ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-106)

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BOOK 98

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Mar 06, 2017 7:13 pm

永和六年(庚戌,公元三五零年)

The Sixth Year of Yonghe (The Gengxu Year, 350 AD)


春,正月,趙大將軍閔欲滅去石氏之迹,托以讖文有“繼趙李”,更國號曰衛,易姓李氏,大赦,改元青龍。太宰趙庶、太尉張舉、中軍將軍張春、光祿大夫石岳、撫軍 石寧、武衛將軍張季及公侯、卿、校、龍騰等萬餘人,出奔襄國,汝陰王琨奔冀州。撫軍將軍張沈據滏口,張賀度據石瀆,建義將軍段勤據黎陽,寧南將軍楊群據桑壁,劉國據陽城,段龕據陳留,姚弋仲據灄頭,蒲洪據枋頭,衆各數萬,皆不附于閔。勤,末柸之子;龕,蘭之子也。

1. In spring, the first month, Zhao's Grand General Shi Min wished to wipe out all remaining traces of the Shi clan. Pointing to a prophecy that stated "after Zhao, Li", he changed the name of the state from Zhao to 衛 Wei, and forced all members of the Shi clan to change their surname to Li. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign year changed to Qinglong.

The Grand Governor Zhao Shu, the Grand Commandant Zhang Ju, the General of the Center Army Zhang Chun, the Household Counsellor Shi Yue, the General Who Protects The Army Shi Ning, the General of 武衛 Zhang Ji, and countless others nobles, ministers, and officials, to the number of ten thousand, fled the city to seek refuge with Shi Zhi in Xiangguo. The Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, fled to Jizhou. Many Zhao generals remained at their command posts. The General Who Protects The Army Zhang Chen held Fukou, Zhang Hedu held the Shidu weir, the General Who Establishes Virtue Duan Qin held Liyang, the General Who Calms The South Yang Qun held Sangbi, Liu Guo held Yangcheng, Duan Kan held Chenliu, Yao Yizhong held Shetou, and Pu Hong held Fangtou. These forces commanded many tens of thousands of soldiers all together, and none of them submitted to Shi Min. Duan Qin was the son of Duan Mopei; Duan Kan was the son of Duan Lan.

趙之冀州治信都。滏口,滏水之口也。魏收《地形志》,鄴縣有石竇堰。《括地志》:易州遂城縣界有桑丘城。又《水經註》:常山蒲吾縣東南有桑中縣故城,俗謂之石勒城。《續漢志》,中山蒲陰縣有陽城。據後劉國自繁陽引兵會石琨擊冉閔,則此陽城乃繁陽城也。

During Zhao, Jizhou was administered from Xindu. Fukou was the mouth of the Fu River. According to the "Geographic Record" compiled during Northern Wei, the Shidou Weir was in Ye County. The 括地志 says, "Sangqiu was within the borders of Suicheng County in Yizhou." And the Commentary on the Water Classic says, "Sanzang was a city in Sanzhong County, southeast of Puwu County in Changshan. It was said to have been built by Shi Le." The 續漢志 says, "Yangcheng is in Puyin County in Changshan." Later on in this chapter, it mentions that Liu Guo lead troops from Fanyang to join with Shi Kun to attack Ran Min. This Yangcheng must be the same place as that Fanyang.

建義將軍,蓋亦後趙所置。後趙蓋於征、鎭、安、平之外又置四寧。

General Who Establishes Virtue was also an office created by Later Zhao. In addition to the earlier general ranks (that is, General Who Xs the Direction) of Conquers, Guards, Maintains, and Pacifies, Later Zhao also had the rank of Calms.


王朗、麻秋自長安赴洛陽。秋承閔書,誅朗部胡千餘人。朗奔襄國。秋帥衆歸鄴,蒲洪使其子龍驤將軍雄迎擊,獲之,以爲軍師將軍。

2. Wang Lang and Ma Qiu marched from Chang'an to Luoyang. When Ma Qiu received Shi Min’s order regarding the tribesmen, he executed over a thousand of them that were in Wang Lang’s division. Wang Lang fled to Xiangguo.

Ma Qiu led his soldiers towards Ye, but Pu Hong's son, the General of Dragon Cavalry Pu Xiong, marched to meet him and attacked him. Ma Qiu was captured, and appointed as Pu Hong’s General Who Directs The Army.

汝陰王琨及張舉、王朗帥衆七萬伐鄴,大將軍閔帥騎千餘與戰于城北;閔操兩刃矛,馳騎擊之,所向摧陷,斬首三千級,琨等大敗而去。閔與李農帥騎三萬討張賀度于石瀆。

3. The Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, marched along with Zhang Ju and Wang Lang, leading seventy thousand soldiers to attack Ye. Grand General Shi Min marched out at the head of over a thousand cavalry to offer battle north of the city. Shi Min grasped his double-edged spear, rode into the fray and attacked, breaking through in every direction, and taking three thousand heads. Shi Kun and the others were greatly defeated and retreated. Shi Min and Li Nong then led thirty thousand cavalry to attack Zhang Hedu at the Shidu weir.

閏月,衛主鑒密遣宦者賫書召張沈等,使乘虛襲鄴。宦者以告閔、農,閔、農馳還,廢鑒,殺之,幷殺趙主虎三十八孫,盡滅石氏,姚弋仲子曜武將軍益、武衛將軍若帥禁兵數千斬關奔灄頭。弋仲帥衆討閔,軍于混轎。

4. In the intercalary month, Shi Jian secretly sent a eunuch to order Zhang Chen and others to attack Ye now that Shi Min was out of the city. But the eunuch instead went and informed Shi Min and Li Nong of the plot. Shi Min and Li Nong rode back, deposed Shi Jian and then killed him. They then killed Shi Hu's thirty eight grandsons, and wiped out the Shi clan.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》後云閏月;《三十國》、《晉春秋》皆云閏正月。按《長曆》,閏二月。《帝紀》,閏月有丁丑、己丑。按是歲正月癸酉朔,若閏正月,卽無丁丑、己丑。今以《長曆》爲據。

The 考異 says, "According to the Imperial Record, this event was in the intercalary month. The Thirty Kingdoms and the Jin Annals both say that the intercalary month was the first month of that year. According to the 長曆, the intercalary month was the second month of the year. The Imperial Record says that this intercalary month had the days Dingchou and Jichou. Since the first month of the year begins on the new moon, if the intercalary month had been the first month of the year, it would not have had the days Dingchou and Jichou. So the account of the 長曆 must be correct."


Two of Yao Yizhong's sons who were still in Ye, the General Who Illuminates Valor Yao Yi and the General of 武衛 Yao Ruo, led several thousand troops to break through the gates and flee to Shetou. Yao Yizhong led his troops to attack Shi Min, and his army waited at Hunqiao.

曜武、曜威,蓋皆石氏所置。

The ranks General of 曜武 and General of 曜威 were creations of the Shi clan.


司徒申鐘等上尊號于閔,閔以讓李農,農固辭。閔曰:“吾屬故晋人也,今晋室猶存,請與諸君分割州郡,各稱牧、守、公、侯,奉表迎晋天子還都洛陽,何如?”尚書胡睦進曰:“陛下聖德應天,宜登在位,晋氏衰微,遠竄江表,豈能總馭英雄,混壹四海乎!”閔曰:“胡尚書之言,可謂識機知命矣。”乃即皇帝位,大赦,改 元永興,國號大魏。

5. Zhao's Minister Over The Masses Shen Zhong and others wished for Shi Min to assume the throne. Shi Min offered Li Nong in his place, but Li Nong declined. Shi Min said, "I am a man of Jin, and the Jin dynasty yet exists. Should I not divide the land between the lords, each assuming their titles of Governor, Administrator, Duke, and Marquis, and welcome the Son of Heaven to return to his seat in Luoyang? What say you?"

The Master of Writing Hu Mujin replied, "Heaven approves of Your Majesty's saintly virtue, and you ought to rise to the throne. The Jin royal family has declined, and they have scurried far away across the Yangzi. How can they compare with a noble hero such as yourself, one able to bring order to chaos and pacify all within the four seas?"

Shi Min said, "Perhaps what Minister Hu has spoken is the will of Heaven made known." He therefore assumed the imperial throne, proclaiming a general amnesty. He changed the reign year to Yongxing, and renamed the state to 魏 Wei.

朝廷聞中原大亂,複謀進取。己醜,以揚州刺史殷浩爲中軍將軍、假節、都督揚、豫、徐、兗、青五州諸軍事,以蒲洪爲氐王、使持節、征北大將軍、都督河北諸軍事、冀州剌史、廣川郡公;蒲健爲假節、右將軍、監河北征討前鋒諸軍事、襄國公。

6. When the Jin court learned of the further chaos in Zhao, plans were laid for another expedition. On the day Jichou, the Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, was named as General of the Center and granted the Imperial Staff of Power, with authority over Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou affairs. Pu Hong was appointed King of the Di, 使持節, Grand General Who Conquers The North, Commander of military affairs north of the Yellow River, Inspector of Jizhou, and Duke of Guangchuan. His son Pu Jian was offered the ranks of 假節, General of the Left, command of the vanguard of expeditionary forces north of the Yellow river, and Duke of Xiangguo.

姚弋仲、蒲洪各有據關右之志。弋仲遣其子襄帥衆五萬擊洪,洪迎擊,破之,斬獲三萬餘級。洪自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、三秦王,改姓苻氏。以南安雷弱兒爲輔國將軍;安定梁欏爲前將軍,領左長史;馮翊魚遵爲右將軍,領右長史;京兆段陵爲左將軍,領左司馬;王墮爲右將軍,領右司馬;天水趙俱、隴西牛夷、北地辛牢 皆爲從事中郎;氐酋毛貴爲單于輔相。

7. Yao Yizhong and Pu Hong both had ambitions of seizing control of Guanyou. Yao Yizhong sent his son Yao Xiang with an army of fifty thousand to attack Pu Hong. Pu Hong met him in battle and defeated him, killing or capturing more than thirty thousand.

Pu Hong then declared himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of the Three Qins. It was at this time that he changed the surname of his clan to Fu. Among his followers, Lei Ruo’er of Nan'an was appointed General Who Upholds The State, Liang Luo of Anding was appointed General of the Front and acting Chief Clerk of the Left, Yu Zun of Fengyi was appointed General of the Right and acting Chief Clerk of the Right, Duan Ling of Jingzhao was appointed as General of the Left and acting Marshal of the Left, Wang Duo was appointed General of the Right and acting Marshal of the Right, Zhao Ju of Tianshui, Niu Yi of Longxi, and Xin Lao of Beidi were all appointed as Assistant Palace Attendants, and the Di chieftain Mao Gui was appointed Chanyu Chancellor.

二月,燕王俊使慕容霸將兵二萬自東道出徒河,慕輿于自西道出蠮螉塞,俊自中道出盧龍塞,以伐趙。以慕容恪、鮮于亮爲前驅,命慕輿泥槎山通道。留世子曄守龍城,以內史劉斌爲大司農,與典書令皇甫真留統後事。

8. In the second month, Murong Jun sent Murong Ba with an army of twenty thousand to march along the eastern road from Tuhe, while he sent Muyu Yu to march along the western road from Yewengsai, and he himself marched along the central road from Lulongsai. All these movements were part of Yan's invasion of Zhao. Murong Ke and Xianyu Liang lead the army's vanguard, while Muyu Ni held the mountain passes. Murong Jun left his son Murong Ye to guard Longcheng, his Interior Minister Liu Bin was entrusted with the office of Minister of Finance, while his Prefect of the Directors of Writing Huangfu Zhen was left to manage rear affairs.

杜佑曰:盧龍塞在今平州城西北二百里。

Du You says, "Lulongsai was two hundred li northwest of Pingzhou City."


霸軍至三陘,趙征東將軍鄧恒惶怖,焚倉庫,弃安樂遁去,與幽州刺史王午共保薊。徙河南部都尉孫泳急入安樂,撲滅餘火,籍其穀帛。霸收安樂、北平兵糧,與俊會臨渠。

9. When Murong Ba's army reached the Three Passes near Anle, Zhao's General Who Conquers The East, Deng Heng, panicked and burned the city warehouses before abandoning Anle's defenses and fleeing. He went to jointly guard Ji along with the Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Wu. The Colonel of the South at Tuhe, Sun Yong, quickly entered Anle, extinguished the remaining flames, and gathered up the grain. Murong Ba conscripted troops and grain from Anle and Beiping before joining up with Murong Jun at Linqu.

樂安城在遼西遼陽縣東。魏收《地形志》:海陽縣有橫山,蓋卽三陘之地。

Anle was east of Liaoyang County in Liaoxi. According to the "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei, "Haiyang County has Mount Heng, which contains the Three Passes."

臨渠城臨泃渠。泃水出右北平無終縣西山,東南至雍奴縣,入鮑丘水;魏武征蹋頓,從泃口鑿渠,逕雍奴、泉州以通河海者也。

Linqu was on the banks of the Gou Canal. The Gou River flows east out of the western mountains in Wuzhong County in Beiping. From there it flows southeast until it reaches Yongnu County, where it enters the Baoqiu River. When Cao Cao was campaigning against Tadun, he carved a canal from Goukou, to provide the people of Yongnu and Quanzhou access to the rivers and sea.


三月,燕兵至無終。王午留其將王佗以數千人守薊,與鄧恒走保魯口。乙巳,俊拔薊,執王佗,斬之。俊欲悉坑其士卒千餘人,慕容霸諫曰:“趙爲暴虐,王興師伐 之,將以拯民于塗炭而撫有中州也;今始得薊而坑其士卒,恐不可以爲王師之先聲也。”乃釋之。俊入都于薊,中州士女降者相繼。燕兵至范陽,范陽太守李産欲爲石氏拒燕,衆莫爲用,乃帥八城令長出降;俊複以産爲太守。

10. In the third month, the Yan soldiers reached Wuzhong. Wang Wu left his subordinate officer Wang Tuo with a thousand men to continue guarding Ji, while he and Deng Heng marched to defend Lukou. On the day Yisi, Murong Jun took Ji; he captured Wang Tuo and executed him.

Murong Jun also wished to bury alive a thousand soldiers, but Murong Ba remonstrated, saying, "You led your army to attack Zhao because of the state’s great cruelty, and in order to save the people from their misery and bring comfort to the central provinces. Now if you bury alive these soldiers after we have only just taken Ji, I fear it will do much to harm your reputation." Murong Jun therefore decided against it.

Murong Jun shifted his capital forward to Ji, and the men and women of the central provinces successively went over to his side.

When the Yan soldiers reached Fanyang, the Administrator of Fanyang, Li Chan, wished to oppose Yan on behalf of the Shi clan, but none of the people would support him, so he presented himself along with eight other city officials to surrender. Murong Jun confirmed his current post as Administrator.

産子績爲幽州別駕,弃其家從王午在魯口。鄧恒謂午曰:“績鄉里在北,父已降燕,今雖在此,恐終難相保,徒爲人累,不如去之。”午曰:“此何言也!夫以當今喪 亂,而績乃能立義捐家,情節之重,雖古烈士無以過,乃欲以猜嫌害之?燕、趙之士聞之,謂我直相聚爲賊,了無意識。衆情一散,不可複集,此爲坐自屠潰也。” 恒乃止。午猶慮諸將不與己同心,或致非意,乃遣績歸。績始辭午往見燕王俊,俊讓之曰:“卿不識天命,弃父邀名,今日乃始來邪!”對曰:“臣眷戀舊主,志存 微節,官身所在,何事非君!殿下方以義取天下,臣未謂得見之晚也。”俊悅,善待之。

11. Li Chan's son Li Ji was appointed as Yan's Attendant Officer of Youzhou. However, he fled with his family to Wang Wu at Lukou.

Deng Heng said to Wang Wu, "Li Ji's hometown (Fanyang) is in the north, and his father has already surrendered to Yan. Although he is here now, I fear that he will not be able to endure his conflicting loyalties. Rather than force him to stay here, it would be better to do away with him."

Wang Wu replied, "What nonsense is this? Li Ji came here because of the current civil strife, and he is able to uphold justice and support his family. Under such important circumstances, even if he were a hero of old, he would never do such a transgression. How can you second-guess him and try to harm his good name with these suspicions? If the people of Yan and Zhao hear of it, they will say that we have assembled together only to become rebels, and begin to believe it without thinking about it. They will all disperse, and we shall never be able to gather them together again. It would be a self-inflicted defeat." So Deng Heng ceased urging him.

However, Wang Wu still felt that the other generals did not agree with him. Worried that they would demand that he kill Li Ji, he eventually sent Li Ji away.

When Li Ji first came to meet with Murong Jun, Murong Jun said to him, "You have not heeded Heaven's command, since you abandoned your father to chase after reputation. Only now have you come to see me!"

Li Ji replied, "I was nostalgic for my old master, and in my slight sentiment I wished to go back. But I am here now, and what will I not do for you? Your Highness's side wishes to obtain the realm through justice, so I cannot say that I have seen you too late."

Murong Jun was happy with this response, and he treated Li Ji well.

俊以弟宜爲代郡城郎,孫泳爲廣寧太守,悉置幽州郡縣守宰。

12. Murong Jun appointed his younger brother Murong Yi as City Chief of Daijun, and appointed Sun Yong as Administrator of Guangning, as well as appointing other 守宰s in the commandaries and counties of Youzhou.

此秦、漢以來之代郡,非後魏之代都。此代郡治代;後魏代都,乃秦、漢之平城也。城郎、城大,皆鮮卑所置,付以城郭之任。郎,主也。

This was the same Daijun as under Qin and Han times, but not the same one as under Wei. This Daijun was administered from Dai, while Wei's Daijun was what had been known as Pingcheng under Qin and Han.

城郎 and 城大 were Xianbei titles, which designated the commanders of the inner and outer walls of a city. 郎 means chief.


甲子,俊使中部俟厘慕輿句督薊中留事,自將擊鄧恒于魯口。軍至清梁,恒將鹿勃早將數千人夜襲燕營,半已得入,先犯前鋒都督慕容霸,突入幕下,霸起奮擊,手殺十餘人,早不能進。由是燕軍得嚴,俊謂慕輿根曰:“賊鋒甚銳,宜且避之。”根正色曰:“我衆彼寡,力不相敵,故乘夜來戰,冀萬一獲利。今求賊得賊,正當擊之,複何所疑!王但安臥,臣等自爲王破之!”俊不能自安,內史李洪從俊出營外,屯高冢上。根帥左右精勇數百人從中牙直前擊早,李洪徐整騎隊還助之,早乃退走。衆軍追擊四十餘裏,早僅以身免,所從士卒死亡略盡。俊引兵還薊。

13. On the day Jiazi, Murong Jun sent the 中部俟厘 Muyu Ju to take charge of affairs in Ji, while he himself went to attack Deng Heng at Lukou. When the army reached Qingliang, Deng Heng's general Lubo Zao launched a night attack on the Yan camp with several thousand men. When half of them had already entered the camp, suddenly Murong Ba appeared before them, and once the ambush had been sprung, Murong Ba launched a general attack. He personally killed more than ten men, and Lubo Zao was unable to advance thanks to the Yan army’s discipline.

Murong Jun said to Muyu Gen, "The enemy’s vanguard is keen; perhaps we should fall back." Muyu Gen with a stern countenance replied, "Our numbers are few, and our strength cannot match the enemy; if their remnants attack at night, Ji may be lost. But if we treat the bandits as bandits, and boldly assume the attack, what need will there be for further doubt? You should remain at ease, while we ministers crush them on your behalf!" Murong Jun could not calm his anxiety, so his Interior Minister Li Hong led him away from the camp, to wait at Gaozhong.

Muyu Gen lead those around him, several hundred braves, from Zhongya (where he had been speaking with Murong Jun) to attack Lubu Zao head-on, while Li Hong led cavalry to return and assist him, and Lubu Zao at last retreated. The army pursued him for over forty li, and only Lubu Zao escaped, while his remaining soldiers perished. Murong Jun led the army back to Ji.

儁之還薊,亦鹿勃早有以挫其銳,否則進攻魯口矣。

Murong Jun's return to Ji must have been because of the keenness of Lubo Zao's attack, or else he would have pressed on to attack Lukou.


魏主閔複姓冉氏,尊母王氏爲皇太后,立妻董氏爲皇后,子智爲皇太子,胤、明裕皆爲王。以李農爲太宰、領太尉、錄尚書事,封齊王,其子皆封縣公。遣使者持節赦諸軍屯,皆不從。

14. Shi Min changed his clan's surname to their former one, Ran. He honored his mother Lady Wang as Empress Dowager, and elevated his wife Lady Dong as Empress, while appointing his eldest son Ran Zhi as crown prince and his other sons Ran Yin and Ran Mingyu as princes. Li Nong was appointed as Grand Governor, acting Grand Commandant, and given command over the imperial secretariat. He was ennobled as Prince of Qi, and his sons were all named Dukes.

Ran Min sent messengers offering pardons to the remaining regional army commanders, but they all refused the offer.

麻秋說苻洪曰:“冉閔、石祗方相持,中原之亂未可平也。不如先取關中,基業已固,然後東爭天下,誰能敵之!”洪深然之。既而秋因宴鴆洪,欲幷其衆;世子健收秋斬之。洪謂健曰:“吾所以未入關者,以爲中州可定;今不幸爲竪子所困。中州非汝兄弟所能辦,我死,汝急入關!”言終而卒。健代統其衆,乃去大都督、大將軍、三秦王之號,稱晋官爵,遣其叔父安來告喪,且請朝命。

15. Ma Qiu said to Fu Hong, "Ran Min and Shi Zhi are battling for contention, so the Central Plains cannot yet be settled. It would be better to first take Guanzhong. Having established that as a base, then you may march east, and all the realm can be claimed. Who can oppose you?" Fu Hong deeply agreed with this.

Subsequently, Ma Qiu poisoned Fu Hong at a feast, for he wished to seize control of Fu Hong’s army. Fu Hong's son Fu Jiàn arrested Ma Qiu and executed him.

In order to differentiate 苻健 Fu Jian from his more famous nephew 苻堅 Fu Jian, the former’s name will be written as Jiàn, while the latter will be Jian.

Fu Hong said to Fu Jiàn, "I had wished to enter Guanzhong, and by doing so to pacify the Central Provinces. Now I must pass my burdens onto my sons. You and your brothers will not be able to manage the Central Provinces. Once I die, you must enter Guanzhong!" Having said this, he soon passed away.

Fu Jiàn assumed command over the army, but he did away with his father’s claims to the ranks of Grand Commander, Grand General, or Prince of the Three Qins. Instead, he pledged himself a Jin vassal, and sent his uncle Fu An to inform the Jin court of his mourning and to ask for their commands.

趙新興王祗即皇帝位于襄國,改元永守。以汝陰王琨爲相國,六夷據州郡擁兵者皆應之。祗以姚弋仲爲右丞相、親趙王,待以殊禮。弋仲子襄,雄勇多才略,士民愛之,請弋仲以爲嗣,弋仲以襄非長子,不許;請者日以千數,弋仲乃使之將兵。祗以襄爲驃騎將軍、豫州刺史、新昌公。又以苻健爲都督河南諸軍事、鎮南大將軍、 開府儀同三司,兗州牧、略陽郡公。夏,四月,趙主祗遣汝陰王琨將兵十萬伐魏。

16. Zhao's Prince of Xinxing, Shi Zhi, proclaimed himself the Zhao Emperor at Xiangguo, and changed the reign year to Yongshou. He appointed the Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, as his Chancellor, and the various warlord commanders all inclined towards him.

Shi Zhi offered Yao Yizhong the ranks of Prime Minister of the Right and Prince Friendly to Zhao, and treated him well by sending him gifts.

Yao Yizhong's fifth son Yao Xiang, a bold and heroic man of many talents and tricks, enjoyed the favor of the gentry and the people. They asked Yao Yizhong to make Yao Xiang his heir, but because he was not Yao Yizhong’s eldest son, Yao did not consent. But after receiving over a thousand such supplicants in a day, Yao Yizhong at last placed Yao Xiang in command of his army. Shi Zhi named Yao Xiang as General of Cavalry, Inspector of Yuzhou, and Duke of Xinchang. He also offered to place Fu Jiàn in command of all military affairs south of the Yellow River, along with the ranks of Grand General Who Guards The South, with authority the Three Excellencies, Governor of Yanzhou, and Duke of Lüeyang.

《考異》曰:《晉帝紀》,祗卽位在閏月;《三十國》、《晉春秋》皆在三月。按《十六國春秋》,祗稱帝,拜姚弋仲、苻健官,而不言苻洪。洪三月死,故疑祗以三月卽位。

The 考異 says, "According to the 'Records of the Jin Emperors', Shi Zhi claimed the throne in the intercalary month. The Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both say it was in the third month. According to the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, when Shi Zhi became Emperor, he offered ranks to Yao Yizhong and to Fu Jiàn, and it does not mention Fu Hong. Since Fu Hong died in the third month, that must have been the month when Shi Zhi claimed the throne.”


In summer, the fourth month, Shi Zhi sent Shi Kun with an army of a hundred thousand to attack Ran Min’s newly-declared Wei dynasty.

魏主閔殺李農及其三子,幷尚書令王謨、侍中王衍、中常待嚴震、趙升。閔遣使臨江告晋曰:“逆胡亂中原,今已誅之;能共討者,可遣軍來也”。朝廷不應。

17. Ran Min killed Li Nong and his three sons, along with the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Wang Mo, the Palace Attendant Wang Yan, the Regular Attendant Yan Zhen, and Zhao Sheng.

Ran Min sent messengers to the bank of the Yangzi, to report to the Jin court, "I have already punished the barbarians who brought chaos to the Central Plains. If we can campaign together against them, you may send an army here." But the Jin court did not follow this suggestion.

五月,廬江太守袁真攻魏合肥,克之,虜其居民而還。

18. In the fifth month, the Administrator of Lujiang, Yuan Zhen, successfully took Wei's Hefei, capturing many of the inhabitants before returning.

六月,趙汝陰王琨進據邯鄲,鎮南將軍劉國自繁陽會之。魏衛將軍王泰擊琨,大破之,死者萬餘人。劉國還繁陽。

19. In the sixth month, Shi Kun advanced and captured Handan, and the General Who Guards The South Liu Guo marched from Fanyang to meet him. Wei's Guard General Wang Tai attacked Shi Kun, inflicting a great defeat; over ten thousand died. Liu Guo retreated to Fanyang.

初,段蘭卒于令支,段龕代領其衆,因石氏之亂,擁部落南徙。秋,七月,龕引兵東據廣固,自稱齊王。

20. It was earlier mentioned that Duan Lan’s soldiers had been stationed at Lingzhi by Shi Hu. His son Duan Kan had inherited the soldiers under his command. Now, because of the chaos within the Shi clan, Duan Kan abandoned his post and led the soldiers he commanded south. In autumn, the seventh month, Duan Kan led them to capture Guanggu (in Qingzhou), where he declared himself the Prince of Qi.

八月,代郡人趙榼帥三百餘家叛燕,歸趙幷州刺史張平。燕王俊徙廣寧、上穀二郡民于徐無,代郡民于凡城。

21. In the eighth month, a man from Daijun named Zhao Ke led over three hundred households in rebellion against Yan, going over to Zhao's Inspector of Bingzhou Zhang Ping. Murong Jun relocated the peoples of the two commandaries Guangning and Shanggu to Xuwu, and relocated the remaining people of Daijun to Fancheng (to stave off future rebellions).

王朗之去長安也,朗司馬京兆杜洪據長安,自稱晋征北將軍、雍州刺史,以馮翊張琚爲司馬;關西夷、夏皆應之。苻健欲取之,恐洪知之,乃受趙官爵。以趙俱爲河內太守,戍溫;牛夷爲安集將軍,戍懷;治宮室于枋頭,課民種麥,示無西意,有知而不種者,健殺之以徇。既而自稱晋征西大將軍、都督關中諸軍事、雍州刺史;以武威賈玄碩爲左長史,洛陽梁安爲長史,段純爲左司馬,辛牢爲右司馬,京兆王魚、安定程肱、胡文等爲軍咨祭酒,悉衆而西。以魚遵爲前鋒,行至盟津,爲浮梁以濟。遣弟輔國將軍雄帥衆五千自潼關入,兄子揚武將軍菁帥衆七千自軹關入。臨別,執菁手曰:“若事不捷,汝死河北,我死河南,不復相見。”既濟,焚橋,自帥大衆隨雄而進。

22. When Wang Lang had left Chang'an, his Marshal, Du Hong of Jingzhao, had seized control of Chang'an, and proclaimed himself as Jin's General Who Conquers The North and Inspector of Yongzhou, appointing Zhang Ju of Fengyi as his own Marshal. The peoples of Guanxi, both Han and tribal, submitted to him.

Fu Jiàn wished to capture Guanzhong, but fearing that Du Hong would learn of it, he accepted the Zhao offices (that Shi Zhi had offered). Zhao Ju was named as Administrator of Henei, and garrisoned at Wen; Niu Yi was named as General Who Gathers Peace, and garrisoned Huai. Fu Jiàn built a palace at Fangtou, charged the people to begin planting crops, and displayed no intentions of designs on the west. If anyone who knew about the campaign thus refused to plant crops, Fu Jiàn killed them.

After some time had passed in this fashion, he proclaimed himself as Jin's General Who Conquers The West, in charge of all Guanzhong affairs, and Inspector of Yongzhou. He further appointed Jia Xuanshuo of Wuwei as Chief Clerk of the Left, Liang An of Luoyang as Chief Clerk, Duan Chun as Marshal of the Left, Xin Lao as Marshal of the Right, and Wang Yu of Jingzhao, Cheng Gong of Anding, and Hu Wen and others as Libationers Who Consult The Army, and prepared his army to march west.

Yu Zun was appointed to lead the vanguard, and the army marched to Meng Ford, planning to cross the Yellow River at Fuliang county. Fu Jiàn sent his younger brother, the General Who Upholds The State Fu Xiong, with five thousand troops to attack Tong Gate, while he sent his nephew, the General Who Displays Valor Fu Jing, with seven thousand troops to attack Zhi Gate. When they were parting on the river bank, he took Fu Jing's hand and said, "If this affair does not succeed, you shall die north of the river while I shall die south of it, and we will never see one another again."

After crossing the river, he burned the bridge, and personally lead the bulk of the army to follow after Fu Xiong.

杜洪聞之,與健書,侮嫚之。以張琚弟先爲征虜將軍,帥衆萬三千逆戰于潼關之北。先兵大敗,走還長安。洪悉召關中之衆以拒健。洪弟郁勸洪迎健,洪不從;郁帥所部降于健。

23. When Du Hong learned of the matter, he wrote to Fu Jiàn sending insulting messages. He appointed Zhang Ju's younger brother Zhang Xian as General Who Conquers the Caitiffs, and Zhang Xian led an army of thirteen thousand men to battle north of Tong Gate. Zhang Xian's army suffered a great defeat, and he retreated back to Chang'an. Du Hong began drafting the people of Guanzhong in order to oppose Fu Jiàn.

Du Hong's younger brother Du Yu urged Du Hong to face Fu Jiàn in battle, but Du Hong refused. Du Yu led his subordinates to surrender to Fu Jiàn.

健遣苻雄徇渭北。氐酋毛受屯高陵,徐磋屯好畤,羌酋白犢屯黃白,衆各數萬,皆斬洪使,遣子降于健。苻菁、魚遵所過城邑,無不降附。洪懼,固守長安。

24. Fu Jiàn sent Fu Xiong to subdue the territories north of the Wei river. The Di chieftain Mao Shou guarded Gaoling, Xu Cuo guarded Haozhi, and the Qiang chieftain Bai Du guarded Huangbai; each of them commanded tens of thousands. All of them executed Du Hong's messengers and sent their sons to offer submission to Fu Jiàn. In all of the cities and towns that Fu Jing and Yu Zun passed through, there were none that did not submit to them. Du Hong, in fear, held fast to defending Chang'an.

張賀度、段勤、劉國、靳豚會于昌城,將攻鄴。魏主閔自將擊之,戰于蒼亭,賀度等大敗,死者二萬八千人,追斬靳豚于陰安,盡俘其衆而歸。閔戎卒三十餘萬,旌旗、鉦鼓綿亘百餘裏,雖石氏之盛,無以過也。

25. Zhang Hedu, Duan Qin, Liu Guo, and Jin Tun assembled at Changcheng, planning to attack Ye. Ran Min himself marched out to attack them; they fought at Cangting, where Zhang Hedu and the others were greatly defeated, with twenty-eight thousand killed, and Jin Tun was killed during the pursuit while fleeing to Yin'an. The others gathered their remaining soldiers and returned as well.

Ran Min now commanded an army of over three hundred thousand, with the drums and banners extending for a hundred li. Even the Shi clan at its zenith could not compare with this.

故晋散騎常侍隴西辛謐,有高名,曆劉、石之世,征辟皆不就;閔備禮征爲太常。謐遺閔書,以爲:“物極則反,致至則危。君王功已成矣,宜因茲大捷,歸身晋朝,必有由、夷之廉,享松、喬之壽矣。”因不食而卒。

26. Jin’s former 散騎常侍, Xin Mi of Longxi, was held in great esteem. During the rise and fall of both the Liu and the Shi clans (of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao), he had refused all offers of office.

Ran Min sent him gifts and offered to employ him as Minister of Ceremonies. Xin Mi sent Ran Min back a response stating, "Excesses go against rules, and to go too far invites danger. Your achievement is already accomplished. To properly honor it, you should submit yourself to the Jin court. As for me, I must keep to the simplicity of Xu You and Boyi, and enjoy the immortality of Master Red Pine and Prince Qiao." Because of that, he starved himself and passed away.

Xu You was a hermit living during great antiquity. Emperor Yao greatly admired him, and offered to give him the throne, but Xu You declined.

Boyi refers to the brothers Boyi and Shuqi, who lived together under the rule of King Wu of Zhou. When King Wu marched out to depose the last king of Shang and replace Shang with the Zhou dynasty, the brothers criticized him for his lack of filial piety and loyalty. After the Zhou dynasty became a fact, the brothers refused to eat "the grain of Zhou", and so starved themselves to death.

Master Red Pine and Ji Jin (also known as Prince Qiao) were Daoist sages who were said to have achieved immortality. Master Red Pine devised a method to grant himself eternal life, while Ji Jin was said to have ascended to Heaven on the back of a crane.


九月,燕王俊南徇冀州,取章武、河間。初,勃海賈堅,少尚氣節,仕趙爲殿中督。趙亡,堅弃魏主閔還鄉里,擁部曲數千家。燕慕容評徇勃海,遣使招之,堅終不降。評與戰,擒之。俊以評爲章武太守,封裕爲河間太守。俊與慕容恪皆愛賈堅之材。堅時年六十餘,恪聞其善射,置牛百步上以試之。堅曰:“少之時能令不中, 今老矣,往往中之。”乃射再發,一矢拂脊,一矢磨腹,皆附膚落毛,上下如一,觀者鹹服其妙。俊以堅爲樂陵太守,治高城。

27. In the ninth month, Murong Jun was subduing the territory of Jizhou; he captured Zhangwu and Hejian.

When Jia Jian of Bohai had been a youth, he had displayed much moral courage and integrity, and so Zhao appointed him as 殿中督. Now that Zhao had collapsed into turmoil, Jia Jian fled from Ran Min to return to his home territory, where he gathered together several thousand families. When Murong Ping was subduing Bohai, he sent notice to Jia Jian asking for his surrender, but Jia Jian would not accept. Murong Ping fought him in battle, and captured him. Murong Jun appointed Murong Ping as Administrator of Zhangwu, and Feng Yi as Administrator of Hejian.

Murong Jun and Murong Ke both admired Jia Jian. At this time, Jia Jian was already over sixty-five. Murong Ke heard that Jia Jian was an excellent shot, so he placed a bull at a hundred paces from them and asked Jia to prove his mettle. Jia Jian said, "When I was younger, sometimes I would miss. But now that I am old, I never miss." So he shot an arrow, and then another. The first shot went over the bull, just brushing against its spine; the second shot went under it, just grazing its belly. Both of the arrows had touched the skin and even sliced off a few hairs, as though they had been the same arrow. Everyone who was watching it felt that he was a remarkable talent. Murong Jun made Jia Jian the Administrator of Leling, to govern Gaocheng.

苻菁與張先戰于渭北,擒之,三輔郡縣堡壁皆降。冬,十月,苻健長驅至長安,杜洪、張琚奔司竹。

28. Fu Jing fought Zhang Xian north of the Wei river, and captured him. The commanders of the fortified places within the Three Regions (around Chang’an) all went over to him.

In winter, the tenth month, Fu Jiàn's cavalry arrived at Chang'an. Du Hong and Zhang Ju fled to Sizhu.

燕王俊還薊,留諸將守之;俊還龍城,謁陵廟

29. Murong Jun returned to Ji, where he left his generals to manage the territory; he then further returned to Longcheng, where he paid respects at his ancestral temple.

十一月,魏主閔帥騎十萬攻襄國。署其子太原王胤爲大單于、驃騎大將軍,以降胡一千配之爲麾下。光祿大夫韋謏諫曰:“胡、羯皆我之仇敵,今來歸附,苟存性命耳;萬一爲變,悔之何及!請誅屏降胡,去單于之號,以防微杜漸。”閔方欲撫納群胡,大怒,誅謏及其子伯陽。

30. In the eleventh month, Ran Min led a hundred thousand cavalry to attack Xiangguo.

Ran Min appointed his son, the Prince of Taiyuan, Ran Yin, as Grand Chanyu and Grand General of Agile Cavalry, with a retinue of a thousand tribesmen who had surrendered. The Household Counsellor Wei Xiao remonstrated, saying, "We have gained the hatred of the barbarians (presumably because of Ran Min’s execution order), and although these ones come claiming to have submitted and to heed our orders, if anything should change, it will be too late for regrets! It would be better to execute the surrendered barbarians and discard the title of Chanyu, in order to wipe away their memory."

