Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 113

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 03, 2019 2:21 pm

元興二年(癸卯、四○三)

The Second Year of Yuanxing (The Guimao Year, 403 AD)


春,正月,盧循使司馬徐道覆寇東陽;二月,辛丑,建武將軍劉裕擊破之。道覆,循之姊夫也。

1. In spring, the first month, the rebel leader Lu Xun sent his Marshal, Xu Daofu, to invade Dongyang commandary. In the second month, on the day Xinchou (March 16th), Jin's General Who Establish Valor, Liu Yu, attacked and routed him. This Xu Daofu was Lu Xun's brother-in-law.

二年正月,玄復遣高祖破循於東陽。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the second year of Yuanxing (403), the first month, Huan Xuan once again sent Liu Yu to rout Lu Xun at Dongyang.

二年春二月辛丑,建威將軍劉裕破徐道覆于東陽。乙卯,桓玄自稱大將軍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second year of Yuanxing (403), in spring, the second month, on the day Xinchou (March 16th), the General Who Establish Might, Liu Yu, attacked and routed Xu Daofu at Dongyang.


乙卯,以太尉玄爲大將軍。

2. On the day Yimao (March 30th), the Grand Commandant, Huan Xuan, was appointed as Grand General.

〈大將軍,自漢以來,職名崇重,居其位者皆擅朝權。晉初,以司馬孚爲太尉,奏以大將軍位太尉下,後復舊,在三司上。〉

(Ever since the Han dynasty, the rank of Grand General had been a lofty and important position, and whoever occupied that post wielded control over the court. There was a time at the beginning of the Jin dynasty, when Sima Fu was appointed as Grand Commandant, that the rank of Grand General was adjusted to be inferior to that of Grand Commandant. But afterwards, the usual hierarchy was restored, and Grand General was superior to all the Three Excellencies.)


乙卯,桓玄自稱大將軍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Yimao (March 30th), Huan Xuan appointed himself as Grand General.


丁巳,玄殺冀州刺史孫無終。

3. On the day Dingsi (April 1st), Huan Xuan killed the Inspector of Jizhou, Sun Wuzhong.

〈孫無終亦北府舊將也。〉

(This was in keeping with Huan Xuan's policy of killing Liu Laozhi's former subordinates from his time as leader of the Northern Garrison. Sun Wuzhong had also been one of his generals at that time.)


丁巳,冀州刺史孫無終爲桓玄所害。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Dingsi (April 1st), Huan Xuan killed the Inspector of Jizhou, Sun Wuzhong.


玄上表請帥諸軍掃平關、洛,旣而諷朝廷下詔不許,乃云:「奉詔故止。」玄初欲飭裝,先命作輕舸,載服玩、書畫。或問其故。玄曰:「兵凶戰危,脫有意外,當使輕而易運。」衆皆笑之。

4. Huan Xuan sent up a petition asking to lead the Jin armies to sweep clear and pacify the Guanzhong and Luoyang regions. But he then arranged to have the court issue an edict refusing their permission, and said, "I shall heed the edict and cancel my plans."

Huan Xuan wanted to have everything in order from the start, so he had already ordered a light craft prepared, stocked with clothes, treasures, books, and paintings. When people asked him why he was doing this, Huan Xuan replied, "War is dangerous, battle deadly. If anything unexpected should happen, I want to have this boat prepared so that I can move off at once." Everyone laughed at him.

〈桓玄意態終始如此耳。時人誤以爲雄豪而憚之,故每遇輒敗。崢嶸洲之戰,劉道規等知其爲人而徑突之,一敗而不能復振矣。〉〈舸,大舡也。《方言》:南楚江湖謂之舸。〉

(Huan Xuan revealed his true character even as early as this. The people of that time had been intimidated by him, mistakenly believing him to be a hero of the age, and this was why up until now, those who faced him had all met with defeat. But later, at the battle of Zhengrong Islet, Liu Daogui and the other loyalists realized that he was only a man and rushed to attack him. A single defeat sufficed to ensure that Huan Xuan could never restore his fortunes.

This passage uses the word 舸; this is a large boat. The Regional Dialects dictionary states, "The people living on the rivers and lakes of the southern Chu region call boats 舸s.")


夏,四月,癸巳朔,日有食之。

5. In summer, the fourth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (May 7th), there was an eclipse.

夏四月癸巳朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (May 7th), there was an eclipse.


南燕主備德故吏趙融自長安來,始得母兄凶問,備德號慟吐血,因而寢疾。

6. In Southern Yan, Murong Beide’s former subordinate Zhao Rong now arrived from Chang’an, and Murong Beide finally learned that his mother and elder brother had already passed away. He was so stricken by grief that he spat up blood, and he was bedridden by illness.

司隸校尉慕容達謀反,遣牙門皇璆攻端門,殿中帥侯赤眉開門應之;中黃門孫進扶備德踰城匿於進舍。段宏等聞宮中有變,勒兵屯四門。備德入宮,誅赤眉等;達出奔魏。

7. Murong Beide's Colonel-Director of Retainers, Murong Da, plotted rebellion. He sent the General of the Serrated Gates, Huang Qiu, to attack the Duan Gates of the palace, where the Chief of the Palace Halls, Hou Chimei, opened the gates to support the coup. The Leader of the Yellow Gates, Sun Jin, took Murong Beide to climb over the walls of the palace and hide inside Sun Jin's house. Then Duan Hong and others heard that there had been a coup in the palace, and they ordered their soldiers to camp at the four gates of the city. Murong Beide reentered the palace and executed Hou Chimei and the other plotters. Murong Da escaped the city and fled to Wei.

〈殿中帥猶晉之殿中三部督也。〉〈廣固城四門也。〉

(Chief of the Palace Halls was the same as Jin's three Commanders of the Palace Halls.

The soldiers were posted at the four city gates of Guanggu.)


備德優遷徙之民,使之長復不役;民緣此迭相蔭冒,或百室合戶,或千丁共籍,以避課役。尚書韓X請加隱覈,備德從之,使X巡行郡縣,得蔭戶五萬八千。

8. For some time, Murong Beide had been concerned about the plight of the common people because of their constant movements and relocations, so he had spared them from any corvee labor demands. But the common people had taken advantage of this by constantly grouping themselves into larger units and hiding their precise numbers, in order to stay off the tax and corvee labor rolls. There were some instances of a hundred families gathering together into one "household", and some instances of a thousand adult men all registering as the same unit. One of Murong Beide's Masters of Writing, Han Zhuo, thus proposed that these distorted registration numbers be rectified, and Murong Beide agreed. He sent Han Zhuo to pass through the various commandaries and counties and correct the figures, and Han Zhuo uncovered fifty-eight thousand hidden households.

〈復,復除也。〉〈隱,度也。覈,實也。隱覈,度其實也。〉

(復 in this passage means "to be spared or exempt from".

This passage uses the term 隱覈. 隱 means "assess" and 覈 means "true", so 隱覈 means to assess the true figures.)


泰山賊王始聚衆數萬,自稱太平皇帝,署置公卿;南燕桂林王鎭討禽之。臨刑,或問其父及兄弟安在。始曰:「太上皇蒙塵于外,征東、征西爲亂兵所害。」其妻怒之曰:「君正坐此口,柰何尚爾!」始曰:「皇后不知,自古豈有不亡之國!朕則崩矣,終不改號!」

9. A bandit leader from Taishan commandary, Wang Shi, gathered together an army of tens of thousands. He declared himself Emperor of Great Peace, and he appointed people as nobles and great ministers. Southern Yan's Prince of Guilin, Murong Zhen, campaigned against Wang Shi and captured him.

When Wang Shi was about to be executed, someone asked him where his father and brothers were. Wang Shi replied, "His Grand Majesty suffers in exile, while the Generals Who Conquer The East and West were killed by rebel soldiers."

Wang Shi's wife angrily said to him, "How can you still act so high and mighty when you are on the brink of death?"

Wang Shi replied, "My Empress, do you not know? When has there ever been a state that did not fall? If I am to die, then so be it. But I will never surrender my titles!"

〈史言王始僭舉大號,至敗亡而不悔。〉

(This passage demonstrates how Wang Shi refused to recant his grand titles even after his defeat and death.)


五月,燕王熙作龍騰苑,方十餘里,役徒二萬人;築景雲山於苑內,基廣五百步,峯高十七丈。

10. In the fifth month, the Heavenly King of Yan, Murong Xi, built the Longteng Garden; it was more than ten li square, and required twenty thousand workers to build. He also built the Jingyun Hill inside the garden; its base was five hundred paces wide, and its summit was seventeen zhang high.

秋,七月,戊子,魏主珪北巡,作離宮於豺山。

11. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuzi (August 30th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. He built a field palace at Mount Chai.

六年春正月辛未,朔方尉遲部別帥率萬餘家內屬,入居雲中。夏五月,大簡輿徒,將略江淮,平荊揚之亂。秋七月,鎮西大將軍、司隸校尉、毗陵王順有罪,以王還第。戊子,車駕北巡,築離宮于犲山,縱士校獵,東北踰罽嶺,出參合、代谷。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth year of Tianxing (403), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinwei (February 14th), a leader of the Yuchi people from Shuofang led more than ten thousand families to settle within Northern Wei territory. They were placed at Yunzhong.

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Gui held a grand review of his carriages and followers. He made plans to cross the Yangzi and the Huai and settle the turmoil in Jingzhou and Yangzhou.

In autumn, the seventh month, the Grand General Who Guards The West, Colonel-Director of Retainers, and Prince of Piling, Tuoba Shun, committed a crime. He was confined to his estate.

On the day Wuzi (August 30th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. He built a field palace at Mount Chai. He permitted his soldiers to indulge in hunting, and he traveled northeast to cross the Ji Ranges and came out through Canhe Slope and Dai Valley.


平原太守和跋奢豪喜名,珪惡而殺之,使其弟毗等就與訣。跋曰:「灅北土瘠,可遷水南,勉爲生計。」且使之背己,曰:「汝何忍視吾之死也!」毗等諭其意,詐稱使者,逃入秦。珪怒,滅其家。中壘將軍鄧淵從弟尚書暉與跋善,或譖諸珪曰:「毗之出亡,暉實送之。」珪疑淵知其謀,賜淵死。

12. By this time, Wei's Administrator of Pingyuan, He Ba, had grown arrogant and delighted in his reputation. This irked Tuoba Gui, who killed him.

Tuoba Gui had ordered He Ba's younger brothers, He Pi and others, to visit him and say their goodbyes before his death. He Ba had told them, "The land is barren north of the Lei River, and you could cross the river there and head south. Do all you can to save yourselves." Then he ordered them to turn around, saying, "How could you bear to see me die?" He Pi and the others followed He Ba's advice; they posed as envoys and fled to Qin. Tuoba Gui was furious, and he exterminated their families.

The General of the Central Ramparts, Deng Yuan, had a cousin who was one of the Masters of Writing, Deng Hun, and Deng Hun had been good friends with He Ba. So someone slandered the Deng family to Tuoba Gui, claiming, "When He Pi fled, Deng Hun escorted him away." Tuoba Gui suspected that Deng Yuan had known about the plot, so he compelled Deng Yuan to commit suicide.

南涼王傉檀及沮渠蒙遜互出兵攻呂隆,隆患之。秦之謀臣言於秦王興曰:「隆藉先世之資,專制河外,今雖飢窘,尚能自支,若將來豐贍,終不爲吾有。涼州險絕,土田饒沃,不如因其危而取之。」興乃遣使徵呂超入侍。隆念姑臧終無以自存,乃因超請迎于秦。興遣尚書左僕射齊難、鎭西將軍姚詰、左賢王乞伏乾歸、鎭遠將軍趙曜帥步騎四萬迎隆于河西,南涼王傉檀攝昌松、魏安二戍以避之。八月,齊難等至姑臧,隆素車白馬迎于道旁。隆勸難擊沮渠蒙遜,蒙遜使臧莫孩拒之,敗其前軍。難乃與蒙遜結盟;蒙遜遣弟挐入貢于秦。難以司馬王尚行涼州刺史,配兵三千鎭姑臧,以將軍閻松爲倉松太守,郭將爲番禾太守,分戍二城,徙隆宗族、僚屬及民萬戶于長安。興以隆爲散騎常侍,超爲安定太守,自餘文武隨才擢敍。

13. By now, the Heavenly King of Liang, Lü Long, had suffered constant attacks from the King of Southern Liang, Tufa Nutan, and from Juqu Mengxun, and he felt greatly threatened by them. Meanwhile, the advisors of the Emperor of Qin, Yao Xing, advised him, "Lü Long has inherited the accumulated resources of his forebearers and is still in control of the region northwest beyond the Yellow River. Look how he is still able to maintain his position even now, while in the midst of famine and want. If he should grow rich and prosperous, he would not remain our vassal for long. Besides, Liangzhou is a place of great natural defenses, and its soil and farmland are fertile and abundant. It would be best if we took advantage of Lü Long's current adversity to annex his territory for ourselves."

So Yao Xing sent envoys to summon Lü Long's younger brother Lü Chao to come to the Qin capital at Chang'an as an attendant. For his part, Lü Long was worried that he would not be able to keep control of Guzang forever. So he told Lü Chao to ask that Qin welcome him as part of their state. Yao Xing then sent his Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Qi Nan, his General Who Guards The West, Yao Jie, his Worthy Prince of the Left, Qifu Gangui, and his General Who Guards Distant Places, Zhao Yao, to lead forty thousand horse and foot to receive Lü Long in Liangzhou. Tufa Nutan gathered up his soldiers camped at Changsong and Wei'an and withdrew them in the face of the Qin army. In the eighth month, Qi Nan and the other Qin generals arrived at Guzang, where Lü Long welcomed them on the side of the road in an unmarked cart and a white horse.

Lü Long urged Qi Nan to attack Juqu Mengxun. But Juqu Mengxun sent Zang Mohai to oppose them, and Zang Mohai defeated the Qin vanguard. So Qi Nan decided to agree to an understanding with Juqu Mengxun instead, and Juqu Mengxun sent his younger brother Juqu Na to bring tribute to Qin.

Qi Nan appointed his Marshal, Wang Shang, as Qin's provisional Inspector of Liangzhou and assigned him three thousand soldiers to defend Guzang. He appointed the generals Yan Song and Guo Jiang as Administrator of Cangsong and Administrator of Fanhe and had them split their forces between the two cities. He relocated Lü Long's family and subordinates, as well as ten thousand households of common people, to Chang'an. Yao Xing appointed Lü Long as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, he appointed Lü Chao as Administrator of Anding, and Lü Long's other former subordinates were all appointed to various offices as suited to their civil or martial talents.

〈挐,女居翻。〉〈倉松,卽漢昌松縣。〉〈《載記》曰:自光至隆十三載而滅。〉

(Juqu Na's given name 挐 is pronounced "nu (n-u)".

Cangsong commandary was the Han dynasty's Changsong county.

As the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, Later Liang lasted thirteen years, from Lü Guang until Lü Long, then perished.)


興性儉約,車馬無金玉之飾,自下化之,莫不敦尚清素。然好游田,頗損農要。京兆杜挻以僕射齊難無匡輔之益,著《豐草詩》以箴之,馮翊相雲作《德獵賦》以諷焉。興皆覽而善之,賜以金帛,然終弗能改。晉順陽太守彭泉以郡降興,興遣楊佛嵩率騎五千,與其荊州刺史趙曜迎之,遂寇陷南鄉,擒建威將軍劉嵩,略地至於梁國而歸。又遣其兼散騎常侍席確詣涼州,征呂隆弟超入侍,隆遣之。呂隆懼禿髮傉檀之逼,表請內徙。興遣齊難及鎮西姚詰、鎮遠乞伏乾歸、鎮遠趙曜等步騎四萬,迎隆於河西。難至姑臧,以其司馬王尚行涼州刺史,配兵三千鎮姑臧,以將軍閻松為倉松太守,郭將為番禾太守,分戍二城,徙隆及其宗室僚屬于長安。沮渠蒙遜遣弟如子貢其方物。王尚綏撫遺黎,導以信義,百姓懷其惠化,翕然歸之。北部鮮卑並遣使貢款。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing had a frugal and simple nature, and he never adorned his chariots or horses with gold or jade. This custom spread to his subordinates as well, none of whom failed to esteem plain and unadorned things. But Yao Xing also enjoyed wandering through farmland, which tended to injure agricultural affairs. Du Shan of Jingzhao commandary felt that the Deputy Director, Qi Nan, was doing nothing to help rectify or assist the state, so he compiled the Poems of Overgrown Weeds to admonish him. And Xiang Yun of Pingyi commandary wrote the Ode to the Virtues of Hunting to mock Yao Xing's behavior. Although Yao Xing read these writings and praised them, rewarding the authors with gold and silks, in the end he was unable to change his behavior.

Jin's Administrator of Shunyang, Peng Quan, surrendered that commandary to Yao Xing, who sent Yang Fusong and his Inspector of Jingzhou, Zhao Yao, to lead five thousand cavalry to welcome him. They then invaded and took Nanxiang, where they captured Jin's General Who Establishes Might, Liu Song, and ravaged the land as far as Liangguo before returning.

Yao Xing also sent his combined Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Xi Que, to visit Liangzhou and summon Lü Long's younger brother Lü Chao to court, and Lü Long sent him. Lü Long was afraid of the threat posed to him by Tufa Nutan, so he petitioned Yao Xing asking to be relocated into Later Qin territory. Yao Xing sent Qi Nan and the General Who Guards The West, Yao Jie, the General Who Guards Distant Places, Qifu Gangui, the General Who Guards Distant Places, Zhao Yao, and others to lead forty thousand horse and foot to receive Lü Long in the Hexi region.

When Qi Nan arrived at Guzang, he appointed his Marshal, Wang Shang, as Later Qin's provisional Inspector of Liangzhou and assigned him three thousand soldiers to defend Guzang. He appointed the generals Yan Song and Guo Jiang as Administrator of Cangsong and Administrator of Fanhe and had them split their forces between the two cities. He relocated Lü Long's family and subordinates to Chang'an.

Juqu Mengxun sent his younger brother Juqu Na to bring his local products as tribute to Later Qin.

Wang Shang cared for and comforted the various scattered refugees, and he guided the people through trustworthiness and righteousness. So the common people cherished his kindness, and they all came over to him. The northern Xianbei also sent envoys bearing tribute.

三年,隆以二涼之逼,遣齎珎寶,請迎于秦,遣尚書左僕射齊難,率步騎四萬來迎。隆率戶一萬隨難東遷。既至長安,秦以隆為散騎常侍,尚書、公如故,超為安定太守... 自光以乙酉歲據涼州,至于是歲,歲在癸卯,凡一十九年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Long)

In the third year of Shending (403), under threat from the two Liang states, Lü Long sent envoys to Later Qin bringing them treasures and asking to be welcomed within Later Qin territory. Later Qin sent their Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Qi Nan, to lead forty thousand horse and foot to come receive Lü Long. Lü Long led ten thousand households to follow Qi Nan and relocate to the east. When they arrived in Chang'an, Later Qin appointed Lü Long as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, while keeping his original appointments as a Master of Writing and Duke of Jiankang, and they appointed Lü Chao as Later Qin's Administrator of Anding.

From the time when Lü Guang had first occupied Liangzhou, in the Yiyou year (385), until now, the Guimao year (403), Later Liang had existed for nineteen years.

屢為蒙遜攻逼,乃請迎於姚興。遣齊難率眾迎之,隆遂降焉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Long)

After constant attacks by and pressure from Juqu Mengxun, Lü Long asked to be welcomed into Yao Xing's territory. Yao Xing sent Qi Nan to lead an army to receive him, and Lü Long surrendered to Later Qin.

姚興謀臣皆曰:「隆藉伯父余資,制命河外。今雖饑窘,尚能自支。若將來豐贍,終非國有。涼州險絕,世難先違,道清後順,不如因其饑弊而取之。」興乃遣使來觀虛實... 禿髮傉檀及蒙遜頻來伐之,隆以二寇之逼也,遣超率騎二百,多齎珍寶,請迎于姚興。興乃遣其將齊難等步騎四萬迎之。難至姑臧,隆素車白馬迎於道旁。使胤告光廟曰:「陛下往運神略,開建西夏,德被蒼生,威振遐裔。枝嗣不臧,迭相篡弑。二虜交逼,將歸東京,謹與陛下奉訣于此。」歔欷慟泣,酸感興軍。隆率戶一萬,隨難東遷,至長安,興以隆為散騎常侍,公如故;超為安定太守;文武三十餘人皆擢敘之... 呂光以孝武太元十二年定涼州,十五年僭立,至隆凡十有三載,以安帝元興三年滅。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Long)

Yao Xing's ministers advised him, "Lü Long has inherited the accumulated resources of his uncle and is still in control of the region northwest beyond the Yellow River. Look how he is still able to maintain his position even now, while in the midst of famine and want. If he should grow rich and prosperous, he would not remain our vassal for long. Besides, Liangzhou is a place of great natural defenses; it is the first place to rebel when turmoil arises and the last to submit when peace is restored. It would be best if we took advantage of Lü Long's current adversity to annex his territory for ourselves."

So Yao Xing sent envoys to come and see how sincere Lü Long's vassalage was.

Tufa Nutan and Juqu Mengxun had launched repeated campaigns against Lü Long. Feeling threatened by these two enemies, Lü Long sent Lü Chao to lead two hundred riders, bring a great deal of treasures, to ask for Yao Xing to welcome him into his domain. So Yao Xing sent his generals, Qi Nan and others, to lead forty thousand horse and foot to receive Lü Long. When Qi Nan arrived at Guzang, Lü Long welcomed them on the side of the road in an unmarked cart and a white horse.

Lü Long sent his children to the temple of Lü Guang to inform his spirit, "Through Your Majesty's divine calculations, you opened and established this state among the western Xia; your virtue was felt by the common people, and your might awed distant lands. Yet your heir could not succeed you, and your sons slaughtered each other. Now our two foes are drawing close, and we are about to return to the eastern capital (Chang'an). Thus we plead our case here before Your Majesty." They sighed and wept with grief, and their lamentations moved Yao Xing's soldiers.

Lü Long ten thousand households to accompany Qi Nan to the east. When they arrived at Chang'an, Yao Xing appointed Lü Long as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, while keeping his original title as a Duke. He appointed Lü Chao as Administrator of Anding, and more than thirty of Lü Long's other subordinates were all appointed to various offices as suited to their civil or martial talents.

Lü Guang had first settled Liangzhou in Emperor Xiaowu's twelfth year of Taiyuan (387), and he had declared himself Emperor in the fifteenth year (390). From then until the end of Lü Long's reign was thirteen years, until Emperor An's third year of Yuanxing (404), when Later Liang perished.

尋遣使者加乾歸散騎常侍、左賢王。遣隨興將齊難迎呂隆於河西。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing later sent envoys to promoted Qifu Gangui as Later Qin's Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Worthy Prince of the Left. He sent Qifu Gangui to accompany his general Qi Nan to welcome Lü Long at Hexi.

遣輔國臧莫孩襲山北虜,大破之。姚興遣將齊難率眾四萬迎呂隆,隆勸難伐蒙遜,難從之。莫孩敗其前軍,難乃結盟而還。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun sent the General Who Upholds The State, Zang Mohai, to launch a surprise attack against the caitiffs north of the mountains, and Zang Mohai greatly routed them.

Yao Xing sent his general Qi Nan to lead forty thousand soldiers to welcome Lü Long. Lü Long urged Qi Nan to campaign against Juqu Mengxun, and Qi Nan heeded him. But Zang Mohai defeated Qi Nan's vanguard. So Qi Nan decided to agree to an understanding with Juqu Mengxun instead, before returning to Later Qin.


初,郭黁常言「代呂者王」,故其起兵,先推王詳,後推王乞基;及隆東遷,王尚卒代之。黁從乞伏乾歸降秦,以爲滅秦者晉也,遂來奔,秦人追得,殺之。

14. It was earlier mentioned that the mystic Guo Nun had rebelled against Lü Guang, but had eventually fled to Qifu Gangui and then joined him in surrendering to Qin. Guo Nun had often spread a prophecy that "the one to replace the Lü clan shall be Wang". This was why during his rebellion against Lü Guang, he had originally acclaimed Wang Xiang, then later supported Wang Qiji. Yet only now was his prophecy fulfilled; Lü Long was traveling east to the Qin court, and he had been replaced by Wang Shang.

Guo Nun now believed that Jin would ultimately conquer Qin, and he attempted to flee to Jin. But troops from Qin pursued and caught him, and they killed him.

〈事見一百九卷元年。〉〈郭黁自信其術,幸亂以徼福,而卒以殺身,足以明天道之難知矣。〉

(The beginning of Guo Nun's rebellion is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.57).

Guo Nun believed that he could take advantage of the chaos to benefit himself by fulfilling his prophecy, yet he was killed in the end. Thus we see that it is hard to fully grasp Heaven's intentions.)


沮渠蒙遜伯父中田護軍親信、臨松太守孔篤,皆驕恣爲民患,蒙遜曰:「亂吾法者,二伯父也。」皆逼之使自殺。

15. Juqu Mengxun's Protector-General of the Central Fields, his uncle Juqu Qinxin, and his Administrator of Linsong, his uncle Juqu Kongdou, were arrogant and unrestrained, a blight on the common people. Juqu Mengxun declared, "My uncles are the ones who violate my laws." And he forced them to kill themselves.

〈據《晉書‧蒙遜載記》,中田護軍蓋呂光所置,鎭臨松。〉

(Judging by the Biography of Juqu Mengxun in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this rank of Protector-General of the Central Fields must have been created by Lü Guang and stationed at Linsong.)


蒙遜伯父中田護軍親信、臨松太守孔篤並驕奢侵害,百姓苦之。蒙遜曰:「亂吾國者,二伯父也,何以綱紀百姓乎!」皆令自殺。蒙遜襲狄洛磐於番禾,不克,遷其五百餘戶而還。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun's Protector-General of the Central Fields, his uncle Juqu Qinxin, and his Administrator of Linsong, his uncle Juqu Kongdou, were arrogant, unrestrained, and harmed whom they wished, a blight on the common people. Juqu Mengxun declared, "When my uncles are the ones who cause trouble in my state, how can the common people have law and order?" And he ordered them to kill themselves.

Juqu Mengxun launched a surprise attack against the Di leader Luo Pan at Fanhe. He was unsuccessful, merely relocating more than five hundred households from Luo Pan's territory before returning.


秦遣使者梁構至張掖,蒙遜問曰:「禿髮傉檀爲公而身爲侯,何也?」構曰:「傉檀凶狡,款誠未著,故朝廷以重爵虛名羈縻之。將軍忠貫白日,當入贊帝室,豈可以不信相待也!聖朝爵必稱功,如尹緯、姚晃,佐命之臣,齊難、徐洛,一時猛將,爵皆不過侯伯,將軍何以先之乎!昔竇融殷勤固讓,不欲居舊臣之右,不意將軍忽有此問!」蒙遜曰:「朝廷何不卽封張掖而更遠封西海邪?」構曰:「張掖,將軍已自有之,所以遠授西海者,欲廣大將軍之國耳。」蒙遜悅,乃受命。

16. When Qin sent their envoy Liang Gou to Zhangye, Juqu Mengxun asked him, "Why is it that you appointed Tufa Nutan as a Duke, yet I have merely been appointed as a Marquis?"

Liang Gou replied, "Tufa Nutan is wicked and crafty, and he has not yet provided proof of his sincerity or trustworthiness. That was why the court granted him such a lofty title; it is an empty concession, meant to control him. But as for you, General, your loyalty and adherence to us is as clear as the sun, worthy to be ranked among the imperial clan. How can you compare yourself with someone as shifty as Tufa Nutan? Be assured, the court does grant titles in accordance with merit. Consider how Yin Wei and Yao Huang were servants of the state from the beginning, and Qi Nan and Xu Luo are fierce generals of our own time. Yet none of them have been granted titles higher than Marquis or Baron. General, surely you do not reckon your achievements as greater than theirs! Furthermore, in the past, Dou Rong was an eager subject of Emperor Guangwu of Han, yet he declined the offer of a lofty title, not wanting to place himself ahead of Emperor Guangwu's senior ministers. That is why I hardly expected you to ask such a question, General!"

Juqu Mengxun said, "Very well. But I do wish to ask why the court has not appointed me as Marquis of Zhangye, and instead made me Marquis of a far-off place like Xihai?"

Liang Gou replied, "General, Zhangye is already your domain. The court merely appointed you as Marquis of Xihai because it wishes to enlarge your territory."

Juqu Mengxun was pleased with these responses, and he accepted the Qin commission.

〈秦封傉檀爲廣武公,封蒙遜爲西海侯,事見上卷上年。〉〈事見四十三卷漢光武建武十三年。〉

(Later Qin had earlier appointed Tufa Nutan as Duke of Guangwu and Juqu Mengxun as Marquis of Xihai, as mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxian (402.56).

The incident of the Liangzhou warlord Dou Rong declining the titles offered to him is mentioned in Book 43, in Emperor Guangwu of Han's thirteenth year of Jianwu (37 AD).)


蒙遜聞之,不悅,謂斐等曰:「傉檀上公之位,而身為侯者何也!」構對曰:「傉檀輕狡不仁,款誠未著,聖朝所以加其重爵者,褒其歸善即敘之義耳。將軍忠貫白日,勳高一時,當入諧鼎味,匡贊帝室,安可以不信待也。聖朝爵必稱功,官不越德,如尹緯、姚晁佐命初基,齊難、徐洛元勳驍將,並位才二品,爵止侯伯。將軍何以先之乎?竇融殷勤固讓,不欲居舊臣之右,未解將軍忽有此問!」蒙遜曰:「朝廷何不即以張掖見封,乃更遠封西海邪?」構曰:「張掖,規畫之內,將軍已自有之。所以遠授西海者,蓋欲廣大將軍之國耳。」蒙遜大悅,乃受拜。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

When Juqu Mengxun heard of the respective appointments which Later Qin had granted to him and to Tufa Nutan, he was displeased. He said to Liang Fei, Zhang Gou, and the other Later Qin envoys, "You appointed Tufa Nutan as a Duke, yet I have merely been appointed as a Marquis?"

