu Xian’s army reached Mingguang Palace, only twenty-three li from Ye.

Ran Min was afraid, so he summoned Wang Tai so that he could discuss strategies with him. But Wang Tai, angry that his earlier advice had been disregarded, feigned illness and would not go. Even when Ran Min went to see him in person, Wang Tai stubbornly maintained his pretended illness. Ran Min, furious, went back to the palace, and told his attendants, "Ba slave; d’you think I can’t survive without ya? First I will vanquish those barbarians, and then I will come back and behead Wang Tai."

Ran Min gathered his troops and marched out to battle, and greatly routed Liu Xian's army, pursuing them as far as Yangping, and killing more than thirty thousand men. Liu Xian was greatly afraid, and he secretly offered to surrender to Ran Min, asking for the chance to prove himself by killing Shi Zhi, so Ran Min let him return to Xiangguo.

After returning to the city, upon hearing that Wang Tai wished to betray him and go over to Qin, Ran Min killed Wang Tai, and executed his clan to the third degree.

此明光宮,石氏所建也。戰敗被傷,故因以瘡甚辭。王泰蓋巴蠻也。乃公,冉閔自謂也;自漢高祖已有是語。陽平縣,漢屬東郡,魏、晉分屬陽平郡,而陽平郡治在魏郡東北。宋白曰:魏州莘縣,漢爲陽平縣,後趙移陽平理館陶縣。

(This Mingguang Palace had been built by the Shi clan.

Wang Tai had been injured during the defeat outside Xiangguo, and he claimed to have a debilitating wound from it as his excuse.

Wang Tai was from the Ba-Man people.

In this passage, Ran Min refers to himself with the term 乃公; this was a very vernacular term, and had been a colloquialism ever since Han Gaozu's (Liu Bang's) era.

During Han, Yangping county was part of Dong commandary. Cao-Wei and Jin split it off as part of Yangping commandary, but Yangping commandary was administered from the northeast of Wei commandary. Song Bai remarked, "Zhoushen county in Weizhou was Han's Yangping county. Later Zhao moved Yangping to Guantao county.")


祗使劉顯帥衆十萬,追奔伐鄴,閔盡衆出戰,大敗之,追奔至於陽平。顯懼,密使請降,求殺石祗為效。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

Shi Zhi sent Liu Xian to lead an army of a hundred thousand to pursue Ran Min and march against Ye. Ran Min mustered all his forces to march out to battle, and he greatly defeated Liu Xian, pursuing him as far as Yangping. Liu Xian was greatly afraid, and he secretly offered to surrender to Ran Min, asking for the chance to prove himself by killing Shi Zhi.


秦王健分遣使者問民疾苦,搜羅俊異,寬重斂之稅,弛離宮之禁,罷無用之器,去侈靡之服,凡趙之苛政不便於民者皆除之。

13. Fu Jiàn sent agents all around to look into the people's suffering. He sought out those of remarkable talents, relaxed taxes that were a heavy burden to the people, opened up the grounds of the imperial villas to the people, abolished useless articles of office, and threw out extravagant clothing. He removed everything from Zhao’s harsh rule that had inconvenienced the populace.

趙修長安宮殿,亦有離宮之禁。史言苻健所以能據有關中。

Later Zhao had repaired the palaces at Chang'an, and also set aside some areas as imperial villas.

This passage demonstrates how Fu Jiàn was able to consolidate his hold on Guanzhong.


杜洪、張琚遣使召梁州刺史司馬勳。夏,四月,勳帥步騎三萬赴之,秦王健御之於五丈原。勳屢戰皆敗,退歸南鄭。健以中書令賈玄碩始者不上尊號,銜之,使人告玄碩與司馬勳通,並其諸子皆殺之。

14. Du Hong and Zhang Ju, the Zhao generals whom Fu Jiàn had driven out of Guanzhong, sent requests asking Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Sima Xun, to come aid them.

In summer, the fourth month, Sima Xun led thirty thousand horse and foot to assist them. Fu Jiàn faced Sima Xun’s army at Wuzhang Plains. Sima Xun was defeated in every engagement there, and in the end he retreated back to Nanzheng.

Fu Jiàn bore a grudge against Jia Xuanshuo for not having suggested right from the start that he assume the imperial title. He had someone report that Jia Xuanshuo was conspiring with Sima Xun, and then he had Jia Xuanshuo and his sons executed.

夏四月,梁州刺史司馬勳出步騎三萬,自漢中入秦川,與苻健戰于五丈原,王師敗績。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, the Inspector of Lianzhou, Sima Xun, marched from Hanzhong into Qinchuan with thirty thousand horse and foot. He fought Fu Jiàn at Wuzhang Plains, where his army was defeated.

初,杜洪之奔也,招晉梁州刺史司馬勳。至是,勳率步騎三萬入秦川,健敗之于五丈原。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Earlier, when Du Hong had fled, he was received by Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Sima Xun. At this time, Sima Xun led an army of thirty thousand horse and foot into Qinchuan. Fu Jiàn defeated him at Wuzhang Plains.


渤海人逄約因趙亂,擁眾數千家附於魏,魏以約為渤海太守。故太守劉准,隗之兄子也,土豪封放,弈之從弟也;別聚眾自守。閔以准為幽州刺史,與約中分渤海。燕王俊使封弈討約,使昌黎太守高開討准、放。開,瞻之子也。

15. Because of the chaos in the Zhao region, a native of Bohai, Pang Yue, led several thousand households over to Wei. Ran Min appointed Pang Yue as Administrator of Bohai. The former Administrator was Liu Zhun, the nephew of Liu Kui, and a powerful local landholder also lived there, Feng Fang, the younger cousin of Feng Yi. They both gathered men to help defend their own cities. Ran Min appointed Liu Zhun as Inspector of Youzhou, and he sent him along with Pang Yue to jointly divide Bohai.

Murong Jun dispatched Feng Yi to attack Pang Yue, and sent the Administrator of Changli, Gao Kai, to fight Liu Zhun and Feng Fang. This Gao Kai was the son of Gao Zhan.

【嚴:「守」改「尉」。】高瞻,見九十一卷元帝太興二年。

The character 守 here should be 尉 (that is, Liu Zhun was the former Grand Commandant, not former Administrator).

Gao Zhan was mentioned in Book 91, in Emperor Yuan's second year of Taixing (319.19, 27).


弈引兵直抵約壘,遣人謂約曰:「相與鄉里,隔絕日久,會遇甚難。時事利害,人各有心,非所論也。願單出一相見,以寫佇結之情。」約素信重弈,即出,見弈於門外。各屏騎卒,單馬交語。弈與論敘平生畢,因說之曰:「與君累世同鄉,情相愛重,誠欲君享祚無窮;今既獲展奉,不可不盡所懷。冉閔乘石氏之亂,奄有成資,是宜天下服其強矣,而禍亂方始,固知天命不可力爭也。奕世載德,奉義討亂,所征無敵。今已都薊,南臨趙、魏,遠近之民,襁負歸之。民厭荼毒,鹹思有道。冉閔之亡,匪朝伊夕,成敗之形,昭然易見。且燕王肇開王業,虛心賢俊,君能翻然改圖,則功參絳、灌,慶流苗裔,孰與為亡國將,守孤城以待必至之禍哉!」約聞之,悵然不言。弈給使張安,有勇力;弈豫戒之,俟約氣下,安突前持其馬鞚,因挾之而馳。至營,弈與坐,謂曰:「君計不能自決,故相為決之,非欲取君以邀功,乃欲全君以安民也。」

16. Feng Yi led his troops straight to Pang Yue’s fort. He sent someone to bring a message to Pang Yue: "We are both from the same district, although we have been divided for quite some time. Now even meeting one another is difficult. People have their own feelings regarding the harm or profit of this current business, and there is no need for further discussion. Let us meet together one on one, and have the chance to catch up on old times face to face."

Pang Yue had always trusted Feng Yi, so he went out, and met with Feng Yi outside of the gate of his fort. They both dismissed their escort riders, and addressed one another from their horses. After Feng Yi finished catching Pang Yue up with him about life, he exhorted Pang Yue, "Sir, both of us were born in the same district, and my respect for you runs deep. That is why I earnestly wish for your continued prosperity. Since you have honored me with your attention today, I am obliged to tell you all that’s on my mind.

“Now Ran Min has only gotten into power by taking advantage of the civil strife among the Shi clan, and he took sudden possession of all the resources of their state that had been built up over the years. Although he has used these things to make the realm bow down to his might, calamity and chaos have also just begun. This is proof that one cannot wrest the Mandate of Heaven to oneself simply by force. On the other hand, the Prince of Yan and his forebears 'have practiced virtue for generations'. He has set forth to restore justice and quell the chaos, and there is no one who is a match for him. He has already captured Ji, and his armies are moving south into the regions of Zhao and Wei. The people are flocking to him from near and far, carrying their children on their back to see him.

“The people tire of their bitter draught, and all yearn for a ruler who follows the true path. Ran Min's demise is only a matter of time. It should be very clear to you which side will win and which will lose. Ever since the Prince of Yan began his royal design, he has treated wise and talented people with humility. Sir, will you not change your allegiance and come over to our side? You may match the achievements of Zhou Bo and Guan Ying, and you will leave a legacy to your descendants. Would that not be better than to be a general of a vanquished state, by guarding your isolated city and waiting for the inevitable calamity?"

When Pang Yue heard this, he was upset and could make no reply. Feng Yi had among his escorts a certain Zhang An, a man of powerful strength. As per instructions that Feng Yi had given him ahead of time, once Pang Yue started to look dejected, Zhang An rushed forward and seized the reins of Pang Yue's horse, and with them in hand, he rode back to Feng Yi's camp while pulling Pang Yue's horse behind him.

When they returned to the Yan army camp, Feng Yi sat down with Pang Yue. He told him, "It seemed that you would not come to a decision on your own, so I helped us reach the decision together. But I did not do this hoping to claim rewards by capturing you; rather, I did it out of the desire to save you, and through that, to bring peace to the people."

封奕本渤海人,懷帝永嘉五年,託於慕容廆,見八十七卷。久立而待之曰佇;企望之情鬱積而不散曰結。「奕世載德」,班彪《王命論》之言。師古曰:載,乘也,言相因不絕。孔安國曰:荼毒,苦也。給使,在左右給使令者也。

Feng Yi was a native of Bohai. He had begun serving Yan under Murong Hui, as mentioned in Book 87, in Emperor Huai's fifth year of Yongjia (311.46).

To meet again after a long time apart is called a 佇. A hoped-for feeling that is pent up and does not disappate is called a 結.

The phrase "practice virtue for generations" comes from Ban Biao's Discussion on the Royal Mandate. Yan Shigu remarked, "載 here means ample, and for this reason it is unceasing".

Kong Anguo remarked, "A 'bitter draught' means suffering."

A 給使 is one's personal attendant to whom one gives orders.


Zhou Bo and Guan Ying were famous generals who served under Liu Bang.

高開至渤海,准、放迎降。俊以放為渤海太守,准為左司馬,約參軍事。以約誘於人而遇獲,更其名曰釣。

17. When Gao Kai arrived at Bohai, Liu Zhun and Feng Fang surrendered to him. Murong Jun appointed Feng Fang as Administer of Bohai, and Liu Zhun as Marshal of the Left, with Pang Yue as his Army Advisor. Because Pang Yue had fallen for someone’s lure and thus entered his service, Murong Jun renamed him to Pang Diao ("fishhook").

劉顯弒趙王祗及其丞相安樂王炳、太宰趙庶等十餘人,傳首於鄴。驃騎將軍石寧奔柏人。魏主閔焚祗首於通衢,拜顯上大將軍、大單于、冀州牧。

18. Liu Xian murdered Shi Zhi, along with his Prime Minister and Prince of Anle, Shi Bing, his Grand Governor, Zhao Shu, and others, more than ten people altogether. He sent their heads to Ye. Shi Zhi's General of Agile Cavalry, Shi Ning, fled to Boren. Ran Min burned Shi Zhi's head in Ye’s main street, and he appointed Liu Xian as Supreme Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Governor of Jizhou.

柏人縣,自漢以來屬趙國。劉昫曰:唐邢州堯山縣,古之柏人城。

(Ever since Han, Boren county was part of the Zhao princely fief. Liu Xu remarked, "The old city of Boren was in Yaoshan county in Tang's Xingzhou.")


夏四月,劉顯殺石祗。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, Liu Xian killed Shi Zhi.

四月,劉顯殺祗,及其丞相樂安王炳、太保張舉等。遣拜顯上大將軍、大單于、冀州牧。祗、炳皆虎之庶子也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the fourth month, Liu Xian killed Shi Zhi, along with his Prime Minister and Prince of Le'an, Shi Bing, his Grand Guardian, Zhao Ju, and others. Ran Min appointed Liu Xian as Supreme Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Governor of Jizhou. Shi Zhi and Shi Bing were both Shi Hu's sons, born of concubines.


五月,趙兗州刺史劉啟自鄄城來奔。

19. In the fifth month, Zhao's Inspector of Yanzhou, Liu Qi, fled from Juancheng to surrender to Jin.

鄄城縣,漢屬濟陰郡,晉屬濮陽國,唐爲濮州治所。

During Han, Juancheng county was part of Jiyin commandary; during Jin, it was part of the Puyang princely fief. During Tang, it was administered by Puzhou.


五月,祗兗州刺史劉啓自鄄城來奔。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fifth month, Shi Zhi's Inspector of Yanzhou, Liu Qi, fled to Jin from Juancheng.


秋,七月,劉顯復引兵攻鄴,魏主閔擊敗之。顯還,稱帝於襄國。

20. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Xian once again led soldiers to attack Ye. Ran Min attacked and defeated him. Liu Xian retreated, and declared himself Emperor at Xiangguo.

八年春正月,劉顯僭帝號于襄國。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), in spring, the first month, Liu Xian declared himself Emperor at Xiangguo.

七月,劉顯稱尊號襄國。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the seventh month, Liu Xian declared himself Emperor at Xiangguo.


八月,魏徐州刺史周成、兗州刺史魏統、荊州刺史樂弘、豫州牧張遇以廩丘、許昌等諸城來降;平南將軍高崇、征虜將軍呂護執洛州刺史鄭系,以其地來降。

21. In the eighth month, Wei's Inspector of Xuzhou, Zhou Cheng, their Inspector of Yanzhou, Wei Tong, their Inspector of Jingzhou, Yue Hong, and their Governor of Yuzhou, Zhang Yu, offered up their cities, including Linqiu and Xuchang, in surrender to Jin.

Wei’s General Who Pacifies The South, Gao Chong, and their General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Lü Hu, arrested Wei's Inspector of Luozhou, Zheng Xi, and then they also surrendered to Jin.

時周成據廩丘,張遇據許昌。時崇、護以三河之地來降。

At this time, Zhou Cheng held Linqiu and Zhang Yu held Xuchang, while Gao Chong and Lü Hu surrendered the Three He regions (Hedong, Henan, and Henei).


八月,冉閔豫州牧張遇以許昌來降,拜鎮西將軍... 時石季龍故將周成屯廩丘,高昌屯野王,樂立屯許昌,李歷屯衛國,皆相次來降。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth month, Ran Min's Governor of Yuzhou, Zhang Yu, surrendered the city of Xuchang to Jin. He was appointed as General Who Guards The West.

Around the twelfth month, several of Shi Hu's former generals defected to Jin, along with their cities: Zhou Cheng at Linqiu, Gao Chang at Yewang, Yue Li at Xuchang, and Li Li at Weiguo.


燕王俊遣慕容恪攻中山,慕容評攻王午於魯口,魏中山太守上谷侯龕閉城拒守。恪南徇常山,軍於九門,魏趙郡太守遼西李邽舉郡降,恪厚撫之,將邽還圍中山,侯龕乃降。恪入中山,遷其將帥、土豪數十家詣薊,餘皆安堵;軍令嚴明,秋豪不犯。慕容評至南安,王午遣其將鄭生拒戰,抨擊斬之。

22. Murong Jun sent Murong Ke to attack Zhongshan, while sending Murong Ping to attack Wang Wu at Lukou.

Wei's Administrator of Zhongshan, Hou Kan of Shanggu, closed the gates and guarded the city. Murong Ke marched south and secured Changshan. When his army reached Jiumen, Wei's Administrator of Zhao commandary, Li Gui of Liaoxi, surrendered the commandary to them, and Murong Ke graciously accepted him. He sent Li Gui back to besiege Zhongshan, causing Hou Kan to surrender. After Murong Ke entered Zhongshan, he only sent several dozen of the major military and gentry families there to report to Ji, while leaving the rest of the people to live in peace and security. He issued strict military orders to his soldiers, and so none of the people there were harmed.

When Murong Ping reached Nan'an, Wang Wu sent his general Zheng Sheng to fight him, but Murong Ping defeated and killed Zheng Sheng.

九門縣,自漢以來屬常山郡。

(Ever since Han, Jiumen county had been part of Changshan commandary.)


儁進克中山、常山。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun advanced and took Zhongshan and Changshan.


悅綰還自襄國,俊乃知張舉之妄而殺之。常煒有四男二女在中山,俊釋煒之囚,使諸子就見之。煒上疏謝恩,俊手令答曰:「卿本不為生計,孤以州裡相存耳。今大亂之中,諸子盡至,豈非天所念邪!天且念卿,況於孤乎!」賜妾一人,谷三百斛,使居凡城。以北平太守孫興為中山太守。興善於綏撫,中山遂安。

23. The Yan general Yue Wan returned from Xiangguo. Murong Jun then realized that Zhang Ju had been lying about Shi Zhi possessing the Imperial Seal, so he killed Zhang Ju.

Ran Min’s envoy to Yan, Chang Wei, had four sons and two daughters at Zhongshan. Murong Jun released Chang Wei from prison, and sent Chang Wei’s children to see him. Chang Wei sent Murong Jun a memorial expressing his appreciation for such grace. Murong Jun sent a response by his own hand stating, "Up until now, you were giving no heed to your own life, and I only kept you alive out of the consideration that we were from the same province. But in the midst of this great chaos, your children have returned to you. How can that not be Heaven's regard for you? If even Heaven takes care of you, how can I do any less?" He gave Chang Wei a concubine and three hundred 斛 of grain, and sent him to live in Fancheng.

Yan’s Administrator of Beiping, Sun Xing, was reassigned to be Administrator of Zhongshan. He governed it well, using peaceful and comforting methods, and Zhongshan became at peace.

儁居昌黎,煒居廣寧,二郡皆屬幽州。

Murong Jun was from Changli, while Chang Wei was from Guangning; both these commandaries were part of Youzhou.


庫辱官偉帥部眾自上黨降燕。

24. Shenuguan Wei led his forces from Shangdang to surrender to Yan.

傉,奴沃翻。庫傉官,漁陽烏桓大人庫傉之餘種。按溫公《與劉道原書》,以爲「庫」當作「厙」。詳見《前例》。庫,音舍。

The second character of the surname Shenuguan, 傉, is pronounced "nu (n-o)". This Shenuguan Wei came from the famed Shenu clan of the Wuhuan of Yuyang. But in Duke Wen's (Sima Guang's) Letter to Liu Daoyuan, he believes that 庫 She should be 厙 She. Consult the Precedents chapter of the ZZTJ. 庫 is pronounced "she".


姚弋仲遣使來請降。冬,十月,以弋仲為使持節、六夷大都督、督江北諸軍事、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、大單于、高陵郡公,又以其子襄為持節、平北將軍、都督并州諸軍事、并州刺史、平鄉縣公。

25. Yao Yizhong sent envoys asking to submit to Jin.

In winter, the tenth (or, eleventh) month, Yao Yizhong was appointed by the Jin court as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander of the Six Tribes, Commander of military affairs north of the Yangzi (or, north of the Huai River, or north of the Yellow River), Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Gaoling commandary, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. His son Yao Xiang was appointed as Credential Bearer, General Who Pacifies The North, Chief of military affairs in Bingzhou, Inspector of Bingzhou, and Duke of Pingxiang county.

趙亡,弋仲乃降。晉史言其盡忠於石氏。【章:十二行本「十」下有「一」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】【嚴:「江」改「淮」。】「江北」,恐當作「河北」。

(Since Later Zhao had perished, Yao Yizhong now submitted to Jin. The Jin history states that he had been loyal to the Shi clan to the very end.

Some versions state that Yao Yizhong received these appointments in the "eleventh" month.

Some versions have 淮 the Huai River here instead of 江 the Yangzi (that is, Yao Yizhong was made Commander north of the Huai River, not the Yangzi). In fact, I (Hu Sanxing) believe that his rank should say "north of the Yellow River".)


十一月,石祗將姚弋仲、冉閔將魏脫各遣使來降,以弋仲爲車騎將軍、大單于,封高陵郡公;弋仲子襄爲平北將軍、都督幷州諸軍事、幷州刺史、平鄉縣公;脫爲安北將軍、監冀州諸軍事、冀州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eleventh month, Shi Zhi's general Yao Yizhong and Ran Min's general Wei Tuo both sent envoys asking to surrender. Yao Yizhong was appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Gaoling commandary. His son Yao Xiang was appointed as General Who Pacifies The North, Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou, Inspector of Bingzhou, and Duke of Pingxiang county. Wei Tuo was appointed as General Who Maintains The North, Chief of military affairs in Jizhou, and Inspector of Jizhou.

乃使使降晉。晉永和七年,拜仲使持節六夷大都督、督江淮諸軍事、儀同三司、大單于,封高陵郡公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

Yao Yizhong sent envoys asking to submit to Jin.

In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), Yao Yizhong was appointed by the Jin court as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander of the Six Tribes, Commander of military affairs north of the Yangzi and the Huai River, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Gaoling commandary, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

弋仲部曲馬何羅博學有文才,張豺之輔石世也,背弋仲歸豺,豺以為尚書郎。豺敗,復歸,咸勸殺之。弋仲曰:「今正是招才納奇之日,當收其力用,不足害也。」以為參軍。其寬恕如此... 乃遣使請降。永和七年,拜弋仲使持節、六夷大都督、都督江、淮諸軍事、車騎大將軍、儀同三司、大單于,封高陵郡公。八年,卒,時年七十三。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

One of Yao Yizhong's subordinates, Ma Heluo, was an educated and learned man of great literary talent. During the time that Zhang Chai served as regent for Shi Shi, this Ma Heluo abandoned Yao Yizhong and went to serve Zhang Chai, who appointed him as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. But after Zhang Chai was defeated, Ma Heluo returned to Yao Yizhong. His other subordinates all urged Yao Yizhong to kill Ma Heluo. But Yao Yizhong said, "This is the very moment when I should be recruiting people of talent and accepting remarkable wonders into my forces, so that I can make use of their strength and skills. I should not do him harm." So he appointed Ma Heluo as an Army Advisor. Such was Yao Yizhong's magnanimity and tolerance.

Yao Yizhong sent envoys to the Jin court asking to surrender to them. In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), the Jin court appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander of the Six Tribes, Commander of military affairs north of the Yangzi and the Huai River, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Gaoling commandary, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

晉遣使拜襄持節平北將軍、并州刺史、即丘縣公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

The Jin court sent envoys appointing Yao Xiang as Credential Bearer, General Who Pacifies The North, Inspector of Bingzhou, and Duke of Jiqiu county.

晉遣使拜襄持節、平北將軍、并州刺史、即丘縣公。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

The Jin court sent envoys appointing Yao Xiang as Credential Bearer, General Who Pacifies The North, Inspector of Bingzhou, and Duke of Jiqiu county.


逄釣亡歸渤海,招集舊眾以叛燕。樂陵太守賈堅使人告諭鄉人,示以成敗,釣部眾稍散,遂來奔。

26. Pang Diao escaped and fled back to Bohai, where he gathered up his old followers to rebel against Yan. Yan’s Administrator of Leling, Jia Jian, had someone put out notices to the people, analyzing the situation for them. Pang Diao's group scattered, and he himself fled to Jin.

《考異》曰:《燕書‧賈堅傳》:「烈祖問堅年,對以受新命始及三載。烈祖悅其言,拜樂陵太守。」按堅以去年九月獲於燕,至明年始三年。若未爲樂陵太守,豈能安集諸縣,告諭逄釣!故知堅先已爲樂陵太守,非因問年而授。

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Jia Jian in the Book of Yan states, 'Liezu (Murong Jun) asked Jia Jian for his age (because he was an older man), and Jia Jian responded that in taking new orders, he was only three years in service. Liezu was delighted with this response, and he appointed Jia Jian as Administrator of Leling.' Now Jia Jian had only just been captured by Yan in the ninth month of the previous year (350.27), so he could not have been three years in service until the year after this one (352). But if we accept this story and assume that he was not yet the Administrator of Leling, how would he have been able to calm the counties there, and inform the people about Pang Diao? So I do not believe the Book of Yan's account; Jia Jian must have already been the Administrator, and not have received that post as a reward for his remark."


吐谷渾葉延卒,子碎妥立。

27. Among the Tuyuhun people, Murong Yeyan passed away, and his son Murong Suixi inherited his command.

《晉書》作「辟奚」。按一百三卷簡文帝咸安元年鍾惡地殺三弟事,亦當作「辟奚」。

The Account of the Tuyuhun in the Book of Jin records the heir's name here as Murong Pixi. And later on, in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.11), the text mentions how Zhong Edi killed the King of the Tuyuhun's third brother, and that King is also named Murong Pixi .


The Tuyuhun were another branch of the Xianbei who settled around Lake Qinghai. Their founder, Murong Tuyuhun, was the brother of Former Yan’s founder Murong Hui.

在位二十三年卒,年三十三。有子四人,長子辟奚嗣。(Book of Jin 97, Account of the Tuyuhun)

In the twenty-third year of (Murong Yeyan)'s reign, he passed away; he was thirty-three. He had four sons, and his eldest son Murong Pixi succeeded him.


初,桓溫聞石氏亂,上疏請出師經略另原,事久不報。溫知朝廷仗殷浩以抗己,甚忿之;然素知浩之為人,亦不之憚也。以國無他釁,遂得相持彌年,羈縻而已,八州士眾資調殆不為國家用。屢求北伐,詔書不聽。十二月,辛未,溫拜表輒行,帥眾四五萬順流而下,軍於武昌,朝廷大懼。

28. Sometime earlier, when Huan Wen first learned of the chaos among the Shi clan, he sent notice to the court asking to lead a campaign to recover the Central Plains, but for a long time there had been no response.

Huan Wen knew that the court had employed Yin Hao to counter him, and this greatly angered him. But he also knew the sort of man that Yin Hao was, so he did not fear him. Since there was no other trouble in the state, he was able to stay that way for over a year. Even though he kept up the appearance of being a subordinate of the court, he ran the territories under his control semi-autonomously. He kept virtually all the troops and war supplies he levied from the eight provinces under his control away from use by the central court.

Despite Huan Wen’s repeated further requests for a northern campaign, none were heeded by the court. In the twelfth month, on the day Xinwei (January 13th of 352), Huan Wen sent a petition of notice to the court and then immediately began marching downstream at the head of forty or fifty thousand soldiers, heading to Wuchang. The court was greatly afraid.

溫蓋上疏於五年出屯安陸之時。【章:十二行本「年」下有「雖有君臣之跡」六字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】永和元年,溫都督荊、司、雍、益、梁、寧六州;五年,遣滕畯帥交、廣之兵伐林邑,蓋是時已加督交、廣二州矣。

Huan Wen had sent this petition at the time when he had moved his camp forward to Anlu, in the fifth year of Yonghe (Book 98, 349.21).

Some versions include the phrase "even though he kept up the appearance of being a subordinate of the court".

Huan Wen had first been appointed Commander of military affairs in the six provinces Jingzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, and Ningzhou in the first year of Yonghe (Book 97, 345.12). In the fifth year, when he had sent Teng Jun to campaign against Lâm Ấp, at that time he was also granted command over the two provinces Jiaozhou and Guangzhou (Book 98, 349.7).


十二月辛未,征西大將軍桓溫帥衆北伐,次于武昌而止。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, on the day Xinwei (January 13th of 352), the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, led his forces on a northern campaign. He marched to Wuchang, then stopped.


殷浩欲去位以避溫,又欲以騶虞幡駐溫軍。吏部尚書王彪之言於會稽王昱曰:「此屬皆自為計,非能保社稷,為殿下計也。若殷浩去職,人情離駭,天子獨坐,當此之際,必有任其責者,非殿下而誰乎!」又謂浩曰:「彼若抗表問罪,卿為之首。事任如此,猜釁已成,欲作匹夫,豈有全地邪!且當靜以待之。令相王與手書,示以款誠,為陳成敗,彼必旋師;若不從,則遣中詔;又不從,乃當以正義相裁。奈何無故匆匆,先自猖獗乎!」浩曰:「決大事正自難,頃日來欲使人悶。聞卿此謀,意始得了。」彪之,彬之子也。

29. Yin Hao wished to resign from his position to avoid clashing with Huan Wen, and he wanted to send the Zouyu Banners out to Huan Wen's army to compel them to stand down.

The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, said to Sima Yu, "Yin Hao’s requests are only to save himself, but they cannot safeguard the state or advance Your Highness’s interests. If Yin Hao resigns his office, then people will be greatly astonished, and the Son of Heaven will sit alone. In this time of peril, someone of high office will have to be held accountable, and who else but Your Highness would bear the blame?"

Wang Biaozhi also said to Yin Hao, "If Huan Wen submits a petition of disagreement and comes looking for someone to accuse, you will be the first one in the path of his ire. Since things have gone this far, there is already distrust and animosity between the two of you. Even if you want to go back to being a commoner, there is no way you could preserve yourself! You should deal with this without rash actions. Have the Prime Minster write a personal letter to him, demonstrating his sincerity and explaining the situation to him. Then Huan Wen will surely return back to his command post. If he does not listen to that, then have the Emperor personally write him an edict. And if he still does not heed that, then you may justly send a force against him. How could you rush headlong into this, and ruin yourself right away?"

Yin Hao replied, "I’ve just been feeling distraught over having to decide on such weighty matters, and it has caused me great concern these past few days. But having heard your plan, my anxiety is gone."

This Wang Biaozhi was the son of Wang Bin.

謂浩當朝政也。謂浩與溫有隙也。謂正溫舉兵向闕之罪。王敦之亂,彬能守正,彪之可謂克紹矣。

Wang Biaozhi refers to Yin Hao's position in the court administration, and the division between him and Huan Wen.

He means that if Huan Wen ignores the letter and the edict, it will become clear that he has committed a crime by raising his troops.

During Wang Dun's rebellion, Wang Bin was able to support the legitimate side, so one could say that Wang Biaozhi was following in his father's footsteps.


撫軍司馬高崧言於昱曰:「王宜致書,諭以禍福,自當返旆。如其不爾,便六軍整駕,逆順於茲判矣!」乃於坐為昱草書曰:「寇難宜平,時會宜接。此實為國遠圖,經略大算,能弘斯會,非足下而誰?但以比興師動眾,要當以資實為本;運轉之艱,古人所難,不可易之於始而不熟慮。頃所以深用為疑,惟在此耳。然異常之舉,眾之所駭,游聲噂□沓,想足下亦少聞之。苟患失之,無所不至,或能望風振擾,一時崩散。如此則望實並喪,社稷之事去矣。皆由吾闇弱,德信不著,不能鎮靜群庶,保固維城,所以內愧於心,外慚良友。吾與足下,雖職有內外,安社稷,保家國,其致一也。天下安危,系之明德。當先思寧國而後圖其外,使王基克隆,大義弘著,所望於足下。區區誠懷,豈可復顧嫌而不盡哉!」溫即上疏惶恐致謝,回軍還鎮。

30. Jin’s Marshal to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Gao Song, said to Sima Yu, "Prince, you ought to send a letter to Huan Wen, instructing him of the advantages and disadvantages of his situation. Then he will go back to his post on his own. If he does not go back, then we can send the Six Armies against him, since his crime will have been made clear!"

And so, while he was still sitting there, Gao Song drafted the following letter to Huan Wen on Sima Yu's behalf: "When rebels cause trouble, it is well to pacify them. When the right opportunity presents itself, it is well to seize it. When it comes to distant conquests on behalf of the state, drawing up grand plans and devising strategies to achieve them, and having the ability to carry them out, who else but yourself is worthy? However, in order to lead a great host on campaign, a foundation of resources must first be established. Even the ancients all struggled with the difficulties of such operations. You must not treat it as a light matter at the beginning and not give it thorough thought. The reason I have been deeply doubtful of your actions lately is precisely because of this.

“The people are all shocked by your unusual actions. There is an unending flurry of rumors, of which I am sure you would have heard something. As it is said, 'when they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed'. It is possible that they might be swayed or shaken by the rumors, and scatter and fall apart. If this happens, then both what you hope for and what has already been achieved will both be lost, and this will be the end for the dynasty.

“In these things, I am blind and weak, and my virtues and trust are insufficient to safeguard and comfort the people, or to protect and defend 'the fortified wall'; thus my heart is filled with shame, and I feel ashamed towards my good friends. Although you and I are responsible for different affairs—yours external, mine internal—our goals are the same in ensuring stability of the state and security of our land. The stability of the realm is inseparable from good virtues. You must first give thought to ensuring tranquility within the state, before planning conquests beyond the borders, so that the foundations of the imperial rule will strengthen and flourish, and justice will be known throughout the land. This is what I hope of you. This is just a insignificant but earnest thought on my part; how could I not pour my heart out to you just because of worries that you could be doubtful or distrustful of me?"

Huan Wen sent back a reply fearfully stating his apologies, and led his army back to their post.

昱撫軍大將軍,以崧爲司馬。言溫若不還,則當整六師奉順討逆也。謂是時中原豪傑相繼來降,有恢復之會,宜應接之也。《論語》孔子之言。《詩》曰:宗子維城。〈致,極也,言事理詣極之地則一也。〉

(Sima Yu was himself the Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, so Gao Song was his Marshal.

Gao Song was saying that if Huan Wen did not return to his post, then they could lead the Six Armies out to punish his disobediance.

In the first line of his letter, Gao Song meant that since at that time the people of the Central Plains were each coming in to surrender to Jin day by day, the time of the recovery of that territory was not far off, and that they needed to work together until then.

"When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed" is a quote from the Analects (17.15).

The Book of Poetry has the verse "The circle of the king's relatives is a fortified wall." (Decade of Sheng Men, Ban.7)

致 in this case means "extreme"; that is to say, their duties to the land are the same.)


朝廷將行郊祀。會稽王昱問於王彪之曰:「郊祀應有赦否?」彪之曰:「自中興以來,郊祀往往有赦,愚意常謂非宜;凶愚之人,以為郊必有赦,將生心於徼幸矣!」昱從之。

31. The Jin court planned to conduct the suburban sacrifices near the capital. Sima Yu asked Wang Biaozhi, "Should the sacrificial ceremony include an amnesty or not?"

Wang Biaozhi replied, "Ever since the dynasty's restoration, the ceremony has always included an amnesty, although I have often said that it should not. Wild and evil men are always trying to test their luck, believing that the sacrifices will certainly have an amnesty again!" Sima Yu agreed with him.

燕王俊如龍城。

32. Murong Jun returned to Longcheng.

丁零翟鼠帥所部降燕,封為歸義王。

33. Zhai Shu of the Dingling people lead all his forces to submit to Yan; they appointed him as Prince of Guiyi.

丁零居中山,其後翟斌等皆其種類也。

The Dingling people resided in Zhongshan. Zhai Bin and the other Dingling leaders who appear later on all came from this branch of the Dingling.


The Dingling were another northern tribe of Turkic origin. They had lived for a long time under the Xiongnu.
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:57 pm

永和八年(壬子,公元三五二年)

The Eighth Year of Yonghe (The Renzi Year, 352 AD)


春,正月,辛卯,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinmao (February 2nd), there was an eclipse.

八年春正月辛卯,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinmao (February 2nd), there was an eclipse.


秦丞相雄等請秦王健正尊號,依漢、晉之舊,不必效石氏之初。健從之,即皇帝位,大赦。諸公皆進爵為王。且言單于所以統壹百蠻,非天子所宜領,以授太子萇。

2. The Prime Minister of Qin, Fu Xiong, and others asked Fu Jiàn to truly assume the imperial title, and that he should follow the old rites and ceremonies of Han and Jin, without using the new rites that the Shi clan had developed. Fu Jiàn assented, and declared himself Emperor, proclaiming a general amnesty.

All those who had formerly been Dukes were raised to Princes. Fu Jiàn also said that, since the position of Chanyu was to rule over and organize the various barbarians, it would not be fitting for the Son of Heaven to claim that title. So he granted it to the Crown Prince, Fu Chang.

謂石虎兄弟皆先稱天王,後卽皇帝位。此亦雄等之言也。

(Fu Xiong refers to how Shi Le and Shi Hu had at first called themselves Heavenly King, and only later on assumed imperial title; that is, his suggestion was that Fu Jiàn should immediately proclaim himself Emperor without bothering with the lesser title first.

Regarding the title of Chanyu, Fu Jiàn was also echoing the same thing that Fu Xiong and others had expressed earlier.)


苻健僭帝號于長安。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Fu Jiàn declared himself Emperor at Chang'an.

二年正月,丞相雄等固請宜依漢晉兼皇王之美,不可過自謙沖,同趙之初號,健從之,僭即皇帝位於太極殿,大赦,諸公進爵為王,立五等之封,以次進之。二年正月,下書曰:「其自公卿己下,歲舉賢良、方正、孝廉、清才、多畧、博學、秀才、異行各一人,或獻書規諫,或面陳朕過,其悉以聞。勿懼貴賤。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the second year of Huangshi (352), the second month, Prime Minister Fu Xiong and others insisted that Fu Jiàn should follow the examples of the Han and Jin dynasties through the dignity of assuming the titles of Emperor and King at the same time, and that he should not follow the false modesty of merely claiming a lesser title, as the rulers of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao had done at the beginnings of their reigns. Fu Jiàn agreed, and he declared himself Emperor at the Taiji Palace. He declared a general amnesty. All those who had been Dukes were now promoted to Princes, and the Five Ranks system of noble titles was established, with the other Qin nobles being promoted to suitable ranks.

In the third year of Huangshi (353), the first month, Fu Jian sent out an edict stating, "Let everyone from the nobles and chief ministers on down make annual recommendations to me of worthy people. They should each nominate one person each for the categories Worthy and Excellent, Just and True, Filial and Incorrupt, Pure and Talented, Exceptionally Cunning, Learned and Studious, and Abundant Talent. And if anyone wishes to present me with a letter remonstrating against my actions, or to stand before me and tell me of my transgressions, let all such things be heard. Let there be no fear of status."

八年,健僭即皇帝位於太極前殿,諸公進為王,以大單于授其子萇。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352 AD), Fu Jiàn proclaimed himself Emperor in front of the Taiji Palace. All those who had been named Dukes were promoted to Prince, and he granted the title of Grand Chanyu to his son Fu Chang.

健尋自稱皇帝。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn soon declared himself Emperor.


司馬勳既還漢中,杜洪、張琚屯宜秋。洪自以右族,輕琚,琚遂殺洪,自立為秦王,改元建昌。

3. After the Jin general Sima Xun returned to Hanzhong, Du Hong and Zhang Ju were camped at Yiqiu. Since Du Hong regarded himself as coming from a superior lineage, he slighted Zhang Ju. Zhang Ju killed Du Hong, and proclaimed himself King of Qin, claiming his reign era title as Jianchang.

《水經註》:鄭渠自中山西瓠口東流,逕宜秋城北,又東逕中山南,又東逕池陽縣故城北。

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zhengqu (Zhengguo or Zheng Guo) Canal flows from Mount Zhong in the west to Hukou in the east. It flows north of the city of Yiqiu, and further east south of Mount Zhong, and still further east north of the capital city of Puyang county."


杜洪屯宜秋,為其將張琚所殺,琚自立為秦王,置百官。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Du Hong camped at Yiqiu; he was killed by his general Zhang Ju. Zhang Ju then declared himself the King of Qin, and created the imperial offices.


劉顯攻常山,魏主閔留大將軍蔣干使輔太子智守鄴,自將八千騎救之。顯大司馬清河王寧以棗強降魏。閔擊顯,敗之,追奔至襄國。顯大將軍曹伏駒開門納閔。閔殺顯及其公卿己下百餘人,焚襄國宮室,遷其民於鄴。趙汝陰王琨以其妻妾來奔,斬於建康市,石氏遂絕。

4. The newly self-proclaimed Emperor of Zhao, Liu Xian, attacked Changshan. Ran Min left his Grand General, Jiang Gan, to help his Crown Prince, Ran Zhi, to defend Ye, while he himself led eight thousand riders to relieve Changshan. Liu Xian's Grand Marshal and Prince of Qinghe, Shi Ning, surrendered the city of Zaoqiang to Wei. Ran Min attacked Liu Xian and defeated him, and pursued his army back to Xiangguo. There, Liu Xian's Grand General, Cao Fuju, opened the gates and allowed Ran Min's army to enter. Ran Min killed Liu Xian and his nobles and ministers, more than a hundred people, and burned down the palaces in Xiangguo, before forcing all the people there to move to Ye.

Shi Kun fled Xiangguo with his wives and concubines and sought refuge in Jin, but he was beheaded at Jiankang in the marketplace. Thus was the Shi clan finally extinguished.

棗強縣,前漢屬清河郡,後漢、晉省,尋復置,屬信都郡。《考異》曰:閔殺顯,《晉‧帝紀》在正月,《十六國春秋鈔》在二月,《燕書》在三月己酉,未知孰是。今從《帝紀》。自古無不亡之國,宗族誅夷,固亦有之,未有至於絕姓者。石氏窮凶極暴,而子孫無遺種,足以見天道之不爽矣。

(During Former Han, Zaoqiang county was part of Qinghe commandary. It was abolished under Later Han and Jin, but it was later revived, as a part of Xindu commandary.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding when Ran Min killed Liu Xian, the Annals of Emperor Mu in the Book of Jin states it was in the first month, the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states that it was in the second month, and the Book of Yan states that it was on the day Jiyou (April 20th) in the third month. I do not know which is correct, but I follow the Annals of Emperor Mu."

Ever since ancient times, there has never been a state that has not fallen, and there has never been a ruling family that has not been put to death. This was no different. However, never had one clan been so entirely destroyed. The Shi clan was tyrannical, cruel, overbearing, and violent, and so their descendants were entirely exterminated to the last. It is not far wrong to see the hand of Heaven in this.)


冉閔擊[劉顯]破,殺之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Ran Min attacked Liu Xian and routed his army and killed him.

三年二月,劉顯帥衆伐常山,太守蘇彥告難,閔師八千救彥,敗顯於常山,追奔及于襄國。顯大將軍曹伏駒開門為應,遂入襄國,誅顯及其公卿以下百餘人,焚襄國宮室,遷其民於鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the third year of Yongxing (352), the second month, Liu Xian led an army to attack Changshan. The Administrator of Changshan, Su Yan, reported the difficulties of his position to Ran Min. So Ran Min led eight thousand soldiers to reinforce Su Yan, and he defeated Liu Xian at Changshan.

Ran Min pursued Liu Xian to Xiangguo. Liu Xian's Grand General, Cao Fuju, opened the gates and allowed Ran Min's army to enter. Ran Min executed Liu Xian and his nobles and ministers, more than a hundred people, and burned down the palaces in Xiangguo, before forcing all the people there to move to Ye.


尚書左丞孔嚴言於殷浩曰:「比來眾情,良可寒心,不知使君當何以鎮之。愚謂宜明受任之方,韓、彭專征伐,蕭、曹守管籥,內外之任,各有攸司;深思廉、藺屈身之義,平、勃交歡之謀,令穆然無間,然後可以保大定功也。觀頃日降附之徒,皆人面獸心,貪而無親,恐難以義感也。」浩不從。嚴,愉之從子也。

5. Jin’s Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing, Kong Yan, said to Yin Hao, "Commissioner, this state of affairs is very lamentable, and I wonder how you plan to deal with it. In my unworthy view, it would be well to clarify the duties of each post. In the past, it was Han Xin and Peng Chao who led the campaigns, while Xiao He and Cao Shen administered internal affairs. Each man had his own role, whether on the borders or within the court, and all attended to their own duties. You should reflect seriously on the principles that made Lian Po and Lin Xiangru put aside their personal differences, and the approach that had Chen Ping and Zhou Bo develop friendly terms with each other. Ensure that there is harmony among the ministers and no cause for divisions, and then you can achieve 'the preservation of the great appointment, and the firm establishment of one's merit'. When I look at the people who have surrendered to us recently, I only see beasts in human forms, greedy to the point of disowning their relatives. I fear it will be difficult to inspire them with the values of righteousness."

But Yin Hao did not listen to him. This Kong Yan was the nephew of Kong Yu.

事見《漢高帝紀》。曹參當高帝時,從韓信用兵,其後相齊,未嘗守管籥。嚴以蕭、曹相繼爲相而言之。事見四卷周赧王三十六年。事見十三卷漢高后七年。穆然,和而靜之貌。嚴欲浩與桓溫兩釋猜嫌,降心相從,以圖國事也。「保大定功」,《左傳》楚莊王所謂武有七德,此其二也。段龕、張遇、姚襄之徒,孔嚴固見其肺肝矣。

The matters of Liu Bang's generals and ministers are mentioned in the accounts of Emperor Gao of Han's reign in the first books of the Han dynasty section of the Zizhi Tongjian. When Cao Can (Shen) served Liu Bang, he first followed Han Xin in using troops, and afterwards returned to Liu Bang, but never once interfered in internal affairs. Kong Yan speaks of Xiao He and Cao Can following each other in succession.

Lian Po's and Lin Xiangru's initial frosty but later friendly relationship is mentioned in Book 4, in King Nan of Zhou's thirty-sixth year (277 BC).

Chen Ping's and Zhou Bo's arrangement is mentioned in Book 13, in Empress Lu's seventh year (181 BC).

穆然 means to maintain a harmonious and tranquil appearance.

Kong Yan wished for Yin Hao and Huan Wen to both put aside their suspicions of each other, submit their hearts towards mutual understanding, and develop a plan for helping the affairs of state together. In the Zuo Commentary (Xuan 11.3), King Zhuang of Chu mentions the seven merits of martial valor, and Kong Tan lists two of these: the preservation of the great appointment, and the firm establishment of one's merit.

The defectors whom Kong Tan had this gut feeling against were Duan Kan, Zhang Yu, and Yao Xiang.


Xiao He and Cao Shen were Liu Bang’s first and second Prime Ministers. Chen Ping and Zhou Bo were two of his generals.

Lian Po and Lin Xiangru were two ministers of the state of Zhao during the Warring States era; Lian Po was one of the chief generals, while Lin Xiangru was a top official. Although they initially clashed, they later became close friends.

Kong Yu was an Eastern Jin minister of great renown.


浩上疏請北出許、洛,詔許之。以安西將軍謝尚、北中郎將荀羨為督統,進屯壽春。謝尚不能撫尉張遇,遇怒,據許昌叛,使其將上官恩據洛陽,樂弘攻督護戴施於倉垣,浩軍不能進。三月,命荀羨鎮准陰,尋加監青州諸軍事,又領兗州刺史,鎮下邳。

6. Yin Hao petitioned to lead a campaign to reclaim Xuchang and Luoyang for Jin; the court gave its assent. He appointed the General Who Maintains the West, Xie Shang, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Xun Xian, as commanders, and they advanced to camp at Shouchun.

It was earlier mentioned that the Zhao general Zhang Yu had surrendered the city of Xuchang to Jin. During this campaign, Xie Shang was unable to mollify Zhang Yu. Zhang Yu became agitated, he seized control of Xuchang and rebelled, and he sent his general Shangguan En to seize Luoyang. Yue Hong attacked the Protector, Dai Shi, at Cangyuan, and Yin Hao's army was unable to advance.

In the third month, Yin Hao ordered Xun Xian to defend Huaiyin, and soon promoted him as Chief of military affairs in Qingzhou and acting Inspector of Yanzhou. Xun Xian was then stationed at Xiapi.

《晉志》曰:四中郎將,並後漢置,歷魏及晉並有其職,江左彌重。時謝尚鎭壽春,荀羨鎭京口,浩欲兩道俱進,故使二人並爲督統,各統其方之兵。

The Records of Jin states, "The Generals of the Household Gentlemen of the Four Directions were all formed during Later Han. Cao-Wei and Jin also maintained these offices, and they became even more important after Jin fled across the Yangzi."

At the time that Yin Hao sent up this petition, Xie Shang was guarding Shouchun, and Xun Xian was guarding Jingkou. Yin Hao wished to advance along two routes at once, and so he appointed both of them as commanders, for each of them to command soldiers in their own sections.


二月,鎮西將軍張遇反于許昌,使其黨上官恩據洛陽。樂弘攻督護戴施於倉垣。三月,使北中郎荀羨鎮淮陰。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the second month, the General Who Maintains The West, Zhang Yu, rebelled at Xuchang, and sent his partisan Shangguan En to occupy Luoyang. Yue Hong attacked the Protector, Dai Shi, at Cangyuan.

In the third month, the court sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Xun Xian, to guard Huaiyin.


乙巳,燕王俊還薊,稍徙軍中文武兵民家屬於薊。

7. On the day Yisi (April 16th), Murong Jun returned to Ji, and he gradually moved his ministers, officers, soldiers, and common families to Ji as well.

自北徙其家屬而南,又恐其懷居而無樂遷之心,故稍徙之。

By forcing these families to relocate from north to south, Murong Jun feared he would cause them to miss their old residences and not to be happy about the relocation, so he only moved them gradually.


姚弋仲有子四十二人,及病,謂諸子曰:「石氏待吾厚,吾本欲為之盡力。今石氏已滅,中原無主;我死,汝亟自歸於晉,當固執臣節,無為不義也!」弋仲卒,子襄秘不發喪,帥戶六萬南攻陽平、元城、發乾,破之,屯於碻磝津,以太原王亮為長史,天水尹赤為司馬,太原薛瓚、略陽權翼為參軍。襄與秦兵戰,敗,亡三萬餘戶,南至滎陽,始發喪。

8. Yao Yizhong had forty-two sons. At this time, he became gravely ill. He said to his sons, "The Shi clan gave me their benevolence, and I had wished to exert myself to my utmost on their behalf. But now the Shi clan is already extinguished, and the Central Plains has no master. After I die, you all must go over to Jin; conduct yourselves as loyal ministers, and do nothing that is unjust!" Yao Yizhong then passed away.

His son Yao Xiang kept the death a secret and did not conduct mourning. He first marched south with sixty thousand households, attacking Yangping, Yuancheng, and Faqian and breaking through all of them, until he camped at Que’ao Crossing. He appointed Wang Liang of Taiyuan as his Chief Clerk, Yin Chi of Tianshui as his Marshal, and Xue Zan of Taiyuan and Quan Yi of Lueyang as his Army Advisors. Yao Xiang fought with the Qin soldiers, but was defeated by them, and lost more than thirty thousand households. He continued marching south until he reached Xingyang; only then did he begin the mourning rituals for his father.

襄自灄頭而南也。元城縣,漢屬魏郡,晉屬陽平郡。發干縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬陽平郡。劉昫曰:唐魏州莘縣,漢陽平縣地。碻磝城,卽漢東郡茌平縣故城,其西南卽河津,謂之碻磝津。後魏置濟州於碻磝城。杜佑曰:碻磝,卽今濟陽郡城。碻,口交翻;磝,音敖。楊正衡曰:碻,五勞翻;磝,口勞翻。毛晃曰:碻,丘交翻;磝,牛交翻。或曰:碻,音確;磝,音爻。《姓譜》:權本顓頊之後。楚武王使鬬緡尹權,因以爲氏。韓愈《權德輿墓碑》曰:殷武丁之子降封於權;權,江、漢間國也,周衰,入楚,爲權氏。瓚,藏旱翻。

(Yao Xiang marched south from Shetou.

During Han, Yuancheng county was part of Wei commandary; during Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary.

During Han, Fagan county was part of Dong commandary; during Jin, it was also part of Yangping commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Shen county in Tang's Weizhou was known as Yangping county during Han."

The city of Que'ao was the capital city of Chiping county in Dong commandary during Han. Southwest of it was a crossing over the Yellow River, so it was also called Que'ao Crossing. Northern Wei formed Jizhou around the city of Que'ao. Du You remarked, "The city of Que'ao is the same as the capital city of modern Jiyang commandary. 碻 is pronounced 'kiao (k-iao)'; 磝 is pronounced 'ao'." But Yang Zhengheng remarked, "碻 is pronounced 'wao (w-ao)'; 磝 is pronounced 'kao (k-ao)'." And Mao Huang remarked, "碻 is pronounced 'qiao (q-iao)'; 磝 is pronounced 'niao (n-iao'." And others claim, "碻 is pronounced 'que'; 磝 is pronounced 'yao'."

The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 權 Quan comes from the descendants of the ancient Emperor Zhuanxu. King Wu of Chu sent Dou Min to govern Quan, and the surname derived from this. On Han Yu's "Tomb Stele for Quan Deyu" it states, "The son of Yin Wuding surrendered his title at Quan. Quan was a state between the Yangzi and the Han Rivers. After the Zhou dynasty declined, it was absorbed by Chu, and the fief became the Lordship of Quan."

瓚 is pronounced "zan (z-an)".)


石祗為劉顯所弒,仲乃與燕連和。有子四十二人,常誡諸子曰;「我死之後,汝歸晉家,竭盡臣節。」...八年薨,時年七十三... 萇稱尊號追諡景元皇帝,廟號始祖,陵曰高陵。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

After Shi Zhi was murdered by Liu Xian, Yao Yizhong opened peace talks with Yan.

Yao Yizhong had forty-two sons. He often admonished them, "After I die, you must return your loyalty to the Jin royal family, and be fully loyal and earnest dutiful subjects."

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), Yao Yizhong passed away; he was seventy-two years old.

After Yao Chang declared himself Emperor of Later Qin, he posthumously honored his father as Emperor Jingyuan, with the temple name Shizu, and his tomb was called Gao Tomb.

弋仲有子四十二人,常戒諸子曰:「吾本以晉室大亂,石氏待吾厚,故欲討其賊臣以報其德。今石氏已滅,中原無主,自古以來未有戎狄作天子者。我死,汝便歸晉,當竭盡臣節,無為不義之事。」...八年,卒,時年七十三... 萇僭位,追諡曰景元皇帝,廟號始祖,墓曰高陵,置園邑五百家。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

Yao Yizhong had forty-two sons. He often warned them, "When I first established myself, the Jin royal family was in great turmoil. The Shi clan treated me with great favor, and that was why I campaigned against Liang Du's rebels in order to repay them. But now the Shi clan is already extinguished, and the Central Plains has no master. From ancient times until now, there has never been someone from the Rong or Di tribes who has become the Son of Heaven. After I die, you all must go over to Jin; conduct yourselves as loyal ministers, and do nothing that is unjust."

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), Yao Yizhong passed away; he was seventy-two years old.

After Yao Chang declared himself Emperor of Later Qin, he posthumously honored his father as Emperor Jingyuan, with the temple name Shizu; his tomb was called Gao Tomb, and five hundred families were assigned to tend the tomb region.

昭成時,弋仲死,子襄代。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

During Tuoba Shiyijian's reign, Yao Yizhong passed away, and his son Yao Xiang succeeded him.

戈仲薨,襄率戶八萬,南至滎陽。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

After Yao Yizhong passed away, Yao Xiang led eighty thousand households south until they reached Xingyang.

弋仲死,襄秘不發喪,率戶六萬南攻陽平、元城、發幹,皆破之,殺掠三千餘家,屯於碻磝津。以太原王亮為長史,天水尹赤為司馬,略陽伏子成為左部帥,南安斂岐為右部帥,略陽黑那為前部帥,強白為後部帥,太原薛贊、略陽王權翼為參軍。南至滎陽,始發喪行服。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

When Yao Yizhong passed away, Yao Xiang kept the death a secret and did not conduct mourning. He first marched south with sixty thousand households, attacking Yangping, Yuancheng, and Faqian; he took all of them, and plundered or killed more than three thousand families, before he camped at Que’ao Crossing.

He appointed Wang Liang of Taiyuan as his Chief Clerk, Yin Chi of Tianshui as his Marshal, Fu Zicheng of Lüeyang as his Divisional Commander of the Left, Lian Qi of Nan'an as his Divisional Commander of the Right, Hei Na of Lüeyang as his Divisional Commander of the Front, Qiang Bai as his Divisional Commander of the Rear, and Xue Zan of Taiyuan and Quan Yi of Lüeyang as his Army Advisors.

Yao Xiang marched south until he reached Xingyang; only then did he begin the mourning rituals for his father.


又與秦將高昌、李歷戰於麻田,馬中流矢而斃。弟萇以馬授襄,襄曰:「汝何以自免?」萇曰:「但令兄濟,豎子必不敢害萇!」會救至,俱免。尹赤奔秦,秦以赤為并州刺史,鎮蒲阪。

9. There was an incident when Yao Xiang was fighting against the Qin generals Gao Chang and Li Li at Matian. During this battle, his horse was shot from under him. His younger brother Yao Chang offered his own horse to him. Yao Xiang objected, "How then will you escape?"

Yao Chang replied, "So long as you are alive, Elder Brother, they will not dare to harm me!"

But their reinforcements then arrived, and they both escaped.

Yin Chi fled to Qin, who appointed him as Inspector of Bingzhou; he was stationed at Puban.

高昌、李歷,本趙將也,時附於秦,故稱秦將。滎、洛之間,地名有豆田、麻田,各因人所種藝而名之。

(Gao Chang and Li Li were originally Later Zhao generals. They had since gone over to Former Qin, and this is why they were considered Former Qin generals. Between Xingyang and Luoyang, there were places named Doutian ("bean field") and Matian ("hemp field"), which were each named after the skills practiced by the people living there.)


苻健別帥侵順陽,太守薛珍擊破之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Some of Fu Jiàn's generals invaded Shunyang, but the Administrator, Xue Zhen, attacked them and routed them.

襄與高昌、李曆戰于麻田,馬中流矢死,賴其弟萇以免。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

When Yao Xiang was fighting Gao Chang and Li Li at Matian, his horse was shot from under him, but he escaped thanks to his younger brother Yao Chang.

姚萇字子茂,戈仲之第二十四子,少聰哲,多權畧,不修行業。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang, styled Zimao, was Yao Yizhong's twenty-fourth son. Even as a youth, he was intelligent and wise and developed many plans and strategies. He did not tend to any industry.

萇字景茂,弋仲第二十四子也。少聰哲,多權略,廓落任率,不修行業,諸兄皆奇之。隨襄征伐,每參大謀。襄之寇洛陽也,夢萇服袞衣,升御坐,諸酋長皆侍立,旦謂將佐曰:「吾夢如此,此兒志度不恆,或能大起吾族。」襄之敗于麻田也,馬中流矢死,萇下馬以授襄,襄曰:「汝何以自免?」萇曰:「但令兄濟,豎子安敢害萇!」會救至,俱免。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang, styled Jingmao, was Yao Yizhong's twenty-fourth son. Even as a youth, he was intelligent and wise and developed many plans and strategies. He did not tend to any industry. He was broad-minded in his leadership, not tending to the details of execution. His elder brothers were all amazed at him. Yao Chang followed Yao Xiang on his campaigns, always advising him on great strategies.

