Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 116

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 08, 2019 6:02 pm

九年(癸丑、四一三)

The Ninth Year of Yixi (The Guichou Year, 413 AD)


春,二月,庚戌,魏主嗣如高柳川;甲寅,還宮。

1. In spring, the second month, on the day Gengxu (April 1st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Gaoliuchuan. On the day Jiayin (April 5th), he returned to the palace.

五年春正月己巳,大閱,畿內男子十二以上悉集。己卯,幸西宮。頞拔大、渠帥四十餘人詣闕奉貢,賜以繒帛錦罽各有差。乙酉,詔諸州六十戶出戎馬一匹。庚寅,大閱於東郊,部署將帥。以山陽侯奚斤為前軍,眾三萬,陽平王熙等十二將,各一萬騎;帝臨白登,躬自校覽焉。二月戊申,賜陽平王熙及諸王、公、侯、將士布帛各有差。庚戌,幸高柳川。甲寅,車駕還宮。癸丑,穿魚池於北苑。庚午,姚興遣使來聘。詔分遣使者巡求儁逸,其豪門強族為州閭所推者,及有文武才幹、臨疑能決,或有先賢世冑、德行清美、學優義博、可為人師者,各令詣京師,當隨才敍用,以贊庶政。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth year of Yongxing (413), in spring, the first month, on the day Jisi (February 19th), Emperor Mingyuan held a grand review of all males within the capital region who were nineteen years old or older. On the day Jimao (March 1st), he went to the Western Palace. He arranged to have more than forty generals and commanders visit the palace and present tribute, and he rewarded them with suitable gifts of brocades, silk, and other fabrics.

On the day Yiyou (March 7th), Emperor Mingyuan issued an order requiring every sixty households in the provinces to produce one warhouse each.

On the day Gengyin (March 12th), Emperor Mingyuan held a grand review at the eastern suburbs of the capital, where he appointed generals and commanders of his forces. He had the Marquis of Shanyang, Xi Jin, lead a vanguard and assigned him thirty thousand soldiers, and he appointed twelve others as lesser generals with ten thousand cavalry each, including the Prince of Yangping, Tuoba Xi. Emperor Mingyuan personally conducted the review and inspected the various officers.

In the second month, on the day Wushen (March 30th), Emperor Mingyuan bestowed suitable rewards of cloths and silks to Tuoba Xi and to everyone from the nobles down to the officers and soldiers.

On the day Gengxu (April 1st), Emperor Mingyuan went to Gaoliuchuan. On the day Jiayin (April 5th), he returned to the palace. On the day Guichou (April 4th), he dug a fish pond at the Northern Park.

On the day Gengwu (?), Yao Xing sent envoys to Northern Wei for a diplomatic visit.

Emperor Mingyuan sent agents out to various places to patrol and search for talented and reclusive people and to appraise candidates who had been put forward by the provinces and communities. Anyone who possessed great talent and skill at civil or military affairs and who was able to make decisions in the face of uncertainty, whether they be the descendants of the worthies of ancient times, those of virtuous conduct and pure reputation, those of great learning and education, or those suited for commanding armies, were all ordered to visit the capital, where they would be employed according to their talents so that they could assist the government.


太尉裕自江陵東還,駱驛遣輜重兼行而下,前刻至日,每淹留不進。諸葛長民與公卿頻日奉候於新亭,輒差其期。乙丑晦,裕輕舟徑進,潛入東府。三月,丙寅朔旦,長民聞之,驚趨至門。裕伏壯士丁旿於幔中,引長民卻人間語,凡平生所不盡者皆及之。長民甚悅。丁旿自幔後出,於座拉殺之,輿尸付廷尉。收其弟黎民,黎民素驍勇,格鬬而死。幷殺其季弟大司馬參軍幼民、從弟寧朔將軍秀之。

2. When Liu Yu was on his way back east from Jiangling, he constantly sent his baggage train on ahead of him, and arranged a set date for his arrival, always making sure to take stops. Zhuge Changmin and the nobles and chief ministers kept coming out to watch for his arrival at Xinting, expecting to meet him as he returned. But during the night of the day Yichou (April 16th), Liu Yu got into a light boat and rushed ahead the rest of the way, and secretly entered the Eastern Bureau.

In the third month, on the morning of the day Bingyin (April 17th), Zhuge Changmin heard that Liu Yu had arrived. Panicked, he rushed to the gate to meet him. Liu Yu arranged for a strong fellow, Ding Wu, to hide inside his tent. Then he brought Zhuge Changmin into the tent to speak with him, and they entered the tent before the two of them had even finished discussing pleasantries. Zhuge Changmin was most at ease. But then Ding Wu emerged from the rear of the tent and beat Zhuge Changmin to death where he was sitting. He then tied up Zhuge Changmin's body and brought it to the Minister of Justice.

Zhuge Changmin's younger brother Zhuge Limin was also arrested, but he had always been a bold and strong man, and he struggled and fought back until he was killed. Liu Yu also killed the Army Advisor to the Grand Marshal, Zhuge Changmin's youngest brother Zhuge Youmin, and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Zhuge Changmin's cousin Zhuge Xiuzhi.

〈劉穆之、何承天所慮者,裕已了了於胸中矣。〉〈旿,阮古翻。〉

(This passage demonstrates that where Liu Muzhi and He Chengtian had been concerned for the danger Liu Yu might be in when he returned, Liu Yu himself had already figured out how to handle his arrival.

Ding Wu's given name 旿 is pronounced "ru (r-u)".)


九年春三月丙寅,劉裕害前將軍諸葛長民及其弟輔國大將軍黎民、從弟寧朔將軍秀之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), in spring, the third month, on the day Bingyin (April 17th), Liu Yu killed the General of the Front, Zhuge Changmin, the Grand General Who Upholds The State, his younger brother Zhuge Limin, and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, his cousin Zhuge Xiuzhi.

高祖還,長民伏誅。(Book of Liu-Song 42, Biography of Liu Muzhi)

When Liu Yu returned from his campaign, he summarily executed Zhuge Changmin.


庚午,秦王興遣使至魏脩好。

3. On the day Gengwu (April 21st), Yao Xing sent envoys to Wei to improve relations between Qin and Wei.

太尉裕上表曰:「太司馬溫以『民無定本,傷治爲深』,《庚戌》土斷以一其業;于時財阜國豐,實由於此。自茲迄今,漸用頹弛,請申前制。」於是依界土斷,唯徐、兗、青三州居晉陵者,不在斷例;諸流寓郡縣多所倂省。

4. Liu Yu sent up a petition stating, "Grand Marshal Huan Wen once said that 'much harm is done to the administration of the state through the lack of proper registration of the people', and the Gengxu System was organized to mark off people by their locale in order to fulfill that policy. Much good came from that decision; the state became prosperous and the people wealthy. Yet by now, the same errors have been allowed to creep back into the administration of the state. Thus I ask that you once again enforce the previous policy."

So the people were registered according to their actual places of residence; only the refugees from Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou who were now living at Jinling were not so designated. And most of the surrogate commandaries and counties were annexed or abolished.

〈《庚戌制》見一百一卷哀帝興寧二年。〉〈徐、青、兗三州都督率治晉陵,故難以土斷。〉

(The earlier Gengxu System of census and registration is mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's second year of Xingning (364.3).

The surrogate versions of Xuzhou, Qingzhou, and Yanzhou were all administered from Jinling, thus it was difficult to establish different residencies for the people living there.)


戊寅,加裕豫州刺史。裕固讓太傅、州牧。

5. On the day Wuyin (April 29th), Liu Yu was promoted to Inspector of Yuzhou. He strenuously declined the earlier promotions he had received as Grand Tutor and Governor of Yangzhou.

〈辭去年冬所加也。〉

(These were the promotions he had been granted the previous winter.)


戊寅,加劉裕鎮西將軍、豫州刺史。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Wuyin (April 29th), Liu Yu was promoted to General Who Guards The West and Inspector of Yuzhou.


林邑范胡達寇九眞,杜慧度擊斬之。

6. The King of Lâm Ấp (Linyi), Phạm Hồ Đạt (Bhadravarman), invaded Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen commandary). But Du Huidu attacked Phạm Hồ Đạt and took his head.

林邑范胡達寇九真,交州刺史杜慧度斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Phạm Hồ Đạt (Bhadravarman) of Lâm Ấp (Linyi) invaded Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen commandary). But the Inspector of Jiaozhou, Du Huidu, took his head.


河南王熾磐遣鎭東將軍曇達、平東將軍王松壽將兵東擊休官權小郎、呂破胡於白石川,大破之,虜其男女萬餘口,進據白石城。顯親休官權小成、呂奴迦等二萬餘戶據白阬不服,曇達攻斬之,隴右休官悉降。秦太尉索稜以隴西降熾磐,熾磐以稜爲太傅。

7. Qifu Chipan sent his General Who Guards The East, Qifu Tanda, and his General Who Pacifies The East, Wang Songshou, to lead troops east to attack the Xiuguan tribal leaders Quan Xiaolang and Lü Hu at Baishichuan. He greatly routed them, capturing more than ten thousand of their men and women, before advancing to occupy the city of Baishi. Their kinsmen, Quan Xiaocheng, Lü Nujia, and others, led more than twenty thousand households to occupy Baikeng and refused to submit. But Qifu Tanda attacked them and took their heads. Thus all the Xiuguan tribes of the Longyou region surrendered to Western Qin.

Qin's Grand Commandant, Suo Leng, surrendered the Longxi region to Qifu Chipan, who appointed him as Western Qin's Grand Tutor.

〈七年,秦令索稜守隴西以招撫乞伏。〉

(In the seventh year (411.2), Yao Xing had ordered Suo Leng to guard the Longxi region in order to win the Qifu clan back over to his side.)


義熙九年,遣其龍驤乞伏智達、平東王松壽討吐谷渾樹洛幹於澆河,大破之,獲其將呼那烏提,虜三千餘戶而還。又遣其鎮東曇達與松壽率騎一萬,東討破休官權小郎、呂破胡于白石川,虜其男女萬餘口,進據白石城,休官降者萬餘人。後顯親休官權小成、呂奴迦等叛保白坑,曇達謂將士曰:「昔伯珪憑險,卒有滅宗之禍;韓約肆暴,終受覆族之誅。今小成等逆命白坑,宜在除滅。王者之師,有征無戰,粵爾輿人,戮力勉之!」眾咸拔劍大呼,於是進攻白坑,斬小成、奴迦及首級四千七百,隴右休官悉降。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), Qifu Chipan sent his Dragon-Soaring General, Qifu Zhida, and his General Who Pacifies The East, Wang Songshou, to campaign against the Tuyuhun branch leader Luogan at Huanghe. They greatly routed him, and captured his general Huna Wuti and more than three thousand households before returning.

Qifu Chipan also sent his General Who Guards The East, Qifu Tanda, and Wang Songshou to lead ten thousand cavalry east to campaign against the Xiuguan tribal leaders Quan Xiaolang and Lü Pohu at Baishichuan. They routed them, capturing more than ten thousand of their men and women, before advancing to occupy the city of Baishi, where more than ten thousand of the Xiuguan surrendered to them.

But later, their kinsmen, Quan Xiaocheng, Lü Nujia, and others, rebelled at Baikeng. Qifu Tanda said to his generals and soldiers, "In former times, Bogui (Gongsun Zan) relied upon his defenses, yet in the end he suffered the slaughter of his clan; Han Sui presumed to do as he pleased, yet in the end his whole family was wiped out. Now Quan Xiaocheng and these others are opposing the royal will at Baikeng; they and their clans should be extinguished. Once we lead our royal army against them, we shall defeat them without even fighting a battle. Let all of you do your utmost to overcome them!" His soldiers all drew their swords and shouted, and they advanced and attacked Baikeng. They took the heads of Quan Xiaocheng, Lü Nujia, and others, forty-seven hundred in all. Thus all the Xiuguan tribes of the Longyou region surrendered.


夏王勃勃大赦,改元鳳翔;以叱干阿利領將作大匠,發嶺北夷、夏十萬人築都城於朔方水北、黑水之南。勃勃曰:「朕方統一天下,君臨萬邦,宜名新城曰統萬。」阿利性巧而殘忍,蒸土築城,錐入一寸,卽殺作者而幷築之。勃勃以爲忠,委任之。凡造兵器成,呈之,工人必有死者:射甲不入則斬弓人,入則斬甲匠。又鑄銅爲一大鼓,飛廉、翁仲、銅駝、龍虎之屬,飾以黃金,列於宮殿之前。凡殺工匠數千,由是器物皆精利。

8. Liu Bobo declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Fengxiang. He appointed Chigan Ali as Directing-General of Artisans, and he drafted a hundred thousand people from the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges to build a capital city north of the Shuofang River and south of the Hei River. Liu Bobo declared, "I am about to extend my command (tong) over all the realm and preside as sovereign over the ten thousand (wan) states. Thus I shall name this new city Tongwan." Although Chigan Ali was an ingenious man, he was also ruthless and cruel. He made the walls of the new city with steamed earth, and when testing the walls, if he was able to drive an awl a single cun into them, he would have the workers of that section of the wall killed and the wall rebuilt. But Liu Bobo thought highly of his loyalty, so he entrusted the assignment to him.

Liu Bobo also made his soldiers craft armor and weapons, yet when they presented the new equipment, someone was always bound to be killed; if an arrow could not pierce the armor, then the fletchers would be killed, while if it could pierce the armor, then the armorers would be executed.

Liu Bobo also smelted bronze to make a giant drum, as well versions of the Flying Images, the Bronze Men, the Copper Camels, and dragons and tigers and other such things. He adorned them with gold and arrayed them in front of the palace.

Though these projects caused the deaths of thousands of workers, Liu Bobo's equipment was all of exceptional quality.

〈《水經註》:奢延水又謂之朔方水,源出奢延縣西南赤沙阜,東北流逕奢延縣故城南。赫連於是水之南築統萬城。奢延水又東流,黑水入焉,水出奢延縣黑澗,東南歷沙陵,注奢延水。統萬城唐爲夏州定難節度使治所。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Sheyan River is also called the Shuofang River. It emerges at Chisha Mound in the southwest of Sheyan county, then flows northeast, passing south of the capital city of Sheyan county. The Helian clan built their city of Tongwan south of the river. The Sheyan River then flows further east, where the Hei River flows into it. That river emerges at Hei Ravine in Sheyan county, then flows southeast through Shaling, until it enters the Sheyan River."

During the Tang dynasty, Tongwan was the administrative center of the Military Commissioner (jiedushi) of Dingnan in Xiazhou.)


發領北民夷十萬,於朔方黑渠之界,營起京城。大赦,改龍昇七年為鳳翔元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo drafted a hundred thousand people from the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges to build a capital city between the Shuofang and the Hei Rivers. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title from the seventh year of Longsheng (413) to the first year of Fengxiang.

乃赦其境內,改元為鳳翔,以叱幹阿利領將作大匠,發嶺北夷夏十萬人,于朔方水北、黑水之南營起都城。勃勃自言:「朕方統一天下,君臨萬邦,可以統萬為名。」阿利性尤工巧,然殘忍刻暴,乃蒸土築城,錐入一寸,即殺作者而並築之。勃勃以為忠,故委以營繕之任。又造五兵之器,精銳尤甚。既成呈之,工匠必有死者:射甲不入,即斬弓人;如其入也,便斬鎧匠。又造百練剛刀,為龍雀大環,號曰「大夏龍雀」,銘其背曰:「古之利器,吳、楚湛盧。大夏龍雀,名冠神都。可以懷遠,可以柔逋。如風靡草,威服九區。」世甚珍之。復鑄銅為大鼓,飛廉、翁仲、銅駝、龍獸之屬,皆以黃金飾之,列於宮殿之前。凡殺工匠數千,以是器物莫不精麗。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Fengxiang. He appointed Chigan Ali as acting Directing-General of Artisans, and he drafted a hundred thousand people from the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges to build a capital city north of the Shuofang River and south of the Hei River. Helian Bobo declared, "I am about to extend my command (tong) over all the realm and preside as sovereign over the ten thousand (wan) states. Thus I shall name this new city Tongwan." Although Chigan Ali was an especially ingenious and industrious man, he was also ruthless and cruel. He made the walls of the new city with steamed earth, and when testing the walls, if he was able to drive an awl a single cun into them, he would have the workers of that section of the wall killed and the wall rebuilt. But Helian Bobo thought highly of his loyalty, so he entrusted all the details of the assignment to him.

Helian Bobo also made his soldiers craft armor and weapons, all of exceptional quality. Yet when they presented the new equipment, someone was always bound to be killed; if an arrow could not pierce the armor, then the fletchers would be killed, while if it could pierce the armor, then the armorers would be executed.

Helian Bobo also had them create a specially-forged sturdy blade, with a dragon-sparrow as the great ring. He called this blade the Dragon-Sparrow of Great Xia, and on the reverse side he carved this inscription: "Of weapons made in times of old, from Wu and Chu came deepest black. This Dragon-Sparrow of Great Xia shall surpass all, for peers shall lack. With this, I gain distant regard; by this, new peace bring I to all. Like wind against the bowing grass, all the land to me shall fall." For generations, this blade was highly prized.

Helian Bobo also smelted bronze to make a giant drum, as well versions of the Flying Images, the Bronze Men, the Copper Camels, and dragons and beasts and other such things. He adorned them with gold and arrayed them in front of the palace.

Though these projects caused the deaths of thousands of workers, Helian Bobo's equipment was all of exceptional quality.


勃勃自謂其祖從母姓爲劉,非禮也。古人氏族無常,乃改姓赫連氏,言帝王係天爲子,其徽赫與天連也;其非正統者,皆以鐵伐爲氏,言其剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人也。

9. Liu Bobo felt that, although his ancestors had claimed the lineage of the Liu clan through their maternal line, this was not proper. The ancient clans and families all had uncommon surnames. So he changed his surname to Helian, saying that as a king or emperor is like a son of heaven, he too would be as brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. And he renamed his relatives who were not his immediate family members to the Tiefa clan, saying that they would thus be demonstrating that their resolve was as hard as iron (tie) and they would endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies.

〈《載記》曰:漢高祖以宗女妻單于冒頓,約爲兄弟,故其子孫冒姓劉氏。〉〈勃勃父衞辰本鐵弗氏,故改其非正統者爲鐵伐氏。〉

(The Biography of Helian Bobo in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) gave a woman of his clan in marriage to the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, Maodun, and swore an oath with him like brothers. Thus, Maodun's descendants claimed the surname Liu for themselves.

Helian Bobo's father Liu Weichen had originally come from the Tiefu clan, thus Helian Bobo renamining his non-immediate family members to Tiefa.)


令曰:「朕之皇祖,北遷幽朔,改姓姒氏,後從母為劉氏。從母姓,非禮也。古之氏族無常,王者繫天為子,是為徽。赫實與天連,今改姓曰赫連氏,庶協皇天之意。支庶非正統者,以鐵伐為氏。庶朕宗族子孫剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo issued a decree stating, "My imperial ancestors moved north into the distant regions, where they changed their surnames to the Si clan. Later, they followed the matrilineal line by changing their surname to Liu. But to follow the matrilineal line in this fashion goes against propriety. The ancient clans and families all had uncommon surnames, and the kings saw themselves as the sons of Heaven, as a sign of their glory. Truly they were as brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. Thus I now change my own surname to Helian, to distinguish myself as receiving Heaven's aid. And I designate those of my relatives who are not my immediate family members as the Tiefa clan. For my clan members have resolve as hard as iron (tie), and they may endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies."

屈孑耻姓鐵弗,遂改為赫連氏,自云徽赫與天連;又號其支庶為鐵伐氏,云其宗族剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) felt ashamed of his clan's surname, Tiefu. So he changed his surname to Helian, saying that this signified that he was as brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. And he renamed his relatives who were not his immediate family members to the Tiefa clan, saying that his clansmen had resolves as hard as iron (tie) and they could endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies.

其年,下書曰:「朕之皇祖,自北遷幽、朔,姓改姒氏,音殊中國,故從母氏為劉。子而從母之姓,非禮也。古人氏族無常,或以因生為氏,或以王父之名。朕將以義易之。帝王者,系天為子,是為徽赫實與天連,今改姓曰赫連氏,庶協皇天之意,永享無疆大慶。系天之尊,不可令支庶同之,其非正統,皆以鐵伐為氏,庶朕宗族子孫剛銳如鐵,皆堪伐人。」(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

The same year, Helian Bobo issued a decree stating, "My imperial ancestors moved north into the regions of Youzhou and Shuofang, where they changed their surnames to the Si clan. When their language proved too different from that of the Middle Kingdoms, they followed the matrilineal line by changing their surname to Liu. But for a son to take the surname of his mother goes against propriety. The ancient clans and families all had uncommon surnames: some by their place of birth, others by the names of their royal fathers. Thus would it be proper for me to exchange my surname for another. Kings and emperors saw themselves as the sons of Heaven, as a sign of their glory, brilliant and glorious (he) as (lian) the heavens. Thus I now change my own surname to Helian, to distinguish myself as receiving Heaven's aid and my enjoyment of an endless and boundless cause for celebration. But those who are so honored by Heaven may not extend beyond my own kin. So I designate those of my relatives who are not my immediate family members as the Tiefa clan. For my clan members have resolve as hard as iron (tie), and they may endure campaigns (fa) against their enemies."


夏,四月,乙卯,魏主嗣西巡,命鄭兵將軍奚斤、鴻飛將軍尉古眞、都將閭大肥等擊越勤部於跋那山。大肥,柔然人也。

10. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yimao (June 5th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on a western patrol.

The General of Zheng Troops (or, the General of the Capital Regiment), Xi Jin, the General of Swan Flight, Yu Guzhen, the General of the Capital, Lü Dafei, and others attacked the forces of the Yuezhen at Mount Bana. This Lü Dafei was of the Rouran people.

〈「鄭兵」,《北史》作「都兵」。〉〈鴻飛將軍,拓跋氏所創置。柔然姓郁久閭氏,今曰閭,從省便也。跋那山蓋在廣寧郡之塞外。〉

(The Northern Histories records Xi Jin's rank at this time as "General of the Capital Regiment" rather than "General of Zheng Troops".

General of Swan Flight was a title created by the Tuoba clan.

The surname of the Rouran people was Yujiulü; Lü Dafei must have had this surname shortened to Lü.

Mount Bana must have been beyond the borders of the realm at Guangning commandary.)


夏四月,河東民薛相率部內屬。乙巳,上黨民勞聰、士臻羣聚為盜,殺太守令長,相率外奔。乙卯,車駕西巡,詔前軍奚斤等先行,討越勤部於跋那山。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fourth month, a native of Hedong commandary, Xue Xiang, led his forces to settle in Northern Wei.

On the day Yisi (May 26th), two natives of Shangdang commandary, Lao Xong and Shi Zhen, gathered an army of bandits. They killed the local Administrators, Prefects, and Chiefs, then led each other to run away.

On the day Yimao (June 5th), Emperor Mingyuan went on a western patrol. He sent the Front General, Xi Jin, and others on ahead, and they campaigned against the forces of the Yuezhen at Mount Bana.

登國初,從征庫莫奚及叱突隣,並有功。又從救賀蘭,破衞辰子直力鞮,復擊慕容寶於參合陂。又從平中原,以功賜爵束州侯,加建節將軍。太宗初,為鴻飛將軍,率眾五千,鎮大洛城。太宗西巡,古真與奚斤等率前軍討越勒部,大破之,獲馬五萬匹,牛羊二十萬頭,掠二萬餘家西還。泰常三年,除定州刺史。卒,子億萬襲。卒,子盛襲。(Book of Northern Wei 26, Biography of Yu Guzhen)

At the beginning of the Dengguo reign era (~386), Yu Guzhen was present for the campaigns against the Kumoxi and the Chitulin tribes, and in both campaigns he gained achievements. He was also present for the campaign to help the Helan clan, he routed Liu Weichen's son Liu Zhilidi, and he attacked Murong Bao at Canhe Slope. He also accompanied the campaign against the Central Plains. For his achievements, he was appointed as Marquis of Shuzhou and General Who Establishes Fortitude.

At the beginning of Emperor Mingyuan's reign (~409), Yu Guzhen was appointed as General of Swan Flight, and he led five thousand troops to guard the city of Daluo. When Emperor Mingyuan went on his western patrol, Yu Guzhen, Xi Jin, and others led a vanguard forward to campaign against the Yuele. They greatly routed them, capturing fifty-four thousand horses and two hundred thousand cattle and sheep, and they kidnapped more than twenty thousand families and brought them back west.

In the third year of Taichang (417), Yu Guzhen was appointed as Inspector of Dingzhou.

When Yu Guzhen passed away, his son Yu Yiwan succeeded him. When Yu Yiwan passed away, his son Yu Sheng succeeded him.

車駕西巡,詔斤為先驅,討越勒部於鹿那山。(Book of Northern Wei 29, Biography of Xi Jin)

When Emperor Mingyuan went on a western patrol, he ordered Xi Jin to lead a vanguard ahead and campaign against the Yuele at Mount Luna.


河南王熾磐遣安北將軍烏地延、冠軍將軍翟紹擊吐谷渾別統句旁于泣勤川,大破之。

11. Qifu Chipan sent his General Who Maintains The North, Wu Diyan, and his Champion General, Zhai Shao, to attack the Tuyuhun branch leader Gou Pang at Qiqinchuan (or Jingleichuan), and they greatly routed him.

〈【張:「泣勤」作「涇勒」。】〉〈別統,猶別帥也,別統部落者也。〉

(Some versions write the name of this battlefield as 涇勒 Jinglei rather than 泣勤 Qiqin.

By "branch" leader, it means that Gou Pang was the leader of a separate group, not the main forces of the Tuyuhun people.)


遣安北烏地延、冠軍翟紹討吐谷渾別統句旁於泣勤川,大破之,俘獲甚眾。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent his General Who Maintains The North, Wu Diyan, and his Champion General, Zhai Shao, to campaign against the Tuyuhun branch leader Gou Pang at Qiqinchuan, and they greatly routed him, capturing much of his army.


河西王蒙遜立子政德爲世子,加鎭衞大將軍、錄尚書事。

12. Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Zhengde as his heir, as well as promoting him to Grand Guardian General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

三年四月,立子德政為世子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 9, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

In the third year of Zhengshi (414), the fourth month, Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Dezheng as his heir.

立子正德為世子。(Book of Liu-Song 98, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Zhengde as his heir.

立其子政德為世子,加鎮衛大將軍、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun appointed his son Juqu Zhengde as his heir, as well as promoting him to Grand Guardian General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.


南涼王傉檀伐河西王蒙遜,蒙遜敗之於若厚塢,又敗之於若涼;因進圍樂都,二旬不克。南涼湟河太守文支以郡降于蒙遜,蒙遜以文支爲廣武太守。蒙遜復伐南涼,傉檀以太尉俱延爲質,乃還。

13. Tufa Nutan campaigned against Juqu Mengxun. But Juqu Mengxun defeated him at Fort Ruohou, then again at Ruoliang. Juqu Mengxun then advanced to besiege Ledu, but even after twenty days he could not take the city. But then Tufa Nutan's Administrator of Huanghe, Tufa Wenzhi, surrendered that commandary to Juqu Mengxun, who appointed him as his own Administrator of Guangwu. Juqu Mengxun then launched another campaign against Southern Liang, but after Tufa Nutan handed over his Grand Commandant, Tufa Juyan, as a hostage, Juqu Mengxun withdrew.

久之,遣安西紇勃耀兵西境。蒙遜侵西平,徙戶掠牛馬而還。邯川護軍孟愷表鎮南、湟河太守文支荒酒愎諫,不血阝政事。傉檀謂伊力延曰:「今州土傾覆,所杖者文支而已,將若之何?」延曰:「宜召而訓之,使改往修來。」傉檀乃召文支,既到,讓之曰:「二兄英姿早世,吾以不才嗣統,不能負荷大業,顛狽如是,胡顏視世,雖存若隕。庶憑子鮮存衛,藉文種復吳,卿之謂也。聞卿唯酒是耽,荒廢庶事。吾年已老,卿復若斯,祖宗之業將誰寄也。」文支頓首陳謝。邯川人衛章等謀殺孟愷,南啟乞伏熾磐。郭越止之曰:「孟尹寬以惠下,何罪而殺之!吾寧違眾而死,不負君以生。」乃密告之愷,誘章等飲酒,殺四十餘人。愷懼熾磐軍之至,馳告文支,文支遣將軍匹珍赴之。熾磐軍到城,聞珍將至,引歸。蒙遜又攻樂都,二旬不克而還。鎮南文支以湟河降蒙遜,徙五千餘戶于姑臧。蒙遜又來伐,傉檀以太尉俱延為質,蒙遜乃引還。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Sometime later, Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Maintains The West, He Bo, to make a show of troops at the western border. Juqu Mengxun raided Xiping and relocated people there and plundered cattle and horses before withdrawing.

The Protector-General of Hanchuan, Meng Kai, submitted a petition stating that the General Who Guards The South and Administrator of Huanghe, Tufa Wenzhi, was indulging in drunk, ignoring criticisms, and neglecting affairs of state. Tufa Nutan mentioned the issue to Yili Yan, saying, "Considering the sorry state our province is in, I can't do without Tufa Wenzhi. So what should I do about him?"

Yili Yan replied, "You should summon him and instruct him on his mistakes, then send him back out to rectify his behavior."

So Tufa Nutan summoned Tufa Wenzhi, and when Tufa Wenzhi arrived, Tufa Nutan berated him, saying, "My second-eldest brother (Tufa Lilugu) was a true hero, but he died before his time. Though I lacked talents myself, I was compelled to succeed him. Yet the strain lies on me like a heavy burden; I can see the end approaching, and though alive, I feel near death. I had been hoping to rely upon you, just as Zixian preserved the Duke of Wey and Wen Zhong restored Goujian from his exile in Wu. But I hear you have only been indulging in wine and paid your duties no mind. I am already this old. If you continue to act like this, the enterprise of our ancestors will have no one to depend upon."

Tufa Wenzhi kowtowed and apologized.

Natives of Hanchuan, Wei Zhang and others, plotted to kill Meng Kai and then invite Qifu Chipan to march north to capture the city. But one of them, Guo Yue, stopped and said to himself, "Intendant Meng has been generous and kind to his subordinates, and what crime has he committed that deserves death? I would rather oppose the others even at the cost of my own life than save myself by betraying such a master." So he secretly informed Meng Kai of the plot, and he enticed Guo Yue and the other plotters into getting drunk and then killed them, more than forty people. Meng Kai, afraid of Qifu Chipan's army, quickly sent word to Tufa Wenzhi, who sent the general Pi Zhen to reinforce Hanchuan. Qifu Chipan's army had reached the city, but when they heard that Pi Zhen was about to arrive, they withdrew.

Juqu Mengxun once again attacked Ledu, but even after twenty days he could not take the city, so he withdrew. But then Tufa Wenzhi surrendered Huanghe commandary to Juqu Mengxun, who relocated more than five thousand households to Guzang. Juqu Mengxun then launched another campaign against Southern Liang, but after Tufa Nutan handed over his Grand Commandant, Tufa Juyan, as a hostage, Juqu Mengxun withdrew.

傉檀來伐,蒙遜敗之於若厚塢。傉檀湟河太守文支據湟川,護軍成宜侯率眾降之。署文支鎮東大將軍、廣武太守、振武侯,成宜侯為振威將軍、湟川太守,以殿中將軍王建為湟河太守。蒙遜下書曰:「古先哲王應期撥亂者,莫不經略八表,然後光闡純風。孤雖智非靖難,職在濟時,而狡虜傉檀鴟峙舊京,毒加夷夏。東苑之戮,酷甚長平,邊城之禍,害深獫狁。每念蒼生之無辜,是以不遑啟處,身疲甲胄,體倦風塵。雖傾其巢穴,傉檀猶未授首。傉檀弟文支追項伯歸漢之義,據彼重籓,請為臣妾。自西平已南,連城繼順。惟傉檀窮獸,守死樂都。四支既落,命豈久全!五緯之會已應,清一之期無賒,方散馬金山,黎元永逸。可露布遠近,咸使聞知。」(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Tufa Nutan came to campaign against Juqu Mengxun, but Juqu Mengxun defeated him at Fort Ruohou. Tufa Nutan's Administrator of Huanghe, Tufa Wenzhi, occupied Huangchuan, and his Protector-General, Cheng Yihou, led his troops to surrender to Juqu Mengxun. Juqu Mengxun appointed Tufa Wenzhi as his Grand General Who Guards The East, Administrator of Guangwu, and Marquis of Zhenwu, and he appointed Cheng Yihou as his General Who Arouses Might and Administrator of Huangchuan. He also appointed the General of the Palace Halls, Wang Jian, as his Administrator of Huanghe.

Juqu Mengxun sent out a decree stating, "There were no sage kings of old, those fellows who heeded the times and quelled the chaos, who did not first bring together all the land and afterwards illuminate and explain good and pure culture. Now I myself may lack the wisdom to bring tranquility to our troubled times and guide the state back to an age of peace, but Tufa Nutan is an outright villain, a cunning owl who was perched at the old capital (Guzang), spreading his poison among the tribal peoples and the Xia (ethnic Han). His purge of the residents at the eastern Yuancheng there was more savage than the slaughter after the ancient battle of Changping, and the plight of the border cities has been to suffer worse depredations than those inflicted by the Xianrun people of old. I often think of the misery of the common people; they are given no place of repose, but must constantly wear armor and helmets and suffer from the wind and dust.

"Although I have flushed Tufa Nutan out of his lair, he has not yet bowed his head in submission. Yet his younger brother Tufa Wenzhi has recognized that right is on our side and submitted to me by occupying one of the enemy's critical border posts and asking to serve as my subject, just as in former times, Xiang Bo recognized the righteousness of the Han dynasty and submitted to them, although he was the uncle of their sworn enemy Xiang Yu. By now, all the cities from Xiping south have successively bowed in submission to me. Tufa Nutan himself is now no more than an exhausted beast, holding onto Ledu for dear life. Yet with the four branches of his state having already fallen, how much longer can he endure?

"The fabric of the state has almost been restored, and its ultimate unification cannot be delayed. I am now distributing horses and sending out gold in order to grant the common people a place of refuge. Let this decree be posted near and far, so that everyone may hear and know of this."


蒙遜西如苕藋,遣冠軍將軍伏恩將騎一萬襲卑和、烏啼二部,大破之,浮二千餘落而還。

14. Juqu Mengxun travelled west to Shaodiao. He sent his Champion General, Fu En, to lead ten thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against the Beihe and Wuti peoples. Fu En greatly routed them and captured more than twenty thousand of their encampments before returning.

〈漢有卑和羌,居鮮水海。〉

(The Beihe were a branch of the Qiang. They had been known during Han times, when they resided at the Xianshui Sea.)


蒙遜西如苕藋,遣冠軍伏恩率騎一萬襲卑和、烏啼二虜,大破之,俘二千餘落而還。(Book of JIn 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun travelled west to Shaodiao. He sent his Champion General, Fu En, to lead ten thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against the Beihe and Wuti peoples. Fu En greatly routed them and captured more than twenty thousand of their encampments before returning.


蒙遜寢于新臺,閹人王懷祖擊蒙遜傷足,其妻孟氏禽斬之。

15. While Juqu Mengxun was sleeping at Xintai, the eunuch Wang Huaizu attacked him and injured his foot. Juqu Mengxun's wife Lady Meng caught Wang Huaizu and beheaded him.

蒙遜寢於新臺,閹人王懷祖斫蒙遜傷足,蒙遜妻孟氏擒懷祖斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

While Juqu Mengxun was sleeping at Xintai, the eunuch Wang Huaizu attacked him and injured his foot. Juqu Mengxun's wife Lady Meng caught Wang Huaizu and beheaded him.

蒙遜寢於新台,閹人王懷祖擊蒙遜,傷足,其妻孟氏擒斬之,夷其三族。(Book of Ji 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

While Juqu Mengxun was sleeping at Xintai, the eunuch Wang Huaizu attacked him and injured his foot. Juqu Mengxun's wife Lady Meng caught Wang Huaizu and beheaded him, and his clan was exterminated to the third degree.


蒙遜母車氏卒。

16. Juqu Mengxun's mother Lady Che passed away.

蒙遜母車氏疾篤,蒙遜升南景門,散錢以賜百姓。下書曰:「孤庶憑宗廟之靈,乾坤之祐,濟否剝之運會,拯遺黎之荼蓼,上望掃清氣穢,下冀保寧家福。而太后不豫,涉歲彌增,將刑獄枉濫,眾有怨乎?賦役繁重,時不堪乎?群望不絜,神所譴乎?內省諸身,未知罪之攸在。可大赦殊死已下。」俄而車氏死。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun's mother Lady Che was seriously ill. Juqu Mengxun ascended the Nanjing Gate and distributed money as gifts among the common people, and he sent out a decree stating, "Up until now, I have relied upon the spirits of my ancestors and the assistance of the divine, seeking to resolve the imbalances of the times and clear away the weeds binding the people; above, I hoped to sweep clean and purify the land of miasma, and below, I wished to protect and preserve the blessings of my family. Yet now the Queen Dowager is indisposed, and has been getting worse each year. Have I been severe and excessive in my administration of justice, and thus stirred the people to anger against me? Have I demanded excessive taxes and corvee labor, more than the times could bear? Were my wishes impure, and now the spirits seek to condemn me? Though I have examined myself, I know not what my crime is, or how I should reform. Thus I declare a general amnesty, from those sentenced to death on down." But not long afterwards, Lady Che passed away.


五月,乙亥,魏主嗣如雲中舊宮。丙子,大赦。西河胡張外等聚衆爲盜;乙卯,嗣遣會稽公長樂劉絜等屯西河招討之。六月,嗣如五原。

17. In the fifth month, on the day Yihai (June 25th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the old palace at Yunzhong. On the day Bingzi (June 26th), he declared a general amnesty.

A tribal leader from Xihe commandary, Zhang Wai, and others gathered an army of bandits. On the day Yimao (?), Emperor Mingyuan sent the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie of Zhangle commandary, and others to camp at Xihe to entice some of the malcontents to submit and campaign against the rest.

In the sixth month, Emperor Mingyuan went to Wuyuan.

〈唐單于都護府領金河一縣,秦、漢之雲中也。《新書》云:金河本後魏道武所都。〉〈按乙亥至丙子幾四十日,五月無乙卯明矣,恐是己卯。〉

(During the Tang dynasty, their Capital Chanyu Protective Garrison was within Jinhe county, the same region as Yunzhong during the Qin and Han dynasties. The New Book of Tang states, "Jinhe was originally the capital of Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei (Tuoba Gui)."

Considering that Yihai and Bingzi would have been around the fortieth day of the sixty-day cycle, the fifth month clearly could not have also contained a Yimao day. I (Hu Sanxing) suspect that what is here written as 乙卯 Yimao should really be 己卯 Jimao (or June 29th).)


夏五月乙亥,行幸雲中舊宮之大室。丙子,大赦天下。西河張外、建興王紹,自以所犯罪重,不敢解散。庚戌,遣元城侯元屈等率眾三千鎮并州。乙卯,詔會稽公劉潔、永安侯魏勤等率眾三千鎮西河。六月,西幸五原,校獵于骨羅山,獲獸十萬。濩澤劉逸自號征東將軍、三巴王,王紹為署置官屬,攻逼建興郡。元屈等討平之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fifth month, on the day Yihai (June 25th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the old palace at Dashi in Yunzhong. On the day Bingzi (June 26th), he declared a general amnesty.

Zhang Wai of Xihe commandary and Wang Shao of Jianxing commandary led an army of those convicted of serious crimes who did not dare to scatter or disperse. On the day Gengxu (?), Emperor Mingyuan sent the Marquis of Yuancheng, Tuoba Qu, and others to lead three thousand soldiers to garrison Bingzhou, and on the day Yimao (?), he sent the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie, the Marquis of Yong'an, Wei Qin, and others to lead another three thousand soldiers to garrison Xihe.

In the sixth month, Emperor Mingyuan went west to Wuyuan. He held a great hunt at Mount Guluo, where a hundred thousand beasts were captured.

Liu Yi of Huoze declared himself General Who Conquers The East and King of the Three Bas. Wang Shao declared himself Liu Yi's subordinate, and he attacked and threatened Jianxing commandary. But Tuoba Qu and the others campaigned against these rebels and pacified them.


朱齡石等至白帝發函書,曰:「衆軍悉從外水取成都,臧熹從中水取廣漢,老弱乘高艦十餘,從內水向黃虎。」於是諸軍倍道兼行。譙縱果命譙道福將重兵鎭涪城,以備內水。

18. In Jin, when Zhu Lingshi and the other generals reached Baidi, they opened the envelope which Liu Yu had left with Zhu Lingshi. The message stated, "Send the whole army along the outer river route to capture Chengdu. Zang Xi shall march along the middle river route to capture Guanghan, while the old and weak soldiers will steer more than ten boats along the inner river route towards Huanghu."

So the Jin generals quickened their march along every route. And as predicted, Qiao Zong ordered Qiao Daofu to lead a large army to guard Fucheng in order to protect the inner river route.

〈《水經註》:洛水出洛縣章山南,逕洛縣故城南,廣漢郡治也,又南逕新都縣與緜水合,又與湔水合,亦謂之郫江,又逕犍爲牛鞞水,又東逕資中縣,謂之緜水。緜水至江陽縣方山下入江,謂之緜水口,曰中水。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Luo River emerges from south of Mount Zhang in Luo county. It passes south of the capital city of Luo county, which is the administrative center of Guanghan commandary, then flows south through Xindu county until it joins with the Mian River, as well as the Jian River, also called the Pijiang. The Luo River then flows into the Niubing River in Jianwei commandary, then flows further east into Zhizhong county, where it is called the Mian River. The Mian River flows until the base of Mount Fang in Jiangyang county, where it enters the Yangzi, at the place called Mianshuikou ('Mouth of the Mian River'). This is what is known as the inner river.")


至白帝,發書,曰:「眾軍悉從外水取成都,臧熹、朱林於中水取廣漢,使羸弱乘高艦十餘,由內水向黃虎。」眾軍乃倍道兼行,譙縱果備內水,使其大將譙道福以重兵戍涪城。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

When Zhu Lingshi and the other generals reached Baidi, they opened the envelope which Liu Yu had left with Zhu Lingshi. The message stated, "Send the whole army along the outer river route to capture Chengdu. Zang Xi and Zhu Lin shall march along the middle river route to capture Guanghan, while the old and weak soldiers will steer more than ten boats along the inner river route towards Huanghu."

So the Jin generals quickened their march along every route. And as predicted, Qiao Zong ordered his leading general Qiao Daofu to lead a large army to guard Fucheng in order to protect the inner river route.

齡石次於白帝,縱遣譙道福重兵守涪。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

When Zhu Lingshi advanced to Baidi, Qiao Zong sent Qiao Daofu to lead a large army to guard Fu.


齡石至平模,去成都二百里;縱遣秦州刺史侯暉、尚書僕射譙詵帥衆萬餘屯平模,夾岸築城以拒之。齡石謂劉鍾曰:「今天時盛熱,而賊嚴兵固險,攻之未必可拔,祗增疲困;且欲養銳息兵以伺其隙,何如?」鍾曰:「不然。前揚聲言大衆向內水,譙道福不敢捨涪城。今重軍猝至,出其不意,侯暉之徒已破膽矣。賊阻兵守險者,是其懼不敢戰也。因其兇懼,盡銳攻之,其勢必克。克平模之後,自可鼓行而進,成都必不能守矣。若緩兵相守,彼將知人虛實。涪軍忽來,幷力拒我,人情旣安,良將又集,此求戰不獲,軍食無資,二萬餘人悉爲蜀子虜矣。」齡石從之。

19. Zhu Lingshi arrived at Pingmo, two hundred li from Chengdu. Qiao Zong sent his Inspector of Qinzhou, Hou Hui, and his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Qiao Shen, to lead more than ten thousand troops to camp at Pingmo and build forts along the banks of the river to oppose the Jin army.

Zhu Lingshi said to his fellow general Liu Zhong, "We are now in the high heat of summer, and the rebel troops are occupying this sturdy terrain. If we attack them, we cannot be sure of dislodging them, and any contest of strength will only make the soldiers suffer all the more. Perhaps we should reserve our strength and rest our troops, while waiting to see if any opening presents itself. What do you think?"

Liu Zhong replied, "The situation is not as you suppose. We made such a fuss earlier about sending our main army along the inner river route that Qiao Daofu would not dare to abandon his position at Fucheng. Now that we have suddenly arrived at this place with a large body of troops, appearing where the enemy did not expect us, Hou Hui and his ilk have surely already lost their nerve. The reason why the rebels are posting troops and holding fast to the natural terrain here is exactly because they do not dare to actually fight us. And because of that fear and trembling, if we smite them with full force, their power will definitely shatter. Once we take Pingmo, we need only beat the drums and advance, and Chengdu will definitely fall before us.

"But if we hold back our troops and remain on the defensive as well, then the enemy will soon realize where our real strength is. Then Qiao Daofu will march from Fu at once to combine his forces with the enemy here. Once the rebels feel secure and have a good commander at their head, we will no longer be able to defeat them, nor will we be able to sustain our supplies. Then this army, more than twenty thousand strong, would become the prisoners of these Shu whelps."

Zhu Lingshi heeded his advice.

〈良將謂譙道福。〉

(By "a good commander", Liu Zhong meant Qiao Daofu.)


遣其前將軍、秦州刺史侯輝、尚書僕射、蜀郡太守譙詵等率眾萬餘屯彭模,夾水為城。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

Qiao Zong sent his General of the Front and Inspector of Qinzhou, Hou Hui, his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing and Administrator of Shu commandary, Qiao Shen, and others to lead more than ten thousand troops to camp at Pengmo and fortify along the banks of the river to oppose the Jin army.

高祖討劉毅,鍾率軍繼王鎮惡。江陵平定,仍隨朱齡石伐蜀,為前鋒,由外水至于彭模,去成都二百里。偽冠軍征討督護譙亢等兩岸連營,曾樓重柵,眾號三萬。鍾于時腳疾不能行,齡石乃詣鍾謀曰:「今天時盛熱,而賊嚴兵固險,攻之未必可拔,祗增疲困。計其人情恇撓,必不久安,且欲養銳息兵,以伺其隙;隙而乘之,乃可捷事。然決機兩陳,公本有所委,卿意謂何?」鍾曰:「不然。前揚聲言大眾向內水,譙道福不敢舍涪城。今重軍卒至,出其不意,蜀人已破膽矣。賊今阻兵守險,是其懼不敢戰,非能持久堅守也。因其凶懼,盡銳攻之,其勢必克。鼓行而進,成都必不能守矣。今若緩兵相守,彼將知人虛實,涪軍忽并來力距我,人情既安,良將又集,此求戰不獲,軍食無資,當為蜀子虜耳。」齡石從之。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Liu Zhong)

Liu Zhong was part of the vanguard for the army campaigning against the Shu region. They advanced by way of the outer river and came to Pengmo, two hundred li from Chengdu. Qiao Zong's Champion General and Commander of the Expeditionary Force, Qiao Kang, and others had established linked camps on either side of the river; they had raised towers and built ramparts, and commanded an army of thirty thousand.

At that time, Liu Zhong was suffering from some ailment in his foot and could not walk. Zhu Lingshi came to visit him and said to him, "We are now in the high heat of summer, and the rebels have disciplined soldiers and are occupying this sturdy terrain. If we attack them, we cannot be sure of dislodging them, and any contest of strength will only make the soldiers suffer all the more. Yet I reckon that the rebels are afraid of us, and they will surely not hold their positions for very long. Perhaps we should reserve our strength and rest our troops, while waiting to see if any opening presents itself. Once there is an opening, we can exploit it and triumph. Yet our lord trusted me with the task of forcing our way through these ramparts. What are your thoughts?"

Liu Zhong replied, "The situation is not as you suppose. We made such a fuss earlier about sending our main army along the inner river route that Qiao Daofu would not dare to abandon his position at Fucheng. Now that we have suddenly arrived at this place with a large body of troops, appearing where the enemy did not expect us, Hou Hui and his ilk have surely already lost their nerve. The reason why the rebels are posting troops and holding fast to the natural terrain here is exactly because they do not dare to actually fight us, so they could not hold their positions for long. And because of that fear and trembling, if we smite them with full force, their power will definitely shatter. Then we need only beat the drums and advance, and Chengdu will never stand before us.

"But if we hold back our troops and remain on the defensive as well, then the enemy will soon realize where our real strength is. Then Qiao Daofu will march from Fu at once to combine his forces with the enemy here. Once the rebels feel secure and have a good commander at their head, we will no longer be able to force them to fight, nor will we be able to sustain our supplies. Then we would become the prisoners of these Shu whelps."

Zhu Lingshi heeded his advice.

齡石師次平模,去成都二百里,縱遣其大將軍侯暉、尚書僕射譙詵屯平模,夾岸連城,層樓重柵,眾未能攻。齡石謂劉鐘曰:「天方暑熱,賊今固險,攻之難拔,只困我師。吾欲蓄銳息兵,伺隙而進,卿以為何如?」鐘曰:「不然。前揚聲言大將由內水,故道福不敢舍涪,今重軍逼之,出其不意,侯暉之徒已破膽矣。正可因其凶而攻之,勢當必克。克平模之後,自可鼓行而前,成都必不能守。若綏兵相持,虛實相見,涪軍復來,難為敵也。進不能戰,退無所資,二萬餘人因為蜀子虜耳。」從之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

Zhu Lingshi marched to Pingmo, two hundred li from Chengdu. Qiao Zong sent his Grand General, Hou Hui, and his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Qiao Shen, to camp at Pingmo and build forts on either side of the banks of the river; they built tall towers and heavy ramparts, and the Jin army could not attack them.

Zhu Lingshi said to his fellow general Liu Zhong, "We are now in the high heat of summer, and the rebel troops are occupying this sturdy terrain. If we attack them, it would be hard to dislodge them, and we would only be exhausting our soldiers. I want to reserve our strength and rest our troops, while waiting to see if any opening presents itself before we advance. What do you think?"

Liu Zhong replied, "The situation is not as you suppose. We made such a fuss earlier about sending our main army along the inner river route that Qiao Daofu would not dare to abandon his position at Fu. Now that we have suddenly arrived at this place with a large body of troops, appearing where the enemy did not expect us, Hou Hui and his ilk have surely already lost their nerve. If we take advantage of their fear and attack them, their power will definitely shatter. Once we take Pingmo, we need only beat the drums and advance, and Chengdu will definitely fall before us.

"But if we hold back our troops and remain at a stalemate, then the enemy will soon realize where our real strength is. Then the army at Fu will come here, and it will be hard for us to be a match for them. If we try to advance, we won't able to fight them, while if we try to retreat, we won't be able to sustain our supplies. Then this army, more than twenty thousand strong, would become the prisoners of these Shu whelps."

Zhu Lingshi heeded his advice.


諸將以水北城地險兵多,欲先攻其南城,齡石曰:「今屠南城,不足以破北,若盡銳以拔北城,則南城不麾自散矣。」秋,七月,齡石帥諸軍急攻北城,克之,斬侯暉、譙詵;引兵廻趣南城,南城自潰。齡石捨船步進;譙縱大將譙撫之屯牛脾,譙小苟塞打鼻。臧熹擊撫之,斬之,小苟聞之,亦潰。於是縱諸營屯望風相次奔潰。

20. The Jin generals felt that, since the rebel fort on the north side of the river had better natural defenses and was guarded by more troops, they should first attack the fort on the south side. But Zhu Lingshi told them, "Even if we butchered the southern fort, that would not be enough for us to smash the northern fort. But if we devote all we have to taking the northern fort, then the southern fort will scatter all on its own."

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhu Lingshi led his generals to fiercely assault the northern fort. They captured the fort, and took the heads of Hou Hui and Qiao Shen. Then they led their troops to turn towards the southern fort, whose soldiers scattered.

Zhu Lingshi now left his ships behind and advanced on foot. Qiao Zong's great general Qiao Fuzhi was camped at Niupi (or Niubing), while Qiao Xiaogou was guarding Dabi. Zang Xi attacked Qiao Fuzhi and took his head, and when Qiao Xiaogou heard this, he also scattered.

After this, Qiao Zong's various garrisons all realized the hopelessness of their situation and scattered and fled one after the other.

〈「牛脾」,當作「牛鞞」。孟康曰:鞞,音髀。師古曰:音必爾翻。牛鞞縣自漢以來屬犍爲郡。何承天曰:晉穆帝度屬蜀郡。今簡州西岸有古牛鞞戍城。〉〈打鼻山在今眉州彭山縣南十餘里,山形孤起,東臨江水。俗云:昔周鼎淪於此,或見其鼻,故名。〉

(In this passage, 牛脾 Niupi should be 牛鞞 Niubing. Meng Kang remarked, "鞞 is pronounced 'bi'"; Yan Shigu remarked, "It is pronounced 'bi (b-er)'". Ever since the Han dynasty, Niubing county had been part of Jianwei commandary. He Chengtian remarked, "Emperor Mu of Jin established it as part of Shu commandary." The old campsite of the city of Niubing is on the west bank of the river at modern Jianzhou.

Mount Dabi is more than ten li south of Pengshan county in modern Meizhou. The mountain is shaped like a lonely rise, and the Yangzi runs to the east of it. It is commonly said that the old Nine Tripods of the Zhou dynasty were lost at this place, and some people claimed to have seen their tips or noses here, thus the name Dabi ("Great Nose").)


十年六月,齡石至彭模,諸將以賊水北城險阻眾多,咸欲先攻其南,齡石曰:「不然。雖寇在北,今屠南城,不足以破北;若盡銳以拔北壘,南城不麾而自散也。」七月,齡石率劉鍾、蒯恩等攻城,詰朝戰,至日昃,焚其樓櫓,四面並登,斬侯輝、譙詵,仍回軍以麾,南城即時散潰。凡斬大將十五級,諸營守以次土崩,眾軍乃舍船步進。龍驤將軍臧熹至廣漢,病卒。朱林至廣漢,復破譙道福,別軍乘船陷牛脾城,斬其大將譙撫。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

In the tenth year of Yixi (414), the sixth month, Zhu Lingshi arrived at Pengmo. The Jin generals felt that, since the rebel fort on the north side of the river had better natural defenses and was guarded by more troops, they should first attack the fort on the south side. But Zhu Lingshi told them, "Not so. Even if we butchered the southern fort, that would not be enough for us to smash the northern fort. But if we devote all we have to taking the northern rampart, then the southern fort will scatter all on its own."

In the seventh month, Zhu Lingshi led Liu Zhong, Kuai En, and others to fiercely assault the northern fort. They began fighting at the break of dawn and fought until past noon; they burnt the rebel tower-shields and scaled the walls of the fort on all sides, and they took the heads of Hou Hui and Qiao Shen. Then they led their troops to turn towards the southern fort, whose soldiers scattered. They beheaded fifteen major enemy generals, and the defenders of all the other enemy garrisons abandoned their posts. Zhu Lingshi then left his ships behind and advanced on foot.

The Dragon-Soaring General, Zang Xi, advanced to Guanghan, but there he passed away of illness. Zhu Lin advanced to Guanghan and routed Qiao Daofu, while a separate detachment rode ships ahead and captured Picheng, taking the head of the major rebel general Qiao Fu.

至彭模,恩所領居前,大戰,自朝至日昃,勇氣益奮,賊破走。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Kuai En)

When the Jin army reached Pengmo, Kuai En's troops were in the vanguard. They fought a great battle against the rebels there, fighting from morning until past noon, but their courage and zeal only increased as the fighting went on, and the rebels were routed and retreated.

明日進攻,陷其二城,斬其大將侯輝、譙詵。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Liu Zhong)

The next day, the Jin army advanced to attack; they captured the two forts and took the heads of the major rebel generals Hou Hui and Qiao Shen.

翌日,進攻皆克,斬侯暉等,於是遂進。縱之城守者相次瓦解。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

The next day, the Jin army advanced, attacked, and captured the rebel forts. They took the heads of Hou Hui and the others, then pressed their advance. Qiao Zong's various cities and garrisons crumbled one after the other.


戊辰,縱棄成都出走,尚書令馬耽封府庫以待晉師。壬申,齡石入成都,誅縱同祖之親,餘皆按堵,使復其業。縱出成都,先辭墓,其女曰:「走必不免,祗取辱焉;等死,死於先人之墓可也。」縱不從。譙道福聞平模不守,自涪引兵入赴,縱往投之。道福見縱,怒曰:「大丈夫有如此功業而棄之,將安歸乎!人誰不死,何怯之甚也!」因投縱以劍,中其馬鞍。縱乃去,自縊死,巴西人王志斬其首以送齡石。道福謂其衆曰:「蜀之存亡,實係於我,不在譙王,今我在,猶足一戰。」衆皆許諾;道福盡散金帛以賜衆,衆受之而走。道福逃於獠中,巴民杜瑾執送之,斬于軍門。齡石徙馬耽於越巂,耽謂其徒曰:「朱侯不送我京師,欲滅口也,吾必不免。」乃盥洗而臥,引繩而死。須臾,齡石使至,戮其尸。詔以齡石進監梁、秦州六郡諸軍事,賜爵豐城縣侯。

21. On the day Wuchen (August 17th), Qiao Zong abandoned Chengdu and fled. His Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dan, sealed up the city arsenal and warehouses and waited for the arrival of the Jin army.

On the day Renshen (August 21st), Zhu Lingshi entered Chengdu. He executed all members of the Qiao clan who were descendants of Qiao Zong's grandfather, but all the other rebels were pardoned and ordered to return to their former livelihoods.

When Qiao Zong fled Chengdu, he paused to pay his respects at the tombs of his ancestors. At that time, his daughter told him, "Run if you like, but there is no escape. We shall be shamed in the end. Since we are going to die anyway, we may as well die here, at the graves of our ancestors." But Qiao Zong did not listen to her.

When Qiao Daofu heard that Pingmo had fallen, he marched his troops from Fu to stop the Jin army. Along the way, Qiao Zong arrived and sought refuge with him. But when Qiao Daofu saw him, he angrily said, "How could a real man, having achieved so much, have cast it all away like you have? Do you think there is any refuge for you? What man does not die? How then could you be such a coward?" And he threw his sword at Qiao Zong, which embedded itself in Qiao Zong's horse's saddle. Qiao Zong ran off, but in the end he hanged himself. A native of Baxi commandary, Wang Zhi, cut off his head and sent it to Zhu Lingshi.

Qiao Daofu said to his soldiers, "The salvation or doom of Shu now depends on us. Even without King Qiao, so long as we are here, we can still fight one last battle." The soldiers agreed to support him, and Qiao Daofu distributed all his gold and silks among them. But after taking these rewards, the soldiers all fled. Qiao Daofu then tried to hide among the Lao people, but a native of Ba commandary, Du Jin, captured him and sent him to the Jin army, who beheaded him at the camp gate.

Zhu Lingshi ordered Ma Dan to be exiled to Yuegui commandary. Ma Dan told his followers, "Marquis Zhu is sending me to Yuegui instead of the capital because he wants to shut me up. My fate is already sealed." So he washed his face and hands, then lay down and strangled himself to death. No sooner had he died then Zhu Lingshi's agents arrived, who beheaded his body.

The court issued an edict appointing Zhu Lingshi as Chief of military affairs in six commandaries of Lianzhou and Qinzhou and as Marquis of Fengcheng county.

〈義熙元年,譙縱據蜀,九年而滅。〉〈嶲,音髓。〉〈謂齡石多取庫物,殺耽以滅口。〉

(Qiao Zong had occupied the Shu region and founded Western Shu in the first year of Yixi (405). It had lasted for nine years, then perished.

The second character of Yuegui, 嶲, is pronounced "sui".

Ma Dan was saying that Zhu Lingshi wanted to silence him because Zhu Lingshi had taken many things from the arsenal and warehouses.)


秋七月,朱齡石克成都,斬譙縱,益州平。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhu Lingshi captured Chengdu and took the head of Qiao Zong. Yizhou was thus pacified.

譙縱聞諸處盡敗,奔於涪城,巴西人王志斬送。偽尚書令馬耽封府庫以待王師。道福聞彭模不守,率精銳五千兼行來赴,聞縱已走,道福眾亦散,乃逃於獠中。巴西民杜瑤縛送之,斬於軍門。桓謙弟恬隨謙入蜀,為寧蜀太守,至是亦斬焉... 齡石遣司馬沈叔任戍涪,蜀人侯產德作亂,攻涪城,叔任擊破之,斬產德。初,齡石平蜀,所戮止縱一祖之後,產德事起,多所連結,乃窮加誅剪,死者甚眾。進號輔國將軍,尋進監益州之巴西、梓潼、宕渠、南漢中、秦州之安固、懷寧六郡諸軍事,以平蜀功,封豐城縣侯,食邑千戶。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

When Qiao Zong heard that all his garrisons had been defeated, he fled to Fu, but a native of Baxi commandary, Wang Zhi, beheaded him and sent his head to the Jin army.

The rebel Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dan, sealed up the warehouses and arsenal at Chengdu and awaited the arrival of the Jin army.

When Qiao Daofu heard that Pengmo had fallen, he led five thousand elite troops on a fast march to go reinforce the rebel position. But when he heard that Qiao Zong had already fled, his army scattered, and he fled to hide among the Lao people. But a native of Baxi commandary, Du Yao, tied him up and sent him to the Jin army, who beheaded him at the camp gate.

Huan Qian's younger brother Huan Tian had earlier followed him into the Shu region and had been appointed as the Administrator of Ningshu. At this time, he too was beheaded.

Zhu Lingshi sent his Marshal, Shen Shuren, to camp at Fu. A native of Shu commandary, Hou Chande, started a rebellion and attacked Fu, but Shen Shuren attacked and routed the rebels and took Hou Chande's head. When Zhu Lingshi had first conquered the Shu region, he had only eliminated the members of Qiao Zong's family descended from his grandfather, but spared everyone else. However, after Hou Chande's rebellion, many people were associated with the rebels, and Zhu Lingshi carried out an extensive purge and killed many people.

Zhu Lingshi was promoted to General Who Upholds The State, and soon afterwards promoted to Chief of military affairs in six commandaries: Baxi, Zitong, Dangqu, and Southern Hanzhong in Yizhou and Angu and Huaining in Qinzhou. For his achievements in conquering the Shu region, he was appointed as Marquis of Fengcheng county, with a fief of a thousand households.

進平成都,擢為行參軍,改封北至縣五等男。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Kuai En)

The Jin army advanced and took Chengdu. Kuai En was appointed as an acting Army Advisor, and his noble title was changed to Marquis of the fifth rank of Beizhi county.

逕平成都。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Liu Zhong)

The Jin army advanced and took Chengdu.

縱乃出奔。其尚書令馬耽封倉庫以待王師。及齡石入成都,誅縱同祖之親,餘皆安堵,使復其業。縱之走也,先如其墓,縱女謂縱曰:「走必不免,只取辱焉。等死,死于先人之墓可也。」縱不從,投道福於涪。道福怒謂縱曰:「大丈夫居如斯功業,安可棄哉!今欲為降虜,豈可而得!人誰不死,何懼之甚!」因投縱以劍,中其馬鞍。縱去之,乃自縊。道福謂其徒曰:「吾養爾等,正為今日。蜀之存亡,實系在我,不在譙王。我尚在,猶足一戰。」士咸許諾。乃散金帛以賜其眾,眾受之而走。道福獨奔廣漢,廣漢人杜瑾執之。硃齡石徙馬耽於越巂,追殺之。耽之徙也,謂其徒曰:「硃侯不送我京師,滅眾口也,吾必不免。」乃盥洗而臥,引繩而死。須臾,齡石師至,遂戮屍焉。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

Qiao Zong too ran away. His Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dan, sealed up the city arsenal and warehouses and waited for the arrival of the Jin army.

When Zhu Lingshi entered Chengdu, he executed all members of the Qiao clan who were descendants of Qiao Zong's grandfather, but all the other rebels were pardoned and ordered to return to their former livelihoods.

When Qiao Zong fled, he paused to pay his respects at the tombs of his ancestors. At that time, his daughter told him, "Run if you like, but there is no escape. We shall be shamed in the end. Since we are going to die anyway, we may as well die here, at the graves of our ancestors." But Qiao Zong did not listen to her.

Qiao Zong sought refuge with Qiao Daofu at Fu. But when Qiao Daofu saw him, he angrily said, "How could a real man, having achieved so much, have cast it all away like you have? Don't think there's any chance of saving your life by becoming a prisoner or surrendering! What man does not die? How then could you be such a coward?" And he threw his sword at Qiao Zong, which embedded itself in Qiao Zong's horse's saddle. Qiao Zong ran off, but in the end he hanged himself.

Qiao Daofu said to his soldiers, "Soldiers, I trained and raised you all for just such a day as this. The salvation or doom of Shu now depends on us. Even without King Qiao, so long as we are here, we can still fight one last battle." The soldiers agreed to support him, and Qiao Daofu distributed all his gold and silks among them. But after taking these rewards, the soldiers all fled. Qiao Daofu then tried to hide in Guanghan commandary, but a native there, Du Jin, captured him.

Zhu Lingshi ordered Ma Dan to be exiled to Yuegui commandary, then sent agents to pursue and kill him. Ma Dan told his followers, "Marquis Zhu is sending me to Yuegui instead of the capital because he wants to shut me up. My fate is already sealed." So he washed his face and hands, then lay down and strangled himself to death. No sooner had he died then Zhu Lingshi's agents arrived, who beheaded his body.


魏奚斤等破越勤於跋那山西,徙二萬餘家於大寧。

22. In Wei, Xi Jin and others routed the Yueqin west of Mount Bana. They relocated more than twenty thousand families to Daning.

秋七月己巳,還幸薄山。帝登觀太祖遊幸刻石頌德之處,乃於其旁起石壇而薦饗焉。賜從者大酺於山下。奚斤等破越勤倍泥部落於跋那山西,獲馬五萬匹,牛二十萬頭,徙二萬餘家於大寧,計口受田。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jisi (August 18th), Emperor Mingyuan returned and visited Mount Bao. Upon scaling the mountain and seeing the stone stele there which Tuoba Gui had earlier left at that place, extolling his own virtues, Emperor Mingyuan raised a stone altar beside the stele and offered sacrifices. He distributed rewards to his followers at a great feast below the mountain.

Xi Jin and others routed the forces of the Yueqin and Beini west of Mount Bana. They captured fifty thousand horses and two hundred thousand cattle, and they relocated more than twenty thousand families to Daning, where their population was recorded and farmland distributed among them.

大破之,獲馬五萬匹,牛羊二十萬頭,徙二萬餘家而還。(Book of Northern Wei 29, Biography of Xi Jin)

Xi Jin greatly routed the Yuele; he captured fifty thousand horses and two hundred thousand cattle and sheep, and he relocated more than twenty thousand families before returning.


河西胡曹龍等擁部衆二萬人來入蒲子,張外降之,推龍爲大單于。

23. A tribal leader from Hexi commandary, Cao Long, and others gathered together their forces, twenty thousand strong, and marched into Puzi. Zhang Wai submitted to them and acclaimed Cao Long as Grand Chanyu.

河西胡曹龍、張大頭等,各領部,擁眾二萬人,來入蒲子,逼脅張外於研子壘。外懼,給以牛酒,殺馬盟誓,推龍為大單于,奉美女良馬於龍。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Tribal leaders from Hexi commandary, Cao Long, Zhang Datou, and others, all gathered together their forces, twenty thousand strong, and marched into Puzi, where they threatened Zhang Wai at Yanzi Rampart. Afraid, Zhang Wai offered them oxen and wine, and he killed a horse as a symbol of swearing an oath between them; he acclaimed Cao Long as Grand Chanyu and presented beautiful women and fine horses to him.


丙戌,魏主嗣如定襄大洛城。

24. On the day Bingxu (September 4th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the city of Daluo in Dingxiang commandary.

〈二《漢志》:定襄郡有駱縣。〉

(According to the Book of Han and Book of Later Han, there was a Luo county in Dingxiang commandary.)


丙戌,車駕自大室西南巡諸部落,賜其渠帥繒帛各有差。遂南次定襄大落城,東踰十嶺山,田於善無川。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Bingxu (September 4th), Emperor Mingyuan traveled southwest from Dashi and patrolled through several groups and tribes there, bestowing their leaders with suitable gifts of silks. He then went south to the city of Daluo in Dingxiang commandary, then east across Mount Shiling, and he wandered the fields at Shanwuchuan.


河南王熾磐擊吐谷渾支旁于長柳川,虜旁及其民五千餘戶而還。

25. Qifu Chipan attacked the Tuyuhun leader Zhi Pang at Changliuchuan. He captured Zhi Pang and more than five thousand households of his people before returning.

二年,熾盤討吐谷渾別統支旁於長柳川。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the second year of Yongkang (413), Qifu Chipan campaigned against the Tuyuhun branch leader Zhi Pang at Changliuchuan.

熾磐率諸將討吐谷渾別統支旁于長柳川... 前後俘獲男女二萬八千。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan led his generals to campaign against the Tuyuhun branch leader Zhi Pang at Changliuchuan. Between that campaign and the later one against Jueda, Qifu Chipan captured twenty-eight thousand men and women.


八月,癸卯,魏主嗣還平城。

26. In the eighth month, on the day Guimao (September 21st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

八月癸卯,車駕還宮。癸丑,奚斤等班師。甲寅,帝臨白登,觀降民,數軍實... 辛未,賜征還將士牛、馬、奴婢各有差。置新民於大寧川,給農器,計口受田。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eighth month, on the day Guimao (September 21st), Emperor Mingyuan returned to the palace.

On the day Guichou (October 1st), Xi Jin and the others returned from their campaign. On the day Jiayin (October 2nd), Emperor Mingyuan presided over a review, where he observed the people who had surrendered and commended the deeds of the army. On the day Xinwei (?), he granted suitable rewards of cattle, horses, and slave girls to the generals and officers who had returned from the campaign. He settled the new people at Daningchuan, where he provided them with farming tools, took their population, and granted them farmland.


曹龍請降于魏,執送張外,斬之。

27. Cao Long asked to submit to Wei. He arrested Zhang Wai and sent him to them, and they beheaded Zhang Wai.

曹龍降,執送張外,斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Cao Long submitted to Northern Wei. He arrested Zhang Wai and sent him to them, and they beheaded Zhang Wai.


丁丑,魏主嗣如豺山宮;癸未,還。

28. On the day Dingchou (?), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Guiwei (?), he returned.

丁丑,幸犲山宮。癸未,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Dingchou (?), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Guiwei (?), he returned.


九月,再命太尉裕爲太傅、揚州牧;固辭。

29. In the ninth month, the Jin court once again promoted Liu Yu to Grand Tutor and Governor of Yangzhou. But he once again strenuously declined these titles.

河南王熾磐擊吐谷渾別統掘逵於渴渾川,大破之,虜男女二萬三千。冬,十月,掘逵帥其餘衆降于熾磐。

30. Qifu Chipan attacked a branch leader of the Tuyuhun, Juekui, at Kehunchuan. He greatly routed him and captured twenty-three thousand of his men and women. In winter, the tenth month, Juekui led his remaining forces to surrender to Qifu Chipan.

〈掘,其月翻。〉

(The first character of Tong Juekui's given name, 掘, is pronounced "que (q-ue)".)


掘達於渴渾川,大破之,俘獲男女二萬三千。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan attacked a branch leader of the Tuyuhun, Juekui, at Kehunchuan. He greatly routed him and captured twenty-three thousand of his men and women.

掘達於渴渾川,皆破之,前後俘獲男女二萬八千。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan also campaigned against another Tuyuhun branch leader, Jueda, at Kehunchuan and routed him as well. Between that campaign and the earlier one against Zhi Pang, Qifu Chipan had captured twenty-eight thousand men and women.


吐京胡與離石胡出以眷叛魏,魏主嗣命元城侯屈督會稽公劉絜、永安侯魏勤以討之。丁巳,出以眷引夏兵邀擊絜,禽之以獻於夏;勤戰死。嗣以屈亡二將,欲誅之;旣而赦之,使攝幷州刺史。屈到州,縱酒廢事,嗣積其前後罪惡,檻車徵還,斬之。

31. Tribesmen from Tujing and a tribal leader from Lishi commandary, Chuyijuan, rebelled against Wei. Emperor Mingyuan ordered his Marquis of Yuancheng, Tuoba Qu, to lead an army to campaign against them, under the command of the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie, and the Marquis of Yong'an, Wei Qin. On the day Dingsi (December 4th), Chuyijuan brought in troops from Xia to attack Liu Jie, who was captured and brought to Xia. Wei Qin died in battle.

Emperor Mingyuan held Tuoba Qu responsible for the loss of these two generals, and planned to execute him. However, he forgave Tuoba Qu for the defeat and only sent him to be Inspector of Bingzhou. But when Tuoba Qu arrived at Bingzhou, he indulged himself in wine and neglected his duties. So Emperor Mingyuan, holding Tuoba Qu responsible for all his past crimes and misdeeds, sent a cage cart to fetch him back to the capital and then beheaded him.

〈《水經註》曰:吐京卽漢西河土軍縣,夷、夏俗音訛也。後魏眞君九年,置吐京郡,隋爲隰州石樓縣地。〉〈魏主嗣之入立也,屈子磨渾有功焉;屈恃之而驕。積其惡而誅之,非所以保功臣之門也。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "What is now called 'Tujing' was known as Tujun county in Xihe commandary during the Han dynasty. Its name has been corrupted over time by the pronunciations of the tribal and Xia (ethnic Han) people." In Northern Wei's ninth year of Zhenjun (447), they created a Tujing commandary. It was in the same place as the Sui dynasty's Shilou county in Xizhou.

Tuoba Qu had done much to help ensure Emperor Mingyuan's succession to the throne of Northern Wei. He thus became arrogant by relying upon his past achievements. By holding his past misdeeds against him and then executing him, Emperor Mingyuan determined not to protect the family of a meritorious minister.)


冬十月丁巳,將軍元屈、會稽公劉潔、永安侯魏勤等,擊吐京叛胡,失利,潔被傷,勤死之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Dingsi (December 4th), the general Tuoba Qu, the Duke of Kuaiji, Liu Jie, the Marquis of Yong'an, Wei Qin, and others attacked rebelling tribal people at Tujing. But the fighting went against them; Liu Jie was injured and captured, while Wei Qin died in battle.


十一月,魏主嗣遣使請昏於秦,秦王興許之。

32. In the eleventh month, Emperor Mingyuan sent envoys to Qin to ask for a wife, and Yao Xing agreed to the request.

十一月癸酉,大饗于西宮。姚興遣使朝貢,來請進女,帝許之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eleventh month, on the day Guiyou (December 20th), Emperor Mingyuan held a great feast at the Western Palace.

Yao Xing sent envoys to the Northern Wei court, bearing tribute and asking to send his daughter as a wife. Emperor Mingyuan granted this request.

永興三年,興遣周寶朝貢。五年,興遣使朝貢,并請進女,太宗許之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the third year of Yongxing (411), Yao Xing sent Zhou Bao to present tribute to the Northern Wei court. In the fifth year (413), he sent another envoy to present tribute, along with a request to offer his daughter as a bride. Emperor Mingyuan granted the request.

時魏遣使聘於興,且請婚。會平陽太守姚成都來朝,興謂之曰:「卿久處東籓,與魏鄰接,應悉彼事形。今來求婚,吾已許之,終能分災共患,遠相接援以不?」成都曰:「魏自柴壁克捷已來,戎甲未曾損失,士馬桓桓,師旅充盛。今修和親,兼婚姻之好,豈但分災共患而已,實亦永安之福也。」興大悅,遣其吏部郎嚴康報聘,並致方物。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Northern Wei sent envoys to Yao Xing for a diplomatic visit, and to ask for a marriage alliance between them. Meanwhile, the Administrator of Pingyang, Yao Chengdu, had come to court as well. Yao Xing said to him, "You've been stationed on our eastern border for a long time now, and you've had many dealings with Wei, so you know what they are like. Now they've come to ask me for a wife, and I've already given my consent. How do you think this arrangement will turn out? Will we share weal and woe together, through thick and through thin?"

Yao Chengdu replied, "Ever since their triumph at the battle of Chai Rampart, Wei has never once demobilized their armored soldiers; they have a mighty host of men and horses, and they command numerous armies. So for you to now repair relations and make such an alliance with them, sealing it with a marriage, would do far more for us than merely sharing good times and bad with Wei. In fact, it would bring us a lasting blessing."

Yao Xing was delighted. He sent his Gentleman of the Secretariat, Yan Kang, to repay the visit and to present gifts to Northern Wei.


是歲,以敦煌索邈爲梁州刺史,苻宣乃還仇池。初,邈寓居漢川,與別駕姜顯有隙,凡十五年而邈鎭漢川;顯乃肉袒迎候,邈無慍色,待之彌厚。退而謂人曰:「我昔寓此,失志多年,若讎姜顯,懼者不少。但服之自佳,何必逞志!」於是闔境聞之皆悅。

33. During this year, Jin appointed Suo Miao of Dunhuang commandary as Inspector of Lianzhou. It was earlier mentioned that the Chouchi general Fu Xuan had marched into Hanzhong; he now withdrew back to Chouchi.

Earlier, while Suo Miao had been living in Hanchuan, he had developed a grudge against the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Lianzhou, Jiang Xian. Some fifteen years later, Suo Miao himself was now in command of Hanchuan. Yet when Jiang Xian came to visit Suo Miao, humbly stripped bare to the waist, Suo Miao received him without any resentful expression and treated him with special favor. After the meeting, Suo Miao told people, "When I used to be just a refugee living here, there were many years when I could not carry out my desires. Yet if I took my revenge against Jiang Xian now, there would be quite a few people who would thus have cause to fear me. But by receiving him well, I make myself look good at the same time. Why then should I vent my own personal grudges?"

〈苻宣入漢中,見一百十一四卷元年。〉〈鞠羨之安東萊亦若是而已。世人脩怨以致禍者,由不知此道也。〉

(Fu Xuan's occupation of Hanzhong is mentioned in Book 114, in the first year of Yixi (actually the third year, 407.10).

By such means did Ju Xian bring peace to Donglai commandary rather than carry out his personal vengeance. Those who nurse their private grudges and bring themselves to ruin by it are ignorant of this principle.)


Hu Sanxing seems to be referring to Ju Yin rather than Ju Xian; Book 100, 356.23.

九年,梁州刺史索邈鎮南城,宣乃還。(Book of Liu-Song 99, Account of Chouchi)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Suo Miao, was stationed at Nancheng. Fu Xuan thus withdrew back to Chouchi.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Jun 12, 2019 4:21 pm, edited 26 times in total.
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BOOK 116

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Apr 08, 2019 6:07 pm

十年(甲寅、四一四)

The Tenth Year of Yixi (The Jiayin Year, 414 AD)


春,正月,辛酉,魏大赦,改元神瑞。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 6th), a general amnesty was declared in Wei, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Shenrui.

神瑞元年春正月辛酉,以禎瑞頻集,大赦,改元。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the first year of Shenrui (414), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 6th), due to a gathering of auspicious omens, a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Shenrui ("Divine Felicity").


辛巳,魏主嗣如繁畤;二月,戊戌,還平城。

2. On the day Xinsi (February 26th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Fanzhi. In the second month, on the day Wuxu (March 15th), he returned to Pingcheng.

辛巳,幸繁畤。賜王公已下至於士卒百工布帛各有差。二月戊戌,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Xinsi (February 26th), Emperor Mingyuan went to Fanzhi, where he bestowed suitable rewards of cloths and silks, from the nobles on down to even the soldiers and workers. In the second month, on the day Wuxu (March 15th), he returned to the palace.


夏王勃勃侵魏河東蒲子。

3. Helian Bobo raided Puzi in Wei's Hedong commandary.

是月,赫連屈孑入寇河東蒲子,殺掠吏民,三城護軍張昌等要擊走之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

That same month, Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) invaded Puzi in Hedong commandary, where he killed and plundered the local people and officials. The Protector-General of Sancheng, Zhang Chang, and others counter-attacked him and drove him off.


庚戌,魏主嗣如豺山宮。

4. On the day Gengxu (March 27th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai.

庚戌,幸犲山宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Gengxu (March 27th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai.


魏幷州刺史婁伏連襲殺夏所置吐京護軍及其守兵。

5. Wei's Inspector of Bingzhou, Lou Fulian, launched a surprise attack against the Protector-General of Tujing that Xia had appointed and his garrison, killing them.

〈【嚴:「婁」改「樓」。】〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》:內入諸姓有匹婁氏,後改爲婁氏。去年,夏破拓跋屈,因置守兵於吐京。〉

(Some versions write Lou Gai's surname as 樓 Lou rather than 婁 Lou.

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "Among those clans who came to join the Tuoba was the Pilou clan, who later shortened their name to Lou."

Xia had routed Tuoba Qu at Tujing the previous year, thus they had posted a garrison at Tujing.)


西河胡曹成、吐京民劉初原攻殺屈孑所置吐京護軍及其守三百餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

A tribal leader from Xihe commandary, Cao Cheng, and a native of Tujing, Liu Chuquan, attacked and killed the Protector-General of Tujing that Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) had appointed and his garrison of more than three hundred soldiers.


司馬休之在江陵,頗得江、漢民心。子譙王文思在建康,性凶暴,好通輕俠;太尉裕惡之。三月,有司奏文思擅捶殺國吏,詔誅其黨而宥文思。休之上疏謝罪,請解所任,不許。裕執文思送休之,令自訓厲,意欲休之殺之;休之但表廢文思,幷與裕書陳謝。裕由是不悅,以江州刺史孟懷玉兼督豫州六郡以備之。

6. It was earlier mentioned that Sima Xiuzhi had been appointed as Jin's new Inspector of Jingzhou. By now, he had won the affection of the people living along the Yangzi and the Han River. Meanwhile, the Prince of Qiao, Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi, was still at the capital at Jiankang. Sima Wensi was naturally violent and cruel, and he enjoyed going off and causing mischief whenever it suited him. Liu Yu was greatly vexed by him.

In the third month, the court officials submitted a memorial reporting that Sima Wensi had arbitrarily beaten state officials to death. An edict was issued ordering Sima Wensi's fellow troublemakers to be executed, but Sima Wensi himself was pardoned. Sima Xiuzhi sent up a petition taking responsibility for the crime and asking to be relieved of his office, but his request was denied. Liu Yu arrested Sima Wensi and sent him to Sima Xiuzhi, ordering him to personally make an example of his son, intending to have Sima Xiuzhi kill him. But Sima Xiuzhi merely submitted a petition deposing Sima Wensi and sent Liu Yu a letter apologizing for his faults.

Liu Yu was thus displeased with Sima Xiuzhi. He appointed the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Meng Huaiyu, as Commander of military affairs of six commandaries in Yuzhou in order to guard against Sima Xiuzhi.

〈文思,休之之長子也。譙王尚之死於桓玄之難,帝反正,以文思嗣國。〉〈爲後裕伐休之張本。〉〈豫州六郡,宣城、襄城、淮南、廬江、安豐、歷陽也。〉

(Sima Wensi was Sima Xiuzhi's eldest son. Since the former Prince of Qiao, Sima Xiuzhi's brother Sima Shangzhi, had died during Huan Xuan's uprising, after Emperor An was restored to the throne, he appointed Sima Wensi as the new Prince of Qiao to continue that lineage.

This was why Liu Yu later campaigned against Sima Xiuzhi.

These six commandaries in Yuzhou were Xuancheng, Xiangcheng, Huainan, Lujiang, Anfeng, and Liyang.)


休之頗得江漢人心,劉裕疑其有異志。而休之子文思繼休之兄尚之為譙王,謀圖裕,裕執送休之,令自為其所。休之表廢文思,并與裕書陳謝。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Sima Xiuzhi gained the hearts of the people living along the Yangzi and the Han River, and Liu Yu suspected he had sinister intentions. Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi had succeeded Sima Xiuzhi's late elder brother Sima Shangzhi's title as Prince of Qiao. Sima Wensi plotted against Liu Yu, who arrested him and sent him to Sima Xiuzhi, with orders for Sima Xiuzhi to personally deal with him. Sima Xiuzhi sent up a petition deposing Sima Wen from his title, and he wrote a letter of apology to Liu Yu defending himself.

以子文思為亂,上疏謝曰:「文思不能聿修,自貽罪戾,憂懼震惶,惋愧交集。臣禦家無方,威訓不振,致使子侄愆法,仰負聖朝。悚赧兼懷,胡顏自處,請解所任,歸罪闕庭。」不許。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

When Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi caused trouble, Sima Xiuzhi sent up a petition apologizing for his behavior and stating, "Wensi did not uphold the law, and he has brought guilt and blame down upon his head; I am deeply fearful and nervous, and a host of shames and regrets attend me. I could not supervise my family, nor were my authority and instructions sufficient to guide them, to the extent that my sons and nephews have violated the law and received the censure of the court. Fear and shame fill my breast, and can I maintain my place faced with such things? Thus I ask to resign my position and return to the capital to answer for these crimes." But the court did not permit him to resign.

循平,又封陽豐縣男,食邑二百五十戶。復為太尉諮議參軍,征虜將軍。八年,遷江州刺史,尋督江州、豫州之西陽、新蔡、汝南、潁川、司州之弘農、揚州之松滋六郡諸軍事、南中郎將,刺史如故。時荊州刺史司馬休之居上流,有異志,故授懷玉此任以防之。十一年,加持節。丁父艱,懷玉有孝性。因抱篤疾,上表陳解,不許。又自陳弟仙客出繼,喪主唯己,乃見聽。未去任,其年卒官。時年三十一。追贈平南將軍。子元卒,無子,國除。懷玉別封陽豐男,子慧熙嗣,坐廢祭祀奪爵。慧熙子宗嗣,竟陵太守,中大夫。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Meng Huaiyu)

After Lu Xun was defeated, Meng Huaiyu was appointed as Baron of Yangfeng county, with a fief of two hundred fifty households. He was later appointed as a Consultant Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant (Liu Yu) and as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs.

In the eighth year of Yixi (413), Meng Huaiyu was transferred to be Inspector of Jiangzhou. He was soon appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou and in six commandaries of other provinces: Xiyang, Xincai, Runan, and Yingchuan in Yuzhou, Hongnong in Sizhou, and Songzi in Yangzhou. He was also appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, while keeping his original position as Inspector. At that time, the Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, was occupying the upper reaches of the Yangzi and had ulterior motives against Liu Yu; this was why Meng Huaiyu received these appointments, in order to check Sima Xiuzhi.

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), Meng Huaiyu was further appointed as Credential Bearer.

When Meng Huaiyu's father became gravely ill, since Meng Huaiyu had a filial nature, he wanted to go tend to his father on his deathbed. He sent up a petition explaining the situation and asking to resign, but the court denied his request. So Meng Huaiyu talked to his younger brother Meng Xianke to go back to their home in his stead and conduct the funeral, then come and report to him. But before Meng Huaiyu could resign, he passed away in office; he was thirty years old. He was posthumously appointed as General Who Pacifies The South. When Meng Huaiyu's son Meng Yuan passed away, he had no son, so his fief was abolished.

Meng Huaiyu had also been appointed as Barson of Yangfeng, and his son Meng Huixi inherited this title. But Meng Huixi was blamed for failing to practice the sacrifices, and he was stripped of his title. Meng Huixi's son Meng Zong succeeded him, and Meng Zong became Administrator of Jingling and a Central Gentleman.


夏,五月,辛酉,魏主還平城。

7. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Xinyou (June 6th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

乙卯,起豐宮於平城東北。夏五月辛酉,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Jimao (April 1st), Emperor Mingyuan raised the Feng Palace northeast of Pingcheng. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Xinyou (June 6th), he returned to the palace.


秦後將軍斂成討叛羌,爲羌所敗,懼罪,出奔夏。

8. Qin's General of the Rear, Lian Cheng, campaigned against rebellious Qiang. However, the Qiang defeated him. Afraid of what punishment awaited him, Lian Cheng fled to Xia.

