The Twelfth Year of Yonghe (The Bingchen Year, 356 AD)
1. In spring, the first month, Murong Ke led his troops across the Yellow River. When they were still over a hundred li away from Duan Kan’s capital at Guanggu, Duan Kan brought thirty thousand men against them in battle. On the day Bingshen, Murong Ke greatly routed Duan Kan at Zishui; he captured his younger brother Duan Qin, and killed his Chief Clerk of the Left Yuan Fan and others.
The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Murong Ke routed Duan Kan south of the Ji River." (Jinshu 110.17) The above passage in ZZTJ mentions that Murong Ke was still over a hundred li from Guanggu, and that the two armies fought the battle at the Zi River. The Water Classic says, "The Zhuo River passes west of Guanggu city, and flows east until it reaches Guangrao, where it enters Lake Judian. To the north, it also joins with the Zi River."
The Zi or Zihe River and Guangrao are both still places in modern Shandong. Lake Judian was northwest of modern Shouguang in Shandong.
Among Duan’s commanders was the 王友, Pilu Yu, who performed many great achievements during the battle. When Murong Ke heard of this man's worth, he sent men to look for him, but by then Pilu Yu had already died, and many thousands of the enemy soldiers had surrendered. Duan Kan fled back to defend Guanggu, and Murong Ke pursued him and put the city under siege.
When Duan Kan declared himself Prince of Qi, he also created the office of 王友.
蔚 is pronounced "yu (y-u)".
2. Qin's Minister of Works, Wang Duo, was of a stern nature. He burned with rage against the Deputy Director of the Right Dong Rong and the Palace Attendant Qiang Guo for their sophistry. Whenever he was at court, Dong Rong never tried to utter a word. Someone said to him, "Lord Dong is a worthy man without peer; you should not be so harsh with him." Wang Duo replied, "Dong Long nothing but a chicken or a dog, and yet he thinks he can order around ministers of state!"
Long was Dong Rong's childhood name.
At that time, there were sudden changes in the heavens. Dong Rong and Qiang Guo said to Fu Sheng, "The movements of the constellations are very serious. A worthy minister must be offered up." Fu Sheng asked, "Should this worthy minister be the Grand Marshal or the Minister of Works?" Dong Rong replied, "The Grand Marshal is indispensable to the state; he cannot be killed."
The Grand Marshal refers to the Prince of Wudu, Fu An, who was Fu Sheng's uncle.
In the final sentence here, some versions have "(Qiang) Guo" instead of "(Dong) Rong".
Fu Sheng therefore executed Wang Guo. While Wang Guo was being led out to be executed, Dong Rong said to him, "Do you dare to still say that Dong Long is just a chicken or dog?" Wang Duo only glared at him and loudly rebuked him.
The Inspector of Luozhou, Du Yu, was Wang Duo's nephew. The Deputy Director of the Left Zhao Shao disliked him, so he accused Du Yu to Fu Sheng of planning to defect to Jin, and Fu Sheng executed him.
3. On the day Renxu, Fu Sheng convened a feast of all the ministers in the Taiji Palace. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xin Lao, was put in charge of distributing the wine. After becoming drunk, Fu Sheng was angry and said, "How can such weak men drink and yet still be in their seats?" So he shot an arrow at Xin Lao, which killed him. The remaining ministers became greatly afraid, and none dared not to drink; they all fell forward out of their seats and onto their faces. Fu Sheng was thereafter greatly pleased.
4. The Xiongnu chieftain Liu Wuhuan passed away. His younger brother Liu Etou took over his command, planning to go over to Dai. In the second month, the King of Dai, Tufa Shijian, marched his soldiers west to Linhe. Liu Etou was afraid and offered submission.
犍 is pronounced "jian (j-an)". 閼 is pronounced "e (w-e)".
5. Murong Ke offered amnesty to Duan Kan's cities.
Before Murong Ke had besieged Guanggu, he first offered amnesty and regained control over Duan Kan's other cities.
On the day Yichou, Wang Teng, Duan Kan's Inspector of Xuzhou and Duke of Yangdu, brought his forces in to submit. Murong Ke ordered Wang Teng to return to garrison Yangdu.
Duan Kan split Yangdu County off from Langye in Xuzhou. Du You remarked, "Under Han, the old city of Yangdu County was south of Yishui County in Yizhou."
