The Second Year of Taihe (The Dingmao Year, 367 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, because Yu Xi was unable to rescue Lü or Gaoping, he was removed from office.
Sima Guang comments in the 考異, "The 'Imperial Records' state that this month, because of Yu Xi's crime, he was exiled to the sea. But the 本傳 states that after Emperor Fei was deposed as the Duke of Haixi, only then was Yu Xi sent off to Hailing, and at this time he was merely stripped of his office."
2. In the second month, Yan's General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, and General Who Guards The North and Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, raided the Chile (Tiele) peoples.
3. In Qin, Wang Meng, the Administrator of Longxi Jiang Heng, the Administrator of Nan'an Shao Qiang of Nan'an, the General Who Displays Valor Yao Chang, and others led an army of seventeen thousand soldiers against Lian Qi. In the third month, Zhang Tianxi sent his General of the Front Yang Yu towards Jincheng, his General Who Conquers The East Chang Ju towards Zuonan, and his General Of Fierce Assault Zhang Tong towards Baitu, while he himself led an army of thirty thousand to camp at Cangsong, to campaign against Li Yan. Lian Qi's soldiers had all once served under Yao Yizhong, and when they heard his son Yao Chang had come, they all surrendered to him. Wang Meng marched on and attacked Lüeyang. Lian Qi fled to Baima. Fu Jian appointed Yao Chang as Administrator of Longdong.
遹 is pronounced "yu".
Zhang Gui had created Zuonan County, which was part of Jinxing commandary. Kan Yin's "Records of the Thirteen Provinces" states, "A hundred and forty li west of Shicheng lies the city of Zuonan. The Yellow River passes south of it, so it is also called Zuonan Ford."
The "Records of Jin" state, "Baitu County is part of Jincheng commandary." And in the "Records of the Thirteen Provinces" it says, "Sixty li west of Zuonan Ford lies the city of Baitu. The city is north of the great Yellow River, and is close enough to the river to be a crossing place."
Ever since the Han dynasty, Cangsong County was a part of Wuwei commandary. During Later Liang, Lü Guang renamed it to Changsong County.
Baima ("White Horse") was the homeland of the White Horse Di people.
4. In summer, the fourth month, Murong Chen raided Jingling. Jin’s Administrator Luo Chong attacked and defeated him.
5. Zhang Tianxi attacked Li Yan's two commandaries, Daha and Wushi, and took them. Chang Ju defeated Li Yan's soldiers at Kui Valley, and Zhang Tianxi advanced and camped at Zuonan. Li Yan, afraid, fled to hold out at Fuhan, and sent his nephew Li Chun to beg for forgiveness from Qin, and to ask for assistance. Fu Jian sent his General of the Front Yang An and General Who Establishes Valor Wang Fu to lead twenty thousand cavalry, and ordered Wang Meng to assist Li Yan.
Song Bai remarked, "In the eighteenth year of Zhang Jun's rule, he split off Wushi, Xingjin, and Guangwu to form Daha commandary. During the Tang dynasty, it became Daha County, as part of Hezhou. Zhang Jun also split off Didao County into Wushi commandary, which in our time is part of Xizhou."
Here, 夏 is pronounced "ha (h-a)".
6. Wang Meng sent Shao Qiang to pursue Lian Qi, and ordered Wang Fu to guard Houhe and Jiang Heng to guard Baishi. He himself went with Yang An to relieve Li Yan at Fuhan. Zhang Tianxi sent Yang Yu to offer battle east of Fuhan, and Wang Meng attacked and greatly routed him, killing or capturing seventeen thousand. Following this defeat, Zhang Tianxi and Wang Meng remained in a stalemate outside the city. Shao Qiang captured Lian Qi at Baima, and sent him along.
During Former Han, Baishi County was part of Jincheng commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Longxi commandary. Xian remarked, "Mount Baishi is in our modern Lanzhou." And Song Bai remarked, "Fenglin County in Hezhou was originally Baishi County during the Han dynasty. In the eighth year of Zhang Jun's rule, he renamed it to Yonggu County."
Wang Meng wrote to Zhang Tianxi stating, "I have an order to rescue Li Yan, but I am not ordered to fight Liangzhou. Now we find ourselves at this impasse, because I must heed my orders. If this continues, I fear both families will suffer, and no good will come of it. General, if your army will withdraw, I will take Li Yan and withdraw east, and your army may then move the people west; can this not be done?" Zhang Tianxi said to his officers, "Wang Meng means to tell me that I came to fight rebels, not to fight with Qin." So he led his soldiers away.