Zhang Gou replied, "Tufa Nutan is wicked and crafty, lacking in benevolence, and he has not yet provided proof of his sincerity or trustworthiness. That was why the court granted him such a lofty title; they are merely commending him for bowing to the proper sovereign in order to assess his sense of righteousness. But as for you, General, your loyalty and adherence to us is as clear as the sun, and your deeds stand tall above the age. You are like one of our own kind, worthy to be ranked among the imperial clan. How can you compare yourself with someone so untrustworthy? Be assured, the court does grant titles in accordance with merit, nor does it reward people more than their virtue deserves. Consider how Yin Wei and Yao Huang were servants of the state from its very foundation, and Qi Nan and Xu Luo are fierce generals and foremost in achievements. Yet none of them have risen greater than the second rank or have been granted titles higher than Marquis or Baron. General, how could you place yourself ahead of them? Furthermore, in the past, Dou Rong was an eager subject of Emperor Guangwu of Han, yet he declined the offer of a lofty title, not wanting to place himself ahead of Emperor Guangwu's senior ministers. That is why I hardly expected you to ask such a question, General!"

Juqu Mengxun said, "Very well. But I do wish to ask why the court has not appointed me as Marquis of Zhangye, and instead made me Marquis of a far-off place like Xihai?"

Zhang Gou replied, "General, Zhangye is already entirely within your domain, and you fully possess it. The court must have remotely appointed you as Marquis of Xihai merely because it wishes to enlarge your domain."

Juqu Mengxun was delighted with these responses, and he accepted the Later Qin commission.


荊州刺史桓偉卒,大將軍玄以桓脩代之。從事中郎曹靖之說玄曰:「謙、脩兄弟專據內外,權勢太重。」玄乃以南郡相桓石康爲荊州刺史。石康,豁之子也。

17. Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Wei, passed away. Huan Xuan was planning to appoint Huan Xiu to replace him. But the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Cao Jingzhi, advised Huan Xuan, "Huan Qian, Huan Xiu, and their brothers all occupy important places both within the court and on the borders. They have too much power and influence." So Huan Xuan appointed the Chancellor of Nan commandary, Huan Shikang, as the new Inspector of Jingzhou instead. This Huan Shikang was the son of Huan Huo.

〈桓豁,溫之次弟。〉

(Huan Huo had been Huan Wen's next-youngest brother.)


劉裕破盧循於永嘉,追至晉安,屢破之,循浮海南走。

18. Liu Yu routed Lu Xun at Yongjia, then pursued him to Jin'an commandary and routed him several more times. Lu Xun took to the sea and fled south.

〈武帝太康三年,分建安立晉安郡,今泉州南安縣卽其地。宋白曰:東晉南渡,衣冠士族多萃此地以求安堵,因立晉安郡,隋爲泉州。〉

(In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) third year of Taikang (282), he split off part of Jian'an commandary to form Jin'an commandary. It is the same area as Nan'an county in modern Quanzhou. Song Bai remarked, "When Eastern Jin fled south across the Yangzi, many officials and gentry clans fled to this place seeking peace and tranquility. Thus they formed Jin'an (‘the peace of Jin’) commandary. Sui organized it as Quanzhou.")


循奔永嘉,復追破之,斬其大帥張士道,追討至于晉安,循浮海南走。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Lu Xun fled to Yongjia, where Liu Yu pursued and routed him again, taking the head of his great commander Zhang Shidao. He pursued Lu Xun as far as Jin'an, where Lu Xun took to the sea and fled to the south.


何無忌潛詣裕,勸裕於山陰起兵討桓玄。裕謀於土豪孔靖,靖曰:「山陰去都道遠,舉事難成;且玄未篡位,不如待其已篡,於京口圖之。」裕從之。靖,愉之孫也。

19. He Wuji secretly came to visit Liu Yu and urged him to raise troops at Shanyin to campaign against Huan Xuan.

Liu Yu mentioned the idea to a local member of the gentry, Kong Jing. Kong Jing told him, "Shanyin is too far from the capital, so it would be hard for any attempt there to succeed. Besides, Huan Xuan has not usurped the throne yet. It would be better to wait until he has usurped the throne, and then plot against him from Jingkou."

Liu Yu heeded his advice. This Kong Jing was the grandson of Kong Yu.

〈孔愉歷事元、明、成三帝。〉

(Kong Yu had served under Emperors Yuan, Ming, and Cheng.)


先是高祖東征盧循,何無忌隨至山陰,勸於會稽舉義。高祖以為玄未據極位,且會稽遙遠,事濟為難,俟其篡逆事著,徐於京口圖之,不憂不剋。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

During the time when Liu Yu had been sent east to campaign against Lu Xun, He Wuji had accompanied him to Shanyin, where he urged Liu Yu to launch an uprising in Kuaiji against Huan Xuan. But Liu Yu felt that since Huan Xuan had not yet usurped the throne, and Kuaiji was too far and remote from the capital, it would be difficult for any such uprising to succeed. So he planned to wait for Huan Xuan to display his treason by usurping the throne, and in the meantime he would plot against him from Jingkou; that way, there would be no need to worry about failure.


九月,魏主珪如南平城,規度灅南,將建新都。

20. In the ninth month, Tuoba Gui returned south to Pingcheng. He surveyed and measured the Leinan region, planning to build a new capital there.

〈愍帝建興元年,代公猗盧城盛樂以爲北都,脩故平城以爲南都。更南百里,於灅水之陽黃瓜堆築新平城,所謂南平城也;唐朔州西南有新城,卽其地。〉〈自灅水南抵夏屋山,皆灅南地也。〉

(In Emperor Min's first year of Jianxing (Book 88, 313.44), the Duke of Dai, Tuoba Yilu, had built a city at Shengle to serve as his northern capital and restored the old city at Pingcheng to act as his southern capital. Later, another hundred li south of Pingcheng, Tuoba Yilu had built the city of Xinping at the Huanggu Weir north of the Lei River; it was also called Nanping. There was a city of Xincheng in the southwest of Tang's Shuozhou; this was the same place.

The area from the Lei River south to Mount Xiawu was generally known as the Leinan ("south of the Lei River") region.)


九月,行幸南平城,規度灅南,面夏屋山,背黃瓜堆,將建新邑。辛未,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the ninth month, Tuoba Gui returned south to Pingcheng. He surveyed and measured an area in the Leinan region, facing Mount Xiawu and with its back to Huanggua Mound, planning to build a new capital there.

On the day Xinwei (October 12th), Tuoba Gui returned to the palace.


侍中殷仲文、散騎常侍卞範之勸大將軍玄早受禪,陰撰九錫文及册命。以桓謙爲侍中、開府、錄尚書事,王謐爲中書監、領司徒,桓胤爲中書令,加桓脩撫軍大將軍。胤,沖之孫也。丙子,册命玄爲相國,總百揆,封十郡,爲楚王,加九錫,楚國置丞相以下官。

21. In Jin, one of the Palace Attendants, Yin Zhongwen, and one of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Bian Fanzhi, urged Huan Xuan to quickly accept Emperor An's abdication, and they secretly compiled the letters and books for the Nine Bestowments.

Huan Xuan appointed Huan Qian as Palace Attendant and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office. He appointed Wang Mi as Chief of the Palace Secretariat and acting Minister Over The Masses. He appointed Huan Yin as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. He promoted Huan Xiu to Grand General Who Nurtures The Army. This Huan Yin was the grandson of Huan Chong.

On the day Bingzi (October 17th), an edict book was presented appointing Huan Xuan as Chancellor of State in general charge of affairs and as Prince of Chu, granting him the Nine Bestowments and a fief of ten commandaries, and creating subordinate offices for the fief of Chu from Prime Minister on down.

秋八月,玄又自號相國、楚王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the eighth month, Huan Xuan further appointed himself as Chancellor of State and Prince of Chu.


桓謙私問彭城內史劉裕曰:「楚王勳德隆重,朝廷之情,咸謂宜有揖讓,卿以爲何如?」裕曰:「楚王,宣武之子,勳德蓋世,晉微弱,民望久移,乘運禪代,有何不可?」謙喜曰:「卿謂之可卽可耳。」

22. Huan Qian secretly asked the Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Yu, "The Prince of Chu is diligent, virtuous, majestic, and a great asset of state, and all the court ministers are saying that we should yield to him. Sir, what do you make of that?"

Liu Yu replied, "The Prince of Chu is the son of Duke Xuanwu (Huan Wen), and his diligence and virtue are beyond anyone else of this era. And Jin's fortunes are weak and waning, so the people have been hoping for a change for a long time. So why shouldn't he take advantage of this opportunity and accept the abdication of the dynasty?"

Pleased, Huan Qian said, "Sir, if you say it can be done, then it can be done."

〈桓溫,諡曰宣武。〉〈劉裕一世之雄,桓謙問之以決可否,裕詭辭以順其意,故喜。〉

(Huan Wen's posthumous title was Xuanwu.

Huan Qian asked Liu Yu this question because Liu Yu was recognized as a hero of the age, and Huan Qian wanted to know whether he thought the abdication was feasible or not. For his part, Liu Yu dissembled and humored his desires. This was why Huan Qian was pleased.)


六月,加高祖彭城內史。桓玄為楚王,將謀篡盜。玄從兄衞將軍謙屏人問高祖曰:「楚王勳德隆重,四海歸懷。朝廷之情,咸謂宜有揖讓,卿意以為何如?」高祖既志欲圖玄,乃遜辭答曰:「楚王,宣武之子,勳德蓋世。晉室微弱,民望久移,乘運禪代,有何不可。」謙喜曰:「卿謂可爾,便當是真可爾。」(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the sixth month, Liu Yu was promoted to Interior Minister of Pengcheng.

After Huan Xuan became Prince of Chu, he was plotting to usurp the throne. The Guard General, Huan Xuan's cousin Huan Qian, took an opportunity to ask Liu Yu, "The Prince of Chu is diligent, virtuous, majestic, and a great asset of state, and everyone within the Four Seas cherishes him. The general mood of the court is that we should yield to him. Sir, what do you make of that?"

Although Liu Yu was planning to move against Huan Xuan, he hid his intentions by replying, "The Prince of Chu is the son of Duke Xuanwu (Huan Wen), and his diligence and virtue are beyond anyone else of this era. And the Jin royal family is weak and waning, so the people have been hoping for a change for a long time. So why shouldn't he take advantage of this opportunity and accept the abdication of the dynasty?"

Pleased, Huan Qian said, "Sir, if you say it can be done, then it can be done."


新野人庾仄,殷仲堪之黨也,聞桓偉死,石康未至,乃起兵襲雍州刺史馮該於襄陽,走之。仄有衆七千,設壇,祭七廟,云「欲討桓玄」,江陵震動。石康至州,發兵攻襄陽,仄敗,奔秦。

23. A native of Xinye commandary, Yu Ze, had been one of Yin Zhongkan's partisans. When Yu Ze heard that Huan Wei was dead and his replacement Huan Shikang had not yet arrived, Yu Ze raised troops and launched a surprise attack against the Inspector of Yongzhou, Feng Gai, at Xiangyang and drove him away.

Yu Ze had an army of seven thousand soldiers, and he raised an altar and offered sacrifices at the seven ancestral temples, announcing his intention to "campaign against Huan Xuan". Jiangling trembled and shook. But then when Huan Shikang arrived in the region, he assembled the local soldiers and attacked Xiangyang. Yu Ze was defeated, and he fled to Qin.

〈新野縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉武帝太康中,分屬義陽郡,惠帝又分立新野郡。仄,阻力翻。〉

(During Han, Xinye county was part of Nanyang commandary. During Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) Taikang reign era (280-289), he split Xinye county off as part of Yixing commandary. Emperor Hui later split it off again as its own Xinye commandary.

Yu Ze's given name 仄 is pronounced "zi (z-i)".)


九月,南陽太守庾仄起義兵,爲玄所敗。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, the Administrator of Nanyang, Yu Ze, raised troops in rebellion. But he was defeated by Huan Xuan.


高雅之表南燕主備德,請伐桓玄曰:「縱未能廓清吳、會,亦可收江北之地。」中書侍郎韓範亦上疏曰:「今晉室衰亂,江、淮南北,戶口無幾,戎馬單弱。重以桓玄悖逆,上下離心;以陛下神武,發步騎一萬臨之,彼必土崩瓦解,兵不留行矣。得而有之,秦、魏不足敵也;拓地定功,正在今日。失時不取,彼之豪傑誅滅桓玄,更脩德政,豈惟建康不可得,江北亦無望矣。」備德曰:「朕以舊邦覆沒,欲先定中原,乃平蕩荊、揚,故未南征耳。其令公卿議之。」因講武城西,步卒三十七萬人,騎五萬三千匹,車萬七千乘。公卿皆以爲玄新得志,未可圖,乃止。

24. In Southern Yan, the Jin exile Gao Yazhi sent a petition to Murong Beide, urging him to launch a campaign against Huan Xuan. He added, "Even if you prove unable to sweep clear through the regions of Wu and Kuaiji, you will at least be able to conquer all the land north of the Yangzi."

And one of Murong Beide's Gentlemen-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat, Han Fan, also sent up a petition stating, "The Jin royal family is currently experiencing turmoil and grief, the households and people living along the Yangzi and the Huai River are destitute, and the Jin armies are isolated and lacking. Beyond that, Huan Xuan is acting wickedly and presumptuously, alienating everyone from him. Your Majesty, you need only exercise your divine martial prowess by sending forth ten thousand horse and foot to menace them, and the enemy will surely crumble before you like collapsing tiles; not a soldier will remain to oppose you. And once you have obtained the Jin territory, Qin and Wei will no longer be a match for you. This is the very day when you may ensure your ultimate conquest of the realm. But if you let this opportunity pass you by rather than seize it, then some bold leaders within Jin will surely rise up to cast out and execute Huan Xuan, and they will reform Jin's virtue and administration. Once that happens, not only will Jiankang be beyond your grasp, but you will not even have any hopes of taking the region north of the Yangzi."

But Murong Beide replied, "We have still not regained our former capital, and it has been my intention to first reconquer the Central Plains before making any attempt to pacify and settle the regions of Jingzhou and Yangzhou. That was the reason I have not launched any southern campaigns up until now. Let my ministers discuss this subject." And Murong Beide held a military review west of the city; there were three hundred and seventy thousand infantry, fifty-three thousand cavalry, and seven thousand war carts.

However, Murong Beide's nobles and chief ministers all felt that since Huan Xuan had just achieved his ambitions, it would not be possible to move against him yet. So the plans came to nothing.

〈慕容德取青州,至是纔五年耳,有衆如此,不能乘時而用之,自審其才不足以辨桓玄也。〉

(It had only been five years since Murong Beide had established himself in Qingzhou, yet he already had an army of this size. Yet he could not use it to take advantage of the situation in Jin. We can see that his talents were not enough to deal with Huan Xuan.)


冬,十月,楚王玄上表請歸藩,使帝作手詔固留之。又詐言錢塘臨平湖開,江州甘露降,使百僚集賀,用爲己受命之符。又以前世皆有隱士,恥於己時獨無,求得西朝隱士安定皇甫謐六世孫希之,給其資用,使隱居山林;徵爲著作郎,使希之固辭不就,然後下詔旌禮,號曰高士。時人謂之「充隱」。又欲廢錢用穀、帛及復肉刑,制作紛紜,志無一定,變更回復,卒無所施行。性復貪鄙,人士有法書、好畫及佳園宅,必假蒲博而取之;尤愛珠玉,未嘗離手。

25. In winter, the tenth month, Huan Xuan sent up a petition asking that he be allowed to return to his territory on the border. He had Emperor An write an edict in his own hand ordering Huan Xuan to remain in the capital instead. Huan Xuan also forged reports: one stated that Lake Linping on the Qiantang River was currently clear and open, while another stated that sweet dew had fallen in Jiangzhou. He had the officials all offer their congratulations, using these things as omens to show that he was already enjoying Heaven's mandate.

When Huan Xuan thought about the famous hermit scholars of past ages, he was ashamed that there were no such people in his own time. So he sought out Huangfu Xizhi, who was the sixth-generation descendant of the famed hermit scholar of the western court, Huangfu Mi of Anding commandary. He gave Huangfu Xizhi funds and resources and sent him to live in seclusion among the mountains and forests. Then he summoned Huangfu Xizhi to the capital to serve as a Gentleman-Author, but arranged for Huangfu Xizhi to forcefully decline the offer and not come to visit. Huan Xuan then responded by having an edict issued granting honors to Huangfu Xizhi and calling him a great scholar. People of that time called Huangfu Xizhi the "False Hermit".

Huan Xuan even planned to abolish money in favor of exchanging grains and silks, and he wanted to bring back corporal punishments. He made extensive and meticulous plans for the systems he devised, but he was never set on any one idea, and was always changing it to something else, then revising it back again. In the end, he never could put anything into effect.

Huan Xuan was a vulgar and greedy fellow. Whenever someone had calligraphy books, fine paintings, or beautiful houses or gardens, Huan Xuan would always make sure to claim them for himself, under the guise of gambling for them. He especially loved pearls and gems, and never let them leave his hands.

〈臨平湖草常蓁塞,開則天下太平。〉〈晉氏東遷,以洛陽爲西朝。皇甫謐在魏、晉之間徵辟不行,自號玄晏先生。〉〈實非隱者而以之備數,故謂之充隱。〉〈法書,謂如史籀、程邈、李斯、張芝、師宜、梁鵠、衞瓘、索靖、鍾繇諸人眞蹟,各有家法者。〉〈史言桓玄志度凡近。〉

(Lake Linping was often choked by and stopped up with weeds and grasses. On the occasions it was clear and open, it was seen as an omen that the realm would enjoy an age of peace.

After the Jin dynasty moved to the east, they referred to the old court at Luoyang as the "western court".

Huangfu Mi had been courted by the Cao-Wei and Jin dynasties, but he never responded to their recruitment calls. He called himself Master Xuanyan.

The people called Huangfu Xizhi the False Hermit because he was not really a hermit scholar; he only seemed to be because Huan Xuan had made all these arrangements for him.

The "calligraphy books" were books written by such people as Shi Zhou, Cheng Miao, Li Si, Zhang Zhi, Shi Yi, Liang Hu, Wei Guan, or Zhong Yao, each of whom had their own styles of calligraphy.

This passage demonstrates what a base fellow Huan Xuan was, and how mediocre his desires.)


乙卯,魏主珪立其子嗣爲齊王,加位相國;紹爲清河王,加征南大將軍;熙爲陽平王;曜爲河南王。

26. On the day Yimao (November 25th), Tuoba Gui appointed his son Tuoba Si as Prince of Qi and promoted him to Chancellor of State. Among his other sons, he appointed Tuoba Shao as Prince of Qinghe and promoted him to Grand General Who Conquers The South, Tuoba Xi as Prince of Yangping, and Tuoba Yao as Prince of Henan.

冬十月,起西昭陽殿。乙卯,立皇子嗣為齊王,加車騎大將軍,位相國;紹為清河王,加征南大將軍;熙為陽平王;曜為河南王。封故秦慜王子夔為豫章王,陳留王子右將軍悅為朱提王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, Tuoba Gui raised the Zhaoyang Hall.

On the day Yimao (November 25th), Tuoba Gui appointed his son Tuoba Si as Prince of Qi and promoted him to Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Chancellor of State. Among his other sons, he appointed Tuoba Shao as Prince of Qinghe and promoted him to Grand General Who Conquers The South, Tuoba Xi as Prince of Yangping, and Tuoba Yao as Prince of Henan. He appointed the son of Prince Min of Qin, Tuoba Kui, as Prince of Yuzhang, and he appointed the son of the Prince of Chenliu and General of the Right, Tuoba Yue, as Prince of Zhuti.


丁巳,魏將軍伊謂帥騎二萬襲高車餘種袁紇、烏頻;十一月,庚午,大破之。

27. On the day Dingsi (November 27th), the Wei general Yi Wei led twenty thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against two branches of the Gaoche people, the Yuanhe and the Wuping. In the eleventh month, on the day Gengwu (Dember 10th), he greatly routed them.

丁巳,詔將軍伊謂率騎二萬北襲高車。司馬德宗遣使朝貢。十有一月庚午,伊謂大破高車。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Dingsi (November 27th), Tuoba Gui ordered the general Yi Wei to lead twenty thousand cavalry north to launch a surprise attack against the Gaoche people.

Sima Dezong (Emperor An) sent envoys bearing tribute.

In the eleventh month, on the day Gengwu (Dember 10th), Yi Wei greatly routed the Gaoche.


詔楚王玄行天子禮樂,妃爲王后,世子爲太子。丁丑,卞範之爲禪詔,使臨川王寶逼帝書之。寶,晞之曾孫也。庚辰,帝臨軒,遣兼太保、領司徒王謐奉璽綬,禪位于楚;壬午,帝出居永安宮;癸未,遷太廟神主于琅邪國,穆章何皇后及琅邪王德文皆徙居司徒府。百官詣姑孰勸進。十二月,庚寅朔,玄築壇於九井山北,壬辰,卽皇帝位。册文多非薄晉室,或諫之,玄曰:「揖讓之文,正可陳之於下民耳,豈可欺上帝乎!」大赦,改元永始;以南康之平固縣封帝爲平固王,降何后爲零陵縣君,琅邪王德文爲石陽縣公,武陵王遵爲彭澤縣侯;追尊父溫爲宣武皇帝,廟號太祖,南康公主爲宣皇后,封子昇爲豫章王;以會稽內史王愉爲尚書僕射,愉子相國左長史綏爲中書令。綏,桓氏之甥也。戊戌,玄入建康宮,登御坐而牀忽陷,羣下失色。殷仲文曰:「將由聖德深厚,地不能載。」玄大悅。梁王珍之國臣孔樸奉珍之奔壽陽。珍之,晞之曾孫也。

28. In Jin, an edict was issued allowing Huan Xuan to carry out the same rites and music as the Son of Heaven; his concubine was recognized as a Princess, and his heir was recognized as Crown Prince.

On the day Dingchou (December 17th), Bian Fanzhi wrote an edict of abdication and sent the Prince of Linchuan, Sima Bao, to force Emperor An to promulgate it. This Sima Bao was the great-grandson of Sima Xi.

On the day Gengchen (December 20th), Emperor An presented himself and sent the combined Grand Guardian and acting Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, to present his seal and ribbons to Huan Xuan as tokens of his abdication to Huan Xuan’s new Chu dynasty.

On the day Renwu (December 22nd), Emperor An went out to reside in the Yong'an Palace.

On the day Guiwei (Dember 23rd), the ancestral tablets of the Jin emperors in the Ancestral Temple were moved to the Langye fief. Empress Muzhang, Lady He, and the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, both had their residence shifted to the Minister Over The Masses' Bureau. The government officials all visited Gushu and urged Huan Xuan to advance himself.

In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Gengyin (December 30th), Huan Xuan built an altar north of Mount Jiujing.

On the day Renchen (January 1st of 404), Huan Xuan declared himself Emperor.

In the edicts announcing the abdication, there were many part denigrating the Jin royal family. Some people criticized Huan Xuan for this. But Huan Xuan replied, "The purpose of these abdication edicts is purely for explaining the situation to the common people. Don't think that I am belittling the past emperors!"

Huan Xuan declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongshi. He renamed Nankang to Pinggu county, and he appointed Emperor An as Prince of Pinggu. He demoted Empress He's title to Lady of Lingling county, Sima Dewen's title to Duke of Shiyang county, and the title of the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, to Marquis of Pengze county. He posthumously honored his father Huan Wen as Emperor Xuanwu with the temple name Taizu, he honored the Duchess of Nankang as Empress Xuan, and he appointed his son Huan Sheng as Prince of Yuzhang. He appointed the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Yu, as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Chancellor of State, Wang Yu's son Wang Sui, as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. This Wang Sui was a nephew of the Huan clan.

On the day Wuxu (January 7th of 404), Huan Xuan entered the palace at Jiankang.

When Huan Xuan attempted to take his seat on the royal couch, it suddenly broke, and all his subordinates lost color. Then Yin Zhongwen said, "Your virtues and wisdom are so weighty that the ground could not bear them." Huan Xuan was delighted by this response.

One of Sima Zhenzhi's subordinates as Prince of Liang, Kong Pu, took Sima Zhenzhi and fled to Shouyang. This Sima Zhenzhi was another great-grandson of Sima Xi.

〈武陵王晞死於桓溫廢立之際。〉〈永嘉之亂,琅邪國人隨元帝過江者千餘戶,太興三年,立懷德縣。丹楊雖有琅邪相而無其地。成帝咸康元年,桓溫領琅邪太守,鎭江乘之蒲洲金城,求割江乘縣境立郡,始有實土。〉〈《九域志》,太平州有九井山。今太平州,古姑孰之地也。蕪湖縣南有溪,猶曰姑孰溪。《北征記》云:九井山在丹楊南。〉〈武帝太康三年,以廬陵南部都尉立南康郡。平固,吳所置平陽縣也,太康元年,更名平固。《九域志》,虔州贛縣有平固鎭。〉〈晞子㻱出繼梁國,珍之之祖也。〉

(Sima Xi had been the Prince of Wuling; Huan Wen had arranged his death during the deposal of Emperor Fei and setting up of Emperor Jianwen.

During the Disaster of Yongjia, more than a thousand households from the Langye fief had followed Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) across the Yangzi. In the third year of Taixing (320), Emperor Yuan established Huaide county. So although Danyang commandary had a Chancellor of Langye, it did not administer any actual territory. In Emperor Cheng's first year of Xiankang (335), Huan Wen had been appointed as acting Administrator of Langye and been stationed at Jincheng in Puzhou along the Yangzi. Huan Wen had asked that several counties along the Yangzi be carved off to form a new Langye commandary, and at that time the commandary had actual land to govern.

According to the Records of the Nine Regions, there was a Mount Jiujing in Taipingzhou. This was where the old territory of Gushu was in modern Taipingzhou. There is a stream in the south of Wuhu county which is still called Gushu Stream. The Journal of the Northern Conquest states, "Mouont Jiujing is in the south of Danyang commandary.”

In Emperor Wu's third year of Taikang (282), he split off the Southern Command Post of Luling commandary to form Nanping commandary. As for the name Pinggu, Eastern Wu had originally created a Pingyang county, which was renamed to Pinggu in the first year of Taikang (280). The Records of the Nine Regions mentions a Pinggu Garrison in Gan county in Qianzhou.

Sima Xi's son Sima Jin had been sent out of the family to continue the line of the Prince of Liang, and Sima Zhenzhi was Sima Jin's grandson.)


十二月,桓玄篡帝位。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the twelfth month, Huan Xuan usurped the throne from Emperor An.

是年,島夷桓玄廢其主司馬德宗而自立,僭稱大楚。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (403), Huan Xuan deposed his lord Sima Dezong (Emperor An) and usurped his position, declaring the Chu dynasty.

冬十一月壬午,玄遷帝于永安宮。癸未,移太廟神主于琅邪國。十二月壬辰,玄篡位,以帝爲平固王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Renwu (December 22nd), Huan Xuan moved Emperor An to the Yong'an Palace.

On the day Guiwei (Dember 23rd), the ancestral tablets of the Jin emperors in the Ancestral Temple were moved to the Langye fief.

In the twelfth month, on the day Renchen (January 1st of 404), Huan Xuan usurped the throne. He appointed Emperor An as Prince of Pinggu.


戊申,燕王熙尊燕主垂之貴嬪段氏爲皇太后。段氏,熙之慈母也。己酉,立苻貴嬪爲皇后,大赦。

29. On the day Wushen (January 17th of 404), Murong Xi honored Murong Chui's Honored Concubine, Lady Duan, as Empress Dowager. This Lady Duan was Murong Xi's beloved mother.

On the day Jiyou (January 18th of 404), Murong Xi honored his Honored Concubine, Fu Xunying, as his Empress, and he declared a general amnesty.

辛亥,桓玄遷帝於尋陽。

30. On the day Xinhai (January 20th of 404), Huan Xuan moved Emperor An to Xunyang.

〈尋陽郡時治柴桑。〉

(At this time, Xunyang commandary was governed from Chaisang.)


遷天子於尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan sent Emperor An to Xunyang.

辛亥,帝蒙塵于尋陽。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinhai (January 20th of 404), Emperor An went into exile at Xunyang.


燕以衞尉悅眞爲青州刺史,鎭新城;光祿大夫衞駒爲幷州刺史,鎭凡城。

31. Yan appointed their Commandant of the Guards, Yue Zhen, as Inspector of Qingzhou, and he was stationed at Xincheng. They appointed their Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Wei Ju, as Inspector of Bingzhou, and he was stationed at Fancheng.

癸丑,納桓溫神主于太廟。桓玄臨聽訟觀閱囚徒,罪無輕重,多得原放;有干輿乞者,時或卹之。其好行小惠如此。

32. In Jin, on the day Guichou (January 22nd), Huan Wen's ancestral tablet was placed in the Ancestral Temple.

Huan Xuan often went to the Tingsong Terrace ("Terrace For Judgment Of Crimes") to hear criminal cases, and in many instances, he pardoned and released these criminals, no matter how serious their crimes. And when people stopped his carriage to beg for alms, sometimes he would give things to them. Such things were his little acts of kindness.

〈洛都華林園北有聽訟觀,本平望觀也。魏明帝以刑獄天下大命也,每斷大獄,常幸觀聽之,大和三年,更名聽訟觀。建康倣洛都之制,亦置之。〉〈干,犯也;干輿,行犯乘輿也。乞者,丐衣食之物。〉

(The old capital at Luoyang had a Tingsong Terrace in the north of the Hualin Park; it was originally called the Pingwang Terrace. Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) used it as a place to judge great cases of the realm, and whenever there was such a case going on, he often visited the terrace to hear it. So in the third year of Taihe (229.19 in Fang's Chronicles), he renamed it to the Tingsong Terrace. And since Jiankang copied the same architectural layout as Luoyang, they too had a Tingsong Terrace.

To block means to obstruct. So the term 干輿 means those on foot who block people riding in carriages. People who beg for alms are those who beg for food and clothing.)


是歲,魏主珪始命有司制冠服,以品秩爲差;然法度草創,多不稽古。

33. During this year, Tuoba Gui first sent out orders enforcing his new system of caps and clothing for his officials, regulating them according to their ranks. But since the law had only just gone into effect, there were many who did not follow it.
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BOOK 113

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 03, 2019 2:33 pm

三年(甲辰、四○四)

The Third Year of Yuanxing (The Jiachen Year, 404 AD)


春,正月,桓玄立其妻劉氏爲皇后。劉氏,喬之曾孫也。玄以其祖彝以上名位不顯,不復追尊立廟。散騎常侍徐廣曰:「『敬其父則子悅,』請依故事立七廟。」玄曰:「禮,太祖東向,左昭右穆。晉立七廟,宣帝不得正東向之位,何足法也!」祕書監卞承之謂廣曰:「若宗廟之祭果不及祖,有以知楚德之不長矣。」廣,邈之弟也。

1. In spring, the first month, Huan Xuan honored his wife Lady Liu as Empress. This Lady Liu was the great-granddaughter of Liu Qiao.

