Zizhi Tongjian: The Han Dynasty (In Progress)

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BOOK 12

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 11, 2019 4:33 am

四年(庚戌、前一九一)

The Fourth Year of Emperor Hui's Reign (The Gengxu Year, 191 BC)


冬,十月,立皇后張氏。后,帝姊魯元公主女也,太后欲爲重親,故以配帝。

1. In winter, the tenth month (of 192 BC), Emperor Hui honored Lady Zhang as his Empress.

This Lady Zhang was the daughter of Emperor Hui's elder sister, Princess Yuan of Lu. Lü Zhi wished to strengthen the family relationship, thus she arranged this marriage between them.

〈后,張敖女也。魯元公主降敖而生后。因下文重親,故直書帝姊魯元公主女;旣以紀人倫之變,且著外戚固寵也。〉

(Lady Zhang was the daughter of Zhang Ao. Princess Yuan of Lu was Zhang Ao's wife, and Lady Zhang was her daughter. By "strengthen the family relationship", this passage is referring to Lady Zhang's status as Princess Yuan's daughter; it wanted to indicate the change in their relations, and also show the exceptional favor that Lady Zhang was being shown as a non-direct descendant of the family (since she was the daughter of a man from another clan).)


四年十月。立皇后張氏。帝長姊魯元公主女也。太后欲為重親。故配帝。荀悅曰。夫婦之際。人道之大倫也。詩稱刑于寡妻。至于兄弟。以御于家邦。易稱正家道。家道正而天下大定矣。姊子而為后。昏於禮而黷於人情。非所以示天下。作民則也。群臣莫敢諫。過哉。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In the fourth year of Emperor Hui's reign (191 BC), in winter, the tenth month (of 192 BC), Emperor Hui honored Lady Zhang as his Empress.

This Lady Zhang was the daughter of Emperor Hui's elder sister, Princess Yuan of Lu. Lü Zhi wished to strengthen the family relationship, thus she arranged this marriage between them.

Your servant Xun Yue remarks: Of all the relationships in life, that between husband and wife is the greatest. Thus the poet states, "His example acted on his wife, extended to his brethren, and was felt by all the clans and states." And the Book of Changes states that the principle of the family must be correct, for when this is correct, then the realm too shall be settled. Yet Emperor Hui made his niece into his Empress. By doing so, he besmirched proper conduct and perverted the natural order. This was no way to set an example to the realm for the common people to follow. And none of his ministers dared to rebuke him for this act. They were at fault.


春,正月,舉民孝、弟、力田者,復其身。

2. In spring, the first month, certain people who were nominated as Filial, Brotherly, or Devoted Farmers were exempted from taxation.

〈善事父母爲孝;善事兄長爲弟;力田者,取其竭力服勤於田事。孝、弟,人倫之大;力田,人生之本;故令郡國舉之。復其身,以風厲天下也。弟,讀曰悌。〉

(To be filial means to be respectful to one's parents; to be brotherly means to be respectful to one's elder brothers; to be a devoted farmer means to devote one's efforts to farmwork. A filial and brotherly spirit is the greatest aspect of human relationships, and to be devoted to farming is the foundation of the people's livelihood. Thus the commandaries or princely fiefs were ordered to nominate people displaying such qualities. And they were exempted from taxation and labor to serve as examples to the realm. The term 弟 "younger brother" should be read as 悌 "brotherly".)


春二月。舉民孝弟力田者復其身。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In spring, the second month, certain people among the common people who were nominated as Filial, Brotherly, or Devoted Farmers were exempted from taxation.


三月,甲子,皇帝冠,赦天下。

3. In the third month, on the day Jiazi, Emperor Hui had his capping ceremony. An amnesty was declared across the realm.

〈帝年十七卽位,至是始冠。孔穎達曰︰案《略說》︰周公對成王云︰古者冒而句領。《註》云︰古人,謂三皇時以冒覆頭,句領繞頸,至黃帝時則有冕也。《世本》謂黃帝造火食、旃冕,是冕起於黃帝也。但黃帝以前,則以羽皮爲之冠;黃帝以後,乃用布帛。其冠之年,則天子、諸侯十二而冠。故襄九年《左傳》云︰古者國君十五而生子;冠而生子,禮也。其士則二十而冠。古者行冠禮於廟,初加緇布冠,次加弁冠,三加爵弁冠,所謂「三加彌尊,加有成也」。諸侯則四加而有玄冕,故《大戴禮》云「公冠四加」也。諸侯尚四加,則天子當五加,袞冕也。鄭樵曰︰漢改皇帝冠爲加元服;初加緇布進賢,次爵弁,次武弁,次通天冠;冠訖,皆於高祖廟如禮謁見。〉

(Emperor Hui had been sixteen years old when he first came to the throne, but it was only at this time that he received his capping ceremony (to mark his coming of age). [A long passage about the capping ceremony through the ages.])


三月大赦天下。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In the third month, a general amnesty was declared across the realm.


省法令妨吏民者;除挾書律。

4. Laws which impeded the officials or the common people were abolished, including the law banning the possession of books or codes of laws.

〈應劭曰︰挾,藏也。張晏曰︰秦律,挾書者族。今始除之。〉

(Ying Shao remarked, "The term 挾 here means 'to hide'." Zhang Yan remarked, "The Qin dynasty had imposed a law ordering that anyone hiding books would have their clans exterminated. It was only now abolished.")


除民挾書律。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

The law banning the possession of books or codes of laws was abolished.


帝以朝太后於長樂宮及間往,數蹕煩民。乃築複道於武庫南。奉常叔孫通諫曰︰「此高帝月出遊衣冠之道也,子孫柰何乘宗廟道上行哉!」帝懼曰︰「急壞之!」通曰︰「人主無過舉;今已作,百姓皆知之矣。願陛下爲原廟渭北,月出遊之,益廣宗廟,大孝之本。」上乃詔有司立原廟。

5. Emperor Hui was concerned about the nuisance to the public the constant trips he made between the Empress Dowager's court and the Changle Palace were causing. So he built a raised walkway over the street, south of the Arsenal.

Shusun Tong remonstrated with Emperor Hui for having built the walkway. He said to him, "This is the same road that is used to convey Emperor Gao's hat and robes every month. How could you, as his son, build this walkway and thus compel his carriage traveling to the Ancestral Temple to pass under it every time?"

Afraid, Emperor Hui said, "I'll demolish it at once!"

But Shusun Tong said, "The ruler of the people cannot admit that he has committed a fault. You've already built the walkway, and all the common people know about it. Instead, I would ask Your Majesty to rebuild the Ancestral Temple on the north side of the Wei River, so that the procession can travel there instead, and to expand the temple as well. That would be the foundation of great filial piety."

So Emperor Hui issued an edict ordering the officials to rebuild the Ancestral Temple at the new site.

