Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 107

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 07, 2018 9:51 pm

太元十二年(丁亥、三八七)

The Twelfth Year of Taiyuan (The Dinghai Year, 387 AD)


春,正月,乙巳,以朱序爲青、兗二州刺史,代謝玄鎭彭城;序求鎭淮陰,許之。以玄爲會稽內史。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Yisi (February 12th), Zhu Xu was appointed as Jin’s Inspector of Qingzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Pengcheng in place of Xie Xuan. Zhu Xu asked to move his base to Huaiyin, and the Jin court agreed. Xie Xuan was appointed as Interior Minister of Kuaiji.

序求鎭淮陰,以燕方強,必進取河南,彭城去建康道遠,聲援不接故也。優玄以內地也。

(Zhu Xu asked to change his base to Huaiyin because of the newly-risen power of Later Yan. They were certain to advance and capture the region south of the Yellow River, and since the road from Jiankang to Pengcheng was very far, reinforcements would not be able to reach Zhu Xu in time if anything happened.

Xie Xuan was shown special honor by being given this interior post.)


丁未,大赦。

2. On the day Dingwei (February 14th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

燕主垂觀兵河上,高陽王隆曰:「溫詳之徒,皆白面儒生,烏合爲羣,徒恃長河以自固;若大軍濟河,必望旗震壞,不待戰也。」垂從之。戊午,遣鎭北將軍蘭汗、護軍將軍平幼於碻磝西四十里濟河,隆以大衆陳於北岸。溫攀、溫楷果走趣城,平幼追擊,大破之。詳夜將妻子奔彭城,其衆三萬餘戶皆降於燕。垂以太原王楷爲兗州刺史,鎭東阿。

3. Murong Chui reviewed his soldiers at the Yellow River. The Prince of Gaoyang, Murong Long, said to him, "Wen Xiang's followers are just pale-faced scholars, no more than a flock of birds. They believe that with the line of the Yellow River to guard them, they can be safe. But if our grand army will cross over the river, then their banners will tremble and fall, and they will not fight against us." Murong Chui agreed.

On the day Wuwu (February 25th), he sent out the General Who Guards The North, Lan Han, and the General Who Protects The Army, Ping You. They crossed over the Yellow River forty li west of Qiaoniao, while Murong Long arrayed the main body on the northern bank. As expected, Wen Pan and Wen Kai fled and gathered in a city. Ping You pursued and attacked them, and he greatly routed them. During the night, Wen Xiang led his wife and children to flee to Pengcheng, while more than thirty thousand of his households all surrendered to Yan.

Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Kai, as Inspector of Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Dong'a.

韋昭曰:觀,示也,陳兵以示威武。蓋趣東阿城也。

(Wei Zhao remarked, "To review means to display. One displays one’s soldiers in order to show one's martial might."

Dong'a must have been the city that Wen Xiang’s forces had gathered at.)


初,垂在長安,秦王堅嘗與之交手語,宂從僕射光祚言於堅曰:「陛下頗疑慕容垂乎?垂非久爲人下者也。」堅以告垂。及秦主丕自鄴奔晉陽,祚與黃門侍郎封孚、鉅鹿太守封勸皆來奔。勸,奕之子也。垂之再圍鄴也,秦故臣西河朱肅等各以其衆來奔。詔以祚等爲河北諸郡太守,皆營於濟北、濮陽,羈屬溫詳;詳敗,俱詣燕軍降。垂赦之,撫待如舊。垂見光祚,流涕沾衿,曰:「秦王待我深,吾事之亦盡;但爲二公猜忌,吾懼死而負之,每一念之,中宵不寐。」祚亦悲慟。垂賜祚金帛,祚固辭,垂曰:「卿猶復疑邪?」祚曰:「臣昔者惟知忠於所事,不意陛下至今懷之,臣敢逃其死!」垂曰:「此乃卿之忠,固吾所求也,前言戲之耳。」待之彌厚,以爲中常侍。

4. Before, when Murong Chui had been at Chang'an, he and Fu Jian had once been been talking while holding hands. After Murong Chui left Fu Jian, the 宂從僕射, Guang Zuo, said to Fu Jian, "Is Your Majesty not inclined to doubt Murong Chui? I tell you that he not will be your subordinate for very long." Fu Jian mentioned this to Murong Chui.

Later, when Fu Pi abandoned Ye and fled to Jinyang, Guang Zuo and two others, the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Feng Fu, and the Administrator of Julu, Feng Quan, all fled to Jin. This Feng Quan was the son of Feng Yi. After Murong Chui resumed his siege of Ye, a former Qin minister, Zhu Su of Xihe, and others each fled to Jin with their own soldiers. The Jin court appointed Guang Zuo and the others as Administrators of commandaries north of the Yellow River, and they made their camps at Jibei and Puyang. They were under the command of Wen Xiang. When Wen Xiang was defeated, all of them came to surrender to the Yan army. Murong Chui pardoned them, and treated them well just as before.

When he saw Guang Zuo among them, he wept so much that he soaked his lapels. Murong Chui said to Guang Zuo, "The King of Qin treated us so well, and I in turn did my utmost on his behalf. But the two Dukes (Fu Pi and Fu Hui) suspected me, and fearing for my life, I turned my back on him. Every time I think about it, I cannot sleep at night." And Guang Zuo was also deeply touched with sorrow.

Murong Chui tried to reward Guang Zuo with gold and silks, but Guang Zuo firmly declined them. Murong Chui said, "So then, you still suspect me?"

Guang Zuo replied, "What I did before, I did purely out of loyalty. Never did I think that you would dwell on that comment even until now. For me to shirk that would be death!"

Murong Chui said, "It is because of your loyalty that you declined what I offered before. I was only joking just now." And Murong Chui treated him even better than before, appointing him as a Regular Palace Attendant.

【章:十二行本「語」下有「垂出」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】事見上卷十年。祚從苻丕在鄴,見上卷九年。封奕仕燕,燕興於昌黎,奕有力焉。見一百五卷九年。濟北、濮陽,二郡。濮,博木翻。師古曰:言羈縻屬之而已。二公,謂長樂公丕、平原公暉也。事見一百五卷九年。用孔子語。光祚,秦之宦者,故處以此官。

(Some versions include the phrase "After Murong Chui went out".

Fu Pi's flight to Jinyang is mentioned in Book 106, in the tenth year of Taiyuan (385.46).

Guang Zuo had followed Fu Pi to Ye, as mentioned in Book 105, in the ninth year (384.56).

Feng Yi had served Former Yan, and Former Yan's rise at Changli was thanks to his efforts.

Murong Chui had begun his siege of Ye in Book 105, in the ninth year (384.11).

Jibei and Puyang were both commandaries. The first character of Puyang, 濮, is pronounced "bu (b-u)".

Guang Zuo and the others are described as being 羈 to Wen Xiang. Yan Shigu remarked, "羈 means to be subordinate to another."

The "two Dukes" were the Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, and the Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui. Murong Chui's poor relationships with them are mentioned in Book 105, in the ninth year (384).

In Murong Chui's last quote, he borrows the words of Confucius.

Guang Zuo was a eunuch in the Former Qin court, and this was why Murong Chui now appointed him as Regular Palace Attendant.)


翟遼遣其子釗寇陳、潁,朱序遣將軍秦膺擊走之。

5. Zhai Liao sent his son Zhai Zhao to invade Chenliu and Yingchuan commandaries. Zhu Xu sent his general Qin Ying to attack Zhai Zhao and drive him off.

秦主登立妃毛氏爲皇后,勃海王懿爲太弟。后,興之女也。遣使拜東海王纂爲使持節、都督中外諸軍事、太師、領大司馬,封魯王;纂弟師奴爲撫軍大將軍、幷州牧,封朔方公。纂怒謂使者曰:「勃海王先帝之子,南安王何以不立而自立乎?」長史王旅諫曰:「南安已立,理無中改;今寇虜未滅,不可宗室之中自爲仇敵也。」纂乃受命。於是盧水胡彭沛穀、屠各董成、張龍世、新平羌雷惡地等皆附於纂,有衆十餘萬。

6. The new Emperor of Qin, Fu Deng, honored his concubine Lady Mao as his Empress, and he appointed the Prince of Bohai, Fu Yi, as Crown Younger Brother. This Lady Mao was the daughter of Mao Xing.

Fu Deng sent envoys to appoint the Prince of Donghai, Fu Zuan, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs, Grand Instructor, acting Grand Marshal, and Prince of Lu. Fu Zuan's younger brother Fu Shinu was appointed as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, Governor of Bingzhou, and Duke of Shuofang. But Fu Zuan angrily said to the envoys, "The Prince of Bohai is our late lord's son. How is it that the Prince of Nan'an (Fu Deng) did not place him on the throne, but set himself up instead?"

Fu Zuan’s Chief Clerk, Wang Lü, remonstrated with him, saying "The Prince of Nan'an has already established himself, and there is no means of changing that now. Furthermore, the invaders and the caitiffs have not yet been conquered. We cannot have members of the royal family feuding with one another." So Fu Zuan accepted the appointments.

At this time, several commanders were aligned with Fu Zuan. Among them were the Lushi leader Pengpeigu, the Xiongnu Zhuge leader Dongcheng, Zhang Longshi, and a leader of the Qiang of Xinping, Lei Wudi. Altogether, Fu Zuan had more than a hundred thousand soldiers.

以登、纂連兵,聲勢浸盛,故相與歸之。

(With Fu Deng and Fu Zuan joining their soldiers, their power and influence began to increase, and this was why these commanders joined them.)


後秦主萇徙秦州豪傑三萬戶于安定。

7. Yao Chang relocated thirty thousand gentry households from Qinzhou to Anding.

去年萇徙安定民以實長安,今又徙秦州豪傑以實安定。蓋萇起兵以安定爲根本,而欲都長安,故因道里遠近爲次以漸徙之。

(In the previous year, Yao Chang had relocated the people of Anding to repopulate Chang'an. Now, he relocated the gentry of Qinzhou to repopulate Anding. This must have been because when Yao Chang had first risen in revolt, Anding had been his base, but now he wanted to use Chang'an as his capital. This was the reason why he gradually began relocating people from near and far.)


二年,徙秦州三萬戶于安定。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the second year of Jianchu (387), Yao Chang relocated thirty thousand households from Qinzhou to Anding.


初,安次人齊涉聚衆八千餘家據新栅,降燕,燕主垂拜涉魏郡太守。旣而復叛,連張願,願自帥萬餘人進屯祝阿之瓮口,招翟遼,共應涉。

8. Earlier, a native of Anci county, Qi She, had gathered a host of more than eight thousand families and captured Xinzha, then submitted to Yan. Murong Chui had appointed Qi She as Administrator of Wei commandary.

But now, Qi She rebelled against Yan in favor of the Jin commander Zhang Yuan. Zhang Yuan led more than ten thousand soldiers to advance and camp at Wengkou in Zhu'a, where he summoned Zhai Liao, so that both of them could support Qi She.

安次縣,前漢屬勃海,後漢屬廣陽國,晉屬燕國。新栅蓋在魏郡界。祝阿縣,漢屬平原郡,晉屬濟南郡。願自泰山進屯焉。劉昫曰:齊州禹城縣,漢祝阿縣,天寶元年,更名。宋白曰:祝阿,猶東阿也,古祝國黃帝之後。按古東阿,齊爲東阿,漢爲祝阿縣,故城在今豐齊縣東北二里;唐改禹城。瓮,烏貢翻。〉

(During Former Han, Anci county was part of Bohai commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Guangling princely fief, and during Jin, it was part of the Yan princely fief.

Xinzha must have been in Wei commandary.

During Han, Zhu'a county was part of Pingyuan commandary, and during Jin, it was part of Jinan commandary. Zhang Yuan advanced from Taishan to camp there. Liu Xu remarked, "Yucheng county in Jizhou was the Han dynasty’s Zhu’a county. In the first year of the Tianbao reign era (742), its name was changed." Song Bai remarked, "Zhu'a was the same as Dong'a. The ancient state of Zhu was founded by the Yellow Emperor's descendants. The ancients called it Dong'a, as did the state of Qi. The Han dynasty named it Zhu'a county; its capital city was two li northeast of modern Fengqi county. The Tang dynasty changed its name to Yucheng.")


高陽王隆言於垂曰:「新栅堅固,攻之未易猝拔。若久頓兵於其城下,張願擁帥流民,西引丁零,爲患方深。願衆雖多,然皆新附,未能力鬬。因其自至,宜先擊之。願父子恃其驍勇,必不肯避去,可一戰擒也。願破,則涉不能自存矣。」垂從之。

9. Murong Long said to Murong Chui, "Xinzha is a firm redoubt. If you attack it, you will not be able to take it easily. But if you leave your soldiers camped under the walls of the city, that will give Zhang Yuan time to gather the refugees to him and summon the Dingling from the west, and he would become a very grave danger. However, although Zhang Yuan currently has many soldiers, they are all newly attached to him, and they do not yet have the strength to fight. Since Zhang Yuan is headed for Xinzha, you should attack him first. Zhang Yuan and his sons are known for their bravery and boldness, so they could not bear to flee you or avoid a battle. You can capture them in a single fight. Once Zhang Yuan is routed, then Qi She will not be able to maintain his position."

Murong Chui agreed.

丁零,謂翟遼。

(By "the Dingling", Murong Long meant Zhai Liao.)


二月,遣范陽王德、陳留王紹、龍驤將軍張崇帥步騎二萬會隆擊願。軍至斗城,去瓮口二十餘里,解鞍頓息。願引兵奄至,燕人驚遽,德兵退走,隆勒兵不動。願子龜出衝陳,隆遣左右王末逆擊,斬之。隆徐進戰,願兵乃退。德行里餘,復整兵,還與隆合,謂隆曰:「賊氣方銳,宜且緩之。」隆曰:「願乘人不備,宜得大捷;而吾士卒皆以懸隔河津,勢迫之故,人思自戰,故能卻之。今賊不得利,氣竭勢衰,皆有進退之志,不能齊奮,宜亟擊之。」德曰:「吾唯卿所爲耳。」遂進,戰於瓮口,大破之,斬首七千八百級;願脫身保三布口。燕人進軍歷城,青、兗、徐州郡縣壁壘多降。垂以陳留王紹爲青州刺史,鎭歷城。德等還師,新栅人冬鸞執涉送之。垂誅涉父子,餘悉原之。

10. In the second month, Murong Chui sent the Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, the Prince of Chenliu, Murong Shao, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Zhang Chong, to lead twenty thousand horse and foot to join together with Murong Long and attack Zhang Yuan.

When the army arrived at Doucheng, more than twenty li from Wengkou, they loosened the saddles on their horses and paused to rest. Zhang Yuan led his soldiers to move against them at once, and the Yan soldiers were shocked and afraid. Murong De's soldiers ran away, but Murong Long compelled his soldiers not to move. When Zhang Yuan's son Zhang Gui charged forward out of the army’s formation, Murong Long sent his Left and Right 王末s to counter-attack him, and they beheaded him. Then Murong Long slowly advanced to battle, and Zhang Yuan's soldiers had to retreat.

Murong De had to go more than a li before he could rein in his soldiers and bring them back to join Murong Long's men. He said to Murong Long, "The enemy's morale is very keen. We should not be quick to engage them."

Murong Long replied, "Zhang Yuan pushed his men ahead and did not prepare any defenses for himself because he was expecting a great victory. But my soldiers were hemmed in by the Yellow River's fords behind them, and forced into such a position, they had to fight to defend themselves. That was why they were able to resist the enemy's attack. Now our foes, denied their expected victory, have lost their original zeal; they are only thinking of going this way or thought, and they cannot put up much resistance. So we should attack them at full force."

Murong De said, "I shall follow your lead." So they advanced, and fought again at Wengkou. They greatly routed the enemy, taking more than 7,800 heads. Zhang Yuan escaped and went to guard Sanbukou. The Yan soldiers advanced to Licheng, and many of the fortified places in the counties and commandaries of Qingzhou, Yanzhou, and Xuzhou surrendered to them. Murong Chui appointed Murong Shao as Inspector of Qinzhou, and he was stationed at Licheng. Murong De and the others led the army back.

A native of Xinzha, Tong Luan, arrested Qi She and handed him over. Murong Chui executed Qi She and his sons, but everyone else was left as before.

言兵爲河津所隔,前有強敵,退則溺死,故思之而各自爲戰也。歷城縣自漢以來屬濟南郡。果如慕容隆所料。《唐韻》:冬,姓也。

(Murong Long's reasoning was that the soldiers would have the river crossing as a danger to them. A powerful enemy would be before them, and retreating meant death by drowning, so they would each wish to fight of their own accord.

Ever since Han, Licheng county had been part of Jinan commandary.

Events unfolded just as Murong Long had predicted.

The Sound Catalog of Tang states, "冬 Tong is a surname.")


三月,秦主登以竇衝爲南秦州牧,楊定爲益州牧,楊壁爲司空、梁州牧,乞伏國仁爲大將軍、大單于、苑川王。

11. In the third month, Fu Deng appointed Dou Chong as Governor of Southern Qinzhou, Yang Ding as Governor of Yizhou, Yang Bi as Minister of Works and Governor of Lianzhou, and Qifu Guoren as Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Yuanchuan.

杜佑曰:苑川在蘭州五泉縣,近大、小榆谷。余謂杜佑以意言之。

(The Tongdian states, "Yuanchuan is in Wuquan county in Lanzhou, near the Greater and Lesser Yu Valleys." I (Hu Sanxing) believe the Yuanchuan mentioned in this passage is the same place which the Tongdian refers to.)


三年,苻登遣使拜仁大將軍、苑川王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

In the third year of Jianyi (387), Fu Deng sent envoys to Qifu Guoren appointing him as Grand General and Prince of Jincheng.

鮮卑匹蘭率眾五千降。明年,南安秘宜及諸羌虜來擊國仁,四面而至。國仁謂諸將曰:「先人有奪人之心,不可坐待其至。宜抑威餌敵,羸師以張之,軍法所謂怒我而怠寇也。」於是勒眾五千,襲其不意,大敗之。秘宜奔還南安,尋與其弟莫侯悌率眾三萬餘戶降于國仁,各拜將軍、刺史。苻登遣使者署國仁使持節、大都督、都督雜夷諸軍事、大將軍、大單于、苑川王。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

The Xianbei leader Pilan led his host of five thousand to surrender to Qifu Guoren. The following year, Mi Yi of Nan'an and the various Qiang caitiffs came to attack Qifu Guoren, and they approached from every side. Qifu Guoren said to his generals, "My ancestors would have striven for the hearts of men, and I cannot simply sit here and wait for them to come to me. Now I should restrain my power in order to entice the enemy, and weaken my forces to fool them. The military arts all say that this will cause them to despise me and become complacent." So he coerced a host of five thousand and suddenly attacked them, inflicting a great defeat. Mi Yi fled back to Nan'an, where he and his younger brother Mohou Ti led more than thirty thousand households to surrender to Qifu Guoren. He appointed each of them as Generals and Inspectors.

Fu Deng sent envoys to appoint Qifu Guoren as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, Commander over all military affairs concerning the various tribes, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Yuanchuan.


燕上谷人王敏殺太守封戢,代郡人許謙逐太守賈閏,各以郡附劉顯。

12. In Yan, a native of Shanggu commandary, Wang Min, killed the Administrator there, Feng Ji. Meanwhile, a native of Dai commandary, Xu Qian, drove out the Administrator there, Jia Run. Both of them went over to the Wuhuan warlord Liu Xian.

爲燕擊劉顯張本。

(This was why Later Yan later attacked Liu Xian.)


Despite having the same name, this Xu Qian is not to be confused with Tuoba Gui’s minister Xu Qian.

燕樂浪王溫爲尚書右僕射。

13. Yan's Prince of Lelang, Murong Wen, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing.

夏,四月,戊辰,尊帝母李氏爲皇太妃,儀服如太后。

14. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Wuchen (May 6th), Emperor Xiaowu honored his mother Li Lingrong as Consort Dowager, and she was treated with the same rites for an Empress Dowager.

後秦征西將軍姚碩德爲楊定所逼,退守逕陽。定與秦魯王纂共攻之,戰于涇陽,碩德大敗。後秦主萇自陰密救之,纂退屯敷陸。

15. Later Qin's General Who Conquers The West, Yao Shuode, felt that his position was threatened by Yang Ding, so he fell back to defend Jingyang. Yang Ding and Fu Zuan jointly attacked him, and they fought a battle at Jingyang, where Yao Shuode was greatly defeated. Then Yao Chang marched from Yinmi to reinforce him, so Fu Zuan fell back to camp at Fulu.

涇陽縣,前漢屬安定郡,後漢、晉省,秦屬隴東郡。杜佑曰:漢涇陽縣在今平涼郡界涇陽故城是。陰密縣,屬安定郡,殷時密國也。敷陸,唐坊州鄜城縣,卽其地。

(During Former Han, Jingyang county was part of Anding commandary. During Later Han and Jin it had been abolished, but Former Qin revived it as part of Longdong commandary. The Tongdian states, "Han's Jingyang county was at the capital city of Jingyang county in modern Pingliang commandary."

Yinmi county was part of Anding commandary. During Yin (Shang), it was the state of Mi.

Regarding Fulu, there was a Fucheng county in Tang's Fangzhou; this was the same place.)


燕主垂自碻磝還中山,慕容柔、慕容盛、慕容會來自長子。庚子,垂爲之大赦。垂問盛:「長子人情如何,爲可取乎?」盛曰:「西軍擾擾,人有東歸之志,陛下唯當脩仁政以俟之耳。若大軍一臨,必投戈而來,若孝子之歸慈父也。」垂悅。癸未,封柔爲陽平王,盛爲長樂公,會爲清河公。

16. Murong Chui returned from Qiaoniao to Zhongshan. It was then that Murong Rou, Murong Sheng, and Murong Hui arrived from Zhangzi. So on the day Gengzi (?), Murong Chui declared a general amnesty.

Murong Chui asked Murong Sheng, "What are the feelings of the people in Zhangzi like? Could I capture it?"

Murong Sheng replied, "The western army is full of confusion, and the people there long to return east again. Your Majesty need merely practice benevolent government and await them. And once your grand army does approach, the people will certainly cast aside their spears and come to you, just like a filial son returning to his compassionate father."

Murong Chui was delighted to hear this.

On the day Guiwei (May 21st), Murong Chui appointed Murong Rou as Prince of Yangping, Murong Sheng as Duke of Changle, and Murong Hui as Duke of Qinghe.

柔等去年自長子逃歸,今始達中山。【章:十二行本「子」作「辰」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】喜子孫得全而東歸,故爲之肆赦。

(Murong Rou and the others had fled from Zhangzi in the previous year; only now did they arrive at Zhongshan.

Some versions record the day of Murong Chui's amnesty as the day Gengchen (May 18th).

Murong Chui was happy that his son and grandsons had safely returned east again, and this was why he issued the amnesty.)


盛既至,垂問以西事,畫地成圖。垂笑謂之曰:「昔魏武撫明帝之首,遂乃侯之。祖之愛孫,有由來矣。」於是封長樂公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

When Murong Sheng arrived at Murong Chui's court, Murong Chui asked him about what had happened in the west. Murong Sheng answered him precisely and completely. Murong Chui laughed as he said, "When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) patted Emperor Ming (Cao Rui) on the head, he made him a marquis on the spot. That's the sign of a grandfather's love for his grandson." And he appointed Murong Sheng as Duke of Changle.

垂封為長樂公,歷位散騎常侍、左將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Chui appointed Murong Sheng as Duke of Changle, and he successively served as Cavalier In Regular Attendance and as General of the Left.

盛既至,垂問以西事,畫地成圖。垂笑曰:「昔魏武撫明帝之首,遂乃侯之,祖之愛孫,有自來矣。」於是封長樂公。驍勇剛毅,有伯父全之風烈。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

When Murong Sheng arrived at Murong Chui's court, Murong Chui asked him about what had happened in the west. Murong Sheng answered him precisely and completely. Murong Chui laughed as he said, "When Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) patted Emperor Ming (Cao Rui) on the head, he made him a marquis on the spot. That's the sign of a grandfather's love for his grandson." And he appointed Murong Sheng as Duke of Changle.

Murong Sheng was valiant, bold, resolute, and stalwart; he had all the same spirit and zeal as his uncles.


高平人翟暢執太守徐含遠,以郡降翟遼。燕主垂謂諸將曰:「遼以一城之衆,反覆三國之間,不可不討。」五月,以章武王宙監中外諸軍事,輔太子寶守中山;垂自帥諸將南攻遼,以太原王楷爲前鋒都督。遼衆皆燕、趙之人,聞楷至,皆曰:「太原王子,吾之父母也!」相帥歸之。遼懼,遣使請降;垂以遼爲徐州牧,封河南公,前至黎陽,受降而還。

17. A native of Gaoping commandary, Zhai Chang, arrested Yan’s Administrator there, Xu Hanyuan, and surrendered the commandary to Zhai Liao. Murong Chui said to his generals, "With the forces of a single city, Zhai Liao is able to shift between each of the three states (Jin, Yan, and Western Yan). We are compelled to campaign against him."

In the fifth month, Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Zhangwu, Murong Zhou, as Chief of all military affairs and ordered him to support the Crown Prince, Murong Bao, in guarding Zhongshan. Murong Chui himself led his generals south to attack Zhai Liao, with Murong Kai as the Commander of the Vanguard. The soldiers of Zhai Liao’s army were all natives of the regions of Yan and Zhao, and when they heard that Murong Kai was coming, they all said, "He is the son of the Prince of Taiyuan (Murong Ke), our own parent!" And they all went over to him. Zhai Liao was afraid, and he sent a messenger asking to submit to Yan. Murong Chui appointed Zhai Liao as Governor of Xuzhou and Duke of Henan. He came to the border at Liyang, accepted Zhai Liao's submission, and then returned.

三國,謂晉及燕、西燕。楷父恪相燕,燕、趙之人懷之,故云然。

(The "three states" were Jin, Later Yan, and Western Yan.

Murong Kai's father Murong Ke had governed Former Yan, and the people of the Yan and Zhao regions cherished him; this is why they said such things.)


垂留其太子寶守中山,率諸將南攻翟遼,以楷為前鋒都督。遼之部眾皆燕、趙人也,咸曰:「太原王之子,吾之父母。」相率歸附。遼懼,遣使請降。垂至黎陽,遼肉袒謝罪,垂厚撫之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui left his Crown Prince, Murong Bao, to defend Zhongshan, while he led his other generals south to attack Zhai Liao, with Murong Kai as Commander of the Vanguard. The soldiers of Zhai Liao’s army were all natives of the regions of Yan and Zhao, and when they heard that Murong Kai was coming, they all said, "He is the son of the Prince of Taiyuan (Murong Ke), our own parent!" And they all went over to him, one after the other. Zhai Liao was afraid, and he sent a messenger asking to submit to Yan. Murong Chui appointed Zhai Liao as Governor of Xuzhou and Duke of Henan. He came to the border at Liyang, where Zhai Liao stripped to the waist and begged forgiveness for his crimes; Murong Chui magnanimously consoled him.


井陘人賈鮑,招引北山丁零翟遙等五千餘人,夜襲中山,陷其外郭。章武王宙以奇兵出其外,太子寶鼓譟於內,合擊,大破之,盡俘其衆,唯遙、鮑單馬走免。

18. A native of Jingxing county, Jia Bao, recruited and gathered more than five thousand of the Dingling from the northern mountains, Zhai Yao and others. They launched a surprise attack against Zhongshan during the night, and captured the outer walls of the city. Murong Zhou led irregular troops outside, while Murong Bao raised a clamor from the inside. They both attacked the rebels and greatly routed them, capturing the whole army. Only Jia Bao and Zhai Yao escaped alone on horseback.

井陘縣屬常山郡。

(Jingxing county was part of Changshan commandary.)


劉顯地廣兵強,雄於北方。會其兄弟乖爭,魏長史張袞言於魏王珪曰:「顯志在幷吞,今不乘其內潰而取之,必爲後患。然吾不能獨克,請與燕共攻之。」珪從之,復遣安同乞師於燕。

19. Liu Xian held expansive territory, and his soldiers were strong. He was renowned among those in the north. But at this time, he and his brothers fought with one another.

Tuoba Gui’s Chief Clerk, Zhang Gun, said to him, "Liu Xian's ambition is conquest. If we do not take advantage of the dissension among his forces now to conquer him first, he will certainly pose a threat later on. However, we cannot defeat him alone. Please ask Yan to help us in attacking him."

Tuoba Gui agreed, so he sent An Tong to Yan again to beg for another army.

奴眞、肺埿相繼來降,故云然。去年魏遣安同乞師於燕以破窟咄,故此言復。

(Tuoba Gui had already been bolstered by the defections of Liu Nuzhen and Liu Feini (Book 106, 386.15 and 386.35), and this was why Zhang Gun said this.

Tuoba Gui had earlier sent An Tong to beg for an army from Later Yan to help against Tuoba Kudei (Book 106, 386.40), and this was why this passage says he was sent An Tong to visit Later Yan "again".)


二年春正月,班賜功臣長孫嵩等七十三人各有差。二月,帝幸寧川。夏五月,遣行人安同徵兵於慕容垂,垂使子賀驎率眾來會。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second year of Dengguo (387), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui granted suitable ranks and rewarded to seventy-three people, including Zhangsun Song.

In the second month, Tuoba Gui went to Ningchuan.

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Gui sent his agent An Tong to ask for soldiers from Murong Chui. Murong Chui sent his son Murong Helin to lead an army to come support Tuoba Gui.

袞常參大謀,決策幃幄,太祖器之,禮遇優厚。袞每告人曰:「昔樂毅杖策於燕昭,公達委身於魏武,蓋命世難可期,千載不易遇。主上天姿傑邁,逸志凌霄,必能囊括六合,混一四海。夫遭風雲之會,不建騰躍之功者,非人豪也。」遂策名委質,竭誠伏事。時劉顯地廣兵強,跨有朔裔,會其兄弟乖離,共相疑阻。袞言於太祖曰:「顯志大意高,希冀非望,乃有參天貳地,籠罩宇宙之規。吳不并越,將為後患。今因其內釁,宜速乘之。若輕師獨進,或恐越逸。可遣使告慕容垂,共相聲援,東西俱舉,勢必擒之。然後總括英雄,撫懷遐邇,此千載一時,不可失也。」太祖從之。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

Zhang Gun often advised Tuoba Gui on great plans, developing policies and strategies within Tuoba Gui's own tent. Tuoba Gui appreciated him, and treated him with great courtesy and respect.

Zhang Gun was always telling people, "In former times, Yue Yi wielded authority and developed plans for King Zhao of Yan, and Gongda (Xun You) was a close assistant to Wu of Wei (Cao Cao). Thus were they able to deal with the difficulties of the age in a timely manner and encounter the rarest of achievements. Now our sovereign has been blessed with numerous talents, and he has unsurpassed ambitions that soar to the heavens. He will surely be able to take all the Six Directions within his grasp and unite all within the Four Seas. When someone finds themself in an age of turmoil, unless they establish vaulting achievements, they are no one of worth."

So Zhang Gun gave his all to develop his plans and his reputation, and he tended to his affairs with full devotion.

At this time, Liu Xian possessed abundant territory and strong soldiers, and he stood astride the regions of Shuo and Yi. But he was feuding with his brothers, and they were all suspicious and wary of each other. Zhang Gun said to Tuoba Gui, "Liu Xian has grand ambitions and lofty goals, and he has uncommon hopes and expectations for himself; he aims to reach to the sky and cover the earth, holding all the world in his net. In ancient times, when the state of Wu did not conquer Yue when it had the opportunity, Yue was the one that conquered Wu in the end. Now we see that Liu Xian is current dealing with internal disputes, so we should quickly take advantage of him. However, if you were to rush forward on your own, I worry that you might still fail. But you could send an envoy to inform Murong Chui of the situation and join together with him to attack from both east and west. Then you would certainly overcome Liu Xian. Afterwards, you could gather together heroes to you and comfort and cherish those living near and far. This is the opportunity of a lifetime; you cannot let it slip away."

Tuoba Gui heeded his advice.


詔徵會稽處士戴逵,逵累辭不就;郡縣敦逼不已,逵逃匿于吳。謝玄上疏曰:「逵自求其志,今王命未回,將罹風霜之患。陛下旣已愛而器之,亦宜使其身名並存,請絕召命。」帝許之。逵,X之兄也。

20. The Jin court summoned a hermit from Kuaiji, Dai Kui, but Dai Kui kept refusing and would not come. When the counties and commandaries there continued to hound him, Dai Kui fled to hide in Wu commandary.

Xie Xuan wrote a petition to the court stating, "Dai Kui is 'living in retirement to study his aims'. And with the royal mandate not yet being enforced throughout the realm, he does not want to endure the hardships of such a life in office. Since Your Majesty already treasures and appreciates Dai Kui so much, you should let him ensure he maintains both his life and his reputation. I ask that you rescind the order to summon him."

Emperor Xiaowu permitted it. This Dai Kui was the elder brother of Dai Lu.

《論語》曰:隱居以求其志。玄爲會稽內史,故爲逵上疏。戴X見一百四卷四年。

(The Analects has the phrase, "Living in retirement to study their aims. (16.11)"

Xie Xuan was the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, and this was why he submitted this petition on Dai Kui's behalf.

Dai Lu is last mentioned in Book 104, in the fourth year of Taiyuan (379.7).)


秦主登以其兄同成爲司徒、守尚書令,封潁川王;弟廣爲中書監,封安成王;子崇爲尚書左僕射,封東平王。

21. Fu Deng appointed his elder brother Fu Tongcheng as Minister Over The Masses, acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Prince of Yingchuan. He appointed his younger brother Fu Guang as Chief of the Palace Secretariat and Prince of Ancheng. He appointed his son Fu Chong as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing and Prince of Dongping.

燕主垂自黎陽還中山。

22. Murong Chui returned from Liyang to Zhongshan.

吳深殺燕清河太守丁國,章武人王祖殺太守白欽,勃海人張申據高城以叛;燕主垂命樂浪王溫討之。

23. Wu Shen killed Yan's Administrator of Qinghe, Ding Guo. A native of Zhangwu commandary, Wang Zu, killed Yan’s Administrator there, Bai Qin. And a native of Bohai commandary, Zhang Shen, captured Gaocheng and rebelled against Yan. Murong Chui ordered Murong Wen to campaign against these threats.

高城縣屬勃海郡。賢曰:高城故城,在今滄州鹽山縣南。

(Gaocheng county was part of Bohai commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Gaocheng was in the south of Yanshan county in modern Cangzhou.")


苑川王國仁帥騎三萬襲鮮卑大人密貴、裕苟、提倫三部于六泉。秋,七月,與沒弈干、金熙戰于渴渾川,沒弈干、金熙大敗,三部皆降。

24. Qifu Guoren led thirty thousand cavalry to surprise attack the tribes of the three Xianbei chieftains Migui, Yugou, and Tilun at Liuquan. In autumn, the seventh month, he fought with Mei Yigan and Jinxi at Kehunchuan. Mei Yigan and Jinxi were greatly defeated, and the three tribes all surrendered to him.

密貴爲一部,裕苟爲一部,提倫爲一部。六泉在高平。據《載記》,國仁襲三部,而沒弈干、金熙連兵襲國仁,故遇戰于渴渾川,其地當在天水勇士縣東北。

(Migui led one tribe, Yugou led another tribe, and Tilun led the third tribe.

Liuquan was at Gaoping.

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, when Qifu Guoren attacked the three tribes, Mei Yigan and Jinxi joined their forces to surprise attack him in turn, and this was why it says they met in battle at Kehunchuan. That place was in the northeast of Yongshi county in Tianshui commandary.)


國仁率騎三萬襲鮮卑大人密貴、裕苟、提倫等三部於六泉。高平鮮卑沒奕于、東胡金熙連兵來襲,相遇於渴渾川,大戰敗之,斬級三千,獲馬五千匹。沒奕於及熙奔還,三部震懼,率眾迎降。署密貴建義將軍、六泉侯,裕苟建忠將軍、蘭泉侯,提倫建節將軍、鳴泉侯。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Qifu Guoren led thirty thousand cavalry to surprise attack the three tribes of the Xianbei chieftains Migui, Yugou, Tilun, and others at Liuquan.

The Xianbei leader, Mei Yiyu of Gaoping, and the Eastern Hu leader Jinxi joined forces and came to attack Qifu Guoren. The two sides met at Kehunchuan, where Qifu Guoren defeated them in a great battle. He took three thousand heads and captured five thousand horses. Mei Yiyu and Jinxi fled back.

The three tribes were greatly shocked and alarmed, and all came to welcome Qifu Guoren and surrender to him. Qifu Guoren appointed Migui as General Who Establishes Righteousness and Marquis of Liuquan, he appointed Yugou as General Who Establishes Loyalty and Marquis of Lanquan, and he appointed Tilun as General Who Establishes Fortitude and Marquis of Mingquan.


秦主登軍于瓦亭,後秦主萇攻彭沛穀堡,拔之,穀奔杏城。萇還陰密,以太子興鎭長安。

25. Fu Deng's army was at Wating. Yao Chang attacked the commander Pengpei Gu's fortress, and took it. Pengpei Gu fled to Xingcheng. Yao Chang returned to Yinmi, and appointed his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to guard Chang'an.

彭沛穀,盧水胡也,立堡於貳縣。杜佑曰:杏城在坊州西。

(Pengpei Gu was a member of the Lushi Hu people. He had set up his fortress at Er county.

The Tongdian states, "Xingcheng is in the west of Fangzhou.")


二年,登次於瓦亭。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the second year of Taichu (387), Fu Deng marched to Wating.

八月,以太子興鎮長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the eighth month, Yao Chang assigned his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to guard Chang'an.

以其太子興鎮長安,自擊苻登安定,敗之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang assigned his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to guard Chang'an, while he himself attacked Fu Deng at Anding and defeated him.

以其太子興鎮長安,而與登相距。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang left his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to guard Chang'an, while he battled with Fu Deng.

及鎮長安,甚有威惠。與其中舍人梁喜、洗馬範勖等講論經籍,不以兵難廢業,時人咸化之。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

After Yao Xing was stationed at Chang'an, he displayed great power and kindness. He would discuss the Classics and other records with his Palace Retainer, Liang Xi, his Horse-Washer to the Crown Prince, Fan Xu, and others. Nor did he allow the difficulties of war to interfere with the people's livelihoods. So the people of that time all appreciated him.


燕趙王麟討王敏于上谷,斬之。

26. Yan's Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, campaigned against Wang Min at Shanggu and beheaded him.

劉衞辰獻馬於燕,劉顯掠之。燕主垂怒,遣太原王楷將兵助趙王麟擊顯,大破之。顯奔馬邑西山。魏王珪引兵會麟擊顯於彌澤,又破之。顯奔西燕,麟悉收其部衆,獲馬牛羊以千萬數。

27. Liu Weichen sent horses to Yan as tribute, but Liu Xian plundered them. Murong Chui was furious, and he sent Murong Kai to lead soldiers to help Murong Lin attack Liu Xian. They greatly routed Liu Xian, who fled to the western hills of Mayi. Tuoba Gui led soldiers to join with Murong Lin and attack Liu Xian at Mi Marsh, and Liu Xian was routed again. Liu Xian then fled to Western Yan, while Murong Lin gathered up all the rest of his soldiers, and captured thousands and tens of thousands of horses, cattle, and sheep.

按《魏書‧帝紀》,彌澤在馬邑南。劉顯滅而拓跋氏強矣。爲慕容氏計者,莫若兩利而俱存之,可以無他日亡國之禍。

(According to the Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) in the Book of Northern Wei, Mi Marsh was south of Mayi.

Now that Liu Xian was finished, the Tuoba clan began to grow stronger. Speaking from the side of the Murong clan, they would have done better not to save Northern Wei these two times, since that would have prevented Northern Wei from bringing their own state to ruin.)


六月,帝親征劉顯於馬邑南,追至彌澤,大破之,顯南奔慕容永,盡收其部落。秋八月,帝至自伐顯。冬十月癸卯,幸濡源,遣外朝大人王建使於慕容垂。十一月,遂幸赤城。十有二月,巡松漠,還幸牛川。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth month, Tuoba Gui personally campaigned against Liu Xian south of Mayi. He pursued Liu Xian to Mi Marsh and greatly routed him. Liu Xian fled to Murong Yong, and Tuoba Gui gathered up all of his forces and tribes.

In autumn, the eighth month, Tuoba Gui returned from his campaign against Liu Xian.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Guimao (?), Tuoba Gui went to Ruyuan. He sent his Chieftain of the Outer Court, Wang Jian, as an envoy to visit Murong Chui.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui went to Chicheng.

In the twelfth month, Tuoba Gui went on patrol through Songmo, then returned to Niuchuan.

後太祖討顯于馬邑,追至彌澤,大破之。衞辰與慕容垂通好,送馬三千匹於垂,垂遣慕容良迎之。顯擊敗良軍,掠馬而去。垂怒,遣子麟、兄子楷討之,顯奔馬邑西山。麟輕騎追之,遂奔慕容永於長子。部眾悉降於麟,麟徙之中山。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Liu Xian)

Later, Tuoba Gui campaigned against Liu Xian at Mayi. He pursued him to Mi Marsh and greatly routed him.

Liu Weichen had established good relations with Murong Chui, and he sent three thousand horses to him. Murong Chui sent Murong Liang to come accept the horses. But Liu Xian attacked and defeated Murong Liang's army, then stole the horses and left. Furious, Murong Chui sent his son Murong Lin and his nephew Murong Kai to campaign against Liu Xian, who fled to the western hills of Mayi. Murong Lin pursued him with light cavalry, and Liu Xian fled to Murong Yong at Zhangzi. His forces all surrendered to Murong Lin, who relocated them to Zhongshan.

太祖遂破走顯。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

Tuoba Gui routed Liu Xian and drove him away.


呂光將彭晃、徐炅攻張大豫于臨洮,破之。大豫奔廣武,王穆奔建康。八月,廣武人執大豫送姑臧,斬之,穆襲據酒泉,自稱大將軍、涼州牧。

28. Lü Guang's generals Peng Huang and Xu Jiong attacked Zhang Dayu at Lintao and routed him. Zhang Dayu fled to Guangwu, and Wang Mu fled to Jiankang. In the eighth month, the people of Guangwu captured Zhang Dayu and sent him to Guzang, where he was beheaded.

Wang Mu surprise attacked and captured Jiuquan, where he proclaimed himself Grand General and Governor of Liangzhou.

張大豫奔臨洮,見上卷上年。

(Zhang Dayu's flight to Lintao is mentioned in the previous year, in Book 106 (386.53).)


辛巳,立皇子德宗爲太子,大赦。

29. On the day Xinsi (September 16th), Emperor Xiaowu appointed his son Sima Dezong as Crown Prince. A general amnesty was declared in Jin.

安皇帝諱德宗,字德宗,孝武帝長子也。太元十二年八月辛巳,立爲皇太子。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Emperor An was named Sima Dezong; his style name was Dezong. He was the eldest son of Emperor Xiaowu.

In the twelfth year of Taiyuan (387), the eighth month, on the day Xinsi (September 16th), Sima Dezong was established as Crown Prince.


燕主垂立劉顯弟可泥爲烏桓王,以撫其衆,徙八千餘落于中山。

30. Murong Chui appointed Liu Xian's younger brother Liu Keni as King of the Wuhuan. He consoled Liu Keni’s people, and relocated more than eight thousand tribes to Zhongshan.

秦馮翊太守蘭櫝帥衆二萬自頻陽入和寧,與魯王纂謀攻長安。纂弟師奴勸纂稱尊號,纂不從;師奴殺纂而代之,櫝遂與師奴絕。西燕主永攻櫝,櫝請救於後秦,後秦主萇欲自救之。尚書令姚旻、左僕射尹緯曰:「苻登近在瓦亭,將乘虛襲吾後。」萇曰:「苻登衆盛,非旦夕可制;登遲重少決,必不能輕軍深入。比兩月間,吾必破賊而返,登雖至,無能爲也。」九月,萇軍于泥源。師奴逆戰,大敗,亡奔鮮卑。後秦盡收其衆,屠各董成等皆降。

31. Qin's Administrator of Pingyi, Lan Du, led twenty thousand soldiers from Pinyang into Hening, where he plotted with Fu Zuan to attack Chang'an. But Fu Zuan's younger brother Fu Shinu urged Fu Zuan to declare himself Emperor. When Fu Zuan would not agree, Fu Shinu killed Fu Zuan and took his place. This caused Lan Du to break off relations with Fu Shinu.

Then the ruler of Western Yan, Murong Yong, attacked Lan Du. Lan Du sent a messenger and sought aid from Later Qin, and Yao Chang wished to go in person to save him. His Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yao Min, and his Deputy Director of the Left, Yin Wei, said to him, "Fu Deng is nearby at Wating. If you make a move now, he will take advantage of your absence to attack our rear."

But Yao Chang replied, "Fu Deng has a great many soldiers now, and he cannot get them under his control in a single day and night (or, they cannot reach us in a single day and night). And Fu Deng is slow to act and hesitant to decide. He is certainly unable to lightly move his army deep into our territory. Within two months, I will definitely rout the rebels and then return. Even if Fu Deng comes, he will be unable to do anything."

In the ninth month, Yao Chang's army reached Niyuan. Fu Shinu counter-attacked him, but was greatly defeated, and he fled to the Xianbei. Yao Chang gathered up Fu Shinu's soldiers, and Dongcheng and the others all surrendered to him.

頻陽縣,秦厲公置,自漢以來屬馮翊。應劭曰:在頻水之陽。據《載記》,和寧在嶺北杏城之東南。【章:十二行本「櫝」下有「遣使」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】【嚴:「制」改「至」。】《漢書‧地理志》,北地郡有泥陽縣。應劭《註》云:泥水出郁郅北蠻中。苻纂兄弟旣敗,苻登之勢孤矣。

(Pinyang county had been created by Former Qin's Duke Li (Fu Sheng). Since Han, it had been part of Pingyi commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "This region was north of the Pin River, thus the name Pinyang (‘north of the Pin River’)." According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Hening was in the southeast of Xingcheng, north of the mountain ranges.

Some versions say that Lan Du "sent a messenger" to Later Qin.

In the sentence about Fu Deng, the character 制 should be 至 (that is, "they cannot come here in a single day and night").

The Geographical Records of the Book of Han states that Niyang county was in Beidi commandary. Ying Shao's Annotations states, "The Pi River comes from Yuji among the northern Man tribes."

With the defeat of Fu Zuan and his brother, Fu Deng now stood alone.)


登馮翊太守蘭犢與苻師奴離貳,慕容永攻之,犢遣使請救。萇將赴救,尚書令姚旻、左僕射尹緯等言於萇曰:「苻登近在瓦亭,陛下未宜輕舉。」萇曰:「登遲重少決,每失時機,聞吾自行,正當廣集兵資,必不能輕軍深入。兩月之間,足可克此三豎,吾事必矣。」遂師次於渥源。師奴率眾來距,大戰,敗之,盡俘其眾。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Deng's Administrator of Pingyi, Lan Du, became estranged from Fu Shinu. Then Murong Yong attacked Lan Du, so he sent envoys to Yao Chang asking for aid.

Yao Chang was about to come to his assistance, but his Prefect of the Masters of Writig, Yao Min, his Supervisor of the Left, Yin Wei, and others said to him, "Fu Deng is nearby at Wating. Your Majesty cannot make any rash movements."

But Yao Chang replied, "Fu Deng is slow to act and hesitant to decide, and he always squanders his opportunities. When he hears that I have marched away, he will certainly take the time gather together all of his soldiers and resources rather than make any sudden quick dash of his own. Within two months, I will definitely rout these three miscreants and then return. All will be as I plan."

So he led his troops to Woyuan. Fu Shinu led his own troops to oppose Yao Chang and they fought a great battle, but Yao Chang defeated Fu Shinu and captured his whole army.


秦主登進據胡空堡,戎、夏歸之十餘萬。

32. Fu Deng advanced and captured Hu Kong’s fortress. The tribes and the native people came to him, more than a hundred thousand.

秦屯騎校尉胡空所築堡也,在新平界。

(This was the fortress that Qin’s Colonel of Camped Cavalry, Hu Kong, had built. It was in Xinping commandary.)


九月,進據胡空堡,戎夏歸之者十有餘萬。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the ninth month, Fu Deng advanced and occupied Fort Hukong. More than a hundred thousand of the tribal people and the ethnic Han came to join him.


冬,十月,翟遼復叛燕,遣兵與王祖、張申寇抄清河、平原。

33. In winter, the tenth month, Zhai Liao once again rebelled against Yan. He sent soldiers under Wang Zu and Zhang Shen to attack and raid Qinghe and Pingyuan commandaries.

後秦主萇進擊西燕王永於河西,永走。蘭櫝復列兵拒守,萇攻之;十二月,禽櫝,遂如杏城。

34. Yao Chang advanced to attack Murong Yong west of the Yellow River, and Murong Yong fled. But Lan Du then arrayed his soldiers to hold to his defenses, so Yao Chang attacked him. In the twelfth month, he captured Lan Du, and then returned to Xingcheng.

「西燕王」當作「西燕主」。此龍門至華陰,河之西也。

(This passage calls Murong Yong "the King of Western Yan" when it should be "the lord of Western Yan".

The specific location of this battle was at Longmen in Huayin county, which was west of the Yellow River.)


萇又擒蘭犢,收其士馬。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang also captured Lan Du and gathered up all his soldiers and horses.


後秦姚方成攻秦雍州刺史徐嵩壘,拔之,執嵩而數之。嵩罵曰:「汝姚萇罪當萬死,苻黃眉欲斬之,先帝止之。授任內外,榮寵極矣。曾不如犬馬識所養之恩,親爲大逆。汝羌輩豈可以人理期也,何不速殺我!」方成怒,三斬嵩,悉阬其士卒,以妻子賞軍。後秦主萇掘秦主堅尸,鞭撻無數,剝衣倮形,薦之以棘,坎土而埋之。

35. Yao Fangcheng attacked the fortress of Qin's Inspector of Yongzhou, Xu Song. He took it, and captured Xu Song.

When Yao Fangcheng listed Xu Song’s offenses, Xu Song reviled him, saying, "Your Yao Chang has committed a crime deserving of ten thousand deaths. Many years ago, Fu Huangmei wanted to behead him, but our late lord (Fu Jian) stopped him. Yao Chang was entrusted with great roles both at court and on the borders, and he received the highest of favors and trust. Not even one’s personally-raised dog or horse would have received such grace. Yet Yao Chang committed the ultimate betrayal. How can you Qiang folk guide the new age? Put me to death at once, so I can see our late lord capture Yao Chang and deal with him in the world below!"

Yao Fangcheng was furious, and he subjected Xu Song to the three dismemberments. He buried alive all of Xu Song's soldiers, and gave out their wives and children as rewards to his own army.

Yao Chang dug up Fu Jian's body, whipped it countless times, stripped off its clothing and left it naked, wrapped it in thorns, then dug a pit and buried the body in it.

謂穆帝升平元年姚襄敗時也。謂殺秦王堅於新平佛寺也。【章:十二行本「我」下有「早見先帝取姚萇於地下治之」十二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】三斬者,斬其足,斬其腰,斬其頸也。堅葬於徐嵩、胡空二壘之間,徐嵩之壘旣陷,故姚萇得掘墓鞭尸以逞其忿。

(Fu Huangmei had planned to execute Yao Chang following Yao Xiang's defeat, as mentioned in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (357).

The crime which Xu Song accused Yao Chang of was his murder of Fu Jian in the Buddhist temple at Xinping.

Some versions include the sentence "so I can see our late lord capture Yao Chang and deal with him in the world below" at the end of Xu Song's diatribe.

In the three dismemberments, first the legs are cut off, then the person is cut in half at the waist, and finally the neck is severed.

Fu Jian was buried in the area between Xu Song's and Hu Kong's fortresses. Since Xu Song's fortress had just fallen, this was why Yao Chang was able to dig up and whip Fu Jian's corpse in order to indulge his resentment.)


姚萇掘堅屍,鞭撻無數,裸剝衣裳,附之以棘,坎土埋之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

Yao Chang dug up Fu Jian's body, whipped it countless times, stripped off its clothing and left it naked, wrapped it in thorns, then dug a pit and buried the body in it.

萇乃掘苻堅屍,鞭撻無數,裸剝衣裳,薦之以棘,坎土而埋之。慕容永征西將軍王宣率眾降萇。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang dug up Fu Jian's body, whipped it countless times, stripped off its clothing and left it naked, wrapped it in thorns, then dug a pit and buried the body in it.

Murong Yong's General Who Conquers The West, Wang Xuan, led his troops to surrender to Yao Chang.


涼州大饑,米斗值錢五百,人相食,死者太半。

36. There was great hunger in Liangzhou. A head of rice cost five hundred 錢. People ate each other, and more than half the people died.

呂光西平太守康寧自稱匈奴王,殺湟河太守強禧以叛。張掖太守彭晃亦叛,東結康寧,西通王穆。光欲自擊晃,諸將皆曰:「今康寧在南,伺釁而動,若晃、穆未誅,康寧復至,進退狼狽,勢必大危。」光曰:「實如卿言。然我今不往,是坐待其來也。若三寇連兵,東西交至,則城外皆非吾有,大事去矣。今晃初叛,與寧、穆情契未密,出其倉猝,取之差易耳。」乃自帥騎三萬,倍道兼行,旣至,攻之二旬,拔其城,誅晃。

37. Lü Guang's Administrator of Xiping, Kang Ning, proclaimed himself King of the Xiongnu. He killed the Administrator of Huanghe, Qiang Xi, and rebelled. The Administrator of Zhangye, Peng Huang, also rebelled. To the east he formed ties with Kang Ning, and to the west he was in contact with Wang Mu.

Lü Guang wished to personally attack Peng Huang, but his generals all said, "Kang Ning is currently to the south, waiting for a dispute to break out so he can pounce. If Kang Ning comes before Peng Huang and Wang Mu can be punished, then you will be faced with enemies in front and rear, and you will certainly be in grave danger."

Lü Guang replied, "What you say does have merit. Yet if I do not advance against them now, that simply means I would be sitting here waiting for them to come against me. If the three invaders all join their soldiers together, and combine from east and west, nothing outside of this city would be under our control any longer. That would mean the end of everything. Now Peng Huang has only just rebelled, and he does not yet have any close bonds formed with Kang Ning and Wang Mu. If I move against him quickly, he will be relatively easy to capture."

So Lü Guang led thirty thousand cavalry, and they advanced along the roads at twice the usual pace. Once they arrived, they attacked Peng Huang for twenty days and then took his city, and Peng Huang was executed.

西平郡,東漢之末,分金城置,唐之鄯州,卽其地也。湟河郡,河西張氏置,蓋亦在鄯州界內。三寇,謂康寧、彭晃、王穆。

(At the end of Han, part of Jincheng commandary had been split off to form Xiping commandary. It was in Tang's Shanzhou.

Huanghe commandary had been created by the Zhang clan of Former Liang, and it must have also been within the territory of Shanzhou.

The "three invaders" were Kang Ning, Peng Huang, and Wang Mu.)


其將徐炅與張掖太守彭晃謀叛,光遣師討炅,炅奔晃。晃東結康寧,四通王穆,光議將討之,諸將咸曰:「今康寧在南,阻兵伺隙,若大駕西行,寧必乘虛出於嶺左。晃、穆未平,康寧復至,進退狼狽,勢必大危。」光曰:「事勢實如卿言。今而不往,尋坐待其來。晃、穆共相脣齒,寧又同惡相救,東西交至,城外非吾之有,若是,大事去矣。今晃叛逆始爾,甯、穆與之情契未密,及其倉卒,取之為易。且隆替命也,卿勿復言。」光於是自率步騎三萬,倍道兼行。既至,攻之二旬,晃將寇顗斬關納光,於是誅彭晃。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang's general Xu Jiong plotted rebellion with the Administrator of Zhangye, Peng Huang. Lü Guang sent troops to campaign against Xu Jiong, who fled to Peng Huang. To the east Peng Huang formed ties with Kang Ning, and to the west he was in contact with Wang Mu.

Lü Guang discussed personally leading an attack against Peng Huang, but his generals all said, "Kang Ning is currently to the south, waiting for a dispute to break out so he can pounce. If you depart for the west, Kang Ning will certainly take advantage of your absence to cross the mountain ranges. And if Kang Ning comes before Peng Huang and Wang Mu can be punished, then you will be faced with enemies in front and rear, and you will certainly be in grave danger."

Lü Guang replied, "What you say does have merit. Yet if I do not advance against them now, that simply means I would be sitting here waiting for them to come against me. Peng Huang and Wang Mu are already joined together like the lips and the teeth; if I allow them to join their soldiers together with Kang Ning, so that they can all combine their forces from east and west, nothing outside of this city would be under our control any longer. That would mean the end of everything. Now Peng Huang has only just rebelled, and he does not yet have any close bonds formed with Kang Ning and Wang Mu. If I move against him quickly, he will be relatively easy to capture. Now go and send out the order; do not say another word."

So Lü Guang led thirty thousand horse and foot, and they advanced along the roads at twice the usual pace. Once they arrived, they attacked Peng Huang for twenty days. Peng Huang's general Kou Yi broke open the gates of the city and welcomed Lü Guang in, and Lü Guang executed Peng Huang.


初,王穆起兵,遣使招敦煌處士郭瑀,瑀歎曰:「今民將左袵,吾忍不救之邪!」乃與同郡索嘏起兵應穆,運粟三萬石以餉之。穆以瑀爲太府左長史、軍師將軍,嘏爲敦煌太守。旣而穆聽讒言,引兵攻嘏,瑀諫不聽,出城大哭,舉手謝城曰:「吾不復見汝矣!」還而引被覆面,不與人言,不食而卒。呂光聞之曰:「二虜相攻,此成禽也,不可以憚屢戰之勞而失永逸之機也。」遂帥步騎二萬攻酒泉,克之。進屯涼興,穆引兵東還,未至,衆潰,穆單騎走,騂馬令郭文斬其首送之。

38. Before, when Wang Mu had raised troops in rebellion, he had sent a messenger seeking help from a hermit of Dunhuang, Guo Yu. Guo Yu sighed and said, "The people shall be buttoning their garments on the left soon. How can I ignore their pleas?" So he and his fellow from the same commandary, Suo Gu, raised soldiers in support of Wang Mu. They transported thirty thousand 石 of millet to keep them supplied.

Wang Mu appointed Guo Yu as Chief Clerk of the Left of the Greater Staff and General Who Directs The Army, and he appointed Suo Gu as Administrator of Dunhuang. However, Wang Mu later listened to slander and led troops to attack Suo Gu. Guo Yu remonstrated with Wang Mu, but to no avail. He greatly wept as he left the city, and he raised his hands in apology to the city, saying, "I shall never see you again!" He went back home and covered his face with a quilt. Refusing to speak to anyone, he did not eat and so starved himself.

When Lü Guang heard of all this, he said, "With those two caitiffs fighting one another, they’ve become just a pack of wild animals. We cannot shrink from the labor of a few battles now, when it means we might ‘gain lasting repose by one great effort’." So he led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack Jiuquan, and took it. He advanced to camp at Liangxing. Wang Mu led his soldiers to return east, but before he could arrive, his troops all scattered. Wang Mu fled alone on horseback, but the Prefect of Songma, Guo Wen, beheaded him and sent his head to Guzang.

一勞永逸,古語有之。涼興郡,河西張氏置,在唐瓜州常樂縣界。騂馬縣屬酒泉郡,蓋魏、晉間所置也。騂,思榮翻。呂光新得河西,黨叛於內,敵攻於外,雖數戰數勝,而根本不固,宜不足以貽子孫也。

("To gain lasting repose by one great effort" was an old proverb.

Liangxing commandary was created by the Zhang clan of Former Liang. It was in Changle county in Tang's Guazhou.

Songma county was part of Jiuquan commandary. It must have been created during Cao-Wei or Jin. 騂 is pronounced "song (s-ong)".

Lü Guang had newly taken the Hexi region, but he was plagued by internal rebellions and attacks from external enemies. Although he was victorious in many battles, he never gained a stable foundation, and so he was unable to pass on the territory to his descendants.)


王穆以其党索嘏為敦煌太守,既而忌其威名,率眾攻嘏。光聞之,謂諸將曰:「二虜相攻,此成擒也。」光將攻之,眾咸以為不可。光曰:「取亂侮亡,武之善經,不可以累征之勞而失永逸之舉。」率步騎二萬攻酒泉,克之,進次涼興。穆引師東還,路中眾散,穆單騎奔騂馬,騂馬令郭文斬首送之。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Wang Mu appointed his partisan Suo Gu as Administrator of Dunhuang. However, suspicious of Suo Gu's reputation and power, Wang Mu then led his forces to attack Suo Gu. When Lü Guang heard about it, he said to his generals, "Now that these two caitiffs are fighting each other, we can capture them." So he led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack Jiuquan, and took it. He then advanced to Liangxing. Wang Mu led his forces back east, but his army scattered along the road. Wang Mu fled on a lone horse to Xingma, but the Prefect of Xingma, Guo Wen, beheaded Wang Mu and sent his head to Lü Guang.
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BOOK 107

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 07, 2018 9:55 pm

太元十三年(戊子、三八八)

The Thirteenth Year of Taiyuan (The Wuzi Year, 388 AD)


春,正月,康樂獻武公謝玄卒。

1. In spring, the first month, Xie Xuan passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xianwu (“the Presented and Martial”) of Kangle.

康樂縣,屬豫章郡。

(Kangle county was part of Yuzhang commandary.)


二月,秦主登軍朝那,後秦主萇軍武都。

2. In the second month, Fu Deng's army was at Chaona, while Yao Chang's army was at Wudu.

朝那縣自漢以來屬安定郡。此武都亦當在安定界。《五代志》:朝那縣,西魏置安武郡。安武,漢舊縣名;武都之名當是因安武而名。

(Since Han, Chaona county had been part of Anding commandary.

This Wudu was also within Anding. The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "Western Wei formed Anwu commandary from Chaona county.” Anwu was the old Han name for the county. The name Wudu must have come from this name Anwu.)


三年,登次朝那,姚萇據武都。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the third year of Taichu (388), Fu Deng marched to Chaona, while Yao Chang occupied Wudu.


翟遼遣司馬眭瓊詣燕謝罪;燕主垂以其數反覆,斬瓊以絕之。遼乃自稱魏天王,改元建光,置百官。

3. Zhai Liao sent his Marshal, Sui Qiong, to visit Yan and apologize for his crimes. But in light of his repeated betrayals, Murong Chui rejected this; he beheaded Sui Qiong and broke off relations. So Zhai Liao proclaimed himself Heavenly King of Wei, changed the reign era title to Jianguang, and established the imperial offices.

眭,姓也;師古息隨翻。《類篇》宜爲翻。

(眭 Sui is a surname. Yan Shigu states it is pronounced "sui (x-ui)". The Leipian dictionary states it is pronounced "yei (y-ei)".)


先是,丁零翟遼叛垂,後遣使謝罪,垂不許,遼怒,遂自號大魏天王,有眾數萬。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Earlier, the Dingling leader Zhai Liao had rebelled against Murong Chui. He later sent envoys to Murong Chui asking forgiveness for his crimes, but Murong Chui refused to pardon him. Angered by this, Zhai Liao then declared himself the Heavenly King of Great Wei, and he gathered an army of tens of thousands.


燕青州刺史陳留王紹爲平原太守辟閭渾所逼,退屯黃巾固。燕主垂更以紹爲徐州刺史。渾,蔚之子也,因苻氏亂,據齊地來降。

4. Yan's Inspector of Qingzhou, Murong Shao, felt threatened by Jin's Administrator of Pingyuan, Pilü Hun, so he fell back to camp at Huangshi Redoubt. Murong Chui then appointed Murong Shao as Inspector of Xuzhou. This Pilü Hun was the son of Pilü Yu. Due to the turmoil following the fall of Qin, he had seized control of the Qi region and then submitted to Jin.

漢末黃巾保聚於其地,因以爲名。齊人謂壘堡爲固。紹自歷城退屯焉,其地在濟南郡章丘城北。辟閭蔚見一百卷穆帝永和十二年。後辟閭渾爲慕容德所殺。

(During the end of the Han dynasty, the Yellow Scarves had gathered together in this place to protect themselves, and that was why it was named Huangshi ("Yellow Scarves") Redoubt. The people of Qi called a fortress or rampart a 固 "redoubt". Since Murong Shao had fallen back from Licheng to camp there, that place was north of the city of Zhangqiu in Jinan commandary.

Pilü Yu, Duan Kan's talented commander, is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Yonghe (356.1).

This was why Murong De later killed Pilü Hun.)


三月,乙亥,燕主垂以太子寶錄尚書事,授之以政,自總大綱而已。

5. In the third month, on the day Yihai (May 7th), Murong Chui appointed Murong Bao as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, letting him manage the government, while Murong Chui only attended to the broader decisions.

