Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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BOOK 113

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 03, 2019 2:21 pm

元興二年(癸卯、四○三)

The Second Year of Yuanxing (The Guimao Year, 403 AD)


春,正月,盧循使司馬徐道覆寇東陽;二月,辛丑,建武將軍劉裕擊破之。道覆,循之姊夫也。

1. In spring, the first month, the rebel leader Lu Xun sent his Marshal, Xu Daofu, to invade Dongyang commandary. In the second month, on the day Xinchou (March 16th), Jin's General Who Establish Valor, Liu Yu, attacked and routed him. This Xu Daofu was Lu Xun's brother-in-law.

二年正月,玄復遣高祖破循於東陽。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the second year of Yuanxing (403), the first month, Huan Xuan once again sent Liu Yu to rout Lu Xun at Dongyang.

二年春二月辛丑,建威將軍劉裕破徐道覆于東陽。乙卯,桓玄自稱大將軍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second year of Yuanxing (403), in spring, the second month, on the day Xinchou (March 16th), the General Who Establish Might, Liu Yu, attacked and routed Xu Daofu at Dongyang.

元興二年正月,寇東陽。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Lu Xun)

In the second year of Yuanxing (403), the first month, Lu Xun invaded Dongyang.


乙卯,以太尉玄爲大將軍。

2. On the day Yimao (March 30th), the Grand Commandant, Huan Xuan, was appointed as Grand General.

〈大將軍,自漢以來,職名崇重,居其位者皆擅朝權。晉初,以司馬孚爲太尉,奏以大將軍位太尉下,後復舊,在三司上。〉

(Ever since the Han dynasty, the rank of Grand General had been a lofty and important position, and whoever occupied that post wielded control over the court. There was a time at the beginning of the Jin dynasty, when Sima Fu was appointed as Grand Commandant, that the rank of Grand General was adjusted to be inferior to that of Grand Commandant. But afterwards, the usual hierarchy was restored, and Grand General was superior to all the Three Excellencies.)


乙卯,桓玄自稱大將軍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Yimao (March 30th), Huan Xuan appointed himself as Grand General.


丁巳,玄殺冀州刺史孫無終。

3. On the day Dingsi (April 1st), Huan Xuan killed the Inspector of Jizhou, Sun Wuzhong.

〈孫無終亦北府舊將也。〉

(This was in keeping with Huan Xuan's policy of killing Liu Laozhi's former subordinates from his time as leader of the Northern Garrison. Sun Wuzhong had also been one of his generals at that time.)


丁巳,冀州刺史孫無終爲桓玄所害。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Dingsi (April 1st), Huan Xuan killed the Inspector of Jizhou, Sun Wuzhong.


玄上表請帥諸軍掃平關、洛,旣而諷朝廷下詔不許,乃云:「奉詔故止。」玄初欲飭裝,先命作輕舸,載服玩、書畫。或問其故。玄曰:「兵凶戰危,脫有意外,當使輕而易運。」衆皆笑之。

4. Huan Xuan sent up a petition asking to lead the Jin armies to sweep clear and pacify the Guanzhong and Luoyang regions. But he then arranged to have the court issue an edict refusing their permission, and said, "I shall heed the edict and cancel my plans."

Huan Xuan wanted to have everything in order from the start, so he had already ordered a light craft prepared, stocked with clothes, treasures, books, and paintings. When people asked him why he was doing this, Huan Xuan replied, "War is dangerous, battle deadly. If anything unexpected should happen, I want to have this boat prepared so that I can move off at once." Everyone laughed at him.

〈桓玄意態終始如此耳。時人誤以爲雄豪而憚之,故每遇輒敗。崢嶸洲之戰,劉道規等知其爲人而徑突之,一敗而不能復振矣。〉〈舸,大舡也。《方言》:南楚江湖謂之舸。〉

(Huan Xuan revealed his true character even as early as this. The people of that time had been intimidated by him, mistakenly believing him to be a hero of the age, and this was why up until now, those who faced him had all met with defeat. But later, at the battle of Zhengrong Islet, Liu Daogui and the other loyalists realized that he was only a man and rushed to attack him. A single defeat sufficed to ensure that Huan Xuan could never restore his fortunes.

This passage uses the word 舸; this is a large boat. The Regional Dialects dictionary states, "The people living on the rivers and lakes of the southern Chu region call boats 舸s.")


夏,四月,癸巳朔,日有食之。

5. In summer, the fourth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (May 7th), there was an eclipse.

夏四月癸巳朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (May 7th), there was an eclipse.


南燕主備德故吏趙融自長安來,始得母兄凶問,備德號慟吐血,因而寢疾。

6. In Southern Yan, Murong Beide’s former subordinate Zhao Rong now arrived from Chang’an, and Murong Beide finally learned that his mother and elder brother had already passed away. He was so stricken by grief that he spat up blood, and he was bedridden by illness.

司隸校尉慕容達謀反,遣牙門皇璆攻端門,殿中帥侯赤眉開門應之;中黃門孫進扶備德踰城匿於進舍。段宏等聞宮中有變,勒兵屯四門。備德入宮,誅赤眉等;達出奔魏。

7. Murong Beide's Colonel-Director of Retainers, Murong Da, plotted rebellion. He sent the General of the Serrated Gates, Huang Qiu, to attack the Duan Gates of the palace, where the Chief of the Palace Halls, Hou Chimei, opened the gates to support the coup. The Leader of the Yellow Gates, Sun Jin, took Murong Beide to climb over the walls of the palace and hide inside Sun Jin's house. Then Duan Hong and others heard that there had been a coup in the palace, and they ordered their soldiers to camp at the four gates of the city. Murong Beide reentered the palace and executed Hou Chimei and the other plotters. Murong Da escaped the city and fled to Wei.

〈殿中帥猶晉之殿中三部督也。〉〈廣固城四門也。〉

(Chief of the Palace Halls was the same as Jin's three Commanders of the Palace Halls.

The soldiers were posted at the four city gates of Guanggu.)


備德優遷徙之民,使之長復不役;民緣此迭相蔭冒,或百室合戶,或千丁共籍,以避課役。尚書韓X請加隱覈,備德從之,使X巡行郡縣,得蔭戶五萬八千。

8. For some time, Murong Beide had been concerned about the plight of the common people because of their constant movements and relocations, so he had spared them from any corvee labor demands. But the common people had taken advantage of this by constantly grouping themselves into larger units and hiding their precise numbers, in order to stay off the tax and corvee labor rolls. There were some instances of a hundred families gathering together into one "household", and some instances of a thousand adult men all registering as the same unit. One of Murong Beide's Masters of Writing, Han Zhuo, thus proposed that these distorted registration numbers be rectified, and Murong Beide agreed. He sent Han Zhuo to pass through the various commandaries and counties and correct the figures, and Han Zhuo uncovered fifty-eight thousand hidden households.

〈復,復除也。〉〈隱,度也。覈,實也。隱覈,度其實也。〉

(復 in this passage means "to be spared or exempt from".

This passage uses the term 隱覈. 隱 means "assess" and 覈 means "true", so 隱覈 means to assess the true figures.)


泰山賊王始聚衆數萬,自稱太平皇帝,署置公卿;南燕桂林王鎭討禽之。臨刑,或問其父及兄弟安在。始曰:「太上皇蒙塵于外,征東、征西爲亂兵所害。」其妻怒之曰:「君正坐此口,柰何尚爾!」始曰:「皇后不知,自古豈有不亡之國!朕則崩矣,終不改號!」

9. A bandit leader from Taishan commandary, Wang Shi, gathered together an army of tens of thousands. He declared himself Emperor of Great Peace, and he appointed people as nobles and great ministers. Southern Yan's Prince of Guilin, Murong Zhen, campaigned against Wang Shi and captured him.

When Wang Shi was about to be executed, someone asked him where his father and brothers were. Wang Shi replied, "His Grand Majesty suffers in exile, while the Generals Who Conquer The East and West were killed by rebel soldiers."

Wang Shi's wife angrily said to him, "How can you still act so high and mighty when you are on the brink of death?"

Wang Shi replied, "My Empress, do you not know? When has there ever been a state that did not fall? If I am to die, then so be it. But I will never surrender my titles!"

〈史言王始僭舉大號,至敗亡而不悔。〉

(This passage demonstrates how Wang Shi refused to recant his grand titles even after his defeat and death.)


五月,燕王熙作龍騰苑,方十餘里,役徒二萬人;築景雲山於苑內,基廣五百步,峯高十七丈。

10. In the fifth month, the Heavenly King of Yan, Murong Xi, built the Longteng Garden; it was more than ten li square, and required twenty thousand workers to build. He also built the Jingyun Hill inside the garden; its base was five hundred paces wide, and its summit was seventeen zhang high.

五月,築龍騰苑,廣十里餘,役徒二萬。起景雲山于苑內。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

In the fifth month, Murong Xi built the Longteng Garden; it was more than ten li wide, and required twenty thousand workers to build. He also built the Jingyun Hill inside the garden.

築龍騰苑,廣袤十餘里,役徒二萬人。起景雲山於苑內,基廣五百步,高十七丈。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi built the Longteng Garden; it was more than ten li wide, and required twenty thousand workers to build. He also built the Jingyun Hill inside the garden; its base was five hundred paces wide, and its summit was seventeen zhang high.

大築龍騰苑,廣袤十餘里,役徒二萬人。起景雲山于苑內,基廣五百步,峰高十七丈。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi built the Longteng Garden; it was more than ten li wide, and required twenty thousand workers to build. He also built the Jingyun Hill inside the garden; its base was five hundred paces wide, and its summit was seventeen zhang high.


秋,七月,戊子,魏主珪北巡,作離宮於豺山。

11. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wuzi (August 30th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. He built a field palace at Mount Chai.

六年春正月辛未,朔方尉遲部別帥率萬餘家內屬,入居雲中。夏五月,大簡輿徒,將略江淮,平荊揚之亂。秋七月,鎮西大將軍、司隸校尉、毗陵王順有罪,以王還第。戊子,車駕北巡,築離宮于犲山,縱士校獵,東北踰罽嶺,出參合、代谷。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth year of Tianxing (403), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinwei (February 14th), a leader of the Yuchi people from Shuofang led more than ten thousand families to settle within Northern Wei territory. They were placed at Yunzhong.

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Gui held a grand review of his carriages and followers. He made plans to cross the Yangzi and the Huai and settle the turmoil in Jingzhou and Yangzhou.

In autumn, the seventh month, the Grand General Who Guards The West, Colonel-Director of Retainers, and Prince of Piling, Tuoba Shun, committed a crime. He was confined to his estate.

On the day Wuzi (August 30th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. He built a field palace at Mount Chai. He permitted his soldiers to indulge in hunting, and he traveled northeast to cross the Ji Ranges and came out through Canhe Slope and Dai Valley.


平原太守和跋奢豪喜名,珪惡而殺之,使其弟毗等就與訣。跋曰:「灅北土瘠,可遷水南,勉爲生計。」且使之背己,曰:「汝何忍視吾之死也!」毗等諭其意,詐稱使者,逃入秦。珪怒,滅其家。中壘將軍鄧淵從弟尚書暉與跋善,或譖諸珪曰:「毗之出亡,暉實送之。」珪疑淵知其謀,賜淵死。

12. By this time, Wei's Administrator of Pingyuan, He Ba, had grown arrogant and delighted in his reputation. This irked Tuoba Gui, who killed him.

Tuoba Gui had ordered He Ba's younger brothers, He Pi and others, to visit him and say their goodbyes before his death. He Ba had told them, "There is good land in the region north of the Lei River, and you could cross the river there and dwell on the south side. You may sustain yourselves there if you work hard at it." Then he ordered them to turn around, saying, "How could you bear to see me die?" He Pi and the others understood He Ba's hidden meaning in his advice; they posed as envoys and fled to Qin. Tuoba Gui was furious, and he exterminated their families.

The General of the Central Ramparts, Deng Yuan, had a cousin who was one of the Masters of Writing, Deng Hun, and Deng Hun had been good friends with He Ba. So someone slandered the Deng family to Tuoba Gui, claiming, "When He Pi fled, Deng Hun escorted him away." Tuoba Gui suspected that Deng Yuan had known about the plot, so he compelled Deng Yuan to commit suicide.

