Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby CaTigeReptile » Thu Feb 02, 2017 2:10 am

This is really a tremendous undertaking and you're doing an awesome job. Thank you so much for sharing this with us, really. It's a period of history that is so underrated because of how little of the records survived - likely in no small part because the people who fought and ruled were not ethnically Han. I mean, some of the people recorded here are really as impressive as people from our beloved Three Kingdoms, or at least seem like they were based on how little info survived.

Translating this kind of ancient Chinese is really hard work - your persistence and dedication are clear, and seriously appreciated! Can't wait to read Book 96.
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BOOK 96

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Feb 06, 2017 5:06 pm

咸康四年(戊戌,公元三三八年)

The Fourth Year of Xiankang (The Wuxu Year, 338 AD)


春,正月,燕王皝遣都尉趙槃如趙,聽師期。趙王虎將擊段遼,募驍勇者三萬人,悉拜龍騰中郎。會遼遣段屈雲襲趙幽州,幽州刺史李孟退保易京。虎乃以桃豹為橫海將軍,王華為渡遼將軍,帥舟師十萬出漂渝津;支雄為龍驤大將軍,姚弋仲為冠軍將軍,帥步騎七萬前鋒以伐遼。

1. In spring, the first month, the Prince of Yan, Murong Huang, sent his Commandant, Zhao Pan to Zhao, to hear the plans for the coming campaign against their mutual enemy, the warlord Duan Liao. Shi Hu planned to attack Duan Liao. Thirty thousand brave soldiers were recruited, under the command of Zhao’s Dragon-Soaring General of the Household Gentlemen.

During this time, Duan Liao sent Duan Quyun to raid Zhao in Youzhou. The Inspector of Youzhou, Li Meng, fell back to defend Yijing. Shi Hu then appointed Tao Bao as General Who Traverses The Sea and Wang Hua as General Who Crosses The Liao, and sent them with a hundred thousand men by boat from Piaoyu Crossing. Zhi Xiong was made the Grand Dragon-Soaring General and Yao Yizhong the Champion General, and they led seventy thousand horse and foot as the vanguard to attack Duan Liao.

〈據《載記》,咸康二年,虎改直盪爲龍騰,冠以絳幘。〉〈橫海將軍蓋石氏創置。〉〈《水經》曰:清河東北過漂榆邑入于海。《註》云:漂榆故城,俗謂之角飛城。《趙記》云:石勒使王述煮鹽于角飛。《魏土地記》曰:勃海郡高城縣東北一百里,北盡漂榆,東臨巨海,民咸煮鹽爲業。〉

(According to the Biography of Shi Hu in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, in the second year of Xiankang (336), Shi Hu changed the name of the rank of 直盪中郎 to Dragon-Soaring General of the Household Gentlemen. They were capped in crimson headdresses.

The rank of General Who Traverses The Sea must have been created by the Shi clan.

The Water Classic states, "The Qing River flows northeast through the village of Piaoyu and enters the sea." The Commentary on the Water Classic adds, "The city of Piaoyu was commonly called Jiaofei." The Records of Later Zhao states, "Shi Le sent Wang Shu to Jiaofei to produce salt." The Geographical Records of Northern Wei states, "Jiaofei is a hundred li northeast of Gaocheng County in Bohai commandary. It is adjacent to Piaoyu to the north and the immense sea to the east. The people there make their living through salt production.")


四年春二月,石季龍帥衆七萬,擊段遼于遼西。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fourth year of Xianning (338), in spring, the second month, Shi Hu led an army of seventy thousand to attack Duan Liao in Liaoxi.


三月,趙槃還至棘城。燕王皝引兵攻掠令支以北諸城。段遼將追之。慕容翰曰:「今趙兵在南,當並力御之;而更與燕鬥,燕王自將而來,其士卒精銳,若萬一失利,將何以御南敵乎!」段蘭怒曰:「吾前為卿所誤,以成今日之患,吾不復墮卿計中矣!」乃悉將見眾追之。皝設伏以待之,大破蘭兵,斬首數千級,掠五千戶及畜產萬計以歸。

2. In the third month, Zhao Pan returned to Jicheng. Murong Huang led troops to attack and plunder the cities north of Lingzhi (Duan Liao’s capital).

Duan Liao was about to pursue Murong Huang's troops. But Murong Han said to him, "Zhao's troops are to the south, and we should focus all our soldiers on keeping them out. Yet you want to further fight with the Yan troops, even when the Prince of Yan himself has come to lead them and has elite officers and soldiers under his command. If we are not able to defeat them, then what will we have left with which to defend the south?"

But Duan Liao's brother Duan Lan angrily retorted, “We are faced with this disaster today because you deceived me before, at Liucheng. I will not fall for your tricks again!"

Duan Lan took the whole Duan army, and when he saw the Yan army, he pursued them. But Murong Huang had laid an ambush, and Duan Lan’s troops were greatly routed. Many thousands of heads were taken, and five thousand households and tens of thousands of livestock were brought back to Yan.

〈事見上卷咸和八年。〉

(Murong Han's deception of Duan Lan at Liucheng is mentioned in Book 95, in the eighth year of Xianhe (334.7).)


皝率諸軍攻遼令支以北諸城,遼遣其將段蘭來距,大戰,敗之,斬級數千,掠五千餘戶而歸。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang led his forces to attack Duan Liao's cities north of Lingzhi. Duan Liao sent his general Duan Lan to come oppose Murong Huang, and they fought a great battle; Duan Lan was defeated, and thousands of his soldiers were killed. Murong Huang's forces captured more than five thousand households and returned to their territory.

後石季龍征遼,皝親將三軍略令支以北,遼議欲追之,翰知皝躬自總戎,戰必克勝,乃謂遼曰:「今石氏向至,方對大故,不宜復以小小為事。燕王自來,士馬精銳。兵者凶器,戰有危慮,若其失利,何以南禦乎!」蘭怒曰:「吾前聽卿誑說,致成今患,不復入卿計中矣。」乃率眾追皝,蘭果大敗。翰雖處仇國,因事立忠,皆此類也。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Han)

When Shi Hu launched his campaign against Duan Liao, at the same time Murong Huang personally led his three armies to capture the region north of Lingzhi. Duan Liao held a council, wishing to go pursue Murong Huang’s armies.

Murong Han knew that since Murong Huang himself was in overall command, if they fought him, he would certainly win. So he said to Duan Liao, “The Shi clan has just invaded us, and we should concern ourselves with this greater matter; you cannot shift your attention towards the smaller issue instead. Besides, the Prince of Yan (Murong Huang) has come himself, and his soldiers and horses are keen and elite. As it is said, ‘weapons are instruments of evil omen’, and any battle has its share of perils and concerns. If the fighting should go against us, what would we have left with which to defend the south?”

But Duan Lan angrily objected, “I was taken in by your words before, and that was what led to these problems in the first place. I’ll not be taken in by your plot again.” And Duan Lan led his forces out to pursue Murong Huang, but as Murong Han had predicted, Duan Lan was greatly defeated.

Although Murong Han lived in an enemy state, by such means did he render loyal service to his homeland.

Murong Han quotes from the Daodejing (31).


趙王虎進屯金台。支雄長驅入薊,段遼所署漁陽、上谷、代郡守相皆降,取四十餘城。北平相陽裕帥其民數千家登燕山以自固,諸將恐其為後患,欲攻之。虎曰:「裕儒生,矜惜名節,恥於迎降耳,無能為也。」遂過之,至徐無。段遼以弟蘭既敗,不必復戰,帥妻子、宗族、豪大千餘家,棄令支,奔密雲山。將行,執慕容翰手泣曰:「不用卿言,自取敗亡。我固苦心,令卿失所,深以為愧。」翰北奔宇文氏。

3. Meanwhile, Shi Hu advanced into Duan Liao's territory and camped at Jintai. Zhi Xiong led a long march and entered the city Ji (薊, modern Beijing). The Administrators and Chancellors of Yuyang, Shanggu, and Dai commandaries whom Duan Liao had appointed all surrendered, and Zhao captured more than forty cities in all.

Duan Liao’s Chancellor of Beiping, Yang Yu, led several thousand families of that region to fortify themselves atop Mount Yan. The Zhao generals feared that Mount Yan could pose a threat in their rear if left unchecked, so they wished to attack it. But Shi Hu said, "Yang Yu is a Confucian gentleman, and he cherishes his good reputation. It is only that it would shame him too much to actually offer his surrender. He will not pose a problem." So the Zhao army passed by Mount Yan, and continued on to Xuwu.

Duan Lan had been defeated, and Duan Liao no longer had the means to offer battle. So he fled with his family and kinfolk, along with more than a thousand of the local families. They abandoned the capital at Lingzhi, and escaped to Mount Miyun.

As they were marching away, Duan Liao grasped Murong Han’s hand and tearfully said, "I did not follow your advice earlier, and now we have lost everything. How bitter my heart feels! Now I can no longer offer you any refuge, and I am deeply ashamed."

Murong Han fled north to the Yuwen clan.

〈按《水經註》:金臺在涿郡故安縣,有金臺陂,臺在陂北十餘步,卽燕昭王築以事郭隗之臺。〉〈《五代志》,北平無終縣有燕山。〉〈徐無縣,屬北平郡,其地在唐薊州玉田縣界。〉〈豪大,猶言豪帥也。是時東北夷率謂主帥爲大,部帥曰部大,城主曰城大是也。〉〈《水經註》:密雲戍在禦夷鎭東南九十里,鮑丘水逕其西。唐檀州治密雲縣,西南去范陽二百里。又據《晉紀》云,遼奔于平崗。蓋密雲山在漢平岡縣界。宋白曰:檀州密雲縣,本漢虒奚縣,西南至幽州百九十里,西至嬀川二百五十里,東北至長城障塞百一十里,東南至薊州百九十里。〉

(According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Jintai was in Gu'an County in Zhuo commandary. There was a Jintai Slope, and a terrace some ten paces north of the slope, thus the name Jintai ("Golden Terrace"). This must have been the terrace that Guo Kuai had once built for King Zhao of the ancient state of Yan.

According to the Records of the Five Dynasties, there is a Mount Yan in Wuzhong County in Beiping commandary.

Xuwu County was part of Beiping commandary. It was within Yutian County in Tang's Jizhou.

The term 豪大 here means the leader of the clan. At this time, the tribes of the northwest used the term 大 to indicate the leader of a group. So their divisional commander was the 部大, the city chief was the 城大, etc.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Miyun Camp was ninety li southeast of Yuyi Garrison; the Baoqiu River flowed to its east." Tang's Tanzhou was administered from Miyun County, two hundred li southwest of Fanyang. However, according to the Records of Jin, Pinggang was the place that Duan Liao fled to. So this Mount Miyun must have been within Han's Pinggang County. Song Bai remarked, "Miyun County in Tanzhou was originally Han's Sixi County. Youzhou was a hundred and ninety li to the southwest, Guichuan was two hundred and fifty li to the west, the barriers of the Long Wall were a hundred and ten li to the north, and Jizhou was a hundred and ninety li to the southeast.")


遼奔于平崗。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Duan Liao fled to Pinggang.

季龍至徐無,遼奔密雲山。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

When Shi Hu arrived at Xuwu, Duan Liao fled to Mount Miyun.

及遼奔走,翰又北投宇文歸。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Han)

After Duan Liao took flight, Murong Han then sought refuge with Yuwen Gui.

建國元年,石虎征護遼於遼西,護遼奔平岡山。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

In the first year of Tuoba Shiyijian's Jianguo reign era (338), Shi Hu campaigned against Duan Huliao in Liaoxi. Duan Huliao fled to Mount Pinggang.


遼左右長史劉群、盧諶、崔悅等封府庫請降。虎遣將軍郭太、麻秋帥輕騎二萬追遼,至密雲山。獲其母妻,斬首三千級。遼單騎走險,遣其子乞特真奉表及獻名馬於趙,虎受之。

4. Duan Liao's Chief Clerks of the Right and Left, Liu Qun, Lu Shen, and Cui Yue, among others, turned over the government stores of the Duan domain and offered their submission to Zhao.

Shi Hu dispatched Guo Tai and Ma Qiu with twenty thousand light cavalry to pursue Duan Liao, as far as Mount Miyun. They captured Duan Liao’s mother and wife, and over three thousand of his people were killed. Duan Liao fled into rough terrain on a lone horse. He sent his son Duan Qitezhen to offer notice of of his submission to Zhao, along with a prized steed. Shi Hu accepted them.

〈羣、諶、悅奔令支,見九十卷元帝大興元年。〉〈赴險以自保。〉

(Liu Qun, Lu Shen, and Cui Yue had earlier fled to Lingzhi to join Duan Mopei, as mentioned in Book 90, in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) first year of Daxing (318.20).

Duan Liao fled into rough terrain in order to protect himself.)


虎入令支官[宮],論功封賞各有差。徙段國民二萬餘戶於司、雍、兗、豫四州;士大夫之有才行,皆擢敘之。陽裕詣軍門降。虎讓之曰:「卿昔為奴虜走,今為士人來,豈識知天命,將逃匿無地邪?」對曰:「臣昔事王公,不能匡濟;逃於段氏,復不能全。今陛下天網高張,籠絡四海,幽、冀豪傑莫不風從,如臣比肩,無所獨愧。生死之命,惟陛下制之!」虎悅,即拜北平太守。

5. After Shi Hu entered Duan Liao's palace at Lingzhi, discussions were held regarding the appropriate rewards and conferments. More than twenty thousands households from Duan Liao's domain were relocated among the four provinces of Sizhou, Yongzhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou. The gentry who possessed talent were appraised and promoted as necessary.

Duan Liao's minister, Yang Yu, presented himself at the Zhao army gate to surrender. Shi Hu at first declined to accept his surrender, stating, "It was not so long ago that you ran away from us like a mere slave or caitiff. Now here you are again, presenting yourself as a gentleman? How can I know whether you are truly recognizing the will of Heaven, or if you simply plan to escape someday to who knows where?"

Yang Yu replied, "I indeed once served Lord Wang Jun, but I could not rectify or assist him. I then fled to the Duan clan, but I could not save them either. Now Your Majesty has a net broad and wide, and you cast it over all within the Four Seas. There is no one among the great families of Youzhou or Jizhou who has not recognized the futility of opposing you, and when I compare myself against them, I see that I am not the only one who is thus shamed. Whether I live or die is entirely up to Your Majesty!"

Shi Hu was overjoyed, and he appointed Yang Yu as Administrator of Beiping.

〈段氏都令支,以其所居爲宮。〉〈王公,謂王浚也。裕奔令支見八十九卷愍帝建興二年。〉

(The Duan clan had their capital at Lingzhi, and so Duan Liao resided in a palace there.

Yang Yu refers to "Lord Wang"; he means Wang Jun. Yang Yu had served under him, but had fled to Lingzhi when Shi Le attacked Wang Jun, as mentioned in Book 89, in Emperor Min's second year of Jianxing (314.16).)


石季龍克令支,裕以郡降,拜北平太守,徵為尚書左丞。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Yang Yu)

When Shi Hu captured Lingzhi, Yang Yu surrendered Yan commandary to him. Shi Hu first appointed him as Administrator of Beiping, then summoned him to the court to serve as Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


夏,四月,癸丑,以慕容皝為征北大將軍、幽州牧,領平州刺史。

6. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Guichou (May 8th), Jin appointed Murong Huang as Grand General Who Conquers The North, Governor of Youzhou, and acting Inspector of Pingzhou.

夏四月,癸丑,加皝征北大將軍。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Guichou (May 8th), Jin promoted Murong Huang as Grand General Who Conquers The North.

帝又遣使進皝為征北大將軍、幽州牧,領平州刺史,加散騎常侍,增邑萬戶,持節、都督、單于、公如故。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Emperor Cheng again sent envoys to promote Murong Huang to Grand General Who Conquers The North, Governor of Youzhou, acting Inspector of Pingzhou, and Cavalier In Regular Attendance. His fief was increased to ten thousand households. He maintained his prior authority as Credential Bearer, Commander, Chanyu, and Duke.


成主期驕虐日甚,多所誅殺,而籍沒其資財、婦女,由是大臣多不自安。漢王壽素貴重,有威名,期及建寧王越等皆忌之。壽懼不免,每當入朝,常詐為邊書,辭以警急。

7. The Emperor of Cheng, Li Qi, became prouder and more arrogant with each passing day. He put many people to death, and confiscated their wealth and women. The great ministers of state were thus deeply uneasy.

Cheng's Prince of Han, Li Shou, had long been held in very high esteem and had a reputation for valor. Li Qi, the Prince of Jianning, Li Yue, and others were all anxious of him. Li Shou feared that he would fall prey to them. Whenever Li Shou needed to attend court, he would often arrange for false messages to be sent from his border post, requiring him to leave and deal with the supposed emergency.

〈壽時鎭涪城。〉

(At this time, Li Shou was stationed at Fu.)


雄子霸、保並不病而死,皆云期鴆殺之,於是大臣懷懼,人不自安。天雨大魚于宮中,其色黃。又宮中豕犬交。期多所誅夷,籍沒婦女資財以實後庭,內外凶凶,道路以目,諫者獲罪,人懷苟免。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Qi)

Li Xiong's sons Li Ba and Li Bao both suddenly died despite not being ill. Everyone said that Li Qi had poisoned them, and so all the great ministers feared for their lives, and no one felt secure. There was a torrent of fish that fell from the sky into the palace, and they were colored yellow. And there was also a mingling of pigs and dogs within the palace. Li Qi executed many people and confiscated their wives, daughters, and wealth for his own use in his rear court. Everyone within the state was terrified, and did no more than look at one another when passing on the road. Anyone who remonstrated with Li Qi was charged with a crime, and people counted themselves lucky to escape with their lives.

壽見期兄弟十餘人并有強兵,懼不自全。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou noticed how Li Qi, Li Yue, and their brothers, more than ten men in all, had command of powerful soldiers, so he was afraid that he could not keep himself safe.

壽威名遠振,深為李越、景騫等所憚,壽深憂之。代李玝屯涪,每應期朝覲,常自陳邊疆寇警,不可曠鎮,故得不朝。壽又見期、越兄弟十餘人年方壯大,而並有強兵,懼不自全。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou's might and reputation spread far and wide, and so Li Yue, Jing Qian, and Li Qi's other partisans all deeply feared him. Li Shou himself was also worried about his position. He was camped at Fu, having replaced Li Wu. Whenever he needed to present himself to Li Qi at court, he often arranged for there to be some notice of invaders threatening the border, and as he could not neglect his border command, he therefore could not remain at court. Li Shou also noticed how Li Qi, Li Yue, and Li Xiong's other sons grew more powerful and influential as the years passed, and all of them had command of powerful soldiers, so he was afraid that he could not keep himself safe.

而霸、保皆暴病死。於是大臣自疑,骨肉不相親。而期志益廣,忽慢父時公卿,政刑失錯... 壽雖代玝鎮涪,歲終當入朝覲,常自危嫌,輒造漢中守將張才急書告方外寇警... 壽見期、越兄弟十餘人,年方壯大而手下有強兵,懼不自全。(Huayang Guozhi 9.3-4)

Li Ba and Li Bao both suddenly fell ill and died. So the great ministers all worried about their own positions, such that even flesh and blood did not remain close. Meanwhile, Li Qi's desires grew all the more, and he ignored the old ministers from his father's era. So the governance of the realm and the administration of justice both suffered and fell into decay.

...

Although Li Shou took over Li Wu's former garrison at Fu, he was obliged to return to court at the end of every year. But he sought to avoid this because he was worried about the potential danger to himself, so he always had the defending general of Hanzhong, Zhang Cai, send an urgent letter stating that foreign invaders were approaching the border.

Li Shou noticed that Li Qi, Li Yue, and their brothers, more than ten men in all, were by now all grown men and in command of powerful soldiers, and he was worried that he could not remain safe himself.

[暴病死]: 《晉書‧載記》作「不病而死」。[父時]: 張、吳、何、王、本無父時二字。元豐、錢、劉、《函》、廖本有。[代]: 劉、李本誤作伐。[終]: 劉、李本作中。[嫌]: 李本作慊。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The Biography of Li Qi in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that Li Ba and Li Bao died without having been ill.

The Zhang, Wu, He, and Wang editions do not list the old ministers as having been "from his father's era", while the Yuanfeng, Qian, Liu, 函, and Liao editions do.

The Liu and Li editions mistakenly state that Li Shou 伐 "campaigned against" Li Wu at Fu rather than that he 代 "replaced" him there.

The Liu and Li editions state that Li Shou was required to attend court in 中 "the middle" of the year rather than at 終 "the end" of the year.

The Li edition states that Li Shou was 慊 "resentful" rather than 嫌 "suspicious".)


初,巴西處士龔壯,父、叔皆為李特所殺。壯欲報仇,積年不除喪。壽數以禮辟之,壯不應;而往見壽,壽密問壯以自安之策。壯曰:「巴、蜀之民本皆晉臣,節下若能發兵西取成都,稱籓於晉,誰不爭為節下奮臂前驅者?如此則福流子孫,名垂不朽,豈徒脫今日之禍而已!」壽然之,陰與長史略陽羅恆、巴西解思明謀攻成都。

8. There lived a certain hermit, Gong Zhuang of Baxi, whose father and uncle had both been killed by Li Te. Gong Zhuang still nursed a grudge, and even years later he had still not put away his mourning garb. Li Shou had several times tried to recruit him by treating him with good ceremony, but Gong Zhuang would not join him.

At this time, Gong Zhuang paid a visit to Li Shou, and Li Shou asked him for a plan to save himself from the suspicions he was under. Gong Zhuang replied, "The people of Ba and Shu were originally subjects of Jin. Commissioner, if you are able to raise troops and march west against Chengdu, and declare yourself a Jin vassal, who will not rush to become the first one to aid your cause? By doing so, great fortune will extend even unto your descendants, and your name shall never be forgotten. Is that not even better than simply escaping from your present dangers?"

Li Shou agreed. He secretly plotted with his Chief Clerks, Luo Heng of Lüeyang and Xie Siming of Baxi, to attack Chengdu.

〈父及叔父也。〉〈魏、晉以來,持節、假節出當方面者,人皆稱之爲節下。〉

(That is to say, both Gong Zhuang's father and uncle had been killed by Li Te.

Gong Zhuang addresses Li Shou by the term 節下 "Commissioner". Ever since Cao-Wei and Jin, when generals granted the ranks of Credential Bearer and Credential Holder were out at their border posts, everyone would address them by this term Commissioner.)


陰謀據成都稱藩於晉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou secretly plotted to capture Chengdu and then proclaim himself a vassal of Jin.

乃數聘禮巴西龔壯。壯雖不應聘,數往見壽。時岷山崩,江水竭,壽惡之,每問壯以自安之術。壯以特殺其父及叔,欲假手報仇,未有其由,因說壽曰:「節下若能舍小從大,以危易安,則開國裂土,長為諸侯,名高桓文,勳流百代矣。」壽從之,陰與長史略陽羅恆、巴西解思明共謀據成都,稱籓歸順。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou made many respectful offers of employment to Gong Zhuang of Baxi. Although Gong Zhuang did not accept these offers, he did often come to visit Li Shou. During this time, Mount Min collapsed and the water of the Yangzi dried up. Li Shou was disturbed by these omens, and so he was always asking Gong Zhuang for some method to protect himself.

Now Gong Zhuang's father and uncle had been killed by Li Te, and so Gong Zhuang wanted to find a pawn to use to avenge them, but until now he had had no opportunity to do so. Because of this grudge, he advised Li Shou, "Commissioner, why not put aside such a small goal and pursue a greater one instead? If you can turn your danger into safety, then you may open the state and split the territory. You will be honored as a feudal lord, your name will exceed that of Duke Huan of Qi or Duke Wen of Jin, and your posterity will extend for a hundred generations."

Li Shou agreed, so he secretly plotted with his Chief Clerks, Luo Heng of Lueyang and Xie Siming of Baxi, to occupy Chengdu, then acknowledge the superiority of the Jin dynasty and declare himself their vassal.

[壽]數聘命高士巴西龔壯。壯雖不應,恐見害,不得已,數見壽。時岷山崩,江水竭,壽緣劉向之言而惡之,每謀壯以自安之術。壯之父及叔皆為特所殺,欲假手報讎,未有其由,因說立事:「何如舍小從大,以危易安。開國裂土,長為諸侯。名高桓文,勳流百代矣。」壽從之。因與長史略陽羅恆、巴西解思明共謀據成都為晉,稱藩。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

Li Shou often tried to recruit the hermit Gong Zhuang of Baxi to serve him. Although Gong Zhuang never agreed to actually serve him, Gong Zhuang was worried that absolute refusal might cause Li Shou to harm him, so he often came to at least visit Li Shou. During this time, Mount Min collapsed and the water of the Yangzi dried up. Li Shou was disturbed by these omens, for he believed that they had been foretold by Liu Xiang's predictions, and so he was always asking Gong Zhuang for some method to protect himself.

Now Gong Zhuang's father and uncle had been killed by Li Te, and so Gong Zhuang wanted to find a pawn to use to avenge them, but until now he had had no opportunity to do so. Because of this grudge, he advised Li Shou to claim the throne: "Why not put aside such a small goal and pursue a greater one instead? Turn your danger into safety instead, by founding your own state and carving out your own territory. Then you will be honored as a feudal lord, your name will exceed that of Duke Huan of Qi or Duke Wen of Jin, and your posterity will extend for a hundred generations."

Li Shou agreed, so he secretly plotted with his Chief Clerks, Luo Heng of Lueyang and Xie Siming of Baxi, to occupy Chengdu in the name of Jin, then declare himself their vassal.

[羅恆]: 劉本、《函海》作桓。《函海》注云:「原本作●,避宋諱。」下同。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

Regarding 羅恆 Luo Heng, the Liu and 函海 editions write his given name as 桓 Huan, with the 函海 edition adding a note stating "He had a different given name recorded, but it was changed to Huan to avoid a naming taboo present during the Liu-Song dynasty."


期頗聞之,數遣許涪至壽所,伺其動靜;又鴆殺壽養弟安北將軍攸。壽乃詐為妹夫任調書,雲期當取壽;其眾信之,遂帥步騎萬餘人自涪襲成都,許賞以城中財物,以其將李弈為前鋒。期不意其至,初不設備。壽世子勢為翊軍校尉,開門納之,遂克成都,屯兵宮門。期遣侍中勞壽。壽奏建寧王越、景騫、田褒、姚華、許涪及征西將軍李遐、將軍李西等懷奸亂政,皆收殺之。縱兵大掠,數日乃定。壽矯以太后任氏令廢期為邛都縣公,幽之別宮。追謚戾太子曰哀皇帝。

9. When Li Qi began to hear rumors, he sent Xu Fu several times to spy on Li Shou, and see what was afoot. He also arranged for the General Who Maintains The North, Li Shou's adopted younger brother Li You, to be killed by poisoned wine.

Li Shou then forged a letter from his brother-in-law, Ren Diao, stating that Li Qi was about to attack him. The soldiers under his command believed him, and he led more than ten thousand horse and foot from Fu to attack Chengdu. He promised the soldiers the wealth of Chengdu once they captured the city. His general Li Yi led the vanguard.

Li Qi did not anticipate Li Shou's arrival, so at first he did not prepare defenses. Li Shou's son Li Shi was already inside Chengdu, serving as Colonel Who Assists The Army. He opened the gate to let his father's soldiers enter Chengdu. After securing the city, Li Shou’s soldiers camped at the palace gates.

Li Qi sent his palace attendants to attempt to appease Li Shou. Li Shou charged that many people among Li Qi's court were wicked men who had caused chaos in the government, including Li Yue, Jing Qian, Tian Bao, Yao Hua, Xu Fu, the General Who Conquers The West, Li Xia, the general Li Xi, and others. He demanded that all of them must be arrested and put to death.

Li Shou’s soldiers plundered Chengdu greatly, and only after several days was peace restored.

Li Shou forged an edict from Empress Dowager Ren deposing Li Qi and demoting his rank to Duke of Qiongdu County, and he was sequestered in another palace. The late Crown Prince, Li Ban, was given the revised posthumous title Emperor Ai ("the Lamented").

〈詐言期欲取壽,以怒其衆。〉〈邛都縣,屬越巂郡。〉〈咸和九年,期、越弒其主班,諡曰戾太子。〉

(Li Shou forged this letter stating that Li Qi wanted to attack him, in order to rile up his own soldiers.

Qiongdu County was part of Yuegui commandary.

Li Qi and Li Yue had murdered their sovereign Li Ban, even posthumously naming him Crown Prince Li ("the Perverse"), as mentioned in Book 95, in the ninth year of Xianhe (334.16-17).)


四月,大將軍漢王壽率步騎一萬自涪向成都,期不虞至,預不設備,至即剋城,屯兵宮門,殺相國建寧王越、尚書令景騫、尚書田襄等,廢期為邛都縣公,幽之別宮。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Qi)

In the fourth month, the Grand General and Prince of Han, Li Shou led ten thousand horse and foot from Li to Chengdu. Li Qi had not been concerned about his arrival, so he had prepared no defenses against him. So Li Shou captured the walls of the city and camped his soldiers at the palace gates. He killed the Chancellor of State and Prince of Jianning, Li Yue, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Jing Qian, the Master of Writing, Tian Xiang, and others. He deposed Li Qi to be Duke of Qiongdu county, and kept him under house arrest in a separate palace.

期又鴆殺其安北李攸。攸,壽之養弟也。於是與越及景騫、田褒、姚華謀襲壽等,欲因燒市橋而發兵。期又累遣中常侍許涪至壽所,伺其動靜。及殺攸,壽大懼,又疑許涪往來之數也,乃率步騎一萬,自涪向成都,表稱景騫、田褒亂政,興晉陽之甲,以除君側之惡。以李奕為先登。壽到成都,期、越不虞其至,素不備設,壽遂取其城,屯兵至門。期遣侍中勞壽,壽奏相國、建甯王越,尚書令、河南公景騫,尚書田褒、姚華,中常侍許涪,征西將軍李遐及將軍李西等,皆懷奸亂政,謀傾社稷,大逆不道,罪合夷滅。期從之,於是殺越、騫等。壽矯任氏令,廢期為邛都縣公,幽之別宮。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Qi)

Li Qi also poisoned his General Who Maintains The North, Li You. This Li You was Li Shou's adopted younger brother. Li Qi then plotted to surprise attack Li Shou and others as well, making plans with Li Yue, Jing Qian, Tian Bao, and Yao Hua. They planned to use a fire at the market bridge as a pretext to send out troops against him. In the meantime, Li Qi also sent his Palace Regular Attendant, Xu Fu, to travel back and forth to Li Shou's camp to keep an eye on his movements.

With Li You having been killed, Li Shou was very afraid for his own life, and he was also suspicious why Xu Fu kept coming to see him so often. So he mustered an army of ten thousand horse and foot, and marched from Fu to Chengdu. He distributed a petition announcing that Jing Qian and Tian Bao were causing chaos in the government, and he proclaimed that he would be following the example of the ancient Zhao Yang of the state of Jin by purging these evil advisors from the side of the sovereign. Li Yi led his vanguard. Since Li Qi and Li Yue had not suspected that Li Shou would come for them, they had not made any defenses against him, so Li Shou captured the walls of Chengdu and camped his soldiers at the palace gates.

Li Qi sent his palace attendants to attempt to appease Li Shou. Li Shou charged that many people among Li Qi's court were wicked men who had caused chaos in the government, including the Chancellor of State and Prince of Jianning, Li Yue, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Henan, Jing Qian, the Masters of Writing, Tian Bao and Yao Hua, the Palace Regular Attendant, Xu Fu, the General Who Conquers The West, Li Xia, the general Li Xi, and others. He demanded that because of these men's grand treason and lack of principle, all of them must be put to death. Li Qi agreed to his demands, and killed Li Yue, Jing Qian, and the others.

Li Shou then forged a decree from Lady Ren, deposing Li Qi to become Duke of Qiongdu county, and he was kept under house arrest in a separate palace.

乃誓文武,得數千人,襲成都,剋之。縱兵擄掠,數日乃定。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou announced his intentions to the civil and military officials, gaining several thousand followers, before launching a surprise attack on Chengdu and capturing it. He let his soldiers loose to sack the city, and only after several days was peace restored.

乃誓文武,得數千人,襲成都,克之,縱兵虜掠,至乃奸略雄女及李氏諸婦,多所殘害,數日乃定。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou announced his intentions to the civil and military officials, gaining several thousand followers, before launching a surprise attack on Chengdu and capturing it. He let his soldiers loose to sack the city; even Li Xiong's daughters and the wives of the Li clan were raped and kidnapped, and many were injured or killed. Only after several days was peace restored.

四年,夏四月,壽自涪還襲期,假以誅越、騫為言。越請散財募「民」〔士〕格戰。期謂壽不自薄,不許。〔壽〕既誅越,騫,初廢期為邛都縣公... 壽追謚曰哀皇帝... 會養弟攸從成都病還,死道中。乃「陽」〔揚〕言越藥殺之。又詐造「姝」〔妹〕婿任調書,言期、越當廢壽,以惑群下。群下信之。乃誓文武,許賞城中資財。得數千人。〔四年,四月〕,南攻成都。子勢為開門內應,遂獲期、越。誅其宗族十餘人。兵入,擄掠民家,奸淫雄公主及李氏諸婦,多所殘害。數日乃定。(Huayang Guozhi 9.3-4)

In the fourth year of Yuheng (338), in summer, the fourth month, Li Shou returned from Fu and launched a surprise attack on Li Qi, claiming that his intent was to put Li Yue and Jing Qian to death. Li Yue asked Li Qi to spread around wealth and recruit soldiers in order to prepare for battle against Li Shou. But as Li Qi believed that Li Shou did not mean any harm for Li Qi himself, he refused. After Li Shou had executed Li Yue and Jing Qian, he first deposed Li Qi to be the Duke of Qiongdu county.

After Li Shou took power, he changed Li Ban's posthumous name to Emperor Ai.

...

At this time, Li Shou's adopted younger brother Li You was returning from Chengdu on account of illness, but he died along the road. So Li Shou spread a rumor that Li Yue had poisoned him. He also forged a letter from his brother-in-law Ren Diao, stating that Li Qi and Li Yue planned to do away with Li Shou himself. Li Shou did these things in order to mislead his subordinates, and they believed him. Then he announced his intentions to the civil and military officials, promising to reward them with the wealth of Chengdu once he took the city. He thus gained several thousand followers to his cause.

In the fourth year of Xiankang (338), in the fourth month, Li Shou marched south and attacked Chengdu. His son Li Shi opened the gates and welcomed in his father's soldiers, and so Li Qi and Li Yue were captured. Li Shou executed more than ten of his kinsmen.

When the soldiers entered the city, they kidnapped and pillaged the families of the common people. They even raped Li Xiong's daughters and the wives of the Li clan, and many people were injured or killed. Only after several days was peace restored.

[「民」〔士〕]: 元豐以下舊本皆作士。廖本作民。[期謂]: 字當作意。[「陽」〔揚〕]: 元豐本作揚。錢、劉、張、吳、何、《函》諸本作佯。廖本作陽。[群]: 元豐本作郡。下同。[〔四年,四月〕]: 此下舊本直連「南攻成都」句。茲補「四年四月」字。依上《李期志》補。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The Yuanfeng edition and all the editions older than that write that Li Yue wanted to recruit 士 "soldiers". The Liao edition writes this as 民 "people".

This passage should state that Li Qi 意 "believed" that Li Shou meant him no harm, not that he 謂 "said" this.

Regarding the 揚 "spreading" of the rumor that Li Yue had poisoned Li You, the Yuanfeng edition indeed states it as such. The Qian, Liu, Zhang, Wu, He, and 函 editions state that Li Shou 佯 "feigned" this news, while the Liao edition states that he 陽 "publicized" it.

The Yuanfeng edition states that Li Shou misled the 郡 "commandary" subordinates rather than just the 群 "various" subordinates.

The old editions of the Huayang Guozhi move straight ahead to describing how Li Shou marched south, without listing the year or the month. I have added in a mention that it was in "the fourth year, the fourth month", as the parallel account in the Biography of Li Qi states.)


羅恆、解思明、李弈等勸壽稱鎮西將軍、益州牧、成都王,稱籓於晉,送邛都公於建康;任調及司馬蔡興、侍中李艷等勸壽自稱帝。壽命筮之,占者曰:「可數年天子。」調喜曰:「一日尚足,況數年乎!」思明曰:「數年天子,孰與百世諸侯?」壽曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣。」遂即皇帝位,改國號曰漢,大赦,改元漢興。以安車束帛征龔壯為太師。壯誓不仕,壽所贈遺,一無所受。

10. There was debate among Li Shou's officers on what to do next. On one side, Luo Heng, Xie Siming, Li Yi, and others urged Li Shou to assume the Jin ranks of General Who Guards The West, Governor of Yizhou, and Prince of Chengdu, and to submit himself to Jin as a vassal, as well as send the Duke of Qiongdu (Li Qi) to Jiankang. On the other side, Ren Diao, the Marshal, Cai Xing, the Palace Attendant, Li Yàn, and others urged Li Shou to declare himself Emperor instead.

