The Fifth Year of Yonghe (The Jiyou Year, 349 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Dingwei, there was a general amnesty in Jin.
趙王虎即皇帝位，大赦，改元太寧，諸子皆進爵爲王。故東宮高力等萬餘人謫戍凉州，行達雍城，既不在赦例，又敕雍州剌史張茂送之，茂皆奪其馬，使之步推鹿車， 致糧戍所。高力督定陽梁犢因衆心之怨，謀作亂東歸，衆聞之，皆踴抃大呼。犢乃自稱晋征東大將軍，帥衆攻拔下辨；安西將軍劉寧自安定擊之，爲犢所敗。高力皆 多力善射，一當十餘人，雖無兵甲，掠民斧，施一丈柯，攻戰若神，所向崩潰；戍卒皆隨之，攻陷郡縣，殺長吏、二千石，長驅而東，比至長安，衆已十萬。樂平王 苞盡銳拒之，一戰而敗。犢遂東出潼關，進趣洛陽。趙主虎以李農爲大都督、行大將軍事，統衛軍將軍張賀度等步騎十萬討之，戰于新安，農等大敗；戰于洛陽，又 敗，退壁成皋。
2. Shi Hu declared himself as Emperor; he proclaimed a general amnesty, and changed the reign year to Taining. His sons all had their titles raised to that of Prince.
It was earlier mentioned that more than ten thousand “strong men” from the Eastern Palace had all been exiled to Liangzhou. When they reached Yongcheng, it was decided that they were not covered by the general amnesty.
Fufeng was the same as Yong(xian)cheng.
They were further mistreated by the Inspector of Yongzhou, Zhang Mao, who confiscated their horses and forced them to push the deer carts on foot. The “strong men” were provoked by these indignities, and Liang Du took advantage of this to lead them in rebellion, plotting to cause upheaval and return to the east again. When his fellows heard of his plans, they raised a great shout and followed him.
The 風俗通 says, "A deer cart is narrow and small, able to fit one deer."
Liang Du proclaimed himself the Jin dynasty’s Grand General Who Conquers The East, and he led his initial followers to attack Xiabian. Liu Ning marched from Anding to try to stop the rebels, but he was defeated. The “strong men” were exceptionally skilled with bow and arrow, with each man fighting like ten; lacking any arms or armor, they took axes as they needed from the people and stuck them on the end of long poles, one zhang in length, to use as weapons. Their prowess was like gods, and all fled before them. Many officials were captured and killed as they advanced east, and by the time Liang Du reached Chang’an, his army had swelled to a hundred thousand men. Shi Bao tried to hold the city against them, but was defeated in one battle. Liang Du continued his advance, marching east through Tong Gate, intending to capture Luoyang. Shi Hu sent Li Nong, Zhang Hedu, and others with a hundred thousand soldiers to stop Liang Du, but they were defeated at Xin’an, and again at Luoyang. They were forced to retreat to Chenggao. (Xingyang)
犢遂東掠滎陽、陳留諸郡，虎大懼，以燕王斌爲大都督，督中外諸軍事，統冠軍大將軍姚弋仲、車騎將軍蒲洪等討之。弋仲將其衆八千餘人至鄴，求見虎。虎病，未之見，引入領軍省，賜以己所禦食。弋仲怒，不食，曰：“主上召我來擊賊，當面見授方略，我豈爲食來邪！且主上不見我，我何以知其存亡邪？”虎力疾見之，弋仲 讓虎曰：“兒死，愁邪？何爲而病？兒幼時不擇善人教之，使至于爲逆；既爲逆而誅之，又何愁焉！且汝久病，所立兒幼，汝若不愈，天下必亂。當先憂此，勿憂賊 也！犢等窮困思歸，相聚爲盜，所過殘暴，何所能至！老羌爲汝一舉了之！”弋仲情狷直，人無貴賤皆“汝”之，虎亦不之責，于坐授使持節、侍中、征西大將軍賜 以鎧馬。弋仲曰：“汝看老羌堪破賊否？”乃被鎧跨馬于庭中，因策馬南馳，不辭而出。遂與斌等擊犢于滎陽，大破之，斬犢首而還，討其餘黨，盡滅之。虎命弋仲 劍履上殿，入朝不趨，進封西平郡公；蒲洪爲侍中、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、都督雍、秦州諸軍事、雍州剌史，進封略陽郡公。
3. Liang Du continued east, taking several areas around Xingyang and Chenliu. Shi Hu was greatly afraid, and named the Prince of Yan Shi Bin as Grand Commander with authority over all military affairs. Shi Bin led the Grand Champion General Yao Yizhong, the General of Cavalry and Chariots Pu Hong, and several others with an army to oppose Liang Du.
Yao Yizhong led a group of eight thousand men to Ye, and asked to see Shi Hu. Shi Hu was sick, and would not meet with him. Yao Yizhong was told to leave and go lead the army, and he was offered some food as compensation. Yao Yizhong, furious, refused the food, saying, "My lord has summoned me to fight the rebels, so I have come to make plans with him face to face. Do you suppose I came here just for food? If my lord will not meet with me, how can I know whether he is alive or dead?"