出為平原太守。太祖寵遇跋,冠於諸將。時羣臣皆敦尚恭儉,而跋好修虛譽,眩曜於時,性尤奢淫,太祖戒之,弗革。後車駕北狩豺山,收跋,刑之路側。妻劉氏自殺以從。初,將刑跋,太祖命其諸弟毗等視訣,跋謂毗曰:「灅北地瘠,可居水南,就耕良田,廣為產業,各相勉勵,務自纂修。」令之背己曰:「汝曹何忍視吾之死也!」毗等解其微意,詐稱使者,云奔長安,追之不及。太祖怒,遂誅其家。後世祖西巡五原,回幸犲山校獵,忽遇暴風,雲霧四塞。世祖怪而問之,羣下僉言跋世居此土,祠冢猶存,其或者能致斯變。帝遣建興公古弼祭以三牲,霧即除散。後世祖蒐狩之日,每先祭之。(Book of Northern Wei 28, Biography of He Ba)

He Ba was sent out to serve as Administrator of Pingyuan.

Up until this time, Tuoba Gui had greatly favored He Ba, chief among his generals. So while Tuoba Gui's other ministers remained honest, reverent, respectful, and restrained, He Ba delighted in puffing himself up and showing off with dazzling displays. He became particularly extravagant and licentious. Tuoba Gui warned him against this behavior, but He Ba would not change. So later, during one of the times when Tuoba Gui came north to Mount Chai, he had He Ba executed on the side of the road. His wife Lady Liu killed herself to join him in death.

Earlier, before He Ba's execution, Tuoba Gui had ordered He Ba's younger brothers, He Pi and others, to visit him and say their goodbyes before his death. He Ba had told He Pi, "There is good land in the region north of the Lei River, and you could cross the river there and dwell on the south side. Put yourselves to the plow to tend the good farmland there, and broaden your work by cultivating products and business. You must all work hard and strive well, and thus regain your position." Then he ordered them to turn around, saying, "How could you all bear to see me die?"

He Pi and the others understood He Ba's hidden meaning in his advice; they posed as envoys and fled to Later Qin's capital at Chang'an. Tuoba Gui was furious, and he executed their families.

Years later, when Emperor Taiwu was going on a western patrol to Wuyuan, he stopped at Mount Chai to go hunting. A sudden gale sprang up, and clouds and fog descended all around. Emperor Taiwu thought this strange, and he asked people what was going on. His attendants told him that He Ba's family had lived on this land for generations, and He Ba's shrine and grave were still there; perhaps his spirit had brought about this changes. So Emperor Taiwu sent the Duke of Jianxing, Tuoba Gubi, to offer three sacrificial animals at He Ba's shrine. The fog then lifted and dispersed. From then on, whenever Emperor Taiwu went hunting in that region, he always made sacrifices at He Ba's shrine first.


南涼王傉檀及沮渠蒙遜互出兵攻呂隆,隆患之。秦之謀臣言於秦王興曰:「隆藉先世之資,專制河外,今雖飢窘,尚能自支,若將來豐贍,終不爲吾有。涼州險絕,土田饒沃,不如因其危而取之。」興乃遣使徵呂超入侍。隆念姑臧終無以自存,乃因超請迎于秦。興遣尚書左僕射齊難、鎭西將軍姚詰、左賢王乞伏乾歸、鎭遠將軍趙曜帥步騎四萬迎隆于河西,南涼王傉檀攝昌松、魏安二戍以避之。八月,齊難等至姑臧,隆素車白馬迎于道旁。隆勸難擊沮渠蒙遜,蒙遜使臧莫孩拒之,敗其前軍。難乃與蒙遜結盟;蒙遜遣弟挐入貢于秦。難以司馬王尚行涼州刺史,配兵三千鎭姑臧,以將軍閻松爲倉松太守,郭將爲番禾太守,分戍二城,徙隆宗族、僚屬及民萬戶于長安。興以隆爲散騎常侍,超爲安定太守,自餘文武隨才擢敍。

13. By now, the Heavenly King of Liang, Lü Long, had suffered constant attacks from the King of Southern Liang, Tufa Nutan, and from Juqu Mengxun, and he felt greatly threatened by them. Meanwhile, the advisors of the Emperor of Qin, Yao Xing, advised him, "Lü Long has inherited the accumulated resources of his forebearers and is still in control of the region northwest beyond the Yellow River. Look how he is still able to maintain his position even now, while in the midst of famine and want. If he should grow rich and prosperous, he would not remain our vassal for long. Besides, Liangzhou is a place of great natural defenses, and its soil and farmland are fertile and abundant. It would be best if we took advantage of Lü Long's current adversity to annex his territory for ourselves."

So Yao Xing sent envoys to summon Lü Long's younger brother Lü Chao to come to the Qin capital at Chang'an as an attendant. For his part, Lü Long was worried that he would not be able to keep control of Guzang forever. So he told Lü Chao to ask that Qin welcome him as part of their state. Yao Xing then sent his Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Qi Nan, his General Who Guards The West, Yao Jie, his Worthy Prince of the Left, Qifu Gangui, and his General Who Guards Distant Places, Zhao Yao, to lead forty thousand horse and foot to receive Lü Long in Liangzhou. Tufa Nutan gathered up his soldiers camped at Changsong and Wei'an and withdrew them in the face of the Qin army. In the eighth month, Qi Nan and the other Qin generals arrived at Guzang, where Lü Long welcomed them on the side of the road in an unmarked cart and a white horse.

Lü Long urged Qi Nan to attack Juqu Mengxun. But Juqu Mengxun sent Zang Mohai to oppose them, and Zang Mohai defeated the Qin vanguard. So Qi Nan decided to agree to an understanding with Juqu Mengxun instead, and Juqu Mengxun sent his younger brother Juqu Na to bring tribute to Qin.

Qi Nan appointed his Marshal, Wang Shang, as Qin's provisional Inspector of Liangzhou and assigned him three thousand soldiers to defend Guzang. He appointed the generals Yan Song and Guo Jiang as Administrator of Cangsong and Administrator of Fanhe and had them split their forces between the two cities. He relocated Lü Long's family and subordinates, as well as ten thousand households of common people, to Chang'an. Yao Xing appointed Lü Long as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, he appointed Lü Chao as Administrator of Anding, and Lü Long's other former subordinates were all appointed to various offices as suited to their civil or martial talents.

〈挐,女居翻。〉〈倉松,卽漢昌松縣。〉〈《載記》曰:自光至隆十三載而滅。〉

(Juqu Na's given name 挐 is pronounced "nu (n-u)".

Cangsong commandary was the Han dynasty's Changsong county.

As the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, Later Liang lasted thirteen years, from Lü Guang until Lü Long, then perished.)


興性儉約,車馬無金玉之飾,自下化之,莫不敦尚清素。然好游田,頗損農要。京兆杜挻以僕射齊難無匡輔之益,著《豐草詩》以箴之,馮翊相雲作《德獵賦》以諷焉。興皆覽而善之,賜以金帛,然終弗能改。晉順陽太守彭泉以郡降興,興遣楊佛嵩率騎五千,與其荊州刺史趙曜迎之,遂寇陷南鄉,擒建威將軍劉嵩,略地至於梁國而歸。又遣其兼散騎常侍席確詣涼州,征呂隆弟超入侍,隆遣之。呂隆懼禿髮傉檀之逼,表請內徙。興遣齊難及鎮西姚詰、鎮遠乞伏乾歸、鎮遠趙曜等步騎四萬,迎隆於河西。難至姑臧,以其司馬王尚行涼州刺史,配兵三千鎮姑臧,以將軍閻松為倉松太守,郭將為番禾太守,分戍二城,徙隆及其宗室僚屬于長安。沮渠蒙遜遣弟如子貢其方物。王尚綏撫遺黎,導以信義,百姓懷其惠化,翕然歸之。北部鮮卑並遣使貢款。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing had a frugal and simple nature, and he never adorned his chariots or horses with gold or jade. This custom spread to his subordinates as well, none of whom failed to esteem plain and unadorned things. But Yao Xing also enjoyed wandering through farmland, which tended to injure agricultural affairs. Du Shan of Jingzhao commandary felt that the Deputy Director, Qi Nan, was doing nothing to help rectify or assist the state, so he compiled the Poems of Overgrown Weeds to admonish him. And Xiang Yun of Pingyi commandary wrote the Ode to the Virtues of Hunting to mock Yao Xing's behavior. Although Yao Xing read these writings and praised them, rewarding the authors with gold and silks, in the end he was unable to change his behavior.

Jin's Administrator of Shunyang, Peng Quan, surrendered that commandary to Yao Xing, who sent Yang Fusong and his Inspector of Jingzhou, Zhao Yao, to lead five thousand cavalry to welcome him. They then invaded and took Nanxiang, where they captured Jin's General Who Establishes Might, Liu Song, and ravaged the land as far as Liangguo before returning.

Yao Xing also sent his combined Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Xi Que, to visit Liangzhou and summon Lü Long's younger brother Lü Chao to court, and Lü Long sent him. Lü Long was afraid of the threat posed to him by Tufa Nutan, so he petitioned Yao Xing asking to be relocated into Later Qin territory. Yao Xing sent Qi Nan and the General Who Guards The West, Yao Jie, the General Who Guards Distant Places, Qifu Gangui, the General Who Guards Distant Places, Zhao Yao, and others to lead forty thousand horse and foot to receive Lü Long in the Hexi region.

When Qi Nan arrived at Guzang, he appointed his Marshal, Wang Shang, as Later Qin's provisional Inspector of Liangzhou and assigned him three thousand soldiers to defend Guzang. He appointed the generals Yan Song and Guo Jiang as Administrator of Cangsong and Administrator of Fanhe and had them split their forces between the two cities. He relocated Lü Long's family and subordinates to Chang'an.

Juqu Mengxun sent his younger brother Juqu Na to bring his local products as tribute to Later Qin.

Wang Shang cared for and comforted the various scattered refugees, and he guided the people through trustworthiness and righteousness. So the common people cherished his kindness, and they all came over to him. The northern Xianbei also sent envoys bearing tribute.

三年,隆以二涼之逼,遣齎珎寶,請迎于秦,遣尚書左僕射齊難,率步騎四萬來迎。隆率戶一萬隨難東遷。既至長安,秦以隆為散騎常侍,尚書、公如故,超為安定太守... 自光以乙酉歲據涼州,至于是歲,歲在癸卯,凡一十九年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Long)

In the third year of Shending (403), under threat from the two Liang states, Lü Long sent envoys to Later Qin bringing them treasures and asking to be welcomed within Later Qin territory. Later Qin sent their Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Qi Nan, to lead forty thousand horse and foot to come receive Lü Long. Lü Long led ten thousand households to follow Qi Nan and relocate to the east. When they arrived in Chang'an, Later Qin appointed Lü Long as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, while keeping his original appointments as a Master of Writing and Duke of Jiankang, and they appointed Lü Chao as Later Qin's Administrator of Anding.

From the time when Lü Guang had first occupied Liangzhou, in the Yiyou year (385), until now, the Guimao year (403), Later Liang had existed for nineteen years.

屢為蒙遜攻逼,乃請迎於姚興。遣齊難率眾迎之,隆遂降焉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Long)

After constant attacks by and pressure from Juqu Mengxun, Lü Long asked to be welcomed into Yao Xing's territory. Yao Xing sent Qi Nan to lead an army to receive him, and Lü Long surrendered to Later Qin.