為其太子寶起承華觀,以寶錄尚書政事,巨細皆委之,重總大綱而已。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

As he felt that his Crown Prince, Murong Bao, was now old enough to handle matters and oversee affairs, Murong Chui appointed Murong Bao as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. Murong Bao handled all issues, no matter how great or small, while Murong Chui only attended to the broader decisions.


燕趙王麟擊許謙,破之,謙奔西燕。遂廢代郡,悉徙其民於龍城。

6. Murong Lin attacked Xu Qian and routed him. Xu Qian fled to Western Yan. Murong Lin abolished Dai commandary, and relocated all of the people there to Longcheng.

去年許謙叛燕附劉顯。

(Xu Qian's rebellion in alignment with Liu Xian is mentioned in the previous year (387.12).)


呂光之定涼州也,杜進功居多,光以爲武威太守,貴寵用事,羣僚莫及。光甥石聰自關中來,光問之曰:「中州人言我爲政何如?」聰曰:「但聞有杜進耳,不聞有舅。」光由是忌進而殺之。

7. Since Du Jin had had such a large hand in Lü Guang having settled Liangzhou, Lü Guang appointed him as Administrator of Wuwei. He was treated with great honor and favor, and none of the other ministers were as well-respected.

At that time, Lü Guang's nephew Shi Cong arrived from Guanzhong. Lü Guang asked him, "What do the people of the Central Provinces say about my administration?"

Shi Cong replied, "I have only heard about what Du Jin has done, not what you have done, Uncle."

Because of that, Lü Guang became suspicious of Du Jin, and he killed him.

〈事見上卷十年。〉

(Du Jin’s service on Lü Guang’s behalf is mentioned in Book 106, in the tenth year of Taiyuan (385).)


初,光之定河西也,杜進有力焉,以為輔國將軍、武威太守。既居都尹,權高一時,出入羽儀,與光相亞。光甥石聰至自關中,光曰:「中州人言吾政化何如?」聰曰:「止知有杜進耳,實不聞有舅。」光默然,因此誅進。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Earlier, during the time when Lü Guang had been conquering the Hexi region, Du Jin had had a large share in his success. So Lü Guang had appointed him as General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Wuwei. Since he was the Intendant of the capital, his influence was the greatest of the age, and he always went in or out with great pomp and ceremony, with only Lü Guang being treated similarly.

When Lü Guang's nephew Shi Cong arrived from Guanzhong, Lü Guang asked him, "What do the people of the Central Provinces say about my administration and reforms?"

Shi Cong replied, "I have only heard about what Du Jin has done, not what you have done, Uncle."

Lü Guang was left silent. And because of this, he executed Du Jin.


光與羣寮宴,語及政事,參軍京兆段業曰:「明公用法太峻。」光曰:「吳起無恩而楚強,商鞅嚴刑而秦興。」業曰:「起喪其身,鞅亡其家,皆殘酷之致也。明公方開建大業,景行堯、舜,猶懼不濟;乃慕起、鞅之爲治,豈此州士女所望哉!」光改容謝之。

8. Lü Guang held a feast with his ministers, where he discussed the affairs of government. His Army Advisor, Duan Ye of Jingzhao, said, "Your Grace, you are too severe in applying the law."

Lü Guang said, "Wu Qi ruled without mercy, yet he made Chu strong. Shang Yang enforced harsh punishments, yet he made Qin rise."

Duan Ye replied, "Wu Qi brought grief upon himself, and Shang Yang caused his family to be ruined. In both causes, it was because of their ruthlessness. Your Grace, you have only just begun to establish your state. Even if you imitate the ‘brilliant road’ of Yao and Shun, I would still be worried that you might not be successful. But to go so far as to honor the methods of Wu Qi and Shang Yang? How then can you hope to win over the people of this province?"

Lü Guang changed his expression and apologized to Duan Ye.

吳起事見一卷周安王十五年,商鞅事見二卷顯王三十一年。《詩》曰:高山仰止,景行行止。毛萇曰:景,大也。鄭玄曰:景,明。庶幾古人,有高德者,則慕仰之,有明行者,則而行之。沮渠蒙遜兄弟舉兵,所以推段業爲重,亦由此言爲涼州人士所歸敬也。

(Wu Qi's life is mentioned in Book 1, in the fifteenth year of the reign of King An of Zhou (387 BC). Shang Yang's life is mentioned in Book 2, in King Xian's thirty-first year (338 BC).

The Book of Poetry has the verse, "The high hill is looked up to; the Jing road is easy to be travelled on. (Che Xia.5)" Mao Chang remarked, "This 景 Jing means grand." Zheng Xuan remarked, "景 Jing means bright." So it must be that for the ancients, one who has high virtues should be respected and looked up to, and a road that has clear paths should be followed.

When Juqu Mengxun and his brothers raised troops in revolt and acclaimed Duan Ye to be their leader, it was because the people of Liangzhou came to him in respect for this sort of rhetoric.)


光後宴群僚,酒酣,語及政事。時刑法峻重,參軍段業進曰:「嚴刑重憲,非明王之義也。」光曰:「商鞅之法至峻,而兼諸侯;吳起之術無親,而荊蠻以霸,何也?」業曰:「明公受天眷命,方君臨四海,景行堯、舜,猶懼有弊,奈何欲以商、申之末法臨道義之神州,豈此州士女所望於明公哉!」光改容謝之,於是下令責躬,及崇寬簡之政。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang later held a feast with his ministers, where he became drunk and began discussing the affairs of government. At that time, he was harsh and severe in applying the laws. His Army Advisor, Duan Ye, stepped forward and said, "Harsh laws and heavy sentences are unbecoming of a wise sovereign."

Lü Guang said, "Shang Yang enforced harsh punishments, yet thanks to his policies, the state of Qin conquered all the other feudal lords. Wu Qi ruled without mercy, yet he made the ruler of the Man tribes of Jing into a hegemon. What about them?"

Duan Ye replied, "Your Grace, you have accepted Heaven's will and are reliant upon its mandate, and you are a lord who would preside over all within the Four Seas. Even if you imitate the ‘brilliant road’ of Yao and Shun, I would still be worried that you might not be successful. Why then do you wish to follow the ruinous laws of Shang Yang and Shen Buhai rather than adhere to the principles and righteousness of the Sacred Provinces? How then can you hope to win over the people of this province?"

Lü Guang changed his expression and apologized to Duan Ye. He issued an ordinance blaming himself, and he broadened and simplified the laws.


夏,四月,戊午,以朱序爲都督司‧雍‧梁‧秦四州諸軍事、雍州刺史,戍洛陽。以譙王恬代序爲都督兗‧冀‧幽‧幷諸軍事、青‧兗二州刺史。

9. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Wuwu (June 19th), Zhu Xu was appointed as Jin’s Commander of military affairs in Sizhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Qinzhou, and as Inspector of Yongzhou. He was stationed at Luoyang. The Prince of Qiao, Sima Tian, inherited Zhu Xu's original positions as Commander of military affairs in the four provinces of Yanzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, and as Inspector of Qingzhou and Xuzhou.

【章:十二行本「幷」下有「四州」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

(Some versions emphasize that Sima Tian was the Commander of "the four provinces of" etc.)


苑川王國仁破鮮卑越質叱黎於平襄,獲其子詰歸。

10. Qifu Guoren routed the Xianbei leader Yuezhi Chilu at Pingxiang, and captured his son Yuezhi Jiegui.

平襄縣,漢屬天水郡,晉屬略陽郡。越質蓋鮮卑部落之號,後以爲氏。

(During Han, Pingxiang county was part of Tianshui commandary, and during Jin, it was part of Lüeyang commandary.

Yuezhi must have originally been the name of one of the Xianbei tribes; it later became a clan name.)


國仁建威將軍叱盧烏孤跋擁眾叛,保牽屯山。國仁率騎七千討之,斬其部將叱羅侯,降者千餘戶。跋大懼,遂降,復其官位。因討鮮卑越質叱黎于平襄,大破之,獲其子詰歸、弟子復半及部落五千餘人而還。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Qifu Guoren's General Who Establishes Might, the Chilu leader Wugu Ba, gathered a host together and rebelled, holding out at Mount Qiantun. Qifu Guoren led seven thousand cavalry to campaign against him. He beheaded Wugu Ba's general Chiluohou, and more than a thousand households surrendered to him. Wugu Ba was greatly afraid, and he came to surrender, so he was restored to his former offices and positions.

During this campaign, Qifu Guoren fought the Xianbei leader Yuezhi Chili at Pingxiang, where he greatly routed Yuezhi Chili and captured his son Yuezhi Jiegui, his younger brother Yuezhi Zifuban, and more than five thousand of his tribesmen before returning.


丁亥,燕主垂立夫人段氏爲皇后,以太子寶領大單于。段氏,右光祿大夫儀之女;其妹適范陽王德。儀,寶之舅也。追諡前妃段氏爲成昭皇后。

11. On the day Dinghai (?), Murong Chui honored his wife Lady Duan as his Empress, and he appointed Murong Bao as acting Grand Chanyu. This Lady Duan was the daughter of the Household Counselor with Golden Tassel of the Right, Duan Yi. Her younger sister was married to Murong De. This Duan Yi was the uncle of Murong Bao. Murong Chui posthumously named the original Lady Duan, his first wife, as Empress Chengzhao.

爲後寶逼殺段后張本。段氏死見一百卷穆帝升平二年。

(This was why Murong Bao later hounded Lady Duan to death.

The original Lady Duan's death is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's twelfth year of Shengping (358.17).)


慕容垂妻段氏,字元妃,偽右光祿大夫儀之女也。少而婉慧,有志操,常謂妹季妃曰:「我終不作凡人妻。」委妃亦曰:「妹亦不為庸夫婦。」鄰人聞而笑之。垂之稱燕王,納元妃為繼室,遂有殊寵。偽范陽王德亦娉季妃焉。姊妹俱為垂、德之妻,卒如其志。垂既僭位,拜為皇后。(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Duan Yuanfei)

Lady Duan, styled Yuanfei, was the wife of Murong Chui. She was the daughter of Former Yan’s Household Counselor of the Right, Duan Yi. Even as a young girl, she was gentle and intelligent, and she had ambitious behavior. She often said to her younger sister, Duan Jifei, "I shall never be able to be some common man's wife."

Duan Jifei also said, "I cannot be married to an inferior man either." Their neighbors who heard this all laughed at it.

When Murong Chui styled himself Prince of Yan, he received Duan Yuanfei as his second wife, and showed her remarkable favor. Yan’s Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, also took Duan Jifei as his wife. So the two sisters became the wives of Murong Chui and Murong De, thus fulfilling their ambitions. When Murong Chui declared himself Emperor, he honored Duan Yuanfei as his Empress.

垂立其夫人段氏為皇后。又以寶領侍中、大單于、驃騎大將軍、幽州牧。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui honored his wife Lady Duan as his Empress. He appointed Murong Bao as acting Palace Attendant, Grand Chanyu, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and Governor of Youzhou.


五月,秦太弟懿卒,諡曰獻哀。

12. In the fifth month, Qin's Crown Younger Brother, Fu Yi, passed away. He was posthumously named Prince Xian'ai (“the Presented and Mourned”).

翟遼徙屯滑臺。

13. Zhai Liao moved his base to Huatai.

遼自黎陽徙屯滑臺,旣與燕絕,欲阻河爲固也。滑臺城在白馬縣西,春秋鄭廩延邑也,唐爲滑州。

(Zhai Liao moved from Liyang to Huatai because he had broken off relations with Later Yan, and he wished to use the Yellow River as a bulwark to defend himself. The city of Huatai was in the west of Baima county. It was the city of Linyan in the state of Zheng during the Spring and Autumn era, and it was in Tang's Huazhou.)


遼屯於滑臺,與垂相擊。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Zhai Liao camped at Huatai, and he and Murong Chui fought each other.


六月,苑川王乞伏國仁卒,諡曰宣烈,廟號烈祖。其子公府尚幼,羣下推國仁弟乾歸爲大都督、大將軍、大單于、河南王,大赦,改元太初。

14. In the sixth month, Qifu Guoren passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xuanlie (“the Understanding and Zealous”), and his temple name was Liezu.

Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu was still young, so his ministers acclaimed Qifu Guoren's younger brother Qifu Gangui as Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Henan. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Taichu.

時乞伏氏跨有涼州、河南之地,遂爲國號。爲後公府殺乾歸張本。

(At this time, the Qifu clan held portions of Liangzhou south of the Yellow River, and this was why Qifu Gangui’s title was "of Henan (south of the Yellow River)."

This was why Qifu Gongfu later killed Qifu Gangui.)


是歲,乞伏國仁死,弟乾歸立,私署河南王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (388), Qifu Guoren passed away. His younger brother Qifu Gangui succeeded him, and declared himself King of Henan.

四年六月,薨,偽諡曰烈王,廟號烈祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

In the fourth year of Jianyi (388), the sixth month, Qifu Guoren passed away. His posthumous name was Prince Lie, and his temple name was Liezu.

太元十三年,國仁死,在位四年,偽諡宣烈王,廟號烈祖。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

In the thirteenth year of Taiyuan (388), Qifu Guoren died. He was in the fourth year of his reign. His posthumous name was Prince Xuanlie, and his temple name was Liezu.

乞伏乾歸,國仁弟。雄武有度略。仁薨,羣寮以仁子公府幼稚,乃立乾歸為將軍、大單于、河南王。大赦,改四年為太初元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui was Qifu Guoren's younger brother. He was bold and valorous, and had great capacity for planning. When Qifu Guoren passed away, his subordinates felt that his son Qifu Gongfu was still too young to rule. So they acclaimed Qifu Gangui as General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Henan. Qifu Gangui declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title from the fourth year of Jianyi to the first year of Taichu.

國仁死,弟乾歸統事,自署大都督、大將軍、大單于、河南王,改年為太初,署百官。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

When Qifu Guoren passed away, his younger brother Qifu Gangui took control of his forces. He declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Henan. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Taichu, and he established the imperial offices.

乾歸,國仁弟也。雄武英傑,沈雅有度量。國仁之死也,其群臣咸以國仁子公府沖幼,宜立長君,乃推乾歸為大都督、大將軍、大單于、河南王,赦其境內,改元曰太初。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui was the younger brother of Qifu Guoren. He was bold and valorous, heroic and talented, profound and refined, and possessed great capacity. When Qifu Guoren passed away, his subordinates all felt that Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu was still too young to rule, and that they should support an adult as their ruler. So they acclaimed Qifu Gangui as Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Henan. Qifu Gangui declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Taichu.


魏王珪破庫莫奚於弱落水南,秋,七月,庫莫奚復襲魏營,珪又破之。庫莫奚者,本屬宇文部,與契丹同類而異種,其先皆爲燕王皝所破,徙居松漠之間。

15. Tuoba Gui routed the Kumo Xi people south of the Ruoluo River. In autumn, the seventh month, the Kumo Xi again surprise attacked the Wei camp, but Tuoba Gui routed them again.

These Kumo Xi people had originally been part of the Yuwen group, and they were of the same stock as the Khitans, though of a different origin. When their ancestors had been routed by Murong Huang, they had moved their residence to within Songmo.

《新唐書》曰:奚亦東胡種,爲匈奴所破,保烏丸山;漢曹操斬蹋頓,蓋其後也。弱落水卽饒樂水,在奚中。契丹國自西樓東去四十里,至眞珠寨,又東行,地勢漸高,西望松林鬱然,數十里,遂入平川。

(The New Book of Tang states, "The Xi were also an eastern Hu people. They were routed by the Xiongnu, and they sought refuge at Mount Wuwan. They were the descendants of the leader Tadun, whom Cao Cao killed.”

The Ruoluo River was the Raoyao River, which flowed through the Xi territory.

The country of the Khitans was forty li from east to west, reaching to the borders of the Zhenzhu border pass of the realm. As it advanced eastwards, the ground gradually became higher. The west was lush with pine trees, stretching for tens of lis, even into Pingzhou.)


三年春二月,帝東巡。夏四月,幸東赤城。五月癸亥,北征庫莫奚。六月,大破之,獲其四部雜畜十餘萬,渡弱落水。班賞將士各有差。秋七月庚申,庫莫部帥鳩集遺散,夜犯行宮。縱騎撲討,盡殺之。其月,帝還赤城。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the third month of Dengguo (388), in spring, the second month, Tuoba Gui went on an eastern patrol.

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui went east to Chicheng.

In the fifth month, on the day Guihai (June 24th), Tuoba Gui conducted a northern campaign against the Kumo Xi people. In the sixth month, he greatly routed them, capturing more than a hundred thousand of their people and various livestock. He then crossed the Ruoluo River, and he rewarded his generals and soldiers as appropriate.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Gengshen (August 20th), the Kumo people gathered together their scattered forces and launched a night attack against Tuoba Gui's field palace. But Tuoba Gui set loose his cavalry to fight back against them, and they killed them all.

The same month, Tuoba Gui returned to Chicheng.


秦、後秦自春相持,屢戰,互有勝負,至是各解歸。關西豪桀以後秦久無成功,多去而附秦。

16. Since the spring, Qin and Later Qin had been locked in stalemate. They had many battles, but both sides had their victories and defeats, and each side broke off and returned. Since Later Qin had not yet completed their conquest after all this time, many of the people of Guanxi began to go back over to Qin again.

相持累戰,互有勝負。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

Fu Deng and Yao Chang were locked in stalemate with constant fighting, and each of them had their share of victories and defeats.

初,關西雄傑以苻氏既終,萇雄略命世,天下之事可一旦而定。萇既與苻登相持積年,數為登所敗,遠近咸懷去就之計,唯征虜齊難、冠軍徐洛生、輔國劉郭單、冠威彌姐婆觸、龍驤趙惡地、鎮北梁國兒等守忠不貳,並留子弟守營,供繼軍糧,身將精卒,隨萇征伐。時諸營既多,故號萇軍為大營,大營之號自此始也。時天大雪,萇下書深自責罰,散後宮文綺珍寶以供戎事,身食一味,妻不重彩。將帥死王事者,加秩二等,士卒戰沒,皆有褒贈。立太學,禮先賢之後。敦煌索盧曜請刺苻登,萇曰:「卿以身徇難,將為誰乎?」曜曰:「臣死之後,深以友人隴西辛暹仰托。」萇遣之。事發,為登所殺,萇以暹為騎都尉。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

At first, the general sentiment among the heroes of Guanzhong was that the Fu clan was finished, and Yao Chang was a bold and cunning leader who had received the mandate, so the realm would quickly be settled under his command. However, by now, Yao Chang had been fighting against Fu Deng for several years, and he had even been defeated by Fu Deng several times. So people near and far now began to harbor their own plots and plans. Only a few of the original Yao loyalists remained devoted to Yao Chang and had no ulterior aims; these included his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Qi Nan, his Champion General, Xu Luosheng, his General Who Upholds The State, Liu Guodan, his General Who Ascends Might, Mijie Pochu, his Dragon-Soaring General, Zhao Wudi, and his General Who Guards The North, Liang Guo'er. They left their sons and younger brothers to defend their camps, continued to keep Yao Chang supplied with grain, personally led their best troops, and followed him on his campaigns. At this time, because there were many of these subordinate camps, the camp of Yao Chang's army was called the Main Camp, and it was from this time that the term Main Camp came into use.

At this time, there was a heavy snowfall. Yao Chang sent out an ordinance deeply blaming himself for this punishment, and he distributed all the fine cloth and treasures from his rear palace out among the soldiers. He also restricted himself to eating simple meals, and his wife wore no heavy adornments. Those generals and commanders who had devoted themselves to the royal cause were increased two ranks in salary, and officers and soldiers who had died in battle were all granted commendations and rewards.

Yao Chang established an Imperial Academy, to pass on the teachings of the past worthies to the next generation.

Suolu Yao of Dunhuang commandary offered to assassinate Fu Deng. Yao Chang said to him, "You would be giving up your own life. Whom shall I reward on your behalf?"

Suolu Yao replied, "After my death, I entrust my friend Xin Xian of Longxi commandary to your care."

So Yao Chang sent him on his mission. But the plot was discovered, and Suolu Yao was killed by Fu Deng. Yao Chang appointed Xin Xian as Chief Commandant of Cavalry.


河南王乾歸立其妻邊氏爲王后;置百官,倣漢制,以南川侯出連乞都爲丞相,梁州刺史悌眷爲御史大夫,金城邊芮爲左長史,東秦州刺史祕宜爲右長史,武始翟勍爲左司馬,略陽王松壽爲主簿,從弟軻彈爲梁州牧,弟益州爲秦州牧,屈眷爲河州牧。

17. Qifu Gangui honored his wife Lady Bian as Queen. He created the imperial offices, ruling in the Han style. He appointed his Marquis of Nanchuan, Chulian Qidu, as his Prime Minister. He appointed his Inspector of Lianzhou, Ti Juan, as his Imperial Secretary. He appointed Bian Rui of Jincheng as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and he appointed his Inspector of Eastern Qinzhou, Mi Yi, as his Chief Clerk of the Right. He appointed Zhai Qing of Wushi as his Marshal of the Left. He appointed his Prince of Lüeyang, Song Shou, as his Registrar. He appointed his cousin Qifu Kedan as Governor of Lianzhou, and he appointed his younger brothers Qifu Yizhou and Qifu Qujuan as Governors of Qinzhou and Hezhou.

出連亦以部落之號爲氏。乞伏氏置東秦州於南安。乞伏乾歸所置州牧,不過分居河、隴之間。

(出連 Chulian was also the name of a tribe that became a clan name.

The Qifu clan organized their province of Eastern Qinzhou around Nan'an.

In Qifu Gangui's creation of these provincial governors, he did no more than distribute them between the Yellow River and the Long mountains.)


立邊氏為后,以南川侯出連乞都為丞相。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui honored Lady Bian as his Queen, and he appointed the Marquis of Nanchuan, Chulian Qidu, as Prime Minister.

乾歸立其妻邊氏為王后,以出連乞都為丞相,鎮南將軍、南梁州刺史悌眷為御史大夫,自余封拜各有差。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui honored his wife Lady Bian as Queen. He appointed Chulian Qidu as his Prime Minister. He appointed his General Who Guards The South and Inspector of Southern Lianzhou, Ti Juan, as his Imperial Secretary. Others were also granted suitable appointments.


八月,秦主登立子崇爲皇太子,弁爲南安王,尚爲北海王。

18. In the eighth month, Fu Deng appointed his son Fu Chong as Crown Prince, his son Fu Bian as Prince of Nan'an, and his son Fu Shang as Prince of Beihai.

燕護軍將軍平幼會章武王宙討吳深,破之,深走保繹幕。

19. Yan's General Who Protects The Army, Ping You, joined together with Murong Zhou to campaign against Wu Shen. They routed Wu Shen, who fled to guard Yimu.

繹幕縣,自漢以來屬清河郡。

(Since Han, Yimu county had been part of Qinghe commandary.)


魏王珪陰有圖燕之志,遣九原公儀奉使至中山,燕主垂詰之曰:「魏王何以不自來?」儀曰:「先王與燕並事晉室,世爲兄弟,臣今奉使,於理未失。」垂曰:「吾今威加四海,豈得以昔日爲比!」儀曰:「燕若不脩德禮,欲以兵威自強,此乃將帥之事,非使臣所知也。」儀還,言於珪曰:「燕主衰老,太子闇弱,范陽王自負材氣,非少主臣也。燕主旣沒,內難必作,於時乃可圖也。今則未可。」珪善之。儀,珪母弟翰之子也。

20. Tuoba Gui secretly had ambitions of conquering Yan. He sent his Duke of Jiuyuan, Tuoba Yi, as an envoy to Zhongshan. Murong Chui asked Tuoba Yi, "Why did the Prince of Wei not come himself?"

Tuoba Yi replied, "Our past rulers served the Jin royal family, just as yours did, and for ages we have been as brothers. It is not unreasonable for a minister like me to now come to you as an envoy."

Murong Chui said, "I have now grown mighty enough to surpass the Four Seas. What is the use in speaking of such olden days?"

Tuoba Yi replied, "If Yan does not cultivate virtue and ceremony, but wishes to grow stronger through the use of military might, then there will soon be a confrontation, and there was no use in my coming here."

When Tuoba Yi returned, he said to Tuoba Gui, "The lord of Yan is growing old and frail, and their crown prince is dull and weak. Furthermore, their Prince of Fanyang (Murong De) thinks very highly of his own talents, and he could never serve as a minister to the young master. Once the lord of Yan is no more, they will be sure to experience internal difficulties. That is when they will be ripe for conquest. But it is not yet that time."

Tuoba Gui was pleased.

This Tuoba Yi was Tuoba Gui's nephew by his younger brother of the same mother, Tuoba Han (or, he was Tuoba Gui's cousin by his paternal uncle, Tuoba Han).

魏與燕皆鮮卑種也。拓跋力微與慕容涉歸並事晉室。是時慕容德在燕宗室中固自有與人不同者。爲後魏攻燕張本。【嚴:「母弟」改「從父」。】

(Northern Wei and Later Yan were both of Xianbei origin. Their ancestors, Tuoba Liwei and Murong Shegui, had both served the Jin royal family.

At this time, Murong De considered himself without peer in the Later Yan royal family.

This was why Northern Wei later attacked Later Yan.

Some versions state that Tuoba Yi was "Tuoba Gui's cousin by his paternal uncle, Tuoba Han".)


八月,使九原公元儀使於慕容垂。冬十月,慕容垂遣使朝貢。十有二月辛卯,車駕西征,至女水,討解如部,大破之,獲男女雜畜十餘萬。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui sent his Duke of Jiuyuan, Tuoba Yi, as an envoy to visit Murong Chui.

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Chui sent envoys to Tuoba Gui bearing tribute.

In the twelfth month, on the day Xinmao (January 18th of 389), Tuoba Gui conducted a western campaign. He went as far as the Nü River, he campaigned against the Jieru people and routed them, capturing more than a hundred thousand men, women, and assorted livestock.

垂遣使朝貢。三年,太祖遣九原公儀使於垂,垂又遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute. In the third year of Dengguo (388), Tuoba Gui sent his Duke of Jiuyuan, Tuoba Yi, to return the visit. Murong Chui sent more envoys bearing tribute.


九月,河南王乾歸遷都金城。

21. In the ninth month, Qifu Gangui moved his capital to Jincheng.

九月,遷於金城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the ninth month, Qifu Gangui moved his capital to Jincheng.

登國中,遷於金城。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

During the Dengguo reign era (386-395), Qifu Gangui moved his capital to Jincheng.

乾歸遂遷于金城。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui moved his capital to Jincheng.


張申攻廣平,王祖攻樂陵;壬午,燕高陽王隆將兵討之。

22. Zhang Shen attacked Guangping, and Wang Zu attacked Leling. On the day Renwu (November 10th), Murong Long led his soldiers to campaign against them.

冬,十月,後秦主萇還安定;秦主登就食新平,帥衆萬餘圍萇營,四面大哭,萇命營中哭以應之,登乃退。

23. In winter, the tenth month, Yao Chang returned to Anding. Fu Deng then annexed Xinping, and led more than ten thousand soldiers to besiege Yao Chang's camp. But there was great wailing on all sides, and Yao Chang ordered those within his camp to add to the sound by wailing too, so Fu Deng retreated.

十二月,庚子,尚書令南康襄公謝石卒。

24. In the twelfth month, on the day Gengzi (January 27th of 389), Jin's Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xie Shi, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xiang (“the Beneficial”) of Nankang.

燕太原王楷、趙王麟將兵會高陽王隆於合口,以擊張申;王祖帥諸壘共救之,夜犯燕軍,燕人逆擊,走之。隆欲追之,楷、麟曰:「王祖老賊,或恐詐而設伏,不如俟明。」隆曰:「此白地羣盜,烏合而來,徼幸一決,非素有約束,能壹其進退也。今失利而去,衆莫爲用,乘勢追之,不過數里,可盡擒也。申之所恃,唯在於祖,祖破,則申降矣。」乃留楷、麟守申壘,隆與平幼分道擊之,比明,大獲而還,懸所獲之首以示申。甲寅,申出降,祖亦歸罪。

25. Murong Kai and Murong Lin led their soldiers to join with Murong Long at Hekou, where they attacked Zhang Shen. Wang Zu led the soldiers of his several ramparts to all come to save Zhang Shen. At night, they raided the Yan camp, but the Yan soldiers counter-attacked and drove them off.

Murong Long wished to pursue them. Murong Kai and Murong Lin said, "Wang Zu is an old bandit, and we fear he may be deceiving us in order to set an ambush. It would be better to wait and make sure of that."

But Murong Long replied, "They are no more than an unruly mob, a flock of birds that has all come at once, hoping to decide things in a single stroke. They have no established common bond that would compel them to both advance and retreat as one. Now that the battle has gone against them and they are on the run, the whole lot of them is beyond control. If we press our pursuit against them, we shall capture them all before having traveled more than a few li. Furthermore, Zhang Shen's only hope was in relying on Wang Zu to help him. Once Wang Zu is routed, then Zhang Shen shall have to surrender."

So he left Murong Kai and Murong Lin to contain Zhang Shen in his rampart, while he and Ping You attacked Wang Zu along different roads. By daylight, they had captured most of them and returned, and they displayed the heads of those they had captured to Zhang Shen. On the day Jiayin (February 10th of 389), Zhang Shen came out and surrendered, and Wang Zu also returned to admit to his crimes.

《水經》:衡漳水過勃海建成縣,又東,左會呼沱別河故瀆。又東北入清河,謂之合口。魏收《地形志》曰:浮陽縣西接漳水,衡水入焉,今謂之合口。

(The Water Classic states, "The Hengzheng River flows through Jiancheng county in Bohai commandary. It flows east, and on the left it meets with the Hutuo branch of the Yellow River at a crossing. It also flows northeast into Qinghe commandary, and this place is called Hekou." The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The Zhang River flows through the west of Fuyang county, where the Heng River flows into it. This place is now called Hekou.")


秦以潁川王同成爲太尉。

26. Qin appointed the Prince of Yingchuan, Fu Tongcheng, as Grand Commandant.

同成,秦主登之兄。

(This Fu Tongcheng was Fu Deng's elder brother.)
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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 07, 2018 10:01 pm

太元十四年(己丑、三八九)

The Fourteenth Year of Taiyuan (The Jichou Year, 389 AD)


春,正月,燕以陽平王柔鎭襄國。

1. In spring, the first month, Yan appointed Murong Rou to guard Xiangguo.

遼西王農在龍城五年,庶務脩舉,乃上表曰:「臣頃因征卽鎭,所統將士安逸積年,青、徐、荊、雍遺寇尚繁,願時代還,展竭微效,生無餘力,沒無遺恨,臣之志也!」庚申,燕主垂召農爲侍中、司隸校尉;以高陽王隆爲都督幽‧平二州諸軍事、征北大將軍、幽州牧;建留臺於龍城,以隆錄留臺尚書事。又以護軍將軍平幼爲征北長史,散騎常侍封孚爲司馬,並兼留臺尚書。隆因農舊規,脩而廣之,遼、碣遂安。

2. By now, Yan's Prince of Liaoxi, Murong Nong, had been at Longcheng for five years. Having put all affairs in order there, he submitted a petition stating, "Since I was ordered here to put down rebellions and guard the territory, my officers and soldiers have had several years of rest. Meanwhile, Qinzhou, Xuzhou, Jingzhou, and Yongzhou continue to be plagued by numerous invaders. I hope that someone may be dispatched here to take my place and allow me to return, so that I may fully exert what efforts I may offer. To live without wasted energy, and to die without regrets; that is what I desire!"

On the day Gengshen (February 16th), Murong Chui summoned Murong Nong and appointed him as Palace Attendant and Colonel-Director of Retainers. Murong Long was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Youzhou and Pingzhou, Grand General Who Conquers The North, and Governor of Youzhou. A Separate Administration terrace was set up at Longcheng, and Murong Long was placed in charge of the Masters of Writing for this separate administration. Ping You was also appointed as Murong Long's Chief Clerk in his capacity as Grand General Who Conquers The North, and the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Feng Fu, was appointed as his Marshal; both of them were made Masters of Writing in his administration. Murong Long sustained and expanded the systems that Murong Nong had earlier put in place, and so the regions of Liao and Jie were settled.

農誅餘巖,擊高句麗,因鎭龍城,見上卷十年。遼、碣,謂遼水、碣石。

(Murong Nong had been guarding Longcheng as a result of his assignments campaigning against the rebel Yu Yan and against Goguryeo, as mentioned in Book 106, in the tenth year of Taiyuan (385.65).

Liao and Jie meant the Liao River and Jieshi.)


建留台于龍城,以高陽王慕容隆錄留台尚書事。時慕容暐及諸宗室為苻堅所害者,並招魂葬之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui established a Separate Administration at Longcheng, and he appointed the Prince of Gaoyang, Murong Long, as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing for this separate administration.

At this time, Murong Chui summoned the spirits of Murong Wei and the other members of the Murong clan that had been killed by Fu Jian, and he buried them.


後秦主萇以秦戰屢勝,謂得秦王堅之神助,亦於軍中立堅像而禱之曰:「臣兄襄敕臣復讎,新平之禍,臣行襄之命,非臣罪也。苻登,陛下疏屬,猶欲復讎,況臣敢忘其兄乎!且陛下命臣以龍驤建業,臣敢違之!今爲陛下立像,陛下勿追計臣過也。」秦主登升樓,遙謂萇曰:「爲臣弒君,而立像求福,庸有益乎!」因大呼曰:「弒君賊姚萇何不自出!吾與汝決之!」萇不應。久之,以戰未有利,軍中每夜數驚,乃斬像首以送秦。

3. Yao Chang had been defeated several times by the Qin army. He claimed that this was because they had received the aid of Fu Jian's spirit, so he too set up a statue of Fu Jian in the midst of his own camp. He prayed to the statue, saying, "It was my elder brother Yao Xiang who compelled me to seek revenge. It was by his command that the misfortune at Xinping came to pass; I myself am blameless. Fu Deng is only Your Majesty's distant relative, yet he still seeks to have revenge for you. Could I have done any less for the sake of my own elder brother? Furthermore, it was none other than Your Majesty who encouraged me to establish myself by appointing me as Dragon-Soaring General, and I dare not disobey such a mandate! Thus have I set up this statue of Your Majesty here. I pray that Your Majesty shall keep no further account of my transgressions."

Fu Deng ascended a platform, from where he called out to Yao Chang from afar, "You were a servant who murdered his lord, yet now you make a statue of him and beg it for a blessing. How could you gain any benefit from that?" And in a great cry he shouted, "Why will Yao Chang, the rebel who murdered his lord, not come out and face me? Let me settle this with you!"

But Yao Chang did not comply.

Later on, since he did not gain any further advantage in battle, and there were several disturbances every night in his camp, Yao Chang cut the head off the statue of Fu Jian and sent it to Qin.

穆帝升平元年,姚襄爲秦所殺。見上卷十年。見一百五卷八年。

(Yao Xiang's defeat and execution by Former Qin is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (357.5).

Fu Jian's murder at Xinping is mentioned in Book 106, in the tenth year of Taiyuan (385.44).

Fu Jian had appointed Yao Chang as Dragon-Soaring General in Book 105, in the eighth year of Taiyuan (383.5).)


萇以登戰勝,謂堅神將所助,亦于軍中立堅神主,謂曰:「往年新平之禍,非萇之罪。陛下假臣龍驤,曰:『朕以龍驤建業,卿其勉之!』明詔昭然,言猶在耳。豈假手苻登而圖臣,忘前征時言耶今為陛下立神像,可歸休於此,勿計臣過,聽臣至誠。」四年正月,登升樓謂萇曰:「自古安有殺君及立神像。」大呼曰:「殺君賊姚萇,出來與汝決之,何為枉害無辜?」萇憚而不應。萇自立堅神像,戰未有利,軍每夜驚,乃斬像首送登。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

Yao Chang had been defeated several times by Fu Deng. He claimed that this was because Fu Deng had received the aid of Fu Jian's spirit, so he too set up a statue of Fu Jian in the midst of his own camp. He said to the statue, "I am not the one responsible for the misfortune at Xinping several years ago. And when Your Majesty appointed me as Dragon-Soaring General, you told me, 'I established myself when I was Dragon-Soaring General, so you too must exert your efforts!' This was your clearly expressed mandate, and I am only fulfilling it. Why then does Your Majesty lend your aid to Fu Deng and conspire against me? Have you forgotten the words you said before your last campaign? Thus have I set up this statue of Your Majesty here. I pray that Your Majesty shall take your rest here and keep no further account of my transgressions. Heed my sincerity."

In the fourth year of Taichu (389), the first month, Fu Deng ascended a platform, from where he called out to Yao Chang from afar, "Since ancient times, when has there ever been someone who murdered his lord and then raised a statue in his honor?" And in a great cry he shouted, "Let Yao Chang, the rebel who murdered his lord, come out and face me so we can settle this! How can you be innocent of evil injustice?"

But Yao Chang, afraid, did not comply.

Even after setting up this statue of Fu Jian, Yao Chang did not gain any further advantage in battle, and there were several disturbances every night in his camp. So Yao Chang cut the head off the statue of Fu Jian and sent it to Fu Deng.

登每圍萇營,四面大哭,哀聲動人,大呼曰:「殺君賊姚萇,出來!吾與爾決。何為枉害無辜!」萇憚而不應。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Deng)

Whenever Fu Deng surrounded Yao Chang's champ, his soldiers would wail on all sides, so that the sound of it shook the camp. And Fu Deng would yell, "Let Yao Chang, the rebel who murdered his lord, come out! I will settle things with him. How can you be innocent of evil injustice?"

But Yao Chang, afraid, would not comply.


秦主登以河南王乾歸爲大將軍、大單于、金城王。

4. Fu Deng appointed Qifu Gangui as Qin's Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Jincheng.

二年正月,苻登遣使拜為大將軍、金城王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the second year of Taichu (389), the first month, Fu Deng sent envoys to appoint Qifu Gangui as Former Qin's Grand General and Prince of Jincheng.

太元十四年,苻登遣使署乾歸大將軍、大單于、金城王。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the fourteenth year of Taiyuan (389), Fu Deng sent envoys appointing Qifu Gangui as Former Qin's Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Jincheng.


甲寅,魏王珪襲高車,破之。

5. On the day Jiayin (?), Tuoba Gui raided the Gaoche people and routed them.

四年春正月甲寅,襲高車諸部落,大破之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fourth year of Dengguo (389), in spring, the first month, on the day Jiayin (?), Tuoba Gui raided the various tribes of the Gaoche people and greatly routed them.


二月,呂光自稱三河王,大赦,改元麟嘉,置百官。光妻石氏、子紹、弟德世自仇池來至姑臧,光立石氏爲妃,紹爲世子。

6. In the second month, Lü Guang proclaimed himself King of the Three He's. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed his reign era title to Linjia. He further established the imperial offices.

At this time, Lü Guang's wife Lady Shi, his son Lü Shao, and his younger brother Lü Deshi came from Chouchi to Guzang. Lü Guang honored Lady Shi as Concubine, and he named Lü Shao as his heir.

呂光,字世明。光時有涼州、河西之地,未能兼有三河也。長安之亂,呂光之家奔仇池依楊氏。

(Lü Guang's style name was Shiming.

At this time, Lü Guang possessed the territory of Liangzhou and Hexi, but he could not yet lay claim to the region of the Three He's (Hedong, Henan, and Henei).

During the chaos around Chang'an (from Western Yan's attack), Lü Guang's family had fled to Chouchi to seek refuge with the Yang clan.))


是歲,氐呂光自稱三河王,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (389), the Di leader Lü Guang proclaimed himself King of the Three He's. He sent envoys to Tuoba Gui bearing tribute.

三年八月,甘露降逍遙園,白燕翔於酒泉,衆燕成列而從之。麟嘉元年正月,麟見金澤縣,百獸從之。於是羣寮奉表請崇進名號。二月,僭卽王位于南郊,大赦改元,置官司、丞郎以下猶攝州縣事。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the third year of Tai'an (388), sweet dew fell at Xiaoyao Park, and white sparrows circled in the air at Jiuquan, making a full formation before flying off.

In the first year of Linjia (389), the first month, a lin (unicorn) was seen in Jinze county, and all the beasts followed behind it. Because of that, Lü Guang's officials presented a petition asking that he honor the appearance of the lin by advancing his own title.

In the second month, Lü Guang declared himself King in the southern suburbs; he declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Linjia. He established the offices from Director and Assistant-Gentleman on down, still merely attending to provincial affairs.

四年,光私稱三河王,遣使朝貢。置官自丞郎已下,猶攝州事。號麟嘉元年。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the fourth year of Dengguo (389), Lü Guang proclaimed himself King of the Three He's. He sent tribute to the Northern Wei court. He established imperial offices from Assistant-Gentleman on down, but he still oversaw provincial affairs. He changed his reign era title to the first year of Linjia.

是時麟見金澤縣,百獸從之,光以為已瑞,以孝武太元十四年僭即三河王位,置百官自丞郎已下,赦其境內,年號麟嘉。光妻石氏、子紹、弟德世至自仇池,光迎於城東,大饗群臣。遣其子左將軍他、武賁中郎將纂討北虜匹勤於三岩山,大破之。立妻石氏為王妃,子紹為世子。宴其群臣于內苑新堂。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

At this time, a lin (unicorn) was spotted at Jinze county, with all the animals following it. Lü Guang believed that this was a good omen for him. So in Emperor Xiaowu's fourteenth year of Taiyuan (389), he declared himself Prince of the Three He's. He established the imperial offices from Assistant-Gentleman on down. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Linjia.

Lü Guang's wife Lady Shi, his son Lü Shao, and his younger brother Lü Deshi came from Chouchi. Lü Guang welcomed them east of the city, where he held a great feast for his ministers.

Lü Guang sent his General of the Left, his son Lü Ta, and his General of the Household Gentlemen Rapid as Tigers, his son Lü Zuan, to campaign against the northern rebel Pi Qin at Mount Sanyan, and they greatly routed him.

Lü Guang honored Lady Shi as his Princess Concubine, and he appointed Lü Shao as his heir. He held a feast for his ministers in the Yuanxin Hall.


癸巳,魏王珪擊吐突鄰部於女水,大破之,盡徙其部落而還。

7. On the day Guisi (March 21st), Tuoba Gui attacked the Tutulin people at the Nü River. He greatly routed the Tutulin, and relocated all of their tribes before returning.

女水在弱落水西,去平城三千餘里,後魏顯祖改曰武川。

(The Nü River was west of the Ruoluo River, more than three thousand li from Pingcheng. Emperor Xianzu (Xianwen) of Northern Wei renamed it to Wuchuan.)


四年春正月甲寅,襲高車諸部落,大破之。二月癸巳,至女水,討叱突隣部,大破之。戊戌,賀染干兄弟率諸部來救,與大軍相遇,逆擊走之。夏四月,行還赤城。五月,陳留公元虔使於慕容垂。冬十月,垂遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fourth year of Dengguo (389), in spring, the first month, on the day Jiayin (?), Tuoba Gui raided the various tribes of the Gaoche people and greatly routed them. In the second month, on the day Guisi (March 21st), Tuoba Gui attacked the forces of the Chitulin people at the Nü River and greatly routed them. On the day Wuxu (March 26th), He Rangan's brothers led their forces to come assist the Chitulin. They encountered Tuoba Gui's main army, which counter-attacked them and drove them off.

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui returned to Chicheng.

In the fifth month, the Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, went as an envoy to visit Murong Chui.

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Chui once again sent envoys to Tuoba Gui bearing tribute.


秦主登留輜重於大界,自將輕騎萬餘攻安定羌密造保,克之。

8. Fu Deng made a base for his supply train at Dajie. He then led more than ten thousand light cavalry to attack the Qiang leader Mizao Bao of Anding, and defeated him.

大界,當在安定、新平之間。「保」,當作「堡」。

(Dajie was between Anding and Xinping.

The Bao in Mizao Bao's name, here written 保, should be 堡.)


夏,四月,翟遼寇滎陽,執太守張卓。

9. In summer, the fourth month, Zhai Liao attacked Xingyang, and captured Jin's Administrator there, Zhang Zhuo.

燕以長樂公盛鎭薊城,脩繕舊宮。

10. Yan charged Murong Sheng with guarding Ji, where he restored and repaired the old palaces.

燕主儁初自龍城徙都薊,有舊宮在焉。

(Murong Jun had originally relocated the Former Yan capital from Longcheng to Ji, and this was why there were "old" palaces there.)


五月,清河民孔金斬吳深,送首中山。

11. In the fifth month, a native of Qinghe commandary, Jin Zhan, beheaded Wu Shen and sent his head to Zhongshan.

吳深反,事始上卷十一年。

(The outbreak of Wu Shen's rebellion is mentioned in Book 106, in the eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.46, 57).)


金城王乾歸擊侯年部,大破之。於是秦、涼、鮮卑、羌、胡多附乾歸,乾歸悉授以官爵。

12. Qifu Gangui attacked Hounian's forces and greatly routed them.

At this time, many of the people from the regions of Qinzhou and Liangzhou, as well as the Xianbei, Qiang, and other tribes, began to come over to Qifu Gangui, and he granted all of them ranks and titles.

南羌獨如率眾七千降之。休官阿敦、侯年二部各擁五千餘落,據牽屯山,為其邊害。乾歸討破之,悉降其眾,於是聲振邊服。吐谷渾大人視連遣使貢方物。鮮卑豆留奇、叱豆渾及南丘鹿結並休官曷呼奴、盧水尉地跋並率眾降於乾歸,皆署其官爵。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The Southern Qiang leader Duru led a host of seven thousand to surrender to Qifu Gangui. The Xiuguan leaders Adun and Hounian each gathered together more than five thousand tribes and seized control of Mount Qiantun, where they posed a border threat to Qifu Gangui. He campaigned against them and routed them, and all their people surrendered to him, causing Qifu Gangui's might to be felt on every side. The leader of the Tuyuhun, Murong Shilian, sent envoys offering tribute to him. The Xianbei leaders Douliuqi, Chidouhun, and Nanqiulujie, the Xiuguan leader Hehunu, and the Commandant of Lushui, Diba, all led their hosts to surrender to Qifu Gangui, and he created offices and titles for all of them.


後秦主萇與秦主登戰數敗,乃遣中軍將軍姚崇襲大界;登邀擊之於安丘,又敗之。

13. Yao Chang was defeated several times by Fu Deng. So he sent his General of the Central Army, Yao Chong, to surprise attack Dajie. But Fu Deng intercepted Yao Chong at Anqiu, and defeated him again.

魏收《地形志》:安定陰盤縣有安城。

(The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Ancheng was in Yinpan county in Anding commandary.")


燕范陽王德、趙王麟擊賀訥,追奔至勿根山,訥窮迫請降,徙之上谷,質其弟梁干於中山。

14. Murong De and Murong Lin attacked He Ne, and pursued him as far as Mount Wugen. Feeling weak and threatened, He Ne asked to surrender. He was relocated to Shanggu, and his younger brother He Lianggan was sent to Zhongshan as a hostage.

秋,七月,以驃騎長史王忱爲荊州刺史、都督荊‧益‧寧三州諸軍。忱,國寶之弟也。

15. In autumn, the seventh month, Jin's Chief Clerk to the General of Agile Cavalry, Wang Shen, was appointed as Inspector of Jingzhou and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Yizhou, and Ningzhou. This Wang Shen was the younger brother of Wang Guobao.

忱,是壬翻。

(Wang Shen’s given name 忱 is pronounced "shen (sh-en)".)


Wang Guobao was mentioned in Book 105, 383.22.

秦主登攻後秦右將軍吳忠等於平涼,克之。八月,登據苟頭原以逼安定。諸將勸後秦主萇決戰,萇曰:「與窮寇競勝,兵家之忌也;吾將以計取之。」乃留尚書令姚旻守安定,夜,帥騎三萬襲秦輜重于大界,克之,殺毛后及南安王尚,擒名將數十人,驅掠男女五萬餘口而還。毛氏美而勇,善騎射。後秦兵入其營,毛氏猶彎弓跨馬,帥壯士數百人戰,衆寡不敵,爲後秦所執。萇將納之,毛氏罵且哭曰:「姚萇,汝先已殺天子,今又欲辱皇后,皇天后土,寧汝容乎!」萇殺之。諸將欲因秦軍駭亂擊之,萇曰:「登衆雖亂,怒氣猶盛,未可輕也。」遂止。登收餘衆屯胡空堡。萇使姚碩德鎭安定,徙安定千餘家于陰密,遣其弟征南將軍靖鎭之。

16. Fu Deng attacked Later Qin's General of the Right, Wu Zhong, and others at Pingliang and defeated them. In the eighth month, Fu Deng occupied Goutou Plains to threaten Anding. Yao Chang's generals all urged him to fight a decisive battle, but Yao Chang told them, "When weak invaders achieve success over strong enemies, it is because their soldiers fear for their families. I shall use this to plan how to capture them."

So he left Yao Min to guard Anding, while he himself led thirty thousand cavalry to launch a night attack against Fu Deng's supply camp at Dajie. They took the camp, and killed Empress Mao and the Prince of Nan'an, Fu Shang (or, the Prince of Nan'an, Fu Bian, and the Prince of Beihai, Fu Shang).They captured dozens of Fu Deng's esteemed commanders, and rounded up more than fifty thousand men and women and drove them back to their base.

Lady Mao was a woman both beautiful and brave, and she was adept at riding and archery. When the Later Qin soldiers entered her camp, she took up her bow and arrows and mounted her horse, leading a group of several hundred braves to fight back, and they killed more than seven hundred men. Only when their numbers dwindled and they could no longer put up a resistance did the Later Qin soldiers capture them. Yao Chang was about to take her as his woman, but Lady Mao castigated him, weeping as she said, "Yao Chang, first you murdered the Son of Heaven, and now you want to besmirch an Empress. How can the Yellow Heaven and the spirits of Earth put up with you?" So Yao Chang killed her.

Yao Chang's generals now wished to attack the Qin army because of the shock and alarm this situation had put them in, but Yao Chang told them, "Although Fu Deng's men are now in turmoil, they are still emboldened by their great rage. We cannot take them lightly." So he ended the attack.

Fu Deng collected his remaining men and withdrew to camp at Hu Kong's fortress. Yao Chang sent Yao Shuode to guard Anding, while he relocated more than a thousand families from Anding to Yinmi, and he sent his General Who Conquers The South, his younger brother Yao Jing, to guard it.

重戰輕防,此苻登所以敗也。【章:十二行本「王」下有「弁、北海王」四字;乙十一行本擠刻字數同;孔本同;張校同。】尚,秦主登之子也。【章:十二行本「人」作「力」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】【章:十二行本「衆」上有「殺七百餘人」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】謂殺秦王堅也。兵勝者驕,兵怒者奮,以奮乘驕,則先敗而後勝者多矣。姚萇見兵勢,所以收衆而止。

(Fu Deng suffered this defeat because he had brought the bulk of his forces to battle while leaving his supply base lightly defended.

Some versions say that Fu Deng's Prince of Nan'an was Fu Bian, and Fu Shang was his Prince of Beihai.

Fu Shang was Fu Deng's son.

Some versions write that Lady Mao led several hundred 力 instead of braves, and some versions write that they killed more than seven hundred men.

By the Son of Heaven, Lady Mao means when Yao Chang killed Fu Jian.

Victorious soldiers become proud, and furious soldiers become determined. Determination can overcome pride. There are many instances of soldiers who were initially defeated, but who ultimately achieved victory. Yao Chang understood the potential of soldiers, and this was why he gathered up his men and ended his attack.)


苻登妻毛氏,不知何許人,壯勇善騎射。登為姚萇所襲,營壘既陷,毛氏猶彎弓跨馬,率壯士數百人,與萇交戰,殺傷甚眾。眾寡不敵,為萇所執。萇欲納之,毛氏罵曰:「吾天子後,豈為賊羌所辱,何不速殺我!」因仰天大哭曰:「姚萇無道,前害天子,今辱皇后,皇天后土,寧不鑒照!」萇怒,殺之。(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Lady Mao)

Fu Deng's wife was Lady Mao; she was of unknown place of origin. She was a strong and brave woman, skilled at riding and with the bow.

When Fu Deng was surprise attacked by Yao Chang, and his camp and ramparts were thus in peril, Lady Mao bent her bow and leapt onto her horse, and at the head of several hundred strong fellows, she fought against Yao Chang, killing or wounding a great many. Only when their numbers dwindled and they could no longer put up a resistance were they captured by Yao Chang.

Yao Chang was going to claim Lady Mao for himself, but she upbraided him, saying, "How could I let the Son of Heaven's (Fu Deng's) Empress be disgraced by a Qiang bandit? Why not kill me and be done with it?" And she lifted her head to Heaven and bemoaned, "Yao Chang is without principles! He slew the Son of Heaven (Fu Jian) before, and now he means to disgrace the Empress! O Yellow Heavens and spirits of Earth, will you not reflect these things?"

Yao Chang was furious, and he killed her.

登進攻安定,萇襲其輜重,獲登妻毛氏,將妻之,毛氏哭罵,萇殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Deng)

Fu Deng advanced to attack Anding. But Yao Chang launched a surprise attack against his supply camp, and captured Fu Deng's wife Lady Mao. Yao Chang was about to claim her as his own, but she wept and scolded him, so he killed her.

登進逼安定,諸將勸萇決戰,萇曰:「與窮寇競勝,兵家之下。吾將以計取之。」於是留其尚書令姚旻守安定,夜襲登輜重於大界,克之。諸將或欲因登駭亂擊之,萇曰:「登眾雖亂,怒氣猶盛,未可輕也。」遂止。萇以安定地狹,且逼苻登,使姚碩德鎮安定,徙安定千餘家安于陰密,遣弟征南靖鎮之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Deng advanced to threaten Anding. Yao Chang's generals all urged him to fight a decisive battle, but Yao Chang told them, "When weak invaders achieve success over strong enemies, it is because their soldiers fear for their families. I shall use this to plan how to capture them."

So he left his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yao Min, to guard Anding, while he himself launched a night attack against Fu Deng's supply camp at Dajie, capturing it. Then some of Yao Chang's generals wished to take advantage of the shock and confusion to attack Fu Deng's army as well, but Yao Chang told them, "Although Fu Deng's men are now in turmoil, they are still emboldened by their great rage. We cannot take them lightly." So he ended the attack.

Yao Chang felt that Anding's territory was too narrow, and it was already under threat from Fu Deng. So he sent Yao Shuode to guard Anding, while he relocated more than a thousand families from Anding to Yinmi, and he sent his General Who Conquers The South, his younger brother Yao Jing, to guard it.


九月,庚午,以左僕射陸納爲尚書令。

17. In the ninth month, on the day Gengwu (October 24th), Jin appointed the Deputy Director of the Left, Lu Na, as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

秦主登之東也,後秦主萇使姚碩德置秦州守宰,以從弟常戍隴城,邢奴戍冀城,姚詳戍略陽。楊定攻隴、冀,克之,斬常,執邢奴;詳棄略陽,奔陰密。定自稱秦州牧、隴西王;秦因其所稱而授之。

18. Since Fu Deng had withdrawn to the east, Yao Chang sent Yao Shuode to form local administrative divisions in Qinzhou. He sent his cousin Yao Cháng to camp at Longcheng, Xing Nu to camp at Jicheng, and Yao Xiáng to camp at Lüeyang. But then Yang Ding attacked Longcheng and Jicheng and took them. He beheaded Yao Cháng and captured Xing Nu. Yao Xiáng abandoned Lüeyang and fled to Yinmi.

Yang Ding declared himself Governor of Qinzhou and Prince of Longxi. Qin confirmed these appointments and assisted him.

隴城縣,漢屬天水郡,晉省。此時當屬略陽郡。

(During Han, Longcheng county had been part of Tianshui commandary. Jin had abolished it. At this time, it was part of Lüeyang commandary.)


冬,十月,秦主登以竇衝爲大司馬、都督隴東諸軍事、雍州牧,楊定爲左丞相、都督中外諸軍事、秦‧梁二州牧,約共攻後秦;又約監河西諸軍事‧幷州刺史楊政、都督河東諸軍事‧冀州刺史楊楷各帥其衆會長安。政、楷皆河東人。秦主丕旣敗,政、楷收集流民數萬戶,政據河西,楷據湖、陝之間,遣使請命於秦,登因而授之。

19. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Deng appointed Dou Chong as Grand Marshal, Commander of military affairs in Longdong, and Governor of Yongzhou. Yang Ding was appointed as Prime Minister of the Left, Commander of all military affairs, and Governor of Qinzhou and Lianzhou, and Yang Bi was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Longyou and Governor of Southern Qinzhou and Yizhou. They made arrangements to attack Later Qin together. They also arranged for each of them to lead their forces for a meeting at Chang'an, along with the Chief of military affairs west of the Yellow River and Inspector of Bingzhou, Yang Zheng, and the Commander of military affairs east of the Yellow River and Inspector of Jizhou, Yang Kai.

Yang Zheng and Yang Kai were both natives of Hedong commandary. After Fu Pi's defeat, Yang Zheng and Yang Kai had gathered together hosts of several tens of thousands of refugee families. Yang Zheng had occupied the region west of the Yellow River, while Yang Kai had occupied the regions between the lakes and passes. They sent envoys asking Fu Deng for his instructions, and Fu Deng accepted their assistance.

【章:十二行本「牧」下有「楊壁爲都督隴右諸軍事南秦益二州牧」十六字;孔本同;張校同。按乙十一行本亦脫。】大界旣陷,苻登之兵勢衰矣,故約竇衝等共攻後秦。

(Some versions include the sentence "Yang Bi was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Longyou and Governor of Southern Qinzhou and Yizhou".

Following the loss of Dajie, Fu Deng's personal army's strength had been weakened, and this was why he made arrangements with Dou Chong and the others in order to jointly fight Later Qin.)


燕樂浪悼王溫爲冀州刺史,翟遼遣丁零故堤詐降於溫帳,乙酉,刺溫,殺之,幷其長史司馬驅,帥守兵二百戶奔西燕。燕遼西王農邀擊刺溫者於襄國,盡獲之,惟堤走免。

20. Yan appointed Murong Wen as Inspector of Jizhou. Zhai Liao sent the Dingling leader Gu Di to falsely surrender to Murong Wen in his tent. On the day Yiyou (November 8th), Gu Di struck Murong Wen and killed him, along with his Chief Clerk, Sima Qu. Gu Di then led two hundred guard households to flee towards Western Yan. Murong Long proclaimed at Xiangguo that he would hunt down Murong Wen's killers, and he captured all of them. Only Gu Di escaped. Murong Wen was posthumously known as Prince Dao (“the Grieved”).

燕冀州刺史治信都。何承天《姓苑》有故姓。帳,謂帳下。【章:十二行本正作「帳下」,「帳」上有「爲溫」二字;乙十一行本擠刻均同;孔本同;張校同。】

(Later Yan's Inspector of Jizhou administered that territory from Xindu.

He Chengtian's Garden of Surnames mentions the surname 故 Gu.

Some versions add that Gu Di meet with Murong Wen "beneath his tent".)


十一月,枹罕彭奚念附於乞伏乾歸,以奚念爲北河州刺史。

21. In the eleventh month, Peng Xinian of Fuhan aligned himself with Qifu Gangui, who appointed him as Inspector of Northern Hezhou.

枹罕舊爲河州治所。乞伏氏先於境內置河州,以屈眷爲牧,故以枹罕爲北河州,以奚念爲刺史。

(Fuhan had long been the administrative center of Hezhou. But since Qifu Gangui had already formed a province of Hezhou within his original territory, with Qu Juan as its Governor, he had to place Fuhan in a separate Northern Hezhou, in order to make Peng Xinian its Inspector.)


初,帝旣親政事,威權己出,有人主之量。已而溺於酒色,委事於琅邪王道子;道子亦嗜酒,日夕與帝以酣歌爲事。又崇尚浮屠,窮奢極費,所親暱者皆姏姆、僧尼。左右近習,爭弄權柄,交通請託,賄賂公行,官賞濫雜,刑獄謬亂。尚書令陸納望宮闕歎曰:「好家居,纖兒欲撞壞之邪!」左衞領營將軍會稽許營上疏曰:「今臺府局吏、直衞武官及僕隸婢兒取母之姓者,本無鄕邑品第,皆得爲郡守縣令,或帶職在內,及僧尼乳母,競進親黨,又受貨賂;輒臨官領衆,政敎不均,暴濫無罪,禁令不明,劫盜公行。昔年下書敕羣下盡規,而衆議兼集,無所採用。臣聞佛者,清遠玄虛之神,今僧尼往往依傍法服,五誡粗法尚不能遵,況精妙乎!而流惑之徒,競加敬事,又侵漁百姓,取財爲惠,亦未合布施之道也。」疏奏,不省。

22. At first, when Emperor Xiaowu had first assumed control of the government, he made his authority felt, and he had the stature of a ruler. But as time went on, he became addicted to wine and sensual pleasures, and he left affairs in the hands of the Prince of Langye, Sima Daozi. Sima Daozi was also fond of wine, and he and Emperor Xiaowu spent day and night indulging in wine and song.

Emperor Xiaowu also honored and exalted the Buddha, so he spent great sums of money on Buddhist causes, and his close attendants were all old nuns and Buddhist monks. Those around Emperor Xiaowu, becoming so familiar with him, squabbled with one another to grasp at power and colluded to seek favors. Bribes flowed freely, the ranks of officials became filled with those who had purchased their offices, and matters of justice and punishment were thrown into disorder and turmoil.

The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Lu Na, looked up at the palace and sighed, "It is a good house, but that insipid brat wants to bring it crashing down!"

The Guard General of the Left Directing The Barracks, Xu Ying of Kuaiji, sent up a petition stating, "The government officials of the administrative bureaus and the military officers of the guards barracks have been mating with the servant girls, and they have children by them who are given the surnames of their mothers. They have been appointed as Administrators of commandaries and Prefects of counties regardless of their home districts or their place in the rank system, and some of them have even still retained their original offices from the capital. Even Buddhist monks and wet nurses are contending with each other to advance their relatives and partisans, not to mention taking bribes. With such people administering affairs and supervising soldiers, governance and education are no longer in order, the violent and immoral are not charged with crimes, restrictions and ordinances are not enforced, and robbers and thieves openly roam the roads. Although in past years edicts have been issued ordering officials to act with full rectitude, the matter has been so quibbled with that nothing has been enforced.

"From what I have heard, the Buddha was an honest, lofty, sublime, and modest god. But the Buddhist monks of today merely emulate his laws and dress themselves in the clothes of his order; they cannot even adhere to the bare commands of the Five Precepts, much less approach refinement! They mislead their followers, chase after status for themselves, take from the common people, and claim money in the form of tithes, all without conducting themselves as befitting those who request alms."

The petition was accepted, but it was put aside.

〈太元元年,崇德太后歸政,帝始親政事。〉〈姏,老女稱。姆,女師也。〉〈纖者,小之至。言爲纖兒,謂不及小兒也。〉〈以左衞將軍領營兵,是爲左衞領營將軍。許營,一作「榮」。〉〈官婢私合而生子,不能審知其父,取母之姓爲姓。〉〈謂依傍佛法,服僧尼之服而不遵其敎也。〉〈佛有五戒,不淫,不盜,不殺,不妄語,不遭酒敗。〉

(In the first year of Taiyuan (376.1), Empress Dowager Chongde had ended her regency over the Jin court, and Emperor Xiaowu had personally assumed control of affairs.

Regarding the term 姏姆, 姏 is a title for an old woman, and a 姆 is a female instructor.

Lu Na more specifically refers to Emperor Xiaowu as 纖兒. The term 纖 means to be less than something. So to be 纖兒 means to be even less than a young child.

The Guard General of the Left was in charge of the barracks soldiers, so it was called the Guard General of the Left Directing The Barracks.

Xu 營 Ying's given name is also listed as 榮 Rong.

When these secret trysts between officials and servant girls got the women pregnant, the children were given the surnames of their mothers, in order to obscure the identities of their fathers.

Xu Ying was saying that these Buddhist monks were only emulating the laws of the Buddha and wearing the robes of his order, but without honoring his teachings.

The Five Precepts of the Buddha forbade licentiousness, stealing, killing, lying, or drinking to excess.)


道子勢傾內外,遠近奔湊;帝漸不平,然猶外加優崇。侍中王國寶以讒佞有寵於道子,扇動朝衆,諷八座啓道子宜進位丞相、楊州牧,假黃鉞,加殊禮。護軍將軍南平車胤曰:「此乃成王所以尊周公也。今主上當陽,非成王之比;相王在位,豈得爲周公乎!」乃稱疾不署。疏奏,帝大怒,而嘉胤有守。

23. Sima Daozi's influence was felt both in court and on the borders, and his power spread near and far. Emperor Xiaowu gradually became uneasy about the situation, but ostensibly still continued to honor and commend him.

The Palace Attendant, Wang Guobao, had won Sima Daozi's favor thanks to his slander and flattery, and he could also stir up the court and the crowd. He spread a rumor through the Eight Ministries that Sima Daozi should be promoted to Prime Minister, Governor of Yangzhou, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, and be shown exceptional honors.

