The Eighth Year of Xianhe (The Guiyi Year, 333 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Cheng's Grand General Li Shou captured Zhuti. Dong Bing and Huo Biao both surrendered. Li Shou’s might was then feared throughout Nanzhong.
2. On the day Bingzi, Shi Le dispatched messengers Jin in an attempt to improve relations. The Jin court burned the money that Shi Le had sent them.晉雖未能復君父之讎，而焚幣一事，猶足舒忠臣義士之氣。
Although the Eastern Jin court was not yet able to avenge themselves against the foes of their fathers and lords, by burning this currency, they could still at least demonstrate that they were loyal ministers.
3. In the third month, Jin's Inspector of Ningzhou Yin Feng offered his surrender to Cheng. The whole of Nanzhong thus came under Cheng authority. A general amnesty was declared there, and Grand General Li Shou was granted acting authority over Ningzhou.
4. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Jiayin, Duke Wuxuan of Liaodong, Murong Hui, died. In the sixth month, his son Murong Huang was promoted from General Who Pacifies The North to Inspector of Pingzhou, and given authority over the domain. All prisoners were granted amnesty. He appointed the Chief Clerk Pei Kai as Libationer Who Counsels The Army, and the Prefect of Attendants Gao Xu as Administrator of Xuantu. He further offered to appoint the Administrator of Daifang Wang Dan as Chief Clerk of the Left. Wang Dan suggested that the Administrator of Liaodong, Yang Wu, be given the position instead because of his talents. Murong Huang agreed, and appointed Yang Wu as Chief Clerk of the Right.皝，字元眞，廆第三子。廆，戶罪翻。皝，呼廣翻。國之興也，其臣推賢讓能；國之衰也，其臣矜己忌前。騖，音務。
Murong Huang, styled Yuanzhen, was Murong Hui's third son. 廆 is pronounced "hui (h-ui)". 皝 is pronounced "huang (h-uang)".
When a state is flourishing, then its ministers cede to the virtuous and yield to the talented; when a state is declining, then its ministers are obsessed with themselves and jealous of their superiors.
騖 is pronounced "wu".Murong Hui’s domain was in the far northeast, around the Liao River, roughly equivalent to the territory once held by Gongsun Du and his heirs. Many people fled there from the Central Plains seeking stability, which added to their prosperity. The Murongs were a Xianbei clan. Like the Zhangs of Liangzhou, Murong Hui was nominally a vassal of Jin but de facto independent, although his heirs would eventually formalize their rule. Unlike Liangzhou, they were better able to remain in communication with the Jin court thanks to access to the sea, similar to Gongsun Yuan’s contacts with Eastern Wu. Their state would be known as Former Yan.
5. Shi Le became deathly ill. The Prince of Zhongshan Shi Hu then entered the inner palace to attend to Shi Le. He forged an edict forbidding anyone else, whether minister or relative, from seeing Shi Le, and nobody knew whether the illness was getting better or worse.
Shi Hu forged an edict summoning the Prince of Qin Shi Hong (not the same son as the Crown Prince) and the Prince of Pengcheng Shi Kan to return to the capital Xiangguo. Shi Le had then recovered somewhat from his illness, and when he saw that Shi Hong was in the capital, he was alarmed and said to Shi Le, "I sent him to guard the border for just such a day as this. Has someone summoned him, or did he come on your own? If someone summoned him, they should be punished!" Shi Hu worriedly said to Shi Le, "The Prince of Qin was only concerned about you. He has come just for a moment, and I'll order him to be sent away." However, Shi Le did not actually order Shi Hong to leave. A few days later, when Shi Le asked about it again, Shi Hu said, "I ordered him to go back as soon as you commanded me to." 勒以宏都督中外諸軍事，蓋使之鎭鄴。堪蓋在河南。
Shi Le had appointed Shi Hong as Commander of all military affairs, and sent him to guard Ye. Shi Kan was sent to Henan.Xiangguo was the capital city during Shi Le’s reign. It was a short distance north of Ye.
It was tradition to send princes of the blood to distant outposts, both to have them protect the borders and to prevent them from interfering with matters of succession.