〈師古曰︰非大朝見、中間小謁見曰間往。天子出入警蹕,辟止行人;數蹕,則人以爲煩。鄭氏《周禮註》曰︰國有事,王當出,則禁絕行者,若今時衞士塡街蹕也。賈公彥《疏》曰︰《漢儀》︰大駕行幸,使衞士塡塞街巷,備非常也。〉〈武庫在長樂、未央之間,故築複道始於武庫南。〉〈服虔曰︰持高廟中衣冠,月旦以遊於衆廟,已而復之。應劭曰︰月旦,出高帝衣冠,備法駕,名曰遊衣冠。如淳曰︰高祖之衣冠藏在宮中之寢,三月出遊,其道正直今之所作複道下,故言「乘宗廟道上行」也。晉灼曰︰《黃圖》︰高廟在長安城門街東,寢在桂宮北;服言衣冠藏於廟中,如言宮中,皆非也。師古曰︰諸家之說皆未允也。謂從高帝陵寢出,衣冠遊於高廟,每月一爲之,漢制則然。而後之學者不曉其意,謂以月出之時,夜遊衣冠,皆非也。〉〈師古曰︰原,重也;先已有廟,今更立之,故云重也。〉〈【章︰甲十五行本「月」上有「衣冠」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈鄭氏曰︰廟之言貌也;死者精神不可得而見,但以生時之居,立宮室象貌爲之耳。《孝經註》︰宗,尊也。廟,貌也。〉

(Regarding these trips to and from the court, Yan Shigu remarked, "These were the trips other than the grand court assembly or the visits of minor diplomats. Whenever the Son of Heaven went in or out, he had to send people ahead of him to halt traffic and call to make way. Emperor Hui was concerned that the constant repetition of this process was causing a nuisance to the people." Zheng Xuan's Annotations to the Rites of Zhou states, "Whenever there was some affair happening in the state or the sovereign needed to go out, then traffic was halted by the guards, much as in our modern clearing of the streets by the imperial escorts." Jia Gongyan remarked, "Whenever the imperial carriage traveled, it was attended by guards who cleared the alleys and streets to guard against anything unusual."

The Arsenal was between the Changle Palace and the Weiyang Palace, thus Emperor Hui built this raised walkway south of it.

Regarding the conveyance of Liu Bang's hat and robes, Fu Qian argued, "Gaozu's hat and robes were taken on a journey each month from his temple to the various other temples, then returned." Ying Shao argued, "His hat and robes were taken out each month to prepare for the imperial carriage, which is called the 'conveyance of the hat and robes'." Ru Chun argued, "His hat and robes, normally concealed inside the palace, were brought out in the third month. The road used was the one passing directly under where Emperor Hui had built his raised walkway, thus Shusun Tong described it as 'the road used to convey his hat and robes'." Jin Zhuo argued, "According to the Yellow Book of the Three Adjuncts Region, Gaozu's temple was east of the gates and streets of Chang'an, stored north of the Gui Palace; Fu Qian is incorrect to claim that they were kept in the ancestral temple, and Ru Chun is wrong to claim that they were stored in the palace." Yan Shigu argued, "None of these people is entirely correct. This passage was saying that the hat and robes were taken from Gaozu's tomb at Gaoling and brought to his temple once a month, and this became the regular Han system. But later scholars did not understand what the passage was saying, and so they asserted that these items went out on a trip once a month; they are all wrong."

Shusun Tong asks Emperor Hui to 原 the temple north of the Wei River. Yan Shigu remarked, "By 原, he means 'rebuild'; the temple had already been built once, but was now to be built again, thus he said 'rebuild'."

Some versions clarify that 'the hat and robes' would thus be brought once a month to the rebuilt temple.

The word for Ancestral Temple is 宗廟. Zheng Xuan remarked, "廟 is to suggest the appearance. The essence of the dead cannot be made to appear, but a chamber with their likeness is set up at the residence they held while living." The Annotations to the Classic of Filial Piety states, "宗 means to honor, and 廟 means the likeness.")


臣光曰︰過者,人之所必不免也;惟聖賢爲能知而改之。古之聖王,患其有過而不自知也,故設誹謗之木,置敢諫之鼓;豈畏百姓之聞其過哉!是以仲虺美成湯曰︰「改過不吝。」傅說戒高宗曰︰「無恥過作非。」由是觀之,則爲人君者,固不以無過爲賢,而以改過爲美也。今叔孫通諫孝惠,乃云「人主無過舉」,是敎人君以文過遂非也,豈不繆哉!

6. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: No one can be without faults. But what makes a person worthy and wise is being able to recognize their faults and change them. The sage kings of ancient times even worried that they would commit faults without being aware of having done so. That was why they set up the Complaints Post and set out the Criticism Drum. Why should a sovereign instead be afraid of the people hearing about their faults?

Zhong Hui praised Cheng Tang (Tang of Shang) by saying, "He never failed to reform his faults." Fu Shuo instructed Gaozong (Wu Ding) by saying, "There is no shame in acting to correct your faults." Thus we see from these examples that people praised these ancient sovereigns as worthy people not because they never committed a fault, but because they were able to correct their faults. Yet here we have Shusun Tong remonstrating with Emperor Hui by saying, 'The ruler of the people cannot admit that he has committed a fault,' and thus teaching the sovereign that errors should not be acknowledged. Could he have been more wrong?

〈《後漢書》曰︰堯置敢諫之鼓。賈誼曰︰三代之君,則有進善之旌,誹謗之木,敢諫之鼓。〉

(The Book of Later Han states, "Emperor Yao established the Criticism Drum." Jia Yi remarked, "During the era of the Three Dynasties (Xia, Shang, and Zhou), in order to promote good advice, the Complaints Post and the Criticism Drum were established.")


長樂宮鴻臺災。

7. The Swan Terrace at the Changle Palace burned.

〈《三輔黃圖》︰鴻臺在長樂宮中。秦始皇二十七年築,高四十丈,上起觀宇;帝嘗射飛鴻於臺上,故曰鴻臺。〉

(The Yellow Book of the Three Adjuncts Region states, "The Swan Terrace was inside the Changle Palace. It was built in the twenty-seventh year of the reign of the First Emperor of Qin (220 BC). It was forty zhang tall, and there was a terrace chamber atop it. The Emperor had once shot a flying swan atop it, thus it was named the Swan Terrace.")


長樂宮鴻臺災。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

The Swan Terrace at the Changle Palace burned.


秋,七月,乙亥,未央宮凌室災;丙子,織室災。

8. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Yihai, the Ice Chamber at the Weiyang Palace burned. On the day Bingzi, the Weaving Chamber burned.

〈凌室,藏冰之室;織室,掌織作繒帛之處。班《表》︰少府有東織、西織。〉

(The Ice Chamber was a chamber for storing ice. The Weaving Chamber was where the weaving of silks was supervised. According to the Book of Han, the Privy Steward was in charge of the Eastern and Western Weavers.)


雨血于宜陽一頃。本志以為血者。洪範所謂赤祥也。一曰凡雨血有大誅。三月。未央宮冰室災。丙子織室災。本志以為冰室奉供養之饋。織室供宗廟衣服。皇后之象也。天誡若曰皇后無宗廟之德云耳。後嗣果絕。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

It rained a 頃 of blood at Yiyang. Among the old histories, the Great Plan chapter of the Book of Documents states that blood represents a red omen. And others state that raining blood is an omen of mass executions.