Despite his illness, Shi Hu came to meet with Yao. Yao rebuked him, saying, "How can you be so worried about your dead son? How can you let yourself become sick? If you do not have good men instruct your son when he is young, then he will come to be disobedient. Since Shi Xuan acted against you, you executed him. What is there left to be worried about? Now you have been sick for some time, yet you place a young son as your heir. If anything happened to you, the realm would fall into chaos. You ought to be concerned about that, not about these rebels in front of you! Liang Du and the others, facing bitterness, wished only to return. That’s why they banded together to become rebels. Having been this brutal, what will they not stoop to? Just let me handle them for you!"
Yao Yizhong had a blunt and rash nature, not sticking to formalities but always addressing people as "you", but Shi Hu did not hold this against him. He further appointed Yao as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Palace Attendant, and General Who Conquers The West, and granted him a fine horse. Yao Yizhong said, "Now watch; do you think I will able to smash the rebels or not?" Then Yao left the court riding on his fine steed, riding quickly away without telling anyone of his plan.
He joined with Shi Bin and the others and attacked Liang Du at Chengmao, where they greatly routed the rebel army. Yao Yizhong took Liang Du's head and returned, mopping up the rest of the rebel forces, who were all extinguished. Shi Hu honored Yao Yizhong by granting him permission to enter court still wearing his sword and boots, and without needing to hasten. He also honored him with the title Duke of Xiping. Pu Hong was given the ranks of Palace Attendant, Grand General of Cavalry and Chariots, and staff with equal authority to those of the Three Excellencies, with command over military affairs in Yongzhou and Qinzhou; he was also granted the title Duke of Lüeyang.
4. A fellow from Shiping gathered troops and named himself General. Zhao's Prince of Leping, Shi Bao, attacked him and wiped him out, and executed over three thousand families.
5. In summer, the fourth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Fu, and the Dragon-Soaring General Zhu Dao, marched against the rebel leader Fan Ben and slew him, and so pacified Yizhou.
6. The Jin court sent their envoy Chen Chen to Yan, to confer upon Murong Jun the ranks of Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Palace Attendant, Grand Commander over military affairs north of the Yellow River, Governor of Youzhou and Pingzhou, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Yan.
7. Huan Wen sent his Protector Teng Jun to Jiaozhou and Guangzhou to campaign against King Phạm Văn of Lâm Ấp at Lurong, but Teng Jun was defeated by Phạm Văn, and retreated to defend Cửu Chân.
8. On the day Yimao, Shi Hu became seriously ill. He named the Prince of Pengcheng, Shi Zun, as Grand General, and sent him to guard Guanyou. The Prince of Yan, Shi Bin was named as Prime Minister, in charge of the imperial secretariat. Zhang Cai became the Grand General of 鎮衛, General Who Directs The Army, and Supervisor of the Masters of Writing; he was entrusted with affairs by imperial edict.
9. Empress Liu, fearing Shi Bin's potential influence over court affairs, and any danger to her son the crown prince, conspired with Zhang Chai against him. When Shi Bin was spending some time at Xiangguo, they sent a messenger to falsely inform him, "Our lord's illness is starting to recover. The Prince may indulge in hunting, and tarry here a while longer." Shi Bin greatly enjoyed hunting, and had a fondness for drinking, so he remained on the hunt, and drank greatly. Empress Liu and Zhang Chai then slandered Shi Bin as a disloyal and unfilial son, and they stripped him of his office and exiled him to his fief. They sent Zhang Chai's brother Zhang Xiong with five hundred soldiers to keep watch on Shi Bin.
10. On the day Yichou, Shi Zun came from Youzhou to Ye. He was ordered to pay his respects in the audience hall, and sent away with thirty thousand soldiers. Shi Zun left in tears. That day, Shi Hu was feeling a little better, so he asked, "Has Shi Zun come yet?" Those around him told him, "He has already left." Shi Hu said, "I regret not seeing him!"
11. When Shi Hu was brought to the western hall, two hundred men from the Galloping Dragon Attendants were there to pay their respects. Shi Hu asked, "What have you come to ask for?" Some of them said, "Your Majesty's body is not well; call the Prince of Yan to attend to you, and take charge of the soldiers." Others said, "They are begging for you to make him the crown prince." Shi Hu said, "Is the Prince of Yan not here? Summon him!" Those around him said, "The Prince is ill from drinking, and cannot come." Shi Hu said, "Send a carriage to fetch him here, and I will present the seal to him." But no one acted on his orders. Shi Hu soon felt confused and bewildered, and he went back into the palace.
Zhang Chai sent Zhang Xiong with a false edict to kill Shi Bin, and so Shi Bin was murdered.
12. On the day Wuchen, Empress Liu composed an order naming Zhang Chai as Grand Guardian and Commander of all military affairs, and gave him authority over the imperial secretariat, wielding the same authority as Huo Guang of Han.
The Palace Attendant Xu Tong exclaimed, "The chaos will soon begin; I cannot but go before it." He took poison and died.
13. On the day Jisi, Shi Hu passed away.
His crown prince Shi Shi rose to the throne. Shi Shi honored his mother Lady Liu as Empress Dowager. Lady Liu controlled court affairs, and she named Zhang Chai as Prime Minister. To deflect criticism, Zhang Chai proposed named the Prince of Pengcheng, Shi Zun, and the Prince of Yiyang, Shi Jian, as Left and Right Prime Ministers, and Empress Liu assented.
14. Zhang Chai and the Grand Commandant Zhang Ju plotted to execute the Minister of Works Li Nong. But since Zhang Ju had long been friends with Li Nong, he secretly informed Li Nong of the plot. Li Nong fled to Guangzong, and took refuge in Shangbai with many tens of thousands of families who were fleeing a drought. Empress Dowager Liu ordered Zhang Ju to lead the capital soldiers to besiege Shangbai.