Locusts appeared in Guang'a, so Shi Hu secretly sent his son, the Inspector of Jizhou Shi Sui, to lead three thousand cavalry to deal with the locusts.廣阿縣，前漢屬鉅鹿郡，後漢、晉省；後魏復置廣阿縣，屬南趙郡；隋改爲大陸縣；唐武德間，改爲象城縣，天寶初改爲昭慶縣，屬趙州。恐勒死有變，使邃遊于蝗所，若捕蝗者，以爲外應。
During Former Han, Guang'a County was part of Julu commandary. It was abolished under Later Han and Jin. Northern Wei revived Guang'a County, as part of Nanzhao commandary. Sui changed its name to Daling County. During the Wude reign era of Tang (618-626), its name was changed to Xiangcheng County. In the first year of Tianbao (742) its name was once again changed to Zhaoqing County, and by then it was part of Zhaozhou.
Shi Hu sent Shi Sui to Guang'a because he feared of any sudden developments that might have happened after Shi Le's death, so he wanted his son out of the way. If Shi Sui had actually been able to deal with the locusts, that would have been a bonus.
6. In autumn, the seventh month, Shi Le's illness became critical. He issued a final command stating, "Daya (Shi Hong) and his brothers must do good and defend one another. Let the fate of the Sima clan be your 'front cart'. The Prince of Zhongshan should deeply reflect upon the examples of the Duke of Zhou and Huo Guang, and not give any further cause for others to reproach him." On the day Wuchen, Shi Le died. 前車之覆，後車之戒；戒其兄弟自相殘也。謂當如周公、霍光之輔幼孤也。勒謂此言可以縶虎之手足邪！此數語亦徐光、程遐爲之耳。年六十。
When something flips over the cart in front, the carts behind it take warning. Shi Le was warning his sons against civil strife between the brothers, with the War of the Eight Princes as the example of the "front cart".
Shi Le refers to the precedent of the Duke of Zhou and Huo Guang acting as regents for young lords. Thus did Shi Le show his remaining brotherly affection for Shi Hu! So much for the pleas of Xu Guang and Cheng Xia.
Shi Le was sixty years old.The Duke of Zhou served as regent to the second Emperor of the Zhou dynasty, his nephew. Although he wielded great power over the state, he remained totally loyal to his young sovereign and even defeated uprisings against him. Perhaps no other figure in Chinese history better exemplifies a capable and loyal chief minister.
The Prince of Zhongshan Shi Hu placed the Crown Prince Shi Hong upon the throne, while he arrested the Household Counsellor of the Right Cheng Xia and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat Xu Guang, and sent them to the Minister of Justice. He summoned his own son Shi Sui to lead soldiers into the palace, and the ministers and officers all fled. Shi Hong was very afraid. Claiming his own feebleness and unsuitability to rule, he offered the throne to Shi Hu. Shi Hu replied, "When a lord dies, his crown prince inherits; this has always been the tradition." Shi Hong wept as he continued to offer Shi Hu the throne, but Shi Hu angrily responded, "The realm will judge whether or not you are unsuited for the throne. Why keep talking about it now?" So Shi Hong at last accepted the throne. A general amnesty was declared; however, Shi Hu killed Cheng Xia and Xu Guang. 弘，字大雅，勒第二子。光、遐固知禍之及己，然亦不料如是之速。
Shi Hong, styled Daya, was Shi Le's second son.
Xu Guang and Cheng Xia had already known of the diaster awaiting them, yet it came so quickly.
That night, Shi Le was secretly buried in some mountain valley, and no one knew the location. On the day Jimao, great ceremonies were conducted, and an empty coffin was buried at Gaoping Tombs. Shi Le's posthumous name was Emperor Ming, and his temple name was Gaozu.勒卒十二日而葬，未有如是之速者也。虎旣潛葬勒，其所以爲身後之計者，亦不過如此，卒爲女子所告，果何益哉！
Shi Le was buried after only twelve days; no one else had ever been buried so quickly before. Since Shi Hu gave him a false burial service, when he planned for his own burial, he must have made the same plan. Yet his plot was ratted out by a young girl; little good that it did him!Secret burials had long been the custom among the tribes of Central Asia. Genghis Khan may be the most famous example of this tradition. In the comment, Hu Sanxing refers to an incident in Book 100, 359.4, where Shi Hu's secret burial place is revealed by a young woman.
