Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:01 am


The Second Year of Taiyuan (The Dingchou Year, 377 AD)


1. In spring, Goguryeo, Silla, and the tribes of the southwest all sent envoys to offer tribute to Qin.


Silla (Xinluo) was a successor state of the older Korean 韓 Han states, and it was in the Han dynasty's former Lelang territory. The Tongdian states, "Silla was originally part of the Jinhan states in Korea. During Cao-Wei it was called Siro (Xinlu), and during Jin and Liu-Song it was called Silla. This state was over five hundred li south of Baekje, along with Okjeo, Bunai, Han, and Hui."


2. Zhao's former Construction Overseer, Xiong Miao, repeatedly spoke to Fu Jian about the great abundance of the Shi clan’s extravagant palace adornments. Fu Jian appointed him as Chief Clerk of Architecture and as acting Minister Architect (or, as Minister of the Palace Workshop). Xiong Miao set to work revamping the boats and ships, as well as the soldiers’ equipment, adorning everything in gold and silver, all with the most exquisite material and ingenious designs.

Murong Nong privately said to Murong Chui, "Ever since Wang Meng's death, Qin's system of laws has degraded from day to day. See how the mighty have once again become decadent. Disaster will soon fall. The divinations spoke of this, and it will soon become reality. Prince, now is the time for you to acquaint great heroes with Heaven's will. There is no time to waste!"

Murong Chui said with a smile, "Surely the state of the realm is not what you make of it."


Some versions record the title that Fu Jian gave Xiong Miao as Minister of the Palace Workshop rather than Minister Architect. Under the Jin system, the Grand Court Architect had Ministers, but it did not have Chief Clerks. This Chief Clerk office was a creation of Qin.

Murong Nong held the same views on Qin's fate as Murong Shao and Murong Kai (376.21).


3. In Jin, Huan Huo requested that the Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhu Xu, be appointed as Inspector of Lianzhou, to be stationed at Xiangyang.


4. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Dingwei (?), Jin’s Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie An, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, but he declined the appointment. Instead, he was promoted as Palace Attendant and Commander over military affairs in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou.


5. On the day Bingchen (?), Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The West and Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Huo, passed away.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinchou (November 27th), Huan Chong was appointed Commander of military authority over Jiangzhou, Jingzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Ningzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou, and as acting Inspector of Jingzhou. Huang Chong's son inherited his position as Inspector of Jiangzhou. The Master of Writing of the Five Divisions, the Empress’s father Wang Yun, was appointed Commander of military affairs of the armies south of the Yangzi, Credential Holder, and acting Inspector of Xuzhou. The Marshal to the General Who Conquers The West and acting Chancellor of Nanjun, Xie Xuan, was appointed as Inspector of Yanzhou, acting Chancellor of Guangling, and overseer of all armies north of the Yangzi.


Some versions record that Wang Yun was further appointed as Credential Holder.

The phrase "the armies south of the Yangzi" here means the armies at Jinling.

Since Huan Huo had been the General Who Conquers The West, he was who Xie Xuan had been Marshal under.


6. Huan Chong viewed Qin as powerful and prosperous, so he wished to relocate the populace to the south of the Yangzi to better defend them. He asked the court to allow him to relocate his defensive base from Jiangling to Shangming, while he sent the Champion General Liu Bo to defend Jiangling, and the 咨議參軍, Yang Liang, to defend Jiangxia.


"South of the Yangzi" here means Shangming. The Records of Jin states, "During Han, Shangming was within Canling County in Wuling commandary." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Shangming is in Zhijiang County. It is a region which is both secure and spacious, and to the north it commands the Yangzi. At the place where the Yangzi and the Si River diverge, the Yangzi flows on to the east, and the county administers the islands there, so the county name became Zhijiang ('where the Yangzi diverges')." The Tongdian states, "Shangming is west of the ruined city of Daming, in Songzi County in Jiangling. It was built by Huan Chong." Huan Chong's petition stated, "In the southern plains of Canling County, there is a place called Shangming. The fields and earth there are rich and abundant, well suited to the task of sustaining soldiers. During Eastern Wu, the city of Lexiang was over forty li, secured by the Yangzi to the north and the Three Gorges to the west." Song Bai remarked, "Shangming was built by Huan Chong, in the west of modern Songzi County."


7. Wang Yun wished to decline the offered post as Inspector of Xuzhou. Xie An said, "As father to the Empress, you occupy a very important position. You ought not think so little of yourself. That would not be to treat yourself kindly." So Wang Yun accepted the order.


The phrase 時遇 here means to treat with kindness for a time.


8. For many years, the Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Chi Chao, felt that his father Chi Yin's position ought to be equal to that of Xie An. As the years went by, and Xie An’s position became more supreme, while Chi Yin began to lose ground to him, Chi Yin often assumed an indignant demeanor. So there was always this friction between the Chi and the Xie clans.

At this time, the court was concerned about the threat of a Qin invasion, so they wished to summon a commander skilled in both civil and military affairs, one who would be able to defend the north against attack. Xie An suggested his nephew Xie Xuan could heed the call. When Chi Chao heard the suggestion, he sighed and said, "Xie An is wise indeed. He was able to go against the common sentiment, and even go so far to nominate his own relative. Xie Xuan has such talent that he can bear this task."

Many others grumbled and did not believe this. But Chi Chao said, "I knew Xie Xuan when we served on Duke Huan Wen's staff together, and I saw how well he was able to draw out people’s talents. Even if it was a fellow just wearing sandals or clogs, Xie Xuan never failed to select the right man for the job. I know that he can do it.” So Xie Xuan was given the appointment.


Chi Yin had once been Inspector of the border provinces Xuzhou and Yanzhou, but later on he had been sent to guard Kuaiji, an interior post.

Chi Chao's and Xie Xuan's service together on Huan Wen's staff was mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's first year of Xingning (363.4)

A 履 is a shoe made of leather; a 屐 is a shoe made of wood.

郗超與謝玄不善。符堅將問晉鼎,既已狼噬梁、岐,又虎視淮陰矣。于時朝議遣玄北討,人間頗有異同之論。唯超曰:「是必濟事。吾昔嘗與共在桓宣武府,見使才皆盡,雖履屐之間,亦得其任。以此推之,容必能立勳。」元功既舉,時人咸嘆超之先覺,又重其不以愛憎匿善。(New Tales 7.22)

Chi Chao was not on good terms with Xie Xuan. (In 377) when Fu Jian was about to "inquire after the Jin mandate", he had already devoured like a wolf the areas of Liang and Qi, and was now eyeing like a tiger the region south of the Huai River. It was at this point that the court at Jiankang was deliberating over whether to dispatch Xie Xuan north on a campaign. Among those present, several argued against it.

It was Chi Chao alone who said, "This man is sure to save the situation. I used to serve with him on Huan Wen's staff,
and observed that he always made the utmost use of people's abilities. Even if they were only menials wearing sandals or clogs, he always picked the right man for every job. Drawing inferences from this, I feel he'll surely be able to establish his merit in this undertaking."

After Xie Xuan's great victory at the Fei River had been won (in 383), his contemporaries all sighed in admiration over Chi Chao's foresight. In particular, they honored the way in which he had not let his personal likes or dislikes conceal the good qualities of another. (tr. Richard Mather)


9. Xie Xuan recruited brave horsemen, placing them under the command of Liu Laozhi of Pengcheng and several others. He appointed Liu Laozhi as his advisor, and Liu Laozhi often command his vanguard of picked troops, never knowing defeat in battle. Their army was called the "Northern Garrison Army", and all their enemies feared them.


People in Jin called Jingkou the "Northern Garrison". When Xie Xuan routs Ju Nan and the other Qin commanders later on, he twice leads them into Xuzhou. So this is why the text calls them the Northern Garrison army.


10. On the day Renyin (November 28th), Jin's General Who Protects The Army and Regular Attendant of 散騎, Wang Biaozhi, passed away.

Before, when Xie An had wished to expand and repair the palace, Wang Biaozhi had said, "At the beginning of the restoration of the dynasty, the Eastern Manor served as the palace. It was a place of exceptional frugality and humility. During Su Jun's rebellion, Emperor Cheng took shelter in the council hall of the Censorate building, which could not even keep out the cold or the heat, and so the new palace was later constructed. Perhaps it may be humble in comparison to the palaces of Han and Wei, but in comparison with the residences at the time when we first crossed over the Yangzi, it is extremely extravagant. Now we are under threat from powerful invaders. How could we possibly make such a great effort on a project like this, and inflict discomfort on the people?"

Xie An had said, "If the palace remains crass and pathetic, later generations will say that we were incapable."

Wang Biaozhi had said, "You and I are the most powerful people in the realm. We safeguard the peace of the state and the tranquility of our families, and our conduct of affairs has been glorious. How would expanding the palace make you more capable?"

Xie An could not refute this reasoning, and so Wang Biaozhi's words had won out, and there had been no further palace construction.


The Eastern Manor was east of Taicheng in Jiankang.

The 蘭臺 Lantai was the Censorate Building. The council hall was where the officials of the Censorate would sit and meet.

The building of the new palace was mentioned in Book 94, in Emperor Cheng's fifth year of Xianhe (330).


11. In the twelfth month, Jin’s Administrator of Linhai, Chi Chao, passed away.

Before, Chi Chao had been a partisan of the Huan clan, while his father Chi Yin remained loyal to the royal family, and did not know what his son was up to. When Chi Chao was on his deathbed, he sent a chest of documents to his student and said, "My father is old in years. After my death, if he grieves so much that he cannot eat or sleep, present this chest to him; if not, you may burn it."

After Chi Chao’s death, when Chi Yin grieved and sighed and became sick, the student gave him the chest. It contained all of the secret rebellious plots that Chi Chao had schemed together with Huan Wen. Chi Yin angrily exclaimed, "My miscreant son died too late!" And after that, he did not weep for his son any further.


Linhai was where the Eastern Commandant of Kuaiji had originally administered that place from. The Book of Liu-Song states, "During Former Han, the Commandant administered the region from Yin. During Later Han, Wu commandary was split off from Kuaiji, and so the Commandant's base was moved to Zhang'an. In Sun Liang's second year of Taiping (257), Linhai commandary was established."
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Feb 28, 2018 9:52 pm, edited 4 times in total.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:05 am


The Third Year of Taiyuan (The Wuyin Year; 378 AD)


1. In spring, the second month, on the day Yisi (March 31st), construction of the new palace began in Jin, so Emperor Xiaowu moved to the Prince of Kuaiji’s residence.


2. Fu Jian sent his Grand General Who Conquers The South, Commander of the expeditionary force, 守 Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Changle, his son Fu Pi; the General of 武衛, Gou Chang; and the Master of Writing, the former Yan emperor Murong Wei, to lead an army of seventy thousand horse and foot to attack Xiangyang. He also sent the Inspector of Jingzhou, Yang An, to attack Fan, and sent Deng Qiang to lead the combined vanguard. He sent the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Shi Yue of Shiping, to lead ten thousand elite cavalry to attack Luyang Gate. He further sent the Intendant of Jingzhao, Murong Chui, and the General Who Displays Valor, Yao Chang, to lead fifty thousand soldiers against Nanxiang. He additionally sent the General Who Directs The Army, Gou Chi, the General of the Right, Mao Dang, and the General of 強弩, Wang Xian, to lead an army of forty thousand out of Wudang, to join in the attack on Xiangyang.

In summer, the fourth month, the Qin troops reached the north bank of the Miao River. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Zhu Xu, had gathered up all the boats in that area and believed that Qin would therefore not be able to cross the river. So Shi Yue led five thousand cavalry to swim across the Han River. Zhu Xu was caught off guard, and he withdrew into Xiangyang’s defenses. Shi Yue then struck the outlying areas, and captured over a hundred boats to use to ferry the rest of the Qin troops across. Fu Pi and the other generals then attacked Xiangyang.


Luyang Gate was in Luyang County in Nanyang commandary.


3. Zhu Xu's mother, Lady Han, heard that the Qin troops were coming, so she personally mounted the walls of Xiangyang to inspect the defenses. When she reached the northwest corner of the city, she believed it could not be held against an attack, so she led over a hundred serving girls and palace women to construct defensive works there. When the Qin army arrived, the northwest corner indeed fell, but a great crowd defended the new defensive works, which the people of Xiangyang called the "Wives' Walls".


4. Huan Chong was at Shangming, where he had gathered an army of seventy thousand. But he feared the Qin army's strength, and did not dare advance.


5. Fu Pi wished to press the assault against Xiangyang. Gou Chang said, “We have ten times as many men as the enemy does, and our grain and supplies are piled up like mountains. But if the people in the Han and Mian River region are forced to move to Xuchang and Luoyang, they will clog up the roads that we use for our supply lines, and the soldiers will be cut off from reinforcements. It would be like we were caught in a net, and then we could not deal with any sort of threat. As for getting our men and officers killed off, that would just be pressing for some achievement!" So Fu Pi listened to him.

Murong Chui took Nanyang, and captured the Administrator Zheng Yi, before linking up with Fu Pi at Xiangyang.


6. In autumn, the seventh month, the new palace in Jin was completed. On the day Xinsi (September 3rd), Emperor Xiaowu moved into it.


7. Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Peng Chao, asked to attack Jin’s Administrator of Pei, Dai Lu, at Pengcheng. He stated, "I would like to further press the general attack against the cities of Huainan, to give the southern campaign the nature of a Jie Fight in weiqi. If we strike in both east and west, Danyang cannot respond to both." Fu Jian agreed, and he sent Peng Chao as Commander of the eastern expeditionary force. He was placed in command of seventy thousand troops under the General of the Rear, Ju Nan, the General of the Right 禁, Mao Sheng, and the Inspector of Luozhou, Shao Bao. Together, they invaded Huaiyang and Xuyi. This Peng Chao was the younger brother of Peng Yue; this Shao Bao was the cousin of Shao Qiang.

In the eighth month, Peng Chao attacked Pengcheng. The Jin court ordered the General of the Right, Mao Husheng, to lead an army of fifty thousand soldiers guarding Gushu to oppose the Qin army.


Dai Lu was acting Administrator of Pei, and he was camped at Pengcheng. Yang Zhengheng remarked, "X 'Lu' is a 古遁 character."

The character marked here as X cannot be printed on this forum.

Peng Chao's reference to the "southern campaign" means Fu Pi, who was at that time commanding the armies around Xiangyang.

A Jie Fight (Ko Fight) refers to a move made in the game of weiqi (go). In weiqi, one can attack on the right to force the enemy to respond to it, and thus secure a concurrent attack on the left. This is why it is called a Jie ("compulsion") Fight.

Jin's capital at Jiankang was in the Han dynasty's Moling County in Danyang commandary.

俱 Ju is a surname.

Qin's Inspector of Luozhou originally administered his territory from Shancheng. The Records of Jin states, "After Qin conquered Yan, they moved the administrative center of Luozhou to Fengyang." But it was mentioned earlier that when Deng Qiang was Inspector of Luozhou, his base was at Luoyang. It must be that at this time, the Inspector was still at Luoyang. Later on in the text, it will mention that Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou and Duke of Beihai, Fu Chong, and the Governor of Yuzhou and Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui, are based at Luoyang. That must have been the time when the Inspector of Luozhou moved his base to Fengyang.

The text here says "Huaiyang", but in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin it says "Huaiyin", and Huaiyin is repeatedly mentioned in the text after this. That must be the correct version. During Former Han, Huaiyin and Xuyi were both part of Linhuai commandary. During Later Han and Jin, Huaiyin was part of Guangling commandary.

Shao Qiang was mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Fei's second year of Taihe (367.3).

...兗州刺史彭超遣使上言於堅曰:「晉沛郡太守戴逯以卒數千戍彭城,臣請率精銳五萬攻之,願更遣重將討淮南諸城。」堅於是又遣其後將軍俱難率右將軍毛當、後禁毛盛、陵江邵保等步騎七萬寇淮陰、盱眙... (Jinshu 113.39)

Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Peng Chao, sent in a petition stating, "Jin's Administrator of Pei, Dai Lu, is camped at Pengcheng with several thousand men. I ask to lead fifty thousand elite soldiers to attack him, as part of a general push against the cities south of the Huai River." So Fu Jian sent him, the General of the Rear, Ju Nan, the General of the Right, Mao Dang, the General of the Rear 禁, Mao Sheng, the Administrator of Jiangling, Shao Bao, and others to lead seventy thousand men to invade Huaiyin and Xuyi.


8. Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Wei Zhong, besieged Jin's Administrator of Weixing, Ji Yi, at Xicheng.


The Tongdian states, "Nine li south of Xicheng County in 金州 Jinzhou, Ji Yi built a rampart in the tall mountains. This is the mountain that we today call Mount Wei."


9. In the ninth month, Fu Jian was eating and drinking with his ministers. He appointed the Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, as the wine chief, and ordered every man to drink to their fullest. The Gentleman Attendant of the Private Library, Zhao Zheng, composed a song, "Ode to The Virtues of Wine". He sang, "In earth there is a spring of wine, and in the sky there hangs the wine pools. Before Du Kang practiced his craft, Yidi knew its potency. Zhou mourned the loss of Yin, and Jie was cast out of Xia. So heed my words, and let the later man avoid the earlier man’s fate." Fu Jian was overjoyed, and ordered Zhao Zheng to be Wine Overseer, feasting the other ministers, and conducting the food ceremonies.


Some versions write that "Fu Jian ordered every man to drink to their fullest" instead of "every man drank to their fullest".

The Annals of the Nine Provinces states, "When Duke Cao Cao forbade wine, Kong Rong ridiculed him in a message saying, 'Isn't there a Wine Banner in the stars in the sky? And isn't there a Jiuquan ("wine spring") commandary on earth?'" The Astrological Records states, "In the right corner of the Yellow Emperor constellation, the two southern stars are called the Wine Banner. They are the banner of the wine officials." So in this phrase "In the sky hangs pools of wine", since it says "hangs", the text must have meant to put "banner" instead of "pools".

In Emperor Wu of Wei's (Cao Cao's) poem Short Song Style, there is this verse: "Who can unravel these sorrows of mine? I know of only one man, Du Kang." The Notes explain, "Du Kang was an ancient master of wine."

The Strategies of the Warring States records, "In ancient times, the Emperor's daughter, Yidi, prepared some wine and presented it to Yu the Great. Yu drank it and found that it was sweet. He gave it back to Yidi, saying, ‘Someday, such wine shall certainly be the ruin of a kingdom.’"

King Zhou of Yin/Shang had a Pool of Wine and a Forest of Meats. He spent long nights there, and so ruined Yin. And as history says, Jie of Xia was licentious and arrogant, which led to his overthrow at the Battle of Mingtiao, and this was also because of wine.

前危後則 means that the later man should take warning from the earlier man's peril, and use it as a model of behavior to avoid.

The 禮 in this case is the minister in charge of conducting the feast for his lord, but he does not present the Three Cups.


10. Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, sent messengers to the Western Reaches, to spread news of the glory and virtue of Qin.

In winter, the tenth month, Dayuan in Ferghana sent blood-sweating horses to Qin as tribute. Fu Jian said, "I once admired the conduct of a man like Emperor Wen of Han. But what use would I have for these horses?" So he ordered his ministers to compose the "Poem Where The Horses Halted" and sent the horses back.


The story of Emperor Wen of Han receiving the thousand-li horses is mentioned in Book 13, in Emperor Wen's first year (179 BC).

Sending the horses back was one thing. But what purpose was there to compose this poem as well? This, too, was merely to glorify his own name.


11. A man from Baxi, Zhao Bao, rose in rebellion in Liangzhou (or Lianzhou). He proclaimed himself as Jin's Colonel of Western Man Tribes and Administrator of Ba.


Some versions write "Lianzhou" instead of "Liangzhou".

This passage indicates that the people of Shu longed for Jin.


12. Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou and Duke of Beihai, Fu Chong, was stationed Luoyang. He plotted rebellion. Fu Jian said, "His Chief Clerk, Lü Guang, is loyal and true, and certainly will not go along with his plot." So he ordered Lü Guang to apprehend Fu Chong. Fu Chong was sent back to Chang'an in a prison cart. Fu Jian pardoned him, and appointed him 公就第. This Fu Chong was the elder brother of Fu Luo.

苻重之鎮洛陽,以光為長史。及重謀反,苻堅聞之,曰:「呂光忠孝方正,必不同也。」馳使命光檻重送之。(Jinshu 122.3)

When Fu Chong was stationed at Luoyang, Lü Guang was appointed as his Chief Clerk. Fu Chong plotted rebellion. When Fu Jian heard of it, he said, "Lü Guang is loyal, filial, upright, and true. He is certainly not part of this plot." So Fu Jian sent a fast courier to order Lü Guang to put Fu Chong in a cage cart and send him back.


13. In the twelfth month, Qin's Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk, Li Rou, sent in a memorial stating: "The Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, and others command an army of a hundred thousand. They are assaulting and besieging Xiangyang’s inner city. Every day, their army expends ten thousand gold, yet they still have not achieved success. I ask that you put the matter before the Minister of Justice."

Fu Jian said, "For Fu Pi and the others to expend so much and yet not achieve success, that is truly something that merits either demotion or death. Yet the army has already been there for so long that it would not be easily to recall them quickly. So I will make a special order, and command him to either achieve success or atone for his crime."

Fu Jian sent the Gentleman Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Wei Hua, to inform Fu Pi and the others of the decision. Wei Hua presented Fu Pi with a sword and announced Fu Jian's demand: "If you are not victorious by spring, then use this sword on yourself, and do not show your face before me again!"


14. The captured Jin minister Zhou Xiao was still in Qin. He secretly sent letters to Huan Chong, saying he would plot against Qin from the inside. He then fled from Hanzhong. Qin recaptured him, but pardoned him.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Jun 16, 2017 2:19 am, edited 3 times in total.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:11 am


The Fourth Year of Taiyuan (The Jimao Year, 379 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 10th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


2. Fu Pi and the other Qin generals at Xiangyang had received the imperial command with fear and trembling. They decided to launch a determined assault against Xiangyang.

Fu Jian wished to lead an attack against Xiangyang himself, and he ordered the Duke of Yangping, his brother Fu Rong, to send the soldiers of the six Guandong provinces to Shouchun, and ordered Liang Xi to lead the soldiers of Hexi as rearguard. Fu Rong criticized this plan, saying, "If Your Majesty wishes to take the Southland, then you must be sure to give this matter much more careful consideration. You cannot be too hasty. And if you only wish to take Xiangyang, then what would be the point of going so far as to exert yourself in person? There has never been a case where all the soldiers of the realm were flung against a single city. If you were to do so, that could truly be said to be 'the Marquis of Sui using a pearl to shoot at a bird a thousand feet away'!"


The Annals of the Lü Clan states, "He uses a pearl like that of the Marquis of Sui to shoot a bird at a distance of a thousand feet. All men will laugh at him; and why? Because the thing which he uses is of great value, and what he wishes to get is of little." In Search of the Supernatural has this story: "The Marquis of Sui was traveling, when he came upon a wounded snake. He rescued the snake, and nursed it back to health. Later, the snake returned holding a pearl in its mouth, to thank him for saving it. It was several cun thick and pure-white, and at night it was bright enough to illuminate the room. It came to be known as the Pearl of the Marquis of Sui."

And Liang Xi also remonstrated with him, saying, “The lord of Jin does not compare with Sun Hao in cruelty. Furthermore, Jin has strong and defensible terrain, easy to hold and difficult to attack. Your Majesty certainly wishes to sweep away the Southland. But then why not simply send out orders to your various commanders? You could have the soldiers of Guandong march south to the banks of the Huai and Si Rivers, while the troops of Lianzhou and Yizhou march east out of Ba and the Gorges. Then what need would you have to bestir yourself, and in your own person get bogged down in the distant gloom and mire? Of old, Guangwu of Han punished Gongsun Shu, and Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) captured Sun Hao, but I never heard that either of those two sovereigns actually led the six armies in person, and themselves beat the drums of attack or dodged the slings and arrows of the battlefield.”

So Fu Jian canceled his plan.


Guangwu used Cen Peng and Wu Han to conquer Gongsun Shu, and Emperor Wu of Jin used Wang Jun and Wang Hun to defeat Sun Hao.

Fu Rong and Liang Xi did not leave their posts to come give these remonstrances, but sent in petitions.


3. The Jin court ordered the Champion General and Chancellor of Nanjun, Liu Bo, to lead eight thousand soldiers to relieve Xiangyang. But Liu Bo feared Qin, and he did not dare to advance.

Jin’s commander inside Xiangyang, Zhu Xu, several times marched out to battle, and routed the Qin soldiers, but they would fall back too far, and Zhu Xu had no equipment.

In the second month, the Protector of Xiangyang, Li Bohu, secretly sent his son to bring word to Qin, offering to let them into the city. Fu Pi ordered his generals to advance and attack. On the day Wuwu (?), they captured Xiangyang, and took Zhu Xu prisoner, sending him to Chang'an. Fu Jian believed that Zhu Xu could be trusted with authority under Qin, so he appointed him as Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing. But since Fu Jian believed that Li Bohu was disloyal, he executed him.


Cao-Wei had created the office of Minister of Revenue.


4. The Qin general Murong Yue took Shunyang, and captured Jin’s Administrator there, Ding Mu of Qiao. Fu Jian wished to employ Ding Mu, but Ding Mu firmly refused his offers of appointment.

Fu Jian appointed the General of 中壘, Liang Cheng, as Inspector of Jingzhou, assigning him ten thousand soldiers to guard Xiangyang. He selected people of talent and employed them as suited.


The Records of Jin states, "During the Taikang era (280-9), Shunyang commandary was created." It was in the same location as the two counties of Lintuan and Jutan in the Tang dynasty's 鄧州 Dengzhou.


5. Since Huan Chong had failed to save Xiangyang, he sent in his seal of office, asking to be relieved of command, but the court did not allow it. The court stripped Liu Bo of his office, but he was later reappointed as Champion General.


6. Qin appointed the General of the Front, Zhang Qi, as Inspector of Bingzhou.


7. Jin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Xie Xuan, led an army of more than ten thousand men to relieve Pengcheng.

When the Jin army reached Sikou, Xie Xuan wished to send a message to the Jin commander inside the city, Dai Lu, but could not. One of his subordinate officers, Tian Hong, offered to swim secretly across the river and inform Pengcheng, so Xie Xuan sent him. But Tian Hong was captured by the Qin soldiers. They bribed him heavily, asking him to tell those in Pengcheng that the southern army had already been defeated. Tian Hong pretended to agree, but then told those in the city, "The Southern Army has just arrived; I alone have come to report it, but I was captured the rebels. Exert yourselves!" The Qin soldiers killed him.

Peng Chao left his baggage train at Liucheng. Xie Xuan spread rumors that he had sent his General of the Rear Army, He Qian of Donghai, towards Liucheng. When Peng Chao heard the rumors, he broke off his siege of Pengcheng, and led his troops back to defend his baggage train. Dai Lu then led his soldiers out of Pengcheng, and they joined together with Xie Xuan’s army. Peng Chao then returned and captured Pengcheng, leaving the 治中 of Yanzhou, Xu Bao, to defend it, and marched south to attack Xuyi.

Ju Nan captured Huaiyin, and left Shao Bao to defend it.


Liucheng was the capital of Liu County. Ever since the Han dynasty, it had been part of Pengcheng commandary.

Some versions add that He Qian was "of Donghai".

Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "The Biography of Xie Xuan says, 'He Qian advanced and lifted the siege of Pengcheng', and it also says, 'He cleared the two camps at Pengcheng and Xiapi.' But neither the Imperial Records nor the biographies of the other generals say that Pengcheng escaped danger during this year. Furthermore, the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'Peng Chao captured Pengcheng.' And it also states, 'Peng Chao sent some of his soldiers to Xiapi, and he left Xu Bao to guard Pengcheng. By the seventh month, Mao Dang was appointed as Qin's Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was stationed at Pengcheng, while Wang Xian was appointed Inspector of Yangzhou, and was camped at Xiapi.' So both of these cities must have fallen."

盱眙 is pronounced Xuyi.

The Maps of the North-South Border Regions states, "Huaiyin County is fifty paces from the Huai River, and faces Qinghe to the north by ten li. By advancing through it, one can observe the condition of Shandong, and by holding it, one can cover the banks of the Yangzi. It was a critical line of defense for Jin and Liu-Song."


8. In the third month, on the day Renxu (April 12th), the Jin court ordered, "There are many enemies on the borders, and the yearly grain has not been harvested. In order to provide for the common defense, the people must become more frugal. Each family, to the nine kin, will provide grain as payment to the granary officials, in order to alleviate half the problem. As for corvee service, all projects not related to military service shall be halted or canceled."


The "nine kin" meant each family to the ninth degree.


9. On the day Guiwei (?), Jin sent the General of the Right, Mao Husheng, with thirty thousand soldiers to attack Bazhong, in order to relieve Weixing. The Protector of the Vanguard, Zhao Fu, and others arrived at Baxi, where they were defeated by Qin's generals, Zhang Zhao and others, with more than seven thousand casualties. Mao Husheng fell back to camp at Badong.

A native of Shu, Li Wu, gathered together twenty thousand soldiers, and laid siege to Chengdu on behalf of Mao Husheng. Fu Jian sent the General Who Routs The Caitiffs, Lü Guang, to attack and defeat him.


Bazhong means Ba commandary.

General Who Routs The Caitiffs was a rank created by the Fu clan of Qin.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Wushen (May 28th), the Qin general Wei Zhong captured Weixing. The Jin commander there, Ji Yi, grasped his blade and made to kill himself, but those around him seized the blade. When the Qin soldiers reached their position, they took Ji Yi captive, but he refused to say anything to them; he refused food, and starved himself to death. Fu Jian lamented, "Before, Zhou Mengwei was unyielding; later, Ding Yanyuan was incorruptible. Now Ji Zuchong has shut up his mouth and so died. How loyal the ministers of Jin are!" Yi Ji's advisor Shi Ying escaped and returned back to Jin, and presented a report of Ji Yi’s final moments. The Jin court posthumously named him Inspector of Yizhou.


Zhou Xiao's style name was Mengwei; he had been captured during the conquest of Yizhou (Book 103, 373.13). Ding Mu's style name was Yanyuan; he was captured during the campaign against Pengcheng and the Huainan region (379.4). Ji Yi's style name was Zuchong.

Some versions record that Shi Ying "escaped".


10. Qin's generals Mao Dang and Wang Xian led twenty thousand soldiers from Xiangyang east to link up with Ju Nan and Peng Chao in an attack against Huainan.

In the fifth month, on the day Yichou (June 14th), Ju Nan and Peng Chao took Xuyi, and captured Jin’s Interior Minister of Gaomi, Mao Zaozhi.

Sixty thousand Qin soldiers besieged Jin's Inspector of Youzhou, Tian Luo, at San'a, a hundred li from Guangling. The Jin court was greatly disturbed, and dispatched forces all along the Yangzi. They sent the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Xie Shi, to lead ships to dock at Tuzhong. This Xie Shi was Xie An's younger brother.


Gaomi was a refugee fief. Mao Zaozhi was acting Interior Minister, and was camped at Xuyi. 璪 is pronounced "zao (z-ao)".

Jin had established a refugee community of people from Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou north of the Yangzi at San'a. It was at the same place where Baoyingjun is now.

涂 is pronounced "tu (d-ue)".


11. Jin's General of the Right, Mao Anzhi, and others led forty thousand soldiers to camp at Tangyi. Qin's Mao Dang and Mao Sheng led twenty thousand cavalry to raid Tangyi, and Mao Anzhi and the others were trampled and scattered.

Jin’s Inspector of Yanzhou, Xie Xuan, marched from Guangling to rescue San'a. On the day Bingzi (June 25th), he defeated Ju Nan and Peng Chao, and they retreated to defend Xuyi. In the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (July 7th), Xie Xuan and Tian Luo led fifty thousand soldiers forward to attack Xuyi, and they again defeated Ju Nan and Peng Chao, who fled back to Huaiyin. Xie Xuan sent He Qian and others to lead boats to sail up the river, and during the night, they burned the bridge over the Huai River. Qin’s Shao Bao was killed in battle, and Ju Nan and Peng Chao fled north across the Huai River. Xie Xuan, He Qian, Dai Lu, and Tian Luo all pursued them. They fought another battle at Junchuan, and again the Qin army was greatly routed. Ju Nan and Peng Chao continued to retreat north, going so far as to flee by themselves. Xie Xuan then returned to Guangling. The court promoted him to Champion General and acting Inspector of Xuzhou.


Qin had built this bridge over the Huai River so that their troops could cross over.

Sixty li north of modern Xuyi County, there is a Mount Jun. Junchuan means the rivers at this Mount Jun.


12. When Fu Jian heard of the debacle in Huainan, he was furious. In autumn, the seventh month, he sent Peng Chao a prison cart to haul him back to the Minister of Justice. Peng Chao killed himself. Ju Nan was demoted to commoner status.


13. Fu Jian appointed Mao Dang as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was stationed at Pengcheng. Mao Sheng was appointed as Inspector of Yanzhou, and he was stationed at Hulu. Wang Xian was appointed as Inspector of Yangzhou, and he camped at Xiapi.


The Extended Records of Han states, "Hulu, formerly Huling, had its name changed by Emperor Zhang." The Records of Former Han states, "Wang Mang changed the name of Huling." It is now Hulu County. During Han, it was part of Shanyang commandary, and during Jin it was part of the Gaoping fief. Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "In Gaoping County there is the city of Huling." It was within Renchang County in the Tang dynasty's Yanzhou.


14. Xie An was appointed as Grand Counsellor. The Qin army invaded several times, and the border soldiers suffered many setbacks. The populace was stricken with terror. But Xie An protected them, and kept a peaceful attitude. In administering affairs, he gave directions in broad outlines, and did not obsess with small details. The people of that time compared him favorably with Wang Dao, and said that he exceeded Wang Dao in culture and elegance.


Some versions add the phrase "the populace was stricken with terror".


15. In the eighth month, on the day Dinghai (September 4th), Jin appointed the General of the Left, Wang Yun, as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing. Shortly afterwards, he was transferred to be Intendent of Danyang. But because of Wang Yun’s close ties to the state, on account of his being the Empress’s father, he did not wish to be involved with internal affairs, but begged to be sent out somewhere, so he was then appointed as Commander of the five eastern commandaries of Zhejiang, and as Interior Minister of Kuaiji.


Wang Yun had earlier been Commander in Xuzhou, and now he was Commander again, in Zhedong.


16. During this year, Qin suffered from a great famine.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:21 am


The Fifth Year of Taiyuan (The Gengchen Year, 380 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, Fu Jian again appointed the Duke of Beihai, the would-be rebel Fu Chong, as Grand General Who Guards The North, and stationed him at Ji.


Fu Chong had plotted rebellion, but had not been executed (378.12). Furthermore, now he was again given a border command. This was how he was in a position to later rebel, along with his younger brother Fu Luo.


2. In the second month, Fu Jian established the Academy of Martial Instruction at Weicheng, and ordered the Imperial University students to study the assorted arts of war from various generals.

The Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, remonstrated with him, saying, "Your Majesty is conquering in the east and campaigning in the west, and no enemy can stand before you. Of all the lands between the four seas, four-fifths are already yours. Although the Southland yet stands, they are not worth speaking of. Now is the time to put aside thoughts of war, and rebuild culture and virtue. But here you wish to establish a new school, and instruct men in the arts of warfare, rather than follow a course that will ensure peace. Your generals have already won more than a hundred victories for you. What threat are the soldiers not yet prepared to face, that you would go so far as to compel them to receive this sort of instruction, rather than work to strengthen their morale? This would be of no profit, and it would only harm your reputation. No one wants this besides yourself!" So Fu Jian halted his plans.


In Emperor Gao of Han's (Liu Bang's) first year of his reign (202 BC), he renamed Xianyang to Xincheng. In Emperor Wu's third year of Yuanding (114 BC), it was renamed again to Weicheng. During Later Han and Jin, it was abolished. Shi Le created Shi'an County, and the Fu clan restored its name to Weicheng.

馴 here means to follow; the text means to chart a course for peace.


3. Qin's General Who Conquers The North, Inspector of Youzhou, and Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, was heroic and very powerful. He could halt a charging bull, and shoot an arrow through the ear of a plow. Since he had helped Qin achieve success in the conquest of Dai, he asked to be granted authority equal to the Three Excellencies. However, when this was denied, he became very resentful.


