Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 116

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 08, 2019 6:02 pm

九年(癸丑、四一三)

The Ninth Year of Yixi (The Guichou Year, 413 AD)


春,二月,庚戌,魏主嗣如高柳川;甲寅,還宮。

1. In spring, the second month, on the day Gengxu (April 1st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Gaoliuchuan. On the day Jiayin (April 5th), he returned to the palace.

五年春正月己巳,大閱,畿內男子十二以上悉集。己卯,幸西宮。頞拔大、渠帥四十餘人詣闕奉貢,賜以繒帛錦罽各有差。乙酉,詔諸州六十戶出戎馬一匹。庚寅,大閱於東郊,部署將帥。以山陽侯奚斤為前軍,眾三萬,陽平王熙等十二將,各一萬騎;帝臨白登,躬自校覽焉。二月戊申,賜陽平王熙及諸王、公、侯、將士布帛各有差。庚戌,幸高柳川。甲寅,車駕還宮。癸丑,穿魚池於北苑。庚午,姚興遣使來聘。詔分遣使者巡求儁逸,其豪門強族為州閭所推者,及有文武才幹、臨疑能決,或有先賢世冑、德行清美、學優義博、可為人師者,各令詣京師,當隨才敍用,以贊庶政。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth year of Yongxing (413), in spring, the first month, on the day Jisi (February 19th), Emperor Mingyuan held a grand review of all males within the capital region who were nineteen years old or older. On the day Jimao (March 1st), he went to the Western Palace. He arranged to have more than forty generals and commanders visit the palace and present tribute, and he rewarded them with suitable gifts of brocades, silk, and other fabrics.

On the day Yiyou (March 7th), Emperor Mingyuan issued an order requiring every sixty households in the provinces to produce one warhouse each.

On the day Gengyin (March 12th), Emperor Mingyuan held a grand review at the eastern suburbs of the capital, where he appointed generals and commanders of his forces. He appointed the Marquis of Shanyang, Xi Jin, as Front General and assigned him thirty thousand soldiers, and he appointed twelve others as lesser generals with ten thousand cavalry each, including the Prince of Yangping, Tuoba Xi. Emperor Mingyuan personally conducted the review and inspected the various officers.

In the second month, on the day Wushen (March 30th), Emperor Mingyuan bestowed suitable rewards of cloths and silks to Tuoba Xi and to everyone from the nobles down to the officers and soldiers.

On the day Gengxu (April 1st), Emperor Mingyuan went to Gaoliuchuan. On the day Jiayin (April 5th), he returned to the palace. On the day Guichou (April 4th), he dug a fish pond at the Northern Park.

On the day Gengwu (?), Yao Xing sent envoys to Northern Wei for a diplomatic visit.

Emperor Mingyuan sent agents out to various places to patrol and search for talented and reclusive people and to appraise candidates who had been put forward by the provinces and communities. Anyone who possessed great talent and skill at civil or military affairs and who was able to make decisions in the face of uncertainty, whether they be the descendants of the worthies of ancient times, those of virtuous conduct and pure reputation, those of great learning and education, or those suited for commanding armies, were all ordered to visit the capital, where they would be employed according to their talents so that they could assist the government.


太尉裕自江陵東還,駱驛遣輜重兼行而下,前刻至日,每淹留不進。諸葛長民與公卿頻日奉候於新亭,輒差其期。乙丑晦,裕輕舟徑進,潛入東府。三月,丙寅朔旦,長民聞之,驚趨至門。裕伏壯士丁旿於幔中,引長民卻人間語,凡平生所不盡者皆及之。長民甚悅。丁旿自幔後出,於座拉殺之,輿尸付廷尉。收其弟黎民,黎民素驍勇,格鬬而死。幷殺其季弟大司馬參軍幼民、從弟寧朔將軍秀之。

2. When Liu Yu was on his way back east from Jiangling, he constantly sent his baggage train on ahead of him, and arranged a set date for his arrival, always making sure to take stops. Zhuge Changmin and the nobles and chief ministers kept coming out to watch for his arrival at Xinting, expecting to meet him as he returned. But during the night of the day Yichou (April 16th), Liu Yu got into a light boat and rushed ahead the rest of the way, and secretly entered the Eastern Bureau.

In the third month, on the morning of the day Bingyin (April 17th), Zhuge Changmin heard that Liu Yu had arrived. Panicked, he rushed to the gate to meet him. Liu Yu arranged for a strong fellow, Ding Wu, to hide inside his tent. Then he brought Zhuge Changmin into the tent to speak with him, and they entered the tent before the two of them had even finished discussing pleasantries. Zhuge Changmin was most at ease. But then Ding Wu emerged from the rear of the tent and beat Zhuge Changmin to death where he was sitting. He then tied up Zhuge Changmin's body and brought it to the Minister of Justice.

Zhuge Changmin's younger brother Zhuge Limin was also arrested, but he had always been a bold and strong man, and he struggled and fought back until he was killed. Liu Yu also killed the Army Advisor to the Grand Marshal, Zhuge Changmin's youngest brother Zhuge Youmin, and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Zhuge Changmin's cousin Zhuge Xiuzhi.

〈劉穆之、何承天所慮者,裕已了了於胸中矣。〉〈旿,阮古翻。〉

(This passage demonstrates that where Liu Muzhi and He Chengtian had been concerned for the danger Liu Yu might be in when he returned, Liu Yu himself had already figured out how to handle his arrival.

Ding Wu's given name 旿 is pronounced "ru (r-u)".)


九年春三月丙寅,劉裕害前將軍諸葛長民及其弟輔國大將軍黎民、從弟寧朔將軍秀之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), in spring, the third month, on the day Bingyin (April 17th), Liu Yu killed the General of the Front, Zhuge Changmin, the Grand General Who Upholds The State, his younger brother Zhuge Limin, and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, his cousin Zhuge Xiuzhi.

高祖還,長民伏誅。(Book of Liu-Song 42, Biography of Liu Muzhi)

When Liu Yu returned from his campaign, he summarily executed Zhuge Changmin.


庚午,秦王興遣使至魏脩好。

3. On the day Gengwu (April 21st), Yao Xing sent envoys to Wei to improve relations between Qin and Wei.

太尉裕上表曰:「太司馬溫以『民無定本,傷治爲深』,《庚戌》土斷以一其業;于時財阜國豐,實由於此。自茲迄今,漸用頹弛,請申前制。」於是依界土斷,唯徐、兗、青三州居晉陵者,不在斷例;諸流寓郡縣多所倂省。

4. Liu Yu sent up a petition stating, "Grand Marshal Huan Wen once said that 'much harm is done to the administration of the state through the lack of proper registration of the people', and the Gengxu System was organized to mark off people by their locale in order to fulfill that policy. Much good came from that decision; the state became prosperous and the people wealthy. Yet by now, the same errors have been allowed to creep back into the administration of the state. Thus I ask that you once again enforce the previous policy."

So the people were registered according to their actual places of residence; only the refugees from Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou who were now living at Jinling were not so designated. And most of the surrogate commandaries and counties were annexed or abolished.

〈《庚戌制》見一百一卷哀帝興寧二年。〉〈徐、青、兗三州都督率治晉陵,故難以土斷。〉

(The earlier Gengxu System of census and registration is mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's second year of Xingning (364.3).

The surrogate versions of Xuzhou, Qingzhou, and Yanzhou were all administered from Jinling, thus it was difficult to establish different residencies for the people living there.)


戊寅,加裕豫州刺史。裕固讓太傅、州牧。

5. On the day Wuyin (April 29th), Liu Yu was promoted to Inspector of Yuzhou. He strenuously declined the earlier promotions he had received as Grand Tutor and Governor of Yangzhou.

〈辭去年冬所加也。〉

(These were the promotions he had been granted the previous winter.)


戊寅,加劉裕鎮西將軍、豫州刺史。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Wuyin (April 29th), Liu Yu was promoted to General Who Guards The West and Inspector of Yuzhou.


林邑范胡達寇九眞,杜慧度擊斬之。

6. The King of Lâm Ấp (Linyi), Phạm Hồ Đạt (Bhadravarman), invaded Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen commandary). But Du Huidu attacked Phạm Hồ Đạt and took his head.

林邑范胡達寇九真,交州刺史杜慧度斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Phạm Hồ Đạt (Bhadravarman) of Lâm Ấp (Linyi) invaded Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen commandary). But the Inspector of Jiaozhou, Du Huidu, took his head.


河南王熾磐遣鎭東將軍曇達、平東將軍王松壽將兵東擊休官權小郎、呂破胡於白石川,大破之,虜其男女萬餘口,進據白石城。顯親休官權小成、呂奴迦等二萬餘戶據白阬不服,曇達攻斬之,隴右休官悉降。秦太尉索稜以隴西降熾磐,熾磐以稜爲太傅。

7. Qifu Chipan sent his General Who Guards The East, Qifu Tanda, and his General Who Pacifies The East, Wang Songshou, to lead troops east to attack the Xiuguan tribal leaders Quan Xiaolang and Lü Hu at Baishichuan. He greatly routed them, capturing more than ten thousand of their men and women, before advancing to occupy the city of Baishi. Their kinsmen, Quan Xiaocheng, Lü Nujia, and others, led more than twenty thousand households to occupy Baikeng and refused to submit. But Qifu Tanda attacked them and took their heads. Thus all the Xiuguan tribes of the Longyou region surrendered to Western Qin.

Qin's Grand Commandant, Suo Leng, surrendered the Longxi region to Qifu Chipan, who appointed him as Western Qin's Grand Tutor.

〈七年,秦令索稜守隴西以招撫乞伏。〉

(In the seventh year (411.2), Yao Xing had ordered Suo Leng to guard the Longxi region in order to win the Qifu clan back over to his side.)


義熙九年,遣其龍驤乞伏智達、平東王松壽討吐谷渾樹洛幹於澆河,大破之,獲其將呼那烏提,虜三千餘戶而還。又遣其鎮東曇達與松壽率騎一萬,東討破休官權小郎、呂破胡于白石川,虜其男女萬餘口,進據白石城,休官降者萬餘人。後顯親休官權小成、呂奴迦等叛保白坑,曇達謂將士曰:「昔伯珪憑險,卒有滅宗之禍;韓約肆暴,終受覆族之誅。今小成等逆命白坑,宜在除滅。王者之師,有征無戰,粵爾輿人,戮力勉之!」眾咸拔劍大呼,於是進攻白坑,斬小成、奴迦及首級四千七百,隴右休官悉降。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), Qifu Chipan sent his Dragon-Soaring General, Qifu Zhida, and his General Who Pacifies The East, Wang Songshou, to campaign against the Tuyuhun branch leader Luogan at Huanghe. They greatly routed him, and captured his general Huna Wuti and more than three thousand households before returning.

Qifu Chipan also sent his General Who Guards The East, Qifu Tanda, and Wang Songshou to lead ten thousand cavalry east to campaign against the Xiuguan tribal leaders Quan Xiaolang and Lü Pohu at Baishichuan. They routed them, capturing more than ten thousand of their men and women, before advancing to occupy the city of Baishi, where more than ten thousand of the Xiuguan surrendered to them.

But later, their kinsmen, Quan Xiaocheng, Lü Nujia, and others, rebelled at Baikeng. Qifu Tanda said to his generals and soldiers, "In former times, Bogui (Gongsun Zan) relied upon his defenses, yet in the end he suffered the slaughter of his clan; Han Sui presumed to do as he pleased, yet in the end his whole family was wiped out. Now Quan Xiaocheng and these others are opposing the royal will at Baikeng; they and their clans should be extinguished. Once we lead our royal army against them, we shall defeat them without even fighting a battle. Let all of you do your utmost to overcome them!" His soldiers all drew their swords and shouted, and they advanced and attacked Baikeng. They took the heads of Quan Xiaocheng, Lü Nujia, and others, forty-seven hundred in all. Thus all the Xiuguan tribes of the Longyou region surrendered.


夏王勃勃大赦,改元鳳翔;以叱干阿利領將作大匠,發嶺北夷、夏十萬人築都城於朔方水北、黑水之南。勃勃曰:「朕方統一天下,君臨萬邦,宜名新城曰統萬。」阿利性巧而殘忍,蒸土築城,錐入一寸,卽殺作者而幷築之。勃勃以爲忠,委任之。凡造兵器成,呈之,工人必有死者:射甲不入則斬弓人,入則斬甲匠。又鑄銅爲一大鼓,飛廉、翁仲、銅駝、龍虎之屬,飾以黃金,列於宮殿之前。凡殺工匠數千,由是器物皆精利。

8. Liu Bobo declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Fengxiang. He appointed Chigan Ali as Directing-General of Artisans, and he drafted a hundred thousand people from the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges to build a capital city north of the Shuofang River and south of the Hei River. Liu Bobo declared, "I am about to extend my command (tong) over all the realm and preside as sovereign over the ten thousand (wan) states. Thus I shall name this new city Tongwan." Although Chigan Ali was an ingenious man, he was also ruthless and cruel. He made the walls of the new city with steamed earth, and when testing the walls, if he was able to drive an awl a single cun into them, he would have the workers of that section of the wall killed and the wall rebuilt. But Liu Bobo thought highly of his loyalty, so he entrusted the assignment to him.

Liu Bobo also made his soldiers craft armor and weapons, yet when they presented the new equipment, someone was always bound to be killed; if an arrow could not pierce the armor, then the fletchers would be killed, while if it could pierce the armor, then the armorers would be executed.

Liu Bobo also smelted bronze to make a giant drum, as well versions of the Flying Images, the Bronze Men, the Copper Camels, and dragons and tigers and other such things. He adorned them with gold and arrayed them in front of the palace.

Though these projects caused the deaths of thousands of workers, Liu Bobo's equipment was all of exceptional quality.

〈《水經註》:奢延水又謂之朔方水,源出奢延縣西南赤沙阜,東北流逕奢延縣故城南。赫連於是水之南築統萬城。奢延水又東流,黑水入焉,水出奢延縣黑澗,東南歷沙陵,注奢延水。統萬城唐爲夏州定難節度使治所。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Sheyan River is also called the Shuofang River. It emerges at Chisha Mound in the southwest of Sheyan county, then flows northeast, passing south of the capital city of Sheyan county. The Helian clan built their city of Tongwan south of the river. The Sheyan River then flows further east, where the Hei River flows into it. That river emerges at Hei Ravine in Sheyan county, then flows southeast through Shaling, until it enters the Sheyan River."

During the Tang dynasty, Tongwan was the administrative center of the Military Commissioner (jiedushi) of Dingnan in Xiazhou.)


發領北民夷十萬,於朔方黑渠之界,營起京城。大赦,改龍昇七年為鳳翔元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo drafted a hundred thousand people from the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges to build a capital city between the Shuofang and the Hei Rivers. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title from the seventh year of Longsheng (413) to the first year of Fengxiang.

乃赦其境內,改元為鳳翔,以叱幹阿利領將作大匠,發嶺北夷夏十萬人,于朔方水北、黑水之南營起都城。勃勃自言:「朕方統一天下,君臨萬邦,可以統萬為名。」阿利性尤工巧,然殘忍刻暴,乃蒸土築城,錐入一寸,即殺作者而並築之。勃勃以為忠,故委以營繕之任。又造五兵之器,精銳尤甚。既成呈之,工匠必有死者:射甲不入,即斬弓人;如其入也,便斬鎧匠。又造百練剛刀,為龍雀大環,號曰「大夏龍雀」,銘其背曰:「古之利器,吳、楚湛盧。大夏龍雀,名冠神都。可以懷遠,可以柔逋。如風靡草,威服九區。」世甚珍之。復鑄銅為大鼓,飛廉、翁仲、銅駝、龍獸之屬,皆以黃金飾之,列於宮殿之前。凡殺工匠數千,以是器物莫不精麗。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Fengxiang. He appointed Chigan Ali as acting Directing-General of Artisans, and he drafted a hundred thousand people from the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges to build a capital city north of the Shuofang River and south of the Hei River. Helian Bobo declared, "I am about to extend my command (tong) over all the realm and preside as sovereign over the ten thousand (wan) states. Thus I shall name this new city Tongwan." Although Chigan Ali was an especially ingenious and industrious man, he was also ruthless and cruel. He made the walls of the new city with steamed earth, and when testing the walls, if he was able to drive an awl a single cun into them, he would have the workers of that section of the wall killed and the wall rebuilt. But Helian Bobo thought highly of his loyalty, so he entrusted all the details of the assignment to him.

Helian Bobo also made his soldiers craft armor and weapons, all of exceptional quality. Yet when they presented the new equipment, someone was always bound to be killed; if an arrow could not pierce the armor, then the fletchers would be killed, while if it could pierce the armor, then the armorers would be executed.

Helian Bobo also had them create a specially-forged sturdy blade, with a dragon-sparrow as the great ring. He called this blade the Dragon-Sparrow of Great Xia, and on the reverse side he carved this inscription: "Of weapons made in times of old, from Wu and Chu came deepest black. This Dragon-Sparrow of Great Xia shall surpass all, for peers shall lack. With this, I gain distant regard; by this, new peace bring I to all. Like wind against the bowing grass, all the land to me shall fall." For generations, this blade was highly prized.

Helian Bobo also smelted bronze to make a giant drum, as well versions of the Flying Images, the Bronze Men, the Copper Camels, and dragons and beasts and other such things. He adorned them with gold and arrayed them in front of the palace.

Though these projects caused the deaths of thousands of workers, Helian Bobo's equipment was all of exceptional quality.


勃勃自謂其祖從母姓爲劉,非禮也。古人氏族無常,乃改姓赫連氏,言帝王係天爲子,其徽赫與天連也;其非正統者,皆以鐵伐爲氏,言其剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人也。

9. Liu Bobo felt that, although his ancestors had claimed the lineage of the Liu clan through their maternal line, this was not proper. The ancient clans and families all had uncommon surnames. So he changed his surname to Helian, saying that as a king or emperor is like a son of heaven, he too would be as brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. And he renamed his relatives who were not his immediate family members to the Tiefa clan, saying that they would thus be demonstrating that their resolve was as hard as iron (tie) and they would endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies.

〈《載記》曰:漢高祖以宗女妻單于冒頓,約爲兄弟,故其子孫冒姓劉氏。〉〈勃勃父衞辰本鐵弗氏,故改其非正統者爲鐵伐氏。〉

(The Biography of Helian Bobo in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) gave a woman of his clan in marriage to the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, Maodun, and swore an oath with him like brothers. Thus, Maodun's descendants claimed the surname Liu for themselves.

Helian Bobo's father Liu Weichen had originally come from the Tiefu clan, thus Helian Bobo renamining his non-immediate family members to Tiefa.)


令曰:「朕之皇祖,北遷幽朔,改姓姒氏,後從母為劉氏。從母姓,非禮也。古之氏族無常,王者繫天為子,是為徽。赫實與天連,今改姓曰赫連氏,庶協皇天之意。支庶非正統者,以鐵伐為氏。庶朕宗族子孫剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo issued a decree stating, "My imperial ancestors moved north into the distant regions, where they changed their surnames to the Si clan. Later, they followed the matrilineal line by changing their surname to Liu. But to follow the matrilineal line in this fashion goes against propriety. The ancient clans and families all had uncommon surnames, and the kings saw themselves as the sons of Heaven, as a sign of their glory. Truly they were as brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. Thus I now change my own surname to Helian, to distinguish myself as receiving Heaven's aid. And I designate those of my relatives who are not my immediate family members as the Tiefa clan. For my clan members have resolve as hard as iron (tie), and they may endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies."