In the third month, the Ice Chamber at the Weiyang Palace burned. On the day Bingzi, the Weaving Chamber burned. The old histories state that since the Ice Chamber provides a storehouse of supplies and the Weaving Chamber provides clothing for the royal clan and the ancestral temple, these things were omens of the Empress; it was Heaven warning that the Empress was not acting virtuously to benefit the royal clan. And indeed, Lü Zhi's clan was later destroyed.
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BOOK 12

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 11, 2019 4:35 am

五年(辛亥、前一九○)

The Fifth Year of Emperor Hui's Reign (The Xinhai Year, 190 BC)


冬,雷;桃李華,棗實。

1. In the winter (of 191 BC), there was thunder. The peach and plum trees flowered and the jujube trees bore fruit.

〈《洪範論》曰︰陽用事百八十三日而終,陰用事百八十三日而終。雷出地百八十三日而入地,入地百八十三日而復出地,是其常經也;冬雷爲失常。〉

(The Discussion on Natural Flows states, "The open display of nature lasts for 183 days each year, then ends; the hidden display of nature lasts for another 183 days, then ends. Thunder comes out of the earth during the open period, then returns to the earth for the hidden period before returning. This is the regular occurrence of things." Thunder during the winter was thus an unnatural occurrence.)


五年十月雷。桃李杏棗實。常燠也... 三月。上遊離宮。叔孫通曰。古者春常獻果。今櫻桃始熟。願陛下取獻宗廟。諸果獻自此始。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In the fifth year of Emperor Hui's reign (190 BC), in the tenth month (of 191 BC), there was thunder. The peach and plum trees flowered and the jujube trees bore fruit.

In the third month, Emperor Hui journeyed to the detached palace. Shusun Tong said to him, "In ancient times, there was the regular tradition of offering fruit during the spring. Since the cherries have just ripened, Your Majesty should present them to the Ancestral Temple." And this became a regular tradition again.


春,正月,復發長安六百里內男女十四萬五千人城長安,三十日罷。

2. In spring, the first month, another 145,000 men and women from within six hundred li of Chang'an were drafted to once again work on building the walls of the city. After thirty days, they were dismissed.

春正月。發京師六百里內男女十四萬五千人築長安城。三十日罷... 九月長安城成。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In spring, the first month, another 145,000 men and women from within six hundred li of Chang'an were drafted to once again work on building the walls of the city. After thirty days, they were dismissed.

In the ninth month, the walls of Chang'an were completed.


夏,大旱,江河水少,谿谷水絕。

3. In summer, there was drought. The waters of the Yangzi and the Yellow River ran low, and the waters of the gorges and valleys ceased flowing.

夏大旱。江河水少。谿谷水絕。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In summer, there was drought. The waters of the Yangzi and the Yellow River ran low, and the waters of the gorges and valleys ceased flowing.


秋,八月,平陽懿侯曹參薨。

4. In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Jichou, Cao Can passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Yi ("the Exemplary") of Pingyang.

〈【章︰甲十五行本「平」上有「己丑」二字,乙十一本同;孔本同。】〉〈《諡法》︰溫柔賢善曰懿。〉

(Some versions add that it was on "the day Jichou" that Cao Can passed away.

The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is warm, yielding, worthy, and excellent may be called Yi ('Exemplary').")


八月。相國曹參薨。諡懿侯。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In the eighth month, the Chancellor of State, Cao Can, passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Yi.
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BOOK 12

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 11, 2019 4:36 am

六年(壬子、前一八九)

The Sixth Year of Emperor Hui's Reign (The Renzi Year, 189 BC)


冬,十月,以王陵爲右丞相,陳平爲左丞相。

1. In winter, the tenth month (of 190 BC), Wang Ling was appointed as Prime Minister of the Right, and Chen Ping was appointed as Prime Minister of the Left.

十月安國侯王陵為右丞相。陳平為左丞相。賜民爵戶一級。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In winter, the tenth month (of 190 BC), Marquis Anguo, Wang Ling, was appointed as Prime Minister of the Right, and Chen Ping was appointed as Prime Minister of the Left. The common people were granted one rank of nobility.


齊悼惠王肥薨。

2. Liu Fei passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Daohui ("the Grieved and Kind") of Qi.

六年十月。齊王肥薨。諡悼惠王。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In the sixth year of Emperor Hui's reign (189 BC), in the tenth month (of 190 BC), Liu Fei passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Daohui of Qi.


夏,留文成侯張良薨。

3. In the summer, Zhang Liang passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Wencheng ("the Cultured and Accomplished") of Liu.

〈周公《諡法》︰安民立政曰成。賀琛《臣諡》︰佐相克終曰成。〉

(The Duke of Zhou's Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who settles the people and establishes government may be called Cheng ('Accomplished')." He Chen's Posthumous Names for Subjects states, "One who assists, aids, and attains success may be called Cheng.")


夏六月。武陽侯樊噲薨。諡曰武侯。留侯張良薨。諡文成侯。高帝十四年。留侯果得穀城山下黃石。及薨。與石并葬。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In summer, the sixth month, the Marquis of Wuyang, Fan Kuai, passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Wu ("the Martial").

The Marquis of Liu, Zhang Liang, passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Wencheng.

It was earlier mentioned that the old man who had given Zhang Liang the Six Secret Teachings had also told him that he would one day find him again, as a yellow rock at the base of Mount Gucheng. And indeed, in the fourteenth year of Liu Bang's reign (193 BC? But Liu Bang died in 195 BC), Zhang Liang found this rock at that mountain. So when Zhang Liang passed away, the rock was buried with him.


以周勃爲太尉。

4. Zhou Bo was appointed as Grand Commandant.

復置太尉官。周勃為太尉。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

The office of Grand Commandant was revived, and Zhou Bo was appointed as Grand Commandant.
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BOOK 12

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Nov 11, 2019 4:37 am

七年(癸丑、前一八八)

The Seventh Year of Emperor Hui's Reign (The Guichou Year, 188 BC)


冬,發車騎、材官詣滎陽,太尉灌嬰將。

1. In the winter (of 189 BC), the carts, cavalry, and reserves were sent to Xingyang and placed under the command of the Grand Commandant, Guan Ying.

春,正月,辛丑朔,日有食之。

2. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou, there was an eclipse.

七年春正月辛酉朔。日有食之。是謂正朔。王者惡之。(Records of Later Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In the seventh year of Emperor Hui's reign (188 BC), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Xinyin, there was an eclipse. An omen taking place on this first day of the first month was an ill omen for sovereigns.


夏,五月,丁卯,日有食之,旣。

3. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Dingmao, there was a total eclipse.

夏五月日有食之。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In summer, the fifth month, there was a total eclipse.


秋,八月,戊寅,帝崩于未央宮。大赦天下。九月,辛丑,葬安陵。

4. In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Wuyin, Emperor Hui passed away at the Weiyang Palace. A general amnesty was declared across the realm.

In the ninth month, on the day Xinchou, Emperor Hui was buried at An Tomb.

〈臣瓚曰︰壽二十四。安陵在長安北三十里。師古曰︰去長陵一十里。〉

(Chen Zan remarked, "Emperor Hui was twenty-three years old when he died. An Tomb was thirty li north of Chang'an." Yan Shigu remarked, "It was eleven li from Changling (Chang'an?).")


秋八月。帝崩于未央宮。太后哭而淚不下。侍中張辟彊者。張良子。年十五餘。謂陳平曰。太后泣不下淚者。畏君等危呂氏。宜請呂產呂祿為將。監南北軍事。太后必喜。君等免禍。平從之。太后果喜而泣之淚下。九月。皇帝葬于安陵。(Records of Former Han 5, Annals of Emperor Hui)

In autumn, the eighth month, Emperor Hui passed away at the Weiyang Palace.