Fu Luo, as Inspector of Youzhou, was stationed at Helong. Xingtang was a city from the state of Zhao of the Warring States era. The Qin dynasty had made it a county, and Cao-Wei and Jin had done the same.

Qin's conquest of Dai was mentioned at the beginning of this book, in the first year (376).

In the third month, Fu Jian appointed Fu Luo as Credential Bearer, Commander of military affairs in Yizhou, Ningzhou, and among the southwestern tribes, Grand General Who Conquers The South, and Governor of Yizhou. He ordered Fu Luo to go from Yique to Xiangyang, and from there proceed up the Han River to Shu. Fu Luo said to his subordinates, "I am a very close relative of the imperial family, and I have constantly served in any capacity demanded of me, no matter which border or which assignment it may be. Yet now I am to be cast out to the far west, and never again lead the armies of the capital? There must be some hidden plot behind this. He just wants Liang Cheng to drown me in the Han River! What do all of you suppose I should do?"


Fu Luo was Fu Jiàn's nephew by one of his late elder brothers.

Some versions include the phrase "What do all of you suppose I should do?" at the end of this passage.

At this time, Liang Cheng was stationed at Xiangyang.

The 治中 of Youzhou, Ping Gui, said, "You might ‘defy the order and prepare your defenses’, as Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou did. Then you might turn disaster into good fortune, as Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin did. Although our ruler is not a foolish or evil man, he has weakened the soldiers and become obsessed with war. Nine-tenths of the people long for someone who can bring them rest. If you plant your standard, soldiers will spring up and flock to you. First you may firmly grasp all of the Yan region, and make use of the territory of the eastern sea. Gather together the Wuhuan and Xianbei of the north, and beckon Goguryeo and Baekje in the east to aid you. Within the snap of a bowstring, you will gather no less than five hundred thousand men to your side. Unless you wish to court disaster, what choice do you have but to call up troops?"


Lu Jia of Han remarked, "Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou defied orders and prepared their defenses."

Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin had both contended with their brothers for control of their states, and after securing their control of their states, both went on to become one of the Hegemons of that era.

Fu Luo then purposely shouted, "I have made my decision; let anyone who disagrees part with his head!" And he proclaimed himself Grand General, Grand Commander, and King of Qin. He appointed Ping Gui as Inspector of Youzhou, the Administrator of Xuantu, Ji Zhen, as Chief Clerk of the Left, the Administrator of Liaodong, Zhao Zan, as Marshal of the Left, the Administrator of Changli, Wang Yun, as Marshal of the Right, and the Administrator of Liaoxi, Wang Lin, the Administrator of Beiping, Huangfu Jie, the Commandant of Governor Officials, Wei Fu, and others as Attendant Officers of the Gentlemen of the Palace.


During the Han dynasty, border commandaries had Governor Officials. Qin had further created Commandants of Governor Officials.

Fu Luo sent various messengers to ask for troops from the Xianbei, the Wuhuan, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, and Xiuren, and he sent thirty thousand soldiers to aid the Duke of Beihai, Fu Chong, at Ji. But the various states and tribes all responded, "We are vassals of the Son of Heaven; we cannot follow the Duke of Xingtang against him." Fu Luo then became afraid, and wished to call off his plan, but he hesitated and could not make a decision. Wang Man, Wang Ling, Huangfu Jie, and Wei Fu all knew that there was no chance of success, and said as much to Fu Luo, but he killed all of them.

Ji Zhen and Zhao Zan said to Fu Luo, "Our original plan was not based upon a lack of support from the other states. If you still dread to travel alone to Yizhou, you might send someone to beg that you be allowed to remain here. Our lord will not consider denying the request."

But Ping Gui argued, "We have already set out on this road, and we can hardly stop halfway there! You should proclaim that you have received a command, draft all the soldiers of Youzhou, and march south into Changshan. The Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong) will be compelled to meet you at the border, and then you can capture him, and continue your advance into Jizhou. Once all of Guandong is yours, then you may take the west in turn. The realm will follow your standard, and thus be pacified!" Fu Luo heeded Ping Gui’s advice.

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Luo led seventy thousand soldiers out of Helong.


Fu Rong, the Duke of Yangping and Governor of Jizhou, was stationed at Ye. Ping Gui suggested marching into Zhongshan because it was adjacent to Ye.

(Hu Sanxing says Zhongshan, but the text says Changshan.)


4. Fu Jian summoned his ministers to discuss the rebellion. The Colonel of Infantry, Lü Guang, said, "Despite being such a close relative, the Duke of Xingtang has turned rebel. This is an affront to all the realm. Please grant me fifty thousand horse and foot, and I will capture him as easily as one picks something off the ground."

Fu Jian said, "Fu Chong and Fu Luo are brothers. They hold the northeast in their grasp, and their troops are well-equipped. They cannot be regarded lightly."

Lü Guang replied, "The enemy's army puffs up their might, but they are just a swarm of ants. As soon as a greater army approaches, they will fall to pieces of their own accord. They are not something to fear."

Fu Jian sent messengers to Fu Luo offering to make concessions, saying that if he would go back to Helong, he would be granted Youzhou as his permanent fief. But Fu Luo responded to Fu Jian, "You are the one who ought to go back to being Prince of Donghai. Youzhou is a cramped and narrow place, not sufficient even to contain my tens of thousands, much less for Qin to continue Emperor Gaozu's (Fu Jiàn's) grand design. If you will ride in the imperial carriage to meet me at Tong Gate, then I shall appoint you as Grand Duke, and you may go back to your own fief."

Fu Jian was furious, and he sent the General of the Left, Dou Chong of Wudu, and Lü Guang with forty thousand horse and foot to campaign against them. The General of the Right, Dou Gui, rode quickly to return to Ye, and he led the thirty thousand soldiers of Jizhou as the vanguard. The Duke of Yangping, Fu Rong, was appointed as Grand Commander of the expeditionary force.


At the time that Fu Jian overthrew Fu Sheng, his title was Prince of Donghai. Fu Jiàn's temple name was Gaozu.

This man's surname was 都 Dou and his given name 貴 Gui. During the Spring and Autumn era, Gongsun E of Zheng had the style name Zidou, and his descendants took their clan name from this.


5. The Duke of Beihai, Fu Chong, led all the soldiers from Ji to link up with Fu Luo, and they camped at Zhongshan. Altogether, they had a hundred thousand men.

In the fifth month, Dou Chang and the other loyalists fought with Fu Luo at Zhongshan. Fu Luo's soldiers were greatly defeated, and he was captured alive and sent to Chang'an. Fu Chong fled back towards Ji, but Lü Guang pursued him and killed him. The Colonel of 屯騎, Shi Yue, led ten thousand cavalry from Donglai, and they floated across the sea (presumably on pontoons) and invaded Helong. They executed Ping Gui, and Youzhou was pacified.

Fu Jian spared Fu Luo instead of executing him, but he was exiled to Xihai commandary in Liangzhou.


In Emperor Xian of Han's second year of Xingping (195), the Administrator of Wuwei, Zhang Ya, asked that the new commandary of Xihai be established at Juyan.

苻洛反,光又擊平之,拜驍騎將軍。(Jinshu 122.4)

When Fu Luo rebelled, Lü Guang also attacked and put down his rebellion, for which he was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry.


6. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: If achievements are not rewarded, and crimes are not punished, ‘not even Yao and Shun would be able to govern’, much less other men! Fu Jian always showed mercy when he captured a rebel. This only encouraged other ministers to disobey their orders and try their luck at the uncertain path of rebellion, since even if they were defeated and captured, they had no reason to believe they would die. How could this policy possibly bring an end to chaos? The Book of Documents says, "When sternness overcomes compassion, things are surely conducted to a successful issue. When compassion overcomes sternness, no merit can be achieved." The Book of Odes says, "Let us give no indulgence to the wily and obsequious, to make careful those who set no limit to themselves, and to repress robbers and oppressors; not allowing them to act out their evil." Fu Jian violated these principles; how could he not be destroyed?


Sima Guang's quote "not even Yao and Shun would be able to govern" uses the words of Emperor Xuan of Han's edict from when he planned to make changes. The quote from the Book of Documents is from the Punitive Expedition of Yin section, and the quote from the Book of Poetry is from the third stanza of the Woes of the People in the Decade of Sheng Min section.


7. The Jin court attributed the Qin soldiers' retreat to Xie An's and Huan Chong's successes. They appointed Xie An as Guard General, and he and Huan Chong held authority equal to the Three Excellencies.


8. In the sixth month, on the day Jiazi (August 6th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


9. On the day Dingmao (August 9th), Jin’s Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, but he firmly declined the post.


10. Fu Jian summoned his brother Fu Rong to appoint him as Palace Attendant, Supervisor of the Palace Secretariat, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Colonel Director of Retainers, and chief of the Masters of Writing. Fu Jian appointed the Grand General Who Conquers The South, 守 Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Changle, his son Fu Pi, as Commander over Guandong military affairs, Grand General Who Conquers The East, and Governor of Jizhou.

Fu Jian wished to disperse the various Di peoples across the state, and so in autumn, the seventh month, he divided the Di of Sanyuan, Jiuzong, Wudu, Qian, and Yongzhou, a hundred and fifty thousand households. Each group of Di was placed under the supervision of one of Fu Jian’s family members, who all held various defensive posts, much like the feudal lords of old.

Fu Pi was sent three thousand Di households. Fu Jian appointed the leader of the Di of Chouchi and Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Yang Ying, as Marshal of the Left to the General Who Conquers The East. He appointed the Di chieftain of Jiuzong and Colonel of 長水, Ji Wu, as Marshal of the Right. Yang Ying and Ji Wu were both assigned fifteen hundred Di households, and became hereditary ministers to Fu Pi. Fu Pi's Prefect of the Gentlemen of the Palace, Yuan Chang of Lüeyang, was appointed as his Administrative Supervisor. The Lecturer Attendant, Wei Gan of Fufeng, was appointed as Army Advisory Director, and Shen Shao was appointed as his Attendant Officer. This Yang Ying was the elder brother of Yang Pi by his father's concubine. This Ji Wu was Yang Ying's father-in-law.


Mount Jiuzong was within Yunyang County in the Han dynasty's Pingyi commandary. During Tang, it was in Liquan County. 嵕 is pronounced "zong (z-ong)". 汧 is pronounced "qian (k-ian)".

In the feudal era before the Qin dynasty, when the ancient nobles were established, their ministers held office across several generations. When Fu Jian split up his border territories among his relatives, each of them had these sorts of hereditary ministers as well.

垣 Yuan was a Di surname. They would later follow Emperor Wu of Liu-Song (Liu Yu) south, and serve as a family of generals for many generations.

In the eighth month, Fu Jian split Pingzhou off from Youzhou, and appointed Shi Yue as Inspector of Pingzhou, stationed at Longcheng. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Dang, was appointed as Inspector of Jizhou, stationed at Ji. The General Who Nurtures The Army, Mao Xing, was appointed Commander of military affairs in Hezhou and Qinzhou, as well as Inspector of Hezhou, stationed at Fuhan. The Colonel of 長水, Wang Teng, was appointed Inspector of Bingzhou, stationed at Jinyang. Hezhou and Bingzhou were each assigned three thousand Di households. Mao Xing and Wang Teng were relatives of the Fu clan by marriage, and so also led the Di.


The Book of Jin states, "Regarding Pingzhou, in the region which the Tribute of Yu describes as Jizhou, Zhou formed Youzhou, and Han later made Beiping commandary. After the end of Han, Gongsun Du proclaimed himself Governor of Pingzhou, and it existed until Sun Wenyi was vanquished by Wei. Following that conquest, Pingzhou was divided up into the five commandaries of Liaodong, Changli, Xuantu, and Daifang, and they were later added back into Youzhou. After the Fu clan of Qin conquered Yan, they once again divided Youzhou and restored Pingzhou." (Jinshu 14) Now Gongsun Yuan's style name was Wenyi. The Book of Jin calls him "Sun Wenyi" because when it was written, there was still a naming taboo for the name of Emperor Gaozu of Tang (Li Yuan), and since they could not write the name "Yuan", they altered the name.

The Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou, Luozhou, Jingzhou, Southern Yanzhou, Eastern Yuzhou, and Yangzhou; he was also named Grand General Who Guards The East and Governor of Yuzhou, stationed at Luoyang. The administrative center of Luozhou was moved to Fengyang. The Duke of Julu, Fu Rui, was appointed Inspector of Yongzhou, stationed at Puban. Each was assigned three thousand two hundred Di households.


Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou administered his region from Cangyuan, and the Inspector of Southern Yanzhou from Hulu. As for Yuzhou, Qin originally administered it from Xuchang. After Qin conquered Yan, the Inspector of Yuzhou moved his base to Luoyang, and the area centered on Xuchang became Eastern Yuzhou. In the text, where it mentions that Fu Hui had Commander authority over Yangzhou, it writes the character as 陽 when it should be 揚. According to the Geography section of the Book of Later Wei, "At the beginning of the Tianping era (534), 陽州 Yangzhou was first created at Yiyang." Fu Jian appointed Wang Xian as Inspector of 揚州 Yangzhou, camped at Xiapi, and he must have been under Fu Hui's authority.

Qin's Luozhou was originally administered from Shancheng, and their Jingzhou from Fengyang. After the capture of Xiangyang, that area was made Jingzhou, and Luozhou was moved to Fengyang. Fengyang was in the Han dynasty's Shangluo County. Song Bai remarked, "Fengyang was a place in Han's Shang County. In the Jin dynasty's third year of Taishi (267), that county was divided and Fengyang County was created, at Fengyangchuan."

Some versions mention that Fu Rui was "stationed at Puban".


11. Fu Jian brought Fu Pi to Bashang, and they observed the Di people going their separate ways, and fathers and brothers being divided. All of them were wailing, with loud mourning and regret among the travelers.

Because of all this, Zhao Zheng held a feast, where he plucked his qin and sang, "Adezhi, adezhi, the woes of fathers and sons is chousui. With a long tail but short wings, they cannot fly. Off go all those tribes, but the Xianbei remain. When they press us in one day, who can say?" But Fu Jian laughed and thought nothing of it.


Xiang Anshi's "Matters of the Home" states, "Fuxi invented the qin. It is three chi, six cun, and six fen in length, like the three hundred and sixty-six days of the year. It is six cun in width, like the Six Directions. It has two gaps in the bottom, the upper of which is called the Pond, and the lower called the Hole. The Pond is in order to make the sound level. The front of the qin is wide while the back is narrow, like seniors and juniors. The top is round while the bottom is square, as in the laws of Heaven. Officially, the qin has five strings. The largest string is the Lord, and its sound is broad, harmonic, and warm. The smallest string is the Minister, and its sound is clear, clean, and not disorderly. King Wen added three strings, to harmonize with the Lord and Minister strings." The Tongdian states, "In the Book of Origins it is said that Shennong invented the qin, while the 琴操 says that Fuxi invented it, in order to nourish the body and accord with the temperament, as true to Heaven." The Baihu Tong states, "The qin is forbidden; forbid the evil, to rectify men's hearts." The Guangya dictionary states, "King Wen and King Wu added two strings, to harmonize with the Lord and Minister strings". Yang Xiong's 琴清英 states, "Shun plucked five strings and the world was changed; Yao added two strings to harmonize with the Lord and Minister."

The Erya dictionary states, "A 鵙 is a shrike." Guo Pu remarked, "A shrike is like a crossbill, but larger. Its wings do not allow it to hover, but it can only fly up or down before stopping." The Guangya dictionary states, "A 伯勞 bolao (shrike) is also called a 博勞 bolao or a 伯趙 bozhao." As for 仇綏 chousui, I do not know what this thing is.

Zhao Zheng was singing about the Di peoples being sent away, while the Murongs remained in the capital region.


12. In the ninth month, on the Guiwei day (October 24th), Jin’s Empress Wang passed away.


13. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's Administrator of Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen), Li Xun, seized control of Jiaozhou in rebellion.


14. Fu Jian appointed the General of the Left 禁, Yang Bi, as Inspector of Qinzhou, he appointed the Master of Writing, Zhao Qian, as Inspector of Luozhou, and he appointed the Colonel of Southern Ba Tribes, Jiang Yu, as Inspector of Ningzhou.


Colonel of Southern Ba Tribes was an office created by the Fu clan of Qin.


15. In the eleventh month, on the day Yiyou (December 25th), Jin’s Empress Wang was buried at Longping Tomb.


16. In the twelfth month, Qin appointed the General of the Left, Dou Gui, as Inspector of Jingzhou, stationed at Pengcheng.


Dou Gui was stationed at Xiangyang. "Pengcheng" is an error.


17. Fu Jian split off the eastern half of Yuzhou (as Eastern Yuzhou), and appointed Mao Dang as its Inspector, with his base at Xuchang.


18. During this year, Fu Jian sent the Administrator of Gaomi, the captured Jin minister Mao Zaozhi, with two hundred others to return home to Jin.


Mao Zaozhi's capture was mentioned above, in the fourth year (379.10).
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:23 am


The Sixth Year of Taiyuan (The Xinsi Year, 381 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, Emperor Xiaowu first sponsored Buddhism. He established a hall of refinement inside the palace, and gathered many monks to reside there. The Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Ya, remonstrated with him in a petition, but Emperor Xiaowu did not agree with him. This Wang Ya was the great-grandson of Wang Su.


The Biography of Jiang Gong in the Book of Later Han states, "Then the abode of refinement asked to see Lord Zheng." Commentary adds, "An abode of refinement, or a house of refinement, was a place to practice refinement as a means of achieving righteousness. Now it is a place of study for Confucians and Buddhists, and so it is called house of refinement."

Wang Su served Cao-Wei, where he was famous as a scholar of the classics. Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) was his grandson through his daughter, Wang Yuanji.


2. On the day Dingyou (March 7th), Jin’s Master of Writing, Xie Shi, was appointed as Deputy Director.


3. In the second month, the eastern tribes and twenty-two states from the Western Reaches sent tribute to Qin.


4. In summer, the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Gengzi (July 8th), there was an eclipse.


5. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiawu (August 31st), Jin's Administrator of Jiaozhi, Du Yuan, killed the rebel Li Xun, and Jiaozhou was pacified.


6. In winter, the tenth month, Jin’s former Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, died at Xin'an. He was posthumously named as Prince of Xinning, and his son Sima Zun inherited his title.


Sima Xi's exile to Xin'an was mentioned in the last book, Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.26).


7. In the eleventh month, on the day Jihai (?), Jin’s former Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Chi Yin, was appointed as Minister of Works, but he firmly refused the position.


8. Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Dou Gui, sent his Marshal Yan Zhen and the 中兵參軍, Wu Zhong, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to attack Jingling. Huan Chong sent the Administrator of Nanping, Huan Shiqian, the Army Advisor to the General Who Guards The Army, Huan Shimin, and others with twenty thousand men by land and by water to oppose them. This Huan Shimin was the younger brother of Huan Shiqian.


9. In the twelfth month, on the day Jiachen (January 8th), Huan Shiqian attacked Yan Zhen and Wu Zhong, greatly routing them. Yan Zhen and Wu Zhong retreated to defend Guancheng. Huan Shiqian advanced and attacked it. On the day Guihai (January 27th), he took Guancheng, and captured Yan Zhen and Wu Zhong. He executed seven thousand men, and enslaved ten thousand captives.

The court appointed Huan Chong's son, Huan Qian, as Marquis of Yiyang, and they appointed Huan Shiqian as acting Administrator of Hedong.


Jingling was a marquisate. During Former Han it had been part of Jiangxia commandary. Emperor Hui of Jin divided it, and formed Jingling commandary.

According to the Chronicles in the Book of Jin, Huan Shiqian routed Ma Zhen and Wu Zhong at the Ao River, and the two of them retreated to defend Guancheng. And according to the Water Classic, the Mian River flows through the commandary and counties south of the cities mentioned, and continues on east, where the Ao River flows into it. The place where the Ao River fills into the Mian River in the southwest is called Aokou. The Mian River then flows south, west of Shicheng. That city is fortified because of the mountains, and Jin's Jinling commandary was administered from there. From this, we can deduce that Guancheng was north of the Ao River.

Regarding the Hedong commandary mentioned here, the Book of Liu-Song states, "In Emperor Cheng's third year of Xiankang (337), the General Who Conquers The West, Yu Liang, settled the refugees from Sizhou in the southern Hedong commandary, which was a part of Jingzhou." The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "A Hedong commandary was established on the north bank of the Yangzi in Songxi County in Nanjun."


10. During this year, there was a great famine in the Southland.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Mon May 29, 2017 10:36 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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BOOK 104

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon May 01, 2017 2:29 am


The Seventh Year of Taiyuan (The Renwu Year, 382 AD)


1. In spring, the third month, Qin's Minister of Finance and Duke of Donghai, Fu Yang, the Gentleman Attendant of 員外散騎, Wang Pi, and the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Xiao, all plotted rebellion together. Their plot was discovered, and they were arrested and given to the Minister of Justice. This Fu Yang was the son of Fu Fa. This Wang Pi was the son of Wang Meng.


Some versions say that this event was "in spring, the third month".

The chapter on Government Service in the Book of Jin states, "Of the four men that are Gentlemen Attendants of 散騎, Cao-Wei first made them equal with the Regular Attendants of 散騎. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) created the office of Gentleman Attendant of 員外散騎." (Jinshu 24.35)

Fu Jian asked the three of them their reasons for rebellion. Fu Yang said, "My father, Duke Ai (Fu Fa), was executed despite committing no crime. On my father's behalf, I must have revenge."

Fu Jian tearfully replied, "Duke Ai’s death was never my intention; what do you know of that?"


Fu Fa's death was mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (357.24).

Wang Pi said, "My father was Prime Minister, and assisted you in carrying out your commands. Yet now I am penniless, and I wished to have wealth and glory."

Fu Jian replied, "When the Prime Minister gave me his final wishes, at that time he possessed nothing more than ten oxen to till his land, and never once did he ask me to grant you an office on his behalf. How was I to know how different the father was from the son?"

Zhou Xiao said, "All my life I have received the favor of Jin. My spirit will always belong to Jin; what more need be said?"

Zhou Xiao had plotted against Qin several times already. All those around asked that he be put to death. Fu Jian said, "Mengwei just wishes to make a martyr of himself. Do you think a man as determined as he is fears death? If I kill him, that will only add to his reputation!"

He pardoned all of them, and did not execute them. But he exiled Fu Yang to Gaochang commandary in Liangzhou, and Wang Pi and Zhou Xiao to the north of Shuofang. Zhou Xiao passed away at Shuofang.

Fu Yang was a man of both courage and strength. He afterwards moved to the kingdom of Shanshan (in modern Xinjiang). At the end of the Jianyuan year (385 AD), when Qin was in great chaos, Fu Yang plundered Shanshan, wishing to return east again, but the King of Shanshan killed him.


According to the Records of Jin, the Zhang clan never made a Gaochang commandary in Hexi. But when Fu Jian conquered Hexi, he appointed Yang Gan of Gaochang as the Administrator of Gaochang. If the Zhang clan did not make this commandary, then the Fu clan must have. Gaochang was established around the Gaochang fortress built by the Jushi people during the Han era, as will be noted later.

In Qin's nineteenth year of Jianyuan (383), Fu Jian campaigned against Jin, but was defeated, and Qin fell into chaos. In the twentieth year (385), Fu Jian died. So this year (382) was the eighteenth year of Jianyuan.

This is the last that the text mentions of this incident.


2. Fu Jian relocated the Bronze Camel, the Bronze Horse, the Feilian image, and the Bronze Men statues from Ye to Chang'an.


These were the same statues that Shi Hu had moved from Luoyang to Ye, in Book 95 (336.13)


3. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian appointed the Administrator of Fufeng, Wang Yong, as Inspector of Youzhou. This Wang Yong was Wang Pi's older brother. Where Wang Pi was ruthless and without principle, Wang Yong was clear, amenable, and studious, and so Fu Jian made use of him.

Fu Jian appointed Fu Rong as Minister Over The Masses, but Fu Rong firmly declined the post. Fu Jian was planning for a grand campaign against Jin, so he appointed Fu Rong as Grand General Who Conquers The South, with authority equal to the Three Excellencies.


The character 以 "as" should be included in the text after "Fu Jian appointed Wang Yong..."


4. In the fifth month, locusts appeared in Youzhou, a swarm stretching for a thousand li. Fu Jian sent the Regular Attendant of 散騎, Liu Lan of Pengcheng, to tend to the people of Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou.


5. In autumn, the eight month, on the day Guimao (September 4th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


6. Fu Jian appointed the Counselor of Supervision, Pei Yuanlüe, as the Administrator of Baxi and Zhangtong, and sent him to secretly construct ships.


Fu Jian used to use the same plan that Wang Jun had devised during the conquest of Wu: he would use these boats to sail east down the Yangzi for a campaign against Jin.


7. In the ninth month, King Mitian of Nearer Jushi and King Xiumite of Shanshan, two states in the Western Reaches, came to the Qin court. They offered to serve as guides for the Qin army, asking that a campaign be launched against those in the Western Reaches who did not submit to Qin, and to restore the old Han protectorates there. Fu Jian appointed the General of Agile Cavalry, Lü Guang, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Commander of the expeditionary force against the Western Reaches, and he sent him, the General Who Surpasses The Jiang, Jiang Fei, the General of Light Chariots, Peng Huang, Generals Du Jin and Kang Sheng, and others to lead a hundred thousand soldiers and five thousand Iron Cavalry to campaign against the Western Reaches.

Fu Rong criticized the campaign, saying, "The Western Reaches are desolate and distant places. If we conquered the people there, we would not be able to use them. If we took the territory, we would not be able to keep it sustained. Emperor Wu of Han campaigned there, but he lost more than he gained from it. Now you want to send an army ten thousand li into the distance? You would just be making the same mistake as Han did before you. I truly believe that you will regret this." But Fu Jian did not listen to him.


窴 is pronounced "tian (t-ian)". 馱 is pronounced "te (t-e)".

General Who Surpasses The Jiang was a title created by King Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao), to confer on Luo Xian, in recognition of his defensive victory at Yong'an against Wu (Book 78 in ZZTJ, 264.21 in Achilles Fang's Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms).

Du Jin and Kang Sheng were only Generals, and they did not have any particular General titles.

Fu Rong refers to Emperor Wu's campaign against Dayuan, where he conquered Krorän (Loulan) and Gushi, and ruled over the Jushi.

堅既平山東,士馬強盛,遂有圖西域之志,乃授光使持節、都督西討諸軍事,率將軍姜飛、彭晃、杜進、康盛等總兵七萬,鐵騎五千,以討西域,以隴西董方、馮翊郭抱、武威賈虔、弘農楊穎為四府佐將。堅太子宏執光手曰:「君器相非常,必有大福,宜深保愛。」(Jinshu 122.5)

Since Fu Jian had now pacified all east of the mountains, and he had strong soldiers and horses in abundance, he harbored ambitions of conquering the Western Reaches. So he appointed Lü Guang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Commander of the Western Expeditionary Force. Lü Guang commanded an army of seventy thousand soldiers and five thousand iron cavalry to campaign against the Western Reaches, under the command of the generals Jiang Fei, Peng Huang, Du Jin, Kang Sheng, and others. Dong Fang of Longxi, Guo Bao of Pingyi, Jia Qian of Wuwei, and Yang Ying of Hongnong served as the Assistant Generals of the Four Garrisons. Fu Jian's Crown Prince Fu Hong took Lü Guang's hand and said, "Your equipment is quite uncommon, and you will certainly meet with great fortune. You should deeply protect your love."


8. Huan Chong sent the General Who Displays Might, Zhu Chuo, to attack Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Dou Gui, at Xiangyang. The Jin army burned and pillaged the fields north of the Miao River, captured more than six hundred households, and returned.


9. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jian held a meeting of his ministers in the Taiji Palace. He began the discussion by saying, "Over the course of the last three decades, my ambition has almost been realized. The four corners of the realm are now pacified, and only the Southland in its corner remains. Soon they, too, will bow to our authority. Now I aim to devise a plan to utilize my soldiers. We have the capacity to field nine hundred and seventy thousand men. I wish to lead them in a campaign. What say you all?"


Fu Jian had taken the throne in the first year of Shengping (357), so it had been twenty-six years since then. However, the coming year would be a long one, full of never-ending dread, as his just reward. But by bringing suffering to the people in order to satisfy his obsession, he deserved his ruin.

The Custodian of the Private Library, Zhu Yong, said, "Your Majesty will march forth, acting as the bringer of Heaven's punishment. You will campaign, but there will be no need for battles. If the lord of Jin does not present himself before our army camp, then he shall flee to his death among the rivers and seas. Then Your Majesty may bring the people of the Middle Kingdom back to their former homes, and restore them to their homeland that they once knew. After that, you may make an imperial procession to the east, and report your deeds to your ancestors on Daizong (Mount Tai). This is the opportunity that only comes once in a thousand years!"

Fu Jian happily replied, "That is truly my ambition."


Zhu Yong refers to the descendants of the people who had fled south across the Yangzi during the chaos of the Yongjia era.

The Tongdian states, "Daizong is the Eastern Mountain. In particular, Daizong refers to Mount Tai, which is in the northeast, and resides within Yinchou. It is the source of all creation, the place where Yin and Yang join, a mountain honored by the multitude, so it is called Daizong."


10. The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Quan Yi, said, "In ancient times, King Zhou of Shang lost his way, and you know the fates of the three men of virtue at his court. This was the reason that King Wu of Zhou became the leader of the revolt against him. But in our day, although Jin is indeed withdrawn and weak, they have not yet become so great an evil as King Zhou was. Xie An and Huan Chong are both powerful men of the Southland gentry, and the relations between lord and ministers are harmonious: all without and within are of one mind. In my view, this conquest cannot yet be accomplished."

Fu Jian made constant expressions of agreement while listening. When Quan Yi had finished, Fu Jian said, "Let the other lords express their views as well."


The Analects states, "The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Ji became a slave to Zhou. Bigan remonstrated with him and died. Confucius said, 'The Yin (Shang) dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.'" (Weizi 1) The Records of the Grand Historian states, "In the ninth year since King Wu of Zhou rose to the throne, he established an eastern terrace at Meng Ford for reviewing his soldiers. The various nobles would come to him from time to time, eight hundred in number, and each one urged him, 'You must campaign against King Zhou.' But King Wu said, 'It cannot be done yet.' And he led his soldiers back. Over the next two years, King Zhou's cruelty and barbarism grew extreme. He killed Prince Bigan and imprisoned the Viscount of Ji, and the Viscount of Wei fled to Zhou. Then King Wu told his nobles, 'Now that Yin's crimes have grown so great, we can do nothing else but campaign against them!' And he extinguished Yin."


11. The Crown Prince's 左衛率, Shi Yue, said, "The Year Star and the Guard Star are currently in the Southern Dipper. This means that fortune and virtue lies with Wu. If we launch a campaign now, it will certainly invite Heaven's wrath. Then there is the danger of the Yangzi. If we compel the people, how will we be able to sustain a campaign?"


The Year Star is Jupiter, and the Guard Star is Saturn. The Southern Dipper, Ox, and Girl constellations correspond to Wu, Yue, and Yangzhou.

Fu Jian replied, "In ancient times, when King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, he violated the Year Star and he ignored the divinations, but he was still victorious. Heaven's course is hidden and distant, and not easily discerned. And Fuchai of Wu and Sun Hao of Eastern Wu both held fast to defending their rivers and lakes, yet neither could avoid extinguishment. As for my own mighty host, if they all cast their whips into the Yangzi, that alone would stop its flow. What danger needs be feared?"


The Xunzi states, "When King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, he met the Year Star hanging in the east." (儒效.18) Yang Jing's Annotations adds, "By 'met', it means that he violated the Year Star." The Shizi states, "When King Wu campaigned against King Zhou, Yu Xin remonstrated with him, saying, 'The Year Star is in the north. You may not campaign against the north.' King Wu did not heed him." The biography of the Families of Qi in the Records of the Grand Historian states, "When King Wu was about to campaign against King Zhou, he consulted the tortoise shells in divination. The reading was unfavorable. Violent winds and rains came up, and all the lords were greatly afraid. Only Duke Tai (Jiang Ziya) remained strong, and he urged King Wu to march, so King Wu followed his advice."

The response was, "The three lords whom you have just mentioned were all licentious and cruel, and did not follow the right path. When their enemies came to conquer them, it was as easy as picking something off the ground. But in our time, even if Jin may have lost virtue, they have not committed any crimes as great as those old kings. I urge Your Majesty to only keep the soldiers prepared and the grain supplies in order, and await some new development or dispute to take advantage of."


The three lords were King Zhou, Fuchai, and Sun Hao.

The other ministers each had their own words to share of the advantages or disadvantages of the plan, and after a long time no decision had been reached. Fu Jian said, "This has just been ‘asking wayfarers on the road how to build one's own house’; this wasted time has achieved nothing. I must rely upon my own decision!"


The Book of Poetry has this verse: "They are like one taking counsel with wayfarers about building a house, which will consequently never come to completion." (Decades of Sheng Min 4)


12. After all the other ministers had departed, Fu Jian had Fu Rong remain behind. Fu Jian said to him, "When the ancients set out on great endeavors, there was never need to discuss with more than one or two ministers. You see how this discussion has only caused confusion, and stirred up men's thoughts with befuddlement. Let us decide this matter just between the two of us."

Fu Rong's response was, "This campaign against Jin has three difficulties. Heaven's will is unfavorable, which is the first; there is no contention within Jin, which is the second; our soldiers are weary from many battles, and the people fear the enemy in their hearts, which is the third. Those ministers who say that Jin cannot be campaigned against are loyal to you, and I pray that Your Majesty will listen to them."

Fu Jian, becoming agitated, said, "So, even you are the same way. So much for hoping otherwise! I have a million strong soldiers, and funds and weapons piled up like a mountain. Though I am not yet the ruler of all the world, neither am I to be so despised. My power has grown from numerous victories, and I have attacked and taken many states. What threat do I have to fear? Why should I continue to permit these remaining enemies to exist, and let them bring worry and concern to our state?"


Wei Xiang of Han had a saying: "The most important thing is to treat the state well and sympathize with the people. If you wish to see a powerful enemy, boast of your soldiers, for the soldiers you boast of will be vanquished." Yet Fu Jian could still say things like this!

Fu Rong tearfully replied, "Jin cannot be extinguished yet; that is beyond dispute. If you insist upon this grand undertaking now, I fear it will be a complete disaster. And that is not even the only thing that I am worried about. Your Majesty has favored and nurtured the Xianbei, the Qiang, and the Jie, and filled the capital region with them. But they are all our hated enemies. The Crown Prince has been left alone with only weak myriads of men to defend the capital. I fear that if those tribes should refuse to see themselves as our captives any longer, and strike against us in our very heart and stomach, it will be too late for regrets. Please forgive my foolishness, but I speak the truth. Wang Jinglüe was a hero in his time, and Your Majesty was always comparing him to the Marquis Wu, Zhuge Liang. But you have not remembered his final words to you!" But Fu Jian did not listen to him.

The court ministers came in a body to remonstrate with Fu Jian, but he said to them, "When I attack Jin, we shall prove who is strong and who is weak. I shall blow them aside like autumn leaves before a gale! Every last one of you says that it cannot be done, and I truly do not understand you!"


Wang Meng's final words were mentioned in the last book, Book 103, in the third year of Ningkang (375.4).


13. The Crown Prince, Fu Hong, said to Fu Jian, "The Year Star is hanging over Wu, and the lord of Jin has committed no offenses. If the great endeavor is not successful, I fear your mighty name shall be tarnished, and our resources and strength shall be exhausted. This is why the ministers all question you!"

Fu Jian replied, "When I conquered Yan, I also violated the Year Star, but we were still triumphant. Heaven's course cannot easily be known. Besides, when the Qin dynasty conquered the other six states, do you mean to say that every one of those rulers was also a cruel tyrant?"


14. The Champion General and Intendant of Jingzhao, Murong Chui, said to Fu Jian, "The weak yield to the strong, and the small to the mighty; this is the natural order of things, and who does not know it? Now is the time for Your Majesty to follow your divine purpose, and display your might beyond the seas. You have your million ferocious tigers. Could even Han Xin and Bai Qi match this? Only the Southland remains in defiance of your royal command. How can you leave this threat behind for your descendants to deal with?