屈孑耻姓鐵弗,遂改為赫連氏,自云徽赫與天連;又號其支庶為鐵伐氏,云其宗族剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) felt ashamed of his clan's surname, Tiefu. So he changed his surname to Helian, saying that this signified that he was as brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. And he renamed his relatives who were not his immediate family members to the Tiefa clan, saying that his clansmen had resolves as hard as iron (tie) and they could endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies.

其年,下書曰:「朕之皇祖,自北遷幽、朔,姓改姒氏,音殊中國,故從母氏為劉。子而從母之姓,非禮也。古人氏族無常,或以因生為氏,或以王父之名。朕將以義易之。帝王者,系天為子,是為徽赫實與天連,今改姓曰赫連氏,庶協皇天之意,永享無疆大慶。系天之尊,不可令支庶同之,其非正統,皆以鐵伐為氏,庶朕宗族子孫剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人。」(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

The same year, Helian Bobo issued a decree stating, "My imperial ancestors moved north into the regions of Youzhou and Shuofang, where they changed their surnames to the Si clan. When their language proved too different from that of the Middle Kingdoms, they followed the matrilineal line by changing their surname to Liu. But for a son to take the surname of his mother goes against propriety. The ancient clans and families all had uncommon surnames: some by their place of birth, others by the names of their royal fathers. Thus would it be proper for me to exchange my surname for another. Kings and emperors saw themselves as the sons of Heaven, as a sign of their glory, brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. Thus I now change my own surname to Helian, to distinguish myself as receiving Heaven's aid and my enjoyment of an endless and boundless cause for celebration. But those who are so honored by Heaven may not extend beyond my own kin. So I designate those of my relatives who are not my immediate family members as the Tiefa clan. For my clan members have resolve as hard as iron (tie), and they may endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies."


夏,四月,乙卯,魏主嗣西巡,命鄭兵將軍奚斤、鴻飛將軍尉古眞、都將閭大肥等擊越勤部於跋那山。大肥,柔然人也。

10. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yimao (June 5th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on a western patrol.

The General of Zheng Troops (or, the General of the Capital Regiment), Xi Jin, the General of Swan Flight, Yu Guzhen, the General of the Capital, Lü Dafei, and others attacked the forces of the Yuezhen at Mount Bana. This Lü Dafei was of the Rouran people.

〈「鄭兵」,《北史》作「都兵」。〉〈鴻飛將軍,拓跋氏所創置。柔然姓郁久閭氏,今曰閭,從省便也。跋那山蓋在廣寧郡之塞外。〉

(The Northern Histories records Xi Jin's rank at this time as "General of the Capital Regiment" rather than "General of Zheng Troops".

General of Swan Flight was a title created by the Tuoba clan.

The surname of the Rouran people was Yujiulü; Lü Dafei must have had this surname shortened to Lü.

Mount Bana must have been beyond the borders of the realm at Guangning commandary.)


夏四月,河東民薛相率部內屬。乙巳,上黨民勞聰、士臻羣聚為盜,殺太守令長,相率外奔。乙卯,車駕西巡,詔前軍奚斤等先行,討越勤部於跋那山。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fourth month, a native of Hedong commandary, Xue Xiang, led his forces to settle in Northern Wei.

On the day Yisi (May 26th), two natives of Shangdang commandary, Lao Xong and Shi Zhen, gathered an army of bandits. They killed the local Administrators, Prefects, and Chiefs, then led each other to run away.

On the day Yimao (June 5th), Emperor Mingyuan went on a western patrol. He sent the Front General, Xi Jin, and others on ahead, and they campaigned against the forces of the Yuezhen at Mount Bana.


河南王熾磐遣安北將軍烏地延、冠軍將軍翟紹擊吐谷渾別統句旁于泣勤川,大破之。

11. Qifu Chipan sent his General Who Maintains The North, Wu Diyan, and his Champion General, Zhai Shao, to attack the Tuyuhun branch leader Gou Pang at Qiqinchuan (or Jingleichuan), and they greatly routed him.

〈【張:「泣勤」作「涇勒」。】〉〈別統,猶別帥也,別統部落者也。〉

(Some versions write the name of this battlefield as 涇勒 Jinglei rather than 泣勤 Qiqin.

By "branch" leader, it means that Gou Pang was the leader of a separate group, not the main forces of the Tuyuhun people.)


遣安北烏地延、冠軍翟紹討吐谷渾別統句旁於泣勤川,大破之,俘獲甚眾。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent his General Who Maintains The North, Wu Diyan, and his Champion General, Zhai Shao, to campaign against the Tuyuhun branch leader Gou Pang at Qiqinchuan, and they greatly routed him, capturing much of his army.


河西王蒙遜立子政德爲世子,加鎭衞大將軍、錄尚書事。

12. Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Zhengde as his heir, as well as promoting him to Grand Guardian General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

三年四月,立子德政為世子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 9, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

In the third year of Zhengshi (414), the fourth month, Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Dezheng as his heir.

立其子政德為世子,加鎮衛大將軍、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Zhengde as his heir, as well as promoting him to Grand Guardian General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.


南涼王傉檀伐河西王蒙遜,蒙遜敗之於若厚塢,又敗之於若涼;因進圍樂都,二旬不克。南涼湟河太守文支以郡降于蒙遜,蒙遜以文支爲廣武太守。蒙遜復伐南涼,傉檀以太尉俱延爲質,乃還。

13. Tufa Nutan campaigned against Juqu Mengxun. But Juqu Mengxun defeated him at Fort Ruohou, then again at Ruoliang. Juqu Mengxun then advanced to besiege Ledu, but even after twenty days he could not take the city. But then Tufa Nutan's Administrator of Huanghe, Tufa Wenzhi, surrendered that commandary to Juqu Mengxun, who appointed him as his own Administrator of Guangwu. Juqu Mengxun then launched another campaign against Southern Liang, but after Tufa Nutan handed over his Grand Commandant, Tufa Juyan, as a hostage, Juqu Mengxun withdrew.

久之,遣安西紇勃耀兵西境。蒙遜侵西平,徙戶掠牛馬而還。邯川護軍孟愷表鎮南、湟河太守文支荒酒愎諫,不血阝政事。傉檀謂伊力延曰:「今州土傾覆,所杖者文支而已,將若之何?」延曰:「宜召而訓之,使改往修來。」傉檀乃召文支,既到,讓之曰:「二兄英姿早世,吾以不才嗣統,不能負荷大業,顛狽如是,胡顏視世,雖存若隕。庶憑子鮮存衛,藉文種復吳,卿之謂也。聞卿唯酒是耽,荒廢庶事。吾年已老,卿復若斯,祖宗之業將誰寄也。」文支頓首陳謝。邯川人衛章等謀殺孟愷,南啟乞伏熾磐。郭越止之曰:「孟尹寬以惠下,何罪而殺之!吾寧違眾而死,不負君以生。」乃密告之愷,誘章等飲酒,殺四十餘人。愷懼熾磐軍之至,馳告文支,文支遣將軍匹珍赴之。熾磐軍到城,聞珍將至,引歸。蒙遜又攻樂都,二旬不克而還。鎮南文支以湟河降蒙遜,徙五千餘戶于姑臧。蒙遜又來伐,傉檀以太尉俱延為質,蒙遜乃引還。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Sometime later, Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Maintains The West, He Bo, to make a show of troops at the western border. Juqu Mengxun raided Xiping and relocated people there and plundered cattle and horses before withdrawing.

The Protector-General of Hanchuan, Meng Kai, submitted a petition stating that the General Who Guards The South and Administrator of Huanghe, Tufa Wenzhi, was indulging in drunk, ignoring criticisms, and neglecting affairs of state. Tufa Nutan mentioned the issue to Yili Yan, saying, "Considering the sorry state our province is in, I can't do without Tufa Wenzhi. So what should I do about him?"

Yili Yan replied, "You should summon him and instruct him on his mistakes, then send him back out to rectify his behavior."

So Tufa Nutan summoned Tufa Wenzhi, and when Tufa Wenzhi arrived, Tufa Nutan berated him, saying, "My second-eldest brother (Tufa Lilugu) was a true hero, but he died before his time. Though I lacked talents myself, I was compelled to succeed him. Yet the strain lies on me like a heavy burden; I can see the end approaching, and though alive, I feel near death. I had been hoping to rely upon you, just as Zixian preserved the Duke of Wey and Wen Zhong restored Goujian from his exile in Wu. But I hear you have only been indulging in wine and paid your duties no mind. I am already this old. If you continue to act like this, the enterprise of our ancestors will have no one to depend upon."

Tufa Wenzhi kowtowed and apologized.

Natives of Hanchuan, Wei Zhang and others, plotted to kill Meng Kai and then invite Qifu Chipan to march north to capture the city. But one of them, Guo Yue, stopped and said to himself, "Intendant Meng has been generous and kind to his subordinates, and what crime has he committed that deserves death? I would rather oppose the others even at the cost of my own life than save myself by betraying such a master." So he secretly informed Meng Kai of the plot, and he enticed Guo Yue and the other plotters into getting drunk and then killed them, more than forty people. Meng Kai, afraid of Qifu Chipan's army, quickly sent word to Tufa Wenzhi, who sent the general Pi Zhen to reinforce Hanchuan. Qifu Chipan's army had reached the city, but when they heard that Pi Zhen was about to arrive, they withdrew.

Juqu Mengxun once again attacked Ledu, but even after twenty days he could not take the city, so he withdrew. But then Tufa Wenzhi surrendered Huanghe commandary to Juqu Mengxun, who relocated more than five thousand households to Guzang. Juqu Mengxun then launched another campaign against Southern Liang, but after Tufa Nutan handed over his Grand Commandant, Tufa Juyan, as a hostage, Juqu Mengxun withdrew.

傉檀來伐,蒙遜敗之於若厚塢。傉檀湟河太守文支據湟川,護軍成宜侯率眾降之。署文支鎮東大將軍、廣武太守、振武侯,成宜侯為振威將軍、湟川太守,以殿中將軍王建為湟河太守。蒙遜下書曰:「古先哲王應期撥亂者,莫不經略八表,然後光闡純風。孤雖智非靖難,職在濟時,而狡虜傉檀鴟峙舊京,毒加夷夏。東苑之戮,酷甚長平,邊城之禍,害深獫狁。每念蒼生之無辜,是以不遑啟處,身疲甲胄,體倦風塵。雖傾其巢穴,傉檀猶未授首。傉檀弟文支追項伯歸漢之義,據彼重籓,請為臣妾。自西平已南,連城繼順。惟傉檀窮獸,守死樂都。四支既落,命豈久全!五緯之會已應,清一之期無賒,方散馬金山,黎元永逸。可露布遠近,咸使聞知。」(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Tufa Nutan came to campaign against Juqu Mengxun, but Juqu Mengxun defeated him at Fort Ruohou. Tufa Nutan's Administrator of Huanghe, Tufa Wenzhi, occupied Huangchuan, and his Protector-General, Cheng Yihou, led his troops to surrender to Juqu Mengxun. Juqu Mengxun appointed Tufa Wenzhi as his Grand General Who Guards The East, Administrator of Guangwu, and Marquis of Zhenwu, and he appointed Cheng Yihou as his General Who Arouses Might and Administrator of Huangchuan. He also appointed the General of the Palace Halls, Wang Jian, as his Administrator of Huanghe.

Juqu Mengxun sent out a decree stating, "There were no sage kings of old, those fellows who heeded the times and quelled the chaos, who did not first bring together all the land and afterwards illuminate and explain good and pure culture. Now I myself may lack the wisdom to bring tranquility to our troubled times and guide the state back to an age of peace, but Tufa Nutan is an outright villain, a cunning owl who was perched at the old capital (Guzang), spreading his poison among the tribal peoples and the Xia (ethnic Han). His purge of the residents at the eastern Yuancheng there was more savage than the slaughter after the ancient battle of Changping, and the plight of the border cities has been to suffer worse depredations than those inflicted by the Xianrun people of old. I often think of the misery of the common people; they are given no place of repose, but must constantly wear armor and helmets and suffer from the wind and dust.

"Although I have flushed Tufa Nutan out of his lair, he has not yet bowed his head in submission. Yet his younger brother Tufa Wenzhi has recognized that right is on our side and submitted to me by occupying one of the enemy's critical border posts and asking to serve as my subject, just as in former times, Xiang Bo recognized the righteousness of the Han dynasty and submitted to them, although he was the uncle of their sworn enemy Xiang Yu. By now, all the cities from Xiping south have successively bowed in submission to me. Tufa Nutan himself is now no more than an exhausted beast, holding onto Ledu for dear life. Yet with the four branches of his state having already fallen, how much longer can he endure?

"The fabric of the state has almost been restored, and its ultimate unification cannot be delayed. I am now distributing horses and sending out gold in order to grant the common people a place of refuge. Let this decree be posted near and far, so that everyone may hear and know of this."


蒙遜西如苕藋,遣冠軍將軍伏恩將騎一萬襲卑和、烏啼二部,大破之,浮二千餘落而還。

14. Juqu Mengxun travelled west to Shaodiao. He sent his Champion General, Fu En, to lead ten thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against the Beihe and Wuti peoples. Fu En greatly routed them and captured more than twenty thousand of their encampments before returning.

〈漢有卑和羌,居鮮水海。〉

(The Beihe were a branch of the Qiang. They had been known during Han times, when they resided at the Xianshui Sea.)


蒙遜西如苕藋,遣冠軍伏恩率騎一萬襲卑和、烏啼二虜,大破之,俘二千餘落而還。(Book of JIn 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun travelled west to Shaodiao. He sent his Champion General, Fu En, to lead ten thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against the Beihe and Wuti peoples. Fu En greatly routed them and captured more than twenty thousand of their encampments before returning.


蒙遜寢于新臺,閹人王懷祖擊蒙遜傷足,其妻孟氏禽斬之。

15. While Juqu Mengxun was sleeping at Xintai, the eunuch Wang Huaizu attacked him and injured his foot. Juqu Mengxun's wife Lady Meng caught Wang Huaizu and beheaded him.

蒙遜寢於新臺,閹人王懷祖斫蒙遜傷足,蒙遜妻孟氏擒懷祖斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

While Juqu Mengxun was sleeping at Xintai, the eunuch Wang Huaizu attacked him and injured his foot. Juqu Mengxun's wife Lady Meng caught Wang Huaizu and beheaded him.

蒙遜寢於新台,閹人王懷祖擊蒙遜,傷足,其妻孟氏擒斬之,夷其三族。(Book of Ji 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

While Juqu Mengxun was sleeping at Xintai, the eunuch Wang Huaizu attacked him and injured his foot. Juqu Mengxun's wife Lady Meng caught Wang Huaizu and beheaded him, and his clan was exterminated to the third degree.


蒙遜母車氏卒。

16. Juqu Mengxun's mother Lady Che passed away.

蒙遜母車氏疾篤,蒙遜升南景門,散錢以賜百姓。下書曰:「孤庶憑宗廟之靈,乾坤之祐,濟否剝之運會,拯遺黎之荼蓼,上望掃清氣穢,下冀保寧家福。而太后不豫,涉歲彌增,將刑獄枉濫,眾有怨乎?賦役繁重,時不堪乎?群望不絜,神所譴乎?內省諸身,未知罪之攸在。可大赦殊死已下。」俄而車氏死。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun's mother Lady Che was seriously ill. Juqu Mengxun ascended the Nanjing Gate and distributed money as gifts among the common people, and he sent out a decree stating, "Up until now, I have relied upon the spirits of my ancestors and the assistance of the divine, seeking to resolve the imbalances of the times and clear away the weeds binding the people; above, I hoped to sweep clean and purify the land of miasma, and below, I wished to protect and preserve the blessings of my family. Yet now the Queen Dowager is indisposed, and has been getting worse each year. Have I been severe and excessive in my administration of justice, and thus stirred the people to anger against me? Have I demanded excessive taxes and corvee labor, more than the times could bear? Were my wishes impure, and now the spirits seek to condemn me? Though I have examined myself, I know not what my crime is, or how I should reform. Thus I declare a general amnesty, from those sentenced to death on down." But not long afterwards, Lady Che passed away.


五月,乙亥,魏主嗣如雲中舊宮。丙子,大赦。西河胡張外等聚衆爲盜;乙卯,嗣遣會稽公長樂劉絜等屯西河招討之。六月,嗣如五原。

17. In the fifth month, on the day Yihai (June 25th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the old palace at Yunzhong. On the day Bingzi (June 26th), he declared a general amnesty.

A tribal leader from Xihe commandary, Zhang Wai, and others gathered an army of bandits. On the day Yimao (?), Emperor Mingyuan sent the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie of Zhangle commandary, and others to camp at Xihe to entice some of the malcontents to submit and campaign against the rest.

In the sixth month, Emperor Mingyuan went to Wuyuan.

〈唐單于都護府領金河一縣,秦、漢之雲中也。《新書》云:金河本後魏道武所都。〉〈按乙亥至丙子幾四十日,五月無乙卯明矣,恐是己卯。〉

(During the Tang dynasty, their Capital Chanyu Protective Garrison was within Jinhe county, the same region as Yunzhong during the Qin and Han dynasties. The New Book of Tang states, "Jinhe was originally the capital of Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei (Tuoba Gui)."

Considering that Yihai and Bingzi would have been around the fortieth day of the sixty-day cycle, the fifth month clearly could not have also contained a Yimao day. I (Hu Sanxing) suspect that what is here written as 乙卯 Yimao should really be 己卯 Jimao (or June 29th).)


夏五月乙亥,行幸雲中舊宮之大室。丙子,大赦天下。西河張外、建興王紹,自以所犯罪重,不敢解散。庚戌,遣元城侯元屈等率眾三千鎮并州。乙卯,詔會稽公劉潔、永安侯魏勤等率眾三千鎮西河。六月,西幸五原,校獵于骨羅山,獲獸十萬。濩澤劉逸自號征東將軍、三巴王,王紹為署置官屬,攻逼建興郡。元屈等討平之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fifth month, on the day Yihai (June 25th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the old palace at Dashi in Yunzhong. On the day Bingzi (June 26th), he declared a general amnesty.

Zhang Wai of Xihe commandary and Wang Shao of Jianxing commandary led an army of those convicted of serious crimes who did not dare to scatter or disperse. On the day Gengxu (?), Emperor Mingyuan sent the Marquis of Yuancheng, Tuoba Qu, and others to lead three thousand soldiers to garrison Bingzhou, and on the day Yimao (?), he sent the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie, the Marquis of Yong'an, Wei Qin, and others to lead another three thousand soldiers to garrison Xihe.

In the sixth month, Emperor Mingyuan went west to Wuyuan. He held a great hunt at Mount Guluo, where a hundred thousand beasts were captured.

Liu Yi of Huoze declared himself General Who Conquers The East and King of the Three Bas. Wang Shao declared himself Liu Yi's subordinate, and he attacked and threatened Jianxing commandary. But Tuoba Qu and the others campaigned against these rebels and pacified them.


朱齡石等至白帝發函書,曰:「衆軍悉從外水取成都,臧熹從中水取廣漢,老弱乘高艦十餘,從內水向黃虎。」於是諸軍倍道兼行。譙縱果命譙道福將重兵鎭涪城,以備內水。

18. In Jin, when Zhu Lingshi and the other generals reached Baidi, they opened the envelope which Liu Yu had left with Zhu Lingshi. The message stated, "Send the whole army along the outer river route to capture Chengdu. Zang Xi shall march along the inner river route to capture Guanghan, while the old and weak soldiers will steer more than ten boats along the inner river route towards Huanghu."