The General Who Protects The Army, Che Yin of Nanping commandary, said to himself, "This was how King Cheng of Zhou honored the Duke of Zhou. But when our current sovereign 'acts as the sun', he does not compare with King Cheng. And considering the Prince's position, how could he act as the Duke of Zhou?" So he declined to sign the petition suggesting this, claiming illness.

When the petition was submitted, Emperor Xiaowu was furious, but he commended Che Yin's restraint.

〈晉氏渡江,有吏部、祠部、五兵、左民、度支五尚書,二僕射,一令,爲八坐。〉〈沈約曰:秦時有護軍都尉。漢陳平爲護軍中尉,盡護諸將。李廣爲驍騎將軍,屬護軍將軍。蓋護軍,護諸將軍。魏武以韓浩爲護軍。資重爲護軍將軍,資輕爲中護軍。〉〈人主南面鄕明而立以治天下,故曰當陽。〉〈不署名也。〉

(After the Jin dynasty crossed the Yangzi, they had the ministries of the Personnel Bureau, the Sacrifices bureau, the Five Regiments, the Overseers of the People, the Five Logistical Directors of the Masters of Writing, the two Deputy Directors, and the Prefect; these were the Eight Ministries.

Regarding the office of General Who Protects The Army, Shen Yue remarked, "During the Qin dynasty, there was the rank of Chief Commandant Who Protects The Army. The Han dynasty appointed Chen Ping as Central Commandant Who Protects The Army, and he protected all of the generals. When Li Guang was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry, he was subordinate to the General Who Protects The Army." So it must be that "Protects The Army" meant that this general protected all the generals. Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) appointed Han Huo as Army-Protector. The more serious office was General Who Protects The Army, and the less serious was Army-Protector of the Center.

When the sovereign faces south and provides his brilliance as he administers the realm, he is said to be 'acting as the sun'.)


中書侍郎范甯、徐邈爲帝所親信,數進忠言,補正闕失,指斥姦黨。王國寶,甯之甥也,甯尤疾其阿諛,勸帝黜之。陳郡袁悅之有寵於道子,國寶使悅之因尼妙音致書於太子母陳淑媛云:「國寶忠謹,宜見親信。」帝知之,發怒,以他事斬悅之。國寶大懼,與道子共譖范甯出爲豫章太守。甯臨發,上疏言:「今邊烽不舉而倉庫空匱;古者使民歲不過三日,今之勞擾,殆無三日之休,至有生兒不復舉養,鰥寡不敢嫁娶。厝火積薪,不足喻也。」甯又上言:「中原士民流寓江左,歲月漸久,人安其業。凡天下之人,原其先祖,皆隨世遷移,何至於今而獨不可。謂宜正其封疆,戶口皆以土斷。又,人性無涯,奢儉由勢;今幷兼之室,亦多不贍,非其財力不足,蓋由用之無節,爭以靡麗相高,無有限極故也。禮,十九爲長殤,以其未成人也。今以十六爲全丁,十三爲半丁,所任非復童幼之事,豈不傷天理、困百姓乎!謂宜以二十爲全丁,十六爲半丁,則人無夭折,生長繁滋矣。」帝多納用之。

24. The Gentlemen-Attendants of the Masters of Writing, Fan Ning and Xu Miao, were closely trusted by Emperor Xiaowu. They often stepped forward to offer loyal words of advice to him, to help rectify good behavior and correct his faults, as well as point out and denounce his perverse partisans.

Wang Guobao was Fan Ning's nephew, and Fan Ning especially hated his flattery, so he urged Emperor Xiaowu to dismiss him. Yuan Yuezhi of Chen commandary had Sima Daozi's favor, so Wang Guobao had Yuan Yuezhi get the Buddhist abbess Miaoyin to pass a letter to the mother of the Crown Prince, the Refined Lady Chen, stating, "Wang Guobao is loyal and circumspect; you ought to trust him and be close to him." When Emperor Xiaowu found out about this, he became angry, and he had Yuan Yuezhi beheaded on some other pretext. Wang Guobao was deeply afraid, and he and Sima Daozi slandered Fan Ning and had him sent away to serve as Administrator of Yuzhang.

When Fan Ning was about to set out for his post, he sent up a petition stating, "The beacon fires on the borders are not lit to signal any emergency, yet the government grain stores lie empty and bare; it is an ancient precept that the common people should not be disturbed from their lives for more than three days in a year, yet now they are so burdened and troubled by labor that they nearly do not even get three days of rest in a year. Things have gotten to the point where those with children cannot raise them, and widows and widowers do not dare to remarry. I fear for the fortunes of the state. We are kindling a fire beneath a pile of wood; need I say more?"

He also sent up another petition stating, "By now, it has many many years since the people of the Central Plains crossed the Yangzi and took up their residence here in the Southland, and they have become settled in their livelihoods. Thought the ancestors of everyone in the realm had their places of origin, their descendants have since moved and shifted their residences in accordance with the circumstances of the times; how can we now fail to recognize that fact? I say that we should rectify the registration of the people and record their household designations according to their actual places of residence.

“Furthermore, human desire is insatiable, and it is only restraint that determines their luxury or frugality. Yet now, there are many people who, even owning many residences, still feel that they do not possesses enough. It is not because their resources are insufficient for their living, but because they have no discipline; they strive for everything fine and fair, great and glorious, and they no know limits on their behavior.

“Traditionally, someone who has passed away at the age of eighteen has been described as dying ‘as a minor’, because they had not yet become an adult. Yet now, the court claims those who are merely fifteen years old as fully fit for conscription, and those who are twelve as half-fit. That is to burden them with duties not fit for such children; how could it not violate the natural order of things or cause suffering for the common people? I say that only those who are nineteen years old should be considered fully fit for such service, and those who are fifteen should be considered half-fit. That will prevent people from dying while still mere children, and allow the population to grow and spread."

Emperor Xiaowu accepted and followed many of these suggestions.

〈【章:十二行本「尼」下有「支」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈《記‧王制》:古者用民之力,歲不過三日,任老者之事,食壯者之食。〉〈【章:十二行本「娶」下有「臣恐社稷之憂」六字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈厝火積薪,賈誼之言。〉〈晉時中原士民南渡者,皆於江左僑立郡縣以居之,不以土著爲斷。〉〈未成人而死曰殤,其喪禮殺於成人。〉

(Some versions include the character 支 after the character 尼 before Miaoyin's name.

The Royal Regulations of the Book of Rites states, "Only three days' labour was required (by the state) from the people in the course of a year," and "In all his employment of them, the minister imposed (only) the tasks of old men (on the able-bodied), and gave (to the old) the food-allowance of the able-bodied."

Some versions include the sentence "I fear for the fortunes of the state" in Fan Ning's first petition.

"Kindling a fire beneath a pile of wood" was an expression used by the Former Han minister Jia Yi.

At this time, the Jin government had organized the people who had crossed south of the Yangzi by establishing surrogate versions of the commandaries and counties they had originally occupied in the north, and did not register them by their actual places of residence.

Someone who passes away before becoming an adult is said to have died "as a minor". Grief is displayed for their having been robbed of their adulthood.)


甯在豫章,遣十五議曹下屬城,採求風政;幷吏假還,訊問官長得失。徐邈與甯書曰:「足下聽斷明允,庶事無滯,則吏愼其負而人聽不惑矣,豈須邑至里詣,飾其游聲哉!非徒不足致益,寔乃蠶漁之所資;豈有善人君子而干非其事,多所告白者乎!自古以來,欲爲左右耳目,無非小人,皆先因小忠而成其大不忠,先藉小信而成其大不信,遂使讒諂並進,善惡倒置,可不戒哉!足下愼選綱紀,必得國士以攝諸曹,諸曹皆得良吏以掌文按,又擇公方之人以爲監司,則清濁能否,與事而明;足下但平心處之,何取於耳目哉!昔明德馬后未嘗顧左右與言,可謂遠識,況大丈夫而不能免此乎!」

25. When Fan Ning arrived at Yuzhang commandary, he sent out fifteen Consultants to the other counties to seek out and inquire about the local customs and policies. He also granted his officials leave to go home and inquire about their superiors' good and bad points.

Xu Miao wrote a letter to Fan Ning stating, "My friend, if you will be receptive, discerning, wise, and impartial, and conduct your affairs with alacrity, then your officials will act cautious so as to avoid any cause for offense, and the people will listen to you without being led astray. Why should you wait in your headquarters and await reports from your local agents, allowing them to adorn their empty reputations? These agents will do no more than drain resources away from the people. What good man or superior fellow does not tend to his duties, that you must have so many people providing reports on him?

“Ever since ancient times, never once have those who were recruited to serve as someone's eyes and ears not turned out to be miscreants. They will be a little loyal at first, but not fully loyal in the end; they will be a little trustworthy at first, but not really trustworthy in the end. For they will always seek to advance themselves by slander and flattery; good and evil will exchange places, and how will you be able to guard against it?

“My friend, if you will be careful in your selection of your administrators, you will certainly gain the good people of the region to serve as managers, and your managers will all obtain excellent officials to manage civil affairs. And if you choose just and honest people to oversee cases, then you will be able to discern between the pure and the corrupt, the capable and the inept. Then you could be secure in your position, and what need would you have for these eyes and ears? In former times, even Empress Mingde of Han, the Lady Ma, never once resorted to these sorts of agents, yet one could praise her foresight. How much less could a real man do without these sorts of people?"

〈豫章領南昌、海昏、新淦、建成、望蔡、永脩、建昌、吳平、豫章、彭澤、艾、康樂、豐城、新昌、宜豐、鍾陵十六縣。一縣負郭,餘十五縣各遣一議曹。〉〈假還,謂吏休假日滿而還府者。〉〈負,謂罪也。吏畏罪,則每事加謹。〉〈人聽,卽民聽。《晉書》史臣避唐太宗諱,改民爲「人」,《通鑑》因之。〉〈蠶漁,謂所遣者蠶食漁取於民。鄭玄曰:趙、魏之東,寔、實同聲。寔,是也。《詩》:「實墉實壑,實畝實籍。」「實」當作「寔」。言韓侯之先祖微弱,所受之國多滅絕。今復舊職,繼絕世,故築治是城,修是壑井,牧是田畝,收斂是賦稅,使如故常。孔穎達曰:凡言實者,已有其事而後實之。今此方說所爲不宜爲實,故轉爲寔,訓之爲是也。趙、魏之東,寔、實同聲,鄭以時事驗之也。《春秋》桓六年,「州公寔來。」是由聲同,故字有變異也。余按徐邈所謂寔訓之爲是,於義亦通。〉〈郡以僚佐爲綱紀。〉〈攝,總也,整也。按,據也。文按,謂諸曹文書留爲按據者。〉〈漢明帝后馬氏諡明德皇后。〉

(There were sixteen counties in Yuzhang commandary: Nanchang, Hauhun, Xingan, Jiancheng, Wangcai, Yongxiu, Jianchang, Wuping, Yuzhang, Pengze, Ai, Kangle, Fengcheng, Xinchang, Yifeng, and Zhongli. One of these counties was the headquarters, so Fan Ning sent one Consultant out to each of the other fifteen.

By being "granted leave", Fan Ning had his officials take a full day of rest before returning to their offices.

Where Xu Miao uses the term 負 "bear", he means in the sense of "bearing a crime"; that is, the officials would fear committing any offense, so they would be especially cautious in all their duties.

Xu Miao uses the term 人聽 "as the people hear". This term is more properly written as 民聽. But the material in this passage was taken from the Book of Jin, whose authors were writing during the Tang dynasty, and in order to observe the naming taboo on the given name of Tang's Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin), they changed the 民 to 人. The Zizhi Tongjian has copied this change.

The expression 蠶漁 "silkworms and fisheries" means that the agents would take the produce of the silkworms and the bounty of the fisheries away from the people.

Xu Miao uses the word 寔. Zheng Xuan remarked, "In the eastern parts of the regions of Zhao and Wei, the words 寔 and 實 have the same pronunciation. 寔 means 'is, to be'. The Hann Yi poem in the Book of Poetry has the verse 'realizing his walls, and realizing his moats, realizing his fields, and realizing his revenues'. The word 實 'realizing' ought to be written as 寔 'making so'. The idea behind this verse is that the ancestors of the Marquis of Hann were feeble and weak, and much of the fief that they had been granted had wasted away or been cut short. But now that the Marquis of Hann was taking up this old office, he was continuing the endeavor that had been cut short. So in this sense, by 'realizing', he was building up and repairing the walls, he was restoring his moats and wells, he was tending to his farming fields, and he was gathering and collecting his tax revenues; in all these cases, he was restoring these things to how they had once been." Kong Yingda remarked, "The term 'realizing' in this verse means that all of these things had once been the case, and they were now being restored to their original condition. Now in our time, this term 實 should no longer be used, and we have switched to 寔, instructing people that it means 'is, to be'. But in the eastern parts of the regions of Zhao and Wei, 寔 and 實 are pronounced the same, as Zheng Xuan experience in his time. We see in the sixth year of Duke Huan in the Zuo Commentary the phrase '寔 came to Lu'. So it was from this time that the pronunciations were the same, although the character changed to a different form." In my (Hu Sanxing's) view, Xu Miao used the word 寔 in the sense of instructing Fan Ning on what ought to be the case, so it has the same sense as 'justice, righteousness'.

The subordinates of a commandary's Administrator were called 綱紀.

攝 means "general, all"; 按 means "reliable". So Xu Miao was saying that the managers would find reliable people to entrust civil affairs to.

Lady Ma was the wife of Emperor Ming of Han; her posthumous name was Empress Mingde.)


十二月,後秦主萇使其東門將軍任瓫詐遣使招秦主登,許開門納之。登將從之,征東將軍雷惡地將兵在外,聞之,馳騎見登,曰:「姚萇多詐,不可信也!」登乃止。萇聞惡地詣登,謂諸將曰:「此羌見登,事不成矣!」登以惡地勇略過人,陰憚之。惡地懼,降於後秦,萇以惡地爲鎭軍將軍。

26. In the twelfth month, Yao Chang ordered his General of the East Gate, Ren Pen, to send false word to Fu Deng enticing him to come attack Anding, offering to open the gate of the city to let him in. Fu Deng was about to do so. But Fu Deng's General Who Conquers The East, Lei Wudi, had his troops out in the field. When he heard about this supposed defection, he rode hard to visit Fu Deng, warning him, "Yao Chang is very crafty and false; you cannot trust this report!"

So Fu Deng stopped. When Yao Chang heard that Lei Wudi had come to warn Fu Deng, he said to his generals, "It was all because this Qiang fellow saw Fu Deng that the plan fell through!"

Lei Wudi was a bold and calculating man, surpassing others. When Fu Deng considered this, he secretly feared him. Afraid of what might happen to him, Lei Wudi surrendered to Later Qin. Yao Chang appointed him as his General Who Guards The Army.

〈東門將軍,萇使守安定東門者也。〉

(Yao Chang had assigned this General of the East Gate to guard the East Gate of Anding.)


尹緯、姚晃謂古成詵曰:「苻登窮寇,歷年未滅,奸雄鴟峙,所在糾扇,夷夏皆貳,將若之何?」詵曰:「主上權略無方,信賞必罰,賢能之士,咸懷樂推,豈慮大業不成,氐賊不滅乎!」緯曰:「登窮寇未滅,奸雄所在扇合,吾等寧無懼乎?」詵曰:「三秦天府之國,主上十分已有其八。今所在可慮者,苻登、楊定、雷惡地耳,自餘瑣瑣,焉足論哉!然惡地地狹眾寡,不足為憂。苻登藉烏合犬羊,偷存假息,料其智勇,非至尊之匹。霸王之起,必有驅除,然後克定大業。昔漢、魏之興也,皆十有餘年,乃能一同於海內,五六年間未為久也。主上神略內明,英武外發,可謂無敵於天下耳,取登有餘力。願布德行仁,招賢納士,厲兵秣馬,以候天機。如其鴻業不成者,詵請腰斬以謝明公。」緯言之於萇,萇大悅,賜詵爵關內侯。雷惡地率眾降萇,拜為鎮東將軍。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yin Wei and Yao Huang said to Gucheng Shen, "Fu Deng is still running wild, and we have still not defeated him even after several years. Now there are these other opportunists waiting in the wings, ready to make their own bids for power. We are losing the faith of the tribes and the Xia people (ethnic Han). What are we to do?"

Gucheng Shen replied, "Our sovereign is peerless at strategy and planning, and he always rewards the meritous and punishes the guilty; the worthy and the capable are all pleased with him and acclaim his efforts. Why should you be concerned that the grand design will not be accomplished, or that the Di bandits will not be vanquished?"

Yin Wei said, "Do you really mean to suggest that we should not be worried about Fu Deng's constant invasions or these other foes lying in wait?"

Gucheng Shen replied, "The region of the Three Qins is the heavenly storehouse of the state, and our sovereign already controls four-fifths of it. The only enemies worth worrying about are Fu Deng, Yang Ding, and Lei Wudi; the others are so insignificant that they are not worth speaking of! And even among those three, Lei Wudi only occupies narrow territory and only has a handful of soldiers, so he is no real threat. Fu Deng's host is no more than a flock of birds or a herd of dogs and sheep that has to steal to survive and hardly ever rests, and Fu Deng himself is nowhere near as cunning or bold as our sovereign.

"It is always the case that, during the rise of a hegemon-king, he must first eliminate some threats, but afterwards he can attain peace and fulfill his ambition. Even the rise of the Han and Wei dynasties required more than ten years of fighting before they could unite all the land within the seas, while we have been fighting for no more than five or six years by now. Our sovereign has divine cunning and inner wisdom, heroic valor and distant foresight; you could say he has no equal in all the realm, so naturally he is more than good enough to deal with Fu Deng. We need only be sure to spread virtue and implement benevolence, recruit the worthy and accept gentlemen, drill the soldiers and fatten the horses, and await the proper heavensent opportunities. I tell you, if 'the ambitions of the swan' do not come to fruition, then may you cut me in half at the waist as an apology to our lord."

Yin Wei mentioned these remarks to Yao Chang, who was very pleased, and he appointed Gucheng Shen as a Marquis Within The Passes.

Lei Wudi led his forces to surrender to Yao Chang. Yao Chang appointed him as his General Who Guards The East.


秦以安成王廣爲司徒。

27. Fu Deng appointed Fu Guang as his Minister Over The Masses.
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BOOK 107

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 07, 2018 10:05 pm

十五年(庚寅、三九○)

The Fifteenth Year of Taiyuan (The Gengyin Year, 390 AD)


春,正月,乙亥,譙敬王恬薨。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Yihai (February 26th), Sima Tian passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Jing ("the Respectful") of Qiao.

西燕主永引兵向洛陽,朱序自河陰北濟河,擊敗之。序追至白水,會翟遼謀向洛陽,序乃引兵還,擊走之;留鷹揚將軍朱黨戍石門,使其子略督護洛陽,以參軍趙蕃佐之,身還襄陽。

2. Murong Yong led his troops towards Luoyang. Zhu Xi marched north from Heyin and crossed the Yellow River, then attacked Murong Yong and defeated him. Murong Yong fled back to Shangdang. Zhu Xi pursued him as far as the White River.

But then Zhai Liao plotted to march towards Luoyang himself. So Zhu Xi brought his troops back and attacked Zhai Liao in turn, driving him off.

Zhu Xi left his General of Hawkish Display, Zhu Dang, to camp at the Stone Gate, and he sent his son Zhu Lüe to protect Luoyang, with his Army Advisor, Zhao Fan, to assist him. Zhu Xu himself returned to Xiangyang.

〈【章:十二行本「之」下有「永走還上黨」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈《水經註》:白水出上黨高都縣故城西,東流歷天井關。序所至處,去長子一百六十里。〉

(Some versions include the sentence "Murong Yong fled back to Shangdang".

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The White River flows west of the capital city of Gaodu county in Shangdang commandary, then on east, passing through Tianjing Pass." So when Zhu Xu reached this place, he was a hundred and sixty li from Murong Yong's base at Zhangzi.)


琅琊王道子恃寵驕恣,侍宴酣醉,或虧禮敬。帝益不能平,欲選時望爲藩鎭以潛制道子,問於太子左衞率王雅曰:「吾欲用王恭、殷仲堪,何如?」雅曰:「王恭風神簡貴,志氣方嚴;仲堪謹於細行,以文義著稱。然皆峻狹自是,且幹略不長;若委以方面,天下無事,足以守職,若其有事,必爲亂階矣!」帝不從。恭,蘊之子;仲堪,融之孫也。二月,辛巳,以中書令王恭爲都督青‧兗‧幽‧幷‧冀五州諸軍事、兗‧青二州刺史,鎭京口。

3. Thanks to the favor he had been shown up until now, Sima Daozi was growing ever more arrogant and unrestrained, and sometimes when he was drunk at feasts, he would act very improper and disrespectful. Emperor Xiaowu grew even more uneasy at this situation. He wanted to select people who were influential at that time and place them in command of border posts, so that he would secretly be able to control Sima Daozi.

Emperor Xiaowu asked the Crown Prince's Leader of the Guards of the Left, Wang Ya, "I want to use Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan. What do you think about them?"

Wang Ya replied, "Wang Gong does have an elegant bearing and is esteemed for his simplicity, and his ambitions are right and proper. And Yin Zhongkan is a careful and meticulous fellow, commended for his culture and sense of righteousness. However, they are both severe and narrow-minded because of that, and they have no great talent for administration or planning. If you assign them to border posts, they may do alright so long as there is nothing troubling the realm. But if anything should happen, they will definitely cause trouble!"

But Emperor Xiaowu did not listen to him. This Wang Gong was the son of Wang Yun; this Yin Zhongkan was the grandson of Yin Rong.

In the second month, on the day Xinsi (March 4th), the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Gong, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, Yanzhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, and Jizhou and as Inspector of Yanzhou and Qingzhou, and he was stationed at Jingkou.

〈爲後王、殷稱兵張本。〉〈王蘊,后父也。〉〈殷融見九十六卷成帝咸康五年。〉

(This was why Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan later rose up with soldiers.

Wang Yun was the father of Empress Wang.

Yin Rong is mentioned in Book 96, in Emperor Cheng's fifth year of Xiankang (339.15).)


三月,戊辰,大赦。

3. In the third month, on the day Wuchen (April 20th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

後秦主萇攻秦扶風太守齊益男於新羅堡,克之,益男走。秦主登攻後秦天水太守張業生于隴東,萇救之,登引去。

4. Yao Chang attacked Qin's Administrator of Fufeng, Qi Yinan, at Fort Xinluo. He took the fort, and Qi Yinan fled.

Fu Deng attacked Later Qin's Administrator of Tianshui, Zhang Yesheng, at Longdong. Yao Chang came to reinforce him, so Fu Deng withdrew.

〈隴東,安定涇陽縣之地。〉

(Longdong was a place in Jingyang county in Anding commandary.)


夏,四月,秦鎭東將軍魏揭飛自稱衝天王,帥氐、胡攻後秦安北將軍姚當成於杏城;鎭東將軍雷惡地叛應之,攻鎭東將軍姚漢得於李潤。後秦主萇欲自擊之,羣臣皆曰:「陛下不憂六十里苻登,乃憂六百里魏揭飛,何也?」萇曰:「登非可猝滅,吾城亦非登所能猝拔。惡地智略非常,若南引揭飛,東結董成,得杏城、李潤而據之,長安東北非吾有也。」乃潛引精兵一千六百赴之。揭飛、惡地有衆數萬,氐、胡赴之者前後不絕。萇每見一軍至,輒喜。羣臣怪而問之,萇曰:「揭飛等扇誘同惡,種類甚繁,吾雖克其魁帥,餘黨未易猝平;今烏集而至,吾乘勝取之,可一舉無餘也。」揭飛等見後秦兵少,悉衆攻之;萇固壘不戰,示之以弱,潛遣其子中軍將軍崇帥騎數百出其後。揭飛兵擾亂,萇遣鎭遠將軍王超等縱兵擊之,斬揭飛及其將士萬餘級。惡地請降,萇待之如初,惡地謂人曰:「吾自謂智勇傑出一時,而每遇姚翁輒困,固其分也!」

5. In summer, the fourth month, Qin's General Who Guards The East, Wei Jiefei, declared himself the Heavenly King of Chong. Wei Jiefei led the Di and other tribes to attack Later Qin's General Who Maintains The North, Yao Dangcheng, at Xingcheng. Lei Wudi also rebelled against Later Qin and supported Wei Jiefei, and he attacked Later Qin's General Who Conquers The East, Yao Hande, at Lirun.

Yao Chang wanted to lead an attack against the rebels. His ministers all said to him, "Why is it that Your Majesty does not worry about Fu Deng when he is only sixty li away from us, but you worry about Wei Jiefei when he is six hundred li away?"

Yao Chang replied, "We have a stalemate with Fu Deng; I cannot quickly vanquish him, nor can he quickly capture my city. But Lei Wudi is a man of uncommon intelligence and cunning. If he can join with Wei Jiefei to the south and form ties with Dongcheng to the east, then once they capture Xingcheng and Lirun and hold them, we will no longer control anything to the northeast of Chang'an." So Yao Chang secretly led sixteen hundred elite soldiers to march towards the rebels.

Wei Jiefei and Lei Wudi had tens of thousands of soldiers, and people from the Di and other tribes kept coming to join them one after the other. But when Yao Chang saw that the rebels were all concentrated in one army, he was delighted. His ministers thought this strange, so they asked him about it. Yao Chang replied, "Wei Jiefei had enticed Lei Wudi to join his cause, and countless numbers of tribes are supporting him. Even if I had smashed his main army in the field, his remaining partisans would not be easily pacified. But now, see how they have all flocked to the same place. If I can defeat them here, I shall take care of all of them at once; none shall be left."

When Wei Jiefei and the other leaders saw how small the Later Qin army was, they sent their whole army to attack it. But Yao Chang maintained stout ramparts and would not march out to battle, in order to appear weak. Meanwhile, he secretly sent the General of the Central Army, his son Yao Chong, to lead several hundred cavalry to strike the enemy army from behind. Wei Jiefei's soldiers were thrown into a panic, and Yao Chang sent the General Who Guards Distant Places, Wang Chao, and others to let loose their soldiers to attack the enemy. They killed Wei Jiefei and more than ten thousand of his generals and soldiers.

Lei Wudi asked to surrender, and Yao Chang treated him just as before. Lei Wudi told people, "I used to say that I was the boldest and most cunning man of this age. But after seeing how Old Man Yao gets out of such constant straits, I'll have to share the title with him!"

〈《晉書‧載記》作「魏褐飛」。太元元年,秦遣庭中將軍魏曷飛鑿氐、羌,意卽此人也。〉〈李潤,地名,在邢望南。李延壽曰:馮翊東有李潤鎭。按《魏書‧宗室列傳》,安定王燮除華州刺史表曰:「謹惟州居李潤堡,雖是少梁舊地,晉、芮錫壤,然胡、夷內附,遂爲戎落,請徙馮翊古城。」〉〈時登趣長安,據新豐之千戶固。〉〈董成,屠各種也,時據北地。〉〈此曹操取馬超、韓遂故智耳。〉〈史言姚萇能服雷惡地之心。〉

(The Chronicles of the Book of Jin records Wei 揭 Jiefei's name as Wei 褐 Hefei. We saw earlier in the Zizhi Tongjian, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.22), that Former Qin had sent their General of the Court, Wei 曷 Hefei, to deal with the Di and Qiang tribes. This must have been the same person.

Lirun was the name of a place, south of Xingwang. Li Yanshou remarked, "There is a Lirun Garrison in the east of Pingyi commandary." According to the Biographies of Imperial Relatives in the Book of Northern Wei, during the time that the Prince of Anding, Tuoba Xie, was serving as Inspector of Huazhou, he sent in a petition stating, "I respectfully note that this province currently has its headquarters at Fort Lirun. But although it is only the old territory of the Liang region and the ancient fiefs of the states of Jin and Rui, the various tribes here have all aligned with us. In order to better control the tribes, I ask that I move my base to the old city of Pingyi."

At this time, Fu Deng had gathered his forces near Chang'an, and was occupying the Qianhu Redoubt in Xinfeng county.

Dongcheng was a leader of the Zhuge branch of the Xiongnu; at this time, he was occupying Beidi commandary.

Yao Chang's remarks here about his enemies all being gathered in one place was the same logic that Cao Cao had outlined during his campaign against Ma Chao and Han Sui (Book 66, 211.G in de Crespigny’s To Establish Peace).

This passage shows how Yao Chang won over Lei Wudi's heart.)


魏褐飛自稱大將軍、沖天王,率氐胡數萬人攻安北姚當城於杏城,雷惡地應之,攻鎮東姚漢得于李潤。萇議將討之,群臣咸曰:「陛下不憂六十里苻登,乃憂六百里褐飛?」萇曰:「登非可卒殄,吾城亦非登所能卒圖。惡地多智,非常人也。南引褐飛,東結董成,甘言美說以成奸謀,若得杏城、李潤,惡地據之,控制遠近,相為羽翼,長安東北非復吾有。」於是潛軍赴之。萇時眾不滿二千,褐飛、惡地眾至數萬,氐胡赴之者首尾不絕。萇每見一軍至,輒有喜色。群下怪而問之,萇曰:「今同惡相濟,皆來會集,吾得乘勝席捲,一舉而覆其巢穴,東北無復餘也。」褐飛等以萇兵少,盡眾來攻。萇固壘不戰,示之以弱,潛遣子崇率騎數百,出其不意,以乘其後。褐飛兵擾亂,萇遣鎮遠王超、平遠譚亮率步騎擊之,褐飛眾大潰,斬褐飛及首級萬餘。惡地請降,萇待之如初。惡地每謂人曰:「吾自言智勇所施,足為一時之傑。校數諸雄,如吾之徒,皆應跨據一方,獸嘯千里。遇姚公智力摧屈,是吾分也。」惡地猛毅清肅,不可幹以非義,嶺北諸豪皆敬憚之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Wei Jiefei declared himself Grand General and Heavenly King of Chong. He led tens of thousands of the Di and other tribes to attack Yao Chang's General Who Maintains The North, Yao Dangcheng, at Xingcheng. Lei Wudi supported Wei Jiefei, and he attacked Yao Chang's General Who Guards The East, Yao Hande, at Lirun.

Yao Chang wanted to lead an attack against the rebels. His ministers all said to him, "Why is it that Your Majesty does not worry about Fu Deng when he is only sixty li away from us, but you worry about Wei Jiefei when he is six hundred li away?"

Yao Chang replied, "We have a stalemate with Fu Deng; I cannot quickly vanquish him, nor can he quickly capture my city. But Lei Wudi is a man of great intelligence; he is no common foe. If he can join with Wei Jiefei to the south, form ties with Dongcheng to the east, and use sweet words and pretty sayings to win over the people to his plot, then once they capture Xingcheng and Lirun and hold them, they will flaunt their power near and far and support one another against us, and we will no longer control anything to the northeast of Chang'an." So Yao Chang secretly led an army to march towards the rebels.

Yao Chang did not even have two thousand soldiers with him, while Wei Jiefei and Lei Wudi commanded tens of thousands of soldiers, and people from the Di and other tribes kept coming to join them one after the other. But when Yao Chang saw that the rebels were all concentrated in one army, he was delighted. His ministers thought this strange, so they asked him about it. Yao Chang replied, "See how these malcontents have all flocked to the same place. Now I can sweep them away in a single battle, and in one movement flush out all their lairs and dens. Then we shall have no further worries in the northeast."

When Wei Jiefei and the other leaders saw how small Yao Chang's army was, they sent their whole army to attack it. But Yao Chang maintained stout ramparts and would not march out to battle, in order to appear weak. Meanwhile, he secretly sent his son Yao Chong to lead several hundred cavalry to unexpectedly strike the enemy army from behind. Wei Jiefei's soldiers were thrown into a panic, and Yao Chang sent the General Who Guards Distant Places, Wang Chao, and the General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Tan Liang, to lead their horse and foot to attack the enemy. Wei Jiefei's army was greatly scattered, and they killed Wei Jiefei and took more than ten thousand heads.

Lei Wudi asked to surrender, and Yao Chang treated him just as before. After this, Lei Wudi always told people, "I used to say that when it came to boldness and cunning, I was the greatest man of this age. When I commanded so many heroes and had so many followers like me, we could all stand astride our corner of the realm, and our howls would shake the land for a thousand li around. But after seeing how Old Man Yao's cunning and strength gets out of such constant straits, I'll have to share the title with him."

Lei Wudi was fierce, stalwart, honest, and respectful, and he would have no dealings with the unrighteous. The leaders north of the mountain ranges all feared and respected him.


萇命姚當成於所營之地,每栅孔中輒樹一木以旌戰功。歲餘,問之,當成曰:「營地太小,已廣之矣。」萇曰:「吾自結髮以來,與人戰,未嘗如此之快,以千餘兵破三萬之衆,營地惟小爲奇,豈以大爲貴哉!」

6. When Yao Chang had set up his campsite before the battle, he had dug holes in the ground to set up barricades for his defenses. After the battle, Yao Chang ordered Yao Dangcheng to place a tree in each of these holes in order to commemorate the victory. Years later, when he asked Yao Dangcheng about it, Yao Dangcheng said, "The campsite was too small, so I expanded it."

Yao Chang replied, "I've been in battles all my life, ever since I tied up my hair and became a man, yet never had I experienced a battle like that before, where I routed an army of thirty thousand with barely a thousand soldiers of my own. The fact that the campsite was so small was exactly what was so remarkable about it. What glory could there be in a larger one?"

〈掘地作孔,豎木以爲栅,故有栅孔。〉

(There were "barricade holes" because the soldiers had dug holes in the ground and raised wooden beams in them to act as barricades.)


萇命其將當城于營處一柵孔中蒔樹一根,以旌戰功。歲餘,問之,城曰:「營所至小,已廣之矣。」萇曰:「少來鬥戰無如此快,以千六百人破三萬眾,國之事業,由此克舉。小乃為奇,大何足貴!」(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

When Yao Chang had set up his campsite before the battle, he had dug holes in the ground to set up barricades for his defenses. After the battle, Yao Chang ordered his general Yao Dangcheng to place a tree in each of these holes in order to commemorate the victory. Years later, when he asked Yao Dangcheng about it, Yao Dangcheng said, "The campsite was too small, so I expanded it."

Yao Chang replied, "I've been in battles since I was young, yet never had I experienced a battle like that before, where I routed an army of thirty thousand with merely sixteen hundred soldiers of my own. Great glory and success for the state stemmed from this battle. The fact that the campsite was so small was exactly what was so remarkable about it. What glory could there be in a larger one?"


吐谷渾視連遣使獻見於金城王乾歸,乾歸拜視連沙州牧、白蘭王。

7. The ruler of the Tuyuhun people, Murong Shilian, sent envoys bearing tribute to Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui appointed Murong Shilian as Governor of Shazhou and Prince of Bailan.

〈河西張茂以敦煌、晉昌、西域都護、校尉、玉門大護軍三郡三營爲沙州;吐谷渾未能有其地也。李延壽曰:此以吐谷渾部內有黃沙,周迴數百里,不生草木,因號沙州。〉

(There was a province of Shazhou at this time; it had been created by the Zhang clan of Former Liang, made up of the commandaries of Dunhuang and Jinchang and the Defense Posts of the Protectorate of the Western Reaches, Colonel of the Western Reaches, and Grand Protector of Yumen Pass. But the Tuyuhun could not have controlled this territory. Li Yanshou remarked, "There was a place within the Tuyuhun domain, several hundred square li in size all around, full of yellow sand. Trees and grasses did not grow there. So this place was called Shazhou ('Desert Province').")


丙寅,魏王珪會燕趙王麟於意辛山,擊賀蘭、紇突鄰、紇奚三部,破之,紇突鄰、紇奚皆降於魏。

8. On the day Bingyin (?), Tuoba Gui met Murong Lin at Mount Yixin. They attacked the Helan, Hetulin, and Hexi clans and routed them. The Hetulin and Hexi clans both surrendered to Wei.

〈意辛山在牛川北,賀蘭部所居也。據《北史》,踰陰山而北,卽賀蘭部。〉〈史言燕爲魏驅除。〉

(Mount Yixin is north of Niuchuan; the Helan clan resided there. According to the Histories of the Northern Dynasties, the region from Mount Yuyin north was the territory of the Helan clan.

This passage shows how Later Yan was later driven out by Northern Wei.)


五年春三月甲申,帝西征,次鹿渾海,襲高車袁紇部,大破之,虜獲生口、馬牛羊二十餘萬。慕容垂遣子賀驎率眾來會。夏四月丙寅,行幸意辛山,與賀驎討賀蘭、紇突隣、紇奚諸部落,大破之... 十有一月,紇奚部大人庫寒舉部內屬。十有二月,紇突隣大人屈地鞬舉部內屬。帝還次白漠。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fifth year of Dengguo (390), in spring, the third month, on the day Jiashen (?), Tuoba Gui led a western campaign. He advanced to the Luhun Sea, where he raided the Yuanhe tribe of the Gaoche people and greatly routed them, capturing more than two hundred thousand of their people, horses, cattle, and sheep.

Murong Chui sent his son Murong Helin to lead an army to meet Tuoba Gui. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Bingyin (?), Tuoba Gui traveled to Mount Yixin. He joined together with Murong Helin to campaign against the Helan, Hetulin, and Hexi clans, and they greatly routed them.

In the eleventh month, the chieftain of the Hexi tribe, Kuhan, brought his forces into Tuoba Gui's domain. In the twelfth month, the chieftain of the Hetulin tribe, Qudejian, did the same. Tuoba Gui returned to Baimo.


秋,七月,馮翊人郭質起兵於廣鄕以應秦,移檄三輔曰:「姚萇凶虐,毒被神人。吾屬世蒙先帝堯、舜之仁,非常伯、納言之子,卽卿校、牧守之孫也。與其含恥而存,孰若蹈道而死。」於是三輔壁壘皆應之;獨鄭縣人苟曜聚衆數千附於後秦。秦以質爲馮翊太守。後秦以曜爲豫州刺史。

9. In autumn, the seventh month, a native of Pingyi commandary, Guo Zhi, raised troops at Guangxiang to support Qin. He spread proclamations through the Three Adjuncts region stating, "Yao Chang is harsh and cruel, a blight against the gods and the people. Our families received the benevolence of His Late Majesty, equal to Yao and Shun; those who are not the sons of his Constant Companions and his Receivers of Words are the grandsons of his chief ministers and his local administrators. Who among you can bear to live with this shame, rather than die for the sake of righteousness?"

All of the fortified places in that region supported his cause; only a native of Zheng county, Gou Yao, refused to support him and sided with Later Qin instead. Qin appointed Guo Zhi as Administrator of Pingyi, while Later Qin appointed Gou Yao as Inspector of Yuzhou.

〈魏收《地形志》,鄭縣有廣鄕原。鄭縣時屬京兆。〉〈先帝,謂秦主堅。〉〈常伯,侍中也。納言,尚書也。〉〈【章:十二行本「曜」下有「不從」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈苟曜後持兩端,爲後秦所殺,事見後。〉

(According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a Guangxiang Plains in Zheng county. At this time, Zheng county was part of Jingzhao commandary.

"His Late Majesty" here means Fu Jian.

"Constant Companions" were Palace Attendants, and "Receivers of Words" were Masters of Writing.

Some versions add that Gou Zhong "refused to support" Guo Zhi.

Guo Yao later played a double game between Former Qin and Later Qin, for which he was executed by Later Qin, as seen below.)


劉衞辰遣子直力鞮攻賀蘭部,賀訥困急,請降於魏。丙子,魏王珪引兵救之,直力鞮退。珪徙訥部落,處之東境。

10. Liu Weichen sent his son Liu Zhilidi to attack the Helan clan. Hard-pressed, He Ne asked to surrender to Wei. On the day Bingzi (August 26th), Tuoba Gui led his troops to assist He Ne, and Liu Zhilidi retreated. Tuoba Gui relocated the tribes of the Helan clan, placing them along his eastern border.

六月,還幸牛川。衞辰遣子直力鞮寇賀蘭部,圍之。賀訥等請降,告困。秋七月丙子,帝引兵救之,至羊山,直力鞮退走。八月,還幸牛川。遣秦王觚使於慕容垂。九月壬申,討叱奴部於囊曲河,大破之。冬十月,遷雲中,討高車豆陳部於狼山,破之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth month, Tuoba Gui returned to Niuchuan.

Liu Weichen sent his son Liu Zhilidi to invade the Helan clan, and Liu Zhilidi surrounded them. He Ne and others asked to surrender to Tuoba Gui, informing him of their distress. So in autumn, the seventh month, on the day Bingzi (August 26th), Tuoba Gui led his troops to assist He Ne. When he reached Mount Yang, Liu Zhilidi retreated.

In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui returned to Niuchuang. He sent the Prince of Qin, Tuoba Gu, as an envoy to visit Murong Chui.

In the ninth month, on the day Renshen (?), Tuoba Gui campaigned against the Chinu tribe at the Nangqu River and greatly routed them.

In winter, the tenth month, Tuoba Gui moved his residence to Yunzhong. He campaigned against the Douchen tribe of the Gaoche people at Mount Lang and routed them.


八月,劉牢之擊翟釗於鄄城,釗走河北;又敗翟遼於滑臺,張願來降。

11. In the eighth month, the Jin general Liu Laozhi attacked Zhai Yu at Juancheng. Zhai Yu fled north of the Yellow River. Liu Laozhi also defeated Zhai Liao at Huatai. Zhang Yuan came to surrender.

〈翟遼、張願叛,見上卷十一年。〉

(The outbreak of Zhai Liao's and Zhang Yuan's rebellion is mentioned in Book 106, in the eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.5, 12).)


九月,北平人吳柱聚衆千餘,立沙門法長爲天子,破北平郡,轉寇廣都,入白狼城。燕幽州牧高陽王隆方葬其夫人,郡縣守宰皆會之,衆聞柱反,請隆還城,遣大兵討之。隆曰:「今閭閻安業,民不思亂,柱等以詐謀惑愚夫,誘脅相聚,無能爲也。」遂留葬訖,遣廣平太守、廣都令先歸,續遣安昌侯進將百餘騎趨白狼城,柱衆聞之,皆潰,窮捕,斬之。

13. In the ninth month, a native of Beiping commandary, Wu Zhu, gathered an army of more than a thousand people and acclaimed the Buddhist sramana monk Fazhang as the Son of Heaven. He marauded through Beiping commandary, then invaded Guangdu county and entered the city of Bailang.

At this time, Murong Long was burying his wife, and the province's commandary and county officials had all gathered for the funeral. When they heard that Wu Zhu had rebelled, they asked Murong Long to return to the city and then send the main army to campaign against him. But Murong Long said, "By now, this region has become settled, and the people have no heart for rebellion. Wu Zhu and the other rebel leaders have just beguiled a few fools into joining them and cajoled them into gathering together. They cannot accomplish anything."

So he remained where he was to finish his wife's burial, and he merely ordered the Administrator of Guangping and the Prefect of Guangdu (or Beiping) to go back first, then sent the Marquis of Anchang, Murong Jin, to lead more than a hundred cavalry to gather at Bailang. When Wu Zhu's people heard that these cavalry had arrived, they all scattered, and Wu Zhu was caught and beheaded.

〈白狼縣,前漢屬右北平郡,後漢、晉省。魏收《地形志》:後魏眞君八年,置建德郡,治白狼城,廣都縣屬焉。燕時當屬北平郡。〉〈「廣平」,當作「北平」。〉

(During Former Han, Bailang county was part of Beiping commandary. It was abolished during Later Han and Jin. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "In Northern Wei's eighth year of (Taiping)zhenjun (447), they created Jiande commandary, administered from the city of Bailang, which was part of Guangdu county." During Later Yan, it must have been part of Beiping commandary.

This passage ought to state that Murong Long sent back the Administrator of Beiping commandary, not Guangping.)


以侍中王國寶爲中書令,俄兼中領軍。

14. Wang Guobao was appointed as Jin's Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and soon he was also appointed as General Who Leads The Central Army.

〈道子主之也。〉

(This was Sima Daozi's doing.)


丁未,以吳郡太守王珣爲尚書右僕射。

15. On the day Dingwei (September 26th), the Administrator of Wu commandary, Wang Xun, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing.

吐谷渾視連卒,子視羆立。視羆以其父祖慈仁,爲四鄰所侵侮,乃督厲將士,欲建功業。冬,十月,金城王乾歸遣使拜視羆沙州牧、白蘭王;視羆不受。

16. Murong Shilian of the Tuyuhun passed away. His son Murong Shipi succeeded him.

Murong Shipi saw how the kindness and benevolence of his father and grandfather had been rewarded with invasions and incursions on all sides by their neighbors. So he strictly commanded his soldiers and generals, hoping to establish a great achievement.

In winter, the tenth month, Qifu Gangui sent envoys to appoint Murong Shipi as Governor of Shazhou and Prince of Bailan, but Murong Shipi refused to accept the titles.

〈吐谷渾辟奚、視連慈仁,見一百三卷簡文帝咸安元年。〉〈爲後乞伏乾歸伐吐谷渾張本。〉

(The kindness and benevolence of Murong Pixi and Murong Shilian are mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.11-12).

This was why Qifu Gangui later campaigned against the Tuyuhun.)


十二月,郭質及苟曜戰于鄭東,質敗,奔洛陽。

17. In the twelfth month, Guo Zhi and Gou Yao fought in eastern Zheng. Guo Zhi was defeated, and he fled to Luoyang.

〈鄭東,鄭縣之東也。〉

("Eastern Zheng" means in the east of Zheng county.)


越質詰歸據平襄,叛金城王乾歸。

18. Yuezhi Jiegui occupied Pingxiang and rebelled against Qifu Gangui.

〈十二年,越質詰歸附于乞伏氏。〉

(Yuezhi Jiegui had earlier sided with the Qifu clan, as mentioned above, in the twelfth year of Taiyuan (actually the thirteenth year, 387.10).)


隴西太守越質詰歸以平襄叛,自稱建國將軍、右賢王。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The Administrator of Longxi, Yuezhi Jiegui, rebelled at Pingxiang, and proclaimed himself General Who Establishes The State and Worthy King of the Right.
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BOOK 107

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 07, 2018 10:08 pm

十六年(辛卯、三九一)

The Sixteenth Year of Taiyuan (The Xinmao Year, 391 AD)


春,正月,燕置行臺於薊,加長樂公盛錄行臺尚書事。

1. In spring, the first month, Yan created a Separate Administration terrace at Ji. Murong Sheng was appointed as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing for this administration.

建興六年,領北中郎,鎮薊,進爵為王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

In the sixth year of Jianxing (391), Murong Sheng was appointed as acting General of the Household Gentlemen of the North and stationed at Ji, and his title was advanced to Prince.


金城王乾歸擊越質詰歸;詰歸降,乾歸以宗女妻之。

2. Qifu Gangui attacked Yuezhi Jiegui. Yuezhi Jiegui surrendered, and Qifu Gangi gave him a woman of his clan as a wife.

幹歸擊敗之,詰歸東奔隴山。既而擁眾來降,乾歸妻以宗女,署立義將軍。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui attacked and routed Yuezhi Jiegui, who fled east to Longshan. He then gathered up his host and came to surrender. Qifu Gangui married his daughter to Yuezhi Jiegui, and created for him the rank General Who Upholds Righteousness.


賀染干謀殺其兄訥,訥知之,舉兵相攻。魏王珪告于燕,請爲鄕導以討之。二月,甲戌,燕主垂遣趙王麟將兵擊訥,鎭北將軍蘭汗帥龍城之兵擊染干。

3. He Rangan plotted to kill his elder brother He Ne. When He Ne found out about it, he raised his troops, and the two brothers attacked each other. Tuoba Gui reported the matter to Yan, asking them to send an army to campaign against the Helan clan, with himself serving as a guide. In the second month, on the day Jiaxu (?), Murong Chui sent Murong Lin to lead his troops to attack He Ne, and he sent Lan Han to lead the soldiers of Longcheng to attack He Rangan.

〈賀染干部落,蓋居賀蘭部之東偏,故燕以龍城之兵擊之。〉

(Since Later Yan sent the soldiers of Longcheng to attack He Rangan's tribes, he must have controlled the eastern half of the Helan clan.)


三月,秦主登自雍攻後秦安東將軍金榮于范氏堡,克之;遂渡渭水,攻京兆太守韋範于段氏堡,不克;進據曲牢。

4. In the third month, Fu Deng marched from Yong to attack Later Qin's General Who Maintains The East, Jin Rong, at Fort Fanshi. Fu Deng captured the fort, then crossed the Wei River and attacked Later Qin's Administrator of Jingzhao, Wei Fan, at Fort Duanshi. However, he was unsuccessful there. He advanced to occupy Qulao.

〈曲牢在杜縣東北。〉

(Qulao was in the northeast of Du county.)


六年三月,登自雍攻長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the sixth year of Taichu (391), the third month, Fu Deng marched from Yong to attack Chang'an.


夏,四月,燕蘭汗破賀染干於牛都。

5. In summer, the fourth month, Lan Han routed He Rangan at Niudou.

〈都,聚也,其地當在牛川,夷人放牧,於此聚會,因名。〉

(Niudou meant "Oxen Gathering Place". 都 can mean "to gather", and this place was at Niuchuan. When the tribal people let their livestock graze and shepherded their flocks, they gathered at this place, thus the name.)


苟曜有衆一萬,密召秦主登,許爲內應;登自曲牢向繁川,軍于馬頭原。五月,後秦主萇引兵逆戰,登擊破之,斬其右將軍吳忠。萇收衆復戰,姚碩德曰:「陛下愼於輕戰,每欲以計取之,今戰失利而更前逼賊,何也?」萇曰:「登用兵遲緩,不識虛實。今輕兵直進,遙據吾東,此必苟曜豎子與之有謀也。緩之則其謀得成,故及其交之未合,急擊之以敗散其事耳。」遂進戰,大破之。登退屯於郿。

6. Gou Yao had an army of ten thousand soldiers. He secretly contacted Fu Deng and asked him to march to his position, offering to support him against Later Qin from within. So Fu Deng marched from Qulao towards Fanchuan, and his army camped at the Matou Plains. In the fifth month, Yao Chang led troops to counter-attack him, but Fu Deng attacked and routed him, and beheaded Wu Zhong.

Yao Chang gathered up his scattered soldiers and was about to return to battle. Yao Shuode said to him, "Your Majesty, you have always been cautious about rushing into battle, always wishing to develop a strategy first and then execute it. Yet now, having just been defeated, you want to try and threaten the enemy again. Why is that?"

Yao Chang replied, "Fu Deng has always been slow and sluggish to use his soldiers, uncertain of what he is facing. But this time, he rushed his soldiers forward and marched straight ahead, and now he is off occupying our eastern territory. That must be because that villain Gou Yao is colluding with him. If I am slow to act now, then his plan will be fulfilled. That is why I have to hurry to scatter them and split them apart before they can finish joining their forces."

So he charged into battle, and greatly routed Fu Deng. Fu Deng retreated to camp at Mei.

〈繁川,蓋卽杜陵縣之樊川也。〉〈馬頭原之地蓋在長安東。〉〈善用兵者,觀敵之動而察知其情,是以能制敵。〉

(The 繁川 Fanchuan mentioned in this passage must have been the same place as 樊川 Fanchuan in Duling county.

Judging by Yao Chang's comment about Fu Deng being in "our eastern territory", the Matou Plains must have been east of Chang'an.

One who is skilled at commanding soldiers can observe their enemy's movements and perceive their feelings and intentions. By doing so, they can control their enemy.)


四年十月,立社稷于長安。六年,大敗苻登于長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the fourth year of Jianchu (389), the tenth month, Yao Chang raised altars of soil and grain at Chang'an.

In the sixth year (391), he greatly defeated Fu Deng at Chang'an.

立社稷于長安。百姓年七十有德行者,拜為中大夫,歲賜牛酒... 貳城胡曹寅、王達獻馬三千匹。以寅為鎮北將軍、并州刺史,達鎮遠將軍、金城太守。萇性簡率,群下有過,或面加罵辱。太常權翼言於萇曰:「陛下弘達自任,不修小節,駕馭群雄,苞羅俊異,棄嫌錄善,有高祖之量。然輕慢之風,所宜除也。」萇曰:「吾之性也。吾於舜之美,未有片焉;漢祖之短,已收其一。若不聞讜言,安知過也!」南羌竇鴦率戶五千來降,拜安西將軍。萇下書,有復私仇者,皆誅之。將吏亡滅者,各隨所親以立後,振給長育之。鎮東苟曜據逆萬堡,密引苻登。萇與登戰,敗于馬頭原,收眾復戰。姚碩德謂諸將曰:「上慎于輕戰,每欲以計取之。今戰既失利,而更逼賊者,必有由也。」萇聞而謂碩德曰:「登用兵遲緩,不識虛實,今輕兵直進,逕據吾東,必苟曜豎子與之連結也。事久變成,其禍難測。所以速戰者,欲使豎子謀之未就,好之未深,散敗其事耳。」進戰,大敗之,登退屯於郿。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang raised altars of soil and grain at Chang'an. Commoners over seventy years old who had displayed good conduct were all appointed as Grandees of the Palace and given yearly pensions of oxen and wine.

Tribal leaders from Ercheng, Cao Yin and Wang Da, presented three thousand horses to Yao Chang as tribute. Yao Chang appointed Cao Yin as his General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Bingzhou, and he appointed Wang Da as his General Who Guards Distant Places and Administrator of Jincheng.

Yao Chang was naturally simple and direct, so when his subordinates committed a transgression, sometimes he would berate and disgrace them to their face.

His Minister of Ceremonies, Quan Yi, said to him, "Your Majesty, you hold a grand and esteemed position; you cannot attend to such trifles. To gather the heroes of the land to him, cast his nets to reel in the talented and remarkable, and to remember the good while putting aside ill-will; such were the aspects of magnanimity that Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) possessed. You should do away with such bad habits."

But Yao Chang replied, "It is in my nature. I have not a shred of the remarkable character of the ancient Emperor Shun, and I have quite a few of the shortcomings of Emperor Gaozu. But if I do not speak so frankly, how will people know of their transgressions?"

The Southern Qiang leader Dou Yang led five thousand households to surrender to Yao Chang, who appointed Dou Yang as his General Who Maintains The West.

Yao Chang sent out an edict, ordering the execution of those he held grudges against. The condemned generals and officials were ordered to designate relatives to raise their descendants, entrusting them to the elders to bring them up.

Yao Chang's General Who Guards The East, Gou Yao, occupied Fort Wan and rebelled, secretly inviting Fu Deng to come to his position. Yao Chang fought Fu Deng, but he was defeated at Matou Plains. But Yao Chang gathered up his soldiers and then marched to battle once again.

Yao Shuode said to the other generals, "Our sovereign has always been cautious about rushing into battle, always wishing to develop a strategy first and then execute it. Yet now, having just been worsted in battle, he wants to try and threaten the enemy again. He must have some reason for it."

When Yao Chang heard about this, he said to Yao Shuode, "Fu Deng has always been slow and sluggish to use his soldiers, uncertain of what he is facing. But this time, he rushed his soldiers forward and marched straight ahead, and now he is off occupying our eastern territory. That must be because that villain Gou Yao is colluding with him. If I am slow to act now, then his plan will be fulfilled, and it would be hard to deal with such misfortune as that. So the reason why I am rushing back into battle is because I want to go after that villain before he is prepared and deal with him more easily. I need only scatter and defeat their forces."

So he charged into battle, and greatly defeated Fu Deng. Fu Deng retreated to camp at Mei.


秦兗州刺史強金槌據新平,降後秦,以其子逵爲質。後秦主萇將數百騎入金槌營。羣下諫之,萇曰:「金槌旣去苻登,又欲圖我,將安所歸乎!且彼初來款附,宜推心以結之,奈何復以不信疑之乎!」旣而羣氐欲取萇,金槌不從。

7. Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Qiang Jinchui, occupied Xinping and surrendered to Later Qin, sending them his son Qiang Zi as a hostage. Yao Chang led several hundred cavalry into Qiang Jinchui's camp. His subordinates had remonstrated with him, but Yao Chang had said, "Qiang Jinchui has just abandoned Fu Deng, so if he tries to get rid of me now, who will be left for him to turn to? Besides, he has only just submitted to us, so now is the time to reassure him and form close ties with him. Why should I suspect him and show lack of trust?" When Yao Chang arrived in the camp, many of the Di wanted to capture him, but Qiang Jinchui did not heed them.

〈強金槌,氐種,秦之戚黨也。姚萇推心待之,以攜苻登之黨。〉

(Qiang Jinchui was a member of one of the Di branches, a distant relative of the Former Qin ruling clan. Yao Chang wanted to reassure him and form ties with him in order to win over Fu Deng's other partisans.)


登將金槌以新平降萇,萇輕將數百騎入槌營。群下諫之,萇曰:「槌既去苻登,復欲圖我,將安所歸!且懷德初附,推款委質,吾復以不信待之,何以禦物乎!」群氐果有異謀,槌不從而止。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Fu Deng's general Jinchui surrendered Xinping to Yao Chang. Yao Chang led several hundred cavalry into Jinchui's camp. His subordinates had remonstrated with him, but Yao Chang had said, "Jinchui has just abandoned Fu Deng, so if he tries to get rid of me now, who will be left for him to turn to? Besides, I should cherish virtue and welcome those who have newly come over to us, showing my sincerity and appreciating his character. I should grant him my trust and courtesy; why should I reject him?" When Yao Chang arrived in the camp, many of the Di indeed plotted against him, but Jinchui did not heed them, so it came to nothing.


六月,甲辰,燕趙王麟破賀訥於赤城,禽之,降其部落數萬。燕主垂命麟歸訥部落,徙染干於中山。麟歸,言於垂曰:「臣觀拓跋珪舉動,終爲國患,不若攝之還朝,使其弟監國事。」垂不從。

8. In the sixth month, on the day Jiachen (July 20th), Murong Lin routed He Ne at Chicheng and captured him. He accepted the surrender of tens of thousands of He Ne's tribes. Murong Chui ordered Murong Lin to return He Ne's tribes to their former residences, while relocating He Rangan's tribes to Zhongshan.

When Murong Lin returned to Zhongshan, he said to Murong Chui, "Based on what I have seen of the actions and movements of Tuoba Gui, he will pose a threat to our state someday. It would be better to make him come to our court, and have his younger brother manage his domain."

But Murong Chui did not listen.

〈《水經》:河水自雲中楨陵縣南過赤城東,又南過定襄桐過縣西。又《魏書‧帝紀》,登國三年,幸東赤城。明元泰常八年,築長城於長川之南,起自赤城,西至五原,延袤二千餘里。〉〈攝,錄也,收也。慕容麟之姦詐,知拓跋珪之終不可制,而慕容垂不從其言,天將啓珪以滅燕,雖以垂之明略,不之覺也。〉

(The Water Classic states, "The Yellow River flows east of Chicheng, through the south of Zhenling county in Yunzhong commandary. It flows further south through the west of Tongguo county in Dingxiang commandary." And according to the Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) in the Book of Northern Wei, in the third year of Dengguo (388), Emperor Daowu visited Dongchicheng. In Emperor Mingyuan's eighth year of Taichang (423), he built long walls south of Changchuan, beginning at Chicheng and stretching west to Wuyuan, stretching for more than two thousand li.

The term 攝 here means "to employ" or "to bring".

Wicked and crafty as he was, Murong Lin recognized that in the end, Tuoba Gui could not be controlled. Yet Murong Chui did not heed his words. Heaven used Tuoba Gui as its pawn to destroy Later Yan, and although Murong Chui was wise and calculating, he could not realize this.)


六年春二月,幸紐垤川。三月,遣九原公元儀、陳留公元虔等西討黜弗部,大破之。夏四月,祠天。六月,慕容賀驎破賀訥於赤城。帝引兵救之,驎退走。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth year of Dengguo (391), in spring, the second month, Tuoba Gui went to Niudiechuan. In the third month, Tuoba Gui sent the Duke of Jiuyuan, Tuoba Yi, the Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, and others west to campaign against the Chufu tribe, and they greatly routed them.

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui offered sacrifices to Heaven.

In the sixth month, Murong Helin routed He Ne at Chicheng. But then Tuoba Gui led troops to assist He Ne, and Murong Helin retreated.

袞又從破賀訥,遂命羣官登勿居山,遊宴終日。從官及諸部大人請聚石為峰,以記功德,命袞為文。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

Zhang Gun also accompanied Tuoba Gui when he routed He Ne. Tuoba Gui then ordered his subordinates and ministers to ascended Mount Wuju, where they spent the whole days in feasting and celebration. Then the officials and the various chiefs asked to raise a stone as a stele, to record Tuoba Gui's virtues and achievements, and Tuoba Gui ordered Zhang Gun to compose the text.


西燕主永寇河南,太守楊佺期擊破之。

9. Murong Yong invaded Henan commandary. Jin's Administrator there, Yang Quanqi, attacked Murong Yong and routed him.

秋,七月,壬申,燕主垂如范陽。

10. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renshen (August 17th), Murong Chui went to Fanyang.

〈范陽縣,漢屬涿郡,魏文帝改涿郡爲范陽郡。〉

(During Han, Fanyang county was part of Zhuo commandary. Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) renamed Zhuo commandary to Fanyang commandary.)


魏王珪遣其弟觚獻見於燕;燕主垂衰老,子弟用事,留觚以求良馬。魏王珪弗與,遂與燕絕;使長史張袞求好於西燕。觚逃歸,燕太子寶追獲之,垂待之如初。

11. Tuoba Gui sent his younger brother Tuoba Gu to present tribute to Yan. Since Murong Chui was now old and frail, and his sons and younger brothers were in charge of affairs, they detained Tuoba Gu, demanding fine horses in exchange for him. But Tuoba Gui refused to agree, and he broke off relations with Yan and sent Zhang Gun to restore good relations with Western Yan.

Tuoba Gu fled and tried to escape back to Wei, but Murong Bao pursued and captured him. However, Murong Chui treated him just as well as before.

〈爲燕、魏搆難張本。〉

(This incident was what led to hostility between Northern Wei and Later Yan.)


秋七月壬申,講武於牛川,行還紐垤川。慕容垂止元觚而求名馬,帝絕之。乃遣使於慕容永,永使其大鴻臚慕容鈞奉表勸進尊號。其月,衞辰遣子直力鞮出棝楊塞,侵及黑城。九月,帝襲五原,屠之。收其積穀,還紐垤川。於棝楊塞北,樹碑記功。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renshen (August 17th), Tuoba Gui instructed people in warfare at Niuchuan, then returned back to Niudiechuan.

Murong Chui detained Tuoba Gu and demanded prize horses in exchange for his return. Tuoba Gui broke off relations with Murong Chui.

Tuoba Gui sent envoys to visit Murong Yong, and Murong Yong sent his Grand Herald, Murong Jun, to present a petition to Tuoba Gui urging him to declare himself Emperor.

That same month, Liu Weichen sent his son Liu Zhilidi out through the Guyang border pass of the realm, and he invaded Tuoba Gui's domain as far as Mocheng. In the ninth month, Tuoba Gui raided Wuyuan and massacred it. He gathered up the grain stores there and returned to Niudiechuan. North of the Guyang border pass, he raised a stele to commemorate his achievement.

四年,太祖遣陳留公虔使於垂,又遣使朝貢。五年,又遣秦王觚使於垂,垂留觚不遣,遂絕行人。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

In the fourth year of Dengguo (389), Tuoba Gui sent his Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, as an envoy to Murong Chui, and Murong Chui again sent his own envoys to Northern Wei bearing tribute.

In the fifth year (390), Tuoba Gui sent his Prince of Qin, Tuoba Gu, as an envoy to Murong Chui. But this time, Murong Chui detained Tuoba Gu and would not let him return. So the two states broke off relations with each other.


秦主登攻新平,後秦主萇救之,登引去。

12. Fu Deng attacked Xinping, but Yao Chang reinforced it, so Fu Deng withdrew.

七月,登攻新安,姚萇救之,登引退。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the seventh month, Fu Deng attacked Xin'an. But Yao Chang reinforced it, so Fu Deng fell back.


秦驃騎將軍沒弈干以其二子爲質於金城王乾歸,請共擊鮮卑大兜。乾歸與沒弈干攻大兜於鳴蟬堡,克之。兜微服走,乾歸收其部衆而還,歸沒弈干二子。沒弈干尋叛,東合劉衞辰。八月,乾歸帥騎一萬討沒弈干,沒弈干奔他樓城,乾歸射之,中目。

13. Qin's General of Agile Cavalry, Mei Yigan, sent his two sons to Qifu Gangui as hostages, and asked to join forces with him to attack the Xianbei leader Dadou. Qifu Gangui and Mei Yigan attacked Dadou at Fort Mingchan and captured the fort. Dadou put on a disguise and fled, but Qifu Gangui rounded up his remaining forces and returned, and he sent back Mei Yigan's sons.