姚興謀臣皆曰:「隆藉伯父余資,制命河外。今雖饑窘,尚能自支。若將來豐贍,終非國有。涼州險絕,世難先違,道清後順,不如因其饑弊而取之。」興乃遣使來觀虛實... 禿髮傉檀及蒙遜頻來伐之,隆以二寇之逼也,遣超率騎二百,多齎珍寶,請迎于姚興。興乃遣其將齊難等步騎四萬迎之。難至姑臧,隆素車白馬迎於道旁。使胤告光廟曰:「陛下往運神略,開建西夏,德被蒼生,威振遐裔。枝嗣不臧,迭相篡弑。二虜交逼,將歸東京,謹與陛下奉訣于此。」歔欷慟泣,酸感興軍。隆率戶一萬,隨難東遷,至長安,興以隆為散騎常侍,公如故;超為安定太守;文武三十餘人皆擢敘之... 呂光以孝武太元十二年定涼州,十五年僭立,至隆凡十有三載,以安帝元興三年滅。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Long)

Yao Xing's ministers advised him, "Lü Long has inherited the accumulated resources of his uncle and is still in control of the region northwest beyond the Yellow River. Look how he is still able to maintain his position even now, while in the midst of famine and want. If he should grow rich and prosperous, he would not remain our vassal for long. Besides, Liangzhou is a place of great natural defenses; it is the first place to rebel when turmoil arises and the last to submit when peace is restored. It would be best if we took advantage of Lü Long's current adversity to annex his territory for ourselves."

So Yao Xing sent envoys to come and see how sincere Lü Long's vassalage was.

Tufa Nutan and Juqu Mengxun had launched repeated campaigns against Lü Long. Feeling threatened by these two enemies, Lü Long sent Lü Chao to lead two hundred riders, bring a great deal of treasures, to ask for Yao Xing to welcome him into his domain. So Yao Xing sent his generals, Qi Nan and others, to lead forty thousand horse and foot to receive Lü Long. When Qi Nan arrived at Guzang, Lü Long welcomed them on the side of the road in an unmarked cart and a white horse.

Lü Long sent his children to the temple of Lü Guang to inform his spirit, "Through Your Majesty's divine calculations, you opened and established this state among the western Xia; your virtue was felt by the common people, and your might awed distant lands. Yet your heir could not succeed you, and your sons slaughtered each other. Now our two foes are drawing close, and we are about to return to the eastern capital (Chang'an). Thus we plead our case here before Your Majesty." They sighed and wept with grief, and their lamentations moved Yao Xing's soldiers.

Lü Long ten thousand households to accompany Qi Nan to the east. When they arrived at Chang'an, Yao Xing appointed Lü Long as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, while keeping his original title as a Duke. He appointed Lü Chao as Administrator of Anding, and more than thirty of Lü Long's other subordinates were all appointed to various offices as suited to their civil or martial talents.

Lü Guang had first settled Liangzhou in Emperor Xiaowu's twelfth year of Taiyuan (387), and he had declared himself Emperor in the fifteenth year (390). From then until the end of Lü Long's reign was thirteen years, until Emperor An's third year of Yuanxing (404), when Later Liang perished.

尋遣使者加乾歸散騎常侍、左賢王。遣隨興將齊難迎呂隆於河西。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing later sent envoys to promoted Qifu Gangui as Later Qin's Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Worthy Prince of the Left. He sent Qifu Gangui to accompany his general Qi Nan to welcome Lü Long at Hexi.

姚興遣將齊難率眾迎呂隆于姑臧,傉檀攝昌松、魏安二戍以避之。興涼州刺史王尚遣主薄宗敞來聘。敞父燮,呂光時自湟河太守入為尚書郎,見傉檀于廣武,執其手曰:「君神爽宏拔,逸氣陵雲,命世之傑也,必當克清世難。恨吾年老不及見耳,以敞兄弟托君。」至是,傉檀謂敞曰:「孤以常才,謬為尊先君所見稱,每自恐有累大人水鏡之明。及忝家業,竊有懷君子。《詩》云:'中心藏之,何日忘之。'不圖今日得見卿也。」敞曰:「大王仁侔魏祖,存念先人,雖硃暉眄張堪之孤,叔向撫汝齊之子,無以加也。」酒酣,語及平生。傉檀曰:「卿魯子敬之儔,恨不與卿共成大業耳。」(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Yao Xing sent his general Qi Nan to lead an army to welcome Lü Long. Tufa Nutan gathered up his soldiers camped at Changsong and Wei'an and withdrew them in the face of the Later Qin army.

Yao Xing's Inspector of Liangzhou, Wang Shang, sent his Registrar, Zong Chang, as an envoy to visit Tufa Nutan. Earlier, during the reign of Lü Guang, this Zong Chang's father had been Administrator of Huanghe, and was then summoned to Guzang to serve as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. As he was passing through Guangwu, he saw Tufa Nutan. He took Tufa Nutan's hand and told him, "Sir, you have a divine precense and an outstanding aura, and your spirit affects even the hills and clouds. You possess the talents to command the age, and you will surely bring peace back to the world. I only regret that, old as I am, I will not live to see it. But I entrust my son Zong Chang and his brothers to you."

At this time, Tufa Nutan said to Zong Chang, "I am a man of mere common talents. Yet your late father was so misled as to think me a great man. Ever since, I have feared that I would never possess a wise man like Master Water Mirror of old. Now I have been thrust into leadership of my family's enterprise, though hardly worthy of it, and I have hoped to cherish some superior fellow. As the poet says, 'In the core of my heart I keep those princely men, and never will forget them.' I hardly expected to receive you today."

Zong Chang replied, "Great King, your benevolence is equal to that of the founder of Wei (Cao Cao), and you are a match for the ancients. Even the examples of Zhu Hui looking after the orphans of Zhang Kan and Shuxiang comforting the sons of Ruqi could not surpass the care that you have shown me."

The two of them got to drinking, and discussed the events of their lives. Tufa Nutan said, "Sir, you are the modern peer of Lu Zijing (Lu Su). I only regret that I shall not be able to achieve my grand design together with you."

遣輔國臧莫孩襲山北虜,大破之。姚興遣將齊難率眾四萬迎呂隆,隆勸難伐蒙遜,難從之。莫孩敗其前軍,難乃結盟而還。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun sent the General Who Upholds The State, Zang Mohai, to launch a surprise attack against the caitiffs north of the mountains, and Zang Mohai greatly routed them.

Yao Xing sent his general Qi Nan to lead forty thousand soldiers to welcome Lü Long. Lü Long urged Qi Nan to campaign against Juqu Mengxun, and Qi Nan heeded him. But Zang Mohai defeated Qi Nan's vanguard. So Qi Nan decided to agree to an understanding with Juqu Mengxun instead, before returning to Later Qin.


初,郭黁常言「代呂者王」,故其起兵,先推王詳,後推王乞基;及隆東遷,王尚卒代之。黁從乞伏乾歸降秦,以爲滅秦者晉也,遂來奔,秦人追得,殺之。

14. It was earlier mentioned that the mystic Guo Nun had rebelled against Lü Guang, but had eventually fled to Qifu Gangui and then joined him in surrendering to Qin. Guo Nun had often spread a prophecy that "the one to replace the Lü clan shall be Wang". This was why during his rebellion against Lü Guang, he had originally acclaimed Wang Xiang, then later supported Wang Qiji. Yet only now was his prophecy fulfilled; Lü Long was traveling east to the Qin court, and he had been replaced by Wang Shang.

Guo Nun now believed that Jin would ultimately conquer Qin, and he attempted to flee to Jin. But troops from Qin pursued and caught him, and they killed him.

〈事見一百九卷元年。〉〈郭黁自信其術,幸亂以徼福,而卒以殺身,足以明天道之難知矣。〉

(The beginning of Guo Nun's rebellion is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.57).

Guo Nun believed that he could take advantage of the chaos to benefit himself by fulfilling his prophecy, yet he was killed in the end. Thus we see that it is hard to fully grasp Heaven's intentions.)


沮渠蒙遜伯父中田護軍親信、臨松太守孔篤,皆驕恣爲民患,蒙遜曰:「亂吾法者,二伯父也。」皆逼之使自殺。

15. Juqu Mengxun's Protector-General of the Central Fields, his uncle Juqu Qinxin, and his Administrator of Linsong, his uncle Juqu Kongdou, were arrogant and unrestrained, a blight on the common people. Juqu Mengxun declared, "My uncles are the ones who violate my laws." And he forced them to kill themselves.

〈據《晉書‧蒙遜載記》,中田護軍蓋呂光所置,鎭臨松。〉

(Judging by the Biography of Juqu Mengxun in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, this rank of Protector-General of the Central Fields must have been created by Lü Guang and stationed at Linsong.)


蒙遜伯父中田護軍親信、臨松太守孔篤並驕奢侵害,百姓苦之。蒙遜曰:「亂吾國者,二伯父也,何以綱紀百姓乎!」皆令自殺。蒙遜襲狄洛磐於番禾,不克,遷其五百餘戶而還。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun's Protector-General of the Central Fields, his uncle Juqu Qinxin, and his Administrator of Linsong, his uncle Juqu Kongdou, were arrogant, unrestrained, and harmed whom they wished, a blight on the common people. Juqu Mengxun declared, "When my uncles are the ones who cause trouble in my state, how can the common people have law and order?" And he ordered them to kill themselves.

Juqu Mengxun launched a surprise attack against the Di leader Luo Pan at Fanhe. He was unsuccessful, merely relocating more than five hundred households from Luo Pan's territory before returning.


秦遣使者梁構至張掖,蒙遜問曰:「禿髮傉檀爲公而身爲侯,何也?」構曰:「傉檀凶狡,款誠未著,故朝廷以重爵虛名羈縻之。將軍忠貫白日,當入贊帝室,豈可以不信相待也!聖朝爵必稱功,如尹緯、姚晃,佐命之臣,齊難、徐洛,一時猛將,爵皆不過侯伯,將軍何以先之乎!昔竇融殷勤固讓,不欲居舊臣之右,不意將軍忽有此問!」蒙遜曰:「朝廷何不卽封張掖而更遠封西海邪?」構曰:「張掖,將軍已自有之,所以遠授西海者,欲廣大將軍之國耳。」蒙遜悅,乃受命。

16. When Qin sent their envoy Liang Gou to Zhangye, Juqu Mengxun asked him, "Why is it that you appointed Tufa Nutan as a Duke, yet I have merely been appointed as a Marquis?"

Liang Gou replied, "Tufa Nutan is wicked and crafty, and he has not yet provided proof of his sincerity or trustworthiness. That was why the court granted him such a lofty title; it is an empty concession, meant to control him. But as for you, General, your loyalty and adherence to us is as clear as the sun, worthy to be ranked among the imperial clan. How can you compare yourself with someone as shifty as Tufa Nutan? Be assured, the court does grant titles in accordance with merit. Consider how Yin Wei and Yao Huang were servants of the state from the beginning, and Qi Nan and Xu Luo are fierce generals of our own time. Yet none of them have been granted titles higher than Marquis or Baron. General, surely you do not reckon your achievements as greater than theirs! Furthermore, in the past, Dou Rong was an eager subject of Emperor Guangwu of Han, yet he declined the offer of a lofty title, not wanting to place himself ahead of Emperor Guangwu's senior ministers. That is why I hardly expected you to ask such a question, General!"

Juqu Mengxun said, "Very well. But I do wish to ask why the court has not appointed me as Marquis of Zhangye, and instead made me Marquis of a far-off place like Xihai?"

Liang Gou replied, "General, Zhangye is already your domain. The court merely appointed you as Marquis of Xihai because it wishes to enlarge your territory."

Juqu Mengxun was pleased with these responses, and he accepted the Qin commission.

〈秦封傉檀爲廣武公,封蒙遜爲西海侯,事見上卷上年。〉〈事見四十三卷漢光武建武十三年。〉

(Later Qin had earlier appointed Tufa Nutan as Duke of Guangwu and Juqu Mengxun as Marquis of Xihai, as mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxian (402.56).

The incident of the Liangzhou warlord Dou Rong declining the titles offered to him is mentioned in Book 43, in Emperor Guangwu of Han's thirteenth year of Jianwu (37 AD).)