So the Jin generals quickened their march along every route. And as predicted, Qiao Zong ordered Qiao Daofu to lead a large army to guard Fucheng in order to protect the inner river route.

〈《水經註》:洛水出洛縣章山南,逕洛縣故城南,廣漢郡治也,又南逕新都縣與緜水合,又與湔水合,亦謂之郫江,又逕犍爲牛鞞水,又東逕資中縣,謂之緜水。緜水至江陽縣方山下入江,謂之緜水口,曰中水。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Luo River emerges from south of Mount Zhang in Luo county. It passes south of the capital city of Luo county, which is the administrative center of Guanghan commandary, then flows south through Xindu county until it joins with the Mian River, as well as the Jian River, also called the Pijiang. The Luo River then flows into the Niubing River in Jianwei commandary, then flows further east into Zhizhong county, where it is called the Mian River. The Mian River flows until the base of Mount Fang in Jiangyang county, where it enters the Yangzi, at the place called Mianshuikou ('Mouth of the Mian River'). This is what is known as the inner river.")


齡石次於白帝,縱遣譙道福重兵守涪。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

When Zhu Lingshi advanced to Baidi, Qiao Zong sent Qiao Daofu to lead a large army to guard Fu.


齡石至平模,去成都二百里;縱遣秦州刺史侯暉、尚書僕射譙詵帥衆萬餘屯平模,夾岸築城以拒之。齡石謂劉鍾曰:「今天時盛熱,而賊嚴兵固險,攻之未必可拔,祗增疲困;且欲養銳息兵以伺其隙,何如?」鍾曰:「不然。前揚聲言大衆向內水,譙道福不敢捨涪城。今重軍猝至,出其不意,侯暉之徒已破膽矣。賊阻兵守險者,是其懼不敢戰也。因其兇懼,盡銳攻之,其勢必克。克平模之後,自可鼓行而進,成都必不能守矣。若緩兵相守,彼將知人虛實。涪軍忽來,幷力拒我,人情旣安,良將又集,此求戰不獲,軍食無資,二萬餘人悉爲蜀子虜矣。」齡石從之。

19. Zhu Lingshi arrived at Pingmo, two hundred li from Chengdu. Qiao Zong sent his Inspector of Qinzhou, Hou Hui, and his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Qiao Shen, to lead more than ten thousand troops to camp at Pingmo and build forts along the banks of the river to oppose the Jin army.

Zhu Lingshi said to his fellow general Liu Zhong, "We are now in the high heat of summer, and the rebel troops are occupying this sturdy terrain. If we attack them, we cannot be sure of dislodging them, and any contest of strength will only make the soldiers suffer all the more. Perhaps we should reserve our strength and rest our troops, while waiting to see if any opening presents itself. What do you think?"

Liu Zhong replied, "The situation is not as you suppose. We made such a fuss earlier about sending our main army along the inner river route that Qiao Daofu would not dare to abandon his position at Fucheng. Now that we have suddenly arrived at this place with a large body of troops, appearing where the enemy did not expect us, Hou Hui and his ilk have surely already lost their nerve. The reason why the rebels are posting troops and holding fast to the natural terrain here is exactly because they do not dare to actually fight us. And because of that fear and trembling, if we smite them with full force, their power will definitely shatter. Once we take Pingmo, we need only beat the drums and advance, and Chengdu will definitely fall before us.

"But if we hold back our troops and remain on the defensive as well, then the enemy will soon realize where our real strength is. Then Qiao Daofu will march from Fu at once to combine his forces with the enemy here. Once the rebels feel secure and have a good commander at their head, we will no longer be able to defeat them, nor will we be able to sustain our supplies. Then this army, more than twenty thousand strong, would become the prisoners of these Shu whelps."

Zhu Lingshi heeded his advice.

〈良將謂譙道福。〉

(By "a good commander", Liu Zhong meant Qiao Daofu.)


齡石師次平模,去成都二百里,縱遣其大將軍侯暉、尚書僕射譙詵屯平模,夾岸連城,層樓重柵,眾未能攻。齡石謂劉鐘曰:「天方暑熱,賊今固險,攻之難拔,只困我師。吾欲蓄銳息兵,伺隙而進,卿以為何如?」鐘曰:「不然。前揚聲言大將由內水,故道福不敢舍涪,今重軍逼之,出其不意,侯暉之徒已破膽矣。正可因其凶而攻之,勢當必克。克平模之後,自可鼓行而前,成都必不能守。若綏兵相持,虛實相見,涪軍復來,難為敵也。進不能戰,退無所資,二萬餘人因為蜀子虜耳。」從之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

Zhu Lingshi marched to Pingmo, two hundred li from Chengdu. Qiao Zong sent his Grand General, Hou Hui, and his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Qiao Shen, to camp at Pingmo and build forts on either side of the banks of the river; they built tall towers and heavy ramparts, and the Jin army could not attack them.

Zhu Lingshi said to his fellow general Liu Zhong, "We are now in the high heat of summer, and the rebel troops are occupying this sturdy terrain. If we attack them, it would be hard to dislodge them, and we would only be exhausting our soldiers. I want to reserve our strength and rest our troops, while waiting to see if any opening presents itself before we advance. What do you think?"

Liu Zhong replied, "The situation is not as you suppose. We made such a fuss earlier about sending our main army along the inner river route that Qiao Daofu would not dare to abandon his position at Fu. Now that we have suddenly arrived at this place with a large body of troops, appearing where the enemy did not expect us, Hou Hui and his ilk have surely already lost their nerve. If we take advantage of their fear and attack them, their power will definitely shatter. Once we take Pingmo, we need only beat the drums and advance, and Chengdu will definitely fall before us.

"But if we hold back our troops and remain at a stalemate, then the enemy will soon realize where our real strength is. Then the army at Fu will come here, and it will be hard for us to be a match for them. If we try to advance, we won't able to fight them, while if we try to retreat, we won't be able to sustain our supplies. Then this army, more than twenty thousand strong, would become the prisoners of these Shu whelps."

Zhu Lingshi heeded his advice.


諸將以水北城地險兵多,欲先攻其南城,齡石曰:「今屠南城,不足以破北,若盡銳以拔北城,則南城不麾自散矣。」秋,七月,齡石帥諸軍急攻北城,克之,斬侯暉、譙詵;引兵廻趣南城,南城自潰。齡石捨船步進;譙縱大將譙撫之屯牛脾,譙小苟塞打鼻。臧熹擊撫之,斬之,小苟聞之,亦潰。於是縱諸營屯望風相次奔潰。

20. The Jin generals felt that, since the rebel fort on the north side of the river had better natural defenses and was guarded by more troops, they should first attack the fort on the south side. But Zhu Lingshi told them, "Even if we butchered the southern fort, that would not be enough for us to smash the northern fort. But if we devote all we have to taking the northern fort, then the southern fort will scatter all on its own."

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhu Lingshi led his generals to fiercely assault the northern fort. They captured the fort, and took the heads of Hou Hui and Qiao Shen. Then they led their troops to turn towards the southern fort, whose soldiers scattered.

Zhu Lingshi now left his ships behind and advanced on foot. Qiao Zong's great general Qiao Fuzhi was camped at Niupi (or Niubing), while Qiao Xiaogou was guarding Dabi. Zang Xi attacked Qiao Fuzhi and took his head, and when Qiao Xiaogou heard this, he also scattered.

After this, Qiao Zong's various garrisons all realized the hopelessness of their situation and scattered and fled one after the other.

〈「牛脾」,當作「牛鞞」。孟康曰:鞞,音髀。師古曰:音必爾翻。牛鞞縣自漢以來屬犍爲郡。何承天曰:晉穆帝度屬蜀郡。今簡州西岸有古牛鞞戍城。〉〈打鼻山在今眉州彭山縣南十餘里,山形孤起,東臨江水。俗云:昔周鼎淪於此,或見其鼻,故名。〉

(In this passage, 牛脾 Niupi should be 牛鞞 Niubing. Meng Kang remarked, "鞞 is pronounced 'bi'"; Yan Shigu remarked, "It is pronounced 'bi (b-er)'". Ever since the Han dynasty, Niubing county had been part of Jianwei commandary. He Chengtian remarked, "Emperor Mu of Jin established it as part of Shu commandary." The old campsite of the city of Niubing is on the west bank of the river at modern Jianzhou.

Mount Dabi is more than ten li south of Pengshan county in modern Meizhou. The mountain is shaped like a lonely rise, and the Yangzi runs to the east of it. It is commonly said that the old Nine Tripods of the Zhou dynasty were lost at this place, and some people claimed to have seen their tips or noses here, thus the name Dabi ("Great Nose").)


翌日,進攻皆克,斬侯暉等,於是遂進。縱之城守者相次瓦解。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

The next day, the Jin army advanced, attacked, and captured the rebel forts. They took the heads of Hou Hui and the others, then pressed their advance. Qiao Zong's various cities and garrisons crumbled one after the other.


戊辰,縱棄成都出走,尚書令馬耽封府庫以待晉師。壬申,齡石入成都,誅縱同祖之親,餘皆按堵,使復其業。縱出成都,先辭墓,其女曰:「走必不免,祗取辱焉;等死,死於先人之墓可也。」縱不從。譙道福聞平模不守,自涪引兵入赴,縱往投之。道福見縱,怒曰:「大丈夫有如此功業而棄之,將安歸乎!人誰不死,何怯之甚也!」因投縱以劍,中其馬鞍。縱乃去,自縊死,巴西人王志斬其首以送齡石。道福謂其衆曰:「蜀之存亡,實係於我,不在譙王,今我在,猶足一戰。」衆皆許諾;道福盡散金帛以賜衆,衆受之而走。道福逃於獠中,巴民杜瑾執送之,斬于軍門。齡石徙馬耽於越巂,耽謂其徒曰:「朱侯不送我京師,欲滅口也,吾必不免。」乃盥洗而臥,引繩而死。須臾,齡石使至,戮其尸。詔以齡石進監梁、秦州六郡諸軍事,賜爵豐城縣侯。

21. On the day Wuchen (August 17th), Qiao Zong abandoned Chengdu and fled. His Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dan, sealed up the city arsenal and warehouses and waited for the arrival of the Jin army.

On the day Renshen (August 21st), Zhu Lingshi entered Chengdu. He executed all members of the Qiao clan who were descendants of Qiao Zong's grandfather, but all the other rebels were pardoned and ordered to return to their former livelihoods.

When Qiao Zong fled Chengdu, he paused to pay his respects at the tombs of his ancestors. At that time, his daughter told him, "Run if you like, but there is no escape. We shall be shamed in the end. Since we are going to die anyway, we may as well die here, at the graves of our ancestors." But Qiao Zong did not listen to her.

When Qiao Daofu heard that Pingmo had fallen, he marched his troops from Fu to stop the Jin army. Along the way, Qiao Zong arrived and sought refuge with him. But when Qiao Daofu saw him, he angrily said, "How could a real man, having achieved so much, have cast it all away like you have? Do you think there is any refuge for you? What man does not die? How then could you be such a coward?" And he threw his sword at Qiao Zong, which embedded itself in Qiao Zong's horse's saddle. Qiao Zong ran off, but in the end he hanged himself. A native of Baxi commandary, Wang Zhi, cut off his head and sent it to Zhu Lingshi.

Qiao Daofu said to his soldiers, "The salvation or doom of Shu now depends on us. Even without King Qiao, so long as we are here, we can still fight one last battle." The soldiers agreed to support him, and Qiao Daofu distributed all his gold and silks among them. But after taking these rewards, the soldiers all fled. Qiao Daofu then tried to hide among the Lao people, but a native of Ba commandary, Du Jin, captured him and sent him to the Jin army, who beheaded him at the camp gate.

Zhu Lingshi ordered Ma Dan to be exiled to Yuegui commandary. Ma Dan told his followers, "Marquis Zhu is sending me to Yuegui instead of the capital because he wants to shut me up. My fate is already sealed." So he washed his face and hands, then lay down and strangled himself to death. No sooner had he died then Zhu Lingshi's agents arrived, who beheaded his body.

The court issued an edict appointing Zhu Lingshi as Chief of military affairs in six commandaries of Lianzhou and Qinzhou and as Marquis of Fengcheng county.

〈義熙元年,譙縱據蜀,九年而滅。〉〈嶲,音髓。〉〈謂齡石多取庫物,殺耽以滅口。〉

(Qiao Zong had occupied the Shu region and founded Western Shu in the first year of Yixi (405). It had lasted for nine years, then perished.

The second character of Yuegui, 嶲, is pronounced "sui".

Ma Dan was saying that Zhu Lingshi wanted to silence him because Zhu Lingshi had taken many things from the arsenal and warehouses.)


秋七月,朱齡石克成都,斬譙縱,益州平。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhu Lingshi captured Chengdu and took the head of Qiao Zong. Yizhou was thus pacified.

縱乃出奔。其尚書令馬耽封倉庫以待王師。及齡石入成都,誅縱同祖之親,餘皆安堵,使復其業。縱之走也,先如其墓,縱女謂縱曰:「走必不免,只取辱焉。等死,死于先人之墓可也。」縱不從,投道福於涪。道福怒謂縱曰:「大丈夫居如斯功業,安可棄哉!今欲為降虜,豈可而得!人誰不死,何懼之甚!」因投縱以劍,中其馬鞍。縱去之,乃自縊。道福謂其徒曰:「吾養爾等,正為今日。蜀之存亡,實系在我,不在譙王。我尚在,猶足一戰。」士咸許諾。乃散金帛以賜其眾,眾受之而走。道福獨奔廣漢,廣漢人杜瑾執之。硃齡石徙馬耽於越巂,追殺之。耽之徙也,謂其徒曰:「硃侯不送我京師,滅眾口也,吾必不免。」乃盥洗而臥,引繩而死。須臾,齡石師至,遂戮屍焉。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

Qiao Zong too ran away. His Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dan, sealed up the city arsenal and warehouses and waited for the arrival of the Jin army.

When Zhu Lingshi entered Chengdu, he executed all members of the Qiao clan who were descendants of Qiao Zong's grandfather, but all the other rebels were pardoned and ordered to return to their former livelihoods.

When Qiao Zong fled, he paused to pay his respects at the tombs of his ancestors. At that time, his daughter told him, "Run if you like, but there is no escape. We shall be shamed in the end. Since we are going to die anyway, we may as well die here, at the graves of our ancestors." But Qiao Zong did not listen to her.

Qiao Zong sought refuge with Qiao Daofu at Fu. But when Qiao Daofu saw him, he angrily said, "How could a real man, having achieved so much, have cast it all away like you have? Don't think there's any chance of saving your life by becoming a prisoner or surrendering! What man does not die? How then could you be such a coward?" And he threw his sword at Qiao Zong, which embedded itself in Qiao Zong's horse's saddle. Qiao Zong ran off, but in the end he hanged himself.

Qiao Daofu said to his soldiers, "Soldiers, I trained and raised you all for just such a day as this. The salvation or doom of Shu now depends on us. Even without King Qiao, so long as we are here, we can still fight one last battle." The soldiers agreed to support him, and Qiao Daofu distributed all his gold and silks among them. But after taking these rewards, the soldiers all fled. Qiao Daofu then tried to hide in Guanghan commandary, but a native there, Du Jin, captured him.

Zhu Lingshi ordered Ma Dan to be exiled to Yuegui commandary, then sent agents to pursue and kill him. Ma Dan told his followers, "Marquis Zhu is sending me to Yuegui instead of the capital because he wants to shut me up. My fate is already sealed." So he washed his face and hands, then lay down and strangled himself to death. No sooner had he died then Zhu Lingshi's agents arrived, who beheaded his body.


魏奚斤等破越勤於跋那山西,徙二萬餘家於大寧。

22. In Wei, Xi Jin and others routed the Yueqin west of Mount Bana. They relocated more than twenty thousand families to Daning.

秋七月己巳,還幸薄山。帝登觀太祖遊幸刻石頌德之處,乃於其旁起石壇而薦饗焉。賜從者大酺於山下。奚斤等破越勤倍泥部落於跋那山西,獲馬五萬匹,牛二十萬頭,徙二萬餘家於大寧,計口受田。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jisi (August 18th), Emperor Mingyuan returned and visited Mount Bao. Upon scaling the mountain and seeing the stone stele there which Tuoba Gui had earlier left at that place, extolling his own virtues, Emperor Mingyuan raised a stone altar beside the stele and offered sacrifices. He distributed rewards to his followers at a great feast below the mountain.

Xi Jin and others routed the forces of the Yueqin and Beini west of Mount Bana. They captured fifty thousand horses and two hundred thousand cattle, and they relocated more than twenty thousand families to Daning, where their population was recorded and farmland distributed among them.


河西胡曹龍等擁部衆二萬人來入蒲子,張外降之,推龍爲大單于。

23. A tribal leader from Hexi commandary, Cao Long, and others gathered together their forces, twenty thousand strong, and marched into Puzi. Zhang Wai submitted to them and acclaimed Cao Long as Grand Chanyu.

河西胡曹龍、張大頭等,各領部,擁眾二萬人,來入蒲子,逼脅張外於研子壘。外懼,給以牛酒,殺馬盟誓,推龍為大單于,奉美女良馬於龍。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Tribal leaders from Hexi commandary, Cao Long, Zhang Datou, and others, all gathered together their forces, twenty thousand strong, and marched into Puzi, where they threatened Zhang Wai at Yanzi Rampart. Afraid, Zhang Wai offered them oxen and wine, and he killed a horse as a symbol of swearing an oath between them; he acclaimed Cao Long as Grand Chanyu and presented beautiful women and fine horses to him.


丙戌,魏主嗣如定襄大洛城。

24. On the day Bingxu (September 4th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the city of Daluo in Dingxiang commandary.

〈二《漢志》:定襄郡有駱縣。〉

(According to the Book of Han and Book of Later Han, there was a Luo county in Dingxiang commandary.)


丙戌,車駕自大室西南巡諸部落,賜其渠帥繒帛各有差。遂南次定襄大落城,東踰十嶺山,田於善無川。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Bingxu (September 4th), Emperor Mingyuan traveled southwest from Dashi and patrolled through several groups and tribes there, bestowing their leaders with suitable gifts of silks. He then went south to the city of Daluo in Dingxiang commandary, then east across Mount Shiling, and he wandered the fields at Shanwuchuan.


河南王熾磐擊吐谷渾支旁于長柳川,虜旁及其民五千餘戶而還。

25. Qifu Chipan attacked the Tuyuhun leader Zhi Pang at Changliuchuan. He captured Zhi Pang and more than five thousand households of his people before returning.

二年,熾盤討吐谷渾別統支旁於長柳川。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the second year of Yongkang (413), Qifu Chipan campaigned against the Tuyuhun branch leader Zhi Pang at Changliuchuan.

熾磐率諸將討吐谷渾別統支旁于長柳川... 前後俘獲男女二萬八千。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan led his generals to campaign against the Tuyuhun branch leader Zhi Pang at Changliuchuan. Between that campaign and the later one against Jueda, Qifu Chipan captured twenty-eight thousand men and women.


八月,癸卯,魏主嗣還平城。

26. In the eighth month, on the day Guimao (September 21st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

八月癸卯,車駕還宮。癸丑,奚斤等班師。甲寅,帝臨白登,觀降民,數軍實... 辛未,賜征還將士牛、馬、奴婢各有差。置新民於大寧川,給農器,計口受田。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eighth month, on the day Guimao (September 21st), Emperor Mingyuan returned to the palace.