“The Book of Poetry says, 'The counsellors are very many, but on that account nothing is accomplished.' It is enough for you to follow your own sage counsel; why bother inquiring among the entire court? When Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) conquered Wu, he only consulted with Zhang Hua, Du Yu, and some two or three others; that was enough to decide him. Had he followed the words of his whole court, how would he ever have accomplished the final quelling of the chaos in the realm?"

Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and said, "You alone are the one who may settle the realm with me." And he bestowed upon Murong Chui five hundred bolts of silk.


In all the books of the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, it is sometimes the case that "General" is not added into the titles of generals, and the Tongdian follows it.

Murong Chui means that Qin has many fine generals.

The quote from the Book of Poetry is from Xiao Min 3.

The discussion concerning the feasibility of the conquest of Wu is mentioned in Book 80, in Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) fifth year of Xianning (279).


15. After Fu Jian fixed his determination to conquer the Southland, he could no longer sleep; he remained awake until dawn. Fu Rong remonstrated with him, saying, "You must 'know when to move to avoid disgrace; know when to stop to avoid danger.' Of all the rulers of old who spent their whole army in total aggression, every one of them was brought to ruin. Furthermore, our state’s origin comes from the Rong and Di. The mandate has been passed down among the Han people, and it cannot come to us. Although the Southland is weak and feeble, merely clinging to existence, it holds the legitimate mandate to rule over Zhonghua, and it is Heaven’s will that it continue to do so."

Fu Jian replied, "Of all those kings and emperors you speak of, how can all of them have been evil, and none virtuous? And can it really be claimed that Liu Shan was not the successor to Han’s legacy? Yet he was overrun by Wei just the same. You cannot be compared with me; this obsession with legitimacy cannot adapt to changing circumstances!"


Fu Rong quotes from the 立戒篇 section of Laozi's Dao De Jing. He is saying that the traditional mandate of the Middle Kingdom could not go to tribal peoples like them.


16. Fu Jian had long held the Buddhist monk Dao'an in high regard. The ministers sent Dao'an to advance their cause to Fu Jian.


Dao'an had been at Xiangyang. When Fu Jian captured Xiangyang (in 379), he brought Dao'an back with him.

In the eleventh month, Fu Jian and Dao'an rode together in the same carriage through the Eastern Garden. Fu Jian said, "Soon I shall travel south into Wu and Yue, cross the Yangzi, and linger on the shore of the dark-green sea. Is that not also wonderful?"

Dao'an said, "Your Majesty should heed Heaven's wish for the world. You occupy the center, and you wield influence over the four sides. It would be best to emulate the examples of Yao and Shun. What need to let yourself be lashed by the wind or drenched by the rain, and venture off to distant lands? The southeast is an inferior, damp place, plagued with foul miasma. Remember that Yu Shun traveled there but did not return, and Yu the Great wandered there but never came back. Why expose yourself to such labors?"


In the Five Elements theory, the wind that surpasses the mutual overcoming is miasma.

When Yu Shun went hunting in the south, he perished in the field at Cangwu. And when Yu the Great went hunting in the east, he went to Kuaiji and then perished.

Fu Jian replied, "When Heaven created the people, it cultivated a lord for them, to shepherd and guide them. How can I dare to shirk that burden, and let others dampen my resolve? If rulers acted as you suggest, no kings and emperors of old would have ever conquered anyone!"

Dao'an said, "It need not be thus. It would be suitable for Your Majesty to linger at Luoyang, sending messengers before with word of your orders, and chiefs and generals to lead the six armies behind. Then the other side will surely bow to you and become your vassals, and you need not yourself wade across the Yangzi and the Huai." But Fu Jian did not listen to him.


17. Fu Jian's consort, Lady Zhang, also remonstrated with him. She said, "I have heard that when Heaven bore all creation, and the sage kings governed the realm, it was because all followed the natural order of things, and every endeavor was a success. The Yellow Emperor could harness cattle and master horses because of his nature; Yu the Great could tame the nine rivers and fill in the nine marshes because of his power; Houji could plant the hundred grains because of his right timing; King Tang and King Wu could overthrow King Jie and King Zhou because of men’s hearts. All who have followed the natural order have known success; all who have not followed it have suffered defeat.


She means that because of the nature of cattle and horses, they can be tamed and brought far. Yu could use the nature of the heights to cleanse the rivers and fill the marshes. Because of the proper timing, seeds could sprout and multiply, and the hundred grains be harvested. Because of men’s hearts, the kings could use their soldiers, and command the world.

“Now the men of the court all say that Jin cannot be attacked, and Your Majesty alone has your heart set on campaigning against them. I do not know Your Majesty's reasons for this. The Book of Documents says, 'Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see'. When Heaven follows the people, how much more must we! I have also heard that when a king leads his army, he must pay heed to Heaven's course above, and align with men’s hearts below. But now, men’s hearts do not accord with this, and you have been told of Heaven’s dangers.


The quote from the Book of Documents is from the Counsels of Gao Yao.

“The proverb says, 'When chickens cluck in the night, it is not favorable to send the army; when dogs howl, the palaces will soon be left empty. When the soldiers are agitated and the horses are restless, the army will be defeated and will not return.' Now all through the autumn and winter, there have been many chickens clucking at night, and many dogs howling mournfully. The stable horses have been very restless, and the soldiers' weapons in the warehouses have been rattling. All this is a sign that the army should not be sent out."

Fu Jian replied, "Army affairs are nothing for a wife to speak of!"

苻堅妾張氏,不知何許人,明辯有才識。堅將入寇江左,群臣切諫不從。張氏進曰:「妾聞天地之生萬物,聖王之馭天下,莫不順其性而暢之,故黃帝服牛乘馬,因其性也,禹鑿龍門,決洪河,因水之勢也;後稷之播殖百穀,因地之氣也;湯武之滅夏商,因人之欲也。是以有因成,無因敗。今朝臣上下皆言不可,陛下復何所因也?書曰:'天聰明自我民聰明。'天猶若此,況於人主乎!妾聞人君有伐國之志者,必上觀乾象,下采眾祥。天道崇遠,非妾所知。以人事言之,未見其可。諺言:「雞夜鳴者不利行師,犬群唕者宮室必空,兵動馬驚,軍敗不歸。」秋冬已來,每夜群犬大嗥,眾雞夜鳴,伏聞廄馬驚逸,武庫兵器有聲,吉凶之理,誠非微妾所論,願陛下詳而思之。」堅曰:「軍旅之事非婦人所豫也。」遂興兵。(Jinshu 96)

Fu Jian's consort was Lady Zhang; she was of unknown place of origin. She handled affairs perceptively, possessing ability and insight. When Fu Jian was about to begin his invasion across the Yangzi, his ministers all remonstrated with him, but Fu Jian ignored them. Lady Zhang said to him, "I have heard that when Heaven bore all creation, and the sage kings governed the realm, there was nothing that went against its nature and acted uninhibited. The Yellow Emperor could harness cattle and master horses because of his nature; Yu coulld carve the Dragon Gate and mastered the flood waters because of his power. Houji could plant the hundred grains because of his spirit; Tang and King Wu could overthrow Jie and King Zhou because of the wishes of the people. All who have followed the natural order have known success; all who have not followed it have suffered defeat.

"Now the men of the court all say that Jin cannot be attacked, so why does Your Majesty insist upon it? The Book of Documents says, 'Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see'. When Heaven follows the people, how much more must we! I have also heard that when a king leads his army, he must pay heed to Heaven's course above, and align with men’s hearts below. Heaven's ways are mysterious and distant, beyond my understanding. And regarding the affairs of men, we cannot yet see whether it can be done.

"The proverb says, 'When chickens cluck in the night, it is not favorable to send the army; when dogs howl, the palaces will soon be left empty. When the soldiers are agitated and the horses are restless, the army will be defeated and will not return.' Now all through the autumn and winter, every night many dogs have been howling greatly, and all the chickens cluck in the night. And I have heard that the stable horses have been very restless, and the soldiers' weapons in the warehouses have been rattling. These are signs of ill fortune. Please do not disregard all that I have brought up. May Your Majesty ponder these things and reconsider."

Fu Jian replied, "Army affairs are nothing for a wife to speak of." And he sent out the soldiers.


18. Fu Jian's youngest son, the Duke of Zhongshan, Fu Shen, also remonstrated with his father. He said, "I have heard that the rise and fall of states depends upon whether or not it employs worthy men. Now the Duke of Yangping is the chief advocate of the state's position, but Your Majesty goes against him. Jin has Xie An and Huan Chong, and yet Your Majesty would campaign against it. I must relate my bewilderment."

Fu Jian replied, "What does a child know of great affairs of the realm?"


19. Qin's Liu Lan tried to eradicate the locusts, but autumn and winter had passed and he still was not able to exterminate them. In the twelfth month, some ministers sent in a petition asking Liu Lan to be handed over to the Minister of Justice. Fu Jian replied, "Calamities are sent from Heaven; they cannot be overcome by human effort. This is a sign of my misrule. What crime has Liu Lan committed?"


20. During this year, Qin had an exceptional harvest. The better fields yielded seventy 石 per 畝, while the lesser fields yielded thirty 石 per 畝. The locusts did not go beyond Youzhou, nor did they consume the flax or beans. Crop yields there were a hundred 石 per 畝 in the better fields, or fifty 石 per 畝 in the lesser fields.


This thing is simply an outlandish lie. Locusts are a scourge. What greater lie could there be than to say that locusts came, but they did not eat any of the five grains? Furthermore, it has been the case since antiquity that whenever the farmers exert themselves in their field work, by the time autumn approaches, it is completely unreasonable to expect them to harvest seventy or a hundred 石 per 畝, and not even fifty or thirty 石 per 畝 has been heard of. If what this passage claims was the truth, then it would have been an absolutely extraordinary occurrence! But if we assume that it is false, then the county ministers and the overseers must have been deceiving their superiors, who did not look into the matter too closely. Qin deserved to fall!
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Sep 03, 2017 12:04 am, edited 4 times in total.
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BOOK 105

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 06, 2017 5:08 pm


The Eighth Year of Taiyuan (The Guiwei Year, 383 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, Qin's general Lü Guang set out from Chang'an to the Western Reaches with his army, with the King of Shanshan, Xiumite, and the King of Nearer Jushi, Mitian, to serve as his guides.


2. In the third month, on the day Dingsi (May 16th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


3. In summer, the fifth month, Huan Chong led a hundred thousand soldiers to campaign against Qin, and attacked Xiangyang. He sent his General of the Front, Liu Bo, and others to attack the cities north of the Miao River. The General Who Upholds The State, Yang Liang, attacked Shu, where he captured Wucheng, and then advanced to attack Fu. General of 鷹揚 Guo Quan attacked Wudang. In the sixth month, Huan Chong's other generals attacked Wansui and Zhuyang, and captured them.


Wansui here is the name of a place, a fortress close to Zhuyang. During Han, Zhuyang County was part of Nanyang commandary, and during Jin it was part of Shunyang commandary. It was the state of the Count of Gu during the Spring and Autumn era, and so during Tang, it was known as Gucheng County in 襄州 Xiangzhou.

Fu Jian sent his General Who Conquers The South and Duke of Julu, Fu Rui, the Champion General, Murong Chui, and others with fifty thousand horse and foot to relieve Xiangyang. He sent his Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhang Chong, to relieve Wudang, and he sent his General of the Rear, Zhang Qi, and Colonel of Infantry, Yao Chang, to relieve Fu. Fu Rui's army marched to Xinye, and Murong Chui's army marched to Dengcheng. Huan Chong retreated south of the Mian River.


Dengcheng County was part of Xiangyang commandary. It was established by Jin.

In autumn, the seventh month, Guo Quan and Jin’s Champion General, Huan Shiqian, defeated Zhang Chong at Wudang, taking two thousand captives before marching back. Fu Rui sent Murong Chui as his vanguard leader, and advanced to the banks of the Mian River. During the dark of night, Murong Chui ordered his soldiers to fasten ten torches to the branches of every tree, and the lights shone for several dozen li. Huan Chong was afraid, and he fell back to Shangming. Zhang Qi marched out of Xie Valley, and Yang Liang also led his soldiers in retreat.


Huan Chong's relocation of his base to Shangming was mentioned in Book 104, in the second year (377.6).

Huan Chong petitioned that his nephew Huan Shimin be appointed acting Administrator of Xiangcheng, and for him to camp at Xiakou, while Huan Chong himself would serve as acting Inspector of Jiangzhou. The court granted all these requests.


The text says that Huan Shiqian was appointed Administrator of Xiangcheng commandary, but it should say Xiangyang commandary.


4. Fu Jian issued an edict announcing a grand invasion. He demanded that every ten 丁 of people provide one man to be a soldier. Among the young men of the gentry, those who were twenty years or younger, anyone who was strong or brave enough was drafted into Fu Jian’s Gentlemen of the Feathered Forest.

Fu Jian also boasted, "I shall appoint Sima Changming (Emperor Xiaowu) as my Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Xie An as my Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, and Huan Chong as a Palace Attendant. With my power, it not take long before I have returned, so I shall first have residences built to house them."


Fu Jian was saying that because of his power, he would be able to overcome Jin in almost a single day, and so it would not be long before he brought his army back home again.

Thirty thousand cavalry were drafted from among the young men of the nobility, and he appointed the Registrar of Qinzhou, Zhao Sheng of Jincheng, to act as Commander of the Youths.


Some versions identify Zhao Sheng as being "of Jincheng".

At this time, none of the court ministers wished for Fu Jian to launch this campaign. Only Murong Chui, Yao Chang, and the young noblemen agreed with his campaign. Fu Rong said to him, "Our Xianbei and Qiang subjects are really our enemies. I have often worried that if any changes resulted from our hardships and difficulties in achieving your ambitions, then their plot will come to fruition, and then what shall we be able to do? And these young fellows are our own sons and brothers. Do not bring them on the campaign, or allow their flattery to affect Your Majesty's thinking. Now Your Majesty is trusting and employing them, and lightly setting out on this grand endeavor. I fear that if we are less than successful, then when disasters spring up afterwards, it will be too late for regrets!" But Fu Jian did not listen.


Murong Chui was a Xianbei, and Yao Chang was a Qiang. When the people of the states whom Qin had conquered submitted, though they claimed to be loyal servants, they were really seeking revenge.


5. In the eighth month, on the day Wuwu (September 14th), Fu Jian sent Fu Rong to lead Zhang Qi and Murong Chui with two hundred and fifty thousand horse and foot as the army's vanguard. He appointed the Inspector of Yanzhou, Yao Chang, as Dragon-Soaring General, leaving him in command of affairs in Yizhou and Liangzhou.

When Fu Jian made this appointment, he said to Yao Chang, "I, too, was once Dragon-Soaring General, when I first established myself. I do not lightly bestow this rank, so you must exert yourself to live up to it!"

The General of the Left, Dou Chong, said, "Kings should not joke; this is not a good sign for the campaign!" Fu Jian could make no reply.


Fu Jian had been Dragon-Soaring General when he killed Fu Sheng, and took the Qin throne.


6. Murong Kai and Murong Shao said to Murong Chui, "See how arrogant our lord has become. Uncle, the time when you will accomplish the revival of our state is close at hand!"

Murong Chui replied, "Indeed. Without you, how shall I succeed?"


By now, Murong Chui knew that Fu Jian would certainly be defeated, so this is why he spoke so openly with his nephews.


7. On the day Jiazi (September 20th), Fu Jian set forth from Chang'an, leading an army of over six hundred thousand soldiers, along with two hundred and seventy thousand cavalry. Banners and drums were everywhere, and from front to rear the army covered a thousand li.

In the ninth month, Fu Jian arrived at Xiangcheng. The soldiers from Liangzhou went to Xianyang; the soldiers from Shu and Han (Yizhou) marched smoothly and easily. The soldiers from Youzhou and Jizhou marched to Pengcheng. Altogether, Qin’s front line from east to west stretched ten thousand li, and the soldiers advanced by water and by land, with ten thousand boats to transport supplies. Fu Rong and others led three hundred thousand soldiers forward to Yingkou.


Yingkou was the mouth of the Ying River, where it entered the Huai River. Wei Shou’s Geographical Records states, "The Ying River comes out of Mount Yanggan in Yangcheng County, and flows east until it enters the Huai River at Xiacai."


8. The Jin court appointed the Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Xie Shi, as General Who Conquers the Caitiffs and Grand Commander of the campaign force. The Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Xie Xuan, was appointed as Vanguard Commander, and he, the General Who Upholds The State, Xie Yan, the General of the Household of the West, Huan Yi, and others led eighty thousand soldiers together to oppose Qin. The court also sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Hu Bin, to sail five thousand soldiers to assist Shouyang. This Xie Yan was the son of Xie An.


9. At this time, because of the sheer size of the Qin invasion, Jin’s capital region shook with fear. Xie Xuan entered the city, and went to ask Xie An what his plan was. Xie An remained calm, and simply told him, "I will have orders later," and said nothing further. Xie Xuan did not dare to ask him to say anything else, so he ordered Zhang Xuan to repeat the request. Xie An then summoned his carriage, and the two of them rode to Xie An’s mountain residence, where they chatted as close friends and relatives, and played each other in weiqi. Xie An usually lost against Xie Xuan when they played weiqi against each other, but on this day, Xie Xuan was so frightened that he lost to his opponent instead. Xie An then went out walking, not returning until night.


夷 here means placid or peaceful. The text means that Xie An spoke calmly, with no change from his peaceful expression.

An opponent is someone in the world who is able to match you, and who is smart enough to be a worthy foe. Xie Xuan's mind was not on the game, and so he could not defeat Xie An.

Huan Chong felt very concerned about the Qin invasion, and he sent three thousand elite troops to the capital as reinforcements. But Xie An refused them, saying, "The capital is already secure; we have no need for further soldiers or armor, so they should remain on the western border to defend it."

Huan Chong sighed in response to his Staff Supervisor’s report, saying, "Xie Anshi has been entrusted with such great responsibility by the court, yet he does not understand anything about military matters. We are about to clash with such a powerful foe, but he wanders and talks instead of doing anything, and sends inexperienced youths to handle the critical task of defense. Our numbers are few and our soldiers are weak, and who knows what will befall the realm? I fear we shall all be buttoning our garments on the left soon!"


Staff advisory officers to the border commanders were called Staff Supervisors.


10. Jin's Prince of Langye, Sima Daozi, was appointed as 錄尚書六條事.


The office of 錄尚書六條事 was first created by Liu Cong of Han-Zhao.


11. In winter, the tenth month, Fu Rong and the others attacked Shouyang; on the day Guiyou (November 28th), they took it. They captured Jin's General Who Pacifies The Caitiffs, Xu Yuanxi, and others. Fu Rong appointed his advisor, Guo Bao of Henan, as Administrator of Huainan. Murong Chui captured Yuncheng. When Hu Bin heard that Shouyang was in danger, he retreated to defend Xiashi. Fu Rong advanced to attack him.


Huainan commandary was normally administered from Shouyang. Since Qin had just captured it, Guo Bao was appointed as Administrator considering the exceptional circumstances.

Yuncheng was in the southeast of Yundu County in Jiangxia. 鄖 is pronounced "yun (y-en)".

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "As the Huai River flows east, it passes through the north of Shouchun County, and on the right it joins with the Fei River. It further flows north through the mountain gorges, and so that place is called Xiashi. Two forts were built on the banks in the mountains, to protect the crossing there." The Tongdian states, "Xiashi is in Xiacai County in modern Ruyin commandary."

Qin's Guard General, Liang Cheng, and others led fifty thousand soldiers to camp at Luojian, setting up barricades to keep back the eastern army. Xie Shi, Xie Xuan and the other Jin commanders had their troops fall back twenty-five li from Luojian, because they feared Liang Cheng, and they dared not advance.


The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "At Luojian there are several mounds of dead horses at the Tang River, on the north there are several Qin ruins, and below it fills into the Huai River, so it is called Luokou."

Hu Bin's grain ran out, and he sent word to Xie Shi and the rest saying, "The enemy is here in great numbers, and my grain is exhausted. I fear I will not see all of you again!" The Qin soldiers captured him, and sent him to Fu Rong.

Fu Rong rode to personally bring word of the situation at Shouyang to Fu Jian. He said to him, "The enemy are few and easily captured. However, I fear they may escape us. We must move quickly to engage them!" So Fu Jian left his main army at Xiangcheng, while he rode ahead with eight thousand light cavalry, traveling with Fu Rong to Shouyang.


Fu Rong had been adamant in his belief that Jin could not be defeated. Yet now, faced with the enemy, his position was so easily changed. This, too, was an aspect of Heaven's whim.

Fu Jian sent the Master of Writing, the former Jin commander Zhu Xu, to speak with Xie Shi and the others in the Jin camp. Fu Jian intended for Zhu Xu to tell them, "See how vast the difference in strength between the two sides is. It would be best to surrender at once." However, Zhu Xu secretly told Xie Shi and the others, "If the million soldiers of the Qin army are allowed to concentrate their forces, it will be truly difficult to oppose them. But now, their army is divided up, and has yet to combine. If you can inflict a defeat against their vanguard, then the enemy's morale will waver, and you may be able to break them."


In the third year of Taiyuan (actually the fourth year; 379.3), Fu Jian had captured Zhu Xu at Xiangyang, and appointed him as Minister of Revenue.


12. When Xie Shi heard that Fu Jian himself was at Shouyang, he was afraid, not wishing to fight a battle against the leader of Qin. But Xie Yan urged Xie Shi to heed Zhu Xu's words.

In the eleventh month, Xie Xuan sent the Chancellor of Guangling, Liu Laozhi, at the head of five thousand elite troops to attack Luojian. When they approached to within less than ten li of the Qin position, Liang Cheng fortified the ravines to defend against them. But Liu Laozhi advanced straight ahead and crossed the water, and attacked Liang Cheng, greatly routing his army. He killed Liang Cheng and Qin’s Administrator of Yiyang, Wang Yong. Liu Laozhi then divided his soldiers up to block passage at all of the river fords. Liang Cheng’s remaining infantry and cavalry collapsed and scattered, struggling with each other to cross back across the Huai River. The Qin dead numbered fifteen thousand. Liu Laozhi also captured Qin's Administrator of Yangzhou, Wang Xian, and others, and gathered up all the enemy's equipment and army valuables.


Cao-Wei had split some territory off from Xiyang and Qichun commandaries, and so formed Yiyang commandary. Qin could not yet have possessed this territory, so Wang Yong was just the nominal Administrator of it. During Tang, Yiyang was split across the three provinces Guangzhou, Qizhou, and Huangzhou.

Xie Shi and the other army detachments then advanced along land and water. Fu Jian and Fu Rong mounted the walls of Shouyang to observe the situation. When they saw the Jin soldiers' complete defensive preparations, and even started to believe that every tree or blade of grass on Mount Bagong was a Jin soldier in hiding, Fu Jian said to Fu Rong, "Why did you say that they were weak, when the enemy forces are so vast?" And he was so startled by this that he began to look very worried.


Mount Bagong ("Eight Gentlemen") is in the northwest of modern Shouchun County. It is said that Han's Prince of Huainan, Liu An, was quite a gifted immortal. There was an instance when eight gentlemen, all with white hair and eyebrows, suddenly came to his gate to call upon him. The gate attendant said, "The Prince has lived for a long time. Unless you gentlemen have the power to keep one from aging, I dare not disturb him." The eight gentlemen then transformed themselves into little boys, and they set up a temple on the mountain. Some say that the temple on Mount Bagong is the very same one. Liu An had eight friends, Zuo Wu, Zhu Jiao, Wu Bei, Lei Bei, and others, who were often guests of his. People claim that these Eight Gentlemen were immortals, but that is wrong.


13. The Qin soldiers fortified the line of the Fei River, and the Jin soldiers could not cross there. So Xie Xuan sent a messenger to Fu Rong, saying, "Your army has traveled so deep into this country, only to fortify yourself right along the river. This is the plan of someone who wishes to conduct a stalemate, not someone who wants to start a battle soon. If you will withdraw your camps a short distance, and allow the Jin soldiers to cross over the river, then we may have the decisive battle between us. Is this not the better outcome?"

The Qin generals told Fu Jian, "We are many and they few. It is better for us to hold this line. If they cannot cross over, then we hold the advantage."


When two armies are facing one another, the first to retreat will be the one that loses. This is a common principle of warfare.

But Fu Jian replied, "We need only move the soldiers back a short way. Once the enemy has crossed half of their army over, our iron cavalry will charge in and slaughter them. How could we not be victorious?"

Fu Rong agreed as well, so the command was sent out to the soldiers. But when the began to fall back, no one could halt them again. Xie Xuan, Xie Yan, Huan Yi, and the other Jin commanders led their troops across the river and attacked. Fu Rong rode among the cavalry soldiers, trying to get them to hold the line so that they could conduct an orderly retreat, but his horse collapsed, and he was killed by the Jin soldiers. The Qin soldiers then scattered. Xie Xuan and the others led their victorious cavalry in pursuit, attacking the Qin soldiers as far as Qinggang.


Qinggang is thirty li from modern Shouchun County.

The Qin army was totally defeated, and many died from being trampled during the stampede, or hid themselves among the fields and rivers. Even when they merely heard the hoot of an owl, they thought that they were hearing the arrival of the Jin soldiers. They did not dare to stop to rest even after night fell. The grass travelers and dew sleepers were weighed down by hunger and cold, and seven or eight of every ten of the fleeing soldiers perished.


The text means that the soldiers were knocked over and stepped in the rush of the stampede, and so died.

"Grass travelers" means those who fled through the grass, not daring to take the roads; "dew sleepers" means those who slept out in the field, not daring to enter into anyone's home. In both cases it was because they feared the pursuit troops.

Earlier, when the Qin army was just starting to slightly fall back, Zhu Xu cried out from the rear of the camps, "The Qin army has been defeated!" This caused the whole host to truly run away. Zhu Xu, Zhang Tianxi, and Xu Yuanxi were then able to make their escape from the Qin camp. They captured Fu Jian's Mica Carriage, and clothing, equipment, army items, treasures, and livestock beyond measure.


Some versions further add "and clothing, equipment, army items, treasures, and livestock beyond measure". According to Jin tradition, the Mica Carriage was a carriage adorned with Mica ornaments. It was forbidden to anyone from ministers on down; only Princes and Dukes could use it. Zhao Yanquan's Assorted Ancient and Modern Notes states, "Shi Hu made a carriage for his empress, bedecked in mica and gauze, and it was transparent all around."

Shouyang was retaken, and Qin’s Administrator of Huainan, Guo Bao, was captured.


It was Jin that retook Shouyang, which is why it says Qin's Administrator was captured.


14. Fu Jian had been struck by a stray arrow. He fled alone on horseback until he crossed north of the Huai River. Finding himself hungry, he encountered someone who was boiling a kettle and preparing pig thighs for supper, and so he ate some of the meal. He offered to compensate them with ten bolts of silk and ten 斤 of cotton. They declined, saying, "You have only gotten a little happiness to alleviate your suffering because you have found yourself in this grave situation. I am Your Majesty's son, and Your Majesty is my father. What son would demand reward for feeding his father?" So they left instead.

Fu Jian said to Lady Zhang, "How can I claim to govern the realm any longer?" And he wept freely.


A hot meal is called a 飧. The Forest of Characters states, "It means a boiled meal."

張氏請從。(Jinshu 96)

Lady Zhang asked to accompany Fu Jian (during his campaign).


15. At that time, the soldiers of the Qin army had all scattered. Only Murong Chui had kept his army of thirty thousand soldiers in good order. Fu Jian joined up with him along with a thousand cavalry.


Murong Chui had been with a separate command to attack Yuncheng, and he had not been present at the Battle of Fei River. He further kept his troops under strict discipline. This was why, although the other armies all melted away, Murong Chui's army remained intact.

Murong Chui's eldest son Murong Bao said to him, "Ever since our state was overthrown, both Heaven’s will and the hopes of the people have turned to you. Though the moment has not arrived just yet, there are still many people in hiding, watching and waiting. Now the lord of Qin's soldiers have been defeated, and he himself is within our grasp. This is an act of Heaven that will allow you to restore the fortunes of Yan. You cannot throw this opportunity away. Do not put your personal feelings of loyalty and gratitude ahead of the good of our state!"


By personal feelings and gratitude, Murong Bao means how Fu Jian had treated Murong Chui well, like father and son.

堅之敗於淮南也,垂軍獨全,堅以千餘騎奔垂。垂世子寶言於垂曰:「家國傾喪,皇綱廢馳,至尊明命著之圖籙,當隆中興之業,建少康之功。但時來之運未至,故韜光俟奮耳。今天厭亂德,凶眾土崩,可謂乾啟神機,授之於我。千載一時,今其會也,宜恭承皇天之意,因而取之。且夫立大功者不顧小節,行大仁者不念小惠。秦既蕩覆二京,空辱神器,仇恥之深,莫甚於此,願不以意氣微恩而忘社稷之重。五木之祥,今其至矣。」... 初,寶在長安,與韓黃、李根等因讌摴蒱,寶危坐整容,誓之曰:「世云摴蒱有神,豈虛也哉!若富貴可期,頻得三盧。」於是三擲盡盧,寶拜而受賜,故云五木之祥。(Jinshu 123.5)

After Fu Jian's defeat at Huainan, only Murong Chui's army remained completely intact. Fu Jian fled to him with more than a thousand riders. Murong Chui's eldest son Murong Bao said to him, "Ever since our state came to grief, and the imperial essence was lost, the mandate for devising the restoration has passed to you, Father. You must endeavor to emerge from Longzhong and establish the same achievement as Shaokang. Yet for all this time, you have kept your brilliance hidden away and waited to make any action. But now, Heaven's disgust has scattered virtue, smashed the armies and broken the land. This is what one could call an opportunity sent by Heaven, in order to aid us. Such a rare opportunity is now before us. You must respect the will of the Yellow Heaven, and seize this chance. When one wishes to establish greet deeds, one cannot remain bound by meager restrictions; when one takes action, grand benevolence must come before little mercies. Qin were the ones who violated the two capitals and brought disgrace to our arms. Who does not deeply wish for vengeance against them? I pray that you shall not give greater consideration to the personal grace shown toward you personally and thus forget the greater importance of our state. Remember the auspicious prediction of the Five Wooden Dice; this is the very moment."

Before, when Murong Bao had been at Chang'an, he had been playing chupu with Han Huang, Li Gen, and others at a feast. At one point, Murong Bao had sat bolt upright and tidied himself up, and he had made this oath: "They say chupu is divine; let us see if it is true! If I am ever to become rich and powerful, then let me roll three Lu." So he had cast the dice three times, and each time he scored a Lu combination (a very unlikely result). Murong Bao had saluted and distributed awards. This was why he mentioned "the auspicious prediction of the Five Wooden Dice".

Murong Chui replied, "What you say is true. Yet he has been sincere to me and trusted me with his orders. How can I do him harm? Heaven will not abandon me; there is no enemy it cannot overcome. Therefore, I will protect him from his present danger in order to repay his virtue. Then I may wait for conflict to break out and take advantage of it! By doing so, I may avoid going against my heart, yet may still righteously grasp hold of the realm."


By his words, we can see that Murong Chui still held the standards of a superior man.

垂曰:「汝言是也。然彼以赤心投命,若何害之!苟天所棄,圖之多便。且縱令北還,更待其釁,既不負宿心,可以義取天下。」(Jinshu 123.5)

Murong Chui replied, "It is indeed as you say. Yet he earnestly took me into his mercy, so how could I do him harm? If Heaven has abandoned him, then we may the more easily fulfill our plan. I shall escort him back to the north, and then wait to take advantage of further dissension. Thus I may avoid not fulfilling my feelings as his guest, and still attain the realm with justice."

The General of 奮威, Murong De, said, "When Qin was strong, it defeated Yan; now Qin is weak, and you may rise against it. This is merely avenging the old injustice, and wiping away our shame. Do not burden yourself with feelings of the heart. Elder Brother, what order can you give that would not be carried out, that tens of thousands of soldiers would not rush to aid you with?"

Murong Chui replied, "Before, the Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) could not stand me. Though I had done nothing, I was forced to flee for my life to Qin. The lord of Qin welcomed me, and showered benevolence and favor upon me. Later, when Wang Meng tried to sell me out, no one understood me. Only the lord of Qin could see the truth. How could I ever forget such grace? If the reign of the Di must end, then I will gather all of our people in Guandong, and only there begin our revival. Guanxi has never been our possession."


Murong Chui's escape to Qin was mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fourth year of Taihe (369.21). Wang Meng's plot against Murong Chui and his panicked flight were mentioned in the fifth year (370.3).


Then Murong Chui's younger brother Murong De said to him, "Neighboring states swallow each other up; this has always been so. When Qin was strong, they annexed Yan. Now that Qin is weak, we plan against them. By doing so, we avenge our past shame. How can you possibly speak of keeping to your heart's duties as guest? In former times, Marquis Qi of Zheng did not listen to the words of his three nephews-in-law, and in the end Zheng was conquered by Chu (Zuozhuan, Zhuang 7.5). King Fuchai of Wu did not listen to Wu Zixu's admonishments, and Goujian brought him to misfortune. One who does not forget the events of the past is one who sets a good example for the future. Do not abandon the paths taken by Tang of Shang and King Wu of Zhou; do not follow Han Xin down the road to ruin. Destroy the enemy's land, and so act as the instrument of Heaven's punishment. Behead the disobedient Di, restore the ancestral sacrifices, realize the restoration, and fulfill your vast achievement. This is a great opportunity for the realm; it cannot be lost. But if you disintegrate your army of tens of thousands, and let the initiative pass to others, awaiting another day and looking for some future harm, the plan will never come to fruition. It is said, 'if you do not act, others will act against you'. Elder Brother, please have no doubts."

Murong Chui replied, "Before, the Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) could not stand me, and I had to throw myself on the lord of Qin's mercy. And when Wang Meng slandered me, he still saw me in the same light. He always treated me with the greatest ceremonies of state, and I have yet to repay his virtue to me. If I send Qin to certain defeat, how much more will that come back against us? If I take his head, how could I not worry about such a thing? The territory of Guanxi was never my possession. Since I imposed upon his hospitality, I may repay him and then settle Guandong. A superior man does not rely upon chaos, nor takes advantage of misfortune. That is what should be considered." So he used his soldiers to escort Fu Jian.

Murong Chui’s advisor, Zhao Qiu, said, "You are the one who shall revive Yan's fortunes, just as has been foretold. That very moment is at hand, so how can you put it off? If you kill the lord of Qin, capture Ye, beat the drums of campaign, and march west, the Fu clan will not even be able to keep the region of the Three Qins from you!"

Murong Chui's personal followers and partisans continued to urge him to kill Fu Jian, but he refused to listen to any of them. He ordered his soldiers to protect Fu Jian.

Qin’s General Who Pacifies The South, Murong Wei, was then camped at Yuncheng. When he heard of Fu Jian's defeat, he abandoned his soldiers and fled. When he reached Xingyang, Murong De spoke to him, again urging that troops should be led in rebellion to restore Yan. But Murong Wei did not heed him.


16. Xie An received a message from a relay messenger, and learned that the Qin army had already been defeated. At the time, he was playing a weiqi match with a guest. He placed the message on his couch, but his expression showed no sign of joy, and he continued to play weiqi just as before. When his guest asked him about the message, he replied, "The young folks have already routed the enemy." After the match ended, he went back inside, but as he was passing the door’s threshold, without thinking he smashed his clog on it.


This was to show how delighted he really was. The text says that Xie An was remarkably nonchalant about the matter. But everyone and every minister is happy when they know that the state is safe. A great enemy was massed on the border, and then it had been routed in a single battle. How could Xie An not have been happy? The fact that he smashed his sandal is no black mark against him.

謝公與人圍棊,俄而謝玄淮上信至。看書竟,默然無言,徐向局。客問淮上利害?答曰:「小兒輩大破賊。」意色舉止,不異於常。(New Tales 6.35)

Xie An was playing weiqi with someone, when suddenly a messenger arrived from Xie Xuan on the Huai River. Xie An read the letter to the end in silence, and without saying a word, calmly turned back to the playing board. When his guests asked whether the news from the Huai was good or bad, he replied, "My little boys have inflicted a crushing defeat on the invader." As he spoke, his mood and expression and demeanor were no different from usual. (tr. Richard Mather)


17. On the day Dinghai (December 12th), Xie Shi and the others returned to Jiankang. They had captured some Qin musicians, and so these musicians played the old melodies for the court. Now that the court had these instruments, golden instruments could begin to be fashioned for the ancestral temple.