Ran Min wished to win over the various tribal groups, and he received this advice in a great fury. He executed Wei Xiao and his son Wei Boyang.

甲午,苻健入長安,以民心思晋,乃遣參軍杜山伯詣建康獻捷,幷修好于桓溫。于是秦、雍夷夏皆附之。趙凉州刺史石寧獨據上邽不下,十二月,苻雄擊斬之。

31. On the day Jiawu, Fu Jiàn entered Chang'an. Since the people's hearts still inclined towards Jin, he sent his Army Advisor Du Shanbo to Jiankang to report his triumph and ingratiate himself with Huan Wen. The peoples of Qin and Yong, both Han and tribal, all submitted to him. Only Zhao's Inspector of Liangzhou, Shi Ning, held out against him at Shanggui. In the twelfth month, Fu Xiong attacked Shi Ning and killed him.

蔡謨除司徒,三年不就職;詔書屢下,太后遣使諭意,謨終不受。于是帝臨軒,遣侍中紀據、黃門郎丁纂征謨;謨陳疾篤,使主簿謝攸陳讓。自旦至申,使者十餘返, 而謨不至。時帝方八歲,甚倦,問左右曰:“所召人何以至今不來?臨軒何時當竟?”太后以君臣俱疲,乃詔:“必不來者,宜罷朝。”中軍將軍殷浩奏免吏部尚書 江虨官。 會稽王昱令曹曰:“蔡公傲違上命,無人臣之禮。若人主卑屈于上,大義不行于下,亦不知所以爲政矣。”公卿乃奏:“謨悖慢傲上,罪同不臣,請送廷尉以正刑 書。”謨懼,帥子弟素服詣闕稽顙,自到廷尉待罪。殷浩欲加謨大辟。會徐州刺史荀羨入朝,浩以問羨,羨曰:“蔡公今日事危,明日必有桓、文之舉。”浩乃止。 下詔免謨爲庶人。

32. Cai Mo had declined the appointment as Minister Over The Masses, and for three years had refused to take office. Several edicts were sent commanding him to do so, and the Empress even sent messengers to instruct him to, but Cai Mo never accepted. After Emperor Mu formally rose to the throne, he sent the Palace Attendant Ji Ju and the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Ding Zuan, to order Cai Mo. Cai Mo pleaded illness, and sent the Registrar Xie You to decline on his behalf. From dawn until 申, messengers were sent more than ten times, but Cai Mo still refused to come.

At that time, Emperor Mu was eight years old, and so he became tired of the refusals. He asked those with him, "How is it that I summon someone and yet he does not come? Have I not ascended to the throne?" The Empress and the court ministers were exhausted, so they ordered, "If someone will not come to court, they must be expelled from it." The General of the Central Army, Yin Hao, sent a memorial to the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Jiang Bin, asking that Cai Mo be dismissed from office. The Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, ordered that, "Duke Cai has arrogantly refused his superior's command, and has not conducted himself as a man or minister. If he will not bow to his lord's commands, then justice will not move forward, and he will not know how to govern affairs." The ministers also sent in a petition: "Cai Mo has been slow to respond and haughty to his superior. This is a crime unbecoming of a minister. We ask that he be handed over to the Minister of Justice for his punishment."

Cai Mo was afraid, and he led his sons and younger brothers to present themselves to kowtow and admit their faults, and then turned himself over to the Minister of Justice to admit to his crime. Yin Hao wished to have Cai Mo executed. Just then, the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, entered the court. Yin Hao asked him for his opinion. Xun Xian said, "Since Duke Cai is in danger today, tomorrow he will lead the soldiers and so certainly achieve the feats of Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin." So Yin Hao ceased arguing for the death sentence. The Emperor ordered Cai Mo demoted to commoner status.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Mar 21, 2017 5:10 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Thu Mar 09, 2017 8:53 pm

346: The year of the Lubo championship

2. 以社稷為己任 = he took the wellbeing of the state as his personal responsibility

所選用皆以功效 = He appointed (選用 = select for employment) people solely based on their efficacy

不私親舊 = and did not give privileges to those who were close to him (親舊 = those close to him and those who’ve been his people for a long time).

3. 俊居中指授,軍事皆以任恪 = Murong Jun coordinated things from the centre, while letting Murong Ke implement actual military manouevers.

謂所親曰 = saying to his close associates
「古人有釋衰絰從王者,以其才足干時故也。如和者,正足以虧孝道、傷風俗耳。」= “There were cases in ancient times when a person would take off his mourning clothes to follow a lord, but that was because his talents were so great that he could change the world. But as for someone like me, if I did the same, it would only serve to diminish the way of filial piety and offend tradition.”

識者美之 = Those who knew him praised him.

屬當厄運,危弊理極 = Being in this time of great misfortune, where dangers and corruptions are at their utmost

苟遂本懷,吾恐天下之事於此去矣。= If you only follow your own desires, I fear that all hopes for the world will be gone.

足下去就,即時之廢興,則家國不異 = Your decision to come or stay will decide whether the realm will perish or rise. You must treat the nation as your own family.

8. 惡 = dislike

朝覲以目相顧,不必復相過從談語。= When they met during court assembly, they only exchanged looks, and did not converse when passing by each other again.

9. “In our discussing the general to send”: not sure about this wording. How about “these days, when people recommend commanders, they tend to recommend those of long service”

非舊德也 = Not because of his past accomplishments

蓋明主之舉,舉無常人,才之所堪,則授以大事。 = When a sage lord appoints people, he does not follow set guidelines; but whoever’s talents are up to the task, he is entrusted with important responsibilities.

破趙以報: I think the 以報 part means to repay the honour (of being consulted)

10. 皆義士也 = They are both righteous people. (referring to both the guys who committed suicide)

11. 嘉寧 = Jianing (no apostrophe needed)

多居禁中 = He spent most of his time in his palace

佈滿山谷十餘萬落: This sounds incredible but literally it says there were hundreds of thousands of tribes (or settlements) in the mountains

12. 以為不可 = think it was not advisable (not impossible)

夫經略大事,固非常情所及 = When one organizes great ventures, he must rise beyond the common sentiments/ideas.

智者了於胸中,不必待眾言皆合也。= A wise man knows the course of action in his own heart, and does not need to wait for a consensus.

今為天下之患者,胡、蜀二寇而已。= Those who plague the realm are only the barbarians and the Shu.

將欲除之,宜先其易者 = If we want to be rid of them, we should first take out the easier target.

且恃其險遠,不修戰備 = Furthermore, he considers his land treacherous and far away, and thus he has not prepared for battle.

宜以精卒萬人輕繼疾趨 = We should send 10,000 crack troops to march swiftly and lightly

此似是而非 = This seems reasonable, but it’s not.

14. 不必得則不為 = He does not do anything if he is not certain of success
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:53 pm

永和七年(辛亥,公元三五一年)

The Seventh Year of Yonghe (The Xinhai Year, 351 AD)


春,正月,丁酉,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Dingyou, there was an eclipse.

苻健左長史賈玄碩等請依劉備稱漢中王故事,表健為都督關中諸軍事、大將軍、大單于、秦王。健怒曰:「吾豈堪為秦王邪!且晉使未返,我之官爵,非汝曹所知也。」既而密使梁安諷玄碩等上尊號,健辭讓再三,然後許之。丙辰,健即天王、大單于位,國號大秦,大赦,改元皇始。追尊父洪為武惠皇帝,廟號太祖;立妻強氏為天王后,子萇為太子,靚為平原公,生為淮南公,覿為長樂公,方為高陽公,碩為北平公,騰為淮陽公,柳為晉公,桐為汝南公,廋為魏公,武為燕公,幼為趙公。以苻雄為都督中外諸軍事、丞相、領車騎大將軍、雍州牧、東海公;苻菁為衛大將軍、平昌公,宿衛二宮;雷弱兒為太尉,毛貴為司空,略陽姜伯周為尚書令,梁楞為左僕射,王墮為右僕射,魚遵為太子太師,強平為太傅,段純為太保,呂婆樓為散騎常侍。伯周,健之舅;平,王后之弟;婆樓,本略陽氐酋也。段龕請以青州內附;二月,戊寅,以龕為鎮北將軍,封齊公。

2. Fu Jiàn's Chief Clerk of the Left, Jia Xuanshuo, and others petitioned him that, in accordance with the precedent set when Liu Bei declared himself Prince of Hanzhong, Fu Jiàn himself should assume the titles of chief of Guanzhong affairs, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Qin (and that these should be titles declared under Jin authority). Fu Jiàn angrily replied, "How can I settle for being Prince of Qin! I will soon make my break with Jin, and the offices I claim, you have no means of knowing."

Liu Bei had declared himself Prince of Hanzhong, under nominal Han authority, shortly after he captured that region from Cao Cao in 218.

Fu Jiàn then secretly sent Liang An to incite Jia Xianshuo and the others to ask him to assume the imperial title. Although Fu Jiàn feigned three times his wish to decline the titles, in the end he accepted them.

On the day Bingchen, Fu Jiàn declared himself as Heavenly Prince and Grand Chanyu; he declared the foundation of a state named Qin, and proclaimed a general amnesty. The reign year was changed to Huangshi.

He honored his late father Fu Hong as Emperor Wuhui, with the temple name Taizu. Fu Jiàn set up his wife Lady Qiang as Heavenly Princess, and named his son Fu Chang as crown prince. Among his other sons, Fu Jing was named Duke of Taiyuan, Fu Sheng was named Duke of Huainan, Fu Di was named Duke of Changle, Fu Fang was named Duke of Gaoyang, Fu Shuo was named Duke of Beiping, Fu Teng was named Duke of Huaiyang, Fu Liu was named Duke of Jin, Fu Tong was named Duke of Runan, Fu Sou was named Duke of Wei, Fu Wu was named Duke of Yan, and Fu You was named Duke of Zhao. His brother Fu Xiong was tasked with command of all military affairs, and named as Prime Minister, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Governor of Yongzhou, and Duke of Donghai. His nephew Fu Jing was appointed as Grand Guard General and Duke of Xiping, and Guardian of the Two Palaces (Fu Jiàn’s palace and Fu Chang’s palace). Lei Ruo’er was appointed as Grand Commandant, Mao Gui was appointed Minister of Works, Jiang Bozhou of Lüeyang was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liang Leng was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, Wang Duo was named Deputy Director of the Right, Yu Zun was entrusted as the crown prince's Grand Instructor, Qiang Ping was appointed as Grand Tutor, Duan Chun was named Grand Guardian, and Lü Polou was named 散騎常侍. Jiang Bozhou was Fu Jiàn's uncle on his mother's side, while Qiang Ping was Fu Jiàn's brother-in-law. Lü Polou had originally been a Di chieftain from Lüeyang.

The warlord Duan Kan, who ruled the city Guanggu in Qingzhou, requested from Jin the rank of 内附 of Qingzhou. In the second month, on the day Wuyin, he was appointed as Jin’s General Who Guards The North, with the title Duke of Qi.

魏主閔攻圍襄國百餘日,趙主祗危急,乃去皇帝之號,稱趙王;遣太尉張舉乞師於燕,許送傳國璽,中軍將軍張春乞師於姚弋仲。弋仲遣其子襄帥騎二萬八千救趙,誡之曰:「冉閔棄仁背義,屠滅石氏。我受人厚遇,當為復仇,老病不能自行;汝才十倍於閔,若不梟擒以來,不必復見我也!」弋仲亦遣使告於燕,燕主俊遣御難將軍悅綰將兵三萬往會之。

3. Ran Min marched against Xiangguo, and besieged it for more than a hundred days. Shi Zhi, under extreme duress, resigned his title as Emperor and claimed only to be King of Zhao. He also sent his Grand Commandant Zhang Ju to beg for an army from Yan, offering to give them the Imperial Seal. His General of the Center Army, Zhang Chun, was also sent to beg for an army from Yao Yizhong. Yao sent his son Yao Xiang with twenty-eight thousand cavalry to ride to Xiangguo's relief.

Before Yao Xiang’s departure, Yao Yizhong said to his son, "Ran Min has thrown away virtue and cast off justice, wiping out the Shi clan. Because of the favor I have received from them, I must have vengeance against him, but old and infirm as I am, I cannot go myself. You are ten times as talented as Ran Min; if you do not capture him, do not show your face here again!"

Yao Yizhong also sent word to Yan, and Murong Jun dispatched his General Who Overcomes Difficulties Yue Wan with thirty thousand men to link up with him.

禦難將軍,蓋慕容氏創置。

General Who Overcomes Difficulties was a title created by the Murong clan.


冉閔聞俊欲救趙,遣大司馬從事中郎廣寧常煒使於燕。俊使封裕詰之曰:「冉閔,石氏養息,負恩作逆,何敢輒稱大號?」煒曰:「湯放桀,武王伐紂,以興商、周之業;曹孟德養於宦官,莫知所出,卒立魏氏之基。苟非天命,安能成功!推此而言,何必致問!」裕曰:「人言冉閔初立,鑄金為己像,以卜成敗,而像不成,信乎?」煒曰:「不聞。」裕曰:「南來者皆雲如是,何故隱之?」煒曰:「奸偽之人欲矯天命以惑人者,乃假符瑞、托蓍龜以自重,魏主握符璽,據中州,受命何疑;而更反真為偽,取決於金像乎!」裕曰:「傳國璽果安在?」煒曰:「在鄴」。裕曰:「張舉言在襄國。」煒曰:「殺胡之日,在鄴者殆無孑遺;時有迸漏者,皆潛伏溝瀆中耳,彼安知璽之所在乎!彼求救者,為妄誕之辭,無所不可,況一璽乎!」

4. When Ran Min heard that Murong Jun was sending aid to Shi Zhi, he dispatched his Assistant 中郎 to the Grand Marshal, Chang Wei of Guangning, to Yan as his envoy. Murong Jun sent Feng Yu to say to Chang Wei, "Ran Min was raised by the Shi clan, and received their beneficence. How dare he overthrow them and proclaim his own state?"

Chang Wei said, "When Tang of Shang overthrew Jie of Xia, and King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, these were for the cause of founding the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Although Cao Mengde was raised by the palace officials of Han, who knew that after he grew up, he would provide the foundation for Wei? How can anyone achieve success if he goes against Heaven’s mandate? The overthrow being already a fact, what use is there to question it?"

Tang of Shang was a vassal of Jie of Xia, the last king of the mythic Xia dynasty. Because of Jie’s faults, Tang overthrew him and established the Shang dynasty.

Feng Yi said, "People say that when Ran Min first rose to the throne, he had cast a golden image, and had it divine whether he would succeed or fail, but the image said he would not succeed. Is it true?"

Chang Wei replied, “I have heard nothing of the sort.”

Feng Yi said, “Everyone coming from the south has reported the same thing. Why hide it?”

Chang Wei replied, “These are lies and slander, perpetrated by those evil ones who wish to besmirch Heaven's chosen, so they make much of reading fortunes or casting lots in the turtle shell. The Lord of Wei grasps the Imperial Seal, and controls the Central Provinces. Can there be any question that he has received the Mandate? But they wish to turn the truth into a lie, and say that he relies upon some golden image!”

The Imperial Seal was a symbol of the Emperor’s right to rule. It was carved from a precious jade by Qin Shihuang. After the fall of Qin, it had passed to Han, and during the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao took it from the upstart emperor Yuan Shu. The Seal had passed from Wei to Jin, and then first Han-Zhao and then Later Zhao had claimed it in turn when they captured Luoyang.

Feng Yi asked, "And where is the Imperial Seal now?"

Chang Wei said, "At Ye."

Feng Yi said, "Zhang Ju says it is at Xiangguo."

Chang Wei replied, "On the day the barbarians were killed, almost none of them survived in Ye. If any of them did escape the slaughter, it was only through hiding in some ditch or drain somewhere. How could any of them know where the Seal was? This fellow coming here to ask for your assistance is only spinning a wild tale. He cannot offer you anything at all, much less the Seal!"

俊猶以張舉之言為信,乃積柴其旁,使裕以其私誘之,曰:「君更熟思,無為徒取灰滅!」煒正色曰:「石氏貪暴,親帥大兵攻燕國都。雖不克而返,然志在必取。故運資糧、聚器械於東北者,非以相資,乃欲相滅也。魏主誅剪石氏,雖不為燕,臣子之心,聞仇讎之滅,義當如何?而更為彼責我,不亦異乎!吾聞死者骨肉下於土,精魂升於天。蒙君之惠,速益薪縱火,使僕得上訴於帝足矣!」左右請殺之,俊曰:「彼不憚殺身而徇其主,忠臣也!且冉閔有罪,使臣何預焉!」使出就館。夜,使其鄉人趙瞻往勞之,且曰:「君何不以實言?王怒,欲處君於遼、碣之表,奈何?」煒曰:「吾結髮以來,尚不欺布衣,況人主乎!曲意苟合,性所不能。直情盡言,雖沉東海,不敢避也!」遂臥向壁,不復與瞻言。瞻具以白俊,俊乃囚煒於龍城。

5. Murong Jun still chose to believe Zhang Ju's claims. To intimidate Chang Wei, he began to gather up firewood beside him, and he sent Feng Yu to secretly remonstrate with him. Feng Yu said to him, "Master Chang, you ought to reconsider, lest you be engulfed by the flames."

Chang Wei sternly replied, "The Shi clan was wild and cruel, and Shi Hu personally led a grand army to attack Yan's own capital. Although he was unsuccessful then and had to retreat, he always held the ambition to conquer Yan. Countless stockpiles of grain, weapons, and soldiers were gathered in the northeast, all for the sake of this dream of conquest. Now the lord of Wei has snuffed out the Shi clan. Although it was not for the sake of Yan, I believe that by doing so, he has purged the source for the old feelings of enmity and resentment. Is this not just? Nor is it strange that he has entrusted me with this task!

"I have heard that when a man dies, though his flesh and bones are cast into the earth, even so his soul ascends to Heaven. Now my lord has already shown me his favor. So be quick to fetch the firewood for my pyre, and send someone to appeal to the Emperor!"

Those around Murong Jun asked for Chang Wei to be executed. But Murong Jun said, "He does not fear even to be killed and buried for the sake of his lord. What a loyal minister! So long as Ran Min's crime goes unpunished, how can I send such a man to his death before him?" So he sent Chang Wei away, putting him up in lodging for the night.

That night, Murong Jun sent a certain Zhao Zhan, who was from the same county as Chang Wei, to try to persuade him. Zhao Zhan said to Chang Wei, "Won't you listen to honest words? The Prince is angry at you, and he is considering exiling you to distant Liao and Jie. What do you think of that?"

Liao and Jie were regions in the far northeast.

Chang Wei replied, "Then I shall shave off my hair and depart. I will take no heed even of the commoners, much less rulers of men! I am not the sort of man who will allow his nature to be perverted. My word is honest and true, and they will not change that though they throw me in the eastern sea!" Having said his piece, Chang Wei reclined against the wall, and refused to say anything further to Zhao Zhan.

Zhao Zhan went to report the matter to Murong Jun. He put Chang Wei in prison at Longcheng.

趙并州刺史張平遣使降秦,秦王以平為大將軍、冀州牧。

6. Zhao's Inspector of Bingzhou, Zhang Ping, sent word of submission to Qin. Fu Jiàn appointed him as Grand General and Governor of Jizhou.

燕王逡還薊。

7. Murong Jun returned to Ji.

三月,姚襄及趙汝陰王琨各引兵救襄國。冉閔遣車騎將軍胡睦拒襄於長蘆,將軍孫威拒琨於黃丘,皆敗還,士卒略盡。

8. In the third month, Yao Xiang and Zhao's Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, jointly marched to Xiangguo's relief. Ran Min sent his General of Chariots and Cavalry, Hu Mu, to fight Yao Xiang at Zhanglu, while his general Sun Wei went to battle Shi Kun at Huangqiu. Both of Ran Min’s generals were defeated and fled, with great loss of life.

閔欲自出擊之,衛將軍王泰諫曰:「今襄國未下,外救雲集,若我出戰,必覆背受敵,此危道也。不若固壘以挫其銳,徐觀其釁而擊之。且陛下親臨行陳,如失萬全,則大事去矣。」閔將止,道士法饒進曰:「陛下圍襄國經年,無尺寸之功,今賊至,又避不擊,將何以使將士乎!且太白入昴,當殺胡王,百戰百克,不可失也!」閔攘袂大言曰:「吾戰決矣,敢沮眾者斬!」乃悉眾出,與襄、琨戰。悅綰適以燕兵至,去魏兵數里,疏布騎卒,曳柴揚塵,魏人望之恟懼,襄、琨、綰三面擊之,趙王祗自後沖之,魏兵大敗,閔與十餘騎走還鄴。降胡栗特康等執大單于胤及左僕射劉琦以降趙,趙王祗殺之。胡睦及司空石璞、尚書令徐機、中書監盧諶等並將士死者凡十餘萬人。閔潛還,人無知者。鄴另震恐,訛言閔已沒。射聲校尉張艾請閔親郊以安眾心。閔從之,訛言乃息。閔支解法饒父子,贈韋謏大司徒。姚襄還還灄頭,姚弋仲怒其不擒閔,杖之一百。

9. Since his subordinates had been defeated, Ran Min wished to go attack Yao Xiang and Shi Kun himself, but his Guard General Wang Tai remonstrated, saying, "Xiangguo has not yet fallen. Now these forces have come to relieve it. If we march to fight them, we will expose our rear to the enemy still inside Xiangguo, and there is a chance of danger. It would be better to hold fast to our defenses here, settle this matter first, and then turn to face them. If Your Majesty marches out personally, then if there is any defeat, the whole campaign may be lost."

Ran Min was about to agree to this, when the Daoist Fa Rao stepped forward and said, "Your Majesty has held Xiangguo under siege since last year, but we are no closer to success. Now the rebels have arrived, and if you do not go to fight them, who will be willing to fight hereafter? Venus is currently crossing the Mao quadrant, and this augurs the death of the barbarian king: you will meet a hundred victories in a hundred battles, and how can you lose?"

This decided Ran Min, and in a great voice he said, "I shall fight a decisive battle; let any who oppose this part with their heads!" Thus he gathered his troops and marched out to fight against Yao Xiang and Shi Kun.

Meanwhile, Yue Wan was marching towards them with reinforcements from Yan. When they were several li away from the Wei army, Yue Wan sent his cavalry to ride about. The horses dragged bundles of wood behind them, kicking up a great cloud of dust as though a massive army was approaching. The Wei troops were greatly afraid.

Yao Xiang, Shi Kun, and Yue Wan then attacked the Wei army from three sides, and Shi Zhi also marched out of the city and attacked them from behind. The Wei army suffered a great defeat. Ran Min escaped back to Ye with ten riders.

It was earlier mentioned that Ran Min’s son, the Grand Chanyu Ran Yin, had a thousand tribesmen as his personal soldiers. During this battle, the tribesman Litekang and others, planning to surrender to Shi Zhi, seized Ran Yin and the Deputy Director of the Left Liu Qi and went over to Xiangguo. Shi Zhi killed the two prisoners. Hu Mu, the Minister of Works Shi Pu, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Xu Ji, the Palace Secretary Lu Chen, and others all died in battle, and the Wei army's dead numbered in the tens of thousands.

It was not generally known whether Ran Min had survived, and Ye was plunged into fear, with rumors spreading that Ran Min had died. The Colonel of 射聲 Zhang Ai asked Ran Min to personally go and calm the people's hearts. Ran Min agreed to do so, and the rumors of his death were squashed.

Ran Min executed Fa Rao, the Daoist who had urged him to fight, and his sons by dismemberment. He also posthumously named Wei Xiao as Grand Minister Over The Masses, because Wei Xiao had earlier warned him not to trust Litekang and the other tribesman whom he had entrusted to his son Ran Yin.

Yao Xiang returned to Shedou. Because he had not captured Ran Min, Yao Yizhong was furious and gave him a hundred floggings.

初,閔之為趙相也,悉散倉庫以樹私恩,與羌、胡相攻,無月不戰。趙所徙青、雍、幽、荊四州人民及氐、羌、胡蠻數百萬口,以趙法禁不行,各還本土;道路交錯,互相殺掠,其能達者什有二、三。中原大亂。因以饑疫,人相食,無復耕者。

10. From the time when he first came to the throne, Ran Min tried to win over the people of Zhao, opening up the grain stores to distribute among them so as to gain their favor. At the same time, not a month passed when he did not fight against the Qiang and the other tribes.

All of those people, especially the Qiang and other tribes, who had been forced to move from Qingzhou, Yongzhou, Youzhou, and Jingzhou, several million in all, began to ignore the former Zhao laws and started traveling back to their homelands. The roads were clogged, and there was much killing; out of all those seeking to return home, only twenty to thirty percent reached their destinations. The Central Plains were in great turmoil. Because of plague, the people lacked food, and there was no one to till the soil.

趙王祗使其將劉顯帥眾七萬攻鄴,軍於明光宮,去鄴二十三里。魏主閔恐,召王泰,欲與之謀。泰恚前言之不從,辭以瘡甚。閔親臨問之,泰固稱疾篤。閔怒,還宮,謂左右曰:「巴奴,乃公豈假汝為命邪!要將先滅群胡,卻斬王泰。」乃悉眾出戰,大破顯軍,追奔至陽平,斬首三萬餘級。顯懼,密使請降,求殺祗以自效,閔乃引歸。會有告王泰欲叛入秦者,閔殺之,夷其三族。

11. Shi Zhi sent his general Liu Xian with seventy thousand soldiers to attack Ye. Liu Xian’s army reached Mingguang Palace, only twenty-three li from Ye.

Ran Min was afraid, so he summoned Wang Tai so that he could discuss strategies with him. But Wang Tai, angry that his earlier advice had been disregarded, feigned illness and would not go. Even when Ran Min went to see him in person, Wang Tai stubbornly maintained his pretended illness. Ran Min, furious, went back to the palace, and told those around him, "That Ba slave; how can I let him live? First I will vanquish those barbarians, and then I will come back and behead Wang Tai."

Ran Min gathered his troops and marched out to battle, and completely routed Liu Xian, pursuing his army as far as Yangping, and killing thirty thousand men. Liu Xian was greatly afraid, and he secretly offered to surrender to Ran, and even to kill Shi Zhi on his behalf, so Ran Min let him return to Xiangguo.

After returning to the city, upon hearing that Wang Tai wished to betray him and go over to Qin, Ran Min killed Wang Tai, and executed his clan to the third degree.

秦王健分遣使者問民疾苦,搜羅俊異,寬重斂之稅,弛離宮之禁,罷無用之器,去侈靡之服,凡趙之苛政不便於民者皆除之。

12. Fu Jiàn sent messengers to look into the people's suffering. He sought out those of remarkable talents, broadened the tax burden among the people, slacked the regulations on the palaces, discarded useless items, and threw out extravagant clothing. By such measures, he won over all those who had been used to living under Zhao's tyranny.

杜洪、張琚遣使召梁州刺史司馬勳。夏,四月,勳帥步騎三萬赴之,秦王健御之於五丈原。勳屢戰皆敗,退歸南鄭。健以中書令賈玄碩始者不上尊號,銜之,使人告玄碩與司馬勳通,並其諸子皆殺之。

13. Du Hong and Zhang Ju, the Zhao generals whom Fu Jiàn had driven out of Guanzhong, sent requests asking Jin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Sima Xun, to come aid them.

In summer, the fourth month, Sima Xun led thirty thousand horse and foot to assist them. Fu Jiàn faced Sima Xun’s army at Wuzhang Plains. Sima Xun suffered several defeats there, and in the end he retreated back to Nanzheng.

Fu Jiàn began to believe that his Prefect of 中書 Jia Xuanshuo did not agree with his assuming regal title, and he resented it. When someone reported to him that Jia was secretly coordinating with Sima Xun, he had Jia and his sons executed.

渤海人逄約因趙亂,擁眾數千家附於魏,魏以約為渤海太守。故太守劉准,隗之兄子也,土豪封放,弈之從弟也;別聚眾自守。閔以准為幽州刺史,與約中分渤海。燕王俊使封弈討約,使昌黎太守高開討准、放。開,瞻之子也。

14. Because of the chaos in the Zhao region, a man from Baohai, Pang Yue, led several thousand households over to Wei. Ran Min appointed Pang Yue as Administrator of Bohai, and sent him to capture that place. The original Administrator of Bohai was Liu Zhun, the nephew of Liu Kui, and a local gentleman also lived there, Feng Fang the younger brother of Feng Yi. They both gathered men to help defend the city. Ran Min appointed Liu Zhun as Inspector of Youzhou, and he sent him along with Pang Yue to jointly divide Bohai.

Murong Jun dispatched Feng Yi to attack Pang Yue, and sent the Administrator of Changli, Gao Kai, to fight Liu Zhun and Feng Fang. This Gao Kai was the son of Gao Zhan.

弈引兵直抵約壘,遣人謂約曰:「相與鄉里,隔絕日久,會遇甚難。時事利害,人各有心,非所論也。願單出一相見,以寫佇結之情。」約素信重弈,即出,見弈於門外。各屏騎卒,單馬交語。弈與論敘平生畢,因說之曰:「與君累世同鄉,情相愛重,誠欲君享祚無窮;今既獲展奉,不可不盡所懷。冉閔乘石氏之亂,奄有成資,是宜天下服其強矣,而禍亂方始,固知天命不可力爭也。燕王弈也載德,奉義討亂,所征無敵。今已都薊,南臨趙、魏,遠近之民,襁負歸之。民厭荼毒,鹹思有道。冉閔之亡,匪朝伊夕,成敗之形,昭然易見。且燕王肇開王業,虛心賢俊,君能翻然改圖,則功參絳、灌,慶流苗裔,孰與為亡國將,守孤城以待必至之禍哉!」約聞之,悵然不言。弈給使張安,有勇力;弈豫戒之,俟約氣下,安突前持其馬鞚,因挾之而馳。至營,弈與坐,謂曰:「君計不能自決,故相為決之,非欲取君以邀功,乃欲全君以安民也。」

15. Feng Yi sent his soldiers to build ramparts to oppose Pang Yue. He sent someone to bring a message to Pang Yue: "We are both from the same county, although we have been divided for quite some time. Now even meeting one another is difficult. People have their own feelings regarding the harm or profit of this current business, and there is no need for further discussion. Let us meet together one on one, and write up a mutual agreement that will endure."

Pang Yue greatly trusted Feng Yi, so he went out, and met with Feng Yi outside of the city gate. They both dismissed their escort riders, and addressed one another from their horses. Feng Yi began to talk in his usual way, and thus said, "Both of us were born in the same county, and my respect for you runs deep. That is why I earnestly wish for your continued prosperity. Now that I have received the order to capture you, I cannot help but strive as best I can on your behalf.

“Now Ran Min has only emerged from the chaos of the Shi clan. He does not have the ability to succeed. He only wants to force the realm to bow down to his strength. He will only continue to cause chaos, even though he knows that it is Heaven's mandate that he will be defeated. On the other hand, I know well the virtue of the Prince of Yan. He has set forth to restore justice and quell the chaos, and there is no one who is a match for him. He has already captured Ji, and his armies are moving into the regions of Zhao and Wei. The people are flocking to him from near and far, carrying their children on their back to see him.

“The people are greatly suffering, yearning for the right path. Ran Min's demise is only a matter of time. It should be very clear to you which side will win and which will lose. Ever since the Prince of Yan began his royal design, he has shown himself to be modest, virtuous, and talented. Will you not change your allegiance and come over to our side? You may match the achievements of Zhou Bo and Guan Ying, and leave a legacy to your descendants. Better that than to be the general of a vanquished state, and by your stubbornness bring ruin to your city!"

Zhou Bo and Guan Ying were famous generals who served under Liu Bang.

When Pang Yue heard this, he was upset and could make no reply. Feng Yi had among his escorts a certain Zhang An, a man of powerful strength. Feng Yi admonished Pang Yue until, his spirits downcast, Pang Yue looked away. Zhang An then suddenly dashed forward and seized the reins of Pang Yue's horse, and with them in hand, he rode back to Feng Yi's camp while pulling Pang Yue's horse behind him.

When they returned to the army camp, Feng Yi sat down with Pang Yue. He told him, "It seemed that you would not come to a decision on your own, so I helped us reach the decision together. I did not wish to proclaim my victory over you; rather, what I wished for was for both of us to save the people together."

高開至渤海,准、放迎降。俊以放為渤海太守,准為左司馬,約參軍事。以約誘於人而遇獲,更其名曰釣。

16. Gao Kai arrived at Bohai, where Liu Zhun and Feng Fang surrendered to him. Murong Jun appointed Feng Fang as Administer of Bohai, and Liu Zhun as Marshal of the Left, with Pang Yue as his army advisor. Murong Jun's fame further spread because of his ability to win over men like Pang Yue.

劉顯弒趙王祗及其丞相安樂王炳、太宰趙庶等十餘人,傳首於鄴。驃騎將軍石寧奔柏人。魏主閔焚祗首於通衢,拜顯上大將軍、大單于、冀州牧。

17. Liu Xian murdered Shi Zhi, along with his Prime Minister, the Prince of Anle Shi Bing, his Grand Governor Zhao Shu, and over ten others. He sent their heads to Ye. The General of Agile Cavalry Shi Ning fled to Boren. Ran Min burned Shi Zhi's head in Ye’s main street, and he appointed Liu Xian as Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and Governor of Jizhou.

五月,趙兗州刺史劉啟自鄄城來奔。

18. In the fifth month, Zhao's Inspector of Yanzhou, Liu Qi, fled from Juancheng to surrender to Jin.

秋,七月,劉顯復引兵攻鄴,魏主閔擊敗之。顯還,稱帝於襄國。

19. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Xian once again led soldiers to attack Ye. Ran Min attacked and defeated him. Liu Xian retreated, and declared himself Emperor at Xiangguo.

八月,魏徐州刺史周成、兗州刺史魏統、荊州刺史樂弘、豫州牧張遇以廩丘、許昌等諸城來降;平南將軍高崇、征虜將軍呂護執洛州刺史鄭系,以其地來降。

20. In the eighth month, Wei's Inspector of Xuzhou, Zhou Cheng, their Inspector of Yanzhou, Wei Tong, their Inspector of Jingzhou, Yue Hong, and their Governor of Yuzhou, Zhang Yu, along with the cities of Linqiu, Xuchang, and others, all defected to Jin.

時周成據廩丘,張遇據許昌。

At this time, Zhou Cheng captured Linqiu and Zhang Yu captured Xuchang.

Wei’s General Who Pacifies The South, Gao Chong, and their General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Lv Hu, arrested their Inspector of Luozhou, Zheng Xi, and then they also surrendered.

燕王俊遣慕容恪攻中山,慕容評攻王午於魯口,魏中山太守上谷侯龕閉城拒守。恪南徇常山,軍於九門,魏趙郡太守遼西李邽舉郡降,恪厚撫之,將邽還圍中山,侯龕乃降。恪入中山,遷其將帥、土豪數十家詣薊,餘皆安堵;軍令嚴明,秋豪不犯。慕容評至南安,王午遣其將鄭生拒戰,抨擊斬之。

21. Murong Jun sent Murong Ke to attack Zhongshan, while sending Murong Ping to attack Wang Wu at Lukou.

Wei's Administrator of Zhongshan, Hou Kan of Shanggu, closed the gates and guarded the city. Murong Ke marched south and secured Changshan. When the army reached Jiumen, Wei's Administrator of Zhaojun, Li Gui of Liaoxi, surrendered to them, and Murong Ke graciously accepted him. He sent Li Gui back to besiege Zhongshan, whereupon Hou Kan surrendered. After Murong Ke entered Zhongshan, he sent several dozen of the major military and gentry families to report to Ji, while leaving the rest of the people to live in peace and security. He issued strict military orders to his soldiers, and so none of the people there were harmed.

When Murong Ping reached Nan'an, Wang Wu sent his officer Zheng Sheng to fight him, but Murong Ping defeated and killed Zheng Sheng.

悅綰還自襄國,俊乃知張舉之妄而殺之。常煒有四男二女在中山,俊釋煒之囚,使諸子就見之。煒上疏謝恩,俊手令答曰:「卿本不為生計,孤以州裡相存耳。今大亂之中,諸子盡至,豈非天所念邪!天且念卿,況於孤乎!」賜妾一人,谷三百斛,使居凡城。以北平太守孫興為中山太守。興善於綏撫,中山遂安。

22. Yue Wan returned from Xiangguo. Murong Jun then knew that Zhang Ju had been lying about Shi Zhi possessing the Imperial Seal, so he killed Zhang Ju.

Ran Min’s envoy to Yan, Chang Wei, had four sons and two daughters at Zhongshan. Since Chang Wei was his prisoner, Murong Jun sent Chang Wei’s children to see him. Chang Wei sent Murong Jun a memorial expressing his appreciation for such grace. Murong Jun sent a response by his own hand stating, "Before, you gave no thought to your own livelihood, careless of which province or place I would have sent you. But in the midst of this great chaos, your children have returned to you. How can that not be Heaven's regard for you? Even Heaven smiles upon you, not to mention myself!" He gave Chang Wei a concubine and three hundred 斛 of grain, and sent him to live in Fancheng.

Yan’s Administrator of Beiping, Sun Xing, was reassigned to be Administrator of Zhongshan. He administered it well, using peaceful and comforting methods, and Zhongshan became at peace.