Li Shou sought an answer from a yarrow divination. The diviner said, "You may become the Son of Heaven, but only for a few years."

Ren Diao excitedly said, "Even to be Emperor for one day is enough, much less a few years!"

Xie Siming replied, "Is it better to be the Son of Heaven for a mere few years, compared with establishing a noble family that lasts a hundred generations?"

Li Shou remarked, "Isn't it said, 'If one hears of the Way in the morning, he may die content that same evening'?"

So Li Shou assumed the title of Emperor, and changed the name of the state from Cheng to Han. A general amnesty was declared. The reign era title was changed to the first year of Hanxing.

Li Shou offered a personal carriage and bound silk to Gong Zhuang, and asked him to become Grand Instructor. However, Gong Zhuang refused the office, nor did he accept the offerings that Li Shou sent him.

〈龜爲卜,蓍爲筮。〉〈引《論語》孔子之言。〉〈壽,字武考,驤之子也。〉

(A divination performed using a tortoise shell is called a yarrow divination.

Li Xiong quotes the words of Confucius in the Analects (4.8).

Li Xiong, styled Wukao, was the son of Li Xiang.)


僭即皇帝位於南郊,大郝,改咸康四年為漢興元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou proclaimed himself Emperor in the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, and in the fourth year of Xiankang (338) he changed the reign era title to the first year of Hanxing.

夏四月,李壽僭卽偽位,國號漢。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, Li Shou took control of Cheng, which he renamed to Han.

恆與思明及李奕、王利等勸壽稱鎮西將軍、益州牧、成都王,稱籓于晉,而任調與司馬蔡興、侍中李豔及張烈等勸壽自立。壽命筮之,占者曰:「可數年天子。」調喜曰:「一日尚為足,而況數年乎!」思明曰:「數年天子,孰與百世諸侯!」壽曰:「朝聞道,夕死可矣。任侯之言,策之上也。」遂以咸康四年僭即偽位,赦其境內,改元為漢興... 以安車束帛聘龔壯為太師,壯固辭,特聽縞巾素帶,居師友之位。拔擢幽滯,處之顯列。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

There was debate among Li Shou's officers on what to do next. On one side, Luo Heng, Xie Siming, Li Yi, Wang Li, and others urged Li Shou to assume the Jin ranks of General Who Guards The West, Governor of Yizhou, and Prince of Chengdu, and to submit himself to Jin as a vassal. On the other side, Ren Diao, the Marshal, Cai Xing, the Palace Attendants, Li Yàn and Zhang Lie, and others urged Li Shou to declare himself Emperor instead.

Li Shou sought an answer from a yarrow divination. The diviner said, "You may become the Son of Heaven, but only for a few years."

Ren Diao excitedly said, "Even to be Emperor for one day is enough, much less a few years!"

Xie Siming replied, "Is it better to be the Son of Heaven for a mere few years, compared with establishing a noble family that lasts a hundred generations?"

Li Shou remarked, "Isn't it said, 'If one hears of the Way in the morning, he may die content that same evening'? Marquis Ren's advice is the best plan."

So in the fourth year of Xiankang (338), Li Xiong assumed the title of Emperor. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Hanxing.

Li Shou offered a personal carriage and bound silk to Gong Zhuang, and asked him to become Grand Instructor. However, Gong Zhuang firmly declined these things; he only wore a white scarf and a plain belt, and served informally as a teacher and friend.

Li Shou plucked out and promoted those people whose talents had been hidden or who had been stalled in their careers, placing them in positions where their abilities could shine.

恆與思明及李奕、王利等勸壽稱鎮西將軍、益州牧、成都王,以壯為長史,告下。又勸令送期於晉。任調與司馬蔡興、侍中李豔及張烈等勸壽自立。壽亦生心,遂背思明所陳之計,稱漢皇帝... 下赦,改元漢興。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

There was debate among Li Shou's officers on what to do next. On one side, Luo Heng, Xie Siming, Li Yi, Wang Li, and others urged Li Shou to assume the Jin ranks of General Who Guards The West, Governor of Yizhou, and Prince of Chengdu, with Gong Zhuang as his Chief Clerk, and to submit himself to Jin as a vassal. They also urged him to order Li Qi sent to Jin. On the other side, Ren Diao, the Marshal, Cai Xing, the Palace Attendants, Li Yàn and Zhang Lie, and others urged Li Shou to declare himself Emperor instead. That prospect pleased Li Shou. So he cast aside the plans which Xie Siming had prepared, and declared himself Emperor of Han. He declared an amnesty, and changed the reign era title to Hanxing.

[壯]: 元豐本此作杜。下同。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding Li Shou's potential Chief Clerk appointee, the Yuanfeng edition states that it would be an unspecified 杜 Du, rather than 壯 Gong Zhuang.)


壽改立宗廟,追尊父驤曰獻皇帝,母昝氏曰皇太后。立妃閆氏為皇后,世子勢為皇太子。更以舊廟為大成廟,凡諸制度,多所改易。以董皎為相國,羅恆為尚書令,解思明為廣漢太守,任調為鎮北將軍、梁州刺史,李弈為西夷校尉,從子權為寧州刺史。公、卿、州、郡,悉用其僚佐代之;成氏舊臣、近親及六郡士人,皆見疏斥。

11. Li Shou set up his own ancestral temple, honoring his late father Li Xiang with the posthumous title Emperor Xian ("the Presented"), and his mother Lady Zan as the Empress Dowager. He made his concubine Lady Yan his Empress, and made his eldest son Li Shi his Crown Prince. The old royal temple was changed into the Great Cheng Temple, and Li Shou altered many of the systems and practices formerly in place.

Dong Jiao was appointed as Chancellor of State. Luo Heng was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Xie Siming was appointed as Administrator of Guanghan. Ren Diao was appointed as General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Lianzhou. Li Yi was appointed as Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, and his nephew Li Quan was appointed as Inspector of Ningzhou. All the lords, ministers, and provincial and commandary leaders were replaced with Li Shou’s confidants, while the old ministers who had served the previous Cheng regimes and the adherents of Li Qi and leaders of the Six Commandaries of the original refugees were all distanced and ostracized.

〈舊廟,祀李特、李雄者也;雄建國號曰成。壽改曰漢,故以特、雄廟曰大成廟。〉〈六郡士人,與李特兄弟同入蜀者。〉

(The old temple was the one where Li Te and Li Xiong were honored; Li Xiong was the one who had established the state, calling it Cheng. Since Li Shou was now renaming the state to Han, he renamed the temple of Li Te and Li Xiong to the Great Cheng Temple.

The people of the six commandaries were the refugees from those six northern commandaries who had followed Li Te and his brothers into Shu.)


追尊父驤為獻皇帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou posthumously honored his father Li Xiang as Emperor Xian.

追尊父驤為獻帝,母昝氏為太后,立妻閻氏為皇后,世子勢為太子... 以董皎為相國,羅恆、馬當為股肱,李奕、任調、李閎為爪牙,解思明為謀主。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou posthumously honored his father Li Xiang as Emperor Xian. He honored his mother Lady Zan as Empress Dowager, his wife Lady Yan as Empress, and his eldest son Li Shi as Crown Prince.

He appointed Dong Jiao as his Chancellor of State. Luo Heng and Ma Dang were his close companions; Li Yi, Ren Diao, and Li Hong were his teeth and claws; Xie Siming was his chief advisor.

尊父驤曰獻帝,母昝氏曰太后... 以恆為尚書令,思明為廣漢太守,任調鎮北、梁州、知東羌校尉,李奕鎮西、西夷校尉。更代諸郡及卿佐,皆用宿人及己參佐。省交州,以從子權為鎮南、南夷、寧州。於是成都諸李子弟,無復秉兵馬形勢者,雄時舊臣及六郡人,皆斥廢也。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

Li Shou posthumously honored his father Li Xiang as Emperor Xian, and he honored his mother Lady Zan as Empress Dowager.

Li Shou appointed Li Heng as Prefect of the Master of Writing, Xie Siming as Administrator of Guanghan, Ren Diao as General Who Guards The North, Inspector of Lianzhou, and Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes, and Li Yi as General Who Guards The West and Colonel of Western Yi Tribes. He also replaced all the commandary appointees and ministerial aides, replacing them with men from the palace and from among his own advisors. Li Shou abolished Jiaozhou, appointing his nephew Li Quan as General Who Guards The South, Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes, and Inspector of Ningzhou.

The sons and younger brothers of the Li clan were kept close at Chengdu, and no longer granted control over any infantry or cavalry. The old ministers from Li Xiong's reign and from among the Six Commandaries were all ousted and deposed.

[知東羌校尉]: 廖本於知下注云:「當有北事二字。」又於校尉下注云:「當衍此二字。」茲不取,仍舊。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The Liao edition notes that Ren Diao's appointment should have been listed as "chief of northern affairs for the Eastern Qiang" rather than "Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes". But I do not change it, instead following the old editions.)


邛都公期歎曰:「天下主乃為小縣公,不如死!」五月,縊而卒。壽謚曰幽公,葬以王禮。

12. Li Qi lamented, "To think I should go from the Son of Heaven to a mere Duke of a minor county. I might as well die!" In the fifth month, he hanged himself. Li Shou gave him the posthumous title Duke You ("the Secluded"), and he was buried with the honors due to a prince.

〈《載記》,期死於三年,年二十五。〉

According to the Biography of Li Qi in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Li Qi died in the third year of Xiankang (337); he was twenty-four years old.)


期自殺,年二十五,諡曰幽公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Qi)

Li Qi killed himself. He was twenty-four years old. His posthumous title was Duke You.

夏四月,李壽弑李期。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, Li Shou murdered Li Qi.

期歎曰:「天下主乃當為小縣公,不如死也!」咸康三年,自縊而死,時年二十五,在位三年。諡曰幽公。及葬,賜鸞輅九旒,余如王禮。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Qi)

Li Qi lamented, "To think I should go from the Son of Heaven to a mere Duke of a minor county. I might as well die!" In the third year of Xiankang (337), he hanged himself. He was twenty-four years old, and had ruled for three years. His posthumous title was Duke You ("the Secluded"). When he was buried, he was bestowed the luan carriage and the nine-string cap, and the burial rites were those fit for a prince.

是歲,李雄從弟壽殺期僭立,自號曰漢。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the second year of the second part of the reign of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai (338), Li Xiong's cousin Li Shou killed Li Qi and claimed his throne, renaming that state from Cheng to Han.

〔至〕於五月,乃殺期,「及」誅李始等,「殺」〔及期〕兄弟十餘人。期死時,年二十四。謚曰幽「王」〔公〕。五年,徙「其」〔期〕妻子劉本作丁。於越嶲。勢又使人就越嶲誅其子。(Huayang Guozhi 9.3)

In the fifth month, Li Shou killed Li Qi, then executed Li Shi and the others, including Li Qi's other brothers, more than ten in all. At the time of his death, Li Qi was twenty-three. His posthumous name was Prince You.

In the fifth year of Xianning (339), Li Shou exiled Li Qi's wife and sons to Yuexi. Li Shi later sent someone to Yuexi to execute Li Qi's sons.

[二十四]: 《十六國春秋》作「二十五」。[「王」〔公〕]: 舊各本作王。茲依《十六國春秋》改正。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states that Li Qi was twenty-four when he died. It also states that Li Qi's posthumous title was as a Duke, not Prince.)


趙王虎以燕王皝不會趙兵攻段遼而自專其利,欲伐之。太史令趙攬諫曰:「歲星守燕分,師必無功。」虎怒,鞭之。

13. In light of the fact that Murong Huang's soldiers had not actually worked together with Shi Hu's soldiers against Duan Liao, but had attacked on their own for their personal profit, Shi Hu now wished to campaign against Murong Huang to punish him. The Court Astrologist, Zhao Lan, warned against it, saying, "The Year Star (Jupiter) is hanging over Yan now. If we attack them, we will certainly fail."

Shi Hu was enraged and ordered Zhao Lan whipped.

〈以皝掠段氏人民、畜產,不待趙師至而北歸也。〉〈《天文志》,歲星贏縮,以其舍命國;其所居久,其國有德厚,五穀豐昌,不可伐也。〉

(Shi Hu was displeased that Murong Huang had only captured the people of the Duan domain and their livestock, and had not waited for the Zhao army to arrive before returning north again.

According to the Astrological Records, the Year Star (Jupiter) is a wandering star, and its place in the heavens dictates the fate of kingdoms. Whichever state it currently resides over is covered by virtue and bounty; their harvest of the Five Grains becomes abundant, and they cannot be campaigned against.)


季龍進入令支,怒皝之不會師也。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

After Shi Hu advanced and entered Lingzhi, he was angry that Murong Huang had not led his own army to meet him there.


皝聞之,嚴兵設備:罷六卿,納言,常伯,冗騎常侍官。趙戎卒數十萬,燕人震恐。皝謂內史高詡曰:「將若之何?」對曰:「趙兵雖強,然不足憂,但堅守以拒之,無能為也。」

14. When Murong Huang heard of the planned invasion from Zhao, he drilled his soldiers and made defensive preparations. He also abolished the positions he had created: the Six Ministers, the 納言s, the 常伯s, and the 冗騎常侍s.

Zhao invaded with several hundred thousand soldiers, and the people of Yan were greatly afraid. Murong Huang asked his Interior Minister, Gao Xu, "What are we to do?"

Gao Xu replied, "Although the Zhao soldiers are strong, that is still no cause for concern. So long as we hold fast to our defenses and refuse battle, they cannot succeed."

〈去年皝置六卿等官。〉〈內史,燕國內史也。〉

(Murong Huang had created the Six Ministers and other such offices in the previous year (Book 95, 337.7).

An Interior Minister oversees the administration of a princely fief. Since Murong Huang was now Prince of Yan, Gao Xu was serving as the Interior Minister of his fief.)


季龍進軍擊之。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Shi Hu advanced to attack Murong Huang as well.

石虎率眾伐元真。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Huang)

Shi Hu led an army to campaign against Murong Huang.


虎遣使四出,招誘民夷,燕成周內史崔燾、居就令游泓、武原令常霸、東夷校尉封抽、護軍宋晃等皆應之,凡得三十六城。泓,邃之兄子也。冀陽流寓之士共殺太守宋燭以降於趙。燭,晃之從兄也。營丘內史鮮於屈亦遣使降趙。武寧令廣平孫興曉諭吏民共收屈,數其罪而殺之,閉城拒守。朝鮮令昌黎孫泳帥眾拒趙。大姓王清等密謀應趙,泳收斬之;同謀數百人惶怖請罪,泳皆釋之,與同拒守。樂浪太守鞠彭以境內皆叛,選鄉里壯士二百餘人共還棘城。

15. Shi Hu sent agents in all directions, beckoning and enticing the common people and the tribes over to his side. Yan's Interior Minister of Chengzhou, Cui Dao, their Prefect of Jujiu, You Hong, their Prefect of Wuyuan, Chang Ba, their Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, Feng Chou, and their Protector of the Army, Song Huang, among others, were all lured over, and thirty-six cities were taken. This You Hong was the nephew of You Sui. Refugees that had fled to Jiyang killed the Administrator, Song Zhu, and surrendered the commandary to Zhao. This Song Zhu was the cousin of Song Huang.

Yan's Interior Minister of Yingqiu, Xianyu Qu, also sent an envoy to Zhao to offer surrender. But the Prefect of Wuning, Sun Xing of Guangping, rallied and exhorted the officials and the people to apprehend Xianyu Qu. After reading out a list of his crimes, Sun Xing had Xianyu Qu killed. Then he closed the city gates for defense.

Yan's Prefect of Chaoxian, Sun Yong of Changli, led his soldiers to defend against Zhao. Wang Qing and other members of the great local families plotted together to hand over the city to Zhao. Sun Yong arrested and executed Wang Qing. Several hundred others who had plotted with him then begged forgiveness for their crimes, so Sun Yong released them, and together they took up the defense of the city.

Faced with rebellion on all sides, Yan's Administrator of Lelang, Ju Peng, fell back to Jicheng in the company of more than two hundred handpicked doughty braves from among his original compatriots from Donglai.

〈成周、冀陽、營丘郡,皆慕容廆所置,見八十九卷愍帝建興二年。居就縣,漢、晉屬遼東郡。武原,蓋亦慕容氏所置縣也。武寧縣,亦慕容氏所置,帶營丘郡。游邃見八十八卷愍帝建興元年。〉〈樂浪,非漢古郡地也,慕容廆所置,見八十八卷愍帝建興元年。以《五代志》考之,樂浪、冀陽、營丘郡、朝鮮、武寧等縣,當盡在隋遼西郡柳城縣界。鞠彭率鄕人歸燕,見九十卷元帝太興二年。〉

(The commandaries of Chengzhou, Jiyang, and Yingqiu had all been created by Murong Hui, as mentioned in Book 89, in Emperor Min's second year of Jianxing (314.16).

During Han and Jin, Jujiu County was part of Liaodong commandary.

Wuyuan County was also created by the Murong clan.

Wuning County was yet another county created by the Murong clan, as part of Yingqiu commandary.

You Sui was a minister under Murong Hui, as mentioned in Book 88, in Emperor Min's first year of Jianxing (313.19-20).

The Lelang commandary mentioned here was not the same as the old Han commandary of that name. This one had been created by Murong Hui, as mentioned in the same place as the above note. According to the Records of the Five Dynasties, the commandaries of Lelang, Jiyang, and Yingqiu, and Chaoxian, Wuning, and the other counties, were all within the territory of Liucheng County in Sui's Liaoxi commandary.

Ju Peng had earlier been Jin's Administrator of Donglai, but he led his compatriots from there to flee to Yan, as mentioned in Book 90, in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) second year of Taixing (319.28).)


戊子,趙兵進逼棘城。燕王皝欲出亡,帳下將慕輿根諫曰:「趙強我弱,大王一舉足則趙之氣勢遂成,使趙人收略國民,兵強谷足,不可復敵。竊意趙人正欲大王如此耳,奈何入其計中乎?今固守堅城,其勢百倍,縱其急攻,猶足支持,觀形察變,間出求利。如事之不濟,不失於走,奈何望風委去,為必亡之理乎!」皝乃止,然猶懼形於色。玄菟太守河間劉佩曰:「今強寇在外,眾心恟懼,事之安危,繫於一人。大王此際無所推委,當自強以厲將士,不宜示弱。事急矣,臣請出擊之,縱無大捷,足以安眾。」乃將敢死數百騎出沖趙兵,所向披靡,斬獲而還,於是士氣百倍。皝問計於封弈,對曰:「石虎凶虐已甚,民神共疾,禍敗之至,其何日之有!今空國遠來,攻守勢異,戎馬雖強,無能為患;頓兵積日,釁隙自生,但堅守以俟之耳。」皝意乃安。或說皝降,皝曰:「孤方取天下,何謂降也!」

16. On the day Wuzi (June 12th), the Zhao soldiers advanced to threaten Jicheng.

Murong Huang wished to flee, but his staff officer Muyu Gen remonstrated against it, stating, "Zhao is strong and we are weak. Prince, as soon as you lift your foot to flee, it will only bolster the enemy’s morale even further. Zhao will be able to take over all the people of our state, and come to have a strong army and plenty of grain. Then we will never be able to defeat them again. I believe that your proposal is exactly what Zhao desires, and how can we walk right into their plot?

"Now, if we instead hold fast to this well-defended city, we will be a hundred times stronger than they are. Even if they press on the attack, we will still have enough to defend ourselves. Then we can observe the circumstances and find an opportunity to turn the tides to our advantage. And if that too fails, then there will still be time to flee. Why would you run away just upon hearing of their arrival, and assume that you would definitely lose?"

So Murong Huang decided not to flee, but he still continued to look very fearful.

The Administrator of Xuantu, Liu Pei of Hejian, said, "The state is filled with powerful invaders, and the people's hearts are filled with dread. The outcome of this situation hangs on you alone. Prince, at this time, you must not pass the responsibility to someone else, but must rather strengthen your resolve in order to hearten the soldiers, and not display any sign of weakness. In this time of peril, I ask that you allow me to go out and attack. Although no great victory will come by it, it will still be enough to reassure the people."

So Liu Pei led out several hundred riders who feared not death against the Zhao soldiers, and they rushed about on every side, killing and capturing before returning. Due to this, the morale of the Yan soldiers was redoubled.

Then Murong Huang asked Feng Yi for his advice. Feng Yi replied, "Shi Hu is an extremely cruel and brutal man, who has offended both heaven and earth; calamity and defeat are his due, and 'what future time need we look for'? Now he has emptied his state and traveled a long distance, and his army's role has shifted from being the attackers to being the defenders. Although he has powerful men and horses, they cannot pose a threat. Once they have encamped here for days upon end, division will arise naturally among them. But until then, it is best to be patient and defend."

After hearing this, Murong Huang became more assured. Thereafter, if anyone advocated surrender to him, he would say, "I aim to obtain the whole realm; what use is there in talking about surrender?"

〈國民,謂燕國之民也。〉〈謂伺間出擊趙以求利也。〉〈菟,同都翻。〉〈言難推此責以委人也。〉〈披,開也,分也,散也。靡,偃也。〉〈杜預曰:言今至。〉

(By "the people of our state", Muyu Gen meant the people of the Yan princely fief.

Muyu Gen was saying that they should wait for an opportunity to march out and attack Zhao in order to obtain the advantage.

The second character of the name of the commandary Xuantu, 菟, is pronounced "du").

Liu Pei was saying that it would be difficult for Murong Huang to shift his burdens and responsibilities onto others.

The term 披 here means to open divisions, to drive apart, or to scatter. And the term 靡 means to lie prone.

Feng Yi quotes from the Zuo Commentary: "What future time need we look for calamity to visit Wu? (Ai 1.4)" Du Yu's commentary adds, "This expression means that the indicated moment has now arrived.")


季龍至於棘城,戎卒數十萬,四面進攻,郡縣諸部叛應季龍者三十六城。相持旬餘,左右勸皝降。皝曰:「孤方取天下,何乃降人乎!」(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

When Shi Hu's army reached Jicheng, it had hundreds of thousands of soldiers, and it attacked the city on all sides. Thirty-six cities among the counties, commandaries, and garrisons betrayed Murong Huang and surrendered to Shi Hu. A stalemate lasted for more than ten days outside the city, and all those with Murong Huang urged him to surrender as well. But Murong Huang replied, "I aim to obtain the whole realm; why speak of surrendering?"


趙兵四面蟻附緣城,慕輿根等晝夜力戰,凡十餘日,趙兵不能克,壬辰,引退。皝遣其子恪帥二千騎追擊之,趙兵大敗,斬獲三萬餘級。趙諸軍皆棄甲逃潰,惟游擊將軍石閔一軍獨全。閔名瞻,內黃人,本姓冉,趙主勒破陳午,獲之,命虎養以為子。閔驍勇善戰,多策略。虎愛之,比於諸孫。

17. The Zhao soldiers were thick as ants all around the city. But Muyu Gen and the others kept up the fight day and night. After more than ten days, the Zhao soldiers still could not take the city.

On the day Renchen (June 16th), the Zhao army began to retreat. Murong Huang sent his son Murong Ke with two thousand cavalry to pursue and attack them, and the Zhao soldiers suffered a great defeat, with more than thirty thousand of them captured or killed. The Zhao soldiers and officers threw aside their armor in their rush to flee. Only the division under the General of Fierce Assault, Shi Min, held good order and conducted a fighting retreat.

This Shi Min's father, Shi Zhan of Neihuang, was originally named Ran Zhan. When Shi Le defeated Chen Wu, Ran Zhan was captured, and Shi Le ordered Shi Hu to adopt him as a son. Thus he and his son Min had the surname Shi. Shi Min was brave, strong, and cunning in battle, developing many plans and strategies. Shi Hu favored him, treating him just like his other grandsons.

〈言肉薄附城而上,若羣蟻然。〉〈內黃縣,屬魏郡;以陳留有外黃,故加「內」。〉〈冉閔始此。石勒養石虎以自滅其種,石虎養冉閔,併其種類而夷之,蓋天道也。〉

(The expression "thick as ants" means that the soldiers were pressed up all around the sides of the city, like a swarm of ants.

Neihuang County was part of Wei commandary. It was named Neihuang ("Inner Huang") because there was a Waihuang ("Outer Huang") County in Chenliu commandary.

This is the first mention of Ran Min / Shi Min.

Shi Le had brought up Shi Hu within his household, yet Shi Hu wiped out all his descendants. And in turn, Shi Hu raised Ran Min, yet Ran Min would usurp power from his descendants and exterminate them all. It must have been karma.)


Chen Wu was the leader of a group of Lifeseeker refugee soldiers whom Shi Le defeated in Book 87, in 311.33.

夏四月,石季龍爲慕容皝所敗。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, Shi Hu was defeated by Murong Huang.

石閔字永曾,虎之養孫也。父瞻,字弘武。本姓冉,名良,魏郡內黃人。其先漢黎陽騎都督,累世牙門,勒破陳午於河內,獲瞻,時年十二。長而勇悍,便弓馬,臨陣不顧。勒奇之,曰:「此兒壯健可嘉」,命虎子之。歷位左積射將軍,封西華侯。閔幼而果銳,虎撫之如孫。及長,身長八尺,善謀,勇力絕人。虎即位,封為脩武侯,歷位北中郎將。虎之敗于昌黎,閔軍獨全,由此功名大顯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Min)

Shi Min, styled Yongcheng, was Shi Hu's adopted grandson. His father Shi Zhan, styled Hongwu, had originally been named Ran Liang, and was a native of Neihuang county in Wei commandary. His ancestor had been the Han dynasty's Cavalry Commandant of Liyang commandary, and they had served as minor generals for generations. When Shi Le routed Chen Wu at Henei, he captured Shi Zhan, who was then eleven years old. Shi Zhan grew up to be bold and resolute, skilled at horse and bow, and unflinching in battle. Shi Le marveled at him, saying, "I have to commend such a strong and stalwart boy." And he ordered Shi Hu to adopt Shi Zhan as his son. Shi Zhan went on to become General of Amassed Archers of the Left and Marquis of Xihua.

Shi Min himself was determined and zealous even as a youth, and Shi Hu treated him like his own grandson. Shi Min grew to be eight chi tall; he was skilled at planning, and his boldness and strength surpassed others. After Shi Hu came to the throne, he appointed Shi Min as Marquis of Xiuwu, and Shi Min rose in office to General of the Household Gentlemen of the North. When Shi Hu was defeated at Changli, Shi Min's division remained intact. It was from this time that his achievements and reputation became greatly exalted.

遣子恪等率騎二千,晨出擊之。季龍諸軍驚擾,棄甲而遁。恪乘勝追之,斬獲三萬餘級,築戍凡城而還。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang sent his son Murong Ke and others to lead two thousand riders, and they marched out at dawn to attack. Shi Hu's soldiers were caught unawares, and they cast aside their armor and fled. Murong Ke then led his victorious riders in pursuit, and they killed or captured more than thirty thousand soldiers, and established several defensive works and camps before returning.

元真擊走之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang attacked Shi Hu and drove him off.

慕容恪,字玄恭,皝之第四子也。幼而謹厚,沈深有大度。母高氏無寵,皝未之奇也。年十五,身長八尺七寸,容貌魁傑,雄毅嚴重,每所言及,輒經綸世務,皝始異焉,乃授之以兵。數從皝征伐,臨機多奇策。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

Murong Ke, styled Xuangong, was Murong Huang's fourth son. Even as a youth, he was prudent and honest, deep, profound, and possessed great capacity. At first, since Murong Huang did not favor Murong Ke's mother Lady Gao, he did not think much of Murong Ke either. By the time Murong Ke was fourteen, he had grown to a height of eight chi and seven cun, and he had a remarkable and heroic appearance. He was bold, dutiful, and quite stern; he lived up to his reputation, and he carried out his administrative assignments with diligence. It was at this time that Murong Huang first saw something special in Murong Ke, so he assigned him command of soldiers. Murong Ke often followed Murong Huang on his campaigns, and was able to improvise many plans and strategies.


虎還鄴,以劉群為中書令,盧諶為中書侍郎。蒲洪以功拜使持節、都督六夷諸軍事、冠軍大將軍,封西平郡公。石閔言於虎曰:「蒲洪雄俊,得將士死力,諸子皆有非常之才,且握強兵五萬,屯據近畿;宜密除之,以安社稷。」虎曰:「吾方倚其父子以取吳、蜀,奈何殺之!」待之愈厚。

18. Shi Hu returned to Ye. He appointed Liu Qun as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and Lu Shen as a Gentleman Attendant of the Palace Secretariat. Pu Hong was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander over the Six Tribes, and Grand Champion General, and ennobled as Duke of Xiping commandary.

Shi Min said to Shi Hu, "Pu Hong is heroic and capable, and his warriors risk their very lives for his sake. Even his sons all have outstanding talents. Now he commands fifty thousand strong soldiers, and is stationed close to the capital. It would be best to secretly do away with him, to ensure the fortunes of state."

But Shi Hu replied, "I shall need Pu Hong and his sons to help me attain Wu and Shu. What use is there in killing him?" And he treated Pu Hong with even greater favor.

〈近畿,謂洪屯枋頭,距鄴爲近。〉〈石虎之不能殺蒲洪,猶苻堅之不能殺慕容垂、姚萇也。〉

(By "stationed close to the capital", Shi Min referred to the fact that Pu Hong was stationed at Fangtou, which was close to Ye.

Shi Hu was unable to kill his general Pu Hong, just as Fu Jian was later unable to kill his generals Murong Chui and Yao Chang.)


冉閔言於虎曰:「苻洪雄果,其諸子並非常才,宜密除之。」虎待之愈厚。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Hong)

Ran Min said to Shi Hu, "Fu Hong is heroic and capable, and his sons all have outstanding talents. You should secretly do away with him." But Shi Hu treated Fu Hong with even greater favor.

冉閔言于季龍曰:「苻洪雄果,其諸子並非常才,宜密除之。」季龍待之愈厚。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Pu/Fu Hong)

Ran Min warned Shi Hu, "Pu Hong is heroic and capable, and his sons all possess outstanding talents. You should secretly get rid of him." But Shi Hu only placed even greater trust in him.


燕王皝分兵討諸叛城,皆下之。拓境至凡城。崔燾、常霸奔鄴,封抽、宋晃、游漲奔高句麗。皝賞鞠彭、慕輿根等而治諸叛者,誅滅甚眾;功曹劉翔為之申理,多所全活。

19. Murong Huang divided his soldiers to go out and pacify the cities that had rebelled against him, and all of them were subdued. He expanded his territory as far as Fancheng. The defectors Cui Dao and Chang Ba fled to Ye. Feng Chou, Song Huang, and You Zhang fled to Goguryeo.

Murong Huang rewarded Ju Peng, Muyu Gen, and the other loyalists, while he punished the defectors, many of whom were executed. The Merit Evaluator, Liu Xiang, argued in their defense, and thus saved a great number of them.

〈《水經註》:自盧龍東越青陘至凡城二百里,自凡城東北出趣平剛故城可百八十里,向黃龍城則五百里。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "It is two hundred li from Lulong east through Qingxing as far as Fancheng, and about a hundred and eighty li from Fancheng northeast out to the city of Pinggang, thus about five hundred li from the city of Huanglong.")


趙之攻棘城也,燕右司李洪之弟普以為棘城必敗,勸洪出避禍。洪曰:「天道幽遠,人事難知。且當委任,勿輕動取悔。」普固請不已,洪曰:「卿意見明審者,當自行之。吾受慕容氏大恩,義無去就,當效死於此耳。」與普流涕而訣。普遂降趙,從趙軍南歸,死於喪亂;洪由是以忠篤著名。

20. During Zhao's attack on Jicheng, Yan's Marshal of the Right, Li Hóng, had a younger brother, Li Pu, who believed that Jicheng would certainly fall. He urged Li Hóng to escape the coming disaster. Li Hóng said, "Heaven's ways are hidden are distant; men's affairs are difficult to know. Besides, I have been entrusted with an important post, and I must not lightly abandon it."

Li Pu obstinately continued to urge his brother to flee. Li Hóng said, "If you are so certain, then you may go by yourself. But I have received great beneficence from the Murong clan. Rather than abandon them, I prefer to remain here and die." So they bid each other farewell, shedding many tears.

Li Pu surrendered to the Zhao army, but he died during the confusion of Zhao's return south. Li Hóng thus became well known as an earnestly loyal minister.

〈訣,別也。〉

(The term 訣 here means "to part".)


趙王虎遣渡遼將軍曹伏將青州之眾戍海島,運谷三百萬斛以給之;又以船三百艘運谷三十萬斛詣高句麗,使典農中郎將王典帥眾萬餘屯田海濱;又令青州造船千艘,以謀擊燕。

21. Shi Hu dispatched his General Who Crosses The Liao, Cao Fu, to lead the forces of Qingzhou to camp along the islands along the sea, and sent him three million 斛 of grain to supply himself. He also sent three hundred ships loaded with three hundred and fifty thousand 斛 of grain to send to Goguryeo, and sent the General of the Household Gentlemen Who Supervises Farming, Wang Dian, with more than ten thousand soldiers to establish tuntian agricultural colonies along the sea coast. He further ordered thousands of ships to be constructed in Qingzhou, in order to attack Yan.

〈據《載記》,虎遣伏渡海戍蹋頓城,無水而還,因戍于海島。〉〈石虎忿棘城之敗,再謀擊燕而卒不能也。〉

(According to the Biography of Shi Hu in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Shi Hu sent Cao Fu to cross over the sea and camp at Tadun's former city. But lack of water forced them to return, and so they camped at the sea islands.

Shi Hu resented his defeat at Jicheng, and so he laid these plans to attack Yan again. But he never was able to overcome them.)


趙太子宣帥步騎二萬擊朔方鮮卑斛摩頭,破之,斬首四萬餘級。

22. Zhao's Crown Prince, Shi Xuan, led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack the Xianbei chieftain Humotou at Shuofang. He routed the Xianbei, taking more than forty thousand heads.

冀州八郡大蝗,趙司隸請坐守宰。趙王虎曰:「此朕失敗所致,而欲委咎守宰,豈罪己之意邪!司隸不進讜言,佐朕不逮,而欲妄陷無辜,可白衣領職!」

23. Zhao's eight commandaries in Jizhou suffered from locusts. The Director of Retainers requested that the local officials be prosecuted. But Shi Hu replied, "This has happened because of my defeat, yet you wish to blame the local officials; how would that reflect my contrition? The Director of Retainers fails to admonish me with upright words, and thus has failed in his duty in aiding me. Instead, he intends to punish the innocent. Let him remain in his post, but as a commoner!"

〈趙都鄴,以冀州爲司部。〉〈黜其品秩,同於民庶,而仍領司隸之職。〉

(The Zhao capital was at Ye, which was in Jizhou, and so what would normally be the Inspector of Jizhou was for them the Metropolitan District, so it was overseen by a Director of Retainers.

The phrase 白衣領職 means to degrade one's official rank so that it becomes equal to a commoner, while keeping one's original post, in this case, Director of Retainers.)


虎使襄城公涉歸、上庸公日歸帥眾戍長安。二歸告鎮西將軍石廣私樹恩澤,潛謀不軌;虎追廣至鄴,殺之。

24. Shi Hu ordered the Duke of Xiangcheng, Shegui, and the Duke of Shangyong, Rigui, to lead their soldiers to camp at Chang'an. The two of them informed Shi Hu that the General Who Guards The West, Shi Guang, was granting favors in his own name to oblige people to him as their patron, and they suspected he was plotting some mischief. Shi Hu summoned Shi Guang to Ye, and killed him.

〈二歸,亦石氏之族。〉

(These two fellows were also kinfolk of the Shi clan.)


乙未,以司徒導為太傅,都督中外諸軍事;郗鑒為太尉,庾亮為司空。六月,以尋[導]為丞相,罷司徒官以並丞相府。

25. On the day Yiwei (June 19th), Jin’s Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, was appointed as Grand Tutor and Commander over all military affairs. Chi Jian was appointed as Grand Commandant, and Yu Liang was appointed as Minister of Works. In the sixth month, Wang Dao was appointed as Prime Minister. The office of Minister Over The Masses was abolished, and its staff was merged into that of the Prime Minister’s.

〈東漢司徒,卽丞相之職也。沈約曰:丞,奉也;相,助也。時以王導爲丞相,罷司徒府幷丞相府。導薨,罷丞相復爲司徒府。宋世祖初以南郡王義宣爲丞相,而司徒府如故。〉

(During Later Han, the office of Minister Over The Masses functioned as the equivalent to the former office of Prime Minister. Shen Yue remarked, "To 丞 is to uplight; to 相 is to assist. Thus, the title 丞相 (Prime Minister)." At this time, Wang Dao was appointed as Prime Minister, and so the staff for the office of Minister Over The Masses was combined into the Prime Minister's staff. After Wang Dao died, the office of Prime Minister was once again abolished and the office of Minister Over The Masses was revived. And later on, Emperor Xiaowu of Liu-Song would originally appoint the Prince of Nanjun, Liu Yixuan, as his Prime Minister, but Liu Yixuan had the staff from the Minister Over The Masses as before.)