However, Mei Yigan then rebelled against Qifu Gangui, joining forces with Liu Weichen to the east. In the eighth month, Qifu Gangui led ten thousand cavalry to campaign against Mei Yigan, who fled to the city of Talou. Qifu Gangui shot an arrow at Mei Yigan, which struck him in the eye.

〈據《載記》,大兜時據安陽城。安陽城在唐秦州隴城縣界;鳴蟬堡亦當在其地。〉〈他樓城在高平,唐太宗貞觀六年,以突厥降戶置緣州,治平高之他樓城;高宗置他樓縣,後省入原州蕭關縣界。〉

(According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, at this time, Dadou occupied the city of Anyang. This city was in Longcheng county in Tang's Qinzhou. Fort Mingchan must have been at the same place.

The city of Talou was in Gaoping. In Emperor Taizong of Tang's (Li Shimin's) sixth year of Zhenguan (631), he organized the surrendered Göktürk households into Yuanzhou, which was administered by the city of Talou in Pinggao. Emperor Gaozong created Talou county, which was later folded into Xiaoguan county in Yuanzhou.)


苻登將沒奕於遣使結好,以二子為質,請討鮮卑大兜國。乾歸乃與沒奕於攻大兜於安陽城,大兜退固鳴蟬堡,乾歸攻陷之,遂還金城。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Fu Deng's general Mei Yiyu sent envoys to establish good relations with Qifu Gangui, sending two of his sons to him as hostages, and he asked Qifu Gangui to campaign against the state of the Xianbei leader Dadou. So Qifu Gangui and Mei Yiyi attacked Dadou at the city of Anyang. Dadou retreated to defend Fort Mingchan, but Qifu Gangui attacked and captured the fort, then returned to Jincheng.


九月,癸未,以尚書右僕射王珣爲左僕射,太子詹事謝琰爲右僕射。太學博士范弘之論殷浩宜加贈諡,因敍桓溫不臣之迹。是時桓氏猶盛,王珣,溫之故吏也,以爲溫廢昏立明,有忠貞之節;黜弘之爲餘杭令。弘之,汪之孫也。

14. In the ninth month, on the day Guiwei (October 27th), Jin appointed the Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Wang Xun, as Deputy Director of the Left. The Crown Prince's Chief of Affairs, Xie Yan, was appointed as the new Deputy Director of the Right.

The Academician of the Grand Academy, Fan Hongzhi, proposed promoting Yin Hao's posthumous title, as an indication that he had been a minister who had not bowed to Huan Wen's wishes. But at this time, the Huan clan was still numerous, and Wang Xun had once been an official serving under Huan Wen. He felt that Huan Wen had deposed the foolish and established the wise, and he had been fulfilling his duty as a loyal and faithful minister. So he had Fan Hongzhi sent away to serve as Prefect of Yuhang. This Fan Hongzhi was the grandson of Fan Wang.

〈王珣先爲溫府主簿。〉〈餘杭縣,漢屬會稽郡。顧來曰:縣,秦始皇立,後漢分屬吳郡,吳分屬吳興郡。〉〈范汪得罪於桓溫,見一百一卷哀帝升平五年。〉

(Wang Xun had once been Huan Wen's Registrar.

During Han, Yuhang county was part of Kuaiji commandary. Gu Lai remarked, "This county was formed by Qin Shihuang. During Later Han, it was split off as part of Wu commandary. Eastern Wu split it off again as part of Wuxing commandary."

Fan Wang had been charged with a crime by Huan Wen, as mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's fifth year of Shengping (361.15).)


冬,十月,壬辰,燕主垂還中山。

15. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Renchen (?), Murong Chui returned to Zhongshan.

〈自范陽還也。〉

(He was returning from Fanyang.)


初,柔然部人世服於代,其大人郁久閭地粟袁卒,部落分爲二:長子匹候跋繼父居東邊,次子縕紇提別居西邊。秦王堅滅代,柔然附於劉衞辰。

16. For many years, the Rouran people had been obedient subjects of Dai for generations. When their leader Yujiulü Desuyuan passed away, his forces and his tribes split into two. His elder son Yujiulü Pihouba had succeeded his father in control of the eastern frontier, while his second son Yujiulü Yunheti had gone to reside on the western frontier. After Fu Jian conquered Dai, the Rouran aligned themselves with Liu Weichen.

〈魏收曰:神元之末,掠騎得一奴,髮始齊肩,忘本姓名,其主字之曰木骨閭。木骨閭者,首禿也。木骨閭與「郁久閭」聲相近,故後子孫因以爲氏。木骨閭旣壯,免奴爲騎卒,穆帝時,坐後期當斬,亡匿廣漠谿谷間,收合逋逃,得百餘人,依紇突鄰。木骨閭死,子車鹿會雄健,始有部衆,自號柔然。〉〈紇,戶骨翻。〉〈滅代見一百四卷元年。〉

(Regarding the origins of the Rouran people, the Account of the Rouran in the Book of Northern Wei states, "Near the end of the reign of Tuoba Liwei (~277), his cavalry raiders captured a slave who was young enough that his hair only reached his shoulders. This slave had forgotten his original name, so his master gave him the name Mugulü. This Mugulü had a bald head. Since 'Mugulü' and 'Yujiulü' were similar in pronunciation, his descendants later took Yujiulü to be their clan's name. When Mugulü became strong, he escaped his bondage and became a cavalry soldier. During the reign of Tuoba Yilu (308-316), Mugulü was charged with being late for an assignment and was going to be beheaded, so he fled and hid at Guangmoxi Valley. He gathered together other fugitives, until he had assembled more than a hundred people, and they went to live among the Hetulin people. After Mugulü passed away, his son Cheluhui was bold and strong, and he formed his own people. It was from this time that they called themselves the Rouran."

The second character of Yujiulü Yunheti's given name, 紇, is pronounced "hu (h-u)".

Former Qin's conquest of Dai is mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.14-19).)


及魏王珪卽位,攻擊高車等諸部,率皆服從,獨柔然不事魏。戊戌,珪引兵擊之,柔然舉部遁走,珪追奔六百里。諸將因張袞言於珪曰:「賊遠糧盡,不如早還。」珪問諸將︰「若殺副馬,爲三日食,足乎?」皆曰:「足。」乃復倍道追之,及於大磧南牀山下,大破之,虜其半部,匹候跋及別部帥屋擊各收餘衆遁走。珪遣長孫嵩、長孫肥追之。珪謂將佐曰:「卿曹知吾前問三日糧意乎?」曰:「不知也。」珪曰:「柔然驅畜產奔走數日,至水必留;我以輕騎追之,計其道里,不過三日及之矣。」皆曰:「非所及也。」嵩追斬屋擊於平望川。肥追匹候跋至涿邪山,匹候跋舉衆降,獲縕紇提之子曷多汗、兄子社崙、斛律等宗黨數百人。縕紇提將奔劉衞辰,珪追及之,縕紇提亦降,珪悉徙其部衆於雲中。

17. After Tuoba Gui became the King of Dai, when he campaigned against the Gaoche and other northern tribal peoples, all of the other tribes submitted to him, but the Rouran did not.

On the day Wuxu (?), Tuoba Gui led his troops to attack the Rouran. But the Rouran only gathered their forces and fled. Tuoba Gui pursued them for six hundred li.

Then the Wei generals had Zhang Gun tell Tuoba Gui, "The enemy is far away, and our grain is exhausted. We had better head back at once."

Tuoba Gui asked his generals, "If we killed our reserve horses, that would give us three days' worth of food, wouldn’t it?"

His generals replied, "It would."

Then they pressed their pursuit, traveling twice as fast, and caught up with the Rouran below Mount Nanchuang at Daqi. They greatly routed the Rouran and captured half their forces. Yujiulü Pihouba and his commander Wuji each gathered up their remaining forces and fled. Tuoba Gui sent Zhangsun Song and Zhangsun Fei to pursue them.

Tuoba Gui asked his generals and subordinates, "Do you all know why I mentioned three days' worth of food before?"

They replied, "We don't know why."

He said, "The Rouran have been driving their livestock hard for many days, so they would have to stop when they came to water. Since we are pursuing them with light cavalry, we could definitely catch up to them within three days."

They all said, "We would not have thought of that."

Zhangsun Song caught up with Wuji and beheaded him at Pingwangchuan. Zhangsun Fei pursued Yujiulü Pihouba as far as Mount Zhuoxie, where Yujiulü Pihouba brought his forces to surrender. Zhangsun Fei captured Yujiulü Yunheti's son Yujiulü Heduohan, his nephews Yujiulü Shelun and Yujiulü Hulü, and several hundred others of the Yujiulü clan and their partisans. Yujiulü Yunheti fled towards Liu Weichen, but Tuoba Gui pursued him and caught up with him, so Yujiulü Yunheti too surrendered.

Tuoba Gui relocated all of the Yujiulü forces and tribes to Yunzhong.

〈凡北人用騎兵,各乘一馬,又有一馬爲副馬。〉〈是時魏監,跨有代北。柔然西奔南牀山,蓋在大磧之西。《北史‧帝紀》作「南商山」。〉〈爲社崙復叛去而建國張本。〉

(Northern cavalry soldiers each used two horses: one for riding, and one to keep in reserve.

By now, the territory under Northern Wei's control extended further north than Dai's domain had. Since the Rouran fled west to reach Mount Nanchuang, it must have been west of Daqi. The Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) in the Histories of the Northern Dynasties records this mountain as Mount Nanshang.

This was why Yujiulü Shelun later rebelled, fled, and established his own state.)


冬十月戊戌,北征蠕蠕,追之,及於大磧南牀山下,大破之,班賜從臣各有差。其東西二部主匹候跋及縕紇提,斬別帥屋擊于。事具蠕蠕傳。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Wuxu (?), Tuoba Gui conducted a northern campaign against the Rouran people. He pursued them, catching up with them below Mount Nanchuang at Daqi, where he greatly routed them. He rewarded his followers and ministers as appropriate. The Western and Eastern leaders of the Rouran, Pihouba and Yunheti, were captured, while their general Wujiyu was beheaded. This campaign is further mentioned in the Account of the Rouran.

從太祖征蠕蠕。蠕蠕遁走,追之五六百里。諸部帥因袞言於太祖曰:「今賊遠糧盡,不宜深入,請速還軍。」太祖令袞問諸部帥,若殺副馬,足三日食否。皆言足也。太祖乃倍道追之,及於廣漠赤地南床山下,大破之。既而太祖問袞:「卿曹外人知我前問三日糧意乎?」對曰:「皆莫知也。」太祖曰:「此易知耳。蠕蠕奔走數日,畜產之餘,至水必留。計其道程,三日足及。輕騎卒至,出其不意,彼必驚散,其勢然矣。」袞以太祖言出告部帥,咸曰:「聖策長遠,非愚近所及也。」(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

Zhang Gun accompanied Tuoba Gui during his first campaign against the Rouran. The Rouran ran and hid, and the Northern Wei army pursued them for five or six hundred li. Then the Northern Wei generals had Zhang Gun tell Tuoba Gui, "The enemy is far away, and our grain is exhausted. We should not go any further into their territory. Please have the army turn back at once."

Tuoba Gui ordered Zhang Gun to ask his generals whether, if they killed their reserve horses, that would give the army three days' worth of food or not.

His generals replied that it would.

Then they pressed their pursuit, traveling twice as fast, and caught up with the Rouran below Mount Nanchuang at the red lands in the vast desert. They greatly routed the Rouran.

Tuoba Gui asked Zhang Gun, "Do you and the others know why I mentioned three days' worth of food before?"

He replied, "We don't know why."

He said, "It is simple enough to explain. The Rouran had been fleeing for several days now, but they had a great many livestock with them as well, so they would have to stop when they came to water. If we reckoned the roads they took, we could definitely catch up to them within three days. So I sent light cavalry to catch them unawares, meaning they would certainly panic and scatter, leaving them powerless."

Zhang Gun conveyed Tuoba Gui's words to the generals, who all said, "What an excellent plan and what great foresight. We were too foolish to have thought of that."


翟遼卒,子釗代立,改元定鼎。攻燕鄴城,燕遼西王農擊卻之。

18. Zhai Liao passed away. His son Zhai Zhao succeeded him, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Dingding.

Zhai Zhao attacked Ye, but Murong Nong attacked and resisted him.

〈爲燕滅翟釗張本。〉

(This was why Later Yan would later vanquish Zhai Zhao.)


遼死,子釗代之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Zhai Liao passed away, his son Zhai Zhao succeeded him.

清河太守賀耕聚眾定陵以叛,南應翟遼,慕容農討斬之,毀定陵城。進師入鄴,以鄴城廣難固,築鳳陽門大道之東為隔城。其尚書郎婁會上疏曰:「三年之喪,天下之達制,兵荒殺禮,遂以一切取士。人心奔兢,苟求榮進,至乃身冒縗絰,以赴時役,豈必殉忠於國家,亦昧利於其間也。聖王設教,不以顛沛而虧其道,不以喪亂而變其化,故能杜豪兢之門,塞奔波之路。陛下鐘百王之季,廓中興之業,天下漸平,兵革方偃,誠宜蠲蕩瑕穢,率由舊章。吏遭大喪,聽終三年之禮,則四方知化,人斯服禮。」垂不從。翟遼死,子釗代立,攻逼鄴城,慕容農擊走之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

The Administrator of Qinghe, He Geng, gathered an army together at the city of Dingling and rebelled against Later Yan, joining with Zhai Liao to the south. Murong Nong campaigned against He Geng and beheaded him, then destroyed the walls of Dingling. Murong Nong then led his forces into Ye. Judging that the walls of Ye were too broad and difficult to defend, Murong Nong built a great path east of the Fengyang Gate to serve as a salient wall.

One of Murong Chui's Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Lou Hui, sent up a petition stating, "The ritual of three years of mourning is a proper ceremony of discipline for all the realm. But in the recent confusion of war and the abandonment of the rites, all proper gentlemen have neglected this duty. People's hearts are left aflutter and uncertain. How can it be that people are so quick to win glory and advance themselves, and yet they only wear their mourning clothes and belts for the shortest times? When they are so clearly willing to uphold loyalty to the death on behalf of their state, how can they be so blind to this advantage to themselves?

"Now it is the duty of a sage king to set a good example and instruct the people in proper behavior. Even when he is destitute, he does not abandon his principles; even in the midst of turmoil, he does not change his behavior. By doing so, he can check the customs of the great families and block the path of licentiousness. Your Majesty is the heir to the fruits of a hundred kings before you, and you have carried out the enterprise of reviving the state. As the realm is gradually becoming peaceful and weapons of war are being put away, you should earnestly sweep away all the filth and muck of recent customs and lead the people to once again uphold the old rites and canons. Direct your officials to observe the full three years of mourning. Then this behavior will spread to every corner of the realm, and the people will obey the proper ceremony again."

But Murong Chui did not heed this advice.

When Zhao Liao passed away, his son Zhai Zhao succeeded him. He attacked and threatened Ye, but Murong Nong attacked him and drove him off.


三河王光遣兵乘虛伐金城王乾歸;乾歸聞之,引兵還,光兵亦退。

19. Lü Guang sent troops to take advantage of Qifu Gangui's absence by attacking his territory. When Qifu Gangui heard this, he led his soldiers back, so Lü Guang also withdrew.

〈乘其伐沒弈干之虛也。〉

(Qifu Gangui was away on his campaign against Mei Yigan.)


劉衞辰遣子直力鞮帥衆八九萬攻魏南部。十一月,己卯,魏王珪引兵五六千人拒之,壬午,大破直力鞮於鐵岐山南,直力鞮單騎走。乘勝追之,戊子,自五原金津南濟河,徑入衞辰國,衞辰部落駭亂。辛卯,珪直抵其所居悅跋城,衞辰父子出走。壬辰,分遣諸將輕騎追之,將軍伊謂禽直力鞮於木根山,衞辰爲其部下所殺。十二月,珪軍于鹽池,誅衞辰宗黨五千餘人,皆投尸于河,自河以南諸部悉降,獲馬三十餘萬匹,牛羊四百餘萬頭,國用由是遂饒。

20. Liu Weichen sent Liu Zhilidi to lead eight, nine, or ten thousand soldiers to attack Wei's southern territory. In the eleventh month, on the day Yimao (December 22nd), Tuoba Gui led five or six thousand soldiers to oppose them.

On the day Renwu (December 25th), the Wei army greatly routed Liu Zhilidi south of Mount Tieqi.

Liu Zhilidi fled alone on horseback. The Wei army took advantage of their victory to pursue him. On the day Wuzi (December 31st), they crossed south of the Yellow River at Jin Crossing in Wuyuan, and entered Liu Weichen's domain, throwing Liu Weichen's forces and tribes into panic and confusion.

On the day Xinmao (January 3rd of 392), Tuoba Gui captured Liu Weichen’s base at the city of Yueba, and Liu Weichen and his sons fled.

On the day Renchen (January 4th of 392), Tuoba Gui sent his generals in different directions to pursue their fleeing foes with light cavalry. His general Yi Wei captured Liu Zhilidi at Mount Mugen. Liu Weichen was killed by his subordinates.

In the twelfth month, Tuoba Gui's army went to the Salt Ponds, where they executed more than five thousand of Liu Weichen's clansmen and partisans and cast their bodies into the Yellow River.

All the territory south of the Yellow River surrendered to Wei. They captured more than three hundred thousand horses and more than four million cattle and sheep, greatly enriching the resources of the state.

〈金津當在五原郡宜梁、九原二縣間。〉〈考之《載記》,悅跋城卽代來城也。〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》,拓跋鄰以次弟爲伊婁氏,後改爲伊氏。木根山在五原河西。〉〈《漢‧地理志》,五原郡成宜縣有鹽官。唐鹽州五原縣有烏、白等池鹽。宋白曰:青、白鹽池在鹽州北。〉〈報元年衞辰藉兵於秦以滅代之怨也。〉

(Jin Crossing was in Yiliang and Jiuyuan counties in Wuyuan commandary.

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Yueba was the same city as Dailai.

Regarding this Yi Wei, according to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, Tuoba Lin's next-youngest brother became the founder of the Yilou clan, which was later shortened to the Yi clan.

Mount Mugen was in Wuyuan commandary, west of the Yellow River.

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Han, there was a Salt Ministry in Chengyi county in Wuyuan commandary. And in Wuyuan county in Tang's Yanzhou, there were the Crow, White, and other such salt ponds. Song Bai remarked, "The Green and White salt ponds were in the north of Yanzhou."

Tuoba Gui thus avenged his anger at Liu Weichen's role in Former Qin's conquest of Dai from the beginning of his reign.)


十有一月戊辰,還幸紐垤川。戊寅,衞辰遣子直力鞮寇南部。己卯,車駕出討。壬午,大破直力鞮軍於鐵歧山南,獲其器械輜重,牛羊二十餘萬。戊子,自五原金津南渡河。辛卯,次其所居悅跋城,衞辰父子奔遁。壬辰,詔諸將追之,擒直力鞮。十有二月,獲衞辰尸,斬以徇,遂滅之。語在衞辰傳... 車駕次于鹽池。自河已南,諸部悉平。簿其珍寶畜產,名馬三十餘萬匹,牛羊四百餘萬頭。班賜大臣各有差。收衞辰子弟宗黨無少長五千餘人,盡殺之。山胡酋大幡頹、業易于等率三千餘家降附,出居于馬邑。是歲,起河南宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eleventh month, on the day Wuchen (?), Tuoba Gui returned to Niudiechuan.

On the day Wuyin (December 26th), Liu Weichen sent his son Liu Zhilidi to invade Northern Wei's southern territory. On the day Yimao (December 22nd), Tuoba Gui marched to campaign against him.

On the day Renwu (December 25th), the Nothern Wei army greatly routed Liu Zhilidi south of Mount Tieqi. They captured his military equipment and grain supplies, as well as more than two hundred thousand cattle and sheep.

On the day Wuzi (December 31st), the Northern Wei army crossed south of the Yellow River at Jin Crossing in Wuyuan.

On the day Xinmao (January 3rd of 392), Tuoba Gui captured Liu Weichen’s base at the city of Yueba, and Liu Weichen and his sons fled and hid.

On the day Renchen (January 4th of 392), Tuoba Gui sent his generals in different directions to pursue the enemy, and they captured Liu Zhilidi.

In the twelfth month, the Northern Wei army captured Liu Weichen's corpse. They beheaded it; Liu Weichen was thus vanquished.

Tuoba Gui went to the Salt Ponds. All of the tribes south of the Yellow River were thus pacified. All told, Tuoba Gui captured Liu Weichen's fine treasures and special products, more than three hundred thousand fine horses, and more than four million cattle and sheep. He distributed rewards among his chief ministers as appropriate.

Tuoba Gui rounded up more than five thousand of Liu Weichen's younger relatives, his clansmen, and his partisans. All of them were killed, with no regard for age.

Leaders of the mountain tribes, Fantui, Yeyiyu, and others, led more than three thousand families to surrender to Tuoba Gui, who settled them at Mayi.

This campaign is further mentioned in the Biography of Liu Weichen.

During this year, Tuoba Gui raised a palace at Henan.


衞辰少子勃勃亡奔薛干部,珪使人求之。薛干部帥太悉仗出勃勃以示使者曰:「勃勃國破家亡,以窮歸我,我寧與之俱亡,何忍執以與魏。」乃送勃勃於沒弈干,沒弈干以女妻之。

21. Liu Weichen's young son Liu Bobo fled to the Xuegan tribe. Liu Weichen sent envoys demanding that Liu Bobo be handed over to him. The leader of the Xuegan, Taixizhang (or Daxizhang, or Taixifu), brought out Liu Bobo to show him to the envoys and told them, "Liu Bobo's state has just been routed and his family destroyed, and he came to me in his adversity. I ought to be destroyed along with him; how could I bear to hand him over to Wei?" And he sent Liu Bobo to stay with Mei Yigan, who gave Liu Bobo his daughter as a wife.

〈【張:「太悉」作「大悉」。】【章:十二行本「仗」作「伏」;乙十一行本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈爲勃勃殺沒弈干復建國張本。〉

(Some versions write 太悉仗 Taixizhang's name as 大悉仗 Daxizhang or 太悉伏 Taixifu.

This was why Liu Bobo was later able to kill Mei Yigan and establishe his own state.)


衞辰少子屈丐,亡奔薛干部。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Liu Weichen's youngest son Liu Qugai fled to the Xuegan tribe.


戊申,燕主垂如魯口。

22. On the day Wushen (January 20th of 392), Murong Chui went to Lukou.

秦主登攻安定,後秦主萇如陰密以拒之,謂太子興曰:「苟曜聞吾北行,必來見汝,汝執誅之。」曜果見興於長安,興使尹緯讓而誅之。

23. Fu Deng attacked Anding. Yao Chang came from Yinmi to oppose him.

Yao Chang told his son Yao Xing, "When Gou Yao hears that I have gone north, he is sure to come here to see you. Arrest him and execute him." And indeed, Gou Yao came to see Yao Xing at Chang'an. Yao Xing sent Yin Wei to denounce Gou Yao and then execute him.

〈自長安如陰密爲北行。〉〈善制敵者,能因事而爲功。苟曜反覆於苻、姚之間,而長安去鄭三百里耳,此姚氏腹脇之廱疽也,使萇召之,曜必不來。萇在長安,曜亦畏憚而不敢來。萇外出以誘之,曜亦疑而不敢來。二秦交兵,邊遽狎至,萇之北行若不得已者。苟曜無疑畏之心,謂姚興居守爲無能爲者,輕於一來,卒以送死。姚氏腹脇之疾去矣,此非能因事而爲功乎!〉

(Yao Chang would have gone north when he went from Chang'an to Yinmi.

Those who are skilled at dealing with their enemies are able to achieve what they wish by acting according to circumstances. Now Gou Yao had switched his allegiance between Former Qin and Later Qin, yet his base at Zheng was a mere three hundred li from Chang'an, so he was an ulcer on the very vitals of the Yao clan. If Yao Chang had summoned him, Gou Yao surely would not have come. And since he feared Yao Chang, so long as Yao Chang was present at Chang'an, Gou Yao would not have dared to come there of his own volition either. Even if Yao Chang had left the city in order to entice Gou Yao, he still would have been suspicious and not dared to come. But when the soldiers of Former Qin and Later Qin became locked in battle, and the border was threatened, Yao Chang was compelled to go north to deal with them. This was what would dispel Gou Yao's suspicions and fears; he would believe that with Yao Xing managing the Later Qin capital, he would be incapable. So Gou Yao rashly came to Chang'an, and thus sought his own death. Thus was this ulcer on the vitals of the Yao clan removed. Was this not achieving what they wished by acting according to circumstances?)


萇如陰密攻登,敕其太子興曰:「苟曜好奸變,將為國害,聞吾還北,必來見汝,汝便執之。」苟曜果見興于長安,興遣尹緯讓而誅之。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang went to Yinmi to attack Fu Deng. He told his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, "Gou Yao enjoys stirring up trouble and treason, and he will eventually be a threat to our state. When he hears that I have returned north, he is sure to come here to see you. Arrest him." And indeed, Gou Yao came to see Yao Xing at Chang'an. Yao Xing sent Yin Wei to denounce Gou Yao and then execute him.


萇敗登於安定城東,登退據路承堡。萇置酒高會,諸將皆曰:「若值魏武王,不令此賊至今,陛下將牢太過耳。」萇笑曰:「吾不如亡兄有四:身長八尺五寸,臂垂過膝,人望而畏之,一也;將十萬之衆,與天下爭衡,望麾而進,前無橫陳,二也;溫古知今,講論道藝,收羅英雋,三也;董帥大衆,上下咸悅,人盡死力,四也。所以得建立功業,驅策羣賢者,正望算略中有片長耳。」羣臣咸稱萬歲。

24. Yao Chang defeated Fu Deng east of Anding. Fu Deng withdrew to occupy Fort Lucheng.

Yao Chang held a great feast, where his generals all said, "Prince Wu of Wei (Yao Xiang) would not have left an enemy so close at hand. Your Majesty is too prudent."

Yao Chang laughed and said, "There are four aspects in which I cannot compare to my late elder brother. First, he was eight chi five cun tall, and his arms hung below his knees, so people were amazed and feared him. Second, with an army of a hundred thousand, he could contend for all the realm; he could advance wherever he wished, and his vanguard could not be broken. Third, he was warmly familiar with the ancient and he knew all about the modern; he could discuss anything and was skilled at everything, and he gathered up heroes and talents like a net. Fourth, in directing a great army, he could make everyone happy, and his soldiers would give their very lives for him. So in my attempts to gain achievements and establish a state, in advancing my plans and recruiting the worthy, I shall be glad if I can achieve even a measure of his potential."

Yao Chang's ministers all toasted his longevity.

〈路承,人姓名,築堡自守,時因以爲名。〉〈姚萇僭號,追諡兄襄爲魏武王。〉〈將牢,謂先自固而不妄動也,猶今人之言把穩。〉

(Lu Cheng was the name of a person. He had built this fort to protect himself, and so it became named after him.

When Yao Chang had declared himself Emperor, he had posthumously appointed his elder brother Yao Xiang as Prince Wu of Wei.

The expression 將牢 means to first be careful about oneself and not make any rash movements. Even today, people use this expression to refer to someone who is dependable.)


萇大敗登于安定東,置酒高會,諸將咸曰:「若值魏武王,不令此賊至今,陛下將牢太過耳。」萇笑曰:「吾不如亡兄有四:身長八尺五寸,臂垂過膝,人望而畏之,一也;當十萬之眾,與天下爭衡,望麾而進,前無橫陣,二也;溫古知今,講論道藝,駕馭英雄,收羅雋異,三也;董率大眾,履險若夷,上下咸允,人盡死力,四也。所以得建立功業,策任群賢者,正望算略中一片耳。」群臣咸稱萬歲。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang greatly defeated Fu Deng east of Anding.

Yao Chang held a great feast with wine, where his generals all said, "If Prince Wu of Wei (Yao Xiang) were here, he would not have left an enemy so close at hand. Your Majesty is too prudent."

Yao Chang laughed and said, "There are four aspects in which I cannot compare to my late elder brother. First, he was eight chi five cun tall, and his arms hung below his knees, so people were amazed and feared him when they saw him. Second, with an army of a hundred thousand, he could contend for all the realm; he could advance wherever he wished, and his vanguard could not be broken. Third, he was warmly familiar with the ancient and he knew all about the modern; he could discuss anything and was skilled at everything, and he gathered the heroic and bold to him and reeled in the talented and remarkable like with a net. Fourth, in directing a great army, he could cope with any difficulty with ease, he could make everyone happy, and his soldiers would give their very lives for him. So in my attempts to gain achievements and establish a state, in advancing my plans and recruiting the worthy, I shall be glad if I can achieve even a measure of his potential."

Yao Chang's ministers all toasted his longevity.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Nov 28, 2018 6:00 pm, edited 16 times in total.
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BOOK 108

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Oct 12, 2018 8:38 pm

太元十七年(壬辰、三九二)

The Seventeenth Year of Taiyuan (The Renchen Year, 392 AD)


春,正月,己巳朔,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jisi (February 10th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

秦主登立昭儀隴西李氏爲皇后。

2. Fu Deng honored his Zhaoyi concubine, Lady Li of Longxi, as his Empress.

二月,壬寅,燕主垂自魯口如河間、渤海。平原翟釗遣其將翟都侵館陶,屯蘇康壘。三月,垂引兵南擊釗。

3. In the second month, on the day Renyin (March 14th), Murong Chui went from Lukou to Hejian and Bohai commandaries. Zhai Zhao sent his general Zhai Du to raid Guantao county, and Zhai Du camped at Fort Sukang. In the third month, Murong Chui led troops south to attack Zhai Zhao.

〈蘇康,人姓名。館陶縣,漢屬魏郡,晉屬陽平郡。〉

(Su Kang was a person's name.

During Han, Guantao county was part of Wei commandary. During Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary.)


秦驃騎將軍沒弈干帥衆降于後秦,後秦以爲車騎將軍,封高平公。

4. Qin's General of Agile Cavalry, Mei Yigan, led his forces to surrender to Later Qin. They appointed him as their General of Chariots and Cavalry and Duke of Gaoping.

萇下書令留台諸鎮各置學官,勿有所廢,考試優劣,隨才擢敘。苻登驃騎將軍沒奕于率戶六千降,拜使持節、車騎將軍、高平公。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang sent down an edict ordering all his outlying administrative centers at his various garrisons to each establish education officials; they were ordered not to employ anyone who was unsuited, but rather to test and examine people to see who was superior and who was not, and to appoint people according to their talents and to appraise promising candidates.

Fu Deng's General of Agile Cavalry, Mei Yiyu, led six thousand households to surrender to Yao Chang, who appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Duke of Gaoping.


後秦主萇寢疾,命姚碩德鎭李潤,尹緯守長安,召太子興詣行營。征南將軍姚方成言於興曰:「今寇敵未滅,上復寢疾。王統等皆有部曲,終爲人患,宜盡除之。」興從之,殺王統、王廣、苻胤、徐成、毛盛。萇怒曰:「王統兄弟,吾之州里,實無他志;徐成等皆前朝名將,吾方用之,奈何輒殺之!」

5. Yao Chang was bedridden by illness, so he ordered Yao Shuode to guard Lirun and Yin Wei to guard Chang'an, while he summoned his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to visit him at his field camp.

The General Who Conquers The South, Yao Fangcheng, said to Yao Xing, "The invaders and enemies have not yet been vanquished, and now our sovereign is bedridden by illness. Wang Tong and the other Qin generals who surrendered to us have their own forces, and they will be threats to us someday. You should get rid of all of them."

Yao Xing agreed, so he executed Wang Tong, Wang Guang, Fu Yin, Xu Cheng, and Mao Sheng. Yao Chang was furious, and he said, "Wang Tong and his brother were our guardians in our border provinces, and they had no ulterior motives. And Xu Cheng and the others were all famous generals of the old (Former Qin) court. We ought to have used them well; why kill them all?"

〈萇時屯安定。〉〈皆苻氏舊臣也。〉〈使萇果以殺統等爲非罪,當按誅始造謀者;但怒而已,豈眞怒邪!〉

(At this time, Yao Chang was camped at Anding.

The people that Yao Xing executed had all been old ministers of the Fu clan of Former Qin.

If Yao Chang had really felt that Wang Tong and the others were blameless and had been killed for no reason, he ought to have looked into who had first proposed the idea of executing them. But he merely vented his anger and no more. How angry could he really have been?)


七年三月,萇寢疾,遣鎮東姚欣德守長安,召太子興詣行在所。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the seventh year of Jianchu (392), the third month, Yao Chang was bedridden by illness, so he sent his General Who Guards The East,Yao Xinde, to guard Chang'an, while he summoned his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to visit him at his field camp.

萇寢疾,遣姚碩德鎮李潤,尹緯守長安,召其太子興詣行營。征南姚方成言於興曰:「今寇賊未滅,上復寢疾,王統、苻胤等皆有部曲,終為人害,宜盡除之。」興於是誅苻胤、王統、王廣、徐成、毛盛,乃赴召。興至,萇怒曰:「王統兄弟是吾州裏,無他遠志,徐成等昔在秦朝,並為名將。天下小定,吾方任之,奈何輒便誅害,令人喪氣!」(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang was bedridden by illness, so he sent Yao Shuode to guard Lirun and Yin Wei to guard Chang'an, while he summoned his Crown Prince, Yao Xing, to visit him at his field camp.

The General Who Conquers The South, Yao Fangcheng, said to Yao Xing, "The invaders and enemies have not yet been vanquished, and now our sovereign is bedridden by illness. Wang Tong, Fu Yin, and the other Qin generals who surrendered to us have their own forces, and they will be threats to us someday. You should get rid of all of them."

Yao Xing agreed, so he executed Fu Yin, Wang Tong, Wang Guang, Xu Cheng, and Mao Sheng; only afterwards did he answer the summons. When Yao Xing arrived, Yao Chang was furious, and he said, "Wang Tong and his brother were our guardians in our border provinces, and they had no secret ambitions. And Xu Cheng and the others were all famous generals of the old (Former Qin) court. The realm has hardly been settled, and I had need of their talents. Why did you go so far as to execute them all, and bring grief to people?"


燕主垂進逼蘇康壘。夏,四月,翟都南走滑臺。翟釗求救於西燕,西燕主永謀於羣臣,尚書郎渤海鮑遵曰:「使兩寇相弊,吾承其後,此卞莊子之策也。」中書侍郎太原張騰曰:「垂強釗弱,何弊之承!不如速救之,以成鼎足之勢。今我引兵趨中山,晝多疑兵,夜多火炬,垂必懼而自救。我衝其前,釗躡其後,此天授之機,不可失也。」永不從。

6. Murong Chui advanced to threaten Fort Sukang. In summer, the fourth month, Zhai Du fled south to Huatai. Zhai Zhao asked for aid from Western Yan.

Murong Yong discussed plans with his ministers. A Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Bao Zun of Bohai commandary, said, "We should let these two foes weaken each other, then we can strike them both from behind. This is the strategy of Bian Zhuangzi."

But a Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Teng of Taiyuan commandary, objected, "Murong Chui is strong while Zhai Zhao is weak; how could he weaken Murong Chui? Better for us to hurry and assist Zhai Zhao at once, in order to establish a balance of power. Let us lead troops to march towards Zhongshan; we can display many false soldiers during the day and light many extra torches at night. Murong Chui will certainly be spooked and march back to protect his capital. Then while we hold Murong Chui to the front, Zhai Zhao will be free to chase him from behind. This is an opportunity sent by Heaven; we cannot squander it."

But Murong Yong did not listen.

〈翟釗敗,則西燕之亡形成矣。〉

(If Zhai Zhao was defeated, then Western Yan's doom would be sealed.)


垂攻丁零翟釗於滑臺,釗請救於永,永謀於眾。尚書郎勃海鮑遵曰:「徐觀其弊,卞莊之舉也。」中書侍郎太原張騰曰:「強弱勢殊,何弊之有!不如救之,成鼎峙之勢。可引兵趣中山,晝多疑兵,夜倍其火,彼必懼而還師。我衝其前,釗躡其後,此天授之機,不可失也。」永不從。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Yong)

When Murong Chui attacked the Dingling leader Zhai Zhao at Huatai, Zhai Zhao asked for aid from Murong Yong. So Murong Yong took council with his advisors. A Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Bao Zun of Bohai commandary, told him, "You should let them destroy each other. This is the same plan as Bian Zhuang."

But a Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Teng of Taiyuan commandary, objected, "When there is such a difference in power between them, how could they destroy one another? Better for us to Zhai Zhao, in order to establish a balance of power. Let us lead troops to march towards Zhongshan; we can display many false soldiers during the day and light many extra fires at night. Murong Chui will certainly be spooked and march back to protect his capital. Then while we hold Murong Chui to the front, Zhai Zhao will be free to chase him from behind. This is an opportunity sent by Heaven; we cannot squander it."

But Murong Yong did not listen.


燕大赦。

7. A general amnesty was declared in Yan.

五月,丁卯朔,日有食之。

8. In the fifth month, on the new moon of the day Dingmao (June 7th), there was an eclipse.

六月,燕主垂軍黎陽,臨河欲濟,翟釗列兵南岸以拒之。辛亥,垂徙營就西津,去黎陽西四十里,爲牛皮船百餘艘,僞列兵仗,泝流而上。釗亟引兵趣西津,垂潛遣中壘將軍桂林王鎭等自黎陽津夜濟,營于河南,比明而營成。釗聞之,亟還,攻鎭等營,垂命鎭等堅壁勿戰。釗兵往來疲暍,攻營不能拔,將引去;鎭等引兵出戰,驃騎將軍農自西津濟,與鎭等夾擊,大破之。釗走還滑臺,將妻子,收遺衆,北濟河,登白鹿山,憑險自守,燕兵不得進。農曰:「釗無糧,不能久居山中。」乃引兵還,留騎候之。釗果下山,還兵掩擊,盡獲其衆,釗單騎奔長子。西燕主永以釗爲車騎大將軍、兗州牧,封東郡王。歲餘,釗謀反,永殺之。

9. In the sixth month, Murong Chui's army was at Liyang. They were on the bank of the Yellow River, about to cross over, but Zhai Zhao arrayed his troops on the south bank to oppose them.

On the day Xinhai (July 21st), Murong Chui shifted his camp to a western crossing, forty li west of Liyang. He gathered more than a hundred ox-hide boats, and he pretended to array soldiers and weapons there as though he were going to cross over. Zhai Zhao quickly led his troops to this crossing. But then Murong Chui secretly sent his General of the Central Ramparts and Prince of Guilin, Murong Zhen, and others to cross the river at Liyang during the night and set up a camp on the south bank. By the time morning came, the camp was finished. When Zhai Zhao heard this, he rushed back and attacked Murong Zhen and the others at their camp. Murong Chui ordered Murong Zhen and the others to hold fast to their defenses and not offer battle. Zhai Zhao's soldiers were exhausted and suffering from heatstroke, and they assaulted the camp but could not take it, so Zhai Zhao was about to lead them away. Then Murong Zhen and the others led their own troops out to fight a battle, and Yan's General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Nong, crossed the river at the western crossing and marched to join the battle. Hemmed in on both sides, Zhai Zhao's soldiers were greatly routed.

Zhai Zhao fled back to Huatai, where he brought his wife and children and gathered up his remaining forces to cross north of the Yellow River and ascend Mount Bailu. He took advantage of the terrain there to defend himself, and the Yan soldiers could make no headway against him. Murong Nong said, "Zhai Zhao has no grain, so he cannot maintain his position on the mountain for very long." So he led his troops back, only leaving riders to keep an eye on the mountain. As expected, Zhai Zhao came back down, and Murong Nong led his troops back to ambush him. He captured Zhai Zhao's entire army; Zhai Zhao escaped on a lone horse and fled to Zhangzi.

Murong Yong appointed Zhai Zhao as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Governor of Yanzhou, and Prince of Chen commandary. But years later, Zhai Zhao plotted rebellion, so Murong Yong killed him.

〈比,及也。〉〈暍,傷暑也。〉〈燕主垂用兵於河上者再,溫詳則引兵徑濟而取之,翟釗則張疑兵於西而潛軍東渡,亦以決勝,視敵之堅脆何如也。農,燕之驃騎大將軍,此逸「大」字。〉〈《水經註》:河內脩武縣北有白鹿山。〉

(比 in this case means "when something came or arrived".

Heatstroke is to be injured by heat.

When it came to how to deal with bringing his soldiers across the Yellow River, Murong Chui had alternating policies. When he faced Wen Xiang, he led his troops straight across and captured him; when he faced Zhai Zhao, he displayed false soldiers to the west while secretly sending his soldiers across to the east. In both cases, he was victorious. He saw where his enemies were firm and where they were brittle, and then exploited it.

At this time, Murong Nong was Later Yan's Grand General of Agile Cavalry; this passage has dropped the "Grand" from his title.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a Mount Bailu in the north of Xiuwu county in Henei commandary.")


釗敗降永,永以釗為車騎大將軍、東郡王。歲餘,謀殺永,永誅之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Yong)

Zhai Zhao was defeated, and he surrendered to Murong Yong. Murong Yong appointed Zhai Zhao as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Chen commandary. But years later, Zhai Zhao plotted to kill Murong Yong, so Murong Yong executed him.

垂征克滑臺,釗奔長子。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui campaigned against Zhai Zhao and captured Huatai, and Zhai Zhao fled to Zhangzi.

垂引師伐釗於滑台,次於黎陽津,釗于南岸距守,諸將惡其兵精,咸諫不宜濟河。垂笑曰:「堅子何能為,吾今為鯽等殺之。」遂徙營就西津,為牛皮船百餘艘,載疑兵列杖,溯流而上。釗先以大眾備黎陽,見垂向西津,乃棄營西距。垂潛遣其桂林王慕容鎮、驃騎慕容國于黎陽津夜濟,壁于河南。釗聞而奔還,士眾疲渴,走歸滑台,釗攜妻子率數百騎北趣白鹿山。農追擊,盡擒其眾,釗單騎奔長子。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui led his troops to campaign against Zhai Zhao at Huatai, and they marched to Liyang Crossing. Zhai Zhao arrayed his forces on the south bank of the Yellow River to oppose any crossing.

Murong Chui's generals were unnerved, feeling that Zhai Zhao's troops were too elite, and they remonstrated with Murong Chui against any plans to cross the river. But Murong Chui only laughed and said, "Could a whelp like him stop me? Gentleman, I will kill him for you."

So he shifted his camp to the western crossing, where he gathered more than a hundred oxhide boats and displayed false soldiers and arrays of weapons, to make it look like he intended to cross the river upstream. Zhai Zhao had already built defense preparations for his main army at Liyang Crossing, but when he saw that Murong Chui had moved to the western crossing, he abandoned his camps at Liyang and marched west to oppose that attempt. But Murong Chui then sent his Prince of Guilin, Murong Zhen, and his General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Guo, to secretly cross the river at Liyang Crossing during the night, and they fortified themselves on the south side of the river. When Zhai Zhao realized what had happened, he came back. But his officers and soldiers were weary and thirsty, and they fled back to Huatai.

Zhai Zhao brought his wife and children and led several hundred cavalry north to meet at Mount Bailu. Murong Nong pursued and attacked Zhai Zhao and captured his remaining forces. Zhai Zhao fled on a lone horse to Zhangzi.


初,郝晷、崔逞及清河崔宏、新興張卓、遼東夔騰、陽平路纂皆仕於秦,避秦亂來奔,詔以爲冀州諸郡,各將部曲營於河南;旣而受翟氏官爵,翟氏敗,皆降於燕,燕主垂各隨其材而用之。釗所統七郡三萬餘戶,皆按堵如故。以章武王宙爲兗、豫二州刺史,鎭滑臺;徙徐州民七千餘戶于黎陽,以彭城王脫爲徐州刺史,鎭黎陽。脫,垂之弟子也。垂以崔蔭爲宙司馬。

10. Earlier, Hao Gui, Cui Cheng, Cui Hong of Qinghe commandary, Zhang Zhuo of Xinxing commandary, Kui Teng of Liaodong commandary, and Lu Zuan of Yangping commandary had all held office under Qin. They had fled during the collapse of Qin, and the Jin court had appointed them as Administrators of the commandaries of Jizhou, with each of them leading their own forces south of the Yellow River. But they later accepted ranks and titles from the Zhai clan. Now that the Zhai clan was defeated, they all surrendered to Yan, and Murong Chui used them as suited their talents.

Zhai Zhao had controlled seven commandaries and more than thirty thousand households; these were all maintained by Yan as before. Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Zhangwu, Murong Zhou, as Inspector of Yanzhou and Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Huatai. Murong Chui also relocated more than seven thousand households from Xuzhou to Liyang, and he appointed the Prince of Pengcheng, Murong Tuo, as the Inspector of Xuzhou, stationed at Liyang. This Murong Tuo was Murong Chui's nephew.

Murong Chui appointed Cui Yin as Murong Zhou's Marshal.

〈夔,姓也。石趙之臣有夔安。〉〈徐州之民,蓋爲翟釗所掠者。〉

(夔 Kui was a surname. There was a Kui An among Shi Le's generals.

The people of Xuzhou must have been pillaged by Zhai Zhao.)


釗所統七郡戶三萬八千皆安堵如故。徙徐州流人七千餘戶于黎陽。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Zhai Zhao had controlled seven commandaries and thirty-eight thousand households; these were all maintained by Yan as before. Murong Chui relocated more than seven thousand refugee households from Xuzhou to Liyang.

堅亡,避難於齊魯之間,為丁零翟釗及司馬昌明叛將張願所留縶。郝軒歎曰:「斯人而遇斯時,不因扶搖之勢,而與鷃雀飛沉,豈不惜哉!」慕容垂以為吏部郎、尚書左丞、高陽內史。所歷著稱,立身雅正,與世不羣,雖在兵亂,猶勵志篤學,不以資產為意,妻子不免飢寒。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Cui Hong)

After Fu Jian's fall, Cui Hong hid from the dangers of the age in the Qi and Lu regions, but he was forced to serve the Dingling leader Zhai Zhao and the Jin rebel general Zhang Yuan. Hao Xuan lamented, "Such a man, and yet he lives in such an age; if he is not swept up by a cyclone, he is caught up by a flock of birds! Is it not lamentable?"

Murong Chui appointed Cui Hong as a Gentleman of the Personnel Bureau, Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Interior Minister of Gaoyang. He won a great reputation for himself, but he maintained a refined and proper attitude, never mixing with the trends of the age. Even with all the armies and turmoil of the era, Cui Hong still maintained his ambitions and was diligent in his studies. He had no regard for enriching himself through some industry, and his wife and children were not spared from hunger or cold.


初,陳留王紹爲鎭南將軍,太原王楷爲征西將軍,樂浪王溫爲征東將軍,垂皆以蔭爲之佐。蔭才幹明敏強正,善規諫,四王皆嚴憚之;所至簡刑法,輕賦役,流民歸之,戶口滋息。

11. Regarding this Cui Yin, Murong Chui had earlier had him serve as an assistant to three other princes. He had served the Prince of Chenliu, Murong Shao, when he had been General Who Guards The South; he had served the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Kai, when he had been General Who Conquers the West; and he had served the Prince of Lelang, Murong Wen, when he had been General Who Conquers The East. Cui Yin was talented, capable, wise, quick-witted, forceful, and just. He delighted in correcting and remonstrating behavior, and the four princes he served under all dreaded him. But thanks to him, laws and punishments were simplified, taxes and labor burdens were eased, refugees returned to their homes, and the population grew and multiplied.

秋,七月,垂如鄴,以太原王楷爲冀州牧,右光祿大夫餘蔚爲左僕射。

12. In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Chui returned to Ye. He appointed Murong Kai as Governor of Jizhou, and he appointed the Household Counselor of the Right, Hae Yeoul, as Supervisor of the Left.

秦主登聞後秦主萇疾病,大喜,告祠世祖神主,大赦百官,進位二等,秣馬厲兵,進逼安定,去城九十餘里。八月,萇疾小瘳,出拒之。登引兵出營,將逆戰,萇遣安南將軍姚熙隆別攻秦營,登懼而還。萇夜引兵旁出以躡其後,旦而候騎告曰:「賊諸營已空,不知所向。」登驚曰:「彼爲何人,去令我不知,來令我不覺,謂其將死,忽然復來,朕與此羌同世,何其厄哉!」登遂還雍,萇亦還安定。

13. When Fu Deng heard that Yao Chang was seriously ill, he was delighted, and he reported it at the shrine of Shizu (Fu Jian). He declared a general amnesty, and all officials were advanced by two ranks. Fu Deng fattened his horses and drilled his troops, then advanced to threaten Anding, some ninety li from the city.

In the eighth month, Yao Chang's illness abated somewhat, so he went out to oppose Fu Deng. Fu Deng led his troops out of his camp, about to do battle, when Yao Chang sent his General Who Maintains The South, Yao Xilong, to attack Fu Deng's camp from another direction. Afraid, Fu Deng pulled back to his camp. Then during the night, Yao Chang led his troops away to his rear. When morning came, Fu Deng's scouts reported, "The enemy's camps are already empty, and we don't know where they've gone."

Astonished, Fu Deng said, "Who are these enemies, that they can come and go without my knowing or realizing it? They said their general was dead, then suddenly he reappears again. Why must I be burdened to live in the same age as these Qiang?"

So Fu Deng led his own troops back to Yong. Yao Chang then returned to Anding.

〈疾甚曰病。〉〈苻堅廟號世祖。〉〈苻登屢爲姚萇所挫,故有懼萇之心,蓋至於是,登氣衰矣。〉

(A serious sickness is called an illness.

Fu Jian's temple name was Shizu.

Having been defeated several times by Yao Chang, Fu Deng was now afraid of him. This must have been why his spirit was so broken at this time.)


三河王光遣其弟右將軍寶等攻金城王乾歸,寶及將士死者萬餘人。又遣其子虎賁中郎將纂擊南羌彭奚念,纂亦敗歸。光自將擊奚念於枹罕,克之,奚念奔甘松。

14. Lü Guang sent his General of the Right, his younger brother Lü Bao, and others to attack Qifu Gangui. But Lü Bao was killed, along with more than ten thousand of his officers and soldiers. Lü Guang also sent his General of the Household Gentlemen Rapid as Tigers, his son Lü Zuan, to attack the Southern Qiang leader Peng Xinian. But Lü Zuan was also defeated. Lü Guang himself marched to attack Peng Xinian at Fuhan. He captured Fuhan, and Peng Xinian fled to Gansong.

〈甘松郡,乞伏國仁所置。〉

(Gansong commandary was created by Qifu Guoren.)


南羌彭奚念入攻白土,都尉孫峙退奔興城。光遣其南中郎將呂方及其弟右將軍呂寶、振威楊范、強弩竇苟討乞伏乾歸於金城。方屯河北,寶進師濟河,為乾歸所敗,寶死之。武賁呂篡、強弩竇苟率步騎五千南討彭奚念,戰於盤夷,大敗而歸。光親討乾歸、奚念,遣纂及揚武楊軌、建忠沮渠羅仇、建武梁恭軍于左南。奚念大懼,于白土津累石為堤,以水自固,遣精兵一萬距守河津。光遣將軍王寶潛趣上津,夜渡湟河。光濟自石堤,攻克枹罕,奚念單騎奔甘松,光振旅而旋。初,光徙西海郡人于諸郡,至是,謠曰:「朔馬心何悲?念舊中心勞。燕雀何徘徊?意欲還故巢。」頃之,遂相扇動,復徙之于西河樂都。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

The Southern Qiang leader Peng Xinian entered the realm and attacked Baitu. The Commandant there, Sun Zhi, fled to Xingcheng. Lü Guang sent his General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Lü Fang, his General of the Right, Lü Fang's younger brother Lü Bao, his General Who Spreads Might, Yang Fan, and his General of Strong Crossbows, Dou Gou, to campaign against Qifu Gangui at Jincheng. Lü Fang camped north of the Yellow River, while Lü Bao led his troops to cross the river. But they were defeated by Qifu Gangui, and Lü Bao was killed.

The General of the Household Gentlemen Rapid as Tigers, Lü Zuan, and Dou Gou led five thousand horse and foot south to campaign against Peng Xinian, and they fought at Panyi. But they were also greatly defeated, and they returned.

Lü Guang himself campaigned against Qifu Gangui and Peng Xinian, while sending Lü Zuan, the General Who Spreads Valor, Yang Gui, the General Who Establishes Loyalty, Juqu Luochou, and the General Who Establishes Valor, Liang Gong, to camp at Zuonan. Greatly frightened, Peng Xinian gathered rocks at Baitu Crossing to form a dyke in order to ensure his defenses, and he sent ten thousand elite soldiers to oppose any crossing of the Yellow River. But Lü Guang sent his general Wang Bao to secretly march upstream, and during the night Wang Bao crossed the River at Huanghe. Then Lü Guang himself crossed at the stone dyke, and he attacked Fuhan and took it. Peng Xinian fled on a lone horse to Gansong, and Lü Guang made a wide circuit before returning.

Earlier, Lü Guang had relocated the people of Xihai commandary into other commandaries. At this time, there was a ditty which went, "Why does the horse seem sad? It longs for its old home. What would make birds glad? In their old nests to roam." This was an indication that the people were all stirred up again. So Lü Guang now relocated them to Ledu in Xihe commandary.

為呂光弟寶所攻,敗於鳴雀峽,退屯青岸。寶進追乾歸,乾歸使其將彭奚念斷其歸路,躬貫甲胄,連戰敗之,寶及將士投河死者萬餘人。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui was attacked by Lü Guang's younger brother Lü Bao, and he was defeated at Mingque Gorge. He retreated to camp at Qing'an. Lü Bao advanced to pursue Qifu Gangui, but Qifu Gangui sent his general Peng Xinian to cut off Lü Bao's line of retreat. Then putting on his helmet and armor, Qifu Gangui attacked and defeated Lü Bao. Lü Bao and more than ten thousand of his officers and soldiers threw themselves into the Yellow River and drowned.


冬,十月,辛亥,荊州刺史王忱卒。

15. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinhai (November 18th), Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Wang Shen, passed away.

〈忱,是壬翻。〉

(Wang Shen's given name 忱 is pronounced "shen (sh-en)".)


雍州刺史朱序以老病求解職;詔以太子右衞率郗恢爲雍州刺史,代序鎭襄陽。恢,曇之子也。

16. Jin's Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhu Xu, resigned his post on account of old age and infirmity. The Jin court appointed the Crown Prince's Guard Leader of the Right, Chi Hui, as the new Inspector of Yongzhou, and Chi Hui took over for Zhu Xu at Xiangyang. This Chi Hui was the son of Chi Tan.

〈郗曇見一百卷穆帝升平三年。率,所律翻。〉

(Chi Tan is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's third year of Shengping (359.12).)


巴蜀人在關中者皆叛後秦,據弘農以附秦。秦主登以竇衝爲左丞相,衝徙屯華陰。郗恢遣將軍趙睦守金墉,河南太守楊佺期帥衆軍湖城,擊衝,走之。

17. At this time, natives of the Ba and Shu regions who were now living in Guanzhong rebelled against Later Qin. They occupied Hongnong in support of Qin.

Fu Deng appointed Dou Chong as Prime Minister of the Left, and Dou Chong shifted his camp to Huayin. Chi Hui sent the general Zhao Mu to guard the Jinyong fortress at Luoyang. Jin's Administrator of Henan, Yang Quanqi, led his army to Hucheng, attacked Dou Chong, and drove him off.

十一月,癸酉,以黃門郎殷仲堪爲都督荊‧益‧寧三州諸軍事、荊州刺史,鎭江陵。仲堪雖有英譽,資望猶淺,議者不以爲允。到官,好行小惠,綱目不舉。

18. In the eleventh month, on the day Guiyou (December 10th), Emperor Xiaowu appointed the Yellow Gate Attendant, Yin Zhongkan, as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Yizhou, and Ningzhou and as Inspector of Jingzhou, and he was stationed at Jiangling.

Although Yin Zhongkan had a heroic reputation, he was really only of superficial worth, and people who talked about him said that he was not fully suited to the job. While he was in office, although he enjoyed carrying out small acts of kindness, he did not grasp the larger picture.

南郡公桓玄負其才地,以雄豪自處,朝廷疑而不用;年二十三,始拜太子洗馬。玄嘗詣琅邪王道子,值其酣醉,張目謂衆客曰:「桓溫晚塗欲作賊,云何?」玄伏地流汗,不能起;由是益不自安,常切齒於道子。後出補義興太守,鬱鬱不得志,歎曰:「父爲九州伯,兒爲五湖長!」遂棄官歸國,上疏自訟曰:「先臣勤王匡復之勳,朝廷遺之,臣不復計。至於先帝龍飛,陛下繼明,請問談者,誰之由邪?」疏寢不報。

19. Jin's Duke of Nan commandary, Huan Xuan, was the son of Huan Wen. Because of his personal talents and his family background, he considered himself a hero who was entitled to great things. But the Jin court was suspicious of him, and he was neglected; he did not receive office until he was twenty-two years old, when he was appointed as Horse-Washer to the Crown Prince.

Huan Xuan once came to visit the Prince of Langye, Sima Daozi. When Sima Daozi became drunk, he looked around at his guests with wide eyes and said, "When Huan Wen became old and grey, he wanted to play the rebel, didn't he?" Huan Xuan prostrated himself on the ground and sweated heavily, unable to rise. From then on, Huan Xuan was ever more uneasy, and he often gnashed his teeth at Sima Daozi.

Later, Huan Xuan was sent out to serve as Administrator of Yixing. But Huan Xuan was depressed at not having achieved his ambitions, and he sighed, "My father was lord of nine provinces; am I his son to be nothing more than a Chief of the Five Lakes?" So he abandoned his post and returned to his fief. He sent up a petition to explain himself, stating, "My late father acted diligently to rectify and restore the royal affairs, and the court owes more to him than I can reckon. And might I not ask: who was responsible for allowing His Late Majesty to ascend like a dragon, and to whom does Your Majesty owe your 'brilliant virtue'?" This petition was tabled, and no response was sent.

〈負其才與其門地也。〉〈虞翻曰:太湖有五湖:隔湖、洮湖、射湖、貴湖及太湖爲五湖,並太湖之小支,俱連太湖,故太湖兼得五湖之名。韋昭曰:胥湖、蠡湖、洮湖、滆湖就太湖而五。酈善長謂長塘湖、射湖、貴湖、隔湖與太湖而五。《吳中志》謂:貢湖、遊湖、胥湖、梅梁湖、金鼎湖爲五也。〉〈玄襲封南郡公。〉〈謂桓溫廢海西立簡文帝而帝繼統也。《易》曰:明兩作離,大人以繼明照四方。〉

(Huan Xuan felt that he was entitled because of his talents and his family background.

Yu Fan remarked, "There are Five Lakes around Lake Tai: Lake Ge, Lake Tao, Lake She, Lake Kuai, and Lake Tai itself. This is not to mention the small branches of Lake Tai, which all feed into it. This is why the whole Lake Tai region is called the Five Lakes." Wei Zhao remarked, "The Five Lakes are Lake Xu, Lake Li, Lake Tao, Lake Ge, and Lake Tai." Li Shanzhang stated that the Five Lakes were Lake Zhangtang, Lake She, Lake Kuai, Lake Ge, and Lake Tai. The Records of the Interior of the Wu Region states, "The Five Lakes are Lake Gong, Lake You, Lake Xu, Lake Meiliang, and Lake Jinding."

Huan Xuan had inherited his father Huan Wen's title as Duke of Nan commandary.

Huan Xuan's petition was referring to how Huan Wen had deposed the Duke of Haixi (Emperor Fei) and replaced him with Emperor Jianwen. Emperor Xiaowu had then been able to succeed Emperor Jianwen. The Book of Changes states, "The trigram for brightness, repeated, forms Li. The great man, in accordance with this, cultivates more and more his brilliant virtue, and diffuses its brightness over the four quarters of the land (Li 1).)


玄在江陵,仲堪甚敬憚之。桓氏累世臨荊州,玄復豪橫,士民畏之,過於仲堪。嘗於仲堪聽事前戲馬,以矟擬仲堪。仲堪中兵參軍彭城劉邁謂玄曰:「馬矟有餘,精理不足。」玄不悅,仲堪爲之失色。玄出,仲堪謂邁曰:「卿,狂人也!玄夜遣殺卿,我豈能相救邪!」使邁下都避之,玄使人追之,邁僅而獲免。

20. Now that Huan Xuan was at Jiangling, Yin Zhongkan was very respectful and fearful of him. The Huan family had been established in Jingzhou for generations, and Huan Xuan himself was domineering, so the local people feared him more than they did Yin Zhongkan.

On one occasion, Huan Xuan was playing around on a horse in front of Yin Zhongkan's office, and he pointed his lance at Yin Zhongkan. Yin Zhongkan's Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, Liu Mai of Pengcheng commandary, said to Huan Xuan, "I see you are long of lance, but short of sense." Huan Xuan was displeased by this remark, and Yin Zhongkan turned pale.

After Huan Xuan left, Yin Zhongkan said to Liu Mai, "You fool! Huan Xuan will send people to kill you this very night, and how will I be able to save you?" He sent Liu Mai back to the capital so that he could escape from danger. Huan Xuan indeed sent people after him, but Liu Mai barely made his escape.

〈《通俗文》:長丈八者謂之矟。擬者,舉矟向之,若將刺之也。〉〈元帝謂江東置參軍十三曹,有中兵、外兵、騎兵。〉〈都,謂建康。〉

(The Tongsu Dictionary states, "A spear that is one zhang eight chi in length is called a lance."

By "pointing" the lance, this passage means that Huan Xuan was lifting the lance in Yin Zhongkan's direction, as though he were about to stab him.

When Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) began the restoration in the Southland, he created Army Advisors of thirteen offices; among these were the Central Regiment, the Outer Regiment, and the Cavalry Regiment.

The "capital" meant Jiankang.)


征虜參軍豫章胡藩過江陵,見仲堪,說之曰:「桓玄志趣不常,每怏怏於失職,節下崇待太過,恐非將來之計也!」仲堪不悅。藩內弟羅企生爲仲堪功曹,藩退,謂企生曰:「殷侯倒戈以授人,必及於禍。君不早圖去就,後悔無及矣!」

21. The Army Advisor to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Hu Fang of Yuzhang commandary, was passing through Jiangling. He came to see Yin Zhongkan and persuaded him, "Huan Xuan has uncommon ambitions and desires. He is always sullenly resigning his offices, and Commissioner, you are treating him with far too much honor. I fear he is plotting something, and it won't be long now!" But Yin Zhongkan was displeased by this suggestion.

Hu Fang's brother-in-law and fellow commandary native, Luo Qisheng, was serving as Yin Zhongkan's Merit Evaluator. When Hu Fang was about to leave, he said to Luo Qisheng, "Marquis Yin has already thrown down his weapons to serve this fellow, and he is sure to come to disaster. Sir, if you do not figure out a way to get out of here quickly, it will be too late for regrets later!"

〈【章:十二行本「弟」下有「同郡」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉〈爲後桓玄殺企生、仲堪張本。〉

(Some versions state that Luo Qisheng was "from the same commandary" as Hu Fang.

This was why Huan Xuan later killed Luo Qisheng and Yin Zhongkan.)


庚寅,立皇子德文爲琅邪王,徙琅邪王道子爲會稽王。

22. On the day Gengyin (December 27th), Emperor Xiaowu's son Sima Dewen was appointed as the new Prince of Langye. Sima Daozi's title was changed to Prince of Kuaiji.

十二月,燕主垂還中山,以遼西王農爲都督兗、豫、荊、徐、雍五州諸軍事,鎭鄴。

23. In the twelfth month, Murong Chui returned to Zhongshan. He appointed the Prince of Liaoxi, Murong Nong, as Commander of military affairs in Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Jingzhou, Xuzhou, and Yongzhou, and Murong Nong was stationed at Ye.

休官權千成據顯親,自稱秦州牧。

24. A leader of the Xiuguan people, Quan Qiancheng, occupied Xianqin county and declared himself Governor of Qinzhou.

〈休官,雜夷部落之名。顯親縣,漢光武置,屬漢陽郡。晉改顯親爲顯新,復漢陽爲天水郡。《晉書‧姚興載記》,「權千成」作「權干城」,略陽豪族也。〉

(休官 Xiuguan was the name of one of the various Yi tribes.

Xianqin county was created by Emperor Guangwu of Han, as part of Hanyang commandary. Jin changed its name from Xianqin to Xianxin, and restored Hanyang's former name as Tianshui commandary.

The Biography of Yao Xing in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records 權千成 Quan Qiancheng's name as 權干城 Quan Gancheng, a gentry leader from Lüeyang commandary.)


清河人李遼上表請敕兗州脩孔子廟,給戶灑掃。仍立庠序,收敎學者,曰:「事有如賖而寔急者,此之謂也!」表不見省。

25. A native of Qinghe commandary, Li Liao, sent up a petition asking that the Jin government of Yanzhou restore the temple of Confucius and assign households to keep it washed and swept clean. He established his own school of instruction, where he gathered students and instructed them, telling them, "When people talk about things seeming well but really being an emergency, this is what they mean!" But his petition was not put into effect.