When Yao Xiang was marching through the Luoyang region, he had a dream where he saw Yao Chang dressed in royal robes and seated on an imperial throne, with many chiefs and leaders in attendance. When morning came, Yao Xiang said to his generals, "With a dream like that, this boy's ambition and desire must be no ordinary thing. He might just lift our clan to the highest ranks."

When Yao Xiang was defeated at Matian, his horse was shot from under him. Yao Chang got off his own horse and offered it to Yao Xiang.

Yao Xiang said, "Then how will you escape?"

Yao Chang replied, "So long as you are alive, Elder Brother, how could those miscreants dare to harm me?"

But reinforcements soon arrived, so they both escaped.

弋仲有子四十二人,萇第二十四,隨兄襄征伐,襄甚奇之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Yizhong had forty-two sons; Yao Chang was his twenty-fourth son. He followed his elder brother Yao Xiang on his campaigns, and Yao Xiang greatly appreciated him.


襄遂帥眾歸晉,送其五弟為質。詔襄屯譙城,襄單騎渡淮,見謝尚於壽春。尚聞其名,命去仗衛,幅巾待之,歡若平生。襄博學,善談論,江東人士皆重之。

10. Yao Xiang led his forces into Jin, sending the Jin court five of his younger brothers as hostages. The court ordered Yao Xiang to station at Qiao.

Yao Xiang rode alone on horseback, crossing over the Huai River, to visit Xie Shang at Shouchun. Xie Shang knew Yao Xiang by his reputation, so he sent away his guards and attendants. He received Yao Xiang while wearing a common headscarf, and they welcomed one another as though they were old friends.

Yao Xiang was erudite and an eloquent speaker, and the people of the Southland all respected him.

晉處襄于譙城。遣五弟為任,單騎渡淮,見豫州刺史謝尚,一面交款,便若平生。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

The Jin court assigned Yao Xiang to Qiao. Yao Xiang sent five of his younger brothers to court to serve as hostages, while he rode alone on horseback to cross the Huai River and visit the Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang. They hit it off as soon as they met, talking like old friends.

晉處襄於譙城,遣五弟為任,單騎度淮,見豫州刺史謝尚于壽春。尚命去仗衛,幅巾以待之,一面交款,便若平生。襄少有高名,雄武冠世,好學博通,雅善談論,英濟之稱著于南夏。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

The Jin court placed Yao Xiang at Qiao, and he sent five of his younger brothers to the court to serve as hostages.

Yao Xiang rode alone on horseback to cross the Huai River and visit the Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, at Shouchun. Xie Shang sent away his guards and attendants, and he received Yao Xiang while wearing a common headscarf. They hit it off as soon as they met, talking like old friends.

Even as a youth, Yao Xiang had enjoyed a good reputation; his boldness and martial valor made him stand out in the age, but he also enjoyed learning and was conversant in educated subjects, and he was refined and an eloquent speaker. So he was known as a hero even in the Southland.

襄屯於譙城。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Xiang camped at Qiao.


魏主閔既克襄國,因游食常山、中山諸郡。趙立義將軍段勤聚胡、羯萬餘人保據繹幕,自稱趙帝。夏,四月,甲子,燕王俊遣慕容恪擊魏,慕容霸等擊勤。

11. Since Ran Min had successfully captured Xiangguo, he traveled and feasted all around Changshan and Zhongshan.

Zhao's General Who Establishes Virtue, Duan Qin, gathered many Jie and other tribesmen, more than ten thousand, and seized control of Yimu, declaring himself Emperor of Zhao.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiazi (May 5th), Murong Jun sent Murong Ke to attack Wei and Murong Ba and others to attack Duan Qin.

繹幕縣,自漢以來屬清河郡。

Ever since Han, Yimu County had been part of Qinghe commandary.


魏主閔將與燕戰,大將軍董閏、車騎將軍張溫諫曰:「鮮卑乘勝鋒銳,且彼眾我寡,請且避之,俟其驕惰,然後益兵以擊之,」閔怒曰:「吾欲以此眾平幽州,斬慕容俊;今遇恪而避之,人謂我何!」司徒劉茂、特進郎闓相謂曰:「吾君此行,必不還矣,吾等何為坐待戮辱!」皆自殺。

12. Ran Min planned to do battle with the Yan army. His Grand General, Dong Run, and his General of Chariots and Cavalry, Zhang Wen, both objected, saying, "The Xianbei have recently won many victories and are keen fighters, and their numbers are many while we are few. Please forebear for a time, until they grow complacent, while we increase the number of troops. Then we may attack them."

But Ran Min angrily replied, "I wish to use this army to pacify Yuzhou and cut off Murong Jun's head. If I hold back from fighting Murong Ke today, what will people say of me?"

The Minister Over The Masses, Liu Mao, and the Specially Advanced, Lang Kai, said to one another, "Our lord will certainly not return from this venture. What use is there for us in waiting here to suffer humiliation?" So they killed themselves.

閔軍於安喜,慕容恪引兵從之。閔趣常山,恪追之,及於魏昌之廉台。閔與燕兵十戰,燕兵皆不勝。閔素有勇名,所將兵精銳,燕人憚之。慕容恪巡陳,謂將士曰:「冉閔勇而無謀,一夫敵耳!其士卒饑疲,甲兵雖精,其實難用,不足破也!」閔以所將多步卒,而燕皆騎兵,引兵將趣林中。恪參軍高開曰:「吾騎兵利平地,若閔得入林,不可複製。宜亟遣輕騎邀之,既合而陽走,誘致平地,然後可擊也」。恪從之。魏兵還就平地,恪分軍為三部,謂諸將曰:「閔性輕銳,又自以眾少,必致死於我。我厚集中軍之陳以待之,俟其合戰,卿等從旁擊之,無不克矣。」乃擇鮮卑善射者五千人,以鐵鎖連其馬,為方陳而前。閔所乘駿馬曰朱龍,日行千里。閔左操雙刃矛,右執鉤戟,以擊燕兵,斬首三百餘級。望見大幢,知其為中軍,直衝之;燕兩軍從旁夾擊,大破之。圍閔數重,閔潰圍東走二十餘里,朱龍忽斃,為燕兵所執。燕人殺魏僕射劉群,執董閔、張溫,及閔皆送於薊。閔子操奔魯口。高開被創而卒。慕容恪進屯常山,俊命恪鎮中山。

13. The Wei army marched to Anxi; Murong Ke led his troops there as well. Ran Min headed towards Changshan, and Murong Ke kept on his heels.

On the day Bingzi (May 17th), Murong Ke caught up with the Wei army at Liantai near Weichang. Ran Min fought the Yan army in ten engagements, and the Yan soldiers could never best him. Ran Min's ferocity was well-known, and so his troops were heartened, while the Yan soldiers dreaded him. Murong Ke patrolled his camp, saying to his officers and men, "Although Ran Min is heroic, he has no talent for planning; he is the only one to fear! As for his soldiers, by now they must be suffering from hunger and exhaustion. His armored troops are certainly elite, but it’s hard to put them to good use here. They cannot defeat us!"

Since Ran Min had mostly infantry while Yan’s soldiers were all mounted, Ran Min led his troops towards the woods. Murong Ke's Army Advisor, Gao Kai, said, "Our cavalry have the advantage on open land. If Ran Min gets to the forests, we cannot subdue him. Let us have the light cavalry intercept him, then feign retreat once battle is joined, and lure the enemy onto level ground; then we may attack them." Murong Ke agreed.

Once the Wei soldiers had been lured onto the open ground, Murong Ke split his army into three parts, telling his men, "Ran Min thinks little of his enemies, and is a redoubtable fighter. As he has few troops, he will definitely fight with all his might. I shall keep the central portion here to act as bait. Once the battle has begun, then the rest of you attack from the sides. Then victory shall be assured." He then picked out five thousand of the best archers from among the Xianbei, linked their horses together with iron chains, and placed them in the front in a square formation.

Ran Min soon appeared riding his prized horse Zhulong (Cinnabar Dragon), a horse capable of riding a thousand li in one day. Ran Min grasped a double-edged spear in his left hand, and a hooked halberd in his right. He plunged into battle against the Yan soldiers, slaying more than three hundred of them himself. Soon he noticed a large banner, and knowing that this was where the Yan headquarters was, he charged towards it. But then the other two Yan divisions appeared and attacked from either side, and the Wei army was greatly routed. Ran Min was surrounded by many soldiers. He broke out of the encirclement, riding hard to the east for more than twenty li. But then Zhulong suddenly perished, and Ran Min was captured by the Yan soldiers.

The Yan army killed Ran Min's Deputy Director, Liu Qun, during the battle. Dong Min and Zhang Wen were taken captive, and together with Ran Min they were all sent to Ji. Ran Min's son, Ran Cao, fled to seek refuge with Wang Wu at Lukou.

Gao Kai suffered a mortal wound during the battle and passed away.

Murong Ke advanced to camp at Changshan; Murong Jun ordered him to guard Zhongshan.

安喜縣,前漢曰安險,屬中山郡,後漢章帝更名;唐復爲安險縣,屬安州。而定州所治之安喜縣,漢盧奴縣也。【章:十二行本「及」上有「丙子」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】魏昌縣,屬中山郡,本苦陘,漢章帝改爲漢昌,魏文帝改爲魏昌,唐爲定州唐昌縣。魏收《地形志》:中山毋極縣有廉臺。蓋晉省無極縣,廉臺遂在魏昌界。恪以鐵鎖連馬,則閔兵雖致死而陳不可破,兩軍從旁夾擊,則閔兵三面受敵,不敗何待!「董閔」當作「董閏」。【章:孔本正作「閏」。】冉閔自立事始上卷六年,至是而滅。

(During Han, Anxi county had been called Anxian, and it was part of Zhongshan commandary. Emperor Zhang of Later Han changed its name. During Tang, its name was changed back to Anxian again, and it was part of Anzhou. The Anxi county that was part of Dingzhou during Tang was known as Lunu county during Han.

Some versions specify that the day of the battle was "the day Bingzi".

Weichang county was part of Zhongshan commandary. It had originally been called Kuxing. Emperor Zhang of Han renamed it to Hanchang, and Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) renamed it to Weichang. During Tang, it was Tangchang county in Dingzhou. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Liantai was in Wuji county in Zhongshan." So it must be that Jin had abolished Wuji county, and Liantai was within the territory of Weichang.

Since Murong Ke had chained his horses together, even if Ran Min's troops had fought to the death, they could never break his formation. Then the two other divisions attacked from either side. With Ran Min's troops being attacked by three enemies, how could they not be defeated?

The Dong Min mentioned here should be Dong Run, and some versions do write it as Run.

Ran Min had first set himself up in the sixth year of Yonghe (350.5) in Book 98, and he lasted this long before he was vanquished.)


夏四月,冉閔爲慕容儁所滅。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, Ran Min was vanquished by Murong Jun.

十五年,慕容儁滅冉閔。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fifteenth year of Jianguo (352), Murong Jun vanquished Ran Min.

三月,慕容雋已尅幽薊,略地至于冀州。閔帥騎擊之,與慕容恪遇於魏昌城,恪方陣而前,閔衆寡不敵,所乘赤馬曰朱龍,日行千里,潰圍東奔,行二十餘里,馬無故而死,遂為恪所擒,送之于薊。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the third month, having already captured Youzhou, Murong Jun marched into Jizhou. Ran Min led cavalry to attack him. He encountered Murong Ke at the city of Weichang. Murong Ke arrayed his soldiers in squares before advancing, and Ran Min's army was too small to be a match for them. Ran Min was riding a horse called Zhulong ("Cinnabar Dragon"), a horse that could run a thousand li in a single day. He broke out of Murong Ke's encirclement and fled to the east. But after riding for more than twenty li, Zhulong inexplicably died, and Ran Min was captured and sent to Ji.

閔尋為慕容儁所擒。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

Ran Min was later captured by Murong Jun.

元璽元年正月,司南車成,雋大悅,告於皝廟。四月,遣輔國恪、相國奕討冉閔,戰于魏昌廉臺,閔師大敗,擒送之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the first year of Yuanxi (352), the first month, a south-pointing chariot was completed. Murong Jun was greatly pleased, and he reported the event at Murong Huang's ancestral temple.

In the fourth month, Murong Jun sent his General Who Upholds The State, Murong Ke, and his Chancellor of State, Feng Yi, to campaign against Ran Min. They fought at Ran-Wei's Changlian Terrace, where Ran Min's army was greatly defeated, and he himself was captured and sent to Murong Jun.

儁大破冉閔於魏昌廉臺,擒之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun greatly routed Ran Min at Ran-Wei's Changlian Terrace, and captured him.


己卯,冉閔至薊。俊大赦,立閔而責之曰:「汝奴僕下才,何得妄稱帝?」閔曰:「天下大亂,爾曹夷狄禽獸之類猶稱帝,況我中土英雄,何得不稱帝邪!」俊怒,鞭之三百,送於龍城。

14. On the day Jimao (May 20th), Ran Min arrived at Ji. Murong Jun declared a general amnesty.

Murong Jun had Ran Min stand in front of him and chastised him thus: "How could a talentless slave like you so rashly declare yourself the Emperor?"

Ran Min replied, "The realm is in chaos, and even an upstart barbarian like you, hardly more than a beast, claims to be Emperor. I am a hero of the Central Land, so how could I not assume the throne?"

Murong Jun was enraged, and he whipped Ran Min three hundred times before sending him on to Longcheng.

【章:十二行本「何得不」作「何爲不得」四字;乙十二行本同;孔本同;張校同。】

(Some versions write 何得不 as 何爲不得.)


雋立閔而問之曰:「汝奴僕下才,何敢妄稱天子?」閔曰:「當此天下大亂,爾曹人面獸心,尚欲纂逆,我一時英雄,何為不可作帝王耶?」雋怒,鞭之三百... 五月,送閔于龍城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

Murong Jun had Ran Min stand in front of him before asking him, "How could a talentless slave like you so rashly dare to call yourself the Son of Heaven?"

Ran Min replied, "The realm is in chaos, and even an upstart barbarian like you, with the face of a man but the heart of a beast, dares to usurp the throne. I am a hero of the age, so how could I not become a king or emperor?"

Murong Jun was enraged, and he whipped Ran Min three hundred times. In the fifth month, he sent Ran Min to Longcheng.


慕容霸軍至繹幕,段勤與弟思陪舉城降。

15. Murong Ba's army arrived at Yimu. Duan Qin and his younger brother Duan Si offered up the city in surrender, along with their soldiers.

甲申,俊遣慕容評及中尉侯龕帥精騎萬人攻鄴。癸巳,至鄴,魏蔣干及太子智閉城拒守。城外皆降於燕,劉寧及弟崇帥胡騎三千奔晉陽。

16. On the day Jiashen (May 25th), Murong Jun sent Murong Ping and the Commandant of the Capital, Hou Kan, with ten thousand elite cavalry to attack Ye.

On the day Guisi (?), they arrived at Ye, and Jiang Gan and Ran Zhi closed the gates of the city to hold out against them. Everyone outside of the city surrendered to Yan. Liu Ning and his younger brother Liu Chong lead three thousand tribal cavalry to flee to Jinyang.

劉寧,劉顯將也,以棗強降閔。

(Liu Ning was one of Liu Xian's generals. He had surrendered to Ran Min at Zaoqiang.)


雋遣慕容評帥衆圍鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

Murong Jun sent Murong Ping to lead an army to besiege Ye.

閔大將軍蔣幹輔閔子智,固守鄴城,遣輔弼評等帥騎一萬以討之。鄴北郡縣悉降。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

Ran Min's Grand General, Jiang Gan, served as regent for Ran Min's son Ran Zhi, and they held fast to the defense of Ye. Murong Jun sent his General Who Upholds Assistance, Murong Ping, and others to lead ten thousand cavalry to campaign against them. All the commandaries and counties north of Ye surrendered to Murong Jun.

閔太子叡固守鄴城,儁進師攻鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Ran Min's Crown Prince Ran Rui held out at Ye. Murong Jun advanced and attacked the city.


秦以張遇為征東大將軍、豫州牧。

17. Qin recognized Zhang Yu as Grand General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Yuzhou.

五月,秦主健攻張琚於宜秋,斬之。

18. In the fifth month, Fu Jiàn attacked Du Hong’s former subordinate Zhang Ju at Yiqiu, and killed him.

健率步騎二萬攻琚,斬其首。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn sent twenty thousand horse and foot to attack Zhang Ju, and they took his head.


鄴中大饑,人相食,故趙時宮人被食略盡。蔣干遺侍中繆嵩、詹事劉猗奉表請降,且求救於謝尚。庚寅,燕王俊遣廣威將軍慕容軍、殿中將軍慕輿根、右司馬皇甫真等帥步騎二萬助慕容評攻鄴。

19. There was widespread hunger within Ye, and the people had no food; they resorted to cannibalism, and even the old Zhao palace servants were eaten.

Jiang Gan sent the Palace Attendant, Mou Song, and the Supervisor of the Household, Liu Yi, to offer submission to Jin and to ask Xie Shang to come break the siege.

On the day Gengyin (May 31st), Murong Jun sent the General Who Spreads Might, his uncle Murong Junn, the General of the Palace, Muyu Gen, the Marshal of the Right, Huangfu Zhen, and others to lead another twenty thousand horse and foot to assist Murong Ping in capturing Ye.

鄴中饑,人相食,虎時宮人被食略盡。冉智尚幼,蔣幹遣詹事劉猗,奉表降雋。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

There was hunger in Ye, and people ate each other. All of the palace servants from Shi Hu's era were eaten. Since Ran Zhi was still young, Jiang Gan sent the 詹事, Liu Yi, to present a petition offering to surrender to Murong Jun.


辛卯,燕人斬冉閔於龍城。會大旱,蝗,燕王俊謂閔為祟,遣使祀之,謚曰悼武天王。

20. On the day Xinmao (June 1st), Yan executed Ran Min at Longcheng.

A great drought and swarms of locusts suddenly appeared. Murong Jun believed that Ran Min's spirit was responsible, so in order to appease it, he posthumously named Ran Min as Heavenly King Daowu ("the Grieved and Martial").

五月,雋告廆皝廟而殺之... 初、慕容雋斬閔於遏陘山,山左右七里木悉枯, 蝗蟲大起。自五月不雨至於十二月。雋遣使者祀之,諡曰武悼天王,其日大雨雹,是歲太和八年也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the fifth month, Murong Jun reported his triumph over Ran Min at the ancestral temple of Murong Hui and Murong Huang, and he killed Ran Min.

After Murong Jun executed Ran Min at Mount Exing, all the trees within seven li of the mountain withered and wilted, and great swarms of locusts appeared. Then there was no rain from the fifth month to the twelfth month. Murong Jun sent agents to sacrifice to Ran Min's spirit, granting him the posthumous title Heavenly King Wudao. That very day, a great storm of hail rained down. This was in the eighth year of Taihe (Yonghe, 352).


初,謝尚使戴施據枋頭,施聞蔣干求救,乃自倉垣徙屯棘津,止干使者求傳國璽。劉猗使繆嵩還鄴白干,干疑尚不能救,沈吟未決。六月,施帥壯士百餘人入鄴,助守三台,紿之曰:「今燕寇在外,道路不通,璽未敢送也。卿且出以付我,我當馳白天子。天子聞璽在吾所,信卿至誠,必多發兵糧以相救餉。」干以為然,出璽付之。施宣言使督護何融迎糧,陰令懷璽送於枋頭。甲子,蔣干帥銳卒五千及晉兵出戰,慕容評大破之,斬首四千級,干脫走入城。

21. Xie Shang had earlier dispatched Dai Shi to capture Fangtou. When Dai Shi heard of Jiang Gan's plea for aid, he marched from Cangyuan to camp at Ji Crossing and halted Jiang Gan’s envoys there, demanding to be given the Imperial Seal. Liu Yi sent Mou Song back to Ye to report to Jiang Gan. Jiang Gan suspected that Xie Shang would not be able to come to their aid, and he hemmed and hawed and could not decide what to do.

In the sixth month, Dai Shi lead more than a hundred men to enter Ye, where they helped guard the Three Terraces. He deceived Jiang Gan, saying to him, "The invading Yan soldiers are outside the walls, and the roads are not easily traveled, so you would not be able to send the Seal to Jin yourself. But if you will give the Seal to me, I will send a rider at once to inform the Son of Heaven. Once he learns that I possess the Seal, then he will believe that you are sincere, and he will certainly send ample men and grain to relieve the city." Jiang Gan, believing this, gave Dai Shi the Seal. Dai Shi then said he was sending his Protector, He Rong, to gather food, but he secretly gave He Rong the Seal to bring it back to Fangtou.

On the day Jiazi (July 4th), Jiang Gan led five thousand of his best troops, along with the Jin soldiers, out to offer battle. But Murong Ping greatly routed them, killing four thousand, and Jiang Gan and the rest fled back into the city.

遣施之時,指令據枋頭。棘津,卽石濟南津,有棘津亭。江南之未得璽也,中原謂之「白版天子」。傳國璽至此歸晉。藺相如全璧歸趙,趙王擢之,自繆賢舍人爲上大夫。戴施能復致累代傳國之寶,未聞晉朝以顯賞甄之也,何居!

At the time Xie Shang sent Dai Shi, his orders were to occupy Fangtou.

Ji Crossing was the crossing south of Shiji, at Jijin Point.

Until this time, the Southland did not possess the Seal, and so the Central Plains could claim, "They have a false Son of Heaven." But at this time, the Seal returned to Jin. We hear the story of how Lin Xiangru returned Bian He's Jade Disc (which later was carved into the Seal) fully intact to Zhao; the King of Zhao promoted him, and he rose from a mere attendant to a chief counselor of state. Now Dai Shi was able to accomplish the same thing with such a priceless treasure as the Seal that had passed down through many dynasties, yet we hear no account that the Jin court gave him any special award or recognition for it. How can this be?


八月,冉閔子智以鄴降,督護戴施獲其傳國璽,送之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth month, Ran Min's son Ran Zhi surrendered Ye to Jin. The Protector, Dai Shi, took the Imperial Seal from him and sent it to Jiankang.


甲申,秦主健還長安。

22. On the day Jiashen (July 24th), Fu Jiàn returned to Chang'an.

自宜秋還長安也。

He returned from Yiqiu to Chang'an.


謝尚、姚襄共攻張遇於許昌。秦主健遣丞相東海王雄、衛大將軍平昌王菁略地關東,帥步騎二萬救之。丁亥,戰於穎水之誠橋,尚等大敗,死者萬五千人。尚奔還淮南,襄棄輜重,送尚於芍陂;尚悉以後事付襄。殷浩聞尚敗,退屯壽春。秋,七月,秦丞相雄徙張遇及陳、穎、許、洛之民五萬餘戶於關中,以右衛將軍楊群為豫州刺史,鎮許昌。謝尚降,號建威將軍。

23. Xie Shang and Yao Xiang jointly marched to attack Zhang Yu at Xuchang. Fu Jiàn sent Fu Xiong and his Grand Guard General and Prince of Pingchang, Fu Jing, to march into Guandong with twenty thousand horse and foot to assist Zhang Yu.

On the day Dinghai (July 27th), the two sides fought a battle at Chengqiao on the Ying River; Xie Shang and the others were greatly defeated, and the dead numbered fifteen thousand. Xie Shang fled back to Huainan, while Yao Xiang abandoned his baggage and escorted Xie Shang to Que Slope. Xie Shang then left matters to Yao Xiang. When Yin Hao learned of Xie Shang's defeat, he fell back to camp at Shouchun.

In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Xiong moved Zhang Yu and the people of Chenliu, Yingchuan, Xuchang, and Luoyang, more than fifty thousand households, back with him into Guanzhong. The Guard General of the Right, Yang Qun, was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou and stationed at Xuchang.

Xie Shang was demoted to General Who Establishes Might.

據《晉紀》,誡橋,在許昌。謝尚旣敗,姚襄知晉之不足恃,固有去晉之心,矧殷浩又從而速之乎!張遇據有許、潁,豈肯斂手受羈制於人乎!苻雄乘勝以兵威徙之,自此遇之死命制於苻氏矣!

According to the Records of Jin, Jieqiao (Chengqiao?) was at Xuchang.

Since Xie Shang had been defeated, Yao Xiang knew that Jin was not worth serving, so from this time he began to harbor ambitions of abandoning Jin. Not to mention Yin Hao's efforts to encourage him in that regard!

Considering that Zhang Yu controlled Xuchang and Yingchuan, how could he have beared to submit to the control of another? It was only that Fu Xiong, pressing his victory over Jin, was able to compel Zhang Yu and his people to move, and Zhang Yu's submission to the Fu clan spelled his doom!


夏四月,安西將軍謝尚帥姚襄與張遇戰于許昌之誡橋,王師敗績。苻健使其弟雄襲遇,虜之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, the General Who Maintains The West, Xie Shang, led Yao Xiang to fight Zhang Yu at Jieqiao in Xuchang, but the royal army was defeated. Fu Jiàn sent his younger brother Fu Xiong to raid Zhang Yu, and Fu Xiong captured him.

健至自宜秋,遣雄、菁率眾掠關東,並援石季龍豫州刺史張遇于許昌,與晉鎮西將軍謝尚戰于潁水之上,王師敗績。雄乘勝逐北,至於壘門,殺傷太半,遂虜遇及其眾歸於長安,拜遇司空、豫州刺史,鎮許昌。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

When Fu Jiàn returned from his campaign against Zhang Ju at Yiqiu, he sent Fu Xiong and Fu Jing with an army to pillage Guandong, and to assist Shi Hu's former Inspector of Yuzhou, Zhang Yu, who was at Xuchang. They fought Jin's General Who Guards The West, Xie Shang, at the Ying River, and the Jin army was defeated. Fu Xiong led his victorious soldiers north; by the time they'd reached the gates of the rampart, they'd killed or wounded more than half. They then compelled Zhang Yu and his soldiers to come back with them to Chang'an. Zhang Yu was appointed as Minister over the Masses and Inspector of Yuzhou, and charged with guarding Xuchang.


趙故西中郎將王擢遣使請降;拜擢秦州刺史。

24. Zhao's former General of the Household of the West, Wang Zhuo, offered his submission to Jin; he was appointed as Inspector of Qinzhou.

王擢自石虎時當秦、隴之任。

Wang Zhuo had served Later Zhao in the Qin and Long regions since Shi Hu's reign.


秋七月,石季龍故將王擢遣使請降,拜征西將軍、秦州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the seventh month, Shi Hu's former general Wang Zhuo sent notice asking to surrender to Jin, and he was appointed as General Who Conquers The West and Inspector of Qinzhou.


丁酉,以武陵王晞為太宰。

25. On the day Dingyou (August 6th), Jin's Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Grand Governor.

丁酉,以鎮軍大將軍、武陵王晞爲太宰,撫軍大將軍、會稽王昱爲司徒,征西大將軍桓溫爲太尉。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

On the day Dingyou (August 6th), the Grand General Who Guards The Army and Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Grand Governor. The Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses. The Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, was appointed as Grand Commandant.

八年,進位司徒,固讓不拜。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), Sima Yu was promoted as Minister Over The Masses, but he declined and would not accept the title.


丙辰,燕王俊如中山。

26. On the day Bingchen (August 25th), Murong Jun returned to Zhongshan.

王午聞魏敗,時鄧恆已死,午自稱安國王。八月,戊辰,燕王俊遣慕容恪、封弈、陽騖攻之,午閉城自守,送冉操詣燕軍;燕人掠其禾稼而還。

27. At Lukou, Wang Wu heard that Wei had been all but conquered. By this time, Deng Heng had already passed away. So Wang Wu declared himself the King of Anguo.

In the eighth month, on the day Wuchen (September 6th), Murong Jun sent Murong Ke, Feng Yi, and Yang Wu to attack Wang Wu. Wang Wu closed the city gates and prepared to hold out, and he handed over Ran Min’s son Ran Cao, who had fled to Lukou, to the Yan army. The Yan soldiers gathered up the grain from the nearby fields before leaving.

慕容恪善用兵,知魯口之未可取,徒久攻以斃士卒,故掠其禾稼,全師而退。金城湯池,非粟不守,孤城之外,春取其麥而秋取其禾,彼將焉仰哉!

Murong Ke was an expert at using soldiers. He knew that Lukou could not be taken yet, and to force the issue would only result in the deaths of his soldiers, so he merely made a raid to harvest all the grain and cereals, and then led all his soldiers back intact. Even a fortress made of gold with a moat of boiling water cannot be held if it runs out of grain. Since the city was on its own, the Yan soldiers were free to take the millet in the spring and take the grain in the autumn. The enemy would soon be forced to submit!


庚午,魏長水校尉馬願等開鄴城納燕兵,戴施、蔣干懸縋而下,奔於倉垣。慕容評送魏後董氏、太子智、太尉申鐘、司空條枚等及乘輿服御於薊。尚書令王簡、左僕射張乾、右僕射郎肅皆自殺。燕王俊詐雲董氏得傳國璽獻之,賜號奉璽君,賜冉智爵海賓侯。以申鐘為大將軍右長史。命慕容評鎮鄴。

28. On the day Gengwu (September 8th), Wei's Colonel of the Chang River Regiment, Ma Yuan, and others opened the gates of Ye and welcomed in the Yan army. Dai Shi and Jiang Gan hung ropes over the sides of the walls and so escaped, fleeing to Cangyuan.

Murong Ping sent the Empress of Wei, Lady Dong, the Crown Prince, Ran Zhi, the Grand Commandant, Shen Zhong, the Minister of Works, Tiao Mei, and others who had been taken captive, as well as all the royal carriages and articles of clothing, back to Ji. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Jian, the Deputy Director of the Left, Zhang Qian, and the Deputy Director of the Right, Lang Su, all killed themselves.

Murong Jun, falsely proclaiming that Lady Dong had given the Imperial Seal to Yan, gave her the title of Lady Fengxi ("the Lady who Presented the Seal"), and appointed Ran Zhi as Marquis of Haibin. Shen Zhong was appointed as Chief Clerk of the Right to the Grand General. Murong Ping was stationed at Ye.

【嚴:「枚」改「攸」。】條,姓也。周亞夫封條侯,其後以爲氏。

(枚 Tiao Mei's surname should be 攸 Tiao You.

條 Tiao is a surname. Zhou Yafu had been appointed Marquis of Tiao, and his descendants took this as their clan name.)


九月,冉智爲其將馬願所執,降于慕容恪。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the ninth month, Ran Zhi was arrested by his general Ma Yuan, and he surrendered to Murong Ke.

八月,長水校尉馬願、龍驤將軍田香、開門降評。蔣幹懸縋而下,奔於倉垣。評送閔后董氏、太子智、大尉申鐘及諸王公卿于薊。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

In the eighth month, the Colonel of the Chang River Regiment, Ma Yuan, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Tian Xiang, opened the gates and surrendered to Murong Ping. Jiang Gan climbed down the walls on ropes and fled to Cangyuan. Murong Ping sent Ran Min's Empress, Lady Dong, the Crown Prince, Ran Zhi, the Grand Commandant, Shen Zhong, and the other princes, nobles, and chief ministers to Ji.

八月,尅鄴,輔弼評等送閔后董氏、太子智、太尉申鐘,並乘輿服物及六璽送于中山。傳國璽,蔣幹先以送晉。雋欲神其事業。言曆運在己,乃詐云:「得之。」賜閔妻號奉璽君,封冉智為海濱侯,以輔弼評為司州刺史,鎮鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the eighth month, Ye was taken. The General Who Upholds Assistance, Murong Ping, and others sent Ran Min's Empress, Lady Dong, his Crown Prince, Ran Zhi, and his Grand Commandant, Shen Zhong, to Murong Jun at Zhongshan. They also sent the imperial carriage and regalia and the six seals of state to Murong Jun.

The Imperial Hereditary Seal had already been sent to Jin by Jiang Gan. Murong Jun wished to add luster to his achievement, so he said that the Seal had passed to him, and he falsely claimed, "I have it." He appointed Ran Min's wife as Lady Fengxi ("Lady Who Presented The Seal"), and he appointed Ran Zhi as Marquis of Haibin. He appointed Murong Ping as Inspector of Sizhou, and Murong Ping was stationed at Ye.

儁克鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun captured Ye.

真後從慕容評攻拔鄴都,珍貨充溢,真一無所取,唯存恤人物,收圖籍而已。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

Huangfu Zhen later accompanied Murong Ping during his campaign against Ran Min's capital at Ye. When Murong Ping's army captured the city, there were a great many treasures and funds waiting to be plundered. But Huangfu Zhen did not take a single one of these himself; he did no more than ensure the survival and relief of worthy people and gather up the various maps and records in the archives.


桓溫使司馬勳助周撫討蕭敬文於涪城,斬之。

29. Huan Wen sent Sima Xun to assist Zhou Fu in attacking the rebel Xiao Jingwen at Fu. They killed Xiao Jingwen.

蕭敬文據涪城,始九十七卷永和三年。

Xiao Jingwen's rebellion and capture of Fu was mentioned in Book 97, in the third year of Yonghe (347.21).


八月,平西將軍周撫討蕭敬文于涪城,斬之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth month, the General Who Pacifies The West, Zhou Fu, campaigned against Xiao Jingwen at Fucheng and killed him.


謝尚自枋頭迎傳國璽至建康,百僚畢賀。

30. Xie Shang sent the Imperial Seal from Fangtou on to Jiankang, and all the officials offered their congratulations.

戴施送之,文曰「受天之命,皇帝壽昌」,百僚畢賀。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Dai Shi sent the Imperial Seal to Jiankang. The Seal had the words "Accepting the mandate from Heaven, May the Emperor live long and prosper" on it. The officials all offered their congratulations.


秦以雷弱兒為大司馬,毛貴為太尉,張遇為司空。

31. In Qin, Lei Ruo’er was appointed as Grand Marshal, Mao Gui was appointed as Grand Commandant, and Zhang Yu was named as Minister of Works.

殷浩之北伐也,中軍將軍王羲之以書止之,不聽。既而無功,復謀再舉。羲之遺浩書曰:「今以區區江左,天下寒心,固已久矣。力爭武功,非所當作。自頃處內外之任者,未有深謀遠慮,而疲竭根本,各從所志,竟無一功可論,遂令天下將有土崩之勢。任其事者,豈得辭四海之責哉!今軍破於外,資竭於內,保淮之志,非所復及,莫若還保長江,督將各處復舊鎮。自長江以外,羈縻而已。引咎責躬,更為善治,省其賦役,與民更始,庶可以救倒懸之急也!使君起於布衣,任天下之重,當董統之任,而敗喪至此,恐闔朝群賢未有與人分其謗者。若猶以前事為未工,故復求之分外,宇宙雖廣,自容何所!此愚智所不解也。」

32. When Yin Hao had originally proposed his northern campaign, the General of the Center Army, Wang Xizhi, advised against it, but Yin Hao ignored him. The first campaign having come to nothing, Yin Hao now advocated for another attempt.

Wang Xizhi wrote to Yin Hao stating, "Nowadays, we only have this small piece of land in the Southland. The realm has been disappointed in us for a long time. To keep exerting oneself in order to gain military glory is really not the thing to do.

“These days, none of the ministers, whether responsible for either external and internal affairs, have thought things through and planned ahead; instead, they have exhausted the resources that we must use as a foundation. Each fellow had their own ambitions, but none of them was able to realize anything worth mentioning, and their actions are driving the realm to the brink of collapse. How can those engaged in such action hold themselves above the blame that all within the Four Seas cast at them? Our armies have been defeated beyond the border, and our resources within are already exhausted.

“We can no more hold on to the desire to protect the lands south of the Huai River. Far better to guard the line of the Yangzi, and command every general to return to defend their old command posts. Let our vassals deal with matters beyond the Yangzi. Let all the officers reflect on their faults, and turn to good administration. Lighten the burden of taxes and corvee labor, and make a fresh start with the people. Only then may we rescue the people from their dire straits!

"Commissioner, you began as a commoner, and were then entrusted with the great task of upholding the realm. Though you were given the task of supervising and commanding the army, you suffered such an embarrassing defeat. I fear none of the worthies of the court will step out to share your blame. If you keep thinking that you did not do a good job before and thus you should keep pressing to do things beyond your position, no matter how vast the universe is, you will find no place that will accept you. This is what my limited mind cannot understand."

寒心者,恐不能自保。言殷浩不得辭其責也。保江之說,此王導佐元帝之規摹。世之議者,譏其忘讎忍恥,置中原於度外。若以量時度力、保固本根言之,此策未爲非也。至於引咎責躬,省民賦役,所謂善敗不亡;諸葛孔明街亭喪師之後,正亦如是而已。其後殷浩廢黜,卒如羲之之言。

The people were disappointed because they feared that Jin would not be able to protect itself.

Wang Xizhi means that Yin Hao cannot deflect the blame from himself.

Guarding the line of the Yangzi was the same principle that Wang Dao had proposed to Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui). Among the people discussing things during that time, there were many who mocked this as forgetting about their enemy and enduring a shameful state of affairs, that they should simply abandon the Central Plains. But such a plan as this has never yet failed when the policy is to abide for a time and gather strength, and provide a firm foundation for future actions. If, having suffered a defeat, one accepts personal blame for the loss, and spares the people from taxes and corvee labor, then one may ensure that defeat does not become destruction. This was the same policy which Zhuge Kongming followed after he came to grief at Jieting (Fang's Chronicles, 228.17).

Yin Hao's later removal from power turned out just as Wang Xizhi here predicted.


又與會稽王昱箋曰:「為人臣者誰不願尊其主比隆前世!況遇難得之運哉!顧力有所不及,豈不可不權輕重而處之也!今雖有可喜之會,內求諸己,而所憂乃重於所喜。功未可期,遺黎殲盡,勞役無時,徵求日重,以區區吳、越經緯天下十分之九,不亡何待!而不度德量力,不弊不己,此封內所痛心歎悼而莫敢吐誠者也。『往者不可諫,來者猶可追。』願殿下更垂三思,先為不可勝之基,鬚根立勢舉,謀之未晚。若不行,恐糜鹿之遊,將不止林藪而已!願殿下暫廢虛遠之懷,以救倒懸之急,可謂以亡為存,轉禍為福也。」不從。

33. Wang Xizhi also wrote to Sima Yu, stating, "What minister does not wish to honor his lord and help him achieve the grandeur comparable to the former ages? Let alone when a rare opportunity presents itself? But our strength is not yet sufficient to do so. How can you not weigh the pros and cons when handling such a situation? Although the current prospect of doing so is very pleasing, when we examine ourselves, even so the concerns must outweigh the joy. There is no way of knowing when the great achievement may be accomplished, and most of the remnant peoples of the former rule have been killed.

“Yet we are incessantly pressing labor demands upon the people, and we are drafting men day after day. We are trying to use the meager lands of Wu and Yue to contend with nine-tenths of the realm—how is this not a recipe for disaster? We have not taken honest stock of our limits, and are refusing to stop until we are destroyed. This is the thing that all in our lands lament, but dare not voice honestly.

“It has been said, 'as to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided against.' I ask that Your Highness reconsider, and first 'put us in a position where we cannot be defeated'. Once our power has grown, then it will not be too late to plan an offensive. But if you do otherwise, I fear that nothing but ruins will be left of our state, and 'the wandering paths of the deer shall not be confined to the woods and haunts'! I ask that Your Highness put aside your 'vacuous and distant delights', and focus on rescuing the people from their plight. Thus may we exchange life for death, and turn calamity into fortune."

But neither Yin Hao nor Sima Yu listened to his advice.

《論語》載楚狂接輿之言。《兵法》曰:先爲不可勝以待敵之可勝。吳伍子胥曰:「臣恐麋鹿游於姑蘇。」此祖其意而微其言。澤無水曰藪。羲之此言,蓋譏昱好談清虛玄遠也。

Wang Xizhi quotes from the Analects, from the words the madman of Chu, Jie Yu, said to Confucius (18.5).

The Art of War states, "The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy." (4.1)

Wu Zixiu of Wu once said, "I fear that the deer will wander through Gusu." (That is, they would feel free to wander there because the region would be in ruins after the fall of the state.) This was the same idea that Wang Xizhi was expressing here. A marsh without rivers is called a 藪 "haunt".

By "vacuous and distant delights", Wang Xizhi refers to Sima Yu's skill at the practiced disinterest and aloofness of Pure Conversation (a popular rhetorical and mystical interest of the time).


九月,浩屯泗口,遣河南太守戴施據石門,滎陽太守劉遯據倉垣。浩以軍興,罷遣太學生徒,學校由此遂廢。

34. In the ninth month, Yin Hao camped at Sikou. He sent the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, to capture Shimen, while the Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Dun, was tasked with capturing Cangyuan.

For the purpose of supplying the army, Yin Hao sent away the Imperial Academy students, and the school was thus closed down.

元帝建武元年,始立太學,今復以軍興廢。

The Imperial Academy had been established in Emperor Yuan's first year of Jianwu (317), but was now closed down as a drain on the army.


中軍將軍殷浩帥衆北伐,次泗口,遣河南太守戴施據石門,滎陽太守劉遂戍倉垣。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

The General of the Center Army, Yin Hao, led his troops on a northern campaign. He marched to Sikou, while sending the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, to occupy Shimen and sending the Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Sui, to occupy Cangyuan.


冬,十月,謝尚遣冠軍將軍王俠攻許昌,克之。秦豫州刺史楊群退屯弘農。征尚為給事中,戍石頭。

35. In winter, the tenth month, Xie Shang sent the Champion General, Wang Xia, to attack Xuchang, and Wang Xia took it. Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou, Yang Qun, retreated to camp at Hongnong. Xie Shang was promoted to 給事中, and he camped at Shitou.

丁卯,燕王俊還薊。

36. On the day Dingmao (November 4th), Murong Jun returned to Ji.

故趙將擁兵據州郡者,各遣使降燕;燕王俊以王擢為益州刺史,夔逸為秦州刺史,張平為并州刺史,李歷為兗州刺史,高昌為安西將軍,劉寧為車騎將軍。

37. Many of the former Zhao generals who still commanded troops and controlled provinces or commandaries began submitting to Yan. Murong Jun appointed Wang Zhuo as Inspector of Yizhou, and appointed Kui Yi as Inspector of Qinzhou; Zhang Ping was named Inspector of Bingzhou, Li Shi was made Inspector of Yanzhou, Gao Chang was named General Who Maintains the West, and Liu Ning was appointed General of Chariots and Cavalry.

慕容恪屯安平,積糧,治攻具,將討王午。丙戌,中山蘇林起兵於無極,自稱天子;恪自魯口還討林。閏月,戊子,燕王俊遣廣威將軍慕輿根助恪攻林,斬之。王午為其將秦興所殺。呂護殺興,復自稱安國王。

38. Murong Ke was camped at Anping, gathering grain and building siege engines, preparing to attacking Wang Wu.

But on the day Bingxu (?), a native of Zhongshan named Su Lin rose up with troops at Wuji and proclaimed himself the Son of Heaven. Murong Ke returned from Lukou to put down this uprising. In the intercalary month, on the day Wuzi (?), Murong Jun sent the General Who Spreads Might, Muyu Gen, to assist Murong Ke in attacking Su Lin, and together they killed him.

Wang Wu was killed by his general Qin Xing. Lü Hu then killed Qin Xing, and proclaimed himself the King of Anguo.

安平縣,前漢屬涿郡,後漢安平國,晉屬博陵郡,唐屬深州。無極縣,漢屬中山國,晉省。「無」,本作「毋」。唐武后萬歲通天二年,始改「毋」字爲「無」;此當作「毋」。

During Former Han, Anping county was part of Zhuo commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Anping princely fief. During Jin, it was part of Boling commandary. During Tang, it was part of Shenzhou.

During Han, Wuji county was part of Zhongshan commandary, but Jin abolished it. The name of the county is written here as 無極, but the 無 Wu was originally 毋 Wu. In Empress Wu (Zetian) of Tang's second year of Wansuitongtian (697), the 毋 character was changed to 無. Strictly speaking, in the text here it should still be written 毋.


燕群僚共上尊號於燕王俊,俊許之。十一月,丁卯,始置百官,以國相封弈為太尉,左長史陽騖為尚書令,右司馬皇甫真為尚書左僕射,典書令張悕為右僕射;其餘文武,拜授有差。戊辰,俊即皇帝位,大赦。自謂獲傳國璽,改元元璽。追尊武宣王為高祖武宣皇帝,文明王為太祖文明皇帝。時晉使適至燕,俊謂曰:「汝還,白汝天子:我承人乏,為中國所推,已為帝矣!」改司州為中州,建留台於龍都,以玄菟太守乙逸為尚書,專委留務。

39. Yan's ministers and generals jointly petitioned that Murong Jun should proclaim himself as Emperor. Murong Jun assented.

In the eleventh month, on the day Dingmao (January 3rd of 353), Murong Jun first began employing the imperial offices. The Chancellor of State, Feng Yi, was appointed as Grand Commandant; the Chief Clerk of the Left, Yang Wu, was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing; the Marshal of the Right, Huangfu Zhen, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing; the Prefect of the Directors of Writing, Zhang Xi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right. Many other civil and military ranks were given out as well.

On the day Wuchen (January 4th of 353), Murong Jun officially assumed the imperial title, and a general amnesty was declared. Proclaiming that he had received the Imperial Seal, Murong Jun changed the reign era title to Yuanxi. He elevated the posthumous titles of his father and grandfather. Murong Hui, who had been Prince Wuxuan, became Emperor Wuxuan with the temple name Gaozu; Murong Huang, who had been Prince Wenming, became Emperor Wenming with the temple name Taizu.

At that time, envoys from Jin had arrived in Yan. Murong Jun said to them, "Return and tell your Son of Heaven that, because of our suffering here and after the acclamation of the Middle Kingdom, I have become the Emperor!"

He changed the name of Sizhou (the province centered on Ye) to Zhongzhou, and established a Provisional Administration at Longdu. The Administrator of Xuantu, Yi Yi, was appointed as a Master of Writing, and charged with directing a committee of affairs.

廆諡武宣王,皝諡文明王。謂中國無主,己爲士民所推,遂承人乏而卽尊位也。趙置司州於鄴。燕初都龍城,時遷于薊,故建留臺於龍城,謂之龍都。

(Murong Hui's posthumous title was Prince Wuxuan, and Murong Huang's posthumous title was Prince Wenming.

Murong Jun's remark meant that since the Middle Kingdom currently lacked a ruler, and at the urging of the people, he sought to fill the missing role by assuming the imperial title himself.

Zhao had created the province Sizhou around Ye. Yan's capital was originally at Longcheng. By this time they had moved it to Ji, but the Provisional Administration was built at Longcheng, and that is why it was also called Longdu (都 du meaning "capital").


夏四月,儁僭帝號于中山,稱燕。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), in summer, the fourth month, Murong Jun declared himself Emperor at Zhongshan, calling his state Yan.

十五年,慕容儁僭尊號。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fifteenth year of Jianguo (352), Murong Jun declared himself Emperor.

雋稱尊,追尊武宣帝,廟號高祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Hui)

When Murong Jun declared himself Emperor, he posthumously honored Murong Hui as Emperor Wuxuan, with the temple name Gaozu.

輔國奕等二百一十人勸稱尊號、令曰:「非常之事,匪寡德所宜聞也。」...十月,輔國恪等五百五人奉皇帝璽。十一月,僭即皇帝位於正陽前殿,大赦改年,時晉遣使詣雋,謂之曰:「還白汝天子,我承人乏,為中國所推,已為帝矣。」庚午,書曰:「追崇祖考,古人之令典。」尊武宣王為高祖武宣皇帝,文明王為太祖文明皇帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

Two hundred and ten Yan officials, including the Chancellor of State, Feng Yi, urged Murong Jun to declare himself Emperor. Murong Jun ordered, "Even bandits and those of scant virtue should hear of such an extraordinary event."

In the tenth month, fifty-five officials of Yan, including Feng Yi, presented the imperials seals of office to Murong Jun. In the eleventh month, Murong Jun declared himself Emperor in the front hall of the Zhengyang Palace. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title.

At this time, Jin had sent envoys to visit Murong Jun. He told them, "Return and tell your Son of Heaven that, because of our suffering here and after the acclaimation of the Middle Kingdom, I have become the Emperor."

On the day Gengwu (January 6th of 353), Murong Jun decreed, "According to the ordinances and canons of the ancients, one should be filial and posthumously honor one's ancestors." So he posthumously honored Prince Wuxuan (Murong Hui) as Emperor Wuxuan with the temple name Gaozu, and he posthumously honored Prince Wenming (Murong Huang) as Emperor Wenming with the temple name Taizu.

建國十五年,儁僭稱皇帝,置百官,號年元璽,國稱大燕,郊祀天地。十六年,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the fifteenth year of Jianguo (352), Murong Jun declared himself Emperor. He created the imperial offices, declared a reign era title of Yuanxi, named his state Great Yan, and established suburban sacrifices to Heaven and Earth.

In the sixteenth year (353), he sent envoys to the Dai court offering tribute.


秦丞相雄攻王擢於隴西,擢奔涼州,雄還屯隴東。張重華以擢為征虜將軍、秦州刺史,特寵待之。

40. Fu Xiong attacked Wang Zhuo at Longxi. Wang Zhuo fled to Liangzhou, and Fu Xiong returned to camp at Longdong. Zhang Chonghua appointed Wang Zhuo as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Qinzhou, and treated him with special favor.

隴東,漢汧縣地。重華寵待王擢以圖秦、隴,豈知擢非苻雄之敵也。

Longdong was Han's Qian county.

Zhang Chonghua treated Wang Zhuo well because he had designs on the Qin and Long regions. Little did he know that Wang Zhuo was no match for Fu Xiong.


冬十月,秦州刺史王擢爲苻健所逼,奔于涼州。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the tenth month, the Inspector of Qinzhou, Wang Zhuo, was threatened by Fu Jiàn and so fled to Liangzhou.

是時石季龍西中郎將王擢屯結隴上,為苻雄所破,奔重華。重華厚寵之,以為征虜將軍、秦州刺史、假節. (Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Chonghua)

At this time, Shi Hu's General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Wang Zhuo, was stationed at Longshang. He was driven away by Fu Xiong, so he fled to Zhang Chonghua. Zhang Chonghua received him and treated him well, and appointed him as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Credential Holder.

雄攻王擢於隴上,擢奔涼州,雄屯隴東。張重華拜擢征東大將軍。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Xiong attacked Wang Zhuo at Longshang, and Wang Zhuo fled to Liangzhou, while Fu Xiong camped at Longdong. Zhang Chonghua appointed Wang Zhuo as Grand General Who Conquers The East.
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:59 pm

永和九年(癸丑,公元三五三年)

The Ninth Year of Yonghe (The Guichou Year, 353 AD)


春,正月,乙卯朔,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yimao (February 20th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

九年春正月乙卯朔,大赦。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the ninth year of Yonghe (353), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yimao (February 20th), a general amnesty was declared.


二月,庚子,燕王俊立其妃可足渾氏為皇后,世子曄為皇太子,皆自龍城遷於薊宮。

2. In the second month, on the day Gengzi (April 6th), Murong Jun honored his concubine, Lady Kezuhun, as Empress, and made his son by her, Murong Wei, his Crown Prince. They moved from Longcheng to the palaces at Ji.

爲可足渾后亂燕張本。可足渾,北方三字姓。

This was why Empress Kezuhun was later able to cause trouble for Former Yan. 可足渾 Kezuhun is a three-character surname from the north.


二年正月,立后可足渾氏為皇后。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the second year of Yuanxi (353), the first month, Murong Jun honored Lady Kezuhun as his Empress.


張重華遣將軍張弘、宋修會王擢帥騎萬五千伐秦。秦丞相雄、衛將軍菁拒之,大敗涼兵於龍黎,斬首萬二千級,虜張弘、宋修,王擢棄秦州,奔姑臧。秦主健以領軍將軍苻願為秦州刺史,鎮上邽。

3. Zhang Chonghua sent his generals Zhang Hong and Song Xiu to link up with Wang Zhuo; together, they lead fifteen thousand cavalry to attack Qin. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing defended against them, and greatly defeated the Liangzhou soldiers at Longli, killing twelve thousand of them and capturing Zhang Hong and Song Xiu. Wang Zhuo abandoned Qinzhou, fleeing to Guzang. Fu Jiàn appointed the General Who Leads The Army, Fu Yuan, as Inspector of Qinzhou, stationed at Shanggui.

《新唐書‧地理志》:隴州吳山縣有龍盤府、龍盤城。吳山,後魏之南由縣地。疑龍黎卽龍盤也。

Regarding Longli, the Geographical Records in the New Book of Tang states, "Longpan Garrison and Longpan City are in Wushan county in Longzhou. This Wushan county was Northern Zhou's Nanyou county." I (Hu Sanxing) suspect that the Longli mentioned in this passage is the same place as Longpan.


九年春正月,張重華使王擢與苻健將苻雄戰,擢師敗績。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the ninth year of Yonghe (353), in spring, the first month, Zhang Chonghua sent Wang Zhuo to attack Fu Jiàn's general Fu Xiong, but Wang Zhuo's army was defeated.

使張弘、宗悠率步騎萬五千配擢,伐苻健。健遣苻碩禦之,戰于龍黎。擢等大敗,單騎而還,弘、悠皆沒。重華痛之,素服為戰亡吏士舉哀號慟,各遣吊問其家。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Chonghua)

Zhang Chonghua sent Zhang Hong and Zong You to lead fifteen thousand horse and foot to join with Wang Zhuo in a campaign against Fu Jiàn. Fu Jiàn sent Fu Shuo to oppose them, and they fought at Longli. Wang Zhuo and the others were greatly defeated; he himself fled alone on horseback, while Zhang Hong and Zong You were both lost. Zhang Chonghua was in great sorrow for these losses; he put on mourning clothes and held mourning rites for those men and officers lost in the battle, and he sent condolences and asked after all of their families.

張重華使與其將張弘、宋修連兵伐雄。雄與菁率眾擊敗之,獲弘、修送長安。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Zhang Chonghua sent Wang Zhuo with Zhang Hong and Song Xiu to attack Fu Xiong. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing led their men and attacked and defeated this army, capturing Zhang Hong and Song Xiu and sending them to Chang'an.


三月,交州刺史阮敷討林邑,破五十餘壘。

4. In the third month, Jin’s Inspector of Jiaozhou, Ruan Fu, attacked Lâm Ấp, taking more than fifty fortified places.

三月,交州刺史阮敷討林邑范佛于日南,破其五十餘壘。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the third month, the Inspector of Jiaozhou, Ruan Fu, campaigned against Phạm Phật of Lâm Ấp in Nhật Nam, taking more than fifty of his fortified places.


趙故衛尉常山李犢聚眾數千人叛燕。

5. Zhao's former Commandant of the Guards, Li Du of Changshan, gathered together several thousand men and rebelled against Yan.

西域胡劉康詐稱劉曜子,聚眾於平陽,自稱晉王;夏,四月,秦左衛將軍苻飛討擒之。

6. Among the tribesmen of the Western Reaches, a man named Liu Kang falsely claimed that he was the son of the Han-Zhao emperor Liu Yao. He gathered troops at Pingyang and proclaimed himself the King of Jin.

In summer, the fourth month, Qin's Guard General of the Left, Fu Fei, campaigned against Liu Kang and captured him.

以安西將軍謝尚為尚書僕射。

7. Jin’s General Who Maintains the West, Xie Shang, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

夏四月,以安西將軍謝尚爲尚書僕射。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, the General Who Maintains the West, Xie Shang, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.


五月,張重華復使王擢帥眾二萬伐上邽,秦州郡縣多應之;苻願戰敗,奔長安。重華因上疏請伐秦。詔進重華涼州牧。

8. In the fifth month, Zhang Chonghua again sent Wang Zhuo with twenty thousand men to attack Shanggui. Many of the counties and commandaries of Qinzhou went over to him. Fu Yuan attacked Wang Zhuo, but was defeated in battle, and fled back to Chang'an.

Zhang Chonghua then sent a petition to Jin asking for a campaign against Qin. The Jin court appointed Zhang Chonghua as Governor of Liangzhou.

五月,張重華復使王擢襲秦州,取之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fifth month, Zhang Chonghua once again sent Wang Zhuo to invade Qinzhou, and Wang Zhuo obtained it.

復授擢兵,使攻秦州,克之。遣使上疏曰:「季龍自斃,遺燼遊魂,取亂侮亡,睹機則發。臣今遣前都鋒督裴恆步騎七萬,遙出隴上,以俟聖朝赫然之威。山東騷擾不足厝懷,長安膏腴,宜速平蕩。臣守任西荒,山川悠遠,大誓六軍,不及聽受之末;猛將鷹揚,不豫告成之次,瞻雲望日,孤憤義傷,彈劍慷慨,中情蘊結。」於是康獻皇后詔報,遣使進重華為涼州牧。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Chonghua)

Zhang Chonghua again assigned troops to Wang Zhuo, and sent him to attack Qinzhou, which Wang Zhuo took.

Zhang Chonghua then sent a messenger to the Jin court with this petition: "Shi Hu is no more; his ghost wanders through the ashes of his land, where chaos reigns and might makes right. In this situation, one sees an opportunity to act. I am now on the point of sending my Vanguard Commander, Pei Heng, to march with seventy thousand horse and foot out of this distant place beyond the Long Mountains to go to the former capital (Chang'an), and I only await the majestic might of the heavenly court. The lands east of the mountains (east of Luoyang) are disturbed, and not a sufficient place to make a home of, while Chang'an is a rich and fertile place; it should quickly be pacified and swept clear. I hold my current post in the western wastes, in mountains and rivers distant and remote. Even if I were to swear a great oath declaring my intentions before the six armies, that would still be inferior to hearing and accepting an imperial command; my valiant generals are of hawkish display, but they have not yet heard report of this success. I gaze up at the clouds, hoping to see the sun; stirred up by the wound to righteousness, I grasp my sword with passion and determination, with my inner feelings about to burst."

Upon receiving this petition, Empress Dowager Kangxian (Chu Suanzi) sent back an edict in response, advancing Zhang Chonghua to the rank of Governor of Liangzhou.


燕主俊遣衛將軍恪討李犢,犢降,遂東擊呂護於魯口。

9. Murong Jun sent his Guard General, Murong Ke, to campaign against the rebel Li Du. Li submitted, and Murong Ke returned east to resume his attack against Lü Hu at Lukou.

六月,秦苻飛攻氐王楊初於仇池,為初所敗。丞相雄、平昌王菁帥步騎四萬屯於隴東。

10. In the sixth month, the Qin general Fu Fei attacked the Di ruler of Chouchi, Yang Chu, but he was defeated by Yang Chu. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing brought forty thousand horse and foot to camp at Longdong.

楊初據險以拒秦,秦兵雖強,故爲初所敗。

Yang Chu held the passes against Qin. Although the Qin soldiers were strong, this is why they were defeated by Yang Chu.


五月,仇池公楊初爲苻雄所敗。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fifth month, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu, was defeated by Fu Xiong.


秦主健納張遇繼母韓氏為昭儀,數於眾中謂遇曰:「卿,吾假子也。」遇恥之,因雄等精兵在外,陰結關中豪傑,欲滅苻氏,以其地來降。秋,七月,遇與黃門劉晁謀夜襲健,晃約開門以待之。會健使晃出外,晃固辭,不得已而行。遇不知,引兵至門,門不開。事覺,伏誅。於是孔持起池陽,劉珍、夏侯顯起鄠,喬秉起雍,胡陽赤起司竹,呼延毒起灞城,眾數萬人,各遣使來請兵。

11. It was earlier mentioned that, after Qin had sent reinforcements to Xuchang to reinforce the general Zhang Yu against Yin Hao’s army, Zhang Yu had been brought back to Guanzhong with the Qin army.