時貳縣羌叛興,興遣後將軍斂成、鎮軍彭白狼、北中郎將姚洛都討之。斂成為羌所敗,甚懼,詣趙興太守姚穆歸罪。穆欲送殺之,成怒,奔赫連勃勃。興遣姚紹與姚弼率禁衛諸軍鎮撫嶺北。遼東侯彌姐亭地率其部人南居陰密,劫掠百姓。弼收亭地送之,殺其眾七百餘人,徙二千餘戶于鄭城。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, the Qiang tribes in Er county rebelled against Yao Xing. Yao Xing sent the General of the Rear, Lian Cheng, the General Who Guards The Army, Peng Bailang, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Yao Luodu, to campaign against them. But Lian Cheng was defeated by the Qiang. Greatly afraid, Lian Cheng went to present himself to the Administrator of Zhaoxing, Yao Mu, to answer for his crime. But when Yao Mu planned to send him to the capital to be killed, Lian Cheng became angry, and he fled to Helian Bobo.

Yao Xing sent Yao Shao and Yao Bi to lead the palace and imperial guards to garrison and supervise the region north of the mountain ranges. The Marquis of Liaodong, Mijie Tingdi, led his forces south to dwell at Yinmi, where they pillaged and harrassed the common people. Yao Bi arrested Mijie Tingdi and sent him to the capital, where he and more than seven hundred of his people were killed. More than two thousand households were relocated to Zhengcheng.


秦王興有疾。妖賊李弘與氐仇常反於貳城,興輿疾往討之,斬常,執弘而還。

9. Yao Xing became ill. At that time, a mystic rebel, Li Hong, and a leader of the Di people, Chou Chang, rebelled against Qin at Ercheng. But even though he was sick, Yao Xing campaigned against them; he took Chou Chang's head and captured Li Hong before returning.

興寢疾,妖賊李弘反于貳原,貳原氐仇常起兵應弘。興輿疾討之,斬常,執弘而還,徙常部人五百餘戶於許昌。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing became bedridden by illness. A mystic rebel, Li Hong, rebelled at Eryuan, and a leader of the Di people there, Chou Chang, raised troops to support him. But even though he was sick, Yao Xing campaigned against them; he took Chou Chang's head and captured Li Hong before returning, and he relocated more than five hundred households from Chou Chang's forces to Xuchang.


秦左將軍姚文宗有寵於太子泓,廣平公弼惡之,誣文宗有怨言;秦王興怒,賜文宗死,於是羣臣畏弼側目。弼言於興,無不從者;以所親天水尹沖爲給事黃門侍郎,唐盛爲治書侍御史,興左右掌機要者,皆其黨也。右僕射梁喜、侍中任謙、京兆尹尹昭承間言於興曰:「父子之際,人所難言;然君臣之義,不薄於父子,故臣等不得默然。廣平公弼,潛有奪嫡之志,陛下寵之太過,假其威權;傾險無賴之徒輻湊附之。道路皆言陛下將有廢立之計,信有之乎?」興曰:「豈有此邪!」喜等曰:「苟無之,則陛下愛弼,適所以禍之;願去其左右,損其威權,如此,非特安弼,乃所以安宗廟、社稷。」興不應。大司農寶溫、司徒左長史王弼皆密疏勸興立弼爲太子,興雖不從,亦不責也。

10. Qin's General of the Left, Yao Wenzong, enjoyed the favor of the Crown Prince, Yao Hong. But Yao Bi hated Yao Wenzong, and he slandered him by saying that Yao Wenzong had been expressing resentful thoughts. This angered Yao Xing, who ordered Yao Wenzong to commit suicide. After that, the other Qin ministers were too afraid of Yao Bi to even look him in the eye.

Whatever Yao Bi proposed to Yao Xing, Yao Xing never failed to heed him. So Yao Bi arranged to have his friend Yin Chong of Tianshui commandary appointed as Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and his friend Tang Meng was appointed as 治書侍御史. Indeed, everyone who held a critical post close to Yao Xing was one of Yao Bi's partisans.

The Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Xi, the Palace Attendant, Ren Qian, and the Intendant of Jingzhao, Yin Zhao, privately said to Yao Xing, "People will criticize even when a father and son have a poor relationship with one another. The relationship between a sovereign and his subjects is no less important. Thus we can remain silent no longer. The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, is secretly scheming to wrest control of the succession of state. Your Majesty has favored him too highly, and you have granted him power and authority. Now all manner of odious people have hitched their wagons to his cause. Even the people in the street all say that Your Majesty is planning to set aside your heir and make Yao Bi your successor instead. Is there any truth to that?"

Yao Xing objected, "How could that possibly be true?"

They replied, "Even if you really have no such intention, you show too much love for Yao Bi, and you are courting disaster. We implore you to send away Yao Bi's minions and decrease his power and authority. By doing so, you will prevent him from having an especially secure position, and you will bring stability back to the ancestral temple and the altars of state."

But Yao Xing did not listen to them.

The Grand Minister of Finance, Bao Wen (or Dou Wen), and the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Bi, secretly submitted petitions urging Yao Xing to appoint Yao Bi as Crown Prince. Although Yao Xing did not do so, he did not punish them for having offered such advice.

〈父子、君臣,皆人之大倫,故云然。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「寶」作「竇」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;熊校同。】〉

(The relationships between father and son and between sovereign and subject are both part of the great relationships, thus this rhetoric by Yao Xing's ministers.

Some versions write Bao Wen's surname as 竇 Dou rather than 寶 Bao.)


興中子廣平公弼有寵,委之朝政。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

One of Yao Xing's middle sons, the Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, enjoyed his father's favor, and he had control of all affairs of court and government.

姚文宗有寵于姚泓,姚弼深疾之,誣文宗有怨言,以侍御史廉桃生為證。興怒,賜文宗死。是後群臣累足,莫敢言弼之短... 弼寵愛方隆,所欲施行,無不信納。乃以嬖人尹沖為給事黃門侍郎,唐盛為治書侍御史,左右機耍,皆其黨人,漸欲廣樹爪牙,彌縫其闕。右僕射梁喜、侍中任謙、京兆尹尹昭承間言於興曰:「父子之際,人罕得而言。然君臣亦猶父子,臣等理不容默。並後匹嫡,未始不傾國亂家。廣平公弼奸凶無狀,潛有陵奪之志,陛下寵之不道,假其威權,傾險無賴之徙,莫不鱗湊其側。市巷諷議,皆言陛下欲有廢立之志。誠如此者,臣等有死而已,不敢奉詔。」興曰:「安有此乎!」昭等曰:「若無廢立之事,陛下愛弼,適所以禍之,願去其左右,減其威權。非但弼有太山之安,宗廟社稷亦有磐石之固矣。」興默然... 先是,大司農竇溫、司徙左長史王弼皆有密表,勸興廢立。興雖不從,亦不以為責。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Wenzong enjoyed the favor of Yao Hong. But Yao Bi deeply hated Yao Wenzong, and he slandered him by saying that Yao Wenzong had been expressing resentful thoughts, having the Imperial Secretary, Lian Taosheng, act as a witness for the charge. This angered Yao Xing, who ordered Yao Wenzong to commit suicide. After that, the other ministers trod carefully, none daring to criticize Yao Bi's shortcomings.

Yao Xing loved and favored Yao Bi. Whatever Yao Bi wished was carried out, for Yao Xing never failed to trust and heed him. So Yao Bi arranged to have his friend Yin Chong appointed as Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and his friend Tang Meng was appointed as 治書侍御史. Indeed, everyone who held a critical post close to Yao Xing was one of Yao Bi's partisans. He thus gradually planned to expand his network of fangs and claws, so that they could cover up his faults.

The Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Xi, the Palace Attendant, Ren Qian, and the Intendant of Jingzhao, Yin Zhao, privately said to Yao Xing, "People will rarely reserve their words when a father and son have a poor relationship with one another. The relationship between a sovereign and his subjects is no less important. Thus we can remain silent no longer. There has never once been an instance where favoritism for a younger son has not led to disaster for the state and discord for the family. The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, is an evil, insolent villain, secretly scheming to wrest control of the succession of state. Your Majesty has unjustly favored him, and you have granted him power and authority. Now all manner of odious people have hitched their wagons to his cause. Even the people in the marketplaces and the alleyways all spread rumors that Your Majesty is planning to set aside your heir and make Yao Bi your successor instead. If these rumors are true, then we are prepared to oppose this policy even to the death rather than dare uphold such a wish."

Yao Xing objected, "How could that possibly be true?"

They replied, "Even if you really have no such intention, you show too much love for Yao Bi, and you are courting disaster. We implore you to send away Yao Bi's minions and decrease his power and authority. By doing so, you will prevent him from having a position as secure as Mount Tai, and you will bring a firm foundation back to the ancestral temple and the altars of state."

Yao Xing was left silent.

The Grand Minister of Finance, Dou Wen, and the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Bi, secretly submitted petitions urging Yao Xing to depose Yao Hong and appoint Yao Bi as Crown Prince. Although Yao Xing did not do so, he did not punish them for having offered such advice.


興疾篤,弼潛聚衆數千人,謀作亂。姚裕遣使以弼逆狀告諸兄在藩鎭者,於是姚懿治兵於蒲阪,鎭東將軍、豫州牧洸治兵於汳陽,平西將軍諶治兵於雍,皆欲赴長安討弼。會興疾瘳,見羣臣,征虜將軍劉羌泣以告興。梁喜、尹昭請誅弼,且曰:「苟陛下不忍殺弼,亦當奪其權任。」興不得已,免弼尚書令,使以將軍、公還第。懿等各罷兵。

11. Yao Xing became bedridden by illness. So Yao Bi secretly gathered together an army of several thousand people, plotting to launch a coup.

Yao Yu sent agents to inform his elder brothers at their border posts about Yao Bi's treasonous intentions. Yao Yi then prepared his troops at Puban, while the General Who Guards The East and Governor of Yuzhou, Yao Guang, prepared his troops at Bianyang, and the General Who Pacifies The West, Yao Shen, prepared his troops at Yong. All of them planned to march on Chang'an in order to campaign against Yao Bi.

But then Yao Xing recovered from his illness, and he met with his ministers. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Liu Qiang, wept as he told Yao Xing what was happening. Liang Xi and Yin Zhao asked him to execute Yao Bi, further saying, "If Your Majesty cannot bear to outright kill Yao Bi, you should at least remove his authority and his titles."

Yao Xing would not kill Yao Bi, but he stripped him of his title as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and ordered him to his estate as General and Duke. Yao Yi and the others then disbanded their troops.

〈懿、洸,皆興子也。〉〈弼爲大將軍,封廣平公。〉

(Yao Yi and Yao Guang were both sons of Yao Xing.

Yao Bi was Grand General and Duke of Guangping.)


十六年五月,興寢疾於內,太子泓以兵屯東華門,侍疾于諮議堂。尚書廣平公弼潛謀為亂,招集數千人,持兵於第,興疾損,升前殿,百官咸會。征虜劉羌泣曰:「陛下寢疾數旬,奈何忽有斯事。」興曰:「朕過庭無訓,使諸子不穆,愧於四海」。興以弼文武兼才,未忍致法,免其尚書令,以公就第。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the sixteenth year of Hongshi (414), the fifth month, Yao Xing was bedridden inside the palace by illness. The Crown Prince, Yao Hong, camped troops at the Donghua Gate, while he himself went to tend to Yao Xing during his illness at the council hall. The Master of Writing and Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, secretly plotted to launch a coup, and he gathered together an army of several thousand people and kept soldiers at his estate.

Yao Xing then recovered from his illness, and he ascended into the Front Hall, where his ministers held a meeting. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Liu Qiang, wept as he told Yao Xing, "Your Majesty has been bedridden by illness for several weeks. How could things have come to this?"

Yao Xing replied, "I was too indulgent and did not properly instruct my sons, thus their lack of respect. I am truly ashamed before the Four Seas."

Yao Xing felt that Yao Bi was too talented in civil and military affairs, and he could not bear to inflict the ultimate punishment against him. But he stripped him of his title as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and ordered him to his ducal estate.

興疾篤,長子泓侍疾於中,弼集黨數千人,候興死,欲殺泓自立。興諸子姪外鎮者,聞之,皆起兵討弼。興疾瘳,不忍誅弼,免官而已。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

One of Yao Xing's middle sons, the Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, enjoyed his father's favor, and he had control of all affairs of court and government. When Yao Xing became bedridden with illness and his eldest son, Yao Hong, attended to his illness in the palace, Yao Bi gathered together several thousand people, planning to wait for Yao Xing to die and then kill Yao Hong and claim the throne. Yao Xing's other sons and nephews were out at border posts, and when they heard of Yao Bi's planned coup, they all raised troops to campaign against him.

Yao Xing then recovered from his illness. He could not bear to execute Yao Bi, and merely stripped him of office.

興疾篤,其太子泓屯兵于東華門,侍疾於諮議堂。姚弼潛謀為亂,招集數千人,被甲伏於其第。撫軍姚紹及侍中任謙、右僕射梁喜、冠軍姚贊、京兆尹尹昭、輔國斂曼嵬並典禁兵,宿衛於內。姚裕遣使告姚懿于蒲阪,並密信諸籓,論弼逆狀。懿流涕以告將士曰:「上今寢疾,臣子所宜冠履不整。而廣平公弼擁兵私第,不以忠於儲宮,正是孤徇義亡身之日。諸君皆忠烈之士,亦當同孤徇斯舉也。」將士無不奮怒攘袂曰:「惟殿下所為,死生不敢貳。」於是盡赦囚徙,散布帛數萬匹以賜其將士,建牙誓眾,將赴長安。鎮東、豫州牧姚洸起兵洛陽,平西姚諶起兵於雍,將以赴泓之難。興疾瘳,朝其群臣,征虜劉羌泣謂興曰:「陛下寢疾數旬,奈何忽有斯事!」興曰:「朕過庭無訓,使諸子不穆,愧于四海。卿等各陳所懷,以安社稷。」尹昭曰:「廣平公弼恃寵不虔,阻兵懷貳,自宜置之刑書,以明典憲。陛下若含忍未便加法者,且可削奪威權,使散居籓國,以紓窺窬之禍,全天性之恩。」興謂梁喜曰:「卿以為何如?」喜曰:「臣之愚見,如昭所陳。」興以弼才兼文武,未忍致法,免其尚書令,以將軍、公就第。懿等聞興疾瘳,各罷兵還鎮。懿、恢及弟諶等皆抗表罪弼,請致之刑法,興弗許。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing became bedridden by illness. The Crown Prince, Yao Hong, camped troops at the Donghua Gate, while he himself went to tend to Yao Xing during his illness at the council hall. Yao Bi secretly plotted to launch a coup, and he gathered together an army of several thousand people and placed armored troops in waiting at his estate. The General Who Nurtures The Army, Yao Shao, the Palace Attendant, Ren Qian, the Deputy Director of the Right, Liang Xi, the Champion General Yao Xian, the Intendant of Jingzhao, Yin Zhao, and the General Who Upholds The State, Lian Manwei, all organized the household guards and quartered them within the palace.

Yao Yu sent agents to inform Yao Yi at Puban, as well as secretly informing the other border generals, telling them all about Yao Bi's treasonous intentions. Yao Yi wept as he addressed his generals and officers, telling them, "At a time when our sovereign is laid low by illness, we his sons and subjects should not even be dressed in our full attire of caps and shoes. Yet the Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, has gone so far as to gather troops at his private residence and is acting disloyally towards the heir. Today, I intend to uphold righteousness though it costs me my life. Gentlemen, you are all loyal subjects; will you not join with me in this endeavor?"

They all wiped away tears on their sleeves as they replied, "Your Highness, we will serve you through life and death."

So Yao Yi pardoned all the prisoners and exiles and distributed cloths and silks among tens of thousands of people to recruit them as soldiers, and he planted his standard and declared a call to arms, planning to march on Chang'an. Likewise, the General Who Guards The East and Governor of Yuzhou, Yao Guang, raised troops at Luoyang and the General Who Pacifies The West, Yao Shen, raised troops at Yong in order to put a stop to Yao Bi's plot.

But then Yao Xing recovered from his illness, and he met with his ministers. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Liu Qiang, wept as he told Yao Xing, "Your Majesty has been bedridden by illness for several weeks. How could things have come to this?"

Yao Xing replied, "I was too indulgent and did not properly instruct my sons, thus their lack of respect. I am truly ashamed before the Four Seas. Gentlemen, let each of you explain your thoughts on how we may secure the fortunes of state."

Yin Zhao said, "The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, lacking reverence and relying upon the favor he had been shown, went so far as to assemble troops and harbor treasonous designs. The remedy for such a crime has long been established, ever since the creation of codes of punishment. But if Your Majesty cannot bear to carry out the full extent of the law, you should at least remove Yao Bi's authority and his titles and scatter his minions to dwell in the border regions. That would prevent the disaster of another such coup attempt, while still displaying the full measure of heavenly grace."

Yao Xing asked Liang Xi, "And what do you think?"

Liang Xi replied, "In my humble view, it is just as Yin Zhao says."

Yao Xing felt that Yao Bi was too talented in civil and military affairs, and he could not bear to inflict the ultimate punishment against him. But he stripped him of his title as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and ordered him to his estate as General and Duke.

When Yao Yi and the others heard that Yao Xing had recovered from his illness, they all disbanded their troops and returned to their posts.

Yao Yi, Yao Hui and his younger brother Yao Shen, and others all submitted a petition listing Yao Bi's crimes and asking that he be dealt with by law. But Yao Xing refused.


懿、洸、諶與姚宣皆入朝,使裕入白興,求見,興曰:「汝等正欲論弼事耳,吾已知之。」裕曰:「弼苟有可論,陛下所宜垂聽;若懿等言非是,便當寘之刑辟,柰何逆拒之!」於是引見懿等於諮議堂。宣流涕極言,興曰:「吾自處之,非汝曹所憂。」撫軍東曹屬姜虬上疏曰:「廣平公弼,釁成逆著,道路皆知之。昔文王之化,刑于寡妻;今聖朝之亂,起自愛子,雖欲含忍掩蔽,而逆黨扇惑不已,弼之亂心何由可革!宜斥散凶徒,以絕禍端。」興以虬表示梁喜曰:「天下人皆以吾兒爲口實,將何以處之?」喜曰:「信如虬言,陛下宜早裁決。」興默然。

12. Yao Yi, Yao Guang, Yao Shen, and Yao Xuan all came to court. They sent Yao Yu in to report to Yao Xing and request a meeting. Yao Xing told Yao Yu, "I already know what this is about: you all just want to discuss this Yao Bi business."

Yao Yu said, "Your Majesty ought to listen to what anyone has to say about Yao Bi. And if what Yao Yi and the others propose to you is unacceptable, you may deal with them according to the law. But why oppose meeting with them at all?"

So Yao Xing had Yao Yi and the others come to the council hall. Yao Xuan wept as he fully expressed his thoughts. Yao Xing said, "I will deal with this myself; you all need not concern yourselves."

The Eastern Bureau Officer to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Jiang Qiu, sent up a memorial stating, "The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, seeks to sow discord and cause treason, as even people in the street well know. In ancient times, when King Wen of Zhou acted with virtue, 'his example extended to his wife as well'. Now the chaos in our court all stems from your treatment of this favored son, and even if you wish to tolerate his shortcomings and cover up his crimes, Yao Bi's traitorous partisans are stirring up people to do wrong. Can we expect his wicked heart to change? You should break the power and scatter the forces of his minions, in order to stave off disaster."

Yao Xing showed Jiang Qiu's memorial to Liang Xi and said, "Everyone in the realm is gossiping about my son. What am I do to about him?"

Liang Xi replied, "It is just as Jiang Qiu says. Your Majesty should deal with him at once."

Yao Xing was left silent.

〈《詩‧思齊》曰:刑于寡妻,至于兄弟。〉〈孔安國曰:口實,謂常不去口。〉〈史言姚興不聽臣子之言,養成泓、弼爭國之禍。〉

(The Book of Poetry states, "King Wen's example acted on his wife, and extended to his brethren."

Regarding the term 口實, Kong Anguo remarked, "This means a constant subject of conversation."

This passage demonstrates how Yao Xing would not listen to the words of his ministers or his sons. This would eventually lead to the disaster of the civil war between Yao Hong and Yao Bi.)


時姚懿、姚洸、姚宣、姚諶來朝,使姚裕言於興曰:「懿等今悉在外,欲有所陳。」興曰:「汝等正欲道弼事耳,吾已知之。」裕曰:「弼苟有可論,陛下所宜垂聽。若懿等言違大義,便當肆之刑辟,奈何距之!」於是引見諮議堂。宣流涕曰:「先帝以大聖起基,陛下以神武定業,方隆七百之祚,為萬世之美,安可使弼謀傾社稷。宜委之有司,肅明刑憲。臣等敢以死請。」興曰:「吾自處之,非汝等所憂。」...撫軍東曹屬薑虯上疏曰:「廣平公弼懷奸積年,謀禍有歲,傾諂群豎為之畫足,釁成逆著,取嗤戎裔。文王之化,刑于寡妻;聖朝之亂,起自愛子。今雖欲含忍其瑕,掩蔽其罪,而逆黨猶繁,扇惑不已,弼之亂心其可革耶!宜斥散凶徒,以絕禍始。」興以虯表示梁喜曰:「天下之人莫不以吾兒為口實,將何以處之?」喜曰:「信如虯言,陛下宜早裁決。」興默然。太子詹事王周亦虛襟引士,樹黨東宮,弼惡之,每規陷害周。周抗志確然,不為之屈。興嘉其守正,以周為中書監。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Yao Yi, Yao Guang, Yao Shen, and Yao Xuan all came to court. They sent Yao Yu in tell Yao Xing, "Yao Yi and the others are all outside, and wish to speak to you."

Yao Xing replied, "I already know what this is about: you all just want to discuss this Yao Bi business."

Yao Yu said, "Your Majesty ought to listen to what anyone has to say about Yao Bi. And if what Yao Yi and the others propose to you violates what is right, you may deal with them according to the law. But why oppose meeting with them at all?"

So Yao Xing had Yao Yi and the others come to the council hall. Yao Xuan wept as he said, "His Late Majesty (Yao Chang) established the foundation of the state through his great wisdom, and Your Majesty has settled the grand design through your divine martial prowess. We faced the prospect of enjoying seven hundred reigns and ten thousand generations of good fortune. How then could you allow Yao Bi to topple the fortunes of state? You ought to hand him over to the officials and solemnly declare his acts so that he may be judged and punished. We all have risked death in order to ask you to do so."

Yao Xing replied, "I will deal with this myself; you all need not concern yourselves."

The Eastern Bureau Officer to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Jiang Qiu, sent up a memorial stating, "The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, has cherished evil designs for several years and has plotted a coup for just as long. He has fawned upon and flattered many miscreants in order to have them serve as his minions, and he seeks to sow discord and cause treason, as even the barbarians claim with sneers. In ancient times, when King Wen of Zhou acted with virtue, 'his example extended to his wife as well', while chaos in a court arises from exalting a favored son. By now, even if you wished to tolerate his shortcomings and cover up his crimes, Yao Bi's traitorous and numerous partisans are stirring up people to do wrong. Can we expect his wicked heart to change? You should break the power and scatter the forces of his minions, in order to stave off disaster."

Yao Xing showed Jiang Qiu's memorial to Liang Xi and said, "Not a single person in all the realm can stop gossiping about my son. What am I do to about him?"

Liang Xi replied, "It is just as Jiang Qiu says. Your Majesty should deal with him at once."

Yao Xing was left silent.

The Chief of Affairs to the Crown Prince, Wang Zhou, was another person who acted modestly and attracted people to his side, and he gained many partisans within the Eastern Palace. Yao Bi hated him, and always took the chance to slander and defame Wang Zhou. But Wang Zhou held fast to his resolve and would not be cowed. Yao Xing appreciated his sense of propriety, and he appointed Wang Zhou as Chief of the Palace Secretariat.


唾契汗、乙弗等部皆叛南涼,南涼王傉檀欲討之。邯川護軍孟愷諫曰:「今連年饑饉,南逼熾磐,北逼蒙遜,百姓不安。遠征雖克,必有後患;不如與熾磐結盟通糴,慰撫雜部,足食繕兵,俟時而動。」傉檀不從,謂太子虎臺曰:「蒙遜近去,不能猝來;旦夕所慮,唯在熾磐。然熾磐兵少易禦,汝謹守樂都,吾不過一月必還矣。」乃帥騎七千襲乙弗,大破之,獲馬牛羊四十餘萬。

13. The Tuoqihan, Yifu, and other tribes rebelled against Southern Liang. Tufa Nutan wanted to campaign against them. His Protector-General of Hanchuan, Meng Kai, remonstrated with him, saying, "We have been experiencing several years of famine, we are still threatened to the south by Qifu Chipan and to the north by Juqu Mengxun, and the common people do not know peace. If you go on this distant campaign, even if you are successful, our enemies will surely take the opportunity to attack us from behind. Better for you to agree to a pact and arrange terms with Qifu Chipan, then nurture and supervise your various forces. Build up a healthy supply of food and drill your soldiers, and wait for a more opportune time before acting."

But Tufa Nutan did not listen to him. He said to Tufa Hutai, "Juqu Mengxun marched against us so recently that we do not need to fear any sudden return from him. The only immediate threat we face is from Qifu Chipan. But Qifu Chipan has few troops, so he can easily be dealt with. You must be diligent in defending Ledu. I will return in less than a month."

Then Tufa Nutan led seven thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against the Yifu tribe. He greatly routed them and captured more than four hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep.

〈《北史》曰:乙弗國有契翰一部,風俗亦同。杜佑曰:乙弗敵,後魏聞焉,在吐谷渾北,衆有萬餘落,風俗與吐谷渾同,然不識五穀,唯食魚與蘇子。蘇子狀若中國枸杞子,或赤或黑。西有契翰一部,風俗亦同。〉

(Regarding the Yifu, the History of the Northern Dynasties states, "The state of the Yifu were a branch of the Qihan, and they shared the same customs." Du You remarked, "The Yifudi were known during the Northern Wei era. They lived north of the Tuyuhun, and had more than ten thousand encampments. They had the same customs as the Tuyuhun, but they did not harvest the Five Grains; they merely ate fish and perilla seeds. These seeds are similar to the wolfberry seeds of the Middle Kingdom, with some being red and some black. To their west were the Qihan, who also had the same customs.")


七年,傉檀議欲西征乙弗,孟愷諫曰:「連年不收,上下飢弊,南逼熾盤,北迫蒙遜,今遠征雖剋,後患必深。」傉檀曰:「孤將略地,卿無阻衆。」謂其太子虎臺曰:「今不種多年,內外俱窘,事宜西行,以拯此弊。蒙遜近去,不能卒來,旦夕所慮,唯在熾盤。彼名微衆寡,易以討禦。吾不過一月自足周旋,汝謹守樂都,無使失墜。」傉檀乃率騎數千,西襲乙弗,大破之,獲牛馬羊四十餘萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the seventh year of Jiaping (414), Tufa Nutan proposed a western campaign against the Yifu. Meng Kai remonstrated with him, saying, "For several years now, we have been unable to collect a harvest, and those above and below are suffering from famine and want. Beyond that, we are still threatened to the south by Qifu Chipan and to the north by Juqu Mengxun. If you go on this distant campaign, even if you are successful, the threat to our rear would be serious indeed."

But Tufa Nutan told him, "I am about to expand our territory; do not hinder our soldiers." And he said to his Crown Prince, Tufa Hutai, "It is precisely because we have lacked harvests for several years and the people within and without are all exhausted that I wish to launch this western campaign and rescue the situation. Now Juqu Mengxun marched against us so recently that we do not need to fear any sudden return from him. The only immediate threat we face is from Qifu Chipan. But Qifu Chipan is of slight reputation and has few troops, so he can easily be dealt with. As for me, I will need no more than a month to carry out the campaign and then return. You must be diligent in defending Ledu; do not lose your position."

Then Tufa Nutan led seven thousand cavalry west to launch a surprise attack against the Yifu tribe. He greatly routed them and captured more than four hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep.

神瑞初,傉檀率騎擊乙弗虜,大有擒獲。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

At the beginning of the Shenrui reign era (~414), Tufa Nutan led cavalry to attack the Yifu people, taking many captives and prizes.

傉檀議欲西征乙弗,孟愷諫曰:「連年不收,上下饑弊,南逼熾磐,北迫蒙遜,百姓騷動,下不安業。今遠征雖克,後患必深,不如結盟熾磐,通糴濟難,慰喻雜部,以廣軍資,畜力繕兵,相時而動。《易》曰:'其亡其亡,系于苞桑。'惟陛下圖之。」傉檀曰:「孤將略地,卿無沮眾。」謂其太子武台曰:「今不種多年,內外俱窘,事宜西行,以拯此弊。蒙遜近去,不能卒來,旦夕所慮,唯在熾盤。彼名微眾寡,易以討禦,吾不過一月,自足周旋。汝謹守樂都,無使失墮。」傉檀乃率騎七千襲乙弗,大破之,獲牛馬羊四十餘萬。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan proposed a western campaign against the Yifu. Meng Kai remonstrated with him, saying, "For several years now, we have been unable to collect a harvest, and those above and below are suffering from famine and want. Beyond that, we are still threatened to the south by Qifu Chipan and to the north by Juqu Mengxun. The common people are stirred up, and they cannot practice their livelihoods in peace. If you now go on this distant campaign, even if you are successful, the threat to our rear would be serious indeed. Better for you to agree to a pact and arrange terms with Qifu Chipan, gather grain to get through this difficult time, nurture and supervise your various forces, build up a healthy supply of military resources, gather your strength and drill your soldiers, and wait for a more opportune time before acting. The Book of Changes has the passage, ''We may perish! We may perish!", as things become like being bound to a clump of bushy mulberry trees'. I implore Your Majesty to consider this."

But Tufa Nutan told him, "I am about to expand our territory; do not hinder our soldiers." And he said to his Crown Prince, Tufa Wutai, "It is precisely because we have lacked harvests for several years and the people within and without are all exhausted that I wish to launch this western campaign and rescue the situation. Now Juqu Mengxun marched against us so recently that he cannot return quickly. The only immediate threat we face is from Qifu Chipan. But Qifu Chipan is of slight reputation and has few troops, so he can easily be dealt with. As for me, I will need no more than a month to carry out the campaign and then return. You must be diligent in defending Ledu; do not lose your position."

Then Tufa Nutan led seven thousand cavalry west to launch a surprise attack against the Yifu tribe. He greatly routed them and captured more than four hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep.


河南王熾磐聞之,欲襲樂都,羣臣咸以爲不可。太府主簿焦襲曰:「傉檀不顧近患而貪遠利,我今伐之,絕其西路,使不得還救,則虎臺獨守窮城,可坐禽也。此天亡之時,必不可失。」熾磐從之,帥步騎二萬襲樂都。虎臺憑城拒守,熾磐四面攻之。

14. When Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had left on campaign, he wanted to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. His ministers all believed that it could not be done. But the Registrar to the Grand Staff, Jiao Xi, told him, "Tufa Nutan is ignoring threats close at hand in order to chase after profits far away. If we campaign against his territory now, we can cut off his road back home from the west. Then he will not be able to rescue his territory; Tufa Hutai will be left alone in an isolated city, and we can capture Ledu at our leisure. Heaven is willing Tufa Nutan's destruction; you cannot neglect this opportunity."

Qifu Chipan followed his advice. He led twenty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. Tufa Hutai manned the walls and opposed him, and Qifu Chipan assaulted the city from all sides.

〈近患,謂蒙遜、熾磐;遠利,謂乙弗。〉〈樂都之西路,此傉檀自乙弗還樂都路也。〉

(The "threats close at hand" were Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan, while the "profits far away" were the Yifu tribe.

By cutting off the western road, Tufa Nutan would not be able to return from the Yifu tribe's territory back to Ledu.)


五[三]年正月,有五色雲起於南山,盤大悅,謂羣臣曰:「吾今年應有所定,王業成矣。」於是繕甲整兵,以伺四方之隙。五月,聞傉檀西征,率步騎二萬襲樂都。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the third year of Yongkang (414), in the first month, clouds of five colors arose at the southern hills. Qifu Chipan was greatly pleased by this omen, telling his ministers, "This very year, I shall secure my reign and complete my royal design." So he repaired his armor and drilled his soldiers, while waiting to see what opportunity would present itself on his borders.

In the fifth month, when Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had gone west on campaign, he led twenty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Ledu.

後襲禿髮傉檀於樂都。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan later launched a surprise attack against Tufa Nutan at Ledu.

僭立十年,有雲五色,起于南山,熾磐以為己瑞,大悅,謂群臣曰:「吾今年應有所定,王業成矣!」於是繕甲整兵,以待四方之隙。聞禿髮辱檀西征乙弗,投劍而起曰:「可以行矣!」率步騎二萬襲樂都。禿髮武台憑城距守,熾磐攻之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the tenth year of Yixi (414), clouds of five colors arose at the southern hills. Qifu Chipan believed that this was a good omen, and he was overjoyed, telling his ministers, "This very year, I shall secure my reign and complete my royal design!" So he repaired his armor and drilled his soldiers, while waiting to see what opportunity would present itself on his borders.

When Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had gone west on campaign against the Yifu, he drew his sword and declared, "Now we can act!" So he led twenty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. Tufa Wutai manned the walls and opposed him, and Qifu Chipan attacked him.


南涼撫軍從事中郎尉肅言於虎臺曰:「外城廣大難守,殿下不若聚國人守內城,肅等帥晉人拒戰於外,雖有不捷,猶足自存。」虎臺曰:「熾磐小賊,旦夕當走,卿何過慮之深!」虎臺疑晉人有異心,悉召豪望有謀勇者閉之於內。孟愷泣曰:「熾磐乘虛內侮,國家危於累卵。愷等進欲報恩,退顧妻子,人思效死,而殿下乃疑之如是邪!」虎臺曰:「吾豈不知君之忠篤,懼餘人脫生慮表,以君等安之耳。」

15. Southern Liang's Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Wei Su, said to Tufa Hutai, "The outer walls of Ledu are so wide that it will be difficult for us to hold them against the enemy. Your Highness should assemble the Compatriots within the inner walls of the city, while allowing me and others to lead the Jin (ethnic Han) people to oppose the enemy at the outer walls. Even if we suffer a reverse there, we can still fall back afterwards."

But Tufa Hutai said, "Qifu Chipan is just some bandit, and he will flee any day now. How can you worry so much about him?"

Tufa Hutai was suspicious that the Jin people were plotting against him. So he summoned all of their influential leaders who were cunning or bold and sealed them within the inner city. Meng Kai wept as he said to Tufa Hutai, "Qifu Chipan is taking advantage of this opening to attack us, and the state is in as much peril as a stack of eggs. We are all devoted to you, and would fight to the death on your behalf; in advancing, we will seek to repay the grace we have been shown, and in falling back, we will think of the fates of our wives and children. How then can Your Highness suspect us like this?"

Tufa Hutai replied, "Sir, of course I know that you are loyal and faithful. But I am concerned that the others might seek to help the enemy in order to save their own lives. That's the only reason why I want you and the others to settle them."

〈國人,謂鮮卑禿髮之種落。〉〈夷人謂華人爲晉人。〉

(The Compatriots were the tribes of the Tufa of the Xianbei.

The tribal peoples called the Hua (ethnic Han) people the Jin people.)


熾磐乘虛來襲,撫軍從事中郎尉肅言于武台曰:「今外城廣大,難以固守,宜聚國人於內城,肅等率諸晉人距戰於外,如或不捷,猶有萬全。」武台曰:「小賊蕞爾,旦夕當走,卿何慮之過也。」武台懼晉人有二心也,乃召豪望有勇謀者閉之於內。孟愷泣曰:「熾磐不道,人神同憤,愷等進則荷恩重遷,退顧妻子之累,豈有二乎!今事已急矣,人思自效,有何猜邪?」武台曰:「吾豈不知子忠,實懼餘人脫生慮表,以君等安之耳。」(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Qifu Chipan took advantage of Tufa Nutan's absence to launch a surprise attack against Ledu. The Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen to the General Who Nurtures The Army, Wei Su, said to Tufa Wutai, "The outer walls of Ledu are so wide that it will be difficult for us to hold them against the enemy. You should assemble the Compatriots within the inner walls of the city, while allowing me and others to lead the Jin (ethnic Han) people to oppose the enemy at the outer walls. Even if we suffer a reverse there, we can still fall back afterwards."

But Tufa Wutai said, "Qifu Chipan is just some bandit, a mere weed, and he will flee any day now. How can you worry so much about him?"

Tufa Wutai was suspicious that the Jin people were plotting against him. So he summoned all of their influential leaders who were cunning or bold and sealed them within the inner city. Meng Kai wept as he said to Tufa Hutai, "Qifu Chipan has acted without principle in attacking us, and both the people and the spirits are indignant against him. As for myself and the others, in advancing, we will seek to repay the grace we have been shown, and in falling back, we will think of the fates of our wives and children. How could we be of two hearts? The situation is so serious that we would fight to the death on your behalf. How then can you suspect us like this?"

Tufa Wutai replied, "Sir, of course I know that you are loyal and faithful. But I am concerned that the others might seek to help the enemy in order to save their own lives. That's the only reason why I want you and the others to settle them."


一夕,城潰,熾磐入樂都,遣平遠將軍捷虔帥騎五千追傉檀,以鎭南將軍謙屯爲都督河右諸軍事、涼州刺史,鎭樂都;禿髮赴單爲西平守,鎭西平;以趙恢爲廣武太守,鎭廣武;曜武將軍王基爲晉興太守,鎭浩亹;徙虎臺及其文武百姓萬餘戶于枹罕。赴單,烏孤之子也。

16. Within a short time, Ledu fell, and Qifu Chipan entered the city. He sent his General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Qifu Jieqian, to lead five thousand cavalry to pursue Tufa Nutan. He appointed his General Who Guards The South, Qifu Qiantun, as Commander of military affairs in the Heyou region and Inspector of Liangzhou and stationed him at Ledu, he appointed Tufa Fudan as Defender of Xiping and stationed him there, he appointed Zhao Hui as Administrator of Guangwu and stationed him there, and he appointed his General of Brilliant Valor, Wang Ji, as Administrator of Jinxing and stationed him at Haomen. He relocated Tufa Hutai, his civil and military officials, and more than ten thousand households of the common people to Fuhan. This Tufa Fudan was a son of Tufa Wugu.

〈捷虔、謙屯,皆乞伏種。〉〈浩亹,音誥門。〉

(Jieqian and Qiantun were members of the Qifu clan.

Haomen is pronounced "gaomen".)


一旬而克。遂入樂都,論功行賞各有差。遣平遠犍虔率騎五千追傉檀,徙武台與其文武及百姓萬餘戶於枹罕。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

After ten days, Ledu fell. When Qifu Chipan entered the city, he praised the achievements and conduct of his followers and distributed suitable rewards to all who deserved them. He sent his General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Qifu Jieqian, to lead five thousand cavalry to pursue Tufa Nutan, and he relocated Tufa Wutai, his civil and military officials, and more than ten thousand households of the common people to Fuhan.

一旬而城潰。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

After ten days, Ledu fell.


河間人褚匡言於燕王跋曰:「陛下龍飛遼、碣,舊邦族黨,傾首朝陽,以日爲歲,請往迎之。」跋曰:「道路數千里,復隔異國,如何可致?」匡曰:「章武臨海,舟楫可通,出於遼西臨渝,不爲難也。」跋許之,以匡爲游擊將軍、中書侍郎,厚資遣之。匡與跋從兄買、從弟睹自長樂帥五千餘戶歸于和龍,契丹、庫莫奚皆降於燕。跋署其大人爲歸善王。跋弟丕避亂在高句麗,跋召之,以爲左僕射,封常山公。

17. In Yan, a native of Hejian commandary, Chu Kuang, said to Feng Ba, "Your Majesty has risen like a dragon in the regions of Liao and Jie. Now your old kinsmen and partisans in your homeland are looking to the east towards you, waiting for your arrival. The days have stretched on to years by now. I ask that you go to receive them."

Feng Ba objected, "The distance there is many thousands of li, and the way passes through enemy territory. How then could I do so?"

Chu Kuang replied, "Zhangwu is by the sea, and you could launch boats from there. If you go by Linyu county in Liaoxi commandary, it would not be hard."

So Feng Ba agreed to his request; he appointed Chu Kuang as General of Fierce Assault and Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat and provided him with supplies before sending him on his way. Chu Kuang and Feng Ba's cousins Feng Mai and Feng Du set out from Zhangle and led more than five thousand households to return to Helong.

The Khitan and Kumoxi people all surrendered to Yan, and Feng Ba appointed their chiefs as Princes of Guishan ("Princes Who Submit To Right").

Feng Ba's younger brother Feng Pi had earlier fled to Goguryeo in order to escape the chaos in Later Yan. Feng Ba now summoned him back and appointed him as Deputy Director of the Left and Duke of Changshan.

〈言日生於東,猶馮跋興於遼、碣也。其族黨在長樂者,傾首而東望之。碣,其謁翻。〉〈跋之先,長樂信都人,而章武郡則晉分漢勃海郡所置也。自信都至章武,可以浮海至遼西。〉〈臨渝縣,漢屬遼西郡。《水經》曰:碣石在縣南。〉〈漢高帝置信都郡,景帝二年爲廣川國,明帝更名樂成,安帝改曰安平,晉改曰長樂。〉

(Just as the sun rises in the east, Feng Ba had risen in the eastern regions of Liao and Jie. His kinsmen and partisans at Zhangle were lifting their heads and looking east towards him as though looking towards the rising sun.

The term Jie is pronounced "qie (q-ie)".

Feng Ba's ancestors had been natives of Xindu county in Zhangle commandary, while Zhangwu commandary had been split off by Jin from Han's Bohai commandary. By going from Xindu to Zhangwu, one could then reach Liaoxi commandary by sailing across the sea.

During Han, Linyu county was part of Liaoxi commandary. The Water Classic states, "Jieshi was in the south of this county."

Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) had created Xindu commandary. In the second year of the reign of Emperor Jing of Han (156 BC), it became the Guangchuang princely fief. Emperor Ming of Han later renamed it to Lecheng, and Emperor An of Han renamed it to Anping. Jin renamed it to Zhangle.)


柔然可汗斛律將嫁女於燕,斛律兄子步鹿眞謂斛律曰:「幼女遠嫁憂思,請以大臣樹黎等女爲媵。」斛律不許。步鹿眞出,謂樹黎等曰:「斛律欲以汝女爲媵,遠適他國。」樹黎恐,與步鹿眞謀使勇士夜伏於斛律穹廬之後,伺其出而執之,與女皆送於燕,立步鹿眞爲可汗而相之。

18. The Rouran khan Yujiulü Hulü was about to send his daughter as a wife to Yan. His nephew Yujiulü Buluzhen said to him, "I am concerned at the prospect of you sending your young daughter to be married off to such a distant place. Please have your great ministers, Shuli and the rest, send their own daughters along to accompany her as ladies-in-waiting."

But Yujiulü Hulü did not agree. Yujiulü Buluzhen then left, and he went to Shuli and the others and told them, "Yujiulü Hulü is planning to claim your daughters as ladies-in-waiting to his daughter, and send them off to a distant state."

Shuli was furious, and he and Yujiulü Buluzhen hatched a plot. They sent strong fellows to hide behind Yujiulü Hulü's yurt, and these fellows waited until Yujiulü Hulü came out and then arrested him. They exiled him and his daughter to Yan, while acclaiming Yujiulü Buluzhen as the new Khan and supporting him.

初,社崙之徙高車也,高車人叱洛侯爲之鄕導以倂諸部,社崙德之,以爲大人。步鹿眞與社崙之子社拔共至叱洛侯家,淫甚少妻,妻告步鹿眞曰:「叱洛侯欲奉大檀爲主。」大檀者,社崙季父僕渾之子也,領別部鎭西境,素得衆心。步鹿眞歸而發兵圍叱洛侯,叱洛侯自殺。遂引兵襲大檀,大檀逆擊,破之,執步鹿眞及社拔,殺之,自立爲可汗,號牟汗紇升蓋可汗。

19. Many years earlier, when Yujiulü Shelun had been living among the Gaoche people, one of them, Luohouwei, had served as his guide and brought him among the various tribes there. Yujiulü Shelun had respected Luohouwei and appointed him as a chieftain.

At this time, Yujiulü Buluzhen and Yujiulü Shelun's son Yujiulü Sheba both went to Luohouwei's home, acting despicably with his young wife, who told them, "Luohouwei is planning to support Yujiulü Datan as the new leader." This Yujiulü Datan was the son of Yujiulü Shelun's uncle Yujiulü Puhun; he was in command of a different force of the Rouran, on the western border, and had long enjoyed the regard of the people. So Yujiulü Buluzhen returned and raised troops to surround Luohouwei, who killed himself. Yujiulü Buluzhen then led his troops to launch a surprise attack against Yujiulü Datan. However, Yujiulü Datan counter-attacked and routed them, and he captured Yujiulü Buluzhen and Yujiulü Sheba and killed them.

Yujiulü Datan then declared himself the new Khan, and his title was the Mouhanheshenggai Khan.

〈事見一百十二卷元興元年。〉〈魏收曰:魏言制勝也。〉

(Yujiulü Shelun's time living in the region of the Gaoche people is mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxing (402.6).

The Book of Northern Wei states, "In the language of the people of Wei, this term 'Mouhanheshenggai' meant 'one who controls victory'.")


斛律至和龍,燕王跋賜斛律爵上谷侯,館之遼東,待以客禮,納其女爲昭儀。斛律上書請還其國,跋曰:「今棄國萬里,又無內應,若以重兵相送,則饋運難繼,兵少則不足成功,如何可還?」斛律固請,曰:「不煩重兵,願給三百騎,送至敕勒,國人必欣然來迎。」跋乃遣單于前輔萬陵帥騎三百送之。陵憚遠役,至黑山,殺斛律而還。大檀亦遣使獻馬三千匹、羊萬口于燕。

20. When Yujiulü Hulü arrived at Helong, Feng Ba appointed him as Marquis of Shanggu and granted him a residence at Liaodong, treating him as an honored guest. He took his daughter as a Zhaoyi concubine.

When Yujiulü Hulü sent up a letter asking to return to his territory, Feng Ba said, "But you have just been cast out of your state and have traveled ten thousand li here to join me, and there is no one within your state who would support your return. If I send a great army to escort you back, then it would be difficult to keep them supplied, while if I send a small one then they would not be enough to achieve success. How then could you return?"

But Yujiulü Hulü continued to insist, saying, "You need not trouble yourself with sending a great army. I ask only for three hundred cavalry to escort me to the Tiele people, who will welcome me with open arms."

So Feng Ba sent his Forward Support to the Chanyu, Wan Ling, to lead three hundred cavalry to escort Yujiulü Hulü. But Wan Ling was afraid at the prospect of such a distant campaign. So when the group arrived at Mount Hei, he killed Yujiulü Hulü and then turned back.

Yujiulü Datan sent envoys to Yan, presenting three thousand horses and ten thousand sheep as tribute.

〈黑山在唐振武之北塞外,卽殺胡山也。〉

(Mount Hei is north beyond the borders of the realm in Tang's Zhenwu commandary; it was also called Mount Shahu ("Mount Killed Barbarian").)


六月,泰山太守劉硏等帥流民七千餘家、河西胡酋劉遮等帥部落萬餘家,皆降於魏。

21. In the sixth month, Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Liu Yan, and others led more than seven thousand households of common people to surrender to Wei. So did tribal leaders from Hexi commandary, Liu Zhe and others, who led more than ten thousand families of their forces to surrender.

六月,司馬德宗冠軍將軍、太山太守劉研弟,輔國將軍、領東平太守陽平趙鸞,廣威將軍、平昌太守羅卓,斗城屠各帥張文興等,率流民七千餘家內屬。河西胡酋劉遮、劉退孤率部落等萬餘家,渡河內屬。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the sixth month, Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Champion General and Administrator of Taishan, Liu Yandi, his General Who Upholds The State and acting Administrator of Dongping, Zhao Luan of Yangping commandary, his General of Broad Might and Administrator of Pingchang, Luo Zhuo, a leader of the Chuge clan of the Xiongnu at Doucheng, Zhang Wenxing, and others led more than seven thousand families of common people to settle within Northern Wei's territory. So did tribal leaders from Hexi commandary, Liu Zhe and Liu Tuigu, who led more than ten thousand families of their forces to cross the Yellow River and settle within Northern Wei territory.


戊申,魏主嗣如豺山宮;丁亥,還平城。

22. On the day Wushen (July 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Dinghai (?), he returned to Pingcheng.

戊申,幸犲山宮。丁亥,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Wushen (July 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Dinghai (?), he returned to the palace.


樂都之潰也,南涼安西將軍樊尼自西平奔告南涼王傉檀,傉檀謂其衆曰:「今妻子皆爲熾磐所虜,退無所歸,卿等能與吾藉乙弗之資,取契汗以贖妻子乎?」乃引兵西;衆多逃還,傉檀遣鎭北將軍段苟追之,苟亦不還。於是將士皆散,唯樊尼與中軍將軍紇勃、後軍將軍洛肱、散騎侍郎陰利鹿不去,傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾磐昔皆委質於吾,今而歸去,不亦鄙乎!四海之廣,無所容身,何其痛也!與其聚而同死,不若分而或全。樊尼,吾長兄之子,宗部所寄;吾衆在北者戶垂一萬,蒙遜方招懷士民,存亡繼絕,汝其從之;紇勃、洛肱亦與尼俱行。吾年老矣,所適不容,寧見妻子而死!」遂歸于熾磐,唯陰利鹿隨之。傉檀謂利鹿曰:「吾親屬皆散,卿何獨留?」利鹿曰:「臣老母在家,非不思歸;然委質爲臣,忠孝之道,難以兩全。臣不才,不能爲陛下泣血求救於鄰國,敢離左右乎!」傉檀歎曰:「知人固未易。大臣親戚皆棄我去,今日忠義終始不虧者,唯卿一人而已!」

23. When Ledu had fallen, Southern Liang's General Who Maintains The West, Tufa Fanni, fled from Xiping to inform Tufa Nutan of what had happened. Tufa Nutan addressed his soldiers, saying, "Our wives and children are all now captives of Qifu Chipan, and there is no place for us to flee to. Will you all join me in use the resources of the Yifu to capture the Qihan and use them to ransom our wives and children?" And he led his troops west to attack those people. But many of his soldiers deserted him to return home, and when Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Guards The North, Duan Gou, to pursue them, Duan Gou did not return either. In the end, most of Tufa Nutan's generals and soldiers abandoned him; only Tufa Fanni, the General of the Central Army, He Bo, the General of the Rear Army, Luo Gong, and the Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Yin Lilu, did not leave him.

Tufa Nutan said to them, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow! Now rather than all of us dying together, we should split up so that at least some of us will live. Tufa Fanni, you are my eldest brother's son, and my clan relies upon you. And I still have nearly ten thousand people living in the north of my territory. Juqu Mengxun is still working hard to win over both the gentry and the common people, so to ensure the succession of our clan, you should go to join him. He Bo and Luo Gong, you should go with Tufa Fanni. As for me, I am too old, and I have no place to flee to. I might as well see my wife and children once more before I die!" So Tufa Nutan went to Qifu Chipan, with only Yin Lilu to accompany him.

Tufa Nutan said to Yin Lilu, "Even my relatives and friends have all abandoned me. Why do you alone stay by my side?"

Yin Lilu replied, "I do have an aged mother at home, and of course I wish to return there. But I have sworn to be devoted to you, and when it comes to loyalty and filial piety, it is hard to uphold both ideals at once. Though I am not talented, how can I dare to abandon Your Majesty when you have been reduced to weeping blood and begging for refuge from our neighbors?"

Tufa Nutan lamented, "How difficult it is to really know people. Abandoned by all my great ministers and relatives alike. Sir, you alone are the only one who has shown full loyalty and righteousness rather than harm me!"

〈蒙遜稱臣於利鹿孤,見一百一十二卷隆安五年;熾磐父子歸利鹿孤,見一百一十一卷四年。〉〈樊尼蓋烏孤之子也。〉〈紇,戶骨翻。〉

(Juqu Mengxun had earlier declared himself Tufa Lilugu's vassal, as mentioned in Book 112, in the fifth year of Long'an (401.37). Qifu Chipan and his father Qifu Gangui had actually taken refuge under Tufa Lilugu, as mentioned in Book 111, in the fourth year of Long'an (400.31).

Since Tufa Nutan calls him "my eldest brother's son", Tufa Fanni must have been the son of Tufa Wugu.

He Bo's surname, 紇, is pronounced "hu (h-u)".)


熾盤乘虛來襲,一旦而城潰,安西樊尼自西平奔告傉檀,傉檀謂衆曰:「今樂都為熾盤所陷,卿等能與吾籍乙弗之資,取契汗以贖妻子者,是所望也。」遂引師而西,衆多逃返,遣征北段苟追之,苟亦不還。於是將士皆散。傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾盤昔皆委質於吾,今而歸之,不亦鄙乎!四海之廣,匹夫無所容其身,何其痛哉!吾老矣,寧見妻子而死,遂歸熾盤。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Qifu Chipan took advantage of Tufa Nutan's absence and launched a surprise attack against Ledu, and within a short time, the city fell. The General Who Maintains The West, Tufa Fanni, fled from Xiping to inform Tufa Nutan of what had happened.

Tufa Nutan addressed his soldiers, saying, "Ledu has fallen to Qifu Chipan. My hope is that you all will join me in using the resources of the Yifu to capture the Qihan and use them to ransom our wives and children." And he led his troops west to attack those people. But many of his soldiers deserted him to return home, and when Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Guards The North, Duan Gou, to pursue them, Duan Gou did not return either. In the end, his generals and soldiers all scattered.

Tufa Nutan said, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow! But I am too old now, and I might as well see my wife and children once more before I die." So Tufa Nutan went to Qifu Chipan.

而乞伏熾磐乘虛襲樂都克之,執傉檀子虎臺以下。傉檀聞之曰:「若歸熾磐,便為奴僕,豈忍見妻子在他懷中也!」引眾而西,眾皆離散。傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾磐昔皆委質於吾,今而歸之,不亦鄙哉!四海之廣,無所容身,何其痛乎!」既乃歎曰:「吾老矣,寧見妻子而死。」(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Qifu Chipan took advantage of Tufa Nutan's absence by launching a surprise attack against Ledu; he took the city, and captured Tufa Nutan's son Tufa Hutai and his other ministers. When Tufa Nutan heard this, he said to his soldiers, "If you go to Qifu Chipan now, you will only become his slaves. And how can you bear to leave your wives and children in the hands of another?" So he led his troops west, but they all scattered and deserted.

Tufa Nutan then said, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow!" He sighed and continued, "But I am an old man now. I should at least see my wife and children again before I die."

安西樊尼自西平奔告傉檀,傉檀謂眾曰:「今樂都為熾磐所陷,男夫盡殺,婦女賞軍,雖欲歸還,無所赴也。卿等能與吾藉乙弗之資,取契汗以贖妻子者,是所望也。不爾,歸熾磐便為奴僕矣,豈忍見妻子在他人懷抱中!」遂引師而西,眾多逃返,遣鎮北段苟追之,苟亦不還。於是將士皆散,惟中軍紇勃、後軍洛肱、安西樊尼、散騎侍郎陰利鹿在焉。傉檀曰:「蒙遜、熾磐昔皆委質於吾,今而歸之,不亦鄙哉!四海之廣,匹夫無所容其身,何其痛也!蒙遜與吾名齊年比,熾磐姻好少年,俱其所忌,勢皆不濟。與其聚而同死,不如分而或全。樊尼長兄之子,宗部所寄,吾眾在北者戶垂二萬,蒙遜方招懷遐邇,存亡繼絕,汝其西也。紇勃、洛肱亦與尼俱。吾年老矣,所適不容,甯見妻子而死!」遂歸熾磐,唯陰利鹿隨之。傉檀謂利鹿曰:「去危就安,人之常也。吾親屬皆散,卿何獨留?」利鹿曰:「臣老母在家,方寸實亂。但忠孝之義,勢不俱全。雖不能西哭沮渠,申包胥之誠;東感秦援,展毛遂之操,負羈靮而侍陛下者,臣之分也。惟願開弘遠猷,審進止之算。」傉檀歎曰:「知人固未易,人亦未易知。大臣親戚皆棄我去,終紿不虧者,唯卿一人。歲寒不凋,見之於卿。」(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

The General Who Maintains The West, Tufa Fanni, fled from Xiping to inform Tufa Nutan of what had happened. Tufa Nutan addressed his soldiers, saying, "Ledu has fallen to Qifu Chipan; the men were all killed and the women were distributed among his soldiers as rewards. Now, even if we wished to return home, there is no place for us to flee to. It is my hope that you will all join me in using the resources of the Yifu to capture the Qihan and use them to ransom our wives and children. Otherwise, if you go to Qifu Chipan now, you will only become his slaves. And how can you bear to leave your wives and children in the hands of another?" And he led his troops west. But many of his soldiers deserted him to return home, and when Tufa Nutan sent his General Who Guards The North, Duan Gou, to pursue them, Duan Gou did not return either. In the end, most of Tufa Nutan's generals and soldiers abandoned him; only Tufa Fanni, the General of the Central Army, He Bo, the General of the Rear Army, Luo Gong, and the Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Yin Lilu, did not leave him.

Tufa Nutan said to them, "Both Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan were once our vassals. Wouldn't it disgraceful to flee to either of them now? How wide the world is within the Four Seas, yet without any place to shelter me; such sorrow! Now Juqu Mengxun has about the same reputation as me and is around the same age, while Qifu Chipan is my relative by marriage and a young man; both of them have cause to be suspicious of me, so there is no way I can escape the danger. So rather than all of us dying together, we should split up so that at least some of us will live. Tufa Fanni, you are my eldest brother's son, and my clan relies upon you. And I still have nearly twenty thousand households living in the north of my territory. Juqu Mengxun is still working hard to win over those both near and far, so to ensure the succession of our clan, you should go west to join him. He Bo and Luo Gong, you should go with Tufa Fanni. As for me, I am too old, and I have no place to flee to. I might as well see my wife and children once more before I die!" So Tufa Nutan went to Qifu Chipan, with only Yin Lilu to accompany him.

Tufa Nutan said to Yin Lilu, "It's human nature to flee from danger and seek safety. Even my relatives and friends have all abandoned me. Why then do you alone stay by my side?"

Yin Lilu replied, "I do have an aged mother at home, and I am indeed courting danger. But when it comes to loyalty and filial piety, it is hard to uphold both ideals at once. I may not be able to go west and weep before Juqu Mengxun in the hopes that he will assist you, and thus prove my sincerity like Shen Baoxu of old, or else go east and make my case to Qin so that they will send aid, thus emulating the deeds of Mao Sui. But at least it will be my share to bear your bridle and accompany you, Your Majesty. I ask only that you consider and develop distant and lofty plans, and discern your movements carefully."

Tufa Nutan lamented, "How difficult it is to really know people, or to recognize them. Abandoned by all my great ministers and relatives alike. Sir, you alone are the only one who has shown full loyalty and righteousness rather than harm me; you alone have not withered before the cold."


傉檀諸城皆降於熾磐,獨尉賢政屯浩亹,固守不下。熾磐遣人謂之曰:「樂都已潰,卿妻子皆在吾所,獨守一城,將何爲也?」賢政曰:「受涼王厚恩,爲國藩屛。雖知樂都已陷,妻子爲禽,先歸獲賞,後順受誅;然不知主上存亡,未敢歸命;妻子小事,豈足動心!若貪一時之利,忘委付之重者,大王亦安用之!」熾磐乃遣虎臺以手書諭之,賢政曰:「汝爲儲副,不能盡節,面縛於人,棄父忘君,墮萬世之業,賢政義士,豈效汝乎!」聞傉檀至左南,乃降。

24. By now, most of Tufa Nutan's cities had all surrendered to Qifu Chipan. Only Wei Xianzheng, who was camped at Haomen, was still defending that place and would not submit. Qifu Chipan sent someone to tell him, "Ledu has already fallen, I have captured your wife and children, and you control only this single city. What can you hope to achieve?"

But Wei Xianzheng replied, "I have received the King of Liang's favor and grace, and he has entrusted me with the defence of his borders. I recognize that Ledu has fallen and my wife and children are prisoners, and I know the principle that those who submit early are rewarded while those who give in later are executed. But I still do not know whether my lord is alive or dead, and until then, I dare not give up my duty. How could my heart be swayed by something as insignificant as the fate of my wife and children? And what use would I ever be to you, Great King, if I would chase after short-term benefits at the cost of abandoning my post?"

Qifu Chipan then had Tufa Hutai handwrite a letter to Wei Xianzheng ordering him to surrender. But Wei Xianzheng replied, "You were the heir of the state, yet rather than uphold your duty to the very end, you bound yourself and surrendered to the enemy. You have abandoned your father, cast aside your sovereign, and let fall the legacy of your ancestors. I, Wei Xianzheng, am determined to be a martyr; how could I act like you?"

Only when Wei Xianzheng heard that Tufa Nutan had arrived at Zuonan did he surrender to Qifu Chipan.

〈主上,謂傉檀也。〉〈闞駰《十三州志》曰:左南城在金城白土縣東六十里。《晉志》:張氏置晉興郡,左南縣屬焉。是縣蓋亦張氏所置也。〉

(By "my lord", Wei Xianzheng meant Tufa Nutan.

Kan Yin's Records of the Thirteen Provinces states, "The city of Zuonan was sixty li east of Baitu county in Jincheng commandary." The Records of Jin states, "The Zhang clan of Former Liang created Jinxing commandary; Zuonan county was part of it." Zuonan county itself must have also been created by the Zhang clan.)


初,樂都之潰也,諸城皆降於熾磐,傉檀將尉賢政固守浩亹不下。熾磐呼之曰:「樂都已潰,卿妻子皆在吾間,孤城獨守,何所為也!」賢政曰:「受涼王厚恩,為國家籓屏,雖知樂都已陷,妻子為擒,先歸獲賞,後順受誅,然不知主上存亡,未敢歸命。妻子小事,豈足動懷!昔羅憲待命,晉文亮之;文聘後來,魏武不責。邀一時之榮,忘委付之重,竊用恥焉,大王亦安用之哉!」熾磐乃遣武台手書喻政,政曰:「汝為國儲,不能盡節,面縛於人,棄父負君,虧萬世之業,賢政義士,豈如汝乎!」既而聞傉檀至左南,乃降。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Originally, when Ledu fell, most of Tufa Nutan's cities had all surrendered to Qifu Chipan. Only his general Wei Xianzheng, who was camped at Haomen, was still defending that place and would not submit. Qifu Chipan shouted to him, "Ledu has already fallen, I have captured your wife and children, and you control only this single city. What can you hope to achieve?"

But Wei Xianzheng replied, "I have received the King of Liang's favor and grace, and he has entrusted me with the defence of his borders. I recognize that Ledu has fallen and my wife and children are prisoners, and I know the principle that those who submit early are rewarded while those who give in later are executed. But I still do not know whether my lord is alive or dead, and until then, I dare not give up my duty. How could my heart be swayed by something as insignificant as the fate of my wife and children? In former times, Luo Xian maintained his post and would not surrender his duty, and Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) praised him for it; Wen Ping was late in submitting to Wu of Wei (Cao Cao), but received no censure for it. And if I were to be so shameful as to chase after short-term benefits at the cost of abandoning my post, what use would I ever be to you, Great King?"

Qifu Chipan then had Tufa Wutai handwrite a letter to Wei Xianzheng ordering him to surrender. But Wei Xianzheng replied, "You were the heir of the state, yet rather than uphold your duty to the very end, you bound yourself and surrendered to the enemy. You have abandoned your father, cast aside your sovereign, and let fall the legacy of your ancestors. I, Wei Xianzheng, am determined to be a martyr; how could I act like you?"

Only when Wei Xianzheng heard that Tufa Nutan had arrived at Zuonan did he surrender to Qifu Chipan.


熾磐聞傉檀至,遣使郊迎,待以上賓之禮。秋,七月,熾磐以傉檀爲驃騎大將軍,賜爵左南公,南涼文武,依才銓敍。歲餘,熾磐使人鴆傉檀;左右請解之,傉檀曰:「吾病豈宜療邪!」遂死,諡曰景王。虎臺亦爲熾磐所殺。傉檀子保周、賀,俱延子覆龍,利鹿孤孫副周,烏孤孫承鉢,皆奔河西王蒙遜,久之,又奔魏。魏以保周爲張掖王,覆龍爲酒泉公,賀西平公,副周永平公,承鉢昌松公。魏主嗣愛賀之才,謂曰:「卿之先與朕同源,賜姓源氏。」

25. When Qifu Chipan heard that Tufa Nutan had come to him, he sent envoys to welcome Tufa Nutan at the borders, and he treated him as a guest of honor. In autumn, the seventh month, Qifu Chipan appointed Tufa Nutan as his Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan, and the former civil and military officials of Southern Liang were all appointed to posts in Western Qin according to their talents.

A year later, Qifu Chipan had someone poison Tufa Nutan. When Tufa Nutan's attendants tried to treat him, Tufa Nutan told them, "What cure can there be for this illness?" He then died, and was granted the posthumous title Prince Jing ("the Splendid"). Qifu Chipan also killed Tufa Hutai.

Tufa Nutan's sons Tufa Baozhou and Tufa He, Tufa Juyan's son Tufa Fulong, Tufa Lilugu's grandson Tufa Fuzhou, and Tufu Wugu's grandson Tufa Chengbo all fled to Juqu Mengxun, and sometime later, they then fled to Wei. Wei appointed Tufa Baozhou as Prince of Zhangye, Tufa Fulong as Duke of Jiuquan, Tufa He as Duke of Xiping, Tufa Fuzhou as Duke of Yongping, and Tufa Chengbo as Duke of Changsong.

Emperor Mingyuan of Wei treasured Tufa He for his talents, and he told him, "Your ancestors and I had the same origin. Thus I will grant you the surname Yuan ('origin')."

〈《載記》曰:禿髮烏孤至傉檀三世,十九年而滅。〉〈爲源氏昌大於魏張本。〉

(The Biography of Tufa Nutan in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Southern Liang lasted three generations and twenty-nine years, from Tufa Wugu to Tufa Nutan, then perished."

This was why the Yuan clan later became great and prominent in Northern Wei.)


是歲,禿髮傉檀為乞伏熾磐所滅。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (414), Tufa Nutan was conquered by Qifu Chipan.

夏六月,乞伏熾盤帥師伐禿髮傉檀,滅之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the sixth month, Qifu Chipan led an army to campaign against Tufa Nutan and conquered him.

傉檀降,遂并南涼,兵強地廣。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Tufa Nutan surrendered, and Qifu Chipan annexed Southern Liang, thus greatly strengthening his army and expanding his territory.

滅禿髮傉檀。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan conquered Tufa Nutan.

傉檀遂降,署為驃騎大將軍、左南公。隨傉檀文武,依才銓擢之。熾磐既兼傉檀,兵強地廣。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Tufa Nutan surrendered, and Qifu Chipan appointed him as his Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan. The former civil and military officials of Southern Liang who had followed Tufa Nutan were all appointed to posts in Western Qin according to their talents.

Now that Qifu Chipan had conquered Tufa Nutan, he had greatly strengthened his army and expanded his territory.

六月,至西平,盤遣使郊迎,以上賓之禮。歲餘,為熾盤所鴆。諡景王,時年五十一。虎臺亦為熾盤所害。少子保週歸魏,魏以為張掖王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the sixth month, Tufa Nutan arrived at Xiping. Qifu Chipan sent envoys to welcome Tufa Nutan at the borders, and he treated him as a guest of honor.

A year later, Tufa Nutan was poisoned by Qifu Chipan. His posthumous title was Prince Jing; at the time of his death, he was fifty years old. Tufa Hutai was also killed by Qifu Chipan.

Tufa Nutan's young son Tufa Baozhou fled to Northern Wei, who appointed him as their Prince of Zhangye.

遂降熾磐,熾磐待以上賓之禮,用為驃騎大將軍,封左南公。歲餘,鴆殺之。傉檀少子賀,後來奔,自有傳。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan surrendered to Qifu Chipan, who treated him as a guest of honor; he appointed him as Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan.

The following year, Qifu Chipan poisoned Tufa Nutan to death.

Tufa Nutan's young son Tufa He later fled to Northern Wei. He has his own biography.

傉檀至西平,熾磐遣使郊迎,待以上賓之禮... 熾磐以傉檀為驃騎大將軍,封左南公。歲餘,為熾磐所鴆。左右勸傉檀解藥,傉檀曰:「吾病豈宜療邪!」遂死,時年五十一,在位十三年,偽諡景王。武台後亦為熾磐所殺。傉檀少子保周、臘於破羌、俱延子覆龍、鹿孤孫副周、烏孤孫承缽皆奔沮渠蒙遜。久之,歸魏,魏以保周為張掖王,覆龍酒泉公,破羌西平公,副周永平公,承缽昌松公。烏孤以安帝隆安元年僭立,至傉檀三世,凡十九年,以安帝義熙十年滅。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

When Tufa Nutan came to Xiping, Qifu Chipan sent envoys to welcome him at the borders, and he treated him as a guest of honor. He appointed Tufa Nutan as his Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Zuonan.

A year later, Qifu Chipan poisoned Tufa Nutan. When Tufa Nutan's attendants urged him to take medicine, Tufa Nutan told them, "What cure can there be for this illness?" He then died; he was fifty years old, and had reigned for thirteen years. His posthumous title was Prince Jing. Tufa Wutai was later also killed by Qifu Chipan.

Tufa Nutan's young sons Tufa Baozhou and Tufa Poqiang, Tufa Juyan's son Tufa Fulong, Tufa Lilugu's grandson Tufa Fuzhou, and Tufu Wugu's grandson Tufa Chengbo all fled to Juqu Mengxun, and sometime later, they then fled to Northern Wei. Northern Wei appointed Tufa Baozhou as Prince of Zhangye, Tufa Fulong as Duke of Jiuquan, Tufa Poqiang as Duke of Xiping, Tufa Fuzhou as Duke of Yongping, and Tufa Chengbo as Duke of Changsong.

Southern Liang had lasted for three generations and nineteen years, from the beginning of Tufa Wugu's reign in the first year of Long'an (396) to the end of Tufa Nutan's reign in the tenth year of Yixi (414), then perished.

源賀,自署河西王禿髮傉檀之子也。傉檀為乞伏熾磐所滅,賀自樂都來奔。賀偉容貌,善風儀。世祖素聞其名,及見,器其機辯,賜爵西平侯,加龍驤將軍。謂賀曰:「卿與朕源同,因事分姓,今可為源氏。」(Book of Northern Wei 41, Biography of Yuan He)

Yuan He, originally Tufa He, was the son of the self-declared King of Hexi, Tufa Nutan. When Tufa Nutan was conquered by Tufa Nutan, Tufa He fled from Ledu to Northern Wei. He had a fine figure and striking bearing, as well as excellent mannerisms. Emperor Taiwu had long heard of his reputation, and when he saw Tufa He for himself and appreciated his capabilities, he appointed him as Northern Wei's Marquis of Xiping and Dragon-Soaring General. He said to Tufa He, "Your ancestors and I had the same origin, and only through circumstance did we come to have different surnames. Thus I will grant you the surname Yuan ('origin')."


八月,戊子,魏主嗣遣馬邑侯陋孫使於秦,辛丑,遣謁者于什門使於燕,悅力延使於柔然。于什門至和龍,不肯入見,曰:「大魏皇帝有詔,須馮王出受,然後敢入。」燕王跋使人牽逼令入;什門見跋不拜,跋使人按其項,什門曰:「馮王拜受詔,吾自以賓主致敬,何苦見逼邪!」跋怒,留什門不遣,什門數衆辱之。左右請殺之,跋曰:「彼各爲其主耳。」乃幽執什門,欲降之,什門終不降。久之,衣冠弊壞略盡,蟣蝨流溢;跋遺之衣冠,什門皆不受。

26. In the eighth month, on the day Wuzi (September 1st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei sent his Marquis of Mayi, Tuoba Lousun, as an envoy to Qin. On the day Xinchou (September 14th), he sent his diplomats Yu Shenmen as an envoy to Yan and Yue Liyan as an envoy to the Rouran.

When Yu Shenmen arrived at Helong, he refused to go into the palace, saying, "The Emperor of Great Wei has presented his edict. I must wait for the King to come out and receive the edict; only then I will I dare to go inside." But Feng Ba sent his agents to force Yu Shenmen to enter the palace. When Yu Shenmen met with Feng Ba, he refused to perform obeisance. Feng Ba had people press down against his neck, but Yu Shenmen said, "I will show King Feng the deepest respect due from a guest to a host as soon as he receives the Emperor's edict. Why go to so much trouble to force me so?" Feng Ba, angered, detained Yu Shenmen and would not allow him to return.

Yu Shenmen constantly denounced Feng Ba in front of others, and Feng Ba's attendants asked him to kill Yu Shenmen. But Feng Ba said, "Everyone has their own master."

Feng Ba kept Yu Shenmen under arrest, hoping to break his will, but Yu Shenmen refused to give in. After some time, Yu Shenmen's cap and clothes were completely decayed and he had become covered with lice. Feng Ba sent him a new cap and clothes to wear, but Yu Shenmen refused to accept them.

秋八月戊子,詔馬邑侯元陋孫使於姚興。辛丑,遣謁者悅力延撫慰蠕蠕,于什門招諭馮跋。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Wuzi (September 1st), Emperor Mingyuan sent the Marquis of Mayi, Tuoba Lousun, as an envoy to Yao Xing. On the day Xinchou (September 14th), he sent his diplomats Yue Liyan to comfort and console the Rouran and Yu Shenmen to bear his instructions to Feng Ba.


魏主嗣以博士王諒爲平南參軍,使以平南將軍、相州刺史尉太眞書與太尉裕相聞。太眞,古眞之弟也。

27. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei appointed his Academician, Wang Liang, as Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The South. He had him and the General Who Pacifies The South and Inspector of Xiangzhou, Yu Taizhen, write letters to Liu Yu to keep up a correspondence. This Yu Taizhen was the younger brother of Yu Guzhen.

詔平南將軍、相州刺史尉古真與司馬德宗太尉劉裕相聞,使博士王諒假平南參軍將命焉。姚興遣使來聘。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Emperor Mingyuan ordered his General Who Pacifies The South and Inspector of Xiangzhou, Yu Guzhen, to maintain communications with Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Grand Commandant, Liu Yu. He also sent his Academician, Wang Liang, to serve as Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The South and carry out his orders.

Yao Xing sent envoys to Northern Wei to arrange the betrothal that had been discussed earlier.

古真弟太真,太宗初,為平南將軍、相州刺史。(Book of Northern Wei 26, Biography of Yu Taizhen)

Yu Guzhen's younger brother was Yu Taizhen. At the beginning of Emperor Mingyuan's reign (~409), he was appointed as General Who Pacifies The South and Inspector of Xiangzhou.

神瑞元年,興遣兼散騎常侍、尚書吏部郎嚴康朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the first year of Shenrui (414), Yao Xing sent his combined Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Gentleman of the Personnel Bureau of the Masters of Writing, Yan Kang, to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute.


九月,丁巳朔,日有食之。

28. In the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (September 30th), there was an eclipse.

九月丁巳朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Dingsi (September 30th), there was an eclipse.


冬,十月,河南王熾磐復稱秦王,置百官。

29. In winter, the tenth month, Qifu Chipan declared himself King of Qin, and he created the imperial offices.

〈熾磐嗣位,自稱河南王;今幷南涼,復稱秦王。〉

(Upon succeeding his father, Qifu Chipan had originally declared himself King of Henan. Now that he had annexed Southern Liang, he raised his title to King of Qin.)


十月,僭即秦王位,置百官。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the tenth month, Qifu Chipan declared himself King of Qin, and he created the imperial offices.

乃私署秦王,置百官。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan declared himself King of Qin, and he created the imperial offices.

僭立十年... 置百官。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan claimed title as King in the tenth year of Yixi (414), and he created the imperial offices.


燕王跋與夏連和,夏王勃勃遣御史中丞烏洛孫如燕涖盟。

30. Feng Ba opened communications with Xia. Helian Bobo sent his 遣御史中丞, Wu Luosun, to swear a pact between Xia and Yan in his place.

〈春秋之時,列國釋仇通子,兩君不及相見而盟,必使其臣涖盟。《左傳》:陳五父如鄭涖盟是也。杜預曰:涖,臨也。〉

(During the Spring and Autumn era, when the lords of the various states sought to end hostilities and arrange peace with one another, if two lords sought to sign a pact but without actually meeting with one another, they would have their ministers arrange the pact in their place. The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states that Wufu of Chen went to Zheng to arrange such a pact. Du Yu's commentary to that text states, "The term 涖 means to be done in one's place or in absentia.")


十一月,壬午,魏主嗣遣使者巡行諸州,校閱守宰資財,非家所齎,悉簿爲贓。

31. In the eleventh month, on the day Renwu (December 24th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei sent agents to patrol through the various provinces. They audited the wealth and resources of the local officials, and anything not given to their families was confiscated as having been bribes.

冬十一月壬午,詔使者巡行諸州,校閱守宰資財,非自家所齎,悉簿為贓。詔守宰不如法,聽民詣闕告言之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Renwu (December 24th), Emperor Mingyuan sent agents to patrol through the various provinces. They audited the wealth and resources of the local officials, and anything not given to their families was confiscated as having been bribes. They also received visits from the common people and listened to accounts of local officials who had gone against the law.


西秦王熾磐立妃禿髮氏爲后。

32. Qifu Chipan honored his concubine Lady Tufa as his Queen.

〈妃,傉檀之女也。〉

(This Lady Tufa was the daughter of Tufa Nutan.)


立妻禿發氏為王后。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan honored his wife Lady Tufa as his Queen.

立其妻禿髮氏為王后。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan honored his wife Lady Tufa as his Queen.


十二月,丙戌朔,柔然可汗大檀侵魏;丙申,魏主嗣北擊之。大檀走,遣奚斤等追之,遇大雪,士卒凍死及墮指者什二三。

33. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (December 28th), Yujiulü Datan raided Wei. On the day Bingshen (January 7th of 415), Emperor Mingyuan marched north and attacked him. Yujiulü Datan fled, and Emperor Mingyuan sent Xi Jin and others to pursue him. But they encountered heavy snow, and twenty to thirty percent of their army froze to death or suffered frostbite.

十二月丙戌朔,蠕蠕犯塞。丙申,帝北伐蠕蠕。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (December 28th), the Rouran raided the borders. On the day Bingshen (January 7th of 415), Emperor Mingyuan marched north and campaigned against them.

蠕蠕犯塞,令斤等追之。事具蠕蠕傳。(Book of Northern Wei 29, Biography of Xi Jin)

When the Rouran invaded the borders, Emperor Mingyuan ordered Xi Jin and others to pursue them. This is further mentioned in the Account of the Rouran.


河內人司馬順宰自稱晉王,魏人討之,不克。

34. A native of Henei commandary, Sima Shunzai, declared himself King of Jin. The people of Wei campaigned against him, but without success.

河內人司馬順宰自號晉王。太守討捕不獲。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

A native of Henei commandary, Sima Shunzai, declared himself King of Jin. The Administrator of Henei campaigned against him, but could not capture him.


燕遼西公素弗卒,燕王跋比葬七臨之。

35. In Yan, Feng Sufu passed away. During the burial, Feng Ba came seven times to mourn at his side.

〈古者大臣卒,君三臨其喪。〉

(In ancient times, when a great minister died, it was customary for the sovereign to come three times to mourn at their side.)


是歲,司馬國璠兄弟聚衆數百潛渡淮,夜入廣陵城。青州刺史檀祗領廣陵相,國璠兵直上聽事,祗驚出,將禦之,被射傷而入,謂左右曰:「賊乘闇得入,欲掩我不備;但擊五鼓,彼懼曉,必走矣。」左右如其言,國璠兵果走。

36. It was earlier mentioned that Sima Guofan and his brothers had fled to Qin. During this year, they gathered an army of several hundred people and secretly crossed the Huai River, then entered the walls of Guangling during the night. Jin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Tan Zhi, was acting as Chancellor of Guangling. Sima Guofan's soldiers marched straight towards the administrative complex in Guangling. Alarmed, Tan Zhi rushed out to prepare to oppose them, but he was struck by an arrow and went back inside. He told his attendants, "The rebels have slipped into the city under cover of darkness, hoping to take us unawares. But if you will beat the fifth watch, the enemy will fear the approach of dawn, and they will surely flee." His attendants did as he said, and Sima Guofan's soldiers indeed ran away. Tan Zhi sent troops to pursue them, killing more than a hundred of them.

〈《祗傳》曰:自北徐州渡淮。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「走」下有「追殺百餘人」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】國璠之擾淮,至是十年矣。〉

(The Biography of Tan Zhi states, "Sima Guofan and his brothers crossed the Huai River from Northern Xuzhou."

Some versions add "Tan Zhi sent troops to pursue Sima Guofan's soldiers, killing more than a hundred of them" to the end of this passage.

By now, Sima Guofan had been raiding and pillaging the Huai River region for ten years.)


五年,入為中書侍郎。盧循逼京邑,加輔國將軍,領兵屯西明門外。循退走,祗率所領,步道援江陵,未發,遇疾停。八年,遷右衛將軍,出為輔國將軍、宣城內史,即本號督江北、淮南軍郡事、青州刺史、廣陵相。進號征虜將軍,加節。十年,亡命司馬國璠兄弟自北徐州界聚眾數百,潛得過淮,因天夜陰暗,率百許人緣廣陵城得入,叫喚直上聽事。祗驚起,出門將處分,賊射之,傷股,乃入。祗語左右:「賊乘暗得入,欲掩我不備。但打五鼓,懼曉,必走矣。」賊聞鼓鳴,謂為曉,於是奔散,追討殺百餘人。祗降號建武將軍。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Tan Zhi)

In the fifth year of Yixi (409), Tan Zhi returned to the capital to serve as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat.

When Lu Xun threatened the capital region, Tan Zhi was promoted to General Who Upholds The State and assigned troops to camp outside the Ximing Gate. After Lu Xun retreated, Tan Zhi was going to lead troops by land to assist the defense of Jiangling, but he was laid low by illness before he could set out.

In the eighth year of Yixi (412), Tan Zhi was transferred to be Guard General of the Left. He was then sent out to serve as General Who Upholds The State and Interior Minister of Xuancheng, then appointed as Commander of military affairs north of the Yangzi and south of the Huai River, Inspector of Qingzhou, and Chancellor of Guangling. He was promoted to General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Credential Bearer.

In the tenth year of Yixi (414), the fugitive rebels Sima Guofan and his brothers led an army of several hundred people into Northern Xuzhou and secretly crossed the Huai River. Since at that time it was the darkest night, they were able to lead about a hundred people to slip along the walls of Guangling and enter the city, where they shouted as they marched straight towards the administrative complex. Rising in alarm, Tan Zhi rushed out to prepare to oppose them, but he was struck by an arrow and injured in the thigh, so he went back inside. He told his attendants, "The rebels have slipped into the city under cover of darkness, hoping to take us unawares. But if you will beat the fifth watch, the enemy will fear the approach of dawn, and they will surely flee." When the rebels heard the drums beating, they said that dawn was approaching, so they scattered and fled. Tan Zhi sent troops to pursue them, killing more than a hundred of them. He was demoted to General Who Establishes Valor.


魏博士祭酒崔浩爲魏主嗣講《易》及《洪範》,嗣因問浩天文、術數;浩占決多驗,由是有寵,凡軍國密謀皆預之。

37. Wei's Libationer-Academician, Cui Hao, instructed Emperor Mingyuan on the Book of Changes and the Great Plan chapter of the Book of Documents. Emperor Mingyuan thus asked Cui Hao more about reading the heavens and the mystic arts. Many of Cui Hao's divinations and predictions proved to be correct, and he thus enjoyed Emperor Mingyuan's favor; Emperor Mingyuan would always first seek his advice in any critical policies of army or state.

夏王勃勃立夫人梁氏爲王后,子璝爲太子;封子延爲陽平公,昌爲太原公,倫爲酒泉公,定爲平原公,滿爲河南公,安爲中山公。

38. Helian Bobo honored his wife Lady Liang as his Queen, and he appointed his son Helian Gui as Crown Prince. Among his other sons, he appointed Helian Yan as Duke of Yangping, Helian Chang as Duke of Taiyuan, Helian Lun as Duke of Jiuquan, Helian Ding as Duke of Pingyuan, Helian Man as Duke of Henan, and Helian An as Duke of Zhongshan.

二年,立夫人梁氏為后,立子璝為太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

In the second year of Fengxiang (414), Helian Bobo honored his wife Lady Liang as his Queen, and he appointed his son Helian Gui as Crown Prince.

立其妻梁氏為王后,子璝為太子,封子延陽平公,昌太原公,倫酒泉公,定平原公,滿河南公,安中山公。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo honored his wife Lady Liang as his Queen, and he appointed his son Helian Gui as Crown Prince. Among his other sons, he appointed Helian Yan as Duke of Yangping, Helian Chang as Duke of Taiyuan, Helian Lun as Duke of Jiuquan, Helian Ding as Duke of Pingyuan, Helian Man as Duke of Henan, and Helian An as Duke of Zhongshan.
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BOOK 117

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Apr 28, 2019 10:54 pm

義熙十一年(乙卯、四一五)

The Eleventh Year of Yixi (The Yimao Year, 415 AD)


春,正月,丙辰,魏主嗣還平城。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Bingchen (January 27th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

〈至自伐柔然也。〉

(He was returning from his campaign against the Rouran.)


二年春正月丙辰,車駕至自北伐,賜從征將士布帛各有差。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the second year of Shenrui (415), in spring, the first month, on the day Bingchen (January 27th), Emperor Mingyuan returned from his northern campaign. He distributed cloths and grain among the generals and officers from the campaign as appropriate.


太尉裕收司馬休之次子文寶、兄子文祖,並賜死;發兵擊之。詔加裕黃鉞,領荊州刺史。庚午,大赦。

2. In Jin, Liu Yu arrested Sima Xiuzhi's second son Sima Wenbao and his nephew Sima Wenzu and forced them to commit suicide. He then raised troops in order to attack Sima Xiuzhi. An edict was issued promoting Liu Yu to Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe and acting Inspector of Jingzhou.

On the day Gengwu (February 10th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

十一年春正月,荊州刺史司馬休之、雍州刺史魯宗之並舉兵貳於劉裕,裕帥師討之。庚午,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), in spring, the first month, the Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, and the Inspector of Yongzhou, Lu Zongzhi, raised troops against Liu Yu. Liu Yu led an army to campaign against them.

On the day Gengwu (February 10th), a general amnesty was declared.

神瑞中,裕收休之子文寶、兄子文祖,並殺之,乃率眾討休之。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

During the Shenrui reign era (414-415), Liu Yu arrested Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wenbao and his nephew Sima Wenzu and killed them, then led troops to campaign against Sima Xiuzhi.

後以文思事怨望,遂結雍州刺史魯宗之,將共誅執政。時休之次子文寶及兄子文祖並在都,收付廷尉賜死。劉裕親自征之。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Later, inspired by resentment at Sima Wensi's treatment, Sima Xiuzhi formed ties with the Inspector of Yongzhou, Lu Zongzhi. They planned to purge the court and seize control of the government. At this time, Sima Xiuzhi's second son Sima Wenbao and his nephew Sima Wenzu were at the capital. They were arrested, handed over to the Minister of Justice, and ordered to commit suicide. Liu Yu then personally led a campaign against Sima Xiuzhi.


丁丑,以吏部尚書謝裕爲尚書左僕射。

3. On the day Dingchou (February 17th), the Personnel Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie Yu, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

丁丑,以吏部尚書謝裕爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Dingchou (February 17th), the Personnel Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie Yu, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


辛巳,太尉裕發建康。以中軍將軍劉道憐監留府事,劉穆之兼右僕射;事無大小,皆決於穆之。又以高陽內史劉鍾領石頭戍事,屯冶亭。休之府司馬張裕、南平太守檀範之聞之,皆逃歸建康。裕,卲之兄也。雍州刺史魯宗之自疑不爲太尉裕所容,與其子竟陵太守軌起兵應休之。二月,休之上表罪狀裕,勒兵拒之。

4. On the day Xinsi (February 21st), Liu Yu set out from Jiankang. He appointed the General of the Central Army, Liu Daolian, as Chief of Internal Affairs, with Liu Muzhi acting as Deputy Director of the Right. All affairs, great or small, were decided by Liu Muzhi. Liu Yu also appointed the Interior Minister of Gaoyang, Liu Zhong, as acting Commander of the Shitou garrison and stationed him at Yeting.