On the day Guichou (October 1st), Xi Jin and the others returned from their campaign. On the day Jiayin (October 2nd), Emperor Mingyuan presided over a review, where he observed the people who had surrendered and commended the deeds of the army. On the day Xinwei (?), he granted suitable rewards of cattle, horses, and slave girls to the generals and officers who had returned from the campaign. He settled the new people at Daningchuan, where he provided them with farming tools, took their population, and granted them farmland.


曹龍請降于魏,執送張外,斬之。

27. Cao Long asked to submit to Wei. He arrested Zhang Wai and sent him to them, and they beheaded Zhang Wai.

曹龍降,執送張外,斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Cao Long submitted to Northern Wei. He arrested Zhang Wai and sent him to them, and they beheaded Zhang Wai.


丁丑,魏主嗣如豺山宮;癸未,還。

28. On the day Dingchou (?), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Guiwei (?), he returned.

丁丑,幸犲山宮。癸未,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Dingchou (?), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Guiwei (?), he returned.


九月,再命太尉裕爲太傅、揚州牧;固辭。

29. In the ninth month, the Jin court once again promoted Liu Yu to Grand Tutor and Governor of Yangzhou. But he once again strenuously declined these titles.

河南王熾磐擊吐谷渾別統掘逵於渴渾川,大破之,虜男女二萬三千。冬,十月,掘逵帥其餘衆降于熾磐。

30. Qifu Chipan attacked a branch leader of the Tuyuhun, Juekui, at Kehunchuan. He greatly routed him and captured twenty-three thousand of his men and women. In winter, the tenth month, Juekui led his remaining forces to surrender to Qifu Chipan.

〈掘,其月翻。〉

(The first character of Tong Juekui's given name, 掘, is pronounced "que (q-ue)".)


掘達於渴渾川,大破之,俘獲男女二萬三千。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan attacked a branch leader of the Tuyuhun, Juekui, at Kehunchuan. He greatly routed him and captured twenty-three thousand of his men and women.

掘達於渴渾川,皆破之,前後俘獲男女二萬八千。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan also campaigned against another Tuyuhun branch leader, Jueda, at Kehunchuan and routed him as well. Between that campaign and the earlier one against Zhi Pang, Qifu Chipan had captured twenty-eight thousand men and women.


吐京胡與離石胡出以眷叛魏,魏主嗣命元城侯屈督會稽公劉絜、永安侯魏勤以討之。丁巳,出以眷引夏兵邀擊絜,禽之以獻於夏;勤戰死。嗣以屈亡二將,欲誅之;旣而赦之,使攝幷州刺史。屈到州,縱酒廢事,嗣積其前後罪惡,檻車徵還,斬之。

31. Tribesmen from Tujing and a tribal leader from Lishi commandary, Chuyijuan, rebelled against Wei. Emperor Mingyuan ordered his Marquis of Yuancheng, Tuoba Qu, to lead an army to campaign against them, under the command of the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie, and the Marquis of Yong'an, Wei Qin. On the day Dingsi (December 4th), Chuyijuan brought in troops from Xia to attack Liu Jie, who was captured and brought to Xia. Wei Qin died in battle.

Emperor Mingyuan held Tuoba Qu responsible for the loss of these two generals, and planned to execute him. However, he forgave Tuoba Qu for the defeat and only sent him to be Inspector of Bingzhou. But when Tuoba Qu arrived at Bingzhou, he indulged himself in wine and neglected his duties. So Emperor Mingyuan, holding Tuoba Qu responsible for all his past crimes and misdeeds, sent a cage cart to fetch him back to the capital and then beheaded him.

〈《水經註》曰:吐京卽漢西河土軍縣,夷、夏俗音訛也。後魏眞君九年,置吐京郡,隋爲隰州石樓縣地。〉〈魏主嗣之入立也,屈子磨渾有功焉;屈恃之而驕。積其惡而誅之,非所以保功臣之門也。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "What is now called 'Tujing' was known as Tujun county in Xihe commandary during the Han dynasty. Its name has been corrupted over time by the pronunciations of the tribal and Xia (ethnic Han) people." In Northern Wei's ninth year of Zhenjun (447), they created a Tujing commandary. It was in the same place as the Sui dynasty's Shilou county in Xizhou.

Tuoba Qu had done much to help ensure Emperor Mingyuan's succession to the throne of Northern Wei. He thus became arrogant by relying upon his past achievements. By holding his past misdeeds against him and then executing him, Emperor Mingyuan determined not to protect the family of a meritorious minister.)


冬十月丁巳,將軍元屈、會稽公劉潔、永安侯魏勤等,擊吐京叛胡,失利,潔被傷,勤死之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Dingsi (December 4th), the general Tuoba Qu, the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie, the Marquis of Yong'an, Wei Qin, and others attacked rebelling tribal people at Tujing. But the fighting went against them; Liu Jie was injured and captured, while Wei Qin died in battle.


十一月,魏主嗣遣使請昏於秦,秦王興許之。

32. In the eleventh month, Emperor Mingyuan sent envoys to Qin to ask for a wife, and Yao Xing agreed to the request.

十一月癸酉,大饗于西宮。姚興遣使朝貢,來請進女,帝許之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eleventh month, on the day Guiyou (December 20th), Emperor Mingyuan held a great feast at the Western Palace.

Yao Xing sent envoys to the Northern Wei court, bearing tribute and asking to send his daughter as a wife. Emperor Mingyuan granted this request.

永興三年,興遣周寶朝貢。五年,興遣使朝貢,并請進女,太宗許之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the third year of Yongxing (411), Yao Xing sent Zhou Bao to present tribute to the Northern Wei court. In the fifth year (413), he sent another envoy to present tribute, along with a request to offer his daughter as a bride. Emperor Mingyuan granted the request.

時魏遣使聘於興,且請婚。會平陽太守姚成都來朝,興謂之曰:「卿久處東籓,與魏鄰接,應悉彼事形。今來求婚,吾已許之,終能分災共患,遠相接援以不?」成都曰:「魏自柴壁克捷已來,戎甲未曾損失,士馬桓桓,師旅充盛。今修和親,兼婚姻之好,豈但分災共患而已,實亦永安之福也。」興大悅,遣其吏部郎嚴康報聘,並致方物。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Northern Wei sent envoys to Yao Xing for a diplomatic visit, and to ask for a marriage alliance between them. Meanwhile, the Administrator of Pingyang, Yao Chengdu, had come to court as well. Yao Xing said to him, "You've been stationed on our eastern border for a long time now, and you've had many dealings with Wei, so you know what they are like. Now they've come to ask me for a wife, and I've already given my consent. How do you think this arrangement will turn out? Will we share weal and woe together, through thick and through thin?"

Yao Chengdu replied, "Ever since their triumph at the battle of Chai Rampart, Wei has never once demobilized their armored soldiers; they have a mighty host of men and horses, and they command numerous armies. So for you to now repair relations and make such an alliance with them, sealing it with a marriage, would do far more for us than merely sharing good times and bad with Wei. In fact, it would bring us a lasting blessing."

Yao Xing was delighted. He sent his Gentleman of the Secretariat, Yan Kang, to repay the visit and to present gifts to Northern Wei.


是歲,以敦煌索邈爲梁州刺史,苻宣乃還仇池。初,邈寓居漢川,與別駕姜顯有隙,凡十五年而邈鎭漢川;顯乃肉袒迎候,邈無慍色,待之彌厚。退而謂人曰:「我昔寓此,失志多年,若讎姜顯,懼者不少。但服之自佳,何必逞志!」於是闔境聞之皆悅。

33. During this year, Jin appointed Suo Miao of Dunhuang commandary as Inspector of Lianzhou. It was earlier mentioned that the Chouchi general Fu Xuan had marched into Hanzhong; he now withdrew back to Chouchi.

Earlier, while Suo Miao had been living in Hanchuan, he had developed a grudge against the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Lianzhou, Jiang Xian. Some fifteen years later, Suo Miao himself was now in command of Hanchuan. Yet when Jiang Xian came to visit Suo Miao, humbly stripped bare to the waist, Suo Miao received him without any resentful expression and treated him with special favor. After the meeting, Suo Miao told people, "When I used to be just a refugee living here, there were many years when I could not carry out my desires. Yet if I took my revenge against Jiang Xian now, there would be quite a few people who would thus have cause to fear me. But by receiving him well, I make myself look good at the same time. Why then should I vent my own personal grudges?"

〈苻宣入漢中,見一百十一四卷元年。〉〈鞠羨之安東萊亦若是而已。世人脩怨以致禍者,由不知此道也。〉

(Fu Xuan's occupation of Hanzhong is mentioned in Book 114, in the first year of Yixi (actually the third year, 407.10).

By such means did Ju Xian bring peace to Donglai commandary rather than carry out his personal vengeance. Those who nurse their private grudges and bring themselves to ruin by it are ignorant of this principle.)


Hu Sanxing seems to be referring to Ju Yin rather than Ju Xian; Book 100, 356.23.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Apr 23, 2019 3:16 am, edited 18 times in total.
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BOOK 116

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 08, 2019 6:07 pm

十年(甲寅、四一四)

The Tenth Year of Yixi (The Jiayin Year, 414 AD)


春,正月,辛酉,魏大赦,改元神瑞。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 6th), a general amnesty was declared in Wei, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Shenrui.

神瑞元年春正月辛酉,以禎瑞頻集,大赦,改元。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the first year of Shenrui (414), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 6th), due to a gathering of auspicious omens, a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Shenrui ("Divine Felicity").


辛巳,魏主嗣如繁畤;二月,戊戌,還平城。

2. On the day Xinsi (February 26th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Fanzhi. In the second month, on the day Wuxu (March 15th), he returned to Pingcheng.

辛巳,幸繁畤。賜王公已下至於士卒百工布帛各有差。二月戊戌,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Xinsi (February 26th), Emperor Mingyuan went to Fanzhi, where he bestowed suitable rewards of cloths and silks, from the nobles on down to even the soldiers and workers. In the second month, on the day Wuxu (March 15th), he returned to the palace.


夏王勃勃侵魏河東蒲子。

3. Helian Bobo raided Puzi in Wei's Hedong commandary.

是月,赫連屈孑入寇河東蒲子,殺掠吏民,三城護軍張昌等要擊走之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

That same month, Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) invaded Puzi in Hedong commandary, where he killed and plundered the local people and officials. The Protector-General of Sancheng, Zhang Chang, and others counter-attacked him and drove him off.


庚戌,魏主嗣如豺山宮。

4. On the day Gengxu (March 27th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai.

庚戌,幸犲山宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Gengxu (March 27th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai.


魏幷州刺史婁伏連襲殺夏所置吐京護軍及其守兵。

5. Wei's Inspector of Bingzhou, Lou Fulian, launched a surprise attack against the Protector-General of Tujing that Xia had appointed and his garrison, killing them.

〈【嚴:「婁」改「樓」。】〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》:內入諸姓有匹婁氏,後改爲婁氏。去年,夏破拓跋屈,因置守兵於吐京。〉

(Some versions write Lou Gai's surname as 樓 Lou rather than 婁 Lou.

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "Among those clans who came to join the Tuoba was the Pilou clan, who later shortened their name to Lou."

Xia had routed Tuoba Qu at Tujing the previous year, thus they had posted a garrison at Tujing.)


西河胡曹成、吐京民劉初原攻殺屈孑所置吐京護軍及其守三百餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

A tribal leader from Xihe commandary, Cao Cheng, and a native of Tujing, Liu Chuquan, attacked and killed the Protector-General of Tujing that Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) had appointed and his garrison of more than three hundred soldiers.


司馬休之在江陵,頗得江、漢民心。子譙王文思在建康,性凶暴,好通輕俠;太尉裕惡之。三月,有司奏文思擅捶殺國吏,詔誅其黨而宥文思。休之上疏謝罪,請解所任,不許。裕執文思送休之,令自訓厲,意欲休之殺之;休之但表廢文思,幷與裕書陳謝。裕由是不悅,以江州刺史孟懷玉兼督豫州六郡以備之。

6. It was earlier mentioned that Sima Xiuzhi had been appointed as Jin's new Inspector of Jingzhou. By now, he had won the affection of the people living along the Yangzi and the Han River. Meanwhile, the Prince of Qiao, Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi, was still at the capital at Jiankang. Sima Wensi was naturally violent and cruel, and he enjoyed going off and causing mischief whenever it suited him. Liu Yu was greatly vexed by him.

In the third month, the court officials submitted a memorial reporting that Sima Wensi had arbitrarily beaten state officials to death. An edict was issued ordering Sima Wensi's fellow troublemakers to be executed, but Sima Wensi himself was pardoned. Sima Xiuzhi sent up a petition taking responsibility for the crime and asking to be relieved of his office, but his request was denied. Liu Yu arrested Sima Wensi and sent him to Sima Xiuzhi, ordering him to personally make an example of his son, intending to have Sima Xiuzhi kill him. But Sima Xiuzhi merely submitted a petition denouncing Sima Wensi and sent Liu Yu a letter apologizing for his faults.

Liu Yu was thus displeased with Sima Xiuzhi. He appointed the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Meng Huaiyu, as Commander of military affairs of six commandaries in Yuzhou in order to guard against Sima Xiuzhi.

〈文思,休之之長子也。譙王尚之死於桓玄之難,帝反正,以文思嗣國。〉〈爲後裕伐休之張本。〉〈豫州六郡,宣城、襄城、淮南、廬江、安豐、歷陽也。〉

(Sima Wensi was Sima Xiuzhi's eldest son. Since the former Prince of Qiao, Sima Xiuzhi's brother Sima Shangzhi, had died during Huan Xuan's uprising, after Emperor An was restored to the throne, he appointed Sima Wensi as the new Prince of Qiao to continue that lineage.

This was why Liu Yu later campaigned against Sima Xiuzhi.

These six commandaries in Yuzhou were Xuancheng, Xiangcheng, Huainan, Lujiang, Anfeng, and Liyang.)


夏,五月,辛酉,魏主還平城。

7. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Xinyou (June 6th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

乙卯,起豐宮於平城東北。夏五月辛酉,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Jimao (April 1st), Emperor Mingyuan raised the Feng Palace northeast of Pingcheng. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Xinyou (June 6th), he returned to the palace.


秦後將軍斂成討叛羌,爲羌所敗,懼罪,出奔夏。

8. Qin's General of the Rear, Lian Cheng, campaigned against rebellious Qiang. However, the Qiang defeated him. Afraid of what punishment awaited him, Lian Cheng fled to Xia.

時貳縣羌叛興,興遣後將軍斂成、鎮軍彭白狼、北中郎將姚洛都討之。斂成為羌所敗,甚懼,詣趙興太守姚穆歸罪。穆欲送殺之,成怒,奔赫連勃勃。興遣姚紹與姚弼率禁衛諸軍鎮撫嶺北。遼東侯彌姐亭地率其部人南居陰密,劫掠百姓。弼收亭地送之,殺其眾七百餘人,徙二千餘戶于鄭城。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, the Qiang tribes in Er county rebelled against Yao Xing. Yao Xing sent the General of the Rear, Lian Cheng, the General Who Guards The Army, Peng Bailang, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Yao Luodu, to campaign against them. But Lian Cheng was defeated by the Qiang. Greatly afraid, Lian Cheng went to present himself to the Administrator of Zhaoxing, Yao Mu, to answer for his crime. But when Yao Mu planned to send him to the capital to be killed, Lian Cheng became angry, and he fled to Helian Bobo.

Yao Xing sent Yao Shao and Yao Bi to lead the palace and imperial guards to garrison and supervise the region north of the mountain ranges. The Marquis of Liaodong, Mijie Tingdi, led his forces south to dwell at Yinmi, where they pillaged and harrassed the common people. Yao Bi arrested Mijie Tingdi and sent him to the capital, where he and more than seven hundred of his people were killed. More than two thousand households were relocated to Zhengcheng.


秦王興有疾。妖賊李弘與氐仇常反於貳城,興輿疾往討之,斬常,執弘而還。

9. Yao Xing became ill. At that time, a mystic rebel, Li Hong, and a leader of the Di people, Chou Chang, rebelled against Qin at Ercheng. But even though he was sick, Yao Xing campaigned against them; he took Chou Chang's head and captured Li Hong before returning.

興寢疾,妖賊李弘反于貳原,貳原氐仇常起兵應弘。興輿疾討之,斬常,執弘而還,徙常部人五百餘戶於許昌。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing became bedridden by illness. A mystic rebel, Li Hong, rebelled at Eryuan, and a leader of the Di people there, Chou Chang, raised troops to support him. But even though he was sick, Yao Xing campaigned against them; he took Chou Chang's head and captured Li Hong before returning, and he relocated more than five hundred households from Chou Chang's forces to Xuchang.


秦左將軍姚文宗有寵於太子泓,廣平公弼惡之,誣文宗有怨言;秦王興怒,賜文宗死,於是羣臣畏弼側目。弼言於興,無不從者;以所親天水尹沖爲給事黃門侍郎,唐盛爲治書侍御史,興左右掌機要者,皆其黨也。右僕射梁喜、侍中任謙、京兆尹尹昭承間言於興曰:「父子之際,人所難言;然君臣之義,不薄於父子,故臣等不得默然。廣平公弼,潛有奪嫡之志,陛下寵之太過,假其威權;傾險無賴之徒輻湊附之。道路皆言陛下將有廢立之計,信有之乎?」興曰:「豈有此邪!」喜等曰:「苟無之,則陛下愛弼,適所以禍之;願去其左右,損其威權,如此,非特安弼,乃所以安宗廟、社稷。」興不應。大司農寶溫、司徒左長史王弼皆密疏勸興立弼爲太子,興雖不從,亦不責也。

10. Qin's General of the Left, Yao Wenzong, enjoyed the favor of the Crown Prince, Yao Hong. But Yao Bi hated Yao Wenzong, and he slandered him by saying that Yao Wenzong had been expressing resentful thoughts. This angered Yao Xing, who ordered Yao Wenzong to commit suicide. After that, the other Qin ministers were too afraid of Yao Bi to even look him in the eye.

Whatever Yao Bi proposed to Yao Xing, Yao Xing never failed to heed him. So Yao Bi arranged to have his friend Yin Chong of Tianshui commandary appointed as Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and his friend Tang Meng was appointed as 治書侍御史. Indeed, everyone who held a critical post close to Yao Xing was one of Yao Bi's partisans.

The Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Xi, the Palace Attendant, Ren Qian, and the Intendant of Jingzhao, Yin Zhao, privately said to Yao Xing, "People will criticize even when a father and son have a poor relationship with one another. The relationship between a sovereign and his subjects is no less important. Thus we can remain silent no longer. The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, is secretly scheming to wrest control of the succession of state. Your Majesty has favored him too highly, and you have granted him power and authority. Now all manner of odious people have hitched their wagons to his cause. Even the people in the street all say that Your Majesty is planning to set aside your heir and make Yao Bi your successor instead. Is there any truth to that?"

Yao Xing objected, "How could that possibly be true?"

They replied, "Even if you really have no such intention, you show too much love for Yao Bi, and you are courting disaster. We implore you to send away Yao Bi's minions and decrease his power and authority. By doing so, you will prevent him from having an especially secure position, and you will bring stability back to the ancestral temple and the altars of state."

But Yao Xing did not listen to them.