The two families were Qin and Liang.
7. Li Yan remained unaware of Wang Meng's plan. Wang dressed in white clothing, and went with several men to the city, asking to meet with Li Yan. Li Yan opened the gate and came out, but before he could make any defense, the soldiers blocked his path, and seized him. The General Who Founds Loyalty, Peng Yue, was appointed as General Who Pacifies The West and Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Fuhan.
General Who Founds Loyalty was an office created by Former Qin.
8. After Zhang Tianxi's army had fallen back to the west, but before Li Yan went to see Wang Meng, Li Yan's general He Zhun said to him, "You have a martial spirit, and your officers and soldiers are valiant and fierce. Why do you wait here with folded hands? Wang Meng's meager army has traveled a long way to reach us, and his soldiers are still exhausted. Since they came here to answer our request for assistance, they certainly would not have prepared any defenses against us. If you were to attack them now, you might attain your ambition."
Li Yan replied, "We requested aid to avoid difficulties. If, having avoided them because of the aid, we now attack those who came to aid us, what will the realm say about me? Better to hold out until we turn grey, or else retreat."
After Li Yan was captured, Wang Meng spoke with Li Yan, and he mentioned He Zhun's proposal. Wang Meng put He Zhun to death, and allowed Li Yan to return. When Li Yan arrived at Chang'an, Fu Jian appointed Li Yan as Minister of the Household, and he was named as Marquis of Gui'an.
9. Yan’s Prince Huan of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, said to Murong Wei, "The Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, is a general of exceptional talent, ten times the man that I am. Since I was second in age after our late lord, he made use of me first. But after my death, I hope that Your Majesty will support the state by listening to the Prince of Wu."
The "Laws of Posthumous Names" states, "One who expands territory to distant places may be called Huan ('Grand' or 'Pillar')".
In the fifth month, on the day Renchen, Murong Ke became deathly ill. Murong Wei himself went to attend to him, and to listen to his final requests. Murong Ke said, "I have heard that there is no better way to repay the grace that one has received than to recommend a worthy man. A worthy man can become Chancellor even if he were some mere rampart builder, much less one of your own kin! The Prince of Wu's worth in both civil and military affairs is great, and he is second only to Guan Zhong and Xiao He. If Your Majesty places him in command of affairs, then the state will know peace. Otherwise, Qin and Jin will surely find some way to plot against us." Having said this, he passed away.
Murong Ke's comment is a reference to Fu Yue, the minister of the Shang dynasty's King Gaozong (Wu Ding), who was known for mingling among the common people. When Gaozong was still Prince of Yin, he discovered Fu Yue among his rampart builders, and ordered him to become his Chancellor.
10. When Fu Jian learned of Murong Ke’s death, he secretly plotted to conquer Yan. He wished to see whether or not Yan would now be ripe for the taking. So he ordered the Xiongnu chieftain Cao Gu to send a caravan of tribute to the Yan court, and sent along the Registrar of Western Rong Tribes, Guo Bian of Pingyi, to pose as his assistant.
Cao Gu was the Xiongnu's Worthy Prince of the Right, who had surrendered to Qin in the previous year after his failed rebellion.
Some versions list Guo Bian as being "of Pingyi".
Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) created the office of Colonel of Western Tribes at Chang'an, and Qin had kept this office; the Registrar of Western Tribes was its subordinate office.
Yan's Minister of Works, Huangfu Zhen, had an older brother, Huangfu Tian. Both he and Huangfu Zhen’s nephews, Huangfu Fen and Huangfu Fu, held office in Qin, with Huangfu Tian being the 散騎常侍. When Guo Bian reached Yan, he had meetings with each of the Yan ministers in turn. When he met with Huangfu Zhen, he said, "I am a native of Qin, but my family was executed by them; that is why I am now under Prince Cao's command. I bring you tidings from your honorable brother and your nephews in Qin, and they ask after you."
Although Huangfu Zhen held office in Yan, he was a native of Anding.
Huangfu Zhen angrily replied, "I have no dealings with foreign states; what matters this to me? Are you a villain, that you think I would respond to such false ties?" He reported the matter to Murong Wei and asked him to send the envoys away, but the Grand Tutor Murong Ping did not agree.