〈孔子廟在魯。魯郡,前漢屬徐州,後漢、晉屬豫州,江表始分屬兗州。〉〈此寔義與虛實之實同。〉

(The temple of Confucius was in the Lu region. During Former Han, Lu commandary was part of Xuzhou, and during Later Han and Western Jin, it was part of Yuzhou. The reason that Li Liao sent this petition to the government of Yanzhou was because after the restoration of Jin, Lu commandary had been split off as part of Jin's province of Yanzhou.

Li Liao uses the word 寔; this is the same term as in the expressions 寔義 or 虛實.)
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BOOK 108

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Oct 12, 2018 8:41 pm

十八年(癸巳、三九三)

The Eighteenth Year of Taiyuan (The Guisi Year, 393 AD)


春,正月,燕陽平孝王柔卒。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong Rou passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xiao ("the Filial") of Yangping.

權千成爲秦所逼,請降於金城王乾歸,乾歸以爲東秦州刺史、休官大都統、顯親公。

2. Quan Qiancheng felt threatened by Qin, so he asked to surrender to Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui appointed him as Inspector of Eastern Qinzhou, Grand Overseer of the Xiuguan, and Duke of Xianqin.

夏,四月,庚子,燕主垂加太子寶大單于;以安定王庫傉官偉爲太尉,范陽王德爲司徒,太原王楷爲司空,陳留王紹爲尚書右僕射。五月,立子熙爲河間王,朗爲渤海王,鑒爲博陵王。

3. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengzi (May 6th), Murong Chui promoted his Crown Prince, Murong Bao, as Grand Chanyu. He appointed the Prince of Anding, Kunuguan Wei, as Grand Commandant. He appointed the Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, as Minister Over The Masses. He appointed Murong Kai as Minister of Works. And he appointed Murong Shao as Supervisor of the Right of the Masters of Writing.

In the fifth month, Murong Chui appointed his sons Murong Xi, Murong Lang, and Murong Jian as Prince of Hejian, Prince of Bohai, and Prince of Boling.

八年,拜司徒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

In the eighth year of Jianxing (393), Murong De was promoted to Minister Over The Masses.

垂稱尋遷司徒。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong Chui later appointed Murong De as Minister Over The Masses.

久之,遷司徙。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong Chui later appointed Murong De as Minister Over The Masses.


秦右丞相竇衝矜才尚人,自請封天水王;秦主登不許。六月,衝自稱秦王,改元元光。

4. By now, Dou Chong had grown conceited and overbearing. He asked that Fu Deng appoint him as Prince of Tianshui, but Fu Deng would not consent. So in the sixth month, Dou Chong declared himself King of Qin, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yuanguang.

〈尚人者,陵人而出其上。〉

(Someone who is overbearing bullies others in order to exalt themselves.)


金城王乾歸立其子熾磐爲太子。熾磐勇略明決,過於其父。

5. Qifu Gangui appointed his son Qifu Chipan as Crown Prince. Qifu Chipan was bold, calculating, wise, and decisive; he even surpassed his father in these respects.

六年,立子熾盤為太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the sixth year of Taichu (393), Qifu Gangui appointed his son Qifu Chipan as Crown Prince.


秋,七月,秦主登攻竇衝於野人堡,衝求救於後秦。尹緯言於後秦主萇曰:「太子仁厚之稱,著於遠近,而英略未著,請使擊苻登以著之。」萇從之。太子興將兵攻胡空堡,登解衝圍以赴之。興因襲平涼,大獲而歸。萇使興還鎭長安。

6. In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Deng attacked Dou Chong at Fort Yeren. Dou Chong asked for aid from Later Qin.

Yin Wei said to Yao Chang, "The Crown Prince (Yao Xing) has established a reputation as a benevolent and generous man, and he is known as such near and far. However, he has not yet had a chance to display his boldness or his cunning. I ask that you send him to attack Fu Deng now, so that he may prove himself."

Yao Chang agreed. So Yao Xing led troops to attack Fort Hukong, causing Fu Deng to lift his siege of Dou Chong to march to meet him there. But Yao Xing then made a surprise attack against Pingliang, capturing much there before returning. Then Yao Chang sent Yao Xing back to guard Chang'an.

〈稱,名稱也。〉〈苻登自大界之敗,以平涼爲根本。〉

(To be known for something is to have a reputation for that quality.

Ever since the loss of Dajie, Fu Deng had used Pingliang as his base.)


萇下書,兵吏從征伐,戶在大營者,世世復其家,無所豫。苻登與竇沖相持,萇議擊之,尹緯言於萇曰:「太子純厚之稱,著于遐邇,將領英略,未為遠近所知。宜遣太子親行,可以漸廣威武,防窺窬之原。」萇從之,戎興曰:「賊徒知汝轉近,必相驅入堡,聚而掩之,無不克矣。」比至胡空堡,沖圍自解。登聞興向胡空堡,引還,興因襲平涼,大獲而歸,咸如萇策。使興還鎮長安。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang sent out an edict stating that he would provide for the families of those soldiers and officials who accompanied him on his campaigns and whose households were living in his main camp; he would keep them sustained from generation to generation, and not think about his own comfort.

Fu Deng was locked in stalemate with Dou Chong. Yao Chang discussed attacking Fu Deng.

Yin Wei said to Yao Chang, "The Crown Prince (Yao Xing) has established a reputation as a pure and generous man, and he is known as such near and far. However, he has not yet had a chance to display his boldness or his cunning, and those near and far do not know of it. You should send him to lead the army in person; he can gradually develop his power and might, and he will be prepared to guard against those who would seek to do us harm."

Yao Chang agreed, so he instructed Yao Xing, "If the enemy learns of your approach, they will surely charge straight into your defenses. So you must attack them by surprise, and then you cannot fail." Yao Xing led troops to attack Fort Hukong, causing Fu Deng to lift his siege of Dou Chong. Since he had heard that Yao Xing was marching towards Fort Hukong, Fu Deng led his troops back there. But Yao Xing then made a surprise attack against Pingliang, capturing much there before returning, just as Yao Chang had planned. Then Yao Chang sent Yao Xing back to guard Chang'an.


魏王珪以薛干太悉伏不送劉勃勃,八月,襲其城,屠之,太悉伏奔秦。

7. It was earlier mentioned that after the destruction of Liu Weichen and his domain, the Xuegan leader Taixifu had refused to hand over Liu Weichen's son Liu Bobo to Tuoba Gui. So in the eighth month, Tuoba Gui launched a surprise attack on Taixifu's city and massacred it. Taixifu fled to Qin.

〈事見上卷十六年。〉

(Northern Wei's campaign against Liu Weichen is mentioned in Book 107, in the sixteenth year of Taiyuan (391.20-21).)


七年春正月,幸木根山,遂次黑鹽池。饗宴羣臣,覲諸國貢使。北之美水。三月甲子,宴羣臣於水濱,還幸河南宮。西部泣黎大人茂鮮叛走,遣南部大人長孫嵩追討,大破之。夏五月,班賜諸官馬牛羊各有差。秋八月,行幸漠南,仍築巡臺。冬十有二月,慕容永遣使朝貢。是歲,皇子嗣生。八年春正月,帝南巡。二月,幸羖羊原,赴白樓。三月,車駕西征侯呂隣部。夏四月,至苦水,大破之。五月,還幸白樓... 秋七月,車駕臨幸新壇。庚寅,宴羣臣,仍講武。先是,衞辰子屈丐奔薛干部,徵之不送。八月,帝南征薛干部帥太悉佛於三城,會其先出擊曹覆,帝乘虛屠其城,獲太悉佛子珍寶,徙其民而還。太悉佛聞之,來赴不及,遂奔姚興。九月,還幸河南宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the seventh year of Dengguo (392), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui went to Mount Mugen, then went to the Black Salt Pond. He held a feast for his ministers, where the various states sent envoys bearing tribute. Then Tuoba Gui went north to the Mei River. In the third month, on the day Jiazi (?), he held a feast for his ministers at the riverbend, before returning to visit the palace at Henan.

The chieftain of the Qili tribe on the western border, Maoxian, rebelled and fled. Tuoba Gui sent the Southern Chieftain, Zhangsun Song, to pursue Maoxian and campaign against him, and Zhangsun Song greatly routed him.

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Gui distributed horses, cattle, and sheep among his officials as appropriate.

In autumn, the eighth month, Tuoba Gui traveled to Monan, where he built a patrol terrace.

In winter, the twelfth month, Murong Yong sent envoys to Tuoba Gui bearing tribute.

During this year, Tuoba Gui's son Tuoba Si (Emperor Mingyuan) was born.

In the eighth year of Dengguo (393), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui went on a southern patrol. In the second month, he visited Guyang Plains and went to Bai Tower. In the third month, he conducted a western campaign against the Houlülin tribe.

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui came to the Ku River, where he greatly routed the Houlülin tribe. In the fifth month, he returned to Bai Tower.

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Gui went to visit the new altar. On the day Gengyin (?), he held a feast for his ministers, where he instructed them in warfare.

Earlier, when Liu Weichen's son Liu Qugai had fled to the Xuegan tribe, Tuoba Gui had demanded him, but they did not hand him over. In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui led a southern campaign against the Xuegan leader Taixifu at Sancheng. Taixifu had earlier left to attack Cao Fu, and Tuoba Gui took advantage of his absense to massacre his city. He captured Taixifu's son Zhenbao, and relocated all his people before returning. When Taixifu heard what had happened, he brought his forces back, but could not catch up with Tuoba Gui, so he fled to Yao Xing.

In the ninth month, Tuoba Gui returned to the palace at Henan.


氐帥楊佛嵩叛,奔後秦,楊佺期、趙睦追之,九月,丙戌,敗佛嵩於潼關。後秦將姚崇救佛嵩,敗晉兵,趙睦死。

8. The Di leader Yang Fusong rebelled against Jin and fled to Later Qin. Yang Quanqi and Zhao Mu pursued him. In the ninth month, on the day Bingxu (?), they defeated Yang Fusong at Tong Gate. But then the Later Qin general Yao Chong came to reinforce Yang Fusong, and he defeated the Jin army; Zhao Mu was killed.

萇下書除妖謗之言及赦前奸穢,有相劾舉者,皆以其罪罪之。晉平遠將軍、護氐校尉楊佛嵩率胡蜀三千餘戶降于萇,晉將楊佺期、趙睦追之。遣姚崇赴救,大敗晉師,斬趙睦。以佛嵩為鎮東將軍。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang issued an edict banning slanderous talk and pardoning those who had previously been targets of slander. Anyone who rashly accused another of a crime would be found guilty of the same crime.

Jin's General Who Pacifies Distant Places and Colonel Who Protects The Di, Yang Fusong, led more than three thousand households of tribal people and natives of the Shu region to come surrender to Yao Chang. The Jin generals Yang Quanqi and Zhao Mu pursued him. Yao Chang sent Yao Chong to intercept them and reinforce Yang Fusong, and the Jin army was greatly defeated; Zhao Mu was beheaded. Yao Chang appointed Yang Fusong as his General Who Guards The East.


冬,十月,後秦主萇疾甚,還長安。

9. In winter, the tenth month, Yao Chang became seriously ill. He returned to Chang'an.

八年十月,萇如長安,至於新支堡,疾篤,輿疾而進。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the eighth year of Jianchu (393), the tenth month, Yao Chang returned to Chang'an. By the time he reached Fort Xinzhi, his illness became critical, so he rode the rest of the way back in a carriage.

萇如長安,至於新支堡,疾篤,輿疾而進。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang returned to Chang'an. By the time he reached Fort Xinzhi, his illness became critical, so he rode the rest of the way back in a carriage.


燕主垂議伐西燕,諸將皆曰:「永未有釁,我連年征討,士卒疲弊,未可也。」范陽王德曰:「永旣國之枝葉,又僭舉位號,惑民視聽,宜先除之,以壹民心。士卒雖疲,庸得已乎!」垂曰:「司徒意正與吾同。吾比老,叩囊底智,足以取之,終不復留此賊以累子孫也。」遂戒嚴。

10. Murong Chui proposed a campaign against Western Yan. His generals all said, "There are no current internal disputes among Murong Yong's people which we can exploit, and our armies have been campaigning already for years on end. The soldiers are weary and exhausted. It cannot be done yet."

But Murong De said, "Murong Yong is just a branch or leaf of our true state, yet he too has presumed to call himself Emperor. By doing so, he is misleading the people and confusing them as to who is legitimate. We should get rid of him at once, in order to unite the hearts of the people. Though the soldiers may be weary, even inferior soldiers would be able to win!"

Murong Chui replied, "The Minister Over The Masses thinks just as I do. Even though I've become an old man, with a sagging head and a fading mind, I could still handle Murong Yong. I can't leave this villain behind for my descendants to deal with." So he had his soldiers prepare for war.

〈垂不欲留慕容永以累子孫,而不知拓跋珪已窺X代北矣。是以有國有家者,不恃無敵國外患,恃吾所以傳國承家者足以待之耳。〉

(Murong Chui did not want to leave Murong Yong behind as a threat for his descendants. Little did he know that Tuoba Gui was already lying in wait, watching for his chance to take the Dai region and the north. Thus it becomes clear that for those who wish to preserve their family or their state, they should not concern themselves with ensuring that there is no enemy state or foreign threat; what they ought to concern themselves with is preserving their state to hand down to their successors and maintaining their family so that it will survive, and making sure in both cases that it will be strong enough to meet any coming challenges.)


垂議討慕容永,太史令靳安言於垂曰:「彗星經尾箕之分,燕當有野死之王,不出五年,其國必亡,歲在鶉火,必克長子。」垂乃止。安出而謂人曰:「此眾既并,終不能久。」安意蓋知太祖之興也,而不敢言... 垂議征長子,諸將咸諫,以永國未有釁,連歲征役,士卒疲怠,請待他年。垂將從之。垂弟司徒、范陽王德固勸垂征。垂曰:「司徒議與吾同,二人同心,其利斷金。吾計決矣。且吾投老,叩囊底智足以克之,不復留逆賊以累子孫。」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Chui discussed campaigning against Murong Yong, his Prefect of the Grand Astrologers, Jin An, said to him, "Shooting stars are passing through the Tail and Winnow Basket constellations. This is an omen that the ruler of Yan will perish in the field, and within five years, his state will surely be doomed. When it is the Quail Fire year, Zhangzi shall surely fall." So Murong Chui stopped.

When Jin An went out, he told people, "Now that this army has gathered, it will not survive for long." Jin An must have realized that Tuoba Gui would rise, but he did not dare to say it.

Murong Chui discussed a campaign against Zhangzi. His generals all remonstrated with him, saying that Murong Yong's state did not have any internal disputes that they could exploit. Furthermore, they said that the soldiers and people had been burdened by campaigns and corvee labor year after year, and they were becoming worn-out. So they asked him to wait until another year for the campaign.

Murong Chui was about to agree with them. But then the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Fanyang, Murong Chui's younger brother Murong De, strongly urged Murong Chui to carry out the campaign. Murong Chui replied, "The Minister Over The Masses thinks just as I do. As they say, 'when two men are one in heart, not even iron bolts keep them apart'. So my plan is decided. Even though I've become an old man, with a sagging head and a fading mind, I could still handle Murong Yong. I can't leave this traitorous villain behind for my descendants to deal with."

於是議征長子。諸將咸諫,以慕容永未有釁,連歲征役,士卒疲怠,請俟他年。垂將從之,及聞慕容德之策,笑曰:「吾計決矣。且吾投老,扣囊底智,足以克之,不復留逆賊以累子孫也。」(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui discussed a campaign against Zhangzi. His generals all remonstrated with him, saying that Murong Yong's state did not have any internal disputes that they could exploit. Furthermore, they said that the soldiers and people had been burdened by campaigns and corvee labor year after year, and they were becoming worn-out. So they asked him to wait until another year for the campaign.

Murong Chui was about to agree with them. But after listening to the plan proposed by Murong De, he laughed and said, "My plan is decided. Even though I've become an old man, with a sagging head and a fading mind, I could still handle Murong Yong. I can't leave this traitorous villain behind for my descendants to deal with."

于時慕容永據長子,有眾十萬,垂議討之。群臣咸以為疑,德進曰:「昔三祖積德,遺詠在耳,故陛下龍飛,不謀而會,雖由聖武,亦緣舊愛,燕、趙之士樂為燕臣也。今永既建偽號,扇動華戎,致令群豎從橫,逐鹿不息,宜先除之,以一眾聽。昔光武馳蘇茂之難,不顧百官之疲,夫豈不仁?機急故也。兵法有不得已而用之,陛下容得已乎!」垂笑謂其黨曰:「司徒議與吾同。二人同心,其利斷金,吾計決矣。」遂從之。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

At this time, Murong Yong was occupying Zhangzi, and he had an army of a hundred thousand. Murong Chui discussed campaigning against Murong Yong. All of his ministers doubted that it should be done.

Then Murong De stepped forward and said, "It was because of the virtues accumulated by our past three sovereigns, handed down from their reigns, that Your Majesty was able to rise like a dragon. This did not come about by any calculated plan on your part. But whether through your sagacity and martial might, or through your cultivation of past ties of affection, the people of the regions of Yan and Zhao have all been happy to be subjects of Yan. However, now Murong Yong has set himself up as a false sovereign, and he is stirring up the Hua (ethnic Han) and the Rong tribes. By his commands, he has changed the people from a united whole to two camps against each other, and he is tirelessly pushing for his own dominion over them. You ought to do away with him as soon as possible, in order to unite the people under one voice. In former times, Emperor Guangwu of Han rushed to deal with the threat of Su Mao despite his ministers' opposition; was that not also benevolent? This is why you must seize the opportunity. According to the arts of war, when one cannot help but go to war, then one goes to war. Can Your Majesty accept anything less?"

Murong Chui laughed and said to his partisans, "The Minister Over The Masses thinks just as I do. 'When two men are of one heart, iron bars cannot keep them apart'. My plan is decided." And he followed Murong De's advice.


十一月,垂發中山步騎七萬,遣鎭西將軍‧丹楊王纘、龍驤將軍張崇出井陘,攻西燕武鄕公友于晉陽,征東將軍平規攻鎭東將軍段平于沙亭。西燕主永遣其尚書令刁雲、車騎將軍慕容鍾帥衆五萬守潞川。友,永之弟也。十二月,垂至鄴。

11. In the eleventh month, Murong Chui set out from Zhongshan with seventy thousand horse and foot. He sent the General Who Guards The West and Prince of Danyang, Murong Zuan (or Zan), and the Dragon-Soaring General, Zhang Chong, to march from Jingxing and attack Western Yan's Duke of Wuxiang, Murong You, at Jinyang. The General Who Conquers The East, Ping Gui, attacked Western Yan's General Who Guards The East, Duan Ping, at Shating. Murong Yong sent his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Diao Yun, and his General of Chariots and Cavalry, Murong Zhong, to lead fifty thousand soldiers to guard Luchuan. This Murong You was the younger brother of Murong Yong.

In the twelfth month, Murong Chui arrived at Ye.

〈「纘」,當作「瓚」。〉〈沙亭在鄴西南。〉

(Murong 纘 Zuan's given name should be 瓚 Zan.

Shating was southwest of Ye.)


慕容垂討慕容永於長子。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Murong Chui campaigned against Murong Yong at Zhangzi.

垂遣其龍驤將軍張崇攻永弟武鄉公友於晉陽,永遣其尚書令刁雲率眾五萬屯潞川。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Yong)

Murong Chui sent his Dragon-Soaring General, Zhang Chong, to attack Murong Yong's Duke of Wuxiang, his younger brother Murong You, at Jinyang. Murong Yong sent his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Diao Yun, to lead fifty thousand troops to camp at Luchuan.

垂率步騎七萬伐永。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui led seventy thousand horse and foot to campaign against Murong Yong.

垂乃發步騎七萬,遣其丹陽王慕容贊、龍驤張崇攻永弟支于晉陽。永遣其將刁雲、慕容鐘率眾五萬屯潞川。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui drafted seventy thousand horse and foot, and he sent his Prince of Danyang, Murong Zan, and his Dragon-Soaring General, Zhang Chong, to attack Murong Yong's younger brother Murong Zhi at Jinyang. Murong Yong sent his generals Diao Yun and Murong Zhong to lead fifty thousand troops to camp at Luchuan.


己亥,後秦主萇召太尉姚旻、僕射尹緯、姚晃、將軍姚大目、尚書狄伯支入禁中,受遺詔輔政。萇謂太子興曰:「有毀此諸公者,愼勿受之。汝撫骨肉以恩,接大臣以禮,待物以信,遇民以仁,四者不失,吾無憂矣。」姚晃垂涕問取苻登之策,萇曰:「今大業垂成,興才智足辦,奚所復問!」庚子,萇卒。興祕不發喪,以其叔父緒鎭安定,碩德鎭陰密,弟崇守長安。

12. On the day Jihai (?), Yao Chang summoned his Grand Commandant, Yao Min, his Supervisors, Yin Wei and Yao Huang, his general Yao Damu, and his Master of Writing, Di Bozhi, to see him inside the palace. He entrusted them all with his will, to serve as regents over the government.

Yao Chang said to Yao Xing, "If anyone advises you to harm these gentlemen, you must not accept such advice. Grant them your grace as your own flesh and blood, and treat the great ministers with proper courtesy. Show trust to those of worth and benevolence to the common people. Then all will be maintained, and I shall have no regrets."

Yao Huang bowed his head and wept as he asked for a plan for how to defeat Fu Deng. But Yao Chang replied, "The grand design is nearly fulfilled. Yao Xing has enough talent and intelligence to handle this. Why ask any more about it?"

On the day Gengzi (?), Yao Chang passed away.

Yao Xing hid his father’s death and did not conduct mourning. He appointed his uncles Yao Xu and Yao Shuode to guard Anding and Yinmi, and he appointed his younger brother Yao Chong to defend Chang'an.

〈姚萇所以詔其子者,勝於苻健。〉〈年六十四。〉

(Yao Chang advised Yao Xing to treat his regents well and respect them; Fu Jiàn had advised Fu Sheng to kill his regents if they opposed him. Yao Chang had offered the superior advice.

Yao Chang was sixty-three years old when he died.)


是歲,姚萇死。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (393), Yao Chang passed away.

八年十二月,姚萇薨。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the eighth year of Taichu (393), the twelfth month, Yao Chang passed away.

十二月,至長安,召太尉姚旻、僕射尹緯等受遺詔輔政。萇曰:「吾氣力轉微,將不能復臨天下,卿等善相吾子。」謂興曰:「有毀此諸人者,慎勿受之。撫骨肉以仁,接大臣以禮,待物以信,遇民以恩,四者既備,吾無恨矣。」庚子,薨於永安宮,年六十四。諡武昭皇帝,葬原陵,廟號太祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Chang)

In the twelfth month, Yao Chang arrived at Chang'an. He summoned his Grand Commandant, Yao Min, his Supervisor, Yin Wei, and others to accept his will and to serve as regents over the government. Yao Chang said to them, "My strength and my spirit are ebbing away, and it seems I shall not be able to preside over all the realm in my lifetime. Gentlemen, do your best to support my son together."

And he said to Yao Xing, "If anyone advises you to harm these gentlemen, you must not accept such advice. Grant them your benevolence as your own flesh and blood, and treat the great ministers with proper courtesy. Show trust to those of worth and grace to the common people. Then all will be maintained, and I shall have no regrets."

On the day Gengzi (?), Yao Chang passed away in the Yong'an Palace. He was sixty-three years old. His posthumous title was Emperor Wuzhao, and his temple name was Taizu. He was buried at Yuan Tomb.

萇病,夢苻堅將天官使者、鬼兵數百,突入營中,萇懼走後宮,宮人迎萇刺鬼,誤中萇陰。鬼相謂曰:「正中死處。」拔矛出血石餘。寤而驚悸,遂患陰腫,醫刺之,出血如夢。萇乃狂言,或稱「臣」,或稱「萇」,「殺陛下者兄襄,非臣之罪,願不枉臣」。萇死,子興襲位,祕不發喪。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang fell ill. He dreamed that he saw Fu Jian, leading a host of hundreds of heavenly officials and spirit soldiers. They charged right into his camp. Afraid, Yao Chang fled into his rear palace. The palace servants welcomed Yao Chang and stabbed at the spirits, but one of them mistakenly stabbed Yao Chang in the groin instead. The spirits said to each other, "Right in the deadly spot." When the spear was pulled out, more than a 石 of blood flowed out from the wound.

Then Yao Chang awoke in a great fright, only to discover he had an abscess on his groin. When a doctor lanced it, blood flowed out just like in the dream. Yao Chang began to rant like a madman; he seemed to be speaking to Fu Jian's ghost, while referring to himself sometimes as "your servant" and sometimes as "Chang". He would say things like "It was my elder brother Yao Xiang who killed Your Majesty. Your servant is not to blame. Do not punish me!"

Yao Chang passed away, and his son Yao Xing succeeded him. He kept Yao Chang's death a secret, and did not conduct mourning.

萇夢苻堅將天官使者、鬼兵數百突入營中,萇懼,走入宮,宮人迎萇刺鬼,誤中萇陰,鬼相謂曰:「正中死處。」拔矛,出血石餘。寤而驚悸,遂患陰腫,醫刺之,出血如夢。萇遂狂言,或稱「臣萇,殺陛下者兄襄,非臣之罪,願不枉臣。」至長安,召太尉姚旻、尚書左僕射尹緯、右僕射姚晃、尚書狄伯支等入,受遺輔政。萇謂興曰:「有毀此諸人者,慎勿受之。汝撫骨肉以仁,接大臣以禮,待物以信,遇黔首以恩,四者既備,吾無憂矣。」乙太元十八年死,時年六十四,在位八年。偽諡武昭皇帝,廟號太祖,墓稱原陵。(Book of Jin 116, Biography of Yao Chang)

Yao Chang dreamed that he saw Fu Jian, leading a host of hundreds of heavenly officials and spirit soldiers who charged right into his camp. Afraid, Yao Chang fled into his palace. The palace servants welcomed Yao Chang and stabbed at the spirits, but one of them mistakenly stabbed Yao Chang in the groin instead. The spirits said to each other, "Right in the deadly spot." When the spear was pulled out, more than a 石 of blood flowed out from the wound.

Then Yao Chang awoke in a great fright, only to discover he had an abscess on his groin. When a doctor lanced it, blood flowed out just like in the dream. Yao Chang began to rant like a madman; he would say things like "I am your servant, Chang. It was my elder brother Yao Xiang who killed Your Majesty. Your servant is not to blame. Do not punish me!"

When Yao Chang arrived at Chang'an, he summoned his Grand Commandant, Yao Min, his Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Yin Wei, his Supervisor of the Right, Yao Huang, his Master of Writing, Di Bozhi, and others to accept his will and to serve as regents over the government. Yao Chang said to Yao Xing, "If anyone advises you to harm these gentlemen, you must not accept such advice. Grant them your benevolence as your own flesh and blood, and treat the great ministers with proper courtesy. Show trust to those of worth and grace to the black-haired people. Then all will be maintained, and I shall have no regrets."

In the eighteenth year of Taiyuan (393), Yao Chang passed away. He was sixty-three years old, and had reigned for eight years. His posthumous title was Emperor Wuzhao, his temple name was Taizu, and his grave was called Yuan Tomb.

萇薨,秘不發喪。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

When Yao Chang passed away, Yao Xing hid his death and did not conduct mourning.

萇死,興秘不發喪,以其叔父緒鎮安定,碩德鎮陰密,弟崇守長安。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

After Yao Chang passed away, Yao Xing hid his father’s death and did not conduct mourning. He appointed his uncles Yao Xu and Yao Shuode to guard Anding and Yinmi, and he appointed his younger brother Yao Chong to defend Chang'an.


或謂碩德曰:「公威名素重,部曲最強,今易世之際,必爲朝廷所疑,不如且奔秦州,觀望事勢。」碩德曰:「太子志度寬明,必無他慮。今苻登未滅而骨肉相攻,是自亡也;吾有死而已,終不爲也。」遂往見興,興優禮而遣之。興自稱大將軍,以尹緯爲長史,狄伯支爲司馬,帥衆伐秦。

13. Someone said to Yao Shuode, "Sir, you have long held a great and martial reputation, and you have the most powerful forces at your command. Now that the succession has just taken place, the court is sure to be suspicious of you. It would be best if you went back to Qinzhou, and await events to see what happens."

But Yao Shuode replied, "The Crown Prince is ambitious, tolerant, magnanimous, and wise. He surely has no concerns about me. We have not even defeated Fu Deng yet, so if we were to turn against our own flesh and blood, that would lead to our ruin. If I am to die, so be it; I shall not do as you suggest." And he went to see Yao Xing, who treated him with great praise and courtesy and sent him back.

Yao Xing appointed himself as Grand General, and he appointed Yin Wei as his Chief Clerk and Di Bozhi as his Marshal. He led his forces to campaign against Qin.

〈碩德本起兵隴上,據冀城。〉

(Yao Shuode had originally raised his personal troops at Longshang and occupied Jicheng. This was in the Qinzhou region, which was why this person advised him to return there.)


碩德將佐言於碩德曰:「公威名宿重,部曲最強,今喪代之際,朝廷必相猜忌,非永安之道也。宜奔秦州,觀望事勢。」碩德曰:「太子志度寬明,必無疑阻。今苻登未滅而自尋干戈,所謂追二袁之蹤,授首與人。吾死而已,終不若斯。」及至,興優禮而遣之。興自稱大將軍,以尹緯為長史,狄伯支為司馬,率眾伐苻登。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

One of Yao Shuode's subordinate generals said to him, "Sir, you have a martial reputation and occupy a critical office, and you have the most powerful forces at your command. Now that the succession has just taken place, the court is sure to be full of mutual suspicion. Remaining here is not the way to ensure your safety. You should flee to Qinzhou, and await events to see what happens."

But Yao Shuode replied, "The Crown Prince is ambitious, tolerant, magnanimous, and wise. He surely has no concerns about me. We have not even defeated Fu Deng yet, so if we were to turn against our own flesh and blood, we would just be following in the footsteps of the two Yuan brothers (Yuan Shao and Yuan Shu), who wound up offering their heads to another. If I am to die, so be it; I shall not do as you suggest." And he went to see Yao Xing, who treated him with great praise and courtesy and sent him back.

Yao Xing appointed himself as Grand General, and he appointed Yin Wei as his Chief Clerk and Di Bozhi as his Marshal. He led his forces to campaign against Former Qin.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat Dec 01, 2018 4:49 am, edited 21 times in total.
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BOOK 108

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Oct 12, 2018 8:47 pm

十九年(甲午、三九四)

The Nineteenth Year of Taiyuan (The Jiawu Year, 394 AD)


春,秦主登聞後秦主萇卒,喜曰:「姚興小兒,吾折杖笞之耳。」乃大赦,盡衆而東,留司徒安成王廣守雍,太子崇守胡空堡;遣使拜金城王乾歸爲左丞相、河南王、領秦‧梁‧益‧涼‧沙五州牧,加九錫。

1. In spring, the first month, Fu Deng heard that Yao Chang was dead. Very pleased, he declared, "Yao Xing is a mere brat; I could thrash him with just a cane." So he declared a general amnesty, and he gathered all his forces to march east. He left his Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Ancheng, Fu Guang, to defend Yong, and he left his Crown Prince, Fu Chong to guard Fort Hukong.

Fu Deng sent envoys to appoint Qifu Gangui as Qin's Prime Minister of the Left, Prince of Henan, and acting Governor of Qinzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou, and Shazhou; he was also granted the Nine Bestowments.

〈【章:十二行本「春」下有「正月」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈輕敵者敗,宜苻登所以不亡於姚萇之時而亡於姚興之初立也。〉

(Some versions add that this event was in "the first month".

Those who underestimate their enemies are defeated. This was why Fu Deng met his doom not during the long war against Yao Chang, but only now, when Yao Xing had newly ascended the throne.)


九年,登聞萇死,喜曰:「姚興小兒,吾將折杖以笞之。」於是大赦,盡衆而東。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the eighth year of Taichu (393), the twelfth month, Yao Chang passed away. In the ninth year of Taichu (394), when Fu Deng heard that Yao Chang was dead, he happily said, "Yao Xing is a mere brat; I could thrash him with just a cane." So he declared a general amnesty, and he gathered all his forces to march east.

登聞姚萇死,喜曰:「姚興小兒,吾將折杖以笞之。」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Deng)

When Fu Deng heard that Yao Chang was dead, he happily said, "Yao Xing is a mere brat; I could thrash him with just a cane."

七年,登遣使授左丞相、河南王、假黃鉞,加九錫之禮。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the seventh year of Taichu (394), Fu Deng sent envoys to appoint Qifu Gangui as Former Qin's Prime Minister of the Left, Prince of Henan, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe; he was also granted the Nine Bestowments.

苻登遣使署乾歸假黃鉞、大都督隴右河西諸軍事、左丞相、大將軍、河南王,領秦、梁、益、涼、沙五州牧,加九錫之禮。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Fu Deng sent envoys to appoint Qifu Gangui as Former Qin's Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, Grand Commander of military affairs in Longyou and Hexi, Prime Minister of the Left, Grand General, Prince of Henan, and acting Governor of Qinzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou, and Shazhou; he was also granted the Nine Bestowments.


初,禿髮思復鞬卒,子烏孤立。烏孤雄勇有大志,與大將紛陁謀取涼州。紛陁曰:「公必欲得涼州,宜先務農講武,禮俊賢,修政刑,然後可也。」烏孤從之。三河王光遣使拜烏孤冠軍大將軍、河西鮮卑大都統。烏孤與其羣下謀之曰:「可受乎?」皆曰:「吾士馬衆多,何爲屬人!」石眞若留不對。烏孤曰:「卿畏呂光邪?」石眞若留曰:「吾根本未固,小大非敵,若光致死於我,何以待之!不如受以驕之,俟釁而動,蔑不克矣。」烏孤乃受之。

2. By this time, Tufa Sifujian had passed away, and his son Tufa Wugu had succeeded him. Tufa Wugu was heroic, bold, and had grand ambitions. He plotted with the great general Fen Tuo to capture Liangzhou.

Fen Tuo said, "Sir, you will certainly obtain Liangzhou. But first, you must tend to your agricultural duties and instruct your people in warfare, while courteously welcoming the talented and worthy and reforming your administration and enforcements. Only afterwards can you take Liangzhou."

Tufa Wugu listened to his advice.

Lü Guang sent envoys to appoint Tufa Wugu as his Grand Champion General and Grand Overseer of the Xianbei of Hexi. Tufa Wugu took council with his subordinates, asking them, "Should I accept these appointments?"

They all said, "We have a great many soldiers and horses; why should you be subordinate to another?"

But Shizhen Ruoliu did not answer. Tufa Wugu said to him, "Do you fear Lü Guang?"

Shizhen Ruoliu replied, "We have not yet established a firm foundation for ourselves. The small are no match for the great. If Lü Guang should fight to the death against us, how could we oppose him? It would be better to accept his appointments to make him arrogant, and await divisions within his domain that we can exploit before acting. Then we could not help but win."

So Tufa Wugu accepted the appointments.

〈欲幷呂光也。〉〈紛陁與石眞若留,皆能審宜應事者也。史言禿髮烏孤所以興。紛與石眞,蓋皆夷姓。〉

(Tufa Wugu wished to annex Lü Guang's territory.

Fen Tuo and Shizhen Ruoliu were both people who could analyze the situation and suggest the right way to adapt to circumstances.

This passage demonstrates Tufa Wugu's rise.

紛 Fen and 石眞 Shizhen must have also been tribal surnames.)


鞬卒,子烏孤襲位,養民務農修結鄰好。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

After Tufa Sifujian passed away, his son Tufa Wugu succeeded him. Tufa Wugu cared for the people and tended to his duties and to farming, and he repaired and restored good relations with his neighbors.

思復犍即烏孤父也。思復犍死,烏孤統任。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Sifujian was the father of Tufa Wugu. After Tufa Sifujian passed away, Tufa Wugu assumed command of his forces.

烏孤即思復鞬之子也。及嗣位,務農桑,修鄰好。呂光遣使署為假節、冠軍大將軍、河西鮮卑大都統、廣武縣侯。烏孤謂諸將曰:「呂氏遠來假授,當可受不?」眾咸曰:「吾士眾不少,何故屬人!」烏孤將從之,其將石真若留曰:「今本根未固,理宜隨時。光德刑修明,境內無虞,若致死於我者,大小不敵,後雖悔之,無所及也。不如受而遵養之,又待其釁耳。」烏孤乃受之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Sifujian was the father of Tufa Wugu. After Tufa Wugu succeeded his father, he tended to his duties in agriculture and silkworm cultivation, and he restored good relations with his neighbors.

Lü Guang sent envoys to appoint Tufa Wugu as his Credential Holder, Grand Champion General, Grand Overseer of the Xianbei of Hexi, and Marquis of Guangwu county. Tufa Wugu asked his generals, "Since the Lü clan has come from far away to grant me these titles, should I accept them?"

They all said, "We have not a few soldiers and horses; why should you be subordinate to another?"

Tufa Wugu was about to follow their advice. But then his general Shizhen Ruoliu said, "We have not yet established a firm foundation for ourselves, and it would be well for us to act according to circumstances. Lü Guang is virtuous at ruling and cultivates wisdom, and he faces no threats within his domain. If he should fight to the death against us, the small would be no match for the large, and even if we regret it later, it would be too late by then. It would be better to accept his appointments to make him arrogant, and await divisions within his domain."

So Tufa Wugu accepted the appointments.


二月,秦主登攻屠各姚奴、帛蒲二堡,克之。

3. In the second month, Fu Deng attacked Fort Zhuge Yaonu and Fort Bopu and took them.

〈二堡,在胡空堡之東。〉

(These two forts were east of Fort Hukong.)


燕主垂留清河公會鎭鄴,發司、冀、青、兗兵,遣太原王楷出滏口,遼西王農出壺關,垂自出沙庭以擊西燕,標榜所趣,軍各就頓。西燕主永聞之,嚴兵分道拒守,聚糧臺壁,遣從子征東將軍小逸豆歸、鎭東將軍王次多、右將軍勒馬駒帥衆萬餘人戍之。

4. Murong Chui left his Duke of Qinghe, Murong Hui, to guard Ye. He drafted soldiers from Sizhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Yanzhou. He sent Murong Kai out from Fukou and Murong Nong out from Huguan, while Murong Chui himself marched out from Shating to attack Western Yan. Each force flaunted its strength, and they all paused.

When Murong Yong heard this, he split up his soldiers and placed them on different roads to oppose the Yan armies and defend against them. He gathered his grain at Taibi, and he sent his General Who Conquers The East, his cousin's son Yi Dougui the Younger, his General Who Guards The East, Wang Ciduo, and his General of the Right, Le Maju, to lead more than ten thousand soldiers to camp there.

〈「庭」,當作「亭」;其地在鄴西南。〉〈分處置兵以疑敵,使不知所備。〉〈《水經註》:潞縣北對故臺壁,漳水出其南,本潞子所立也。魏收《地形志》,襄垣郡刈陵縣,漢、晉之潞縣也,有臺壁。〉〈時西燕之臣有二逸豆歸,故此稱小逸豆歸。〉

(This passage refers to the place Murong Chui departed from as 沙庭 Shating, but it should be 沙亭, as mentioned earlier; it was southwest of Ye.

Murong Chui split up his forces in order to sow doubt among the enemy, and make them uncertain of which place to defend.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The north side of Lu county faces the old city of Taibi; the Zhang River emerges south of there, and it was originally established by the Marquis of Lu." According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, Yiling county in Xiangyuan commandary was originally Lu county during Han and Jin, and there was a Taibi there.

At this time, there were two people serving in Western Yan named Yi Dougui, so the one mentioned in this passage was called Yi Dougui the Younger.)


垂遣慕容楷出自滏口,慕容農入自壺關。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui sent Murong Kai out from Fukou and Murong Nong in through Huguan.


夏,秦主登自六陌趣廢橋,後秦始平太守姚詳據馬嵬堡以拒之。太子興遣尹緯將兵救詳,緯據廢橋以待秦。秦兵爭水,不能得,渴死者什二、三,因急攻緯。興馳遣狄伯支謂緯曰:「苻登窮寇,宜持重以挫之。」緯曰:「先帝登遐,人情擾懼,今不因思奮之力以禽敵,大事去矣!」遂與秦戰,秦兵大敗。其夜,秦衆潰,登單騎奔雍,太子崇及安成王廣聞敗,皆棄城走;登至,無所歸,乃奔平涼,收集遺衆,入馬毛山。

5. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Deng led his forces from Liumo to gather at Feiqiao. Later Qin's Administrator of Shiping, Yao Xiang, occupied Fort Mawei to oppose him. Yao Xing sent Yin Wei to lead troops to reinforce Yao Xiang, and Yin Wei occupied Feiqiao to meet Fu Deng's attack. Fu Deng's soldiers tried to cross the river, but they could not get across, and twenty to thirty percent of his troops drowned. So they launched a fierce assault against Yin Wei.

Yao Xing quickly sent Di Bozhi to tell Yin Wei, "Fu Deng's invasion has been blunted. You should hold fast to your defenses and wear him out."

But Yin Wei declared, "His Late Majesty has only just 'ascended to the golden clouds', and the people are still afraid and uncertain. If I do not devote my full strength and effort to capturing the enemy, then the grand design will be lost!" So he went forth to offer battle to the Qin army, and they were greatly defeated.

That night, the Qin army scattered. Fu Deng fled on a lone horse back to Yong. When Fu Chong and Fu Guang heard about the defeat at Feiqiao, they both abandoned their cities and fled. By the time Fu Deng arrived, there was no place of refuge for him, so he fled to Pingliang. He gathered up and assembled his scattered forces and went into Mount Mamao.

〈【章:十二行本「夏」下有「四月」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈鄭玄曰:登,上也;遐,已也。上已者,若仙去云耳。〉〈平涼城,在漢安定鶉陰縣界,後周始置平涼郡及縣,唐爲原州縣。赫連定之敗,魏亦據馬髦嶺以禽奚斤,蓋平涼之險要處也。〉

(Some versions specify that this battle was "in the fourth month".

Yin Wei uses the expression 登遐. Zheng Xuan remarked, "登 means to ascend, and 遐 means oneself. So in the sense that 'one ascends', it is the same sort of expression as 'going away to be an immortal' (that is, to die)."

The city of Pingliang was in Chunyin county in Han's Anding commandary. Later on, during Later Zhou, Ji county in Pingliang commandary was first created. During Tang, it was Yuanzhou county.

Later, after Helian Ding's defeat, Northern Wei also occupied the Mamao Ranges in order to capture Xi Jin. So this Mamao place must have been a critical strategic point in Pingliang.)


四月,登從六陌趣廢橋,與將尹緯據橋以待之。登與緯大戰,為緯所敗。登單馬奔雍。初、登之東也,留太子崇守胡空堡,崇聞登敗,棄城出奔,登至無歸,乃奔平涼。收集遺兵入馬毛山。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the fourth month, Fu Deng led his forces from Liumo to gather at Feiqiao. Yao Xing's general Yin Wei occupied the bridge there to oppose him. Fu Deng fought a great battle against Yin Wei, but Yin Wei defeated him. Fu Deng fled on a lone horse back to Yong.

Earlier, when Fu Deng had marched east, he had left his Crown Prince, Fu Chong, to guard Fort Hukong. When Fu Chong heard that Fu Deng had been defeated, he abandoned the fort and fled. There was now no place of refuge for Fu Deng there, so he fled to Pingliang. He gathered up and assembled his scattered forces and went into Mount Mamao.

登乃盡眾而東,以趣廢橋。興將尹緯據橋待之,爭水不得,為緯所敗,奔於平涼,入馬毛山。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Deng)

Fu Deng led all his forces east to gather at Feiqiao. Yao Xing's general Yin Wei held the bridge to oppose him. Fu Deng's army tried to force a crossing, but could not break through, and they were defeated by Yin Wei. Fu Deng fled to Pingliang, then entered Mount Mamao.

咸陽太守劉忌奴據避世堡以叛,興襲忌奴,擒之。苻登自六陌向廢橋,始平太守姚詳據馬嵬堡以距登。登眾甚盛,興慮詳不能遏,乃自將精騎以迫登,遣尹緯領步卒赴詳。緯用詳計,據廢橋以抗登。登因急攻緯,緯將出戰,興馳遣狄伯支謂緯曰:「兵法不戰而制人者,蓋為此也。苻登窮寇,宜持重,不可輕戰。」緯曰:「先帝登遐,人情擾懼,今不因思奮之力,梟殄逆豎,大事去矣。緯敢以死爭。」遂與登戰,大破之,登眾渴死者十二三,其夜大潰,登奔雍... 先是,苻登使弟廣守雍,子崇屯胡空堡,聞登敗,各棄守走。登無所投據,遂奔平涼,率其餘眾入馬毛山。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

The Administrator of Xianyang, Liu Jinu, occupued Fort Bishi and rebelled against Yao Xing. But Yao Xing launched a surprise attack against Liu Jinu and captured him.

Fu Deng marched from Liumo to Feiqiao. The Administrator of Shiping, Yao Xiang, occupied Fort Mawei to oppose Fu Deng. But Fu Deng's army was very large, and Yao Xing was worried that Yao Xiang would not be able to stop him. So he himself led elite cavalry to threaten Fu Deng, while sending Yin Wei to lead the infantry to join Yao Xiang. Yin Wei followed Yao Xiang's plan and occupied the bridge at Feiqiao to block Fu Deng.

Thus pressed, Fu Deng attacked Yin Wei. Yin Wei was about to march out to fight Fu Deng. Yao Xing quickly sent Di Bozhi to tell Yin Wei, "This is one of those situations that the Art of War speaks of when it talks about 'controlling an enemy without fighting them'. Fu Deng's invasion has been blunted. You should hold fast to your defenses; do not rush into battle."

But Yin Wei declared, "His Late Majesty has only just 'ascended to the golden clouds', and the people are still afraid and uncertain. If I do not devote my full strength and effort to capturing the enemy, and claim the head of this wicked miscreant, then the grand design will be lost. I will risk a battle though it means my death."

So he went forth to fight Fu Deng, and greatly routed him. Twenty to thirty percent of Fu Deng's soldiers drowned in the river. That night, Fu Deng's army greatly scattered, and Fu Deng fled to Yong.

Fu Deng had earlier sent his younger brother Fu Guang to guard Yong and his son Fu Chong to camp at Mount Hukou. When Fu Chong and Fu Guang heard that Fu Deng had been defeated, they both abandoned their posts and fled. By the time Fu Deng arrived, there was no place of refuge for him, so he fled to Pingliang. He gathered up and assembled his scattered forces and went into Mount Mamao.


燕主垂頓軍鄴西南,月餘不進。西燕主永怪之,以爲太行道寬,疑垂欲詭道取之,乃悉斂諸軍屯軹關,杜太行口,惟留臺壁一軍。甲戌,垂引大軍出滏口,入天井關。五月,乙酉,燕軍至臺壁,永遣從兄太尉大逸豆歸救之,平規擊破之。小逸豆歸出戰,遼西王農又擊破之,斬勒馬駒,禽王次多,遂圍臺壁。永召太行軍還,自將精兵五萬以拒之。刁雲、慕容鍾震怖,帥衆降燕,永誅其妻子。己亥,垂陳于臺壁南,遣驍騎將軍慕容國伏千餘騎於澗下;庚子,與永合戰,垂僞退,永衆追之,行數里,國騎從澗中出,斷其後,諸軍四面俱進,大破之,斬首八千餘級,永走歸長子。晉陽守將聞之,棄城走。丹楊王瓚等進取晉陽。

6. Murong Chui halted his army southwest of Ye, and for more than a month he did not advance. Murong Yong was puzzled by this behavior. He decided that Murong Chui must have felt that the road through Taixing was too broad, and that Murong Chui wanted to use a secret road to come at him. So Murong Yong summoned all his forces to camp at Zhi Pass, and only the army at Taibi was left to hold the Taixing road.

On the day Jiaxu (June 4th), Murong Chui led his main army out from Fukou, and they entered Tianjing Gate. In the fifth month, on the day Yiyou (June 15th), the Yan army arrived at Taibi. Murong Yong sent his Grand Commandant, his cousin Yi Dougui the Elder, to reinforce the army at Taibi, but Ping Gui attacked and routed him. Yi Dougui the Younger came out to offer battle, but Murong Nong attacked and routed him as well, and he beheaded Le Maju and captured Wang Ciduo, then laid siege to Taibi. Murong Yong then summoned all his forces back, and personally led fifty thousand elite troops to oppose the Yan army. But his generals Diao Yun and Murong Zhong were unnerved and afraid, and they led their forces to surrender to Yan. Murong Yong executed their wives and children.

On the day Jihai (June 29th), Murong Chui put his army in formation south of Taibi, and sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Guo, with more than a thousand cavalry to lay in ambush among the ravines. On the day Gengzi (June 30th), the Yan and Western Yan armies clashed. Murong Chui pretended to retreat, and Murong Yong's soldiers pursued him. But after they had traveled several li, Murong Guo's cavalry sprang their ambush from out of the ravines and cut off Murong Yong's rear. Then the Yan forces advanced against the Western Yan army from all sides; they greatly routed them, taking more than eight thousand heads. Murong Yong fled back to Zhangzi.

When his generals defending Jinyang heard of the defeat, they abandoned the city and fled. Murong Zan and others advanced and occupied Jinyang.

〈《前漢書‧地理志》,上黨郡高都縣有天井關。蔡邕曰:太行山上有天井關,在井北,遂因名焉。余按今澤州晉城縣有太行關,關內有天井泉三所,卽天井關也。〉

(According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Han, there was a Tianjing Gate in Gaodu county in Shangdang commandary. Cai Yong remarked, "There is a Tianjing Gate on Mount Taixing; it is north of the Well constellation, thus the name Tianjing ('Heavenly Well')." I (Hu Sanxing) note that there is a Taixing Gate in Jincheng county in modern Zezhou, inside of which are three Tianjing Springs; this must have been the same place as Tianjing Gate.)


垂停鄴,月餘不進,永乘詭道伐之,乃攝諸軍還於太行軹關。垂進師,入自木井關,攻永從子征東將軍小逸豆歸、鎮東將軍王次多於臺壁。永遣其從兄太尉大逸豆歸救次多等,垂將平規擊破之。永率眾五萬與垂戰於臺壁南,為垂所敗,奔還長子,嬰城固守。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Yong)

Murong Chui halted at Ye, and for more than a month he did not advance. Murong Yong believed that Murong Chui was planning to take a secret route to campaign against him, so he ordered his generals to pull back to Zhi Pass at Taixing.

Murong Chui then advanced, entering through Mujing Gate. He attacked Murong Yong's General Who Conquers The East, his nephew Yi Dougui the Younger, and his General Who Guards The East, Wang Duoci, at Taibi. Murong Yong sent his Grand Commandant, his cousin Yi Dougui the Elder, to reinforce Wang Ciduo and the others, but Murong Chui's general Ping Gui attacked and routed him.

Murong Yong led fifty thousand soldiers to fight Murong Chui south of Taibi. But he was defeated by Murong Chui, so he fled back to Zhangzi and shut the gates to defend the city.

垂頓於鄴之西南,月餘不進。永謂垂詭道伐之,乃攝諸軍還杜太行軹關。垂進師入自天井關,至於壺壁。永率精卒五萬來距,阻河曲以自固,馳使請戰。垂列陣於壺避之南,農、楷分為二翼,慕容國伏千兵於深澗,與永大戰。垂引軍偽退,永追奔數里,國發伏兵馳斷其後,楷、農夾擊之,永師大敗,斬首八千餘級,永奔還長子。慕容贊攻克晉陽。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui halted his army southwest of Ye, and for more than a month he did not advance. Murong Yong believed that Murong Chui was planning to take a secret route to campaign against him, so he ordered his generals to pull back to defend Zhi Pass at Taixing.

Murong Chui then advanced, entering through Tianjing Gate, and he marched to Hubi. Murong Yong led fifty thousand elite soldiers to fight Murong Chui, and he held the bend of the Yellow River against him. Murong Chui arrayed his troops south of Hubi, with Murong Nong and Murong Kai leading his two wings, and Murong Guo prepared an ambush of a thousand troops in a deep ravine. They fought a great battle against Murong Yong. Murong Chui led his troops away as though he were retreating, and Murong Yong pursued him for several li. But then Murong Guo led his troops out from ambush to quickly cut off Murong Yong's rear, and Murong Nong and Murong Kai struck him from both flanks. Murong Yong's army was greatly defeated, and Murong Chui's army took more than eight thousand heads. Murong Yong fled back to Zhangzi.

Murong Zan attacked and took Jinyang.


後秦太子興始發喪,卽皇帝位于槐里,大赦,改元皇初;遂如安定。諡後秦主萇曰武昭皇帝,廟號太祖。

7. Yao Xing now began the mourning for Yao Chang, and he declared himself Emperor at Huaili. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Huangchu. Then he went to Anding. He posthumously honored Yao Chang as Emperor Wuzhao ("the Martial and Bright"), and his temple name was Taizu.

〈興,字子略,萇之長子也。槐里縣,漢屬扶風,晉屬始平郡。宋白曰︰漢槐里縣故城,在唐岐州興平縣東南七里。興旣破苻登,始發喪襲位。〉

(Yao Xing, styled Zilüe, was Yao Chang's eldest son.

During Han, Huaili county was part of Fufeng commandary. During Jin, it was part of Shiping commandary. Song Bai remarked, "The capital city of Han's Huaili county was seven li southeast of Xingping county in Tang's Qizhou."

Now that Yao Xing had routed Fu Deng, he felt it was a suitable time to begin the mourning for Yao Chang and officially rise to the throne.)


皇初元年,乃發喪行服,即位于槐里,大赦改元。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the first year of Huangchu (394), Yao Chang began the mourning for his father Yao Chang and put on mourning clothes. He declared himself Emperor at Huaili. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Huangchu.

既滅苻登,乃發喪行服,僭稱皇帝於槐里,號年皇初。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

After vanquishing Fu Deng, Yao Chang began the mourning for his father Yao Chang and put on mourning clothes. He declared himself Emperor at Huaili. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Huangchu.

興乃發喪行服。太元十九年,僭即帝位於槐里,大赦境內,改元曰皇初,遂如安定。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing now began the mourning for Yao Chang and put on mourning clothes. In the nineteenth year of Taiyuan (394), he declared himself Emperor at Huaili. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Huangchu. Then he went to Anding.


六月,壬子,追尊會稽王太妃鄭氏曰簡文宣太后。羣臣謂宣太后應配食元帝,太子前率徐邈曰:「宣太后平素之時,不伉儷於先帝;〈言非正妃。伉,敵也。儷,並也。〉至於子孫,豈可爲祖考立配!」國學明敎東莞臧燾曰:「今尊號旣正,則罔極之情申;別建寢廟,則嚴禰之義顯;繫子爲稱,兼明貴之所由。一舉而允三義,不亦善乎!」乃立廟於太廟路西。

8. In the sixth month, on the day Renzi (?), Jin posthumously honored the Grand Concubine of the Prince of Kuaiji, Lady Zheng, as Empress Dowager Jianwenxuan.

The ministers proposed that the late Empress Dowager should be offered sacrifices at the same temple as Emperor Yuan. But the Crown Prince's Leader of the Front, Xu Miao, objected, "During her lifetime, Empress Dowager Xuan was never joined in matrimony with His Late Majesty. How then can his descendants offer her equal sacrifices with their forebearer?"

Then the Wise Instructor of the National Academy, Zang Dao of Dongguan commandary, replied, "Since we are now rectifying Empress Dowager Xuan's title, we cannot fail to express our full feelings to her. Let us establish a separate temple, and thereby honor and exalt the father. We would then ease the worries of the son, while also acting wisely and honorably. In a single undertaking, we would fulfill three virtues. Would that not be excellent?"

So they established a temple for her on the west road of the Grand Temple.

〈《諡法》:聖善周聞曰宣。〉〈《晉志》:惠帝建東宮,稱中衞率;泰始五年,分爲左右,各領一軍;惠帝時,愍懷太子在東宮,又加前後二率;江左省前後二率,孝武太元中又置。〉〈據《晉書‧儒林傳》:元帝運鍾百六,光啓中興,雖尊儒勸學,亟降於綸言,然東序西膠,未聞於絃誦。明皇雅愛流略,簡文敦悅典墳,乃招集學徒,引獎風烈。國學明敎之官,當置於明帝、簡文時也。〉〈嚴,尊也。禰,父廟也。〉〈繫子爲稱,簡文繫之宣太后之上也。《春秋傳》曰:母以子貴。〉

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is sage, excellent, and hears all may be called Xuan ('Understanding')."

The Records of Jin states, "When Emperor Hui was established in the Eastern Palace as Crown Prince during his father Emperor Wu's reign, there was only the Leader of the Central Guards. In the fifth year of Taishi (269), these were split into the Leaders of Left and Right Guards, each commanding one army. After Emperor Hui became Emperor and Emperor Huai was in the Eastern Palace as Crown Prince, the additional posts of Leader of the Front and Rear Guards were created. At the beginning of the restoration in the Southland, these last two positions were abolished. But during Emperor Xiaowu's Taiyuan reign era, they were reestablished."

Xu Miao was saying that Lady Zheng was never Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) chief wife. 伉 means to be matched, and 儷 means to be joined.

According to the Biographies of Scholars in the Book of Jin, when Emperor Yuan moved the Hundred and Six Bells and gloriously established the restoration of the dynasty, although at that time he honored scholarship and encouraged learning and particularly delved into chanting, one never heard the sounds of stringed instruments or singing in the palace schools. But Emperor Ming was refined and fond of scattered accounts, and Emperor Jianwen was diligent and delighted in studies of the most ancient records, so they recruited and gathered together students and disciples, and they sought out and rewarded those of achievement. So this office of Wise Instructor of the National Academy would have been created during one of their reigns.

嚴 here means "to honor", and 禰 means a father's temple.

They would be "easing the worries of a son" in the sense that Emperor Jianwen had once worried for Empress Dowager Xuan, who was his mother. The Spring and Autumn Annals states, "The mother is exalted by the son.")


燕主垂進軍圍長子。西燕主永欲奔後秦,侍中蘭英曰:「昔石虎伐龍都,太祖堅守不去,卒成大燕之基。今垂七十老翁,厭苦兵革,終不能頓兵連歲以攻我也;但當城守以疲之。」永從之。

9. Murong Chui advanced his army to besiege Zhangzi.

Murong Yong wished to flee to Later Qin. But his Palace Attendant, Lan Ying, said to him, "Years ago, when Shi Hu campaigned against Longdu (Jicheng), Taizu (Murong Huang) held firm and did not flee, and in the end, that led to the foundation of Great Yan's rise. Now Murong Chui is an old man of seventy years; he is old and weary, and his soldiers are worn out. He cannot remain here for years on end, having his soldiers attack us. You need only to hold the city and wear him out."

So Murong Yong followed his advice.

〈事見九十六卷晉成帝咸康四年。〉〈兵交之變,其應無窮,惟知彼知己者,乃能百戰不殆耳。慕容永欲以棘城之事自況,當時與之共守長子者,果能效死不去,若慕容皝之諸臣乎!〉

(Shi Hu's campaign against Murong Huang is mentioned in Book 96, in Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xiankang (338).

When armies clash, there are infinite possibilities for what the specific circumstances might be. One can only win a hundred victories in a hundred battles if one both knows oneself and knows one's enemy. If Murong Yong thought that he could emulate what had happened at the battle of Jicheng, he would have needed fellow defenders at Zhangzi who would give their all to defend the city without fleeing, like Murong Huang's generals once had!)


垂進圍長子。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui advanced to besiege Zhangzi.


秦主登遣其子汝陰王宗爲質於河南王乾歸以請救,進封乾歸梁王,納其妹爲梁王后;乾歸遣前軍將軍乞伏益州等帥騎一萬救之。秋,七月,登引兵出迎乾歸兵,後秦主興自安定如涇陽,與登戰于山南,執登,殺之。悉散其部衆,使歸農業;徙陰密三萬戶於長安,以李后賜姚晃。益州等聞之,引兵還。秦太子崇奔湟中,卽帝位,改元延初;諡登曰高皇帝,廟號太宗。

10. Fu Deng sent the Prince of Ruyin, his son Fu Zong, as a hostage to Qifu Gangui to ask him for aid, and he promoted Qifu Gangui's title to Prince of Liang and offered him his sister as a wife. So Qifu Gangui sent his General of the Front Army, Qifu Yizhou, and others to lead ten thousand cavalry to reinforce Fu Deng.

In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Deng led his troops out to meet up with Qifu Gangui's soldiers. But Yao Xing marched from Anding to Jingyang and fought Fu Deng south of the mountain. He captured Fu Deng, and killed him. Then Yao Xing disbanded his armies, and sent his soldiers home to tend to their farms and livelihoods. He relocated thirty thousand households from Yinmi to Chang'an, and he granted Fu Deng's Empress Li to Yao Huang.

When Qifu Yizhou and the others heard that Fu Deng had already been defeated, they led their troops back. Fu Chong fled to Huangzhong, where he declared himself Emperor of Qin and changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanchu. He posthumously honored Fu Deng as Emperor Gao ("the Lofty"), with the temple name Taizong.

〈馬髦山南也。〉〈年五十二。〉

(Yao Xing and Fu Deng fought south of Mount Mamao.

Fu Deng was fifty-one years old when he died.)


是歲,姚萇子興僭立,殺苻登。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (394), Yao Chang's son Yao Xing succeeded him, and killed Fu Deng.

七月,興攻登于馬毛,登遣子崇質於隴西鮮卑乞伏乾歸,結婚請援。乾歸遣騎二萬救登,登引軍出迎,與興戰于山南,為興所敗,死之。時年五十二。子崇奔於湟中,僭稱尊號,改年延初,諡登為高皇帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the seventh month, Yao Xing attacked Fu Deng at Mamou. Fu Deng sent his son Fu Chong as a hostage to the Xianbei leader of Longxi, Qifu Gangui, and arranged a marriage alliance and asked for help. So Qifu Gangui sent twenty thousand cavalry to reinforce Fu Deng. Fu Deng led his forces out to welcome their arrival, but Yao Xing fought him south of the mountain, and Fu Deng was defeated and killed. He was fifty-one years old.

His son Fu Chong fled to Huangzhong, where he declared himself Emperor of Qin and changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanchu. He posthumously honored Fu Deng as Emperor Gao.

姚興攻之,登戰死。子崇,奔於湟中。僭稱尊號,改年延初。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Deng)

Yao Xing attacked Fu Deng, who died in battle.

Fu Deng's son Fu Chong fled to Huangzhong. He declared himself Emperor of Qin, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanchu.

七月,如涇陽,與苻登戰於山南。徙陰密三萬戶於長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the seventh month, Yao Xing went to Jingyang, where he fought Fu Deng at the southern hills. He relocated thirty thousand households from Yinmi to Chang'an.

興自安定如涇陽,與登戰于山南,斬登。散其部眾,歸復農業。徙陰密三萬戶于長安,分大營戶為四,置四軍以領之。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing personally marched from Anding to Jingyang, and he fought Fu Deng south of the mountain, where he beheaded him. Then Yao Xing disbanded his armies, and sent his soldiers home to tend to their farms and livelihoods. He relocated thirty thousand households from Yinmi to Chang'an, and he divided the households of the great camps into four groups and assigned four generals to command them.

時登為姚興所逼,遣使請兵,進封乾歸梁王,命置官司,納其妹東平長公主為梁王后。乾歸遣其前將軍乞伏益州、冠軍翟瑥率騎二萬救之。會登為興所殺,乃還師。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

At this time, Fu Deng was under threat from Yao Xing. So he sent envoys to ask Qifu Gangui from soldiers, promoting his title to Prince of Liang and ordering him to create his own subordinate offices. Qifu Gangui accepted Fu Deng's sister, Princess Chang of Dongping, as Queen of Liang. He sent his General of the Front, Qifu Yizhou, and his Champion General, Zhai Wen, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to reinforce Fu Deng. But when Fu Deng was killed by Yao Xing, they led their forces back.


後秦安南將軍強熙、鎭遠將軍強多叛,推竇衝爲主。後秦主興自將討之,軍至武功,多兄子良國殺多而降,熙奔秦州,衝奔汧川,汧川氐仇高執送之。

11. Later Qin's General Who Maintains The South, Qiang Xi, and their General Who Guards Distant Places, Qiang (or Yang) Duo, rebelled against them and acclaimed Dou Chong as their leader. Yao Xing himself came to campaign against them. When his army arrived at Wugong, Qiang Duo's nephew Qiang Liangguo killed him and surrendered. Qiang Xi fled to Qinzhou. Dou Chong fled to Qianchuan, but a Di leader from Qianchuan, Chou Gao, arrested Dou Chong and sent him to Yao Xing.

〈【章:十二行本「強」作「楊」;乙十一行本同。】〉〈汧川卽扶風汧縣之地。〉

(Some versions write Qiang Duo's surname as Yang.