When the Marshal to Sima Xiuzhi's staff, Zhang Yu, and the Administrator of Nanping, Tan Fanzhi, heard that Liu Yu was coming with an army, they both fled back to Jiankang. This Zhang Yu was the elder brother of Zhang Shao.

The Inspector of Yongzhou, Lu Zongzhi, suspected that Liu Yu would not put up with him either. So he and the Administrator of Jingling, his son Lu Gui, raised troops to support Sima Xiuzhi.

In the second month, Sima Xiuzhi sent up a petition denouncing Liu Yu's crimes, and he gathered soldiers to oppose him.

〈冶亭,今謂之東冶亭,在半山寺後。自建康東門往蔣山,至此半道,因以爲名。王安石詩:「遙望鍾山岑,因知冶城路。」陸游曰:今天慶觀在冶城山之麓。〉〈張卲見一百十五卷五年。〉

(Yeting, what we now call Eastern Yeting, is behind Banshan Temple. The temple lies halfway along the road east from Jiankang's eastern gate to Mount Jiang, thus its name Banshan ("Half-Mount"). There is a verse in one of Wang Anshi's poems which mentions it: "Looking up and away at the crags of Mount Zhong, I know this is the road to Yecheng." Lu You remarked, "It is the modern Tianqing Terrace at the base of Mount Yecheng."

Zhang Shao is first mentioned in Book 115, in the fifth year of Yixi (409.3).)


以廣固功,封永新縣男,食邑五百戶。遷給事中、太尉參軍事、龍驤將軍、高陽內史,領石頭戍事。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Liu Zhong)

For his achievements during the campaign against Southern Yan, Liu Zhong was appointed as Baron of Yongxing county, with a fief of five hundred households. He was transferred to be 給事中, acting Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant, Dragon-Soaring General, and Interior Minister of Gaoyang, and he was stationed at the Shitou fortress.

九年,甲仗五十人入殿。以廣固功,改封竟陵縣公,食邑千戶。減先封戶邑之半,以賜次子義宗。十年,進號中軍將軍,加散騎常侍,給鼓吹一部。明年,討司馬休之,道憐監留府事,甲仗百人入殿。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), Liu Daolian was assigned fifty guards under arms and armor and allowed to enter the palace. For his achievements in the conquest of Southern Yan, Liu Daolian was appointed as Duke of Jingling county, with a fief of a thousand households. Liu Daolian reduced the fief of his original title by half and granted it to his second son Liu Yizong.

In the tenth year (414), Liu Daolian was promoted to General of the Central Army and Cavaliar In Regular Attendance, and he was given a band of drummers and blowers.

The following year (415), when Liu Yu campaigned against Sima Xiuzhi, Liu Daolian was appointed as Chief of Internal Affairs and stationed inside the palace with a hundred armed guards.

休之上表自陳於德宗,與德宗鎮北將軍魯宗之、宗之子竟陵太守軌等起兵討裕。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Sima Xiuzhi sent up a petition defending himself to Sima Dezong (Emperor An), and he raised troops to campaign against Liu Yu, together with Jin's General Who Guards The North, Lu Zongzhi, their Inspector of Jingling, Lu Zongzhi's son Lu Gui, and others.

宗之聞裕向荊州,自襄陽就休之共屯江陵。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

When Lu Zongzhi heard that Liu Yu was marching on Jingzhou, he came from Xiangyang to camp at Jiangling together with Sima Xiuzhi.


裕密書招休之府錄事參軍南陽韓延之,延之復書曰:「承親帥戎馬,遠履西畿,闔境士庶,莫不惶駭。辱疏,知以譙王前事,良增歎息。司馬平西體國忠貞,款懷待物。以公有匡復之勳,家國蒙賴,推德委誠,每事詢仰。譙王往以微事見劾,猶自表遜位;況以大過,而當嘿然邪!前已表奏廢之,所不盡者命耳。推寄相與,正當如此;而遽興兵甲,所謂『欲加之罪,其無辭乎!』劉裕足下,海內之人,誰不見足下此心,而復欲欺誑國士!來示云『處懷期物,自有由來』,今伐人之君,啗人以利,眞可謂『處懷期物,自有由來』者乎!劉藩死於閶闔之門,諸葛斃於左右之手;甘言詫方伯,襲之以輕兵;遂使席上靡款懷之士,閫外無自信諸侯,以是爲得算,良可恥也!貴府將佐及朝廷賢德,寄命過日。吾誠鄙劣,嘗聞道於君子,以平西之至德,寧可無授命之臣乎!必未能自投虎口,比迹郗僧施之徒明矣。假令天長喪亂,九流渾濁,當與臧洪遊於地下,不復多言。」裕視書歎息,以示將佐曰:「事人當如此矣!」延之以裕父名翹,字顯宗,乃更其字曰顯宗,名其子曰翹,以示不臣劉氏。

5. Liu Yu secretly wrote a letter to the Recordskeeping Army Advisor on Sima Xiuzhi's staff, Han Yanzhi of Nanyang commandary. But Han Yanzhi wrote back, "I understand that you are personally leading your soldiers and horses to march far away to the western domain, and there is not a single person in all this region who does not tremble in fear of you. And I am aware that the past conduct of the Prince of Qiao (Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi) has been disgraceful, a source of sighs of regret.

"Yet General Sima has been loyal and faithful to his family and his state, and he has been earnest and sincere in his treatment. For the sake of justice, he has worked hard to rectify and restore the state, which relies upon him; he puts forward virtue and expresses sincerity, and in every affair he proves respectful. Furthermore, even though the faults of the Prince of Qiao have been relatively meager, General Sima has still already submitted a petition resigning his positions. How could his offenses have been so great as to require snuffing him out? He had already submitted his petition resigning his offices. In what way has he not acted properly? It would have been sufficient merely to treat General Sima with trust and appoint people to watch over him. Yet all of a sudden, here you come bearing arms and armor? It is true what they say: 'a man may be found guilty of anything, when it suits his accusers'!

"Liu Yu! Who in all the realm does not know what your real intentions are? Yet now you would deceive the gentlemen of state! It has been said, 'Nothing is sacred which stands in the way of one's desires'. And here you are bearing arms against worthy men and seeking to devour others in order to profit yourself. Truly, you are such a man for whom nothing is sacred! You killed Liu Fan within the gates of the palace, you destroyed the Zhuge clan with your own minions, and you used sweet words to deceive the border commander (Liu Yi) and took him by surprise with light troops.

“Now you would seek to roll out the mat and entice people with your sincerity, sowing discord and doubt among the nobles, purely to advance your own agenda. Is this not shameful? The generals and assistants on this staff, and the worthy and virtuous ministers of court, have long been trustworthy ministers of the state. Even one as foolish as I has heard that virtue lies with a superior fellow, and General Sima has such virtue that how could he not be a loyal servant of the state?

“As for me, I certainly shall not cast myself into the tiger's maw and thus end up like Chi Sengshi and his ilk. Rather than mingle with the grief and chaos of this age or wallow among the Nine Schools of Thought, I shall wander through the underworld with Zang Hong. There is not much else to say."

Liu Yu sighed in admiration when he read this letter. He showed it to his generals and assistants and told them, "If only all men acted like this!"

Han Yanzhi knew that Liu Yu's father's name was Liu Qiao, styled Xianzong. So he changed his own style name to Xianzong and named his son Han Qiao. By thus flouting the naming taboo against Liu Yu's father, he demonstrated his resolve never to be a subject of the Liu clan.

〈《周禮》:王畿千里之外曰侯畿、甸畿、男畿、采畿、衞畿、蠻畿、鎭畿、蕃畿。謂之畿者,責以共王稅貢爲職。韓延之以荊楚爲西畿,取此義。〉〈休之爲平西將軍,故稱之。〉〈事見上卷上年。〉〈推寄,謂推心置人腹中也。〉〈《左傳》晉大夫里克之言。〉〈劉藩事見上卷八年;諸葛事見九年。〉〈謂襲劉毅也。事見上卷八年。〉〈郗僧施事見上卷八年。〉〈太史談序九流。班固曰:儒家者流,蓋出於司徒之官,助人君順陰陽,明敎化者也。道家者流,蓋出於史官,歷紀成敗禍福古今之道,此人君南面之術也。法家者流,蓋出於理官,信賞必罰,以輔禮制。陰陽家者流,蓋出於羲和之官,敬順昊天,曆象日月星辰。名家者流,蓋出於禮官,古者名位不同,禮亦異數。孔子曰:「必也正名乎!」墨家者流,蓋出於清廟之守。茅屋、采椽,是以貴儉;養三老、五更,是以兼愛;選士、大射,是以尚賢;宗祀嚴父,是以右鬼。從橫家者流,蓋出於行人之官。雜家者流,蓋出於議官。農家者流,蓋出於農稷之官。皆《六經》之支與流裔,有益於治道,而不能無弊,使其渾濁,則無所取衷矣。〉〈臧洪事見六十一卷漢獻帝興平二年。〉

(Regarding "domains", the Rites of Zhou states, "Beyond the thousand li of the royal domain were the other domains. In succession, they were the lords' domain, the farmers' domain, the barons' domain, the feudal domain, the guards' domain, the barbarians' domain, the border domain, and the foreign domain. They are called domains because they are each charged with the duty of presenting royal taxes and tribute." Han Yanzhi is using this principle when he refers to the Jing and Chu regions as the state's "western domain".

At this time, Sima Xiuzhi was General Who Pacifies The West, thus Han Yanzhi refers to him as General Sima.

Sima Wensi's crimes, and the stripping of his title in response, are mentioned in Book 116, in the tenth year of Yixi (414.6).

Han Yanzhi uses the term 推寄; this means "to treat with sincerity and to place people close at hand".

"A man may be found guilty of anything, when it suits his accusers" is a quote from the Jin minister Li Ke in the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals.

Liu Fan's death is mentioned in Book 116, in the eighth year of Yixi (412.18). The purge of Zhuge Changmin and his clan are mentioned in the ninth year (413.2).

Han Yanzhi refers to the campaign against Liu Yi, mentioned in the eighth year (412.21-23). Chi Sengshi had been one of Liu Yi's followers, and was killed at the same time (412.30).

The histories mention the Nine Schools of Thought. The Book of Han lists them: "There were the Confucianists, who gave rise to the Ministers Over The Masses; they sought to help the people and the sovereigns obey the natural order through transformation by instruction and education. There were the Daoists, who gave rise to the historians; they compiled the records of victories and defeats, of fortune good and ill, of times ancient and modern, and displayed the skill of making the people and the sovereigns face south. There were the Legalists, who gave rise to the judicial officials; they sought to ensure the granting of rewards and the infliction of punishments in service to upholding the systems of government. There were the Naturalists, who gave rise to the officials who measure the winds and auras; they respected and heeded the signs of Heaven, interpreting the movements and omens of the sun, moon, stars, and celestial bodies. There were the Logicians, who gave rise to the rites officials; they sought to correct the discrepancies between the old names for offices and their actual functions, as well as the many irregularities in the rites. As Confucius said, ‘The rectification of names is essential!’ There were the Mohists, who gave rise to the keepers of the pure temple. They lived in thatched houses with branch rafters because they honored frugality, and they cultivated the Three Elders and the Five Furthers, as part of their doctrine of Universal Love. They selected gentlemen and great archers because of their honor for the worthy. And they made sacrifices to their clan and were strict with their fathers due to their stance on ghosts. There were the Diplomatists, of the Vertical and Horizontal varieties, who gave rise to the diplomatic agents. There were the Syncretists, who gave rise to the discussion officials. And there were the Agriculturalists, who gave rise to the agriculture and harvest officials." These were all branch descendants of the Six Classics who, though they provided benefits for governing the state and proper conduct, could not ensure safety from destruction. Thus by avoiding "wallowing" among them, Han Yanzhi wanted to avoid coming to grief.

Zang Hong is mentioned in Book 61, in Emperor Xian of Han's second year of Xingping (195.RR in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).)


劉密使遺休之治中韓延之書曰:「文思事意,遠近所知。去秋遣康之送還司馬君者,推至公之極也。而了無愧心,久絕表疏,此是天地所不容。吾受命西征,止其父子而已。彼土僑舊,為之驅逼,一無所問。往年郗僧施、謝劭、任集之等交構積歲,專為劉毅規謀,所以至此。今卿諸人一時逼迫,本無纖釁。吾虛懷期物,自有由來,今在近路,是諸賢濟身之日。若大軍相臨,交鋒接刃,蘭艾雜揉,或恐不分。故白此意,並可示同懷諸人。」延之報曰:「聞親率戎馬,遠履西畿,闔境士庶,莫不恇駭。何者?莫知師出之名故也。辱來疏,始委以譙王前事,良增歎息。司馬平西體國忠貞,款懷待物。以君有匡復之勳,家國蒙賴,推德委誠,每事詢仰。譙王往以微事見劾,猶自遜位,況以大過,而當默然也!但康之前言,有所不盡,故重使胡道,申白所懷,道未及反,已表奏廢之,所不盡者命耳。推寄相與,正當如此,有何不可,便及兵戈。自義旗以來,方伯誰敢不先相諮疇,而徑表天子,可謂欲加之罪,其無辭乎!劉裕足下,海內之人,誰不見足下此心。而復欲誑國士,'天地所不容。'在彼不在此矣。來言'虛懷期物,自有由來';今伐人之君,啖人以利,真可謂'虛懷期物,自有由來'矣!劉籓死於閶闔之門,諸葛弊於左右之手。甘言詫方伯,襲之以輕兵,遂使席上靡款懷之士,閫外無自信諸侯。以是為得算,良可恥也。吾誠鄙劣,嘗聞道于君子。以平西之至德,寧可無授命之臣乎!假令天長喪亂,九流渾濁,當與臧洪游於地下耳。」裕得書歎息,以示諸佐曰:「事人當應如此!」(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Liu Yu secretly wrote a letter to Sima Xiuzhi's Recordskeeping Army Advisor, Han Yanzhi. He wrote, "Everyone is well aware of the incidents involving Sima Wensi. I sent Kangzhi last autumn to escort Sima Wensi back to Lord Sima, encouraging him to uphold the highest standards of civil responsibility. Yet, displaying a shameless heart, he stalled at first and then merely submitted a petition in response. Heaven and Earth cannot put up with such behavior.

"Now I have received a commission to conduct a western campaign. Yet this campaign is directed purely at Lord Sima and his son. Those senior and worthy fellows serving under Lord Sima's authority who have been forced to go along with him shall not be held responsible. You may be thinking of the executions of Chi Sengshi, Xie Shao, Ren Jinzhi, and other such fellows. But those miscreants only suffered fates because they had actively encouraged and assisted Liu Yi in his vile plots. It is quite the contrary with you, Sir, and those like you; you have merely been pressed by circumstances, and you had no intention of causing such divisions. Thus I am baring my feelings to you, expressing my wish to provide a way out for those worthy people who seek to escape from such a situation. If you wait until the two armies have joined battle and the blades are actually clashing on the front lines, I fear that the swords of my soldiers will not be as discriminating as I am. So I ask you to consider my thoughts, and to convey them to likeminded people."

But Han Yanzhi wrote back, "I understand that you are personally leading your soldiers and horses to march far away to the western domain, and there is not a single person in all this region who does not tremble in fear of you. Why is that? Because there is no one whose military reputation exceeds your own. And I am aware that this business began due to the past conduct of the Prince of Qiao (Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi), which has been disgraceful, a source of sighs of regret.

"Yet General Sima has been loyal and faithful to his family and his state, and he has been earnest and sincere in his treatment. For the sake of justice, he has worked hard to rectify and restore the state, which relies upon him; he puts forward virtue and expresses sincerity, and in every affair he proves respectful. Furthermore, even though the faults of the Prince of Qiao have been relatively meager, General Sima has still already submitted a petition resigning his positions. How could his offenses have been so great as to require snuffing him out? It was only that at the time of Kangzhi's arrival, General Sima had not yet fully expressed himself. That was why he had Kangzhi go back to fully convey his thoughts, and even before Kangzhi had returned, he had already submitted his petition. In what way has he not acted properly? It would have been sufficient merely to treat General Sima with trust and appoint people to watch over him. Yet all of a sudden, here you come bearing arms and armor? Since the beginning of the uprising, which border general has dared not to first discuss their actions and submit petitions to the Son of Heaven? But then, it is true what they say: 'a man may be found guilty of anything, when it suits his accusers'!

"Liu Yu! Who in all the realm does not know what your real intentions are? Yet now you would deceive the gentlemen of state, saying such things as 'Heaven and Earth cannot put up with such behavior'! You may fool others, but you cannot fool me. It has been said, 'Nothing is sacred which stands in the way of one's desires'. And here you are bearing arms against worthy men and seeking to devour others in order to profit yourself. Truly, you are such a man for whom nothing is sacred! You killed Liu Fan within the gates of the palace, you destroyed the Zhuge clan with your own minions, and you used sweet words to deceive the border commander (Liu Yi) and took him by surprise with light troops.

“Now you would seek to roll out the mat and entice people with your sincerity, sowing discord and doubt among the nobles, purely to advance your own agenda. Is this not shameful? Even one as foolish as I has heard that virtue lies with a superior fellow, and General Sima has such virtue that how could he not be a loyal servant of the state?

“Rather than mingle with the grief and chaos of this age or wallow among the Nine Schools of Thought, I shall wander through the underworld with Zang Hong."

Liu Yu sighed in admiration when he read this letter. He showed it to his generals and assistants and told them, "If only all men acted like this!"

韓延之,字顯宗,南陽赭陽人,魏司徒暨之後也。少以分義稱。安帝時為建威將軍、荊州治中,轉平西府錄事參軍。以劉裕父名翹字顯宗,延之遂字顯宗,名兒為翹,以示不臣劉氏。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Han Yanzhi)

Han Yanzhi, styled Xianzong, was a native of Zheyang county in Nanyang commandary. He was a descendant of Cao-Wei's Minister Over The Masses, Han Ji. Even as a youth, he was commended for his adherence to righteousness. During the reign of Emperor An, he served as General Who Establishes Might and Internal Manager of Jingzhou, and he was later transferred to be an Army Advisor on the staff of the General Who Pacifies The West (Sima Xiuzhi).

Han Yanzhi knew that Liu Yu's father's name was Liu Qiao, styled Xianzong. So he changed his own style name to Xianzong and named his son Han Qiao. By thus flouting the naming taboo against Liu Yu's father, he demonstrated his resolve never to be a subject of the Liu clan.


琅邪太守劉郎帥二千餘家降魏。

6. The Administrator of Langye, Liu Lang, led more than two thousand families to surrender to Wei.

二月丁亥,大饗于西宮,賜附國大、渠帥朝歲首者繒帛金罽各有差。司馬德宗琅邪太守劉朗,率二千餘家內屬。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the second month, on the day Dinghai (February 27th), Emperor Mingyuan held a great feast in the Western Palace, where he distributed suitable rewards of silks, brocades, and gold to senior leaders and commanders of the state.

Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Administrator of Langye, Liu Lang, led more than two thousand families to come to Northern Wei.


庚子,河西胡劉雲等帥數萬戶降魏。

7. On the day Gengzi (March 12th), a tribal leader from the Hexi region, Liu Yun, and others led tens of thousands of households to submit to Wei.

庚子,河西胡劉雲等,率數萬戶內附。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Gengzi (March 12th), a tribal leader from the Hexi region, Liu Yun, and others led tens of thousands of households to submit to Northern Wei.


太尉裕使參軍檀道濟、朱超石將步騎出襄陽。超石,齡石之弟也。江夏太守劉虔之將兵屯三連,立橋聚糧以待,道濟等積日不至。魯軌襲擊虔之,殺之。裕使其壻振威將軍東海徐逵之統參軍蒯恩、王允之、沈淵子爲前鋒,出江夏口。逵之等與魯軌戰於破冢,兵敗,逵之、允之、淵子皆死,獨蒯恩勒兵不動。軌乘勝力攻之,不能克,乃退。淵子,林子之兄也。

8. Liu Yu sent his Army Advisors, Tan Daoji and Zhu Chaoshi, to lead horse and foot out towards Xiangyang. This Zhu Chaoshi was the younger brother of Zhu Lingshi. The Administrator of Jiangxia, Liu Qianzhi, led his generals and soldiers to establish three linked camps, placing bridges and gathering grain, in order to await their arrival. But several days passed and still Tan Daoji and the others had not come. Then Lu Gui launched a surprise attack against Liu Qianzhi and killed him.

Liu Yu sent the General Who Rouses Might, his son-in-law Xu Kuizhi of Donghai commandary, to lead his Army Advisors, Kuai En, Wang Yunzhi, and Shen Yuanzi, forward as the vanguard, and they advanced out of Jiangxiakou. Xu Kuizhi and the others fought Lu Gui at Pozhong, where they were defeated; Xu Kuizhi, Wang Yunzhi, and Shen Yuanzi all died, and only Kuai En kept his troops in order and did not move. Lu Gui pressed his victory hard to attack Kuai En, but he could not overcome him, so he fell back. This Shen Yuanzi was the elder brother of Shen Linzi.

〈《水經》:江水過江陵城南,又東至華容縣西,夏水出焉;又東過公安縣北,又東左合子夏口。《註》云:江水左迤北出,通於夏水,故曰子夏也。〉

(Regarding Jiangxiakou, the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows south of the city of Jiangling, then east to the western part of Huarong county, where the Xia River flows out of it, then further east through the north of Gong'an county, then east again to where the Zixia River joins it on the left side." The Commentary to that text adds, "The Yangzi extends to the north at this point and connects with the Xia River, thus it is called the Zixia or Little Xia River.")


齡石弟超石,亦果銳善騎乘,雖出自將家,兄弟並閑尺牘。桓謙為衛將軍,以補行參軍。又參何無忌輔國右軍軍事。徐道覆破無忌,得超石,以為參軍。至石頭,超石說其同舟人乘單舸走歸高祖,高祖甚喜之,以為徐州主簿。超石收迎桓謙身首,躬營殯葬。遷車騎參軍事,尚書都官郎;尋復補中兵參軍、寧朔將軍、沛郡太守。西伐劉毅,使超石率步騎出江陵,未至而毅平。及討司馬休之,遣冠軍將軍檀道濟及超石步軍出大薄,魯宗之聞超石且至,自率軍逆之,未戰而江陵平。從至襄陽,領新野太守,追宗之至南陽而還。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Chaoshi)

Zhu Chaoshi was the younger brother of Zhu Lingshi. He too was bold, spirited, and skilled at riding and sailing. And though he and Zhu Lingshi came from a family of generals, they both dabbled in the art of letters as well. When Huan Qian was Guard General, he recruited Zhu Chaoshi as an acting Army Advisor.

Zhu Chaoshi also served under He Wuji as Army Advisor to the General Who Upholds The State and General of the Right. When the rebel general Xu Daofu routed He Wuji, he captured Zhu Chaoshi and made him serve him as an Army Advisor. Later, when the rebel army arrived at the Shitou fortress, Zhu Chaoshi persuaded the sailors on his boat to dash ahead to Liu Yu's lines. Liu Yu was delighted to have him, and he appointed him as Registrar of Xuzhou.

After Huan Qian died, Zhu Chaoshi gathered up his body and his head and personally conducted his memorial and funeral.

Zhu Chaoshi was transferred to be Army Advisor to the General of Chariots and Cavalry, then as Capital-Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. Soon afterwards, he was appointed as an Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, and as Administrator of Pei.

When Liu Yu campaigned west against Liu Yi, he sent Zhu Chaoshi to lead horse and foot out towards Jiangling, but they had not arrived before Liu Yi had already been defeated.

During the campaign against Sima Xiuzhi, Liu Yu sent Zhu Chaoshi and the Champion General, Tan Daoji, to lead infantry out towards Dabao. Lu Zongzhi heard that Zhu Chaoshi was approaching and led his own troops to counter them, but before they fought, Jiangling had already fallen. Zhu Chaoshi followed Lu Zongzhi back to Xiangyang, where he was appointed as acting Administrator of Xinye. He pursued Lu Zongzhi as far as Nanyang before turning back.

高祖伐司馬休之及魯宗之,恩與建威將軍徐逵之前進。逵之敗沒,恩陳于堤下。宗之子軌乘勝擊恩,矢下如雨,呼聲震地,恩整厲將士,置陣堅嚴。軌屢衝之不動,知不可攻,乃退。高祖善其能將軍持重。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Kuai En)

When Liu Yu campaigned against Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi (in 415), Kuai En and the General Who Establishes Might, Xu Kuizhi, led the vanguard forward. But Xu Kuizhi was defeated and killed, and Sun En's formation was pushed back beneath a dyke. Lu Zongzhi's son Lu Gui pressed the earlier victory to move forward to attack Kuai En; his arrows fell like rain, and the cries of his soldiers shook the ground. But Kuai En kept his generals and soldiers under steady discipline, and they held their formation in strict order. Lu Gui charged their lines several times, but could not break through. When he realized that he could not overcome Kuai En, he fell back. Liu Yu praised Kuai En for his ability to lead generals and hold his lines.


裕軍於馬頭,聞逵之死,怒甚;三月,壬午,帥諸將濟江。魯軌、司馬文思將休之兵四萬,臨峭岸置陳,軍士無能登者。裕自被甲欲登,諸將諫,不從,怒愈甚。太尉主簿謝晦前抱持裕,裕抽劍指晦曰:「我斬卿!」晦曰:「天下可無晦,不可無公!」建武將軍胡藩領遊兵在江津,裕呼藩使登,藩有疑色。裕命左右錄來,欲斬之。藩顧曰:「正欲擊賊,不得奉敎!」乃以刀頭穿岸,劣容足指,騰之而上;隨之者稍多。旣登岸,直前力戰。休之兵不能當,稍引卻。裕兵因而乘之,休之兵大潰,遂克江陵。休之、宗之俱北走,軌留石城。裕命閬中侯下邳趙倫之、太尉參軍沈林子攻之;遣武陵內史王鎭惡以舟師追休之等。

9. Liu Yu's army was at Matou when he heard of Xu Kuizhi's death, which extremely angered him. In the third month, on the day Renwu (April 23rd), he led his forces across the Yangzi. But Lu Gui and Sima Wensi led forty thousand of Sima Xiuzhi's soldiers to establish a formation along the high banks of the Yangzi, which prevented any of Liu Yu's soldiers from scaling the banks.

Liu Yu himself put on armor, intending to scale the cliffs; his generals remonstrated with him, but he ignored them, so angry was he. Then the Registrar to the Grand Commandant, Xie Hui, reached forward and grabbed Liu Yu. Liu Yu drew his sword and pointed it at Xie Hui, declaring, "I'll behead you if I have to!"

Xie Hui replied, "The world can do without Xie Hui, Sir, but not without you."

The General Who Establishes Valor, Hu Fan, had led special troops forward to Jiang Crossing, and Liu Yu now called to him, ordering him to scale the banks. Hu Fan at first had an uncertain expression, which caused Liu Yu to order those with him to go arrest Hu Fan so that he could behead him. But Hu Fan turned and said, "I am just about to attack the rebels; I need no instruction!" Then he used the point of his blade to stab into the bank, carving holes for his feet and hands, and in this manner he was able to scale up the bank, while those following behind gradually increased. Once they reached the top of the bank, they charged forward into battle. Sima Xiuzhi's soldiers could not stand against them, and they gradually gave way. Liu Yu then had his own soldiers press the advantage, and Sima Xiuzhi's soldiers greatly scattered.

Liu Yu thus took Jiangling. Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi fled north, while Lu Gui stayed behind at Shicheng. Liu Yu ordered the Marquis of Langzhong, Zhao Lunzhi of Xiapi commandary, and his own Army Advisor, Shen Linzi, to attack Lu Gui, and he sent the Interior Minister of Wuling, Wang Zhen'e, to lead boats to pursue Sima Xiuzhi and the others.

〈據《水經註》,馬頭岸在大江之南,北對江陵之江津戍。〉〈此裕所謂晦頗識機變者也。〉〈當胡藩之初登也,精騎數十可以制之,休之之兵不動,故得以直前力戰,又人心素懾服裕,故藩旣進而不能當也。〉

(According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Matou was on the south bank of the Yangzi, facing the camp at Jiang Crossing at Jiangling on the north bank.

This incident was one of the reasons why Liu Yu later said that Xie Hui was very adaptable to opportunities and circumstances.

When Hu Fan first scaled the bank, a few dozen skilled cavalry would have been enough to deal with him. Yet Sima Xiuzhi's troops did not move, and this was what allowed Hu Fan's troops to charge straight into battle. Beyond that, the enemy troops had long been fearful and reverent of Liu Yu, thus when Hu Fan advanced, they could not stand against him.)


三月辛巳,淮陵王蘊薨。壬午,劉裕及休之戰于江津,休之敗,奔襄陽。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, on the day Xinsi (April 22nd), the Prince of Huailing, Sima Yun, passed away.

On the day Renwu (April 23rd), Liu Yu fought Sima Xiuzhi at Jiang Crossing. Sima Xiuzhi was defeated, and he fled to Xiangyang.

裕軍至江陵,休之不能敵。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

When Liu Yu's army arrived at Jiangling, Sima Xiuzhi was no match for them.

使文思及宗之子軌以兵距裕,戰於江津。休之大敗。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Sima Xiuzhi sent Sima Wensi and Lu Zongshi's son Lu Gui to lead troops to oppose Liu Yu, and they fought at Jiang Crossing. But Sima Xiuzhi's army was greatly defeated.

義熙八年,土斷僑流郡縣,使晦分判揚、豫民戶,以平允見稱。入為太尉主簿,從征司馬休之。時徐逵之戰敗見殺,高祖怒,將自被甲登岸,諸將諫,不從,怒愈甚。晦前抱持高祖,高祖曰:「我斬卿!」晦曰:「天下可無晦,不可無公,晦死何有!」會胡蕃已得登岸,賊退走,乃止。(Book of Liu-Song 44, Biography of Xie Hui)

In the eighth year of Yixi (412), when surrogate commandaries and counties were being established, Liu Yu had Xie Hui divide up the people and households of Yangzhou and Yuzhou for this purpose, and Xie Hui was commended for his fair and just rulings in this task.

Xie Hui became Registrar to the Grand Commandant, and he accompanied Liu Yu on his campaign against Sima Xiuzhi (in 415). During the campaign, Xu Kuizhi's army was defeated and he was killed. Angered by this, Liu Yu himself put on armor, intending to scale the cliffs; his generals remonstrated with him, but he ignored them, so angry was he. Then Xie Hui reached forward and grabbed Liu Yu. Liu Yu told him, "I'll behead you if I have to!"

Xie Hui replied, "The world can do without Xie Hui, Sir, but not without you. What does it matter if I die?"

By then, Hu Fan had already scaled the cliffs and the rebels had been driven back in retreat, so Liu Yu gave up his attempt.

蠻帥向博抵根據阮頭,屢為兇暴,鎮惡討平之。初行,告刺史司馬休之,求遣軍以為聲援,休之遣其將朱襄領眾助鎮惡。會高祖西討休之,鎮惡乃告諸將曰:「百姓皆知官軍已上,朱襄等復是一賊,表裏受敵,吾事敗矣。」乃率軍夜下,江水迅急,倏忽行數百里,直據都尉治。既至,乃以竹籠盛石,堙塞水道。襄軍下,夾岸擊之,斬襄首,殺千餘人。鎮惡性貪,既破襄,因停軍抄掠諸蠻,不時反。及至江陵,休之已平,高祖怒,不時見之。鎮惡笑曰:「但令我一見公,無憂矣。」高祖尋登城喚鎮惡,鎮惡為人強辯,有口機,隨宜酬應,高祖乃釋。休之及魯宗之奔襄陽,鎮惡統蒯恩諸軍水路追之。(Book of Liu-Song 45, Biography of Wang Zhen'e)

The Man leader Xiangbo Digen occupied Ruantou and posed a constant menace, so Wang Zhen'e was sent to campaign against and pacify him. As he was setting out, Wang Zhen'e informed the Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, of the campaign and asked him for military assistance. So Sima Xiuzhi sent his general Zhu Xiang to lead an army to help Wang Zhen'e. But not long afterwards, Liu Yu began his own western campaign against Sima Xiuzhi. Wang Zhen'e now said to his generals, "The local residents already know of our arrival, and now Zhu Xiang and the others have become our foe as well. If we allow ourselves to be surrounded, we shall be finished." So he led his troops under cover of night to hurry up the Yangzi, swiftly traveling several hundred li, until they occupied the base of the local Commandant. Having arrived there, they gathered up all the bamboo and stones and blocked off the water routes. When Zhu Xiang's army arrived, they attacked him from either bank; they took Zhu Xiang's head and killed more than a thousand enemies.

But Wang Zhen'e was greedy by nature, and after having routed Zhu Xiang, he let loose his troops to raid and plunder the local Man tribes and did not return to rejoin the main army at the arranged time. By the time he reached Jiangling, Sima Xiuzhi had already been defeated. Liu Yu was so angry that he refused to meet with Wang Zhen'e. But Wang Zhen'e only laughed and told people, "Just let me have one look at him, and there'll be nothing to fear." Soon, Liu Yu mounted the walls of the city and yelled at Wang Zhen'e. But Wang Zhen'e was so persuasive and charismatic, being an excellent talker, that he gave friendly and pleasing responses, and Liu Yu eventually forgave him.

When Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi fled to Xiangyang, Wang Zhen'e led Kuai En's troops to pursue him by land and water.

趙倫之,字幼成,下邳僮人也。孝穆皇后之弟。幼孤貧,事母以孝稱。武帝起兵,以軍功封閬中縣五等侯。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhao Lunzhi)

Zhao Lunzhi, styled Youcheng, was a native of Tong county in Xiapi commandary. He was the younger brother of Empress Xiaomu, Liu Yu's mother Lady Zhao. Zhao Lunzhi lost his father as a young man, and the family lived in poverty, but he was commended for his attentiveness to his mother.

When Liu Yu launched his uprising against Huan Xuan (in 404), for his military achievements during the uprising, Zhao Lunzhi was appointed as Marquis of the fifth rank of Langzhong county.

又從征司馬休之。復為參軍,加建武將軍,領游軍於江津。徐逵之敗沒,高祖怒甚,即日於馬頭岸渡江,而江津岸峭,壁立數丈,休之臨岸置陣,無由可登。高祖呼藩令上,藩有疑色,高祖奮怒,命左右錄來,欲斬之。藩不受命,顧曰:「藩寧前死耳!」以刀頭穿岸,劣容腳指,於是徑上,隨之者稍多。既得登岸,殊死戰,賊不能當,引退。因而乘之,一時奔散。(Book of Liu-Song 50, Biography of Hu Fan)

Hu Fan also accompanied Liu Yu during his campaign against Sima Xiuzhi. He was reappointed as one of Liu Yu's Army Advisors, as well as General Who Establishes Valor and acting General of Roaming Assault, and he marched to Jiang Crossing.

When Xu Kuizhi was defeated and lost in battle, Liu Yu was extremely angry, and that same day he tried to cross the Yangzi from the river bank at Matou. But the bank at Jiang Crossing was very steep, with ramparts built there several zhang high, and Sima Xiuzhi had arrayed his troops along the bank, so Liu Yu's forces could not make the ascent. Liu Yu called to Hu Fan, ordering him to scale the banks. Hu Fan at first had an uncertain expression, which caused Liu Yu to order those with him to go arrest Hu Fan so that he could behead him. But Hu Fan refused to heed the order to go with them; he turned and said, "Why should I die so soon?" Then he used the point of his blade to stab into the bank, carving holes for his feet and hands, and in this manner he was able to scale up the bank, while those following behind gradually increased. Once they reached the top of the bank, they fought for dear life. Sima Xiuzhi's soldiers could not stand against them, and they gradually gave way. Liu Yu then had his own soldiers press the advantage, and Sima Xiuzhi's soldiers greatly scattered.


有羣盜數百夜襲冶亭,京師震駭;劉鍾討平之。

10. Several hundred bandits launched a surprise attack against Yeting during the night, and the capital shook with fear. But Liu Zhong campaigned against and pacified them.

高祖討司馬休之,前軍將軍道憐留鎮東府,領屯兵。冶亭群盜數百,夜襲鍾壘,歫擊破之。時大軍外討,京邑擾懼,鍾以不能鎮遏,降號建威將軍。平蜀功,應封四百戶男,以先有封爵,減戶以賜次子敬順高昌縣男,食邑百戶。尋復本號龍驤將軍。十二年,高祖北伐,復留鎮居守,增其兵力,又命府置佐史。荊州刺史道憐獻名馬三匹,并精麗乘具,高祖悉以賜鍾三子。十四年,遷右衛將軍,龍驤將軍如故。元熙元年卒,時年四十三。子敬義嗣。敬義官至馬頭太守,卒。子國重嗣,齊受禪,國除。鍾次子高昌男敬順,卒,子國須嗣。須卒,無子,國除。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Liu Zhong)

When Liu Yu campaigned against Sima Xiuzhi (in 415), the General of the Forward Army, Liu Daolian, remained behind to guard the Eastern Bureau and was assigned command of the garrison there. Several hundred bandits launched a surprise attack against Liu Zhong's ramparts at Yeting during the night, but Liu Zhong attacked and routed them. But since at that time the main army was away on campaign, the capital shook with fear; Liu Zhong was blamed for not being able to defend his post, and he was demoted to General Who Establishes Might.

For his achievements in the campaign against the Shu region, Liu Zhong was appointed as Baron of a fief of four hundred households. But since Liu Zhong had already received a noble title earlier, he reduced his fief and and granted the title of Baron of Gaochang county to his second son Liu Jingshun, with a fief of a hundred households.

Liu Zhong was later restored to his position as Dragon-Soaring General.

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), when Liu Yu launched his northern campaign against Later Qin, he once again left Liu Zhong behind to guard the capital; he increased the amount of troops under his command, and he ordered his staff officers to heed Liu Zhong. When the Inspector of Jingzhou, Liu Daolian, sent three prized horses to Liu Yu, all of which were richly equipped with riding gear, Liu Yu gave them away to Liu Zhong's three sons.

In the fourteenth year of Yixi (418), Liu Zhong was transferred to be Guard General of the Right, while remaining Dragon-Soaring General as before.

In the first year of Yuanxi (419), Liu Zhong passed away; he was forty-two years old.

Liu Zhong's son Liu Jingyi inherited his titles. Liu Jingyi rose in office as high as Administrator of Matou. When he passed away, his son Liu Guozhong succeeded him. After Qi accepted the abdication of Liu-Song, the fief was abolished.

Liu Zhong's second son Liu Jingshun was the Baron of Gaochang. When Liu Jingshun passed away, his son Liu Guoxu succeeded him. When Liu Guoxu passed away, he had no sons, so the fief was abolished.


秦廣平公弼譖姚宣於秦王興,宣司馬權丕至長安,興責以不能輔導,將誅之;丕懼,誣宣罪惡以求自免。興怒,遣使就杏城收宣下獄,命弼將三萬人鎭秦州。尹昭曰:「廣平公與皇太子不平,今握強兵於外,陛下一旦不諱,社稷必危。『小不忍,亂大謀』,陛下之謂也。」興不從。

11. Qin's Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, slandered Yao Xuan to Yao Xing. Yao Xuan's Marshal, Quan Pi, was then at Chang'an, and Yao Xing blamed him for not having kept Yao Xuan on the right path and was planning to execute him. Afraid, Quan Pi made false accusations of Yao Xuan's crimes and ill deeds in order to save his own life. Angry, Yao Xing sent agents to visit Xingcheng, arrest Yao Xuan, and throw him in prison. He sent Yao Bi to lead thirty thousand soldiers to garrison Qinzhou.

Yin Zhao said to Yao Xing, "The Duke of Guangping already does not get along with the Crown Prince, and now you are granting him a powerful army away from the capital. If something were to happen to Your Majesty, the fortunes of state would certainly be in peril. As it is said, 'want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans'. That applies to Your Majesty's decisions as well."

But Yao Xing did not listen.

〈去年宣入朝,力言弼罪,弼銜而譖之。〉〈《論語》載孔子之言。〉

(The previous year, Yao Xuan had come to court and spoken forcefully of Yao Bi's crimes. Yao Bi thus held a grudge, which was why he slandered Yao Xuan now.

Yin Zhao quotes Confucius's words from the Analects.)


興復以弼為中軍大將軍,配兵三萬,屯於渭北。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing appointed Yao Bi as Grand General of the Central Army, assigned him thirty thousand soldiers, and stationed him north of the Wei River.

弼恨姚宣之毀己,遂譖宣於興。會宣司馬權丕至長安,興責丕以無匡輔之益,將戮之。丕性傾巧,因誣宣罪狀。興大怒,遂收宣於杏城,下獄,而使弼將三萬人鎮秦州。尹昭言於興曰:「廣平公與皇太子不平,握強兵于外,陛下一旦不諱,恐社稷必危。小不忍以致大亂者,陛下之謂也。」興弗納。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Bi resented Yao Xuan for having denounced him, so he slandered Yao Xuan to Yao Xing. Yao Xuan's Marshal, Quan Pi, was then at Chang'an, and Yao Xing blamed him for not having kept Yao Xuan on the right path and was planning to execute him. Quan Pi was improvising by nature, and he made false accusations of Yao Xuan's crimes and ill deeds. Greatly angry, Yao Xing had Yao Xuan arrested at Xingcheng and thrown in prison. He sent Yao Bi to lead thirty thousand soldiers to garrison Qinzhou.

Yin Zhao said to Yao Xing, "The Duke of Guangping already does not get along with the Crown Prince, and now you are granting him a powerful army away from the capital. If something were to happen to Your Majesty, I fear the fortunes of state would certainly be in peril. As it is said, 'want of forbearance in small matters confounds great plans'. That applies to Your Majesty's decisions as well."

But Yao Xing did not listen.


夏王勃勃攻秦杏城,拔之,執守將姚逵,阬士卒二萬人。秦王興如北地,遣廣平公弼及輔國將軍斂曼嵬向新平,興還長安。

12. Helian Bobo attacked Qin's city of Xingcheng. He took it and captured the defending general, Yao Kui, and he buried alive twenty thousand soldiers. Yao Xing went to Beidi, where he sent Yao Bi and the General Who Upholds The State, Lian Manwei, towards Xinping, while he returned to Chang'an.

赫連勃勃攻杏城,興又遣弼救之,至冠泉而杏城陷。興如北地,弼次於三樹,遣弼及斂曼嵬向新平,興還長安。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Helian Bobo attacked Xingcheng. Yao Xing sent Yao Bi to rescue Xingchang, but Yao Bi had only reached Guanquan before Xingcheng fell. Yao Xing went to Beidi, while Yao Bi marched to Sanshu Lian Manwei went towards Xinping. Yao Xing then returned to Chang'an.


河西王蒙遜攻西秦廣武郡,拔之。西秦王熾磐遣將軍乞伏魋尼寅邀蒙遜於浩亹,蒙遜擊斬之;又遣將軍折斐等帥騎一萬據勒姐嶺,蒙遜擊禽之。

13. The King of Hexi, Juqu Mengxun, attacked Western Qin's Guangwu commandary and took it. The King of Western Qin, Qifu Chipan, sent his general Qifu Tuiniyin to intercept Juqu Mengxun at Haomen, but Juqu Mengxun attacked Qifu Tuiniyin and took his head. Qifu Chipan further sent his general Zhe Fei and others to lead ten thousand cavalry to occupy Lejie Range, but Juqu Mengxun attacked and captured them.

〈闞駰《志》,金城安夷縣東有勒姐河,與金城河合。勒姐嶺蓋勒姐河所出之山也。漢時,勒姐羌居之,因以爲名。姐,子也翻,又音紫。〉

(According to Gan Yin's Records, there was a Lejie River in the east of Anyi county in Jincheng commandary, which joined with the Yellow River at Jincheng. Lejie Range must have been the source of this river. During the Han dynasty, the Lejie Qiang lived in this place, thus the name. The second character of Lejie, 姐, is pronounced "ze (z-e)" or "zi".)


河西饑胡相聚於上黨,推胡人白亞栗斯爲單于,改元建平。以司馬順宰爲謀主,寇魏河內。夏,四月,魏主嗣命公孫表等五將討之。

14. Many starving tribesmen of the Hexi region banded together at Shangdang, where they acclaimed the tribesman Baiya Lisi as Chanyu and changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping. It was earlier mentioned that Sima Shunzai had risen up in Henei commandary; Baiya Lisi now appointed him as his chief advisor, and they invaded Wei's Henei commandary. In summer, the fourth month, Emperor Mingyuan of Wei ordered five generals, including Gongsun Biao, to campaign against them.

〈順宰起兵,見上卷二年。〉

(Sima Shunzai's uprising is mentioned in Book 116, in the tenth year of Yixi (414.34).)


甲辰,立太祖廟於白登之西。三月,詔曰:「刺史守宰,率多逋慢,前後怠惰,數加督罰,猶不悛改。今年貲調懸違者,謫出家財充之,不聽徵發於民。」河西飢胡屯聚上黨,推白亞栗斯為盟主,號大將軍,反於上黨,自號單于,稱建平元年,以司馬順宰為之謀主。夏四月,詔將軍公孫表等五將討之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Jiachen (March 16th), Emperor Mingyuan established a temple to Taizu (Tuoba Gui) west of Baideng.

In the third month, Emperor Mingyuan issued an edict stating, "The Inspectors and local officials have led many people to become slack and remiss; they have been most indolent, and even after repeated punishments, they still have not changed their ways. Therefore, this year I shall investigate into which officials have been negligent and demote them and claim their wealth, for their failure to call up the common people."

Starving tribal people in the Hexi region banded together at Shangdang, where they acclaimed Baiya Lisi as the leader of their alliance and named him Grand General. Baiya Lisi led a rebellion at Shangdang, where he declared himself Chanyu and changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping, and he appointed Sima Shunzai as his chief advisor.

In summer, the fourth month, Emperor Mingyuan ordered five generals, including Gongsun Biao, to campaign against them.


青、冀二州刺史劉敬宣參軍司馬道賜,宗室之疏屬也。聞太尉裕攻司馬休之,道賜與同府辟閭道秀、左右小將王猛子謀殺敬宣,據廣固以應休之。乙卯,敬宣召道秀,屛人語,左右悉出戶。猛子逡巡在後,取敬宣備身刀殺敬宣。文武佐吏卽時討道賜等,皆斬之。

15. The Inspector of Qingzhou and Jizhou, Liu Jingxuan, had an Army Advisor, Sima Daoci, who was a distant relative of the royal family. When Sima Daoci heard that Liu Yu was attacking Sima Xiuzhi, he plotted with another member of Liu Jingxuan's staff, Pilü Daoxiu, and one of his minor generals, Wang Mengxi, to kill Liu Jingxuan and then occupy Guanggu in support of Sima Xiuzhi.

On the day Yimao (May 26th), Liu Jingxuan summoned Pilü Daoxiu. As they went to talk in private, Liu Jingxuan's attendants all dispersed. Wang Mengzi hung back, then seized the blade at Liu Jingxuan's side and killed him with it.

But the local civil and military officials at that time campaigned against Sima Daoci and the others and beheaded them all.

〈道賜與道秀俱爲敬宣僚屬,故曰同府。〉

(Sima Daoci and Pilü Daoxiu were both Liu Jingxuan's subordinates, thus them being on the same staff.)


夏四月乙卯,青、冀二州刺史劉敬宣爲其參軍司馬道賜所害。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yimao (May 26th), the Inspector of Qingzhou and Jizhou, Liu Jingxuan, was killed by his Army Advisor, Sima Daoci.

十一年正月,進號右將軍。司馬道賜者,晉宗室之賤屬也。為敬宣參軍。至高祖西征司馬休之,道賜乃陰結同府辟閭道秀及左右小將王猛子等謀反。道賜自號齊王,以道秀為青州刺史,規據廣固,舉兵應休之。敬宣召道秀有所論,因屏人,左右悉出戶,猛子逡巡在後,取敬宣備身刀殺敬宣,時年四十五。文武佐吏即討道賜、猛子等,皆斬之。先是,敬宣未死,嘗夜與僚佐宴集,空中有放一隻芒屩於坐中,墜敬宣食盤上,長三尺五寸,已經人著,耳鼻間並欲壞。頃之而敗。喪至,高祖臨哭甚哀。子祖嗣。宋受禪,國除。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), the first month, Liu Jingxuan was promoted to General of the Right.

Sima Daoci was a distant relative of the royal family, and he served under Liu Jingxuan as an Army Advisor. When Liu Yu went on his western campaign against Sima Xiuzhi, Sima Daoci secretly plotted with another member of Liu Jingxuan's staff, Pilü Daoxiu, one of his minor generals, Wang Mengxi, and others to start a rebellion. They would declare Sima Daoci as Prince of Qi and Pilü Daoxiu as Inspector of Qingzhou, occupy Guanggu, and raise troops to support Sima Xiuzhi.

When Liu Jingxuan summoned Pilü Daoxiu to discuss something with him and they went to talk in private, Liu Jingxuan's attendants all dispersed. Wang Mengzi hung back behind him, then seized the blade at Liu Jingxuan's side and killed him with it. Liu Jingxuan was forty-four years old. The local civil and military officials at that time campaigned against Sima Daoci, Wang Mengzi, and the others and beheaded them all.

Earlier, before Liu Jingxuan's death, he had been holding a feast with his assistants and subordinates one night when out of nowhere, a pair of woven sandals landed on Liu Jingxuan's plate; they were three chi and five cun long, and they already showed the appearance of a person, except that the space between the ears and nose had been destroyed. Soon afterwards, Liu Jingxuan came to grief.

When mourning was held for Liu Jingxuan, Liu Yu greatly grieved for him.

Liu Jingxuan's son Liu Zu succeeded him. When Liu-Song accepted the abdication from Jin, Liu Zu's fief was abolished.

為其參軍司馬道賜所害。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan was killed by his Army Advisor, Sima Daoci.


己卯,魏主嗣北巡。

16. On the day Jimao (June 19th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on a northern patrol.

河南流民二千餘家內屬... 司馬德宗遣使朝貢。己卯,車駕北巡。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

More than two thousand refugee families from Henan commandary moved into Northern Wei.

Sima Dezong (Emperor An) sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute.

On the day Jimao (June 19th), Emperor Mingyuan went on a northern patrol.


西秦王熾磐子元基自長安逃歸,熾磐以爲尚書左僕射。

17. Qifu Chipan's son Qifu Yuanji fled from Chang'an to his father's territory. Qifu Chipan appointed him as his Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

〈元基蓋從熾磐入秦以朝,因留長安也。〉

(Qifu Yuanji must have earlier accompanied Qifu Chipan to the Later Qin court at Chang'an when Qifu Chipan was a vassal there, then remained in Chang'an from then until now.)


四年,熾盤子元基自長安逃歸,拜尚書左僕射。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the fourth year of Yongkang (415), Qifu Chipan's son Qifu Yuanji fled from Chang'an to rejoin his father, and Qifu Chipan appointed him as his Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


五月,丁亥,魏主嗣如大甯。

18. In the fifth month, on the day Dinghai (June 27th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Daning.

五月丁亥,次於參合東,幸大寧。丁未,田于四岬山。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth month, on the day Dinghai (June 27th), Emperor Mingyuan traveled east of Canhe, then went to Daning. On the day Dingwei (July 17th), he hunted at Mount Sijia.


趙倫之、沈林子破魯軌於石城,司馬休之、魯宗之救之不及,遂與軌奔襄陽,宗之參軍李應之閉門不納。甲午,休之、宗之、軌及譙王文思、新蔡王道賜、梁州刺史馬敬、南陽太守魯範俱奔秦。宗之素得士民心,爭爲之衞送出境。王鎭惡等追之,盡境而還。

19. In Jin, Zhao Lunzhi and Shen Linzi routed Lu Gui at Shicheng. Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi had been marching to assist Lu Gui, but they did not arrive in time. All three of them fled to Xiangyang, but Lu Zongzhi's Army Advisor there, Li Yingzhi, closed the gates and refused to let them in.

On the day Jiawu (July 4th), Sima Xiuzhi, Lu Zongzhi, and Lu Gui fled to Qin, along with the Prince of Qiao, Sima Wensi, the Prince of Xincai, Sima Daoci, the Inspector of Lianzhou, Ma Jing, and the Administrator of Nanyang, Lu Fan. Lu Zongzhi had long enjoyed the support of the local gentry and people, and they all rushed to guard and escort the fugitives out of Jin territory. Wang Zhen'e and the others pursued them, but dared go no further than the border, so they returned.

〈此又一司馬道賜也。新蔡王晃以武陵王晞事廢,後以道賜襲爵。〉〈不敢窮兵追之,懼出境而遇伏也。〉

(The Sima Daoci mentioned here was a different one from the one who plotted to kill Liu Jingxuan. After the line of the original Prince of Xincai, Sima Huang, had been deposed during the purge of the Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, this Sima Daoci had later succeeded to that title.

Wang Zhen'e and the others did not dare to fully press the pursuit against Sima Xiuzhi and the others, fearing an ambush if they went beyond the borders.)


五月甲申,彗星二見。甲午,休之、宗之出奔于姚泓。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, on the day Jiashen (June 24th), there were two sightings of shooting stars.

On the day Jiawu (July 4th), Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi fled to Yao Hong.

遂與軌奔襄陽。裕復進軍討之... 休之遂與子文思及宗之等奔於姚興。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Gui fled to Xiangyang. Liu Yu advanced to campaign further against them. Sima Xiuzhi then fled to Yao Xing, along with his son Sima Wensi, Lu Zongzhi, and others.

遂與宗之俱奔于姚興。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi fled to Yao Xing.

與休之俱奔姚興。(Book of Jin 37, Biography of Han Yanzhi)

Han Yanzhi fled to Yao Xing together with Sima Xiuzhi.

休之等奔羌,鎮惡追躡,盡境而還。(Book of Liu-Song 45, Biography of Wang Zhen'e)

Sima Xiuzhi and the others fled to the Qiang (Later Qin). Wang Zhen'e carefully pursued them, turning back when he reached the border.

江陵平定,復追魯軌於石城。軌棄城走,恩追至襄陽,宗之奔羌,恩與諸將追討,至魯陽關乃還。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Kuai En)

After Jiangling was pacified, Kuai En pursued Lu Gui to Shicheng. Lu Gui abandoned the city and fled, and Kuai En pursued him to Xiangyang. Lu Zongzhi fled to the Qiang (Later Qin), and Kuai En and other generals pursued him, marching as far as Luyang Pass before turning back.

休之、宗之等遂與譙王文思,新蔡王道賜,甯朔將軍、梁州刺史馬敬,輔國將軍、竟陵太守魯軌,甯朔將軍、南陽太守魯范奔於興。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Sima Xiuzhi and Lu Zongzhi fled to Yao Xing, along with the Prince of Qiao, Sima Wensi, the Prince of Xincai, Sima Daoci, the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier and Inspector of Lianzhou, Ma Jing, the General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Jingling, Lu Gui, and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier and Administrator of Nanyang, Lu Fan.


初,休之等求救於秦、魏,秦征虜將軍姚成王及司馬國璠引兵至南陽,魏長孫嵩至河東,聞休之等敗,皆引還。休之至長安,秦王興以爲揚州刺史,使侵擾襄陽。侍御史唐盛言於興曰:「據符讖之文,司馬氏當復得河、洛。今使休之擅兵於外,猶縱魚於淵也;不如以高爵厚禮,留之京師。」興曰:「昔文王卒免羑里,高祖不斃鴻門,苟天命所在,誰能違之!脫如符讖之言,留之適足爲害。」遂遣之。

20. Sima Xiuzhi and the others had earlier sought assistance from Qin and Wei. Indeed, Qin had sent their General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yao Chengwang, and Sima Guofan to lead troops to Nanyang, and Wei had sent Zhangsun Song to lead troops to Hedong. But when these forces heard that Sima Xiuzhi and the others had been defeated, they all withdrew.

When Sima Xiuzhi arrived at Chang'an, Yao Xing appointed him as Qin's Inspector of Yangzhou and sent him to raid and pillage the Xiangyang region.

Yao Xing's Imperial Secretary, Tang Sheng, said to him, "According to the prophecy books, 'the Sima clan will retake the Yellow River region and Luoyang'. Now you have granted troops to Sima Xiuzhi and sent him afar, like releasing a fish into the water. It would have been better for you to grant him a lofty title and treat him with special courtesy, while keeping him close at hand at the capital."

But Yao Xing replied, "In ancient times, King Wen of Zhou was still able to escape his imprisonment at Youli, and Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) did not perish at Hongmen. Either way, who can oppose Heaven's will? If things will go as this prophecy predicts, then he could do me as much harm at the capital as away from it." And he sent Sima Xiuzhi off.

〈紂囚文王於羑里,旣而釋之。〉〈見九卷漢高祖元年。〉〈史言姚興知命。〉

(King Zhou of Shang had once imprisoned King Wen of Zhou at Youli, but later released him.

Liu Bang walked into Xiang Yu's trap at the banquet at Hongmen Gate, but was able to escape; this is mentioned in Book 9, in the first year of Liu Bang’s reign (206 BC).

This passage demonstrates that Yao Xing knew what fate had in store.)


太宗遣長孫嵩屯河東,將為之援。時姚興征虜將軍姚成王、冠軍將軍司馬國璠亦將兵救之,不及而還。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

Emperor Mingyuan had sent Zhangsun Song to camp at Hedong in order to provide assistance to Sima Xiuzhi, and at the same time, Yao Xing had sent his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yao Chengwang, and his Champion General, Sima Guofan, to to lead troops to provide help as well. But these forces did not arrive in time, so they withdrew.

晉荊州刺史司馬休之據江陵,雍州刺史魯宗之據襄陽,與劉裕相攻,遣使求援。興遣姚成王、司馬國璠率騎八千赴之... 姚成王至於南陽,司馬休之等為劉裕所敗,引歸... 休之等至長安,興謂之曰:「劉裕崇奉晉帝,豈便有闕乎?」休之曰:「臣前下都,琅邪王德文泣謂臣曰:'劉裕供禦主上,克薄奇深。'以事勢推之,社稷之憂方未可測。」興將以休之為荊州刺史,任以東南之事。休之固辭,請與魯宗之等擾動襄陽、淮、漢。乃以休之為鎮南將軍、揚州刺史,宗之等並有拜授。休之將行,侍御史唐盛言於興曰:「符命所記,司馬氏應復河、洛。休之既得濯鱗南翔,恐非復池中之物,可以崇禮,不宜放之。」興曰:「司馬氏脫如所記,留之適足為患。」遂遣之。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, occupied Jiangling, and their Inspector of Yongzhou, Lu Zongzhi, occupied Xiangyang. Both of them were fighting with Liu Yu, and they sent envoys to ask for aid. Yao Xing sent Yao Chengwang and Sima Guofan to lead eight thousand cavalry to reinforce them. Yao Chengwang marched to Nanyang, but by then Sima Xiuzhi and the others had been defeated by Liu Yu, so he withdrew.

When Sima Xiuzhi and the others arrived at Chang'an, Yao Xing asked them, "Didn't Liu Yu restore and honor the Emperor of Jin? What then was his fault?"

Sima Xiuzhi replied, "When I was at the capital before, the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, tearfully told me, 'Liu Yu wields full control over our sovereign, and he is deeply suspicious of anyone remarkable'. I fear that if circumstances propel Liu Yu forward, the peril to the fortunes of state will be beyond reckoning."

Yao Xing was going to appoint Sima Xiuzhi as his own Inspector of Jingzhou and entrust him with affairs in the southeast. But Sima Xiuzhi strenuously declined, asking instead to raid and pillage the regions around Xiangyang and the Huai and Han Rivers instead, along with Lu Zongzhi and others. So Yao Xing appointed him as his General Who Guards The South and Inspector of Yangzhou, and Lu Zongzhi and the others were given similar appointments.

When Yao Xing was about to send Sima Xiuzhi off, his Imperial Secretary, Tang Sheng, said to him, "According to the prophecy books, 'the Sima clan will retake the Yellow River region and Luoyang'. If you do this, Sima Xiuzhi will be like a fish that has escaped into the sea, and I fear he will never be satisfied to return to the pond again. You should treat him with lofty ceremony, but not send him away."

But Yao Xing replied, "If things will go as this prophecy predicts, then he could do me as much harm at the capital as away from it." And he sent Sima Xiuzhi off.


詔加太尉裕太傅、揚州牧,劍履上殿,入朝不趨,贊拜不名。以兗、青二州刺史劉道憐爲都督荊‧湘‧益‧秦‧寧‧梁‧雍七州諸軍事、驃騎將軍、荊州刺史。道憐貪鄙,無才能,裕以中軍長史晉陵太守謝方明爲驃騎長史、南郡相,道憐府中衆事皆諮決於方明。方明,沖之子也。

21. In Jin, an edict was issued appointing Liu Yu as Grand Tutor and Governor of Yangzhou, and he was permitted to enter the palace while wearing sword and shoes and to enter court without hastening step or waiting for his name to be called.

The Inspector of Yanzhou and Qingzhou, Liu Daolian, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, Yizhou, Qinzhou, Ningzhou, Lianzhou, and Yongzhou and as General of Agile Cavalry and Inspector of Jingzhou. But since Liu Daolian was greedy and without talent, Liu Yu appointed the Chief Clerk to the General of the Central Army and Administrator of Jinling, Xie Fangming, as the Chief Clerk to the General of Agile Cavalry and Chancellor of Nan commandary, and everything on Liu Daolian's staff was discussed with and decided by him. This Xie Fangming was the son of Xie Chong.

〈謝沖,奕之從子。方明,裕之從祖弟也。〉

(Xie Chong was the son of Xie Yi's cousin. Xie Fangming was also Liu Yu's distant relative.)


江陵平,以為都督荊、湘、益、秦、寧、梁、雍七州諸軍事、驃騎將軍、開府儀同三司、鎮護南蠻校尉、荊州刺史,持節,常侍如故。北府文武悉配之。道憐素無才能,言音甚楚,舉止施為,多諸鄙拙。高祖雖遣將軍佐輔之,而貪縱過甚,畜聚財貨,常若不足,去鎮之日,府庫為之空虛。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

After Jiangling was pacified, Liu Daolian was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, Yizhou, Qinzhou, Ningzhou, Lianzhou, and Yongzhou and as General of Agile Cavalry, Colonel Who Guards And Protects Southern Man Tribes, and Inspector of Jingzhou, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. He maintained his original positions as Credential Bearer and Regular Attendant. All the civil and military officials of the Northern Garrison (at Jingkou) were assigned to him.

Liu Daolian had long been lacking in talent or ability, yet he always spoke with a proud voice; most of the plans and ideas he proposed were clumsy or foolish. Although Liu Yu had sent a general to assist and help him, Liu Daolian was excessively greedy and unrestrained, and even all the treasuries and funds were often insufficient for his desires. By the time he had left this post, the treasuries had been exhausted.


益州刺史朱齡石遣使詣河西王蒙遜,諭以朝廷威德。蒙遜遣舍人黃迅詣齡石,且上表言:「伏聞車騎將軍裕欲清中原,願爲右翼,驅除戎虜。」

22. The Inspector of Yizhou, Zhu Lingshi, sent envoys to visit Juqu Mengxun and instruct him on the power and virtue of the Jin court. Juqu Mengxun sent his retainer Huang Xun to visit Zhu Lingshi in turn, and he sent up a petition to the Jin court stating, "I have heard that the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu, wishes to sweep clean the Central Plains. Allow me to serve as his right wing, and drive the barbarians and caitiffs before me."

夏王勃勃遣御史中丞烏洛孤與蒙遜結盟,蒙遜遣其弟湟河太守漢平蒞盟于夏。

23. Helian Bobo sent his Imperial Secretary, Chengwu Luogu, to arrange an alliance with Juqu Mengxun. Juqu Mengxun sent back his Administrator of Huanghe, his younger brother Juqu Hanping, to seal the alliance with Xia.

西秦王熾磐率衆三萬襲湟河,沮渠漢平拒之,遣司馬隗仁夜出擊熾磐,破之。熾磐將引去,漢平長史焦昶、將軍段景潛召熾磐,熾磐復攻之;昶、景因說漢平出降。仁勒壯士百餘據南門樓,三日不下,力屈,爲熾磐所禽。熾磐欲斬之,散騎常侍武威段暉諫曰:「仁臨難不畏死,忠臣也,宜宥之以厲事君。」乃囚之。熾磐以左衞將軍匹達爲湟河太守,擊乙弗窟乾,降其三千餘戶而歸。以尚書右僕射出連虔爲都督嶺北諸軍事、涼州刺史;以涼州刺史謙屯爲鎭軍大將軍、河州牧。隗仁在西秦五年,段暉又爲之請,熾磐免之,使還姑臧。

24. Qifu Chipan led thirty thousand soldiers to launch a surprise attack against Huanghe. Juqu Hanping opposed him; he sent his Marshal, Kui Ren, out to launch a surprise night attack against Qifu Chipan, and Kui Ren routed him. Qifu Chipan was thus about to withdraw. But then Juqu Hanping's Chief Clerk, Jiao Chang, and his general Duan Jing secretly invited Qifu Chipan to return, so Qifu Chipan once again attacked the city. Jiao Chang and Duan Jing then persuaded Juqu Hanping to come out and surrender. Kui Ren led more than a hundred strong fellows to occupy the watchtower at the southern gate, and for three days they could not be subdued. But eventually their strength was exhausted, and they were captured by Qifu Chipan.

Qifu Chipan wanted to behead Kui Ren, but his Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Duan Hui of Wuwei commandary, remonstrated with him, saying, "Kui Ren was fearless even in the face of death; he is a loyal minister. You should pardon him as a generous display." So Qifu Chipan merely imprisoned Kui Ren.

Qifu Chipan appointed his Guard General of the Left, Pi Da, as his Administrator of Huanghe. He also attacked the Yifu leader Kugan and accepted the surrender of his more than three thousand households before returning. He appointed his Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Chulian Qian, as his Commander of military affairs north of the mountain ranges and Inspector of Liangzhou, and he appointed the current Inspector of Liangzhou, Qian Tun, as his Grand General Who Guards The Army and Governor of Hezhou.

Kui Ren was in Western Qin for five years. Duan Hui continued to speak on his behalf, and Qifu Chipan eventually released him and sent him back to Guzang.

〈嶺北,洪池嶺北也。〉〈史書武威段暉,以別南燕之段暉也。〉

("North of the mountain ranges" meant north of the Hongchi Ranges.

The Duan Hui mentioned in this passage is not to be confused with the Duan Hui mentioned earlier as one of Southern Yan's ministers, especially since this one is mentioned as being "of Wuwei commandary".)


十一年,熾磐攻克沮渠蒙遜河湟太守沮渠漢平,以其左衛匹逵為河湟太守,因討降乙弗窟乾而還。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), Qifu Chipan attacked and captured Juqu Mengxun's Administrator of Hehuang, Juqu Hanping. He appointed his Guard General of the Left, Pi Kui, as his own Administrator of Hehuang. He also campaigned against the Yifu leader Kugan and accepted his surrender before returning.


戊午,魏主嗣行如濡源,遂至上谷、涿鹿、廣甯;秋,七月,癸未,還平城。

25. On the day Wuwu (July 28th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Ruyuan, then traveled to Shanggu, Zhuolu, and Guangning. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Guiwei (August 22nd), he returned to Pingcheng.

〈涿鹿縣,漢屬上谷郡,晉分屬廣甯郡。《魏土地記》:下洛縣東南六十里有涿鹿城,西北百三十里有大甯城,卽漢廣甯縣也。蓋在唐嬀州界。〉

(During Han, Zhuolu county was part of Shanggu commandary. Jin split it off as part of Guangning commandary. The Geographical Records of Wei states, "There is a city of Zhuolu sixty li southeast of Xialuo county, and a hundred and thirty li to the northwest of the city of Daning, the same place as Han's Guangning county." It must have been within Tang's Guizhou.)


五月丁亥,次於參合東,幸大寧。丁未,田于四岬山。六月戊午,幸去畿陂,觀漁。辛酉,次于濡源,築立蜯臺。射白熊於頹牛山,獲之。丁卯,幸赤城,親見長老,問民疾苦,復租一年。南次石亭,幸上谷,問百年,訪賢俊,復田租之半。壬申,幸涿鹿,登橋山,觀溫泉,使使者以太牢祠黃帝廟。至廣寧,登歷山,祭舜廟。秋七月,還宮,復所過田租之半。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the sixth month, on the day Wuwu (July 28th), Emperor Mingyuan went to Ji Slope, where he observed the fish. On the day Xinyou (July 31st), he went to Ruyuan, where he built the Bang Terrace. He shot an arrow at a white bear at Mount Tuiniu and claimed it. On the day Dingmao (August 6th), he visited Chicheng, where he met with and visited the local elders, asked the local people about their cares and concerns, and exempted them from taxes for one year. Then he traveled south to Shiting, visited Shanggu and met with the elders there, paid visits to the worthy and talented, and cut the farm taxes in half. On the day Renshen (August 11th), he visited Zhuolu, ascended Mount Qiao, visited Wen Spring, and sent agents to offer a Grand Sacrifice and prayers at the temple of the Yellow Emperor. When he came to Guangning, he ascended Mount Li and offered sacrifices at the temple of Emperor Shun.

In autumn, the seventh month, Emperor Mingyuan returned to the palace. He cut the farm tax of all the places he had traveled through in half.


西秦王熾磐以秦州刺史曇達爲尚書令,光祿勳王松壽爲秦州刺史。

26. Qifu Chipan appointed his Inspector of Qinzhou, Qifu Tanda, as his Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed his 光祿勳, Wang Songshou, as the new Inspector of Qinzhou.

辛亥晦,日有食之。

27. On the day Xinhai (September 19th), the last day of that month, there was an eclipse.

辛亥晦,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the seventh month, on the day Xinhai (September 19th), the last day of that month, there was an eclipse.


八月,甲子,太尉裕還建康,固辭太傅、州牧,其餘受命。以豫章公世子義符爲兗州刺史。

28. In the eighth month, on the day Jiazi (October 2nd), Liu Yu returned to Jiankang. He declined his appointments as Grand Tutor and Governor of Yangzhou, but accepted the others. The heir to his title as Duke of Yuzhang, Liu Yifu, was appointed as Inspector of Yanzhou.

丁未,謝裕卒;以劉穆之爲左僕射。

29. On the day Dingwei (?), Xie Yu passed away. Liu Muzhi was appointed to succeed him as Deputy Director of the Left.

八月丁未,尚書左僕射謝裕卒,以尚書右僕射劉穆之爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eighth month, on the day Dingwei (?), the Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Xie Yu, passed away. The Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Liu Muzhi, was appointed to succeed him as Deputy Director of the Left.


九月,己亥,大赦。

30. In the ninth month, on the day Jihai (November 6th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

九月己亥,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, on the day Jihai (November 6th), a general amnesty was declared.


魏比歲霜旱,雲、代之民多飢死。太史令王亮、蘇坦言於魏主嗣曰:「按讖書,魏當都鄴,可得豐樂。」嗣以問羣臣,博士祭酒崔浩、特進京兆周澹曰:「遷都於鄴,可以救今年之饑,非久長之計也。山東之人,以國家居廣漢之地,謂其民畜無涯,號曰『牛毛之衆』。今留兵守舊都,分家南徙,不能滿諸州之地,參居郡縣,情見事露,恐四方皆有輕侮之心;且百姓不便水土,疾疫死傷者必多。又,舊都守兵旣少,屈丐、柔然將有窺窬之心,舉國而來,雲中、平城必危,朝廷隔恆、代千里之險,難以赴救,此則聲實俱損也。今居北方,假令山東有變,我輕騎南下,布濩林薄之間,孰能知其多少!百姓望塵懾服,此國家所以威制諸夏也。來春草生,湩酪將出,兼以菜果,得及秋熟,則事濟矣。」嗣曰:「今倉廩空竭,旣無以待來秋,若來秋又饑,將若之何?」對曰:「宜簡飢貧之戶,使就食山東;若來秋復饑,當更圖之,但方今不可遷都耳。」嗣悅曰:「唯二人與朕意同。」乃簡國人尤貧者詣山東三州就食,遣左部尚書代人周幾帥衆鎭魯口以安集之。嗣躬耕藉田,且命有司勸課農桑;明年,大熟,民遂富安。

31. For several years, Wei's crops had suffered from frost and drought, and many people in Yunzhong and Dai commandaries had starved to death. The Prefect of the Astrologists Bureau, Wang Liang, and Su Tan said to Emperor Mingyuan, "According to the prophecy books, Wei should move its capital to Ye. That would restore our abundance and our happiness."

Emperor Mingyuan asked his other ministers their thoughts on the matter. The Libationer-Academician, Cui Hao, and the Specially Advanced, Zhou Dan of Jingzhao commandary, told him, "Moving the capital to Ye would indeed relieve us from the trouble of these recent years of famine, but it is not a good plan for the long term.

“The people who live in the regions east of the mountains (the Central Plains east of Luoyang) believe that the homeland of our state is so broad and vast that it is filled with countless people and livestock, thus they call them 'a host of oxen and hair'. But in reality, if we leave troops here to guard the old capital (Pingcheng) while dividing up our families and sending them south, they would not be sufficient even to fill up the territory of the southern provinces, much less the individual commandaries and counties. Then the truth would be revealed, and we fear that the southerners would all think little of us. Furthermore, the people here would not be used to the climate of the south, and many of them would surely be afflicted or killed by illness and pestilence. Beyond that, the old capital would be left with too few troops to guard it. The Qugai and the Rouran are always watching us to see where they can take advantage of us, and if the state carried out such an undertaking, Yunzhong and Pingcheng would certainly be in danger. The court would be cut off from the thousand li of defenses between Mount Heng and Dai commandary, and it would be hard to come to the region’s defense. Thus would our influence and power be diminished.

“So long as we remain in the north, if there happens to be any disturbance in the regions east of the mountains, we need only lead our light cavalry south; we would be like a layer of dew across the fields of grass, and who would be able to measure our true numbers? The common people would look at our approaching clouds of dust and tremble in submission. It is by such measures that our state is able to control the Xia (ethnic Han) people.

“The spring grasses will soon come in, and milk and juice will soon be produced, not to mention the fruits and vegetables. Then once the autumn harvest is ripe, we will be able to get through this situation."

Emperor Mingyuan said, "The granaries are already exhausted; is there no recourse but to wait until the autumn harvest? And if we have yet another famine this autumn, then what are we to do?"

They replied, "For now, you should send the starving and poor households to go south to the regions east of the mountains and obtain food there. And if we indeed experience another famine this coming autumn, then we will make further plans at that point. But even so, that is no reason for us to move the capital."

Emperor Mingyuan happily said, "These two gentlemen are the only ones who think as I do."

So he sent the especially poor people to visit the three southern provinces and obtain food there, while sending the Manager of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Ji of Dai commandary, to lead troops to garrison Lukou in order to supervise these people and keep them gathered together. Emperor Mingyuan personally plowed the Sacred Field, and he ordered his officials to encourage and instruct the people in farming and silkworm cultivation. The following year, there was a bumper crop, and the people were fulfilled and settled.

〈雲、代,雲中、代郡二郡之地。〉〈「廣漢」,據《北史‧崔浩傳》作「廣漠」,當從之。漠,大也。〉〈謂平城也。〉〈自恆山至代,有飛狐之口、倒馬之關,夏屋、廣昌、五迴之險。〉〈郭璞曰:布濩,猶布露也。毛晃曰:布濩,流散也;草叢生曰薄。〉〈湩,乳汁也。酪,乳漿也。西漢太僕屬官有挏馬。應劭曰:主乳馬取其汁,挏治之,味酢可飲,因以名官。如淳曰:主乳馬以韋革爲夾兜,受數斗,盛馬乳,挏取其上肥,因名挏馬。今梁州名馬酪爲馬酒。〉〈拓跋氏起於漠北,統國三十六,姓九十九。道武旣幷中原,徙其豪桀於雲、代,與北人雜居,以其北來部落爲國人。山東三州,定、相、冀也。〉〈魏初,四方四維置八部大人,分東、西、南、北、左、右、前、後,後又置八部尚書。《魏書‧官氏志》:拓跋鄰以次兄爲普氏,後改爲周氏。蓋魏建代都,周幾遂爲代人。〉

("Yun and Dai" meant Yunzhong and Dai commandaries.

In this passage, Cui Hao and Zhou Dan use the term 廣漢 "broad Han". But in the relevant part of the Biography of Cui Hao in the Histories of the Northern Dynasties, the term is 廣漠 "broad and vast"; that is how it should be here. 漠 means "vast".

The “old capital" was Pingcheng.

Between Mount Heng and Dai commandary, there were the natural defenses at Feihukou, Daoma Pass, Xiawu, Guangchang, and Wuhui.

Regarding the metaphor about dew and grass, Guo Pu remarked, "A layer of 濩 meant a layer of dew." Mao Huang remarked, "A layer of 濩 meant scattered and flowing water" and "a clump of grass is called a 薄."

湩酪 refers to milk and juices. During Former Han, there had been a subordinate office under the Keeper of the Imperial Studs called the Horse-Milker. Ying Shao said of this office, "They were in charge of milking horses to obtain their milk, which they processed and flavored with vinegar to make it suitable to drink, thus the name of their office." And even today, there is a famous horse milk in Lianzhou called "horse wine".

When the Tuoba clan had first risen long ago in the northern deserts, they had ruled over thirty-six states and ninety-nine great clans. After Tuoba Gui conquered the Central Plains, he relocated their great clans to Yunzhong and Dai commandaries, where they mixed with the local residents. The forces and tribes of the north of Northern Wei were thus called the Compatriots.

The three southern provinces were Dingzhou, Xiangzhou, and Jizhou.

Following the conquest of the Central Plains, Tuoba Gui had organized the four cardinal and four ordinal directions of the state under the Eight Camps: these were the eastern, western, southern, northern, left, right, front, and rear camps. Northern Wei later also created similar divisions of the Masters of Writing.

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "Tuoba Lin granted his second brother the surname Pu; the descendants of this line later changed their surname to Zhou." Zhou Ji must have been a native of Dai commandary when Northern Wei established their capital at Dai.)


九月,〈闕〉有差。河南流民,前後三千餘家內屬。京師民飢,聽出山東就食。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the ninth month, [a gap in the records here] as appropriate.

Refugees from Henan commandary came to Northern Wei, more than three thousand families in all.

There was famine among the common people in the capital. Emperor Mingyuan sent them to the regions east of the mountains to obtain food.


夏赫連建將兵擊秦,執平涼太守姚軍都,遂入新平。廣平公弼與戰於龍尾堡,禽之。

32. In Xia, Helian Jian led troops to attack Qin. He captured Qin's Administrator of Pingliang, Yao Jundu (or Yao Zhoudu), then entered Xinping. But Yao Bi fought Helian Jian at Fort Longwei and captured him.

〈【章:甲十一行本「軍」作「周」;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】〉〈劉昫《地理志》:鳳翔府岐山縣,唐武德七年,移治龍尾城。〉

(Some versions write Yao Jundu's given name as 周都 Zhoudu rather than 軍都 Jundu.

Liu Xiang's Geographical Records states, "In Tang's seventh year of Wude (624), the administrative center of Qishan county in the Fengxiang Garrison was moved to the city of Longwei.")


勃勃遣其將赫連建率眾寇貳縣,數千騎入平涼。姚恢與建戰于五井,平涼太守姚興都為建所獲,遂入新平。姚弼討之,戰于龍尾堡,大破之,擒建,送于長安。初,勃勃攻彭雙方于石堡,方力戰距守,積年不能克。至是,聞建敗,引歸。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Helian Bobo sent his general Helian Jian to lead an army to invade Er county, and Helian Jian led several thousand cavalry to enter Pingliang. Yao Hui fought Helian Jian at Wujing, but Helian Jian captured the Administrator of Pingliang, Yao Xingdu, and then entered Xinping. Yao Bi then campaigned against Helian Jian; he fought him at Fort Longwei and greatly routed him, capturing Helian Jian and sending him to Chang'an.

Meanwhile, Helian Bobo had been attacking Peng Shuangfang at Fort Shi. But Peng Shuangfang fought hard to defend that place, and even after a year it had not fallen. So when Helian Bobo heard that Helian Jian had been defeated, he withdrew.


秦王興藥動。廣平公弼稱疾不朝,聚兵於第。興聞之,怒,收弼黨唐盛、孫玄等,殺之。太子泓請曰:「臣不肖,不能緝諧兄弟,使至於此,皆臣之罪也。若臣死而國家安,願賜臣死;若陛下不忍殺臣,乞退就藩。」興惻然憫之,召姚讚、梁喜、尹昭、斂曼嵬與之謀,囚弼,將殺之,窮治黨與;泓流涕固請,乃幷其黨赦之。泓待弼如初,無忿恨之色。

33. Yao Xing was affected by medicines he was taking. Yao Bi then claimed illness to avoid attending court, while gathering weapons at his residence. When Yao Xing found out about it, he was angry, and he arrested Yao Bi's partisans Tang Sheng, Sun Xuan, and others and killed them.

Then Yao Hong said to him, "I have been unworthy, and it is my fault that the relationship between my brothers and I has gotten so bad that things have come to this. If, by my death, the state can be secured, I am willing to accept death. And if Your Majesty cannot bear to kill me, then I beg you to send me away to a border command."

Yao Xing felt sad and pitied him. He summoned Yao Zan, Liang Xi, Yin Zhao, and Lian Manwei and made plans with them, and he imprisoned Yao Bi and planned to kill him, along with all his partisans. But Yao Hong tearfully pleaded on Yao Bi's behalf, so he and his partisans were all pardoned. Yao Hong treated Yao Bi like new, with no expression of resentment.

十七年十二月,興疾重,廣平公弼告病不朝,集兵於第。興怒,乃收弼囚之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the seventeenth year of Hongshi (415), the twelfth month, Yao Xing became seriously ill. The Duke of Guangping, Yao Bi, pleaded illness in order to avoid attending court, while he gathered weapons at his residence. Angered, Yao Xing arrested Yao Bi and imprisoned him.

揚武、安鄉侯康宦驅略白鹿原氏胡數百家奔上洛,太守宋林距之。商洛人黃金等起義兵以掎宦,宦乃率眾歸罪。興赦之,復其爵位。時白虹貫日,有術人言於興曰:「將有不祥之事,終當自消。」時興藥動,姚弼稱疾不朝,集兵於第。興聞之怒甚,收其党殿中侍御史唐盛、孫玄等殺之。泓言於興曰:「臣誠不肖,不能訓諧于弟,致弼構造是非,仰慚天日,陛下若以臣為社稷之憂,除臣而國寧,亦家之福也。若垂天性之恩,不忍加臣刑戮者,乞聽臣守籓。」興慘然改容,召姚贊、梁喜、尹昭、斂曼嵬於諮議堂,密謀收弼。時姚紹屯兵雍城,馳遣告之,數日不決。弼黨兇懼。興慮其為變,乃收弼,囚之中曹,窮責黨與,將殺之。泓流涕固請之,乃止。興謂梁喜曰:「泓天心平和,性少猜忌,必能容養群賢,保全吾子。」於是皆赦弼黨。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

The General Who Displays Valor and Marquis of Anxiang, Kang Huan, forced several hundred tribal families from Bailu Plains to flee to Shanglo commandary. The Administrator of Shangluo, Song Lin, opposed him. Then natives of Shangluo county, Huang Jin and others, started an uprising to oppose Kang Huan. Kang Huan then led his forces to surrender and accept their crimes. Yao Xing pardoned him and restored him to his titles.

There had been a white rainbow for several days, and a diviner told Yao Xing, "This is an ill omen. You should consume hemp." Yao Xing was thus affected by medicines he was taking. Yao Bi then claimed illness to avoid attending court, while gathering weapons at his residence. When Yao Xing found out about it, he was extremely angry, and he arrested the Secretary of the Palace Halls, Tang Sheng, Sun Xuan, and Yao Bi's other partisans and killed them.

Then Yao Hong said to him, "I have been unworthy, and it is my fault that the relationship between my brothers and I has gotten so bad that Yao Bi has acted like this. I feel ashamed before Heaven and the Sun. If it is on my behalf that Your Majesty has cause for concern for the fortunes of state, then if, by my death, the state can be secured, that would be a blessing. And if Your Majesty, displaying heavenly magnanimity, cannot bear to carry out the ultimate sentence against me, then I beg you to send me away to a border command."

Yao Xing changed his expression, for he felt sad for Yao Hong and pitied him. He summoned Yao Zan, Liang Xi, Yin Zhao, and Lian Manwei to the council hall, secretly plotting to arrest Yao Bi. At that time, Yao Shao was camped with troops at Yong, and he had sent word to inform Yao Xing, but after several days Yao Xing had not decided. Yao Bi and his partisans were very afraid. Then Yao Xing, fearing that Yao Bi might launch a coup, arrested him and imprisoned him in the central prison; he blamed everything on Yao Bi's partisans and planned to kill them. But Yao Hong tearfully begged for their lives, so Yao Xing stopped. He said to Liang Xi, "Yao Hong has the serene and peaceful nature of Heaven, and he is rarely suspicious by nature. He will surely be able to bring in worthy people and ensure the safety of all my sons." Yao Bi and his partisans were all pardoned.

其弟弼有奪嫡之謀,泓恩撫如初,未嘗見於色。姚紹每為弼羽翼,泓亦推心宗事,弗以為嫌。及僭立,任紹以兵權,紹亦感而歸誠,卒守其忠烈。其明識寬裕,皆此類也。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Although Yao Hong's younger brother Yao Bi plotted to usurp the succession from him, Yao Hong treated him with grace and comfort as though nothing had changed, and he never displayed resentment. And even though Yao Shao had always supported Yao Bi during these times, Yao Hong also fully trusted him with clan affairs, never holding a grudge, and after he took the throne, he entrusted Yao Shao with command of soldiers. Yao Shao was moved by these displays, and he became such a sincere supporter of Yao Hong that he served him with loyalty and zeal even to the death. These were examples of Yao Hong's clear thinking and his abundant magnanimity.


魏太史奏:「熒惑在匏瓜中,忽亡不知所在,於法當入危亡之國,先爲童謠妖言,然後行其禍罰。」魏主嗣召名儒十餘人使與太史議熒惑所詣。崔浩對曰:「按《春秋左氏傳》:『神降于莘』,以其至之日推知其物。庚午之夕,辛未之朝,天有陰雲;熒惑之亡,當在二日。庚之與午,皆主於秦;辛爲西夷。今姚興據長安,熒惑必入秦矣。」衆皆怒曰:「天上失星,人間安知所詣!」浩笑而不應。後八十餘日,熒惑出東井,留守句己,久之乃去。秦大旱,昆明池竭,童謠訛言,國人不安,間一歲而秦亡。衆乃服浩之精妙。

34. Wei's Grand Astrologist submitted a memorial stating, "Mars was residing in the Gourd constellation when it suddenly disappeared without a trace. According to the ancient interpretations, the appearance of Mars is an omen of danger and doom to a state, which will be preceded first by children singing ominous songs and then by disaster and divine punishment."

Emperor Mingyuan thus summoned more than ten famed scholars and had them discuss the status of Mars together with the Grand Astrologist.

Cui Hao said, "When, in the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, we read that 'a spirit descended at Shen', we further read that the purpose of the spirit's coming was reckoned by the day of its arrival. Now as for Mars, there were thick clouds in the sky on the night of the Gengwu day and on the morning of the Xinwei day, so these two days correspond to the disappearance of Mars. The aspects Geng and Wu both correspond to the Qin region, while the aspect Xin corresponds to the western barbarians (such as the Qiang). And at this time, Yao Xing (a Qiang) is occupying Chang'an (in the Qin region). Thus, Mars will definitely appear in the part of the heavens corresponding to Qin."

The others all angrily objected, "How can a mortal so easily predict where a vanished star will reappear in the heavens?"

But Cui Hao only laughed without responding.

More than sixty days later, Mars reappeared in the Eastern Well constellation (which corresponded to the Qin region), and it remained there for some time, even displaying a retrograde motion, before departing. Qin then experienced a great drought, and Kunming Pond dried up; children sang ominous songs, and the people of Qin were disturbed. And a year later, Qin indeed fell. So people respected Cui Hao's expertise.