7. The Zhao general Shi Cong and the Administrator of Qiao Peng Biao both sent word asking to surrender to Jin. Shi Cong was originally a native of Jin, but had changed his surname for the Shi clan. The Jin court sent the Protector Qiao Qiu to bring troops to assist them, but before the troops could arrive, Shi Cong and the others had already been executed by Shi Hu.聰時鎭譙城。
At this time, Shi Cong was guarding Qiao.
8. Murong Huang sent his Chief Clerk, Wang Ji of Bohai, and others to inform the Jin court of his mourning for his father's death.
9. In the eighth month, the lord of Zhao Shi Hong appointed the Prince of Zhongshan Shi Hu as Prime Minister, Prince of Wei, and Grand Chanyu, and granted him the Nine Bestowments. Shi Hu was given the thirteen commandaries of Wei as his state, for him to exercise dominion over. Chanyu was a traditional title among the northern tribes, the Xiongnu and others. It was a forerunner of the later title Khan.
The Nine Bestowments were nine sets of precious treasures traditionally granted by the Emperor to a servant who had demonstrated outstanding service. In practice, ever since the time of Wang Mang, a minister receiving the Nine Bestowments was almost always a prelude to his usurpation of the throne.
Shi Hu proclaimed an amnesty within his domain, and set up his wife Lady Zheng as Princess of Wei. He appointed his son Shi Sui as Crown Prince of Wei, and further appointed him as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Palace Attendant, Commander of all military affairs, and Grand General, and granted him authority over the imperial secretariat. His second son Shi Xuan was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Inspector of Jizhou, and Prince of Hejian. His third son Shi Tao was appointed General of the Vanguard, Colonel Director of Retainers, and Prince of Le'an. Of his other sons, Shi Zun was appointed Prince of Qi, Shi Jian as Prince of Dai, Shi Bao as Prince of Leping, and the Prince of Pingyuan Shi Bin as Prince of Zhangwu. 【嚴：「平原」改「太原」。】
Some versions record Shi Bin's original title as "Prince of Taiyuan".
Shi Hu removed all the old ministers and officials that had held office under Shi Le, and replaced them with members of his own faction, and his personal attendants held office while residing in the Terraces. He appointed the General Who Guards The Army Kui An as Deputy Director of the Left, and the Master of Writing Guo Yin as Deputy Director of the Right. He further ordered the Crown Prince's Palace to be renamed the Chongxun Palace, and the Empress Dowager Lady Liu (Shi Le’s wife) and her children, Shi Le’s other sons, were all relocated there. Shi Hu helped himself to all the finest of Shi Le’s former possessions, whether palace attendants, horses, carriages, clothing, or treasures, and moved them into his own Prime Minister's household.
Shi Hu resided at Ye, and he made his son Shi Sui Commander over all military affairs, with his base at Xindu, while his household attendants were divided between the Terraces at Ye. Although Shi Hong occupied the throne, he was in a most strange position.
10. Yuwen Qidegui was driven out of his territory by the chieftain of an eastern tribe, Yuwen Yidougui, and he fled and died away from his land. Murong Huang led soldiers to attack Yuwen Yidougui, and the army marched to Guang'an. Yuwen Yidougui was afraid and asked for peace, and so Murong Huang constructed the two forts of Yuyin and Anjin on the border before returning.廣安，在棘城之北。榆陰城，蓋在大榆河之陰；安晉城，在威德城東南。
Guang'an was north of Jicheng.
Yuyin was built at Yin on the Great Yu River. Anjin was built southeast of the Yuwen-held city of Weide.The Yuwen were another group of Xianbei tribes, rivals to the Murong clan. Their territory was adjacent to Yan.
11. Cheng's two commandaries of Jianning and Zangke attempted to defect to Jin, but Li Shou attacked them again and captured them.
12. Zhao's Empress Dowager Liu said to the Prince of Pengcheng Shi Kan, "The First Emperor (Shi Le) has only just passed away, and yet the Prime Minister has hurried to bully us like this. Though the Emperor holds his throne for now, he may not keep it for long. Prince, what do you intend to do about this?"