The Grand Minister of Finance, Bao Wen (or Dou Wen), and the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Bi, secretly submitted petitions urging Yao Xing to appoint Yao Bi as Crown Prince. Although Yao Xing did not do so, he did not punish them for having offered such advice.

〈父子、君臣,皆人之大倫,故云然。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「寶」作「竇」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;熊校同。】〉

(The relationships between father and son and between sovereign and subject are both part of the great relationships, thus this rhetoric by Yao Xing's ministers.

Some versions write Bao Wen's surname as 竇 Dou rather than 寶 Bao.)


興中子廣平公弼有寵,委之朝政。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

One of Yao Xing's middle sons, the Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, enjoyed his father's favor, and he had control of all affairs of court and government.

姚文宗有寵于姚泓,姚弼深疾之,誣文宗有怨言,以侍御史廉桃生為證。興怒,賜文宗死。是後群臣累足,莫敢言弼之短... 弼寵愛方隆,所欲施行,無不信納。乃以嬖人尹沖為給事黃門侍郎,唐盛為治書侍御史,左右機耍,皆其黨人,漸欲廣樹爪牙,彌縫其闕。右僕射梁喜、侍中任謙、京兆尹尹昭承間言於興曰:「父子之際,人罕得而言。然君臣亦猶父子,臣等理不容默。並後匹嫡,未始不傾國亂家。廣平公弼奸凶無狀,潛有陵奪之志,陛下寵之不道,假其威權,傾險無賴之徙,莫不鱗湊其側。市巷諷議,皆言陛下欲有廢立之志。誠如此者,臣等有死而已,不敢奉詔。」興曰:「安有此乎!」昭等曰:「若無廢立之事,陛下愛弼,適所以禍之,願去其左右,減其威權。非但弼有太山之安,宗廟社稷亦有磐石之固矣。」興默然... 先是,大司農竇溫、司徙左長史王弼皆有密表,勸興廢立。興雖不從,亦不以為責。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Wenzong enjoyed the favor of Yao Hong. But Yao Bi deeply hated Yao Wenzong, and he slandered him by saying that Yao Wenzong had been expressing resentful thoughts, having the Imperial Secretary, Lian Taosheng, act as a witness for the charge. This angered Yao Xing, who ordered Yao Wenzong to commit suicide. After that, the other ministers trod carefully, none daring to criticize Yao Bi's shortcomings.

Yao Xing loved and favored Yao Bi. Whatever Yao Bi wished was carried out, for Yao Xing never failed to trust and heed him. So Yao Bi arranged to have his friend Yin Chong appointed as Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and his friend Tang Meng was appointed as 治書侍御史. Indeed, everyone who held a critical post close to Yao Xing was one of Yao Bi's partisans. He thus gradually planned to expand his network of fangs and claws, so that they could cover up his faults.

The Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Xi, the Palace Attendant, Ren Qian, and the Intendant of Jingzhao, Yin Zhao, privately said to Yao Xing, "People will rarely reserve their words when a father and son have a poor relationship with one another. The relationship between a sovereign and his subjects is no less important. Thus we can remain silent no longer. There has never once been an instance where favoritism for a younger son has not led to disaster for the state and discord for the family. The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, is an evil, insolent villain, secretly scheming to wrest control of the succession of state. Your Majesty has unjustly favored him, and you have granted him power and authority. Now all manner of odious people have hitched their wagons to his cause. Even the people in the marketplaces and the alleyways all spread rumors that Your Majesty is planning to set aside your heir and make Yao Bi your successor instead. If these rumors are true, then we are prepared to oppose this policy even to the death rather than dare uphold such a wish."

Yao Xing objected, "How could that possibly be true?"

They replied, "Even if you really have no such intention, you show too much love for Yao Bi, and you are courting disaster. We implore you to send away Yao Bi's minions and decrease his power and authority. By doing so, you will prevent him from having a position as secure as Mount Tai, and you will bring a firm foundation back to the ancestral temple and the altars of state."

Yao Xing was left silent.

The Grand Minister of Finance, Dou Wen, and the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Bi, secretly submitted petitions urging Yao Xing to depose Yao Hong and appoint Yao Bi as Crown Prince. Although Yao Xing did not do so, he did not punish them for having offered such advice.


興疾篤,弼潛聚衆數千人,謀作亂。姚裕遣使以弼逆狀告諸兄在藩鎭者,於是姚懿治兵於蒲阪,鎭東將軍、豫州牧洸治兵於汳陽,平西將軍諶治兵於雍,皆欲赴長安討弼。會興疾瘳,見羣臣,征虜將軍劉羌泣以告興。梁喜、尹昭請誅弼,且曰:「苟陛下不忍殺弼,亦當奪其權任。」興不得已,免弼尚書令,使以將軍、公還第。懿等各罷兵。

11. Yao Xing became bedridden by illness. So Yao Bi secretly gathered together an army of several thousand people, plotting to launch a coup.

Yao Yu sent agents to inform his elder brothers at their border posts about Yao Bi's treasonous intentions. Yao Yi then prepared his troops at Puban, while the General Who Guards The East and Governor of Yuzhou, Yao Guang, prepared his troops at Bianyang, and the General Who Pacifies The West, Yao Shen, prepared his troops at Yong. All of them planned to march on Chang'an in order to campaign against Yao Bi.

But then Yao Xing recovered from his illness, and he met with his ministers. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Liu Qiang, wept as he told Yao Xing what was happening. Liang Xi and Yin Zhao asked him to execute Yao Bi, further saying, "If Your Majesty cannot bear to outright kill Yao Bi, you should at least remove his authority and his titles."

Yao Xing would not kill Yao Bi, but he stripped him of his title as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and ordered him to his estate as General and Duke. Yao Yi and the others then disbanded their troops.

〈懿、洸,皆興子也。〉〈弼爲大將軍,封廣平公。〉

(Yao Yi and Yao Guang were both sons of Yao Xing.

Yao Bi was Grand General and Duke of Guangping.)


十六年五月,興寢疾於內,太子泓以兵屯東華門,侍疾于諮議堂。尚書廣平公弼潛謀為亂,招集數千人,持兵於第,興疾損,升前殿,百官咸會。征虜劉羌泣曰:「陛下寢疾數旬,奈何忽有斯事。」興曰:「朕過庭無訓,使諸子不穆,愧於四海」。興以弼文武兼才,未忍致法,免其尚書令,以公就第。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the sixteenth year of Hongshi (414), the fifth month, Yao Xing was bedridden inside the palace by illness. The Crown Prince, Yao Hong, camped troops at the Donghua Gate, while he himself went to tend to Yao Xing during his illness at the council hall. The Master of Writing and Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, secretly plotted to launch a coup, and he gathered together an army of several thousand people and kept soldiers at his estate.

Yao Xing then recovered from his illness, and he ascended into the Front Hall, where his ministers held a meeting. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Liu Qiang, wept as he told Yao Xing, "Your Majesty has been bedridden by illness for several weeks. How could things have come to this?"

Yao Xing replied, "I was too indulgent and did not properly instruct my sons, thus their lack of respect. I am truly ashamed before the Four Seas."

Yao Xing felt that Yao Bi was too talented in civil and military affairs, and he could not bear to inflict the ultimate punishment against him. But he stripped him of his title as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and ordered him to his ducal estate.

興疾篤,長子泓侍疾於中,弼集黨數千人,候興死,欲殺泓自立。興諸子姪外鎮者,聞之,皆起兵討弼。興疾瘳,不忍誅弼,免官而已。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

One of Yao Xing's middle sons, the Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, enjoyed his father's favor, and he had control of all affairs of court and government. When Yao Xing became bedridden with illness and his eldest son, Yao Hong, attended to his illness in the palace, Yao Bi gathered together several thousand people, planning to wait for Yao Xing to die and then kill Yao Hong and claim the throne. Yao Xing's other sons and nephews were out at border posts, and when they heard of Yao Bi's planned coup, they all raised troops to campaign against him.

Yao Xing then recovered from his illness. He could not bear to execute Yao Bi, and merely stripped him of office.

興疾篤,其太子泓屯兵于東華門,侍疾於諮議堂。姚弼潛謀為亂,招集數千人,被甲伏於其第。撫軍姚紹及侍中任謙、右僕射梁喜、冠軍姚贊、京兆尹尹昭、輔國斂曼嵬並典禁兵,宿衛於內。姚裕遣使告姚懿于蒲阪,並密信諸籓,論弼逆狀。懿流涕以告將士曰:「上今寢疾,臣子所宜冠履不整。而廣平公弼擁兵私第,不以忠於儲宮,正是孤徇義亡身之日。諸君皆忠烈之士,亦當同孤徇斯舉也。」將士無不奮怒攘袂曰:「惟殿下所為,死生不敢貳。」於是盡赦囚徙,散布帛數萬匹以賜其將士,建牙誓眾,將赴長安。鎮東、豫州牧姚洸起兵洛陽,平西姚諶起兵於雍,將以赴泓之難。興疾瘳,朝其群臣,征虜劉羌泣謂興曰:「陛下寢疾數旬,奈何忽有斯事!」興曰:「朕過庭無訓,使諸子不穆,愧于四海。卿等各陳所懷,以安社稷。」尹昭曰:「廣平公弼恃寵不虔,阻兵懷貳,自宜置之刑書,以明典憲。陛下若含忍未便加法者,且可削奪威權,使散居籓國,以紓窺窬之禍,全天性之恩。」興謂梁喜曰:「卿以為何如?」喜曰:「臣之愚見,如昭所陳。」興以弼才兼文武,未忍致法,免其尚書令,以將軍、公就第。懿等聞興疾瘳,各罷兵還鎮。懿、恢及弟諶等皆抗表罪弼,請致之刑法,興弗許。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing became bedridden by illness. The Crown Prince, Yao Hong, camped troops at the Donghua Gate, while he himself went to tend to Yao Xing during his illness at the council hall. Yao Bi secretly plotted to launch a coup, and he gathered together an army of several thousand people and placed armored troops in waiting at his estate. The General Who Nurtures The Army, Yao Shao, the Palace Attendant, Ren Qian, the Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Xi, the Champion General Yao Xian, the Intendant of Jingzhao, Yin Zhao, and the General Who Upholds The State, Lian Manwei, all organized the household guards and quartered them within the palace.

Yao Yu sent agents to inform Yao Yi at Puban, as well as secretly informing the other border generals, telling them all about Yao Bi's treasonous intentions. Yao Yi wept as he addressed his generals and officers, telling them, "At a time when our sovereign is laid low by illness, we his sons and subjects should not even be dressed in our full attire of caps and shoes. Yet the Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, has gone so far as to gather troops at his private residence and is acting disloyally towards the heir. Today, I intend to uphold righteousness though it costs me my life. Gentlemen, you are all loyal subjects; will you not join with me in this endeavor?"

They all wiped away tears on their sleeves as they replied, "Your Highness, we will serve you through life and death."

So Yao Yi pardoned all the prisoners and exiles and distributed cloths and silks among tens of thousands of people to recruit them as soldiers, and he planted his standard and declared a call to arms, planning to march on Chang'an. Likewise, the General Who Guards The East and Governor of Yuzhou, Yao Guang, raised troops at Luoyang and the General Who Pacifies The West, Yao Shen, raised troops at Yong in order to put a stop to Yao Bi's plot.

But then Yao Xing recovered from his illness, and he met with his ministers. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Liu Qiang, wept as he told Yao Xing, "Your Majesty has been bedridden by illness for several weeks. How could things have come to this?"

Yao Xing replied, "I was too indulgent and did not properly instruct my sons, thus their lack of respect. I am truly ashamed before the Four Seas. Gentlemen, let each of you explain your thoughts on how we may secure the fortunes of state."

Yin Zhao said, "The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, lacking reverence and relying upon the favor he had been shown, went so far as to assemble troops and harbor treasonous designs. The remedy for such a crime has long been established, ever since the creation of codes of punishment. But if Your Majesty cannot bear to carry out the full extent of the law, you should at least remove Yao Bi's authority and his titles and scatter his minions to dwell in the border regions. That would prevent the disaster of another such coup attempt, while still displaying the full measure of heavenly grace."

Yao Xing asked Liang Xi, "And what do you think?"

Liang Xi replied, "In my humble view, it is just as Yin Zhao says."

Yao Xing felt that Yao Bi was too talented in civil and military affairs, and he could not bear to inflict the ultimate punishment against him. But he stripped him of his title as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and ordered him to his estate as General and Duke.

When Yao Yi and the others heard that Yao Xing had recovered from his illness, they all disbanded their troops and returned to their posts.

Yao Yi, Yao Hui and his younger brother Yao Shen, and others all submitted a petition listing Yao Bi's crimes and asking that he be dealt with by law. But Yao Xing refused.


懿、洸、諶與姚宣皆入朝,使裕入白興,求見,興曰:「汝等正欲論弼事耳,吾已知之。」裕曰:「弼苟有可論,陛下所宜垂聽;若懿等言非是,便當寘之刑辟,柰何逆拒之!」於是引見懿等於諮議堂。宣流涕極言,興曰:「吾自處之,非汝曹所憂。」撫軍東曹屬姜虬上疏曰:「廣平公弼,釁成逆著,道路皆知之。昔文王之化,刑于寡妻;今聖朝之亂,起自愛子,雖欲含忍掩蔽,而逆黨扇惑不已,弼之亂心何由可革!宜斥散凶徒,以絕禍端。」興以虬表示梁喜曰:「天下人皆以吾兒爲口實,將何以處之?」喜曰:「信如虬言,陛下宜早裁決。」興默然。

12. Yao Yi, Yao Guang, Yao Shen, and Yao Xuan all came to court. They sent Yao Yu in to report to Yao Xing and request a meeting. Yao Xing told Yao Yu, "I already know what this is about: you all just want to discuss this Yao Bi business."

Yao Yu said, "Your Majesty ought to listen to what anyone has to say about Yao Bi. And if what Yao Yi and the others propose to you is unacceptable, you may deal with them according to the law. But why oppose meeting with them at all?"

So Yao Xing had Yao Yi and the others come to the council hall. Yao Xuan wept as he fully expressed his thoughts. Yao Xing said, "I will deal with this myself; you all need not concern yourselves."

The Eastern Bureau Officer to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Jiang Qiu, sent up a memorial stating, "The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, seeks to sow discord and cause treason, as even people in the street well know. In ancient times, when King Wen of Zhou acted with virtue, 'his example extended to his wife as well'. Now the chaos in our court all stems from your treatment of this favored son, and even if you wish to tolerate his shortcomings and cover up his crimes, Yao Bi's traitorous partisans are stirring up people to do wrong. Can we expect his wicked heart to change? You should break the power and scatter the forces of his minions, in order to stave off disaster."

Yao Xing showed Jiang Qiu's memorial to Liang Xi and said, "Everyone in the realm is gossiping about my son. What am I do to about him?"

Liang Xi replied, "It is just as Jiang Qiu says. Your Majesty should deal with him at once."

Yao Xing was left silent.

〈《詩‧思齊》曰:刑于寡妻,至于兄弟。〉〈孔安國曰:口實,謂常不去口。〉〈史言姚興不聽臣子之言,養成泓、弼爭國之禍。〉

(The Book of Poetry states, "King Wen's example acted on his wife, and extended to his brethren."

Regarding the term 口實, Kong Anguo remarked, "This means a constant subject of conversation."

This passage demonstrates how Yao Xing would not listen to the words of his ministers or his sons. This would eventually lead to the disaster of the civil war between Yao Hong and Yao Bi.)


時姚懿、姚洸、姚宣、姚諶來朝,使姚裕言於興曰:「懿等今悉在外,欲有所陳。」興曰:「汝等正欲道弼事耳,吾已知之。」裕曰:「弼苟有可論,陛下所宜垂聽。若懿等言違大義,便當肆之刑辟,奈何距之!」於是引見諮議堂。宣流涕曰:「先帝以大聖起基,陛下以神武定業,方隆七百之祚,為萬世之美,安可使弼謀傾社稷。宜委之有司,肅明刑憲。臣等敢以死請。」興曰:「吾自處之,非汝等所憂。」...撫軍東曹屬薑虯上疏曰:「廣平公弼懷奸積年,謀禍有歲,傾諂群豎為之畫足,釁成逆著,取嗤戎裔。文王之化,刑于寡妻;聖朝之亂,起自愛子。今雖欲含忍其瑕,掩蔽其罪,而逆黨猶繁,扇惑不已,弼之亂心其可革耶!宜斥散凶徒,以絕禍始。」興以虯表示梁喜曰:「天下之人莫不以吾兒為口實,將何以處之?」喜曰:「信如虯言,陛下宜早裁決。」興默然。太子詹事王周亦虛襟引士,樹黨東宮,弼惡之,每規陷害周。周抗志確然,不為之屈。興嘉其守正,以周為中書監。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Yao Yi, Yao Guang, Yao Shen, and Yao Xuan all came to court. They sent Yao Yu in tell Yao Xing, "Yao Yi and the others are all outside, and wish to speak to you."

Yao Xing replied, "I already know what this is about: you all just want to discuss this Yao Bi business."

Yao Yu said, "Your Majesty ought to listen to what anyone has to say about Yao Bi. And if what Yao Yi and the others propose to you violates what is right, you may deal with them according to the law. But why oppose meeting with them at all?"

So Yao Xing had Yao Yi and the others come to the council hall. Yao Xuan wept as he said, "His Late Majesty (Yao Chang) established the foundation of the state through his great wisdom, and Your Majesty has settled the grand design through your divine martial prowess. We faced the prospect of enjoying seven hundred reigns and ten thousand generations of good fortune. How then could you allow Yao Bi to topple the fortunes of state? You ought to hand him over to the officials and solemnly declare his acts so that he may be judged and punished. We all have risked death in order to ask you to do so."

Yao Xing replied, "I will deal with this myself; you all need not concern yourselves."

The Eastern Bureau Officer to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Jiang Qiu, sent up a memorial stating, "The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, has cherished evil designs for several years and has plotted a coup for just as long. He has fawned upon and flattered many miscreants in order to have them serve as his minions, and he seeks to sow discord and cause treason, as even the barbarians claim with sneers. In ancient times, when King Wen of Zhou acted with virtue, 'his example extended to his wife as well', while chaos in a court arises from exalting a favored son. By now, even if you wished to tolerate his shortcomings and cover up his crimes, Yao Bi's traitorous and numerous partisans are stirring up people to do wrong. Can we expect his wicked heart to change? You should break the power and scatter the forces of his minions, in order to stave off disaster."

Yao Xing showed Jiang Qiu's memorial to Liang Xi and said, "Not a single person in all the realm can stop gossiping about my son. What am I do to about him?"

Liang Xi replied, "It is just as Jiang Qiu says. Your Majesty should deal with him at once."

Yao Xing was left silent.

The Chief of Affairs to the Crown Prince, Wang Zhou, was another person who acted modestly and attracted people to his side, and he gained many partisans within the Eastern Palace. Yao Bi hated him, and always took the chance to slander and defame Wang Zhou. But Wang Zhou held fast to his resolve and would not be cowed. Yao Xing appreciated his sense of propriety, and he appointed Wang Zhou as Chief of the Palace Secretariat.