〈據《晉書‧天文志》:匏瓜在天津之南,天漢分流夾之。張淵《觀象賦註》曰:匏瓜五星在麗珠北,天津九星在匏瓜北。〉〈法,謂推占之常法。〉〈浩蓋據《春秋左氏外傳》也。《外傳》曰:「周惠王十五年,有神降于莘,王問於內史過。對曰:『其丹朱乎。』王曰:『其誰受之?』對曰:『在虢土。』王曰:『虢其幾何?』對曰:『昔堯臨民以五,今其冑見。神之見也,不過其物。若由是觀之,不過五年。』十九年,晉取虢。」〉〈《晉書‧天文志》:自東井十六度至柳八度爲鶉首,於辰在未,秦之分野。自柳九度至張十二度爲鶉火,於辰在午,周之分野。時姚秦兼有關洛之地,故云皆主於秦。庚、辛西方也,故爲西夷。〉〈《新唐書‧天文志》曰:「去而復來,是謂句己。」《晉書‧天文志》曰:「熒惑爲亂,爲賊,爲疾,爲喪,爲饑,爲兵,所居國受殃。環繞鉤己,芒角動搖變色,乍前乍後,乍左乍右,其殃愈甚。鉤己,謂環繞而行如鉤,又成己字也。〉〈徒歌謂之謠。〉

(According to the Astrological Records of the Book of Jin, "The Gourd constellation is south of the Heavenly Crossing constellation, and encompassed by the Tianhan." Zhang Yuan's Notes to the Rhapsody of Sightings and Omens states, "The five stars of the Gourd constellation are north of the Fine Pearl constellation, and the nine stars of the Heavenly Crossing constellation are north of the Gourd."

The Grand Astrologer was referring to ancient interpretations of astrological signs and sightings.

Cui Hao must have been referring to the Outer Records of the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals. This is its account of the spirit: "In the fifteenth year of the reign of King Hui of Zhou (662 BC), a spirit descended at Shen. King Hui asked his astrologer who this spirit was. He replied, 'Probably Danzhu.' King Hui asked, 'Where has it been received?' The astrologer replied, 'At the state of Guo.' King Hui asked, 'What does this mean for Guo?' The astrologer replied, 'In ancient times, Emperor Yao presided over his people there, and even now his descendants remain there. Likewise, when a spirit is seen, it does not go beyond its purpose. We shall see the result of it within five years.' In the nineteenth year (657 BC), the state of Jin conquered Guo."

The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin further states, "The area of the heavens from the sixth node of the Eastern Well constellation to the eight node of the Willow constellation is the Quail Head; when Chen is in Wei, it signifies the Qin region. From the ninth node of the Willow to the twelfth node of the Zhang constellation is the Quail Fire; when Chen is in Wu, it signifies the Zhou region." (An omen involving the aspect Wu would thus signify the region around Luoyang.) Since at this time Later Qin occupied both Guanzhong (the traditional Qin region) and Luoyang (the traditional Zhou region), Cui Hao interpreted both areas as referring to Later Qin. And the aspects Geng and Xin both signified the west, thus Cui Hao's mentioning the "western barbarians".

Regarding retrograde motions of planets, the Astrological Records of the New Book of Tang states, "When a planet goes back before returning to its proper course, it is called a retrograde motion." The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states, "Mars is an omen of chaos in a state, whether through banditry, plague, grief, famine, or war. The state it resides over is destined for calamity." And, "Hooked or retrograde motion is when a planet veers off course, makes sudden turns, roams and wanders, or changes color; it moves suddenly to the front and then to the rear, suddenly to the left and then to the right. It amplifies an omen of calamity. It is called hooked motion because the path of a planet coils back before straightening out, like the shape of a hook, forming a path like the character 己 (or the letters S or Z).”

A song sung without accompaniment is called a ballad or ditty.)


靈台令張泉又言於興曰:「熒惑入東井,旬紀而返,未餘月,復來守心。王者惡之,宜修仁虛己,以答天譴。」興納之。正旦,興朝群臣於太極前殿,沙門賀僧慟泣不能自勝,眾咸怪焉。賀僧者,莫知其所從來也,言事皆有效驗,興甚神禮之,常與隱士數人預於宴會。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

The Prefect of the Lantai Bureau, Zhang Quan, said to Yao Xing, "Mars had entered the Eastern Well constellation and stayed there for ten days before leaving, and then less than a month later, it began residing in the Heart constellation. These things are a bane to sovereigns. You should cultivate your benevolence and act modestly, in order to ward off Heaven's wrath." Yao Xing took his advice.

On the first day of the year, Yao Xing held court in the Front Hall of the Taiji Palace. The Buddhist sramana monk Heseng became overwhelmed by grief and could not control himself, and everyone else marveled at it. No one knew where this Heseng had come from, but whatever he predicted always came true, so Yao Xing treated him with respect like a divine being, and he often feasted with him and dozens of other recluses.


冬,十月,壬子,秦王興使散騎常侍姚敞等送其女西平公主于魏,魏主嗣以后禮納之;鑄金人不成,乃以爲夫人,而寵遇甚厚。

35. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Renzi (November 19th), Yao Xing sent his Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Yao Chang, and others to escort his daughter, the Princess of Xiping, to Wei. Emperor Mingyuan received her with all the respect due to an Empress. Lady Yao was unable to carve the golden statue required of her as per Tuoba tradition, and so she did not actually become Empress, merely a concubine. But Emperor Mingyuan still favored her highly and showed her great courtesy.

〈魏立嗣、立后,皆鑄金人以卜之。〉

(It was the Northern Wei tradition, when selecting an heir or an empress, to carve golden statues as means of divination. This was earlier mentioned in Book 111 (400.7).)


冬十月壬子,姚興使散騎常侍、東武侯姚敞,尚書姚泰,送其西平公主來,帝以后禮納之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Renzi (November 19th), Yao Xing sent his Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Marquis of Dongwu, Yao Chang, and one of his Masters of Writing, Yao Tai, to escort his daughter, the Princess of Xiping, to Northern Wei. Emperor Mingyuan received her with all the respect due to an Empress.

二年,興遣散騎常侍東武侯姚敞、尚書姚泰奉其西平公主於太宗,帝以后禮納之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the second year of Shenrui (415), Yao Xing sent his Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Marquis of Dongwu, Yao Chang, and one of his Masters of Writing, Yao Tai, to escort his daughter, the Princess of Xiping, to Northern Wei. Emperor Mingyuan received her with all the respect due to an Empress.


辛酉,魏主嗣如沮洳城;癸亥,還平城。十一月,丁亥,復如豺山宮;庚子,還。

36. On the day Xinyou (November 28th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the city of Juru. On the day Guihai (November 30th), he returned to Pingcheng. In the eleventh month, on the day Dinghai (December 24th), he went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Gengzi (January 6th of 416), he returned.

〈洳,呂庶翻。沮洳,漸濕之地。北方地高燥,此城蓋以下濕而得名。〉

(The second character of Juru, 洳, is pronounced "lu (l-u)". Juru was the same place as Jianshi. Most of the northern terrain was high and dry, so this city of Jianshi ("Soaked and Damp") must have gotten its name from its location being low-lying and damp.)


辛酉,行幸沮洳城。癸亥,車駕還宮。丙寅,詔曰:「古人有言,百姓足則君有餘,未有民富而國貧者也。頃者以來,頻遇霜旱,年穀不登,百姓飢寒不能自存者甚眾,其出布帛倉穀以賑貧窮。」十有一月丁亥,幸犲山宮。庚子,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Xinyou (November 28th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the city of Juru. On the day Guihai (November 30th), he returned to Pingcheng.

On the day Bingyin (December 3rd), Emperor Mingyuan issued an edict stating, "The ancients had a saying: 'When the people have enough, then the sovereign enjoys abundance; there has never been an instance of a rich populace but a poor state.' Lately, our state has met with frost and drought, and the yearly harvest did not come in, so a great many of the common people were starving and cold and not able to provide for themselves. I hereby distribute cloths, silks, and grain in order to grant sustenance to the destitute and impoverished."

In the eleventh month, on the day Dinghai (December 24th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Gengzi (January 6th of 416), he returned to the palace.


西秦王熾磐遣襄武侯曇達等將騎一萬擊南羌彌姐、康薄于赤水,降之;以王孟保爲略陽太守,鎭赤水。

37. Qifu Chipan sent his Marquis of Xiangwu, Qifu Tanda, and others to lead ten thousand cavalry to attack the Southern Qiang leader Mijie Kangbao at Chishui, where they accepted his surrender. Qifu Chipan appointed Wang Mengbao as his Administrator of Lueyang and stationed him at Chishui.

〈《水經註》:赤亭水出南安郡東山赤谷,西流,逕城北,南入渭水。〉

(The Commentary to the Water Classic states, "The Chiting River emerges from Chi Valley in the eastern hills of Nan'an commandary. It flows west, passing north of the city, then south into the Wei River.")


遣其將曇達、王松壽等討南羌彌姐康薄于赤水,降之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent generals Qifu Tanda, Wang Songshuo, and others to campaign against the Southern Qiang leader Mijie Kangbao at Chishui, where they accepted his surrender.


燕尚書令孫護之弟伯仁爲昌黎尹,與其弟叱支乙拔皆有才勇,從燕王跋起兵有功,求開府不得,有怨言,跋皆殺之。進護開府儀同三司、錄尚書事,以慰其心,護怏怏不悅,跋酖殺之。遼東太守務銀提自以有功,出爲邊郡,怨望,謀外叛,跋亦殺之。

38. Yan's Prefect of the Masters of Writing was Sun Hu. The Intendant of Changli was his younger brother Sun Boren, and his other younger brothers were Sun Chizhi and Sun Yiba. All three of them were talented and bold, and they had assisted Feng Ba during his uprising against Murong Xi. They asked to be granted the honor of Separate Offices, but this was denied them. When they expressed resentment at this, Feng Ba killed them all. He attempted to appease Sun Hu by promoting him to chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing and granting him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies, but Sun Hu was disgruntled and unhappy, so Feng Ba poisoned him to death.

The Administrator of Liaodong, Wu Yinti, considered himself to have accomplished many things, and he resented having been sent out to a border commandary, so he plotted to rebel against Feng Ba with foreign assistance. Feng Ba killed him as well.

〈謂殺慕容熙時也,事見一百十四卷三年。〉〈萬泥、乳陳旣死,孫護兄弟及務銀提又誅,馮跋亦少恩矣。〉

(Feng Ba had led the uprising that killed Murong Xi several years earlier, as mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (407.23-24).

Feng Ba had earlier killed Feng Wanni and Feng Ruchen, and now he executed Sun Hu and his brothers and Wu Yinti as well. He was a man of little grace.)


林邑寇交州,州將擊敗之。

39. The state of Lâm Ấp invaded Jiaozhou. The provincial generals there attacked and defeated their forces.
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BOOK 117

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Apr 28, 2019 11:01 pm

十二年(丙辰、四一六)

The Twelfth Year of Yixi (The Bingchen Year, 416 AD)


春,正月,甲申,魏主嗣如豺山宮;戊子,還平城。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jiashen (February 19th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Wuzi (February 23rd), he returned to Pingcheng.

泰常元年春正月甲申,行幸犲山宮。戊子,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the first year of Taichang (416), in spring, the first month, on the day Jiashen (February 19th), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Wuzi (February 23rd), he returned to the palace.


加太尉裕兗州刺史、都督南秦州,凡都督二十二州;以世子義符爲豫州刺史。

2. In Jin, Liu Yu was promoted to Inspector of Yanzhou. Southern Qinzhou was added to his area of authority as Commander, so that by now he was Commander of twenty-two provinces. His heir Liu Yifu was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou.

〈二十二州:徐、南徐、豫、南豫、兗、南兗、青、冀、幽、幷、司、郢、荊、江、湘、雍、梁、益、寧、交、廣、南秦也。〉

(These twenty-two provinces were Xuzhou, Southern Xuzhou, Yuzhou, Southern Yuzhou, Yanzhou, Southern Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, Sizhou, Yingzhou, Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, Xiangzhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Ningzhou, Jiaozhou, Guangzhou, and Southern Qinzhou.)


秦王興使魯宗之將兵寇襄陽,未至而卒。其子軌引兵入寇,雍州刺史趙倫之擊敗之。

3. Yao Xing sent Lu Zongzhi to lead troops to attack Xiangyang. However, Lu Zongzhi passed away before he arrived there. His son Lu Gui led the troops to invade, but Jin's Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhao Lunzhi, attacked and defeated him.

十二年春正月,姚泓使其將魯軌寇襄陽,雍州刺史趙倫之擊走之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), in spring, the first month, Yao Hong sent his general Lu Gui to attack Xiangyang. The Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhao Lunzhi, attacked Lu Gui and drove him off.

累遷雍州刺史。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhao Lunzhi)

Zhao Lunzhi was later transferred to be Inspector of Yongzhou.


西秦王熾磐攻秦洮陽公彭利和於漒川,沮渠蒙遜攻石泉以救之。熾磐至沓中,引還。二月,熾磐遣襄武侯曇達救石泉,蒙遜亦引去。蒙遜遂與熾磐結和親。

4. Qifu Chipan attacked Qin's Duke of Taoyang, Peng Lihe, at Qiangchuan. But Juqu Mengxun attacked Shiquan in order to relieve Peng Lihe. Qifu Chipan marched as far as Tazhong before turning back. In the second month, Qifu Chipan sent Qifu Tanda to reinforce Shiquan, and Juqu Mengxun then withdrew as well.

Following this, Juqu Mengxun and Qifu Chipan arranged a peace agreement with each other.

〈自熾磐滅禿髮氏,與蒙遜爲鄰敵,歲歲交兵,今乃結和。〉

(After Qifu Chipan had conquered the Tufa clan of Southern Liang, he had become direct neighbors with Juqu Mengxun, and the two of them had clashed for several years. At this time, they arranged peace terms.)


熾磐攻漒川,師次遝中,沮渠蒙遜率眾攻石泉以救之。熾磐聞而引還,遣曇達與其將出連虔率騎五千赴之。蒙遜聞曇達至,引歸,遣使聘於熾磐,遂結和親。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan attacked Qiangchuan, and led his troops to Tazhong. Juqu Mengxun led his forces to attack Shiquan in order to assist Qiangchuan. When Qifu Chipan heard this, he led his forces away. He then sent Qifu Tanda and his general Chulian Qian to lead five thousand cavalry to Shiquan. When Juqu Mengxun heard that Qifu Tanda was approaching, he too pulled back.

Following this, Juqu Mengxun sent envoys to Qifu Chipan, and they arranged a peace agreement with each other.


秦王興如華陰,使太子泓監國,入居西宮。興疾篤,還長安。黃門侍郎尹沖謀因泓出迎而殺之。興至,泓將出迎,宮臣諫曰:「主上疾篤,姦臣在側,殿下今出,進不得見主上,退有不測之禍。」泓曰:「臣子聞君父疾篤而端居不出,何以自安!」對曰:「全身以安社稷,孝之大者也。」泓乃止。尚書姚沙彌謂尹沖曰:「太子不出迎,宜奉乘輿幸廣平公第;宿衞將士聞乘輿所在,自當來集,太子誰與守乎!且吾屬以廣平公之故,已陷名逆節,將何所自容!今奉乘輿以舉事,乃杖大順,不惟救廣平之禍,吾屬前罪亦盡雪矣。」沖以興死生未可知,欲隨興入宮作亂,不用沙彌之言。

5. Yao Xing went to Huayin, leaving Yao Hong in charge of state affairs; Yao Hong took up residence in the Western Palace. Then Yao Xing became bedridden by illness, so he was on his way back to Chang'an.

The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Yin Chong, plotted to intercept Yao Hong when he came out to welcome Yao Xing and kill him. When Yao Xing was near Chang'an, Yao Hong was about to go out to welcome him. But the palace ministers remonstrated with him, saying, "Our sovereign is laid low by illness, and he is surrounded by wicked ministers. Your Highness, if you go out now, not only will you not be able to see him, but you will suffer an unfathomable fate."

Yao Hong objected, "How could I be at peace when I hear that my lord father is bedridden by illness and yet I remain here and do not go out to welcome him?"

But they insisted, "By preserving your own life, you ensure the stability of the state. That is the highest expression of filial piety."

So Yao Hong did not go out.

One of the Masters of Writing, Yao Shami, said to Yin Chong, "Since the Crown Prince did not come out to welcome our arrival, let's guide the imperial carriage to the residence of the Duke of Guangping (Yao Bi) instead. When the household guards and the generals and ministers hear where the imperial carriage has gone, they will all gather there, and then who will be left to defend the Crown Prince? Besides, we were subordinates of the Duke before, and considering that he has already ruined his reputation and violated his duties, can we expect the Crown Prince to put up with us either? But if we take the imperial carriage to the Duke, then he will be able to wield authority and make everyone submit to him. That would not only save the Duke from disaster, it would also wipe away our own past crimes."

But since Yin Chong did not yet know whether Yao Xing was alive or dead, he wanted to accompany Yao Xing into the palace and then launch a coup from there, so he did not follow Yao Shami's advice.

〈太子居東宮;西宮,秦王所居也。〉〈凡東宮官屬皆曰宮臣。〉〈姦臣謂尹沖等。〉

(Traditionally, the Crown Prince's residence was the Eastern Palace, while the Western Palace was for the sovereign (in this case Yao Xing).

The various officials and subordinates of the Eastern Palace were called the palace ministers.

The "wicked ministers" were Yin Chong and others.)


十二月,興疾甚。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the seventh year of Hongshi (415), the twelfth month, Yao Xing's illness became critical.

興如華陰,以泓監國,入居西宮。因疾篤,還長安。泓欲出迎,其宮臣曰:「今主上疾篤,奸臣在側,廣平公每希顗非常,變故難測。今殿下若出,進則不得見主上,退則有弼等之禍,安所歸乎!自宜深抑情禮,以甯宗社。」泓從之,乃拜迎於黃龍門樽下。弼黨見興升輿,咸懷危懼。尹沖等先謀欲因泓出迎害之,尚書姚沙彌曰:「若太子有備,不來迎侍,當奉乘輿直趣公第。宿衛者聞上在此,自當來奔,誰與太子守乎!吾等以廣平公之故,陷身逆節。今以乘輿南幸,自當是杖義之理,匪但救廣平之禍,足可以申雪前愆。」沖等不從,欲隨興入殿中作亂,復未知興之存亡,疑而不發。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing went to Huayin, leaving Yao Hong in charge of state affairs; Yao Hong took up residence in the Western Palace. Then Yao Xing became bedridden by illness, so he was on his way back to Chang'an.

Yao Hong was about to go out to welcome him. But his palace ministers told him, "Our sovereign is laid low by illness, and he is surrounded by wicked ministers. And the Duke of Guangping is always plotting something unusual; if he attempted something, who knows what might happen? Your Highness, if you go out now, not only will you not be able to see our sovereign, but then Yao Bi or others might try something, and then where could you return to? You must repress your feelings and your sense of propriety, in order to safeguard the family and the state." Yao Hong followed their advice, and he merely offered a welcoming display by pouring out wine at the Huanglong Gate.

When Yao Bi's partisans saw that Yao Xing was confined to his carriage, they all harbored fearful thoughts. Yin Chong and others had been plotting to intercept Yao Hong when he came out to welcome Yao Xing and kill him. One of the Masters of Writing, Yao Shami, said to Yin Chong, "If the Crown Prince has taken precautions and does not come out to welcome our arrival, then let's guide the imperial carriage straight to the residence of the Duke of Guangping (Yao Bi) instead. When the household guards hear where the imperial carriage has gone, they will all gather there, and then who will be left to defend the Crown Prince? Besides, we were subordinates of the Duke before, and he has already ruined his reputation and violated his duties. But if we take the imperial carriage south, then the Duke will be able to wield authority and make everyone submit to him. That would not only save the Duke from disaster, it would also wipe away our own past crimes."

But Yin Chong did not follow his advice, since he wanted to accompany Yao Xing into the palace and then launch a coup from there, so he did not follow Yao Shami's advice. But as he was still uncertain whether Yao Xing was alive or not, he hesitated and did not act.


興入宮,命太子泓錄尚書事,東平公紹及右衞將軍胡翼度典兵禁中,防制內外。遣殿中上將軍斂曼嵬收弼第中甲仗,內之武庫。

6. When Yao Xing entered the palace, he ordered Yao Hong to act as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. The Duke of Dongping, Yao Shao, and the Guard General of the Right, Hu Yidu, were assigned command of the household guards and the imperial soldiers, and they supervised military affairs inside and out.

Yao Xing sent the Upper General of the Palace Halls, Lian Manwei, to confiscate all the arms and armor inside of Yao Bi's estate and place them in the Arsenal.

〈紹,興之弟也。〉〈晉置殿中將軍,姚秦復有殿中上將軍,使統殿中諸主帥。〉

(Yao Shao was Yao Xing's younger brother.

Jin had created the office of General of the Palace Halls. Later Qin further created the office of Upper General of the Palace Halls, in order to supervise the various commanders of the palace.)


遣收廣平公弼第中甲杖,納之武庫。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent someone to confiscate all the arms and armor inside of Yao Bi's estate and place them in the Arsenal.

興命泓錄尚書事,使姚紹、胡翼度典兵禁中,防制內外,遣斂曼嵬收弼第中甲杖,內之武庫。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing ordered Yao Hong to act as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He placed Yao Shao and Hu Yidu in command of the household guards and the imperial soldiers, and they supervised military affairs inside and out. He sent Lian Manwei to confiscate all the arms and armor inside of Yao Bi's estate and place them in the Arsenal.


興疾轉篤,其妹南安長公主問疾,不應。幼子耕兒出,告其兄南陽公愔曰:「上已崩矣,宜速決計。」愔卽與尹沖帥甲士攻端門,斂曼嵬、胡翼度等勒兵閉門拒戰。愔等遣壯士登門,緣屋而入,及于馬道。泓侍疾在諮議堂,太子右衞率姚和都率東宮兵入屯馬道南。愔等不得進,遂燒端門,興力疾臨前殿,賜弼死。禁兵見興,喜躍,爭進赴賊,賊衆驚擾;和都以東宮兵自後擊之,愔等大敗。愔逃于驪山,其黨建康公呂隆奔雍,尹沖及弟泓來奔。興引東平公紹及姚讚、梁喜、尹昭、斂曼嵬入內寢,受遺詔輔政。明日,興卒。泓祕不發喪,捕南陽公愔及呂隆、大將軍尹元等,皆誅之,乃發喪,卽皇帝位,大赦,改元永和。泓命齊公恢殺安定太守呂超。恢猶豫久之,乃殺之。泓疑恢有貳心,恢由是懼,陰聚兵謀作亂。泓葬興于偶陵,諡曰文桓皇帝,廟號高祖。

7. Yao Xing's illness now turned critical. The Princess of Nan'an, his sister, tried to ask him about his condition, but Yao Xing did not respond. When Yao Xing's young son Yao Geng'er left the room, he told the Duke of Nanyang, his elder brother Yao Yin, "Our sovereign has already passed away, and we must decide something quickly."

So Yao Yin and Yin Chong led armored soldiers to attack the Lateral Gates. But Lian Manwei, Hu Yidu, and others led troops to close the gates and fight back. Yao Yin and the others sent strong fellows to scale the gates, and they passed through rooms until they entered the horse road. At this time, Yao Hong was in the council hall and tending to Yao Xing's illness. But the Guard Commander of the Right to the Crown Prince, Yao Hedu, led the soldiers of the Eastern Palace to camp south of the horse road. Yao Yin and the others could not advance there. So they set the Lateral Gates on fire. Yao Xing then forced himself up despite his illness and went out to the Front Hall, where he ordered Yao Bi to commit suicide. When the guards saw that Yao Xing was alive, they jumped for joy, and they all surged forward towards the rebels, who panicked in confusion. Then Yao Hedu led the soldiers of the Eastern Palace to attack them from behind, and Yao Yin and the others were greatly defeated. Yao Yin fled to Mount Li, while the Duke of Jiankang, his partisan Lü Long, fled to Yong, and Yin Chong and his younger brother Yin Hong also fled.

Yao Xing summoned Yao Shao, Yao Zan, Liang Xi, Yin Zhao, and Lian Manwei into the inner bedchamber and ordered them to accept his final testament and act as regents over the government.

The next day, Yao Xing passed away.

Yao Hong hid Yao Xing's death and did not conduct mourning. He first captured Yao Yin, Lü Long, the Grand General, Yin Yuan, and others and executed them all. Only then did he hold mourning for his father.

Yao Hong declared himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yonghe.

Yao Hong ordered the Duke of Qi, Yao Hui, to kill the Administrator of Anding, Lü Chao. Yao Hui was hesitant and held off on his decision for some time before eventually killing Lü Chao. Yao Hong thus suspected Yao Hui had ulterior motives, and this suspicion frightened Yao Hui, who secretly gathered together weapons and plotted rebellion.

Yao Hong buried Yao Xing at Ou Tomb. He gave Yao Xing the posthumous title Emperor Wenhuan ("the Cultured and Grand"), with the temple name Gaozu.

〈年五十一。《考異》曰:《晉‧本紀》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》皆云義熙十一年二月姚興卒;《魏‧本紀》、《北史‧本紀》,《姚興》、《姚泓載記》皆云十二年。按《後魏書‧崔鴻傳》:太祖天興二年,姚興改號,鴻以爲元年,故《晉‧本紀》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》凡弘始後事,皆在前一年,由鴻之誤也。〉〈泓,字元子,興之長子也。〉〈隆、超,兄弟也,皆黨於弼。齊公恢時鎭安定。〉〈爲後姚恢舉兵張本。〉

(Yao Xing was fifty years old when he passed away.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the date of Yao Xing's death, the Annals of Emperor An in the Book of Jin, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all state that he passed away in the second month of the eleventh year of Yixi (415). The Annals of Emperor Mingyuan in the Book of Northern Wei and in the Histories of the Northern Dynasties and the Biographies of Yao Xing and of Yao Hong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin all state that he passed away in the twelfth year of Yixi (416). I note that in the Biography of the historian Cui Hong in the Book of Northern Wei, when Yao Xing changed his reign era title to Hongshi, it really took place in Emperor Daowu's (Tuoba Gui's) second year of Tianxing (399), but Cui Hong thought it was in the first year instead (398). Thus, the Annals of Emperor An in the Book of Jin, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all place the beginning of Hongshi one year earlier, and then assign Yao Xing's actions for the year before his death to Yao Hong instead. Their error must have stemmed from Cui Hong's mistake."

Yao Hong, styled Yuanzi, was Yao Xing's eldest son.

Lü Long and Lü Chao were brothers, and both were partisans of Yao Bi. At this time, Yao Hui was stationed at Anding.

This was why Yao Hui later raised troops against Yao Hong.)


是歲,姚興卒,子泓立。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (416), Yao Xing passed away. His son Yao Hong succeeded him.

二月丁未,姚興死,子泓嗣偽位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), in the second month, on the day Dingwei (March 19th), Yao Xing passed away. His son Yao Hong succeeded him.

於是弼黨率甲士攻端門,殿中上將軍斂曼高勒兵拒戰,不得入,遂燒端門。興力疾臨前殿,賜弼死。丁未,薨于殿。年五十三。諡文桓皇帝,廟號高祖,墓曰偶陵。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Bi's partisans led armored soldiers to attack the Lateral Gates. But the Upper General of the Palace Halls, Lian Manwei, led troops to fight back against them. They could not get through, so they set the Lateral Gates on fire. Yao Xing then forced himself up despite his illness and went out to the Front Hall, where he ordered Yao Bi to commit suicide.

On the day Dingwei (?), Yao Xing passed away in the palace; he was fifty-two years old. His posthumous title was Emperor Wenhuan, with the temple name Gaozu, and his tomb was called Ou Tomb.

興又疾甚,弼遣其黨姚武伯等率眾攻端門。泓時侍疾,遣兵拒之,興力疾臨前殿,殺弼,弼黨乃散。泰常元年,興死,泓僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing became seriously ill. Yao Bi sent his partisans, Yao Wubo and others, to lead troops to attack the Lateral Gates. At that time, Yao Hong was tending to Yao Xing's illness. He sent troops to oppose the rebels. Yao Xing forced himself up despite his illness and went out to the Front Hall, where he killed Yao Bi. Yao Bi's partisans then scattered.

In the first year of Taichang (416), Yao Xing passed away. Yao Hong succeeded him.

興疾轉篤,興妹偽南安長公主問疾,不應。興少子耕兒出告其兄愔曰:「上已崩矣,宜速決計。」於是愔與其屬率甲士攻端門,殿中上將軍斂曼嵬勒兵距戰,右衛胡翼度率禁兵閉四門。愔等遣壯士登門,緣屋而入,及于馬道。泓時侍疾於諮議堂,遣斂曼嵬率殿中兵登武庫距戰,太子右衛率姚和都率東宮兵入屯馬道南。愔等既不得進,遂燒端門。興力疾臨前殿,賜弼死。禁兵見興,喜躍,貫甲赴賊,賊眾駭擾。和都勒東宮兵自後擊之,愔等奔潰,逃於驪山,愔党呂隆奔雍,尹沖等奔于京師。興引紹及贊、梁喜、尹昭、斂曼嵬入內寢,受遺輔政。義熙十二年,興死,時年五十一,在位二十二年。偽諡文桓皇帝,廟號高祖,墓曰偶陵... 子略克摧勍敵,荷成先構,虛襟訪道,側席求賢,敦友弟以睦其親,明賞罰以臨其下,英髦盡節,爪牙畢命。取汾、絳,陷許、洛,款僭燕而籓偽蜀,夷隴右而靜河西,俗阜年豐,遠安邇輯,雖楚莊、秦穆何以加焉!既而逞志矜功,弗虞後患。委涼都於禿髮,授朔方於赫連,專己生災,邊城繼陷,距諫招禍,蕭牆屢發,戰無寧歲,人有危心。豈宜騁彼雄圖,被深恩於介士;翻崇詭說,加殊禮于桑門!當有為之時,肄無為之業,麗衣腴食,殆將萬數,析實談空,靡然成俗。夫以漢朝殷廣,猶鄙鴻都之費;況乎偽境日侵,寧堪永貴之役!儲用殫竭,山林有稅,政荒威挫,職是之由,坐致淪胥,非天喪也。興始崇構。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing's illness now turned critical. The Princess of Nan'an, his sister, tried to ask him about his condition, but Yao Xing did not respond. When Yao Xing's young son Yao Geng'er left the room, he told his elder brother Yao Yin, "Our sovereign has already passed away, and we must decide something quickly."

So Yao Yin and his subordinates led armored soldiers to attack the Lateral Gates. But the Upper General of the Palace Halls, Lian Manwei, led troops to fight back, and the Guard General of the Right, Hu Yidu, led the household guards to close the four gates. Yao Yin and the others sent strong fellows to scale the gates, and they passed through rooms until they entered the horse road. At this time, Yao Hong was in the council hall and tending to Yao Xing's illness. He sent Lian Manwei to lead the palace soldiers to ascend the Arsenal and fight back, and he sent the Guard Commander of the Right to the Crown Prince, Yao Hedu, led the soldiers of the Eastern Palace to camp south of the horse road. Yao Yin and the others could not advance there. So they set the Lateral Gates on fire. Yao Xing then forced himself up despite his illness and went out to the Front Hall, where he ordered Yao Bi to commit suicide. When the guards saw that Yao Xing was alive, they jumped for joy, and they all surged forward towards the rebels, who panicked in confusion. Then Yao Hedu led the soldiers of the Eastern Palace to attack them from behind, and Yao Yin and the others greatly scattered. Yao Yin fled to Mount Li, while his partisan Lü Long, fled to Yong, and Yin Chong and others fled to the capital region.

Yao Xing summoned Yao Shao, Yao Zan, Liang Xi, Yin Zhao, and Lian Manwei into the inner bedchamber and ordered them to accept his final testament and act as regents over the government.

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), Yao Xing passed away; he was fifty years old, and had reigned for twenty-two years. His posthumous name was Emperor Wenhuan, with the temple name Gaozu, and he was buried at Ou Tomb.

The historians remark: Zilüe (Yao Xing) began his reign by overcoming and defeating a powerful foe (Fu Deng), and he was successful in completing the foundations of state that his father had left him. He was personally modest and acted with propriety, acting as one who lays out a mat and attracts worthy people to him. He was honest and friendly with his younger brothers, thus promoting peace and harmony among his family, and he was wise and just in granting rewards and inflicting punishments to his subordinates. The heroes under his command all fully maintained their duty and were prepared to give their lives for him. He annexed the regions along the Fen and Jiang Rivers, and he conquered the areas around Xuchang and Luoyang. Earlier, he was sincere in his alliance with Later Yan, and later, he accepted the vassalage of Qiao Zong in the Shu region. Despite the chaos in Longyou, he brought peace to the region beyond the Yellow River. His state enjoyed bountiful harvests over the years, and he brought peace to the distant places and harmony to the nearer ones. Could even King Zhuang of Chu or Duke Mu of Qin have claimed to have surpassed him?

Yet alas, though Zilüe indulged his ambitions and became proud of his achievements, he did not consider future threats. He gave away Liangdu (Guzang) to the Tufa clan, and he entrusted the Shuofang region to Helian Bobo, both of which resulted in disaster and the loss of his border cities. Then Zilüe ignored warnings and courted further disaster, bringing about repeated misfortune within his own family. His state was constantly fighting, without any years of peace, and the people felt endangered in their hearts. Why should Zilüe have given such free reign to these bold fellows and even trusted them with command of armies? Why should he have shown such special courtesy and respect to some monk (Kumarajiva) and let him translate and sanctify such superstitious nonsense?

Those who stand atop the state never fail to serve as examples for others to follow. He who indulges in fine clothing and delicacies will encourage tens of thousands to do the same; he who disputes what is true and speaks what is empty will make this the general custom. Even the Han dynasty, bountiful and grand as it was, still could not afford the expense of Hongdou. How then could an illegitimate state of short duration have endured such decadent and immortality-chasing projects? Treasuries that are spent time and again shall soon be exhausted. Even the mountains and the forests have their limits. We can be sure that the decline of Later Qin and its ultimate destruction came about because of these things. Zilüe was the one who allowed things to sink so low. It was not ill fate, but misrule.

Li Xian remarked: In Yao Xing's reign the rot begins; he honored those of many sins.

興薨,泓即位,大赦,改元為永和元年,廬於諮議堂。既葬,乃親庶政,內外百寮,增位一級。令文武各盡直言,勿有所諱。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

When Yao Xing passed away, Yao Hong succeeded him. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yonghe. He held mourning for his father in the council hall. After Yao Xing was buried, Yao Hong then assumed command of state affairs, and all officials, near and far, were advanced by one rank. He ordered all his civil and military officials to always speak their minds, holding nothing back.

既僭位,號年永和。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

After succeeding Yao Xing, Yao Hong changed the reign era title to the first year of Yonghe.

興既死,秘不發喪。南陽公姚愔及大將軍尹元等謀為亂,泓皆誅之。命其齊公姚恢殺安定太守呂超,恢久乃誅之。泓疑恢有陰謀,恢自是懷貳,陰聚兵甲焉。泓發喪,以義熙十二年僭即帝位,大赦殊死已下,改元永和,廬於諮議堂。既葬,乃親庶政,內外百僚增位一等,令文武各盡直言,政有不便於時,事有光益宗廟者,極言勿有所諱。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

When Yao Xing passed away, Yao Hong hid his death and did not hold mourning for him. The Duke of Nanyang, Yao Yin, plotted rebellion with the Grand General, Yin Yuan, and others. Yao Hong executed them all.

Yao Hong ordered the Duke of Qi, Yao Hui, to kill the Administrator of Anding, Lü Chao. Yao Hui was hesitant and held off on his decision for some time before eventually executing Lü Chao. Yao Hong thus suspected Yao Hui had ulterior motives, and this suspicion frightened Yao Hui, who secretly gathered arms and armor.

Yao Hong then held mourning for Yao Xing, and in the twelfth year of Yixi (416) he declared himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty up until those sentenced to death, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yonghe.

Yao Hong remained in mourning in the council hall. After Yao Xing was buried, then Yao Hong assumed command of the state, and he advanced all his officials, near and far, by one rank. He ordered his civil and military officials to fully speak their minds, and if there was anything about the government not suitable for the times, or anything that would bring benefit to the clan, to not hold back any topic.

其後坐與姚興少子廣川公弼謀反,誅。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Long)

Lü Long was later charged with having plotted rebellion together with the Duke of Guangchuan, Yao Xing's young son Yao Bi, and he was executed.

至長安,尋復為興所誅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Long)

Lü Long went to Chang'an, where he was later executed by Yao Xing.

其後隆坐與子弼謀反,為興所誅。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Long)

Lü Long was later charged with plotting rebellion with Yao Xing's son Yao Bi, and Yao Xing executed him.


初,興徙李閏羌三千戶於安定。興卒,羌酋党容叛,泓遣撫軍將軍姚讚討降之,徙其酋豪于長安,餘遣還李閏。北地太守毛雍據趙氏塢以叛,東平公紹討禽之。時姚宣鎭李閏,參軍韋宗聞毛雍叛,說宣曰:「主上新立,威德未著,國家之難,未可量也,殿下不可不爲深慮。邢望險要,宜徙據之,此霸王之資也。」宣從之,帥戶三萬八千,棄李閏,南保邢望。諸羌據李閏以叛,東平公紹進討,破之。宣詣紹歸罪,紹殺之。

8. Sometime earlier, Yao Xing had relocated three thousand Qiang households from Lirun to Anding. After Yao Xing passed away, the Qiang leader Dang Rong rebelled. Yao Hong sent his General Who Nurtures The Army, Yao Zan, to campaign against the Qiang. Dang Rong surrendered, and the Qiang leaders and gentry were relocated to Chang'an, while the rest were sent back to Lirun.

The Administrator of Beidi, Mao Yong, occupied Fort Zhaoshi and rebelled. Yao Shao campaigned against Mao Yong and captured him.

At this time, Yao Xuan was stationed at Lirun. When Yao Xuan's Army Advisor, Wei Zong, heard that Mao Yong had rebelled, he advised Yao Xuan, "Our sovereign has only just come to the throne, and his power and virtue are not yet established; the state is experiencing difficulties beyond reckoning. Your Highness cannot help but deeply worry about that. There is Xingwang, a critical place with stout defenses. You might move there and occupy it. It would provide you with the resources of a hegemon-king."

Yao Xuan followed his advice, and he led thirty-eight thousand households to abandon Lirun and move south to guard Xingwang. The Qiang tribes then rebelled at Lirun and occupied it. Yao Shao advanced to campaign against them and routed them. Then Yao Xuan came to visit Yao Shao and admitted his crimes, and Yao Shao killed him.

〈孫愐曰:党本去聲,今爲上聲,本出西羌。姚秦有將軍党耐虎,自云夏后氏之後,爲羌豪。〉〈趙氏塢,孝武太元九年秦主堅擊後秦所屯之地。〉

(Regarding the surname 党 Dang, Sun Mian remarked, "It originally was pronounced with a falling tone, but is now pronounced with an high tone; the name is of Western Qiang origin." Later Qin had a general named Dang Naihu, who claimed to be a descendant of the Xia dynasty; he was a member of the Qiang gentry.

Fort Zhaoshi had earlier been the campsite Fu Jian of Former Qin used when he was fighting Later Qin, as mentioned in Book 106, in Emperor Xiaowu's ninth year of Taiyuan (384.30).)


初,興徙李閏羌三千家于安定,尋徙新支。至是,羌酋党容率所部叛還,遣撫軍姚贊討之。容降,徙其豪右數百戶于長安,余遣還李閏。北地太守毛雍據趙氏塢以叛于泓,姚紹討擒之。姚宣時鎮李閏,未知雍敗,遣部將姚佛生等來衛長安。眾既發,宣參軍韋宗奸諂好亂,說宣曰:「主上初立,威化末著,勃勃強盛,侵害必深,本朝之難未可弭也。殿下居維城之任,宜深慮之。邢望地形險固,總三方之要,若能據之,虛心撫禦,非但克固維城,亦霸王之業也。」宣乃率戶三萬八千,棄李閏,南保邢望。宣既南移,諸羌據李閏以叛,紹進討破之。宣詣紹歸罪,紹怒殺之。初,宣在邢望,泓遣姚佛生諭宣,佛生遂贊成宣計。紹數其罪,又戮之。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Sometime earlier, Yao Xing had relocated three thousand Qiang families from Lirun to Anding, then shifted them to Xinzhi. After Yao Xing passed away, the Qiang leader Dang Rong led his forces to rebel and return to their old homes. Yao Hong sent his General Who Nurtures The Army, Yao Zan, to campaign against the Qiang. Dang Rong surrendered, and several hundred households of the Qiang leaders and gentry were relocated to Chang'an, while the rest were sent back to Lirun.

The Administrator of Beidi, Mao Yong, occupied Fort Zhaoshi and rebelled against Yao Hong. Yao Shao campaigned against Mao Yong and captured him.

At this time, Yao Xuan was stationed at Lirun, and he did not know that Mao Yong had already been defeated, so he sent his subordinate generals, Yao Fusheng and others, to go guard Chang'an. After these forces set out, Yao Xuan's Army Advisor, Wei Zong, who was sycophantic and enjoyed stirring up chaos, advised Yao Xuan, "Our sovereign has only just come to the throne, and his power and virtue are not yet established, while Helian Bobo has a powerful and vast army and will surely penetrate deep into the state; the court is experiencing difficulties beyond reckoning. Your Highness has been charged with protecting Weicheng, and you cannot help but deeply worry about that. There is Xingwang, a place with strong terrain and stout defenses that commands critical locations on three sides. If you were to occupy it, while acting modestly and comforting and protecting the people, you would not only ensure the defense of Weicheng, but you could establish the enterprise of a hegemon-king."

Yao Xuan thus led thirty-eight thousand households to abandon Lirun and move south to guard Xingwang. Once Yao Xuan moved south, the Qiang tribes then rebelled at Lirun and occupied it. Yao Shao advanced to campaign against them and routed them. Then Yao Xuan came to visit Yao Shao and admitted his crimes, and Yao Shao killed him.

Earlier, when Yao Xuan had moved to Xingyang, Yao Hong had sent Yao Fusheng to convey his instructions to Yao Xuan. However, Yao Fusheng had actually agreed with and gone along with Yao Xuan's plot. So Yao Fusheng was executed as well.


二月,加太尉裕中外大都督。裕戒嚴將伐秦,詔加裕領司、豫二州刺史,以其世子義符爲徐、兗二州刺史。琅邪王德文請啓行戎路,脩敬山陵;詔許之。

9. In the second (or third) month, Liu Yu was promoted to Grand Commander of all military affairs.

Liu Yu drilled and prepared his soldiers, preparing to campaign against Qin. An edict was issued further appointing him as Inspector of Sizhou and Yuzhou and appointing his heir Liu Yifu as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.

The Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, asked to 'lead the way in front' to clear the roads and restore the old imperial tombs (at Luoyang), and the court granted permission.

〈【張:「二月」作「三月」。】〉〈《詩》曰:元戎十乘,以先啓行。〉

(Some versions state that these events took place in the "third" month.

The Book of Poetry has the verse, "Ten large war chariots led the way in front".)


二月,加劉裕中外大都督。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second month, Liu Yu was promoted to Grand Commander of all military affairs.


夏,四月,壬子,魏大赦,改元泰常。

10. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Renzi (May 17th), a general amnesty was declared in Wei, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Taichang.

三月己丑,長樂王處文薨。常山民霍季,自言名載圖讖,持一黑石以為天賜玉印,誑惑聚黨,入山為盜。州郡捕斬之。夏四月壬子,大赦,改元。庚申,河間王脩薨。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the third month, on the day Jichou (April 24th), the Prince of Changle, Tuoba Chuwen, passed away.

A native of Changshan commandary, Huo Ji, claimed that his name fulfilled certain prophecies, and grasping a black stone that he claimed was a jade seal granted to him by Heaven, he misled the people and gathered a following, then led them into the mountains to become bandits. The local Inspector and Administrator captured Huo Ji and beheaded him.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Renzi (May 17th), Emperor Mingyuan declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Taichang.

On the day Gengshen (May 25th), the Prince of Hejian, Tuoba Xiu, passed away.


西秦襄武侯曇達等擊秦秦州刺史姚艾於上邽,破之,徙其民五千餘戶於枹罕。

11. Qifu Tanda and others attacked Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou, Yao Ai, at Shanggui. They routed him, and relocated more than five thousand households of the local common people to Fuhan.

又遣曇達、王松壽等率騎一萬伐姚艾於上邽。曇達進據蒲水,艾距戰,大敗之,艾奔上邽。曇達進屯大利,破黃石、大羌二戍,徙五千餘戶於枹罕。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent Qifu Tanda, Wang Songshou, and others to lead ten thousand cavalry to campaign against Yao Ai at Shanggui. Qifu Tanda advanced and occupied Pushui. Yao Ai opposed him in battle, but he routed him, and Yao Ai fled to Shanggui. Qifu Tanda then advanced to camp at Dali, where he routed the two camps at Huangshi and Daqiang and relocated more than five thousand households of the local common people to Fuhan.


五月,癸巳,加太尉裕領北雍州刺史。

12. In the fifth month, on the day Guisi (June 27th), Liu Yu was further appointed as acting Inspector of Northern Yongzhou.

〈晉初置雍州於長安,永嘉之亂,沒於劉、石。苻秦之亂,雍州流民南出樊沔,孝武始於襄陽僑立雍州。今裕欲取長安,故領北雍州刺史,以別襄陽之雍州也。〉

(Jin had originally created Yongzhou with its administrative center at Chang'an, but after the Disaster of Yongjia, that whole region had been lost to Han-Zhao and Later Zhao. Later, during the collapse of Former Qin, refugees from the actual Yongzhou had fled south to Fancheng and the Mian River region, and Emperor Xiaowu had then formed a surrogate version of Yongzhou at Xiangyang to administer these people. At this time, since Liu Yu planned to recapture Chang'an, he was appointed as the acting Inspector of this Northern Yongzhou, to differentiate it from the Yongzhou organized around Xiangyang.)


六月,丁巳,魏主嗣北巡。

13. In the sixth month, on the day Dingsi (July 21st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on a northern patrol.

六月丁巳,車駕北巡。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the sixth month, on the day Dingsi (July 21st), Emperor Mingyuan went on a northern patrol.


幷州胡數萬落叛秦,入于平陽,推匈奴曹弘爲大單于,攻立義將軍姚成都于匈奴堡。征東將軍姚懿自蒲坂討之,執弘,送長安,徙其豪右萬五千落于雍州。

14. In Bingzhou, tens of thousands of tribal encampments rebelled against Qin. They marched into Pingyang, where they acclaimed the Xiongnu leader Cao Hong as Grand Chanyu. They attacked Qin's General Who Founds Righteousness, Yao Chengdu, at Fort Xiongnu. The General Who Conquers The East, Yao Yi, marched from Puban to campaign against them, and he captured Cao Hong and sent him to Chang'an. He relocated fifteen thousand encampments of the tribal gentry to Yongzhou.

〈弘蓋匈奴右賢王曹轂子寅之後,所謂東曹者也。〉〈此匈奴種落相率保聚之地,因以爲名。〉〈秦雍州治安定。〉

(This Cao Hong must have been a descendant of the old Xiongnu Worthy Prince of the Right, Cao Gu, by his son Cao Yin, also called the "Eastern Cao". This is further mentioned in Book 101 (367.11).

Fort Xiongnu was a place where the Xiongnu encampments had banded together to defend themselves, thus the name.

Later Qin administered their version of Yongzhou from Anding.)


泓下書,士卒死王事,贈以爵位,永復其家。將封宮臣十六人五等子男,姚贊諫曰:「東宮文武,自當有守忠之誠,未有赫然之效,何受封之多乎?」泓曰:「懸爵於朝,所以懲勸來效,標明盛德。元子遭家不造,與宮臣同此百憂,獨享其福,得不愧於心乎!」贊默然。姚紹進曰:「陛下不忘報德,封之是也,古者敬其事,命之以始,可須來春,然後議之。」乃止。并州、定陽、貳城胡數萬落叛泓,入於平陽,攻立義姚成都於匈奴堡,推匈奴曹弘為大單于,所在殘掠。征東姚懿自蒲阪討弘,戰於平陽,大破之,執弘,送于長安,徙其豪右萬五千落於雍州。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong sent out a letter declaring that those officers and soldiers who had died in royal service would be granted posthumous ranks and titles and have their families provided for.

Yao Hong was about to appoint sixteen of his palace ministers as Viscounts and Barons. Yao Zan remonstrated with him, stating, "It is true that the civil and military officials of the Eastern Palace have rendered you good and loyal service. But they have not yet performed any outstanding deeds. Why then are you granting titles to so many of them?"

Yao Hong replied, "I am granting titles to the court to induce others to come and perform deeds and as marks of their abundant virtue. And after all, the palace ministers shared my concerns during the discord among our family, so shouldn't they also enjoy my good fortune? Why then should I be ashamed?"

Yao Zan was left silent. But then Yao Shao stepped forward and said, "Your Majesty is indeed repaying the past virtues of your ministers by granting them these titles, and the ancients would respect your actions. But your reign has only just begun. Let us at least wait until the coming spring, and then discuss this further."

So Yao Hong gave up on the plan.

In Bingzhou, Dingyang, and Ercheng, tens of thousands of tribal encampments rebelled against Yao Hong. They marched into Pingyang, where they attacked the General Who Founds Righteousness, Yao Chengdu, at Fort Xiongnu. They acclaimed the Xiongnu leader Cao Hong as Grand Chanyu, and they raided and pillaged. The General Who Conquers The East, Yao Yi, marched from Puban to campaign against them; he fought them at Pingyang and greatly routed them, and he captured Cao Hong and sent him to Chang'an. He relocated fifteen thousand encampments of the tribal gentry to Yongzhou.


氐王楊盛攻秦祁山,拔之,進逼秦州。秦後將軍姚平救之;盛引兵退,平與上邽守將姚嵩追之。夏王勃勃帥騎四萬襲上邽,未至,嵩與盛戰於竹嶺,敗死。勃勃攻上邽,二旬,克之,殺秦州刺史姚軍都及將士五千餘人,因毀其城;進攻陰密,又殺秦將姚良子及將士萬餘人,以其子昌爲雍州刺史,鎭陰密。征北將軍姚恢棄安定,奔還長安,安定人胡儼等帥戶五萬據城降於夏。勃勃使鎭東將軍羊苟兒將鮮卑五千鎭安定,進攻秦鎭西將軍姚諶于雍城,諶委鎭奔長安。勃勃據雍,進掠郿城。秦東平公紹及征虜將軍尹昭等將步騎五萬擊之,勃勃退趨安定,胡儼閉門拒之,殺羊苟兒及所將鮮卑,復以安定降秦。紹進擊勃勃於馬鞍阪,破之,追至朝那,不及而還。勃勃歸杏城。楊盛復遣兄子倦擊秦,至陳倉,秦歛曼嵬擊卻之。夏王勃勃復遣兄子提南侵泄陽,秦車騎將軍姚裕等擊卻之。

15. The King of the Di, Yang Sheng, attacked Qin's Qishan commandary and took it. He then advanced to threaten Qinzhou. Qin's General of the Rear, Yao Ping, marched to reinforce Qinzhou. Yang Sheng then led his troops away, while Yao Ping and Qin's general defending Shanggui, Yao Song, pursued him.

Helian Bobo took advantage of their absence by leading forty thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against Shanggui. Even before he had arrived there, Yao Song fought Yang Sheng at the Zhu Ranges, but was defeated and killed. Helian Bobo attacked Shanggui and took it after twenty days; he killed Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou, Yao Jundu, and more than five thousand of his generals and soldiers, then destroyed the walls of Shanggui.

Helian Bobo then advanced to attack Yinmi, where he killed the Qin general Yao Liangzi and more than ten thousand of his generals and soldiers. He appointed his son Helian Chang as his own Inspector of Yongzhou, stationed at Yinmi.

Qin's General Who Conquers The North, Yao Hui, abandoned Anding and fled back to Chang'an. Natives of Anding, Hu Yan and others, led fifty thousand households to occupy the city and surrender it to Xia. Helian Bobo sent his General Who Guards The East, Yang Gou'er, to lead five thousand Xianbei to garrison Anding.

Helian Bobo then advanced to attack Qin's General Who Guards The West, Yao Shen, at Yong. Yao Shen abandoned his post and fled to Chang'an. Helian Bobo occupied Yong.

Helian Bobo now advanced to pillage Meicheng. Yao Shao, the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yin Zhao, and others led fifty thousand horse and foot to attack Helian Bobo. He retreated to regroup at Anding, but now Hu Yan closed the gates of the city and refused to let him in; he killed Yang Gou'er and the Xianbei under his command, and he surrendered the city back to Qin again. Yao Shao then advanced to attack Helian Bobo at Ma'an Slope, where he routed him. He pursued Helian Bobo as far as Chaona, but could not catch up with him, so he turned back. Helian Bobo returned to Xingcheng.

Yang Sheng now sent his nephew Yang Juan to attack Qin. Yang Juan marched to Chencang, where Lian Manwei attacked him and held him off.

Helian Bobo sent his nephew Helian Ti south to raid Xieyang (or Chiyang). Qin's General of Chariots and Cavalry, Yao Yu, and others attacked and guarded against him.

〈《水經註》:籍水歷當亭川,又東南流,與竹嶺水合,水出南山竹嶺,東北入籍水。籍水東北入上邽縣。〉〈陰密,古密人之國,《詩》所謂「密人不恭,敢拒大邦」者也。自漢以來爲縣,屬安定郡。《括地志》:陰密故城,在涇州鶉觚縣西,其東接縣城,卽古密國。〉〈《晉書‧載記》作「池陽」,當從之。池陽縣屬扶風郡,唐爲京兆雲陽縣。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ji River flows through Dangtingchuan, then flows southeast until it joins with the Zhuling River. That river emerges from the southern hills of the Zhu Ranges, then flows northeast into the Ji River. The Ji River then flows northeast into Shanggui county."

In ancient times, Yinmi had been the state of the Mi people. They are mentioned in the Book of Poetry, which has this verse: "The people of Mi were disobedient, daring to oppose our great country." Ever since the Han dynasty, the area had been a county, as part of Anding commandary. The Comprehensive Gazetteer states, "The old city of Yinmi was in the west of Chungu county in Jingzhou; to its east was the capital city of the county. It was once the ancient state of Mi."

The Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the place that Helian Ti raided as 池陽 Chiyang rather than 泄陽 Xieyang, and that is how it should be here. Chiyang county was part of Fufeng commandary; during Tang, it was Yunyang county in Jingzhao.)


夏六月,赫連勃勃攻姚泓秦州,陷之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the sixth month, Helian Bobo attacked Yao Hong's Qinzhou and took it.

仇池公楊盛攻陷祁山,遂逼秦川,泓遣姚平救之。盛引退,姚嵩與平追盛,及於竹領,姚讚率隴西太守姚秦都、畧陽太守王煥以禁兵赴之。讚為盛所敗,秦都、王煥皆戰死。讚至秦州,退還仇池。先是,天水冀縣石鼓鳴,聲聞數百裏,野雞皆雊。秦州地震者三十二,殷殷有聲者八,山崩舍壞,咸以為不祥。及嵩將出,羣僚固諫,不聽。識者以為:秦州泓之故鄉,將滅之徵也。赫連勃勃攻陷陰密,執秦州刺史姚軍都,坑將士五千餘人,進兵侵雍,遂據抄掠郿城。姚紹及征虜尹昭、鎮軍姚洽等率步騎五萬討之,戰于馬鞍阪,勃勃兵敗,走還秦。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Sheng, attacked Qishan and took it, then advanced to threaten Qinchuan. Yao Hong sent Yao Ping to reinforce that region. Yang Sheng then pulled back, and Yao Song and Yao Ping went to pursue him. They caught up with him at Zhuling, and in the meantime Yao Zan had led the forces of the Administrator of Longxi, Yao Qindu, and the Administrator of Lueyang, Wang Huan, to join them. But Yao Zan was defeated by Yang Sheng, and Yao Qindu and Wang Huan both died in battle. Yao Zan went to Qinzhou, then retreated back to Chouchi.

Earlier, there had been the sound of stone drums in Ji county in Tianshui commandary, which could be heard for several hundred li all around, and the wild roosters had all crowed as well. And there had been thirty-two earthquakes in Qinzhou, eight instances of sorrowful sounds, and collapses of mountains and tumblings of houses. Everyone felt that these were bad omens. So when Yao Song was about to march out, his subordinates all fiercely remonstrated with him, but he did not listen to them. The knowledgeable felt that, since Qinzhou had been Yao Hong's homeland, the fact that all these omens were taking place there was a sign that his state would soon be conquered.

Helian Bobo attacked and took Yinmi, where he captured the Inspector of Qinzhou, Yao Jundu, and buried alive more than five thousand of his generals and soldiers. He then advanced his troops to attack Yong, then occupied and pillaged the region around Meicheng. Yao Shao, the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yin Zhao, the General Who Guards The Army, Yao Qia, and others led fifty thousand horse and foot to attack Helian Bobo. They fought at Ma'an Slope, where Helian Bobo's soldiers were defeated, and he fled back to Qinzhou.

赫連屈孑攻泓秦州,又克安定,遂據雍城。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

Helian Quzi (Helian Bobo) attacked Yao Hong's territory of Qinzhou; he took Anding, then advanced and occupied Yong.

仇池公楊盛攻陷祁山,執建節王總,遂逼秦州。泓遣後將軍姚平救之,盛引退。姚嵩與平追盛及於竹嶺,姚贊率隴西太守姚秦都、略陽太守王煥以禁兵赴之。贊至清水,嵩為盛所敗,嵩及秦都、王煥皆戰死。贊至秦州,退還仇池。先是,天水冀縣石鼓鳴,聲聞數百里,野雉皆雊。秦州地震者三十二,殷殷有聲者八,山崩舍壞,咸以為不祥。及嵩將出,群僚固諫止之。嵩曰:「若有不祥,此乃命也,安所逃乎!」遂及於難。識者以為秦州泓之故鄉,將滅之征也。赫連勃勃攻陷陰密,執秦州刺史姚軍都,坑將士五千餘人。軍都真目厲聲數勃勃殘忍之罪,不為之屈,勃勃怒而殺之。勃勃既克陰密,進兵侵雍,嶺北雜戶悉奔五將山。征北姚恢棄安定,率戶五千奔新平,安定人胡儼、華韜等率眾距恢,恢單騎歸長安。立節彌姐成、建武裴岐為儼所殺,鎮西姚諶委鎮東走。勃勃遂據雍,抄掠郿城。姚紹及征虜尹昭、鎮軍姚洽等率步騎五萬討勃勃,姚恢以精騎一萬繼之。軍次橫水,勃勃退保安定,胡儼閉門距之,殺鮮卑數千人,據安定以降。紹進兵躡勃勃,戰於馬鞍阪,敗之,追至朝那,不及而還。楊盛遣兄子倦入寇長蛇。平陽氐苟渴聚眾千餘,據五丈原以叛,遣鎮遠姚萬、恢武姚難討之,為渴所敗。姚諶討渴,擒之。泓使輔國斂曼嵬、前將軍姚光兒討楊倦于陳倉,倦奔于散關。勃勃遣兄子提南侵池陽,車騎姚裕、前將軍彭白狼、建義蛇玄距卻之。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Sheng, attacked Qishan and took it, where he captured the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Wang Zong, then advanced to threaten Qinchuan. Yao Hong sent the General of the Rear, Yao Ping, to reinforce that region. Yang Sheng then pulled back, and Yao Song and Yao Ping pursued him to Zhuling. In the meantime, Yao Zan had led the forces of the Administrator of Longxi, Yao Qindu, and the Administrator of Lueyang, Wang Huan, to join them. But by the time Yao Zan had reached Qingshui, Yao Song had been defeated by Yang Sheng, and he, Yao Qindu, and Wang Huan had all died in battle. Yao Zan went to Qinzhou, then retreated back to Chouchi.

Earlier, there had been the sound of stone drums in Ji county in Tianshui commandary, which could be heard for several hundred li all around, and the wild roosters had all crowed as well. And there had been thirty-two earthquakes in Qinzhou, eight instances of sorrowful sounds, and collapses of mountains and tumblings of houses. Everyone felt that these were bad omens. So when Yao Song was about to march out, his subordinates all fiercely remonstrated with him. But he said, "If there are ill omens, that's nothing more than fate. How could I turn back?" So he went, and came to grief. The knowledgeable felt that, since Qinzhou had been Yao Hong's homeland, the fact that all these omens were taking place there was a sign that his state would soon be conquered.

Helian Bobo attacked and took Yinmi, where he captured the Inspector of Qinzhou, Yao Jundu, and buried alive more than five thousand of his generals and soldiers. Yao Jundu glared at Helian Bobo and denounced him repeatedly for his wickedness and cruelty, and he refused to bow to him, so Helian Bobo became angry and killed him.

Having taken Yinmi, Helian Bobo advanced his troops to attack Yong, and the people living north of the mountain ranges all fled to Mount Wujiang. The General Who Conquers The North, Yao Hui, abandoned Anding and led five thousand households to flee to Xinping. But natives of Anding, Hu Yan, Hua Tao, and others, led their forces to oppose Yao Hui, and he fled on a lone horse back to Chang'an. Hu Yan killed the General Who Founds Fortitude, Mijie Cheng, and the General Who Establishes Valor, Pei Qi, while the General Who Guards The West, Yao Shen, abandoned his post and fled east. Helian Bobo thus occupied Yong, then raided and pillaged the region around Meicheng.

Yao Shao, the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yin Zhao, the General Who Guards The Army, Yao Qia, and others led fifty thousand horse and foot to attack Helian Bobo, and Yao Hui led ten thousand elite cavalry to follow behind them. They advanced to Hengshui, causing Helian Bobo to fall back to defend Anding, but now Hu Yan closed the gates and opposed him, and he killed several thousand Xianbei at Anding and surrendered it back to Yao Hong. Yao Shao then pressed his troops forward after Helian Bobo and fought him at Ma'an Slope, defeating him. He pursued him as far as Chaona, but could not catch up with him, so he turned back.

Yang Sheng sent his nephew Yang Juan to attack Changshe, and a Di leader from Pingyang, Gou Ke, gathered an army of several thousand and occupied Wuzhang Plains in rebellion. Yao Hong sent the General Who Guards Distant Places, Yao Wan, and the General of Vast Valor, Yao Nan, to campaign against them, but they were defeated by Gou Ke. Then Yao Shen campaigned against Gou Ke and captured him. Yao Hong then sent the General Who Upholds The State, Lian Manwei, and the General of the Front, Yao Guang'er, to campaign against Yang Juan at Chencang, and Yang Juan fled to Sanguan.

Helian Bobo sent his nephew Helian Ti south to raid Chiyang. The General of Chariots and Cavalry, Yao Yu, the General of the Front, Peng Bailang, and the General Who Establishes Righteousness, She Xuan, attacked and guarded against him.


涼司馬索承明上書勸涼公暠伐河西王蒙遜,暠引見,謂之曰:「蒙遜爲百姓患,孤豈忘之!顧勢力未能除耳。卿有必禽之策,當爲孤陳之;直唱大言,使孤東討,此與言『石虎小豎,宜肆諸市朝』者何異!」承明慚懼而退。

16. The Marshal of Liang, Suo Chengming, sent up a letter urging the Duke of Liang, Li Gao, to campaign against Juqu Mengxun. Li Gao summoned Suo Chengming and said to him, "How could I ever forget that Juqu Mengxun is a blight upon the common people? It's merely that my power is not great enough to get rid of him yet. But Sir, you must surely have a plan that will allow me to capture him. Please, explain it for me. If you merely wanted to make some loud declaration that would spur me on to an eastern campaign, how would that be any different from the old boast that 'Shi Hu is just some whelp, and you need only turn out the markets and the court against him'?" Suo Chengming, fearful and ashamed, withdrew.

秋,七月,魏主嗣大獵於牛川,臨殷繁水而還;戊戌,至平城。

17. In autumn, the seventh month, Emperor Mingyuan of Wei held a great hunt at Niuchuan and went to observe the Yinfan River before returning. On the day Wuxu (August 31st), he arrived at Pingcheng.

〈《北史》曰︰登釜山,臨殷繁水。《括地志》曰:釜山在嬀州懷戎縣北三里。〉

(The Histories of the Northern Dynasties adds that Emperor Mingyuan "ascended Mount Fu and observed the Yinfan River". The Comprehensive Gazetteer states, "Mount Fu is three li north of Huairong county in Guizhou.")


秋七月甲申,帝自白鹿陂西行,大獮于牛川,登釜山,臨殷繁水而南,觀于九十九泉。戊戌,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiashen (August 17th), Emperor Mingyuan traveled west from Bailu Slope. He held a great hunt at Niuchuan, ascended Mount Fu, and observed the Yinfan River. He then went south to view the Ninety-Nine Springs. On the day Wuxu (August 31st), he returned to the palace.


八月,丙午,大赦。

18. In the eighth month, on the day Bingwu (September 8th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

秋八月,劉裕及琅邪王德文帥衆伐姚泓。丙午,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the eighth month, Liu Yu and the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, led an army to campaign against Yao Hong. On the day Bingwu (September 8th), a general amnesty was declared.


寧州獻琥珀枕於太尉裕。裕以琥珀治金創,得之大喜,命碎擣分賜北征將士。

19. Ningzhou sent a pillow of amber to Liu Yu. He used the amber to treat a metal-related injury and was delighted with the results. He ordered the amber to be ground into pieces and then distributed to the generals and officers who would be going on the northern campaign.

〈琥珀出哀牢夷。《廣雅》曰:琥珀生地中,其上及旁不生草。深者八九尺,大如斛,削去皮,成琥珀如斗。初時如桃膠,凝堅乃成。《博物志》:松脂淪入地,千年化爲茯苓,茯苓千年化爲琥珀。今太山有茯苓而無琥珀,永昌有琥珀而無茯苓。〉

(Amber comes from the Ailao people. The Guangya dictionary states, "Amber forms in the ground; it does not rise to the level of grasses. It is eight or nine chi deep. Beginning as large as a hu, its edges are gradually worn away until it forms complete amber, shaped like a dou. It starts out as a peachy gel, and eventually freezes into the amber shape." The Records of Things states, "It is pine resin that flows into the ground. After a thousand years, this resin changes into the fu ling plant (Chinese Tuckahoe), and after another thousand years, the fu ling plant changes into amber." In modern times, Taishan has these fu ling plants, but no amber; Yongchang has amber, but no fu ling plants.)


裕以世子義符爲中軍將軍,監太尉留府事。劉穆之爲左僕射,領監軍、中軍二府軍司,入居東府,總攝內外;以太尉左司馬東海徐羨之爲穆之之副;左將軍朱齡石守衞殿省,徐州刺史劉懷愼守衞京師,揚州別駕從事史張裕任留州事。懷愼,懷敬之弟也。

20. Liu Yu appointed Liu Yifu as General of the Central Army and Chief of Internal Affairs to the Grand Commandant. He appointed Liu Muzhi as Deputy Director of the Left and acting Director of Affairs to the General Who Leads The Army and General of the Central Army; Liu Muzhi took up residence in the Eastern Bureau and supervised all affairs, internal and external. He appointed the Marshal of the Left to the Grand Commandant, Xu Xianzhi of Donghai commandary, as Liu Muzhi's adjutant.

Liu Yu appointed the General of the Left, Zhu Lingshi, as Commander of the Palace Guards, and he appointed the Inspector of Xuzhou, Liu Huaishen, as Commander of the Capital Guards. He appointed the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Yangzhou, Zhang Yu, as Chief of Internal Affairs for Yangzhou. This Liu Huaishen was the younger brother of Liu Huaijing.

〈監軍,謂義符,監太尉留府軍也。〉〈任留州事,任揚州留後事也。〉

(The General Who Leads The Army was Liu Yifu, in his capacity as Chief of Internal Affairs to the Grand Commandant.

Zhang Yu would be Chief of Internal Affairs for Yangzhou (since Liu Yu would be away on campaign).)


十一年,徵為太尉諮議參軍,加冠軍將軍。十二年北伐,遷左將軍,本號如故,配以兵力,守衛殿省,劉穆之甚加信仗,內外諸事,皆與謀焉。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), Zhu Lingshi was recalled to the capital to serve as Consultant Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant, and he was promoted to Champion General.

In the twelfth year (416), when Liu Yu was preparing his northern campaign against Later Qin, Zhu Lingshi was transferred to be General of the Left, while keeping his original title; he was assigned command of many soldiers, and he commanded the guards of the palaces and ministries. Liu Muzhi was granted extensive authority and trust and oversaw all affairs, inside and out, and he plotted everything together with Zhu Lingshi.


劉穆之內總朝政,外供軍旅,決斷如流,事無擁滯。賓客輻湊,求訴百端,內外諮稟,盈階滿室;目覽辭訟,手答牋書,耳行聽受,口並酬應,不相參涉,悉皆贍舉。又喜賓客,言談賞笑,彌日無倦。裁有閒暇,手自寫書,尋覽校定。性奢豪,食必方丈,旦輒爲十人饌,未嘗獨餐。嘗白裕曰:「穆之家本貧賤,贍生多闕。自叨忝以來,雖每存約損,而朝夕所須,微爲過豐,自此外一毫不以負公。」中軍諮議參軍張卲言於裕曰:「人生危脆,必當遠慮。穆之若邂逅不幸,誰可代之?尊業如此,苟有不諱,處分云何?」裕曰:「此自委穆之及卿耳。」

21. Within, Liu Muzhi supervised all affairs of court and state; without, he organized and supplied all military forces. He quickly reached decisions like a flowing stream, and nothing lay stagnant or neglected. Guests and visitors were always converging on his home, with countless requests or appeals; he was consulted on and reported to on every matter inside and out, and his steps were always crowded and his rooms always full. He personally reviewed and read appeals and cases and with his own hand wrote out responses; his ears took in everything that was said, and he always gave a suitable answer. Nor did he allow things to get bogged down; everything was provided for.

Liu Muzhi enjoyed entertaining guests, talking and laughing with them, and he could spend all day in company without exhaustion. And if he happened to have some free time, he would write out books by his own hand or search out some case to resolve. Liu Muzhi was extravagant by nature, and he would always prepare enormous meals; for breakfast he would always lay out enough food for ten people, and he never ate alone. He once said to Liu Yu, "My family used to be poor and needy, and we often lacked enough to sustain ourselves. So ever since I have been blessed to receive your patronage, no matter how much I try to cut back on food, by the time morning or evening comes, it still seems like I have too much of it. But other than that, I have not one whit of reproach for you."

The Consultant Army Advisor to the General of the Central Army, Zhang Shao, said to Liu Yu, "We all live in troubled times, and we must always think to the future. If anything unexpected should happen to Liu Muzhi, who could replace him? And you yourself are already so exalted that if you should meet with misfortune, what ought to be done?"

Liu Yu replied, "I'll just let you and Liu Muzhi handle such things."

〈盈階滿室,謂諮稟之文書也。〉〈尊業,言裕已成之功業也;尊者,尊稱之也。〉

(Liu Muzhi's "steps were always crowded and rooms always full" with the letters of reports and appeals.

Zhang Shao said that Liu Yu was "exalted" in the sense that he had already fulfilled his achievements. He was "exalted" because of the high honors he was shown.)


九年,世子始開征虜府,補邵錄事參軍,轉號中軍,遷諮議參軍,領記室。十二年,武帝北伐,邵請見,曰:「人生危脆,必當遠慮。穆之若邂逅不幸,誰可代之?尊業如此,苟有不諱,事將如何?」帝曰:「此自委穆之及卿耳。」(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhang Shao)

In the ninth year of Yixi (413), when Liu Yu's heir Liu Yifu first established his staff as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Zhang Shao was appointed to his staff as an Army Advisor. He was transferred to be an Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, then a Consultant Army Advisor and acting Recordskeeper.

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), when Liu Yu was about to set out on his northern campaign against Later Qin, Zhang Shao asked to see him. He said to Liu Yu, "We all live in troubled times, and we must always think to the future. If anything unexpected should happen to Liu Muzhi, who could replace him? And you yourself are already so exalted that if you should meet with misfortune, what ought to be done?"

Liu Yu replied, "I'll just let you and Liu Muzhi handle such things."


丁巳,裕發建康,遣龍驤將軍王鎭惡、冠軍將軍檀道濟將步軍自淮、淝向許、洛,新野太守朱超石、寧朔將軍胡藩趨陽城,振武將軍沈田子、建威將軍傅弘之趨武關,建武將軍沈林子、彭城內史劉遵考將水軍出石門,自汴入河,以冀州刺史王仲德督前鋒諸軍,開鉅野入河。遵考,裕之族弟也。劉穆之謂王鎭惡曰:「公今委卿以伐秦之任,卿其勉之!」鎭惡曰:「吾不克關中,誓不復濟江!」

22. On the day Dingsi (September 19th), Liu Yu set out from Jiankang. He sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Zhen'e, and the Champion General, Tan Daoji, to lead the infantry to cross the Huai and Fei Rivers to march towards Xuchang and Luoyang. He sent the Administrator of Xinye, Zhu Chaoshi, and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Hu Fan, to meet at Yangcheng. He sent the General Who Rouses Valor, Shen Tianzi, and the General Who Establishes Might, Fu Hongzhi, to meet at Wuguan. He sent the General Who Establishes Valor, Shen Linzi, and the Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Zunkao, to lead a naval force out through the Stone Gate and down the Bian River to enter the Yellow River. He appointed the Inspector of Jizhou, Wang Zhongde, as Vanguard Commander and ordered him to open Juye and enter the Yellow River. This Liu Zunkao was Liu Yu's kinsman.

As the armies were leaving, Liu Muzhi said to Wang Zhen'e, "Lord Liu is entrusting you with the campaign against Qin, Sir. You must do your utmost!"

Wang Zhen'e declared, "If I don't take Guanzhong, I swear not to return across the Yangzi!"

〈汴水首受濟,東南與淮通,《漢書‧地理志》所謂狼湯渠是也。昔大禹塞滎澤,開此渠以通淮、泗,《禹貢》所謂「導沇水,東流爲濟,入于河,溢爲滎,東出于陶丘北」者也。漢脩河陽,始立石門以遏水;水盛則通於河,水耗則輟流。〉〈《水經》:濟水北至東燕縣,與河合。酈道元《註》曰:濟水自乘氏縣兩分,東北入于鉅野濟之故瀆,又北,右合洪水。洪水上承鉅野薛訓渚,自渚迄于北口一百二十里,名曰洪水。桓溫以太和四年率衆北入,掘渠通濟。義熙十三年,劉武帝西入長安,又廣其功。自洪口以上,又謂桓公瀆,濟自是北注也。〉

(The Bian River begins with the Ji River on one end and flows southeast to connect with the Huai River; it is the Langtang Canal mentioned in the Geographical Records of the Book of Han. In ancient times, Yu the Great closed up Xing Marsh and carved out this canal to connect the Huai and Si Rivers; it is the place mentioned in the Tribute of Yu thusly: "He traced the Yan water, which, flowing eastward, became the Ji, and entered the Yellow River. Thereafter it flowed out, and became the Ying Marsh. Eastward, it issued forth on the north of Taoqiu." The Stone Gate was first formed during the Han dynasty, when they were repairing Heyang, as a means of regulating the flow of this river. When the river was high, then it connected to the Yellow River; when it ran low, its flow ceased.

The Water Classic states, "The Ji River flows north until it reaches Eastern Yan county, where it joins with the Yellow River." Li Daoyuan's Commentary on the Water Classic adds, "The Ji River splits in half past Chengshi county. It flows northeast to the old ditch of the Ji River at Juye, then further north, where it joins with the Hong River on the right. The Hong River begins at Xuexun Islet in Juye, and the stretch of river from that islet north to the rivermouth, a hundred and twenty li, is called the Hong River. When Huan Wen led his troops on his northern campaign in the fourth year of Taihe (369), he carved out this canal to provide access to the Ji River. And in the thirteenth year of Yixi (417), when Emperor Wu of Liu-Song (Liu Yu) marched west and entered Chang'an, he also broadened this achievement. The area from the mouth of the Hong River on up is also called Duke Huan's Canal. It is by this means that the Ji River can link up to the north.")


遷安遠護軍、武陵內史。復為太尉參軍,拜中書侍郎,轉寧朔將軍,參太尉軍事。以前後功封作唐縣男,食邑四百戶。補太尉主簿、諮議參軍。豫章公世子為征虜將軍,鎮京口,道濟為司馬、臨淮太守。又為世子西中郎司馬、梁國內史。復為世子征虜將軍司馬,加冠軍將軍。義熙十二年,高祖北伐,以道濟為前鋒出淮、肥。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Tan Daoji)

Tan Daoji was transferred to be Protector-General Who Maintains Distant Places and Interior Minister of Wuling. Later, he was appointed as Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant (Liu Yu). He was then appointed as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, then transferred to be General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, as well as an Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant. For all his achievements thus far, Tan Daoji was appointed as Baron of Zuotang county, with a fief of four hundred households. He was later appointed as Registrar to the Grand Commandant and as Consultant Army Advisor.

When the Heir to the Duke of Yuzhang (Liu Yu's son Liu Yifu) was appointed as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and stationed at Jingkou (in 416?), Tan Daoji was appointed as his Marshal and as Administrator of Linhuai. Tan Daoji was then appointed as Marshal of the Household Gentlemen of the West to the Heir and as Interior Minister of Liangguo. After that, he became Marshal to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, and he was promoted to Champion General.

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), when Liu Yu went on his northern campaign, he had Tan Daoji lead the vanguard across the Huai and Fei Rivers.

除游擊將軍。十二年,高祖將北伐,轉鎮惡為諮議參軍,行龍驤將軍,領前鋒。將發,前將軍劉穆之見鎮惡於積弩堂,謂之曰:「公愍此遺黎,志蕩逋逆。昔晉文王委伐蜀於鄧艾,今亦委卿以關中,想勉建大功,勿孤此授。」鎮惡曰:「不克咸陽,誓不復濟江而還也!」(Book of Liu-Song 45, Biography of Wang Zhen'e)

Wang Zhen'e was transferred to be General of Roaming Assault.

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), when Liu Yu was about to launch his northern campaign, he transferred Wang Zhen'e to be his Consultant Army Advisor and acting Dragon-Soaring General and had him command the vanguard.

As the armies were leaving, the General of the Front, Liu Muzhi, met with Wang Zhen'e at the Jinu Hall and said to him, "Lord Liu pities the people living in misery, and his ambition is to sweep away the traitors. In former times, King Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) entrusted the campaign against Shu to Deng Ai. Now Lord Liu is entrusting you with taking Guanzhong. You must do your utmost to establish this great achievement, and do not fail to lend your support."

Wang Zhen'e declared, "If I don't take Xianyang, I swear not to return across the Yangzi!"

義熙十二年北伐,進仲德征虜將軍,加冀州刺史,為前鋒諸軍事。冠軍將軍檀道濟、龍驤將軍王鎮惡向洛陽,寧朔將軍劉遵考、建武將軍沈林子出石門,寧朔將軍朱超石、胡藩向半城,咸受統於仲德。仲德率龍驤將軍朱牧、寧遠將軍竺靈秀、嚴綱等開鉅野入河,乃總眾軍,進據潼關。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Wang Zhongde)

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), when Liu Yu launched his northern campaign against Later Qin, he promoted Wang Zhongde to General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Jizhou and had him command the vanguard. The following generals all came under Wang Zhongde's authority: the Champion General, Tan Daoji, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Zhen'e, who marched towards Luoyang; the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Liu Zunkao, and the General Who Establishes Valor, Shen Linzi, who marched out from Stone Gate; and the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Zhu Chaoshi, and Hu Fan, who marched towards Biancheng. Wang Zhongde personally led the Dragon-Soaring General, Zhu Mu, the General Who Calms Distant Places, Zhu Lingshu, Yan Kang, and others to open the Juye Canal and enter the Yellow River. He commanded the army reserves as the whole invasion force advanced to occupy Tong Gate.

除太尉行參軍。從征司馬休之,署後部賊曹,仍為建威將軍、順陽太守。高祖北伐,弘之與扶風太守沈田子等七軍自武關入。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Fu Hongzhi)

Fu Hongzhi was transferred to be an Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant (Liu Yu). He accompanied Liu Yu on his campaign against Sima Xiuzhi (in 415), and was then appointed as Bandit Manager for the Rear Division. He was later appointed as General Who Establishes Might and Administrator of Shunyang.

When Liu Yu launched his northern campaign against Later Qin (in 416), Fu Hongzhi, the Administrator of Fufeng, Shen Tianzi, and others led seven armies into Later Qin territory through Wuguan.

高祖伐羌,假藩寧朔將軍,參太尉軍事,統別軍。(Book of Liu-Song 50, Biography of Hu Fan)

When Liu Yu campaigned against Later Qin, he appointed Hu Fan as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier and Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant and had him command a separate army.

遵考,高祖族弟也。曾祖淳,皇曾祖武原令混之弟,官至正員郎。祖巗,海西令。父涓子,彭城內史。遵考始為將軍振武參軍,預討盧循,封鄉侯。自建威將軍、彭城內史隨高祖北伐。時高祖諸子竝弱,宗室唯有遵考。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Zunkao)

Liu Zunkao was a kinsman of Liu Yu. His great-grandfather Liu Chun was the younger brother of the Prefect of Wuyuan, Liu Yu's great-grandfather Liu Hun; Liu Chun rose in office as high as 正員郎. Liu Zunkao's grandfather Liu Yan served as Prefect of Xihai. His father Liu Juanzi served as Interior Minister of Pengcheng.

Liu Zunkao was originally appointed as an Army Advisor to the General Who Rouses Valor. He accompanied Liu Yu during his campaign against Lu Xun, for which he was appointed as a local Marquis.

After being appointed as General Who Establishes Might and Interior Minister of Pengcheng, he accompanied Liu Yu on his northern campaign. Since at that time all of Liu Yu's sons were still young, he left his kinsmen in the care of Liu Zunkao.

而晉相劉裕總大軍伐泓。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Chancellor of Jin, Liu Yu, led a large army to campaign against Yao Hong.

司馬德宗將劉裕伐泓。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) general Liu Yu campaigned against Yao Hong.

尋而晉太尉劉裕總大軍伐泓。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Jin's Grand Commandant, Liu Yu, led a grand army to campaign against Yao Hong.


裕旣行,青州刺史檀祗自廣陵輒率衆至涂中掩討亡命。劉穆之恐祗爲變,議欲遣軍。時檀韶爲江州刺史,張卲曰:「今韶據中流,道濟爲軍首,若有相疑之跡,則大府立危,不如逆遣慰勞以觀其意,必無患也。」穆之乃止。

23. After Liu Yu and his armies departed for their campaign, the Inspector of Qingzhou, Tan Zhi, led troops from Guangling to Tuzhong to campaign against some fugitive rebels. Liu Muzhi was afraid that Tan Zhi might do something suspicious, and he discussed his wish to send an army to deal with him. But since at this time Tan Shao was Inspector of Jiangzhou, Zhang Shao said to Liu Muzhi, "Tan Shao already occupies the middle reaches of the Yangzi, and Tan Daoji is leading the expeditionary forces. If we go down the path of mutual suspicion, then the Grand Staff will be in danger. Better to send someone just to supervise Tan Zhi and keep an eye on his intentions. He is surely no threat." So Liu Muzhi stopped his plans.

〈謂爲伐秦諸軍之首。〉〈大府,謂太尉留府,其實指建康也。〉

(Zhang Shao was saying that Tan Daoji was leading the armies campaigning against Later Qin.

The "Grand Staff" was the internal staff for the Grand Commandant; that is to say, the capital at Jiankang.)


青州刺史檀祗鎮廣陵,時滁州結聚亡命,祗率眾掩之。劉穆之恐以為變,將發軍。邵曰:「檀韶據中流,道濟為軍首,若疑狀發露,恐生大變。宜且遣慰勞,以觀其意。」既而祗果不動。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhang Shao)

The Inspector of Qingzhou, Tan Zhi, was stationed at Guangling. At that time, some fugitives from Xuzhou banded together. Tan Zhi thus led an army to deal with them. Liu Muzhi was afraid that Tan Zhi might do something suspicious, and he was about to send out his own army. But Zhang Shao said to Liu Muzhi, "Tan Shao already occupies the middle reaches of the Yangzi, and Tan Daoji is leading the expeditionary forces. If we go down the path of mutual suspicion, I fear some terrible development will happen. Better to send someone just to supervise Tan Zhi and keep an eye on his intentions." And indeed, Tan Zhi did nothing suspicious.

十一年,進號右將軍。十二年,高祖北伐,而亡命司馬囗寇涂〈涂或作滁〉中,秦郡太守劉基求救,分軍掩討,即破斬之。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Tan Zhi)

In the eleventh year of Yixi (415), Tan Zhi was promoted to General of the Right.

In the twelfth year (416), when Liu Yu went on his northern campaign against Later Yan, the fugitive rebel Sima [name missing] invaded Tuzhong (or Chuzhong), and the Administrator of Qin commandary, Liu Ji, asked for assistance. Tan Zhi led a detachment to deal with this threat, and he routed Sima [X] and took his head.


初,魏主嗣使公孫表討白亞栗斯,曰:「必先與秦洛陽戍將相聞,使備河南岸,然後擊之。」表未至,胡人廢白亞栗斯,更立劉虎爲率善王。表以胡人內自攜貳,勢必敗散,遂不告秦將而擊之,大爲虎所敗,士卒死傷甚衆。

24. It was earlier mentioned that Emperor Mingyuan of Wei had sent Gongsun Biao and others to campaign against Baiya Lisi and the other tribal rebels. At that time, Emperor Mingyuan had told Gongsun Biao, "You must first wait until you can coordinate with the Qin generals camped at Luoyang and have put your defenses in order on the south bank of the Yellow River. Only afterwards should you attack the rebels."

But while Gongsun Biao was on his way to the region, the tribal rebels deposed Baiya Lisi and acclaimed Liu Hu as their King of Lüshan ("King Who Leads Goodness") instead. Sensing discord among the rebels, Gongsun Biao felt that they would now scatter in defeat rather than be able to stand against his forces, so he attacked them without informing the Qin generals of his plans first. But he was greatly defeated by Liu Hu, and a great many of his officers and soldiers were killed or wounded.

〈事見上年。〉

(Baiya Lisi's uprising is mentioned above, in the twelfth year of Yixi (415.14).)


眾廢栗斯而立劉虎,號率善王。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the second year of Shenrui (415), in the fourth month, the tribal rebels deposed Baiya Lisi and acclaimed Liu Hu instead, naming him King of Lüshan.


嗣謀於羣臣曰:「胡叛踰年,討之不克,其衆繁多,爲患日深。今盛秋不可復發兵,妨民農務,將若之何?」白馬侯崔宏曰:「胡衆雖多,無健將御之,終不能成大患。表等諸軍,不爲不足,但法令不整,處分失宜,以致敗耳。得大將素有威望者將數百騎往攝表軍,無不克矣。相州刺史叔孫建前在幷州,爲胡、魏所畏服,諸將莫及,可遣也。」嗣從之,以建爲中領軍,督表等討虎。九月,戊午,大破之,斬首萬餘級,虎及司馬順宰皆死,俘其衆十萬餘口。

25. Emperor Mingyuan said to his ministers, "The tribal peoples have been in rebellion for more than a year now, and our campaign against them has failed. Their numbers grow stronger, and they become more of a threat by the day. By now, it is the height of autumn, so we cannot draft more soldiers or else we will injure the people's farming duties. What are we to do?"

The Marquis of Baima, Cui Hong, replied, "Although the tribal rebels are numerous, they have no great commander to lead them, so they cannot really pose any great threat. Gongsun Biao and the others were defeated not because their forces were insufficient, but because they did not uphold military discipline; they were attacked in detail, and this led to their defeat. What we require is to find some great general who has long possessed power and influence and have him led a few hundred cavalry to go take command of Gongsun Biao's army. Then we would have no cause to fear defeat. As for who to send, the Inspector of Xiangzhou, Shusun Jian, was once in charge of Bingzhou, and both the tribal and the Wei (ethnic Han) people fear and respect him. There can be no better choice. You might send him."