Shi Kan replied, "All of the First Emperor's old ministers have been swept away, and the army is no longer under our command. Please allow me to escape to Yanzhou, and compel the Prince of Nanyang Shi Hui to serve as our leader. I shall capture Linqiu, and then proclaim your edict calling on all the Governors, Administrators, and army captains to bring troops and punish this usurpation, and thereby gain assistance for us." 謂虎諸子皆握兵權也。謂宿衞及臺省要職，皆虎之府寮、親屬，無與共謀匡正者。恢，勒少子也，時鎭廩丘。
Shi Kan is saying that Shi Hu's sons all held military power, preventing the use of soldiers for their plot, while Shi Hu had filled the ranks of all the palace guards, Terrace attendants, and other such men with his own personal followers, so no plot could be hatched that involved them.
Shi Hui was Shi Le's youngest son. At this time, he was guarding Linqiu.
Lady Liu said, "This is urgent business! You should act quickly."
In the ninth month, Shi Kan disguised himself as a commoner and left the city. He led a group of light cavalry to attack Yanzhou, but he was unsuccessful, and he fled south to Qiao. Prime Minister Shi Hu sent his general Guo Tai to pursue him, and he captured Shi Kan at Chengfu. Shi Kan was sent back to Xiangguo, where he was burned to death. Soon the Prince of Nanyang Shi Hui also returned to Xiangguo. When Lady Liu's involvement in the plot was discovered, Shi Hu deposed and then killed her. He then named Shi Hong's mother, Lady Cheng, as Empress Dowager.
Shi Kan was originally a son of the Tian clan, and because of his many successes, Shi Le had adopted him as one of his own sons. Lady Liu had courage and resourcefulness. Shi Le always consulted her on army affairs, and she helped Shi Le in accomplishing his grand designs. In this way she was very similar to Empress Lü, although she was not as jealous as Empress Lü had been.呂后能誅韓信、彭越，劉氏不能制虎，殆不及也。
Empress Dowager Lü was able to execute Han Xin and Peng Yue, but Empress Liu could not stop Shi Hu from seizing power. She was not nearly as dangerous.Empress Lü Zhi was the wife of Liu Bang. She was an extraordinarily intelligent woman whose advice greatly contributed to Liu Bang’s rise and his success as Emperor. However, after Liu Bang’s death, she and her family zealously guarded their power in a series of incidents known as the Lü Clan Disturbance.
13. Zhao's Prince of Hedong Shi Sheng was stationed at Guanzhong, and Shi Lang was stationed at Luoyang. In winter, the tenth month, Shi Sheng and Shi Lang both raised troops to oppose Prime Minister Shi Hu; Shi Sheng declared himself Inspector of Qinzhou, and sent messengers offering submission to Jin. The Di chieftain Pu Hong declared himself Inspector of Yongzhou, and sought aid from Zhang Jun to the west.劉胤之西奔也，石生自洛陽鎭長安，朗代生鎭洛陽。咸和四年，洪降于虎，今以趙亂而叛。
When the Han-Zhao prince Liu Yin fled to the west (in 329), Shi Sheng left Luoyang to guard Chang'an, so Shi Lang took over the defense of Luoyang in his place.
Pu Hong had surrendered to Shi Hu in the fourth year of Xianhe (329). Since Later Zhao was now in turmoil, he rose in rebellion.關中 Guanzhong or “Between the Passes” refers to the region west of Hangu Pass, or more specifically to Chang’an and its environs in the Wei River Valley. The territory east of Hangu Pass is considered 關東 Guandong or “East of the Passes”.
The 氐 Di were a proto-Tibetan tribe from the west, similar in many respects to the Qiang. They should not be confused with the 狄 Di, an older Chinese general term for northern barbarians.
14. Shi Hu left his Crown Prince Shi Sui to defend Xiangguo, and assembled a force of infantry and cavalry seventy thousand strong to meet Shi Lang at Jinyong. He was victorious at Jinyong, capturing Shi Lang, and cut off his feet before beheading him. Jinyong is just outside of Luoyang.