Huan Xuan felt that since his grandfather Huan Yi and his earlier ancestors had not held conspicuous offices or possessed exalted reputations, they should not be posthumously honored or granted places in his ancestral temple. One of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Xu Guang, said to him, "It is a principle that 'reverence paid to the father brings joy to the son'. I ask you to follow the precedents by establishing positions in the temple for seven generations of your ancestors."

Huan Xuan replied, "Isn't it also traditional that the Progenitor of the family line occupy the position facing east, with the Zhao and Mu ancestors on his left and right? Yet when the Jin dynasty established their seven temples, Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) did not occupy the position facing east. How was that following the laws?"

The Chief of the Imperial Library, Bian Chengzhi, said to Xu Guang, "If the sacrifices offered at the Ancestral Temple do not even extend to Huan Xuan's grandfather, we can be sure that the virtues of Chu will not last long."

This Xu Guang was the younger brother of Xu Miao.

〈劉喬見八十六卷惠帝永興二年。〉〈《孝經》載孔子之言。〉〈禮,天子七廟,太祖正東向之位,左三昭,右三穆。《決疑要錄》曰:父南面,故曰昭;昭,明也。子北面,故曰穆;穆,順也。昭本如字,爲漢諱昭,改音韶。或云,晉文帝名昭,改音韶。〉〈徐邈以文學爲孝武所親信。〉

(Liu Qiao is mentioned in Book 86, in Emperor Hui's second year of Yongxing (305.9).

Xu Guang quotes from Confucius' Classic of Filial Piety.

According to tradition, when the Son of Heaven prepares his seven ancestral temples, the Progenitor of his line occupies the position facing east, while the three Zhao ancestors and three Mu ancestors are to his left and right. The Notes On Resolving Uncertainties states, "The father faces south, and is thus called Zhao ('Bright'), in the sense of being wise. The son faces north, and is thus called Mu ('solemn'), in the sense of being obedient." Regarding the term Zhao in particular, it was originally pronounced the same as the character. But during the Han dynasty, in order to avoid the naming taboo for Emperor Zhao, the pronunciation was changed to Shao. Some say that this was actually done for Emperor Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao), for the same reason.

Xu Miao had been a trusted associate of Emperor Xiaowu because of his refinement and learning.)


玄自卽位,心常不自安。二月,己丑朔,夜,濤水入石頭,流殺人甚多,讙譁震天。玄聞之懼,曰:「奴輩作矣!」

2. After claiming the throne, Huan Xuan often felt uneasy. In the second month, on the new moon of the day Jichou (February 27th), during the night, the Tao River flooded into the Shitou fortress. Many people were killed by the flooding, and the devastation shook the heavens. Huan Xuan was afraid when he heard it, saying, "Those slaves have caused this!"

三年春二月,帝在尋陽。庚寅夜,濤水入石頭,漂殺人戶。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Yuanxing (404), in spring, the second month, Emperor An was at Xunyang.

On the night of the day Gengyin (February 28th), the Tao River flooded into the Shitou fortress, killing many people and households.


玄性苛細,好自矜伐。主者奏事,或一字不體,或片辭之謬,必加糾擿,以示聰明。尚書答詔誤書「春蒐」爲「春菟」,自左丞王納之以下,凡所關署,皆被降黜。或手注直官,或自用令史,詔令紛紜,有司奉答不暇;而紀綱不治,奏案停積,不能知也。又性好遊畋,或一日數出。遷居東宮,更繕宮室,土木並興,督迫嚴促,朝野騷然,思亂者衆。

3. Huan Xuan had a meticulous and exacting nature, and he enjoyed flaunting his own corrections. If someone submitted a memorial that had a single character out of alignment or a single word out of place, he would invariably amend and criticize it as a show of his intelligence and perception. On one occasion, the Masters of Writing mistakenly wrote 春菟 instead of 春蒐 in an edict letter; for the oversight, everyone from the Assistant of the Left, Wang Nazhi, on down was demoted or dismissed. Sometimes Huan Xuan would handwrite notes to send directly to particular officials, and sometimes he would have the Prefect's Bureau work directly for him. The business of composing the edicts and decrees became so detailed and meticulous that the officials no longer had time available to send out responses; the government ground to a halt, as memorials and cases piled up without being addressed, with no one able to deal with them.

Huan Xuan also enjoyed wandering and hunting, sometimes making several trips in a single day. He moved his residence to the Eastern Palace, then began renovating the palace chambers, piling up both dirt and wood.

Huan Xuan was urgent and stern in commanding and coercing people; the situation became turbulent both in the court and on the borders, and many people harbored thoughts of rebellion.

〈謂字之上下偏傍不合體也。〉〈直官,入直者也。〉〈令史,尚書令僕所署用。〉

(A character was "out of alignment" when it did not precisely line up with the characters above and below it.

To 直官 is to send something directly to a particular person, without going through the hierarchy.

The Prefect's Bureau were the subordinates and underlings of the Prefect of the Masters of Writing.)


玄遣使加益州刺史毛璩散騎常侍、左將軍。璩執留玄使,不受其命。璩,寶之孫也。玄以桓希爲梁州刺史,分命諸將戍三巴以備之。璩傳檄遠近,列玄罪狀,遣巴東太守柳約之、建平太守羅述、征虜司馬甄季之擊破希等,仍帥衆進屯白帝。

4. Huan Xuan sent envoys to promote the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance and as General of the Left. But Mao Qu arrested and detained Huan Xuan's envoys and refused to accept this commission. This Mao Qu was the grandson of Mao Bao.

Huan Xuan appointed Huan Xi as Inspector of Ningzhou, and he ordered several generals to camp in the Three Ba regions to guard against Mao Qu. Mao Qu spread proclamations near and far, listing Huan Xuan's crimes. He sent the Administrator of Badong, Liu Yuezhi, the Administrator of Jianping, Luo Shu, and the Marshal to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Zhen Jizhi, to attack and rout Huan Xi and the others. They led their forces forward to camp at Baidi.

〈三巴,巴郡、巴東、巴西也。杜佑曰:渝州古巴國,謂之三巴,以閬、白二水東南流,曲折三迴,如「巴」字也。〉〈史言劉裕未起,毛璩已仗義舉兵討玄。〉

(The Three Ba regions were the three commandaries of Ba, Badong, and Baxi. Du You remarked, "The old fief of Ba in Yuzhou was called the Three Ba regions. This was because, thanks to the two Lang and Bai Rivers flowing southeast with three loops breaking up their flow, the region resembled the 巴 Ba character."

This passage demonstrates that even before Liu Yu rose up, Mao Qu was already upholding the righteous cause by raising troops and campaigning against Huan Xuan.)


劉裕從徐‧兗二州刺史、安成王桓脩入朝。玄謂王謐曰:「裕風骨不常,蓋人傑也。」每遊集,必引接殷勤,贈賜甚厚。玄后劉氏,有智鑒,謂玄曰:「劉裕龍行虎步,視瞻不凡,恐終不爲人下,不如早除之。」玄曰:「我方平蕩中原,非裕莫可用者;俟關、河平定,然後別議之耳。」

5. Liu Yu came to court, accompanying the Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou and Prince of Ancheng, Huan Xiu. Huan Xuan said to Wang Mi, "Liu Yu has a most unusual aura and figure. He is surely a talented man." And whenever Huan Xuan assembled a traveling party, he always made sure to include Liu Yu and treat him well, granting him generous gifts and presents.

Huan Xuan's Empress, Lady Liu, was an intelligent and perceptive woman. She told Huan Xuan, "Liu Yu has a dragon's movements and a tiger's steps, and he has a bold and uncommon gaze. I fear he will not remain the subject of another man forever. You should get rid of him at once."

But Huan Xuan replied, "I am about to pacify and cleanse the Central Plains, and there is no one fit for the job except Liu Yu. Once Guanzhong and Luoyang have been settled, then we can talk about such things."

桓脩入朝,高祖從至京邑。玄見高祖,謂司徒王謐曰:「昨見劉裕,風骨不恒,蓋人傑也。」每遊集,輒引接慇懃,贈賜甚厚。高祖愈惡之。或說玄曰:「劉裕龍行虎步,視瞻不凡,恐不為人下,宜蚤為其所。」玄曰:「我方欲平蕩中原,非劉裕莫可付以大事。關、隴平定,然後當別議之耳。」玄乃下詔曰:「劉裕以寡制眾,屢摧妖鋒。汎海窮追,十殄其八。諸將力戰,多被重創。自元帥以下至于將士,並宜論賞,以敍勳烈。」(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yu came to court, accompanying Huan Xiu. When Huan Xuan saw Liu Yu, he said to his Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, "Yesterday I saw Liu Yu. He has a most unusual aura and figure. He is surely a talented man." And whenever Huan Xuan assembled a traveling party, he always made sure to include Liu Yu and treat him well, granting him generous gifts and presents. But Liu Yu only despised him all the more.

Someone told Huan Xuan, "Liu Yu has a dragon's movements and a tiger's steps, and he has a bold and uncommon gaze. I fear he will not remain the subject of another man forever. You should get rid of him at once."

But Huan Xuan replied, "I am about to pacify and cleanse the Central Plains, and there is no one I can entrust such a great task to except Liu Yu. Once Guanzhong and Longxi have been settled, then we can talk about such things."

And he issued an edict declaring, "Liu Yu was able to use small armies to overcome mighty hosts, and he repeatedly smashed the rebel vanguards. He even took to the sea to pursue and finish them off, and four-fifths of them he destroyed. Liu Yu often personally led his men into battle, suffering several heavy injuries. Everyone, from the chief commanders to the lowliests officers, agrees that he should be rewarded and marked with distinction for his achievements."


玄以桓弘爲青州刺史,鎭廣陵;刁逵爲豫州刺史,鎭歷陽。弘,脩之弟;逵,彝之子也。

6. Huan Xuan appointed Huan Hong as Inspector of Qingzhou and stationed him at Guangling. He appointed Diao Kui as Inspector of Yuzhou and stationed him at Liyang. This Huan Hong was the younger brother of Huan Xiu; this Diao Kui was the son of Diao Yi.

〈刁彝見一百三卷簡文帝咸安二年。〉

(Diao Yi is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's second year of Xian'an (372.6).)


劉裕與何無忌同舟還京口,密謀興復晉室。劉邁弟毅家於京口,亦與無忌謀討玄。無忌曰:「桓氏強盛,其可圖乎?」毅曰:「天下自有強弱;苟爲失道,雖強易弱,正患事主難得耳。」無忌曰:「天下草澤之中非無英雄也。」毅曰:「所見唯有劉下邳。」無忌笑而不答,還以告裕,遂與毅定謀。

7. Liu Yu rode back to Jingkou on the same boat as He Wuji, and they secretly plotted to restore the Jin dynasty.

Liu Mai's younger brother Liu Yi had his family at Jingkou, and he too plotted with He Wuji to campaign against Huan Xuan. He Wuji said to him, "The Huan clan is strong and numerous now. Can we act against them?"

Liu Yi replied, "The realm itself will provide strength or weakness, and though those who have abandoned their principles may be strong at first, they will soon falter. I only regret that it will be difficult to find someone to lead us."

He Wuji said, "Surely there is some hero out there among all the weeds and mashes of the realm."

Liu Yi replied, "From what I've seen, only Liu Yu of Xiapi will do."

He Wuji smiled without saying anything more. He went back and reported to Liu Yu, and they agreed to plan together with Liu Yi.

〈謂舉大事難得一人爲主。〉〈裕先領下邳太守,故稱之。〉

(Liu Yi was saying that it is difficult to find someone to act as a leader for great endeavors.

Liu Yu had earlier been appointed as Administrator of Xiapi, thus Liu Yi calling him "of Xiapi".)


至是桓脩還京,高祖託以金創疾動,不堪步從,乃與無忌同船共還,建興復之計。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When Huan Xiu returned from his trip to the capital, Liu Yu claimed to be suffering from a kind of numbness in the foot, brought about by metal exposure, that made it difficult for him to walk. So he took a boat back to Jingkou, riding together with He Wuji, and they discussed their plan for the uprising against Huan Xuan.

劉毅,字希樂,彭城沛人也。曾祖距,廣陵相。叔父鎮,左光祿大夫。毅少有大志,不修家人產業,仕為州從事,桓弘以為中兵參軍屬。桓玄篡位,毅與劉裕、何無忌、魏詠之等起義兵,密謀討玄。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi, styled Xile, was a native of Pei county in Pengcheng commandary. His great-grandfather was Liu Ju, who served as Chancellor of Guangling. His uncle was Liu Zhen, who served as Household Counselor of the Left. Even as a youth, Liu Yi had grand ambitions, and he did not tend to his family business. He was employed as an Attendant Officer of his native province, and Huan Hong later appointed him as his Army Advisor of the Central Regiment.

After Huan Xuan usurped the throne, Liu Yi joined with Liu Yu, He Wuji, Wei Yongzhi, and others to prepare an uprising and secretly plot to campaign against Huan Xuan.

初,劉裕嘗為劉牢之參軍,與無忌素相親結。至是,因密共圖玄。劉毅家在京口,與無忌素善,言及興復之事,無忌曰:「桓氏強盛,其可圖乎?」毅曰:「天下自有強弱,雖強易弱,正患事主難得耳!」無忌曰:「天下草澤之中非無英雄也。」毅曰:「所見唯有劉下邳。」無忌笑而不答,還以告裕,因共要毅。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

Liu Yu too had once been an Army Advisor under Liu Laozhi, and he and He Wuji had long enjoyed a close personal bond. So at this time, they secretly plotted together against Huan Xuan.

Liu Yi's family was living at Jingkou, and he had also long been good friends with He Wuji. When Liu Yi mentioned the prospect of restoring the Jin royal family, He Wuji said to him, "The Huan clan is strong and numerous now. Can we act against them?"

Liu Yi replied, "The realm itself will provide strength or weakness, and those who are strong at first will soon falter. I only regret that it will be difficult to find someone to lead us!"

He Wuji said, "Surely there is some hero out there among all the weeds and mashes of the realm."

Liu Yi replied, "From what I've seen, only Liu Yu of Xiapi will do."

He Wuji smiled without saying anything more. He went back and reported to Liu Yu, and they agreed to plan together with Liu Yi.


初,太原王元德及弟仲德爲苻氏起兵攻燕主垂,不克,來奔,朝廷以元德爲弘農太守。仲德見桓玄稱帝,謂人曰:「自古革命誠非一族,然今之起者恐不足以成大事。」

8. Years earlier, Wang Yuande of Taiyuan commandary and his younger brother Wang Zhongde had raised troops on behalf of the Fu clan of Former Qin to attack the Emperor of Yan, Murong Chui. Having failed in that attempt, they had fled to Jin, where the court had appointed Wang Yuande as Administrator of Hongnong.

At this time, when Wang Zhongde saw that Huan Xuan had declared himself Emperor, he told people, "It's true that no one clan has ever held sole claim to Heaven's mandate. But I fear that this clan that has just risen will not be able to fulfill their grand affair."

〈王叡,字元德;王懿,字仲德;名犯宣、元二帝諱,故以字行。仲德爲燕所敗,渡河依段遼,自遼所來奔。〉

(These two were really named Wang Rui, styled Yuande, and Wang Yi, styled Zhongde. But since their given names violated the naming taboos of Emperors Xuan and Yuan (Sima Yi and Sima Rui), they were addressed by their style names. Wang Zhongde had originally crossed the Yellow River and fled to Duan Liao after being defeated by Later Yan. He then left Duan Liao and fled to Jin.)


平昌孟昶爲青州主簿,桓弘使昶至建康,玄見而悅之,謂劉邁曰:「素士中得一尚書郎,卿與其州里,寧相識否?」邁素與昶不善,對曰:「臣在京口,不聞昶有異能,唯聞父子紛紛更相贈詩耳。」玄笑而止。昶聞而恨之。旣還京口,裕謂昶曰:「草間當有英雄起,卿頗聞乎?」昶曰:「今日英雄有誰,正當是卿耳!」

9. At this time, Meng Chang of Pingchang commandary was serving as Registrar to the Inspector of Qingzhou. Huan Hong sent him to visit Jiankang. Huan Xuan met him and was delighted with him.

Huan Xuan said to Liu Mai, "I may have found myself a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing from the midst of a poor household. But you and Meng Chang are from the same province. Have you really never heard of him before?"

Liu Mai had long been on bad terms with Meng Chang, so he replied, "During the time that I was at Jingkou, I never heard anything about Meng Chang having any special talents; I only ever heard that he and his father just scribbled a bunch of poems for each other."

Huan Xuan laughed and decided against appointing Meng Chang. When Meng Chang heard about it, he resented them.

After Meng Chang returned to Jingkou, Liu Yu said to him, "There's been talk of heroes rising up. Have you heard anything about it?"

Meng Chang replied, "These days, the only hero you could be talking about is yourself!"

〈平昌縣,漢屬城陽國,魏文帝分城陽立平昌郡,後省。晉惠帝又立平昌郡。其地今屬密州安丘縣界。〉〈起於白屋者謂之素士。〉〈孟昶,平昌人。平昌郡屬青州。劉邁,彭城沛人。彭城屬徐州。蓋二人並僑居京口,故謂之同州里。〉

(During Han, Pingchang county was part of the Chengyang princely fief. Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) split off part of Chengyang to form Pingchang commandary, but it was later abolished. Emperor Hui of Jin recreated Pingchang commandary. Its territory was within Anqiu county in modern Mizhou.

Huan Xuan refers to Meng Chang as a 素士; this is someone who grew up in an undistinguished household.

Meng Chang was a native of Pingchang commandary, which was part of Qingzhou, while Liu Mai was a native of Pei county in Pengcheng commandary, which was part of Xuzhou. So Huan Xuan's comment about them being natives of the same province must have meant that both of them had lived in Jingkou as part of the surrogate versions of their original commandaries.)


於是裕、毅、無忌、元德、昶及裕弟道規、任城魏詠之、高平檀憑之、琅邪諸葛長民、河內太守隴西辛扈興、振威將軍東莞童厚之,相與合謀起兵。道規爲桓弘中兵參軍,裕使毅就道規及昶於江北,共殺弘,據廣陵;長民爲刁逵參軍,使長民殺逵,據歷陽;元德、扈興、厚之在建康,使之聚衆攻玄爲內應,刻期齊發。

10. Liu Yi, He Wuji, Wang Yuande, and Meng Chang thus worked together with Liu Yu for the plot to rise up and overthrow Huan Xuan. They were joined by Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daogui, Wei Yongzhi of Rencheng commandary, Tan Pingzhi of Gaoping commandary, Zhuge Changmin of Langye commandary, the Administrator of Henei, Xin Huxing of Longxi commandary, and the General Who Displays Might, Tong Houzhi of Dongguan commandary.

At that time, Liu Daogui was serving as Army Advisor of the Central Regiment under Huan Hong, so Liu Yu planned to send Liu Yi to join Liu Daogui and Meng Chang on the north side of the Yangzi, where they would kill Huan Hong and occupy Guangling together. Meanwhile, since Zhuge Changmin was serving as Diao Kui's Army Advisor, Liu Yu planned to send him to kill Diao Kui and occupy Liyang. And since Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing, and Tong Houzhi were at Jiankang, Liu Yu planned to have them gather soldiers to attack Huan Xuan from within.

The plotters arranged for a date when they would all launch their plan.

〈任城縣,前漢屬東平國,後漢章帝元和元年分東平爲任城國,而任城縣屬焉;晉氏南渡,省任城郡爲任城縣,屬高平郡。〉

(During Former Han, Rencheng county had been part of the Dongping princely fief. In Emperor Zhang of Han's first year of Yuanhe (84 AD), he split off part of Dongping to form the Rencheng princely fief, with the original Rencheng county as part of it. After the Jin dynasty fled across the Yangzi, they abolished Rencheng commandary and merely classified it as a county again, as part of Gaoping commandary.)


於是與弟道規、沛郡劉毅、平昌孟昶、任城魏詠之、高平檀憑之、琅邪諸葛長民、太原王元德、隴西辛扈興、東莞童厚之,並同義謀。時桓脩弟弘為征虜將軍、青州刺史,鎮廣陵。道規為弘中兵參軍,昶為州主簿。乃令毅潛往就昶,聚徒於江北,謀起兵殺弘。長民為豫州刺史刁逵左軍府參軍,謀據歷陽相應。元德、厚之謀於京邑聚眾攻玄,並剋期齊發。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yi and He Wuji plotted their uprising together with Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daogui, Liu Yu of Pei commandary, Meng Chang of Pingchang commandary, Wei Yongzhi of Rencheng commandary, Tan Pingzhi of Gaoping commandary, Zhuge Changmin of Langye commandary, the Administrator of Taiyuan, Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing of Longxi commandary, and Tong Houzhi of Dongguan commandary.

At that time, Huan Xiu's younger brother Huan Hong had been appointed as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Qingzhou, and he was stationed at Guangling. Liu Daogui was serving as Liu Hong's Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, and Meng Chang was Qingzhou's Registrar. So Liu Yu ordered Liu Yu to secretly go to visit Meng Chang, gather their followers north of the Yangzi, and then plot to raise troops and kill Huan Hong. Meanwhile, since Zhuge Changmin was serving as Diao Kui's Army Advisor on his staff as General of the Left, Liu Yu planned to have him occupy Liyang to support the others. Wang Yuande and Tong Houzhi would plot to gather soldiers in the capital region to attack Huan Xuan.

The plotters arranged for a date when they would all launch their plan.

臨川烈武王道規,字道則,高祖少弟也。少倜儻有大志,高祖奇之,與謀誅桓玄。時桓弘鎮廣陵,以為征虜中兵參軍。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Daogui, styled Daoze, was Liu Yu's youngest brother. He would posthumously be known as Prince Liewu of Linchuan. Even as a youth, Liu Daogui was free-spirited and had grand ambitions, and Liu Yu marveled at him. So he brought Liu Daogui into his plot to execute Huan Xuan.

At that time, Huan Hong was stationed at Guangling, and Liu Daogui was serving as his Army Advisor of the Central Regiment in Huan Hong's capacity as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs.

諸葛長民,琅邪陽都人也。有文武幹用,然不持行檢,無鄉曲之譽。桓玄引為參軍平西軍事,尋以貪刻免。及劉裕建義,與之定謀,為揚武將軍。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

Zhuge Changmin was a native of Yangdou county in Langye commandary. He was adept at both civil and military affairs, but he lacked good conduct or restraint, so he did not enjoy even a good local reputation. Huan Xuan appointed him as an Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The West, but he was dismissed because of corruption.

When Liu Yu plotted his uprising, Zhuge Changmin joined in the plot, and Liu Yu appointed him as General Who Displays Valor.


孟昶妻周氏富於財,昶謂之曰:「劉邁毀我於桓公,使我一生淪陷,我決當作賊。卿幸早離絕,脫得富貴,相迎不晚也。」周氏曰:「君父母在堂,欲建非常之謀,豈婦人所能諫!事之不成,當於奚官中奉養大家,義無歸志也。」昶悵然,久之而起。周氏追昶坐,曰:「觀君舉措,非謀及婦人者,不過欲得財物耳。」因指懷中兒示之曰:「此而可賣,亦當不惜,」遂傾貲以給之。昶弟顗妻,周氏之從妹也,周氏紿之曰:「昨夜夢殊不祥,門內絳色物宜悉取以爲厭勝。」妹信而與之,遂盡縫以爲軍士袍。

11. Meng Chang's wife Lady Zhou came from a rich family. Meng Chang told her, "Liu Mai slandered my reputation to Lord Huan, and now my career prospects are ruined. I have thus decided to become a rebel. So you ought to divorce me at once, to ensure that you can maintain your wealth and honor. If circumstances permit, there will still be time for us to reunite someday."

But Lady Zhou replied, "If you wish to carry out such an unusual plot while your parents are still alive, what place do I as your wife have to criticize you? If your plot fails, then I shall have to join the government servents to help support and take care of your family. It would not be right for me to abandon you."

Meng Chang seemed dejected, and it was some time before he finally stood up. Lady Zhou followed after him and sat him back down, telling him, "I can tell from the way you act that there is something more you have not mentioned to me. It must be that you want to use my wealth." And pointing to the babe at her breast, she continued, "I would not shrink even from selling this child if it would help fund your cause." And she gave him all her funds and resources.

Meng Chang's younger brother Meng Yi had a wife who was Lady Zhou's cousin. Lady Zhou misled her, saying, "Last night I had a terrible premonition. Please give me anything colored crimson within your household so that I can ward off the omen." Her cousin believed her and gave her all her crimson materials, and Lady Zhou stitched them all together into uniforms for Meng Chang's soldiers.

〈《周禮註》曰:古者從坐,男女沒入縣官爲奴,其少才智以爲奚。今之侍史、官婢,或曰奚官女。此言事若敗,沒爲官婢,當於奚官中養姑。《晉志》,奚官令,屬少府。晉、宋間子婦稱其姑曰「大家」,考《南史‧孝義‧孫棘傳》可見。〉

(The Commentary to the Rites of Zhou states, "Among the ancients, the children of criminals who were punished for their association with them were sent into the county offices to be slaves, with those of meager talent or skill called 奚." And even today, attending servants and government serving girls are sometimes called 奚 serving girls. So Lady Zhou was saying that if Meng Chang's plot failed, she would thus became a government slave and work among the ranks of the 奚 to support her mother-in-law. According to the Records of Jin, there was a rank of Prefect of 奚, subordinate to the Privy Steward.

Lady Zhou refers to her mother-in-law as 大家. During the Jin and Liu-Song era, this was a term which wives used to refer to their mothers-in-law, as seen in the Biography of Sun Ji in the Biographies of Filial and Righteous in the History of the Southern Dynasties.)


何無忌夜於屛風裏草檄文,其母,劉牢之姊也,登橙密窺之,泣曰:「吾不及東海呂母矣。汝能如此,吾復何恨!」問所與同謀者,曰:「劉裕。」母尤喜,因爲言玄必敗、舉事必成之理以勸之。

12. During the night, He Wuji was working on writing proclamations, screened by the wind and flanked by the weeds. His mother, who was Liu Laozhi's sister, climbed an orange tree to secretly see what he was up to. She wept as she said to him, "Alas, I could never measure up to Mother Lü of Donghai. But with a son like you, I shall have no regrets!"

She asked him whom he was plotting with, and he told her, "Liu Yu." She was overjoyed, and she told him reasons why Huan Xuan would certainly be defeated and why the uprising would definitely succeed in order to encourage him.

〈橙,床屬。〉〈呂母事見三十八卷王莽天鳳四年。〉

(An orange tree is a type of tree.

Mother Lü led an uprising against the usurper Wang Mang, as mentioned in Book 38, in Wang Mang's fourth year of Tianfeng (17 AD).)


乙卯,裕託以遊獵,與無忌收合徒衆,得百餘人。丙辰,詰旦,京口城開,無忌著傳詔服,稱敕使,居前,徒衆隨之齊入,卽斬桓脩以徇。脩司馬刁弘帥文武佐吏來赴,裕登城,謂之曰:「郭江州已奉乘輿返正於尋陽,我等並被密詔,誅除逆黨,今日賊玄之首已當梟於大航矣。諸君非大晉之臣乎,今來欲何爲!」弘等信之,收衆而退。

13. On the day Yimao (March 24th), Liu Yu left his post on the pretext that he was going out hunting. He and He Wuji gathered together what followers and soldiers they could, forming a group of more than a hundred people.

On the day Bingchen (March 25th), at the break of dawn, the gates of Jingkou were closed. He Wuji posed as the bearer of an imperial decree and, standing in front of Huan Xiu's residence, claimed that he was carrying out instructions. His followers then rushed into the residence, and they beheaded Huan Xiu and displayed his head.

Huan Xiu's Marshal, Diao Hong, led the civil and military officials to come rushing to the scene. Liu Yu mounted the walls and said to them, "Inspector Guo has already restored the Emperor at Xunyang, and we and those like us have a secret decree ordering us to execute and purge the traitor and his partisans. By now, the rebel Huan Xuan's head is already hanging on the great ship. If you all are not subjects of Jin, what have you come here for?" Diao Hong and the others believed him, and they gathered up their forces and withdrew.

〈著傳詔之服,因自稱敕使。〉〈城,謂京口之金城。〉〈郭江州,謂郭昶之也。時帝在尋陽,裕詭言以誑弘等。〉〈《說文》曰:日至,捕梟磔之,以頭掛木上;今謂掛首爲梟。〉

(He Wuji dressed in the clothes of a bearer of a decree in order to act like he was carrying out instructions.

The walls which Liu Yu mounted were those of the citadel at Jingkou.

Guo Changzhi was the Inspector of Jiangzhou. At this time, Emperor An was at Xunyang. So Liu Yu made up this claim in order to deceive Diao Hong and the others.

The Shuowen dictionary states, "When the day came, they dismembered his head and hung it up in a tree." So ever since, the term 梟 has meant to hang up a severed head as a display.)


三年二月己丑朔,乙卯,高祖託以遊獵,與無忌等收集義徒,凡同謀何無忌、魏詠之、詠之弟欣之、順之、檀憑之、憑之從子韶、韶弟祗、隆、道濟、道濟從兄範之、高祖弟道憐、劉毅、毅從弟藩、孟昶、昶族弟懷玉、河內向彌、管義之、陳留周安穆、臨淮劉蔚、從弟珪之、東莞臧熹、從弟寶符、從子穆生、童茂宗、陳郡周道民、漁陽田演、譙國范清等二十七人;願從者百餘人。丙辰,詰旦,城開,無忌服傳詔服,稱詔居前。義眾馳入,齊聲大呼,吏士驚散,莫敢動,即斬脩以徇。高祖哭甚慟,厚加殯斂... 義軍初剋京城,脩司馬刁弘率文武佐吏來赴。高祖登城謂之曰:「郭江州已奉乘輿反正於尋陽,我等並被密詔,誅除逆黨,同會今日。賊玄之首,已當梟於大航矣。諸君非大晉之臣乎,今來欲何為?」弘等信之,收眾而退。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the third year of Yuanxing (404), in the second month, which began on the day Jichou (February 27th), on the day Yimao (March 24th), Liu Yu left his post on the pretext that he was going out hunting. He, He Wuji, and others gathered together their followers to launch the uprising. Liu Yu plotted together with He Wuji, Wei Yongzhi and his younger brothers Wei Xinzhi and Wei Shunzhi, Tan Pingzhi and his cousins' sons Tan Shao, Tan Zhi, Tan Long, and Tan Daoji, Tan Daoji's cousin Tan Fanzhi, Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daolian, Liu Yu and his cousin Liu Fan, Meng Chang and his kinsman Meng Huaiyu, Xiang Mi of Henei commandary, Guan Yizhi, Zhou Anmu of Chenliu commandary, Liu Wei of Linhuai commandary and his cousin Liu Guizhi, Zang Xi of Dongguan commandary and his cousin Zang Baofu and his cousin's son Zang Musheng, Tong Maozong, Zhou Daomin of Chen commandary, Tian Yan of Yuyang commandary, Fan Qing of the Qiao princely fief, and others; twenty-seven people altogether. Beyond that, more than a hundred people joined them to help with the uprising.