Lü Zhi mourned for Emperor Hui, but she did not really weep. One of the Palace Attendants, Zhang Pijiang, was the son of Zhang Liang; he was just over fourteen years old at this time. He said to Chen Ping, "The reason the Empress Dowager cannot truly weep is because she is so afraid that you and the other great ministers will now threaten the position of the Lü clan. So you ought to appoint Lü Chan and Lü Lu as generals and assign them command of the Southern and Northern Armies. Then the Empress Dowager will surely be pleased, and you will all escape disaster." Chen Ping did as he advised, and Lü Zhi was indeed so reassured that she was able to weep freely for Emperor Hui.

In the ninth month, Emperor Hui was buried at An Tomb.


初,呂太后命張皇后取他人子養之,而殺其母,以爲太子。旣葬,太子卽皇帝位,年幼;太后臨朝稱制。

5. Earlier, Lü Zhi had ordered Empress Zhang to take the son of someone else and raise the child as her own as the Crown Prince, while killing his mother. After Emperor Hui was buried, this son rose to the throne as the new Emperor. But because he was so young, Lü Zhi herself presided over the court and issued decrees in her own name.

〈師古曰︰天子之言,一曰制書,二曰詔書。制書者,謂制度之命也,非皇后所得稱。今太后臨朝,行天子事,故稱制。〉

(Yan Shigu remarked, "The words of the Son of Heaven are conveyed either by a decree or by an edict. A person issuing decrees is personally wielding authority; it is not something an Empress can claim to do. Lü Zhi was now presiding over the court and carrying out the affairs of the Son of Heaven, thus it says that she "issued decrees".)


初。高后命孝惠張皇后。取後宮美人子養之。而殺其母。以為太子。立為皇帝。皇帝年幼。高后臨朝稱制。(Records of Former Han 6, Annals of the Empress Dowager (Lü Zhi))

Earlier, Lü Zhi had ordered Empress Zhang to take the son of a woman from the rear palace and raise the child as her own as the Crown Prince, while killing his mother. After Emperor Hui was buried, this son rose to the throne as the new Emperor. But because he was so young, Lü Zhi herself presided over the court and issued decrees in her own name.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
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Book 13

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 3:53 pm

高皇后

Beginning of the Reign of Empress Gao, Lü Zhi


〈荀悅曰︰諱「雉」之字曰「野雞」。《索隱》曰︰字娥姁。應劭曰︰禮,婦人從夫諡,故稱「高」也。師古曰︰諱雉,故臣下諱雉也。〉

(Xun Yue remarked, "Since Lü Zhi's given name was Zhi, the word 雉 Zhi or 'pheasant' was forbidden; it was always to be replaced by the synonym 野雞 or 'wild chicken'." The Suoyin commentary to the Records of the Grand Historian states, "Lü Zhi's style name was Exu." Ying Shao remarked, "Traditionally, the wife of an Emperor was granted the same posthumous name that he had been given. Thus Lü Zhi was known as Empress Gao, since Liu Bang had been Emperor Gao." Yan Shigu remarked, "Since Lü Zhi's given name was Zhi, the word 雉 Zhi or 'pheasant' was forbidden from use by the ministers or subordinates.")


元年(甲寅、前一八七)

The First Year of Lü Zhi's Reign (The Jiayin Year, 187 BC)


冬,太后議欲立諸呂爲王,問右丞相陵,陵曰︰「高帝刑白馬盟曰︰『非劉氏而王,天下共擊之。』今王呂氏,非約也。」太后不說,問左丞相平、太尉勃,對曰︰「高帝定天下,王子弟;今太后稱制,王諸呂,無所不可。」太后喜。罷朝,王陵讓陳平、絳侯曰︰「始與高帝啑血盟,諸君不在邪!今高帝崩,太后女主,欲王呂氏;諸君縱欲阿意背約,何面目見高帝於地下乎?」陳平、絳侯曰︰「於今,面折廷爭,臣不如君;全社稷,定劉氏之後,君亦不如臣。」陵無以應之。十一月,甲子,太后以王陵爲帝太傅,實奪之相權;陵遂病免歸。

1. In the winter (of 188 BC), Lü Zhi held a council, wishing to discuss the possibility of appointing other members of the Lü clan as princes. She asked the Prime Minister of the Right, Wang Ling, for his thoughts. Wang Ling told her, "Emperor Gao (Liu Bang) made us swear that oath before the white horse: 'If anyone not of the Liu clan becomes a prince, the whole realm will join together to attack him'. Thus if you were to appoint members of the Lü clan as princes, you would be violating that oath." Lü Zhi was displeased by this response.

She next asked the Prime Minister of the Left, Chen Ping, and the Grand Commandant, Zhou Bo, how they felt. They replied, "When Emperor Gao settled the realm, he made princes of his sons and younger relatives. Now you preside over the realm, Empress Dowager, and we see no reason why you cannot do the same for your relatives of the Lü clan." Lü Zhi was quite happy to hear this.

When the court meeting ended, Wang Ling rebuked Chen Ping and Zhou Bo. He told them, "Weren't you two also present when we made that blood oath with Emperor Gao? Yet now that Emperor Gao has passed away and the Empress Dowager wants to appoint members of the Lü clan as princes, you immediately break your oath in order to flatter her wishes! How will you ever be able to face Emperor Gao in the world below?"

They replied, "Sir, we admit that when it comes to holding your ground in court and offering frank advice, we cannot compare with you. But you will see how we will surpass you in preserving the altars of state and ensuring the longevity of the Liu clan."

But Wang Ling still refused to go along with them.

In the eleventh month (of 188 BC), on the day Jiazi, Lü Zhi appointed Wang Ling as Grand Tutor to the newly-enthroned Young Emperor, because she wanted to deprive him of his governmental authority. Wang Ling pleaded illness and returned home.

〈高祖刑白馬與羣臣盟曰︰「非劉氏不王,非有功不侯。」〉〈啑,小啜也。〉〈謂當朝廷而諫諍。〉

(Liu Bang had earlier sacrificed a white horse and made his ministers swear an oath before it: "No one shall be made a prince except members of the Liu clan, and no one shall be made a marquis except as a reward for good deeds."

Wang Ling refers to a "pact of sipping blood". To sip is to lightly suck.

Chen Ping and Zhou Bo were saying that they were inferior to Wang Ling when it came to arguing in court.)


乃以左丞相平爲右丞相;以辟陽侯審食其爲左丞相,不治事,令監宮中,如郎中令。食其故得幸於太后,公卿皆因而決事。

2. Lü Zhi promoted Chen Ping from Prime Minister of the Left to Prime Minister of the Right.

She also appointed the Marquis of Piyang, Shen Yiji, to Prime Minister of the Left. But Shen Yiji did not handle state affairs, but only supervised the palace, acting like a Prefect of the Household Gentlemen. Shen Yiji had previously enjoyed the personal attentions of Lü Zhi, thus the nobles and chief ministers all came to him in order to obtain decisions.

〈此時尚右,故陳平自左丞相遷右丞相。〉〈言食其不董丞相職事,常監宮中若郎中令。〉

(At this time, the right was more highly esteemed than the left, thus Chen Ping was "promoted" from Prime Minister of the Left to Prime Minister of the Right.