Shi Hu then advanced towards Chang'an, appointing his son the Prince of Liang Shi Ting as Grand Commander of the Vanguard. Shi Sheng dispatched General Guo Quan to command the twenty thousand Xianbei under the chieftain Shegui as the vanguard force to oppose them, while he followed behind with the main host, advancing to Puban. Guo Quan and Shi Ting joined battle at Tong Gate, where Guo Quan inflicted a great defeat on the Zhao soldiers, and Shi Ting and the Prime Minister’s Chief Clerk of the Left Liu Kui were both killed. Shi Hu retreated to Mianchi, and the dead littered the ground for more than three hundred li. 此劉隗，意卽自晉奔趙者。澠，彌兗翻。
This was the same Liu Kui who had fled from Jin to Zhao after being defeated by the rebel Wang Dun during his rebellion.
澠 is pronounced "mian (mi-an)".Puban is the modern city of Yongji in Shanxi province.
The Xianbei plotted with Shi Hu, planning to attack Shi Sheng. Shi Sheng, not knowing that Shi Ting was already dead, was afraid and so fled to Chang’an alone on horseback. Guo Quan gathered up the remaining troops, falling back to Weirui. Shi Sheng then abandoned Chang'an, hiding himself at Mount Jitou. General Jiang Ying occupied Chang’an and defended it, but Shi Hu advanced and attacked Jiang Ying, killing him. Shi Sheng's subordinates killed him and surrendered; Guo Quan fled to Longyou.孔安國曰︰水北曰汭。杜預曰︰水之隈曲曰汭，音如銳翻。張守節曰：《括地志》云：雞頭山在成州上祿縣東北二十里，在長安西南九百六十里。酈道元云：蓋大隴山異名也。《後漢書》，隗囂使王孟塞雞頭道，卽此也。按原州平高縣西百里亦有筓頭山，在長安西北八百里。
Kong Anguo remarked, "The north of a river is called its 汭." Du Yu remarked, "The bend or curve in a river is called a 汭, which is pronounced 'rui'."
Zhang Shoujie remarked, "According to the 括地志, 'Mount Jitou is twenty li northeast of Shanglu County in Chengzhou, and is nine hundred sixty li southwest of Chang'an.' Li Daoyuan has said, 'It is another name for Mount Dalong.' In the Book of Later Han, Kui Xiao sends Wang Meng to hold the Jitao Road; this is the same place." There is also another Mount Jitou in the area (筓 here, vs. 雞 above), a hundred li west of Pinggao County in Yuanzhou, which is eight hundred li northwest of Chang'an.
15. Shi Hu spread his forces to garrison the regions around the Qian River and the Long Mountains, while dispatching General Ma Qiu to deal with Pu Hong. Pu Hong with his twenty thousand households surrendered to Shi Hu, who welcomed him and granted him the titles of General of Glorious Ferocity and Colonel Who Protects The Di. 《風俗通》，麻，齊大夫麻嬰之後。前此未有光烈將軍號，石虎創置也。漢有護羌校尉，虎以此官授洪，使之監護羣氐。
According to the 風俗通, the surname 麻 Ma comes from the great official Ma Ying of Qi (from the Spring and Autumn era).
There were no earlier instances of the title General of 光烈; Shi Hu first created it.
During Han there had been the title Colonel Who Protects The Qiang. Shi Hu granted Pu Hong this similar title, to charge him with watching over the various Di groups.
When Pu Hong reached Chang'an, he persuaded Shi Hu to relocate many households of Guanzhong people, along with the Di and Qiang households, to the east, saying, "All the Di are under my family's command; once I issue the order, who will dare disobey it?" Shi Hu then relocated the hundreds of thousands of Di and Qiang households that had been in Qinzhou and Yongzhou, moving them to Guandong. Pu Hong was made Dragon-Soaring General and Marshal of Refugees, being based at Fangtou; the Qiang chieftain Yao Yizhong was made General of 奋武 and Grand Commander of the Western Qiang, with his hosts of many tens of thousands being relocated to Retou on the Qing River.爲苻洪子健自枋頭入關中張本。枋，音方。灄，日涉翻。《水經註》：清河過廣川縣東，水側有羌壘，姚氏之故居也。爲姚弋仲父子自灄頭起兵張本。
This was why Pu Hong's son Pu Jian had set out from Fangtou when he later conquered Guanzhong. 枋 is pronounced "fang".