Fu Jiàn took Zhang Yu's stepmother, Lady Han, as one of his consorts. In the midst of the ministers, he would often say to Zhang Yu, "It seems you are now my stepson as well." Zhang Yu was insulted by this. So since Fu Xiong and the other generals currently had their elite troops far away at Longdong, Zhang Yu plotted to recruit men from the nearby areas in Guanzhong and then suddenly snuff out the Fu clan, before offering up the land in submission to Jin.

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhang Yu plotted with the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Liu Chao, to secretly attack Fu Jiàn at night. Liu Chao agreed that when the time came, he would open the city gate to let Zhang Yu's troops in. But then Fu Jiàn suddenly ordered Liu Chao to move to a distant assignment, and although Liu Chao protested, he had no choice but to go. Zhang Yu, unaware of this development, led his troops to the gate, but the gate would not open. The plot being discovered, Zhang Yu was caught and executed.

This led to further uprisings; Kong Te rose up at Chiyang, Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian rose up at Hu, Qiao Bing rose up at Yong, Huyang Chi rose up at Sizhu, and Huyan Du rose up at Bacheng. Altogether they had some tens of thousands of men, and each sent messengers to Jin to ask for troops.

【嚴:「持」改「特」。】池陽縣,漢屬馮翊,晉屬扶風,唐爲雲陽縣,屬京兆。鄠縣,漢屬扶風,晉屬始平郡,唐屬京兆。雍縣,漢屬扶風,唐改爲天興縣,爲鳳翔府治所。霸陵縣,漢屬京兆,晉改曰霸城。「喬秉」,《載記》作「喬景」,避唐諱也。「孔持」,作「孔特」。鄠,音戶。

(Kong 持 Te's given name should be 特 Chi.

During Han, Chiyang county was part of Pingyi. During Jin, it was part of Fufeng. During Tang, it was known as Yunyang county, as part of Jingzhao.

During Han, Hu county (鄠 being pronounced "hu") was part of Fufeng. During Jin, it was part of Shiping commandary, and during Tang, it was part of Jingzhao.

During Han, Yong county was part of Fufeng. Tang renamed it to Tianxing county, and it was administered by the Fengxiang Garrison.

During Han, Baling county was part of Jingzhao. Jin changed its name to Bacheng.

The rebel here listed as 喬秉 Qiao Bing is listed in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin as 喬景 Qiao Jing. This was to avoid a taboo name in effect during Tang (when the Book of Jin was written). And 孔持 Kong Chi has been changed to 孔特 Kong Te.


初,張遇自許昌來降,健納遇後母韓氏為昭儀,每於眾中謂遇曰:「卿,吾子也。」遇慚恨,引關中諸將欲以雍州歸順,乃與健中黃門劉晃謀夜襲健,事覺,遇害。於是孔特起池陽,劉珍、夏侯顯起鄠,喬景起雍,胡陽赤起司竹,呼延毒起霸城,眾數萬人,並遣使詣征西桓溫、中軍殷浩請救。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Earlier, when Zhang Yu had come from Xuchang and surrendered, Fu Jiàn took his stepmother Lady Han as one of his concubines. He would often say to Zhang Yu in the midst of the ministers, "Sir, you are also my son." Zhang Yu was ashamed and resented this, and so he secretly gained the allegiance of many Guanzhong generals, and plotted with Fu Jian the Elder's eunuch Liu Guang to launch a night attack against him. But the plot became known, and Zhang Yu was killed.

This caused Kong Te to rise in Chiyang, Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian to rise at Hu, Qiao Jing to rise at Yong, Huyang Chi to rise at Sizhu, and Huyan Du to rise at Bacheng. The rebels were many tens of thousands in all, and they sent requests to Jin's General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, and General of the Central Army, Yin Hao, to come and aid them.


秦以左僕射魚遵為司空。

12. Qin's Deputy Director of the Left, Yu Zun, was appointed as Minister of Works.

九月,秦丞相雄帥眾二萬還長安,遣平昌王菁略定上洛,置荊州於豐陽川,以步兵校尉金城郭敬為刺史。雄與清河王法、苻飛分討孔持等。

13. In the ninth month, Fu Xiong led twenty thousand troops back to Chang'an, and sent Fu Jing to keep peace at Shangluo. A new Jingzhou province under Qin authority was organized around Fengyangchuan, and the Colonel of Infantry, Guo Jing of Jincheng, was appointed as Inspector there.

Fu Xiong, Fu Fei, and the Prince of Qinghe, Fu Fa, each campaigned against Kong Te and the other rebels.

上洛縣,漢西都屬弘農郡,東漢屬京兆,武帝泰始二年,分置上洛郡,豐陽川在郡界。《續漢志》,南陽郡析縣有豐陽城,後魏太安二年,置豐陽縣,《左傳》所謂「司馬起豐析」,卽其地。劉昫曰:唐商州豐陽縣,漢商縣地,晉分商縣置豐陽縣,因豐陽川爲名。

During Former Han, Shangluo county was part of Hongnong commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Jingzhao commandary. In Emperor Wu's second year of Taishi (266), he split it off as Shangluo commandary, and the Fengyang River was within the commandary borders.

The Continued Records of Han states, "The city of Fengyang was in Xi county in Nanyang commandary." In Northern Wei's second year of Tai'an (456), Fengyang county was formed. The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals contains the passage, "The marshal raised the people of Feng and Xi (Ai 4.2)"; this is the place it refers to. Liu Xu remarked, "Tang's Fengyang county in Shangzhou was the same as Han's Shang county. Jin split off part of Shang county and formed Fengyang county, so named because of the Fengyang River."


雄遣菁掠上洛郡,于豐陽縣立荊州,以引南金奇貨、弓竿漆蠟,通關市,來遠商,於是國用充足,而異賄盈積矣。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Xiong sent Fu Jing to pillage Shangluo commandary, and he organized a new province of Jinghou under Qin authority based around Fengyang county. In order to obtain special products from the south, like bows, rods, lacquer, and wax, he set up market exchanges. Merchants then came to visit from far away, and the state was fully supplied with its needs, as well as gaining full piles of wealth besides.


姚襄屯歷陽,以燕、秦方強,未有北伐之志,乃夾淮廣興屯田,訓厲將士。殷浩在壽春,惡其強盛,囚襄諸弟,屢遣刺客刺之,刺客皆以情告襄。安北將軍魏統卒,弟憬代領部曲。浩潛遣憬帥眾五千襲之,襄斬憬,並其眾。浩愈惡之,使龍驤將軍劉啟守譙,遷襄於梁國蠡台,表授梁國內史。

14. Yao Xiang was camped at Liyang. Since Yan and Qin were just becoming strong, he put off plans to attack northward. Instead, he established many military agricultural camps along the Huai River, and trained his soldiers.

Yin Hao was at Shouchun; he was wary of Yao Xiang's growing strength, so he imprisoned Yao Xiang’s younger brothers. He sent many assassins to kill Yao Xiang, but the assassins all respected Yao Xiang and informed him of the plot instead.

It was earlier mentioned that the Zhao general Wei Tong had defected to Jin along with his troops. He had been appointed by Jin as General Who Maintains The North. After Wei Tong passed away, his younger brother Wei Jing took command of his soldiers. Yin Hao now arranged for Wei Jing to launch a sudden attack against Yao Xiang with five thousand soldiers. But Yao Xiang killed Wei Jing, and took over his troops.

Yin Hao, now even more wary of Yao Xiang, sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Liu Qi, to defend Qiao. He ordered Yao Xiang to relocate to Litai in the Liang princely fief, appointing him as Interior Minister of Liang.

魏統來降,見上七年。司馬彪《郡國志》,睢陽縣有廬門亭,城內有高臺,甚秀廣,巍然介立,超焉獨上,謂之蠡臺。杜預曰:盧門,宋城南門也。《續述征記》曰:迴道似蠡,故謂之蠡臺。蠡,如字;若如《述征記》之說,音盧戈翻。

(Wei Tong's surrender to Jin was mentioned earlier in this book, in the seventh year (351.21).

According to Sima Biao's Records of Commandaries and Fiefs, there was a Lumen Point in Suiyang county. Within this city there was a tall terrace, very fine and broad, and towering to a majestic height; it surpassed all others. It was called Litai. Du Yu remarked, "Lumen was the southern gate of the city of Song." The 續述征記 states, "It had a winding path like a seashell, and that was why it was called Litai ('Shell Terrace')". 蠡 is pronounced like the character ("li"), although the 述征記 says it is pronounced "le (l-e)".)


揚州刺史殷浩憚其威名。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Jin's Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, feared Yao Xiang's power and reputation.

中軍將軍、揚州刺史殷浩憚其威名,乃因襄諸弟,頻遣刺客殺襄,刺客皆推誠告實,襄待之若舊。浩潛遣將軍魏憬率五千餘人襲襄,襄乃斬憬而並其眾。浩愈惡之,乃使將軍劉啟守譙,遷襄于梁國蠡台,表授梁國內史。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

The General of the Central Army and Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, feared Yao Xiang's power and reputation. So he imprisoned Yao Xiang’s younger brothers, and he sent assassins to kill Yao Xiang. But the assassins all revealed the truth about the whole situation to Yao Xiang instead, and he treated them just as before.

Yin Hao secretly sent the general Wei Jing to launch a sudden attack against Yao Xiang with more than five thousand soldiers. But Yao Xiang killed Wei Jing, and took over his troops.

Yin Hao, now even more wary of Yao Xiang, sent the general Liu Qi to defend Qiao. He ordered Yao Xiang to relocate to Litai in the Liang princely fief, appointing him as Interior Minister of Liang.


魏憬子弟數往來壽春,襄益疑懼,遣參軍權翼使於浩。浩曰:「身與姚平北共為王臣,休戚同之。平北每舉動自專,甚失輔車之理,豈所望也!」翼曰:「平北英姿絕世,擁兵數萬而遠歸晉室者,以朝廷有道,宰輔明哲故也。今將軍輕信讒慝之言,與平北有隙,愚謂猜嫌之端,在此不在彼也。」浩曰:「平北姿性豪邁,生殺自由,又縱小人掠奪吾馬。王臣之體,固若是乎?」翼曰:「平北歸命聖朝,豈肯妄殺無辜!奸宄之人,亦王法所不容也,殺之何害!」浩曰:「然則掠馬何也?」翼曰:「將軍謂平北雄武難制,終將討之,故取馬欲以自衛耳。」浩笑曰:「何至是也!」

15. Wei Jing's sons and younger brothers traveled back and forth to Shouchun. Yao Xiang became more full of fear and doubt, so he sent his Army Advisor, Quan Yi, to Shouchun to speak to Yin Hao. Yin Hao said, “General Yao and I are both royal servants, and we share weal and woe together. But General Yao keeps doing things his way. This is the carriage and the wheel-aids working against each other, and not what I was hoping for!”

Quan Yi replied, “General Yao is an unmatched hero of the ages, with tens of thousands of troops under him. The only reason why he came all this way to offer his services to the House of Jin was because he thought the court was run properly and the chief ministers were wise. Yet you, General, are so quick to believe in slanderous words, and cause this division between yourself and General Yao. In my humble view, it is you, not him, who is causing this suspicion and distrust.”

Yin Hao said, “General Yao is cavalier in his actions, killing or sparing whomever he pleases. Furthermore, he has even allowed some miscreant among his soldiers to make off with my horse. Is this how a servant of the throne should behave?”

Quan Yi replied, “Since General Yao came to pledge his loyalty to the Jin, how could he possibly kill someone who is innocent? But evildoers have no place under the law. What harm was there in killing them?”

Yin Hao said, “And as for my stolen horse?”

Quan Yi replied, “General, you have said before that General Yao is a bold and wild fellow, difficult to control. You are certainly planning to act against him someday. He was only taking a horse so that he could protect himself.”

Yin Hao said with a laugh, “Now how could that be?”

《左傳》曰:輔車相依。權翼之言,得浩之情,故笑。史言浩不能綏御新附。

(In the Zuo Commentary there is this saying: "The carriage and its wheel-aids depend on one another (Xi 5.9)".

Quan Yi had touched upon Yin Hao's true intentions, and that was why Yin Hao laughed it off.

This passage demonstrates how Yin Hao could not keep such a newly-arrived vassal appeased.)


襄遣權翼詣浩,浩曰:「姚平北每舉動自由,豈所望也。」翼曰:「將軍輕納奸言,自生疑貳,愚謂猜嫌之由,不在於彼。」浩曰:「姚君縱放小人,盜竊吾馬,王臣之體固若是乎?」翼曰:「將軍謂姚平北以威武自強,終為難保,校兵練眾,將懲不恪,取馬者欲以自衛耳。」浩曰:「何至是也。」(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang sent Quan Yi to visit Yin Hao. Yin Hao said to him, "General Yao keeps doing things his way. This is not what I was hoping for!”

Quan Yi replied, “General, you are so quick to believe in slanderous words, and that is what has led to this doubt and division between yourself and General Yao. In my humble view, it is you, not him, who is causing this suspicion and distrust.”

Yin Hao said, “Lord Yao has allowed some miscreant among his soldiers to make off with my horse. Is this how a servant of the throne should behave?”

Quan Yi replied, “General, you have said before that General Yao is a bold and wild fellow, difficult to guard against. Have you not been assembling soldiers and drilling your troops in preparation for some impropiety on his part? He was only taking a horse so that he could protect himself.”

Yin Hao said, “Now how could that be?”


初,浩陰遣人誘秦梁安、雷弱兒,使殺秦主健,許以關右之任,弱兒偽許之,且請兵應接。浩聞張遇作亂,健兄子輔國將軍黃眉自洛陽西奔,以為安等事已成。冬,十月,浩自壽春帥眾七萬北伐,欲進據洛陽,修復園陵。吏部尚書王彪之上會稽王昱箋,以為:「弱兒等容有詐偽,浩未應輕進。」不從。浩以姚襄為前驅。襄引兵北行,度浩將至,詐令部眾夜遁,陰伏甲以邀之。浩聞而追襄至山桑。襄縱兵擊之,浩大敗,棄輜重,走保譙城。襄俘斬萬餘,悉收其資仗,使兄益守山桑,襄復加淮南。會稽王昱謂王彪之曰:「君言無不中,張、陳無以過也!」

16. Earlier, Yin Hao had secretly sent agents to speak with Qin's generals Liang An and Lei Ruo’er, enticing them to kill Fu Jiàn, in exchange for being given command over Guanyou. Lei Ruo’er pretended to go along with this plot, asking Yin Hao to send troops to link up with him.

Later, when Yin Hao heard of the unrest following the matter of Zhang Yu, and learned that Fu Jiàn's nephew by one of his elder brothers, Qin's General Who Protects The State, Fu Huangmei, had left Luoyang and marched west with his army, he believed that Liang An and the others had carried out the plot.

In winter, the tenth month, Yin Hao marched from Shouchun with seventy thousand men on another northern campaign. He wished to retake Luoyang and recover the imperial tombs. Wang Biaozhi wrote to Sima Yu, stating his belief that, "Lei Ruo’er and the others have much craft among them; Yin Hao should not be so quick to advance." But this was ignored.

Yin Hao placed Yao Xiang’s forces in the vanguard. Yao Xiang marched his soldiers north; then, when Yin's army was nearby, Yao Xiang hatched a plan to feign retreat during the night, but secretly instructed his soldiers to lay ambushes. When Yin Hao learned of this, he pursued Yao Xiang to Shansang. Yao Xiang's soldiers then suddenly emerged from their ambushes to fight, and Yin Hao was greatly defeated; abandoning his supplies and luggage, he fled to Qiao to defend from there. Yao Xiang killed or captured more than ten thousand soldiers; then, after claiming the supplies and weapons that Yin Hao’s army had abandoned, he left his elder brother Yao Yi to guard Shansang while he marched south again to move back into Huainan.

Sima Yu said to Wang Biaozhi, "Everything happened just as you said. Even Zhang Liang and Chen Ping could not surpass you!"

藉使梁、雷果受浩間而殺健,浩亦未能越關、陝以取長安;其欲乘苻黃眉之去而據洛陽,不過欲以修復園陵爲功耳。昱遂以爲眞可立功,而不聽王彪之之言,宜桓溫得因以廢浩而制昱也。山桑縣,前漢屬沛郡,後漢屬汝南郡,晉屬譙郡。按山桑,六朝兵爭,爲渦陽之地,唐爲亳州蒙城縣地。

(In taking advantage of Liang An's and Lei Ruo'er's supposed killing of Fu Jiàn, Yin Hao did not intend to march through the passes and defiles and capture Chang'an. He only meant to follow in the wake of Fu Huangmei, take Luoyang for himself, and then restore the imperial tombs and gardens. Sima Yu hoped to use this accomplishment to secure himself, and that was why he did not heed Wang Biaozhi's warning. But this was why Huan Wen was able to remove Yin Hao from office and bring Sima Yu under his control.

During Former Han, Shansang county was part of Pei commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Runan commandary, and during Jin, it was part of Qiao commandary. The place in Shansang where the soldiers of the Six Dynasties fought was at Woyang. It was known as Mengcheng county in Tang's Bozhou.)


冬十月,中軍將軍殷浩進次山桑,使平北將軍姚襄爲前鋒,襄叛,反擊浩,浩棄輜重,退保譙城。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the tenth month, the General of the Central Army, Yin Hao, advanced to Shansang. He ordered the General Who Pacifies The North, Yao Xiang, to serve as his vanguard. But Yao Xiang rebelled and turned to attack Yin Hao, who abandoned his supplies and luggage and fled to guard Qiao.

殷浩遣謝萬討,襄逆擊破之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yin Hao sent Xie Wan to campaign against Yao Xiang, but Yao Xiang struck back against him and routed him.

浩遣謝萬討襄,襄逆擊破之。浩甚怒,會聞關中有變,浩率眾北伐,襄乃要擊浩于山桑,大敗之,斬獲萬計,收其資仗。使兄益守山桑壘,復如淮南。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yin Hao sent Xie Wang to campaign against Yao Xiang, but Yao Xiang struck back and routed him. This greatly angered Yin Hao. Soon, Yin Hao heard of the rebellions in Guanzhong. So he led his forces on a northern campaign. But Yao Xiang attacked Yin Hao at Shansang and greatly defeated him, killing or capturing more than ten thousand and claiming Yin Hao's supplies and equipment. Yao Xiang assigned his elder brother Yao Yi to guard the rampart at Shansang, while he returned to Huainan.


西平敬烈公張重華有疾,子曜靈才十歲,立為世子,赦其境內。重華庶兄長寧侯祚,有勇力、吏干,而傾巧善事內外,與重華嬖臣趙長、尉緝等結異姓兄弟。都尉常據請出之,重華曰:「吾方以祚為周公,使輔幼子,君是何言也!」

17. In Liangzhou, Zhang Chonghua fell ill. Although his son Zhang Yaoling was only nine years old, he was appointed as Zhang Chonghua's heir, and a general amnesty was proclaimed within Liangzhou's territory.

Zhang Chonghua had an elder brother by his father’s concubine, the Marquis of Changning, Zhang Zuo, who was both brave and knowledgeable, but inclined towards deceit. He ably handled affairs both foreign and domestic, and treated Zhao Zhang, Wei Ji, and Zhang Chonghua's other favored attendants like brothers of different surnames. The Chief Commandant, Chang Ju, asked that Zhang Zuo be sent away, but Zhang Chonghua told him, "Zhang Zuo is my own Duke of Zhou, and he will support my young son as regent; Sir, why do you say such a thing?"

《水經註》:金城西平西北四十里有長寧亭。晉室西平郡有長寧縣。尉,姓也。《左傳》有鄭大夫尉止。嬖,卑義翻,又博計翻。託孤之難尚矣,況張重華乎!

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Zhangning Point is forty li northwest of Xiping in Jincheng." Jin's Xiping commandary had a Zhangning county.

尉 Wei is a surname. The Zuo Commentary mentions a Master Wei Zhi in the state of Zheng (Xiang 10.9). 嬖 is pronounced "bi (b-i)" or "bi (b-i)".

Anyone would need to consider carefully to whom they would entrust their heir, much less Zhang Chonghua!


張祚字太伯,駿之長庶子,博學雄武,有政治之才。駿之二十一年,拜延興太守,封寧侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

Zhang Zuo, styled Taibo, was Zhang Jun's eldest son, born of a concubine. He was a learned man and a martial hero, and he was talented in administration. In Zhang Jun's twenty-first year, he appointed Zhang Zuo as Administrator of Yanxing and Marquis of Ning.

耀靈字元舒。年十歲嗣事。伯父長寧侯祚性傾巧,善承內外,初與重華寵臣趙長、尉緝等結異姓兄弟。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Yaoling)

Zhang Yaoling was styled Yuanshu. He was nine years old when he succeeded his father Zhang Chonghua. The Marquis of Changning, his uncle Zhang Zuo, was naturally inclined towards deceit. Zhang Zuo was skilled at handling affairs both foreign and domestic, and he had earlier formed close ties with Zhang Chonghua's favored servants, Zhao Zhang, Wei Ji, and others, as though they were all brothers of different surnames.

祚字太伯,博學雄武,有政事之才。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

Zhang Zuo, styled Taibo, was both a learned man and a martial hero, and talented in administration.


謝艾以枹罕之功有寵於重華,左右疾之,譖艾,出為酒泉太守。艾上疏言:「權幸用事,公室將危,乞聽臣入侍。」且言:「長寧侯祚及趙長等將為亂,宜盡逐之。」十一月,己未,重華疾甚,手令征艾為衛將軍,監中外諸軍事,輔政;祚、長等匿而不宜。

18. Xie Ai had found favor with Zhang Chonghua after his success defending Fuhan. But the people around Zhang Chonghua became jealous of Xie Ai and slandered him, so he was sent away as Administrator of Jiuquan. Xie Ai submitted a petition stating, "With those gaining power through favoritism running affairs, the ducal family will soon be in trouble. Please allow me to come tend to you in the palace." He also stated, "The Marquis of Changning is plotting rebellion with Zhao Zhang and others; you must exile them all."

In the eleventh month, on the day Jiwei (December 21st), Zhang Chonghua's illness grew worse. In his own hand, he wrote a will appointing Xie Ai as Guard General and Chief of all military affairs, and trusting him with administering the state. However, Zhang Zuo, Zhao Zhang, and others blocked this will from going out.

事見九十七卷永和三年。

Xie Ai's accomplishments defending against the Later Zhao army were mentioned in Book 97, in the third year of Yonghe (347.8-9).


丁卯,重華卒,世子曜靈立,稱大司馬、涼州刺史、西平公。趙長等矯重華遺令,以長寧侯祚為都督中外諸軍事、撫軍大將軍,輔政。

19. On the day Dingmao (December 29th), Zhang Chonghua passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Jinglie ("the Splendid and Zealous") of Xiping.

His son Zhang Yaoling succeeded him, claiming as his titles Grand Marshal, Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. Zhao Zhang and the others forged Zhang Chonghua's will, appointing Zhang Zuo as Commander over all military affairs, as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, and as regent over the government.

史言張氏之亂。

This passage shows the turmoil that the Zhang clan now entered.


七年十月,重華寢疾臨春坊,遣左長史馬岌榮拜子靈曜為世子,大赦境內。十一月薨於平章殿,年二十七。葬顯陵。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Chonghua)

In the tenth month of the seventh year (351), Zhang Chonghua took to his sickbed near Chunfang. He sent his Chief Clerk of the Left, Ma Jirong, to confer his son Zhang Yaoling as his heir, and he declared a general amnesty within his domain. In the eleventh month, he passed away in the Pingzhang Hall; he was twenty-six years old. He was buried at Xianling.

重華薨,子靈曜嗣。七年十一月,右長史趙長等矯稱遺令,以祚為使持節、都督中外諸軍事、撫軍太將軍、輔政。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

After Zhang Chonghua passed away, his son Zhang Yaoling inherited his offices. In the eleventh month of the seventh year (351), the Chief Clerk of the Right, Zhao Zhang, and others forged a will naming Zhang Zuo as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Supreme General Who Nurtures The Army, and regent over the government.

丁未,涼州牧張重華卒,子耀靈嗣。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the ninth year of Yonghe (353), in winter, the tenth month, on the day Dingwei (December 9th), the Governor of Liangzhou, Zhang Chonghua, passed away. His son Zhang Yaoling inherited his offices.

將受詔,未及而卒,時年二十七。在位十一年。私諡曰昭公,後改曰桓公,穆帝賜諡曰敬烈。子耀靈嗣。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Chonghua)

Zhang Chonghua was about to accept the offered imperial edict (with the titles that Yu Gui was authorized to grant him), but before he actually did so, he passed away. He was twenty-six, and had been in power for eleven years. Privately, his posthumous name was first Duke Zhao, and was later changed to Duke Huan. Emperor Mu of Jin gave him the posthumous title Jinglie. Zhang Chonghua's son Zhang Yaoling inherited his offices.

稱大司馬、校尉、刺史、西平公。長等矯稱重華遺令,以祚為持節、督中外諸軍、撫軍將軍,輔政。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Yaoling)

Zhang Yaoling was named as Grand Marshal, Colonel, Inspector, and Duke of Xiping. Zhao Zhang and the others forged Zhang Chonghua's will, naming Zhang Zuo as Credential Bearer, Commander of all military affairs, General Who Nurtures The Army, and regent over the government.

十六年,張重華死,子曜靈立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the sixteenth year of Jianguo (353), Zhang Chonghua passed away, and his son Zhang Yaoling succeeded him.


殷浩使部將劉啟、王彬之攻姚益於山桑。姚襄自淮南擊之,啟、彬之皆敗死。襄進據芍陂。

20. Yin Hao dispatched his subordinates Liu Qi and Wang Binzhi to attack Yao Yi at Shansang. Yao Xiang marched from Huainan to attack them, and both were killed. Yao Xiang then advanced and captured Shao Slope.

啓,劉輿之孫也。

(This Liu Qi was the grandson of Liu Yu of Western Jin.)


十一月,殷浩使部將劉啓、王彬之討姚襄,復爲襄所敗,襄遂進據芍陂。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eleventh month, Yin Hao sent his subordinates Liu Qi and Wang Binzhi to campaign against Yao Xiang. But they were defeated by Yao Xiang, who then advanced to occupy Shao Slope.

浩遣劉啟、王彬之伐山桑,襄自淮南擊滅之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yin Hao sent Liu Qi and Wang Binzhi to attack Shansang. Yao Xiang marched from Huainan to attack and vanquish them.


趙末,樂陵朱禿、平原杜能、清河丁嬈、陽平孫元各擁兵分據城邑,至是皆請降於燕;燕主俊以禿為青州刺史,能為平原太守,嬈為立節將軍,元為兗州刺史,各留撫其營。

21. During the collapse of Zhao, Zhu Tu of Leling, Du Neng of Pingyuan, Ding Rao of Qinghe, and Sun Yuan of Yangping had each retained command of soldiers and seized control of cities and counties. At this time, they all offered to surrender to Yan. Murong Jun appointed Zhu Tu as Inspector of Qingzhou, Du Neng as Administrator of Pingyuan, Ding Rao as General Who Demonstrates Fortitude, and Sun Yuan as Inspector of Yanzhou. Each were left in control of their personal commands.

嬈,乃了翻,又如紹翻。

Ding Rao's given name 嬈 is pronounced "niao (n-iao)" or "rao (r-ao)".


秦丞相雄克池陽,斬孔特。十二月,清河王法、苻飛克鄠,斬劉珍、夏侯顯。

22. Fu Xiong captured Chiyang, and killed the rebel Kong Te.

In the twelfth month, Fu Fa and Fu Fei captured Hu, killing the rebels Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian.

姚襄濟淮,屯盱眙,招掠流民,眾至七萬,分置守宰,勸課農桑;遣使詣建康罪狀殷浩,並自陳謝。詔以謝尚都督江西、淮南諸軍事、豫州刺史,鎮歷陽。

23. Yao Xiang beat his drums and crossed the Huai River, camping at Xuyi; he gathered up and assembled the refugees, and his forces swelled to seventy thousand strong. He appointed local officials in the region under his control, and he encouraged and instructed the people in farming and silkworm cultivation.

Yao Xiang sent envoys to Jiankang to report on Yin Hao's transgressions, while making apologies for his own actions.

The Jin court appointed Xie Shang as Commander of military affairs west of the Yangzi and south of the Huai River and as Inspector of Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Liyang.

盱眙,音吁怡。姚襄所爲僅如此,而晉人已爲之震懼,蓋姦雄所竊笑也。以尚得襄之歡心,旣以招撫之,又以備之。

(盱眙 is pronounced "xuyi".

Yao Xiang only did this much, and yet it was already enough to make the people of Jin quiver with fear. Ambitious schemers must have secretly snickered at that.

Xie Shang had earlier found favor with Yao Xiang, so in the hopes that he might be able to win him over again, Xie Shang was given these appointments.)


十二月,加尚書僕射謝尚爲都督豫、揚、江西諸軍事,領豫州刺史,鎮歷陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, the Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie Shang, was further appointed as Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou, Yangzhou, and Jiangzhou and acting Inspector of Yuzhou; he was stationed at Liyang.

鼓行濟淮,屯於盱眙。朝廷大震。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang beat his drums and advanced across the Huai River, camping at Xuyi. The Jin court was greatly disturbed.

襄鼓行濟淮,屯於盱眙,招掠流人,眾至七萬,分置守宰,勸課農桑,遣使建鄴,罪狀殷浩,並自陳謝。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang beat his drums and crossed the Huai River, camping at Xuyi; he gathered up and assembled the refugees, and his forces swelled to seventy thousand strong. He appointed local officials in the region under his control, and he encouraged and instructed the people in farming and silkworm cultivation.

Yao Xiang sent envoys to Jiankang to report on Yin Hao's transgressions, while making apologies for his own actions.


涼右長史趙長等建議,以為:「時難未夷,宜立長君,曜靈沖幼,請立長寧侯祚。」張祚先得幸於重華之母馬氏,馬氏許之,乃廢張曜靈為涼寧侯,立祚為大都督、大將軍、涼州牧、涼公。祚既得志,恣為淫虐,殺重華妃裴氏及謝艾。

24. In Liangzhou, Zhao Zhang and others held a council, where they proposed, "With the challenges of our times yet to be overcome, we must have an adult ruler. Zhang Yaoling is too young, so let us raise up the Marquis of Changning, Zhang Zuo, in his place."

Zhang Zuo had enjoyed the favor of Lady Ma, Zhang Chonghua’s mother, and she granted her permission, so they deposed Zhang Yaoling to become Marquis of Liangning, and gave his former position to Zhang Zuo instead, acclaiming him as Grand Commander, Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Liang.

Since Zhang Zuo had attained what he had desired, his true nature now emerged. He proved himself to be cruel and abusive. He killed both Zhang Chonghua's consort Lady Pei and Xie Ai.

淫者,烝其君母;虐者,殺裴妃、謝艾。卽此二端,他所淫虐又其餘毒也。

Zhang Zuo was cruel, because he put himself ahead of his lord and his mother; he was abusive, because he killed Lady Pei and Xie Ai. With these two acts as the basis of his reign, his character was soon poisoned by even greater cruelty and abuse.


十二月,趙長等議以靈曜沖幼,世難未夷,宜立長君,廢曜為寧涼侯,立祚為大將軍、護羌校尉、涼州牧。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

In the twelfth month, Zhao Zhang and others held a council where they discussed the matter of Zhang Yaoling being too young to handle such difficult affairs of that time, and proposed setting up an adult sovereign instead. So they deposed Zhang Yaoling as Marquis of Liangning, and named Zhang Zuo as Grand General, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, and Governor of Liangzhou.

十月,張祚...自稱涼州牧。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the tenth month, Zhang Zuo declared himself Governor of Liangzhou.

長待議以耀靈沖幼,時難未夷,宜立長君。祚先烝重華母馬氏,馬氏遂從緝議,命廢耀靈為涼甯侯而立祚。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Yaoling)

Zhao Zhang held a council, in which he discussed the matter of Zhang Yaoling being too young to handle such difficult affairs of that time, and proposed setting up an adult sovereign instead. Zhang Zuo had already seduced Zhang Chonghua's mother Lady Ma, and so Lady Ma went along with these views. She ordered Zhang Yaoling to be deposed as Marquis of Liangning, and for Zhang Zuo to replace him.

既立,自稱大都督、大將軍、涼州牧、涼公。淫暴不道,又通重華妻裴氏,自閣內媵妾及駿、重華未嫁子女,無不暴亂,國人相目,咸賦《牆茨》之詩。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

After Zhang Zuo came to power, he declared himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Liang. He was a licentious and cruel man, without principle. He had his way with Zhang Chonghua's wife Lady Pei, and he also violated his concubines and even Zhang Jun's and Zhang Chonghua's unmarried daughters. There was no one who did not revolt against him, and whenever people of that land saw one another, they all made fu poems like the "Tribulus On The Wall" poem.

重華庶兄祚...自立,稱涼公。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Zhang Chonghua's elder brother by a concubine, Zhang Zuo, set himself up instead, declaring himself Duke of Liang.


燕衛將軍恪、撫軍將軍軍、左將軍彪等屢薦給事黃門侍郎霸有命世之才,宜總大任。是歲,燕主俊以霸為使持節、安東將軍、北冀州剌史,鎮常山。

24. Murong Ke, the General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong Junn, and the General of the Left, Murong Biao, all petitioned their lord, stating that the Attendant Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Murong Ba, had exceptional talent and should be granted larger roles. So during this year, Murong Jun appointed Murong Ba as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Maintains the East, and Inspector of Northern Jizhou. He was stationed at Changshan.

【嚴:「彪」改「彭」。】冀州刺史鎭信都,今置北冀州於常山。

Murong Biao's given name should be Peng.

Jizhou's Inspector was stationed at Xindu. Murong Jun now created a separate Northern Jizhou, with its Inspector stationed at Changshan.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat Sep 15, 2018 7:33 pm, edited 31 times in total.
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 8:02 pm

永和十年(甲寅,公元三五四年)

The Tenth Year of Yonghe (The Jiayin Year, 354 AD)


春,正月,張祚自稱涼王,改建興四十二年為和平元年。立妻辛氏為王后,子太和為太子,封弟天錫為長寧侯,子庭堅為建康侯,曜靈弟玄靚為涼武侯。置百官,郊祀天地,用天子禮樂。尚書馬岌切諫,坐免官。郎中丁琪復諫曰:「我自武公以來,世守臣節,抱忠履謙五十餘年,故能以一州大眾,抗舉世之虜,師徒歲起,民不告疲。殿下勳德未高於先公,而亟謀革命,臣未見其可也。彼士民所以用命,四遠所以歸向者,以吾能奉晉室故也。今而自尊,則中外離心,安能以一隅之地,拒天下之強敵乎!」祚大怒,斬之於闕下。

1. In spring, the first month, Zhang Zuo proclaimed himself as King of Liang. Up until this time, Liangzhou had continued to recognize Emperor Min's reign era title of Jianxing, now in its forty-second year. Zhang Zuo now changed the reign era title to the first year of his own reign era, Heping. He honored his wife Lady Xin as Queen, made his son Zhang Taihe his Crown Prince, ennobled his younger brother Zhang Tianxi as Marquis of Changning, appointed his son Zhang Tingjian as Marquis of Jiankang, and appointed Zhang Yaoling's younger brother Zhang Xuanjing as Marquis of Liangwu. He appointed ministers as in an imperial court, performed the imperial sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, and adopted the rites and music of the Son of Heaven.

The Master of Writing, Ma Yi, harshly remonstrated against this, but he was blamed and dismissed from office. The Household Gentleman, Ding Qi also remonstrated, saying, "Ever since the time of Duke Wu (Zhang Gui), we have been loyal servants of Jin, holding fast to faithfulness and humility generation after generation for more than fifty years. Because of that, we have been able to fight off a world of barbarians though we have the resources of only a single province, and even though we have been engaged in military action year after year, the people do not complain of weariness. Your Highness's diligence and virtue are inferior to that of the Dukes who came before you, yet now you unveil these plans for great changes. I do not see how this will work. The reason why our soldiers and commoners alike have been willing to give their lives to our cause, and why those from afar flock to join us, is because we have been able to honor the House of Jin. If you raise yourself to be Emperor, then everyone will lose their unifying purpose. Having thrown away our legitimacy, could you really use the resources of just this small corner of the realm to hold off all the powerful enemies in the world?"

Zhang Zuo was greatly angered, and had Ding Qi executed at the palace gates.

河西張氏,乃心晉室,奉建興年號至四十餘年,張祚凶淫,改元僭擬,祖父之所不相也。建康郡,蓋張氏所置,張茂分屬涼州。岌,魚及翻。張軌諡武公。履謙,謂未嘗建國自王也。惠帝永寧元年,張軌鎭涼土,至是五十四年。自古戮諫臣,未有不亡者也。

Because the Zhang clan of Hexi had remained loyal to the royal family of Jin, they had maintained the Western Jin reign era title of Jianxing, Emperor Min's last reign era, for over forty years. But Zhang Zuo, in his wild abandon, devised his own reign era title, in violation of his forebearers' policy.

Jiankang commandary must have been formed by the Zhang clan. Zhang Mao split it off as part of Liangzhou.

Ma Yi's given name 岌 is pronounced "yi (y-i)".

Zhang Gui's posthumous name was Duke Wu.

By "humility", Ding Qi means the fact that the Zhang clan had not yet gone so far as to establish their own state with themselves as Kings. Zhang Gui had first held the Liangzhou territory in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongning (301), and it had been fifty-four years since then.

Since ancient times, there never has been a lord who, in killing those ministers who criticized him, did not bring himself to ruin.


張祚僭號,追諡桓王,廟號世(祖)〔宗〕。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Chonghua)

When Zhang Zuo declared himself King, he posthumously honored Zhang Chonghua as King Huan, and his temple name was Shizu (or Shizong).

趙長等議僭即王位于謙光殿,大赦,改元為和平元年。立妻辛氏為皇后,子太和為太子,封弟天錫為長寧侯,重華少子玄靖為涼武侯,置百官。二月尊祖父,郊祀天地。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

Acting on the counsel of Zhao Zhang and others, Zhang Zuo declared himself King in the Qianguang Hall. He issued a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Heping. He honored his wife Lady Xin as Queen, his son Zhang Taihe as Crown Prince, his younger brother Zhang Tianxi as Marquis of Changning, and Zhang Chonghua's youngest son Zhang Xuanjing as Marquis of Liangwu. He also created the imperial offices. In the second month, he honored his ancestors, and made border sacrifices to Heaven and Earth.

十年春正月,涼州牧張祚僭帝位... 丁卯,地震,有聲如雷。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the tenth year of Yonghe (354), in spring, the first month, the Governor of Liangzhou, Zhang Zuo, declared himself Emperor.

On the day Dingmao (February 27th), the earth shook with a sound like thunder.

永和十年。祚納尉緝、趙長等議,僭稱帝位,立宗廟,舞八佾,置百官,下書曰:「昔金行失馭,戎狄亂華,胡、羯、氐、羌咸懷竊璽。我武公以神武撥亂,保甯西夏,貢款勤王,旬朔不絕。四祖承光,忠誠彌著。往受晉禪,天下所知,謙沖遜讓,四十年於茲矣。今中原喪亂,華裔無主,群後僉以九州之望無所依歸,神祇嶽瀆罔所憑系,逼孤攝行大統,以一四海之心。辭不獲已,勉從群議。待掃穢二京,蕩清周魏,然後迎帝舊都,謝罪天闕,思與兆庶,同茲更始。」改建興四十二年為和平元年,赦殊死,賜鰥寡帛,加文武爵各一級,追崇曾祖軌為武王,祖寔為昭王,從祖茂為成王,父駿為文王,弟重華為明王。立妻辛氏為皇后,弟天錫為長寧王,子泰和為太子,庭堅為建康王,耀靈弟玄靚為涼武侯。其夜,天有光如車蓋,聲若雷霆,震動城邑。明日,大風拔木。災異屢見,而祚凶虐愈甚。其尚書馬岌以切諫免官。郎中丁琪又諫曰:「先公累執忠節,遠宗吳會,持盈守謙,五十作載,蒼生所以鵠企西望,四海所以注心大涼,皇天垂贊,士庶效死者,正以先公道高彭昆,忠逾西伯,萬里通虔,任節不貳故也。能以一州之眾抗崩天之虜,師徒歲起,人不告疲。陛下雖以大聖雄姿纂戎鴻緒,勳德未高於先公,而行革命之事,臣竊未見其可。華夷所以歸系大涼、義兵所以千里響赴者,以陛下為本朝之故。今既自尊,人斯高競,一隅之地何以當中國之師!城峻沖生,負乘致寇,惟陛下圖之。」祚大怒,斬之于闕下。遣其將和昊率眾伐麗靬戎于南山,大敗而還。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

In the tenth year of Yonghe (354), heeding the counsel of Wei Ji, Zhao Zheng, and others, Zhang Zuo declared himself Emperor. He raised an ancestral temple, arranged for his dancers to dance in the eight-line formation, and created the hundred imperial offices (all things that were exclusively the Emperor's prerogative). Zhang Zuo sent down an edict stating, "Not so long ago, the royal carriage lost its way, and so the Rong and Di barbarians ravaged the Hua (ethnic Han) people. The Xiongnu, the Jie, the Di, and the Qiang all cherished thoughts of claiming the Imperial Seal for themselves.

"Our late Duke Wu (Zhang Gui), using his divine martial talents, quelled the chaos and brought peace and tranquility to the Xia of the west; he paid tribute and offered hospitality to industrious sovereigns, continuing on through the weeks and months without ceasing. His four honored successors took up his noble affair, and in loyalty and honesty they were still more abundant. The whole realm knows that, truly, we were entitled to the abdication of Jin, and it was only out of modesty that we declined the mandate for a time; thus these forty years have elapsed.

"But the Central Plains are in mourning and turmoil, and the Hua people lack a sovereign. All the people of the Nine Provinces have had no one to whom they could turn to have their hopes fulfilled, nor have the spirits of the land, high and low, had any place to fasten themselves to. This is what compels me to take up the great command, and bring unity to the Four Seas. Unable to say anything to release me from this charge, I shall do my utmost to heed the counsels of my ministers. Thus shall I sweep away the vermin from the two capitals (Chang'an and Luoyang), purge and clear the lands of Zhou and Wei, and then welcome the Emperor at the old capital, where I shall beg forgivess for my crime of imperial presumption. When I consider the numerous portents, they all align with this new beginning."

Zhang Zuo changed the reign era title from the Western Jin title of the forty-second year of Jianxing to the first year of his own reign era, Heping. He granted an amnesty except for those sentenced to death, he granted silks to widows and widowers, and he advanced the titles of all civil and military officials by one rank.

Zhang Zuo honored his great-grandfather Zhang Gui as King Wu, his grandfather Zhang Shi as King Zhao, his great-uncle Zhang Mao as King Cheng, his father Zhang Jun as King Wen, and his younger brother Zhang Chonghua as King Ming. Zhang Zuo established his wife Lady Xin as Queen, and ennobled his younger brother Zhang Tianxi as Marquis of Changning. Of his sons, he made Zhang Taihe his Crown Prince, and made Zhang Tingjian the Prince of Jiankang. He appointed Zhang Yaoling's younger brother Zhang Xuanjing as Marquis of Liangwu.

That night (presumably the night of February 27th), there was a brilliance in the heavens like a carriage canopy, there was a sound like a thunderbolt, and there was a rumbling that shook the cities and towns. The next day, there was a great wind that uprooted trees. Several other natural disasters were witnessed, but even so, Zhang Zuo's wild cruelty became even greater.

Zhang Zuo's Master of Writing, Ma Yi, forcefully remonstrated with him and was stripped of office. The Household Gentleman, Ding Qi, also remonstrated, saying, "The late Dukes all held fast to loyal authority, and venerated the royal clan in Wu and Kuaiji from afar. They modestly held the charge that was given to them, and because of their actions of the last fifty years, the common people have all craned their necks and stood on their toes as they looked hopefully to the west. All within the Four Seas have remembered Great Liang in their hearts, and Heaven itself condescends to approve of us. The soldiers have fought and died on our behalf because of the high principles and 彭昆 that the late Dukes possessed; exceedingly loyal in their western border post, their sincerity and openness was far-reaching, and they kept to their appointed authority without turning away from it. Because of that, though we have only the soldiers of a single province, we have been able to fight off a sky-full of barbarians; and even though we have been engaged in military action year after year, the people do not complain of weariness.

"Your Majesty, although you possess a great sagely heroism sufficient to command the armies and achieve a great venture, your diligence and virtue are inferior to that of the Dukes who came before you, yet now you unveil these plans for great changes. I do not see how this will work. The reason why the Hua and Yi have bound themselves to Great Liang, and soldiers of righteousness have come from a thousand li away to serve under us, was because Your Majesty served the legitimate court. If you raise yourself to be Emperor, then that is resort to a mere contest of strength. In that case, can you use the resources of just this small corner of the realm to become the leader of the Middle Kingdom? You would forfeit the safety of your high walls and cede the advantage to the enemy. Your Majesty, I pray you reconsider this."

Zhang Zuo was greatly angered, and had Ding Qi executed at the palace gates.

Zhang Zuo sent his general He Hao to lead an army in campaign against the tribes of Lijian at the southern hills, but the army was greatly defeated and returned.

十七年,張祚復稱涼王,置百官,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the seventeenth year of Jianguo (354), Zhang Zuo declared himself King of Liang; he created the imperial offices, and he sent envoys to the Dai court bearing tribute.


故魏降將周成反,自宛襲洛陽。辛酉,河南太守戴施奔鮪渚。秦丞相雄克司竹。胡陽赤奔霸城,依呼延毒。

2. It was earlier mentioned that the Wei general Zhou Cheng had defected to Jin with his command. At this time, he rebelled; he marched from Wan to suddenly attack Luoyang. On the day Xinyou (February 21st), the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, fled to Weizhu.

Fu Xiong attacked the rebels at Sizhu. Huyang Chi fled to Bacheng, and sought refuge under Huyan Du.

周成降見上七年。《水經註》:河水過河南鞏縣,北有山臨河,謂之崟原丘;其下有穴,謂之鞏穴,言[?]潛通浦北,達于河;直穴有渚,謂之鮪渚。鮪,于軌翻。

Zhou Cheng's submission to Jin was mentioned earlier in this book, in the seventh year (351.21).

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yellow River flows through Gong county in Henan commandary. At this place, there are hills abutting the north bank of the river, and that place is called Yinyuan Mound ("high plain mound"). There is a cave beneath the mounds, which is called Gongxue ("Gong cave"). It is pronounced ?. North of Qiantong Rivermouth, it extends into the River. By the caves are islets, and they are called Weizhu ("Wei islets"). 鮪 is pronounced "wei (y-ui)".


冉閔降將周成舉兵反,自宛陵襲洛陽。辛酉,河南太守戴施奔鮪渚。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Ran Min's former general Zhou Cheng, who had previously surrender to Jin, now rebelled with his troops, marching from Wanling to raid Luoyang. On the day Xinyou (February 21st), the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, fled to Weizhu.


中軍將軍、揚州刺史殷浩連年北伐,師徒屢敗,糧械都盡。征西將軍桓溫因朝野之怨,上疏數浩之罪,請廢之。朝廷不得已,免浩為庶人,徙東陽之信安。自此內外大權一歸於溫矣。

3. By now, Yin Hao had launched successive northern campaigns across the last two years, all of which had come to ruin. Much grain and military equipment had thus been exhausted. Huan Wen, riding on the court’s displeasure with Yin Hao, submitted a petition listing Yin Hao’s crimes and asking that he be dismissed. The court, faced with no other option, removed Yin Hao from office and made him a commoner, and he went into exile at Xin’an in Dongyang. From that time on, all matters of state inside or out fell under the sway of Huan Wen.

東陽郡本會稽西部都尉,吳孫晧寶鼎元年立郡。信安縣,漢獻帝初平三年,分太末立新安縣,武帝太康元年,更名信安。東陽郡,唐爲婺州。信安縣,唐爲衢州治所。史言晉氏失權,由用殷浩違其才。

Dongyang commandary was originally the western region of Kuaiji commandary, under the oversight of a Commandant. In Sun Hao of Eastern Wu's first year of Baoding (266), it became a commandary. Regarding Xin'an county, in Emperor Xian of Han's third year of Chuping (192) it had been split off from Taimo. At that time, its name was written 新安 Xin'an. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280), its name was changed to 信安 Xin'an. Dongyang commandary became Tang's Wuzhou. Xin'an county was administered by Tang's Quzhou.

This passage shows how the Jin royal family lost control of events, because they had tried to use Yin Hao without accounting for his proper talents.


二月,廢揚州刺史殷浩爲庶人。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the second month, the Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, was demoted to be a commoner.


浩少與溫齊名,而心競不相下,溫常輕之。浩既廢黜,雖愁怨,不形辭色,常書空作「咄咄怪事」字。久之,溫謂掾郗超曰:「浩有德有言,向為令僕,足以儀刑百揆,朝廷用違其才耳。」將以浩為尚書令,以書告之。浩欣然許焉,將答書,慮有謬誤,開閉者十數,竟達空函。溫大怒,由是遂絕,卒於徙所。以前會稽內史王述為揚州刺史。

4. Since his youth, Yin Hao had enjoyed the same reputation as Huan Wen. They were constantly competing with each other covertly, and Huan Wen always looked down on Yin Hao. After Yin Hao was removed from office, though he was melancholy, he did not show that in his speech or countenance. Rather, he often traced the words “What a strange business” with his finger in the air.

This went on for a long time, and then Huan Wen said to his subordinate Chi Chao, "Yin Hao is virtuous and eloquent. If he had been appointed Prefect or Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing before, he would have been good at being a role model for the ministers. It's just that the court didn’t employ him properly according to his talents." So Huan Wen was about to arrange for Yin Hao’s appointment as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he sent a letter to Yin Hao informing him of it. Yin Hao was happy to receive it. But when he was about to send the response off, he worried that there would be some mistake or error, so he kept opening and closing the envelope to check. In the end, he accidentally sent an empty envelope. This greatly enraged Huan Wen, who from then on refused to employ Yin Hao, and he died in exile.

The former Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Shu, was appointed Inspector of Yangzhou.

以前會稽內史王述爲揚州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

The former Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Shu, was appointed as the new Inspector of Yangzhou.

殷中軍被廢,在信安,終日恆書空作字。揚州吏民尋義逐之,竊視,唯作「咄咄怪事」四字而已。(New Tales 28.3)

After Yin Hao had been dismissed (in 354) and was living in Xin'an (western Jiankang), all day long he kept writing characters in the air. Officials and commoners of Yangzhou, remembering his past favors while he was Inspector (346-350), followed him about secretly and observed him, discovering that he was writing only the four characters 咄咄怪事 "Tut, tut! What a strange business!" (tr. Richard Mather)


二月,乙丑,桓溫統步騎四萬發江陵。水軍自襄陽入均口,至南鄉,步兵自淅川趣武關,命司馬勳出子午道以伐秦。

5. In the second month, on the day Yichou (?, probably Jichou, March 21st), Huan Wen marched out of Jiangling with forty thousand horse and foot to attack Qin. A naval force also sailed from Xiangyang through Junkou, until it reached Nanxiang. The infantry marched from Xichuan to capture Wu Gate.

Huan Wen also ordered Sima Xun to attack Qin by way of Ziwu Valley.

《水經註》:順陽郡筑陽縣有涉都城,沔水逕東北;均水於縣入沔,謂之均口。筑陽與南鄕縣,漢皆屬南陽郡;漢建安中,分南陽右壤立南鄕郡,二縣屬焉;武帝更名順陽郡,成帝咸康四年,復曰南鄕郡。析縣,前漢屬弘農郡,後漢屬南陽郡,春秋之白羽也。武關在其西。文穎曰:武關去析縣百七十里。賢曰:析,卽今鄧州內鄕縣。後魏置淅川縣,有淅水;後周併入內鄕縣。命勳從梁州出師。

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The City of Shedu is in Zhuyang county in Shunyang commandary. The Mian River flows to the northeast, and the Jun River enters the Mian in that county, so the place is called Junkou ("mouth of the Jun River"). During Han, Zhuyang and Nanxiang counties were both part of Nanyang commandary. During Han's Jian'an era (196-220), the right region of Nanyang commandary was split off as Nanxiang commandary, with those two counties being a part of it. Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) renamed the commandary to Shunyang. But in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xiankang (338), its name was restored to Nanxiang.

During Former Han, Xi county was part of Hongnong commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Nanyang commandary. It was the same place as Baiyu from the Spring and Autumn era. Wu Gate was west of there. Wen Ying remarked, "Wu Gate was a hundred and seventy li from Xi county." Li Xian remarked, "Xi county was the same as our modern Neixiang county in Dengzhou." Northern Wei created Xichuan county, because the Xi River was there. Later Zhou folded it into Neixiang county.

Huan Wen ordered Sima Xun to march his army out from Lianzhou.


二月己丑,太尉、征西將軍桓溫帥師伐關中。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the second month, on the day Jichou (March 21st), the Grand Commandant and General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, led his troops to campaign against Guanzhong.

十年,溫率眾四萬趨長安。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the tenth year (of Yonghe; 354 AD), Huan Wen led a host of forty thousand to attack Chang'an.

桓溫率眾伐長安。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Huan Wen led an army to campaign against Chang'an.


燕衛將軍恪圍魯口,三月,拔之。呂護奔野王,遣弟奉表謝罪於燕,燕以護為河內太守。

6. Murong Ke besieged Lukou. In the third month, he captured it. Lü Hu fled to Yewang, and then he sent his younger brother Lü Feng to place himself at Yan's mercy. Yan appointed Lü Hu as Administrator of Henei.

姚襄遣使降燕。

7. Yao Xiang sent envoys offering his submission to Yan.

慕容儁以襄為豫州刺史、丹陽公。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Murong Jun appointed Yao Xiang as Inspector of Yuzhou and Duke of Danyang.


燕主俊以慕容評為鎮南將軍,都督秦、雍、益、梁、江、揚、荊、徐、兗、豫十州諸軍事,權鎮洛水;以慕容強為前鋒都督,督荊、徐二州、緣淮諸軍事,進據河南。

8. Murong Jun appointed Murong Ping as General Who Guards The South and Commander of military affairs in Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Jiangzhou, Yangzhou, Jingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou, with orders to garrison at the Luo River for now. His uncle Murong Qiang was appointed as Vanguard Commander and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou ,Xuzhou, and the regions along the Huai River, and he advanced to capture the region south of the Yellow River.

此河南,謂大河之南。

Where this passage mentions "Henan", it means it in the sense of the whole region south of the Yellow River, and not to Henan commandary in particular.


桓溫將攻上洛,獲秦荊州刺史郭敬;進擊青泥,破之。司馬勳掠秦西鄙,涼秦州刺史王擢攻陳倉以應溫。秦主健遣太子萇、丞相雄、淮南王生、平昌王菁、北平王碩帥眾五萬軍於嶢柳以拒溫。夏,四月,已亥,溫與秦兵戰於藍田。秦淮南王生單騎突陳,出入以十數,殺傷晉將士甚眾。溫督眾力戰,秦兵大敗;將軍桓沖又敗秦丞相雄於白鹿原。沖,溫之弟也。溫轉戰而前,壬寅,進至灞上。秦太子萇等退屯城南,秦主健與老弱六千固守長安小城,悉發精兵三萬,遣大司馬雷弱兒等與萇合兵以拒溫。三輔郡縣皆來降,溫撫諭居民,使安堵復業。民爭持牛酒迎勞,男女夾路觀之,耆老有垂泣者,曰:「不圖今日復睹官軍!」

9. Huan Wen marched north to attack Shangluo, and captured Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Guo Jing. He then advanced against Qingni, and took it.

Sima Xun attacked Qin's western border, while Liang's Inspector of Qinzhou, Wang Zhuo, attacked Qin at Chencang in support of Huan Wen.

Fu Jiàn sent Fu Chang, Fu Xiong, Fu Jing, the Prince of Huainan, Fu Sheng, and the Prince of Beiping, Fu Shuo, with an army of fifty thousand men to Yaoliu to meet Huan Wen's attack. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jihai (May 30th), Huan Wen and the Qin army fought a battle at Lantian. Fu Sheng plunged into the battle alone on horseback, charging in and out of the fray more than ten times, and killing or wounding a great many Jin soldiers. But through Huan Wen's superior leadership, the Qin army suffered a great defeat.

The Jin general Huan Chong also defeated Fu Xiong's army at Bailu Plain. This Huan Chong was Huan Wen's younger brother.

Huan Wen continued his advance after his victory at Lantian. On the day Renyin (June 2nd), his army reached Bashang near Chang’an. Fu Chang and the others retreated to camp south of Chang'an. Fu Jiàn kept six thousand old or weak men to hold the inner city with him, and sent all thirty thousand elite troops with Lei Ruo’er and others to join up with Fu Chang to face Huan Wen.

All the commandaries and counties of the Three Adjuncts region around Chang'an began to surrender to Huan Wen, and he issued notices to comfort the people, and to command them to continue living and working as before. They freely welcomed him with meat and wine, and men and women thronged the streets to catch a glimpse of him, while old men wept and said, "We did not believe we would live to see the Imperial Army return again!"

青泥城在藍田縣南。趙亡,王擢歸張氏,故以涼繫之。《土地記》曰:藍田縣南有嶢關,地名嶢柳,道通荊州。《晉‧地道記》曰:關當上洛縣西北。嶢,五聊翻。《水經註》:霸川之西有白鹿原。《三秦記》曰:麗山西有白鹿原。魏收《地形志》,京兆藍田縣有白鹿原。

(The city of Qingni was in the south of Lantian County.

After Later Zhao's collapse, Wang Zhuo had gone over to the Zhang clan, and so he was affiliated with Liangzhou.

The Geographical Records states, "Yao Gate was in the south of Lantian County, at the place called Yaoliu. It was the route into Jingzhou." The Records of Roads and Places in the Book of Jin states, "The pass was in the northwest of Shangluo county." 嶢 is pronounced "yao (w-iao)".

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Bailu Plain is west of the Ba River." The Records of the Three Qins Region states, "The Bailu Plain is west of Mount Li." The Geographical Records in the Book of Northern Wei states, "The Bailu Plain is in Lantian county in Jingzhao.")


夏四月己亥,溫及苻健子萇戰于藍田,大敗之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jihai (May 30th), Huan Wen fought Fu Jiàn's son Fu Chang at Lantian and greatly defeated him.

遣別將入淅川,攻上洛,執健荊州刺史郭敬,而遣司馬勳掠西鄙。健遣其子萇率雄、菁等眾五萬,距溫于堯柳城、愁思堆。溫轉戰而前,次於灞上,萇等退營城南。健以羸兵六千固守長安小城,遣精銳三萬為遊軍以距溫。三輔郡縣多降于溫。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Huan Wen sent another army to enter the Xichuan region and attack Shangluo, and they captured Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Guo Jing.

Huan Wen also ordered Sima Xun to captured the western regions of Qin.

Fu Jiàn sent his son Fu Chang along with Fu Xiong, Fu Jing, and others with an army of fifty thousand, and they opposed Huan Wen at the city of Yaoliu and at Chousi Mound. Huan Wen fought several battles and advanced; when he reached Bashang, Fu Chang and the others retreated to camps south of the city. Fu Jiàn then organized six thousand weary soldiers to hold the inner city of Chang'an, while he sent thirty thousand elite troops to oppose Huan Wen. Many of the commandaries and counties of the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang'an) surrendered to Huan Wen.