On the day Yiwei (December 20th), Zhang Tianxi was appointed as Jin’s Regular Attendant of 散騎, and Zhu Xu was appointed as Interior Minister of Langye.


During the Disaster of Yongjia, the Jin court's musicians and musical instruments all fell into the hands of the Liu and Shi clans. When the court was first re-established in the Southland, the ancestral temple had no refined instruments or musicians, so they were compelled to merely beat the drums and make chants, and even when later on they raised up songs and offered food, they still could not prepare any of the old instruments. At the end of the Taining era (326), Emperor Ming sought out Ruan Fu and others to improve the situation. During the Xianhe era (326-35), Emperor Cheng re-established the Music Bureau, and he was able to gather together some musicians, but they still had no means to make the golden instruments. After Murong Jun vanquished Ran Min, his soldiers took what they would, and many of the musicians in Ye also came to him. When Xie Shang was guarding Shouchun, he gathered musicians to prepare them for the Music Bureau, and they used stone bells, so this was the beginning of the use of refined instruments again. When Wang Meng took Ye, the Murong clan had many musical instruments there, and they were brought into Guanyou. Now that Jin had routed Fu Jian, and captured Yang Shu and the other musicians among his camp, they could learn how to prepare the old instruments once again, and so they had golden ones.


18. Fu Jian gathered up what stragglers he could. By the time they reached Luoyang, there were over a hundred thousand soldiers. But the officials, the rites and ceremonies, and the soldiers had minimal discipline.


19. Murong Nong said to Murong Chui, "You did not take advantage of these men when they were in danger; the virtue that you have thus displayed is surely enough to impress Heaven. I have heard a prophecy say, 'The place where Yan will be revived is Heyang.' Now the time is ripe, and you had better take advantage of it, not losing any time by waiting for days on end. Difficulty or ease, beauty or ugliness, all depends upon speed!"


By calling him 尊 zun, Murong Nong addresses Murong Chui as his father. Murong Ling had also called his father zun, as this was a common term of address between father and son.

Murong Chui in his heart felt that Murong Nong spoke well, so when the army reached Mianchi, he said to Fu Jian, "You should be careful about the people of the north. When they hear that the royal army has had the worst of it in the campaign, they may be quick to bestir themselves with sudden risings. Please grant me the order to go and guard and comfort them, and thus pay homage to my ancestors."

Fu Jian agreed with his request, but Quan Yi remonstrated with Fu Jian, saying, "The state's soldiers have just been routed, and confusion and dissension reign in every corner. You should be gathering your soldiers and your famed generals at the capital, in order to secure your base, and guard the branches. Murong Chui is heroic and cunning, and respected by the people of the east. If you allow him to take advantage of this misfortune to slip away, would he really be satisfied to just remain as your Champion General and go no further than that? When one raises a hawk, one must keep it hungry and close at hand. Every time it hears the whirlwind rising, it will always wish to soar into the clouds. You must only gradually remove the binding over it. If you simply let it free, it will do whatever it wishes!"

Fu Jian replied, "What you say has merit. Yet I have already given him my permission. Even a common fellow does not go back on his word, so how can a great ruler do so? When Heaven wills that someone shall rise or fall, how much can man’s cunning or strength oppose it?"

Quan Yi said, "Your Majesty, you place more value in a mere few words than you do in the safety of the state. I believe that once he leaves, he will never return. Guandong shall be thrown into chaos because of this." But Fu Jian did not listen to him.

Fu Jian sent the generals Li Man, Min Liang, and Yin Gu (or Guo) to lead three thousand soldiers to escort Murong Chui. He also sent the General of Agile Cavalry, Shi Yue, to lead three thousand elite cavalry to Ye, and he sent the General of Valiant Cavalry, Zhang Qi, to lead five thousand of the Feathered Forest guards to defend Bingzhou. He also sent the General Who Guards The Army, Mao Dang, to lead four thousand soldiers to defend Luoyang.


Murong Chui wished to travel to Ye in order to pay his respects at the tombs and temples of his ancestors.

A 飊 whirlwind is a steeply-rising wind. The 釋 states, "A gale that rises from bottom to top is called a whirlwind.” A 絛 binding is a cord or thread, used to bind a hawk.

Kong Anguo remarked, "One who eats their words is one who goes back on what they say. They are false and not true."

Some versions call this man Yin Guo instead of Yin Gu.

堅至澠池,垂請至鄴展拜陵墓,因張國威刑,以安戎狄。堅許之,權翼諫曰:「垂爪牙名將,所謂今之韓、白,世豪東夏,志不為人用。頃以避禍歸誠,非慕德而至,列土幹城未可以滿其志,冠軍之號豈足以稱其心!且垂猶鷹也,饑則附人,飽便高颺,遇風塵之會,必有陵霄之志。惟宜急其羈靽,不可任其所欲。」堅不從,遣其將李蠻、閔亮、尹國率眾三千送垂,又遣石越戍鄴,張蠔戍并州。(Jinshu 123.6)

When Fu Jian reached Mianchi, Murong Chui asked that he be permitted to travel to Ye to expand and pay respects at the tombs of his ancestors, and that by his reputation throughout the state for punishment, he might settle the Rong and Di tribes. Fu Jian agreed to his request. But Quan Yi remonstrated with Fu Jian, saying, "Murong Chui is a famous general of fangs and claws, certainly the modern equal of Han Xin and Bai Qi. He is renowned among the eastern Xia, and he has ambitions to be more than a subordinate. What he did just now was only to avoid misfortune and respond to honest feeling, not out of respect for virtue. Simply defending your territory is not enough to fulfill his ambition; how could he ever be satisfied with just the title of Champion General? Murong Chui is like a hawk: when it is hungry it will remain close to humans, but when it is full it will take flight to the skies. Whenever it encounters the whirlwind rising, it will certainly wish to soar into the clouds. You must keep a firm grasp on its bridle, and not allow it to do whatever it wishes." But Fu Jian did not agree. He sent his generals Li Man, Min Liang, and Yin Guo with three thousand soldiers to escort Murong Chui. He also sent Shi Yue to camp at Ye, and Zhang Hao to camp at Bingzhou.

Quan Yi secretly sent brave warriors to intercept Murong Chui at the bridge across the Yellow River south of Kongcang. But Murong Chui suspected something of this sort, so he went to Liangma Point to gather straw to bind together for rafts, and he used the rafts to cross the river instead. Meanwhile, he sent his 典軍 Cheng Tong with his army’s boy attendants and some remaining horses to attempt to cross over the bridge. Quan Yi’s soldiers sprang their ambush, but Cheng Tong galloped away and escaped capture.


The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In Baima County in Dong commandary, there is a Liangcheng. The Yellow River flows north of there. And in this place there is a Shenma Point, about twenty li west of Baima Ford. There is a tower about midway through it, and it is twenty paces from north to south and about fifty paces from east to west." Now if Shenma Point was in Dong commandary, and Baima was across the bank from Liyang, then how could Murong Chui have come from Xingyang or Luoyang to cross the Yellow River at this point? So this Liangma Point must have been west of the bridge crossing at Fuping Ford. It is called Liangma Point because the ancients would wash their horses there among the river islands, and they did so there because the horses much enjoyed the cool air there, so it was called Liangma ("Chilled/Cool Horses") Point.

The office of 典軍 was one of a Prince's fief officials. It was a holdover from Murong Chui's time as Prince of Wu during Yan.


20. In the twelfth month, Fu Jian arrived at Chang'an. He wept for the loss of Fu Rong after entering, and posthumously named him Duke Ai (“the Mourned”). He proclaimed a general amnesty, and he exempted the families of the dead from taxes or corvee labor.


21. On the day Gengwu (January 24th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin. Xie Shi was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Xie Xuan was promoted to General of the Front, but he firmly declined the office.


22. Xie An's son-in-law, Wang Guobao, was the son of Wang Tanzhi. Xie An hated him, and always restrained him and did not use him. Wang Guobao was appointed as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. But because he wanted to advance his family, Wang Guobao only wanted to receive appointment as Supervisor, not as one of the other department managers, so he declined to accept the office, and he resented Xie An.

Wang Guobao's niece was the concubine of the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, and Emperor Xiaowu and Sima Daozi loved to go drinking. During such times, they were susceptible to flattery. So Wang Guobao spoke to Sima Daozi about Xie An, asking him to pass on his words to Emperor Xiaowu. Because of Xie An's widespread achievements and fame, he was in danger because of these reports of slander, and they hurt his reputation. So Emperor Xiaowu began to suspect him.


According to the Jin system, the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing handled thirty-five departments, and there were twenty-two Gentlemen, so some wielded extra authority. After the court was re-established in the Southland, there were departments of 無直事、右民、屯田、車部、別兵、都兵、騎兵、左‧右士、and 運曹, and they had twenty Gentlemen Managers. After the reigns of Emperors Kang and Mu, there were 無虞曹 and two Gentleman of the twenty 石 rank, but there were also eighteen managers of 殿中、祠部、吏部、儀曹、三公、比部、金部、倉部、度支、都官、左民、起部、水部、主客、駕部、庫部、中兵、and 外兵. After some departments were consolidated, there were fifteen surplus Managers, which were left up to the selection of the Supervisor.


23. Jin now imposed a ban on wine, and increased the head tax on people to five 石 of rice per head.


During Han's Jian'an era, Duke Cao Cao had strictly enforced a ban on wine.

In the fifth year of Xianhe (330), Emperor Cheng had first set up a system of land taxes on farmland, and out of every tenth of land, the tax rate was three 升 of rice per 畝. After Emperor Ai came to the throne, the tax rate was lowered to two 升 of rice per 畝 (362.2). In the second year of Taiyuan, Emperor Xiaowu abolished the land tax and imposed a head tax instead, at a rate of three 斛 of rice per head, with exemptions for those in corvee labor (376.12). During this year, the head tax was increased again, to five 斛 per head.


24. Qin's Lü Guang advanced his army over three hundred li through the shifting sands of the Western Reaches. Karasahr and the other states all submitted to him. Only the King of Kucha, Bochun, held out against him, and stubbornly manned the walls of his city. Lü Guang advanced his army to attack him.


After you leave the Yumen Gate behind and enters the shifting sands, if you travel west you shall reach Shanshan, while if you go north you shall reach Jushi. Beyond those, the state of Qiemo lies west of Shanshan, and there are other states to the northwest. But they are many hundreds of li through the shifting sands, and the summer days have hot winds, so travel becomes dangerous. When the winds are about to arrive, the old camels will become disgruntled, and they will gather together and bury their snouts in the sand. When men recognize this, then they too will wrap felt around their noses and mouths. The winds blow at high speeds, and it only takes a moment before they blow through everything. If you do not protect yourself, you shall certainly die from it. Sang Qin remarked, "The place of the shifting sands is northwest of Juyan County in Zhangye commandary." The Tongdian states, "The shifting sands are in Shazhou ('Sand Province'), eighty li west of Dunhuang commandary." Li Daoyuan remarks that the Ruo River flows through the shifting sands, and the sands flow along with the river. He also says the river comes out of Mount Zhong, and its western extremity is at the mountains at Yanzi, north of Xihai commandary. The shifting sands also has a few oases, and market states spring up around these pools, including the Chaoyun state east of Mount Niao, Kunshan west of there, and southwest beyond the mountains at Ying. The 大荒山經 states, "Beyond the Western Sea (presumably Lake Qinghai) stretches the shifting sands."

行至高昌,聞堅寇晉,光欲更須後命。部將杜進曰:「節下受任金方,赴機宜速,有何不了,而更留乎!」光乃進及流沙,三百餘里無水,將士失色。光曰:「吾聞李廣利精誠玄感,飛泉湧出,吾等豈獨無感致乎!皇天必將有濟,諸君不足憂也。」俄而大雨,平地三尺。進兵至焉耆,其王泥流率其旁國請降。龜茲王帛純距光,光軍其城南,五里為一營,深溝高壘,廣設疑兵,以木為人,被之以甲,羅之壘上。帛純驅徙城外人入于城中,附庸侯王各嬰城自守。至是,光左臂內脈起成字,文曰「巨霸」。營外夜有一黑物,大如斷堤,搖動有頭角,目光若電,及明而雲霧四周,遂不復見。旦視其處,南北五里,東西三十餘步,鱗甲隱地之所,昭然猶在。光笑曰:「黑龍也。」俄而雲起西北,暴雨滅其跡。杜進言於光曰:「龍者神獸,人君利見之象。《易》曰:『見龍在田,德施普也。』斯誠明將軍道合靈和,德符幽顯。願將軍勉之,以成大慶。」光有喜色。(Jinshu 122.5-6)

The Qin army had advanced as far as Gaochang when they heard that Fu Jian had invaded Jin. Lü Guang wished to await further orders. His subordinate Du Jin said to him, "General, you have been entrusted with a post of great responsibility. When opportunity presents itself, you must advance at once. What reason do you have not to do so, and to go so far as to stay put here?" So Lü Guang continued to march into the shifting sands.

After advancing more than three hundred li, there was no longer any water. Both the officers and the men were losing color. Lü Guang said, "I have heard that Li Guang's earnest sincerity moved the spirits, and caused water to gush forth. Who among us is not likewise honest and devoted? The Yellow Heaven will soon provide for us, so there is no need for any of you to worry." Soon, a great storm came up, and three inches of rain fell.

The army continued to advance, and reached Karasahr. The King there, Niuli, sent around to the neighboring states, asking them to submit. The King of Kucha, Bochun, opposed Lü Guang, so Lü Guang marched his army to south of Kucha. There he set up a camp stretching across five li, and he piled up earth to form a tall rampart. He also fashioned fake soldiers, making the men out of wood and their armor out of cloth, and set them up all along the rampart. King Bochun forced all of the people outside of the city to move into the city, and his vassal nobles also manned his walls and guarded his city.

By now, the mark on Lü Guang's left elbow had risen to form complete characters, the two words "great hegemon". Outside the camp that night, there was a black thing, massive as a dyke. It shook and had horns on its head, and its eyes glowed like lightning, and it was bright with clouds and mists all about it. Nothing like it had been seen before. When dawn came, its form could be seen. From north to south it stretched five li, and from east to west it stretched more than thirty paces. Its scales and shell were all hidden in the earth, but it shined as though it were still there. Lü Guang smiled and said, "It is a black dragon." Soon, a cloud rose in the northwest, and a fierce storm washed away all traces of the being. Du Jin said to Lü Guang, "Dragons are divine beings, and it is good fortune for men and lords to see one. The Book of Changes states, 'The dragon appears in the field - the diffusion of virtuous influence has been wide. (Qian 3)' This demonstrates that you, General, adhere to the Way and are in accordance with the sublime. Your virtue and authority, once hidden, are now laid bare. General, if you will now exert yourself, you will carry out a great achievement." And Lü Guang had a joyful expression.


25. When Fu Jian had set out on his campaign against Jin, he had appointed Qifu Guoren as General of the Front, and was going to send him to lead the vanguard cavalry. But Qifu Guoren's uncle Qifu Butui rebelled in Longxi, so Fu Jian sent Qifu Guoren back to campaign against him. When Qifu Butui heard of it, he was very pleased, and he came to welcome Qifu Guoren on the road. They drank together, and Qifu Guoren said in a great voice, "The Fu clan's people are exhausted and their troops are undisciplined. Soon they shall fall. Let us establish our own endeavor together."

After Fu Jian was defeated, Qifu Guoren compelled the troops under his command to obey him. Those who refused to do so, he attacked and overwhelmed. In the end, he had over a hundred thousand soldiers.


Qifu Guoren's replacement of Qifu Sifan as Protector of Yongshi was mentioned in Book 104, in the first year (376.25).

聞堅征晉奔敗,國仁收衆至十餘萬。(16K 14.1)

When Qifu Guoren heard that Fu Jian had retreated from his failed campaign against Jin, he gathered together a host of more than a hundred thousand.

及堅興壽春之役,徵為前將軍,領先鋒騎。會國仁叔父步頹叛於隴西,堅遣國仁還討之。步頹聞而大悅,迎國仁于路。國仁置酒高會,攘袂大言曰:「苻氏往因趙石之亂,遂妄竊名號,窮兵極武,跨僭八州。疆宇既寧,宜綏以德,方虛廣威聲,勤心遠略,騷動蒼生,疲弊中國,違天怒人,將何以濟!且物極則虧、禍盈而覆者,天之道也。以吾量之,是役也,難以免矣。當與諸君成一方之業。」及堅敗歸,乃招集諸部,有不附者,討而並之,眾至十餘萬。(Jinshu 125.2)

When Fu Jian made his plans to attack Shouchun, he appointed Qifu Guoren as General of the Front and acting leader of the vanguard cavalry. But at that time, Qifu Guoren's uncle Qifu Butui rebelled in Longxi, so Fu Jian sent Qifu Guoren to campaign against him. When Qifu Butui heard of it, he was overjoyed, and he came to welcome Qifu Guoren on the road.

Qifu Guoren held a great wine feast, where he pushed up his sleeves and said in a great voice, "The Fu clan rose because of the Shi clan of Zhao's demise. Though obscure, they laid claim to a lofty title. Though weak, their soldiers became mighty. In the end, they straddled eight provinces. Once their territory had been settled, they ought to have cultivated their virtue. But instead, they heralded their vacuous military pretensions, and cast away plans for the long-term good of the realm. They disturbed the people, and brought exhaustion and abuse to the Middle Kingdom. They have ignored Heaven and infuriated men; how can they go on much longer? It is the path provided by Heaven that when such a thing brings down such disaster and misfortune, it must be replaced. The way has been prepared for me, and it would be hard for me to avoid it. Now shall I bring this design to fruition, together with all of you."

After Fu Jian returned from his defeat, Qifu Guoren summoned many groups and gathered them to him. He campaigned against those who would not submit and annexed them, until he commanded a host of more than a hundred thousand.


26. When Murong Chui reached Anyang, he sent his advisor Tian Shan to try to improve relations with the Duke of Changle, Fu Pi, at Ye. When Fu Pi heard that Murong Chui was coming north, he suspected him and believed that he was planning rebellion, but Fu Pi came in person to welcome him. Zhao Qiu urged Murong Chui to seize Fu Pi, take over Ye and raise troops in rebellion, but Murong Chui did not heed him. Fu Pi plotted to attack Murong Chui, but his Gentleman Attendant, Jiang Rang of Tianshui, remonstrated with him, saying, "Murong Chui has not yet shown himself to be a rebel, and for you to personally kill him is not befitting a loyal son. It would be better to treat him well at first, and improve discipline among the troops, then secretly inform them of the circumstances. When they hear of a problem, then they may do away with him." Fu Pi agreed with him, so he hosted Murong Chui west of Ye.


Anyang was southwest of Ye.

By the Jin system, princely fiefs each had two Gentlemen Attendants.


27. Murong Chui then began plotting with Yan's former ministers to restore Yan. Meanwhile, the Dingling chieftain Zhai Bin rebelled against Qin, plotting to attack the Governor of Yuzhou and Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Hui, at Luoyang. Fu Jian sent a courier ordering Murong Chui to lead troops against Zhai Bin.


This was a tribe of the Dingling that had originally resided at Zhongshan. After Fu Jian conquered Yan, he had relocated them to Xin'an. Zhai Bin had held office under Qin as 從事中郎 to the Guard General.

Shi Yue said to Fu Pi, "The royal army has recently been defeated, and the people's hearts are not yet at peace. There are those who plot to smother the state, and rise up in rebellion. The Dingling have sounded the call of rebellion for a mere ten days, and they already have this many thousands. Such is the danger we are faced with. Now Murong Chui is the hope of Yan, and his ambition is to revive his former state. If you furnish him with troops now, it will only be giving wings to a tiger."

Fu Pi replied, "So long as Murong Chui is at Ye, he is like a crouching tiger or sleeping dragon. We will always have to be on the lookout for some development close at hand. But if I send him far away, is that not an improvement? Furthermore, Zhai Bin is furious and wild; he will never consent to serve under Murong Chui. I am only sending two tigers to fight one another, and then I can control whichever one wins. This is the same skill as Bian Zhuangzi."

Bian Zhuangzi had once wished to kill two tigers. He enticed them into fighting one another, and held back to observe them. One of the tigers killed the other one, but it was so exhausted afterwards that Bian Zhuangzi could easily walk up and kill it.

So he sent two thousand frail soldiers and faulty weapons and armor to give to Murong Chui, and sent the General Who Spreads Valor, Fu Feilong, with a thousand Di cavalry to be Murong Chui's adjutant. He secretly said to Fu Feilong, "Murong Chui will be the leader of the three armies. You will need to conspire against him. When the moment comes, exert yourself!"


When Jin's Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, sent He Yan to deal with Wang Jun, when Yin Hao sent Wei Jing to deal with Yao Xiang, and when Fu Pi sent Fu Feilong to deal with Murong Chui, none of their plans actually worked out, and each of them was defeated the same way.

時堅子丕先在鄴,及垂至,丕館之於鄴西,垂具說淮南敗狀。會堅將苻暉告丁零翟斌聚眾謀逼洛陽,歪謂垂曰:「惟斌兄弟因王師小失,敢肆凶勃,子母之軍,殆難為敵,非冠軍英略,莫可以滅也。欲相煩一行可乎?」垂曰:「下官殿下之鷹犬,敢不惟命是聽。」於是大賜金帛,一無所受,惟請舊田園。丕許之,配垂兵二千,遣其將苻飛龍率氐騎一千為垂之副。丕戒飛龍曰:「卿王室肺腑,年秩雖卑,其實帥也。垂為三軍之統,卿為謀垂之主,用兵制勝之權,防微杜貳之略,委之於卿,卿其勉之。」(Jinshu 123.7)

7. At this time, Fu Jian's son Fu Pi was already at Ye. When Murong Chui arrived, Fu Pi had him reside west of Ye, and Murong Chui informed him of the conditions of the defeat at Huainan.

Meanwhile, Fu Jian's general Fu Hui was threatened by the Dingling leader Zhai Bin, whose army was approaching Luoyang. Fu Pi said to Murong Chui, "Zhai Bin and his brothers only dare to take this wild and brash act because of the slight reverse the royal army suffered. But my brother's army is in dire straits because of this enemy. Champion General, if he cannot count on your heroic cunning, he shall not be able to vanquish the foe. Can I trouble you to move against them?"

Murong Chui replied, "Your Highness, I am merely your dog or hawk. I would not dare to disregard your orders." Murong Chui was offered great rewards of gold and silk, but he did not accept any of them. He only asked for the old fields and gardens. Fu Pi agreed.

Fu Pi assigned two thousand soldiers to Murong Chui, and also sent his general Fu Feilong with a thousand Di cavalry to act as Murong Chui's adjutant. Fu Pi said to Fu Feilong, "You are a core member of the royal family. Although you are young and hold a lowly rank, you now hold actual command. Murong Chui will lead the three armies, while you will be his chief advisor. Use the soldiers to achieve a victory, and guard against the threat of rebellion. I entrust this role to you; you must exert yourself in it."


28. Murong Chui asked to enter Ye in order to pay respects at the temple, but Fu Pi denied him, so Murong Chui sent his agents in in his place. The pavilion attendants forbade it, and Murong Chui became angry; he killed the attendants and set fire to the pavilion before leaving.


Yan's capital was at Ye, so that was where their ancestral temple was.

Shi Yue then said to Fu Pi, "When Murong Chui dared to leave his defense post, force his way in and kill the attendants, and burn the pavilion, that showed his true nature. Now you can get rid of him."

Fu Pi said, "After the defeat at Huainan, Murong Chui guarded the imperial carriage. That achievement cannot be forgotten."

Shi Yue said, "If Murong Chui was able to betray Yan, how much more can he betray us? If you lose this chance, he will certainly pose a threat to us later." But Fu Pi did not heed him.

Shi Yue withdrew, telling others, "Both the father and the son put more importance in these petty virtues than they do in the greater affairs. We shall be captives to someone else in the end."


Both Fu Jian and Fu Pi perished, just as Shi Yue had predicted.

垂請入鄴城拜廟,丕不許。乃潛服而入,亭吏禁之,垂怒,斬吏燒亭而去。石越言於丕曰:「垂之在燕,破國亂家,及投命聖朝,蒙超常之遇,忽敢輕侮方鎮,殺吏焚亭,反形已露,終為亂階。將老兵疲,可襲而取之矣。」歪曰:「淮南之敗,眾散親離,而垂侍衛聖躬,誠不可忘。」越曰:「垂既不忠於燕,其肯盡忠於我乎!且其亡虜也,主上寵同功舊,不能銘澤誓忠,而首謀為亂,今不擊之,必為後害。」丕不從。越退而告人曰:「公父子好存小仁,不顧天下大計,吾屬終當為鮮卑虜矣。」(Jinshu 123.7)

Murong Chui asked to enter Ye to pay his respects at the ancestral temple, but Fu Pi would not allow it. So Murong Chui disguised himself to enter the city, but the terrace guards barred him. Murong Chui was enraged; he killed the guards and burned the terraces before returning to his camp.

Shi Yue said to Fu Pi, "When Murong Chui was in Yan, he broke his state and caused discord in his family. Then when he threw himself on our court's mercy, he concealed his great ambitions, not daring to speak against whatever post he was given. But now, by killing the guards and burning the terraces, he reveals his rebellious intentions. He will become a rebel in the end. When the general is old and the troops exhausted, they can be attacked and overcome."

Fu Pi told him, "After the defeat at Huainan, the armies all scattered their own ways. But Murong Chui protected the imperial personage. His honesty cannot be forgotten."

Shi Yue replied, "Murong Chui was not even loyal to Yan; how can he fully loyal to us? When he was a defeated captive, our lord treated him with the same favor as an old accomplished minister. But he was never able to ascertain his vow of loyalty, and he is now plotting rebellion. If you do not attack him now, he will become a threat later on."

Fu Pi would not agree. Shi Yue withdrew, telling other people, "Both the father and the son put more importance in these petty virtues than they do in the great plans of the realm. We shall all be the slaves of the Xianbei in the end."


29. Murong Chui left Murong Nong, Murong Kai, and Murong Shao at Ye. When he reached Tangchi in Anyang, Min Liang and Li Pi arrived from Ye, and informed Murong Chui of Fu Pi's plotting with Fu Feilong. Because of this, Murong Chui angrily said to his soldiers, "I have striven to prove my loyalty to the Fu clan, yet now they wish to destroy me and my sons. No matter what I had once hoped for, this is what we are faced with now!" So he claimed that he had too few soldiers, and he lingered in Henei to recruit more. Within ten days, he had eight thousand soldiers.


Thus did the plan go awry. Not only could Fu Feilong not deal with Murong Chui, he could not even keep the secret from getting out!


30. Fu Hui sent messengers to halt Murong Chui, but Murong Chui intercepted the messengers and continued his advance.

Murong Chui said to Fu Feilong, "The rebels are now quite close. We should say that we are halting, and then march on at night; they will not expect an attack." Fu Feilong believed him.

On the night Renwu, Murong Chui sent his eldest son Murong Bao to lead the soldiers in the front of the army, and his youngest son Murong Long to lead the ones in the rear, with the five hundred Di soldiers in between. Then he made a secret arrangement with Murong Bao. At the sound of the drums, the front and the rear soldiers both attacked the Di soldiers and Fu Feilong in between them. It was a complete slaughter. The officers to the west all fled, and sent word to inform Fu Jian, saying that Fu Feilong and all the rest had been killed.


Henei was only cut off from Xin'an and Luoyang by the Yellow River, so Murong Chui's ostensible reason was believable.

The messengers reported on Fu Pi having sent Fu Feiling to deal with Murong Chui, and how Fu Feilong had been killed.


31. Years earlier, when Murong Chui had entered Ye after Qin’s conquest of Yan, he had encountered his son Murong Ling again. Since Murong Lin had been responsible for ruining his original plan, Murong Chui killed Murong Lin's mother, but he could not bear to kill Murong Lin. So he only expelled Murong Lin from his household, forcing him to be a servant.

After Murong Chui killed Fu Feilong, Murong Lin several times stepped forward and offered strategies to him, and this changed Murong Chui's view of him. He began to appreciate Murong Lin more, and favored him the same as his other sons.


Murong Chui entered Ye after the Qin conquest in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.27). Murong Lin had been the one to inform Yan about his original plans when he fled Ye the year before (369.20).

This was what Murong Chui had hoped for, since he considered bringing things back to how they were before, and since Murong Lin was able to welcome him and offer advice, his words inspired Murong Chui.

This was why Murong Lin was able to later rebel against Yan.


32. When Murong Feng and the other sons of former Yan ministers, Wang Teng of Yanjun, Duan Yan of Liaoxi, and others heard that Zhai Bin had risen in rebellion, they all began gathering their own troops and joined him. Fu Hui sent Mao Dang to campaign against Zhai Bin. Murong Feng said, "Now I may wipe away my late father’s shame. Let us kill this Di slave." So he put on his armor and advanced, with the Dingling following behind him. They inflicted a great defeat upon the Qin soldiers, and killed Mao Dang. Then they advanced to attack the Qin camp at Lingyun Terrace, and took it, capturing over ten thousand men, arms, and armor. Mao Dang was posthumously known as Marquis Wu (“Martial”) of Wuping.


Duan Yan was from the Duan clan, the former warlord state.

After the fall of Yan, Murong Feng's father, Murong Huan, had been killed by Qin. This incident was mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.29).

Lingyun Terrace had been built by Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi), west of Luocheng. The Qin soldiers were camped there.


33. On the day Guiwei (February 6th), Murong Chui crossed the Yellow River and burned the bridge behind him. By now, he commanded thirty thousand soldiers. He left the Xianbei leader, Kezuhun Tan of Liaodong, to gather soldiers at Shacheng in Henei.


Since the text says Henei, it does not mean the Shacheng in Wei commandary. The Empress Dowager of Yan had been Lady Kezuhun, so this Kezuhun Tan was also close kin to Yan.

Murong Chui sent Tian Shan back to Ye, to secretly tell Murong Nong and the others to each go out and raise troops as well. By then, it was already dusk. Murong Nong and Murong Kai remained inside their homes in Ye. Murong Shao went out, going to Pu Pond, where he stole hundreds of Fu Pi's fine steeds to send to Murong Nong and Murong Kai. On the eve of the new year (February 7th), Murong Nong and Murong Kai led several dozen horsemen out of Ye, all of them riding towards Lieren.


Pu Pond was outside Ye. Murong Jun had held a feast for his ministers there (Book 100, 359.3).

During Han, Lieren County was part of Julu commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Guangping commandary. It was northeast of Ye. Northern Wei's Geographical Records states, "The city of Lieren is in Linzhang County in Wei commandary. There is also a separate Lieren County, which is also in Wei commandary."
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Feb 28, 2018 4:20 am, edited 11 times in total.
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BOOK 105

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat May 06, 2017 5:26 pm


The Ninth Year of Taiyuan (The Jiashen Year, 384 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yiyou (February 8th), Fu Pi summoned a meeting of all his guests. When he asked around why Murong Nong and the others were not present, Fu Pi then realized what had happened. He sent men out in all directions to look into where they were. After three days, he learned that the fugitives were at Lieren, and were already raising troops.


2. Murong Feng, Wang Teng, Duan Yan, and the other rebels at Henan all urged Zhai Bin to join forces with Murong Chui and recognize him as leader of their combined forces, and Zhai Bin agreed to do so.

Murong Chui wished to attack Luoyang, but as he was not yet certain of Zhai Bin's sincerity, he cautiously said, "I have come to rescue the Inspector of Yuzhou (Fu Hui), and not to join together with you. You wish to establish this great affair, to enjoy fortune if you succeed and endure misfortune if you fail, but I have no way of knowing how things will fare with you ahead of time."


Fu Hui was stationed at Luoyang in his capacity as Qin’s Inspector of Yuzhou.

On the day Bingxu (February 9th), Murong Chui arrived at Luoyang. Fu Hui had heard that Fu Feilong had been killed, so he closed the gates against Murong Chui and held to his defenses.

Zhai Bin sent his Chief Clerk Guo Tong to speak to Murong Chui again, yet Murong Chui still would not agree to join together with the rebels. So Guo Tong said to him, "General, you are the one we must rely upon. How can Zhai Bin and his people, talentless as they are and far lacking in cunning, hope to meet with anything but failure? Unless we can depend upon you this day, General, how can the grand design ever be accomplished?" So Murong Chui finally agreed.


He was saying that only by joining together could they succeed.

Zhai Bin and his soldiers then united with Murong Chui's men. They urged Murong Chui to assume the imperial title. But Murong Chui replied, "The Marquis of Xinxing (Murong Wei) is my lord. We ought to welcome his return."


After Qin had captured Murong Wei, he was given the title Marquis of Xinxing.


3. Since Murong Chui would be surrounded by enemies if he remained at Luoyang, he wished to go back to Ye and capture it as his base, so he led his soldiers back east again. He appointed the former King of Buyeo, Hae Yeoul, as Administrator of Xingyang, and he and the Xianbei leader, Weijuge of Changli, both marched their forces to submit to Murong Chui.


Hae Yeoul was the Yan officer who opened the north gate of Ye to let in the Qin army during the conquest of Yan, as mentioned in Book 102 in the fifth year of Taihe (370.26).

When Murong Chui reached Xingyang, his subordinates continued to insist that he assume the imperial title. Because of that, Murong Chui decided to follow the example of Emperor Zhongzong of Jin (Sima Rui), so he claimed the titles of Grand General, Grand Commander, and Prince of Yan, and he began making the necessary appointments, although he said that this was just for his personal command staff. But his subordinates all considered themselves his subjects, and they submitted petitions to him and he conferred appointments upon them just the same as an actual sovereign.


Emperor Yuan of Jin's (Sima Rui's) temple name was Zhongzong. The details of his declaring himself sovereign and setting up new authority are mentioned in Book 90, in the first year of Jianwu (317).

Murong Chui appointed his younger brother Murong De as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Fanyang. He appointed his nephew Murong Kai as Grand General Who Conquers The West and Prince of Taiyuan. He appointed Zhai Bin as Grand General Who Establishes Righteousness and Prince of Henan. He appointed Hae Yeoul as General Who Conquers The East, Marshal of the Left of his household, and King of Buyeo. He appointed Wei Ju as General of 鷹揚, and Murong Feng as General Who Establishes Planning.

By now, Murong Chui commanded an army of over two hundred thousand men. They departed from Shimen and crossed over the Yellow River again, marching hard towards Ye.


Murong De had originally been Prince of Fanyang under Yan, and so Murong Chui was restoring that title to him. Murong Kai was Murong Ke's son; since Murong Ke had been Prince of Taiyuan, the same title was now granted to his son to encourage him to live up to it.

General Who Establishes Righteousness was a title that Murong Chui had invented for the time being.


4. Murong Nong had gone to Lieren. He stopped to visit the home of the Wuhuan leader Lü Li. Lü Li offered him some cooked food, but Murong Nong laughed and did not eat it. Lü Li said to his wife, "惡奴 (Wife), this young fellow came to our poor home but did not eat. What do you make of it?"


Lü Li was of one of the Wuhuan tribes, and his home was at Lieren.

惡奴 is a saying. It is a way of addressing one's wife.

His wife replied, "This young fellow has heroic talent and grand ambitions. He did not come here for no reason, but must soon have something special planned, and he is not here just to eat and drink. You see how earnest he is; he must be making extraordinary preparations." Lü Li agreed.

Murong Nong said to Lü Li, "I wish to gather soldiers at Lieren to carry out the restoration. Will you follow me?"

Lü Li replied, "In life and death, young lord, I will follow you."


At that time, it was a common vulgar expression to address one's lord as 郎主 "young lord", or to address his son as 郎君 "young master".

Murong Nong then went to visit the Wuhuan leader Zhang Xiang, and said to him, "Our family and lord have already begun the great task. Zhai Bin and the others have all sworn themselves to him, and the call is going out near and far, so I have come to tell you about it."

Zhang Xiang responded to him, "Then I will follow the old master, and not shirk from duty or death!"