Emperor Mingyuan followed his advice; he appointed Shusun Jian as General Who Leads The Army of the Center and commanded him to lead Gongsun Biao and the others to campaign against Liu Hu. In the ninth month, on the day Wuwu (?), they greatly routed the rebels and took more than ten thousand heads; Liu Hu and Sima Shunzai both died, and the Wei army captured more than a hundred thousand of their people.

〈謂妨農收也。〉〈胡、魏,猶言胡、晉也。〉

(Emperor Mingyuan meant that drafting soldiers now would affect the harvest collection.

By the "Wei people", Cui Hong meant the Jin (ethnic Han) people.)


九月戊午,前并州刺史叔孫建等大破山胡。劉虎渡河東走,至陳留,為從人所殺,司馬順宰等皆死。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the ninth month, on the day Wuwu (?), the former Inspector of Bingzhou, Shusun Jian, and others greatly routed the mountain tribes. Liu Hu crossed the Yellow River and fled to the east, but when he came to Chenliu, he was killed by his followers. Sima Shunzai and others were also killed.


太尉裕至彭城,加領徐州刺史;以太原王玄謨爲從事史。

26. When Liu Yu arrived at Pengcheng, he was further appointed as acting Inspector of Xuzhou. He appointed Wang Xuanmo of Taiyuan commandary as his Attendant Clerk.

〈裕領徐州,以玄謨爲徐州從事史。漢制:諸州刺史皆有從事史、假佐。其後宋文帝用玄謨以喪師;至孝武之初,義宣、臧質之變,卒賴以寧。則裕之用人,猶有漢高祖、諸葛孔明之識;唐太宗託徐世勣,喜薛仁貴,未足以進此也。〉

(Since Liu Yu was acting Inspector of Xuzhou, he appointed Wang Xuanmo as his Attendant Clerk in that capacity. According to the Han system, the various Inspectors all had Attendant Clerks and Aides.

In later years, Emperor Wen of Liu-Song would use Wang Xuanmo as a general, and at the beginning of Emperor Xiaowu's reign, it was thanks to Wang Xuanmo that the rebellion of Liu Yixuan and Zang Zhi was put down. Liu Yu thus must have been an excellent judge of people, on the same level as Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) and Zhuge Kongming (Zhuge Liang). Even Tang Taizong's (Li Shimin's) trust placed in Xu Shiji and his happiness at gaining Xue Rengui could not surpass this.)


劉裕次于彭城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu advanced to Pengcheng.

次於彭城。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu advanced to Pengcheng.


初,王廞之敗也,沙門曇永匿其幼子華,使提衣襆自隨。津邏疑之。曇永呵華曰:「奴子何不速行!」棰之數十,由是得免;遇赦,還吳。以其父存亡不測,布衣蔬食,絕交遊不仕,十餘年。裕聞華賢,欲用之,乃發廞喪,使華制服。服闋,辟爲徐州主簿。

27. It was earlier mentioned that the Jin general Wang Xin had been defeated during the fighting between the local warlords. At that time, the Buddhist sramana monk Tanyong had kept Wang Xin's young son Wang Hua in hiding, keeping him concealed as a follower dressed in clothing and wrappings. On one occasion, the guards at a river crossing had been suspicious of Wang Hua. But Tayong had yelled at him, "Why aren't you moving faster, slave?" And he had beat him several dozen times. By such means was Wang Hua able to escape capture. And when an amnesty was declared, he returned to the Wu region.

Since Wang Hua did not know if his father was still alive or not, he only wore plain clothes and ate vegetables; he cut off all contact and refused office for more than ten years. Liu Yu heard that Wang Hua was a worthy man, and he wanted to use him. So he declared mourning for Wang Xin, then ordered Wang Hua to resume his normal clothing. Once Wang Hua had done so, Liu Yu recruited him as Registrar of Xuzhou.

〈事見一百九卷隆安元年。〉〈襆,帊也,以裹衣物。魏舒「襆被而出」,韓文「襆被入直」,皆此義也。〉〈裕用王華,亦留以遺文帝。〉

(Wang Xin is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.45).

襆 "Wrappings" are like coverings or scarves, used to conceal. When Wei Shu says "I put on wrappings and went out" or Han Wen says "I put on wrappings and came on in", they mean in this sense.

Wang Hua was another fine recruit whom Liu Yu handed down to Emperor Wen.)


王鎭惡、道濟入秦境,所向皆捷。秦將王苟生以漆丘降鎭惡,徐州刺史姚掌以項城降道濟,諸屯守皆望風款附。惟新蔡太守董遵不下,道濟攻拔其城,執遵,殺之。進克許昌,獲秦潁川太守姚垣及大將楊業。沈林子自汴入河,襄邑董神虎聚衆千餘人來降,太尉裕版爲參軍。林子與神虎共攻倉垣,克之,秦兗州刺史韋華降。神虎擅還襄邑,林子殺之。

28. Wang Zhen'e and Tan Daoji entered Qin territory, and everything fell before them. The Qin general Wang Gousheng surrendered Qiqiu to Wang Zhen'e, and their Inspector of Xuzhou, Yao Zhang, surrendered Xiangcheng to Tan Daoji. Other local generals and garrison commanders, heeding the circumstances, submitted to the Jin armies as well. Only Qin's Administrator of Xincai, Dong Zun, did not give in. Tan Daoji attacked him and took the city; he captured Dong Zun and killed him.

Tan Daoji advanced and took Xuchang, where he captured Qin's Administrator of Yingchuan, Yao Yuan, and one of their leading generals, Yang Ye.

Shen Linzi came down the Bian River into the Yellow River, where Dong Shenhu of Xiangyi commandary gathered an army of more than a thousand people and came to surrender to him. Liu Yu provisionally appointed Dong Shenhu as an Army Advisor. Shen Linzi and Dong Shenhu then attacked Canghuan together and took it, where Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Wei Hua, surrendered to them. Then Dong Shenhu presumed to go back towards Xiangyi, so Shen Linzi killed him.

〈漆丘蓋在梁郡蒙縣。昔莊周爲蒙漆園吏,後人因以漆丘名城。〉〈新蔡縣,漢屬汝南郡。蔡平侯自蔡徙此,故曰新蔡。魏分屬汝陰郡,晉惠帝分汝陰立新蔡郡。〉

(Qiqiu must have been Meng county in Liang commandary. In ancient times, King Zhuang of Zhou appointed Meng Qi as Parks Official, and later people named the local city Qiqiu ("Qi's Mound").

During Han, Xincai county was part of Runan commandary. Marquis Ping of Cai had moved from the original Cai to this area, thus the name Xincai ("New Cai"). Cao-Wei split Xincai county off as part of Ruyin commandary, and Emperor Hui of Jin split it off from Ruyin to form a new Xincai commandary.)


所至諸城戍望風降服。進克許昌,獲偽寧朔將軍、潁川太守姚坦及大將楊業。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Tan Daoji)

All the Later Qin cities and garrisons recognized the hopelessness of their situation and surrendered to Tan Daoji as he advanced. He moved forward and took Xuchang, where he captured Later Qin's General Who Maintains The Northern Frontier and Administrator of Yingchuan, Yao Tan, and one of their leading generals, Yang Ye.

鎮惡入賊境,戰無不捷,邵陵、許昌,望風奔散。(Book of Liu-Song 45, Biography of Wang Zhen'e)

When Wang Zhen'e entered enemy territory, everything fell before him. The forces defending Shaoling and Xuchang, recognizing the hopelessness of their situation, scattered and fled.

遣檀道濟、王鎮惡入自淮肥,攻漆丘、項城。沈林子自汴入河,攻倉垣。泓將王茍生以漆丘降鎮惡。徐州刺史姚掌以項城降道濟。晉師遂入潁口,所至多降服。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu sent Tan Daoji and Wang Zhen'e to advance across the Huai and Fei Rivers and attack Qiqiu and Xiangcheng. Shen Linzi advanced down the Bian River into the Yellow River and attacked Canghuan. Yao Hong's general Wang Jisheng surrendered Qiqiu to Wang Zhen'e, and his Inspector of Xuzhou, Yao Zhang, surrendered Xiangcheng to Tan Daoji. The Jin armies advanced to Yingkou, and most of the places they passed by surrendered to them.

遣冠軍將軍檀道濟、龍驤將軍王鎮惡入自淮、肥,攻漆丘、項城,將軍沈林子自汴入河,攻倉垣。泓將王苟生以漆丘降鎮惡,徐州刺史姚掌以項城降道濟,王師遂入潁口,所至多降服。惟新蔡太守董遵固守不降,道濟攻破之,縛遵而致諸軍門。遵厲色曰:「古之王者伐國,待士以禮。君奈何以不義行師,待國土以非禮乎。」道濟怒殺之。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu sent Jin's Champion General, Tan Daoji, and their Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Zhen'e, to advance across the Huai and Fei Rivers and attack Qiqiu and Xiangcheng. Shen Linzi advanced down the Bian River into the Yellow River and attacked Canghuan. Yao Hong's general Wang Gousheng surrendered Qiqiu to Wang Zhen'e, and his Inspector of Xuzhou, Yao Zhang, surrendered Xiangcheng to Tan Daoji.

The Jin armies advanced to Yingkou, and most of the places they passed by surrendered to them. Only the Administrator of Xincai, Dong Zun, maintained his defenses and did not give in. Tan Daoji attacked him and took the city; he had Dong Zun tied up and brought before the gates of the army camp. But Dong Zun sternly declared, "When kings of old campaigned against other states, they treated gentlemen with courtesy. How then can you launch such an unjust campaign and treat a gentleman of state with such disrespect?"

Angry, Tan Daoji killed him.


秦東平公紹言於秦主泓曰:「晉兵已過許昌;安定孤遠,難以救衞,宜遷其鎭戶,內實京畿,可得精兵十萬,雖晉、夏交侵,猶不亡國。不然,晉攻豫州,夏攻安定,將若之何?事機已至,宜在速決。」左僕射梁喜曰:「齊公恢有威名,爲嶺北所憚,鎭人已與勃勃深仇,理應守死無貳。勃勃終不能越安定遠寇京畿;若無安定,虜馬必至於郿。今關中兵足以拒晉,無爲豫自損削也。」泓從之。吏部郎懿橫密言於泓曰:「恢於廣平之難,有忠勳於陛下。自陛下龍飛紹統,未有殊賞以答其意。今外則置之死地,內則不豫朝權,安定人自以孤危逼寇,思南遷者十室而九,若恢擁精兵數萬,鼓行而向京師,得不爲社稷之累乎!宜徵還朝廷以慰其心。」泓曰:「恢若懷不逞之心,徵之適所以速禍耳。」又不從。

29. Yao Shao said to Yao Hong, "The Jin troops have already marched past Xuchang. Meanwhile, Anding is isolated and far away, and it would be difficult to defend it or come to its aid. So you should relocate Anding's garrison and its people into the interior of the state around the capital region. Then you could gain an army of a hundred thousand elite soldiers from them, and though Jin and Xia might raid our borders, they would ultimately not be able to destroy the state. But if you don't consolidate our position, then what will we do when Jin attacks Yuzhou and Xia attacks Anding? We've already come to this situation; we must make a decision quickly."

The Deputy Director of the Left, Liang Xi, said, "The Duke of Qi, Yao Hui, has a reputation for strength, and the people north of the mountain ranges fear him. Besides, the people manning the garrison at Anding have a deep hatred for Helian Bobo, so naturally they will defend that region to the death rather than have second thoughts. As things stand, Helian Bobo will never be able to go past Anding or travel so far as to threaten the capital district. But if we give up Anding, I fear that the barbarian cavalry will surely ride straight to Mei. The troops we currently have in Guanzhong will be sufficient to deal with Jin. We don't need to cripple our positions elsewhere just to reinforce Yuzhou."

Yao Hong followed his advice.

The Gentleman of the Personnel Department, Yi Heng, secretly said to Yao Hong, "During the trouble caused by the Duke of Guangping (Yao Bi), Yao Hui served Your Majesty loyally and diligently. Yet since Your Majesty rose like a dragon and assumed command of the state, you have yet to grant him special rewards he feels he deserves. Now you have both stationed him away from the capital, placed on deadly ground, and you have deprived him of any authority at court. The people of Anding feel isolated and threatened by invaders, and nearly nine-tenths of them want to move south. So if you allow Yao Hui to have command of tens of thousands of elite soldiers, he might beat the drums and march on the capital, and that would hardly ensure the safety of the fortunes of state! You should summon him back to the capital to appease him."

But Yao Hong replied, "If Yao Hui really has sinister intentions, then summoning him back would merely hasten such a disaster." And he did not do so.

〈姚萇之興也,以安定爲根本;後得關中,以安定爲重鎭,徙民以實之,謂之鎭戶。〉〈謂鎭兵常與勃勃血戰,有父兄子弟之仇。〉〈《姓譜》曰:懿以諡爲氏。謂殺呂超也。〉

(During Yao Chang's rise, his first base was at Anding. Even after he took over the Guanzhong region, Anding still remained a critical garrison, and he relocated people to the area to help defend it. These are the people whom Yao Shao refers to.

Liang Xi was saying that the garrison troops at Anding often fought bloody battles against Helian Bobo, and they had developed grudges on behalf of their fallen relatives.

Regarding the surname 懿 Yi, the Registry of Surnames states, "It was originally a posthumous title, and later became a surname."

Yao Hui's "loyal service" had been his killing of Lü Chao.)


姚紹聞晉師之至也,馳還長安,言於泓曰:「晉師已過許昌、豫州,安定孤遠,卒難救衛。宜遷諸鎮戶,內實京畿,可得精兵十萬,足以橫行天下。假使二寇交侵,無能為也。如其不爾,晉侵豫州,勃勃寇安定者,將若之何?」吏部郎懿橫又以「齊公姚恢有忠勳於國家,未有殊賞,今致之死地,安定人人自危恐,必生變,宜征還朝廷,以慰其心。」泓並不從。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

When Yao Shao heard that the Jin army was coming, he rushed back to Chang'an, where he told Yao Hong, "The Jin troops have already marched through Xuchang and Yuzhou. Meanwhile, Anding is isolated and far away, and it would be difficult to defend it or come to its aid. So you should relocate Anding's garrison and its people into the interior of the state around the capital region. Then you could gain an army of a hundred thousand elite soldiers from them, and with them you could subdue the whole realm; these two invaders might raid our borders, but they could do no lasting damage. But if you don't consolidate our position, then what will we do when Jin attacks Yuzhou and Helian Bobo attacks Anding?"

And the Gentleman of the Personnel Department, Yi Heng, said to Yao Hong, "The Duke of Qi, Yao Hui, has served the state loyally and diligently, yet you have yet to grant him any special rewards. Now you have placed him on deadly ground, and the people of Anding feel in danger and afraid; they will surely rebel. You should summon Yao Hui back to the capital to appease him."

But Yao Hong did not listen to them.

姚紹聞王師之至,還長安,言於泓曰:「晉師已過許昌,豫州、安定孤遠,卒難救衛,宜遷諸鎮戶內實京畿,可得精兵十萬,足以橫行天下。假使二寇交侵,無深害也。如其不爾,晉侵豫州,勃勃寇安定者,將若之何!事機已至,宜在速決。」其左僕射梁喜曰:「齊公恢雄勇有威名,為嶺北所憚,鎮人已與勃勃深仇,理應守死無貳,勃勃終不能棄安定遠寇京畿。若無安定,虜馬必及於郿、雍。今關中兵馬足距晉師,豈可未有憂危先自削損也。」泓從之。吏部郎懿橫密言於泓曰:「齊公恢于廣平之難有忠勳于陛下,自陛下龍飛紹統,未有殊賞以答其意。今外則致之死地,內則不豫朝權,安定人自以孤危逼寇,欲思南遷者十室而九,若擁精兵四萬,鼓行而向京師,得不為社稷之累乎!宜征還朝廷,以慰其心。」泓曰:「恢若懷不逞之心,征之適所以速禍耳。」又不從。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

When Yao Shao heard that the Jin armies were advancing, he returned to Chang'an, where he said to Yao Hong, "The Jin troops have already marched through Xuchang and Yuzhou. Meanwhile, Anding is isolated and far away, and it would be difficult to defend it or come to its aid. So you should relocate Anding's garrison and its people into the interior of the state around the capital region. Then you could gain an army of a hundred thousand elite soldiers from them, and with them you could subdue the whole realm; these two invaders might raid our borders, but they could do no lasting damage. But if you don't consolidate our position, then what will we do when Jin attacks Yuzhou and Helian Bobo attacks Anding? We've already come to this situation; we must make a decision quickly."

The Deputy Director of the Left, Liang Xi, said, "The Duke of Qi, Yao Hui, is bold and has a reputation for strength, and the people north of the mountain ranges fear him. Besides, the people manning the garrison at Anding have a deep hatred for Helian Bobo, so naturally they will defend that region to the death rather than have second thoughts. As things stand, Helian Bobo will never be able to go past Anding or travel so far as to threaten the capital district. But if we give up Anding, I fear that the barbarian cavalry will surely ride straight to Mei and Yong. The troops and horses we currently have in Guanzhong will be sufficient to deal with Jin. How can we cripple ourselves before a threat has even materialized?"

Yao Hong followed his advice.

The Gentleman of the Personnel Department, Yi Heng, secretly said to Yao Hong, "During the trouble caused by the Duke of Guangping (Yao Bi), Yao Hui served Your Majesty loyally and diligently. Yet since Your Majesty rose like a dragon and assumed command of the state, you have yet to grant him special rewards he feels he deserves. Now you have both stationed him away from the capital, placed on deadly ground, and you have deprived him of any authority at court. The people of Anding feel isolated and threatened by invaders, and nearly nine-tenths of them want to move south. So if you allow Yao Hui to have command of forty thousand elite soldiers, he might beat the drums and march on the capital, and that would hardly ensure the safety of the fortunes of state! You should summon him back to the capital to appease him."

But Yao Hong replied, "If Yao Hui really has sinister intentions, then summoning him back would merely hasten such a disaster." And he did not do so.


王仲德水軍入河,將逼滑臺。魏兗州刺史尉建畏懦,帥衆棄城,北渡河。仲德入滑臺,宣言曰:「晉本欲以布帛七萬匹假道於魏,不謂魏之守將棄城遽去。」魏主嗣聞之,遣叔孫建、公孫表自河內向枋頭,濟河,斬尉建於城下,投尸于河。呼仲德軍人,問以侵寇之狀;仲德使司馬竺和之對曰:「劉太尉使王征虜自河入洛,清掃山陵,非敢爲寇於魏也。魏之守將自棄滑臺去,王征虜借空城以息兵,行當西引,於晉、魏之好無廢也;何必揚旗鳴鼓以曜威乎!」嗣使建以問太尉裕。裕遜辭謝之曰:「洛陽,晉之舊都,而羌據之;晉欲脩復山陵久矣。諸桓宗族,司馬休之、國璠兄弟,魯宗之父子,皆晉之蠹也,而羌收之以爲晉患。今晉將伐之,欲假道於魏,非敢爲不利也。」魏河內鎭將于栗磾有勇名,築壘於河上以備侵軼。裕以書與之,題曰「黑矟公麾下」。栗磾好操黑矟以自標,故裕以此目之。魏因拜栗磾爲黑矟將軍。

30. Wang Zhongde's naval force entered the Yellow River; as they advanced, they posed a threat to Huatai. Wei's Inspector of Yanzhou, Yu Jian, was nervous and afraid, and he led his troops to abandon Huatai and cross north of the Yellow River.

Wang Zhongde then entered Huatai, where he announced, "We of Jin merely wished to pay Wei seventy thousand units of cloth and grain in order to buy passage through their territory. It was never our expectation that the Wei general defending the city would abandon it and suddenly flee."

When Emperor Mingyuan of Wei heard that Huatai had fallen, he sent Shusun Jian and Gongsun Biao to march from Henei towards Fangtou; they crossed the Yellow River, beheaded Yu Jian below the walls of the city, and then tossed his corpse into the Yellow River. They called out to Wang Zhongde's soldiers and asked them to explain why Wei territory had been encroached upon.

Wang Zhongde sent his Marshal, Zhu He, to go out and tell them, "Grand Commandant Liu sent General Wang to advance along the Yellow River to Luoyang, where he was to sweep clean the old imperial tombs there. He never dared to invade Wei territory. It was Wei's commanding general at Huatai who, on his own initiative, fled. General Wang then occupied the empty city in order to rest his troops, but he is planning to set out for the west at once, and has no wish to rupture the good terms between Jin and Wei. What need do you have to display your banners and beat your drums as a show of strength?"

Emperor Mingyuan then sent Shusun Jian to visit Liu Yu and discuss the situation with him. Liu Yu offered words of apology, saying, "Luoyang is the old capital of Jin, yet the Qiang occupy it. Jin now wishes to reclaim and restore the old imperial tombs there. Furthermore, the remaining members of the Huan clan, Sima Xiuzhi, Sima Guofan and his brothers, and Lu Zongzhi and his son are all pests who have been plaguing Jin, yet the Qiang have been granting them shelter and having them cause trouble for Jin. Now Jin is sending a campaign against them, and we wished to borrow the roads through Wei. We do not dare to do anything untoward."

The Wei general defending Henei, Yuchi Di, had a reputation for boldness, and he had built a rampart along the Yellow River to guard against any raids or thrusts. So Liu Yu wrote to him, addressing him as "Master Black Lance", for Yuchi Di liked to wield a black lance to distinguish himself. Wei thus called Yuchi Di the Black Lance General.

〈旣破劉虎,因遣建等引兵南向。〉〈義熙元年,桓謙等奔秦,六年,入寇。十一年,司馬休之、魯宗之等奔秦,秦使將兵擾襄陽。六年,司馬國璠等奔秦,數帥衆擾邊。〉〈軼,突也。〉〈《通俗文》:矛長丈八者謂之矟。〉

(Now that Liu Hu had been routed, Emperor Mingyuan was able to send Shusun Jian and the others to lead their troops south.

Huan Qian had fled to Later Qin in the first year of Yixi (405), and in the sixth year (410) he returned to invade Jin again. In the eleventh year (415), Sima Xiuzhi, Lu Zongzhi, and others had fled to Later Qin, and Later Qin had sent them to raid Xiangyang. In the sixth year (410), Sima Guofan and others had fled to Later Qin, and since then they had led troops to pillage the Jin borderlands.

軼 means a charge or thrust.

The Tongsu Wen states, "A spear more than a zhang and eight chi in length is called a lance.")


司馬德宗相劉裕,泝河伐姚泓,遣其部將王仲德為前鋒,從陸道至梁城。兗州刺史尉建畏懦,棄州北渡,王仲德遂入滑臺。詔將軍叔孫建等渡河,耀威滑臺,斬尉建於城下。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Chancellor, Liu Yu, sailed up the Yellow River to campaign against Yao Hong. He sent his subordinate general Wang Zhongde to lead the vanguard, and Wang Zhongde followed the land route as far as Liangcheng. The Inspector of Yanzhou, Yu Jian, was nervous and afraid, and he abandoned the province and fled north across the Yellow River. Wang Zhongde then entered Huatai. Emperor Mingyuan ordered his generals, Shusun Jian and others, to cross the Yellow River and display their might at Huatai, and they beheaded Yu Jian beneath the walls of the city.


冬,十月,壬戌,魏主嗣如豺山宮。

31. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Renxu (November 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai.

冬十月壬戌,幸犲山宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Renxu (November 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan went to the palace at Mount Chai.


初,燕將庫傉官斌降魏,旣而復叛歸燕。魏主嗣遣驍騎將軍延普渡濡水擊斌,斬之;遂攻燕幽州刺史庫傉官昌、征北將軍庫傉官提,皆斬之。

32. Sometime earlier, the Yan general Kunuguan Bin had surrendered to Wei. Later, he had rebelled against them and gone back over to Yan instead. Emperor Mingyuan sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Yan Pu, to cross the Ru River and attack Kunuguan Bin, and Yan Pu took his head. Yan Pu then attacked Yan's Inspector of Youzhou, Kunuguan Chang, and their General Who Conquers The North, Kunuguan Ti, and took their heads as well.

〈《水經》:濡水從塞外來,過遼西令支縣北,又東南過海陽縣西南,入于海。《魏書‧官氏志》:神元時,餘部諸姓內入者可地延氏,孝文時改爲延氏。〉

(The Water Classic states, "The Ru River has its origins beyond the borders of the realm. It flows through the north of Lingzhi county in Liaoxi commandary, then southeast through the southwest of Haiyang county, and then into the sea."

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "Among the clans which joined the Tuoba during the reign of Tuoba Liwei was the Kediyan clan. During Emperor Xiaowen's reign, they changed their surname to Yan.")


徒何部落庫傉官斌先降,後復叛歸馮跋。驍騎將軍延普渡濡水討擊,大破之,斬斌及馮跋幽州刺史、漁陽公庫傉官昌,征北將軍、關內侯庫傉官提等首,生擒庫傉官女生,縛送京師。幽州平。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

A subordinate general of the Xianbei of Tuhe (Northern Yan), Kunuguan Bin, had earlier surrendered to Northern Wei. Later, he rebelled against them and went back over to Feng Ba instead. The General of Agile Cavalry, Yan Pu, crossed the Ru River to campaign against and attack Kunuguan Bin; he greatly routed Kunuguan Bin and took his head. He also took the heads of Feng Ba's Inspector of Youzhou and Duke of Yuyang, Kunuguan Chang, their General Who Conquers The North and Marquis Within The Passes, Kunuguan Ti, and others. He captured Kunuguan Nüsheng and had him bound and sent back to the capital. Youzhou was thus pacified.


秦陽城、滎陽二城皆降,晉兵進至成皋。秦征南將軍陳留公洸鎭洛陽,遣使求救於長安。秦主泓遣越騎校尉閻生帥騎三千救之,武衞將軍姚益男將步卒一萬助守洛陽,又遣幷州牧姚懿南屯陝津,爲之聲援。寧朔將軍趙玄言於洸曰:「今晉寇益深,人情駭動;衆寡不敵,若出戰不捷,則大事去矣。宜攝諸戍之兵,固守金墉,以待西師之救。金墉不下,晉必不敢越我而西,是我不戰而坐收其弊也。」司馬姚禹陰與檀道濟通,主簿閻恢、楊虔,皆禹之黨也,共嫉玄,言於洸曰:「殿下以英武之略,受任方面;今嬰城示弱,得無爲朝廷所責乎!」洸以爲然,乃遣趙玄將兵千餘南守柏谷塢,廣武將軍石無諱東戍鞏城。玄泣謂洸曰:「玄受三帝重恩,所守正有死耳。但明公不用忠臣之言,爲姦人所誤,後必悔之。」旣而成皋、虎牢皆來降,檀道濟等長驅而進,無諱至石關,奔還。龍驤司馬滎陽毛德祖與玄戰於柏谷,玄兵敗,被十餘創,據地大呼。玄司馬蹇鑒冒刃抱玄而泣,玄曰:「吾創已重,君宜速去!」鑒曰:「將軍不濟,鑒去安之!」與之皆死。姚禹踰城奔道濟。甲子,道濟進逼洛陽,丙寅,洸出降。道濟獲秦人四千餘人,議者欲盡阬之以爲京觀。道濟曰:「伐罪弔民,正在今日!」皆釋而遣之。於是夷、夏感悅,歸之者甚衆。閻生、姚益男未至,聞洛陽已沒,不敢進。

33. Qin's cities of Yangcheng and Xingyang surrendered to Jin, and the Jin troops advanced to Chenggao. Qin's General Who Conquers The South and Duke of Chenliu, Yao Guang, was guarding Luoyang, and he sent word asking for reinforcements from Chang'an. Yao Hong sent the Commandant of Charging Cavalry, Yan Sheng, to lead three thousand cavalry to reinforce him; he also sent the Guard General of Valor, Yao Yinan, to lead ten thousand infantry to help defend Luoyang, and the Governor of Bingzhou, Yao Yi, south to camp at Shan Crossing in order to support them.

Qin's General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Zhao Xuan, said to Yao Guang, "The Jin army has penetrated deep into our state, and the people are nervous and afraid. Our forces here are too few to face the Jin army, and if we go out to fight them and are defeated, then the grand design will be lost. You should draw back the soldiers at our various garrisons and concentrate them within the Jinyong fortress in order to defend it, while waiting for reinforcements to come from the west. So long as Jinyong does not fall, the Jin army will not dare to advance further west and leave us to their rear. We can thus avoid battle and merely wait for their destruction."

But Yao Guang's Marshal, Yao Yu, was secretly in communication with Tan Daoji, and his Registrars, Yan Hui and Yang Qian, were both Yao Yu's partisans; all of them were jealous of Zhao Xuan. So they said to Yao Guang, "Your Highness, you are a bold and clever hero, and you have been entrusted with this important border command. If you were to now withdraw into the city, you would show yourself to be a weakling. How would you be able to escape the court's censure?"

Yao Guang agreed with them. So he sent Zhao Xuan to lead more than a thousand troops south to guard Fort Baigu, and he sent the General of Broad Valor, Shi Wuhui, east to camp at Gongcheng. Zhao Xuan wept as he said to Yao Guang, "I have received the great favor of three emperors, and certainly I will defend my position to the death. But Your Grace will surely regret ignoring my loyal advice and being led astray by those miscreants."

Soon, Chenggao and Hulao both surrendered to Jin. Tao Daoji and the others marched hard and pressed their advance, and Shi Wuhui marched no further than Shique before he fled back again.

Jin's Marshal to the Dragon-Soaring General, Mao Dezu of Xingyang commandary, fought Zhao Xuan at Fort Baigu; Zhao Xuan's soldiers were defeated, and he himself had taken more than ten wounds, but still he held his ground with a great shout. Zhao Xuan's Marshal, Jian Jian, cast aside his blade and wept as he embraced Zhao Xuan. Zhao Xuan told him, "My wounds are too deep to survive. Sir, you should flee at once!"

But Jian Jian replied, "General, if you will not survive, how can I run away?" And they both died there.

Yao Yu climbed over the walls of Luoyang and fled to Tan Daoji. On the day Jiazi (November 25th), Tan Daoji advanced to threaten Luoyang. On the day Bingyin (November 27th), Yao Guang came out and surrendered.

Tan Daoji captured more than four thousand people of Qin, and many of his subordinates proposed burying them alive and making a viewing mound out of them. But Tan Daoji replied, "We are campaigning against the evil and bringing relief to the suffering, and this is the very day to demonstrate it!" So he released all of the captives and sent them home. Thus the tribal and Xia (ethnic Han) people were all pleased with him, and a great many of them came to join him.

Yan Sheng and Yao Yinan had not yet reached Luoyang when they heard that it had already fallen, and they did not dare to advance any further.

〈陝縣在大河之南,考之《水經》,則陝縣故城在大河之北,二城之間,謂之陝津。《左傳》:秦伯伐晉,自茅津濟,封殽尸而還。茅津卽陝津也。姚秦幷、冀二州治蒲阪。〉〈《水經註》:洛水東逕偃師縣南,又東逕百谷塢北。戴延之《西征記》曰:塢在川南,因高爲塢,高一十餘丈。杜佑曰:柏谷塢在緱氏縣東北。〉〈萇、興、泓爲三帝。〉〈自洛城東至偃師四十五里。偃師西山有漢廣野君酈食其廟,廟東有二石闕。〉〈杜預曰:積尸封土其上,謂之京觀。〉

(Shan county was on the south side of the Yellow River, and according to the Water Classic, the old city of Shan county was on the north side of the Yellow River. The crossing point between these two cities was called Shan Crossing. The Zuo Commentary states, "The Earl of Qin campaigned against Jin; he crossed the Yellow River at Mao Crossing and piled the bodies of the slain before returning." This Mao Crossing was the same place as Shan Crossing.

Later Qin's versions of Bingzhou and Jizhou were both administered from Puban.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Luo River flows east through the south of Yanxi county, then east passing north of Fort Baigu." Dai Yanzhi's Account of the Western Campaign states, "This fort was south of the river; it was built there because of the high ground, more than eleven zhang in height." Du You remarked, "Fort Baigu was in the northeast of Gouxi county."

The "three emperors" Zhao Xuan mentioned were Yao Chang, Yao Xing, and Yao Hong.

It was forty-five li east from Luoyang to Yanshi, and in the western hills of Yanshi was a temple to Han's Lord of Guangye, Li Yiji. East of this temple were the two Shiques ("Stone Towers").

Du Yu remarked, "When a group of bodies is piled up and dirt is laid on top of it, it is called a viewing mound.")


冬十月丙寅,姚泓將姚光以洛陽降。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Bingyin (November 27th), Yao Hong's general Yao Guang surrendered Luoyang.

至成臯,偽兗州刺史韋華降。逕進洛陽,偽平南將軍陳留公姚沈歸順。凡拔城破壘,俘四千餘人。議者謂應悉戮以為京觀。道濟曰:「伐罪弔民,正在今日。」皆釋而遣之。於是戎夷感悅,相率歸之者甚眾。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Tan Daoji)

When Tan Daoji reached Chenggao, Later Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Wei Hua, surrendered to him. Tan Daoji then advanced to Luoyang, where Later Qin's General Who Pacifies The South and Duke of Chenliu, Yao Shen, surrendered to him.

Tan Daoji took local enemy cities and broke through their ramparts, and he captured more than four thousand people of Later Qin. Many of his subordinates proposed executing them all and making a viewing mound out of them. But Tan Daoji replied, "We are campaigning against the evil and bringing relief to the suffering, and this is the very day to demonstrate it." So he released all of the captives and sent them home. Thus the tribal peoples were all pleased with him, and a great many of them came to join him.

破虎牢及柏谷塢,斬賊帥趙玄。軍次洛陽,偽陳留公姚洸歸順。(Book of Liu-Song 45, Biography of Wang Zhen'e)

Wang Zhen'e captured Hulao and Fort Baigu and took the head of the enemy commander Zhao Xuan. His army advanced to Luoyang, where the enemy's Duke of Chenliu, Yao Guang, surrendered.

晉師至成臯,征南姚洸時鎮洛陽,部將趙玄說洸曰:「今寇逼已深,百姓駭懼,衆寡勢殊,難以應敵。宜攝諸戍兵士,固守金墉,以待京師之援。不可出戰,如戰不捷,大事去矣。金墉既固,師無損敗,吳寇終不敢越金墉而西,困之於堅城之下,可以坐制其弊。」洸用姚禹、閻恢之譖,卒遣玄出戰,會陽城、成臯、滎陽、虎牢諸城,悉皆降於道濟。玄戰敗,死於百谷。道濟進至洛陽,洸懼出降。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Jin army advanced to Chenggao. The General Who Conquers The South, Yao Guang, was guarding Luoyang. His subordinate general Zhao Xuan advised him, "The Jin army has penetrated deep into our state, and the people are nervous and afraid. Our forces here are too few and our strength too weak; it would be difficult to be a match for the enemy. You should draw back the soldiers at our various garrisons and concentrate them within the Jinyong fortress in order to defend it, while waiting for reinforcements to come from the west. We cannot go out to offer battle, for if we fight them and are defeated, then the grand design will be lost. So long as Jinyong does not fall and we do not suffer a defeat, the invaders from Wu will not dare to advance further west beyond Jinyong and leave us to their rear. We can thus force them to sit beneath the walls of our stout fortress and merely wait for their destruction."

But Yao Guang heeded the flattery of Yao Yu and Yan Hui and set Zhao Xuan out to fight. Soon enough, the garrisons at Yangcheng, Chenggao, Xingyang, and Hulao all surrendered to Tan Daoji, and Zhao Xuan was defeated in battle and died at Baigu. Tan Daoji advanced to Luoyang, and Yao Guang, afraid, came out and surrendered.

裕遣將檀道濟至洛陽,泓弟陳留公洸以城降。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu sent his general Tan Daoji towards Luoyang. The Duke of Chenliu, Yao Hong's younger brother Yao Guang, surrendered the city to Jin.

王師至成皋,征南姚洸時鎮洛陽,馳使請救。泓遣越騎校尉閻生率騎三千以赴之,武衛姚益男將步卒一萬助守洛陽,又遣征東、并州牧姚懿南屯陝津為之聲援。洸部將趙玄說洸曰:「今寇逼已深,百姓駭懼,眾寡勢殊,難以應敵。宜攝諸戍兵士,固守金墉,以待京師之援,不可出戰。如脫不捷,大事去矣。金墉既固,師無損敗,吳寇終不敢越金墉而西。困之於堅城之下,可以坐制其弊。」時洸司馬姚禹潛通於道濟,主簿閻恢、楊虔等皆禹之党,嫉玄忠誠,咸共毀之,固勸洸出戰。洸從之,乃遣玄率精兵千餘南守柏穀塢,廣武石無諱東戍鞏城,以距王師。玄泣謂洸曰:「玄受三帝重恩,所守正死耳。但明公不用忠臣之言,為奸孽所誤,後必悔之,但無及耳。」會陽城及成皋、滎陽、武牢諸城悉降,道濟等長驅而至。無諱至石關,奔還。玄與晉將毛德祖戰于柏穀,以眾寡而敗,被瘡十餘,據地大呼,玄司馬騫鑒冒刃抱玄而泣,玄曰:「吾瘡已重,君宜速去。」鑒曰:「若將軍不濟,當與俱死,去將安之!」皆死於陣。姚禹逾城奔于王師。道濟進至洛陽、洸懼,遂降。時閻生至新安,益男至湖城,會洛陽已沒,遂留屯不進。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Jin troops advanced to Chenggao. The General Who Conquers The South, Yao Guang, was guarding Luoyang, and he sent word asking for reinforcements from Chang'an. Yao Hong sent the Commandant of Charging Cavalry, Yan Sheng, to lead three thousand cavalry to reinforce him; he also sent the Guard General of Valor, Yao Yinan, to lead ten thousand infantry to help defend Luoyang, and the General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Bingzhou, Yao Yi, south to camp at Shan Crossing in order to support them.

Yao Guang's subordinate general Zhao Xuan advised him, "The Jin army has penetrated deep into our state, and the people are nervous and afraid. Our forces here are too few and our strength too weak; it would be difficult to be a match for the enemy. You should draw back the soldiers at our various garrisons and concentrate them within the Jinyong fortress in order to defend it, while waiting for reinforcements to come from the west. We cannot go out to offer battle, for if we fight them and are defeated, then the grand design will be lost. So long as Jinyong does not fall and we do not suffer a defeat, the invaders from Wu will not dare to advance further west beyond Jinyong. We can thus force them to sit beneath the walls of our stout fortress and merely wait for their destruction."

But at this time, Yao Guang's Marshal, Yao Yu, was secretly in communication with Tan Daoji, and his Registrars, Yan Hui and Yang Qian, and others were all Yao Yu's partisans; all of them were jealous of Zhao Xuan. So they all slandered him, and strenously urged Yao Guang to offer battle. Yao Guang agreed with them. So he sent Zhao Xuan to lead more than a thousand elite troops south to guard Fort Baigu, and he sent the General of Broad Valor, Shi Wuhui, east to camp at Gongcheng, so that both of them could oppose the Jin army.

Zhao Xuan wept as he said to Yao Guang, "I have received the great favor of three emperors, and certainly I will defend my position to the death. But Your Grace will surely regret ignoring my loyal advice and being led astray by those miscreants. Alas, by then it will be too late."

Soon, Yangcheng, Chenggao, Xingyang, and Wulao (Hulao) all surrendered to Jin. Tao Daoji and the others marched hard and pressed their advance, and Shi Wuhui marched no further than Shiguan before he fled back again.

Zhao Xuan fought the Jin general Mao Dezu at Fort Baigu, but his forces were too few, and he was defeated. Zhao Xuan himself had taken more than ten wounds, but still he held his ground with a great shout. Zhao Xuan's Marshal, Jian Jian, cast aside his blade and wept as he embraced Zhao Xuan. Zhao Xuan told him, "My wounds are too deep to survive. Sir, you should flee at once."

But Jian Jian replied, "General, if you will not survive, I should die with you; how can I run away?" And they both died in battle.

Yao Yu climbed over the walls of Luoyang and fled to the Jin army. Tan Daoji advanced to Luoyang, and now afraid, Yao Guang came out and surrendered. By then, Yan Sheng had marched to Xin'an and Yao Yinan had advanced to Hucheng, but since Luoyang had already fallen, they held their positions and advanced no further.


己丑,詔遣兼司空高密王恢之脩謁五陵,置守衞。太尉裕以冠軍將軍毛脩之爲河南、河內二郡太守,行司州事,戍洛陽。

34. On the day Jichou (?), the Jin court sent the combined Minister of Works and Prince of Gaomi, Sima Huizhi, to go restore and repair the five imperial tombs near Luoyang and to post guards to defend them.

Liu Yu appointed the Champion General, Mao Xiuzhi, as Administrator of Henan and Henei and acting Inspector of Sizhou and had him camp at Luoyang.

〈彭城王紘之子俊嗣高密王略國,恢之,其孫也。五陵,宣帝陵在河陰曰高原;景帝陵曰峻平,文帝陵曰崇陽,武帝陵曰峻陽,惠帝陵曰太陽。〉

(The Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Hongzhi, had a son, Sima Jun, who succeeded the Prince of Gaomi, Sima Lueguo. This Sima Xiuzhi was Sima Jun's grandson.

The five tombs were those of Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi), called Gaoyuan at Heyin, of Emperor Jing (Sima Shi), called Junping, of Emperor Wen (Sima Zhao), called Chongyang, of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan), called Junyang, and of Emperor Hui, called Taiyang.)


己丑,遣兼司空、高密王恢之修謁五陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Jichou (?), the Jin court sent the combined Minister of Works and Prince of Gaomi, Sima Huizhi, to go restore and repair the five imperial tombs near Luoyang.


西秦王熾磐使秦州刺史王松壽鎭馬頭,以逼秦之上邽。

35. Qifu Chipan sent his Inspector of Qinzhou, Wang Songshou, to be stationed at Matou in order to threaten Qin's city of Shanggui.

〈丁度曰:嶓冢山在古上邽縣,西有神馬山。〉

(Ding Du remarked, "Mount Bozhong is in the old Shanggui county; there is a mountain to the west called Mount Shenma.")


十一月,甲戌,魏主嗣還平城。

36. In the eleventh month, on the day Jiaxu (December 5th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

十一月甲戌,車駕還宮,築蓬臺於北苑。十二月,南陽王良薨。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eleventh month, on the day Jiaxu (December 5th), Emperor Mingyuan returned to the palace, where he built the Peng Terrace in the Northern Park.

In the twelfth month, the Prince of Nanyang, Tuoba Liang, passed away.


太尉裕遣左長史王弘還建康,諷朝廷求九錫。時劉穆之掌留任,而旨從北來,穆之由是愧懼發病。弘,珣之子也。十二月,壬申,詔以裕爲相國、總百揆、揚州牧,封十郡爲宋公,備九錫之禮,位在諸侯王上,領征西將軍、司‧豫‧北徐‧雍四州刺史如故。裕辭不受。

37. Liu Yu sent his Chief Clerk of the Left, Wang Hong, to return to Jiankang and arrange for the court for the court to offer Liu Yu the Nine Bestowments. At this time, Liu Muzhi was in control of affairs in the capital, yet when he saw this decree from the north, he became so ashamed and afraid that he developed an illness. This Wang Hong was the son of Wang Xun.

In the twelfth month, on the day Renshen (February 1st of 417), an edict was issued appointing Liu Yu as Chancellor of State in charge of all affairs and as Governor of Yangzhou, and he was granted a fief of ten commandaries as Duke of Song. He was further granted the Nine Bestowments, and his position was to be higher than those of the Marquises and Princes. He was to maintain his original positions as acting General Who Conquers The West and as Inspector of Sizhou, Yuzhou, Northern Xuzhou, and Yongzhou as before. Liu Yu declined these honors and would not accept them.

〈劉穆之輔劉裕,豈惟才智不及荀彧,而識又不及焉。〉〈王珣始見重於桓溫,後爲孝武所親任。〉

(Liu Muzhi was such a close assistant to Liu Yu. How could it be that not only did his talent and intelligence not reach the same level as Xun Yu, but he did not even recognize Liu Yu's true intentions (as Xun Yu had recognized Cao Cao's)?

Wang Xun had originally been appreciated by Huan Wen, and later became a close assistant to Emperor Xiaowu.)


西秦王熾磐遣使詣太尉裕,求擊秦以自効。裕拜熾磐平西將軍、河南公。

38. Qifu Chipan sent envoys to visit Liu Yu, asking that Qifu Chipan attack Qin in order to redeem himself. Liu Yu appointed Qifu Chipan as General Who Pacifies The West and Duke of Henan.

秦姚懿司馬孫暢說懿使襲長安,誅東平公紹,廢秦主泓而代之。懿以爲然,乃散穀以賜河北夷、夏,欲樹私恩。左常侍張敞、侍郎左雅諫曰:「殿下以母弟居方面,安危休戚,與國同之。今吳寇內侵,四州傾沒,西虜擾邊,秦、涼覆敗,朝廷之危,有如累卵。穀者,國之本也,而殿下無故散之,虛損國儲,將若之何?」懿怒,笞殺之。

39. Yao Yi's Marshal, Sun Chang, persuaded him to lead a surprise attack against Chang'an, execute Yao Shao, and depose Yao Hong and take his place. Yao Yi agreed, so he distributed grain among the various tribal and Xia (ethnic Han) people in Hebei in order to buy their loyalty to him.

The Regular Attendant of the Left, Zhang Chang, and the Gentleman-Attendant, Zuo Ya, remonstrated with Yao Yi, saying, "Your Highness is the younger brother of our sovereign by the same mother, and you have been entrusted with defense of the border; you should be sharing peace and danger, weal and woe together with the state. Now the invaders from Wu have marched deep into our state, and four provinces have already fallen to them, while the western caitiffs are raiding and pillaging our borders, and Qinzhou and Liangzhou have been lost. The court's position is as precarious as a stack of eggs. Furthermore, grain is the foundation of the state, yet Your Highness is giving it away for now reason, emptying out the state's supplies. What are you up to?"

Angry, Yao Yi beat them to death with a rod.

〈河北縣,自漢以來屬河東郡,在蒲阪東,時夷、夏之民錯居之。懿至陝津,因散穀以賜焉。〉〈左常侍、侍郎,皆懿國官。〉〈秦徐州鎭項城,兗州鎭倉垣,豫州鎭洛陽,荊州當鎭上洛,時悉爲晉所取。〉〈謂赫連勃勃克上邽,沮渠蒙遜入姑臧。〉

(Ever since Han, Hebei county had been part of Hedong commandary, east of Puban. At this time, many tribal and Xia people had gathered to live there. Yao Yi had marched to Shan Crossing, so he distributed grain to these people to win them over to him.

Regular Attendant of the Left and Gentleman-Attendant were subordinate offices of Yao Yi's fief as Duke.

Later Qin's version of Xuzhou was administered from Xiangcheng, their version of Yanzhou from Cangyuan, their version of Yuzhou from Luoyang, and their version of Jingzhou from Shangluo. By now, all of these places had been taken by Jin.

By "Qinzhou and Liangzhou have been lost", they meant how Helian Bobo had taken Shanggui and Juqu Mengxun had moved into Guzang.)


泓母弟懿險薄,用其司馬孫暢謀,欲襲長安,誅姚紹,廢泓而自立。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong's younger brother by the same mother, Yao Yi, was irresponsible. He followed the plot of his Marshal, Sun Chang, planning to launch a surprise attack against Chang'an, execute Yao Shao, and depose Yao Hong and take his place.

姚懿嶮薄,惑於信受,其司馬孫暢奸巧傾佞,好亂樂禍,勸懿襲長安,誅姚紹,廢泓自立。懿納之,乃引兵至陝津,散谷以賜河北夷夏,欲虛損國儲,招引和戎諸羌,樹已私惠。懿左常侍張敞、侍郎左雅固諫懿曰:「殿下以母弟之親,居分陝之重,安危休戚,與國共之。漢有七國之難,實賴梁王。今吳寇內侵,四州傾沒,西虜擾邊,秦、涼覆敗,朝廷之危有同累卵,正是諸侯勤王之日。谷者,國之本也,而今散之。若朝廷問殿下者,將何辭以報?」懿怒,笞而殺之。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Yi was irresponsible and prone to be led astray by those he trusted. His Marshal, Sun Chang, was ingenious and sycophantic, and he loved to stir up chaos and delighted in misfortune. So he urged Yao Yi to lead a surprise attack against Chang'an, execute Yao Shao, and depose Yao Hong and take his place. Yao Yi agreed, so he led his troops to Shan Crossing, and he distributed grain among the various tribal and Xia (ethnic Han) people in Hebei. He wanted to empty out the government granaries to win over and harness the various Qiang tribes, hoping by personal acts of kindness to buy their loyalty to him.

Yao Yi's Regular Attendant of the Left, Zhang Chang, and the Gentleman-Attendant, Zuo Ya, remonstrated with Yao Yi, saying, "Your Highness is the younger brother of our sovereign by the same mother, and you have been entrusted with defense of the border; you should be sharing peace and danger, weal and woe together with the state. After all, when the Han dynasty suffered from the rebellion of the Seven States, it was thanks to the Prince of Liang that the rebellion was put down. Now the invaders from Wu have marched deep into our state, and four provinces have already fallen to them, while the western caitiffs are raiding and pillaging our borders, and Qinzhou and Liangzhou have been lost. The court's position is as precarious as a stack of eggs, and this is the very day when the nobles should rally to the aid of the sovereign. Furthermore, grain is the foundation of the state, yet Your Highness is giving it away. If the court were to ask you what you are doing, what could you say?"

Angry, Yao Yi beat them to death with a rod.


泓聞之,召東平公紹密與之謀。紹曰:「懿性識鄙淺,從物推移,造此謀者,必孫暢也。但馳使徵暢,遣撫軍將軍讚據陝城,臣向潼關爲諸軍節度。若暢奉詔而至,臣當遣懿帥河東見兵共禦晉師;若不受詔命,便當聲其罪而討之。」泓曰:「叔父之言,社稷之計也。」乃遣姚讚及冠軍將軍司馬國璠、建義將軍虵玄屯陝津,武衞將軍姚驢屯潼關。

40. When Yao Yong heard that Yao Yi was planning to rebel, he summoned Yao Shao to make plans with him. Yao Shao told him, "Yao Yi is a naturally dull and shallow man who just goes along with what people suggest to him. So the instigator of this plot must have been Sun Chang. We should immediately summon Sun Chang back to the capital, while sending the General Who Nurtures The Army, Yao Zan, to occupy Shancheng, and I will go from Tong Gate to assume command of the eastern army. If Sun Chang obeys the edict and comes here, then I will send Yao Yi to lead the troops at Hedong to go oppose the Jin army. If Sun Chang refuses to come, then I will announce his crimes and campaign against him."

Yao Hong replied, "Uncle, your words are a plan that will secure the state."

So he sent Yao Zan and the Champion General, Sima Guofan, and the General Who Establishes Righteousness, She Xuan, to camp at Shan Crossing, while sending the Guard General, Yao Lü, to camp at Tong Gate.

泓聞之,召姚紹等密謀於朝堂。紹曰:「懿性識鄙近,從物推移,造成此事,惟當孫暢耳。但馳使征暢,遣撫軍贊據陝城,臣向潼關為諸軍節度,若暢奉詔而至者,臣當遣懿率河東見兵共平吳寇。如其逆釁已成,違距詔敕者,當明其罪於天下,聲鼓以擊之。」泓曰:「叔父之言,社稷之計也。」於是遣姚贊及冠軍司馬國璠、建義蛇玄屯陝津,武衛姚驢屯潼關。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

When Yao Yong heard that Yao Yi was planning to rebel, he summoned Yao Shao and others to make plans with them in the court chamber. Yao Shao told him, "Yao Yi is a naturally dull and shallow man who just goes along with what people suggest to him. So the instigator of this plot can only have been Sun Chang. We should immediately summon Sun Chang back to the capital, while sending the General Who Nurtures The Army, Yao Zan, to occupy Shancheng, and I will go from Tong Gate to assume command of the eastern army. If Sun Chang obeys the edict and comes here, then I will send Yao Yi to lead the troops at Hedong to go oppose the invaders from Wu. If Sun Chang's treason is already complete and he refuses to heed the edict, then I will announce his crimes before the realm and beat the drums to campaign against him."

Yao Hong replied, "Uncle, your words are a plan that will secure the state."

So he sent Yao Zan and the Champion General, Sima Guofan, and the General Who Establishes Righteousness, She Xuan, to camp at Shan Crossing, while sending the Guard General of Valor, Yao Lü, to camp at Tong Gate.


懿遂舉兵稱帝,傳檄州郡,欲運匈奴堡穀以給鎭人。寧東將軍姚成都拒之,懿卑辭誘之,送佩刀爲誓,成都不從。懿遣驍騎將軍王國帥甲士數百攻成都,成都擊禽之,遣使讓懿曰:「明公以至親當重任,國危不能救,而更圖非望;三祖之靈,其肯佑明公乎!成都將糾合義兵,往見明公於河上耳。」於是傳檄諸城,諭以逆順,徵兵調食以討懿。懿亦發諸城兵,莫有應者,惟臨晉數千戶應懿。成都引兵濟河,擊臨晉叛者,破之。鎭人安定郭純等起兵圍懿。東平公紹入蒲阪,執懿,誅孫暢等。

41. Yao Yi raised troops and declared himself Emperor, and he distributed proclamations through the provinces and commandaries, wishing to distribute the grain at Fort Xiongnu among his garrison soldiers. The General Who Calms The East, Yao Chengdu, opposed him. Yao Yi tried to use lowly words to deceive him, and even sent him a pendant and blade as tokens of his oath, but Yao Chengdu did not believe him.

So Yao Yi sent the General of Agile Cavalry, Wang Guo, to lead several hundred armored soldiers to attack Yao Chengdu, but Yao Chengdu attacked and captured them. He then sent agents to Yao Yi, and they denounced him, saying, "Your Grace is a close relative of our sovereign and you hold a critical border post, yet rather than assist the state in its time of peril, you go so far as to add to its woes. Do you think the spirits of the Three Founders will bless or support you? Yao Chengdu is now gathering righteous soldiers, and he will soon face you along the Yellow River."

And Yao Yi distributed his own proclamations through the local cities, conveying his instructions to the traitorous and the obedient, and summoning troops and transporting supplies to campaign against Yao Yi. Yao Yi too raised troops from local cities, but hardly anyone answered his call; only several thousand households from Linjin supported him. Then Yao Chengdu led his troops across the Yellow River, and he attacked the rebels at Linjin and routed them.

Some of Yao Yi's garrison troops, including Guo Chun of Anding commandary, raised their own troops and besieged Yao Yi. Then Yao Shao entered Puban, where he arrested Yao Yi and executed Sun Chang and the other plotters.

〈匈奴堡在平陽。鎭人,懿鎭蒲阪所領之衆也。〉〈姚弋仲廟號始祖,萇廟號太祖,興廟號高祖,所謂三祖也。〉〈蒲阪臨河,故曰河上。〉

(Fort Xiongnu was at Pingyang.

Yao Yi's "garrison soldiers" were the soldiers he was in command of at Puban.

The Three Founders (Zu) were Yao Yizhong, whose temple name was Shizu, Yao Chang, who was Taizu, and Yao Xing, who was Gaozu.

Puban was on the Yellow River, thus Yao Chengdu's demand that Yao Yi go back to his post "on the Yellow River".)


遂舉兵僭號,傳檄州郡。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Yi raised troops and declared himself Emperor, and he distributed proclamations through the provinces and commandaries.

泓弟太原公懿反於蒲坂。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Duke of Taiyuan, Yao Hong's younger brother Yao Yi, rebelled at Puban.

懿遂舉兵僭號,傳檄州郡,欲運匈奴堡穀以給鎮人。甯東姚成都距之,懿乃卑辭招誘,深自結托,送佩刀為誓,成都送以呈泓。懿又遣驍騎王國率甲士數百攻成都,成都擒國,囚之,遣讓懿曰:「明公以母弟之親,受推轂之寄,今社稷之危若綴旒然,宜恭恪憂勤,匡輔王室。而更包藏奸宄,謀危宗廟,三祖之靈豈安公乎!此鎮之糧,一方所寄,鎮人何功,而欲給之!王國為蛇畫足,國之罪人,已就囚執,聽詔而戮之。成都方糾合義眾,以懲明公之罪,復須大兵悉集,當與明公會於河上。」乃宣告諸城,勉以忠義,厲兵秣馬,徵發義租。河東之兵無詣懿者,懿深患之。臨晉數千戶叛應懿。姚紹濟自薄津,擊臨晉叛戶,大破之,懿等震懼。鎮人安定郭純、王奴等率眾圍懿。紹入于蒲阪,執懿囚之,誅孫暢等。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Yi raised troops and declared himself Emperor, and he distributed proclamations through the provinces and commandaries, wishing to distribute the grain at Fort Xiongnu among his garrison soldiers. The General Who Calms The East, Yao Chengdu, opposed him. Yao Yi tried to use lowly words to deceive him and form a deep bond with him, and even sent him a pendant and blade as tokens of his oath, but Yao Chengdu merely sent them to Yao Hong.

So Yao Yi sent the General of Agile Cavalry, Wang Guo, to lead several hundred armored soldiers to attack Yao Chengdu, but Yao Chengdu captured Wang Guo and imprisoned him. He then sent agents to Yao Yi, and they denounced him, saying, "Your Grace is the younger brother of our sovereign by the same mother and you hold a critical border post. Now the state is in as much peril as a string of beads, and you should be diligently and respectfully doing your utmost to assist and uphold the royal family. Yet you have surrounded yourself with wicked miscreants and are plotting to topple the royal family. Do you think the spirits of the Three Founders will bless or support you? Furthermore, the grain at this post is a vital resource; what deeds have your soldiers performed, that you are distributing it out among them? Now you have added to your crimes by sending out Wang Guo, like drawing feet on a snake; that criminal has already been captured and imprisoned, and soon he shall be executed according to royal command. Yao Chengdu is now gathering righteous soldiers to oppose your crimes, and once his grand army is assembled, he shall face you along the Yellow River."

And Yao Yi distributed his own proclamations through the local cities, encouraged the loyal and righteous, drilled his soldiers and fed his horses, and imposed taxes and drafted righteous troops. None of the soldiers of Hedong came to join Yao Yi, and he was deeply worried. Only several thousand households from Linjin rebelled and supported him. Yao Shao crossed the Yellow River at Bao Crossing and attacked the rebel households at Linjin and greatly routed them. Yao Yi and the others were nervous and afraid. Some of Yao Yi's garrison troops, including Guo Chun and Wang Nu of Anding commandary, led their own troops and besieged Yao Yi. Then Yao Shao entered Puban, where he arrested Yao Yi and imprisoned him and executed Sun Chang and the other plotters.


是歲,魏衞將軍安城孝元王叔孫俊卒。魏主嗣甚惜之,謂其妻桓氏曰:「生同其榮,能沒同其戚乎?」桓氏乃縊而祔焉。

42. During this year, Wei's Guard General and Prince of Ancheng, Shusun Jun, passed away. Emperor Mingyuan deeply grieved him, and he said to Shusun Jun's wife Lady Huan, "You shared in the Prince's glory; will you not also join him in his sorrow?" So Lady Huan hanged herself, and she was buried together with Shusun Jun. Shusun Jun was posthumous known as Prince Xiaoyuan (“the Filial and Foremost”).

〈嗣之立也,叔孫俊有功,事見一百一十五卷四年。〉

(Shusun Jun had been involved in Emperor Mingyuan's succession, as mentioned in Book 115, in the fourth year of Yixi (actually the fifth year, 409.40).)


丁零翟猛雀驅掠吏民,入白澗山爲亂;魏內都大官河內張蒲與冀州刺史長孫道生討之。道生,嵩之從子也。道生欲進兵擊猛雀,蒲曰:「吏民非樂爲亂,爲猛雀所迫脅耳。今不分別,幷擊之,雖欲返善,其道無由,必同心協力,據險以拒官軍,未易猝平也。不如先遣使諭之,以不與猛雀同謀者皆不坐,則必喜而離散矣。」道生從之,降者數千家,使復舊業。猛雀與其黨百餘人出走,蒲等追斬猛雀首;左部尚書周幾窮討餘黨,悉誅之。

43. The Dingling leader Zhai Mengque kidnapped many local officials and common people, and he brought them into Mount Baijian and caused trouble. Wei's Grand Minister of the Inner Capital, Zhang Pu of Henei commandary, and their Inspector of Jizhou, Zhangsun Daosheng, campaigned against Zhai Mengque. This Zhangsun Daosheng was the son of Zhangsun Song's cousin.

Zhangsun Daosheng wished to have the troops advance and attack Zhai Mengque at once. But Zhang Pu said, "The local officials and common people are only participating in this rebellion because they have been forced into it by Zhai Mengque. But if we now, rather than divide our forces, send all our troops to attack the enemy, although our intention would be to make the rebels return to the right path, that would not be the right way to do so. The enemy captives would merely side with the actual rebels and combine their strength against us; they would occupy good defenses and oppose our army, and it would not be easy to pacify them quickly. Better for us to first send envoys to convey our instructions to them and inform them that those who were not fellow plotters with Zhai Mengque will not be blamed. They will surely be pleased at the prospect, and they will scatter and abandon him."

Zhangsun Daosheng followed his advice, and thousands of families surrendered and went back to their old livelihoods. Zhai Mengque and more than a hundred of his partisans fled, but Zhang Pu and the others pursued them and took Zhai Mengque's head. Zhou Ji fully pursued the rest and executed them all.

〈白澗山當在漢河東濩澤縣西。《水經註》:濩澤水出濩澤城西白澗嶺,東逕濩澤。濩澤,唐澤州陽城縣卽其地。師古曰:濩,音烏虢翻。〉

(Mount Baijian was in the west of Huoze county in Han's Hedong commandary. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Huoze River emerges from Baijian Range west of the city of Huoze, and flows east into Huo Marsh." Huoze county was the same place as Yangcheng county in Tang's Zezhou. Yan Shigu remarked, "The first character of Huoze, 濩, is pronounced 'wuo (w-uo)'.")


太宗即位,除南統將軍、冀州刺史。後取人美女以獻太宗,切責之,以舊臣不加罪黜。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Daosheng)

When Emperor Mingyuan came to the throne, he appointed Zhangsun Daosheng as General Who Directs The South and Inspector of Jizhou. Later, he obtained some beautiful women and presented them to Emperor Mingyuan as tribute. Emperor Mingyuan bitterly reproached him, but because of Zhangsun Daosheng's long service, he did not further punish or dismiss him.
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BOOK 118

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 11, 2019 6:16 pm

義熙十三年(丁巳、四一七)

The Thirteenth Year of Yixi (The Dingsi Year, 417 AD)


春,正月,甲戌朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jiaxu (February 3rd), there was an eclipse.

十三年春正月甲戌朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the thirteenth year of Yixi (417), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jiaxu (February 3rd), there was an eclipse.


秦主泓朝會百官於前殿,以內外危迫,君臣相泣。征北將軍齊公恢帥安定鎭戶三萬八千,焚廬舍,自北雍州趨長安,自稱大都督、建義大將軍,移檄州郡,欲除君側之惡;揚威將軍姜紀帥衆歸之,建節將軍彭完都棄陰密奔還長安。恢至新支,姜紀說恢曰:「國家重將、大兵皆在東方,京師空虛,公亟引輕兵襲之,必克。」恢不從,南攻郿城;鎭西將軍姚諶爲恢所敗,長安大震。泓馳使徵東平公紹,遣姚裕及輔國將軍胡翼度屯澧西。扶風太守姚儁等皆降於恢。東平公紹引諸軍西還,與恢相持於靈臺,姚讚留寧朔將軍尹雅爲弘農太守,守潼關,亦引兵還。恢衆見諸軍四集,皆有懼心;其將齊黃等詣大軍降。恢進兵逼紹,讚自後擊之,恢兵大敗,殺恢及其三弟。泓哭之慟,葬以公禮。

2. Yao Hong assembled his ministers for the New Year's court meeting in the Front Hall. He and his ministers all wept, feeling the pressure of all the threats to the state from both without and within.

The General Who Conquers The North and Duke of Qi, Yao Hui, led thirty-eight thousand households from the garrison at Anding to burn the local residences and then march from Northern Yongzhou to head towards Chang'an. Yao Hui declared himself Grand Commander and Grand General Who Establishes Righteousness, and he distributed proclamations throughout the provinces and commandaries, declaring his intention to remove the evil advisors by the side of the sovereign. The General Who Displays Might, Jiang Ji, led his own forces to support Yao Hui, and the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Peng Yuandu, abandoned Yinmi and fled back to Chang'an.

When Yao Hui arrived at Xinzhi, Jiang Ji advised him, "The major generals and the bulk of the state's troops are away in the east, so the capital has been left barren and empty. You should immediately lead light troops to launch a quick attack against the capital, for you would surely take it."

But Yao Hui did not listen to him. Instead, he marched south and attacked Meicheng, where he defeated the General Who Guards The West, Yao Shen. Chang'an shook with fear.

Yao Hong urgently sent word to the Duke of Dongping, Yao Shao, summoning him back to the capital. He also sent Yao Yu and the General Who Upholds The State, Hu Yidu, to camp west of the Li (or Feng) River. The Administrator of Fufeng, Yao Jun, and others all surrendered to Yao Hui.

Yao Shao led his troops to return west, where he became locked in battle with Yao Hui at Lingtai. Yao Zan left the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Yin Ya, to serve as Administrator of Hongnong and defend Tong Gate while leading his own troops to return west as well. When Yao Hui's soldiers saw that the eastern troops were now converging on their position, they were all afraid. Many of his generals, Qi Huang and others, went over to the loyalists and surrendered. Yao Hui moved his soldiers forward to threaten Yao Shao, but then Yao Zan attacked him from the rear. Yao Hui's army was greatly defeated, and he and his three younger brothers were killed.

Yao Hong greatly mourned Yao Hui, and he buried him with the rites due to a Duke.

〈以內則兄弟搆難,外爲晉、夏所迫也。〉〈秦分嶺北五郡爲北雍州,鎭安定。泓不用東平公紹、懿橫之言以召亂。〉〈姚諶去年棄雍東奔,遂屯于郿。〉〈關中無澧水,「澧」當作「灃」。灃水出鄠南灃谷,北過上林苑入渭。〉〈《水經註》:漢靈臺在秦阿房宮南,鎬水逕其北。〉

(Later Qin faced internal threats from the rebellions of Yao Hong's brothers and external threats from the invasions of Jin and Xia.

Later Qin had split off the five commandaries north of the mountain ranges as Northern Yongzhou, administered from Anding.

Yao Hong had not followed Yao Shao's advice, and now Yao Hui had rebelled.

Yao Shen had abandoned Yong in the previous year and shifted his camp to Mei.

There was no 澧 "Li" River in Guanzhong; this passage must be referring to the 灃 Feng River. The Feng River emerged from South Feng Valley in Hu county, then flowed north through Shanglin Park before entering the Wei River.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Han's Lingtai was south of Qin's Epang Palace; the Hao River flowed north of it.")


時征北姚恢說率安定鎮戶三萬八千焚燒室宇,以車為方陣,自北雍州趨長安,自稱大都督、建義大將軍,移檄欲除君側之惡,軍勢甚盛。泓見內外離叛,晉師漸逼,歲旦朝羣臣於前殿,淒然流涕,羣臣皆泣。姚紹率輕騎先赴難,姚讚亦率諸軍還長安,遂擊殺恢及其三子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

At this time, the General Who Conquers The North, Yao Hui, persuaded thirty-eight thousand households from the garrison at Anding to burn the local residences and then march from Northern Yongzhou to head towards Chang'an, using their carts to form a square formation. Yao Hui declared himself Grand Commander and Grand General Who Establishes Righteousness, and he distributed proclamations declaring his intention to remove the evil advisors by the side of the sovereign. The power of his army was vast indeed.

Yao Hong assembled his ministers for the New Year's court meeting in the Front Hall. When he considered how his state was torn apart by rebellions and the Jin army was edging ever closer, he wept with grief, and his ministers wept with him.

Yao Shao led light cavalry ahead to come deal with Yao Hui, and Yao Zan also led his armies back to Chang'an. They attacked and killed Yao Hui and his three sons.

泓從弟齊公恢反於嶺北,皆舉兵伐長安。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Duke of Qi, Yao Hong's cousin Yao Hui, rebelled against him north of the mountain ranges (at Anding), and both he and Yao Yi raised troops and marched towards Chang'an.

泓以內外離叛,王師漸逼,歲旦朝群臣於其前殿,淒然流涕,群臣皆泣。時征北姚恢率安定鎮戶三萬八千,焚燒室宇,以車為方陣,自北雍州趣長安,自稱大都督、建義大將軍,移檄州郡,欲除君側之惡。揚威姜紀率眾奔之。建節彭完都聞恢將至,棄陰密,奔還長安。恢至新支,姜紀說恢曰:「國家重將在東,京師空虛,公可輕兵徑襲,事必克矣。」恢不從,乃南攻郿城。鎮西姚諶為恢所敗,恢軍勢彌盛,長安大震。泓馳使征紹,遣姚裕及輔國胡翼度屯於灃西。扶風太守姚雋、安夷護軍姚墨蠡、建威姚娥都、揚威彭蠔皆懼而降恢。恢舅苟和時為立節將軍,守忠不貳,泓召而謂之曰:「眾人咸懷去就,卿何能自安邪?」和曰:「若天縱妖賊,得肆其逆節者,舅甥之理,不待賓士而加親。如其罪極逆銷,天盈其罰者,守忠執志,臣之體也。違親叛君,臣之所恥。」泓善其忠恕,加金章紫綬。姚紹率輕騎先赴難,使姚洽、司馬國璠將步卒三萬赴長安。恢從曲牢進屯杜成,紹與恢相持於靈台。姚贊聞恢漸逼,留甯朔尹雅為弘農太守,守潼關,率諸軍還長安。泓謝贊曰:「元子不能崇明德義,導率群下,致禍起蕭牆,變自同氣,既上負祖宗,亦無顏見諸父。懿始構逆滅亡,恢復擁眾內叛,將若之何?」贊曰:「懿等所以敢稱兵內侮者,諒由臣等輕弱,無防遏之方故也。」因攘袂大泣曰:「臣與大將軍不滅此賊,終不持面復見陛下!」泓於是班賜軍士而遣之。恢眾見諸軍悉集,咸懼而思善,其將齊黃等棄恢而降。恢進軍逼紹,贊自後要擊,大破之,殺恢及其三弟。泓哭之悲慟,葬以公禮。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong assembled his ministers for the New Year's court meeting in the Front Hall. When he considered how his state was torn apart by rebellions and the Jin army was edging ever closer, he wept with grief, and his ministers wept with him.

At this time, the General Who Conquers The North, Yao Hui, led thirty-eight thousand households from the garrison at Anding to burn the local residences and then march from Northern Yongzhou to head towards Chang'an, using their carts to form a square formation. Yao Hui declared himself Grand Commander and Grand General Who Establishes Righteousness, and he distributed proclamations throughout the provinces and commandaries, declaring his intention to remove the evil advisors by the side of the sovereign. The General Who Displays Might, Jiang Ji, led his own forces to flee to Yao Hui, and when the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Peng Yuandu, heard that Yao Hui was approaching, he abandoned Yinmi and fled back to Chang'an.

When Yao Hui arrived at Xinzhi, Jiang Ji advised him, "The major generals are away in the east, so the capital has been left barren and empty. You should immediately lead light troops to launch a quick attack against the capital, for you would surely take it."

But Yao Hui did not listen to him. Instead, he marched south and attacked Meicheng, where he defeated the General Who Guards The West, Yao Shen. The power of Yao Hui's army grew ever greater, and Chang'an shook with fear.

Yao Hong urgently sent word to Yao Shao, summoning him back to the capital. He also sent Yao Yu and the General Who Upholds The State, Hu Yidu, to camp west of the Feng River. The Administrator of Fufeng, Yao Jun, the Protector-General Who Maintains The Yi Tribes, Yao Moli, the General Who Establishes Might, Yao Edu, and the General Who Displays Might, Peng Hao, were all afraid, so they surrendered to Yao Hui.

At this time, Yao Hui's uncle Gou He was serving as General Who Founds Fortitude. He remained unwavering in his loyalty to Yao Hong, and had no ulterior motives. Yao Hong summoned him and asked him, "Why is it that, when so many are giving into their feelings and running away, you are able to remain so calm?"

Gou He replied, "If it is Heaven's wish to let these villains run free, let them flaunt their treason as they will; as an uncle, I won't show more regard to guests than to my own family. And if their crimes and treason are truly great, Heaven has punishment in store for them. As a minister, it is my duty to maintain my loyalty and curb my personal desires. It would shame me to betray my family or turn my back on my lord."

Yao Hong commended him for his loyalty and consideration, and he promoted him to Household Counselor With Purple Tassel.

Yao Shao led light cavalry to hurry back first, while sending Yao Qia and Sima Guofan to lead thirty thousand infantry to Chang'an. Yao Hui advanced from Qulao and camped at Ducheng, and he and Yao Shao became locked in battle at Lingtai.

When Yao Zan heard that Yao Hui was coming closer to Chang'an, he appointed the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Yin Ya, as Administrator of Hongnong and left him to guard Tong Gate, while leading the rest of his troops back to Chang'an. Yao Hong apologized to Yao Zan, telling him, "It was because I lacked honor, wisdom, virtue, and justice and failed to heed the counsel of my ministers that these disasters among the members of my own family have sprung up; they all stem from the same source. How greatly I am to blame for failing the legacy of my ancestors. I shall not be able to face them in the next world. We had only just dealt with Yao Yi's treason, yet now Yao Hui too has brought his own army to bear and committed rebellion from within the state. What are we to do?"

Yao Zan replied, "It is truly the fault of myself and your other ministers and due to our blindness that Yao Yi and the others have dared to claim authority and bring harm to the state. We were unable to guard against such threats." Then pushing up his sleeves, he loudly declared, "Your Majesty, if the Grand General and I cannot vanquish this rebel, we shall never face you again!"

Yao Hong thus distributed rewards and gifts among his soldiers and sent them off.

When Yao Hui's soldiers saw that the eastern troops were now converging on their position, they were all afraid and wanted to cease their rebellion. Many of his generals, Qi Huang and others, abandoned him and surrendered. Yao Hui moved his soldiers forward to threaten Yao Shao, but then Yao Zan attacked him from the rear. Yao Hui's army was greatly routed, and he and his three younger brothers were killed.

Yao Hong greatly mourned Yao Hui, and he buried him with the rites due to a Duke.


太尉裕引軍發城,留其子彭城公義隆鎭彭城。詔以義隆爲監徐‧兗‧青‧冀四州諸軍事、徐州刺史。

3. Liu Yu led his troops out of Pengcheng. He left the Duke of Pengcheng, his son Liu Yilong, to guard the city. An edict was issued appointing Liu Yilong as Chief of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qinzhou, and Jizhou and as Inspector of Xuzhou.

涼公暠寢疾,遺命長史宋繇曰:「吾死之後,世子猶卿子也,善訓導之。」二月,暠卒。官屬奉世子歆爲大都督、大將軍、涼公、領涼州牧。大赦,改元嘉興。尊歆母天水尹氏爲太后;以宋繇錄三府事。諡暠曰武昭王,廟號太祖。

4. In Western Liang, Li Gao was bedridden by illness. He left his final testament with his Chief Clerk, Song Yao, telling him, "After my death, treat my son as your own; teach him, and guide him well."

In the second month, Li Gao passed away.

The officials acclaimed Li Gao's son Li Xin as Grand Commander, Grand General, Duke of Liang, and acting Governor of Liangzhou. Li Xin declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jiaxing. He honored his mother, Lady Yin of Tianshui commandary, as Dowager, and he appointed Song Yao as Chief of Affairs of the Three Staffs.

Li Xin granted Li Gao the posthumous title Prince Wuzhao ("the Martial and Bright"), with the temple name Taizu.

〈三府,大都督、大將軍府,涼公府,州牧府也。〉

(The "Three Staffs" were the staffs for the offices of Grand Commander and Grand General, of Duke of Liang, and of Governor of Liangzhou.)


是年,李暠卒,子歆立,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (417), Li Gao passed away. His son Li Xin succeeded him, and sent envoys to Northern Wei presenting tribute.

二月,涼武昭王李玄盛薨,世子士業嗣位爲涼州牧、涼公。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second month, Prince Wuzhao of Liang, Li Gao, passed away. His heir Li Xin succeeded him as Governor of Liangzhou and Duke of Liang.

十三年五月,李暠死,子歆立。(Book of Liu-Song 98, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

In the thirteenth year of Yixi (417), the fifth month, Li Gao passed away. His son Li Xin succeeded him.


西秦安東將軍木弈干擊吐谷渾樹洛干,破其弟阿柴於堯杆川,俘五千餘口而還。樹洛干走保白蘭山,慙憤發疾,將卒,謂阿柴曰:「吾子拾虔幼弱,今以大事付汝。」樹洛干卒,阿柴立,自稱驃騎將軍、沙州刺史。諡樹洛干曰武王。阿柴稍用兵侵倂其傍小種,地方數千里,遂爲強國。

5. Western Qin's General Who Maintains The West, Qifu Muyigan, attacked the King of the Tuyuhun, Tuyuhun Shuluogan. He routed Tuyuhun Shuluogan's younger brother Tuyuhun Achai at Yaoganchuan and captured more than five thousand households before returning.

Tuyuhun Shuluogan fled to defend Mount Bailan, but he was so ashamed at his defeat that he developed an illness. On his deathbed, he said to Tuyuhun Achai, "My son Tuyuhun Shiqian is still young and weak. I shall entrust affairs to you."

Tuyuhun Shuluogan then passed away.

Tuyuhun Achai succeeded him, and declared himself General of Agile Cavalry and Inspector of Shazhou. He granted Tuyuhun Shuluogan the posthumous title King Wu ("the Martial").

Tuyuhun Achai cautiously used his soldiers to annex and take over the surrounding tribes, and he expanded his territory to be several thousand square li, thus strengthening his state.

〈堯杆川在塞外。〉

(Yaoganchuan was beyond the borders of the realm.)


令其安東木奕於率騎七千討吐谷渾樹洛幹於塞上,破其弟阿柴于堯扞川,俘獲五千餘口而還,洛幹奔保白蘭山而死。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan ordered his General Who Maintains The East, Qifu Muyiyu, to lead seven thousand cavalry to campaign against Tuyuhun Shuluogan at Saishang. Qifu Muyiyu routed Tuyuhun Shuluogan's younger brother Tuyuhun Achai at Yaoganchuan, where he captured more than five thousand households before returning. Tuyuhun Shuluogan fled to hold out at Mount Bailan, where he passed away.


河西王蒙遜遣其將襲烏啼部,大破之;又擊卑和部,降之。

6. Juqu Mengxun sent his generals to launch a surprise attack against the Wuti people, and they greatly routed the Wuti. His generals then attacked the Beihe people too, who surrendered to them.

〈烏啼虜居張掖删丹縣金山之西。〉〈卑和羌居西海。〉

(The Wuti people lived west of Mount Jin in Shandan county in Zhangye commandary.

The Beihe branch of the Qiang lived at Xihai.)


王鎭惡進軍澠池,遣毛德祖襲尹雅於蠡吾城,禽之;雅殺守者而逃。鎭惡引兵徑前,抵潼關。

7. Wang Zhen'e advanced to Mianchi, and he sent Mao Dezu to launch a surprise attack against Yin Ya at the city of Liwu, which Mao Dezu captured. Yin Ya killed his captors and fled. Wang Zhen'e then rushed his troops forward to threaten Tong Gate.

〈秦以雅爲弘農太守,屯蠡吾城。據《載記》,蠡吾城當在宜陽之西。宋白曰:蠡吾城,後魏初猶屬弘農,唐以來爲澠池縣理所。余按蠡吾自是漢清河國界亭名,此乃蠡城,非蠡吾城也。《通鑑》蓋承《晉書》之誤。〉

(Later Qin had appointed Yin Ya as Administrator of Hongnong and had him camp at the city of Liwu. According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Liwu was west of Yiyang. But Song Bai remarked, "At the beginning of Northern Wei, Liwu was still part of Hongnong commandary. From the Tang dynasty onwards, it was administered by Mianchi county." I (Hu Sanxing) note that Liwu was the name of a place in Han's Qinghe princely fief. So this Licheng must not have been the same Liwu. The Zizhi Tongjian must have repeated the error of the Book of Jin.)


至是,王鎮惡至宜陽。毛德祖攻弘農太守尹雅于蠡城,眾潰,德祖使騎追獲之,既而殺晉守者奔固潼關。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

At this time, Wang Zhen'e advanced to Yiyang. Mao Dezu attacked the Administrator of Hongnong, Yin Ya, at Licheng. Yin Ya's army scattered, and Mao Dezu sent cavalry to pursue him. They captured Yin Ya, but he killed his captors and fled to Tong Gate.


檀道濟、沈林子自陝北渡河,拔襄邑堡,秦河北太守薛帛奔河東。又攻秦幷州刺史尹昭於蒲阪,不克。別將攻匈奴堡,爲姚成都所敗。

8. Tan Daoji and Shen Linzi crossed the Yellow River at Shanbei and took Fort Xiangyi. Qin's Administrator of Hebei, Xue Bo, fled to Hedong. Tan Daoji and Shen Linzi then attacked Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou, Yin Zhao, at Puban, but they could not take it.

Other Jin generals attacked Fort Xiongnu, but they were defeated by Yao Chengdu.

〈襄邑堡在河北郡河北縣,漢、晉屬河東郡,秦分立河北郡。〉

(Fort Xiangyi was in Hebei county in Hebei commandary. This area had been part of Hedong commandary during Han and Jin, but Former or Later Qin had split it off as a new Hebei commandary.)


檀道濟、沈林子攻拔襄邑堡,建威薛帛奔河東。道濟白陝北渡,攻蒲阪,使將軍苟卓攻匈奴堡,為泓甯東姚成都所敗。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Tan Daoji and Shen Linzi attacked and took Fort Xiangyi. The General Who Establishes Might, Xue Bo, fled to Hedong. Tan Daoji then crossed the Yellow River at Shanbei and attacked Puban. He sent the general Gou Zhuo to attack Fort Xiongnu, but Gou Zhuo was defeated by Yao Hong's General Who Calms The East, Yao Chengdu.


辛酉,滎陽守將傅洪以虎牢降魏。

9. On the day Xinyou (March 22nd), the general defending Xingyang, Fu Hong, surrendered Hulao to Wei.

二年春二月丙午,詔曰:「九州之民,隔遠京邑,時有壅滯,守宰至不以聞。今東作方興,或有貧窮失農務者。其遣使者巡行天下,省諸州,觀民風俗,問民疾苦,察守宰治行。諸有不能自申,皆因以聞。」辛酉,司馬德宗滎陽守將傅洪,遣使詣叔孫建,請以虎牢降,求軍赴接。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the second year of Taichang (417), in spring, the second month, on the day Bingwu (March 7th), Emperor Mingyuan issued an edict stating, "There are times when little is heard of the plight of the common people of the Nine Provinces who live far from the capital, and sometimes even the local officials are unaware of their suffering. Even now, the situation in the east is such that some people have been driven to poverty and have lost their farming livelihoods. Thus I hereby dispatch my agents to patrol throughout the realm and travel through the provinces, where they shall observe the local customs and conditions of the people, ask after their cares and concerns, and investigate the administration and conduct of the local officials. All those who have been unable to explain themselves will thus be heard."

On the day Xinyou (March 22nd), Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) general defending Xingyang, Fu Hong, sent agents to visit Shusun Jian, asking to surrender Hulao to Northern Wei and requesting military assistance from them.


秦主泓以東平公紹爲太宰、大將軍、都督中外諸軍事,假黃鉞,改封魯公,使督武衞將軍姚鸞等步騎五萬守潼關,又遣別將姚驢救蒲阪。

10. Yao Hong appointed Yao Shao as Grand Governor, Grand General, Commander of all military affairs, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, and he changed his title to Duke of Lu. He sent Yao Shao to lead the Guard General of Valor, Yao Luan, and others to lead fifty thousand horse and foot to guard Tong Gate. He also sent another force under Yao Lü to reinforce Puban.

泓乃進紹太宰、大將軍、大都督、中外諸軍事,假黃鉞,改封魯公。率武衛姚鸞等距晉師於潼關。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong promoted Yao Shao to Grand Governor, Grand General, Grand Commander, Commander of all military affairs, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, and he changed his title to Duke of Lu. Yao Shao led the Guard General of Valor, Yao Luan, and others to oppose the Jin army at Tong Gate.

泓遣姚驢救蒲阪,胡翼度據潼關。泓進紹太宰、大將軍、大都督、都督中外諸軍事、假黃鋮,改封魯公,侍中、司隸、宗正、節錄並如故,朝之大政皆往決焉。紹固辭,弗許。於是遣紹率武衛姚鸞等步騎五萬,距王師於潼關。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong sent Yao Lü to reinforce Puban and Hu Yidu to occupy Tong Gate.

Yao Hong promoted Yao Shao to Grand Governor, Grand General, Grand Commander, Commander of all military affairs, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, and he changed his title to Duke of Lu; Yao Shao maintained his former positions as Palace Attendant, Colonel-Director, Steward of the Imperial Clan, and Credential Bearer. All major matters of state were left for him to decide. Yao Shao tried to decline these honors, but Yao Hong would not allow him to.

Yao Hong sent Yao Shao to lead the Guard General of Valor, Yao Luan, and others with fifty thousand horse and foot to oppose the Jin army at Tong Gate.


沈林子謂檀道濟曰:「薄阪城堅兵多,不可猝拔,攻之傷衆,守之引日。王鎭惡在潼關,勢孤力弱,不如與鎭惡合勢幷力以爭潼關;若得之,尹昭不攻自潰矣。」道濟從之。

11. Shen Linzi said to Tan Daoji, "Puban's walls are too stout and its defenders too many, and we won't be able to take it quickly. If we assault it, we'll suffer mass casualties, while if we besiege it, we'll waste too much time. Meanwhile, Wang Zhen'e is at Tong Gate, where he is isolated and understrength. So we should go combine our strength with Wang Zhen'e and try to capture Tong Gate. If we take Tong Gate, Yin Zhao's forces at Puban will collapse on their own."

Tan Daoji followed his advice.

姚驢與并州刺史尹昭為表裏之勢,夾攻道濟。道濟深壁不戰,沈林子說道濟曰:「今蒲阪城堅池浚,非可卒克,攻之傷眾,守之引日,不如棄之,先事潼關。潼關天限,形勝之地,鎮惡孤軍,勢危力寡,若使姚紹據之,則難圖矣。如克潼關,紹可不戰而服。」道濟從之,乃棄蒲阪,南向潼關。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Lü and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Yin Shao, combined their forces from inside and out to attack Tan Daoji from both sides. Tan Daoji fortified his defenses and would not offer battle.

Shen Linzi advised Tan Daoji, "Puban's walls are too stout and its moats are too deep, and we won't be able to take it quickly. If we assault it, we'll suffer mass casualties, while if we besiege it, we'll waste too much time. We had better give up on it and go deal with Tong Gate first. Tong Gate has excellent natural defenses and commands important strategic territory. And Wang Zhen'e is already there, isolated and understrength. If we allow Yao Shao to consolidate the defenses of Tong Gate, it will be hard for us to take it. But if we can capture it first, Yao Shao will have to give in to us even without fighting."

Tan Daoji followed his advice, and he abandoned Puban and marched south to Tong Gate.


三月,道濟、林子至潼關。秦魯公紹引兵出戰,道濟、林子奮擊,大破之,斬獲以千數。紹退屯定城,據險拒守,謂諸將曰:「道濟等兵力不多,懸軍深入,不過堅壁以待繼援。吾分軍絕其糧道,可坐禽也。」乃遣姚鸞屯大路以絕道濟糧道。

12. In the third month, Tan Daoji and Shen Linzi arrived at Tong Gate. Yao Shao led his troops out to fight the Jin soldiers, but Tan Daoji and Shen Linzi vigorously attacked him; they greatly routed him, killing or capturing thousands of enemies. Yao Shao retreated to camp at Dingcheng, where he occupied defensive terrain and maintained his defenses.