桓溫次于灞上。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Huan Wen advanced to Bashang.

桓溫之來伐也,生單馬入陣,搴旗斬將者前後十數。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

During Huan Wen's invasion of Qin, Fu Sheng plunged into the battle alone on horseback, charging in and out of the fray more than ten times, grabbing standards and killing enemy officers.


秦丞相雄帥騎七千襲司馬勳於子午谷,破之,勳退屯女媧堡。

10. Fu Xiong, leading seven thousand cavalry, attacked Sima Xun at Ziwu Valley and routed him. Sima Xun retreated to camp at Fort Nuwa.

健別使雄領騎七千,與桓沖戰于白鹿原,王師敗績,又破司馬勳于子午穀。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn split off seven thousand cavalry under Fu Xiong, and Fu Xiong defeated Huan Chong at Bailu Plains, as well as routed Sima Xun's army at Ziwu Valley.


戊申,燕主俊封撫軍將軍軍為襄陽王,左將軍彭為武昌王;以衛將軍恪為大司馬、侍中、大都督、錄尚書事,封太原王;鎮南將軍評為司徒、驃騎將軍,封上庸王;封安東將軍霸為吳王,左賢王友為范陽王,散騎常侍厲為下邳王,散騎常侍宜為廬江王,寧北將軍度為樂浪王;又封弟桓為宜都王,逮為臨賀王,徽為河間王,龍為歷陽王,納為北海王,秀為蘭陵王,岳為安豐王,德為梁公,默為始安公,僂為南康公;子鹹為樂安王,亮為勃海王,溫為帶方王,涉為漁陽王,暐為中山王;以尚書令陽騖為司空,仍守尚書令。

11. On the day Wushen (?), Murong Jun appointed Murong Junn as Prince of Xiangyang, and he appointed the General of the Left, his uncle Murong Peng, as Prince of Wuchang. Murong Ke was appointed as Grand Marshal, Grand Commander, Palace Attendant, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Prince of Taiyuan. Murong Ping was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, General of Agile Cavalry, and Prince of Shangyong. Murong Ba was appointed as Prince of Wu. The Worthy Prince of the Left, Murong You, was appointed as Prince of Fanyang. The Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Murong Li, was appointed as Prince of Xiapi. Another Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Murong Yi, was appointed as Prince of Lujiang. The General Who Calms The North, Murong Du, was appointed as Prince of Lelang.

As for Murong Jun’s other brothers, he appointed Murong Huan as Prince of Yidu, Murong Dai as Prince of Linhe, Murong Hui as Prince of Hejian, Murong Long as Prince of Liyang, Murong Na as Prince of Beihai, Murong Xiu as Prince of Lanling, Murong Yue as Prince of Anfeng, Murong De as Duke of Liang, Murong Mo as Duke of Shi'an, and Murong Lou as Duke of Nankang.

For his sons, he appointed Murong Xian as Prince of Le'an, Murong Liang as Prince of Bohai, Murong Wen as Prince of Daifang, Murong She as Prince of Yuyang, and Murong Wei as Prince of Zhongshan. He also appointed the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yang Wu, as Minister of Works, though Yang Wu still kept his role as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

【嚴:「咸」改「臧」。】參考後卷,「咸」,當作「臧」。

(Murong Xian's given name should be Zang. If you consult later chapters of the Zizhi Tongjian, he is called Murong Zang, so it should be the same here.)


慕容暐字景茂,雋之第三子。元璽三年、封中山王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei, styled Jingmao, was Murong Jun's third son. In the third year of Yuanxi (354), he was appointed as Prince of Zhongshan.

暐,字景茂,儁之第三子也。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei, styled Jingmao, was Murong Jun's third son.

及俊嗣位,彌加親任。累戰有大功,封太原王,拜侍中、假節、大都督、錄尚書。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

After Murong Jun came to the throne, he granted Murong Ke even more close offices. Murong Ke won great achievements in many battles. So he was appointed as Prince of Taiyuan, Palace Attendant, Credential Holder, Grand Commander, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

及儁僭稱尊號,封垂吳王。 (Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

After Murong Jun declared himself Emperor, he named Murong Chui as Prince of Wu.

及俊僭稱尊號,封垂吳王,徙鎮信都,以侍中、右禁將軍錄留台事,大收東北之利。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Jun declared himself Emperor, he appointed Murong Chui as Prince of Wu, and sent him to guard Xindu. He was appointed as Palace Attendant and Palace Guards General of the Right in handling the affairs of the Separate Administration, and he brought great benefit to all the northeast.

儁平中原,垂為前鋒,累戰有大功。及僭尊號,拜黃門郎,出為安東、冀州牧,封吳王。以侍中、右禁將軍,錄留臺事,鎮龍城,大收東北之和。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Jun conquered the Central Plains, Murong Chui led his vanguard, and he won many great achievements in several battles. After Murong Jun declared himself Emperor, he appointed Murong Chui as a Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, and he sent him out to serve as General Who Maintains The East, Governor of Jizhou, and Prince of Wu. He was also appointed as Palace Attendant, 禁 General of the Right, and chief of affairs of the Separate Administration at Longcheng, where he brought great peace to the northeast.


命冀州刺史吳王霸徙治信都。初,燕王皝奇霸之才,故名之曰霸,將以為世子,群臣諫而止,然寵遇猶逾於世子。由是俊惡之,以其嘗墜馬折齒,更名曰X;尋以其應讖文,更名曰垂;遷侍中,錄留台事,徙鎮龍城。垂大得東北之和,俊愈惡之,復召還。

12. It was around this time that Murong Jun changed his brother Murong Ba’s name to Murong Chui. Murong Jun further had him sent away to govern Xindu. When he and Murong Ba were still children, their father Murong Huang had greatly favored Murong Ba for his talents, and this was why he had named him Murong Ba (霸 Ba means “hegemon” or “conqueror”). Murong Huang had even considered making Murong Ba his heir, but his ministers had persuaded him against this. However, Murong Huang had still granted Murong Ba more favors than he did the Crown Prince.

Murong Jun had resented his brother for this. Since Murong Ba had once lost a tooth, Murong Jun renamed him Murong Que (for "missing"), but upon learning that this name seemed to be part of a prophecy, he further renamed his brother to Murong Chui. He originally made Murong Chui a Palace Attendant, making him handle affairs at the Separate Administration, and then sent him away to guard Longcheng. But when Murong Chui began to receive the regard of the people of the northeast, Murong Jun became even more jealous of him, so he recalled him.

去年霸治常山。儁雖忌垂,卒之復燕祚者垂也。天之所置,其可廢乎!

(The previous year, Murong Ba had been governing Changshan.

Though Murong Jun suspected Murong Chui, it was Murong Chui himself who would restore the fortunes of Yan. What man can overturn what Heaven has ordained?)


因墮馬傷前二齒,慕容儁即王位,因改名,外以慕容 為名,內惡而改之。尋以讖記之文,去夬,以垂為名。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui

There was an accident where Murong Ba lost two teeth after falling off a horse. So when Murong Jun became Prince of Yan, he changed Murong Ba's name to Murong Que (the latter being a combination of 垂 and 夬). This was ostensibly to show him favor, but really because Murong Jun disliked him. But later, after Murong Jun learned the words of a prophecy, he removed the 夬 from Murong Ba's given name, making him be named Murong Chui.

垂少好畋遊,因獵墜馬折齒,慕容俊僭即王位,改名X,外以慕郤X為名,內實惡而改之。尋以讖記之文,乃去「夬」,以「垂」為名焉。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Chui was young, he often went hunting, and one time his horse fell on him and knocked out a tooth. After Murong Jun declared himself Emperor of Yan, he changed Murong Ba's name to Murong Que, which means "lacking". Ostensibly this was in recognition of the gap because of the tooth, but really it was because Murong Jun envied Murong Ba. But soon, when he saw the character for Que was part of a prophecy, he dropped the 夬 from it, and so Murong Ba's name became 垂, Chui. (The character Que cannot be printed on this forum; it is the two characters 垂夬 combined.)

儁不能平之。及即王位,以垂墜馬傷齒,改名為X,外以慕郤X為名,內實惡之。尋以讖記之文,乃去夬,以垂為名焉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

After Murong Jun became Prince of Yan, because Murong Ba had lost a tooth when his horse fell over, Murong Jun changed his name to Murong Que. Ostensibly this was in recognition of the gap because of the tooth, but really it was because Murong Jun envied Murong Ba. But soon, when he saw the character for Que was part of a prophecy, he dropped the 夬 from it, and so Murong Ba's name became 垂, Chui.


五月,江西流民郭敞等執陳留內史劉仕,降於姚襄。建康震駭,以吏部尚書周閔為中軍將軍,屯中堂,豫州刺史謝尚自歷陽還衛京師,固江備守。

13. In the fifth month, more than a thousand refugees under Guo Chang and other refugees north of the Yangzi took captive Jin’s Interior Minister of Chenliu, Liu Shi, and offered up the commandary to Yao Xiang. Jiankang was greatly shocked, and the court appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min, to be General of the Central Army, to be camped at the Central Hall. The Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, also marched back from Liyang to defend the capital region, and to guard the line of the Yangzi.

【章:十二行本「等」下有「千餘人」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】晉南渡後,陳留郡寄治譙郡長垣縣界。按《載記》,劉仕時在堂邑。

(Some versions add the phrase "more than a thousand other people" after "Guo Chang and other refugees".

After Jin fled south across the Yangzi, Chenliu commandary was remotely administered from within Zhangyuan County in Qiao commandary. According to the Biography of Yao Xiang in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, at this time, Liu Shi was at Tangyi.)


五月,江西乞活郭敞等執陳留內史劉仕而叛,京師震駭,以吏部尚書周閔爲中軍將軍,屯于中堂,豫州刺史謝尚自歷陽還衛京師。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the fifth month, Guo Chang and other former Lifeseeker commanders north of the Yangzi took captive the Interior Minister of Chenliu, Liu Shi, and rebelled against Jin. Jiankang was greatly shocked, and the court appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min, to be General of the Central Army, to be camped at the Central Hall. The Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, also marched back from Liyang to defend the capital region.

流人郭斁等千餘人執晉堂邑內史劉仕降於襄,朝延大震,以吏部尚書周閔為中軍將軍,緣江備守。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

More than a thousand refugees under Guo Yi arrested Jin's Interior Minister of Tangyi, Liu Shi, and surrendered the commandary to Yao Xiang. The Jin court was greatly disturbed. They appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min as General of the Central Army and had him prepare defenses along the line of the Yangzi.


王擢拔陳倉,殺秦扶風內史毛難。

14. Wang Zhuo captured Chencang, and killed Qin's Interior Minister of Fufeng, Mao Nan.

北海王猛,少好學,倜儻有大志,不屑細務,人皆輕之。猛悠然自得,隱居華陰。聞桓溫入關,披褐詣之,捫虱而談當世之務,旁若無人。溫異之,問曰:「吾奉天子之命,將銳兵十萬為百姓除殘賊,而三秦豪傑未有至者,何也?」猛曰:「公不遠數千里,深入敵境。今長安咫尺,而不渡灞水,百姓未知公心,所以不至。」溫嘿然無以應,徐曰:「江東無卿比也!」乃署猛軍謀祭酒。

15. There lived a certain Wang Meng of Beihai. As a youth, he was very studious. He was a man of talent and high ambitions, and did not conform to social norms nor worry himself with the minutiae of everyday life. Living a life of leisurely repose, he took up hermitage at Huayin in Guanzhong.

When he heard that Huan Wen's army had entered Guanzhong, he put on coarse clothing and went to be received by that general. They conversed on topics of the greatest importance while Wang Meng was picking fleas out of his hair, as though no one were around to notice. Huan Wen was intrigued by him, so he asked Wang Meng, "I bear the commission of the Son of Heaven, and my hundred thousand soldiers have driven the rebels from the field in order to protect the common people. Yet the heroes of the Three Qins hesitate to receive me; why is this?"

Wang Meng replied, "My lord, you have traveled nearly a thousand li, and are deep within enemy territory. Chang'an is now within your grasp. Yet you hesitate to cross the Ba River. The people are not sure of your intent, and so do not come to you."

Huan Wen for some time could make no reply, until at last he said, "In all the Southland there is no one like you!" And he kept Wang Meng with him as an Army Libationer-Consultant.

《王猛傳》:猛,北海劇人,家于魏郡,徐統召而不應,遂隱于華陰山。華陰縣,前漢屬京兆,後漢、晉屬弘農郡。華,戶化翻。猛蓋指出溫之心事,以爲溫之伐秦,但欲以功名鎭服江東,非眞有心於伐罪弔民,恢境境土;不然,何以不渡灞水,徑攻長安?此溫所以無以應也。然余觀桓溫用兵,伐秦至灞上,伐燕至枋頭,皆乘勝進兵,逼其國都,乃持重觀望,卒以取敗。蓋溫,姦雄也,乘勝進兵,逼其國都,冀其望風畏威,有內潰之變也。逼其國都而敵無內變,故持重以待之;情見勢屈,敵因而乘之,故至於敗。蘇子由所謂以智遇智,則其智不足恃者此也。

The Biography of Wang Meng in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Wang Meng was a native of Ju in Beihai. His family was from Wei commandary. Xu Tong summoned him, but Wang Meng did not come to him; instead, he sought recluse at Mount Huayin." During Former Han, Huayin county was part of Jingzhao. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Hongnong commandary. 華 is pronounced "hua (h-ua)".

Wang Meng was able to point out Huan Wen's secret intentions. Namely, that when Huan Wen launched this campaign against Former Qin, it was really for the purpose of gaining achievements and successes to bolster his reputation and shore up his position in the Southland. It was not really in order to punish the wicked and rescue the people. Otherwise, why did he not cross over the Ba River and press the attack on Chang'an? It was because Huan Wen had no intention of doing so. This is what I (Hu Sanxing) noticed when I look at how Huan Wen used his soldiers: when he campaigned against Former Qin, he stopped at Bashang; when he campaigned against Former Yan, he stopped at Fangtou. In both cases, he was pressing his initial victories to march deep into the enemy's territory, and he was close enough to threaten capturing the enemy state's capital, whether at Chang'an or at Ye. But this was followed up by caution and hesitation, waiting to see how things might develop from there, and this led to his ultimate defeats. So it must have been that Huan Wen was an opportunist. He relied upon his initial victories and his threatening posture against the enemy capitals, and hoped that this would be enough to make his enemies fear him; then he could await an internal collapse of the enemy state to take advantage of. But even when he went so far as to threaten the enemy capitals, his enemies did not experience any inner turmoil. By adopting this policy of watching and waiting, he only allowed his own power to dissipate, while his enemies were able to muster their forces, and this led to his defeat. The essayist Su Ziyou (Su Zhe) always said that "meet intelligence with intelligence", but this sort of intelligence was not to be relied upon.


溫與秦丞相雄等戰於白鹿原,溫兵不利,死者萬餘人。初,溫指秦麥以為糧,既而秦人悉芟麥,清野以待之,溫軍乏食。六月,丁丑,徙關中三千餘戶而歸。以王猛為高官督護,欲與俱還,猛辭不就。

16. Huan Wen fought another battle at Bailu Plain against Fu Xiong and other Qin officers, and this time Huan Wen's troops had the worst of the fighting; their dead numbered more than ten thousand.

Huan Wen had originally planned on feeding his troops by foraging the grain from the Qin lands. However, the people of Qin cut down all their crops and cleared the fields in anticipation of Huan Wen’s arrival, so his soldiers went hungry.

In the sixth month, on the day Dingchou (July 7th), Huan's army began to retreat from Guanzhong. He compelled more than three thousand households to return with him. He offered to make Wang Meng his Protector of High Officials, since he hoped that Wang Meng would return south with him, but Wang Meng demurred.

職爲督護,而加之以高官也。魏、晉之間,凡居節鎭者,其部將有督護,其後又置高官督護。王敦鎭武昌,有高官督護繆坦。猛不肯從溫,溫豈不欲殺之邪!蓋溫軍已敗,怱怱退師,不暇殺之也。

An office like Protector was even higher than the high officials. During Cao-Wei and Jin, each garrison had its own established staff, and each subordinate general had his Protectors. Later, the office of Protector of High Officials was also established. During the time that Wang Dun had been stationed at Wuchang, he had Mou Tan as his Protector of High Officials.

Seeing that Wang Meng would not bear to follow Huan Wen, how could Huan Wen not have wished to put him to death! But Huan Wen's army was newly defeated, and Huan Wen was in a rush to lead his troops in retreat. He must have had no time to kill Wang Meng.


六月,苻健將苻雄悉衆及桓溫戰于白鹿原,王師敗績。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the sixth month, Fu Jiàn's general Fu Xiong led all his forces to fight Huan Wen at Bailu Plain. The royal army was defeated.

初,健聞溫之來也,收麥清野以待之,故溫眾大饑。至是,徙關中三千餘戶而歸。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Earlier, when Fu Jiàn heard of Huan Wen's coming, he collected all the ripe grain around the region, and so Huan Wen's army was soon starving. At this time, Huan Wen relocated three thousand households from Guanzhong and retreated.

健弟雄擊溫,破之,溫乃引眾東走。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn's younger brother Fu Xiong attacked Huan Wen and routed him, so Huan Wen led his army to retreat east.


呼延毒帥眾一萬從溫還。秦太子萇等隨溫擊之,比至潼關,溫軍屢敗,失亡以萬數。

17. The rebel Huyan Du led ten thousand men to follow Huan Wen back to Jin.

Fu Chang and the others followed Huan Wen to attack him. When they reached Tong Gate, Huan Wen's army suffered several more defeats, and lost another ten thousand casualties.

及至潼關,又為萇等所敗。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

When Huan Wen reached Tong Gate, he was defeated by Fu Chang and the others.

健遣其太子萇追溫,比至潼關,九敗之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn sent his Crown Prince, Fu Chang, to pursue Huan Wen. Fu Chong caught up with Huan Wen at Tong Gate and defeated him nine times.


溫之屯灞上也,順陽太守薛珍溫徑進逼長安,溫弗從。珍以偏師獨濟,頗有所獲。及溫退,乃還,顯言於眾,自矜其勇而咎溫之持重;溫殺之。

18. While Huan Wen had been camped at Bashang, the Administrator of Shunyang, Xue Zhen, urged Huan Wen to advance to attack Chang’an directly, but Huan Wen would not do it. So Xue Zhen brought his division over the Ba River by themselves, and they captured a few places. Only when Huan Wen’s army retreated did Xue Zhen return. Xue Zhen was constantly talking among the army, puffing up his own importance and courage while faulting Huan Wen for his excessive caution. Huan Wen had him killed.

成帝改順陽曰南鄕郡,旣而復舊。

Emperor Cheng had already restored Shunyang's name to Nanxiang, so Xue Zhen's title should have reflected that here.


秦丞相雄擊司馬勳、王擢於陳倉,勳奔漢中,擢奔略陽。

19. Fu Xiong attacked Sima Xun and Wang Zhuo at Chencang. Sima Xun fled to Hanzhong, while Wang Zhuo fled to Lüeyang.

勳自女媧堡會擢攻陳倉。

Sima Xun had marched from Fort Nuwa to meet up with Wang Zhuo in the assault on Chencang.


司馬勳奔還漢中。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Sima Xun also retreated back to Hanzhong.


秦以光祿大夫趙俱為洛陽刺史,鎮宜陽。

20. Qin appointed the Household Counsellor, Zhao Ju, as Inspector of Luoyang (or, Luozhou), stationed at Yiyang.

【章:十二行本「陽」作「州」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】

Some versions write "Luoyang" as "Luozhou".


秦東海敬武王雄攻喬秉於雍;丙申,卒。秦主健哭之嘔血,曰:「天不欲吾平四海邪?何奪吾元才之速也!」贈魏王,葬禮依晉安平獻王故事。雄以佐命無勳,位兼將相,權侔人主,而謙恭泛愛,遵奉法度,故健重之,常曰:「元才,吾之周公也。」子堅襲爵。堅性至孝,幼有志度,博學多能,交結英豪,呂婆樓、強汪及略陽梁平老皆與之善。

21. Fu Xiong was attacking Qiao Bing at Yong. On the day Bingshen (July 26th), Fu Xiong passed away. Fu Jiàn wept and coughed up blood, wailing, "Is it Heaven's wish that I shall not pacify the Four Seas? Why else has it taken my Yuancai from me so soon?" Fu Xiong was posthumously known as Prince Jingwu ("the Splendid and Martial").

Fu Xiong was further posthumously honored as the Prince of Wei, and his funeral was conducted the same way as Jin's Prince Xian of Anping (Sima Fu). In life, Fu Xiong carried out his orders without difficulties. Although he held high civil and military offices, and was equal in authority to his lord, Fu Xiong remained humble and loving, and respected the law. Thus Fu Jiàn placed great importance upon his brother, often saying of him, "Yuancai is my own Duke of Zhou."

Fu Xiong's son, Fu Jian, inherited his titles. This Fu Jian was of a filial nature, and although young, he possessed great ambition; he was learned and very capable, and befriended many people with heroic mettle. Lü Polou, Qiang Wang, and Liang Pinglao of Lüeyang all favored him.

苻雄,字元才。【章:十二行本「勳」下有「位兼將相」四字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】堅襲爵東海王。苻堅事始此。

(Fu Xiong's style name was Yuancai.

Some versions include the phrase "Fu Xiong held high civil and military offices".

Fu Jian inherited Fu Xiong's title as Prince of Donghai.

This is the first mention of Fu Jian.)


四年,丞相東海王雄卒,贈相國,進封魏王,諡敬武王。雄字元才,洪之季子也。建武中,拜龍驤將軍。雄頭大足短,故軍中稱為大頭龍驤。健甚重之,曰:「元才,吾之姬旦。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the fourth year of Huangshi (354), the Prime Minister and Prince of Donghai, Fu Xiong, passed away. He was posthumously appointed as Chancellor of State, his title was advanced to Prince of Wei, and his posthumous title was Prince Jingwu of Wei.

Fu Xiong, styled Yuancai, was Fu Hong's youngest son. During the Jianwu era, he was appointed as Dragon-Soaring General. Fu Xiong had a large head and short feet, so the people in the army called him "Big Head Dragon-Soaring General". Fu Jiàn greatly appreciated him, saying of him, "Yuancai is my Ji Dan (Duke of Zhou)."

苻雄,字元才,洪之季子也。少善兵書,而多謀略,好施下士,便弓馬,有政術。健僭位,為佐命元勳,權侔人主,而謙恭奉法。健常曰:「元才,吾姬旦也。」及卒,健哭之歐血,曰:「天不欲吾定四海邪?何奪元才之速也!」子堅,別有載記。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Xiong)

Fu Xiong, styled Yuancai, was Fu Hong's youngest son. Even as a youth, he was skilled at the military manuals, and he made many cunning plans and strategies. He enjoyed interacting with his subordinates, and was skilled at mounted archery. He also possessed administrative talents.

When Fu Jiàn declared himself Emperor, Fu Xiong was the most diligent of his followers. Although he was equal in authority to his lord, Fu Xiong remained humble and reverant, and respected the law. Thus Fu Jiàn often saying of him, "Yuancai is my own Ji Dan (Duke of Zhou)." When Fu Xiong passed away, Fu Jiàn wept and coughed up blood, wailing, "Is it Heaven's wish that I shall not pacify the Four Seas? Why else has it taken my Yuancai from me so soon?"

Fu Xiong's son Fu Jian has his own biography.

苻堅字永固,健弟雄之子。趙建武中,母苟氏祈子於西門豹祠,歸而夜夢神交,遂孕,十二月而生堅,有神光之異,自天燭庭,背有赤文隱起,成字曰:「草付,臣又土,王咸陽,」秘錄而莫之傳也。姿貌魁傑,臂垂過膝,目有紫光。祖洪奇而愛之,名堅頭。因而謂健曰:「此兒頭大重身長任大,足短安下,非常相。」趙右光祿大夫、司隸校尉高平徐統有知人之鑒,遇堅於路,異之,執其手曰:「苻郎,此官之御街,小兒敢戲於此,不畏司隸縛耶!」堅曰:「司隸縛罪人,不縛小兒戲也。」統顧左右曰:「此兒有霸王之相。」後遇之,統下車謂曰:「苻郎當大貴,但僕不及見,如何。」堅曰:「若如公言,不敢忘德。」八歲,請就師學。洪曰:「尚小,未可。吾年十三,方欲求師,時人猶以為速成。」健之入關也,次於曲沃,夢天神遣使者朱衣赤冠,命拜堅為龍驤將軍。旦而為壇于曲沃,健泣謂堅曰:「先王昔受此號,汝父曾為之,今若復為神明所授,可不勉之。」性至孝,有器度,博學多才藝。年十一,便有經畧大志。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian, styled Yonggu, was the son of Fu Jiàn's younger brother Fu Xiong. During Later Zhao's Jianwu reign era (335-349), Fu Jian's mother Lady Gou prayed at the shrine of Ximen Bao. When she returned home, during the night she dreamed that she had intercourse with a spirit. She soon became pregnant, and after twelve months, she gave birth to Fu Jian. At that time, there was some strange divine glow that lit up the courtyard of the house from the residence. And there were faint red characters which appeared on Fu Jian's back, which read, "marked by grass, servant and earth, king of Xianyang". A secret record was kept of these words, but no one passed them on. Fu Jian had a remarkable and imposing figure and appearance; his arms hung down past his knees, and his eyes had a purple glow. His grandfather Fu Hong was amazed, and he loved this grandson, naming him Jiantou. And he said to his son Fu Jiàn, "This boy has such a large and heavy head, and his body is tall and large, but his feet are short and sit low. He has no ordinary appearance."

Later Zhao's Household Counselor of the Right and Colonel-Director of Retainers, Xu Tong of Gaoping, was known to be good at reading people's personalities. One time, he encountered the young Fu Jian on the road. Struck by his appearance, he took the boy's hand and said to him, "Young Master Fu, this road is restricted to government use. How does a little boy like you dare to play here? Aren't you afraid that the Colonel-Director will tie you up?"

But Fu Jian replied, "It's criminals that the Colonel-Director ties up, not little boys playing around."

Xu Tong looked to either side before musing, "This boy has the makings of a hegemon king."

There was another time where Xu Tong encountered Fu Jian. He got down from his carriage and said to him, "Young Master Fu, you are going to become great and honored some day. But alas, I won't live to see you in your prime."

Fu Jian replied, "Sir, if it shall be as you say, I will not dare to forget to be virtuous."

When Fu Jian was seven years old, he asked for a tutor to teach him. Fu Hong told him, "You're still too young; you can't study yet. Even I waited until I was twelve before I asked to be assigned command of troops, and people back then still told me it was too soon for me to be asking for such things."

When Fu Jiàn entered Guanzhong, he passed by Quwo. While there, he dreamed of a spiritual envoy sent by Heaven, dressed in a vermilion robe and a red cap, who ordered him to appoint Fu Jian as Dragon-Soaring General. So when morning came, he built an altar at Quwo and wept as he said to Fu Jian, "His Late Majesty used to have this title, and your father once did as well. Now, by the order of divine wisdom I have received, I grant it to you. You must now live up to it."

Fu Jian was studiously filial, with great capacity and potential, and he was educated, learned, and possessed many talents and skills. Even by the time he was ten years old, he had grand ambitions to administer affairs.

堅,字永固,一字文玉,雄第二子也。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian's style name was Yonggu; he also had the style name Wenyu. He was Fu Xiong's second son.


燕樂陵太守慕容鉤,翰之子也,與青州刺史朱禿共治厭次。鉤自恃宗室,每陵侮禿。禿不勝忿,秋,七月,襲鉤,殺之,南奔段龕。

22. Yan's Administrator of Leling, Murong Gou, was the son of Murong Han. He was governing Yanci jointly with Zhu Tu, the recently surrendered warlord and Inspector of Qingzhou. Because Murong Gou was of the royal family, he often lorded it over Zhu Tu. Zhu Tu, no longer able to put up with this behavior, attacked and killed Murong Gou in autumn, the seventh month, and then fled south to Duan Kan.

慕容翰有破高句麗滅宇文之功。爲後燕主誅禿張本。

Murong Han was Murong Jun's uncle; he had achieved success from routing Goguryeo and conquering the Yuwen.

This was why Murong Jun later had Zhu Tu executed (Book 100, 356.22).


秦太子萇攻喬秉於雍,八月,斬之,關中悉平。秦主健賞拒桓溫之功,以雷弱兒為丞相,毛貴為太傅,魚遵為太尉,淮南王生為中軍大將軍,平昌王菁為司空。健勤於政事,數延公卿咨講治道,承趙人苛虐奢侈之後,易以寬簡節儉,崇儒禮士,由是秦人悅之。

23. Fu Chang continued the campaign against the rebel Qiao Bing at Yong. In the eighth month, he executed Qiao Bing, and Guanzhong was once again fully at peace. Fu Jiàn, wishing to reward his commanders for successfully repulsing Huan Wen's invasion, appointed Lei Ruo’er as Prime Minister, Mao Gui as Grand Tutor, Yu Zun as Grand Commandant, Fu Sheng as Grand General of the Central Army, and Fu Jing as Minister of Works.

Fu Jiàn was diligent in governance, often soliciting the advice of his nobles and ministers on how to govern well. After the cruel tyranny and extravagant excesses of the Zhao rule, Fu Jiàn provided a new rule of clemency and frugality, and respect for Confucian scholars. Thus the people of Qin were delighted with him.

燕大調兵眾,因發詔之日,號曰:「丙戌舉。」

24. Yan issued a great draft of soldiers. Because the day that the imperial edict went out was the day Bingqu (September 14th), it became known as the “Bingqu Draft”.

九月,桓溫還自伐秦,帝遣侍中、黃門勞溫於襄陽。

25. In the ninth month, Huan Wen returned from his campaign against Qin. Emperor Mu sent the Palace Attendants and Attendants Gentlemen of the Yellow Gate to Xiangyang to welcome Huan Wen.

侍中、黃門侍郎,自魏以來爲要近之職。

Ever since Cao-Wei, the offices of Palace Attendant and Attendant Gentleman of the Yellow Gate were close important offices.


秋九月辛酉,桓溫糧盡,引還。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the ninth month, on the day Xinyou (October 19th), Huan Wen's grain ran out, so he led his army back again.


或告燕黃門侍郎宋斌等謀奉冉智為主而反,皆伏誅。斌,燭之子也。

26. In Yan, someone told Murong Jun that the Attendant Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Song Bin, was plotting with others to start a rebellion, using Ran Min’s son Ran Zhi as the figurehead for a restoration. All of them were executed. This Song Bin was the son of Song Zhu.

宋燭見九十六卷成帝咸康四年。

Song Zhu was one of the Former Yan ministers killed during Later Zhao's invasion, as mentioned in Book 96, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xiankang (338.12).


秦太子萇之拒桓溫也,為流矢所中,冬,十月,卒,謚曰獻哀。

27. During Fu Chang's battle against Huan Wen, he had been struck by a stray arrow. In winter, the tenth month, he passed away from the wound. His posthumous name was Xian’ai ("the Presented and Lamented").

初,桓溫之入關也,其太子萇與溫戰,為流矢所中死。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Earlier, when Huan Wen had entered Guanzhong and the Crown Prince, Fu Chang, had fought him in battle, Fu Chang had been struck and killed by a stray arrow and died from the wound.

萇亦為流矢所中死。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Chang died from a wound from a stray arrow during the battle at Tong Gate.


燕王俊如龍城。

28. Murong Jun returned to Longcheng.

桓溫之入關也,王擢遣使告涼王祚,言溫善用兵,其志難測。祚懼,且畏擢之叛己,遣人刺之。事洩,祚益懼,大發兵,聲言東伐,實欲西保敦煌,會溫還而止。既而遣秦州刺史牛霸等帥兵三千擊擢,破之。十一月,擢帥眾降秦,秦以擢為尚書,以上將軍啖鐵為秦州刺史。

29. When Huan Wen had entered Guanzhong, Wang Zhuo had sent word to Zhang Zuo, informing him of Huan Wen's great skill in commanding troops. He also reported that Huan Wen's ambition was uncertain. Zhang Zuo, afraid of this estimation, believed that Wang Zhuo himself might be planning to betray him, so he sent an agent to kill Wang Zhuo. But the plot leaked out.

Zhang Zuo became even more afraid, and began drafting a large army, ostensibly to march east to attack Qin, but really to march west so that Zhang Zuo would be able to hold out at Dunhuang if Liangzhou were invaded. However, when Huan Wen went back to Jin, Zhang Zuo canceled the draft.

Zhang Zuo then sent his Inspector of Qinzhou, Niu Ba, and others with three thousand troops to attack Wang Zhuo, and they routed him. In the eleventh month, Wang Zhuo and his men surrendered to Qin, where he was appointed as a Master of Writing, and his assistant Tan Tie was appointed Inspector of Qinzhou.

啖,氐姓也。毛晃曰:音徒覽翻。

啖 Tan was a Di surname. Mao Huang remarked, "It is pronounced 'tan (t-an)'."


太尉桓溫入關,王擢時鎮隴西,馳使於祚,言溫善用兵,勢在難測。祚既震懼,又慮擢反噬,即召馬岌復位而與之謀。密遣親人刺擢,事覺,不克。祚益懼,大聚眾,聲言東征,實欲西保敦煌。會溫還而止。更遣其平東將軍秦州刺史牛霸、司兵張芳率三千人擊擢,破之。擢奔於苻健。其國中五月霜降,殺苗稼果實。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

When the Grand Commandant, Huan Wen, had entered Guanzhong, Wang Zhuo was then guarding Longxi. He sent a fast courier to Zhang Zuo, informing him of Huan Wen's great skill in commanding troops. He also reported that Huan Wen's power was uncertain. Since Zhang Zuo was greatly disturbed, and he was worried that Wang Zhuo might make up a charge against him, he summoned Ma Ji back to his former post to discuss things with him. Zhang Zuo secretly sent a retainer to kill Wang Zhuo, but the plot was discovered and the attempt failed.

Zhang Zuo, now even more afraid, began drafting a large army, ostensibly to march east on campaign, but really to march west so that Zhang Zuo would be able to hold out at Dunhuang if Liangzhou were invaded. However, when Huan Wen went back to Jin, Zhang Zuo canceled the draft.

Zhang Zuo then sent his General Who Pacifies The East and Inspector of Qinzhou, Niu Ba, and his Infantry Commander, Zhang Fang, with three thousand men to attack Wang Zhuo, and they routed him. Wang Zhuo fled to Fu Jiàn. In the late autumn of the fifth month, his state cut the young plants, grain crops, and fruits.


秦王健叔父武都王安自晉還,為姚襄所虜,以為洛州刺史。十二月,安亡歸秦,健以安為大司馬、驃騎大將軍、并州刺史,鎮蒲板。

30. Fu Jiàn had earlier sent the Prince of Wudu, his uncle Fu An, to Jin in order to receive the imperial orders. Fu An had attempted to return to Qin, but was captured by Yao Xiang along the way, who made him his Inspector of Luozhou.

In the twelfth month, Fu An escaped and at last reached Qin. Fu Jiàn appointed him as Grand Marshal, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and Inspector of Bingzhou, and stationed him at Puban.

健遣安來請朝命,見上卷六年。

Fu Jiàn had sent Fu An to the Jin court earlier in Book 98, in the sixth year of Yonghe (350.15).


是歲,秦大饑,米一升直布一匹。

31. During this year, there was a great famine in Qin, and a 升 of rice cost a bolt of cloth.

關中大飢。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

There was a great famine in Guanzhong.
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Mar 22, 2017 11:51 pm

永和十一年(乙卯,公元三五五年)

The Eleventh Year of Yonghe (The Yimao Year, 355 AD)


春,正月,故仇池公楊毅弟宋奴使其姑子梁式王刺殺楊初;初子國誅式王及宋奴,自立為仇池公。桓溫表國為鎮北將軍、秦州刺史。

1. The former Duke of Chouchi, Yang Yi, had a younger brother named Yang Songnu. In spring, the first month, this Yang Songnu sent his cousin Liang Shiwang to kill the current Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu. But Yang Chu's son, Yang Guo, killed Liang Shiwang and Yang Songnu in turn, and then proclaimed himself the new Duke of Chouchi. Huan Wen petitioned for Yang Guo to be appointed as General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Qinzhou.

十一年春正月,平羌校尉、仇池公楊初爲其部將梁式所害,初子國嗣位,因拜鎮北將軍、秦州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eleventh year of Yonghe (355), in spring, the first month, the Colonel Who Pacifies The Qiang and Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu, was killed by his general Liang Shi. Yang Chu's son Yang Guo succeeded him, and so he was appointed as General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Qinzhou.


二月,秦大蝗,百草無遺,牛馬相噉毛。

2. In the second month, Qin was plagued by locusts. All the grass was lost, and the cattle and horses resorted to eating hair off of each other.

〈無草可食,故相噉毛。〉

(There was no grass to eat, so this was why the livestock ate hair off each other.)


蝗虫生於華澤,西至隴山,百草皆盡,牛馬至相噉毛,虎狼食人,行路斷絕。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Locusts spawned at Hua Marsh, and all the grasses west to the Long Mountains were consumed. Cattle and horses were driven to eating hair, and wolves and dholes ate humans, so the roads were all blocked.


夏,四月,燕王俊自和龍還薊。先是,幽、冀之人以俊為東遷,互相驚擾,所在屯結。群臣請討之,俊曰:「群小以朕東巡,故相惑為亂耳。今朕既至,尋當自定,不足討也。」

3. In summer, the fourth month, Murong Jun returned to Ji from Helong.

Earlier, when the people of Youzhou and Jizhou had heard that Murong Jun was going east and before he had returned, disturbances had broken out, and people banded together. The Yan ministers now asked Murong Jun to campaign against the people causing trouble, but he said to them, "This is merely the cause of a few miscreants who, hearing that I was going east on patrol, thought that they could take the chance to stir up some chaos. Now that I have returned, they will settle down on their own, so there is no need for a campaign."

燕主如龍城,見上卷上年。和龍直薊之東。

Murong Jun went to Longcheng in the last year (354) of the previous book (Book 99).

Helong was directly east of Ji.


蘭陵太守孫黑、濟北太守高柱、建興太守高甕/瓫及秦河內太守王會、黎陽太守韓高皆以郡降燕。

4. Among those former Zhao officials who had still not yet gone over to anyone, the Administrator of Lanling, Sun Hei, the Administrator of Jibei, Gao Zhu, the Administrator of Jianxing, Gao Weng/Pen, Qin’s Administrator of Henei, Wang Hui, and the Administrator of Liyang, Han Gao, all submitted to Yan.

瓫,蒲奔翻。史言燕強,諸反側子皆附之。

瓫 is pronounced "pen (p-en)".

This passage demonstrates that because of Yan's strength, all these holdouts went over to it.


I have seen the Administrator of Jianxing’s name here written as either 甕 Weng or 瓫 Pen.

秦淮南王先幼無一目,性粗暴。其祖父洪嘗戲之曰:「吾聞瞎兒一淚,信乎?」生怒,引佩刀自刺出血,曰:「此亦一淚也。」洪大驚,鞭之。生曰:「性耐刀槊,不堪鞭棰!」洪謂其父健曰:「此兒狂悖,宜早除之。不然,必破人家。」健將殺之,健弟雄止之曰:「兒長自應改,何可遽爾!」及長,力舉千鈞,手格猛獸,走及奔馬,擊刺騎射,冠絕一時。獻哀太子卒,強後欲立少子晉王柳;秦主健以讖文有「三羊五眼」,乃立生為太子。以司空、平昌王菁為太尉,尚書令王墮為司空,司隸校尉梁楞為尚書令。

5. Qin's Prince of Huainan, Fu Sheng, had been blind in one eye since childhood, and he possessed a coarse and explosive temperament.

His grandfather Fu Hong had once teased him by asking, "I heard you only cry from one eye; is it true?"

Fu Sheng, angry, pulled out the blade he was carrying and drew blood from himself, saying, "This is how the other eye sheds tears." Fu Hong was greatly astonished by this, and he whipped Fu Sheng. Fu Sheng said, "I can shrug off any sword or spear, only spare me your lashing!"

Fu Hong warned his son Fu Jiàn, "This wild child will bring harm to you; get rid of him now, or else he will destroy your family."

So Fu Jiàn planned to kill Fu Sheng, but his younger brother Fu Xiong objected, saying, "When Fu Sheng grows up, he will change his ways; how can you be so rash?"

When Fu Sheng grew up, he was strong enough to lift a thousand 鈞. He was able to wrestle with wild beasts, and run as fast as a galloping horse. He was skilled in fighting with the sword and in mounted archery, surpassing all others of the age.

After the untimely death of the original Crown Prince, Fu Chang, Empress Qiang wanted to appoint the Prince of Jin, her youngest son Fu Liu, as the new heir. However, Fu Jiàn believed in a prophecy stating that "three goats have five eyes", so he made Fu Sheng his Crown Prince instead. The Minister of Works and Prince of Pingchang, Fu Jing, was appointed as Grand Commandant; the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Duo, was appointed as the new Minister of Works; the Colonel Director of Retainers, Liang Leng, was appointed as the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

秦太子萇,諡曰獻哀。爲苻生以凶暴不克紹張本。楞,盧登翻。

(Crown Prince Fu Chang was posthumously known as Prince Xian'ai ("the Mourned"), as mentioned in the Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354.27).

It was because of Fu Sheng's brutality that he did not last very long on the throne.

楞 is pronounced "leng (l-eng)".)


是年四月,立淮南王生為皇太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the fourth year of Huangshi (354), the fourth month, Fu Jiàn appointed the Prince of Huainan, Fu Sheng, as Crown Prince.

至是,立其子生為太子。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

At this time, Fu Jiàn chose his son Fu Sheng as the new Crown Prince.

苻生字長生,健第三子。幼而麄暴,昏醉無賴。祖洪甚惡之,無一目,七歲,洪戲之,問侍者曰:「吾聞瞎兒一淚,信乎?」侍者曰:「然。」生怒,引佩刀自刺出血,曰:「此亦一淚耶!」洪大驚,鞭之。生曰:「性耐刀槊,不堪鞭捶。」洪曰:「汝為爾不巳,吾將以汝為奴。」生曰:「可不如石勒也。」及長,力舉千鈞,走及奔馬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng, styled Changsheng, was Fu Jiàn's third son. Even as a youth, he was coarse and violent, a muddle-headed drunkard and rascal. His grandfather Fu Hong especially disliked him.

Fu Sheng only had one eye, and when he was six years old, Fu Hong teased him by asking his attendants, "I hear he only cries from one eye; is it true?"

The attendants answered, "It's true."

This angered Fu Sheng, who drew the blade he was carrying and cut himself to draw blood, saying, "This is how the other eye cries."

Fu Hong was greatly astonished, and he whipped Fu Sheng. Fu Sheng said, "I can shrug off any sword or spear, only spare me your lashing!"

Fu Hong said, "If you don't stop acting like that, I'll make you my slave."

Fu Sheng replied, "Then I'll just be like Shi Le."

When Fu Sheng grew up, he was strong enough to lift a thousand 鈞, and he could run as fast as a galloping horse.

生字長生,健第三子也。幼而無賴,祖洪甚惡之。生無一目,為兒童時,洪戲之,問侍者曰:「吾聞瞎兒一淚,信乎?」侍者曰:「然。」生怒,引佩刀自刺出血,曰:「此亦一淚也。」洪大驚,鞭之。生曰:「性耐刀槊,不堪鞭捶。」洪曰:「汝為爾不已,吾將以汝為奴。」生曰:「可不如石勒也。」洪懼,跣而掩其口,謂健曰:「此兒狂勃,宜早除之,不然,長大必破人家。」健將殺之,雄止之曰:「兒長成自當修改,何至便可如此!」健乃止。及長,力舉千鈞,雄勇好殺,手格猛獸,走及奔馬,擊刺騎射,冠絕一時... 萇既死,健以讖言三羊五眼應符,故立為太子。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng, styled Changsheng, was Fu Jiàn's third son. Even as a youth, he was a rascal. His grandfather Fu Hong especially disliked him.

Fu Sheng only had one eye, and when he was a child, Fu Hong teased him by asking his attendants, "I hear he only cries from one eye; is it true?"

The attendants answered, "It's true."

This angered Fu Sheng, who drew the blade he was carrying and cut himself to draw blood, saying, "This is how the other eye cries."

Fu Hong was greatly astonished, and he whipped Fu Sheng. Fu Sheng said, "I can shrug off any sword or spear, only spare me your lashing!"

Fu Hong said, "If you don't stop acting like that, I'll make you my slave."

Fu Sheng replied, "Then I'll just be like Shi Le."

Fu Hong was disturbed by this remark, and he rushed to cover Fu Sheng's mouth. Fu Hong warned his son Fu Jiàn, "This wild child will bring harm to you; get rid of him now, or else he will destroy your family when he grows up."

So Fu Jiàn was about to kill Fu Sheng, but his younger brother Fu Xiong objected, saying, "When the boy grows up, he will change his ways; how can you be so rash?" So Fu Jiàn stopped.

When Fu Sheng grew up, he was strong enough to lift a thousand 鈞. He was a bold and brave man who enjoyed killing; he could wrestle with wild beasts and run as fast as a galloping horse. He was skilled in fighting with the sword and at mounted archery, surpassing all others of the age.

After Fu Chang's death, Fu Jiàn believed in a prophecy that "Three goats have five eyes", and so he made Fu Sheng his new Crown Prince.

生,字長生,健之第三子也。幼而粗暴,昏酒無賴,祖洪甚惡之。生無一目,年七歲,洪戲之,問侍者曰:「吾聞瞎兒一淚,信乎?」侍者曰「然。」生怒,引佩刀自刺出血,曰:「此亦一淚也!」洪驚,鞭之,生曰:「性耐刀矟,不堪鞭捶。」洪曰:「汝為爾不已,吾將以汝為奴。」生曰:「可不如石勒也。」洪懼,跣而掩其口。謂健曰:「此兒狂悖,宜早除之,不然,長大必破人家。」健將殺之,雄止之曰:「兒長成自當修改,何至便如此。」健乃止。及長,力舉千鈞,雄勇好殺,手格猛獸,走及奔馬,擊刺騎射,冠絕一時。初,健之長子死,生母強氏意在少子柳,健以讖有「三羊五眼」之言,故立之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng, styled Changsheng, was Fu Jiàn's third son. Even as a youth, he was coarse and violent, a muddle-headed drunkard and rascal. His grandfather Fu Hong especially disliked him.

Fu Sheng only had one eye, and when he was six years old, Fu Hong teased him by asking his attendants, "I hear he only cries from one eye; is it true?"

The attendants answered, "It's true."

This angered Fu Sheng, who drew the blade he was carrying and cut himself to draw blood, saying, "This is how the other eye cries."

Fu Hong was greatly astonished, and he whipped Fu Sheng. Fu Sheng said, "I can shrug off any sword or spear, only spare me your lashing!"

Fu Hong said, "If you don't stop acting like that, I'll make you my slave."

Fu Sheng replied, "Then I'll just be like Shi Le."

Fu Hong was disturbed by this remark, and he rushed to cover Fu Sheng's mouth. Fu Hong warned his son Fu Jiàn, "This wild child will bring harm to you; get rid of him now, or else he will destroy your family when he grows up."

So Fu Jiàn was about to kill Fu Sheng, but his younger brother Fu Xiong objected, saying, "When the boy grows up, he will change his ways; how can you be so rash?" So Fu Jiàn stopped.

When Fu Sheng grew up, he was strong enough to lift a thousand 鈞. He was a bold and brave man who enjoyed killing; he could wrestle with wild beasts and run as fast as a galloping horse. He was skilled in fighting with the sword and at mounted archery, surpassing all others of the age.

After the death of Fu Jiàn's eldest son, Fu Chang, his mother Empress Qiang wanted to appoint her youngest son Fu Liu as the new heir. However, Fu Jiàn believed in a prophecy stating that "three goats have five eyes", so he made Fu Sheng his Crown Prince instead.


姚襄所部多勸襄北還,襄從之。五月,襄攻冠軍將軍高季於外黃,會季卒,襄進據許昌。

6. Many of Yao Xiang's followers urged him to march north again, and he heeded their advice. In the fifth month, he attacked Jin’s Champion General, Gao Ji, at Waihuang. Gao Ji soon passed away, and Yao Xiang advanced and captured Xuchang.

外黃縣,自漢以來屬陳留郡。賢曰:外黃故城在今汴州雍丘縣東。

(Since Han times, Waihuang County had been in Chenliu commandary. Li Xian remarked: "The old city of Waihuang was in the eastern part of Yongqiu County in modern Bianzhou.")


夏四月壬申,姚襄帥衆寇外黃,冠軍將軍高季大破之... 三月,姚襄入于許昌。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fourth month, Yao Xiang led his forces to invade Waihuang, where he was greatly routed by the Champion General, Gao Ji.

In the twelfth year of Yonghe (356), in the third month, Yao Xiang entered Xuchang.

羌姚襄自稱大將軍、大單于。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

The Qiang leader Yao Xiang declared himself Grand General and Grand Chanyu.

襄方軌引北,自稱大將軍、大單于,據許昌。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang led his forces north. He declared himself Grand General and Grand Chanyu, and he occupied Xuchang.

襄將佐部眾皆北人,咸勸襄北還。襄方軌北引,自稱大將軍、大單于,進攻外黃,為晉邊將所敗。襄收散卒而勤撫恤之,於是復振。乃據許昌。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang's generals and original soldiers were all northerners, and they all urged him to return north again. So Yao Xiang led his forces north. He declared himself Grand General and Grand Chanyu. He advanced to attack Waihuang, but he was defeated by Jin's border generals. Despite the defeat, Yao Xiang gathered up his scattered soldiers and encouraged and nurtured them to restore their spirits, and their morale was boosted. He then occupied Xuchang.

襄進屯淮南,自稱大將軍、大單于。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Xiang advanced to camp at Huainan. He declared himself Grand General and Grand Chanyu.


六月,丙子,秦主健寢疾。庚辰,平昌王菁勒兵入東宮,將殺太子生而自立。時生侍疾西宮,菁以為健已卒,攻東掖門。健聞變,登端門,陳兵自衛。眾見健,惶懼,皆捨仗逃散。健執菁,數而殺之,餘無所問。

7. In the sixth month, on the day Bingzi (July 1st), Fu Jiàn was bedridden by illness.

On the day Gengchen (July 5th), Fu Jing led troops into the Eastern Palace, intending to kill Fu Sheng and take the throne in his place. However, at that time, Fu Sheng was attending to Fu Jiàn’s illness in the Western Palace. Fu Jing believed that Fu Jiàn had already died, so he attacked the eastern postern gate. When Fu Jiàn heard of this development, he ascended the gate and ordered the soldiers to protect him. When Fu Jing’s soldiers saw Fu Jiàn, they became afraid, and they threw down their weapons and scattered and fled. Fu Jiàn seized Fu Jing, outlined his crimes, and then killed him alone, while sparing the rest.

【章:十二行本「公」作「王」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】秦主所居爲西宮。

Some versions list Fu Jing as being "Duke" instead of "Prince".

The Western Palace was the residence of the sovereign of Qin (as opposed to the Eastern Palace, which was the residence of the Crown Prince).


健寢疾,菁勒兵入東宮,將殺苻生自立。時生侍健疾,菁以健為死,回攻東掖門。健聞變,升端門陳兵,眾皆舍杖逃散,執菁殺之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

When Fu Jiàn was bedridden by illnes, Fu Jing led troops into the eastern palace, planning to kill Fu Sheng and make himself the next ruler. At that time, Fu Sheng was tending to Fu Jiàn's illness. Fu Jing believed that Fu Jiàn was already dead, so he turned and attacked the eastern postern gate. When Fu Jiàn learned of the development, he ascended the gate and ordered the soldiers, and they all cast down their weapons and scattered and fled. Fu Jing was captured and killed.


壬午,以大司馬、武都王安都督中外諸軍事。甲申,健引太師魚遵、丞相雷弱兒、太傅毛貴、司空王墮、尚書令梁楞、左僕射梁安、右僕射段純、吏部尚書辛牢等受遺詔輔政。健謂太子生曰:「六夷酋師及大臣執權者,若不從汝命,宜漸除之。」

8. On the day Renwu (July 7th), Qin's Grand Marshal and Prince of Wudu, Fu An, was appointed as Commander of all military affairs.

On the day Jiashen (July 9th), Fu Jiàn appointed a council of elders: the Grand Tutor, Yu Zun, the Prime Minister, Lei Ruo'er, the Grand Commandant, Mao Gui, the Minister of Works, Wang Duo, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Leng, the Deputy Director of the Left, Liang An, the Deputy Director of the Right, Duan Chun, and the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Xin Lao.

But Fu Jiàn told Fu Sheng, "If any of the chiefs and generals of the Six Tribes or the powerful ministers does not heed your orders, you should gradually do away with them."

苻雄死,健以菁都督中外諸軍;菁以逆誅,以安代之。爲苻生虐殺大臣張本。

(After Fu Xiong's death, Fu Jiàn had appointed Fu Jing as Commander over all military affairs. Now that Fu Jing had been executed, Fu An was appointed in his place.

This was why Fu Sheng later slaughtered these high ministers.)


六月,健寢疾,引太帥魚遵、丞相雷弱兒、太傅毛貴、司空王墮等,囑以後事,受遺輔政。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the fourth year of Huangshi (354), the sixth month, Fu Jiàn was bedridden by illness. He summoned a council of elders to entrust them with affairs after his death and have them carry out his will as regents: the Grand Instructor, Yu Zun, the Prime Minister, Lei Ruo'er, the Grand Commandant, Mao Gui, the Minister of Works, Wang Duo, and others.

初,生少凶暴嗜酒,健臨死,恐其不能保全家業,誡之曰:「酋師、大臣若不從汝命,可漸除之。」(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Even as a youth, Fu Sheng was wild, violent, and given to drinking. When Fu Jiàn was about to die, he feared Fu Sheng would not be able to fully maintain his legacy and position. So he told Fu Sheng, "If any of the chiefs and generals or the powerful ministers does not heed your orders, you should gradually do away with them."


臣光曰:顧命大臣,所以輔導嗣子,為之羽翼也。為之羽翼而教使剪之,能無斃乎!知其不忠。則勿任而已矣。任以大柄,又從而猜之,鮮有不召亂者也。

9. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: The purpose of appointing such ministers is to assist the heir, so that they might act as his wings. To give the heir such wings and then instruct him to clip them; how could they not perish? If Fu Jiàn did not trust these people, he should not have appointed them to such roles. But since he did appoint them, to encourage doubts and second-guessing against them only made him cause more trouble.

乙酉,健卒,謚曰景明皇帝,廟號高祖。丙戌,太子生即位,大赦,改元壽光。群臣奏曰:「未逾年而改元,非禮也。」生怒,窮推議主,得右僕射段純,殺之。

10. On the day Yiyou (July 10th), Fu Jiàn passed away. His posthumous name was Emperor Jingming ("the Splendid and Wise"), and his temple name was Gaozu.

On the day Bingxu (July 11th), Fu Sheng rose to the throne. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to Shouguang.

The ministers counseled him, "It is improper to change the reign era title before being on the throne for a year." Fu Sheng was angered by this; he conducted a thorough investigation to find the originator of this objection, and found that it was the Deputy Director of the Right, Duan Chun, so he killed Duan Chun.

年三十九。苻生,字長生,健第三子也。古禮,君薨,世子卽位,旣踰年而後稱元年。

(Fu Jiàn was thirty-eight when he died.

Fu Sheng, styled Changsheng, was Fu Jian's third son.

It was ancient tradition that after a ruler was buried, his heir would inherit his throne, and at the beginning of a new year would declare a new reign era title.)


六月,苻健死,其子生嗣偽位。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the sixth month, Fu Jiàn passed away. His son Fu Sheng succeeded him.

十八年,苻健死,子生僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the eighteenth year of Jianguo (355), Fú Jiàn passed away; his son Fu Sheng succeeded him.

乙酉,薨於太極前殿,年四十九。葬原陵,偽諡明皇帝,廟號世宗。永興初,追尊曰景明皇帝,號高祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the fourth year of Huangshi (354), the sixth month, on the day Yiyou, Fu Jiàn passed away in the front hall of the Taiji Palace. He was forty-eight years old. He was buried at Yuan Tomb, his posthumous title was Emperor Ming, and his temple name was Shizong.

At the beginning of Former Qin's Yongxing reign era (~357), Fu Jiàn's posthumous title was changed to Emperor Jingming, and his temple name was changed to Gaozu.

數日,健死,時年三十九,在位四年。偽諡明皇帝,廟號世宗,後改曰高祖。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Several days later, Fu Jiàn passed away; he was thirty-eight years old, in the fourth year of his reign. He was honored as Emperor Ming, and his temple name was Shizong, later changed to Gaozu.

十八年,健死,子生僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

In the eighteenth year of Jianguo (355), Fu Jiàn passed away. His son Fu Sheng succeeded him.

皇始五年,僭即皇帝位,大赦改年。羣臣奏:「先帝晏駕甫爾,不宜改號。」生怒不從,窮推議主。壽光元年七月,殺右僕射段純。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

In the fifth year of Huangshi (355), Fu Sheng succeeded Fu Jiàn as Emperor of Qin. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title.

His ministers sent in a memorial stating, "His Late Majesty has only just passed away and left you the throne. You should not change the reign era title so quickly."

Fu Sheng angrily ignored the memorial, and he investigated who had been the chief proponent of the idea. In the first year of Shouguang (355), the seventh month, he killed the Deputy Director of the Right, Duan Chun.

健卒,僭即皇帝位,大赦境內,改年壽光,時永和十二年也。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Following Fu Jiàn's death, the imperial throne passed to Fu Sheng, who declared a general amnesty within his domain. He changed the reign era title to Shouguang; this was in the twelfth year of Yonghe (355).

生既僭立,號年壽光。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

After Fu Sheng came to the throne, he changed the reign era title to Shouguang.


秋,七月,以吏部尚書周閔為左僕射。

11. In autumn, the seventh month, Jin’s Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left.

秋七月,以吏部尚書周閔爲尚書左僕射,領軍將軍王彪之爲尚書右僕射。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the seventh month, the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, and the General Who Leads The Army, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right.


或告會稽王昱曰:「武陵王第中大脩器仗,將謀非常。」昱以去太常王彪之曰:「武陵王之志,盡於馳騁畋獵而己耳,深願,靜之,以安異同之論,勿復以為言!」昱善之。

12. In Jin, someone said to Sima Yu, "The Prince of Wuling (Sima Xi) has been gathering weapons and equipment. He must be plotting something unusual soon."

Sima Yu went to the Minister of Ceremonies, Wang Biaozhi, who said to him, "The Prince of Wuling's desire is only to ride around and go hunting, nothing more. I pray that you be at ease, so that the rumors may be put to rest. Do not speak of this again!"

Sima Yu agreed with him.

武陵王晞也。爲武陵終以此得禍、彪之所不能救張本。

The Prince of Wuling was Sima Xi.

This was why when Sima Xi later met with misfortune, Wang Biaozhi was unable to save him.