灄 is pronounced "re (r-e)". The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Qing River passed through the east of Guangchuan County. The side of the river had many Qiang ramparts on it, and the Yao clan resided there." This was why Yao Yizhong and his sons later rose in rebellion against Ran Min at Retou.
16. When Shi Hu returned to Xiangguo, he issued a general pardon. The lord of Zhao, Shi Hong, ordered Shi Hu to build Wei Tower, much as King Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) had once done to uphold Han.
17. Murong Huang officially inherited his father’s position. He enforced a strict and harsh rule, greatly worrying the people. The Registrar Huangfu Zhen admonished him, but Murong Huang did not listen to him.
18. Murong Huang had several brothers, among them the General Who Establishes Might Murong Han, who was his elder brother born of one of their father’s concubines, and the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs Murong Ren, one of Murong Huang’s younger brothers by the same mother. They were brave and cunning, often winning great success in battle, and they had the support of the scholar-officials class. Another brother, Murong Zhao, possessed great talent as well. Murong Hui had favored all three of them, and so Murong Huang was suspicious of them.
Upon Murong Hui's death, Murong Han exclaimed, "My father entrusted me with affairs, and I dared not do less than my utmost. It was only through his spirit that I was able to accomplish so much, and that was Heaven's favor supporting our state. Yet people will attribute my successes to my own mortal talents, and believe that I will be difficult to control. How can I remain here and await misfortune?" So he and his sons fled to seek refuge under the Duan clan. Duan Liao had long heard of his talents, and accepted him in Jizhou, holding him in high esteem.Like the Yuwen clan, the Duan clan were another rival group of Xianbei. Duan Liao controlled the Youzhou region, especially around the city of Ji (modern Beijing).
19. Murong Ren hurried from his defense post at Pingguo to attend the mourning. There, he told Murong Zhao, "We have been arrogant, and have been discourteous to the new ruler on many occasions. The new ruler is austere and harsh; even the innocent fear him, let alone those who have offended him!"《漢志》，平郭縣屬遼東郡；晉省。晉東夷校尉治襄平，崔毖之敗，慕容廆以仁鎭遼東，治平郭。
According to the Records of Han, Pingguo County was a part of Liaodong commandary. Jin had abolished it. Jin's Colonel of Eastern Tribes had administered their assigned territory from Xiangping. After Cui Bi's defeat, Murong Hui sent Murong Ren to defend Liaodong, and he administered the region from Pingguo.
Murong Zhao replied, "We were all born of the same mother; we ought to have an equal share of the state. Elder Brother, the scholar-officials have long held regard for you. Since our brother does not yet suspect me, I will observe events from within, watching for an opening. It will not be difficult to do away with him. You should go and raise troops, while I coordinate things from this side. On the day of success, Liaodong shall be ours. We must take action without fearing death; we cannot be like the General Who Establishes Might (Murong Han), living out a pointless existence in a foreign land."昭自謂與仁皆正室之子，分可以得國也。
Murong Zhao meant that since they were both legitimate sons, they would split the state between them.
Murong Ren said, "Excellent!" So he returned to Pingguo.
In the intercalary month, Murong Ren raised troops and marched west.
20. Murong Huang learned of his brothers' plot. Still trusting his brothers, he sent messengers to look into the matter. Murong Ren's soldiers had already reached the Huang River, and learning that his treason was discovered, he killed the messengers, and fell back on Pingguo. 黃水，卽潢水，在棘城東北，距唐營州四百里。據《載記》，黃水當在漢遼東郡險瀆縣。
The 黃 Huang River, also called the 潢 Huang River, was northeast of Jicheng, four hundred li from Tang's Yingzhou. According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, during Han, the Huang River was in Xiandu County in Liaodong commandary.
This probably refers to the Xar Moron River, which flows into the Liao River.
Murong Huang ordered Murong Zhao to commit suicide, and dispatched his Army Libationer Feng Yi to go stabilize Liaodong. He further appointed Gao Xu as General Who Spreads Valor, and sent him with his younger brothers, the General Who Establishes Valor Murong You, Murong Zhi, the General Who Spreads Might Murong Jun, the General Who Calms Distant Places Murong Han (a younger brother by that name), and the Marshal of Liaodong Tong Shou to lead an army of five thousand men against Murong Ren. 佟，徒冬翻，姓也。
佟 is pronounced "tong (t-ong)", and is a surname.