蒙遜聞之,不悅,謂斐等曰:「傉檀上公之位,而身為侯者何也!」構對曰:「傉檀輕狡不仁,款誠未著,聖朝所以加其重爵者,褒其歸善即敘之義耳。將軍忠貫白日,勳高一時,當入諧鼎味,匡贊帝室,安可以不信待也。聖朝爵必稱功,官不越德,如尹緯、姚晁佐命初基,齊難、徐洛元勳驍將,並位才二品,爵止侯伯。將軍何以先之乎?竇融殷勤固讓,不欲居舊臣之右,未解將軍忽有此問!」蒙遜曰:「朝廷何不即以張掖見封,乃更遠封西海邪?」構曰:「張掖,規畫之內,將軍已自有之。所以遠授西海者,蓋欲廣大將軍之國耳。」蒙遜大悅,乃受拜。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

When Juqu Mengxun heard of the respective appointments which Later Qin had granted to him and to Tufa Nutan, he was displeased. He said to Liang Fei, Zhang Gou, and the other Later Qin envoys, "You appointed Tufa Nutan as a Duke, yet I have merely been appointed as a Marquis?"

Zhang Gou replied, "Tufa Nutan is wicked and crafty, lacking in benevolence, and he has not yet provided proof of his sincerity or trustworthiness. That was why the court granted him such a lofty title; they are merely commending him for bowing to the proper sovereign in order to assess his sense of righteousness. But as for you, General, your loyalty and adherence to us is as clear as the sun, and your deeds stand tall above the age. You are like one of our own kind, worthy to be ranked among the imperial clan. How can you compare yourself with someone so untrustworthy? Be assured, the court does grant titles in accordance with merit, nor does it reward people more than their virtue deserves. Consider how Yin Wei and Yao Huang were servants of the state from its very foundation, and Qi Nan and Xu Luo are fierce generals and foremost in achievements. Yet none of them have risen greater than the second rank or have been granted titles higher than Marquis or Baron. General, how could you place yourself ahead of them? Furthermore, in the past, Dou Rong was an eager subject of Emperor Guangwu of Han, yet he declined the offer of a lofty title, not wanting to place himself ahead of Emperor Guangwu's senior ministers. That is why I hardly expected you to ask such a question, General!"

Juqu Mengxun said, "Very well. But I do wish to ask why the court has not appointed me as Marquis of Zhangye, and instead made me Marquis of a far-off place like Xihai?"

Zhang Gou replied, "General, Zhangye is already entirely within your domain, and you fully possess it. The court must have remotely appointed you as Marquis of Xihai merely because it wishes to enlarge your domain."

Juqu Mengxun was delighted with these responses, and he accepted the Later Qin commission.


荊州刺史桓偉卒,大將軍玄以桓脩代之。從事中郎曹靖之說玄曰:「謙、脩兄弟專據內外,權勢太重。」玄乃以南郡相桓石康爲荊州刺史。石康,豁之子也。

17. Jin's Inspector of Jingzhou, Huan Wei, passed away. Huan Xuan was planning to appoint Huan Xiu to replace him. But the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Cao Jingzhi, advised Huan Xuan, "Huan Qian, Huan Xiu, and their brothers all occupy important places both within the court and on the borders. They have too much power and influence." So Huan Xuan appointed the Chancellor of Nan commandary, Huan Shikang, as the new Inspector of Jingzhou instead. This Huan Shikang was the son of Huan Huo.

〈桓豁,溫之次弟。〉

(Huan Huo had been Huan Wen's next-youngest brother.)


劉裕破盧循於永嘉,追至晉安,屢破之,循浮海南走。

18. Liu Yu routed Lu Xun at Yongjia, then pursued him to Jin'an commandary and routed him several more times. Lu Xun took to the sea and fled south.

〈武帝太康三年,分建安立晉安郡,今泉州南安縣卽其地。宋白曰:東晉南渡,衣冠士族多萃此地以求安堵,因立晉安郡,隋爲泉州。〉

(In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) third year of Taikang (282), he split off part of Jian'an commandary to form Jin'an commandary. It is the same area as Nan'an county in modern Quanzhou. Song Bai remarked, "When Eastern Jin fled south across the Yangzi, many officials and gentry clans fled to this place seeking peace and tranquility. Thus they formed Jin'an (‘the peace of Jin’) commandary. Sui organized it as Quanzhou.")


循奔永嘉,復追破之,斬其大帥張士道,追討至于晉安,循浮海南走。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Lu Xun fled to Yongjia, where Liu Yu pursued and routed him again, taking the head of his great commander Zhang Shidao. He pursued Lu Xun as far as Jin'an, where Lu Xun took to the sea and fled to the south.

八月,攻永嘉。劉裕討循至晉安,循窘急,泛海。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Lu Xun)

In the eighth month, Lu Xun attacked Yongjia. Liu Yu campaigned against him at Jin'an. Hard-pressed, Lu Xun fled across the sea.


何無忌潛詣裕,勸裕於山陰起兵討桓玄。裕謀於土豪孔靖,靖曰:「山陰去都道遠,舉事難成;且玄未篡位,不如待其已篡,於京口圖之。」裕從之。靖,愉之孫也。

19. He Wuji secretly came to visit Liu Yu and urged him to raise troops at Shanyin to campaign against Huan Xuan.

Liu Yu mentioned the idea to a local member of the gentry, Kong Jing. Kong Jing told him, "Shanyin is too far from the capital, so it would be hard for any attempt there to succeed. Besides, Huan Xuan has not usurped the throne yet. It would be better to wait until he has usurped the throne, and then plot against him from Jingkou."

Liu Yu heeded his advice. This Kong Jing was the grandson of Kong Yu.

〈孔愉歷事元、明、成三帝。〉

(Kong Yu had served under Emperors Yuan, Ming, and Cheng.)


先是高祖東征盧循,何無忌隨至山陰,勸於會稽舉義。高祖以為玄未據極位,且會稽遙遠,事濟為難,俟其篡逆事著,徐於京口圖之,不憂不剋。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

During the time when Liu Yu had been sent east to campaign against Lu Xun, He Wuji had accompanied him to Shanyin, where he urged Liu Yu to launch an uprising in Kuaiji against Huan Xuan. But Liu Yu felt that since Huan Xuan had not yet usurped the throne, and Kuaiji was too far and remote from the capital, it would be difficult for any such uprising to succeed. So he planned to wait for Huan Xuan to display his treason by usurping the throne, and in the meantime he would plot against him from Jingkou; that way, there would be no need to worry about failure.

初,桓玄克京邑,劉裕東征,無忌密至裕軍所,潛謀舉義,勸裕于山陰起兵。裕以玄大逆未彰,恐在遠舉事,克濟為難。若玄遂竊天位,然後於京口圖之,事未晚也。無忌乃還。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

Earlier, when Huan Xuan had just taken the capital and Liu Yu had gone on an eastern campaign, He Wuji secretly visited Liu Yu's army so that they could plot an uprising together, and he urged Liu Yu to raise troops at Shanyin to campaign against Huan Xuan. But Liu Yu feared that, since Huan Xuan had not yet fully displayed his treason, it would be difficult to achieve success with an uprising from so far away. He thus planned to wait until Huan Xuan usurped the throne, then plot against him from Jingkou; it would not be too late by then. So He Wuji returned.


九月,魏主珪如南平城,規度灅南,將建新都。

20. In the ninth month, Tuoba Gui returned south to Pingcheng. He surveyed and measured the Leinan region, planning to build a new capital there.

〈愍帝建興元年,代公猗盧城盛樂以爲北都,脩故平城以爲南都。更南百里,於灅水之陽黃瓜堆築新平城,所謂南平城也;唐朔州西南有新城,卽其地。〉〈自灅水南抵夏屋山,皆灅南地也。〉

(In Emperor Min's first year of Jianxing (Book 88, 313.44), the Duke of Dai, Tuoba Yilu, had built a city at Shengle to serve as his northern capital and restored the old city at Pingcheng to act as his southern capital. Later, another hundred li south of Pingcheng, Tuoba Yilu had built the city of Xinping at the Huanggu Weir north of the Lei River; it was also called Nanping. There was a city of Xincheng in the southwest of Tang's Shuozhou; this was the same place.

The area from the Lei River south to Mount Xiawu was generally known as the Leinan ("south of the Lei River") region.)


九月,行幸南平城,規度灅南,面夏屋山,背黃瓜堆,將建新邑。辛未,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the ninth month, Tuoba Gui returned south to Pingcheng. He surveyed and measured an area in the Leinan region, facing Mount Xiawu and with its back to Huanggua Mound, planning to build a new capital there.

On the day Xinwei (October 12th), Tuoba Gui returned to the palace.


侍中殷仲文、散騎常侍卞範之勸大將軍玄早受禪,陰撰九錫文及册命。以桓謙爲侍中、開府、錄尚書事,王謐爲中書監、領司徒,桓胤爲中書令,加桓脩撫軍大將軍。胤,沖之孫也。丙子,册命玄爲相國,總百揆,封十郡,爲楚王,加九錫,楚國置丞相以下官。

21. In Jin, one of the Palace Attendants, Yin Zhongwen, and one of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Bian Fanzhi, urged Huan Xuan to quickly accept Emperor An's abdication, and they secretly compiled the letters and books for the Nine Bestowments.

Huan Xuan appointed Huan Qian as Palace Attendant and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office. He appointed Wang Mi as Chief of the Palace Secretariat and acting Minister Over The Masses. He appointed Huan Yin as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. He promoted Huan Xiu to Grand General Who Nurtures The Army. This Huan Yin was the grandson of Huan Chong.

On the day Bingzi (October 17th), an edict book was presented appointing Huan Xuan as Chancellor of State in general charge of affairs and as Prince of Chu, granting him the Nine Bestowments and a fief of ten commandaries, and creating subordinate offices for the fief of Chu from Prime Minister on down.

秋八月,玄又自號相國、楚王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the eighth month, Huan Xuan further appointed himself as Chancellor of State and Prince of Chu.


桓謙私問彭城內史劉裕曰:「楚王勳德隆重,朝廷之情,咸謂宜有揖讓,卿以爲何如?」裕曰:「楚王,宣武之子,勳德蓋世,晉微弱,民望久移,乘運禪代,有何不可?」謙喜曰:「卿謂之可卽可耳。」

22. Huan Qian secretly asked the Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Yu, "The Prince of Chu is diligent, virtuous, majestic, and a great asset of state, and all the court ministers are saying that we should yield to him. Sir, what do you make of that?"

Liu Yu replied, "The Prince of Chu is the son of Duke Xuanwu (Huan Wen), and his diligence and virtue are beyond anyone else of this era. And Jin's fortunes are weak and waning, so the people have been hoping for a change for a long time. So why shouldn't he take advantage of this opportunity and accept the abdication of the dynasty?"

Pleased, Huan Qian said, "Sir, if you say it can be done, then it can be done."

〈桓溫,諡曰宣武。〉〈劉裕一世之雄,桓謙問之以決可否,裕詭辭以順其意,故喜。〉

(Huan Wen's posthumous title was Xuanwu.

Huan Qian asked Liu Yu this question because Liu Yu was recognized as a hero of the age, and Huan Qian wanted to know whether he thought the abdication was feasible or not. For his part, Liu Yu dissembled and humored his desires. This was why Huan Qian was pleased.)


六月,加高祖彭城內史。桓玄為楚王,將謀篡盜。玄從兄衞將軍謙屏人問高祖曰:「楚王勳德隆重,四海歸懷。朝廷之情,咸謂宜有揖讓,卿意以為何如?」高祖既志欲圖玄,乃遜辭答曰:「楚王,宣武之子,勳德蓋世。晉室微弱,民望久移,乘運禪代,有何不可。」謙喜曰:「卿謂可爾,便當是真可爾。」(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the sixth month, Liu Yu was promoted to Interior Minister of Pengcheng.

After Huan Xuan became Prince of Chu, he was plotting to usurp the throne. The Guard General, Huan Xuan's cousin Huan Qian, took an opportunity to ask Liu Yu, "The Prince of Chu is diligent, virtuous, majestic, and a great asset of state, and everyone within the Four Seas cherishes him. The general mood of the court is that we should yield to him. Sir, what do you make of that?"