Zhang Chai named Zhang Li as Grand General Who Guards The Army, in charge of central military affairs, and to act as his adjutant.
15. The Prince of Pengcheng, Shi Zun, arrived at Henei, when he heard of the mourning.
After returning from the campaign against Liang Du, many of the generals, including Yao Yizhong, Pu Hong, Liu Ning, the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs Shi Min, and the General of 武衛 Wang Luan met with Shi Zun at Licheng. They all told him, "Your Highness is the eldest son, and worthy. We know that the Emperor had originally considered appointing you as his heir, but in the confusion of his final years has heeded the misadvice of Zhang Chai. Now a woman controls court affairs, and evil ministers direct matters. The capital troops have all advanced against Shangbai, and the capital’s defenses lie empty. Your Highness ought to proclaim Zhang Chai’s crimes, beat the army drums, and march against the capital. Not a man there will not cast aside their spears and throw open the gates to welcome you!" Shi Zun agreed.
五月，遵自李城舉兵，還趣鄴，洛州刺史劉國帥洛陽之衆往會之。檄至鄴，張豺大懼，馳召上白之軍。丙戌，遵軍于蕩陰，戎卒九萬，石閔爲前鋒。豺將出拒之，耆 舊、羯士皆曰：“彭城王來奔喪，吾當出迎之，不能爲張豺守城也！”逾城而出；豺斬之，不能止。張離亦帥騰二千，斬關迎遵。劉氏懼，召張豺入，對之悲哭 曰：“先帝梓宮未殯，而禍難至此！今嗣子沖幼，托之將軍，將軍將若之何？欲加遵重位，能弭之乎？”豺惶怖不知所出，但雲“唯唯”。乃下詔，以遵爲丞相，領 大司馬、大都督、督中外諸軍，錄尚書事，加黃鉞、九錫。己醜，遵至安陽亭，張豺懼而出迎，遵命執之。庚寅，遵擐甲曜兵，入自鳳陽門，升太武前殿，擗踴盡 哀，退如東閣。斬張豺于平樂市，夷其三族。假劉氏令曰：“嗣子幼沖，先帝私恩所授，皇業至重，非所克堪，其以遵嗣位。”于是遵即位，大赦，罷上白之圍。辛 卯，封世爲譙王，廢劉氏爲太妃，尋皆殺之。李農來歸罪，使複其位。尊母鄭氏爲皇太后，立妃張氏爲皇后，故燕王斌子衍爲皇太子。以義陽王鑒爲侍中、太傅，沛 王沖爲太保，樂平王苞爲大司馬，汝陰王琨爲大將軍，武興公閔爲都督中外諸軍事、輔國大將軍。
16. In the fifth month, Shi Zun raised troops and set out from Licheng, marching for Ye. The Inspector of Luozhou, Liu Guo, led his troops from Luoyang to join them. When Shi Zun’s proclamation against Zhang Chai’s crimes reached Ye, Zhang Chai was greatly afraid, and ordered the capital army to return from Shangbai.
On the day Bingxu, Shi Zun's army was at Dangyin; they had raised ninety thousand soldiers altogether, and Shi Min commanded the vanguard. When Zhang Chai was about to march out to oppose him, the old troops and the Jie soldiers all said, "The Prince of Pengcheng has come in mourning. We ought to be welcoming him. We will not defend the city on Zhang Chai's behalf!" They abandoned the city and went out; Zhang Chai killed a few of the fleeing soldiers, but he could not prevent the rest from escaping. Zhang Li led two thousand cavalry to force open the gate and welcome in Shi Zun.
Empress Dowager Liu was afraid, and summoned Zhang Chai to her. In tears, she said to him, "The First Emperor's coffin is still in the palace, and yet we face this disaster! My son is still young, so I entrusted him to your care, General. Now what are we to do? If we grant Shi Zun additional offices, will he be appeased?" Zhang Chai did not know how to respond, but could only wail “yes, yes”. Thus a command was issued, appointing Shi Zun as Prime Minister, Grand Commander, acting Grand Marshal, chief of all military affairs, and control of the imperial secretariat, and he was given the Imperial accoutrements and the Nine Bestowments.
On the day Jichou, Shi Zun reached Anyang Palace. Zhang Chai fearfully went out to welcome him, and Shi Zun ordered him arrested. On the day Gengyin, wearing armor and leading his troops, Shi Zun entered Fengyang Gate, and went to the front of Taiwu Palace, where he stomped his feet and wailed in mourning. After this, he returned to the eastern hall. Zhang Chai was beheaded at the Pingluo market square, and his family were killed to the third degree.
Shi Zun forged an edict from Empress Dowager Liu saying, "My son is young, and the late Emperor selected him through selfish regard and favoritism, but the affairs of state are weighty, and beyond his ability to conduct successfully. Thus, Shi Zun will assume the throne." Shi Zun then claimed the throne, proclaiming a general amnesty, and ordered the siege at Shangbai to be lifted. On the day Xinmao, Shi Shi’s title was changed to Prince of Qiao, and the deposed Lady Liu was named as Consort Dowager. Both of them were secretly put to death.