五月乙未,以司徒王導爲太傅、都督中外諸軍事,司空郗鑒爲太尉,征西將軍庾亮爲司空。六月,改司徒爲丞相,乙太傅王導爲之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fifth month, on the day Yiwei (June 19th), the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, was appointed as Grand Tutor and Commander over all military affairs. The Minister of Works, Chi Jian, was appointed as Grand Commandant. The General Who Conquers The West, Yu Liang, was appointed as the new Minister of Works.

In the sixth month, the office of Minister Over The Masses was changed to Prime Minister. The Grand Tutor, Wang Dao, was appointed to that office.


導性寬厚,委任諸將趙胤、賈寧等,多不奉法,大臣患之。庾亮與郗鑒箋曰:「主上自八九歲以及成人,入則在宮人之手,出則唯武官、小人,讀書無從受音句,顧問未嘗遇君子。秦政欲愚其黔首,天下猶知不可,況欲愚其主哉!人主春秋既盛,宜復子明辟。不稽首歸政,甫居師傅之尊,多養無賴之士;公與下官並荷托付之重,大奸不掃,何以見先帝於地下乎!」欲共起兵廢導,鑒不聽。南蠻校尉陶稱,侃之子也,以亮謀語導。或勸導密為之備,導曰:「吾與元規休戚是同,悠悠之談,宜絕智者之口。則如君言,元規若來,吾便角巾還第,復何懼哉!」又與稱書,以為:「庾公帝之元舅,宜善事之!」征西參軍孫盛密諫亮曰:「王公常有世外之懷,豈肯為凡人事邪!此必佞邪之徒欲間內外耳。」亮乃止。盛,楚之孫也。是時亮雖居外鎮,而遙執朝廷之權,既據上流,擁強兵,趣勢者多歸之。導內不能平,常遇西風塵起,舉扇自蔽,徐曰:「元規塵污人!」

26. Wang Dao had a generous and lenient nature; he appointed a great many generals, including Zhao Yin and Jia Ning, who did not uphold the law, and they vexed the great ministers. Yu Liang wrote to Chi Jian saying, "From the whole period of time since our sovereign was just seven or eight years old until now that he has reached his majority, he has only ever been in the hands of the palace servants when he is inside the palace or under the influence of military officials or miscreants when he has gone out. He has not received a proper education, nor has he ever met an honest man whom he can turn to. When the Qin dynasty sought to keep the populace ignorant, even they knew that it was a foolish policy. How much more must we oppose a policy of keeping our very sovereign ignorant!

"Now that our sovereign has become of age, we should ensure that authority reverts back to him. But instead of humbly returning the authority to our lord, as soon Wang Dao was honored as an elder, he kept a horde of miscreants. Sir, you and I were both entrusted with the task of supporting the Emperor. If you do not sweep away this great evil, how can we face His Late Majesty in the world below?" By this, Yu Liang meant to raise troops together with Chi Jian to depose Wang Dao. But Chi Jian would not hear of it.

The Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Tao Cheng, was the son of Tao Kan. He informed Wang Dao of Yu Liang’s plot. And someone else urged Wang Dao to prepare ways to defend himself. But Wang Dao replied, "Yuangui (Yu Liang) and I have shared weal and woe together. This kind of idle talk should stop at the mouth of the wise. But even if you are correct, and Yuangui does come, I shall simply bind my scarf and return to my residence. What have I need to fear?" He further wrote back to Tao Cheng, saying, "Duke Yu is the Emperor's own brother-in-law. You must show him regard!"

The Army Advisor to the General Who Conquers The West, Sun Sheng, secretly remonstrated with Yu Liang, saying, “Lord Wang has a lofty mind; how would he do such a prosaic thing? This must be nothing more than the work of some slanderous man trying to cause division." So Yu Liang gave up the plot. This Sun Sheng was the grandson of Sun Chu.

During this time, although Yu Liang was away guarding the western border, he still wielded power over court affairs from afar. And since he was camped along the upper reaches of the Yangzi and was in command of powerful soldiers, many of those who were career-driven flocked to him. Wang Dao could not feel at ease. Often, the western wind would blow dust upon him, which he had to raise his fan to cover himself against. At such times, he would say, "Yuangui is blowing dust at me again!"

〈秦始皇名政,命民曰黔首,焚《詩》《書》以愚黔首。〉〈甫,方也,始也。〉〈言受遺先帝,付以幼孤而託之也。〉〈南蠻校尉,武帝初置於襄陽,後治江陵。〉〈言智者之口,不宜亦傳道悠悠之談。〉〈此導之識量所以爲弘遠也。〉〈言導心常欲謝事,優游於人世之外。〉〈庾亮之謀,微郗鑒拒之於外,孫盛諫止於內,必再亂天下矣。〉〈孫楚,晉初名士。〉」〈史言導不平之心不能自禁於言語之間者,惟此而已。〉

(During the reign of Qin Shihuang, he called the common people the "black-haired people", and he burned the Book of Poetry, the Book of Documents, and other such texts as part of a policy to keep these black-haired people ignorant.

The term 甫 here means a place, or to begin.

Yu Liang was saying that both he and Chi Jian had received Emperor Ming's testament to watch over his young son Emperor Cheng and protect him.

Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) had originally established the office of Colonel of Southern Man Tribes with its headquarters at Xiangyang. The office was later shifted to Jiangling.

"Idle talk should stop at the mouth of the wise" means that wise people should not spread about such baseless rumors when they hear them.

This passage demonstrates how broad and generous Wang Dao's capacity for tolerance and insight was.

Sun Sheng was saying that Wang Dao's heart often lingered on lofty affairs, and he was far beyond the ways of the world.

With Chi Jian opposing Yu Liang from afar, and Sun Sheng remonstrating with and opposing him from nearby, if Yu Liang had tried to carry out his plot against Wang Dao, it would just have thrown the realm back into chaos.

Sun Chu was a famous scholar from the beginning of the Jin dynasty.

This last section of the passage only demonstrates how Wang Dao could not help from revealing the ways in which his heart was unsettled by the situation with Yu Liang, but only this and no more.)


This is the same Sun Sheng who is frequently quoted in passages of the Sanguozhi by the commentator Pei Songzhi.

Sun Chu was an officer of Western Jin. There was a famous anecdote about him in which he planned to say to a friend of his, “I shall go become a hermit, washing my mouth in the river and sleeping on the rocks.” But when he accidentally said the phrase backwards, his friend teased him about how he would wash his mouth with rocks and sleep in the river. Sun Chu replied, “I will use the rocks for tooth powder, and the stream to cleanse my ears.”


有往來者云庾公有東下意,或謂王公可潛稍嚴,以備不虞。王公曰:「我與元規雖俱王臣,本懷布衣之好,若其欲來,吾角巾徑還烏衣,何所稍嚴。」(New Tales 6.13)

(In 336) there were those who traveled back and forth (along the Yangzi) who reported, "Yu Liang has intentions of coming east (for a coup d'etat)."

Someone said to Wang Dao, "You'd better take some slight precautions in secret to guard against any mishap."

Wang Dao replied, "In my relations with Yu Liang, in spite of the fact that we're both His Majesty's ministers, I've always cherished our friendship from the time we were both wearing cotton clothes. If he should actually wish to come, I'd don the cornered cap of a retired gentleman and go straight back home to Black Clothing Street (Wuyi, southeast of Jiankang). What is there to take any 'slight precautions' about?" (tr. Richard Mather)

庾公權重,足傾王公。庾在石頭,王在冶城坐。大風揚塵,王以扇拂塵曰:「元規塵汙人!」(New Tales 26.4)

Yu Liang's power and dignity were sufficient to overthrow Wang Dao. While Yu Liang was at Shitou, Wang Dao was once present at a party in Yecheng (southwest of Jiankang). A strong wind started to raised the dust, and Wang Dao, whisking it away with his fan, said, "Yuangui's dust is contaminating me!" (tr. Richard Mather)


導以江夏李充為丞相掾。充以時俗崇尚浮虛,乃著《學箴》。以為老子云「絕仁棄義,民復孝慈,」豈仁義之道絕,然後孝慈乃生哉?蓋患乎情仁義者寡,而利仁義者眾,將寄責於聖人而遣累乎陳跡也。凡人見形者眾,及道者鮮,逐跡逾篤,離本逾遠。故作《學箴》以祛其蔽曰:「名之攸彰,道之攸廢;及損所隆,乃崇所替。非仁無以長物,非義無以齊恥,仁義固不可遠,去其害仁義者而已。」

27. Wang Dao appointed Li Chong of Jiangxia as an assistant to the Prime Minister. This Li Chong penned the “Learned Admonishments” upon seeing how the popular custom promoted vain and empty things (Daoism). He took issue with one of Laozi's sayings: "If we could renounce our benevolence and discard our righteousness, the people would again become filial and kindly." (Dao De Jing, 1.19.1)

Li Chong felt that, "This hardly means that only after benevolence and righteousness are exterminated that people will be filial and kind. It must be that those who truly worry about benevolence and righteousness are few, but those who abuse that for their benefit are many; therefore, Laozi took to laying the blame on the sages and ascribing the problem to old issues. There are many people who see the external appearance of things, but those who understand the inner workings are few. The more zealously one follows the sages’ path, the farther one gets away from their core teachings."

Therefore, he wrote the “Learned Admonishments” to correct the erroneous thinking, in which he said, “That which advance’s one’s own reputation or position is what causes the Way to be diminished. Only by reducing the desire to pursue vanity can one elevate the Way (literally, 'that which the vanity had replaced'). Without benevolence, nothing can grow; without righteousness, no one can agree on what should be shameful. We must not distance ourselves from benevolence and righteousness, but rather remove whatever that is harming those virtues."

漢李弈從兄廣漢太守乾告大臣謀廢立。秋,七月,漢主壽使其子廣與大臣盟於前殿,徙乾為漢嘉太守;以李閎為荊州刺史,鎮巴郡。閎,恭之子也。

28. Han's Administrator of Guanghan, Li Yi's cousin Li Qian, reported that the chief ministers were planning to depose Li Shou. In autumn, the seventh month, Li Shou sent his son Li Guang and the ministers to swear a pact in the front hall, while Li Qian was banished to serve as the Administrator of Hanjia.

Li Hong was appointed as Inspector of Jingzhou, stationed at Ba. This Li Hong was the song of Li Gong.

〈恭,李攀之弟,見八十四卷惠帝永寧元年。〉

(Li Gong was the younger brother of Li Pan, mentioned in Book 84, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongning (300.34).)


有告廣漢太守李乾與大臣通謀,欲廢壽者。壽令其子廣與大臣盟于前殿,徙乾漢嘉太守。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Someone reported to Li Shou that the Administrator of Guanghan, Li Qian, was plotting with the great ministers to depose him. So Li Shou ordered his son Li Guang and the great ministers to swear an oath to him in the Front Hall, and he sent Li Qian away to serve as Administrator of Hanjia.

秋七月,李奕從兄乾,與大臣合謀,欲廢壽。壽懼,使子廣與大臣盟要,為兄弟。進李閎為征東、荊州,移鎮巴郡... 閎,恭子也。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

In autumn, the seventh month, Li Yi's cousin Li Qian plotted with the chief ministers, wishing to depose Li Shou. Afraid of this possibility, Li Shou sent his son Li Guang to make the chief ministers swear an oath, treating them as brothers.

Li Shou promoted Li Hong as General Who Conquers The East and Inspector of Jingzhou, and shifted his base to Ba commandary. This Li Hong was the son of Li Gong.


八月,蜀中久雨,百姓饑疫,壽命群臣極言得失。龔壯上封事稱:「陛下起兵之初,上指星辰,昭告天地,歃血盟眾,舉國稱籓,天應人悅,大功克集。而論者未諭,權宜稱制。今淫雨百日,饑疫並臻,天其或者將以監示陛下故也。愚謂宜遵前盟,推奉建康,彼必不愛高爵重位以報大功;雖降階一等,而子孫無窮,永保福祚,不亦休哉!論者或言二州附晉則榮,六郡人事之不便。昔公孫述在蜀,羈客用事,劉備在蜀,楚士多貴。及吳、鄧西伐,舉國屠滅,寧分客主!論者不達安固之基,苟惜名位,以為劉氏守令方仕州郡;曾不知彼乃國亡主易,豈同今日義舉,主榮臣顯哉!論者又謂臣當為法正。臣蒙陛下大恩,恣臣所安;至於榮祿,無問漢、晉,臣皆不處,復何為傚法正乎!」壽省書內慚,秘而不宣。

29. In the eighth month, it rained for a long time in Shu, and the people suffered from famine and plague. Li Shou ordered his ministers to propose how to deal with the tragedy.

Gong Zhuang sent a letter to Li Shou, stating, "When your Majesty first raised troops, you swore on the stars and announced your plans to Heaven and Earth. You made a blood-pact with all those there and offered your whole state as a vassal of Jin. As it was in accordance with Heaven’s will and the people’s desire, you were ultimately successful in your endeavor. However, some, not understanding the circumstances, advised you to take the imperial title.

“Now the rains have come for a hundred days, and hunger and disease have spread. Perhaps this is a warning sent to you by Heaven. My humble opinion is that you should honor the initial pact and submit to Jiankang. They will certainly not begrudge you noble rank and high status to repay you for your great deed. Though you will necessarily have to descend a step or two from your lofty perch, your descendants will endure forever, and they shall be guaranteed good fortune. Would that not be a happy thing?

“There are some who claim that while those from the two provinces (of Shu) will prosper if we submit to Jin, those refugees who came from the Six Commandaries may have difficulties in their careers. You will recall that when Gongsun Shu was in Shu, the outsiders ran the show; when Liu Bei was in Shu, those from Chu (Jingzhou) were the ones who were elevated. Yet when Wu Han conquered Gongsun Shu, and Deng Ai marched against Liu Shan, everyone in their states were slaughtered, regardless of who was guest and who was host! Those offering such an opinion do not understand the foundation of stability and security, and care only for their reputation and positions. They only see the immediate result that Liu Bei’s people were entrusted with administering the provinces and commandaries, but they forget that their state was ultimately overthrown and their ruler lost. That cannot be compared with the righteous task you undergo today, which will bring glory to you, the ruler, and honor to your subordinates!

“There are also those who claim that I mean to play the part of Fa Zheng against you. But Your Majesty has granted me the benevolence of allowing me to do as I please, and I would rather remain in peace. As for government rank, I do not care to hold one regardless of whether it is in Han or in Jin. Why then would I ever imitate Fa Zheng?"

Li Shou was inwardly ashamed when he read the letter, and he kept it hidden without showing it.

〈謂將稱藩于晉也。〉〈謂壽卽皇帝位也。〉〈王降皇帝一等。〉〈二州,謂梁、益也。〉〈荊邯、王元、田戎、延岑,皆羈客也。〉〈龐統、黃忠、董和、劉巴、馬良兄弟、呂乂、廖立、李嚴、楊儀、魏延、蔣琬、費禕、董允等,皆楚士也。〉〈吳、鄧,吳漢、鄧艾也。〉〈舉國奉晉爲義舉,晉加以寵秩,則主榮臣顯。〉〈法正啓劉備以取成都,壯亦敎壽取李期,故論者以比之。〉

(Gong Zhuang was saying that Li Xiong had pledged himself to become a vassal of Jin, but that after having successfully taken Chengdu, he instead claimed the imperial throne for himself.

Li Xiong would presumably have been named as a Prince by Jin, which would be one step down from his current title as Emperor.

The "two provinces" were Lianzhou and Yizhou, that is, the Shu region.

Gongsun Shu's ministers were Jing Han, Wang Yuan, Tian Rong, and Yan Cen; they were all guests who wielded control of the region. Likewise, Liu Bei brought in many people from the Chu region (Jingzhou) when he came to power in Shu: Pang Tong, Huang Zhong, Dong He, Liu Ba, Ma Liang and his brother Ma Su, Lü Yi, Liao Li, Li Yan, Yang Yi, Wei Yan, Jiang Wan, Fei Yi, Dong Yun, and others.

Gong Zhuang refers to "Wu and Deng"; he means Wu Han and Deng Ai.

To present the state to Jin would be a righteous thing to do, and Jin would show them all great favor and prestige. Then both Li Xiong himself would be honored and his ministers would be exalted.

Fa Zheng had brought in Liu Bei to have him capture Chengdu away from Liu Zhang. Since Gong Zhuang had also advised Li Xiong to overthrow Li Qi, people compared his actions to what Fa Zheng had done earlier.)


Gongsun Shu was one of the many warlords who sprang up in the wake of the rebellions plaguing Wang Mang’s regime in the middle of the Han dynasty. His domain was in Shu, with his capital at Chengdu. Wu Han was one of Liu Xiu’s generals, and he defeated Gongsun Shu, which completed Liu Xiu’s reunification of the realm.

大風暴雨,震其端門。壽深自悔責,命群臣極盡忠言,勿拘忌諱。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

There was an outbreak of heavy wind and violent storms, and it shook the Duan Gate. Li Shou deeply blamed himself for what had happened, and he ordered his ministers to be sure to offer their full thoughts when loyally advising him, and not to hold anything back out of fear it was a taboo subject.

八月,天連陰雨,禾稼傷損,百姓飢疫。草莽臣龔壯上封事曰:「臣聞陰德必有陽報。故于公理獄,高門待封。伏惟獻皇帝寬仁厚惠,宥罪甚眾。靈德洪洽,誕鍾陛下。陛下天性忠篤,受遺建節,志齊周、霍,誠貫神明。而志緒違理,顛覆顧命。管蔡既興,讒諛滋蔓。大義滅親,撥亂濟危。上指星辰,昭告天地,歃血盟眾,舉國稱藩。天應人悅,白魚登舟,霆震助威,烈風順義。神誠允暢,日月光明。而論者未喻,權時定制。淫雨氾濆,垂向百日,禾稼傷損。加之飢疫,百姓愁望。或者天以監示陛下。又,前日之舉,止以救禍。陛下至心,本無大圖。而今久不變,天下之人,誰復分明知陛下本心者哉?且玄宮之讖難知,而盟誓顧違,一旦疆場有急,內外騷動。不可不深思長久之策,永為子孫之計也。愚謂宜遵前盟誓,結援吳會,以親天子。彼必崇重,封國歷世。雖降階一等,永為靈德。宗廟相承,福祉無窮。君臣銘勳於上,生民寧息於下,通天下之高理,弘信慎之美義,垂拱南面,歌詩興禮,上與彭、韋爭美,下與齊、晉抗德,豈不休哉!論者或言:「二劉、州人附晉必榮,六郡人事之不便。」昔豫州入蜀,荊、楚人貴。公孫述時,流民康濟,及漢征蜀,殘民太半。鍾鄧之役,放兵大掠,誰復別楚、蜀者乎?論者或不達安固之基,惜其名位。在昔諸侯,自有卿相,司徒、司空,宋、魯皆然。及漢,藩王亦有丞相。今義歸彼,但當崇重,豈當減削。昔劉氏郡守令長方仕州郡者,國亡主易故也。今日義舉,主榮臣賴,寧可同日而論也?論者又謂,臣當為法正。陛下覆臣如天,養臣如地,恣臣所安。至於名榮,漢、晉不處,臣復何為當侔法正?論者或言:晉家必責質任,及徵兵伐胡,何以應之?案晉不煩尺兵,一國來附,威卷四海,廣地萬里,何任之責?胡之在北,亦此之憂。今平居有東北之虞,縱令徵兵,但援漢川,猶差二門耳。臣託附深重,忘疲病之穢。實感殊遇,冀以微言少補明時。常懼殞歿,不寫愚心,辜負恩顧。謹進悾悾,伏願罪戮。」壽不悅,然拘前言,祕藏之。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

In the eighth month, heavy rain poured continuously from the heavens. The grain harvest was harmed and reduced, and the common people suffered from plague and pestilence.

Li Shou's unofficial minister, Gong Zhuang, sent up a petition stating, "I have heard that virtue which is done in secret will be publically repaid. It was for such reasons that when Yu Gong of the Han dynasty oversaw criminal cases, he rebuilt the gate of his village at a tall height and waited for an official's carriage to pass under it to reward him for the good work he had done. Likewise, Emperor Xian (Li Xiang) was generous, benevolent, magnanimous, and kind, and he pardoned a great many people of their crimes. And it was because of his sublime virtues that Your Majesty enjoys such blessings.

"Now Your Majesty is naturally loyal and sincere, and had you accepted the proper testament and established your proper duty, you would have fulfilled the ambitions of Zhou Bo and Huo Guang; your earnesty would have been sincere, your wisdom divine. Yet your ambition went too far, and you violated what was proper, subverting your duty for the sake of your desire.

"When your cousins stole the throne, they were just as the ancients Guan and Cai who rose up against the Zhou dynasty. Slander and flattery were thick in the air. 'Putting aside family ties for the sake of righteousness', you pledged to suppress their disorder and save the state from danger. You pointed to the celestial bodies above, announced your intentions before Heaven and Earth, and swore a blood oath to seal your pact with the many, pledging to offer up the state as a vassal to Jin. Heaven approved of your oath, and the people were pleased with your plan. A white fish leapt into your boat, a good omen; thunder and earthquakes shook the ground, lending aid to your might; fierce winds blew across the land, demonstrating your righteous purpose. The spirits themselves supported you, and your path was made clear, with even the sun and the moon shining brightly on your behalf.

"But those who encouraged you to claim the throne for yourself did not understand the nature of these things, and they urged you to use your power and influence to establish your own imperial reign. Now the rains are pouring down and the floodwaters are bursting forth, and these things have continued for a hundred days. The harvest is damaged and reduced, and the water has even spread hunger and plague, dashing the hopes of the common people. Perhaps by such means, Heaven wishes to send a warning to Your Majesty. Now I know that Your Majesty's original intention in former days was merely to save the state from the disaster posed by your cousins. Your heart had no inclination of pursuing any grander design. Yet you have allowed this much time to pass without making any change from your current position. By now, who among the people of the realm will be able to discern Your Majesty's original intention? Of course, it is difficult to be certain of what omens might be intended by the course of natural events. But when such sudden developments occur so quickly after you have violated your sworn oath, everyone becomes agitated. You have no choice but to deeply consider some plan for the long term, and ensure the survival of your descendants.

"Allow me to humbly suggest that you honor the pact which you swore, bind yourself to the Jin dynasty in Wu and Kuaiji, and acknowledge the Son of Heaven. They shall certainly appoint you to an exalted position, and you will be granted a state which your line will possess for generations. Though you will necessarily have to descend a step or two from your lofty perch, your sublime virtual will endure forever; your ancestral temple will be maintained through the ages, and blessings and happiness will never be exhausted. Above, you and your ministers will have your good service engraved, and below, the common people will enjoy tranquility and repose. Word of your lofty principles will spread throughout the realm, and the beautiful righteousness of your trust and diligence will become known near and far. If you will but kneel in submission and face south, songs and poems will spring up to honor you; at most, the beauty of your deeds will compete with those of Dapeng and Shiwei, while at the very least, your virtue will contend with those of Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin. How then could you be restless about making such a decision?

"I know that there are those who claim, 'If we submit to Jin, although those natives of the two provinces of Shu will be commended, those refugees who came from the Six Commandaries may have difficulties in their careers.' And it was true that when Liu Yuzhou (Liu Bei) was in Shu, those from the Chu and Jing regions (Jingzhou) were the ones who were honored, and during Gongsun Shu's era, it was the refugees who were most rewarded. But people say these things without considering how those regimes were destroyed. When the Han dynasty campaigned against Gongsun Shu, more than half of the people living in Shu were killed. And when Zhong Hui and Deng Ai campaigned against Liu Shan, they let their soldiers sack and plunder as they pleased, and who among them cared a whit whether their victims were natives of Chu or of Shu?

"There are others who argue against the idea purely out of concern of maintaining their current ranks and titles, heedless of concern for ensuring a stable foundation for the state. But even during the age of the ancient feudal lords, every lord had their own ministers and officials. Even the states of Song and Lu, which were not sovereign, still had their own Ministers Over The Masses and Ministers of Works. And during the Han dynasty, the princely fiefs still had their own Prime Ministers as well. So should you righteously submit yourself now as vassal to Jin, they will naturally maintain the titles which your ministers possess. What need is there for concern that they might be demoted or diminished? On the other hand, when the Liu clan's state fell, every one of the Administrators, Prefects, Magistrates, and other such officers which they had appointed were all replaced by their conquerers. The day that your righteously offer up your state to Jin, you yourself will be commended and your ministers will be praised, and on that day, who will still speak against it?

"There are even those who claim that I mean to be another Fa Zheng. But Your Majesty has sheltered me like Heaven, raised me like the Earth, and granted me my repose. As for fame or rank, I do not care for such things regardless of whether it is in Han or in Jin. How then could I ever act like Fa Zheng did?

"Still others claim that Jin will certainly demand that you send hostages to them, and supposing that they demanded soldiers from you to campaign against the barbarians, how then could you respond? But if you consider that by submitting to Jin, you will grant them an entire state's worth of territory, expanding their domain by ten thousand li, without compelling them to draft a single soldier to acquire it. You will augment them so greatly that their might will be felt throughout the Four Seas. Having done all that on their behalf, why then would they demand any hostages of you? And as for the northern barbarians, they are a concern for us just as much as they are for Jin. By submitting to Jin, we would reduce our concerns to purely the threat from the northeast. And if Jin should summon soldiers from us, it would only be to aid in the defense of Hanzhong, which merely accounts for two gates.

"I have entrusted this letter to you after careful consideration of all these things, ignoring the ravages of sickness and pain. Out of my deep regard for the special consideration you have shown me, I hoped to send you these words so that you might take some advantage of them according to the times. I had often worried that I might pass away without writing out the concerns of my foolish heart, and thus betray your grace and favor. Thus do I cautiously lay my simple thoughts before you, and kneel before you, willing to suffer death for my crimes."

Li Shou was displeased by this letter, but on account of Gong Zhuang's past advice to him, he only hid it away in secret.


九月,漢僕射任顏謀反,誅。顏,任太后之弟也。漢主壽因盡誅成主雄諸子。

30. In the ninth month, Han's Deputy Director, Ren Yan, plotted rebellion. He was caught and executed. This Ren Yan was the younger brother of Empress Dowager Ren. Li Shou used this plot as a pretext to execute Li Xiong's remaining sons.

〈任后,雄之正室也。壽以任顏之反,必以立諸甥爲主,故盡誅雄諸子以絕人望。〉

(Empress Ren had been Li Xiong's chief wife. Li Shou was certain that Ren Yan's plot was intended to place one of his nephews, one of Li Xiong's remaining sons, on the throne in his place. This was why he executed all of Li Xiong's sons, to prevent anyone's hopes from using them for such further plots.)


雄之子皆為壽所殺。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Qi)

Li Xiong's other sons were all killed by Li Shou.

九月,僕射任顏,雄妻弟也,謀反,誅。并殺雄子豹等。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

The Supervisor, Ren Yan, was the younger brother of Li Xiong's Empress Ren. In the ninth month, he plotted rebellion, and was executed for it. Li Shou also killed Li Xiong's remaining sons, Li Bao and the rest.

[豹]: 元豐本與廖本作豹。他各本并作約。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding Li 豹 Bao, the Yuanfeng and Liao editions writes his given name as such, while the other editions all write it as 約 Yue.)


冬,十月,光祿勳顏含以老遜位。論者以「王導帝之師傅,名位隆重,百僚宜為降禮。」太常馮懷以問含。含曰:「王公雖貴重,理無偏敬。降禮之言,或是諸君事宜;鄙人老矣,不識時務。」既而告人曰:「吾聞伐國不問仁人,向馮祖思問佞於我,我豈有邪德乎!」郭璞嘗遇含,欲為之筮。含曰:「年在天,位在人。修己而天不與者,命也;守道而人不知者,性也;自有性命,無勞蓍龜。」致仕二十餘年,年九十三而卒。

31. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's 光祿勳, Yan Han, resigned his post due to old age. During a discussion, someone mentioned, "Wang Dao is the Emperor's instructor and advisor, and furthermore he holds a grand position. The ministers ought to perform obeisance to him."

The Minister of Ceremonies, Feng Huai, asked Yan Han about the matter. Yan Han replied, "Although Lord Wang is respected and important, there is no reason to show him special honors. Regarding the matter of performing obeisance to him, perhaps that is an issue for you gentlemen to discuss; I am just an old man, and I do not know the proper course in these circumstances."

Later on, he said to someone else, “I have heard it said that when planning an invasion, one does not ask for advice from a compassionate man. But just now, Feng Zusi (Feng Huai) asked for my advice on ingratiation. Does he thus take me to be a wicked man?"

When Guo Pu once met Yan Han, he wished to perform a divination for him. But Yan Han replied, "The number of years that one lives is determined by Heaven, and the position that one rises to is in the hands of men. If you cultivate yourself (as in, live a healthy lifestyle) and Heaven does not grant you longevity, that is only your fate. If, though you keep to the Way, people do not recognize you, it is due to your nature. We each have our own appointed fate and nature; there is no need to consult the tortoise shells."

Yan Han lived in retirement for over twenty years, and passed away at the age of ninety-two.

〈引年致事也。〉〈降禮,謂拜之。〉〈臣子惟拜君父,施之於導則爲偏敬。偏,不正也。〉〈董仲舒曰:昔者魯君問柳下惠:「吾欲伐齊,何如?」柳下惠曰:「不可。」歸而有憂色,曰:「吾聞伐國不問仁人,此言何爲至於我哉!」〉〈馮懷,字祖思。〉〈因含請老,併及辭郭璞事,以見其有識有守。〉

(Yan Han was resigning on account of his age.

The term 降禮 means to perform obeisance.

It is only proper for a minister or a son to perform obeisance for their sovereign or their father, and to do the same thing for Wang Dao would cheapen this sign of respect. 偏 in this case means "improper".

Dong Zhongshu remarked, "There was once a ruler of the state of Lu who asked Liuxia Hui, 'I want to campaign against Qi; what do you think?" Liuxia Hui replied, "It cannot be done." After leaving, the ruler of Lu looked worried, and he said, "I have heard it said that when planning an invasion, one does not ask for advice from a compassionate man. Now those same words apply to me!"

Feng Huai's style name was Zusi.

By Yan Han's resigning on account of his old age, and by his response to Guo Pu here, we can see how greatly he possessed insight and fortitude.)


代王翳槐之弟什翼犍質於趙,翳槐疾病,命諸大人立之。翳槐卒,諸大人梁蓋等以新有大故,什翼犍在遠,來未可必;比其至,恐有變亂,謀更立君。而翳槐次弟屈,剛猛多詐,不如屈弟孤仁厚,乃相與殺屈而立孤。孤不可,自詣鄴迎什翼犍,請身留為質;趙王虎義而俱遣之。十一月,什翼犍即代王位於繁畤北,改元曰建國,分國之半以與孤。

32. It was earlier mentioned that the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai, had sent his younger brother Tuoba Shiyijian to Zhao as a hostage in order to ensure peace between his domain and Zhao. At this time, when Tuoba Yihuai grew ill, he ordered the chiefs of his domain to make Tuoba Shiyijian his heir.

After Tuoba Yihuai passed away, the chiefs, Liang Gai and others, were faced with having to handle this great incident. Tuoba Shiyijian was far away, and might not be able to come back. And by the time he arrived, they feared there may have been new developments. Therefore, they planned to prop up a different lord.

Tuoba Shiyijian had yet another younger brother, Tuoba Qu, but he was a man very violent and false. The chiefs preferred still another younger brother, Tuoba Gu, who was benevolent and magnanimous. Therefore, they joined together and killed Tuoba Qu, then supported Tuoba Gu as the heir. But Tuoba Gu was unwilling, and he went personally to Ye to bring Tuoba Shiyijian back, offering to stay as hostage in his place. Shi Hu praised his virtue, and sent both of them back to Dai.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Shiyijian assumed the title Prince of Dai north of Fanji. He declared the reign era title of Jianguo, and split the state in half with Tuoba Gu.

〈爲質見九十四卷咸和四年。〉〈有大喪謂之大故。滕文公曰︰今也不幸,至於大故。〉〈繁畤縣,屬鴈門郡。〉

(Tuoba Shiyijian's being sent off to Zhao as a hostage is mentioned in Book 94, in the fourth year of Xianhe (329.22).

The term "great incident" here refers to the fact that Tuoba Yihuai had just passed away. Teng Wengong remarked, "A present adversity is called a great incident."

Fanzhi County was part of Yanmen commandary.)


一年而崩。昭成皇帝諱什翼犍立,平文之次子也。生而奇偉,寬仁大度,喜怒不形于色。身長八尺,隆準龍顏,立髮委地,臥則乳垂至席。烈帝臨崩顧命曰:「必迎立什翼犍,社稷可安。」烈帝崩,帝弟孤乃自詣鄴奉迎,與帝俱還。事在孤傳。十一月,帝即位於繁畤之北,時年十九,稱建國元年。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

After another year in power, Tuoba Yihuai passed away.

His successor, Emperor Zhaocheng, was named Tuoba Shiyijian. He was Tuoba Yulü's second son. He was remarkably large when he was born, and he was a generous, benevolent, and magnanimous man, who did not show either happiness or anger in his expression. He grew to be eight 尺 tall. He had an imposing nose and a countenance like a dragon; when he stood, his hair reached the floor, and when he lay down, his nipples hung down to touch the mat.

When Tuoba Yihuai was on his deathbed, his last testament was, "You must welcome Tuoba Shiyijian back and support him as my heir. Then the fortunes of state can be secure." After Tuoba Yihuai passed away, Tuoba Shiyijian's younger brother Tuoba Gu personally visited Ye to support and welcome Tuoba Shiyijian's return, and they both returned to Dai together. This story is mentioned further in the Biography of Tuoba Gu. In the eleventh month, Tuoba Shiyijian assumed the title Prince of Dai north of Fanji. At that time, he was eighteen years old. He declared the reign era title of Jianguo.


初,代王猗盧既卒,國多內難,部落離散,拓跋氏寢衰。及什翼犍立,雄勇有智略,能修祖業,國人附之,始置百官,分掌眾務。以代人燕鳳為長史,許謙為郎中令。始制反逆、殺人、奸盜之法,號令明白,政事清簡,無系訊連逮之煩,百姓安之。於是東自濊貊,西及破落那,南距陰山,北盡沙漠,率皆歸服,有眾數十萬人。

33. Before, when the earlier Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yilu, passed away (in 316), there had been many internal difficulties, with many tribes and divisions splitting apart and scattering, and so the Tuoba clan had gradually diminished. But after Tuoba Shiyijian took the throne, he was brave and heroic as well as learned in strategy. He could cultivate what his forebears left him, and the people followed him.

Tuoba Shiyijian established ministries to handle different administrative matters. He appointed Yan Feng of Dai as his Chief Clerk, and Xu Qian as his Prefect of the Household Gentlemen. Systems for dealing with rebels, murderers, and villains and bandits were put into place, orders were made easy to understand, government affairs were made clear and simple, and communication was made less troublesome. The people felt at ease.

From the Yemaek in the East to Poluona in the west, from the Yinshan mountains in the south to the ends of the deserts in the north, all submitted to him, and so Dai had an army of some hundreds of thousands.

〈事見八十九卷愍帝建興四年。〉〈《新唐書‧西域傳》曰:寧遠者,本拔汗那,或曰潑汗,元魏時謂之破落那,去長安八千里,居西鞬城,在眞珠河之北。〉〈史言代復強。〉

(The difficulties facing Dai following the death of Tuoba Yilu are mentioned n Book 89, in Emperor Min's fourth year of Jianxing (316.9-10).

The Records of the Western Regions in the New Book of Tang states, "The Ningyuan people were originally called the Bahanna; some also called them the Pohan, and during the time of Northern Wei they were called the Poluona. They lived in the city of Xijian, eight thousand li from Chang'an, to the north of the Zhenzhu River."

This passage demonstrates how Dai become strong again.)


The Yemaek were a proto-Korean tribal group with close ties to other Korean tribes.

二年春,始置百官,分掌眾職。東自濊貊,西及破洛那,莫不款附。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the second year of Jianguo (339), in the spring, Tuoba Shiyijian created ministries to handle different administrative matters. From the Yemaek in the East to Poluona in the west, all submitted to him.

子顯,知名於時。昭成世,為左常侍。(Book of Northern Wei 23, Biography of Mo Han)

Mo Han's son Mo Xian was also well-known in his own time. During the reign of Tuoba Shiyijian, he appointed Mo Xian as Regular Attendant of the Left.