Yangdu is part of the modern city of Linyi in Shandong. Du You (735-812) was a scholar during the Tang dynasty.
6. Qin's Grand General Who Conquers The East, the Prince of Jin Fu Liu, sent his advisors Yan Fu and Liang Shu to Liang, to speak with the Prince of Liang, Zhang Xuanjing. When Yan Fu and Liang Shu arrived at Guzang, Zhang Guan received them. He said, "I am a subject of Jin; a subject has no dealings with foreign states, so why do the two of you come to insult me?"
Yan and Liang replied, "Your lordship and the Prince of Jin are neighbors; although mountains and rivers create barriers, the same wind blows through both realms. We have come to improve relations; why is your lordship so combative?"
Qin had sent Fu Liu to guard Puban (near Luoyang), which was not on the border with Liangzhou, so this passage about winds blowing through both realms was just talk.
Zhang Guan said, "We are utterly loyal to Jin, and have been so for six different lords. To treat with General Fu is to abandon the wishes of our late lord, and to ruin the happiness of the people; what sense is there in that?"
Counting Zhang Gui, Zhang Shi, Zhang Mao, Zhang Jun, Zhang Chonghua, Zhang Yaoling, and Zhang Zuo, Former Liang had thus far had seven lords. Yet Zhang Guan says six; by this he means not to include Zhang Zuo among the other lords.
Yan and Liang replied, "The Jin dynasty has declined; it has surrendered Heaven's mandate, and merely lingers on. Two of your own lords recognized the supremacy of the north, and inclined towards the two Zhaos. Now our state of Qin has grown virtuous and prosperous. If the Prince of Liang wishes to proclaim himself Emperor of all territory west of the river, he cannot but make a foe of Qin. But if he abandons minor affairs for greater, and forswears Jin loyalty in favor of Qin, he can assuredly safeguard his destiny!"
Zhang Mao had earlier called himself a vassal of Han-Zhao, and Zhang Jun had done the same for Later Zhao.
Zhang Guan said, “The Central Provinces ate their words before. By the time our carriages had returned from the Shi clan, their soldiers and cavalry were already on our doorstep. I dare not believe you."
In the second year of Yonghe (346), when Zhang Chonghua came to the throne, he sent his tokens of submission to Shi Hu, yet Shi Hu sent Wang Zhuo to invade Liang.
Yan and Liang replied, "Since ancient times, when kings and emperors have taken hold of the Central Provinces, they have transformed all aspects of government. Where Zhao became evil, Qin has restored trust and virtue. How could you believe that we would give you the same treatment as Zhao? Witness what happened when Zhang Xian and Yang Chu both raised soldiers and refused to submit; our late lord campaigned against them, but he offered amnesty to the other criminals, and favored them with office. That was most unlike the Shi clan."
Qin had treated everyone with the sword thus far, which was the same as Zhao. Such talk cannot get much lower.
Zhang Xian's capture was mentioned in the eighth year of Yonghe in Book 98 (350.28), but Qin had not actually captured Yang Chu. (In their last attempt, their army had been defeated, as seen in Book 99, 353.10) This was more of Yan Fu's and Liang Shu's rhetoric.
Zhang Guan said, "If it is as you say, and Qin truly displays virtue without equal, then why do you not first conquer the Southland, and take the whole realm under Qin's grasp? Why does General Fu shirk the duties of the mandate?"
Yan and Liang replied, "The people of the Southland tattoo their bodies; its paths defile and betray, and transform the grand into meager. If your lordship can provide soldiers for the Southland, then your lands may contain virtue in their bosom, and serve as an example to all. But if your lordship ignores Heaven's mandate, and insists upon the Southland being conquered before its allotted time, then we fear what may happen to your lordship's people."
In ancient times (from the Warring States era and before), it was the custom of the barbarians of Jing (or Chu) to cut their hair and tattoo their bodies in order to avoid the wrath of the flood dragon. This is what Yan Fu and Liang Shu are alluding to. Yet, at the very time they were speaking, those who wore civilized clothing were all in the Southland, and had been for some time. Yan Fu and Liang Shu were thus blathering on as though they represented Yao criticizing the licentious, while knowing full well what sort of man their own lord was!
Zheng Xuan has said, "Foulness can still kill." The Book of Changes says, "When Gaozong of Shang campaigned against Guifang, it took him three years to subdue it." (63.4) There were those who said that the people of Jing and Chu were not very brave, but that the roads themselves would fight against invaders, and turn the grand into the meagre. This was how Yan Fu and Liang Shu were also criticizing the Southland.