Yao Shao said to his generals, "Tan Daoji and the others do not really have that many soldiers, yet they've plunged so far ahead into our territory. They are holding back now and defending themselves purely because they plan to wait for their reinforcements to come up first. So if we split up our forces and cut their supply lines, we can take them without fighting."

So he sent Yao Luan to camp along the Greater Road in order to cut Tan Daoji's supply line.

〈郭緣生《述征記》曰:定城去潼關三十里,夾道各一城,渭水逕其北。〉〈自澠池西入關,有兩路。南路由回谿阪,自漢以前皆由之。曹公惡南路之險,更開北路,遂以北路爲大路。《載記》曰:紹留鸞守險以絕道濟糧道。蓋鸞雖屯大路,亦據險而邀絕糧道也。紹初遣胡翼度據東原,蓋與大路相爲脣齒,所謂據險也。及沈林子襲鸞營,翼度不能救,何也?人心危駭,面面受敵故也。〉

(Guo Yuansheng's Records of Campaigns states, "Dingcheng is thirty li from Tong Gate; it surrounded the road on either side with a wall, and the Wei River ran north of it."

There were two roads from Mianchi west to Tong Gate. The southern road was by way of Huixi Slope; up until the end of the Han dynasty, this had been the only road. But Cao Cao had felt that this road was too narrow, so he created a northern road, which became known as the Greater Road. The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Yao Shao left Yao Luan to guard the narrow places in order to cut Tan Daoji's supply line." It must have been that, although Yao Luan was camped on the Greater Road, he also occupied narrow places and cut Tan Daoji's supply line that way. And Yao Shao had earlier sent Hu Lidu to occupy Eastern Yuan county, so he and Yao Luan must have provided mutual support for one another, like the lips and teeth, and this is what was meant by "guarding the narrow places". Yet when Shen Linzi launched his surprise attack against Yao Luan's camp, why was Hu Yidu not able to save him? It was because the Later Qin soldiers were so shocked and afraid, faced with enemies on all sides.)


三月,龍驤將軍王鎮惡大破姚泓將姚紹于潼關。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, the Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Zhen'e, greatly routed Yao Hong's general Yao Shao at Tong Gate.

進據潼關,與諸軍共破姚紹。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Tan Daoji)

Tan Daoji advanced and occupied Tong Gate, and together with the other Jin armies he routed Yao Shao.

姚贊率禁兵七千,自渭北而東,進據蒲津。劉裕使沈田子及傅弘之率眾萬餘人入上洛,所在多委城鎮奔長安。田子等進及青泥,姚紹方陣而前,以距道濟。道濟固壘不戰,紹乃攻其西營,不克,遂以大眾逼之。道濟率王敬、沈林子等逆沖紹軍,將士驚散,引還定城。紹留姚鸞守險,絕道濟糧道... 姚紹謂諸將曰:「道濟等遠來送死,眾旅不多,嬰壘自固者,正欲曠日持久,以待繼援耳。吾欲分軍還據閿鄉,以絕其糧運,不至一月,道濟之首可懸之麾下矣。濟等既沒,裕計自沮。」諸將咸以為然。其將胡翼度曰:「軍勢宜集不可以分,若偏師不利,人心駭懼,胡可以戰!」紹乃止... 紹分道置諸軍為掎角之勢,遣輔國胡翼度據東原,武衛姚鸞營于大路,與晉軍相接。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Zan led seven thousand of the imperial guards east from Weibei, and they advanced and occupied Pu Crossing. Liu Yu sent Shen Tianzi and Fu Hongzhi to lead more than ten thousand soldiers into Shangluo, and many of the local garrisons abandoned their posts and fled to Chang'an. Shen Tianzi and the others advanced to Qingni.

Yao Shao put his troops into a square formation and advanced forward to oppose Tan Daoji. Tan Daoji once again fortified his defenses and would not offer battle. Yao Shao tried to attack his western camp, but could not take it, so he moved forward the bulk of his troops to threaten Tan Daoji's position. But Tan Daoji led Wang Jing, Shen Linzi, and others to counterattack and charge Yao Shao's army. Yao Shao's generals and soldiers panicked and scattered, so he fell back to Dingcheng.

Yao Shao left Yao Luan to guard the local mountain passes and cut Tan Daoji's supply lines.

Yao Shao said to his generals, "Tan Daoji and the others have come a long way seeking death, even though they do not really have that many soldiers. The reason that they keep to their defenses and guard themselves is because they want to play for time and wait for their reinforcements to come up first. Thus I plan to send a detachment of our army back east to occupy Wenxiang, in order to cut off their supply lines. If we do that, than in less than a month, I'll have Tan Daoji's head hanging at my tent. And once Tan Daoji and the rest are gone, Liu Yu's plan will fall apart."

Most of the other generals agreed. But his general Hu Yidu objected, saying, "We ought to keep our forces concentrated and not split them up. If this detachment were to be defeated, then the hearts of our other soldiers would tremble with fear, and then what shape would they be in for fighting?"

So Yao Shao gave up on the plan.

Yao Shao posted his troops on different roads, to form the points of a triangle within which to attack the Jin army between them. He sent the General Who Upholds The State, Hu Yidu, to occupy Dongyuan and sent the Guard General of Valor, Yao Luan, to camp at the Greater Road.


鸞遣尹雅將兵與晉戰於關南,爲晉兵所獲,將殺之。雅曰:「雅前日已當死,幸得脫至今,死固甘心。然夷、夏雖殊,君臣之義一也。晉以大義行師,獨不使秦有守節之臣乎!」乃免之。

13. Yao Luan sent Yin Ya to lead troops to fight the Jin soldiers south of Tong Gate. But Yin Ya was captured by Jin. They were about to kill him, but he told them, "I should have died days ago, and it's only through good fortune that I lived even this long. Though I die now, my heart will be at peace. But the tribal peoples and the Xia (ethnic Han) people still stand strong, and our sovereign and his subjects are united in their cause against you. If Jin campaigns for the sake of righteousness, so too do the subjects of Qin defend their duty to the end!" So the Jin soldiers released him.

〈關南,潼關之南也。〉

(This passage states that this battle was "south of the Gate"; it means south of Tong Gate.)


時裕別將姚珍入自子午,竇霸入自洛穀,眾各數千人。泓遣姚萬距霸,姚彊距珍。姚鸞遣將尹雅與道濟司馬徐琰于潼關南,為琰所獲,送之劉裕。裕以雅前叛,欲殺之。雅曰:「前活本在望外,今死寧不甘心。明公將以大義平天下,豈可使秦無守信之臣乎!」裕嘉而免之。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

At this time, two of Liu Yu's other generals launched attacks from other directions: Yao Zhen marched by way of Ziwu Valley, and Dou Ba marched from Luo Valley. Each of them led several thousand soldiers. Yao Hong sent Yao Wan to oppose Dou Ba and Yao Jiang to oppose Yao Zhen.

Yao Luan sent the general Yin Ya to lead troops to fight Tan Daoji's Marshal, Xu Yan, south of Tong Gate. But Yin Ya was captured by Xu Yan and sent to Liu Yu. Since Yin Ya had already escaped from being captured once, Liu Yu was planning to kill him this time. But Yin Ya told him, "To have lived even this long is more than I would have expected. Though I die now, my heart will be at peace. But if you campaign for the sake of righteousness, so too do the subjects of Qin defend their duty to the end!"

Liu Yu was impressed and released him.


丙子夜,沈林子將銳卒襲鸞營,斬鸞,殺其士卒數千人。紹又遣東平公讚屯河上以斷水道;沈林子擊之,讚敗走,還定城。薛帛據河曲來降。

14. On the night of the day Bingzi (April 6th), Shen Linzi lead spirited troops to launch a surprise attack against Yao Luan's camp. They took Yao Luan's head and killed several thousand of his officers and soldiers.

Yao Shao now sent the Duke of Dongping, Yao Zan, to camp along the Yellow River in order to cut off the river route. But Shen Linzi attacked Yao Zan, who was defeated and fled back to Dingcheng. Xue Bo occupied Hequ and surrendered to Jin.

〈河水自蒲阪南至潼關,激而東流,蒲阪、河北之間,謂之河曲。〉

(When the Yellow River flows south from Puban to Tong Gate, it surges and flows east, so the area between Puban and Hebei is called Hequ ("bend of the Yellow River").)


薛帛據河曲以叛... 沈林子簡精銳銜枚夜襲之,鸞眾潰戰死,士卒死者九千餘人。姚贊屯於河上,遣恢武姚難運蒲阪穀以給其軍,至香城,為王師所敗。時泓遣姚諶守堯柳,姚和都討薛帛於河東,聞王師要難,乃兼道赴救,未至而難敗,固破裕裨將于河曲,遂屯蒲阪。姚贊為林子所敗,單馬奔定城。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Xue Bo occupied Hequ and rebelled against Yao Hong.

Shen Linzi led spirited troops to launch a surprise night attack against Yao Luan; his soldiers kept quiet by holding sticks in their mouths. Yao Luan's army scattered and he died in battle, and more than nine thousand of his officers and soldiers died as well.

Yao Zan camped along the Yellow River, while sending the General of Vast Valor, Yao Nan, to transport grain shipments from Puban in order to supply his army. But when Yao Nan reached Xingcheng, he was defeated by the Jin army. At that time, Yao Hong had sent Yao Shen to guard Yaoliu and Yao Hedu to campaign against Xue Bo at Hedong. When they heard that the Jin army was threatening Yao Nan, they advanced along every road to hurry to reinforce him. However, they did not arrive before Yao Nan had been defeated. So they routed Liu Yu's subordinate general at Hequ, then camped at Puban. Yao Zan was defeated by Shen Linzi, and he fled on a lone horse to Dingcheng.


太尉裕將水軍自淮、泗入清河,將泝河西上,先遣使假道於魏;秦主泓亦遣使請救於魏。魏主嗣使羣臣議之,皆曰:「潼關天險,劉裕以水軍攻之甚難;若登岸北侵,其勢便易。裕聲言伐秦,其志難測。且秦,婚姻之國,不可不救也。宜發兵斷河上流,勿使得西。」博士祭酒崔浩曰:「裕圖秦久矣。今姚興死,子泓懦劣,國多內難。裕乘其危而伐之,其志必取。若遏其上流,裕心忿戾,必上岸北侵,是我代秦受敵也。今柔然寇邊,民食又乏,若復與裕爲敵,發兵南赴則北寇愈深,救北則南州復危,非良計也。不若假之水道,聽裕西上,然後屯兵以塞其東。使裕克捷,必德我之假道;不捷,吾不失救秦之名;此策之得者也。且南北異俗,借使國家棄恆山以南,裕必不能以吳、越之兵與吾爭守河北之地,安能爲吾患乎!夫爲國計者,惟社稷是利,豈顧一女子乎!」議者猶曰:「裕西入關,則恐吾斷其後,腹背受敵;北上,則姚氏必不出關助我,其勢必聲西而實北也。」嗣乃以司徒長孫嵩督山東諸軍事,又遣振威將軍娥清、冀州刺史阿薄干將步騎十萬屯河北岸。

15. When Liu Yu had led his forces along the Huai and Si Rivers to enter the Qing and Yellow Rivers and was about to travel west up the Yellow River, he had sent envoys ahead to visit the Wei court and ask to pass through their territory along that stretch of the Yellow River. At the same time, Yao Hong had sent his own envoys to Wei to ask them for help against Jin. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei thus assembled his ministers to discuss what should be done.

Most of his ministers advised him, "Tong Gate has strong natural defenses, and it will be very difficult for Liu Yu to attack it by water. And if he makes landfall and tries to raid north against us, we will be able to deal with him even more easily. Besides, although Liu Yu claims that his intention is merely to campaign against Qin, it is hard to know what his true ambitions are. Beyond that, we have a marriage alliance with Qin, so you are obligated to come to their aid. So you should send out our troops and block Liu Yu's line of advance any further up the Yellow River. Do not allow him to go west."

But the Libationer-Academician, Cui Hao, objected, "Liu Yu has been plotting to conquer Qin for a long time. Now Yao Xing is dead, and his son Yao Hong is a cowardly weakling, so Qin is wracked by inner turmoil. Liu Yu is thus taking advantage of this chaos to launch his campaign against Qin, and he is sure to achieve his ambitions there.

"If we attempt to check his progress upriver, he will surely resent us for it; he will land his troops and raid north against us, and then we will be the targets of his ire rather than Qin. That would be an intolerable situation, since the Rouran are already raiding our borders and our manpower and our supplies are both exhausted. If we made an enemy out of Liu Yu, then bringing troops south to face him would mean leaving our northern border exposed to invaders, while keeping our northern border strong would endanger our southern provinces.

"The best thing to do would be to allow Liu Yu to pass through our territory for now. Once we hear that his troops are away in the west, then we can post garrisons along the river afterwards and block his way back east. That way, if Liu Yu indeed conquers Qin, he will respect us for having let him pass through our territory, while if he fails in his campaign, it will not be too late for us to claim that we were indeed acting to save Qin. That is the strategy that we should follow.

"I further note that the north and the south are places of different climates and different terrain. So long as we withdraw our people from the areas south of Mount Heng, Liu Yu would surely not be able to contest the region north of the Yellow River with us by using troops from places like the Wu and Yue regions.

"As for this marriage alliance, why should you put the mere presence of this girl above the interests of the state?"

The other ministers insisted, "If Liu Yu were really planning to go west beyond Tong Gate, he would certainly be worried that we would cut off his rear. On the other hand, if he wanted to march north and attack us, he could be sure that the Yao clan would not sally forth from Tong Gate to support us against him. So though he claims he is attacking to the west, the north must be his real target."

Emperor Mingyuan thus appointed the Minister Over The Masses, Zhangsun Song, as Commander of military affairs east of the mountains (east of Luoyang), and he sent the General Who Rouses Might, E Qing, and the Inspector of Jizhou, A Baogan, to lead a hundred thousand horse and foot to camp along the north bank of the Yellow River.

〈秦女歸魏,見上卷十一年。〉〈南州,謂魏之南境相州瀕河諸郡。〉〈孫愐曰:娥,姓也。〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》,內入諸姓,阿伏干氏後爲阿氏。〉

(Later Qin and Northern Wei had recently arranged a marriage alliance, as mentioned in Book 117, in the eleventh year of Yixi (415.35).

By "southern provinces", Cui Hao meant Northern Wei's southern borders, at Xiangzhou and in the commandaries along the Yellow River.

Sun Mian remarked, "娥 E is a surname."

According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, one of the clans who originally joined the Tuoba was the Afugan clan, later shortened to A.)


德宗譙王司馬文思遣使王良詣闕上書,請軍討劉裕。詔司徒長孫嵩率諸軍邀擊劉裕。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Prince of Qiao, Sima Wensi, sent his agent Wang Liang to visit Emperor Mingyuan's palace and present a letter asking for him to send an army to campaign against Liu Yu. Emperor Mingyuan thus sent his Minister Over The Masses, Zhangsun Song, to lead several armies to intercept and attack Liu Yu.

晉將劉裕之伐姚泓,太宗假嵩節,督山東諸軍事,傳詣平原,緣河北岸,列軍次於畔城。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Song)

When the Jin general Liu Yu was campaigning against Yao Hong, Emperor Mingyuan granted Zhangsun Song authority as Commander of military affairs east of the mountains, and Zhangsun Song was sent to Pingyuan, where he established a position along the north bank of the Yellow River and arrayed his troops at Pancheng.

泓遣使乞師於魏,魏遣司徒南平公拔,拔等進據河內,為泓聲援。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong sent envoys to ask for reinforcements from Northern Wei. Northern Wei sent their Minister Over The Masses and Duke of Nanping, Zhangsun Ba, and he and others advance and occupied Henei in order to support Yao Hong.

泓以晉師之逼,遣使乞師于魏。魏遣司徒、南平公拔拔嵩,正直將軍、安平公乙旃眷,進據河內,遊擊將軍王洛生屯於河東,為泓聲援。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Feeling the great pressure from the Jin invasion, Yao Hong sent envoys to ask for reinforcements from Northern Wei. Northern Wei sent their Minister Over The Masses and Duke of Nanping, Baba (Zhangsun) Song, and their General of Direct Virtue and Duke of Anping, Yizhan Juan, to advance and occupy Henei. They also sent their General of Roaming Assault, Wang Luosheng, to camp at Hedong. Both these forces were meant to support Yao Hong.


庚辰,裕引軍入河,以左將軍向彌爲北青州刺史,留戍碻磝。

16. On the day Gengchen (April 10th), Liu Yu led his forces into the Yellow River. He appointed the General of the Left, Xiang Mi, as Inspector of Northern Qingzhou and left him to camp at Que'ao.

〈晉氏南渡,僑置青州於江北;裕平廣固,置北青州於東陽,而江北之青州如故。今向彌以北青州刺史戍碻磝,東陽之青州亦如故。〉

(When the Jin royal family had crossed south of the Yangzi, they had created a surrogate version of Qingzhou on the north side of the Yangzi. After Liu Yu conquered Guanggu, he created a Northern Qingzhou based at Dongyang, but the original Qingzhou remained as well. Now Liu Yu was appointing Xiang Mi as Inspector of Northern Qingzhou and leaving him camped at Que'ao, but the Qingzhou at Dongyang still existed too.)


初,裕命王鎭惡等:「若克洛陽,須大軍到俱進。」鎭惡等乘利徑趨潼關,爲秦兵所拒,不得前。久之,乏食,衆心疑懼,或欲棄輜重還赴大軍。沈林子按劍怒曰:「相公志清六合,今許、洛已定,關右將平,事之濟否,繫於前鋒。柰何沮乘勝之氣,棄垂成之功乎!且大軍尚遠,賊衆方盛,雖欲求還,豈可得乎!下官授命不顧,今日之事,當自爲將軍辦之,未知二三君子將何面以見相公之旗鼓邪!」鎭惡等遣使馳告裕,求遣糧援。裕呼使者,開舫北戶,指河上魏軍以示之曰:「我語令勿進,今輕佻深入。岸上如此,何由得遣軍!」鎭惡乃親至弘農,說諭百姓,百姓競送義租,軍食復振。

17. At the beginning of the campaign, Liu Yu had warned Wang Zhen'e and the other vanguard generals, "If you take Luoyang, wait there until the main army can catch up with you first, so that we may all advance together." But Wang Zhen'e and the others had pressed their victory at Luoyang by advancing straight to Tong Gate, where they had been held up by the Qin soldiers there and could not advance any further. After some time, their food was exhausted, and their soldiers became uncertain and afraid, with some advising that they should abandon their supply train and fall back to where the main army was.

But Shen Linzi drew his sword and angrily declared, "It is our lord's ambition to pacify the Six Directions. Now Xuchang and Luoyang have already been settled, and Guanyou will soon be pacified as well. It is this very moment, here in the vanguard, where success or failure shall be determined. Why should we throw away our victorious spirit and abandon what is just about to be achieved? Besides, the main army is still far away, and there are numerous enemies before us; even if we wished to retreat, would they let us get away? As for me, I am prepared to give up my life without flinching. We are generals, and that is how we must handle this situation. Or is anyone here among you prepared to show your face before our lord's banners and drums?"

Wang Zhen'e and the others sent urgent messengers to inform Liu Yu of their situation and ask him to send them supplies and assistance. But Liu Yu yelled at these messengers, and bringing them to the north side of his ship and pointing at the Wei troops stationed all along the north bank of the Yellow River, he said to the messengers, "I ordered you not to hastily advance, yet you plunged ahead too deep. Now look what state the riverbank is in. How can I send anything to your forces?"

Wang Zhen'e then personally went to Hongnong and spoke with and persuaded the common people there. They agreed to make special contributions of grain to support the cause, and the army's supplies were thus restored.

〈《論語》:子張曰:「士見危授命。」〉〈相公,謂裕也。〉〈舫,方舟也,大舟也。〉

(The Analects states, "The Master said, 'One who is prepared to give up his life in the face of danger may be called a complete man.'"

By "our lord", Shen Linzi meant Liu Yu.

This passage uses the term 舫, which means a square boat or large boat.)


魏人以數千騎緣河隨裕軍西行;軍人於南岸牽百丈,風水迅急,有漂渡北岸者,輒爲魏人所殺略。裕遣軍擊之,裁登岸則走,退則復來。夏,四月,裕遣白直隊主丁旿帥仗士七百人、車百乘,渡北岸,去水百餘步,爲卻月陣,兩端抱河,車置七仗士,事畢,使豎一白毦;魏人不解其意,皆未動。裕先命寧朔將軍朱超石戒嚴,白毦旣舉,超石帥二千人馳往赴之,齎大弩百張,一車益二十人,設彭排於轅上。魏人見營陣旣立,乃進圍之;長孫嵩帥三萬騎助之,四面肉薄攻營,弩不能制。時超石別齎大鎚及矟千餘張,乃斷矟長三四尺,以鎚鎚之,一矟輒洞貫三四人。魏兵不能當,一時奔潰,死者相積;臨陳斬阿薄干,魏人退還畔城。超石帥寧朔將軍胡藩、寧遠將軍劉榮祖追擊,又破之,殺獲千計。魏主嗣聞之,乃恨不用崔浩之言。

18. Several thousand Wei cavalry shadowed Liu Yu's army as it sailed west up the Yellow River. The Jin ships were regularly tied to the south bank of the river by hundred-zhang ropes, but sometimes, fierce winds and high waves would spring up and push some of the Jin ships against the north bank, whereupon the Wei soldiers would kill all of the Jin troops from those ships. Whenever Liu Yu tried to send soldiers to attack these Wei pursuers, they would fall back as soon as Liu Yu's troops landed on the shore, but then return again as soon as he withdrew them into the boats.

In summer, the fourth month, Liu Yu sent the leader of his Baizhi Division, Ding Wu, to lead seven hundred warriors and one hundred carts to land on the north bank. They marched a little over a hundred paces from the river, then arranged themselves into a crescent moon formation, with either tip bending back to the shore, and placed the carts along their line such that seven men stood with each cart. Once their formation was complete, they raised a clump of white feathers. The Wei troops did not understand what they were doing, so they made no move.

But Liu Yu had earlier ordered the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Zhu Chaoshi, to make preparations, and when the white feathers were raised as a signal, Zhu Chaoshi led another two thousand soldiers onto the bank and placed them inside the formation. They set up large crossbows and added another twenty people to each cart, which they arrayed shaft to shaft.

Now the Wei soldiers saw that the Jin soldiers had completed their real formation, so they advanced to surround them, and Zhangsun Song led thirty thousand cavalry to aid them as well. They pressed hard against the camp from all sides, but they could not deal with the crossbows. Then Zhu Chaoshi brought out large hammers and more than a thousand lances, and he cut the lances into shafts of three or four chi each and used the hammers to send them flying. The shafts would pierce right through three or four men at once. The Wei soldiers could not stand against this sort of assault, and they immediately scattered and fled, with the dead piling on top of one another. A Baogan died in battle, and the Wei soldiers retreated back to Pancheng. Zhu Chaoshi led the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Hu Fan, and the General Who Calms Distant Places, Liu Rongzu, to pursue and attack them, and they routed the Wei troops again, killing or capturing them by the thousands.

When Emperor Mingyuan heard what had happened, he regretted not having followed Cui Hao's advice.

〈百丈者,所以挽船。今南人用麻繩,北人以竹爲之。陸游曰:蜀人百丈,以巨竹四破爲之,大如人臂。〉〈裕選白丁之壯勇者入直左右,使旿領之。杜佑曰:白直無月給之數。旿,阮古翻。〉〈毦,績羽爲之。〉〈肉薄者,以身迫營血戰。〉〈魏收《地形志》:平原郡聊城縣有畔城。〉

(Hundred-zhang ropes were used for tying up boats. In our (Song dynasty) era, southerners use hemp for these ropes, while northerners use bamboo. Lu You remarked, "The people of the Shu region use 'hundred-zhangs', made of large bamboo broken into four pieces; they are as big as a man's arm."

Liu Yu had selected strong and bold fellows from among landless peasants to serve as his personal charging troops, and assigned Ding Wu to lead them. Du You remarked, "They are soldiers who charge forward without turning aside." Ding Wu's given name, 旿, is pronounced "ru (r-u)".

A clump of feathers is called a 毦.

The term 肉薄 means to press in with one's body and fight a bloody battle.

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a city of Pancheng in Liucheng county in Pingyuan commandary.)


戰於畔城,更有負捷。帝詔止諸軍,不克。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

The Northern Wei armies fought Liu Yu at Pancheng, where they were again defeated. Emperor Mingyuan ordered the armies to halt, but without success.

夏,劉裕敗魏將鵝青于河曲,斬青裨將阿薄干。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, Liu Yu defeated the Northern Wei general E Qing at Hequ and took the head of E Qing's subordinate general A Baogan.

軍頗失利。詔假裕道,裕於舟中望嵩麾蓋,遺以酃酒及江南食物,嵩皆送京師。詔嵩厚答之。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Song)

Zhangsun Song's army met with defeat. Emperor Mingyuan thus decided to allow Liu Yu to pass through his territory. When Liu Yu saw Zhangsun Song's canopy while riding by on his ship, he had some Ling wine and some Southland food sent to him, which Zhangsun Song forwarded to the capital. Emperor Mingyuan ordered Zhangsun Song to return Liu Yu's generosity.

義熙十二年北伐,超石為前鋒入河,索虜托跋嗣,姚興之婿也,遣弟黃門郎鵝青、冀州刺史安平公乙旃眷、襄州刺史托跋道生、青州刺史阿薄干,步騎十萬,屯河北,常有數千騎,緣河隨大軍進止。時軍人緣河南岸,牽百丈,河流迅急,有漂渡北岸者,輒為虜所殺略。遣軍裁過岸,虜便退走,軍還,即復東來。高祖乃遣白直隊主丁旿,率七百人,及車百乘,於河北岸上,去水百餘步,為卻月陣,兩頭抱河,車置七仗士,事畢,使豎一白毦。虜見數百人步牽車上,不解其意,並未動。高祖先命超石馳往赴之,並齎大弩百張,一車益二十人,設彭排於轅上。虜見營陣既立,乃進圍營。超石先以軟弓小箭射虜,虜以眾少兵弱,四面俱至。嗣又遣南平公托跋嵩三萬騎至,遂肉薄攻營。於是百弩俱發,又選善射者叢箭射之,虜眾既多,弩不能制。超石初行,別齎大錘並千餘張矟,乃斷矟長三四尺,以錘錘之,一矟輒洞貫三四虜,虜眾不能當,一時奔潰。臨陣斬阿薄干首,虜退還半城。超石率胡蕃、劉榮祖等追之,復為虜所圍,奮擊盡日,殺虜千計,虜乃退走。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Chaoshi)

In the twelfth year of Yixi (416), when Liu Yu launched his northern campaign against Later Qin, Zhu Chaoshi led the vanguard into the Yellow River. The leader of the Suotou barbarians, Tuoba Si (Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei), was married to Yao Xing's sister. So he sent his Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, his younger brother Tuoba Eqing, his Inspector of Jizhou and Duke of Anping, Yizhan Juan, his Inspector of Xiangzhou, Tuoba Daosheng, and his Inspector of Qingzhou, A Baogan, to lead a hundred thousand horse and foot to camp on the north side of the Yellow River.

These troops would often send out several thousand cavalry to ride along the Yellow River and follow Liu Yu's main army as it moved and stopped. At this time, the Jin ships were regularly tied to the south bank of the river by hundred-zhang ropes, but sometimes, high waves would spring up and push some of the Jin ships against the north bank, whereupon the Northern Wei soldiers would kill all of the Jin troops from those ships. Whenever Liu Yu tried to send soldiers to attack these Northern Wei pursuers, they would fall back as soon as Liu Yu's troops landed on the shore, but then return again as soon as he withdrew them into the boats.

Liu Yu thus sent the leader of his Baizhi Division, Ding Wu, to lead seven hundred warriors and one hundred carts to land on the north bank. They marched a little over a hundred paces from the river, then arranged themselves into a crescent moon formation, with either tip bending back to the shore, and placed the carts along their line such that seven men stood with each cart. Once their formation was complete, they raised a clump of white feathers. The Northern Wei troops saw that it was merely a few hundred soldiers setting up a formation and did not understand what they were doing, so they made no move.

But Liu Yu had earlier ordered Zhu Chaoshi to hurry forward, and he marched into the formation. His troops set up a hundred large crossbows and added another twenty people to each cart, which they arrayed shaft to shaft.

Now the Northern Wei soldiers saw that the Jin soldiers had completed their real formation, so they advanced to surround them. Zhu Chaoshi started out by merely having his soldiers shoot weak bows and small arrows at the enemy. The barbarians thus believed that they faced only a few weak foes, so they pressed hard against the camp from all sides. Tuoba Si also sent his Duke of Nanping, Tuoba Song (Zhangsun Song), to lead thirty thousand cavalry to join them. But then Zhu Chaoshi had the hundred crossbows all begin shooting at the enemies, and he also selected people skilled at shooting to shoot clumps of arrows at them. The Northern Wei troops were so numerous that they could not possibly avoid the crossbows. And earlier, Zhu Chaoshi had also brought out large hammers and more than a thousand lances and had cut the lances into shafts of three or four chi each. He now used the hammers to send them flying. The shafts would pierce right through three or four men at once. The Northern Wei soldiers could not stand against this sort of assault, and they immediately scattered and fled. A Baogan died in battle, and the Northern Wei soldiers retreated back to Bancheng.

Zhu Chaoshi led Hu Fan, Liu Rongzu, and others to pursue. The Jin troops once again became surrounded by the Northern Wei soldiers, but they fought back all through the day, killing them by the thousands, and the enemy retreated.

至河東,暴風漂藩重艦渡北岸,索虜牽得此艦,取其器物。藩氣厲心憤,率左右十二人,乘小船逕往河北。賊騎五六百見藩來,竝笑之。藩素善射,登岸射,賊應弦而倒者十許人,賊皆奔退,悉收所失而反。又遣藩及朱超石等追索虜於半城,虜騎數重,藩及超石所領皆割配新軍,不盈五千,率厲力戰,大破之。(Book of Liu-Song 50, Biography of Hu Fan)

When Hu Fan reached Hedong, a violent wind blew one of his heavy boats against the northern bank of the Yellow River. The Suolu (Tuoba Xianbei) roped in this boat and captured it, plundering all its equipment and gear. But Hu Fan, angered and indignant by this display, led twelve of his followers to steer a small boat up to the northern bank. There were five or six thousand of the barbarian cavalry, and they laughed when they saw Hu Fan's tiny group approaching. But Hu Fan, who had long been skilled at archery, climbed up on the bank and then started shooting arrows at them. About ten of the barbarians fell with the twang of his arrows before the others all scattered and retreated. Hu Fan thus recovered all his lost equipment and returned.

Liu Yu sent Hu Fan, Zhu Chaoshi, and others to pursue the Suolu to Bancheng. The barbarian cavalry there were great in number, while Hu Fan and Zhu Chaoshi had merely been assigned a new detachment for the pursuit which did not even number five thousand. But they maintained their discipline and fought hard, and greatly routed the barbarians.


秦魯公紹遣長史姚洽、寧朔將軍安鸞、護軍姚墨蠡、河東太守唐小方帥衆二千屯河北之九原,阻河爲固,欲以絕檀道濟糧援。沈林子邀擊,破之,斬洽、墨蠡、小方,殺獲殆盡。林子因啓太尉裕曰:「紹氣蓋關中,今兵屈於外,國危於內,恐其凶命先盡,不得以膏齊斧耳。」紹聞洽等敗死,憤恚,發病嘔血,以兵屬東平公讚而卒。讚旣代紹,衆力猶盛,引兵襲林子,林子復擊破之。

19. Yao Shao sent his Chief Clerk, Yao Qia, the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, An Luan, the General Who Guards The Army, Yao Moli, and the Administrator of Hedong, Tang Xiaofang, to lead two thousand troops to camp at Jiuquan in Hebei, using the Yellow River as their defenses, in order to cut Tan Daoji's supply assistance. But Shen Linzi intercepted and attacked them, and he routed them; he took the heads of Yao Qia, Mo Li, and Tang Xiaofang and killed or captured almost all of the Qin soldiers.

Shen Linzi then reported to Liu Yu, "Yao Shao's spirit lives for Guanzhong. But now that Guanzhong is threatened by our troops from without and turmoil from within, I'm afraid his spirit is going to give out before he's able to 'douse his axe' again."

Indeed, when Yao Shao heard that Yao Qia and the others had been defeated and killed, he was so agitated and angry that he became ill and coughed up blood. He entrusted command of his troops to Yao Zan before passing away.

Though Yao Shao was dead, Yao Zan was still in command of considerable soldiers, and he led his troops to launch a surprise attack against Shen Linzi. But Shen Linzi attacked and routed him.

〈《載記》曰:紹欲以絕弘農諸縣糧援。〉〈應劭曰:齊,利也。張晏曰:齊,征伐斧也,以整齊天下也。一說:「齊」作「齋」,凡師出入,齋戒入廟而受斧鉞也。〉

(The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Yao Shao wished to cut off the supply shipments from the counties of Hongnong which Tan Daoji was receiving."

Shen Linzi uses the phrase 以膏齊斧. Ying Shao remarked, "齊 means gain or benefit." Zhang Yan remarked, "齊 means the axe of authority wielded during campaigns, as a symbol that one will reshape the realm." It is also said that 齊 is written as 齋, in the sense that when one goes out on campaigns and then returns, one 齋 "leaves" their troops behind and enters the court in order to receive the axe and battle-axe of authority.)


道濟固壘不戰,紹遣左長史姚洽等屯於河北,欲絕道濟租輸,為沈林子所敗,衆皆沒焉。紹忿恚發病,嘔血而死。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Tan Daoji stuck to his defenses and would not fight. Yao Shao sent his Chief Clerk, Yao Qia, and others to camp north of the Yellow River, in order to cut Tan Daoji's supply assistance. But Shen Linzi defeated them, and the whole army was lost. Yao Shao became so agitated and angry that he became ill; he coughed up blood and passed away.

紹遣左長史姚洽及姚墨蠡等率騎三千屯于河北之九原,欲絕道濟諸縣租輸。洽辭曰:「夫小敵之堅,大敵之擒。今兵眾單弱,而遠在河外,雖明公神武,然鞭短勢殊,恐無所及。」紹不聽。沈林子率眾八千,耍洽於河上,洽戰死,眾皆沒。紹聞洽等敗,忿恚發病,托姚贊以後事,使姚難屯關西,紹嘔血而死。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Shao sent his Chief Clerk of the Left, Yao Qia, and Yao Moli and others to lead three thousand cavalry to camp at Jiuquan in Hebei, using the Yellow River as their defenses, in order to cut Tan Daoji's supply assistance.

Yao Qia had objected, "It is a principle that the inferior force remains on the defensive while the superior force pursues aggression. Our soldiers are weak and our army few, yet you would have us march beyond the Yellow River. You yourself may possess divine martial prowess, but I fear our shortcomings are simply too much for this to succeed."

But Yao Shao had not listened to him.

Shen Linzi led eight thousand soldiers to intercept Yao Qia at the Yellow River; Yao Qia died in battle, and the whole army was lost.

When Yao Shao heard that Yao Qia and the others had been defeated, he was so agitated and angry that he became ill. He entrusted affairs to Yao Zan and sent Yao Nan to camp in Guanxi before coughing up blood and passing away.


太尉裕至洛陽,行視城塹,嘉毛脩之完葺之功,賜衣服玩好,直二千萬。

20. When Liu Yu arrived at Luoyang, he went around inspecting the walls and moats there. He commended the garrison commander, Mao Xiuzhi, for his good work in restoring the defenses, and he granted him rewards of fine clothing and trinkets and twenty million 直.

丁巳,魏主嗣如高柳;壬戌,還平城。

21. On the day Dingsi (May 17th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to Gaoliu. On the day Renxu (May 22nd), he returned to Pingcheng.

夏四月丁未,榆山丁零翟蜀率營部遣使通劉裕。馮跋使人王特兒等通於司馬德宗,章武太守捕特兒等,囚送京師。丁巳,幸高柳。壬戌,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Dingwei (May 7th), a Dingling leader from Yushan commandary, Zhai Shu, organized his forces and exchanged envoys with Liu Yu.

Feng Ba sent his envoys, Wang Te'er and others, to try to open communications with Sima Dezong (Emperor An). But the Administrator of Zhangwu captured Wang Te'er and the others and sent them to the capital to be imprisoned.

On the day Dingsi (May 17th), Emperor Mingyuan went to Gaoliu. On the day Renxu (May 22nd), he returned to the palace.


河西王蒙遜大赦。遣張掖太守沮渠廣宗詐降以誘涼公歆,歆發兵應之。蒙遜將兵三萬伏於蓼泉,歆覺之,引兵還。蒙遜追之,歆與戰於解支澗,大破之,斬首七千餘級。蒙遜城建康,置戍而還。

22. Juqu Mengxun declared a general amnesty.

Juqu Mengxun arranged for his Administrator of Zhangye, Juqu Guangzong, to falsely surrender to Li Xin in order to lure him in. Li Xin raised troops and marched towards Juqu Guangzong's position. Juqu Mengxun then led thirty thousand soldiers to prepare an ambush at Liaoquan. But Li Xin discovered the ruse, and he began leading his forces back again. Juqu Mengxun pursued him and fought Li Xin at Jiezhi (or Xianzhi) Creek, but Li Xin greatly routed him and took more than seven thousand heads. Juqu Mengxun fortified the walls of Jiankang and posted a garrison there before withdrawing.

〈《新唐書‧地理志》,甘州張掖郡西北百九十里有祁連山,山北有建康軍,軍西百二十里有蓼泉守捉城。〉〈「解支澗」,《晉書》作「鮮支澗」,當從之。〉

(According to the Geographical Records of the New Book of Tang, there was a Mount Qilian ninety li northwest of Zhangye commandary in Ganzhou. North of this mountain was the Jiankang Garrison, and a hundred and twenty li west of the Garrison was a fortification at Liaoquan.

This passage lists the battlefield as being at 解 Jiezhi Creek. But the Book of Jin records it as being at 鮮 Xianzhi Creek, and that is what it should be here.)


是月,涼公李士業大敗沮渠蒙遜于鮮支澗。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

That same month (as E Qing's defeat), the Duke of Liang, Li Xin, greatly defeated Juqu Mengxun at Xianzhi Creek.

六月,歆伐蒙遜,至建康,蒙遜拒之,歆退走,追到西支澗,蒙遜大敗,死者四千餘人,乃收餘眾,增築建康城,置兵戍而還。(Book of Liu-Song 98, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

In the sixth month, Li Xin campaigned against Juqu Mengxun, marching as far as Jiankang. Juqu Mengxun opposed him, and Li Xin retreated and fled. Juqu Mengxun pursued him to Xizhi Creek, but there Juqu Mengxun was greatly defeated, with more than four thousand of his troops killed. He gathered up his remaining soldiers, fortified the walls of Jiankang, and posted a garrison there before withdrawing.


五月,乙未,齊郡太守王懿降於魏,上書言:「劉裕在洛,宜發兵絕其歸路,可不戰而克。」魏主嗣善之。

23. In the fifth month, on the day Yiwei (June 24th), Jin's Administrator of Qi commandary, Wang Yi, surrendered that commandary to Wei. He sent up a letter to Emperor Mingyuan of Wei stating, "Now that Liu Yu is at Luoyang, you should send out troops to cut off his line of retreat. Then you can defeat him even without fighting a battle." Emperor Mingyuan approved of this advice.

五月,汝南民胡譁等萬餘家相率內屬。乙未,司馬德宗齊郡太守王懿來降。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth month, people from Runan commandary, Hu Hua and others, led more than ten thousand families to lead each other to move into the interior of Northern Wei.

On the day Yiwei (June 24th), Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Administrator of Qi commandary, Wang Yi, surrendered that commandary to Northern Wei.


崔浩侍講在前,嗣問之曰:「劉裕伐姚泓,果能克乎?」對曰:「克之。」嗣曰:「何故?」對曰:「昔姚興好事虛名而少實用,子泓懦而多病,兄弟乖爭。裕乘其危,兵精將勇,何故不克!」嗣曰:「裕才何如慕容垂?」對曰:「勝之。垂藉父兄之資,修復舊業,國人歸之,若夜蟲之就火,少加倚仗,易以立功。劉裕奮起寒微,不階尺土,討滅桓玄,興復晉室,北禽慕容超,南梟盧循,所向無前,非其才之過人,安能如是乎!」嗣曰:「裕旣入關,不能進退,我以精騎直擣彭城、壽春,裕將若之何?」對曰:「今西有屈丐,北有柔然,窺伺國隙。陛下旣不可親御六師,雖有精兵,未睹良將。長孫嵩長於治國,短於用兵,非劉裕敵也。興兵遠攻,未見其利;不如且安靜以待之。裕克秦而歸,必篡其主。關中華、戎雜錯,風俗勁悍;裕欲以荊、揚之化施之函、秦,此無異解衣包火,張羅捕虎;雖留兵守之,人情未洽,趨尚不同,適足爲寇敵之資耳。願陛下按兵息民以觀其變,秦地終爲國家之有,可坐而守也。」嗣笑曰:「卿料之審矣。」浩曰:「臣嘗私論近世將相之臣:若王猛之治國,苻堅之管仲也;慕容恪之輔幼主,慕容暐之霍光也;劉裕之平禍亂,司馬德宗之曹操也。」嗣曰:「屈丐何如?」浩曰:「屈丐國破家覆,孤孑一身,寄食姚氏,受其封殖。不思醻恩報義,而乘時徼利,盜有一方,結怨四鄰;撅豎小人,雖能縱暴一時,終當爲人所吞食耳。」嗣大悅,語至夜半,賜浩御縹醪十觚,水精鹽一兩,曰:「朕味卿言,如此鹽、酒,故欲與卿共饗其美。」然猶命長孫嵩、叔孫建各簡精兵伺裕西過,自成皋濟河,南侵彭、沛;若不時過,則引兵隨之。

24. Cui Hao was lecturing Emperor Mingyuan. Emperor Mingyuan asked him, "Will Liu Yu succeed in his campaign against Yao Hong?"

Cui Hao replied, "He will."

Emperor Mingyuan asked, "Why so?"

Cui Hao replied, "During his reign, Yao Xing liked to do things that would grant him an empty reputation, but he did little that was of any actual worth. Now his son Yao Hong is in charge, but Yao Hong is a coward and prone to illness, while his brothers are fighting for control of the state. Liu Yu is taking advantage of Qin's peril, and he has elite troops and bold generals at his command. How could he not succeed?"

Emperor Mingyuan asked, "How talented is Liu Yu compared to Murong Chui?"

Cui Hao replied, "He surpasses Murong Chui. For Murong Chui could count on the resources and legacy which his ancestors had built up before him, and he was restoring a state which had already existed. The people of Yan were thus prepared to support his cause, like moths to a flame; he attracted many warriors and riders, so it was easy for him to achieve his ambition. Liu Yu, on the other hand, rose up from a poor background, without any land to call his own. Yet he campaigned against and exterminated Huan Xuan, and he restored the Jin royal family; to the north, he captured Murong Chao, and to the south, he took the head of Lu Xun. All fell before him, and no one could surpass his talents. How then could he have been inferior to Murong Chui?"

Emperor Mingyuan asked, "Suppose that once Liu Yu enters Guanzhong, he is neither able to advance nor retreat, and then I lead elite cavalry to capture Pengcheng and Shouchun behind him. Then what could he do?"

Cui Hao replied, "We currently face two powerful threats to the state already: Qugai (Helian Bobo) in the west, and the Rouran in the north. They are always watching our state, seeking to exploit any opening. Now Your Majesty is not capable of leading the six armies of state personally, and though you indeed have elite soldiers available, you have no expert general available to lead them. Zhangsun Song may be adept at governing the state, but he falls short when it comes to leading troops, and he would be no match for Liu Yu. So I cannot see any benefit to raising troops and sending them on such a distant campaign.

“It would be better for us to let the troops rest and await events. Once Liu Yu conquers Qin and returns to Jin, he will certainly usurp the throne from his sovereign. But the Hua (ethnic Han) and tribal peoples of Guanzhong are fierce and wilful by nature, and though Liu Yu seeks to subdue their spirits through the customs of Jingzhou and Yangzhou, this would be no different than trying to smother a fire with threadbare clothes or trying to catch a tiger with a wide-gapped net. Even though he will leave troops to hold the region, he will fail to gain the trust of the people, and they will not support him. Guanzhong will be left as nothing more than a prize for another invader to snatch from him. So I advise Your Majesty to restrain your soldiers and let the people rest, while waiting to see such events unfold. The territory of Qin will be ours in the end; we need only wait until the moment is ripe."

Emperor Mingyuan laughed and said, "Sir, you've laid everything out so clearly."

Cui Hao replied, "I have given some thought before to the analogies between recent historical figures. In my view, Wang Meng was so skilled at governing the state that he served as Fu Jian's Guan Zhong. Murong Ke was so loyal in his service as regent to a young ruler that he acted as Murong Wei's Huo Guang. As for Liu Yu, he has done so well at quelling chaos and turmoil that he will be Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Cao Cao.”

Emperor Mingyuan asked, "What about Qugai?"

Cui Hao replied, "Qugai's family was wiped out and their state destroyed, and he was left a mere orphan. At that time, he relied upon the refuge of the Yao clan and accepted their ranks and titles. Yet rather than consider how to repay such gratitude by acting with righteousness, he played the opportunist and sought his own advantage. He stole a corner of the realm, and he incurred the hatred of all his neighbors. He is a mere savage, and he may run wild for a time, but he'll be swallowed up by others in the end."

Emperor Mingyuan was so delighted with this discussion that the two of them talked far into the night. He rewarded Cui Hao with ten vessels of green-white pure imperial wine and a 兩 of essense-of-water salt, telling him "Your words have been as delicious to me as this salt and this wine, thus I want to share the flavor back with you."

However, Emperor Mingyuan still decided to order Zhangsun Song and Shusun Jian to each lead elite troops to wait until Liu Yu had gone west, then cross the Yellow River at Chenggao and march south to raid Pengcheng and Pei. If Liu Yu did not quickly go west, then they were to lead their troops to follow him.

〈謂弼、懿、恢皆與泓爭國。〉〈事見一百一十三卷元興三年。〉〈事見一百一十五卷五年、六年。〉〈事見六年、七年。〉〈《北史》曰:明元改赫連勃勃名曰屈丐。北方言屈丐者,卑下也。〉〈凡兵之動,知敵之主,知敵之將,此之謂也。〉〈赫連之得關中,崔浩固料之矣。〉〈事見一百一十四卷三年。〉〈謂與魏、秦、涼構怨也。〉〈撅豎,言撅起自豎立也。〉〈青白色曰縹。醅酒曰醪。觚,飲器,受三升。此魏主所自御者,故曰御縹醪。〉〈鹽透明如水精,故謂之水精鹽。〉〈彭、沛,謂彭城、沛郡也。〉

(Cui Hao refers to how Yao Hong's brothers Yao Bi, Yao Yi, and Yao Hui had all been fighting for control of Later Qin.

Liu Yu's uprising against Huan Xuan is mentioned in Book 113, in the third year of Yuanxing (404). His campaign against Murong Chao is mentioned in Book 115, in the fifth and sixth years of Yixi (409-410). His campaign against the rebel Lu Xun is mentioned in the sixth and seventh years of Yixi (410-411).

Regarding the term Qugai to refer to Helian Bobo, the Histories of the Northern Dynasties states, "Emperor Mingyuan changed Helian Bobo's given name to Qugai, a term among northerners which means 'lowly'."

Before moving troops, one should have an understanding both of the enemy's ruler and their generals. This was the principle which Cui Hao advised.

Helian Bobo's conquest of Guanzhong unfolded just as Cui Hao here predicted.

Helian Bobo's rebellion against Later Qin is mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (407.14, 16-17).

Helian Bobo had stirred up the hatred of his neighbors Northern Wei, Later Qin, and the Liang states.

Helian Bobo was "a savage" in that he wildly propped himself up.

縹 is a term meaning a green-white color.

"Pure" wine is unfiltered.

A "vessel" was a container for wine, with three 升 of capacity.

The wine was "imperial" in that it was reserved for the personal use of the sovereign of Northern Wei.

The salt was bright and clear as water, thus its name "essence-of-water salt".

"Peng and Pei" means Pengcheng and Pei commandary.)


又敕簡精兵為戰備,若裕西過者,便率精銳南出彭沛,如不時過,但引軍隨之。彼至崤陝間,必與姚泓相持,一死一傷,眾力疲弊。比及秋月,徐乃乘之,則裕首可不戰而懸。於是叔孫建等尋河趣洛。遂入關。嵩與建等自成皐南濟,晉諸屯戍皆望塵奔潰。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Song)

Emperor Mingyuan also assigned elite troops to Zhangsun Song and ordered him to make battle preparations. If Liu Yu passed them to the west, then they were to lead these elite troops south to Pengcheng and Pei. If Liu Yu did not quickly go west, then they were to lead their troops to follow him. Either way, by the time Liu Yu reached the Xiao Ranges, he would surely become locked in battle with Yao Hong; one side would perish while the other side would be weakened, so both of them would be exhausted by the struggle. If the Northern Wei armies waited until the autumn months and then took advantage of the situation, then they would be able to take Liu Yu's head even without fighting. Shusun Jian and the others soon crossed the Yellow River and entered the Luoyang region, and when Liu Yu entered Guanzhong, Zhangsun Song, Shusun Jian, and the others marched south from Chenggao. The various Jin camps and garrisons all recognized the situation and scattered and fled.


魏主嗣西巡至雲中,遂濟河,畋于大漠。

25. Emperor Mingyuan went on a western patrol as far as Yunzhong, then crossed the Yellow River and went hunting in the great desert.

車駕西巡,至于雲中,遂濟河,田于大漠。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Emperor Mingyuan went on a western patrol as far as Yunzhong, then crossed the Yellow River and went hunting in the great desert.


魏置天地四方六部大人,以諸公爲之。

26. Wei appointed six Chiefs of Heaven, Earth, and the Four Directions and appointed lords to fill the offices.

〈諸公,謂時居公位及位從公者。〉

(The "lords" were those who currently held the ranks of Duke or lower nobility.)


秋,七月,太尉裕至陝。沈田子、傅弘之入武關,秦戍將皆委城走。田子等進屯青泥,秦主泓使給事黃門侍郎姚和都屯嶢柳以拒之。

27. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Yu arrived at Shan.

Shen Tianzi and Fu Hongzhi entered Wuguan, where Qin's garrison commanders all abandoned the city and fled. Shen Tianzi and the others then advanced to camp at Qingni. Yao Hong sent his Attendant Officer and Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Yao Hedu, to camp at Yaoliu to oppose them.

武關入,偽上洛太守囗脫奔走,進據藍田,招懷戎、晉。晉人龐斌之、戴養、胡人康橫等各率部落歸化。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Fu Hongzhi)

When Fu Hongzhi and Shen Tianzi entered Wuguan, Yao Hong's Administrator of Shangluo abandoned the city and fled. They advanced and occupied Lantian, where they attracted and recruited the various tribal and Jin (ethnic Han) people. Several Jin people, such as Pang Binzhi and Dai Yang, and several tribal people, such as Kang Heng, led their forces to come join them.

泓遣給事黃門侍郎姚和都屯于堯柳,以備田子。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong sent his Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Yao Hedu, to camp at Yaoliu to guard against Shen Tianzi.


西秦相國翟勍卒;八月,以尚書令曇達爲左丞相,左僕射元基爲右丞相,御史大夫麴景爲尚書令,侍中翟紹爲左僕射。

28. The Chancellor of State of Western Qin, Zhai Qing, passed away. In the eighth month, Qifu Chipan appointed his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Qifu Tanda, as his Prime Minister of the Left, and he appointed the Deputy Director of the Left, Qifu Yuanji, as his Prime Minister of the Right. He appointed the Imperial Secretary, Qu Jing, as the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and the Palace Attendant, Zhai Shao, as the new Deputy Director of the Left.

〈翟勍旣卒,曇達皆序遷,《通鑑》卽西秦舊史書之。〉

(The Zizhi Tongjian must have had access to old historical records of Western Qin to be able to note such events as Zhai Qing's death and the appointment of Qifu Tanda and the others.)


熾磐聞而喜曰:「此虜矯矯,所謂有豕白蹢。往歲曇達東征,姚艾敗走;今木奕於西討,黠虜遠逃。境宇稍清,奸凶方殄,股肱惟良,吾無患矣。」於是以曇達為左丞相,其子元基為右丞相,麹景為尚書令,翟紹為左僕射。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan was delighted when he heard about Qifu Muyiyu's victory over the Tuyuhun. He said, "The land is filled with these strong barbarians, just as the poet described: 'herds of swine with legs of white'. Yet recently, Qifu Tanda conquered in the east and put Yao Ai to flight, and now, Qifu Muyiyu campaigned in the west and drove away these crafty barbarians. My domain is gradually being settled, and the wicked villains are being destroyed. With supporters like these, I have nothing to worry about."

So he appointed Qifu Tanda as Prime Minister of the Left, his own son Qifu Yuanji as Prime Minister of the Right, Qu Jing as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Zhai Shao as Deputy Director of the Left.


太尉裕至閺鄕。沈田子等將攻嶢柳,秦主泓欲自將以禦裕軍,恐田子等襲其後,欲先擊滅田子等,然後傾國東出;乃帥步騎數萬,奄至青泥。田子本爲疑兵,所領裁千餘人,聞泓至,欲擊之;傅弘之以衆寡不敵止之,田子曰:「兵貴用奇,不必在衆。且今衆寡相懸,勢不兩立,若彼結圍旣固,則我無所逃矣。不如乘其始至,營陳未立,先薄之,可以有功。」遂帥所領先進,弘之繼之。秦兵合圍數重。田子撫慰士卒曰:「諸君冒險遠來,止求今日之戰,死生一決,封侯之業於此在矣!」士卒皆踴躍鼓譟,執短兵奮擊,秦兵大敗,斬馘萬餘級,得其乘輿服御物,秦主泓奔還灞上。

29. Liu Yu marched to Wenxiang.

Shen Tianzi and the others were about to attack Yaoliu. Yao Hong wanted to personally lead his forces to oppose Liu Yu's army, but he was afraid that Shen Tianzi and the others would then surprise attack him from behind. So he planned to first attack and vanquish Shen Tianzi and the rest, then pour out all the forces of his state to march east. He led tens of thousands of horse and foot to advance to Qingni.

Now Shen Tianzi was mostly leading a mere decoy force, and he only had little more than a thousand soldiers under his command. When he heard that Yao Hong was coming, he wanted to attack him. Fu Hongzhi argued against it, saying that they were too few and would not be able to stop the enemy. But Shen Tianzi said, "When it comes to fighting, strategy often matters more than numbers. Besides, the enemy is nearly upon us, and we have no reinforcements we can count upon; if we allow the enemy to establish themselves and surround us, we will have no way to escape them. Better to take advantage of their having just arrived and, before they can finish setting up their formation, charge against them. That way, we might achieve something."

So Shen Tianzi led his troops forward as the vanguard, with Fu Hongzhi following behind them with his troops. The Qin troops had established encircling lines several lines deep. But Shen Tianzi reassured his soldiers, saying, "You fellows have come all this way and braved all these dangers purely because you sought such a battle as we face today. Now is the moment when life or death will be decided; now is the time when we will earn our noble titles!"

His officers and soldiers all leapt up and beat the drums, and they charged forward with short weapons in hand. The Qin army was greatly defeated, and the Jin soldiers took more than ten thousand heads or ears. They also captured Yao Hong's imperial carriage, clothing, and equipment. Yao Hong fled back to Bashang.

〈閺,音旻。〉〈沈田子以千餘人敗姚泓數萬之衆者,置兵死地,人自爲戰也。〉

(The first character of Wenxiang, 閺, is pronounced "min".

Shen Tianzi was able to defeat Yao Hong's army of tens of thousands with a mere thousand or so soldiers of his own because he placed his troops on deadly ground and compelled them to fight of their own volition.)


武帝北伐,倫之遣順陽太守傅弘之、扶風太守沈田子出嶢柳,大破姚泓於藍田。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhao Lunzhi)

When Liu Yu launched his northern campaign (in 416), Zhao Lunzhi sent the Administrator of Shunyang, Fu Hongzhi, and the Administrator of Fufeng, Shen Tianzi, to march out from Yaoliu, and they greatly routed Yao Hong at Lantian.

劉裕次于陝城,泓使姚裕率步騎八千距之,泓躬將大衆繼發。裕為沈田子所敗,泓退次于灞上。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu advanced to Shancheng. Yao Hong sent Yao Yu to lead eight thousand horse and foot to oppose him, with Yao Hong personally leading a larger army behind. But Yao Yu was defeated by Shen Tianzi, so Yao Hong fell back to Bashang.

泓使姚裕率步騎八千距之,泓躬將大眾繼發。裕為田子所敗,泓退次於灞上。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong sent Yao Yu with eight thousand horse and foot to oppose Shen Tianzi and the others, while he himself led the main body behind as their reserves. But Yao Yu was defeated by Shen Tianzi. Yao Hong retreated back to Bashang.


初,裕以田子等衆少,遣沈林子將兵自秦嶺往助之,至則秦兵已敗,乃相與追之,關中郡縣多潛送款於田子。

30. Liu Yu had already sent Shen Linzi to lead troops from Qinling to assist Shen Tianzi and the others, believing that they had too few troops to oppose the enemy. By the time Shen Linzi arrived, the Qin army had already been defeated. So Shen Linzi joined the pursuit to chase after them.

Many of the commandaries and counties of Guanzhong secretly sent grain to Shen Tianzi.

〈秦嶺在長安南,班固《西都賦》所謂「前乘秦嶺」。自此出藍田關。裕蓋遣林子自陽華循山西南至秦嶺。〉

(Qinling was south of Chang'an, as mentioned in Ban Gu's Rhapsody on the Western Capital: "Riding forward to Qinling". One would have passed through Lantian Pass to get there. So Liu Yu must have sent Shen Linzi from Yanghua to travel southwest along the mountains to get to Qinling.)


劉裕次於陝城,遣沈林子率精兵萬餘,越山開道,會沈田子等於青泥,將攻堯柳... 關中郡縣多潛通于王師。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu advanced to Shancheng. He sent Shen Linzi to lead more than ten thousand elite soldiers to pass through the mountains and open up roads in order to join with Shen Tianzi and the others at Qingni, so that they could attack Yaoliu.

Many of the commandaries and counties in Guanzhong secretly opened communications with the Jin army.


辛丑,太尉裕至潼關,以朱超石爲河東太守,使與振武將軍徐猗之會薛帛於河北,共攻蒲阪。秦平原公璞與姚和都共擊之,猗之敗死,超石奔還潼關。東平公讚遣司馬國璠引魏兵以躡裕後。

31. On the day Xinchou (August 29th), Liu Yu arrived at Tong Gate.

Liu Yu appointed Zhu Chaoshi as Administrator of Hedong, and he sent him and the General Who Rouses Valor, Xu Yizhi, to join Xue Bo at Hebei and attack Puban together. But Qin's Duke of Pingyuan, Yao Pu, and Yao Hedu attacked them together; Xu Yizhi was defeated and killed, and Zhu Chaoshi fled back to Tong Gate.

Yao Zan sent Sima Guofan to lead Wei troops to march around to Liu Yu's rear.

〈姚和都,蓋青泥旣敗而奔蒲阪也。或曰:「和都」,當作「成都」。〉

(Yao Hedu must have fled to Puban after his defeat at Qingni. Some people also claim that this passage should say "Yao Chengdu" instead of "Yao Hedu".)


五月,劉裕克潼關。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, Liu Yu took Tong Gate.

高祖又遣振武將軍徐猗之五千人向越騎城,虜圍猗之,以長戟結陣。超石赴之,未至,悉奔走。大軍進克蒲阪,以超石為河東太守,戍守之。賊以超石眾少,復還攻城,超石戰敗退走,數日乃及大軍。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Chaoshi)

Liu Yu also sent the General Who Rouses Valor, Xu Yizhi, to lead five thousand soldiers towards the city of Yueqi. The barbarians surrounded Xu Yizhi, who set up a formation of long halbers. Zhu Chaoshi marched to reinforce him, but before he had arrived, Xu Yizhi's forces had scattered and fled.

When the main Jin army advanced and took Puban, Zhu Chaoshi was appointed as Administrator of Hedong and ordered to guard it. But the enemies, recognizing that Zhu Chaoshi had only a few troops, returned and attacked the city. Zhu Chaoshi was defeated in battle and fled, rejoining the main army after a few days.

又與超石等擊姚業於蒲坂,超石失利退還,藩收超石所捨資實,徐行而反,業不敢追。(Book of Liu-Song 50, Biography of Hu Fan)

Hu Fan, Zhu Chaoshi, and others attacked Yao Ye at Puban. Zhu Chaoshi had the worst of the fighting and so retreated. Hu Fan gathered up all of the supplies and resources that Zhu Chaoshi had left behind and waited until everything was in proper order before departing. Yao Ye did not dare to pursue him.

劉裕至潼關,遣將軍硃超石、徐猗之會薛帛于河北,以攻蒲阪。姚贊距裕于關西,姚難屯於香城... 鎮東姚璞及姚和都擊敗猗之等於蒲阪,猗之遇害,超石棄其眾奔於潼關。姚贊遣司馬休之及司馬國璠自軹關向河內,引魏軍以躡裕後。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu arrived at Tong Gate. He sent his generals Zhu Chaoshi and Xu Yizhi to join with Xue Bo north of the Yellow River so that they could attack Puban. Yao Zan opposed Liu Yu at Guanxi, while Yao Nan camped at Xingcheng.

The General Who Guards The East, Yao Pu, and Yao Hedu attacked and defeated Xu Yizhi and the others at Puban; Xu Yizhi was killed, and Zhu Chaoshi abandoned his army and fled to Tong Gate.

Yao Zan sent Sima Xiuzhi and Sima Guofan to march from Zhi Pass towards Henei, in order to bring the Northern Wei reinforcements forward to stand astride Liu Yu's rear.


王鎭惡請帥水軍自河入渭以趨長安,裕許之。秦恢武將軍姚難自香城引兵而西,鎭惡追之;秦主泓自灞上引兵還屯石橋以爲之援,鎭北將軍姚彊與難合兵屯涇上以拒鎭惡。鎭惡使毛德祖進擊,破之,彊死,難奔長安。

32. Wang Zhen'e asked Liu Yu to let him lead a naval force to sail up the Yellow River and into the Wei River to advance on Chang'an. Liu Yu granted his permission.

Qin's General of Vast Valor, Yao Nan, led his troops west from Xiangcheng, and Wang Zhen'e pursued him. Yao Hong personally led his soldiers from Bashang to fall back to camp at Shiqiao in order to provide support for Yao Nan, and Qin's General Who Guards The North, Yao Xiang, combined his forces with Yao Nan's troops to camp at Jingshang in order to oppose Wang Zhen'e. But Wang Zhen'e sent Mao Dezu forward to attack them, and Mao Dezu routed them; Yao Xiang was killed, while Yao Nan fled to Chang'an.

〈《水經》:河水歷船司空與渭水會,春秋之渭汭卽其地也。〉〈香城在渭水之北,薄津之口。恢武將軍蓋姚秦創置。〉〈石橋,在長安城洛門東北,有石橋。《水經註》曰:石橋水南出馬嶺山,積石據其東,驪山距其西,其水北逕鄭城西,水上有橋,東去鄭城十里,故世以橋名水。《三輔黃圖》曰:洛門,長安城北出東頭第一門。〉〈涇水出安定涇陽縣幵頭山,東南至陽陵入渭。此涇上在漢京兆陽陵界。〉

(The Water Classic states, "The Yellow River joins the Wei River where it passes through Bansikong; this was the bend of the Wei River during the Spring and Autumn era."

Xiangcheng was on the north side of the Wei River, at the rivermouth of Bao Crossing.

"General of Vast Valor" must have been a title created by Later Qin.

Shiqiao ("Stone Bridge") was the stone bridge northeast of the Luo Gate of Chang'an. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Shiqiao River emerged to the south at Mount Maling, where Shiji was along its east side and Mount Li was to its west. The river flowed north, passing west of Zhengcheng. There was a bridge across the river, ten li west of Zhengcheng, which gave rise to the name of the river itself." The Records of the Three Adjuncts Regions states, "The Luo Gate was the easternmost gate on Chang'an's northern wall."

The Jing River emerged from Mount Jiantou in Jingyang county in Anding commandary, then flowed southeast until Yangling, where it entered the Wei River. This particular place "Jingshang" was in Yangling county in Han's Jingzhao commandary.)


姚讚距晉師于關西,姚難屯于杏城。時大霖雨,渭水汛溢,王鎮惡水陸兼進,追及姚難。泓自灞上還軍,次於石橋以援之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Zan opposed the Jin army west of Tong Gate, while Yao Nan camped at Xingcheng. At that time, there were fierce rains, and the Wei River was swollen and rapid. Wang Zhen'e advanced by land and water, and he pursued and caught up with Yao Nan. Yao Hong marched back from Bashang and advanced to Shiqiao to support Yao Nan.

裕遣王鎮惡、王敬自秋社西渡渭,以逼難軍... 姚難既為鎮惡所逼,引師而西。時大霖雨,渭水泛溢,贊等不得北渡。鎮惡水陸兼進,追及姚難。泓自灞上還軍,次於石橋以援之... 鎮北姚彊率郡人數千,與姚難陣於涇上,以距鎮惡。鎮惡遣毛德祖擊彊,大敗,彊戰死,難遁還長安。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Liu Yu sent Wang Zhen'e and Wang Jing from Qiudu west up the Wei River, in order to threaten Yao Nan's camp at Xingcheng.

Feeling threatened by Wang Zhen'e, Yao Nan began withdrawing to the west. But there was a great storm at that time, causing the Wei River to rise and swell, so Yao Zan and the others could not cross north of it. Wang Zhen'e advanced by land and water, and he pursued and caught up with Yao Nan.

Yao Hong personally led his soldiers from Bashang to fall back to camp at Shiqiao in order to provide support for Yao Nan. Qin's General Who Guards The North, Yao Xiang, led several thousand people from the local commandary to camp at Jingshang with Yao Nan in order to oppose Wang Zhen'e. But Wang Zhen'e sent Mao Dezu forward to attack them, and Mao Dezu greatly defeated them; Yao Xiang was killed, while Yao Nan fled back to Chang'an.


東平公讚退屯鄭城,太尉裕進軍逼之。泓使姚丕守渭橋,胡翼度屯石積,東平公讚屯灞東,泓屯逍遙園。

33. Yao Zan fell back to camp at Zhengchang. Liu Yu advanced to threaten him. Yao Hong sent Yao Pi to guard Weiqiao, Hu Yidu to camp at Shiji, and Yao Zan to camp at Badong, while Yao Hong himself camped at the Xiaoyao Park.

〈《水經註》:沈水上承樊川皇子陂,北逕長安城西,與昆明池水合。其枝津東北流,逕鄧艾祠南,又東分爲二水,一水入逍遙園。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Shen River emerges from Huangzi Slope in Chengfanchuan. It flows north, passing west of Chang'an, then joins with the waters of Kunming Pond. A branch of it then flows northeast, passing south of the shrine of Deng Ai, then east where it splits into two rivers, one of which enters the Xiaoyao Park.")


晉師進據鄭城,泓使姚裕、尚書龐統屯兵宮中,姚洗屯于灃西,尚書姚白瓜徙四軍雜戶入長安,姚丕守渭橋,胡翼度屯石積,姚贊屯灞東,泓軍于逍遙園。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Jin army advanced to occupy Zhengcheng. Yao Hong sent Yao Yu and one of the Masters of Writing, Pang Tong, to camp their troops within the palace, and he ordered Yao Xi to camp at Fengxi and another of the Masters of Writing, Yao Baigua, to relocate the various households of the Four Divisions into Chang'an. Yao Hong sent Yao Pi to guard Weiqiao, Hu Yidu to camp at Shiji, and Yao Zan to camp at Badong, while Yao Hong himself camped at the Xiaoyao Park.

贊退屯鄭城... 劉裕進據鄭城。泓使姚裕、尚書龐統屯兵宮中,姚洸屯於灃西,尚書姚白瓜徙四軍雜戶入長安,姚丕守渭橋,胡翼度屯石積,姚贊屯霸東,泓軍於逍遙園。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Zan retreated to camp at Zhengcheng.

Liu Yu advanced to occupy Zhengcheng. Yao Hong sent Yao Yu and one of the Masters of Writing, Pang Tong, to camp with soldiers inside the palace at Chang'an. He sent Yao Guang to camp west of the Feng River, another of the Masters of Writing, Yao Baigua, to relocate the various households of the Four Divisions into Chang'an, Yao Pi to guard Weiqiao, Hu Yidu to camp at Shiji, and Yao Zan to camp at Badong, while Yao Hong himself camped at the Xiaoyao Park.


鎭惡泝渭而上,乘蒙衝小艦,行船者皆在艦內;秦人見艦進而無行船者,皆驚以爲神。壬戌旦,鎭惡至渭橋,令軍士食畢,皆持仗登岸,後登者斬。衆旣登,渭水迅急,艦皆隨流,倐忽不知所在。時泓所將尚數萬人。鎭惡諭士卒曰:「吾屬並家在江南,此爲長安北門,去家萬里,舟楫、衣糧皆已隨流。今進戰而勝,則功名俱顯;不勝,則骸骨不返,無他岐矣。卿等勉之!」乃身先士卒,衆騰踊爭進,大破姚丕於渭橋。泓引兵救之,爲丕敗卒所蹂踐,不戰而潰;姚諶等皆死,泓單馬還宮。鎭惡入自平朔門,泓與姚裕等數百騎逃奔石橋。東平公讚聞泓敗,引兵赴之,衆潰去;胡翼度降於太尉裕。

34. Wang Zhen'e entered the Wei River and advanced upriver, riding in small covered charging ships with the sailors within the ships. The people of Qin were all amazed when they saw these ships advancing without any sailors, panicking at what they thought was divine.

On the morning of the day Renxu (September 19th), Wang Zhen'e arrived at Wenqiao. He ordered his soldiers to eat all of their remaining provisions and then take up their weapons and climb the riverbank; any stragglers would be beheaded. No sooner had his soldiers climbed onto the shore when the Wei River suddenly rushed and roared, and their boats were all washed away out of sight.

At this time, Yao Hong's generals were in command of tens of thousands of soldiers. Wang Zhen'e told his officers and soldiers, "Our families are all in the Southland. Now here we are at the northern gate of Chang'an, ten thousand li away from our families, and our ships and supplies have all been washed away. If we advance to battle and we triumph, then our achievements and our names will all be glorious. If we are defeated, then our bones will fall here and never return home. There is no other way out for us. All of you, exert yourselves!"

Wang Zhen'e then personally led the soldiers forward, and they charged ahead, vying with each other. They greatly routed Yao Pi at Weiqiao. Yao Hong led troops to reinforce Yao Pi, but they were overrun by Yao Pi's stampeding soldiers, and they scattered without even fighting. Yao Shen and others died in the fighting, and Yao Hong fled back to the palace on a lone horse.

Wang Zhen'e then entered Chang'an through the Pingshuo Gate, while Yao Hong, Yao Yu, and others led several hundred riders to flee to Shiqiao. When Yao Zan heard that Yao Hong had been defeated, he tried to lead his own soldiers to join with him, but his army scattered and fled.

Hu Yidu surrendered to Liu Yu.

〈岐,旁出之道。〉〈漢無平朔門,蓋長安城北門也,後人改其名耳。〉

(Wang Zhen'e uses the term 岐; this means a side-road or shortcut.

There had been no "Pingshuo Gate" at Chang'an during the Han dynasty, but it certainly must have been one of the northern gates of the city. Its name must have been changed sometime after the end of Han.)


鎮惡夾渭進兵,破姚丕於渭橋,泓自赴之,逼水地狹,因丕之敗,遂相見而退。姚諶、姚烈、姚寶等皆死於陣。泓單馬還宮,鎮惡入自平朔門,泓與姚裕數百騎出奔于石橋。讚聞泓敗,召將士告之,皆以戈擊地,攘袂大哭。胡翼度棄衆奔晉。讚夜率諸軍會泓于石橋,晉師已固諸門,讚軍不得入,衆皆驚散。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Wang Zhen'e ascended the Wei River and led his troops forward, and he routed Yao Pi at Weiqiao. Yao Hong led his troops to reinforce Yao Pi, but because of the surge of the river and the narrowness of the terrain, when Yao Pi was defeated, Yao Hong's troops were caught in the stampede and retreated. Yao Shen, Yao Lie, Yao Bao, and others all died in battle, and Yao Hong fled back into the palace on a lone horse.

Wang Zhen'e entered Chang'an through the Pingshuo Gate, while Yao Hong and Yao Yu led several hundred riders to flee to Shiqiao.

When Yao Zan heard that Yao Hong had been defeated, he gathered his generals and soldiers and informed them of the loss. They all beat the ground with their halberds, and they pushed up their sleeves and wept.

Hu Yidu abandoned his army and fled to Jin.

Yao Zan tried to lead his troops during the night to join with Yao Hong at Shiqiao. But by then, the Jin army had already occupied all the passes, and Yao Zan's soldiers could not get through. They all panicked and scattered.

鎮惡夾渭進兵,破姚丕於渭橋。泓自逍遙園赴之,逼水地狹,因丕之敗,遂相踐而退。姚諶及前軍姚烈、左衛姚寶安、散騎王帛、建武姚進、揚威姚蠔、尚書右丞孫玄等皆死於陣,泓單馬還宮。鎮惡入自平朔門,泓與姚裕等數百騎出奔于石橋。贊聞泓之敗也,召將士告之,眾皆以刀擊地,攘袂大泣。胡翼度先與劉裕陰通,是日棄眾奔裕。贊夜率諸軍,將會泓于石橋,王師已固諸門,贊軍不得入,眾皆驚散。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Wang Zhen'e ascended the Wei River and led his troops forward, and he routed Yao Pi at Weiqiao. Yao Hong led his troops from the Xiaoyao Park to reinforce Yao Pi, but because of the surge of the river and the narrowness of the terrain, when Yao Pi was defeated, Yao Hong's troops were caught in the stampede and retreated. Yao Shen, the General of the Forward Army, Yao Lie, the Guard General of the Left, Yao Bao, one of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Wang Bo, the General Who Establishes Valor, Yao Jin, the General Who Displays Might, Yao Hao, the Minister of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Sun Xuan, and others all died in battle, and Yao Hong fled back into the palace on a lone horse.

Wang Zhen'e entered Chang'an through the Pingshuo Gate, while Yao Hong, Yao Yu, and others led several hundred riders to flee out to Shiqiao.

When Yao Zan heard that Yao Hong had been defeated, he gathered his generals and soldiers and informed them of the loss. They all beat the ground with their blades, and they pushed up their sleeves and greatly wept.

Hu Yidu had already secretly been in talks with Liu Yu, and at this time, he abandoned his army and fled to Liu Yu.

Yao Zan tried to lead his troops during the night to join with Yao Hong at Shiqiao. But by then, the Jin army had already fortified all the passes, and Yao Zan's soldiers could not get through. They all panicked and scattered.


泓將出降,其子佛念,年十一,言於泓曰:「晉人將逞其欲,雖降必不免,不如引決。」泓憮然不應。佛念登宮牆自投而死。癸亥,泓將妻子、羣臣詣鎭惡壘門請降,鎭惡以屬吏。城中夷、晉六萬餘戶,鎭惡以國恩撫慰,號令嚴肅,百姓安堵。

35. Yao Hong was about to go out to surrender. His ten-year-old son Yao Fonian said to him, "The Jin people are about to achieve their ambitions, and even if you surrender, you will not be spared. It would be better to decide things at once." But Yao Hong, looking depressed, would not do so. Yao Fonian ascended the walls of the palace and threw himself to his death.

On the day Guihai (September 20th), Yao Hong led his wife, his children, and his ministers to visit the gate of Wang Zhen'e's fortifications and ask to surrender. Wang Zhen'e handed them over to his officials.

There were more than sixty thousand households of both tribal and Jin (ethnic Han) households living inside Chang'an. Wang Zhen'e comforted and reassured them on behalf of the state, and he ordered his troops to remain disciplined and respectful. The common people were thus secure.

〈引決,謂自裁也。〉〈憮,悵也,失意貌。〉〈姚佛念雖不及劉諶,然以童稚之年,氣烈如此,亦可尚也。〉

(By "decide things", Yao Fonian meant that Yao Hong should kill himself.

The term 憮 means a despairing or depressed look.

Although Yao Fonian was not quite on the same level as Liu Shan's son Liu Shen (who killed his wife and children before killing himself rather than surrender to Cao-Wei), the fact that a mere boy still had such a fierce spirit should also be commended.)


秋七月,劉裕克長安,執姚泓。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Yu took Chang'an and captured Yao Hong.

泓計無所出,謀欲降晉,其子佛念年十二,謂泓曰:「陛下今雖降晉,劉裕待人無禮,終必不全。願自我決。」憮然不答,遂登宮牆自投而死。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong now believed that there was no way out, so he planned to surrender to Jin. His eleven-year-old son Yao Fonian said to him, "Even if Your Majesty surrenders to Jin, Liu Yu will accord you no respect, and you will not be able to ensure your survival. We ought to determine our own fates." But Yao Hong, looking depressed, did not reply to him. Yao Fonian ascended the walls of the palace and threw himself to his death.

泓計無所出,謀欲降於裕。其子佛念,年十一,謂泓曰:「晉人將逞其欲,終必不全,願自裁決。」泓憮然不答。佛念遂登宮牆自投而死。泓將妻子詣壘門而降。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Hong now believed that there was no way out, so he planned to surrender to Liu Yu. His ten-year-old son Yao Fonian said to him, "The Jin people are about to achieve their ambitions, and you will surely not be spared. We ought to determine our own fates." But Yao Hong, looking depressed, did not reply to him. Yao Fonian thus ascended the walls of the palace and threw himself to his death.

Yao Hong led his wife and children to visit the gates of the Jin camp and surrender.


九月,太尉裕至長安,鎭惡迎於灞上。裕勞之曰:「成吾霸業者卿也!」鎭惡再拜謝曰:「明公之威,諸將之力,鎭惡何功之有!」裕笑曰:「卿欲學馮異邪?」鎭惡性貪,秦府庫盈積,鎭惡盜取,不可勝紀;裕以其功大,不問。或譖諸裕曰:「鎭惡藏姚泓僞輦,將有異志。」裕使人覘之,鎭惡剔取其金銀,棄輦於垣側,裕意乃安。

36. In the ninth month, Liu Yu arrived at Chang'an, where Wang Zhen'e welcomed him at Bashang. Liu Yu praised him, saying, "You are the one who has fulfilled our endeavor!"

Wang Zhen'e saluted him again and modestly said, "It was thanks to your might and the strength of the generals. What achievement can I claim?"

Liu Yu laughed and said, "Are you taking after Feng Yi now?"

Wang Zhen'e was naturally greedy, and since the warehouses of Qin had been full of goods, he had plundered them when he had taken the city, taking countless things. But Liu Yu felt that Wang Zhen'e's achievement was so great that he should not inquire into his conduct. Still, there were those who slandered Wang Zhen'e, saying, "Wang Zhen'e has stolen away with Yao Hong's imperial carriage. He must have some sinister intention." So Liu Yu sent agents to spy on Wang Zhen'e. But they saw that Wang Zhen'e was merely carving off the gold and silver from the carriage to keep before abandoning the carriage by the wall of the city. Liu Yu thus felt reassured.

〈謂馮異謙退不伐,而能定關中。〉

(Liu Yu refers to Emperor Guangwu of Han's general Feng Yi, who had also been modest and unassuming even though he was so skilled that he also conquered the Guanzhong region.)


裕收秦彝器、渾儀、土圭、記里鼓、指南車送詣建康。其餘金玉、繒帛、珍寶,皆以頒賜將士。秦平原公璞、幷州刺史尹昭以蒲阪降,東平公讚帥宗族百餘人詣裕降,裕皆殺之。送姚泓至建康,斬於市。

37. Liu Yu collected Qin's valuable articles, astronomical devices, sundials, distance-marking drums, and south-pointing chariots and sent them to Jiankang. He distributed the remaining gold and jade, brocades and silks, and treasures and trinkets out among his generals and officers as rewards.

Yao Pu and Qin's Inspector of Bingzhou, Yin Zhao, surrendered Puban to Jin. Yao Zan led more than a hundred members of the Qin royal clan to come surrender to Liu Yu, who killed them all. He sent Yao Hong to Jiankang, where Yao Hong was beheaded in the marketplace.

〈孝武太元九年,姚萇建國,改元白雀,歲在甲申,傳三主,三十四年而亡。〉

(Yao Chang had founded Later Qin in Emperor Xiaowu's ninth year of Taiyuan (384), a Jiashen year, when he had declared the Baique reign era. Later Qin had passed through three sovereigns and lasted for thirty-four years, then perished.)


八月,劉裕滅姚泓。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eighth month, Liu Yu conquered Yao Hong.

收其彝器,歸諸京師。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Liu Yu collected Yao Hong's valuable articles and sent them back to the capital.

平原公璞、并州刺史尹昭,以蒲阪降晉。東平公讚率宗室子弟百餘人亦降于裕, 裕盡殺之。九月,裕至長安,送泓於建康市而戮之,時年三十。建康百里之內,草木焦死。自姚萇白雀元年歲在甲申至於是歲在丙辰,三十有三歲。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Hong)

The Duke of Pingyuan, Yao Pu, and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Yin Zhao, surrendered Puban to Jin. The Duke of Dongping, Yao Zan, led more than a hundred members of the Later Qin royal clan to come surrender to Liu Yu, who killed them all.

In the ninth month, Liu Yu arrived at Chang'an. He sent Yao Hong to the Jiankang marketplace, where Yao Hong was executed. Yao Hong was twenty-nine years old. All the grasses and trees within a hundred li of Jiankang wilted.

Later Qin had been founded in Yao Chang's first year of Baique (384), a Jiashen year, and it perished during this year (417), a Bingchen year. It had lasted for thirty-three years.

泓既有內難,裕遂長驅入關。泓戰敗,請降,送於建康巿斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Hong)

Since Yao Hong was dealing with so much internal instability, Liu Yu took advantage to launch and invasion and march into Guanzhong. Yao Hong was defeated in battle, and he asked to surrender. Liu Yu sent him to the Jiankang marketplace, where Yao Hong was beheaded.

贊率宗室子弟百餘人亦降於裕,裕盡殺之,余宗遷於江南。送泓于建康市斬之,時年三十,在位二年。建康百里之內,草木皆燋死焉。姚萇以孝武太元九年僭立,至泓三世,以安帝義熙十三年而滅,凡三十二年... 元子以庸懦之質,屬傾擾之餘,內難方殷,外禦斯輟。王師杖順,弭節而下長安;凶嗣失圖,系組而降軹道。物極則反,抑斯之謂歟!泓遂摧滅。貽誡將來,無踐危轍。(Book of Jin 119, Biography of Yao Hong)

Yao Zan led more than a hundred members of the Later Qin royal clan to come surrender to Liu Yu as well, and Liu Yu killed them all. The remaining members of the clan were sent to the Southland.

Liu Yu sent Yao Hong to the Jiankang marketplace, where Yao Hong was executed. Yao Hong was twenty-nine years old, and had reigned for two years. All the grasses and trees within a hundred li of Jiankang wilted to death.

Later Qin had been founded by Yao Chang in Emperor Xiaowu's ninth year of Taiyuan (384). It lasted through three reigns, until Yao Hong, and it perished in Emperor An's thirteenth year of Yixi (417). It had lasted for thirty-one years.

The historians remark: Yuanzi (Yao Hong) was an inferior and weak person, faced with a whole host of disturbances; he had to deal with numerous rebellions within while fending off an invasion from without. In the end, the Jin army enforced legitimate authority, put an end to his state, and subdued Chang'an. Having lost his state, this trembling heir bound himself and surrendered alongside the road.

It is said that what has reached its greatest extent will soon decline. Doesn't that precisely describe the fate of Later Qin?

Li Xian remarked: Yao Hong's state was soon laid low, vanquished by a foreign foe. Those who rule must take great cares, and leave wise words to guide their heirs, lest they'd have what they begun descend into oblivion.


裕以薛辯爲平陽太守,使鎭捍北道。

38. Liu Yu appointed Xue Bian as Administrator of Pingyang and had him guard the northern roads.

裕議遷都洛陽。諮議參軍王仲德曰:「非常之事,固非常人所及,必致駭動。今暴師日久,士卒思歸,遷都之計,未可議也。」裕乃止。

39. Liu Yu discussed moving the capital to Luoyang. But his Consultant Army Advisor, Wang Zhongde, told him, "Uncommon events must be carried out by uncommon people, and such a thing as this would certainly cause a disturbance. We have only just defeated the enemy, and the officers and soldiers are longing for home. Let us discuss this plan to move the capital some other time." So Liu Yu dropped the idea.

長安平,以仲德為太尉諮議參軍。武帝欲遷都洛陽,眾議咸以為宜。仲德曰:「非常之事,常人所駭。今暴師日久,士有歸心,固當以建業為王基,俟文軌大同,然後議之可也。」帝深納之,使衛送姚泓先還彭城。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Wang Zhongde)

After Chang'an was taken, Wang Zhongde was appointed as a Consultant Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant.

Liu Yu discussed moving the capital to Luoyang. Most of his subordinates agreed with him. But Wang Zhongde told him, "Uncommon events will disturb common people. We have only just defeated the enemy, and the officers and soldiers are longing for home, for they are still set on the idea that Jianye (Jiankang) is the seat of kings. We must first take time to convince the people of the propriety of the proposal, then we may discuss actually putting it into effect."

Liu Yu deeply appreciated this advice. He had Wang Zhongde guard and escort Yao Hong and bring him back to Pengcheng.


羌衆十餘萬口西奔隴上,沈林子追擊至槐里,俘虜萬計。

40. More than a hundred thousand Qiang fled west to Longshang. Shen Linzi pursued and attacked them at Huaili, where he captured tens of thousands of them.

〈姚氏,羌也;姚氏旣滅,故羌衆西奔。〉

(The rulers of Later Qin, the Yao clan, had been from the Qiang people. So now that the Yao clan had been overthrown, these Qiang fled west.)


河西王蒙遜聞太尉裕滅秦,怒甚。門下校郎劉祥入言事,蒙遜曰:「汝聞劉裕入關,敢硏硏然也!」遂斬之。

41. Juqu Mengxun became furious when he heard that Liu Yu had conquered Qin. When his Gentleman-Officer of the Gates, Liu Xiang, came in to report something to him, Juqu Mengxun said, "How dare you adorn yourself like that after hearing that Liu Yu has entered Guanzhong?" And he beheaded Liu Xiang.

〈自曹操、孫權置校事司察羣臣,謂之校郎,後遂因之。蒙遜置諸曹校郎,如門下校郎、中兵校郎是也。〉〈河西士民乃心晉室。蒙遜胡人,竊據其上,聞裕入關,慮其響應,故斬祥以威衆,以鎭服其心也。姦雄之喜怒,豈苟然哉!《魏書‧沮渠傳》作「姸姸」,華人服飾姸靡自喜,故蒙遜云然。姸,讀如字,音義皆通,當從《魏書》。〉

(From the time of Cao Cao and Sun Quan on, rulers had created officers to supervise and investigate their other ministers, calling them Gentlemen-Officers, and this practice continued. Juqu Mengxun too had appointed such officers, like the Gentleman-Officer of the Gates and the Gentleman-Officer of the Central Regiments.

The hearts of the people of the region beyond the Yellow River were inclined towards the Jin dynasty, while Juqu Mengxun was a tribesman who had seized control of the region. So when he heard that Liu Yu had entered Guanzhong, he was worried that people in his own territory would do something to support Liu Yu. This was why he beheaded Liu Xiang, to intimidate the people and compel them to remain obedient to him. Such are the passions of a “hero of chaos”!

Juqu Mengxun refers to Liu Xiang as being 硏硏. But the equivalent passage in the Biography of Juqu Mengxun in the Book of Northern Wei writes this as 姸姸 "fair, beautiful". The Hua (ethnic Han) people liked to wear pleasing clothes and adornments, and this was what Juqu Mengxun was describing. 姸 and 硏 have the same sound and meaning, so the intent of the Book of Wei should apply here.)