Gao Xu and the others fought Murong Ren north of Wencheng, where they suffered a great defeat. Murong You, Murong Zhi, and Murong Jun were all captured by Murong Ren. Since Tong Shou had once served as Murong Ren's Marshal, he surrendered to him. The former Minister of Agriculture Sun Ji and others offered over Liaodong City to Murong Ren. Feng Yi could not enter the region, and he returned to Murong Huang's territory along with Murong Han. The Colonel of Eastern Tribes Feng Chou, the Protector of the Army Yi Yi of Pingyuan, and the Chancellor of Liaodong, Han Jiao of Taiyuan, all abandoned their cities and fled. Murong Ren thus came into complete possession of Liaodong. Duan Liao and the Xianbei then coordinated with Murong Ren to provide assistance. 汶，漢古縣，屬遼東郡；《前書》作「文」。孫機，蓋王官之避地遼東者。遼東城，卽襄平城。乙，姓也；逸，名也。《姓譜》：商湯字天乙，支孫以爲氏。
汶 Wen was the name of an old Han county, part of Liaodong commandary; the 前書 writes it as 文 Wen.
This Sun Ji was the same former Jin official who had fled to Liaodong seeking refuge.
Liaodong City was the same city as Xiangping.
乙 Yi is a surname; his first name was 逸 Yi. The 姓譜 states, "Tang of Shang had the style name Tianyi, and his descendants kept Yi as their surname."
Murong Huang recalled Huangfu Zhen’s earlier warning, and so appointed him as Attendant Officer of Pingzhou.皝領平州刺史，以眞爲別駕。
Murong Huang was acting Inspector of Pingzhou, so he could only name Huangfu Zhen as Attendant Officer.遼東 Liaodong refers to the region east of the Liao River.
This begins a curious set of discrepancies between the ZZTJ account and the one in the Book of Jin involving Gao Xu. Here we see that Gao Xu led the initial army that attacked Murong Ren. However, the Book of Jin claims that he was still only the Administrator of Xuantu, and that he abandoned his city and fled with the others.
21. In the eleventh month, Guo Quan seized control of Shanggui, and sent notice of his submission to Jin; the territories of Jingzhao, Xinping, Fufeng, Pingyi, and Beidi all did the same.Guo Quan was Shi Sheng’s subordinate who commanded the remnants of his army.
22. Before, Zhang Jun of Liangzhou had wished to send diplomatic messages to Jiankang by way of Cheng, but the lord of Cheng, Li Xiong, would not permit it. Zhang Jun thereupon sent his 治中從事 Zhang Chun to offer fealty to Cheng in order to pass through their territory. Li Xiong pretended to permit it, but sent pirates to lay in wait at the Eastern Gorges on the Yangzi. A native of Shu, Qiao Zan, secretly told Zhang Chun about it. 三峽在成都之東，故云東峽。
Since the Three Gorges were east of Chengdu, they were also called the Eastern Gorges.Jiankang was the name for Jianye during this period. It was the capital of Eastern Jin. Its name had been changed to avoid conflicting with a naming-taboo of a member of the Sima clan.
Zhang Chun said to Li Xiong, "My lord has sent me to make diplomatic ties with Jiankang because he knew Your Majesty values loyalty and righteousness, and are ready to lend a hand. If you prefer to kill me, you ought to behead me in the market square, and then post a notice for the crowd to read saying, ‘Liangzhou has not forgotten the old virtues, seeking to send word to Langye. Their lord is sagely and his minister bright. When I discovered this, I killed him.’ By this, word of your virtue will spread far and wide, and all the realm will fear your might. By sending pirates to kill me along the Yangzi, you do not demonstrate your might; how then could the realm know of it?"
Li Xiong, shocked, replied, "How could this be?"蜀不許涼人假道，則蜀地前此無涼人之迹。江左自琅邪中興，故以稱之。
Shu did not permit Liangzhou people to pass through, so before now there had not been any trace of them.
Since Eastern Jin had been founded by Sima Rui, who was the Prince of Langye, people outside the Southland sometimes called the region Langye.