On the day Bingchen (March 25th), at the break of dawn, the gates of the city were closed. He Wuji posed as the bearer of an imperial decree and, standing in front of Huan Xiu's residence, claimed that he was carrying out instructions. The loyalists then rushed into the residence, raising a great shout; the officials there panicked and scattered, none daring to move against them. They beheaded Huan Xiu and displayed his head. Liu Yu wept with great feeling, and he granted him a lavish memorial.

When the loyalists had just taken Jingcheng, Huan Xiu's Marshal, Diao Hong, led the civil and military officials to come rushing to the scene. Liu Yu mounted the walls and said to them, "Inspector Guo has already restored the Emperor at Xunyang, and we and those like us have a secret decree ordering us to execute and purge the traitor and his partisans, all acting together on this very day. By now, the rebel Huan Xuan's head is already hanging on the great ship. If you all are not subjects of Jin, what have you come here for?" Diao Hong and the others believed him, and they gathered up their forces and withdrew.

乙卯,建武將軍劉裕帥沛國劉毅、東海何無忌等舉義兵。丙辰,斬桓玄所署徐州刺史桓修于京口。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Yimao (March 24th), the General Who Establishes Valor, Liu Yu, led an uprising of soldiers, together with Liu Yi of Peiguo, He Wuji of Donghai, and others.

On the day Bingchen (March 25th), they beheaded the Inspector of Xuzhou that Huan Xuan had appointed, Huan Xiu, at Jingkou.

與相推結,遂共舉義兵,襲京口。無忌偽著傳詔服,稱敕使,城中無敢動者。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

Having made their arrangements, the loyalists rose together to begin the uprising, and they launched a surprise attack against Jingkou. He Wuji pretended to be the bearer of an imperial decree, and he claimed that he was acting on orders, so no one within the city dared to move against him.


裕問無忌曰:「今急須一府主簿,何由得之?」無忌曰:「無過劉道民。」道民者,東莞劉穆之也。裕曰:「吾亦識之。」卽馳信召焉。時穆之聞京口讙噪聲,晨起,出陌頭,屬與信會。穆之直視不言者久之,卽而返室,壞布裳爲袴,往見裕。裕曰:「始舉大義,方造艱難,須一軍吏甚急,卿謂誰堪其選?」穆之曰:「貴府始建,軍吏實須其才,倉猝之際,略當無見踰者。」裕笑曰:「卿能自屈,吾事濟矣。」卽於坐署主簿。

14. Liu Yu said to He Wuji, "We have an urgent need for a registrar for our staff. But where can we find one?"

He Wuji replied, "You need look no further than Liu Daomin." This Liu Daomin was Liu Muzhi of Dongguan commandary.

Liu Yu said, "Yes, I've heard of him." So he sent a messenger to rush to find him.

At this time, Liu Muzhi had heard that there was some commotion in Jingkou, and since it was now morning, he went out to the road to see what was going on. Just then, the messenger arrived. Liu Muzhi stood there staring at him without a word for a moment, then rushed back into his house and tore his skirt so that it would serve as pants, then hurried to see Liu Yu.

Liu Yu said to him, "We have just begun our righteous cause, and it is at such times that affairs are always the hardest. I am sorely pressed to find good subordinates. Who do you suggest that could handle things?"

Liu Muzhi replied, "Though your staff has only just been formed, it is surely filled with talented people. You must have only sent for me because, pressed by your urgency, you could not look any further."

Liu Yu laughed and said, "If you can humble yourself like that, I am sure I will succeed." And he appointed Liu Muzhi as his Registrar.

〈晉陵有南東莞郡,故穆之居京口。〉〈直視,注目直視不他屬。〉〈袴,脛衣也。《晉志》曰:袴褶之制,未詳所起,近世以爲戎服。〉〈言造事之初,事事艱難也。〉

(There was a Southern Dongguan commandary within Jinling commandary; this explained why Liu Muzhi, who was "from Dongguan", was living at Jingkou.

To stare is to focus the eyes on something without looking at other things.

Pants are clothing for the shins. The Records of Jin states, "There was not yet any detailed system for the wearing of pants; recent ages had called them 'barbarian clothes'."

Liu Yu was saying that the most difficult part of an undertaking is at its outset.)


孟昶勸桓弘其日出獵,天未明,開門出獵人;昶與劉毅、劉道規帥壯士數十人直入,弘方噉粥,卽斬之,因收衆濟江。裕使毅誅刁弘。

15. Meanwhile, Meng Chang had urged Huan Hong to go out hunting that same day. The sky was not yet bright when they opened the gates to send out the hunters. Meng Chang, Liu Yi, and Liu Daogui led several dozen warriors to rush inside, and they caught Huan Hong just as he was eating his gruel and beheaded him. They then gathered their forces and crossed the Yangzi.

Liu Yu ordered Liu Yi to execute Diao Hong.

孟昶勸弘其日出獵。未明開門,出獵人,昶、道規、毅等率壯士五六十人因開門直入。弘方噉粥,即斬之,因收眾濟江... 毅既至,高祖命誅弘。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Meanwhile, Meng Chang had urged Huan Hong to go out hunting that same day. The sky was not yet bright when they opened the gates to send out the hunters. Meng Chang, Liu Yi, Liu Daogui, and others led several fifty or sixty warriors to rush inside, and they caught Huan Hong just as he was eating his gruel and beheaded him. They then gathered their forces and crossed the Yangzi.

When Liu Yi arrived, Liu Yu ordered him to execute Diao Hong.

丙辰,斬桓玄所署青州刺史桓弘于廣陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The same day, the loyalists beheaded the Inspector of Qingzhou that Huan Xuan had appointed, Huan Hong, at Guangling.

高祖克京城,道規亦以其日與劉毅、孟昶共斬弘,收眾濟江。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The same day that Liu Yu took Jingcheng, Liu Daogui joined with Liu Yi and Meng Chang to behead Huan Hong. Then they gathered their forces and crossed the Yangzi.

毅討徐州刺史桓修于京口、青州刺史桓弘于廣陵。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi campaigned against the Inspector of Xuzhou, Huan Xiu, at Jingkou and the Inspector of Qingzhou, Huan Hong, at Guangling.


先是,裕遣同謀周安穆入建康報劉邁,邁雖酬許,意甚惶懼;安穆慮事泄,乃馳歸。玄以邁爲竟陵太守,邁欲亟之郡,是夜,玄與邁書曰:「北府人情云何?卿近見劉裕何所道?」邁謂玄已知其謀,晨起,白之。玄大驚,封邁爲重安侯。旣而嫌邁不執安穆,使得逃去,乃殺之,悉誅元德、扈興、厚之等。

16. Earlier, Liu Yu had sent his fellow plotter Zhou Anmu to Jiankang to inform Liu Mai of the plot. Although Liu Mai had seemed agreeable to joining the plot, in reality he was nervous and afraid. Zhou Anmu was afraid that Liu Mai would leak the plot, so he rushed back.

Huan Xuan had already appointed Liu Mai as Administrator of Jingling, and Liu Mai now wished to go there at once. But during that night, Huan Xuan sent Liu Mai a letter stating, "What thoughts did that fellow from the Northern Garrison express to you? Have you seen Liu Yu recently? Do you know how he stands?"

Liu Mai thus believed that Huan Xuan was already aware of the plot, so when dawn came, he reported it to Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan was greatly astonished, and at first he appointed Liu Mai as Marquis of Zhong'an ("Marquis of Ensured Peace"). But then he was suspicious because Liu Mai had let Zhou Anmu get away rather than arrest him, so he killed Liu Mai.

Huan Xuan executed Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing, Tong Houzhi, and other plotters in the capital.

毅兄邁先在京師,事未發數日,高祖遣同謀周安穆報之,使為內應。邁外雖酬許,內甚震懼。安穆見其惶駭,慮事必泄,乃馳歸。時玄以邁為竟陵太守,邁不知所為,便下船欲之郡。是夜,玄與邁書曰:「北府人情云何?卿近見劉裕何所道?」邁謂玄已知其謀,晨起白之。玄驚懼,封邁為重安侯;既而嫌邁不執安穆,使得逃去,乃殺之。誅元德、扈興、厚之等。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yi's elder brother Liu Mai had been at the capital. So several days before the uprising was set to begin, Liu Yu had sent his fellow plotter Zhou Anmu to inform Liu Mai about the uprising and have him support them from within. Although Liu Mai had seemed agreeable to joining the plot, in reality he was nervous and afraid. Zhou Anmu sensed his hesitation and was certain that Liu Mai would leak the plot, so he rushed back.

Huan Xuan had already appointed Liu Mai as Administrator of Jingling, and Liu Mai did not know how to respond to news of the uprising, so he now wished to take a boat and go to Jingling at once. But during that night, Huan Xuan sent Liu Mai a letter stating, "What thoughts did that fellow from the Northern Garrison express to you? Have you seen Liu Yu recently? Do you know how he stands?"

Liu Mai thus believed that Huan Xuan was already aware of the plot, so when dawn came, he reported it to Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan was greatly astonished, and at first he appointed Liu Mai as Marquis of Zhong'an ("Marquis of Ensured Peace"). But then he was suspicious because Liu Mai had let Zhou Anmu get away rather than arrest him, so he killed Liu Mai.

Huan Xuan executed Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing, Tong Houzhi, and other plotters in the capital.

後為竟陵太守。及毅與劉裕等同謀起義,邁將應之,事泄,為玄所害。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Mai)

Later, Huan Xuan appointed Liu Mai as Administrator of Jingling. When Liu Yi joined with Liu Yu and others to plot together to launch an uprising, Liu Mai was planning to support them. But the plot leaked, and he was killed by Huan Xuan.


衆推劉裕爲盟主,總督徐州事,以孟昶爲長史,守京口,檀憑之爲司馬。彭城人應募者,裕悉使郡主簿劉鍾統之。丁巳,裕帥二州之衆千七百人,軍于竹里,移檄遠近,聲言益州刺史毛璩已定荊楚,江州刺史郭昶之奉迎主上返正於尋陽,鎭北參軍王元德等並帥部曲保據石頭,揚武將軍諸葛長民已據歷陽。

17. The loyalists acclaimed Liu Yu as their leader, in general charge of affairs in Xuzhou. Liu Yu appointed Meng Chang as his Chief Clerk, stationed at Jingkou, and he appointed Tan Pingzhi as his Marshal. He assigned all the volunteers or recruits from Pengcheng to the Registrar of that commandary, Liu Zhong.

On the day Dingsi (March 26th), Liu Yu led an army of seventeen hundred people from the two provinces (Yanzhou and Xuzhou) to camp at Zhuli. They spread proclamations near and far, announcing that the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, had already settled the regions of Jing and Chu, that the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, had restored Emperor An at Xunyang, that the General Who Guards The North, Wang Yuande, and others had each led their forces to occupy Shitou, and that the General Who Displays Valor, Zhuge Changmin, had already occupied Liyang.

〈二州,兗、徐也。〉

(The "two provinces" were Yanzhou and Xuzhou.)


眾推高祖為盟主,移檄京邑,曰:夫治亂相因,理不常泰,狡焉肆虐,或值聖明。自我大晉,陽九屢構,隆安以來,難結皇室,忠臣碎於虎口,貞良弊於豺狼。逆臣桓玄,陵虐人鬼,阻兵荊郢,肆暴都邑。天未亡難,凶力繁興,踰年之間,遂傾皇祚。主上播越,流幸非所,神器沉淪,七廟毀墜。夏后之罹浞、豷,有漢之遭莽、卓,方之於玄,未足為喻。自玄纂逆,于今歷年,亢旱彌時,民無生氣。加以士庶疲於轉輸,文武困於造築,父子乖離,室家分散,豈唯大東有杼軸之悲,摽梅有傾筐之塈而已哉。仰觀天文,俯察人事,此而能久,孰有可亡。凡在有心,誰不扼腕。裕等所以叩心泣血,不遑啟處者也。是故夕寐宵興,援獎忠烈,潛搆崎嶇,險過履虎。輔國將軍劉毅、廣武將軍何無忌、鎮北主簿孟昶、兗州主簿魏詠之、寧遠將軍劉道規、龍驤將軍劉藩、振威將軍檀憑之等,忠烈斷金,精貫白日,荷戈奮袂,志在畢命。益州刺史毛璩,萬里齊契,掃定荊楚。江州刺史郭昶之,奉迎主上,宮于尋陽。鎮北參軍王元德等,並率部曲,保據石頭。揚武將軍諸葛長民,收集義士,已據歷陽。征虜參軍庾賾之等,潛相連結,以為內應。同力協規,所在蜂起,即日斬偽徐州刺史安城王脩、青州刺史弘首。義眾既集,文武爭先,咸謂不有一統,則事無以輯。裕辭不獲已,遂總軍要。庶上憑祖宗之靈,下罄義夫之力,剪馘逋逆,蕩清京輦。公侯諸君,或世樹忠貞,或身荷爵寵,而並俛眉猾豎,自効莫由,顧瞻周道,寧不弔乎!今日之舉,良其會也。裕以虛薄,才非古人,勢接於已踐之機,受任於既頹之運。丹誠未宣,感慨憤躍,望霄漢以永懷,眄山川以增厲。授檄之日,神馳賊廷。以孟昶為長史,總攝後事;檀憑之為司馬。百姓願從者千餘人。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The loyalists acclaimed Liu Yu as their leader, and they spread proclamations through the capital region. This was what the proclamations said:

"For those who try to bring order from chaos, it is natural to experience disruptions to the peace. But an age of cruelty and slaughter may sometimes be pierced by sage wisdom. Our Jin dynasty, too, has constantly experienced periods of misery and woe. Ever since the Long'an reign era (since 396), difficulties have gripped the royal household; loyal ministers have been consumed by the tiger's maw, and faithful and good people have been torn apart by the wolves and dholes. The traitor Huan Xuan has oppressed both the living and the dead with his cruelty; he has turned his soldiers against the regions of Jing and Ying, and laid waste to the capital region. As if this were not bad enough, his barbarism and violence have grown all the more, and over the past year, he has toppled the imperial altars. Our sovereign has gone into exile, sent away to some distant place; the throne has sunk into depravity, and the seven ancestral temples have been destroyed. Though the Xia dynasty had its troubles with Han Zhuo and with Yi, and the Han dynasty experienced the usurpations of Wang Mang and Dong Zhuo, Huan Xuan goes so far beyond these past traitors that they cannot even compare with him. And ever since Huan Xuan usurped the throne, all through this year, great droughts have sprung up and the common people have lost their spirits. On top of that, the soldiers and the people have been exhausted by constant transportation duties, and the civil and military officials have been wearied by construction demands. Fathers and sons have been separated from one another, and whole families have been ripped apart. Can even the sorrow expressed by the empty looms of the Great East poem describe our current situation? Will we last even as long as the plums tumbling into the basket in the Falling Plums poem? Examine the signs of the heavens and look into the condition of the people; if this state of affairs continues much longer, who will be able to survive? And who among us who is not heartless does not grip their wrists in anxiety?

"We, Liu Yu and others, have beaten our breasts and wept tears of blood at the condition of the state, and we can no longer stand aside. Thus have we slept at day at risen at night, assisted and rewarded the loyal and zealous, made our way through deadly terrain, and risked danger beyond treading on the tiger's tail. The General Who Upholds The State, Liu Yi, the General of Broad Valor, He Wuji, the Registrar to the General Who Guards The North, Meng Chang, the Registrar of Yanzhou, Wei Yongzhi, the General Who Calms Distant Places, Liu Daogui, the Dragon-Soaring General, Liu Fan, the General Who Spreads Might, Tan Pingzhi, and others all possesses passionate loyalty that breaks gold and great spirit as bright as the sun. We have taken up our weapons and shaken out our sleeves, determined to fulfill our ambition.

"The Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, has joined our pact from ten thousand li away, and he is already sweeping through and pacifying the regions of Jing and Chu. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, has welcomed our sovereign and restored him to the throne at Xunyang. The Army Advisor to the General Who Guards The North, Wang Yuande, and others have all led their own forces to occupy and guard the Shitou fortress. The General Who Displays Valor, Zhuge Changmin, has gathered an army of loyalists and already occupied Liyang. And the Army Advisor to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yu Zezhi, and others have secretly made arrangements with one another to support us from within the capital.

"As for us, we have joined our strength and combined our efforts, rising up like a swarm. This very day, we have already beheaded the false Inspector of Xuzhou and Prince of Ancheng, Huan Xiu, and the false Inspector of Qingzhou, Huan Hong. But though we have assembled our army of loyalists, all the civil and military officials rush forward to decline the command of this army. Faced with no other option, and though I, Liu Yu, declined the offer as well, I have thus been placed in command of this army. I pledge to support the spirits of my ancestors above, lend all my strength to the loyalist cause below, take the head of the traitor, and restore peace to the capital.

"You Dukes, you Marquises, and all you lords of the state! Some of you come from long lineages renowned for their loyalty and faithfulness to the state, while some of you have yourselves received its favor and become the founder of your own noble lines. Yet every one of you had turned a blind eye to this crafty miscreant, and not a one was willing to redeem yourselves. Unless you follow the right path, how will the dynasty survive? But in the uprising we now declare today, I invite you good people to join with us. For I am a mere nobody, and my talents cannot compare with those of the ancients. Affairs have already taken their course, so do not let the time to take up your responsibilities slip away. If your earnest sincerity is not yet apparent, then let your grief and your indignation move you; look to the skies to stir your passions, and turn to the mountains and rivers to steel your resolve. The very day that you receive this proclamation, hurry to us and abandon the court of the traitor."

Liu Yu appointed Meng Chang as his Chief Clerk and had him handle affairs in the rear, and he appointed Tan Pingzhi as his Marshal.

More than a thousand of the common people came to join the loyalists.

丁巳,義師濟江。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Dingsi (March 26th), the loyalists crossed the Yangzi.

裕率毅等至竹裏。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yu led Liu Yi and the other loyalists to Zhuli.


玄移還上宮,召侍官皆入止省中;加揚州刺史新野王桓謙征討都督,以殷仲文代桓脩爲徐、兗二州刺史。謙等請亟遣兵擊裕。玄曰:「彼兵銳甚,計出萬死,若有蹉跌,則彼氣成而吾事去矣,不如屯大衆於覆舟山以待之。彼空行二百里,無所得,銳氣已挫,忽見大軍,必驚愕;我按兵堅陣,勿與交鋒,彼求戰不得,自然散走,此策之上也。」謙等固請擊之,乃遣頓丘太守吳甫之、右衞將軍皇甫敷相繼北上。

18. Huan Xuan moved back into the main palace, and he summoned in the Attendant officials and halted the government ministries. He promoted the Inspector of Yangzhou and Prince of Xinye, Huan Qian, as Commander of the Expeditionary Forces, and he appointed Yin Zhongwen as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou to replace Huan Xiu.

Huan Qian and others asked Huan Xuan to send troops at once to attack Liu Yu. Huan Xuan said, "The enemy's morale is most keen, and they are prepared to fight to the very death. Any stumble on our part would only embolden them even more, and that would be the end of us. Better for me to assemble a great army at Mount Fuzhou and then wait for them to come to us. They shall have to march for two hundred li without having a single skirmish to keep their blood up, and that alone will ensure that their fighting spirit will ebb away. Then once they arrive, they will see our grand army suddenly before them, which will surely shock and frighten them. I will keep my soldiers well in hand and maintain my defenses, refusing to offer battle to the enemy, and though he seeks to fight, I will not oblige him. After all that, his forces will scatter all on their own. This is the best plan to use."

But Huan Qian and the others continued to insist that Huan Xuan attack Liu Yu. So he sent two forces one after the other to march north and attack the loyalists: one led by the Administrator of Dunqiu, Wu Fuzhi, the other led by the Guard General of the Right, Huangfu Fu.

〈玄始遷東宮,今以裕起,移還上宮。〉〈侍官,自侍中下至黃、散之屬。〉〈成帝咸康八年,於覆舟山南立北郊;山蓋在建康城北也,形如覆舟,故名。〉〈自建康趣京口爲北上。〉

(Huan Xuan had earlier shifted his residence to the Eastern Palace. But now, due to Liu Yu's uprising, he moved back to the main palace.

The Attendant officials were those from the Palace Attendants down to the Yellow Gate Attendants and Cavaliers In Regular Attendance.

In Emperor Cheng's eighth year of Xiankang (342), he had raised a northern suburbs altar south of Mount Fuzhou. The mountains must have been north of the walls of Jiankang. Mount Fuzhou resembled an overturned boat, thus its name ("Mount Overturned Boat").

Huan Xuan's generals marched north from Jiankang to Jingkou.)


召桓謙、卞範之等謀拒高祖。謙等曰:「亟遣兵擊之。」玄曰:「不然。彼兵速銳,計出萬死。若行遣水軍,不足相抗,如有蹉跌,則彼氣成而吾事敗矣。不如屯大眾於覆舟山以待之。彼空行二百里,無所措手,銳氣已挫,既至,忽見大軍,必驚懼駭愕。我案兵堅陣,勿與交鋒,彼求戰不得,自然散走。此計之上也。」謙等固請,乃遣頓丘太守吳甫之、右衞將軍皇甫敷北拒義軍。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan summoned Huan Qian, Bian Fanzhi, and others to seek their advice on how to oppose Liu Yu. Huan Qian and others told him, "You must send troops to attack him at once."

Huan Xuan replied, "Not so. The enemy's morale is still keen, and they are prepared to fight to the very death. If I sent a naval force to attack them, but could not overcome them, we would thus suffer a misstep; that would only embolden them even more, and that would be the end of us. Better for me to assemble a great army at Mount Fuzhou and then wait for them to come to us. They shall have to march for two hundred li without having a single skirmish to keep their blood up, and that alone will ensure that their fighting spirit will ebb away. Then once they arrive, they will see our grand army suddenly before them, which will surely shock and frighten them. I will keep my soldiers well in hand and maintain my defenses, refusing to offer battle to the enemy, and though he seeks to fight, I will not oblige him. After all that, his forces will scatter all on their own. This is the best plan to use."

But Huan Qian and the others continued to insist that Huan Xuan attack Liu Yu. So he sent two forces to march north and attack the loyalists: one led by the Administrator of Dunqiu, Wu Fuzhi, the other led by the Guard General of the Right, Huangfu Fu.

玄使其將皇甫敷、吳甫之北距義軍。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Xuan sent his generals Huangfu Fu and Wu Fuzhi north to oppose the loyalists.


玄憂懼特甚。或曰:「裕等烏合微弱,勢必無成,陛下何慮之深?」玄曰:「劉裕足爲一世之雄;劉毅家無檐石之儲,樗蒲一擲百萬;何無忌酷似其舅;共舉大事,何謂無成!」

19. Huan Xuan was especially worried and afraid. Someone said to him, "Liu Yu and his ilk are just a flock of crows, puny and weak, and they are surely not powerful enough to be successful. Why is Your Majesty so worried?"

Huan Xuan replied, "Liu Yu is bold, great enough to be a hero of the age. Liu Yi is lucky, a gambler from a poor family who can still win a million with a single round of chupu. And He Wuji is wild, as fierce as his uncle (Liu Laozhi). Now that the three of them are acting together for one cause, how can you say they have no hope of success?"

〈檐,言一儋、一石也。儲無儋石,家貧之至也。楊雄家無儋石之儲,應劭《註》曰:齊人名小罌爲儋石,受二斛。晉灼曰:石,斗石也。《前書音義》曰:儋,言一斗之儲。《方言》曰:儋,罌也,齊東北海岱之間謂之儋。余據今江淮人謂一石爲一擔。〉

(Huan Xuan describes Liu Yi as coming from a family "with neither 檐 nor 石 in store"; that is, a poor family without any grain stored up. Yang Xiong was described as coming from such a family lacking in 儋 or 石, and Ying Shao's Annotations to his biography state, "The people of the Qi region used the term 儋石 to refer to a small-mouthed jar, able to store two 斛 of grain." Jin Zhuo remarked, "石 in this case means the unit of measurement for grain stores." The Pronunciation Guide to Old Books states, "儋 means one 斗 of grain stored up." The Regional Dialects dictionary states, "A 儋 is a small-mouthed jar; the term is used by the people living in the eastern Qi region, in Beihai and Taishan." In my (Hu Sanxing's) own experience, even today, the people living along the Yangzi and the Huai River say "one 擔" instead of "one 石".)


玄自聞軍起,憂懼無復為計。或曰:「劉裕等眾力甚弱,豈辦之有成,陛下何慮之甚。」玄曰:「劉裕足為一世之雄;劉毅家無擔石之儲,摴蒲一擲百萬;何無忌,劉牢之甥,酷似其舅。共舉大事,何謂無成。」(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

From the moment that Huan Xuan had heard about Liu Yu's uprising, he was worried and afraid, unable to make any new plans. Someone said to him, "Liu Yu and his ilk are puny and weak, so how could they be successful? Why is Your Majesty so worried?"

Huan Xuan replied, "Liu Yu is bold, great enough to be a hero of the age. Liu Yi is lucky, a gambler from a poor family who can still win a million with a single round of chupu. And He Wuji is wild, as fierce as his uncle (Liu Laozhi). Now that the three of them are acting together for one cause, how can you say they have no hope of success?"

初,桓玄聞裕等及無忌之起兵也,甚懼。其黨曰:「劉裕烏合之眾,勢必無成,願不以為慮。」玄曰:「劉裕勇冠三軍,當今無敵。劉毅家無儋石之儲,樗蒱一擲百萬。何無忌,劉牢之之甥,酷似其舅。共舉大事,何謂無成!」其見憚如此。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

When Huan Xuan first learned that Liu Yu and the others had joined He Wuji in leading an uprising, he was especially afraid. His partisans said to him, "Liu Yu and his ilk are just a flock of crows, puny and weak, and they are surely not powerful enough to be successful. Your Majesty should not be so worried."

Huan Xuan replied, "Liu Yu is bold, a champion of the three armies, and he has no peer in our age. Liu Yi is lucky, a gambler from a poor family who can still win a million with a single round of chupu. And He Wuji is wild, as fierce as his uncle (Liu Laozhi). Now that the three of them are acting together for one cause, how can you say they have no hope of success?" Such were the fears that gripped him.


南涼王傉檀畏秦之強,乃去年號,罷尚書丞郎官,遣參軍關尚使于秦。秦王興曰:「車騎獻款稱藩,而擅興兵造大城,豈爲臣之道乎?」尚曰:「王公設險以守其國,先王之制也。車騎僻在遐藩,密邇勍寇,蓋爲國家重門之防;不圖陛下忽以爲嫌。」興善之。傉檀求領涼州,興不許。

20. Tufa Nutan feared the growing power of Qin. So he stopped using his own separate reign era title, he disbanded his Masters of Writing and associated offices, and he sent his Army Advisor, Guan Shang, as an envoy to Qin.

Yao Xing said to Guan Shang, "The General of Chariots and Cavalry has expressed his sincerity to me and declared himself my vassal. Yet I note that he is gathering soldiers under his own authority and building great fortresses. Are these things proper for a subject to do?"

Guan Shang replied, "Is it not an ancient principle of rulers of old that 'kings and princes establish defenses to maintain their territories'? The General has his domain on your distant frontier, and he is flanked and hemmed in by wild invaders. It is for those reasons that he is preparing heavy gates as defenses for the state. Your Majesty has no need to suddenly be suspicious of him."

Yao Xing praised his remarks.

Tufa Nutan asked to be appointed as Qin's acting Inspector of Liangzhou, but Yao Xing refused.

〈元興元年,傉檀改元弘昌。〉〈興拜傉檀爲車騎將軍,故稱之。〉〈《易‧坎卦‧彖辭》。〉

(Tufa Nutan had declared his own reign era title of Hongchang in the first year of Yuanxing (Book 112, 402.31).

Yao Xing had appointed Tufa Nutan as Later Qin's General of Chariots and Cavalry, thus his use of that title here.

Guan Shang quotes from the Kan section of the Book of Changes.)


初,袁眞殺朱憲,憲弟綽逃奔桓溫。溫克壽陽,綽輒發眞棺,戮其尸。溫怒,將殺之,桓沖請而免之。綽事沖如父,沖薨,綽嘔血而卒。劉裕克京口,以綽子齡石爲建武參軍。三月,戊午朔,裕軍與吳甫之遇於江乘。將戰,齡石言於裕曰:「齡石世受桓氏厚恩,不欲以兵刃相向,乞在軍後。」裕義而許之。甫之,玄驍將也,其兵甚銳。裕手執長刀,大呼以衝之,衆皆披靡,卽斬甫之,進至羅落橋。皇甫敷帥數千人逆戰,寧遠將軍檀憑之敗死。裕進戰彌厲,敷圍之數重,裕倚大樹挺戰。敷曰:「汝欲作何死!」拔戟將刺之,裕瞋目叱之,敷辟易。裕黨俄至,射敷中額而踣,裕援刀直進。敷曰:「君有天命,以子孫爲託。」裕斬之,厚撫其孤。裕以檀憑之所領兵配參軍檀祗。祗,憑之之從子也。

21. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (March 27th), Liu Yu's army encountered Wu Fuzhi's army at Jiangcheng county.