秦主生尊母強氏曰皇太后,立妃梁氏為皇后。梁氏,安之女也。以其嬖臣太子門大夫南安趙韶為右僕射,太子舍人趙誨為中護軍,著作郎董榮為尚書。

13. Fu Sheng honored his mother, Lady Qiang, as Empress Dowager. He honored his wife, Lady Liang, as Empress. This Lady Liang was the daughter of Liang An.

Among Fu Sheng’s personal servants from his time as Crown Prince, he appointed the Keeper of the Crown Prince's Gates, Zhao Shao of Nan'an, as Deputy Director of the Right, he appointed the Crown Prince’s Retainer, Zhao Hui, as Protector of the Army of the Center, and he appointed the Gentleman-Author, Dong Rong, as a Master of Writing.

《續漢志》:太子門大夫二人,職比郎將。

(The Continued Records of Han states, "The two Keepers of the Crown Prince's Gates serve him in a similar capacity to Generals of the Household Gentlemen.")


生以太子門大夫趙韶為僕射,太子舍人趙誨為中護軍,著作郎佐董榮為尚書,並以佞幸進也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng appointed the Keeper of the Crown Prince's Gates, Zhao Shao, as Deputy Director of the Right, he appointed the Crown Prince’s Retainer, Zhao Hui, as Protector of the Army of the Center, and he appointed the Gentleman-Author, Dong Rong, as a Master of Writing. All of his personal favorites were advanced in office.

生尊其母強氏為皇太后,立妻梁氏為皇后。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng honored his mother Lady Qiang as Empress Dowager, and his wife Lady Liang as Empress.


涼王祚淫虐無道,上下怨憤。祚惡河州刺史張瓘之強,遣張掖太守索孚代瓘守枹罕,使瓘討叛胡,又遣其將易揣、張玲帥步騎萬三千以襲瓘。張掖人王鸞知術數,言於祚曰:「此軍出,必不還,涼國將危。」並陳祚三不道。祚大怒,以鸞為妖言,斬以徇。鸞臨刑曰:「我死,軍敗於外,王死於內,必矣!」祚族滅之。瓘聞之,斬孚,起兵擊祚,傳檄州郡,廢祚,以侯還第,復立涼寧侯曜靈。易揣、張玲軍始濟河,瓘擊破之。揣等單騎奔還,瓘軍躡之,姑臧振恐。驍騎將軍敦煌宋混兄修,與祚有隙,懼禍。八月,混與弟澄西走,合眾萬餘人以應瓘,還向姑臧。祚遣楊秋胡將曜靈於東苑,拉其腰而殺之,埋於沙坑,謚曰哀公。

14. The King of Liang, Zhang Zuo, was cruel and without principle. People of all positions despised him.

Zhang Zuo was wary of the power held by the Inspector of Hezhou, Zhang Guan. So he sent the Administrator of Zhangye, Suo Fu, to take over the command of Fuhan in Zhang Guan's place, while he ordered Zhang Guan to campaign against rebellious tribes. Zhang Zuo then sent his generals Yi Chuai and Zhang Ling with thirteen thousand horse and foot to attack Zhang Guan.

A native of Zhangye, Wang Luan, who was skilled in divination warned Zhang Zuo, "If this army goes out, it will certainly shall not return. Then Liang will soon face great peril." And then he listed three ways in which Zhang Zuo acted wrongly. Zhang Zuo became so angry that he accused Wang Luan of treasonous talk, and had him put to death. As Wang Luan was being lead to his execution, he said, "So sure as I die, the army without will be defeated, and the lord within will die; this is certain!" Zhang Zuo wiped out his clan as well.

When Zhang Guan heard the news of all these events, he executed Suo Fu and began raising troops to attack Zhang Zuo. He sent out proclamations among the provinces and commandaries, declaring his intent to depose Zhang Zuo and exile him to his marquisate residence, and restore the former ruler of Liangzhou, the Marquis of Liangning, Zhang Yaoling. Zhang Guan attacked Yi Chuai and Zhang Lun's army as it was crossing the Yellow River, and routed them. Yi Chuai and a few others escaped on horseback. Zhang Guan pursued their retreating forces, and Guzang was gripped by fear.

The General of Agile Cavalry, Song Hun of Dunhuang, and his elder brother Song Xiu, also held a grudge against Zhang Zuo and had been worried about their own fates. So in the eighth month, Song Hun and his younger brother Song Deng fled to the west and gathered an army of more than ten thousand soldiers to aid Zhang Guan, before they all marched back towards Guzang.

Zhang Zuo sent Yang Qiuhu to take Zhang Yaoling to the Eastern Garden, where Yang Qiuhu bent Zhang Yaoling backwards at the waist until his spine snapped, killing him; he was buried in the sand, and his posthumous name was Duke Ai (“the Lamented”).

張駿置河州,治枹罕。索,昔各翻。枹,音膚。易,讀如字,姓也。揣,初委翻。玲,盧經翻。曜靈廢見上卷上年。

Zhang Jun had created the province of Hezhou, which was administered from Fuhan.

索 is pronounced "Xe (x-e)". 枹 is pronounced "Fu". 易 is read like the character (yi), and is a surname. 揣 is pronounced "chuai (ch-ei)". 玲 is pronounced "ling (l-ing)".

Zhang Yaoling's deposition was described in Book 99, in the ninth year of Yonghe (353.24).


二年,有神降于玄武殿,自稱玄宴,與人交語。祚日夜祈之,神言與之福利,祚甚信之。征東張瓘遣兵傳檄,廢祚還第,復立靈曜。八月,祚收瓘弟琚及其子嵩等。驍騎將軍宋混兄修,素與祚有隙,大懼。祚疑之,混西奔,招合夷晉,衆至萬餘人,還向姑臧。祚遣陽秋胡將靈曜于苑,拉其腰而殺之,埋於沙坑。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

In the second year of Zhang Zuo's Heping reign era (355), there was a spirit that descended at Xuanwu Hall. It called itself Xuanming, and it talked with people. Zhang Zuo prayed to it day and night, and the spirit spoke with him of fortune and blessings, so Zhang Zuo deeply trusted it.

The General Who Conquers The East, Zhang Guan, dispatched soldiers to spread a proclamation, stating his intention to depose Zhang Zuo and exile him to his residence, and to restore Zhang Yaoling. In the eighth month, Zhang Zuo arrested Zhang Guan's younger brother Zhang Ju, his son Zhang Song, and others.

The General of Agile Cavalry, Song Hun, and his older brother Song Xiu had long had a grudge against Zhang Zuo, and they were very afraid for themselves. Zhang Zuo suspected them, so Song Hun fled west, where he called up and assembled the tribesmen and the Jin people, forming an army of over ten thousand, before they marched back towards Guzang.

Zhang Zuo sent Yang Qiuhu to take to Zhang Yaoling to the Garden, where Yang Qiuhu bent Zhang Yaoling at the waist until his spine snapped, killing him; he then buried Zhang Yaoling in the sand.

九年冬十月,張祚弑耀靈。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the ninth year of Yonghe (353), in winter, the tenth month, Zhang Zuo murdered Zhang Yaoling.

祚尋使楊秋胡害耀靈于東苑,埋之於沙坑,私諡曰哀公。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Yaoling)

Zhang Zuo soon sent Yang Qiuhu to kill Zhang Yaoling in the Eastern Garden, and had him buried in the sand. Zhang Yaoling's posthumous title was Duke Ai ("the Lamented").

祚宗人張瓘時鎮枹罕,祚惡其強,遣其將易揣、張玲率步騎萬三千以襲之。時張掖人王鸞頗知神道,言於祚曰:「軍出不復還,涼國將有不利矣。」祚大怒,以鸞妖言沮眾,斬之以徇,三軍乃發。鸞臨刑曰:「我死不二十日,軍必敗。」時有神降於玄武殿,自稱玄冥,與人交語。祚日夜祈之,神言與之福利,祚甚信之。祚又遣張掖太守索孚代瓘鎮枹罕,為瓘所殺。玲等濟河未畢,又為瓘兵所破。仍舊單騎奔走,瓘軍躡之。祚眾震懼。敦煌人宋混與弟澄等聚眾以應瓘。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

Zhang Zuo's kinsman Zhang Guan was at this time stationed at Fuhan. Zhang Zuo resented Zhang Guan's strength. So he sent his generals Yi Chuai and Zhang Ling with thirteen thousand horse and foot to attack Zhang Guan.

At that time, a native of Zhangye, Wang Luan, who knew the ways of the spirits warned Zhang Zuo, "If this army goes out, it will certainly shall not return. Then Liang will be in a disadvantageous position." Zhang Zuo became greatly angry, and he accused Wang Luan of treasonous talk to dishearten the army, and had him put to death. As Wang Luan was being lead to his execution, he said, "Within twenty days of my death, the army shall certainly be defeated."

At that time, there was a spirit that descended at Xuanwu Hall. It called itself Xuanming, and it talked with people. Zhang Zuo prayed to it day and night, and the spirit spoke with him of fortune and blessings, so Zhang Zuo deeply trusted it.

Zhang Zuo also sent the Administrator of Zhangye, Suo Fu, to take over the command of Fuhan in Zhang Guan's place, but he was killed by Zhang Guan. Zhang Ling and the others were in the process of crossing the Yellow River when they were also routed by Zhang Guan's soldiers. They barely fled alone on old horses, and Zhang Guan's army trampled them. Zhang Zuo's army was greatly disturbed and frightened.

A native of Dunhuang, Song Hun, his younger brother Song Cheng, and others gathered an army together in support of Zhang Guan.


秦主生封衛大將軍黃眉為廣平王,前將軍飛為新興王,皆素所善也。征大司馬武都王安領太尉。以晉王柳為征東大將軍、并州牧,鎮蒲板;魏王廋為鎮東大將軍、豫州牧,鎮陝城。中書監胡文、中書令王魚言於生曰:「比有星孛於大角,熒惑入東井。大角,帝坐;東井,秦分;於占不出三年,國有大喪,大臣戮死;願陛下修德以禳之!」生曰:「皇后與朕對臨天下,可以應在喪矣。毛太傅、梁車騎、梁僕射受遺輔政,可以應大臣矣。」九月,生殺梁後及毛貴、梁楞、梁安。貴,後之舅也。右僕射趙韶、中護軍趙誨,皆洛州刺史俱之從弟也,有寵於生,乃以俱為尚書令。俱固辭以疾,謂韶、誨曰:「汝等不復顧祖宗,欲為滅門之事!毛、梁何罪,而誅之?吾何功,而代之?汝等可自為,吾其死矣!」遂以憂卒。

15. In Qin, Fu Sheng appointed the Grand Guard General, Fu Huangmei, as Prince of Guangping, and the General of the Front, Fu Fei, as Prince of Xinxing, since both of them had long been his favorites. The Grand Conquering Marshal and Prince of Wudu, Fu An, was appointed as Grand Commandant. Fu Liu was appointed as Grand General Who Conquers the East and Governor of Bingzhou, and he was stationed at Puban. The Prince of Wei, Fu Sou, was appointed Grand General Who Guards the East and Governor of Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Shancheng.

The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Hu Wen, and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yu, said to Fu Sheng, "There have been shooting stars in the Great Horn quadrant lately, and Mars has entered the Eastern Well. The Great Horn is the seat of Emperors, and the Eastern Well represents the Qin region. This means that within three years, there will be an imperial death, and some great ministers will die unnatural deaths. We implore Your Majesty to practice virtue in order to avert these calamities!"

But Fu Sheng replied, "The Empress presides over the realm just as much as I do; she may serve as the 'imperial death'. And Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An were appointed as elders of state by my father's will; they may serve as these 'great ministers'." So in the ninth month, Fu Sheng executed Empress Liang, Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An. This Mao Gui was the Empress's uncle.

The Deputy Director of the Right, Zhao Shao, and the Protector of the Army of the Center, Zhao Hui, were younger cousins of the Inspector of Luozhou, Zhao Ju. Because he favored the two of them, Fu Sheng appointed Zhao Ju as the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing. But Zhao Ju pleaded illness to refuse the post, and he said to Zhao Shao and Zhao Hui, "You lot have stopped caring about our ancestors, haven’t you, to do such things that would bring about the extermination of our clan! What crime did Mao Gui or the Liangs commit, to deserve death? What achievements have I earned, to take their place? But you men follow your own course, since I’m going to die soon anyway!" He then became sick with worry and passed away.

健臨沒,以安督中外諸軍,然尚在蒲阪,今生乃召之。阪,音反。廋,疏鳩翻。陝,失冉翻。《天文志》:大角在攝提間。大角者,天王坐也。東井,八星。東井、輿鬼,秦、雍州分。趙俱鎭宜陽,事見上卷上年。

(Fu Jiàn had appointed Fu An to the role of Commander on his deathbed, and he was sent to Puban. Fu Sheng was now summoning him back.

阪 is pronounced "fan". 廋 is pronounced "sou (sh-iu)". 陝 is pronounced "shan (sh-an)".

The Records on Astrology say, "The Great Horn lies between the Left and Right Sheti constellations, and it signifies heavenly princes." And in another place, "The Eastern Well is a constellation of eight stars." And elsewhere, "The Eastern Well and the Carriage Ghost constellations correspond to Qinzhou and Yongzhou."

Zhao Ju's appointment to guard Yiyang was mentioned in the last year of Book 99 (354.20).)


Shancheng is the modern city of Sanmenxia in Henan province.

九月,中書監胡文、中書令王魚言於生曰:「比頻有客星孛於大角,熒惑入于東井。大角為帝座,東井秦之分野。不出三年,國有大喪,大臣戮死。願陛下遂追周文,脩德以禳之。」生曰:「皇后與朕對臨天下,亦足以塞大喪之變。」於是殺皇后梁氏。誅太傅錄尚書毛貴、車騎尚書令梁楞、左僕射梁安。后,安之女孫。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

In the ninth month, the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Hu Wen, and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yu, said to Fu Sheng, "There have been shooting stars in the Great Horn quadrant lately, and Mars has entered the Eastern Well. The Great Horn is the seat of Emperors, and the Eastern Well represents the Qin region. This means that within three years, there will be an imperial death, and some great ministers will die unnatural deaths. We implore Your Majesty to follow the precedents of King Wen of Zhou, and practice virtue in order to avert these calamities!"

But Fu Sheng replied, "The Empress presides over the realm just as much as I do; she may serve as the 'imperial death'." So he killed his Empress, Lady Liang. He also executed the Grand Tutor and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, Mao Gui, the General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Leng, and the Deputy Director of the Left, Liang An. Empress Liang was Liang An's granddaughter.

生以呂婆樓為侍中、左大將軍,苻安領太尉,苻柳為征東大將軍、并州牧,鎮蒲阪,苻謏為鎮東大將軍、豫州牧,鎮陝城,自余封授有差... 初,生將強懷與桓溫戰沒,其子延未及封而健死。會生出遊,懷妻樊氏于道上書,論懷忠烈,請封其子。生怒,射而殺之。偽中書監胡文、中書令王魚言於生曰:「比頻有客星孛於大角,熒惑入于東井。大角為帝坐,東井秦之分野,於占,不出三年,國有大喪,大臣戮死。願陛下遠追周文,修德以禳之,惠和群臣,以成康哉之美。」生曰:「皇后與朕對臨天下,亦足發塞大喪之變。毛太傅、梁車騎、梁僕射受遺輔政,可謂大臣也。」於是殺其妻梁氏及太傅毛貴,車騎、尚書令梁楞,左僕射梁安。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng appointed Lü Polou as Palace Attendant and Grand General of the Left, and Fu An as acting Grand Commandant. He appointed Fu Liu as Grand General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Bingzhou, and Fu Liu was stationed at Puban. He appointed Fu Sou as Grand General Who Guards The East and Governor of Yuzhou, and Fu Sou was stationed at Shancheng. Other officials received similar appointments.

Earlier, Fu Sheng's general Qiang Huai had died in battle during the war against Huan Wen. His son Qiang Yan had not been ennobled before Fu Jiàn's death. Later, when Fu Sheng was out traveling, Qiang Huai's wife Lady Fan presented a memorial to him on the road, outlining her husband's loyal martyrdom, and asking that his son be granted rank. Fu Sheng, angry, shot an arrow at her and killed her.

At another time, Fu Sheng was approached by his Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Hu Wen, and his Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yu, who said to him, "There have been frequent novas and comets in the Great Horn quadrant, and Mars has entered the Eastern Well. The Great Horn is the seat of Emperors, and the Eastern Well symbolizes Qin. We predict that, in less than three years, there will be an imperial death, and some great ministers will die unnatural deaths. We ask that Your Majesty follow the example of King Wen of Zhou, reform your conduct and cultivate virtue to avert the disaster. Show kindness to the ministers, and improve peace and tranquility."

But Fu Sheng replied, "The Empress presides over the realm just as much as I do; she may serve as the 'imperial death'. The Grand Tutor, Mao Gui, the General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Leng, and the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing of the Left, Liang An, were appointed as elders of state by my father's will; they may serve as these 'great ministers'." So he killed Empress Liang and Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An.


涼宋混軍於武始大澤,為曜靈發哀。閏月,混軍至姑臧,涼王祚收張瓘弟琚及子嵩,將殺之。琚、嵩聞之,募市人數百,揚言:「張祚無道,我兄大軍已至城東,敢舉手者誅三族!」遂開西門納混兵。領軍將軍趙長等懼罪,入閣呼張重華母馬氏出殿,立涼武侯玄靚為主。易揣等引兵入殿,收長等,殺之。祚按劍殿上,大呼,叱左右力戰。祚素失眾心,莫肯為之鬥者,遂為兵人所殺。混等梟其首,宣示內外,暴屍道左,城內咸稱萬歲。以庶人禮葬之,並殺其二子。混、琚上玄靚為大將軍、涼州牧、西平公,赦境內,復稱建興四十三年。時玄靚始七歲。

16. In Liangzhou, Song Hun's army was at the great marsh at Wushi, where they went into mourning for Zhang Yaoling.

In the intercalary month, Song Hun's army reached Guzang. Zhang Zuo ordered Zhang Guan's younger brother Zhang Ju and son Zhang Song to be arrested, planning to kill them. When the two of them learned of it, they gathered several hundred people from the city and proclaimed, "Zhang Zuo is without principle. Our elder brother's grand army is already east of the city, and let anyone who dares raise a hand against them suffer death with their whole clan!" Having said this, they rushed to open the western gate and let in Song Hun’s army.

The General Who Directs The Army, Zhao Zhang, and others in Zhang Zuo's court were afraid that they would be punished by Song Hun's army. So they entered the women's chambers and begged Zhang Chonghua's mother Lady Ma to come out to the hall, where they acclaimed the Marquis of Liangwu, Zhang Xuanjing, as their new lord. But Zhang Zuo's general Yi Chuai and others forced their troops into the palace, took hold of Zhang Chang and the others, and killed them.

Zhang Zuo, standing at the head of the hall, grasped his sword and gave a great shout, calling on those around him to fight hard. But he had already lost the hearts of the people, and there was no one left who was willing to fight for him, so he was killed by the soldiers. Song Hun and the others cut off Zhang Zuo's head, proclaimed his death throughout all of Liangzhou’s territory, and exposed his body by the side of the road. Everyone inside the city praised Song Hun’s name. Zhang Zuo was buried with the rites fit for a commoner, and his two sons were also put to death.

Song Hun and Zhang Ju acclaimed Zhang Xuanjing as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. A general amnesty was declared within Liangzhou's territory, and the former reign era title was restored, so that it was now the forty-third year of Jianxing. At this time, Zhang Xuanjing was six years old.

張駿分狄道縣,立武始郡。宋混西走,起兵必不東向狄道。《水經》︰都野澤在武威縣東北。《註》云:在姑臧城北三百里。都野卽《禹貢》之豬野,其水上承姑臧武始澤,澤在姑臧西。趙長,請立祚者也,故懼罪。靚,疾郢翻,又疾正翻。張祚改建興年號,見上卷上年。

The location of this "Wushi" is uncertain. It is true that Zhang Jun had split off part of Didao county to form a Wushi commandary. But since Song Hun had fled west from Guzang, when his troops then marched east, they would have reached Guzang again before entering the territory of Didao county.

The Water Classic says, "Duye Marsh was in the northeast of Wuwei County." The Commentary to the Water Classic adds, "It was three hundred li north of Guzang." Duye corresponds to the "Zhuye Marsh" mentioned in the Tribute of Yu (Book of Documents, Tribute of Yu #10). Its water comes from the Wushi Marsh of Guzang, so this marsh was west of Guzang.

Zhao Zhang was one of the people who had asked that Zhang Zuo take the throne: this was the crime he feared punishment for.

靚 is pronounced "jing (j-ing)", or "jeng (j-eng)".

Zhang Zuo had changed the reign era title from Jianxing to Heping at the beginning of the previous year, as mentioned in Book 99 (354.1).


九月,宋混次於武始大澤,為靈曜發哀。閏月,混至姑臧。祚登神雀觀,張琚、張嵩殺祚守卒,死者四百餘人,斬西門關納混,領軍趙長開宮門以應琚,長馳入殿中,大呼稱萬歲。祚以長敗賊,下觀勞之,長奮槊剌祚中額,奔入萬秋閣,為廚士徐里所殺。以庶人禮葬之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

In the ninth month, Song Hun's army had advanced to the great marsh at Wushi, where they went into mourning for Zhang Yaoling. In the intercalary month, his army reached Guzang. Zhang Zuo mounted the Shenque Terrace, while Zhang Ju and Zhang Song killed Zhang Zuo's guards, more than four hundred dead, and then forced opened the western gate to let in Song Hun's army. The General Who Leads The Army, Zhao Zhang, opened the palace gates to receive Song Ju. Zhao Zhang then rushed into the hall, and gave a great cry of "Long live!" Zhang Zuo, believing that Zhao Zhang had defeated the enemy, came down from the terrace to reward him, and Zhao Zhang grasped his spear and struck Zhang Zuo in the forehead. Zhang Zuo fled into the Wanli Pavilion, where he was killed by the kitchen guard Xu Li. He was buried with the rites fit for a commoner.

張玄靖字元安,重華少子,母郭夫人。和平二年,宋混、張琚等上玄靖為大將軍、涼州牧、護羌校尉、西平公,時年七歲。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

Zhang Xuanjing, styled Yuan'an, was Zhang Chonghua's youngest son; his mother was Lady Guo. In the second year of Zhang Zuo's Heping reign era (355), Song Hun, Zhang Ju, and others acclaimed Zhang Xuanjing as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, and Duke of Xiping. At that time, he was six years old.

秋七月,宋混、張瓘弑張祚,而立耀靈弟玄靚爲大將軍、涼州牧,遣使來降。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the seventh month, Song Hun and Zhang Guan murdered Zhang Zuo. They acclaimed Zhang Yaoling's younger brother Zhang Xuanjing as Grand General and Governor of Liangzhou, and sent word of their submission to Jin.

趙長、張璹等懼罪,入閣呼重華母馬氏出殿,拜耀靈庶弟玄靚為主。揣等率眾入殿伐長,殺之。瓘弟琚及子嵩募數百市人,揚聲言:「張祚無道,我兄大軍已到城東,敢有舉手者誅三族。」祚眾披散。琚、嵩率眾入城,祚按劍殿上,大呼,令左右死戰。祚既失眾心,莫有鬥志,於是被殺。梟其首,宣示內外,暴屍道左,國內咸稱萬歲。祚篡立三年而亡。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Zuo)

Zhao Zhang, Zhang Shu, and the other members of Zhang Zuo's court were afraid because of their crimes. They rushed into the women's chambers to call on Zhang Chonghua's mother Lady Ma to come out into the hall, where they acclaimed Zhang Yaoling's younger brother Zhang Xuanjing as the new ruler. But Zhang Zuo's general Yi Chuai and others led troops into the hall to punish Zhao Zhang, and they killed him.

Zhang Guan's younger brother Zhang Ju and his son Zhang Song recruited several hundred people from the market, proclaiming to everyone, "Zhang Zuo is without principle. My elder brother's army is already east of the city; anyone who dares to raise a hand against them will have their family wiped out to the third degree." Zhang Zuo's forces then dispersed and scattered.

Zhang Ju and Zhang Song led their men into the city. Zhang Zuo, standing at the head of the hall, grasped his sword and gave a great shout, calling on those around him to fight to the death. But he had already lost the hearts of the people, and there was no one left who was willing to fight for him, so he was killed. They cut off Zhang Zuo's head, proclaimed his death throughout all of Liangzhou’s territory, and exposed his body by the side of the road. Everyone inside the state praised their names. Zhang Zuo had usurped power for three years, then perished.

玄靚字元安。既立,自號大都督、大將軍、校尉、涼州牧、西平公,赦其國內,廢和平之號,復稱建興四十三年。誅祚二子,以張瓘為衛將軍,領兵萬人,行大將軍事,改易僚屬。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

Zhang Xuanjing was styled Yuan'an. When he came to power, he styled himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Colonel, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. He declared an amnesty within his domain. He abolished Zhang Zuo's reign era title Heping, and went back to the reign era title of Jianxing, now in its forty-third year. He executed Zhang Zuo's two sons. He named Zhang Guan as Guard General, with command over ten thousand soldiers, and with acting authority as Grand General, with the power to change or replace his subordinates.


張瓘至姑臧,推玄靚為涼王,自為使持節、都督中外諸軍事、尚書令、涼州牧、張掖郡公,以宋混為尚書僕射。隴西人李儼據郡,不受瓘命,用江東年號,眾多歸之。瓘遣其將牛霸討之,未至,西平人衛綝亦據郡叛,霸兵潰,奔還。瓘遣弟琚擊綝,敗之。酒泉太守馬基起兵以應綝,瓘遣司馬張姚、王國擊斬之。

17. When Zhang Guan reached Guzang, he acclaimed Zhang Xuanjing as Prince of Liang, while he claimed for himself the titles of Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Zhangye commandary. Song Hun was given the rank of Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

A native of Longxi, Li Yan, refused to recognize Zhang Guan's authority; he took over his local commandary and insisted on following the current Jin reign era title as it was in the Southland, and many people flocked to his side.

Zhang Guan sent his general Niu Ba to campaign against Li Yan, but Niu Ba could reach Li Yan's territory, a native of Xiping named Wei Chen took over that commandary as well and rose in rebellion. Niu Ba's troops scattered, and he fled back to Guzang. Zhang Guan then dispatched his younger brother Zhang Ju to attack Wei Chen, and Wei Chen was defeated. The Administrator of Jiuquan, Ma Ji, had raised troops in an effort to assist Wei Chen, but Zhang Guan sent his Marshals, Zhang Yao and Wang Guo, against him, and they attacked and killed Ma Ji.

用永和年號也。爲李儼歸秦張本。綝,丑林翻。

That is to say, Li Yan used the Eastern Jin reign era title Yonghe.

This was why Li Yan inclined towards Former Qin.

綝 is pronounced "chen (ch-in)".


The character 綝 is commonly pronounced either as Chen or as Lin. There seems to be no definite consensus.

張瓘至姑臧,推玄靖為大將軍、涼王。自為使持節都督中外諸軍事、尚書令、涼州牧、張掖郡公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 7, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

When Zhang Guan reached Guzang, he acclaimed Zhang Xuanjing as Grand General and Prince of Liang. Zhang Guan made himself Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Zhangye.

有隴西人李儼,誅大姓彭姚,自立於隴右,奉中興年號,百姓悅之。玄靚遣牛霸率眾討之,未達,而西平人衛綝又據郡叛。霸眾潰,單騎而還。瓘先欲征綝、以兄珪在綝中為疑,綝亦以弟在瓘中,故彼我經年不相伐。西平人郭勳解天文,不應州郡之命,綝禮聘之。勳曰:「張氏應衰,衛氏當興,豈得以一弟而滅一門,宜速伐瓘。」綝將從之。瓘遣弟琚領大眾征綝敗之。西平田旋要酒泉太守馬基背瓘應綝,旋謂基曰:「綝擊其東,我等絕其西,不六旬,天下可定,斯閉口捕舌也。」基許之。瓘遣司馬張姚、王國將二千人伐基,敗之,斬基、旋二人之首,傳姑臧。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Xuanjing)

A native of Longxi, Li Yan, killed the gentry leader Peng Yao, set himself up in Longyou, and declared that he would follow the reign era title of the restored Jin dynasty (in the Southland). The common people were pleased with him. Zhang Xuanjing sent Niu Ba to lead troops to campaign against Li Yan, but before Niu Ba could succeed, a native of Xiping, Wei Chen, also occupied his own commandary and rebelled. Niu Ba's army scattered, and he returned alone on horseback.

Zhang Guan wished to deal with Wei Chen first, but he hesitated because his elder brother Zhang Gui was among Wei Chen's forces, and Wei Chen also held back since his younger brother was with Zhang Guan. This was why, for a year or so, neither side moved against the other. There was another native of Xiping, Guo Xun, who knew how to read the stars, but he did not heed the commands of his province or commandary. Wei Chen went to pay him a courteous visit. Guo Xun said to him, "The Zhang clan is headed for decline, while your Wei clan ought to rise. How can it be that you will suffer the slaughter of your clan just because they have your younger brother? You should campaign against Zhang Guan at once." Wei Chen was about to follow his advice, but Zhang Guan then sent his own younger brother Zhang Ju at the head of a great army to campaign against Wei Chen, and Wei Chen was defeated.

Tian Xuan of Xiping urged the Administrator of Jiuquan, Ma Ji, to betray Zhang Guan and support Wei Chen. Tian Xuan said to him, "While Wei Chen attacks him in the east, we can cut him off in the west. Within sixty days, the realm can be settled. This is to seize the tongue while the mouth is open." Ma Ji agreed with him. But Zhang Guan sent his Marshals, Zhang Yao and Wang Guo, with two thousand soldiers to campaign against Ma Ji, and they defeated him. The heads of Ma Ji and Tian Xuan were sent to Guzang.

張瓘、宋混殺張祚,立重華少子玄靖,稱涼王。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Zhang Guan and Song Hun killed Zhang Zuo, and acclaimed Zhang Chonghua's youngest son Zhang Xuanjing as Prince of Liang.


冬,十月,以豫州刺史謝尚督並、冀、幽三州,鎮壽春。

18. In winter, the tenth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou. He was stationed at Shouchun.

時江左僑立青、冀、幷、幽四州於江北。南渡初,祖逖以豫州刺史治譙城。永昌元年,祖約退屯壽春。成帝咸和四年,庾亮以豫州刺史治蕪湖。咸康四年,毛寶以豫州刺史治邾城。六年,庾翼以豫州刺史治蕪湖。永和元年,趙胤以豫州刺史治牛渚。二年,尚以豫州刺史治蕪湖,今進壽春,皆建康西藩也。進取則屯壽春,守江則多在歷陽、蕪湖二處。

At that time, Jin had established four surrogate provinces north of the Yangzi, standing in for the actual provinces of Qingzhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, and Youzhou.

When the forces of Jin had first crossed to the south side of the Yangzi (after 311), Zu Ti was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered things from Qiao. In the first year of Yongchang (322), Zu Yue fell back to defend from Shouchun. In Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xianhe (330), Yu Liang was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered the territory from Wuhu. In the fourth year of Xiankang (338), Mao Bao was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered from Zhucheng. In the sixth year (340), Yu Yì was the Inspector, and he administered from Wuhu again. In the first year of Yonghe (345), Zhao Yin was the Inspector, and he administered from Niuzhu. In the second year (346), Xie Shang was the Inspector, and he administered from Wuhu yet again. Now (in 355), Xie Shang advanced to Shouchun. In all these cases, the place chosen served as the western border for Jiankang. But it was the rule that whenever Jin planned to advance, they shifted their base in this region to Shouchun, while if defense was the focus, they stationed at Liyang or Wuhu.


Wuhu is still a city in modern Anhui. It is on the southern bank of the Yangzi near Nanjing, while Shouchun is to the northwest of it across the river, some ways west of Nanjing. Zhucheng was the city mentioned earlier in Book 96 (339.22), when Yu Liang sent Mao Bao to command a garrison there and provoked a preemptive attack from Shi Hu. Niuzhu is the modern city of Ma’anshan, slightly northeast of Wuhu.

冬十月,進豫州刺史謝尚督幷冀幽三州諸軍事、鎮西將軍,鎮馬頭。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the tenth month, Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, was promoted as Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou and as General Who Guards The West. He was stationed at Matou.


鎮北將軍段龕與燕主俊書,抗中表之儀,非其稱帝。俊怒,十一月,以太原王恪為大都督、撫軍將軍,陽騖副之,以擊龕。

19. The Qingzhou warlord Duan Kan, nominally Jin’s General Who Guards The North, wrote a letter to Murong Jun, in which he insisted upon using the etiquette proper between cousins, and opposed Murong Jun's declaration as Emperor. Murong Jun was angered by this. In the eleventh month, he appointed the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, as Grand Commander and General Who Nurtures The Army, with Yang Wu serving as his adjutant. They went to attack Duan Kan.

儁,段氏出也,故龕與之抗中表之儀。龕,苦含翻。騖,音務。

Murong Jun was born of a Duan, thus Duan Kan could insist on addressing him as a cousin.

龕 is pronounced "kan (k-an)". 騖 is pronounced similar to "wu".


Murong Huang’s wife was Lady Duan, and she was probably Murong Jun’s mother. Even if not, his grandfather Murong Hui’s wife was also from the Duan clan.

秦以辛牢守尚書令,趙韶為左僕射,尚書董榮為右僕射,中護軍趙誨為司隸校尉。

20. In Qin, Xin Lao was appointed as acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing (since Zhao Ju had refused it). Zhao Shao was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, while Dong Rong became Deputy Director of the Right, and Zhao Hui became the Colonel-Director of Retainers.

十二月,高句麗王釗遣使詣燕納質修貢,以請其母。燕主俊許之,遣殿中將軍刁龕送釗母周氏歸其國;以釗為征東大將軍、營州刺史,封樂浪公,王如故。

21. In the twelfth month, the King of Goguryeo, Go Soe, sent tribute to Yan, and asked for the release of his mother Lady Ju, who was still a prisoner from Murong Huang's earlier campaign against Goguryeo. Murong Jun agreed to this, and sent his General of the Palace Halls, Diao Kan, to escort Lady Ju back to her own state. He further granted Go Soe the titles of Grand General Who Conquers The East, Inspector of Yingzhou, and Duke of Lelang, and treated him as a King like before.

燕囚釗母,見九十七卷成帝咸康八年。使爲高句麗王如故。

The imprisonment of Go Soe's mother was mentioned in Book 97, in Emperor Cheng's eighth year of Xiankang (342.13).

That is to say, Murong Jun still treated Go Soe as King of Goguryeo.


上黨人馮鴦逐燕太守段剛,據安民城,自稱太守,遣使來降。

22. Feng Yang of Shangdang cast out Yan's Administrator of that place, Duan Gang. He seized control of Anmin, declaring himself its Administrator, and sent an offer of submission to Jin.

魏收《地形志》:燕上黨太守治安民城。安民城在襄垣縣,蓋永嘉中,劉琨遣張倚所築,以安上黨之民,因以爲名。

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "During Former and Later Yan, the Administrators of Shangdang administered that territory from the city of Anmin. Anmin was in Xiangyuan County. During the Yongjia era (307-313), Liu Kun sent Zhang Yi to build it, and since its purpose was to calm the people of Shangdang, he named it Anmin ('calm the people')."


十二月,壬戌,上黨人馮鴦自稱太守,背苻生遣使來降。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, on the day Renxu (February 12th of 356), a native of Shangdang, Feng Yang, declared himself the Administrator of that commandary, betraying Fu Sheng and sending notice of his submission to Jin.


秦丞相雷弱兒性剛直,以趙韶、董榮亂政,每公言於朝,見之常切齒。韶、榮譖之於秦主生,生殺弱兒及其九子、二十七孫。於是諸羌皆有離心。生雖諒陰,游飲自若,彎弓露刃,以見朝臣。錘鉗鋸鑿,可以害人之具,備置左右。即位未幾,后妃、公卿已下至於僕隸,凡殺五百餘人,截脛、拉脅、鋸項、刳胎者,比比有之。

23. The Prime Minister of Qin, Lei Ruo'er, was of an upright and outspoken nature. He always denounced the chaotic governance of Zhao Shao and Dong Rong in court, and he gnashed their teeth whenever he saw them. They in turn slandered him to Fu Sheng, so Fu Sheng killed Lei Ruo'er, along with his nine sons and twenty-seven grandsons. Many of the Qiang tribes were alienated by this, because Lei Ruo'er had been one of the Qiang as well.

Although Fu Sheng was still in his mourning period, he cavorted and drank as he pleased; he would draw his bow or unsheathe his blade even during court with the ministers. He kept ready at hand various tools for when he wished to harm others, including hammers, pincers, saws, and chisels. He killed more than five hundred people in a short time after coming to the throne, from consorts and ministers down to servants and slaves. He would cut off their shins, break their ribs, saw their necks, rip out their unborn child, and do other such things.

雷弱兒,南安羌酋也,以非罪而死,故諸羌皆有離心。

(Lei Ruo'er was a chieftain of the Qiang of Nan'an. Since he had been killed even though he committed no crime, this alienated the various Qiang tribes.)


生又誅丞相雷弱兒,諸羌悉叛。弱兒,南安羌酋也。生雖在諒闇,遊飲荒淫,殺戮無道,彎弓露刀,以見朝臣,錘鉗鋸鑿,備置左右。未幾,后妃公卿已下至於僕隸、誅五百餘人... 至於截脛刳胎,拉脇鋸頭,殺者動有千數。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng also executed the Prime Minister, Lei Ruo'er, causing all the Qiang tribes to revolt, for Lei Ruo'er was a chieftain of the Qiang of Nan'an.

Although Fu Sheng was still in his mourning period, he cavorted and drank without shame, and he killed or executed people without any sense of principle; he would draw his bow or unsheathe his blade even during court with the ministers. He kept ready at hand various tools, including hammers, pincers, saws, and chisels. He killed more than five hundred people in a short time after coming to the throne, from consorts and ministers down to servants and slaves. Fu Sheng would even cut off their shins, rip out their unborn child, break their ribs, and saw their necks, and he killed thousands in this fashion.

未凡,又誅侍中、丞相雷弱兒及其九子、二十七孫。諸羌悉叛。弱兒,南安羌酋也,剛鯁好直言,見生嬖臣趙韶、董榮亂政,每大言於朝,故榮等譖而誅之。生雖在諒闇,游飲自若,荒耽淫虐,殺戮無道,常彎弓露刃以見朝臣,錘鉗鋸鑿備置左右... 至於截脛、刳胎、拉脅、鋸頸者動有千數。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Later on, Fu Sheng also executed the Palace Attendant and Prime Minister, Lei Ruo'er, along with his nine sons and twenty-seven grandsons. The various Qiang tribes revolted, because Lei Ruo'er had been a Qiang chieftain of Nan'an. Lei Ruo'er was a stern man who gave forthright and barbed council. He saw how Fu Sheng's favorites Zhao Shao and Dong Rong caused turmoil in the government, so he always loudly spoke against them at court. This was why Dong Rong and the others slandered him and arranged his execution.

Although Fu Sheng was still in his mourning period, he cavorted and drank as he pleased, he gave himself fully over to unrestrained drinking, obscenity, and cruelty, and he killed or executed people without any sense of principle; he would often draw his bow or unsheathe his blade even during court with the ministers. He kept ready at hand various tools, including hammers, pincers, saws, and chisels. Fu Sheng would even cut off their shins, rip out their unborn child, break their ribs, and saw their necks, and he killed thousands in this fashion.

生雖在諒闇,遊飲自若。彎弓露刃,以見朝臣,錘鉗鋸鑿,備置左右。在位未幾,后妃公卿,下至僕隸,殺五百餘人... 至於截脛刳胎、拉脅鋸頸者,動有千數。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Although Fu Sheng was still in his mourning period, he cavorted and drank as he pleased; he would draw his bow or unsheathe his blade even during court with the ministers. He kept ready at hand various tools, including hammers, pincers, saws, and chisels. He killed more than five hundred people in a short time after coming to the throne, from consorts and ministers down to servants and slaves. Fu Sheng would even cut off their shins, rip out their unborn child, break their ribs, saw their necks, and do other such things, and he killed thousands in this fashion.


燕主俊以段龕方強,謂太原王恪曰:「若龕遣軍拒河,不得渡者,可直取呂護而還。」恪分遣輕軍先至河上,具舟楫以觀龕志趣。龕弟羆,驍勇有智謀,言於龕曰:「慕容恪善用兵,加之眾盛,若聽其濟河,進至城下,恐雖乞降,不可得也。請兄固守,羆帥精銳拒之於河,幸而戰捷,兄帥大眾繼之,必有大功。若其不捷,不若早降,猶不失為千戶侯也。」龕不從。羆固請不已,龕怒,殺之。

24. Murong Jun was concerned about the strength of Duan Kan's defenses. He said to Murong Ke, "If Duan Kan’s army holds the line of the Yellow River, you do not need to force a crossing; it will be enough to capture Lü Hu and then return." Murong Ke split off several light detachments to reach the Yellow River ahead of his main force, and they used boats to observe Duan Kan's plans.

Duan Kan had a younger brother, Duan Pi, who was bold and skilled in planning. Duan Pi said to his brother, "Murong Ke knows well how to use his soldiers, and he has many of them at hand. If he crosses the river and advances to the city, I fear even if you beg to surrender, it will be denied you. Let me lead our elite troops to guard the line of the river, while you maintain our defenses here. If I am fortunate enough to emerge victorious, you may lead the rest of our forces forward to join me, and then our victory will be assured. But if I lose in the engagement, you should surrender immediately, and at least then you would still get a position as a marquis over a thousand households."

But Duan Kan did not heed him. Duan Pi’s repeated requests of this nature were ignored, until Duan Kan, greatly angered, killed him.

呂護時據野王。

At this time, Lü Hu still held control over Yewang.


Yewang is the modern city of Qinyang in Henan province. At this time, it was presumably north of the Yellow River, whose course has changed drastically over the centuries.

十二月,慕容恪帥衆寇廣固。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, Murong Ke led his forces to attack Duan Kan's base at Guanggu.
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:07 am

永和十二年(丙辰,公元三五六年)

The Twelfth Year of Yonghe (The Bingchen Year, 356 AD)


春,正月,燕太原王恪引兵濟河,未至廣固百餘里,段龕帥眾三萬逆戰。丙申,恪大破龕於淄水,執其弟欽,斬右長史袁范等。齊王友辟閭蔚被創,恪聞其賢,遣人求之,蔚已死,士卒降者數千人。龕脫走,還城固守,恪進軍圍之。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong Ke led his troops across the Yellow River. When they were still more than a hundred li away from Duan Kan’s capital at Guanggu, Duan Kan led thirty thousand men against them in battle. On the day Bingshen (March 17th), Murong Ke greatly routed Duan Kan at Zishui; he captured his younger brother Duan Qin, and killed his Chief Clerk of the Left, Yuan Fan, and others.

Among Duan Kan’s commanders was his "Prince-Friend", Pilu Yu, who was injured during the battle. When Murong Ke heard of this man's worth, he sent men to look for him, but by then Pilu Yu had already died, and many thousands of the enemy soldiers had surrendered.

Duan Kan fled back to defend Guanggu, and Murong Ke pursued him and put the city under siege.

據《載記》,恪破龕於濟水之南。今言未至廣固百餘里,蓋至淄水而會戰也。《水經》,濁水逕廣固城西,東流至廣饒,入巨淀,又北合于淄水。段龕自稱齊王,故置王友之官。蔚,紆勿翻。

According to the Biography of Murong Jun in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, Murong Ke routed Duan Kan south of the Ji River. The above passage mentions that Murong Ke was still over a hundred li from Guanggu, and that the two armies fought the battle at the Zi River. The Water Classic says, "The Zhuo River passes west of the city of Guanggu, and flows east until it reaches Guangrao, where it enters Lake Judian. To the north, it also joins with the Zi River."

When Duan Kan declared himself Prince of Qi, he also created the office of 王友.

蔚 is pronounced "yu (y-u)".


The Zi or Zihe River and Guangrao are both still places in modern Shandong. Lake Judian was northwest of modern Shouguang in Shandong.

十二年春正月,鎮北將軍段龕及慕容恪戰于廣固,大敗之,恪退據安平。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth year of Yonghe (356), in spring, the first month, the General Who Guards The North, Duan Kan, fought Murong Ke at Guanggu. He greatly defeated Murong Ke, who retreated to hold Anping.

慕容儁使弟玄恭帥眾伐龕於廣固。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Murong Jun sent his younger brother Murong Xuangong (Murong Ke) to lead his forces against Duan Kan at Guanggu.


秦司空王墮性剛峻,右僕射董榮、侍中強國皆以佞幸進,墮疾之如仇,每朝見,榮未嘗與之言。或謂墮曰:「董君貴幸無比,公宜小降意接之。」墮曰:「董龍是何雞狗,而令國士與之言乎!」會有天變,榮與強國言於秦主生曰:「今天譴甚重,宜以貴臣應之。」生曰:「貴臣唯有大司馬及司空耳。」榮曰:「大司馬國之懿親,不可殺也。」乃殺王墮。將刑,榮謂之曰:「今日復敢比董龍於雞狗乎?」墮瞋目叱之。洛州刺史杜郁,隨之甥也,左僕射趙韶惡之,譖於生,以為貳於晉而殺之。

2. Qin's Minister of Works, Wang Duo, was of a stern nature. He burned with rage against the Deputy Director of the Right, Dong Rong, and the Palace Attendant, Qiang Guo, because they gained promotions through their flattery. Whenever Wang Duo was at court, Dong Rong never uttered a word to him. Someone said to Wang Duo, "Lord Dong is a worthy man without peer; you should put aside your principles somewhat and confer with him."

But Wang Duo replied, "That Dong Long is nothing but a chicken or a dog, and yet he demands a high minister of the state to speak with him?"

At that time, there were sudden changes in the heavens. Dong Rong and Qiang Guo said to Fu Sheng, " The heavens are sending us serious reprimands. It would be wise to have a high minister answer for them."

Fu Sheng said, "The only such 'high ministers' that could serve for that would have to be either the Grand Marshal or the Minister of Works."

Dong Rong (or, Qiang Guo) replied, "The Grand Marshal is a close relative to the throne; he cannot be killed."

So Fu Sheng decided to execute Wang Duo. While Wang Duo was being led out to be executed, Dong Rong said to him, "Do you dare to still say that Dong Long is just a chicken or dog?" Wang Duo only glared at him and loudly rebuked him.

Qin's Inspector of Luozhou, Du Yu, was Wang Duo's nephew. The Deputy Director of the Left, Zhao Shao, disliked him, so he accused Du Yu to Fu Sheng of planning to defect to Jin, so Fu Sheng executed him.

龍,董榮小字。大司馬謂武都王安,生叔父也。【章:十二行本「榮」下有「國」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

(龍 Long was Dong Rong's childhood name.

At this time, Former Qin's Grand Marshal was the Prince of Wudu, Fu An, who was Fu Sheng's uncle.

Some versions have "(Qiang) Guo" replying to Fu Sheng instead of "(Dong) Rong".)


二年正月,嬖臣右僕射董榮言於生曰:「日蝕之災,宜以貴臣應之。」生曰:「唯有大司馬,國之懿戚,不可。」「其在王司空。」生從之,誅司空王墮。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

In the second year of Shouguang (356), the first month, the Deputy Director of the Right, Fu Sheng's favored minister Dong Rong, said to him, "We have just experienced an eclipse, an ill-omen; it would be wise to have a high minister answer for it."

Fu Sheng replied, "That could only be the Grand Marshal. But he is a close relative to the throne; he cannot be killed."

Dong Rong said, "There is still the Minister of Works, Wang Duo."

Fu Sheng followed his advice, so he executed Wang Duo.

生又納董榮之言,誅其司空王墮以應日蝕之災。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng also accepted the advice of Dong Rong, and executed his Minister of Works, Wang Duo, to deal with the ill-omen of an eclipse.

墮性剛峻疾惡,雅好直言。疾董榮、強國如仇讎,每於朝見之際,略不與言。人謂之曰:「董尚書貴幸一時,公宜降意。」墮曰:「董龍是何雞狗,而令國士與之言乎!」榮聞而慚恨,遂勸生誅之。及刑,榮謂墮曰:「君今復敢數董龍作雞狗?」墮瞋目而叱之。龍,榮之小字也。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Wang Duo)

Wang Duo had a stern and severe nature, and he hated evil; he was refined, and he enjoyed blunt talk. He burned against Dong Rong and Qiang Guo like hated enemies. Whenever they were at court together, there was a distance between them, and they hardly ever spoke. Someone said to Wang Duo, "The Master of Writing, Dong Rong, has the honor and favor of the day. You should somewhat lower your principles regarding him."

But Wang Duo replied, "That Dong Long is nothing but a chicken or a dog, and yet he demands a high minister of the state to speak with him?"

When Dong Rong heard this, he was ashamed and resentful, so he urged Fu Sheng to execute Wang Duo.

While Wang Duo was being led out to be executed, Dong Rong said to him, "Do you dare to still say that Dong Long is just a chicken or dog?"

Wang Duo only glared at him and loudly rebuked him.

Long was Dong Rong's childhood name.


壬戌,生宴群臣於太極殿,以尚書令辛牢為酒監,酒酣,生怒曰:「何不強人酒而猶有坐者!」引弓射牢,殺之。群臣懼,莫敢不醉,偃仆失冠,生乃悅。

3. On the day Renxu (?), Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the Taiji Palace. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xin Lao, was put in charge of distributing the wine. After becoming drunk, Fu Sheng was angry and said, "Why are you not forcing them to drink? There are still people sitting upright!" So he picked up a bow and shot an arrow at Xin Lao, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to get drunk. Only when they were falling over to the point where their hats fell off was Fu Sheng pleased.

壬戊,饗羣臣於太極前殿,飲酒、樂奏,生歌以和之。命尚書令辛采典勸,既而怒曰:「何不強酒猶有坐者。」引弓矢射采,殺之。於是百僚大懼,無不引滿,昏醉汙服,失冠蓬頭僵仆,生以為樂。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

On the day Renxu (?), Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the Taiji Palace. There was heavy drinking, and musicians played music, with Fu Sheng singing along with them. He ordered the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xin Cai, to oversee the feast and encourage the others in drinking. Eventually, Fu Sheng angrily said, "Why are you not forcing them to drink? There are still people sitting upright!" So he picked up a bow and shot an arrow at Xin Cai, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to drink to the fullest. Only when they were sorely drunk, fouling their clothes, losing their caps, dirtying their faces, and falling over was Fu Sheng pleased.

饗群臣於太極前殿,飲酣樂奏,生親歌以和之。命其尚書辛牢典勸,既而怒曰:「何不強酒?猶有坐者!」引弓射牢而殺之。於是百僚大懼,無不引滿昏醉,汙服失冠,蓬頭僵僕,生以為樂。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the front hall of the Taiji Palace. There was heavy drinking, and musicians played music, with Fu Sheng singing along with them. He ordered the Master of Writing, Xin Lao, to oversee the feast and encourage the others in drinking. Eventually, Fu Sheng angrily said, "Why are you not forcing them to drink? There are still people sitting upright!" So he picked up a bow and shot an arrow at Xin Lao, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to drink to the fullest. Only when they were sorely drunk, fouling their clothes, losing their caps, dirtying their faces, and falling over was Fu Sheng pleased.

生朝饗羣臣,酣飲奏樂,生親歌以和之。命其尚書令辛牢行酒,既而生怒曰:「何不強酒,猶有坐者!」引弓射牢而殺之。於是百僚大懼,無不引滿,汙服失冠,生以為樂。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the Taiji Palace. There was heavy drinking, and musicians played music, with Fu Sheng personally singing along with them. He ordered the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xin Lao, to pass around the wine. Eventually, Fu Sheng angrily said, "Why are you not forcing them to drink? There are still people sitting upright!" So he picked up a bow and shot an arrow at Xin Lao, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to drink to the fullest. Only after they had fouled their clothes and lost their caps was Fu Sheng pleased.


匈奴大人劉務桓卒,弟閼頭立,將貳於代。二月,代王什翼犍引兵西巡,臨河,閼頭懼,請降。

4. It was earlier mentioned that the Xiongnu chieftain Liu Wuhuan had inherited control of the Xiongnu groups living to the west of the domain of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. At this time, Liu Wuhuan passed away. His younger brother Liu Etou took over his command, planning to rebel against Dai. In the second month, Tuoba Shiyijian led his soldiers on a western patrol, reaching the banks of the Yellow River in that direction. Liu Etou was afraid, and he offered submission.

十九年春正月,劉務桓死,其弟閼頭立,潛謀反叛。二月,帝西巡,因而臨河,使人招喻,閼頭從命。冬,慕容儁來請婚,許之。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the nineteenth year of Jianguo (356), in spring, the first month, Liu Wuhuan passed away. His younger brother Liu Etou succeeded him, and secretly planned to rebel against Tuoba Shiyijian.

In the second month, Tuoba Shiyijian went on a western patrol. When he reached the banks of the Yellow River in that direction, he sent messengers out to convey his summons and instructions. Liu Etou heeded his command.

In winter, Murong Jun came to ask Tuoba Shiyijian for a marriage alliance, and Tuoba Shiyijian agreed to it.

務桓死,弟閼陋頭代立。密謀反叛,語在序紀。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Elou)

After Liu Wuhuan passed away, his younger brother Liu Elou succeeded him. He secretly plotted to rebel against Dai, as is mentioned in the Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors.


燕太原王恪招撫段龕諸城。已丑,龕所署徐州刺史陽都公王騰舉眾降,恪命騰以故職還屯陽都。

5. Murong Ke offered amnesty to Duan Kan's cities.

On the day Yichou (?), Wang Teng, Duan Kan's Inspector of Xuzhou and Duke of Yangdu, brought his forces in to submit. Murong Ke confirmed Wang Teng in his offices and ordered him to return to camp at Yangdu.

恪圍廣固未下,故先招撫其統內諸城。段龕置徐州於琅邪陽都縣。杜佑曰:漢陽都縣故城在沂州沂水縣南。

Since Murong Ke had not yet been able to take Guanggu, he offered amnesty and regained control over Duan Kan's other cities first.

Duan Kan organized his own version of Xuzhou at Yangdu county in Langye commandary. Du You remarked, "During Han, the capital city of Yangdu county was in the south of Yishui county in Yizhou."


Yangdu is part of the modern city of Linyi in Shandong.

秦征東大將軍晉王柳遣參軍閻負、梁殊使於涼,以書說涼王玄靚。負、殊至姑臧,張瓘見之,曰:「我,晉臣也;臣無境外之交,二君何以來辱?」負、殊曰:「晉王與君鄰籓,雖山河阻絕,風通道會,故來修好,君何怪焉!」瓘曰:「吾盡忠事晉,於今六世矣。若與苻征東通使,是上違先君之志,下隳士民之節,其可乎!」負、殊曰:「晉室衰微,墜失天命,固已久矣。是以涼之先王北面二趙,唯知機也。今大秦威德方盛,涼王若欲自帝河右,則非秦之敵。欲以小事大,則曷若捨晉事秦,以保福祿乎!」瓘曰:「中州好食言,向者石氏使車適返,而戎騎已至,吾不敢信也。」負、殊曰:「自古帝王居中州者,政化各殊,趙為奸詐,秦敦信義,豈得一概待之乎!張先、楊初皆阻兵不服,先帝討而擒之,赦其罪戾,寵以爵秩,固非石氏之比。」瓘曰:「必如君言,秦之威德無敵,何不先取江南,則天下盡為秦有,征東何辱命焉!」負、殊曰:「江南文身之俗,道污先叛,化隆後服。主上以為江南必須兵服,河右可以義懷,故遣行人先申大好。若君不達天命,則江南得延數年之命,而河右恐非君之土也」。瓘曰:「我跨據三州,帶甲十萬,西苞蔥嶺,東距大河,伐人有餘,況於自守,何畏於秦!」負、殊曰:「貴州山河之固,孰若殽、函?民物之饒,孰若秦、雍?杜洪、張琚,因趙氏成資,兵強財富,有囊括關中、席捲四海之志,先帝戎旗西指,冰消雲散,旬月之間,不覺易主。主上若以貴州不服,赫然奮怒,控弦百萬,鼓行而西,未知貴州將何以待之?」瓘笑曰:「茲事當決之於王,非身所了。」負、殊曰:「涼王雖英睿夙成,然年在幼沖,君居伊、霍之任,國家安危,系君一舉耳。」瓘懼,乃以玄靚之命遣使稱籓於秦,秦因玄靚所稱官爵而授之。

6. Qin's Grand General Who Conquers The East and Prince of Jin, Fu Liu, sent his Army Advisors, Yan Fu and Liang Shu, to Liangzhou to speak with Zhang Xuanjing and convey a letter to him. When Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at Guzang, Zhang Guan received them. He told them, "We are subjects of the Jin dynasty, and a subject has no dealings with foreign states. Why then have you two gentlemen come here, since your doing so insults us?"

Yan and Liang replied, "Sir, you are neighbors with the Prince of Jin (Fu Liu); although mountains and rivers create barriers between us, the same wind blows through both realms. That is why we have come to improve relations. Do you find it so very strange?"

Zhang Guan said, "We are utterly loyal to Jin, and have been so through the administrations of six different lords. If we were now to show General Fu legitimacy by opening communications with him, that would violate the wishes of our past leaders above and break the people’s sense of loyalty below. How could we possibly do that?"

Yan and Liang replied, "The Jin royal family is but a shadow of its former self, and it has already surrendered the Mandate of Heaven. It is nothing more than a mere rump state now. Besides, two of your own past lords faced north in vassalage to the two Zhao states, because they understood Heaven’s designs. Now our state of Qin is the one that has grown virtuous and prosperous. If the Prince of Liang wishes to act independently and proclaim himself Emperor of all the regions beyond the Yellow River, he would be no match for Qin. But if he desires to have his lesser state serve as vassal to a greater one, then why does he not consider abandoning Jin to serve under Qin instead, so that his best interests are guaranteed?"

Zhang Guan said, “The rulers of the Central Provinces tend to go back on their promises. The Shi clan of Zhao indeed sent us an envoy regarding vassalage. But no sooner had his carriage departed than their war riders were on our doorstep. So I dare not believe your promises either."

Yan and Liang replied, "Since ancient times, the kings and emperors who held the Central Provinces have all adopted different policies and cultures. Where Zhao employed guile and trickery, Qin honors trustworthiness and righteousness. Shall you measure us all by the same scoop? Observe that when Zhang Xian and Yang Chu raised soldiers and refused to submit to us, our late lord indeed campaigned against them and captured them, yet he still pardoned their crimes and offenses and even favored them with offices and salaries. That was most unlike the Shi clan."

Zhang Guan said, "If it is as you say, and Qin truly possesses power and virtue without equal, then why do you not first conquer the Southland? Then all the realm would belong to Qin. Why does General Fu shirk the duties of the mandate?"

Yan and Liang replied, "The people of the Southland even go so far as to tattoo their bodies; they would be the first ones to rebel when the state stops upholding its principles, and the last to submit even when morality and culture flourish. For that reason, our lord believes that the Southland must be conquered by force. Yet the lands beyond the Yellow River can be brought into the fold through appealing to righteousness and cherished ideals. This is why he sent us on ahead as emissaries to express his good will. But if you ignore Heaven's mandate, then that will simply mean that the campaign against the Southland will be put off for a few more years yet, while the lands beyond the Yellow River, we fear, will no longer be yours."