庫辱官偉帥部眾自上黨降燕。

23. Kuru Guanwei led a multitude from Shangdang to surrender to Yan.

姚弋仲遣使來請降。冬,十一月,以弋仲為使持節、六夷大都督、督江北諸軍事、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、大單于、高陵郡公,又以其子襄為持節、平北將軍、都督并州諸軍事、并州刺史、平鄉縣公。

24. Yao Yizhong sent notice asking to submit to Jin.

In winter, the eleventh month, Yao Yizhong was offered the imperial staff of authority, along with the ranks of Grand Commander of the Six Tribes, Commander of Jiangbei affairs, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, with staff equal in authority to the Three Excellencies, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Gaoling. His son Yao Xiang was appointed as General Who Pacifies The North, chief of Bingzhou affairs, Inspector of Bingzhou, and Duke of Pingxiang, with the staff of authority.

逄釣亡歸渤海,招集舊眾以叛燕。樂陵太守賈堅使人告諭鄉人,示以成敗,釣部眾稍散,遂來奔。

25. Pang Diao returned to Bohai, seeking to stir up the people against Yan. Yan’s Administrator of Leling, Jia Jian, sent someone to instruct the people, warning them of success and failure. Pang Diao's group scattered, and he himself fled.

吐谷渾葉延卒,子碎妥立。

26. Among the Tuyuhun, Murong Yeyan passed away, and his son Murong Suixi inherited his command.

The Tuyuhun were another branch of the Xianbei who settled around Lake Qinghai. Their founder, Murong Tuyuhun, was the brother of Former Yan’s founder Murong Hui.

初,桓溫聞石氏亂,上疏請出師經略另原,事久不報。溫知朝廷仗殷浩以抗己,甚忿之;然素知浩之為人,亦不之憚也。以國無他釁,遂得相持彌年,雖有君臣之跡,羈縻而已,八州士眾資調殆不為國家用。屢求北伐,詔書不聽。十二月,辛未,溫拜表輒行,帥眾四五萬順流而下,軍於武昌,朝廷大懼。

27. Sometime earlier, when Huan Wen first learned of the chaos among the Shi clan, he sent notice to the court asking to lead a campaign to recover the Central Plains, but for a long time there had been no response.

Huan Wen knew that the court had employed Yin Hao to counter him, and was angry. He also knew the sort of man that Yin Hao was, so he did not fear him. Since there was no one else in the state who opposed him, the two of them had been locked in a stalemate for more than a year. Though Huan Wen kept up the appearance of a loyal minister, keeping his subordinates under control, the gentry of the eight provinces all believed that Huan was too dangerous to be employed on behalf of the state.

Despite Huan Wen’s repeated further requests for a northern campaign, none were heeded by the court. In the twelfth month, on the day Xinwei, on the pretext of paying his respects, Huan led forty or fifty thousand soldiers downstream, marching to Wuchang, and the court was greatly afraid.

殷浩欲去位以避溫,又欲以騶虞幡駐溫軍。吏部尚書王彪之言於會稽王昱曰:「此屬皆自為計,非能保社稷,為殿下計也。若殷浩去職,人情離駭,天子獨坐,當此之際,必有任其責者,非殿下而誰乎!」又謂浩曰:「彼若抗表問罪,卿為之首。事任如此,猜釁已成,欲作匹夫,豈有全地邪!且當靜以待之。令相王與手書,示以款誠,為陳成敗,彼必旋師;若不從,則遣中詔;又不從,乃當以正義相裁。奈何無故匆匆,先自猖獗乎!」浩曰:「決大事正自難,頃日來欲使人悶。聞卿此謀,意始得了。」彪之,彬之子也。

28. Yin Hao wished to resign his position in favor of Huan Wen, and to send the Imperial Banner of Peace to Huan's army.

The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, said to the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, "Yin Hao’s requests are only to save himself, and not to safeguard the state. That must be Your Highness's plan. If Yin Hao resigns his office, then people will be greatly astonished, and the Son of Heaven will sit alone. In this time of peril, whoever holds office must continue to bear the burden, whether that be Your Highness or anyone else!"

Wang Biaozhi also said to Yin Hao, "If the enemy has anyone to condemn, it is you most of all. After you took up your position, this division sprang up. Yet now you wish to play the fool. Who are you fooling? We ought to find a way to ease the tensions. You ought to compose a letter to send to Huan Wen, to demonstrate your sincerity, for the sake of success or failure. Then Huan Wen will surely return back to his command post. If he does not listen to that, then you may issue an edict summoning him to court, and if he does not heed that either, then we will be able to see which side is truly just. What use is there in rushing to give in and acting at once without regard?"

Yin Hao replied, "How difficult it is to decide great affairs, and to grapple with such feelings of defeat. Having heard what you propose, now I believe it can be done."

This Wang Biaozhi was the son of Wang Bin.

撫軍司馬高崧言於昱曰:「王宜致書,諭以禍福,自當返旆。如其不爾,便六軍整駕,逆順於茲判矣!」乃於坐為昱草書曰:「寇難宜平,時會宜接。此實為國遠圖,經略大算,能弘斯會,非足下而誰?但以比興師動眾,要當以資實為本;運轉之艱,古人所難,不可易之於始而不熟慮。頃所以深用為疑,惟在此耳。然異常之舉,眾之所駭,游聲噂□沓,想足下亦少聞之。苟患失之,無所不至,或能望風振擾,一時崩散。如此則望實並喪,社稷之事去矣。皆由吾闇弱,德信不著,不能鎮靜群庶,保固維城,所以內愧於心,外慚良友。吾與足下,雖職有內外,安社稷,保家國,其致一也。天下安危,系之明德。當先思寧國而後圖其外,使王基克隆,大義弘著,所望於足下。區區誠懷,豈可復顧嫌而不盡哉!」溫即上疏惶恐致謝,回軍還鎮。

29. Jin’s Marshal Who Protects The Army, Gao Song, said to Sima Yu, "You ought to send a letter to Huan Wen, instructing him of disasters and fortune. Then he will go back to his post on his own. If he does not go back, then we send the six armies against him, since his crime will have been made clear!"

Sima Yu thereupon composed a letter to Huan stating, "It is difficult to find a time to pacify the invaders, but the time will soon approach. When it comes to distant conquests on behalf of the state, drawing up grand plans and devising strategies to achieve them, and having the ability to carry them out, who else but yourself is worthy? However, in order to lead a great host on campaign, a foundation of resources must first be established. The ancients all struggled with the difficulties of such operations. It is not an easy thing to chart a new path. That is why I am most unclear on why you have come here.

“Now most unusual requests are being raised, the people are very unsettled, and there has been much talk between them. I believe that even you must have heard of some of it. Those who are careless and court disaster, and who are not held back by any scruples, or who are always on the lookout for some way to shake up affairs, will soon crumble to pieces. By doing so, they give cause for mourning on every side, and the affairs of state are abandoned.

“In these things, I am blind and weak, and my virtues are insufficient to safeguard and comfort the people, or to protect and defend the cities; thus my heart is filled with shame, and I feel ashamed towards my friends. That is why I must entrust you with these things, whether inside or out: the peace of the state and the protection of the dynasty are in your hands. Whether the realm will be safe or in peril depends upon you. First give thought to tranquility within the state, and then conquests beyond the borders may come afterwards. When the imperial tombs have been recovered, then justice will prevail in the world, and it will all be thanks to you. This is my earnest plea; how can you continue to doubt me, or to not do your utmost?"

Huan Wen sent back a reply fearfully stating his apologies, and returned his army to their post.

朝廷將行郊祀。會稽王昱問於王彪之曰:「郊祀應有赦否?」彪之曰:「自中興以來,郊祀往往有赦,愚意常謂非宜;凶愚之人,以為郊必有赦,將生心於徼幸矣!」昱從之。

30. The Jin court planned to go offer sacrifices near the capital. Sima Yu asked Wang Biaozhi, "Should the sacrificial ceremony include an amnesty or not?"

Wang Biaozhi replied, "Since the restoration, the ceremony has always included an amnesty, although I have often said that it should not. Wild and evil men are always trying to test their luck, believing that the sacrifices will certainly have an amnesty again!" Sima Yu agreed with him.

燕王俊如龍城。

31. Murong Jun returned to Longcheng.

丁零翟鼠帥所部降燕,封為歸義王。

32. Zhai Shu of the Dingling lead all his forces to submit to Yan; they appointed him as Prince of Guiyi.

The Dingling were another northern tribe of Turkish origin. They had lived for a long time under the Xiongnu.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:57 pm

永和八年(壬子,公元三五二年)

The Eighth Year of Yonghe (The Renzi Year, 352 AD)


春,正月,辛卯,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinmao, there was an eclipse.

秦丞相雄等請秦王健正尊號,依漢、晉之舊,不必效石氏之初。健從之,即皇帝位,大赦。諸公皆進爵為王。且言單于所以統壹百蠻,非天子所宜領,以授太子萇。

2. The Prime Minister of Qin, Fu Xiong, along with the other officials, asked Fu Jiàn to truly assume the imperial title, and that he should follow the old rites and ceremonies of Han and Jin, without using the new rites that the Shi clan had developed. Fu Jiàn assented, and assumed the imperial title, proclaiming a general amnesty. All those who had formerly been Dukes were raised to Princes. He announced that he would seek to unite the many tribal groups, and that he would no longer follow the commands of the Son of Heaven. His eldest son Fu Chang was named Crown Prince.

司馬勳既還漢中,杜洪、張琚屯宜秋。洪自以右族,輕琚,琚遂殺洪,自立為秦王,改元建昌。

3. After the Jin general Sima Xun returned to Hanzhong, Du Hong and Zhang Ju were stationed at Yiqiu. Since Du Hong regarded himself as coming from a superior lineage, he slighted Zhang Ju. Zhang Ju killed Du Hong, and proclaimed himself Prince of Qin, changing his reign title to Jianchang.

劉顯攻常山,魏主閔留大將軍蔣干使輔太子智守鄴,自將八千騎救之。顯大司馬清河王寧以棗強降魏。閔擊顯,敗之,追奔至襄國。顯大將軍曹伏駒開門納閔。閔殺顯及其公卿己下百餘人,焚襄國宮室,遷其民於鄴。趙汝陰王琨以其妻妾來奔,斬於建康市,石氏遂絕。

4. The newly self-proclaimed Emperor of Zhao, Liu Xian, attacked Changshan. Ran Min left his Grand General, Jiang Gan, to guard his crown prince Ran Zhi and defend Ye, while he himself led eight thousand riders to relieve Changshan. Liu Xian's Grand Marshal, the Prince of Qinghe Shi Ning, surrendered to Wei at Zaoqiang. Ran Min attacked Liu Xian and defeated him, and pursued his army back to Xiangguo. There, Liu's Grand General Cao Fuju opened the gates and allowed Ran Min's army to enter. Ran Min killed Liu Xian and his nobles and ministers, more than a hundred men, and burned down the palaces in Xiangguo, before forcing all the people there to move to Ye.

Zhao's Prince of Ruyin, Shi Kun, fled the city with his wives and concubines and sought refuge in Jin, but he was beheaded at Jiankang in the marketplace. Thus was the Shi clan finally extinguished.

尚書左丞孔嚴言於殷浩曰:「比來眾情,良可寒心,不知使君當何以鎮之。愚謂宜明受任之方,韓、彭專征伐,蕭、曹守管籥,內外之任,各有攸司;深思廉、藺屈身之義,平、勃交歡之謀,令穆然無間,然後可以保大定功也。觀頃日降附之徒,皆人面獸心,貪而無親,恐難以義感也。」浩不從。嚴,愉之從子也。

5. Jin’s Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Kong Yan, said to Yin Hao, "This state of affairs is very lamentable, and I do not know why you insist on keeping it so. I believe that you should understand your position. It was Han Xin and Peng Chao who led the campaigns, while Xiao He and Cao Shen administered affairs. Each man, inside and outside, had his own role, and all attended to their own duties. I pray you will consider the friendship that developed between Lian Po and Lin Xiangru, and the plans that Chen Ping and Zhou Bo made together. They were close friends with no issues between them, and thus they were able to keep the state secure. But it seems that that lately no one is willing to give way; everyone has been a beast in human form, with no prospect for closer ties. I fear it will be difficult to achieve that sense of benevolence." Yin Hao did not listen to him. This Kong Yan was the nephew of Kong Yu.

Xiao He and Cao Shen were Liu Bang’s first and second Prime Ministers. Chen Ping and Zhou Bo were two of his generals.

Lian Po and Lin Xiangru were two ministers of the state of Zhao during the Warring States era; Lian Po was one of the chief generals, while Lin Xiangru was a top official. Although they initially clashed, they later became close friends.

Kong Yu was an Eastern Jin minister of great renown.


浩上疏請北出許、洛,詔許之。以安西將軍謝尚、北中郎獎荀羨為督統,進屯壽春。謝尚不能撫尉張遇,遇怒,據許昌叛,使其將上官恩據洛陽,樂弘攻督護戴施於倉垣,浩軍不能進。三月,命荀羨鎮准陰,尋加監青州諸軍事,又領兗州刺史,鎮下邳。

6. Yin Hao petitioned to lead a campaign to reclaim Xuchang and Luoyang for Jin; the court gave its assent. He appointed General Who Maintains the West Xie Shang and 北中郎獎 Xun Xian as Protectors, and they advanced to camp at Shouchun.

It was earlier mentioned that the Zhao general Zhang Yu had surrendered the city of Xuchang to Jin. During this campaign, Xie Shang was unable to keep Zhang Yu supplied. Zhang Yu, furious, seized control of Xuchang and rebelled, and he sent his general Shangguan En to seize Luoyang. Yue Hong attacked the Protector Dai Shi at Cangyuan, and Yin Hao's army was unable to advance.

In the third month, Yin Hao ordered Xun Xian to defend Zhunyin (Huaiyin?), putting him in command of Qingzhou military affairs, and also made him Inspector of Yanzhou. Xun Xiao’s base was at Xiapi.

乙巳,燕王俊還薊,稍徙軍中文武兵民家屬於薊。

7. On the day Yisi, Murong Jun returned to Ji, and he moved his ministers, officers, soldiers, and many common families to Ji as well.

姚弋仲有子四十二人,及病,謂諸子曰:「石氏待吾厚,吾本欲為之盡力。今石氏已滅,中原無主;我死,汝亟自歸於晉,當固執臣節,無為不義也!」弋仲卒,子襄秘不發喪,帥戶六萬南攻陽平、元城、發乾,破之,屯於碻磝津,以太原王亮為長史,天水尹赤為司馬,太原薛瓚、略陽權翼為參軍。襄與秦兵戰,敗,亡三萬餘戶,南至滎陽,始發喪。又與秦將高昌、李歷戰於麻田,馬中流矢而斃。弟萇以馬授襄,襄曰:「汝何以自免?」萇曰:「但令兄濟,豎子必不敢害萇!」會救至,俱免。尹赤奔秦,秦以赤為并州刺史,鎮蒲阪。

8. Yao Yizhong had forty-two sons. At this time, he became ill. He said to his sons, "The Shi clan gave me their benevolence, and I had wished to exert myself on their behalf. But now the Shi clan is extinguished, and the Central Plains is without a lord. When I die, you must go over to Jin; conduct yourselves as loyal ministers, and do nothing that is unjust!" Yao Yizhong then passed away.

His son Yao Xiang did not go into mourning, but first led their army of sixty thousand south, attacking Yangping, Yuancheng, and Faqian, breaking through all of them, until he camped at Que’ao Ford. He appointed Wang Liang of Taiyuan as his Chief Clerk, Yin Chi of Tianshui as his Marshal, and Xue Zan of Taiyuan and Quan Yi of Eyang as his army advisors. Yao Xiang fought with the Qin soldiers, defeating them, killing over thirty thousand, and marching south until he reached Xingyang; only then did he begin the mourning rituals for his father.

There was an incident when he was fighting against the Qin generals Gao Chang and Li Li at Matian. During this battle, his horse was shot from under him. His younger brother Yao Chang offered his own horse to him. Yao Xiang objected, "How then will you escape?" Yao Chang replied, "So long as you are alive, Elder Brother, they will not dare to harm me!" Their reinforcements then arrived, and they both escaped.

Yin Chi fled to Qin, who appointed him as Inspector of Bingzhou; his base was at Puban.

襄遂帥眾歸晉,送其五弟為質。詔襄屯譙城,襄單騎渡淮,見謝尚於壽春。尚聞其名,命去仗衛,幅巾待之,歡若平生。襄博學,善談論,江東人士皆重之。

9. Yao Xiang led his forces into Jin, sending the Jin court five of his younger brothers as hostages. The court ordered Yao Xiang to garrison at Qiao.

Yao Xiang rode alone on horseback, crossing over the Huai River, to visit Xie Shang at Shouchun. Xie Shang knew Yao Xiang by his reputation, so he sent away his guards and attendants. He received Yao Xiang while wearing a common headscarf, and they welcomed one another as though they were old friends. Yao Xiang was erudite; his goodness was spoken of, and the people of Jiangdong all respected him.

魏主閔既克襄國,因游食常山、中山諸郡。趙立義將軍段勤聚胡、羯萬餘人保據繹幕,自稱趙帝。夏,四月,甲子,燕王俊遣慕容恪擊魏,慕容霸等擊勤。

10. Since Ran Min had successfully captured Xiangguo, many of the people near there fled to Changshan and Zhongshan commandaries. Zhao's General Who Establishes Virtue, Duan Qin, gathered many Jie and other tribesmen, more than ten thousand, and seized control of Yimu, declaring himself Emperor of Zhao.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiazi, Murong Jun sent Murong Ke to attack Wei and Murong Ba and others to attack Duan Qin.

魏主閔將與燕戰,大將軍董閏、車騎將軍張溫諫曰:「鮮卑乘勝鋒銳,且彼眾我寡,請且避之,俟其驕惰,然後益兵以擊之,」閔怒曰:「吾欲以此眾平幽州,斬慕容俊;今遇恪而避之,人謂我何!」司徒劉茂、特進郎闓相謂曰:「吾君此行,必不還矣,吾等何為坐待戮辱!」皆自殺。

11. Ran Min planned to do battle with the Yan army. His Grand General Dong Zhan and his General of Chariots and Cavalry Zhang Wen both objected, saying, "The Xianbei have won many victories and are keen fighters, and their numbers are many while we are few. Please forebear for a time, until they grow arrogant, and then we may profit by attacking them."

But Ran Min angrily replied, "I wish to use this army to pacify Yuzhou and cut off Murong Jun's head. If I hold back from fighting Murong Ke today, what will people say of me?"

The Minister Over The Masses Liu Mao and the 特進 Lang Kai said to one another, "Our lord is setting out like this, and certainly he will not return; what use is there for us in waiting here to suffer humiliation?" So they killed themselves.

閔軍於安喜,慕容恪引兵從之。閔趣常山,恪追之,丙子,及於魏昌之廉台。閔與燕兵十戰,燕兵皆不勝。閔素有勇名,所將兵精銳,燕人憚之。慕容恪巡陳,謂將士曰:「冉閔勇而無謀,一夫敵耳!其士卒饑疲,甲兵雖精,其實難用,不足破也!」閔以所將多步卒,而燕皆騎兵,引兵將趣林中。恪參軍高開曰:「吾騎兵利平地,若閔得入林,不可複製。宜亟遣輕騎邀之,既合而陽走,誘致平地,然後可擊也」。恪從之。魏兵還就平地,恪分軍為三部,謂諸將曰:「閔性輕銳,又自以眾少,必致死於我。我厚集中軍之陳以待之,俟其合戰,卿等從旁擊之,無不克矣。」乃擇鮮卑善射者五千人,以鐵鎖連其馬,為方陳而前。閔所乘駿馬曰朱龍,日行千里。閔左操雙刃矛,右執鉤戟,以擊燕兵,斬首三百餘級。望見大幢,知其為中軍,直衝之;燕兩軍從旁夾擊,大破之。圍閔數重,閔潰圍東走二十餘里,朱龍忽斃,為燕兵所執。燕人殺魏僕射劉群,執董閔、張溫,及閔皆送於薊。閔子操奔魯口。高開被創而卒。慕容恪進屯常山,俊命恪鎮中山。

12. The Wei army marched to Anxi; Murong Ke led his troops there as well. Ran Min wished to take Changshan, while Murong Ke hoped to block him.

On the day Bingzi, they encountered each other at Liantai near Weichang. Ran Min's army fought the Yan army in ten engagements, and the Yan soldiers could never best him. Ran Min's ferocity was well-known, and so his troops were heartened, while the Yan soldiers dreaded him. Murong Ke patrolled his camp, saying to his officers and men, "Although Ran Min is heroic, he has no talent for planning; he is the only one to fear! As for his soldiers, by now they must be suffering from hunger and exhaustion. Although their armor is impressive, it is difficult for them to use. We can rout them!"

The bulk of Ran Min's army was infantry, while all of the Yan soldiers were cavalry. They lured Ran Min's soldiers to Linchong. Murong Ke's advisor Gao Kai said, "Our cavalry have the advantage on level ground, but if Ran Min enters the forests, we will forfeit this advantage. Let us have the light cavalry feign retreat, and lure the enemy onto level ground; then we may attack them." Murong Ke agreed. Once the Wei soldiers had been lured onto the plains, Murong Ke split his army into three portions, telling his men, "Ran Min thinks so little of me that he has set out with this few troops, still certain that he can kill me. I shall keep the central portion here to act as bait. Once the battle has begun, then the rest of you attack from the sides. Then victory shall be assured." He then picked out five thousand of the best archers from among the Xianbei, and posted them at the front along with iron-linked chariots and horses.

Ran Min soon appeared riding his horse Zhulong (Cinnabar Dragon), a horse capable of riding a thousand li in one day. Ran Min grasped a double-headed spear in his left hand, and a hooked halberd in his right. He plunged into battle against the Yan soldiers, slaying over three hundred of them himself. Soon he noticed the Yan central camp, and, knowing that this was where their headquarters was, he charged towards it; whereupon the other two Yan divisions appeared and attacked from either side, and the Wei army was greatly routed. Ran Min was surrounded by many soldiers. He broke out of the encirclement, riding hard to the east for more than twenty li. But then Zhulong suddenly perished, and Ran Min was taken captive by the Yan soldiers.

The Yan army killed Ran Min's Deputy Director Liu Qun during the battle. Dong Zhan and Zhang Wen were taken captive, and together with Ran Min they were all sent to Ji. Ran Min's son, Ran Cao, fled to seek refuge with Wang Wu at Lukou. Gao Kai suffered a mortal wound during the battle and passed away. Murong Ke moved his base to Changshan; Murong Jun ordered him to guard Zhongshan.

己卯,冉閔至薊。俊大赦,立閔而責之曰:「汝奴僕下才,何得妄稱帝?」閔曰:「天下大亂,爾曹夷狄禽獸之類猶稱帝,況我中土英雄,何為不得稱帝邪!」俊怒,鞭之三百,送於龍城。

13. On the day Jimao, Ran Min arrived at Ji. Murong Jun issued a general amnesty; placing the blame all on Ran Min, he said to him, "How could a talentless slave like you claim the imperial throne?"

Ran Min replied, "The realm is in chaos, and even an upstart barbarian like you, hardly more than a beast, claims to be emperor. I am a hero of the Central Land, so how could I not assume the throne?"

Murong Jun was enraged, and he ordered Ran Min to be whipped three hundred times before being sent on to Longcheng.

慕容霸軍至繹幕,段勤與弟思陪舉城降。

14. Murong Ba's army arrived at Yimu. Duan Qin and his younger brother Duan Si offered up the city in surrender, along with their soldiers.

甲申,俊遣慕容評及中尉侯龕帥精騎萬人攻鄴。癸巳,至鄴,魏蔣干及太子智閉城拒守。城外皆降於燕,劉寧及弟崇帥胡騎三千奔晉陽。

15. On the day Jiashen, Murong Jun sent Murong Ping and the Commandant of the Capital Hou Kan with ten thousand elite cavalry to attack Ye.

On the day Guisi, they arrived at Ye, and Jiang Gan and the crown prince Ran Zhi closed the gates of the city to hold out against them. Everyone outside of the city surrendered to Yan, and Liu Ning and his younger brother Liu Chong lead three thousand tribal cavalry to flee to Jinyang.

秦以張遇為征東大將軍、豫州牧。

16. Qin recognized Zhang Yu as Grand General Who Conquers The East and Governor of Yuzhou.

五月,秦主健攻張琚於宜秋,斬之。

17. In the fifth month, Fu Jiàn attacked Du Hong’s former subordinate Zhang Ju at Yiqiu, and killed him.

鄴中大饑,人相食,故趙時宮人被食略盡。蔣干遺侍中繆嵩、詹事劉猗奉表請降,且求救於謝尚。庚寅,燕王俊遣廣威將軍慕容軍、殿中將軍慕輿根、右司馬皇甫真等帥步騎二萬助慕容評攻鄴。

18. There was widespread hunger within Ye, and the people had no food; they resorted to cannibalism, and even the old Zhao palace attendants were eaten.

Ran Min’s informal regent, Jiang Gan, sent the Palace Attendant Mou Song and the 詹事 Liu Yi to offer submission to Jin, and to ask Xie Shang to come relieve the siege.

On the day Gengyin, Murong Jun sent the General Who Spreads Might, his uncle Murong Jun, the General of 殿中 Muyu Gen, and the Marshal of the Right Huangfu Zhen, among others, to lead another twenty thousand horse and foot to assist Murong Ping in capturing Ye.

辛卯,燕人斬冉閔於龍城。會大旱,蝗,燕王俊謂閔為祟,遣使祀之,謚曰悼武天王。

19. On the day Xinmao, Yan executed Ran Min at Longcheng. A great drought and swarms of locusts suddenly appeared, and as Murong Jun believed that Ran Min's spirit was responsible, he wished to appease it, so he posthumously named Ran Min as Heavenly Prince Daowu.

初,謝尚使戴施據枋頭,施聞蔣干求救,乃自倉垣徙屯棘津,止干使者求傳國璽。劉猗使繆嵩還鄴白干,干疑尚不能救,沈吟未決。六月,施帥壯士百餘人入鄴,助守三台,紿之曰:「今燕寇在外,道路不通,璽未敢送也。卿且出以付我,我當馳白天子。天子聞璽在吾所,信卿至誠,必多發兵糧以相救餉。」干以為然,出璽付之。施宣言使督護何融迎糧,陰令懷璽送於枋頭。甲子,蔣干帥銳卒五千及晉兵出戰,慕容評大破之,斬首四千級,干脫走入城。

20. Xie Shang had earlier dispatched Dai Shi to capture Fangtou. When Dai Shi heard of Jiang Gan's plea for aid, he marched on his own initiative from Cangyuan to camp at Ji Ford, and halted Jiang Gan’s envoys there, demanding to be given the Imperial Seal. Liu Yi sent Mou Song back to Ye to report to Jiang Gan. Jiang Gan believed that Xie Shang would not be able to come to their aid, and after sighing he agreed to Dai Shi’s request.

In the sixth month, Dai Shi lead over a hundred men to enter Ye, where they assisted the defenses. He said to Jiang Gan, "The invading Yan soldiers are outside the walls, and the roads are not easily traveled, so you would not be able to send the Seal to Jin yourself. If you will give the Seal to me, I will send a rider at once to inform the Son of Heaven. Once he learns that I possess the Seal, then he will believe that you are sincere, and he will certainly send ample men and grain to relieve the city." Jiang Gan, believing this, gave Dai the Seal. Dai then said he was sending his Protector He Rong to gather food, but he secretly gave He Rong the Seal to bring it back to Fangtou.

On the day Jiazi, Jiang Gan lead five thousand of his best troops, along with the Jin soldiers, out to offer battle; Murong Ping crushed them, killing four thousand, and Jiang Gan and the rest fled back into the city.

甲申,秦主健還長安。

21. On the day Jiashen, Fu Jiàn returned to Chang'an.

謝尚、姚襄共攻張遇於許昌。秦主健遣丞相東海王雄、衛大將軍平昌王菁略地關東,帥步騎二萬救之。丁亥,戰於穎水之誠橋,尚等大敗,死者萬五千人。尚奔還淮南,襄棄輜重,送尚於芍陂;尚悉以後事付襄。殷浩聞尚敗,退屯壽春。秋,七月,秦丞相雄徙張遇及陳、穎、許、洛之民五萬餘戶於關中,以右衛將軍楊群為豫州刺史,鎮許昌。謝尚降,號建威將軍。

22. Xie Shang and Yao Xiang jointly marched to attack Zhang Yu at Xuchang. Fu Jiàn sent his Prime Minister, the Prince of Donghai Fu Xiong, along with his Grand Guard General, the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing, to march into Guandong with twenty thousand horse and foot to relieve Zhang Yu.

On the day Dinghai, the two sides fought a battle at Chengqiao on the Ying river; Xie Shang and the others were completely routed, and the dead numbered fifteen thousand. Xie Shang fled back to Huainan, while Yao Xiang abandoned his baggage, and followed Xie Shang to Quepi. Xie Shang then left matters to Yao Xiang. When Yin Hao learned of Xie Shang's defeat, he fell back to camp at Shouchun.

In autumn, the seventh month, Fu Xiong moved Zhang Yu and the people of Chenliu, Yingchuan, Xuchang, and Luoyang, more than fifty thousand households, back with him into Guanzhong. Guard General of the Left Yang Qun was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, and charged to defend Xuchang.

Xie Shang surrendered his title of General Who Establishes Might.

趙故西中郎將王擢遣使請降;拜擢秦州刺史。

23. Zhao's former 西中郎將 Wang Zhuo offered his submission to Jin; he was appointed as Inspector of Qinzhou.

丁酉,以武陵王晞為太宰。

24. On the day Dingyou, Jin's Prince of Wuling, Sima Xi, was appointed as Grand Governor.

丙辰,燕王俊如中山。

25. On the day Bingchen, Murong Jun returned to Zhongshan.

王午聞魏敗,時鄧恆已死,午自稱安國王。八月,戊辰,燕王俊遣慕容恪、封弈、陽騖攻之,午閉城自守,送冉操詣燕軍;燕人掠其禾稼而還。

26. At Lukou, Wang Wu heard that Wei had been vanquished. By this time, Deng Heng had already passed away. Wang Wu declared himself the Prince of Anguo.

In the eighth month, on the day Wuchen, Murong Jun sent Murong Ke, Feng Yi, and Yang Wu to attack Wang Wu. Wang Wu closed the city gates and prepared to hold out, and he handed over Ran Min’s son Ran Cao, who had fled to Lukou, to the Yan army. The Yan soldiers gathered up the remaining grain before leaving.

庚午,魏長水校尉馬願等開鄴城納燕兵,戴施、蔣干懸縋而下,奔於倉垣。慕容評送魏後董氏、太子智、太尉申鐘、司空條攸等及乘輿服御於薊。尚書令王簡、左僕射張乾、右僕射郎肅皆自殺。燕王俊詐雲董氏得傳國璽獻之,賜號奉璽君,賜冉智爵海賓侯。以申鐘為大將軍右長史。命慕容評鎮鄴。

27. On the day Gengwu, Wei's Colonel of 長水 Ma Yuan and others opened the gates of Ye and welcomed in the Yan army. Dai Shi and Jiang Gan hung ropes over the sides of the walls and so escaped, fleeing to Cangyuan.

Murong Ping sent the Wei Empress Dowager Lady Dong, the crown prince Ran Zhi, the Grand Commandant Shen Zhong, the Minister of Works Tiao You, and others who had been taken captive back to Ji. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing Wang Jian, the Deputy Director of the Left Zhang Qian, and the Deputy Director of the Right Lang Su all killed themselves.

Murong Jun, falsely proclaiming that Lady Dong had given the Imperial Seal to Yan, gave her the title of Lady Fengxi ("the lady who offered the Seal"), and named Ran Zhi as Marquis of Haibin. Shen Zhong was appointed as Chief Clerk of the Right to the Grand General. Murong Ping was ordered to defend Ye.

桓溫使司馬勳助周撫討蕭敬文於涪城,斬之。

28. Huan Wen sent Sima Xun to assist Zhou Fu in attacking the rebel Xiao Jingwen at Fu. They killed Xiao.

謝尚自枋頭迎傳國璽至建康,百僚畢賀。

29. Xie Shang sent the Imperial Seal from Fangtou on to Jiankang, and all the officials offered their congratulations.

秦以雷弱兒為大司馬,毛貴為太尉,張遇為司空。

30. In Qin, Lei Ruo’er was appointed as Grand Marshal, Mao Gui was appointed as Grand Commandant, and Zhang Yu was named as Minister of Works.

殷浩之北伐也,中軍將軍王羲之以書止之,不聽。既而無功,復謀再舉。羲之遺浩書曰:「今以區區江左,天下寒心,固已久矣。力爭武功,非所當作。自頃處內外之任者,未有深謀遠慮,而疲竭根本,各從所志,竟無一功可論,遂令天下將有土崩之勢。任其事者,豈得辭四海之責哉!今軍破於外,資竭於內,保淮之志,非所復及,莫若還保長江,督將各處復舊鎮。自長江以外,羈縻而已。引咎責躬,更為善治,省其賦役,與民更始,庶可以救倒懸之急也!使君起於布衣,任天下之重,當董統之任,而敗喪至此,恐闔朝群賢未有與人分其謗者。若猶以前事為未工,故復求之分外,宇宙雖廣,自容何所!此愚智所不解也。」

31. When Yin Hao had originally proposed his northern campaign, the General of the Center Army, Wang Yizhi, advised against it, but Yin Hao ignored him. The first campaign having come to nothing, Yin Hao advocated for another attempt.

Wang Yizhi wrote to Yin Hao stating, "As it stands, our territory has become quite weak; the realm is gripped by fear, and is only just holding out. Though we have striven greatly for military achievements, nothing has been accomplished.

“Now we have officials trying to swap places between inner and outer duties. They have not given careful consideration to their actions, and they have exhausted the resources that we must use as a foundation. Each fellow had their own ambitions, but none of them was able to realize anything worth mentioning, and their actions are driving the realm to the brink of collapse. How can it be that we are forcing all within the four seas to bear the burden of these men's schemes? Our armies have been defeated beyond the border, and our resources within are already exhausted.

“Now is the time to prepare our defenses, not to launch another campaign. Far better to guard the line of the Yangzi, and command every general to return to defend their old command posts. Let our vassals deal with matters beyond the Yangzi. You ought to focus on your own duties, and engage in good administration; lighten the burden of corvee labor, and attend to the people's needs. Only then may we rescue the people from their dire straits! You should put on cotton clothes, and focus on your duties towards the realm and good governance as befits your position.

“As for your regrettable defeat, I fear that there is not one worthy man in the court, but all side with those who slander you for it. If you continue to neglect your former duties, and insist upon another campaign, I fear that their ranks will grow until the whole universe could not contain them! Ignorant as I am, these are my thoughts; I pray you do not discard them."

又與會稽王昱箋曰:「為人臣者誰不願尊其主比隆前世!況遇難得之運哉!顧力有所不及,豈不可不權輕重而處之也!今雖有可喜之會,內求諸己,而所憂乃重於所喜。功未可期,遺黎殲盡,勞役無時,徵求日重,以區區吳、越經緯天下十分之九,不亡何待!而不度德量力,不弊不己,此封內所痛心歎悼而莫敢吐誠者也。『往者不可諫,來者猶可追。』願殿下更垂三思,先為不可勝之基,鬚根立勢舉,謀之未晚。若不行,恐糜鹿之遊,將不止林藪而已!願殿下暫廢虛遠之懷,以救倒懸之急,可謂以亡為存,轉禍為福也。」不從。

32. Wang Yizhi also wrote to the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, saying, "What man or minister does not long for the grandeur of former ages, much less to strive to restore them? But our strength is not yet sufficient to do so. Can it be that you do not grasp the difficulty of such an endeavor? Although the current prospect of doing so is very pleasing, and appealing to everyone, even so the concerns must outweigh the joy. The achievement cannot yet be accomplished.

“Yet we are dashing our troops against the enemy to no profit, we are incessantly pressing labor demands upon the people, and we are drafting men day after day. Nine-tenths of the length and breadth of Wu and Yue have already been exhausted; when is it to end? We have not taken honest stock of our limits. I cannot pretend otherwise, for there is no one who has seen the suffering the realm endures, and hears the cries and lamentations of the people, who can utter anything other than the truth.

“The Analects states, 'As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be provided against. (18.5)' I ask that Your Highness reconsider, and first put us in a position where we cannot be defeated. Once our power has grown, then it will not be too late to plan an offensive. But if you do not follow this path, I fear that you will trod the path of the deer, and will not stop even in the woods and marshes! I ask that Your Highness put aside thoughts of distant campaigns for now, and focus on rescuing the people from their plight. Thus may we exchange life for death, and turn calamity into fortune."

But neither Yin Hao nor Sima Yu listened to his advice.

《兵法》曰:先爲不可勝以待敵之可勝。

The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy. (The Art of War, 4.1)


九月,浩屯泗口,遣河南太守戴施據石門,滎陽太守劉遯據倉垣。浩以軍興,罷遣太學生徒,學校由此遂廢。

33. In the ninth month, Yin Hao garrisoned at Sikou. He sent the Administrator of Henan, Dai Shi, to capture Shimen, while the Administrator of Xingyang, Liu Dun, was tasked with capturing Cangyuan.

When Yin Hao assembled his army, he sent away the Imperial Academy students, and the school was thus closed down.

冬,十月,謝尚遣冠軍將軍王俠攻許昌,克之。秦豫州刺史楊群退屯弘農。征尚為給事中,戍石頭。

34. In winter, the tenth month, Xie Shang sent the Champion General Wang Xie to attack Xuchang, and Wang took it. Qin's Inspector of Yuzhou, Yang Qun, retreated to camp at Hongnong. Xie Shang was promoted to 給事中, and he moved to Shitou.