子顯,昭成世為左常侍。(History of the Northern Dynasties 20, Biography of Mo Han)

Mo Han's son Mo Xian served during Tuoba Shiyijian's reign as Regular Attendant of the Left.

燕鳳,字子章,代人也。好學,博綜經史,明習陰陽讖緯。昭成素聞其名,使人以禮迎致之。鳳不應聘。乃命諸軍圍代城,謂城人曰:「燕鳳不來,吾將屠汝。」代人懼,送鳳。昭成與語,大悅,待以賓禮。後拜代王左長史,參決國事。又以經授獻明帝。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Yan Feng)

Yan Feng, styled Zizhang, was a native of Dai. He enjoyed studying: he had a full and comprehensive understanding of the Classics and the Histories, and he also grasped the ins and outs of the Naturalist school of philosophy. Tuoba Shiyijian had long heard of his reputation, and he sent men to treat Yan Feng respectfully in order to recruit him. When Yan Feng did not want to accept the appointment, Tuoba Shiyijian then ordered his armies to surround the city of Dai. They told the people of the city, "If Yan Feng does not come out, we shall slaughter you all." Frightened, the people of the city handed Yan Feng over. Tuoba Shiyijian spoke with him and was greatly pleased, and treated him as an honored guest. He later appointed Yan Feng as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and Yan Feng advised and decided upon state affairs. He also instructed Tuoba Shiyijian's son Tuoba Shi in the Classics.

燕鳳,字子章,代人也。少好學,博綜經史,明習陰陽讖緯。昭成素聞其名,使以禮致之,鳳不應聘。及軍圍代,謂城人曰:「鳳不來者,將屠之。」代人懼,遂送鳳。昭成待以賓禮。後拜代王左長史,參決國事。又以經授獻明帝。(History of the Northern Dynasties 21, Biography of Yan Feng)

Yan Feng, styled Zizhang, was a native of Dai. He enjoyed studying even in his youth: he had a full and comprehensive understanding of the Classics and the Histories, and he also grasped the ins and outs of the Naturalist school of philosophy. Tuoba Shiyijian had long heard of his reputation, and he sent men to treat Yan Feng respectfully in order to recruit him. When Yan Feng did not want to accept the appointment, Tuoba Shiyijian then ordered his army to surround the city of Dai. They told the people of the city, "If Yan Feng does not come out, we shall slaughter you all." Frightened, the people of the city handed Yan Feng over. Tuoba Shiyijian treated him as an honored guest. He later appointed Yan Feng as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and Yan Feng advised and decided upon state affairs. He also instructed Tuoba Shiyijian's son Tuoba Shi in the Classics.

許謙,字元遜,代人也。少有文才,善天文圖讖之學。建國時,將家歸附,昭成嘉之,擢為代王郎中令,兼掌文記。與燕鳳俱授獻明帝經。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Xu Qian)

Xu Qian, styled Yuanxun, was a native of Dai. He had literary ability even as a youth, and he was skilled at reading the stars and studying books of prophecy. During the Jianguo reign era of Dai, he brought his family to return to his homeland. Tuoba Shiyijian commended him, and promoted him to serve as his Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, as well as keeping all his written records. Xu Qian and Yan Feng both instructed Tuoba Shiyijian's son Tuoba Shi in the Classics.

許謙,字元遜,代人也。少有文才,善天文圖讖學。建國時,將家歸附,昭成擢為代王郎中令,兼掌文記。與燕鳳俱授獻明帝經。(History of the Northern Dynasties 21, Biography of Xu Qian)

Xu Qian, styled Yuanxun, was a native of Dai. He had literary ability even as a youth, and he was skilled at reading the stars and studying books of prophecy. During the Jianguo reign era of Dai, he brought his family to return to his homeland. Tuoba Shiyijian promoted him to serve as his Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, as well as keeping all his written records. Xu Qian and Yan Feng both instructed Tuoba Shiyijian's son Tuoba Shi in the Classics.


十二月,段遼自密雲山遣使求迎於趙;既而中悔,復遣使求迎於燕。

34. In the twelfth month, Duan Liao sent envoys from Mount Miyun requesting assistance from Zhao. However, he soon regretted this choice, and then asked for aid from Yan instead.

段遼遣使詐降于季龍,請兵應接。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Duan Liao then sent a messenger falsely offering to surrender to Shi Hu, and asking him to send troops for aid.


趙王虎遣征東將軍麻秋帥眾三萬迎之,敕秋曰:「受降如受敵,不可輕也。」以尚書左丞陽裕,遼之故臣,使為秋司馬。

35. Shi Hu sent his General Who Conquers The East, Ma Qiu, with thirty thousand soldiers to meet up with Duan Liao. He warned Ma Qiu, "Going to accept a surrender can be much like going to fight a battle. You must not take this lightly." He assigned his Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing, Yang Yu, to act as Ma Qiu's Marshal.

季龍遣其將麻秋率眾迎遼。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Shi Hu sent his general Ma Qiu with an army to receive Duan Liao.

段遼之請迎于季龍也,裕以左丞領征東麻秋司馬。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Yang Yu)

When Duan Liao asked for Shi Hu to come accept his surrender, Shi Hu appointed Yang Yu as Marshal for his Assistant of the Left and acting General Who Conquers The East, Ma Qiu.


燕王皝自帥諸將軍迎遼,遼密與燕謀覆趙軍。皝遣慕容恪伏精騎七千於密雲山,大敗麻秋於三藏口,死者什六七。秋步走得免,陽裕為燕所執。

36. Murong Huang led an army himself to aid Duan Liao. Duan Liao secretly plotted with him to destroy the Zhao army. Murong Huang sent his son Murong Ke with seven thousand elite cavalry to hide in ambush at Mount Miyun. They greatly defeated Ma Qiu at Sanzangkou; sixty to seventy percent of Ma Qiu's soldiers were killed.

Ma Qiu escaped on foot. Yang Yu was captured by Yan.

〈《水經註》:安州東有武列水,其水三川派合。西源曰西藏水,西南流,而東藏水注之。水出東溪,西南流出谷,與中藏水合;水導中溪,南流出谷,南注東藏水。東藏水又南右入西藏水。故目其川曰三藏川。魏收《地形志》曰:皇興二年置安州,統密雲等郡。隋廢郡爲密雲縣,唐爲檀州治所。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a Wulie River in the east of Anzhou, formed from the confluence of three streams. Its western source is called the Western Zang River, which flows southwest, where the Eastern Zang River joins it. That river also sends out a stream to the east, which flows southwest out of a valley, and there joins with the Middle Zang River. That river guides a middle stream, which flows south out of the valley and then further south joins with the Eastern Zang River. That river also flows southwest and into the Western Zang River. So the people who saw the confluence of these three rivers called it Sanzangchuan ('Valley of the Three Zangs')." Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "In the second year of Huangxing (468), the province of Anzhou was created; it administered Miyun and other commandaries. Sui abolished Miyun as a commandary, making it only a county. During Tang, it was administered by Tanzhou.")


恪伏精騎七千於密雲山,大敗之,獲其司馬陽裕。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Ke was waiting in ambush at Mount Miyun with seven thousand cavalry, and he greatly defeated Ma Qiu, capturing his Marshal, Yang Yu.

秋敗,裕為軍人所執。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Yang Yu)

After Ma Qiu's defeat, Yang Yu was captured by the Yan soldiers.

真不合旨,免官。後以破麻秋之功,拜奉車都督,守遼東、營丘二郡太守,皆有善政。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Huangfu Zhen)

At one point, for not complying with an edict, Huangfu Zhen was stripped of office. But after he won achievements routing Ma Qiu, he was appointed as Commandant of the Chariots and acting Administrator of Liaodong and Yingqiu, and in all those roles he governed well.


趙將軍范陽鮮於亮失馬,步緣山不能進,因止,端坐;燕兵環之,叱令起。亮曰:「身是貴人,義不為小人所屈。汝曹能殺亟殺,不能則去!」亮儀觀豐偉,聲氣雄厲,燕兵憚之,不敢殺,以白皝。皝以馬迎之,與語,大悅,用為左常侍,以崔毖之女妻之。

37. During the battle, one of the Zhao generals, Xianyu Liang of Fanyang, lost his horse. He could not easily get away on the hilly terrain, so he stopped and sat down. The Yan soldiers surrounded him, then shouted at him and ordered him to get up. Xianyu Liang replied, "I am a noble person, and will not suffer to be humiliated by you scoundrels. If you whelps want to kill me, get on with it; if you can’t do it, then begone!" Because of the aura Xianyu Liang projected, and the heroic sound of his voice, the Yan soldiers feared him, and did not dare kill him, but reported the matter to Murong Huang.

Murong welcomed Xianyu Liang with a horse, and after speaking with him was greatly pleased. Xianyu Liang was given the position of Regular Attendant of the Left, and married to the daughter of Cui Bi.

〈晉制:諸王國,大國置左、右常侍。〉

(Under the Jin system, the greatest of the princely fiefs each had their own Regular Attendants of the Left and Right.)


Cui Bi was a great-grandson of Cui Yan. He had fled to seek refuge under Murong Hui when the various tribal invasions of the Central Plains began.

恪獲其將軍鮮于亮。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Ke captured Ma Qiu's general Xianyu Liang.


皝盡得段遼之眾。待遼以上賓之禮,以陽裕為郎中令。

38. Murong Huang integrated all of Duan Liao's troops into his army. He treated Duan Liao as an honored guest, while Yang Yu became his Prefect of the Household Gentlemen.

恪擁段遼及其部眾以歸。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Ke combined his forces with Duan Liao's soldiers and returned.

裕將詣皝。皝素聞裕名,即命釋其囚,拜郎中令。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Yang Yu)

Yang Yu was taken to see Murong Huang. Murong Huang had long heard of Yang Yu's reputation, so he ordered him released from prison. He appointed Yang Yu as his Prefect of the Household Gentlemen.

[護遼]遂投慕容晃。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Duan Huliao took refuge with Murong Huang.


趙王虎聞麻秋敗,怒,削其官爵。

39. When Shi Hu heard of Ma Qiu's defeat, he was furious, and stripped Ma Qiu of his ranks and titles.
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BOOK 96

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Feb 06, 2017 5:16 pm

咸康五年(己亥,公元三三九年)

The Fifth Year of Xiankang (The Jihai Year, 339 AD)


春,正月,辛丑,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinchou (February 20th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

五年春正月辛丑,大赦。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fifth year of Xiankang (339), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinchou (February 20th), a general amnesty was declared.


三月,乙丑,廣州刺史鄧岳將兵擊漢寧州,漢建寧太守孟彥執其刺史霍彪以降。

2. In the third month, on the day Yichou (?), Jin's Inspector of Guangzhou, Deng Yue, led troops to attack Han's Ningzhou. Han's Administrator of Jianning, Meng Yan, arrested their Inspector of Ningzhou, Huo Biao, and surrendered to Jin.

〈咸和八年,成取寧州,今復之。成以霍彪刺寧州,見上卷咸和九年。〉

(Cheng-Han had taken Ningzhou from Jin in the eighth year of Xianhe (333); at this time, Jin recovered the province. Cheng-Han had appointed Huo Biao as the Inspector of Ningzhou earlier, in Book 95, in the ninth year of Xianhe (334.8).)


三月乙丑,廣州刺史鄧嶽伐蜀,建寧人孟彥執李壽將霍彪以降。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third month, on the day Yichou (?), the Inspector of Guangzhou, Deng Yue, campaigned against Li Shou's domain in Shu. A native of Jianning, Meng Yan, arrested Li Shou's general Huo Biao and surrendered to Jin.

夏,建寧太守孟彥率州人縛寧州刺史霍彪於晉,舉建寧為晉。遣右將軍李位都討之。時權在越嶲。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

In summer, the Administrator of Jianning, Meng Yan, led the people of Ningzhou to tie up the Inspector of that province, Huo Biao, and hand him over to Jin while offering up Jianning commandary to Jin. Li Shou sent his General of the Right, Li Weidou, to campaign against the rebels. At this time, Li Quan was at Yuexi.


征西將軍庾亮欲開復中原,表桓宣為都督沔北前鋒諸軍事、司州刺史,鎮襄陽;又表其弟臨川太守懌為監梁、雍二州諸軍事、染州刺史,鎮魏興;西陽太守翼為南蠻校尉,領南郡太守,鎮江陵;皆假節。又請解豫州,以授征虜將軍毛寶。詔以寶監揚州之江西諸軍事、豫州刺史,與西陽太守樊峻帥精兵萬人戍邾城。以建威將軍陶稱為南中郎將、江夏相,入沔中。稱將二百人下見亮,亮素惡稱輕狡,數稱前後罪惡,收而斬之。後以魏興險遠,命庾懌徙屯半洲;更以武昌太守陳囂為梁州刺史,趣漢中。遣參軍李松攻漢巴郡、江陽。夏,四月,執漢荊州刺史李閎、巴郡太守黃植送建康。漢主壽以李弈為鎮東將軍,代閎守巴郡。

3. Jin's General Who Conquers The West, Yu Liang, wished to recover the Central Plains. He petitioned that Huan Xuan be made the Commander of military affairs north of the Mian River, as well as Inspector of Sizhou, and for his base to be at Xiangyang. He also petitioned that the Administrator of Linchuan, his own younger brother Yu Yi, be appointed as Chief of military affairs in Lianzhou and Yongzhou, as well as Inspector of Lianzhou, and for him to be based at Weixing. He further requested that the Administrator of Xiyang, his younger brother Yu Yì, be appointed as Colonel of Southern Man Tribes and acting Administrator of Nan commandary, and to be based at Jiangling. All three of them were also appointed as Credential Holders.

Yu Liang also requested that he relinquish his command of Yuzhou, and that the province be entrusted to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Mao Bao. An edict was issued appointing Mao Bao as Chief of military affairs in the portions of Yangzhou west of the Yangzi, and he was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou. He and the Administrator of Xiyang, Fan Jun, were directed to lead ten thousand elite soldiers to camp at Zhucheng. The General Who Establishes Might, Tao Cheng, was made the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South and Chancellor of Jiangxia, entering Mianzhong.

Tao Cheng led two hundred men downriver to visit Yu Liang. Yu Liang had long disliked Tao Cheng because of his craft and guile, and he had other grudges against him from earlier as well. So Yu Liang had him arrested and executed.

Later, because Weixing was distant and dangerous, Yu Liang ordered Yu Yi to camp at Banzhou instead. He appointed the Administrator of Wuchang, Chen Xiao, as the new Inspector of Lianzhou, and sent him to Hanzhong.

Yu Liang sent his Army Advisor, Li Song, to attack Han's territory of Ba and Jiangyang commandaries. In summer, the fourth month, Li Song captured Han's Inspector of Jingzhou, Li Hong, and Administrator of Ba, Huang Zhi, and sent them to Jiankang. Li Shou appointed Li Yi to be General Who Guards The East to defend Ba commandary in Li Hong's stead.

〈自李矩以司州刺史退屯卒于魯陽,司州已寄治荊州界;今始以司州治襄陽。周訪領梁州,治襄陽;今司州旣治襄陽,故梁州治魏興。〉〈邾城在江北,漢江夏郡邾縣之故城也。楚宣王滅邾,徙其君於此,因以爲名,今黃州城是也。杜佑曰:黃州東南百二十里,臨江與武昌相對,有邾城,此言唐黃州治所也。西陽縣,漢屬江夏郡,魏分屬弋陽郡,晉惠帝分弋陽爲西陽國,江左廢國爲郡。〉〈亮鎭武昌,稱自上流下見之。〉〈亮素怨陶侃,而稱又間亮於王導,蓋以私忿殺之。〉〈半洲在江州界,康帝時,褚裒爲江州刺史,鎭半洲。〉〈漢置荊州於巴郡。〉

(Ever since Jin's former Inspector of Sizhou, Li Ju, had retreated from the territory he held in that province and passed away at Luyang, what little territory of Sizhou was left under Jin control was administered as a part of Jingzhou. At this time, Yu Liang revived the title Inspector of Sizhou, with its headquarters to be at Xiangyang.

Zhou Fang had earlier been acting Inspector of Lianzhou, and at that time he had his headquarters in that capacity at Xiangyang. But now, since Xiangyang was meant to serve as the headquarters for the Inspector of Sizhou, the new base for the Inspector of Lianzhou would be at Weixing instead.

Zhucheng was north of the Yangzi; it was the capital city of Zhu County in the Han dynasty's Jiangxia commandary. In ancient times, when King Xuan of Chu had conquered the state of Zhu, he had the sovereign of that state relocated to this place, thus the name Zhu. It is now the capital city of Huangzhou. Du You remarked, "There is a Zhucheng a hundred and twenty li southeast of Huangzhou, where Linjiang and Wuchang are across from one another; this was where Tang's Huangzhou was administered from."

During Han, Xiyang County was part of Jiangxia commandary. Cao-Wei split it off as part of Yiyang commandary. Emperor Hui of Jin split it off from Yiyang to form the Xiyang princely fief. After the establishment of Eastern Jin, Xiyang was reverted from a princely fief to a commandary.

Yu Liang's base was at Wuchang, so this was why Tao Cheng came "downriver" to visit him.

Yu Liang had long been resentful of Tao Kan, and he also resented Tao Cheng for having informed Wang Dao of Yu Liang's plot against him. It was because of these personal grudges that he now killed Tao Cheng.

Banzhou was within Jiangzhou. During the reign of Emperor Kang (342-344), when Chu Pou was the Inspector of Jiangzhou, he was stationed at Banzhou.

Cheng-Han had created their own province of Jingzhou centered around Ba commandary; this was why Li Hong held the title Inspector of Jingzhou under Cheng-Han authority.)


夏四月辛未,征西將軍庾亮遣參軍趙松擊巴郡、江陽,獲石季龍將李閎、黃桓等。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Xinwei (May 21st), the General Who Conquers The West, Yu Liang, sent his Army Advisor, Zhao Song, to attack Ba and Jiangyang commandaries. Zhao Song captured Shi Hu's generals Li Hong, Huang Huan, and others.

遣其鎮東大將軍李奕征牂柯,太守謝恕保城距守者積日,不拔。會奕糧盡,引還。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou sent his Grand General Who Guards The East, Li Yi, to campaign against Zangke commandary. Jin's Administrator of Zangke, Xie Shu, guarded his city and held out against Li Yi for many days, so Li Yi could not capture the city. Eventually, Li Yi's grain ran out, so he led his army back.

五年,春二月,晉將伐巴郡,獲李閎... 初,壽許自牛鞞以東土斷與閎,執政者以為不可,乃止。復不益兵,故覆沒。閎弟豔以是怨故,與朝右有隙... 三月,拜李奕鎮東,代閎。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

In the fifth year of Xiankang (339), in spring, the second month, Jin generals attacked Ba commandary and captured Li Hong.

Earlier, Li Shou had wanted to grant the territory east of Niubing (a county in Jianwei commandary) to Liu Hong. But the people holding power believed that it could not be done, so Li Shou dropped the idea. Nor did he increase the soldiers under Li Hong's command. This was why Li Hong was defeated and captured. Li Hong's younger brother Li Yàn formed a grudge because of this, and he distanced himself from the court.

In the third month, Li Shou appointed Li Yi as General Who Guards The East to replace Li Hong.


庾亮上疏言:「蜀甚弱而胡尚強,欲帥大眾十萬移鎮石城,遣諸軍羅布江、沔為伐趙之規。」帝下其議。丞相導請許之。大尉鑒議,以為:「資用未備,不可大舉。」

4. Yu Liang sent in a petition stating, "Shu (Cheng-Han) has become weaker, while the barbarians to the north gather in strength. I request permission to transfer a grand army of a hundred thousand men to guard Shicheng, and send several other armies to spread out along the Yangzi and the Mian River to prepare to invade Zhao."

Emperor Cheng sought advice from his ministers. Wang Dao asked that he grant Yu Liang's request. But Chi Jian dissented, believing, "Our resources still need time to grow; such a great undertaking cannot be launched yet."

太常蔡謨議,以為:「時有否泰,道有屈伸,苟不計強弱而輕動,則亡不終日,何功之有!為今之計,莫若養威以俟時。時之可否系胡之強弱,胡之強弱系石虎之能否。自石勒舉事,虎常為爪牙,百戰百勝,遂定中原,所據之地,同於魏世。勒死之後,虎挾嗣君,誅將相;內難既平,剪削外寇,一舉而拔金墉,再戰而擒石生,誅石聰如拾遺,取郭權如振槁,四境之內,不失尺土。以是觀之,虎為能乎,將不能也?論者以胡前攻襄陽不能拔,謂之無能為。夫百戰百勝之強而以不拔一城為劣,譬諸射擊百發百中而一失,可以謂之拙乎?且石遇,偏師也,桓平北,邊將也,所爭者疆場之土,利則進,否則退,非所急也。今征西以重鎮名賢,自將大軍欲席捲河南,虎必自帥一國之眾來決勝負,豈得以襄陽為比哉!今征西欲與之戰,何如石生?若欲城守,何如金墉?欲阻沔水,何如大江?欲拒石虎,何如蘇峻?凡此數者,宜詳校之。石生猛將,關中精兵,征西之戰殆不能勝也。金墉險固,劉曜十萬眾不能拔,征西之守殆不能勝也。又當是時,洛陽、關中皆舉兵擊虎,今此三鎮反為其用;方之於前,倍半之勢也。石生不能敵其半,而征西欲當其倍,愚所疑也。蘇峻之強不及石虎,沔水之險不及大江;大江不能御蘇峻,而欲以沔水御石虎,又所疑也。昔祖士稚在譙,佃於城北界,胡來攻,豫置軍屯以御其外。谷將熟,胡果至,丁夫戰於外,老弱獲於內,多持炬火,急則燒谷而走。如此數年,竟不得其利。當是時,胡唯據河北,方之於今,四分之一耳;士稚不能捍其一,而征西欲以御其四,又所疑也。然此但論征西既至之後耳,尚未論道路之慮也。自沔以西,水急岸高,魚貫溯流,首尾百里。若胡無宋襄之義,及我未陣而擊之,將若之何?今王土與胡,水陸異勢,便習不同;胡若送死,則敵之有餘,若棄江遠進,以我所短擊彼所長,懼非廟勝之算也。」朝議多與謨同。乃詔亮不聽移鎮。

5. The Minister of Ceremonies, Cai Mo, also weighed in, saying, "Some situations are unfavorable while others are opportune, and the proper way to do things should be tailored to accommodate that. If we make a rash measure of the enemy's strength, then we will not even continue to exist for very long, much less have any success against them! In our current state, it would be better to build up our power and wait for a better opportunity.

“We must measure our chances of success against the strength of the barbarians, and we must measure the strength of the barbarians by the capabilities of Shi Hu. Ever since Shi Le's rise, Shi Hu always served as his fang and claw. In a hundred battles he won a hundred victories, and so settled the Central Plains and captured the whole territory, until they possessed the same territory that Wei once held. After Shi Le's death, Shi Hu manipulated the new ruler, and purged generals and ministers. He crushed internal dissension, and even repulsed invading armies. With one undertaking, he captured Jinyong, and in the next battle, he took Shi Sheng prisoner. Then he executed Shi Cong as easily as picking something up from the ground, and after that he extinguished Guo Quan like one shakes dead leaves from a tree. In doing all these things, he kept his territory entirely intact; not one inch of land was lost.

“So we must ask ourselves: when Shi Hu has been this adept up until now, can we expect him to falter any time soon? Some have pointed out the barbarians' recent failure to capture Xiangyang. But this is no sign of ineptitude. Can anyone claim that a man who is so strong as to achieve a hundred victories in a hundred battles is inferior, because he happens not to be able to capture a city once? We might as well say that an archer who can hit the target a hundred times in a hundred shots is clumsy because he happens to miss once.

"Furthermore, in that attack on Xiangyang, Shi Yu merely led an auxiliary division of Zhao, and the General Who Pacifies The North (Huan Xuan) was only a general guarding our border. When there are such skirmishes on the borders (or, when border commanders have such skirmishes), there is always a little give and take; one side advances when they see an opportunity, the other correspondingly retreats. Such things are not serious matters. But now, the General who Conquers the West (Yu Liang), who is a famed general in charge of a major strategic point, proposes to personally lead a grand army to conquer the whole region south of the Yellow River. Of course Shi Hu would lead all his state’s forces to meet him in a decisive battle. How can we compare such a battle against the skirmishing at Xiangyang?

“If the General wishes to offer battle, how does he compare with Shi Sheng? If he wishes to defend the city, how does the city compare with Jinyong? If he believes the Mian River will protect him, how does that river compare with the Yangzi? If he thinks he can repel Shi Hu, how does Shi Hu compare with Su Jun? Let us consider each of these points in more detail.

"Shi Sheng was a fierce general, and he had command of the elite soldiers of Guanzhong; General Yu's skill in battle is inferior to his. Jinyong is a redoubt of great renown, and Liu Yao could not take it even with an army of a hundred thousand; General Yu's skill in defense cannot measure up to this. When Shi Sheng launched his rebellion, Luoyang and Guanzhong all rose against Shi Hu, yet now these three strongholds are all at his disposal. Compared to then, Shi Hu now has twice as troops available. Shi Sheng was unable to defeat Shi Hu’s force when it was half as large as now, but General Yu wants to defeat Shi Hu’s force now when it is twice as large as then. This makes me wonder.

"During Su Jun's rebellion, he was not so strong then as Shi Hu is now. Nor is the Mian River as formidable a geographical barrier as the Yangzi is. Yet the Yangzi could not protect us from Su Jun; how much less can the Mian River protect us from Shi Hu? This, too, should be considered.

"Years ago, when Zu Shizhi (Zu Ti) had established his position north of the Yangzi at Qiao, he set up farmland north of the city. When he heard that the barbarians and caitiffs planned to attack him, he sent the armies of Yuzhou to the farmlands to protect it. Whenever the grain was ready to be harvested, the barbarians came. The able-bodied fought them on the periphery, while the old and weak harvested the grain within, each carrying torches, for burning the remaining grain when they were pressed to flee. This process repeated for several years, and so ultimately Zu Shizhi could gain no further victory. And consider that at that time, the barbarians only held the region north of the Yellow River. Compared to then, their territory now is four times as great. Zu Shizhi could not defend against them when they held only this smaller portion; now General Yu plans to guard against them when they have four times as much territory. This is also something worth considering.

"And yet in all this, we have not even discussed the dangers of the route that General Yu must take. From the Mian River westwards, the river water is vigorous and the banks are high. The army would have to cross over in single file, with the column stretching a hundred li from head to tail. Unless the barbarians have the benevolence of Duke Xiang of Song, they will strike before our soldiers can defend themselves, and then what could the men do?

"We and the barbarians hold different terrains and are adept at different kids of warfare. If the barbarians come to seek death by attacking us, we would be more than able to defend against them. But if we abandon the Yangzi and push deep into their territory, and use what we are least adept at to fight what they are best at, then I fear there is simply no prospect of 'making calculations for victory in the temple'."

Most of the court agreed with Cai Mo. Thus, Yu Liang was ordered not to shift the troops.

〈謂殺石堪、程遐、徐光諸將相也。〉〈咸和八年,虎殺石聰,又拔金墉,進殺石生,九年,取郭權,事並見上卷。〉〈事見上卷咸康元年。〉〈桓宣爲平北將軍。〉〈【章:乙十一行本「士」作「土」;孔本同。】〉〈【章:十二行本「也」下有「金墉險固,劉曜十萬衆不能拔,征西之守殆不能勝也」二十一字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦脫。】〉〈洛陽、關中而曰三鎭,併郭權據上邽爲三也。〉〈【張:「胡」上脫「慮」字。】〉〈言祖逖與石勒對境時,勒僅有河北之地,比之今來石虎據有之地,止四分之一也。〉〈謂旣至中原之後也。〉〈言水狹而急,舟不得駢爲一列而進也。〉〈《左傳》:宋襄公及楚人戰于泓。宋人旣成列,楚人未旣濟,司馬子魚請擊之,公曰:「不可。」旣濟而未成列,又以告,公曰:「未可。」旣陳而後擊之,宋師敗績。國人皆咎公。公曰:「古之爲軍也,不以阻隘也;寡人雖亡國之餘,不鼓不成列。」〉〈南便於用舟,北便於用馬。〉〈蔡謨之議,量彼量己,深切著明;後郗鑒薦之自代,蓋有見乎此也。〉

(By "purging ministers and generals", Cai Mo refers to Shi Hu having killed Shi Kan, Cheng Xia, Xu Guang, and other such people.

Book 95 mentions all of the events which Cai Mo lists here: Shi Hu's killing of Shi Cong in the eighth year of Xianhe (333.7), his capture of Jinyong and his subsequant advance against Chang'an and his killing of Shi Sheng (333.14), and his capture of Guo Quan in the following year (334.9).

Zhao's failed attack on Xiangyang is mentioned in Book 95, in the first year of Xiankang (335.10).

Huan Xuan was General Who Pacifies The North.

Some versions write the character 士 "soldiers, gentlemen" as 土 "earth, territory".

Some versions include the sentence "Jinyong is a redoubt of great renown, and Liu Yao could not take it even with an army of a hundred thousand; General Yu's skill in defense cannot measure up to this".

Cai Mo mentions "three strongholds", but he only explicitly listed Luoyang and Guanzhong; the third must be Guo Quan's base at Shanggui.

Some versions include the phrase "and caitiffs" when listing who came to attack Zu Ti.

Cai Mo was saying that at the time that Zu Ti contended with Shi Le for control of the region, Shi Le only possessed the territory north of the Yellow River. Compared to then, Shi Hu now controlled four times as much territory as Shi Le had controlled earlier.

Cai Mo was now discussing what would happen after arriving at the Central Plains.

Regarding the Mian River, Cai Mo was saying that the river was so narrow and fierce that boats could not advance side by side, but could only go forward in a single line.

Regarding Duke Xiang of Song, the Zuo Commentary states, "Duke Xiang of Song and the soldiers of Chu fought a battle at the Hong River. The soldiers of Song had already completed their battle formations, while the soldiers of Chu were still crossing over the river. Sima Ziyu requested permission to attack the Chu army, but Duke Xiang said, 'We cannot.' After finishing their crossing, the soldiers of Chu had still not yet set up their battle formation. Duke Xiang was once again asked to attack, but he replied, 'Not yet.' Once their formation was established, only then did he attack, and the Song army met with defeat. The people of Song all blamed the Duke, but he said, "When the ancients had their armies in the field, they would not attack an enemy when he was in a defile; and though I am but the poor representative of a fallen dynasty, I would not sound my drums to attack an unformed host (Xi 22.4)."

The south was more adept at naval warfare, while the north was more skilled with cavalry.

Cai Mo's comments here were an example of brutal honesty and introspection in knowing the capacities of both the enemy and oneself. When Chi Jian later recommended that Cai Mo become his successor, it must have been because of what he saw in his arguments here.)


燕前軍師慕容評、廣威將軍慕容軍、折衝將軍慕輿根、蕩寇將軍慕輿泥襲趙遼西,俘獲千餘家而去。趙鎮遠將軍石成、積弩將軍呼延晃、建威將軍張支等追之,評等與戰,斬晃、支首。

6. Yan’s Directing General of the Front, Murong Ping, their General Who Spreads Might, Murong Junn, their General Who Breaks And Charges, Muyu Gen, and their General Who Sweeps Away Invaders, Muyu Ni, attacked Zhao's territory in Liaoxi, capturing more than a thousand households before turning back. They were pursued by several Zhao generals, including the General Who Guards Distant Places, Shi Cheng, the General of Massed Crossbows, Huyan Huang, and the General Who Establishes Might, Zhang Zhi. Murong Ping and the others fought them; Huyan Huang and Zhang Zhi were killed.

〈沈約《志》:廣威將軍,曹魏置。〉〈鎭遠將軍,蓋石氏所置。〉

(According to Shen Yue's Records, the rank of General Who Spreads Might was created by Cao-Wei.

The rank of General Who Guards Distant Places must have been created by the Shi clan.)


皝前軍帥慕容評敗季龍將石成等於遼西,斬其將呼延晃、張支,掠千餘戶以歸。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang's Directing General of the Front, Murong Ping, defeated Shi Hu's general Shi Cheng and others at Liaoxi; he killed the generals Huyan Huang and Zhang Zhi, and captured more than a thousand households before returning.


段遼謀反於燕,燕人殺遼及其黨與數十人,送遼首於趙。

7. Duan Liao plotted rebellion against Yan. They killed Duan Liao and dozens of his partisans, then sent his head to Zhao.

段遼謀叛,皝誅之。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Duan Liao plotted rebellion, so Murong Huang executed him.

晃殺[護遼]。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Murong Huang killed Duan Huliao.


五月,代王什翼犍會諸大人於參合陂,議都灅源川。其母王氏曰:「吾自先世以來,以遷徙為業。今國家多難,若城郭而居,一旦寇來,無所避之。」乃止。

8. In the fifth month, Tuoba Shiyijian convened a meeting of the various Dai chieftains at Canhe Slope, to propose establishing a capital at Leiyuanchuan. His mother Lady Wang said, "A nomadic lifestyle has suited us best for many generations up until now. There are currently many difficulties in the state. If we reside in a capital, then if invaders should appear one day, we would have no means to avoid them." So the plan was abandoned.

〈參合縣,前漢屬代郡,後漢、晉省。東魏天平二年置梁城郡,參合縣屬焉。《水經註》:參合陘在縣西北,俗謂之倉鶴陘。〉〈謂逐水草爲行國,草盡水竭則徙而之他也。〉〈是後鍮勿崙之諫禿髮利鹿孤,其說不過如此。〉

(During Former Han, Canhe County was part of Dai commandary. Later Han and Jin abolished it. In Eastern Wei's second year of Tianping (535), they created Liangcheng commandary, and Canhe County was part of it. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Canhe Slope was in the northwest of the county; it is commonly called Canghe Slope."

Lady Wang was talking about how the Tuoba would follow the trends of the waters and grasses to suit the needs of the state. When the grass in one place was consumed and the water was exhausted, then the people would move on to some other place.

Tou Wulun would later offer very similar advice to Tufa Lilugu of Southern Liang.)


二年春,始置百官,分掌眾職。東自濊貊,西及破洛那,莫不款附。夏五月,朝諸大人於參合陂,議欲定都灅源川,連日不決,乃從太后計而止。語在皇后傳。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the second year of Jianguo (339), in summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Shiyijian convened a meeting of the various Dai chieftains at Canhe Slope, to propose establishing a capital at Leiyuanchuan. Days passed without anything being decided. Eventually, following the advice of the Princess Dowager, the plan was abandoned. More of this is mentioned in her biography.


代人謂它國之民來附者皆為烏桓,什翼犍分之為二部,各置大人以監之。弟孤監其北,子寔君監其南。

9. The Dai called all migrants to their territory “Wuhuan”. Tuoba Shiyijian divided these migrants into two halves, each to have its own leaders. His younger brother Tuoba Gu would oversee the northern portion of them, while his son Tuoba Shijun would oversee the southern portion.

什翼犍求昏於燕,燕王皝以其妹妻之。

10. Tuoba Shiyijian sought a bride from Yan. Murong Huang sent him one of his younger sisters to wed.

娉慕容元真妹為皇后。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Tuoba Shiyijian married the younger sister of Murong Huang, taking her as his Princess.

建國二年,帝納元真女為后。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Huang)

In Tuoba Shiyijian's second year of Jianguo (339), he accepted Murong Huang's daughter as his wife.


秋,七月,趙王虎以太子宣為大單于,建天子旌旗。

11. In autumn, the seventh month, Shi Hu's Crown Prince, Shi Xuan, was appointed as Grand Chanyu, and Shi Hu himself began to use the imperial banners as a Son of Heaven.

庚申,始興文獻公王導薨,喪葬之禮視漢博陸候及安平獻王故事,參用天子之禮。

12. On the day Gengshen (September 7th), Wang Dao passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wenxian ("the Cultured and Presented") of Shixing. His mourning and burial rites were in accordance with those given to Han's Marquis of Boling (Huo Guang) or Jin’s Prince Xian of Anping (Sima Fu). They employed the ceremonies of the Son of Heaven.

〈霍光事見二十五卷漢宣帝地節二年。安平王孚事見七十九卷武帝泰始八年。〉

(Huo Guang's mourning and funeral are mentioned in Book 25, in Emperor Xuan of Han's second year of Dijie (68 BC).

Sima Fu's mourning and funeral are mentioned in Book 79, in Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) eighth year of Taishi (272.3).)


秋七月庚申,使持節、侍中、丞相、領揚州刺史、始興公王導薨。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Gengshen (September 7th), the Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Palace Attendant, Prime Minister, acting Inspector of Yangzhou, and Duke of Shixing, Wang Dao, passed away.