"Qianchuan" was Qian county in Fufeng commandary.)


安南強熙、鎮遠楊多叛,推竇沖為盟主,所在擾亂。興率諸將討之,軍次武功,多兄子良國殺多而降。沖弟彰武與沖離貳,沖奔強熙。熙聞興將至,率戶二千奔秦州。竇沖走汧川,汧川氐仇高執送之。沖從弟統率其眾降於興。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

The General Who Maintains The South, Qiang Xi, and the General Who Guards Distant Places, Yang Duo, rebelled against Yao Xing and acclaimed Dou Chong as their leader, then caused chaos and turmoil. Yao Xing himself led his generals to campaign against them. When his army arrived at Wugong, Yang Duo's nephew Yang Liangguo killed him and surrendered. Dou Chong's younger brother Dou Zhangwu had a grudge against Dou Chong, so he fled to Qiang Xi. When Qiang Xi heard that Yao Xing was coming, he led two thousand households to flee to Qinzhou. Dou Chong fled to Qianchuan, but a Di leader from Qianchuan, Chou Gao, arrested Dou Chong and sent him to Yao Xing. Dou Chong's cousin Dou Tong led his forces to surrender to Yao Xing.


三河王光以子覆爲都督玉門以西諸軍事、西域大都護,鎭高昌;命大臣子弟隨之。

12. Lü Guang appointed his son Lü Fu as Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass and Grand Protector of the Western Reaches, and he was stationed at Gaochang. Lü Guang ordered the sons and younger brothers of his chief ministers to accompany Lü Fu.

群議以高昌雖在西垂,地居形勝,外接胡虜,易生翻覆,宜遣子弟鎮之。光以子覆為使持節、鎮西將軍、都督玉門已西諸軍事、西域大都護,鎮高昌,命大臣子弟隨之。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang's ministers discussed how, although Gaochang commandary was at the western periphery of the realm at Xichui, it was a region that was suited for victory, and it was adjacent to the tribes and other enemies and was a place suited to sudden changes and convulsions. So they recommended that Lü Guang sent a son or a younger brother to be stationed there. Lü Guang thus appointed his son Lü Fu as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Guards The West, Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass, and Grand Protector of the Western Reaches, and he was stationed at Gaochang. Lü Guang ordered the sons and younger brothers of his chief ministers to accompany Lü Fu.


八月,己巳,尊皇太妃李氏爲皇太后,居崇訓宮。

13. In the eighth month, on the day Jisi (September 27th), Emperor Xiaowu honored the Grand Concubine, Li Lingrong, as Empress Dowager, and she resided in Chongxun Palace.

西燕主永困急,遣其子常山公弘等求救於雍州刺史郗恢,幷獻玉璽一紐。恢上言:「垂若幷永,爲患益深,不如兩存之,可以乘機雙斃。」帝以爲然,詔青‧兗二州刺史王恭、豫州刺史庾楷救之。楷,亮之孫也。永恐晉兵不出,又遣其太子亮來爲質,平規追亮及於高都,獲之。永又告急於魏,魏王珪遣陳留公虔、將軍庾岳帥騎五萬東渡河,屯秀容以救之。虔,紇根之子也。晉、魏兵皆未至,大逸豆歸部將伐勤等開門內燕兵,燕人執永,斬之,幷斬其公卿大將刁雲、大逸豆歸等三十餘人,得永所統八郡七萬餘戶及秦乘輿、服御、伎樂、珍寶甚衆。燕主垂以丹楊王瓚爲幷州刺史,鎭晉陽;宜都王鳳爲雍州刺史,鎭長子。永尚書僕射昌黎屈遵、尚書陽平王德、祕書監中山李先、太子詹事渤海封則、黃門郎太山胡母亮、中書郎張騰、尚書郎燕郡公孫表皆隨才擢敍。

14. Facing extreme duress, Murong Yong sent his Duke of Changshan, his son Murong Hong, and others to ask for aid from Chi Hui, even presenting him with a jade seal. Chi Hui sent up a petition to the Jin court stating, "If Murong Chui is allowed to annex Murong Yong, he will become that much greater of a threat. It would be better if both forces continue to exist, then we may gradually exploit opportunities to wear them both out." Emperor Xiaowu agreed, so he issued an edict ordering the Inspector of Qingzhou and Yanzhou, Wang Gong, and the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yu Kai, to assist Murong Yong. This Yu Kai was the grandson of Yu Liang. Afraid that Jin would not send troops to reinforce him, Murong Yong further sent his Crown Prince, Murong Liang, to serve as their hostage. But Ping Gui pursued Murong Liang and caught up with him at Gaodu, where he captured him.

Murong Yong even reported his dire situation to Wei. So Tuoba Gui sent his Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, and his general Yu Yue to lead fifty thousand cavalry east across the Yellow River, and they camped at Xiurong to support Murong Yong. This Tuoba Qian was the son of Tuoba Hegen.

But before the reinforcements from Jin and Wei had arrived, Yi Dougui the Elder's subordinate general Fa Qin and others opened the gates of Zhangzi and welcomed in the Yan soldiers. The Yan soldiers captured Murong Yong and beheaded him, along with more than thirty of his nobles and chief ministers, including his great generals Diao Yun and Yi Dougui the Elder.

Yan thus came into possession of the eight commandaries and more than seventy thousand households that Murong Yong had controlled, along with a great abundance of carriages, clothing, dancers and musicians, and treasures and fine goods from the old court. Murong Chui appointed Murong Zan as Inspector of Bingzhou and stationed him at Jinyang, and he appointed the Prince of Yidu, Murong Feng, as Inspector of Yongzhou and stationed him at Zhangzi.

Several of Murong Yong's former ministers were recruited by Yan and granted offices suited for their talents: his Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Qu Zun of Changli commandary, his Master of Writing, Wang De of Yangping commandary, his Chief of the Palace Library, Li Xian of Zhongshan commandary, his Chief of Affairs of the Crown Prince's Household, Feng Ze of Bohai commandary, his Gentleman of the Yellow Gate, Humu Liang of Taishan commandary, his Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Teng, and his Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Gongsun Biao of Yan commandary.

〈庾氏爲桓溫所誅,楷復不能振,自此微矣。〉〈高都縣屬上黨郡,隋爲澤州丹川縣,唐爲晉城縣。〉〈此北秀容也,在漢定襄郡界,後魏置秀容郡秀容縣。又立秀容護軍於汾水西北六十里,徙北秀容胡人居之,此南秀容也。劉昫曰:忻州秀容縣,漢汾陽縣地,隋自秀容故城移於此,因更名。〉〈紇根見一百四卷元年。紇,戶骨翻。〉〈李先、公孫表,後皆仕魏,位通顯。〉

(After the Yu clan was purged by Huan Wen, Yu Kai was unable to rise to high office, and this was why he was in such a relatively meager position as Inspector of Yuzhou.

Gaodu county was part of Shangdang commandary. During Sui, it was Dangchuan county in Zezhou, and during Tang, it was Jincheng county.

The Xiurong mentioned here was Northern Xiurong, in Han's Dingxiang commandary; Northern Wei later created a Xiurong county in Xiurong commandary. There was also a Xiurong Garrison sixty li northwest of the Fen River; tribal peoples from the Northern Xiurong were relocated to reside there, so it was called Southern Xiurong. Liu Xu remarked, "Xiurong county in Xinzhou was where Han's Fenyang county was. Sui shifted the capital city of Xiurong county to this place, thus its name."

Tuoba Hegen is mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.18). He was one of Tuoba Shiyijian's sons, so this Tuoba Qian would have been Tuoba Gui's cousin. The first character of Tuoba Hegen’s given name, 紇, is pronounced "hu (h-u)".

Li Xian and Gongsun Biao would later go on to serve Northern Wei, where they achieved conspicuous office.)


八年... 六月,車駕北巡。永來告急,遣陳留公元虔、將軍庾岳率騎五萬東度河救之。破類拔部帥劉曜等,徙其部落。元虔等因屯秀容,慕容垂遂圍長子。九年春三月,帝北巡。使東平公元儀屯田於河北五原,至於棝楊塞外。夏五月,田於河東。秋七月,還幸河南宮... 慕容垂滅永。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eight year of Dengguo (393), in the sixth month, Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. Murong Yong sent word reporting his distress, so Tuoba Gui sent his Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, and his general Yu Yue to lead fifty thousand cavalry east across the Yellow River to reinforce him. They routed the leader of the Leiba tribe, Liu Yao, and others and relocated their tribes. Tuoba Qian and the others then camped at Xiurong, while Murong Chui besieged Zhangzi.

In the ninth year of Dengguo (394), in spring, the third month, Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. He sent his Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Yi, to camp at farms at Wuyuan north of the Yellow River, as far as beyond the Guyang border pass of the realm.

In summer, the fifth month, farmland was established in Hedong.

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Gui returned to the palace at Henan.

During this year (394), Murong Chui conquered Murong Yong.

大逸豆歸部將潛為內應,垂勒兵密進,永奔北門,為前驅所獲,垂數而戮之,并斬永公卿已下刁雲、大逸豆歸等三十餘人。永所統新舊民戶,及服御、圖書、器樂、珍寶,垂盡獲之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Yong)

Yi Dougui the Elder's subordinate general secretly supported the Later Yan army from within, and Murong Chui ordered his soldiers to secretly advance. Murong Yong fled to the northern gate, but he was captured by the vanguard soldiers. Murong Chui reprimanded him and then killed him. He also beheaded more than thirty of Murong Yong's chief nobles and ministers, including Diao Yun and Yi Dougui the Elder. Murong Chui captured all of the new and old people and households that had lived under Murong Yong, as well as his clothing and chariots, his record books, his instruments and tools, and his fine treasures and trinkets.

垂克永。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui conquered Murong Yong.

永將賈韜潛為內應。垂進軍入城,永奔北門,為前驅所獲,於是數而戮之,並其所署公卿刁雲等三十餘人。永所統新舊八郡戶七萬六千八百及乘輿、服御、伎樂、珍寶悉獲之,於是品物具矣。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Yong's general Jia Tao secretly supported Murong Chui from within Zhangzi. Murong Chui led his army into the city. Murong Yong fled to the north gate, but was captured by the vanguard soldiers. He was denounced and then executed, along with more than thirty of his chief ministers and nobles, including Diao Yun.

Murong Chui thus came into possession of the eight commandaries and seventy-six thousand and eight hundred households that Murong Yong had controlled, along with a great abundance of carriages, clothing, dancers and musicians, and treasures and fine goods, and other such things.


九月,垂自長子如鄴。

15. In the ninth month, Murong Chui returned from Zhangzi to Ye.

冬,十月,秦主崇爲梁王乾歸所逐,奔隴西王楊定。定留司馬邵彊守秦州,帥衆二萬與崇共攻乾歸,乾歸遣涼州牧軻彈、秦州牧益州、立義將軍詰歸帥騎三萬拒之。益州與定戰,敗於平州,軻彈、詰歸皆引退,軻彈司馬翟瑥奮劍怒曰:「主上以雄武開基,所向無敵,威振秦、蜀。將軍以宗室居元帥之任,當竭力致命以佐國家。今秦州雖敗,二軍尚全,柰何望風退衂,將何面以見主上乎!瑥雖無任,獨不能以便宜斬將軍乎!」軻彈謝曰:「向者未知衆心何如耳。果能若是,吾敢愛死!」乃帥騎進戰,益州、詰歸亦勒兵繼之,大敗定兵,殺定及崇,斬首萬七千級。乾歸於是盡有隴西之地。

16. In winter, the tenth month, Qifu Gangui drove Fu Chong out of his territory. Fu Chong fled to the King of Longxi, Yang Ding. Yang Ding left his Marshal, Shao Jiang, to guard Qinzhou, while he led twenty thousand soldiers to help Fu Chong launch a joint attack against Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui sent his Governor of Liangzhou, Qifu Kedan, his Governor of Qinzhou, Qifu Yizhou, and his General Who Uplifts Righteousness, Qifu Jiegui, to lead thirty thousand cavalry to oppose them.

Qifu Yizhou fought Yang Ding, but was defeated at Pingzhou (or Pingchuan). Qifu Kedan and Qifu Jiegui were about to lead their troops away in retreat, but Qifu Kedan's Marshal, Zhai Wen, brandished his sword and angrily declared, "Our sovereign is establishing his foundation through boldness and martial valor; no one can stand before him, and his might is felt throughout the regions of Qin and Shu. General, you are a member of the royal clan, and you hold a position as chief commander of the army. You ought to be doing your utmost to carry out your orders and assist your family and your state. Though the Governor of Qinzhou has suffered a reverse, your two armies remain fully intact. Why should you be so rash as to flee in defeat? How will you be able to show your face before our lord? I may not hold any command here, but that will not stop me from taking your head!"

Qifu Kedan apologized to him, saying, "I was only going to retreat because I did not know how strong the morale of our army was. But if they are resolute as you say, then I shall gladly face death!"

So he led his cavalry to charge forward into battle, and Qifu Yizhou and Qifu Jiegui also led their soldiers behind him. They greatly defeated Yang Ding's soldiers, and killed Yang Ding and Fu Chong and took seventeen thousand enemy heads.

Qifu Gangui thus came into possession of all the territory of Longxi.

〈軻彈、益州、詰歸皆乞伏氏也。涼、秦二州牧,乾歸所置,非能有其地。「軻彈」,《晉書‧載記》作「軻殫」。〉〈《載記》作「平川」,當從之。〉〈穆帝永和七年,秦王健改元卽位,歷六主,四十二年而亡。〉〈乞伏始得秦州。〉

(The generals listed here as Kedan, Yizhou, and Jiegui were all members of the Qifu clan. Qifu 軻彈 Kedan's given name is listed in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin as 軻殫 Kedan.

Qifu Gangui had appointed people as nominal Governors of Liangzhou and Qinzhou, but he did not really possess those territories at the time. It was only following this victory that Qifu Gangui actually came into possession of Qinzhou.

This passage lists the initial battle as taking place at 平州 Pingzhou. But the Chronicles of the Book of Jin lists it as 平川 Pingchuan, and that is how it should be written here.

It was in Emperor Mu's seventh year of Yonghe (351) that Former Qin had been established, when Fu Jiàn declared himself Emperor of Qin. It had passed through six rulers and lasted for forty-two years, then perished.)


十月,崇為乾歸所逐,奔于楊定,與崇帥衆二萬攻乾歸,為乾歸所敗,崇、定皆死之。自苻健皇始元年,歲在辛亥,晉永和七年。是歲,歲在甲午,四十四年,晉大元十九年也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Deng)

In the tenth month, Qifu Gangui drove out Fu Chong, who fled to Yang Ding. The two of them led twenty thousand soldiers to attack Qifu Gangui, but they were defeated, and both Fu Chong and Yang Ding were killed.

Former Qin had been established in Fu Jiàn's first year of Huangshi, which was a Xinhai year, and Jin's seventh year of Yonghe (351). The final year of its existence was a Jiawu year, and Jin's nineteenth year of Dayuan (Taiyuan; 394). It had survived for forty-four years.

崇尋為乞伏乾歸所殺。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Deng)

Fu Chong was later killed by Qifu Gangui.

十月,氐王楊定步騎四萬來伐,乾歸勒衆而進,大敗定軍,斬定及首級萬有七千,於是盡有隴西之地。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the tenth month, the King of the Di, Yang Ding, led forty thousand horse and foot to come and campaign against Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui led his troops forward and greatly defeated Yang Ding's army, beheading Yang Ding and taking seventeen thousand heads. So all of Longxi came under his control.

氐王楊定率步騎四萬伐之。乾歸謂諸將曰:「楊定以勇虐聚眾,窮兵逞欲。兵猶火也,不戢,將自焚。定之此役,殆天以之資我也。」於是遣其涼州牧乞伏軻殫、秦州牧乞伏益州、立義將軍詰歸距之。定敗益州于平川,軻殫、詰歸引眾而退。翟瑥奮劍諫曰:「吾王以神武之姿,開基隴右,東征西討,靡不席捲,威震秦、梁,聲光巴、漢。將軍以維城之重,受閫外之寄,宜宣力致命,輔甯家國。秦州雖敗,二軍猶全,奈何不思直救,便逆奔敗,何面目以見王乎!昔項羽斬慶子以甯楚,胡建戮監軍以成功,將軍之所聞也。瑥誠才非古人,敢忘項氏之義乎!」軻殫曰:「向所以未赴秦州者,未知眾心何如耳。敗不相救,軍罰所先,敢自寧乎!」乃率騎赴之。益州、詰歸亦勒眾而進,大敗定,斬定及首虜萬七千級。於是盡有隴西、巴西之地。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The King of the Di, Yang Ding, led forty thousand horse and foot to campaign against Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui said to his generals, "Yang Ding has gotten together an army through boldness and cruelty, and he has exhausted his soldiers to gratify his desires. But it is as they say: 'weapons are like fire, and if you are not careful, you will burn yourself'. For Yang Ding to have launched this campaign is nearly the same thing as Heaven itself offering him up to me." So he sent his Governor of Liangzhou, Qifu Kedan, his Governor of Qinzhou, Qifu Yizhou, and his General Who Uplifts Righteousness, Qifu Jiegui, to oppose Yang Ding.

Qifu Yizhou fought Yang Ding, but was defeated at Pingchuan. Qifu Kedan and Qifu Jiegui were about to lead their troops away in retreat, but Zhai Wen brandished his sword and remonstrated with them, saying, "Our sovereign is establishing his foundation at Longyou through his divine martial valor; he conquers in the east and campaigns in the west, and there is no one whom he does not roll up like a mat. His might trembles the regions of Qin and Liang, and his sound and glory are felt in the regions of Ba and Han. General, you are part of the 'fortified wall' of the royal clan, and you hold a position beyond the passes. You ought to be doing your utmost to carry out your orders and assist your family and secure your state. Though the Governor of Qinzhou has suffered a reverse, your two armies remain fully intact. Why, instead of hurrying to reinforce him, should you be so rash as to flee in defeat? How will you be able to show your face before our lord? In former times, Xiang Yu beheaded his beloved in order to calm the soldiers of Chu, and Hu Jian executed his Army Director in order to realize his achievement; General, surely you know these tales. My honesty and my talents cannot compare to the ancients, yet how could I dare to forget the righteousness of Lord Xiang?"

Qifu Kedan replied, "I did not go to reinforce Qifu Yizhou merely because I did not know how strong the morale of our army was. Yet not to reinforce a defeated general is the highest offense of military law. Could I dare to feel secure?"

So he led his cavalry to charge forward into battle, and Qifu Yizhou and Qifu Jiegui also led their soldiers behind him. They greatly defeated Yang Ding's soldiers, and beheaded Yang Ding and took seventeen thousand enemy heads.

Qifu Gangui thus came into possession of all the territory of Longxi and Baxi.


定無子,其叔父佛狗之子盛,先守仇池,自稱征西將軍、秦州刺史、仇池公,諡定爲武王;仍遣使來稱藩。秦太子宣奔盛,分氐、羌爲二十部護軍,各爲鎭戍,不置郡縣。

17. Yang Ding had had no sons. But his uncle Yang Fugou had a son, Yang Sheng, who had earlier gone to guard Chouchi. So after Yang Ding's death, Yang Sheng declared himself Jin's General Who Conquers The West, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Duke of Chouchi. He granted Yang Ding the posthumous title Prince Wu ("the Martial"). He also sent envoys to the Jin court proclaiming his vassalage.

The Crown Prince of Qin, Fu Xuan, fled to Yang Sheng.

Yang Sheng split the Di and Qiang into twenty different Garrisons, each defending their own camps; he did not establish commandaries or counties.

〈【章:十二行本「分」上有「盛」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(Some versions clarify that it was Yang Sheng who organized the Di and Qiang in this manner.)


燕主垂東巡陽平、平原,命遼西王農濟河,與安南將軍尹國略地青、兗,農攻廩丘,國攻陽城,皆拔之。東平太守韋簡戰死,高平、泰山、琅邪諸郡皆委城奔潰,農進軍臨海,徧置守宰。

18. Murong Chui went on an eastern patrol through Yangping and Pingyuan commandaries. He ordered Murong Nong to cross the Yellow River and join the General Who Maintains The South, Yin Guo, to launch campaigns through Qingzhou and Yanzhou. Murong Nong attacked Linqiu while Yin Guo attacked Yangcheng, and both places were captured. Jin's Administrator of Dongping, Wei Jian, died in battle, while the Administrators of Gaoping, Taishan, and Langye commandaries all abandoned their cities as their forces scattered and fled. Murong Nong advanced his army as far as the seashore, and he appointed local officials for the new territory.

〈臨東海也。〉

(Murong Nong was on the shore of the eastern sea.)


使慕容農略地河南,攻廩丘、陽城,皆克之,太山、琅邪諸郡皆委城奔潰,農進師臨海,置守宰而還。垂告捷于龍城之廟。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui sent Murong Nong to march through the territory south of the Yellow River. Murong Nong attacked Linqiu and Yangcheng and took them both. Jin's Administrators of Taishan and Langye abandoned their cities and fled. Murong Nong marched his army as far as the seashore, appointing local officials as he went, before he returned. Murong Chui reported the triumph at the ancestral temple at Longcheng.


柔然曷多汗棄其父,與社崙率衆西走;魏長孫肥追之,及於上郡跋那山,斬曷多汗。社崙收其餘衆數百,奔?¥タル跋,?¥タル跋處之南鄙。社崙襲?¥タル跋,殺之;?¥タル跋子啓跋、吳頡等皆奔魏。社崙掠五原以西諸部,走度漠北。

19. It was earlier mentioned that Tuoba Gui had captured the Rouran leader Yujiulü Yunheti and his sons Yujiulü Heduohan and Yujiulü Shelun. At this time, Yujiulü Heduohan and Yujiulü Shelun abandoned their father and fled west with their forces. The Wei general Zhangsun Fei pursued them and caught up with them at Mount Bana in Shang commandary, where he beheaded Yujiulü Heduohan.

Yujiulü Shelun gathered up several hundred remaining followers and fled to the leader Yahouba, who placed him on the southern border of his domain. But Yujiulü Shelun then launched a surprise attack against Yahouba and killed him. Yahouba's sons Qiba and Wuxie and others all fled to Wei. Yujiulü Shelun pillaged the western regions of Wuyuan commandary, then fled north across the deserts.

〈柔然降魏,見上卷十六年。〉〈柔然自此遂爲魏患。據《載記》,以社崙爲河西鮮卑,則柔然亦鮮卑種也。〉

(The Rouran's surrender to Northern Wei is mentioned in Book 107, in the sixteenth year of Taiyuan (391.16-17).

From this time on, the Rouran became a constant menace to Northern Wei.

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Yujiulü Shelun was one of the Xianbei from the Hexi region. So the Rouran in general must have also descended from the Xianbei.)


冬十月,蠕蠕社崙等率部落西走。事具蠕蠕傳。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, the Rouran leader Shelun and others led their forces and tribes to flee to the west. This is further mentioned in the Account of the Rouran.


十一月,燕遼西王農敗辟閭渾於龍水,遂入臨淄。十二月,燕主垂召農等還。

20. In the eleventh month, Murong Nong defeated Pilü Hun at the Long River, then entered Linzi. In the twelfth month, Murong Chui recalled Murong Nong and the others from their eastern campaign.

〈郭緣生《述征記》曰:逢山在廣固南二十里,洋水歷其陰而東北流,世謂之石溝水,出委粟山北,而東注于巨洋水,謂之石溝口。然是水下流亦有時通塞,及其春夏水泛,川瀾無輟,亦或謂之龍泉水。〉

(Guo Yuansheng's Assorted Notes on Campaigns states, "There is a Mount Feng twenty li south of Guanggu. The Yang River flows south of it, then flows northeast. The people of the time called it the Shigou River. It emerges from north of Mount Weisu, then flows east to join with the Juyang River, at the place called Shigoukou ('mouth of the Shigou'). However, there are times when the river is blocked up downstream, and the river floods during the spring and summer, causing the water to billow endlessly, so it is also called the Longquan River.")


秦主興遣使與燕結好,幷送太子寶之子敏於燕,燕封敏爲河東公。

21. Yao Xing sent envoys to restore good relations with Yan. His Crown Prince, Yao Bao, had a son Yao Min; Yao Xing sent him to Yan as well, and they appointed Yao Min as Duke of Hedong.

〈是歲前秦滅,《通鑑》始書後秦爲秦。〉

(As with Han-Zhao and Later Zhao, now that Former Qin no longer exists, the Zizhi Tongjian stops making a distinction between Former and Later Qin. So from this point on, Later Qin is simply listed as Qin.)


梁王乾歸自稱秦王,大赦。

22. Qifu Gangui declared himself King of Qin, and he declared a general amnesty.

〈自此以後,史以西秦別之。〉

(From this point on, the Zizhi Tongjian refers to the Qifu state as Western Qin.)


十二月,僭稱秦王,大赦。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the twelfth month, Qifu Gangui declared himself King of Qin, and he declared a general amnesty.
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BOOK 108

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Oct 12, 2018 8:50 pm

二十年(乙未、三九五)

The Twentieth Year of Taiyuan (The Yiwei Year, 395 AD)


春,正月,燕主垂遣散騎常侍封則報聘于秦;遂自平原狩于廣川、勃海、長樂而歸。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong Chui sent his Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Feng Ze, to lead a return delegation to visit Qin. Murong Chui also went hunting in Guangchuan, Bohai, and Changle commandaries before returning home.

〈漢高祖置信都郡,景帝二年,爲廣川國,明帝更名樂成,安帝改曰安平,晉改曰長樂郡,又別立廣川郡。〉

(Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) had established Xindu commandary. In Emperor Jing of Han's second year (156 BC), it became the Guangchuan princely fief. Emperor Ming of Han further renamed it to Lecheng, and Emperor An of Han renamed it again to Anping. Jin renamed it to Changle commandary, and they also established a separate Guangchuan commandary.)


西秦王乾歸以太子熾磐領尚書令,左長史邊芮爲左僕射,右長史祕宜爲右僕射,置官皆如魏武、晉文故事,然猶稱大單于、大將軍。邊芮等領府佐如故。

2. Qifu Gangui appointed his Crown Prince, Qifu Chipan, as acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed his Chief Clerk of the Left, Bian Rui, as Supervisor of the Left, and he appointed his Chief Clerk of the Right, Mi Yi, as Supervisor of the Right. He created subordinate offices that matched those once established by Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) and Emperor Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao); however, he still called himself Grand Chanyu and Grand General, and Bian Rui and others still held their subordinate offices as staff members to those titles.

太元十七年,赦其境內殊死以下,署其長子熾磐領尚書令,左長史邊芮為尚書左僕射,右長史秘宜為右僕射,翟瑥為吏部尚書,翟勍為主客尚書,杜宣為兵部尚書,王松壽為民部尚書,樊謙為三公尚書,方弘、麹景為侍中,自余拜授一如魏武、晉文故事。猶稱大單于、大將軍。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the seventeenth year of Taiyuan (392), Qifu Gangui declared an amnesty within his domain except for those sentenced to death. He appointed his eldest son Qifu Chipan as acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed his Chief Clerk of the Left, Bian Rui, as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed his Chief Clerk of the Right, Mi Yi, as Deputy Director of the Right. He appointed Zhai Wen as Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhai Qing as Master of Writing of Guests and Hosts, Du Xuan as Master of Writing of the Infantry Bureau, Wang Songshou as Master of Writing as the Commoners Bureau, Fan Qian as Master of Writing of the Three Excellencies, and Fang Hong and Qu Jing as Palace Attendants. He created subordinate offices for others that matched those once established by Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) and Emperor Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao); however, he still called himself Grand Chanyu and Grand General.


薛干太悉伏自長安亡歸嶺北。上郡以西鮮卑、雜胡皆應之。

3. The Xuegan leader Taixifu fled from Chang'an to north of the mountain ranges. From Shang commandary west, all the Xianbei and other tribes supported him.

〈嶺北,謂九嵕嶺北。十八年,太悉伏奔秦。〉

("North of the mountain ranges" means north of the Jiuzong Ranges.

Taixifu had earlier fled to Former Qin, as mentioned above, in the eighteenth year (393.7).)


二月,甲寅,尚書令陸納卒。

4. In the second month, on the day Jiayin (March 11th), Jin's Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Lu Na, passed away.

三月,庚辰朔,日有食之。

5. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Gengchen (April 6th), there was an eclipse.

皇太子出就東宮,以丹楊尹王雅領少傅。

6. Jin's Crown Prince, Sima Dezong, was sent to live in the Eastern Palace. The Intendant of Danyang, Wang Ya, was appointed as acting Lesser Tutor.

時會稽王道子專權奢縱,嬖人趙牙本出倡優,茹千秋本錢唐捕賊吏,皆以諂賂得進。道子以牙爲魏郡太守,千秋爲驃騎諮議參軍。牙爲道子開東第,築山穿池,功用鉅萬。帝嘗幸其第,謂道子曰:「府內乃有山,甚善;然修飾太過。」道子無以對。帝去,道子謂牙曰:「上若知山是人力所爲,爾必死矣!」牙曰:「公在,牙何敢死!」營作彌甚。千秋賣官招權,聚貨累億。博平令吳興聞人奭上疏言之,帝益惡道子,而逼於太后,不忍廢黜。乃擢時望及所親幸王恭、郗恢、殷仲堪、王珣、王雅等,使居內外要任以防道子;道子亦引王國寶及國寶從弟琅邪內史緒以爲心腹。由是朋黨競起,無復曏時友愛之驩矣;太后每和解之。中書侍郎徐邈從容言於帝曰:「漢文明主,猶悔淮南;世祖聰達,負愧齊王;兄弟之際,實爲深愼。會稽王雖有酣媟之累,宜加弘貸,消散羣議;外爲國家之計,內慰太后之心。」帝納之,復委任道子如故。

7. By now, Sima Daozi held so much authority that he did whatever he pleased. He had a pair of favorites, Zhao Ya and Ru Qianqiu, who had originally been no more than an entertainer and a local patrol official in Qiantang county, but they advanced in office through flattery and bribes. Sima Daozi appointed Zhao Ya as Administrator of Wei commandary and Ru Qianqiu as Libationer-Consultant to the General of Agile Cavalry.

Zhao Ya established an eastern estate for Sima Daozi, where he piled up hills and dug moats, using up enormous sums of money and labor. Emperor Xiaowu once came to visit the estate, where he said to Sima Daozi, "Your estate has exceptional hills, but there is too much ornamentation and decoration." Sima Daozi made no response.

After Emperor Xiaowu left, Sima Daozi said to Zhao Ya, "If our sovereign knew that even the hills were artificially made, you'd be dead for sure!"

But Zhao Ya replied, "So long as you are here, Sir, how dare I die?" And he only continued to expand the place even more.

Ru Qianqiu sold offices and gathered influence, and he amassed countless wealth. The Prefect of Boping, Wu Xing, heeded the people's anger at the situation by sending up a petition reporting what was going on. This caused Emperor Xiaowu to dislike Sima Daozi even more.

Due to pressure from the Empress Dowager, Emperor Xiaowu could not bear to outright demote or dismiss Sima Daozi from his posts. But he did continue to enlist influential people and keep them close to serve as checks against Sima Daozi, both within the court and out on the borders, including Wang Gong, Chi Hui, Yin Zhongkan, Wang Xun, Wang Ya, and others. For his part, Sima Daozi had his own people to serve as his pawns, including Wang Guobao and the Interior Minister of Langye, Wang Guobao's cousin Wang Xu. From this time on, factionalism and partisanship between the two sides arose, and there was no longer any sense of the old love and friendship between them. But the Empress Dowager always stepped in to keep peace between Emperor Xiaowu and Sima Daozi and break up their disputes.

During an informal moment, the Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Xu Miao, said to Emperor Xiaowu, "Emperor Wen of Han was a wise sovereign, yet even he had cause to regret what happened to his brother, the Prince of Huainan (Liu Chang). And Shizu (Sima Yan) was an intelligent and accomplished ruler, but he too was ashamed at the fate of his brother the Prince of Qi (Sima You). When there is dissension between brothers, it is a true cause for concern. Now the Prince of Kuaiji (Sima Daozi) has indeed committed many debauched and indulgent acts, yet you should still show magnanimity and tolerance towards him, and put an end to all this talk. That would provide for the security of the state without and peace of mind for the Empress Dowager within."

Emperor Xiaowu accepted his advice, and so he trusted Sima Daozi as he had before.

〈錢唐縣,前漢屬會稽郡,後漢屬吳郡。《錢唐記》曰:郡議曹華信議立此塘以防海水,始開,募能致土一斛者卽與錢一千。旬月之間,來者雲集,塘未成而不復取,於是載土石者皆委之而去,塘以之成,故名錢塘。楊正衡曰:茹,浙間舊有此姓。〉〈博平縣,漢東郡,晉屬平原郡;江左屬魏郡,與郡皆僑置。〉〈淮南事見十四卷漢文帝六年。齊王事見八十一卷武帝太康四年。〉

(During Former Han, Qiantang county was part of Kuaiji commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Wu commandary. The Records of Qiantang states, "The commandary's Consultant-Manager, Hua Xin, proposed building this dyke in order to check the flow of the seawater. When construction on the dyke began, a tax was imposed of one thousand coins for every gentlemen of at least one bushel's worth. Within a month, the funds had flowed in like gathering clouds, but although the dyke was not yet completed, nothing further could be collected. So those of greater means all contributed and then left, thus allowing the dyke to be completed. This was why the place became named Qiantang ('Coins Dyke')."

Yang Zhengheng remarked, "The surname 茹 Ru has long existed in the Zhe region."

During Han, Boping county was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Pingyuan commandary. After Jin relocated south of the Yangzi, it was nominally part of Wei commandary, but both it and that commandary were merely the surrogate versions that were established in the Southland, not the actual northern territories.

Emperor Wen of Han's dispute with the Prince of Huainan (Liu Chang) is mentioned in Book 14, in the sixth year of Emperor Wen's reign (175 BC).

Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) dispute with the Prince of Qi (Sima You) is mentioned in Book 81, in the fourth year of Taikang (283.3-6, 8-10).)


初,楊定之死也,天水姜乳襲據上邽;夏,四月,西秦王乾歸遣乞伏益州帥騎六千討之。左僕射邊芮、民部尚書王松壽曰:「益州屢勝而驕,不可專任,必以輕敵取敗。」乾歸曰:「益州驍勇,諸將莫及,當以重佐輔之耳。」乃以平北將軍韋虔爲長史,左禁將軍務和爲司馬。至大寒嶺,益州不設部伍,聽將士遊畋縱飲,令曰:「敢言軍事者斬!」虔等諫不聽,乳逆擊,大破之。

8. Earlier, following Yang Ding's death, Jiang Ru of Tianshui commandary had launched a surprise attack and occupied Shang commandary. In summer, the fourth month, Qifu Gangui sent Qifu Yizhou to lead six thousand cavalry to campaign against Jiang Ru.

The Supervisor of the Left, Bian Rui, and the Master of Writing of the People's Bureau, Wang Gongshou, said to Qifu Gangui, "Qifu Yizhou has grown arrogant because of his many victories. You cannot assign him to this task, or else he will certainly underestimate the enemy and suffer defeat."

But Qifu Gangui replied, "Qifu Yizhou is agile and bold, and none of my other generals can match him. I need only to grant him some assistants to help him." So he appointed the General Who Pacifies The North, Wei Qian, as Qifu Yizhou's Chief Clerk, and he appointed the General of the Left 禁, Wu He, as Qifu Yizhou's Marshal.

When the Western Qin army arrived at Dahan Range, Qifu Yizhou did not bother to put his army into formation. He only went hunting and drinking with his generals and officers, and he ordered, "Anyone who dares to speak of military matters will be beheaded!" Wei Qian and Wu He tried to remonstrate with him, but to no avail.

Then Jiang Ru counter-attacked Qifu Yizhou and greatly routed him.

〈務,姓也。古有務光。〉〈大寒嶺在上邽西。〉

(務 Wu is a surname. There was a certain Wu Guang in ancient times.

The Dahan Range was west of Shanggui.)


楊定之死也,天水薑乳襲據上邽。至是,遣乞伏益州討之。邊芮、王松壽言於乾歸曰:「益州以懿弟之親,屢有戰功,狃於累勝,常有驕色。若其遇寇,必將易之。且未宜專任,示有所先。」乾歸曰:「益州驍勇,善禦眾,諸將莫有及之者,但恐其專擅耳。若以重佐輔之,當無慮也。」於是以平北韋虔為長史、散騎常侍務和為司馬。至大寒嶺,益州恃勝自矜,不為部陣,命將士解甲遊畋縱飲,令曰:「敢言軍事者斬!」虔等諫曰:「王以將軍親重,故委以專征之任,庶能摧彼凶醜,以副具瞻。賊已垂逼,奈何解甲自寬,宴安耽毒,竊為將軍危之。」益州曰:「乳以烏合之眾,聞吾至,理應遠竄。今乃與吾決戰者,斯成擒也。吾自揣之有方,卿等不足慮也。」乳率眾距戰,益州果敗。乾歸曰:「孤違蹇叔,以至於此。將士何為,孤之罪也。」皆赦之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Earlier, following Yang Ding's death, Jiang Ru of Tianshui commandary had launched a surprise attack and occupied Shang commandary. At this time, Qifu Gangui sent Qifu Yizhou to campaign against Jiang Ru.

Bian Rui and Wang Gongshou said to Qifu Gangui, "Qifu Yizhou may be your beloved younger brother who has achieved much in battle, but he has grown arrogant because of his many victories, and he often looks conceited. If he encounters the enemy, he will definitely underestimate them. You should not grant him this assignment, for that would show off how highly he is valued."

But Qifu Gangui replied, "Qifu Yizhou is agile, bold, and skilled at commanding troops, and none of my other generals can match him. I do fear that he is too presumptuous. But so long as I grant him some major assistants to help him, there will be no cause for concern." So he appointed the General Who Pacifies The North, Wei Qian, as Qifu Yizhou's Chief Clerk, and he appointed the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Wu He, as Qifu Yizhou's Marshal.

When Qifu Qizhou's army arrived at Dahan Range, Qifu Yizhou was self-assured and already certain of victory, and he did not bother to put his army into formation. He told his generals and soldiers to take off their armor and go out wandering, hunting, and drinking, and he ordered, "Anyone who dares to speak of military matters will be beheaded!" Wei Qian and Wu He tried to remonstrate with him, saying, "General, the King appreciates you and you are his own kin, and that was why he entrusted you with the leadership of this campaign. Yet now you are slighting the enemy and acting as you please in order to satisfy your own ego. The enemy is already threatening and close at hand; how then can you take off your armor and act without a care, peacefully feasting and indulging in poison? General, we foresee danger for you."

Qifu Yizhou replied, "Jiang Ru's army is just a flock of crows. Once they hear that I have come, they will surely scurry far away. If anyone seeks to fight a decisive battle with me, then I shall capture them all. And have I not enjoyed good fortune until now? You gentlemen need not worry."

When Jiang Ru opposed Qifu Yizhou in battle, as predicted, he was defeated. Qifu Gangui said, "I did not 'listen to the advice of Jianshu', and so things came to this. What have the soldiers or generals done wrong? I was the one to blame." So he pardoned them all.


魏王珪叛燕,侵逼附塞諸部。五月,甲戌,燕主垂遣太子寶、遼西王農、趙王麟帥衆八萬,自五原伐魏,范陽王德、陳留王紹別將步騎萬八千爲後繼。散騎常侍高湖諫曰:「魏與燕世爲婚姻,彼有內難,燕實存之,其施德厚矣,結好久矣。間以求馬不獲而留其弟,曲在於我,柰何遽興兵擊之!拓跋涉圭沈勇有謀,幼歷艱難,兵精馬強,未易輕也。皇太子富於春秋,志果氣銳,今委之專任,必小魏而易之,萬一不如所欲,傷威毀重,願陛下深圖之!」言頗激切,垂怒,免湖官。湖,泰之子也。

9. At this time, Tuoba Gui openly rebelled against Yan, and he began raiding and threatening their territories along the border passes of the realm. In the fifth month, on the day Jiaxu (?), Murong Chui sent Murong Bao, Murong Nong, and the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, to lead eighty thousand soldiers from Wuyuan to campaign against Wei, while sending Murong De and Murong Shao to lead another army of eighteen thousand horse and foot to follow behind them.

The Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Gao Hu, remonstrated with Murong Chui, stating, "The lords of Wei and Yan have been intermarried for generations, and when Wei was experiencing internal disputes, Yan helped to preserve it. By doing so, we established our virtue and generosity, and we formed good and lasting relations. When there was that incident when we demanded horses from Wei and, being denied them, we detained the lord of Wei's younger brother, the fault there was with us. Why should we be so rash as to raise our troops and attack them?

"Besides, Tuoba Shegui (Tuoba Gui) is a profound and bold man, very capable at planning. Though young, he has survived many difficulties. His soldiers are skilled, and his horses are strong; we cannot think lightly of them. As for the Crown Prince (Murong Bao), he still has many years ahead of him, and he has resolute ambitions and fierce spirit. If you now entrust him with this task (or campaign), he is certain to underestimate Wei and not take them seriously. If by chance the campaign should go against us, we would suffer serious damage and loss of prestige. I implore Your Majesty to reconsider this strategy!"

But Gao Hu's words were so sharp and pointed that they only angered Murong Chui, who had Gao Hu stripped of office. This Gao Hu was the son of Gao Tai.

〈代王什翼犍兩娶於慕容,皆早卒。哀帝隆和元年,什翼犍納女於燕,燕又以女妻之。〉〈事見一百六卷十一年及一百七卷十二年。〉〈事見上卷十六年。〉〈蕭子顯曰:珪,字涉圭。〉〈【章:十二行本「任」作「征」;乙十一行本同;張校同。】〉〈前燕時,垂爲車騎將軍,以泰爲從事中郎。〉

(Tuoba Shiyijian had twice married women of the Murong clan, though both had died young. And in Emperor Ai's first year of Longhe (362.14), Tuoba Shiyijian had granted his daughter to Former Yan, who also granted one to him as a wife.

Later Yan's military assistance on behalf of Northern Wei during Tuoba Gui's disputes with the Helan and other clans is mentioned in Book 106 and 107, in the eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.49) and the twelfth year (387.27).

The incident involving Later Yan's demand of horses in exchange for returning Tuoba Gui's younger brother Tuoba Gu is mentioned in Book 107, in the sixteenth year (391.11).

Xiao Zixian remarked, "Tuoba Gui's style name was Shegui."

Some versions state that Murong Bao was being assigned to this 征 "campaign" rather than 任 "task".

During Former Yan, when Murong Chui had been General of Chariots and Cavalry, Gao Tai had served as his Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen.)


十年春正月,太悉佛自長安還嶺北,上郡以西皆應之。夏五月,幸鹽池。六月,還幸河南宮。秋七月,慕容垂遣其子寶來寇五原,造舟收穀。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the tenth year of Dengguo (395), in spring, the first month, Taixifu went back north of the mountain ranges from Chang'an. Everything west of Shang commandary thus came under Tuoba Gui's control.

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Gui visited the Salt Ponds. In the sixth month, he returned to the palace at Henan.

In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Chui sent his son Murong Bao to come invade Wuyuan, where he built boats and gathered grain.

十年五月,太子寶率衆八萬伐魏,范陽王德為之後繼。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

In the tenth year of Jianxing (395), the fifth month, Murong Bao led an army of eight thousand to campaign against Northern Wei, with the Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, acting as his reserves.

十年,垂遣其太子寶來寇。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

In the tenth year of Dengguo (395), Murong Chui sent his Crown Prince, Murong Bao, to come invade Northern Wei.

遣其太子寶及農與慕容麟等率眾八萬伐魏,慕容德、慕容紹以步騎一萬八千為寶後繼。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui sent his Crown Prince, Murong Bao, to lead an army of eighty thousand on a campaign against Northern Wei, along with Murong Nong, Murong Lin, and others. Murong De and Murong Shao led another eighteen thousand horse and foot behind Murong Bao to act as his reserves.


六月,癸丑,燕太原元王楷卒。

10. In the sixth month, on the day Guichou (July 8th), Murong Kai passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Yuan ("the Foremost") of Taiyuan.

西秦王乾歸遷于西城。

11. Qifu Gangui shifted his base to Xicheng.

〈苑川西城也。〉

(This was the Xicheng in Yuanchuan.)


秋,七月,三河王光帥衆十萬伐西秦,西秦左輔密貴周、左衞將軍莫者羖羝勸西秦王乾歸稱藩於光,以子敕勃爲質。光引兵還,乾歸悔之,殺周及羖羝。

12. In autumn, the seventh month, Lü Guang led a hundred thousand soldiers to campaign against Western Qin. Western Qin's Upholder of the Left, Migui Zhou, and their Guard General of the Left, Mozhe Gudi, urged Qifu Gangui to declare himself Lü Guang's vassal and sent his son Qifu Chibo to serve as his hostage. Qifu Gangui did so, and then Lü Guang led his troops away. But then Qifu Gangui regretted having followed this advice, so he killed Migui Zhou and Mozhe Gudi.

〈密以國爲氏。《姓譜》:漢有尚書密忠。據《通鑑》下文,則以密貴爲姓。莫者,夷複姓。〉

(密 Mi is a surname, derived from the state of Mi. The Registry of Surnames states, "The Han dynasty had a Master of Writing named Mi Zhong." However, we see at the end of this passage that the Zizhi Tongjian only lists the given name of the Upholder of the Left as Zhou, not Guizhou. So it must be that his full surname was 密貴 Migui.

莫者 Mozhe was a tribal compound surname.)


八年,呂光來伐,歸乃稱蕃,遣子勃勃為質,既而悔之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the eighth year of Taichu (395), Lü Guang came to campaign against Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui declared himself Lü Guang's vassal, and he sent his son Qifu Bobo to him as a hostage. But then Qifu Gangui regretted having done so.

索虜禿髮如苟,率戶二萬降之,乾歸妻以宗女。呂光率眾十萬將伐乾歸,左輔密貴周、左衛莫者羖羝言於乾歸曰:「光旦夕將至。陛下以命世雄姿,開業洮罕,克翦群光,威振遐邇,將鼓淳風于東夏,建八百之鴻慶。不忍小下屈,與奸豎兢于一時,若機事不捷,非國家利也。宜遣愛子以退之。」乾歸乃稱籓於光,遣子敕勃為質。既而悔之,遂誅周等。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The Suolu leader Tufa Rugou led twenty thousand households to surrender to Qifu Gangui, who married a woman of his clan to him.

Lü Guang led a hundred thousand soldiers to campaign against Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui's Upholder of the Left, Migui Zhou, and their Guard General of the Left, Mozhe Gudi, said to him, "Lü Guang will be here any day now. Your Majesty, you command the heroes and talents of the age, and you have established your legacy at Taohan; you have defeated and destroyed many, and your power and might are felt near and far. You have spread good customs among the eastern Xia, and you have established the eight hundred great enterprises. If you cannot now bear to endure being under another for a time, you will be mixed together with the other miscreants of the age. If you cannot respond properly to circumstances, you will not benefit your state of family. You should sent your beloved son to Lü Guang to make him withdraw."

So Qifu Gangui declared himself Lü Guang's vassal, and sent his son Qifu Chibo to him as a hostage. But then Qifu Gangui regretted having followed this advice, so he executed Migui Zhou and Mozhe Gudi.


魏張袞聞燕軍將至,言於魏王珪曰:「燕狃於滑臺、長子之捷,竭國之資力以來,有輕我之心,宜羸形以驕之,乃可克也。」珪從之,悉徙部落畜產,西渡河千餘里以避之。燕軍至五原,降魏別部三萬餘家,收穄田百餘萬斛,置黑城,進軍臨河,造船爲濟具。珪遣右司馬許謙乞師於秦。

13. When Tuoba Gui's advisor Zhang Gun heard that the Yan army was approaching, he said to Tuoba Gui, "Yan was victorious at Huatai and triumphant at Zhangzi, and now they have poured out all the resources and power of their state to come at us. They surely must be thinking little of us. You should appear to be weak in order to make them arrogant. Then you will be able to overcome them."

Tuoba Gui agreed, so he scattered all the livestock and products of his forces and tribes, and he marched west across the Yellow River, more than a thousand li, to avoid the Yan army. When the Yan army arrived at Wuyuan, they accepted the surrender of more than thirty thousand separate Wei households, and they gathered up more than a hundred thousand bushels of broomcorn millet and stored them at Heicheng. The Yan army than advanced to the banks of the Yellow River, and they built boats to use to cross over.

Tuoba Gui sent his Marshal of the Right, Xu Qian, to beg for an army from Qin.

〈滑臺事見上十七年;長子事見上年。狃,與忸同。杜預曰:忸,忲也。〉〈黑城在五原河北。按《魏書‧帝紀》:登國五年,劉衞辰遣子直力鞮出稒陽塞,侵及黑城。從可知矣。〉〈《水經》:河水自新秦中屈而南流,過五原、西安陽、成宜、宜梁、臨沃、稒陽等縣南。〉

(Later Yan's victory at Huatai over Zhai Zhao is mentioned above, in the seventeenth year of Taiyuan (392.9). Their victory at Zhangzi over Murong Yong is mentioned in the previous year (394.14).

Zhang Gun describes Later Yan's victory as 狃. This term means the same as 忸. Du Yu remarked, "忸 means 忲".

Heicheng was in Wuyuan, north of the Yellow River. According to the Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) in the Book of Northern Wei, in the fifth year of Dengguo (390), when Liu Weichen sent his son Liu Zhilidi out through the border pass of the realm at Guyang, Liu Zhilidi raided as far as Heicheng. So we may know its position.

The Water Classic states, "The Yellow River bends at New Qinzhong and flows south, passing through the south of several counties, including Wuyuan, Western Anyang, Chengyi, Yiliang, Linwo, and Guyang.")


帝遣右司馬許謙徵兵於姚興。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tuoba Gui sent his Marshal of the Right, Xu Qian, to ask for troops from Yao Xing.

魏聞寶將至,徙于河西,寶臨河不敢濟。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Northern Wei heard that Murong Bao was coming, they relocated to the west side of the Yellow River. Murong Bao marched to the banks of the Yellow River, but he did not dare to cross over.

魏聞寶將至,徙往河西。寶進師臨河,懼不敢濟。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Northern Wei heard that Murong Bao's army was coming, they moved all their forces to the west side of the Yellow River. Murong Bao advanced his troops to the banks of the Yellow River, but he was afraid and did not dare to cross it.

慕容寶來寇也,太祖使謙告難於姚興。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

When Murong Bao led his invasion of Northern Wei, Tuoba Gui sent Xu Qian to report the difficulty of his situation to Yao Xing.

慕容寶之來寇也,袞言於太祖曰:「寶乘滑臺之功,因長子之捷,傾資竭力,難與爭鋒。愚以為宜羸師卷甲,以侈其心。」太祖從之,果破之參合。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

When Murong Bao launched his invasion of Northern Wei, Zhang Gun said to Tuoba Gui, "Murong Bao gained merit at Huatai and was triumphant at Zhangzi, and now he has poured out all the resources and power of his state. It would be difficult to face him directly. I humbly suggest that you display weak troops and tarnished armor, in order to make him arrogant."

Tuoba Gui followed his advice, and so he routed Murong Bao at Canhe Slope in the end.


禿髮烏孤擊乙弗、折掘等諸部,皆破降之,築廉川堡而都之。廣武趙振,少好奇略,聞烏孤在廉川,棄家從之。烏孤喜曰:「吾得趙生,大事濟矣!」拜左司馬。三河王光封烏孤爲廣武郡公。

14. Tufa Wugu attacked the Yifu, Zhejue, and other tribal forces; he routed them all and accepted their surrender. He built a fortress at Lianchuan and made it his capital.

There lived a certain Zhao Zhen of Guangwu commandary. Even as a youth, this Zhao Zhen had remarkable capacity for planning. When he heard that Tufa Wugu was at Lianchuan, he abandoned his family to come join him. Tufa Wugu happily declared, "Now that I have Sir Zhao, the grand design can be achieved!" And he appointed Zhao Zhen as his Marshal of the Left.

Lü Guang appointed Tufa Wugu as his Duke of Guangwu commandary.

〈乙弗、折掘二部,皆在禿髮氏之西。廉川在湟中。〉

(The Yifu and Zhejue were west of the Tufa clan.

Lianchuan was at Huangzhong.)


呂光封烏孤廣武郡公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Lü Guang appointed Tufa Wugu as Duke of Guangwu commandary.

烏孤討乙弗、折掘二部,大破之,遣其將石亦幹築廉川堡以都之。烏孤登廉川大山,泣而不言。石亦幹進曰:「臣聞主憂臣辱,主辱臣死,大王所為不樂者,將非呂光乎!光年已衰老,師徒屢敗。今我以士馬之盛,保據大川,乃可以一擊百,光何足懼也。」烏孤曰:「光之衰老,亦吾所知。但我祖宗以德懷遠,殊俗憚威,盧陵、契汗萬里委順。及吾承業,諸部背叛,邇既乖違,遠何以附,所以泣耳。」其將苻渾曰:「大王何不振旅誓眾,以討其罪。」烏孤從之,大破諸部。呂光封烏孤廣武郡公。又討意雲鮮卑,大破之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu attacked the Yifu and Zhejue tribes and greatly routed them. He sent his general Shi Yigan to build a fortress at Lianchuan and made it his capital.

When Tufa Wugu ascended the tall mountains at Lianchuan, he wept without speaking. Shi Yigan stepped forward and said, "I have heard that when a ruler is worried, it leads to shame for his ministers; when a ruler is ashamed, it leads to death for his ministers. Great King, what else could you be worried about but Lü Guang? Yet Lü Guang is already old and frail, and he has led his followers to numerous defeats. As for us, we have an abundance of warriors and horses, and we defend and occupy mountains and rivers. If it comes to a clash of arms, each of us is worth a hundred of Lü Guang's soldiers. Why should you be afraid of him?"

Tufa Wugu replied, "Of course I know that Lü Guang is old and frail. Yet I think of my ancestors; they attracted people from afar through their virtue and compelled the simple to fear their might, so that even the Luling and Qihan came from ten thousand li away to submit to them. But now that I have inherited their legacy, the tribes are all turning against me and rebelling, and when even these people do not obey me, how can I expect distant folks to submit to me? That is why I weep."

His general Fu Hun said, "Great King, why be despondent? If they have violated their oaths, you must campaign against them for their crimes."

Tufa Wugu heeded him, and he greatly routed the tribes.

Lü Guang appointed Tufa Wugu as his Duke of Guangwu commandary.

Tufa Wugu also campaigned against the Xianbei of Yiyun and greatly routed them.


有長星見自須女,至于哭星。帝心惡之,於華林園舉酒祝之曰:「長星,勸汝一盃酒;自古何有萬歲天子邪!」

15. A trailing star was spotted, passing from the Waiting Girl constellation to the Weeping Stars. Emperor Xiaowu was deeply troubled by this. At Hualin Park, he raised a cup of wine to toast the star and said to it, "O trailing star, I offer you this cup of wine! Has there ever been a Son of Heaven who lived forever?"

〈《天文志》:須女四星。須,賤妾之稱,婦職之卑者也。斗、牛、女,揚州分。虛二星、危三星,皆主死喪。哭泣、墳墓,四星,屬危之下,主死喪、哭泣、爲墳墓也。〉〈晉都建康,倣洛都,起華林園。〉

(The Astrological Records states, "The Waiting Girl constellation has four stairs. She 'waits' in that she is waiting to sell herself, for she has a perverse occupation." The Head, Ox, and Girl constellations all represent Yangzhou. The Empty constellation is two stars, and the Danger constellation is three stars; they are omens for the death of a sovereign. The Weeping and the Tomb constellations are four stars, and they are below the Danger constellation. When a sovereign dies, there is weeping, for his tomb is raised."

When Jin established their capital at Jiankang, they imitated the architecture of the old capital at Luoyang, so they established another Hualin Park at Jiankang.)


八月,魏王珪治兵河南;九月,進軍臨河。燕太子寶列兵救濟,暴風起,漂其船數十艘泊南岸。魏獲其甲士三百餘人,皆釋而遣之。

16. In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui assembled his soldiers south of the Yellow River. In the ninth month, he advanced to the banks of the river.

Murong Bao put his own troops in formation and prepared to ferry his troops across the river. But a violent wind sprang up, blowing several dozen of his ships against the southern bank. The Wei army captured more than three hundred of his armored soldiers, but they released them and sent them back.

八月,帝親治兵於河南。九月,進師,臨河築臺告津。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui personally arrayed his troops south of the Yellow River. In the ninth month, he advanced his forces, and he built terraces at the crossing points along the Yellow River for security.

時太祖幸河南宮,乃進師臨河,築臺告津... 寶乃引船列兵,亦欲南渡。中流,大風卒起,漂寶船數十艘泊南岸,擒其將士三百餘人。太祖悉賜衣服遣還。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

At that time, Tuoba Gui was visiting the palace at Henan. So he advanced and led his troops to the banks of the Yellow River, where he built a terrace to keep an eye on the river crossing.

Murong Bao brought up boats to the bank of the river and arrayed his soldiers, wanting to cross over to the south. But during the crossing, a great wind sprang up, dashing dozens of Murong Bao's ships against the southern bank. Tuoba Gui captured more than three hundred of Murong Bao's generals and soldiers, but he granted them clothing and sent them back.


寶之發中山也,燕主垂已有疾,旣至五原,珪使人邀中山之路,伺其使者,盡執之。寶等數月不聞垂起居,珪使所執使者臨河告之曰:「若父已死,何不早歸!」寶等憂恐,士卒駭動。

17. At the time when Murong Bao had set out with his army from Zhongshan, Murong Chui was already ill. And by the time Murong Bao arrived at Wuyuan, Tuoba Gui had sent his agents out to patrol the roads back to Zhongshan. They lay in wait for Murong Chui's messengers and captured them all. So for several months, Murong Bao received no word of Murong Chui's condition.

Then Tuoba Gui sent the captured messengers to the banks of the Yellow River and had them announce, "If your father is already dead, why haven't you returned yet?" Murong Bao and the other Yan commanders were disturbed and afraid, and the Yan soldiers and officers were shaken and unsettled.

太祖遣捕寶中山行人,一二盡擒,馬步無脫... 始寶之來,垂已有疾,自到五原,太祖斷其行路,父子問絕。太祖乃詭其行人之辭,令臨河告之曰:「汝父已死,何不遽還!」兄弟聞之,憂怖,以為信然。於是士卒駭動,往往間言,皆欲為變。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Tuoba Gui sent out agents to intercept Murong Bao's messengers from Zhongshan; he captured them all, not excepting either footman or horse.

When Murong Bao had first set out from Zhongshan, Murong Chui was already ill. And by the time Murong Bao arrived at Wuyuan, Tuoba Gui had cut off his messengers. So father and son had no communication between them. Then Tuoba Gui made Murong Bao's messengers go to the banks of the Yellow River and yell across, "Your father is already dead, so why aren't you quick to return home?"

When Murong Bao and his brothers heard this, they were disturbed and afraid, since they believed it was true. The Yan soldiers and officers were shaken and unsettled, and as word of the report went around, everyone plotted to do something.


珪使陳留公虔將五萬騎屯河東,東平公儀將十萬騎屯河北,略陽公遵將七萬騎塞燕軍之南。遵,壽鳩之子也。秦主興遣楊佛嵩將兵救魏。

18. Tuoba Gui sent Tuoba Qian to lead fifty thousand cavalry to camp along the eastern bend of the Yellow River, and he sent his Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Yi, to lead a hundred thousand cavalry to camp along the northern bend of the Yellow River. He also sent his Duke of Lüeyang, Tuoba Zun, to lead seventy thousand cavalry to block the Yan army's route to the south. This Tuoba Zun was the son of Tuoba Shoujiu.

Yao Xing sent Yang Fusong to lead troops to assist Wei.

〈河水自金城過武威、天水、安定、北地郡界,率東北流,至朔方沃野縣界,始屈而東南流。虔屯河東,儀屯河北,皆河曲之地,未渡河也。《北史》曰:儀據朔方。〉〈壽鳩見一百四卷元年。〉

(From Jincheng, the Yellow River passes through the commandaries in Wuwei, Tianshui, Anding, and Beidi, then turns northeast until it reaches Woye county in Shuofang commandary; only at that point does it loop back to the southeast. This passage states that Tuoba Qian and Tuoba Yi camped at "Hedong" and "Hebei", but these should be understood as being positions within the loop of the Yellow River; they had not actually crossed over the river to the east or north. According to the History of the Northern Dynasties, Tuoba Yi camped at Shuofang.

Tuoba Shoujiu is mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.18). He was another of Tuoba Shiyijian's sons, so this Tuoba Zun was Tuoba Gui's cousin.)


東平公元儀徙據朔方... 連旌沿河東西千里有餘。是時,陳留公元虔五萬騎在東,以絕其左,元儀五萬騎在河北,以承其後,略陽公元遵七萬騎塞其中山之路。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

The Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Yi, shifted his position to occupy Shuofang.

Tuoba Gui's boats and banners stretched along the Yellow River for more than a thousand li, east to west. At this time, the Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, led fifty thousand cavalry east to threaten the enemy's left flank, while Tuoba Yi led another fifty thousand cavalry to Henei to cut off their rear. The Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, led yet another seventy thousand cavalry to block the roads to Zhongshan.

奮揚威武,連旌沿河,東西千有餘里。是時,陳留公虔五萬騎在河東,要山截谷六百餘里,以絕其左;太原公儀十萬騎在河北,以承其後;略陽公遵七萬騎塞其南路。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Tuoba Gui displayed signs of his power and might; his banners stretched along the banks of the river, more than a thousand li from east to west. At this time, the Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, had camped along the eastern bend of the Yellow River with fifty thousand cavalry, occupying the hills and holding the valleys for more than six hundred li, in order to block Murong Bao's left flank. And the Duke of Taiyuan, Tuoba Yi, had camped along the northern bend of the Yellow River with a hundred thousand cavalry, to intercept Murong Bao's rear. Tuoba Gui also sent his Duke of Lüeyang, Tuoba Zun, to lead seventy thousand cavalry to block the Yan army's route to the south.

興遣將楊佛嵩率眾來援,而佛嵩稽緩。太祖命謙為書以遺佛嵩曰:「夫杖順以翦遺,乘義而攻昧,未有非其運而顯功,無其時而著業。慕容無道,侵我疆埸,師老兵疲,天亡期至,是以遣使命軍,必望克赴。將軍據方邵之任,總熊虎之師,事與機會,今其時也。因此而舉,役不再駕,千載之勳,一朝可立。然後高會雲中,進師三魏,舉觴稱壽,不亦綽乎。」佛嵩乃倍道兼行。太祖大悅,賜謙爵關內侯。重遣謙與佛嵩盟曰:「昔殷湯有鳴條之誓,周武有河陽之盟,所以藉神靈,昭忠信,夫親仁善隣,古之令軌,歃血割牲,以敦永穆。今既盟之後,言歸其好,分災恤患,休戚是同。有違此盟,神祗斯殛。」(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

Yao Xing sent his general Yang Fusong to lead forces to come reinforce Tuoba Gui. But Yang Fusong was slow in leading his troops to come to Northern Wei. So Tuoba Gui ordered Xu Qian to write a letter to Yang Fusong. He wrote, "A true man obeys his orders and carries them out promptly, adheres to righteousness and attacks the ignorant. There has never been a case when someone was slow in carrying out their mission and still exalted themselves with glory, nor an instance when someone ignored the proper timing and still achieved their design. Now the Murong clan is without principle, and they have invaded our border territories. Their leader is old and their soldiers are exhausted, and their state is on the brink of doom. It was for this reason that you were dispatched to command your army, for you are sure to meet with success. General, you hold the same positions as the ancient chief ministers Fang Shu and Shao Hu, and you command an army of tigers and bears. Now is the very moment when the right materials and the right circumstances align for you. You need only set out and achieve your mission without delay, and in a single morning you can carry out the achievement of a thousand years. Then we shall all meet together at Yunzhong, and as we advance together through the Three Wei regions, we shall lift our cups and toast to our longevity. Would that not be sufficient?"

Having received this letter, Yang Fusong advanced quickly along multiple roads to reach the Northern Wei army. Tuoba Gui was greatly pleased at this result, and he appointed Xu Qian as a Marquis Within The Passes.

Tuoba Gui then sent Xu Qian to swear an oath together with Yang Fusong. This was the oath: "In ancient times, Tang of Yin had his Pleadge of Mingtiao, and King Wu of Zhou had his Pact of Heyang. By these oaths, they presented themselves before the gods and spirits and displayed their loyalty and trust. They swore to be benevolent friends and good neighbors, and to uphold the ancient rules and regulations. They offered up animal sacrifices and smeared the blood on their mouths as tokens of their oath, as evidence of their honesty and enduring solemn intent. As we now swear this oath, we pledge to follow their good example; we shall share our sorrows and comfort each other in our adversity, and we will experience weal and woe together. If anyone should violate this pact, may the spirits strike him down."