丁卯,燕王俊還薊。

35. On the day Dingmao, Murong Jun returned to Ji.

故趙將擁兵據州郡者,各遣使降燕;燕王俊以王擢為益州刺史,夔逸為秦州刺史,張平為并州刺史,李歷為兗州刺史,高昌為安西將軍,劉寧為車騎將軍。

36. Many of the former Zhao generals who still commanded troops and controlled provinces or commandaries began submitting to Yan. Murong Jun appointed Wang Zhuo as Inspector of Yizhou, and appointed Kui Yi as Inspector of Qinzhou; Zhang Ping was named Inspector of Bingzhou, Li Shi was made Inspector of Yanzhou, Gao Chang was named General Who Maintains the West, and Liu Ning was appointed General of Chariots and Cavalry.

慕容恪屯安平,積糧,治攻具,將討王午。丙戌,中山蘇林起兵於無極,自稱天子;恪自魯口還討林。閏月,戊子,燕王俊遣廣威將軍慕輿根助恪攻林,斬之。王午為其將秦興所殺。呂護殺興,復自稱安國王。

37. Murong Ke was camped at Anping, gathering grain and building siege engines, preparing to attacking Wang Wu.

On the day Bingxu, a man of Zhongshan named Su Lin rose up with troops and proclaimed himself the Son of Heaven. Murong Ke returned from Lukou to put down this uprising. In the intercalary month, on the day Wuzi, Murong Jun sent the General Who Spreads Might Muyu Gen to assist Murong Ke in attacking Su Lin, and together they killed him.

Wang Wu was killed by his general Qin Xing. Lü Hu then killed Qin Xing, and proclaimed himself as the Prince of Anguo.

燕群僚共上尊號於燕王俊,俊許之。十一月,丁卯,始置百官,以國相封弈為太尉,左長史陽騖為尚書令,右司馬皇甫真為尚書左僕射,典書令張悕為右僕射;其餘文武,拜授有差。戊辰,俊即皇帝位,大赦。自謂獲傳國璽,改元元璽。追尊武宣王為高祖武宣皇帝,文明王為太祖文明皇帝。時晉使適至燕,俊謂曰:「汝還,白汝天子:我承人乏,為中國所推,已為帝矣!」改司州為中州,建留台於龍都,以玄菟太守乙逸為尚書,專委留務。

38. Yan's ministers and generals jointly petitioned that Murong Jun should proclaim himself as Emperor. Murong Jun assented.

In the eleventh month, on the day Dingmao, the ministers were risen to new ranks. The Chancellor Feng Yi was appointed as Grand Commandant; the Chief Clerk of the Left Yang Wu was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing; the Marshal of the Right Huangfu Zhen was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing; the Prefect of the Directors of Writing Zhang Xi was appointed as Deputy Director of the Right. Many other civil and military ranks were given out as well.

On the day Wuchen, Murong Jun officially assumed the imperial title, and a general amnesty was declared. Proclaiming that he had received the Imperial Seal, Murong Jun changed the reign title to Yuanxi. He elevated the posthumous titles of his father and grandfather. Murong Hui, who had been Prince Wuxuan, became Emperor Wuxuan with the temple name Gaozu; Murong Huang, who had been Prince Wenming, became Emperor Wenming with the temple name Taizu.

At that time, messengers from Jin had arrived in Yan. Murong Jun said to them, "When you return, tell your Son of Heaven this: I have proclaimed myself independent, and at the urging of all within the Middle Kingdom, I have proclaimed myself Emperor!"

He changed the name of Sizhou (the capital province surrounding Ye) to Zhongzhou, and constructed terraces at Longdu (the former capital Longcheng). The Administrator of Xuantu, Yi Yi, was appointed as Master of Writing, and charged with directing a committee of affairs.

秦丞相雄攻王擢於隴西,擢奔涼州,雄還屯隴東。張重華以擢為征虜將軍、秦州刺史,特寵待之。

39. Fu Xiong attacked Wang Zhuo at Longxi. Wang Zhuo fled to Liangzhou, and Fu Xiong returned to garrison at Longdong. Zhang Chonghua appointed Wang Zhuo as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Qinzhou, and treated him with special favor.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Mar 22, 2017 7:27 pm, edited 3 times in total.
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BOOK 99

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 7:59 pm

永和九年(癸丑,公元三五三年)

The Ninth Year of Yonghe (The Guichou Year, 353 AD)


春,正月,乙卯朔,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yimao, a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

二月,庚子,燕王俊立其妃可足渾氏為皇后,世子曄為皇太子,皆自龍城遷於薊宮。

2. In the second month, on the day Gengzi, Murong Jun established his concubine, Lady Kezuhun, as Empress, and made his son by her, Murong Wei, his crown prince. All moved from Longcheng to the palaces at Ji.

張重華遣將軍張弘、宋修會王擢帥騎萬五千伐秦。秦丞相雄、衛將軍菁拒之,大敗涼兵於龍黎,斬首萬二千級,虜張弘、宋修,王擢棄秦州,奔姑臧。秦主健以領軍將軍苻願為秦州刺史,鎮上邽。

3. Zhang Chonghua sent his generals Zhang Hong and Song Xiu to link up with Wang Zhuo; together, they lead fifteen thousand cavalry to attack Qin. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing defended against them, and greatly defeated the Liang soldiers at Longli, killing twelve thousand of them. Zhang Hong, Song Xiu, and Wang Zhuo all abandoned Qinzhou, fleeing to Guzang. Fu Jiàn appointed the General Who Leads The Army Fu Yuan as Inspector of Qinzhou, guarding Shanggui.

三月,交州刺史阮敷討林邑,破五十餘壘。

4. In the third month, Jin’s Inspector of Jiaozhou, Ruan Fu, attacked Lâm Ấp, breaking more than fifty fortified places.

趙故衛尉常山李犢聚眾數千人叛燕。

5. Zhao's former Guard Colonel, Li Du of Changshan, gathered together several thousand men and rebelled against Yan.

西域胡劉康詐稱劉曜子,聚眾於平陽,自稱晉王;夏,四月,秦左衛將軍苻飛討擒之。

6. Among the tribesmen of the western reaches, a man named Liu Kang falsely claimed that he was the son of the Han-Zhao emperor Liu Yao. He gathered troops at Pingyang and proclaimed himself the Prince of Jin.

In summer, the fourth month, Qin's Guard General of the Left Fu Fei campaigned against Liu Kang and captured him.

以安西將軍謝尚為尚書僕射。

7. Jin’s General Who Maintains the West Xie Shang was appointed as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

五月,張重華復使王擢帥眾二萬伐上邽,秦州郡縣多應之;苻願戰敗,奔長安。重華因上疏請伐秦。詔進重華涼州牧。

8. In the fifth month, Zhang Chonghua again sent Wang Zhuo with twenty thousand men to attack Shanggui. The counties and commandaries of Qinzhou all went over to him. Fu Yuan attacked Wang Zhuo, but was defeated in battle, and fled back to Chang'an.

Zhang Chonghua then requested permission from Jin to campaign against Qin. The Jin court proclaimed Zhang Chonghua as Governor of Liangzhou.

燕主俊遣衛將軍恪討李犢,犢降,遂東擊呂護於魯口。

9. Murong Jun sent the Guard General Murong Ke to campaign against the rebel Li Du. Li submitted, and Murong Ke returned east to attack Lü Hu at Lukou.

六月,秦苻飛攻氐王楊初於仇池,為初所敗。丞相雄、平昌王菁帥步騎四萬屯於隴東。

10. In the sixth month, the Qin general Fu Fei attacked the Di ruler of Chouchi, Yang Chu, but he was defeated by Yang Chu. Fu Xiong and Fu Jing brought forty thousand horse and foot to camp at Longdong.

秦主健納張遇繼母韓氏為昭儀,數於眾中謂遇曰:「卿,吾假子也。」遇恥之,因雄等精兵在外,陰結關中豪傑,欲滅苻氏,以其地來降。秋,七月,遇與黃門劉晁謀夜襲健,晃約開門以待之。會健使晃出外,晃固辭,不得已而行。遇不知,引兵至門,門不開。事覺,伏誅。於是孔持起池陽,劉珍、夏侯顯起鄠,喬秉起雍,胡陽赤起司竹,呼延毒起灞城,眾數萬人,各遣使來請兵。

11. It was earlier mentioned that, after Qin had sent reinforcements to Xuchang to reinforce the general Zhang Yu against Yin Hao’s army, Zhang Yu had gone back to Guandong with the Qin army.

Fu Jiàn held high regard for Zhang Yu's stepmother, Lady Han, and made her a consort. In the midst of the ministers, he said to Zhang Yu, "It seems you are now my stepson as well." Zhang Yu was vexed by this. Since Fu Xiong and the other generals had their troops far away at Longdong, Zhang Yu plotted to recruit men from the nearby areas in Guanzhong and then suddenly snuff out the Fu clan, before offering up the land in submission to Jin.

In autumn, the seventh month, Zhang Yu plotted with the Yellow Gate Attendant Liu Chao to secretly attack Fu Jiàn at night. Liu Chao's task would be to open the gate to let Zhang Yu's troops in. But then Fu Jiàn suddenly ordered Liu Chao to move to a distant assignment, and although Liu Chao protested, he had no choice but to go. Zhang Yu, unaware of this development, led his troops to the gate, but the gate would not open. The plot being discovered, Zhang Yu was caught and executed.

This led to further uprisings; Kong Te rose up at Chiyang, Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian rose up at Hu, Qiao Bing rose up at Yong, Huyan Chi rose up at Sizhu, and Huyan Du rose up at Bacheng. Altogether they had some tens of thousands of men, and each sent out messengers to recruit more troops.

秦以左僕射魚遵為司空。

12. Qin's Deputy Director of the Left Yu Zun was appointed as Minister of Works.

九月,秦丞相雄帥眾二萬還長安,遣平昌王菁略定上洛,置荊州於豐陽川,以步兵校尉金城郭敬為刺史。雄與清河王法、苻飛分討孔持等。

13. In the ninth month, Prime Minister Fu Xiong led twenty thousand troops back to Chang'an, and sent the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing to keep peace in the Luoyang region, while at Fengyang in Jingzhou, the Colonel of Infantry, Guo Jing of Jincheng, was appointed Inspector there. Fu Xiong, the Prince of Qinghe Fu Fa, and Fu Fei each campaigned against Kong Te and the other rebels.

姚襄屯歷陽,以燕、秦方強,未有北伐之志,乃夾淮廣興屯田,訓厲將士。殷浩在壽春,惡其強盛,囚襄諸弟,屢遣刺客刺之,刺客皆以情告襄。安北將軍魏統卒,弟憬代領部曲。浩潛遣憬帥眾五千襲之,襄斬憬,並其眾。浩愈惡之,使龍驤將軍劉啟守譙,遷襄於梁國蠡台,表授梁國內史。

14. Yao Xiang was camped at Liyang. Although Yan and Qin were currently strong, Yao harbored ambitions of campaigning against them someday. To that end, he established many military agricultural camps along the Huai River, and continued to draft men and officers.

Yin Hao was at Shouchun; he feared Yao Xiang's growing strength, so he imprisoned Yao Xiang’s younger brothers. He sent many assassins to kill Yao Xiang, but the assassins all respected Yao Xiang and informed him of the plot instead.

It was earlier mentioned that the Zhao general Wei Tong had defected to Jin along with his troops. He had been appointed by Jin as General Who Maintains The North. After Wei Tong passed away, his younger brother Wei Jing took up his post. Yin Hao arranged for Wei Jing to launch a sudden attack against Yao Xiang with five thousand soldiers. But Yao Xiang killed Wei Jing, and took over his troops. Yin Hao, now greatly afraid of Yao Xiang, sent the General of Dragon Cavalry, Liu Qi, to defend Qiao. He ordered Yao Xiang to relocate to Litai in Liang, appointing him Interior Minister of Liang.

魏憬子弟數往來壽春,襄益疑懼,遣參軍權翼使於浩。浩曰:「身與姚平北共為王臣,休戚同之。平北每舉動自專,甚失輔車之理,豈所望也!」翼曰:「平北英姿絕世,擁兵數萬而遠歸晉室者,以朝廷有道,宰輔明哲故也。今將軍輕信讒慝之言,與平北有隙,愚謂猜嫌之端,在此不在彼也。」浩曰:「平北姿性豪邁,生殺自由,又縱小人掠奪吾馬。王臣之體,固若是乎?」翼曰:「平北歸命聖朝,豈肯妄殺無辜!奸宄之人,亦王法所不容也,殺之何害!」浩曰:「然則掠馬何也?」翼曰:「將軍謂平北雄武難制,終將討之,故取馬欲以自衛耳。」浩笑曰:「何至是也!」

15. Wei Jing's sons and younger brothers fled back to Shouchun. Yao Xiang, concerned about what might come about because of this, sent his army advisor Quan Yi to Shouchun to speak to Yin Hao. Yin Hao said, “General Yao and I are both royal servants, and we share weal and woe together. But what is the meaning of his army’s dispositions? Where is the sense in losing your own support?”

Quan Yi replied, “General Yao is a hero for the ages, and he brought his tens of thousands of soldiers a long distance in order to join with the imperial family. Since the court is pursuing this path, he felt it is only prudent to make these dispositions. Yet you, General, are so quick to believe in slanderous words, and cause this division between yourself and General Yao. I hope that I may allay your suspicions, and that such things will not continue.”

Yin Hao said, “General Yao himself is indeed a worthy hero, but he has taken upon himself decisions of life or death. Furthermore, he has allowed some miscreant among his soldiers to make off with my horse. Is this the sort of company that a royal servant keeps?”

Quan Yi replied, “General Yao came to obey the orders of the sagely court. How could he possibly put to death anyone who was innocent? When the law cannot hold back evildoers, how can they not suffer death?”

Yin Hao said, “And as for my stolen horse?”

Quan Yi replied, “General, you have said before that General Yao is a bold and wild fellow, difficult to control. You are certainly planning to act against him someday. He was only taking a horse so that he could protect himself.”

Yin Hao said with a laugh, “Now how could that be?”

初,浩陰遣人誘秦梁安、雷弱兒,使殺秦主健,許以關右之任,弱兒偽許之,且請兵應接。浩聞張遇作亂,健兄子輔國將軍黃眉自洛陽西奔,以為安等事已成。冬,十月,浩自壽春帥眾七萬北伐,欲進據洛陽,修復園陵。吏部尚書王彪之上會稽王昱箋,以為:「弱兒等容有詐偽,浩未應輕進。」不從。浩以姚襄為前驅。襄引兵北行,度浩將至,詐令部眾夜遁,陰伏甲以邀之。浩聞而追襄至山桑。襄縱兵擊之,浩大敗,棄輜重,走保譙城。襄俘斬萬餘,悉收其資仗,使兄益守山桑,襄復加淮南。會稽王昱謂王彪之曰:「君言無不中,張、陳無以過也!」西平敬烈公張重華有疾,子曜靈才十歲,立為世子,赦其境內。重華庶兄長寧侯祚,有勇力、吏干,而傾巧善事內外,與重華嬖臣趙長、尉緝等結異姓兄弟。都尉常據請出之,重華曰:「吾方以祚為周公,使輔幼子,君是何言也!」

16. Earlier, Yin Hao had secretly sent men to speak with Qin's generals Liang An and Lei Ruo’er, enticing them to kill Fu Jiàn, in exchange for being given command over Guanyou. Lei Ruo’er pretended to go along with this plot, asking Yin Hao to send troops to link up with him.

Later, when Yin Hao heard of the unrest following the matter of Zhang Yu, he learned that Fu Jiàn's nephew by one of his elder brothers, the General Who Protects The State, Fu Huangmei, had left Luoyang and marched west with his army, to help put down the uprisings.

In winter, the tenth month, Yin Hao marched from Shouchun with seventy thousand men on another northern campaign. He wished to retake Luoyang and recover the imperial tombs. The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Biaozhi, wrote to the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yu, stating his belief that, "Lei Ruo’er and the others have much craft among them; Yin Hao should not be so quick to advance." But this was ignored.

Yin Hao placed Yao Xiang’s army in the vanguard. Yao Xiang marched his soldiers north; then, when Yin's army was nearby, Yao Xiang hatched a plan to feign retreat during the night, but secretly instructed his soldiers to lay ambushs. When Yin Hao learned of this, he pursued Yao Xiang to Shansang. Yao Xiang's soldiers then suddenly emerged from their ambushs to fight, and Yin Hao was greatly defeated; abandoning his supplies and luggage, he fled to Qiao to defend from there. Yao Xiang killed or captured over ten thousand soldiers; then, after claiming the supplies and weapons that Yin Hao’s army had abandoned, he left his brother Yao Yi to guard Shansang while he marched south again to move back into Huainan.

Sima Yu said to Wang Biaozhi, "It happened just as you said. Even Zhang Liang and Chen Ping could not surpass you!"

Meanwhile, Duke Liegong of Xiping, Zhang Chonghua, had fallen ill. Although his son Zhang Yaoling was only ten years old, he was appointed as his father's heir, and a general amnesty was proclaimed within Liang's territory.

Zhang Chonghua had an elder brother by his father’s concubine, the Marquis of Changning Zhang Zuo, who was both brave and knowledgeable. He ably handled affairs both foreign and domestic, and treated Zhao Zhang, Wei Ji, and Zhang Chonghua's other favored attendants like brothers. The Capital Commandant Chang Ju asked that Zhang Zuo be sent away, but Zhang Chonghua told him, "Zhang Zuo is my own Duke of Zhou, and he will protect my son; what nonsense do you speak?"

謝艾以枹罕之功有寵於重華,左右疾之,譖艾,出為酒泉太守。艾上疏言:「權幸用事,公室將危,乞聽臣入侍。」且言:「長寧侯祚及趙長等將為亂,宜盡逐之。」十一月,己未,重華疾甚,手令征艾為衛將軍,監中外諸軍事,輔政;祚、長等匿而不宜。

17. Xie Ai had found favor with Zhang Chonghua after his success defending Baohan. Around the time of Zhang Chonghua’s illness, Zhang Zuo slandered Xie Ai, and had him sent away as Administrator of Jiuquan. Xie Ai submitted a petition stating, "It was thanks to good fortune that I was given office. Now the ducal family will soon be in trouble; I pray you heed your minister's' words." He further wrote, "The Marquis of Changning is plotting rebellion with Zhao Zhang and others; you must send him away."

In the eleventh month, on the day Jiwei, Zhang Chonghua's illness grew worse. He personally prepared an order for Xie Ai to be appointed as Guard General, with command over all military affairs, and trusted him with administering the state. However, Zhang Zuo, Zhao Zhang, and others blocked the order from going out.

丁卯,重華卒,世子曜靈立,稱大司馬、涼州刺史、西平公。趙長等矯重華遺令,以長寧侯祚為都督中外諸軍事、撫軍大將軍,輔政。

18. On the day Dingmao, Zhang Chonghua passed away.

His son Zhang Yaoling rose to the throne, claiming as his titles Grand Marshal, Inspector of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. Zhao Zhang and the others forged an edict from Zhang Chonghua, appointing Zhang Zuo as supreme commander over all military affairs, as Grand General Who Protects The Army, and as regent.

殷浩使部將劉啟、王彬之攻姚益於山桑。姚襄自淮南擊之,啟、彬之皆敗死。襄進據芍陂。

19. Yin Hao dispatched his subordinates Liu Qi and Wang Binzhi to attack Yao Yi at Shansang. Yao Xiang marched from Huainan to attack them, and both were killed. Yao Xiang then advanced and captured Shaobei.

趙末,樂陵朱禿、平原杜能、清河丁嬈、陽平孫元各擁兵分據城邑,至是皆請降於燕;燕主俊以禿為青州刺史,能為平原太守,嬈為立節將軍,元為兗州刺史,各留撫其營。

20. During the downfall of Zhao, Zhu Tu of Leling, Du Neng of Pingyuan, Ding Rao of Qinghe, and Sun Yuan of Yangping had each seized control of cities and counties. In the end, they all submitted to Yan's control. Murong Jun appointed Zhu Tu as Inspector of Qingzhou, Du Neng as Administrator of Pingyuan, Ding Rao as General Who 立節, and Sun Yuan as Inspector of Yanzhou. Each were left in control of their personal commands.

秦丞相雄克池陽,斬孔特。十二月,清河王法、苻飛克鄠,斬劉珍、夏侯顯。

21. Fu Xiong captured Chiyang, and killed the rebel Kong Te.

In the twelfth month, Fu Fa and Fu Fei captured Hu, killing the rebels Liu Zhen and Xiahou Xian.

姚襄濟淮,屯盱眙,招掠流民,眾至七萬,分置守宰,勸課農桑;遣使詣建康罪狀殷浩,並自陳謝。詔以謝尚都督江西、淮南諸軍事、豫州刺史,鎮歷陽。

22. Yao Xiang crossed the Huai River, camping at Xuyi; he gathered up the refugees, to the number of seventy thousand, and split them among different areas, urging them to begin planting and cultivating. Yao Xiang sent a messenger to Jiankang demanding that Yin Hao pay for his transgressions, while making apologies for his own actions.

The court appointed Xie Shang as Commander of Jiangxi and Huainan affairs, and as Inspector of Yuzhou; he camped at Liyang.

涼右長史趙長等建議,以為:「時難未夷,宜立長君,曜靈沖幼,請立長寧侯祚。」張祚先得幸於重華之母馬氏,馬氏許之,乃廢張曜靈為涼寧侯,立祚為大都督、大將軍、涼州牧、涼公。祚既得志,恣為淫虐,殺重華妃裴氏及謝艾。

23. Liangzhou's Chief Clerk of the Right, Zhao Zhang, and others held a council, saying to one another, "These are difficult times, and the barbarians have not yet been vanquished. For such times, we must have an adult ruler. Zhang Yaoling is young and wild, so let us raise up the Marquis of Changning, Zhang Zuo, in his place."

Zhang Zuo sought assent from Zhang Chonghua's mother Lady Ma, and she granted her permission, so they deposed Zhang Yaoling to become Marquis of Liangning, and gave his former position to Zhang Zuo instead. Zhang Zuo proclaimed himself as Grand Commander, Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Liang.

Zhang Zuo's true nature now emerged, as he proved himself to be cruel and abusive. He killed both Zhang Chonghua's consort Lady Pei and Xie Ai.

燕衛將軍恪、撫軍將軍軍、左將軍彪等屢薦給事黃門侍郎霸有命世之才,宜總大任。是歲,燕主俊以霸為使持節、安東將軍、北冀州剌史,鎮常山。

24. Yan's Guard General Murong Ke, General Who Protects The Army Murong Jun, and General of the Left Murong Biao all petitioned their lord, stating that the Attendant of the Yellow Gate Murong Ba had exceptional talent and should be granted larger roles. During this year, Murong Jun granted Murong Ba the Staff of Authority, and appointed him as General Who Maintains the East and Inspector of Northern Jizhou. He was based at Changshan.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 16, 2017 8:02 pm

永和十年(甲寅,公元三五四年)

The Tenth Year of Yonghe (The Jiayin Year, 354 AD)


春,正月,張祚自稱涼王,改建興四十二年為和平元年。立妻辛氏為王后,子太和為太子,封弟天錫為長寧侯,子庭堅為建康侯,曜靈弟玄靚為涼武侯。置百官,郊祀天地,用天子禮樂。尚書馬岌切諫,坐免官。郎中丁琪復諫曰:「我自武公以來,世守臣節,抱忠履謙五十餘年,故能以一州大眾,抗舉世之虜,師徒歲起,民不告疲。殿下勳德未高於先公,而亟謀革命,臣未見其可也。彼士民所以用命,四遠所以歸向者,以吾能奉晉室故也。今而自尊,則中外離心,安能以一隅之地,拒天下之強敵乎!」祚大怒,斬之於闕下。

1. In spring, the first month, Zhang Zuo proclaimed himself as Prince of Liang. He changed the reign era from the Western Jin title of the forty-second year of Jianxing to the first year of his own reign era, Heping. He established his wife Lady Xin as Princess, made his son Zhang Taihe his crown prince, ennobled his younger brother Zhang Tianxi as Marquis of Changning, appointed his son Zhang Tingjian as Marquis of Jiankang, and appointed Zhang Yaoling's younger brother Zhang Xuanjing as Marquis of Liangwu. The ministers made sacrificial rites to Heaven and earth, following the rituals of the Son of Heaven.

The Master of Writing Ma Ji remonstrated, and he was dismissed from office. The Palace Attendant Ding Qi also remonstrated, saying, "I have been a loyal minister for over fifty years, ever since the days of Duke Wu (Zhang Gui). The Zhang family has remained loyal, and never once sought to declare their own state. They were able to unite the province and stand against the depredations of the barbarians. Thanks to their actions, the people here have not yet known misery. Your Highness's virtue is inferior to that of the Dukes who came before you, yet now you unveil these plans for great changes. I cannot stand idly by and watch you do so. Even if the people obey your orders, and those from every corner turn towards you, I will still keep my loyalty to the Jin royal family. But you honor yourself, and cause division between us and others. How can a mere backwater stand opposed to as strong an enemy as the Son of Heaven?" Zhang Zuo was greatly angered, and had Ding Qi executed at the palace gates.

故魏降將周成反,自宛襲洛陽。辛酉,河南太守戴施奔鮪渚。秦丞相雄克司竹。胡陽赤奔霸城,依呼延毒。

2. It was earlier mentioned that the Wei general Zhou Cheng had defected to Jin with his command. At this time, he rebelled; he marched from Wan to suddenly attack Luoyang. On the day Xinyou, the Administrator of Henan Dai Shi fled to Weizhu.

Fu Xiong attacked the rebels at Sizhu. Huyang Chi fled to Bacheng, and sought refuge under Huyan Du.

中軍將軍、揚州刺史殷浩連年北伐,師徒屢敗,糧械都盡。征西將軍桓溫因朝野之怨,上疏數浩之罪,請廢之。朝廷不得已,免浩為庶人,徙東陽之信安。自此內外大權一歸於溫矣。

3. Jin’s General of the Center Army and Inspector of Yangzhou, Yin Hao, had launched successive northern campaigns across the last two years, all of which had come to ruin. Much grain and military equipment had thus been exhausted. General Who Conquers The West Huan Wen was thus angry at the court, and he sent in many missives stating Yin Hao’s faults and asking for his dismissal. The court, faced with no other option, dismissed Yin Hao from office and made him a commoner, and he went into exile at Xin’an in Dongyang. From that time on, all matters of state inside or out fell under the sway of Huan Wen.

浩少與溫齊名,而心競不相下,溫常輕之。浩既廢黜,雖愁怨,不形辭色,常書空作「咄咄怪事」字。久之,溫謂掾郗超曰:「浩有德有言,向為令僕,足以儀刑百揆,朝廷用違其才耳。」將以浩為尚書令,以書告之。浩欣然許焉,將答書,慮有謬誤,開閉者十數,竟達空函。溫大怒,由是遂絕,卒於徙所。以前會稽內史王述為揚州刺史。

4. Yin Hao had not enjoyed the same reputation as Huan Wen, so he was not inclined to consider himself inferior, and Huan Wen was not often concerned about him. Although Yin had been removed from power, and was melancholy, he did not keep a grave countenance, but often wrote little ditties.

Not long after Yin Hao’s dismissal, Huan Wen said to Chi Chao, "Yin Hao has virtue and is clever; perhaps he can still be given some other rank, attending to ceremonies and to punishments, and the court thus make use of his talents." So Huan Wen arranged for Yin Hao’s appointment as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he sent a letter to Yin Hao informing him of it. Yin Hao fretted over how to respond; whenever he was about to send a letter, suddenly there would be some mistake or error. He often began and then rewrote a letter, doing so more than ten times, before at last sending a blank letter. This greatly enraged Huan Wen, who from then on refused to employ Yin Hao, and he died in exile.

The former Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Shu, was appointed Inspector of Yangzhou.

二月,乙丑,桓溫統步騎四萬發江陵。水軍自襄陽入均口,至南鄉,步兵自淅川趣武關,命司馬勳出子午道以伐秦。

5. In the second month, on the day Yichou, Huan Wen marched out of Jiangling with forty thousand horse and foot to attack Qin. A naval force also sailed from Xiangyang through Junkou, until it reached Nanxian. The infantry marched from Xichuan to capture Wuguan.

Huan Wen also ordered Sima Xun, who was in command in Liangzhou (the Hanzhong province), to attack Qin by way of Ziwu Valley.

燕衛將軍恪圍魯口,三月,拔之。呂護奔野王,遣弟奉表謝罪於燕,燕以護為河內太守。

6. Yan's Guard General, Murong Ke, surrounded Lukou. In the third month, he captured it. Lü Hu fled to Yewang, and then he sent his younger brother Lü Feng to place himself at Yan's mercy. Yan appointed Lü Hu as Administrator of Henei.

姚襄遣使降燕。

7. Yao Xiang offered his submission to Yan.

燕主俊以慕容評為鎮南將軍,都督秦、雍、益、梁、江、揚、荊、徐、兗、豫十州諸軍事,權鎮洛水;以慕容強為前鋒都督,督荊、徐二州、緣淮諸軍事,進據河南。

8. Murong Jun appointed his uncle Murong Ping as General Who Guards The South, in charge of military affairs for Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Yizhou, Liangzhou, Jiangzhou, Yangzhou, Jingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou, and ordered him to guard the Luo River. His uncle Murong Qiang was appointed as Vanguard Commander, in charge of Jingzhou and Xuzhou affairs, as well as handling the army affairs around the Huai River, and he advanced to capture Henan.

桓溫將攻上洛,獲秦荊州刺史郭敬;進擊青泥,破之。司馬勳掠秦西鄙,涼秦州刺史王擢攻陳倉以應溫。秦主健遣太子萇、丞相雄、淮南王生、平昌王菁、北平王碩帥眾五萬軍於嶢柳以拒溫。夏,四月,已亥,溫與秦兵戰於藍田。秦淮南王生單騎突陳,出入以十數,殺傷晉將士甚眾。溫督眾力戰,秦兵大敗;將軍桓沖又敗秦丞相雄於白鹿原。沖,溫之弟也。溫轉戰而前,壬寅,進至灞上。秦太子萇等退屯城南,秦主健與老弱六千固守長安小城,悉發精兵三萬,遣大司馬雷弱兒等與萇合兵以拒溫。三輔郡縣皆來降,溫撫諭居民,使安堵復業。民爭持牛酒迎勞,男女夾路觀之,耆老有垂泣者,曰:「不圖今日復睹官軍!」

9. Huan Wen marched north, attacking by way of the upper Luo River, and captured Qin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Guo Jing. He then advanced against Qingni, and took it.

Sima Xun attacked Qin's western border, while Liang's Inspector of Qinzhou, Wang Zhuo, attacked Qin at Chencang in support of Huan Wen.

Fu Jiàn sent his crown prince Fu Chang, the Prime Minister Fu Xiong, the Prince of Huainan Fu Sheng, the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing, and the Prince of Beiping Fu Shuo with an army of fifty thousand men to Yaoliu to meet Huan Wen's attack. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yihai, Huan Wen and the Qin army fought a battle at Lantian. Fu Sheng plunged into the battle alone on horseback, charging in and out of the fray more than ten times, and killing many Jin soldiers. But through Huan Wen's superior leadership, the Qin army suffered a great defeat.

General Huan Chong also defeated Prime Minister Fu Xiong's army at Bailu Plains. This Huan Chong was Huan Wen's younger brother.

Huan Wen continued his advance after his victory at Lantian. On the day Renyin, his army reached Bashang near Chang’an. Fu Chang and the others retreated to camp south of Chang'an, while Fu Jiàn held the inner city with six thousand old and weak men, along with a reserve of thirty thousand. He sent Grand Marshal Lei Ruo’er and others to jointly face Huan Wen along with Fu Chang.

All the counties around Chang'an began to surrender to Huan Wen, and he provided them with comfort and security, sending messengers to assure them that the rebirth of Jin was at hand. They freely welcomed him with meat and wine, and men and women swept the streets for him, while old men wept, saying, "We did not believe we would live to see the old army return again!"

秦丞相雄帥騎七千襲司馬勳於子午谷,破之,勳退屯女媧堡。

10. Fu Xiong, leading seven thousand cavalry, attacked Sima Xun at Ziwu Valley and routed him. Sima Xun retreated to camp at Nuwa Fort.

戊申,燕主俊封撫軍將軍軍為襄陽王,左將軍彭為武昌王;以衛將軍恪為大司馬、侍中、大都督、錄尚書事,封太原王;鎮南將軍評為司徒、驃騎將軍,封上庸王;封安東將軍霸為吳王,左賢王友為范陽王,散騎常侍厲為下邳王,散騎常侍宜為廬江王,寧北將軍度為樂浪王;又封弟桓為宜都王,逮為臨賀王,徽為河間王,龍為歷陽王,納為北海王,秀為蘭陵王,岳為安豐王,德為梁公,默為始安公,僂為南康公;子鹹為樂安王,亮為勃海王,溫為帶方王,涉為漁陽王,暐為中山王;以尚書令陽騖為司空,仍守尚書令。命冀州刺史吳王霸徙治信都。初,燕王皝奇霸之才,故名之曰霸,將以為世子,群臣諫而止,然寵遇猶逾於世子。由是俊惡之,以其嘗墜馬折齒,更名曰缺;尋以其應讖文,更名曰垂;遷侍中,錄留台事,徙鎮龍城。垂大得東北之和,俊愈惡之,復召還。

11. On the day Wushen, Murong Jun granted his uncle, the General Who Protects The Army Murong Jun, the title of Prince of Xiangyang, and his uncle the General of the Left Murong Peng the title Prince of Wuchang. Guard General Murong Ke was made Grand Marshal, Grand Commander, Palace Attendant, authority over the imperial secretariat, and Prince of Taiyuan. General Who Guards The South Murong Ping was named as Minister Over The Masses, General of Agile Cavalry, and Prince of Shangyong. General Who Maintains The East Murong Ba was named Prince of Wu. The Worthy Prince of the Left, Murong You, was named Prince of Fanyang. The 散騎常侍 Murong Li was named Prince of Xiapi. The 散騎常侍 Murong Yi was named Prince of Lujiang. General Who Calms The North Murong Du was named Prince of Lelang.

As for Murong Jun’s brothers, he named Murong Huan as Prince of Yidu, Murong Dai as Prince of Linhe, Murong Hui as Prince of Hejian, Murong Long as Prince of Liyang, Murong Na as Prince of Beihai, Murong Xiu as Prince of Lanling, Murong Yue as Prince of Anfeng, Murong De as Duke of Liang, Murong Mo as Duke of Shi'an, and Murong Lou as Duke of Nankang.

For his sons, he named Murong Xian as Prince of Le'an, Murong Liang as Prince of Bohai, Murong Wen as Prince of Daifang, Murong She as Prince of Yuyang, and Murong Wei as Prince of Zhongshan. He also named the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Yang Wu as Minister of Works, though he still kept his role as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

It was around this time that Murong Jun changed his brother Murong Ba’s name to Murong Chui. Murong Jun further had him sent away to govern Xindu. When he and Murong Ba were still children, their father Murong Huang had greatly favored Murong Ba for his talents, and this was why he named him Murong Ba (霸 Ba means “hegemon” or “conqueror”). Murong Huang had even considered making Murong Ba his heir, but his ministers persuaded him against this, so he agreed to make his eldest son Murong Jun his heir.

Murong Jun had resented his brother for this, and after Murong Ba lost a tooth after falling off a horse, Murong Jun wanted to rename him Murong Que (for "missing"), but upon learning that this was an auspicious term, he further renamed him to Murong Chui. He originally made him a Palace Attendant, making him handle palace affairs, and then sent him away to guard Longcheng. But when Murong Chui began to receive the regard of the people of the northeast, Murong Jun feared what further mischief he might do, so he recalled him.

五月,江西流民郭敞等千餘人執陳留內史劉仕,降於姚襄。建康震駭,以吏部尚書周閔為中軍將軍,屯中堂,豫州刺史謝尚自歷陽還衛京師,固江備守。

12. In the fifth month, more than a thousand Jiangxi refugees under Guo Chang and other leaders arrested Jin’s Interior Minister of Chenliu, Liu Shi, and offered up the city to Yao Xiang. Jiankang was greatly shocked, and the court appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing Zhou Min to be General of the Center Army. Zhou Min camped at Zhongtang. The Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Shang, also marched from Liyang to defend Jingshi, and to guard the line of the Yangzi.

王擢拔陳倉,殺秦扶風內史毛難。

13. Wang Zhuo captured Chencang, and killed Qin's Interior Minister of Fufeng, Mao Nan.

北海王猛,少好學,倜儻有大志,不屑細務,人皆輕之。猛悠然自得,隱居華陰。聞桓溫入關,披褐詣之,捫虱而談當世之務,旁若無人。溫異之,問曰:「吾奉天子之命,將銳兵十萬為百姓除殘賊,而三秦豪傑未有至者,何也?」猛曰:「公不遠數千里,深入敵境。今長安咫尺,而不渡灞水,百姓未知公心,所以不至。」溫嘿然無以應,徐曰:「江東無卿比也!」乃署猛軍謀祭酒。

14. There lived a certain Wang Meng of Beihai. As a youth, he was very studious. Although he possessed high ambitions, he disdained meticulous work, and people looked down on him. Living a life of leisurely repose, he took up the hermit's life at Huayin in Guanzhong.

When he heard that Huan Wen's army had entered Guanzhong, he went to be received by that general, and conversed with him while picking lice out of his hair, as though no one were around to notice. Huan Wen was intrigued by him, so he asked Wang, "I bear the commission of the Son of Heaven, and my hundred thousand soldiers have driven the rebels from the field in order to protect the common people. Yet the people of the Three Qins hesitate to receive me; why is this?"