導簡素寡慾,善因事就功,雖無日用之益而歲計有餘。輔相三世,倉無儲谷,衣不重帛。

13. Wang Dao was a man of simple and few desires, and was good at achieving results by following the natural order of things. He was the sort of man of whom it could be said, "When one considered him on a daily basis, he did not seem to offer much good, but in the fullness of all his years, they found him to be of more than ordinary benefit." And though he had been the pillar of state for three generations, he had no stored grain in his warehouse, nor did he wear impressive silks.

〈《莊子》曰:日計之不足,歲計之有餘。向秀《註》云:日計之不足,無旦夕小利也;歲計之有餘,順時而大穰也。三世,元、明、成。〉

The Zhuangzi states, "Our estimate of him after a short acquaintance was that he could not do us much good; but now that we have known him for years, we find him a more than ordinary benefit (Gengsang Chu 1)". Xiang Xiu's Commentary adds, "To be lacking on a daily basis means to not offer meager gains each and every day; to be of more than ordinary benefit on a yearly basis means to reap a great benefit through heeding the circumstances of time."

The three generations which Wang Dao had served under were Emperors Yuan (Sima Rui), Ming, and Cheng.)


初,導與庾亮共薦丹楊尹何充於帝,請以為己副,且曰:「臣死之日,願引充內侍,則社稷無虞矣。」由是加吏部尚書。及導薨,微庾亮為丞相、揚州刺史、錄尚書事;亮固辭。辛酉,以充為護軍將軍,亮弟會稽內史冰為中書監、揚州刺史,參錄尚書事。

14. Earlier, Wang Dao and Yu Liang had both recommended the Intendant of Danyang, He Chong, to the Emperor. Wang Dao asked that He Chong serve as his assistant, adding, "On the day of my death, you may depend upon He Chong, and then the fortunes of state will be safe." Because of that, He Chong was additionally made Supervisor of the Masters of Writing.

After Wang Dao passed away, Yu Liang was summoned back to the capital and offered the positions of Prime Minister, Inspector of Yangzhou, and authority over the imperial secretariat; however, he refused them. On the day Xinyou (September 8th), He Chong was appointed as General Who Protects The Army. The Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Yu Liang's younger brother Yu Bing, was appointed as Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Inspector of Yangzhou, and advisor of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

辛酉,以護軍將軍何充錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Xinyou (September 8th), the General Who Protects The Army, He Chong, was granted control of the affairs of the Masters of Writing.


冰既當重任,經綸時務,不捨晝夜,賓禮朝賢,升擢後進,由是朝野翕然稱之,以為賢相。初,王導輔政,每從寬恕;冰頗任威刑,丹楊尹殷融諫之。冰曰:「前相之賢,猶不堪其弘,況如吾者哉!」范汪謂冰曰:「頃天文錯度,足下宜盡消御之道。」冰曰:「玄象豈吾所測,正當勤盡人事耳。」又隱實戶口,料出無名萬餘人,以充軍實。冰好為糾察,近於繁細,後益矯違,復存寬縱,疏密自由,律令無用矣。

15. Now that Yu Bing was appointed to such a high position, he worked many hours on matters of state, both day and night. He showed great respect to the wise men in the court, and promoted and recruited worthy people junior to him. Thus the court and the common people all considered him to be a virtuous minister.

When Wang Dao had been in charge of the government, he had always been very accommodating and forgiving. But when Yu Bing took over, he was much more strict and just. He was criticized for this by the Intendant of Danyang, Yin Rong. Yu Bing replied, "Even with Wang Dao’s sagacity, he was unable to keep up with that leniency; how much less can I?"

Fan Wang said to Yu Bing, "Recently, the stars have not followed their natural course. It would be better for you to follow a more lenient course."

Yu Bing replied, "How can I fathom the void? I ought to direct my efforts towards men's affairs."

During investigations of population figures, Yu Bing discovered more than ten thousand people who had not been registered. He thus corrected the military figures.

Yu Bing liked investigating into everything, to the point of being painstaking. But later, he overcorrected himself, and allowed himself to be overly lenient. As he would go from being strict to lenient on a whim, people no longer obeyed his laws.

〈堪,任也;言過於寬弘而不任也。〉〈七曜失行爲錯度。〉〈隱,度也。〉〈謂矯前之繁細而流於寬縱,愈違於正道也。〉

(The term 堪 here means to endure or to bear; Yu Bing was saying that not even Wang Dao could be so generous or lenient.

When the Seven Celestial Bodies (Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) depart from their usual wanderings, then the heavens are said to be "not following their natural courses".

The term 隱 here means "measure".

The passage means that Yu Bing would initially attempt to closely rectify something but then later allow for more leniency, and thus more and more he would turn away from the proper path.)


八月,壬午,復改丞相為司徒。

16. In the eighth month, on the day Renwu (September 29th), Jin’s office of Prime Minister was once again devolved to Minister Over The Masses.

〈去年省司徒,幷丞相府。〉

(Jin had abolished the office of Minister Over The Masses and folded it into the office of Prime Minister in the previous year (338.25).)


八月壬午,復改丞相爲司徒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the eighth month, on the day Renwu (September 29th), the office of Prime Minister was once again devolved to Minister Over The Masses.


南昌文成公郗鑒疾篤,以府事付長史劉遐,上疏乞骸骨,且曰:「臣所統錯雜,率多北人,或逼遷徙,或是新附,百姓懷土,皆有歸本之心;臣宣國恩,示以好惡,處與田宅,漸得少安。聞臣疾篤,眾情駭動,若當北渡,必啟寇心。太常臣謨,平簡貞正,素望所歸,謂可以為都督、徐州刺史。」詔以蔡謨為太尉軍司,加侍中、辛酉,鑒薨,即以謨為征北將軍、都督徐、兗、青三州諸軍事、徐州刺史,假節。

17. Chi Jian grew deathly ill.

He presented a memorial of resignation to the Chief Clerk of Palace Affairs, Liu Xia, and further stated, "Out of all the people I have administered, there have been many northerners among them. Some of them were compelled to move here when the turmoil first broke out, while others who have only recently come over to us. But all of them deeply wish to return to their homeland. I have proclaimed the grace of the state, taught them right from evil, and gave them fields and houses to settle in, which gradually gave them some little measure of security. However, learning of my grave illness, they were greatly shocked. If I were to cross north of the Yangzi now, that would surely play into the hands of the invaders. The Minister of Ceremonies, Cai Mo, is peaceful, simple, and respected by all. You may surely appoint him as Commander and as Inspector of Xuzhou."

So the court appointed Cai Mo as Military-Director to the Grand Commandant and promoted him to Palace Attendant.

On the day Xinyou (?), Chi Jian passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wencheng ("the Cultured and Accomplished") of Nanchang.

Cai Mo was accordingly appointed as General Who Conquers The North, Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou, Inspector of Xuzhou, and Credential Holder.

〈此又一劉遐也。〉〈謂中原之人有戀土不肯南渡者,以兵威逼遷之也。〉〈蓋時議欲徙京口之鎭,渡江而北,故鑒云然。〉〈【章:十二行本「徐」上有「領」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(Despite having the exact same name, the 劉遐 Liu Xia mentioned in this passage is not to be confused with the earlier 劉遐 Liu Xia, a northern border general who had assisted in putting down Wang Dun's second rebellion. That Liu Xia had already died (Book 93, 326.5).

The first group of northerners that Chi Jian mentions here refers to those people of the Central Plains who were so attached to their land that they could not bear to willingly cross the Yangzi and move to the Southland, but they were compelled to do so by the might of soldiers who forced them south.

There must have been some discussion at this time of wanting to shift Chi Jian's base to Jingkou and have him cross north of the Yangzi, which made Chi Jian speak against the idea in this memorial.

Some versions state that Cai Mo was appointed as "acting" Inspector of Xuzhou.)


辛酉,太尉、南昌公郗鑒薨。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Xinyou (?), the Grand Commandant and Duke of Nanchang, Chi Jian, passed away.


時左衛將軍陳光請伐趙,詔遣光攻壽陽。謨上疏曰:「壽陽城小而固。自壽陽至琅邪,城壁相望,一城見攻,眾城必救。又,王師在路五十餘日,前驅未至,聲息久聞,賊之郵驛,一日千里,河北之騎,足以來赴。夫以白起、韓信、項籍之勇,猶發梁焚舟,背水而陣。今欲停船水渚,引兵造城,前對堅敵,顧臨歸路,此兵法之所誡。若進攻未拔,胡騎猝至,懼桓子不知所為而舟中之指可掬也。今光所將皆殿中精兵,宜令所向有征無戰。而頓之堅城之下,以國之爪士擊寇之下邑,得之則利薄而不足損敵,失之則害重而足以益寇,懼非策之長者也。」乃止。

18. At about this time, Jin’s Guard General of the Left, Chen Guang, requested permission to campaign against Zhao. The court sent Chen Guang to attack Shouyang.

Cai Mo sent up a petition stating, "Although Shouyang is a small city, its defenses are solid. And in the area between there and Langye, the fortresses and ramparts are so close together that the walls of one can be seen from another. If the enemy notices that any one of them is under attack, all of them will certainly come to that place's rescue.

“Besides, the royal army would have to be on the road for more than fifty days, and even before their vanguard arrives at its destination, word of our movements will already have spread near and far. The barbarians' relay horses are of exceptional quality, and can run a thousand li in one day. Even their cavalry that are all the way north of the Yellow River would be able to move fast enough to reinforce whichever place we attack. Even if our commander possessed the heroism of Bai Qi, Han Xin, or Xiang Ji (Xiang Yu), he would still need to 'cast aside their cooking pots and burn their boats', and have his army fight with their backs to the river in order to defend itself.

“Instead, you plan to moor the boats along the shore and lead the troops to attack the city. The troops would then face a strong enemy to the front while seeing an open line of retreat behind them, which is against all the arts of war. If you should attack the city but fail to take it, by the time the barbarian cavalry arrives, I fear the outcome would be just the same as when Huanzi's boat was filled with so many fingers that he could not count them all.

“What's more, Chen Guang's soldiers for this attack are all being drawn from the elite troops of the palace. These sorts of soldiers should be used for grand campaigns where one can achieve victory even without fighting. Yet by flinging them against this city, we would be using 'the taloned soldiers of the state' to attack the least of the enemy’s cities. I fear that if we conquer it, our gain would be too slight to harm the enemy; if we lose the battle, then our losses would be sufficient to benefit the enemy. That is why I fear this is a wise plan for the long term."

Thus the plan was called off.

〈壽陽,卽壽春,晉避簡文鄭太后諱,改曰壽陽;自祖約之敗,爲趙所據。〉〈此琅邪,謂古琅邪郡。趙旣取譙郡、彭城、下邳,又得壽春,故自壽春至琅邪,城壁相望。南琅邪在江乘之蒲洲上,渡江而西,歷歷陽、合肥至壽春,皆晉境,趙未能置城壁也。〉〈《戰國策》:白起曰:楚王恃其國大,城池不脩,又無守備,故起得以引兵深入,多倍城邑,發梁焚舟以專民。當是之時,秦中士卒以軍中爲家,將爲父母,不約而親,不謀而信,一心同功,死不旋踵。楚人自戰其地,咸顧其家,各有散心,莫有鬬志,是以能有功也。項羽焚舟,卽湛船以救鉅鹿事也,見八卷秦二世三年。韓信背水事見九卷高帝三年。〉〈《左傳》:晉中行桓子帥師與楚戰于邲,楚人車馳卒奔,乘晉師。桓子不知所爲,鼓於軍中曰:「先濟者有賞。」中軍與下軍爭舟,舟中之指可掬也。〉〈《詩》曰:祈父,予王之爪士。毛萇《註》曰:士,事也。今謨直謂殿中兵爲爪牙之士。〉

(Shouyang was the same place as Shouchun. Jin changed its name to Shouyang in order to observe the naming taboo for the mother of Emperor Jianwen, Zheng Chun. Ever since Zu Yue's defeat by Shi Cong, Shouyang had been occupied by Later Zhao (Book 94, 328.38).

The Langye mentioned here was the old Langye commandary. By this time, Later Zhao had captured the commandaries of Qiao, Pengcheng, and Xiapi, as well as Shouchun. So it would indeed be true that from Shouchun to this Langye, the fortresses and ramparts would be within sight of one another. There was technically another Langye, Southern Langye, at Puzhou along the Yangzi. One could draw a line from this Southern Langye to Shouchun as well, going west across the Yangzi and passing through Liyang and Hefei. But this was all still Jin territory, and Later Zhao could not have created any fortresses or ramparts along that line yet.

In the Strategies of the Warring States, the Qin general Bai Qi states, "The King of Chu was complacent, because he had such a large state. He did not repair the moats of his cities, not did he prepare any defenses. That was why I was able to penetrate so deeply into his territory and annex so many of his cities and towns. I cast aside my cooking pots and burned my boats in order to gain my men's resolve. And at this time, the officers and soldiers of Jin see the army as their own family, their generals are their mothers and fathers. We are close to one another even without swearing any oaths, and we trust one another even without making any plans. We all wish to achieve glory together, and we would rather die than turn our backs. But when the soldiers of Chu fought for their land, all of them were turning their heads back towards their families; each one of them was ready to scatter to their own places, and none of them was determined to fight. This was why we were able to overcome them."

Xiang Yu had "burned his boats" in the sense that when he came to reinforce the Zhao army at the battle of Julu, he sank the boats his men had used to cross the river beforehand, as mentioned in Book 8, in the third year of the reign of Qin Ershi (207 BC).

Regarding Huanzi, the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "The state of Jin commissioned Huanzi to lead its army to fight the army of Chu at Bi. The charioteers of the Chu army fled, but the Chu army then fell upon the Jin army. Huanzi did not know what he was going, so he beat the drums within the army and declared, "A reward to those who first recross the river!" The center army and the third army struggled for the boats, till the fingers (of those trying to get in, and that were cut off by those who had already got possession) could be taken up with both hands at once (Xuan 12.3)."

Regarding Cai Mo's line "the taloned soldiers of the state", the Book of Poetry has this verse: "Minister of war, we are the taloned soldiers of the king (Qi Fu 2)." Mao Chang's Annotations to this verse adds, "士 in this verse means 'affairs'." Cai Mo was calling the palace soldiers the very fangs and claws of the army.)


初,陶侃在武昌,議者以江北有邾,宜分兵戍之;侃每不答,而言者不已。侃乃渡水獵,引將佐語之曰:「我所以設險而禦寇者,正以長江耳。邾城隔在江北,內無所倚,外接羣夷。夷中利深;晉人貪利,夷不堪命,必引虜入寇。此乃致禍之由,非以禦寇也。且吳時戍此城用三萬兵,今縱有兵守,亦無益於江南;若羯虜有可乘之會,此又非所資也。」

19. Before, when Tao Kan had been stationed at Wuchang, there was some discussion about sending a portion of his command to garrison Zhucheng, a city north of the Yangzi. Even though Tao Kan never responded to the suggestion, people wouldn’t stop talking about it.

Tao Kan then crossed the river to go hunting, and to the fellows following him he said, "Our best defense for warding off danger and keeping out the invaders is the Yangzi itself. But Zhucheng is some ways north of the Yangzi. It has no defensive advantage in and of itself, and it is also surrounded by many tribes. It is a place of natural advantage to the tribes, and if we were to try to turn it to our own use, the tribes will certainly not put up with it; they would invite the northern barbarians to come and attack us there. Thus it would be a source of danger, and no defense against the enemy. Even Wu needed thirty thousand soldiers to defend the place in their day. Even if we could spare that many, it would still be of no use to the Southland. If the Jie barbarians were to come against us, that place would do us no good."

〈接西陽諸蠻也。〉〈吳都武昌,故屯重兵於邾城。〉

(Tao Kan refers to the various tribes of Xiyang, which were all around the area of Zhucheng.

During the time that Eastern Wu had their capital at Wuchang, they had posted many soldiers at Zhucheng.)


及庾亮鎮武昌,卒使毛寶、樊峻戍邾城。趙王虎惡之,以夔安為大都督,帥石鑒、石閔、李農、張貉、李菟等五將軍、兵五萬人寇荊、揚北鄙,二萬騎攻邾城。毛寶求救於庾亮,亮以城固,不時遣兵。

20. After Yu Liang was placed in command of Wuchang, he sent Mao Bao and Fan Jun to camp at Zhucheng.

Feeling provoked, Shi Hu appointed Kui An as Grand Commander and sent him along with Shi Jian, Shi Min, Li Nong, Zhang Hao, and Li Tu, and others, five generals in all, to lead fifty thousand infantry to invade the northern borders of Jingzhou and Yangzhou and twenty thousand cavalry to attack Zhucheng.

Mao Bao requested help from Yu Liang, but Yu Liang, thinking that the city was strong enough to hold out, did not send reinforcements in time.

九月,石閔敗晉兵於沔陰,殺將軍蔡懷;夔安、李農陷沔南;朱保敗晉兵於白石,殺鄭豹等五將軍;張貉陷邾城,死者六千人,毛寶、樊峻突圍出走,赴江溺死。夔安進據胡亭,寇江夏;義陽將軍黃沖、義陽太守鄭進皆降於趙。安進圍石城,竟陵太守李陽拒戰,破之,斬首五千餘級,安乃退。遂掠漢東,擁七千餘戶遷於幽、冀。

21. In the ninth month, Shi Min defeated the Jin soldiers south of the Mian River, and killed the Jin general Cai Huai. Kui An and Li Nong captured the places south of the Mian River. Zhu Bao defeated the Jin troops at Baishi, and killed Zheng Bao and four other officers. Zhang Hao captured Zhucheng, where six thousand were killed. Mao Bao and Fan Jun broke out of the encirclement and fled, but drowned in the Yangzi. Kui An advanced and captured Huting, and invaded Jiangxia. Jin's General of Yiyang, Huang Chong, and their Administrator of Yiyang, Zheng Jin, both surrendered to Zhao. Kui An marched on and besieged Shicheng. But Jin's Administrator of Jingling, Li Yang, mounted a stubborn defense; he routed Kui An and took over five thousand heads, so Kui An retreated. Kui An then marched east along the Han river, sacking and pillaging, and over seven thousand households were relocated to Youzhou and Jizhou.

〈水南爲陰,卽沔南也。〉〈晉人蓋置戍於沔南以備津要。〉〈《水經註》:栅水導源巢湖,東逕南譙僑郡城南,又東左會清溪水,又東左會白石山水,水發源白石山西。〉〈《續漢志》:汝南汝陰縣西北有胡城,春秋胡子之國也。〉〈賢曰:石城故城在今復州沔陽縣東南。《水經註》:沔水逕石城西,城因山爲固,晉惠帝元康九年,分江夏西部置竟陵郡,治此。〉

(This passage states that Shi Min defeated the Jin soldiers at 沔陰 Mianyin. The 陰 yin of a river is its south side, so Mianyin means "south of the Mian River".

The "places" which Kui An and Li Nong captured south of the Mian River must have been camps that the Jin soldiers had established to guard the crossing points of the river.

Regarding Baishi, the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zha River has its origin at Lake Chao. It flows east, passing south of the capital city of the emigre Southern Qiao commandary, then on east until it joins the Qingxi River on the left, then further east until it joins the Mount Baishi River on the left. That river has its origin to the west of Mount Baishi."

Regarding Huting, the Continued Records of Han states, "There is a Hucheng in the northwest of Ruyin county in Runan commandary. This place was the fief of the Earl of Hu during the Spring and Autumn era."

Regarding Shicheng, Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Shicheng was in the southwest of Mianyang county in modern Fuzhou." And the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Mian River flows west of Shicheng. Because that city enjoys natural defenses from the mountains around it, in Emperor Hui of Jin's ninth year of Yuankang (299), when he split off the western part of Jiangxia commandary to form Jingling commandary, Shicheng was chosen as its administrative center.")


九月,石季龍將夔安、李農陷沔南,張貉陷邾城,因寇江夏、義陽,征虜將軍毛寶、西陽太守樊俊、義陽太守鄭進並死之。夔安等進圍石城,竟陵太守李陽距戰,破之,斬首五千餘級。安乃退,遂略漢東,擁七千餘家遷于幽冀。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the ninth month, Shi Hu's generals Kui An and Li Nong captured the places south of the Mian River. Zhang Hao captured Zhucheng, and then invaded Jiangxia and Yiyang. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Mao Bao, the Administrator of Xiyang, Fan Jun, and the Administrator of Yiyang, Zheng Bin, all died. Kui An and Shi Hu's other commanders advanced to besiege Shicheng, but the Administrator of Jingling, Li Yang, fought back against them and routed them, taking more than five thousand heads. So Kui An retreated, then pillaged east along the Han River, forcing more than seven thousand families to be moved to Youzhou and Jizhou.


是時,庾亮猶上疏欲遷鎮石城,聞邾城陷。乃止。上表陳謝,自貶三等,行安西將軍;有詔復位。以輔國將軍庾懌為豫州刺史,監宣城、廬江、歷陽、安豐四郡諸軍事,假節,鎮蕪湖。

22. At that time, Yu Liang was still about to send up a memorial asking to transfer his base to Shicheng. But when he heard that Zhucheng had fallen, he stopped. Instead, he submitted a memorial of apology, demoting himself by three ranks, to acting General Who Maintains The West. However, the court ordered that his former rank be restored.

The General Who Upholds The State, Yu Yi, was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, Chief of military affairs for the four comandaries of Xuancheng, Lujiang, Liyang, and Anfeng, and Credential Holder, and he was stationed at Wuhu.

〈晉方伯帶將軍,有征、鎭、安、平。亮本征西將軍,乞自貶三等,行安西將軍。〉

(Under the Jin system of titles for border commandars, there were the Generals Who Conquer, Who Guard, Who Maintain, and Who Pacify. Yu Liang had originally been General Who Conquers The West, so when he at this point begged to demote himself by three ranks, that would mean he went down to General Who Pacifies The West.)


趙王虎患貴戚豪恣,乃擢殿中御史李巨爲御史中丞,特加親任,中外肅然。虎曰:「朕聞良臣如猛虎,高步曠野而豺狼避路,信哉!」

23. Shi Hu despised the constant depredations of the gentry against the common people, so he promoted the Palace Clerk, Li Ju, to become the Assistant of the Middle to the Imperial Secretary, and treated him especially well. Everyone, near and far, respected him. Shi Hu said, “I have heard that an excellent minister is like a wild tiger: with every step, even the wolves and jackals fear him. Truly this is so!"

〈曹魏之制,蘭臺遣二御史居殿中伺察非法,此殿中御史之始也。〉

(Under the Cao-Wei system, the Lantai ministry sent two Palace Clerks to reside in the palace, and they investigated any wrongdoing there. This incident was the first appearance of a Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk.)


虎以撫軍將軍李農為使持節、監遼西、北平諸軍事、征東將軍、營州牧,鎮令支。農帥眾三萬與征北大將軍張舉攻燕凡城。燕王皝以榼盧城大悅綰為御難將軍,授兵一千,使守凡城。及趙兵至,將吏皆恐,欲棄城走。綰曰:「受命禦寇,死生以之。且憑城堅守,一可敵百,有敢妄言惑眾者斬!」眾然後定。綰身先士卒,親冒矢石;舉等攻之經旬,不能克,乃退。虎以遼西迫近燕境,數遭攻襲,乃悉徙其民於冀州之南。

24. Shi Hu appointed the General Who Nurtures The Army, Li Nong, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Chief of military affairs in Liaoxi and Beiping commandaries, General Who Conquers The East, and Governor of Yingzhou, and he was stationed at Lingzhi. Together with the Grand General Who Conquers The North, Zhang Ju, Li Nong led thirty thousand men to attack Yan's city of Fancheng.

Murong Huang appointed the City Chief of Kehu, Yue Wan, as the General Who Resists Difficulties; he was sent with one thousand soldiers to guard Fancheng.

When the Zhao soldiers arrived, the Yan officers and officials were all afraid, and wished to abandon the city and flee. But Yue Wan said, "I have received orders to hold out against the invaders, and will do so whether I live or die. Besides, if we rely upon the defenses of the city and maintain a defense, each of us can be worth a hundred of them. Anyone who dares to mislead the people through rash nonsense will be executed!" The people were thus persuaded to fight. Yue Wan led the soldiers himself, personally braving the enemy's stones and arrows. Zhang Ju and the other Zhao commanders attacked the city for ten days, but they could not take it, so they retreated.

Because Liaoxi was perilously close to the border with Yan, it often suffered from attacks and raids, so Shi Hu moved the people there to the south of Jizhou.

〈趙置營州,統遼西、北平二郡。〉〈《水經註》曰:渝水南流東屈與一水會,世名之曰榼倫水。《姓譜》:悅姓,傅說之後。〉

(Later Zhao had created the province of Yingzhou; it consisted of the two commandaries Liaoxi and Beiping.

Regarding Kehu, the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yu River flows south, then turns east to join with the Yi River, at that time called the Keju River."

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 悅 Yue are the descendants of Fu Yue.")


季龍又使石成入攻凡城,不克,進陷廣城。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Shi Hu again sent Shi Cheng to attack Fancheng, but without success, so he advanced and took Guangcheng.


漢主壽疾病,羅恆、解思明復議奉晉;壽不從。李演復上書言之;壽怒,殺演。

25. Li Shou became ill. Luo Heng and Xie Siming once more proposed that he pay homage to Jin, but Li Shou did not heed them. Li Yan again sent in a petition to the same effect. Enraged, Li Shou had Li Yan killed.

壽初病,思明等復議奉王室,壽不從。李演自越巂上書,勸壽歸正返本,釋帝稱王,壽怒殺之,以威龔壯、思明等。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

When Li Shou became ill, Xie Siming and others once again broached the subject of submitting to the Jin royal family, but Li Shou refused. Li Yan sent Li Shou a letter from Yuegui urging him to return to the proper path and renounce his title as Emperor to merely proclaim himself a Prince of the Jin dynasty. But this only angered Li Shou, who killed him in order to overawe Gong Zhuang, Xie Siming, and the others who had argued for the same policy before.

是時,壽疾病。恆、思明等復議奉晉計。尋巴郡破。壽以為附晉,晉當以兵威,故不能自斷。遂輟計... 秋,又遣尚書廣漢李攄為御史,入南中。攄祖毅,晉故寧州刺史,以向與南人有舊,故遣之。攄從兄演,自越嶲上書,勸壽歸正返本,釋帝稱王。壽怒,殺之。(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

Around this time, Li Shou had fallen ill. Luo Heng, Xie Siming, and others once again proposed the idea that he offer up the state to Jin. But then Jin captured Ba commandary, and Li Shou was concerned that if he aligned himself with Jin now, Jin would believe it was because of the power of their soldiers. So Li Shou could not make up his mind, and the plan was dropped.

In autumn, Li Shou also sent his Master of Writing, Li Shu of Guanghan, as Imperial Secretary and sent him into Nanzhong. This Li Shu was the grandson of Li Yi, who had once been Jin's Inspector of Ningzhou, so Li Shu had some old contacts with the southerners, and this was why Li Shou sent him. Li Shu's cousin Li Yan sent up a letter from Yuexi, urging Li Shou to return to his proper loyalty to Jin and discard his imperial title in favor of a princely one. Angered, Li Shou killed him.

[李攄]: 張、吳、何、王、浙本此誤作擴。下仍作攄。

(Regarding Li 攄 Shu, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Zhe editions mistakenly write his given name in the first instance as 擴 Kuo, though afterwards they correctly write Shu.)


壽常慕漢武、魏明之為人,恥聞父兄時事,上書者不得言先世政教,自以為勝之也。舍人杜襲作詩十篇,託言應璩以諷諫。壽報曰:「省詩知意。若今人所作,乃賢哲之話言;若古人所作,則死鬼之常辭耳。」

26. Li Shou often wished to conduct himself like Emperor Wu of Han and Emperor Ming of Wei (Cao Rui), while he was ashamed to hear of the affairs of his uncle Li Te and his cousin Li Xiong. He therefore proclaimed that no one was to refer to their reigns as a way of attempting to instruct him how to govern, for he considered himself to be superior to them.

Li Shou's Retainer, Du Xi, compiled ten poems of admonishments and sent them to him, but claimed that they had been written by the scholar Ying Qu. Li Shou responded, "When I read a poem, I understand the meaning behind it. If a man of our own time had composed these poems, then they would be the learned words of a sage. But if a man from former times wrote them, they would just be the banal words of ghosts."

〈《書‧無逸》曰:相小人,厥父母勤勞稼穡,厥子乃不知穡之艱難,乃逸乃諺,旣誕;否則侮厥父母曰:「昔之人無聞知。」其李壽之謂乎!〉〈應璩,魏人,有文名。〉

(The Against Luxurious Ease section of the Book of Documents states, "I have observed among the lower people, that where the parents have diligently laboured in sowing and reaping, their sons (often) do not understand this painful toil, but abandon themselves to ease, and to village slang, and become quite disorderly. Or where they do not do so, they (still) throw contempt on their parents, saying, "Those old people have heard nothing and know nothing.'" Such words certainly applied to Li Shou!

Ying Qu lived during the Cao-Wei era; he was known for his literary talents.

Li Shou uses the term 話言; it means "good words".)


壯作詩七篇,托言應璩以諷壽。壽報曰:「省詩知意,若今人所作,賢哲之話言也。古人所作,死鬼之常辭耳!」動慕漢武、魏明之所為,恥聞父兄時事,上書者不得言先世政化,自以己勝之也。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Gong Zhuang compiled ten poems of admonishments and sent them to Li Shou, but claimed that they had been written by the scholar Ying Qu. Li Shou responded, "When I read a poem, I understand the meaning behind it. If a man of our own time had composed these poems, then they would be the learned words of a sage. But if a man from former times wrote them, they would just be the banal words of ghosts."

Li Shou often wished to conduct himself like Emperor Wu of Han and Emperor Ming of Wei (Cao Rui), while he was ashamed to hear of the affairs of his uncle Li Te and his cousin Li Xiong. He therefore proclaimed that no one was to refer to their reigns as a way of attempting to instruct him how to govern, for he considered himself to be superior to them.


燕王皝自以稱王未受晉命,冬,遣長史劉翔、參軍鞠運來獻捷論功,且言權假之間,並請刻期大舉,共平中原。

27. Murong Huang, having proclaimed himself Prince of Yan, wished to receive Jin's sanction for the title. In winter, he sent his Chief Clerk, Liu Xiang, and his Army Advisor, Ju Yun, to the Jin court to to report on his victory and discuss his merits, explain his presemption in assuming the princely title, and set a time for a great undertaking: a joint campaign against the Central Plains.

〈獻捷,獻趙捷也。權假,謂自稱王也。〉

(To "report on his victory" meant his victory over Later Zhao, and to "explain his presumption" meant his proclaiming of himself as Prince.)


二月,慕容皝及石季龍將石成戰于遼西,敗之,獻捷于京師。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the sixth year of Xiankang (340), in the second month, Murong Huang fought Shi Hu's general Shi Cheng at Liaoxi and defeated him. He sent word of his triumph to the capital.


皝擊高句麗,兵及新城,高句麗王釗乞盟,乃還。又使其子恪、霸擊宇文別部。霸年十三,勇冠三軍。

28. Murong Huang attacked Goguryeo, and his soldiers marched as far as Sinseong (Xincheng). The King of Goguryeo, Go Soe (Gogugwon), sued for peace, so Murong Huang returned.

Murong also sent his sons Murong Ke and Murong Ba to attack the Yuwen. Murong Ba was then twelve years old; he was a champion of the three armies.

〈新城,高句麗之西鄙,西南傍山,東北接南蘇、木底等城。〉

(Sinseong was on Goguryeo's western border. There were mountains to its west and south, while Namso (Nansu), Mogjeo (Mudi), and other cities lay to its north and east.)


Gogugwon was the king of Goguryeo during this time.

其年皝伐高句麗,王釗乞盟而還。明年,釗遣其世子朝於皝。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

The same year as Murong Huang wrote his letter to Yu Bing, he campaigned against Goguryeo. The King of Goguryeo, Go Soe, sued for peace, so Murong Huang returned. The following year, Go Soe sent his eldest son Go Jo to Murong Huang.

慕容垂字道明,皝第五子,小字阿六敦。母蘭淑儀。垂少有器度,長七尺七寸,手垂過膝。皝甚寵之,常曰:「此兒闊達好奇,終能破人家,或能成人家。」故名霸,字道業。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui, styled Daoming, was Murong Huang's fifth son. His childhood name was Aliudun. His mother, Lady Lan, was a Shuyi concubine. Even as a youth, Murong Chui had great capacity and potential. He grew to be seven chi seven cun tall, and his hands hung down past his knees. Murong Huang greatly favored him, often saying, "What a broad-minded and remarkable boy this one is! He will either ruin or save our family someday." So he named him Ba ("hegemon"), and gave him the style name Daoye.

慕容垂,字道明,皝之第五子也。少岐嶷有器度,身長七尺七寸,手垂過膝。皝甚寵之,常目而謂諸弟曰:「此兒闊達好奇,終能破人家,或能成人家。」故名霸,字道業,恩遇逾於世子俊,故俊不能平之。(Book of Jin 123, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui, styled Daoming, was Murong Huang's fifth son. Even as a youth, he was very intelligent and possessed great talent. He grew to be seven chi and seven cun tall, and his hands hung down past his knees. Murong Huang showed him great favor, and whenever he saw him, he would say to his younger brothers, "This child has far-reaching and extraordinary talents. Someday, he will either be the ruin of our family or the savior of it." So he named the boy Ba, meaning "conqueror" or "hegemon", and styled him Daoye. He favored Murong Ba more than his eldest son, Murong Jun, and this was why Murong Jun could never be at peace around him.

垂,字道明,元真第五子也。甚見寵愛,常目而謂諸弟曰:「此兒闊達好奇,終能破人家,或能成人家。」故名霸,字道業,恩遇踰於儁,故儁不能平之... 年十三,為偏將,所在征伐,勇冠三軍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Chui)

Murong Chui, styled Daoming, was Murong Huang's fifth son. Murong Huang greatly favored him, and when he saw him he would often tell Murong Ba's younger brothers, "What a broad-minded and remarkable boy this one is! He will either ruin or save our family someday." So he named him Ba ("hegemon"), and gave him the style name Daoye. He favored Murong Ba more than his eldest son, Murong Jun, and this was why Murong Jun could never be at peace around him.

When Murong Ba was twelve years old, he became a supporting general, and he participated in campaigns and marches. His boldness surpassed all those in the three armies.


張駿立辟雍、明堂以行禮。十一月,以世子重華行涼州事。

29. In Liangzhou, Zhang Jun built the Pingyong and Mingtang buildings in order to conduct rites there. In the eleventh month, he placed his son Zhang Chonghua in charge of affairs in Liangzhou.

Piyong and Mingtang were names of ceremonial buildings from the Western Zhou dynasty.

十二月,丁丑,趙太保桃豹卒。

30. In the twelfth month, on the day Dingchou (January 22nd of 340), Zhao's Grand Guardian, Tao Bao, passed away.

丙戌,以驃騎將軍琅邪王岳為侍中、司徒。

31. On the day Bingxu (January 31st of 340), Jin’s General of Agile Cavalry and Prince of Langye, Sima Yue, was appointed as Palace Attendant and Minister Over The Masses.

冬十二月丙戌,以驃騎將軍、琅邪王岳爲司徒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In winter, the twelfth month, on the day Bingxu (January 31st of 340), the General of Agile Cavalry and Prince of Langye, Sima Yue, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.

九年拜散騎常侍,加驃騎將軍,咸康五年遷侍中、司徒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Kang)

In the ninth year of Xianhe (329), Sima Yue was appointed as Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and then promoted to General of Agile Cavalry. In the fifth year of Xiankang (339), he was appointed as Palace Attendant and Minister Over The Masses.


漢李弈寇巴東,守將勞楊敗死。

32. The Han general Li Yi attacked Badong. The defending Jin general, Lao Yang, was defeated and killed.

〈勞,姓;楊,名。〉

(勞 Lao was this man's surname, and 楊 Yang his given name.)


李壽將李奕寇巴東,守將勞揚戰敗,死之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Li Shou's general Li Yi invaded Badong. The defending general Lao Yang was defeated and killed in battle.
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BOOK 96

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Feb 06, 2017 5:20 pm

咸康六年(庚子,公元三四零年)

The Sixth Year of Xiankang (The Gengzi Year, 340 AD)


春,正月,庚子朔,都亭文康侯庾亮薨。以護軍將軍、錄尚書何充為中書令。庾戌,以南郡太守庾翼為都督江、荊、司、雍、梁、益六州諸軍事、安西將軍、荊州刺史,假節,代亮鎮武昌。時人疑翼年少,不能繼其兄。翼悉心為治,戎政嚴明,數年之間,公私充實,人皆稱其才。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Gengzi (February 14th), Yu Liang passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Wenkang ("the Cultured and Peaceful") of Duting.

The General Who Protects The Army and chief of the imperial secretariat, He Chong, became the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. On the day Gengxu (February 24th), the Administrator of Nan commandary, Yu Yì, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou, Jizhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Yizhou; he was created the General Who Maintains The West, Inspector of Jingzhou, and Credential Holder. Yu Yì took up Yu Liang's defense post at Wuchang.