This passage is stating that Shen Yiji did not actually act in the capacity of a Prime Minister, but just supervised the palace like a Prefect of the Household Gentlemen would do.)


太后怨趙堯爲趙隱王謀,乃抵堯罪。

3. It was earlier mentioned that the Imperial Secretary, Zhao Yao, had advised Liu Bang to appoint Zhou Chang as Chancellor of Zhao in order to help keep the Prince of Zhao, Liu Bang's son Liu Ruyi, safe from the machinations of Lü Zhi. Lü Zhi had since arranged the death of Liu Ruyi, who was posthumously known as Prince Yin ("the Hidden") of Zhao. She was still resentful of Zhao Yao for his role in trying to protect Liu Ruyi. So at this time, she had him demoted for having gone against her.

〈堯爲趙王謀,事見上卷高祖十年。趙王如意,諡隱。《諡法》︰隱拂不成曰隱;不顯尸國曰隱;見美堅長曰隱。〉

(Zhao Yao's advice is mentioned in Book 12, in the tenth year of Liu Bang's reign (-197.3).

Liu Ruyi's posthumous title was Prince Yin. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is hidden, shaken, and insubstantial may be called Yin ('the Hidden'); one whose corpse is not displayed to the state may be called Yin; one who sees beauty and guards the good may be called Yin.")


上黨守任敖嘗爲沛獄吏,有德於太后;乃以爲御史大夫。

4. The Administrator of Shangdang, Ren Ao, had originally been a prison official in Pei, where he had once done Lü Zhi a favor. So since Zhao Yao's position as Imperial Secretary was now vacant, Lü Zhi appointed Ren Ao to be the new Imperial Secretary.

〈任敖,沛人,少爲獄吏。高祖常避吏,吏繫呂后,遇之不謹,敖擊傷主呂后吏,故后德之。〉

(Ren Ao was a native of Pei. As a young man, he had been a prison official. During the time when Liu Bang had been on the run from the officials, they had tied up Lü Zhi and treated her roughly, but Ren Ao had attacked and even wounded the leader of the officials who had bound her. Lü Zhi had appreciated this good deed that Ren Ao had done for her.)


太后又追尊其父臨泗侯呂公爲宣王,兄周呂令武侯澤爲悼武王,欲以王諸呂爲漸。

5. Lü Zhi also posthumously named the Marquis of Linsi, her father Lord Lü, as Prince Xuan ('the Understanding'), and she posthumously appointed the Prefect of Zhoulü and Marquis Wu ("the Martial"), her elder brother Lü Ze, as Prince Daowu ("the Mourned and Martial"). She wanted to gradually appoint all the members of her clan as princes.

〈臨泗侯,班《表》︰以后父賜號。《索隱》曰︰應劭云︰周呂,國也,按周及呂皆國名。濟陰有呂都縣,晉灼曰︰呂,縣名,以爲侯國。予據班《志》,呂縣屬楚國。令武,諡也。〉

(According to the Book of Han, the title Marquis of Linsi had been granted to Lü Zhi's father.

The Suoyin commentary to the Records of the Grand Historian states, "According to Ying Shao, Zhoulü was the name of a state, as both Zhou and Lü had once been the names of states. There was a Lüdu county in Jiyin commandary, about which Jin Zhuo remarked, 'Lü was the name of a county, and it became the name of the marquisate.'" I (Hu Sanxing) note that according to the Book of Han, Lü county was part of the Chu princely fief.

Lü Zhi gave Lü Ze the name Wu as a posthumous name.)


春,正月,除三族罪、妖言令。

6. In spring, the first month, the policy of execution to the third degree and the law against insidious talk were both abolished.

〈秦爲威虐,罪之重者,戮及三族;過誤之語,以爲妖言;故皆除之。〉

(The Qin dynasty, being tyrannical and cruel, had made it a policy that those charged with the most serious crimes would have their families executed to the third degree of kinship. Insidious talk meant words that were outlandish or went too far. Both of these things were now abolished.)


夏,四月,魯元公主薨;封公主子張偃爲魯王,諡公主曰魯元太后。

7. In summer, the fourth month, Lü Zhi's daughter Princess Yuan of Lu passed away.

Lü Zhi appointed Princess Yuan of Lu’s son Zhang Yan as Prince of Lu, and she gave Princess Yuan the posthumous title Princess Dowager Yuan of Lu.

辛卯,封所名孝惠子山爲襄城侯,朝爲軹侯,武爲壺關侯。

8. On the day Xinmao, Lü Zhi appointed three of Emperor Hui's supposed sons as marquises. She appointed Liu Shan as Marquis of Xiangcheng, Liu Chao as Marquis of Zhi, and Liu Wu as Marquis of Huguan.

〈班《志》,襄城縣屬潁川郡。〉〈軹縣屬河內郡。〉〈壺關縣屬上黨郡。〉

(According to the Book of Han, Xiangcheng county was part of Yingchuan commandary, Zhi county was part of Henei commandary, and Huguan county was part of Shangdang commandary.)


太后欲王呂氏,乃先立所名孝惠子彊爲淮陽王,不疑爲恆山王;使大謁者張釋風大臣。大臣乃請立悼武王長子酈侯台爲呂王,割齊之濟南郡爲呂國。

9. Since Lü Zhi wanted to appoint all the members of the Lü clan as princes, she first appointed Emperor Hui's supposed sons Liu Jiang and Liu Buyi as Prince of Huaiyang and Prince of Hengshan respectively, then sent out the Grand Diplomat, Zhang Yi, to convey her wishes to the chief ministers and induce them to comply. The chief ministers thus officially asked that the Marquis of Li, Lü Ze's eldest son Lü Tai, be appointed as Prince of Lü and that Jinan commandary be carved off from the fief of the Prince of Qi to form a new fief for Lü Tai.

〈惠帝元年,淮陽王友徙王趙,今以封彊。恆山郡本屬趙國,今割以封不疑。〉〈風,讀曰諷。[《考異》曰︰《史記‧文帝本紀》]及《惠景間侯者表》、《漢書‧匈奴傳》皆作「澤」。《史記‧呂后本紀》︰「八年,中大謁者張釋」,《漢書‧紀》作「釋卿」,《恩澤侯表》及《周勃傳》皆云「張釋」。顏師古《註》曰︰《荊燕吳傳》云「張擇」。今從《史記‧呂后本紀》、《漢書‧恩澤侯[表]》。〉〈《考異》曰︰《漢書‧外戚侯表》及《高五王傳》皆作「鄜侯」。今從《史記‧本紀》、《功臣侯表》。〉

(The title Prince of Huaiyang had earlier been held by Liu Bang's son Liu You. In the first year of Emperor Hui's reign (194 BC), Lü Zhi had shifted Liu You to be the new Prince of Zhao, leaving the title Prince of Huaiyang empty. Liu Jiang was now appointed to take up that title.

Hengshan commandary had until this time been part of the fief of the Prince of Zhao. It was now carved off and granted to Liu Buyi as Prince of Hengshan.