Wang Meng replied, "Duke, you have traveled nearly a thousand li, and are deep within enemy territory. Chang'an is now within your grasp. Yet you hesitate to cross the Ba River. The people are not sure of your intent, and so do not come to you."

Huan Wen for some time could make no reply, until at last he said, "In all the Southland there is no one like you!" And he kept Wang Meng with him as a Libationer, making plans with him.

溫與秦丞相雄等戰於白鹿原,溫兵不利,死者萬餘人。初,溫指秦麥以為糧,既而秦人悉芟麥,清野以待之,溫軍乏食。六月,丁丑,徙關中三千餘戶而歸。以王猛為高官督護,欲與俱還,猛辭不就。

15. Huan Wen fought another battle at Bailu Plains against Fu Xiong and other Qin officers, and this time Huan's troops were not the victors; their dead numbered over ten thousand.

Earlier, when word had spread of Huan's intentions to attack Qin, the people of Qin had harvested their grain, and so none was now left to be foraged. Huan's army thus lacked supplies, and the soldiers grew hungry.

In the sixth month, on the day Dingchou, Huan's army began to retreat from Guanzhong, accompanied by over three thousand households. He offered to make Wang Meng a high official in his entourage, if he would go back with him, but Wang Meng demurred.

呼延毒帥眾一萬從溫還。秦太子萇等隨溫擊之,比至潼關,溫軍屢敗,失亡以萬數。

16. The rebel Huyan Du led ten thousand men to follow Huan Wen back to Jin. Fu Chang and the others followed Huan Wen to attack him. When they reached Tong Gate, Huan Wen's army suffered several more defeats, and lost another ten thousand casualties.

溫之屯灞上也,順陽太守薛珍溫徑進逼長安,溫弗從。珍以偏師獨濟,頗有所獲。及溫退,乃還,顯言於眾,自矜其勇而咎溫之持重;溫殺之。

17. While Huan Wen had been camped at Ba River, the Administrator of Shunyang, Xue Zhen, urged Huan Wen to advance to put pressure on Chang’an, but Huan Wen would not do it. So Xue Zhen brought his division over the river by themselves, and they captured a few places.

After Huan Wen’s army retreated, Xue Zhen was constantly talking among the army, puffing up his own importance and courage while faulting Huan Wen for his excessive caution. Huan Wen had him killed.

秦丞相雄擊司馬勳、王擢於陳倉,勳奔漢中,擢奔略陽。

18. Fu Xiong attacked Sima Xun and Wang Zhuo at Chencang. Sima Xun fled to Hanzhong, while Wang Zhuo fled to Lüeyang.

秦以光祿大夫趙俱為洛陽刺史,鎮宜陽。

19. Qin appointed the Household Counsellor Zhao Ju as Inspector of Luoyang, defending Yiyang.

秦東海敬武王雄攻喬秉於雍;丙申,卒。秦主健哭之嘔血,曰:「天不欲吾平四海邪?何奪吾元才之速也!」贈魏王,葬禮依晉安平獻王故事。雄以佐命無勳,位兼將相,權侔人主,而謙恭泛愛,遵奉法度,故健重之,常曰:「元才,吾之周公也。」子堅襲爵。堅性至孝,幼有志度,博學多能,交結英豪,呂婆樓、強汪及略陽梁平老皆與之善。

20. Qin's Prince Jingwu of Donghai, Fu Xiong, was wounded during battle at Yong. On the day Bingshen, he passed away. Fu Jiàn wept and coughed up blood, wailing, "Is it Heaven's wish that I shall not pacify the four seas? Why else has it taken my Yuancai from me so soon?"

Fu Xiong was posthumously honored as the Prince of Wei, and his funeral was conducted the same way as Jin's Prince Xian of Anping (Sima Fu). Fu Xiong carried out his orders without difficulties. Although he held high civil and military offices, and was equal in authority to his lord, Fu Xiong remained humble and loving, and firmly established lawful rule. Thus Fu Jiàn placed great importance upon his brother, often saying of him, "Yuancai is my own Duke of Zhou."

Fu Xiong's son, Fu Jian, inherited his titles. This younger Fu Jian was of a filial nature, and although young, he possessed great ambition; he was learned and very capable, and thus attracted the attention of many heroes. Lü Polou, Qiang Wang, and Liang Pinglao of Lüeyang all favored him.

A reminder that this is the first appearance of the more famous Fu Jian, whose name will be written without tone marks.

燕樂陵太守慕容鉤,翰之子也,與青州刺史朱禿共治厭次。鉤自恃宗室,每陵侮禿。禿不勝忿,秋,七月,襲鉤,殺之,南奔段龕。

21. Yan's Administrator of Leling, Murong Gou, was the son of Murong Han (the elder). He greatly detested the new Inspector of Qingzhou, Zhu Tu, and the feeling was mutual. Because Murong Gou was of the royal family, he often lorded it over Zhu Tu. Zhu, no longer able to put up with this behavior, attacked and killed Murong Gou in autumn, the seventh month, and then fled south to Duan Kan.

秦太子萇攻喬秉於雍,八月,斬之,關中悉平。秦主健賞拒桓溫之功,以雷弱兒為丞相,毛貴為太傅,魚遵為太尉,淮南王生為中軍大將軍,平昌王菁為司空。健勤於政事,數延公卿咨講治道,承趙人苛虐奢侈之後,易以寬簡節儉,崇儒禮士,由是秦人悅之。

22. Fu Jiàn's crown prince, Fu Chang, attacked the rebel Qiao Bing at Yong. In the eighth month, he executed Qiao Bing, and Guanzhong was once again at peace. Fu Jiàn, wishing to reward his commanders for successfully repulsing Huan Wen's invasion, appointed Lei Ruo’er as Prime Minister, Mao Gui as Grand Tutor, Yu Zun as Grand Commandant, the Prince of Huainan Fu Sheng as Grand General of the Center Army, and the Prince of Pingchang Fu Jing as Minister of Works.

Fu Jiàn was diligent in governance, often soliciting the advice of his nobles and ministers on which steps to take. He punished those people of Zhao (the native Chinese) who were cruel or extravagant, while he rewarded and encouraged frugality. He also followed the rites and practices of Confucian learning. Thus the people of Qin were satisfied with him.

燕大調兵眾,因發詔之日,號曰:「丙戌舉。」

23. Yan issued a great draft of soldiers. Because the day that the imperial edict went out was the Bingqu day, it became known as the “Bingqu Draft”.

九月,桓溫還自伐秦,帝遣侍中、黃門勞溫於襄陽。

24. In the ninth month, Huan Wen returned from his campaign against Qin. The Emperor sent the Palace Attendant and Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Lao Wen, to Xiangyang.

或告燕黃門侍郎宋斌等謀奉冉智為主而反,皆伏誅。斌,燭之子也。

25. In Yan, someone informed Murong Jun that the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Song Bin, was plotting with others to start a rebellion, using Ran Min’s son Ran Zhi as the figurehead for a restoration. All of them were executed. This Song Bin was the son of Song Zhu.

Song Zhu was a Yan minister who had been killed during Zhao’s invasion of Yan in 338.

秦太子萇之拒桓溫也,為流矢所中,冬,十月,卒,謚曰獻哀。

26. During Fu Chang's pursuit of Huan Wen, he had been struck by a stray arrow. In winter, the tenth month, he passed away from the wound. His posthumous name was Xian’ai.

燕王俊如龍城。

27. Murong Jun returned to Longcheng.

桓溫之入關也,王擢遣使告涼王祚,言溫善用兵,其志難測。祚懼,且畏擢之叛己,遣人刺之。事洩,祚益懼,大發兵,聲言東伐,實欲西保敦煌,會溫還而止。既而遣秦州刺史牛霸等帥兵三千擊擢,破之。十一月,擢帥眾降秦,秦以擢為尚書,以上將軍啖鐵為秦州刺史。

28. When Huan Wen had entered Guanzhong, Wang Zhuo had sent word to the Prince of Liang, Zhang Zuo, informing him of Huan Wen's great skill in commanding troops. He also reported that Huan Wen's ambition was uncertain. Zhang Zuo, afraid of this estimation, believed that Wang Zhuo himself might be planning to betray him, so he sent an agent to kill Wang Zhuo. But the plot leaked out.

Zhang Zuo became even more afraid, and began drafting a large army, ostensibly to march east to attack Qin, but really to march west so that Zhang Zuo would be able to hold out at Dunhuang if Liangzhou were invaded. However, when Huan Wen went back to Qin, Zhang Zuo canceled the draft.

He then sent his Inspector of Qinzhou, Niu Ba, and others with three thousand troops to attack Wang Zhuo, and routed him. In the eleventh month, Wang Zhuo and his men surrendered to Qin, where he was appointed as Master of Writing, and his assistant Dan Tie was appointed Inspector of Qinzhou.

秦王健叔父武都王安自晉還,為姚襄所虜,以為洛州刺史。十二月,安亡歸秦,健以安為大司馬、驃騎大將軍、并州刺史,鎮蒲板。

29. Fu Jiàn had earlier sent his uncle, the Prince of Wudu Fu An, to Jin as a hostage. Fu An had attempted to return to Qin, but was captured by Yao Xiang along the way, who made him his Inspector of Luozhou.

In the eleventh month, Fu An escaped and at last reached Qin. Fu Jiàn appointed him as Grand Marshal, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and Inspector of Bingzhou, and charged him with guarding Puban.

是歲,秦大饑,米一升直布一匹。

30. During this year, there was a great famine in Qin, and a 升 of rice cost a roll of cloth.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Mar 22, 2017 11:51 pm

永和十一年(乙卯,公元三五五年)

The Eleventh Year of Yonghe (The Yimao Year, 355 AD)


春,正月,故仇池公楊毅弟宋奴使其姑子梁式王刺殺楊初;初子國誅式王及宋奴,自立為仇池公。桓溫表國為鎮北將軍、秦州刺史。

1. In spring, the first month, Yang Songnu, who was the younger brother of the former Duke of Chouchi, Yang Yi, sent his cousin Liang Shiwang to kill the current Duke, Yang Chu. Yang Chu's son, Yang Guo, killed Liang Shiwang and Yang Songnu, and declared himself the new Duke of Chouchi. Huan Wen petitioned for Yang Guo to be appointed as General Who Guards The North and Inspector of Qinzhou.

二月,秦大蝗,百草無遺,牛馬相噉毛。

2. In the second month, Qin was plagued by locusts. All the grass was lost, and the cattle and horses each resorted to eating hair.

夏,四月,燕王俊自和龍還薊。先是,幽、冀之人以俊為東遷,互相驚擾,所在屯結。群臣請討之,俊曰:「群小以朕東巡,故相惑為亂耳。今朕既至,尋當自定,不足討也。」

3. In summer, the fourth month, Murong Jun returned to Ji from Helong.

燕主如龍城,見上卷上年。

Murong Jun went to Longcheng in the last year (354) of the previous book (Book 99).

Earlier, after the people of Youzhou and Jizhou heard that Murong Jun was going east and before he had returned, disturbances broke out, and the result was some chaos. The ministers asked Murong Jun to campaign against this, but he said to them, "This is merely the cause of a few miscreants who, hearing that I was going east on patrol, thought that they could take the chance to stir up some chaos. Now that I have returned, they will settle down on their own, so there is no need for a campaign."

和龍直薊之東。

Helong was east of Ji.


蘭陵太守孫黑、濟北太守高柱、建興太守高甕/瓫及秦河內太守王會、黎陽太守韓高皆以郡降燕。

4. Among those former Zhao officials who had still not yet gone over to anyone, the Administrator of Lanling, Sun Hei, the Administrator of Jibei, Gao Zhu, the Administrator of Jianxing, Gao Weng/Pen, Qin’s Administrator of Henei, Wang Hui, and the Administrator of Liyang, Han Gao, all submitted to Yan.

濟,子禮翻。瓫,蒲奔翻。史言燕強,諸反側子皆附之。

濟 is pronounced "Zi (Z-i)". 瓫 is pronounced "pen (p-en)".

The text is saying that because of Yan's strength, all these holdouts went over to it.


Despite Hu Sanxing’s claim here, I continue to use “Jibei” for 濟北. I have seen the Administrator of Jianxing’s name here written as either 甕 Weng or 瓫 Pen.

秦淮南王先幼無一目,性粗暴。其祖父洪嘗戲之曰:「吾聞瞎兒一淚,信乎?」生怒,引佩刀自刺出血,曰:「此亦一淚也。」洪大驚,鞭之。生曰:「性耐刀槊,不堪鞭棰!」洪謂其父健曰:「此兒狂悖,宜早除之。不然,必破人家。」健將殺之,健弟雄止之曰:「兒長自應改,何可遽爾!」及長,力舉千鈞,手格猛獸,走及奔馬,擊刺騎射,冠絕一時。獻哀太子卒,強後欲立少子晉王柳;秦主健以讖文有「三羊五眼」,乃立生為太子。以司空、平昌王菁為太尉,尚書令王墮為司空,司隸校尉梁楞為尚書令。

5. Qin's Prince of Huainan, Fu Sheng, was blind in one eye, and he possessed an explosive temperament.

His grandfather Fu Hong used to tease him by asking, "I heard you only cry from one eye; is it true?" Fu Sheng, angry, pulled out the blade he was carrying and drew blood from himself, saying, "This is how the other eye sheds tears." Fu Hong was greatly angered by this, and whipped Fu Sheng. Fu Sheng said, "I can shrug off any sword or spear, only spare me your lashing!" Fu Hong warned his son Fu Jiàn, "This wild child will bring harm to you; deal with him before he destroys your family." So Fu Jiàn planned to kill Fu Sheng, but his younger brother Fu Xiong objected, saying, "When he grows up, he will change his ways; how can you think of doing this?" Fu Sheng grew up to be a powerful warrior, incredibly strong, adept on foot or on horseback, skilled in fighting with the sword and the bow.

After the untimely death of Crown Prince Fu Chang, Empress Qiang wanted to appoint the Prince of Jin, Fu Liu, as the heir. However, Fu Jiàn believed in a prophecy stating that "three goats have five eyes", so he made Fu Sheng his crown prince instead. The Minister of Works and Prince of Pingchang, Fu Jing, was appointed Grand Commandant; the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Duo, was appointed the new Minister of Works; the Colonel Director of Retainers, Liang Leng, was appointed the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

秦太子萇,諡曰獻哀。爲苻生以凶暴不克紹張本。楞,盧登翻。

Crown Prince Fu Chang was posthumously known as Prince Xian'ai, "the Mourned" (as was mentioned in the last book).

It was because of Fu Sheng's brutality that he did not last very long on the throne.

楞 is pronounced "leng (l-eng)".


姚襄所部多勸襄北還,襄從之。五月,襄攻冠軍將軍高季於外黃,會季卒,襄進據許昌。

6. Many of Yao Xiang's followers urged him to march north, and he heeded their advice. In the fifth month, he attacked Jin’s Champion General Gao Ji at Waihuang. Gao Ji was killed, and Yao Xiang advanced and captured Xuchang.

外黃縣,自漢以來屬陳留郡。賢曰:外黃故城在今汴州雍丘縣東。

Since Han times, Waihuang County had been in Chenliu commandary. Xian remarked: "The old city of Waihuang was in the eastern part of Yongqiu County in modern Bianzhou."


Bianzhou covered the region around modern Kaifeng.

六月,丙子,秦主健寢疾。庚辰,平昌王菁勒兵入東宮,將殺太子生而自立。時生侍疾西宮,菁以為健已卒,攻東掖門。健聞變,登端門,陳兵自衛。眾見健,惶懼,皆捨仗逃散。健執菁,數而殺之,餘無所問。

7. In the sixth month, on the day Bingzhi, Fu Jiàn became deathly ill.

On the day Gengchen, the Prince of Pingchang, Fu Jing, led troops and entered the Eastern Palace, intending to kill Fu Sheng and take the throne in his place. However, at that time, Fu Sheng was attending to Fu Jiàn’s illness in the Western Palace. Fu Jing believed that Fu Jiàn had already died, so he attacked the Dongye gate. When Fu Jiàn heard of this development, he presented himself at the gate, and led the soldiers to defend it. When Fu Jing’s men saw Fu Jiàn, they became afraid, and they abandoned Fu Jing. Fu Jiàn seized Fu Jing, killing him and several others, while sparing the rest.

【章:十二行本「公」作「王」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】秦主所居爲西宮。

In the phrase "Prince of Pingchang", some versions say "Duke" instead of "Prince".

The Western Palace was the residence of the lord of Qin (as opposed to the Eastern Palace, which was the residence of the Crown Prince).


壬午,以大司馬、武都王安都督中外諸軍事。甲申,健引太師魚遵、丞相雷弱兒、太傅毛貴、司空王墮、尚書令梁楞、左僕射梁安、右僕射段純、吏部尚書辛牢等受遺詔輔政。健謂太子生曰:「六夷酋師及大臣執權者,若不從汝命,宜漸除之。」

8. On the day Renwu, Fu An, Qin’s Grand Marshal and Prince of Wudu, was placed in command of all military affairs.

苻雄死,健以菁都督中外諸軍;菁以逆誅,以安代之。

After Fu Xiong's death, Fu Jiàn had appointed Fu Jing as Commander over military affairs. Now that Fu Jing had been executed, Fu An was appointed in his place.


On the day Jiashen, Fu Jiàn appointed as a council of regents the Grand Tutor Yu Zun, the Prime Minister Lei Ruo'er, the Grand Commandant Mao Gui, the Minister of Works Wang Duo, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing Liang Leng, the Deputy Director of the Left Liang An, the Deputy Director of the Right Duan Chun, and the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing Xin Lao.

Fu Jiàn told his son Fu Sheng, "These six chiefs and high ministers hold great power. If they do not heed your orders, gradually do away with them."

爲苻生虐殺大臣張本。

This was why Fu Sheng later slaughtered these high ministers.


臣光曰:顧命大臣,所以輔導嗣子,為之羽翼也。為之羽翼而教使剪之,能無斃乎!知其不忠。則勿任而已矣。任以大柄,又從而猜之,鮮有不召亂者也。

9. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: The purpose of appointing such ministers is to assist the new prince, so that they might act as his wings. To give a prince such wings and then instruct him to clip them; how could they not perish? If he did not trust them, he should not have appointed them to such roles. But having appointed them, to encourage doubts and second-guessing against them only made him cause more trouble.

From time to time, Sima Guang provides his own commentary on the historical narrative. He usually does so to praise or criticize some person, or otherwise offer moral judgment on events.

乙酉,健卒,謚曰景明皇帝,廟號高祖。丙戌,太子生即位,大赦,改元壽光。群臣奏曰:「未逾年而改元,非禮也。」生怒,窮推議主,得右僕射段純,殺之。

10. On the day Yiyou, Fu Jiàn passed away. His posthumous name was Emperor Jingming, and his temple name was Gaozu.

年三十九。

He was thirty-nine.


On the day Bingxu, the crown prince Fu Sheng rose to the throne. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign title to Shouguang. The ministers counseled him, "It is inauspicious to change the reign title during the middle of an existing reign year." Fu Sheng was angered by this; he blamed the chief advocate of this position, the Deputy Director of the Right Duan Chun, and killed him.

苻生,字長生,健第三子也。古禮,君薨,世子卽位,旣踰年而後稱元年。

Fu Sheng, styled Changsheng, was Fu Jian's third son.

It was ancient tradition that after a ruler was buried, his eldest son would inherit his throne, and at the beginning of a new year would declare a new reign era title.


秋,七月,以吏部尚書周閔為左僕射。

11. In autumn, the seventh month, Jin’s Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Zhou Min, was appointed Deputy Director of the Left.

或告會稽王昱曰:「武陵王第中大脩器仗,將謀非常。」昱以去太常王彪之曰:「武陵王之志,盡於馳騁數豬而己耳,深願,靜之,以安異同之論,勿復以為言!」昱善之。

12. In Jin, someone said to Sima Yu, "The Prince of Wuling has been gathering weapons and equipment. He must be plotting something unusual soon."

Sima Yu went to the Master of Ceremonies Wang Biaozhi, who said to him, "The Prince of Wuling's desire is only to drive a few pigs before him, nothing more. Think on this and be at ease. This is no different from remaining at peace, so there is no need for further discussion." Sima Yu was appeased.

武陵王晞也。爲武陵終以此得禍、彪之所不能救張本。

The Prince of Wuling was Sima Xi.

This was why the Prince of Wuling later met with misfortune, and Wang Biaozhi was unable to save him.


秦主生尊母強氏曰皇太后,立妃梁氏為皇后。梁氏,安之女也。以其嬖臣太子門大夫南安趙韶為右僕射,太子舍人趙誨為中護軍,著作郎董榮為尚書。

13. Fu Sheng honored his mother, Lady Qiang, as Empress Dowager. He honored his wife, Lady Liang, as Empress. Lady Liang was the daughter of Liang An.

Among Fu Sheng’s personal servants from his time as Crown Prince, he appointed Zhao Shao of Nan'an as Deputy Director of the Right, the Crown Prince’s Attendant Zhao Hui as Protector of the Army of the Center, and the 著作郎 Dong Song as Master of Writing.

《續漢志》:太子門大夫二人,職比郎將。

The 續漢志 states, "The two 大夫 of the Crown Prince's servants act as 郎將s."


涼王祚淫虐無道,上下怨憤。祚惡河州刺史張瓘之強,遣張掖太守索孚代瓘守枹罕,使瓘討叛胡,又遣其將易揣、張玲帥步騎萬三千以襲瓘。張掖人王鸞知術數,言於祚曰:「此軍出,必不還,涼國將危。」並陳祚三不道。祚大怒,以鸞為妖言,斬以徇。鸞臨刑曰:「我死,軍敗於外,王死於內,必矣!」祚族滅之。瓘聞之,斬孚,起兵擊祚,傳檄州郡,廢祚,以侯還第,復立涼寧侯曜靈。易揣、張玲軍始濟河,瓘擊破之。揣等單騎奔還,瓘軍躡之,姑臧振恐。驍騎將軍敦煌宋混兄修,與祚有隙,懼禍。八月,混與弟澄西走,合眾萬餘人以應瓘,還向姑臧。祚遣楊秋胡將曜靈於東苑,拉其腰而殺之,埋於沙坑,謚曰哀公。

14. The Prince of Liang, Zhang Zuo, was cruel and without principle. He suspected all around him. He feared the power of the Inspector of Hezhou, Zhang Guan, so he sent the Administrator of Zhangye, Xe Fu, to take over the command of Fuhan in Zhang Guan's place, while he ordered Zhang Guan to campaign against rebellious barbarians.

張駿置河州,治枹罕。索,昔各翻。枹,音膚。

Zhang Guan administered Hezhou from the city of Fuhun.

索 is pronounced "Xe (x-e)". 枹 is pronounced "Fu".


He then sent his generals Yi Chuai and Zhang Ling with thirty thousand horse and foot to attack Zhang Guan. A man of Zhangye, Wang Luan, who knew several mystic arts warned Zhang Zuo, "If this army goes out, it will certainly shall not return. Then Liang will soon face great peril." But despite three warnings, Zhang Zuo did not listen. In fact, he became so angry that he accused Wang Luan of treasonous talk, and had him put to death. As Wang Luan was being lead to his execution, he said, "So sure as I die, the army without will be defeated, and the lord within will die; this is certain!" Zhang Zuo extinguished his clan as well.

易,讀如字,姓也。揣,初委翻。玲,盧經翻。

易 is read like the character (yi), and is a surname. 揣 is pronounced "chuai (ch-ei)". 玲 is pronounced "ling (l-ing)".


When Zhang Guan heard the news of the approaching army, he executed Xe Fu and began raising troops to attack Zhang Zuo. He sent out proclamations among the provinces and commandaries, declaring his intent to depose Zhang Zuo, and restore the former ruler, the Marquis of Liangning Zhang Yaoling, to the throne. Zhang Guan attacked Yi Chuai and Zhang Lun's army as it was crossing the Yellow River, and defeated them. Yi Chuai and a few others escaped alone on horseback. Zhang Guan pursued their retreating forces, and Guzang was gripped by fear.

曜靈廢見上卷上年。

Zhang Yaoling's removal was described in the last year of the previous book (Book 99).


The General of Valiant Cavalry, Song Hun of Dunhuang, and his elder brother Song Xiu, also had their problems with Zhang Zuo, and feared disaster. In the eighth month, Song Hun and his younger brother Song Deng marched west, joining forces with more than ten thousand soldiers under Zhang Guan, before they all marched towards Guzang.

敦,徒門翻。

敦 is pronounced "ten (t-en)".


Despite Hu Sanxing’s comment, “Dunhuang” is the more accepted pronunciation.


Zhang Zuo sent Yang Chuhu to take Zhang Yaoling to the Eastern Garden, where he was beaten to death; he was buried in the sand, and his posthumous name was Duke Ai (“the Lamented”).

秦主生封衛大將軍黃眉為廣平王,前將軍飛為新興王,皆素所善也。征大司馬武都王安領太尉。以晉王柳為征東大將軍、并州牧,鎮蒲板;魏王廋為鎮東大將軍、豫州牧,鎮陝城。中書監胡文、中書令王魚言於生曰:「比有星孛於大角,熒惑入東井。大角,帝坐;東井,秦分;於占不出三年,國有大喪,大臣戮死;願陛下修德以禳之!」生曰:「皇后與朕對臨天下,可以應在喪矣。毛太傅、梁車騎、梁僕射受遺輔政,可以應大臣矣。」九月,生殺梁後及毛貴、梁楞、梁安。貴,後之舅也。右僕射趙韶、中護軍趙誨,皆洛州刺史俱之從弟也,有寵於生,乃以俱為尚書令。俱固辭以疾,謂韶、誨曰:「汝等不復顧祖宗,欲為滅門之事!毛、梁何罪,而誅之?吾何功,而代之?汝等可自為,吾其死矣!」遂以憂卒。

15. In Qin, Fu Sheng appointed the Grand Guard General, Fu Huangmei, as Prince of Guangping, the General of the Front Fu Fei as Prince of Xinxing, and others with like rewards. The Grand Conquering Marshal, the Prince of Wudu Fu An, was appointed as Grand Commandant. The Prince of Jin, Fu Liu, was appointed Grand General Who Conquers the East and Governor of Bingzhou, and he was garrisoned at Puban. The Prince of Wei, Fu Sou(?), was appointed Grand General Who Guards the East and Governor of Yuzhou, and was garrisoned at Shancheng.

健臨沒,以安督中外諸軍,然尚在蒲阪,今生乃召之。阪,音反。廋,疏鳩翻。陝,失冉翻。

Fu Jiàn had appointed Fu An to the role of Commander on his deathbed, and he was sent to Puban. Fu Sheng was now summoning him back.

阪 is pronounced similar to "fan". 廋 is pronounced "sou (sh-iu)". 陝 is pronounced "shan (sh-an)".


Shancheng is the modern city of Sanmenxia in Henan province.

The Palace Secretary Hu Wen and the Prefect of 中書 Wang Yu said to Fu Sheng, "There have been shooting stars in the Great Horn quadrant, and Mars has entered the Eastern Well. The Great Horn is the seat of Emperors, and Qinzhou lies within the boundaries of the Eastern Well. Within three years, the state will soon face a great death, with many great ministers dying; we implore Your Majesty to cultivate virtue and offer up prayers!"

《天文志》:大角在攝提間。大角者,天王坐也。東井,八星。東井、輿鬼,秦、雍州分。

The “Records on Astrology” say, "The Great Horn lies within the 攝提, and it signifies heavenly princes." And in another place, "The Eastern Well is a constellation of eight stars." And elsewhere, "The Eastern Well and the Carriage Ghost constellations correspond to Qinzhou and Yongzhou."


But Fu Sheng replied, "The Empress commands the realm along with me; she may serve as the 'great burial'. Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An conduct many affairs of state; they may serve as these 'great ministers'." So in the ninth month, Fu Sheng executed Empress Liang, Mao Gui, Liang Leng, and Liang An. Mao Gui was the Empress's uncle.

Deputy Director of the Right Zhao Shao and Protector of the Army of the Center Zhao Hui had a cousin, the Inspector of Luozhou, Zhao Ju, who also received Fu Sheng’s favor, and he appointed Zhao Ju as the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing. But Zhao Ju pleaded illness to refuse the post, and he said to Zhao Shao and Zhao Hui, "How can you go along with this plot of the royal family, to let entire families be exterminated? What crime did Mao or Liang commit, to deserve death? What achievement have I, to take their place? You men may follow your own course, but I must simply die!" He soon became sick with worry and passed away.

趙俱鎭宜陽,事見上卷上年。

Zhao Ju's appointment to guard Yiyang was mentioned in the last year of the previous book (Book 99).


涼宋混軍於武始大澤,為曜靈發哀。閏月,混軍至姑臧,涼王祚收張瓘弟琚及子嵩,將殺之。琚、嵩聞之,募市人數百,揚言:「張祚無道,我兄大軍已至城東,敢舉手者誅三族!」遂開西門納混兵。領軍將軍趙長等懼罪,入閣呼張重華母馬氏出殿,立涼武侯玄靚為主。易揣等引兵入殿,收長等,殺之。祚按劍殿上,大呼,叱左右力戰。祚素失眾心,莫肯為之鬥者,遂為兵人所殺。混等梟其首,宣示內外,暴屍道左,城內咸稱萬歲。以庶人禮葬之,並殺其二子。混、琚上玄靚為大將軍、涼州牧、西平公,赦境內,復稱建興四十三年。時玄靚始七歲。

16. In Liang, Song Hun's army was at the great marsh at Wushi, where they went into mourning for Zhang Yaoling.

張駿分狄道縣,立武始郡。宋混西走,起兵必不東向狄道。《水經》︰都野澤在武威縣東北。《註》云:在姑臧城北三百里。都野卽《禹貢》之豬野,其水上承姑臧武始澤,澤在姑臧西。

One of the earlier lords of Former Liang, Zhang Jun, had split the original Didao commandary, making part of it into Wushi commandary. When Song Hun marched west, his soldiers certainly did not march east towards Didao.

The Water Classic says, "Duye Marsh was in the northeast of Wuwei County." The Commentary to the Water Classic adds, "It was three hundred li north of Guzang." Duye corresponds to the "Zhuye Marsh" mentioned in the Tribute of Yu (Book of Documents, Tribute of Yu #10), which flows into the Wushi Marsh of Guzang, so this marsh was west of Guzang.


In the intercalary month, Song Hun's army reached Guzang. Zhang Zuo ordered Zhang Guan's brother Zhang Ju and son Zhang Song to be arrested, planning to kill them. When the two of them learned of it, they gathered together many people, and proclaimed, "Zhang Zuo is without principle; our older brother's grand army is already east of the city, and let anyone who dares oppose them suffer death with their whole clan!" Having said this, they rushed to open the western gate and let in Song Hun’s army.

The General Who Leads The Army Zhang Chang and others, fearing to suffer punishment, entered the palace and begged Zhang Chonghua's mother, Lady Ma, to shelter them in the palace, and offered to make the Marquis of Wu, Zhang Xuanjing, the new lord. Yi Chuai and others forced their troops into the palace, took hold of Zhang Chang and the others, and killed them.

趙長,請立祚者也,故懼罪。靚,疾郢翻,又疾正翻。

Zhao Chang was the one who asked that Zhang Zuo take the throne: this was the crime he feared for.

靚 is pronounced "jing (j-ing)", or "jeng (j-eng)".


Zhang Zuo grasped his sword and ran out of the palace, giving a great shout, and calling on those around him to fight hard. But he had already lost the hearts of the people, and there was no one left who was willing to fight for him, so he was killed by the soldiers. Song Hun and the others cut off Zhang Zuo's head, proclaimed his death throughout all of Liangzhou’s territory, and burned his body by the side of the road. Everyone inside the city praised Song Hun’s name. Zhang Zuo was buried with the rites fit for a commoner, and his two sons were also put to death.

Song Hun and Zhang Ju raised up Zhang Xuanjing as Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping. A general amnesty was declared within Liang, and the former Western Jin reign title was restored, so that it was now the forty-third year of Jianxing. At this time, Zhang Xuanjing was seven years old.

張祚改建興年號,見上卷上年。

Zhang Zuo had changed the reign era title to Jianxing at the beginning of the year, as mentioned in the last year of the previous book (Book 99).


張瓘至姑臧,推玄靚為涼王,自為使持節、都督中外諸軍事、尚書令、涼州牧、張掖郡公,以宋混為尚書僕射。隴西人李儼據郡,不受瓘命,用江東年號,眾多歸之。瓘遣其將牛霸討之,未至,西平人衛綝亦據郡叛,霸兵潰,奔還。瓘遣弟琚擊綝,敗之。酒泉太守馬基起兵以應綝,瓘遣司馬張姚、王國擊斬之。

17. When Zhang Guan reached Guzang, he pushed to make Zhang Xuanjing Prince of Liang, while he claimed for himself the titles of 使持節, Commander of all military affairs, Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Zhangye. Song Hun was given the rank of Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

A man from Longxi, Li Yan, refused to recognize Zhang Guan's rule; he took over his local territory, insisted on following the current Jin reign title as it was in the Southland, and summoned many men to his side.

用永和年號也。爲李儼歸秦張本。

That is to say, he used the reign title Yonghe. This was why Li Yan inclined towards Qin.


Zhang Guan sent his general Niu Ba to campaign against Li Yan, but when they were about to arrive at his territory, another man from Xiping named Wei Chen took over a commandary as well and rose in rebellion. Niu Ba's troops scattered, and he fled back to Guzang. Zhang Guan then dispatched his younger brother Zhang Ju to attack Wei Chen, and Wei was defeated. The Administrator of Jiuquan, Ma Ji, raised troops in an effort to assist Wei Chen, but Zhang Guan sent his Marshal Zhang Yao and Wang Guo against him, and they attacked and killed Ma Ji.

綝,丑林翻。

綝 is pronounced "chen (ch-in)".


The character 綝 is commonly pronounced either as Chen or as Lin. There seems to be no definite consensus.

冬,十月,以豫州刺史謝尚督並、冀、幽三州,鎮壽春。

18. In winter, the tenth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou Xie Shang was given command over Bingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou. He was stationed at Shouchun.

時江左僑立青、冀、幷、幽四州於江北。南渡初,祖逖以豫州刺史治譙城。永昌元年,祖約退屯壽春。成帝咸和四年,庾亮以豫州刺史治蕪湖。咸康四年,毛寶以豫州刺史治邾城。六年,庾翼以豫州刺史治蕪湖。永和元年,趙胤以豫州刺史治牛渚。二年,尚以豫州刺史治蕪湖,今進壽春,皆建康西藩也。進取則屯壽春,守江則多在歷陽、蕪湖二處。

At that time, there were many refugees in Jin who had earlier fled from Qingzhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, and Youzhou, which were all provinces north of the Yangzi.

When the forces of Jin had first crossed to the south side of the Yangzi (after 311), Zu Tu was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered things from Qiao. In the first year of Yongchang (322), Zu Yue fell back to defend from Shouchun. In the fourth year of Xianhe during Emperor Cheng's reign (330), Yu Liang was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered the territory from Wuhu. In the fourth year of Xiankang (338), Mao Bao was the Inspector of Yuzhou, and he administered from Zhucheng. In the sixth year (340), Yu Yi was the Inspector, and he administered from Wuhu again. In the first year of Yonghe (345), Zhao Yin was the Inspector, and he administered from Niuzhu. In the second year (346), Xie Shang was the Inspector, and he administered from Wuhu yet again. Now, in 355, Xie Shang advanced to Shouchun, which was the western border territory for Jiankang. Since his army was garrisoned at Shouchun, it could now defend the Yangzi better than at many places like Liyang and Wuhu.


Wuhu is still a city in modern Anhui. It is on the southern bank of the Yangzi near Nanjing, while Shouchun is to the northwest of it across the river, some ways west of Nanjing. Zhucheng was the city mentioned earlier in Book 96 (339.22), when Yu Liang sent Mao Bao to command a garrison there and provoked a preemptive attack from Shi Hu. Niuzhu is the modern city of Ma’anshan, slightly northeast of Wuhu.

鎮北將軍段龕與燕主俊書,抗中表之儀,非其稱帝。俊怒,十一月,以太原王恪為大都督、撫軍將軍,陽騖副之,以擊龕。

19. The warlord Duan Kan, nominally Jin’s General Who Guards The North, wrote a missive to Murong Jun, criticizing his conducting of rites, and opposing his declaration as Emperor. Murong Jun was greatly enraged by this. In the eleventh month, he appointed the Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Ke, as Grand Marshal and General Who Protects The Army, with Yang Wu serving as his adjutant. They went to attack Duan Kan.

儁,段氏出也,故龕與之抗中表之儀。龕,苦含翻。騖,音務。

Since Murong Jun was a descendant of the Duan clan, Duan Kan felt free to criticize his conducting of rites.

龕 is pronounced "kan (k-an)". 騖 is pronounced similar to "wu".


Murong Huang’s wife was Lady Duan, and she was probably Murong Jun’s mother. Even if not, his grandfather Murong Hui’s wife was also from the Duan clan.


秦以辛牢守尚書令,趙韶為左僕射,尚書董榮為右僕射,中護軍趙誨為司隸校尉。

20. In Qin, Xin Lao was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing (since Zhao Ju had refused it). Zhao Shao was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left, the Master of writing Dong Rong became Deputy Director of the Right, and the Protector of the Army of the Center Zhao Hui became the Colonel Director of Retainers.