At that time, some people wondered whether Yu Yì was too young to succeed his brother. But Yu Yì poured his whole heart into his work; he was a careful administrator who employed a strict command, and within a few years, both public and private affairs had flourished. Everyone commended his talents.

〈錄尚書,卽錄尚書事。〉

(The chief of the Masters of Writing was the chief of affairs of that bureau.)


六年春正月庚子,使持節、都督江豫益梁雍交廣七州諸軍事、司空、都亭侯庾亮薨。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the sixth year of Xiankang (340), in spring, the first month, on the day Gengzi (February 14th), the Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou, Yuzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Yongzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou, Minister of Works, and Marquis of Duting, Yu Liang, passed away.


辛亥,以左光祿大夫陸玩為侍中、司空。

2. On the day Xinhai (February 25th), Jin’s Household Counsellor of the Left, Lu Wan, was made Palace Attendant and Minister of Works.

辛亥,以左光祿大夫陸玩爲司空。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Xinhai (February 25th), the Household Counsellor of the Left, Lu Wan, was appointed as the new Minister of Works.


宇文逸豆歸忌慕容翰才名。翰乃陽狂酣飲,或臥自便利,或被發歌呼,拜跪乞食。宇文舉國賤之,不復省錄,以故得行來自遂,山川形便,皆默記之。燕王皝以翰初非叛亂,以猜嫌出奔,雖在它國,常潛為燕計;乃遣商人王車通市於宇文部以窺翰。翰見車,無言,撫膺頷之而已。皝曰:「翰欲來也。」復使車迎之。翰彎弓三石餘,矢尤長大,皝為之造可手弓矢,使畫埋於道旁而密告之。二月,翰竊逸豆歸名馬,攜其二子過取弓矢,逃歸。逸豆歸使驍騎百餘追之。翰曰:「吾久客思歸,既得上馬,無復還理。吾向日陽愚以誑汝,吾之故藝猶在,無為相逼,自取死了!」追騎輕之,直突而前。翰曰:「吾居汝國久悢悢,不欲殺汝;汝去我百步立汝刀,吾射之,一發中者汝可還,不中者可來前。」追騎解刀立之,一發,正中其環,追騎散走。皝聞翰至,大喜,恩遇甚厚。

3. It was earlier mentioned that, after Duan Liao was invaded by Zhao, Murong Han had fled to the Yuwen. But their leader, Yuwen Yidougui, grew envious of Murong Han's talent and reputation. So Murong Han pretended to be mad, drinking and carousing. Sometimes he would urinate on himself while lying down; sometimes he would let his hair down while singing loudly; sometimes he would kneel down and beg for food. The whole Yuwen domain held him in contempt, and did not monitor his activities anymore. Thus, he was able to come and go freely, and in that way he silently committed the geography of the land to memory.

Murong Huang knew that Murong Han fled not due to actual rebellion, but only due to the suspicions Murong Huang had about him. But even when Murong Han was in foreign states, he still secretly worked for the benefit of Yan. So Murong Huang sent the merchant Wang Che to the marketplace in the Yuwen domain to observe Murong Han. When Murong Han saw Wang Che, he said nothing, but smote his chest and nodded at him. When Wang Che reported this to Murong Huang, Murong Huang mused, "Then he wishes to return." So he sent Wang Che back again to welcome Murong Han’s return.

Murong Han could pull a bow of more than three 石, and his arrows were especially long. So Murong Huang built a bow and arrows which were specially fitted to Murong Han's hand, then sent Wang Che to bury them by the side of the road and secretly inform Murong Han of their location. In the second month, Murong Han stole a famous horse belonging to Yuwen Yidougui, retrieved the hidden bow and arrows, and fled with his two sons. Yuwen Yidougui sent more than a hundred pursuit riders after him. Murong Han said to them, "After staying long away from home, I yearn to return. Since I am now riding away, I do not intend to return to your domain. My madness was only a front in order to deceive you, and I still have my skills from the past. You all are no threat to me; it would only mean your deaths!"

But the riders thought little of what he claimed, and they charged ahead. Murong Han then said, "I lived in your domain for a long time, and I still have some regard for it, so I do not wish to kill you. Set up your blade a hundred paces from me, and I shall shoot it. If I can shoot my arrow through it in a single shot, then you must go back; if I cannot do it, then you may come on."

So the pursuit troops set up a blade; with one shot, Murong Han shot an arrow through the ring of the blade. The pursuit riders then dispersed.

When Murong Huang heard that Murong Han had arrived, he was overjoyed, and treated him with great respect and favor.

〈便,溲也。利,下泄也。〉〈省,察也,視也。錄,采也,收也,記也。〉〈行來,猶言往來也。〉〈事見上卷咸和八年。〉〈如牛尾谷之戰是也。〉〈撫,擊也。膺,胸也。〉〈可手,便手也;言惟翰手可用耳。〉〈【章:十二行本作「恨恨」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;熊校同。】李陵《贈蘇武詩》:悢悢不能辭。呂向《註》曰:悢悢,相戀之情。〉〈孔穎達曰:禮,進劍者左首。首,劍拊鐶也。《少儀》曰:澤劍首。鄭云:澤,弄也。推尋劍刃利,不容可弄,正是劍鐶也。又云:刀卻刃授穎。鄭云:穎,鐶也。〉

(Murong Han is described as 便利ing on himself while lying down. To 便 is to urinate; 利 means flowing down.

This passage states that the Yuwen no longer 省錄ed Murong Han. To 省 is to investigate or observe; to 錄 is to collect, gather, or record.

By 行來, it meant that Murong Han could come and go as he pleased.

Murong Han's initial flight to Duan Liao, because he feared that Murong Huang meant to do him harm, is mentioned in Book 95, in the eighth year of Xianhe (333.18).

One example of Murong Han's secret efforts on behalf of Yan was when he persuaded Duan Lan not to press his victory at Niuwei Valley, as mentioned in Book 95, in the ninth year of Xianhe (334.6-7).

To smite means to strike; the 膺 is the chest.

The bow which Murong Huang made for Murong Han is described as 可手; this means built for his hand. That is, only Murong Han would be able to use it.

Where Murong Han describes his feelings for the Duan domain as 悢悢, some versions write it as 恨恨. Li Ling's poem Bestowal to Su Wu has this verse: "Longing for home, unable to speak." Lü Xiang's Annotations adds, "The term 悢悢 means feelings of mutual regard."

Regarding the ring of a blade, Kong Yingda remarked, "Traditionally, when advancing, swordsmen kept the heads of their blades on the left. The 'head' was where the blade was attached to the ring." The Smaller Rules of Demeanor chapter of the Book of Rites has the line "to fiddle with the head of his sword". Zheng remarks, "To fiddle is to play with. Since we can see that the blade of a sword is very keen, one could not play with that, so the thing being played with is the ring of the sword." The Smaller Rules also has the line "of sharp-pointed weapons, the point was kept behind, and the 穎 presented". Zheng remarks, "The 穎 was the ring.")


This story invites obvious comparison with Lü Bu’s similar feat of archery to end the fighting between Liu Bei and Ji Ling.

初,段遼之敗也,建威翰奔于宇文歸,自以威名夙振,終不保全,乃陽狂恣酒,被髮歌呼。歸信而不禁,故得周遊自任,至於山川形便,攻戰要路,莫不練之。皝遣商人王車陰使察翰,翰見車無言,撫膺而已。車還以白,皝曰:「翰欲來也。」乃遣車遺翰弓矢,翰乃竊歸駿馬,攜其二子而還。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Earlier, when Duan Liao had been defeated, his General Who Establishes Might, Murong Han, had fled to Yuwen Gui. However, because his military reputation was so widespread, he was still not safe there. So he pretended to be mad and drank to excess, let down his hair and chanted songs. Yuwen Gui believed in his acting and did not restrict his movements, and so he was able to travel about as he pleased. When he came to mountains or rivers, he would note their forms and think about the roads and strategic places that would be involved during any attack there; there was nothing that he failed to memorize.

Murong Huang sent the merchant Wang Che to secretly observe Murong Han. When Murong Han saw Wang Che, he said nothing, only beat his breast. Wang Che came back and reported on this. Murong Huang mused, "Murong Han wishes to return." So he sent Wang Che to give Murong Han a bow and arrows. Murong Han then stole Yuwen Gui's prized horse, and returned along with his two sons.

既而逃,歸乃遣勁騎百餘追之。翰遙謂追者曰:「吾既思戀而歸,理無反面。吾之弓矢,汝曹足知,無為相逼,自取死也。吾處汝國久,恨不殺汝。汝可百步豎刀,吾射中者,汝便宜反;不中者,可來前也。」歸騎解刀豎之,翰一發便中刀鐶,追騎乃散。既至,皝甚加恩禮。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Han)

When Murong Han fled from Yuwen Gui, Yuwen Gui sent more than a hundred strong riders to pursue him. Murong Han said to the pursuit riders from afar, "I have been longing for my home, and that is why I am returning there; there is no sense in turning back now. You fellows all know my skill with the bow and arrow. You cannot threaten me; it would only mean your deaths. But I lived in your state for a long time, and I would hate to kill you now. Set up a blade a hundred paces from me. If I can shoot an arrow through it, then you must all go back; if I cannot, then you may come on."

Yuwen Gui's riders took out a blade and set it up, and with one shot Murong Han sent an arrow through the ring of the blade. So the pursuit riders all dispersed.

When Murong Han arrived, Murong Huang treated him with great favor and courtesy.


庚辰,有星孛於太微。

4. On the day Gengchen (March 25th), a comet was seen in the Supreme Palace constellation.

〈《晉書‧天文志》曰:太微,天子庭也,五帝坐也,十二諸侯府也。〉

(The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states, "The Supreme Palace section of the night sky is the court of the Son of Heaven; the Five Emperors sit there, and the twelve feudal lords gather there.")


[二月]庚辰,有星孛于太微。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the second month, on the day Gengchen (March 25th), a comet was seen in the Supreme Palace constellation.


三月,丁卯,大赦。

5. In the third month, on the day Dingmao (May 11th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

三月丁卯,大赦。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third month, on the day Dingmao (May 11th), a general amnesty was declared.


漢人攻拔丹川,守將孟彥、劉齊、李秋皆死。

6. Han attacked and captured Danchuan. The defending Jin generals Meng Yan, Liu Qi, and Li Qiu all died.

〈五年,孟彥以建寧降,丹川當在建寧界。〉

(This was the same Meng Yan who was mentioned as having surrendered Jianning to Jin in the fifth year of Xiankang (339.2). Danchuan was within Jianning commandary.)


李壽陷丹川,守將孟彥、劉齊、李秋皆死之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Li Shou captured Danchuan. The defending Jin generals Meng Yan, Liu Qi, and Li Qiu all died.

〔六年,三月,李位都克建寧。〕(Huayang Guozhi 9.4)

In the sixth year of Xiankang (340), in the third month, Li Weidu captured Jiankang.

依《晉書‧成帝紀》補。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(This passage does not appear in the text of the Huayang Guozhi which we have available to us. But considering that Li Weidu was earlier sent against Jianwei, and the Annals of Emperor Cheng in the Book of Jin records that Jiankang was retaken by Han at this time, I have added in the deduced connection here.)


代王什翼犍始都雲中之盛樂宮。

7. Tuoba Shiyijian established the capital of his domain at Shengle Palace in Yunzhong.

〈《水經註》:白渠水出雲中塞外,西北逕成樂固[城]北。《魏土地記》曰:雲中城東八十里有成樂城,今雲中郡治,一名石盧城。白渠水又西逕魏雲中宮南。《魏土地記》曰:雲中宮在雲中故城東四十里,魏之盛樂,卽漢成樂縣也。《魏書》曰:猗盧城盛樂以爲北都。杜佑曰:雲州雲中郡治雲中縣,後魏道武自雲中徙都平城,卽此。今馬邑郡北平城,卽今郡,隋爲雲內郡恆安鎭。縣界有白登山、白登臺、高柳城、參合陂;後魏盛樂縣亦在今郡界;單于臺在今縣西北百餘里。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Baiqu River has its origin in Yunzhong, beyond the borders of the realm. It flows northwest, passing north of the cities of Chengle and Gucheng. The Geographical Records of Wei states, 'There is a city of Chengle eighty li east of the city of Yunzhong. It is now the administrative center of Yunzhong commandary. The place is also called Shilu.' The Baiqu River then flows further west, passing south of Northern Wei's Yunzhong Palace. The Geographical Records of Wei states, 'Yunzhong Palace was forty li west of the capital city of Yunzhong. Northern Wei's Shengle was the Han dynasty's Chengle county.'" The Book of Northern Wei states, "Tuoba Yilu fortified Shengle as his northern capital." Du You states, "Yunzhong commandary in Yunzhou is administered from Yunzhong county. When Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei (Tuoba Gui) moved his capital from Yunzhong to Pingcheng, this was the place he moved from. The city of Beiping in modern Mayi commandary was in this same commandary. Sui made it the Heng'an Garrison in Yunnei commandary. Places within the county included Mount Baideng, Baideng Terrace, the city of Gaoliu, and Canhe Slope. Northern Wei's Shengle county was also within the territory of the modern commandary. The Chanyu Terrace was more than a hundred li northwest of the modern county.")


三年春,移都於雲中之盛樂宮。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the third year of Jianguo (340), in the spring, Tuoba Shiyijian moved his capital to Shengle Palace in Yunzhong.


趙王虎遺漢主壽書,欲與之連兵入寇,約中分江南。壽大喜,遣散騎常侍王嘏、中常侍王廣使於趙;龔壯諫,不聽。壽大修船艦,繕兵聚糧。秋,九月,以尚書令馬當為六軍都督,徵集士卒七萬餘人為舟師,大閱於成都,鼓噪盈江;壽登城觀之,有吞噬江南之志。解思明諫曰:「我國小兵弱,吳、會險遠,圖之未易。」壽乃命群臣大議利害。龔壯曰:「陛下與胡通,孰若與晉通?胡,豺狼也,既滅晉,不得不北面事之;若與之爭天下,則強弱不敵,危亡之勢也,虞、虢之事,已然之戒,願陛下熟慮之。」群臣皆以壯言為然,叩頭泣諫,壽乃止。士卒咸稱萬歲。

8. Shi Hu wrote a letter to Li Shou, proposing a joint campaign to invade Jin and split the territory between them. Li Shou was very pleased, and sent his Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Wang Gu, and his Regular Palace Attendant, Wang Guang, to Zhao. Gong Zhuang criticized the proposal, but Li Shou did not heed him.

Li Shou began to build great ships of war, prepare soldiers, and gather grain supplies. In autumn, the ninth month, he appointed his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dang, as Commander of the Six Armies, and enlisted more than seventy thousand soldiers to serve as sailors. He held a grand review of his fleet at Chengdu, and the Yangzi was full of clamor. Viewing all this from atop the ramparts, Li Shou held a great desire to swallow up the Southland.

But Xie Siming remonstrated, saying, "The soldiers of our state are weak and few, and Wu and Kuaiji are distant and dangerous places. This would not be an easy conquest." So Li Shou summoned his ministers to a great council debate the merits of the campaign.

Gong Zhuang said, "Why should Your Majesty treat with the barbarians rather than treat with Jin? The barbarians are wolves and jackals. Once Jin is destroyed, we will have no choice but to face north and submit to them as vassals. If we were to contend with them for the realm, we would be too weak to oppose them, and it would only lead to our destruction. Remember the matter of the ancient states of Yu and Guo; do not let history repeat itself. May Your Majesty think carefully about this!"

All of the ministers agreed with Gong Zhuang, and remonstrated with Li Shou while sobbing and kowtowing. Li Shou thus halted the plans for campaign. The soldiers all rejoiced and hailed Li Shou’s longevity.

〈秦時,蜀守李冰穿二江成都中,皆可行舟。〉〈《左傳》,晉獻公假道於虞以伐虢,旣滅虢,遂滅虞。〉〈【章:十二行本「然」下有「叩頭泣諫」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈士無樂戰之心,驅之而走死地,未有不敗者。使李壽不用龔壯之言,固不待李勢而蜀亡也。〉

(During the Qin dynasty, the Administrator of Shu, Li Bing, carved two rivers through the center of Chengdu, both of which were navigable by boats.

In the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, Duke Xian of the state of Qin used the roads passing through the state of Yu in order to conquer the state of Guo. After having conquered Guo, he then conquered Yu.

Some versions state that Li Shou's ministers "sobbed and kowtowed" as they remonstrated with him.

The soldiers of Cheng-Han had no heart for fighting, and driving them on would just have meant rushing them to their deaths, even before they had been defeated. If Li Shou had ignored Gong Zhuang's warning and attempted the campaign anyway, we would not have to wait until Li Shi's reign to witness the end of Cheng-Han; it would have happened right here.)


三年六月,壽下書曰:「吳會遺燼,久逋天誅,今將大興百萬,躬行罰。」九月,大閱軍士七萬餘人,舟師溯江而上,過成都,鼓噪盈江,壽登城觀之。羣臣曰:“國小衆寡,吳會險遠,圖之未易。”叩頭泣諫,乃止。兵人咸稱萬歲。十月,講禮於太學,舉明經者,封好學候。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

In the third year of Hanxing (340), in the sixth month, Li Shou sent down this edict: "Wu and Kuaiji has been reduced to ashes, and the Jin dynasty has long been fleeing from Heaven's doom. Now I shall raise an army of a million soldiers and personally inflict their punishment upon them." In the ninth month, Li Shou held a grand review of an army of more than seventy thousand soldiers, and the ships sailed against the current of the Yangzi. When the army passed through Chengdu, the Yangzi was full of clamor, and Li Shou viewed them from atop the ramparts.

But his ministers all said to him, "The soldiers of our state are weak and few, and Wu and Kuaiji are distant and dangerous places. This would not be an easy conquest." And they remonstrated with Li Shou while sobbing and kowtowing. Li Shou thus halted the plans for campaign. The soldiers all rejoiced and hailed Li Shou’s longevity.

In the tenth month, Li Shou gave lectures on the rites at the Imperial Academy. He appointed those students who were adept in the Classics and the Histories as Marquises Who Enjoy Learning.

遣其散騎常侍王嘏、中常侍王廣聘于石季龍。先是,季龍遺壽書,欲連橫入寇,約分天下。壽大悅,乃大修船艦,嚴兵繕甲,吏卒皆備候糧。以其尚書令馬當為六軍都督,假節鉞,營東場大閱,軍士七萬餘人,舟師溯江而上。過成都,鼓噪盈江,壽登城觀之。其群臣咸曰:「我國小眾寡,吳、會險遠,圖之未易。」解思明又切諫懇至,壽於是命群臣陳其利害。龔壯諫曰:「陛下與胡通,孰如與晉通?胡,豺狼國也。晉既滅,不得不北面事之。若與之爭天下,則強弱勢異。此虞、虢之成范,已然之明戒,願陛下熟慮之。」群臣以壯之言為然,叩頭泣諫,壽乃止,士眾咸稱萬歲。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou sent his Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Wang Gu, and his Palace Regular Attendant, Wang Guang, as envoys to Shi Hu's court. Before this time, Shi Hu had sent Li Shou a letter, proposing a joint campaign to invade Jin and split the territory between them. Li Shou was very pleased. He began to build great ships of war, prepare soldiers, and repair armor, and his officials and soldiers all prepared grain supplies. He appointed his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dang, as Commander of the Six Armies, Credential Holder, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe. Li Shou held a grand review east of his barracks; the army numbered more than seventy thousand soldiers, and the ships sailed against the current of the Yangzi. When the army passed through Chengdu, the Yangzi was full of clamor, and Li Shou viewed them from atop the ramparts.

But his ministers all said to him, "The soldiers of our state are weak and few, and Wu and Kuaiji are distant and dangerous places. This would not be an easy conquest." And Xie Siming also bluntly remonstrated against the plan as well and implored Li Shou to give it up. So Li Shou ordered his ministers to explain the merits and faults of the proposed campaign.

Gong Zhuang remonstrated by saying, "Why should Your Majesty treat with the barbarians rather than treat with Jin? The barbarians are wolves and jackals. Once Jin is destroyed, we will have no choice but to face north and submit to them as vassals. If we were to contend with them for the realm, the weaker side would not be able to oppose the stronger. We are in the same situation as the ancient states of Yu and Guo, and their example should serve as a clear warning to you. May Your Majesty think carefully about this."

All of the ministers agreed with Gong Zhuang, and remonstrated with Li Shou while sobbing and kowtowing. Li Shou thus halted the plans for campaign. The soldiers all rejoiced and hailed Li Shou’s longevity.


龔壯以為人之行莫大於忠孝;既報父、叔之仇,又欲使壽事晉,壽不從。乃詐稱耳聾,手不制物,辭歸,以文籍自娛,終身不復至成都。

9. Gong Zhuang believed that the greatest aspects of a man's conduct were his loyalty and his filial piety. So having already satisfied his duty to filial piety by avenging his father and uncle, he now focused on loyalty and so once again asked that Li Shou submit to Jin. But Li Shou would not heed him. Thus, feigning that he was going deaf and losing steadiness in his hands, Gong Zhuang resigned his office and went home, to find solace in composing new written works. In the end, he never returned to Chengdu.

〈謂假手於壽以夷李特之子孫也。〉〈手不制物,若病風緩然也。〉

(Gong Zhuang had avenged his father and uncle, who had died at Li Te's hands, by using Li Shou as his pawn to eliminate all of Li Te's sons and grandsons.

Unsteadiness in the hands is similar to the symptoms of a seizure.)


趙尚書令夔安卒。

10. Zhao’s Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Kui An, passed away.

趙王虎命司、冀、青、徐、幽、並、雍七州之民五丁取三,四丁取二,合鄴城舊兵,滿五十萬,具船萬艘,自河通海,運谷千一百萬斛於樂安城。徙遼西、北平、漁陽萬餘戶於兗、豫、雍、洛四川之地。自幽州以東至白狼,大興屯田。悉括取民馬,有敢私匿者腰斬,凡得四萬餘匹。大閱於宛陽,欲以擊燕。

11. Shi Hu began a grand drafting project, conscripting three of every five or two of every four men from Sizhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, and Yongzhou. Combined with the existing soldiers in Ye, they numbered five hundred thousand men, along with ten thousand ships. He also moved eleven million 斛 of grain to the city of Le'an. More than ten thousand households were uprooted from Liaoxi, Beiping, and Yuyang commandaries and relocated to Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Yongzhou, and Luozhou. Large agricultural colonies were established east from Youzhou, all the way to Bailang. All horses from the common people were confiscated, and anyone who dared to hide their horse was cut in half at the waist. Through such means, over forty thousand horses were collected for use by the state. Shi Hu had a grand review of the soldiers at Wanyang, and he wished to attack Yan.

〈《水經註》:濡水東南過遼西海陽縣,又逕牧城南,分爲二水;北水謂之小濡水,東逕樂安亭北,東南入海。濡水東南流逕樂安亭南,東與新河故瀆合,魏太祖征蹋頓所導也。濡,乃官翻。〉〈石虎置司州於鄴,以晉之司州爲洛州。〉〈白狼縣,漢屬北平郡,晉省。《水經註》:白狼水出白狼縣東南,北逕白狼山,又東北逕昌黎縣故城西,又北逕黃龍城東,又東北出,東流爲二水,右水卽渝水。《地理志》曰:渝水自塞南入海。一水東北出塞,爲白狼水,又東南流至房縣,注于遼。〉〈《水經註》:漳水自西門豹祠北逕趙閱馬臺西。臺高五丈,列觀其上;石虎講武於其下,列觀以望之。〉

(Regarding Le'an, the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ru River flows southeast, passing through Haiyang county in Liaoxi commandary, then passing south of Mucheng, where it splits into two rivers. The northern branch is called the Lesser Ru River, and it flows east, passing north of Le'an Village, then southeast into the sea. The other branch flows southeast, passing south of Le'an Village, and then east until it joins with the Xinhe Canal, which Taizu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) built during his campaign against Tadun." The name of this river, 濡, is pronounced "nuan (n-uan)".

Sizhou, the Metropolitan Province, was traditionally centered around the Han capital at Luoyang. But since Shi Hu had his capital at Ye, he established his own Sizhou around that region. The former Sizhou around Luoyang was renamed to Luozhou.

During Han, Bailang county was part of Beiping commandary; Jin abolished it. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Bailang River emerges in the southeast of Bailang county. It flows north through White Wolf Mountain, then northeast, passing west of the capital city of Changli county, then north, passing east of the city of Huanglong, then northeast from there. To the east it flows into two rivers, with the right river being called the Yu River." The Geographical Records states, "The Yu River flows from the borders of the realm south into the sea. One branch of the river flows northeast beyond the borders of the realm, called the Bailang River. It then flows southeast as far as Fang county, where it merges with the Liao River."

Regarding Wanyang, the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zhang River flows north from the shrine of Ximen Bao and passes west of the Yuema Terrace built by Later Zhao. This terrace was five zhang tall, with a review stand atop it. When Shi Hu was instructing his subordinates in war, he stood atop this review stand to observe them.")


燕王皝謂諸將曰:「石虎自以樂安城防守重複,薊城南北必不設備,今若詭路出其不意,可盡破也。」冬,十月,皝帥諸軍入自蠮螉塞襲趙,戍將當道者皆禽之,直抵薊城。趙幽州刺史石光擁兵數萬,閉城不敢出。燕兵進破武遂津,入高陽,所至焚燒積聚,略三萬餘家而去。石光坐懦弱征還。

12. Murong Huang said to his generals, "Since Shi Hu is preparing everything to defend Le’an, he must not have made any defensive preparations either north or south of Ji. If we take secret routes there and catch them unawares, then we can completely rout them."

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Huang led his army through Yeweng Pass to raid Zhao. They rounded up everyone along the roads, making straight for Ji. Zhao's Inspector of Youzhou, Shi Guang, gathered tens of thousands of soldiers into the city, shut the gates and did not dare to come out. The Yan soldiers broke through Wusui Crossing, entered Gaoyang, and torched the grain stores before leaving with over thirty thousand households. Shi Guang cowardly waited until they were gone before retaking the seized territory.

〈【章:十二行本無「十月」二字;乙十一行本同。】〉〈自龍城取西道入蠮螉塞。〉〈武遂縣,前漢屬河間國,後漢、晉屬安平國,時屬武邑郡。易水過其南,曰武遂津。〉〈《考異》曰:《燕書》云:「略燕、范陽二郡男女數千口而還。」今從《後趙》、《燕載記》。〉

(Some versions do not state that this raid was in "the tenth month".

The Yan army took the road west from Jicheng and passed through the realm border pass at Yeweng.

During Former Han, Wusui county was part of the Hejian princely fief. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of the Anping princely fief. At this time, it was part of Wuyi commandary. The Yi River passed through the south of it, at the place called Wusui Crossing.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Book of Yan states that the raiders took 'several thousand men and women from Yan and Fanyang commandaries before returning'. But I follow the accounts of this incident as they are recounted in the Biographies of Shi Hu and of Murong Huang in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.")


Yeweng Pass was the contemporary name for the Juyong Pass, near modern Beijing.

皝將圖石氏,從容謂諸將曰:「石季龍自以安樂諸城守防嚴重,城之南北必不設備,今若詭路出其不意,冀之北土盡可破也。」於是率騎二萬出蠮螉塞,長驅至於薊城,進渡武遂津,入于高陽,所過焚燒積聚,掠徙幽、冀三萬餘戶。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang planned to attack the Shi clan. He gathered his generals and told them, "Shi Hu has is concentrating his defenses at Anle and the other cities, so he must not have prepared any defenses north and south of them. So if we advance along side roads and appear where they will not expect us, we can completely rout northern Jizhou." So he led twenty thousand cavalry from Yeweng Pass, and charged straight for Ji. They crossed the Yellow River at Wusui Crossing, and entered into Gaoyang, where they burned all the gathered grain, and they forcibly relocated more than thirty thousand households from Youzhou and Jizhou.

元真襲石虎,至於高陽,掠徙幽冀二州三萬戶而還。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang raided Shi Hu, marching as far as Gaoyang, and capturing and relocating thirty thousand households from Youzhou and Jizhou before turning back.


趙王虎以秦公韜為太尉,與太子宣迭日省可尚書奏事,專決賞刑,不復啟白。司徒申鐘諫曰:「賞刑者,人君之大柄,不可以假人。所以防微杜漸,消逆亂於未然也。太子職在視膳,不當豫政;庶人邃以豫政致敗,覆車未遠也。且二政分權,鮮不階禍。愛之不以道,適所以害之也。」虎不聽。

13. Shi Hu appointed the Duke of Qin, his son Shi Tao, as Grand Commandant. He sent him to work together with the Crown Prince, Shi Xuan. On alternating days, one or the other of them oversaw the affairs of the Masters of Writing, and decided upon rewards and punishments. Having made these arrangements, Shi Hu no longer concerned himself with those matters.

The Minister Over The Masses, Shen Zhong, remonstrated with Shi Hu, saying, "Granting rewards and delivering punishments are matters for a ruler to administer; they cannot be left to others to carry out. That is why I ask that you take charge of this confusion now, before it can be allowed to fester. The Crown Prince's duty is to attend to your person, not to be involved in administration. The late Crown Prince, the now-commoner Shi Sui, also meddled in administration and so ruined himself. The example of the overturned front cart is not very far out of sight. Besides, it is a rare thing where a divided government does not lead to disaster. To love someone, but without following the proper way towards them, is only to harm them."

But Shi Hu did not heed him.

〈迭日,更日也。〉〈事見上卷咸康三年。〉〈《左傳》:辛伯諗周桓公曰:「並后匹嫡,兩政耦國,亂之本也。」兩政,卽二政,此指宣、韜迭日決事。〉〈爲宣殺韜張本。〉

(Alternating days means changing every day.

Shi Sui's involvement in administration and his failed coup are mentioned in Book 95, in the third year of Xiankang (337.5).

In the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, Xin Bo admonishes Duke Huan of Zhou by saying, "Equal queens, equal sons, two governments, and equal cities--these all lead to disorder (Huan 18.3)." Equal governments means two governments; in this case, the alternating administrations of Shi Xuan and Shi Tao.

This was why Shi Xuan later killed Shi Tao.)


中謁者令申扁以慧悟辯給有寵於虎,宣亦暱之,使典機密。虎既不省事,而宣、韜皆好酣飲、畋獵;由是除拜、生殺皆決於扁,自九卿已下率皆望塵而拜。

14. Shi Hu was very fond of his Prefect of Palace Internuncios, Shen Bian, because of his clever insights and arguments. Shi Xuan was also very close to him, and had him handle secret matters.

Since Shi Hu did not concern himself with affairs, and Shi Xuan and Shi Tao spent most of their time drinking and hunting, such matters as who was rewarded or punished, who was spared or killed, were all really decided by Shen Bian. So all the other ministers from the Nine Ministers on down worked to curry favor with him, hoping for rewards.

〈中謁者令,宦官也。楊正衡曰:扁,芳蓮翻。〉

(The office of Prefect of the Palace Internuncios was a eunuch office.

Regarding Shen Bian's given name 扁, Yang Zhengheng states, "扁 is pronounced "fian (f-ian)".)


太子詹事孫珍病目,求方於侍中崔約,約戲之曰:「溺中則愈」。珍曰:「目何可溺?」約曰:「卿目睕睕,正耐溺中。」珍恨之,以白宣。宣于兄弟中最胡狀,目深,聞之怒,誅約父子。於是公卿以下畏珍側目。

15. Zhao’s Crown Prince's Attendant, Sun Zhen, was having pain in his eyes. He sent for the Palace Attendant, Cui Yue, to help him. Cui Yue jokingly told him, "Piss in them."

Sun Zhen asked, "How can I piss into my eyes?"

Cui Yue replied, "Your eyes are so deeply set that it would be very easy."

Sun Zhen, in anger, informed Shi Xuan of this. Shi Xuan had more features characteristic of the typical Jie look than his brothers, including deeply set eyes. Enraged, he put Cui Yue and his sons to death. Thereafter, everyone from the nobles and ministers on down would also cast fearful glances at Sun Zhen.

〈戲言溺目中則病愈。〉〈楊正衡曰:睕睕,目深也。〉

(Cui Yue was joking that if Sun Zhen urinated in his eyes, that would heal his illness.

Cui Yue describes Sun Zhen's eyes as 睕睕. Yang Zhengheng remarked, "This term 睕睕 means deeply set.")


燕公斌督邊州,亦好畋獵,常懸管而入。征北將軍張賀度每裁諫之,斌怒,辱賀度。虎聞之,使主書禮儀持節監之。斌殺儀,又欲殺賀度,賀度嚴衛馳白之。虎遣尚書張離帥騎追斌,鞭之三百,免官歸第,誅其親信十餘人。

16. Zhao's Duke of Yan, Shi Hu's son Shi Bin, was the commander of a border province. He also loved to hunt, and often did not return from the hunt until after the gatekeepers had already locked the gates for the night. The General Who Conquers The North, Zhang Hedu, often criticized him for this. Angered, Shi Bin insulted Zhang Hedu.

When Shi Hu heard about the matter, he sent his Chief Scribe, Li Yi, with a Staff of Authority in order to straighten things out. But Shi Bin killed Li Yi, and wished to kill Zhang Hedu as well. Zhang Hedu set a heavy guard about himself, and sent a rider to go inform Shi Hu. Shi Hu sent a band of riders under the Master of Writing, Zhang Li, to pursue Shi Bin. He was given three hundred lashes, stripped of office, and sent to his residence, and more than ten of his close subordinates were executed.

〈斌與張賀度共事,蓋督北邊州也。〉〈管者,城門之管鑰也;欲便於出,故常懸管。〉〈自東漢以來,尚書諸曹各有主書,蓋吏職也;至齊、梁之間,其權任甚重。禮,姓也;儀,名也。春秋時,衞有大夫禮至。〉〈史言虎無令子。〉

(Considering that Shi Bin and Zhang Hedu worked together, and Zhang Hedu was General Who Conquers The North, Shi Bin must have been in command of a northern border province.

The gatekeepers were those who locked the gates of the city walls. Since Shi Bin wanted to go out whenever he wanted, he often overruled the gatekeepers.

Ever since the Later Han, the Managers serving the Masters of Writing each had a Chief Scribe, so this was an official's post. During the southern dynasties of Qi and Liang, these Chief Scribes wielded considerable power.

This Chief Scribe's surname was 禮 Li, and his given name was 儀 Yi. During the Spring and Autumn era, the state of Wey had a great minister named 禮至 Li Zhi.

These last few passages demonstrate how Shi Hu was unable to control his sons.)


張駿遣別駕馬詵入貢於趙,表辭蹇傲;趙王虎怒,欲斬詵。侍中石璞諫曰:「今國家所當先除者,遺晉也。河西僻陋,不足為意。今斬馬詵,必征張竣,則兵力分而為二,建康復延數年之命矣。」乃止。璞,苞之曾孫也。

17. Zhang Jun sent his Attendant Officer, Ma Shen, to offer tribute to Zhao. But the message that he sent was very cold and arrogant. Shi Hu was furious, and wished to behead Ma Shen.

But the Palace Attendant, Shi Pu, remonstrated with Shi Hu, saying, "The one that our state should get rid of first is Jin. Zhang Jun's domain beyond the Yellow River is a backwater country and not worth our worry. But if you behead Ma Shen, we shall have to go to war with Zhang Jun. That would divide our forces, and it would cause some years' delay in taking Jiankang."

Shi Hu thus desisted. This Shi Pu was the great-grandson of Shi Bao.

〈石苞事晉文帝、武帝,功參佐命。〉

(Shi Bao served during the reigns of Emperors Wen (Sima Zhao) and Wu (Sima Yan). He had many achievements in advising his superiors and executing their commands.)


初,漢將李閎為晉所獲,逃奔於趙,漢主壽致書於趙王虎以請之,署曰「趙王石君」。虎不悅,付外議之。中書監王波曰:「令李閎以死自誓曰:『苟得歸骨於蜀,當糾帥宗族,混同王化。』若其信也,則不煩一旅,坐定梁、益;若有前卻,不過失一亡命之人,於趙何損!李壽既僭大號,今以制詔與之,彼必酬返,不若復為書與之。」會挹婁國獻楛矢石砮於趙,波因請以遺漢,曰:「使其知我能服遠方也。」虎從之,遣李閎歸,厚為之禮。閎至成都,壽下詔曰:「羯使來庭,貢其楛矢。」虎聞之,怒,黜王波,以白衣領職。

18. It was earlier mentioned that Jin had captured the Han general Li Hong and taken him to Jiankang. Around this time, Li Hong escaped from Jin and took refuge in Zhao.

Li Shou sent a letter to Shi Hu asking for Li Hong to be returned to Han. In the letter, he addressed Shi Hu as "Lord Shi, King of Zhao". Shi Hu was not pleased, and discussed the letter with his ministers.