Yao was one of the Three Rulers and Five Sovereigns, often said to be the exemplar of moral and upright behavior.
Zheng Xuan was a scholar during the final years of the Han dynasty. He wrote numerous commentaries that were critical for later interpretations of Confucianism.
Guifang was a realm near the ancient Shang dynasty. Its inhabitants are probably the same as those later known as the Xiongnu.
Zhang Guan retorted, "I control three provinces, and have outfitted a hundred thousand men; to the west I am guarded by verdant mountains, and to the east by the great river. If any wish to attack, I am well prepared to defend; what fear need I have of Qin?"
The three provinces were Liangzhou, Hezhou, and Shazhou (the Western Reaches), which Zhang Mao and Zhang Jun had split off from the original Liangzhou.
Yan and Liang replied, "You speak of mountains and rivers; how do yours compare with the Xiao Mountains and the Han(?)? You boast of the people's bounty; how do yours compare with the produce of Qinzhou and Yongzhou? Du Hong and Zhang Ju had the resources of Zhao at their disposal; their soldiers were strong and their resources plenty. But with the ambition of first taking Guanzhong, and then rolling up all within the four seas, our late lord raised his banners to the west. Ice melted and clouds parted; within the space of a month, no one failed to acknowledge his rule. If your lordship remains stubborn on account of your lands, our current lord will grow exceedingly angry, and fling his million troops against you, beating the drums to march west, and then who can say what might happen to your territory?"
The account of Fu Jian's conquest of Guanzhong was related in the sixth year of Yonghe (350) in Book 98.
The Xiao (or Yao) Mountains are a mountain range stretching north from the Luo River to Puban, on the eastern border of Qin.
Zhang Guan smiled and said, "But this is a matter for the Prince to decide, not me."
Yan and Liang said, "The Prince is indeed a worthy hero of noble character, but in the end he is still young. With your lordship in the role of Yi Yan and Huo Guang, the state will know peace; we pray you lend us your ear."
Zhang Guan was afraid, and so he sent orders on behalf of Zhang Xuanjing professing submission to Qin. Qin therefore confirmed Zhang Xuanjing's titles and offices.
7. General Liu Du attacked Qin's Inspector of Qingzhou, Wang Lang, at Lushi. Yan's General Muyu Zhangqing made a supporting movement, attacking Qin's Inspector of Youzhou, Qiang Zhe, at Peishibao. Fu Sheng sent his General of the Front, the Prince of Xinxing Fu Fei, to oppose Liu Du, while he sent his General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, to oppose Muyu Zhangqing. Fu Fei was eventually forced to retreat by Liu Du. Deng Qiang met Muyu Zhangqing in battle and won a great victory, capturing Muyu and bringing back over two thousand heads and equipment.
During Han, Lushi County was part of Hongnong commandary. Jin had placed it in Shangluo commandary. The Tang dynasty would later make it part of Guozhou.
During the Chaos of Yongjia (310-316), the Pei clan (of Yingchuan) built a fortress for self-defense to escape from the danger. Later on, whenever soldiers camped there, they still called the old fort Peishibao (literally "Pei Clan's Fort"). It was on the border with Hedong.
長 is pronounced "zhang (zh-ang)".
The Wang Lang mentioned here has the same name as the Wang Lang who had served Later Zhao and was last mentioned fleeing to Xiangguo. It is possible it is the same person, but that does not seem to be clear.
8. Huan Wen requested that the Jin capital be returned to Luoyang, so that the old imperial tombs could be repaired. He made the request more than ten times, but the court did not agree. Huan was appointed as Grand Commander, with authority over Sizhou and Jizhou, and planned to campaign against Yao Xiang.
9. In the third month, Fu Sheng ordered the people of the Three Regions (around Chang’an) to construct bridges over the Wei River. The Household Counsellor With Golden Tassel, Cheng Gong, remonstrated with him, saying that the corvee labor would hinder farming. Fu Sheng killed him.
10. In summer, the fourth month, a great storm whipped Chang'an, and the houses were struck by wood. There was great fear in the palace, that perhaps thieves might slip in, and so the palace gates were shut even during daytime, only opening again after five days.
The wind snatched tiles off the roofs of houses, and pulled the eaves off of them.