It was earlier mentioned that during Yuan Zhen's rebellion at Shouyang, he had killed a certain Zhu Xian. Zhu Xian's younger brother Zhu Chuo had fled to Huan Wen. After Huan Wen took Shouyang, Zhu Chuo had dug up Yuan Zhen's coffin and beheaded his corpse. Huan Wen had been furious, and was about to kill Zhu Chuo, but Huan Chong had pleaded on his behalf, so Zhu Chuo had been spared. From then on, Zhu Chuo had treated Huan Chong like his own father, and after Huan Chong passed away, Zhu Chuo spat up blood and died as well. After Liu Yu took Jingkou, he appointed Zhu Chuo's son Zhu Lingshi as the Army Advisor to the General Who Establishes Valor. Before the battle at Jiangcheng, Zhu Lingshi said to Liu Yu, "My family received the favor and grace of the Huan clan, and I cannot bear to take up arms against them. Please allow me to serve in the rear." Liu Yu respected his request and granted it.

Wu Fuzhi was a stalwart general, and his soldiers had keen spirit as well. But Liu Yu grasped a long blade and gave a shout as he charged forward, and his soldiers drove the enemy before them, taking Wu Fuzhi's head.

Liu Yu's army advanced to Luoluo Bridge. Huangfu Fu led several thousand soldiers to counterattack them there, and the General Who Calms Distant Places, Tan Pingzhi, was defeated and killed. Liu Yu rushed forward into the thick of the fighting. Huangfu Fu surrounded him with several lines, but Liu Yu fought on from a large tree. Huangfu Fu said to him, "Why seek your death?" And he wielded his halberd, about to stab Liu Yu. But Liu Yu glared at him and rebuked him in a loud voice, causing Huangfu Fu to flinch. Then one of Liu Yu's partisans suddenly arrived, and he shot Huangfu Fu in the forehead, making him fall. Liu Yu drew his blade and rushed over to Huangfu Fu, who told him, "Heaven is on your side. Take care of my children." So though Liu Yu beheaded Huangfu Fu, he later provided for and cared for his children.

Liu Yu assigned the forces that had been under Tan Pingzhi's command to his Army Advisor, Tan Zhi, who was the son of Tan Pingzhi's cousin.

〈見一百二卷海西公太和五年。〉〈裕本爲建武將軍,以齡石參軍事。〉〈江乘,漢舊縣,屬丹楊郡。成帝咸康元年,桓溫領琅邪太守,鎭江乘之蒲州,奏割丹楊之江乘立南琅邪郡,江乘縣屬焉。〉〈羅落橋在江乘縣南,蓋緣水設羅落,因以爲名。〉〈挺戰,挺身獨戰也。挺,直也。〉

(Yuan Zhen's killing of Zhu Xian is mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (270.1).

Liu Yu was himself the General Who Establishes Valor, so Zhu Lingshi was his Army Advisor in that capacity.

Jiangcheng was an old Han county, part of Danyang commandary. In Emperor Cheng's first year of Xiankang (335), Huan Wen had been appointed as acting Administrator of Langye, with his base at Puzhou in Jiangcheng. He had petitioned to have Jiangcheng carved off from Danyang to form a new Southern Langye commandary, with Jiangcheng county as part of it.

Luoluo Bridge was in the south of Jiangcheng county. It must have been named after nets for capturing animals (luoluo) set up along the river's edge.

This passage describes Liu Yu as being 挺戰. This means to fight on while one's body is straight. 挺 means straight.)


三月戊午朔,遇吳甫之於江乘。甫之,玄驍將也,其兵甚銳。高祖躬執長刀,大呼以衝之,眾皆披靡,即斬甫之。進至羅落橋,皇甫敷率數千人逆戰。寧遠將軍檀憑之與高祖各御一隊,憑之戰敗見殺,其眾退散。高祖進戰彌厲,前後奮擊,應時摧破,即斬敷首。初高祖與何無忌等共建大謀,有善相者相高祖及無忌等並當大貴,其應甚近,惟云憑之無相。高祖與無忌密相謂曰:「吾等既為同舟,理無偏異。吾徒咸皆富貴,則檀不應獨殊。」深不解相者之言。至是而憑之戰死,高祖知其事必捷。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the third month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (March 27th), Liu Yu's army encountered Wu Fuzhi's army at Jiangcheng county. Wu Fuzhi was a stalwart general, and his soldiers had keen spirit as well. But Liu Yu grasped a long blade and gave a shout as he charged forward, and his soldiers drove the enemy before them, taking Wu Fuzhi's head.

Liu Yu's army advanced to Luoluo Bridge. Huangfu Fu led several thousand soldiers to counterattack them there. The General Who Calms Distant Places, Tan Pingzhi, and Liu Yu each lead separate divisions of the loyalists. Tan Pingzhi was defeated and killed in the fighting, and his division retreated and scattered. But Liu Yu rushed forward into the thick of the fighting, striking from front and rear, and he was able to smash the enemy just in time and he took Huangfu Fu's head.

When Liu Yu had first been developing the plans for the uprising with He Wuji and the others, someone who knew how to appraise people looked over all of them and said that they would all enjoy great honors, and the time of this was nearly at hand. But they said Tan Pingzhi alone would not share in it. Liu Yu and He Wuji had said to one another, "We are all in the same boat, so we must surely rise or fall together. If we are all to be rich and honored, how can Tan Pingzhi fail to have a share?" They truly did not understand the appraiser's verdict. But now, when Tan Pingzhi died in battle, Liu Yu realized that the appraiser had been right, and that he would surely triumph in the end.

三月戊午,劉裕斬玄將吳甫之于江乘,斬皇甫敷於羅落。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, on the day Wuwu (March 27th), Liu Yu took the heads of Huan Xuan's generals Wu Fuzhi at Jiangcheng and Huangfu Fu at Luoluo.

遇之于江乘,臨陣斬甫之,進至羅落橋,又斬敷首。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

The loyalists encountered Huan Xuan's forces at Jiangcheng, where in the midst of battle they took Wu Fuzhi's head. Then they advanced to Luoluo Bridge, where they also took Huangfu Fu's head.


玄聞二將死,大懼,召諸道術人推算及爲厭勝。問羣臣曰:「朕其敗乎?」吏部郎曹靖之對曰:「民怨神怒,臣實懼焉。」玄曰:「民或可怨,神或可怨,神何爲怒?」對曰:「晉氏宗廟,飄泊江濱,大楚之祭,上不及祖,此其所以怒也。」玄曰:「卿何不諫?」對曰:「輦上君子皆以爲堯、舜之世,臣何敢言!」玄默然。使桓謙及游擊將軍何澹之屯東陵,侍中、後將軍卞範之屯覆舟山西,衆合二萬。

22. When Huan Xuan heard that both of the generals he had sent north had been killed, he was terrified. He summoned many mystics to make their calculations and find ways to ward off bad omens.

Huan Xuan asked his ministers, "Why have I suffered these defeats?"

One of the Gentlemen of the Personnel Bureau, Cao Jingzhi, replied, "I am afraid you have incurred the resentment of the people and aroused the anger of the spirits."

Huan Xuan said, "The people and even the spirits may, indeed, resent me. But what have I done to anger the spirits?"

Cao Jingzhi replied, "The Jin royal family and their ancestral temple have been set to drift along the banks of the Yangzi, while the sacrifices of your Chu dynasty do not even extend back to your grandfather. These are the things which have angered the spirits."

Huan Xuan asked, "Then why did you not remonstrate with me before?"

Cao Jingzhi replied, "When great people and superior fellows all claimed that we were passing through another age of abdication like that displayed by the ancient Emperors Yao and Shun, how could I have dared to say anything?"

Huan Xuan was left silent.

Huan Xuan sent Huan Qian and the General of Roaming Assault, He Danzhi, to camp at Dongling, and he sent the Palace Attendant and General of the Rear, Bian Fanzhi, to camp west of Mount Fuzhou. They had twenty thousand soldiers between them.

〈謂遷晉宗廟主於琅邪國,尋又隨帝上尋陽也。〉〈謂止祭桓溫於太廟。〉〈游擊將軍,漢雜號將軍也,魏置爲中軍,及晉,以領、護、左‧右衞、驍騎、游擊爲六軍。建康之西有西陵,其東有東陵,東陵在覆舟山東北。〉

(Cao Jingzhi was referring to how Huan Xuan had sent the ancestral tablets of the Jin ancestral temple to the Langye fief, and then had sent Emperor An upriver to Xunyang.

Cao Jingzhi refers to how only Huan Wen was offered sacrifices at Chu's Ancestral Temple.

During Han, the rank of General of Roaming Assault was an irregularly-assigned rank. Cao-Wei made it into an established title. By the time of Jin, it was part of a tier of six ranks: General Who Leads The Army, General Who Protects The Army, Guard General of the Left and Right, General of Agile Cavalry, and General of Roaming Assault.

There was a Xiling to the west of Jiankang and a Dongling to the east of it. Dongling was northeast of Mount Fuzhou.)


玄聞敷等並沒,愈懼。使桓謙屯東陵口,卞範之屯覆舟山西,眾合二萬。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When Huan Xuan heard that Huangfu Fu and the others had been lost, he became even more afraid. He sent Huan Qian to camp at Donglingkou, and he sent Bian Fanzhi to camp west of Mount Fuzhou. They had twenty thousand soldiers between them.

玄大懼,使桓謙、何澹之屯覆舟山。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Xuan was very afraid, and he sent Huan Qian and He Danzhi to camp at Mount Fuzhou.


己未,裕軍食畢,悉棄其餘糧,進至覆舟山東,使羸弱登山,張旗幟爲疑兵,數道並前,布滿山谷。玄偵候者還,云「裕軍四塞,不知多少。」玄益憂恐,遣武衞將軍庾賾之帥精卒副援諸軍。謙等士卒多北府人,素畏伏裕,莫有鬬志。裕與劉毅等分爲數隊,進突謙陳;裕以身先之,將士皆殊死戰,無不一當百,呼聲動天地。時東北風急,因縱火焚之,煙炎熛天,鼓噪之音震動京邑,謙等諸軍大潰。

23. By the day Jiwei (March 28th), Liu Yu's army had exhausted their supplies. They abandoned what little was left and advanced to the east side of Mount Fuzhou.

Liu Yu sent his weaker soldiers to ascend the mountain and display banners and flags as though there were more soldiers up there, then advanced along several roads at once, filling the mountain valleys. When Huan Xuan's scouts returned, they reported, "Liu Yu's army is approaching from all sides, and we don't know how many soldiers he has." Huan Xuan became even more nervous and afraid, and he sent the Guard General of Valor, Yu Zezhi, to lead elite soldiers to reinforce the other armies.

Most of the soldiers serving under Huan Qian and the other Chu generals were veterans of the Northern Garrison; they had long feared and respected Liu Yu, and none wished to fight him.

Liu Yu split up his army into several divisions under Liu Yi and the others, and they charged forward and broke through Huan Qian's formation. With Liu Yu leading the charge, his generals and soldiers all fought for dear life; every one of them fought like a hundred men, and their cries and shouts shook Heaven and Earth. Just then, a strong northeastern wind came up. Liu Yu took advantage of it by setting fires to burn the enemy. The smoke and the flames rose to the sky, and the sound of the drums rumbled in the capital. The armies under Huan Qian and the others greatly scattered.

〈魏文帝踐阼,置領軍將軍,主五校、中壘、武衞等三營,後遂各置將軍。賾,士革翻。〉

(After Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) had become Emperor, he created the rank of General Who Leads The Army, with the three subordinate ranks of the Five Colonels, the Central Ramparts, and the Guard General of Valor. Each of these later became a General rank in their own right.

The first character of Yu Zezhi's given name, 賾, is pronounced "xe (x-e)".)


己未旦,義軍食畢,棄其餘糧,進至覆舟山東,使丐士張旗幟於山上,以為疑兵。玄又遣武騎將軍庾禕之,配以精卒利器,助謙等。高祖躬先士卒以奔之,將士皆殊死戰,無不一當百,呼聲動天地。時東北風急,因命縱火,煙爓張天,鼓噪之音震京邑。謙等諸軍,一時土崩。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

By morning of the day Jiwei (March 28th), the loyalist army had exhausted their supplies. They abandoned what little was left and advanced to the east side of Mount Fuzhou.

Liu Yu sent his weaker soldiers to display banners and flags atop the mountain as though there were more soldiers up there. Huan Xuan then assigned elite soldiers with good equipment to the Guard General of Valor, Yu Yizhi, and sent him to reinforce Huan Qian and the others.

Liu Yu personally led his soldiers to charge the enemy lines, and his generals and soldiers all fought for dear life; every one of them fought like a hundred men, and their cries and shouts shook Heaven and Earth. Just then, a strong northeastern wind came up. Liu Yu took advantage of it by setting fires. The smoke and the flames rose to the sky, and the sound of the drums rumbled in the capital. The armies under Huan Qian and the others collapsed all at once.

己未,玄衆潰而逃。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Jiwei (March 28th), Huan Xuan's army scattered and fled.

毅等軍至蔣山,裕使羸弱登山,多張旗幟,玄不之測,益以危懼。謙等士卒多北府人,素懾伏裕,莫敢出鬥。裕與毅等分為數隊,進突謙陣,皆殊死戰,無不一當百。時東北風急,義軍放火,煙塵張天,鼓噪之音震駭京邑,謙等諸軍一時奔散。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

When the armies of Liu Yi and the other loyalists reached Mount Jiang, Liu Yu sent his tired and weak soldiers to ascend the mountain, where they displayed many banners and flags. Huan Xuan could not be sure of how many troops Liu Yu really had, and his fears only increased further.

Most of the soldiers serving under Huan Qian and the other Chu generals were veterans of the Northern Garrison; they had long feared and respected Liu Yu, and none wished to fight him.

Liu Yu split up his army into several divisions under Liu Yi and the others, and they charged forward and broke through Huan Qian's formation. His generals and soldiers all fought for dear life, and every one of them fought like a hundred men. Just then, a strong northeastern wind came up. The loyalists set fires; the smoke and the flames rose to the sky, and the sound of the drums rumbled in the capital. The armies under Huan Qian and the others all scattered and fled together.


玄時雖遣軍拒裕,而走意已決,潛使領軍將軍殷仲文具舟於石頭;聞謙等敗,帥親信數千人,聲言赴戰,遂將其子昇、兄子濬出南掖門。遇前相國參軍胡藩,執馬鞚諫曰:「今羽林射手猶有八百,皆是義故,西人受累世之恩,不驅令一戰,一旦捨此,欲安之乎!」玄不對,但舉策指天;因鞭馬而走,西趨石頭,與仲文等浮江南走。經日不食,左右進粗飯,玄咽不能下,昇抱其胸而撫之,玄悲不自勝。

24. By now, even though Huan Xuan had been sending armies forward to oppose Liu Yu, he had already decided to flee the capital. He had secretly sent the General Who Leads The Army, Yin Zhongwen, to prepare a ship at Shitou. And when he heard that Huan Qian and the others had been defeated, he gathered together several thousand of his trusted associates, claiming he was preparing to go to battle. Then taking his son Huan Sheng and his nephew Huan Jun, he went out through the southern Ye Gate.

Huan Xuan ran into the former Army Advisor to the Chancellor of State, Hu Fan, who grabbed his horse's bridle and said to him, "You still have eight hundred Feathered Forest guards at hand, men of the west who have enjoyed your family's grace for generations and will fight for your cause. Will you then abandon them overnight rather than lead them on to battle? What is the meaning of this?"

Huan Xuan did not reply, but merely pointed his riding crop towards Heaven. Then he whipped his horse and rode off.

When Huan Xuan arrived at Shitou to the west, he fled south down the Yangzi along with Yin Zhongwen and the others. One day when they had no real food, his attendants made him a crude meal from various bits and pieces. When Huan Xuan swallowed it, he had trouble digesting it. Huan Sheng hugged his chest and stroked it, and Huan Xuan burst into uncontrollable grief.

〈鞚,馬勒也。桓氏世居荊楚,西人皆其義舊,此蓋從玄東下,玄旣篡,因以爲羽林。〉〈玄舉策指天,亦項羽所謂天之亡我之意。〉

(A bridle is a horse bridle.

The Huan clan had been in power in the Jing and Chu region for several generations, and the westerners were all old servants of their cause. The ones mentioned here must have accompanied Huan Xuan on his downriver campaign and then been appointed as Feathered Forest guards after he usurped the throne.

In pointing his riding crop to Heaven, Huan Xuan was conveying the same sentiment that Xiang Yu had once expressed: "Heaven has defeated me.")


玄始雖遣軍置陣,而走意已決,別使領軍將軍殷仲文具舟於石頭,仍將子姪浮江南走。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

By now, even though Huan Xuan had been sending armies forward to oppose Liu Yu, he had already decided to flee the capital. He had secretly sent the General Who Leads The Army, Yin Zhongwen, to prepare a ship at Shitou. So he now took his son and nephew to flee south along the Yangzi.


裕入建康,王仲德抱元德子方回出候裕,裕於馬上抱方回與仲德對哭;追贈元德給事中,以仲德爲中兵參軍。裕止桓謙故營,遣劉鍾據東府。庚申,裕屯石頭城,立留臺百官,焚桓溫神主於宣陽門外,造晉新主,納于太廟。遣諸將追玄,尚書王嘏帥百官奉迎乘輿,誅玄宗族在建康者。裕使臧熹入宮,收圖書、器物,封閉府庫;有金飾樂器,裕問熹:「卿得無欲此乎?」熹正色曰:「皇上幽逼,播越非所,將軍首建大義,劬勞王家,雖復不肖,實無情於樂。」裕笑曰:「聊以戲卿耳。」熹,燾之弟也。

25. As Liu Yu was entering Jiankang, Wang Zhongde brought Wang Yuande's son Wang Fanghui out to meet him. Seated on horseback, Liu Yu cradled Wang Fanghui in his arms, and he wept together with Wang Zhongde. He posthumously appointed Wang Yuande as 給事中, and he appointed Wang Zhongde as Army Advisor of the Central Regiment.

Liu Yu halted at the site of Huan Qian's former camp, while sending Liu Zhong to occupy the Eastern Bureau.

On the day Gengshen (March 29th), Liu Yu camped at the walls of Shitou. He established a Provisional Administration of the government officials, and he burned Huan Wen's ancestral tablet outside the Xuanyang Gate, while making new ancestral tablets for the Jin emperors and placing them inside the Ancestral Temple. He sent his generals to pursue Huan Xuan, with one of the Masters of Writing, Wang Gu, leading the government officials to receive Emperor An with the imperial carriage. He also executed the members of Huan Xuan's clan still present at Jiankang.

Liu Yu sent Zang Xi into the palace, where Zang Xi collected the various maps, record books, and other such things while sealing up the warehouses and arsenals. There had been gold ornamentations and musical instruments inside the palace as well. Liu Yu asked Zang Xi, "Didn't want to take such things for yourself?"

Zang Xi sternly replied, "Our Emperor is still kept under imprisonment and duress, not yet having returned from exile, and you, General, have only just established your great cause and your hard work on behalf of the royal family. And even if that were not the case, I really have no regard for such pleasures."

Liu Yu laughed and said, "I was only joking with you."

This Zang Xi was the younger brother of Zang Dao.

〈桓玄初篡,遷七廟神主于琅邪國,旣而遷帝於尋陽,宗廟主祏皆隨帝西上,故權造新主。〉〈劉裕娶于臧氏。〉

(When Huan Xuan had first usurped the throne, he had moved the ancestral tablets of the seven Jin temples to the Langye fief. Then when he sent Emperor An to Xunyang, the tablets had also accompanied him west upriver. This was why Liu Yu created new ones.

Liu Yu's wife was from the Zang family.)


庚申,高祖鎮石頭城,立留臺官,焚桓溫神主於宣陽門外,造晉新主,立于太廟。遣諸將帥追玄,尚書王嘏率百官奉迎乘輿。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

On the day Gengshen (March 29th), Liu Yu camped at the walls of Shitou. He established a Provisional Administration of the government officials, and he burned Huan Wen's ancestral tablet outside the Xuanyang Gate, while making new ancestral tablets for the Jin emperors and placing them inside the Ancestral Temple. He sent his generals to pursue Huan Xuan, with one of the Masters of Writing, Wang Gu, leading the government officials to receive Emperor An with the imperial carriage.

庚申,劉裕置留臺,具百官。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengshen (March 29th), Liu Yu established a Provisional Administration of the government officials.


壬戌,玄司徒王謐與衆議推裕領揚州,裕固辭。乃以謐爲侍中、領司徒、揚州刺史、錄尚書事,謐推裕爲使持節、都督揚‧徐‧兗‧豫‧青‧冀‧幽‧幷八州諸軍事、徐州刺史,劉毅爲青州刺史,何無忌爲琅邪內史,孟昶爲丹楊尹,劉道規爲義昌太守。

26. On the day Renxu (March 31st), Huan Xuan's Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, led a discussion proposing to acclaim Liu Yu as acting Inspector of Yangzhou. But Liu Yu firmly declined the offer. He appointed Wang Mi as Palace Attendant, acting Minister Over The Masses for the Jin dynasty, Inspector of Yangzhou, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. Wang Mi in turn acclaimed Liu Yu as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou. Liu Yu appointed Liu Yi as Inspector of Qingzhou, He Wuji as Interior Minister of Langye, Meng Chang as Intendant of Danyang, and Liu Daogui as Administrator of Yichang.

〈《宋永初郡國志》,安豐有義昌縣。蓋晉末嘗立郡,宋初廢爲縣也。裕取義昌美名,使道規領太守。〉

(According to the Geographical Records of the Yongchu Era of Liu-Song, there was a Yichang county in Anfeng commandary. It must have been that a Yichang commandary had been created in the last years of the Jin dynasty, but then at the beginning of the Liu-Song dynasty it was demoted to county status. Liu Yu appreciated the beauty of the name Yichang ("Righteous Prosperity"), so he appointed Liu Daogui as its acting Administrator.)


司徒王謐與眾議推高祖領揚州,固辭。乃以謐為錄尚書事,領揚州刺史。於是推高祖為使持節、都督揚、徐、兗、豫、青、冀、幽、并八州諸軍事、領軍將軍、徐州刺史。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, led the other officials to acclaim Liu Yu as acting Inspector of Yangzhou. But Liu Yu strenuously declined. So Wang Mi was appointed as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing and acting Inspector of Yangzhou. Wang Mi in turn acclaimed Liu Yu as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, General Who Leads The Army, and Inspector of Xuzhou.

壬戌,桓玄司徒王謐推劉裕行鎮軍將軍、徐州刺史、都督揚徐兗豫青冀幽幷八州諸軍事、假節。劉裕以謐領揚州刺史、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Renxu (March 31st), Huan Xuan's Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, acclaimed Liu Yu as acting General Who Guards The Army, Credential Holder, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou. Liu Yu appointed Wang Mi as acting Inspector of Yangzhou and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

進平京邑,玄敗走。晉大將軍武陵王遵承制,以道規為振武將軍、義昌太守。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists advanced to take the capital, and Huan Xuan was defeated and fled. Jin's Grand General and Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed control, and he appointed Liu Daogui as General Who Spreads Valor and Administrator of Yichang.

玄既西走,裕以毅為冠軍將軍、青州刺史。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

After Huan Xuan had fled to the west, Liu Yu appointed Liu Yi as Champion General and Inspector of Qingzhou.


裕始至建康,諸大處分皆委於劉穆之,倉猝立定,無不允愜。裕遂託以腹心,動止諮焉;穆之亦竭節盡誠,無所遺隱。時晉政寬弛,綱紀不立,豪族陵縱,小民窮蹙,重以司馬元顯政令違舛,桓玄雖欲釐整,而科條繁密,衆莫之從。穆之斟酌時宜,隨方矯正;裕以身範物,先以威禁;內外百官皆肅然奉職,不盈旬日,風俗頓改。

27. Since Liu Yu had only just arrived in Jiankang, he assigned several major positions to Liu Muzhi. Despite the press of circumstances, Liu Muzhi settled everything completely to Liu Yu's satisfaction. So Liu Yu trusted Liu Muzhi as one of his confidantes, and he discussed his every action with him. Liu Muzhi too was fully earnest and devoted in his duties, leaving nothing overlooked or neglected.

At that time, the policies of Jin were broad and lax, and strict laws were not enforced, so the gentry families did as they wished and the common people were in dire straits. Sima Yuanxian's ordinances and policies had been repeatedly disobeyed or ignored, and though Huan Xuan had tried to fix the situation, his laws had been so dense and meticulous that no one paid them any mind. But Liu Muzhi carefully considered his laws and crafted them in accordance with the circumstances of the times, shaping them so that they would rectify errors and restore proper behavior. Liu Yu himself served as a model, taking the lead in imposing bans. So all the officials, near and far, respected the laws and upheld their duties, and within a week, the state of affairs had changed.

〈揉曲爲矯。言隨事矯揉使歸於正。〉〈史言劉裕有撥亂反正之才。〉

(To unbend what is crooked is to straighten, or rectify. In other words, Liu Muzhi was heeding circumstances in order to straighten and rectify the people and return them to proper behavior.

This passage demonstrates that Liu Yu had the talents to sort out disorderly conduct and restore good behavior and customs.)


先是朝廷承晉氏亂政,百司縱弛,桓玄雖欲釐整,而眾莫從之。高祖以身範物,先以威禁內外,百官皆肅然奉職,二三日間,風俗頓改。且桓玄雖以雄豪見推,而一朝便有極位,晉氏四方牧守及在朝大臣,盡心伏事,臣主之分定矣。高祖位微於朝,眾無一旅,奮臂草萊之中,倡大義以復皇祚。由是王謐等諸人時失民望,莫不愧而憚焉。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Up until this time, the court had failed to properly administer the dynasty, and the officials governed through broad and lax policies. Though Huan Xuan had tried to fix the situation, no one paid him any mind. But Liu Yu himself served as a model, taking the lead in imposing bans and enforcing his will near and far. So all the officials respected the laws and upheld their duties, and within two or three days, the state of affairs had changed.

Furthermore, although Huan Xuan had been considered a bold hero of the age and had occupied the highest position in court, all of the Jin dynasty's administrators and border commanders and their chief ministers at court had followed their own desires, and there was discord between the sovereign and his ministers. Liu Yu, on the other hand, had held only a lowly position at court and did not have much of an army beforehand. But he had shaken out an army from among the grass and weeds and launched a great uprising to restore the dynasty. So Wang Mi and the others whom the people had lost faith in were all terrified of Liu Yu and feared him.


初,諸葛長民至豫州,失期,不得發。刁逵執長民,檻車送桓玄。至當利而玄敗,送人共破檻出長民,還趣歷陽。逵棄城走,爲其下所執,斬於石頭,子姪無少長皆死,唯赦其季弟給事中騁。逵故吏匿其弟子雍送洛陽,秦王興以爲太子中庶子。裕以魏詠之爲豫州刺史,鎭歷陽,諸葛長民爲宣城內史。

28. Earlier, Zhuge Changmin had gone to Yuzhou as planned. But he had missed the arranged date for the uprising, and he had not acted. Diao Kui had arrested Zhuge Changmin and put him in a cage cart, then sent him to Huan Xuan. But Zhuge Changmin's escort had only gotten as far as Dangli before they learned that Huan Xuan had been defeated. The escorts then broke open the cage cart and freed Zhuge Changmin, then sent him back to Liyang. Diao Kui abandoned the city and fled, but he was arrested by his subordinates. He was beheaded at Shitou, and his sons and daughters were killed as well, regardless of age. Only the 給事中, his youngest brother Diao Cheng, was spared. One of Diao Kui's former officials hid his nephew Diao Yong and sent him to Luoyang, where Yao Xing appointed him as 中庶子 to the Crown Prince.

Liu Yu appointed Wei Yongzhi as Inspector of Yuzhou, stationed at Liyang, and he appointed Zhuge Changmin as Interior Minister of Xuancheng.

〈當利,浦名。〉〈刁雍後自秦入魏。〉

(Dangli was the name of a river mouth.

Diao Yong later left Later Qin and went to Northern Wei.)


諸葛長民失期不得發,刁逵執送之,未至而玄敗。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Zhuge Changmin missed the planned date for the uprising and did not act. Diao Kui arrested him and sent him to the capital, but Zhuge Changmin had not arrived there before Huan Xuan was defeated and driven out.

從裕討桓玄,以功拜輔國將軍、宣城內史。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

Zhuge Changmin accompanied Liu Yu in his campaign against Huan Xuan, and Liu Yu appointed him as General Who Upholds The State and Interior Minister of Xuancheng.


初,裕名微位薄,輕狡無行,盛流皆不與相知,惟王謐獨奇貴之,謂裕曰:「卿當爲一代英雄。」裕嘗與刁逵樗蒲,不時輸直,逵縛之馬枊。謐見之,責逵而釋之,代之還直。由是裕深憾逵而德謐。

29. Years earlier, when Liu Yu had still been a nobody with an obscure position, he been a rascal who did not conduct himself well, and the famous people of that time took no notice of him. Wang Mi was the only one who had found him remarkable and honored him, saying, "You will become a hero of the age."

On one occasion, Liu Yu had been playing chupu against Diao Kui, and having lost the round, he was unable to pay the stakes. Diao Kui had punished him by tying him to a horse post. But when Wang Mi saw this, he had reprimanded Diao Kui, and he untied Liu Yu and paid the stakes in his place.

For both these reasons, Liu Yu had deeply resented Diao Kui while respecting Wang Mi.

〈謂當時貴盛之流。〉〈樗蒲不勝而不卽納其所負之直,此亦博徒輕狡之常態。〉〈枊,繫馬柱也。〉

(The famous people were those who enjoyed high honor at that time.

It was common for such gambling rascals to fail to pay their share of the stakes when they lost at chupu.

Diao Kui tied Liu Yu to a 枊 "hitch"; this was a post for tying a horse to.)


初高祖家貧,嘗負刁逵社錢三萬,經時無以還。逵執錄甚嚴,王謐造逵見之,密以錢代還,由是得釋。高祖名微位薄,盛流皆不與相知,唯謐交焉。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Years earlier, since Liu Yu had come from a poor family, he had once owed thirty thousand money to Diao Kui. But when the time to repay the loan came, he did not return the money. Diao Kui caught him and treated him severely. Wang Mi saw this happening and reprimanded Diao Kui, and he secretly paid off Liu Yu's loan, allowing him to be released. All during the time that Liu Yu had been a nobody with an obscure position, the high and mighty did not interact with or know him; only Wang Mi had any dealings with him.


蕭方等曰:夫蛟龍潛伏,魚蝦褻之。是以漢高赦雍齒,魏武免梁鵠,安可以布衣之嫌而成萬乘之隙也!今王謐爲公,刁逵亡族,醻恩報怨,何其狹哉!