When Guo Bian returned to Qin, he said to Fu Jian, "The Yan court has no discipline; they are ripe to be attacked. The only knowledgable one we should be wary of is Huangfu Zhen." Fu Jian said, "How can it be that, in all their six provinces, there is not a single man of wisdom?"
Sima Guang comments in the 考異, "In Yan's eighth year of Jianxi (368), Huangfu Zhen became Grand Commandant. The Book of Yan, the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, and the 'Biography of Huangfu Zhen' all claim that when Guo Bian came to Yan on this mission, it was when Huangfu Zhen was the Grand Commandant. The 'Annals of Jin' says that it was in the eighth month of the tenth year of Jianxi (370). I fear that all these sources are wrong, and that the event was when Cao Gu surrendered to Qin."
...征還，拜侍中、光祿大夫，累遷太尉、侍中。苻堅密謀兼併，欲觀審釁隙，乃遣其西戎主簿郭辯潛結匈奴左賢王曹轂，令轂遣使詣鄴，辯因從之... (Jinshu 111.36-7)
When Huangfu Zhen returned from the campaign, he was appointed as Palace Attendant and Household Counselor, and then was also appointed Grand Commandant. Fu Jian secretly wished to conquer Yan, and he wanted to see how their defenses stood. So he sent his Registrar of Western Tribes, Guo Bin, to become close to the Xiongnu Worthy Prince of the Left, Cao Gu, and join him on a tribute mission to Yan. Guo Bin agreed to do so.
The six provinces which Yan controlled were Youzhou, Bingzhou, Jizhou, Sizhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou.
11. The Xiongnu chieftain Cao Gu passed away. Qin split his forces into two, with each half being led by one of his sons. The two halves were called the Eastern Cao and the Western Cao.
When Fu Jian split Cao Gu's army into two halves, he had more than twenty thousand of them remain west of the city of Ercheng, and sent Cao Gu's older son Cao Xi to lead them. He had the other half, again more than twenty thousand, remain east of Ercheng, and sent Cao Gu's younger son Cao Yin to lead them.
12. Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, and Administrator of Jingling, Luo Chong, attacked Wan and retook it. The defector general Zhao Yi fled Wan, and the Yan general Zhao Pan retreated to Lüyang. Huan Huo pursued Zhao Pan and attacked him at Zhicheng, where he captured him. He left a garrison at Wan before returning.
Ever since Han, Zhi County had been part of Nanyang commandary; the site was within the borders of Xiangcheng County in Dengzhou during the Tang dynasty. The "New Records of Tang" states, "Lüyang Gate was eighty li north of Xiangcheng County."
13. In autumn, the seventh month, Yan's Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, and others attacked the Chile (Tiele) people again. They captured several tens of thousands of cattle and horses.
14. Earlier, when Murong Li's soldiers had passed through Dai (on their way to raid the Gaoche), they violated the corn millet fields there. This greatly angered Tuoba Shiyijian. Yan's General Who Pacifies The North and Duke of Wuqiang, Murong Ni, led troops from Youzhou to camp at Yunzhong. In the eighth month, Tuoba Shiyijian attacked Yuzhong, and Murong Ni abandoned the city and fled. Yan's General of 振威 Muyu Hexin died in battle.
穄 is another name for corn millet. In our time, people in the south call corn millet 穄. The northern regions are cold, and the five cereal crops (rice, two kinds of millet, wheat, and beans) cannot grow there. Only corn millet grows there, and this is what is called 穄. Xiang Anshi remarked, "There are two kinds of corn millet. The main type grows as large as foxtail millet, and it ripens in five months. This is what people in Jingzhou call corn millet, or they call it 穄. There is another type which grows especially tall and large, and its stalks are shaped like reeds, though they are actually more like 薏苡 (the Job's Tears plant). The people of Jing call this the 'invasive corn millet', or the 'reedy 穄'. It does not ripen until autumn, unlike the main type of corn millet."
15. In the ninth month, Jin's Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, and Youzhou, as well as at Jinling in Yangzhou. He was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Jingkou.
愔 is pronounced "yin (y-in)."