The Palace Secretary, Wang Bo, said, "Order Li Hong to swear to us on pain of death, ‘If I may return safely to Shu, I will rally my clan to submit our state to your rule.' If he then remains true to his word, then Lianzhou and Yizhou will fall into our laps without our having to send forth a single regiment. But even if he goes back on his word, then we would only lose this one man, and what loss would that be to Zhao? Now that Li Shou has assumed the imperial title, if we send him an imperial edict of our own, he would likely reply in the same way. It would be better to send him back a personal letter."

At that time, the Yilou state had sent arrows made with special wood and stone as offerings to Zhao. Wang Bo proposed sending some of these on to Han, saying, “This will let them know we can make even faraway states submit to us.”

Shi Hu agreed, so Li Hong was treated with respect and then sent back to Han. But when Li Hong arrived at Chengdu, Li Shou issued an imperial edict saying, "The Jie have sent their envoy to us, offering these arrows as their tribute."

Shi Hu was enraged when he heard of this. Wang Bo was demoted to commoner status, though he was kept on in his current office.

〈事見上年。〉〈古者行軍,五百人爲一旅。〉〈一前一却,猶今人言心懷進退也。〉〈酬,答也。返,還也。〉〈挹婁,古肅愼氏之國也。楛矢長尺有咫。其國東北有山出石,其利入鐵,取以爲砮。杜佑曰:挹婁國在不咸山北,夫餘東北千餘里,濱大海,南與北沃沮接,不知其北所極,廣袤數千里。人衆雖少而多勇力,處山險,善射。弓長四尺,力如弩;矢用楛,長尺八寸;青石爲鏃,所謂石砮也。其取石也,必先祈神。楛,木名,似蓍。砮,音奴,矢鏃也。〉

(Li Hong's capture by Jin is mentioned in the previous year (339.3).

When the ancients arrayed their forces, a group of five hundred men was called a regiment.

Wang Bo describes the possibility of Li Hong breaking his word as 一前一却. This expression, which people still use even today, means one's intentions are wavering, taking first a step forward, next a step back.

Wang Bo uses the expression 酬返. To 酬 is to reply; to 返 is to send back.

The Yilou people lived in the domain of the ancient Sushen people. Their special hu arrows were one 尺 and about eight 寸 in length. There was a mountain in the northeast of their state which produced a certain kind of stone which was useful as a material in weapons, and they used it as flint arrowheads. Du You remarked, "The Yilou state was north of Mount Buxian, more than a thousand li northeast of the Buyeo people. Their territory was along the coast of the ocean. Their southern border was adjacent to the Northern Okjeo. We do not know how far their northern border stretched, but the length and breadth of their land was several thousand li. Though their armies lacked in numbers, they had many bold and strong warriors, they occupied rough mountainous terrain, and they were skilled with the bow. Their bows were four 尺 long, and were just as powerful as a crossbow. Their arrows used hu wood, and were one 尺 and about eight 寸 in length. They used green stones as their arrowheads, which they called stone-flints. Before collecting these stones, they would always pray to the spirits first. The 楛 hu is a tree, one that resembles the yarrow tree. The flint is a stone arrowhead.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Sep 02, 2018 6:13 am, edited 21 times in total.
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BOOK 96

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Feb 06, 2017 5:28 pm

咸康七年(辛丑,公元三四一年)

The Seventh Year of Xiankang (The Xinchou Year, 341 AD)


春,正月,燕王皝使唐國內史陽裕等築城於柳城之北、龍山之西,立宗廟、宮闕,命曰龍城。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong Huang sent the Interior Minister of Tangguo, Yang Yu, and others to build a city north of Liucheng and west of Mount Long. They set up and ancestral temple and a palace there, and Murong Huang ordered the place to be named Longcheng.

〈慕容廆置唐國郡。〉〈由此改柳城爲龍城縣。〉

(Murong Hui had created the commandary of Tangguo.

It was at this time that Liucheng became Longcheng county.)


使陽裕、唐柱等築龍城,構宮廟,改柳城為龍城縣。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Murong Huang sent Yang Yu, Tang Zhu, and others to build the city of Longcheng, and to construct a palace and an ancestral temple there, and he changed Liucheng into Longcheng County.

四年,元真遣使朝貢,城和龍城而都焉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Huang)

In the fourth year of Jianguo (341), Murong Huang sent envoys to the Dai court bearing tribute. He fortified the city of Helong and moved his capital there.

及遷都和龍,裕雅有巧思,皝所制城池宮闔,皆裕之規模。裕雖仕皝日近,寵秩在舊人之右,性謙恭清儉,剛簡慈篤,雖曆居朝端,若布衣之士。士大夫流亡羈絕者,莫不經營收葬,存恤孤遺,士無賢不肖皆傾身待之,是以所在推仰。初,范陽盧諶每稱之曰:「吾及晉之清平,曆觀朝士多矣,忠清簡毅,篤信義烈,如陽士倫者,實亦未幾。」及死,皝甚悼之,時年六十二。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Yang Yu)

When Murong Huang shifted his capital to Helong, because of Yang Yu's refinement and his brilliant mind, Murong Huang placed him in charge of designing the walls, moats, palaces, and inner chambers; everything was laid out according to Yang Yu's standards.

Although Yang Yu was a latecomer to Murong Huang's court, he was shown greater favor and granted a higher salary in his service than he had received under his former lords. But even so, Yang Yu was naturally modest, respectful, pure, and frugal, and he was firm, simple, kind, and sincere. Although he long served at the head of the court, he conducted himself as though he were no more than a commoner. Whenever a minister suffered an unfortunate fate, Yang Yu never failed to collect their remains for burial and provide and care for their orphans and their wishes. Everyone, from worthy to wastrel, bowed down before him, and he was universally acclaimed and admired.

Lu Shen of Fanyang had often used to say of Yang Yu, "During the time when the Jin dynasty was at peace, I saw a great many court ministers. But when it came to loyalty, honesty, simplicity, resolve, sincerity, trust, righteousness, and zeal, none of them could truly compare to Yang Shilun."

When Yang Yu passed away, Murong Huang greatly mourned for him. He was sixty-one years old.


二月,甲子朔,日有食之。

2. In the second month, on the new moon on the day Jiazi (March 4th), there was an eclipse.

七年春二月甲子朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the seventh year of Xiankang (341), in spring, the second month, on the new moon on the day Jiazi (March 4th), there was an eclipse.


劉翔至建康,帝引見,問慕容鎮軍平安。對曰:「臣受遣之日,朝服拜章。」

3. It was earlier mentioned that Murong Huang had sent his Chief Clerk, Liu Xiang, to travel to Jiankang to report on his triumph against Shi Hu and to argue that the Jin court should confirm his title as Prince of Yan. Sometime afterwards, Liu Xiang arrived at Jiankang, and was brought to see Emperor Cheng. Emperor Cheng asked him how Murong Huang was doing. Liu Xiang replied, "On the day I received my commission and was sent forth, General Murong was attired in court robes and did obeisance in your direction."

〈言朝服南向拜發章表於庭。〉

(Liu Xiang was saying that Murong Huang had dressed himself in court attire and was facing south as he presented his seal and petition to the court from a distance.)


翔為燕王皝求大將軍、燕王章璽。朝議以為;「故事:大將軍不處邊;自漢、魏以來,不封異姓為王。所求不可許。」翔曰:「自劉、石構亂,長江以北,剪為戎藪,未聞中華公卿之冑有一人能攘臂揮戈、摧破凶逆者也。獨慕容鎮軍父子竭力,心存本朝,以寡擊眾,屢殄強敵,使石虎畏懼,悉徙邊陲之民散居三魏,蹙國千里,以薊城為北境。功烈如此,而惜海北之地不以為封邑,何哉!昔漢高祖不愛王爵於韓、彭,故能成其帝業;項羽刓印不忍授,卒用危亡。吾之至心,非敬欲尊其所事,竊惜聖朝疏忠義之國,使四海無所勸慕耳。」

4. Liu Xiang asked that the court confer upon Murong Huang the seals for the ranks he had claimed, including Grand General and Prince of Yan.

The court ministers disputed this, saying, "According to past practice, the Grand General is not deployed to the frontier. Furthermore, the rank of Prince has never been given to someone outside of the imperial family. This was so even during Han and Wei. We cannot agree with this request."

Liu Xiang responded, "Ever since the chaos begun by the Liu and Shi clans, all of the realm north of the Yangzi has become the lair of the Rong barbarians. We have yet to hear of anyone among the descendents of the Zhonghua (ie, the Han Chinese) who was prepared to roll up their sleeves, brandish their weapons, and destroy these ferocious invaders. Only General Murong and his sons, acting on behalf of the true court, have exerted themselves to the utmost. They have been fighting back against the many soldiers of the enemy with their handful of men, and even so winning battle after battle, thus putting fear into the heart of Shi Hu.

“Furthermore, they have gathered together all the inhabitants of the border regions who were scattered and living all across the region of the Three Weis, thus building a thousand-li realm, extending all the way to Ji in the north. Yet, despite all of these fierce accomplishments, you begrudge granting him the lands north beyond the sea as his fief. How can that be?

“Do not forget that Gaozu of Han(Liu Bang) was not too miserly to grant princely titles to Han Xin and Peng Yue. It was thanks to that generosity that he was able to make his grand design a reality. On the other hand, Xiang Yu failed against him simply because he could not bear to hand out such seals of nobility. In the depths of my heart, I am not simply trying to elevate the one I serve; rather, I bemoan the fact that the Imperial Court is ostracizing a loyal vassal state, and thus discouraging all within the Four Seas from yearning for and revering you."

〈《周禮註》曰:澤無水曰藪。《爾雅》曰:翦,齊也。〉〈謂徙遼西之民也。魏郡、陽平、廣平爲三魏。〉〈事見《漢高祖紀》。〉

(Liu Xiang more specifically describes the lands north of the Yangzi as the barbarians' 藪. The Annotations to the Rites of Zhou states, "A marsh without water is called a 藪 'shallow lake'." The term is also used to refer to a beast's den or lair. And the Erya dictionary states, "翦 means to be cut off".

Liu Xiang was saying that Murong Huang had relocated the people of Liaoxi. When he says the "Three Weis", he means the commandaries of Wei, Yangping, and Guangping.

The events of Liu Bang's and Xiang Yu's campaigns are mentioned in the section of the Zizhi Tongjian dealing with Liu Bang's reign (Books 9-12).)


尚書諸葛恢,翔之姊夫也,獨主異議,以為:「夷狄相攻,中國之利。惟器與名,不可輕許。」乃謂翔曰:「借使慕容鎮軍能除石虎,乃是復得一石虎也,朝廷何賴焉!」翔曰:「嫠婦猶知恤宗周之隕。今晉室阽危,君位侔元、豈,曾無憂國之心邪?向使靡、鬲之功不立,則少康何以祀夏!桓、文之戰不捷,則同人皆為左衣任矣。慕容鎮軍枕戈待旦,志殄凶逆,而君更唱邪惑之言,忌間忠臣。四海所以未壹,良由君輩耳!」翔留建康歲餘,眾議終不決。

5. The Master of Writing, Zhuge Hui, was Liu Xiang's brother-in-law. However, he still led the argument against him, believing, "If the barbarians fight amongst each other, it is only to the Middle Kingdom's benefit. We cannot so lightly agree to grant such imperial honors and titles, however, simply on account of some military reputation." Then he said to Liu Xiang, "If we employ General Murong in order to defeat Shi Hu, he may only become a new Shi Hu in his place. How can the court rely on him?"

Liu Xiang responded, "It is said that 'even the widow at her loom pauses her work out of anxiety for the decline of the honorable royal family of Zhou'. Now the Jin royal family finds itself in the same peril. You yourself occupy the same position as the Sixteen Talents of Yuan and Kai, so how can you not feel concern in your heart about your state? If it had not been for Mi and the Ge clan's accomplishments, how could Shaokang have restored the Xia dynasty? If Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin had not been triumphant in battle, everyone would have had to tie their robes on the left side.

“General Murong is 'sleeping on his spear and awaiting the dawn', and his ambition is to crush the ferocious invaders. Yet you go so far as to make these wild accusations, sowing doubt against a loyal minister. The land within the Four Seas may very well never be reunited, thanks to people such as you!"

Liu Xiang remained in Jiankang for more than a year, but the ministers could reach no agreement.

〈《左傳》:鄭子太叔見范獻子曰:「嫠不恤緯而憂宗周之隕,王室之不寧,晉之恥也。」〉〈《左傳》:夏之方衰也,后羿因夏民以代夏政;其臣寒浞殺羿而滅夏后相。后緡逃歸有仍,生少康焉。靡奔有鬲氏,自有鬲收衆以滅浞而立少康,祀夏配天,不失舊物。齊桓公北伐山戎,南伐楚,晉文公勝楚於城濮,皆率諸侯以尊周室。孔子曰:微管仲,吾其被髮左袵矣。〉

(Liu Xiang quotes from the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals: "When Zitaishu of Zheng met Fan Xianzi, he said to him, 'Even the widow at her loom pauses her work out of anxiety for the decline of the honorable royal family of Zhou. The royal house is now indeed shaking, and our state of Jin is apprehensive from it (Zhao 24.3).'"

Regarding Shaokang, the Zuo Commentary states, "When the Xia dynasty was in decline, Houyi heeded the wishes of the people of Xia and took charge of governing the realm. But his minister Han Zhuo killed him and destroyed Xia's ruler Houxiang. Empress Min fled back to Reng, where she gave birth to Shaokang. The minister Mi fled to the Ge clan, where he gathered an army and vanquished Han Zhuo to restore Shaokang to the throne. Shaokang sacrificed to the spirits of his ancestors and acted in accordance with Heaven, and so none of his former possessions were lost (Ai 1.2)."

Duke Huan of Qi campaigned to the north against the Shanrong tribes and to the south against the state of Chu, widely viewed as semi-barbaric. Duke Wen of Jin defeated Chu at the battle of Chengpu. In both cases, these leaders were leading the forces of the feudal lords in order to honor the ruling house of Zhou. Confucius himself said, "If not for Guan Zhong, we would now be wearing our hair unbound, and buttoning the lappets of our coats on the left side (Xian Wen 17).")


翔乃說中常侍彧弘曰:「石虎苞八州之地,帶甲百萬,志吞江、漢,自索頭、宇文暨諸小國,無不臣服;惟慕容鎮軍翼戴天子,精貫白日,而更不獲禮之命,竊恐天下移心解體,無復南向者矣。公孫淵無尺寸之益於吳,吳主封為燕王,加以九錫。今慕容鎮軍屢摧賊鋒,威振秦、隴,虎比遣重使,甘言厚幣,欲授以曜威大將軍、遼西王;慕容鎮軍惡其非正,卻而不受。今朝廷乃矜惜虛名,沮抑忠順,豈社稷之長計乎!後雖悔之,恐無及己。」弘為之入言於帝,帝意亦欲許之。會皝上表稱:「庾氏兄弟擅權召亂,宜加斥退,以安社稷。」又與庾冰書,責其當國秉權,不能為國雪恥。冰甚懼,以其絕遠,非所能制,乃與何充奏從其請。乙卯,以慕容皝為使持節、大將軍、都督河北諸軍事、幽州牧、大單于、燕王,備物、典策,皆從殊禮。又以其世子俊為假節、安北將軍、東夷校尉、左賢王;賜軍資器械以千萬計。又封諸功臣百餘人。以劉翔為代郡太守,封臨泉鄉侯,加員外散騎常侍;翔固辭不受。

6. Liu Xiang then made his case to the Regular Palace Attendant, Yu Hong, telling him, "Shi Hu holds sway over eight provinces, and he has a million soldiers dressed in armor. His ambition is to swallow up all the lands beyond the Yangzi and the Han River. From the Suotou (the Tuoba of Dai) and the Yuwen domains to all the other little states, there is not one of them that does not bow to him. Only General Murong still pays homage to the Son of Heaven, and his skill is bright as the very sun in splendor. But if you insist upon such an unappreciative command, I fear that the realm will remain fragmented, and that no one will turn their thoughts towards the south and honor you.

“Consider that, although Gongsun Yuan never gained an inch of territory on behalf of Wu, Sun Quan still granted him the title Prince of Yan, and even the Nine Bestowments. Meanwhile, General Murong has continuously pushed back against the rebels' vanguard, and his might shakes the realm even as far away as the regions of Qin and Long. Shi Hu himself has sent his own envoys to General Murong, with honeyed words and luxurious bribes, trying to win him over as Zhao's Grand General of Glorious Might and Prince of Liaoxi. Yet General Murong has spurned this unjust proposal, and refused to accept such offers.

“But now the court is so miserly with a insubstantial title that it is discouraging and restraining the loyal and obedient. This is hardly the sort of plan to ensure the longevity of the fortunes of state! Even if you later regret it, I fear there will be nothing that can be done."

Yu Hong then went in and spoke to Emperor Cheng, and Emperor Cheng was leaning towards granting the ranks.

At that time, Murong Huang also sent in a memorial to the court stating, "The brothers of the Yu clan have monopolized power and caused disruption. For the peace of the state, they ought to be dismissed from office." And he also wrote a letter to Yu Bing, upbraiding him for not being able to wipe away the shame of the state despite holding the highest office. Yu Bing was very afraid, and worried that Murong Huang was too far away and isolated to be controlled, so he sent in a joint memorial with He Chong asking that Murong Huang's requests be approved.

On the day Yimao (probably Jimao, March 19th), Murong Huang was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow River, Governor of Youzhou, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Yan. All the tokens and documents bestowed upon him were beyond the prescribed rites. His heir Murong Jun was appointed as Credential Holder, General Who Maintains The North, Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, and Worthy Prince of the Left. Ten million units of military equipment were bestowed upon Murong Huang, and more than a hundred of his ministers were also granted titles.

Liu Xiang was offered the titles of Administrator of Dai commandary, Marquis of Linquan County, and Cavalier In Regular Attendance In The Field, but he firmly declined these titles and would not accept them.

〈「彧」,通作「郁」,郁,姓也。《姓譜》有魯相郁貢。〉〈事見七十二卷魏明帝青龍元年。〉〈劉翔詭爲是言耳,然當時將軍必有曜威之號。〉〈以庾亮召蘇峻、祖約之變,復據上流;庾亮死,弟翼握兵於外,弟冰專政於內也。〉〈師古曰:旣有備物而加之策書也。杜預云:典策,春秋之制也。余謂車輅、旂章、弓矢、斧鉞,皆可以言備物。周成王分魯公以大路、大旂、封父之繁弱、夏后氏之璜,備物典策。典者,典法也;策者,策書也。〉〈《晉志》曰:員外散騎常侍,魏末置。〉

(彧 Yu is also written 郁 Yu, and this 郁 is a surname. The Registry of Surnames states, "The state of Lu had a minister named 郁貢 Yu Gong."

Sun Quan's appointment of Gongsun Yuan as Prince of Yan is mentioned in Book 72, in Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei's (Cao Rui's) first year of Qinglong (233.3 in Fang's Chronicles).

Although Liu Xiang was merely embellishing his account by claiming that Shi Hu had offered to appoint Murong Huang as General of Glorious Might, it must have been the case that General of Glorious Might really had become a title in use by that time.

Yu Liang had brought about the rebellion of Su Jun and Zu Yue, and later on he occupied the upper reaches of the Yangzi. After Yu Liang's death, his younger brother Yu Yì wielded command of soldiers on the border, while his younger brother Yu Bing held authority over the government within. This is why Murong Huang speaks of the Yu brothers "monopolizing power and causing disruption".

Regarding the "tokens and documents" which Murong Huang was granted, Yan Shigu remarked, "Having possessed the tokens, he was further granted the documents." And Du Yu remarked, "The documents were a system of control from the Spring and Autumn era." I (Hu Sanxing) say that the "tokens" were the carts and carriages, the banners and seals, the bows and arrows, and the axe and battle-axe. When King Cheng of Zhou granted Jiang Ziya his fief as Duke of Lu, he also granted him the Grand Road, the Grand Banner, the Bow of Fengfu, and the Jade Pendant of the Xia dynasty; these were the tokens and documents. The latter term is more properly the 典策 Canons and Accounts. The Canons were the canons of law; the Accounts were the account books.

The Records of Jin states, "The office of Cavalier In Regular Attendance In The Field was created near the end of Cao-Wei.")


[二月]己卯,慕容皝遣使求假燕王章璽,許之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the second month, on the day Jimao (March 19th), Murong Huang sent envoys asking to be granted the seals and standards as Prince of Yan. Emperor Cheng granted it.

皝雖稱燕王,未有朝命,乃遣其長史劉祥獻捷京師,兼言權假之意,並請大舉討平中原。又聞庾亮薨,弟冰、翼繼為將相,乃表曰:臣究觀前代昏明之主,若能親賢並建,則功致升平;若親黨後族,必有傾辱之禍。是以周之申伯號稱賢舅,以其身籓於外,不握朝權。降及秦昭,足為令主,委信二舅,幾至亂國。逮于漢武,推重田蚡,萬機之要,無不決之。及蚡死後,切齒追恨。成帝暗弱,不能自立,內惑豔妻,外恣五舅,卒令王莽坐取帝位。每覽斯事,孰不痛惋!設使舅氏賢若穰侯、王鳳,則但聞有二臣,不聞有二主。若其不才,則有竇憲、梁冀之禍。凡此成敗,亦既然矣。苟能易軌,可無覆墜。陛下命世天挺,當隆晉道,而遭國多難,殷憂備嬰,追述往事,至今楚灼。跡其所由,實因故司空亮居元舅之尊,勢業之重,執政裁下,輕侮邊將,故令蘇峻、祖約不勝其忿,遂致敗國。至今太后發憤,一旦升遐。若社稷不靈,人神無助,豺狼之心當可極邪!前事不忘,後事之表,而中書監、左將軍冰等內執樞機,外擁上將,昆弟並列,人臣莫疇。陛下深敦渭陽,冰等自宜引領。臣常謂世主若欲崇顯舅氏,何不封以籓國,豐其祿賜,限其勢利,使上無偏優,下無私論。如此,榮辱何從而生!噂遝何辭而起!往者惟亮一人,宿有名望,尚致世變,況今居之者素無聞焉!且人情易惑,難以戶告,縱今陛下無私于彼,天下之人誰謂不私乎!臣與冰等名位殊班,出處懸邈,又國之戚昵,理應降悅,以適事會。臣獨矯抗此言者,上為陛下,退為冰計,疾苟容之臣,坐鑒得失。顛而不扶,焉用彼相!昔徐福陳霍氏之戒,宣帝不從,至令忠臣更為逆族,良由察之不審,防之無漸。臣今所陳,可謂防漸矣。但恐陛下不明臣之忠,不用臣之計,事過之日,更處焦爛之後耳。昔王章、劉向每上封事,未嘗不指斥王氏,故令二子或死或刑。谷永、張禹依違不對,故容身苟免,取譏於世。臣被髮殊俗,位為上將,夙夜惟憂,罔知所報,惟當外殄寇仇,內盡忠規,陳力輸誠,以答國恩。臣若不言,誰當言者!又與冰書曰:君以椒房之親,舅氏之昵,總據樞機,出內王命,兼擁列將州司之位,昆弟網羅,顯布畿甸。自秦、漢以來,隆赫之極,豈有若此者乎!以吾觀之,若功就事舉,必享申伯之名;如或不立,將不免梁竇之跡矣。每睹史傳,未嘗不寵恣母族,使執權亂朝,先有殊世之榮,尋有負乘之累,所謂愛之適足以為害。吾常忿歷代之主,不盡防萌終寵之術,何不業以一土之封,令籓國相承,如周之齊、陳?如此則永保南面之尊,復何黜辱之憂乎!竇武、何進好善虛己。賢士歸心,雖為閹豎所危,天下嗟痛,猶有能履以不驕,圖國亡身故也。方今四海有倒懸之急,中夏逋僭逆之寇,家有漉血之怨,人有復仇之憾,甯得安枕逍遙,雅談卒歲邪!吾雖寡德,過蒙先帝列將之授,以數郡之人,尚欲併吞強虜,是以自頃迄今,交鋒接刃,一時務農,三時用武,而猶師徒不頓,倉有餘粟,敵人日畏,我境日廣,況乃王者之威,堂堂之勢,豈可同年而語哉!冰見表及書甚懼,以其絕遠,非所能制,遂與何充等奏聽皝稱燕王。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Although Murong Huang had proclaimed himself Prince of Yan, he still bowed to Jin authority, so he sent his Chief Clerk, Liu Xiang, to visit the Jin capital and proclaim an account of his triumphs, explain his intentions in taking the provisional titles, and advocate for a grand joint campaign to pacify the Central Plains. When Murong Huang heard that Yu Liang had died, and that his younger brothers Yu Bing and Yu Yi had inherited his authority and command, he composed a petition to the court stating:

"Based on my studies of the wise and the deluded sovereigns of past ages, those that were able to associate themselves with worthy people and establish them were the ones who achieved so much that they brought peace to their states, while those who surrounded themselves with mere partisans and the relatives of their empresses were the ones who always inflicted the disasters of ruin and shame upon their states. It was for that reason that, even though the King of Zhou considered the Earl of Shen to be his "worthy uncle", the Earl himself held a border command and did not wield control over court affairs.

"We might ponder several perilous examples to the contrary. If we consider King Zhaoxiang of Qin, although he was a worthy ruler himself, he entrusted affairs to his two uncles, and that brought his state to the brink of ruin. Coming to Emperor Wu of Han, he assigned great importance to his uncle Tian Fen, so that there was no important decision which Tian Fen did not have a hand in. But after Tian Fen's death, Emperor Wu gnashed his teeth in hatred at his memory. When Emperor Cheng of Han was still young and tender and unable to rule himself, court affairs were all led astray by his captivating wives, while the country was left in the unrestrained hands of his five uncles, and in the end these things led to Wang Mang usurping the imperial seat of power. Who does not feel bitter pain and anguish whenever they reflect upon these unhappy reigns?

"Even if a sovereign places affairs in the hands of one of their uncles who is indeed a worthy fellow, such as Marquis Rang (Wei Ran) or Wang Feng were, it still leads to an unacceptable situation; I have heard of there being two ministers, but never of there being two sovereigns. And if these uncles do not even possess talent, then it leads to the disasters of Dou Xian's and Liang Ji's grips on power. The good or bad outcomes of these situations was only natural. So whoever is able to remain on the right path can avoid such downfalls.

"Now Your Majesty is a renowned and naturally gifted sovereign, so your reign ought to have resulted in the uplifting of Jin's fortunes. But instead, the state has experienced many difficulties, besieged by adversity for which it was ill-prepared, and all these things have led to the current pain and suffering. If we retrace the causes for these events, we find that they were all because of the great honor shown to the late Minister Over The Masses, Yu Liang. When Yu Liang held the reins of power, he interfered in the government and purged his inferiors in the court, while he slighted and injured the generals on the border. This caused Su Jun and Zu Yue to let their resentments boil over, and they inflicted a terrible defeat against the state. That also led to Empress Dowager Yu becoming so agitated that she passed away in an instant. If it had not been for the protection of the state's altars and the assistance of the people and the spirits, then those rebels of wolfish hearts would have claimed the final victory!

"Past events must not be forgotten; they serve as examples to we the living. Yet even now, the Chief of the Palace Secretariat and General of the Left, Yu Bing, and his brothers still occupy the central offices of the court and hold the highest commands on the borders. These brothers are all arrayed such that there is no man or minister they do not influence. Your Majesty is deeply earnest, like the Weiyang poem, and Yu Bing and the others should be willingly heeding your wishes. I have often said that if a sovereign wishes to honor and exalt the family of his uncles, he would do best to grant them fiefs on the borders, and shower them with salaries and rewards while limiting their power and influence. By doing so, he shows them unparalleled honor above, while preventing any suggestion of partiality below. In such situations, will not they produce honor or disgrace on their own, and will good things not be said about them without needing to speak on their behalf?

"Consider that Yu Liang, only a single person, was yet able to bring about such terrible incidents despite the fame and reputation that he held. How much more is this the case now, when those who hold the same position are a bunch of no-names? Besides, the feelings of the people are easily led astray, and it is difficult to make your true intentions known to every household. Although Your Majesty might not mean to be partial to your uncles, who in all the realm will not accuse you of it?

"I myself enjoy nearly the same reputation and position that Yu Bing and his brothers do. Yet I serve in a distant outpost, and my own relatives in my fief enjoy favor or not purely as is suitable, in accordance with the circumstances of the times. Those who would still argue against and craft lies about my words may claim to be acting on behalf of Your Majesty, but really they are serving Yu Bing's designs. They criticize those who would accept my words, lest their own faults should cause them to lose favor. What use are they, who do not support one who is about to fall?

"In former times, Emperor Xuan of Han did not listen to Xu Fu's careful admonishments against the Huo clan, until he was eventually driven to the extent of having to purge the entire clan; the loyal were lumped in alongside the traitors, the investigation against them was not meticulous, and the provisions against them were not gradual. I might therefore say that all my words to you regarding the Yu clan are gradual provisions against them. But I fear that Your Majesty will not perceive my loyalty and will not follow my advice, so that when the day of disaster comes, it will be merely another case of 'burning yourself through your anger'.

"During the reign of Emperor Cheng of Han, in all the petitions that Wang Zhang and Liu Xiang submitted commenting on the affairs of the realm, they never once pointed the finger at the Wang clan of Wang Feng or reprimanded them for their behavior. It was because of these omissions that some of their own sons suffered death, and others suffered punishments. Gu Yong and Zhang Yu likewise followed the trend and did not speak out against them, and although Gu Yong saved his own life, he earned the ridicule of posterity. If I let down my hair and defy convention, it is because I hold such a high role as general. Day and night, my sole concern is for the state, and I seek ways to repay it, whether that be by smiting its foes without or acting fully loyal and proper within. I present a strong argument in order to convey my sincerity, and to respond to the grace which the state has shown me. If even I do not say such things, who ought to?"

He also wrote to Yu Bing, stating:

"Sir, being the maternal uncle of the Emperor, you might be said to be occupying the 'Jiaofang wing of the Weiyang Palace' as a relative of the Empress Dowager. You occupy the highest offices of the state, and both internally and externally you execute the royal mandate. Furthermore, your brothers hold countless positions both as generals and as administrators of the provinces. The glory of your family's name spreads across the whole capital region. In all the reigns since the Qin and Han dynasties, whose family can compare with the great honor with which your own clan has been bestowed? From what I have seen, if through your achievements you ventured some great undertaking, you would certainly gain the same reputation as the Marquis of Shen. And if you perhaps hesitated from that step, it would only be to avoid following the same paths as Liang Ji or Dou Xian.

"Whenever I review the old histories and biographies of the sovereigns of old, I find examples of rulers who initially favored the families of their mothers and let them do as they pleased, even letting them wield authority over the government and cause turmoil in the court. In every such instance, such rulers granted these relatives exceptional honor at first, and yet in the end blamed them of a whole host of faults. So one might say that by initially favoring these relatives, such rulers led them to their doom. I have often faulted the sovereigns of these past ages for not having practiced the art of guarding against such undue budding favoritism. Why did they never endeavor to grant these relatives a plot of land somewhere, and charge them to serve in fiefs along the borders, so that they might support the state and one another together, like the Dukes of Qi and Chen once did for the Zhou dynasty? Had they done so, they would have been able to face south and be honored as rulers forever, and how could they have ever have had cause to worry about suffering demotion or disgrace?

"At the end of the Han dynasty, the imperial uncles Dou Wu and He Jin favored good people while being humble themselves. Worthy gentlemen supported them, and though they were endangered by the eunuchs, the whole realm sympathized with them. It was only because they were not prompt in carrying out their plans that they lost their lives and the state fell.

"At the moment, all the lands within the Four Seas are suffering from the most extreme adversity, and Zhongxia is overrun with presumptuous traitors. Families have their blood boil over in rage, and people are determined to avenge this disaster. Is this any time to lay comfortably on one's pillow in perfect comfort and while away the years in refined conversation?

"I myself may possess scant virtue, but I have been blessed to receive titles of office by His Late Majesty. Though I only command the people of a few commandaries, by their aid I have annexed and conquered strong enemies. I have devoted myself to constant warfare up until now, locked in battle with blades crossed; I have only one season of the year to attend to farming, for the other three are spent in military endeavors. Yet though I must lead my armies in constant campaigns without rest, my warehouses are overflowing with grain, my enemies fear for me grows by the day, and my territory expands ever larger. If even I am able to accomplish this much, how much could one accomplish if they possessed the might of the royal armies and the power of the imperial domain? Why then have you spent the same years in idle chatter?"

When Yu Bing saw the petition and the letter, he was very afraid. Worried that Murong Huang was too far away and isolated to be controlled, he sent in a memorial with He Chong and others asking that Murong Huang's proclaimed title of Prince of Yan be confirmed.

慕容雋字宣英,皝第二子,小字賀賴跋。十三月而生,有神光之異,身長八尺一寸。善為文,雅好辭賦,至於器物車室,皆著讚以為勸戒。皝之八年,晉遣使者拜皝燕王,以雋為安北將軍、東夷校尉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun, styled Xuanying, was Murong Huang's second son. His childhood name was Helaiba. His mother was pregnant for thirteen months before she gave birth to him, and he had a remarkable divine glow. Murong Jun grew to be eight chi one cun tall. He was skilled at writing, and he composed elegant rhapsodies with fine words. Even when it came to his utensils, his carriage, and his house, he took all praise to be admonishment.

In the eighth year of Murong Huang's reign (341), when Jin sent their envoys to appoint Murong Huang as Prince of Yan, they appointed Murong Jun as General Who Maintains The North and Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes.

儁,字宣英。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Jun)

Murong Jun's style name was Xuanying.


翔疾江南士大夫以驕奢酣縱相尚,嘗因朝貴宴集,謂何充等曰:「四海板蕩,奄逾三紀,宗社為墟,黎民塗炭,斯乃廟堂焦慮之時,忠臣畢命之秋也。而諸君宴安江沱,肆情縱欲,以奢靡為榮,以傲誕為賢;謇諤之言不聞,征伐之功不立,將何以尊主濟民乎!」充等甚慚。

7. During his time in the Southland, Liu Xiang abhored how the Southland gentry praised each other for being vain and extravagant, indulgent in drinking, and wanton in behavior. During a grand feast held by the court when all the ministers were gathered together, he said to He Chong and the others, "All within the Four Seas remains torn asunder. Yet you have hidden away here for thirty-six years already. The royal altars lie in ruins, and the common people suffer greatly. At such a time, the imperial court should feel great anxiety over the state of affairs, and loyal ministers should be glad to give their lives in battle to rectify it. Yet, here all of you are, living in ease and comfort in your sanctuary behind the Yangzi, wantonly indulging your every desire, and considering everything wasteful and extravagant as the height of virtue. You turn a deaf ear to honest and upright speech, and have no achievements of conquest to speak of. When do you intend to honor your lord and rescue the people?"

He Chong and the others were very ashamed.

〈《板》、《蕩》,刺周厲王之詩也。板板,反也;言厲王爲政反先王與天之道,天下之民盡病也。蕩蕩,法度廢壞之貌;言天下蕩蕩無綱紀文章也。惠帝永興元年,劉淵肇亂,至是三十六年矣。〉〈江水別爲沱。〉

(Liu Xiang more specifically says that the realm is 板蕩 Ban and Dang. The Ban and Dang poems in the Book of Poetry were written as criticisms of King Li of Zhou. Because of those, the term 板板 means reversed or turned aside, for in the ways he was governing the state, King Li had turned aside from the proper path established by his ancestors and by Heaven, and all the people of the realm were afflicted. And the term 蕩蕩 means that the laws and standards appear to be corrupted, for the realm has become ill-governed and there is no record of law and order.

Liu Yuan had begun his rebellion in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (304.28). It had been thirty-six years since then.

Liu Xiang refers to the 沱 of the Yangzi. The bend of a river is called its 沱.)


詔遣兼大鴻臚郭烯持節詣棘城冊命燕王,與翔等偕北。公卿餞於江上,翔謂諸公曰:「昔少康資一旅以滅有窮,勾踐憑會稽以報強吳;蔓草猶宜早除,況寇仇乎!今石虎、李壽,志相吞噬,王師縱未能澄清北方,且當從事巴、蜀。一旦石虎先入舉事,並壽而有之,據形便之地以臨東南,雖有智者,不能善其後矣。」中護軍謝廣曰:「是吾心也!」

8. Emperor Cheng issued an edict granting the Minister Herald, Guo Xi, a staff of authority and ordering him to accompany Liu Xiang and the other Yan envoys back north, to visit Jicheng and convey his orders to the new Prince of Yan.

The Jin ministers held a farewell dinner at the Yangzi. Liu Xiang said to them, “Remember how Shaokang only had one regiment, and yet he managed to destroy the Youqiong tribe and restore Xia. Remember how King Goujian of Yue, with only Kuaiji as his domain, was able to avenge himself against Wu. Even for a matter as insignificant as encroaching weeds, one does well to remove them as soon as possible. How much more does that principle apply to one's encroaching enemy!