30. Xiao Fangdeng, the compiler of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, made this remark: Before a storm dragon reveals itself in all its glory and splendor, it is often shown disrespect even by mere fish and shrimps. This is the common fate of great figures. Even so, Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) found it in him to pardon Yong Chi, and Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) was able to release Liang Hu. How could a ruler place the petty grudges they held when they were a mere commoner above the concerns of the state itself? Yet we see that Liu Yu made Wang Mi into an Excellency while wiping out Diao Kui's entire family, thus repaying the grace of the one and avenging the insults of the other. How could he have been so narrow-minded as this?

〈蕭方等,梁元帝之嫡長子,撰《三十國春秋》。〉〈雍齒事見十一卷漢高帝十一年。漢靈帝時,梁鵠爲選部尚書,魏武欲爲洛陽令,鵠以爲北部尉。董卓之亂,鵠奔劉表。魏武破荊州,鵠懼而自縛詣門,使在祕書,以勤書自効。〉

(Xiao Fangdeng was the eldest son of Emperor Yuan of Liang by his chief wife. He was the compiler of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms.

Yong Chi had originally been a subordinate of Liu Bang, but had rebelled against him. Although he later surrendered, Liu Bang personally hated him. Yet Liu Bang granted Yong Chi a noble title, which had the effect of persuading others to accept Liu Bang's rule rather than rebel. This is mentioned in Book 11, in the eleventh year of Liu Bang's reign (actually the sixth year, 201 BC).

During the reign of Emperor Ling of Han, Liang Hu had been in charge of personnel decisions for the Masters of Writing. At that time, Cao Cao had put in a request to be appointed as Prefect of Luoyang. But Liang Hu denied the request, merely appointing him as Commandant of the Northern Division. During Dong Zhuo's seizure of power, Liang Hu fled to Liu Biao. After Cao Cao took Jingzhou, Liang Hu was afraid, and he tied himself up and presented himself at the gate of Cao Cao's camp. He worked in the Imperial Library, where he made amends for his past actions through diligent writing.)


尚書左僕射王愉及子荊州刺史綏謀襲裕,事泄,族誅;綏弟子慧龍爲僧彬所匿,得免。

31. The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, and the Inspector of Jingzhou, his son Wang Sui, plotted to launch a surprise attack against Liu Yu. But the plot leaked, and their family was executed. Wang Sui's nephew Wang Huilong was hidden by the monk Bin, and so was able to escape the slaughter.

〈慧龍後遂逃奔秦,又自秦奔魏。〉

(Wang Huilong later fled to Later Qin, and then fled from Later Qin to Northern Wei.)


尚書左僕射王愉、愉子荊州刺史綏等,江左冠族。綏少有重名,以高祖起自布衣,甚相凌忽。綏,桓氏甥,亦有自疑之志。高祖悉誅之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, the Inspector of Jingzhou, his son Wang Sui, and others had long been leading members of the Southland gentry, and Wang Sui enjoyed a prestigious reputation even though he was young. Liu Yu, on the other hand, had risen up from being a mere commoner, yet now he was forcing his will on people like them. Wang Sui was a nephew of the Huan clan, so he was uncertain of his own position. Liu Yu executed them all.

辛酉,劉裕誅尚書左僕射王愉、愉子荊州刺史綏、司州刺史溫詳。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinyou (March 30th), Liu Yu executed the Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, the Inspector of Jingzhou, his son Wang Sui, and the Inspector of Sizhou, Wen Xiang.


魏以中土蕭條,詔縣戶不滿百者罷之。

32. Northern Wei reorganized their geographical administration. Considering that so much of the Central Lands had been left desolate and bleak, Tuoba Gui issued an edict abolishing those counties which did not contain at least a hundred households.

天賜元年春正月,遣離石護軍劉託率騎三千襲蒲子。三月丙寅,擒姚興寧北將軍、泰平太守衡譚,獲三千餘口。初限縣戶不滿百罷之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the first year of Tianci (404), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui sent the Protector of Lishi, Liu Tuo, to lead three thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack on Puzi. In the third month, on the day Bingyin (April 4th), Liu Tuo captured Yao Xing's General Who Calms The North and Administrator of Taiping, Heng Tan, along with more than three thousand people.

At this time, Northern Wei abolished those counties which did not contain at least a hundred households.


丁卯,劉裕還鎮東府。

33. On the day Dingmao (April 5th), Liu Yu returned to guard the Eastern Bureau.

桓玄至尋陽,郭昶之給其器用、兵力。辛未,玄逼帝西上,劉毅帥何無忌、劉道規等諸軍追之。玄留龍驤將軍何澹之、前將軍郭銓與郭昶之守湓口。玄於道自作《起居注》,敍討劉裕事,自謂經略舉無遺策,諸軍違節度,以致奔敗。專覃思著述,不暇與羣下議時事。《起居注》旣成,宣示遠近。

34. Once Huan Xuan arrived at Xunyang, Guo Changzhi provided him with his resources, equipment, and soldiers. On the day Xinwei (April 9th), Huan Xuan forced Emperor An to travel west upriver.

Liu Yi led the loyalist armies under He Wuji, Liu Daogui, and others to pursue Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan left the Dragon-Soaring General, He Danzhi, and the General of the Front, Guo Quan, to help Guo Changzhi guard Penkou.

On the road, Huan Xuan wrote his own Notes of Daily Events. When he described the campaign against Liu Yu, Huan Xuan recorded that the plans and strategies which he had proposed lacked any errors, but because his generals had violated their duties and their orders, he had been driven to defeat. And since he devoted himself so thoroughly to thinking deeply about compiling the notes, he had no time left over to discuss the affairs of the day with his subordinates. Once the Notes were completed, he announced and displayed them near and far.

〈杜佑《通典》曰:周官有左右史,蓋今《起居注》之本。動則左史書之,言則右史書之;左史記言,右史記事。漢武帝有《禁中起居注》,後漢馬皇后撰《明帝起居注》,則漢《起居注》似在宮中,爲女史之任,其後起居皆近侍之臣錄記也。歷代有其職而無其官,後魏始置起居令史,每行幸宴會,則在御左右記錄帝言;後又別置脩起居注。〉〈覃,深也,廣也。〉

(Du You's Tongdian states, "During the Zhou dynasty, there were officials called the Recorders of the Left and Right; they were the precursors of our modern system of the imperial Notes of Daily Events. The Recorder of the Left would note down whatever actions the sovereign took or wherever he went, and the Recorder of the Right would note any utterances that the sovereign made. Then the Recorder of the Left would make the official record of the sayings of the sovereign, while the Recorder of the Right did the same with the doings of the sovereign. Later, Emperor Wu of Han had his Notes of Daily Events Within The Palace, and Empress Dowager Ma compiled the Notes of Daily Events of Emperor Ming. So the Han-era Notes of Daily Events seem to have been specifically the events within the palace, and were the job of female recorders. Later on, the Notes were all recorded by closely-attending ministers. And this role was always fulfilled even during subsequent dynasties, though they did not always have official posts for it. It was Northern Wei that first created the office of Prefect-Recorder of Daily Events, who would attend every feast or gathering and, standing by the Emperor's side with his attendants, record his utterances. They also later created Editors of the Notes of Daily Events."

This passage describes Huan Xuan's thinking as being 覃; this means "deep, broad".)


玄經尋陽,江州刺史郭昶之備乘輿法物資之。玄收略得二千餘人,挾天子走江陵。冠軍將軍劉毅、輔國將軍何無忌、振武將軍劉道規率諸軍追討。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yi))

Once Huan Xuan arrived at Xunyang, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, provided him with his resources, equipment, and soldiers. Huan Xuan gathered together more than two thousand soldiers, and he forced Emperor An to flee with him to Jiangling.

The Champion General, Liu Yi, the General Who Upholds The State, He Wuji, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, led their armies to pursue and campaign against Huan Xuan.

辛未,桓玄逼帝西上。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinwei (April 9th), Huan Xuan forced Emperor An to travel west upriver.

與劉毅、何無忌追玄。玄西走江陵,留郭銓、何澹之等固守盆口。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Daogui joined with Liu Yi and He Wuji to pursue Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan left Guo Quan, He Danzhi, and others to stoutly defend Penkou.

毅與何無忌、劉道規躡玄。玄逼帝及琅邪王西上。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi led He Wuji and Liu Daogui to pursue Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan forced Emperor An and the Prince of Langye (Sima Dewen) to travel west upriver.

南追桓玄,與振武將軍劉道規俱受冠軍將軍劉毅節度。玄留其龍驤將軍何澹之、前將軍郭銓、江州刺史郭昶之守湓口。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji went south to pursue Huan Xuan. He and the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, were placed under the command of the Champion General, Liu Yi.

Huan Xuan left the Dragon-Soaring General, He Danzhi, the General of the Front, Guo Quan, and the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, to guard Penkou.


丙戌,劉裕稱受帝密詔,以武陵王遵承制總百官行事,加侍中、大將軍,因大赦,惟桓玄一族不宥。

35. On the day Bingxu (April 24th), Liu Yu claimed that he had received a secret edict from Emperor An, and heeding its directions, he appointed the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, as acting director of all officials and of the administration and promoted him to Palace Attendant and Grand General. He declared a general amnesty, with only Huan Xuan's clan being excluded.

大赦天下,唯桓玄一祖後不在赦例。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

A general amnesty was declared across the realm, except for those descended from Huan Xuan's grandfather.

丙戌,密詔以幽逼於玄,萬機虛曠,令武陵王遵依舊典,承制總百官行事,加侍中,餘如故。幷大赦謀反大逆己下,惟桓玄一祖之後不宥。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Bingxu (April 24th), Emperor An sent a secret edict stating that since he was currently imprisoned and under duress from Huan Xuan and the affairs of state had been left unattended, he now ordered that the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, follow past precedent by becoming acting director of all officials and of the administration and promoted him to Palace Attendant, while keeping his original titles as before. The edict also included a general amnesty for everyone who had joined the usurpers in their treason, except for anyone who was a descendant of Huan Xuan's grandfather.

及玄敗走,武陵王遵承制以無忌為輔國將軍、琅邪內史,以會稽王道子所部精兵悉配之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

After Huan Xuan was defeated and driven from the capital, the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed authority. He appointed He Wuji as General Who Upholds The State and Interior Minister of Langye, and he appointed all the elite soldiers of the late Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, to him.


劉敬宣、高雅之結青州大姓及鮮卑豪帥謀殺南燕王備德,推司馬休之爲主。備德以劉軌爲司空,甚寵信之。雅之欲邀軌同謀,敬宣曰:「劉公衰老,有安齊之志,不可告也。」雅之卒告之,軌不從。謀頗泄,敬宣等南走,南燕人收軌,殺之,追及雅之,又殺之。敬宣、休之至淮、泗間,聞桓玄敗,遂來歸,劉裕以敬宣爲晉陵太守。

36. In Southern Yan, the Jin exiles Liu Jingxuan and Gao Yazhi formed ties with the great families of Qingzhou and with the Xianbei leaders, planning to kill Murong Beide and acclaim Sima Xiuzhi as their leader.

Murong Beide had earlier appointed Liu Gui as his Minister of Works, and he deeply favored and trusted Liu Gui. Gao Yazhi thus wanted to have Liu Gui join in the plot. Liu Jingxuan warned him, "Lord Liu is old and frail, and he wants nothing more than to enjoy peace and tranquility. You had better not tell him anything."

But in the end, Gao Yazhi did mention the plot to Liu Gui, who refused to go along with it. And soon afterwards, the plot leaked. Liu Jingxuan and the other plotters fled south, while the people of Southern Yan arrested Liu Gui and killed him. They pursued the fugitives, catching Gao Yazhi and killing him.

Liu Jingxuan and Sima Xiuzhi made it to the region between the Huai and Si Rivers, where they learned that Huan Xuan had been defeated by the loyalists under Liu Yu. So they returned to Jin again, and Liu Yu appointed Liu Jingxuan as Administrator of Jinling.

〈敬宣等奔南燕事見上卷元興元年。〉

(Liu Jingxuan and the others had earlier fled to Southern Yan to escape from Huan Xuan, as mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxing (402.43).)


敬宣素曉天文,知必有興復晉室者。尋夢丸土服之,既覺,喜曰:「丸者桓也。桓既吞矣,吾復本土乎!」乃結青州大姓諸崔、封,並要鮮卑大帥免逵,謀滅德,推休之為主,克日垂發。時劉軌為德司空,大被委任,雅之又欲要軌。敬宣曰:「此公年老,吾觀其有安齊志,必不動,不可告也。」雅之以為不然,遂告軌,軌果不從。謀頗泄,相與殺軌而去。至淮、泗間,會高祖平京口,手書召敬宣;左右疑其詐,敬宣曰:「吾固知其然矣。下邳不誘我也。」即便馳還。既至京師,以敬宣為輔國將軍、晉陵太守,襲封武岡縣男。是歲,安帝元興三年也。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan had long been skilled at reading the heavens, so he knew that the Jin royal family would rise again. He soon dreamed of a small pellet that was consumed by the ground. When he woke up, he happily said, "The pellet is the Huan clan. Once they are consumed, I shall return to my homeland!" So he formed ties with the great clans of Qingzhou, the Cui and the Feng, as well as the great Xianbei leader Miankui, planning to kill Murong De and acclaim Sima Xiuzhi as their leader. They set a date for when they would carry out the plot.

Murong De had earlier appointed Liu Gui as his Minister of Works, and he deeply favored and trusted Liu Gui. Gao Yazhi thus wanted to have Liu Gui join in the plot. Liu Jingxuan warned him, "That fellow is old and frail, and from what I've seen, he wants nothing more than to enjoy peace and tranquility. He would certainly not support us. You had better not tell him anything."

But Gao Yazhi did not agree, so he did mention the plot to Liu Gui, who indeed refused to go along with it. And soon afterwards, the plot leaked. So they killed Liu Gui and fled.

Liu Jingxuan fled to the region between the Huai and Si Rivers. By then, Liu Yu had launched his uprising and taken Jingkou. He wrote a letter in his own hand summoning Liu Jingxuan back home again. Liu Jingxuan's attendants believed that this was a trap, but Liu Jingxuan declared, "I know Liu Yu of Xiapi well; he would not deceive me." So he rushed back, and when he reached the capital, Liu Yu appointed Liu Jingxuan as General Who Upholds The State, Administrator of Jinling, and Baron of Wugang county (which had been his father Liu Laozhi's title).

All this was in Emperor An's third year of Yuanxing (404).

夢丸土而服之,既覺,喜曰:「丸者桓也,丸既吞矣,我當復土也。」旬日而玄敗,遂與司馬休之還京師。拜輔國將軍、晉陵太守。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan dreamed of a small pellet that was consumed by the ground. When he woke up, he happily said, "The pellet is the Huan clan. Once they are consumed, I shall return to my homeland." Within a few days, Huan Xuan was defeated, so he and Sima Xiuzhi returned to the capital. He was appointed as General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Jinling.


南燕王備德聞桓玄敗,命北地王鍾等將兵欲取江南,會備德有疾而止。

37. When Murong Beide heard that Huan Xuan had been defeated, he ordered his Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, and others to lead an army to conquer the Southland. But just then, Murong Beide fell ill, and the campaign was called off.

〈昔魯莊公伐齊,納子糾,小白自莒先入,所以有乾時之敗。當此之時,建康已定,使慕容鍾等之師果進,劉裕固有以待之矣。〉

(Speed is the essence of war. In ancient times, when the brothers Jiu and Xiaobai raced to take control of the state of Qi, Jiu had the support of Duke Zhuang of Lu. But Xiaobai (the future Duke Huan of Qi) was first to arrive in Qi from Ju, and that led to Jiu's defeat. As for Murong Beide, he had missed his chance; by now, Jiankang was already settled. Even if he had sent Murong Zhong and the others to invade Jin as planned, Liu Yu would have been well prepared to resist them.)


夏,四月,己丑,武陵王遵入居東宮,內外畢敬;遷除百官稱制書,敎稱令書。以司馬休之監荊‧益‧梁‧寧‧秦‧雍六州諸軍事、領荊州刺史。

38. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jichou (April 27th), Sima Zun entered and took up residence in the Eastern Palace, and he was shown universal respect. The bureaucratic records of the government officials were moved, and instructions were granted for the decree books. Sima Xiuzhi was appointed as Chief of military affairs in Jingzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Ningzhou, Qinzhou, and Yongzhou and as Inspector of Jingzhou.

〈劉毅等之兵旣進,故預以休之鎭南蕃。〉

(Since the armies of Liu Yi and the others were advancing west, Sima Xiuzhi was appointed to guard the southern frontier.)


四月,奉武陵王遵為大將軍,承制。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the fourth month, the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, was appointed as Grand General, and he assumed control of affairs.

夏四月己丑,大將軍、武陵王遵稱制,總萬機。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jichou (April 27th), the Grand General and Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed control of the government and managed affairs.


庚寅,桓玄挾帝至江陵,桓石康納之。玄更署置百官,以卞範之爲尚書僕射。自以奔敗之後,恐威令不行,乃更增峻刑罰,衆益離怨。殷仲文諫,玄怒曰:「今以諸將失律,天文不利,故還都舊楚;而羣小紛紛,妄興異議,方當糾之以猛,未可施之以寬也。」荊、江諸郡聞玄播越,有上表奔問起居者,玄皆不受,更令所在賀遷新都。

39. On the day Gengyin (April 28th), Huan Xuan brought Emperor An with him to Jiangling, where Huan Shikang received them. Huan Xuan once again made appointments to the imperial offices, appointing Bian Fanzhi as his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

After suffering such defeats, Huan Xuan was afraid that his authority and his orders would no longer be carried out. So he became even more strict and severe in his punishments and verdicts, which only made everyone even more alienated from and resentful of him. Yin Zhongwen remonstrated with him, but Huan Xuan angrily replied, "It was all because of my bad luck and the failure of my generals to obey their orders that I was forced to move the capital back to my original territory in the Chu region. Yet you people want to needle me with these petty issues and rashly bring up your objections. My concern right now is to mend together what has been torn asunder; I cannot afford to be lenient."

When the commandaries of Jingzhou and Jiangzhou heard that Huan Xuan had been driven in exile from the capital, several of them sent up petitions offering to house him. But Huan Xuan spurned all their offers, and he even sent out an order commanding people to celebrate the relocation to the new capital.

〈唐人所謂「難將一人手,掩盡天下目」,桓玄是也。〉

(The people of the Tang era had a saying: It is difficult for one man's hand to cover the eyes of all the world. Such a thing describes Huan Xuan.)


庚寅,帝至江陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengyin (April 28th), Emperor An arrived at Jiangling.


初,王謐爲玄佐命元臣,玄之受禪,謐手解帝璽綬;及玄敗,衆謂謐宜誅,劉裕特保全之。劉毅嘗因朝會,問謐璽綬所在。謐內不自安,逃奔曲阿。裕牋白武陵王,迎還復位。

40. It was earlier mentioned that Wang Mi had become one of Huan Xuan's chief ministers. In fact, when Huan Xuan accepted Emperor An's abdication, it was Wang Mi who had personally taken the seals and ribbons of state from Emperor An. So now, after Huan Xuan had been driven from the capital, many people said that Wang Mi should be executed. But Liu Yu made sure to defend and protect him. Even so, during a court meeting, Liu Yi had asked Wang Mi what had happened to the seals and ribbons of state. For such reasons, Wang Mi did not feel secure in his position, and he ran away and fled to Qu'a county. Liu Yu wrote to Sima Zun, and he welcomed Wang Mi back and restored him to his position.

〈劉昫曰:唐潤州丹楊縣,古曲阿縣地。〉

(Liu Xu remarked, "Danyang county in Tang's Runzhou was the same area as the old Qu'a county.")


桓玄將篡,謐手解安帝璽紱,為玄佐命功臣。及義旗建,眾並謂謐宜誅,唯高祖保持之。劉毅嘗因朝會,問謐璽紱所在,謐益懼。及王愉父子誅,謐從弟諶謂謐曰:「王駒無罪,而義旗誅之,此是剪除勝己,以絕民望。兄既桓氏黨附,名位如此,欲求免得乎?」駒,愉小字也。謐懼,奔于曲阿。高祖牋白大將軍,深相保謐,迎還復位。光祿勳卞承之、左衞將軍褚粲、游擊將軍司馬秀役使官人,為御史中丞王禎之所糾察,謝牋言辭怨憤。承之造司宜藏。高祖與大將軍牋,白「粲等備位大臣,所懷必盡。執憲不允,自應據理陳訴,而橫興怨忿,歸咎有司。宜加裁當,以清風軌」。並免官。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When Huan Xuan had usurped the throne, it was Wang Mi who had personally taken the seals and ribbons of state from Emperor An, and he had served as one of Huan Xuan's closest and most accomplished ministers. So now, after the loyalists had established themselves, many people said that Wang Mi should be executed. Only Liu Yu made sure to defend and protect him.

Even so, during a court meeting, Liu Yi had asked Wang Mi what had happened to the seals and ribbons of state, which had made him even more afraid. And after Wang Yu and his son were executed, Wang Mi's cousin Wang Shen said to him, "What crime did Wang Ju commit? Yet the loyalists executed him all the same. They are merely abusing their victory to purge their enemies, and they will lose the hopes of the people. Cousin, you were a partisan of the Huan clan, and you have a known reputation and a conspicuous office. Do you think you will be spared?" Wang Ju had been Wang Yu's childhood name.

So Wang Mi feared for his life, and he ran away and fled to Qu'a county. Liu Yu wrote a letter to the Grand General (Sima Zun), deeply defending Wang Mi, and he welcomed Wang Mi back and restored him to his position.

The 光祿勳, Bian Chengzhi, the Guard General of the Left, Chu Can, and the General of Roaming Assault, Sima Xiu, forced the officials to do their bidding. When they were arrested and examined by the Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretariat, Wang Zhenzhi, their letters defending themselves were full of resentful and indignant language, with Bian Chengzhi accusing the officials of being the ones in the wrong. Liu Yu wrote to the Grand General about the matter, stating, "Chu Can and the others hold high offices, so they should be the most magnanimous people of all. If they have been treated unjustly, then they ought to have defended themselves against the charges through logic and reason. Yet here they are, giving vent to their anger and resentment and passing the blame onto the ministers. You should remove them, in order to demonstrate good and proper behavior." So all of them were stripped of office.


桓玄兄子歆引氐帥楊秋寇歷陽,魏詠之帥諸葛長民、劉敬宣、劉鍾共擊破之,斬楊秋於練固。

41. Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Xin arranged for the Di leader Yang Qiu to attack Liyang. But Wei Yongzhi led Zhuge Changmin, Liu Jingxuan, and Liu Zhong to attack and rout him, and they took Yang Qiu's head at Lian Redoubt.

〈練固在歷陽西北。〉

(Lian Redoubt was northwest of Liyang.)


桓玄兄子歆,聚眾向歷陽,高祖命輔國將軍諸葛長民擊走之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xin's nephew Huan Xin gathered an army and marched towards Liyang. Liu Yu ordered the General Who Upholds The State, Zhuge Changmin, to attack him, and Zhuge Changmin drove him off.

桓歆率氐賊楊秋寇歷陽,敬宣與建威將軍諸葛長民大破之。歆單騎走渡淮,斬楊秋於練固而還。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Huan Xin led the Di rebel leader Yang Qiu to invade Liyang. Liu Jingxuan and the General Who Establishes Might, Zhuge Changmin, greatly routed them. Huan Xin fled on a lone horse across the Huai River, while the loyalists took Yang Qiu's head at Lian Redoubt and then returned.

與諸葛長民破桓歆於芍陂。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan and Zhuge Changmin routed Huan Xin at Shao Slope.

于時桓歆聚眾向曆陽,長民擊走之,又與劉敬宣破歆於芍陂。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

Later, when Huan Xin gathered an army and marched towards Liyang, Zhuge Changmin attacked and drove him off, then joined with Liu Jingxuan to rout Huan Xin at Shao Slope.


玄使武衞將軍庾稚祖、江夏太守桓道恭帥數千人就何澹之等共守湓口。何無忌、劉道規至桑落洲,庚戌,澹之等引舟師逆戰。澹之常所乘舫,羽儀旗幟甚盛。無忌曰:「賊帥必不居此,欲詐我耳,宜亟攻之。」衆曰:「澹之不在其中,得之無益。」無忌曰:「今衆寡不敵,戰無全勝,澹之旣不居此舫,戰士必弱,我以勁兵攻之,必得之,得之,則彼勢沮而我氣倍,因而薄之,破賊必矣。」道規曰:「善!」遂往攻而得之,因傳呼曰:「已得何澹之矣!」澹之軍中驚擾,無忌之衆亦以爲然,乘勝進攻澹之等,大破之。無忌等克湓口,進據尋陽,遣使奉送宗廟主祏還京師。加劉裕都督江州諸軍事。

42. Huan Xuan sent the Guard General of Valor, Yu Zhizu, and the Administrator of Jiangxia, Huan Daogong, to lead several thousand soldiers to reinforce He Danzhi and the others guarding Penkou.

He Wuji and Liu Daogui led their forces to Sangluo Islet. On the day Gengxu (May 18th), He Danzhi and the others led their naval forces to counterattack the loyalists.

The ship which He Danzhi usually rode was decked out with a great many flags and banners. He Wuji remarked to the other generals, "The rebel commander is surely not on that ship; it's only a ruse meant to fool us. We should attack it with full force."

They said, "But if He Danzhi is not on that ship, what point is there in attacking it?"

He Wuji replied, "Right now, our numbers are few, and we are not really a match for the entire enemy army. In a contest of strength, we cannot be certain of victory. But since He Danzhi is certainly not on that ship, it will only be lightly guarded. If we send some strong soldiers to attack that ship, we can certainly take it. And having taken it, our morale will be doubled while the enemy's morale will be sapped. That will weaken them, and then we can be sure of routing them."

Liu Daogui said, "Excellent!"

So he attacked the ship and indeed captured it. Then word began to spread: "We have already captured He Danzhi!" This shocked and alarmed the soldiers of He Danzhi's army, while He Wuji's army believed that they really had captured the enemy commander. They pressed their supposed victory to advance and attack He Danzhi and the others, and greatly routed them.

He Wuji and the others took Penkou, then advanced and occupied Xunyang as well. They had agents bring the Jin ancestral tablets and shrines stored there back to the capital.

Liu Yu was promoted to Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou.

〈桑落洲在湓城東北大江中。杜佑曰:桑落洲在江州都昌縣,漢之彭澤縣也。〉〈舫,方舟也。〉〈廟中臧木主石室也。旣克尋陽,宗廟主祏乃得還。〉

(Sangluo Islet was in the Yangzi, northeast of Pencheng. Du You remarked, "Sangluo Islet is in Duchang county in Jiangzhou, the same place as Han's Pengze county."

He Danzhi's usual ship is described as a 舫; this is a square boat.

These were the hidden wooden tablets and stone shrines of the Jin ancestors. Since the loyalists had captured Xunyang, they sent the tablets and shrines that had been moved there back to the capital.)


無忌、道規破玄大將郭銓等于桑落洲,眾軍進據尋陽。加高祖都督江州諸軍事。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

He Wuji and Liu Daogui routed Huan Xuan's chief commanders, Guo Quan and others, at Sangluo Islet, then advanced and occupied Xunyang.

Liu Yu was promoted to Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou.

庚戌,輔國將軍何無忌、振武將軍劉道規及桓玄將庾稚、何澹之戰于湓口,大破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengyin (April 28th), Emperor An arrived at Jiangling. On the day Gengxu (May 18th), the General Who Upholds The State, He Wuji, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, fought Huan Xuan's generals Yu Zhi and He Danzhi at Penkou and greatly routed them.

義軍既至,賊列艦距之。澹之空設羽儀旗幟於一舫,而別在它船,無忌欲攻羽儀所在,眾悉不同,曰:「澹之必不在此舫,雖得無益也。」無忌曰:「澹之不在此舫,固不須言也。既不在此,則戰士必弱,我以勁兵攻之,必可禽也。禽之之日,彼必以為失其軍主,我徒咸謂已得賊帥,我勇而彼懼,懼而薄之,破之必矣。」道規喜曰:「此名計也。」因往彼攻之,即禽此舫。因鼓噪倡曰:「已斬何澹之!」賊徒及義軍竝以為然。因縱兵,賊眾奔敗,即克盆口,進平尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

When the loyalists arrived at Penkou, Huan Xuan's army had an array of ships prepared to oppose them. He Danzhi had prepared one of the ships with a great deal of feathered flags and banners, but it was empty; he was actually on another ship. He Wuji wished to attack the decoy ship, but the others disagreed, saying, "If He Danzhi is truly not on that ship, even if we take it, there will be no benefit."

He Wuji replied, "It goes without saying that He Danzhi is not on that ship. But since that is the case, it will only be lightly guarded. If we send some strong soldiers to attack that ship, we can certainly take it. And on the day we take that ship, the enemy will surely believe that they have lost their commander, while our own soldiers will say that we have captured the rebel general. We will become bold, while they turn afraid. Their fear will weaken them, and then we can be sure of routing them."

Liu Daogui happily said, "This is an outstanding plan."

So he attacked the ship and indeed captured it. Then he beat the drums and announced, "We have already taken He Danzhi's head!" Both the enemies and the loyalists believed this report to be true. The loyalist generals let loose their soldiers to attack, while Huan Xuan's troops scattered in defeat.

The loyalists took Penkou, then advanced and captured Xunyang as well.

無忌等次桑落洲,澹之等率軍來戰。澹之常所乘舫旌旗甚盛,無忌曰:「賊帥必不居此,欲詐我耳,宜亟攻之。」眾咸曰:「澹之不在其中,其徒得之無益。」無忌謂道規曰:「今眾寡不敵,戰無全勝。澹之雖不居此舫,取則易獲,因縱兵騰之,可以一鼓而敗也。」道規從之,遂獲賊舫,因傳呼曰:「已得何澹之矣!」賊中驚擾,無忌之眾亦謂為然。道規乘勝徑進,無忌又鼓噪赴之,澹之遂潰。進據尋陽,遣使奉送宗廟主祏及武康公主、琅邪王妃還京都。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji and the other loyalists advanced to Sangluo Islet. He Danzhi and the other Huan Xuan generals led their army to come fight them.

The ship which He Danzhi usually rode was decked out with a great many flags and banners. He Wuji remarked to the other generals, "The rebel commander is surely not on that ship; it's only a ruse meant to fool us. We should attack it with full force."

They said, "But if He Danzhi is not on that ship, there is no point in attacking it."