Zhang Guan retorted, "We control three provinces, and have a hundred thousand armored men; to the west we control the Pamirs, and to the east we hold the Yellow River. We have plenty of men with which to launch our own offensive campaigns, let alone merely defend our land. What fear need we have of Qin?"

Yan and Liang replied, "You boast of your mountains and rivers; how do yours compare with the Xiao Mountains and Hangu Pass? You boast of your abundant people and resources; how do yours compare with the bounty of Qinzhou and Yongzhou? Du Hong and Zhang Ju had the resources of Zhao at their disposal; their soldiers were strong and their resources plenty. They had the ambition of first taking Guanzhong, and then rolling up all within the Four Seas. But as soon as our late lord pointed his banners to the west, their forces vanished like ice melting and clouds dispersing. In less than a month, their lands became ours. If our current sovereign erupts with anger at your province’s refusal to submit, and he fields an army of a million mounted archers and has them beat the drums and march westward, how might your province deal with that?"

Zhang Guan smiled and said, "But this is a matter for the Prince to decide, not me."

Yan and Liang said, "Although the Prince is bright and wise for his age, in the end he is still young. Sir, you occupy the same role as Yi Yin and Huo Guang. Your state’s survival or destruction depends on the one move you will make."

Zhang Guan was afraid, and so he sent orders on behalf of Zhang Xuanjing professing vassalage to Qin. Qin therefore confirmed Zhang Xuanjing's titles and offices.

秦使苻柳鎭蒲阪,非與涼州鄰也,故以風通道會爲言。軌、寔、茂、駿、重華、曜靈、祚爲七世,今言六世,斥祚不以爲世數。張茂稱藩於前趙,張駿稱藩於後趙。永和二年,張重華嗣位,遣使奉章於石虎,虎繼遣王擢來寇。槪所以平斗斛,一槪待之,言無所高下也。擒張先見九十八卷六年,未嘗擒楊初也,負、殊姑爲是言耳。古者荊蠻之俗,斷髮文身以避蛟龍之害。負、殊以此斥言之耳。是時衣冠文物,皆在江南,且正朔所在也。負、殊吠堯刺由,知各爲其主而已!鄭玄曰:汚,猶殺也。《易》曰:高宗伐鬼方,三年克之。世之說者以爲荊、楚輕悍,道汚先叛,化隆後服,故負、殊亦以此斥言江南。三州謂涼、河、沙,張茂及張駿所分置者也。事見九十八卷六年。

(Former Qin had sent Fu Liu to guard Puban (near Luoyang), which was not on the border with Liangzhou. This was why Yan Fu and Liang Shu used “the same winds and roads join our lands” as their reasoning.

Counting Zhang Gui, Zhang Shi, Zhang Mao, Zhang Jun, Zhang Chonghua, Zhang Yaoling, and Zhang Zuo, Former Liang had thus far had seven lords before Zhang Xuanjing. Yet Zhang Guan says "six"; by this he means not to include Zhang Zuo among the other lords.

Zhang Mao had earlier called himself a vassal of Han-Zhao, and Zhang Jun had done the same for Later Zhao.

In the second year of Yonghe (346), when Zhang Chonghua came to the throne, he sent his tokens of submission to Shi Hu, yet Shi Hu sent Wang Zhuo to invade Liang.

A 槪 is a thing (scraper) for leveling measuring scoops. The phrase一槪待之 (‘to treat it with the same 槪 gai’) means to give equal treatment to two things.

Zhang Xian's capture was mentioned in in Book 98, in the eighth year of Yonghe (350.28), but Former Qin had not actually captured Yang Chu. (In their last attempt, their army had been defeated, as seen in Book 99, 353.10) Yan Fu and Liang Gu were just making this up.

In ancient times (from the Warring States era and before), it was indeed the custom of the Man tribes of the Jing (or Chu) region to cut their hair and tattoo their bodies in order to avoid the wrath of the flood dragon. These are the practices that Yan Fu and Liang Shu are alluding to. Yet, at the very time they were speaking, those who wore civilized clothing were all in the Southland, and the proper reign was there as well. Yan Fu and Liang Shu were just like 'dogs who would bark at Emperor Yao', or 'henchmen who would assassinate Xu You', the sorts of people who do no more than their lord's bidding!


吠堯 is short for the saying 桀犬吠堯, “Jie’s dog would bark at Yao”, meaning the lackeys of an evil person would insult a sage just because they’re loyal to their lord. 刺由 is short for 跖客刺由, “Robber Zhi’s henchmen would assassinate even Xu You”. Robber Zhi was an infamous bandit during the Spring and Autumn times, and Xu You was a wise man and hermit in the times of the ancient sage kings.

Zheng Xuan has said,“The meaning of 汚 is similar to ‘kill’.” The Book of Changes says, "When Gaozong of Shang campaigned against Guifang, it took him three years to subdue it." (63.4) Commentators suggested that because the people of Jing and Chu were reckless and fierce, they would be the first to rebel when the state stops upholding its principles. This was how Yan Fu and Liang Shu were also criticizing the Southland.

The three provinces that Zhang Guan refers to were Liangzhou, Hezhou, and Shazhou (the Western Reaches). Zhang Mao and Zhang Jun had split off these latter two provinces from the original Liangzhou.

The account of Fu Jian's conquest of Guanzhong is mention in Book 98, in the sixth year of Yonghe (350).)


The Xiao (or Yao) Mountains are a mountain range stretching north from the Luo River to Puban. They were on the western border of Former Qin.

生聞張祚見殺,玄靚幼沖,命其征東苻柳參軍閻負、梁殊使涼州,以書喻之。負、殊至姑臧,玄靚年幼,不見殊等。其涼州牧張瓘謂負、殊曰:「孤之本朝,世執忠節,遠宗大晉,臣無境外之交,君等何為而至?」負、殊曰:「晉王以鄰籓義好,有自來矣。雖擁阻山河,然風通道會,不欲使羊、陸二公獨美於前。主上以欽明紹統,八表宅心,光被四海,格於天地。晉王思與張王齊曜大明,交玉帛之好,兼與君公同金蘭之契,是以不遠而來,有何怪乎!」瓘曰:「羊、陸一時之事,亦非純臣之義也。本朝六世重光,固忠不貳,若與苻征東交玉帛之好者,便是上違先公純誠雅志,下乘河右遵奉之情。」負、殊曰:「昔微去殷,項伯歸漢,雖背君違親,前史美其先覺。亡晉之餘,遠逃江會,天命去之,子故尊先王翻然改圖,北面二趙,蓋神算無方,鑒機而作。君公若欲稱制河西,眾旅非秦之敵,如欲宗歸遺晉,深乖先君雅旨,孰若遠蹤竇融附漢之規,近述先王歸趙之事,垂祚無窮,永享遐祉乎?」瓘曰:「中州無信,好食誓言。往與石氏通好,旋見寇襲。中國之風,誡在昔日,不足復論通和之事也。」負、殊曰:「三王異政,五帝殊風,趙多奸詐,秦以義信,豈可同年而語哉!張先、楊初皆擅兵一方,不供王貢,先帝命將擒之,宥其難恕之罪,加以爵封之榮。今上道合二儀,慈弘山海,信符陰陽,禦物無際,不可以二趙相況也。」瓘曰:「秦若兵強化盛,自可先取江南,天下自然盡為秦有,何辱征東之命!」負、殊曰:「先帝以大聖神武,開構鴻基,強燕納款,八州順軌。主上欽明,道必隆世,慨徽號擁於河西,正朔未加吳會,以吳必須兵,涼可以義,故遣行人先申大好。如君公不能蹈機而發者,正可緩江南數年之命,回師西旆,恐涼州弗可保也。」瓘曰:「我跨據三州,帶甲十萬,西包昆域,東阻大河,伐人有餘,而況自固!秦何能為患!」負、殊曰:「貴州險塞,孰若崤、函?五郡之眾,何如秦、雍?張琚、杜洪因趙之成資,據天阻之固,策三秦之銳,藉陸海之饒,勁士風集,驍騎如雲,自謂天下可平,關中可固,先帝神矛一指,望旗冰解,人詠來蘇,不覺易主。燕雖武視關東,猶以地勢之義,逆順之理,北面稱籓,貢不逾月。致肅慎楛矢,通九夷之珍;單于屈膝,名王內附。控弦之士百有餘萬,鼓行而濟西河者,君公何以抗之?盍追遵先王臣趙故事,世享大美,為秦之西籓。」瓘曰:「然秦之德義加於天下,江南何以不賓?」負、殊曰:「文身之俗,負阻江山,道洿先叛,化盛後賓,自古而然,豈但今也!故《詩》曰:'蠢 爾蠻荊,大邦為仇。'言其不可以德義懷也。」瓘曰:「秦據漢舊都,地兼將相,文武輔臣,領袖一時者誰也?」負、殊曰:「皇室懿籓,忠若公旦者,則大司馬、武都王安,征東大將軍、晉王柳;文武兼才,神器秀拔,入可允厘百工,出能折沖萬里者,衛大將軍、廣平王黃眉,後將軍、清河王法,龍驤將軍、東海王堅之兄弟;其耆年碩德,德侔尚父者,則太師、錄尚書事、廣寧公魚遵;其清素剛嚴,骨鯁貞亮,則左光祿大夫強平,金紫光祿程肱、牛夷;博聞強識,探賾索幽,則中書監胡文,中書令王魚,黃門侍郎李柔;雄毅厚重,權智無方,則左衛將軍李威,右衛將軍苻雅;才識明達,令行禁止,則特進、領御史中丞梁平老,特進、光祿大夫強汪,侍中、尚書呂婆樓;文史富贍,鬱為文宗,則尚書右僕射董榮,秘書監王颺,著作郎梁讜;驍勇多權略,攻必取,戰必勝,關、張之流,萬人之敵者,則前將軍、新興王飛,建切將軍鄧羌,立忠將軍彭越,安遠將軍范俱難,建武將軍徐盛;常伯納言,卿校牧守,則人皆文武,莫非才賢;其餘懷經世之才,蘊佐時之略,守南山之操,遂而不奪者,王猛、硃肜之倫,相望于岩穀。濟濟多士,焉可罄言!姚襄、張平一時之傑,各擁眾數萬,狼顧偏方,皆委忠獻款,請為臣妾。小不事大,《春秋》所誅,惟君公圖之。」瓘笑曰:「此事決之主上,非身所了。」負、殊曰:「涼王雖天縱英睿,然尚幼沖,君公居伊、霍之任,安危所系,見機之義,實在君公。」瓘新輔政,河西所在兵起,懼秦師之至,乃言于玄靚,遣使稱籓,生因其所稱而授之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

When Fu Sheng heard that Zhang Zuo had been killed and Zhang Xuanjing was still a mere youth, he ordered his General Who Conquers The East, Fu Liu, to send his Army Advisors, Yan Fu and Liang Shu, to Liangzhou to speak with Zhang Xuanjing and convey a letter instructing him. When Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at Guzang, since Zhang Xuanjing was so young, he did not meet with them. His Governor of Liangzhou, Zhang Guan, received them instead.

Zhang Guan told them, "We have loyally and dutifully served as subjects to the Jin court for generations, serving them from afar, and a subject has no dealings with foreign states. Why then have you two gentlemen come here?"

Yan and Liang replied, "Sir, you are neighbors with the Prince of Jin (Fu Liu), a righteous and good man, and we have come on his behalf. Although mountains and rivers create barriers between us, the same wind blows through both realms. Do you not wish to emulate the worthy precedent set by Yang Hu and Lu Kang, who were good neighbors with one another though they served different lords? Our sovereign admires the wise and summons the capable; he is known in every home and heart, his brilliance spreads throughout the Four Seas, and his character is recognized by Heaven and Earth. The Prince of Jin wishes to establish a brilliant and wise understanding with Prince Zhang and establish good trade relations of treasures and silks, as well as form a friendship of gold and orchid with you yourself. That is why we came to see you, regardless of the distance. Do you find it so very strange?"

Zhang Guan said, "That business between Yang Hu and Lu Kang was merely a momentary circumstance, unsuited to the righteousness of a pure subject. We are utterly loyal to Jin, and have been so through the administrations of six different lords, unswerving in our devotion to them. If we were now to establish trade relations with General Fu, that would violate the pure, earnest, and unvarnished wishes of our past leaders above and trample the people of the Heyou region’s sense of reverence below."

Yan and Liang replied, "In former ages, the Viscount of Wey abandoned Yin (Shang) to join Zhou, and Xiang Bo went to serve Han. Although in doing these things they abandoned their former lords and violated their family ties, the past histories all praised them for their foresight. As for the remnants of the fallen Jin dynasty, they have scurried far away beyong the Yangzi to Kuaiji, and they have already surrendered the Mandate of Heaven. Besides, two of your own honored past lords recognized the changing circumstances and altered their allegiance, facing north in vassalage to the two Zhao states. Their wise planning was not improper; they recognized the situation and acted accordingly.

"If the Prince of Liang wishes to act independently and harness the regions beyond the Yellow River, his forces would be no match for Qin. But if he desires to maintain the allegiance to Jin and fulfill the refined decree handed down by his ancestors, then why does he not recognize the distant precedent of Dou Rong aligning himself to the rule of Han or the recent example of the past Princes of Liang serving under the Zhao states? Then his posterity could continue forever, and he would enjoy everlasting blessings and happiness."

Zhang Guan said, “The rulers of the Central Provinces are not to be trusted; they loved to eat their promises. We indeed established friendly ties with the Shi clan, yet they launched a surprise attack against us all the same. So the practices of the Middle Kingdom rather serve as past warnings. We should not further establish communication and peace with you either."

Yan and Liang replied, "The Three Sovereigns had different styles of government, and the Five Emperors practiced different customs. Where Zhao employed guile and trickery, Qin honors trustworthiness and righteousness. Shall you measure us all by the same year? Observe that when Zhang Xian and Yang Chu raised soldiers in their corners of the realm and refused to send royal tribute, our late lord indeed campaigned against them and captured them, yet he still pardoned their crimes and offenses and even favored them with offices and salaries. Our current sovereign's conduct aligns with the two rites, his kindness fills the mountains and seas, his trust accords with the most weighty principles, and his acceptance for the worthy knows no boundaries. He cannot be compared with the two Zhao states."

Zhang Guan said, "If Qin indeed possesses strong soldiers and has abundant culture, then why do you not first conquer the Southland? Then all the realm would join Qin of their own accord. Why does General Fu shirk the duties of the mandate?"

Yan and Liang replied, "His Late Majesty possessed great wisdom and divine martial prowess; he laid out and established the grand foundation of the state, opposing Yan while accepting the sincere, and so all the eight provinces obeyed and heeded him. Our current sovereign is sincere and wise, and his virtue is sure to spread through the age. But he regrets that, having only just established himself, he has not yet been able to spread his glorious name to Hexi yet, much less deal with Wu and Kuaiji. Our lord believes that Wu must be conquered by force. Yet the Hexi region can be brought into the fold through appealing to righteousness and cherished ideals. This is why he sent us on ahead as emissaries to express his good will. But if you are unable to follow these past examples and heed circumstances, then that will simply mean that the campaign against the Southland will be put off for a few more years yet while our army turns west instead, and we fear you shall not be able to protect the Hexi region."

Zhang Guan retorted, "We control three provinces, and have a hundred thousand armored men; to the west we control the region of Kunlun, and to the east we hold the Yellow River. We have plenty of men with which to launch our own offensive campaigns, let alone merely defend our land. What fear need we have of Qin?"

Yan and Liang replied, "Your honorable province may have mountains and rivers; how do they compare with the Xiao Mountains and Hangu Pass? You have the population of five commandaries; how does that compare with the population of Qinzhou and Yongzhou?

"Du Hong and Zhang Ju had the established resources of Zhao at their disposal, and they had formidable natural defenses; they had the fierce soldiers of the Three Qins regions with which to make plans, and they had the gathered bounties of land and sea for their use. Strong soldiers came to join them like flowing winds, rapid cavalry like gathering clouds. They boasted of even conquering the realm, much less merely holding Guanzhong. But as soon as our late lord pointed his divine spear to the west, their forces vanished like ice melting; the people sang his praises, not feeling as though they had changed lords. And although Yan took the Guandong region through might, our late sovereign still recognized the righteous principles of the land and region, making clear differences between disobedience and submission; he continued to face north in vassalage, and he did not stop sending his tribute for even a month. It was only when he received the flint arrows of the Sushen people and the treasures of the nine tribes, and the Chanyu bent his knee to him, that he called himself King and turned inward.

"Our current sovereign fields an army of more than a million mounted archers; if he has them beat the drums and march westward across the Yellow River, how could you oppose them? So it would be best for you to follow the examples of your honored predecessors when they became vassals to the Zhao states; you would ensure great blessings for your posterity, as Qin's western vassal."

Zhang Guan said, "But you claimed that Qin's virtue and righteousness permeates the realm. How then could the Southland not submit to you?"

Yan and Liang replied, "They even go so far as to tattoo their bodies, and they rely upon the natural defenses of their rivers and mountains; they would be the first ones to rebel when the state stops upholding its principles, and the last to submit even when morality and culture flourish. This has been so ever since antiquity; could it be any different today? This is why the Book of Poetry has the verse, 'Foolish were the savage tribes of Jing, presuming to oppose our great region.' It is an expression that such people cannot be won over by any cherished ideals of virtue and righteousness."

Zhang Guan said, "Qin occupies the former capital of the Han dynasty, and their territory must contain many generals and ministers, people skilled in civil and military affairs who help to uphold the state, leaders of the age. Who are they?"

Yan and Liang replied, "The imperial court is full of such virtuous folks. If you seek those loyal as the Duke of Zhou, there is the Grand Marshal and Prince of Wudu, Fu An, and the Grand General Who Conquers The East and Prince of Jin, Fu Liu; they are skilled in both civil and military affairs, full of fine talents and military capability. Internally, they impartially oversee the hundred workers, while externally, they break and charge for ten thousand li. There is also the Grand Guard General and Prince of Guangping, Fu Huangmei, as well as the General of the Rear and Prince of Qinghe, Fu Fa, and the Dragon-Soaring General and Prince of Donghai, his brother Fu Jian.

"If you seek old fellows of exceptional virtue, with the same virtue as the Esteemed Father (Jiang Ziya), there is the Grand Instructor, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Guangning, Yu Zun.

"If you seek pure, stern, and disciplined men, with barbed, forthright, and wise counsel, there is the Household Counselor of the Left, Qiang Ping, and the Household Counselors With Golden Tassel, Cheng Gong and Niu Yi.

"If you seek those who are greatly learned and vastly knowledgeable, plucking out the subtle and searching out the obscure, there is the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Hu Wen, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Yu, and the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Li Rou.

"If you seek those who are brave, stalwart, generous, and weighty, whose plans and strategies are never unsuitable, there is the Guard General of the Left, Li Wei, and the Guard General of the Right, Fu Ya.

"If you seek those whose talents and knowledge are wise and successful, who know when to execute policies and when to halt them, there is the Specially Advanced and acting Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, Liang Pinglao, the Specially Advanced and Household Counselor, Qiang Wang, and the Palace Attendant and Master of Writing, Lü Polou.

"If you seek those who have great stores of knowledge in literature and history, masters of literary composition, there is the Supervisor of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Dong Rong, the Chief of the Imperial Library, Wang Yang, and the Gentleman-Author, Liang Dang.

"If you seek those who are spirited and bold, developing many plans and plots, who always capture what they assault and defeat whom they fight, the descendants of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei and a 'match for ten thousand foes', there is the General of the Front and Prince of Xinxing, Fu Fei, the General Who Establishes Ferocity, Deng Qiang, the General Who Founds Loyalty, Peng Yue, the General Who Maintains Distant Places, Fan Junan (possibly the same person as Ju Nan), and the General Who Establishes Valor, Xu Sheng.

"In fact, all of our chief officials, whether noble or minister, Governor or Administrator, is talented in civil and military affairs, and not a one of them is not talented or worthy. And the others all cherish talents for administering affairs and store up plans for how to assist the age. And as for those who dwell in the southern hills and take no part of affairs, Wang Meng and Zhu Rong are in the same class, peering at each other from across a gap. So many worthy fellows; how could we ever speak of running out of them?

"Yao Xiang and Zhang Ping may have been heroes for a time, each of them grasping an army of several tens of thousands and holding positions like a wolf in its lair, yet now both of them pledge loyalty to us and send us sincere tribute, asking to become our subjects. The weak who do not bow to the strong are destroyed; that is a principle of the Spring and Autumn Annals. It only remains for you to decide what to do."

Zhang Guan smiled and said, "But this is a matter for the Prince to decide, not me."

Yan and Liang said, "Although the Prince is bright and wise for his age, in the end he is still young. Sir, you occupy the same role as Yi Yin and Huo Guang. Your state’s survival or destruction, and whether it recognizes the circumstances and acts accordingly, all depends on you."

Zhang Guan had only recently taken control of the government of Liangzhou, and there were already local rebels in the province, so he was afraid at the prospect that Qin might send their own army to invade as well. So he spoke to Zhang Xuanjing, then sent envoys professing vassalage to Qin. Fu Sheng recognized Zhang Xuanjing's vassalage and confirmed him in his titles and offices.


將軍劉度攻秦青州刺史王朗於盧氏;燕將軍慕輿長卿入軹關,攻秦幽州刺史強哲於裴氏堡。秦主生遣前將軍新興王飛拒度,建節將軍鄧羌拒長卿。飛未至而度退。羌與長卿戰,大破之,獲長卿及甲首二千餘級。

7. The Jin general Liu Du attacked Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Wang Lang, at Lushi. Meanwhile, the Yan general Muyu Zhangqing entered Zhi Pass and attacked Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Qiang Zhe, at Fort Peishi. Fu Sheng sent his General of the Front and Prince of Xinxing, Fu Fei, to oppose Liu Du, while he sent his General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, to oppose Muyu Zhangqing. Liu Du retreated before Fu Fei arrived. Deng Qiang met Muyu Zhangqing in battle and greatly routed him, capturing Muyu Zhangqing and bringing back over two thousand heads and equipment.

盧氏縣,漢屬弘農郡,晉屬上洛郡,唐屬虢州。永嘉之亂,裴氏舉宗據險築堡以自守,後人因而置屯戍,故堡猶有裴氏之名,蓋在河東界。

(During Han, Lushi county was part of Hongnong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Shangluo commandary. During Tang, it was part of Guozhou.

During the Disaster of Yongjia (310-316), the Pei clan (of Yingchuan) built a fortress for self-defense to escape from the danger. Later on, whenever soldiers camped there, they still called the old fort Fort Peishi ("Pei Clan's Fort"). It must have been in Hedong commandary.)


The Wang Lang mentioned here has the same name as the Wang Lang who had served Later Zhao and was last mentioned fleeing to Xiangguo. It is possible it is the same man, but that is uncertain.

慕容俊遣將慕輿長卿等率眾七千入自軹關,攻幽州刺史張哲于裴氏堡。晉將軍劉度等率眾四千,攻青州刺史袁朗于盧氏。生遣其前將軍苻飛距晉,建節鄧羌距燕。飛未至而度退。羌及長卿戰于堡南,大敗之,獲長卿及甲首二千七百餘級。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Murong Jun sent his generals Muyu Zhangqing and others to lead an army of seventeen thousand into Zhi Pass and attack Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Zhang Zhe, at Fort Peishi. Meanwhile, the Jin general Liu Du and others led their own army of forteen thousand to attack Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Yuan Lang, at Lushi. Fu Sheng sent his General of the Front, Fu Fei, to oppose the Jin army, while sending his General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, to oppose Yan. Fu Fei had not yet arrived before Liu Du retreated. Deng Qiang fought Muyu Zhangqing south of Fort Peishi and greatly defeated him, capturing Muyu Zhangqing and taking more than twenty-seven hundred heads and equipment.

鄧淵,字彥海,安定人也。祖羌,苻堅車騎將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Deng Yuan)

Deng Yuan, styled Yanhai, was a native of Anding commandary. His grandfather was Deng Qiang, Former Qin's General of Chariots and Cavalry.


桓溫請移都洛陽,修復園陵,章十餘上,不許。拜溫征討大都督,督司、冀二州諸軍事,以討姚襄。

8. Huan Wen requested that the Jin capital be returned to Luoyang, so that the old imperial tombs could be repaired. He made the request more than ten times, but the court would not agree. Huan was appointed as Grand Commander, with authority over military affairs in Sizhou and Jizhou, for the purpose of campaigning against Yao Xiang.

三月,以太尉桓溫爲征討大都督以討之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the third month, the Grand Commandant, Huan Wen, was appointed as Grand Commander of the Expeditionary Force to campaign against Yao Xiang.


三月,秦主生發三輔民治渭橋;金紫光祿大夫程肱諫,以為妨農,生殺之。

9. In the third month, Fu Sheng ordered the people of the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an) to construct a bridge over the Wei River. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Cheng Gong, remonstrated with him, saying that the corvee labor would hinder farming. Fu Sheng killed him.

生髮三輔人營渭橋,金紫光祿大夫程肱以妨農害時,上疏極諫。生怒,殺之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng ordered the people of the Three Adjuncts region (around Chang’an) to construct a bridge over the Wei River. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Cheng Gong, remonstrated with him, saying that the corvee labor was out of season and would hinder farming. Angry, Fu Sheng killed him.


夏,四月,長安大風,發屋拔木。秦宮中驚擾,或稱賊至,宮門晝閉,五日乃止。秦主生推告賊者,刳出其心。左光祿大夫強平諫曰:「天降災異,陛下當愛民事神,緩刑崇德以應之,乃可弭也。」。生怒,鑿其頂而殺之。衛將軍廣平王黃眉、前將軍新興王飛、建節將軍鄧羌,以平,太后之弟,叩頭固諫,生弗聽,出黃眉為左馮翊,飛為右扶風,羌行咸陽太守,猶惜其驍勇,故皆弗殺。五月,太后強氏以憂恨卒,謚曰明德。

10. In summer, the fourth month, a great wind whipped Chang'an, tearing up roof-tiles and ripping out trees. There was great fear in the palace, with someone said that the bandits were coming, and so the palace gates were shut even during daytime, only opening again after five days. Fu Sheng investigated into who had started the talk about bandits, and carved out his heart.

The Household Counselor of the Left, Qiang Ping, remonstrated with Fu Sheng, saying, "It was Heaven that sent this disaster upon us. Your Majesty must win back the hearts of the people and appease the gods. Now is the time to offer forgiveness in order to reestablish virtue, and thus end the disturbances."

Fu Sheng became angry, and killed Qiang Ping by hammering a chisel through the top of his head.

Fu Fei, Deng Qiang, and the Guard General and Prince of Guangping, Fu Huangmei, kowtowed before Fu Sheng and remonstrated with him, because Qiang Ping had been Empress Dowager Qiang's younger brother. Fu Sheng did not heed them, and he even ordered the three of them banished: Fu Huangmei to Western Pingyi, Fu Fei to Eastern Fufeng, and Deng Qiang to be the Administrator of Xianyang. However, respecting their bravery, he did not order them executed.

In the fifth month, the Empress Dowager passed away out of grief; her posthumous name was Empress Dowager Mingde ("the Wise and Virtuous").

風捲屋瓦,抓簷桷爲發屋。前漢扶風渭城縣,秦之咸陽也,後漢、晉省。魏收《地形志》:咸陽郡治石安縣,卽漢渭城也,石勒更名。是郡蓋永嘉之後羣胡所置也。

(“發屋” means when the wind tears up roof tiles and rips out the eaves.

There had been a Weicheng county in Fufeng commandary during Former Han, which was the same place as Xianyang under the Qin dynasty. Later Han and Jin had abolished it. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Xianyang commandary is administered from Shi'an county. It was known as Weicheng during Han, but Shi Le renamed it." It was one of several commandaries that the several tribes created after the Disaster of Yongjia.)


長安大風,髮屋拔樹,行人顛頓,宮中奔擾,或稱賊至,宮門晝閉,五日乃止。生推告賊者,殺之,刳而出其心。左光祿大夫強平諫曰:「元正盛旦,日有蝕之,正陽神朔,昏風大起,兼水旱不時,獸災未息,此皆由陛下不勉強于政事,乖和氣所致也。願陛下務養元元,平章百姓,棄纖介之嫌,含山嶽之過,致敬宗社,愛禮公卿,去秋霜之威,垂三春之澤,則奸回寢止,妖昆自消,乾靈祗祐皇家,永保無窮之美矣。」生怒,以為妖言,鑿其頂而殺之。平之囚也,偽衛將軍苻黃眉、前將軍苻飛、建節鄧羌侍宴禁中,叩頭固諫,以太后為言。平即生母強氏之弟也。生既弗許,強氏憂恨而死。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

A great wind whipped Chang'an, tearing up roof-tiles, ripping out trees, and knocking over travelers. There was great fear in the palace, with someone reporting that bandits were coming, and so the palace gates were shut even during daytime, only opening again after five days. Fu Sheng investigated into who had started the talk about bandits, then killed them and carved out their heart.

The Household Counselor of the Left, Qiang Ping, remonstrated with him, saying, "At the beginning of the year, there was an eclipse; now, this great wind has sprung up out of season. This is not to mention the unseasonable flooding and droughts, and the unceasing wild animal attacks. All of this is because Your Majesty has not exerted yourself in governing the state, nor devoted yourself to the spirit of peace. I implore Your Majesty to tend to and nurture your chief duty, and bring stability and law to the common people. Put away your petty grudges, contain your towering transgressions, devote yourself to and respect the spirits of your ancestors and of the state, treasure and show courtesy to your nobles and ministers, turn aside from the might of autumn frost, and bask in the luster of three springs. Then the evildoers will be stopped and halted and villains will disappear of their own accord; you will respect the spirits and secure the blessings of the imperial family, and you will ensure everlasting beauty for your progeny."

Fu Sheng became angry, charging Qiang Ping with slander, and he killed Qiang Ping by hammering a chisel through the top of his head.

During the time that Qiang Ping was in prison, the Guard General, Fu Huangmei, the General of the Front, Fu Fei, and the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, came to Fu Sheng while he was feasting with his guards and attendants. They kowtowed before him and forcefully remonstrated with him, speaking on behalf of Empress Dowager Qiang, because Qiang Ping was her younger brother. When Fu Sheng refused to spare Qiang Ping, Lady Qiang passed away from worry and grief.

長安大風,或稱賊至,宮門晝閉,五日乃止。生推告賊者,刳出心胃。生舅強平切諫,生鑿其頂而殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

A great wind whipped Chang'an. Someone said that bandits were coming, and so the palace gates were shut even during daytime, only opening again after five days. Fu Sheng investigated into who had started the talk about bandits, and carved out his heart and stomach. Fu Sheng's uncle Qiang Ping bluntly remonstrated with him, but Fu Sheng killed Qiang Ping by hammering a chisel through the top of his head.


姚襄自許昌攻周成於洛陽。

11. Yao Xiang marched from Xuchang to attack the warlord Zhou Cheng at Luoyang.

周成襲據洛陽,見上卷十年。

Zhou Cheng's capture of Luoyang was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) during the last book (Book 99, 354.2).


六月,秦主生下詔曰:「朕受皇天之命,君臨萬邦;嗣統以來,有何不善,而謗讟言之音,扇滿天下!殺不過千,而謂之殘虐!行者比肩,未足為希。方當峻刑極罰,復如朕何!」自去春以來,潼關之西,至於長安,虎狼為暴,晝則繼道。夜則發屋,不食六畜,專務食人,凡殺七百餘人。民廢耕桑,相聚邑居,而為害不息。秋,七月,秦群臣奏請禳災,生曰:「野獸饑則食人,飽當自止,何禳之有!且天豈不愛民哉,正以犯罪者多,故助朕殺之耳!」

12. In the sixth month, Fu Sheng sent out an edict stating, "I have received the mandate of the Yellow Heaven, and am lord over many lands. What have I done wrong since I took the throne, that the realm is filled with slanders and rumors against me? I have not killed even a thousand people, yet they say I am cruel! The roads are filled with people; one cannot say the they are becoming sparse. This is just the time to implement harsh laws and extreme punishments. What can you do about me anyway?"

Ever since spring, from Tong Gate west up until Chang'an, tigers and wolves had become violent, and they filled (or, blocked) the roads during the day. At night they would burst into houses, and rather than eating livestock, they would turn on and eat people. More than seven hundred people died in this manner. The people abandoned their farming and silkworm cultivating, instead gathering together into towns and cities, but the beasts continued their scourge of the land. In autumn, the seventh month, all the Qin ministers petitioned together for offerings to be made to Heaven to halt the calamity. But Fu Sheng said, "It's only natural that wild beasts that are starving will eat people. They will stop once they've filled their bellies. What’s the point in making an offering? Furthermore, would Heaven not care for the people? It’s exactly because there are so many evildoers that Heaven is helping me kill them!"

晝則繼道。言虎狼相繼於路也。「繼」,蜀本作「斷」。史言苻生之虐甚於桀、紂。

(That is to say, the roads were filled with tigers and wolves. Some versions say "blocked" instead of "filled".

This passage shows how Fu Sheng's cruelty matched that of Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang.)


The Six Livestock were horses, cattle, sheep, chickens, dogs, and pigs.

生下書曰:「朕受皇天之命,承祖宗之業,君臨萬邦,子育百姓,嗣統已來,有何不善,而謗讟之音扇滿天下。殺不過千,而謂刑虐。行者比肩,未足為稀。方當峻刑極罰,復如朕何!」時猛獸及狼大暴,晝則斷道,夜則髮屋,惟害人而不食六畜。自生立一年,獸殺七百餘人,百姓苦之,皆聚而邑居。為害滋甚,遂廢農桑,內外兇懼。群臣奏請禳災,生曰:「野獸饑則食人,飽當自止,終不能累年為患也。天豈不子愛群生,而年年降罰,正以百姓犯罪不已,將助朕專殺而施刑教故耳。但勿犯罪,何為怨天而尤人哉!」生如阿房,遇兄與妹俱行者,逼令為非禮,不從,生怒殺之。又宴群臣於咸陽故城,有後至者,皆斬之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng sent out an edict stating, "I have received the mandate of the Yellow Heaven, inheriting the enterprise of my forefathers, and am lord over many lands, overseeing and nurturing the common people. What have I done wrong since I took the throne, that the realm is filled with slanders and rumors against me? I have not killed even a thousand people, yet they say I am cruel. The roads are filled with people; one cannot say the they are becoming sparse. This is just the time to implement harsh laws and extreme punishments. What can you do about me anyway?"

At that time, wild animals and wolves became especially violent, and they blocked the roads during the day. At night they would burst into houses, and rather than eating livestock, they would turn on and eat people. During Fu Sheng's first year on the throne, more than seven hundred people were killed by beasts. The common people suffered from these attacks, and they all gathered together in the towns and cities. The danger became so great that the people abandoned their farming and silkworm cultivating, and everyone inside and out was nervous and afraid.

The Qin ministers petitioned together for offerings to be made to Heaven to halt the calamity. But Fu Sheng said, "It's only natural that wild beasts that are starving will eat people. They will stop once they've filled their bellies. They will not pose some threat for years on end. Does Heaven not care for the people? These increasing punishments over the years are just because of the many criminals and guilty among the common people. Heaven is using these beasts to help me kill them and teach the people about punishments. So long as they do not commit any crimes, what need do they have to resent Heaven or extraordinary people?"

Fu Sheng went to Epang Palace, where he encountered a brother and sister traveling along the road. He threatened them and ordered them to commit obscene acts. When they refused to do so, he became angry and kill them.

Fu Sheng held a feast for his ministers at the old city of Xianyang. Everyone who arrived late was beheaded.

虎狼大暴,從潼關至于長安,晝則斷道,夜則發屋,不食六畜,專以害人。自其元年秋,至于二年夏,虎殺七百餘人,民廢農桑,內外忷懼。其臣奏請禳災,生曰:「野獸飢則食人,飽當自止,終不累年為患也。天將助吾行誅,以施刑教,但勿犯罪,何為怨天。」生如阿房,遇人共妹行者,逼令為淫,固執弗從,生怒殺之。其尚書僕射賈玄石,形貌美偉,生與妻樓上望見玄石在庭中,妻曰:「此何人也?」生曰:「汝欲得也。」乃誅玄石。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Tigers and wolves became especially violent, and they blocked the roads from Tong Gate to Chang'an during the day. At night they would burst into houses, and rather than eating livestock, they would turn on and eat people. From the autumn of the first year of Shouguang (355) to the spring of the second year (356), more than seven hundred people were killed by tigers. The people abandoned their farming and silkworm cultivating, and everyone inside and out was nervous and afraid.

The Qin ministers petitioned together for offerings to be made to Heaven to halt the calamity. But Fu Sheng said, "It's only natural that wild beasts that are starving will eat people. They will stop once they've filled their bellies. They will not pose some threat for years on end. Besides, Heaven is using them to help me carry out executions. This will teach the people about punishments. So long as they do not commit any crimes, what need do they have to resent Heaven?"

Fu Sheng went to Epang Palace, where he encountered a man and his sister traveling along the road. He threatened them and ordered them to commit obscene acts. When they resolutely refused to do so, he became angry and kill them.

Fu Sheng's Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Jia Xuanshi, had a fair figure and great beauty. Fu Sheng and his wife were standing atop a tower when they looked out and saw Jia Xuanshi standing in a courtyard. Fu Sheng's wife said, "What man is that?"

Fu Sheng said, "You must want him." So he executed Jia Xuanshi.


丙子,燕獻懷太子曄卒。姚襄攻洛陽,逾月不克。長史王亮諫曰:「明公英名蓋世,兵強民附。今頓兵堅城之下,力屈威挫,或為它寇所乘,此危亡之道也!」襄不從。

13. On the day Bingzi (August 21st), Yan's Crown Prince, Murong Ye, passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xianhuai (“the Presented and Cherished”).

Yao Xiang attacked Luoyang, but despite assaulting it for over a month, he could not capture it. His Chief Clerk, Wang Liang, remonstrated with him, saying, "You have a heroic legacy and are well-regarded; your soldiers are strong, and the people support you. But now you camp here outside this fortified city, expending your strength upon assaults. Other enemies might take advantage of us. This course can only lead to ruin!"

But Yao Xiang did not listen to him.

襄自許遂攻洛陽,逾月不尅。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang marched from Xuchang to attack Luoyang. But despite attacking it for more than a month, he could not take it.

襄將如河東以圖關右,自許遂攻洛陽,逾月不克。其長史王亮諫襄曰:「公英略蓋天下,士眾思效力命,不可損威勞眾,守此孤城。宜還河北,以弘遠略。」襄曰:「洛陽雖小,山河四塞之固,亦是用武之地。吾欲先據洛陽,然後開建大業。」俄而亮卒,襄哭之甚慟,曰:「天將不欲成吾事乎?王亮舍我去也!」(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Planning to use the Hedong region as a base from which to conquer Guandong, Yao Xiang marched from Xuchang to attack Luoyang. But despite attacking it for more than a month, he could not take it.

His Chief Clerk, Wang Liang, remonstrated with him, saying, "Your heroism and cunning are known across the realm, and your officers and soldiers wish to devote themselves to fulfilling your orders. You cannot besmirch your martial reputation and burden your soldiers by keeping this lone city under siege. You should return north of the Yellow River, where you might develop great and far-reaching strategies."

But Yao Xiang replied, "Although Luoyang itself is small, it is surrounded by formidable rivers and hills, and it is a good region for supporting martial endeavors. So I want to occupy Luoyang first, and then begin establishing my grand design from there."

Not long afterwards, Wang Liang passed away. Yao Xiang mourned for him with deep grief, saying, "Does Heaven not wish for me to fulfill my ambition? Wang Liang has abandoned me!"


桓溫自江陵北伐,遣督護高武據魯陽,輔國將軍戴施屯河上,自帥大兵繼進。與寮屬登平乘樓望中原,歎曰:「遂使神州陸沉,百年丘墟,王夷甫諸人不得不任其責!」記室陳郡袁宏曰:「運有興廢,豈必諸人之過!」溫作色曰:「昔劉景升有千斤大牛,啖芻豆十倍於常牛,負重致運,曾不若一贏牸,魏武入荊州,殺以享軍。」

14. Huan Wen marched north from Jiangling. He sent his Protector, Gao Wu, to capture Luyang, and his General Who Upholds The State, Dai Shi, to camp along the river, while he himself led the bulk of his army forward.

As they passed the crude shacks that now dotted the Central Plains, Huan Wen and his colleagues and subordinates went up to the Pingcheng deck of his ship and gazed towards the Central Plains. Huan Wen sighed and said, "For causing the Sacred Plains to fall into the grasp of the barbarians and lie in ruin for a hundred years, Wang Yifu (Wang Yan) and his ilk bear a heavy burden!"

Huan Wen's Recordskeeper, Yuan Hong of Chen commandary, said, "Fate naturally brings its falls and rises; why were Wang Yan and his friends necessarily to blame?"

Huan Wen sternly replied, "In bygone days, Liu Jingsheng (Liu Biao) owned a large ox weighing a thousand catties. It ate ten times as much fodder and beans as ordinary oxen. Yet when it came to bearing heavy burdens or traveling long distances, it wasn't even the equal of a sick calf. When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) invaded Jingzhou, he cooked the beast and fed it to his men."

平乘樓,大船之樓。以王衍等尚清談而不恤王事,以致夷狄亂華也。晉諸公、諸從公府皆有記室,掌表疏、牋記、書檄。溫意以牛況宏,徒能糜俸祿而無經世之用。劉表字景升。漢獻帝建安十三年,曹操入荊州。

The Pingcheng deck was a deck on a large ship.

Wang Yan and the other advocates of the "Pure Conversation" school during Western Jin had not busied themselves with state affairs, and it was because of that that the barbarians rebelled against the Hua (the ethnic Han) people.

The Dukes and other noble families of Jin each had their 記室, who was responsible for composing memorials, compiling records, and distributing proclamations.

Huan Wen was using the story of the cattle as a metaphor to instruct Yuan Hong, and was really talking about people who drew government salaries yet were useless for administration.

Liu Biao's style name was Jingsheng.

The account of Cao Cao's entry into Jingzhou is described in the thirteenth year of Jian'an, in Book 65.


Qingtan, or Pure Conversation, was a Daoist philosophical school of thought that arose during the Wei-Jin era, and continued to be popular through the Southern and Northern dynasties.

桓公入洛,過淮、泗,踐北境,與諸僚屬登平乘樓,眺矚中原,慨然曰:「遂使神州陸沈,百年丘墟,王夷甫諸人,不得不任其責!」袁虎率爾對曰:「運自有廢興,豈必諸人之過?」桓公懍然作色,顧謂四坐曰:「諸君頗聞劉景升不?有大牛重千斤,噉芻豆十倍於常牛,負重致遠,曾不若一羸牸。魏武入荊州,烹以饗士卒,于時莫不稱快。」意以況袁。四坐既駭,袁亦失色。(New Tales of the World 26.11)

When Huan Wen invaded Luoyang (in 356), he crossed to the north by way of the Huai and Si Rivers. Climbing to the turret of his ship with his subordinate officers, he looked out over the Central Plains, and with deep feeling said, "For causing the Sacred Provinces to be engulfed (by barbarians) and to lie waste for a hundred years, Wang Yan and those about him can't escape bearing the blame!"

His aide-de-camp, Yuan Hong, answered him forthrightly, "Fate naturally brings its falls and rises; why was it necessarily the fault of Wang Yan and those about him?"

Coloring angrily, Huan Wen turned about and said to all who were present, "Have you gentlemen ever heard of Liu Biao? He owned a large ox weighing a thousand catties. It ate ten times as much fodder and beans as ordinary oxen, but when it came to bearing heavy burdens or traveling long distances, it wasn't even the equal of a sick calf. When Cao Cao invaded Jingzhou, he cooked the ox to feast his officers and men. At the time, everyone expressed delight."

Huan Wen's intention was to make an analogy with Yuan Hong. Everyone present was frightened, and even Yuan Hong himself turned pale. (tr. Richard Mather)


八月,已亥,溫至伊水,姚襄撤圍拒之,匿精銳於水北林中,遣使謂溫曰:「承親帥王師以來,襄今奉身歸命,願敕三軍小卻,當拜伏路左。」溫曰:「我自開復中原,展敬山陵,無豫君事。欲來者便前,相見在近,何煩使人!」襄拒水而戰。溫結陳而前,親被甲督戰。襄眾大敗,死者數千人。襄帥麾下數千騎奔於洛陽北山,其夜,民棄妻子隨襄者五千餘人。襄勇而愛人,雖戰屢敗,民知襄所在,輒扶老攜幼,奔馳而赴之。溫軍中傳言襄病創已死,許、洛士女為溫所得者,無不北望而泣。襄西走,溫追之不及。弘農楊亮自襄所來奔,溫問襄之為人,亮曰:「襄神明器宇,孫策之儔,而雄武過之。」

15. In the eighth month, on the day Yihai (September 16th), Huan Wen reached the Yi River.

Yao Xiang broke off his siege of Luoyang to defend against Huan Wen, hiding his best troops in the woods on the north bank of the Yi River. He sent a messenger to Huan Wen, with the message, "I see you have led the royal troops here. It is now my desire to present myself and return to rightful authority. If you would please order your army to draw back somewhat, we would certainly kneel by the side of the road and offer our submission."

Huan Wen replied, "I have come to recover the Central Plains, and to offer my respects at the imperial tombs; I am not here to interfere with your business. If you wish to present yourself, you ought to come in person; why bother sending another in your place?"

Yao Xiang therefore prepared to fight a battle at the Yi River. Huan Wen prepared his formation and came against Yao Xiang, personally donning armor to direct the battle. Yao Xiang suffered a great defeat, losing several thousand men. He fled with several thousand of his remaining cavalry to seek refuge in the northern hills of Luoyang. During the night, more than five thousand commoners abandoned their wives and children to join Yao Xiang.

Yao Xiang was brave and kind to the people. Although he continued to suffer defeats to Huan Wen, whenever the populace knew where Yao Xiang was, they would rush to join him, bringing their old and young with them. When there was a rumor in Huan Wen’s camp that Yao Xiang had already died of his injuries, the men and women from Xuchang and Luoyang who had been captured by Huan Wen all looked north and wept.

Yao Xiang fled to the west. Huan Wen’s soldiers pursued Yao Xiang, but they could not catch him. During the pursuit, a certain Yang Liang of Hongnong left Yao Xiang's band and went over to Huan Wen. Huan Wen asked him what sort of man Yao Xiang was. Yang Liang responded, "Yao Xiang has divine wisdom and a broad mind, just like Sun Ce, but in valor and martial prowess he surpasses even the latter."

伊水在洛陽城南。洛陽北山,北芒山也。史言姚襄得人心。

(The Yi River is south of Luoyang.

The northern hills of Luoyang means the Beimang Hills.

This passage shows how greatly Yao Xiang had captured the hearts of the people.)


秋八月己亥,桓溫及姚襄戰于伊水,大敗之,襄走。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Jihai (September 16th), Huan Wen fought Yao Xiang at the Yi River. He greatly defeated Yao Xiang, who fled.

晉征西大將軍桓溫,自江陵伐襄,溫至伊水,襄徹圍之,為溫所敗。襄奔還洛陽,率數千騎奔於北山,百姓隨襄者四千餘戶。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, marched from Jiangling to campaign against Yao Xiang. When Huan Wen reached the Yi River, Yao Xiang thoroughly surrounded him, but Huan Wen defeated him. Yao Xiang fled back to Luoyang, then led several thousand cavalry to flee into the northern hills. More than four thousand households of the common people followed after him.

晉征西大將軍桓溫自江陵伐襄,戰于伊水北,為溫所敗,率麾下數千騎奔於北山。其夜,百姓棄妻子隨襄者五千餘人,屯據陽鄉,赴者又四千餘戶。襄前後敗喪數矣,眾知襄所在,輒扶老攜幼賓士而赴之。時或傳襄創重不濟,溫軍所得士女莫不北望揮涕。其得物情如此。先是,弘農楊亮歸襄,襄待以客禮。後奔桓溫,溫問襄於亮,亮曰:「神明器宇,孫策之儔,而雄武過之。」其見重如是。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West, Huan Wen, marched from Jiangling to campaign against Yao Xiang. They fought north of the Yi River, where Huan Wen defeated Yao Xiang. Yao Xiang led several thousand of his cavalry to flee into the northern hills. That night, more than five thousand commoners abandoned their wives and children to follow him. Yao Xiang camped at Yangxiang, where more than four thousand more households came to join him.

Although Yao Xiang was defeated several times, so long as people knew that he was present, they would still come to join him, supporting the old and carrying the young. When there was a rumor that Yao Xiang had been heavily injured and passed away, the men and women who had been captured by Huan Wen all looked north and wiped away tears. Such were the feelings that Yao Xiang inspired in people.

Earlier, Yang Liang of Hongnong had come to join Yao Xiang, who treated him with courtesy as a guest. Later, after Yao Xiang fled following Huan Wen's attack, Huan Wen asked Yang Liang about the sort of person Yao Xiang was. Yang Liang replied, "Yao Xiang has divine wisdom and a broad mind, just like Sun Ce, but in valor and martial prowess he surpasses even the latter." So highly did people esteem Yao Xiang.

襄為司馬聃將桓溫所敗。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Xiang was defeated by Emperor Mu's general Huan Wen.


周成帥眾出降,溫屯故太極殿前,既而徙屯金墉城。已丑,謁諸陵,有毀壞者修復之,各置陵令。表鎮西將軍謝尚都督司州諸軍事,鎮洛陽。以尚未至,留穎川太守毛穆之、督護陳午、河南太守戴施以二千人戍洛陽,衛山陵,徙降軍三千餘家於江、漢之間,執周成以歸。

16. The erstwhile rebel Zhou Cheng led his troops out of Luoyang to submit to Jin. Huan Wen camped his men in front of the Taiji Palace, before relocating to the Jinyong fortress. On the day Yichou (?), he visited all the imperial tombs, repairing the places that had been damaged, and appointing a Tomb Prefect for each.

Huan Wen then petitioned for the General Who Guards The West, Xie Shang, to be in command of affairs in Sizhou, and to be stationed at Luoyang. Since Xie Shang had yet to arrive, Huan Wen left the Administrator of Yingchuan, Mao Muzhi, the Protector, Chen Wu, and the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, with two thousand troops to form a garrison for Luoyang and to protect the imperial tombs. He relocated more than three thousand families from that region to the area between the Yangzi and the Han River, and he returned to his post, with Zhou Cheng brought back as a captive.

漢起陵邑,邑各置令,後遂因之,諸陵各置陵令,屬太常。

During Han, villages sprang up around the imperial tombs, and each village had a Prefect. Because of that, each tomb was later assigned its own Tomb Prefect, and they were subordinate to the Minister of Ceremonies.


桓溫徙其餘衆三千餘家于江漢之間,執周成而歸。使揚武將軍毛穆之,督護陳午,輔國將軍、河南太守戴施鎮洛陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Huan Wen relocated more than three thousand of the remaining families in that region to the area between the Yangzi and the Han River. He returned to his post, with Zhou Cheng brought back as a captive. Huan Wen had the General Who Displays Valor, Mao Muzhi, the Protector, Chen Wu, and the General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, guard Luoyang.


姚襄奔平陽,秦并州刺史尹赤復以眾降襄,襄遂據襄陵。秦大將軍張平擊之,襄為平所敗,乃與平約為兄弟,各罷兵。

17. Yao Xiang fled to Pingyang, where Qin's Inspector of Bingzhou, his former subordinate Yin Chi, once again surrendered to him with his troops.

Yao Xiang then captured Xiangling. Qin's Grand General, Zhang Ping, attacked Yao Xiang and defeated him. Following this, the two of them swore an oath of brotherhood, each leading his own troops away.

尹赤叛襄見上卷八年。襄陵縣,漢屬河東郡,晉屬平陽郡;後魏改襄陵爲禽昌縣,隋、唐復曰襄陵。永和七年,張平降秦,已而貳於燕。《通鑑》以秦所授官繫之。

(It was mentioned that Yin Chi had abandoned Yao Xiang in Book 99, in the eighth year of Yonghe (352.8).

During Han, Xiangling county was part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Later on, Northern Wei changed its name from Xiangling to Qinchang county, and under Sui and Tang its name was changed back to Xiangling.

In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), Zhang Ping had submitted to Former Qin, but then had switched over to Former Yan. This passage shows that Former Qin had won him over again with new titles.)
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襄走平陽。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

Yao Xiang fled to Pingyang.

姚襄率眾萬餘,攻其平陽太守苻產于匈奴堡,苻柳救之,為襄所敗,引還蒲阪。襄遂攻堡,克之,殺苻產,盡坑其眾,遣使從生假道,將還隴西。生將許之,苻堅諫曰:「姚襄,人傑也,今還隴西,必為深害,不如誘以厚利,伺隙而擊之。」生乃止。遣使拜襄官爵,襄不受,斬其使者,焚所送章策,寇掠河東。生怒,命其大將軍張平討之。襄乃卑辭厚幣與平結為兄弟,平更與襄通和。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Yao Xiang led an army of more than ten thousand soldiers. He attacked Qin's Administrator of Pingyang, Fu Chan, at Fort Xiongnu. Fu Liu came to aid him, but he was defeated by Yao Xiang, so he led his troops back to Puban. Yao Xiang then assaulted the fort and took it; he killed Fu Chan and buried alive his entire army.

Then Yao Xiang sent envoys to Fu Sheng, asking to be allowed to use roads to pass through his territory, so that Yao Xiang's army could return to his former homeland in Longxi. Fu Sheng was about to permit it, but Fu Jian remonstrated with him, saying, "Yao Xiang is a hero of the age. If you allow him to return to Longxi, he will certainly become a great threat to you. It would be better for you to entice him with prospects of gain, wait for an opening, and then attack him."

So Fu Sheng decided against it. He sent his own envoys to grant ranks and titles to Yao Xiang, but Yao Xiang did not accept them, and he beheaded the envoys, then burned their seals and books before sending them back. He invaded and plundered the Hedong region.

Furious, Fu Sheng ordered his Grand General, Zhang Ping, to campaign against Yao Xiang. But Yao Xiang then used humble words and generous bribes to win over Zhang Ping, and they formed a bond like brothers, so Zhang Ping agreed to peace with him.

襄奔於河東。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Xiang fled to Hedong.

尹緯,字景亮,天水人也。少有大志,不營產業。身長八尺,腰帶十圍,魁梧有爽氣。每覽書傳至宰相立勳之際,常輟書而歎。苻堅以尹赤之降姚襄,諸尹皆禁錮不仕。緯晚乃為吏部令史,風志豪邁,郎皆憚之。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yin Wei)

Yin Wei, styled Jingliang, was a native of Tianshui commandary. Even as a youth, he had grand ambitions, not tending to any industry. He was eight chi tall and about a meter around in girth, a man of large build and straightforward personality. Whenever he was reading history books and he came to the biographies of the great ministers of old, and how they had established themselves and what services they performed, he often put down the book and sighed. For his relative Yin Chi had once surrendered his territory to the warlord Yao Xiang, and for a long time Fu Jian had punished the Yin clan by barring them all from office. So Yin Wei began his official career late in life, when he eventually became a Clerk in Former Qin's Personnnel Bureau. He was bold and proud in manner and bearing, and the Gentlemen of the bureau all feared him.


段龕遣其屬段薀來求救,詔徐州刺史荀羨將兵隨薀救之。羨至琅邪,憚燕兵之強,不敢進。王騰寇鄄城,羨進攻陽都,會霖雨,城壞,獲騰,斬之。

18. Duan Kan sent his subordinate Duan Yun to plead for aid from Jin. The Jin court ordered the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, to bring his troops back with Duan Yun to assist Duan Kan.

When Xun Xian reached Langye, he feared the strength of Yan's soldiers, so he did not dare advance further. Wang Teng invaded Juancheng. Xun Xian advanced to attack Yangdu. There were heavy rains then, and the city walls were damaged. Xun Xian captured Wang Teng and executed him.

【嚴:「薀」改「蘊」。】薀,紆粉翻。此古琅邪也。鄄城縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬濮陽。此非古鄄城縣,蓋僑縣也。段龕署王騰爲徐州刺史,屯陽都,時降于燕,爲燕來寇。

Some versions write Duan Yun's given name 薀 as 蘊. 薀 is pronounced "yun (y-en)".

This was the original Langye commandary.

During Han, Juancheng county was part of Dong commandary, and during Jin, it was part of Puyang commandary. So the Juancheng county mentioned here cannot have been the original one; it must have been one of the surrogate counties that Eastern Jin had established.

Duan Kan had earlier appointed this Wang Teng as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was camped at Yangdu. At this time, he had surrendered to Former Yan, and it was on behalf of Former Yan that he was invading.


冬十月,慕容恪攻段龕於廣固,使北中郎將荀羨帥師次于琅邪以救之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Ke attacked Duan Kan at Guanggu. The Jin court sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Xun Xian, to lead his forces to Langye to reinforce Duan Kan.


冬,十月,癸巳朔,日有食之。

19. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (November 9th), there was an eclipse.

冬十月癸巳朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (November 9th), there was an eclipse.


秦主生夜食棗多,旦而有疾,召太醫令程延,使診之。延曰:「陛下無它疾,食棗多耳。」生怒曰:「汝非聖人,安知吾食棗!」遂斬之。

20. Fu Sheng ate a large quantity of red dates one night. In the morning, he felt sick, so he sent for the Prefect of Imperial Doctors, Cheng Yan, to diagnose him. Cheng Yan said, "Your Majesty is not truly sick; you have simply eaten too many red dates."

Fu Sheng said, "You are not a magician; how could you know I was eating red dates?" He ordered Cheng Yan's execution.

生嘗使太醫令程延合安胎藥,問人參好惡並藥分多少,延曰:「雖小小不具,自可堪用。」生以為譏其目,鑿延目出,然後斬之。 (Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng once ordered the Prefect of Imperial Doctors, Cheng Yan, to prepare some medicine for calming his innards. When Fu Sheng asked Cheng Yan for his advice on the proper dosage of the medicine and how disagreeable it might be, Cheng Yan replied, "There will be a slight defect, but you can bear with it." Fu Sheng believed that Cheng Yan was making fun of his blind eye. So he carved out Cheng Yan's eye, and then beheaded him.

生嘗夜食棗過多,至旦病,使太醫程延診脉,延曰:「陛下食棗多,無他疾也。」生曰:「嘻,汝非聖人,焉知吾食棗?」乃殺之。常從輿上溲便,輦者謂之天雨。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng ate too many red dates one night. In the morning, he felt sick, so he sent for the Prefect of Imperial Doctors, Cheng Yan, to diagnose his veins. Cheng Yan said, "Your Majesty is not truly sick; you have simply eaten too many red dates."

Fu Sheng said, "Eh? You are not a magician; how could you know I was eating red dates?" So he killed Cheng Yan.

When Fu Sheng rode around in his palanquin, he often urinated over the side; the palanquin carriers called this the "Rain of Heaven".