唾契汗、乙弗等部皆叛南涼,南涼王傉檀欲討之。邯川護軍孟愷諫曰:「今連年饑饉,南逼熾磐,北逼蒙遜,百姓不安。遠征雖克,必有後患;不如與熾磐結盟通糴,慰撫雜部,足食繕兵,俟時而動。」傉檀不從,謂太子虎臺曰:「蒙遜近去,不能猝來;旦夕所慮,唯在熾磐。然熾磐兵少易禦,汝謹守樂都,吾不過一月必還矣。」乃帥騎七千襲乙弗,大破之,獲馬牛羊四十餘萬。

13. The Tuoqihan, Yifu, and other tribes rebelled against Southern Liang. Tufa Nutan wanted to campaign against them. His Protector-General of Hanchuan, Meng Kai, remonstrated with him, saying, "We have been experiencing several years of famine, we are still threatened to the south by Qifu Chipan and to the north by Juqu Mengxun, and the common people do not know peace. If you go on this distant campaign, even if you are successful, our enemies will surely take the opportunity to attack us from behind. Better for you to agree to a pact and arrange terms with Qifu Chipan, then nurture and supervise your various forces. Build up a healthy supply of food and drill your soldiers, and wait for a more opportune time before acting."

But Tufa Nutan did not listen to him. He said to Tufa Hutai, "Juqu Mengxun marched against us so recently that we do not need to fear any sudden return from him. The only immediate threat we face is from Qifu Chipan. But Qifu Chipan has few troops, so he can easily be dealt with. You must be diligent in defending Ledu. I will return in less than a month."

Then Tufa Nutan led seven thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against the Yifu tribe. He greatly routed them and captured more than four hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep.

〈《北史》曰:乙弗國有契翰一部,風俗亦同。杜佑曰:乙弗敵,後魏聞焉,在吐谷渾北,衆有萬餘落,風俗與吐谷渾同,然不識五穀,唯食魚與蘇子。蘇子狀若中國枸杞子,或赤或黑。西有契翰一部,風俗亦同。〉

(Regarding the Yifu, the History of the Northern Dynasties states, "The state of the Yifu were a branch of the Qihan, and they shared the same customs." Du You remarked, "The Yifudi were known during the Northern Wei era. They lived north of the Tuyuhun, and had more than ten thousand encampments. They had the same customs as the Tuyuhun, but they did not harvest the Five Grains; they merely ate fish and perilla seeds. These seeds are similar to the wolfberry seeds of the Middle Kingdom, with some being red and some black. To their west were the Qihan, who also had the same customs.")


七年,傉檀議欲西征乙弗,孟愷諫曰:「連年不收,上下飢弊,南逼熾盤,北迫蒙遜,今遠征雖剋,後患必深。」傉檀曰:「孤將略地,卿無阻衆。」謂其太子虎臺曰:「今不種多年,內外俱窘,事宜西行,以拯此弊。蒙遜近去,不能卒來,旦夕所慮,唯在熾盤。彼名微衆寡,易以討禦。吾不過一月自足周旋,汝謹守樂都,無使失墜。」傉檀乃率騎數千,西襲乙弗,大破之,獲牛馬羊四十餘萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the seventh year of Jiaping (414), Tufa Nutan proposed a western campaign against the Yifu. Meng Kai remonstrated with him, saying, "For several years now, we have been unable to collect a harvest, and those above and below are suffering from famine and want. Beyond that, we are still threatened to the south by Qifu Chipan and to the north by Juqu Mengxun. If you go on this distant campaign, even if you are successful, the threat to our rear would be serious indeed."

But Tufa Nutan told him, "I am about to expand our territory; do not hinder our soldiers." And he said to his Crown Prince, Tufa Hutai, "It is precisely because we have lacked harvests for several years and the people within and without are all exhausted that I wish to launch this western campaign and rescue the situation. Now Juqu Mengxun marched against us so recently that we do not need to fear any sudden return from him. The only immediate threat we face is from Qifu Chipan. But Qifu Chipan is of slight reputation and has few troops, so he can easily be dealt with. As for me, I will need no more than a month to carry out the campaign and then return. You must be diligent in defending Ledu; do not lose your position."

Then Tufa Nutan led seven thousand cavalry west to launch a surprise attack against the Yifu tribe. He greatly routed them and captured more than four hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep.

神瑞初,傉檀率騎擊乙弗虜,大有擒獲。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

At the beginning of the Shenrui reign era (~414), Tufa Nutan led cavalry to attack the Yifu people, taking many captives and prizes.

傉檀議欲西征乙弗,孟愷諫曰:「連年不收,上下饑弊,南逼熾磐,北迫蒙遜,百姓騷動,下不安業。今遠征雖克,後患必深,不如結盟熾磐,通糴濟難,慰喻雜部,以廣軍資,畜力繕兵,相時而動。《易》曰:'其亡其亡,系于苞桑。'惟陛下圖之。」傉檀曰:「孤將略地,卿無沮眾。」謂其太子武台曰:「今不種多年,內外俱窘,事宜西行,以拯此弊。蒙遜近去,不能卒來,旦夕所慮,唯在熾盤。彼名微眾寡,易以討禦,吾不過一月,自足周旋。汝謹守樂都,無使失墮。」傉檀乃率騎七千襲乙弗,大破之,獲牛馬羊四十餘萬。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan proposed a western campaign against the Yifu. Meng Kai remonstrated with him, saying, "For several years now, we have been unable to collect a harvest, and those above and below are suffering from famine and want. Beyond that, we are still threatened to the south by Qifu Chipan and to the north by Juqu Mengxun. The common people are stirred up, and they cannot practice their livelihoods in peace. If you now go on this distant campaign, even if you are successful, the threat to our rear would be serious indeed. Better for you to agree to a pact and arrange terms with Qifu Chipan, gather grain to get through this difficult time, nurture and supervise your various forces, build up a healthy supply of military resources, gather your strength and drill your soldiers, and wait for a more opportune time before acting. The Book of Changes has the passage, ''We may perish! We may perish!", as things become like being bound to a clump of bushy mulberry trees'. I implore Your Majesty to consider this."

But Tufa Nutan told him, "I am about to expand our territory; do not hinder our soldiers." And he said to his Crown Prince, Tufa Wutai, "It is precisely because we have lacked harvests for several years and the people within and without are all exhausted that I wish to launch this western campaign and rescue the situation. Now Juqu Mengxun marched against us so recently that he cannot return quickly. The only immediate threat we face is from Qifu Chipan. But Qifu Chipan is of slight reputation and has few troops, so he can easily be dealt with. As for me, I will need no more than a month to carry out the campaign and then return. You must be diligent in defending Ledu; do not lose your position."

Then Tufa Nutan led seven thousand cavalry west to launch a surprise attack against the Yifu tribe. He greatly routed them and captured more than four hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep.


河南王熾磐聞之,欲襲樂都,羣臣咸以爲不可。太府主簿焦襲曰:「傉檀不顧近患而貪遠利,我今伐之,絕其西路,使不得還救,則虎臺獨守窮城,可坐禽也。此天亡之時,必不可失。」熾磐從之,帥步騎二萬襲樂都。虎臺憑城拒守,熾磐四面攻之。

14. When Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had left on campaign, he wanted to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. His ministers all believed that it could not be done. But the Registrar to the Grand Staff, Jiao Xi, told him, "Tufa Nutan is ignoring threats close at hand in order to chase after profits far away. If we campaign against his territory now, we can cut off his road back home from the west. Then he will not be able to rescue his territory; Tufa Hutai will be left alone in an isolated city, and we can capture Ledu at our leisure. Heaven is willing Tufa Nutan's destruction; you cannot neglect this opportunity."

Qifu Chipan followed his advice. He led twenty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. Tufa Hutai manned the walls and opposed him, and Qifu Chipan assaulted the city from all sides.

〈近患,謂蒙遜、熾磐;遠利,謂乙弗。〉〈樂都之西路,此傉檀自乙弗還樂都路也。〉

(The "threats close at hand" were Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan, while the "profits far away" were the Yifu tribe.

By cutting off the western road, Tufa Nutan would not be able to return from the Yifu tribe's territory back to Ledu.)


五[三]年正月,有五色雲起於南山,盤大悅,謂羣臣曰:「吾今年應有所定,王業成矣。」於是繕甲整兵,以伺四方之隙。五月,聞傉檀西征,率步騎二萬襲樂都。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the third year of Yongkang (414), in the first month, clouds of five colors arose at the southern hills. Qifu Chipan was greatly pleased by this omen, telling his ministers, "This very year, I shall secure my reign and complete my royal design." So he repaired his armor and drilled his soldiers, while waiting to see what opportunity would present itself on his borders.

In the fifth month, when Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had gone west on campaign, he led twenty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Ledu.

後襲禿髮傉檀於樂都。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan later launched a surprise attack against Tufa Nutan at Ledu.

僭立十年,有雲五色,起于南山,熾磐以為己瑞,大悅,謂群臣曰:「吾今年應有所定,王業成矣!」於是繕甲整兵,以待四方之隙。聞禿髮辱檀西征乙弗,投劍而起曰:「可以行矣!」率步騎二萬襲樂都。禿髮武台憑城距守,熾磐攻之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the tenth year of Yixi (414), clouds of five colors arose at the southern hills. Qifu Chipan believed that this was a good omen, and he was overjoyed, telling his ministers, "This very year, I shall secure my reign and complete my royal design!" So he repaired his armor and drilled his soldiers, while waiting to see what opportunity would present itself on his borders.

When Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had gone west on campaign against the Yifu, he drew his sword and declared, "Now we can act!" So he led twenty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. Tufa Wutai manned the walls and opposed him, and Qifu Chipan attacked him.


南涼撫軍從事中郎尉肅言於虎臺曰:「外城廣大難守,殿下不若聚國人守內城,肅等帥晉人拒戰於外,雖有不捷,猶足自存。」虎臺曰:「熾磐小賊,旦夕當走,卿何過慮之深!」虎臺疑晉人有異心,悉召豪望有謀勇者閉之於內。孟愷泣曰:「熾磐乘虛內侮,國家危於累卵。愷等進欲報恩,退顧妻子,人思效死,而殿下乃疑之如是邪!」虎臺曰:「吾豈不知君之忠篤,懼餘人脫生慮表,以君等安之耳。」

15. Southern Liang's Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Wei Su, said to Tufa Hutai, "The outer walls of Ledu are so wide that it will be difficult for us to hold them against the enemy. Your Highness should assemble the Compatriots within the inner walls of the city, while allowing me and others to lead the Jin (ethnic Han) people to oppose the enemy at the outer walls. Even if we suffer a reverse there, we can still fall back afterwards."

But Tufa Hutai said, "Qifu Chipan is just some bandit, and he will flee any day now. How can you worry so much about him?"

Tufa Hutai was suspicious that the Jin people were plotting against him. So he summoned all of their influential leaders who were cunning or bold and sealed them within the inner city. Meng Kai wept as he said to Tufa Hutai, "Qifu Chipan is taking advantage of this opening to attack us, and the state is in as much peril as a stack of eggs. We are all devoted to you, and would fight to the death on your behalf; in advancing, we will seek to repay the grace we have been shown, and in falling back, we will think of the fates of our wives and children. How then can Your Highness suspect us like this?"

Tufa Hutai replied, "Sir, of course I know that you are loyal and faithful. But I am concerned that the others might seek to help the enemy in order to save their own lives. That's the only reason why I want you and the others to settle them."

〈國人,謂鮮卑禿髮之種落。〉〈夷人謂華人爲晉人。〉

(The Compatriots were the tribes of the Tufa of the Xianbei.

The tribal peoples called the Hua (ethnic Han) people the Jin people.)


熾磐乘虛來襲,撫軍從事中郎尉肅言于武台曰:「今外城廣大,難以固守,宜聚國人於內城,肅等率諸晉人距戰於外,如或不捷,猶有萬全。」武台曰:「小賊蕞爾,旦夕當走,卿何慮之過也。」武台懼晉人有二心也,乃召豪望有勇謀者閉之於內。孟愷泣曰:「熾磐不道,人神同憤,愷等進則荷恩重遷,退顧妻子之累,豈有二乎!今事已急矣,人思自效,有何猜邪?」武台曰:「吾豈不知子忠,實懼餘人脫生慮表,以君等安之耳。」(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Qifu Chipan took advantage of Tufa Nutan's absence to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. The Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Wei Su, said to Tufa Wutai, "The outer walls of Ledu are so wide that it will be difficult for us to hold them against the enemy. You should assemble the Compatriots within the inner walls of the city, while allowing me and others to lead the Jin (ethnic Han) people to oppose the enemy at the outer walls. Even if we suffer a reverse there, we can still fall back afterwards."

But Tufa Wutai said, "Qifu Chipan is just some bandit, a mere weed, and he will flee any day now. How can you worry so much about him?"

Tufa Wutai was suspicious that the Jin people were plotting against him. So he summoned all of their influential leaders who were cunning or bold and sealed them within the inner city. Meng Kai wept as he said to Tufa Hutai, "Qifu Chipan has acted without principle in attacking us, and both the people and the spirits are indignant against him. As for myself and the others, in advancing, we will seek to repay the grace we have been shown, and in falling back, we will think of the fates of our wives and children. How could we be of two hearts? The situation is so serious that we would fight to the death on your behalf. How then can you suspect us like this?"

Tufa Wutai replied, "Sir, of course I know that you are loyal and faithful. But I am concerned that the others might seek to help the enemy in order to save their own lives. That's the only reason why I want you and the others to settle them."


一夕,城潰,熾磐入樂都,遣平遠將軍捷虔帥騎五千追傉檀,以鎭南將軍謙屯爲都督河右諸軍事、涼州刺史,鎭樂都;禿髮赴單爲西平守,鎭西平;以趙恢爲廣武太守,鎭廣武;曜武將軍王基爲晉興太守,鎭浩亹;徙虎臺及其文武百姓萬餘戶于枹罕。赴單,烏孤之子也。

16. Within a short time, Ledu fell, and Qifu Chipan entered the city. He sent his General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Qifu Jieqian, to lead five thousand cavalry to pursue Tufa Nutan. He appointed his General Who Guards The South, Qifu Qiantun, as Commander of military affairs in the Heyou region and Inspector of Liangzhou and stationed him at Ledu, he appointed Tufa Fudan as Defender of Xiping and stationed him there, he appointed Zhao Hui as Administrator of Guangwu and stationed him there, and he appointed his General of Brilliant Valor, Wang Ji, as Administrator of Jinxing and stationed him at Haomen. He relocated Tufa Hutai, his civil and military officials, and more than ten thousand households of the common people to Fuhan. This Tufa Fudan was a son of Tufa Wugu.

〈捷虔、謙屯,皆乞伏種。〉〈浩亹,音誥門。〉

(Jieqian and Qiantun were members of the Qifu clan.

Haomen is pronounced "gaomen".)


一旬而克。遂入樂都,論功行賞各有差。遣平遠犍虔率騎五千追傉檀,徙武台與其文武及百姓萬餘戶於枹罕。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

After ten days, Ledu fell. When Qifu Chipan entered the city, he praised the achievements and conduct of his followers and distributed suitable rewards to all who deserved them. He sent his General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Qifu Jieqian, to lead five thousand cavalry to pursue Tufa Nutan, and he relocated Tufa Wutai, his civil and military officials, and more than ten thousand households of the common people to Fuhan.

一旬而城潰。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

After ten days, Ledu fell.


河間人褚匡言於燕王跋曰:「陛下龍飛遼、碣,舊邦族黨,傾首朝陽,以日爲歲,請往迎之。」跋曰:「道路數千里,復隔異國,如何可致?」匡曰:「章武臨海,舟楫可通,出於遼西臨渝,不爲難也。」跋許之,以匡爲游擊將軍、中書侍郎,厚資遣之。匡與跋從兄買、從弟睹自長樂帥五千餘戶歸于和龍,契丹、庫莫奚皆降於燕。跋署其大人爲歸善王。跋弟丕避亂在高句麗,跋召之,以爲左僕射,封常山公。

17. In Northern Yan, a native of Hejian commandary, Chu Kuang, said to Feng Ba, "Your Majesty has risen like a dragon in the regions of Liao and Jie. Now your old kinsmen and partisans in your homeland are looking to the east towards you, waiting for your arrival. The days have stretched on to years by now. I ask that you go to receive them."

Feng Ba objected, "The distance there is many thousands of li, and the way passes through enemy territory. How then could I do so?"

Chu Kuang replied, "Zhangwu is by the sea, and you could launch boats from there. If you go by Linyu county in Liaoxi commandary, it would not be hard."

So Feng Ba agreed to his request; he appointed Chu Kuang as General of Fierce Assault and Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat and provided him with supplies before sending him on his way. Chu Kuang and Feng Ba's cousins Feng Mai and Feng Du set out from Zhangle and led more than five thousand households to return to Helong.

The Khitan and Kumoxi people all surrendered to Northern Yan, and Feng Ba appointed their chiefs as Princes of Guishan ("Princes Who Submit To Right").

Feng Ba's younger brother Feng Pi had earlier fled to Goguryeo in order to escape the chaos in Later Yan. Feng Ba now summoned him back and appointed him as Deputy Director of the Left and Duke of Changshan.

〈言日生於東,猶馮跋興於遼、碣也。其族黨在長樂者,傾首而東望之。碣,其謁翻。〉〈跋之先,長樂信都人,而章武郡則晉分漢勃海郡所置也。自信都至章武,可以浮海至遼西。〉〈臨渝縣,漢屬遼西郡。《水經》曰:碣石在縣南。〉〈漢高帝置信都郡,景帝二年爲廣川國,明帝更名樂成,安帝改曰安平,晉改曰長樂。〉

(Just as the sun rises in the east, Feng Ba had risen in the eastern regions of Liao and Jie. His kinsmen and partisans at Zhangle were lifting their heads and looking east towards him as though looking towards the rising sun.

The term Jie is pronounced "qie (q-ie)".

Feng Ba's ancestors had been natives of Xindu county in Zhangle commandary, while Zhangwu commandary had been split off by Jin from Han's Bohai commandary. By going from Xindu to Zhangwu, one could then reach Liaoxi commandary by sailing across the sea.

During Han, Linyu county was part of Liaoxi commandary. The Water Classic states, "Jieshi was in the south of this county."

Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) had created Xindu commandary. In the second year of the reign of Emperor Jing of Han (156 BC), it became the Guangchuang princely fief. Emperor Ming of Han later renamed it to Lecheng, and Emperor An of Han renamed it to Anping. Jin renamed it to Zhangle.)


柔然可汗斛律將嫁女於燕,斛律兄子步鹿眞謂斛律曰:「幼女遠嫁憂思,請以大臣樹黎等女爲媵。」斛律不許。步鹿眞出,謂樹黎等曰:「斛律欲以汝女爲媵,遠適他國。」樹黎恐,與步鹿眞謀使勇士夜伏於斛律穹廬之後,伺其出而執之,與女皆送於燕,立步鹿眞爲可汗而相之。

18. The Rouran khan Yujiulü Hulü was about to send his daughter as a wife to Northern Yan. His nephew Yujiulü Buluzhen said to him, "I am concerned at the prospect of you sending your young daughter to be married off to such a distant place. Please have your great ministers, Shuli and the rest, send their own daughters along to accompany her as ladies-in-waiting."

But Yujiulü Hulü did not agree. Yujiulü Buluzhen then left, and he went to Shuli and the others and told them, "Yujiulü Hulü is planning to claim your daughters as ladies-in-waiting to his daughter, and send them off to a distant state."

Shuli was furious, and he and Yujiulü Buluzhen hatched a plot. They sent strong fellows to hide behind Yujiulü Hulü's yurt, and these fellows waited until Yujiulü Hulü came out and then arrested him. They exiled him and his daughter to Northern Yan, while acclaiming Yujiulü Buluzhen as the new Khan and supporting him.