He Wuji said to Liu Daogui, "Right now, our numbers are few, and we are not really a match for the entire enemy army. In a contest of strength, we cannot be certain of victory. But since He Danzhi is certainly not on that ship, it will be easy to capture. Afterwards, we can let loose our soldiers to exploit the victory, and then we will defeat the enemy with a single roll of the drums."

Liu Daogui agreed, so his army attacked the ship and indeed captured it. Then word began to spread: "We have already captured He Danzhi!" This shocked and alarmed the soldiers of He Danzhi's army, while He Wuji's army believed that they really had captured the enemy commander. Liu Daogui pressed this supposed victory to advance and attack He Danzhi and the others, while He Wuji also beat the drums and marched to join him. He Danzhi's army scattered.

He Wuji and the others advanced and occupied Xunyang. They had agents bring the Jin ancestral tablets and shrines stored there back to the capital, as well as Princess Wukang and the concubine of the Prince of Langye.


桑落之戰,胡藩所乘艦爲官軍所燒,藩全鎧入水,潛行三十許步,乃得登岸。時江陵路已絕,乃還豫章,劉裕素聞藩爲人忠直,引參領軍軍事。

43. During the battle of Sangluo, the ship that Hu Fan was riding was set on fire by the loyalists. Still dressed in full armor, Hu Fan leapt into the river and walked along the bottom for about thirty paces, then climbed out onto the shore. By then, the road back to Jiangling had already been cut off, so he returned to Yuzhang instead.

Liu Yu had long heard that Hu Fan was a loyal and forthright person, so he summoned him and appointed him as an Army Advisor.

〈官軍旣克尋陽,故江陵之路絕。〉

(Since the loyalists had taken Xunyang, the road back to Jiangling was cut off.)


桓玄收荊州兵,曾未三旬,有衆二萬,樓船、器械甚盛。甲寅,玄復帥諸軍挾帝東下,以苻宏領梁州刺史,爲前鋒;又使散騎常侍徐放先行,說劉裕等曰:「若能旋軍散甲,當與之更始,各授位任,令不失分。」

44. Huan Xuan gathered up soldiers from Jingzhou, and within a month, he had an army of twenty thousand, with great numbers of tower ships and military equipment. On the day Jiayin (May 22nd), he led his forces to bring Emperor An back east downriver. He appointed Fu Hong as Inspector of Lianzhou and had him lead the vanguard. He also sent one of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Xu Fang, to travel ahead of the army to advise Liu Yu and the others, "If you will disband your armies and put aside your armor, I shall make a new start with you; we shall each maintain our own positions, and our orders need not be divided."

玄既還荊郢,大聚兵眾,召水軍造樓船、器械,率眾二萬,挾天子發江陵,浮江東下。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Now that Huan Xuan had returned to the regions of Jing and Ying, he gathered together a great army, and he summoned sailors to build tower ships and weapons of war. He led an army of twenty thousand to take Emperor An from Jiangling and sail east downriver again.

玄復逼帝東下。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Huan Xuan forced Emperor An to return east downriver with him.


劉裕以諸葛長民都督淮北諸軍事,鎭山陽;以劉敬宣爲江州刺史。

45. Liu Yu appointed Zhuge Changmin as Commander of military affairs north of the Huai, and he was stationed at Shanyang. He appointed Liu Jingxuan as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

遷建威將軍、江州刺史。敬宣固辭,言於高祖曰:「仇恥既雪,四海清蕩,所願反身草澤,以終餘年。恩遇不遣,遂復僶俛,即目所忝,已為優渥。且盤龍、無忌猶未遇寵,賢二弟位任尚卑,一朝先之,必貽朝野之責。」不許。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Yu appointed Liu Jingxuan as General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Jiangzhou. Liu Jingxuan forcefully declined, saying to Liu Yu, "Now that my shame has been avenged and peace has been restored to the Four Seas, I wish for nothing more than to go back to civilian life and live out my remaining years. Yet you had already shown me more favor than I really deserved, and now you are forcing more such honors upon me; I view myself as entirely unworthy of them, and I worry for myself. Besides, Panlong and He Wuji have still not received such favor from you, and a respectable younger brother should keep a meager office. If you were to promote me ahead of them overnight, I would surely receive the censure of everyone within the court and out in the field." But Liu Yu would not allow him to decline the promotions.

遷建威將軍、江州刺史,鎮尋陽。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan was appointed as General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Jiangzhou, and he was stationed at Xunyang.

封新淦縣公,食邑二千五百戶,以本官督淮北諸軍事,鎮山陽。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

For his achievements, Zhuge Changmin was appointed Duke of Xin'gan county, with a fief of twenty-five hundred households, and he retained his position as Commander of military affairs north of the Huai and was stationed at Shanyang.


柔然可汗社崙從弟悅代大X謀殺社崙,不克,奔魏。

46. The Rouran khan Yujiulü Shelun had cousins, Yujiulü Yuedai and Yujiulü Dana, who plotted to kill him. But they failed in their attempt, and they fled to Wei.

〈X,與那同;奴何翻。〉

(The second character of Yujiulü Dana's given name, X, is pronounced "na" or "ne (n-e)".)


夏四月,詔尚書郎中公孫表使於江南,以觀桓玄之釁也。值玄敗而還。蠕蠕社崙從弟悅伐大那等謀殺社崙而立大那。發覺,來奔。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui sent one of the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Gongsun Biao, to travel to the Southland to see if Huan Xuan was suffering from any dissensions that Northern Wei would be able to take advantage of. But just at that moment, Huan Xuan had been driven from the Jin capital, so Gongsun Biao returned.

The Rouran khan Yujiulü Shelun had cousins, Yujiulü Yuedai, Yujiulü Dana, and others, who plotted to kill him and replace him with Yujiulü Dana. But their plot was discovered, and they fled to Wei.


燕王熙於龍騰苑起逍遙宮,連房數百,鑿曲光海,盛夏,士卒不得休息,暍死者太半。

47. In Yan, Murong Xi raised the Xiaoyao Palace at the Longteng Garden. It had several hundred linked chambers, and he also carved out a brilliant sea as well. But the work happened during the height of summer; the soldiers and workers were not allowed to rest and recover, and more than half of them died from heat stroke.

〈去年熙起龍騰苑。暍,傷暑也。〉

(Murong Xi had built the Longteng Garden in the previous year.

Heat stroke means to be hurt by warmth.)


西涼世子譚卒。

48. The heir of Western Liang, Li Tan, passed away.

五年正月,立泮宮,增高門學生四百人。四月,敦煌有葛緣木而生,作黃鳥之形。世子譚卒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 8, Biography of Li Gao)

In the fifth year of Gengzi (404), the first month, Li Gao established a Water College and increased the number of high-level students by four hundred people.

In the fourth month, in Dunhuang, a vine sprang up around some wood, coiled in the shape of a yellow bird.

Li Gao's heir Li Tan passed away.


劉毅、何無忌、劉道規、下邳太守平昌孟懷玉帥衆自尋陽西上,五月,癸酉,與桓玄遇於崢嶸洲。毅等兵不滿萬人,而玄戰士數萬,衆憚之,欲退還尋陽。道規曰:「不可!彼衆我寡,強弱異勢,今若畏懦不進,必爲所乘,雖至尋陽,豈能自固!玄雖竊名雄豪,內實恇怯;加之已經奔敗,衆無固心。決機兩陣,將雄者克,不在衆也。」因麾衆先進,毅等從之。玄常漾舸於舫側以備敗走,由是衆莫有鬬心。毅等乘風縱火,盡銳爭先,玄衆大潰,燒輜重夜遁。郭銓詣毅降。

49. Liu Yi, He Wuji, Liu Daogui, and the Administrator of Xiapi, Meng Huaiyu of Pingchang commandary, led the loyalist forces from Xunyang west upriver. In the fifth month, on the day Guiyou (June 10th), they encountered Huan Xuan's army at Zhengrong Islet.

Liu Yi and the other loyalists did not even have ten thousand troops altogether, while Huan Xuan had tens of thousands of warriors. So the loyalist armies were afraid of Huan Xuan, and they wanted to fall back to Xunyang.

Liu Daogui declared, "Impossible! The enemy is many while we are few, and there is too great of a difference in strength between us. If we tremble in fright and fail to advance right now, then the enemy will surely take advantage of that fact. Even if we made it back to Xunyang, how would we ever defend ourselves? As for Huan Xuan, though he has an empty reputation as a bold hero, in reality he is an anxious coward. And we have already defeated and driven off his armies several times, so they will have no real heart to oppose us. Now is the time to decide this, while our two formations face one another. Damn the numbers; the bolder man will triumph."

He led his forces to advance against the enemy, and Liu Yi and the other commanders then followed his lead.

Huan Xuan often kept a full barge with his navy which he would have ready to use to flee if he were defeated. Because of that, none of his soldiers had any real resolve for fighting.

Liu Yi and the others took advantage of the wind to set fires, and they all charged ahead full of zeal. Huan Xuan's army greatly scattered, setting fire to their supply train and fleeing into the night.

Guo Quan came to visit Liu Yi and surrendered.

〈《水經註》:江水東過武口,又東,右得李姥蒲,北對崢嶸洲,劉毅破桓玄處。在今黃州、壽昌軍之間。杜佑曰:崢嶸洲在鄂州武昌縣。崢,仕耕翻。嶸,戶萌翻。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows east through Wukou, then further east. On the right bank is Lilaopu, which faces Zhengrong Islet to the north, the place where Liu Yi routed Huan Xuan." In our time it is between Huangzhou and the Shouchang Garrison. Du You remarked, "Zhengrong Islet is in Wuchang county in Ezhou." The first character of Zhengrong, 崢, is pronounced "sheng (sh-eng)", and the second character, 嶸, is pronounced "heng (h-eng)".)


與冠軍將軍劉毅等相遇於崢嶸洲,眾軍下擊,大破之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan encountered the Champion General, Liu Yi, and the other loyalists at Zhengrong Islet. The loyalists attacked him and greatly routed him.

五月癸酉,冠軍將軍劉毅及桓玄戰于崢嶸洲,又破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, on the day Guiyou (June 10th), the Champion General, Liu Yi, fought Huan Xuan at Zhengrong Islet and once again routed him.

因復馳進,遇玄於崢嶸洲。道規等兵不滿萬人,而玄戰士數萬,眾並憚之,欲退還尋陽。道規曰:「不可。彼眾我寡,強弱異勢。今若畏懦不進,必為所乘,雖至尋陽,豈能自固。玄雖竊名雄豪,內實恇怯,加已經奔敗,眾無固心。決機兩陣,將雄者克。昔光武昆陽之戰,曹操官渡之師,皆以少制多,共所聞也。今雖才謝古人,豈可先為之弱!」因麾眾而進,毅等從之,大破玄軍。郭銓與玄單舸走。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists continued to rush ahead. They encountered Huan Xuan at Zhengrong Islet.

Liu Daogui and the other loyalists did not even have ten thousand troops altogether, while Huan Xuan had tens of thousands of warriors. So the loyalist armies were afraid of Huan Xuan, and they wanted to fall back to Xunyang.

But Liu Daogui declared, "Impossible. The enemy is many while we are few, and there is too great of a difference in strength between us. If we tremble in fright and fail to advance right now, then the enemy will surely take advantage of that fact. Even if we made it back to Xunyang, how would we ever defend ourselves? As for Huan Xuan, though he has an empty reputation as a bold hero, in reality he is an anxious coward. And we have already defeated and driven off his armies several times, so they will have no real heart to oppose us. Now is the time to decide this, while our two formations face one another. The bolder man will triumph. In former times, though Emperor Guangwu of Han was outnumbered at the battle of Kunyang and Cao Cao had fewer soldiers at the battle of Guandu, both of them overcame such disparities and were victorious. And though I cannot claim the same talents as these ancients, I will not be weak where they were strong!"

He led his forces to advance against the enemy, and Liu Yi and the other commanders then followed his lead. They greatly routed Huan Xuan's army, and Huan Xuan and Guo Quan fled in a lone boat.

毅與道規及下邳太守孟懷玉等追及玄,戰于崢嶸洲。毅乘風縱火。盡銳爭先,玄眾大潰,燒輜重夜走。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi, Liu Daogui, the Administrator of Xiapi, Meng Huaiyu, and others pursued Huan Xuan and caught up with him, fighting him at Zhengrong Islet. Liu Yi took advantage of the wind to set fires, and the loyalists all charged ahead full of zeal. Huan Xuan's army greatly scattered, setting fire to their supply train and fleeing into the night.

又與毅、道規破走玄于崢嶸洲。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji also joined with Liu Yi and Liu Daogui to rout Huan Xuan at Zhengrong Islet and drive him off.


玄故將劉統、馮稚等聚黨四百人襲破尋陽城。毅遣建威將軍劉懷肅討平之。懷肅,懷敬之弟也。

50. Huan Xuan's former generals Liu Tong, Feng Zhi, and others gathered four hundred of their partisans to launch a surprise attack against Xunyang city, and they took it. Liu Yi sent the General Who Establishes Might, Liu Huaisu, to campaign against these rebels, and Liu Huaisu dealt with them. This Liu Huaisu was the younger brother of Liu Huaijing.

〈劉懷敬見一百一十一卷隆安三年。〉

(Liu Huaijing was Liu Yu's cousin; he is mentioned in Book 111, in the third year of Long'an (399.51).)


劉懷肅,彭城人,高祖從母兄也。家世貧窶,而躬耕好學。初為劉敬宣寧朔府司馬,東征孫恩,有戰功,又為龍驤司馬、費令。聞高祖起義,棄縣來奔。京邑平定,振武將軍道規追桓玄,以懷肅為司馬。玄留何澹之、郭銓等戍桑落洲,進擊破之。潁川太守劉統平,除高平太守。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

Liu Huaisu was a native of Pengcheng commandary. He was Liu Yu's cousin. Although he came from a poor family, he applied himself at the plow and he enjoyed learning. He was originally appointed as Liu Jingxuan's Marshal in his capacity as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier. He gained achievements in battle during the eastern campaigns against Sun En, so he was appointed as Marshal to the Dragon-Soaring General and as Prefect of Fei.

When Liu Huaisu heard that Liu Yu had launched his uprising, he abandoned his post at Fei and came to join him.

After the capital was pacified, the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, went to pursue Huan Xuan, and he employed Liu Huaisu as his Marshal. Huan Xuan left He Danzhi, Guo Quan, and others to camp at Sangluo Islet, but the loyalists advanced, attacked, and routed them.

After dealing with the Administrator of Yingchuan, Liu Tong, Liu Huaisu was appointed as Administrator of Gaoping.

玄將郭銓、劉雅等襲陷尋陽,毅遣武威將軍劉懷肅討平之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Xuan's generals Guo Quan, Liu Ya, and others gathered four hundred of their partisans to launch a surprise attack against Xunyang, and they took it. Liu Yi sent the General Who Establishes Might, Liu Huaisu, to campaign against these rebels, and Liu Huaisu dealt with them.


玄挾帝單舸西走,留永安何皇后及王皇后於巴陵。殷仲文時在玄艦,求出別船收集散卒,因叛玄,奉二后奔夏口,遂還建康。

51. Huan Xuan took Emperor An and fled west again on a lone boat. He left Empress Yong'an, Lady He, and Empress Wang at Baling. Yin Zhongwen happened to be riding on the same boat as Huan Xuan, and he asked to depart in another boat in order to gather up the scattered soldiers. But having left, he turned against Huan Xuan and took the two Empresses to flee to Xiakou, then returned to Jiankang.

〈永安何皇后,穆帝章皇后也。王皇后,帝之后也。〉

(Empress Yong'an, Lady He, had been the Empress of Emperor Mu. Empress Wang was Emperor An's Empress.)


玄棄眾,復挾天子還復江陵。玄黨殷仲文奉晉二皇后還京師。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan abandoned his army and returned to Jiangling with Emperor An. Huan Xuan's partisan Yin Zhongwen brought the two Jin Empresses back to the capital.


己卯,玄與帝入江陵。馮該勸使更下戰,玄不從;欲奔漢中就桓希,而人情乖沮,號令不行。庚辰,夜中,處分欲發,城內已亂,乃與親近腹心百餘人乘馬出城西走。至城門,左右於闇中斫玄,不中,其徒更相殺害,前後交橫。玄僅得至船,左右分散,惟卞範之在側。

52. On the day Jimao (June 16th), Huan Xuan and Emperor An entered Jiangling. Feng Gai urged Huan Xuan to launch another strike downriver, but Huan Xuan did not listen to him. He planned to flee to Hanzhong to join Huan Xi, but the spirits of his soldiers were too depressed, and they would not obey his orders.

On the day Gengchen (June 17th), during the night, Huan Xuan planned to set out regardless. Since things were already in turmoil within the city, he merely led little more than a hundred of his closest confidantes to ride horses and flee out through the western wall. But when they reached the gate, someone within Huan Xuan's group tried to slash at him, but missed. His followers then began fighting and killing each other, causing complete chaos. Huan Xuan barely made it to his boat. His remaining followers scattered, and only Bian Fanzhi remained by his side.

〈桓希時爲梁州刺史。〉

(At this time, Huan Xi was Inspector of Lianzhou.)


玄至江陵,因西走。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

After reaching Jiangling, Huan Xuan fled to the west.

己卯,帝復幸江陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Jimao (June 16th), Emperor An returned to Jiangling.


辛巳,荊州別駕王康產奉帝入南郡府舍,太守王騰之帥文武爲侍衞。

53. On the day Xinsi (June 18th), the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Jingzhou, Wang Kangchan, led Emperor An into the Staff Bureau of Nan commandary, where the local Administrator, Wang Tengzhi, led the civil and military officials to act as Emperor An's attendants and guards.

南郡太守王騰之、荊州別駕王康產奉天子入南郡府。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Administrator of Nan commandary, Wang Tengzhi, and the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Jingzhou, Wang Kangchan, led Emperor An into the Staff Bureau of Nan commandary.

辛巳,荊州別駕王康產、南郡太守王騰之奉帝居于南郡。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinsi (June 18th), the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Jingzhou, Wang Kangchan, and the Administrator of Nan commandary, Wang Tengzhi, established Emperor An's residence at Nan commandary.


玄將之漢中;屯騎校尉毛脩之,璩之弟子也,誘玄入蜀,玄從之。寧州刺史毛璠,璩之弟也,卒於官。璩使其兄孫祐之及參軍費恬帥數百人送璠喪歸江陵,壬午,遇玄於枚回洲。祐之、恬迎擊玄,矢下如雨,玄嬖人丁仙期、萬蓋等以身蔽玄,皆死。益州督護漢嘉馮遷抽刀,前欲擊玄,玄拔頭上玉導與之,曰:「汝何人,敢殺天子!」遷曰:「我殺天子之賊耳!」遂斬之,又斬桓石康、桓濬、庾賾之,執桓昇送江陵,斬於市。乘輿返正於江陵,以毛脩之爲驍騎將軍。甲申,大赦,諸以畏逼從逆者一無所問。戊寅,奉神主于太廟。劉毅等傳送玄首,梟于大桁。

54. Huan Xuan was planning to continue on his way to Hanzhong. But his Colonel of Camped Cavalry, Mao Xiuzhi, was the nephew of Mao Qu, and Mao Xiuzhi tricked Huan Xuan into entering the Shu region instead.

The Inspector of Ningzhou had been Mao Qu's younger brother Mao Fan, and he had recently passed away at his post. Mao Qu had sent his nephew's son Mao Youzhi and his Army Advisor, Fei Tian, to lead several hundred people to escort Mao Fan's coffin back to Jiangling.

On the day Renwu (June 19th), they ran into Huan Xuan at Meihui Islet. Mao Youzhi and Fei Tian moved to attack Huan Xuan, sending arrows down upon him like rain. Huan Xuan's favorites Ding Xianqi, Wan Gai, and others shielded him with their bodies, so that they died instead.

The Protector of Yizhou, Feng Qian of Hanjia commandary, drew his sword and stepped forward, wishing to attack Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan reached up and pulled out the jade stick from his cap, and demanded, "Who are you, that you dare kill the Son of Heaven?"

Feng Qian replied, "I'm merely killing the Son of Heaven of the bandits!"

The Yizhou soldiers took Huan Xuan's head, as well as the heads of Huan Shikang, Huan Jun, and Yu Zezhi (or Yu Yizhi). They also captured Huan Sheng and sent him to Jiangling, where Huan Sheng was beheaded in the marketplace.

Emperor An was restored to the throne at Jiangling, and Mao Xiuzhi was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry. On the day Jiashen (June 21st), a general amnesty was declared; those who had been compelled to join Huan Xuan's forces out of fear or pressure were all pardoned without any further questions. On the day Wuyin (June 15th?), the Jin ancestral tablets were placed at the Ancestral Temple.

Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders sent Huan Xuan's head to the capital, where it was hung up in a great cangue.

〈《水經註》:江水逕江陵縣南,有洲曰枚回洲。〉〈魏、晉以來,冠幘有簪,有導,至尊以玉爲之。導,引也,所以引髮入冠幘之內也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「賾」作「頤」;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】賾,士革翻。〉〈納尋陽所奉送宗廟主祏也。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows through the south of Jiangling county, where there is an islet called Meihui Islet."

Ever since the Cao-Wei and Jin era, caps and headdresses had hairpins and sticks in them, and these were made out of jade for the caps of the most honored people. The stick was used for guiding and shaping; it shaped the hair inside of the cap.

Some versions state that it was "Yu Yizhi" that was killed here, not "Yu Zezhi". 賾 is pronounced "she (sh-e)".

These were the tablets and shrines that had been sent from Xunyang back to the capital.)


初征虜將軍、益州刺史毛璩,遣從孫祐之與參軍費恬送弟喪下,有眾二百。璩弟子脩之時為玄屯騎校尉,[17]誘玄以入蜀。至枚回洲,恬與祐之迎射之。益州督護馮遷斬玄首,傳京師。又斬玄子昇於江陵市。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Earlier, the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, had sent his nephew's son Mao Youzhi and his Army Advisor, Fei Tian, to lead the funeral train of his younger brother downriver, and they numbered two hundred people altogether.

Mao Qu's nephew Mao Xiuzhi was then serving as Huan Xuan's Colonel of Camped Cavalry, and he tricked Huan Xuan into entering the Shu region. When they came to Meihui Islet, they encountered Mao Youzhi and Fei Tian, who shot at them. The Protector of Yizhou, Feng Qian, took Huan Xuan's head and sent it to the capital. Huan Xuan's son Huan Sheng was also beheaded in the marketplace at Jiangling.

壬午,督護馮遷斬桓玄於貊盤洲。乘輿反正于江陵。甲申,詔曰:「姦凶篡逆,自古有之。朕不能式遏杜漸,以致播越。賴鎮軍將軍裕英略奮發,忠勇絕世,冠軍將軍毅等誠心宿著,協助同嘉謀。義聲旣振,士庶效節,社稷載安,四海齊慶。其大赦,凡諸畏逼事屈逆命者,一無所問。」戊寅,奉神主人于太廟。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Renwu (June 19th), the Protector, Feng Qian, beheaded Huan Xuan at Mopan Islet.

Emperor An was restored to the throne at Jiangling. On the day Jiashen (June 21st), Emperor An issued an edict stating, "Ever since ancient times, there have been wicked traitors who usurped the throne. I was unable to check the traitor's villainy and halt his ambitions, and so I was sent into exile. Yet the General Who Guards The Army, Liu Yu, displayed heroic cunning and spirited initiative; his loyalty and courage surpass the age. Likewise, the Champion General, Liu Yi, and others have devoted their hearts to the cause of the royal family, providing their assistance to help bring the happy plot to fruition. Now the cause of righteousness has spread across the land, and the gentry and the people have fully upheld their duty; the fortunes of state have been restored, and all within the Four Seas rejoice. I hereby declare a general amnesty; let those who had been compelled to join the traitor's forces out of fear or pressure be pardoned without any further questions."

On the day Wuyin (June 15th?), the Jin ancestral tablets were placed at the Ancestral Temple.

是歲,島夷劉裕起兵誅桓玄。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (404), Liu Yu rose up with soldiers and executed Huan Xuan.

江陵不復能守,欲入蜀,為馮遷所斬。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Since Huan Xuan could no longer defend Jiangling, he planned to enter the Shu region. But he was beheaded by Feng Qian.


毅等旣戰勝,以爲大事已定,不急追躡,又遇風,船未能進,玄死幾一旬,諸軍猶未至。時桓謙匿於沮中,揚武將軍桓振匿於華容浦,玄故將王稚徽戍巴陵,遣人報振云:「桓歆已克京邑,馮稚復克尋陽,劉毅諸軍並中路敗退。」振大喜,聚黨得二百人,襲江陵,桓謙亦聚衆應之。閏月,己丑,復陷江陵,殺王康產、王騰之。振見帝於行宮,躍馬奮戈,直至階下,問桓昇所在。聞其已死,瞋目謂帝曰:「臣門戶何負國家,而屠滅若是!」琅邪王德文下牀謂曰:「此豈我兄弟意邪!」振欲殺帝,謙苦禁之,乃下馬,斂容致拜而出。壬辰,振爲玄舉哀,立喪庭,諡曰武悼皇帝。

55. Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders had believed that, now that they had won such a decisive battle, the uprising had already succeeded, so they did not press their pursuit very hard. On top of that, they ran into adverse winds, preventing their ships from sailing further upriver. So even nearly ten days after Huan Xuan's death, they had still not arrived at Jiangling yet.

At this time, Huan Qian was in hiding in the Juzhong region, the General Who Displays Valor, Huan Zhen, was in hiding at Huarongpu, and Huan Xuan's former general Wang Zhihui was camped at Baling. Wang Zhihui sent someone to report to Huan Zhen, saying, "Huan Xin has already retaken the capital, Feng Zhi has retaken Xunyang, and Liu Yi and the others have all been defeated along the road and set to flight."

Huan Zhen was overjoyed, and he gathered together two hundred of his partisans and launched a surprise attack against Jiangling. Huan Qian also led his forces to come support Huan Zhen. In the intercalary month, on the day Jichou (June 26th), they retook Jiangling and killed Wang Kangchan and Wang Tengzhi.

When Huan Zhen saw Emperor An at the provisional palace, he marched right up to the foot of the steps, riding his horse and holding out his dagger-axe, and asked where Huan Sheng was. Upon learning that Huan Sheng had already died, Huan Zhen glared at Emperor An and said, "How has my clan betrayed the state, that we are butchered and slaughtered like this?"

The Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, descended from the royal couch and replied, "Do you think either I or my brother intended this?"

Huan Zhen wanted to kill Emperor An, but Huan Qian bitterly forbade it. So Huan Zhen merely got down off his horse and gave a perfunctory salute before leaving.

On the day Renchen (June 29th), Huan Zhen held mourning for Huan Xuan. He established a mourning court for him, and he granted him the posthumous title Emperor Wudao ("the Martial and Mourned").

〈沿沮水上下爲沮中,臨沮、上黃二縣皆其地也。〉〈華容縣自漢以來屬南郡。《水經註》:江水左迤爲中夏口,右則中郎浦出焉。華容縣今在監利縣界。《晉書‧振傳》曰:匿於華容之涌中。《左傳》:閻敖游涌而逸。杜預《註》云:涌水在南郡華容縣。〉

(The region along the Ju River was called Juzhong; it was made up of the counties of Linju and Shanghuang.

Ever since the Han era, Huarong county had been part of Nan commandary. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The left side of the Yangzi extends towards Zhongxiakou, while the right side flows out through Zhonglangpu." The current area of Huarong county is in the modern Jianli county. The Biography of Huan Zhen in the Book of Jin states, "He was in hiding at Yongzhong in Huarong." The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals mentions that "Yan Ao made his escape from them by swimming across the Yong River." Du Yu's Annotations state, "The Yong River is in Huarong county in Nan commandary.")


初玄敗於崢嶸洲,義軍以為大事已定,追躡不速。玄死幾一旬,眾軍猶不至。玄從子振逃於華容之涌中,招聚逆黨數千人,晨襲江陵城,居民競出赴之。騰之、康產皆被殺。桓謙先匿於沮川,亦聚眾以應。振為玄舉哀,立喪廷。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

After Huan Xuan's defeat at Zhengrong Islet, the loyalists had believed that the uprising had already succeeded, so they did not press their pursuit very hard. So even nearly ten days after Huan Xuan's death, the loyalists had still not arrived at Jiangling yet.

Huan Xuan's cousin's son Huan Zhen had fled to Yongzhong in Huarong county, where he gathered together several thousand of his treasonous partisans. He launched a surprise dawn attack against Jiangling, where the residents came out to support him. Wang Kangchan and Wang Tengzhi were both killed. Huan Qian had earlier hidden at Juchuan, and he also gathered an army and came to support Huan Zhen.

Huan Zhen conducted mourning for Huan Xuan and held a mourning court for him.

閏月己丑,桓玄故將揚武將軍桓振陷江陵... 帝復蒙塵于賊營。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the intercalary month, on the day Jichou (June 26th), the General Who Displays Valor, Huan Xuan's former general Huan Zhen, took Jiangling. Emperor An was once again in exile under rebel control.

義軍遇風不進,桓謙、桓振復據江陵。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists encountered adverse winds, so they could not advance upriver.

Huan Qian and Huan Zhen reoccupied Jiangling.


癸巳,謙等帥羣臣奉璽綬於帝曰:「主上法堯禪舜,今楚祚不終,百姓之心復歸於晉矣。」以琅邪王德文領徐州刺史,振爲都督八郡諸軍事、荊州刺史,謙復爲侍中、衞將軍,加江、豫二州刺史,帝侍御左右,皆振之腹心。

56. On the day Guisi (June 30th), Huan Qian and the others at Jiangling led the ministers to present the seals and ribbons of state to Emperor An. They said, "His Late Majesty, following the examples of abdication followed by Yao and Shun, accepted the Mandate from Your Majesty. But now that Chu's fortunes are at an end, the hearts of the common people long to return to Jin again."

Sima Dewen was appointed as the acting Inspector of Xuzhou. Huan Zhen was appointed as Commander of military affairs in eight commandaries and as Inspector of Jingzhou. Huan Qian was confirmed in his former roles as Palace Attendant and Guard General and was further promoted to be Inspector of Jiangzhou and Yuzhou.

All of Emperor An's guards and attendants were replaced by Huan Zhen's trusted confidantes.

謙率眾官奉璽綬于安帝。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Qian led the officials to present the seals and ribbons of state to Emperor An.