Li Nong returned to answer for his crime (of having supported Shi Shi as heir), and he was reinstated in his position. Shi Zun honored his mother Lady Zheng as Empress Dowager. He named his consort Lady Zhang as Empress, and his late brother Shi Bin's son Shi Yan was named as Crown Prince. The Prince of Yiyang, Shi Jian, was appointed as Palace Attendant and Grand Tutor; the Prince of Pei, Shi Chong, was named as Grand Guardian; the Prince of Leping, Shi Bao, was named as Minister of Finance; the Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, was appointed Grand General; the Duke of Wuxing, Shi Min, was named as Grand General Who Upholds The State, in charge of all military affairs.
17. On the day Jiawu, there was a great wind in Ye that knocked down trees, with a heavy storm, and rain falling as large as hail. There was a disaster at Taiwu Palace: all the doors fell off, the stones were thrown about, more than half of it was greatly burned, the gold and stone were all melted, and it took the greater part of a month to extinguish the flames.
時沛王沖鎮薊，聞遵殺世自立，謂其僚佐曰：“世受先帝之命，遵輒廢而殺之，罪莫大焉！其敕內外戒嚴，孤將親討之。”于是留寧北將軍沐堅戍幽州，帥衆五萬自薊 南下，傳檄燕、趙，所在雲集；比至常山，衆十餘萬，軍于苑鄉；遇遵赦書，沖曰：“皆吾弟也；死者不可複追，何爲複相殘乎！吾將歸矣！”其將陳暹曰：“彭城 篡弑自尊，爲罪大矣！王雖北旆，臣將南轅。俟平京師，擒彭城，然後奉迎大駕。”沖乃複進。遵馳遣王擢以書喻沖，沖弗聽。遵使武興公閔及李農等帥精卒十萬討 之，戰于平棘，沖兵大敗。獲沖于元氏，賜死，坑其士卒三萬餘人。
18. At this time, the Prince of Pei, Shi Chong, was guarding Ji. When he heard that Shi Zun had killed Shi Shi and set himself up as emperor, he told his subordinates, "Shi Shi had the late Emperor's mandate. Now Shi Zun has overthrown and executed him; there can be no greater crime! Therefore I order that martial law be enforced within and without, and I myself will campaign against him."
Shi Chong left the General Who Calms The North Mu Jian to guard Youzhou, while he personally led an army of fifty thousand men south from Ji, sending out proclamations of his intentions across the regions of Yan and Zhao. By the time he reached Changshan, his army had grown to over a hundred thousand, as the army camped at Yuanxing.
There, they received Shi Zun's letter of amnesty. Shi Chong said, "Shi Zun and I are still brothers. Nothing can bring back the dead, so what worth is there in continuing? I will go back!" His general Chen Xian said, "The Prince of Pengcheng set himself up as ruler; this crime is too great! Even if you go north, I will point the shafts of my carriage south. Then I will pacify the capital, capture the Prince of Pengcheng, and afterwards welcome your arrival.” So Shi Chong marched on.
Shi Zun sent Wang Zhuo to explain things to Shi Chong, but Shi Chong would not listen. Shi Zun therefore sent the Duke of Wuxing, Shi Min, along with Li Nong and others to lead an army of a hundred thousand soldiers and march against Shi Chong. They fought a battle at Pingji, and Shi Chong's soldiers were greatly defeated. Shi Chong was captured at Yuanshi and was ordered to commit suicide. Thirty thousand of his troops were buried alive.
19. The Duke of Wuxing, Shi Min, said to Shi Zun, "Pu Hong is an exceptional man. He currently guards Guanzhong, and I fear he has great influence over Qinzhou and Yongzhou. Although he obeyed the late Emperor's final wishes, if Your Majesty wishes to secure your throne, it would be best to assign him to another location." Shi Zun agreed, and removed Pu Hong's authority, otherwise keeping the system as before. Pu Hong was angry, and returned to Fangtou, sending a messenger to offer submission to Jin.
燕平狄將軍慕容霸上書于燕王俊曰：“石虎窮凶極暴，天之所弃，餘燼僅存，自相魚肉。今中國倒懸，企望仁恤，若大軍一振，勢必投戈。”北平太守孫興亦表言：“ 石氏大亂，宜以時進取中原。”俊以新遭大喪，弗許。霸馳詣龍城，言于俊曰：“難得而易失者，時也。萬一石氏衰而復興，或有英雄據其成資，豈惟失此大利，亦 恐更爲後患。”俊曰：“鄴中雖亂，鄧恒據安樂，兵强糧足，今若伐趙，東道不可由也，當由盧龍；盧龍山徑險狹，虜乘高斷要，首尾爲患，將若之何？”霸曰：“ 恒雖欲爲石氏拒守，其將士顧家，人懷歸志，若大軍臨之，自然瓦解。臣請爲殿下前驅，東出徒河，潜趣令支，出其不意，彼聞之，勢必震駭，上不過閉門自守，下 不免弃城逃潰，何暇禦我哉！然則殿下可以安步而前，無複留難矣。”俊猶豫未决，以問五材將軍封弈，對曰：“用兵之道，敵强則用智，敵弱則用勢。是故以大吞 小，猶狼之食豚也；以治易亂，猶日之消雪也。大王自上世以來，積德累仁，兵强士練。石虎極其殘暴，死未瞑目，子孫爭國，上下乖亂。中國之民，墜于塗炭，廷 頸企踵以待振拔，大王若揚兵南邁，先取薊城，次指鄴都，宣耀威德，懷撫遺民，彼孰不扶老提幼以迎大王？凶黨將望旗冰碎，安能爲害乎！”從事中郎黃泓曰：“ 今太白經天，歲集畢北，天下易主，陰國受命，此必然之驗也，宜速出師，以承天意。”折沖將軍慕輿根曰：“中國之民困于石氏之亂，咸思易主以救湯火之急，此千載一時，不可失也。自武宣王以來，招賢養民，務農訓兵，正俟今日。今時至不取，更複顧慮，豈天意未欲使海內平定邪，將大王不欲取天下也？”俊笑而從之。 以慕容恪爲輔國將軍，慕容評爲輔弼將軍，左長史陽鶩爲輔義將軍，謂之“三輔”。慕容霸爲前鋒都督、建鋒將軍。選精兵二十餘萬，講武戒嚴，爲進取之計。
20. Yan's General Who Pacifies The Di, Murong Ba, wrote to Murong Jun saying, "Shi Hu was violent and cruel, and Heaven has abandoned his state. Only the ashes remain, and his sons are all fighting for the scraps. The Middle Kingdom is in dire straits, and they are looking for someone of benevolence to save them. If you will send forth the army, all will cast aside their weapons and welcome you." The Administrator of Beiping, Sun Xing, also wrote to him saying, "The Shi clan is in chaos; now is the time to attack the Central Plains." But Murong Jun was still in great mourning, and he would not agree to the requests.