燕大司馬恪圍段龕於廣固,諸將請急攻之。恪曰:「用兵之勢,有宜緩者,有宜急者,不可不察。若彼我勢敵,外有強援,恐有腹背之患,則攻之不可不急。若我強彼弱,無援於外,力足制之者,當羈縻守之,以待其斃。兵法「十圍五攻」,正謂此也。龕兵尚眾,未有離心。濟南之戰,非不銳也,但龕用之無術,以取敗耳。今憑阻堅城,上下戮力,我盡銳攻之,計數旬可拔,然殺吾士卒必多矣。自有事中原,兵不暫息,吾每念之,夜而忘寐,奈何輕用其死乎!要在取之,不必求功之速也!」諸將皆曰:「非所及也。」軍中聞之,人人感悅。於是為高牆深塹以守之。齊人爭運糧以饋燕軍。

21. Murong Ke kept Duan Kan under siege at Guanggu.

His officers asked him to hasten the assault on the city. But Murong Ke said, “When using soldiers, there is a time to go slowly and a time to move quickly, and the two cannot be mistaken for one another. If the enemy is equally strong as we are, and they have strong reinforcements coming and threatening to attack us from both sides, then we must be speedy in our attack. But when we are stronger than they are and they have no hope of reinforcements, so that we are strong enough to keep them contained, then we should dig in and surround them and wait for them to fall apart on their own.

“The Art of War states, 'When you have ten times the enemy's numbers, surround them; when five times, attack'. That describes our situation exactly. Duan Kan’s troops are still numerous, and they are still of one purpose. When we defeated them at the battle at Jinan, they did not fail because they were poor fighters. It was only because Duan Kan did not direct them well, thus bringing about his own defeat. Now they are behind natural barriers and strong walls, and men in all ranks are fighting as one. If we send all our elite troops to attack them, we could indeed take the city within a few weeks (or, a few days), but we would certainly suffer many casualties.

“Since we began campaigning in the Central Plains, the soldiers have not had a moment's rest. Every time I think about that, I can’t sleep at night. How could I throw them so lightly to their deaths? The key is in taking the city. There is no need to seek quick glory!”

His officers replied, "We would never have thought of that." When this discussion became generally known in the camp, the people rejoiced. Thus they kept up their siege lines, and the people of the Qi region rushed against each other to provide the Yan army with grain.

卽淄水之戰。曰濟南者,以濟水南北大界言之。【章:十二行本「日」作「旬」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

Murong Ke means the battle at the Zi River. He calls it Jinan because it was at the boundary between the north and south of the Ji River.

Some versions say "tens of days" instead of "days".


It is curious to note that Murong Ke almost always advocated besieging cities and not assaulting them, a direct repudiation of one of the Art of War's tenets. "Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities. The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets, movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over against the walls will take three months more. The general, unable to control his irritation, will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, with the result that one-third of his men are slain, while the town still remains untaken. Such are the disastrous effects of a siege." (3.2)

龕嬰城自守,樵采路絕,城中人相食。龕悉眾出戰。恪破之於圍裡,先分騎屯諸門。龕身自沖蕩,僅而得入,餘兵皆沒。於是城中氣沮,莫有固志。十一月,丙子,龕面縛出降,並執朱禿送薊。恪撫安新民,悉定齊地,徙鮮卑、胡、羯三千餘戶於薊。燕主俊具朱禿五刑,以段龕為伏順將軍。恪留慕容塵鎮廣固,以尚書左丞鞠殷為東萊太守,章武太守鮮於亮為齊郡太守,乃還。

22. Duan Kan barricaded his city, and even the trails used by woodcutters and herb-gatherers were blocked off. The people within the city began to eat each other.

Duan Kan gathered his host and went forth to battle. Murong Ke routed him within the encirclement of the siege lines, first sending out riders to guard each gate. Duan Kan personally fought through the Yan siege and barely escaped into the city alone, while his soldiers were all lost. Morale within the city plummeted, and no one was willing to defend the city.

In the eleventh month, on the day Bingzi (December 22nd), Duan Kan bound himself and went out to offer his surrender. He also arrested Zhu Tu, who had killed Murong Han's son Murong Gou, and sent him to Ji. Murong Ke calmed the people who had newly come over to Yan, and the Qi region was now fully at peace. He relocated more than three thousand households of Xianbei, Jie, and other tribal peoples to Ji. Murong Jun subjected Zhu Tu to the five punishments, and appointed Duan Kan as General of Obedient Submission.

Murong Ke left Murong Chen to guard Guanggu, and appointed the Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Ju Yin, as Administrator of Donglai. He also appointed the current Administrator of Zhangwu, Xianyu Liang, as Administrator of Qi commandary, before returning to Ji.

時外築長圍,故戰於圍裏。屯廣固城諸門也。朱禿殺慕容鉤而奔龕,見上卷十年。

At that time, the Former Yan army had constructed a fence outside the city, thus they did battle within the encirclement/fence.

The "gates" were the various gates of Guanggu.

The account of Zhu Tu killing Murong Gou and fleeing to Duan Kan is mentioned in Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354.22).


This is presumably the same Xianyu Liang as was mentioned in earlier Former Yan accounts.

升平元年春正月,鎮北將軍、齊公段龕爲慕容恪所陷。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the first year of Shengping (357), in spring, the first month, the General Who Guards The North and Duke of Qi, Duan Kan, lost his city to Murong Ke.


殷,彭之子也。彭時為燕大長秋,以書戒殷曰:「王彌、曹嶷,必有子孫,汝善招撫,勿尋舊怨,以長亂源!」殷推求,得彌從子立、嶷孫巖於山中,請與相見,深結意分。彭復遣使遺以車馬衣服,郡民由是大和。

23. This Ju Yin whom Murong Ke appointed to govern Donglai was the son of Ju Peng. At this time, Ju Peng was Yan's Manager of the Empress’s Staff. He wrote to his son warning him, "Wang Mi and Cao Yi must still have descendants in the area. You must treat them well and comfort them, for if you do not ease the old hatreds, then the chaos will only continue!"

So Ju Yin sought them out, and found Wang Mi's nephew Wang Li and Cao Yi's grandson Cao Yan among the hills. He invited them over to meet them, and deep feelings developed all around. Ju Peng subsequently sent to them gifts of carts, horses, and clothing. The people of that commandary thus knew peace.

鞠彭自東萊歸燕,見九十一卷元帝太興二年。

The account of Ju Peng's battle against Cao Yi and his flight from Donglai to Yan is recounted in Book 91, in the second year of Taixing (319).


This is the same Ju Peng who was mentioned during Zhao’s 338 invasion of Yan as leading two hundred braves to Jicheng. In 319, he had been Jin’s Administrator of Donglai. Back then, he was attacked by Cao Yi and Wang Mi. Ju Peng’s strength was about equal to Cao Yi’s, and he had the support of the people. But in order to prevent senseless fighting, he left Donglai behind and fled north to Liaodong.

荀羨聞段龕已敗,退還下邳,留將軍諸葛攸、高平太守劉莊將三千人守琅邪。參軍譙國戴遂等將二千人守泰山。燕將慕容蘭屯汴城,羨擊斬之。

24. When Xun Xian heard that Duan Kan had already been defeated, he retreated back to Xiapi, and left the general Zhuge You and the Administrator of Gaoping, Liu Zhuang, with three thousand men to hold Langye. The Army Advisor of Qiao, Dai Dun, and others held Taishan with two thousand men.

The Yan general Murong Lan camped at Biancheng. Xun Xian attacked and killed him.

汴城,卽浚儀城。余謂「汴」當作「卞」。魯國卞縣城也。劉昫曰:兗州泗水縣,卞縣古城也。

Biancheng was the city of Junyi. I (Hu Sanxing) believe that 汴 ought to be 卞. It is the same city as Bianxian from the state of Lu (from the Spring and Autumn era). Liu Xu remarked, "The old city of Bianxian is in Sishui county in Yanzhou."


詔遣兼司空、散騎常侍車灌等持節如洛陽,修五陵。十二月,庚戌,帝及群臣皆服緦,臨於太極殿三日。

25. The Jin court ordered the combined Minister of Works and Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Che Guan, and others to go to Luoyang with staffs of authority and repair the five imperial tombs there. In the twelfth month, on the day Gengxu (January 25th of 357), Emperor Mu and his ministers all dressed in coarse linen, and spent three days in mourning at the Taiji Palace.

宣帝陵在河陰首陽山;景帝陵曰峻平,文帝陵曰崇陽,武帝陵曰峻陽,惠帝陵曰太陽。車,尺奢翻。緦,十五升布,抽去其半。

These were the five Jin imperial tombs: the tomb of Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) at Mount Shouyang in Heyin; the tomb of Emperor Jing (Sima Shi), called Junping; the tomb of Emperor Wen (Sima Zhao), called Chongyang; the tomb of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan), called Junyang; and the tomb of Emperor Hui, called Taiyang.

車 is pronounced "che (ch-e)".

Court robes were made with fifteen skeins (1200 threads) in the warp. Half that number made the coarse cloth for the shortest mourning.


十一月,遣兼司空、散騎常侍車灌,龍驤將軍袁眞等持節如洛陽,修五陵。十二月庚戌,以有事于五陵,告于太廟,帝及羣臣皆服緦,于太極殿臨三日。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eleventh month, the court ordered the combined Minister of Works and Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Che Guan, the Dragon-Soaring General, Yuan Zhen, and others to go to Luoyang with staffs of authority and repair the five imperial tombs there.

In the twelfth month, on the day Gengxu (January 25th of 357), there was an incident at the five tombs, which was reported at the Ancestral Temple. Emperor Mu and his ministers all dressed in coarse linen, and spent three days in mourning at the Taiji Palace.


司州都督謝尚以疾不行,以丹楊尹王胡之代之,未行而卒。胡之,廙之子也。

26. Xie Shang could not take up his post because of illness, so he had the Intendant of Danyang, Wang Huzhi, act in his place, but he died before he could set out. This Wang Huzhi was the son of Wang Yi.

【章:十二行本「之」下有「未行而卒」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】王廙,王敦之從弟,見八十九卷愍帝建興三年。廙,羊至翻,又逸職翻。

Some versions add "but he died before he set out" at the end of this passage.

Wang Yi was Wang Dun's cousin; he is first mentioned in Book 89, in Emperor Min's third year of Jianxing of Emperor Mindi (316.23).


是歲,仇池公楊國從父俊殺國自立;以俊為仇池公。國子安奔秦。

27. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Guo, was killed by his uncle Yang Jun, who set himself up. Yang Jun was recognized by the Jin court as the new Duke of Chouchi. Yang Guo's son Yang An fled to Qin.

其後秦用楊安以取仇池,豈卽國之子邪?

Former Qin would later use Yang An to capture Chouchi. How could he have been Yang Guo's son?


是歲,仇池公楊國爲其從父俊所殺,俊自立。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Guo, was killed by his uncle Yang Jun, who set himself up.
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:08 am

昇平元年(丁巳,公元三五七年)

The First Year of Shengping (The Dingsi Year, 357 AD)


春,正月,壬戌朔,帝加元服。太后詔歸政,大赦,改元,太后徙居崇德宮。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renxu (February 6th), Emperor Mu had his coming of age capping ceremony. Empress Dowager Chu resigned her regency over the government. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Shengping. Empress Dowager Chu retired to the Chongde Palace.

升平元年春正月壬戌朔,帝加元服,告天太廟,始親萬機。大赦,改元,增文武位一等。皇太后居崇德宮。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the first year of Shengping (357), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renxu (February 6th), Emperor Mu had his coming of age capping ceremony. He made his declarations to Heaven at the Ancestral Temple, and he began to preside over all affairs of the realm. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Shengping. All civil and military officials were advanced by one rank. Empress Dowager Chu retired to the Chongde Palace.


燕主俊征幽州刺史乙逸為左光祿大夫。逸夫婦共載鹿車;子璋從數十騎,服飾甚麗,奉迎於道。逸大怒,閉車不與言。到城,深責之,璋猶不悛。逸常憂其敗,而璋更被擢任,歷中書令、御史中丞。逸乃歎曰:「吾少自修立,克已守道,僅能免罪。璋不治節儉,專為奢縱,而更居清顯。此豈唯璋之忝幸,實時世之陵夷也。」

2. Murong Jun summoned the Inspector of Youzhou, Yi Yi, to come and serve in the capital as Household Counselor of the Left. When they set out for the capital, Yi Yi and his wife rode in one small carriage together. His son Yi Zhang, with dozens of riders in his entourage and dressed in fine splendor, welcomed his father on the road. Yi Yi was furious, and he shut the carriage door and would not speak with him. When they reached the city, Yi Yi chastised Yi Zhang severely, but Yi Zhang still did not repent.

Yi Yi often worried about his own potential downfall, but Yi Zhang constantly got himself promoted, first to Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and then to Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary. Yi Yi lamented, "When I was young, I strove to improve myself. I practiced self-discipline and maintained my principles. Only thus was I able to avoid causing any offense. But my son does not conduct himself frugally, but lavishly follows the latest trends, and lives flashily. How can these things only be my son's ill-gotten good luck? Truly, it is a sign of the decline of the times."

到城,謂到薊城也。永和八年,燕王都薊,於龍城置留臺,以乙逸領留務,蓋以幽州刺史鎭龍城也。

By the city, this passage means Ji. In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), the capital of Former Yan was moved to Ji, while only the Separate Administration offices remained at Longcheng. As Inspector of Youzhou, Yi Yi stayed behind there to handle affairs and guard Longcheng.


二月,癸丑,燕主俊立其子中山王暐為太子,大赦,改元光壽。

3. In the second month, on the day Guichou (March 29th), Murong Jun appointed the Prince of Zhongshan, his son Murong Wei, as his Crown Prince. A general amnesty was declared in Yan, and their reign era title was changed to Guangshou.

升平元年正月,復立中山王暐為皇太子,赦其境內,改年曰光壽。初,廆有駿馬曰赭白,有奇相逸力。石虎之伐棘城,皝將出避難,欲乘之,馬悲鳴啼齒,人莫能近。皝曰:「此馬見異先朝,孤嘗仗之濟難,今不欲出者,蓋先君之旨也。」乃止。虎尋奔退,皝益奇之,至是年四十九歲,而駿逸不虧。雋比之鮑氏驄,命鑄銅以圖其像,親為銘讚,雋勒其旁,置之薊城東掖門,是像成而馬死。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the first year of Shengping (357), the first month, Murong Jun now appointed the Prince of Zhongshan, Murong Wei, as Crown Prince. He declared an amnesty within his domain, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Shouguang.

Earlier, Murong Hui had acquired a fine horse named Zhebai ("ochre-white"), a remarkable horse of exceptional power. When Shi Hu was campaigning against Yan and was threatening the capital at Jicheng, Murong Huang was planning to run and hide, and he wanted to ride Zhebai to do so, but the horse whinnied mournfully and gnashed its teeth, and it would not let anyone approach it. Murong Huang said, "This horse saw service during my late father's reign, and I rode it once before to escape from danger. Yet now it does not want to go out. This must be a decree from my late father." So he changed his mind. When Shi Hu soon retreated, Murong Huang was even more amazed at Zhebai. Zhebai lived to be forty-eight years old, and in all that time it never lost it talents. Murong Jun compared it to the Bao Clan's piebald horse. He ordered a bronze statue to be cast in Zhebai's likeness, and he personally carved an inscription praising the horse on the side. He posted the statue at the eastern postern gate at Ji. After the statue was completed, Zhebai passed away.

儁號年為光壽。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun changed his reign era title to Guangshou.

暐尋立為皇太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Wei)

Murong Wei was later appointed as Crown Prince.


太白入東井。秦有司奏:「太白罰星,東井秦分,必有暴兵起京師。」秦主生曰:「太白入井,自為渴耳,何所怪乎!」

4. Venus entered the Eastern Well quadrant of the night sky. The Qin ministers reported to Fu Sheng, "Venus is the bringer of punishment, and the Eastern Well represents Qin. This points to an uprising of soldiers in the capital region."

But Fu Sheng merely replied, "So Venus went into the well; it must be thirsty. What's strange about that?"

有司奏:「太白犯東井。東井,秦之分也,太白罰星,必有暴兵起于京師。」生曰:「星入井者,必將渴耳,何所怪乎!」(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

The Qin ministers reported to Fu Sheng, "Venus has violated the Eastern Well quadrant. The Eastern Well represents Qin, while Venus is the bringer of punishment. This points to an uprising of soldiers in the capital region."

But Fu Sheng merely replied, "So Venus went into the well; it must be thirsty. What's strange about that?"

太白犯東井,其臣奏曰:「東井,秦也,太白罰星,必有暴兵起於京師。」生曰:「星入井者,必將渴耳,何所怪乎?」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Venus violated the Eastern Well quadrant of the night sky. The Qin ministers reported to Fu Sheng, "Venus is the bringer of punishment, and the Eastern Well represents Qin. This points to an uprising of soldiers in the capital region."

But Fu Sheng merely replied, "So Venus went into the well; it must be thirsty. What's strange about that?"


姚襄將圖關中,夏,四月,自北屈進屯杏城,遣輔國將軍姚蘭略地敷城,曜武將軍姚益生、左將軍王欽盧各將兵招納諸羌、胡。蘭,襄之從兄;益生,襄之兄也。羌、胡及秦民歸之者五萬餘戶。秦將苻飛龍擊蘭,擒之。襄引兵進據黃落;秦主生遣衛大將軍廣平王黃眉、平北將軍苻道、龍驤將軍東海王堅、建節將軍鄧羌將步騎萬五千以御之。襄堅壁不戰。羌謂黃眉曰:「襄為桓溫、張平所敗,銳氣喪矣。然其為人強狠,若鼓噪揚旗,直壓其壘,彼必忿恚而出,可一戰擒也。」五月,羌帥騎三千壓其壘門而陳,襄怒,悉眾出戰。羌陽不勝而走,襄追之,至於三原。羌回騎擊之,黃眉等以大眾繼至,襄兵大敗。襄所乘駿馬曰黧眉騧,馬倒,秦兵擒而斬之,弟萇帥其眾降。襄載其父弋仲之柩在軍中,秦主生以王禮葬弋仲於孤磐,亦以公禮葬襄。廣平王黃眉等還長安,生不之賞,數眾辱黃眉。黃眉怒,謀弒生;發覺,伏誅。事連王公親戚,死者甚眾。

5. Yao Xiang planned to conquer Guanzhong. In summer, the fourth month, he marched from Beiju to camp at Xingcheng.

Yao Xiang sent his General Who Upholds The State, Yao Lan, to attack Fucheng, and sent his General Who Illuminates Valor, Yao Yisheng, and his General of the Left, Wang Qinlu, to each lead their troops to entice the Qiang and the other tribes to surrender. This Yao Lan was Yao Xiang's cousin; this Yao Yisheng was his elder brother. More than fifty thousand households of Qiang and other tribal peoples and natives of the Qin region joined with them.

The Qin general Fu Feilong attacked Yao Lan and captured him. Yao Xiang brought his troops forward and captured Huangluo. Fu Sheng sent Fu Huangmei and Deng Qiang against Yao Xiang with fifteen thousand horse and foot, along with the General Who Pacifies The North, Fu Dao, and the Dragon-Soaring General and Prince of Donghai, Fu Jian. Yao Xiang reinforced his defenses and refused to offer battle.

Deng Qiang said to Fu Huangmei, "Yao Xiang has been defeated before by Huan Wen and Zhang Ping, and this nettles him. However, he is unyielding and fierce in nature. If you make loud noises and wave your flags and march straight at his fort, then he will surely be angered and come out, and then you can capture him in a single battle."

In the fifth month, Deng Qiang led three thousand cavalry up to Yao Xiang's rampart gate and set his troops in formation. Yao Xiang was greatly angered and brought out all his soldiers to meet the Qin army in battle. Deng Qiang feigned defeat and ran away, and Yao Xiang pursued him, until they reached Sanyuan. Deng Qiang's horsemen then wheeled about and attacked, and Fu Huangmei and the other Qin generals also appeared with the main body. Yao Xiang's soldiers suffered a great defeat.

Yao Xiang fled on his fine steed, Limeigua ("Sallow-Browed Piebald"), but the horse fell; the Qin soldiers captured Yao Xiang and killed him. His younger brother Yao Chang brought the remaining soldiers in to surrender.

Yao Xiang had been keeping the body of his father Yao Yizhong with his army. When his surrendered soldiers reached Qin, Fu Sheng had Yao Yizhong’s body buried at Gupan with funeral rites suited for a prince, and he buried Yao Xiang with ducal funeral rites.

When Fu Huangmei and the others returned to Chang'an, Fu Sheng did not reward them for their services, and in fact he publicly insulted Fu Huangmei several times. Fu Huangmei was greatly enraged, and plotted to kill Fu Sheng; but his plot was discovered, and he was executed. Numerous relatives of the princely or ducal houses were implicated and killed as well.

北屈縣,漢屬河東郡,晉屬平陽郡。師古曰:屈,居勿翻。晉公子夷吾所居。班《志》,《禹貢》壺口山在北屈縣東南。《水經註》:北屈西距河十里,孟門山在河上。襄蓋自北屈渡河而屯杏城。《五代志》:汾州昌寧縣有壺口山。宋白曰:慈州吉鄕縣,漢北屈縣;今縣北二十一里古城,卽漢理。魏收《地形志》,澄城縣有杏城。師古曰:澄城,漢馮翊之徵縣也。徵,音懲。據《載記》,杏城在馬蘭山北。杜佑曰:姚萇置杏城鎭,在今坊州西七里。敷城,唐坊州鄜城縣是也;後魏置敷城縣,隋改曰鄜城。漢、魏之間置建節中郎將,後以爲將軍號。三原在漢馮翊池陽縣界。宋白曰:苻堅於巋嶭北置三原護軍,後周置三原縣。黧,音黎,又音良脂翻。黑而黃色曰黧。騧,古瓜翻。黃馬黑喙曰騧。在牀曰尸,在棺曰柩。孤磐,在天水冀縣界。【章:十二行本「襄」下有「廣平王」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

(During Han, Beiju county was part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "屈 is pronounced 'ju (j-u)'." During the Spring and Autumn era, the young Duke Yiwu of Jin (Duke Hui of Jin) lived there. According to the Ban family's "Records" and the "Tribute of Yu" in the Book of Documents, Mount Hukou was in the southeast of Beiju county. According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, "Beiju is ten li west of the Yellow River, and the river has a source at Mount Mengmen." So Yao Xiang must have crossed over the Yellow River at Beiju to camp at Shacheng. The History of the Five Dynasties says, "Mount Hukou is in Changning county in Fenzhou." Song Bai remarked, "In Cizhou there is Jixiang county, which during Han was called Beiju county; the modern county is twenty-one li north of the old city, which was Hanli."

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Xingcheng is in Chengcheng county." Yan Shigu remarked, "Chengcheng was known during the Han as Zheng county in Pingyi commandary." 徵 is pronounced similar to "cheng". According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Xingcheng was north of Mount Malan. Du You remarked, "Yao Chang created the Xingcheng Garrison; it was seven li west of modern Fangzhou."

This Fucheng was the same as Fucheng county in the Tang dynasty's Fangzhou. It was Northern Wei that first established it as 敷城 (Fucheng) county, and Sui changed it further to 鄜城 (Fucheng) county.

Deng Qiang's title, General Who Establishes Fortitude, was originally called General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Establishes Fortitude. It was established in the period between Han and Cao-Wei. It later became the title for a full general.

Sanyuan was within Chiyang county in Pingyi commandary during Han. Song Bai remarked, "Fu Jian established the Sanyuan Protectorate north of Kui'e. Northern Zhou reorganized it as Sanyuan county."

黧 is pronounced similar to "li", and can also be pronounced "li (l-i)". 黧 means a color that is black and yet yellow. 騧 is pronounced "gua (g-ua)". It was a yellow horse with a black mouth, so it was called 騧 ("piebald"). (In other words, Limeigua meant roughly “Sallow-Browed Piebald”.)

When a body is lying on a bed, it is referred to as 尸. When it is lying in a coffin, it is referred to as a 柩.

Gupan was in Ji county in Tianshui commandary.

Some versions repeat Fu Huangmei's title of "Prince of Guangping" in this passage.)


夏五月,苻生將苻眉、苻堅擊姚襄,戰於三原,斬之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In summer, the fifth month, Fu Sheng's generals Fu Mei and Fu Jian attacked Yao Xiang; they fought him at Sanyuan and killed him.

二十年,姚襄為苻眉所殺。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twentieth year of Jianguo (357), Yao Xiang was killed by Fu Mei.

三年四月,姚襄遣姚蘭等帥衆二萬七千進據黃洛,生遣兵苻黃眉、東海王堅、建節將軍鄧羌等,步騎萬五千以討之。羌偽不勝,引騎而退,襄追之,至於三原,羌回騎拒襄,大戰獲襄。襄有駿馬日行千里,是戰也,馬倒而擒之。眉等振旅而歸。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

In the third year of Shouguang (357), the fourth month, Yao Xiang sent Yao Lan and others to lead an army of twenty-seven thousand soldiers to advance and occupy Huangluo. Fu Sheng sent fifteen thousand horse and foot to oppose him, under the command of Fu Huangmei, the Prince of Donghai, Fu Jian, the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, and others. Deng Qiang pretended to be defeated and he led his cavalry away in retreat. Yao Xiang followed him, until he reached Sanyuan. Deng Qiang then turned his cavalry around to oppose Yao Xiang, and he fought a great battle in which he captured Yao Xiang. Yao Xiang had a fine horse that could run a thousand li in a day, but during the battle, the horse collapsed, so Yao Xiang was captured. Fu Huangmei and the others led their troops back and returned.

姚襄遣姚蘭、王欽盧待招動鄜城、定陽、北地、芹川諸羌胡,皆應之,有眾二萬七千,進據黃落。生遣苻黃眉、苻堅、鄧羌率步騎萬五千討之。襄深溝高壘,固守不戰。鄧羌說黃眉曰:「傷弓之鳥,落於虛發。襄頻為桓溫、張平所敗,銳氣喪矣。今謀固壘不戰,是窮寇也。襄性剛很,易以剛動,若長驅鼓行,直壓其壘,襄必忿而出師,可一戰擒也。」黃眉從之,遣羌率騎三千軍於壘門。襄怒,盡銳出戰。羌偽不勝,引騎而退,襄追之于三原,羌回騎距襄。俄而黃眉與堅至,大戰,斬之,盡俘其眾,黃眉等振旅而歸。黃眉雖有大功,生不加旌賞,每於眾中辱之。黃眉怒,謀殺生自立,事發,伏誅,其王公親戚多有死者。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Yao Xiang sent Yao Lan and Wang Qinlu to attract, stir up, and win over the various Qiang and other tribes living in Fucheng, Dingyang, Beidi, and Qinchuan, and they all supported him, so that Yao Xiang amassed an army of twenty-seven thousand. He advanced and occupied Huangluo. Fu Sheng sent Fu Huangmei, Fu Jian, and Deng Qiang to lead fifteen thousand horse and foot to campaign against him. Yao Xiang dug moats and raised ramparts, then stuck to his defenses and did not offer battle.

Deng Qiang said to Fu Huangmei, "When you aim a broken bow at a bird, it is liable to miss its target. Yao Xiang has been defeated before by Huan Wen and Zhang Ping, and this nettles him. Now he is plotting to maintain his defenses and not fight us, hoping to wait us out. However, he is unyielding and fierce in nature, and it is easy to stir him to action. If you charge forward while beating the drums and march straight at his fort, then he will surely be angered and come out, and then you can capture him in a single battle."

Fu Huangmei followed his advice. He sent Deng Qiang to lead three thousand cavalry to the gate of Yao Xiang's rampart. Yao Xiang was provoked, and he gathered all his elite soldiers and marched out. Deng Qiang pretended to be defeated, and he led his cavalry away in retreat. Yao Xiang followed him until they reached Sanyuan. Then Deng Qiang turned his cavalry around to oppose Yao Xiang, and Fu Huangmei and Fu Jian soon arrived as well. They fought a great battle, where they killed Yao Xiang and captured his entire army. Fu Huangmei and the others led their forces back and returned.

However, although Fu Huangmei had won this great achievement, Fu Sheng did not grant him any distinctions or awards, and he shamed Fu Huangmei whenever he was among the soldiers. Fu Huangmei resented this, and he plotted to kill Fu Sheng and seize the throne. But the plot was discovered, and Fu Huangmei was executed. Numerous relatives of the princely or ducal houses were implicated and killed as well.

後仲屍柩為苻生所得,生以王禮葬之于天水。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

Yao Yizhong's body and coffin later came into the possession of Fu Sheng, who buried Yao Yizhong at Tianshui with the rites fit for a prince.

子襄之入關也,為苻生所敗,弋仲之柩為生所得,生以王禮葬之于天水冀縣。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Yizhong)

After Yao Yizhong's son Yao Xiang entered Guanzhong and was defeated by Fu Sheng, Yao Yizhong's coffin came into Fu Sheng's possession. He buried it in Ji county in Tianshui commandary, with the funeral rites suited for a prince.

襄尋從北山。襄將圖關中,進屯杏城,遣輔國將軍姚蘭畧地鄜城,苻生遣苻飛龍拒戰,率衆西引,與苻堅戰於三原,為堅所殺。時年二十七,萇僭尊號,追諡魏武王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang later shifted his base to Beiqu.

Yao Xiang planned to conquer Guanzhong, so he advanced and camped at Xingcheng. He sent his General Who Upholds The State, Yao Lan, to march through the region around Fucheng. Fu Sheng sent Fu Feilong to oppose Yao Xiang in battle, so Yao Xiang led his troops west. He fought Fu Jian in battle at Sanyuan, where he was killed by Fu Jian. Yao Xiang was twenty-six years old when he died.

When Yao Chang later declared himself Emperor of Later Qin, he posthumously honored Yao Xiang as Prince Wu of Wei.

襄尋徙北屈,將圖關中,進屯杏城,遣其從兄輔國姚蘭略地鄜城,使其兄益及將軍王欽盧招集北地戎夏,歸附者五萬餘戶。苻生遣其將苻飛拒戰,蘭敗,為飛所執。襄率眾西引,生又遣苻堅、鄧羌等要之。襄將戰,沙門智通固諫襄,宜厲兵收眾,更思後舉。襄曰:「二雄不俱立,冀天不棄德以濟黎元,吾計決矣。」會羌師來逼,襄怒,遂長驅而進,戰于三原。襄敗,為堅所殺,時年二十七,是歲晉升平元年也。苻生以公禮葬之。萇僭號,追諡魏武王,封襄孫延定為東城侯。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Xiang)

Yao Xiang later shifted his base to Beiqu.

Yao Xiang planned to conquer Guanzhong, so he advanced to camp at Xingcheng. He sent his General Who Upholds The State, his cousin Yao Lan, to march through the region around Fucheng, while he sent his elder brother Yao Yi and his general Wang Qinlu to gather together the tribes and native people of the northern regions, and they recruited more than fifty thousand households. But Fu Sheng sent his general Fu Fei to oppose them, and Yao Lan was defeated and captured by Fu Fei.

Yao Xiang led his forces west, so Fu Sheng sent Fu Jian, Deng Qiang, and others to stop him. When Yao Xiang was about to march to battle, the Buddhist sramana monk Zhitong forcefully remonstrated with him, urging that he keep his soldiers back and concentrate his forces, then wait for a later opportunity. But Yao Xiang declared, "Two roosters cannot perch on the same branch. I must believe that Heaven will not abandon the virtuous, and that it will save the people. My plan is decided."

Deng Qiang soon arrived, coming close to provoke Yao Xiang. Angry, Yao Xiang marched out and pursued Deng Qiang at full speed. They fought at Sanyuan, where Yao Xiang was defeated and killed by Fu Jian. He was twenty-six years old; this was in Jin's first year of Shengping (357).

Fu Sheng buried Yao Xiang with the rites fit for a duke.

When Yao Chang later declared himself Emperor of Later Qin, he posthumously appointed Yao Xiang as Prince Wu of Wei, and he appointed Yao Xiang's grandson Yao Yanding as Marquis of Dongcheng.

兄襄為苻堅所殺,萇率諸弟降於苻生。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

After his elder brother Yao Xiang was killed by Fu Jian, Yao Chang led his other younger brothers to surrender to Fu Sheng.

及襄死,萇率諸弟降于苻生。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Yao Xiang died in battle, Yao Chang led his younger brothers to surrender to Fu Sheng.

襄後為苻眉所殺... 襄之敗也,萇率子弟降於苻堅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Xiang was later killed by Fu Mei. After Yao Xiang's defeat, Yao Chang led his sons and younger brothers to surrender to Fu Jian.


戊寅,燕主俊遣撫軍將軍垂、中軍將軍虔、護軍將軍平熙帥步騎八萬攻敕勒於塞北,大破之,俘斬十餘萬,獲馬十三萬匹,牛羊億萬頭。

6. On the day Wuyin (June 22nd), Murong Jun sent his General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong Chui, his General of the Central Army, Murong Qian, and his General Who Protects The Army, Murong Ping, with eighty thousand horse and foot to attack the Chile people beyond the northern borders of the realm. They greatly routed the Chile, capturing or killing over a hundred thousand of them, and seizing a hundred and thirty thousand horses and millions of sheep and cattle.

《新唐書》曰:敕勒,其先匈奴也,元魏時號高車部,其後訛爲「鐵勒」,唐之鐵勒十五種是也。《載記》作「丁零勑勤[勒]」。

The New Book of Tang states, "The Chile people were originally part of the Xiongnu. During the era of Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei (Cao Huan), they were called the Gaoche, and later on this word became corrupted into 'Tiele'. During the Tang, there were fifteen different branches of the Tiele." The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "The 'Le' came from the Chile of the Dingling."


匈奴單于賀賴頭帥部落三萬五千口降燕,燕人處之代郡平舒城。

7. The Xiongnu Chanyu Helai Tou led his thirty-five thousand people to submit to Yan. They were settled at the city of Pingshu in Dai commandary.

自東漢以來,匈奴入居塞內者凡十九種,賀賴其一也。漢代郡有平舒縣,勃海有東平舒縣。東平舒,後漢屬河間國,晉屬章武國。代郡之平舒,未嘗改屬;書代郡以別章武之平舒。代郡之平舒,當在唐蔚之北界。

Since the Eastern Han, there were nineteen branches of Xiongnu who had moved to live within the borders of the realm. The Helai were one of these.

During Han, there was a Pingshu county in Dai commandary, and there was also an Eastern Pingshu county in Bohai commandary. During Eastern Han, this Eastern Pingshu was part of the Hejian princely fief, and during Jin, it was part of the Zhangwu princely fief. The Pingshu county of Dai commandary had remained in that commandary all the while. So since this passage mentions Dai commandary, it could not be referring to the Pingshu county that was in Zhangwu. The Pingshu county in Dai commandary must have been in the north of Weizhou during Tang.


秦主生夢大魚食蒲,又長安謠曰:「東海大魚化為龍,男皆為王女為公。」生乃誅太師、錄尚書事、廣寧公魚遵,並其七子、十孫。金紫光祿大夫牛夷懼禍,求為荊州;生不許,以為中軍將軍,引見,調之曰:「牛性遲重,善持轅軛;雖無驥足,動負百石。」夷曰:「雖服大車,未經峻壁;願試重載,乃知勳績。」生笑曰:「何其快也,公嫌所載輕乎?朕將以魚公爵位處公。」夷懼,歸而自殺。

8. It happened one night that Fu Sheng dreamt of a large fish eating a bullrush plant. And at that time, there was a popular ditty in Chang'an: "From eastern sea a fish will rise, and like a soaring dragon fly. His sons will wear the royal crown, his daughters dress in regal gown." Because of his dream, Fu Sheng believed that this song was talking about the Grand Instructor, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Guangning, Yu Zun. So he put Yu Zun to death, along with his seven sons and ten grandsons.

The Household Counselor with Golden Tassel, Niu Yi, feared calamity, so he asked to be sent to Jingzhou, but Fu Sheng did not agree, instead making him General of the Central Army. He summoned Niu Yi and teased him, saying, "It's in a bull's nature to be slow and steady, and he is best suited for pulling a yoke. Although he lacks the grace of a fine steed, he can bear great weight when he walks."

Niu Yi said, "Although the bull has drawn great carriages, he has not been tested along sheer cliffs. But I am willing to try carrying a heavy burden, and by that you may see what I can achieve."

Fu Sheng jokingly replied, "Why so hasty? Do you consider your current load too light? Perhaps I should grant you Duke Yu's old offices."

Niu Yi became afraid at this; he withdrew and killed himself.

秦荊州治豐陽川。轅前曰軛,加之牛項。

(Former Qin's province of Jingzhou was administered from Fengyangchuan.

A yoke is a halter slipped over a bull's neck to have it pull a cart forward.)


Fu Sheng's dream was significant to him because the character for fish, 魚 Yu, was the same as the surname of his minister Yu Zun, while the character for bullrush, 蒲 Pu, had also been Fu Sheng’s family’s surname before Fu Hong changed it. According to the Book of Jin, Fu Hong’s childhood home had a large bullrush on the grounds, from which the family took its original surname Pu.

The children's song probably meant to refer to Fu Sheng's cousin Fu Jian. At this time, Fu Jian held noble title as Prince of Donghai (literally "eastern sea") and his rank was Dragon-Soaring General.

The character for bull, 牛 Niu, was the same as Niu Yi’s surname.


初,長安謠曰:「東海大魚化為龍,男便為王女為公。問在何所洛門東。」東海,苻堅封也,時為龍驤將軍,第在洛門之東。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Earlier, there was a popular ditty in Chang'an: "From eastern sea a fish will rise, and like a soaring dragon fly. His sons will wear the royal crown, his daughters dress in regal gown. Seek him east of Luo Gate, for that is where he lies in wait." Fu Jian's title was Prince of Donghai ("eastern sea"), and at this time he was Dragon-Soaring General; his residence was also east of the Luo Gate.

初,生夢大魚食蒲,又長安謠曰:「東海大魚化為龍,男便為王女為公。問在何所洛門東。」東海,苻堅封也,時為龍驤將軍,第在洛門之東。生不知是堅,以謠夢之故,誅其侍中、太師、錄尚書事魚遵及其七子、十孫。時又謠曰:「百里望空城,鬱鬱何青青。瞎兒不知法,仰不見天星。」於是悉壞諸空城以禳之。金紫光祿大夫牛夷懼不免禍,請出鎮上洛。生曰:「卿忠肅篤敬,宜左右朕躬,豈有外鎮之理。」改授中軍。夷懼,歸而自殺。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Earlier, Fu Sheng had dreamt of a large fish (Yu) eating a bullrush plant (Pu, Fu Sheng's original surname). And at that time, there was a popular ditty in Chang'an: "From eastern sea a fish will rise, and like a soaring dragon fly. His sons will wear the royal crown, his daughters dress in regal gown. Seek him east of Luo Gate, for that is where he lies in wait." Fu Jian's title was Prince of Donghai ("eastern sea"), and at this time he was Dragon-Soaring General; his residence was also east of the Luo Gate. But Fu Sheng did not know that the ditty was about Fu Jian. So because of his dream and the song, he executed the Palace Attendant, Grand Instructor, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, Yu Zun, and his seven sons and ten grandsons.

There was another ditty which went, "See the empty city in a hundred li; what happiness lies in that melancholy? The blind man recognizes not the law; he looked up, yet no stars ever saw." So Fu Sheng tore down several empty cities in order to appease this song.

The Household Counselor with Golden Tassel, Niu Yi, feared he would not be able to escape calamity, so he asked to be sent to guard Shangluo. But Fu Sheng said, "You are so loyal, solemn, earnest, and respectful; you are suited to serve in my very presence. What sense would there be in sending you to a distant post?" And he changed Niu Yi's rank to General of the Central Army. Afraid, Niu Yi went home and killed himself.

初,生夢大魚食蒲,又長安謠曰:「東海大魚化為龍,男便為王女為公。問在何所,洛門東。」是月,生以謠夢之故,誅太師魚遵父子一十八人。東海,苻堅封也,時為龍驤將軍,宅在洛門之東。又謠曰:「百里望空城,鬱鬱何青青。瞎人不知法,仰不見天星。」於是悉壞諸空城以禳之。「法」,是苻法也。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Earlier, Fu Sheng had dreamt of a large fish (Yu) eating a bullrush plant (Pu, Fu Sheng's original surname). And at that time, there was a popular ditty in Chang'an: "From eastern sea a fish will rise, and like a soaring dragon fly. His sons will wear the royal crown, his daughters dress in regal gown. Seek him east of Luo Gate, for that is where he lies in wait." So during this month, because of his dream and the ditty, Fu Sheng executed the Grand Instructor, Yu Zun, and his sons, eighteen people in all. Fu Jian's title was Prince of Donghai ("eastern sea"), and at this time he was Dragon-Soaring General; his residence was also east of the Luo Gate.

There was another ditty which went, "See the empty city in a hundred li; what happiness lies in that melancholy? The blind man recognizes not the law; he looked up, yet no stars ever saw." So Fu Sheng tore down several empty cities in order to appease this song. But "the law" (Fa) referred to his cousin Fu Fa.


生飲酒無晝夜,或連月不出。奏事不省,往往寢落,或醉中決事。左右因以為奸,賞罰無准。或至申酉乃出視朝,乘醉多所殺戮。自以眇目,諱言「殘、缺、偏、只、少、無、不具」之類,誤犯而死者,不可勝數。好生剝牛、羊、驢、馬、燖雞、豚、鵝、鴨,縱之殿前,數十為群。或剝人面皮,使之歌舞,臨觀以為樂。嘗問左右曰:「自吾臨天下,汝外間何所聞?」或對曰:「聖明宰世,賞罰明當,天下唯歌太平。」怒曰:「汝媚我也!」引出斬之。它日又問,或對曰:「陛下刑罰微過。」又怒曰:「汝謗我也!」亦斬之。勳舊親戚,誅之殆盡,群臣得保一日,如度十年。

9. Fu Sheng drank regardless of night or day, sometimes not coming out to attend court for months on end. Reports that were submitted to him were not read, and often were just put aside, or else he made his decisions under the influence of wine. Because of that, those around him committed villainous acts, doling out rewards and punishments wantonly. Sometimes Fu Sheng would not come out to attend court until the late afternoon, and would then kill many while being drunk.

Because of his blind eye, Fu Sheng forbade the use of words like "incomplete", "missing", "lacking", "slanted", "only", "less", "without", or "incapable". Countless people accidentally violated this order and were put to death.

Fu Sheng enjoyed skinning alive cows, sheep, donkeys, or horses, or dunking chickens, pigs, geese, and ducks in boiling water to remove their feathers and hair, and placed them before the hall in groups of dozens. He would sometimes flay the skin off people's faces, and make them sing and dance before him as entertainment.

Fu Sheng once asked his attendants, "Since the realm became mine, what have you heard said about me?"

Someone said, "Your rule is sagacious, your rewards and punishments most suited, and the realm sings only songs of peace."

Fu Sheng angrily replied, "You flatterer!" and had that person taken out and executed.

When he again asked the question on another day, another person said, "Your Majesty punishes people somewhat excessively."

Fu Sheng replied, "You slanderer!" and had him executed too.

Long-serving and meritorious ministers, as well as family relations, were almost all exterminated. For the ministers, enduring each day was like living through ten years.

生荒暴日滋,殘虐彌甚。羣臣朔望,漏盡詣見,生曰:「日盡午,須待宴訖。」或日暮而不出,百僚饑弊,或至申酉間方出。臨朝輒怒色厲,惟行殺戮。或連月昏醉,弗堪省覽。或使宮人與男子裸交於殿前,引羣臣臨而觀之。或生剝牛羊驢馬,活閹雞鴨,三五十為羣,放之殿中。或生剝死囚面皮,令其歌舞,觀以為樂。宗室舊勳,親戚忠良,殺害畧盡,朝士奔走草野,皆曰:「從虎口出。」左右得度一日,如過十年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng grew more unrestrained and violent by the day, and his wicked cruelty became even worse. When his ministers came to see him at the half-month meetings, or anyone happened to come by, Fu Sheng would say, "It's only noon; wait until the feast is over, then I'll deal with it." Sometimes Fu Sheng would not come out at all during the mornings, leaving his subordinates at a loss, and sometimes he would not even come out until the late afternoon. He always looked angry and harsh when presiding over court, and his only orders were to carry out executions. Sometimes he would stay drunk for whole months, completely unable to handle any affairs of state. Sometimes he would force palace servants and youths of the palace to strip naked and have intercourse in front of the palace, then bring the ministers over to observe them. Sometimes he would skin alive cows, sheep, donkeys, or horses, or castrate live chickens and ducks, then place them before the hall in groups of thirty or fifty. Sometimes he would flay the faces off of condemned prisoners and then make them sing and dance while he watched them as amusement. Long-serving and meritorious ministers, as well as family relations, were almost all exterminated. Court ministers all fled into the wild, saying, "We are fleeing from the tiger's maw." For those alongside Fu Sheng, enduring each day was like living through ten years.

及即偽位,殘虐滋甚,耽湎於酒,無復晝夜。群臣朔望朝謁,罕有見者,或至暮方出,臨朝輒怒,惟行殺戮。動連月昏醉,文奏因之遂寢。納奸佞之言,賞罰失中。左右或言陛下聖明宰世,天下惟歌太平。生曰:「媚於我也。」引而斬之。或言陛下刑罰微過。曰:「汝謗我也。」亦斬之。所幸妻妾小有忤旨,便殺之,流其屍于渭水。又遣宮人與男子裸交於殿前。生剝牛羊驢馬,活爓雞豚鵝,三五十為群,放之殿中。或剝死囚面皮,令其歌舞,引群臣觀之,以為嬉樂。宗室、勳舊、親戚、忠良殺害略盡,王公在位者悉以疾告歸,人情危駭,道路以目。既自有目疾,其所諱者不足、不具、少、無、缺、傷、殘、毀、偏、只之言皆不得道,左右忤旨而死者不可勝紀。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

After coming to the throne, Fu Sheng gradually became extreme violent and cruel, and he lost himself in wine whether day or night. When his ministers came to see him at the half-month meetings, they rarely had a chance to see him. Sometimes Fu Sheng would not come out at all during the mornings. He was always angry when presiding over court, and his only orders were to carry out executions. Sometimes he would stay drunk for months on end, leaving petitions and edicts to gather dust. He listened to the words of his sycophants, and he inflicted punishments or rewards arbitrarily.

One of his attendants once said, "Your rule is sagacious and wise, and the realm sings only songs of peace."

Fu Sheng replied, "You flatterer!" and had that person taken out and executed. Someone else said, "Your Majesty punishes people somewhat excessively."

Fu Sheng replied, "You slanderer!" and had him executed too.

Even when one of his favored wives or concubines violated his edicts in the slightest way, he killed them and threw their bodies into the Wei River.

Sometimes Fu Sheng would force palace servants and youths of the palace to strip naked and have intercourse in front of the palace. Sometimes he would skin alive cows, sheep, donkeys, or horses, or dunking chickens, pigs, geese, and ducks in boiling water to remove their feathers and hair, and placed them before the hall in groups of thirty or fifty. Sometimes he would flay the skin off the faces of condemned criminals and make them sing and dance, then bring his ministers to watch them, all for his own amusement and entertainment.

Long-serving and good and worthy ministers, as well as family relations, were almost all exterminated. Princes and nobles who were attending Fu Sheng would plead illness in order to return home. People were so disturbed and afraid that they would do no more than glance at one another when passing on the roads.

Because of his blind eye, Fu Sheng forbade the use of words like "insufficient", "incomplete", "missing", "lacking", "slanted", "only", "maimed", "less", "without", or "incapable". Countless people accidentally violated this order and were put to death.

生既眇其目,所諱者不足、不具、少無缺傷殘毀偏隻之言,皆不得道,左右忤旨而死者,不可勝紀... 生耽湎於酒,無復晝夜。其臣朝謁,漏盡請見,生曰:「日知盡乎?須待飲訖。」因醉問左右曰:「吾統天下已來,汝等何所聞乎?」或對曰:「聖明宰世,子育百姓,罰必有罪,賞必有功,天下唯歌太平,未聞有怨。」生曰:「汝媚吾也。」引而斬之。他日,又問,或對曰:「陛下刑罰微過。」生曰:「汝謗吾也。」亦殺之。使宮人與男女裸交於殿前,引羣臣臨而觀之。或生剝牛羊驢馬,活燖雞豚鵝鴨,數十為羣,放之殿下。剝人面皮,令其歌舞。勳舊親戚,殺害略盡,王公在者以疾告歸,得度一日如過十年。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Because of his blind eye, Fu Sheng forbade the use of words like "insufficient", "maimed", "broken", "incomplete", "missing", "lacking", "slanted", "less", "without", "single", or "incapable". Countless numbers of those around him accidentally violated this order and were put to death.

Fu Sheng gave himself fully over to drinking, not coming out day or night. When his ministers came to call him to court, or some slight issue came up that they asked to see him about, Fu Sheng would say, "It's only noon; wait until the feast is over, then I'll deal with it." Fu Sheng once asked his attendants while drunk, "Since the realm became mine, what have you heard said about me?"

Someone said, "Your rule is sagacious and wise, you carefully nurture the common people, you ensure that the guilty are punished and the meritous are rewarded, and the realm sings only songs of peace, so that we have not heard of any resentment against you."

Fu Sheng replied, "You flatterer," and had that person taken out and executed.

When he again asked the question on another day, another person said, "Your Majesty punishes people somewhat excessively."

Fu Sheng replied, "You slanderer," and killed him too. Sometimes Fu Sheng would force palace servants and boys and girls to strip naked and have intercourse in front of the palace, then bring the ministers over to observe them. Sometimes he would skin alive cows, sheep, donkeys, or horses, or dunk chickens, pigs, geese, and ducks in boiling water, then place them before the hall in groups of dozens. Sometimes he would flay the faces off of people and then make them sing and dance. Long-serving and meritorious ministers, as well as family relations, were almost all exterminated. Princes and nobles who were attending Fu Sheng would plead illness in order to return home. For those alongside Fu Sheng, enduring each day was like living through ten years.


東海王堅,素有時譽,與故姚襄參軍薛贊、權翼善。贊、翼密說堅曰:「主上猜忍暴虐,中外離心,方今宜主秦祀者,非殿下而誰!願早為計,勿使它姓得之!」堅以問尚書呂婆樓,婆樓曰:「僕,刀鐶上人耳,不足以辦大事。僕裡捨有王猛者,其人謀略不世出,殿下宜請而咨之。」堅因婆樓以招猛,一見如舊友,語及時事,堅大悅,自謂如劉玄德之遇諸葛孔明也。

10. Fu Jian had long enjoyed a good reputation, and so won the loyalty of Xue Zan and Quan Yi, some of Yao Xiang's former officers who had surrendered to Qin. Xue Zan and Quan Yi secretly said to him, "Our sovereign is paranoid and cruel, and everyone has turned against him. Qin deserves a better lord, and who else should it be but Your Highness? You should act at once, and not let some other family seize control!"

So Fu Jian asked the Master of Writing, Lü Polou, for his advice. Lü Polou said, "I am just the ring of a blade in the hands of someone else; I would not do for handling grand affairs. But there is a certain Wang Meng who is lodging with me. No one in this whole age can compare with him for developing plans. Your Highness ought to meet with him."

Heeding Lü Polou’s advice, Fu Jian asked Wang Meng to come see him; as soon as they saw one another, they were like old friends. When they spoke of current affairs, Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and said that this was just like when Liu Xuande had first met Zhuge Kongming.

時譽者,爲時人所稱美也。魏、晉之間,率以刀鐶築殺人;言將爲生所殺也。或曰:刀以鋒刃爲用,刀鐶以上無所用之;婆樓以自喻。不世出者,言世間不常生此人。見六十五卷漢獻帝建安十二年。

(This passage describes Fu Jian as being 時譽; this means to be praised by one’s contemporaries.

During Cao-Wei and Jin, soldiers would use a bladed ring to kill people. So Lü Polou was saying that he would soon be killed by Fu Sheng. Another explanation: a broadsword is useful because of the blade, but the rings on it are useless, so Lü Polou was using them as a metaphor for his situation.

Lü Polou describes Wang Meng's talent as being 不世出. The term 不世出 means that a man of this caliber is not often born into this world.

Liu Bei's first meeting with Zhuge Liang is mentioned in Book 65, in Emperor Xian of Han's twelfth year of Jian'an (207.O in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).)


六月,太史令康權言於秦主生曰:「昨夜三月並出,孛星入太微,連東井,自去月上旬,沉陰不雨,以至於今,將有下人謀上之禍。」生怒,以為妖言,撲殺之。

11. In the sixth month, Qin’s Grand Astrologist, Kang Quan, said to Fu Sheng, "Last night, three moons appeared at once. A comet entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure, crossing into the Eastern Well. And for more than ten days, since early last month, it has been cloudy and dark but without rain. This foretells the danger that a subordinate is plotting against you."

Fu Sheng grew angry, believing that this was slander, so he had Kang Quan thrown to his death.

《姓譜》曰:康,衞康叔之後,亦西胡姓。此亦據《洪範五行傳》言之也。

(The Registry of Surnames says, "The surname 康 Kang comes from Weikang Shu (a younger brother of King Wu of Zhou). It is also a surname among the western tribes."

This reading of the astrological signs corresponds with that listed in the Movements of the Five Elements, in the Great Plan (which is in the Book of Documents).)


太史令康權言於生曰:「昨夜三月並出,勃星入於太微,遂入于東井。兼自去月上旬沈陰不雨,迄至於今,將有下人謀上之禍,深願陛下修德以消之。」生怒,以為妖言,撲而殺之。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

The Grand Astrologist, Kang Quan, said to Fu Sheng, "Last night, three moons appeared at once. A comet entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure, crossing into the Eastern Well. And for more than ten days, since early last month, it has been cloudy and dark but without rain. This foretells the danger that a subordinate is plotting against you. I deeply implore Your Majesty to cultivate your virtue in order to ward off this threat."

Fu Sheng grew angry, believing that this was slander, so he had Kang Quan thrown to his death.


特進、領御史中丞梁平老等謂堅曰:「主上失德,上下嗷嗷,人懷異志,燕、晉二方,伺隙而動,恐禍發之日,家國俱亡。此殿下之事也,宜早圖之!」堅心然之,畏生趫勇,未敢發。生夜對侍婢言曰:「阿法兄弟亦不可信,明當除之。」婢以告堅及堅兄清河王法。法與梁平老及特進光祿大夫強汪,帥壯士數百潛入雲龍門,堅與呂婆樓帥麾下三百人鼓噪繼進,宿衛將士皆捨仗歸堅。生猶醉寐,堅兵至,生驚問左右曰:「此輩何人?」左右曰:「賊也!」生曰:「何不拜之!」堅兵皆笑。生又大言:「何不速拜,不拜者斬之!」堅兵引生置別室,廢為越王。尋殺之,謚曰厲王。

12. Qin's Specially Advanced and acting Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, Liang Pinglao, and others said to Fu Jian, "Our sovereign has abandoned virtue, and everyone weeps at it. The people wish for a change. Yan and Jin are still on our borders, waiting for an opportunity to move against us. We fear if some calamity occurs, the whole state will be destroyed. This matter concerns Your Highness as well, so you must act at once!" Although Fu Jian felt the same way, he feared Fu Sheng's awesome strength, and did not dare to act right away.

Fu Sheng said to his palace maids one night, "A-Fa (Fu Fa) and his brothers cannot be trusted either. I should get rid of them tomorrow." The maids went and told Fu Jian and his elder brother Fu Fa the news. Fu Fa, Liang Pinglao, and the Household Counselor and Specially Advanced, Qiang Wang, secretly slipped into the Yunlong Gate with several hundred men, while Fu Jian and Lü Polou led their three hundred followers to beat drums and follow behind. The gate guards all threw down their weapons and flocked to Fu Jian's side.

Fu Sheng was still drunk in bed. When Fu Jian's soldiers arrived, Fu Sheng fearfully asked his attendants, "Who goes there?"

They told him, "Rebels!"

Fu Sheng said, "Why do you not make obeisance to me?"

Fu Jian's soldiers all laughed.

Fu Sheng cried out, "Make obeisance at once, or I will have you killed!"

Fu Jian's soldiers took Fu Sheng into another room, and he was deposed to be the Prince of Yue. He was soon killed, and his posthumous name was Prince Li (“the Harsh”).

嗷嗷,衆口愁聲。魏明帝起洛陽宮,宮城正南門曰雲龍門。苻氏據長安,亦以宮城正南門爲雲龍門。年二十三。

(嗷嗷 means a wail of sorrow.

When Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) built his palace at Luoyang, the southern main gate of his palace was named the Yunlong Gate. When the Fu clan captured Chang'an, they also named the southern main gate of their palace Yunlong.

Fu Sheng was twenty-two when he died.)


六月,苻堅殺苻生而自立。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the sixth month, Fu Jian killed Fu Sheng and took power.

是年,苻堅殺苻生而僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year, Fu Jian killed Fu Sheng and usurped his throne.

生夜對侍婢曰:「阿法兄弟亦不可信,當除之。」是夜,清河王苻法夢神告曰:「且將禍集汝門,惟先覺者可以免之。」寤而心悸,會侍婢來告,乃與特進梁平老、強汪等帥壯士數百人,潛入雲龍門,東海王堅與呂婆樓帥麾下三百餘人鼓噪繼進,宿衛將士皆捨杖歸堅。生猶昏寢不寤,堅衆既至,生驚問左右曰:「此輩何等人?」引生置別室,廢為越王,俄而殺之。時年二十三。偽諡厲王,封子馗為越侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng said to his palace maids one night, "A-Fa (Fu Fa) and his brothers cannot be trusted either. I should get rid of them."

That same night, the Prince of Qinghe, Fu Fa, dreamed that a spirit told him, "Dawn will bring doom and disaster to your door. Only those who know about it beforehand can save you from it." When Fu Fa woke up, his heart throbbed in terror. Then the palace maids arrived and told him what Fu Sheng had said.

So Fu Fa assembled several hundred brave fellows, under the command of the Specially Advanced, Liang Pinglao, Qiang Wang, and others. They secretly entered the Yunlong Gate, while Fu Jian and Lü Polou led more than three hundred of their followers to beat drums and follow behind them. The household guards and other soldiers in the palace all threw down their weapons and went over to Fu Jian's side.

Fu Sheng was still drunk in bed, so when Fu Jian's soldiers arrived, Fu Sheng angrily asked his attendants, "Who goes there?"

Fu Jian's soldiers took Fu Sheng into another room, and he was deposed to be the Prince of Yue. He was soon killed. Fu Sheng was twenty-two years old when he died. His posthumous title was Prince Li (“the Harsh”). His son Fu Kui was appointed as Marquis of Yue.

生夜對侍婢曰:「阿法兄弟亦不可信,明當除之。」是夜清河王苻法夢神告之曰:「旦將禍集汝門,惟先覺者可以免之。」寤而心悸。會侍婢來告,乃與特進梁平老、強汪等率壯士數百人潛入雲龍門,苻堅與呂婆樓率麾下三百餘人鼓噪繼進,宿衛將士皆舍杖歸堅。生猶昏寐未寤。堅眾既至,引生置於別室,廢之為越王,俄而殺之。生臨死猶飲酒數斗,昏醉無所知矣。時年二十三,在位二年,偽諡厲王。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng said to his palace maids one night, "A-Fa (Fu Fa) and his brothers cannot be trusted either. I should get rid of them tomorrow."

That same night, the Prince of Qinghe, Fu Fa, dreamed that a spirit told him, "Dawn will bring doom and disaster to your door. Only those who know about it beforehand can save you from it." When Fu Fa woke up, his heart throbbed in terror. Then the palace maids arrived and told him what Fu Sheng had said.