振少薄行,玄不以子妷齒之。至是,歎曰:「公昔不早用我,遂致此敗。若使公在,我爲前鋒,天下不足定也。今獨作此,安歸乎?」遂縱意酒色,肆行誅殺。謙勸振引兵下戰,己守江陵,振素輕謙,不從其言。

57. When Huan Zhen had been a boy, he had been a rascal, and Huan Xuan had not felt that he was in the same tier as his own children. At this time, Huan Zhen sighed and said, "If only Lord Huan had used me earlier, he would not have gone down in defeat like this. If he were still here, I could lead his vanguard, and the whole realm would not be able to stop us. But what am I supposed to do now?"

Huan Zhen merely did whatever he pleased and indulged in wine, acting unrestrained and killing and executing as he wished. Huan Qian urged Huan Zhen to led his forces downriver for another battle, while leaving him to guard Jiangling. But Huan Zhen had long thought little of Huan Qian, so he ignored his advice.

〈以年敍長幼爲齒,又,齒,列也。言不使預子姪之列。〉

(The order of seniority is called a tier; it is also a term for rankings. In other words, Huan Xuan did not consider Huan Zhen to be on the same level as his own children.)


劉毅至巴陵,誅王稚徽。何無忌、劉道規進攻桓謙於馬頭,桓蔚於龍泉,皆破之。蔚,祕之子也。

58. When Liu Yi arrived at Baling, he executed Wang Zhihui. He Wuji and Liu Daogui advanced to attack Huan Qian at Matou and Huan Wei at Longquan, and they routed both of them. This Huan Wei was the son of Huan Mi.

〈馬頭岸在大江南岸,北對江津口。〉〈《水經註》:靈溪之東有龍陂,廣員二百餘步,水至淵深,有龍見于其中,故曰龍陂。〉〈桓祕見一百三卷孝武寧康元年。〉

(The Matou Bank was on the southern bank of the Yangzi; it was across from Jiangjinkou to the north.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In the east of Lingxi there is a Long Slope. It is more than two hundred paces broad, and its water is deep and abyssal. A dragon was sighted within its spring, thus the name Long Slope (‘Dragon Slope’).”

Huan Mi is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Xiaowu's first year of Ningkang (373.3, 7).)


毅留巴陵,道規與無忌俱進攻桓謐於馬頭,桓蔚於寵洲,皆破之。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Yi remained at Baling, while Liu Daogui and He Wuji both advanced. They attacked Huan Mi at Matou and Huan Wei at Chongzhou, and routed both of them.

無忌進據巴陵。玄從兄謙、從子振乘間陷江陵,無忌、道規進攻謙於馬頭,攻桓蔚于龍泉,皆破之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji advanced and occupied Baling. Huan Xuan's cousin Huan Qian and nephew Huan Zhen had taken advantage of an opening to take Jiangling. He Wuji and Liu Daogui advanced to attack Huan Qian at Matou and Huan Wei at Longquan, and they routed both of them.


無忌欲乘勝直趣江陵,道規曰:「兵法,屈申有時,不可苟進。諸桓世居西楚,羣小皆爲竭力;振勇冠三軍,難與爭鋒。且可息兵養銳,徐以計策縻之,不憂不克。」無忌不從。振逆戰於靈溪,馮該以兵會之,無忌等大敗,死者千餘人。退還尋陽,與劉毅等上牋請罪。劉裕以毅節度諸軍,免其青州刺史。桓振以桓蔚爲雍州刺史,鎭襄陽。

59. He Wuji wished to press these latest victories by marching straight for Jiangling. Liu Daogui warned him, "According to the arts of war, there are times when it is best to hold back. You cannot go charging forward. The Huan clan has lived in the western Chu region for generations, and all their minions will give their full strength on their behalf. If they rouse the bold champions of the three armies, it would be hard for us to clash with them. Better for us to let our soldiers rest and recover their morale, while we take the time to develop a plan for them to follow. If we do that, we need not worry about defeat."

But He Wuji did not listen to him. Huan Zhen counterattacked the loyalist armies at Lingxi, and Feng Gai brought his soldiers to join him. He Wuji and the others were greatly defeated, with more than a thousand of their soldiers killed. They retreated back to Xunyang, where they, Liu Yi, and others sent up a letter apologizing for their offenses. Since Liu Yi was the overall commander of the upriver loyalist armies, Liu Yu punished him by stripping him of his title as Inspector of Qingzhou.

Huan Zhen appointed Huan Wei as Inspector of Yongzhou, and he was stationed at Xiangyang.

〈《水經註》:江水自江陵縣南,東逕燕尾洲,北合靈溪水。江、溪之會有靈溪戍,背阿面江,西帶靈溪。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows from the south of Jiangling county east past Yanwei Islet, where to the north it joins with the Lingxi River. There is a garrison at the conjunction of the Yangzi and the Lingxi River, with its back facing the Yangzi and its western side along the Lingxi River.")


無忌、道規既至江陵,與桓振戰于靈溪。玄黨馮該又設伏于楊林,義軍奔敗,退還尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When He Wuji and Liu Daogui arrived at Jiangling, they fought Huan Zhen at Lingxi. But Huan Xuan's partisan Feng Gai had also prepared ambushes at Yanglin, so the loyalists fled in defeat, and they retreated back to Xunyang.

劉毅、何無忌退守尋陽。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Liu Yi and He Wuji retreated to defend Xunyang.

玄既死,從子振大破義軍於楊林,義軍退尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

After Huan Xuan's death, his nephew Huan Zhen greatly routed the loyalist army at Yanglin, and they retreated to Xunyang.

無忌欲乘勝直造江陵,道規曰:「兵法屈申有時,不可苟進。諸桓世居西楚,群小皆為竭力,振勇冠三軍,難與爭勝。且可頓兵養銳,徐以計策縻之,不憂不克也。」無忌不從,果為振所敗。乃退還尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

He Wuji wished to press these latest victories by marching straight for Jiangling. Liu Daogui warned him, "According to the arts of war, there are times when it is best to hold back. You cannot go charging forward. The Huan clan has lived in the western Chu region for generations, and all their minions will give their full strength on their behalf. If they rouse the bold champions of the three armies, it would be hard for us to clash with them. Besides, we should let our soldiers rest and recover their morale, while we take the time to develop a plan for them to follow. If we do that, we need not worry about defeat."

But He Wuji did not listen to him. They were indeed defeated by Huan Zhen, so they retreated back to Xunyang.

及玄死,桓振、桓謙復聚眾距毅於靈溪。玄將馮該以兵會振,毅進擊,為振所敗,退次尋陽,坐免官。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

After Huan Xuan's death, Huan Zhen and Huan Qian gathered up an army to oppose Liu Yi at Lingxi. Huan Xuan's general Feng Gai brought his troops to join Huan Zhen. Liu Yi advanced and attacked them, but he was defeated by Huan Zhen, and he retreated to Xunyang. He was stripped of his position.

既而為桓振所敗,退還尋陽。(Book of JIn 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji was defeated by Huan Zhen, so he retreated back to Xunyang.


柳約之、羅述、甄季之聞桓玄死,自白帝進軍至枝江,聞何無忌等敗於靈溪,亦引兵退。俄而述、季之皆病,約之詣桓振僞降,欲謀襲振,事泄,振殺之。約之司馬時延祖、涪陵太守文處茂收其餘衆,保涪陵。

60. It was earlier mentioned that Mao Qu had sent his subordinates Liu Yuezhi, Luo Shu, and Zhen Jizhi to camp at Baidi. When they heard that Huan Xuan was dead, they advanced from Baidi to Zhijiang. But then they heard that He Wuji and the other loyalists had been defeated at Lingxi, so they led their soldiers back again. Then Luo Shu and Zhen Jizhi both fell ill. Liu Yuezhi came to visit Huan Zhen, pretending to surrender, in order to plot a surprise attack against him. But the plot leaked, and Huan Zhen killed him. Liu Yuezhi's Marshal, Shi Yanzu, and the Administrator of Fuling, Wen Chumao, gathered up the remaining soldiers and guarded Fuling.

〈枝江縣自漢以來屬南郡,我朝省爲鎭,屬松滋縣。〉〈時,姓也。〉

(Ever since the Han era, Zhijiang county had been part of Nan commandary. Our own dynasty has reduced it to a Garrison, as part of Songzi county.

時 Shi was this man's surname.)


六月,毛璩遣將攻漢中,斬桓希,璩自領梁州。

61. In the sixth month, Mao Qu sent his generals to attack Hanzhong, where they took Huan Xi's head. Mao Qu declared himself acting Inspector of Lianzhou.

六月,益州刺史毛璩討偽梁州刺史桓希,斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, campaigned against the Inspector of Lianzhou that Huan Xuan had appointed, Huan Xi, and beheaded him.


秋,七月,戊申,永安皇后何氏崩。

62. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wushen (September 13th), Empress Yong'an, Lady He, passed away.

秋七月戊申,永安皇后何氏崩。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wushen (September 13th), Empress Yong'an, Lady He, passed away.


燕苻昭儀有疾,龍城人王榮自言能療之。昭儀卒,燕王熙立榮於公車門,支解而焚之。

63. In Yan, the Zhaoyi concubine Fu Song'e fell ill. A native of Longcheng, Wang Rong, claimed that he could cure her illness. But she passed away regardless. Murong Xi strung up Wang Rong at the Gongche Gate, dismembered him, then burnt him to death.

八月,癸酉,葬穆章皇后于永平陵。

64. In the eighth month, on the day Guiyou (October 8th), Empress Muzhang (Lady He) was buried at Yongping Tomb.

八月癸酉,祔葬穆帝章皇后于永平陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eighth month, on the day Guiyou (October 8th), Empress Muzhang (Lady He) was buried at Yongping Tomb.


魏置六謁官,準古六卿。

65. Wei created the Six Heralds Bureaus, equal to the old Six Ministers.

九月,刁騁謀反,伏誅,刁氏遂亡。刁氏素富,奴客縱橫,專固山澤,爲京口之患。劉裕散其資蓄,令民稱力而取之,彌日不盡;時州郡饑弊,民賴之以濟。

66. In the ninth month, Diao Cheng plotted rebellion. But he was soon executed, and that was the end of the Diao clan.

The Diao clan had long been rich, with armies of servants, and they had held fast to their mountains and marshes, posing a menace to Jingkou. Liu Yu distributed all their goods and property, ordering the common people to declare their merits in order to claim some, and even after more than a day all the wealth had not been exhausted. Since at that time the provinces and commandaries were suffering from famine and devastation, the common people relied upon this wealth for their livelihoods.

〈刁逵之誅,惟赦騁,而雍得逃走投北;騁又誅,則江南之刁氏亡矣。〉

(It was earlier mentioned that after Diao Kui's execution, Diao Cheng had been the only one spared, although Diao Yong had managed to flee to the north. Now that Diao Cheng had also been executed, that was the end of the Diao clan in the Southland.)


九月,前給事中刁騁、秘書丞王邁之謀反,伏誅。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, the former 給事中, Diao Cheng, and the Assistant of the Imperial Library, Wang Maizhi, plotted rebellion. But they were executed.


乞伏乾歸及楊盛戰于竹嶺,爲盛所敗。

67. Qifu Gangui fought Yang Sheng at the Zhu Ranges, but Yang Sheng defeated him.

〈上邽西南有南山、竹嶺。〉

(The southern hills and the Zhu Ranges were in the southwest of Shanggui commandary.)


討叛羌党龍頭於滋川,攻楊盛將苻帛于皮氏堡,並克之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui attacked the Qiang rebel leader Dang Longtou at Zichuan and he attacked Yang Sheng's general Fu Bo at Shibao, and in both cases he overcame them.


西涼公暠立子歆爲世子。

68. In Western Liang, Li Gao appointed his son Li Xin as his heir.

九月,立第二子歆為世子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 8, Biography of Li Gao)

In the ninth month, Li Gao appointed his second son Li Xin as his heir.


魏主珪臨昭陽殿改補百官,引朝臣文武,親加銓擇,隨才授任。列爵四等:王封大郡,公封小郡,侯封大縣,伯封小縣。其品第一至第四,舊臣有功無爵者追封之,宗室疏遠及異姓襲封者降爵有差。又置散官五等,其品第五至第九;文官造士才能秀異、武官堪爲將帥者,其品亦比第五至第九;百官有闕,則取於其中以補之。其官名不用漢、魏之舊,倣上古龍官、鳥官,謂諸曹之使爲鳧鴨,取其飛之迅疾也;謂候官伺察者爲白鷺,取其延頸遠望也;餘皆類此。

69. At this time, Tuoba Gui reorganized the bureaucratic structure of Wei. While presiding in the Zhaoyang Hall, he summoned his civil and military court officials and evaluated each of them personally, sorting them into appropriate offices according to their talents.

Tuoba Gui created a sort of forked Nine Ranks System for Wei. The first four ranks were for titles of nobility: Princes would be granted large commandaries as their fief, Dukes would be granted small commandaries, Marquises would be granted large counties, and Earls would be granted small counties. Any deceased ministers who, despite their accomplishments in life, had never been granted a noble title were now posthumously appointed to one of these four noble ranks. Meanwhile, distant relatives of the royal family or those nobles of different surnames from the Tuoba had their noble titles accordingly demoted to the proper places. Below the noble titles, Tuoba Gui created two sets of five ranks for the various government offices, from the fifth rank to the ninth rank, with two forks running through the civil and military tracks. Civil officials who possessed excellent and extraordinary talents and military officials who were competent enough to be generals and commanders were reassessed according to these rank tracks, and any officials who had deficiencies were likewise sorted into lower ranks.

Tuoba Gui no longer used the usual official titles that had become standard during the Han and Cao-Wei dynasties. Instead, he reached into the distant past and used the ancient "dragon offices" and "bird offices" for his officials. For instance, he called the messengers of the various management bureaus the Ducks on account of their swiftness, and he called the sacrificial overseers the Herons on account of their habit of extending their necks to see far away. Others were given like titles for the same reasons.

〈《左傳》:郯子曰:昔太皞氏以龍紀,故爲龍師而龍名。我高祖少皞摯之立也,鳳鳥適至,故爲鳥師而鳥名;鳳鳥氏,曆正也;玄鳥氏,司分者也;伯趙氏,司至者也;青鳥氏,司啓者也;丹鳥氏,司閉者也;祝鳩氏,司徒也;鴡鳩氏,司馬也;鳲鳩氏,司空也;爽鳩氏,司寇也;鶻鳩氏,司事也;五鳩,鳩民者也。五雉爲五工正,九扈爲九農正。杜預《註》曰:太皞氏有龍瑞,故以龍名官。應劭曰:以龍紀其官長:春官爲青龍,夏官爲赤龍,秋官爲白龍,冬官爲黑龍,中官爲黃龍。張晏曰:庖犧將興,神龍負圖而至,因以名官與師也。〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》作「諸曹走使」。〉

(Regarding these dragon and bird offices, the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals quotes the Viscount of Tan thusly: "When Taihao (Fuxi) came to power, there was the omen of a dragon, and therefore he had dragon officers, naming them after dragons. When my ancestor Shaohao Zhi succeeded to the kingdom, there appeared at that time a phoenix, and therefore he arranged his government under the nomenclature of birds, making bird officers, and naming them after birds. There were so and so Phoenix-bird, minister of the calendar; so and so Dark-bird (The swallow), master of the equinoxes; so and so Bozhao (The shrike), master of the solstices; so so and so Greenbird (A kind of sparrow), master of the beginning [of spring and autumn]; and so and so Carnation-bird, (The golden pheasant), master of the close [of spring and autumn];—so and so Zhujiu, minister of Instruction; so and so Jujiu, minister of War; so and so Shijiu, minister of Works; so and so Shuangjiu, minister of Crime; so and so Gujiu, minister of affairs. These five Jiu kept the people collected together. The five Zhi (Pheasants) presided over the five classes of mechanics;—they saw to the provision of implements and utensils, and to the correctness of the measures of length and capacity, keeping 'things equal among the people. The nine Hu were the ministers of the nine departments of husbandry, and kept the people from becoming dissolute (Zhao 17.3)." Du Yu's Annotations states, "Taihao (Fuxi) had a good omen from a dragon, so he named his officials after dragons." Ying Shao remarked, "Taihao named his ministries after dragons. The Spring Ministry was the Green Dragon, the Summer Ministry was the Red Dragon, the Autumn Ministry was the White Dragon, the Winter Ministry was the Black Dragon, and the Central Ministry was the Yellow Dragon." Zhang Yan remarked, "When Paoxi (Fuxi) was about to rise, a divine dragon appeared, bearing a map. So Paoxi named his officials and commanders with dragon titles."

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei writes that the Ducks were the "runners" of the various bureaus.)


五月,置山東諸冶,發州郡徒謫造兵甲。秋九月,帝臨昭陽殿,分置眾職,引朝臣文武,親自簡擇,量能叙用;制爵四等,曰「王、公、侯、子」,除伯、男之號;追錄舊臣,加以封爵,各有差。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fifth month, Northern Wei established several ironworks in the regions east of the mountains (east of Luoyang), and drafted fugitives or exiles in those provinces and commandaries to serve as soldiers.

In autumn, the ninth month, Tuoba Gui reorganized the bureaucratic structure of Wei. While presiding in the Zhaoyang Hall, he divided up people into various offices, and he summoned his civil and military court officials and evaluated each of them personally, sorting them into appropriate offices according to their talents and potential. He established four ranks of nobility: Princes, Dukes, Marquises, and Viscounts. The titles of Earl and Baron were abolished. He posthumously appointed late ministers with noble titles, each as suited.


盧循寇南海,攻番禺。廣州刺史濮陽吳隱之拒守百餘日,冬,十月,壬戌,循夜襲城而陷之,燒府舍、民室俱盡,執吳隱之。循自稱平南將軍,攝廣州事,聚燒骨爲共冢,葬於洲上,得髑髏三萬餘枚。又使徐道覆攻始興,執始興相阮腆之。

70. In Jin, the rebel leader Lu Xun invaded Nanhai commandary and attack Panyu. The Inspector of Guangzhou, Wu Yinzhi of Puyang commandary, opposed the rebels and held the city for more than a hundred days. But in winter, the tenth month, on the day Renxu (November 26th), Lu Xun launched a surprise assault on the walls during the night and broke into the city. He burned down all the government offices and the homes of the people, and he captured Wu Yinzhi. Lu Xun declared himself General Who Pacifies The South, in charge of affairs in Guangzhou. He gathered all the burnt skeletons into a mass grave and buried them on an islet; there were more than thirty thousand skulls.

Lu Xun also sent Xu Daofu to attack Shixing, where Xu Daofu captured the Chancellor of Shixing, Ruan Tianzhi.

〈《說文》曰:髑髏,頂也。〉〈吳孫晧甘露元年,分桂陽南部都尉立始興郡,唐爲韶州。〉

(This passage describes the more than thirty thousand things as 髑髏s. The Shuowen dictionary states, "This means a skull."

In Sun Hao of Eastern Wu's first year of Wufeng (265), he split off the Southern Command Post of Guiyang commandary to form Shixing commandary. During Tang, it was Shaozhou.)


冬十月,盧循寇廣州,刺史吳隱之爲循所敗。執始興相阮腆之而還。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, Lu Xun invaded Guanzhou, where he defeated the Inspector, Wu Yinzhi. Lu Xun captured the Chancellor of Shixing, Ruan Tianzhi, and returned.


劉裕領青州刺史。

71. Liu Yu became acting Inspector of Qingzhou.

〈劉毅免青州,裕自領之。〉

(Since Liu Yi had been stripped of this title, Liu Yu assumed it for himself.)


兗州刺史辛禺懷貳。會北青州刺史劉該反,禺求征該,次淮陰,又反。禺長史羊穆之斬禺,傳首京師。十月,高祖領青州刺史。甲仗百人入殿。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Inspector of Yanzhou, Xin Yu, harbored thoughts of rebellion. At the same time, the Inspector of Northern Qingzhou, Liu Gai, actually did rebel. Xin Yu asked to lead a campaign against Liu Gai, but by the time he arrived at Huaiyin, he too rebelled. But Xin Yu's Chief Clerk, Yang Muzhi, beheaded him and sent his head to the capital.

In the tenth month, Liu Yu was appointed as acting Inspector of Qingzhou, and he was allowed to enter the palace with a hundred soldiers in armor.


劉敬宣在尋陽,聚糧繕船,未嘗無備,故何無忌等雖敗退,賴以復振。桓玄兄子亮自稱江州刺史,寇豫章,敬宣擊破之。

72. Liu Jingxuan had remained at Xunyang, where he had stockpiled grain and repaired ships, never once overlooking any needed preparations. So even though He Wuji and the other loyalist commanders had been defeated upriver and forced to fall back to Xunyang, they were quickly able to recover thanks to Liu Jingxuan's efforts.

Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Liang declared himself Inspector of Jiangzhou. He attacked Yuzhang, but Liu Jingxuan counterattacked and routed him.

敬宣既至江州,課集軍糧,搜召舟乘,軍戎要用,常有儲擬。故囗征諸軍雖失利退據,因之每即振復。其年,桓玄兄子亮自號江州刺史,寇豫章;亮又遣苻宏寇廬陵,敬宣並討破之。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

After Liu Jingxuan arrived at Jiangzhou as Inspector, he supervised the collection of military supplies and he gathered and summoned ships and other craft; he made all military preparations, and there was often a surplus of supplies. So even when the other loyalist commanders got the worst of the fighting and were forced to fall back, they were always able to quickly recover thanks to Liu Jingxuan's efforts.

During the same year (404), Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Liang declared himself Inspector of Jiangzhou. He attacked Yuzhang, and he sent Fu Hong to invade Luling. But Liu Jingxuan campaigned against and routed both of them.

又擊桓亮、苻宏於湘中,所在有功。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan also attacked Huan Liang and Fu Hong at Xiangzhong, and gained achievements in the fighting.


劉毅、何無忌、劉道規復自尋陽西上,至夏口。桓振遣鎭東將軍馮該守東岸,揚武將軍孟山圖據魯山城,輔國將軍桓仙客守偃月壘,衆合萬人,水陸相援。毅攻魯山城,道規攻偃月壘,無忌遏中流,自辰至午,二城俱潰,生禽山圖、仙客,該走石城。

73. Liu Yi, He Wuji, and Liu Daogui once again departed Xunyang and sailed west upriver, until they reached Xiakou.

Huan Zhen sent the General Who Guards The East, Feng Gai, to defend Dong'an, he sent the General Who Displays Valor, Meng Shantu, to occupy the city of Lushan, and he sent the General Who Upholds The State, Huan Xianke, to guard Yanyue Rampart. They had ten thousand soldiers altogether, and they could support each other across land and water. But Liu Yi attacked Lushan and Liu Daogui attacked Yanyue Rampart, while He Wuji held the river between them. They fought from dawn until noon, and then the two fortifications fell. They captured Meng Shantu and Huan Xianke, while Feng Gai fled to Shicheng.

〈漢水與江會于魯山西南,漢水之左有卻月城,亦曰偃月壘,故曲陵縣也,後更爲沙羨縣治。〉〈竟陵縣,古石城戍也。《郢州圖經曰》:子城三面墉基皆天造,正西絕壁下臨漢江。石城之名蓋本於此。〉

(Where the Han River joins the Yangzi southwest of Mount Lu, there is a city on the left bank of the Han River called Queyue, also called the Yanyue Rampart. It was the site of the old Quling county. Later, it was the administrative center of Shaxian county.

Jingling county was the site of the old Shicheng Garrison. The Geographical Records of Yingzhou states, "Zicheng has natural walls facing three sides, with its western side forming a rampart along the Yangzi and the Han River." This must have been the place here called Shicheng.)


劉毅諸軍復進至夏口。毅攻魯城,道規攻偃月壘,皆拔之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The loyalists armies under Liu Yu once again advanced to Xiakou. Liu Yi attacked Lucheng while Liu Daogui attacked Yanyue Rampart, and they took both of them.

懷肅與江夏相張暢之攻澹之於西塞,破之。偽鎮東將軍馮該戍夏口東岸,孟山圖據魯山城,桓仙客守偃月壘,皆連壁相望。懷肅與道規攻之,躬擐甲胄,陷二城,馮該走石城,生擒仙客。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

Liu Huaisu and the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhang Changzhi, attacked He Danzhi at Xisai and routed him.

Huan Xuan's General Who Guards The East, Feng Gai, camped at Dong'an, Meng Shantu occupied the city of Lushan, and Huan Xianke guarded Yanyue Rampart. All of these fortifications were in sight of one another. But Liu Huaisu and Liu Daogui attacked them, personally wearing armor and helmets, and they took the two forts. Feng Gai fled to Shicheng, while the loyalists captured Huan Xianke.

繕治舟甲,復進軍夏口。偽鎮軍將軍馮該戍夏口東岸,揚武將軍孟山圖據魯城,輔國將軍桓仙客守偃月壘。於是毅攻魯城,道規、無忌攻偃月,並克之,生禽仙客、山圖。其夕,該遁走。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)x

The loyalists repaired and restored their ships and armor, then advanced once again to Xiakou. Huan Zhen's General Who Guards The Army, Feng Gai, was camped at Dong'an at Xiakou; his General Who Displays Valor, Meng Shantu, had occupied the city of Lushan; and his General Who Upholds The State, Huan Xianke, was guarding Yanyue Rampart. Liu Yi attacked Lushan while Liu Daogui and He Wuji attacked Yanyue Rampart, and they took both places. They captured Meng Shantu and Huan Xianke, while that evening, Feng Gai fled into hiding.

無忌與毅、道規復進討振,克夏口三城。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji, Liu Yi, and Liu Daogui once again advanced to campaign against Huan Zhen. They took the three forts at Xiakou.


辛巳,魏大赦,改元天賜。築西宮。十一月,魏主珪如西宮,命宗室置宗師,八國置大師、小師,州郡亦各置師,以辨宗黨,舉才行,如魏、晉中正之職。

74. On the day Xinsi (December 15th), Wei declared a general amnesty, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Tianci. They also built the Western Palace.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui went to the Western Palace. He ordered the creation of various offices. For the imperial clan in general, he created the Clan Instructor. For the eight princedoms, he created for each of them a Greater and Lesser Instructor. The provinces and commandaries also each had their own Instructors. These Instructors were responsible for handling the imperial clan and its partisans, as well as recommending people of high talents or good conduct, similar to the Rectifiers from the Cao-Wei and Jin bureaucracies.

〈《魏書‧官氏志》曰:以八國姓族難分,故國立大師、小師,令辨其宗黨,品舉人才。自八國以外,郡各立師,職分如八國,比今之中正也。宗室立宗師,亦如州郡八國之職。〉

(The Records of Ministerial Clans from the Book of Northern Wei states, "Since the clans of the eight princedoms were hard to divide, each princedom was assigned a Greater and Lesser Instructor, with orders to manage the imperial clan and its partisans and evaluate and recommend talented people. Beyond the eight princedoms, each commandary also had its own Instructor, with offices similar to those of the princedoms and comparable to the modern Rectifiers. The imperial clan itself also had the Clan Instructor, which too was similar to the Instructors of the provinces, commandaries, and princedoms.")


冬十月辛巳,大赦,改元。築西宮。十有一月,上幸西宮,大選朝臣,令各辨宗黨,保舉才行,諸部子孫失業賜爵者二千餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinsi (December 15th), Northern Wei declared a general amnesty, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Tianci. They also built the Western Palace.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui went to the Western Palace. He made a great selection of court ministers and ordered each of them to handle the imperial clan, as well as guard and recommend those of good talents or conduct. More than two thousand descendants of the imperial clan were granted noble titles and deprived of their livelihoods.


燕王熙與苻后遊畋,北登白鹿山,東踰青嶺,南臨滄海而還,士卒爲虎狼所殺及凍死者五千餘人。

75. In Yan, Murong Xi went hunting and traveling together with Empress Fu. They went north and ascended Mount Bailu, east and crossed the Qing Ranges, and south to Canghai before returning. More than five thousand soldiers were killed by tigers and dholes or froze to death during this journey.

〈《水經註》:大遼水東南過遼東郡房縣西,又右會白狼水,山出右北平白狼縣東南,北屈,逕白鹿山西,卽白狼山也。青嶺卽青陘,在龍城東南四百餘里。魏收《地形志》,建德郡石城縣有白鹿山祠。〉〈滄海在遼西郡海陽縣南。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Great Liao River flows southeast through the west of Fang county in Liaodong commandary, then to the right it joins with the Bailang River. This river flows out of the mountains in the southeast of Bailang county in Youbeiping commandary, then turns north and passes west of Mount Bailu, also called Mount Bailang." According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a shrine on a Mount Bailu in Shicheng county in Jiande commandary.

The Qing Ranges were Qingxing, more than four hundred li southeast of Longcheng.

Canghai was in the south of Haiyang county in Liaoxi commandary.)


十二月,劉毅等進克巴陵。毅號令嚴整,所過百姓安悅。劉裕復以毅爲兗州刺史。

76. In the twelfth month, Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders advanced and captured Baling. Liu Yi had ordered his soldiers to observe strict discipline and restraint, so the common people were secure and pleased with him.

Liu Yu reappointed Liu Yi as Inspector of Yanzhou.

十二月,諸軍進平巴陵。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the twelfth month, the loyalists advanced and captured Baling.

進平巴陵。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists advanced and captured Baling.

尋原之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi was later restored to his position.

遂平巴陵。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji and the others took Baling.


桓振以桓放之爲益州刺史,屯西陵;文處茂擊破之,放之走還江陵。

77. Huan Zhen appointed Huan Fangzhi as Inspector of Yizhou, and he camped at Xiling. But the Yizhou general Wen Chumao attacked and routed him, and Huan Fanzhi fled back to Jiangling.

高句麗侵燕。

78. Goguryeo invaded Yan.

戊辰,魏主珪如豺山宮。

79. On the day Wuchen (January 31st of 405), Tuoba Gui returned to the palace at Mount Chai.

十有二月戊辰,車駕幸犲山宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the twelfth month, on the day Wuchen (January 31st of 405), Tuoba Gui went to the palace at Mount Chai.


是歲,晉民避亂,襁負之淮北者道路相屬。

80. During this year, many of the common people of Jin filled the roads leading north of the Huai River, carrying their babes on their backs, as they fled the turmoil in Jin.

是秋,江南大亂,流民繈負而奔淮北,行道相尋。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

That autumn, because of the great turmoil in the Southland, many of the common people of Jin fled and filled the roads leading north of the Huai River, carrying their babes on their backs.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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