十二月,高句麗王釗遣使詣燕納質修貢,以請其母。燕主俊許之,遣殿中將軍刁龕送釗母周氏歸其國;以釗為征東大將軍、營州刺史,封樂浪公,王如故。

21. In the twelfth month, the King of Goguryeo Go Soe sent tribute to Yan, and asked for the release of his mother. Murong Jun agreed to this, and sent his General of the Central Palace Diao Kan to escort Lady Ju back to her own state. He further granted Go Soe the titles of Grand General Who Conquers The East, Inspector of Yingzhou, and Duke of Lelang, and treated him like a prince.

燕囚釗母,見九十七卷成帝咸康八年。樂浪,音洛琅。使爲高句麗王如故。

The imprisonment of Go Soe's mother was mentioned in the eighth year of Xiankang (342.13) in Book 97.

樂浪 is pronounced like "luolang".

That is to say, he treated Go Soe as Prince of Goguryeo.


Most sources pronounce 樂浪 as Lelang. In Korean it is Naglang.

上黨人馮鴦逐燕太守段剛,據安民城,自稱太守,遣使來降。

22. Feng Yang of Shangdang cast out Yan's Administrator of that place, Duan Gang. He seized control of Anmin, declaring himself its Administrator, and sent an offer of submission to Jin.

魏收《地形志》:燕上黨太守治安民城。安民城在襄垣縣,蓋永嘉中,劉琨遣張倚所築,以安上黨之民,因以爲名。

The "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei states, "During Yan, the Administrators of Shangdang administered the territory from Anmin. Anmin city was in Xiangyuan County. During the Yongjia era (307-313), Liu Kun sent Zhang Yi to build it, and since its purpose was to calm the people of Shangdang, he named it Anmin (literally "calm the people")."


秦丞相雷弱兒性剛直,以趙韶、董榮亂政,每公言於朝,見之常切齒。韶、榮譖之於秦主生,生殺弱兒及其九子、二十七孫。於是諸羌皆有離心。生雖諒陰,游飲自若,彎弓露刃,以見朝臣。錘鉗鋸鑿,可以害人之具,備置左右。即位未幾,后妃、公卿已下至於僕隸,凡殺五百餘人,截脛、拉脅、鋸項、刳胎者,比比有之。

23. The Prime Minister of Qin, Lei Ruo'er, was of an upright and outspoken nature. He always reported the loose governance of Zhao Shao and Dong Rong to the court, and they gnashed their teeth whenever they saw him. They appealed to Fu Sheng, and he killed Lei Ruo'er along with his nine sons and twenty-seven grandsons. Many of the Qiang greatly opposed this, because Lei had been one of the Qiang as well.

雷弱兒,南安羌酋也,以非罪而死,故諸羌皆有離心。

Lei Ruo'er was a chieftain of the Qiang of Nan'an. Since he had been killed even though he committed no crime, this alienated the various Qiang tribes.


Although Fu Sheng was normally of a calm disposition, he could quickly change in front of all his ministers. He kept ready at hand various tools for when he wished to harm others, including hammers, pincers, saws, and chisels. After coming to the throne, when he wished to dispose of empresses, consorts, or ministers, killing more than five hundred of them, he would cut off their shins, slash their sides, saw their necks, rip out their unborn child, and other behavior of this nature.

燕主俊以段龕方強,謂太原王恪曰:「若龕遣軍拒河,不得渡者,可直取呂護而還。」恪分遣輕軍先至河上,具舟楫以觀龕志趣。龕弟羆,驍勇有智謀,言於龕曰:「慕容恪善用兵,加之眾盛,若聽其濟河,進至城下,恐雖乞降,不可得也。請兄固守,羆帥精銳拒之於河,幸而戰捷,兄帥大眾繼之,必有大功。若其不捷,不若早降,猶不失為千戶侯也。」龕不從。羆固請不已,龕怒,殺之。

24. Murong Jun was concerned about the strength of Duan Kan's defenses. He said to Murong Ke, "If Duan Kan’s army holds the line of the Yellow River, you do not need to force a crossing; it will be enough to capture Lü Hu and then return." Murong Ke split off several light detachments to reach the river, and they used boats to observe Duan Kan's plans.

呂護時據野王。

Lü Hu still held control over Yewang.


Yewang is the modern city of Qinyang in Henan province. At this time, it was presumably north of the Yellow River, whose course has changed drastically over the centuries.


Duan Kan had a younger brother, Duan Pi, heroic and skilled in planning. Duan Pi said to his brother, "Murong Ke knows well how to use his soldiers, and he has many of them at hand. If he crosses the river and advances to the city, I fear even if you beg to surrender, it will be denied you. Elder Brother, please keep a steady defense; if you lead your best soldiers to guard the line of the river, and fight to maintain it, then your numbers will swell, and victory is assured. If you refuse to do so, then it would be better to surrender at once; it would not be too late to still hold title as Marquis over a thousand households." But Duan Kan did not heed him. Duan Pi’s repeated requests of this nature were ignored, until Duan Kan, greatly angered, killed him.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:07 am

永和十二年(丙辰,公元三五六年)

The Thirteenth Year of Yonghe (The Bingchen Year, 356 AD)

春,正月,燕太原王恪引兵濟河,未至廣固百餘里,段龕帥眾三萬逆戰。丙申,恪大破龕於淄水,執其弟欽,斬右長史袁范等。齊王友辟閭蔚被創,恪聞其賢,遣人求之,蔚已死,士卒降者數千人。龕脫走,還城固守,恪進軍圍之。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong Ke led his troops across the Yellow River. When they were still over a hundred li away from Duan Kan’s capital at Guanggu, Duan Kan brought thirty thousand men against them in battle. On the day Bingshen, Murong Ke greatly routed Duan Kan at Zishui; he captured his younger brother Duan Qin, and killed his Chief Clerk of the Left Yuan Fan and others.

據《載記》,恪破龕於濟水之南。今言未至廣固百餘里,蓋至淄水而會戰也。《水經》,濁水逕廣固城西,東流至廣饒,入巨淀,又北合于淄水。

The 載記 states, "Murong Ke routed Duan Kan south of the Ji River." The above passage in ZZTJ mentions that Murong Ke was still over a hundred li from Guanggu, and that the two armies fought the battle at the Zi River. The Water Classic says, "The Zhuo River passes west of Guanggu city, and flows east until it reaches Guangrao, where it enters Lake Judian. To the north, it also joins with the Zi River."


The Zi or Zihe River and Guangrao are both still places in modern Shandong. Lake Judian was northwest of modern Shouguang in Shandong.

Among Duan’s commanders was the 王友, Pilu Yu, who performed many great achievements during the battle. When Murong Ke heard of this man's worth, he sent men to look for him, but by then Pilu Yu had already died, and many thousands of the enemy soldiers had surrendered. Duan Kan fled back to defend Guanggu, and Murong Ke pursued him and put the city under siege.

段龕自稱齊王,故置王友之官。蔚,紆勿翻。

When Duan Kan declared himself Prince of Qi, he also created the office of 王友.

蔚 is pronounced "yu (y-u)".


秦司空王墮性剛峻,右僕射董榮、侍中強國皆以佞幸進,墮疾之如仇,每朝見,榮未嘗與之言。或謂墮曰:「董君貴幸無比,公宜小降意接之。」墮曰:「董龍是何雞狗,而令國士與之言乎!」會有天變,榮與強國言於秦主生曰:「今天譴甚重,宜以貴臣應之。」生曰:「貴臣唯有大司馬及司空耳。」榮曰:「大司馬國之懿親,不可殺也。」乃殺王墮。將刑,榮謂之曰:「今日復敢比董龍於雞狗乎?」墮瞋目叱之。洛州刺史杜郁,隨之甥也,左僕射趙韶惡之,譖於生,以為貳於晉而殺之。

2. Qin's Minister of Works, Wang Duo, was of a stern nature. He burned with rage against the Deputy Director of the Right Dong Rong and the Palace Attendant Qiang Guo for their sophistry. Whenever he was at court, Dong Rong never tried to utter a word. Someone said to him, "Lord Dong is a worthy man without peer; you should not be so harsh with him." Wang Duo replied, "Dong Long nothing but a chicken or a dog, and yet he thinks he can order around ministers of state!"

龍,董榮小字。

Long was Dong Rong's childhood name.


At that time, there were sudden changes in the heavens. Dong Rong and Qiang Guo said to Fu Sheng, "The movements of the constellations are very serious. A worthy minister must be offered up." Fu Sheng asked, "Should this worthy minister be the Grand Marshal or the Minister of Works?" Dong Rong replied, "The Grand Marshal is indispensable to the state; he cannot be killed."

大司馬謂武都王安,生叔父也。【章:十二行本「榮」下有「國」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

The Grand Marshal refers to the Prince of Wudu, Fu An, who was Fu Sheng's uncle.

In the final sentence here, some versions have "(Qiang) Guo" instead of "(Dong) Rong".


Fu Sheng therefore executed Wang Guo. While Wang Guo was being led out to be executed, Dong Rong said to him, "Do you dare to still say that Dong Long is just a chicken or dog?" Wang Duo only glared at him and loudly rebuked him.

The Inspector of Luozhou, Du Yu, was Wang Duo's nephew. The Deputy Director of the Left Zhao Shao disliked him, so he accused Du Yu to Fu Sheng of planning to defect to Jin, and Fu Sheng executed him.

壬戌,生宴群臣於太極殿,以尚書令辛牢為酒監,酒酣,生怒曰:「何不強人酒而猶有坐者!」引弓射牢,殺之。群臣懼,莫敢不醉,偃仆失冠,生乃悅。

3. On the day Renxu, Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the Taiji Palace. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xin Lao, was put in charge of distributing the wine. After becoming drunk, Fu Sheng was angry and said, "How can such weak men drink and yet still be in their seats?" So he shot an arrow at Xin Lao, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to drink; they all fell forward out of their seats and onto their faces. Fu Sheng was thereafter greatly pleased.

匈奴大人劉務桓卒,弟閼頭立,將貳於代。二月,代王什翼犍引兵西巡,臨河,閼頭懼,請降。

4. The Xiongnu chieftain Liu Wuhuan passed away. His younger brother Liu Etou took over his command, planning to go over to Dai. In the second month, the King of Dai, Tufa Shijian, marched his soldiers west to Linhe. Liu Etou was afraid and offered submission.

犍,居言翻。閼,於葛翻。

犍 is pronounced "jian (j-an)". 閼 is pronounced "e (w-e)".


燕太原王恪招撫段龕諸城。已丑,龕所署徐州刺史陽都公王騰舉眾降,恪命騰以故職還屯陽都。

5. Murong Ke offered amnesty to Duan Kan's cities.

恪圍廣固未下,故先招撫其統內諸城。

Before Murong Ke had besieged Guanggu, he first offered amnesty and regained control over his other cities.


On the day Yichou, Wang Teng, Duan Kan's Inspector of Xuzhou and Duke of Yangdu, brought his forces in to submit. Murong Ke ordered Wang Teng to return to garrison Yangdu.

段龕置徐州於琅邪陽都縣。杜佑曰:漢陽都縣故城在沂州沂水縣南。

Duan Kan split Yangdu County off from Langye in Xuzhou. Du You remarked, "Under Han, the old city of Yangdu County was south of Yishui County in Yizhou."


Yangdu is part of the modern city of Linyi in Shandong. Du You (735-812) was a scholar during the Tang dynasty.

秦征東大將軍晉王柳遣參軍閻負、梁殊使於涼,以書說涼王玄靚。負、殊至姑臧,張瓘見之,曰:「我,晉臣也;臣無境外之交,二君何以來辱?」負、殊曰:「晉王與君鄰籓,雖山河阻絕,風通道會,故來修好,君何怪焉!」瓘曰:「吾盡忠事晉,於今六世矣。若與苻征東通使,是上違先君之志,下隳士民之節,其可乎!」負、殊曰:「晉室衰微,墜失天命,固已久矣。是以涼之先王北面二趙,唯知機也。今大秦威德方盛,涼王若欲自帝河右,則非秦之敵。欲以小事大,則曷若捨晉事秦,以保福祿乎!」瓘曰:「中州好食言,向者石氏使車適返,而戎騎已至,吾不敢信也。」負、殊曰:「自古帝王居中州者,政化各殊,趙為奸詐,秦敦信義,豈得一概待之乎!張先、楊初皆阻兵不服,先帝討而擒之,赦其罪戾,寵以爵秩,固非石氏之比。」瓘曰:「必如君言,秦之威德無敵,何不先取江南,則天下盡為秦有,征東何辱命焉!」負、殊曰:「江南文身之俗,道污先叛,化隆後服。主上以為江南必須兵服,河右可以義懷,故遣行人先申大好。若君不達天命,則江南得延數年之命,而河右恐非君之土也」。瓘曰:「我跨據三州,帶甲十萬,西苞蔥嶺,東距大河,伐人有餘,況於自守,何畏於秦!」負、殊曰:「貴州山河之固,孰若殽、函?民物之饒,孰若秦、雍?杜洪、張琚,因趙氏成資,兵強財富,有囊括關中、席捲四海之志,先帝戎旗西指,冰消雲散,旬月之間,不覺易主。主上若以貴州不服,赫然奮怒,控弦百萬,鼓行而西,未知貴州將何以待之?」瓘笑曰:「茲事當決之於王,非身所了。」負、殊曰:「涼王雖英睿夙成,然年在幼沖,君居伊、霍之任,國家安危,系君一舉耳。」瓘懼,乃以玄靚之命遣使稱籓於秦,秦因玄靚所稱官爵而授之。

6. Qin's Grand General Who Conquers The East, the Prince of Jin Fu Liu, sent his advisors Yan Fu and Liang Shu to Liang, to speak with the Prince of Liang, Zhang Xuanjing. When Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at Guzang, Zhang Guan received them. He said, "I am a subject of Jin; a subject has no dealings with foreign states, so why do the two of you come to insult me?"

Yan and Liang replied, "Your lordship and the Prince of Jin are neighbors; although mountains and rivers create barriers, the same wind blows through both realms. We have come to improve relations; why is your lordship so combative?"

秦使苻柳鎭蒲阪,非與涼州鄰也,故以風通道會爲言。

Qin had sent Fu Liu to guard Puban (near Luoyang), which was not on the border with Liangzhou, so this passage about winds blowing through both realms was just talk.


Zhang Guan said, "We are utterly loyal to Jin, and have been so for six different lords. To treat with General Fu is to abandon the wishes of our late lord, and to ruin the happiness of the people; what sense is there in that?"

軌、寔、茂、駿、重華、曜靈、祚爲七世,今言六世,斥祚不以爲世數。

Counting Zhang Gui, Zhang Shi, Zhang Mao, Zhang Jun, Zhang Chonghua, Zhang Yaoling, and Zhang Zuo, Former Liang had thus far had seven lords. Yet Zhang Guan says six; by this he means not to include Zhang Zuo among the other lords.


Yan and Liang replied, "The Jin dynasty has declined; it has surrendered Heaven's mandate, and merely lingers on. Two of your own lords recognized the supremacy of the north, and inclined towards the two Zhaos. Now our state of Qin has grown virtuous and prosperous. If the Prince of Liang wishes to proclaim himself Emperor of all territory west of the river, he cannot but make a foe of Qin. But if he abandons minor affairs for greater, and forswears Jin loyalty in favor of Qin, he can assuredly safeguard his destiny!"

張茂稱藩於前趙,張駿稱藩於後趙。

Zhang Mao had earlier called himself a vassal of Han-Zhao, and Zhang Jun had done the same for Later Zhao.


Zhang Guan said, “The Central Provinces ate their words before. By the time our carriages had returned from the Shi clan, their soldiers and cavalry were already on our doorstep. I dare not believe you."

永和二年,張重華嗣位,遣使奉章於石虎,虎繼遣王擢來寇。

In the second year of Yonghe (346), when Zhang Chonghua came to the throne, he sent his tokens of submission to Shi Hu, yet Shi Hu sent Wang Zhuo to invade Liang.


Yan and Liang replied, "Since ancient times, when kings and emperors have taken hold of the Central Provinces, they have transformed all aspects of government. Where Zhao became evil, Qin has restored trust and virtue. How could you believe that we would give you the same treatment as Zhao? Witness what happened when Zhang Xian and Yang Chu both raised soldiers and refused to submit; our late lord campaigned against them, but he offered amnesty to the other criminals, and favored them with office. That was most unlike the Shi clan."

槪所以平斗斛,一槪待之,言無所高下也。擒張先見九十八卷六年,未嘗擒楊初也,負、殊姑爲是言耳。

Qin had treated everyone with the sword thus far, which was the same as Zhao. Such talk cannot get much lower.

Zhang Xian's capture was mentioned in the eighth year of Yonghe in Book 98 (350.28), but Qin had not actually captured Yang Chu. (In their last attempt, their army had been defeated, as seen in Book 99, 353.10) This was more of Yan Fu's and Liang Shu's rhetoric.


Zhang Guan said, "If it is as you say, and Qin truly displays virtue without equal, then why do you not first conquer the Southland, and take the whole realm under Qin's grasp? Why does General Fu shirk the duties of the mandate?"

Yan and Liang replied, "The people of the Southland tattoo their bodies; its paths defile and betray, and transform the grand into meager. If your lordship can provide soldiers for the Southland, then your lands may contain virtue in their bosom, and serve as an example to all. But if your lordship ignores Heaven's mandate, and insists upon the Southland being conquered before its allotted time, then we fear what may happen to your lordship's people."

古者荊蠻之俗,斷髮文身以避蛟龍之害。負、殊以此斥言之耳。是時衣冠文物,皆在江南,且正朔所在也。負、殊吠堯刺由,知各爲其主而已!鄭玄曰:汚,猶殺也。《易》曰:高宗伐鬼方,三年克之。世之說者以爲荊、楚輕悍,道汚先叛,化隆後服,故負、殊亦以此斥言江南。

In ancient times (from the Warring States era and before), it was the custom of the barbarians of Jing (or Chu) to cut their hair and tattoo their bodies in order to avoid the wrath of the flood dragon. This is what Yan Fu and Liang Shu are alluding to. Yet, at the very time they were speaking, those who wore civilized clothing were all in the Southland, and had been for some time. Yan Fu and Liang Shu were thus blathering on as though they represented Yao criticizing the licentious, while knowing full well what sort of man their own lord was!

Zheng Xuan has said, "Foulness can still kill." The Book of Changes says, "When Gaozong of Shang campaigned against Guifang, it took him three years to subdue it." (63.4) There were those who said that the people of Jing and Chu were not very brave, but that the roads themselves would fight against invaders, and turn the grand into the meagre. This was how Yan Fu and Liang Shu were also criticizing the Southland.


Yao was one of the Three Rulers and Five Sovereigns, often said to be the exemplar of moral and upright behavior.

Zheng Xuan was a scholar during the final years of the Han dynasty. He wrote numerous commentaries that were critical for later interpretations of Confucianism.

Guifang was a realm near the ancient Shang dynasty. Its inhabitants are probably the same as those later known as the Xiongnu.


Zhang Guan retorted, "I control three provinces, and have outfitted a hundred thousand men; to the west I am guarded by verdant mountains, and to the east by the great river. If any wish to attack, I am well prepared to defend; what fear need I have of Qin?"

三州謂涼、河、沙,張茂及張駿所分置者也。

The three provinces were Liangzhou, Hezhou, and Shazhou (the Western Reaches), which Zhang Mao and Zhang Jun had split off from the original Liangzhou.


Yan and Liang replied, "You speak of mountains and rivers; how do yours compare with the Xiao Mountains and the Han(?)? You boast of the people's bounty; how do yours compare with the produce of Qinzhou and Yongzhou? Du Hong and Zhang Ju had the resources of Zhao at their disposal; their soldiers were strong and their resources plenty. But with the ambition of first taking Guanzhong, and then rolling up all within the four seas, our late lord raised his banners to the west. Ice melted and clouds parted; within the space of a month, no one failed to acknowledge his rule. If your lordship remains stubborn on account of your lands, our current lord will grow exceedingly angry, and fling his million troops against you, beating the drums to march west, and then who can say what might happen to your territory?"

事見九十八卷六年。

The account of Fu Jian's conquest of Guanzhong was related in the sixth year of Yonghe (350) in Book 98.


The Xiao (or Yao) Mountains are a mountain range stretching north from the Luo River to Puban, on the eastern border of Qin.

Zhang Guan smiled and said, "But this is a matter for the Prince to decide, not me."

Yan and Liang said, "The Prince is indeed a worthy hero of noble character, but in the end he is still young. With your lordship in the role of Yi Yan and Huo Guang, the state will know peace; we pray you lend us your ear."

Zhang Guan was afraid, and so he sent orders on behalf of Zhang Xuanjing professing submission to Qin. Qin therefore confirmed Zhang Xuanjing's titles and offices.

將軍劉度攻秦青州刺史王朗於盧氏;燕將軍慕輿長卿入軹關,攻秦幽州刺史強哲於裴氏堡。秦主生遣前將軍新興王飛拒度,建節將軍鄧羌拒長卿。飛未至而度退。羌與長卿戰,大破之,獲長卿及甲首二千餘級。

7. General Liu Du attacked Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Wang Lang, at Lushi. Yan's General Muyu Zhangqing made a supporting movement, attacking Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Qiang Zhe, at Peishibao. Fu Sheng sent his General of the Front, the Prince of Xinxing Fu Fei, to oppose Liu Du, while he sent his General Who Establishes 節 Deng Qiang to oppose Muyu Zhangqing. Fu Fei was eventually forced to retreat by Liu Du. Deng Qiang met Muyu Zhangqing in battle and won a great victory, capturing Muyu and bringing back over two thousand heads and equipment.

盧氏縣,漢屬弘農郡,晉屬上洛郡,唐屬虢州。永嘉之亂,裴氏舉宗據險築堡以自守,後人因而置屯戍,故堡猶有裴氏之名,蓋在河東界。長,知兩翻。

During Han, Lushi County was part of Hongnong commandary. Jin had placed it in Shangluo commandary. The Tang dynasty would later make it part of Guozhou.

During the Chaos of Yongjia (310-316), the Pei clan (of Yingchuan) built a fortress for self-defense to escape from the danger. Later on, whenever soldiers camped there, they still called the old fort Peishibao (literally "Pei Clan's Fort"). It was on the border with Hedong.

長 is pronounced "zhang (zh-ang)".


The Wang Lang mentioned here has the same name as the Wang Lang who had served Later Zhao and was last mentioned fleeing to Xiangguo. It is possible it is the same person, but that does not seem to be clear.

桓溫請移都洛陽,修復園陵,章十餘上,不許。拜溫征討大都督,督司、冀二州諸軍事,以討姚襄。

8. Huan Wen requested that the Jin capital be returned to Luoyang, so that the old imperial tombs could be repaired. He made the request more than ten times, but the court did not agree. Huan was appointed as Grand Commander, with authority over Sizhou and Jizhou, and planned to campaign against Yao Xiang.

三月,秦主生發三輔民治渭橋;金紫光祿大夫程肱諫,以為妨農,生殺之。

9. In the third month, Fu Sheng ordered the people of the Three Regions (around Chang’an) to construct bridges over the Wei River. The Household Counsellor With Golden Tassel, Cheng Gong, remonstrated with him, saying that the corvee labor would hinder farming. Fu Sheng killed him.

夏,四月,長安大風,發屋拔木。秦宮中驚擾,或稱賊至,宮門晝閉,五日乃止。秦主生推告賊者,刳出其心。左光祿大夫強平諫曰:「天降災異,陛下當愛民事神,緩刑崇德以應之,乃可弭也。」。生怒,鑿其頂而殺之。衛將軍廣平王黃眉、前將軍新興王飛、建節將軍鄧羌,以平,太后之弟,叩頭固諫,生弗聽,出黃眉為左馮翊,飛為右扶風,羌行咸陽太守,猶惜其驍勇,故皆弗殺。五月,太后強氏以憂恨卒,謚曰明德。

10. In summer, the fourth month, a great storm whipped Chang'an, and the houses were struck by wood. There was great fear in the palace, that perhaps thieves might slip in, and so the palace gates were shut even during daytime, only opening again after five days.

風捲屋瓦,抓簷桷爲發屋。

The wind snatched tiles off the roofs of houses, and pulled the eaves off of them.


Fu Sheng warned the thieves that he would carve out their hearts. The Household Counsellor of the Left Qiang Ping remonstrated with him: "Heaven sent this disaster upon us. Your Majesty must win back the hearts of the people and appease the gods. Now is the time to offer forgiveness in order to reestablish virtue, and thus end the disturbances." Fu Sheng became angry, and grasped a hammer and smote Qiang Ping to death with it.

The Guard General, Prince of Guangping Fu Huangmei, the General of the Front, Prince of Xinxing Fu Fei, and the General Who Establishes 節 Deng Qiang kowtowed before Fu Sheng and remonstrated with him, because Qiang Ping had been Empress Dowager Qiang's younger brother. Fu Sheng did not heed them, and even ordered the three of them banished: Fu Huangmei to Western Pingyi, Fu Fei to Eastern Fufeng, and Deng Qiang to be the Administrator of Xianyang. However, respecting their bravery, he did not order them executed.

前漢扶風渭城縣,秦之咸陽也,後漢、晉省。魏收《地形志》:咸陽郡治石安縣,卽漢渭城也,石勒更名。是郡蓋永嘉之後羣胡所置也。

There had been a Weicheng County as part of Fufeng under Former Han, which was the same place as Xianyang under the Qin dynasty. Later Han and Jin had abolished it. According to the "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei, "Xianyang commandary is administered from Shian County. It was known as Weicheng during Han, but Shi Le renamed it. It was one of several commandaries that the several tribes created after the Disaster of Yongjia."


In the fifth month, the Empress Dowager, Lady Qiang, passed away out of grief; her posthumous name was Empress Dowager Mingde.

姚襄自許昌攻周成於洛陽。

11. Yao Xiang marched from Xuchang to attack Zhou Cheng at Luoyang.

周成襲據洛陽,見上卷十年。

Zhou Cheng's seizure of Luoyang was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) during the last book (Book 99, 354.2).


六月,秦主生下詔曰:「朕受皇天之命,君臨萬邦;嗣統以來,有何不善,而謗讟言之音,扇滿天下!殺不過千,而謂之殘虐!行者比肩,未足為希。方當峻刑極罰,復如朕何!」自去春以來,潼關之西,至於長安,虎狼為暴,晝則繼道。夜則發屋,不食六畜,專務食人,凡殺七百餘人。民廢耕桑,相聚邑居,而為害不息。秋,七月,秦群臣奏請禳災,生曰:「野獸饑則食人,飽當自止,何禳之有!且天豈不愛民哉,正以犯罪者多,故助朕殺之耳!」

12. In the sixth month, Fu Sheng sent out a proclamation stating, "I have received the mandate of the Yellow Heaven, and countless lords bow to me. Yet since I came to the throne, whenever something bad happened, slanders and rumors began to spread, and now the realm is filled with them! I have not killed even a thousand people, yet people say I am cruel! If we walk together, then we may still have hope. Wherever someone is sternly punished for a great crime, there too am I!"

During that spring, from Tong Gate west up until Chang'an, tigers and wolves became violent, and they filled the roads. At night they would burst into houses, and rather than eat one of the Six Livestock, they would turn on and eat people, and over seven hundred people died in this manner. The people abandoned their farming and silkworm cultivating, instead gathering together into towns and cities, so that they would not have to fear being harmed. In autumn, the seventh month, several Qin ministers sent in petitions requesting that something be done to halt the calamity. Fu Sheng said, "It's only natural that wild beasts that are starving will eat people. They will stop once they've filled their bellies. How can I avert such a thing? Rather, this is Heaven showing its love for the people; those who died were all criminals, and Heaven was only helping me to kill them all!"

晝則繼道。言虎狼相繼於路也。「繼」,蜀本作「斷」。史言苻生之虐甚於桀、紂。

That is to say, the roads were filled with tigers and wolves. Some versions say "blocked" instead of "filled".

The text is saying that Fu Sheng's cruelty matched that of Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang.


The Six Livestock are horses, cattle, sheep, chickens, dogs, and pigs.


丙子,燕獻懷太子曄卒。姚襄攻洛陽,逾月不克。長史王亮諫曰:「明公英名蓋世,兵強民附。今頓兵堅城之下,力屈威挫,或為它寇所乘,此危亡之道也!」襄不從。

13. On the day Bingzi, Yan's Crown Prince, Murong Ye, passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xianhuai (“the Cherished”).

Yao Xiang attacked Luoyang, but despite assaulting it for over a month, he could not capture it. His Chief Clerk, Wang Liang, remonstrated, saying, "You have a heroic legacy and are well-regarded; your soldiers are strong and your people numerous. But now you camp here outside this city, expending your strength upon assaults, and exposing yourself to bandits. This course can only lead to ruin!" Yao Xiang did not listen to him.

桓溫自江陵北伐,遣督護高武據魯陽,輔國將軍戴施屯河上,自帥大兵繼進。與寮屬登平乘樓望中原,歎曰:「遂使神州陸沉,百年丘墟,王夷甫諸人不得不任其責!」記室陳郡袁宏曰:「運有興廢,豈必諸人之過!」溫作色曰:「昔劉景升有千斤大牛,啖芻豆十倍於常牛,負重致運,曾不若一贏牸,魏武入荊州,殺以享軍。」

14. Huan Wen marched north from Jiangling. He sent his Protector Gao Wu to capture Luyang, and his General Who Upholds The State Dai Shi to camp along the river, while he himself led the bulk of his army forward.

As they passed the crude shacks that now dotted the Central Plains, with deep emotion Huan Wen stood on the upper deck of his ship and said to his subordinates, "For causing the Central Plains to fall into the grasp of the barbarians and lie in ruin for a hundred years, Wang Yan and his ilk bear a heavy burden!"

平乘樓,大船之樓。以王衍等尚清談而不恤王事,以致夷狄亂華也。

The upper deck was a part of large ships.

Wang Yan and the other advocates of the "Pure Conversation" school during Western Jin had not busied themselves with state affairs, and it was because of that that the barbarians rebelled against the Hua (the ethnic Han) people.


Qingtan, or Pure Conversation, was a Daoist philosophical school of thought that arose during the Wei-Jin era, and continued to be popular through the Southern and Northern dynasties.

Huan Wen's 記室, Yuan Hong of Chenjun, said, "Fate naturally brings its falls and rises; why were Wang Yan and his friends necessarily to blame?"

晉諸公、諸從公府皆有記室,掌表疏、牋記、書檄。

The Dukes and other noble families of Jin each had their 記室, who was responsible for composing memorials, compiling records, and distributing proclamations.


Huan Wen sternly replied, "In bygone days, Liu Jingsheng (Biao) owned a large ox weighing a thousand catties. It ate ten times as much fodder and beans as ordinary oxen. Yet when it came to bearing heavy burdens or traveling long distances, it wasn't even the equal of a sick calf. When Cao Cao invaded Jingzhou, he cooked the beast and fed it to his men, and everyone rejoiced."

溫意以牛況宏,徒能糜俸祿而無經世之用。劉表字景升。漢獻帝建安十三年,曹操入荊州。

Huan Wen was using the story of the cattle as a metaphor to instruct Yuan Hong, and was really talking about people who drew government salaries yet were useless for administration.

Liu Biao's style name was Jingsheng.

The account of Cao Cao's entry into Jingzhou is described in the thirteenth year of Jian'an, in Book 65.


This anecdote is also referenced in A New Account of the Tales of the World. For an English reference of Cao Cao’s entry into Jingzhou, see To Establish Peace by Dr. Rafe de Crespigny.

八月,已亥,溫至伊水,姚襄撤圍拒之,匿精銳於水北林中,遣使謂溫曰:「承親帥王師以來,襄今奉身歸命,願敕三軍小卻,當拜伏路左。」溫曰:「我自開復中原,展敬山陵,無豫君事。欲來者便前,相見在近,何煩使人!」襄拒水而戰。溫結陳而前,親被甲督戰。襄眾大敗,死者數千人。襄帥麾下數千騎奔於洛陽北山,其夜,民棄妻子隨襄者五千餘人。襄勇而愛人,雖戰屢敗,民知襄所在,輒扶老攜幼,奔馳而赴之。溫軍中傳言襄病創已死,許、洛士女為溫所得者,無不北望而泣。襄西走,溫追之不及。弘農楊亮自襄所來奔,溫問襄之為人,亮曰:「襄神明器宇,孫策之儔,而雄武過之。」

15. In the eighth month, on the day Yihai, Huan Wen reached the Yi River.

伊水在洛陽城南。

The Yi River is south of Luoyang.

Yao Xiang broke off his siege of Luoyang and marched his best troops to the woods on the north bank of the Yi River. He sent a messenger to Huan Wen, with the message, "I see you have led the royal troops here. I am prepared to return to royal authority, turn over my three small armies, and offer my submission by the side of the road."

Huan Wen's reply was, "I have come to recover the Central Plains, and to offer my respects at the imperial tombs, not to appease you. If you wish to present yourself, you ought to come in person; why bother sending another in your place?"

Yao Xiang therefore prepared to fight a battle at the Yi River. Huan Wen prepared his soldiers and came against Yao Xiang, casting off his own armor in order to lead his soldiers. Yao Xiang suffered a great defeat, losing several thousand men. He fled with several thousand of his remaining cavalry to seek refuge in the northern hills of Luoyang. During the nights, many of the local people sent their wives and children to join him, more than five thousand.

洛陽北山,北芒山也。

The northern hills of Luoyang means the Beimang Hills.

Yao Xiang was regarded as so much a hero that, although he continued to suffer defeats to Huan Wen, the people knew that he was still there; he comforted the old and cherished the young, and those who fled he gathered together. So Huan Wen’s army spread a rumor that Yao Xiang had fallen ill and had already died, and his soldiers seized all the women and children still in Xuchang and Luoyang, who shed tears whenever they looked to the north.

史言姚襄得人心。

The text is saying how greatly Yao Xiang had captured the hearts of the people.

Yao Xiang fled to the west. Huan Wen’s soldiers pursued Yao Xiang, but they could not catch him. During the pursuit, a certain Yang Liang of Hongnong left Yao's band and went over to Huan Wen. Huan asked him what sort of man Yao Xiang was. Yang Liang responded, "He has the bearing of an immortal; in heroism and in valor, he even surpasses men like Sun Ce."

周成帥眾出降,溫屯故太極殿前,既而徙屯金墉城。已丑,謁諸陵,有毀壞者修復之,各置陵令。表鎮西將軍謝尚都督司州諸軍事,鎮洛陽。以尚未至,留穎川太守毛穆之、督護陳午、河南太守戴施以二千人戍洛陽,衛山陵,徙降軍三千餘家於江、漢之間,執周成以歸。

16. Zhou Cheng led his troops out of Luoyang to submit. Huan Wen camped his men in front of the Taiji Palace, before relocating to Jinyong. On the day Yichou, he visited all the imperial tombs, repairing the places that had been damaged, and appointing a Tomb Prefect for each.

漢起陵邑,邑各置令,後遂因之,諸陵各置陵令,屬太常。

During Han, the imperial tombs had their villages, and each village had a Prefect. Later, the several tombs would each have a Tomb Prefect, and they were subordinate to the Minister of Ceremonies.

He gave orders for General Who Guards The West Xie Shang to be in command of affairs in Sizhou, and to garrison at Luoyang. Once Xie Shang had arrived, he left the Administrator of Yingchuan Mao Muzhi, the Protector Chen Wu, and the Administrator of Henan Dai Shi with two thousand troops to form a garrison for Luoyang and to protect the imperial tombs. He brought over three thousand families from that region to the area between the Yangzi and the Han River, and Zhou Cheng was taken there as well.

姚襄奔平陽,秦并州刺史尹赤復以眾降襄,襄遂據襄陵。秦大將軍張平擊之,襄為平所敗,乃與平約為兄弟,各罷兵。

17. Yao Xiang fled to Pingyang, where Qin's Inspector of Bingzhou, his former subordinate Yi Chi, once again surrendered to him with his troops. Yao Xiang then captured Xiangling. Qin's Grand General, Zhang Ping, attacked Yao Xiang, but Yao defeated him. Following this, the two of them swore brotherhood, each leading his own troops.

尹赤叛襄見上卷八年。襄陵縣,漢屬河東郡,晉屬平陽郡;後魏改襄陵爲禽昌縣,隋、唐復曰襄陵。永和七年,張平降秦,已而貳於燕。《通鑑》以秦所授官繫之。

It was mentioned that Yin Chi had abandoned Yao Xiang in the eighth year of Yonghe (352) in the last book (Book 99).

During Han, Xiangling County had been part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Later on, Northern Wei changed its name from Xiangling to Qinchang County, and under Sui and Tang its name was changed back to Xiangling.

In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), Zhang Ping had submitted to Qin, but then had switched over to Yan. The "Tongdian" says that Qin had won him over again with new titles.

The Tongdian was an enormous encyclopedia about Chinese history up through the Tang dynasty. It was written by the scholar Du You, mentioned earlier.

段龕遣其屬段薀來求救,詔徐州刺史荀羨將兵隨薀救之。羨至琅邪,憚燕兵之強,不敢進。王騰寇鄄城,羨進攻陽都,會霖雨,城壞,獲騰,斬之。

18. Duan Kan sent his subordinate Duan Yun to plead for aid from Jin. The Jin court ordered the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, to bring his troops back with Duan Yun to assist Duan Kan.

【嚴:「薀」改「蘊」。】薀,紆粉翻。

Some versions write 薀 as 蘊. 薀 is pronounced "yun (y-en)".

When Xun Xian reached Langye, he feared the strength of Yan's soldiers, so he did not dare advance. Wang Teng invaded Juancheng. Xun Xian advanced to attack Yangdu. There were heavy rains then, and the city was flooded. Xun Xian captured Wang Teng and executed him.