Although Liu Yu was planning to move against Huan Xuan, he hid his intentions by replying, "The Prince of Chu is the son of Duke Xuanwu (Huan Wen), and his diligence and virtue are beyond anyone else of this era. And the Jin royal family is weak and waning, so the people have been hoping for a change for a long time. So why shouldn't he take advantage of this opportunity and accept the abdication of the dynasty?"

Pleased, Huan Qian said, "Sir, if you say it can be done, then it can be done."


新野人庾仄,殷仲堪之黨也,聞桓偉死,石康未至,乃起兵襲雍州刺史馮該於襄陽,走之。仄有衆七千,設壇,祭七廟,云「欲討桓玄」,江陵震動。石康至州,發兵攻襄陽,仄敗,奔秦。

23. A native of Xinye commandary, Yu Ze, had been one of Yin Zhongkan's partisans. When Yu Ze heard that Huan Wei was dead and his replacement Huan Shikang had not yet arrived, Yu Ze raised troops and launched a surprise attack against the Inspector of Yongzhou, Feng Gai, at Xiangyang and drove him away.

Yu Ze had an army of seven thousand soldiers, and he raised an altar and offered sacrifices at the seven ancestral temples, announcing his intention to "campaign against Huan Xuan". Jiangling trembled and shook. But then when Huan Shikang arrived in the region, he assembled the local soldiers and attacked Xiangyang. Yu Ze was defeated, and he fled to Qin.

〈新野縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉武帝太康中,分屬義陽郡,惠帝又分立新野郡。仄,阻力翻。〉

(During Han, Xinye county was part of Nanyang commandary. During Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) Taikang reign era (280-289), he split Xinye county off as part of Yixing commandary. Emperor Hui later split it off again as its own Xinye commandary.

Yu Ze's given name 仄 is pronounced "zi (z-i)".)


九月,南陽太守庾仄起義兵,爲玄所敗。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, the Administrator of Nanyang, Yu Ze, raised troops in rebellion. But he was defeated by Huan Xuan.


高雅之表南燕主備德,請伐桓玄曰:「縱未能廓清吳、會,亦可收江北之地。」中書侍郎韓範亦上疏曰:「今晉室衰亂,江、淮南北,戶口無幾,戎馬單弱。重以桓玄悖逆,上下離心;以陛下神武,發步騎一萬臨之,彼必土崩瓦解,兵不留行矣。得而有之,秦、魏不足敵也;拓地定功,正在今日。失時不取,彼之豪傑誅滅桓玄,更脩德政,豈惟建康不可得,江北亦無望矣。」備德曰:「朕以舊邦覆沒,欲先定中原,乃平蕩荊、揚,故未南征耳。其令公卿議之。」因講武城西,步卒三十七萬人,騎五萬三千匹,車萬七千乘。公卿皆以爲玄新得志,未可圖,乃止。

24. In Southern Yan, the Jin exile Gao Yazhi sent a petition to Murong Beide, urging him to launch a campaign against Huan Xuan. He added, "Even if you prove unable to sweep clear through the regions of Wu and Kuaiji, you will at least be able to conquer all the land north of the Yangzi."

And one of Murong Beide's Gentlemen-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat, Han Fan, also sent up a petition stating, "The Jin royal family is currently experiencing turmoil and grief, the households and people living along the Yangzi and the Huai River are destitute, and the Jin armies are isolated and lacking. Beyond that, Huan Xuan is acting wickedly and presumptuously, alienating everyone from him. Your Majesty, you need only exercise your divine martial prowess by sending forth ten thousand horse and foot to menace them, and the enemy will surely crumble before you like collapsing tiles; not a soldier will remain to oppose you. And once you have obtained the Jin territory, Qin and Wei will no longer be a match for you. This is the very day when you may ensure your ultimate conquest of the realm. But if you let this opportunity pass you by rather than seize it, then some bold leaders within Jin will surely rise up to cast out and execute Huan Xuan, and they will reform Jin's virtue and administration. Once that happens, not only will Jiankang be beyond your grasp, but you will not even have any hopes of taking the region north of the Yangzi."

But Murong Beide replied, "We have still not regained our former capital, and it has been my intention to first reconquer the Central Plains before making any attempt to pacify and settle the regions of Jingzhou and Yangzhou. That was the reason I have not launched any southern campaigns up until now. Let my ministers discuss this subject." And Murong Beide held a military review west of the city; there were three hundred and seventy thousand infantry, fifty-three thousand cavalry, and seven thousand war carts.

However, Murong Beide's nobles and chief ministers all felt that since Huan Xuan had just achieved his ambitions, it would not be possible to move against him yet. So the plans came to nothing.

〈慕容德取青州,至是纔五年耳,有衆如此,不能乘時而用之,自審其才不足以辨桓玄也。〉

(It had only been five years since Murong Beide had established himself in Qingzhou, yet he already had an army of this size. Yet he could not use it to take advantage of the situation in Jin. We can see that his talents were not enough to deal with Huan Xuan.)


冬,十月,楚王玄上表請歸藩,使帝作手詔固留之。又詐言錢塘臨平湖開,江州甘露降,使百僚集賀,用爲己受命之符。又以前世皆有隱士,恥於己時獨無,求得西朝隱士安定皇甫謐六世孫希之,給其資用,使隱居山林;徵爲著作郎,使希之固辭不就,然後下詔旌禮,號曰高士。時人謂之「充隱」。又欲廢錢用穀、帛及復肉刑,制作紛紜,志無一定,變更回復,卒無所施行。性復貪鄙,人士有法書、好畫及佳園宅,必假蒲博而取之;尤愛珠玉,未嘗離手。

25. In winter, the tenth month, Huan Xuan sent up a petition asking that he be allowed to return to his territory on the border. He had Emperor An write an edict in his own hand ordering Huan Xuan to remain in the capital instead. Huan Xuan also forged reports: one stated that Lake Linping on the Qiantang River was currently clear and open, while another stated that sweet dew had fallen in Jiangzhou. He had the officials all offer their congratulations, using these things as omens to show that he was already enjoying Heaven's mandate.

When Huan Xuan thought about the famous hermit scholars of past ages, he was ashamed that there were no such people in his own time. So he sought out Huangfu Xizhi, who was the sixth-generation descendant of the famed hermit scholar of the western court, Huangfu Mi of Anding commandary. He gave Huangfu Xizhi funds and resources and sent him to live in seclusion among the mountains and forests. Then he summoned Huangfu Xizhi to the capital to serve as a Gentleman-Author, but arranged for Huangfu Xizhi to forcefully decline the offer and not come to visit. Huan Xuan then responded by having an edict issued granting honors to Huangfu Xizhi and calling him a great scholar. People of that time called Huangfu Xizhi the "False Hermit".

Huan Xuan even planned to abolish money in favor of exchanging grains and silks, and he wanted to bring back corporal punishments. He made extensive and meticulous plans for the systems he devised, but he was never set on any one idea, and was always changing it to something else, then revising it back again. In the end, he never could put anything into effect.

Huan Xuan was a vulgar and greedy fellow. Whenever someone had calligraphy books, fine paintings, or beautiful houses or gardens, Huan Xuan would always make sure to claim them for himself, under the guise of gambling for them. He especially loved pearls and gems, and never let them leave his hands.

〈臨平湖草常蓁塞,開則天下太平。〉〈晉氏東遷,以洛陽爲西朝。皇甫謐在魏、晉之間徵辟不行,自號玄晏先生。〉〈實非隱者而以之備數,故謂之充隱。〉〈法書,謂如史籀、程邈、李斯、張芝、師宜、梁鵠、衞瓘、索靖、鍾繇諸人眞蹟,各有家法者。〉〈史言桓玄志度凡近。〉

(Lake Linping was often choked by and stopped up with weeds and grasses. On the occasions it was clear and open, it was seen as an omen that the realm would enjoy an age of peace.

After the Jin dynasty moved to the east, they referred to the old court at Luoyang as the "western court".

Huangfu Mi had been courted by the Cao-Wei and Jin dynasties, but he never responded to their recruitment calls. He called himself Master Xuanyan.

The people called Huangfu Xizhi the False Hermit because he was not really a hermit scholar; he only seemed to be because Huan Xuan had made all these arrangements for him.

The "calligraphy books" were books written by such people as Shi Zhou, Cheng Miao, Li Si, Zhang Zhi, Shi Yi, Liang Hu, Wei Guan, or Zhong Yao, each of whom had their own styles of calligraphy.

This passage demonstrates what a base fellow Huan Xuan was, and how mediocre his desires.)


乙卯,魏主珪立其子嗣爲齊王,加位相國;紹爲清河王,加征南大將軍;熙爲陽平王;曜爲河南王。

26. On the day Yimao (November 25th), Tuoba Gui appointed his son Tuoba Si as Prince of Qi and promoted him to Chancellor of State. Among his other sons, he appointed Tuoba Shao as Prince of Qinghe and promoted him to Grand General Who Conquers The South, Tuoba Xi as Prince of Yangping, and Tuoba Yao as Prince of Henan.

冬十月,起西昭陽殿。乙卯,立皇子嗣為齊王,加車騎大將軍,位相國;紹為清河王,加征南大將軍;熙為陽平王;曜為河南王。封故秦慜王子夔為豫章王,陳留王子右將軍悅為朱提王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, Tuoba Gui raised the Zhaoyang Hall.

On the day Yimao (November 25th), Tuoba Gui appointed his son Tuoba Si as Prince of Qi and promoted him to Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Chancellor of State. Among his other sons, he appointed Tuoba Shao as Prince of Qinghe and promoted him to Grand General Who Conquers The South, Tuoba Xi as Prince of Yangping, and Tuoba Yao as Prince of Henan. He appointed the son of Prince Min of Qin, Tuoba Kui, as Prince of Yuzhang, and he appointed the son of the Prince of Chenliu and General of the Right, Tuoba Yue, as Prince of Zhuti.

太宗明元皇帝,諱嗣,太祖長子也,母曰劉貴人,登國七年生於雲中宮。太祖晚有子,聞而大悅,乃大赦天下。帝明叡寬毅,非禮不動,太祖甚奇之。天興六年,封齊王,拜相國,加車騎大將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Emperor Mingyuan was named Tuoba Si; his temple name was Taizu. He was Tuoba Gui's eldest son, and his mother was named Honored Lady Liu. He was born at the palace at Yunzhong, in the seventh year of Dengguo (392). Tuoba Gui had been late in having a son, and he was delighted at the news; he even declared a general amnesty. Tuoba Si was intelligent, farsighted, generous, and resolved; he did nothing that was improper, and Tuoba Gui was very impressed with him. In the sixth year of Tianxing (403), Tuoba Gui appointed Tuoba Si as Prince of Qi, Chancellor of State, and Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry.


丁巳,魏將軍伊謂帥騎二萬襲高車餘種袁紇、烏頻;十一月,庚午,大破之。

27. On the day Dingsi (November 27th), the Wei general Yi Wei led twenty thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against two branches of the Gaoche people, the Yuanhe and the Wuping. In the eleventh month, on the day Gengwu (Dember 10th), he greatly routed them.

丁巳,詔將軍伊謂率騎二萬北襲高車。司馬德宗遣使朝貢。十有一月庚午,伊謂大破高車。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Dingsi (November 27th), Tuoba Gui ordered the general Yi Wei to lead twenty thousand cavalry north to launch a surprise attack against the Gaoche people.

Sima Dezong (Emperor An) sent envoys bearing tribute.

In the eleventh month, on the day Gengwu (Dember 10th), Yi Wei greatly routed the Gaoche.