初,社崙之徙高車也,高車人叱洛侯爲之鄕導以倂諸部,社崙德之,以爲大人。步鹿眞與社崙之子社拔共至叱洛侯家,淫甚少妻,妻告步鹿眞曰:「叱洛侯欲奉大檀爲主。」大檀者,社崙季父僕渾之子也,領別部鎭西境,素得衆心。步鹿眞歸而發兵圍叱洛侯,叱洛侯自殺。遂引兵襲大檀,大檀逆擊,破之,執步鹿眞及社拔,殺之,自立爲可汗,號牟汗紇升蓋可汗。

19. Many years earlier, when Yujiulü Shelun had been living among the Gaoche people, one of them, Luohouwei, had served as his guide and brought him among the various tribes there. Yujiulü Shelun had respected Luohouwei and appointed him as a chieftain.

At this time, Yujiulü Buluzhen and Yujiulü Shelun's son Yujiulü Sheba both went to Luohouwei's home, acting despicably with his young wife, who told them, "Luohouwei is planning to support Yujiulü Datan as the new leader." This Yujiulü Datan was the son of Yujiulü Shelun's uncle Yujiulü Puhun; he was in command of a different force of the Rouran, on the western border, and had long enjoyed the regard of the people. So Yujiulü Buluzhen returned and raised troops to surround Luohouwei, who killed himself. Yujiulü Buluzhen then led his troops to launch a surprise attack against Yujiulü Datan. However, Yujiulü Datan counter-attacked and routed them, and he captured Yujiulü Buluzhen and Yujiulü Sheba and killed them.

Yujiulü Datan then declared himself the new Khan, and his title was the Mouhanheshenggai Khan.

〈事見一百十二卷元興元年。〉〈魏收曰:魏言制勝也。〉

(Yujiulü Shelun's time living in the region of the Gaoche people is mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxing (402.6).

The Book of Northern Wei states, "In the language of the people of Wei, this term 'Mouhanheshenggai' meant 'one who controls victory'.")


斛律至和龍,燕王跋賜斛律爵上谷侯,館之遼東,待以客禮,納其女爲昭儀。斛律上書請還其國,跋曰:「今棄國萬里,又無內應,若以重兵相送,則饋運難繼,兵少則不足成功,如何可還?」斛律固請,曰:「不煩重兵,願給三百騎,送至敕勒,國人必欣然來迎。」跋乃遣單于前輔萬陵帥騎三百送之。陵憚遠役,至黑山,殺斛律而還。大檀亦遣使獻馬三千匹、羊萬口于燕。

20. When Yujiulü Hulü arrived at Helong, Feng Ba appointed him as Marquis of Shanggu and granted him a residence at Liaodong, treating him as an honored guest. He took his daughter as a Zhaoyi concubine.

When Yujiulü Hulü sent up a letter asking to return to his territory, Feng Ba said, "But you have just been cast out of your state and have traveled ten thousand li here to join me, and there is no one within your state who would support your return. If I send a great army to escort you back, then it would be difficult to keep them supplied, while if I send a small one then they would not be enough to achieve success. How then could you return?"

But Yujiulü Hulü continued to insist, saying, "You need not trouble yourself with sending a great army. I ask only for three hundred cavalry to escort me to the Tiele people, who will welcome me with open arms."

So Feng Ba sent his Forward Support to the Chanyu, Wan Ling, to lead three hundred cavalry to escort Yujiulü Hulü. But Wan Ling was afraid at the prospect of such a distant campaign. So when the group arrived at Mount Hei, he killed Yujiulü Hulü and then turned back.

Yujiulü Datan sent envoys to Northern Yan, presenting three thousand horses and ten thousand sheep as tribute.

〈黑山在唐振武之北塞外,卽殺胡山也。〉

(Mount Hei is north beyond the borders of the realm in Tang's Zhenwu commandary; it was also called Mount Shahu ("Mount Killed Barbarian").)


六月,泰山太守劉硏等帥流民七千餘家、河西胡酋劉遮等帥部落萬餘家,皆降於魏。

21. In the sixth month, Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Liu Yan, and others led more than seven thousand households of common people to surrender to Wei. So did tribal leaders from Hexi commandary, Liu Zhe and others, who led more than ten thousand families of their forces to surrender.

六月,司馬德宗冠軍將軍、太山太守劉研弟,輔國將軍、領東平太守陽平趙鸞,廣威將軍、平昌太守羅卓,斗城屠各帥張文興等,率流民七千餘家內屬。河西胡酋劉遮、劉退孤率部落等萬餘家,渡河內屬。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the sixth month, Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Champion General and Administrator of Taishan, Liu Yandi, his General Who Upholds The State and acting Administrator of Dongping, Zhao Luan of Yangping commandary, his General of Broad Might and Administrator of Pingchang, Luo Zhuo, a leader of the Chuge clan of the Xiongnu at Doucheng, Zhang Wenxing, and others led more than seven thousand families of common people to settle within Northern Wei's territory. So did tribal leaders from Hexi commandary, Liu Zhe and Liu Tuigu, who led more than ten thousand families of their forces to cross the Yellow River and settle within Northern Wei territory.


戊申,魏主嗣如豺山宮;丁亥,還平城。

22. On the day Wushen (July 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Dinghai (?), he returned to Pingcheng.

戊申,幸犲山宮。丁亥,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Wushen (July 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Dinghai (?), he returned to the palace.


樂都之潰也,南涼安西將軍樊尼自西平奔告南涼王傉檀,傉檀謂其衆曰:「今妻子皆爲熾磐所虜,退無所歸,卿等能與吾藉乙弗之資,取契汗以贖妻子乎?」乃引兵西;衆多逃還,傉檀遣鎭北將軍段苟追之,苟亦不還。於是將士皆散,唯樊尼與中軍將軍紇勃、後軍將軍洛肱、散騎侍郎陰利鹿不去,傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾磐昔皆委質於吾,今而歸去,不亦鄙乎!四海之廣,無所容身,何其痛也!與其聚而同死,不若分而或全。樊尼,吾長兄之子,宗部所寄;吾衆在北者戶垂一萬,蒙遜方招懷士民,存亡繼絕,汝其從之;紇勃、洛肱亦與尼俱行。吾年老矣,所適不容,寧見妻子而死!」遂歸于熾磐,唯陰利鹿隨之。傉檀謂利鹿曰:「吾親屬皆散,卿何獨留?」利鹿曰:「臣老母在家,非不思歸;然委質爲臣,忠孝之道,難以兩全。臣不才,不能爲陛下泣血求救於鄰國,敢離左右乎!」傉檀歎曰:「知人固未易。大臣親戚皆棄我去,今日忠義終始不虧者,唯卿一人而已!」

23. When Ledu had fallen, Southern Liang's General Who Maintains The West, Tufa Fanni, fled from Xiping to inform Tufa Nutan of what had happened. Tufa Nutan addressed his soldiers, saying, "Our wives and children are all now captives of Qifu Chipan, and there is no place for us to flee to. Will you all join me in use the resources of the Yifu to capture the Qihan and use them to ransom our wives and children?" And he led his troops west to attack those people. But many of his soldiers deserted him to return home, and when Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Guards The North, Duan Gou, to pursue them, Duan Gou did not return either. In the end, most of Tufa Nutan's generals and soldiers abandoned him; only Tufa Fanni, the General of the Central Army, He Bo, the General of the Rear Army, Luo Gong, and the Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Yin Lilu, did not leave him.

Tufa Nutan said to them, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow! Now rather than all of us dying together, we should split up so that at least some of us will live. Tufa Fanni, you are my eldest brother's son, and my clan relies upon you. And I still have nearly ten thousand people living in the north of my territory. Juqu Mengxun is still working hard to win over both the gentry and the common people, so to ensure the succession of our clan, you should go to join him. He Bo and Luo Gong, you should go with Tufa Fanni. As for me, I am too old, and I have no place to flee to. I might as well see my wife and children once more before I die!" So Tufa Nutan went to Qifu Chipan, with only Yin Lilu to accompany him.

Tufa Nutan said to Yin Lilu, "Even my relatives and friends have all abandoned me. Why do you alone stay by my side?"

Yin Lilu replied, "I do have an aged mother at home, and of course I wish to return there. But I have sworn to be devoted to you, and when it comes to loyalty and filial piety, it is hard to uphold both ideals at once. Though I am not talented, how can I dare to abandon Your Majesty when you have been reduced to weeping blood and begging for refuge from our neighbors?"

Tufa Nutan lamented, "How difficult it is to really know people. Abandoned by all my great ministers and relatives alike. Sir, you alone are the only one who has shown full loyalty and righteousness rather than harm me!"

〈蒙遜稱臣於利鹿孤,見一百一十二卷隆安五年;熾磐父子歸利鹿孤,見一百一十一卷四年。〉〈樊尼蓋烏孤之子也。〉〈紇,戶骨翻。〉

(Juqu Mengxun had earlier declared himself Tufa Lilugu's vassal, as mentioned in Book 112, in the fifth year of Long'an (401.37). Qifu Chipan and his father Qifu Gangui had actually taken refuge under Tufa Lilugu, as mentioned in Book 111, in the fourth year of Long'an (400.31).

Since Tufa Nutan calls him "my eldest brother's son", Tufa Fanni must have been the son of Tufa Wugu.

He Bo's surname, 紇, is pronounced "hu (h-u)".)


熾盤乘虛來襲,一旦而城潰,安西樊尼自西平奔告傉檀,傉檀謂衆曰:「今樂都為熾盤所陷,卿等能與吾籍乙弗之資,取契汗以贖妻子者,是所望也。」遂引師而西,衆多逃返,遣征北段苟追之,苟亦不還。於是將士皆散。傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾盤昔皆委質於吾,今而歸之,不亦鄙乎!四海之廣,匹夫無所容其身,何其痛哉!吾老矣,寧見妻子而死,遂歸熾盤。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Qifu Chipan took advantage of Tufa Nutan's absence and launched a surprise attack against Ledu, and within a short time, the city fell. The General Who Maintains The West, Tufa Fanni, fled from Xiping to inform Tufa Nutan of what had happened.

Tufa Nutan addressed his soldiers, saying, "Ledu has fallen to Qifu Chipan. My hope is that you all will join me in using the resources of the Yifu to capture the Qihan and use them to ransom our wives and children." And he led his troops west to attack those people. But many of his soldiers deserted him to return home, and when Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Guards The North, Duan Gou, to pursue them, Duan Gou did not return either. In the end, his generals and soldiers all scattered.

Tufa Nutan said, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow! But I am too old now, and I might as well see my wife and children once more before I die." So Tufa Nutan went to Qifu Chipan.

而乞伏熾磐乘虛襲樂都克之,執傉檀子虎臺以下。傉檀聞之曰:「若歸熾磐,便為奴僕,豈忍見妻子在他懷中也!」引眾而西,眾皆離散。傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾磐昔皆委質於吾,今而歸之,不亦鄙哉!四海之廣,無所容身,何其痛乎!」既乃歎曰:「吾老矣,寧見妻子而死。」(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Qifu Chipan took advantage of Tufa Nutan's absence by launching a surprise attack against Ledu; he took the city, and captured Tufa Nutan's son Tufa Hutai and his other ministers. When Tufa Nutan heard this, he said to his soldiers, "If you go to Qifu Chipan now, you will only become his slaves. And how can you bear to leave your wives and children in the hands of another?" So he led his troops west, but they all scattered and deserted.

Tufa Nutan then said, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow!" He sighed and continued, "But I am an old man now. I should at least see my wife and children again before I die."

安西樊尼自西平奔告傉檀,傉檀謂眾曰:「今樂都為熾磐所陷,男夫盡殺,婦女賞軍,雖欲歸還,無所赴也。卿等能與吾藉乙弗之資,取契汗以贖妻子者,是所望也。不爾,歸熾磐便為奴僕矣,豈忍見妻子在他人懷抱中!」遂引師而西,眾多逃返,遣鎮北段苟追之,苟亦不還。於是將士皆散,惟中軍紇勃、後軍洛肱、安西樊尼、散騎侍郎陰利鹿在焉。傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾磐昔皆委質於吾,今而歸之,不亦鄙哉!四海之廣,匹夫無所容其身,何其痛也!蒙遜與吾名齊年比,熾磐姻好少年,俱其所忌,勢皆不濟。與其聚而同死,不如分而或全。樊尼長兄之子,宗部所寄,吾眾在北者戶垂二萬,蒙遜方招懷遐邇,存亡繼絕,汝其西也。紇勃、洛肱亦與尼俱。吾年老矣,所適不容,甯見妻子而死!」遂歸熾磐,唯陰利鹿隨之。傉檀謂利鹿曰:「去危就安,人之常也。吾親屬皆散,卿何獨留?」利鹿曰:「臣老母在家,方寸實亂。但忠孝之義,勢不俱全。雖不能西哭沮渠,申包胥之誠;東感秦援,展毛遂之操,負羈靮而侍陛下者,臣之分也。惟願開弘遠猷,審進止之算。」傉檀歎曰:「知人固未易,人亦未易知。大臣親戚皆棄我去,終紿不虧者,唯卿一人。歲寒不凋,見之於卿。」(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

The General Who Maintains The West, Tufa Fanni, fled from Xiping to inform Tufa Nutan of what had happened. Tufa Nutan addressed his soldiers, saying, "Ledu has fallen to Qifu Chipan; the men were all killed and the women were distributed among his soldiers as rewards. Now, even if we wished to return home, there is no place for us to flee to. It is my hope that you will all join me in using the resources of the Yifu to capture the Qihan and use them to ransom our wives and children. Otherwise, if you go to Qifu Chipan now, you will only become his slaves. And how can you bear to leave your wives and children in the hands of another?" And he led his troops west. But many of his soldiers deserted him to return home, and when Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Guards The North, Duan Gou, to pursue them, Duan Gou did not return either. In the end, most of Tufa Nutan's generals and soldiers abandoned him; only Tufa Fanni, the General of the Central Army, He Bo, the General of the Rear Army, Luo Gong, and the Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Yin Lilu, did not leave him.

Tufa Nutan said to them, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow! Now Juqu Mengxun has about the same reputation as me and is around the same age, while Qifu Chipan is my relative by marriage and a young man; both of them have cause to be suspicious of me, so there is no way I can escape the danger. So rather than all of us dying together, we should split up so that at least some of us will live. Tufa Fanni, you are my eldest brother's son, and my clan relies upon you. And I still have nearly twenty thousand households living in the north of my territory. Juqu Mengxun is still working hard to win over those both near and far, so to ensure the succession of our clan, you should go west to join him. He Bo and Luo Gong, you should go with Tufa Fanni. As for me, I am too old, and I have no place to flee to. I might as well see my wife and children once more before I die!" So Tufa Nutan went to Qifu Chipan, with only Yin Lilu to accompany him.

Tufa Nutan said to Yin Lilu, "It's human nature to flee from danger and seek safety. Even my relatives and friends have all abandoned me. Why then do you alone stay by my side?"

Yin Lilu replied, "I do have an aged mother at home, and I am indeed courting danger. But when it comes to loyalty and filial piety, it is hard to uphold both ideals at once. I may not be able to go west and weep before Juqu Mengxun in the hopes that he will assist you, and thus prove my sincerity like Shen Baoxu of old, or else go east and make my case to Qin so that they will send aid, thus emulating the deeds of Mao Sui. But at least it will be my share to bear your bridle and accompany you, Your Majesty. I ask only that you consider and develop distant and lofty plans, and discern your movements carefully."

Tufa Nutan lamented, "How difficult it is to really know people, or to recognize them. Abandoned by all my great ministers and relatives alike. Sir, you alone are the only one who has shown full loyalty and righteousness rather than harm me; you alone have not withered before the cold."


傉檀諸城皆降於熾磐,獨尉賢政屯浩亹,固守不下。熾磐遣人謂之曰:「樂都已潰,卿妻子皆在吾所,獨守一城,將何爲也?」賢政曰:「受涼王厚恩,爲國藩屛。雖知樂都已陷,妻子爲禽,先歸獲賞,後順受誅;然不知主上存亡,未敢歸命;妻子小事,豈足動心!若貪一時之利,忘委付之重者,大王亦安用之!」熾磐乃遣虎臺以手書諭之,賢政曰:「汝爲儲副,不能盡節,面縛於人,棄父忘君,墮萬世之業,賢政義士,豈效汝乎!」聞傉檀至左南,乃降。

24. By now, most of Tufa Nutan's cities had all surrendered to Qifu Chipan. Only Wei Xianzheng, who was camped at Haomen, was still defending that place and would not submit. Qifu Chipan sent someone to tell him, "Ledu has already fallen, I have captured your wife and children, and you control only this single city. What can you hope to achieve?"

But Wei Xianzheng replied, "I have received the King of Liang's favor and grace, and he has entrusted me with the defence of his borders. I recognize that Ledu has fallen and my wife and children are prisoners, and I know the principle that those who submit early are rewarded while those who give in later are executed. But I still do not know whether my lord is alive or dead, and until then, I dare not give up my duty. How could my heart be swayed by something as insignificant as the fate of my wife and children? And what use would I ever be to you, Great King, if I would chase after short-term benefits at the cost of abandoning my post?"

Qifu Chipan then had Tufa Hutai handwrite a letter to Wei Xianzheng ordering him to surrender. But Wei Xianzheng replied, "You were the heir of the state, yet rather than uphold your duty to the very end, you bound yourself and surrendered to the enemy. You have abandoned your father, cast aside your sovereign, and let fall the legacy of your ancestors. I, Wei Xianzheng, am determined to be a martyr; how could I act like you?"

Only when Wei Xianzheng heard that Tufa Nutan had arrived at Zuonan did he surrender to Qifu Chipan.

〈主上,謂傉檀也。〉〈闞駰《十三州志》曰:左南城在金城白土縣東六十里。《晉志》:張氏置晉興郡,左南縣屬焉。是縣蓋亦張氏所置也。〉

(By "my lord", Wei Xianzheng meant Tufa Nutan.

Kan Yin's Records of the Thirteen Provinces states, "The city of Zuonan was sixty li east of Baitu county in Jincheng commandary." The Records of Jin states, "The Zhang clan of Former Liang created Jinxing commandary; Zuonan county was part of it." Zuonan county itself must have also been created by the Zhang clan.)


初,樂都之潰也,諸城皆降於熾磐,傉檀將尉賢政固守浩亹不下。熾磐呼之曰:「樂都已潰,卿妻子皆在吾間,孤城獨守,何所為也!」賢政曰:「受涼王厚恩,為國家籓屏,雖知樂都已陷,妻子為擒,先歸獲賞,後順受誅,然不知主上存亡,未敢歸命。妻子小事,豈足動懷!昔羅憲待命,晉文亮之;文聘後來,魏武不責。邀一時之榮,忘委付之重,竊用恥焉,大王亦安用之哉!」熾磐乃遣武台手書喻政,政曰:「汝為國儲,不能盡節,面縛於人,棄父負君,虧萬世之業,賢政義士,豈如汝乎!」既而聞傉檀至左南,乃降。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Originally, when Ledu fell, most of Tufa Nutan's cities had all surrendered to Qifu Chipan. Only his general Wei Xianzheng, who was camped at Haomen, was still defending that place and would not submit. Qifu Chipan shouted to him, "Ledu has already fallen, I have captured your wife and children, and you control only this single city. What can you hope to achieve?"