Fu Sheng warned the thieves that he would carve out their hearts. The Household Counsellor of the Left Qiang Ping remonstrated with him: "Heaven sent this disaster upon us. Your Majesty must win back the hearts of the people and appease the gods. Now is the time to offer forgiveness in order to reestablish virtue, and thus end the disturbances." Fu Sheng became angry, and grasped a hammer and smote Qiang Ping to death with it.
The Guard General, Prince of Guangping Fu Huangmei, the General of the Front, Prince of Xinxing Fu Fei, and the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Deng Qiang, kowtowed before Fu Sheng and remonstrated with him, because Qiang Ping had been Empress Dowager Qiang's younger brother. Fu Sheng did not heed them, and even ordered the three of them banished: Fu Huangmei to Western Pingyi, Fu Fei to Eastern Fufeng, and Deng Qiang to be the Administrator of Xianyang. However, respecting their bravery, he did not order them executed.
There had been a Weicheng County as part of Fufeng under Former Han, which was the same place as Xianyang under the Qin dynasty. Later Han and Jin had abolished it. According to the "Geographical Record" compiled during Northern Wei, "Xianyang commandary is administered from Shian County. It was known as Weicheng during Han, but Shi Le renamed it. It was one of several commandaries that the several tribes created after the Disaster of Yongjia."
In the fifth month, the Empress Dowager, Lady Qiang, passed away out of grief; her posthumous name was Empress Dowager Mingde.
11. Yao Xiang marched from Xuchang to attack Zhou Cheng at Luoyang.
Zhou Cheng's seizure of Luoyang was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (354) during the last book (Book 99, 354.2).
12. In the sixth month, Fu Sheng sent out a proclamation stating, "I have received the mandate of the Yellow Heaven, and countless lords bow to me. Yet since I came to the throne, whenever something bad happened, slanders and rumors began to spread, and now the realm is filled with them! I have not killed even a thousand people, yet people say I am cruel! If we walk together, then we may still have hope. Wherever someone is sternly punished for a great crime, there too am I!"
During that spring, from Tong Gate west up until Chang'an, tigers and wolves became violent, and they filled the roads. At night they would burst into houses, and rather than eat one of the Six Livestock, they would turn on and eat people, and over seven hundred people died in this manner. The people abandoned their farming and silkworm cultivating, instead gathering together into towns and cities, so that they would not have to fear being harmed. In autumn, the seventh month, several Qin ministers sent in petitions requesting that something be done to halt the calamity. Fu Sheng said, "It's only natural that wild beasts that are starving will eat people. They will stop once they've filled their bellies. How can I avert such a thing? Rather, this is Heaven showing its love for the people; those who died were all criminals, and Heaven was only helping me to kill them all!"
That is to say, the roads were filled with tigers and wolves. Some versions say "blocked" instead of "filled".
The text is saying that Fu Sheng's cruelty matched that of Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang.
The Six Livestock are horses, cattle, sheep, chickens, dogs, and pigs.
13. On the day Bingzi, Yan's Crown Prince, Murong Ye, passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xianhuai (“the Cherished”).
Yao Xiang attacked Luoyang, but despite assaulting it for over a month, he could not capture it. His Chief Clerk, Wang Liang, remonstrated, saying, "You have a heroic legacy and are well-regarded; your soldiers are strong and your people numerous. But now you camp here outside this city, expending your strength upon assaults, and exposing yourself to bandits. This course can only lead to ruin!" Yao Xiang did not listen to him.
14. Huan Wen marched north from Jiangling. He sent his Protector Gao Wu to capture Luyang, and his General Who Upholds The State Dai Shi to camp along the river, while he himself led the bulk of his army forward.
As they passed the crude shacks that now dotted the Central Plains, with deep emotion Huan Wen stood on the upper deck of his ship and said to his subordinates, "For causing the Central Plains to fall into the grasp of the barbarians and lie in ruin for a hundred years, Wang Yan and his ilk bear a heavy burden!"
The upper deck was a part of large ships.
Wang Yan and the other advocates of the "Pure Conversation" school during Western Jin had not busied themselves with state affairs, and it was because of that that the barbarians rebelled against the Hua (the ethnic Han) people.
Qingtan, or Pure Conversation, was a Daoist philosophical school of thought that arose during the Wei-Jin era, and continued to be popular through the Southern and Northern dynasties.