詔楚王玄行天子禮樂,妃爲王后,世子爲太子。丁丑,卞範之爲禪詔,使臨川王寶逼帝書之。寶,晞之曾孫也。庚辰,帝臨軒,遣兼太保、領司徒王謐奉璽綬,禪位于楚;壬午,帝出居永安宮;癸未,遷太廟神主于琅邪國,穆章何皇后及琅邪王德文皆徙居司徒府。百官詣姑孰勸進。十二月,庚寅朔,玄築壇於九井山北,壬辰,卽皇帝位。册文多非薄晉室,或諫之,玄曰:「揖讓之文,正可陳之於下民耳,豈可欺上帝乎!」大赦,改元永始;以南康之平固縣封帝爲平固王,降何后爲零陵縣君,琅邪王德文爲石陽縣公,武陵王遵爲彭澤縣侯;追尊父溫爲宣武皇帝,廟號太祖,南康公主爲宣皇后,封子昇爲豫章王;以會稽內史王愉爲尚書僕射,愉子相國左長史綏爲中書令。綏,桓氏之甥也。戊戌,玄入建康宮,登御坐而牀忽陷,羣下失色。殷仲文曰:「將由聖德深厚,地不能載。」玄大悅。梁王珍之國臣孔樸奉珍之奔壽陽。珍之,晞之曾孫也。

28. In Jin, an edict was issued allowing Huan Xuan to carry out the same rites and music as the Son of Heaven; his concubine was recognized as a Princess, and his heir was recognized as Crown Prince.

On the day Dingchou (December 17th), Bian Fanzhi wrote an edict of abdication and sent the Prince of Linchuan, Sima Bao, to force Emperor An to promulgate it. This Sima Bao was the great-grandson of Sima Xi.

On the day Gengchen (December 20th), Emperor An presented himself and sent the combined Grand Guardian and acting Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, to present his seal and ribbons to Huan Xuan as tokens of his abdication to Huan Xuan’s new Chu dynasty.

On the day Renwu (December 22nd), Emperor An went out to reside in the Yong'an Palace.

On the day Guiwei (Dember 23rd), the ancestral tablets of the Jin emperors in the Ancestral Temple were moved to the Langye fief. Empress Muzhang, Lady He, and the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, both had their residence shifted to the Minister Over The Masses' Bureau. The government officials all visited Gushu and urged Huan Xuan to advance himself.

In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Gengyin (December 30th), Huan Xuan built an altar north of Mount Jiujing.

On the day Renchen (January 1st of 404), Huan Xuan declared himself Emperor.

In the edicts announcing the abdication, there were many part denigrating the Jin royal family. Some people criticized Huan Xuan for this. But Huan Xuan replied, "The purpose of these abdication edicts is purely for explaining the situation to the common people. Don't think that I am belittling the past emperors!"

Huan Xuan declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongshi. He renamed Nankang to Pinggu county, and he appointed Emperor An as Prince of Pinggu. He demoted Empress He's title to Lady of Lingling county, Sima Dewen's title to Duke of Shiyang county, and the title of the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, to Marquis of Pengze county. He posthumously honored his father Huan Wen as Emperor Xuanwu with the temple name Taizu, he honored the Duchess of Nankang as Empress Xuan, and he appointed his son Huan Sheng as Prince of Yuzhang. He appointed the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Yu, as Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Chancellor of State, Wang Yu's son Wang Sui, as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. This Wang Sui was a nephew of the Huan clan.

On the day Wuxu (January 7th of 404), Huan Xuan entered the palace at Jiankang.

When Huan Xuan attempted to take his seat on the royal couch, it suddenly broke, and all his subordinates lost color. Then Yin Zhongwen said, "Your virtues and wisdom are so weighty that the ground could not bear them." Huan Xuan was delighted by this response.

One of Sima Zhenzhi's subordinates as Prince of Liang, Kong Pu, took Sima Zhenzhi and fled to Shouyang. This Sima Zhenzhi was another great-grandson of Sima Xi.

〈武陵王晞死於桓溫廢立之際。〉〈永嘉之亂,琅邪國人隨元帝過江者千餘戶,太興三年,立懷德縣。丹楊雖有琅邪相而無其地。成帝咸康元年,桓溫領琅邪太守,鎭江乘之蒲洲金城,求割江乘縣境立郡,始有實土。〉〈《九域志》,太平州有九井山。今太平州,古姑孰之地也。蕪湖縣南有溪,猶曰姑孰溪。《北征記》云:九井山在丹楊南。〉〈武帝太康三年,以廬陵南部都尉立南康郡。平固,吳所置平陽縣也,太康元年,更名平固。《九域志》,虔州贛縣有平固鎭。〉〈晞子㻱出繼梁國,珍之之祖也。〉

(Sima Xi had been the Prince of Wuling; Huan Wen had arranged his death during the deposal of Emperor Fei and setting up of Emperor Jianwen.

During the Disaster of Yongjia, more than a thousand households from the Langye fief had followed Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) across the Yangzi. In the third year of Taixing (320), Emperor Yuan established Huaide county. So although Danyang commandary had a Chancellor of Langye, it did not administer any actual territory. In Emperor Cheng's first year of Xiankang (335), Huan Wen had been appointed as acting Administrator of Langye and been stationed at Jincheng in Puzhou along the Yangzi. Huan Wen had asked that several counties along the Yangzi be carved off to form a new Langye commandary, and at that time the commandary had actual land to govern.

According to the Records of the Nine Regions, there was a Mount Jiujing in Taipingzhou. This was where the old territory of Gushu was in modern Taipingzhou. There is a stream in the south of Wuhu county which is still called Gushu Stream. The Journal of the Northern Conquest states, "Mouont Jiujing is in the south of Danyang commandary.”

In Emperor Wu's third year of Taikang (282), he split off the Southern Command Post of Luling commandary to form Nanping commandary. As for the name Pinggu, Eastern Wu had originally created a Pingyang county, which was renamed to Pinggu in the first year of Taikang (280). The Records of the Nine Regions mentions a Pinggu Garrison in Gan county in Qianzhou.

Sima Xi's son Sima Jin had been sent out of the family to continue the line of the Prince of Liang, and Sima Zhenzhi was Sima Jin's grandson.)


十二月,桓玄篡帝位。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the twelfth month, Huan Xuan usurped the throne from Emperor An.

是年,島夷桓玄廢其主司馬德宗而自立,僭稱大楚。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (403), Huan Xuan deposed his lord Sima Dezong (Emperor An) and usurped his position, declaring the Chu dynasty.

冬十一月壬午,玄遷帝于永安宮。癸未,移太廟神主于琅邪國。十二月壬辰,玄篡位,以帝爲平固王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Renwu (December 22nd), Huan Xuan moved Emperor An to the Yong'an Palace.

On the day Guiwei (Dember 23rd), the ancestral tablets of the Jin emperors in the Ancestral Temple were moved to the Langye fief.

In the twelfth month, on the day Renchen (January 1st of 404), Huan Xuan usurped the throne. He appointed Emperor An as Prince of Pinggu.


戊申,燕王熙尊燕主垂之貴嬪段氏爲皇太后。段氏,熙之慈母也。己酉,立苻貴嬪爲皇后,大赦。

29. On the day Wushen (January 17th of 404), Murong Xi honored Murong Chui's Honored Concubine, Lady Duan, as Empress Dowager. This Lady Duan was Murong Xi's beloved mother.

On the day Jiyou (January 18th of 404), Murong Xi honored his Honored Concubine, Fu Xunying, as his Empress, and he declared a general amnesty.

立其貴嬪苻氏為皇后,赦殊死已下。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi honored his Honored Concubine, Lady Fu, as Empress. He declared an amnesty up until those sentenced to death.


辛亥,桓玄遷帝於尋陽。

30. On the day Xinhai (January 20th of 404), Huan Xuan moved Emperor An to Xunyang.

〈尋陽郡時治柴桑。〉

(At this time, Xunyang commandary was governed from Chaisang.)


遷天子於尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan sent Emperor An to Xunyang.

辛亥,帝蒙塵于尋陽。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinhai (January 20th of 404), Emperor An went into exile at Xunyang.


燕以衞尉悅眞爲青州刺史,鎭新城;光祿大夫衞駒爲幷州刺史,鎭凡城。

31. Yan appointed their Commandant of the Guards, Yue Zhen, as Inspector of Qingzhou, and he was stationed at Xincheng. They appointed their Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Wei Ju, as Inspector of Bingzhou, and he was stationed at Fancheng.

癸丑,納桓溫神主于太廟。桓玄臨聽訟觀閱囚徒,罪無輕重,多得原放;有干輿乞者,時或卹之。其好行小惠如此。

32. In Jin, on the day Guichou (January 22nd), Huan Wen's ancestral tablet was placed in the Ancestral Temple.

Huan Xuan often went to the Tingsong Terrace ("Terrace For Judgment Of Crimes") to hear criminal cases, and in many instances, he pardoned and released these criminals, no matter how serious their crimes. And when people stopped his carriage to beg for alms, sometimes he would give things to them. Such things were his little acts of kindness.

〈洛都華林園北有聽訟觀,本平望觀也。魏明帝以刑獄天下大命也,每斷大獄,常幸觀聽之,大和三年,更名聽訟觀。建康倣洛都之制,亦置之。〉〈干,犯也;干輿,行犯乘輿也。乞者,丐衣食之物。〉

(The old capital at Luoyang had a Tingsong Terrace in the north of the Hualin Park; it was originally called the Pingwang Terrace. Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) used it as a place to judge great cases of the realm, and whenever there was such a case going on, he often visited the terrace to hear it. So in the third year of Taihe (229.19 in Fang's Chronicles), he renamed it to the Tingsong Terrace. And since Jiankang copied the same architectural layout as Luoyang, they too had a Tingsong Terrace.

To block means to obstruct. So the term 干輿 means those on foot who block people riding in carriages. People who beg for alms are those who beg for food and clothing.)


是歲,魏主珪始命有司制冠服,以品秩爲差;然法度草創,多不稽古。

33. During this year, Tuoba Gui first sent out orders enforcing his new system of caps and clothing for his officials, regulating them according to their ranks. But since the law had only just gone into effect, there were many who did not follow it.
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BOOK 113

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 03, 2019 2:33 pm

三年(甲辰、四○四)

The Third Year of Yuanxing (The Jiachen Year, 404 AD)


春,正月,桓玄立其妻劉氏爲皇后。劉氏,喬之曾孫也。玄以其祖彝以上名位不顯,不復追尊立廟。散騎常侍徐廣曰:「『敬其父則子悅,』請依故事立七廟。」玄曰:「禮,太祖東向,左昭右穆。晉立七廟,宣帝不得正東向之位,何足法也!」祕書監卞承之謂廣曰:「若宗廟之祭果不及祖,有以知楚德之不長矣。」廣,邈之弟也。

1. In spring, the first month, Huan Xuan honored his wife Lady Liu as Empress. This Lady Liu was the great-granddaughter of Liu Qiao.

Huan Xuan felt that since his grandfather Huan Yi and his earlier ancestors had not held conspicuous offices or possessed exalted reputations, they should not be posthumously honored or granted places in his ancestral temple. One of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Xu Guang, said to him, "It is a principle that 'reverence paid to the father brings joy to the son'. I ask you to follow the precedents by establishing positions in the temple for seven generations of your ancestors."

Huan Xuan replied, "Isn't it also traditional that the Progenitor of the family line occupy the position facing east, with the Zhao and Mu ancestors on his left and right? Yet when the Jin dynasty established their seven temples, Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) did not occupy the position facing east. How was that following the laws?"

The Chief of the Imperial Library, Bian Chengzhi, said to Xu Guang, "If the sacrifices offered at the Ancestral Temple do not even extend to Huan Xuan's grandfather, we can be sure that the virtues of Chu will not last long."

This Xu Guang was the younger brother of Xu Miao.

〈劉喬見八十六卷惠帝永興二年。〉〈《孝經》載孔子之言。〉〈禮,天子七廟,太祖正東向之位,左三昭,右三穆。《決疑要錄》曰:父南面,故曰昭;昭,明也。子北面,故曰穆;穆,順也。昭本如字,爲漢諱昭,改音韶。或云,晉文帝名昭,改音韶。〉〈徐邈以文學爲孝武所親信。〉

(Liu Qiao is mentioned in Book 86, in Emperor Hui's second year of Yongxing (305.9).

Xu Guang quotes from Confucius' Classic of Filial Piety.