此古琅邪也。鄄城縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬濮陽。此非古鄄城縣,蓋僑縣也。段龕署王騰爲徐州刺史,屯陽都,時降于燕,爲燕來寇。

This was the old Langye.

This Juancheng County had been part of Dong Commandary under Han, and it was under Puyang during Jin. It is not the ancient Juancheng County, which was at this time called Qiao County.

Duan Kan had earlier appointed this Wang Teng as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was camped at Yangdu. At this time, he had surrendered to Yan, and it was on behalf of Yan that he was invading.

冬,十月,癸巳朔,日有食之。

19. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi, there was an eclipse.

秦主生夜食棗多,旦而有疾,召太醫令程延,使診之。延曰:「陛下無它疾,食棗多耳。」生怒曰:「汝非聖人,安知吾食棗!」遂斬之。

20. Fu Sheng ate a large quantity of red dates one night. In the morning, he felt sick, so he sent for the Prefect of Imperial Doctors, Cheng Yan, to diagnose him. Cheng Yan said, "Your Majesty is not truly sick; you must have eaten too many red dates." Fu Sheng said, "You are not a magician; how could you know I was eating red dates?" He ordered Cheng Yan's execution.

燕大司馬恪圍段龕於廣固,諸將請急攻之。恪曰:「用兵之勢,有宜緩者,有宜急者,不可不察。若彼我勢敵,外有強援,恐有腹背之患,則攻之不可不急。若我強彼弱,無援於外,力足制之者,當羈縻守之,以待其斃。兵法「十圍五攻」,正謂此也。龕兵尚眾,未有離心。濟南之戰,非不銳也,但龕用之無術,以取敗耳。今憑阻堅城,上下戮力,我盡銳攻之,計數旬可拔,然殺吾士卒必多矣。自有事中原,兵不暫息,吾每念之,夜而忘寐,奈何輕用其死乎!要在取之,不必求功之速也!」諸將皆曰:「非所及也。」軍中聞之,人人感悅。於是為高牆深塹以守之。齊人爭運糧以饋燕軍。

21. Murong Ke kept Duan Kan under siege at Guanggu.

His officers asked him to launch an assault on the city. Murong Ke said, “When using soldiers, there are courses one should pursue and courses one should avoid, and the two cannot be mistaken for one another. If we and the enemy are equally strong, then if they receive any reinforcement, I fear it will pose a threat to our rear, so we would not be able to risk an attack. If we are strong and the enemy is weak, and they do not have any reinforcements, then it is enough for us to contain them, while we also ensure the defenses of our other territories. By such means we can defeat them.

“The Art of War states, 'When you have ten times the enemy's numbers, surround them; when five times, attack'. Although Duan Kan has numerous soldiers, they are ultimately conflicted. At the battle at Jinan, although they fought well, Duan Kan did not use them well, and so received a defeat. Now that we have them besieged, they will hold fast to the defense, and if we launch a vigorous assault, we would need to account for many days to capture the city, and we would necessarily suffer many casualties.

卽淄水之戰。曰濟南者,以濟水南北大界言之。【章:十二行本「日」作「旬」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

Murong Ke means the battle at the Zi River. He calls it Jinan because it was at the boundary between the north and south of the Ji River.

Some versions say "tens of days" instead of "days".

“Ever since we captured the Central Plains, the soldiers have not had a moment's rest, but you are always demanding more of them. If they forget to sleep at night, they will be of little use before they drop dead! So if you want to take the city, you must not demand to achieve things so quickly!”

His officers said, "We will demand this no more." When this discussion became generally known in the camp, the people rejoiced. Thus they kept up their siege lines, and the people of Qi worked to keep the Yan army provided with grain.

龕嬰城自守,樵采路絕,城中人相食。龕悉眾出戰。恪破之於圍裡,先分騎屯諸門。龕身自沖蕩,僅而得入,餘兵皆沒。於是城中氣沮,莫有固志。十一月,丙子,龕面縛出降,並執朱禿送薊。恪撫安新民,悉定齊地,徙鮮卑、胡、羯三千餘戶於薊。燕主俊具朱禿五刑,以段龕為伏順將軍。恪留慕容塵鎮廣固,以尚書左丞鞠殷為東萊太守,章武太守鮮於亮為齊郡太守,乃還。

22. Duan Kan defended at Yingcheng. He stripped the roads bare of firewood, and the people within the city began to eat each other. Duan Kan gathered his host and went forth to battle. Murong Ke routed him between the walls, first sending out riders to guard each gate. Duan Kan himself slipped away, alone escaping into the city, while his soldiers did not. Morale within the city plummeted, and no one was willing to defend the city.

時外築長圍,故戰於圍裏。屯廣固城諸門也。

At that time, the Yan army had constructed siege walls outside the city, so the battle was between the walls.

The text means the several gates of Guanggu.

In the eleventh month, on the day Bingzi, Duan Kan bound himself and went out to offer his surrender, and sent Zhi Zhu, who had killed Murong Han's son Murong Gou, to Ji. Murong Ke calmed the people and pacified the Qi region. He relocated more than three thousand households of Xianbei, Hu, and Jie to Ji. Murong Jun subjected Zhi Zhu to the five punishments, and appointed Duan Kan as General Who Lays In Ambush. Murong Ke left Murong Chen to guard Guanggu, and appointed the Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing Ju Yin as Administrator of Donglai. He also appointed Xianyu Liang, the current Administrator of Zhangwu, as Administrator of Jijun, before returning to Ji.

朱禿殺慕容鉤而奔龕,見上卷十年。

The account of Zhu Tu killing Murong Gou and fleeing to Duan Kan was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (344) in the last book (Book 99).

This is presumably the same Xianyu Liang as was mentioned in earlier Yan accounts.

殷,彭之子也。彭時為燕大長秋,以書戒殷曰:「王彌、曹嶷,必有子孫,汝善招撫,勿尋舊怨,以長亂源!」殷推求,得彌從子立、嶷孫巖於山中,請與相見,深結意分。彭復遣使遺以車馬衣服,郡民由是大和。

23. This Ju Yin whom Murong Ke left to govern Donglai was the son of Ju Peng. At this time, Ju Peng was Yan's 大長秋. He wrote to his son warning him, "Wang Mi and Cao Yi must still have descendants in the area. You must treat them well and comfort them, for if you do not ease the old hatreds, then the chaos will only continue!"

嶷,魚力翻。

嶷 is pronounced "yi (y-i)".

Ju Yin agreed, and sought out Wang Mi's son Wang Li and Cao Yi's grandson Cao Yan at Zhongshan. There he met with them, and affected deep feelings all around. Ju Peng subsequently sent to them gifts of carts, horses, and clothing. The people of that area thus knew peace.

鞠彭自東萊歸燕,見九十一卷元帝太興二年。

The account of Ju Peng's flight from Donglai to Yan is recounted in the second year of Taixing (319) from Sima Rui's era, in Book 91.

This is the same Ju Peng who was mentioned during Zhao’s 338 invasion of Yan as leading two hundred braves to Jicheng. In 319, he had been Jin’s Administrator of Donglai. Back then, he was attacked by Cao Yi and Wang Mi. Ju Peng’s strength was about equal to Cao Yi’s, and he had the support of the people. But in order to prevent senseless fighting, he left Donglai behind and fled north to Liaodong.

荀羨聞段龕已敗,退還下邳,留將軍諸葛攸、高平太守劉莊將三千人守琅邪。參軍譙國戴遂等將二千人守泰山。燕將慕容蘭屯汴城,羨擊斬之。

24. When Xun Xian heard that Duan Kan had already been defeated, he retreated back to Xiapi, and left Zhuge You and the Administrator of Gaoping, Liu Zhuang, with three thousand men to hold Langye. The Army Advisor of Qiao, Dai Dun, and others held Qinshan with two thousand men.

汴城,卽浚儀城。余謂「汴」當作「卞」。魯國卞縣城也。劉昫曰:兗州泗水縣,卞縣古城也。

Biancheng later became the city Junyi. I believe that 汴 is properly written as 卞. It is the same city as Bianxian from the state of Lu (from the Spring and Autumn era). Liu Xu remarked, "The old city of Bianxian is in Sishui County in Yanzhou."[/color]

Yang Zhengheng was a Yuan dynasty general and scholar.

Liu Xu was a prominent official during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period that followed the Tang dynasty. He was the chief editor of the Old Book of Tang, one of the main histories of that dynasty.


The Yan general Murong Lan camped at Biancheng. Xun Xian marched to attack him and killed him.

詔遣兼司空、散騎常侍車灌等持節如洛陽,修五陵。十二月,庚戌,帝及群臣皆服緦,臨於太極殿三日。

25. The Jin court ordered the 兼 Minister of Works and Regular Attendant of 散 Cavalry, Che Guan, and others to relocate to Luoyang and repair the five tombs. In the twelfth month, on the day Gengxu, the Emperor and his ministers all dressed in fine linen, and spent three days at the Taiji Palace.

宣帝陵在河陰首陽山;景帝陵曰峻平,文帝陵曰崇陽,武帝陵曰峻陽,惠帝陵曰太陽。車,尺奢翻。緦,十五升布,抽去其半。

These were the five Jin imperial tombs: the tomb of Emperor Xuan, Sima Yi, at Mount Shouyang in Heyin; the tomb of Emperor Jing, Sima Shi, called Junping; the tomb of Emperor Wen, Sima Zhao, called Chongyang; the tomb of Emperor Wu, Sima Yan, called Junyang; and the tomb of Emperor Hui, Sima Zhong, called Taiyang.

車 is pronounced "che (ch-e)".

For fine linen, one uses fifteen rolls of cloth, taking out the better half.


司州都督謝尚以疾不行,以丹楊君王胡之代之,未行而卒。胡之,廙之子也。

26. Xie Shang, Jin’s Commander of military affairs in Sizhou, had still not recovered from his illness, so he had the Lord of Danyang, Wang Huzhi, act in his place, but he died before he could set out. This Wang Huzhi was the son of Wang Yi.

【章:十二行本「之」下有「未行而卒」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】王廙,王敦之從弟,見八十九卷愍帝建興三年。廙,羊至翻,又逸職翻。

Some copies add "but he died before he set out" at the end of this passage.

Wang Yi was Wang Dun's cousin; he was mentioned in the third year of Jianxing of Emperor Mindi (316) in Book 89. 廙 is pronounced "yi (y-i)" or "yi (y-i)".


是歲,仇池公楊國從父俊殺國自立;以俊為仇池公。國子安奔秦。

27. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Guo, was killed by his uncle Yang Jun, who set himself up. Yang Jun was recognized as the new Duke of Chouchi. Yang Guo's son Yang An fled to Qin.

其後秦用楊安以取仇池,豈卽國之子邪?

Qin would later use Yang An to capture Chouchi. How could he not have been Yang Guo's son?
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:25 am, edited 5 times in total.
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:08 am

昇平元年(丁巳,公元三五七年)

The First Year of Shengping (The Dingsi Year, 357 AD)


春,正月,壬戌朔,帝加元服。太后詔歸政,大赦,改元,太后徙居崇德宮。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renxu, Emperor Mu of Jin had his rite of passage as an adult. Empress Dowager Chu resigned her role over the government. There was a general amnesty and a changing of the reign title, and Empress Dowager Chu retired to the Chongde Palace.

燕主俊征幽州刺史乙逸為左光祿大夫。逸夫婦共載鹿車;子璋從數十騎,服飾甚麗,奉迎於道。逸大怒,閉車不與言。到城,深責之,璋猶不悛。逸常憂其敗,而璋更被擢任,歷中書令、御史中丞。逸乃歎曰:「吾少自修立,克已守道,僅能免罪。璋不治節儉,專為奢縱,而更居清顯。此豈唯璋之忝幸,實時世之陵夷也。」

2. Murong Jun appointed the Inspector of Youzhou, Yi Yi, as Household Counsellor of the Left. Before they set out for the capital, Yi Yi’s wife and concubines all rode in deer-drawn carriages, and his son Yi Zhang followed behind with ten horses and dressed in fine splendor, welcoming his father on the road. Yi Yi was furious, and he shut himself up inside his carriage without saying anything. When they reached the city, Yi Yi held deep responsibility, but Yi Zhang was still not satisfied.

到城,謂到薊城也。永和八年,燕王都薊,於龍城置留臺,以乙逸領留務,蓋以幽州刺史鎭龍城也。

By the city, the text means Ji. In the eighth year of Yonghe (352), the capital of Yan was moved to Ji, while only the terraces remained at Longcheng. Yi Yi stayed behind there to handle affairs, and he had guarded Longcheng as Inspector of Youzhou.


Yi Yi often worried about defeats, but Yi Zhang constantly got himself promoted, to Prefect of the Masters of History, and then to Secretary to the Middle Minister. Yi Yi lamented, "When I was young, I studied to improve myself, and I guarded the way by which I gained success. Only thus was I able to avoid causing any offense. But my son does not conduct himself frugally, but lavishly follows the latests trends, and lives flashily. How can these things only be my son's ill-gotten good luck? Truly it is a sign of the decline of the times."

二月,癸丑,燕主俊立其子中山王暐為太子,大赦,改元光壽。

3. In the second month, on the day Guichou, Murong Jun appointed his son Murong Wei, the Prince of Zhongshan, as Crown Prince. There was a general amnesty, and the reign title in Yan was changed to Guangshou.

太白入東井。秦有司奏:「太白罰星,東井秦分,必有暴兵起京師。」秦主生曰:「太白入井,自為渴耳,何所怪乎!」

4. Venus entered the Eastern Well quadrant of the sky. The Qin astrologers said, "Venus is the bringer of punishment, and Qinzhou's star lies within the Eastern Well. This points to an uprising of soldiers against the capital." Fu Sheng said, "So Venus went into the well; it must be thirsty. What's strange about that?"

姚襄將圖關中,夏,四月,自北屈進屯杏城,遣輔國將軍姚蘭略地敷城,曜武將軍姚益生、左將軍王欽盧各將兵招納諸羌、胡。蘭,襄之從兄;益生,襄之兄也。羌、胡及秦民歸之者五萬餘戶。秦將苻飛龍擊蘭,擒之。襄引兵進據黃落;秦主生遣衛大將軍廣平王黃眉、平北將軍苻道、龍驤將軍東海王堅、建節將軍鄧羌將步騎萬五千以御之。襄堅壁不戰。羌謂黃眉曰:「襄為桓溫、張平所敗,銳氣喪矣。然其為人強狠,若鼓噪揚旗,直壓其壘,彼必忿恚而出,可一戰擒也。」五月,羌帥騎三千壓其壘門而陳,襄怒,悉眾出戰。羌陽不勝而走,襄追之,至於三原。羌回騎擊之,黃眉等以大眾繼至,襄兵大敗。襄所乘駿馬曰黧眉騧,馬倒,秦兵擒而斬之,弟萇帥其眾降。襄載其父弋仲之柩在軍中,秦主生以王禮葬弋仲於孤磐,亦以公禮葬襄。廣平王黃眉等還長安,生不之賞,數眾辱黃眉。黃眉怒,謀弒生;發覺,伏誅。事連王公親戚,死者甚眾

5. Yao Xiang planned to conquer Guanzhong. In summer, the fourth month, he marched from Beiju to camp at Xingcheng.

北屈縣,漢屬河東郡,晉屬平陽郡。師古曰:屈,居勿翻。晉公子夷吾所居。班《志》,《禹貢》壺口山在北屈縣東南。《水經註》:北屈西距河十里,孟門山在河上。襄蓋自北屈渡河而屯杏城。《五代志》:汾州昌寧縣有壺口山。宋白曰:慈州吉鄕縣,漢北屈縣;今縣北二十一里古城,卽漢理。魏收《地形志》,澄城縣有杏城。師古曰:澄城,漢馮翊之徵縣也。徵,音懲。據《載記》,杏城在馬蘭山北。杜佑曰:姚萇置杏城鎭,在今坊州西七里。

During Han, Beiju was part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "屈 is pronounced 'ju (j-u)'." During the Spring and Autumn era, the young Duke Yiwu of Jin (Duke Hui of Jin) lived there. According to the "Records" and the "Tribute of Yu" in the Book of Documents, Mount Hukou was in the southeast of Beiju County. According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, "Beiju is ten li west of the Yellow River, and the river has a source at Mount Mengmen." So Yao Xiang crossed over the Yellow River in traveling from Beiju to camp at Shacheng. The History of the Five Dynasties says, "Mount Hukou is in Changning County in Fenzhou." Song Bai remarked, "In Cizhou there is Jixiang County, which during Han was called Beiju County; the modern county is twenty-one li north of the old city, which was Hanli."

The "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei says, "Xingcheng is in Chengcheng County." According to Yan Shigu, "Chengcheng was known during the Han as Zheng County in Pingyi." 徵 is pronounced similar to "cheng". According to the 載記, Shacheng was north of Mount Malan. Du You remarked, "The Shacheng which Yao Chang guarded was seven li west of modern Fangzhou."


Yao Xiang sent his General Who Upholds The State Yao Lan to attack Fucheng, and sent his General of 曜武 Yao Yisheng and his General of the Left Wang Qin to respectively attack the Qiang and the Hu. Yao Lan was Yao Xiang's cousin; Yao Yisheng was his elder brother.

敷城,唐坊州鄜城縣是也;後魏置敷城縣,隋改曰鄜城。

This Fucheng was the same as Fucheng County in the Tang dynasty's Fangzhou. Northern Wei changed its name to 敷城 (Fucheng), and Sui changed it further to 鄜城 (Fucheng).


More than fifty thousand households of Qiang, Hu, and other people of Qin fled. The Qin general Fu Feilong attacked Yao Lan, and captured him. Yao Xiang brought his troops forward and captured Huangluo. Fu Sheng sent his Grand Guard General, the Prince of Guangping Fu Huangmei, against him with fifty thousand horse and foot, and along with Fu Huangmei went the General Who Pacifies The North Fu Dao, the General of Dragon Cavalry and Prince of Donghai Fu Jian, and the General Who Establishes 節 Deng Qiang. Yao Xiang remained behind his walls and did not offer battle.

漢、魏之間置建節中郎將,後以爲將軍號。

Deng Qiang's title 建節將軍 was originally 建節中郎將 during Han and Cao-Wei. It later became the title for a full general.

Deng Qiang said to Fu Huangmei, "Yao Xiang has been defeated before by Huan Wen and Zhang Ping, and this nettles him. He will wish to prove himself a strong wolf before others. If you beat the drums and wave the banners, and show yourselves before the ramparts, you must provoke him into coming out, and then you can capture him in a single battle."

In the fifth month, Deng Qiang led three thousand cavalry up to Yao Xiang's rampart gate and carried out this display to taunt Yao Xiang. Yao was greatly angered and ventured out to fight a battle. Deng Qiang feigned defeat and ran away, and Yao Xiang pursued him, until they reached Sanyuan. Deng Qiang's horsemen then wheeled about and attacked, and Fu Huangmei and the others also appeared with the main body. Yao Xiang's soldiers suffered a great defeat.

三原在漢馮翊池陽縣界。宋白曰:苻堅於巋嶭北置三原護軍,後周置三原縣。

Sanyuan was on the border of Chiyang County in Pingyi during Han. Song Bai remarked, "Fu Jian led his army at Sanyuan north of Kuinie. Later Zhou named this place as Sanyuan County."


Yao Xiang fled on his fine steed, Limeigua (roughly “Sallow-Browed Piebald”), but the horse fell; the Qin soldiers captured Yao Xiang and killed him. His younger brother Yao Chang brought the remaining soldiers in to offer submission.

黧,音黎,又音良脂翻。黑而黃色曰黧。騧,古瓜翻。黃馬黑喙曰騧。萇,仲良翻。

黧 is pronounced similar to "li", and can also be pronounced "li (l-i)". 黧 means a color that is black and yet yellow. 騧 is pronounced "gua (g-ua)". It was a yellow horse with a black mouth, so it was called 騧 ("piebald").

萇 is pronounced "zhang (zh-ang)".


Yao Xiang had kept the body of his father Yao Yizhong with his army. When his surrendered soldiers reached Qin, Fu Sheng had Yao Yizhong’s body buried at Gupan with funeral rites suited for a prince, and he buried Yao Xiang with ducal funeral rites.

在牀曰尸,在棺曰柩。孤磐,在天水冀縣界。【章:十二行本「襄」下有「廣平王」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】

Yao Yizhong's body was laid bare when there was a bed for it, and it was kept in a coffin when the army was on the move.

Gupan was on the border of Ji County in Tianshui.

Some versions say "Prince of Guangping" instead of "Yao Xiang".


When Fu Huangmei and the others returned to Chang'an, Fu Sheng did not reward them for their services, and many people insulted Fu Huangmei. Fu was greatly enraged, and plotted to kill Fu Sheng; but his plot was discovered, and he was executed. Even those who were connected with the plot, whether prince or duke, or other family members, were killed.

戊寅,燕主俊遣撫軍將軍垂、中軍將軍虔、護軍將軍平熙帥步騎八萬攻敕勒於塞北,大破之,俘斬十餘萬,獲馬十三萬匹,牛羊億萬頭。

6. On the day Wuyin, Murong Jun sent his General Who Nurtures The Army Murong Chui, his General of the Center Army Murong Qian, and his General Who Protects The Army Murong Ping with fifty thousand horse and foot to attack the Chile (or Tiele; they were related to the Dingling) people at Saibei. They greatly defeated the Chile, killing over ten thousand, and capturing thirteen thousand horses and millions of sheep and cattle.

《新唐書》曰:敕勒,其先匈奴也,元魏時號高車部,其後訛爲「鐵勒」,唐之鐵勒十五種是也。《載記》作「丁零勑勤[勒]」。

The New Book of Tang says, "The Chile were originally part of the Xiongnu. During the era of Emperor Yuan of Wei (Cao Huan), they were called the Gaoche, and later on their name changed to the 'Tiele'. During the Tang, there were fifteen different types of the Tiele." The 載記 says, "The 'Le' came from the Chile of the Dingling."


匈奴單于賀賴頭帥部落三萬五千口降燕,燕人處之代郡平舒城。

7. The Xiongnu chanyu Helai Tou led his thirty-five thousand people to submit to Yan. They were settled at Pingshu in Dai commandary.

自東漢以來,匈奴入居塞內者凡十九種,賀賴其一也。漢代郡有平舒縣,勃海有東平舒縣。東平舒,後漢屬河間國,晉屬章武國。代郡之平舒,未嘗改屬;書代郡以別章武之平舒。代郡之平舒,當在唐蔚之北界。

Since the Eastern Han, the Xiongnu territory contained nineteen different types of Xiongnu. The Helai were one of these.

During Han, Dai commandary contained Pingshu County, and Bohai had an eastern Pingshu County. The eastern Pingshu became part of the Henan region during Later Han, and under Jin it became part of the Zhangwu region. The Pingshu of Dai commandary had not been changed. When one writes of Dai commandary, that Pingshu is not the one in Zhangwu. The Pingshu in Dai was the northern border of Wei during Tang.


秦主生夢大魚食蒲,又長安謠曰:「東海大魚化為龍,男皆為王女為公。」生乃誅太師、錄尚書事、廣寧公魚遵,並其七子、十孫。金紫光祿大夫牛夷懼禍,求為荊州;生不許,以為中軍將軍,引見,調之曰:「牛性遲重,善持轅軛;雖無驥足,動負百石。」夷曰:「雖服大車,未經峻壁;願試重載,乃知勳績。」生笑曰:「何其快也,公嫌所載輕乎?朕將以魚公爵位處公。」夷懼,歸而自殺。

8. Fu Sheng dreamed of a large fish eating a bullrush plant. (This was significant to him because the character for fish, 鱼 Yu, was the same as the surname of Yu Zun, while the character for bullrush, 蒲 Pu, had also been Fu Sheng’s family’s surname before Fu Hong changed it. According to Jinshu, Fu Hong’s childhood home had a large bullrush on the grounds.) He also heard a song in Chang'an: "In the eastern sea, a great fish becomes a dragon; boys all become kings and girls become dukes." Fu Sheng believed that these were in reference to the Grand Tutor, chief of the imperial secretariat, and Duke of Guangning, Yu Zun, so he put Yu Zun to death, along with his seven sons and ten grandsons.

The Household Counsellor with Golden Tassel, Niu Yi, feared calamity, so he asked to be sent to Jingzhou, but Fu Sheng did not agree, instead making him General of the Center Army. He said to Niu Yi, "It's in a bull's nature to be slow and steady, and he is best suited for drawing a cart. Although he lacks the grace of a fine steed, he can better endure the rocks and stones." (The character for bull, 牛 Niu, was the same as Niu Yi’s surname.) Niu Yi said, "Although it is a fine cart, I would fear future difficulties. Rather grant me the heavier burden, and I will bear it proudly knowing what I might achieve." Fu Sheng jokingly replied, "Why so eager, that you scorn the lighter load? Perhaps I should grant you Duke Yu's old offices." Niu Yi became afraid at this; he withdrew and killed himself.

秦荊州治豐陽川。轅前曰軛,加之牛項。

Qin's Jingzhou was administered from Fengyangchuan.


生飲酒無晝夜,或連月不出。奏事不省,往往寢落,或醉中決事。左右因以為奸,賞罰無准。或至申酉乃出視朝,乘醉多所殺戮。自以眇目,諱言「殘、缺、偏、只、少、無、不具」之類,誤犯而死者,不可勝數。好生剝牛、羊、驢、馬、燖雞、豚、鵝、鴨,縱之殿前,數十為群。或剝人面皮,使之歌舞,臨觀以為樂。嘗問左右曰:「自吾臨天下,汝外間何所聞?」或對曰:「聖明宰世,賞罰明當,天下唯歌太平。」怒曰:「汝媚我也!」引出斬之。它日又問,或對曰:「陛下刑罰微過。」又怒曰:「汝謗我也!」亦斬之。勳舊親戚,誅之殆盡,群臣得保一日,如度十年。

9. Fu Sheng drank regardless of night or day, and often kept on drinking for a month. Qin's affairs were left unmanaged, as Fu Sheng often fell down drunk, or made his decisions under the influence of wine. Those around him were villainous, and so rewards and punishments were not handled suitably. Sometimes Fu Sheng would attend court while still drunk, and this led to many executions being ordered.

Because of his blind eye, he forbade the use of the words "missing," "lacking," "slanted," "less," and "without"; anyone who mistakenly used these words was put to death, regardless of service. He enjoyed skinning alive cows, sheep, donkeys, or horses, or boiling chickens, pigs, geese, and ducks, and he boiled several dozen people in front of the palace in this manner. He would sometimes flay the skin from people, and then have them sing and dance for him while he enjoyed the music.

Fu Sheng asked those around him, "Since the realm became mine, what have you heard said about me?" Someone said, "Your rule is sagacious, your rewards and punishments most suited, and the realm sings songs of peace." He angrily replied, "You flatterer!" and had that person executed. When he again asked the question, another person said, "Your Majesty punishes people harshly." Fu Sheng replied, "You slanderer!" and had him executed. Even family members were not spared, and punishments were all harsh. For the ministers, enduring each day was like living through ten years.

東海王堅,素有時譽,與故姚襄參軍薛贊、權翼善。贊、翼密說堅曰:「主上猜忍暴虐,中外離心,方今宜主秦祀者,非殿下而誰!願早為計,勿使它姓得之!」堅以問尚書呂婆樓,婆樓曰:「僕,刀鐶上人耳,不足以辦大事。僕裡捨有王猛者,其人謀略不世出,殿下宜請而咨之。」堅因婆樓以招猛,一見如舊友,語及時事,堅大悅,自謂如劉玄德之遇諸葛孔明也。

10. Qin’s Prince of Donghai, Fu Jian, had a good reputation, and so won the loyalty of Xue Zan and Quan Yi, some of Yao Xiang's former officers who had surrendered to Qin. Xue Zan and Quan Yi secretly said to him, "Your ruler is nothing but a wild beast, and everyone has turned against him. Qin deserves a better lord, and who else but Your Highness? You should act at once, and not let some other family seize control!"

時譽者,爲時人所稱美也。

Fu Jian had a reputation among the people of that time for great beauty.


Fu Jian asked the Master of Writing Lü Polou. Lü Polou said, "I am only a bladed ring; I would not do for handling grand affairs. But there is a certain Wang Meng staying at my home. He is not of this world, and no one else can compare with him for developing plans. Your Highness ought to meet with him." Fu Jian thus went to see Wang Meng; as soon as they saw one another, they were like old friends, speaking together at length. Fu Jian was greatly pleased, and said that this was just like when Liu Xuande first met Zhuge Kongming.

魏、晉之間,率以刀鐶築殺人;言將爲生所殺也。或曰:刀以鋒刃爲用,刀鐶以上無所用之;婆樓以自喻。不世出者,言世間不常生此人。見六十五卷漢獻帝建安十二年。

During Cao-Wei and Jin, soldiers would use a bladed ring to kill people. So Lü Polou was saying that he was only useful for killing Fu Sheng. In other words, the blade itself was useful, but outside of the ring it had no purpose. This was how Lü Polou appraised himself.

By "not of this world", he meant that Wang Meng was an exceptional fellow.

Liu Bei's first meeting with Zhuge Liang is recounted in the twelfth year of Jian'an of the Han Emperor Xian (207) in Book 65.


The English translation of this meeting is in To Establish Peace, by Dr. Rafe de Crespigny.

六月,太史令康權言於秦主生曰:「昨夜三月並出,孛星入太微,連東井,自去月上旬,沉陰不雨,以至於今,將有下人謀上之禍。」生怒,以為妖言,撲殺之。

11. In the sixth month, Qin’s Court Historian Kang Quan said to Fu Sheng, "Last night, as the third watch was beginning, a comet entered the Supreme Palace Enclosure, crossing into the Eastern Well. For more than ten days, since last month up until now, there has been deep darkness without rain. This foretells the danger that a subordinate is plotting against you." Fu Sheng grew angry, believing that these were distortions, so he had Kang Quan executed.

《姓譜》曰:康,衞康叔之後,亦西胡姓。此亦據《洪範五行傳》言之也。

The "Registry of Surnames" says, "The surname Kang comes from Weikang Shu (a younger brother of King Wu of Zhou). It is also a surname among the western Hu."

This reading of the astrological signs corresponds with that listed in the Movements of the Five Elements, in the Great Plan (which is in the Book of Documents).


特進、領御史中丞梁平老等謂堅曰:「主上失德,上下嗷嗷,人懷異志,燕、晉二方,伺隙而動,恐禍發之日,家國俱亡。此殿下之事也,宜早圖之!」堅心然之,畏生趫勇,未敢發。生夜對侍婢言曰:「阿法兄弟亦不可信,明當除之。」婢以告堅及堅兄清河王法。法與梁平老及特進光祿大夫強汪,帥壯士數百潛入雲龍門,堅與呂婆樓帥麾下三百人鼓噪繼進,宿衛將士皆捨仗歸堅。生猶醉寐,堅兵至,生驚問左右曰:「此輩何人?」左右曰:「賊也!」生曰:「何不拜之!」堅兵皆笑。生又大言:「何不速拜,不拜者斬之!」堅兵引生置別室,廢為越王。尋殺之,謚曰厲王。

12. The 特進 and acting Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk, Liang Pinglao, and others said to Fu Jian, "Our ruler has abandoned virtue, and everyone weeps at it. The people wish for a change. Yan and Jin are still on our borders, waiting for an opportunity to move against us. I fear if some calamity occurs, the state will be destroyed. Your Highness must recognize this, and act at once!" Although Fu Jian felt the same way, he feared Fu Sheng's awesome strength, and did not dare to act right away.

嗷嗷,衆口愁聲。

嗷嗷 means a wail of sorrow.


Fu Sheng said to his palace maidens one night, "A-Fa and his brother cannot be trusted. I will deal with them tomorrow." The maidens went and told Fu Jian and his brother Fu Fa the news. Fu Fa and Liang Pinglao, along with the Household Counsellor and 特進 Qiang Wang, led several hundred people into the Yunlong Gate, while Fu Jian and Lü Polou led their three hundred followers to beat drums and call the advance. The gate guards all threw down their weapons and flocked to Fu Jian.

魏明帝起洛陽宮,宮城正南門曰雲龍門。苻氏據長安,亦以宮城正南門爲雲龍門。

When Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) built his palace at Luoyang, the southern main gate of his palace was named the Yunlong Gate. When the Fu clan entered Chang'an, they also named the southern main gate of their palace Yunlong.


Fu Sheng was in the midst of his drunkenness. When Fu Jian's soldiers arrived, Fu Sheng fearfully asked those around him, "Who goes there?" They told him, "Rebels!" Fu Sheng said, "Why do they not submit?" Fu Jian's soldiers all laughed. Fu Sheng cried out, "Whoever does not submit at once will be killed!" Fu Jian's soldiers took Fu Sheng into another room, and he was deposed to be the Prince of Yue. He was then killed, and his posthumous name was Prince Li (“the Harsh”).

年二十三。

He was twenty-three.


堅以位讓法,法曰:「汝嫡嗣,且賢,宜立。」堅曰:「兄年長,宜立。」堅母苟氏泣謂群臣曰:「社稷重事,小兒自知不能。它日有悔,失在諸君。」群臣皆頓首請立堅。堅乃去皇帝之號,稱大秦天王,即位於太極殿,誅生幸臣中書監董榮、左僕射趙韶等二十餘人。大赦,改元永興。追尊父雄為文桓皇帝,母苟氏為皇太后,妃苟氏為皇后,世子宏為皇太子,以清河王法為都督中外諸軍事、丞相、錄尚書事、東海公,諸王皆降爵為公。以從祖右光祿大夫、永安公侯為太尉,晉公柳為車騎大將軍、尚書令。封弟融為陽平公,雙為河南公,子丕為長樂公,暉為平原公,熙為廣平公,睿為巨鹿公。以漢陽李威為左僕射,梁平老為右僕射,強汪為領軍將軍,呂婆樓為司隸校尉,王猛為中書侍郎。

13. The throne being now vacant, Fu Jian offered it to Fu Fa. Fu Fa said, "You are most worthy, and furthermore you were born from Father's wife; you should lead." Fu Jian said, "You are the elder brother; the throne should be yours."

堅母苟氏,雄之元妃,故謂堅爲嫡嗣。

Fu Jian's mother Lady Gou was Fu Xiong's chief wife, and that is why Fu Fa said Fu Jian was entitled to the throne as the son of the wife.


Fu Jian's mother, Lady Gou, said to the gathered ministers with tears in her eyes, "My son knows that he is little prepared to handle such great affairs. This being such a regretful day, I leave the decision to you all." The ministers all made obeisance to Fu Jian and asked him to take the throne. Fu Jian thereupon set aside the title of Emperor, instead claiming for himself the title Heavenly Prince of Qin, and taking Taiji Palace as his seat.

苻堅,字永固,雄之子也。

Fu Jian, styled Yonggu, was Fu Xiong's son.


He put to death Fu Sheng's minions, the Palace Secretary Dong Rong, the Deputy Director of the Left Zhao Shao, and more than twenty others. A general amnesty was declared, and the Qin reign title was changed to Yongxing. He honored his late father Fu Xiong as Emperor Wenhuan and his mother Lady Gou as Empress Dowager, his wife Lady Gou as Empress, and his son Fu Hong as Crown Prince.

Fu Fa was given command of all military affairs and named as Prime Minister, command over the imperial secretariat, and appointed as Duke of Donghai. All the other Princes were demoted to Dukes. He named his grand-uncle Fu Hou, the Household Counsellor of the Right and Duke of Yong'an, as Grand Commandant; the Duke of Jin Fu Liu was named Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He named his younger brother Fu Rong as Duke of Yangping, and his younger brother Fu Shuang as Duke of Henan. Among his sons, he named Fu Pi as Duke of Changle, Fu Hui as Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Xi as Duke of Guangping, and Fu Rui as Duke of Julu. He named Li Wei of Hanyang as Deputy Director of the Left and Liang Pinglao as Deputy Director of the Right; Qiang Wang was named General Who Leads The Army; Lü Polou was named Colonel Director of Retainers; Wang Meng was named 中書侍郎.

李威於堅母有辟陽之寵,故擢用之。

Li Wei received 'the favor of Piyang' from Fu Jian's mother, which he used to advance his position.


‘The favor of Piyang’ refers to the illicit love affair between Liu Bang’s wife, Empress Lü, and the Han minister Shen Yiji. One of the titles that the Empress favored him with was Marquis of Piyang. The phrase refers to a man who becomes the lover of an Empress in order to advance his position.

融好文學,明辯過人,耳聞則誦,過目不忘,力敵百夫,善騎射擊刺,少有令譽。堅愛重之,常與共議國事。融經綜內外,刑政修明,薦才揚滯,補益弘多。丕亦有文武才幹,但治民斷獄,皆亞於融。

14. Fu Jian’s brother Fu Rong was well-versed in studies and very discerning and perceptive; what he once heard he always remembered, and whatever he saw he never forgot. He was strong as a hundred foes, and was adept in horseback archery. Few could match his reputation. Fu Jian greatly treasured him, and often collaborated with him on state affairs. Fu Rong made his mark in both domestic and foreign matters, clearly correcting governmental problems, recommending the talented and removing obstructions, and spread many benefits. Fu Jian’s son Fu Pi was also talented in both civil and military affairs, and in administration and justice, he was second only to Fu Rong.

史言堅有弟有子如此而無救於敗亡,明天之所棄,非人之所能支也。

The text is saying that without the aid of this son and younger brother, Fu Jian's kingdom would be lost, and the next day all would be discarded. No one could match their talents.