Huan Wen's 記室, Yuan Hong of Chenjun, said, "Fate naturally brings its falls and rises; why were Wang Yan and his friends necessarily to blame?"
The Dukes and other noble families of Jin each had their 記室, who was responsible for composing memorials, compiling records, and distributing proclamations.
Huan Wen sternly replied, "In bygone days, Liu Jingsheng (Biao) owned a large ox weighing a thousand catties. It ate ten times as much fodder and beans as ordinary oxen. Yet when it came to bearing heavy burdens or traveling long distances, it wasn't even the equal of a sick calf. When Cao Cao invaded Jingzhou, he cooked the beast and fed it to his men, and everyone rejoiced."
Huan Wen was using the story of the cattle as a metaphor to instruct Yuan Hong, and was really talking about people who drew government salaries yet were useless for administration.
Liu Biao's style name was Jingsheng.
The account of Cao Cao's entry into Jingzhou is described in the thirteenth year of Jian'an, in Book 65.
This anecdote is also referenced in A New Account of the Tales of the World. For an English reference of Cao Cao’s entry into Jingzhou, see To Establish Peace by Dr. Rafe de Crespigny.
15. In the eighth month, on the day Yihai, Huan Wen reached the Yi River.
The Yi River is south of Luoyang.
Yao Xiang broke off his siege of Luoyang and marched his best troops to the woods on the north bank of the Yi River. He sent a messenger to Huan Wen, with the message, "I see you have led the royal troops here. I am prepared to return to royal authority, turn over my three small armies, and offer my submission by the side of the road."
Huan Wen's reply was, "I have come to recover the Central Plains, and to offer my respects at the imperial tombs, not to appease you. If you wish to present yourself, you ought to come in person; why bother sending another in your place?"
Yao Xiang therefore prepared to fight a battle at the Yi River. Huan Wen prepared his soldiers and came against Yao Xiang, casting off his own armor in order to lead his soldiers. Yao Xiang suffered a great defeat, losing several thousand men. He fled with several thousand of his remaining cavalry to seek refuge in the northern hills of Luoyang. During the nights, many of the local people sent their wives and children to join him, more than five thousand.
The northern hills of Luoyang means the Beimang Hills.
Yao Xiang was regarded as so much a hero that, although he continued to suffer defeats to Huan Wen, the people knew that he was still there; he comforted the old and cherished the young, and those who fled he gathered together. So Huan Wen’s army spread a rumor that Yao Xiang had fallen ill and had already died, and his soldiers seized all the women and children still in Xuchang and Luoyang, who shed tears whenever they looked to the north.
The text is saying how greatly Yao Xiang had captured the hearts of the people.
Yao Xiang fled to the west. Huan Wen’s soldiers pursued Yao Xiang, but they could not catch him. During the pursuit, a certain Yang Liang of Hongnong left Yao's band and went over to Huan Wen. Huan asked him what sort of man Yao Xiang was. Yang Liang responded, "He has the bearing of an immortal; in heroism and in valor, he even surpasses men like Sun Ce."
16. Zhou Cheng led his troops out of Luoyang to submit. Huan Wen camped his men in front of the Taiji Palace, before relocating to Jinyong. On the day Yichou, he visited all the imperial tombs, repairing the places that had been damaged, and appointing a Tomb Prefect for each.
During Han, the imperial tombs had their villages, and each village had a Prefect. Later, the several tombs would each have a Tomb Prefect, and they were subordinate to the Minister of Ceremonies.
He gave orders for General Who Guards The West Xie Shang to be in command of affairs in Sizhou, and to garrison at Luoyang. Once Xie Shang had arrived, he left the Administrator of Yingchuan Mao Muzhi, the Protector Chen Wu, and the Administrator of Henan Dai Shi with two thousand troops to form a garrison for Luoyang and to protect the imperial tombs. He brought over three thousand families from that region to the area between the Yangzi and the Han River, and Zhou Cheng was taken there as well.
17. Yao Xiang fled to Pingyang, where Qin's Inspector of Bingzhou, his former subordinate Yi Chi, once again surrendered to him with his troops. Yao Xiang then captured Xiangling. Qin's Grand General, Zhang Ping, attacked Yao Xiang, but Yao defeated him. Following this, the two of them swore brotherhood, each leading his own troops.
It was mentioned that Yin Chi had abandoned Yao Xiang in the eighth year of Yonghe (352) in the last book (Book 99).