According to tradition, when the Son of Heaven prepares his seven ancestral temples, the Progenitor of his line occupies the position facing east, while the three Zhao ancestors and three Mu ancestors are to his left and right. The Notes On Resolving Uncertainties states, "The father faces south, and is thus called Zhao ('Bright'), in the sense of being wise. The son faces north, and is thus called Mu ('solemn'), in the sense of being obedient." Regarding the term Zhao in particular, it was originally pronounced the same as the character. But during the Han dynasty, in order to avoid the naming taboo for Emperor Zhao, the pronunciation was changed to Shao. Some say that this was actually done for Emperor Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao), for the same reason.

Xu Miao had been a trusted associate of Emperor Xiaowu because of his refinement and learning.)


玄自卽位,心常不自安。二月,己丑朔,夜,濤水入石頭,流殺人甚多,讙譁震天。玄聞之懼,曰:「奴輩作矣!」

2. After claiming the throne, Huan Xuan often felt uneasy. In the second month, on the new moon of the day Jichou (February 27th), during the night, the Tao River flooded into the Shitou fortress. Many people were killed by the flooding, and the devastation shook the heavens. Huan Xuan was afraid when he heard it, saying, "Those slaves have caused this!"

三年春二月,帝在尋陽。庚寅夜,濤水入石頭,漂殺人戶。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Yuanxing (404), in spring, the second month, Emperor An was at Xunyang.

On the night of the day Gengyin (February 28th), the Tao River flooded into the Shitou fortress, killing many people and households.


玄性苛細,好自矜伐。主者奏事,或一字不體,或片辭之謬,必加糾擿,以示聰明。尚書答詔誤書「春蒐」爲「春菟」,自左丞王納之以下,凡所關署,皆被降黜。或手注直官,或自用令史,詔令紛紜,有司奉答不暇;而紀綱不治,奏案停積,不能知也。又性好遊畋,或一日數出。遷居東宮,更繕宮室,土木並興,督迫嚴促,朝野騷然,思亂者衆。

3. Huan Xuan had a meticulous and exacting nature, and he enjoyed flaunting his own corrections. If someone submitted a memorial that had a single character out of alignment or a single word out of place, he would invariably amend and criticize it as a show of his intelligence and perception. On one occasion, the Masters of Writing mistakenly wrote 春菟 instead of 春蒐 in an edict letter; for the oversight, everyone from the Assistant of the Left, Wang Nazhi, on down was demoted or dismissed. Sometimes Huan Xuan would handwrite notes to send directly to particular officials, and sometimes he would have the Prefect's Bureau work directly for him. The business of composing the edicts and decrees became so detailed and meticulous that the officials no longer had time available to send out responses; the government ground to a halt, as memorials and cases piled up without being addressed, with no one able to deal with them.

Huan Xuan also enjoyed wandering and hunting, sometimes making several trips in a single day. He moved his residence to the Eastern Palace, then began renovating the palace chambers, piling up both dirt and wood.

Huan Xuan was urgent and stern in commanding and coercing people; the situation became turbulent both in the court and on the borders, and many people harbored thoughts of rebellion.

〈謂字之上下偏傍不合體也。〉〈直官,入直者也。〉〈令史,尚書令僕所署用。〉

(A character was "out of alignment" when it did not precisely line up with the characters above and below it.

To 直官 is to send something directly to a particular person, without going through the hierarchy.

The Prefect's Bureau were the subordinates and underlings of the Prefect of the Masters of Writing.)


玄遣使加益州刺史毛璩散騎常侍、左將軍。璩執留玄使,不受其命。璩,寶之孫也。玄以桓希爲梁州刺史,分命諸將戍三巴以備之。璩傳檄遠近,列玄罪狀,遣巴東太守柳約之、建平太守羅述、征虜司馬甄季之擊破希等,仍帥衆進屯白帝。

4. Huan Xuan sent envoys to promote the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance and as General of the Left. But Mao Qu arrested and detained Huan Xuan's envoys and refused to accept this commission. This Mao Qu was the grandson of Mao Bao.

Huan Xuan appointed Huan Xi as Inspector of Ningzhou, and he ordered several generals to camp in the Three Ba regions to guard against Mao Qu. Mao Qu spread proclamations near and far, listing Huan Xuan's crimes. He sent the Administrator of Badong, Liu Yuezhi, the Administrator of Jianping, Luo Shu, and the Marshal to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Zhen Jizhi, to attack and rout Huan Xi and the others. They led their forces forward to camp at Baidi.

〈三巴,巴郡、巴東、巴西也。杜佑曰:渝州古巴國,謂之三巴,以閬、白二水東南流,曲折三迴,如「巴」字也。〉〈史言劉裕未起,毛璩已仗義舉兵討玄。〉

(The Three Ba regions were the three commandaries of Ba, Badong, and Baxi. Du You remarked, "The old fief of Ba in Yuzhou was called the Three Ba regions. This was because, thanks to the two Lang and Bai Rivers flowing southeast with three loops breaking up their flow, the region resembled the 巴 Ba character."

This passage demonstrates that even before Liu Yu rose up, Mao Qu was already upholding the righteous cause by raising troops and campaigning against Huan Xuan.)


劉裕從徐‧兗二州刺史、安成王桓脩入朝。玄謂王謐曰:「裕風骨不常,蓋人傑也。」每遊集,必引接殷勤,贈賜甚厚。玄后劉氏,有智鑒,謂玄曰:「劉裕龍行虎步,視瞻不凡,恐終不爲人下,不如早除之。」玄曰:「我方平蕩中原,非裕莫可用者;俟關、河平定,然後別議之耳。」

5. Liu Yu came to court, accompanying the Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou and Prince of Ancheng, Huan Xiu. Huan Xuan said to Wang Mi, "Liu Yu has a most unusual aura and figure. He is surely a talented man." And whenever Huan Xuan assembled a traveling party, he always made sure to include Liu Yu and treat him well, granting him generous gifts and presents.

Huan Xuan's Empress, Lady Liu, was an intelligent and perceptive woman. She told Huan Xuan, "Liu Yu has a dragon's movements and a tiger's steps, and he has a bold and uncommon gaze. I fear he will not remain the subject of another man forever. You should get rid of him at once."

But Huan Xuan replied, "I am about to pacify and cleanse the Central Plains, and there is no one fit for the job except Liu Yu. Once Guanzhong and Luoyang have been settled, then we can talk about such things."

桓脩入朝,高祖從至京邑。玄見高祖,謂司徒王謐曰:「昨見劉裕,風骨不恒,蓋人傑也。」每遊集,輒引接慇懃,贈賜甚厚。高祖愈惡之。或說玄曰:「劉裕龍行虎步,視瞻不凡,恐不為人下,宜蚤為其所。」玄曰:「我方欲平蕩中原,非劉裕莫可付以大事。關、隴平定,然後當別議之耳。」玄乃下詔曰:「劉裕以寡制眾,屢摧妖鋒。汎海窮追,十殄其八。諸將力戰,多被重創。自元帥以下至于將士,並宜論賞,以敍勳烈。」(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yu came to court, accompanying Huan Xiu. When Huan Xuan saw Liu Yu, he said to his Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, "Yesterday I saw Liu Yu. He has a most unusual aura and figure. He is surely a talented man." And whenever Huan Xuan assembled a traveling party, he always made sure to include Liu Yu and treat him well, granting him generous gifts and presents. But Liu Yu only despised him all the more.

Someone told Huan Xuan, "Liu Yu has a dragon's movements and a tiger's steps, and he has a bold and uncommon gaze. I fear he will not remain the subject of another man forever. You should get rid of him at once."

But Huan Xuan replied, "I am about to pacify and cleanse the Central Plains, and there is no one I can entrust such a great task to except Liu Yu. Once Guanzhong and Longxi have been settled, then we can talk about such things."

And he issued an edict declaring, "Liu Yu was able to use small armies to overcome mighty hosts, and he repeatedly smashed the rebel vanguards. He even took to the sea to pursue and finish them off, and four-fifths of them he destroyed. Liu Yu often personally led his men into battle, suffering several heavy injuries. Everyone, from the chief commanders to the lowliests officers, agrees that he should be rewarded and marked with distinction for his achievements."


玄以桓弘爲青州刺史,鎭廣陵;刁逵爲豫州刺史,鎭歷陽。弘,脩之弟;逵,彝之子也。

6. Huan Xuan appointed Huan Hong as Inspector of Qingzhou and stationed him at Guangling. He appointed Diao Kui as Inspector of Yuzhou and stationed him at Liyang. This Huan Hong was the younger brother of Huan Xiu; this Diao Kui was the son of Diao Yi.

〈刁彝見一百三卷簡文帝咸安二年。〉

(Diao Yi is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's second year of Xian'an (372.6).)


劉裕與何無忌同舟還京口,密謀興復晉室。劉邁弟毅家於京口,亦與無忌謀討玄。無忌曰:「桓氏強盛,其可圖乎?」毅曰:「天下自有強弱;苟爲失道,雖強易弱,正患事主難得耳。」無忌曰:「天下草澤之中非無英雄也。」毅曰:「所見唯有劉下邳。」無忌笑而不答,還以告裕,遂與毅定謀。

7. Liu Yu rode back to Jingkou on the same boat as He Wuji, and they secretly plotted to restore the Jin dynasty.

Liu Mai's younger brother Liu Yi had his family at Jingkou, and he too plotted with He Wuji to campaign against Huan Xuan. He Wuji said to him, "The Huan clan is strong and numerous now. Can we act against them?"

Liu Yi replied, "The realm itself will provide strength or weakness, and though those who have abandoned their principles may be strong at first, they will soon falter. I only regret that it will be difficult to find someone to lead us."

He Wuji said, "Surely there is some hero out there among all the weeds and mashes of the realm."

Liu Yi replied, "From what I've seen, only Liu Yu of Xiapi will do."

He Wuji smiled without saying anything more. He went back and reported to Liu Yu, and they agreed to plan together with Liu Yi.

〈謂舉大事難得一人爲主。〉〈裕先領下邳太守,故稱之。〉

(Liu Yi was saying that it is difficult to find someone to act as a leader for great endeavors.

Liu Yu had earlier been appointed as Administrator of Xiapi, thus Liu Yi calling him "of Xiapi".)


至是桓脩還京,高祖託以金創疾動,不堪步從,乃與無忌同船共還,建興復之計。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When Huan Xiu returned from his trip to the capital, Liu Yu claimed to be suffering from a kind of numbness in the foot, brought about by metal exposure, that made it difficult for him to walk. So he took a boat back to Jingkou, riding together with He Wuji, and they discussed their plan for the uprising against Huan Xuan.

劉毅,字希樂,彭城沛人也。曾祖距,廣陵相。叔父鎮,左光祿大夫。毅少有大志,不修家人產業,仕為州從事,桓弘以為中兵參軍屬。桓玄篡位,毅與劉裕、何無忌、魏詠之等起義兵,密謀討玄。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi, styled Xile, was a native of Pei county in Pengcheng commandary. His great-grandfather was Liu Ju, who served as Chancellor of Guangling. His uncle was Liu Zhen, who served as Household Counselor of the Left. Even as a youth, Liu Yi had grand ambitions, and he did not tend to his family business. He was employed as an Attendant Officer of his native province, and Huan Hong later appointed him as his Army Advisor of the Central Regiment.

After Huan Xuan usurped the throne, Liu Yi joined with Liu Yu, He Wuji, Wei Yongzhi, and others to prepare an uprising and secretly plot to campaign against Huan Xuan.

初,劉裕嘗為劉牢之參軍,與無忌素相親結。至是,因密共圖玄。劉毅家在京口,與無忌素善,言及興復之事,無忌曰:「桓氏強盛,其可圖乎?」毅曰:「天下自有強弱,雖強易弱,正患事主難得耳!」無忌曰:「天下草澤之中非無英雄也。」毅曰:「所見唯有劉下邳。」無忌笑而不答,還以告裕,因共要毅。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

Liu Yu too had once been an Army Advisor under Liu Laozhi, and he and He Wuji had long enjoyed a close personal bond. So at this time, they secretly plotted together against Huan Xuan.

Liu Yi's family was living at Jingkou, and he had also long been good friends with He Wuji. When Liu Yi mentioned the prospect of restoring the Jin royal family, He Wuji said to him, "The Huan clan is strong and numerous now. Can we act against them?"