So Fu Fa assembled several hundred brave fellows, under the command of the Specially Advanced, Liang Pinglao, Qiang Wang, and others. They secretly entered the Yunlong Gate, while Fu Jian and Lü Polou led more than three hundred of their followers to beat drums and follow behind them. The household guards and other soldiers in the palace all threw down their weapons and went over to Fu Jian's side. Fu Sheng was still drunk in bed, so when Fu Jian's soldiers arrived, they had his attendants take Fu Sheng into another room, and he was deposed to be the Prince of Yue. He was soon killed. Even as he approached death, he still drank several 斗 of wine, and was so drunk and disoriented that he did not know what was going on.

Fu Sheng was twenty-two years old when he died; he had been on the throne for two years. His posthumous title was Prince Li (“the Harsh”).

生夜對侍婢曰:「阿法兄弟,亦不可信,明當除之。」旦而侍婢以告,法與弟堅率壯士數百人入雲龍門,宿衞者皆捨仗歸堅。廢生為越王,俄而殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Sheng)

Fu Sheng said to his palace maids one night, "A-Fa (Fu Fa) and his brothers cannot be trusted either. I should get rid of them tomorrow." When dawn came, the maids went and told Fu Fa the news. Fu Fa and his younger brother Fu Jian led several hundred strong fellows into the Yunlong Gate, where the household guards all threw down their weapons and went over to Fu Jian's side. They deposed Fu Sheng as Prince of Yue, and soon they killed him.


堅以位讓法,法曰:「汝嫡嗣,且賢,宜立。」堅曰:「兄年長,宜立。」堅母苟氏泣謂群臣曰:「社稷重事,小兒自知不能。它日有悔,失在諸君。」群臣皆頓首請立堅。堅乃去皇帝之號,稱大秦天王,即位於太極殿,誅生幸臣中書監董榮、左僕射趙韶等二十餘人。大赦,改元永興。追尊父雄為文桓皇帝,母苟氏為皇太后,妃苟氏為皇后,世子宏為皇太子,以清河王法為都督中外諸軍事、丞相、錄尚書事、東海公,諸王皆降爵為公。以從祖右光祿大夫、永安公侯為太尉,晉公柳為車騎大將軍、尚書令。封弟融為陽平公,雙為河南公,子丕為長樂公,暉為平原公,熙為廣平公,睿為巨鹿公。以漢陽李威為左僕射,梁平老為右僕射,強汪為領軍將軍,呂婆樓為司隸校尉,王猛為中書侍郎。

13. The Qin throne now being vacant, Fu Jian offered it to Fu Fa. Fu Fa said, "You are most worthy, and furthermore you were born from Father's wife; you should lead."

Fu Jian said, "You are the elder brother; the throne should be yours."

Fu Jian's mother, Lady Gou, said to the gathered ministers with tears in her eyes, "My son knows that he is little prepared to handle such great affairs. If anything regrettable should come to pass, the blame is on you gentlemen." The ministers all kowtowed to Fu Jian and asked him to take the throne. So Fu Jian set aside the title of Emperor, instead claiming for himself the title Heavenly King of Great Qin, and had his ascension at Taiji Palace.

Fu Jian put to death more than twenty of Fu Sheng's minions, including Dong Rong and Zhao Shao. A general amnesty was then declared, and the Qin reign era title was changed to Yongxing. He honored his late father Fu Xiong as Emperor Wenhuan ("the Cultured and Vast") and his mother Lady Gou as Empress Dowager. He made his wife Lady Gou his Empress, and his heir Fu Hong his Crown Prince.

Fu Fa was appointed Commander of all military affairs, Prime Minister, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Donghai. All the other Princes were likewise demoted to Dukes. Fu Jian appiinted the Household Counselor of the Right and Duke of Yong'an, his great uncle Fu Hou, as Grand Commandant; Fu Liu was appointed as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed his younger brothers Fu Rong and Fu Shuang as Duke of Yangping and Duke of Henan. Among his sons, he appointed Fu Pi as Duke of Changle, Fu Hui as Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Xi as Duke of Guangping, and Fu Rui as Duke of Julu. He appointed Li Wei of Hanyang as Deputy Director of the Left and Liang Pinglao as Deputy Director of the Right; Qiang Wang was appointed as General Who Leads The Army; Lü Polou was appointed as Colonel-Director of Retainers; and Wang Meng was appointed as Gentleman Attendant of the Palace Secretariat.

堅母苟氏,雄之元妃,故謂堅爲嫡嗣。苻堅,字永固,雄之子也。李威於堅母有辟陽之寵,故擢用之。

(Fu Jian's mother Lady Gou was Fu Xiong's chief wife, and that is why Fu Fa said Fu Jian was entitled to the throne as the son of the wife.

Fu Jian, styled Yonggu, was Fu Xiong's son.

Li Wei had received "the favor of Piyang" from Fu Jian's mother, which he used to advance his position.)


"The favor of Piyang" refers to the illicit love affair between Liu Bang’s wife, Empress Lü, and the Han minister Shen Yiji. One of the titles that the Empress favored him with was Marquis of Piyang. The phrase refers to a man who becomes the lover of an Empress in order to advance his position.

堅既殺苻生,永光元年六月,去皇帝之號,僭稱大秦天王,即位太極殿。誅董龍等二十餘人,改壽光三年為永興元年。追尊父為文桓皇帝。世子宏為皇太子。兄清河王法為丞相,錄尚書事。永安公苻侯為太尉,諸王皆貶爵為公。苻柳為尚書令。封弟融為陽平公,雙河南公,子丕為長樂公,暉為平原公,熙為廣平公。李威為左僕射,梁平老為右僕射,席寶為丞相長史,王猛為中書令,侍郎權翼為黃門郎,諸公卿為生所誅者,悉復本官。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Jian killed Fu Sheng in the first year of Yongguang, the sixth month. At that time, he put aside the title of Emperor that Fu Sheng had been using; instead, he declared himself the Heavenly King of Great Qin. He held his accession at the Taiji Palace.

Fu Jian executed more than twenty people, including Dong Long, and he changed Former Qin's reign era title from the third year of Shouguang to the first year of Yongxing.

Fu Jian posthumously honored his father Fu Xiong as Emperor Jingwen. He named his heir, Fu Hong, as Crown Prince. The Prince of Qinghe, Fu Jian's elder brother Fu Fa, was appointed as Prime Minister and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. The Duke of Yong'an, Du Hou, was appointed as Grand Commandant. Everyone who had formerly held title as Princes had their titles demoted to Dukes. Fu Liu was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Fu Jian's younger brothers Fu Rong and Fu Shuang were appointed as the Duke of Yangping and the Duke of Henan respectively. Among Fu Jian's other sons, Fu Pi was appointed as Duke of Changle, Fu Hui was appointed as Duke of Pingyuan, and Fu Xi was appointed as Duke of Guangping. Li Wei and Liang Pinglao were appointed as Deputy Directors of the Left and Right. Xi Bao was appointed as Chief Clerk to the Prime Minister. Wang Meng was appointed as Prefect of the Household Secretariat. The Gentleman-Attendant, Quan Yi, was appointed as Gentleman of the Yellow Gates. All those nobles whom Fu Sheng had executed were posthumously restored to their former offices.

堅既殺苻生,以位讓其兄清河王法,法固以推堅。於是去皇帝之號,僭稱天王,號年永興。以法為丞相、東海公。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

After killing Fu Sheng, Fu Jian wanted to yield the throne of Former Qin to the Prince of Qinghe, his elder brother Fu Fa. But Fu Fa insisted on acclaiming Fu Jian instead. So Fu Jian put aside the title of Emperor and called himself Heavenly King, and he changed the reign era title to Yongxing. Fu Fa was appointed as Prime Minister and Duke of Donghai.


融好文學,明辯過人,耳聞則誦,過目不忘,力敵百夫,善騎射擊刺,少有令譽。堅愛重之,常與共議國事。融經綜內外,刑政修明,薦才揚滯,補益弘多。丕亦有文武才幹,但治民斷獄,皆亞於融。

14. Fu Jian’s brother Fu Rong delighted in studying, and he was very discerning and perceptive even beyond other people; what he once heard he always remembered, and whatever he saw he never forgot. He was strong as a hundred foes, and was adept in horseback archery and other martial arts. He had enjoyed a high reputation since his youth. Fu Jian greatly treasured him, and often consulted him on state affairs. Fu Rong made his mark in both domestic and foreign matters; he was wise and perceptive at both administration and justice, he recommended talented people and promoted those who languished in obscurity, and he spread many benefits as well.

Fu Jian’s son Fu Pi was also talented in both civil and military affairs. In administration and in justice, he was second only to Fu Rong.

史言堅有弟有子如此而無救於敗亡,明天之所棄,非人之所能支也。

(We see from this passage that Fu Jian had such an exceptional younger brother and son to help him. Yet ultimately, he could not escape from his downfall. Thus we see that no mere mortal abilities can save someone from Heaven's doom.)


苻丕字永敘,堅之長庶子。少而聰慧好學,堅與之言將畧,嘉之。才幹亞于於苻融,為將善收士卒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Pi)

Fu Pi, styled Yongxu, was Fu Jian's eldest son, born of a concubine. Even as a youth, he was intelligent and fond of studying. Fu Jian would talk with him about leading soldiers or developing strategies, and he commended him. In talent and ability, he was second only to Fu Rong, and he was a skilled general who won the hearts of his soldiers.

堅子丕,字永敍。堅以封長樂公。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Pi)

Fu Jian's son Fu Pi was styled Yongxu. Fu Jian appointed him as Duke of Changle.


威,苟太后之姑子也,素與魏王雄友善。生屢欲殺堅,賴威營救得免。威得幸於苟太后,堅事之如父。威知王猛之賢,常勸堅以國事任之,堅謂猛曰:「李公知君,猶鮑叔牙之知管仲也。」猛以兄事之。

15. This Li Wei was Empress Dowager Gou's cousin, and he had been friendly with the late Prince of Wei, Fu Xiong. There had been many times when Fu Sheng had wanted to kill Fu Jian, only to be saved by Li Wei's intervention. Li Wei had the favor of Empress Dowager Gou, and Fu Jian considered him as a second father.

Li Wei knew Wang Meng's worth, and often advised Fu Jian to grant him a role in state affairs. Fu Jian said to Wang Meng, "Lord Li knows your worth, just as Bao Shuya knew Guan Zhong's worth." And Wang Meng regarded Li Wei as he would an elder brother.

管仲少與鮑叔牙遊,鮑叔知其賢,善遇之。管仲曰:「吾始困時,與鮑叔賈,分財多自與,鮑叔不以我爲貪,知我貧也。吾嘗爲鮑叔謀事,而更窮困,鮑叔不以我爲愚,知時有利不利也。吾嘗三仕三見逐,鮑叔不以我爲不肖,知我不遭時也。吾嘗三戰三北,鮑叔不以我爲怯,知我有老母也。公子糾敗,召忽死之,吾幽囚受辱,鮑叔不以我爲無恥,知我不羞小節而恥功名不顯於天下也。生我者父母,知我者鮑子也。」

(The Biography of Guan Zhong in the Records of the Grand Historian says, “When they were young, Guan Zhong and Bao Shuya traveled together. Bao Shuya knew Guan Zhong's worth, and treated him well. Guan Zhong said of him, ‘When I was first in difficulty, I did business together with Bao Shuya. When I took more than my share, Bao Shuya did not consider me greedy, but knew my poverty. When I first wished to plan things with Bao Shuya, and afterwards suffered hardships, Bao Shuya did not see me as a burden, but knew that some occasions brought profit and some did not. When I thrice sought office and was thrice sent away, Bao Shuya did not consider me unworthy, but knew that it was not yet my time. When I thrice fled from battle, Bao Shuya knew that I was not cowardly, but that I had an old mother to consider. When I supported the Duke's son who met with defeat, yet I avoided death and languished in a prison instead, Bao Shuya knew that I was not shameless, but that such a small affair could not shame my reputation and my achievements in the world. It was my parents who gave birth to me, but it is Bao Shuya who truly knows me.’”)


李威字伯龍,漢陽人,苟太后姑子。少與苻雄結刎勁之交,苻生屢欲誅堅,賴威以免,堅深德之,事威如父。誅苻生及法,皆威與太后潛決大謀,遂有辟陽之寵。雅重王猛,勸堅以國事任之。堅常謂猛曰:「李公知卿,猶鮑叔之于夷吾,罕虎之於子產。」猛兄事之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

Li Wei, styled Bolong, was a native of Hanyang commandary; he was Empress Dowager Gou's cousin, and as a young man he had formed a close personal bond with Fu Xiong. There had been many times when Fu Sheng had wanted to executed Fu Jian, only to be saved by Li Wei's intervention. Fu Jian deeply respected him, and considered him as a second father. It had been Li Wei's secret conniving with Empress Dowager Gou that had determined the executions of Fu Sheng and Fu Fa, and so Li Wei had 'the favor of Pingyang' with her.

Li Wei knew Wang Meng's worth, and he urged Fu Jian to grant him a role in state affairs. Fu Jian often said to Wang Meng, "Lord Li knows your worth, just as Bao Shuya knew Yiwu's (Guan Zhong's) worth and Hanhu knew Zichan's worth." And Wang Meng regarded Li Wei as he would an elder brother.


燕主俊殺段龕,坑其徒三千餘人。

16. Murong Jun killed Duan Kan, and buried alive over three thousand others.

春正月,段龕遇害。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In spring, the first month, Duan Kan suffered death.

[慕容玄恭]執龕送之薊,儁毒其目而殺之,坑其徒三千餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Murong Xuangong (Murong Ke) captured Duan Kan and sent him to Ji, where Murong Jun poisoned his eyes and then killed him. He also buried alive more than three thousand of his followers.


秋,七月,秦大將軍冀州牧張平遣使請降,拜并州刺史。

17. In autumn, the seventh month, Qin's Grand General and Inspector of Jizhou, Zhang Ping, sent messengers to offer submission to Jin. He was appointed as Jin’s Inspector of Bingzhou.

秋七月,苻堅將張平以幷州降,遂以爲幷州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Jian's general Zhang Ping surrendered Bingzhou to Jin, who appointed him as Inspector of Bingzhou.


八月,丁未,立皇后何氏。後,故散騎侍郎廬江何淮之女也。禮如咸康而不賀。

18. In the eighth month, on the day Dingwei (September 19th), Emperor Mu honored Lady He as Empress of Jin. She was the daughter of the former Cavalier Gentleman Attendant, He Huai of Lujiang. The ceremony was like the one during the Xiankang era, but there was no special celebration.

成帝咸康二年,立杜后。

Lady Du had been made Empress by Emperor Cheng in the second year of Xiankang (Book 95, 336.5).


八月丁未,立皇后何氏,大赦,賜孝悌鰥寡米,人五斛,逋租宿債皆勿收,大酺三日。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth month, on the day Dingwei (September 19th), Emperor Mu honored Lady He as his Empress. A general amnesty was declared, and filial children, widows, and orphans were granted five 斛 of rice each. Unpaid taxes and debts were annuled, and there was great drinking for three days.


秦王堅以權翼為給事黃門侍郎,薛贊為中書侍郎,與王猛並掌機密。九月,追復太師魚遵等官,以禮改葬,子孫存者皆隨才擢敘。

19. Fu Jian appointed Quan Yi as Assistant Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and Xue Zan as Gentleman Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, and had them handle confidential affairs together with Wang Meng.

In the ninth month, Fu Jian posthumously restored the former titles to Yu Zun and the other executed ministers, reburying them with the proper rites. Their surviving sons and grandsons were promoted or placed in office according to their abilities.

權翼仕秦,久當事任,而卒歸姚氏。料其受苻堅信用,雖不爲莊舄之越吟,固隱之於心也。

(Quan Yi served under Former Qin for a long time, but in the end (in 385) he went back to the Yao clan (when Yao Chang formed Later Qin). Though he gained Fu Jian's trust, even if he did not quite hear the "bird's cry of Yue from the old home" as do those of a fallen state, he certainly still held some of his old loyalty in his heart.)


張平據新興、雁門、西河、太原、上黨、上郡之地,壁壘三百餘,夷、夏十餘萬戶,拜置征鎮,欲與燕、秦為敵國。冬,十月,平寇略秦境,秦王堅以晉公柳都督並、冀州諸軍事,加并州牧,鎮蒲阪以御之。

20. The Bingzhou warlord Zhang Ping held the commandaries of Xinxing, Yanmen, Xihe, Taiyuan, Shangdang, and Shang as his territory, and had more than three hundred fortified places. His territory had more than a hundred thousand tribal and Xia (ethnic Han) households. Zhang Ping appointed his own Generals Who Conquer or Who Guard, planning to set himself up as a rival state to Qin and Yan.

In winter, the tenth month, Zhang Ping invaded Qin territory. Fu Jian appointed Fu Liu as Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou and Jizhou and as Governor of Bingzhou, and stationed him in Puban to defend against Zhang Ping.

壁壘,蓋時遭亂離,豪望自相保聚所築者。石氏用張平爲幷州,故得有其地、有其民。石氏之敗,平兩附燕、秦,今恃其強,欲與燕、秦爲敵國。平蓋間秦之有內難也,安知由是而敗亡乎!

These fortified places must have been built during the initial waves of chaos as places to escape the danger, places where people who had been separated by the wars could gathered together to defend one another. The Shi clan of Later Zhao had used Zhang Ping to govern Bingzhou, and that was how he now held command of so many places and so many people.

After the fall of the Shi clan, Zhang Ping had initially vacillated between Former Yan and Former Qin. But now that he felt he had grown stronger, he felt he could stand up to either of them.

Zhang Ping thought that he could take advantage of the upheaval within Former Qin. Little did he know that it would lead to his destruction!


十一月,癸酉,燕主俊自薊徙都鄴。

21. In the eleventh month, on the day Guiyou (December 14th), Murong Jun moved his capital from Ji to Ye.

十一月,自薊遷鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the eleventh month, Murong Jun shifted his capital from Ji to Ye.

儁自薊遷都於鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun shifted his capital from Ji to Ye.


秦太后苟氏游宣明台,見東海公法之第門車馬輻湊,恐終不利於秦王堅,乃與李威謀,賜法死。堅與法訣於東堂,慟哭歐血;謚曰獻哀公,封其子陽為東海公,敷為清河公。

22. Empress Dowager Gou of Qin traveled to the Xuanming Terrace. Seeing that the gate of Fu Fa’s residence had many carriages coming in and out of it, she feared that he might someday cause trouble for Fu Jian. So she and Li Wei plotted together, and arranged for Fu Fa to commit suicide. Fu Jian and Fu Fa said goodbye to each other in the East Hall, crying bitterly to the point of spitting up blood.

Fu Fa was posthumously named Duke Xian'Ai (“the Presented and Lamented”), and his sons Fu Yang and Fu Fu were appointed as Duke of Donghai and Duke of Qinghe.

爲後陽謀復讎張本。

(This was the cause for Fu Yang's later attempt at revenge (Book 104, 382.1).)


十月,丞相東海公法以疑忌賜死,苟太后之意也。堅性友愛,與法訣於東堂,慟哭嘔血。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the tenth month, the Prime Minister and Duke of Donghai, Fu Fa, was ordered to commit suicide out of suspicion and doubt; it was Empress Dowager Gou's idea. Fu Jian himself was a friendly and loving sort, and when he bade farewell to Fu Fa in the Eastern Hall, he wailed with grief and coughed up blood.

法尋以疑忌堅殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jian)

Fu Fa later fell under suspicion and doubt, so Fu Jian killed him.


十二月,乙巳,燕主俊入鄴宮,大赦。復作銅雀台。

23. In the twelfth month, on the day Yisi (January 15th of 358), Murong Jun entered the palace in Ye. A general amnesty was declared in Yan. The Copper Bird Terrace was restored.

魏武建國於鄴,作銅雀臺,石氏增修之,兵亂圮毀,慕容都鄴復作,使如舊。

Emperor Wu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) had established his princely fief at Ye, where he built the Copper Bird Terrace. The Shi clan of Later Zhao had restored it and added to it. During the chaos surrounding the fall of Later Zhao, the Terrace had collapsed in ruins. When the Murong clan moved their capital to Ye, they rebuilt it, just as it was before.


三月,入鄴宮,大赦。繕殿宮,復銅雀臺。以吳王垂為東夷校尉、平州刺史,鎮遼東。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

In the third month, Murong Jun entered the palace in Ye. A general amnesty was declared in Yan. The palace at Ye was repaired, and the Copper Bird Terrace was restored.


以太常王彪之為左僕射。

24. Jin's Minister of Ceremonies, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left.

十二月,乙太常王彪之爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the twelfth month, the Minister of Ceremonies, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


秦王堅行至尚書,以文案不治,免左丞程卓官,以王猛代之。堅舉異才,修廢職,課農桑,恤困窮,禮百神,立學校,旌節義,繼絕世;秦民大悅。

25. Fu Jian went to visit the Masters of Writing. Seeing how affairs were in disarray there, Fu Jian removed the Assistant of the Left, Cheng Zhuo, from office, and had Wang Meng take over his duties.

Fu Jian employed rare talents, and filled lapsed posts. He encouraged the people in their farming and silkworm cultivation, and cared for the poor and destitute. He honored the various spirits, and founded academies of learning. He heralded those who were virtuous and upright, and found heirs for those whose family lines would have been broken. The people of Qin were very pleased with him.

史言苻堅能用王猛以治秦。

This passage demonstrates how Fu Jian was able to use Wang Meng to govern Former Qin.
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:09 am

昇平二年(戊午,公元三五八年)

The Second Year of Shengping (The Wuwu Year, 358 AD)


春,正月,司徒昱稽首歸政,帝不許。

1. In spring, the first month, Sima Yu kowtowed and offered to return his governmental responsibilities to Emperor Mu, but Emperor Mu declined.

二年春正月,司徒、會稽王昱稽首歸政,帝不許。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the second year of Shengping (358), in spring, the first month, the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, kowtowed and offered to return his governmental responsibilities to Emperor Mu, but Emperor Mu declined.

穆帝始冠,帝稽首歸政,不許。(Book of Jin 9, Annals of Emperor Jianwen)

After Emperor Mu had had his coming of age capping ceremony, Sima Yu kowtowed to him and return his governmental responsibilities to Emperor Mu, but Emperor Mu declined.


初,馮鴦既以上黨來降,又附於張平,又自歸於燕,既而復叛燕。二月,燕司徒上庸王評討之,不克。

2. It was earlier mentioned that Feng Yang had taken over Shangdang and submitted to Jin. Later, he allied with Zhang Ping instead; after that, he went over to Yan. In the end, he rebelled against Yan as well. In the second month, Yan's Minister Over The Masses, Murong Ping, campaigned against Feng Yang, but was unsuccessful.

秦王堅自將討張平,以鄧羌為前鋒督護,帥騎五千,軍於汾上;平使養子蚝御之。蚝多力趫捷,能曳牛卻走;城無高下,皆可超越。與羌相持旬餘,莫能相勝。三月,堅至銅壁,平盡眾出戰,蚝單馬大呼,出入秦陳者四、五。堅募人生致之,鷹揚將軍呂光刺蚝,中之,鄧羌擒蚝以獻,平眾大潰。平懼,請降。堅拜平右將軍,以蚝為虎賁中郎將。蚝,本姓弓,上黨人也,堅寵待甚厚,常置左右。秦人稱鄧羌、張蚝皆萬人敵。光,婆樓之子也。堅徙張平部民三千餘戶於長安。

3. Fu Jian personally led a campaign against Zhang Ping, and sent Deng Qiang to command his vanguard force. Deng Qiang led five thousand cavalry forward to Fenshang. Zhang Ping sent his adopted son Zhang Qi ahead to oppose Deng Qiang. This Zhang Qi was a very strong and agile man, able to walk backward while dragging an ox. He could scale any city wall, high or low. Zhang Qi was locked in a stalemate with Deng Qiang for more than ten days, with neither side able to claim the advantage.

In the third month, Fu Jian arrived at Tongbi. Zhang Ping went forward with his whole army to offer battle. Zhang Qi rode into Qin’s formation and out again, four or five times, shouting all the while. Fu Jian asked for someone to deal with him, and the General of Hawkish Display, Lü Guang, thrust his spear at Zhang Qi and struck him. Deng Qiang then captured Zhang Qi and brought him back to Fu Jian, and Zhang Ping's army melted away. Zhang Ping, frightened, asked to surrender. This Lü Guang was the son of Lü Polou.

Fu Jian appointed Zhang Ping as General of the Right, and appointed Zhang Qi as General of the Household Gentlemen Rapid As Tigers. Zhang Qi's surname had originally been Gong, and he was a native of Shangdang. Fu Jian favored him greatly, and he was often by Fu Jian's side. The people of Qin called Zhang Qi and Deng Qiang the "Foes of Ten Thousands".

Fu Jian relocated more than three thousand of Zhang Ping's households to Chang'an.

汾水之上也。蚝,七吏翻。河、汾之間有銅川,其民遇亂,築銅壁以自守,因曰銅壁。《姓譜》:弓姓,魯叔弓之後。

Fenshang was on the Fen River.

Zhang Qi's given name 蚝 is pronounced "qi (q-i)".

The city of Tongchuan was between the Yellow and Fen Rivers. When people encountered trouble during the turmoil in the Central Plains, they built copper walls at this place to protect themselves, so it was called Tongbi ("Copper Walls").

The Registry of Surnames says, "The surname 弓 Gong comes from Shu Gong of the state of Lü."


Tongchuan is still a city in modern China, in Shaanxi province.

The term “Foe of Ten Thousands” had previously been used to describe Xiang Yu, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei.


呂光,字世明,略陽氐人也。其先呂文和,漢文帝初,自沛避難徙焉。世為酋豪。父婆樓,佐命苻堅,官至太尉。光生於枋頭,夜有神光之異,故以光為名。年十歲,與諸童兒遊戲邑裏,為戰陣之法,儔類咸推為主。部分詳平,群童嘆服。不樂讀書,唯好鷹馬。及長,身長八尺四寸,目重瞳子,左肘有肉印。沈毅凝重,寬簡有大量,喜怒不形於色。時人莫之識也,惟王猛異之,曰:「此非常人。」言之苻堅,舉賢良,除美陽令,夷夏愛服。遷鷹揚將軍。從堅征張平,戰於銅壁,刺平養子蠔,中之,自是威名大著。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang, styled Shiming, was a member of the Di people and a native of Lüeyang. His ancestor was Lü Wenhe. At the beginning of Emperor Wen of Han's reign (180), Lü Wenhe was forced to move away from Pei due to hardship. Through the generations, Lü Guang's ancestors were local leaders. His father was Lü Polou, a minister under Fu Jian who rose as high as Grand Commandant.

Lü Guang was born at Fangtou. During the night, there was some kind of spiritual glow, and it was because of this that he was named Guang ("glow"). When he was nine years old, he would run around the town with other boys, practicing military formations, and his peers all acclaimed him as their leader. Lü Guang divided the groups neatly and exactly, and the other children all sighed in admiration of him and obeyed him. But he took no pleasure in studying, and only enjoyed hawking and riding.

When Lü Guang grew up, he was eight cun and four chi in height. His eyes had double pupils, and his left elbow had a mark on the flesh. He was solemn and resolute, dignified and grave. He was broadminded and honest, and possessed great magnanimity. But whether he was pleased or angry, he never showed it in his expression. No one at that time was aware of him, and only Wang Meng saw something in him. Wang Meng remarked, "This is no ordinary fellow," and he mentioned him to Fu Jian as a worthy talent. He was appointed as Prefect of Meiyang, where the tribes and the Xia (Han) people all respected him. He was then moved to General of Hawkish Display.

When Fu Jian campaigned against Zhang Ping (in 358), Lü Guang followed him. At the battle of Tongbi, he attacked Zhang Ping's adopted son Zhang Hao and struck him with his weapon, and this enhanced Lü Guang's martial reputation.

(The Book of Jin records the first name of Zhang Ping's adopted son as 蠔, where in ZZTJ it is 蚝.)

略陽氐呂光,字世明,本出略陽。父婆樓,苻堅太尉。光年十歲,遊戲好戰陳之法,為諸兒所推。身長八尺四寸,肘有肉印。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang, styled Shiming, was a member of the Di people, a native of Lüeyang. His clan were originally natives of Lüeyang. His father Lü Polou was Fu Jian's Grand Commandant. When Lü Guang was nine years old, he liked to play at arranging battle formations, and the other children acclaimed him as their leader. He grew to be eight chi four cun tall, and he had a birthmark on his elbow.


甲戌,燕主俊遣領軍將軍慕輿根,將兵助司徒評攻馮鴦。根欲急攻之,評曰:「鴦壁堅,不如緩之。」根曰:「不然。公至城下經月,未嘗交鋒。賊謂國家力止於此,遂相固結,冀幸萬一。今根兵初至,形勢方振,賊眾恐懼,皆有離心,計慮未定,從而攻之,無不克者。」遂急攻之。鴦與其黨果相猜忌,鴦奔野王依呂護,其黨盡降。

4. On the day Jiaxu (April 14th), Murong Jun sent his General Who Leads The Army, Muyu Gen, to assist Murong Ping in attacking Feng Yang. Muyu Gen wished to press the attack at once, but Murong Ping said, "Feng Yang has a stout defense. It would be better not to."

Muyu Gen replied, "Not so. You have been outside the city for nearly a month already, and yet not once have you come to grips with the enemy. They must have believed that this was the limit of our state's strength, and so they stood united with each other, hoping for a lucky break. But now my own soldiers have just arrived here, and our morale has just been boosted. The rebels are all quaking with fear, and they are all considering desertion; they have yet to settle on a strategy. If we take advantage of this and attack them right away, we cannot help but win."

So the Yan soldiers fiercely attacked. Feng Yang and his partisans were indeed all suspicious of one another, so they did not fight together. Feng Yang fled to Yewang to seek refuge under Lü Hu, while his partisans all surrendered to Yan.

言鴦心僥倖於萬一可以保城也。

Muyu Gen was saying that Feng Yang held out hope that his forces might just be able to hold the city.


六月,慕容恪進據上黨,冠軍將軍馮鴦以衆叛歸慕容儁,儁盡陷河北之地。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the sixth month, Murong Ke advanced and occupied Shangdang. The Champion General, Feng Yang, rebelled against Jin and went over to Murong Jun. Murong Jun had thus captured all the territory north of the Yellow River.


夏,四月,秦王堅如雍,祠五畤;六月,如河東,祀后土。

5. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian went to Yong to visit the Five Shrines; in the sixth month, he went to Hedong, to make sacrifices to the Earth.

用漢禮也。

(Fu Jian followed the old Han dynasty rites in visiting these shrines.)


二年四月,堅如龍門五畤。六月,如河東,祀后土。八月,自臨晉登龍門,顧謂羣臣曰:「美哉,山河之固。」權翼對曰:「吳起有言,在德不在險,深願陛下追蹤唐虞,懷遠以德。山河之固,不足恃也。」堅大悅,至韓原,觀晉魏顆鬼結草抗秦軍之處,賦詩而歸。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Jian)

In the second year of Yongxing (358), the fourth month, Fu Jian visited the Five Shrines of Longmen. In the sixth month, he went to Hedong and made sacrifices to the Earth.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian came from Linjin and ascended Longmen. He looked around as he said to his ministers, "There is such beauty in the natural defenses of these mountains and rivers."

Quan Yi replied, "Wu Qi had a saying: put your faith in virtue, not in natural defenses. I deeply implore Your Majesty to follow in the footsteps of the ancient emperors Yao and Shun, and attract distant people to come to you by nourishing your virtue. It is not worth dwelling on the natural defenses of your mountains and rivers."

Fu Jian was greatly pleased by this remark.

When Fu Jian came to Hanyuan and saw the place where Wei Ke of the ancient state of Jin had received the help of a ghost and his tied grass to defeat the army of the state of Qin, he composed poems and rhapsodies there before turning.


秋,八月,豫州刺史謝弈卒。弈,安之兄也。司徒昱以建武將軍桓雲代之。雲,溫之弟也。訪於僕射王彪之。彪之曰:「雲非不才,然溫居上流,已割天下之半,其弟復處西籓;兵權萃於一門,非深根固蒂之宜。人才非可豫量,但當令不與殿下作異者耳。」昱頷之曰:「君言是也。」壬申,以吳興太守謝萬為西中郎將,監司、豫、冀、並四州諸軍事、豫州刺史。

6. In autumn, the eighth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Yi, passed away. This Xie Yi was the elder brother of Xie An.

Sima Yu was going to appoint the General Who Establishes Valor, Huan Yun, in his stead. This Huan Yun was Huan Wen's younger brother. Sima Yu went to the Deputy Director, Wang Biaozhi, to discuss the matter. Wang Biaozhi advised him, "It is not that Huan Yun is not talented. But Huan Wen is already in charge of the upper reaches of the Yangzi, and he has already carved out half the realm for himself. If you further place his younger brother on the western border, all military power of the realm would be concentrated into the hands of one family—this is hardly an advisable route to ensuring stability in the country. Of course, one cannot predict where to find talented people. But you must still ensure that you do not appoint someone who will defy you."

Sima Yu nodded and said, "It is just as you say."

So on the day Renshen (October 9th), the Administrator of Wuxing, Xie Wan, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Chief of military affairs in Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou, and Inspector of Yuzhou.

東晉豫州鎭江西,建康在江東,故以豫州爲西藩。司、豫、冀、幷所統,皆僑郡也。

During Eastern Jin, Yuzhou guarded the western bank of the Yangzi, while the capital Jiankang was on the eastern bank. So Yuzhou was considered the western border of the state.

The Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou mentioned here were the surrogate versions of those provinces, established on the north bank of the Yangzi.


秋八月,安西將軍謝奕卒。壬申,以吳興太守謝萬爲西中郎將、持節、監司豫冀幷四州諸軍事、豫州刺史。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In autumn, the eighth month, the General Who Maintains The West, Xie Yi, passed away.

On the day Renshen (October 9th), the Administrator of Wuxing, Xie Wan, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Credential Bearer, Chief of military affairs in Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou, and Inspector of Yuzhou.


王羲之與桓溫箋曰:「謝萬才流經通,使之處廊廟,固是後來之秀。今以之俯順荒餘,近是違才易務矣。」又遺萬書曰:「以君邁往不屑之韻,而俯同群碎,誠難為意也。然所謂通識,正當隨事行藏耳。願君每與士卒之下者同甘苦,則盡善矣。」萬不能用。

7. Wang Xizhi wrote to Huan Wen, stating, “Xie Wan is a man of abundant talents and open communication. If he were placed in a position in the imperial court, he would surely become an outstanding character of the younger generation. But now he is being sent to go take care of and receive the submission of wild and ravished lands. This is almost like appointing him to the opposite of his abilities."

Wang Xizhi also wrote to Xie Wan, stating, “Sir, given that you are inclined to hold yourself to be above mundane matters, it is understandable that this matter is not to your liking, since you are now sent to be among the common people. However, the idea of being 'insightful and wise' means one should adjust his behavior according to the situation he is in. If you, Sir, share all the joys and the sorrows of your officers and your men, then you be able to accomplish much good.”

But Xie Wan could not follow his advice.

言其才具可以經世,於時人流輩中爲通達也。言邊郡兵民皆兵荒之餘,彫瘵未蘇而獷悍難調,當俯就而柔順之;今萬非其才而用之,則爲違才。以萬之才可以處廊廟,而使之處邊鄙,則爲易事。言其矜高不屑軍中之細務也。

Wang Xizhi was saying that Xie Wan had the talents to managing the realm, and was perceptive and insightful among his peers.

Wang Xizhi was saying that the people living in the border commandaries, having just survived wars, were living in great destitution and thus were wild and difficult to control. So the proper thing to do would be to tame them by appeasing them and showing them kindness. Xie Wan did not possess that kind of talent, but he was being employed in such a position all the same. This is what “違才” refers to. With Xie Wan’s talents, he could hold his own in the imperial court, but instead he was sent to the distant borderlands. This is what “易事” means.

Wang Xizhi was saying that Xie Wan held himself to be aloof, beyond the mundane matters of running an army.


徐、兗二州刺史荀羨有疾,以御史中丞郗曇為軍司。曇,鑒之子也。

8. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Xun Xian, was ill. The Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, Chi Tan, was appointed as Xun Xian's Army Instructor. This Chi Tan was the son of Chi Jian.

【章:十二行本「軍」上有「羨」字;乙十一行本同;孔本「羨軍」二字並刊一格;張校同。】爲萬、曇皆不勝其任張本。《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「謝萬爲豫州,」下云:「郗曇爲北中郎將,督五州軍事、徐‧兗二州刺史。」《曇傳》云:「荀羨有疾,以曇爲軍司。頃之,羨徵還,除曇北中郎將、都督、刺史。」按《帝紀》,「十二月,北中郎將荀羨及慕容儁戰于山茌,王師敗績。」《燕書》:「十二月,荀羨寇泰山,殺太守賈堅。」《載記》:「荀羨殺賈堅,」下云:「敗羨,復陷山茌。」故知八月曇未爲徐、兗二州,恐始爲軍司耳。

This was why Xie Wan and Chi Tan were unsuccessful when they were in office.

Some versions of the second sentence state that Chi Tan was "Xun's army adjutant" or "Xun Xian's army adjutant" instead of simply “Army Instructor".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "It is true that where the Annals of Emperor Mu in the Book of Jin states, 'Xie Wan was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou,' the very next sentence does state, 'Chi Tan was appointed as General of the Gentlemen of the Household of the North, Commander of the military affairs of five provinces, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.' But according to the Biography of Chi Tan in that text, 'Xun Xian became ill, so Chi Tan was appointed as his Director of the Army. Shortly afterwards, Xun Xian was recalled to the capital, and so Chi Tan remained as General of the Gentlemen of the Household of the North, Commander, and Inspector.' And in the very same year of the Annals of Emperor Mu, we find this sentence: 'In the twelfth month, the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Xun Xian, fought Murong Jun at Shanshi, but the royal army suffered defeat.' And the Book of Yan also states, 'In the twelfth month, Xun Xian invaded Taishan, and killed the Administrator Jia Jian.' Even the Biography of Murong Jun in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Xun Xian killed Jia Jian,' and then, 'Xun Xian was defeated, and Shanshi was recovered.' So it must have been the case that Chi Tan had not yet been appointed Inspector of Xuzhou or Yanzhou by the eighth month, and I must conclude that at that time he was merely Xun Xian's Director of the Army."


八月,以散騎常侍郗曇爲北中郎將、持節、都督徐兗青冀幽五州諸軍事、徐兗二州刺史,鎮下邳。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the eighth month, the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Chi Tan, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Credential Bearer, Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Xiapi.

是歲,晉將荀羨攻山茌,拔之。斬俊太山太守賈堅。俊青州刺史慕容塵遣司馬悅明救之,羨師敗績,復陷山茌。(Book of Jin 110, Biography of Murong Jun)

During this year, the Jin general Xun Xian attacked Shanshi, and took it. He executed Murong Jun's Administrator of Taishan, Jia Jian. Murong Jun's Inspector of Qingzhou, Murong Chen, sent the Marshal Yue Ming to relieve it. Xun Xian's army was defeated, and Shanshi was recovered.


九月,庚辰,秦王堅還長安,以太尉侯守尚書令。於是秦大旱。堅減膳徹樂,命后妃以下悉去羅紈;開山澤之利,公私共之,息兵養民,旱不為災。

9. In the ninth month, on the day Gengchen (?), Fu Jian returned to Chang'an, and appointed the Grand Commandant, Fu Hou, as acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

There was a great drought in Qin. So Fu Jian cut meals and abolished entertainment, and ordered the women of the imperial household to cease using nets and fine silks. He opened up the lands in the hills and by the lakes, allowing the bounties of those regions to be used by both the government and the public. He halted military functions and nurtured the people. Thus, the drought did not become a calamity.

永安公苻侯。師古曰:紈素,今之絹也。

This was the Duke of Yong'an, Fu Hou.

Yang Shigu remarked, "'Fine silk' is what we would now call 'thin silk'."


王猛日親幸用事,宗親勳舊多疾之。特進、姑臧侯樊世,本氐豪,佐秦主健定關中,謂猛曰:「吾輩耕之,君食之邪?」猛曰:「非徒使君耕之,又將使君炊之!」世大怒曰:「要當懸汝頭於長安城門,不然,吾不處世!」猛以白堅。堅曰:「必殺此老氐,然後百寮可肅。」會世入言事,與猛爭論於堅前,世欲起擊猛。堅怒,斬之。於是群臣見猛皆屏息。

10. Wang Meng received more favors and powers by the day, and this annoyed many the old retainers of Qin and relatives of the imperial Fu clan.

The Specially Advanced and Marquis of Guzang, Fan Shi, was a Di retainer who had helped Fu Jiàn in the initial conquest of Guanzhong. He said to Wang Meng, "Will you eat the harvest that our generation plowed?"

Wang Meng replied, "Sir, it’s better to say that what you all plowed, I will soon send you to cook!"

Fan Shi angrily said, "I will see your head hanging from the gate of Chang’an, or else I am not a man!"

Wang Meng mentioned the matter to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said, "I must kill this old Di, so that the other ministers will show respect."

Later, when Fan Shi came to discuss something with Fu Jian, he got into an argument with Wang Meng in front of Fu Jian, and wished to strike him. Fu Jian, angry, had Fan Shi executed. After that, all the ministers held their breath in fear whenever they saw Wang Meng.

趙之亡也,其將張平、李歷、高昌皆遣使降燕,已而降晉,又降秦,各受爵位,欲中立以自固。燕主俊使司徒評討張平於并州,司空陽騖討高昌於東燕,樂安王臧討李歷於濮。陽騖攻昌別將於黎陽,不拔。歷奔滎陽,其眾皆降。并州壁壘百餘降於燕,俊以右僕射悅綰為并州刺史以撫之。平所署征西將軍諸葛驤等帥壁壘百三十八降於燕,俊皆復其官爵。平帥眾三千奔平陽,復請降於燕。

11. After Zhao collapsed, the generals Zhang Ping, Li Li, and Gao Chang all first submitted to Yan, then went over to Jin, and afterwards submitted to Qin, receiving offices from each state, for they all desired to maintain their positions by remaining neutral.

Murong Jun sent Murong Ping to attack Zhang Ping in Bingzhou, he sent the Minister of Works, Yang Wu, to attack Gao Chang at Dongyan, and he sent the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, to attack Li Li at Pu. Yang Wu attacked one of Gao Chang's subordinates at Liyang, but could not capture him. Li Li fled to Xingyang, while his men all surrendered. More than a hundred of Bingzhou's fortified places surrendered to Yan. Murong Jun appointed the Deputy Director of the Right, Yue Wan, as the Inspector of Bingzhou to settle the people there. Zhang Ping's General Who Conquers The West, Zhuge Xiang, and other local leaders surrendered to Yan, a hundred and thirty-eight fortified places in all; Murong Jun confirmed them in their offices. Zhang Ping himself fled to Pingyang with three thousand men, and then asked to surrender to Yan.

李歷、高昌初降晉,張平降秦,永和七年也。八年,歷、昌降秦,是年又與張平俱降燕。苻生死後,張平又降晉,各受爵位。

Li Li and Gao Chang had first submitted to Jin, while Zhang Ping had submitted to Former Qin; this was in the seventh year of Yonghe (351). In the eighth year (352), Li Li and Gao Chang had submitted to Former Qin, and that same year they along with Zhang Ping went over to Former Yan. After Fu Sheng's death, Zhang Ping submitted to Jin. This was how each of these men received titles from all three states.


Li Li and Gao Chang were the Qin generals whom Yao Xiang was fighting against when Yao Chang offered him his horse to escape (352.8).

六月,幷州刺史張平爲苻堅所逼,帥衆三千奔于平陽,堅追敗之。(Book of Jin 8, Annals of Emperor Mu)

In the sixth month, the Inspector of Bingzhou, Zhang Ping, was threatened by Fu Jian. He led three thousand soldiers to flee to Pingyang, but Fu Jian pursued and defeated him.


冬,十月,泰山太守諸葛攸攻燕東郡,入武陽,燕主俊遣大司馬恪統陽騖及樂安王臧之兵以擊之。攸敗走,還泰山,恪遂渡河,略地河南,分置守宰。

12. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Zhuge You, attacked Yan's Dong commandary, and entered Wuyang. Murong Jun sent Murong Ke, Yang Wu, and Murong Zang to attack him. Zhuge You was defeated and fled back to Taishan. Murong Ke then crossed the Yellow River and captured the region south of the river, appointing officials to the local governments.

後漢東郡治東武陽。武帝咸康二年,封子允,以「東」不可爲國名,而東郡有濮陽縣,改曰濮陽國。允改封淮南,還曰東郡。趙王倫篡位,廢太孫臧爲濮陽王,東郡遂名濮陽。此蓋燕復名東郡。《晉志》:武陽縣分屬陽平郡。劉昫曰:魏州朝城縣,隋武陽縣地,天寶七年更名。

During Later Han, Dong commandary was administered from Eastern Wuyang. In the second year of Xiankang (277) under Emperor Wu (Sima Yan), Dong commandary was granted to his son Sima Yun as a fief, but "Dong" could not serve as the name of a princely fief, so since Dong commandary had a Puyang County, the fief was called Puyang. Later, when Sima Yun became the Prince of Huainan, the name of the commandary was changed back to Dong. When the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, seized the throne, he sent the deposed Crown Grandson, Sima Zang, to be Prince of Puyang, and Dong commandary once again had its name changed to Puyang. We can see from this passage that Yan must have changed the commandary name back to Dong again. The Records of Jin states, "Wuyang county was split off as part of Yangping commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "Chaocheng county in Weizhou was known as Wuyang county during Sui. During Tang, in the seventh year of Tianbao (748), its name was changed."


Hu Sanxing presumably meant the second year of 咸寧 Xianning; Sima Yan did not have a Xiankang reign era. It may be someone else's transcription mistake.

燕主俊欲經營秦、晉,十二月,令州郡校實見丁,戶留一丁,餘悉發為兵,欲使步卒滿一百五十萬,期來春大集洛陽。武邑劉貴上書,極陳「百姓凋弊,發兵非法,必致土崩之變。」俊善之,乃更令三五發兵,寬其期日,以來冬集鄴。

13. Murong Jun wished to gather an army to conquer Qin and Jin. In the twelfth month, he sent out orders to each province and commandary to check and verify the number of men currently living in each place. Every household was to send the army all its suitable men, leaving only one to remain home, so that the rest could be conscripted. He hoped to draft an army of a million and a half infantry, and he set a date for the coming spring for them all to gather at Luoyang.

Liu Gui of Wuyi sent up a petition, stating, "The common people are under pressure, and this conscription goes against law. This will cause the land to collapse." Murong Jun accepted this admonishment, and thus ordered only that three of every five suitable men would become soldiers. He also granted an extension on the date, and set the time for them to gather to be the following winter at Ye.

校實,檢校其實數也。法未有戶留一丁而悉發爲兵者。

The term 校實 means to check and verify the actual registry numbers.

There was no law permitting drafting all but one man from every household.


时燕调发繁数,官司各遣使者,道路旁午,郡县苦之。太尉、领中书监封弈请「自今非军期严急,不得遣使,自馀赋发皆责成州郡,其群司所遣弹督先在外者,一切摄还。」俊从之。

14. At that time, numerous military drafts and levies were being conducted in Yan, and each minister and officer sent out their agents in every direction. The roads and streets were filled with them, and the commandaries and counties had trouble accommodating them all.

The Grand Commandant and acting Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Feng Yi, said to Murong Jun, "From now on, the ministers and officers should be forbidden from sending out any agents except for urgent matters relating to meeting military deadlines. Let the local offices be responsible for all other matters relating to drafts and levies. Recall everyone that was sent by the ministries to inspect and hurry the local offices."

Murong Jun followed his suggestion.

燕泰山太守賈堅屯山茌,荀羨引兵擊之;堅所將才七百餘人,羨兵十倍於堅。堅將出戰,諸將皆曰:「眾少,不如固守。」堅曰:「固守亦不能免,不如戰也。」遂出戰,身先士卒,殺羨兵千餘人,復還入城。羨進攻之,堅歎曰:「吾自結髮,志立功名,而每值窮厄,豈非命乎!與其屈辱而生,不若守節而死。」乃謂將士曰:「今危困,計無所設,卿等可去,吾將止死。」將士皆泣曰:「府君不出,眾亦俱死耳。」乃扶堅上馬。堅曰:「我如欲逃,必不相遣。今當為卿曹決鬥,若勢不能支,卿等可趣去,勿復顧我也!」乃開門直出。羨兵四集,堅立馬橋上,左右射之,皆應弦而倒。羨兵眾多,從塹下斫橋,堅人馬俱陷,生擒之,遂拔山茌。羨謂堅曰:「君父、祖世為晉臣,奈何背本不降?」堅曰:「晉自棄中華,非吾叛也。民既無主,強則托命。既已事人,安可改節!吾束脩自立,涉趙歷燕,未嘗易志,君何匆匆相謂降乎!」羨復責之,堅怒曰:「豎子,兒女御乃公!」羨怒,執置雨中,數日,堅憤惋而卒。

15. Yan's Administrator of Taishan, Jia Jian, camped at Shanshi. Xun Xian led troops to attack him. Jia Jian had only some seven hundred men, while Xun Xian had ten times as many.

Jia Jian was about to go out to battle. His officers said to him, "We are few; better to keep to the defensive."

But Jia Jian replied, "Even if we kept to our defenses, we wouldn't be able to escape. We might as well go out and fight."

So they went to battle, with Jia Jian leading the charge, and they killed more than a thousand of Xun Xian's men before going back into the city.

Xun Xian advanced to attack the city, and Jia Jian lamented, "Ever since I have bound my hair as a man, I had vowed to achieve something and make a name for myself. But at every turn I am faced with insurmountable perils. What is this, if not my fate? But though my men might bow to the shame and so survive, it would be better for me to fulfill my duty to the death." So he said to his men, "We are in grave danger, and no plan can extricate us. All of you may flee from here. I will remain behind and die."

The soldiers all wept and said, "If you will not leave, then we will all die with you." And they lifted Jia Jian onto a horse.

Jia Jian said to them, "If we are going to escape, we cannot all remain together. I shall go fight a final battle for your sake. But if my strength is insufficient to hold them off, you must hurry and flee. Do not turn back to look for me!" And he opened the gate and went out.

Xun Xian's soldiers surrounded the place on four sides. Jia Jian stood on his horse atop the bridge, and shot his arrows in either direction. With every twang of the bowstring, he felled another man. But Xun Xian’s men were too numerous, and some of them went down and cut the bridge supports, so Jia Jian and his horse went tumbling into the pit. He was captured alive, and Shanshi was taken.

Xun Xian said to Jia Jian, "Your father and grandfather both served Jin. Why do you turn your back on your homeland and refuse to surrender?"

Jia Jian replied, "It was Jin that abandoned the Central Plains; I did not rebel against anyone. Since the people had no lord over them, they had to entrust their lives to whomever was the strongest. Now that I have pledged to serve someone, how can I bow to another? Ever since I began schooling and set my own path, enduring Zhao and experiencing Yan, I have never once surrendered my ambitions. How can you be so quick to ask me to surrender?"

Xun Xian continued to admonish him, but Jia Jian angrily responded, "Whelp, leave this old man alone!" Xun Xian grew angry and tied up Jia Jian, leaving him exposed to the rain. Over the course of several days, Jia Jian greatly lamented and so died.

山茌,卽前漢之茌縣,屬泰山郡,後漢改曰山茌。茌,仕疑翻。堅欲折其鋒,使羨懼而退耳。羨進攻之,堅計窮矣。堅發此言,江東將相其愧多矣。謂從師就學,便有志於自立。朱子曰:修,脯也。十脡爲束。古者從師必以束脩爲禮。堅不降燕,見九十八卷永和七年。自稱爲乃公,慢羨而孩視之也。曰御者,言若駕御兒女然。

Shanshi had been known during Former Han as Shi county, as part of Taishan commandary. During Later Han, its name was changed to Shanshi. The second character 茌 is pronounced "shi (sh-i)".

Jia Jian had originally wished merely to smash Xun Xian's vanguard and make him retreat out of fear. However, Xun Xian continued to advance, so Jia Jian's plan failed.

These words of Jia Jian’s ought to have made the Southland generals and ministers alike feel ashamed.

Jia Jian was saying that since he followed a teacher and began to study, he had decided to become independent. The commentator Zhuzi said, "修 means 'dried meat', and a group of ten of them makes a bundle. In ancient times, it was custom to provide the Teachers with a bundle of dried meat."

Recall that Jia Jian had not surrendered to Yan, but had been captured by them, as mentioned in Book 98, in the sixth year of Yonghe (350.28).

By calling himself ‘old man', Jia Jian was being arrogant to Xun Xian and treating him like a boy. 御 means to mind the business of someone, like one’s children.


燕青州刺史慕容塵遣司馬悅明救泰山,羨兵大敗,燕復取山茌。燕主俊以賈堅子活為任城太守。

16. Yan's Inspector of Qingzhou, Murong Chen, sent his Marshal, Yue Ming, to relieve Taishan. Xun Xian's army suffered a great defeat, and Yan recovered Shanshi. Murong Jun appointed Jia Jian's son Jia Huo as Administrator of Rencheng.

十二月,北中郎將荀羨及慕容儁戰于山荏,王師敗績。

In the twelfth month, the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Xun Xian, fought Murong Jun at Shanren. But the royal army was defeated.


荀羨疾篤,征還,以郗曇為北中郎將、都督徐、兗、青、冀、幽五州諸軍事、徐、兗二州刺史,鎮下邳。

17. Xun Xian became gravely ill, so he was recalled. Chi Tan was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Xiapi.

五州,惟徐州有實土。

Of these five provinces, only Xuzhou was actually Jin territory.


燕吳王垂娶段末柸女,生子令、寶。段氏才高性烈,自以貴姓,不尊事可足渾後,可足渾氏銜之。燕主俊素不快於垂,中常侍涅皓因希旨告段氏及吳國典書令遼東高弼為巫蠱,欲以連污垂。俊收段氏及弼下大長秋、延尉考驗,段氏及弼志氣確然,終無撓辭。掠治日急,垂愍之,私使人謂段氏曰:「人生會當一死,何堪楚毒如此!不若引服。」段氏歎曰:「吾豈愛死者耶!若自誣以惡逆,上辱祖宗,下累於王,固不為也!」辯答益明,故垂得免禍,而段氏竟死於獄中。出垂為平州刺史,鎮遼東。垂以段氏女弟為繼室;足渾氏黜之,以其妹長安君妻垂;垂不悅,由是益惡之。

18. Murong Chui was married to the daughter of Duan Mopei. By her, he had two sons, Murong Ling and Murong Bao. Lady Duan was talented but of a fierce temperament, and because of her superior lineage among the Xianbei clans, she did not honor Empress Kezuhun, who bore a grudge against her because of it. Murong Jun also did not like Murong Chui.

The Regular Palace Attendant, Nie Hao, therefore slandered Lady Duan and the Prefect of the Directors of Writing of the Wu fief (Murong Chui’s household), Gao Bi of Liaodong, saying they were practicing witchcraft, hoping to implicate Murong Chui as well. Murong Jun arrested Lady Duan and Gao Bi, and sent them to be interrogated by the Manager of the Empress’s Palace and the Commandant of Justice, but they were firm in spirit and admitted to nothing.

The beatings and interrogation were growing harsher by the day, and Murong Chui lamented their fate, so he secretly sent a messenger to Lady Duan saying, "Everyone must die eventually; why continue bearing this torture? You might as well admit to the charges."

Lady Duan sighed and said, “Am I one to begrudge death? But if I falsely admit to evil and traitorous acts, then I shame my family and implicate my lord; that I cannot allow!" From then on, her responses to her interrogators became even better and better articulated, and Murong Chui was able to avoid disaster. However, Lady Duan still died in the prison.

Murong Chui was sent away to be Inspector of Pingzhou, and he was stationed at Liaodong. He married Lady Duan's sister as his second wife. But Empress Kezuhun dissolved this marriage, and made Murong Chui marry her own younger sister instead. Murong Chui was displeased, and grew to dislike Empress Kezuhun all the more.

段與慕容本抗衡之國,故自以爲貴姓。事見上卷永和十年。涅,乃結翻,姓也。晉制:王國置典書、典祠、學官令。慕容氏因之。典書令,天朝吏部尚書之職。《齊王攸傳》,「國相上長吏缺典書令,請求差選」是也。西晉,典書令在常侍、侍郎上;及渡江,則侍郎次常侍,而典書令居三卿下。引服,自引而誣服也。爲慕容垂出奔張本。

The Duan and the Murong clans used to be opposing states, and that was why Lady Duan felt her name was of a high class.

Murong Jun's reasons for disliking Murong Chui were mentioned in Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354.12).

涅 is pronounced "nie (n-ie)"; it is a surname.

According to the Jin system, a princely fief had Directors of Writing, Directors of Temples, and a Prefect of the Directors of Writing. This was why the Murong clan also had these offices. The Prefect of the Directors of Writing was the fief's equivalent of the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing for the imperial court. The Biography of Sima You in the Book of Jin states, "The fief Chancellor's Chief Clerk lacked a Prefect of the Directors of Writing, so he asked for one to be selected." This was the same office. During Western Jin, the Prefect of the Directors of Writing was above the Regular Attendants and Gentleman Attendants. After Jin retreated across the Yangzi, Gentleman Attendants became second to Regular Attendants, and the Prefect of the Directors of Writing was below the Three Ministers.

The term 引服 means to bear witness against oneself and to wrongly admit to guilt.

This was why Murong Chui later fled to Former Qin (Book 102, 369.20).


以吳王垂為東夷校尉、平州刺史,鎮遼東。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun appointed the Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, as Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes and Inspector of Pingzhou, and Murong Chui was stationed at Liaodong.


匈奴劉閼頭部落多叛,懼而東走,乘冰渡河,半渡而冰解,後眾盡歸劉悉勿祈,閼頭奔代。悉勿祈,務桓之子也。

19. Many of the Xiongnu chieftain Liu Etou’s tribes rebelled against him. Afraid, he fled to the east, hoping to cross over the frozen Yellow River. But when his forces were halfway across, the ice broke. His followers who were left behind all joined Liu Xiwuqi, and Liu Etou fled to Dai. This Liu Xiwuqi was the son of Liu Wuhuan.

代在北河之東。

Dai was east of the northern bend of the Yellow River.


二十一年,閼頭部民多叛,懼而東走。渡河,半濟而冰陷,後眾盡歸閼頭兄子悉勿祈。初,閼頭之叛,悉勿祈兄弟十二人在帝左右,盡遣歸,欲其自相猜離,至是,悉勿祈奪其眾。閼頭窮而歸命,帝待之如初。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twenty-first year of Jianguo (358), many of Liu Etou's tribes rebelled against him. Afraid, he fled to the east, hoping to cross over the frozen Yellow River. But when his forces were halfway across, the ice broke. His followers who were left behind all joined Liu Etou's nephew Liu Xiwuqi. Originally, this Liu Xiwuqi and his brothers, twelve in all, had been staying with Tuoba Shiyijian. But when Liu Etou had first been planning to rebel against Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian sent all these brothers back to Liu Etou's domain, hoping that by doing so they would stir up dissension. Now, Liu Xiwuqi took over all of Liu Etou's forces. Liu Etou himself was forced to submit to Tuoba Shiyijian, who still treated him just the same as before.

後務桓子悉勿祈逐閼陋頭而自立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Xiwuqi)

Later, Liu Wuhuan's son Liu Xiwuqi drove out Liu Elou and took control.
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