During Han, Xiangling County had been part of Hedong commandary, and during Jin it was part of Pingyang commandary. Later on, Northern Wei changed its name from Xiangling to Qinchang County, and under Sui and Tang its name was changed back to Xiangling.
In the seventh year of Yonghe (351), Zhang Ping had submitted to Qin, but then had switched over to Yan. The "Tongdian" says that Qin had won him over again with new titles.
The Tongdian was an enormous encyclopedia about Chinese history up through the Tang dynasty. It was written by the scholar Du You, mentioned earlier.
18. Duan Kan sent his subordinate Duan Yun to plead for aid from Jin. The Jin court ordered the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xun Xian, to bring his troops back with Duan Yun to assist Duan Kan.
Some versions write 薀 as 蘊. 薀 is pronounced "yun (y-en)".
When Xun Xian reached Langye, he feared the strength of Yan's soldiers, so he did not dare advance. Wang Teng invaded Juancheng. Xun Xian advanced to attack Yangdu. There were heavy rains then, and the city was flooded. Xun Xian captured Wang Teng and executed him.
This was the old Langye.
This Juancheng County had been part of Dong Commandary under Han, and it was under Puyang during Jin. It is not the ancient Juancheng County, which was at this time called Qiao County.
Duan Kan had earlier appointed this Wang Teng as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was camped at Yangdu. At this time, he had surrendered to Yan, and it was on behalf of Yan that he was invading.
19. In winter, the tenth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi, there was an eclipse.
20. Fu Sheng ate a large quantity of red dates one night. In the morning, he felt sick, so he sent for the Prefect of Imperial Doctors, Cheng Yan, to diagnose him. Cheng Yan said, "Your Majesty is not truly sick; you must have eaten too many red dates." Fu Sheng said, "You are not a magician; how could you know I was eating red dates?" He ordered Cheng Yan's execution.
21. Murong Ke kept Duan Kan under siege at Guanggu.
His officers asked him to launch an assault on the city. Murong Ke said, “When using soldiers, there are courses one should pursue and courses one should avoid, and the two cannot be mistaken for one another. If we and the enemy are equally strong, then if they receive any reinforcement, I fear it will pose a threat to our rear, so we would not be able to risk an attack. If we are strong and the enemy is weak, and they do not have any reinforcements, then it is enough for us to contain them, while we also ensure the defenses of our other territories. By such means we can defeat them.
“The Art of War states, 'When you have ten times the enemy's numbers, surround them; when five times, attack'. Although Duan Kan has numerous soldiers, they are ultimately conflicted. At the battle at Jinan, although they fought well, Duan Kan did not use them well, and so received a defeat. Now that we have them besieged, they will hold fast to the defense, and if we launch a vigorous assault, we would need to account for many days to capture the city, and we would necessarily suffer many casualties.
Murong Ke means the battle at the Zi River. He calls it Jinan because it was at the boundary between the north and south of the Ji River.
Some versions say "tens of days" instead of "days".
“Ever since we captured the Central Plains, the soldiers have not had a moment's rest, but you are always demanding more of them. If they forget to sleep at night, they will be of little use before they drop dead! So if you want to take the city, you must not demand to achieve things so quickly!”
His officers said, "We will demand this no more." When this discussion became generally known in the camp, the people rejoiced. Thus they kept up their siege lines, and the people of Qi worked to keep the Yan army provided with grain.
It is curious to note that Murong Ke almost always advocated besieging cities and not assaulting them, a direct repudiation of one of the Art of War's tenets. "Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities. The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets, movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over against the walls will take three months more. The general, unable to control his irritation, will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, with the result that one-third of his men are slain, while the town still remains untaken. Such are the disastrous effects of a siege." (3.2)
22. Duan Kan defended at Yingcheng. He stripped the roads bare of firewood, and the people within the city began to eat each other. Duan Kan gathered his host and went forth to battle. Murong Ke routed him between the walls, first sending out riders to guard each gate. Duan Kan himself slipped away, alone escaping into the city, while his soldiers did not. Morale within the city plummeted, and no one was willing to defend the city.
At that time, the Yan army had constructed siege walls outside the city, so the battle was between the walls.
The text means the several gates of Guanggu.