By such means did Murong Nong recruit all the families of Lieren as soldiers. They chopped down the mulberry trees to fashion weapons, and they cut up their skirts to use as banners. Murong Nong sent Zhao Qiu to speak to the Xiongnu leader Tuge Bicong. Other leaders, including Tuge Bosheng, Zhang Yan, Li Bai, Guo Chao, Yuhe of the eastern tribes, Chi Lei, and the Wuhuan leader, Liu Da of Yiyang, all came with their own thousands of men to join together with Murong Nong. Murong Nong appointed Zhang Xiang as General Who Upholds The State, he appointed Liu Da as General Who Maintains Distant Places, and he appointed Lü Li as General Who Establishes Might.


Regarding 襜裳 "skirts", the Erya dictionary states, "It is clothing that covers the front." And Guo Pu remarked, "It is clothing that covers the knees."

During Han, Yiyang County was part of the Zhao fief. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. The Old Book of Tang states, "Linming County in Tang's 洺州 Mingzhou was once known as Yiyang County. Its name was changed in Sui's sixth year of Kaihuang (586)."

Murong Nong then led his army to attack and capture Guantao, where they collected a stash of army weapons and materials. Meanwhile, he sent Lan Han, Duan Zan, Zhao Qiu, and Muyu Xi to deviously capture Tangtai and gather up several thousand horses there. This Lan Han was Murong Chui's uncle; this Duan Zan was Duan Cong's son. By the time the infantry and cavalry gathered together, the army had swelled to some tens of thousands. Zhang Xiang and the others all acclaimed Murong Nong as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander over the Hebei forces, Grand General of Valiant Cavalry, and overall leader of the other generals. Because of his talents, he was respected by all.


During Han, Guantao County was part of Wei commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary.

悕 is pronounced "xi (x-i)".

Northern Wei's Geographical Records states, "Kangtai Marsh is in Ping'en County in Guangping commandary." The Tongdian remarks, "To take something without principle is to be 略 devious."

Murong Nong was hesitant to grant titles or confer rewards on his own authority, before Murong Chui had returned first. Zhao Qiu said to him, "If the army is not given rewards, then the soldiers will not move. Everyone who has come here to join you hopes that we can achieve something quickly. You should go ahead and make appointments and grant rewards as you deem fit, in order to secure a firm base for the restoration, and that will make your achievement last for countless generations." Murong Nong follow this advice, and so everyone who had come to join him stuck by him. When Murong Chui heard of it, he approved.


Zhao Qiu was saying that if the soldiers were not rewarded for having answered the call to arms, they would not be willing to advance together and fight a battle.

From his central positions, Murong Nong sent out further calls to arms. To the west he beckoned Kuru Guanwei from Shangdang, to the east he summoned Qite Gui from Dong'a, to the north he called the General of Brilliant Ferocity, Ping Rui, and his elder brother, the Administrator of Ruyang, Ping You, from Yanguo. Kuru Guanwei and the others all agreed to follow him.


Some versions replace "from his central position" with "to the west".

The Ku in Kuru should actually be She; this applies wherever it appears from now on.

Murong Nong sent out messengers to meet with all of these people.

傉 is pronounced "nu (n-o)".

During Han, Dong'a County had been part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Jibei commandary, and during Tang, it was part of 濟州 Jizhou.

During Han and Jin, Ruyang County had been part of Runan commandary. It was later split off as its own Ruyang commandary. So Ping You must have been the first person to be Administrator of Ruyang, when he was residing in Yanguo.

Sheru Guanwei and the others were all former servants of Yan, and this is why they answered the call to arms. Ping Rui had originally been General of Brilliant Ferocity when he served Yan.

Murong Nong also sent Lan Han to attack Dunqiu, and Lan Han took it. Murong Nong issued orders for strict military discipline, and the army did not plunder the people, to their great relief.


During Han, Dunqiu County had been part of Dong commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), he split it off as Dunqiu commandary.

The text is saying that Murong Nong's army did not dare to plunder the people or take anything for themselves.


5. Fu Pi sent Shi Yue with more than ten thousand horse and foot to campaign against Murong Nong’s rebels. Murong Nong said, "Shi Yue is reputed to have cunning and heroism. But in coming here to fight us instead of guarding against the Prince's (Murong Chui’s) army coming up from the south, he shows that he fears the Prince but thinks little of me. He has certainly not prepared anything, so I aim to capture him."

There were many who asked Murong Nong to remain and defend Lieren. Murong Nong said, "When you command soldiers, your chief concern should be to keep together the soldiers, not anything else. Now we have risen up on behalf of righteousness, and the only thing we lack is an enemy to fight. We shall smash against our foes like a mountain stream flooding into a city. What good would it do just to remain at Lieren?"


異物 here means "any other thing" or object of concern.

On the day Xinmao (February 14th), Shi Yue arrived west of Lieren. Murong Nong sent Zhao Qiu and his advisor Qiwu Teng to attack Shi Yue’s vanguard, and they routed it. Another advisor, Zhao Qian of Taiyuan, then said to Murong Nong, "Although Shi Yue’s soldiers have exceptional arms and armor, his soldiers themselves are fearful and disturbed. We may easily rout them if we fiercely attack."


By this defeat, Shi Yue's spirit was already sapped.

Murong Nong said, "The enemy's armor is on the outside, but our armor is in our hearts. If we draw up for battle right away, our soldiers will see the enemy soldiers looking tough as wolves and become afraid of them. It would be better to wait until twilight and then attack, and then we may certainly be successful." So he ordered the soldiers to prepare defenses, and forbade any rash movements.


Murong Nong's soldiers had the desire for battle, and although they lacked armor or helmets, they marched into their fights bravely. This was why he said their armor was in their hearts.

Shi Yue set up barriers for his own defense. Murong Nong laughed at them and said to his generals, "Shi Yue commands these elite soldiers, but not only does he not attack us as soon as they arrive, but he even sets up these barriers. Now I know that he is incapable."

When dusk came, Murong Nong beat the drums and sounded the call to advance, and his soldiers formed up west of the city. Liu Mu of Yamen asked to lead the attack against Shi Yue's barriers. Murong Nong laughed and replied, "When someone sees a delicious morsel before them, who stops to ask first before gobbling it up? You are most fierce and dashing, so I leave the vanguard to you." Liu Mu then led four hundred braves to smash through the barricades, and they swept the Qin soldiers before them; Murong Nong then followed behind them with the main body. The Qin army was totally defeated, and Shi Yue was killed; his head was sent to Murong Chui.

Shi Yue and Mao Dang were both valiant generals of Qin, whom Fu Jian had sent to help defend vital places. Now that both had been defeated and killed, the people were greatly disturbed, and bandits and outlaws sprang up everywhere.


6. On the day Gengxu (March 4th), Murong Chui arrived at Ye. He declared that the reign era title was changed, from Qin's twentieth year of Jianyuan to Yan's first year. He began to assume all the imperial behaviors, as of old.

Murong Chui appointed the former Duke of Minshan, Kuru Guanwei, as Chief Clerk of the Left, and the 肖 of the Masters of Writing, Duan Chong, as Chief Clerk of the Right. He appointed Zheng Huo of Xingyang and others as 從事中郎s. Murong Nong led his troops to join with Murong Chui at Ye, and Murong Chui confirmed the titles that Murong Nong held by acclamation. Murong Chui appointed his eldest son Murong Bao as Crown Prince, and appointed seventeen other men as Princes, including his cousin Murong Ba, his nephew Yuwen Han, his brother-in-law Lan Shen, and others. He appointed the other members of his clan, as well as accomplished ministers, to other noble titles: there were thirty-seven Dukes, and eighty-nine Marquises, Earls, Counts, and Barons.


By "former", it means that these were ranks they held under Yan.

The text means the titles that Zhang Xiang and the others had all acclaimed Murong Nong as.

This Murong Han's name should be Murong Shu.

Kezuhun Tan gathered together over twenty thousand soldiers, and attacked Yewang, capturing it. He then led his soldiers to join the attack on Ye. Ping You and his brothers Ping Rui and Ping Gui also led their tens of thousands to join Murong Chui at Ye.


Murong Chui had sent Kezuhun Tan to gather soldiers at Shacheng in Henei, and this was why he had attacked and captured Yewang.


7. Fu Pi sent Jiang Rang to denounce Murong Chui. Jiang Rang said to Murong Chui, "You have gone this far, but you may yet change. It is not yet too late to go back."

Murong Chui replied, "I have received my lord's boundless grace, and it is only my desire that the Duke of Changle remain secure. You should send your whole host to join together with the army at the capital (Chang'an), and after I have accomplished the restoration of my state, Yan and Qin shall maintain friendly relations forever. Why look down upon this opportunity, and not allow me to return to Ye? If you continue on your current path, and try to oppose me with such weak soldiers, I am afraid that you will not even be able to find a single horse to use to save your life."

Jiang Rang replied with outraged countenance, "General, I see that you felt you were too good for our state, since you have cast aside orders from the court. What makes you think you can lay claim to even a single inch of Yan territory? General, when you came to Qin, our lord had nothing in common with you. You were neither of the same people as him, nor did the same wind blow on both your homes. Yet even so, he admired you from first sight, and you were like family to him. He favored you as though you were one of his oldest followers. It has always been the principle that lord and minister share good times and bad together, and what minister has been treated as well as you have? Yet, after our lord’s army has suffered a minor setback, in a single day you hatched this wild scheme. Furthermore, the Duke of Changle is our lord's firstborn son, and he has been entrusted to defend this place of danger. Is he to simply fold his hands and surrender all the cities of this place to you, General? You just want to ‘tear the cap and break the crown’ so you can increase your own power. What more need be said? But it is too bad for you, General. By the time you are seventy, ‘your head will hang before the white banner’. Though you served loyally in life, in death you will be a treasonous spirit! " To these charges, Murong Chui could make no reply.


By the "same people and same wind" phrasing, Jiang Rang was pointing out that the Di people were from Guanxi, while the Xianbei were from Guandong, and so not only were they different peoples, but their regions were far apart enough that the same wind did not blow through both of them.

"Tear the cap and break the crown" refers to a story from the Zuo Commentary. There was an incident when the state of Jin sent the Yin-Rong tribes to attack Ying. King Jing of Zhou sent Huanbo of Zhan to remonstrate with Jin. Huanbo addressed Duke Hui of Jin on behalf of King Jing: "Uncle, I am to you as the cap or crown is to the other garments, as the root is to the tree, or the spring is to the stream, as their counsellor is to the people. Uncle, if you tear the cap and break the crown in pieces, tear up the root, stop up the spring, and take it on you to cast the counsellor away, then though you have the Rong and the Di, what other fellow will support you?" (Zhao 9)

When King Wu of Zhou beheaded King Zhou of Shang, he hung King Zhou's head in front of a great white banner.

Murong Chui felt guilt in his heart because of Jiang Rang's blunt words, and that was why it says he made no response to them.

Those around Murong Chui asked him to kill Jiang Rang, but Murong Chui said, "Each of us is only advocating for our own lords. What is his crime?" He treated Jiang Rang well and sent him back to Fu Pi.

Murong Chui sent letters to Fu Pi and Fu Jian defending his actions, and asking that Fu Pi be sent back to Chang'an. But these letters only enraged Fu Jian and Fu Pi, and they sent back strong condemnations.


8. Jin's General of 鷹揚, Liu Laozhi, attacked Qin's city of Qiao, and took it. Huan Chong sent the Administrator of Shangyong, Guo Bao, to attack Qin's cities Weixing, Shangyong, and Xincheng, and Guo captured all of them. General Yang Quanqi then advanced to seize Chenggu, where he attacked Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Pan Meng, and drove him off. This Yang Quanqi was the son of Yang Liang.


Yang Liang was last mentioned in the previous book, Book 104, in the second year of Taiyuan (377.6; he was first mentioned in 370.17).


9. On the day Renzi (March 6th), Murong Chui attacked Ye. He captured the outlying suburbs, but Fu Pi fell back to defend the inner city. All of the commandaries and counties of the six provinces of Guandong offered their submission to Yan. On the day Guichou (March 7th), Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Chenliu, Murong Shao, as Inspector of Jizhou, and he camped at Guang'a.


During Former Han, Guang'a County was part of Julu commandary, and during Later Han it was combined with Julu County. There is a Guang'a Marsh within Julu County, which is also called Daling Marsh.


10. When Huan Chong heard of the success of Xie Xuan and the others at Fei River, he was at a loss for words, and he became ill because of his deep shame and self-loathing. In the second month, on the day Xinsi (April 4th), he died. He was posthumously titled Duke Xuanmu of Fengcheng.

The court wished to appoint Xie Xuan as Inspector of Jingzhou and Jiangzhou. But Xie An knew that he and his relatives had all gained a great deal of power and reputation, and he feared that the Huan clan would resent their lost influence. To appease them, he appointed the Administrator of Liangjun, Huan Shimin, as the new Inspector of Jingzhou, the Administrator of Hedong, Huan Shiqian, as the new Inspector of Yuzhou, and the current Inspector of Yuzhou, Huan Yin, as the new Inspector of Jiangzhou.


He felt shame because of his "we shall all be buttoning our garments on the left soon!" comment and his sense of defeatism before that battle.

桓車騎在上明畋獵。東信至,傳淮上大捷。語左右云:「群謝年少,大破賊。」因發病薨。談者以為此死,賢於讓揚之荊。(New Tales 33.16)

Huan Chong was hunting at Shangming when a letter from the east arrived, relating the news of the great victory on the Huai River. Speaking to his attendants, Huan Chong said, "The striplings of the Xie family (Xie Xuan and Xie Shi) have roundly defeated the rebels." Whereupon he took sick and passed away.

Conversationalists considered this death to have been a more worthy act than his yielding of the governorship of Yangzhou to Xie An (in 375), or his going to Jingzhou (in 377). (tr. Richard Mather)


11. Murong Chui sent over twenty thousand of the Dingling and Wuhuan to assault Ye using flying ladders and tunnels, but they could not capture the city. So Murong Chui built long siege works around the city, and sent his old and weak men to Feixiang. He raised a fort at Xinxing to guard his baggage train.


According to the Records of Jin, Feixiang County was part of Guangping commandary. The Book of Northern Wei states, "At the beginning of the Tianping era (534), Feixiang was merged with Linzhang County in Wei commandary." Sui split Feixiang County off again, and during Tang it was part of 洺州 Mingzhou.


12. Qin's staff advisor of the General Who Conquers The East, Guo Tai, had once been a minister of Yan, and he felt conflicted. Because he was afraid, he fled back to Bohai with the 虞曹從事 Wu Shao, who was from the same commandary as him. Wu Shao said, "The Yan army is nearby at Feixiang. We should join them."

Guo Tai replied, "I only wish to avoid disaster; I can neither go to one lord nor serve the other!"

When Shen Shao saw it, he lamented, "So that is the path he has taken. He could truly be called a superior man!"


At this time, Fu Pi was Grand General Who Conquers The East, so Guo Tai was part of his staff. But Guo Tai had originally held office under Yan, and Murong Chui had made him a 從事中郎.

The 虞曹從事s of Fu Pi's staff as General were responsible for the mountains and marshes. Guo Tai and Wu Shao were both from Bohai commandary.


13. Yan's Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, attacked Qin's city of Fangtou, and took it. He left a garrison there and returned.


14. Wang Yan of Donghu seized Guantao and expressed his support for the Qin loyalists in Ye. He gathered an army of those Xianbei, Wuhuan, and people of the various commandaries and counties who refused to obey the Yan army, and they set up fortifications and defense works. Murong Chui sent the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Kai, and the General Who Guards The South and Prince of Chenliu, Murong Shao, to campaign against this threat.

Murong Kai said to Murong Shao, "The Xianbei, Wuhuan, and people of Jizhou all once served Yan. It is merely that we have only just set out on realizing the restoration of Yan, and the hearts of the people are not yet been settled; this is why they are suspicious of us. We must display our virtue, and not cause their trembling to increase. I will halt at a certain place, and secure the army, while you go patrol among the people and the tribes so as to comfort them. Express to them our righteousness, and then they will certainly follow us."

So Murong Kai camped at Piyang, while Murong Shao led several hundred riders to speak to Wang Yan, and convince him to turn disaster into fortune. Wang Yan went with Murong Shao and surrendered himself to Murong Kai, and the Xianbei, Wuhuan, and other people all surrendered as well, numbers in the hundreds of thousands. Murong Kai left the old and weak soldiers behind, in order to comfort and console the people, while he set out with more than a hundred thousand of the strong ones, and returned to Ye with Wang Tao. Murong Chui was very pleased, and said, "How skilled you brothers are in both military and civil affairs! You are worthy to carry on your father’s legacy!"


The 地理風俗記 states, "Piyang Point is sixty li southwest of Guangchuan; it is also the name of a county. Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) gave it to Shen Shiqi as his marquisate." Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "The city of Piyang is in Xindu County in Changle commandary."


15. In the third month, Jin's Guard General, Xie An, was appointed as Grand Guardian.


16. When Qin's Chief Clerk of Beidi, Murong Hong, heard of Murong Chui's attack on Ye, he wished to return to Guandong. So he gathered together the Xianbei of the area under him, some thousands of them. They marched to camp at Huayin, where they defeated the Jin general Qiang Yong, and further augmented their numbers. Murong Hong declared himself the Commander of Shanxi military affairs, Grand General, Governor of Yongzhou, and Prince of Jibei. He acclaimed Murong Chui as Prime Minister, Commander of 陝東 Shandong affairs, acting Grand Marshal, Governor of Jizhou, and Prince of Wu.


17. Fu Jian said to Quan Yi, "I did not use your advice before, and now the Xianbei are stirred up like this. We have enough trouble considering regaining Guandong; what are we to do now about Murong Hong?" So he appointed the Duke of Guangping, Fu Xi, as Inspector of Yongzhou, and had him guard Puban. The 征 Governor of Yongzhou and Duke of Julu, Fu Rui, was appointed Commander of all military affairs, Grand Guard General, and chief of the imperial secretariat, and given command of fifty thousand soldiers. Fu Jian appointed the General of the Left, Dou Chong, as Chief Clerk, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Yao Chang, as Marshal, and he sent them to fight Murong Hong as well.


Quan Yi had warned Fu Jian not to let Murong Chui go away.


18. Qin’s Administrator of Pingyang, Murong Chong, also raised troops in rebellion at Pingyang, and he commanded some twenty thousand. He advanced and attacked Puban. Fu Jian sent Dou Chong to campaign against him.


19. Kuru Guanwei led his soldiers, tens of thousands of men from various camps, to Murong Chui’s siege lines at Ye. Murong Chui appointed him as Prince of Anding.


20. Qin's Inspector of Jizhou and Marquis of Fucheng, Fu Ding, guarded Xindu. The Baron of Gaocheng, Fu Shao, was at Qiguo. The Marquis of Gaoyi, Fu Liang, and the Marquis of Chonghe, Fu Mo, guarded Changshan. The Marquis of Gu'an, Fu Jiann, guarded Zhongshan. Fu Ding and Fu Jiann were Fu Jian's uncles; Fu Shao and Fu Mo were his cousins; Fu Liang was his nephew.

Murong Chui sent his General of the Front and Prince of Lelang, Murong Wen, to lead an army to attack Xindu, but Murong Wen could not capture it. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Bingchen (May 9th), Murong Chui sent his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, Lin Yi, to provide reinforcements. This Murong Wen was Murong Chui's nephew.


Gaocheng County was part of Bohai commandary. During Tang, it was Yanshan County in 滄州 Cangzhou.


21. When Murong Hong heard that Qin soldiers were approaching, he was afraid, and he led his soldiers to hurry towards Guandong.

Fu Rui thought that Murong Hong’s men were so much rabble, and he wished to rush his own troops forward to intercept them. Yao Chang remonstrated with him, saying, “The only thing that the Xianbei wish to do is to return home, and that is why they are in such a mad rush. You ought to harry them from behind and chase them out of Guanxi, but on no account should you try to intercept their march. If you catch a shrew by its tail, it can still turn around and bite you. If you force the enemy into a tough spot, they will fight us to the death, and if that battle goes against us, it will be too late for regrets! But if we merely raise a cry and drive them before us, they will be too busy fleeing to bother with us." But Fu Rui did not heed his advice.

Fu Rui fought against the Xianbei at Hua Marsh, but he was defeated and killed by Murong Hong. Fu Rui was posthumously titled Duke Min of Julu.


The shrew is called the "sweet-mouth mouse", for it does not hurt when it bites you. The Erya dictionary states, "It has a poisonous sting."

If Fu Rui had listened to Yao Chang's advice, then Murong Hong would certainly have fled east, and Murong Chong would have not been able to recover from his defeat mentioned later on, so he certainly would have been captured.

Hua Marsh was also called Huayin Marsh.

Yao Chang sent his Chief Clerk, Zhao Du, and his advisor Jiang Xie to report to Fu Jian and beg forgiveness for his crime, but Fu Jian was enraged when he heard what had happened, and he killed both of them. Yao Chang then feared for his own life, and he fled north of the Wei River to Mamu.


Mamu ("horse shephard") was a place for shepherding horses. It was Muyuan during Han.

Then Yin Wei and Yin Xiang of Tianshui, Pang Yan of Nan’an, and others gathered together the people of the Qiang, and led their people and households to join Yao Chang, over fifty thousand families altogether. They acclaimed Yao Chang as their leader. Yao Chang then declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Ten Thousand Year Qin. He declared a general amnesty, and proclaimed his own reign year era of Baique. He appointed Yin Xiang and Pang Yan as his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right. He appointed Yao Guang of Nan'an and Yin Wei as his Marshals of the Left and Right. He appointed the Di leader, Bo Zhi of Tianshui, and others as his 從事中郎s, and Qiang Xun and others as his 掾屬. He appointed Wang Ju and others as his army advisors, and Wang Qinlu, Yao Fangcheng, and others as his army commanders.


Sima Guang comments in his Tongjian Notes, "Since these two states existed concurrently, from this point on, I refer to Yao Chang's forces as Later Qin."


22. Dou Chong attacked Murong Chong at Hedong, and greatly routed him. Murong Chong fled with eight thousand Xianbei cavalry to join Murong Hong.

By now, Murong Hong had over a hundred thousand soldiers. He sent word to Fu Jian saying, "The Prince of Wu (Murong Chui) has already settled Guandong, and is now preparing an imperial carriage. You should send us my elder brother and Emperor, and I shall lead all the Yan troops of Guanzhong to escort him back to our capital at Ye. Then we will set our border with Qin at Hulao, and we shall be good neighbors forever."


Murong Wei was Murong Hong's elder brother.

Fu Jian was furious, and summoned Murong Wei to blame him for everything, saying, "See what Murong Hong has written me! You are the one who wishes to escape, since you think you can put yourself on equal stature with me. This is the brutish nature of you and your clan. You will not divide the state!" Murong Wei knocked his head on the ground until blood flowed, tearfully begging forgiveness. At length, Fu Jian said, "This is the fault of your three minions, but you have done nothing wrong." So he restored Murong Wei’s position, treating him like before.


The three minions were Murong Chui, Murong Hong, and Murong Chong.

Fu Jian ordered Murong Wei to convey his instructions to Murong Hong, Murong Chong, and Murong Chui. But Murong Wei secretly wrote to Murong Hong saying, "I am already a prisoner caged, and there is no means for my escape. I am the criminal responsible for bringing Yan’s royal family to ruin, and I am not worthy of leading its revival. You must strive to complete the great endeavor. The Prince of Wu shall be Prime Minister, and the Prince of Zhongshan shall be Grand Governor and acting Grand Marshal. You yourself may be Grand General and acting Minister Over The Masses. Wield authority as you will. Once you hear of my death, then ascend the throne yourself."

Murong Hong then began advancing towards Chang'an, and styled his reign year era as Yanxing.


Murong Wei was unable to protect Yan from being conquered, so he called himself a criminal.


23. Murong Chui believed that Ye would be difficult to capture, so he held a meeting with his subordinates to discuss their next move. His Marshal of the Right, Feng Heng, suggested diverting the Zhang River to form a moat around the city, and Murong Chui agreed.


Feng Heng suggested the same plan that Cao Cao used when he took Ye (204.D in To Establish Peace).

Murong Chui left his siege lines and went to the Hualin Gardens to forage. The people of Qin secretly sent out soldiers to attack him by surprise, and volleys of arrows descended like rain. Murong Chui tried to leave several times but could not get out. Then Murong Long cut a way through with his cavalry, and so Murong Chui was eventually able to get out.


Both Luoyang and Ye had Hualin Gardens. The ones at Ye were all built by Wu of Wei (Cao Cao).


24. Jin's Administrator of Jingling, Zhao Tong, attacked Xiangyang. Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Dou Gui, fled to Luyang.


25. In the fifth month, Qin's Inspector of Luozhou, Zhang Wuhu, seized Fengyang and then surrendered to Jin.


26. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Yang Liang, led fifty thousand troops into Shu. He sent the Administrator of Baxi, Fei Tong, and others to advance on land and sea with thirty thousand soldiers as the vanguard. Yang Liang camped at Ba. Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Guang, sent Qin's Administrator of Baxi, Kang Hui, and others to oppose the invasion.


The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 康 Kang comes from the western Hu."


27. Qin's Fu Ding and Fu Shao both surrendered to Yan. Murong Lin led troops west to attack Changshan.


Fu Ding surrendered Xindu, and Fu Shao surrendered Gaocheng. Fu Mo was guarding Changshan.


28. Yao Chang, now the ruler of Later Qin, advanced to camp at Beidi. The Qiang and other tribes from the regions of Huayin, Beidi, Xinping, and Anding all went over to him, more than a hundred thousand in number.


The text records Yao Chang as the ruler of Later Qin, as opposed to the Fu clan's Qin (or Former Qin).


29. In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Guichou (July 5th), Jin's Empress Dowager Chongde, Lady Chu, passed away.


30. Fu Jian led twenty thousand horse and foot to attack the Later Qin army. His army marched to Zhaoshiwu. Fu Jian sent his General Who Protects The Army, Yang Bi, and others to all attack the Later Qin army from along different roads. The Later Qin army suffered several defeats, and their General Who Guards The Army, Yao Chang's younger brother Yao Yinmai, was killed.


According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Zhaoshiwu ("Zhao Clan's Fort") was at Beidi.

The Later Qin camp had no access to wells, and the Qin soldiers blocked access to Angong Valley or the Tongguan river. The Later Qin soldiers were nervous and frightened, and many died of thirst. Suddenly there was a great storm from the heavens, and three chi of rain fell directly onto the Later Qin camp, while little more than a cun of rain fell anywhere else within a hundred paces around the camp. This helped to restore the Later Qin soldiers' morale. Fu Jian lamented, "Even Heaven has blessed the rebels!"


Angong Valley and the Tongguan River are both within modern Yaozhou. According to Wei Shou's Geographical Records, there was a Tongguan County in Beidi commandary, which was created in the seventh year of Taipingzhenjun (446). The Tongdian states, "Tongguan County was originally Han's Duiyu County, and Jin's Pinyang County. Former Qin split off the part of Pinyang north of the Tongguan River as Tongguan Defense Post, and Northern Wei's Emperor Taiwu removed its defense post status and made it into Tongguan County. Later Zhou's Emperor Wu moved it to its current location. From Sui onwards, it has only been called Tongguan."

Heaven did not help Qin because it did not want Qin to rise again.


31. Murong Hong's advisor, Gao Gai, plotted with several others against him. They felt that Murong Hong was not as virtuous as Murong Chong, and that he was too harsh in enforcing the law. So they killed Murong Hong, and set up Murong Chong as the Imperial Younger Brother. Murong Chong wielded authority, and appointed officials as he would. Gao Gai was appointed Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Yao Chang sent his son Yao Song in order to arrange for peaceful relations between himself and Murong Chong.


Yao Chong wished to use his soldiers to destroy Qin, but he feared that Murong Chong's soldiers were stronger than his.


32. The Jin general Liu Chun attacked Luyang. Dou Gui fled back to Chang'an.


33. Yao Chang led seventy thousand Later Qin soldiers to attack Qin. Fu Jian sent Yang Bi and others to oppose them, but they were all defeated by Yao Chang. Yao Chang captured Yang Bi, the General of the Right, Xu Cheng, the General Who Guards The Army, Mao Sheng, and several dozen others. He treated them well and sent them back to Fu Jian.


34. Murong Lin captured Changshan; Fu Liang and Fu Mo surrendered to him. Murong Lin then advanced to besiege Zhongshan. In autumn, the seventh month, he took it, and captured Fu Jiann. Murong Lin spread word of his might to bolster morale. He remained at Zhongshan.


All of Jizhou thus came under Yan's control, except for Fu Pi at Ye.


35. Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, and Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, led the soldiers of their two provinces to attack Yan. Murong Chui sent his General of 平朔 (or 寧朔), Ping Gui, to attack Wang Yong. Wang Yong sent the Administrator of Changli, Song Chang, to launch a counterattack at Fanyang. But Song Chang's soldiers were defeated, and Ping Gui advanced and seized everything south of Ji.


Some versions write Ping Gui's title as General of 寧朔 instead of General of 平朔.

This Ping Gui is the one mentioned above in 384.6, who joined Yan along with his older brother Ping You. He is not the same Ping Gui who rebelled against Qin along with Fu Luo in Book 104, in 380.3-5.


36. Fu Hui led the seventy thousand Qin soldiers in Luoyang and Shancheng back to Chang'an.


36.5 Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Guang, sent his general Wang Qiu to lead thirty thousand soldiers from Shu north to relieve Chang'an.


Some versions include this passage here.


37. When Fu Jian heard that Murong Chong was approaching near to Chang'an, he led his own troops back there. He sent his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Gaoyang, Fu Fang, to defend Lishan. He appointed Fu Hui as Commander of all army forces, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and chief of the imperial secretariat, and Fu Hui was given fifty thousand soldiers to oppose Murong Chong. Murong Chong and Fu Hui battled at Zhangxi, where Fu Hui was greatly routed. Fu Jian then sent his General of the Front, Jiang Yu, and his young son, the Duke of Hejian, Fu Lin, to lead thirty thousand soldiers to stop Murong Chong at Bashang. But Fu Lin and Jiang Yu were both defeated and killed, and Murong Chong then occupied Epang Palace.


Fu Jian returned from Zhaoshiwu at Beidi in order to come back to protect Chang'an from Murong Chong's advance. Fu Jian and Yao Chang had been locked in stalemate, and the victor between them had not yet been determined. But since Murong Chong was threatening Chang'an, Fu Jian had no choice but to return there, and so Yao Chang was able to secure everything north of the mountain ranges. While Fu Jian and Murong Chong were locked in their bloody struggle, Yao Chang was able to remain a mere observer. And after Fu Jian's death and the Xianbei's departure to the east, Yao Chang became master of Guanzhong. This is similar to how people say when the snipe and the clam are at a stalemate, then they become the fisherman's profit (because the fisherman can overcome them both with little effort on his part).

Some versions say that Fu Fang was "Duke of Gaoyang".

驪 is pronounced "li (l-i)".

Epang was the palace built by Qin Shihuang of the Qin dynasty.


38. In Shu, the Qin general Kang Hui was defeated by the invading Jin army, and he retreated back to Chengdu. Qin’s Administrator of Zitong, Lei Xi, surrendered his city of Fu to Jin.


This success was by Jin's western prong of invasion. The Registry of Surnames states, "In the 後趙錄 there is a Lei Cheng, originally of the Pei clan."

Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Shimin, captured Luyang, and he sent the Administrator of Henan, Gao Mao, north to camp at Luoyang.


This was Jin's central prong of invasion, out of Xiangyang and Mianbei.


39. On the day Jiyou (August 30th), the late Empress Dowager Kangxian of Jin (Lady Chu) was buried at Chongping Tomb.


40. Among Murong Chui’s generals, Zhai Bin became arrogant and boastful because of his achievements, and he constantly made shameless demands. After he arrived at Ye, it was not long before he seemed to harbor divided loyalties.

Murong Chui's Crown Prince, Murong Bao, asked for Murong Chui to get rid of Zhai Bin. But Murong Chui said, "We all formed an alliance together in Henan, and I cannot cast it off so easily. If there is anyone who must be seen as to blame for rupturing the alliance, it must be Zhai Bin himself. If I were to kill him now, before he has actually done anything, people will say that I only feared him because of his achievements and ability. The people that have submitted to me on account of our grand endeavor will not believe in me any longer if I seem to be such a petty person, and I will lose my hopes for gaining the realm. If he really is plotting something, I shall surely know how to guard against it, and he will not be able to accomplish anything."


Zhai Bin had led his troops to join together with Murong Chui at Luoyang, and they formed an alliance under Murong Chui's leadership. This was in Henan County.

Murong De, Murong Shao, and Murong Nong all said, "Zhai Bin and his brothers have grown proud because of their achievements. They will certainly threaten the state."

Murong Chui replied, "Pride comes before the fall. What need is there to fear disaster? They will not accomplish anything, but only bring ruin down upon themselves." So he continued to treat Zhai Bin with courtesy and respect.


41. Zhai Bin incited the Dingling and his other partisans into demanding that Murong Chui appoint Zhai Bin as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Murong Chui said, "Prince Zhai's accomplishments have done much to uphold the state, of course. But before the edifice of government has actually been set up, there can be no premature talk of offices."

Zhai Bin was angry, and he secretly communicated with Former Qin's Fu Pi, plotting to send the Dingling to burst the dyke and disperse the water around Ye. But his plot was discovered, and Murong Chui executed Zhai Bin and his younger brothers Zhai Tan and Zhai Min. All the rest were pardoned.


Sima Guang's Tongjian Notes states, "Regarding the affairs of the original Qin, the one ruled by the Fu clan, the text calls it Qin." This "Former Qin" is redundant.

Murong Chui had diverted the waters of the Zhang River to make a moat around Ye. Zhai Bin's plan was to break the dam that Murong Chui had created so the river waters would disperse.

Zhai Bin's nephew Zhai Zhen fled the Yan camp at night with his men, riding north to Handan. He gathered more soldiers there and returned to the siege lines at Ye, wishing to coordinate with Fu Pi for a mutual attack against Murong Chui. Murong Bao and Murong Long attacked and routed him, and Zhai Zhen fled back to Handan.


42. Murong Kai and Murong Shao said to Murong Chui, "The Dingling have no great ambitions, but only seek to stir up trouble. They are quick to assemble together to invade, but they will soon disperse again. If we attack them after they have all scattered, we cannot fail to win." Murong Chui agreed.


43. In the Western Reaches, the King of Kucha, Bochun, found himself hard pressed by Lü Guang’s invasion, so he paid the state of Gaihu to come to his aid. The King of Gaihu sent his younger brother Nielong and his Marquis-General Kui to lead over two hundred thousand cavalry to reinforce Kucha. He also had Wensu, Weitou, and other states to come to Kucha's aid, and they jointly sent over seven hundred thousand soldiers in relief. Lü Guang fought with them west of the city, and completely routed them. Bochun fled, while the kings and nobles of over thirty states surrendered. After Lü Guang entered the city, he saw that the markets were set up like those of Chang'an, and the palace was most exceptional. Lü Guang nurtured and settled the Western Reaches, and all bowed to his might and his grace. Many distant states, even ones never known by past ages, all came in submission to him, and they handed over the staffs of authority they had once been given by the Han dynasty. Lü Guang exchanged them all, and he appointed Bochun's younger brother Bozhen as the new King of Kucha.


Gaihu was a state west of Kuchu. Yang Zhengheng remarked, "獪 is pronounced 'gai (g-ai)'."

Nielong and Kui were people. Marquis-General was a title. During the Han era, the states of the Western each had the titles Marquis Who Supports The State, Marquis Who Maintains The State, and Generals of the Left and Right. Later on, these offices were all merged into the single office of Marquis-General. 吶 is pronounced "nie (n-ie)" or "nu (n-u)". 馗 is pronounced "kui (q-ui)".

The name of the state Weitou should be Weixu.