燕術士靳安言於太子寶曰︰「天時不利,燕必大敗,速去可免。」寶不聽。安退,告人曰︰「吾輩皆當棄尸草野,不得歸矣!」

19. A mystic in the Yan army, Jin An, said to Murong Bao, "The omens are not favorable, and the Yan army will certainly be greatly defeated. But if you leave at once, you may escape the danger."

But Murong Bao did not listen to him. As Jin An withdrew, he told people, "Our corpses will all be lost here in the wild; we shall not return home again!"

初,寶至幽州,其所乘車軸,無故自折,占工靳安以為大凶,固勸令還,寶怒不從。至是問安,安對曰:「今天變人事,咎徵已集,速去可免。」寶逾大恐。安退而告人曰:「今皆將死於他鄉,尸骸委於草野,為烏鳥螻蟻所食,不復見家矣。」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Earlier, when Murong Bao had only reached Youzhou, the axle of his carriage inexplicably broke. The diviner Jin An believed that this was an omen of terrible misfortune, and he strongly urged Murong Bao to order the army to return. But this angered Murong Bao, and he did not listen.

At this time, Murong Bao asked Jin An about the situation. Jin An replied, "This situation with the changes in the heavens and the activities of the people is the culmination of your earlier fault in gathering this army. But if you leave at once, you may escape the danger."

But this only made Murong Bao even more afraid. Jin An withdrew, telling people, "We shall all die in a foreign land, our corpses and skeletons will lie in the wild grass, we shall be eaten by the crows and the crickets and ants, and we shall never see our homes again."

初,寶至幽州,所乘車軸無故自折。術士靳安以為大凶,固勸寶還,寶怒不從,故及於敗。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Earlier, when Murong Bao had only reached Youzhou, the axle of his carriage inexplicably broke. The mystic Jin An believed that this was an omen of terrible misfortune, and he strongly urged Murong Bao to order the army to return. But this angered Murong Bao, and he did not listen. This was why he was defeated.


燕、魏相持積旬,趙王麟將慕輿嵩等以垂爲實死,謀作亂,奉麟爲主;事泄,嵩等皆死,寶、麟等內自疑。冬,十月,辛未,燒船夜遁。時河冰未結,寶以魏兵必不能渡,不設斥候。十一月,己卯,暴風,冰合,魏王珪引兵濟河,留輜重,選精銳二萬餘騎急追之。

20. The Yan and Wei armies remained in stalemate for several weeks.

Murong Lin's general Muyu Song and others believed that Murong Chui truly was dead, and they plotted to organize an uprising to acclaim Murong Lin as the new sovereign of Yan. But the plot was discovered, and Muyu Song and the others were killed. This led to mutual suspicion between Murong Bao, Murong Lin, and others.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinwei (November 23rd), the Yan army burned their boats and marched away during the night. At this time, the ice in the Yellow River had not yet frozen together, so Murong Bao believed that the Wei army would not be able to march across the river, and he did not prepare any scouts to keep an eye on the area. But in the eleventh month, on the day Jimao (December 1st), a violent wind sprang up, and the ice froze together. Then Tuoba Gui led his troops across the river. He left his baggage train behind and selected some twenty thousand elite and zealous cavalry to rush after the Yan army in pursuit.

冬十月辛未,寶燒船夜遁。十一月己卯,帝進軍濟河。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinwei (November 23rd), Murong Bao burned his boats and fled during the night. In the eleventh month, on the day Jimao (December 1st), Tuoba Gui led his army across the Yellow River.

寶引師還... 冬十月,寶燒船夜遁。是時,河冰未成,寶謂太祖不能渡,故不設斥候。十一月,天暴風寒,冰合。太祖進軍濟河,留輜重,簡精銳二萬餘騎急追之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Bao led his troops back towards Later Yan.

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Bao burned his boats and withdrew during the night. At this time, the ice in the Yellow River had not yet frozen together, so Murong Bao said that Tuoba Gui would not be able to march across the river. This, he left no defenses or scouts to his rear. But in the eleventh month, a suddenly heavenly wind sprang up, and the ice froze together. Tuoba Gui led his army across the ice. He left his baggage train behind and selected some twenty thousand elite and zealous cavalry to rush after the Yan army in pursuit.


燕軍至參合陂,有大風,黑氣如堤,自軍後來,臨覆軍上。沙門支曇猛言於寶曰:「風氣暴迅,魏兵將至之候,宜遣兵禦之。」寶以去魏軍已遠,笑而不應。曇猛固請不已,麟怒曰:「以殿下神武,師徒之盛,足以橫行沙漠,索虜何敢遠來!而曇猛妄言驚衆,當斬以徇!」曇猛泣曰:「苻氏以百萬之師,敗於淮南,正由恃衆輕敵,不信天道故也!」司徒德勸寶從曇猛言,寶乃遣麟帥騎三萬居軍後以備非常。麟以曇猛爲妄,縱騎遊獵,不肯設備。寶遣騎還詗魏兵,騎行十餘里,卽解鞍寢。

21. When the Yan army reached Canhe Slope, there was a great wind, and a black aura resembling a dyke appeared; it came from behind the army and then rose over them. The Buddhist sramana monk, Zhi Tanmeng, said to Murong Bao, "This violent and swift wind and aura are signs that the soldiers of the Wei army are about to arrive in your rear. You should send soldiers to oppose them."

But Murong Bao believed that by now, the Wei army was too far away to pose any threat, so he only laughed and did not follow the advice. Zhi Tanmeng continued to ask for troops to be sent, but to no avail.

Murong Lin even angrily declared, "His Highness has divine martial prowess, and he commands a great host; he could march clear across the desert if he wished. Would those braided caitiffs dare to come from so far away? Yet Zhi Tanmeng speaks such wild words to disturb the army. He should be beheaded as punishment!"

Zhi Tanmeng tearfully said, "The Fu clan (of Former Qin) had an army of a million soldiers, yet they were defeated at Huainan, exactly because they trusted too much in their numbers and underestimated their enemy and did not heed Heaven's warnings!"

And Murong De urged Murong Bao to follow Zhi Tanmeng's advice as well. So Murong Bao sent Murong Lin to lead thirty thousand cavalry to camp at the rear of the main host, to guard against anything unusual. But Murong Lin still believed that Zhi Tanmeng did not know what he was talking about, so he let his riders wander and hunt as they pleased, and he did not bother to prepare any defenses.

Murong Bao also sent some riders out to see if they could spot the Wei army. The riders went for more than ten li without spotting anything, so they loosed their saddles and rested.

〈支者,曇猛之俗姓。〉〈太元十八年,慕容麟已知拓跋珪之必爲燕患矣,今乃輕之如此,豈其心自疑而欲敗寶之師邪?其後寶不能守中山而麟亦不能自立,同歸于亂而已矣。〉〈事見一百四卷、五卷七年、八年。〉

(Tanmeng was more properly this monk's complete name. Zhi was his surname from before he became a monk.

We saw earlier, in the sixteen year of Taiyuan (391.8), that Murong Lin already knew that Tuoba Gui would certainly pose a threat to Later Yan. Yet here, he speaks so lightly of him. Could it have been that he was still suspicious of Tuoba Gui in his heart, and so he wished to have Murong Bao be the commander who was defeated? And we see later on that when Murong Bao was unable to defend Zhongshan, Murong Lin was not able to establish himself there either; it must have all been because of Murong Lin's rebellious ways.

Fu Jian's repeated disregard of unfavorable omens, and Former Qin's subsequent defeat at the battle of Fei River, are mentioned in Books 104 and 105, in the seventh and eighth years of Taiyuan (382-383).)


靳安言於寶曰:「今日西北風勁,是追軍將至之應,宜設警備,兼行速去,不然必危。」寶乃使人防後。先不撫循,軍無節度,將士莫為盡心,行十餘里,便皆解鞍寢臥,不覺大軍在近。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Jin An said to Murong Bao, "There is a strong wind blowing in from the northwest. It is an omen that the Wei army has pursued us and is about to arrive. You should prepare defenses and make yourself ready, while marching away at full speed. Otherwise, disaster is certain."

So Murong Bao sent soldiers to guard his rear. But Murong Bao had shown no real regard for his soldiers, and his army had no discipline, so none of the generals or soldiers put their all into their efforts. The rearguard merely traveled for some ten li before they loosened their saddles and lay down to sleep. So they did not notice the nearby presence of the Northern Wei army.

寶還次參合,忽有大風黑氣,狀若堤防,或高或下,臨覆軍上。沙門支曇猛言於寶曰:「風氣暴迅,魏軍將至之候,宜遣兵禦之。」寶笑而不納。曇猛固以為言,乃遣麟率騎三萬為後殿,以禦非常。麟以曇猛言為虛,縱騎遊獵。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

As Murong Bao was returning, he came to Canhe Slope. There was suddenly a great wind with a black aura, shaped like a dyke or wall, sometimes rising, sometimes falling; it came up to and covered his army. The Buddhist sramana monk, Zhi Tanmeng, said to Murong Bao, "This violent and swift wind and aura are signs that the soldiers of the Wei army are about to arrive in your rear. You should send soldiers to oppose them."

But Murong Bao only laughed and did not take his advice. However, Zhi Tanmeng continued to insist, so Murong Bao sent Murong Lin to lead thirty thousand soldiers to cover the rear and guard against anything unexpected. But Murong Lin believed that Zhi Tanmeng was only speaking nonsense, and he let his riders wander and hunt as they pleased.


魏軍晨夜兼行,乙酉,暮,至參合陂西。燕軍在陂東,營於蟠羊山南水上。魏王珪夜部分諸將,掩覆燕軍,士卒銜枚束馬口潛進。丙戌,日出,魏軍登山,下臨燕營;燕軍將東引,顧見之,士卒大驚擾亂。珪縱兵擊之,燕兵走赴水,人馬相騰躡,壓溺死者以萬數。略陽公遵以兵邀其前,燕兵四五萬人,一時放仗斂手就禽,其遺迸去者不過數千人,太子寶等皆單騎僅免。殺燕右僕射陳留悼王紹,生禽魯陽王倭奴、桂林王道成、濟陰公尹國等文武將吏數千人,兵甲糧貨以鉅萬計。道成,垂之弟子也。

22. The Wei army rode hard day and night. On the day Yiyou (December 7th), at dusk, they arrived on the western side of Canhe Slope. The Yan army was camped on the eastern side, having set their camps south of Mount Panyang along the river. During that night, Tuoba Gui split up his forces, and his soldiers secretly advanced towards the Yan camps, keeping sticks in their mouths and tying the mouths of their horses shut to ensure silence.

By dawn of the next day, the day Bingxu (December 8th), the Wei army had ascended the mountain, and was in position next to the Yan camps. The Yan soldiers were in the midst of preparing to march away to the east, but when they turned and saw the Wei army, the officers and soldiers were stricken with total panic and thrown into confusion. Then Tuoba Gui set loose his soldiers to attack the enemy. The Yan soldiers were driven back against the river; men and horses stampeded and trampled each other, and tens of thousands drowned in the river. Tuoba Zun was also in position to intercept the Yan army's line of retreat. Forty or fifty thousand of the Yan soldiers all threw down their weapons and offered up their hands, and were thus taken captive; no more than a few thousand broke through the encirclement and got away.

Murong Bao and the other Yan commanders all fled on lone horses and barely made their escapes. The Wei soldiers killed Murong Shao, and they captured several thousand of the Yan generals and officials, including the Prince of Luyang, Murong Wonu, the Prince of Guilin, Murong Daocheng, and the Duke of Jiyin, Yin Guo. Many tens of thousands of weapons, armor, grain, and other military supplies were also captured. This Murong Daocheng was the nephew of Murong Chui. Murong Shao was posthumously known as Prince Dao ("the Grieved") of Chenliu.

〈《水經註》:可不埿水出鴈門沃陽縣東南六十里山下,西北流注沃水,合流而東,逕參合縣南。〉〈引而東行也。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Kebuni River flows out of the mountains sixty li southeast of Woyang county in Yanmen commandary. It flows northwest until it enters the Wo River. Those combined rivers then flow east, passing through the south of Canhe county."

The Later Yan soldiers were returning east again.)


乙酉夕,至參合陂。丙戌,大破之。語在寶傳。生擒其陳留王紹、魯陽王倭奴、桂林王道成、濟陰公尹國、北地王世子鍾葵、安定王世子羊兒以下文武將吏數千人,器甲輜重、軍資雜財十餘萬計。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Yiyou Yiyou (December 7th), at dusk, Tuoba Gui's army arrived at Canhe Slope. On the day Bingxu (December 8th), they greatly routed Murong Bao's army. This battle is further mentioned in the Biography of Murong Bao.

Tuoba Gui captured several thousand of the Later Yan civil and military officials and generals, including their Prince of Chenliu, Murong Shao, their Prince of Luyang, Murong Wonu, their Prince of Guilin, Murong Daocheng, their Duke of Jiyin, Yin Guo, the heir to their Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhongkui, and the heir to their Prince of Anding, Murong Yang'er. He also captured their military equipment and supply train, along with hundreds of thousands of military resources and funds.

寶次於參合,俄而魏軍大至,三軍奔潰,寶與德等數千騎奔免。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Bao's army passed by Canhe, the main Northern Wei army suddenly appeared there. Most of Murong Bao's three armies scattered and fled, and Murong Bao and Murong De only made their escape with several thousand cavalry.

晨夜兼行,暮至參合陂西。寶在陂東,營於蟠羊山南水上... 前驅斥候,見寶軍營,還告。其夜,太祖部分眾軍相援,諸將羅落東西,為掎角之勢。約勒士卒,束馬口,銜枚無聲。昧爽,眾軍齊進,日出登山,下臨其營。寶眾晨將東引,顧見軍至,遂驚擾奔走。太祖縱騎騰躡,大破之,有馬者皆蹶倒冰上,自相鎮壓,死傷者萬數。寶及諸父兄弟,單馬迸散,僅以身免。於是寶軍四五萬人,一時放仗,斂手就覊矣。其遺迸去者不過千餘人。生擒其王公文武將吏數千,獲寶寵妻及宮人,器甲、輜重、軍資雜財十餘萬計。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

The Northern Wei army rode hard day and night. At dusk, they arrived on the western side of Canhe Slope. Murong Bao's army was camped on the eastern side, having set their camps south of Mount Panyang along the river.

The Northern Wei scouts observed Murong Bao's army camps and then came back to report to Tuoba Gui. That night, Tuoba Gui split his forces into several different groups capable of supporting one another, and his generals spread a net around the area from east and west, so that they would be able to strike from all sides. The soldiers bound their bridles and tied their horses' mouths shut, and they kept sticks in their own mouths in order to remain silent. They advanced by the first light of dawn, and by morning they had ascended the mountain and were above Murong Bao's camp.

Murong Bao's army was just about to set out to the east, but when they turned and saw that the Northern Wei army had arrived, they fell into a panic and began running away. Then Tuoba Gui let loose his cavalry to charge and trample them, and he greatly routed Murong Bao's army. Many of the horses slipped and fell on the ice, resulting in a stampede, and tens of thousands of people were killed or wounded.

Murong Bao and his uncles and brothers fled on lone horses and scattered, barely escaping with their lives. Forty to fifty thousand of Murong Bao's soldiers all threw down their weapons and bound their hands in surrender together. Little more than a thousand of his soldiers escaped from the battle. Several thousand of the Later Yan princes, dukes, and civil and military officials were taken captive. Tuoba Gui also captured Murong Bao's favored wife and his palace servants, his military equipment and armor, his supply train, and more than a hundred thousand various military funds and resources.

俄而黃霧四塞,日月晦冥,是夜魏師大至,三軍奔潰,寶與德等數千騎奔免,士眾還者十一二,紹死之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

A yellow fog suddenly descended on every side, obscuring both the sun and the moon. The Northern Wei army advanced during the night and caught up with Murong Bao's army. Murong Bao's three armies all scattered and fled. Murong Bao, Murong De, and the other commanders only escaped with a few thousand cavalry, and only ten to twenty percent of the soldiers got away. Murong Shao died in the fighting.


魏王珪擇燕臣之有才用者代郡太守廣川賈閨、閨從弟驃騎長史昌黎太守彝、太史郎晁崇等留之,其餘欲悉給衣糧遣還,以招懷中州之人。中部大人王建曰:「燕衆強盛,今傾國而來,我幸而大捷,不如悉殺之,則其國空虛,取之爲易。且獲寇而縱之,無乃不可乎!」乃盡阬之。十二月,珪還雲中之盛樂。

23. Tuoba Gui selected those captured Yan ministers who were talented and useful and employed them. These included Yan's Administer of Dai commandary, Jia Gui of Guangchuan commandary, the Chief Clerk to the General of Agile Cavalry and Administrator of Changli, Jia Gui's cousin Jia Yi, and a Gentleman to the Grand Astrologer, Chao Chong of Liaodong commandary.

As for the rest of the prisoners, Tuoba Gui planned to provide them all with clothing and food and then send them back home again, in order to comfort and win over the people of the Central Provinces. But his Central Chieftain, Wang Jian, said to him, "The Yan army was powerful and numerous, and they poured out the resources of their state to come and attack us. We were lucky to have won such a great victory. It would be better for you to kill all of these prisoners. Then their state will be left empty and bare, and it will be easy for us to conquer it. Besides, these soldiers invaded us; having captured them, how can you just let them go?"

So Tuoba Gui had them all buried alive.

In the twelfth month, Tuoba Gui returned to Shengle in Yunzhong commandary.

〈【章:十二行本「晁」上有「遼東」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈晁,直遙翻。〉〈《通鑑》於惠帝元康五年,書定襄之盛樂故城,此書雲中之盛樂;蓋歷代郡縣廢徙無常,前漢成樂縣屬定襄,後漢成樂縣屬雲中。前書定襄之盛樂,此前漢之故城也;此書雲中之盛樂,此後漢之故城也。〉

(Some versions add that Chao Chong was "of Liaodong commandary".

Chao Chong's surname 晁 is pronounced "zhao (zh-ao)".

The Zizhi Tongjian had earlier mentioned, in Emperor Hui's fifth year of Yuankang (295.4), a city called Shengle in Dingxiang commandary; it now identifies Shengle as being in Yunzhong. It must have been that the earlier state of Dai, Northern Wei's predecessor, had not maintained constant borders for the commandaries and counties within their domain. During Former Han, Chengle county was part of Dingxiang commandary; during Later Han, it was part of Yunzhong commandary. So when the earlier part of the Zizhi Tongjian said "Shengle in Dingxiang", this was the capital city of that county from Former Han, and when it here says "Shengle in Yunzhong", it was the capital city of that county from Later Han.)


於俘虜之中擢其才識者賈彝、賈閨、晁崇等與參謀議,憲章故實。班賞大臣將校各有差。十有二月,還幸雲中之盛樂。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tuoba Gui recruited some of the talented Later Yan captives to serve him, including Jia Yi, Jia Gui, Chao Chong, and others who became his Consultant-Advisors. Thanks to them, the proper rules and regulations became established.

Tuoba Gui rewarded his chief ministers and generals as appropriate.

In the twelfth month, Tuoba Gui returned to Shengle in Yunzhong.

寶敗,佛嵩乃還。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

After Murong Bao was defeated, Yang Fusong returned to Later Qin.


燕太子寶恥於參合之敗,請更擊魏。司徒德言於燕主垂曰:「虜以參合之捷,有輕太子之心,宜及陛下神略以服之,不然,將爲後患。」垂乃以清河公會錄留臺事,領幽州刺史,代高陽王隆鎭龍城;以陽城王蘭汗爲北中郎將,代長樂公盛鎭薊;命隆、盛悉引其精兵還中山,期以明年大舉擊魏。

24. Murong Bao was ashamed of his defeat at Canhe Slope, so he asked for another campaign against Wei. And Murong De said to Murong Chui, "After their victory at Canhe Slope, the caitiffs will think little of the Crown Prince. Your Majesty, you should use your divine cunning to subdue them; otherwise, they will cause trouble for us later on."

So Murong Chui appointed Murong Hui as chief of affairs of the Separate Administration and acting Inspector of Youzhou, and had him replace Murong Long at Longcheng. He also appointed the Prince of Yangcheng, Lan Han, as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, and had him replace the Duke of Changle, Murong Sheng, at Ji. Murong Chui ordered Murong Long and Murong Sheng to lead all their best troops to come to Zhongshan, and set a date for the following year for a grand campaign against Wei.

寶恨參合之敗,屢言魏有可乘之機。慕容德亦曰:「魏人狃於參合之役,有陵太子之心,宜及聖略,摧其銳志。」垂從之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Bao regretted his defeat at Canhe, so he often argued that there was still an opportunity to campaign against Northern Wei. And Murong De also said, "After their victory at Canhe Slope, the people of Wei will be arrogant, and they will think little of the Crown Prince. You should use your divine cunning to subdue them."

Murong Chui agreed.


是歲,秦主興封其叔父緒爲晉王,碩德爲隴西王,弟崇爲齊公,顯爲常山公。

25. During this year, Yao Xing appointed his uncles Yao Xu and Yao Shuode as Prince of Jin and Prince of Longxi, and he appointed his younger brothers Yao Chong and Yao Xian as Duke of Qi and Duke of Changshan.

二年,以叔父緒為晉王,征西將軍碩德為隴西王,弟崇為齊公,顯為常山公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the second year of Huangchu (395), Yao Xing appointed his uncles Yao Xu and the General Who Conquers The West, Yao Shuode, as Prince of Jin and Prince of Longxi, and he appointed his younger brothers Yao Chong and Yao Xian as Duke of Qi and Duke of Changshan.

封征虜緒為晉王,征西碩德為隴西王,征南靖等及功臣尹緯、齊難、楊佛嵩等並為公侯,其餘封爵各有差。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing appointed his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yao Xu, as Prince of Jin. He appointed his General Who Conquers The West, Yao Shuode, as Prince of Longxi. He appointed his General Who Conquers The South, Yao Jing, and others who had performed great achievements, such as Yin Wei, Qi Nan, and Yang Fusong, as Dukes or Marquises. Others were also granted suitable titles.
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BOOK 108

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Oct 12, 2018 8:57 pm

二十一年(丙申、三九六)

The Twenty-First Year of Taiyuan (The Bingshen Year, 396 AD)


春,正月,燕高陽王隆引龍城之甲入中山,軍容精整,燕人之氣稍振。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong Long arrived at Zhongshan, having brought his armored soldiers from Longcheng. But although the army maintained strict discipline, their morale had only barely been restored.

〈漢人有言:「戰勝之威,士氣百倍;敗軍之卒,沒世不復正。」此之謂也。〉

(The people of the Han era had a saying: "The prowess of a victorious army bolsters their morale a hundred-fold; the soldiers of a defeated army cannot be restored in the same generation." This is an example of that saying.)


休官權萬世帥衆降西秦。

2. The Xiuguan leader Quan Wanshi led his forces to surrender to Western Qin.

〈前年,乞伏乾歸稱秦王,故稱西秦以別於姚秦。〉

(As mentioned earlier, since Qifu Gangui had now declared himself the King of Qin, the Zizhi Tongjian distinguishes his state of Qin from Yao Xing's by calling the Qifu state Western Qin.)


燕主垂遣征東將軍平規發兵冀州。二月,規以博陵、武邑、長樂三郡兵反於魯口,其從子冀州刺史喜諫,不聽。規弟海陽令翰亦起兵於遼西以應之。垂遣鎭東將軍餘嵩擊規,嵩敗死。垂自將擊規,至魯口,規棄衆,將妻子及平喜等數十人走渡河,垂引兵還。翰引兵趣龍城,清河公會遣東陽公根等擊翰,破之,翰走山南。

3. Murong Chui had sent Ping Gui to draft troops from Jizhou. However, in the second month, Ping Gui rebelled against Yan at Lukou, having gathered troops from Boling, Wuyi, and Changle commandaries. The Inspector of Jizhou, his cousin's son Ping Xi, remonstrated with Ping Gui, but to no avail. The Prefect of Haiyang, Ping Gui's younger brother Ping Han, also raised troops in rebellion in Liaoxi commandary to support Ping Gui.

Murong Chui sent his General Who Guards The East, Yu Song, to attack Ping Gui, but Yu Song was defeated and killed. So Murong Chui himself marched to attack Ping Gui. When Murong Chui reached Lukou, Ping Gui abandoned his army and fled across the Yellow River with his wife and children, Ping Xi, and several dozen followers. Murong Chui led his troops back.

Ping Han led his troops towards Longcheng. Murong Hui sent the Duke of Dongyang, Murong Gen, and others to attack Ping Han, and they routed him. Ping Han fled into the southern hills.

〈海陽縣自漢以來屬遼西郡。平規兄弟以燕兵敗,故叛之。〉〈白狼、徐無等山之南。〉

(Ever since Han, Haiyang county had been part of Liaoxi commandary.

Ping Gui and his brother rebelled against Later Yan because of Later Yan's defeat during the campaign against Northern Wei.

These "southern hills" were the hills in the south of Bailang and Xuwu counties.)


三月,庚子,燕主垂留范陽王德守中山,引兵密發,踰青嶺,經天門,鑿山通道,出魏不意,直指雲中。魏陳留公虔帥部落三萬家鎭平城;垂至獵嶺,以遼西王農、高陽王隆爲前鋒以襲之。是時,燕兵新敗,皆畏魏,惟龍城兵勇銳爭先。虔素不設備,閏月,乙卯,燕軍至平城,虔乃覺之,帥麾下出戰,敗死,燕軍盡收其部落。魏王珪震怖欲走,諸部聞虔死,皆有貳心,珪不知所適。

4. In the third month, on the day Gengzi (April 20th), Murong Chui left Murong De to guard Zhongshan, while he led his soldiers to secretly set out. They crossed the Qing Range and passed through Tian Pass, boring paths and clearing roads through the mountains. They arrived in Wei territory, having taken the Wei army by surprise, and they marched straight towards Yunzhong.

Tuoba Qian led thirty thousand families from his tribes to guard Pingcheng. When Murong Chui reached the Lie Range, he appointed Murong Nong and Murong Long as his vanguard leaders and sent them to surprise attack Tuoba Qian. At this time, since the Yan soldiers had so recently been defeated, they were all afraid of the Wei army; only the soldiers that had come from Longcheng were still bold and keen, and they surged forward. Tuoba Qian had not prepared any defenses. In the intercalary month, on the day Yimao (May 5th), the Yan army arrived at Pingcheng. Only now did Tuoba Qian realize what was going on. He led his forces out to fight the Yan army, but he was defeated and killed, and the Yan army captured all his forces and tribes.

Disturbed and afraid, Tuoba Gui planned to flee. But when his forces heard that Tuoba Qian had been killed, they all began to waver in their loyalties, and Tuoba Gui did not know which place would be safe for him.

〈青嶺蓋卽廣昌嶺,在代郡廣昌縣南,所謂五迴道也。其南層崖刺天,積石之峻,壁立直上,蓋卽天門也。〉〈獵嶺,在夏屋山東北,魏都平城,常獵於此。〉〈虔勇蓋代北,旣敗而死,故諸部皆貳。然天將亡燕,垂繼以殞,此固非人力所能爲也。〉

(The "Qing Range" must have been the Guangchang Range. It was in the south of Guangchang county in Dai commandary, at the place called the Five Circles Road. There is a southern precipice there that juts out into the sky, where a great pile of boulders have piled straight up, forming a wall; this must have been Tian Pass.

The Lie Range, or Hunting Range, was northeast of Mount Xiawu. During the time that Northern Wei had its capital at Pingcheng, its rulers often hunted there.

Tuoba Qian was renowned for his boldness throughout the northern regions of Dai. His defeat and death in battle thus caused the other Northern Wei forces to waver. However, since Heaven willed Later Yan’s doom, Murong Chui himself soon passed away. This was something that no human effort could have accomplished.)


皇始元年春正月,大蒐于定襄之虎山,因東幸善無北陂。三月,慕容垂來寇桑乾川。陳留公元虔先鎮平城,時徵兵未集,虔率麾下邀擊,失利死之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the first year of Huangshi (396), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui held a grand assembly at Mount Hu in Dingxiang, then went east to the north slope of Shanwu.

In the third month, Murong Chui came and invaded Sangganchuan. The Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Qian, had earlier been stationed at Pingcheng, and at this time the summoned soldiers had not yet gathered. So Tuoba Qian led his personal forces to interacept Murong Chui and attack him, but Tuoba Qian had the worst of the fighting and died in the battle.

十一年三月,垂大衆出參合,太子寶出天門。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

In the eleventh year of Jianxing (396), the third month, Murong Chui led a large army to Canhe, while Murong Bao led one to Tian Pass.

垂復欲來寇,太史曰:「太白夕沒西方,數日後見東方,此為躁兵,先舉者亡。」垂不從,鑿山開道。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui wished to launch another invasion of Northern Wei. His Grand Astrologer warned him, "Venus disappeared in the west during the evening, and several days later it was spotted in the east. This is an omen of soldiers rashly being sent out. Whoever makes the first move will be doomed."

But Murong Chui did not listen to him, and he bored holes and opened paths through the mountains.

垂從之,留德守中山,自率大眾出參合,鑿山開道,次於獵嶺。遣寶與農出天門,征北慕容隆、征西慕容盛逾青山,襲魏陳留公泥于平城,陷之,收其眾三萬餘人而還。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui left Murong De to guard Zhongshan, while he led his main army out to Canhe. He bored holes and opened paths through the mountains, and he advanced to the Lie Ranges. He sent Murong Bao and Murong Nong to march out from Tian Pass, and he sent the General Who Conquers The North, Murong Long, and the General Who Conquers The East, Murong Sheng, to pass through Mount Qing. They launched a surprise attack against Northern Wei's Duke of Chenliu, Tuoba Ni, at Pingcheng, and captured the city. They took captive more than thirty thousand of his soldiers before returning.


垂之過參合陂也,見積骸如山,爲之設祭,軍士皆慟哭,聲震山谷。垂慙憤嘔血,由是發疾,乘馬輿而進,頓平城西北三十里。太子寶等聞之,皆引還。燕軍叛者奔告於魏云:「垂已死,輿尸在軍。」魏王珪欲追之,聞平城已沒,乃引還陰山。

5. When Murong Chui's army passed through Canhe Slope, they saw the piles of bones there, stacked up like hills. He made a shrine for them to console their spirits. His soldiers all wept and wailed, and the sounds of their grief shook the mountains and valleys. Murong Chui himself became so ashamed and agitated that he coughed up blood, and he developed an illness. But he continued to lead his army forward while riding in a horse-drawn carriage. His army halted thirty li northwest of Pingcheng. When Murong Bao and the other Yan commanders heard that Murong Chui had fallen ill, they led their forces to fall back.

Defectors from the Yan army fled to inform Tuoba Gui. They told him, "Murong Chui has already died, and they are keeping his corpse with his army." Tuoba Gui wanted to pursue the withdrawing Yan soldiers, but when he heard that Pingcheng had already fallen, he led his soldiers back to Mount Yin.

〈魏人有言,「死諸葛走生仲達。」拓跋珪聞慕容垂之死而不敢進,亦類是耳。〉

(The people of the Cao-Wei era had a saying: "A dead Zhuge (Liang) scares away a live Zhongda (Sima Yi)." When Tuoba Gui heard that Murong Chui was dead, but still did not dare to advance, this was something of the same sort.)


垂至參合,見積骸如山,設祭弔之,死者父兄各皆號哭,軍哀慟,垂慙憤嘔血,因而寢疾... 寶等至雲中,聞垂疾,皆引歸,及垂子平城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Chui's army passed through Canhe, they saw the piles of bones there, stacked up like hills. He made a shrine for them to console their spirits. The fathers and elder brothers of the dead all wept and wailed, and the army was mournful and melancholy. Murong Chui himself became so ashamed and agitated that he coughed up blood, and he developed an illness.

Murong Bao and the other Later Yan generals had gotten as far as Yunzhong when they heard that Murong Chui was ill. They led their forces back, and met Murong Chui at Pingcheng.

垂不從,鑿山開道。至寶前敗所,見積骸如丘,設祭弔之,死者父兄子弟遂皆嘷哭,聲震山川。垂慚忿嘔血,發病而還。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Chui's army came to the place where Murong Bao had been defeated, they saw the bones of the dead piled up like hills. Murong Chui made a shrine for them to console their spirits. The fathers, brothers, and sons of the dead all wept and wailed, and the sounds of their grief shook the mountains and valleys. Murong Chui himself became so ashamed and agitated that he coughed up blood, and he developed an illness and had to turn back.

垂至參合,見往年戰處積骸如山,設弔祭之禮,死者父兄一時號哭,軍中皆慟。垂慚憤歐血,因而寢疾,乘馬輿而進。過平城北三十里... 寶等至雲中,聞垂疾,皆引歸。及垂至於平城,或有叛者奔告魏曰:「垂病已亡,輿屍在軍。」魏又聞參合大哭,以為信然,乃進兵追之,知平城已陷而退,還館陰山。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

When Murong Chui's army passed through Canhe Slope, they saw the piles of bones there of those who had died in the battle the year before, stacked up like hills. He made a shrine for them to console their spirits. The fathers and elder brothers of those who had died all wept and wailed together, and the whole army was mournful. Murong Chui himself became so ashamed and agitated that he coughed up blood, and he was bedridden by illness. But he continued to lead his army forward while riding in a horse-drawn carriage. His army halted thirty li northwest of Pingcheng.

Murong Bao and the other Later Yan generals had gotten as far as Yunzhong when they heard that Murong Chui was ill. They led their forces back, and met Murong Chui at Pingcheng.

Defectors from the Later Yan army fled to inform Tuoba Gui. They told him, "Murong Chui has already died from illness, and they are keeping his corpse with his army." Tuoba Gui also heard about the great wailing at Canhe, so he believed that Murong Chui really had already died. So he began to advance in pursuit of the enemy. But when he heard that Pingcheng had already fallen, he led his soldiers back to Mount Yin.


垂在平城積十日,疾轉篤,乃築燕昌城而還。夏,四月,癸未,卒於上谷之沮陽,祕不發喪。丙申,至中山;戊戌,發喪,諡曰成武皇帝,廟號世祖。壬寅,太子寶卽位,大赦,改元永康。

6. Murong Chui remained at Pingcheng for several dozen days. But after his illness turned critical, he had the city of Yanchang built and then withdrew.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Guiwei (June 2nd), Murong Chui passed away at Juyang county in Shanggu commandary.

Murong Chui's death was kept secret, and the mourning was not announced. On the day Bingshen (June 15th), the Yan army returned to Zhongshan. On the day Wuxu (June 17th), the mourning for Murong Chui began. He was posthumously known as Emperor Chengwu ("the Accomplished and Martial"), and his temple name was Shizu.

On the day Renyin (June 21st), Murong Bao ascended the throne. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongkang.

〈《水經》:燕昌城在平城北四十里。〉〈賢曰:沮陽縣故城,在今嬀州東。沮,音阻。垂年七十一。〉〈寶,字道祐,垂第四子也。〉

(The Water Classic states, "The city of Yanchang was forty li north of Pingcheng."

Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Juyang county was in the east of modern Guizhou. The first character in Juyang, 沮, is pronounced 'zu (z-u)'."

Murong Chui was seventy years old when he died.

Murong Bao, styled Daoyou, was Murong Chui's fourth son.)


垂遂至平城西北,踰山結營,聞帝將至,乃築城自守。疾甚,遂遁走,死於上谷。子寶匿喪而還,至中山乃僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Murong Chui then advanced to the northwest of Pingcheng, passing through the mountains and organizing camps. When he heard that Tuoba Gui was coming, he built walls to protect himself. Then Murong Chui became seriously ill, so he ran and hid, and he died at Shanggu. His son Murong Bao hid his death and returned, and he succeeded Murong Chui after returning to Zhongshan.

垂築燕昌城而還... 夏四月,薨于上谷之俎陽,年七十二,諡武成皇帝。廟號世祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui built the city of Yanchang and then returned.

In summer, the fourth month, Murong Chui passed away at Zuyang county in Shanggu commandary. He was seventy-one years old. He was posthumously known as Emperor Wucheng, and his temple name was Shizu.

垂死於上谷。寶僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui passed away at Shanggu commandary. Murong Bao succeeded him.

垂築燕昌城而還... 垂至上谷之沮陽,乙太元二十一年死,時年七十一,凡在位十三年。遺令曰:「方今禍難尚殷,喪禮一從簡易,朝終夕殯,事訖成服,三日之後,釋服從政。強寇伺隙,秘勿發喪,至京然後舉哀行服。」寶等遵行之。偽諡成武皇帝,廟號世祖,墓曰宣平陵。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

\Murong Chui's illness turned critical, so he had the city of Yanchang built and then withdrew.

Murong Chui went as far as Juyang county in Shanggu commandary. There, in the twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396), he passed away. He was seventy years old, and had reigned for thirteen years. His final will stated, "Since we are still in the midst of great difficulties and disasters, only simple mourning procedures should be followed. Spend only a full day on the wake, then change your clothing after the affair is concluded. Then after the three days of mourning, put your mourning clothes away and tend to the affairs of government. There are strong enemies around us, watching for what they may exploit. So do not publicize the mourning. Only hold the full mourning after returning to the capital." Murong Bao and the others honored his wishes and carried them out. Murong Chui's posthumous title was Emperor Chengwu, and his temple name was Shizu. His tomb was called Xuanping Tomb.

建興十一年四月,僭即皇帝位,大赦,改元為永康元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the eleventh year of Jianxing (396), the fourth month, Murong Bao succeeded Murong Chui as Emperor of Yan. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongkang.

寶既僭位,年號永康。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

After Murong Bao became Emperor, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongkang.

垂死,其年寶嗣偽位,大赦境內,改元為永康。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

After Murong Chui's death, Murong Bao succeeded him as Emperor the same year. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongkang.


五月,辛亥,以范陽王德爲都督冀‧兗‧青‧徐‧荊‧豫六州諸軍事、車騎大將軍、冀州牧,鎭鄴;遼西王農爲都督幷‧雍‧益‧梁‧秦‧涼六州諸軍事、幷州牧,鎭晉陽。又以安定王庫傉官偉爲太師,夫餘王蔚爲太傅。甲寅,以趙王麟領尚書左僕射,高陽王隆領右僕射,長樂公盛爲司隸校尉,宜都王鳳爲冀州刺史。

7. In the fifth month, on the day Xinhai (June 30th), Murong De was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jizhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Jingzhou, and Yuzhou, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Governor of Jizhou, and he was stationed at Ye. Murong Nong was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Qinzhou, and Liangzhou and as Governor of Bingzhou, and he was stationed in Jinyang. The Prince of Anding, Kunuguan Wei, was appointed as Grand Instructor, and the King of Buyeo, Hae Yeoul, was appointed as Grand Tutor.

On the day Jiayin (July 3rd), Murong Lin was appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Murong Long was appointed as Supervisor of the Right. Murong Sheng was appointed as Colonel-Director of Retainers. Murong Feng was appointed as Inspector of Jizhou.

〈餘蔚,夫餘王子也,燕王皝破夫餘得之,燕亡,入秦,秦亂,復歸燕,燕主垂封爲扶餘王。〉

(Hae Yeoul was the son of the former King of Buyeo. When Murong Huang had conquered the Buyeo people, he had captured Hae Yeoul. After Former Yan fell, he served in Former Qin. When Former Qin collapsed, he returned to the Yan region, where Murong Chui appointed him as the new King of Buyeo.)


寶以其太尉庫辱官偉為太師、左光祿大夫,段崇為太保,其餘拜授各有差。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao appointed his Grand Commandant, Kunuguan Wei, as Grand Instructor and Household Counselor of the Left. He appointed Duan Chong as Grand Guardian. Others were granted suitable appointments as well.

垂臨薨,謂太子寶曰:「鄴是舊都,宜委范陽王。」永康元年,以德鎮鄴。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

When Murong Chui was near death, he told his Crown Prince, Murong Bao, "Since Ye was our old capital, you should entrust it to the Prince of Fanyang (Murong De)." So in the first year of Yongkang (396), Murong De was stationed at Ye.

寶既即位,以德鎮鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

After Murong Bao became Emperor, he stationed Murong De at Ye.

垂臨終,敕其子寶以鄴城委德。寶既嗣位,以德為使持節、都督冀、兗、青、徐、荊、豫六州諸軍事、特進、車騎大將軍、冀州牧,領南蠻校尉,鎮鄴,罷留台,以都督專總南夏。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

When Murong Chui was on his deathbed, he ordered his son Murong Bao to entrust the affairs of Ye to Murong De. After Murong Bao rose to the throne, he appointed Murong De as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in the six provinces of Jizhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Jingzhou, and Yuzhou, Specially Advanced, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Governor of Jizhou, and acting Colonel of Southern Man Tribes. Murong De was stationed at Ye, where he had a Separate Administrative Office, in order to control and administer the southern Xia.


乙卯,以散騎常侍彭城劉該爲徐州刺史,鎭鄄城。

8. On the day Yimao (July 4th), Jin's Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Liu Gai of Pengcheng commandary, was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was stationed at Juancheng.

甲子,以望蔡公謝琰爲尚書左僕射。

9. On the day Jiazi (July 13th), Jin's Duke of Wangcai, Xie Yan, was appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

〈望蔡縣屬豫章郡。沈約曰:漢靈帝中平中,汝南上蔡民分徙此城,立縣名上蔡,晉武帝太康元年,更名。宋白曰:以上蔡人思本土,故曰望蔡。〉

(Wangcai county was part of Yuzhang commandary. Shen Yue remarked, "During Emperor Ling of Han's Zhongping reign era (184-189), some of the people of Shangcai county in Runan commandary moved to this city. The new county was also named Shangcai. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280), he changed its name to Wangcai." Song Bai remarked, "The people of Shangcai thought back to their former homeland, and so the county was named Wangcai ('thinking about Cai').")


初,燕主垂先段后生子令、寶,後段后生子朗、鑒,愛諸姬子麟、農、隆、柔、熙。寶初爲太子,有美稱,已而荒怠,中外失望。後段后嘗言於垂曰:「太子遭承平之世,足爲守成之主;今國步艱難,恐非濟世之才。遼西、高陽二王,陛下之賢子,宜擇一人,付以大業。趙王麟姦詐強愎,異日必爲國家之患,宜早圖之。」寶善事垂左右,左右多譽之,故垂以爲賢,謂段后曰:「汝欲使我爲晉獻公乎!」段氏泣而退,告其妹范陽王妃曰:「太子不才,天下所知,吾爲社稷言之,主上乃以吾爲驪姬,何其苦哉!觀太子必喪社稷,范陽王有非常器度,若燕祚未盡,其在王乎!」寶及麟聞而恨之。

10. As mentioned earlier, Murong Chui had been married to two Lady Duans during his life. The elder Lady Duan had given birth to his sons Murong Ling and Murong Bao, and the younger Lady Duan, Duan Yuanfei, had given birth to his sons Murong Lang and Murong Jian. Murong Chui had also had other sons by his beloved concubines: Murong Lin, Murong Nong, Murong Long, Murong Rou, and Murong Xi.

When Murong Bao had first become Crown Prince, he had had a fine reputation. But before long, he became indulgent and remiss, and people near and far lost hope in him.

Duan Yuanfei had once said to Murong Chui, "If the Crown Prince became ruler during a peaceful era, he would be able to maintain the state. But since the state is currently plagued by troubles and difficulties, I fear he would not have the talents to be able to guide it safely through. But there are the Princes of Liaoxi and Gaoyang (Murong Nong and Murong Long), both of whom are Your Majesty's worthy sons. You should choose one of them and entrust him with the grand design. As for the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, he is wicked, crafty, and far too willful. He will surely cause trouble for the state someday. You should get rid of him at once."

However, Murong Bao had been skilled at tending to Murong Chui's personal duties, and many of those around Murong Chui recommended him as well, so Murong Chui felt that he would be a worthy heir. He said to Duan Yuanfei, "You want to make me become another Duke Xian of Jin!"

Duan Yuanfei wept as she withdrew, and she said to her sister, Murong De's wife Duan Jifei, "The whole realm knows that the Crown Prince is not talented. I was offering advice on behalf of the fortunes of our state, yet our lord thinks I am acting like Li Ji of old. Why is he so bitter? It's plain to see that the Crown Prince will surely bring disaster to our state, and the Prince of Fanyang (Murong De) has uncommon talents and potential. If Yan's future becomes uncertain, might he not become King?"

Murong Bao and Murong Lin both resented Duan Yuanfei for her advice.

〈稱,名譽也。〉〈燕王垂初娶段氏,以可足渾后之讒而死,後卽位,追尊爲后。復納段氏爲后,故史書後段后以別之。〉〈晉獻公信驪姬之讒,殺太子申生。〉

(稱 here means to have a good reputation and recommendations.

Murong Chui had first been married to the elder Lady Duan, but she had been slandered by Empress Dowager Kezuhun of Former Yan and died. After Murong Chui became Emperor of Later Yan, he posthumously honored the elder Lady Duan as Empress. Following her death, Murong Chui took Duan Yuanfei as his new wife. This is why the Zizhi Tongjian distinguishes between the two of them as the elder and younger Lady Duan.

Duke Xian of the ancient state of Jin had heeded the slander of his concubine Li Ji and put his son and Crown Prince, Shensheng, to death.)


垂立其子寶為太子也,元妃謂垂曰:「太子姿質雍容,柔而不斷,承平則為仁明之主,處難則非濟世之雄,陛下托之以大業,妾未見克昌之美。遼西、高陽二王,陛下兒之賢者,宜擇一以樹之。趙王麟奸詐負氣,常有輕太子之心,陛下一旦不諱,必有難作。此陛下之家事,宜深圖之。」垂不納。寶及麟聞之,深以為恨。其後元妃又言之,垂曰:「汝欲使我為晉獻公乎?」元妃泣而退,告季妃曰:「太子不令,群下所知,而主上比吾為驪戎之女,何其苦哉!主上百年之後,太子必亡社稷。范陽王有非常器度,若燕祚未終,其在王乎!」(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Duan Yuanfei)

When Murong Chui appointed his son Murong Bao as Crown Prince, Duan Yuanfei said to Murong Chui, "The Crown Prince has a tolerant and open nature; he is accomodating without being decisive. If he became ruler during a peaceful era, he would be a wise and benevolent lord. But he is not suited to be a bold hero who guides the state through this time of troubles. If Your Majesty entrusts the grand design to him, I do not see how he could be successful. But there are the Princes of Liaoxi and Gaoyang (Murong Nong and Murong Long), both of whom are Your Majesty's worthy sons. You should choose one of them to succeed you. As for the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, he is wicked, crafty, and has a traitorous aura to him. He often thinks little of the Crown Prince. If anything should happen to Your Majesty, he will certainly cause trouble. This is an issue that concerns Your Majesty's own family; you should give it careful consideration."

But Murong Chui did not accept her advice, and when Murong Bao and Murong Lin learned about what she had said, they deeply resented her. When Duan Yuanfei continued to say such things to Murong Chui, he replied, "Would you have me become another Duke Xian of Jin?"

Duan Yuanfei wept as she withdrew, and she said to her sister Duan Jifei, "Everyone knows that the Crown Prince is not suited. I was offering advice on behalf of the fortunes of our state, yet our lord thinks I am acting like the daughter of Li Rong of old. Why is he so bitter? After His Majesty is no more, the Crown Prince will surely bring disaster to our state, and the Prince of Fanyang (Murong De) has uncommon talents and potential. If Yan's future becomes uncertain, might he not become King?"

慕容寶字道祐,垂第四子,元璽四年生於信都,少輕果,無志操,好人從己。段後諫垂曰:「太子資質雍容,柔而不斷,非濟世之雄。遼西、高陽陛下嗣之賢者,宜擇一樹之。」垂不納,謂曰:「汝謂我為晉獻公乎。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao, styled Daoyou, was Murong Chui's fourth son. In the fourth year of Yuanxi (355), he was born at Xindu.

As a youth, Murong Bao had little determination and no great ambition, and he enjoyed having people do as he wished. Empress Duan remonstrated with Murong Chui, saying, "The Crown Prince may be a graceful young man, but he is yielding and indecisive; he is no hero to guide the state through this age. But there are the Princes of Liaoxi and Gaoyang (Murong Nong and Murong Long), both of whom would be worthy heirs to Your Majesty. You should choose one of them instead."

But Murong Chui would not accept her advice, and he told her, "You want to make me become another Duke Xian of Jin."

寶,字道祐,小字庫勾,垂之第四子也。少而輕果,無志操,好人佞己。及為太子,砥礪自修,朝士翕然稱之,垂亦以為克保家業。垂妻段氏謂垂曰:「寶資質雍容,柔而不斷,承平則為仁明之主,處難則非濟世之雄。今託之以大業,未見克昌之美。遼西、高陽,兒之賢者,宜擇一以樹之。趙王麟,姦詐負氣,常有輕寶之心,恐必難作。此自家事,宜深圖之。」垂弗納。寶聞之,深以為恨。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao, styled Daoyou, was Murong Chui's fourth son; his childhood name was Kugou. As a youth, he had little resolve and no great ambitions, and he enjoyed having people flatter him. But after Murong Bao became Crown Prince, he improved himself; the court ministers all commended him, and Murong Chui too felt that Murong Bao would certainly be able to protect his family and his legacy.

Murong Chui's wife Lady Duan said to him, "The Crown Prince may be a graceful young man, but he is yielding and indecisive. If he became ruler during a peaceful era, he would be a wise and benevolent sovereign. But he is not the hero to guide the state through a time of troubles and difficulties. Yet now you would entrust him with the grand design. I have no faith that he will be able to 'ensure prosperity to your descendants'. However, there are the Princes of Liaoxi and Gaoyang (Murong Nong and Murong Long), both of whom would be worthy heirs to Your Majesty. You should choose one of them instead. As for the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, he is wicked, crafty, and has a traitorous air about him, and he has often looked down upon Murong Bao. I fear he will surely cause trouble someday. For the sake of your family, you should get rid of him at once."

But Murong Chui would not accept her advice. And when Murong Bao heard about what Lady Duan had said about him, he deeply resented her.

慕容寶,字道祐,垂之第四子也。少輕果無志操,好人佞己。苻堅時為太子洗馬、萬年令。堅淮肥之役,以寶為陵江將軍。及為太子,砥礪自修,敦崇儒學,工談論,善屬文,曲事垂左右小臣,以求美譽。垂之朝士翕然稱之,垂亦以為克保家業,甚賢之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao, styled Daoyou, was Murong Chui's fourth son. As a youth, he had little resolve and no great ambitions, and he enjoyed having people flatter him. During the time Murong Bao served in Former Qin, Fu Jian appointed him as Horse-Washer to the Crown Prince and Prefect of Wannian. And during Fu Jian's preparations for his campaign into the Huai and Fei River region against Jin, he appointed Murong Bao as General Who Forces The Yangzi.

After Murong Bao became Crown Prince, he improved himself; he sincerely honored scholarship and learning, he participated in discourses and discussions, and he became skilled at composition. He also canvassed the personal attendants around Murong Chui, so that they would put in a good word for him with his father. Murong Chui's court ministers all commended him, and Murong Chui too felt that Murong Bao would certainly be able to protect his family and his legacy, feeling that he was a most worthy successor.


乙丑,寶使麟謂段氏曰:「后常謂主上不能守大業,今竟能不?宜早自裁,以全段宗!」段氏怒曰:「汝兄弟不難逼殺其母,況能守先業乎!吾豈愛死,但念國亡不久耳。」遂自殺。寶議以段后謀廢適統,無母后之道,不宜成喪。羣臣咸以爲然。中書令眭邃颺言於朝曰:「子無廢母之義,漢安思閻后親廢順帝,猶得配饗太廟,況先后曖昧之言,虛實未可知乎!」乃成喪。

11. On the day Yichou (July 14th), Murong Bao sent Murong Lin to tell Empress Duan, "Empress, you often said that our sovereign would not be able to maintain the grand design. Do you still feel that way or not? You had better kill yourself now, if you want to ensure the safety of the Duan clan!"

But Empress Duan angrily replied, "You and your brother do not even shrink from threatening and putting your own mother to death; how could you possibly protect what your father built? Do you suppose I enjoy dying? But what truly concerns me is that the state will not survive for long." And she killed herself.

Murong Bao proposed that, because Empress Duan had plotted to depose him and interfere with the succession, she had acted in a way unbecoming of a mother and an empress, and the full mourning rites should not be observed for her. Most of his ministers agreed with him.

But the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Sui Sui, hoarsely shouted in court, "A son has no right to withdraw the honors due to his mother. Empress Ansi of Han, the Lady Yan, was personally involved in keeping Emperor Shun from inheriting the throne. Yet even then, Emperor Shun still granted her the same sacrifices suited for her position and placed her in the Ancestral Temple. How can you propose such a thing for Her Late Majesty just over some hearsay which no one knows the truth about?"

So Empress Duan was granted full mourning rites.

〈大言而疾曰颺。〉〈事見五十卷漢安帝延光三年。〉

(To yell loudly until it becomes painful is to be hoarse.

Empress Yan's role in the disputed succession of Emperor Shun of Han is mentioned in Book 50, in Emperor An of Han's third year of Yanguang (124).)


垂死,寶嗣偽位,遣麟逼元妃曰:「後常謂主上不能嗣守大統,今竟何如?宜早自裁,以全段氏。」元妃怒曰:「汝兄弟尚逼殺母,安能保守社稷!吾豈惜死,念國滅不久耳。」遂自殺。寶議以元妃謀廢嫡統,無母后之道,不宜成喪,群下咸以為然。偽中書令眭邃大言於朝曰:「子無廢母之義,漢之安思閻後親廢順帝,猶配饗安皇,先後言虛實尚未可知,宜依閻後故事。」寶從之。其後麟果作亂,寶亦被殺,德後僭稱尊號,終如元妃之言。(Book of Jin 96, Biography of Duan Yuanfei)

After Murong Chui passed away and Murong Bao succeeded him, he sent Murong Lin to threaten Duan Yuanfei, telling her, "Empress, you often said that our sovereign would not be able to maintain the grand design. Do you still feel that way? You had better kill yourself now, if you want to ensure the safety of the Duan clan."

But Duan Yuanfei angrily replied, "You and your brother do not even shrink from threatening and putting your own mother to death; how could you possibly protect the fortunes of state? It is not that I regret dying. But what truly concerns me is that the state will not survive for long." And she killed herself.

Murong Bao proposed that, because Duan Yuanfei had plotted to depose him and interfere with the succession, she had acted in a way unbecoming of a mother and an empress, and the full mourning rites should not be observed for her. Most of his ministers agreed with him.

But the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Sui Sui, shouted in court, "A son has no right to withdraw the honors due to his mother. Empress Ansi of Han, the Lady Yan, was personally involved in keeping Emperor Shun from inheriting the throne. Yet even then, Emperor Shun still granted her the same sacrifices suited for her position and placed her in the Ancestral Temple alongside Emperor An. This matter is all based on some hearsay which no one knows the truth about. We ought to follow the example of how Empress Ansi was treated."

Murong Bao heeded his advice.

And in the end, everything turned out just as Duan Yuanfei had predicted: Murong Lin did rebel, Murong Bao was also killed, and Murong De declared himself Emperor.

寶遣將軍趙王麟逼段后曰:「常謂主上不能嗣守大統,今竟能不宜早自裁,以全段氏。」后怒曰:「汝兄弟尚逼殺母,豈復能保守社稷吾豈惜死,念國滅不久。」遂自殺。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao sent his general and Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, to threaten Empress Duan, saying, "You often said that our sovereign would not be able to maintain the grand design. You had better kill yourself now, if you want to ensure the safety of the Duan clan."

But Empress Duan angrily replied, "You and your brother do not even shrink from threatening and putting your own mother to death; how could you possibly protect what your father built? Do you suppose I regret dying? But what truly concerns me is that the state will not survive for long." And she killed herself.

寶既僭位,年號永康。遣麟逼其母段氏曰:「后常謂主上不能繼守大統,今竟能不?宜早自裁,以全段氏。」段氏怒曰:「汝兄弟尚逼殺母,安能保社稷!吾豈惜死,念國滅不久耳。」遂自殺。寶議以后諫廢嫡統,無母后之道,不宜成喪,羣臣咸以為然。寶中書令眭邃執意抗言,寶從而止。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao sent Murong Lin to threaten his mother Lady Duan, telling her, "Empress, you often said that our sovereign would not be able to maintain the grand design. Do you still feel that way or not? You had better kill yourself now, if you want to ensure the safety of the Duan clan."

But Lady Duan angrily replied, "You and your brother do not even shrink from threatening and putting your own mother to death; how could you possibly protect the altars of state? Do you suppose I regret dying? But what truly concerns me is that the state will not survive for long." And she killed herself.

Murong Bao proposed that, because Empress Duan had plotted to depose him and interfere with the succession, she had acted in a way unbecoming of a mother and an empress, and the full mourning rites should not be observed for her. Most of his ministers agreed with him. But the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Sui Sui, forcefully opposed this idea. So Murong Bao did as he wished and dropped the matter.


六月,癸酉,魏王珪遣將軍王建等擊燕廣甯太守劉亢泥,斬之,徙其部落於平城。燕上谷太守開封公詳棄郡走。詳,皝之曾孫也。

12. In the sixth month, on the day Guiyou (July 22nd), Tuoba Gui sent his generals Wang Jian and others to attack Yan's Administrator of Guangning, Liu Kangni. They beheaded him, and relocated his tribes and forces to Pingcheng. Yan's Administrator of Shanggu and Duke of Kaifeng, Murong Xiang, abandoned his commandary and fled. This Murong Xiang was the great-grandson of Murong Huang.

〈廣甯縣,漢屬上谷郡,晉太康中,分置廣甯郡。〉

(During Han, Guangning county was part of Shanggu commandary. During Jin's Taikang reign era (280-289), it was split off as Guangning commandary.)


夏六月癸酉,遣將軍王建等三軍討寶廣寧太守劉亢泥,斬之,徙其部落。寶上谷太守慕容普隣,捐郡奔走。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In summer, the sixth month, on the day Guiyou (July 22nd), Tuoba Gui sent his generals Wang Jian and others to lead the three armies to campaign against Murong Bao's Administrator of Guangning, Liu Kangni. They beheaded him, and relocated his tribes and forces. Murong Bao's Administrator of Shanggu, Murong Pulin, abandoned his commandary and fled.


丁亥,魏賀太妃卒。

13. On the day Dinghai (August 5th), Wei's Grand Concubine, Lady He, passed away.

〈魏王珪之母也。〉

(She was Tuoba Gui's mother.)


丁亥,皇太后賀氏崩。是月,葬獻明太后。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Dinghai (August 5th), the Empress Dowager, Lady He, passed away. Her posthumous title was Empress Dowager Xianming, and she was buried the same month.


燕主寶定士族舊籍,分辨清濁,校閱戶口,罷軍營封蔭之戶,悉屬郡縣;由是士民嗟怨,始有離心。

14. Murong Bao settled all the old local household registries: he cleaned up and managed the discrepancies and revised all the household and population figures, and he abolished the private households maintained by generals and nobles and settled them in the public domains of the commandaries and counties. These things caused the gentry and the common people to sigh in resentment, and they became alienated from Murong Bao.

〈軍營封蔭之戶,蓋諸軍庇占以爲部曲者。〉〈斯事行之,未必非也;但慕容寶卽位之初,國師新敗,又遭大喪,下之懷反側者多,未可遽行耳。《大學》曰:物有本末,事有先後,知所先後,則近道矣。〉

(The "private households maintained by generals and nobles" must have been households which the generals and nobles kept as their own personal forces.

It was not necessarily wrong to implement policies like these, in theory. But Murong Bao had only just risen to the throne, and the Later Yan army had so recently been defeated. Not to mention that so many people were mourning the loss of their relatives, and many were now inclined toward rebellion. So it was just that the circumstances were not appropriate for implementing such policies yet, and Murong Bao acted too quickly in trying to carry them out. The Great Learning states, "Things have their root and their branches. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning.")


寶遵垂遺令,校閱戶口,罷諸軍營分屬郡縣,定士族舊籍,明其官儀,而法峻政嚴,上下離德,百姓思亂者十室而九焉。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Honoring Murong Chui's final will, Murong Bao conducted a survey of households and population. He abolished the various military camps and divided them among the public domains of the commandaries and counties, he settled the old registries of the local clans, and he clarified the government offices and the rites. However, Murong Bao's laws were harsh and his administration was stern. Those above and below were alienated from virtue, and nine-tenths of the common people considered rebellion.


三河王呂光卽天王位,國號大涼,大赦,改元龍飛;備置百官,以世子紹爲太子,封子弟爲公侯者二十人;以中書令王詳爲尚書左僕射,著作郎段業等五人爲尚書。

15. Lü Guang now declared himself Heavenly King, and he named his state Great Liang. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Longfei. He created the imperial offices. He appointed his heir Lü Shao his Crown Prince, and he appointed twenty of his sons and younger brothers as Dukes and Marquises. He appointed his Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Xiang, as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed five people as Masters of Writing, including his Gentleman-Author, Duan Ye.

〈呂光,字世明,略陽氐也,父婆樓,爲苻堅佐命。〉

(Lü Guang, styled Shiming, was a member of the Di people, a native of Lüeyang commandary. His father, Lü Polou, was an early supporter of Fu Jian.)


呂光僭稱天王,號大涼,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (396), Lü Guang declared himself Heavenly King, naming his state Great Liang. He sent envoys to Tuoba Gui bearing tribute.

龍飛元年,五龍見於浩亹,羣臣咸賀,勸光稱號,六月,僭卽天王位于南郊,大赦改年,備置羣司,立世子紹為太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the third year of Linjia (391), the ninth month, the grand ancestral temple was completed. Lü Guang posthumously honored his father as King Jingzhao, his grandfather as Duke Xuan, his great-grandfather as Duke Gong, and his great-great-grandfather as Duke Jing.

In the first year of Longfei (396), five dragons were seen at Haomen. Lü Guang's ministers all congratulated him for the good omen, and they urged him to advance his title again. So in the sixth month, Lü Guang declared himself Heavenly King in the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Longfei. He established the imperial offices, and he appointed his heir Lü Shao as his Crown Prince.

皇始初,光僭稱天王,置百官,改號龍飛,立子紹為太子。遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the first year of Huangshi (396), Lü Guang declared himself Heavenly King. He established the imperial offices, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Longfei. He appointed his son Lü Shao as Crown Prince. He sent tribute to the Northern Wei court.

太廟新成,追尊其高祖為敬公,曾祖為恭公,祖為宣公,父為景昭王,母曰昭烈妃。其中書侍郎楊穎上疏,請依三代故事,追尊呂望為始祖,永為不遷之廟,光從之。是歲,張掖督郵傅曜考核屬縣,而丘池令尹興殺之,投諸空井,曜見夢於光曰:「臣張掖郡小吏,案校諸縣,而丘池令尹興贓狀狼藉,懼臣言之,殺臣投于南亭空井中。臣衣服形狀如是。」光寤而猶見,久之乃滅。遣使覆之如夢,光怒,殺興。著作郎段業以光未能揚清激濁,使賢愚殊貫,因療疾於天梯山,作表志詩《九歎》、《七諷》十六篇以諷焉。光覽而悅之。光於是乙太元二十一年僭即天王位,大赦境內,改年龍飛。立世子紹為太子,諸子弟為公侯者二十人。中書令王詳為尚書左僕射,段業等五人為尚書。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

The grand ancestral temple was completed. Lü Guang posthumously honored his great-great-grandfather as Duke Jing, his great-grandfather as Duke Gong, his grandfather as Duke Xuan, his father as King Jingzhao, and his mother as Concubine Zhaolie. Lü Guang's Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Yang Ying, sent up a petition asking that Lü Guang follow the precedents of the past three dynasties by posthumously honoring the ancient sage Lü Wang (Jiang Ziya) as the progenitor of his clan and never move the location of the ancestral temple. Lü Guang agreed.

During the same year, the Examiner of Zhangye commandary, Fu Yao, was performing an inspection of the subordinate counties when he was killed by the Prefect of Qiuchi, Yin Xing, who tossed his body into an empty well. One night, Lü Guang saw Fu Yao appear in a dream. Fu Yao said to him, "I am a minor official from Zhangye commandary. I was inspecting the counties there, but the Prefect of Qiuchi, Yin Xing, was afraid that I would repeat on the bribes he had taken, so he killed me and threw my body into an empty well at Nanting. I have appeared like this in order to report the matter to you." And even after Lü Guang woke up, he still saw Fu Yao for a moment before he disappeared. Lü Guang sent someone to check it out, and everything proved to be just as Fu Yao had claimed in the dream. Furious, Lü Guang killed Yin Xing.

Lü Guang's Gentleman-Author, Duan Ye, felt that Lü Guang had not yet been able to eliminate vice and exalt virtue, nor separate wise people from foolish. So while tending to an illness at Mount Tianti, he wrote a petition expressing his feelings, in the form of sixteen volumes of poems entitled Nine Lamentations and Seven Satires, in order to criticize Lü Guang. When Lü Guang reflected upon them, he was pleased with Duan Ye.