23. The Colonel Director of Retainers Jing Qian said to Li Xiong, "Zhang Chun is a brave man; please permit him to stay here." 蜀置司隸校尉於成都。
The Colonel Director of Retainers was an office in the capital region. Since Chengdu was Shu's capital, their Colonel was there.
Li Xiong replied, "Why would such a brave man be willing to stay? But you may discuss matters with him."
Jing Qian then said to Zhang Chun, "It is currently quite warm in our territory now, and it may pose difficulties for a man of your robust build. Why not remain here until the weather cools, and in the meantime send a minor official in your stead?"
Zhang Chun replied, "Our lord has sent me to express his loyalty to the imperial court, lamenting that the court remains in exile, the coffins of the former Emperors have not yet returned to the north, the people live in suffering and misery, and yet even so my lord remains powerless to change such things. This is far too important a matter to be left to some minor official. If a minor official could be sent, then there would be no point in my having come here. Though the mountains erupt or the seas boil over, even so I will arrive, so how could I be concerned about mere heat or cold?" 謂懷、愍蒙塵，卒之見害，梓宮未返也。上都，謂建康也。
He refers to the deaths of Emperors Huai and Min, whose coffins had yet to be returned.
上都 Shangdu refers to the Eastern Jin capital, Jiankang.
Li Xiong said to Zhang Chun, "Your lord is heroic and renowned, peerless in the realm. His land is well-guarded and his soldiers are strong. Why does he not assume imperial title to please himself?"
Zhang Chun replied, "My lord's family has been steadfast and loyal for generations, and the world knows their sincerity. As he has not yet avenged the imperial court's shame, he sleeps with his spear as a pillow waiting for day to break (ie, he is prepared for battle). Why would he merely think of pleasing himself?"
Li Xiong felt ashamed, and he said, "My family, too, had been loyal servants for generations. But when the realm fell into chaos, and the people of the six commandaries (of Qinzhou) came to this province seeking refuge, the multitude pushed my father to be their leader, and that is how things came to be as they are now. If Langye is able to restore Jin as the ruler of the Middle Kingdom, then I too will lead troops to support him." So he presented Zhang Chun with gifts and sent him on. Zhang Chun eventually carried out his orders at Jiankang.事見八十二卷惠帝元康八年。
The incidents beginning the migration of Li Te's followers were related in Book 82, in the eighth year of Yuankang under Emperor Hui (298).Li Xiong meant his father, Li Te. Around 300, Li Te led a large band of refugees who fled from their homes in Qinzhou to go to Shu. After meeting with opposition from the Jin commanders there, Li Te began fighting against them, and was hailed by the refugees as their leader. He died in battle, but his relatives completed the conquest and founded the state of Cheng, with Li Xiong as its first Emperor.
24. When Chang'an had first fallen to Han-Zhao in 316, the counting clerk of Dunhuang Geng Fang had gone from Hanzhong to the Southland. He sent many petitions to the court, asking for an imperial envoy to be sent to console and assist Liangzhou. The court appointed Geng Fang as 侍書御史, planning to send him to appoint Zhang Jun as Grand General Who Guards The West, and selected Jia Ling of Longxi and twelve other men to be his subordinates. 事見八十九卷愍帝建興四年。耿訪，敦煌所遣上計吏，留長安未還，而長安陷，且河、隴路絕，因南入漢中，自漢東下至建康。【章：十二行本「侍」作「持」；乙十一行本同；熊校同。嚴：「侍」改「治」。】〉
The fall of Chang'an to Han-Zhao was related in Book 89, in the fourth year of Jianxing under Emperor Min (316).
Geng Fang, in his capacity as a counting clerk, had been sent from Dunhuang to Chang'an, but he never returned, since during the above incident, the roads back through Hexi and Longyou were blocked. Thus he was forced to travel south into Hanzhong, and from there east along the Han River until he reached Jiankang.
Some versions write Geng Fang's granted position as 持書御史 or 治書御史.
When Geng Fang reached Liangzhou (that is, the province of northern Shu centered on Hanzhong), the roads were blocked. Geng Fang transferred his commission to Jia Ling, while Geng disguised himself as a merchant and continued on. During this year (333 AD), Jia Ling finally arrived at Liangzhou and presented the Jin titles, and Zhang Jun sent the 部曲督 Wang Feng and others back to Jin to express appreciation.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."