初,夏王勃勃聞太尉裕伐秦,謂羣臣曰:「姚泓非裕敵也。且其兄弟內叛,安能拒人!裕取關中必矣。然裕不能久留,必將南歸;留子弟及諸將守之,吾取之如拾芥耳。」乃秣馬礪兵,訓養士卒,進據安定,秦嶺北郡縣鎭戍皆降之。裕遣使遺勃勃書,約爲兄弟;勃勃使中書侍郎皇甫徽爲報書而陰誦之,對裕使者,口授舍人使書之。裕讀其文,歎曰:「吾不如也!」

42. Earlier, when Helian Bobo had heard that Liu Yu was campaigning against Qin, he had said to his ministers, "Yao Hong is no match for Liu Yu. How could he defend himself against an invader when even his own brothers are rebelling against him? Liu Yu will definitely take Guanzhong. However, he won't stay there for long; he'll certainly return south again soon, and leave his younger relatives and his generals to defend Guanzhong. Then I'll be able to take it for myself, as easily as plucking a plant."

So during that time, Helian Bobo had fattened his horses, sharpened his weapons, and drilled and rested his officers and soldiers. He advanced and occupied Anding, and all of Qin's commandaries, counties, and garrisons north of the mountain ranges surrendered to him.

Liu Yu sent envoys to bring Helian Bobo a letter, offering a pledge to be as brothers. Helian Bobo had his Gentleman-Attendant of the Masters of Writing, Huangfu Hui, secretly write a response to the letter, then when Helian Bobo spoke to Liu Yu's envoy, he claimed that he had given it to a retainer to send. When Liu Yu read the response, he sighed and said, "I am not his equal!"

〈史言夷豪多權數。〉

(This passage demonstrates how crafty and wily the barbarians were.)


廣州刺史謝欣卒;東海人徐道期聚衆攻陷州城,進攻始興,始興相彭城劉謙之討誅之。詔以謙之爲廣州刺史。

43. The Inspector of Guangzhou, Xie Xin, passed away. A native of Donghai commandary, Xu Daoqi, gathered an army, and he attacked and captured the provincial capital of Guangzhou. He then advanced to attack Shixing. But the Chancellor of Shixing, Liu Qianzhi of Pengcheng commandary, campaigned against Xu Daoqi and executed him. An edict was issued appointing Liu Qianzhi as the new Inspector of Guangzhou.

南海賊徐道期陷廣州,始興相劉謙之討平之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

A bandit from Nanhai commandary, Xu Daoqi, took Guangzhou. But the Chancellor of Shixing, Liu Qianzhi, campaigned against Xu Daoqi and pacified him.


癸酉,司馬休之、司馬文思、司馬國璠、司馬道賜、魯軌、韓延之、刁雍、王慧龍及桓溫之孫道度、道子、族人桓謐、桓璲、陳郡袁式等皆詣魏長孫嵩降。秦匈奴鎭將姚成都及弟和都舉鎭降魏。魏主嗣詔民間得姚氏子弟送平城者賞之。冬,十月,己酉,嗣召長孫嵩等還。司馬休之尋卒於魏。魏賜國璠爵淮南公、道賜爵池陽子、魯軌爵襄陽公。刁雍表求南鄙自效,嗣以雍爲建義將軍。雍聚衆於河、濟之間,擾動徐、兗;太尉裕遣兵討之,不克。雍進屯固山,衆至二萬。

44. On the day Guiyou (September 30th), many Qin generals came to visit the Wei general Zhangsun Song and surrender to Wei, including Sima Xiuzhi, Sima Wensi, Sima Guofan, Sima Daoci, Lu Gui, Han Yanzhi, Diao Yong, Wang Huilong, Huan Wen's grandsons Huan Daodu and Huan Daozi and their kinsmen Huan Mi and Huan Sui, Yuan Shi of Chen commandary, and others. Qin's General Who Guards The Xiongnu, Yao Chengdu, and his younger brother Yao Hedu also offered up their post to Wei in surrender. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei issued an edict stating that anyone among the common people who could escort members of the Yao clan to Pingcheng would be rewarded.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiyou (November 5th), Emperor Mingyuan summoned Zhangsun Song and the others back from the border.

Sima Xiuzhi soon passed away in Wei.

Wei appointed Sima Guofan as their Duke of Huainan, Sima Daoci as their Viscount of Chiyang, and Lu Gui as their Duke of Xiangyang.

Diao Yong submitted a petition asking to go south and redeem himself, so Emperor Mingyuan appointed him as Wei's General Who Establishes Righteousness. Diao Yong gathered an army in the region between the Yellow and Ji Rivers and raided and pillaged Xuzhou and Yanzhou. Liu Yu sent troops to campaign against Diao Yong, but they were unsuccessful. Diao Yong then advanced to camp at Gushan, and his army swelled to twenty thousand strong.

〈姚秦旣滅,司馬休之等懼爲裕所誅,故皆降魏。〉〈建義將軍,魏以是號寵刁雍,言使之建義以復父兄之讎。〉

(Sima Xiuzhi and the others feared that, now that Yao Hong had been conquered, Liu Yu would execute all of them. This was why they all surrendered to Northern Wei.

Northern Wei appointed Diao Yong as General Who "Establishes Righteousness" in the sense that he would be doing so in order to avenge his father and his brothers and cousins.)


秋七月,作白臺於城南,高二十丈。司馬順之入常山,流言惑眾,稱受天帝命,年二十五應為人君,遂聚黨於封龍山。趙郡大盜趙德執送京師,斬之... 九月癸酉,司馬德宗平西將軍、荊州刺史司馬休之,息譙王文思,章武王子司馬國璠、司馬道賜,輔國將軍溫楷,竟陵內史魯軌,荊州治中韓延之、殷約,平西參軍桓謐、桓璲及桓溫孫道子,勃海刁雍,陳郡袁式等數百人來降。姚泓匈奴鎮將姚成都與弟和都舉鎮來降。冬十月己酉,詔司徒長孫嵩等還京師,遣叔孫建鎮鄴... 十有二月己酉,詔河東、河內有姚泓子弟播越民間,能有送致京師者賞之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the seventh month, Emperor Mingyuan built the White Terrace south of the capital; it was twenty zhang tall.

Sima Shunzhi entered Changshan, where he deceived the people and stirred up the masses, claiming that he had received the Mandate of Heaven and that he would become sovereign in the twenty-fifth year. He gathered a host of his followers at Mount Fengshan. But a great bandit leader from Zhao commandary, Zhao De, captured Sima Shunzhi and sent him to the capital, where he was beheaded.

In the ninth month, on the day Guiyou (September 30th), several hundred of Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) former officials came to surrender to Northern Wei. These included his General Who Pacifies The West and Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, his Prince of Qiao, Sima Xiuzhi's son Sima Wensi, the sons of his Prince of Zhangwu, Sima Guofan and Sima Daoci, his General Who Upholds The State, Wen Kai, his Interior Minister of Jingling, Lu Gui, his 治中s of Jingzhou, Han Yanzhi and Yin Yue, his Army Advisors to the General Who Pacifies The West, Huan Mi and Huan Sui, Huan Wen's grandson Huan Daozi, Diao Yong of Bohai commandary, and Yuan Shi of Chen commandary.

Yao Hong's General Who Guards The Xiongnu, Yao Chengdu, and his younger brother Yao Hedu also offered up their post in surrender to Northern Wei.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiyou (November 5th), Emperor Mingyuan summoned the Minister Over The Masses, Zhangsun Song, and the others back to the capital. He sent Shusun Jian to guard Ye.

In the twelfth month, on the day Jiyou (January 4th of 418), Emperor Mingyuan issued an edict announcing that anyone among the common people of Hedong and Henei commandaries who was sheltering relatives of Yao Hong's clan and who could send them to the capital would be rewarded.

裕克長安,嵩乃班師。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Song)

After Liu Yu took Chang'an, Zhangsun Song led the armies back again.


詔進宋公爵爲王,增封十郡;辭不受。

45. The Jin court advanced Liu Yu's noble title to Prince of Song and granted him another ten commandaries for his fief. But Liu Yu continued to decline these appointments.

西秦王熾磐遣左丞相曇達等擊秦故將姚艾,艾遣使稱藩,熾磐以艾爲征東大將軍、秦州牧。徵王松壽爲尚書左僕射。

46. Qifu Chipan sent Qifu Tanda and others to attack the former Qin general Yao Ai. Yao Ai sent envoys professing himself Qifu Chipan's vassal, so Qifu Chipan appointed Yao Ai as his Grand General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Qinzhou.

Qifu Chipan summoned Wang Songshou back to the capital to serve as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

〈艾,秦上邽之鎭將。〉〈十二年,熾磐遣松壽屯馬頭以逼秦之上邽;上邽降,故徵還。〉

(Yao Ai had been Later Qin's general defending Shanggui.

Qifu Chipan had earlier sent Wang Songshou to camp at Matou in order to threaten Shanggui, in the twelfth year of Yixi (416.35). Now that Shanggui had surrendered, he summoned Wang Songshou back again.)


遣曇達、元基東討姚艾,降之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent Qifu Tanda and Qifu Yuanji east to campaign against Yao Ai, who surrendered.


十一月,魏叔孫建等討西山丁零翟蜀洛支等,平之。

47. In the eleventh month, Shusun Jian and other Wei generals campaigned against Dingling leaders in the western hills, Zhai Shu, Luo Zhi, and others, and pacified them.

〈西山,魏安州之西山。〉

(These were the western hills of Northern Wei's province of Anzhou (Dingzhou?).)


癸丑,豫章王夔薨。十有一月,司徒長孫嵩等諸軍至樂平。詔嵩遣娥清、周幾等與叔孫建討西山丁零翟蜀、洛支等,悉滅餘黨而還。復諸州租稅。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Guichou (November 9th), the Prince of Yuzhang, Tuoba Kui, passed away.

In the eleventh month, the Minister Over The Masses, Zhangsun Song, and the others brought the armies back to Leping. Emperor Mingyuan sent E Qing, Zhou Ji, and others to join with Shusun Jian and campaign in the western hills against the Dingling leaders Zhai Shu, Luo Zhi, and others. They vanquished all their partisans and then returned.

Emperor Mingyuan returned the taxes of several provinces.


辛未,劉穆之卒,太尉裕聞之,驚慟哀惋者累日。始,裕欲留長安經略西北,而諸將佐皆久役思歸,多不欲留。會穆之卒,裕以根本無託,遂決意東還。

48. On the day Xinwei (November 27th), Liu Muzhi passed away. When Liu Yu learned this, he was overwhelmed by grief and mourning for several days.

Originally, Liu Yu had been planning to remain at Chang'an to prepare for a further campaign in the northwest. But his generals and assistants were all weary from their long service and longed to return home, and most of them were unwilling to remain at Chang'an. And now that Liu Muzhi had passed away as well, Liu Yu was worried that there was no one at the capital whom he could trust. So he decided to return east again.

冬十一月辛未,左僕射、前將軍劉穆之卒。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Xinwei (November 27th), the Deputy Director of the Left and General of the Front, Liu Muzhi, passed away.


穆之之卒也,朝廷恇懼,欲發詔,以太尉左司馬徐羨之代之。中軍諮議參軍張卲曰:「今誠急病,任終在徐;然世子無專命,宜須諮之。」裕欲以王弘代穆之。從事中郎謝晦曰:「休元輕易,不若羨之。」乃以羨之爲吏部尚書、建威將軍、丹楊尹,代管留任。於是朝廷大事常決於穆之者,並悉北諮。

49. Now that Liu Muzhi was dead, the Jin court was nervous and afraid. They wanted to send out an edict appointing the Marshal of the Left to the Grand Commandant, Xu Xianzhi, as Liu Muzhi's replacement. The Consultant Army Advisor to the General of the Central Army, Zhang Shao, said, "The situation is indeed serious, and we should entrust things to Xu Xianzhi. But the heir has not yet expressed his wishes, and we should first consult with him."

Liu Yu wanted to have Wang Hong replace Liu Muzhi. But the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Xie Hui, said, "Xiuyuan (Wang Hong) is too rash, and not as good as Xu Xianzhi."

So Xu Xianzhi was appointed as Secretary of the Masters of Writing, General Who Establishes Might, and Intendant of Danyang and placed in command of affairs in the capital. But all the great affairs of court which had previously usually been decided by Liu Muzhi were now referred north instead.

〈王弘,字休元。〉

(Wang Hong's style name was Xiuyuan.)


從征關、洛,內外要任悉委之。劉穆之遣使陳事,晦往往措異同,穆之怒曰:「公復有還時否?」高祖欲以為從事中郎,以訪穆之,堅執不與。終穆之世,不遷。穆之喪問至,高祖哭之甚慟。晦時正直,喜甚,自入閣內參審穆之死問。其日教出,轉晦從事中郎。(Book of Liu-Song 44, Biography of Xie Hui)

Xie Hui accompanied Liu Yu during his campaign against Guanzhong and the Luoyang region, and Liu Yu entrusted all affairs, inside and out, to him. Whenever Liu Muzhi sent agents from the capital to explain things to Liu Yu, Xie Hui would always nitpick the inconsistencies. Liu Muzhi would always grumble, "When is Lord Liu planning to return?"

Liu Yu wanted to appoint Xie Hui as an Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, but whenever he floated the idea to Liu Muzhi, Liu Muzhi refused to agree with it. Thus, for as long as Liu Muzhi was alive, Xie Hui never received the appointment.

When news of Liu Muzhi's death arrived, Liu Yu wept, greatly affected by grief. But Xie Hui was delighted when he heard, openly displaying his feelings, and he went straight into the palace to investigate the circumstances of Liu Muzhi's death. That very day, an order went out appointing Xie Hui as Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen.

及穆之卒,朝廷恇懼,便欲發詔以司馬徐羨之代之,邵對曰:「今誠急病,任終在徐,且世子無專命,宜須北咨。」信反,方使世子出命曰:「朝廷及大府事,悉咨徐司馬,其餘啟還。」武帝重其臨事不撓,有大臣體。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhang Shao)

When Liu Muzhi passed away, the Jin court was nervous and afraid. They wanted to send out an edict appointing the Marshal, Xu Xianzhi, as Liu Muzhi's replacement. But Zhang Shao said, "The situation is indeed serious, and we should entrust things to Xu Xianzhi. But the heir has not yet expressed his wishes, and we should first consult north with him." When the letter returned, they had the heir go out and order, "The affairs of court and of the general staff shall all be entrusted to Marshal Xu; other affairs shall be handled as normal." Liu Yu appreciated Zhang Shao's calmness in the face of uncertainty and his stature as a major minister.


裕以次子桂陽公義眞爲都督雍‧梁‧秦三州諸軍事、安西將軍、領雍‧東秦二州刺史。義眞時年十二。以太尉諮議參軍京兆王脩爲長史,王鎭惡爲司馬、領馮翊太守,沈田子、毛德祖皆爲中兵參軍,仍以田子領始平太守,德祖領秦州刺史、天水太守,傅弘之爲雍州治中從事史。

50. Liu Yu appointed the Duke of Guiyang, his second son Liu Yizhen, as Commander of military affairs in Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Qinzhou and as General Who Maintains The West and acting Inspector of Yongzhou and Eastern Qinzhou; Liu Yizhen was then eleven years old.

Liu Yu appointed his Consultant Army Advisor, Wang Xiu of Jingzhao commandary, as Liu Yizhen's Chief Clerk, and he appointed Wang Zhen'e as his Marshal and as acting Administrator of Fengyi. He appointed Shen Tianzi and Mao Dezu as Army Advisors of the Central Army, with Shen Tianzi being appointed as acting Administrator of Shiping and Mao Dezu as acting Inspector of Qinzhou and Administrator of Tianshui. He appointed Fu Hongzhi as Attendant Officer of Internal Affairs to the Inspector of Yongzhou.

弘之素善騎乘,高祖至長安,弘之於姚泓馳道內,緩服戲馬,或馳或驟,往反二十里中,甚有姿制。羌胡聚觀者數千人,並驚惋歎息。初上馬,以馬鞭柄策,挽致兩股內,及下馬,柄孔猶存。進為桂陽公義真雍州治中從事史,除西戎司馬、寧朔將軍。略陽太守徐師高反叛,弘之討平之。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Fu Hongzhi)

Fu Hongzhi had always been skilled at horseback riding. So when Liu Yu arrived at Chang'an, Fu Hongzhi made a show of riding his horse around on Yao Hong's horsetrack. He would go sometimes at a trot, sometimes at a gallop; he rode back and forth for twenty li, and he displayed a magnificent bearing. Several thousand Qiang and other tribesmen gathered to watch him, and they were all amazed and sighing in admiration. When Fu Hongzhi had first gotten on the horse, he had stuck the stem of his horsewhip between his thighs; when he came down from the horse, the gap of the stem was still intact.

Fu Hongzhi was promoted to be Attendant Officer of Internal Affairs to the Inspector of Yongzhou, as a subordinate under the Duke of Guiyang, Liu Yizhen. He was then appointed as Marshal of Western Rong Tribes and General Who Calms The Northern Frontier.

When the Administrator of Lueyang, Xu Shigao, rebelled against Jin, Fu Hongzhi campaigned against and pacified him.


先是,隴上流戶寓關中者,望因兵威得復本土;及置東秦州,知裕無復西略之意,皆歎息失望。

51. Sometime earlier, many refugee households from beyond the Long Mountains had come to take shelter in Guanzhong. When Liu Yu conquered Qin, these households had hoped that the Jin army would then help them to regain control of their homeland. But when Liu Yu merely organized them into a new province of Eastern Qinzhou, they knew that he had no intention of marching further west, and they sighed and lost hope.

〈時裕未得天水,東秦州卽毛德祖所領。或曰,裕置東秦州,使義眞兼領。〉

(At this time, Liu Yu had not conquered Tianshui commandary, so he had organized this Eastern Qinzhou and assigned command of it to Mao Dezu. But some say that he placed Liu Yizhen in charge of it as well.)


關中人素重王猛,裕之克長安,王鎭惡功爲多,由是南人皆忌之。沈田子自以嶢柳之捷,與鎭惡爭功不平。裕將還,田子及傅弘之屢言於裕曰:「鎭惡家在關中,不可保信。」裕曰:「今留卿文武將士精兵萬人,彼若欲爲不善,正足自滅耳。勿復多言。」裕私謂田子曰:「鍾會不得遂其亂者,以有衞瓘故也。語曰:『猛獸不如羣狐,』卿等十餘人,何懼王鎭惡!」

52. Now the people of Guanzhong had long respected Wang Zhen'e's grandfather Wang Meng, who had been the chief minister under Fu Jian of Former Qin. And Wang Zhen'e himself had performed many great deeds during Liu Yu's conquest of Chang'an. So the southerners among Liu Yu's generals were all suspicious of Wang Zhen'e, and Shen Tianzi considered himself to have achieved more during the campaign than Wang Zhen'e had, thanks to his triumph at Yaoliu.

Thus, when Liu Yu was about to leave for the capital, Shen Tianzi and Fu Hongzhi repeatedly told him, "Wang Zhen'e's family is in Guanzhong; he cannot be trusted here."

But Liu Yu said to them, "I am leaving you gentlemen and my civil and military officials here at the head of ten thousand elite soldiers. If Wang Zhen'e has any evil designs, that will be enough to put a stop to them. You need say nothing further."

And he privately told Shen Tianzi, "The reason that Zhong Hui was not able to carry out his rebellion was because Wei Guan was on hand to deal with him. As they say, 'a wild beast is no match for a band of foxes'. There are more than ten of you remaining here, so why should you fear Wang Zhen'e?"

〈會、瓘事見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉〈爲沈田子殺王鎭惡張本。〉

(Zhong Hui's aborted rebellion and Wei Guan's role in stopping it are mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Xianxi (264.5-13 in Fang's Chronicles).)

This was why Shen Tianzi later killed Wang Zhen'e.)


臣光曰:古人有言:「疑則勿任,任則勿疑。」裕旣委鎭惡以關中,而復與田子有後言,是鬬之使爲亂也。惜乎,百年之寇,千里之土,得之艱難,失之造次,使豐、鄗之都復輸寇手。荀子曰:「兼幷易能也,堅凝之難。」信哉!

53. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: The ancients had a saying: "If you suspect a man, don't use him; if you use a man, don't suspect him." Liu Yu had entrusted Guanzhong to Wang Zhen'e, but then turned around and said such things to Shen Tianzi about Wang Zhen'e behind his back, thus sowing seeds of suspicion and discord among his own generals. Alas! For a hundred years, this land of a thousand li had been under the control of invaders, and Liu Yu had led a hard-fought campaign to regain it. Yet now, because of what resulted from his actions here, the ancient capitals at Feng and Hao once again slipped back into the hands of the enemy. The philosopher Xunzi once said, "It is easy to take territory, but difficult to secure it." How true!

三秦父老聞裕將還,詣門流涕訴曰:「殘民不霑王化,於今百年,始覩衣冠,人人相賀。長安十陵是公家墳墓,咸陽宮殿是公家室宅,捨此欲何之乎!」裕爲之愍然,慰諭之曰:「受命朝廷,不得擅留。誠多諸君懷本之志,今以次息與文武賢才共鎭此境,勉與之居。」十二月,庚子,裕發長安,自洛入河,開汴渠而歸。

54. When the elders of the Three Qin regions heard that Liu Yu was going to return to the capital, they came to his gate and implored him to stay, telling him, "It has been a hundred years by now since we suffering people have felt the imperial authority, and we are still celebrating with one another that we have finally seen its return. Furthermore, Chang'an is home to ten of the tombs of your ancestors, and the Xianyang Palace was your ancestors' residence. Why then will you abandon us so?"

Liu Yu sympathized with them, so he reassured them by saying, "I have received the court's edict, and I cannot presume to remain here. But I earnestly cherish the well-being of you all, and that is why I am now leaving my second son and my worthy and talented civil and military officials here to protect this region together and serve you diligently."

In the twelfth month, on the day Gengzi (December 26th), Liu Yu left Chang'an. He traveled down the Luo River into the Yellow River, then opened the Bian Canal to sail back towards Jiankang.

〈漢高帝長陵、惠帝安陵、文帝霸陵、景帝陽陵、武帝茂陵、昭帝平陵、宣帝杜陵、元帝渭陵、成帝延陵、哀帝義陵、平帝康陵,皆在關中,凡十一陵;言十者,舉大數也。長安、咸陽宮殿皆漢故跡。裕,劉氏子孫,故父老以是爲言而留之。〉〈次息,猶言次子也。〉

(Liu Yu claimed descent from the royal family of the Han dynasty. In fact, eleven emperors of Han had their tombs in Guanzhong: Emperor Gaozu (Liu Bang) at Chang Tomb, Emperor Hui at An Tomb, Emperor Wen at Ba Tomb, Emperor Jing at Yang Tomb, Emperor Wu at Mao Tomb, Emperor Zhao at Ping Tomb, Emperor Xuan at Du Tomb, Emperor Yuan at Wei Tomb, Emperor Cheng at Yan Tomb, Emperor Ai at Yi Tomb, and Emperor Ping at Kang Tomb. By "ten" tombs, the elders were just expressing a large number.

Liu Yu uses the term 次息; this means his second son.)


氐豪徐駭奴、齊元子等擁部落三萬在雍,遣使請降於魏。魏主嗣遣將軍王洛生、河內太守楊聲等西行以應之。

55. Gentry leaders of the Di people, Xu Hainu, Qi Yuanzi, and others, gathered together their forces of thirty thousand people at Yong and sent envoys asking to surrender to Wei. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei sent his general Wang Luosheng, his Administrator of Henei, Yang Sheng, and others to travel west and receive them.

庚申,田于西山。癸亥,車駕還宮。氐豪徐騃奴、齊元子等,擁部落三萬於雍,遣使內附,詔將軍王洛生及河內太守楊聲等西行以應之。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Gengshen (January 15th of 418), Emperor Mingyuan went hunting in the western hills. On the day Guihai (January 18th), he returned to the palace.

Gentry leaders of the Di people, Xu Hainu, Qi Yuanzi, and others, gathered together their forces of thirty thousand people at Yong and sent envoys asking to move into the interior of Northern Wei. Emperor Mingyuan sent the general Wang Luosheng, the Administrator of Henei, Yang Sheng, and others to travel west and receive them.


閏月,壬申,魏主嗣如大甯長川。

56. In the intercalary month, on the day Renshen (January 27th of 418), Emperor Mingyuan went to Changchuan in Daning.

壬申,幸大寧長川。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Renshen (January 27th of 418), Emperor Mingyuan went to Changchuan in Daning.


秦、雍人千餘家推襄邑令上谷寇讚爲主以降於魏,魏主嗣拜讚魏郡太守。久之,秦、雍人流入魏之河南、滎陽、河內者,戶以萬數,嗣乃置南雍州,以讚爲刺史,封河南公,治洛陽;立雍州郡縣以撫之。讚善於招懷,流民歸之者,三倍其初。

57. More than a thousand families from Qinzhou and Yongzhou acclaimed the Prefect of Xiangyi, Kou Zan of Shanggu commandary, as their leader and surrendered to Wei. Emperor Mingyuan appointed Kou Zan as his Administrator of Wei commandary. Not long afterwards, tens of thousand of households from Henan, Xingyang, and Henei commandaries came to Wei as refugees. So Emperor Mingyuan created a new province of Southern Yongzhou, appointed Kou Zan as its Inspector and as Duke of Henan, and had him govern the province from Luoyang. He organized surrogate versions of the commandaries and counties of the original Yongzhou in order to administer these refugees. Kou Zan was skilled at attracting and gaining the affection of people, and so many refugees came to live under him that the local population tripled.

〈讚,秦之襄邑令也。〉

(Kou Zan had been Later Qin's Prefect of Xiangyi.)


姚泓尚書、東武侯姚敞,敞弟鎮遠將軍僧光,右將軍姚定世自洛來奔。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Yao Hong's former Master of Writing and Marquis of Dongwu, Yao Chang, his former General Who Guards Distant Places, Yao Chang's younger brother Yao Sengguang, and his former General of the Right, Yao Dingshi, fled from the Luoyang region to Northern Wei.


夏王勃勃聞太尉裕東還,大喜,問於王買德曰:「朕欲取關中,卿試言其方略。」買德曰:「關中形勝之地,而裕以幼子守之,狼狽而歸,正欲急成篡事耳,不暇復以中原爲意。此天以關中賜我,不可失也。青泥、上洛,南北之險要,宜先遣遊軍斷之;東塞潼關,絕其水陸之路;然後傳檄三輔,施以威德,則義眞在網罟之中,不足取也。」勃勃乃以其子撫軍大將軍璝都督前鋒諸軍事,帥騎二萬向長安,前將軍昌屯潼關,以買德爲撫軍右長史,屯青泥,勃勃將大軍爲後繼。

58. When Helian Bobo heard that Liu Yu had returned east, he was delighted. He said to Wang Maide, "I aim to conquer Guanzhong. Sir, tell me a strategy to take it."

Wang Maide replied, "Guanzhong is an excellent base for conquering the land. Yet Liu Yu has left it in the hands of his young son and has scampered back to the east. There can be no other reason but that he now intends to finalize his usurpation of the Jin throne, and has no time to give further thought to taking the Central Plains. Heaven is now bestowing Guanzhong to you, and you cannot squander this opportunity.

"Qingni and Shangluo are critical defensive points, north and south, along the eastern border of Guanzhong. So you should first send flying troops ahead and cut off those points, then seal off Tong Gate to the east. That will cut off the enemy's line of retreat both by land and by water. Then you should spread proclamations throughout the Three Adjuncts regions, announcing both your majesty and your virtue. By then, you will have Liu Yizhen caught in a net, and he'll have no way out."

So Helian Bobo appointed his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, his son Helian Gui, as Commander of the Vanguard and had him lead twenty thousand cavalry towards Chang'an. He sent his General of the Front, Helian Chang, to camp at Tong Gate. He appointed Wang Maide as Chief Clerk of the Right to the Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and had him camp at Qingni. Helian Bobo himself led the bulk of his troops to follow behind these others as reserves.

〈善用兵者觀釁而動。〉〈劉裕之心事,崔浩、王買德皆知之。〉〈勃勃敗義眞取關中,卒如買德之計。〉〈劉裕得洛陽而不能禁寇讚窺伺於其側,使義眞守關中而不能禁夏兵之斷潼關、青泥,南歸彭城,席未煖而義眞敗。旣棄天下,肉未寒而四鎭失,宜也。〉

(Those who are skilled at using troops wait until they notice some division or opening to exploit before acting.

Both Cui Hao and Wang Maide knew of Liu Yu's true intentions.

Helian Bobo's victory over Liu Yizhen and his conquest of Guanzhong turned out just according to Wang Maide's strategy.

Liu Yu had earlier taken Luoyang, yet he had been unable to prevent Kou Zan from taking advantage of an opportunity to raid the area. Now he had left Liu Yizhen in charge of guarding Guanzhong, yet he was unable to stop the soldiers of Xia from cutting off Tong Gate and Qingni. By the time Liu Yu returned to Pengcheng, he had hardly even had time to warm his mat before Liu Yizhen was defeated. And when he did away with Emperor An, the body was not yet cold before the four garrisons had been lost. This was only natural.)


是歲,魏都坐大官章安侯封懿卒。

59. During this year, Wei's Grand Minister of the Capital and Marquis of Zhang'an, Feng Yi, passed away.
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BOOK 118

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 11, 2019 6:24 pm

十四年(戊午、四一八)

The Fourteenth Year of Yixi (The Wuwu Year, 418 AD)


春,正月,丁酉朔,魏主嗣至平城,命護高車中郎將薛繁帥高車、丁零北略,至弱水而還。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Dingyou (February 21st), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

Emperor Mingyuan ordered the General of the Household Gentlemen Who Protects The Gaoche, Xue Fan, to lead the Gaoche and Dingling people on a northern raid; they marched as far as the Ruo River, then returned.

〈魏倣漢置匈奴中郎將之官置護高車中郎將。〉

(Northern Wei had abolished the Han-era rank of General of the Household Gentlemen of the Xiongnu, replacing it with General of the Household Gentlemen Who Protects The Gaoche.)


三年春正月丁酉朔,帝自長川詔護高車中郎將薛繁率高車丁零十二部大人眾北略,至弱水,降者二千餘人,獲牛馬二萬餘頭。河東胡、蜀五千餘家相率內屬... 庚戌,幸西宮。以范陽去年水,復其租稅。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the third year of Taichang (418), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Dingyou (February 21st), Emperor Mingyuan issued an edict from Changchuan ordering the General of the Household Gentlemen Who Protects The Gaoche, Xue Fan, to lead leaders of twelve divisions of the Gaoche and Dingling people on a northern raid; they marched as far as the Ruo River, and they compelled the submission of more than two thousand people and captured more than twenty thousand cattle and horses.

More than five thousand families of Shu and other tribal peoples from Hedong commandary led one another to move into the interior of Northern Wei.

In the third month, on the day Gengxu (May 5th), Emperor Mingyuan visited the western palace.

Due to flooding in Fanyang commandary the previous year, Emperor Mingyuan exempted them from taxes.


辛巳,大赦。

2. On the day Xinsi (?), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

十四年春正月辛巳,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fourteenth year of Yixi (418), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinsi (?), a general amnesty was declared.


夏赫連璝至渭陽,關中民降之者屬路。龍驤將軍沈田子將兵拒之,畏其衆盛,退屯劉迴堡,遣使還報王鎭惡。鎭惡謂王脩曰:「公以十歲兒付吾屬,當共思竭力;而擁兵不進,虜何由得平!」使者還,以告田子。田子與鎭惡素有相圖之志,由是益忿懼。未幾,鎭惡與田子俱出北地以拒夏兵,軍中訛言:「鎭惡欲盡殺南人,以數十人送義眞南還,因據關中反。」辛亥,田子請鎭惡至傅弘之營計事;田子求屛人語,使其宗人沈敬仁斬之幕下,矯稱受太尉令誅之。弘之奔告劉義眞,義眞與王脩被甲登橫門以察其變。俄而田子帥數十人來,言鎭惡反,脩執田子,數以專戮,斬之;以冠軍將軍毛脩之代鎭惡爲安西司馬。傅弘之大破赫連璝於池陽,又破之於寡婦渡,斬獲甚衆,夏兵乃退。

3. As Helian Gui marched to Weiyang, the people of Guanzhong surrendered to him along the road. Jin's Dragon-Soaring General, Shen Tianzi, led troops to oppose Helian Gui, but frightened of the size of Helian Gui's army, Shen Tianzi fell back to camp at Fort Liuhui and sent a messenger back to Chang'an to inform Wang Zhen'e of the situation. Wang Zhen'e said to Wang Xiu, "Our lord left his ten-year-old son in our care and entrusted us to do our utmost together to defend this region. Yet here is Shen Tianzi holding back his troops and not advancing. Is that any way to humble the enemy?" Shen Tianzi's messenger heard these words, and when he returned, he told Shen Tianzi what Wang Zhen'e had said about him. Shen Tianzi and Wang Zhen'e had long been rivals, each seeking to outdo the other, and by now this had blossomed into mutual fear and loathing.

Shortly afterwards, Wang Zhen'e marched to join Shen Tianzi, and the two of them advanced to the north to oppose the Xia army. Then a rumor spread through their camp: "Wang Zhen'e plans to kill the southerners and send a few dozen agents to escort Liu Yizhen back south again, while he seizes control of Guanzhong and rebels."

On the day Xinhai (March 7th), Shen Tianzi asked Wang Zhen'e to come to Fu Hongzhi's camp to discuss strategy. He asked to speak to Wang Zhen'e in private, then had his kinsman Shen Jingren behead Wang Zhen'e inside the tent. He forged a decree, ordering Wang Zhen'e to be executed, that he claimed Liu Yu had given him.

Fu Hongzhi fled to inform Liu Yizhen of what had happened, and Liu Yizhen and Wang Xiu put on armor and stood atop the Heng Gate to observe the situation. Soon, Shen Tianzi arrived at the head of several dozen people, claiming that Wang Zhen'e had rebelled. But Wang Xiu arrested Shen Tianzi, denounced him for presuming to execute Wang Zhen'e, and then beheaded him. He appointed the Champion General, Mao Xiuzhi, to replace Wang Zhen'e as Marshal to the General Who Maintains The West.

Fu Hongzhi greatly routed Helian Gui at Chiyang, then routed him again at Guafu Falls. He killed or captured a great many of the Xia soldiers, while the rest retreated.

〈赫連璝已至渭陽,王、沈烏能出北地乎?此言北地者,謂長安以北之地耳。〉〈橫門,長安城北出東頭第一門。〉〈按宋白《續通典》,今慶州北十五里有寡婦山,蓋水發源是山,其下流爲寡婦渡。〉

(This passage states that Wang Zhen'e and Shen Tianzi opposed the Xia army at 北地. This term could be read as a proper noun, that is, Beidi commandary. But considering that we have just read that Helian Gui was already at Weiyang, how could the two of them have marched all the way to Beidi? So it must be meant in the literal sense of "northern land", that is, the area to the north of Chang'an.

The Heng Gate was the easternmost gate of Chang'an's north wall.

Regarding Guafu Falls, according to Song Bai's 續通典, there is a Mount Guafu fifteen li north of modern Qingzhou. It must have been that this mountain was the origin of a river, and the falls of the river were known as Guafu Falls.)


青州刺史沈田子害龍驤將軍王鎮惡于長安。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Inspector of Qingzhou, Shen Tianzi, killed the Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Zhen'e, at Chang'an.

高祖歸後,佛佛偽太子赫連瓌率眾三萬襲長安,弘之又領步騎五千,於池陽大破之,殺傷甚眾。瓌又抄掠渭南,弘之又於寡婦人渡破瓌,獲賊三百,掠七千餘口。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Fu Hongzhi)

After Liu Yu returned to the capital, Helian Bobo's Crown Prince, Helian Gui, led thirty thousand soldiers to launch a surprise attack against Chang'an. Fu Hongzhi led five thousand horse and foot and greatly routed Helian Gui at Chiyang, killing and wounding a great many of his troops.

When Helian Gui then raided and pillaged south of the Wei River, Fu Hongzhi led the people of Guafu to cross the river and rout the enemy army; they captured three hundred of the enemy and plundered more than seven thousand people.


壬戌,太尉裕至彭城,解嚴。琅邪王德文先歸建康。

4. On the day Renxu (March 18th), Liu Yu arrived at Pengcheng, and martial law was lifted. The Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, preceded Liu Yu back to Jiankang.

裕聞王鎭惡死,表言「沈田子忽發狂易,奄害忠勳,」追贈鎭惡左將軍、青州刺史。

5. When Liu Yu learned of Wang Zhen'e's death, he submitted a petition stating, "Shen Tianzi acted rashly and impetuously and did harm to a loyal and diligent subject." He posthumously appointed Wang Zhen'e as General of the Left and Inspector of Qingzhou.

〈狂易,謂病狂而變易其常心。〉

(To be impetuous is to give vent to passion and act suddenly and contrary to usual behavior.)


以彭城內史劉遵考爲幷州刺史、領河東太守,鎭蒲阪;徵荊州刺史劉道憐爲徐、兗二州刺史。

6. The Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Zunkao, was appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou and acting Administrator of Hedong and stationed at Puban. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Liu Daolian, was recalled to serve as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.

高祖平定三秦,方思外略,徵道憐還為侍中、都督徐、兗、青三州、揚州之晉陵諸軍事、守尚書令、徐、兗二州刺史,持節、將軍如故。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

After conquering and pacifying the Three Qin regions, Liu Yu was considering further plans, and he had Liu Daolian recalled to the capital and appointed as Palace Attendant, Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Jinling commandary in Yangzhou, acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou. He retained his original positions as Credential Bearer and General.

長安平定,以督并州、司州之北河東、北平陽、北雍州之新平、安定五郡諸軍事、輔國將軍、并州刺史,領河東太守,鎮蒲阪。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Zunkao)

After Chang'an was pacified, Liu Zunkao was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou, Northern Hedong and Northern Pingyang commandaries in Sizhou, and Xinping and Anding commandaries in Northern Yongzhou, General Who Upholds The State, and Inspector of Bingzhou. He was also appointed as acting Administrator of Hedong and stationed at Puban.


裕欲以世子義符鎭荊州,以徐州刺史劉義隆爲司州刺史,鎭洛陽。中軍諮議張卲諫曰:「儲貳之重,四海所繫,不宜處外。」乃更以義隆爲都督荊‧益‧寧‧雍‧梁‧秦六州諸軍事、西中郎將、荊州刺史,以南郡太守到彥之爲南蠻校尉,張卲爲司馬、領南郡相,冠軍功曹王曇首爲長史,北徐州從事王華爲西中郎主簿,沈林子爲西中郎參軍。義隆尚幼,府事皆決於卲。曇首,弘之弟也。裕謂義隆曰:「王曇首沈毅有器度,宰相才也,汝每事諮之。」

7. Liu Yu wanted to station his heir Liu Yifu at Jingzhou and appoint the Inspector of Xuzhou, Liu Yilong, as Inspector of Sizhou and station him at Luoyang. But his Consultant Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, Zhang Shao, remonstrated with him, saying, "Your successor is important, and all the Four Seas rely upon him. You cannot place him somewhere so distant."

So instead, Liu Yu appointed Liu Yilong as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Yizhou, Ningzhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Qinzhou, General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, and Inspector of Jingzhou. He appointed the Administrator of Nan commandary, Dao Yanzhi, as Colonel of Southern Man Tribes. He appointed Zhang Shao as Liu Yilong's Marshal and as acting Chancellor of Nan commandary. He appointed the Merit Evaluator to the Champion General, Wang Tanshou, as Liu Yilong's Chief Clerk. He appointed the Attendant Officer of Northern Xuzhou, Wang Hua, as Registrar to the General of the Household Gentlemen of the West. And he appointed Shen Linzi as Army Advisor to the General of the Household Gentlemen of the West.

Liu Yilong was still young, so all affairs on his staff were decided by Zhang Shao.

This Wang Tanshou was the younger brother of Wang Hong. Liu Yu said to Liu Yilong, "Wang Tanshou is stalwart, resolute, and has great capabilities; he is talented enough to be a chief minister of state. You must consult with him on every matter."

〈諮議參軍也。〉〈晉置南徐州於京口,北徐州仍治彭城。到彥之、王曇首、王華輔義隆入立,遂居將相之任。〉

(Zhang Shao was Liu Yu's Consultant "Army Advisor".

Jin had established Southern Xuzhou at Jingkou; Northern Xuzhou was administered from Pengcheng.

Dao Yanzhi, Wang Tanshou, and Wang Hua would later help Liu Yilong secure the succession to the throne and then serve as leading generals and ministers.)


十四年,以世子鎮荊州,邵諫曰:「儲貳之重,四海所係,不宜處外,敢以死請。」從之。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhang Shao)

In the fourteenth year of Yixi (418), Liu Yu was planning to station his heir (Liu Yifu) at Jingzhou. But Zhang Shao remonstrated with him, saying, "Your successor is important, and all the Four Seas rely upon him. You cannot place him somewhere so distant. Thus I risk death to ask you not to do so." Liu Yu heeded his advice.


以南郡公劉義慶爲豫州刺史。義慶,道憐之子也。

8. The Duke of Nan commandary, Liu Yiqing, was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou. This Liu Yiqing was the son of Liu Daolian.

裕解司州,領徐、冀二州刺史。

9. Liu Yu relinquished his positions as Inspector of Sizhou and acting Inspector of Xuzhou and Jizhou.

秦王熾磐以乞伏木弈干爲沙州刺史,鎭樂都。

10. Qifu Chipan appointed Qifu Muyigan as his Inspector of Shazhou and stationed him at Ledu.

二月,乙弗烏地延帥戶二萬降秦。

11. In the second month, the Yifu leader Wu Diyan led twenty thousand households to surrender to Qin.

(Again, now that Later Qin no longer existed, the Zizhi Tongjian stops distinguishing Qifu Chipan's state as "Western Qin" and refers to it as just "Qin".)

至是,乙弗鮮卑烏地延率戶二萬降於熾磐,署為建義將軍。地延尋死,弟他子立,以子軻蘭質于西平。他子從弟提孤等率戶五千以西遷,叛於熾磐。涼州刺史出連虔遣使喻之,提孤等歸降。熾磐以提孤奸猾,終為邊患,稅其部中戎馬六萬匹。後二歲而提孤等扇動部落,西奔出塞。他子率戶五千入居西平。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

At this time, the Yifu Xianbei leader Wu Diyan led twenty thousand households to surrender to Qifu Chipan, who appointed him as General Who Establishes Righteousness. Wu Diyan soon passed away, and his younger brother Wu Tazi succeeded him and sent his son Wu Kelan to Xiping as a hostage. Wu Tazi's cousin Wu Tigu and others led five thousand households to move west, where they rebelled against Qifu Chipan. The Inspector of Liangzhou, Chulian Qian, sent agents to convince them to give in, and Wu Tigu and the others surrendered again. But Qifu Chipan felt that Wu Tigu was rotten to the bone and would eventually cause trouble on the borders again, so he imposed a tax of sixty thousand horses on his forces. Two years later, Wu Tigu and the others stirred up trouble among their local forces and fled west beyond the borders of the realm. Wu Tazi led five thousand households to reside at Xiping.


三月,遣使聘魏。

12. In the third month, Jin sent envoys to pay a diplomatic visit to Wei.

三月,司馬德宗遣使來貢。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the third month, Sima Dezong (Emperor An) sent envoys to Northern Wei bearing tribute.


夏,四月,己巳,魏徙冀、定、幽三州徒河於代都。

13. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jisi (May 24th), Wei relocated the Xianbei of Tuhe from Jizhou, Dingzhou, and Youzhou to the capital at Dai.

〈魏主珪皇始二年克中山,置安州,又立行臺以鎭撫其民。天興三年,改曰定州,領中山、常山、鉅鹿、博陵、北平、河間、高陽、趙郡。宋白曰:初置安州,尋改定州,以安定天下爲名。徒河,蓋徒河之民從慕容入中國留居三州者,魏人因謂之徒河。〉

(When Tuoba Gui had conquered Zhongshan in Northern Wei's second year of Huangshi (397), he had created a new province of Anzhou and establish a Provisional Administration in the region to guard and comfort the local population. In Wei's third year of Tianxing (400), the province was renamed to Dingzhou. It administered the commandaries of Zhongshan, Changshan, Julu, Boling, Beiping, Hejian, Gaoyang, and Zhao. Song Bai remarked, "It was originally established as Anzhou, later changed to Dingzhou. These names came from the concept of 'bringing peace (安定 anding) to all the realm'."

The "Xianbei of Tuhe" must have been those Xianbei who had followed the Murong clan of Former Yan south into the Middle Kingdom and subsequently resided in what would later form these three provinces. The people of Northern Wei tended to refer to these Xianbei as "Tuhe".)


夏四月己巳,徙冀、定、幽三州徒何於京師。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jisi (May 24th), Northern Wei relocated the [Xianbei of] Tuhe from Jizhou, Dingzhou, and Youzhou to the capital.


初,和龍有赤氣四塞蔽日,自寅至申,燕太史令張穆言於燕王跋曰:「此兵氣也。今魏方強盛,而執其使者,好命不通,臣竊懼焉。」跋曰:「吾方思之。」五月,魏主嗣東巡,至濡源及甘松,遣征東將軍長孫道生、安東將軍李先、給事黃門侍郎奚觀帥精騎二萬襲燕,又命驍騎將軍延普、幽州刺史尉諾自幽州引兵趨遼西,爲之聲勢,嗣屯突門嶺以待之。道生等拔乙連城,進攻和龍,與燕單于右輔古泥戰,破之,殺其將皇甫軌。燕王跋嬰城自守,魏人攻之,不克,掠其民萬餘家而還。

14. Sometime earlier, there had been a red aura at Helong which blocked out the sky and concealed the sun, lasting for several days (from the Yin day to the Shen day). Yan's Prefect of the Astrologists Bureau, Zhang Mu, said to Feng Ba, "This aura is a sign of soldiers. Wei's army is currently numerous and powerful, but you have arrested their envoy and refuse to heed their authority. I cannot help but worry about it."

Feng Ba replied, "I am thinking about it as well."

In the fifth month, Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on an eastern patrol, traveling as far as Ruyuan and Gansong. He sent his General Who Conquers The East, Zhangsun Daosheng, his General Who Maintains The East, Li Xian, and his Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Xi Guan, to lead twenty thousand elite cavalry to launch a surprise attack against Yan. He also sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Yan Pu, and his Inspector of Youzhou, Yu Nuo, to lead troops from Youzhou to march to Liaoxi and support the others. Emperor Mingyuan himself camped at the Tumen Ranges to await developments.

Zhangsun Daosheng and the others captured the city of Yilian, then advanced to attack Helong. They fought Yan's Chanyu and Regent of the Right, Gu Ni, and routed him, killing his general Huangfu Gui. Feng Ba withdrew into Helong to hold out. The Wei troops attacked the city, but they could not take it. They kidnapped more than ten thousand families of the region and then withdrew.

〈謂留于什門也,事見一百十六卷義熙十年。〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》,內入諸姓可地延氏爲延氏。西方尉遲氏,後改爲尉氏。尉,音鬱。〉〈義熙七年,跋置單于四輔。〉

(Zhang Mu refers to how Feng Ba had arrested Northern Wei's envoy Yu Shenmen, as mentioned in Book 116, in the tenth year of Yixi (414.26).

According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, among the clans who came to join the Tuoba clan was the Kediyan clan, later shortened to Yan. And in the west was the Yuchi clan, later shortened to Yu. The first character of Yuchi, 尉, is pronounced "yu".

Feng Ba had earlier created the offices of the Four Chanyu Regents, as mentioned in the seventh year of Yixi (411.16).)


五月丙午,詔叔孫建鎮廣阿。壬子,車駕東巡,至于濡源及甘松。遣征東將軍長孫道生、給事黃門侍郎奚觀率精騎二萬襲馮跋,又命驍騎將軍延普自幽州北趨遼西為聲勢,帝自突門嶺待之。道生至龍城,徙其民萬餘家而還。六月乙酉,車駕西返。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth month, on the day Bingwu (June 30th), Emperor Mingyuan stationed Shusun Jian at Guang'a.

On the day Renzi (July 6th), Emperor Mingyuan went on an eastern patrol, traveling as far as Ruyuan and Gansong. He sent the General Who Conquers The East, Zhangsun Daosheng, and his Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Xi Guan, to lead twenty thousand elite cavalry to launch a surprise attack against Feng Ba. He also sent the General of Agile Cavalry, Yan Pu, and his Inspector of Youzhou, Yu Nuo, to lead troops from Youzhou to march north to Liaoxi and support the others. Emperor Mingyuan himself camped at the Tumen Ranges to await developments. Zhangsun Daosheng marched as far as Longcheng, where he relocated more than ten thousand families of the region and then withdrew.

In the sixth month, on the day Yiyou (August 8th), Emperor Mingyuan returned to the west.

太真弟諾,少侍太祖,以忠謹著稱。從圍中山,諾先登,傷一目。太祖歎曰:「諾兄弟並毀其目,以建功效,誠可嘉也。」寵待遂隆。除平東將軍,賜爵安樂子。從討姚平,還,拜國部大人。太宗初,為幽州刺史,加東統將軍,進爵為侯。長孫道生之討馮跋也,諾與驍騎將軍延普率師次遼西。轉寧東將軍,進爵武陵公。諾之在州,有惠政,民吏追思之。世祖時,薊人張廣達等二百餘人詣闕請之,復除安東將軍、幽州刺史,改邑遼西公。兄弟並為方伯,當世榮之。燕土亂久,民戶凋散,諾在州前後十數年,還業者萬餘家。延和中卒。第八子觀,襲爵。卒,子崘襲。(Book of Northern Wei 26, Biography of Yu Nuo)

Yu Nuo was the younger brother of Yu Guzhen. As a young man, he served as an attendant to Tuoba Gui, and was praised for his loyalty and caution. Yu Nuo accompanied Tuoba Gui on the campaign against Zhongshan; he was one of the first over the wall, and he lost an eye. Tuoba Gui sighed in admiration, saying, "Both Yu Nuo and his brother (Yu Guzhen) have lost an eye while performing great deeds in my service. How truly commendable they are." And he treated Yu Nuo with great favor. He was appointed as General Who Pacifies The East and Viscount of Anle. He was later present for the campaign against Yao Ping, and when he returned, he was appointed as one of the Chiefs of State.

At the beginning of Emperor Mingyuan's reign (~409), Yu Nuo was appointed as Inspector of Youzhou and General Who Directs The East, and his noble title was promoted to Marquis. When Zhangsun Daosheng campaigned against Feng Ba, Yu Nuo and the General of Agile Cavalry, Yan Pu, led troops to Liaoxi.

Yu Nuo was transferred to be General Who Calms The East, and his noble title was promoted again to Duke of Wuling. During the time that Yu Nuo was Inspector of Yuzhou, he governed kindly, and the common people and the officials remembered him fondly. So during the reign of Emperor Taiwu, more than two hundred people from Ji, including Zhang Guangda, came to the palace and asked for Yu Nuo to be sent to them. Yu Nuo was thus appointed as General Who Maintains The East and Inspector of Youzhou, and his noble title was changed to Duke of Liaoxi. Yu Nuo and his brothers were all border commanders, and they received the praise of ages. Though the Yan region had long been in turmoil and the people and households there had scattered, during the more than ten years altogether that Yu Nuo was in Youzhou, he restored more than ten thousand families to their livelihoods.

Yu Nuo passed away during the Yanhe reign era (432-434). His eighth son Yu Guan inherited his titles, and when Yu Guan passed away, his son Yu Lun succeeded him.


六月,太尉裕始受相國、宋公、九錫之命,赦國中殊死以下,崇繼母蘭陵蕭氏爲太妃,以太尉軍諮祭酒孔靖爲宋國尚書令,左長史王弘爲僕射,領選,從事中郎傅亮、蔡廓皆爲侍中,謝晦爲右衞將軍,右長史鄭鮮之爲奉常,行參軍殷景仁爲祕書郎,其餘百官,悉依天朝之制。靖辭不受。亮,咸之孫;廓,謨之曾孫;鮮之,渾之玄孫;景仁,融之曾孫也。景仁學不爲文,敏有思致;口不談義,深達理體;至於國典、朝儀、舊章、記注,莫不撰錄,識者知其有當世之志。

15. In the sixth month, Liu Yu finally accepted his earlier appointments as Chancellor of State and Duke of Song and accepted the Nine Bestowments. He declared an amnesty within his dukedom up until those sentenced to death. He honored his stepmother, Lady Xiao of Lanling commandary, as Duchess Dowager.

Liu Yu appointed the Libationer-Consultant to the Grand Commandant, Kong Jing, as Prefect of the Masters of Writing for the Song fief. He appointed his Chief Clerk of the Left, Wang Hong, as Deputy Director of the Right and Recruiter for the Song fief. He appointed the Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen, Fu Liang and Cai Kuo, as Palace Attendants of the Song fief. He appointed Xie Hui as the Guard General of the Right of the Song fief. He appointed his Chief Clerk of the Right, Zheng Xianzhi, as Director of Ceremonies of the Song fief. And he appointed the acting Army Advisor, Yin Jingren, as Gentleman of the Palace Library of the Song fief. In these and in his other offices for his fief, Liu Yu followed the same system as the actual dynastic court. Kong Jing declined his appointment and would not accept. This Fu Liang was the grandson of Fu Xian; this Cai Kuo was the great-grandson of Cai Mo; this Zheng Xianzhi was the great-great-grandson of Zheng Hun; this Yin Jingren was the great-grandson of Yin Rong.

Yin Jingren was learned, though he was not a writer; he had a nimble mind, always thinking of the effects of things. He never spoke of righteousness, but always deeply considered practicality. And when it came to the canons of state, court rituals, old accounts, and records and annotations, there was nothing he did not peruse and learn about. Those who knew about Yin Jingren could tell that he had ambitions to stand above the age.

〈十二年命下,至是乃受。〉〈傅咸仕於武、惠之間,以直顯。〉〈蔡謨歷事成、康、穆三朝,出蕃入輔,皆有聲績。〉〈鄭渾見六十六卷漢獻帝建安十七年。〉〈殷融見九十四卷成帝咸和三年。〉

(Liu Yu had initially been offered these appointments and the Nine Bestowments in the twelfth year of Yixi (416.37). Only now did he accept them.

Fu Xian had served under Emperor Wu and Emperor Hui, and had been known for his candor and directness.

Cai Mo had served under Emperor Cheng, Emperor Kang, and Emperor Mu, and had received praise for his service both in court and on the borders.

Zheng Hun is mentioned in Book 66, in Emperor Xian of Han's seventeenth year of Jian'an (212.F in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Yin Rong is mentioned in Book 94, in Emperor Cheng's third year of Xianhe (328.32).)


夏六月,劉裕爲相國,進封宋公。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the sixth month, Liu Yu became Chancellor of State and Duke of Song.

傅亮,字季友,北地靈州人也。祖咸,司隸校尉。父瑗,以學業知名,位至安成太守。瑗與郗超善,超嘗造瑗,瑗見其二子迪及亮。亮年四五歲,超令人解亮衣,使左右持去,初無吝色。超謂瑗曰:「卿小兒才名位宦,當遠逾於兄。然保家傳祚,終在大者。」迪字長猷,亦儒學,官至五兵尚書。永初二年卒,追贈太常。亮博涉經史,尤善文詞。初為建威參軍,桓謙中軍行參軍。桓玄篡位,聞其博學有文采,選為秘書郎,欲令整正秘閣,未及拜而玄敗。義旗初,丹陽尹孟昶以為建威參軍。義熙元年,除員外散騎侍郎,直西省,典掌詔命。轉領軍長史,以中書郎滕演代之。亮未拜,遭母憂,服闋,為劉毅撫軍記室參軍,又補領軍司馬。七年,遷散騎侍郎,復代演直西省。仍轉中書黃門侍郎,直西省如故。高祖以其久直勤勞,欲以為東陽郡,先以語迪,迪大喜告亮。亮不答,即馳見高祖曰:「伏聞恩旨,賜擬東陽,家貧忝祿,私計為幸。但憑廕之願,實結本心,乞歸天宇,不樂外出。」高祖笑曰:「謂卿之須祿耳,若能如此,甚協所望。」會西討司馬休之,以為太尉從事中郎,掌記室。以太尉參軍羊徽為中書郎,代直西省。亮從征關、洛,還至彭城。宋國初建,令書除侍中,領世子中庶子。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Fu Liang)

Fu Liang, styled Jiyou, was a native of Lingzhou county in Beidi commandary. His grandfather was Fu Xian, who served as Colonel-Director of Retainers (during the reign of Sima Yan of Jin). His father was Fu Yuan, who became known for his scholarly pursuits and who rose in office as high as Administrator of Ancheng.

Fu Yuan had been close friends with (Huan Wen's advisor) Chi Chao. On one occasion when the two of them met, Fu Yuan showed Chi Chao his two sons, Fu Di and Fu Liang. At that time, Fu Liang was three or four years old, yet when Chi Chao ordered someone to remove Fu Liang's clothes, Fu Liang had his attendants take them away and showed no sign of stinginess. Chi Chao told Fu Yuan, "Your younger son will be talented and famous, and will rise to high office, far surpassing his elder brother. But it will be your elder son who will preserve your family and ensure your lineage."

Fu Di was styled Changyou, and he too became a renowned scholar and rose in office as high as Master of Writing of the Five Regiments. He eventually passed away in the second year of Yongchu (421), and was posthumously appointed as Minister of Ceremonies.

Fu Liang was learned and conversant in the Classics and Histories, being especially good at language and literature. He originally served as Army Advisor to the General Who Establishes Might, then served under Huan Qian as acting Army Advisor to the General of the Central Army. When Huan Xuan usurped the Jin throne (in 403), he heard of Fu Liang's literary skill and education and recruited him as a Gentleman of the Palace Library, planning to have him rectify and straighten out the imperial collection of texts. However, Huan Xuan was overthrown (in 404) before the project could be completed.

When the uprising against Huan Xuan began (in 404), the Intendant of Danyang, Meng Chang, recruited Fu Liang as his Army Advisor to the General Who Establishes Might. In the first year of Yixi (405), Fu Liang was transferred to be a Cavalier In Regular Attendance Without Assignment and posted in the Direct Western Bureau, where his duty was to compose the imperial edicts and decrees. Fu Liang was soon transferred to be Chief Clerk to the General Who Directs The Army, with one of the Gentlemen of the Palace Secretariat, Teng Yan, replacing him in his original assignments. However, before Fu Liang could take up this post, his mother passed away, so he left office in order to observe his mourning period for her.

Fu Liang later served under Liu Yi as Recordskeeping Army Advisor to the General Who Nurtures The Army, then as Marshal to the General Who Directs The Army. In the seventh year of Yixi (411), Fu Liang was transferred to be a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and he resumed his former duties in the Direct Western Bureau, replacing Teng Yang. Not long afterwards, he was appointed as a Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate for the Palace Secretariat, while maintaining his post at the Direct Western Burau.

Liu Yu considered Fu Liang to have long been a diligent and meticulous worker, not to mention a direct speaker, so he planned to appoint him as Administrator of Dongyang commandary. He first mentioned his intentions to Fu Di, who was overjoyed as he relayed the message to Fu Liang. But rather than respond to him, Fu Liang hurried to see Liu Yu himself and told him, "I have just heard that you plan to favor me with the appointment at Dongyang. I come from a poor family, and it is my unworthy good fortune to earn the salary that I do, so such an appointment would certainly be in my personal interests. But what I really wish is to continue to enjoy your protection and to serve closely with you. I beg that you let me remain in the center of things; I would not be pleased to be sent far away."

Liu Yu laughed and said, "And here I thought the salary would appeal to you. But if it's as you say, you'll be a great help to me."

Soon afterwards, when Liu Yu campaigned against Sima Xiuzhi (in 415), he appointed Fu Liang as his Attendant Officer of the Household Gentleman for the Grand Commandant and as his Recordskeeping Clerk. The Army Advisor to the Grand Commandant, Yang Hui, was appointed as a Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat and took over Fu Liang's role at the Direct Western Bureau. Fu Liang accompanied Liu Yu during his campaigns against Guanzhong and the Luoyang region, then went back to Pengcheng with him. When the Song fief was established (in 418), Liu Yu appointed Fu Liang as a Palace Attendant of the Song fief and as acting Central Retainer to the Heir.

長安既平,以為征虜將軍、琅邪內史。世子當鎮江陵,復以道濟為西中郎司馬、持節、南蠻校尉。又加征虜將軍。遷宋國侍中,領世子中庶子,兗州大中正。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Tan Daoji)

After Chang'an was taken (in 417), Tan Daoji was appointed as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Interior Minister of Langye. When Liu Yifu was stationed at Jiangling, Tan Daoji was once again appointed as his Marshal of the Household Gentlemen of the West, as well as Credential Bearer and Colonel of Southern Man Tribes. Tan Daoji was later promoted again to General Who Conquers The Caitiffs.

When the Song fief was established (in 418), Tan Daoji was appointed as Central Retainer to the Heir and as Grand Rectifier of Yanzhou.

宋臺初建,為右衛將軍。(Book of Liu-Song 44, Biography of Xie Hui)

When the Song fief was first established, Xie Hui was appointed as Guard General of the Right.

十四年,宋國初建,天子詔曰:「宋國始立,內外草創,禁旅王要,總司須才。右將軍祗可為宋領軍將軍,加散騎常侍。」祗性矜豪,樂在外放恣,不願內遷,甚不得志。發疾不自治,其年卒廣陵,時年五十一。贈散騎常侍、撫軍將軍,諡曰威侯。子獻嗣,元熙中卒,無子,祗次子朗紹封。朗卒,子宣明嗣。宣明卒,子逸嗣。齊受禪,國除。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Tan Zhi)

In the fourteenth year of Yixi (418), when the Song fief was first established, Emperor An issued an edict stating, "The Song fief has just been established, and everything inside and out is being newly created. A man of ability is required to command the critical points and direct the officials. Thus I hereby appoint the General of the Right, Tan Zhi, as General Who Leads The Army of the Song fief, and as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance."

Tan Zhi was naturally proud and conceited; he took pleasure in doing as he pleased, and he was not inclined to reform himself. Thus he never truly achieved his ambitions. This same year, he developed an illness and did not treat himself, and he passed away at Guangling; he was fifty years old. He was posthumously appointed as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance and as General Who Nurtures The Army, and he was granted the posthumous title Marquis Wei ("the Mighty").

Tan Zhi's son Tan Xian succeeded him as Marquis. Tan Xian passed away during the Yuanxi reign era (419); since he had no sons, his younger brother Tan Lang succeeded him. When Tan Lang passed away, his son Tan Xuanming succeeded him. When Tan Xuanming passed away, his son Tan Yi succeeded him. After Qi accepted the abdication of Liu-Song, the fief was abolished.


魏天部大人白馬文貞公崔宏疾篤,魏主遣侍臣問病,一夜數返。及卒,詔羣臣及附國渠帥皆會葬。

16. Wei's Chief of Heaven and Duke of Baima, Cui Hong, was bedridden by illness. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei sent his attendants to ask after Cui Hong's illness, and he visited him several times in the same night. Shortly afterwards, Cui Hong passed away. Emperor Mingyuan ordered his ministers and the major leaders and chiefs of the state to attend Cui Hong's funeral. Cui Hong was posthumously known as Duke Wenzhen ("the Cultured and Faithful") of Baima.

〈去年,魏置天地四方六部大人。〉

(Northern Wei had created the six offices of Chief of Heaven, Earth, and the Four Directions the previous year (417.26).)


秋,七月,戊午,魏主嗣至平城。

17. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuwu (September 10th), Emperor Mingyuan returned to Pingcheng.

秋七月戊午,至於京師。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuwu (September 10th), Emperor Mingyuan returned to the capital.


九月,甲寅,魏人命諸州調民租,戶五十石,積於定、相、冀三州。

18. In the ninth month, on the day Jiayin (November 5th), Wei ordered a tax collection among the common people of several provinces; each household was taxed fifteen 石 of grain, and the grain was stored in Dingzhou, Xiangzhou, and Jizhou.

〈魏主珪天興四年,置相州於鄴,領魏、陽平、廣平、汲郡、東郡、頓丘、濮陽、清河等郡,冀州所領止長樂、勃海、武邑、章武、樂陵而已。〉

(In Tuoba Gui's fourth year of Tianxing (400), he had created a new province of Xiangzhou, based at Ye. It administered the commandaries of Wei, Yangping, Guangping, Ji, Dong, Dunqiu, Puyang, Qinghe, and others. Jizhou was condensed to merely the commandaries of Changle, Bohai, Wuyi, Zhangwu, and Leling.)


八月,雁門、河內大雨水,復其租稅。九月甲寅,詔諸州調民租,戶五十石,積於定、相、冀三州。冬十月戊辰,築宮於西苑。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the eighth month, there were storms and flooding in Yanmen and Henei commandaries, so they were exempted from taxes.

In the ninth month, on the day Jiayin (November 5th), Emperor Mingyuan ordered a tax collection among the common people of several provinces; each household was taxed fifteen 石 of grain, and the grain was stored in Dingzhou, Xiangzhou, and Jizhou.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Wuchen (November 19th), Emperor Mingyuan built a palace in the Western Park.


河西王蒙遜復引兵伐涼,涼公歆將拒之,左長史張體順固諫,乃止。蒙遜芟其秋稼而還。

19. Juqu Mengxun once again led troops to campaign against Western Liang. Li Xin was about to march to face him in battle, but his Chief Clerk of the Left, Zhang Tishun, fiercely remonstrated against it, so he stopped. Juqu Mengxun harvested Li Xin's autumn grain and then withdrew.

歆遣使來告襲位。冬,十月,以歆爲都督七郡諸軍事、鎭西大將軍、酒泉公。

20. Li Xin sent envoys to the Jin court informing them of his titles. In winter, the tenth month, the Jin court appointed Li Xin as Commander of military affairs in seven commandaries, Grand General Who Guards The West, and Duke of Jiuquan.

〈都督敦煌、酒泉、晉興、建康、涼興及歆父暠所置會稽、廣夏,凡七郡。〉

(These seven commandaries were the five existing commandaries of Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Jinxing, Jiankang, and Liangxing and two new ones that Li Xin's father Li Gao had created, Kuaiji and Guangxia.)


冬十月,以涼公士業爲鎮西將軍,封酒泉公。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, the Duke of Liang, Li Xin, was appointed as General Who Guards The West and Duke of Jiuquan.


姚艾叛秦,降河西王蒙遜,蒙遜引兵迎之。艾叔父雋言於衆曰:「秦王寬仁有雅度,自可安居事之,何爲從河西王西遷!」衆咸以爲然,乃相與逐艾,推雋爲主,復歸於秦。秦王熾磐徵雋爲侍中、中書監,賜爵隴西公,以左丞相曇遠爲都督洮‧罕以東諸軍事、征東大將軍、秦州牧,鎭南安。

21. Yao Ai rebelled against Qin and surrendered to Juqu Mengxun. Juqu Mengxun led troops to receive him. But Yao Ai's uncle Yao Jun said to Yao Ai's soldiers, "The King of Qin (Qifu Chipan) is tolerant, benevolent, and refined, thus he allowed us to live in peace under him. Why then should we go west and serve the King of Hexi (Juqu Mengxun)?" The soldiers all agreed with him, and they drove out Yao Ai and acclaimed Yao Jun as their new leader, then returned to Qin. Qifu Chipan appointed Yao Jun as his Palace Attendant, General Who Conquers The South, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and Duke of Longxi.

Qifu Chipan appointed his Prime Minister of the Left, Qifu Tanyuan, as his Commander of military affairs at Lintao and Fuhan, Grand General Who Conquers The East, and Governor of Qinzhou and stationed him at Nan'an.

〈姚艾稱藩於乞伏,事見上年。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「賜」上有「征南將軍」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉〈洮、罕,謂臨洮、枹罕也。〉

(Yao Ai had earlier claimed vassalage under Qifu Chipan, as mentioned in the previous year (417.46).

Some versions add that Yao Jun was also appointed as "General Who Conquers The South".

This passage lists Qifu Tanyuan as Commander in "Lin and Fu"; this means Lintao and Fuhan.)


先是,姚艾叛降蒙遜,蒙遜率眾迎之。艾叔父俊言于眾曰:「秦王寬仁有雅度,自可安土事之,何為從涼主西遷?」眾咸以為然,相率逐艾,推俊為主,遣使請降。熾磐大悅,征俊為侍中、中書監、征南將軍,封隴西公,邑一千戶。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Earlier, Yao Ai had rebelled and surrendered to Juqu Mengxun, and Juqu Mengxun was leading troops to receive him. But Yao Ai's uncle Yao Jun said to Yao Ai's soldiers, "The King of Qin (Qifu Chipan) is tolerant, benevolent, and refined, thus he allowed us to live in peace under him. Why then should we go west and serve the King of Liang (Juqu Mengxun)?"

The soldiers all agreed with him, and they drove out Yao Ai and acclaimed Yao Jun as their new leader, then sent envoys asking to submit again. Qifu Chipan was overjoyed, and he appointed Yao Jun as Palace Attendant, Chief of the Palace Secretariat, General Who Conquers The South, and Duke of Longxi, with a fief of a thousand households.


劉義眞年少,賜與左右無節,王脩每裁抑之。左右皆怨,譖脩於義眞曰:「王鎭惡欲反,故沈田子殺之。脩殺田子,是亦欲反也。」義眞信之,使左右劉乞等殺脩。

22. Liu Yizhen was still a mere youth; he kept unreliable people as his personal attendants, and Wang Xiu was always having to restrain and deal with them. His attendants thus resented Wang Xiu, and they slandered him to Liu Yizhen, telling him, "Wang Zhen'e was indeed planning to rebel, and that really is why Shen Tianzi killed him. Wang Xiu only killed Shen Tianzi because he too is planning to rebel." Liu Yizhen believed them, so he had his attendants, Liu Qi and others, kill Wang Xiu.

脩旣死,人情離駭,莫相統壹。義眞悉召外軍入長安,閉門拒守。關中郡縣悉降於夏。赫連璝夜襲長安,不克。夏王勃勃進據咸陽,長安樵采路絕。

23. With Wang Xiu dead, the others at Chang'an were now alienated and nervous, and there was no longer any common spirit.

Liu Yizhen summoned all his outlying garrisons and camps into Chang'an and closed the gates to defend the city. All of the commandaries and counties of Guanzhong then surrendered to Xia. Helian Gui launched a surprise night attack against Chang'an, but he could not take it.

Helian Bobo advanced and occupied Xianyang. The roads around Chang'an were filled by people gathering firewood.

〈外軍,謂屯蒲阪以捍魏、屯渭北以捍夏之軍也。〉

(The "outlying garrisons" were the camps at Puban to guard against Northern Wei and those north of the Wei River to guard against Xia.)


宋公裕聞之,使輔國將軍蒯恩如長安,召義眞東歸;以相國右司馬朱齡石爲都督關中諸軍事、右將軍、雍州刺史,代鎭長安。裕謂齡石曰:「卿至,可敕義眞輕裝速發,旣出關,然可徐行。若關右必不可守,可與義眞俱歸。」又命中書侍郎朱超石慰勞河、洛。

24. When Liu Yu heard of the situation in Guanzhong, he sent the General Who Upholds The State, Kuai En, to Chang'an and summoned Liu Yizhen to return east. He appointed the Marshal of the Right to the Chancellor of State, Zhu Lingshi, as Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong, General of the Right, and Inspector of Yongzhou in order to take command at Chang'an.

Liu Yu said to Zhu Lingshi, "When you arrive, if Liu Yizhen is in a position to move out at once, then send him on his way first, and then you may depart later on. But if Guanzhong definitely cannot be held, then you should return at the same time as Liu Yizhen."

Liu Yu also ordered the Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Zhu Chaoshi, to comfort and console the people living along the Yellow and Luo Rivers.

〈晉先置雍州於襄陽;此爲北雍州。〉〈「然」下當有「後」字。〉

(Jin had earlier created a surrogate version of Yongzhou at Xiangyang. Thus the actual Yongzhou was organized as Northern Yongzhou.

The phrase "later on" should be in Liu Yu's first sentence.)


高祖還彭城,以齡石為相國右司馬。十四年,安西將軍桂陽公義真被徵,以齡石持節督關中諸軍事、右將軍、雍州刺史。敕齡石,若關右必不可守,可與義真俱歸。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

When Liu Yu returned to Pengcheng, he appointed Zhu Lingshi as Marshal of the Right to the Chancellor of State.

In the fourteenth year of Yixi (418), when the General Who Maintains The West and Duke of Guiyang, Liu Yizhen, was summoned back to the capital, Zhu Lingshi was appointed as Credential Bearer, Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong, General of the Right, and Inspector of Yongzhou. Liu Yu instructed Zhu Lingshi that, if Guanzhong definitely could not be held, he should return together with Liu Yizhen.

高祖自長安東還,超石常令人水道至彭城,除中書侍郎,封興平縣五等侯。關中擾亂,高祖遣超石慰勞河、洛。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Chaoshi)

When Liu Yu returned east from Chang'an, Zhu Chaoshi ordered people to bring him back to Pengcheng by water route. He was appointed as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat and as a Marquis of the fifth rank of Xingping county.

When Guanzhong fell into chaos, Liu Yu sent Zhu Chaoshi to comfort and console the people living along the Yellow and Luo Rivers.

恩自從征討,每有危急,輒率先諸將,常陷堅破陣,不避艱嶮。凡百餘戰,身被重創。高祖錄其前後功勞,封新寧縣男,食邑五百戶。高祖世子為征虜將軍,恩以大府佐領中兵參軍,隨府轉中兵參軍。高祖北伐,留恩侍衛世子,命朝士與之交。恩益自謙損,與人語常呼官位,而自稱為鄙人。撫待士卒,甚有紀綱,眾咸親附之。遷諮議參軍,轉輔國將軍、淮陵太守。世子開府,又為從事中郎,轉司馬,將軍、太守如故。入關迎桂陽公義真。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Kuai En)

Whenever Kuai En went on campaigns, he always braved the dangers and perils himself and led his generals from the front. He was always breaking through fortifications and smashing enemy formations, nor did he avoid difficult or dangerous enemy defenses. He fought in more than a hundred battles, and his body suffered numerous wounds. Liu Yu took note of all his achievements and deeds, and he appointed Kuai En as Baron of Xinning county, with a fief of five hundred households.

When Liu Yu appointed his heir (Liu Yifu) as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs (in 416), he appointed Kuai En as acting Army Advisor of the Central Regiment for the Greater Staff, and he retained this position. When Liu Yu launched his northern campaign against Later Qin, he left Kuai En behind to guard and protect Liu Yifu and ordered the court ministers to correspond with him. Kuai En was modest and self-defacing; he would usually refer to others by their office or title, but would refer to himself as "this humble fellow". He was attentive to and concerned for his officers and soldiers, and he greatly enforced the laws and regulations. Thus his soldiers were all attached to him and felt close to him.

Kuai En was appointed as a Consultant Army Advisor, then transferred to be General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Huailing. When Liu Yifu operated a Separate Office, Kuai En was appointed as Attendant Officer of the Household Gentleman and a Major under Liu Yifu, while keeping his original positions as General and Administrator.

Kuai En was sent to welcome the return of the Duke of Guiyang, Liu Yizhen (in 418).


十一月,齡石至長安。義眞將士貪縱,大掠而東,多載寶貨、子女,方軌徐行。雍州別駕韋華奔夏。赫連璝帥衆三萬追義眞;建威將軍傅弘之曰:「公處分亟進;今多將輜重,一日行不過十里,虜追騎且至,何以待之!宜棄車輕行,乃可以免。」義眞不從。俄而夏兵大至,傅弘之、蒯恩斷後,力戰連日。至青泥,晉兵大敗,弘之、恩皆爲王買德所禽;司馬毛脩之與義眞相失,亦爲夏兵所禽。義眞行在前,會日暮,夏兵不窮追,故得免;左右盡散,獨逃草中。中兵參軍段宏單騎追尋,緣道呼之,義眞識其聲,出就之,曰:「君非段中兵邪?身在此,行矣!必不兩全,可刎身頭以南,使家公望絕。」宏泣曰:「死生共之,下官不忍。」乃束義眞於背,單馬而歸。義眞謂宏曰:「今日之事,誠無算略;然丈夫不經此,何以知艱難!」

25. In the eleventh month, Zhu Lingshi arrived at Chang'an.

Liu Yizhen's generals and officers were greedy and unrestrained, and they greatly pillaged the people before starting out for the east. They were heavily burdened with treasures, wealth, and captive children, and they traveled at a slow pace.

The Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Yongzhou, Wei Hua, fled to Xia.

Helian Gui led an army of thirty thousand to pursue Liu Yizhen. The General Who Establishes Might, Fu Hongzhi, said to Liu Yizhen, "Your orders were to set out at once and move with all speed. Yet now our army is leading a long supply train, and we do not even cover ten li in one day. Furthermore, the barbarian cavalry are pursuing us and are right on our tails. How can we just wait for them to catch up? We should abandon these carts and move quickly. Only then may we get away."

But Liu Yizhen did not listen to him.

Soon, the Xia army arrived in force. Fu Hongzhi and Kuai En led the rearguard, and they fought hard for several days. But when the Jin army reached Qingni, they were greatly defeated; Fu Hongzhi and Kuai En were captured by Wang Maide, and Mao Xiuzhi was separated from Liu Yizhen and was also captured by the Xia soldiers. Liu Yizhen was fleeing at the front of the army, and by then it was already dusk and the Xia soldiers did not fully press their pursuit. Thus he was able to escape, but his attendants all scattered and he hid alone among the grasses.

The Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, Duan Hong, was riding on a lone horse and following Liu Yizhen's trail, calling out for him along the roads as he passed. When Liu Yizhen recognized Duan Hong's voice, he came out and presented himself, saying, "Aren't you Advisor Duan? Here I am; come here! We cannot both save ourselves, so you should cut off my head and bring it back south, to show my lord father that his hopes have been dashed."

But Duan Hong wept as he said, "I could not bear to do that; we will live or die together." So he tied Liu Yizhen to his back and rode off, a mere lone rider.

Liu Yizhen said to Duan Hong, "It was all because of my lack of thinking that things came to this. A real man would not have allowed this; how could I have known of the difficulties?"

〈韋華本姚氏臣也,裕用爲雍州別駕。〉〈買德先屯青泥,故二將爲所邀而見禽。〉〈晉人多自稱爲身。〉〈魏、晉之間,凡人子者稱其父曰家公,人稱之曰尊公。〉

(Wei Hua had originally been a minister of Later Qin. Liu Yu had appointed him as Jin's Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Yongzhou.

Wang Maide had earlier camped at Qingni, thus he was able to intercept Kuai En and Fu Hongzhi and capture them.

Liu Yizhen refers to himself as 身 "this body". This was a common term that people of Jin used to refer to themselves.

Likewise, Liu Yizhen refers to Liu Yu as 家公. During the Cao-Wei and Jin era, sons would address their fathers as 家公 "lord father", and people would refer to a man's father in the third person as 尊公 "your honored father".)


十一月,赫連勃勃大敗王師于青泥北。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eleventh month, Helian Bobo greatly defeated the royal army north of Qingni.

又義真東歸,佛佛傾國追躡,於青泥大戰,弘之身貫甲胄,氣冠三軍。軍敗,陷沒。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Fu Hongzhi)

When Liu Yizhen began returning to the east, Helian Bobo poured out all the resources of his state to pursue Liu Yizhen. The two sides fought a great battle at Qingni, where Fu Hongzhi personally wore armor and helmet and fought with a zeal surpassing everyone else in the army. But the Jin army was defeated, and Fu Hongzhi was captured.

義真還至青泥,為佛佛虜所追,恩斷後,力戰連日。義真前軍奔散,恩軍人亦盡,為虜所執,死於虜中。子國才嗣。國才卒,子慧度嗣。慧度卒,無子,國除。(Book of Liu-Song 49, Biography of Kuai En)

When Liu Yizhen was on his way back to the capital, he was pursued by Helian Bobo, who caught up with him at Qingni. Kuai En commanded the rearguard, and he fought hard for several days. Liu Yizhen and the troops at the front of the army all scattered and fled, and Kuai En's soldiers were wiped out. He was captured by the barbarians, and he died as their prisoner.

Kuai En's son Kuai Guocai inherited his titles. When Kuai Guocai passed away, his son Kuai Huidu succeeded him. Kuai Huidu passed away without any sons, so the fief was abolished.


夏王勃勃欲降傅弘之,弘之不屈,勃勃裸之,弘之叫罵而死。勃勃積人頭爲京觀,號曰髑髏臺。長安百姓逐朱齡石,齡石焚其宮殿,奔潼關。勃勃入長安,大饗將士,舉觴謂王買德曰:「卿往日之言,一期而驗,可謂算無遺策。此觴所集,非卿而誰!」以買德爲都官尚書,封河陽侯。

26. Helian Bobo wanted to make Fu Hongzhi submit to him. But Fu Hongzhi refused to bow. The weather had turned cold by then, so Helian Bobo left him exposed to the elements, and Fu Hongzhi yelled rebukes at Helian Bobo until he died.

Helian Bobo made a pile of severed heads as a viewing mound, calling it the Skull Terrace.

The common people of Chang'an drove out Zhu Lingshi. He burned the palaces as he left and fled to Tong Gate.

Helian Bobo entered Chang'an, where he held a great feast for his generals and officers. He raised a toast as he said to Wang Maide, "You predicted all this earlier, and now everything has turned out just as you said. That could certainly be called a strategy that leaves no loose ends. Who else but you could have brought about this feast?" He appointed Wang Maide as his Master of Writing of the Capital and as Marquis of Heyang.

〈【章:甲十一行本「屈」下有「時天寒」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈義眞旣大掠長安而歸,長安之人固仇視晉人矣。齡石奉宋公之命與義眞俱歸可也,癡坐長安以待逐,何歟?〉

(Some versions add that "the weather had turned cold".

The people of Chang'an became resentful of the people of Jin after Liu Yizhen had greatly plundered them, thus they drove out Zhu Lingshi. Why didn't Zhu Lingshi heed Liu Yu's order to leave together with Liu Yizhen, instead of foolishly remaining at Chang'an until he was driven out?)


雍州刺史朱齡石焚長安宮殿,奔于潼關。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhu Lingshi, burned the palaces and halls at Chang'an and fled to Tong Gate.

齡石亦舉城奔走。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

Zhu Lingshi also abandoned Chang'an and fled.

佛佛逼令降,弘之不為屈。時天寒,裸弘之,弘之叫駡見殺。時年四十二。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Fu Hongzhi)

Helian Bobo tried to force Fu Hongzhi to submit to him. But Fu Hongzhi refused to bow. The weather had turned cold by then, so Helian Bobo left him exposed to the elements, and Fu Hongzhi yelled rebukes at Helian Bobo until he died. He was forty-one years old.


龍驤將軍王敬先戍曹公壘,齡石往從之。朱超石至蒲阪,聞齡石所在,亦往從之。赫連昌攻敬先壘,斷其水道;衆渴,不能戰。城且陷,齡石謂超石曰:「弟兄俱死異域,使老親何以爲心!爾求間道亡歸,我死此,無恨矣。」超石持兄泣曰:「人誰不死,寧忍今日辭兄去乎!」遂與敬先及右軍參軍劉欽之皆被執送長安,勃勃殺之;欽之弟秀之悲泣不歡燕者十年。欽之,穆之之從兄子也。

27. Jin's Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Jingxian, was camped at Lord Cao's Rampart. Zhu Lingshi now came to join him. When Zhu Chaoshi arrived at Puban and heard where Zhu Lingshi had gone, he also went there. Then Helian Chang attacked Wang Jingxian's ramparts and cut off his water supply. The Jin soldiers were thus parched, and no longer capable of fighting.

As the walls were being breached, Zhu Lingshi told Zhu Chaoshi, "If we both die and depart for the netherworld, who will be left to care for our aged relatives? So I ask you to find a way out and escape from here. Then even if I die here, I will have no regrets."

But Zhu Chaoshi embraced his brother and wept, saying, "Who does not die? And how could today be our final farewell?"

So they were both captured and sent to Chang'an, along with Wang Jingxian and the Army Advisor to the General of the Right, Liu Qinzhi. Helian Bobo killed them all.

This Liu Qinzhi was the son of Liu Muzhi's cousin. Liu Qinzhi's younger brother Liu Xiuzhi spent ten years in grief and mourning for him, never taking part in pleasure or joy.

〈曹公壘在潼關,曹操伐韓、馬所築也。〉

(Lord Cao's Rampart was the rampart that Cao Cao had built when he was campaigning against Han Sui and Ma Chao.)


尋又大潰,齡石死之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Zhu Lingshi's army soon greatly scattered, and he died.

龍驤將軍王敬先戍曹公壘,齡石自潼關率餘眾就敬先,虜斷其水道,眾渴不能戰,城陷。虜執齡石及敬先還長安,見殺,時年四十。子景符嗣。景符卒,子祖宣嗣,坐輒之封,八年不反,及不分姑國秩,奪爵。更以祖宣弟隆紹封。齊受禪,國除。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Lingshi)

The Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Jingxian, was camped at Lord Cao's Rampart. Zhu Lingshi led his remaining troops from Tong Gate to join him. But the barbarians cut off his water supply. The Jin soldiers were thus parched, and no longer capable of fighting. The rampart fell, and the barbarians captured Zhu Lingshi and Wang Jingxian and took them back to Chang'an, where they were killed. Zhu Lingshi was thirty-nine years old.

Zhu Lingshi's son Zhu Jingfu succeeded him in his titles. When Zhu Jingfu passed away, his son Zhu Zuxuan succeeded him. Zhu Zuxuan was blamed for a fault and had his title stripped for eight years before it was returned, and then when he would not pay his share of funds to the mother state, he permanently lost his title, which was granted to his younger brother Zhu Longshao. When Qi accepted the abdication of Liu-Song, the fief was abolished.

始至蒲阪,值齡石自長安東走至曹公壘,超石濟河就之,與齡石俱沒,為佛佛所殺,時年三十七。(Book of Liu-Song 48, Biography of Zhu Chaoshi)

Zhu Chaoshi had only just arrived at Puban when Zhu Lingshi fled east from Chang'an to Lord Cao's Rampart. Zhu Chaoshi thus crossed the Yellow River and came to join him. Both he and Zhu Lingshi were captured and killed by Helian Bobo. Zhu Chaoshi was thirty-six years old.


宋公裕聞青泥敗,未知義眞存亡,刻日北伐。侍中謝晦諫以「士卒疲弊,請俟他年」;不從。鄭鮮之上表,以爲:「虜聞殿下親征,必倂力守潼關。徑往攻之,恐未易可克;若輿駕頓洛,則不足上勞聖躬。且虜雖得志,不敢乘勝過陝者,猶攝服大威,爲將來之慮故也。若造洛而反,虜必更有揣量之心,或益生邊患。況大軍遠出,後患甚多。昔歲西征,劉、鍾狼狽;去年北討,廣州傾覆;旣往之效,後來之鑒也。今諸州大水,民食寡乏,三吳羣盜攻沒諸縣,皆由困於征役故也。江南士庶,引領顒顒以望殿下之返旆,聞更北出,不測淺深之謀,往還之期,臣恐返顧之憂更在腹心也。若慮西虜更爲河、洛之患者,宜結好北虜;北虜親則河南安,河南安則濟、泗靜矣。」會得段宏啓,知義眞得免,裕乃止,但登城北望,慨然流涕而已。降義眞爲建威將軍、司州刺史;以段宏爲宋臺黃門郎、領太子右衞率。裕以天水太守毛德祖爲河東太守,代劉遵考守蒲阪。

28. Liu Yu heard about the defeat at Qingni, and he was uncertain whether Liu Yizhen was alive or not. Extremely angry, he set a date for a new northern campaign to begin. The Palace Attendant, Xie Hui, remonstrated with him, saying, "The officers and soldiers are worn out and exhausted. Please wait another year for this campaign." But Liu Yu refused.