In the twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396), Lü Guang declared himself Heavenly King. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Longfei. He appointed his heir Lü Shao his Crown Prince, and he appointed twenty of his sons and younger brothers as Dukes and Marquises. He appointed his Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Xiang, as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed five people as Masters of Writing, including Duan Ye.


光遣使者拜禿髮烏孤爲征南大將軍、益州牧、左賢王。烏孤謂使者曰:「呂王諸子貪淫,三甥暴虐,遠近愁怨,吾安可違百姓之心,受不義之爵乎!吾當爲帝王之事耳。」乃留其鼓吹、羽儀,謝而遣之。

16. Lü Guang sent envoys to appoint Tufa Wugu as Liang's Grand General Who Conquers The South, Governor of Yizhou, and Worthy Prince of the Left. But Tufa Wugu told his envoys, "King Lü's sons are corrupt and licentious, and his three nephews are violent and cruel. People near and far feel sorrow and anger because of them. How then can I violate the wishes of the common people by accepting such unjust titles? In fact, I ought to claim title as king or emperor myself." So though he kept the envoys' gifts and instruments, he apologized to them and sent them away.

〈光諸子見於史者,纂、弘、紹、覆。〉〈光甥石聰譖殺杜進;餘二人當考。〉

(The sons of Lü Guang who are mentioned in historical texts were Lü Zuan, Lü Hong, Lü Shao, and Lü Fu. As for his "three" nephews, we saw one listed earlier, Shi Cong, whose slander led to Du Jin's death. But as for the other two, that remains unclear.)


呂光封烏孤益州牧、左賢王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Lü Guang appointed Tufa Wugu as Governor of Yizhou and Worthy Prince of the Left.

皇始初,呂光拜烏孤益州牧、左賢王。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

At the beginning of the Huangshi era (~396), Lü Guang appointed Tufa Wugu as his Governor of Yizhou and Worthy Prince of the Left.

光又遣使署烏孤征南大將軍、益州牧、左賢王。烏孤謂使者曰:「呂王昔以專征之威,遂有此州,不能以德柔遠,惠安黎庶。諸子貪淫,三甥肆暴,郡縣土崩,下無生賴。吾安可違天下之心,受不義之爵!帝王之起,豈有常哉!無道則滅,有德則昌,吾將順天人之望,為天下主。」留其鼓吹羽儀,謝其使而遣之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Lü Guang sent envoys to appoint Tufa Wugu as his Grand General Who Conquers The South, Governor of Yizhou, and Worthy Prince of the Left. But Tufa Wugu told his envoys, "It was through conquest and force of arms that King Lü came to control this province; he was unable to bend distant people to his will through virtue, nor did he calm the common people by displays of kindness. And his sons are corrupt and licentious, and his three nephews are violent and cruel; the land is falling to pieces in the commandaries and counties, and the people cannot be sure of their livelihoods. How then can I violate the wishes of the realm by accepting such unjust titles? And what king or emperor has a common rise? He who is without principle shall be vanquished, while he who possessed virtue shall prosper. I am about to heed the hopes of Heaven and of the people and become master of the realm." So though he kept the envoys' gifts and instruments, he apologized to them and sent them away.


平規收合餘黨據高唐,燕主寶遣高陽王隆將兵討之;東土之民,素懷隆惠,迎候者屬路。秋,七月,隆進軍臨河,規棄高唐走。隆遣建威將軍慕容進等濟河追之,斬規於濟北。平喜奔彭城。

17. Ping Gui gathered together his remaining partisans and occupied Gaotang county. Murong Bao sent Murong Long to lead troops to campaign against him. The people of the east had long cherished Murong Long because of his kindness, and throngs of them filled the roads to welcome him.

In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Long advanced and camped his army on the banks of the Yellow River. Ping Gui abandoned Gaotang and fled. Murong Long sent the General Who Establishes Might, Murong Jin, and others to cross the Yellow River and pursue Ping Gui, and they beheaded him in Jibei commandary. Ping Xi fled to Pengcheng.

〈高唐縣,自漢以來屬平原郡。〉〈相屬於路也。〉

(Ever since Han, Gaotang county had been part of Pingyuan commandary.

The people filled the roads one after another to see Murong Long.)


納故中書令王獻之女爲太子妃。獻之,羲之之子也。

18. Emperor Xiaowu took the daughter of the former Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Xianzhi, as the Concubine of the Crown Prince. This Wang Xianzhi was the son of Wang Xizhi.

〈羲之,王導之從子。〉

(Wang Xizhi was Wang Dao's cousin's son.)


魏羣臣勸魏王珪稱尊號,珪始建天子旌旗,出警入蹕,改元皇始。參軍事上谷張恂勸珪進取中原,珪善之。

19. The Wei ministers urged Tuoba Gui to declare himself Emperor. It was at this time that Tuoba Gui began to use the banners and pennants associated with the Son of Heaven, and he had people call out to make way for him whenever he came or went. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Huangshi.

Tuoba Gui's Army Advisor, Zhang Xun of Shanggu commandary, urged him to advance and capture the Central Plains. Tuoba Gui approved of the idea.

〈珪,什翼犍之嫡孫,寔之子,詳見一百四卷元年。自苻堅淮、淝之敗,至是十有四年矣,關、河之間,戎狄之長,更興迭仆,晉人視之,漠然不關乎其心。拓跋珪興而南、北之形定矣。南、北之形旣定,卒之南爲北所幷。嗚呼!自隋以後,名稱揚于時者,代北之子孫十居六七矣,氏族之辨,果何益哉!〉

(Tuoba Gui was the grandson of Tuoba Shiyijian by his chief wife, and the son of Tuoba Shi, as mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.18-19).

By now, it had been fourteen years since Fu Jian's defeats at the Huai and Fei Rivers. In all that time, the regions around Guanzhong and the Yellow River had seen the rise and full of numerous barbarian leaders. Yet the people of Jin only looked on, and took no part in what was going on. Then Tuoba Gui rose to power, and the division into the Northern and Southern Dynasties became settled. The north and south having been settled, it was only a matter of time until the north annexed the south. Alas! And from the Sui dynasty onward, out of every ten people who won acclaim and reputation of the age, six or seven were the descendants of these people of Dai and the north. How greatly did the influence of their clans increase!)


秋七月,左司馬許謙上書勸進尊號,帝始建天子旌旗,出入警蹕,於是改元。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Gui's Marshal of the Left, Xu Qian, sent up a letter urging him to declare himself Emperor. It was at this time that Tuoba Gui began to use the banners and pennants associated with the Son of Heaven, and he had people call out to make way for him whenever he came or went. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Huangshi.

明年,慕容垂復來寇。太祖謂謙曰:「今事急矣,非卿豈能復致姚師,卿其行也。」謙未發而垂退,乃止。及聞垂死,謙上書勸進。太祖善之。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

The following year (396), Murong Chui led another invasion of Northern Wei. Tuoba Gui said to Xu Qian, "We face pressing matters once again. How could I have any hopes of summoning the Yao clan's army again without you? So I must send you to them again." But Xu Qian had barely set out before Murong Chui retreated, so he stopped.

When word spread that Murong Chui had died, Xu Qian sent Tuoba Gui a letter urging him to advance his title. Tuoba Gui approved.


燕遼西王農悉將部曲數萬口之幷州,幷州素乏儲㣥,是歲早霜,民不能供其食,又遣諸部護軍分監諸胡,由是民夷俱怨,潛召魏軍。八月,己亥,魏王珪大舉伐燕,步騎四十餘萬,南出馬邑,踰句注,旌旗二千餘里,鼓行而進。左將軍鴈門李栗將五萬騎爲前驅,別遣將軍封眞等從東道出軍都,襲燕幽州。

20. Murong Nong moved all his forces, tens of thousands of people, to Bingzhou. But Bingzhou had long suffered from a shortage of grain stores, and during this year there was drought and frost there, so the common people could not find enough food for themselves. And Murong Nong also sent his various Protector-Generals to command the various tribes. So both the common people and the tribes resented him, and they secretly asked the Wei army to come.

In the eighth month, on the day Jihai (October 16th), Tuoba Gui led a great undertaking to campaign against Yan. He led more than four hundred thousand horse and foot south from Mayi, and they crossed through Gouzhu; their banners and flags stretched for more than two thousand li, and they advanced at the roll of the drums. The General of the Left, Li Li of Yanmen commandary, led fifty thousand cavalry as the vanguard. Tuoba Gui also sent his generals Feng Zhen and others along eastern roads to pass through Jundu and surprise attack Yan's province of Youzhou.

〈之,往也。〉〈兵無內應與必勝之計,不可大舉。〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》:拓跋詰汾時,餘部諸姓內入者有是賁氏,後改爲封氏。軍都縣,前漢屬上谷郡,後漢屬廣陽郡,晉屬燕國;有軍都關。賢曰:今幽州昌平縣有軍都山,在西北。〉

(之 here means "towards, to".

Tuoba Gui could not have launched this great undertaking unless he was certain of success thanks to the support from within.

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "During the reign of Tuoba Jiefen, there were many tribes of new surnames who came to join the Tuoba. One of these was the Bi clan, which later changed their surname to Feng."

During Former Han, Jundu county was part of Shanggu commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Guangyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of the Yan princely fief. There was also a Jundu Pass. Li Xian remarked, "There is a Mount Jundu in the northwest of Changping county in modern Youzhou.")


先是,鮮卑慕容垂僭號中山,晉孝武太元二十一年,垂死,開率十萬騎圍中山。(Book of Liu-Song 95, Account of the Suotou)

The Xianbei leader Murong Chui had earlier declared himself Emperor at Zhongshan. But in Emperor Xiaowu's twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396), when Murong Chui passed away, Tuoba Kai led a hundred thousand cavalry to besiege Zhongshan.

八月庚寅,治兵于東郊。己亥,大舉討慕容寶,帝親勒六軍四十餘萬,南出馬邑,踰于句注,旌旗駱驛二千餘里,鼓行而前,民屋皆震。別詔將軍封真等三軍,從東道出襲幽州,圍薊。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, on the day Gengyin (October 7th), Tuoba Gui arrayed his soldiers in the eastern suburbs of the capital. On the day Jihai (October 16th), he led a great undertaking to campaign against Murong Bao. He led six armies of more than four hundred thousand soldiers south out of Mayi, and they crossed through Gouzhu; their banners, flags, and courier riders stretched for more than two thousand li, and they advanced at the roll of the drums, so that the houses of the common people were all shaken. Tuoba Gui also sent his generals Feng Zhen and others to lead three armies along eastern roads to surprise attack Later Yan's province of Youzhou, and they besieged Ji.

皇始元年,太祖南伐。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the first year of Huangshi (396), Tuoba Gui launched a southern campaign against Later Yan.


燕征北大將軍、幽‧平二州牧、清河公會母賤而年長,雄俊有器藝,燕主垂愛之。寶之伐魏也,垂命會攝東宮事、總錄,禮遇一如太子。及垂伐魏,命會鎭龍城,委以東北之任,國官府佐,皆選一時才望。垂疾篤,遺言命寶以會爲嗣;而寶愛少子濮陽公策,意不在會。長樂公盛與會同年,恥爲之下,乃與趙王麟共勸寶立策,寶從之。乙亥,立妃段氏爲皇后,策爲皇太子,會、盛皆進爵爲王。策年十一,素憃弱,會聞之,心慍懟。

21. Yan's Grand General Who Conquers The North, Governor of Youzhou and Pingzhou, and Duke of Qinghe was Murong Hui. He had a lowborn mother, but he grew up to be strong; he was a bold and talented man, with great capabilities and skills, and Murong Chui had treasured him. When Murong Bao campaigned against Wei, Murong Chui had ordered Murong Hui to handle affairs in the Eastern Palace and the general affairs of government, and he had been shown the same ceremonies due to a Crown Prince. When Murong Chui himself left on campaign against Wei, he had sent Murong Hui to Longcheng and entrusted him with affairs in the northeast, and Murong Hui always selected talented and trusted people to fill government offices.

After Murong Chui's illness became critical, he sent word ordering Murong Bao to make Murong Hui his heir. But because Murong Bao was very fond of the Duke of Puyang, his youngest son Murong Ce, he was not inclined towards Murong Hui. At the same time, Murong Sheng was the same age as Murong Hui, and he was ashamed at having to be his subordinate. So he and Murong Lin both urged Murong Bao to make Murong Ce his heir instead, and Murong Bao heeded them.

On the day Yihai (September 22nd), Murong Bao honored his concubine Lady Duan as his Empress, and he appointed Murong Ce as his Crown Prince. Murong Hui and Murong Sheng both had their titles advanced to Prince.

At this time, Murong Ce was only ten years old, and he had long been foolish and weak. When Murong Hui heard what had happened, he was irritated and resentful.

〈總錄,謂總錄朝政也。〉〈憃,與戇同,愚也。〉

(Murong Hui was left in charge of affairs in the court.

Murong Ce is described as being 憃; this means dull or foolish.)


八月,立妃段氏為皇后,濮陽公榮為皇太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the eighth month, Murong Bao honored his concubine Lady Duan as his Empress, and he appointed the Duke of Puyang, Murong Rong, as his Crown Prince.

初,垂以寶塚嗣未建,每憂之。寶庶子清河公會多材藝,有雄略,垂深奇之。及寶之北伐,使會代攝宮事,總錄、禮遇一同太子,所以見定旨也。垂之伐魏,以龍城舊都,宗廟所在,復使會鎮幽州,委以東北之重,高選僚屬以崇威望。臨死顧命,以會為寶嗣,而寶寵愛少子濮陽公策,意不在會。寶庶長子長樂公盛自以同生年長,恥會先之,乃盛稱策宜為儲貳,而非毀會焉。寶大悅,乃訪其趙王麟、高陽王隆,麟等咸希旨贊成之。寶遂與麟等定計,立策母段氏為皇后,策為皇太子,盛、會進爵為王。策字道符,年十一,美姿貌,而蠢弱不慧。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Earlier, Murong Chui had always been worried because Murong Bao had yet to choose his own successor. The Duke of Qinghe, Murong Hui, was Murong Bao's son born of a concubine. He had many talents and skills and he was bold and cunning, and Murong Chui had deeply appreciated him. When Murong Bao campaigned against Northern Wei, Murong Chui had ordered Murong Hui to handle affairs in the Eastern Palace and the general affairs of government, and he had been shown the same ceremonies due to a Crown Prince, in order to make clear Murong Chui's preference for him. When Murong Chui himself left on campaign against Northern Wei, since the imperial tombs and ancestral temple were at the old capital at Longcheng, he had stationed Murong Hui at Youzhou and entrusted him with affairs in the northeast, and Murong Hui always selected talented and trusted people to enhance his might and prestige.

When Murong Chui was near death, his will was that Murong Hui would be Murong Bao's heir. But because Murong Bao was very fond of and favored the Duke of Puyang, his youngest son Murong Ce, he was not inclined towards Murong Hui. At the same time, the Duke of Changle, Murong Bao's eldest son born of a concubine, Murong Sheng, was the same age as Murong Hui, and he was ashamed at Murong Hui being ahead of him. So he urged Murong Bao to make Murong Ce his heir instead, while disparaging Murong Hui. Very pleased, Murong Bao raised the idea with the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, and the Prince of Gaoyang, Murong Long. They and others all composed a decree supporting the choice of Murong Ce.

Having settled the plan with them, Murong Bao honored Murong Ce's mother Lady Duan as his Empress, and he appointed Murong Ce as Crown Prince. Murong Sheng and Murong Hui had their titles advanced to Prince. Murong Ce, styled Daofu, was only ten years old. Although he had a fine appearance and bearing, he was still a frail and foolish child, unintelligent.

寶既僭立,進爵為王,拜征北大將軍、司隸校尉、尚書左僕射。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Murong Bao came to the throne, he advanced Murong Sheng's title to Prince and appointed him as Grand General Who Conquers The North, Colonel-Director of Retainers, and Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

寶即偽位,進爵為王。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Murong Bao became Emperor, he advanced Murong Sheng's title to Prince.


九月,章武王宙奉燕主垂及成哀段后之喪葬于龍城宣平陵,寶詔宙悉徙高陽王隆參佐、部曲、家屬還中山,會違詔,多留部曲不遣。宙年長屬尊,會每事陵侮之,見者皆知其有異志。

22. In the ninth month, Murong Zhou conducted the burial of Murong Chui and Empress Cheng'ai at Xuanping Tomb at Longcheng.

Murong Bao issued an edict ordering Murong Zhou to relocate all of Murong Long's advisors and assistants, his personal forces, and his household dependents back to Zhongshan. But Murong Hui violated the order, and he kept many of the forces back instead of sending them to Zhongshan. And by now, Murong Zhou was advanced in age and deserved seniority and honor, yet Murong Hui was always bullying and insulting him. So people who saw these things all knew that Murong Hui had his own ambitions.

〈成哀后,卽寶所殺後母段氏也。〉〈隆去年自龍城還中山,會實代之,故令遣還其部曲參佐。〉〈爲寶、會父子相圖張本。〉

(This Empress Cheng'ai was the Lady Duan whom Murong Bao had killed.

During the previous year, when Murong Long had left his post at Longcheng to return to Zhongshan, Murong Hui had replaced him in command there. This was why Murong Bao now ordered Murong Zhou to return Murong Long's former forces and subordinates in that region to Zhongshan.

This was why Murong Bao and Murong Hui soon plotted against each other.)


戊午,魏軍至陽曲,乘西山,臨晉陽,遣騎環城大譟而去。燕遼西王農出戰,大敗,奔還晉陽,司馬慕輿嵩閉門拒之。農將妻子帥數千騎東走,魏中領將軍長孫肥追之,及於潞川,獲農妻子。燕軍盡沒,農被創,獨與三騎逃歸中山。

23. On the day Wuwu (November 4th), the Wei army arrived at Yangqu county. They passed through the western hills and approached Jinyang, and Tuoba Gui sent riders to circle the city and whip up a clamor before rejoining the army. Murong Nong came out to offer battle, but he was greatly defeated.

When Murong Nong fled back to Jinyang, his Marshal, Muyu Song, closed the gates and barred him from entering. So Murong Nong took his wife and children and fled east with several thousand riders. Wei's General Who Directs The Army of the Center, Zhangsun Fei, pursued them. He caught up with them at Luchuan (or Luzhou), where he captured Murong Nong's wife and children. The local Yan army was entirely lost, and Murong Nong himself was injured, but he still escaped to Zhongshan with three riders.

〈陽曲縣自漢以來屬太原郡。宋白曰:陽曲縣故城,在太原縣北四十五里,後漢末所移也。隋文帝改爲陽直,尋又改爲汾陽縣。〉〈前有慕輿嵩以謀奉趙王麟爲變而誅。此又一人。〉〈中領將軍,魏所置,猶魏、晉之中領軍也。〉〈【嚴:「川」改「州」。】〉

(Ever since Han, Yangqu county had been part of Taiyuan commandary. Song Bai remarked, "The capital city of Yangqu county was fifty li northwest of Taiyuan county. It was moved to this location at the end of Former Han. Emperor Wen of Sui renamed it to Yangzhi, and it was later renamed again to Fenyang county."

We saw earlier that someone named Muyu Song had plotted to put Murong Lin in power and had been executed for it. This was another man with the same name.

The rank of 中領將軍 was created by Northern Wei, but it was equivalent to the rank of 中領軍 from Cao-Wei and Jin.

Some versions state that the place where Zhangsun Fei caught up with Murong Nong was at 州 Luzhou instead of 川 Luchuan.)


九月戊午,次陽曲,乘西山,臨觀晉陽,命諸將引騎圍脅,已而罷還。寶并州牧遼西王農大懼,將妻子棄城夜出,東遁。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the ninth month, on the day Wuwu (November 4th), Tuoba Gui's army arrived at Yangqu. They passed through the western hills and approached Jinyang, and Tuoba Gui ordered his generals to lead out cavalry to surround and threaten the city, but they soon returned. Murong Bao's Governor of Bingzhou and Prince of Liaoxi, Murong Nong, was greatly afraid, and he led his wife and children to abandon the city and flee to the east during the night.

魏伐并州,驃騎農逆戰,敗績,還于晉陽,司馬慕輿嵩閉門距之。農率騎數千奔歸中山,行及潞川,為魏追軍所及,餘騎盡沒,單馬遁還。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

When Northern Wei invaded Bingzhou, Later Yan's General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Nong, counter-attacked them, but he was defeated. He returned to Jinyang, but his Marshal, Muyu Song, closed the gates and barred him from entering. So Murong Nong fled back towards Zhongshan with several thousand riders. But as he was passing through Luchuang, the Northern Wei army caught up with him. All his remaining riders were lost, and Murong Nong only escaped on a lone horse.


魏王珪遂取幷州。初建臺省,置刺史、太守、尚書郎以下官,悉用儒生爲之。士大夫詣軍門,無少長,皆引入存慰,使人人盡言,少有才用,咸加握敍。己未,遣輔國將軍奚收略地汾川,獲燕丹楊王買德及離石護軍高秀和。以中書侍郎張恂等爲諸郡太守,招撫離散,勸課農桑。

24. Tuoba Gui thus conquered Bingzhou. So he now established government ministries and bureaus for the first time; he appointed Inspectors, Administrators, Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, and similar subordinate offices, and he filled these posts with learned people. Whenever scholar-officials came to visit his army camp, regardless of their age, Tuoba Gui always brought them in and consoled and nurtured them, and he had people go out and spread word that anyone who had even the slightest talent or use would all be evaluated and appraised.

On the day Jiwei (November 5th), Tuoba Gui sent his General Who Upholds The State, Xi Shou (or Xi Mu), to raid the region around Fenchuan, and he captured Yan's Prince of Danyang, Murong Maide, and their Protector-General of Lishi county, Gao Xiuhe.

Tuoba Gui appointed his Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Xun, and others as the local Administrators. They gathered together and nurtured the scattered refugees, and they encouraged and instructed the people in farming and silkworm cultivation.

〈史言拓跋珪所以能取中原。〉〈「奚收」,當作「奚牧」。〉〈離石縣自漢以來屬西河郡,燕置護軍以統稽胡。〉

(This passage demonstrates how Tuoba Gui was able to conquer the Central Plains.

Some versions write Xi 收 Shou's given name as 牧 Mu.

Ever since Han, Lishi county had been part of Xihe commandary. Later Yan had assigned a Protector-General there to supervise the local tribes.)


并州平。初建臺省,置百官,封拜公侯、將軍、刺史、太守,尚書郎已下悉用文人。帝初拓中原,留心慰納,諸士大夫詣軍門者,無少長,皆引入賜見,存問周悉,人得自盡,苟有微能,咸蒙叙用。己未,詔輔國將軍奚牧略地晉川,獲慕容寶丹陽王買得等於平陶城。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Bingzhou was thus conquered. So Tuoba Gui now established government ministries and bureaus for the first time; he created the imperial offices, and he appointed Dukes and Marquises, Generals, Inspectors, Administrators, Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, and similar subordinate offices, and he filled these posts with learned people.

Since Tuoba Gui had only just conquered the Central Plains, he wanted to reassure the people and win them over to him. So whenever scholar-officials came to visit his army camp, regardless of their age, Tuoba Gui always brought them in and appraised them, and he had people go out and spread word that anyone who had even the slightest talent or use would all find some use.

On the day Jiwei (November 5th), Tuoba Gui sent his General Who Upholds The State, Xi Mu, to raid the region around Jinchuan, and he captured Murong Bao's Prince of Danyang, Murong Maide, and others at the city of Pingtao.

并州平,以謙為陽曲護軍,賜爵平舒侯、安遠將軍。皇始元年卒官,時年六十三。贈平東將軍、左光祿大夫、幽州刺史、高陽公,諡曰文。子洛陽,襲。從征慕容寶,為冠軍司馬。後為祁令。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

After Northern Wei conquered Bingzhou, Tuoba Gui appointed Xu Qian as Protector-General of Yangqu, Marquis of Pingshu, and General Who Calms Distant Places.

In the first year of Huangshi (396), Xu Qian passed away while in office; he was sixty-three years old. Tuoba Gui posthumously appointed him as General Who Pacifies The East, Household Counselor of the Left, Inspector of Youzhou, and Duke of Gaoyang, and his posthumous name was Wen ("the Cultured").

Xu Qiang's son Xu Luoyang inherited his titles. He accompanied Tuoba Gui during his campaign against Murong Bao, where he served as Marshal to the Champion General. He later became Prefect of Qi.


燕主寶聞魏軍將至,議于東堂。中山尹苻謨曰:「今魏軍衆強,千里遠鬬,乘勝氣銳,若縱之使入平土,不可敵也,宜杜險以拒之。」中書令眭邃曰:「魏多騎兵,往來剽速,馬上齎糧,不過旬日;宜令郡縣聚民,千家爲一堡,深溝高壘,清野以待之,彼至無所掠,不過六旬,食盡自退。」尚書封懿曰:「今魏兵數十萬,天下之勍敵也,民雖築堡,不足以自固,是聚兵及粮以資之也。且動搖民心,示之以弱,不如阻關拒戰,計之上也。」趙王麟曰:「魏今乘勝氣銳,其鋒不可當,宜完守中山,待其弊而乘之。」於是修城積粟,爲持久之備。命遼西王農出屯安喜,軍事動靜,悉以委麟。

25. When Murong Bao heard that the Wei army was approaching, he held a council in the Eastern Hall. The Intendant of Zhongshan, Fu Mo, proposed, "The Wei army is now numerous and strong, and even after traveling a thousand li, they are still riding high from their victories and flush with zeal. If we allow them to enter the plains, we will be no match for them. We should occupy the strategic points and prevent that from happening."

Sui Sui said, "The Wei army is mostly cavalry, and their mobility allows them to move swiftly to and fro. But that also means they must carry their provisions with them on their horses, so they cannot have brought more than ten days' worth of food. We should order the commandaries and counties to concentrate all the common people together. Have every thousand families gather into their own fort, with deep moats and high ramparts, and then torch the fields before the Wei army arrives. When the enemy is denied anything to forage, within sixty days, their food will be gone and they will have to retreat."

One of the Masters of Writing, Feng Yi, offered, "The Wei army now has hundreds of thousands of soldiers; they are the most powerful enemy of the realm. Even if the common people build fortresses, they will not be able to hold out against the enemy. That would only be bundling up our soldiers and grain as depots for the enemy to sack. Furthermore, such a policy would disturb the people and shake their hearts, not to mention show ourselves as weak. It would be better to hold fast to the passes and gates and oppose the enemy in battle. That is the best plan."

Murong Lin said, "With the morale the Wei army has gained from their recent victories, we would not be able to withstand their vanguard. We should concentrate our defenses at Zhongshan. Wait for the enemy to wear themselves out, and then we can defeat them."

So Murong Bao repaired the walls of Zhongshan and gathered grain supplies there, preparing to endure a long struggle. He ordered Murong Nong to go out and camp at Anxi county, and he left all military activities to Murong Lin.

〈苻謨降燕見一百六卷十一年。〉〈不據險拒戰而嬰城自守,此慕容寶所以敗也。〉〈安喜,前漢之安險縣也,後漢章帝改曰安喜,屬中山郡。〉〈爲麟叛寶張本。〉

(Fu Mo was a relative of the Former Qin royal clan; he had earlier surrendered to Later Yan, as mentioned in Book 106, in the eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.9).

Murong Bao was defeated because he tried to defend this lone city rather than occupy the strategic places and opposing the Northern Wei army's advance.

During Former Han, Anxi county was known as Anxian. During Later Han, it was renamed to Anxi by Emperor Zhang. It was part of Zhongshan commandary.

This was why Murong Lin was later able to rebel.)


寶引群臣於東堂議之。中山尹苻謨曰:「魏軍強盛,千里轉鬥,乘勝而來,勇氣兼倍,若逸騎平原,形勢彌盛,殆難為敵,宜度險距之。」中書令晆邃曰:「魏軍多騎,師行剽銳,馬上齎糧,不過旬日。宜令郡縣聚千家為一堡,深溝高壘,清野待之。至無所掠,資食無出,不過六旬,自然窮退。」尚書封懿曰:「今魏師十萬,天下之勍敵也。百姓雖欲營聚,不足自固,是則聚糧集兵以資強寇,且動眾心,示之以弱,阻關距戰,計之上也。」慕容麟曰:「魏今乘勝氣銳,其鋒不可當,宜自完守設備,待其弊而乘之。」於是修城積粟,為持久之備。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao gathered his ministers and held a council in the Eastern Hall.

The Intendant of Zhongshan, Fu Mo, proposed, "The Wei army is now numerous and strong, and even after traveling a thousand li, they are still riding high from their victories and flush with zeal. If we allow their cavalry to enter the plains, the terrain will be even more in their favor, and they would prove a most difficult foe. We should occupy the strategic points and prevent that from happening."

The Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Sui Sui, said, "The Wei army is mostly cavalry, and their mobility allows them to move swiftly to and fro. But that also means they must carry their provisions with them on their horses, so they cannot have brought more than ten days' worth of food. We should order the commandaries and counties to concentrate all the common people together. Have every thousand families gather into their own fort, with deep moats and high ramparts, and then torch the fields before the Wei army arrives. When the enemy is denied anything to forage, within sixty days, their food will be gone and they will have to retreat."

One of the Masters of Writing, Feng Yi, offered, "The Wei army now has a hundred thousand soldiers; they are the most powerful enemy of the realm. Even if the common people build camps and gather together, they will not be able to hold out against the enemy. That would only be bundling up our soldiers and grain as depots for the enemy to sack. Furthermore, such a policy would disturb the people and shake their hearts, not to mention show ourselves as weak. It would be better to hold fast to the passes and gates and oppose the enemy in battle. That is the best plan."

Murong Lin said, "With the morale the Wei army has gained from their recent victories, we would not be able to withstand their vanguard. We should concentrate all our defenses and make preparations. Wait for the enemy to wear themselves out, and then we can take advantage of them."

So Murong Bao repaired the walls and gathered grain supplies, preparing to endure a long struggle.


帝嗜酒,流連內殿,醒治旣少,外人罕得進見。張貴人寵冠後宮,後宮皆畏之。庚申,帝與後宮宴,妓樂盡侍;時貴人年近三十,帝戲之曰:「汝以年亦當廢矣,吾意更屬少者。」貴人潛怒,向夕,帝醉,寢於清暑殿,貴人徧飲宦者酒,散遣之,使婢以被蒙帝面,弒之,重賂左右,云「因魘暴崩」。時太子闇弱,會稽王道子昏荒,遂不復推問。王國寶夜叩禁門,欲入爲遺詔,侍中王爽拒之曰:「大行晏駕,皇太子未至,敢入者斬!」國寶乃止。爽,恭之弟也。辛酉,太子卽皇帝位,大赦。

26. Emperor Xiaowu was addicted to wine, and he often lost himself in the pleasures of the inner palace. While drunk, he rarely attended to government affairs, and outsiders only seldom got a chance to see him.

Honored Lady Zhang enjoyed the most favor in the rear palace, and everyone there feared her. On the day Gengshen (November 6th), Emperor Xiaowu held a feast in the rear palace, and his singers and dancers were all in attendance. By now, Lady Zhang was approaching thirty years old. Emperor Xiaowu teased her by saying, "You're getting too old; it's time for you to be replaced. I'd like someone younger." Lady Zhang was secretly offended by the remark. By nightfall, Emperor Xiaowu was drunk, and he went to sleep in the Qingshu Palace. Lady Zhang plied his remaining eunuchs with wine and had them all sent away. Then she had the servant girls press a pillow against Emperor Xiaowu's face until they smothered him. She heavily bribed Emperor Xiaowu's attendants, so that they would say, "He suddenly died from some nightmare." At the time, since the Crown Prince, Sima Dezong, was still young and weak and Sima Daozi was muddled and indulgent, there was no further investigation into the death.

Wang Guobao knocked on the palace gates during the night, wanting to come inside to see Emperor Xiaowu's final testament. But the Palace Attendant, Wang Shuang, stopped him, saying, "His Majesty has only just passed away, and the Crown Prince has not yet arrived; anyone who dares enter will be beheaded!" So Wang Guobao stopped. This Wang Shuang was the younger brother of Wang Gong.

On the day Xinyou (November 7th), Sima Dezong ascended the throne, and a general amnesty was declared. He would be known as Emperor An.

〈【嚴:「治」改「日」。】〉〈言昏醉之時多,醒而治事之時少也。〉〈清暑殿,帝所作。〉〈《廣韻》曰:睡中魘。毛晃曰:氣窒心懼而神亂則魘。〉

(Some versions state that Emperor Xiaowu was drunk "on few days".

This passage is saying that Emperor Xiaowu was often drunk, and during those times he rarely dealt with affairs of state.

Emperor Xiaowu had built the Qingshu Palace.

The Broad Sounds dictionary states, "Nightmares occur during sleep." Mao Huang remarked, "One has a nightmare when one's aura is stopped up, one's heart trembles, and one's spirit is shaken.")


是歲,司馬昌明死,子德宗僭立,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (396), Sima Changming (Emperor Xiaowu) passed away. His son Sima Dezong (Emperor An) succeeded him. Sima Dezong sent envoys to Tuoba Gui bearing tribute.

二十一年九月庚申,孝武帝崩。辛酉,太子卽皇帝位,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396), in the ninth month, on the day Gengshen (November 6th), Emperor Xiaowu passed away. On the day Xinyou (November 7th), Sima Dezong ascended the throne, and a general amnesty was declared.


癸亥,有司奏:「會稽王道子宜進位太傅、揚州牧,假黃鉞,詔內外衆事動靜咨之。」

27. On the day Guihai (November 9th), the Jin officials submitted a memorial stating, "The Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, should be promoted as Grand Tutor, Governor of Yangzhou, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, and all military affairs should be entrusted to his command."

癸亥,以司徒、會稽王道子爲太傅,攝政。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Guihai (November 9th), the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, was appointed as Grand Tutor and regent over the government.


安帝幼而不慧,口不能言,至於寒暑飢飽亦不能辨,飲食寢興皆非己出。母弟琅邪王德文,性恭謹,常侍左右,爲之節適,始得其宜。

28. Emperor An was still young, and he was unintelligent; he could not speak, and he was unable to distinguish between feeling hungry and full or feeling hot and cold; he could not even feed himself or go to and get out of bed on his own. But the Prince of Langye, his younger brother by the same mother Sima Dewen, was naturally respectful and diligent, and he often remained at Emperor An's side and helped him with his living, so that Emperor An could sustain himself.

〈杜預曰:不慧,世所謂白癡。〉〈節適,謂事爲之節以適其口體。〉

(Du Yu remarked, "To be 'unintelligent' is a way of calling someone an imbecile."

Sima Dewen helped Emperor An by providing for his mouth and his body.)


初,王國寶黨附會稽王道子,驕縱不法,屢爲御史中丞褚粲所糾。國寶起齋,侔清暑殿,孝武帝甚惡之;國寶懼,遂更求媚於帝而疏道子,帝復寵昵之。道子大怒,嘗於內省面責國寶,以劍擲之,舊好盡矣。及帝崩,國寶復事道子,與王緒共爲邪諂,道子更惑之,倚爲心腹,遂參管朝權,威震內外,並爲時之所疾。

29. Up until now, Wang Guobao and his partisans had aligned themselves with Sima Daozi, and they did whatever they pleased regardless of the laws. Several times, they were tied up by the Middle Minister of the Imperial Secretariat, Chu Can.

Wang Guobao once even built a building that was as tall as Qingshu Palace, which caused Emperor Xiaowu to greatly hate him. Afraid, Wang Guobao then flattered Emperor Xiaowu while putting down Sima Daozi, which caused Emperor Xiaowu to once again personally favor him. But this in turn made Sima Daozi furious. Once, when they met inside the government ministries, Sima Daozi castigated Wang Guobao to his face and threw his sword at him. However, their old relationship was later fully restored.

After Emperor Xiaowu's death, Wang Guobao once again inclined towards Sima Daozi, and he and Wang Xu were constant sources of bad influences and slander. Sima Daozi was misled by them all the more, and he leaned upon them as his close companions. So they advised on and interfered with the affairs of court and state, and their power was felt near and far. Everyone at that time hated them.

〈王國寶黨附道子,事始一百五卷八年。〉

(Wang Guobao's partisanship on behalf of Sima Daozi is first mentioned in Book 105, in the eighth year of Taiyuan (383.22).)


王恭入赴山陵,每正色直言,道子深憚之。恭罷朝,歎曰:「榱棟雖新,便有《黍離》之歎!」緒說國寶,因恭入朝,勸相王伏兵殺之,國寶不許。道子欲輯和內外,乃深布腹心於恭,冀除舊惡;而恭每言及時政,輒厲聲色。道子知恭不可和協,遂有相圖之志。

30. When Wang Gong came to visit the imperial tombs, he maintained a stern expression and spoke bluntly. Sima Daozi deeply feared him. As Wang Gong was leaving a court session, he lamented, "The rooms and rafters may be new, but I still feel the sighs of the Drooping Millet poem!"

Wang Xu tried to convince Wang Guobao that, when Wang Gong entered court, Wang Guobao should urge the princes to place soldiers in ambush who would spring out and kill him. But Wang Guobao would not permit it.

Sima Daozi wanted to promote harmony between both sides, so he acted deeply humble to Wang Gong, hoping to do away with the bad blood between them. But whenever Wang Gong began speaking about the times or the government, he always assumed a harsh voice and expression. So Sima Daozi realized that Wang Gong would never be won over, and he began to plot against him instead.

〈秦曰屋椽,齊、魯曰桷,周曰榱。〉〈周大夫行役過故宗廟宮室,盡爲禾黍,故作《黍離》之詩。〉

(There were different local regionalisms for what people called the rafters of a ceiling or roof. The popular term in the Qin region was 椽; in the Qi and Lu regions, it was 桷; in the Zhou region, it was 榱.

The Drooping Millet poem was written by a great Zhou minister after he passed by the old palaces and ancestral temples and saw that they were now all covered with grain and millet.)


或勸恭因入朝以兵誅國寶,恭以豫州刺史庾楷士馬甚盛,黨於國寶,憚之,不敢發。王珣謂恭曰:「國寶雖終爲禍亂,要之罪逆未彰,今遽先事而發,必大失朝野之望。況擁強兵竊發於京輦,誰謂非逆!國寶若遂不改,惡布天下,然後順衆心以除之,亦無憂不濟也。」恭乃止。旣而謂珣曰:「比來視君一似胡廣。」珣曰:「王陵廷爭,陳平愼默,但問歲晏何如耳!」

31. Someone urged Wang Gong to place troops in ambush at court and have them execute Wang Guobao. But Wang Gong considered how the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yu Kai, both possessed a great many troops and horses and was a partisan of Wang Guobao. He was afraid of what Yu Kai's reaction might be to such an incident, so he hesitated to act.

Then Wang Xun said to Wang Gong, "Although Wang Guobao will surely cause disaster and turmoil eventually, he has not yet committed any action that obviously demands his execution. If you were to do something rash before he has defamed himself, you would surely lose the hopes of those both within the court and without. And when you possess such strong soldiers in the capital region, if you have them act, who will not call it treason? If Wang Guobao truly cannot be reformed, hatred of him will eventually spread through all the realm. Then you would be heeding the wishes of the people by removing him, and you would have no fear of failure."

So Wang Gong gave up the idea. But he said to Wang Xun, "Sir, lately you seem like Hu Guang to me."

Wang Xun replied, "Wang Ling argued forcefully in court, while Chen Ping remained cautious and silent. Ask again in a few years, and you will see how things stand!"

〈謂依違於權姦之間以保祿位。比,近也。〉〈謂王陵以廷爭失位,陳平以愼默終能安劉。〉

(Wang Gong's comment about Hu Guang meant that he felt that Wang Xun was just trying to stay in the good graces of both the good people at court and the bad influences merely in order to secure his own personal position and salary. 比 in this case means "lately".

The Han minister Wang Ling lost his position because of his arguments in court, while Chen Ping was eventually able to allay the suspicions of the Liu clan against him through his cautious and quiet behavior.)


冬,十月,甲申,葬孝武帝于隆平陵。王恭還鎭,將行,謂道子曰:「主上諒闇,冢宰之任,伊、周所難,願大王親萬幾,納直言,放鄭聲,遠佞人。」國寶等愈懼。

32. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiashen (November 30th), Emperor Xiaowu was buried at Longping Tomb.

Wang Gong returned to his border post. As he was about to leave the capital, he said to Sima Daozi, "Our sovereign is still in the mourning shed, so the chief minister's position will face the same difficulties as Yi Yin and Huo Guang. Great Prince, when you are attending to all the affairs of state, I implore you to accept forthright advice, avoid improper influences, and keep away from flatterers and sycophants."

Wang Guobao and the others were left even more afraid of him.

冬十月甲申。葬孝武皇帝于隆平陵。大雪。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiashen (November 30th), Emperor Xiaowu was buried at Longping Tomb. There was a heavy snowfall.


魏王珪使冠軍將軍代人于栗磾、寧朔將軍公孫蘭帥步騎二萬,潛自晉陽開韓信故道。己酉,珪自井陘趨中山。李先降魏,珪以爲征東左長史。

33. Tuoba Gui sent his Champion General, Yu Lidi of Dai, and his General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Gongsun Lan, to lead twenty thousand horse and foot to secretly march from Jinyang and follow the hidden roads that the Han general Han Xin had once built. On the day Jiyou (?; probably Yiyou, December 1st), Tuoba Gui himself marched from Jingxing to assemble his forces at Zhongshan.

Li Xian surrendered to Wei, and Tuoba Gui appointed him as Chief Clerk of the Left to the General Who Conquers The East.

〈《魏書‧官氏志》:拓跋詰汾時,餘部諸姓內入者有勿忸于氏,後改爲于氏。〉〈韓信自井陘伐趙之故路也。〉〈去年,李先自西燕歸燕。〉

(According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, during the reign of Tuoba Jiefen, another of the tribes that came to join him was the Wuniuyu clan, which later changed their surname to Yu.

Han Xin had built a hidden road from Jingxing in order to campaign against the state of Zhao.

Li Xian had originally been a Western Yan minister; the previous year, he had surrendered to Later Yan.)


冬十月乙酉,車駕出井陘,使冠軍將軍王建、左軍將軍李栗五萬騎先驅啟行。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Yiyou (December 1st), Tuoba Gui led his troops out from Jingxing, sending his Champion General, Wang Jian, and his General of the Left Army, Li Li, to lead fifty thousand cavalry ahead as the vanguard to clear the way.


西秦涼州牧軻彈與秦州牧益州不平,軻彈奔涼。

34. Western Qin's Governor of Liangzhou, Qifu Kedan, felt uneasy around the Governor of Qinzhou, Qifu Yizhou. So he fled to Liang.

乾歸從弟軻彈來奔。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Qifu Gangui's cousin Qifu Kedan fled to Lü Guang.

乞伏軻殫與乞伏益州不平,奔于呂光。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Kedan had an uneasy relationship with Qifu Yizhou, so he fled to Lü Guang.


魏王珪進攻常山,拔之,獲太守苟延;自常山以東,守宰或走或降,諸郡縣皆附於魏,惟中山、鄴、信都三城爲燕守。十一月,珪命東平公儀將五萬騎攻鄴,冠軍將軍王建、左將軍李栗攻信都。戊午,珪進軍中山;己未,攻之。燕高陽王隆守南郭,帥衆力戰,自旦至晡,殺傷數千人,魏兵乃退。珪謂諸將曰:「中山城固,寶必不肯出戰,急攻則傷士,久圍則費糧,不如先取鄴、信都,然後圖之。」丁卯,珪引兵而南。

35. Tuoba Gui advanced to attack Changshan; he took it, and captured Yan's Administrator there, Gou Yan. As he continued to advance east from Changshan, some of the local Yan officials fled while others surrendered. All of the commandaries and counties submitted to Wei; only the three cities of Zhongshan, Ye, and Xindu still held out.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui ordered Tuoba Yi to lead fifty thousand cavalry to attack Ye, and he ordered his Champion General, Wang Jian, and his General of the Left, Li Li, to attack Xindu. On the day Wuwu (January 3rd of 397), Tuoba Gui's army advanced to Zhongshan; on the day Jiwei (January 4th of 397), they launched an assault against the city. But Murong Long was guarding the southern wall of the city, and he led his troops in fierce battle; they fought from dawn until afternoon, and killed or wounded thousands of Wei soldiers, until the Wei army eventually halted their assault.

Then Tuoba Gui said to his generals, "Zhongshan has stout defenses, and Murong Bao certainly cannot bear to come out and face us in open battle. If we launch a full assault, that will greatly harm our soldiers. But a long siege would only be a waste of grain. It would be better for us to go and capture Ye and Xindu first. Then we can return and deal with Zhongshan."

On the day Dingmao (January 12th of 397), Tuoba Gui led his soldiers south.

〈中山,燕都,慕容德守鄴,慕容鳳守信都,皆重鎭也。〉

(Zhongshan was the Later Yan capital, and Ye and Xindu were guarded by Murong De and Murong Feng, so all three were important garrisons.)


十有一月庚子朔,帝至真定。自常山以東,守宰或捐城奔竄,或稽顙軍門,唯中山、鄴、信都三城不下。別詔征東大將軍東平公儀五萬騎南攻鄴,冠軍將軍王建、左軍將軍李栗等攻信都,軍之所行,不得傷民桑棗。戊午,進軍中山;己未,引騎圍之。帝謂諸將曰:「朕量寶不能出戰,必當憑城自守,偷延日月,急攻則傷士,久守則費糧,不如先平鄴、信都,然後還取中山,於計為便。若移軍遠去,寶必散眾求食民間,如此,則人心離阻,攻之易克。」諸將稱善。丁卯,車駕幸魯口城。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Gengzi (December 16th), Tuoba Gui arrived at Zhending. Out of all of Murong Bao's Administrators and local officials from Changshan east, some abandoned their cities and fled while others came to kowtow before the gates of Tuoba Gui's army. Only the three cities of Zhongshan, Ye, and Xindu did not submit. Tuoba Gui sent his Grand General Who Conquers The East and Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Yi, to lead fifty thousand cavalry south to attack Ye, while sending his Champion General, Wang Jian, his General of the Left Army, Li Li, and others to attack Xindu. The armies were ordered not to harm the common people or the silkworm trees.

On the day Wuwu (January 3rd of 397), Tuoba Gui's army advanced to Zhongshan; on the day Jiwei (January 4th of 397), Tuoba Gui led his cavalry to besiege the city.

Then Tuoba Gui said to his generals, "From what I can tell, Murong Bao is unable to come out and fight us; he will definitely stick to defending the walls of his city, content to wait us out through the days and months. If we launch a full assault, that will greatly harm our soldiers. But a long siege would only be a waste of grain. It would be better for us to go and capture Ye and Xindu first. Then we can return and capture Zhongshan; that would be the better plan. Furthermore, once we shift our army and move far away, Murong Bao will surely scatter his troops to forage for food from the common people. Once that happens, the people will definitely be alienated from him, and it will be easy for us to capture Zhongshan the next time we attack it."

His generals all commended his plan.

On the day Dingmao (January 12th of 397), Tuoba Gui went to the city of Lukou.

魏攻中山不克。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

The Northern Wei army attacked Zhongshan, but they could not take it.


章武王宙自龍城還,聞有魏寇,馳入薊,與鎭北將軍陽城王蘭乘城固守。蘭,垂之從弟也。魏別將石河頭攻之,不克,退屯漁陽。

36. Murong Zhou was returning from Longcheng. When he heard that Wei had invaded, he rushed to Ji, where he assisted the General Who Guards The North and Prince of Yangcheng, Murong Lan, in guarding the city. This Murong Lan was the cousin of Murong Chui. One of Wei's generals, Shi Hetou, attacked Ji but could not capture it, so he fell back to camp at Yuyang county.

〈《魏書‧官氏志》:拓跋詰汾時,餘部諸姓內入者有嗢石蘭氏,後爲石氏。〉〈漁陽縣,漢屬漁陽郡,晉省。〉

(According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, still another of the clans which joined the Tuoba during Tuoba Jiefen's reign was the Washilan clan, which later changed their surname to Shi.

During Han, Yuyang county was part of Yuyang commandary. Jin abolished it.)


珪軍于魯口,博陵太守申永奔河南,高陽太守崔宏奔海渚。珪素聞宏名,遣騎追求,獲之,以爲黃門侍郎,與給事黃門侍郎張袞對掌機要,創立制度。博陵令屈遵降魏,珪以爲中書令,出納號令,兼總文誥。

37. Tuoba Gui's army was at Lukou.

Yan's Administrator of Boling, Shen Yong, fled south of the Yellow River, while their Administrator of Gaoyang, Cui Hong, fled to hide among the coastal islands. But Tuoba Gui had long heard of Cui Hong's reputation, so he sent riders to pursue Cui Hong and find him. They captured him and brought him back. Tuoba Gui appointed Cui Hong as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and entrusted him with working together with his Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Zhang Gun, to oversee important affairs of state, and they developed systems and implemented policies together.

Yan's Prefect of Boling, Qu Zun, surrendered to Wei. Tuoba Gui appointed him as his Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and Qu Zun was put in charge of all incoming and outgoing messages and ordinances, as well as composing and overseeing all compositions and edicts.

〈海渚,海中州也。〉〈爲崔宏父子貴顯於魏張本。〉

(Cui Hong hid among the islets off the coast.

This was why Cui Hong and his son became honored and exalted in Northern Wei.)


魏進據博陵魯口,諸將望風奔退,郡縣悉降于魏。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

The Northern Wei army advanced to Lukou in Boling commandary. Several Later Yan generals, feeling defeat was inevitable, retreated and fled. All the commandaries and counties surrendered to Northern Wei.

太祖征慕容寶,次於常山,玄伯棄郡,東走海濱。太祖素聞其名,遣騎追求,執送於軍門,引見與語,悅之,以為黃門侍郎,與張袞對總機要,草創制度。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Cui Hong)

When Tuoba Gui campaigned against Murong Bao, he passed through Changshan commandary. Cui Hong abandoned his commandary post and fled to hide among the coastal islands. But Tuoba Gui had long heard of Cui Hong's reputation, so he sent riders to pursue Cui Hong and find him. They captured him and brought him back to the gate of the army camp. Tuoba Gui had Cui Hong brought to see him, and they talked together. Tuoba Gui was pleased with him, and he appointed Cui Hong as a Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and entrusted him with working together with Zhang Gun to oversee important affairs of state, and they developed systems and implemented policies together.


燕范陽王德使南安王青等夜擊魏軍於鄴下,破之,魏軍退屯新城。青等請追擊之,別駕韓?₩ロᄚ:「古人先計而後戰。魏軍不可擊者四:懸軍遠客,利在野戰,一也;深入近畿,頓兵死地,二也;前鋒旣敗,後陣方固,三也;彼衆我寡,四也。官軍不宜動者三:自戰其地,一也;動而不勝,衆心難固,二也;城隍未修,敵來無備,三也。今魏無資糧,不如深壘固軍以老之。」德從之,召青還。青,詳之兄也。

38. Murong De sent the Prince of Nan'an, Murong Qing, and others to attack the Wei army below the walls of Ye during the night. They routed the Wei army, which retreated to camp at Xincheng.

Murong Qing and the others wished to pursue the enemy and attack them again. But the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Han Zhuo, said, "The ancients developed a plan first and only attacked afterwards. There are four reasons why the Wei army cannot be attacked. They have come a long way to face us and have kept their soldiers back, where they would have the advantage in a field battle; that is the first reason. They have penetrated deeply into the capital region, and have positioned their soldiers on deadly ground; that is the second reason. Their vanguard having been defeated, their rear formations are sure to be much more stout; that is the third reason. And they are many while we are few; that is the fourth reason.

"As well, there are three reasons why our army cannot act now. We would be fighting a battle on terrain of their choosing rather than ours; that is the first reason. If we act but are defeated, it will be difficult to steady the hearts of the army; that is the second reason. And we have not yet repaired the walls and moats, so if an enemy comes we would be unprepared for them; that is the third reason.

"Besides, the Wei army has no supplies or grain. It would be best to fortify our defenses and hold our position, and wait for them to exhaust themselves."

Murong De agreed, so he summoned Murong Qing back to the city. This Murong Qing was the elder brother of Murong Xiang.

〈新城,卽燕主垂攻鄴所築者也。〉〈自戰其地者,衆易敗散。〉

(Murong Chui had built Xincheng near Ye during his long siege of that city.

When fighting on terrain of the enemy's choosing, it is easy for the soldiers to be defeated and scattered.)


魏將拓拔章攻鄴,德遣南安王慕容青等夜擊,敗之。魏師退次新城,青等請擊之。別駕韓[訁卓]進曰:「古人先決勝廟堂,然後攻戰。今魏不可擊者四,燕不宜動者三。魏懸軍遠入,利在野戰,一不可擊也。深入近畿,頓兵死地,二不可擊也。前鋒既敗,後陣方固,三不可擊也。彼眾我寡,四不可擊也。官軍自戰其地,一不宜動。動而不勝,眾心難固,二不宜動。城郭未修,敵來無備,三不宜動。此皆兵家所忌,不如深溝高壘,以逸待勞。彼千里饋糧,野無所掠,久則三軍靡資,攻則眾旅多斃,師老釁生,詳而圖之,可以捷矣。」德曰:「韓別駕之言,良、平之策也。」於是召青還師。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

When the Northern Wei general Tuoba Zhang attacked Ye, Murong De sent the Prince of Nan'an, Murong Qing, and others to attack the Northern Wei army during the night. They defeated the Northern Wei army, which retreated to Xincheng.

Murong Qing and the others wished to pursue the enemy and attack them again. But the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Han Zhuo, stepped forward and said, "The ancients first calculated how they would determine victory in the temple, and only afterwards did they attack and do battle. Now there are four reasons why the Wei army cannot be attacked, and three reasons why the Yan army should not act. The Wei soldiers have come a long way to face us and have kept their soldiers back, where they would have the advantage in a field battle; that is the first reason why they cannot be attacked. They have penetrated deeply into the capital region, and have positioned their soldiers on deadly ground; that is the second reason. Their vanguard having been defeated, their rear formations are sure to be much more stout; that is the third reason. And they are many while we are few; that is the fourth reason.

"As for us, we would be fighting a battle on terrain of their choosing rather than ours; that is the first reason we should not act. If we act but are not victorious, it will be difficult to steady the hearts of the army; that is the second reason. And we have not yet repaired the walls and suburbs, so if an enemy comes we would be unprepared for them; that is the third reason.

"Considering the fears of the soldiers and their families, we would do better to dig deep moats and build tall ramparts, then wait for the enemy to wear themselves out. The Wei army has traveled for a thousand li, so they are short of grain, nor do the fields have any food for them to forage. If they remain in place, their supplies will quickly be exhausted, while if they attacked us, they would suffer heavy casualties. Once their army is worn out and disputes break out between them, then we may consider carefully how we might overcome them, and at that time we could triumph."

Murong De replied, "Attendant Officer Han's words are on the same level as the strategies of Zhang Liang and Chen Ping." So he summoned Murong Qing back to the city.


十二月,魏遼西公賀賴盧帥騎二萬會東平公儀攻鄴。賴盧,訥之弟也。

39. In the twelfth month, Wei's Duke of Liaoxi, He Lailu, led twenty thousand cavalry to join with Tuoba Yi in the attack on Ye. This He Lailu was the younger brother of He Ne.

〈爲賀賴盧降慕容德張本。按《魏書‧官氏志》,內入諸姓有賀賴氏,北方有賀蘭氏,後皆爲賀氏,蓋內入者爲賀賴氏,留北方者爲賀蘭氏。「蘭」、「賴」語轉耳。又匈奴諸種亦有賀賴氏。〉

(This was why He Lailu was later in a position to surrender to Murong De.

According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, one of the clans that joined the Tuoba was the Helai clan. There was also a clan in the north called the Helan clan, which later shortened their surname to He. It must have been these people were from a common source, where the ones who joined the Tuoba became the Helai and the ones who remained in the north became the Helan. Lan and Lai certainly sound similar. And there was also a Helai clan known among the Xiongnu.)


魏又遣遼西公賀賴盧率騎與章圍鄴。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Northern Wei also sent their Duke of Liaoxi, He Lailu, to lead cavalry to join Tuoba Zhang in the siege of Ye.


魏別部大人沒根有膽勇,魏王珪惡之。沒根懼誅,己丑,將親兵數十人降燕,燕主寶以爲鎭東大將軍,封鴈門公。沒根求還襲魏,寶難與重兵,給百餘騎。沒根效其號令,夜入魏營,至中仗,珪乃覺之,狼狽驚走,沒根以所從人少,不能壞其大衆,多獲首虜而還。

40. There was a certain Chieftain of Wei, Meigen, who was valorous and bold. But Tuoba Gui disliked him, and Meigen was afraid that he would be executed. So on the day Jichou (February 3rd of 397), he led several dozen of his personal soldiers to surrender to Yan. Murong Bao appointed him as Grand General Who Guards The East and Duke of Yanmen.

Meigen asked to return to launch a surprise attack against the Wei army. But Murong Bao was loath to spare many troops, so he only gave him some hundred cavalry. Meigen was able to bluff his way into the Wei camp during the night, and Tuoba Gui did not realize what was going on until battle had actually broken out, so he fled in panic. But because Meigen had so few soldiers, he could not actually destroy such a larger enemy army. So he could only take many enemy heads before returning to Yan.

〈史言慕容寶不能因降人爲間以破魏。〉

(This passage demonstrates how Murong Bao was unable to take advantage of defectors within the Northern Wei forces to destroy them.)


楊盛遣使來請命;詔拜盛鎭南將軍、仇池公。盛表苻宣爲平北將軍。

41. Yang Sheng sent envoys to the Jin court to ask for their instructions. The court appointed him as General Who Guards The South and Duke of Chouchi. Yang Sheng petitioned to have Fu Xuan appointed as General Who Pacifies The North.

是歲,越質詰歸帥戶二萬叛西秦降于秦,秦人處之成紀,拜鎭西將軍、平襄公。

42. During this year, Yuezhi Jiegui led twenty thousand households to rebel against Western Qin and surrender to Qin. Qin placed him at Chengji and appointed him as their General Who Guards The West and Duke of Pingxiang.

〈越質詰歸降西秦,見上卷十六年。〉〈成紀縣自漢以來屬天水郡。〉

(Yuezhi Jiegui had earlier surrendered to Western Qin, as mentioned in Book 107, in the sixteenth year of Taiyuan (391.2).

Ever since Han, Chengji county had been part of Tianshui commandary.)


鮮卑薛勃於貳城為魏軍所伐,遣使請救,使姚崇赴救。魏師既還,薛勃復叛,崇伐而執之,大收其士馬而還。興追尊其庶母孫氏為皇太后,配饗太廟。楊盛保仇池,遣使請命,拜使持節、鎮南將軍、仇池公。鮮卑越質詰歸率戶二萬叛乞伏乾歸,降於興,興處之于成紀,拜使持節、鎮西將軍、平襄公。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

The Xianbei leader Xue Bo was attacked by the Northern Wei army at Ercheng, so he sent envoys to Yao Xing asking him for help. Yao Xing sent Yao Chong to reinforce Xue Bo. But after the Northern Wei army withdrew, Xue Bo then rebelled against Yao Xing. Yao Chong campaigned against him and captured him, and took many of his soldiers and horses before returning.

Yao Xing posthumously honored his father's concubine, Lady Sun, as Empress Dowager, and he established sacrifices for her in the Grand Ancestral Temple.

Yang Sheng was defending himself at Chouchi. He sent envoys asking to be Yao Xing's vassal. Yao Xing appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Guards The South, and Duke of Chouchi.

The Xianbei leader Yuezhi Jiegui led twenty thousand households to rebel against Qifu Gangui and surrender to Yao Xing. Yao Xing placed him at Chengji, and appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, General Who Guards The West, and Duke of Pingxiang.


秦隴西王碩德攻姜乳於上邽,乳率衆降。秦以碩德爲秦州牧,鎭上邽;徵乳爲尚書。強熙、權千成帥衆三萬共圍上邽,碩德擊破之,熙奔仇池,遂來奔。碩德西擊千成於略陽,千成降。

43. Yao Shuode attacked Jiang Ru at Shanggui. Jiang Ru led his forces to surrender. Qin appointed Yao Shuode as Governor of Qinzhou, stationed at Shanggui; Jiang Ru was appointed as a Master of Writing.

The local leaders Qiang Xi and Quan Qiancheng led thirty thousand soldiers to besiege Shanggui together. Yao Shuode attacked and routed them; Qiang Xi fled to Chouchi, then fled to Jin. Then Yao Shuode marched west and attacked Quan Qiancheng at Lüeyang, and Quan Qiancheng surrendered.

姚碩德討平涼胡金豹於洛城,克之。初,上邽薑乳據本縣以叛,自稱秦州刺史。碩德進討之,乳率眾降。以碩德為秦州牧,領護東羌校尉,鎮上邽。征乳為尚書。強熙及略陽豪族權幹城率眾三萬圍上邽,碩德擊破之。熙南奔仇池,遂假道歸晉。碩德西討幹城,幹城降。興令郡國各歲貢清行孝廉一人。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Shuode campaigned against a tribal leader from Pingliang, Jin Bao, at Luocheng and captured him.

Earlier, Jiang Ru of Shanggui commandary had occupied his native county and rebelled, declaring himself the Inspector of Qinzhou. Yao Shuode now advanced to campaign against Jiang Ru, who led his army to surrender to him. Yao Xing appointed Yao Shuode as Governor of Qinzhou and acting Colonel Who Protects The Eastern Qiang, and he stationed him at Shanggui. Yao Xing summoned Jiang Ru to his capital to serve as a Master of Writing.

Qiang Xi and a gentry leader from Lüeyang commandary, Quan Qiancheng, led thirty thousand soldiers to besiege Shanggui together. Yao Shuode attacked and routed them; Qiang Xi fled south to Chouchi, then followed backroads to go to Jin. Then Yao Shuode marched west and attacked Quan Qiancheng at Lüeyang, and Quan Qiancheng surrendered.

Yao Xing ordered every commandary and princely fief to present an annual nomination of a Pure Conduct, Filial and Incorrupt candidate.


西燕旣亡,其所署河東太守柳恭等各擁兵自守。秦主興遣晉王緒攻之,恭等臨河拒守,緒不得濟。

44. After Western Yan fell, the local officials that it had appointed all kept their personal soldiers close to maintain their positions, including their Administrator of Hedong, Liu Gong. Yao Xing sent Yao Xu to attack them, but Liu Gong and the others led their troops to hold the line of the Yellow River and oppose him, and Yao Xu was unable to cross.

慕容永既為慕容垂所滅,河東太守柳恭等各阻兵自守,興遣姚緒討之。恭等依河距守,緒不得濟。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Since Murong Yong had been conquered by Murong Chui, Murong Yong's Administrator of Hedong, Liu Gong, and others all kept their personal soldiers close to maintain their positions. Yao Xing sent Yao Xu to attack them, but Liu Gong and the others led their troops to hold the line of the Yellow River and oppose him, and Yao Xu was unable to cross.


初,永嘉之亂,汾陰薛氏聚其族黨,阻河自固,不仕劉、石。及苻氏興,乃以禮聘薛彊,拜鎭東將軍,彊引秦兵自龍門濟,遂入蒲阪,恭等皆降,興以緒爲幷、冀二州牧,鎭蒲阪。

45. Earlier, during the Disaster of Yongjia, the Xue clan of Fenyin had kept all their kinfolk and partisans gathered together, using the Yellow River to defend themselves, and they had refused to serve the Liu or Shi clans of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao. After the Fu clan of Former Qin rose, they respectfully invited Xue Jiang to come to them, and they had appointed him as General Who Guards The East.

At this time, Xue Jiang led the Qin army to cross the river at Longmen, and they entered Puban, causing Liu Gong and the others to surrender. Yao Xing then appointed Yao Xu as Governor of Bingzhou and Jizhou, and he was stationed at Puban.

〈《魏土地記》曰:梁山北有龍門山,大禹所鑿,通孟津河口,廣八十步,巖際鐫迹,遺功尚存。梁山在馮翊夏陽縣西北。〉

(The Geographical Records of the Wei Region states, "There is a Mount Longmen north of Mount Liang. Yu the Great bored a canal there to connect with the Yellow River at Meng Crossing. The canal was eighty paces across, and traces and markings of it still exist even today to mark the work." Mount Liang is in the northwest of Xiayang county of Pingyi commandary.)


三年,以緒為并、翼二州牧,鎮蒲阪。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the third year of Huangchu (396), Yao Xing appointed Yao Xu as Governor of Bingzhou and Jizhou, and he was stationed at Puban.

鎮東薛強先據楊氏壁,引緒從龍門濟河,遂入蒲阪。恭勢屈,請降。徙新平、安定新戶六千于蒲阪。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

The General Who Guards The East, Xue Qiang, had earlier occupied Yangshi Rampart. Xue Qiang led Yao Xu to cross the river at Longmen, and they entered Puban, causing Liu Gong and the others to surrender. Yao Xing relocated six thousand new households from Xinping and Anding to Puban.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Dec 13, 2018 6:09 pm, edited 37 times in total.
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