But Wei Xianzheng replied, "I have received the King of Liang's favor and grace, and he has entrusted me with the defence of his borders. I recognize that Ledu has fallen and my wife and children are prisoners, and I know the principle that those who submit early are rewarded while those who give in later are executed. But I still do not know whether my lord is alive or dead, and until then, I dare not give up my duty. How could my heart be swayed by something as insignificant as the fate of my wife and children? In former times, Luo Xian maintained his post and would not surrender his duty, and Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) praised him for it; Wen Ping was late in submitting to Wu of Wei (Cao Cao), but received no censure for it. And if I were to be so shameful as to chase after short-term benefits at the cost of abandoning my post, what use would I ever be to you, Great King?"

Qifu Chipan then had Tufa Wutai handwrite a letter to Wei Xianzheng ordering him to surrender. But Wei Xianzheng replied, "You were the heir of the state, yet rather than uphold your duty to the very end, you bound yourself and surrendered to the enemy. You have abandoned your father, cast aside your sovereign, and let fall the legacy of your ancestors. I, Wei Xianzheng, am determined to be a martyr; how could I act like you?"

Only when Wei Xianzheng heard that Tufa Nutan had arrived at Zuonan did he surrender to Qifu Chipan.


熾磐聞傉檀至,遣使郊迎,待以上賓之禮。秋,七月,熾磐以傉檀爲驃騎大將軍,賜爵左南公,南涼文武,依才銓敍。歲餘,熾磐使人鴆傉檀;左右請解之,傉檀曰:「吾病豈宜療邪!」遂死,諡曰景王。虎臺亦爲熾磐所殺。傉檀子保周、賀,俱延子覆龍,利鹿孤孫副周,烏孤孫承鉢,皆奔河西王蒙遜,久之,又奔魏。魏以保周爲張掖王,覆龍爲酒泉公,賀西平公,副周永平公,承鉢昌松公。魏主嗣愛賀之才,謂曰:「卿之先與朕同源,賜姓源氏。」

25. When Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had come to him, he sent envoys to welcome Tufa Nutan at the borders, and he treated him as a guest of honor. In autumn, the seventh month, Qifu Chipan appointed Tufa Nutan as his Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan, and the former civil and military officials of Southern Liang were all appointed to posts in Western Qin according to their talents.

A year later, Qifu Chipan had someone poison Tufa Nutan. When Tufa Nutan's attendants tried to treat him, Tufa Nutan told them, "What cure can there be for this illness?" He then died, and was granted the posthumous title Prince Jing ("the Splendid"). Qifu Chipan also killed Tufa Hutai.

Tufa Nutan's sons Tufa Baozhou and Tufa He, Tufa Juyan's son Tufa Fulong, Tufa Lilugu's grandson Tufa Fuzhou, and Tufu Wugu's grandson Tufa Chengbo all fled to Juqu Mengxun, and sometime later, they then fled to Wei. Wei appointed Tufa Baozhou as Prince of Zhangye, Tufa Fulong as Duke of Jiuquan, Tufa He as Duke of Xiping, Tufa Fuzhou as Duke of Yongping, and Tufa Chengbo as Duke of Changsong.

Emperor Mingyuan of Wei treasured Tufa He for his talents, and he told him, "Your ancestors and I had the same origin. Thus I will grant you the surname Yuan ('origin')."

〈《載記》曰:禿髮烏孤至傉檀三世,十九年而滅。〉〈爲源氏昌大於魏張本。〉

(The Biography of Tufa Nutan in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Southern Liang lasted three generations and twenty-nine years, from Tufa Wugu to Tufa Nutan, then perished."

This was why the Yuan clan later became great and prominent in Northern Wei.)


是歲,禿髮傉檀為乞伏熾磐所滅。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (414), Tufa Nutan was conquered by Qifu Chipan.

夏六月,乞伏熾盤帥師伐禿髮傉檀,滅之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the sixth month, Qifu Chipan led an army to campaign against Tufa Nutan and conquered him.

傉檀降,遂并南涼,兵強地廣。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Tufa Nutan surrendered, and Qifu Chipan annexed Southern Liang, thus greatly strengthening his army and expanding his territory.

滅禿髮傉檀。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan conquered Tufa Nutan.

傉檀遂降,署為驃騎大將軍、左南公。隨傉檀文武,依才銓擢之。熾磐既兼傉檀,兵強地廣。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Tufa Nutan surrendered, and Qifu Chipan appointed him as his Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan. The former civil and military officials of Southern Liang who had followed Tufa Nutan were all appointed to posts in Western Qin according to their talents.

Now that Qifu Chipan had conquered Tufa Nutan, he had greatly strengthened his army and expanded his territory.

六月,至西平,盤遣使郊迎,以上賓之禮。歲餘,為熾盤所鴆。諡景王,時年五十一。虎臺亦為熾盤所害。少子保週歸魏,魏以為張掖王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the sixth month, Tufa Nutan arrived at Xiping. Qifu Chipan sent envoys to welcome Tufa Nutan at the borders, and he treated him as a guest of honor.

A year later, Tufa Nutan was poisoned by Qifu Chipan. His posthumous title was Prince Jing; at the time of his death, he was fifty years old. Tufa Hutai was also killed by Qifu Chipan.

Tufa Nutan's young son Tufa Baozhou fled to Northern Wei, who appointed him as their Prince of Zhangye.

遂降熾磐,熾磐待以上賓之禮,用為驃騎大將軍,封左南公。歲餘,鴆殺之。傉檀少子賀,後來奔,自有傳。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan surrendered to Qifu Chipan, who treated him as a guest of honor; he appointed him as Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan.

The following year, Qifu Chipan poisoned Tufa Nutan to death.

Tufa Nutan's young son Tufa He later fled to Northern Wei. He has his own biography.

傉檀至西平,熾磐遣使郊迎,待以上賓之禮... 熾磐以傉檀為驃騎大將軍,封左南公。歲餘,為熾磐所鴆。左右勸傉檀解藥,傉檀曰:「吾病豈宜療邪!」遂死,時年五十一,在位十三年,偽諡景王。武台後亦為熾磐所殺。傉檀少子保周、臘於破羌、俱延子覆龍、鹿孤孫副周、烏孤孫承缽皆奔沮渠蒙遜。久之,歸魏,魏以保周為張掖王,覆龍酒泉公,破羌西平公,副周永平公,承缽昌松公。烏孤以安帝隆安元年僭立,至傉檀三世,凡十九年,以安帝義熙十年滅。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

When Tufa Nutan came to Xiping, Qifu Chipan sent envoys to welcome him at the borders, and he treated him as a guest of honor. He appointed Tufa Nutan as his Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan.

A year later, Qifu Chipan poisoned Tufa Nutan. When Tufa Nutan's attendants urged him to take medicine, Tufa Nutan told them, "What cure can there be for this illness?" He then died; he was fifty years old, and had reigned for thirteen years. His posthumous title was Prince Jing. Tufa Wutai was later also killed by Qifu Chipan.

Tufa Nutan's young sons Tufa Baozhou and Tufa Poqiang, Tufa Juyan's son Tufa Fulong, Tufa Lilugu's grandson Tufa Fuzhou, and Tufu Wugu's grandson Tufa Chengbo all fled to Juqu Mengxun, and sometime later, they then fled to Northern Wei. Northern Wei appointed Tufa Baozhou as Prince of Zhangye, Tufa Fulong as Duke of Jiuquan, Tufa Poqiang as Duke of Xiping, Tufa Fuzhou as Duke of Yongping, and Tufa Chengbo as Duke of Changsong.

Southern Liang had lasted for three generations and nineteen years, from the beginning of Tufa Wugu's reign in the first year of Long'an (396) to the end of Tufa Nutan's reign in the tenth year of Yixi (414), then perished.

源賀,自署河西王禿髮傉檀之子也。傉檀為乞伏熾磐所滅,賀自樂都來奔。賀偉容貌,善風儀。世祖素聞其名,及見,器其機辯,賜爵西平侯,加龍驤將軍。謂賀曰:「卿與朕源同,因事分姓,今可為源氏。」(Book of Northern Wei 41, Biography of Yuan He)

Yuan He, originally Tufa He, was the son of the self-declared King of Hexi, Tufa Nutan. When Tufa Nutan was conquered by Tufa Nutan, Tufa He fled from Ledu to Northern Wei. He had a fine figure and striking bearing, as well as excellent mannerisms. Emperor Taiwu had long heard of his reputation, and when he saw Tufa He for himself and appreciated his capabilities, he appointed him as Northern Wei's Marquis of Xiping and Dragon-Soaring General. He said to Tufa He, "Your ancestors and I had the same origin, and only through circumstance did we come to have different surnames. Thus I will grant you the surname Yuan ('origin')."


八月,戊子,魏主嗣遣馬邑侯陋孫使於秦,辛丑,遣謁者于什門使於燕,悅力延使於柔然。于什門至和龍,不肯入見,曰:「大魏皇帝有詔,須馮王出受,然後敢入。」燕王跋使人牽逼令入;什門見跋不拜,跋使人按其項,什門曰:「馮王拜受詔,吾自以賓主致敬,何苦見逼邪!」跋怒,留什門不遣,什門數衆辱之。左右請殺之,跋曰:「彼各爲其主耳。」乃幽執什門,欲降之,什門終不降。久之,衣冠弊壞略盡,蟣蝨流溢;跋遺之衣冠,什門皆不受。

26. In the eighth month, on the day Wuzi (September 1st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei sent his Marquis of Mayi, Tuoba Lousun, as an envoy to Qin. On the day Xinchou (September 14th), he sent his diplomats Yu Shenmen as an envoy to Northern Yan and Yue Liyan as an envoy to the Rouran.

When Yu Shenmen arrived at Helong, he refused to go into the palace, saying, "The Emperor of Great Wei has presented his edict. I must wait for the King to come out and receive the edict; only then I will I dare to go inside." But Feng Ba sent his agents to force Yu Shenmen to enter the palace. When Yu Shenmen met with Feng Ba, he refused to perform obeisance. Feng Ba had people press down against his neck, but Yu Shenmen said, "I will show King Feng the deepest respect due from a guest to a host as soon as he receives the Emperor's edict. Why go to so much trouble to force me so?" Feng Ba, angered, detained Yu Shenmen and would not allow him to return.

Yu Shenmen constantly denounced Feng Ba in front of others, and Feng Ba's attendants asked him to kill Yu Shenmen. But Feng Ba said, "Everyone has their own master."

Feng Ba kept Yu Shenmen under arrest, hoping to break his will, but Yu Shenmen refused to give in. After some time, Yu Shenmen's cap and clothes were completely decayed and he had become covered with lice. Feng Ba sent him a new cap and clothes to wear, but Yu Shenmen refused to accept them.

秋八月戊子,詔馬邑侯元陋孫使於姚興。辛丑,遣謁者悅力延撫慰蠕蠕,于什門招諭馮跋。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Wuzi (September 1st), Emperor Mingyuan sent the Marquis of Mayi, Tuoba Lousun, as an envoy to Yao Xing. On the day Xinchou (September 14th), he sent his diplomats Yue Liyan to comfort and console the Rouran and Yu Shenmen to bear his instructions to Feng Ba.


魏主嗣以博士王諒爲平南參軍,使以平南將軍、相州刺史尉太眞書與太尉裕相聞。太眞,古眞之弟也。

27. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei appointed his Academician, Wang Liang, as Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The South. He had him and the General Who Pacifies The South and Inspector of Xiangzhou, Yu Taizhen, write letters to Liu Yu to keep up a correspondence. This Yu Taizhen was the younger brother of Yu Guzhen.

詔平南將軍、相州刺史尉古真與司馬德宗太尉劉裕相聞,使博士王諒假平南參軍將命焉。姚興遣使來聘。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Emperor Mingyuan ordered his General Who Pacifies The South and Inspector of Xiangzhou, Yu Guzhen, to maintain communications with Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Grand Commandant, Liu Yu. He also sent his Academician, Wang Liang, to serve as Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The South and carry out his orders.

Yao Xing sent envoys to Northern Wei to arrange the betrothal that had been discussed earlier.


九月,丁巳朔,日有食之。

28. In the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (September 30th), there was an eclipse.

九月丁巳朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (September 30th), there was an eclipse.


冬,十月,河南王熾磐復稱秦王,置百官。

29. In winter, the tenth month, Qifu Chipan declared himself King of Qin, and he created the imperial offices.

〈熾磐嗣位,自稱河南王;今幷南涼,復稱秦王。〉

(Upon succeeding his father, Qifu Chipan had originally declared himself King of Henan. Now that he had annexed Southern Liang, he raised his title to King of Qin.)


十月,僭即秦王位,置百官。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the tenth month, Qifu Chipan declared himself King of Qin, and he created the imperial offices.

乃私署秦王,置百官。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan declared himself King of Qin, and he created the imperial offices.

僭立十年... 置百官。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan claimed title as King in the tenth year of Yixi (414), and he created the imperial offices.


燕王跋與夏連和,夏王勃勃遣御史中丞烏洛孫如燕涖盟。

30. Feng Ba opened communications with Xia. Helian Bobo sent his 遣御史中丞, Wu Luosun, to swear a pact between Xia and Northern Yan in his place.

〈春秋之時,列國釋仇通子,兩君不及相見而盟,必使其臣涖盟。《左傳》:陳五父如鄭涖盟是也。杜預曰:涖,臨也。〉

(During the Spring and Autumn era, when the lords of the various states sought to end hostilities and arrange peace with one another, if two lords sought to sign a pact but without actually meeting with one another, they would have their ministers arrange the pact in their place. The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states that Wufu of Chen went to Zheng to arrange such a pact. Du Yu's commentary to that text states, "The term 涖 means to be done in one's place or in absentia.")


十一月,壬午,魏主嗣遣使者巡行諸州,校閱守宰資財,非家所齎,悉簿爲贓。

31. In the eleventh month, on the day Renwu (December 24th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei sent agents to patrol through the various provinces. They audited the wealth and resources of the local officials, and anything not given to their families was confiscated as having been bribes.

冬十一月壬午,詔使者巡行諸州,校閱守宰資財,非自家所齎,悉簿為贓。詔守宰不如法,聽民詣闕告言之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Renwu (December 24th), Emperor Mingyuan sent agents to patrol through the various provinces. They audited the wealth and resources of the local officials, and anything not given to their families was confiscated as having been bribes. They also received visits from the common people and listened to accounts of local officials who had gone against the law.


西秦王熾磐立妃禿髮氏爲后。

32. Qifu Chipan honored his concubine Lady Tufa as his Queen.

〈妃,傉檀之女也。〉

(This Lady Tufa was the daughter of Tufa Nutan.)


立妻禿發氏為王后。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan honored his wife Lady Tufa as his Queen.

立其妻禿髮氏為王后。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan honored his wife Lady Tufa as his Queen.


十二月,丙戌朔,柔然可汗大檀侵魏;丙申,魏主嗣北擊之。大檀走,遣奚斤等追之,遇大雪,士卒凍死及墮指者什二三。

33. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (December 28th), Yujiulü Datan raided Wei. On the day Bingshen (January 7th of 415), Emperor Mingyuan marched north and attacked him. Yujiulü Datan fled, and Emperor Mingyuan sent Xi Jin and others to pursue him. But they encountered heavy snow, and twenty to thirty percent of their army froze to death or suffered frostbite.

十二月丙戌朔,蠕蠕犯塞。丙申,帝北伐蠕蠕。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (December 28th), the Rouran raided the borders. On the day Bingshen (January 7th of 415), Emperor Mingyuan marched north and campaigned against them.


河內人司馬順宰自稱晉王,魏人討之,不克。

34. A native of Henei commandary, Sima Shunzai, declared himself King of Jin. The people of Wei campaigned against him, but without success.

河內人司馬順宰自號晉王。太守討捕不獲。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

A native of Henei commandary, Sima Shunzai, declared himself King of Jin. The Administrator of Henei campaigned against him, but could not capture him.


燕遼西公素弗卒,燕王跋比葬七臨之。

35. In Northern Yan, Feng Sufu passed away. During the burial, Feng Ba came seven times to mourn at his side.

〈古者大臣卒,君三臨其喪。〉

(In ancient times, when a great minister died, it was customary for the sovereign to come three times to mourn at their side.)


是歲,司馬國璠兄弟聚衆數百潛渡淮,夜入廣陵城。青州刺史檀祗領廣陵相,國璠兵直上聽事,祗驚出,將禦之,被射傷而入,謂左右曰:「賊乘闇得入,欲掩我不備;但擊五鼓,彼懼曉,必走矣。」左右如其言,國璠兵果走。

36. It was earlier mentioned that Sima Guofan and his brothers had fled to Qin. During this year, they gathered an army of several hundred people and secretly crossed the Huai River, then entered the walls of Guangling during the night. Jin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Tan Zhi, was acting as Chancellor of Guangling. Sima Guofan's soldiers marched straight towards the administrative complex in Guangling. Alarmed, Tan Zhi rushed out to prepare to oppose them, but he was struck by an arrow and went back inside. He told his attendants, "The rebels have slipped into the city under cover of darkness, hoping to take us unawares. But if you will beat the five drums, the enemy will fear the approach of dawn, and they will surely flee." His attendants did as he said, and Sima Guofan's soldiers indeed ran away. Tan Zhi sent troops to pursue them, killing more than a hundred of them.

〈《祗傳》曰:自北徐州渡淮。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「走」下有「追殺百餘人」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】國璠之擾淮,至是十年矣。〉

(The Biography of Tan Zhi states, "Sima Guofan and his brothers crossed the Huai River from Northern Xuzhou."

Some versions add "Tan Zhi sent troops to pursue Sima Guofan's soldiers, killing more than a hundred of them" to the end of this passage.

By now, Sima Guofan had been raiding and pillaging the Huai River region for ten years.)


魏博士祭酒崔浩爲魏主嗣講《易》及《洪範》,嗣因問浩天文、術數;浩占決多驗,由是有寵,凡軍國密謀皆預之。

37. Wei's Libationer-Academician, Cui Hao, instructed Emperor Mingyuan on the Book of Changes and the Great Plan chapter of the Book of Documents. Emperor Mingyuan thus asked Cui Hao more about reading the heavens and the mystic arts. Many of Cui Hao's divinations and predictions proved to be correct, and he thus enjoyed Emperor Mingyuan's favor; Emperor Mingyuan would always first seek his advice in any critical policies of army or state.

夏王勃勃立夫人梁氏爲王后,子璝爲太子;封子延爲陽平公,昌爲太原公,倫爲酒泉公,定爲平原公,滿爲河南公,安爲中山公。

38. Helian Bobo honored his wife Lady Liang as his Queen, and he appointed his son Helian Gui as Crown Prince. Among his other sons, he appointed Helian Yan as Duke of Yangping, Helian Chang as Duke of Taiyuan, Helian Lun as Duke of Jiuquan, Helian Ding as Duke of Pingyuan, Helian Man as Duke of Henan, and Helian An as Duke of Zhongshan.

二年,立夫人梁氏為后,立子璝為太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

In the second year of Fengxiang (414), Helian Bobo honored his wife Lady Liang as his Queen, and he appointed his son Helian Gui as Crown Prince.

立其妻梁氏為王后,子璝為太子,封子延陽平公,昌太原公,倫酒泉公,定平原公,滿河南公,安中山公。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo honored his wife Lady Liang as his Queen, and he appointed his son Helian Gui as Crown Prince. Among his other sons, he appointed Helian Yan as Duke of Yangping, Helian Chang as Duke of Taiyuan, Helian Lun as Duke of Jiuquan, Helian Ding as Duke of Pingyuan, Helian Man as Duke of Henan, and Helian An as Duke of Zhongshan.
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