Murong Ba rode his horse to Longcheng, to speak with Murong Jun in person. He told Murong Jun, "That which is difficult to gain and easy to lose, is time. If the Shi clan is given time to recover from this calamity, or some hero emerges who reaps the benefits of the chaos, then not only will we be sacrificing this great opportunity, but I fear it will lead to an even greater danger."
Murong Jun said, "Although Ye is in chaos, Deng Heng holds Anle, and he is strong in both men and grain. If we attack Zhao now, then we would not be able to advance by the eastern road, and they could capture Mount Long. With Mount Long fallen, they can hold the passses against us, and cut us off. We would face disaster on both sides, and then what could we do?"
Murong Ba replied, “Although Deng Heng wishes to defend Anle on behalf of the Shi clan, his soldiers will all be more concerned about ensuring the safety of their own families. The mens' thoughts will turn towards going home. Then, if we advance against them, they will all naturally abandon Deng Heng. I ask that Your Highness let me lead the advance. I will march in the east from Tuhe, secretly capture Lingzhi, and take the enemy unawares. They will be completely astounded when they hear of it. Even if the generals try to close the gates and hold out against us, the soldiers won't be able to help fleeing the city and melting away. Who would possibly be left behind to oppose us? Then Your Highness may advance as well without any worries. There will be no other cause for reservations."
Murong Jun still hesitated to decide, and so he asked the General of the 五材 Feng Yi for his thoughts. Feng Yi replied, "When choosing the path of war, one must fight a strong enemy with strategy, and a weak enemy with force. When the larger consumes the smaller, it is like a wolf eating a pig; when order overwhelms chaos, it is like the sun melting the snow. From the last generation until now, you have cultivated virtue and nurtured benevolence, strengthened the soldiers and bound together the people. Meanwhile, Shi Hu was excessively violent and cruel, and his heirs are fighting amongst themselves while his body is still warm. Everywhere has been thrown into chaos. The people of the Middle Kingdom are wallowed in great misery, seeking someone to save them. Now if Your Highness takes troops and marches south, first securing Ji, and then marching against the capital Ye, while displaying your might and demonstrating your virtue, comforting and consoling the people, while the enemy has abandoned them, whom among the people will not welcome you when you arrive to support the old and carry the young? You will only come to harm if you heed the words of wild factions, and allow them to freeze your standard!"
The Assistant Palace Attendant Huang Hong said, "Venus is passing through the sky, and the harvest has already been gathered in the north. When Heaven wishes to change rulers, it sends signs so that states may follow its commands. Such has been the inevitable experience. You should lead out the troops at once, to fulfill Heaven's will."
The General Who Breaks And Charges Muyu Gen said, "The people of the Middle Kingdom suffer under the instability of the Shi clan's war. They wish to be saved from the fire. This is the chance of a lifetime; it cannot be squandered. From the days of Prince Wuxuan (Murong Hui) until now, the people have been nurtured, farming has been cultivated, and the troops have been supplied, all in readiness for this very day. If you do not seize the moment when it arrives, , and are always looking back towards the barbarians, then even if it is Heaven's wish for you to pacify all within the seas, perhaps Your Highness does not wish to grasp the empire?" Murong Jun, laughing, agreed with his admonishment.
He appointed Murong Ke as General Who Upholds The State, Murong Ping as General Who Upholds Assistance, and Chief Clerk of the Left Yang Wu as General Who Upholds Virtue; these three were called the "Three Fu" (because each of their titles had the character 輔 Fu in it). Murong Ba was appointed as Vanguard Commander and General Who Establishes The Vanguard. Two hundred thousand soldiers were gathered to impose martial law, and prepare for the invasion.
20. In the sixth month, Shi Hu was buried at Xianyuan Tombs. His posthumous name was Emperor Wu, and his temple name was Taizu.
21. In Jin, when Huan Wen heard of the civil war among the Shi clan, he moved to camp at Anlu, and sent several generals to set up outposts further north.