威,苟太后之姑子也,素與魏王雄友善。生屢欲殺堅,賴威營救得免。威得幸於苟太后,堅事之如父。威知王猛之賢,常勸堅以國事任之,堅謂猛曰:「李公知君,猶鮑叔牙之知管仲也。」猛以兄事之。

15. Li Wei was Empress Dowager Gou's cousin, and he had been friendly with the Prince of Wei Fu Xiong. When Fu Sheng wished to kill Fu Jian, it was often Li Wei who begged him to desist. Li Wei had the favor of Empress Dowager Gou, and Fu Jian considered him as a second father. Li Wei knew Wang Meng's worth, and often advised Fu Jian to grant him a role in state affairs. Fu Jian said to Wang Meng, "Duke Li knows your worth, just as Bao Shuya knew Guan Zhong's worth." And he considered Wang Meng like a brother.

管仲少與鮑叔牙遊,鮑叔知其賢,善遇之。管仲曰:「吾始困時,與鮑叔賈,分財多自與,鮑叔不以我爲貪,知我貧也。吾嘗爲鮑叔謀事,而更窮困,鮑叔不以我爲愚,知時有利不利也。吾嘗三仕三見逐,鮑叔不以我爲不肖,知我不遭時也。吾嘗三戰三北,鮑叔不以我爲怯,知我有老母也。公子糾敗,召忽死之,吾幽囚受辱,鮑叔不以我爲無恥,知我不羞小節而恥功名不顯於天下也。生我者父母,知我者鮑子也。」

The Records of the Grand Historian says, “When they were young, Guan Zhong and Bao Shuya traveled together. Bao Shuya knew Guan Zhong's worth, and was glad to meet him. Guan Zhong said of him, ‘When I was first in difficulty, I did business together with Bao Shuya. When I took more than my share, Bao Shuya did not consider me greedy, but knew my poverty. When I first wished to plan things with Bao Shuya, and afterwards suffered hardships, Bao Shuya did not see me as a burden, but knew that some times brought profit and some did not. When I thrice sought office and was thrice sent away, Bao Shuya did not consider me unworthy, but knew that it was not yet my time. When I thrice fled from battle, Bao Shuya knew that I was not cowardly, but that I had an old mother to consider. When I supported the Duke's son who met with defeat, yet I avoided death and languished in a prison instead, Bao Shuya knew that I was not shameless, but that such a small affair could not shame my reputation and my achievements in the world. It was my parents who gave birth to me, but it is Bao Shuya who truly knows me.’” (Book 62)


燕主俊殺段龕,坑其徒三千餘人。

16. Murong Jun executed Duan Kan, and buried alive over three thousand others.

秋,七月,秦大將軍冀州牧張平遣使請降,拜并州刺史。

19. In autumn, the seventh month, Qin's Grand General and Inspector of Jizhou, Zhang Ping, sent messengers to offer submission to Jin. He was appointed as Jin’s Inspector of Bingzhou.

八月,丁未,立皇后何氏。後,故散騎侍郎廬江何淮之女也。禮如咸康而不賀。

20. In the eighth month, on the day Dingwei, Lady He (He Fani, 法倪) was made Empress of Jin. She was the daughter of the former 散騎侍郎, He Huai of Lujiang. The rites were conducted similar to those of Xiankang.

成帝咸康二年,立杜后。

Lady Du had been made Empress by Emperor Cheng in the second year of Xiankang.


秦王堅以權翼為給事黃門侍郎,薛贊為中書侍郎,與王猛並掌機密。九月,追復太師魚遵等官,以禮改葬,子孫存者皆隨才擢敘。

21. Fu Jian appointed Quan Yi as Assistant Attendant of the Yellow Gate, and Xue Zan as 中書侍郎, and often discussed secret matters with Wang Meng hand in hand. In the ninth month, he posthumously restored the former titles to Yu Zun and the other executed ministers, reburying them with the proper rites, and their surviving sons and grandsons were promoted or placed in office.

權翼仕秦,久當事任,而卒歸姚氏。料其受苻堅信用,雖不爲莊舄之越吟,固隱之於心也。

Quan Yi served under Qin for a long time, though long afterwards (in 385) he went back to the Yao clan. Though he accepted Fu Jian's trust, even if he did not quite hear the "bird's cry of Yue from the old home" as do those of a fallen state, he certainly still held some of the old loyalty in his heart.


張平據新興、雁門、西河、太原、上黨、上郡之地,壁壘三百餘,夷、夏十餘萬戶,拜置征鎮,欲與燕、秦為敵國。冬,十月,平寇略秦境,秦王堅以晉公柳都督並、冀州諸軍事,加并州牧,鎮蒲阪以御之。

22. Zhang Ping held Xinxing, Yanmen, Xihe, Taiyuan, Shangdang, and Shangjun as his territory, and had more than three hundred fortified places. His territory had over a hundred thousand Yi (tribal) and Xia (ethnic Han) households. Jin had appointed him as a chief general (of the rank of Conquers… or Guards…), and he considered Yan and Qin as enemy states.

In winter, the tenth month, Zhang Ping invaded Qin territory. Fu Jian granted Fu Liu control over Bingzhou and Jizhou military affairs, as well as making him Governor of Bingzhou, and sent him to defend Puban.

壁壘,蓋時遭亂離,豪望自相保聚所築者。石氏用張平爲幷州,故得有其地、有其民。石氏之敗,平兩附燕、秦,今恃其強,欲與燕、秦爲敵國。平蓋間秦之有內難也,安知由是而敗亡乎!

Fortified places were areas built where people who had been separated by the wars could gathered together to defend one another. The Shi clan had used Zhang Ping in Bingzhou, and that was how he held command of so many places and so many people.

After the fall of the Shi clan, Zhang Ping vacillated between Yan and Qin. But now that he felt he had grown stronger, he wished to fight against both Yan and Qin.

Zhang Ping thought that he could take advantage of the upheaval within Qin. Little did he know that it would lead to his destruction!


十一月,癸酉,燕主俊自薊徙都鄴。

23. In the eleventh month, on the day Guiyou, Murong Jun moved the capital from Ji to Ye.

秦太后苟氏游宣明台,見東海公法之第門車馬輻湊,恐終不利於秦王堅,乃與李威謀,賜法死。堅與法訣於東堂,慟哭歐血;謚曰獻哀公,封其子陽為東海公,敷為清河公。

24. Empress Dowager Gou traveled to the Xuanming Terrace. Seeing that the gate of Fu Fa’s residence had many carriages rolling in and out of it, she feared that he might someday cause trouble for Fu Jian, so she and Li Wei plotted together, and arranged for Fu Fa to commit suicide. When Fu Jian decided upon Fu Fa’s fate in the Eastern Hall, he wept greatly and coughed up blood.

Fu Fa was posthumously named Duke Xian’ai (“the Mourned”), and his sons Fu Yang and Fu Fu were named Duke of Donghai and Duke of Qinghe.

爲後陽謀復讎張本。

This was the cause for Fu Yang's later attempt at revenge.


十二月,乙巳,燕主俊入鄴宮,大赦。復作銅雀台。

25. In the twelfth month, on the day Yisi, Murong Jun entered the palace in Ye. A general amnesty was declared. The Bronze Bird Terrace was restored.

魏武建國於鄴,作銅雀臺,石氏增修之,兵亂圮毀,慕容都鄴復作,使如舊。

Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) had ruled his princely fief at Ye, where he built the Bronze Bird Terrace, and the Shi clan had added to it. During the chaos surrounding the fall of Zhao, the Terrace had collapsed in ruins. When the Murong clan moved their capital to Ye, they rebuilt it, just as it was before.


以太常王彪之為左僕射。

26. Jin's Minister of Ceremonies, Wang Biaozhi, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left.

秦王堅行至尚書,以文案不治,免左丞程卓官,以王猛代之。堅舉異才,修廢職,課農桑,恤困窮,禮百神,立學校,旌節義,繼絕世;秦民大悅。

27. Fu Jian went to visit the Masters of Writing, and did not use a clerk to handle those matters. He removed the Minister of the Left, Cheng Zhuo, from office, and had Wang Meng take over his duties. Fu Jian employed rare talents, and filled lapsed posts. He encouraged the people in their farming and silkworm cultivation, and sympathized with their sufferings and difficulties. He conducted rites to the hundred spirits, and founded academies of learning. Thus did he display his virtues, and prove himself an exceptional man. The people of Qin were very pleased.

史言苻堅能用王猛以治秦。

The text is saying that Fu Jian was able to use Wang Meng to govern Qin.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:31 am, edited 1 time in total.
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BOOK 100

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Mar 23, 2017 12:09 am

昇平二年(戊午,公元三五八年)

The Second Year of Shengping (The Wuwu Year, 358 AD)


春,正月,司徒昱稽首歸政,帝不許。

1. In spring, the first month, Jin's Minister Over The Masses Sima Yu offered to resign his governmental responsibilities, but Emperor Mu declined.

初,馮鴦既以上黨來降,又附於張平,又自歸於燕,既而復叛燕。二月,燕司徒上庸王評討之,不克。

2. It was earlier mentioned (355.22) that Feng Yang had taken over Shangdang and submitted himself to Jin. Later, he allied with Zhang Ping; after that, he went over to Yan. In the end, he rebelled against Yan. In the second month, Yan's Minister Over The Masses, Wang Ping of Shangyong, campaigned against him, but was unsuccessful.

秦王堅自將討張平,以鄧羌為前鋒督護,帥騎五千,軍於汾上;平使養子蚝御之。蚝多力趫捷,能曳牛卻走;城無高下,皆可超越。與羌相持旬餘,莫能相勝。三月,堅至銅壁,平盡眾出戰,蚝單馬大呼,出入秦陳者四、五。堅募人生致之,鷹揚將軍呂光刺蚝,中之,鄧羌擒蚝以獻,平眾大潰。平懼,請降。堅拜平右將軍,以蚝為虎賁中郎將。蚝,本姓弓,上黨人也,堅寵待甚厚,常置左右。秦人稱鄧羌、張蚝皆萬人敵。光,婆樓之子也。堅徙張平部民三千餘戶於長安。

3. Fu Jian went himself to campaign against Zhang Ping, and sent Deng Qiang to command his vanguard force. Deng led five thousand cavalry, with the main army following behind to Fenshang. Zhang Ping sent his adopted son Zhang Qi ahead to oppose Deng Qiang. Zhang Qi was a very strong and agile man, able to drag back a bull and turn it away. No one in the city could compare with him; he surpassed them all. Zhang Qi was locked in a stalemate with Deng Qiang for more than ten days, with neither side able to claim the advantage.

汾水之上也。蚝,七吏翻。

Fenshang was on the Fen River. 蚝 is pronounced "qi (q-i)".


In the third month, Fu Jian arrived at Tongbi. Zhang Ping went forward with his host to offer battle. Zhang Qi rode out alone to the Qin lines and with a great shout challenged them; he did this four or five times. Fu Jian asked for a volunteer to go forward, and the General of Hawkish Display, Lü Guang, went out to battle Zhang Qi. In the midst of this, Deng Qiang captured Zhang Qi and displayed him, and Zhang Ping's army melted away. Zhang Ping, frightened, offered to surrender. Fu Jian appointed Zhang Ping as General of the Right, and appointed Zhang Qi as Lively Tiger General of the Household.

河、汾之間有銅川,其民遇亂,築銅壁以自守,因曰銅壁。

The city of Tongchuan lies between the Yellow and Fen Rivers. When people encountered trouble, they built copper walls to protect themselves, so it was called Tongbi ("Copper Walls").


Tongchuan is still a city in modern China, in Shaanxi province.

Zhang Qi's surname had originally been Gong, and he was a native of Shangdang. Fu Jian favored him greatly, and he was often by Fu Jian's side. The people of Qin called Zhang Hao and Deng Qiang "Foe of Ten Thousands". Lü Guang was the son of Lü Polou. Fu Jian relocated more than three thousand of Zhang Ping's households to Chang'an.

《姓譜》:弓姓,魯叔弓之後。

The "Registry of Surnames" says, "The surname Gong comes from Shu Gong of the state of Lü."


Shu Gong is mentioned in the Zuo Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals (Duke Zhao’s book).

萬人敵 or “Foe of Ten Thousands” was earlier used to describe Xiang Yu, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei.


甲戌,燕主俊遣領軍將軍慕輿根,將兵助司徒評攻馮鴦。根欲急攻之,評曰:「鴦壁堅,不如緩之。」根曰:「不然。公至城下經月,未嘗交鋒。賊謂國家力止於此,遂相固結,冀幸萬一。今根兵初至,形勢方振,賊眾恐懼,皆有離心,計慮未定,從而攻之,無不克者。」遂急攻之。鴦與其黨果相猜忌,鴦奔野王依呂護,其黨盡降。

4. On the day Jiaxu, Murong Jun sent his General Who Lead The Army Muyu Gen and his Minister Over The Masses Murong Ping to attack Feng Yang. Muyu Gen wished to boldly attack. Murong Ping said, "Feng Yang has a stout defense. It would be better not to."

Muyu Gen replied, "Not so. You have been outside the city for nearly a month already, and yet you have not yet had a taste of battle. The rebels are already at the limit of their strength; even with all their men combined, they would be fortunate to hold the city against us. My own soldiers have just arrived here, and so the situation has changed. The rebels all quake with fear, and all of them have their hearts divided. Let us consider how to pacify them, and then launch our attack. We cannot help but win."

言鴦心僥倖於萬一可以保城也。

He is saying Feng Yang believes that only by a fluke could he defend the city.


So they fiercely attacked. Feng Yang and his partisans all suspected one another, so they did not fight together. Feng Yang fled to Yewang to seek refuge under Lü Hu, and then offered his submission.

夏,四月,秦王堅如雍,祠五畤;六月,如河東,祀后土。

5. In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian went to Yong, to make the five sacrifices; in the sixth month, he went to Hedong, to make sacrifices to the Earth.

用漢禮也。

He used the old Han rites.


秋,八月,豫州刺史謝弈卒。弈,安之兄也。司徒昱以建武將軍桓雲代之。雲,溫之弟也。訪於僕射王彪之。彪之曰:「雲非不才,然溫居上流,已割天下之半,其弟復處西籓;兵權萃於一門,非深根固蒂之宜。人才非可豫量,但當令不與殿下作異者耳。」昱頷之曰:「君言是也。」壬申,以吳興太守謝萬為西中郎將,監司、豫、冀、並四州諸軍事、豫州刺史。

6. In autumn, the eighth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yuzhou, Xie Yi, passed away. Xie Yi was the older brother of Xie An. The Minister Over The Masses Sima Yu appointed the General Who Establishes Valor, Huan Yun, in his stead. Huan Yun was Huan Wen's younger brother.

The Deputy Director Wang Biaozhi was asked his opinion. Wang Biaozhi said, "Huan Yun is quite untalented. Furthermore, his brother Huan Wen already controls the flow of memorials, and half the realm is under his hand, and his other brothers are on the western border. Placing so much military authority in their hands is certainly no basis for 'deep roots and a firm stem'. One can never have too many talented ministers, but he would act against Your Highness's interests." Sima Yu nodded and said, "It is just as you say."

東晉豫州鎭江西,建康在江東,故以豫州爲西藩。

During Eastern Jin, Yuzhou guarded the western bank of the Yangzi, while the capital Jiankang was on the eastern bank. So Yuzhou was considered the western border of the state.


On the day Renshen, the Administrator of Wuxing, Xie Wan, was appointed as 西中郎將, with control of military affairs in Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou, as well as being made Inspector of Yuzhou.

司、豫、冀、幷所統,皆僑郡也。

Sizhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Bingzhou were all controlled by vassal commanders.


王羲之與桓溫箋曰:「謝萬才流經通,使之處廊廟,固是後來之秀。今以之俯順荒餘,近是違才易務矣。」又遺萬書曰:「以君邁往不屑之韻,而俯同群碎,誠難為意也。然所謂通識,正當隨事行藏耳。願君每與士卒之下者同甘苦,則盡善矣。」萬不能用。

7. Wang Xizhi wrote to Huan Wen, saying, “Xie Wan is a man of abundant talents and open communication, and he has been dispatched by the imperial court in order to prove his excellence. I ask that you now condescend to work with him, in order to exchange waste for abundance. Lately, everything has been ‘pervert the talented and neglect affairs’.”

言其才具可以經世,於時人流輩中爲通達也。言邊郡兵民皆兵荒之餘,彫瘵未蘇而獷悍難調,當俯就而柔順之;今萬非其才而用之,則爲違才。以萬之才可以處廊廟,而使之處邊鄙,則爲易事。

He is saying that Xie Wan's talents can be used for managing the state, and that many people of the time believe him to be sensible.

He is saying that the people of the border commandaries have all had their surplus wasted by the soldiers, wasting away without recovering and suffering from deprivations and the difficulties of moving around, and that Huan Wen should go along to get along here. Xie Wan is being used despite not having very much talent, which is what he means by "pervert the talented". Xie Wan's abilities were suited for the imperial court, but in being sent to the border regions, the court was thus "neglecting affairs".


Wang Xizhi also wrote to Xie Wan, saying, “You are striving towards that disdainful tune, of one who respects those equal to him but smashes to pieces those below him, and it is difficult for you to be honest. Remember your position when you speak, and conduct yourself as befitting your office. If you share all the joys and the sorrows of your officers and your men, then you be able to accomplish much good.” But Xie Wan could not follow his advice.

言其矜高不屑軍中之細務也。

He is warning Xie Wan not to consider himself too self-important or to be too proud to focus on the details of army affairs.


徐、兗二州刺史荀羨有疾,以御史中丞郗曇為軍司。曇,鑒之子也。九月,庚辰,秦王堅還長安,以太尉侯守尚書令。於是秦大旱。堅減膳徹樂,命后妃以下悉去羅紈;開山澤之利,公私共之,息兵養民,旱不為災。

8. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Xun Xian, was ill. The Palace Assistant Imperial Clerk, Chi Tan, was appointed as Adjutant. Chi Tan was the son of Chi Jian.

【章:十二行本「軍」上有「羨」字;乙十一行本同;孔本「羨軍」二字並刊一格;張校同。】爲萬、曇皆不勝其任張本。《考異》曰:《帝紀》:「謝萬爲豫州,」下云:「郗曇爲北中郎將,督五州軍事、徐‧兗二州刺史。」《曇傳》云:「荀羨有疾,以曇爲軍司。頃之,羨徵還,除曇北中郎將、都督、刺史。」按《帝紀》,「十二月,北中郎將荀羨及慕容儁戰于山茌,王師敗績。」《燕書》:「十二月,荀羨寇泰山,殺太守賈堅。」《載記》:「荀羨殺賈堅,」下云:「敗羨,復陷山茌。」故知八月曇未爲徐、兗二州,恐始爲軍司耳。

This was why Xie Wan and Chi Tan never met with success.

Some versions of the second sentence say "Xun's army adjutant" or "Xun Xian's army adjutant" instead of simply “adjutant".

The 考異 says, "According to the Annals of the Emperors, 'Xie Wan became Inspector of Xuzhou,' and it later says, 'Chi Tan became 北中郎將, Commander of the military affairs of five provinces, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou.' According to the Record of Chi Tan, 'Xun Xian became ill, so Chi Tan was appointed as his adjutant. Shortly afterwards, Xun Xian was recalled, and so Chi Tan remained as 北中郎將, Commander, and Inspector.' In another place in the Annals of the Emperors, it says, 'In the twelfth month, the 北中郎將 Xun Xian fought Murong Jun at Shanshi, but the royal army suffered defeat.' The Book of Yan says, 'In the twelfth month, Xun Xian invaded Mount Tai, and killed the Administrator Jia Jian.' The 載記 says, 'Xun Xian killed Jia Jian,' and later on, 'Xun Xian was defeated, and was then trapped at Shanshi.'" Since Chi Tan had yet to become Inspector of Xuzhou or Yanzhou by the eighth month, I must conclude that he was first Xun Xian's adjutant.


In the ninth month, on the day Gengchen, Fu Jian returned to Chang'an, and appointed the Grand Commandant Fu Hou as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

永安公苻侯。

This was the Duke of Yong'an, Fu Hou.


There was a great drought in Qin. Fu Jian cut meals and halted music, and ordered the women of the imperial household to cease using nets and fine silks. He harnessed the benefits of the mountains and marshes, mixed public and private concerns, rested the soldiers and nurtured the people, and thus the drought did not become a calamity.

師古曰:紈素,今之絹也。

Yang Shigu remarked, "'Fine silk' is what we would now call 'thin silk'."


王猛日親幸用事,宗親勳舊多疾之。特進、姑臧侯樊世,本氐豪,佐秦主健定關中,謂猛曰:「吾輩耕之,君食之邪?」猛曰:「非徒使君耕之,又將使君炊之!」世大怒曰:「要當懸汝頭於長安城門,不然,吾不處世!」猛以白堅。堅曰:「必殺此老氐,然後百寮可肅。」會世入言事,與猛爭論於堅前,世欲起擊猛。堅怒,斬之。於是群臣見猛皆屏息。

9. In Qin, Wang Meng saw special favor on a daily basis, and this annoyed the old retainers of the imperial clan.

The 特進 and Marquis of Guzang, Fan Shi, was a Di retainer who had helped Fu Jiàn in pacifying Guanzhong. He said to Wang Meng, "Will you eat the harvest that we plowed?" Wang Meng replied, "It’s better to say that what you all plowed, I will soon send you to cook!" Fan Shi angrily said, "I will see your head hanging from the gate of Chang’an, or else I am not Fan Shi!"

Wang Meng mentioned the matter to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said, "I must kill this old Di, so that the other ministers will respect me." Later, when Fan Shi went to discuss something with Fu Jian, he got into an argument with Wang Meng in front of Fu Jian, and wished to strike him. Fu Jian, angry, had him executed. After that, all the ministers feared Wang Meng whenever they saw him.

趙之亡也,其將張平、李歷、高昌皆遣使降燕,已而降晉,又降秦,各受爵位,欲中立以自固。燕主俊使司徒評討張平於并州,司空陽騖討高昌於東燕,樂安王臧討李歷於濮。陽騖攻昌別將於黎陽,不拔。歷奔滎陽,其眾皆降。并州壁壘百餘降於燕,俊以右僕射悅綰為并州刺史以撫之。平所署征西將軍諸葛驤等帥壁壘百三十八降於燕,俊皆復其官爵。平帥眾三千奔平陽,復請降於燕。

10. After Zhao collapsed, the generals Zhang Ping, Li Li, and Gao Chang first submitted to Yan, then went over to Jin, and afterwards submitted to Qin, receiving offices from each state, for all of these men wished to maintain their own status.

李歷、高昌初降晉,張平降秦,永和七年也。八年,歷、昌降秦,是年又與張平俱降燕。苻生死後,張平又降晉,各受爵位。

Li Li and Gao Chang had first submitted to Jin, while Zhang Ping had submitted to Qin; this was in the seventh year of Yonghe (351). In the eighth year (352), Li Li and Gao Chang had submitted to Qin, and that same year they along with Zhang Ping went over to Yan. After Fu Sheng's death, Zhang Ping submitted to Jin. This was how each of these men received titles from all three states.


Li Li and Gao Chang were the Qin generals whom Yao Xiang was fighting against when Yao Chang offered him his horse to escape (352.8).

Murong Jun sent the Minister Over The Masses Murong Ping to attack Zhang Ping in Bingzhou, he sent the Minister of Works Yang Wu to attack Gao Chang in Dongyan, and he sent the Prince of Le'an Murong Zang to attack Li Li at Pu. Yang Wu attacked Gao Chang at Liyang, but could not defeat him. Li Li fled to Xingyang, and from there he and his men surrendered. More than a hundred of Bingzhou's fortified places surrendered to Yan. Murong Jun appointed the Deputy Director of the Right Yue Wan as the Inspector of Bingzhou to nurture the people there. Zhang Ping's General Who Conquers The West, Zhuge Xiang, and a hundred and thirty-eight fortified places surrender to Yan; Murong Jun kept them in their positions. Zhang Ping himself fled to Pingyang with three thousand men, and then asked to surrender to Yan.

冬,十月,泰山太守諸葛攸攻燕東郡,入武陽,燕主俊遣大司馬恪統陽騖及樂安王臧之兵以擊之。攸敗走,還泰山,恪遂渡河,略地河南,分置守宰。

11. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's Administrator of Mount Tai, Zhuge You, attacked Yan's Dong commandary, and entered Wuyang. Murong Jun sent the Grand Marshal Murong Ke, with Yang Wu and the Prince of Le'an Murong Zang to attack him. Zhuge You was defeated and fled back to Mount Tai. Murong Ke recrossed the Yellow River, in order to defend Henan, and he split off defending garrisons.

後漢東郡治東武陽。武帝咸康二年,封子允,以「東」不可爲國名,而東郡有濮陽縣,改曰濮陽國。允改封淮南,還曰東郡。趙王倫篡位,廢太孫臧爲濮陽王,東郡遂名濮陽。此蓋燕復名東郡。《晉志》:武陽縣分屬陽平郡。劉昫曰:魏州朝城縣,隋武陽縣地,天寶七年更名。

During Han, Dong commandary was administered from Wuyang. In the second year of Xiankang (277) under Emperor Wu (Sima Yan), it was awarded to his son Sima Yun as a fief, but "Dong" could not serve as the name of a princely fief, so since Dong commandary had a Puyang County, the fief was called Puyang. Later, when Sima Yun became the Prince of Huainan, the name of the commandary changed back to Dong. When the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun, seized the throne, he sent the deposed Crown Grandson Sima Zang to be Prince of Puyang, and Dong commandary once again had its name changed to Puyang. We can see from the text here that Yan had changed the commandary name back to Dong again.


Hu Sanxing presumably meant the second year of 咸寧 Xianning; Sima Yan did not have a Xiankang reign era. It may be someone else's transcription mistake.

The "Records of Jin" says, "Wuyang County was divided among Pingyang commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "During Northern Wei, the province was ruled from Chaocheng County; during Sui, it was Wuyang County. During Tang, in the seventh year of Tianbao (748), its name was changed again."

燕主俊欲經營秦、晉,十二月,令州郡校實見丁,戶留一丁,餘悉發為兵,欲使步卒滿一百五十萬,期來春大集洛陽。武邑劉貴上書,極陳「百姓凋弊,發兵非法,必致土崩之變。」俊善之,乃更令三五發兵,寬其期日,以來冬集鄴。

12. Murong Jun wished to gather an army to conquer Qin and Jin. In the twelfth month, he sent out orders among the 校實 of all the provinces and commandaries to inspect every household, and that every household was to send the army all its suitable men, leaving only one to remain home, so that the rest could be conscripted. He hoped to draft an army of a million and a half men, and set a date for the coming spring for them all to gather at Luoyang.

校實,檢校其實數也。

The office of 校實 was responsible for ensuring accurate counts.


Liu Gui of Wuyi sent in a petition, stating, "The common people are under pressure, and this conscription goes against law. This will cause the land to collapse." Murong Jun accepted this, and thus ordered only that three of every five would become soldiers, and set a date for them to gather that winter at Ye.

法未有戶留一丁而悉發爲兵者。

There was not yet a law permitting drafting all but one man from every household.


时燕调发繁数,官司各遣使者,道路旁午,郡县苦之。太尉、领中书监封弈请“自今非军期严急,不得遣使,自馀赋发皆责成州郡,其群司所遣弹督先在外者,一切摄还。”俊从之。

13. At that time, numerous affairs were underway in Yan, and each minister and officer sent out their messengers in every direction. The roads and streets were filled with them, and the commandaries and counties had trouble accommodating them all.

The Grand Commandant and acting 中書監 Feng Yi said to Murong Jun, "This is not a time of strict military discipline, so there is no need to dispatch so many messengers. If there is any trouble with bandits, let the provinces and commandaries take care of those burdens. The officers should restrict themselves to sending their messengers to their commanders at the borders. Then everything will be taken care of." Murong Jun followed his suggestion.

燕泰山太守賈堅屯山茌,荀羨引兵擊之;堅所將才七百餘人,羨兵十倍於堅。堅將出戰,諸將皆曰:「眾少,不如固守。」堅曰:「固守亦不能免,不如戰也。」遂出戰,身先士卒,殺羨兵千餘人,復還入城。羨進攻之,堅歎曰:「吾自結髮,志立功名,而每值窮厄,豈非命乎!與其屈辱而生,不若守節而死。」乃謂將士曰:「今危困,計無所設,卿等可去,吾將止死。」將士皆泣曰:「府君不出,眾亦俱死耳。」乃扶堅上馬。堅曰:「我如欲逃,必不相遣。今當為卿曹決鬥,若勢不能支,卿等可趣去,勿復顧我也!」乃開門直出。羨兵四集,堅立馬橋上,左右射之,皆應弦而倒。羨兵眾多,從塹下斫橋,堅人馬俱陷,生擒之,遂拔山茌。羨謂堅曰:「君父、祖世為晉臣,奈何背本不降?」堅曰:「晉自棄中華,非吾叛也。民既無主,強則托命。既已事人,安可改節!吾束脩自立,涉趙歷燕,未嘗易志,君何匆匆相謂降乎!」羨復責之,堅怒曰:「豎子,兒女御乃公!」羨怒,執置雨中,數日,堅憤惋而卒。

14. Yan's Administrator of Taishan, Jia Jian, camped at Shanshi. Xun Xiao led troops to attack him. Jia Jian had only a little more than seven hundred men, while Xun Xiao had ten times as many.

山茌,卽前漢之茌縣,屬泰山郡,後漢改曰山茌。茌,仕疑翻。

Shanshi had been known during Former Han as Shi County, as part of Mount Tai commandary. During Later Han, its name was changed to Shanshi.

茌 is pronounced "shi (sh-i)".


Jia Jian was about to go out to battle. His men said to him, "We are few; better to keep to the defensive." Jia Jian said, "We cannot avoid defending; better to go out and fight." So they went to battle, with Jia Jian leading the charge, and they killed more than a thousand of Xun Xiao's men before going back into the city.

Xun Xiao advanced to attack the city, and Jia Jian lamented, "What a knot I’ve tied us into! I wished to make a name for myself, and have thus weakened this strategic point. Surely I was disobedient! Better for me to remain faithful even unto death rather than grovel to save my life."

堅欲折其鋒,使羨懼而退耳。羨進攻之,堅計窮矣。

Jia Jian wished to smash Xun Xian's vanguard and make him retreat out of fear. However, Xun Xian continued to advance, so Jia Jian's plan failed.


So he said to his men, "We are in grave danger, and no plan can extricate us. All of you may flee from here. I will remain behind and die." The soldiers all wept and said, "If you will not leave, then we will all die with you." Thus they helped Jia Jian onto a horse. He said to them, "If I am to escape, give no consideration to me. Now that it is up to you gentlemen to decide whether to fight, if you cannot maintain this place, then flee, and take no heed of me!" He thus opened the gate and went out.

Xun Xiao's soldiers surrounded the place on four sides. Jia Jian stood on his horse atop the bridge, and shot his arrows in either direction. With every twang of the bowstring, he felled another man. But Xun Xiao’s men were too numerous, and some of them went down and cut the bridge supports, so Jia Jian and his horse went tumbling into the pit. He was captured alive, and Shanshi was taken.

Xun Xiao said to Jia Jian, "Your father and grandfather both served Jin. Why do you turn your back on your homeland and refuse to surrender?"

Jia Jian replied, "Jin abandoned the Central Plains; I am no rebel. The people were left without a lord, and the strong did what they would. How could I accept this? It was by my own ‘dried meat’ that I sustained myself, enduring Zhao and experiencing Yan, but never once surrendering my ambitions. How can you be so quick to ask me to surrender?"

堅發此言,江東將相其愧多矣。謂從師就學,便有志於自立。朱子曰:修,脯也。十脡爲束。古者從師必以束脩爲禮。堅不降燕,見九十八卷永和七年。

When Jia Jian said these words, many of the generals of the Southland looked at one another with shame.

Jia Jian is saying that learning comes from the Teacher (Confucius), but his ambitions came from himself. He is referencing a line from the Analects: "The Master said, 'I have never refused my instructions to anyone, even the man who merely offers me his bundle of dried meat.'(7.7)" The commentator Zhuzi said, "修 means 'dried meat', and a group of ten of them makes a bundle. In ancient times, it was custom to provide the Teachers with a bundle of dried meat."

Recall that Jia Jian had not surrendered to Yan, but had been captured by them. This account was mentioned in the sixth year of Yonghe (350) in Book 98.


Xun Xiao continued to ask him, but Jia Jian angrily responded, "Son, leave your old man alone!" Xun Xiao grew angry and tied up Jia Jian, leaving him exposed to the rain. Over the course of several days, Jia Jian greatly lamented and so died.

自稱爲乃公,慢羨而孩視之也。曰御者,言若駕御兒女然。

By calling himself ‘old man', Jia Jian is treating Xun Xian as though he were his own child. By 御, he is speaking as though he were instructing a child.


燕青州刺史慕容塵遣司馬悅明救泰山,羨兵大敗,燕復取山茌。燕主俊以賈堅子活為任城太守。

15. Yan's Inspector of Qingzhou, Murong Chen, sent the Marshal Yue Ming to relieve Mount Tai. Xun Xiao suffered a great defeat, and Yan recovered Shanshi. Murong Jun appointed Jia Jian's son Jia Huo as Administrator of Rencheng.

荀羨疾篤,征還,以郗曇為北中郎將、都督徐、兗、青、冀、幽五州諸軍事、徐、兗二州刺史,鎮下邳。

16. Xun Xian's illness returned, so he was recalled. Chi Tan was appointed as 北中郎將, Commander over Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, and Youzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and he was garrisoned at Xiapi.

五州,惟徐州有實土。郗,丑之翻。曇,徒含翻。

Of these five provinces, only Xuzhou was actually Jin territory.

郗 is pronounced "chi (ch-i)". 曇 is pronounced "tan (t-an)".


燕吳王垂娶段末柸女,生子令、寶。段氏才高性烈,自以貴姓,不尊事可足渾後,可足渾氏銜之。燕主俊素不快於垂,中常侍涅皓因希旨告段氏及吳國典書令遼東高弼為巫蠱,欲以連污垂。俊收段氏及弼下大長秋、延尉考驗,段氏及弼志氣確然,終無撓辭。掠治日急,垂愍之,私使人謂段氏曰:「人生會當一死,何堪楚毒如此!不若引服。」段氏歎曰:「吾豈愛死者耶!若自誣以惡逆,上辱祖宗,下累於王,固不為也!」辯答益明,故垂得免禍,而段氏竟死於獄中。出垂為平州刺史,鎮遼東。垂以段氏女弟為繼室;足渾氏黜之,以其妹長安君妻垂;垂不悅,由是益惡之。

17. Yan's Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, married the daughter of Duan Mopei. By her, he had two sons, Murong Ling and Murong Bao. Lady Duan was of a haughty and fierce temperment, and because of her fine lineage, she did not honor Empress Kezuhun, who bore a grudge against her because of it. Murong Jun also did not like Murong Chui.

段與慕容本抗衡之國,故自以爲貴姓。事見上卷永和十年。

The Duan and the Murong clans had originally fought for control of the territory, and this is why Duan was an honored name.

Murong Jun's reasons for disliking Murong Chui were mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) in the last book (Book 99).


The Regular Attendant Nie Hao therefore slandered Lady Duan and the Prefect of the Directors of Writing of Wu (that is, of Murong Chui’s household), Gao Bi of Liaodong, as magicians, hoping to implicate Murong Chui as well. Murong Jun had both of them turned over to the 大長秋 to be put on trial, but despite the accusations, in the end they admitted to nothing.

涅,乃結翻,姓也。晉制:王國置典書、典祠、學官令。慕容氏因之。典書令,天朝吏部尚書之職。《齊王攸傳》,「國相上長吏缺典書令,請求差選」是也。西晉,典書令在常侍、侍郎上;及渡江,則侍郎次常侍,而典書令居三卿下。

涅 is pronounced "nie (n-ie)"; it is a surname.

According to the Jin system, a princely fief had a 典書, a 典祠, and a 學官令. This was why the Murong clan also had these offices. The 典書令 was the fief's equivalent of the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing for the imperial court. The "Record of the Prince of Qi, Sima You" says, "The fief Chancellor's Chief Clerk lacked a 典書令, so he asked for one to be selected." This is the same office. During Western Jin, the 典書令 was above the Regular Attendants and Palace Attendants. After Jin retreated across the Yangzi, Palace Attendants became second to Regular Attendants, and the 典書令 held the third rank.


After they were subjected to several days of fierce treatment, Murong Chui lamented their fate, and secretly sent a messenger to Lady Duan saying, "A person can choose to end their life at once; why continue to suffer this poison? Better to tear your clothes." Lady Duan lamented, "I am prepared to die! But if I confess, then I shame my family and implicate my lord; that I cannot allow!" Thanks to this response, Murong Chui was able to avoid disaster, but Lady Duan still died in the prison.

引服,自引而誣服也。

To tear one’s clothes is to implicate oneself and accept blame.


Murong Chui was sent to be Inspector of Pingzhou, and he was stationed at Liaodong. He married Lady Duan's sister as his second wife. But Empress Kezuhun dissolved this marriage, and made Murong Chui marry her own younger sister instead. Murong Chui was displeased, and grew to dislike her.

爲慕容垂出奔張本。

This was why Murong Chui later fled.


匈奴劉閼頭部落多叛,懼而東走,乘冰渡河,半渡而冰解,後眾盡歸劉悉勿祈,閼頭奔代。悉勿祈,務桓之子也。

18. Many of the Xiongnu chieftain Liu Etou’s soldiers rebelled against him. Afraid, he fled to the east, hoping to cross over the frozen Yellow river. When he was halfway across, the ice broke. As the forces of Liu Xiwuqi were pursuing them, Liu Etou fled to Dai. Liu Xiwuqi was the son of Liu Wuhuan.

代在北河之東。

Dai was east of the northern Yellow River.
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