The term 風 in this passage should be read as 諷 "induced".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "There is some dispute regarding the name of this Grand Diplomat. The Annals of Emperor Wen in the Records of the Grand Historian, the Table of Marquises During The Reigns of Emperors Wen and Jing in that text, and the Account of the Xiongnu in the Book of Han all identify him as Zhang 澤 Ze. The Annals of Empress Lü in the Records of the Grand Historian has the entry, 'In the eighth year, the Grand Palace Diplomat, Zhang 釋 Shi...' and so forth. The same entry in the version of the Annals of Empress Lü in the Book of Han lists him as Zhang 釋卿 Shiqiu. The Table of Favored Marquises and the Biography of Zhou Bo in the Book of Han both list him as Zhang 釋 Shi. Yan Shigu's annotations on the Biographies of the Princes of Jing, Yan, and Wu identifies him as Zhang 擇 Ze. I have chosen to follow the accounts of the Annals of Empress Lü in the Records of the Grand Historian and the Table of Favored Marquises by writing his name as Zhang Shi."

He further states, "Regarding Lü Tai's original title, the Table of Imperial Marital Relatives and the Biographies of the Five Sons of Emperor Gao in the Book of Han both list his title as Marquis of 鄜 Fu. But I follow the account of the Annals of Empress Lü and the Table of Accomplished Marquises in the Records of the Grand Historian by listing his title as Marquis of 酈 Li.")


五月,丙申,趙王宮叢臺災。

10. In the fifth month, on the day Bingshen, the Cong Terrace at the palace of the Prince of Zhao burned.

〈劉昭《志》︰趙國邯鄲縣有叢臺。〉

(Liu Zhao's Records states, "There was a Cong Terrace in Handan county in the Zhao princely fief.")


秋,桃、李華。

11. In autumn, the peach and plum trees blossomed.
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BOOK 13

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 3:56 pm

二年(乙卯、前一八六)

The Second Year of Lü Zhi's Reign (The Yimao Year, 186 BC)


冬,十一月,呂肅王台薨。

1. In winter, the eleventh month (of 187 BC), Lü Tai passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Su ("the Reverent") of Lü.

〈《考異》曰︰《史記‧本紀》︰「高后元年,立孝惠子不疑爲恆山王,呂台爲呂王。」「二年,恆山王薨。」「十一月,呂王台薨。」《年表》,二人皆以元年薨。《漢書‧本紀》︰「元年,立不疑、呂台、產、祿通爲王。二年,不疑薨。」《年表》,元年,不疑及呂台爲王,二年皆薨。蓋《史記‧年表》「薨」字應在二年,誤書於元年耳。其實二人皆以二年薨;《漢書‧本紀》云「產、祿通爲王」,亦誤也。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Lü Zhi in the Records of the Grand Historian has the following passages concerning Lü Tai: 'In the first year of her reign (187 BC), she appointed Emperor Hui's son Liu Buyi as Prince of Hengshan and Lü Tai as Prince of Lü.' Then, 'In the second year (186 BC), the Prince of Hengshan passed away.' Then, 'In the eleventh month of that year, Lü Tai passed away.' But according to the Table of Years in that text, both of these men passed away in the first year of Lü Zhi's reign (187 BC). The Annals of Lü Zhi in the Book of Han states, 'In the first year of her reign (187 BC), she appointed Liu Buyi, Lü Tai, Lü Chan, and Lü Lu as princes. In the second year (186 BC), Liu Buyi passed away.' And according to the Table of Years in that text, Liu Buyi and Lü Tai were appointed as princes in the first year (187 BC), and both passed away in the second year (186 BC). It must have been the case that the Table of Years in the Records of the Grand Historian had intended to put the words 'passed away' in the second year, and simply put them in the first year by mistake. So these two men must have really passed away in the second year. As for the claim that Lü Chan and Lü Lu were appointed as princes at that time, that too is an error.")


春,正月,乙卯,地震;羌道、武都道山崩。

2. In spring, the first month, on the day Yimao, the earth shook. The mountains in Qiang and Wudu counties collapsed.

〈羌道,班《志》,縣,屬隴西郡。武都,時爲縣。《漢志》︰縣雜蠻夷曰道。武帝置武都郡。〉

(According to the Book of Han, Qiang was the name of a county in Longxi commandary. Wudu was also the name of a county at this time. These two counties are more precisely identified as 道s, and the Records of Han states, "Counties whose populations consisted of the various tribal peoples were called 道 'circuits'." It was not until the reign of Emperor Wu that Wudu became a commandary.)


夏,五月,丙申,封楚元王子郢客爲上邳侯,齊悼惠王子章爲朱虛侯,令入宿衞;又以呂祿女妻章。

3. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Bingshen, Lü Zhi appointed Liu Yingke as Marquis of Shangpi; Liu Yingke was the son of the late Prince Yuan of Chu, Liu Bang's younger brother Liu Jiao. She also appointed Liu Zhang as Marquis of Zhuxu; Liu Zhang was the son of the late Prince Daohui of Qi, Liu Bang's eldest son Liu Fei. She ordered these two men to reside inside the palace barracks, and she had Liu Zhang marry Lü Lu's daughter.

〈班《志》,東海下邳縣。應劭曰︰邳在薛,其後徙此,故曰下邳。臣瓚曰︰有上邳,故曰下邳。師古曰︰瓚說是也。班《志》,朱虛縣屬琅邪郡。《括地志》︰朱虛故城,在青州臨朐縣東六十里,漢朱虛也。《十三州志》︰丹朱遊故虛,故云朱虛也。虛,猶丘也;朱,猶丹也。《考異》曰︰《史記‧高后紀》在元年,今從《漢書‧王子侯表》。〉

(According to the Book of Han, there was a Xiapi county in Donghai commandary. Ying Shao argued, "There was a place called Pi originally in the Xue region. It was later moved to this location, where it was renamed to Xiapi ('Lower Pi')." But Chen Zan argued, "There was a Shangpi ('Upper Pi'), thus this place was called Xiapi." Yan Shigu remarked, "Chen Zan is correct."

According to the Book of Han, Zhuxu county was part of Langye commandary. The Comprehensive Gazetteer states, "The capital city of Zhuxu was sixty li east of Linju county in Qingzhou; this was Han's Zhuxu." The Records of the Thirteen Provinces states, "It is called Zhuxu ('Ruins of Xu') because this was the place that Danzhu was exiled to. Zhu means like a hillock; Zhu refers to Danzhu."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Lü Zhi in the Records of the Grand Historian places these appointments in the first year of her reign (187 BC). But I follow the account of the Table of Princes and Nobles in the Book of Han by placing them in this year.")


六月,丙戌晦,日有食之。

4. On the last day of the sixth month, the day Bingxu, there was an eclipse.

秋,七月,恆山哀王不疑薨。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Buyi passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Ai ("the Lamented") of Hengshan.

行八銖錢。

6. The "eight zhu" coins began circulating in the economy.

〈應劭曰︰本秦錢,質如周錢,文曰半兩,重如其文,卽八銖也。漢以其太重,更鑄莢錢,今民間名榆莢錢是也。民患其太輕,至是復行八銖錢。〉

(Ying Shao remarked, "The Qin dynasty had followed the same monetary policy as the Zhou dynasty by keeping coins of the same worth as the Zhou era; they were called banliang ('half tael') coins, and their weight matched their name. These were the same as the eight zhu coins. The Han dynasty had originally tried to replace them with newly-carved seed zhu coins, feeling that the eight zhu coins were too weighty, and these became known among the common people as 'elm seed zhu' coins. But the common people were not happy with the new coins, feeling that they were too light. So at this time, the old eight zhu coins were once again put into circulation.")