Zhao's Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Jia, surrendered his city of Shouchun to Jin. The 西中郎将 Chen Kui marched to take possession of Shouchun. The Grand General Who Conquers The North, Chu Pou (who was then at Jingkou), requested permission for a northern campaign against Zhao. The state was placed on martial footing, and troops were moved to Sikou. The court discussed Chu's proposal; they held him in high esteem, and requested that he not penetrate the enemy country deeply, but first send out attacks. Chu Pou wrote in a memorial stating, "First, I have already dispatched the Protector of the Vanguard Wang Yi and others to take Pengcheng. Next, I will send the Protector Mi Yi to capture Xiapi. We ought to move quickly, and so seize the momentum."
In autumn, the seventh month, Chu Pou was further appointed as Grand Commander, in charge of military affairs for Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Yangzhou, and Yuzhou. He personally led thirty thousand men to capture Pengcheng. Thousands of the northern people surrendered to Jin every day.
朝野皆以爲中原指期可複，光祿大夫蔡謨獨謂所親曰：“胡滅誠爲大慶，然恐更貽朝廷之憂。”其人曰：“何謂也？”謨曰：’夫能順天乘時，濟群生于艱難者，非上 聖與英雄不能爲也，自餘則莫若度德量力。觀今日之事，殆非時賢所及，必將經營分表，疲民以逞；既而材略疏短，不能副心，財殫力竭，智勇俱困，安得不憂及朝 廷乎！”
22. Both the court and those in the field believed that the Central Plains could soon be retaken for Jin. Only the Household Counsellor Cai Mo dissented, saying, “Defeating the barbarians would be honest cause for a grand celebration. But I fear that it would present the court with even greater concerns."
The others said, "What does this mean?" Cai Mo [warned of the dangers that northern campaigns would cause for the court.]
23. Five hundred families from Lujun rose up as soldiers for Jin, and asked Chu Pou for aid. He sent the generals Wang Kan and Li Mai with three thousand elite soldiers to welcome them. Zhao’s Grand Commander Who Campaigns Against The South, Li Nong, dispatched twenty thousand cavalry to fight Wang Kan and the others at Daibei. Wang Kan and the others were defeated, and all were expelled from Zhao. In the eighth month, Chu Pou fell back to garrison at Guangling. When Chen Kui heard this, he torched the grain around Shouchun, burned the city and fled.
Chu Pou asked to be relieved of command, but the court refused, ordering him to return to guard Jingkou, and resume the conquest. At that time, because of the great confusion north of the Yellow river, more than two hundred people had crossed over it, wishing to return home. However, when Chu Pou suddenly withdrew and could no longer provide them with protection, the refugees were exposed and could not make it back, and many were slaughtered.
24. Zhao's Prince of Leping, Shi Bao, plotted to lead troops from Guanyou to attack Ye. When Chief Clerk of the Left Shi Guang and Marshal Cao Yao, along with others, remonstrated with him, Shi Bao became angry and killed Shi Guang and a hundred others.
Shi Bao was of a greedy nature, and he was not clever. The people of Yongzhou knew he could not succeed, so they sent word to Jin informing them of the situation, and the Inspector of Liangzhou Sima Xun marched to respond.
Sima Xun was the great-great-grandson of Sima Yi's nephew, the Prince of Jinan Sima Sui (the son of Sima Yi's brother Sima Xun).
25. The Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu, attacked Zhao's Xicheng, and took it.
In the ninth month, the officials of Liangzhou several times asked that Zhang Chonghua assume the titles of Prime Minister, Prince of Liang, and Governor of Yongzhou, Qinzhou, and Liangzhou.
Zhang Chonghua often bestowed gifts of gold and silks upon his favored attendants. He also liked to spend time playing chupu and yiqi, while neglecting the affairs of government. The Assistant Officer Suo Zhen remonstrated with him, saying, "The late Prince worked hard day and night to strengthen the government and fill the warehouses, so that we would be ready to wipe away the national shame, and he desired to pacify all within the seas. After Your Highness came to the throne, we were invaded by strong enemies. If rewards are to be given out, it should be given to the warriors, for it is thanks to the efforts of those who gave their lives in battle that the state has survived. When we have already spent so much, and the hated enemy is still alive, how can you so lightly give away our wealth, and to those who have done nothing to earn it? During the Han dynasty, Emperor Guangwu would personally attend to every affair, and report on everything in person to the Emperor, not ceasing at the end of day. This was how he was able to achieve the restoration of the empire. But now, edicts and memorials have been halted, while you while away the months and seasons. Unless this is corrected, and the unjust languish in prison, it will pose a great danger for you." Zhang Chonghua apologized to him.
Chupu and Yiqi were popular board games of the time.
26. Sima Xun marched through Luo Valley, capturing Zhao's city of Changcheng. He halted at Xuangou, two hundred li from Chang'an. Sima Xun sent his 治中 Liu Huan to attack Chang'an. He killed the Administrator of Jingzhao, Liu Xiuli, and he also captured Hecheng. The people of the Three Regions around Chang’an killed the Zhao commanders there and welcomed Sima Xun. Over thirty fortified places went over to him, and a host of fifty thousand men.
Changcheng was the site of a battle between Sima Wang and Deng Ai against Jiang Wei during one of Jiang’s northern campaigns.
Zhao's Prince of Leping, Shi Bao, halted his plans to attack Ye, and sent his generals Ma Qiu, Yao Guo, and others to stop Sima Xun. Shi Zun also dispatched the General of Cavalry and Chariots, Wang Lang, with twenty thousand cavalry, ostensibly to attack Sima Xun, but also to arrest Shi Bao and bring him back to Ye. Sima Xun had few troops, and he feared Wang Lang, so he dared not advance.