"Now, Shi Hu and Li Shou each wants to conquer the other. Before you will be able to purge the north of your foes, you must first settle the issue of Ba and Shu. Should Shi Hu makes the first move and annex Li Shou’s land before you, he will be towering over the southeast from a position of geographical advantage. Not even the wisest man could salvage the situation then.”

The Army Protector of the Center, Xie Guang, declared, "That is my feeling as well!"

〈《左傳》:少康邑於綸,有田一成,有衆一旅,能布其德而兆其謀,以收夏衆,遂滅有窮。〉〈越王句踐棲于會稽,臥薪嘗膽,卒以滅吳。〉〈《左傳》鄭祭仲曰:「無使滋蔓,蔓難圖也,蔓草猶不可除。」〉

(The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "When Shaokang possessed the city of Lun, he had no more than one 成 of land and one regiment of (or, five hundred) soldiers. But he was able to extend his virtue across the land and put his plans into action, and thus he gathered up the forces of Xia and vanquished the Youqiong (Ai 1.2)."

King Goujian of Yue had his domain in Kuaiji. When he was taken prisoner by the state of Wu, he "laid on thorns and drank gall" and thus endured the bitterness of capivity. And in the end, he destroyed Wu.

The Zuo Commentary further states, "Even weeds, when they have grown and spread all about, cannot be removed (Yin 1.3).")


八年七月,晉使鴻臚郭忱持節拜皝侍中、大都督、河北諸軍事、大將軍、燕王,其餘官皆如故。封諸功臣百餘人。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 3, Biography of Murong Huang)

In the eighth year of Xiankang (342), the seventh month, Jin sent the Grand Herald, Guo Chen, bearing a staff of authority to appoint Murong Huang as Palace Attendant, Grand Commander, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow river, Grand General, and Prince of Yan, while maintaining his former offices as well. More than a hundred of Murong Huang's subordinates were also granted offices in recognition of their achievements.

於是成帝使兼大鴻臚郭希持節拜皝侍中、大都督河北諸軍事、大將軍、燕王,其餘官皆如故。封諸功臣百餘人。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Huang)

Emperor Cheng sent his combined Grand Herald, Guo Xi, bearing a staff of authority to appoint Murong Huang as Palace Attendant, Grand Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow river, Grand General, and Prince of Yan, while still keeping his original titles as before. More than a hundred of Murong Huang's subordinates were also granted offices in recognition of their achievements.


三月,戊戌,皇后杜氏崩。夏,四月,丁卯,葬恭皇后於興平陵。

9. In the third month, on the day Wuxu (April 7th), Empress Du of Jin passed away.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Dingmao (May 6th), Empress Du was buried at Xingping Tomb. Her posthumous title was Empress Gong ("the Revered").

三月戊戌,杜皇后崩。夏四月丁卯,葬恭皇后于興平陵。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third month, on the day Wuxu (April 7th), Empress Du passed away.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Dingmao (May 6th), Empress Gong (Lady Du) was buried at Xingping Tomb.


詔實王公以下至庶人皆正土斷、白籍。

10. An imperial edict was sent out in Jin ordering everyone, from princes and nobles down through the common people, to record truthfully their places of origin before they had fled south of the Yangzi and their current residence in the Southland.

〈時王公庶人多自北來,僑寓江左;今皆以土著爲斷,著之白藉也。白藉者,戶口版藉也。宋、齊以下有黃籍。〉

(By this time, many of the princes, nobles, and commoners in the Southland were people who had come there from the north, and they had set up emigre communities based around where they had lived in the north. So at this time, they were ordered to distinguish themselves from the natives of the Southland and record themselves in the White Registers. These White Registers were household registers; Liu-Song, Qi, and the other southern dynasties which followed Jin all had the similar Yellow Registers.)


實編戶,王公已下皆正土斷白籍。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In order to rectify the household registers, everyone from princes and nobles on down were ordered to record their true places of origin in the White Registers.


秋,七月,郭烯、劉翔等至燕,燕王皝以翔為東夷護軍、領大將軍長史,以唐國內史陽裕為左司馬,典書令李洪為右司馬,中尉鄭林為軍諮祭灑。

11. In fall, the seventh month, Guo Xi, Liu Xiang, and the others arrived in Yan.

Murong Huang appointed Liu Xiang as Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes and acting Chief Clerk to the Grand General. Yang Yu became the Marshal of the Left. The Prefect of the Directors of Writing, Li Hong, became the Marshal of the Right. The Commandant of the Capital, Zheng Lin, became the Libationer-Consultant of Army Affairs.

〈晉制:王國置典書、典祠、典衞、學官令各一人。典書令,天朝吏部尚書之職。中朝制:典書令在常侍、侍郎上,及渡江則侍郎次常侍,而典書令居三軍下。〉

(According to the systems of Jin, princely fiefs created their own offices of Prefects of the Directors of Writing, of the Directors of Sacrifices, of the Directors of the Guards, and of the Instructional Bureau. Each of these offices were held by one man. The Prefect of the Directors of Writing was a similar office to the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing in the central court. According to the systems of the Central Court, the Prefect of the Directors of Writing was a higher position than that of Regular Attendant or Gentleman-Attendant. Since, at the time the Jin court moved to the Southland, Gentleman-Attendants were inferior to Regular Attendants, the office of Prefect of the Directors of Writing must have occupied a spot below the Three Generals.)


皝遷裕大將軍左司馬。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Yang Yu)

Murong Huang later appointed Yang Yu as Marshal of the Left to the Grand General.


八月,辛酉,東海哀王沖薨。

12. In the eighth month, on the day Xinyou (August 28th), the Prince of Donghai, Sima Chong, passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Ai ("the Lamented").

〈沖後東海王越,事見八十七卷懷帝永嘉五年。〉

(Sima Chong had inherited the title Prince of Donghai from the late Sima Yue, whose death is mentioned in Book 87, in Emperor Huai's fifth year of Yongjia (311.11).)


秋八月辛酉,驃騎將軍、東海王沖薨。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Xinyou (August 28th), the General of Agile Cavalry and Prince of Donghai, Sima Chong, passed away.


九月,代王什翼犍築盛樂城於故城南八里。

13. In the ninth month, the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian, built a new city at Shengle eight li south of where the old city was.

四年秋九月,築盛樂城於故城南八里。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fourth year of Jianguo (341), in autumn, the ninth month, Tuoba Shiyijian built the city of Shengle eight li south of where the old city was.


代王妃慕容氏卒。

14. The Princess-Consort of Dai, Lady Murong, passed away.

皇后慕容氏崩。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Tuoba Shiyijian's Consort, Lady Murong, passed away.


冬,十月,匈奴劉虎寇代西部,代王什翼犍遣軍逆擊,大破之。虎卒,子務桓立,遣使求和於代,什翼犍以女妻之。務桓又朝貢於趙,趙以務桓為平北將軍、左賢王。

15. In winter, the tenth month, the Xiongnu chieftain Liu Hu invaded the western part of Dai. Tuoba Shiyijian dispatched an army to attack him, and greatly routed him. Liu Hu died, and his son Liu Wuhuan took his place. Liu Wuhuan sent envoys seeking peace with Dai, so Tuoba Shiyijian sent him his daughter to wed.

Liu Wuhuan also sent tribute to Zhao. Zhao granted him the titles of General Who Pacifies The North and Worthy King of the Left.

冬十月,劉虎寇西境。帝遣軍逆討,大破之,虎僅以身免。虎死,子務桓立,始來歸順,帝以女妻之。十二月,慕容元真遣使朝貢,并薦其宗女。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In winter, the tenth month, Liu Hu invaded the western part of Dai. Tuoba Shiyijian dispatched an army to attack him, and greatly routed him; Liu Hu barely escaped with his life. Liu Hu died, and his son Liu Wuhuan took his place. Liu Wuhuan at first came to demonstrate his obedience, so Tuoba Shiyijian gave him his daughter to wed.

In the twelfth month, Murong Yuanzhen (Murong Huang) sent envoys to the Dai court bearing tribute, and offered Tuoba Shiyijian another woman from his clan.

昭成初,虎又寇西部,帝遣軍逆討,又大破之。虎死,子務桓代領部落,遣使歸順。務桓,一名豹子。招集種落,為諸部雄。潛通石虎,虎拜為平北將軍、左賢王。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Hu & Liu Wuhuan)

At the beginning of Tuoba Shiyijian's reign, Liu Hu again invaded the western regions of Dai. Tuoba Shiyijian sent an army to campaign against him, and he greatly routed Liu Hu. Then Liu Hu passed away, and his son Liu Wuhuan took over his army and his people. Liu Wuhuan sent envoys restoring his allegiance to Dai.

Liu Wuhuan was also named Liu Baozi. He recruited many branches and tribes to himself, becoming a hero of the various tribes. He was in secret communication with Shi Hu, who appointed him as General Who Conquers The North and Worthy King of the Left.


趙橫海將軍王華帥舟師自海道襲燕安平,破之。

16. Zhao’s General Who Traverses The Sea, Wang Hua, led a water-based invasion of Yan’s city of Anping, and took it.

〈此遼東郡之西安平也。四年,華以青州之衆戍海島,故得襲破之。〉

(This Anping was Western Anping in Liaodong commandary. In the fourth year of Xiankang (338.1), Wang Hua had gathered his forces at the sea islands in Qingzhou; this was why he was now in a position to attack and capture Anping.)


燕王皝以慕容恪為渡遼將軍,鎮平郭。自慕容翰、慕容仁之後,諸將無能繼者。及恪至平郭,撫舊懷新,屢破高句麗兵,高句麗畏之,不敢入境。

17. Murong Huang appointed Murong Ke as General Who Crosses The Liao, and he was stationed at Pingguo.

Now Murong Han and Murong Ren had both been stationed at Pingguo before, and ever since they had left, no one else there had been as capable as they had been. But when Murong Ke arrived at Pingguo, he nurtured the old and cherished the new. Many times he smashed the soldiers of Goguryeo, until Goguryeo feared him and did not dare to enter Yan's territory.

使鎮遼東,甚有威惠。高句麗憚之,不敢為寇。皝使恪與俊俱伐夫餘,俊居中指授而已,恪身當矢石,推鋒而進,所向輒潰。(Book of Jin 111, Biography of Murong Ke)

Murong Huang sent Murong Ke to guard Liaodong, where Murong Ke became well-known for his might and his kindness. Goguryeo feared him, and they did not dare to invade.


十二月,興平康伯陸玩薨。

18. In the twelfth month, the Jin minister Lu Wan passed away. He was posthumously known as Earl Kang ("the Peaceful") of Xingping.

冬十二月癸酉,司空、興平伯陸玩薨。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In winter, the twelfth month, the Minister of Works and Earl of Xingping, Lu Wan, passed away.


漢主壽以其太子勢領大將軍、錄尚書事。初,成主雄以儉約寬惠得蜀人心。及李閎、王嘏還自鄴,盛稱鄴中繁庶,宮殿壯麗;且言趙王虎以刑殺御下,故能控制境內。壽慕之,徙旁郡民三丁以上者以實成都,大修宮室,治器玩;人有小過,輒殺以立威。左僕射蔡興、右僕射李嶷皆坐直諫死。民疲於賦役,吁嗟滿道,思亂者眾矣。

19. Li Shou appointed his Crown Prince, Li Shi, as acting Grand General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

Originally, the founder of Cheng, Li Xiong, had won the hearts of the people of Shu through lenient and frugal ruling. But when Li Hong and Wang Gu had returned to Shu from Ye, they spoke of the riches of Ye, and the grand palaces there. They also mentioned how Shi Hu was able to control his territory by ruling his subordinates with punishments and executions. Li Shou yearned for such things too, so he began to relocate people to Chengdu from the nearby commandaries. If any household had more than three men, the rest were sent to Chengdu, where they could construct grand palaces and craft ornaments and various artifacts. And Li Shou would execute people even for minor offences, just to flaunt his authority. The Deputy Director of the Left, Cai Xing, and the Deputy Director of the Right, Li Yí, both remonstrated with Li Shou and were killed for it. The people were exhausted from taxes and corvee labor; the sound of their sighs filled the roads, and many harbored thoughts of rebellion.

〈王嘏去年聘趙,與李閎俱歸。〉〈史言漢將亡。〉

(Wang Gu had gone to Zhao as an envoy in the previous year, and he returned to Cheng-Han at the same time as Li Hong.

This passage demonstrates Cheng-Han's imminent demise.)


四年,以太子勢領大將軍,錄尚書事。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Shou)

In the fourth year of Hanxing (341), Li Shou appointed his Crown Prince, Li Shi, as acting Grand General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

壽以其太子勢領大將軍、錄尚書事。壽承雄寬儉,新行篡奪,因循雄政,未逞其志欲。會李閎、王嘏從鄴還,盛稱季龍威強,宮觀美麗,鄴中殷實。壽又聞季龍虐用刑法,王遜亦以殺罰禦下,並能控制邦域,壽心欣慕,人有小過,輒殺以立威。又以郊甸未實,都邑空虛,工匠器械,事未充盈,乃徙旁郡戶三丁已上以實成都,興尚方禦府,發州郡工巧以充之,廣修宮室,引水入城,務於奢侈。又廣太學,起宴殿。百姓疲于使役,呼嗟滿道,思亂者十室而九矣。其左僕射蔡興切諫,壽以為誹謗,誅之。右僕射李嶷數以直言懺旨,壽積忿非一,托以他罪,下獄殺之。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Shou appointed his Crown Prince, Li Shi, as acting Grand General and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

When Li Shou first came to the throne, since he was a usurper and had not yet consolidated his power, he continued to follow the generous and frugal policies that Li Xiong had set earlier, and did not yet indulge in his own wishes and desires. But after Li Hong and Wang Gu returned from Ye, they heaped praise upon Shi Hu's power and strength, and they spoke of the fine treasures they had seen in Shi Hu's palaces and the riches of Ye itself. Li Shou also heard how Shi Hu was very cruel in his adminstration of law and his use of punishments. Wang Sui had also used punishments and executions to restrain those below him, and he had been able to control and wield power over neighboring regions. Li Shou admired all of these things.

Li Shou began to execute people even for minor offences, just to flaunt his authority. Since the suburbs of Chengdu had not been populated yet, the capital region lay empty and bare, and there were not enough craftsmen or tools to make as many things as Li Shou desired. So Li Shou relocated people to Chengdu from the nearby commandaries: if any household had more than three men, the rest were sent to Chengdu. He put these people to work constructing fine places and secure warehouses, and he collected artifacts from all the provinces and commandaries to fill them. The people also expanded and renovated the palaces, and they diverted rivers into the city. Everything was devoted to luxury. Li Shou also expanded the Imperial Academy and raised the Feast Hall. The common people were exhausted from taxes and corvee labor; the sound of their sighs filled the roads, and nine of every ten households considered rebellion.

Li Shou's Supervisor of the Left, Cai Xing, bluntly remonstrated with him, but Li Shou felt that Cai Xing was slandering him, so he executed Cai Xing. And his Supervisor of the Right, Li Yí, candidly asked him to recant his decrees, but Li Shou grew indignant at him for disagreeing with him, so he charged Li Yí with some other crime as a pretext and threw him in prison to kill him.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Sep 13, 2018 9:23 pm, edited 30 times in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Tue Feb 07, 2017 12:41 am

Well what do you know? I still have my superpowers. Mwahahaha.

Please continue. I'm lovin' all the notes.

Edit: Some corrections for the first post:

2. "He asked Xu Cheng" should be "He asked Xu Guang"

大丈夫行事,宜礌礌落落,如日月皎然 = When a true man acts, he should be forthright and aboveboard, and open and clear as the sun and moon.

礌礌落落 = 磊磊落落

3. Marquis Lu should be Marquis Liu

5. 殘賊安忍 = ruthless and cruel
其諸子年長,皆典兵權 = all his sons have grown up and hold military power
卿正恐不得擅帝舅之權耳 = You're just worried that you wouldn't have sole control over him as the Imperial Uncle.
臣所慮者公家,陛下乃以私計拒之 = My concerns are regarding [the welfare of] the state, but Your Majesty dismiss them as my designs [to further myself]
陛下酬其父子恩榮亦足矣 = It is sufficient for Your Majesty to have rewarded him and his sons with grace and honour.
豈將來有益者乎 = How could he be of benefit in the future?

6. 切齒 can metaphorically mean "bears a grudge". It doesn't necessarily mean the Prince literally gnashed his teeth at them.

魏承漢運 has the further implication that Wei inherited the Mandate from Han (and not just simply "replaced")

中山王藉陛下威略 = 藉 means "relies on", "by the way of", so this is more like "The Prince of Zhongshan, by your power and shrewdness,"

所向輒克 = 克 is specifically referring to military victories, i.e., "He has vanquished all whom he faced"

父子並據權位,勢傾王室 = this is more of a state of affairs than a description of an action. It's more accurately "He and his sons all occupy positions of authority, and their influence overpowers that of the imperial house."

而耿耿常有不滿之心 = and yet he broods and often harbours resentment.

複製 = not a correction, but since that term now means "replicate", I'm just picturing an army of Shi Le clones.

省可尚書奏事 = review and approve the Ministries' memorials/petitions
參綜可否 = join in the decision of approval/disapproval
惟征伐斷斬大事乃呈之 = and only submit (to Shi Le) major issues such as warfare and executions
於是嚴震之權過於主相 = so Yan Zhen's power surpassed that of his lords's and the ministers'
門可雀羅 = to be ostracized and isolated, to the point that you have so few visitors that you can set a trap to catch birds at your front door

7. 悉俘其眾 = Took all his men as prisoners

8. 略威儀 = scaled back his pomp and ceremonies

10. 當以日月制之,待其智勇俱困,然後取之 = We should overcome them with time; wait until they have exhausted both their wits and their strength, then we can capture them.

何足汲汲 = There is no need to be hasty.

不利 is more than "gained nothing"; it's "become disadvantaged", which really is just "had a rough time"

11. 劍履上殿 = "...without removing his sword or shoes"

贊拜不名 = "to not have his full name announced when he is presented before the emperor" (they would announce him by his rank and title, and omit the personal name out of respect. You gotta wonder how people back then remembered other people's names if they are like never used directly)

12.庚戌 should be Gengxu

13. "considered him to be like a king" should be "all referred to him as Prince"
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Feb 08, 2017 4:02 pm

Many thanks to Lady Wu for her involvement in this project; I couldn't have done it without here.

I appreciate all the notices of errors, and they have been corrected. Please continue to do so. :huohu:
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Wed Feb 08, 2017 7:51 pm

333 AD (you still need to change all the (咸康s)

1. 詔焚其幣 = The Jin ordered for the monetary gift (?) to be burnt. (I'd have kicked the envoy out and kept the money, but that's just me)

4. 誕以遼東太守陽騖為才而讓之 = Wang Dan asked for that position to be given to Yang Wu instead due to Yang Wu's talents.

5. 入侍禁中 = entered the inner palace to serve him.

矯詔,群臣親戚皆不得入 should be read as one sentence: "He forged an edict prohibiting all ministers..."

見宏,驚曰 I think in context he wouldn't be speaking directly to Shi Hong, else Shi Hu's line wouldn't make sense.

今遣之: 遣 is a transitive verb meaning "to send away". So Shi Hu is saying "I'm going to send him back now." Even though he kept them there. And then he told Shi Le, "I sent him away as soon as you commanded me."

Also can someone explain how you can deal with locusts by sending cavalry? Like if the horses eat all the grains the locusts would die out from not having food?

6. 遺命 = last command

口實 = I think it's better rendered as "give cause for criticism"

若不堪重任,天下自有大義,何足豫論 = If you are unsuited for the position, the realm would judge you accordingly; why keep talking about it now?


12. 遽相陵籍 = hurried to bully us

帝祚之亡,殆不復久 = What you have isn't semantically wrong, but it's more literally "The destruction (亡) of the imperial fortunes (帝祚) is likely (殆) not far away (不復久)"

將若之何 is more like "whatcha gonna do?"

微服 is really just "dressed as a commoner"

輕騎襲兗州 = led a surprise attack on Yanzhou with light cavalry (he didn't try to conquer the city all by himself!)

"where he was roasted alive and then killed" = implying the roasting didn't kill him? Maybe better as "where he was killed by roasting alive". And, Shi Hu, really, why do you wonder where your sons got their bloodthirstiness from?

Prince of Nanyang Shi Kui = Shi Hui?

"and cut off his feet before beheading him" - Because it's important that your decapitation victim can't run away... :?

說虎徙關中豪傑...: 說 here means "to persuade, to lobby", as in 游說. It rarely (if ever) means simply "to speak" in the language of that time. And I think you forgot '關中豪傑'

命虎建魏台 = isn't this literally "ordered Shi Hu to build Wei Tower"?

17. 得士心 = had won the favour of the scholar-official class (and yesssss we're in Murong territory now)

皆有寵於廆 = 皆 means all--all those brothers had been favoured by Murong Hui

I think you missed 皝忌之 (Murong Huang was suspicious of them)

先公 = It's really just "my late father" (was Murong Hui a duke?)

幸賴先公之靈,所向有功,此乃天贊吾國,非人力也 = 靈 is referring to the spirit of the deceased. So, Murong Han was saying that he was only able to achieve military successes with the help of his later father's spirit, which really was Heaven helping the state and not the achievement of mortal power. But people kept attributing Murong Han's successes to his own abilities and thus suspect that he would become uncontrollable.

坐而待禍 = More literally, "stay here and await misfortune"

19. The plot thickens!

吾等素驕,多無禮於嗣君,嗣君剛嚴,無罪猶可畏,況有罪乎! = "We have been arrogant [nice self-reflection there, Murong Ren], and have been discourteous to the new ruler on many occasions. The new ruler is austere and harsh; even the innocent fear him, let alone those who have offended him!"

吾輩皆體正嫡,於國有分 = we are all born of our father's main wife (正嫡... can't think of a better way to express that), and thus have rights (分, alternatively "a share") to the kingdom.

兄素得士心 = I'm going to suggest 士 meaning scholar-officials again

我在內未為所疑 = I think you're missing this line: "I have not fallen under suspicion [you poor naive child] inside the Capital"

兄趣舉兵以來,我為內應: 趣 means "hurry, swiftly". 內應 is more than just giving a signal; it's any kind of coordination from within (logistics, opening of gates, removing obstacles from within...)

20. 皝賜昭死 = 賜死 is, of course, more specifically "ordering someone to commit suicide"

建武將軍幼、稚、廣威將軍軍 this line is so amusing, 幼稚 being the modern term for "childish", and 廣威將軍軍 is just awesome.

司馬遼東佟壽: 佟壽 was a 司馬 from 遼東

壽嘗為仁司馬 = Tong Shou had (嘗) once been Murong Ren's marshal (and that's why he surrendered)

與汗俱還 = 還 is just "went home", not necessarily implying fleeing

22. 通表 is specifically sending a diplomatic message

稱籓於成 = offering fealty to Cheng

行無跡之地 = travel through untrodden land

寡君使小臣行無跡之地,萬里通誠於建康者,以陛下嘉尚忠義,能成人之美故也: [...abc...]者, 以[...xyz...]故也 means "As for abc, it's because of xyz". So here, it should be, "My lord has sent me to make diplomatic ties with Jiankang because he knew Your Majesty values loyalty and righteousness, and are ready to lend a hand.

'Li Xiong, shocked, replied, "How could this be?"': Yeah yeah Li Xiong, just keep feigning ignorance. We all believe you.

23. 請留之 = "Please keep him here"

壯士安肯留!且試以卿意觀之 = "Why would the brave man be willing to stay? But let's try what you're thinking and see what happens."

卿體豐大,天熱,可且遣下吏,小住須涼 = "Sir, you are (fat? of a stout build? corpulent? literally 'your body is fat and big'), and it is hot now. Why don't you send a minor official on your errand, and stay here for a while until it's cooler?"

寡君以皇輿播越,梓宮未返,生民塗炭,莫之振救,故遣淳通誠上都 = Our lord is sending me to express loyalty (word choice?) to the Capital, because he's thinking about how the Imperial Carriage is in exile (播越 is just "scattered and exiled"), the coffins of the former emperors (梓宮) have not returned (to the north), the people are living in great hardship, and there is nothing he could do to help.

世篤忠貞 = For generations they have been steadfast in their loyalty. 世 is usually "generation(s)" in the language of this time.

以仇恥未雪,枕戈待旦 = 以 here refers to one's reasoning or thinking: "As he has not avenged his enemies, he keeps himself constantly ready to fight."

何自娛之有 = Why would he seek to please himself?

24. 屢上書請遣大使 = he submitted petition after petition for an imperial envoy to be sent... (he wasn't asking for the job himself)

拜張駿鎮西大將軍 = 拜 is just a respectful official appointment to a high position. So, the court (not sure about 守侍書御史), and appointed Zhang Jun as General etc.

十二人 = twelve, not twenty

以詔書付賈陵 = Geng Fang gave the imperial edict to Jia Ling, and he himself went in in the disguise of a merchant.

Last line: And only in this year (333) did Jia Ling arrive at Liangzhou. (始 can also mean "only then did...")
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Thu Feb 09, 2017 4:20 am

334 (336 can't come fast enough. Still not nearly enough Murong here)

切責蘭等,必令拔之 = scolded Duan Lan and his men severely and ordered them to take the city no matter what

復益兵來攻: 益兵 = with more soldiers

重袍蒙楯 = in heavy armour (or just clothing) and covered with shields

飛梯 = Is flying ladder a term? These were just ladders for scaling city walls

賊氣銳 = The enemy is in high spirits

弈整陳力戰,故得不沒 = Feng Yi rallied his troops (整陳 = 整陣 = to reorganize formation) and fought hard, and because (故) of that he was not routed (不沒)

7. 止之 = Murong Han stopped him (之 is the pronoun for him/it, so zhi is a transitive verb)

夫為將當務慎重,審己量敵,非萬全不可動 = this part is not a direct admonishment ("you should do this"), but a generic statement. 夫 in such a sentence introduce the topic of discussion, which in this case is 為將 ("when being a general"). 非 x 不可 y = "must not y unless x". So the sentence here should be, "when one is a general, he must employ every caution, assessing his own strength as well as the enemy's, and avoid action unless everything is certain (萬全 = everything is ok).

未能屈其大勢: 屈 = to defeat, to humiliate, to bend, so here it's more literally "this hasn't put a dent in their overall power"

若進而得志 = I think this is "if we advance and succeed"

終不負卿: 負 can also mean "to let down, to betray", so here he's saying "I won't let you down" or "I won't betray you"

無復還理 = there's no (無) reason (理) for me to return (復還), aka "now that I've joined you, I wouldn't think of returning"

但欲為大國之計,且相為惜功名耳 = But I am only wanting to act for the best of the state (referring to the Duans), plus (且) I want to preserve (惜) our mutual (相) glory (功名). 大國之計 could either be "(best) course of action for (our) revered state", or "(best) course of action for making the state greater"

欲獨還 = was gonna go back alone

8. 分寧州置交州 more technically, creating Jiaozhou by splitting Ningzhou

Baidi = Beidi. Is it actually a place name or "northern lands"?

虎幽之 = Shi Hu locked him (Shi Hong) up.

11.以滿盈自懼: 滿盈 = to be full to the brim. In this instance, Tao Kan was fearing for himself because he had attained everything (this is tied to the belief that overperfection can lead to disaster--in his case, he could be inviting jealousy or suspicion)

不預朝權 = did not participate in court affairs (more than not attending court, he removed himself from all government affairs)

奉送 = not just give away, but give back

皆有定薄,封印倉庫,侃自加管鑰。= [all his stuff] was counted and recorded (薄 should really be 簿 , like an accounting book), and sealed away (封印 = to mark counted objects with an official seal to prevent tampering) in the warehouse, and Tao Kan personally locked it up (加管鑰 = added the lock).

加督護統領文武 = he further gave Wang Qianqi the position of 督護 so he could lead all civil and military officers.

老子婆娑,正坐諸君 = ugh I struggled with this one. My current understanding: 正坐諸君 = "it's you guys' fault" (坐 = to be convicted, to be found guilty). 婆娑 could be either "linger" or "disheveled/sick/falling apart". So it's either "I've been stuck here too long because of youse", or "I'm this sick because of youse". Either way, kinda sad he died *the very next day*. Suspicious?

陶公雖用法,而恆得法外意: this is another tough one... Perhaps "Althought Lord Tao applies the law (like everyone else), he is able to get the spirit of the law"?

12. 生瘍於頭 = had an ulcer/sore on his head

皆膿潰 = ruptured with pus

惡而遠之: I guess "ill at ease" isn't wrong, but it's a bit stronger, like "were disgusted and kept away from him"

丁卯 = on the Dingmao day

錄尚書事 = not sure what the best translation is... it's like a position added to someone who already has another position, so they can control all state affairs

與豫章太守褚裒、丹楊丞杜乂,皆以識度清遠,善談《老》、《易》,擅名江東: I can't see what implies that he had known those guys for a long time. This is just "he has a reputation in Jiangdong along with [those two guys] for their [Neo-Daoist ideas... lofty and above common politics/life], and their ability to discuss the Laozi and the Book of Changes

而浩尤為風流所宗 = Hao in particular had a following among the 風流 (the hipsters?). 宗 = to revere, to honour and follow

16. Omg this is the saddest section

以太子班非雄所生,意不服 = Li Yue was unsatisfied (with Li Ban's being heir) since Li Ban was not Li Xiong's natural son.

期謀作亂 is more like plotting rebellion

I think you missed 鎮葭萌

班以未葬,不忍遣,推心待之,無所疑間: 以 again indicates a reasoning/thought process. Li Ban, considering that Li Xiong had not yet been buried, could not bear to send them away, and instead treated them with all sincerity and did not suspect them.

17. 越奉期而立之: more than just suggesting Li Qi--Li Yue upheld (???) Li Qi and put him on the throne.

戾太子: Wanna include a note here about the horrible posthumous title here?

18. 期欲籍壽以討李玝,故不許 = "As Li Qi wanted to use Li Shou to attack Li Wu, he denied the request"

19. 帝王大業,天下自當有議: same as before, "It's up to the realm to evaluate the (performance?) of an emperor"

便當廢之,何禪讓也 = "he should be deposed; how could one speak of abdication?"

夫復何言 = "what else can I say?"

弋仲常謂大王命世英雄,奈何把臂受托而返奪之邪 = "I have always thought you were a hero of the realm. How can it be that you turned around and seized the throne of the one that you were entrusted to protect?" 把臂受托 = to grab someone's arm and entrust a matter to him (i.e., to entrust an important matter to a confidant), i.e. referring to Shi Le's trust of Shi Hu and asking him to protect his son.

皝欲悉坑遼東民: I think you censored out the bit about how he wanted to bury them all alive.

遼東之叛,實非本圖,直畏仁凶威,不得不從。今元惡猶存,始克此城,遽加夷滅,則未下之城,無歸善之路矣 = Liaodong rebelled not because the people really wanted it (本圖 = original design/wish), but because they were afraid of Murong Ren's cruelty and were forced to obey him. The chief culprit (元惡) is still at large. We have only just (see previous note on 始) taken this city, and if we exterminate them right away (遽 = see previous note), then (則) those cities that have yet to be taken (下 = conquered, subdued) will have no way to return to what's right (aka surrender).
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Thu Feb 09, 2017 7:45 pm

335 AD (Yessss! One more year until Murong Huang's Icy Adventure!!)

1. 帝加元服 = the emperor had his coming of age ceremony

3. 皇后閻氏 = Should be Lady Yan, not Zhang

4. 省可尚書奏事: see previous note.

好治宮室: more literally, liked (好) to do construction work on the palaces

關預朝權: as before, not quite allowed to attend court, but to interfere in court matters

求仕進者: more specifically, those seeking career advancement

6. 帝幸其府: the emperor visited his home. 幸 refers to the emperor “gracing a place with his presence”

與群臣宴於內室: the emperor had a feast with the officials in the inner house. (this is super weird... like, you go visit a friend who’s sick, and be like “hey buddy heard you’re not feeling well, mind if we have a party in your house even though you won’t be able to join us?”)

以為帝初加元服,動宜顧禮: since the emperor had just come of age, he should be careful to observe proper etiquette in his behaviour

8. 濛不修小廉,而以清約見稱: Wang Meng did not obsess over the finer details of propriety, but was known for his honesty and thriftiness.

性至通而自然有節: of a forthright character and a natural rectitude

人謂之癡: People thought him stupid

導以門地辟之: Dao employed him for his family background

既見,唯問在東米價: When Wang Dao met him, he (Wang Dao) only asked him about the price of grains in the east

人何言癡也: Why do people say he’s stupid?

9. 司徒導請出討之: Wang Dao asked to be sent to fight them

(Lol. Much ado about nothing. I’m impressed that Yuan Dan kept his head.)

14. 趙主勒以天竺僧佛圖澄豫言成敗,數有驗,敬事之= Shi Le had honoured Fotudeng, the Buddist monk from Tianzhu (India), with great veneration as the monk had made several correct predictions on the outcome of battles.

奉之尤謹: treated him with even greater respect

乘以雕輦: gave him a carved carriage to ride ("He's got a carriage to ri-ide, he's got a carriage to ri-ide, he's got a carriage to ride, but he don't care!")

朝會之日,太子、諸公扶翼上殿,主者唱「大和尚」,眾坐皆起。使司空李農旦夕問起居,太子、諸公五日一朝。: On court meeting days, the crown prince and the lords would help him (Fotudeng) into the hall (扶翼 = to hold onto someone on either side to support them), and the mastery of ceremonies (主者) would announce (唱 = to intone, to announce in a chanting voice) “The Great Monk (is here)”, and all would rise from their seats. [Shi Hu] had Li Nong [visit FTD and] ask how he’s doing (問起居 = something that a child or a student would do to their parent/teacher to show respect, asking them about daily things like how they’ve slept, how’s their appetite, how are things going in general) once in the morning and once in the evening (note: this shows great deference). The crown prince and the lords would go pay respects to him once every five days.

國人化之,率多事佛。澄之所在,無敢向其方面涕唾者 = Many people in the state converted, and the majority of them became Buddhists. No one would dare to blow their nose or spit in the general direction of where FTD was.

爭造寺廟 = people tried to outdo each other in building temples (yours isn’t wrong; I just think it’d be good to emphasis how people were caught up in the craze)

佛,國家所奉。里閭小人無爵秩者,應事佛不 = It is the government’s role to honour the Buddha. Is it right for commoners with no rank or title to serve the Buddha?”

漢氏初傳其道,唯聽西域人立寺都邑以奉之,漢人皆不得出家: The Han was the first to let them evangelize (傳道), but only allowed the Westerners to build temples in the capital to worship the Buddha. The Han people were not allowed to take religious vows.

15. 並秦、雍二州兵 = as well as the troops from Qinzhou and Yongzhou

“he pacified Bao” sounds like Bao was crying and Shi Bin made him stop? Maybe “he defeated Bao”?

Luo Ban should be Luo Yan.

希復關公卿 = rarely (希) concerned the other ministers anymore

褒無它才: This is only talking about Tian Bao

18. 館於平郭城外 = [they went as emissaries to Murong Ren,] and stayed overnight outside the city walls of Pingguo.

騎間道潛行掩擊之 = snuck through the backroads to ambush them

禁中 = the inner palace. This is saying that, in the inner palace, Lady Xun was given the same respect was was given to the Empress Dowager.

20. “felt that his uncle Helan Aitou was not respectful enough [so he] summoned him and then had him killed.” I love all these instances of killing people for not being respectful enough.

諸部復奉之 and 趙人厚遇之: it’s kinda more like “The tribes took him to be their king again” (rather than him self-proclaiming) and “Zhao treated him well”

雖保據河右,而軍旅之事無歲無之: although they kept the land west of the river, there was no year that saw no military activity (i.e. there were wars every year even though they managed to hold onto the land)

嗣位: They hadn’t declared themselves emperor yet!

庶政: internal affairs

鹹得其用: I like how all the 咸 got salted. This should be “he ruled over all the civil and military staff, and was able to employ each according to his talents.”

官屬皆稱臣 = his subordinates referred to themselves as 臣. (Since the Zhangs were still technically subordinates of the Jin court, their officers shouldn’t have referred to themselves as their 臣. By doing so, they were basically considering Zhang Jun to be a sovereign lord.)

22. 勒、雄既死,虎、期繼逆,兆庶離主,漸冉經世;先老消落,後生不識,慕戀之心,日遠日忘: “Shi Le and Li Xiong are dead, and Shi Hu and Li Qi continue their illegitimate rule. The populace (兆庶 = the many commoners) have been removed from their rightful lord for generation upon generation (漸冉 = gradually; 經世= through the generations). The elderly of the previous era are dying off, and the youth have no knowledge (of the Jin). The people’s yearning (for the Jin) is fading away by the day.”

And this is it for 335? Where’s Jin’s response to the petition??
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