二十年五月,帛純乃傾國財寶,請救于獪胡,獪胡王遣弟吶龍侯將馗率騎二十餘萬救之。胡便弓馬,善矛槊,鎧如連鎖,射不可入,乃以草索為羂,策馬擲人,多有中者。衆甚憚之。姑默,宿尉頭等國及諸胡內外七十萬人,光遷營相接陣,為勾鎖之法,精騎為遊軍彌縫其闕。秋七月,戰於城西,大敗之,帛純逃奔,王侯降者三十餘國。光入其城,城有三重,廣輪與長安城等。城中塔廟千數,帛純宮室壯麗,煥若神居。胡人奢侈,富于生養,家有蒲桃酒,至千斛,經十年不敗。士卒淪沒酒藏者相繼。諸國貢款屬路,立帛純弟震為王以安之。光撫寧西域,威恩甚著。(16K 10.2)

In the fifth month of the twentieth year (384), Bochun feared for his state and so offered bribes and treasures, asking for aid from Kuaihu. The king of Kuaihu sent his younger brother Nalong and his Marquis-General Kui with more than two hundred thousand cavalry to come to Kucha's rescue. These tribesmen were adept in mounted archery, and skilled with the lance and spear. They wore armor that was linked together, and arrows could not pierce it. They used leather cords as snares, and cast them at men from horses, with most being caught in this fashion. The army was greatly afraid of them. Gumo (Aksu), Suweitou, and other states and barbarians from near and far sent men, seven hundred thousand altogether.

Lü Guang moved his camps to form a tighter defense formation, in the arrangement of a interlocking chain. He kept his elite cavalry as a mobile reserve, to plug any gaps that might form. In autumn, the seventh month, the two sides fought a battle west of the city. Lü Guang greatly defeated them. Bochun fled the city, and the other kings and marquises surrendered, from more than thirty states.

When Lü Guang entered the city, he saw that it had three great thoroughfares, with wide wheels like in Chang'an and other cities. There were more than a thousand Buddhist pagodas in the city, and Bochun's palace was very ostentatious, shining like the residence of a divinity. The barbarians who lived there were very extravagant, and they had abundant things for enjoying themselves. The families had grape wine. Some had as many as a thousand 斛 of this wine, and would not have exhausted it even after ten years. There were many soldiers who drowned themselves on wine. The various states filled the roads with tributes and funds, so Lü Guang appointed Bochun's younger brother Zhen as King in order to settle them. Lü Guang nurtured and calmed the Western Reaches, and he was full of both might and grace.

又進攻龜茲城,夜夢金象飛越城外。光曰:「此謂佛神去之,胡必亡矣。」光攻城既急,帛純乃傾國財寶請救獪胡。獪胡弟呐龍、侯將馗率騎二十餘萬,並引溫宿、尉頭等國王,合七十餘萬以救之。胡便弓馬,善矛槊,鎧如連鎖,射不可入,以革索為羂,策馬擲人,多有中者。眾甚憚之。諸將咸欲每營結陣,案兵以距之。光曰:「彼眾我寡,營又相遠,勢分力散,非良策也。」於是遷營相接陣,為勾鎖之法,精騎為遊軍,彌縫其闕。戰於城西,大敗之,斬萬餘級。帛純收其珍寶而走,王侯降者三十餘國。光入其城,大饗將士,賦詩言志。見其宮室壯麗,命參軍京兆段業著《龜茲宮賦》以譏之。胡人奢侈,厚於養生,家有蒲桃酒,或至千斛,經十年不敗,士卒淪沒酒藏者相繼矣。諸國憚光威名,貢款屬路,乃立帛純弟震為王以安之。光撫寧西域,威恩甚著,桀黠胡王昔所未賓者,不遠萬里皆來歸附,上漢所賜節傳,光皆表而易之。(Jinshu 122.7)

Lü Guang advanced and attacked the walls of Kucha. At night, he dreamed that a golden image flew out of the city. Lü Guang said, "This means that the spirit of the Buddha has left them. Now the barbarians' defeat is certain."

Because of the ferocity of Lü Guang's assault, Bochun feared that the city would fall, so he sent bribes and treasures to ask for help from Kuaihu. Kuaihu's younger brother Nalong and his Marquis-General Kui led more than two hundred cavalry, and they joined together with Wensu, Weitou, and the kings of other states. Combined, they led more than seven hundred thousand men to rescue Kucha. These tribesmen were adept in mounted archery, and skilled with the lance and spear. They wore armor that was linked together, and arrows could not pierce it. They used leather cords as snares, and cast them at men from horses, with most being caught in this fashion. The army was greatly afraid of them.

Lü Guang's generals all wished to combine all the camps into formation, to rest the soldiers and oppose the enemy. But Lü Guang said, "They are many and we few, and the camps are all relatively far apart. It would be no fine plan for us to divide our strength in that way." So he moved the camps to form a tighter defense formation, in the arrangement of a interlocking chain. He kept his elite cavalry as a mobile reserve, to plug any gaps that might form. The two sides fought a battle west of the city, and Lü Guang greatly defeated them, taking more than ten thousand heads. Bochun gathered his treasures in the city and fled, and the other kings and marquises surrendered to Lü Guang, from more than thirty states.

When Lü Guang entered the city, he held a great feast for his officers and men, and composed Fu poetry expressing his ambition. When Lü Guang saw how ostentatious the palace was, he ordered his advisor, Duan Ye of Jingzhao, to compose a "Ode to the Palace of Kucha" mocking it. The barbarians living there were very extravagant; they were generous in supplying their lives, and the families had grape wine. Some had as many as a thousand 斛 of this wine, and would not have exhausted it even after ten years. There were many soldiers who drowned themselves on wine. Many of the states feared Lü Guang's martial reputation, and the roads were full of tribute and funds, so Lü Guang appointed Bochun's younger brother Bozhen as King in order to settle them. Lü Guang nurtured and calmed the Western Reaches, and he was full of both might and grace. Even the cruel and cunning barbarian kings who had never before hosted anyone submitted, and everyone within ten thousand li came in submission to him. Lü Guang accepted the staffs of authority that the Han dynasty had once given these states and exchanged them with new ones.


44. In the eighth month, Zhai Zhen fled north from Handan. Murong Chui sent Murong Kai and Murong Nong to pursue him with cavalry. On the day Jiayin (September 4th), they caught up with him at Xiayi. Murong Kai wished to fight, but Murong Nong said, "Our soldiers are hungry and tired, and we have not yet spotted the enemy camp's best warriors. Zhai Zhen must have laid an ambush." Murong Kai did not heed him, and advanced to battle; the Yan soldiers suffered a serious defeat. Zhai Zhen then fled further north to Zhongshan, and he camped at Chengying.


Some versions add that Murong Kai and Murong Nong caught up with Zhai Zhen "on the day Jiayin".

When you only see a small force with weak soldiers in view, there must be an ambush in place. Although everyone knows this, charging in among the enemy without thinking has been the ruin of many an army.


45. The grain supplies in Ye ran low, and Fu Pi’s men began to chop down the pine trees to use as fodder for the horses. Murong Chui said to his generals, "Fu Pi is now in dire straits, but even so he will never surrender. It would be best for us to fall back to camp at Xincheng, and permit Fu Pi to escape along the western road. By doing so, I can repay Fu Jian's grace from the time I served under him, and at the same time take the opportunity to campaign against Zhai Zhen." On the night of Bingyin, Murong Chui’s army lifted the siege and moved to Xincheng.


This was the Xinxing in Feixiang.

Murong Chui sent Murong Nong to capture Qinghe and Taiyuan, and then handle the taxes and levies in that region. Murong Nong kept his men restrained, and he requisitioned no more than needed. His commands were disciplined and strict, and there were no instances of intrusion or violence. Thus, along all the valley roads he passed through, his army was granted ample provisions.


46. On the day Wuyin (September 28th), Chi Yin, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wenmu of Nanchang.


47. Xie An sent in a memorial stating that in light of the Fu clan's many defeats, an effort should be undertaken to recover the Central Plains. He appointed the Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Xie Xuan, as Vanguard Commander, and he sent the Inspector of Yuzhou, Huan Shiqian, and others to campaign against Qin. When Xie Xuan reached Xiapi, Qin's Inspector of Xuzhou, Zhao Qian, abandoned Pengcheng and fled, so Xie Xuan advanced and retook Pengcheng.


This was Jin's wesrern invasion prong, north from the Huai and Si Rivers.


48. When Fu Jian heard that Lü Guang had pacified the Western Reaches, he appointed Lü Guang as Commander of all forces west of Yumen Pass and Colonel of the Western Reaches. But the roads were blocked, and the commission could not get to him.

秦以光為使持節、散騎常侍、都督玉門已西諸軍事、安西將軍、西域校尉,進封順鄉侯。(16K 10.2)

Qin appointed Lü Guang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass, General Who Maintains The West, and Colonel of the Western Reaches, and Du Jin was appointed as Marquis of Shunxiang.

堅聞光平西域,以為使持節、散騎常侍、都督玉門已西諸軍事,安西將軍、西域校尉,道絕不通。(Jinshu 122.8)

When Fu Jian heard that Lü Guang had pacified the Western Reaches, he appointed Lü Guang as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Cavalier in Regular Attendance, Commander of military affairs west of Yumen Pass, General Who Maintains The West, and Colonel of the Western Reaches. But the roads were blocked, and the commission could not get through.


49. Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, asked for aid from Qin's General of 振威, Liu Kuren. Liu Kuren sent his brother-in-law, Gongsun Xi, to lead three thousand cavalry as reinforcements. They routed Murong Chui’s general Ping Gui south of Ji, and as they pursued him, they advanced and captured Tangcheng. From there, they maintained a stalemate with Murong Lin.


Before now, Qin had appointed Liu Kuren as General of 振武.

Some versions add in the final sentence "From there, they maintained a stalemate with Murong Lin." Tangxian was in Zhongshan commandary, and Murong Lin was at Zhongshan.


50. In the ninth month, Xie Xuan sent the Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Laozhi, to attack Qin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Zhang Chong. On the day Xinmao (October 11th), Zhang Chong abandoned Juancheng and fled to Yan. After dealing with the capture of Juancheng, the other Qin fortresses south of the Yellow River all came to offer surrender.


51. Xie An sent in a memorial asking for further campaigning in the north. On the day Jiawu (October 14th), he was further appointed as Commander of the fifteen provincial armies, including Yangzhou and Jiangzhou, and he was granted the Yellow Battle-Axe.


Some versions add that the day of Xie An's appointment was "Jiawu".

The fifteen provinces mentioned here were Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Southern Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Southern Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Southern Yuzhou, Jiangzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, Sizhou, Jingzhou, and Yongzhou.


52. Murong Chong’s army advanced to put pressure on Chang'an. Fu Jian could see him from atop the walls of Chang’an. He lamented, "How dare this knave come against me like this?" With a great shout he yelled to Murong Chong, "Slave, why do you toil so, just to seek death?"

Murong Chong shouted back, "A slave's shame and a slave's toils; I wish to capture you to demonstrate them!"

When he had been younger, Murong Chong has been favored by Fu Jian. Fu Jian now sent him a brocade robe as a token of command. But Murong Chong sent back his response as Imperial Younger Brother, stating, "My heart now lies with the realm; how can a mere robe make me change my mind? This is the Will of Heaven, and we are powerless to ignore it. Send us the Emperor (Murong Wei) at once! Then we will pardon the Fu clan, and toast to our old friendship."

Fu Jian angrily replied, "It is all because I did not heed the words of Wang Jinglüe and the Duke of Yangping (Fu Rong) that a white slave like you dares to act like this!"


When Murong Chong was young, he had the flush of Lord Longyang, and this was the manner in which Fu Jian had favored him. (The implication is a homosexual relationship. Lord Longyang was a favored youth of King Anxi of Wei during the Warring States era, as mentioned in the Strageies of the Warring States (Zhanguoce, Wei.24).)

Wang Meng and Fu Rong had given Fu Jian warnings about the Xianbei in the third year of Ningkang (375.4) in Book 103 and the seventh year of Taiyuan (382.12) in Book 104.

The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "The people of Qin called the Xianbei 'bailü (white slave)'."


53. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Xinhai (October 31st), there was an eclipse.


54. On the day Yichou (November 14th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


55. Xie Xuan sent the Administrator of Yinling, Gao Su, to attack Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Fu Lang. When the Jin army reached Langye, Fu Lang came to them and surrendered. This Fu Lang was Fu Jian's nephew.


During Han, Yinling County was part of Jiujiang commandary. But the Biography of Xie Xuan in the Book of Jin writes it as Huailing. During Former Han, Huailing County was part of Linhuai commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Xiapi commandary. Jin moved it back to Linhuai commandary, and in Emperor Hui's seventh year of Yuankang (297) it became its own Huailing commandary. So instead of Yinling, this passage should say Huailing.


56. The Dingling warlord Zhai Zhen was at Chengying. He advanced head and tail together with Gongsun Xi and Song Chang.


Gongsun Xi was Liu Kuren's subordinate, and Song Chang was Wang Yong's subordinate.

Fu Pi sent one of his eunuchs, the Deputy Director of 冗從, Guang Zuo of Qinghe, with several hundred soldiers to march to Zhongshan, where they joined forces with Zhai Zhen. He also sent Qin’s Administrator of Yangping, Shao Xing, to ride out with several thousand cavalry, and they gathered together the forces of the commandaries and counties of Jizhou, before meeting with Guang Zuo at Xiangguo. At that time, the Yan army was weary, while the Qin army's morale was lifted, so the various commandaries and counties of Jizhou were all watching to see which side would win and which would lose.


The Registry of Surnames states, "The surname 光 Guang comes from Tian Guang of the state of Yan from the Warring States era. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, his descendants spread from that place, and they took Guang as their clan name."

A man of Zhao commandary, Zhao Su, and some others raised troops at Baijun, planning to join Shao Xing. Murong Chui sent Murong Long and the General of Dragon Cavalry, Zhang Chong, with troops to intercept Shao Xing’s men and attack them, and he ordered Murong Nong to march from Qinghe to join in the fighting. Murong Long fought with Shao Xing at Xiangguo, and completely routed him. Shao Xing fled to Guang'a, where he encountered Murong Nong and was captured. When Guang Zuo heard of it, he abandoned Xishan and fled back to Ye. Murong Long then attacked Zhao Su and the others, and routed them all. Control of the commandaries and counties of Jizhou thus returned to Yan.


Wei Shou's Geographic Records states, "Baixiang is in Bairen County in Southern Zhao commandary." The Records of the Nine Regions states, "The city now called Baixiang was the town of Haoyi in Jin during the Spring and Autumn era." The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "In Emperor Wen of Sui's sixteenth year of Kaihuang (596), he created Baixiang County, as part of Zhao commandary."


57. When Liu Kuren heard that Gongsun Xi had already routed Ping Gui, he wished to assemble all his troops to come to Fu Pi's aid. He drafted men from Yanmen, Shanggu, and Dai commandaries, and they camped at Fanzhi.

Among Liu Kuren’s men at this time were Muyu Wen and Muyu Chang, the sons of Yan's Crown Prince's Grand Guardian, Muyu Gou, and Duke of Lingling, Muyu Qian. The two of them knew that the soldiers from those three commandaries were not happy about having traveled so far away, and because of that they stirred up rebellion. That night, they attacked Liu Kuren and killed him, stole his prized horses, and fled to Yan.

When Gongsun Xi's men heard of the disaster, they all scattered, and Gongsun Xi fled to Zhai Zhen. Liu Kuren's younger brother Liu Toujuan took over command of his soldiers.


Muyu Gou was mentioned in Book 98, in Emperor Mu's sixth year of Yonghe (351.13). Muyu Qian was mentioned in Book 101, in Emperor Ai's third year of Xingning (365.7). 句 is pronounced "gou".


58. Fu Pi sent Guang Zuo and his advisor Feng Fu to summon the General of Agile Cavalry, Zhang Qi, and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Wang Teng, to march from Jinyang to reinforce him. However, Zhang Qi and Wang Teng had too few men and could not reach him.


Deng Qiang and Zhang Qi of Qin had been called "the Foes of Ten Thousands". But at this time, Deng Qiang was already dead, and Zhang Qi's soldiers could not prevent Qin's fall. Thus may we know that though a man possesses great bravery, if he has no art for strategy, he will be defeated many times.

Fu Pi advanced and retreated on the roads from weakness. He discussed matters with his subordinates. His Marshal Yang Ying asked to be sent to Jin, but Fu Pi would not yet permit that. At that time, Xie Xuan had sent the General of Dragon Cavalry, Liu Laozhi, and others to capture Qiaoniao. His Administrator of Jiyang, Guo Man, captured Huatai, and his generals Yan Gong and Liu Xi marched north of the Yellow River. Fu Pi sent his general Sang Ju to Liyang to secure it. But Liu Xi attacked Sang Ju at night, causing Sang Ju to flee, and Liu Xi then took Liyang.


Qiaoniao was the administrative center of Jibei commandary. It was on the banks of the Yellow River. 碻 is pronounced "qiao (q-iao)". 磝 is pronounced "niao (n-iao)". Yang Zhengheng remarked, "碻 is pronounced 'kao (k-ao)'." The Tongdian states, "碻 is pronounced 'kiao (k-iao)'. 磝 is pronounced 'ao'."

The Book of Liu-Song states, "Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) split the Jiyang fief off from Chenliu. Huatai was known as Baima during Han, and it was in Huazhou during Tang. After the Song dynasty fled south, they sent Fan Chengda north to handle it, but at that time the Yellow River's path had already moved south, and Huazhou and Baima County were both now north of it, whereas the old Hezhou had been between the Yellow and Lun Rivers. The Sheng River was in the southwest of Junzhou, and the Ji River was like a lake. Across from the city of Junzhou was Mount Liyang.

The Jin commanders went to Huatai, on the north bank of the Yellow River.

Fu Pi was afraid, so he sent his cousin Fu Jiu and his advisor Jiao Kui to ask for aid from Xie Xuan. His letter to Xie Xuan said, "I wish to make a show of submission in order to ask for grain, and then go west to attend to my state's difficulties. If your army will provide me with assistance in doing so, then I will turn over Ye to you. If the road west is blocked, or Chang'an has fallen, then I ask to lead my army back to defend Ye."

Jiao Kui and the advisor Jiang Rang secretly told Yang Ying, "Currently we have suffered so many mournful defeats. Chang'an is in great danger, and we do not know whether or not it has fallen. If all we do is hand over our staff of authority in a show of submission in order to ask for grain and aid, we still fear it will not be enough. So long as the people can find no security, and remain caught between two sides, there will be no hope of success. Therefore, pretend to take the original letter, and once our lord agrees, then you yourself may go south; if he does not agree, you may force the matter." So Yang Ying strenuously persuaded Fu Pi. He then swapped the letters and went out.


Yang Ying was Fu Pi's brother-in-law, and this was why he could persuade him so forcefully.


59. Xie Xuan sent his Administrator of Jinling, Teng Tianzhi, to cross the Yellow River and guard Liyang. This Teng Tianzhi was the great-grandson of Teng Xiu.

The Jin court, noting that Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Sizhou, and Yuzhou had all been pacified, further gave Xie Xuan authority over the armies of the seven provinces of Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Sizhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou.


Teng Xiu was a general of Eastern Wu. After the fall of Sun Hao, he went over to Jin.


60. When Yao Chang heard of Murong Chong's attack on Chang'an, he held a meeting with his ministers and subordinates on whether he should advance on Chang’an as well or hold back. They all said, "You must be the first to capture Chang'an, so it may serve as the base for your rise. You may then expand in every direction from there."

Yao Chang replied, "Not so. The Yan soldiers have a deep longing to return home, and that is why they rose up in the first place. If they have the means to go home again, they will certainly not remain in Guanzhong for long. I will take this time to secure everything north of the mountain ranges, and gather supplies and materials. Once Qin has been extinguished and the Yan soldiers have departed, then I can easily reach out and take Chang’an for myself."

So he left his eldest son Yao Xing to guard Beidi, and he sent his General Who Calms The North, Yao Mu, to guard the Tongguan River, while he himself marched to attack Xinping.


North of the mountain ranges meant north of the Jiuzong Mountains. In particular, Xinping, Beidi, and Anding.


61. Years earlier, the people of Xinping had killed their commandery leader and had been punished by Fu Jian’s ban on them. The people of Xinping felt deeply hurt by this shame, and they wished to demonstrate their loyalty to wipe it away.


After Shi Hu's death, Cui Yue of Qinghe had been appointed as Minister of Xinping, but he had been killed by the people of the commandary. Cui Yue's son Cui Ye held office under Fu Jian, where he was appointed as Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. He submitted a memorial stating his wish that because of his father's murder, he could not share the same earth or sky with his killers, so he asked to return to Jizhou. Fu Jian sympathized with him, and he barred anyone from Xinping from holding office. This was the shame their city was burdened with. The people hoped that the worthy fellows of the commandary would display how loyal they were.

When Yao Chang arrived at Xinping, the Administrator of Xinping, Gou Fu of Nan'an, wished to surrender to him. But several of the local officials, including the Administrator of Liaoxi, Feng Jie, the Prefect of Lianshao, Feng Yu, the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Zhao Yi, and the Administrator of Wenshan, Feng Miao, all remonstrated with him. They said, "In ancient times, Tian Dan was able to revive Qi even when he only held a single city. Our own lord still commands over a hundred loyal places. How can you think of becoming a traitorous minister?"


Gou Fu was a Di. He was a relative of Qin's royal family through Empress Dowager Gou's family.

The Records of the Lands of Taikang states, "Wenshan commandary was established by Emperor Wu of Han. In Emperor Xuan's third year of Dijie (67 BC), it was combined with Shu commandary. Shu-Han re-established it as its own commandary." 汶 is pronounced "wen". The story of Tian Dan is mentioned in Book 4, in the thirty-sixth year of the reign of King Nan of Zhou (279 BC).

Gou Fu happily replied, "I feel the same as you do. But I feared that we would not receive anyone reinforcements for a long time, and so the people would not be able to endure their misfortunes. But since all of you are like this, how can I be any different?" So he prepared to defend the city.

The Later Qin soldiers tried to assault the city by piling up mounds of earth against the walls or digging tunnels under them, but Gou Fu was prepared to meet them, whether by fighting them in the tunnels or on top of the mounds. Over ten thousand Qin soldiers were killed in these assaults.

Gou Fu then falsely offered his surrender to Yao Chang and invited him to enter the city. When Yao Chang was about to go in, he realized what was going on and turned back, but Gou Fu's soldiers ambushed him and intercepted his path. Many people were captured in the attack, and more than ten thousand additional Later Qin soldiers were killed.


62. There was a certain hermit in Longxi, Wang Jia, who lived in obscurity on Mount Daohu. He had mystic powers, and was able to know the future. The people of Qin considered him an immortal. Fu Jian, Yao Chang, and Murong Chong all sent envoys to convince him to come to them.

In the eleventh month, Wang Jia entered Chang'an. When people heard this, they believed that fortune was with Fu Jian, because he had the aid of this saint. Many of the fortified places in the Three Adjuncts (the three commandaries around Chang’an) and the Di and Qiang of the western mountains all flocked to Fu Jian, more than forty thousand people. Fu Jian hosted Wang Jia and the Buddhist monk Dao'an in the outer hall, and actively consulted with them.


The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Mount Daohu is in the south of Xinfeng County."


63. Murong Nong marched west from Xindu to attack the Dingling under Zhai Liao at Lukou, and he routed their army. Zhai Liao fled to camp at Wuji, and Murong Nong camped at Haocheng to keep pressure on him. This Zhai Liao was the cousin of Zhai Zhen.


During Han, Wuji County was part of Zhongshan commandary. Jin abolished it. Northern Wei formed it again, and at the end of Tang it was the administrative center of 祁州 Qizhou. During Former Han, Gaocheng County was part of Zhending commandary, and during Later Han it was part of Julu commandary. Jin abolished it. It was where Gaigu County's city is now. Tang restored Gaocheng County, as part of 恆州 Hengzhou.


64. There were still more than a thousand Xianbei inside Chang'an. Murong Shao's older brother Murong Su secretly plotted with Murong Wei, planning to bring all the Xianbei together to start a rebellion.

In the twelfth month, Murong Wei went to Fu Jian. He said that since his son was newly married, he wished to invite Fu Jian to enjoy the festivities of his household. Once he had gotten Fu Jian drunk, he planned to have soldiers spring from hiding and kill him. Fu Jian agreed to go, but when the appointed day arrived, there was heavy rain, so he did not go.

Then the plot leaked out. Fu Jian summoned Murong Wei and Murong Su. Murong Su said to Murong Wei, "The plot has already leaked, so answering this summons means our deaths. The city is already under martial law against us. It would be better for us to kill some messengers, take their horses, and flee. We can go out one of the gates, and then assemble a great host." But Murong Wei did not heed him, so they went to see Fu Jian.


The people under martial law were the Xianbei.

Fu Jian said, "How have I mistreated you, that you hatch this idea?"

Murong Wei responded with some excuse, but Murong Su exclaimed, "The state and our family are what matter most. Why speak of mere personal feelings?"


By personal feelings, Murong So meant Fu Jian's personal treatment of them.

Fu Jian first killed Murong Su, and then killed Murong Wei and the rest of his royal clan. Then all the Xianbei inside Chang'an were killed, whether young or old, man or woman.

Murong Chui's youngest son Murong Rou, who had been adopted by the eunuch Song Ya as his son, did not stay still when he heard what was going on, but he and Crown Prince Murong Bao's son Murong Sheng both escaped the city, and fled to Murong Chong.


This was why Murong Sheng and the others were able to return to Yan from Zhangzi.


65. Murong Lin and Murong Nong joined forces to attack Zhai Liao, and they greatly routed him. Zhai Liao fled alone on horseback to Zhai Zhen.


66. Since Fu Pi still held Ye and had not left the city yet, Murong Chui led his soldiers back to set up the siege around Ye again, but he left open the road to the west.


Murong Chui wished to obtain Ye, but also to leave open a route of escape for the army in Ye, so the text says that he made a gap in his siege lines.

When Jiao Kuai met with Xie Xuan, Xie Xuan wished to demand that Fu Pi serve as hostage, and then he would send troops. In order to prove Fu Pi's sincerity, Jiao Kuai related the message from Yang Ying. Xie Xuan then sent Liu Laozhi, Teng Tianzhi, and others to lead twenty thousand soldiers to assist Ye. Fu Pi reported his shortage of food, so Xie Xuan sent two thousand 斛 of rice by land and sea to feed him.


67. Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Pan Meng, abandoned Hanzhong and fled to Chang'an.


Jin was thus able to recover Lianzhou.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Sun May 14, 2017 2:33 am

349: When the Shi hits the fan

2. 又敕雍州剌史張茂送之 = It was decreed that the Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhang Mao, was to escort them

使之步推鹿車, 致糧戍所 = and made them push deer carts on foot to transport grain to where they were to be stationed.

高力督定陽梁犢 = Liang Du of Dingyang, a captain of the “Strong Men”

謀作亂: what about just “plotted to rebel”

踴抃大呼 = leaped and shouted for joy

風俗通: Compendium of Customs and Traditions ?

高力皆 多力 = The Strong Men were... strong ?

[Wait, they’re good at shooting, but they had no weapons and had to steal axes from peasants... so what’s the point of mentioning their archery skills?]

[衆已十萬: I wonder if these were from the originally-stated 100k]

盡銳拒之 = defended against them with all his crack troops

趙主虎以李農爲大都督、行大將軍事,統衛軍將軍張賀度等: You skipped their ranks :(

3. 引入領軍省,賜以己所禦食。: 禦 = mistraditionalization of 御. Shi Hu had him brought to the military HQ and granted him food reserved for the royal table (literally: “the royal food reserved for Shi Hu)

當面見授方略 = so he should meet me in person to instruct me of his plans

(your lines for Yao aren’t wrong in meaning, just that I feel the tone or the angle isn’t quite right)

兒死,愁邪?= “What, your son died and you’re sad?”

何爲而病?= “Why else would you be sick?”

兒幼時不擇善人教之,使至于爲逆 = “You didn’t get good people to teach your son when he’s young, and that’s why he became disobedient.”

既爲逆而誅之,又何愁焉!= “You killed him because he was disobedient, so what are you so sad about?”

犢等窮困思歸,相聚爲盜,所過殘暴,何所能至!= “Liang Du and his guys banded together and rebelled because they were desperate and homesick. They’ve been killing and pillaging wherever they’ve gone. They can’t accomplish anything great.”

人無貴賤皆“汝”之 = addressing people directly as “you” regardless of whether they’re his superiors or subordinates

于坐授使持節、侍中、征西大將軍賜 以鎧馬。= He granted [blahblah ranks] to Yao right there on the spot, and granted him with a set of armour and a fine horse. (Note: Usually the promotion of someone to high military position would involve Ceremonies and Standing Outside on a Platform etc., which is why the “sitting right there” was worth mentioning.)

乃被鎧跨馬于庭中,因策馬南馳,不辭而出。= He donned the armour and mounted the steed right there in the courtyard, and, without taking leave (不辭), he rode quickly away southward.

滎陽 = Xingyang (you have Chengmao)

4. 始平人爲勖: Should be 始平人馬勖, “One Ma Xu from Shiping”

9. 劉氏與豺因矯詔稱斌無忠教之心... = Thereupon, Lady Liu and Zhang Chai issued a fake edict saying that Shi Bin blahblablah (Good, get to check off the “fake edict” box on my bingo sheet)

10. 敕朝堂受拜 = He was ordered to receive his new position in the main hall (as opposed to seeing Shi Hu)

虎曰:“恨不見之!”: Shi Hu was regretting that he couldn’t see Shi Zun, but your wording makes it sound a bit like Shi Hu had ordered the stuff before this. I think what happened was Shi Hu had no idea Empress Liu and co. organized the above, and now he’s like “oh shucks that’s too bad I didn’t get to see him.”

11.列拜于前 = lay prostrate before him (they’re there to beg for something, not to pay their respects)

皆曰 = Together they said

或言:“乞爲皇太子。” = And some of them added, “We beg you to make him the crown prince”

劉氏複矯詔 = Lady Liu issued yet another false edict (Ok I only needed to check that box once. We can stop with the fake edicts now.)

12. 吾無爲預之 = “There’s no need for me to be part of it.”

13. 以慰其心: Less to deflect criticism, but to pacify Shi Zun and Shi Jian

14. 乞活: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B9%9E ... B%E8%BB%8D (a militia composed mainly of refugees, active in the north during the Jins)

15. 彭城王遵至河內,聞喪 (the order of your sentence seems backwards): When Shi Zun arrived at Henei, he heard the news of Shi Hu’s passing.

姚弋仲、蒲洪、劉寧及征虜將軍石閔、武衛將軍王鸞等討梁犢還,遇遵于李城: When Yao Yizhong et al were coming home after defeating Liang Du, they ran into Shi Zun at Licheng.

共說遵曰: 說 is most often used as “to persuade, to lobby” in Classical Chinese

鼓行而討之 = March against him while sounding the drums along the way

16. 假劉氏令曰: No seriously 349 there are enough fake edicts already. We can stop now.

樂平王苞爲大司馬: “the Prince of Leping, Shi Bao, was named as Minister of Finance” Minister of Finance??

武興公閔: I’m disappointed that Hu Sanxing did not spoil Shi Min’s story for us.

17. 震雷,雨雹大如盂升。= Thunder roared; hailstones as large as basins and scoops (used as measurement of volume; 10 sheng to a dou) fell.

太武輝華殿灾,及諸門觀閣蕩然無餘: 灾 = fire. A fire broke out at the Taiwu and Huihua Palaces, and all the gates, terraces, and pavilions it reached were burnt to the ground.

乘輿服禦,燒者太半= Most of the carriages and items of clothing were burnt

金石皆盡 = Precious metals and stones alike were destroyed.

火月餘乃滅。= It took over a month to extinguish the flames.

18. 皆吾弟也 = Shi Shi and Shi Zun are both my younger brothers.

何爲複相殘乎!= Is there any point in us trying to destroy the other still?

篡弑自尊 = murdered [the rightful heir] and usurped the throne

19. 今以洪鎮關中,臣恐秦、雍之地非複國家之有。= With Pu Hong guarding the Guanzhong area, I fear that the lands of Qin and Yong will not be under the State’s control very much longer.

此雖先帝臨終之命,然陛下踐祚,自宜改圖。 = Even though he was appointed there by the late Emperor’s last will, it is well for Your Majesty to alter the appointment as you have come to the throne.”

20. 餘燼僅存,自相魚肉 = Whatever embers remain of his are attacking each other. (魚肉 = to abuse, attack, like cutting up fish or meat on a chopping board)

難得而易失者,時也。: I feel that “timing” or “right opportunity” is the more appropriate translation here.

或有英雄據其成資 = or some hero takes over their ready-made base

豈惟失此大利: maybe “missing out on this great advantage/opportunity”

亦恐更爲後患 = I fear it will spell trouble for us in the future.

當由盧龍 = we will have to go by the Lulong way

盧龍山徑險狹,虜乘高斷要,首尾爲患,將若之何?= But the path through the mountains of Lulong are narrow and dangerous. If the enemy holds the higher elevation and cuts off our path, and attack us from either end of the path, what would we do?

上不過閉門自守,下 不免弃城逃潰: I like your attempt, but I think this is really “If they’re smart, they’d just shut the gates to preserve their own lives, but if they’re dumb, they’d abandon the city and flee. Either way, they would have no spare time to fight against us."

五材將軍: it is what is says: “General of the Five Elements”. Likely derived from a line in the Zuo Commentary: “天生五材,民並用之,廢一不可,誰能去兵?” (Nature produces the five elements (metal, wood, water, fire, earth), and the people use them all equally. Not one of them can be dispensed with. [By the same token,] who can dispense with military might? )

是故以大吞 小,猶狼之食豚也;以治易亂,猶日之消雪也。= And thus, if you use a larger force to swallow up a smaller force, it is [as easy] as a wolf eating a pig. Likewise, if you use order to replace chaos, it will be [as easy] as the sun melting the snow.

大王自上世以來= Since the reign of the former Prince, Your Highness has been...

遺民 = people who have lost their state

whom among the people: should be “who among the people” (“who” is the subject of “will not welcome...”)

凶黨將望旗冰碎,安能爲害乎!= The evildoers, upon seeing your banners, will splinter and be crushed like brittle ice. How could they cause you any harm?

歲集畢北 = Jupiter remains north of the Net (constellation)

天下易主,陰國受命,此必然之驗也 = This is an unerring sign that the rule of the land will change hands and a northern state will receive the Mandate.

咸思易主以救湯火之急 = They all dream about having a new ruler to save them from imminent tragedy.

更複顧慮 = and instead worry about one thing after another

豈天意未欲使海內平定邪,將大王不欲取天下也?= would it mean that Heaven has not yet willed for the realm to be pacified, or that Your Highness has no desire to conquer the empire?

“三輔”= “The Three Upholders”?

講武戒嚴 = they are trained in military matters and made ready to deploy (I don’t think there was the concept of martial law back then... 戒嚴 may refer more to something like being in a high DEFCON level)

21. 遣諸將經營北方: 經營 = to plan, to operate. This is more than setting up outposts; this could also be coordinating with people in the area, running propaganda campaigns, recruiting defectors, setting up supply routes, etc., basically doing Stuff in the north to get ready for the campaign.

戒嚴: see last section

朝議以裒事任貴重,不宜深入,宜先遣偏師。: The court’s opinion was that as Chu Pou held a high position, it is unfit for him to penetrate enemy country himself; rather, a separate force should be sent instead.

前已遣前鋒督護王頤之等徑造彭城,後遣督護麋嶷進據下邳。: “I have already first sent Wang Yizhi and others to make straight for Pengcheng, and after that I sent Mi Yi to capture Xiapi. “

今宜速發 = “So now we should move quickly”

22. 光祿大夫蔡謨獨謂所親曰 = Cai Mo alone said to those close to him

何謂也 = why do you say that?

謨曰:’夫能順天乘時,濟群生于艱難者,非上 聖與英雄不能爲也,自餘則莫若度德量力。觀今日之事,殆非時賢所及,必將經營分表,疲民以逞;既而材略疏短,不能副心,財殫力竭,智勇俱困,安得不憂及朝 廷乎!”= Cai Mo replied, “Only if one is the most preeminent of sages and heroes can he rescue the populace from great calamity, by following Heaven’s will and taking advantage of the opportunities of the times. The rest of us should just do an honest reckoning of our own virtues and abilities. I do not see this current matter [of invading Zhao] as something accomplishable by anyone of our times. All that will happen is that the operation will be run piecemeal and incoherently, with glory pursued at the expense of exhausting the populace. At the end, due to a lack of talent and knowledge, nothing will be achieved as desired; when money and strength are used up, and wits and courage depleted, how can the court be spared from worry?”