In winter, the tenth month, Sima Xun abandoned Xuangou. He captured Wancheng, killing Zhao's Administrator of Nanyang, Yuan Jing, before returning to Liangzhou.
初， 趙主遵之發李城也，謂武興公閔曰：“努力！事成，以爾爲太子。”既而立太子衍。閔恃功。欲專朝政，遵不聽。閔素驍勇，屢立戰功，夷、夏宿將皆憚之。既爲都督，總內外兵權，乃撫循殿中將士，皆奏爲殿中員外將軍，爵關外侯。遵弗之疑，而更題名善惡以挫抑之，衆鹹怨怒。中書令孟准、左衛將軍王鸞勸遵稍奪閔兵權， 閔益恨望，准等鹹勸誅之。
27. When Shi Zun’s army had set out from Licheng, Shi Zun had told the Duke of Wuxing, Shi Min, "Exert yourself! When we are successful, you shall be my crown prince." But in the end, he chose Shi Yan as his crown prince instead.
Shi Min felt that Shi Zun’s success was due to his efforts. He wished to be placed in charge of court affairs, but Shi Zun would not hear of it. Shi Min was a great warrior, and had won many battles, so the tribal and Han people all feared him. Since becoming Commander, his influence among the troops had spread, and many petitioned that he should be appointed as 殿中將士, and granted a Marquisate Within The Passes. Although Shi Zun did not doubt him, he enumerated Shi Min’s good and bad qualities, which angered the crowd.
The Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Meng Zhun, and the Guard General of the Left, Wang Luan, asked Shi Zun to strip Shi Min's military authority. When this caused Shi Min to despise them further, they then urged that Shi Zun should execute Shi Min.
28. In the eleventh month, Shi Zun summoned the Prince of Yiyang Shi Jian, the Prince of Leping Shi Bao, the Prince of Ruyang Shi Kun, the Prince of Runan Shi Zhao, and others, including his mother Empress Dowager Zheng Yingtao, to a council. He told them, "Shi Min no longer has the heart of a loyal minister, and today I plan to execute him. What say you?"
Shi Jian and the others all said, "We agree!" But Lady Zheng said, "When you were setting out at Liyang, how else could you have reached today without Jinu (Shi Min’s childhood name)? If he is a little arrogant, is that any reason to kill him?"
Shi Jian left the meeting, and sent his subordinate, the eunuch Yang Huan, by horse to alert Shi Min. Shi Min then spoke with Li Nong and the Guard General of the Right Wang Ji about plans to depose Shi Zun. He sent General Su Yan and Zhou Cheng with three thousand soldiers to seize Shi Zun at the Southern Terrace. Shi Zun was playing danqi with the women there. He asked Zhou Cheng, "Who is the rebel?" Zhou Cheng replied, "Shi Jian plans to occupy the throne." Shi Zun said, "If this is done, how long will Shi Jian keep it for?" There was a great slaughter in the Kunhua Palace; Shi Zun, Empress Dowager Zheng, Empress Zhang, Crown Prince Shi Yan, Meng Zhun, Wang Luan, and the Upper Household Counsellor Zhang Fei were all killed.
Danqi was a game that first became popular during the Han dynasty. Two players, one black and one white, each try to attack each other with six pieces.
This was the Southern Terrace of the Three Terraces of Ye. The Commentary on the Water Classic says, "South of the Copper Bird Terrace was the Golden Bird Terrace. It was eight zhang tall, and had a hundred and ninety rooms."
The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Shi Hu had Upper and Central Household Counsellors, each of whom had Left and Right Household Counsellors." (Jinshu 106.51)
Shi Jian then took the throne, and declared a general amnesty. He appointed the Duke of Wuxing Shi Min as Grand General, along with the title Prince of Wude. The Minister of Works Li Nong was made the Grand Marshal, and put in charge of the imperial secretariat. Lang Kai was appointed the new Minister of Works, the Inspector of Qinzhou Liu Qun was named as Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and the Palace Attendant Lu Chen was appointed Palace Secretary.
29. The old refugees from Qinzhou and Yongzhou all wished to return to the west again. They traveled to Fangtou, asking for Pu Hong to become their chief; they numbered a hundred thousand in total. Pu Hong's son Pu Jian was at Ye; he cut his way out through the gates and fled to Fangtou.
Shi Jian was concerned about Pu Hong, and wished to plot to send him away, so he appointed Pu Hong as Commander of Guanzhong affairs, Grand General Who Conquers The West, Governor of Yongzhou, and Inspector of Qinzhou. Pu Hong met with his subordinates, and asked whether or not he should accept these ranks. The Registrar Cheng Pu asked that he unite with Zhao, and that they should each administer their own territories as "neighboring states" (presumably as Jin vassals). Pu Hong angrily said, "Then you think I am insufficient to be the Son of Heaven, only fit to be a neighboring state, eh? " And Cheng Pu was executed.
30. Jin’s Marquis Yuanmu of Duxiang, Chu Pou, was still at Jingkou. When he heard the sound of many people crying, he inquired into it, and those around him said, "Everyone here has lost some family." Chu Pou, deeply ashamed, fell ill; in the twelfth month, on the day Jiyou, he passed away.