In the eleventh month, on the day Bingzi, Duan Kan bound himself and went out to offer his surrender, and sent Zhi Zhu, who had killed Murong Han's son Murong Gou, to Ji. Murong Ke calmed the people and pacified the Qi region. He relocated more than three thousand households of Xianbei, Hu, and Jie to Ji. Murong Jun subjected Zhi Zhu to the five punishments, and appointed Duan Kan as General Who Lays In Ambush. Murong Ke left Murong Chen to guard Guanggu, and appointed the Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing Ju Yin as Administrator of Donglai. He also appointed Xianyu Liang, the current Administrator of Zhangwu, as Administrator of Jijun, before returning to Ji.
The account of Zhu Tu killing Murong Gou and fleeing to Duan Kan was mentioned in the tenth year of Yonghe (344) in the last book (Book 99).
This is presumably the same Xianyu Liang as was mentioned in earlier Yan accounts.
23. This Ju Yin whom Murong Ke left to govern Donglai was the son of Ju Peng. At this time, Ju Peng was Yan's 大長秋. He wrote to his son warning him, "Wang Mi and Cao Yi must still have descendants in the area. You must treat them well and comfort them, for if you do not ease the old hatreds, then the chaos will only continue!"
嶷 is pronounced "yi (y-i)".
Ju Yin agreed, and sought out Wang Mi's son Wang Li and Cao Yi's grandson Cao Yan at Zhongshan. There he met with them, and affected deep feelings all around. Ju Peng subsequently sent to them gifts of carts, horses, and clothing. The people of that area thus knew peace.
The account of Ju Peng's flight from Donglai to Yan is recounted in the second year of Taixing (319) from Sima Rui's era, in Book 91.
This is the same Ju Peng who was mentioned during Zhao’s 338 invasion of Yan as leading two hundred braves to Jicheng. In 319, he had been Jin’s Administrator of Donglai. Back then, he was attacked by Cao Yi and Wang Mi. Ju Peng’s strength was about equal to Cao Yi’s, and he had the support of the people. But in order to prevent senseless fighting, he left Donglai behind and fled north to Liaodong.
24. When Xun Xian heard that Duan Kan had already been defeated, he retreated back to Xiapi, and left Zhuge You and the Administrator of Gaoping, Liu Zhuang, with three thousand men to hold Langye. The Army Advisor of Qiao, Dai Dun, and others held Qinshan with two thousand men.
Biancheng later became the city Junyi. I believe that 汴 is properly written as 卞. It is the same city as Bianxian from the state of Lu (from the Spring and Autumn era). Liu Xu remarked, "The old city of Bianxian is in Sishui County in Yanzhou."
Liu Xu was a prominent official during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period that followed the Tang dynasty. He was the chief editor of the Old Book of Tang, one of the main histories of that dynasty.
The Yan general Murong Lan camped at Biancheng. Xun Xian marched to attack him and killed him.
25. The Jin court ordered the 兼 Minister of Works and Regular Attendant of 散 Cavalry, Che Guan, and others to go to Luoyang with staffs of authority and repair the five imperial tombs there. In the twelfth month, on the day Gengxu, the Emperor and his ministers all dressed in fine linen, and spent three days at the Taiji Palace.
These were the five Jin imperial tombs: the tomb of Emperor Xuan, Sima Yi, at Mount Shouyang in Heyin; the tomb of Emperor Jing, Sima Shi, called Junping; the tomb of Emperor Wen, Sima Zhao, called Chongyang; the tomb of Emperor Wu, Sima Yan, called Junyang; and the tomb of Emperor Hui, Sima Zhong, called Taiyang.
車 is pronounced "che (ch-e)".
For fine linen, one uses fifteen rolls of cloth, taking out the better half.
26. Xie Shang, Jin’s Commander of military affairs in Sizhou, had still not recovered from his illness, so he had the Lord of Danyang, Wang Huzhi, act in his place, but he died before he could set out. This Wang Huzhi was the son of Wang Yi.
Some copies add "but he died before he set out" at the end of this passage.
Wang Yi was Wang Dun's cousin; he was mentioned in the third year of Jianxing of Emperor Mindi (316) in Book 89. 廙 is pronounced "yi (y-i)" or "yi (y-i)".
27. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Guo, was killed by his uncle Yang Jun, who set himself up. Yang Jun was recognized as the new Duke of Chouchi. Yang Guo's son Yang An fled to Qin.
Qin would later use Yang An to capture Chouchi. How could he not have been Yang Guo's son?
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0
on Fri Apr 14, 2017 10:27 pm, edited 12 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."