23. 乞自貶 = asked to be demoted

解征討都督 = removed from him the position of Grand Commander of the Campaign

遺民二十餘萬口渡河欲來歸附= 200,000 people crossed the River in order to join Jin

會裒已還 = But Chu Pou had already withdrawn

25. 賴重餌之故,得戰士死力,僅保社稷。= It was only because large rewards were given that our warriors fought with all their might, and our state was barely saved.

章奏詣闕,報不終日 = When reports and petitions arrive at his desk, he would reply to them before the end of the day.

今章奏停滯,動經時月,下情不得上通,沉冤困于囹圄,殆非明主之事也。= But these days, reports and petitions are backlogged for months. Information from below do not make it to you, while the innocent languish in prison. This, I fear, is not how a wise lord should act.

27. 夷、夏宿將皆憚之 = All veteran commanders both from the tribes and the Chinese lands feared him.

總內外兵權 = He held power over both the army and the palace troops

乃撫循殿中將士,皆奏爲殿中員外將軍,爵關外侯。= He placated (? appeased? bought over?) the captains and soldiers of the palace by petitioning for them to made Supernumerary Palace Generals and granted a marquisate within the Passes.

遵弗之疑,而更題名善惡以挫抑之= Shi Zun didn’t think too much about that, but instead he started to suppress Shi Min by... (I’m not 100% sure, but I think Shi Zun was evaluating those promoted people at will, giving them good and bad labels, to show Shi Min who’s still boss.)

稍奪閔兵權 = to slightly curtail Shi Min’s military authority

閔益恨望 = Shi Min became increasingly disgruntled.

28. 入議于鄭太后前 = ... to a council before his mother, Empress Zheng Yingtao (he wouldn’t summon his mother)

閔不臣之迹漸著 = Signs of Shi Min’s disloyalty are becoming more and more evident

小驕縱之 = If he is a bit arrogant, you should just let him be

閔遂劫李農及右衛將軍王基密謀廢遵 = Shi Min held Li Nong and Wang Ji by force (kidnap...) to plan blahblah with them.

遵方與婦人彈棋: likely just one woman

義陽王鑒當立 = Shi Jian should ascend the throne.

我尚如是,鑒能幾時!= I’m still around. It’s not Jian’s time yet!

遂殺之于琨華殿 = Thus they slew him at Kunhua Palace

幷殺鄭太后、張後、太子衍、孟准、王鸞及上光祿張斐 = They also slew [...]

Copper Bird Terrace: Copper? Bronze?

29. 引樸斬之 = He had Cheng Pu dragged out and decapitated. (I like the description of the action...)

30. 還至京口 = returned to Jingkou

皆代陂死者之家也 = they’re all families of those who died at the Battle of Daibei

中興方伯未有如羨之少者 = Of those appointed to leading border defence after the Revitalization of Jin (???), none had been as young as he was.

31.幷殺苞: I don’t know if “executed” is the best word here... I’m sure he didn’t condemn him to die openly, or else Shi Bao would have said “hey but it was you who told me to do it”. Probably just “he had Shi Bao killed as well”?

33. 伏都帥三十餘人將升台挾鑒以攻之 = Sun Fudu led 30 men towards the terrace, planning to ascend, hold Shi Jian hostage, and force him to join the attack on Shi Min.

鑒見伏都毀閣道 = When Shi Jian saw Sun Fudu destroy the walkway

謹先啓知 = Thus I would like to inform you first.

卿是功臣,好爲官陳力。朕從臺上觀, 卿勿慮無報也 = You are an accomplished minister. Go ahead and fight hard for Us (官 is like 官家 in an earlier book). We will watch you from the terrace. Do not worry about the reward after.

馳招閔、農: Not sure he he rode himself... where would he get a horse from? It was probably just “he hurried to welcome Shi Min and Li Nong”

34. 懸食以給之 = They brought food to Shi Jian by hoisting it up with a rope.

支黨伏誅,良善一無預也 = They and their co-conspirators have all been brought to justice. No good and innocent person was involved in this.

與官同心者留,不同者各任所 之 = Those whose hearts are with the court (see earlier on官) may stay, and others may go where they please.

悉爲野犬豺狼所食: what about just “wild beasts”? I mean, literally it’s “wild dogs, dholes, and wolves”.

其屯戍四方者,閔皆以書命趙人爲將帥者誅之: As for tribemen garrisoned on the borders, Shi Min wrote to all the commanders who were of Zhao ethnicity, ordering them to kill their tribesman subordinates.
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BOOK 106

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun May 14, 2017 6:06 pm


The Tenth Year of Taiyuan (The Yiyou Year, 385 AD)


1. In spring, the first month, Fu Jian held a feast for his ministers. At that time, there was widespread hunger in Chang'an. People were eating each other. Many of the officers who attended the feast came home and spat up the meat they had eaten to feed their wives.


Considering the city was in such dire hunger and want, and had no hope of outside assistance, is it any wonder that they were defeated?


2. At Epang Palace, Murong Chong proclaimed himself as Emperor, and he changed the reign year era to Gengshi. He acted however he pleased, and rewarded or punished people by his own whims.

Murong Sheng and Murong Rou had fled to Murong Chong's army. At this time, Murong Sheng was only thirteen. He said to Murong Rou, "When ten men quarrel with one another, the one of them must have enough talent to surpass the other nine, and only then can he know peace. Now the Prince of Zhongshan (Murong Chong) has not yet surpassed anyone, and he has no actual accomplishments to speak of. Yet look how arrogant and extravagant he has become. It will not end well for him!"


Murong Chong declared himself the Emperor of Western Yan (as opposed to Murong Chui's forces, known to greater history as Later Yan).

Murong Chong has been Prince of Zhongshan during Former Yan.

汰 means "wasteful" or "extravagant".

This passage demonstrates that, although Murong Sheng was still young, he had excellent foresight, and thus he was able to exert himself and so gain a state (since he was later Emperor of Later Yan).

Murong Sheng's and Murong Rou's flight from the slaughter of the Xianbei in Chang'an to reaching Murong Chong's army at Epang was mentioned in Book 105, in the last year (366.64).


3. Yao Chang left several of his generals to continue the assault on Xinping, while he himself led soldiers to attack Anding. He captured Qin's General Who Maintains The West and Duke of Bohai, Fu Zhen. All of the other Qin cities north of the mountain ranges surrendered to him.


4. On the day Jiayin (?), Fu Jian fought Murong Chong at Chouban Canal, and greatly routed him. On the day Yimao (?), they fought again at Quesang, and Murong Chong was routed once more.

On the day Jiazi (?), there was another battle at Bai Canal, but this time the Qin soldiers were greatly defeated. The Western Yan soldiers surrounded Fu Jian, but Fu Jian's General of the Palace, Deng Mai, fought fiercely to protect him, and so Fu Jian was able to escape.

On the day Renshen (?), Murong Chong sent his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Gao Gai, to attack Chang'an by night, and Gao Gai's troops entered into the city from the south. But Qin's General of the Left, Dou Chong, General of the Front 禁, Li Bian, and others fought back and routed them. They cut off the heads of eight hundred soldiers, and the severed bodies were then eaten as food.

On the day Yihai (?), Gao Gai led soldiers to attack the Qin forts north of the Wei River. Qin's Crown Prince, Fu Hong, fought Gao Gai at Cheng'er Fort, and greatly routed him, taking thirty thousand heads.


Murong Chui had restored Yan east of the mountains (in Guandong), while Murong Chong had styled himself Emperor west of the mountains (Guanzhong), and so the text distinguishes Murong Chong's forces by calling them Western Yan.

Bai Canal was so named because it was carved out by the Duke of Bai during Han times.

Cheng Er was the name of a person. During the general chaos in Guandong, he had built a fort to protect himself, and so it was named after him.


5. In Guandong, Murong Chui’s Prince of Daifang, Murong Zuo, and the General of 寧朔, Ping Gui, attacked Qin's city of Ji in Youzhou. Several times they defeated the soldiers of the Qin commander there, Wang Yong.

In the second month, Wang Yong sent Song Chang to torch the palaces in Ji and Helong (Longcheng), and then Wang Yong led thirty thousand troops to flee to Huguan. Murong Zuo and the other Yan generals then occupied Ji.


6. Murong Nong led his soldiers to join together with Murong Lin at Zhongshan, and together they attacked the Dingling warlord Zhai Zhen.

Murong Lin and Murong Nong led several thousand cavalry ahead to Chengying, in order to scout out the situation. Zhai Zhen soon spotted them, and he marched out at the head of his guards. Several of the Yan commanders wished to flee. But Murong Nong said, "The Dingling are not strong or valiant soldiers, and Zhai Zhen himself is a coward. These soldiers you see are merely his best troops. If we charge forward, straight towards Zhai Zhen, he will run away, and then his host will surely fall to pieces. They will swarm together at the gate all seeking to get away, and then they will be ripe for slaughter."

So he sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Guo, to lead over a hundred cavalry to charge in. Zhai Zhen fled, and his soldiers all fought each other at the gate. More than half of them were trampled to death in the stampede, and the rest were captured outside the walls of Chengying.


7. On the day Guiwei (?), Fu Jian fought Murong Chong again, west of the city. Murong Chong was greatly routed, and the victorious Qin troops pursued him as far as Echeng. Several of the Qin generals asked that they continue the pursuit into the city there, but Fu Jian feared that Murong Chong had some trick hiding in wait, so he led his soldiers back again.


By "west of the city", it means west of Chang'an.

Echeng was the city around Epang Palace, which was Murong Chong's lair.

The ruler of countless responsibilities cannot help but take risks. It was because of such things as this that people soon mourned Qin's defeat. When the Qin generals had their blood up and keenly felt that they could win, if there was even the slightest chance of victory, Fu Jian should have taken it. Yet he leads his soldiers out to battle and then simply brings them back again?


8. On the day Yiyou (?), Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Guang, appointed the Shu native Li Pu, who was then the Administrator of Jiangyang, as Inspector of Yizhou, and had him guard Chengdu. On the day Jichou (?), Wang Guang led all of his soldiers to flee back to Longxi, to seek refuge with his elder brother Wang Tong, Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou. More than thirty thousand people from Shu followed behind him.


The Tongdian states, "Jiangyang commandary was established by Liu Zhang. He split it off from Jianwen."

Some versions include the sentence "He sought refuge with his elder brother Wang Tong, Qin's Inspector of Qinzhou."


9. The Jin general Liu Laozhi arrived at Fangtou. At that time, the plotting that Fu Pi's subordinates Yang Ying and Jiang Rang had done to change the details of Fu Pi's surrender proposal to Jin leaked out, and Fu Pi arrested and executed them. When Liu Laozhi heard of it, he halted his march and advanced no further.


Yang Ying's and Jiang Rang's plotting was mentioned in Book 105, in the last year (370.58, 66).


10. By now, Fu Hui had suffered several defeats against Murong Chong's forces. Fu Jian criticized him, saying, "Aren't you my talented son? Yet even though you had such a great army to use against those 'white slave' whelps in battle, you keep suffering defeats. What good is your life anymore?" In the third month, wracked with indignation and anger, Fu Hui took his own life. He was posthumously known as Duke Dao ("the Grieved") of Pingyuan.


Fu Jian had put the blame on Fu Hui so harshly simply because he wanted Fu Hui to give his life in battle. Surely he did not intend for Fu Hui to kill himself!


11. Qin's General of the Front 禁, Li Bian, and the 都水使者, Peng Hezheng of Longxi, both feared that Chang'an could not be defended, and they summoned all the people of the western provinces together to camp with them at Jiuyuan. Fu Jian ordered them to come to him, but they would not do so.


According to the Government Service chapter of the Book of Jin, the 都水長 is subordinate to the Minister of Finance. (I do not see that it says this.) Shen Yue's Annotations states, "The 都水使者 is in charge of naval shipping and logistics."

This was the same Li Bian who was the son of the rebel Li Yan, from the Fuhan incident (367.3, 5-8), who was also a native of Longxi.

This was why Fu Jian later attack Jiuyuan.


12. Murong Chong attacked Fu Fang at Lishan, and killed him. Fu Fang was posthumously known as Duke Min ("the Pitied") of Gaoyang.

Murong Chong captured Qin's Master of Writing, Wei Zhong, and he appointed Wei Zhong's son Wei Qian as Administrator of Pingyi. Murong Chong then sent messengers to gather together all the people of the Three Adjuncts (the regions around Chang'an). A rampart master from Fengyi, Shao Anmin, and others criticized Wei Qian. They said to him, "You come from a good family of Yongzhou, yet now you take orders from these rebels. You are neither loyal nor just, and how can you look anyone in the eye in the world to come?" Wei Qian told Wei Zhong about it. Wei Zhong killed himself, and Wei Qian ran away.


Fu Fang was camped at Lishan, as mention in Book 105, in the seventh month of the last year (384.37).

The Wei clan of Yongzhou boasted seven Chancellors and five Dukes among their ancestors, and Wei Zhong was a descendant of the Former Han minister Wei Xian.


13. Qin's General of the Left, Gou Chi, and General Ju Shizi fought with Murong Chong at Lishan, but they were defeated. The Western Yan general Murong Yong beheaded Gou Chi, and Ju Shizi fled to Ye. This Murong Yong was the grandson of Murong Gui's younger brother Murong Yun; this Ju Shizi was the younger brother of Ju Nan.

Fu Jian sent his General Who Directs The Army, Yang Ding, to attack Murong Chong, and Yang Ding greatly routed him. Yang Ding took over ten thousand Xianbei captives and brought them back, and they were all buried alive. This Yang Ding was Yang Fonu's grandson, and Fu Jian's son-in-law.


Ju Nan was one of the leading Qin generals in the underwhelming Huainan campaign against Jin in Book 104, in the third year of Taiyuan (378).

Some versions say that Yang Ding was "Fu Jian's son-in-law".

The History of Northern Wei states, "Yang Ding was Yang Fonu's son, and Yang Fonu was Yang Songnu's son."


14. A native of Xingyang, Ren Zheng, surrendered that commandary to Jin.


15. Murong Chui had been attacking Ye. Not long after he returned there, his various northern generals all came to visit him in Jizhou. He ordered Murong Lin, now the Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, to camp at Xindu. He ordered Murong Wen, now the Prince of Lelang, to camp at Zhongshan. He ordered Murong Nong, now the Grand General of Agile Cavalry, to come back to Ye. When people near and far heard of it, they became depressed by Yan, and they considered resigning their offices.


16. When Murong Nong reached Gaoyi, he sent his 從事中郎, Sui Sui, to go out. Sui Sui did not return by the appointed time. Murong Nong's Chief Clerk, Zhang Pan, said to him, "Sui Sui acts under your personal supervision, and yet he dares to cheat you and not return. I ask that you let me lead troops to punish him." But Murong Nong did not follow his suggestion.

Instead, he prepared a false order appointing Sui Sui as Administrator of Gaoyang, and he had the false order sent out everywhere among the families of his staff officers in the north of Zhao. This resulted in three different Administrators and more than twenty Chief Clerks writing back to defend Sui Sui.

So Murong Nong returned and said to Zhang Pan, "It seems that you have it all wrong, to be suggesting fighting each other like fish and meat! Wait until you go back north, and Sui Sui and the others will surely be waiting to welcome you by the side of the road. Then you will see."


Gaoyi was originally called Hao County. When Emperor Wu of Han came to the throne, he renamed it to Gaoyi, as a part of Changshan commandary. The Records of Jin states that it was part of the Zhao fief.

Yan Shigu remarked, "眭 is pronounced 'sui (x-ui)'."

By direct supervision, he meant within his own sight.

The north of Zhao meant the north of the Zhao fief. 假署者 meant that the false order was sent out among the various officials, but was not yet presented to Murong Chui.

This was why Sui Sui and the others later welcomed Murong Nong. (385.24)


17. When Murong Wen went to Zhongshan, he found the soldiers there were weak. Meanwhile, the Dingling were all around him, each band of them holding different cities. Murong Wen said to his commanders, "We don't have enough men to launch attacks, and yet we have too many men just to be defending the city. If Murong Nong or Murong Lin were here, they are so skilled that they could still eliminate the rebels. But as for me, I shall have to gather more grain and instill more discipline in the soldiers first."

So he nurtured the old and cared for the young, and encouraged and assisted in farming and silkworm cultivating. The people steadily began to flock to him, and the forts and ramparts in the various counties and commandaries all sent him soldiers and grain, until the warehouses were filled to the brim. Zhai Zhen launched a night attack on Zhongshan, but Murong Wen attacked and routed him, and Zhai Zhen did not dare to return. Murong Wen sent soldiers to transport ten thousand grain to sustain Murong Chui's men, and he also built palaces at Zhongshan.


He wished for Murong Chui to welcome the idea of Zhongshan as the capital.


18. Liu Laozhi attacked Yan's Administrator of Liyang, Liu Fu, at Sunjiu Palisade. Murong Chui left Murong Nong to hold the siege lines at Ye, while he lead soldiers to reinforce Liu Fu. When Fu Pi heard that Murong Chui had left, he sent his soldiers to launch a sudden night attack against the Yan camps, but Murong Nong fought back and defeated the Qin soldiers. Liu Laozhi fought with Murong Chui, but was unsuccessful, and he retreated to camp at Liyang. Murong Chui then returned to Ye.


Sun Jiu is the name of a person. He raised the Palisade within Liyang, and this was why Liu Fu was camped there.


19. In the Western Reaches, Lü Guang found the kingdom of Kucha to be bountiful and delightful, and he considered staying there. The Buddhist monk Kumārajīva warned him, "This is a wild place of ruin. You cannot stay here. But General, if you return east again, along the road back you will found a place of good fortune, suitable for you to live there." So Lü Guang held a banquet for his generals and officers, and discussed with them whether they should go back or remain. All of them wished to return. That being decided, he gathered more than ten thousand fine steeds and loaded down over twenty thousand camels with many foreign treasures and wondrous things, and with all these things he started back for Qin.


According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, the monk's surname was Jinmoluo, and Shen was his given name.

Kumārajīva knew many things, and he also knew that Lü Guang would certainly be able to take Liangzhou for himself.

二十一年正月,大饗文武,博議進止,衆咸請還。光從之。三月,引還,以駝二萬餘頭致外國珍異千餘品,駿馬萬餘匹而還。(16K 10.2)

In the first month of the twenty-first year (385), Lü Guang held a great feast for his civil and military officials, where he held a discussion on whether to return or remain. Everyone asked to return, so Lü Guang followed their suggestions. In the third month, he started back for Qin. He gathered more than twenty thousand camels to transport all the strange and wondrous treasures and trinkets, as well as more than ten thousand fine horses.

光既平龜茲,有留焉之志。時始獲鳩摩羅什,羅什勸之東還,語在《西夷傳》。光於是大饗文武,博議進止。眾咸請還,光從之,以駝二萬餘頭致外國珍寶及奇伎異戲、殊禽怪獸千有餘品,駿馬萬餘匹。(Jinshu 122.8)

After Lü Guang settled Kucha, he had the desire to remain there. At that time, he had just captured Kumarajiva, and Kumarajiva urged him to return to the east, as mentioned in the Biographies of the Western Tribes. Lü Guang held a great feast for his civil and military officials, where he held a discussion on whether to return or remain. Everyone asked to return, so Lü Guang followed their suggestions. He gathered more than twenty thousand camels to transport all the strange and wonderous treasures and trinkets, as well as more than a thousand unusual birds and beasts and more than ten thousand fine horses.


20. In summer, the fourth month, Liu Laozhi's soldiers advanced to Ye. Murong Chui came to attack him, but he was defeated, so he lifted his siege of Ye and retreated to Xincheng. On the day Yimao (May 3rd), he left Xincheng and fled further north.

Liu Laozhi led his soldiers in pursuit of Murong Chui without troubling to inform Fu Pi about it. When Fu Pi heard what happened, he sent his soldiers out to advance as well. By the day Gengshen (May 8th), Liu Laozhi had pursued Murong Chui as far as Dongtang Swamp. Murong Chui said to his men, "Qin and Jin are joined like tiles, and they rely upon each other for their strength. If one of them wins, then both will take heart. If one of them loses, then both of them will scatter. They have no common regard. Now their two armies are both advancing, but their power has yet to combine. We should strike at once."

Liu Laozhi's soldiers were weary from the long pursuit march of over two hundred li. When they reached Wuqiao Marsh, they attacked the Yan supply train. Murong Chui intercepted them and attacked, and he greatly routed them, taking several thousand heads. Liu Laozhi fled alone on horseback, until he reached the Qin soldiers coming as reinforcements, so he escaped the danger.


By "joined like tiles", he meant that they were not closely stuck together, but could both be impacted if struck. If one tile falls and shatters, then all the tiles will be undone.

The text writes 待 here, but it ought to be 恃. Now we see this character 待, and it changes the meaning.

Wuqiao Marsh was in the north of Linzhang County.

The Art of War states, "Thus, if you order your men to roll up their buff-coats, and make forced marches without halting day or night, covering double the usual distance at a stretch, doing a hundred li in order to wrest an advantage, the leaders of all your three divisions will fall into the hands of the enemy. (7.7)" This is even more applicable when you march them two hundred li!


21. Yan's Champion General and Prince of Yidu, Murong Feng, always charged into battle without regard for his life. Altogether, in two hundred and fifty seven battles, whether large or small, he always had some personal distinction. Murong Chui admonished him, saying, "We have only just set out on the grand endeavor. You should have more regard for your life!" And he sent the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Murong De, to restrain Murong Feng and temper his passion.


Murong Chui showed his special regard for Murong De.


22. There was great hunger in Ye. Fu Pi led troops to Fangtou to ask for grain from Jin. Liu Laozhi entered Ye, and gathered up those who had scattered, but the soldiers were in low spirits. To make up for the army's losses, more soldiers were drafted.


23. By now, Yan and Qin had been locked in a stalemate for a year. There was great hunger in Youzhou and Jizhou. People ate one another, and the towns fell into desolation. Many of the Yan soldiers starved to death. Murong Chui forbade the people from raising silkworms, and he harvested the fruits from the mulberry trees to use as food for the army.

Mulberry trees are used to cultivate silkworms.


Murong Chui's siege of Ye had begun in the first month of the previous year.


24. Murong Chui was about to move north to Zhongshan. He sent Murong Nong on ahead of him as the advance guard. As Murong Nong advanced, the 假授吏, Sui Sui, and the others all came to welcome his arrival, and everything was just like before. Li Pan then realized Murong Nong's perceptiveness.


Li should be Zhang. Before (385.16), it said Zhang Pan. Now it says Li Pan. I do not know which is correct.


25. Jin's Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, monopolized power for himself. He favored those who perverted themselves flattering him, while he kept Xie An at a distance. Xie An wished to get out from under him. Then Fu Jian sent word asking for aid, and Xie An wished to answer the call himself. On the day Renxu (May 10th), he went to guard Guangling at Buqiu. He built a fort there called Xincheng, and he stayed there.


This place is the Shaobo Fortress in modern Yangzhou. It was sixty li north of Yangzhou City. The History of Jin states, "Xie An built a dam at Buqiu, and later people called it the Zhaobo Dam."


26. The Administrator of Shu commandary, Ren Quan, attacked and captured Chengdu. He beheaded Qin's Inspector of Yizhou, Li Pi. Jin thus regained Yizhou.


Qin had captured Yizhou from Jin in Book 103, in the first year of Ningkang (373.13).


27. By now, Xinping's grain supplies were totally exhausted, and no help was coming for them from outside. Yao Chang sent a messenger to say to the commander there, Gou Fu, "I intend to obtain the realm through righteousness. How could I hate such a loyal minister? You may lead the people in the city back to Chang'an. I only wish to obtain the city itself." Gou Fu believed him, so he led the remaining five thousand people in Xinping out of the city. Yao Chang surrounded them and buried them all alive, and neither man nor woman was spared. Only Feng Jie's son Feng Zhong survived, and he fled to Chang'an. Fu Jian awarded posthumous offices to Gou Fu and the others, and they were all posthumously named Marquis Jiemin. Feng Zhong was appointed as Administrator of Xinping.


Later Qin had kept Xinping under siege since the previous year. Feng Jie was one of the ones who urged Gou Fu not to immediately surrender Xinping in Book 105, in the last year (384.61).


28. Zhai Zhen had moved his camp from Chengying to Xingtang. Zhai Zhen's Marshal, Xianyu Qi, killed him and the other Zhai leaders, and declared himself as Prince of Zhao. The camp soldiers all killed Xianyu Qi, and they raised up Zhai Zen's nephew Zhai Cheng as their new lord. Many of the Dingling soldiers surrendered to Yan.


Since Han times, Southern Xingtang County had been part of Changshan commandary. When Murong Chui moved to Zhongshan, Zhai Zhen was forced to fall back, and that is why it says he moved to camp at Xingtang.


29. In the fifth month, Murong Chong attacked Chang'an again. Fu Jian personally commanded his soldiers. His body was struck by many stray arrows, and his blood flowed freely.

Murong Chong's soldiers acted wildly and without restraint. The people of Guandong fled and scattered in all directions, and all the roads were choked with traffic. There was no smoke within a thousand li.

More than thirty fortified places joined together, choosing the General Who Pacifies Distant Places, Zhao Ao, as their leader. They rashly sent out soldiers and grain to help Fu Jian despite the dangers, but most of them were killed by Later Yan. Fu Jian said about it, "I've heard most of those who came here met an unfortunate end. This is the measure of a truly loyal minister. Even despite the countless suffering we now face, not one of them did not exert themselves with all their power, and one after another they went into the tiger's mouth. Ah, but what good has it done? You should have protected yourselves on behalf of the state, cultivated food and strengthened the soldiers, and waited for a time appointed by Heaven, so that you would not have met with this fate. If the time was right, your deeds could have been reported!"


General Who Maintains Distant Places and General Who Calms Distant Places were rank names, including during this time.


30. The people of the Three Adjuncts all plotted against Murong Chong, and they sent people to secretly tell Fu Jian about his doings. They asked Fu Jian to send out troops to attack Murong Chong, saying they would start fires from within Murong Chong’s camp. Fu Jian said, "Alas, how earnestly loyal all of you are! My fierce soldiers are like tigers and panthers. But even in winning they suffer from frost and snow, and in adversity they are just an unruly band of slaves. How can this not be Heaven's will? I fear that if I sent all of you to do this, you would only be wiped out by the barbarians, and I cannot bear that!"

But other men convinced them not to give up on their plot, so they sent seven hundred riders to meet together. However, when they started fires in Murong Chong's camp, they were caught in the flames by the wind and burned, and only one or two of every ten of them escaped. Fu Jian made sacrifices on their behalf, and he wept for them.


The text shows that the hearts of the people of Guanzhong still belonged to Fu Jian. But their strength was not enough to overcome the dangers, because Heaven had willed Qin's destruction.


31. Qin's Guard General, Yang Ding, fought Murong Chong west of the city, but he was captured by Murong Chong. Yang Ding had been a fierce Qin general.

Fu Jian was now greatly afraid. He read a prophecy which said, "If the Emperor goes out to Wujiang, he shall long endure." So Fu Jian left Crown Prince Fu Hong to guard Chang'an, and he said to him, "Perhaps Heaven has instructed me to go out. You must do well to guard the city, and do not try to fight it out with the rebels. When I get to the Long mountains, I shall gather men and grain to send to you." Then he rode out of the city at the head of several hundred riders, along with Lady Zhang, the Duke of Zhongshan, his son Fu Shen, and his two daughters, Fu Bao and Fu Jin. They fled towards Mount Wujiang, where they intended to inform the provinces and commandaries to send relief to Chang'an by the first of winter.

Fu Jian also attacked Jiuyuan. Li Bian fled to Yan, while Peng Hezheng killed himself out of shame.


The Geographical Records in the New Book of Tang states, "Mount 武將 Wujiang is in Liquan County in Jingzhao commandary." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Mount 五將 Wujiang is in Duyang County in Fufeng commandary." And according to the Tang dynasty's Du You, Mount 五將 Wujiang was in Qishan County in the Fengxiang Garrison.

Li Bian fled to Western Yan.

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this prophecy said, "the old seal shall pass over to him". Fu Jian had originally banned people from studying prophecies, but after suffering so many extreme losses, he too wished to use the prophecy texts. He fled to Mount Wujiang in order to escape, but this was only to abandon his duty to chase after sentiment, and the time of his death was not far off.


32. In the intercalary month, Jin's Inspector of Guangzhou, Luo You, became Inspector of Yizhou, stationed at Chengdu.


33. On the day Gengxu (June 27th), Murong Chui arrived at Changshan, and he besieged Zhai Cheng at Xingtang. He ordered Murong Zuo to guard Longcheng.

In the sixth month, Goguryeo invaded Liaodong. Murong Zuo sent his Marshal Hao Jing to lead troops to reinforce Liaodong, but they were defeated by Goguryeo, and so Goguryeo occupied Liaodong and Xuantu commandaries.


This was the first time Yan had lost to Goguryeo.


34. Fu Hong could not hold Chang'an, and he fled the city with several thousand riders, along with his mother, wife, and the royal family. They fled west to Xiabian. The remaining Qin officials in Chang'an all fled in different directions, and the Colonel Director of Retainers, Quan Yi, and several hundred men went to surrender to Later Qin.

Murong Chong entered Chang'an and captured it. His soldiers sacked the city, and the dead could not be counted.


Quan Yi was originally one of Yao Xiang's subordinates. So now that the Fu clan was finished, he went to Later Qin, since Yao Chang was Yao Xiang's brother.


35. In autumn, the seventh month, there was a drought. Hunger was rampant, and all the wells were exhausted.


36. Yao Chang renamed the county to Xinping.


During Han, Anding commandary had had an Anding County, but it was abolished under Later Han and Jin. This is why Yao Chang renamed it.


37. When Fu Jian arrived at Mount Wujiang, Yao Chang sent his General of Agile Cavalry, Wu Zhong, to lead riders there to surround it. The Qin soldiers all scattered and fled, and only a few dozen remained to protect Fu Jian. Fu Jian kept a calm expression, and simply sat down to await the end. He ordered his attendants to prepare a meal and eat. Wu Zhong soon arrived, and he captured Fu Jian. He sent Fu Jian to Xinping, where he was secluded in a separate palace.


38. When Fu Hong reached Xiabian, the Inspector of Southern Qinzhou, Yang Bi, barred his passage. Yang Bi's wife was Fu Jian's daughter, the Princess of Shunyang, and she left him to go with Fu Hong. Fu Hong fled to Wudu, but he was cast out by the Di chieftain Qiang Xi. He fled by hidden byways, until he reached Jiangzhou in Jin.


When Fu Jian conquered Chouchi, he created the province of Southern Qinzhou. Yang Bi was from one of the Di tribes. He held office as a reward from his lord, and he held one of the border commands. But when Fu Hong fled to him in defeat, he turned Fu Hong away and would not accept him. Mencius said, "He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. He who loses the proper course has few to assist him. When this - the fellow assisted by few - reaches its extreme point, even his own relations revolt from the prince. (Gongsun Chou II.10)" How true such words prove to be!

This was why Fu Hong later inclined towards, and was killed by, Huan Xuan.


39. Fu Pi led thirty thousand soldiers from Fangtou to return to Ye. But Jin's Dragon-Soaring General, Tan Xuan, attacked them. They fought at Gukou, where Tan Xuan's soldiers were defeated. Fu Pi then returned to and entered Ye.


Tan Xuan was a Jin general. Gukou was west of Fangtou.


40. Yan's General of 建節, Yu Yan, rebelled. He marched north from Wuyi to capture Youzhou. Murong Chui sent a courier to warn Ping Gui in Youzhou, "Hold to your defenses and do not fight a battle. Wait until I have defeated the Dingling, and then I will come deal with him." But Ping Gui did offer battle, and he was defeated by Yu Yan. Then Yu Yan entered Ji, took more than a thousand households prisoner, and marched on and captured Lingqi.

On the day Guiyou (September 18th), Zhai Cheng's Chief Clerk, Xianyu De, killed Zhai Cheng and came to surrender to Yan. Murong Chui slaughtered Xingtang, and he buried all of Zhai Cheng's men alive.


支 is pronounced "qi".

The Dingling had started their rebellion against Yan in the previous year, and now they were wiped out.


41. Xie An became ill, and he asked to return, which the court permitted. In the eighth month, he returned to Jiankang.


He had been camped at Buqiu in Guangling.


42. On the day Jiawu (October 9th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.


43. On the day Dingyou (October 12th), Xie An passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wenjing of Jianchang. The court wished to conduct special rites, treating him the same way as Grand Marshal Huan Wen.

On the day Gengzi (October 15th), the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Langye, Sima Daozi, was appointed as acting Inspector of Yangzhou, chief of the imperial secretariat, and Commander of all military affairs. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xie Shi, was appointed Guard General.


The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who maintains peaceful virtues and calms the multitude, or one who broadens happiness to a good end, may be called Jing ('Tranquil')."

Jin thus showed how highly they valued Xie An. How could Xie An's proper desires be put on the same level as Huan Wen's ambitions?

Since Sima Daozi now held unchecked power, Jin began its decline into chaos.


44. Yao Chang sent messengers to ask Fu Jian to hand over the Imperial Seal to him. They said to Fu Jian, "Yao Chang wishes to follow the sequence of the tribes, and he will treat you well."

Fu Jian angrily stared at them and shouted, "You little Qiang dare to oppress the Son of Heaven. In the sequence of the five tribes, the names of you Qiang are not mentioned. The Seal has already been sent to Jin, so you cannot get it!"

Yao Chang then sent his Marshal of the Right, Yin Wei, to speak to Fu Jian, and ask him to abdicate in favor of Yao Chang. Fu Jian said, "Abdication is a matter between worthy saints. Yao Chang is a treasonous rebel; how could he qualify for that?"

As Fu Jian was speaking to Yin Wei, he asked him, "What office did you hold in my court?"

Yin Wei replied, "I was a Clerk of the Masters of Writing."

Fu Jian lamented, "You are the equal of Wang Jinglüe, and you have enough talent to be Chancellor. Yet I did not know about you. I deserve my ruin."

Fu Jian had shown Yao Chang his favor ever since they had met, and so he was particularly indignant against him now. Many times, he cursed Yao Chang and begged him to kill him. Fu Jian said to Lady Zhang, "How can I let these Qiang slaves disgrace my children?" So he killed his daughters, Fu Bao and Fu Jin.

On the day Xinchou (October 16th), Yao Chang sent men to strangle Fu Jian at the Buddhist temple in Xinping. Lady Zhang and Fu Shen killed themselves. The Later Qin soldiers and generals all deeply mourned Fu Jian's death. Yao Chang wished to hide his responsibility for it, so he posthumously named Fu Jian as Heavenly Prince Zhuanglie.


The sequence of the five tribes was the Hu (Xiongnu), the Jie, the Xianbei, the Di, and the Qiang. By "the names of you Qiang are not mentioned", Fu Jian refers to the prophecy. Yao Chang claimed he was following the sequence of the tribes, while Fu Jian also claimed to be following the prophecy.

From the time of Later Han on, there were eighteen Clerks of the Masters of Writing, and they each earned two hundred 石.

Fu Jian knew that after he was dead, his daughters would certainly fall into Yao Chang's hands.

Fu Jian was forty-eight when he died.

堅是大敗于壽春,張氏乃自殺。(Jinshu 96)

After Fu Jian's great defeat at Shouchun, Lady Zhang then killed herself.


45. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: Those who discuss Fu Jian all say that the cause of his downfall was that he did not kill Murong Chui and Yao Chang. However, I do not believe that this was the case. After all, Xu Shao once said of Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) that he would be an able minister in times of peace, but a crafty hero in times of turmoil. If Fu Jian had ruled the state well and not strayed from the path, then Murong Chui and Yao Chang would also have been able ministers, and then how could there have been any turmoil?

The true cause of Fu Jian's downfall was his pride stemming from his sudden string of victories. Marquis Wen of Wei had once asked Li Ke what the reason was for the state of Wu's downfall. Li Ke replied, "It was because they won many victories in many wars."

Marquis Wen said, "To win many victories in many wars is something that benefits the state. How could it be the cause of its downfall?"

Li Ke replied, "Many wars means an exhausted people, and many victories means a proud lord. There has never yet been a state with a proud lord and an exhausted people that did not fall." This was what had happened to Fu Jian.