The Interior Minister of Wu, Xun Xian, was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and leader of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and the portion of Yangzhou controlled by Jin; he was also named Inspector of Xuzhou. At that time he was twenty-eight, and none of the other border commanders were as young as him.
31. Shi Jian sent the Prince of Leping Shi Bao, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat Li Song, and the General of 殿中 Zhang Cai to launch a night attack on Shi Min and Li Nong at the Kunhua Palace. However, the attack was a failure, and great confusion broke out. Shi Jian, afraid, pretended that he knew nothing of the matter, and that night executed Li Song and Zhang Cai at the western gate, and then executed Shi Bao.
32. Zhao’s Prince of Xinxing, Shi Zhi, was another of Shi Hu's sons. During this time he had been guarding Xiangguo. He coordinated with Yao Yizhong, Pu Hong, and others, and he sent out proclamations near and far, announcing his wish to jointly attack Shi Min and Li Nong. Shi Min and Li Nong named the Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, as Grand Marshal, and sent him along with Zhang Ju and the Palace Attendant Huyan Sheng to lead seventy thousand horse and foot against Shi Zhi and the others.
33. The Directing General of the Palace Shi Cheng, the Palace Attendant Shi Qi, and the former Administrator of Hedong Shi Hui plotted to kill Shi Min and Li Nong. Shi Min and Li Nong killed them all.
The Dragon-Soaring General Sun Fudu, Liu Zhu, and others led three thousand Jie soldiers to lay an ambush at Hutian, also hoping to kill Shi Min and Li Nong. Shi Jian was in the Central Terrace; Sun Fudu led thirty of his men inside to speak with Shi Jian about the attack. When Shi Jian saw that Sun Fudu held the road, he asked what was going on. Sun Fudu said, "Li Nong and the others are rebels, and they are already at the Dongye Gate. I wish to lead the guards to attack them. Let us hear your thoughts first." Shi Jian replied, "You are a successful minister, and well suited to this. I shall observe from the terrace. If you do not capture them, then do not return."
Sun Fudu and Liu Zhu then marched to attack Shi Min and Li Nong, but they were not successful, and they fell back to hold the Fengyang Gate. Shi Min and Li Nong led a crowd of a thousand soldiers to force passage into the Jinming Gate. Shi Jian was afraid that Shi Min would kill him, so he rode to where Shi Min and Li Nong were, opened the gate to let them inside, and told them, "Sun Fudu has turned traitor; you should put him down at once." Shi Min and Li Nong attacked and killed Sun Fudu and the others; from the Fengyang Gate to the Kunhua Palace, the path was strewn with fallen bodies, and blood flowed freely.
An order was proclaimed that any barbarian who dared to carry soldiers' weapons would be killed. Many of the tribesmen cut their way out of the gates or climbed over the walls and so fled, numbered beyond measure.
閔使尚書王簡、少府王郁帥衆數千守鑒于禦龍觀，懸食以給之。下令城中曰：“近日孫、劉構逆，支黨伏誅，良善一無預也。今日已後，與官同心者留，不同者各任所 之。敕城門不復相禁。”于是趙人百里內悉入城，胡、羯去者填門。閔知胡之不爲己用，班令內外：“趙人斬一胡首送鳳陽門者，文官進位三等，武官悉拜牙門。” 一日之中，斬首數萬。閔親帥趙人以誅胡、羯，無貴賤、男女、少長皆斬之，死者二十餘萬，尸諸城外，悉爲野犬豺狼所食。其屯戍四方者，閔皆以書命趙人爲將帥者誅之，或高鼻多須濫死者半。
34. Shi Min sent the Master of Writing Wang Jian and the Minister Steward Wang Yu with thousands of soldiers to keep Shi Jian under careful watch and control his food supply.
An order went out through the city stating, "In recent days Sun Fudu and Liu Zhu held traitorous designs and sought to lay an ambush along with their partisans, completely devoid of propriety. From this day forward, anyone who agrees with we ministers should remain in the city, while anyone who does not agree should leave. Let no one block passage through the gates." Many of the Zhao people (that is, of Han ethnicity) within a hundred li flooded into the city, while the Jie and other tribal people rushed out of the gates.
Shi Min then knew that the tribal peoples would never help him, so another order was issued: "Any Zhao man who brings the head of a barbarian to the Fengyang Gate will be advanced three ranks if a minister or receive a reward if an officer." In the space of a single day, many tens of thousands of tribesmen were killed and their heads taken. Shi Min personally led the Zhao men to slaughter the Jie and other tribesmen; whether rich or poor, man or woman, young or old, all were killed, and the dead numbered over two hundred thousand. The corpses were brought outside the city, and left in the field for wolves to eat. All across the city, Shi Min absolved men for murder, and more than half the dead were Han men with high noses or large beards (facial features like the tribesmen).
35. Murong Jun sent word to Liangzhou, asking Zhang Chonghua to participate in a joint attack against Zhao.
36. The king of Goguryeo, Go Soe, sent Yan’s former Colonel of Eastern Tribes Song Huang back to Yan. Murong Jun pardoned him, and further changed Song Huang’s first name to Huo, and welcomed him as a Commandant of the Capital.
This was the same Song Huang who had been a Yan officer, but who had defected to Zhao during Shi Hu’s invasion of Yan in 338, and who had then fled to Goguryeo; thus the pardon. Murong Jun changed Song Huang’s name because of the taboo on anyone using the same name, Huang, as his late father.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0
on Tue Apr 11, 2017 2:47 pm, edited 9 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."