癸丑,立襄成侯山爲恆山王,更名義。

7. On the day Guichou, Lü Zhi changed Liu Shan's title to Prince of Hengshan, and she renamed him to Liu Yi.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 13

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 3:57 pm

三年(丙辰、前一八五)

The Third Year of Lü Zhi's Reign (The Bingchen Year, 185 BC)


夏,江水、漢水溢,流四千餘家。

1. In summer, the Yangzi and the Han River flooded, driving more than four thousand families from their homes.

〈班《志》︰江水出蜀郡湔氐道徼外㟭山,東南至江都入海。《禹貢》︰嶓冢導漾,東流爲漢。孔安國《註》曰︰泉始出山爲漾水,東南流爲沔水,至漢中東行爲漢水。班《志》︰隴西氐道縣,《禹貢》漾水所出;至武都爲漢。又於武都《註》曰︰東漢水受氐道水,一名沔,過江夏,謂之夏水,入江。又,漢中郡有沔陽縣。如淳《註》曰︰此方人謂漢水爲沔水。師古曰︰漢上曰沔。《水經》則以爲沔、漾異源。漾出隴西氐道嶓冢山,東至武都沮縣爲漢水。其流,東南歷白水、葭萌,又東南過巴郡閬中至江津縣而入于江;涪水注之;庾仲雍所謂內水者也。沔水出武都沮縣東狼谷中,一名沮水,東逕漢中郡沔陽、南鄭、成固等縣,又東逕西城、錫縣,又東逕南郡襄陽、中廬,卽宜城郡當陽縣,又東逕江夏雲杜縣,又南至沙羨縣入江。予據《禹貢》,導漾東流爲漢,又東爲滄浪之水,過三澨,至大別南入于江,則漢水源出於漾。據《水經》,則漾會於涪,沔入于江,所出異源,所入異派。據班《志》,則漾出隴西氐道,至武都爲漢水;而東漢水受氐道水,通謂之沔,過江夏而入于江。則漾、沔似合爲一矣,然又言沮水出沮縣南至沙羨入江,與《水經》所謂沔水卽沮水說似不合而實合也。〉

([A long passage concerning the tributaries of the Yangzi and the Han River.])


秋,星晝見。

2. In autumn, a star appeared during the day.

伊水、洛水溢,流千六百餘家。汝水溢,流八百餘家。

3. The Yi and Luo Rivers flooded, driving more than 1,600 families from their homes. The Ru River flooded, driving more than eight hundred families from their homes.

〈班《志》︰伊水出弘農郡熊耳山,東北入洛水。《水經》︰伊水出南陽縣蔓渠山。酈道元《註》︰卽麓大同,陵巒互別耳。又班《志》︰洛水出弘農上洛縣,東北至河南鞏縣入河。〉〈應劭曰︰汝水出弘農縣,入淮。《水經》︰汝水出南陽魯陽縣之大盂山,東南逕潁川之郟、定陵、郾,又東南過汝南之上蔡、平輿,南入于淮。〉

(According to the Book of Han, the Yi River emerges from Mount Xiong'er in Hongnong commandary, then flows northeast until it enters the Luo River. The Water Classic states, "The Yi River emerges from Mount Manqiu in Nanyang county." Li Daoyuan's Commentary on the Water Classic states, "These were part of the same range, only different hills."

The Book of Han states, "The Luo River emerges from Shangluo county in Hongnong commandary, then flows northeast until it enters the Yellow River in Gong county in Henan commandary."

Ying Shao remarked, "The Ru River emerges in Hongnong county, then flows into the Huai River." The Water Classic states, "The Ru River emerges from Mount Dayu in Luyang county in Nanyang commandary. It flows southeast, passing through the counties of Jia, Dingling, and Yan in Yingchuan commandaries, then further southeast, passing through the counties of Shangcai and Pingyu in Runan commandary, then south until it enters the Huai River.")
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 13

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 3:59 pm

四年(丁巳、前一八四)

The Fourth Year of Lü Zhi's Reign (The Dingsi Year, 184 BC)


春,二月,癸未,立所名孝惠子太爲昌平侯。

1. In spring, the second month, on the day Guiwei, Lü Zhi appointed another supposed son of Emperor Hui, Liu Tai, as Marquis of Changping.

〈班《志》,昌平縣屬上谷郡。〉

(According to the Book of Han, Changping county was part of Shanggu commandary.)


夏,四月,丙申,太后封女弟X爲臨光侯。

2. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Bingshen, Lü Zhi appointed her younger sister Lü Xu as Marquis of Linguang.

〈X,音須。〉

(Lü Xu's given name X is pronounced "xu".)


少帝寖長,自知非皇后子,乃出言曰︰「后安能殺吾母而名我!我壯,卽爲變!」太后聞之,幽之永巷中,言帝病。左右莫得見。太后語羣臣曰︰「今皇帝病久不已,失惑昏亂,不能繼嗣治天下;其代之。」羣臣皆頓首言︰「皇太后爲天下齊民計,所以安宗廟、社稷甚深;羣臣頓首奉詔。」遂廢帝,幽殺之。五月,丙辰,立恆山王義爲帝,更名曰弘;不稱元年,以太后制天下事故也。以軹侯朝爲恆山王。

3. By now, the Young Emperor had grown up enough to realize that Empress Zhang was not his real mother. He began to tell people, "How could the Empress have killed my mother and claimed me as her own? When I am old enough, there will be some changes!"

When Lü Zhi heard about this, she imprisoned the Young Emperor in Yonggang, claiming that he was ill. No one was allowed to see him. Lü Zhi instructed the ministers, "The Emperor has become so sick that he is no longer himself; he is too confused and muddled to continue to preside over the realm. He should be replaced."

The ministers all kowtowed and replied, "The Empress Dowager's thinking on behalf of protecting the people and securing the Ancestral Temple and the altars of state is profound indeed. We shall bow our heads and uphold her command."

Lü Zhi thus deposed the Young Emperor, and he was killed in secret.

In the fifth month, on the day Bingchen, Lü Zhi appointed Liu Yi as the new Emperor, and she renamed him again to Liu Hong; he was later known as the Little Emperor. The count of reign years was not reset, since Lü Zhi was in control of the affairs of the realm regardless.

Lü Zhi appointed Liu Chao as the new Prince of Hengshan.

〈惠帝張皇后,魯元公主之女。太后以其無子,使陽爲有身,取後宮美人子名之,而殺其母。少帝及義、朝、彊、不疑皆是也。〉

(Empress Zhang had been Emperor Hui's wife; she was the granddaughter of Lü Zhi, and the daughter of Princess Yuan of Lu. Empress Zhang had no biological sons of her own, so she pretended to be pregnant and she took sons from the women of the harem and claimed them as her own after killing their mothers. This was the case not only for the Young Emperor and the Little Emperor, but also for Emperor Hui's other supposed sons Liu Chao, Liu Jiang, and Liu Buyi.)