Xu Shao's appraisal of Cao Cao is mentioned in Book 58, in Emperor Ling of Han's first year of Zhongping (184.R in de Crespigny’s Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling).


46. Fu Pi was at Ye, and was about to march west to meet up with the other Qin forces at Chang'an. Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Yong, was at Huguan, and he sent word for Fu Pi to come join him. So Fu Pi led the men and women inside Ye, more than sixty thousand households, west to Luochuan. Zhang Qi and the Inspector of Bingzhou, Wang Teng, came to welcome him at Jinyang. Wang Yong left the Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, to guard Huguan, and he himself led ten thousand riders to join Fu Pi at Jinyang.

It was at this time that Fu Pi first learned that Chang'an had fallen, and Fu Jian was dead. So Fu Pi went into mourning, and he claimed the imperial throne for himself. He gave Fu Jian the posthumous name Emperor Xuanzhao, and the temple name Shizu. He declared a general amnesty in Qin, and he changed the reign era title to Da'an.


Wang Yong had fled from Youzhou to Huguan during the spring.

Some versions include the sentence "Wang Yong left the Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Chong, to guard Huguan, and he himself led ten thousand riders to join Fu Pi at Jinyang."

Fu Pi, styled Yongshu, was Fu Jian's eldest son, born of a concubine.


47. Murong Chui appointed the Prince of Lu, Murong He, as General of the Household of the South, and he was stationed at Ye. Murong Chui sent Murong Nong to pass through Yewengsai, head for Fancheng, capture Longcheng, and then combine his soldiers to campaign against Yu Yan. Murong Lin and Murong Long were ordered to march from Xindu to subdue Bohai and Qinghe. Murong Lin attacked Qin's Administrator of Bohai, Feng Yi, and captured him. Because of that, he camped at Likou. This Feng Yi was the son of Feng Fang.


螉 is pronounced "weng (w-ong)".

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Qing River flows northeast from Guangchuan, passing south of the cities of Li County. During Former Han, the Xindu fief was part of that county." The Fengsu Tongyi states, "There is a Licheng Point thirty li northwest of Guangchuan County; it is also the name of a county. This point is now near the eastern fords of the county, so it is called the Likou Crossing."

Feng Fang was mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's seventh year of Yonghe (351.14).


48. After Liu Kuren's death, Liu Toujuan had taken over his command. Liu Toujuan attacked and routed He Lan's soldiers at Shanwu, and he routed the Rouran at Mount Yiqin. Liu Toujuan's son Liu Luochen said to him, "No matter who you send your soldiers against, there is no one who can stand against you. However, you face a threat to your vitals from within. You ought to be rid of it soon!"

Liu Toujuan asked him, "Who is the threat?"

Liu Luochen replied, "Your cousin Liu Xian. If you let him be, he will certainly start a rebellion soon." But Liu Toujuan did not listen to him.

This Liu Xian was the son of Liu Kuren.


During Former Han, Shanwu County was part of Yanmen commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Dingxiang commandary. After Han fell, it was abandoned since it was too distant and desolate.

Mount Yiqin was also known as Mount Yixin, because "qin" and "xin" are very close in pronunciation. According to the Imperial Annals of the Book of Northern Wei, in the fourth month of Emperor Daowu's (Tuoba Gui's) fifth year of Dengguo (390), he made an offering on Mount Yixin. Then, alongside Zhi Lin, he campaigned against the forces of He Lan, He Tulin, and He Xizhu, and greatly routed them all. In the sixth month, he returned and sacrificed again at Niuchuan. So Mount Yixin was north of Niuchuan.


49. Soon, just as predicted, Liu Xian killed Liu Toujuan and set himself up as chief.

Liu Xuan also planned to kill Tuoba Gui. Liu Xian's brother Liu Kangni had a wife who was Tuoba Gui's aunt, and she went to tell Tuoba Gui's mother Lady He about the plan. Tuoba Xian's chief advisor, Liang Liujuan, was also Tuoba Shiyijian's nephew, so he also sent his kinsmen Mu Chong and Xi Mu to secretly tell Tuoba Gui about it. Tuoba Gui handed over his beloved wives and his fine steeds to Mu Chong, saying to him, "Once the plot has leaked, you know what to do."

Then one night, Lady He served wine to Liu Xian until he was drunk, and then sent Tuoba Gui and his old servants, Zhangsun Jian, Yuan Te, and Luo Jie to secretly escape on light horses. When dawn came, Lady He caused a commotion among the horses in the stable, and then demanded to see Liu Xian. She wept as she asked him, "My son should be here, but now I do not see him anywhere. Which of you has killed him?" Because of this, Liu Xian did not look too closely into what exactly had happened.

Tuoba Gui fled to He Lan's soldiers, now under the command of his brother-in-law He Ne. He Ne was overjoyed to see him, and he said, "After you have restored the state again, do not forget about this old minister!" Tuoba Gui laughed and said, "Spoken like a true brother-in-law. I dare not forget it."


Tuoba Gui had been left in Liu Kuren's care, as mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.23).

According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, before the Tuoba clan united the various states, each one had its own founding tribe, and within each tribe there were many different clan names used as surnames. The Qiumuling clan later shortened its name to the Mu clan. And Tuoba Lin's younger brother was part of the Daxi clan, later shortened to the Xi clan.

Yuan Te and Luo Jie are the names of people. Here, 他 is pronounced "te (t-e)".

He Ne was really named Helan Ne. After Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei abolished the old Xianbei surnames, the name Helan was shortened to He, and this is why the text has simplified it here, the same as Mu Chong and Xi Mu above.


50. Liu Xian suspected that Liang Liujuan had leaked the plot to kill Tuoba Gui, so he was going to imprison Liang Liujuan. Mu Chong advised him, "Even though Liang Liujuan was a grateful and just man, he did help you to rebel. Furthermore, I have taken Tuoba Gui's wives and horses. That should be enough to make up for it." So Liu Xian released Liang Liujuan.


51. Lady He's cousin, the 外朝大人, He Yue, brought all his tribes together to present them to Tuoba Gui. Liu Xian was furious, and he was about to kill Lady He, but she fled to Liu Kangni's household, where she hid inside the spirit cart for three days. Then Liu Kangni asked to move his household away, and so she was able to escape.


He Yue had been 外朝大人 during Tuoba Shiyijian's era. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "In the second year of Dengguo (387), following the old system of governance, the region was split between northern and southern chiefs, and each ruled over their own people. 外朝大人 were also appointed. They did not have any fixed duties, but they handled their lord's commands, attended to outside affairs, watched over the guards, led the state in conducting times of great mourning, and other such matters in an advisory role, according to the traditions."

The people of the north had no fixed residence; they migrated with the waters and the grass. Only their spirits were kept in strict order inside a cart, and so it was called the spirit cart.


52. The Southern Chieftain at that time, Zhangsun Song, rose in rebellion against Liu Xian with all his people, more than seven hundred families. He fled (or, was about to flee) to Wuyuan. At that time, Tuoba Shijun's son Tuoba Wo also gathered a host of men and set himself up as chief. Zhangsun Song wished to join him. But Wu Wo said to Zhangsun Song, "Tuoba Wo is the son of a rebellious father. It would not do to join him. Better to go to Tuoba Gui." So Zhangsun Song followed his advice. Not long afterwards, all of Liu Xian's people rose in rebellion. The Central Chieftain Yu Hechen sent Lady He to escape to Tuoba Gui.


Some versions say that Zhangsun Song was "about to flee" to Wuyuan rather than he did flee there.

Zhangsun Song's work on behalf of the Liu clan was also mentioned in Book 104, in the first year of Taiyuan (376.19). Wuyuan was a commandary in Dai. Cao-Wei and Jin had abandoned it as being too distant and desolate.

Tuoba Shijun's murder of his father Tuoba Shiyijian was mentioned in Book 104 as well (376.18).

This passage indicates that by Zhangsun Song aligning himself with Tuoba Gui and acting as his loyal and accomplished minister, good fortune would spread to his descendants.

Judging by what is said in this passage, we can assume that all these people held the listed ranks by Tuoba Shiyijian's authority. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "There were many tribes who joined together at the Fen River under the reign of the Tuoba clan. One of them was the Yu clan, not to be confused with the Yu clan in the Middle Kingdom (presumably Yu Liang's family in Jin)."


53. He Ne had a younger brother, He Rangan. When He Rangan saw how Tuoba Gui was attaining the hearts of many people, he began to be suspicious of him. So he sent his partisan Hou Yinqitu to kill Tuoba Gui. But a native of Dai, Yu Guzhen, learned of the plot, and he told Tuoba Gui about it. Hou Yinqitu did not dare to act.

He Rangan suspected that Yu Guzhen had leaked the plot, so he apprehended Yu Guzhen and interrogated him. He had a two-wheeled (or, two-axled) cart press against Yu Guzhen's head, and Yu Guzhen lost an eye, but he refused to give in, so he was dismissed.

Then He Rangan brought his troops to surround Tuoba Gui, but Lady He came to see him. She said to him, "What do all of you wish to do to me, that you want to kill my son?" He Rangan was ashamed, and he left.


In all instances of the name Hou Yinqitu, "qi" should be "yi".

Regarding the name Hou Yinqitu, the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei makes no mention of such a clan. The Annotations states, "In later years, there were many surnames that were either simplified or abolished altogether. Of the ones that survived or disappeared, we know only a part. Now, there are some who would know, but there are other names which are not known and have no one who would know them." The Yuchi clan of the west later had its name shortened to Yu. In this case, 尉 is pronounced "yu".

Some versions say that the cart was "two-axled" rather than two-wheeled.

This passage shows how He Ne and his brothers could not hand their troops over to Tuoba Gui, and that is why Tuoba Gui attacked the Helan clan. How could it not be the will of Heaven that one such as Tuoba Gui experienced such trials and tribulations and yet was able to accomplish his grand design, and even Lady Helan faced death?


54. In the ninth month, Fu Pi appointed Zhang Qi as Palace Attendant and Minister of Works. He appointed Wang Yong as Palace Attendant, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Wang Teng as Grand General of the Central Army and Colonel Director of Retainers. He appointed Fu Chong as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing and Prince of Xiping. He appointed the Chief Clerk of the Left, Yang Fu, as Deputy Director of the Right. He appointed the Chief Clerk of the Right, Wang Liang, as General Who Protects The Army.

Fu Pi honored his wife Lady Yang as Empress. Among his sons, he named Fu Ning as his Crown Prince, Fu Shou as Prince of Changle, Fu Qiang as Prince of Pingyuan, Fu Yi as Prince of Bohai, and Fu Chang as Prince of Jibei.


55. Lü Guang returned from Kucha and arrived at Yihe.

Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, considered sealing off his borders and keeping Lü Guang at bay. The Administrator of Gaochang, Yang Han, said to him, "Lü Guang has just conquered the Western Reaches, and his soldiers are strong and full of fighting spirit. He has heard of the grievous disasters in the Central Plains, and he certainly must be planning to carve out land for himself. Now the territory of Hexi stretches for ten thousand li, and we have a hundred thousand men at arms. This is enough to protect ourselves. When Lü Guang was out in the shifting sands, others found it hard to oppose him. However, we have the natural defenses of the mouth of Gaowu Valley on our side. We can set up a first line of defense there and constrict all the sources of water. Lü Guang's soldiers will soon become weak from thirst, and then we can deal with them. Or even if he advances further in, there is still Yiwu Pass that we can use for our defense. So long as we have these two defiles, even if Lü Guang had the strategies of Zifang (Zhang Liang) on his side, he could never accomplish anything!" However, Liang Xi did not listen to him.


According to the Ban family's Annotations, there was a Kunlun Barrier in Guangzhi County in Dunhuang commandary, the defenses of which were overseen from Yihe. Jin had divided Yihe off into Yihe County, as part of Jinchang commandary. The Old Book of Tang states, "Changle County in Guazhou was known as Guangzhi County during Han. Cao-Wei split Guangzhi County and formed Yihe County. Li Gao formed Liangxing commandary from it. It was abolished during Sui, and instead Changle Garrison was created there. In the fifth year of Wude (619), it was changed from a Garrison into a County."

Li Yanshou remarked, "The place now called Gaochang was made by the early kings of the Jushi people. In former times, Emperor Wu of Han sent his troops on the western campaign, where they suffered many hardships. Those who were under extreme duress gathered together in a certain place. It was grand and spacious in size, and the people there were prosperous and flourishing, so that was why it was called Gaochang ("grand and prosperous"). During Han, it was just Gaochang Outpost. During Jin, it became Gaochang commandary, and later on, Gaochang was the name of the independent state there."

The mouth of Gaowu Valley was in the west of Gaochang's territory.

Yiwu County had been created by Jin, as part of Jinchang commandary, and Yiwu Pass was there.

Yang Han meant that because of Liang Xi’s natural defenses, even if Lü Guang had Zhang Liang to devise plans for him, it would do him no good.

而苻堅高昌太守楊翰說其涼州刺史梁熙距守高桐、伊吾二關,熙不從。(Jinshu 122.8)

Fu Jian's Administrator of Gaochang, Yang Han, urged his Inspector of Liangzhou, Liang Xi, to guard the two passes of Gaotong and Yiwu, but Liang Xi would not follow his advice.

The Prefect of Meishui, Zhang Tong of Jianwei, said to Liang Xi, "Guanzhong is in complete chaos right now, and we do not even know whether or not the soldiers of the capital are still alive. Now Lü Guang is coming here, and it is difficult to know what his intentions are. General, how shall you oppose him?"

Liang Xi replied, "Unfortunately, I do not know yet."

Zhang Tong said, "In cunning and in strategy, Lü Guang surpasses other men. And his soldiers currently have a great desire to return home again. They still have the high morale of victorious soldiers, and it would not be easy to stand against them. General, you have received great favor from the state, and now is the time to make clear your loyalty to it. You must advance the cause of the royal house this very day. There is the Duke of Xingtang, Fu Luo, close at hand to you. He is our lord's own cousin, and he was a brave leader in his day. Have him devise a strategy with you. You can use Fu Luo to gather together all the forces here in alliance, and they will all join with you for loyal and righteous service. Then even if Lü Guang comes here, he will not dare to do anything untoward. And if you need skilled troops, you can call on Mao Xing to the east, and Wang Tong and Yang Bi to the south. Gather together all the soldiers of the four provinces, sweep the disobedient before you, and save the imperial family. You would be doing the same good works as Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin."

But Liang Xi still would not listen, and he even killed Fu Luo at Xihai.


Chang'an had already fallen, but Liangzhou did not know this, because the roads were blocked.

At this time, Mao Xing was Inspector of Hezhou, Wang Tong was Inspector of Qinzhou, and Yang Bi was Inspector of Southern Qinzhou.

Fu Luo’s banishment to Xihai after his failed rebellion was mentioned in Book 104, in the fifth year of Taiyuan (380.5). Liang Xi wanted to oppose Lü Guang, and yet he killed Fu Luo. Even though he wished to protect Liangzhou, he had no desire to take such risks to do so.


56. When Lü Guang heard about Yang Han's plan, he was afraid, and he did not dare to advance. Du Jin said to him, "In culture and refinement, Liang Xi is quite superior. But when it comes to seizing the moment, he will not do. He will never agree to use Yang Han's plan, so you do not need to worry. Do not allow yourself to be like him. Advance quickly, and you can take him." Lü Guang followed his advice. When he reached Gaochang, Yang Han was there to surrender the commandary and welcome him.

By the time Lü Guang reached Yumen, Liang Xi had been spreading proclamations charging Lü Guang with disobeying his orders by coming back with his army. Liang Xi appointed his son Liang Yin as General of 鷹揚, and he sent Liang Yin, the General Who Spreads Might, Yao Hao of Nan'an, and the Attendant Officer, Wei Han, to lead a host of fifty thousand men to oppose Lü Guang at Jiuquan. The Administrator of Dunhuang, Yao Jing, and the Administrator of Jinchang, Li Chun, both surrendered their commandaries to Lü Guang. Then Lü Guang sent out his own proclamations, placing the blame on Liang Xi for the quarrel and stating that Liang Xi wanted to stop the soldiers from returning to their home state again. Lü Guang sent Peng Guang, Du Jin, and Jiang Fei to lead his vanguard, and they fought with Liang Yin at Anmi. They greatly routed Liang Yin, and captured him. This caused the various tribes of the four mountains to all come over to Lü Guang.

The Administrator of Wuwei, Peng Ji, seized Liang Xi and surrendered to Lü Guang. Lü Guang killed Liang Xi.


Since Liang Xi was not able to use Yang Han's plan, Yang Han surrendered to Lü Guang.

Anmi County had been part of Jiuquan commandary since Han times.

光至高昌,翰以郡迎降。初,光聞翰之說,惡之,又聞苻堅喪敗,長安危逼,謀欲停師。杜進諫曰:「梁熙文雅有餘,機鑒不足,終不能納善從說也,願不足憂之。聞其上下未同,宜在速進,進而不捷,請受過言之誅。」光從之。及至玉門,梁熙傳檄責光擅命還師,遣子胤與振威姚皓、別駕衛翰率眾五萬,距光於灑泉。光報檄涼州,責熙無赴難之誠,數其遏歸師之罪。遣彭晃、杜進、姜飛等為前鋒,擊胤,大敗之。胤輕將麾下數百騎東奔,杜進追擒之。於是四山胡夷皆來款附。武威太守彭濟執熙請降。(Jinshu 122.8)

When Lü Guang reached Gaochang, Yang Han welcomed him and surrendered his commandary. Earlier, when Lü Guang had heard about what Yang Han had suggested, he hated him. And when Lü Guang further heard about Fu Jian's disastrous defeat and the peril that Chang'an was facing, he considered halting the army. Du Jin remonstrated with him, saying, "Although Liang Xi is a man of abundant virtue and cultivation, he cannot recognize opportunities. In the end, he will not be able to grasp good ideas or follow advice, so there is no need for you to worry. From what we have heard of him, you are in no way alike. I urge you to advance quickly. If you advance and yet are not successful, then I ask you to execute me for what I have just said." So Lü Guang took his advice.

By the time Lü Guang's army reached Yumen, Liang Xi had been sending out proclamations blaming Lü Guang for violating his orders by bringing his army back. Liang Xi sent his son Liang Yin, his General Who Spreads Might, Yao Hao, and his 別駕, Wei Han, to lead fifty thousand soldiers, and they opposed Lü Guang at Saquan. Lü Guang distributed his own proclamations, blaming Liang Xi for not attending to his army's difficulties and even the crime of going so far as to repeatedly prevent it from returning home. Then Lü Guang sent Peng Huang, Du Jin, Jiang Fei, and others as his vanguard, and they attacked Liang Yin and greatly defeated him. Liang Yin fled east with several hundred of his light cavalry subordinates, but Du Jin pursued him and captured him. Then the tribesmen of the four mountains all came to receive and come over to Lü Guang. The Administrator of Wuwei, Peng Huang, arrested Liang Xi and asked to surrender to Lü Guang.


57. When Lü Guang entered Guzang, he appointed himself as acting Inspector of Liangzhou. He petitioned for Du Jin to be Administrator of Wuwei, while he himself appointed the other military and administrative offices, and each person received their role. All the commandaries and counties of Liangzhou submitted to him.

Only the Administrator of Jiuquan, Song Hao, and the Administrator of Xijun, Song (or Suo) Pan, held their cities and refused to submit. Lü Guang attacked them and captured them. He demanded Song/Suo Pan, "I held a commission to pacify the Western Reaches, and yet Liang Xi barred the road home against me. He was a criminal against the court. How could you side with him?"

Song/Suo Pan replied, "You did indeed receive a commission to pacify the Western Reaches. But you had no orders to start a rebellion in Liangzhou. What crime had Duke Liang committed, that you killed him? I only regret that my efforts were not enough, and I could not avenge my lord father. How could I stand to be like that traitorous Di, Peng Ji, and all the rest of them? When a lord is no more, his minister dies. This is how it should be."

Lü Guang killed him and Song Hao.


Some versions write Song Pan's surname as Suo.

The Records of Jin states, "Han split Rilei, Shandan, and other counties off from Zhangye commandary to form Xijun commandary. It was located at an important place within the mountain ranges."

九月,光入姑臧,自領涼州剌史、護羌校尉。(16K 10.2)

In the ninth month, Lü Guang entered Guzang, where he appointed himself as acting Inspector of Liangzhou and Colonel Who Protects The Qiang.

光入姑臧,自領涼州刺史、護羌校尉,表杜進為輔國將軍、武威太守,封武始侯,自余封拜各有差。(Jinshu 122.8)

Lü Guang entered Guzang, and appointed himself as acting Inspector of Liangzhou and Colonel Who Protects The Qiang. He petitioned to appoint Du Jin as General Who Upholds The State, Administrator of Wuwei, and Marquis of Wushi, and appointed others with titles accordingly on his own authority.


58. Lü Guang's Registrar Wei You used perverted flattery to get his way. He had colluded with Peng Ji to seize Liang Xi, and so Lü Guang favored and trusted him. On Wei You's behalf, more than ten people were killed, including the famed Yao Hao, and the people of Liangzhou were greatly upset. Lü Guang appointed Wei You as Administrator of Jincheng. When Wei You came to Qianya, he plundered and captured everything outside the city and rebelled. Jiang Fei attacked and routed him, and Wei You ran away and took over Xingcheng.


尉 Wei here is a surname; it is pronounced like the character ("wei").

In former times, Qi had campaigned against Yan, and they were victorious over them. Mencius remarked, "If you take Yan and the people are happy, then you have truly taken it. If you take Yan and the people are not happy, then you have not truly taken it." Later, Yan avenged themselves against Qi. Now Lü Guang had taken the territory of Liangzhou, but he did not bring the hearts of the people there over to him. From that, one could see that he would not possess the state forever.

Qianya was a county during Han, as part of Jincheng commandary. Jin abolished it. According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Qianya was northwest of Guangwu, and the place where it was was part of Guangwu commandary's territory. The Old Book of Tang states, "Longzhi County in Tang's Shanzhou was originally named Qianya during Han. In Later Han, its name was changed to Longqi. During Northern Wei, its name was changed to Jincheng, and then changed again to Longqi." Mount Jishi is in the south of the modern county. 允 is pronounced "qian". 吾 is pronounced "ya".

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and the Water Classic, Xingcheng was west of Qianya, and east of Baitu.

光主簿尉祐,奸佞傾薄人也,見棄前朝,與彭齊同謀執梁熙,光深見寵任,乃譖誅南安姚皓、天水尹景等名士十餘人,遠近頗以此離貳。光尋擢祐為甯遠將軍、金城太守。祐次允吾,襲據外城以叛,祐從弟隨據鸇陰以應之。光遣其將魏真討隨,隨敗,奔祐,光將姜飛又擊敗祐眾。祐奔據興城,扇動百姓,夷夏多從之。飛司馬張象、參軍郭雅謀殺飛應祐,發覺,逃奔。(Jinshu 122.9)

Lü Guang's Registrar Wei You was a man who used wicked flattery to advance himself and ruin others. He had abandoned his former superior, by colluding with Peng Ji to seize Liang Xi. Lü Guang deeply appreciated him, and favored him with posts. Wei You was thus able to arrange the executions of more than ten famous people, including Yao Hao of Nan'an and Yin Jing of Tianshui. Many people near and far turned away from Lü Guang on account of this. Lü Guang then appointed Wei You as General Who Calms Distant Places and Administrator of Jincheng.

When Wei You came to Qianya, he plundered and captured everything outside of the city and then rebelled. His cousin Wei Sui also captured Zhanyin and supported Wei You. Lü Guang sent his general Wei Zhen to campaign against Wei Sui, and Wei Sui was defeated and fled to Wei You. Lü Guang's general Jiang Fei also attacked Wei You, and defeated his army. Wei You fled and took over Xingcheng, where he stirred up the people there, and many of the tribes and the Xia (Han) followed him. Jiang Fei's Marshal Zhang Xiang and his advisor Guo Ya plotted to kill Jiang Fei in support of Wei You, but when their plot was discovered, they escaped and fled.


59. Qifu Guoren declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Chanyu, and acting Governor of the two provinces of Qinzhou and Hezhou. He set his reign era title as Jianyi. He appointed Yizhan Tongni as Chancellor of the Left, Wuyin Chuzhi as Chancellor of the Right, Dugu Piti as Steward of the Left, and Wuqun Yongshi as Steward of the Right. He appointed his younger brother Qifu Gangui as General-in-Chief. Qifu Guoren created twelve commandaries, Wucheng and the rest, and he built a city at Yongshi to be his capital.


乙旃 Yizhan, 屋引 Wuyin, 獨孤 Dugu, and 武羣 Wuqun were all tribal surnames. The Qifu clan were Xianbei, just like the Tuoba clan, who also had tribes with the two surnames Yizhan and Dugu. 埿 is pronounced "ni".

According to the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, these twelve commandaries were Wucheng, Wuyang, Angu, Wushi, Hanyang, Tianshui, Lüeyang, Qiangchuan, Gansong, Kuangpeng, Baima, and Yuanchuan.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yuanchuan River comes from the mountains south of Zicheng in Yongshi County. It flows north through Mushiyuan, which was called Muyuan during Han." There are two Yuanchengs on either side of the river, seven li from one another. The western one was the one the Qifu clan made its capital.

又聞堅為姚萇所殺,於是自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、領秦河二州牧,改秦建元二十一年為建義元年,置武陵、苑川等十一郡,築勇士都城以都之。(16K 14.1)

When Qifu Guoren heard that Fu Jian had been killed by Yao Chang, Qifu Guoren proclaimed himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and acting Governor of the two provinces Qinzhou and Hezhou. He changed the reign era title from Qin's twenty-first year of Jianyuan (385) to the first year of Jianyi. He created eleven commandaries, Wuling, Yuanchuan, and the rest, and he built a capital city at Yongshichuan for his capital.

及堅為姚萇所殺,國仁謂其豪帥曰:「苻氏以高世之姿而困於烏合之眾,可謂天也。夫守常迷運,先達恥之;見機而作,英豪之舉。吾雖薄德,藉累世之資,豈可睹時來之運而不作乎!」以孝武太元十年自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、領秦、河二州牧,建元曰建義。以其將乙旃音埿為左相,屋引出支為右相,獨孤匹蹄為左輔,武群勇士為右輔,弟乾歸為上將軍,自余拜授各有差。置武城、武陽、安固、武始、漢陽、天水、略陽、漒川、甘松、匡朋、白馬、苑川十二郡,築勇士城以居之。(Jinshu 125.2)

After Fu Jian was killed by Yao Chang, Qifu Guoren said to his commanders, "The Fu clan disintegrated from an esteemed group of fellows to a disorderly mob. One could call that Heaven's will. A man who hesitates to act and holds fast to safety shames the worthies of the past. But a man who sees opportunity and acts on it will have the support of the heroes of his age. Though I have only slight virtue, and a meager lineage, how could I see what the times have come to and not act?" So in Emperor Xiaowu's tenth year of Taiyuan (385), he proclaimed himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and acting Governor of the two provinces of Qinzhou and Hezhou. He set his reign era title as Jianyi.

Qifu Guoren appointed his general Yizhan Yinni as Chancellor of the Left, Wuyin Chuzhi as Chancellor of the Right, Dugu Piti as Steward of the Left, and Wuqun Yongshi as Steward of the Right. He appointed his younger brother Qifu Gangui as General-in-Chief, and others were all appointed accordingly. Qifu Guoren created the twelve commandaries of Wucheng, Wuyang, Angu, Wushi, Hanyang, Tianshui, Lüeyang, Qiangchuan, Gansong, Kuangpeng, Baima, and Yuanchuan. He built a city at Yongshi and resided there.


60. Qin's Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Weichang, Fu Zuan, fled from Guanzhong to Jinyang. Fu Pi appointed him as Grand Commandant and Prince of Donghai.


61. In winter, the tenth month, Murong Chong sent his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Gao Gai, to lead fifty thousand soldiers to campaign against Later Qin. The two sides fought south of Xinping, and Gao Gai was greatly defeated. He surrendered to Later Qin. Before, Gao Gai had been as a son to Yang Ding. When Gao Gai was defeated, Yang Ding fled to Longyou, and gathered up his old host again. Yang Ding was the grandson of Yang Fonu. He had been in the employ of Western Yan for a mere six months before he abandoned them.


Some versions add the sentence "Yang Ding was the grandson of Yang Fonu."


62. When Fu Ding, Fu Shao, Fu Mo, and Fu Liang heard that Fu Pi had ascended the Qin throne, they all sent messengers to him from Hebei, apologizing for their crimes. The Administrator of Zhongshan, Wang Yan, was originally a Di from Xinping. He was stubbornly defending Boling, holding out against Yan on behalf of Qin. In the eleventh month, Fu Pi appointed Wang Yan as Inspector of Pingzhou, Fu Ding as Governor of Jizhou, Fu Shao as Commander of Jizhou, Fu Mo as Governor of Youzhou, and Fu Liang as Commander of Youzhou and Pingzhou, and all of them were advanced in rank to be Dukes of commandaries.

Qin’s General of the Left, Dou Chong, captured Zichuan, where he gathered a host of several tens of thousands. Dou Chong, Wang Tong, Mao Xing, Wang Guang, Yang Bi, and Yang Ding all sent messengers from Longyou to ask Fu Pi to join them in a joint attack against Later Qin. Fu Pi appointed Yang Ding as Governor of Yongzhou, Dou Chong as Governor of Lianzhou, Wang Tong as Grand General Who Guards The West, Mao Xing as Grand Cavalry General, and Yang Bi as Grand General Who Conquers The West, and each of them were granted equal authority to the Three Excellencies. He also appointed Wang Guang as General Who Maintains the West, and he was advanced to Governor of his province like the rest.


Fu Ding, Fu Shao, Fu Mo, and Fu Liang had surrendered to Yan, as mentioned in Book 105 in the last year (384.34).

Zichuan was also called Bachuan. The Ba River was once called the Zi River. After Duke Mu of Qin achieved his conquests, he renamed the river from Zi to Ba ("conqueror") in honor of his triumphs. The place is still called Zichuan, to reflect its old name.


63. Yang Ding sought to move his base to Licheng, and he made a supply depot at Baiqing. He proclaimed himself as General of Dragon Cavalry and Duke of Chouchi. He sent word declaring himself a vassal, but the Jin court denied his assumed titles. Later on, he also seized Tianshui and Lüeyang, and then he proclaimed himself Inspector of Qinzhou and Prince of Longxi.


Ever since Yang Maosou, Baoqing had been a lair of defense.


64. A native of Yimu, Cai Kuang, seized that city and rebelled against Yan. Murong Lin and Murong Long attacked him together. Qin’s Administrator of Taishan, Ren Tai, led troops to rescue Cai Kuang. When he was eight li south of Cai Kuang’s rampart, the Yan troops realized he was approaching. The Yan generals felt that they were greatly threatened, since they had not yet dealt with Cai Kuang and yet this other enemy was closing in on them. But Murong Long said, "Cai Kuang depends upon this rescue from without, and that is why we have not finished him yet. But consider that Ren Tai does not have more than several thousand men. Before these two forces combine, we should attack. Once Ren Tai is defeated, then Cai Kuang will surrender of his own accord." So they left Cai Kuang to go attack Ren Kai, and greatly routed him, taking more than a thousand heads. Cai Kuang then surrendered. Murong Chui killed him, and left his body on the ramparts.


Ever since Han, Yimu County had been part of Qinghe commandary. When Sui came, it would be abolished, folded into Anle County in Dezhou.


65. When Murong Nong reached Longcheng, he rested his men and horses for more than ten days. His generals all said to him, "When you were on the way here, you marched swiftly along the road. But now that we are here, you linger and do not advance. Why?"

Murong Nong replied, "I came here so quickly merely because I feared that Yu Yan might cross over into the mountains and oppress the people as a bandit. Yu Yan is only a fellow of common talent, and he has beguiled the hungry people into going along with him. Though he has gathered many men, they have no discipline. Now I already have him by the throat. His men will all fall apart and scatter before long, and then he will not be able to do anything. However, the fields here have just turned ripe, and the people have not yet had time to bring in the harvest. If we advance now, it could result in much waste. Let us wait until they have finished gathering the harvest. Then we can advance boldly. That is why we have held back these last ten days."

When the harvest had been collected, Murong Nong advanced with thirty thousand horse and foot to Lingqi. Yu Yan's army trembled at his approached, and all the cities there went over to Murong Nong. Yu Yan found that he was too weak to oppose Murong Nong, so he came to surrender. Murong Nong beheaded him. Then Murong Nong advanced further and attacked Goguryeo, and recovered the two commandaries Liaodong and Xuantu. After that, he returned to Longcheng, and sent petitions asking for funds to repair the tombs and temples there.


Murong Nong had advanced from Yewengsai and through Fancheng, and had now reached Longcheng.

The mountain mentioned here was White Wolf Mountain.

After Ping Gui's defeat at Haojing, Goguryeo had occupied Liaodong and Xuantu. (385.33)

All the members of the Murong clan from Murong Huang back had been buried in Liaoxi, and that was why the tombs and temples were there.


66. Murong Chui appointed Murong Nong as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of Youzhou, Pingzhou, and the northern tribes, and Governor of Youzhou, and he was stationed at Longcheng. He relocated the Inspector of Pingzhou and Prince of Daifang, Murong Zuo, to be stationed at Pingguo.

Murong Nong implemented and formalized the systems of law in that region, simplified matters in broad ways, clarified punishments and cases, cut back on expenditures, urged on and advanced farming and silkworm cultivation, and brought prosperity and abundance to the people living there. Many people came from all directions to live under him, some tens of thousands of households. Before, many refugees from Youzhou and Jizhou had fled from those areas to live in Goguryeo territory. After Murong Nong had recovered those regions, he sent his Marshal of Agile Cavalry, Pang Yuan of Fanyang, to be Administrator of Liaodong, and Pang Yuan comforted and nurtured those people.


67. Murong Lin attacked Wang Yan at Boling. The food inside the city was totally exhausted.

Wang Yan's 功曹, Zhang Yu, went out of the city and gathered a host of people to go over to Murong Lin. Wang Yan shouted at him from the edge of the city, "You are a man of Qin, and I am your superior. Yet you are raising troops to go over to Murong Lin, and calling yourself a 'soldier of justice'. What could be further from the truth? The ancients said, 'If you want a loyal minister, look for a filial son at his family's gate.' Now your mother is still inside the city, yet you have abandoned her to go over to the enemy. What am I to make of that? Whoever captures you now will have done a great deed. Do you think I shall ever forget that you were neither loyal nor filial? The Central Provinces no longer have states that keep to true propriety, and that is why men like you exist!"

In the twelfth month, Murong Lin took Boling. He captured Wang Yan and Fu Jiann, and killed them.

Qin's Administrator of Changli, Song Chang, had been leading an army of Wuhuan and Suotou to rescue Wang Yan, but since he did not arrive in time, he went back. Fu Pi appointed Song Chang as Inspector of Pingzhou.


Wang Yan quoted the words of Wei Biao of Later Han.

Song Chang had followed Wang Yong to Huguan.


68. When Murong Chui arrived at Zhongshan, he said to his generals, "The Prince of Lelang (Murong Wen) has done well indeed. He has filled his warehouses, and sent the rest of the grain to support our armies in the field. Furthermore, he has constructed camps and palaces within the city. No one but Xiao He has achieved so much as he has!" On the day Bingshen (February 8th), Murong Chui decided upon Zhongshan as his capital.


Murong Wen's achievements in Zhongshan were mentioned earlier. During the Chu-Han contention, when Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) and Xiang Yu were contending for the land, Xiao He had secured and built up Guanzhong, to serve as a base for Emperor Gao's conquest.

The Tongdian states, "Later Yan's capital was at Zhongshan, which was in modern Tangchang County in Boling commandary."


69. Fu Ding captured Xindu and opposed Yan. Murong Chui appointed the Pronce of Beidi, his cousin Murong Jing, as Inspector of Jizhou, and sent Murong Jing with soldiers to attack Fu Ding.


70. Tuoba Gui's great-uncle Tuoba Heluo, his younger brother Tuoba Jian, and the other tribal chieftains all urged He Ne to set up Tuoba Gui as their leader.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sun Sep 03, 2017 12:08 am, edited 10 times in total.
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