Chen Yue remarked, "During the Disaster of Yongjia, when the people of Jin fled from Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, Bingzhou, Yanzhou, and the part of Xuzhou north of the Huai River, they all crossed over the Yangzi at Jinling. In Emperor Cheng's fourth year of Xianhe (330), Chi Jian relocated all of the refugees who were south of the Huai River into the counties of Jinling commandary. Others who had crossed south of the Yangzi or had remained north of it all set up refugee commandaries and counties, with their own governors. There were still fingers of Jin control in Xuzhou and Yanzhou north of the Yangzi, and there were also still some of these refugee-established areas in Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou."
16. Qin's Duke of Huainan, Fu You, again turned rebel. This time, he was joined in rebellion by the the Grand General Who Conquers The East, Governor of Bingzhou, and Duke of Jin, Fu Liu; and the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Duke of Zhao, Fu Shuang. Since Fu Shuang was Fu Jian's younger brother by the same mother, and Fu Liu had been Fu Jiàn's beloved son, Fu Jian had not suspected them or inquired into their activities.
Fu Liu and Fu Shuang then enticed the General Who Guards The East, Inspector of Luozhou, and Duke of Wei, Fu Sou; and General Who Maintains The West, Inspector of Yongzhou, and Duke of Yan, Fu Wu, to join them as well. Fu Sou’s Registrar, Yao Tiao of Nan'an, remonstrated with him, saying, "You and our lord share the close kinship of Zhou and Shao, and you have accepted this border command. When the state is faced with difficulties, you ought to be exerting yourself to protect it, not adding to its woes!" Fu Sou did not listen.
Qin's Inspectors administered Bingzhou from Puban, Qinzhou from Shanggui, Luozhou from Shancheng, and Yongzhou from Anding.
Fu Sou and Fu Wu were both Fu Jiàn’s sons.
The Duke of Zhou had a brother, Ji Shi, whom he appointed as Duke of Zhao.
When Fu Jian learned of the planned rebellion, he ordered Fu Liu and the others to come to Chang'an. Instead, in winter, the tenth month, Fu Liu seized Puban, Fu Shuang seized Shanggui, Fu Sou seized Shancheng, and Fu Wu seized Anding. They all began to raise further troops in rebellion. Fu Jian sent messengers to them saying, "I treated each of you well up until now; what hardships made you rebel? If you halt at once, and disband your soldiers, then you may retain your former roles, and all will be as before”. He demanded a 'gnawed pear' from each of them as a sign of trust, but they all refused.
A pear is fragile, easy to bite into. It means that when relatives fought one another, it made the state weak and fragile, and weak against opportunistic enemies. So in demanding a gnawed pear from Fu Liu and the others, Fu Jian was demanding a sign of their trust in him.
Michael Rogers (The Chronicle of Fu Jian: A Case of Exemplar History) argues that, contrary to Hu Sanxing's literal interpretation, the phrase "gnawed pear" is an abbreviation of a blood-letting ceremony where one cuts the arm and scratches the face, as a pledge of faith, and not an actual pear.
17. The King of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian, brought his troops to Shuofang to attack Liu Weichen. They needed to cross over the Yellow River to reach the Xiongnu. At that time, the river had not yet frozen, so Tuoba Shiyijian ordered reed ropes to be made to restrict the flow of water in the river. This soon caused the river to begin freezing into chunks of ice, but it was not yet firm, so he had the ropes distributed about and bound the chunks of ice together into a column, until it formed a floating bridge over the river. The Dai soldiers then crossed over it. Liu Weichen did not expect for the Dai soldiers to arrive so suddenly, so he fled west with his family. Tuoba Shiyijian captured sixty to seventy percent of his soldiers before returning to Dai. Liu Weichen fled to Qin, where Fu Jian sent him back to Shuofang, along with soldiers to defend it.
When Dai attacked the Xiongnu in Shuofang, they crossed west over the Yellow River, and they named the crossing place Junzi Ford.
18. In the twelfth month, on the day Jiazi, Yan's Grand Commandant and Duke Jing of Jianning, Yang Wu, passed away. Huangfu Zhen was appointed as the new Palace Attendant and Grand Commandant, and the Household Counsellor Li Hong became the new Minister of Works.
The "Laws of Posthumous Names" states, "One who acts well and in accordance with the laws, or one who remains vigilant day and night, may be called Jing ('Respected')."
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0
on Mon Apr 03, 2017 6:49 pm, edited 2 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."