是歲,以平陽侯曹窋爲御史大夫。

4. During this year, the Marquis of Pingyang, Cao Zhu, was appointed as Imperial Secretary.

有司請禁南越關市、鐵器。南越王佗曰︰「高帝立我,通使物。今高后聽讒臣,別異蠻夷,隔絕器物;此必長沙王計,欲倚中國擊滅南越而幷王之,自爲功也。」

5. The officials asked Lü Zhi to halt trade relations and the sale of iron to the kingdom of Nanyue. When the King of Nanyue, Zhao Tuo, learned that this had happened, he said to himself, "When Emperor Gao acknowledged me as King, he opened free trade between us. Yet now, Empress Gao has heeded the slander of her ministers against the tribal peoples of my realm and has cut off trade with me. This must be the plot of the King of Changsha (Wu Chen), who wants to borrow the armies of the Middle Kingdom in order to conquer Nanyue and take it over for himself, claiming it all as his own achievement."

〈漢於邊關與蠻夷通市,謂之關市。〉

(The Han dynasty had earlier allowed for open trade between its border regions and the tribal peoples. This was what was meant by trade relations.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 13

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 4:00 pm

五年(戊午、前一八三)

The Fifth Year of Lü Zhi's Reign (The Wuwu Year, 183 BC)


春,佗自稱南越武帝,發兵攻長沙,敗數縣而去。

1. In spring, Zhao Tuo once again declared himself Emperor Wu of Nanyue. He sent out troops to attack Changsha commandary, and took several counties before withdrawing.

〈韋昭曰︰生以武爲號,不稽古也。師古曰︰此說非也。湯曰︰「吾武甚,自號曰武王」。佗言武帝,亦猶是耳,何謂其不稽古乎!貢父曰︰顏雖引成湯之言,然未知湯自號武王乎?聖人者,人與之名耳。《詩》謂湯爲武王,亦猶《書》謂文王爲寧王耳。《史記》之言,未可信也。〉

(Regarding Zhao Tuo naming himself as Wu ("the Martial"), Wei Zhao argued, "This was properly a posthumous title. It went against ancient tradition to give oneself such a title while still alive." But Yan Shigu argued, "This is not so. After all, Tang of Shang once said, 'My martial prowess is great, thus I shall name myself King Wu.' Zhao Tuo was only doing the same thing. How could one say that he was going against ancient traditions?' Gong Fu argued, "Yan Shigu supposedly quoted from Cheng Tang (Tang of Shang). But how did he know that Tang named himself King Wu? It is simply that other people give these ancient sages positive names to praise them. This is why the Book of Poetry refers to Tang as King Wu, and the Book of Documents refers to King Wen of Zhou as King Ning. The account of the Records of the Grand Historian cannot be trusted.")


秋,八月,淮陽懷王彊薨;以壺關侯武爲淮陽王。

2. In autumn, the eighth month, Liu Jiang passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Huai ("the Cherished") of Huaiyang.

Liu Wu was appointed as the new Prince of Huaiyang.

九月,發河東、上黨騎屯北地。

3. In the ninth month, cavalry from Hedong and Shangdang commandaries were mustered and camped at Beidi commandary.

初令戍卒歲更。

4. It now became the policy for garrison conscripts to serve only a single year of service at a time.

〈秦虐用其民,南戍五嶺,北築長城,戍卒連年不歸而死者多矣。至此,始令一歲而更。〉

(The Qin dynasty, cruel to its subjects, had forced people to serve as garrison conscripts either in the south, guarding the Five Ranges, or in the north, building the Long Wall. Countless numbers of these conscripts had been forced to serve year after year until they died, never returning home. At this time, the policy changed so that such conscripts would only serve a single year before being replaced.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 13

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Dec 06, 2019 4:02 pm

六年(己未、前一八二)

The Sixth Year of Lü Zhi's Reign (The Jiwei Year, 182 BC)


冬,十月,太后以呂王嘉居處驕恣,廢之。十一月,立肅王弟產爲呂王。

1. In winter, the tenth month (of 183 BC), Lü Zhi stripped the Prince of Lü, Lü Jia, of his title, feeling that he had become too arrogant and unrestrained in his position. In the eleventh month (of 183 BC), she appointed Lü Tai's younger brother Lü Chan as the new Prince of Lü.

〈嘉,台之子也。二年,台薨,嘉嗣。〉

(This Lü Jia was the son of Lü Tai. Since Lü Tai had passed away in the second year of Lü Zhi's reign (186 BC), Lü Jia had succeeded him as Prince of Lü.)


春,星晝見。

2. In spring, a star appeared during the day.

夏,四月,丁酉,赦天下。

3. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Dingyou, Lü Zhi declared an amnesty across the realm.

封朱虛侯章弟興居爲東牟侯,亦入宿衞。

4. Lü Zhi appointed Liu Zhang's younger brother Liu Xingju as Marquis of Dongmou and had him reside in the palace barracks as well.

〈班《志》,東牟縣屬東萊郡。賢曰︰東牟故城,在今萊州文登縣西北。〉

(According to the Book of Han, Dongmou county was part of Donglai commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Dongmou was northwest of Wendeng county in modern Laizhou.")


匈奴寇狄道,攻阿陽。

5. The Xiongnu raided Didao and attacked Ayang.

〈班《志》,狄道縣屬隴西郡;阿陽縣屬天水郡。〉

(According to the Book of Han, Didao county was part of Longxi commandary, and Ayang county was part of Tianshui commandary.)


行五分錢。

6. The “five zhu” coins were also put into circulation.

〈應劭曰︰所謂莢錢者。〉

(Ying Shao remarked, "These were the elm seed coins (mentioned earlier).")


宣平侯張敖卒,賜諡曰魯元王。

7. The Marquis of Xuanping, Zhang Ao, passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Yuan ("the Foremost") of Lu.

〈《考異》曰︰《史記‧呂后本紀》,敖卒在明年六月。按《史記‧功臣表》︰「高后六年,敖卒」;《漢書‧功臣表》,敖以高祖九年封,十七年薨;蓋《本紀》之誤。〉〈張敖本嗣父耳爵爲趙王。貫高之謀發,敖廢爲宣平侯,仍尚魯元公主。及惠帝之世,齊悼惠王獻城陽郡以奉魯元。敖之卒也,因公主而賜諡曰魯元王。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "According to the Annals of Empress Lü in the Records of the Grand Historian, Zhang Ao did not pass away until the sixth month of the following year (181 BC). But according to the Table of Accomplished Ministers in that text, 'In the sixth year of Lü Zhi's reign (182 BC), Zhang Ao passed away.' And the version of that table that appears in the Book of Han states that Zhang Ao was demoted to Marquis of Xuanping in the ninth year of Gaozu's (Liu Bang's) reign (198 BC), and that he passed away in the seventeenth year of his personal reign (182 BC). The Annals of Empress Lü in the Records of the Grand Historian must be mistaken."

Zhang Ao had originally succeeded his father Zhang Er as King of Zhao. Following Guan Gao's failed plot to assassinate Liu Bang, Zhang Ao had been demoted to Marquis of Xuanping; he was spared from execution for the sake of Princess Yuan of Lu, who was his wife. During Emperor Hui's reign, Liu Fei had granted Chengyang commandary to Princess Yuan as a gift. Thus when Zhang Ao passed away, his posthumous title as Prince Yuan of Lu was drawn from his wife's title Princess Yuan of Lu.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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