Then Zheng Xuanzhi sent up a petition stating, "If the barbarians hear that Your Highness is personally leading a campaign, they will surely muster all their strength to defend Tong Gate. At that point, if you attacked them directly, you would not be able to easily overcome them, while if you merely halted at Luoyang, you would not accomplish anything of worth. Besides, although the barbarians have achieved their immediate goal in taking Guanzhong, they currently do not dare to press their advantage to march past Shan, for they are still in awe of the great majesty of our state and fear retaliation from us. But if you marched to Luoyang and then returned, that would only further embolden the barbarians' resolve, and they might become even more of a threat to our borders.

"What's more, if you lead the main army on such a distant campaign, we'll have troubles to worry about from behind. After all, when you went on your western campaign a few years ago, Liu Zhong had to deal with those bandits near the capital, and even before that, when you marched north, Guangzhou fell into the hands of rebels. These past examples should serve as warnings for the present.

"Right now, several provinces are experiencing flooding, the common people are suffering and deprived of food, and bandit groups have risen up and taken several counties in the Three Wu regions. These are all the effects of the recent campaigns.

"And even beyond that, the Southland gentry are watching and waiting, hoping to see Your Highness depart again. If they hear that you have marched off on another northern campaign, they may carry out some unfathomable plot, and by the time you return, I fear that you would discover a threat to the very heart of the state.

"And suppose the western barbarians (Xia) were to threaten our hold on the Yellow and Luo River regions, while forming closer ties with the northern barbarians (Wei). Then the northern barbarians would themselves occupy the region south of the Yellow River, and having taken that, they would move on to conquer the Ji and Si River regions."

At that time, Duan Hong's report arrived, and it became clear that Liu Yizhen was still alive. So Liu Yu canceled the planned campaign. But he still stood atop the walls of the city and gazed north, sighing and shedding tears of regret.

Liu Yizhen was demoted to General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Sizhou. Duan Hong was appointed as Gentleman of the Yellow Gate of the Song fief and acting Guard Leader of the Right to the Crown Prince.

Liu Yu appointed the Administrator of Tianshui, Mao Dezu, as Administrator of Hedong and had him replace Liu Zunkao at Puban to defend it.

〈【章:甲十一行本「亡」下有「怒甚」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉〈使裕能復北伐,則聞青泥之敗,當投袂而起矣,何待刻日乎!英雄所爲,固非常人所測識也。〉〈晦請俟他年,亦裕所謂識機變者也。鄭鮮之之言則異於是。〉〈謂十一年盜襲冶亭時也。〉〈謂徐道期陷廣州也。〉〈北虜,魏也。〉〈裕雖知德祖善守而用之,然人心已搖,宜其不能固也。爲下德祖棄蒲阪張本。〉

(Some versions add that Liu Yu was "extremely angry".

If Liu Yu was truly in a position to launch another northern campaign, then after hearing about the defeat at Qingni, he should have shook out his sleeves and set out at once; why delay by merely "setting a date"? Truly, the minds of great men cannot be fathomed by ordinary people.

Xie Hui's request to "wait another year" for the campaign was further evidence for Liu Yu's claim that Xie Hui could recognize and adapt to circumstances. His advice was different from that of Zheng Xianzhi.

Zheng Xianzhi refers to the bandits who surprise attacked Yeting during Liu Yu's campaign against Sima Xiuzhi, as mentioned in the eleventh year of Yixi (415.10), and Xu Daofu's conquest of Guangzhou during Liu Yu's northern campaign against Southern Yan.

The "northern barbarians" were Northern Wei.

Although Liu Yu recognized Mao Dezu's skill at defense and assigned him to guard Puban, the people had already been alienated from Jin by now, and even Mao Dezu would not be able to salvage the situation.

This was why Mao Dezu later abandoned Puban.)


尋加侍中。(Book of Liu-Song 44, Biography of Xie Hui)

Xie Hui was soon further appointed as a Palace Attendant.


夏王勃勃築壇於灞上,卽皇帝位,改元昌武。

29. Helian Bobo built an altar at Bashang, where he declared himself Emperor. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Changwu.

是歲,赫連屈丐僭稱皇帝。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (418), Helian Qugai (Helian Bobo) declared himself Emperor.


西秦王熾磐東巡;十二月,徙上邽民五千餘戶于枹罕。

30. Qifu Chipan went on an eastern patrol. In the twelfth month, he relocated more than five thousand households of common people from Shanggui to Fuhan.

彗星出天津,入太微,經北斗,絡紫微,八十餘日而滅。魏主嗣復召諸儒、術士問之曰:「今四海分裂,災咎之應,果在何國?朕甚畏之。卿輩盡言,勿有所隱!」衆推崔浩使對,浩曰:「夫災異之興,皆象人事,人苟無釁,又何畏焉?昔王莽將篡漢,彗星出入,正與今同。國家主尊臣卑,民無異望。晉室陵夷,危亡不遠;彗之爲異,其劉裕將篡之應乎!」衆無以易其言。

31. A comet came out of the Heavenly Crossing constellation, entered the Grand Enclosure part of the night sky, passed through the Northern Dipper, and whirled through the Purple Palace Enclosure; it was in the sky for more than eighty days before vanishing.

Emperor Mingyuan of Wei summoned his ministers skilled in scholarship and divination and asked then, "Since all the land within the Four Seas is torn to pieces, to whom and for which state is this omen meant to apply? I am deeply concerned about it. May you gentlemen speak your full minds, and hold nothing back!"

The others all deferred to Cui Hao to reply for them. Cui Hao said, "The appearances of natural disasters and disturbances indeed serve as omens for the affairs of men. But what state is without its divisions and problems? Why then should Your Majesty be afraid?

"As for this omen in particular, in former times, when Wang Mang was about to usurp the throne of the Han dynasty, a comet appeared, just like the current one. The common people have no other wish than to see the relationship between the sovereign and his ministers in the proper standing, with the sovereign exalted and the ministers humble. But by now, the Jin royal family has declined and their power is weak; their demise is not far off. Thus, this comet is an omen that Liu Yu is about to usurp their throne!"

None of the others dissented from Cui Hao's opinion.

〈《晉書‧天文志》曰:箕四星,一曰天津,又曰天漢,經尾、箕之間,謂之漢津。太微,天子庭也,在北斗南。紫微十五星,在北斗北。〉〈《漢書‧天文志》曰:哀帝建平二年,彗星出牛七十餘日。《傳》曰:彗者,所以除舊布新。牽牛,日、月、五星所從起,三正之始;彗而出之,改更之象也。其後卒有王莽篡國之禍。〉

(The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states, "The Winnowing Basket constellation is made up of four stars; it is also called the Heavenly Crossing or the Heavenly Han. The space between the Tail and Winnowing Basket constellations is called the Han Crossing." And, "The Grand Enclosure is the seat of the Son of Heaven; it is south of the Northern Dipper." And, "The Purple Palace Enclosure constellation is made up of fifteen stars; it is north of the Northern Dipper."

The Astrological Records of the Book of Han states, "In Emperor Ai's second year of Jianping (5 BC), a comet appeared in the Oxherd constellation for more than seventy days. According to the records, a comet symbolizes an end to the old and the arrival of the new. And the Oxherd was the region which gave rise to the three great celestial bodies: the sun, the moon, and the five planets. For a comet to appear in that region was thus an omen of an exceptional change. Shortly after this appearance, Wang Mang usurped the throne.")


宋公裕以《讖》云「昌明之後尚有二帝」,乃使中書侍郎王韶之與帝左右密謀酖帝而立琅邪王德文。德文常在帝左右,飲食寢處,未嘗暫離;韶之伺之經時,不得間。會德文有疾,出居於外。戊寅,韶之以散衣縊帝於東堂。韶之,廙之曾孫也。裕因稱遺詔,奉德文卽皇帝位,大赦。

32. Liu Yu believed in a prophecy which stated, "There will be two Emperors after Changming (Emperor Xiaowu)". So he arranged to have the Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Shaozhi, and Emperor An's personal attendants secretly poison Emperor An to death so that he could place Sima Dewen on the throne to replace him. But since Sima Dewen was constantly at Emperor An's side, always eating together with him and sleeping in the same place, there was never a chance to split them apart; Wang Shaozhi kept constant watch for an opportunity, but never found one.

However, eventually Sima Dewen became ill and had to go out to stay somewhere else. So on the day Wuyin (January 28th of 419), Wang Shaozhi strangled Emperor An with a bundle of clothes in the Eastern Hall. This Wang Shaozhi was the great-grandson of Wang Yi.

Liu Yu then claimed to be fulfilling Emperor An's final will, and placed Sima Dewen on the throne and declared a general amnesty. Sima Dewen would be known as Emperor Gong.

〈《晉書‧帝紀》曰:初,簡文帝見《讖》云:「晉祚盡昌明。」及孝武帝之在孕也,李太后夢神人,謂之曰:「汝生男,以昌明爲字。」及產,東方始明,因以爲名。簡文後悟,乃流涕。又曰:《讖》云:「昌明之後有二帝。」裕乃使縊帝而立恭帝,以應二帝云。〉〈年三十七。〉〈廙,王敦之從弟。〉

(The Annals of Emperor Xiaowu in the Book of Jin states, "Emperor Jianwen had previously seen a prophecy which stated, 'The fortunes of Jin shall be exhausted by Changming'. And when Emperor Xiaowu was still in the womb, his mother Li Lingrong dreamed of a spirit who told her, 'Your child shall be a boy, and his style name shall be Changming'. Later, when she gave birth to him, dawn was just then breaking in the east. So she gave the boy the style name Changming ('light of dawn'). When Emperor Jianwen realized this, he wept." And the Annals of Emperor An in the Book of Jin states, "There was a prophecy which stated, 'There will be two Emperors after Changming.' So Liu Yu had Emperor An strangled and then placed Emperor Gong on the throne, in order to fulfill this prophecy."

Emperor An was thirty-six years old when he died.

Wang Yi was Wang Dun's cousin.)


是歲,司馬德宗卒,弟德文僭位。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (418), Sima Dezong (Emperor An) passed away. His younger brother Sima Dewen (Emperor Gong) succeeded him.

十二月戊寅,帝崩于東堂,時年三十七... 初讖云「昌明之後有二帝」,劉裕將爲禪代,故密使王韶之縊帝而立恭帝,以應二帝云。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the twelfth month, on the day Wuyin (January 28th of 419), Emperor An passed away in the Eastern Hall. He was thirty-six years old.

There had once been a prophecy stating, "There will be two Emperors after Changming (Emperor Xiaowu)". This was why, when Liu Yu was planning to accept the abdication of the Jin dynasty, he first secretly sent Wang Shaozhi to strangle Emperor An and then placed Emperor Gong upon the throne, in order to fulfill the prophecy.


是歲,河西王蒙遜奉表稱藩,拜涼州刺史。

33. During this year, Juqu Mengxun sent a petition to Jin declaring himself their vassal. They appointed him as Jin's Inspector of Liangzhou.

十四年,蒙遜遣使詣晉,奉表稱蕃,以蒙遜為涼州刺史。(Book of Liu-Song 98, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

In the fourteenth year of Yixi (418), Juqu Mengxun sent envoys to visit the Jin court to present a petition declaring himself a vassal of Jin. They appointed him as Jin's Inspector of Liangzhou.


尚書右僕射袁湛卒。

34. Jin's Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Yuan Zhan, passed away.
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BOOK 118

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 11, 2019 6:29 pm

恭皇帝

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Gong


〈諱德文,字德文,安帝母弟也。《諡法》:「尊賢貴義」、「敬事供上」、「尊賢敬讓」、「愛民長弟」、「執禮御賓」、「芘親之闕」皆曰恭。長弟,謂順長接弟;御賓,迎待賓也。〉

(Sima Dewen, styled Dewen, was Emperor An's younger brother by the same mother.

The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One may be called Gong ('the Respectful') who: exalts the worthy and honors righteousness; is respectful and offering to their superiors; exalts the worthy and is respectful and retiring; loves the common people and upholds the proper fraternal relationships; maintains ceremony and welcomes guests; or is cognizant of their shortcomings." The term "upholds the proper fraternal relationships" means someone who obeys their elder brothers and remains close to their younger brothers; "welcomes guests" means someone who is welcoming and a good host to guests.)


元熙元年(己未、四一九)

The First Year of Yuanxi (The Jiwei Year, 419 AD)


春,正月,壬辰朔,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renchen (February 11th), Jin changed their reign era title to the first year of Yuanxi.

立琅邪王妃褚氏爲皇后;后,裒之曾孫也。

2. Emperor Gong honored the Princess of Langye, his wife Lady Chu, as Empress. This Lady Chu was the great-granddaughter of Chu Pou.

〈褚裒,崇德太后之父。〉

(Chu Pou had been the father of Emperor Mu's wife Empress Mude.)


魏主嗣畋于犢渚。

3. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went hunting at Duzhu.

〈據《北史》,犢渚,在柞山,西臨河。〉

(According to the Histories of the Northern Dynasties, Duzhu was at Mount Zha, east of the Yellow River.)


四年正月壬辰朔,車駕臨河,大蒐于犢渚。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fourth year of Taichang (419), in the first month, on the new moon of the day Renchen (February 11th), Emperor Mingyuan came to the Yellow River and held a great hunt at Duzhu.


甲午,徵宋公裕入朝,進爵爲王;裕辭。

4. On the day Jiawu (February 13th), Liu Yu was summoned to court and promoted to Prince of Song. But he declined this appointment.

癸卯,魏主嗣還平城。

5. On the day Guimao (February 22nd), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to Pingcheng.

癸卯,車駕還宮。三月癸丑,築宮於蓬臺北。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Guimao (February 22nd), Emperor Mingyuan returned to the palace.

In the third month, on the day Guichou (May 3rd), he built a palace north of Pengtai.


庚申,葬安皇帝于休平陵。

6. On the day Gengshen (March 11th), Emperor An was buried at Xiuping Tomb.

葬休平陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Emperor An was buried at Xiuping Tomb.


剌劉道憐司空出鎭京口。

7. An edict was issued appointing Liu Daolian as Minister of Works and stationing him at Jingkou.

〈「剌」者,「敕」字之誤也。【章:乙十一行本正作「敕」;張校同;甲十一行本作空格。】「司空」之上又當逸「以」字。〉

(This passage is somewhat miswritten in the Zizhi Tongjian. The first character, here written as 剌 (possibly part of "Inspector"), should be 敕 ("ordered"). And it is so written in some versions of the Zizhi Tongjian. Furthermore, there is a character missing before "Minister of Works" clarifying that Liu Daolian was being appointed to that position.)


元熙元年,解尚書令,進位司空,出鎮京口。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

In the first year of Yuanxi (419), Liu Daolian relinquished his post as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He was promoted to Minister of Works and sent out to be stationed at Jingkou.


夏將叱奴侯提帥步騎二萬攻毛德祖於蒲阪,德祖不能禦,全軍歸彭城。二月,宋公裕以德祖爲滎陽太守,戍虎牢。

8. The Xia general Chinu Houti led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack Mao Dezu at Puban. Mao Dezu could not hold out against him, so he withdrew all his forces back to Pengcheng.

In the second month, Liu Yu appointed Mao Dezu as Administrator of Xingyang and had him camp at Hulao.

〈宋白曰:虎牢,古東虢國,春秋爲鄭之制邑,漢爲成皋縣。《穆天子傳》:天子獵于鄭,有虎在葭中,七萃之士禽之以獻,命畜之東虢,號曰虎牢。後爲成皋縣,北臨黃河。後漢爲成皋關,後魏爲東中郎將府,唐爲汜水縣。〉

(Regarding Hulao, Song Bai remarked, "Hulao was the same region as the ancient state of Eastern Guo. During the Spring and Autumn era, it was under the control of the state of Zheng. During Han, it was Chenggao county." The “Tale of King Mu (of Zhou), Son of Heaven” states, "When the Son of Heaven was hunting in Zheng, a tiger became caught in some reeds, and seven people captured the tiger and presented to the Son of Heaven as a gift. The Son of Heaven ordered the tiger to be kept in Eastern Guo, and he named the place Hulao ('Tiger Trap')." The area later became Chenggao county, with the Yellow River running north of it. Eastern Han established Chenggao Pass at this place, Northern Wei made it the staff headquarters of the General of the Household Gentlemen of the East, and during Tang it was Sishui county.)


夏主勃勃徵隱士京兆韋祖思。祖思旣至,恭懼過甚,勃勃怒曰:「我以國士徵汝,汝乃以非類遇我!汝昔不拜姚興,今何獨拜我?我在,汝猶不以我爲帝王;我死,汝曹弄筆,當置我於何地邪!」遂殺之。

9. Helian Bobo summoned the hermit Wei Zusi of Jingzhao commandary. When Wei Zusi came to visit him, he was exceptionally respectful and fearful of Helian Bobo. But this only angered Helian Bobo, who demanded, "I summoned you to serve me as a gentlemen of the state; why then do you treat me so exceptionally? And why do you make obeisance before me when you refused to do so for Yao Xing? I know your type; even while I am alive, you will never consider me to be a real sovereign, and after I die, you will write whatever you like about me! Who knows where you would place me?" So he killed Wei Zusi.

〈勃勃之殺祖思,虐矣。然祖思之恭懼過甚,勃勃以爲薄己而殺之,則勃勃爲有見,而祖思爲無所守也。〉

(It was indeed cruel of Helian Bobo to kill Wei Zusi. However, the fact that Wei Zusi's obsequious behavior led to Helian Bobo believing that Wei Zusi was slighting him and thus made him kill Wei Zusi demonstrated that Helian Bobo had some insight, while Wei Zusi was unable to show tact.)


羣臣請都長安。勃勃曰:「朕豈不知長安歷世帝王之都,沃饒險固!然晉人僻遠,終不能爲吾患。魏與我風俗略同,土壤鄰接,自統萬距魏境裁百餘里,朕在長安,統萬必危;若在統萬,魏必不敢濟河而西。諸卿適未見此耳。」皆曰:「非所及也。」乃於長安置南臺,以赫連璝領大將軍、雍州牧、錄南臺尚書事;勃勃還統萬,大赦,改元眞興。

10. The Xia ministers asked that the capital be relocated to Chang'an. Helian Bobo said to them, "I am certainly aware that Chang'an has been the seat of emperors for generations; how rich a land it is, how suitable its defenses! Yet the Jin people have now been driven far away, and they could never truly be a threat to us. It is Wei that shares the same wind and the same earth with us; we are neighbors to them, our territories adjacent. Tongwan is barely more than a hundred li from the border with Wei, so if I relocated to Chang'an, Tongwan would be in constant danger. But so long as I am at Tongwan, Wei will not dare to cross the Yellow River and come west against us. That is what you gentlemen had not considered."

They replied, "We never thought of that."

Helian Bobo established a Southern Administration at Chang'an, and he appointed Helian Gui as acting Grand General, Governor of Yongzhou, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing for this Southern Administration. Then he returned to Tongwan, where he declared a general amnesty and changed the reign era title to the first year of Zhenxing.

〈使勃勃常在,猶云可也;勃勃死,則統萬爲魏有。古人所以貽厥子孫者,固有道也。〉

(Helian Bobo was correct in this assessment to the sense that while he personally was still alive, Tongwan would be safe. But as soon as he passed away, Tongwan fell into Northern Wei's hands. This is just the sort of thing that the ancients referred to when they spoke of leaving a legacy for one's descendants.)


勃勃性驕虐,視民如草芥。常居城上,置弓劍於側,有所嫌忿,手自殺之。羣臣迕視者鑿其目,笑者決其脣,諫者先截其舌而後斬之。

11. Helian Bobo was proud and cruel by nature, and he viewed the common people as no more than blades of grass. He would often stand atop the walls, keeping a bow and blade by his side, and if there was anyone present he resented or disliked, he would kill them with his own hands. If any of his ministers looked at him the wrong way, he would gouge out their eyes. If any of them laughed, he would split their lips. And if any of them remonstrated with him, he would first cut off their tongue and then behead them.

初,司馬楚之奉其父榮期之喪歸建康,會宋公稱誅翦宗室之有才望者,楚之叔父宣期、兄貞之皆死,楚之亡匿竟陵蠻中。及從祖休之自江陵奔秦,楚之亡之汝、潁間,聚衆以謀復讎。楚之少有英氣,能折節下士,有衆萬餘,屯據長社。裕使刺客沐謙往刺之。楚之待謙甚厚。謙欲發,未間,乃夜稱疾,知楚之必往問疾,因欲刺之。楚之果自齎湯藥往視疾,情意勤篤,謙不忍發,乃出匕道於席下,以狀告之曰:「將軍深爲劉裕所忌,願勿輕率以自保全。」遂委身事之,爲之防衞。

12. It was earlier mentioned that the Jin minister Sima Rongqi had passed away. At that time, his son Sima Chuzhi had gone into mourning for his father for some time. When his mourning was concluded, Sima Chuzhi had been planning to return to Jiankang. But just then, as part of his purge of any members of the Sima clan who possessed talent or influence, Liu Yu had executed Sima Chuzhi's uncle Sima Xuanqi and his elder brother Sima Zhenzhi. Sima Chuzhi had thus fled to hide among the Man tribes in Jingling commandary.

Later, when Sima Chuzhi's great-uncle Sima Xiuzhi fled from Jiangling and took refuge in Qin, Sima Chuzhi fled to the region between the Ru and Ying Rivers, where he gathered an army and plotted to seek revenge for his family. Even though he was still a young man, Sima Chuzhi had a heroic spirit, and he could dispense with pretensions and treat his subordinates well. So he gathered an army of more than ten thousand people, and they camped at and occupied Changshe.

Liu Yu sent an assassin, Mu Qian, to go kill Sima Chuzhi. Mu Qian came to Sima Chuzhi posing as a guest, and Sima Chuzhi treated him with exceptional courtesy. When Mu Qian planned to carry out his assassination, he claimed to be ill during the night, knowing that Sima Chuzhi would surely come to ask after his illness and give Mu Qian the opportunity to kill him. Indeed, Sima Chuzhi personally prepared a medicinal soup and came to see Mu Qian. But he was so sincere in his feelings and so diligent in his actions that Mu Qian could not bear to kill him. So Mu Qian took out his dagger and lay it aside on the mat, and he explained the situation to Sima Chuzhi, telling him, "General, Liu Yu is deeply wary of you. Please do not do anything rash, in order to ensure your own safety." And he became fully loyal to Sima Chuzhi, serving as his bodyguard.

〈榮期死見一百一十四卷安帝義熙二年。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「稱」作「裕」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈休之,宣帝弟魏中郎進之六世孫,楚之,宣帝弟太常馗之八世孫,故休之於楚之爲從祖。休之奔秦見上卷義熙十一年。〉〈沐,莫卜翻,姓也。《風俗通》:漢有東平太守沐寵,蜀本作「沭」,音述,非也。〉

(Sima Rongqi's death is mentioned in Book 114, in Emperor An's second year of Yixi (406.18).

Some versions of the Zizhi Tongjian identify the "Duke of Song" in this passage as 稱 Cheng; it should be 裕 "Liu Yu".

Regarding the relationship between Sima Xiuzhi and Sima Chuzhi, Sima Xiuzhi was the sixth-generation descendant of Cao-Wei's Gentleman of the Household, Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Jin, while Sima Chuzhi was the eighth-generation descendant of the Minister of Ceremonies, Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Kui. As there was a difference of two generations between them, so Sima Xiuzhi is identified as Sima Chuzhi's great-uncle.

Sima Xiuzhi's flight to Later Qin is mentioned in the eleventh year of Yixi (415.19).

沐 Mu, pronounced "mo (m-o)", is a surname. The Fengsu Tongyi mentions that during the Han dynasty there was an Administrator of Dongping named Mu Chong. The Shu version of the Zizhi Tongjian writes this would-be assassin's surname as 沭 Shu, but that is incorrect.)


王鎭惡之死也,沈田子殺其兄弟七人,唯弟康得免,逃就宋公裕於彭城,裕以爲相國行參軍。康求還洛陽視母;會長安不守,康糾合關中徙民,得百許人,驅帥僑戶七百餘家,共保金墉城。時宗室多逃亡在河南,有司馬文榮者,帥乞活千餘戶屯金墉城南;又有司馬道恭,自東垣帥三千人屯城西,司馬順明帥五千人屯陵雲臺,司馬楚之屯柏谷塢。魏河內鎭將于栗磾遊騎在芒山上,攻逼交至,康堅守六旬。裕以康爲河東太守,遣兵救之,平等皆散走。康勸課農桑,百姓甚親賴之。

13. Earlier, when Wang Zhen'e had been killed, Shen Tianzi had also killed seven of his brothers. Only his younger brother Wang Kang managed to escaped, and he had fled to Liu Yu at Pengcheng. Liu Yu had appointed Wang Kang as acting Army Advisor to the Chancellor of State.

Later, Wang Kang asked to return to Luoyang in order to visit his mother. Around the same time, Chang'an fell to Xia. Wang Kang gathered together some of the refugees that had fled from Guanzhong, until he had about a hundred people, then led more than seven hundred refugee families to guard the Jinyong fortress near Luoyang together. At that time, there were many people from the Jin royal family who had fled to take refuge in Henan commandary. For instance, there was Sima Wenrong, who led a Lifeseeker army of more than a thousand households to camp south of Jinyong; Sima Daogong, who led three thousand people from Eastern Yuan to camp west of Jinyong; Sima Shunming, who lead five thousand people to camp at the Lingyun Terrace; and Sima Chuzhi, who camped at Fort Baigu.

Wei's general guarding Henei, Yu Lidi, led some cavalry to camp atop the Beimang Hills (north of Luoyang), and he led attacks and raids against these forces. But Wang Kang held out against them for sixty days. Then Liu Yu appointed Wang Kang as Administrator of Hedong and sent troops to reinforce him, so Ping and the others all scattered and fled.

Wang Kang encouraged and instructed the common people in farming and silkworm cultivation, and the people all greatly relied upon him.

〈晉制:諸公府置諸曹參軍,又有正參軍、行參軍、長兼行參軍等員。〉〈惠帝時,幷州饑荒,其吏民隨東燕王騰東下,號曰「乞活」。是後流徙逐糧者亦曰乞活。〉〈按魏收《地形志》,洛州新安郡有東垣縣。《註》云:二漢、晉屬河東;後屬(按:此下當有佚文)。參考《漢》《晉志》,河東郡有垣縣,無東垣。孝武太元十一年,馮該擊斬苻丕於東垣,此時已有東垣之名。宋白曰:宋武入洛,更置東垣、西垣二縣。《新唐書‧地理志》:河南府新安縣,高祖武德初析置東垣縣。則知東垣在新安界。〉〈詳考上文,未知平等爲何人。〉

(According to the Jin system, the various Dukes and other noble staffs each included several Managing Army Advisors, as well as True Army Advisors, acting Army Advisors, combined acting Army Advisors, and other such positions.

Regarding the term "Lifeseeker", this first applied to the army formed of the officials and people of Bingzhou who, suffering from famine and want, followed Jin's Prince of Dongye, Sima Teng, east out of that province and in search of food. They were called the Lifeseekers. And later on, any similar group of refugees wandering in search of food were likewise dubbed Lifeseekers.

Regarding Eastern Yuan county, according to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was an Eastern Yuan county in Xin'an commandary in Luozhou, and the Annotations to that text adds that "During the Han and Jin dynasties, this county was part of Hedong commandary; it was later shifted to Xin'an". Now if we consult the Geographical Records of both the Book of Han and the Book of Jin, we do find a Yuan county listed as part of Hedong commandary, but there is no Eastern Yuan county listed. Checking back in the Zizhi Tongjian, we find that in Emperor Xiaowu's eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.43), the place that Feng Gai attacked and killed Fu Pi at is listed as "Eastern Yuan". So there must have been an Eastern Yuan by that time. Song Bai remarked, "When Emperor Wu of (Liu-)Song (Liu Yu) entered Luoyang (in 416), he created the counties of Eastern Huan and Western Huan". And the Geographical Records of the New Book of Tang states, "In the area of Xin'an county at the modern Henan Garrison, at the beginning of Gaozu's Wude reign era (~416), he created Eastern Huan county." So we can be sure that Eastern Huan county was in Xin'an commandary.

This passage mentions that "Ping and others" scattered and fled after Liu Yu sent reinforcements to Wang Kang. But the rest of the passage provides no context for who "Ping and others" would be. Their identity remains unclear.)


司馬順明、司馬道恭及平陽太守薛辯皆降於魏,魏以辯爲河東太守以拒夏人。

14. Sima Shunming, Sima Daogong, and Jin's Administrator of Pingyang, Xue Bian, all surrendered to Wei. Wei appointed Xue Bian as their Administrator of Hedong and had him guard against Xia.

司馬德文寧朔將軍、平陽太守、匈奴護軍薛辯及司馬楚之、司馬順明、司馬道恭,並遣使請降。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Sima Dewen's (Emperor Gong's) General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Administrator of Pingyang, and Protector-General of the Xiongnu, Xue Bian, sent an envoy asking to surrender to Northern Wei, as did Sima Chuzhi, Sima Shunming, and Sima Daogong.


夏,四月,秦征西將軍孔子帥騎五千討吐谷渾覓地於弱水南,大破之,覓地帥其衆六千降於秦,拜弱水護軍。

15. In summer, the fourth month, Qin's General Who Conquers The West, Qifu Kongzi, led five thousand cavalry to campaign against Tuyuhun Mide south of the Ruo River. He greatly routed Tuyuhun Mide, who led six thousand soldiers to surrender to Qin. Qifu Chipan appointed him as Protector General of the Ruo River.

〈孔子,亦乞伏氏也。《禹貢》:導弱水至于合黎,餘波入于流沙。《地志》云:弱水出删丹縣,亦謂之張掖河。合黎在酒泉會水縣東北。流沙,張掖居延縣東北之居延澤是也。曾氏曰:弱水出窮谷。〉

(This passage mentions "Kongzi"; he was another member of the Qifu clan.

Regarding the Ruo River, the Tribute of Yu mentions it: "He traced the Ruo River as far as the Heli (mountains), from which its superfluous waters went away among the moving sands". The Geographical Records states, "The Ruo River emerges in Shandan county; it is also called the Zhangye River." Heli was in the northeast of Huishui county in Jiuquan commandary. The "moving sands" would have been Juyan Marsh in the northeast of Juyan county in Zhangye commandary. Master Zeng remarked, "The Ruo River emerged in Qiong Valley.")


使征西孔子討吐谷渾覓地于弱水南,大破之。覓地率眾六千降於熾磐,署為弱水護軍。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent the General Who Conquers The West, Qifu Kongzi, to campaign against Tuyuhun Mide south of the Ruo River. He greatly routed Tuyuhun Mide, who led six thousand soldiers to surrender to Qifu Chipan. Qifu Chipan appointed him as Protector General of the Ruo River.


庚辰,魏主嗣有事于東廟,助祭者數百國;辛巳,南巡至鴈門。五月,庚寅朔,魏主嗣觀漁於灅水;己亥,還平城。

16. On the day Gengchen (May 30th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went to conduct sacrifices at the Eastern Temple, assisted by several hundred states. On the day Xinsi (May 31st), he went on a southern patrol as far as Yanmen. In the fifth month, on the new moon of the day Gengyin (June 9th), he went to observe the fish at the Lei River. On the day Jihai (June 18th), he returned to Pingcheng.

〈古制,左祖,右社。魏建宗廟於平城宮之東,因曰東廟。杜佑曰:明元永興四年,立太祖道武廟於白登山,歲一祭,無常月;又於白登西太祖舊遊之處立昭成、獻明、太祖廟,常以九月、十月之交親祀焉。則東廟者,白登山廟也;以山西又有廟,故以此爲東廟。〉

(According to tradition, the temple to the ancestors (or founders of the dynasties) was established on the left-hand side, while the temple to the social aspects of the state (such as the altars to the spirits of soil and grain) was established on the right-hand side. Northern Wei established their ancestral temple east of the palace at Pingcheng, calling it the Eastern Temple. Du You remarked, "In Emperor Mingyuan's fourth year of Yongxing (412), he established a temple to Taizu, Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui), on Mount Baideng; he offered sacrifices there annually, with no set month. He also established temples to Emperors Zhaocheng (Tuoba Shiyijian), Xianming (Tuoba Shi), and Daowu on the grounds west of Mount Baideng where Emperor Daowu had often roamed, and he often came to visit these temples and offer sacrifices at them in the ninth and tenth months." So the Eastern Temple was the one on Mount Baideng, and it was "Eastern" in that it was east of the other temples.)


夏四月庚辰,車駕有事於東廟,遠藩助祭者數百國。辛巳,南巡,幸雁門。賜所過無出今年租賦。五月庚寅朔,觀漁于灅水。己亥,車駕還宮。復所過一年租賦。六月,司馬德文建威將軍、河西太守、馮翊羌酋党道子遣使內屬。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengchen (May 30th), Emperor Mingyuan went to conduct sacrifices at the Eastern Temple, assisted by several hundred states from distant borders. On the day Xinsi (May 31st), he went on a southern patrol and visited Yanmen. He exempted all the places he traveled through from that year's taxes.

In the fifth month, on the new moon of the day Gengyin (June 9th), he went to observe the fish at the Lei River. On the day Jihai (June 18th), he returned to the palace. Again, all the places he traveled through were exempted from a year's taxes.

In the sixth month, Sima Dewen's (Emperor Gong's) General Who Establishes Might and Administrator of Hexi, a leader of the Qiang from Fengyi commandary, Dang Daozi, sent envoys asking to move into Northern Wei territory.


涼公歆用刑過嚴,又好治宮室,從事中郎張顯上疏,以爲:「涼土三分,勢不支久。兼幷之本,在於務農;懷遠之略,莫如寬簡。今入歲已來,陰陽失序,風雨乖和;是宜減膳徹懸,側身脩道,而更繁刑峻法,繕築不止,殆非所以致興隆也。昔文王以百里而興,二世以四海而滅,前車之軌,得失昭然。太祖以神聖之姿,爲西夏所推,左取酒泉,右開西域。殿下不能奉承遺志,混壹涼土,侔蹤張后,將何以下見先王乎!沮渠蒙遜,胡夷之傑,內脩政事,外禮英賢,攻戰之際,身均士卒;百姓懷之,樂爲之用。臣謂殿下非但不能平殄蒙遜,亦懼蒙遜方爲社稷之憂。」歆覽之,不悅。

17. In Western Liang, Li Xin was especially harsh in inflicting punishments, and he indulged in palace construction projects.

The Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Zhang Xian, sent up a memorial stating, "The Liang region is split into three, a situation which cannot continue forever. The foundation for any plans of conquest is to focus on agricultural affairs, and when it comes to developing long-term strategies, nothing is as important as displaying a generous and forgiving rule. Furthermore, in recent years, natural phenomena have been out of sync, and the winds and rains do not come at their proper times. This is a time which calls for decreasing meals and cutting back on pleasures, reforming oneself and cultivating proper behavior. Yet rather than do that, Your Highness has gone so far as to tighten the laws and enforce harsh punishments, and you refuse to halt your renovation and construction projects. This is not the way to ensure the state will rise and prosper.

“In ancient times, though King Wen of Zhou started out with a mere hundred li of territory, he rose from that beginning to attain all the realm. Conversely, Qin Ershi began his reign as master of all the realm, yet in the end his dynasty was destroyed. May the fates of these 'front carts' serve as examples, good and bad, for those of us who follow their trail. As for Your Highness's own state, your late father Taizu (Li Gao) was a man of sage wisdom, one acclaimed by all the Xia (ethnic Han) people of the west as leader; he expanded to the left by taking Jiuquan, and to the right he opened the way to the Western Reaches. But Your Highness has been unable to carry on his ambitions, and rather than quell the chaos in Liang, you have chosen to follow in the footsteps of the Zhang clan of old (of Former Liang). How will you be able to face His Late Highness in the world below?

“Worse, there is Juqu Mengxun, a great hero among the barbarians; within, he reforms his administration of his domain, and without, he extends courtesy and respect to attract heroes and worthy people. He fights battles to expand his borders, and he even shares the dangers alongside his officers and soldiers. The common people cherish him, and they are pleased to serve him. I fear that not only will Your Highness fail to conquer Juqu Mengxun, but that in the end, Juqu Mengxun may very well bring doom to our state."

But when Li Xin read this memorial, he was not pleased.

〈謂李氏、沮渠、乞伏也。〉〈古者,天子膳用六牲,具馬、牛、羊、犬、豕、雞。諸侯膳用三牲。懸,樂懸也,天子宮懸,諸侯軒懸。大荒,大札,天地有烖,國有大故,則減膳徹樂。《穀梁傳》曰:五穀不升爲天饑。一穀不升謂之嗛,二穀不升謂之饑,三穀不升謂之饉,四穀不升謂之康,五穀不升謂之大侵。大侵之禮,君食不兼味,臺榭不塗,弛侯廷道不除,百官布而不祭,鬼神禱而不祀。《白虎通》曰:一穀不升徹鶉、鷃,二穀不升徹鳧、鴈,三穀不升徹雉、兔,四穀不升損囿獸,五穀不升不備三牲。〉〈周文王興於岐周,地方百里。秦二世承始皇之後,奄有四海,卒以滅亡。〉〈李暠廟號太祖。爲西夏所推,事見一百一十二卷安帝隆安四年;取酒泉,見五年;開西域,亦見四年。〉〈張后,謂張軌及其子若孫也。〉

(Liangzhou was "split into three" between Li Xin, Juqu Mengxun, and Qifu Chipan.

According to tradition, the Son of Heaven's meals consisted of six livestock: horse, cattle, sheep, dog, pig, and chicken. The feudal lords had meals of three livestock. And the term 懸 "instruments" meant musical instruments, such as the instruments used by the Son of Heaven in his palace or the feudal lords in their lofty places. It was traditional to observe "reducing of meals and cutting back on pleasures" in times of great famine, natural disaster, misfortune for the state, or other such incidents. For example, the Guliang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "A failure of one of the Five Grains is known as a natural famine. When there is a failure of one of the grains, it is called a lacking; of two grains, a crop failure; of three grains, a famine; of four grains, an abundant famine; and of five grains, a great devastation. In the instance of this last category, the traditional response is for the sovereign not to sample combined flavors, for the pavilions and terraces not to be coated, for the archery halls and court paths not to be cleaned, for the officials to wear plain clothes and not offer sacrifices, and for the spirits to be appeased with prayers rather than sacrifices." The Baihu Tong states, "When one of the grains fails, the sovereign does not have meals of quails; of two grains, no ducks or geese; of three grains, no pheasants or rabbits; of four grains, he reduces his consumption of livestock; and of five grains, not even the three livestock are prepared for him."

King Wen of Zhou had his start at Qizhou, which was a hundred square li in size.

Qin Ershi, the second emperor of the Qin dynasty, was the son of Qin Shihuang. When he became emperor, he ruled all the realm. Yet when he died, the Qin dynasty was destroyed.

Li Gao's temple name was Taizu. His acclamation by the local Xia (ethnic Han) population is mentioned in Book 112, in Emperor An's fourth year of Long'an (400.14). His conquest of Jiuquan commandary is mentioned in the fifth year of Long'an (401.36), and his opening to the Western Reaches is mentioned in the fourth year (400).

"The Zhang clan" meant Zhang Gui of Former Liang and his descendants.)


主簿氾稱上疏諫曰:「天之子愛人主,殷勤至矣;故政之不脩,下災異以戒告之,改者雖危必昌,不改者雖安必亡。元年,三月,癸卯,敦煌謙德堂陷;八月,效穀地裂;二年,元日,昏霧四塞;四月,日赤無光,二旬乃復;十一月,狐上南門;今茲春、夏,地頻五震;六月,隕星于建康。臣雖學不稽古,行年五十有九,請爲殿下略言耳目之所聞見,不復能遠論書傳之事也。乃者咸安之初,西平地裂,狐入謙光殿前;俄而秦師奄至,都城不守。梁熙旣爲涼州,不撫百姓,專爲聚斂,建元十九年,姑臧南門崩,隕石於閑豫堂;明年爲呂光所殺。段業稱制此方,三年之中,地震五十餘所;旣而先王龍興於瓜州,蒙遜篡弒於張掖。此皆目前之成事,殿下所明知也。效穀,先王鴻漸之地;謙德,卽尊之室;基陷地裂,大凶之徵也。日者,太陽之精,中國之象;赤而無光,中國將衰。諺曰:『野獸入家,主人將去。』狐上南門,亦變異之大者也。今蠻夷益盛,中國益微。願殿下亟罷宮室之役,止遊畋之娛,延禮英俊,愛養百姓,以應天變、防未然。」歆不從。

18. Li Xin's Registrar, Fan Cheng, also sent up a memorial remonstrating with him. He stated, "The Son of Heaven must love the people and do his utmost to see to their needs. Thus, when he does not reform his administration to heed this duty, Heaven sends down natural disasters and omens to instruct him and inform him of his error. If he then changes his ways, though he was in danger, he may be sure of prosperity. But if he refuses to change, though he enjoys peace at the moment, his doom will be certain.

“During Your Highness' reign, there have been a litany of such signs and omens. In the first year of Jiaxing (417), the third month, on the day Guimao (?), the Qiande Hall in Dunhuang collapsed, and in the eighth month, the ground in Xiaogu county split apart. In the second year (418), on the very first day, dark fog descended across the land; in the sixth month, the sun turned red without luster for twenty days; and in the eleventh month, foxes ascended the South Gate. And as for this year (419), there have been five earthquakes across the spring and summer, and in the sixth month, a shooting star fell at Jiankang commandary.

“I am no expert in ancient examples of divination, but I do have nine examples of such omens that happened within the past fifty years; I ask that Your Highness lend your eyes and ears to see and listen to my words, so that you will not need to further consult more distant examples. To begin with, at the beginning of the Xian'an reign era (~371), the earth split at Xiping, and foxes rushed into the front chamber of the Qianguang Hall. It was not long after that (in 376) when the (Former) Qin armies arrived, and the capital city (Guzang) fell to them. Liang Xi then became master of Liangzhou, but he did not nurture the common people, focusing on military matters instead. So in the nineteenth year of Jianyuan (383), the South Gate of Guzang collapsed and a shooting star fell onto the Xianyu Hall, and the following year (384), Liang Xi was killed by Lü Guang. When Duan Ye claimed command over this region, during the three years of his reign, there were more than fifty earthquakes. In the end, His Late Highness (Li Gao) rose like a dragon at Guazhou in opposition to Duan Ye, and Juqu Mengxun murdered him and usurped his position. These are all recent omens which came to fruition within living memory, and Your Highness is well aware of the fates of these men.

“As for the omens of your own reign, Xiaogu county was the place where His Late Highness 'gradually rose like a goose', and the Qiande Hall was the place where he was exalted. So for that Hall to have collapsed and for the ground in that county to have split apart are serious omens of misfortune for your lineage. And the sun is the essence of supreme masculine energy, a symbol of the Middle Kingdom itself, so for it to turn red and lose its luster is an omen that the Middle Kingdom shall soon decline. As the proverb says, 'When the wild beasts enter the house, the master will soon depart.' So the foxes ascending the South Gate are another omen of exceptional importance. Right now, the barbarians are growing ever stronger, while the Middle Kingdom is becoming weaker and weaker.

“Thus I implore Your Highness to cease all construction projects and building of palaces, end your indulgence in wandering and hunting, offer respect and courtesy to attract heroes and talents, and love and nurture the common people. Thus may you heed Heaven's omens and guard against the future."

But Li Xin did not listen to him.

〈張駿據河西,起謙光殿於姑臧。自謂專制一方,而事晉不改臣節,雖謙而光也。李暠得敦煌,亦稱藩於晉,起謙德堂,其志猶張氏也。〉〈咸安,簡文帝年號。涼土以姑臧爲都城。孝武太元元年,秦入姑臧,蓋地裂、狐入在咸安之初,而其應在太元之初也。〉〈太元元年,秦主堅建元之十二年也。堅以梁熙鎭涼州。建元十九年,堅敗於淮南,晉太元之八年也。明年,呂光殺梁熙。〉〈瓜州,敦煌郡也。考之《晉志》,張氏置沙州於敦煌,未嘗置瓜州。又考之《唐志》,沙洲敦煌郡,本瓜州,武德五年曰西沙州,貞觀七年曰沙州。瓜州晉昌郡,武德五年析沙州之常樂置。蓋李暠興於敦煌,自稱秦、涼二州牧,其後遷于酒泉,以敦煌爲瓜州;至唐復以敦煌爲沙州,以晉昌爲瓜州,而瓜州分爲二州矣。〉〈暠自效穀令得敦煌,遂有七郡,故云然。《易》所謂鴻漸者,鴻,水鳥也,自水而漸于干,又漸于磐,又漸于陸,又漸于木:自下而進,漸升而上也。〉

(When Zhang Jun of Former Liang had reigned over the Liangzhou region, he had raised the Qianguang Hall at Guzang. Since he considered himself the actual ruler of a corner of the realm, although he did not stop calling himself a vassal of the Jin dynasty, he named this hall Qianguang to demonstrate that, though he was modest (Qian) in his submission, he was also glorious (Guang) in his power. Likewise, when Li Gao had taken control of Dunhuang commandary, he too claimed to be a vassal of Jin, but he also raised the Qiande hall, showing his estimation of his own virtue (De). He had similar ambitions to the Zhang clan.

Xian'an was the reign era during the reign of Emperor Jianwen.

Guzang was the capital city of the Liang region.

In Emperor Xiaowu's first year of Taiyuan (376), Former Qin entered Guzang. So Fan Cheng was somewhat stretching the meaning of "not long after that" when he notes that the omens affecting the Zhang clan took place at the beginning of the Xian'an reign era (~371).

Emperor Xiaowu's first year of Taiyuan (376) was the same year as Fu Jian of Former Qin's twelfth year of Jianyuan; it was in that year that Fu Jian appointed Liang Xi as Former Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou. In the nineteenth year of Jianyuan (383), Fu Jian was defeated at Huainan; this was Jin's eight year of Taiyuan. The following year (384), Liang Xi was killed by Lü Guang.

Fan Cheng states that Li Gao rose at "Guazhou". If we consult the Book of Jin, we find that the Zhang clan of Former Liang did establish a province of Shazhou based at Dunhuang, but they never created a Guazhou. Checking in the Tang histories, we see that Dunhuang commandary in Shazhou was originally known as Guazhou; its name was changed to Western Shazhou in the fifth year of Wude (622), and then changed to simply Shazhou in the seventh year of Zhenguan (632). And Jinchang commandary in Guazhou was split off from Changle commandary in Shazhou in the fifth year of Wude (622) and created. So it must have been that when Li Gao rose up at Dunhuang, he named himself Governor of Qinzhou and Liangzhou, and later when he moved to Jiuquan, he created a province of Guazhou with Dunhuang as part of it. Then by the time of Tang, Dunhuang was shifted back to Shazhou while Jinchang became the new Guazhou. Guazhou would have thus been split across two provinces (Shazhou and Liangzhou).

Li Gao had started out as Prefect of Xiaogu county, and in the end he became master of seven commandaries, thus the importance Fan Cheng places upon Xiaogu.

Regarding Fan Cheng's use of the phrase "gradually rose like a goose", this comes from the Book of Changes, which uses the same description. The goose is a waterfowl, but at times it leaves the water and gradually moves to dry land, such as on rocks, on the ground, or in trees. It moves gradually and from below, thus it "gradually rises".)


秋,七月,宋公裕始受進爵之命。八月,移鎭壽陽,以度支尚書劉懷愼爲督淮北諸軍事、徐州刺史,鎭彭城。

19. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Yu finally accepted his promotion as Prince of Song.

In the eighth month, Liu Yu shifted his base to Shouyang. He appointed the Logistics Director of the Masters of Writing, Liu Huaishen, as Commander of military affairs north of the Huai River and Inspector of Xuzhou and stationed him at Pengcheng.

〈曹魏文帝置度支尚書,掌軍國支計;晉因之。〉

(Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) had created the office of Logistics Director of the Masters of Writing for coordinating the logistics of army and state. Jin had continued the practice.)


辛未,魏主嗣東巡;甲申,還平城。

20. On the day Xinwei (September 18th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on an eastern patrol. On the day Jiashen (October 1st), he returned to Pingcheng.

秋八月辛未,東巡。遣使祭恒岳。甲申,車駕還宮。所過復一年田租。九月,築宮於白登山。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Xinwei (September 18th), Emperor Mingyuan went on an eastern patrol. He sent agents to offer sacrifices at Hengyue. On the day Jiashen (October 1st), he returned to the palace. Once again, he exempted all the places he passed through from a year's farm taxes.

In the ninth month, Emperor Mingyuan built a palace at Mount Baideng.


九月,宋王裕自解揚州牧。

21. In the ninth month, Liu Yu relinquished his position as Governor of Yangzhou.

秦左衞將軍匹達等將兵討彭利和于漒川,大破之,利和單騎奔仇池;獲其妻子,徙羌豪三千戶于枹罕,漒川羌三萬餘戶皆安堵如故。冬,十月,以尚書右僕射王松壽爲益州刺史,鎭漒川。

22. Qin's Guard General of the Left, Pi Da, and others led troops to campaign against Peng Lihe at Qiangchuan. They greatly routed Peng Lihe, who fled on a lone horse to Chouchi, they captured his wife and children, and they relocated three thousand families of Qiang gentry to Fuhan, while leaving more than thirty thousand Qiang households in place at Qiangchuan.

In winter, the tenth month, Qifu Chipan appointed his Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Wang Songshou, as Inspector of Yizhou and stationed him at Qiangchuan.

遣其左衛匹逵,建威梯君等討彭利和於漒川,大破之,利和單騎奔仇池,獲其妻子。徙羌豪三千戶於枹罕,漒川羌三萬餘戶皆安堵如故。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Qifu Chipan sent his Guard General of the Left, Pi Da, his General Who Establishes Might, Ti Jun, and others to campaign against Peng Lihe at Qiangchuan. They greatly routed Peng Lihe, who fled on a lone horse to Chouchi, they captured his wife and children, and they relocated three thousand families of Qiang gentry to Fuhan, while leaving more than thirty thousand Qiang households in place at Qiangchuan.


宋王裕以河南蕭條,乙酉,徙司州刺史義眞爲揚州刺史,鎭石頭。蕭太妃謂裕曰:「道憐汝布衣兄弟,宜用爲揚州。」裕曰:「寄奴於道憐,豈有所惜!揚州根本所寄,事務至多,非道憐所了。」太妃曰:「道憐年出五十,豈不如汝十歲兒邪?」裕曰:「義眞雖爲刺史,事無大小,悉由寄奴。道憐年長,不親其事,於聽望不足。」太妃乃無言。道憐性愚鄙而貪縱,故裕不肯用。

23. Liu Yu felt that the region south of the Yellow River was too desolate and bleak. So on the day Yiyou (December 1st), he reassigned the Inspector of Sizhou, Liu Yizhen, as Inspector of Yangzhou and stationed him at the Shitou fortress.

Liu Yu's stepmother Lady Xiao said to Liu Yu, "(Liu) Daolian has been like a brother to you since childhood. You should appoint him as Inspector of Yangzhou."

Liu Yu replied to her, using his childhood name Jinu, "How could I have anything against Daolian? But Yangzhou is the very foundation of the state, and many duties are associated with it. It would be beyond Daolian."

Lady Xiao said, "Daolian is more than fifty years old by now. How would he be less capable at the job than your ten-year-old son?"

Liu Yu replied, "Yizhen would only nominally be the Inspector; I myself would personally handle all the actual duties of the role. And although Daolian is a grown man, he does not personally tend to his duties, nor is he attentive enough."

Lady Xiao said nothing further.

Liu Daolian was naturally foolish and dull, not to mention greedy and unrestrained. This was why Liu Yu did not wish to use him.

〈裕,小字寄奴。道憐,蕭太妃所生也。〉〈聽望,猶言觀聽也。〉

(Jinu was Liu Yu's childhood name.

Liu Daolian was Lady Xiao's son.

Attentive means to look out for and listen for things.)


先是,盧陵王義真為揚州刺史,太后謂上曰:「道憐汝布衣兄弟,故宜為揚州。」上曰:「寄奴於道憐豈有所惜。揚州根本所寄,事務至多,非道憐所了。」太后曰:「道憐年出五十,豈當不如汝十歲兒邪?」上曰:「車士雖為刺史,事無大小,悉由寄奴。道憐年長,不親其事,於聽望不足。」太后乃無言。車士,義真小字也。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

Earlier, when the Prince of Luling, Liu Yizhen, had been appointed as Inspector of Yangzhou, Lady Xiao had said to Liu Yu, "(Liu) Daolian has been like a brother to you since childhood. You should appoint him as Inspector of Yangzhou."

Liu Yu replied to her, using his childhood name Jinu, "How could I have anything against Daolian? But Yangzhou is the very foundation of the state, and many duties are associated with it. It would be beyond Daolian."

Lady Xiao said, "Daolian is more than fifty years old by now. How would he be less capable at the job than your ten-year-old son?"

Liu Yu replied, "Cheshi (Liu Yizhen) would only nominally be the Inspector; I myself would personally handle all the actual duties of the role. And although Daolian is a grown man, he does not personally tend to his duties, nor is he attentive enough."

Lady Xiao said nothing further.

Cheshi was Liu Yizhen's childhood name.


十一月,丁亥朔,日有食之。

24. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Dinghai (December 3rd), there was an eclipse.

十二月,癸亥,魏主嗣西巡至雲中,從君子津西渡河,大獵於薛林山。

25. In the twelfth month, on the day Guihai (January 8th of 420), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei went on a western patrol as far as Yunzhong. He crossed west of the Yellow River at Junzi Crossing and held a great hunt at Mount Xuelin.

〈按《魏書‧帝紀》:薛林山在屋竇城西。〉

(According to the Annals of Emperor Mingyuan in the Book of Northern Wei, Mount Xuelin was west of the city of Wudou.)


冬十有二月癸亥,西巡,至雲中,踰白道,北獵野馬於辱孤山。至于黃河,從君子津西渡,大狩於薛林山。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In winter, the twelfth month, on the day Guihai (January 8th of 420), Emperor Mingyuan went on a western patrol; he traveled as far as Yunzhong, then crossed the White Road and went north to hunt wild horses at Mount Rugu. He then came to the Yellow River and crossed west of it at Junzi Crossing, and held a great hunt at Mount Xuelin.


辛卯,宋王裕加殊禮,進王太妃爲太后,世子爲太子。

26. On the day Xinmao (?), Liu Yu was honored with the extraordinary rites. His stepmother Lady Xiao was promoted from Duchess Dowager to Princess Dowager, and his heir was appointed as Crown Prince to his fief.
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BOOK 119

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue May 14, 2019 4:09 am

〈劉氏世居彭城,於春秋之時宋土也,故帝之始建國號曰宋。〉

(Liu Yu's dynasty was known as Song because his family had resided in Pengcheng for generations, and during the Spring and Autumn era, the Pengcheng region had been part of the state of Song.)


高祖武皇帝

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Wu, Liu Yu, Gaozu


〈諱裕,字德輿,小字寄奴,姓劉氏,彭城縣綏德里人,漢楚元王交二十一世孫也。彭城,楚都,故苗裔家焉。晉氏東遷,劉氏移居晉陵丹徒之京口里。〉

(Liu Yu, styled Deyu, was of the Liu clan; his childhood name was Jinu. His branch of the Liu clan had their ancestral home at Suide Village in Pengcheng county. He was the twenty-first generation descendant of the Han dynasty's Prince Yuan of Chu, Liu Jiao, and since Pengcheng had once been the capital of the ancient state of Chu, Liu Jiao's descendants lived there through the generations. When the Jin dynasty moved east across the Yangzi, this branch of the Liu clan moved to Jingkou at Dantu county in Jinling commandary.)


永初元年(庚申、四二○)

The First Year of Yongchu (The Gengshen Year, 420 AD)


〈是年六月改元。〉

(The reign era title changed in the sixth month of this year.)


春,正月,己亥,魏主還宮。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jihai (February 13th), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei returned to the palace (at Pingcheng).

〈晉有天下,《通鑑》於魏主率兼書名;是年,宋受禪,始改書用列國之例。〉

(All through the Jin dynasty section of the Zizhi Tongjian, the text had referred to Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei as 魏主嗣 "the lord of Wei, Tuoba Si". But beginning with this year and Jin's abdication to Liu-Song, the Zizhi Tongjian begins to drop the name from this title and refers to the Northern Wei sovereigns as merely 魏主 "the lord of Wei".)


五年春正月丙戌朔,自薛林東還,至于屋竇城,饗勞將士,大酺二日,班禽獸以賜之。己亥,車駕還宮。三月丙戌,南陽王意文薨。夏四月,河西屠各帥黃大虎、羌酋不蒙娥等遣使內附。丙寅,起灅南宮。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth year of Taichang (420), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (January 31st), Emperor Mingyuan returned east from Xuelin. When he came to the city of Wudou, he held a feast for and rewarded his generals and soldiers; he held two days of grand celebration, and he gave out captured beasts as rewards. On the day Jihai (February 13th), he returned to the palace.

In the third month, on the day Bingxu (March 31st), the Prince of Nanyang, Tuoba Yiwen, passed away.

In summer, the fourth month, several tribal leaders from Hexi commandary sent envoys asking to relocate their forces to Wei, including the Chuge leader Huang Dahu and the Qiang leader Bu Meng'e. On the day Bingyin (May 10th), Emperor Mingyuan raised a palace at Leinan.


秦王熾磐立其子乞伏暮末爲太子,仍領撫軍大將軍、都督中外諸軍事,改元建弘。

2. Qifu Chipan appointed his son Qifu Mumo as his Crown Prince, as well as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Commander of all military affairs. He also changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianhong.

〈【章:甲十六行本無上二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同;熊校同。】〉〈《考異》曰:《晉書》作「慕末」,《宋書》作「乞佛茂蔓」。今從崔鴻《十六國春秋》。〉

(Some versions drop the mention of Qifu Mumo's surname.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the name of Qifu Chipan's son, the Book of Jin writes his name as Qifu 慕末 'Mumo', and the Book of Liu-Song writes it as 乞佛茂蔓 'Qifu Maoman'. But I follow the account of Cui Hong's Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms in writing it as Qifu 暮末 'Mumo'.")


建弘元年,立第二子慕未為太子,領撫軍大將軍,都督中外諸軍事。改元大赦。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the first year of Jianhong (419? 420?), Qifu Chipan appointed his second son Qifu Mumo as his Crown Prince, as well as acting Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Commander of all military affairs. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianhong.

元熙元年,立其第二子慕末為太子,領撫軍大將軍、都督中外諸軍事,大赦境內,改元曰建弘,其臣佐等多所封授。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

In the first year of Yuanxi (419), Qifu Chipan appointed his second son Qifu Mumo as his Crown Prince, as well as acting Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Commander of all military affairs. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianhong. He granted suitable titles and appointments to his ministers and assistants.


宋王欲受禪而難於發言,乃集朝臣宴飲,從容言曰:「桓玄篡位,鼎命已移。我首唱大義,興復帝室,南征北伐,平定四海,功成業著,遂荷九錫。今年將衰暮,崇極如此,物忌盛滿,非可久安;今欲奉還爵位,歸老京師。」羣臣惟盛稱功德,莫諭其意。日晚,坐散。中書令傅亮還外,乃悟,而宮門已閉,亮叩扉請見,王卽開門見之。亮入,但曰:「臣暫宜還都。」王解其意,無復他言,直云:「須幾人自送?」亮曰:「數十人可也。」卽時奉辭。亮出,已夜,見長星竟天,拊髀歎曰:「我常不信天文,今始驗矣。」亮至建康,夏,四月,徵王入輔。王留子義康爲都督豫‧司‧雍‧幷四州諸軍事、豫州刺史,鎭壽陽。義康尚幼,以相國參軍南陽劉湛爲長史,決府、州事。湛自弱年卽有宰物之情,常自比管、葛,博涉書史,不爲文章,不喜談議。王甚重之。

3. Liu Yu wanted to accept the abdication of the Jin dynasty, but he found it difficult to openly express this desire. So he gathered his subordinates for a feast and casually said to them, "When Huan Xuan usurped the throne, the power of the dynasty had already passed into his hands. Then I led the call for the great uprising and was able to restore the Emperor and the royal family. I conquered to the north and campaigned to the south, and I pacified and settled lands all across the Four Seas; I have achieved everything I wished and carried out my designs, to the extent that I have even been rewarded with the Nine Bestowments. But by now, I am old, and soon I shall be in the grave. And considering that I have attained these highest honors, everyone is full of suspicion for me, so I cannot expect to maintain my position for long. Thus I wish to resign all my titles and return to the capital to retire."

But his subordinates merely praised him for all his deeds and virtues, and none of them picked up on his real intention. When the sun began to set, Liu Yu's subordinates all began to make their separate ways.

The Prefect of the Palace Secretariat of the Song fief, Fu Liang, was also on his way home. But he suddenly realized what Liu Yu was really getting at, so he turned back. By then, Liu Yu had already shut his gates, but Fu Liang knocked on the gates and asked to come in, so Liu Yu opened the gates and let him inside. As soon as Fu Liang entered, he said, "I'll leave for the capital at once."

Liu Yu understood what Fu Liang meant, so no longer mincing words, he bluntly asked him, "How large of an escort do you need?"

Fu Liang replied, "A few dozen will do."

When the escort was ready, Fu Liang took his leave and set out. By then, it was already night, and Fu Liang looked up and saw a shooting star streak across the sky. He slapped his thigh and said, "I've never believed in signs in the stars before, but now I've just seen it for myself."

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Liang arrived at Jiankang. He arranged for Liu Yu to be summoned to the capital. Liu Yu left his son Liu Yikang behind, appointing him as Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, and Bingzhou and as Inspector of Yuzhou and stationing him at Shouyang. But since Liu Yikang was still very young, Liu Yu appointed the Army Advisor to the Chancellor of State, Liu Zhan of Nanyang commandary, as Liu Yikang's Chief Clerk, and Liu Zhan made all the decisions for the Commander's and Inspector's staffs.

Ever since his youth, this Liu Zhan had had the makings of a chief minister, and he often compared himself to Guan Zhong and Zhuge Liang. He was learned and educated in the old books and histories, though he was no writer, no did he enjoy discussions. Liu Yu deeply appreciated him.

〈此宋朝之臣也。〉〈長星所以除舊布新,故云然。〉〈豫州,後漢治譙;魏治汝南安成;晉平吳,治陳國;江左治壽陽、蕪湖、邾城、牛渚、歷陽、馬頭、壽春、姑孰,不常厥居。安帝之末,帝欲開拓河南,綏定豫土,割揚州大江以西、大雷以北,悉屬豫州;豫州基址,因此而立。帝旣平關、洛,置司州刺史,治虎牢,領河南、滎陽、弘農實土三郡,河內、東京兆二僑郡,雍州仍僑治襄陽。秦、幷州刺史鎭蒲阪,毛德祖旣自蒲阪退屯虎牢,則幷州當寄治虎牢也。〉〈府、州,都督府及豫州也。〉〈謂管仲、諸葛亮也。〉

(This passage refers to Liu Yu's subordinates as his "court ministers"; this was in the sense of his ministers as Prince of Song, part of his shadow court modeled after the actual Jin court.

A shooting star or comet is an omen that old things will fall away and new things will take their place, thus Fu Liang's comment after seeing a shooting star while on a mission to arrange the abdication of the Jin dynasty.

During Eastern Han, Yuzhou was administered from Qiao. During Cao-Wei, it was administered from Ancheng county in Runan commandary. After Jin conquered Eastern Wu, it was administered from the Chen princely fief. After Jin moved across the Yangzi, Yuzhou's administrative center shifted between Shouyang, Wuhu, Zhucheng, Niuzhu, Liyang, Matou, Shouchun, and Gushu; no place kept this role for long. So during the final years of Emperor An's reign, when Liu Yu wanted to open up the territories south of the Yellow River, he also planned to settle Yuzhou as well. So he carved out the part of Yangzhou west of the Yangzi and north of Dalei and assigned all of that territory to Yuzhou, and it was from this time that Yuzhou finally became settled.

After Liu Yu conquered Guanzhong and the Luoyang region, he created a province of Sizhou, administered from Hulao. This province governed the actual commandaries of Henan, Xingyang, and Hongnong and surrogate commandaries of Henei and Eastern Jingzhao.

Jin's version of Yongzhou was a surrogate province, administered from Xiangyang.

At this time, Jin's Inspectors of Qinzhou and Bingzhou were stationed at Puban. When Mao Dezu retreated from Puban, he camped at Hulao. So Jin's Inspector of Bingzhou must have then provisionally administered that province from Hulao.

This passage states that Liu Zhan made all decisions for "staff and province"; this means for the staffs of the Commander and the Inspector.

Liu Zhan compared himself to "Guan and Ge"; this means Guan Zhong and Zhuge Liang.)


徙中書令,領中庶子如故。從還壽陽。高祖有受禪意,而難於發言,乃集朝臣宴飲,從容言曰:「桓玄暴篡,鼎命已移,我首唱大義,復興皇室,南征北伐,平定四海,功成業著,遂荷九錫。今年將衰暮,崇極如此,物戒盛滿,非可久安。今欲奉還爵位,歸老京師。」群臣唯盛稱功德,莫曉此意。日晚坐散,亮還外,乃悟旨,而宮門已閉;亮於是叩扉請見,高祖即開門見之。亮入便曰:「臣暫宜還都。」高祖達解此意,無復他言,直云:「須幾人自送?」亮曰:「須數十人便足。」於是即便奉辭。亮既出,已夜,見長星竟天。亮拊髀曰:「我常不信天文,今始驗矣!」至都,即徵高祖入輔。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Fu Liang)

Fu Liang was later transferred to be Prefect of the Palace Secretariat of the Song fief, while retaining his role as Central Retainer. He followed Liu Yu back to Shouyang.

Liu Yu wanted to accept the abdication of the Jin dynasty, but he found it difficult to openly express this desire. So he gathered his subordinates for a feast and casually said to them, "When Huan Xuan usurped the throne, the power of the dynasty had already passed into his hands. Then I led the call for the great uprising and was able to restore the Emperor and the royal family. I conquered to the north and campaigned to the south, and I pacified and settled lands all across the Four Seas; I have achieved everything I wished and carried out my designs, to the extent that I have even been rewarded with the Nine Bestowments. But by now, I am old, and soon I shall be in the grave. And considering that I have attained these highest honors, everyone is full of suspicion for me, so I cannot expect to maintain my position for long. Thus I wish to resign all my titles and return to the capital to retire."

But his subordinates merely praised him for all his deeds and virtues, and none of them picked up on his real intention. When the sun began to set, Liu Yu's subordinates all began to make their separate ways.

Fu Liang was also on his way home. But he suddenly realized what Liu Yu was really getting at, so he turned back. By then, Liu Yu had already shut his gates, but Fu Liang knocked on the gates and asked to come in, so Liu Yu opened the gates and let him inside. As soon as Fu Liang entered, he said, "I'll leave for the capital at once."

Liu Yu understood what Fu Liang meant, so no longer mincing words, he bluntly asked him, "How large of an escort do you need?"

Fu Liang replied, "A few dozen will do."

When the escort was ready, Fu Liang took his leave and set out. By then, it was already night, and Fu Liang looked up and saw a shooting star streak across the sky. He slapped his thigh and said, "I've never believed in signs in the stars before, but now I've just seen it for myself."

When Fu Liang arrived at the capital, he arranged for Liu Yu to be summoned to court.


五月,乙酉,魏更諡宣武帝曰道武帝。

4. In the fifth month, on the day Yiyou (May 29th), Wei changed the posthumous title of Tuoba Gui from Emperor Xuanwu to Emperor Daowu ("the Principled and Martial").

〈魏主嗣永興二年,諡父珪曰宣武皇帝。〉

(Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei had originally granted Tuoba Gui the posthumous title Emperor Xuanwu in Northern Wei's second year of Yongxing (410.42).)


五月乙酉,詔曰:「宣武皇帝體道得一,天縱自然,大行大名未盡盛美,非所以光揚洪烈,垂之無窮也。今因啟緯圖,始覩尊號,天人之意,煥然著明。其改『宣』曰『道』,更上尊諡曰道武皇帝,以彰靈命之先啟,聖德之玄同。告祀郊廟,宣于八表。」庚戌,淮南侯司馬國璠、池陽侯司馬道賜等謀反伏誅。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the fifth month, on the day Yiyou (May 29th), Emperor Mingyuan issued an edict stating, "Emperor Xuanwu (Tuoba Gui) was well possessed of virtue and granted ability by Heaven, and his great conduct and reputation have not yet been given their full due. How boundless, how enduring were his great glory and his vast deeds. Now, consulting the augury books and recognizing for the first time his proper title, we wish to align with the wishes of Heaven and the people and dispel all doubts. We hereby change the 'Xuan' to 'Dao ("Virtuous")', and thus name him Emperor Daowu, in accordance with the earlier revelation of Heaven and the sublimity of sage virtue. Thus do we inform and sacrifice to the ancestral spirits and announce our intentions to the Eight Directions."


魏淮南公司馬國璠、池陽子司馬道賜謀外叛,司馬文思告之。庚戌,魏主殺國璠、道賜,賜文思爵鬱林公。國璠等連引平城豪桀,坐族誅者數十人,章安侯封懿之子玄之當坐。魏主以玄之燕朝舊族,欲宥其一子。玄之曰:「弟子磨奴早孤,乞全其命。」乃殺玄之四子而宥磨奴。

5. Wei's Duke of Huainan, Sima Guofan, and their Viscount of Chiyang, Sima Daoci, plotted rebellion against Wei. Sima Wensi informed against them. On the day Gengxu (June 23rd), Emperor Mingyuan of Wei killed Sima Guofan and Sima Daoci, while appointing Sima Wensi as Duke of Yulin.

During their plotting, Sima Guofan and the others had formed ties with leading families in Pingcheng, and several dozen people were thus executed along with their families. Among those marked for death was Feng Xuanzhi, the son of the late Marquis of Zhang'an, Feng Yi. The whole Feng clan was to be executed, but since they had once been a prominent clan in Former Yan and Later Yan, Emperor Mingyuan planned to spare one of them so that the whole clan would not be extinguished. Feng Xuanzhi said to him, "My nephew Feng Monu was orphaned young. I ask that you spare his life." Thus, although Feng Xuanzhi and his four sons were all killed, Feng Monu was spared.

〈國璠等降魏見上卷晉安帝義熙十三年。〉〈慕容廆興於昌黎,封氏依之,遂世仕於燕,貴顯。〉

(Sima Guofan and the others had surrendered to Northern Wei after the fall of Later Qin, as mentioned in Book 118, in Emperor An of Jin's thirteenth year of Yixi (417.44).

The Feng clan had originally joined Murong Hui, the founder of Former Yan, when Murong Hui had his start at Changli. They then served in the court of Former Yan and Later Yan for generations, and were an honored and conspicuous clan.)


庚戌,淮南侯司馬國璠、池陽侯司馬道賜等謀反伏誅。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Gengxu (June 23rd), having plotted rebellion, the Marquis of Huainan, Sima Guofan, the Marquis of Chiyang, Sima Daoci, and others were executed.


六月,壬戌,王至建康。傅亮諷晉恭帝禪位於宋,具詔草呈帝,使書之。帝欣然操筆,謂左右曰:「桓玄之時,晉氏已無天下,重爲劉公所延,將二十載;今日之事,本所甘心。」遂書赤紙爲詔。

6. In the sixth month, on the day Renxu (July 5th), Liu Yu arrived at Jiankang.

Fu Liang arranged for Emperor Gong to abolish the Jin dynasty in favor of Song and abdicate his position as Emperor to Liu Yu, and he even wrote up a draft decree for Emperor Gong to present to Liu Yu and had Emperor Gong compose an official copy. Emperor Gong looked content as he held his brush, and he told his attendants, "The Jin dynasty lost the realm when Huan Xuan usurped the throne, and it only lingered on for almost another twenty years because Lord Liu propped it up. So the events of this day truly gladden my heart." And he wrote out the edict on red paper.

〈晉安帝元興三年裕討桓玄,至是凡十七年。〉

(It had been seventeen years from Liu Yu's uprising against Huan Xuan, in Emperor An of Jin's third year of Yongxing (404), until now.)


甲子,帝遜于琅邪第,百官拜辭,祕書監徐廣流涕哀慟。

7. On the day Jiazi (July 7th), Emperor Gong left for his old estate as Prince of Langye. The officials all made obeisance as he departed and said their farewells. The Chief of the Palace Library, Xu Guang, sobbed and quivered with grief.

〈晉武帝泰始元年受禪,歲在乙西[酉];建興四年,長安陷,歲在丙子;凡五十二年。次年,元帝建號於江東,改元建武,至是年歲在庚申,凡一百單三年。西、東享國共一百五十七年而亡。〉

(Western Jin began in Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), a Yiyou year, when he accepted the abdication of the Cao-Wei dynasty. It ended in the fourth year of Jianxing (316), a Bingzi year, when Chang'an fell. It thus lasted fifty-two years. The following year (317), Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) declared himself Emperor in the Southland and changed the reign era title to Jianwu. From that year until this one (420), a Gengshen year, was a hundred and three years. The combined Jin dynasty thus lasted for a hundred and fifty-seven years (265-420), then perished.)


Hu Sanxing’s math is a bit off here.

丁卯,王爲壇於南郊,卽皇帝位。禮畢,自石頭備法駕入建康宮。徐廣又悲感流涕,侍中謝晦謂之曰:「徐公得無小過!」廣曰:「君爲宋朝佐命,身是晉室遺老,悲歡之事,固不可同。」廣,邈之弟也。

8. On the day Dingmao (July 10th), Liu Yu raised an altar in the Southern Suburbs at Jiankang. There, he declared himself Emperor. When the ceremony was concluded, he rode in a prepared imperial carriage from the Shitou fortress into the palace in Jiankang.

Xu Guang once again wept, wracked by grief. The Palace Attendant, Xie Hui, told him, "Lord Xu, don't make such a mistake!"

But Xu Guang replied, "You may be a servant of Song who has helped them to attain the Mandate. But I have served the Jin royal family all my life, so this is a melancholy occasion for me. I cannot react as you do."

This Xu Guang was the younger brother of Xu Miao.

〈徐邈爲晉孝武所親重。〉

(Xu Miao was a close friend of Emperor Xiaowu of Jin.)


高祖受命,於石頭登壇,備法駕入宮。(Book of Liu-Song 44, Biography of Xie Hui)

When Liu Yu accepted the abdication of Jin (in 420), Xie Hui raised an altar at the Shitou fortress and prepared the imperial carriage to bring Liu Yu into the palace.


帝臨太極殿,大赦,改元。其犯鄕論清議,一皆蕩滌,與之更始。

9. Liu Yu presided at the Taiji Hall. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongchu. Those who had been convicted for local discussions or engaging in Pure Conversation had their crimes expunged and were granted a new start.

〈犯鄕論清議,蓋得罪於名敎者。〉

("Those convicted" must have been people famous for teaching these methods who were then convicted for it.)


裴子野論曰:昔重華受終,四凶流放;武王克殷,頑民遷洛。天下之惡一也,鄕論清議,除之,過矣!

10. The historian Pei Ziye remarked: In ancient times, when Zhonghua (Emperor Shun) received the abdication from Emperor Yao, he banished the Four Criminals. Likewise, when King Wu of Zhou conquered the Yin (Shang) dynasty, one of his first acts was to exile the unruly people to Luoyi. Evil is the same all across the realm. Why then should Liu Yu have begun his reign by pardoning those who had engaged in local discussions and Pure Conversation? He committed a fault!

〈《書》:堯使舜嗣位,正月上日,受終於文祖;流共工于幽州,放驩兜于崇山,竄三苗于三危,殛鯀于羽山,四罪而天下咸服。〉〈武王克殷,遷頑民于洛邑。〉

(The Book of Documents states, "When Shun accepted the abdication from Yao, it was on the first day of the first month that he received Yao's retirement from his duties in the temple of the Accomplished Ancestor. He banished the Minister of Works to You island; confined Huandou on Mount Chong; drove (the chief of) San-miao (and his people) into Sanwei, and kept them there; and held Gun a prisoner until death on Mount Yu. These four criminals being thus dealt with, all under heaven acknowledged the justice (of Shun's administration)."

After King Wu of Zhou conquered the Yin (Shang) dynasty, he exiled the unruly people to Luoyi.)


奉晉恭帝爲零陵王;優崇之禮,皆倣晉初故事,卽宮于故秣陵縣,使冠軍將軍劉遵考將兵防衞。降褚后爲王妃。

11. Liu Yu appointed the former Emperor Gong, Sima Dewen, as Prince of Lingling. Sima Dewen was honored with exceptional rites, all of which followed those at the beginning of the Jin dynasty, and a palace was provided for him at the old Moling county. Liu Yu sent the Champion General, Liu Zunkao, to lead troops to guard Sima Dewen.

Empress Chu was demoted to Princess.

〈沈約曰:秣陵縣本治去京邑六十里,今故治村是也,晉安帝義熙九年,移治京邑,在鬬場。恭帝元熙元年,省揚州禁防參軍,縣移治其處。〉

(The Book of Liu-Song states, "Moling county's original administrative center was originally sixty li from the capital district, at the site of modern Zhicun. In Emperor An of Jin's ninth year of Yixi (413), the administrative center was moved to the capital district itself, at Douchang. In Emperor Gong of Jin's first year of Yuanxi (419), the office of Army Advisor of the Guards of Yangzhou was disbanded, and the administrative center of Moling county was moved to that place.")


關中失守,南還,除游擊將軍,遷冠軍將軍。晉帝遜位居秣陵宮,遵考領兵防衛。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Zunkao)

After Guanzhong was lost, Liu Zunkao returned south. He was appointed as General of Roaming Assault, then as Champion General.

When the Emperor of Jin (Emperor Gong) abdicated the throne and took up residence in Moling Palace, Liu Zunkao led troops to guard and protect him.


追尊皇考爲孝穆皇帝,皇妣趙氏爲孝穆皇后;尊王太后蕭氏爲皇太后。上事蕭太后素謹,及卽位,春秋已高,每旦入朝太后,未嘗失時刻。

12. Liu Yu posthumously honored his father Liu Qiao as Emperor Xiaomu ("the Filial and Solemn") and his mother Lady Zhao as Empress Xiaomu. He honored the Princess Dowager, his stepmother Lady Xiao, as Empress Dowager.

Liu Yu had always been very sincere to Lady Xiao, and even after he became Emperor and although he was rather old by now, he always made sure to visit Lady Xiao every morning, and was never once late for a visit.

〈帝父翹娶趙氏,生帝而殂,繼室以蕭氏。〉

(Liu Yu's father Liu Qiao had originally married Lady Zhao, but she died while giving birth to Liu Yu. Liu Qiao had then remarried, to Lady Xiao.)


Previously, the sovereign of the Jin dynasty (treated by the Zizhi Tongjian as legitimate) had always been referred to in the Zizhi Tongjian as 帝 “the Emperor”. But although Liu Yu had now become the Emperor of Liu-Song and the Jin dynasty was no more, the Zizhi Tongjian instead refers to him as 上 “the supreme, the sovereign” instead.

詔晉氏封爵,當隨運改,獨置始興、廬陵、始安、長沙、康樂五公,降爵爲縣公及縣侯,以奉王導、謝安、溫嶠、陶侃、謝玄之祀,其宣力義熙、豫同艱難者,一仍本秩。

13. Liu Yu issued an edict ordering that those who had been granted noble titles by the Jin dynasty should have their fiefs abolished and their titles returned. The exception was the five Dukes of Shixing, Luling, Shi'an, Changsha, and Kangle, who were merely demoted to Dukes or Marquises of counties instead.

Liu Yu offered sacrifices to the spirits of several heroes of the Jin dynasty: Wang Dao, Xie An, Wen Jiao, Tao Kan, and Xie Xuan. He also granted titles to those who had exerted themselves during the Yixi reign era and supported the dynasty during its times of difficulties.

〈始興、廬陵、始安、長沙皆郡公,獨康樂縣公耳。據《南史》,降始興郡公爲華容縣公,廬陵公爲柴桑縣公,始安公爲荔浦縣侯,長沙公爲醴陵縣侯。〉

(The Dukes of Shixing, Luling, Shi'an, and Changsha were all Dukes of commandaries; only the Duke of Kangle was a Duke of a county. According to the Histories of the Southern Dynasties, the Duke of Shixing was demoted to Duke of Huarong county, the Duke of Luling was demoted to Duke of Chaisang county, the Duke of Shi'an was demoted to Marquis of Lipu county, and the Duke of Changsha was demoted to Marquis of Liling.)


永初元年,遷太子詹事,中書令如故。以佐命功,封建城縣公,食邑二千戶。入直中書省,專典詔命。以亮任總國權,聽於省見客。神虎門外,每旦車常數百兩。高祖登庸之始,文筆皆是記室參軍滕演;北征廣固,悉委長史王誕;自此後至於受命,表策文誥,皆亮辭也。演字彥將,南陽西鄂人,官至黃門郎,秘書監。義熙八年卒。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Fu Liang)

In the first year of Yongchu (420), Fu Liang was appointed as Chief of Affairs for the Crown Prince, while maintaining his position as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. For his achievements and his assistance to Liu Yu, he was appointed as Duke of Jiancheng county, with a fief of two thousand households. He was always able to enter right into the the Palace Secretariat Bureau, and he was in charge of all imperial edicts and decrees. He held great authority over the affairs of state, and he had the ear of the inner palace and was often a guest there. Many a morning, hundreds of carriages would gather outside the Shenhu Gate.

When Liu Yu had first risen up from obscurity (~404), all of his compositions had been written by his Recordskeeping Army Advisor, Teng Yan. Later, when he went on his northern campaign against Southern Yan (in 410), he entrusted these assignments to his Chief Clerk, Wang Dan. And after that, for the whole time up until he accepted the abdication from Jin (in 420), he entrusted all his petitions, letters, and compositions to Fu Liang to write. This Teng Yan, styled Yanjiang, was a native of Western E county in Nanyang commandary. He rose in office as high as Gentleman of the Yellow Gate and Chief of the Imperial Library, and he passed away in the eighth year of Yixi (412).

高祖受命,轉護軍,加散騎常侍,領石頭戍事。聽直入殿省。以佐命功,改封永脩縣公,食邑二千戶。(Book of Liu-Song 43, Biography of Tan Daoji)

When Liu Yu accepted the abdication of Jin (in 420), Tan Daoji was appointed as General Who Protects The Army and Cavaliar In Regular Attendance and was placed in command of affairs at the Shitou fortress. He was also granted constant access to the palace and the ministries. For his achievements, he was appointed as Duke of Yongxiu county, with a fief of two thousand households.

晦領游軍為警備,遷中領軍,侍中如故。以佐命功,封武昌縣公,食邑二千戶。(Book of Liu-Song 44, Biography of Xie Hui)

Xie Hui was appointed as acting General of the Roaming Army in order to prepare against any emergencies, and he was then appointed as General Who Leads The Army of the Center, while remaining a Palace Attendant as before. For his achievements in helping Liu Yu attain the Mandate, Xie Hui was appointed as Duke of Wuchang county, with a fief of two thousand households.

及武帝受命,以佐命功,封霄城縣侯,安北將軍,鎮襄陽。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Zhao Lunzhi)

When Liu Yu accepted the abdication of Jin (in 420), for his achievements in helping Liu Yu to attain the Mandate, Zhao Lunzhi was appointed as Marquis of Xiaocheng county and General Who Maintains The North, and he was stationed at Xiangyang.

武帝受命,累遷徐州刺史,加都督。(Book of Liu-Song 46, Biography of Wang Zhongde)

When Liu Yu accepted the abdication of Jin, Wang Zhongde was transferred to be Inspector of Xuzhou and was appointed as Commander.

高祖還彭城,參相國軍事。時盧循餘黨與蘇淫賊大相聚結,以為始興相。論平司馬休之及廣固功,封陽山縣男,食邑五百戶。(Book of Liu-Song 50, Biography of Hu Fan)

When Liu Yu returned to Pengcheng, Hu Fan was appointed as an Army Advisor to the Chancellor of State.

At this time, Lu Xun's remaining partisans joined with the bandit Su Yin to form a large army, with Su Yin appointing himself as Chancellor of Shixing.

When the merits were discussed of those who had helped to deal with Sima Xiuzhi and conquer Southern Yan, Hu Fan was appointed as Baron of Yangshan county, with a fief of five hundred households.

高祖初即大位,下推恩之詔,曰:「遵考服屬之親,國戚未遠,宗室無多,宜蒙寵爵。可封營浦縣侯,食邑五百戶。」以本號為彭城、沛二郡太守。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Zunkao)

After Liu Yu became Emperor, he sent out an edict offering his favor, which stated, "Liu Zunkao is an odedient member of my family and not a very distant relative of the royal line. The royal family is not numerous, thus I should bestow him with a title. I hereby appoint him as Maequis of Yingpu county, with a fief of five hundred households." Since it was the old homeland of the Liu clan, Liu Zunkao was appointed as Administrator of Pengcheng and Pei.

高祖踐阼,進盛車騎大將軍,加侍中。(Book of Liu-Song 99, Account of Chouchi)

After Liu Yu accepted the abdication of Jin (in 420), he promoted Yang Sheng to Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Palace Attendant.


庚午,以司空道憐爲太尉,封長沙王。追封司徒道規爲臨川王,以道憐子義慶襲其爵。其餘功臣徐羨之等,增位進爵各有差。

14. On the day Gengwu (July 13th), Liu Yu appointed the Minister of Works, Liu Daolian, as Grand Commandant and Prince of Changsha. He posthumously appointed the late Minister Over The Masses, Liu Daogui, as Prince of Linchuan, and he appointed Liu Daolian's son Liu Yiqing as the successor to that title. His other accomplished ministers, Xu Xianzhi and others, also had their ranks and titles increased as appropriate.

高祖受命,進位太尉,封長沙王,食邑五千戶,持節、侍中、都督、刺史如故。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

After Liu Yu accepted the abdication of Jin, he promoted Liu Daolian to Grand Commandant and Prince of Changsha, with a fief of five thousand households. He maintained his original positions as Credential Bearer, Palace Attendant, Commander, and Inspector.


追封劉穆之爲南康郡公,王鎭惡爲龍陽縣侯。上每歎念穆之,曰:「穆之不死,當助我治天下。可謂『人之云亡,邦國殄瘁』!」又曰:「穆之死,人輕易我。」

15. Liu Yu posthumously appointed Liu Muzhi as Duke of Nankang commandary and Wang Zhen'e as Marquis of Longyang county.

Liu Yu was always sighing whenever he thought about Liu Muzhi, saying, "If only Liu Muzhi hadn't died, he could have helped me to govern the realm. It's just like they say: Good men are going away, and the country is sure to go to ruin!" He would also say, "Ever since Liu Muzhi died, people have been thinking little of me."

〈《詩‧瞻卬》之辭。〉

(Liu Yu quotes from the Zhan Yang section of the Book of Poetry.)


立皇子桂陽公義眞爲廬陵王,彭城公義隆爲宜都王,義康爲彭城王。

16. Liu Yu appointed the Duke of Guiyang, his son Liu Yizhen, as Prince of Luling. He appointed the Duke of Pengcheng, his son Liu Yilong, as Prince of Yidu. He appointed his son Liu Yikang as Prince of Pengcheng.

己卯,改《泰始曆》爲《永初曆》。

17. On the day Jimao (July 22nd), Liu Yu changed the dynastic calendar from the Taishi Calendar to the Yongchu Calendar.

〈以元改曆。〉

(Liu Yu was thus setting a new calendar for the dynasty. Taishi had been the first reign era of the founder of the Jin dynasty, Sima Yan.)


:pika: :huohu: THE END :huohu: :pika:
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Jun 11, 2019 10:16 pm, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

Unread postby DaoLunOfShiji » Sun May 19, 2019 2:22 pm

It makes me so sad that it's all over. Goodbye Eastern Jin. You tried your best to hang in there. I suppose it's fitting they're brought down a similar fashion to Wei though. What goes around comes around after all.

It does make me extremely happy to see that sacrifices were made Wang Dao, Xie An, Wen Jiao, Tao Kan, and Xie Xuan. Those men were in a real league of their own. Nothing but respect. Wen Jiao shall forever be the ultimate good boy. :D

Thanks for all the work you've put into this project. I love the hell out of it!
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