Liu Yi replied, "The realm itself will provide strength or weakness, and those who are strong at first will soon falter. I only regret that it will be difficult to find someone to lead us!"

He Wuji said, "Surely there is some hero out there among all the weeds and mashes of the realm."

Liu Yi replied, "From what I've seen, only Liu Yu of Xiapi will do."

He Wuji smiled without saying anything more. He went back and reported to Liu Yu, and they agreed to plan together with Liu Yi.


初,太原王元德及弟仲德爲苻氏起兵攻燕主垂,不克,來奔,朝廷以元德爲弘農太守。仲德見桓玄稱帝,謂人曰:「自古革命誠非一族,然今之起者恐不足以成大事。」

8. Years earlier, Wang Yuande of Taiyuan commandary and his younger brother Wang Zhongde had raised troops on behalf of the Fu clan of Former Qin to attack the Emperor of Yan, Murong Chui. Having failed in that attempt, they had fled to Jin, where the court had appointed Wang Yuande as Administrator of Hongnong.

At this time, when Wang Zhongde saw that Huan Xuan had declared himself Emperor, he told people, "It's true that no one clan has ever held sole claim to Heaven's mandate. But I fear that this clan that has just risen will not be able to fulfill their grand affair."

〈王叡,字元德;王懿,字仲德;名犯宣、元二帝諱,故以字行。仲德爲燕所敗,渡河依段遼,自遼所來奔。〉

(These two were really named Wang Rui, styled Yuande, and Wang Yi, styled Zhongde. But since their given names violated the naming taboos of Emperors Xuan and Yuan (Sima Yi and Sima Rui), they were addressed by their style names. Wang Zhongde had originally crossed the Yellow River and fled to Duan Liao after being defeated by Later Yan. He then left Duan Liao and fled to Jin.)


平昌孟昶爲青州主簿,桓弘使昶至建康,玄見而悅之,謂劉邁曰:「素士中得一尚書郎,卿與其州里,寧相識否?」邁素與昶不善,對曰:「臣在京口,不聞昶有異能,唯聞父子紛紛更相贈詩耳。」玄笑而止。昶聞而恨之。旣還京口,裕謂昶曰:「草間當有英雄起,卿頗聞乎?」昶曰:「今日英雄有誰,正當是卿耳!」

9. At this time, Meng Chang of Pingchang commandary was serving as Registrar to the Inspector of Qingzhou. Huan Hong sent him to visit Jiankang. Huan Xuan met him and was delighted with him.

Huan Xuan said to Liu Mai, "I may have found myself a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing from the midst of a poor household. But you and Meng Chang are from the same province. Have you really never heard of him before?"

Liu Mai had long been on bad terms with Meng Chang, so he replied, "During the time that I was at Jingkou, I never heard anything about Meng Chang having any special talents; I only ever heard that he and his father just scribbled a bunch of poems for each other."

Huan Xuan laughed and decided against appointing Meng Chang. When Meng Chang heard about it, he resented them.

After Meng Chang returned to Jingkou, Liu Yu said to him, "There's been talk of heroes rising up. Have you heard anything about it?"

Meng Chang replied, "These days, the only hero you could be talking about is yourself!"

〈平昌縣,漢屬城陽國,魏文帝分城陽立平昌郡,後省。晉惠帝又立平昌郡。其地今屬密州安丘縣界。〉〈起於白屋者謂之素士。〉〈孟昶,平昌人。平昌郡屬青州。劉邁,彭城沛人。彭城屬徐州。蓋二人並僑居京口,故謂之同州里。〉

(During Han, Pingchang county was part of the Chengyang princely fief. Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) split off part of Chengyang to form Pingchang commandary, but it was later abolished. Emperor Hui of Jin recreated Pingchang commandary. Its territory was within Anqiu county in modern Mizhou.

Huan Xuan refers to Meng Chang as a 素士; this is someone who grew up in an undistinguished household.

Meng Chang was a native of Pingchang commandary, which was part of Qingzhou, while Liu Mai was a native of Pei county in Pengcheng commandary, which was part of Xuzhou. So Huan Xuan's comment about them being natives of the same province must have meant that both of them had lived in Jingkou as part of the surrogate versions of their original commandaries.)


於是裕、毅、無忌、元德、昶及裕弟道規、任城魏詠之、高平檀憑之、琅邪諸葛長民、河內太守隴西辛扈興、振威將軍東莞童厚之,相與合謀起兵。道規爲桓弘中兵參軍,裕使毅就道規及昶於江北,共殺弘,據廣陵;長民爲刁逵參軍,使長民殺逵,據歷陽;元德、扈興、厚之在建康,使之聚衆攻玄爲內應,刻期齊發。

10. Liu Yi, He Wuji, Wang Yuande, and Meng Chang thus worked together with Liu Yu for the plot to rise up and overthrow Huan Xuan. They were joined by Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daogui, Wei Yongzhi of Rencheng commandary, Tan Pingzhi of Gaoping commandary, Zhuge Changmin of Langye commandary, the Administrator of Henei, Xin Huxing of Longxi commandary, and the General Who Displays Might, Tong Houzhi of Dongguan commandary.

At that time, Liu Daogui was serving as Army Advisor of the Central Regiment under Huan Hong, so Liu Yu planned to send Liu Yi to join Liu Daogui and Meng Chang on the north side of the Yangzi, where they would kill Huan Hong and occupy Guangling together. Meanwhile, since Zhuge Changmin was serving as Diao Kui's Army Advisor, Liu Yu planned to send him to kill Diao Kui and occupy Liyang. And since Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing, and Tong Houzhi were at Jiankang, Liu Yu planned to have them gather soldiers to attack Huan Xuan from within.

The plotters arranged for a date when they would all launch their plan.

〈任城縣,前漢屬東平國,後漢章帝元和元年分東平爲任城國,而任城縣屬焉;晉氏南渡,省任城郡爲任城縣,屬高平郡。〉

(During Former Han, Rencheng county had been part of the Dongping princely fief. In Emperor Zhang of Han's first year of Yuanhe (84 AD), he split off part of Dongping to form the Rencheng princely fief, with the original Rencheng county as part of it. After the Jin dynasty fled across the Yangzi, they abolished Rencheng commandary and merely classified it as a county again, as part of Gaoping commandary.)


於是與弟道規、沛郡劉毅、平昌孟昶、任城魏詠之、高平檀憑之、琅邪諸葛長民、太原王元德、隴西辛扈興、東莞童厚之,並同義謀。時桓脩弟弘為征虜將軍、青州刺史,鎮廣陵。道規為弘中兵參軍,昶為州主簿。乃令毅潛往就昶,聚徒於江北,謀起兵殺弘。長民為豫州刺史刁逵左軍府參軍,謀據歷陽相應。元德、厚之謀於京邑聚眾攻玄,並剋期齊發。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yi and He Wuji plotted their uprising together with Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daogui, Liu Yu of Pei commandary, Meng Chang of Pingchang commandary, Wei Yongzhi of Rencheng commandary, Tan Pingzhi of Gaoping commandary, Zhuge Changmin of Langye commandary, the Administrator of Taiyuan, Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing of Longxi commandary, and Tong Houzhi of Dongguan commandary.

At that time, Huan Xiu's younger brother Huan Hong had been appointed as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Qingzhou, and he was stationed at Guangling. Liu Daogui was serving as Liu Hong's Army Advisor of the Central Regiment, and Meng Chang was Qingzhou's Registrar. So Liu Yu ordered Liu Yu to secretly go to visit Meng Chang, gather their followers north of the Yangzi, and then plot to raise troops and kill Huan Hong. Meanwhile, since Zhuge Changmin was serving as Diao Kui's Army Advisor on his staff as General of the Left, Liu Yu planned to have him occupy Liyang to support the others. Wang Yuande and Tong Houzhi would plot to gather soldiers in the capital region to attack Huan Xuan.

The plotters arranged for a date when they would all launch their plan.

臨川烈武王道規,字道則,高祖少弟也。少倜儻有大志,高祖奇之,與謀誅桓玄。時桓弘鎮廣陵,以為征虜中兵參軍。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Daogui, styled Daoze, was Liu Yu's youngest brother. He would posthumously be known as Prince Liewu of Linchuan. Even as a youth, Liu Daogui was free-spirited and had grand ambitions, and Liu Yu marveled at him. So he brought Liu Daogui into his plot to execute Huan Xuan.

At that time, Huan Hong was stationed at Guangling, and Liu Daogui was serving as his Army Advisor of the Central Regiment in Huan Hong's capacity as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs.

諸葛長民,琅邪陽都人也。有文武幹用,然不持行檢,無鄉曲之譽。桓玄引為參軍平西軍事,尋以貪刻免。及劉裕建義,與之定謀,為揚武將軍。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

Zhuge Changmin was a native of Yangdou county in Langye commandary. He was adept at both civil and military affairs, but he lacked good conduct or restraint, so he did not enjoy even a good local reputation. Huan Xuan appointed him as an Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The West, but he was dismissed because of corruption.

When Liu Yu plotted his uprising, Zhuge Changmin joined in the plot, and Liu Yu appointed him as General Who Displays Valor.


孟昶妻周氏富於財,昶謂之曰:「劉邁毀我於桓公,使我一生淪陷,我決當作賊。卿幸早離絕,脫得富貴,相迎不晚也。」周氏曰:「君父母在堂,欲建非常之謀,豈婦人所能諫!事之不成,當於奚官中奉養大家,義無歸志也。」昶悵然,久之而起。周氏追昶坐,曰:「觀君舉措,非謀及婦人者,不過欲得財物耳。」因指懷中兒示之曰:「此而可賣,亦當不惜,」遂傾貲以給之。昶弟顗妻,周氏之從妹也,周氏紿之曰:「昨夜夢殊不祥,門內絳色物宜悉取以爲厭勝。」妹信而與之,遂盡縫以爲軍士袍。

11. Meng Chang's wife Lady Zhou came from a rich family. Meng Chang told her, "Liu Mai slandered my reputation to Lord Huan, and now my career prospects are ruined. I have thus decided to become a rebel. So you ought to divorce me at once, to ensure that you can maintain your wealth and honor. If circumstances permit, there will still be time for us to reunite someday."

But Lady Zhou replied, "If you wish to carry out such an unusual plot while your parents are still alive, what place do I as your wife have to criticize you? If your plot fails, then I shall have to join the government servents to help support and take care of your family. It would not be right for me to abandon you."

Meng Chang seemed dejected, and it was some time before he finally stood up. Lady Zhou followed after him and sat him back down, telling him, "I can tell from the way you act that there is something more you have not mentioned to me. It must be that you want to use my wealth." And pointing to the babe at her breast, she continued, "I would not shrink even from selling this child if it would help fund your cause." And she gave him all her funds and resources.

Meng Chang's younger brother Meng Yi had a wife who was Lady Zhou's cousin. Lady Zhou misled her, saying, "Last night I had a terrible premonition. Please give me anything colored crimson within your household so that I can ward off the omen." Her cousin believed her and gave her all her crimson materials, and Lady Zhou stitched them all together into uniforms for Meng Chang's soldiers.

〈《周禮註》曰:古者從坐,男女沒入縣官爲奴,其少才智以爲奚。今之侍史、官婢,或曰奚官女。此言事若敗,沒爲官婢,當於奚官中養姑。《晉志》,奚官令,屬少府。晉、宋間子婦稱其姑曰「大家」,考《南史‧孝義‧孫棘傳》可見。〉

(The Commentary to the Rites of Zhou states, "Among the ancients, the children of criminals who were punished for their association with them were sent into the county offices to be slaves, with those of meager talent or skill called 奚." And even today, attending servants and government serving girls are sometimes called 奚 serving girls. So Lady Zhou was saying that if Meng Chang's plot failed, she would thus became a government slave and work among the ranks of the 奚 to support her mother-in-law. According to the Records of Jin, there was a rank of Prefect of 奚, subordinate to the Privy Steward.

Lady Zhou refers to her mother-in-law as 大家. During the Jin and Liu-Song era, this was a term which wives used to refer to their mothers-in-law, as seen in the Biography of Sun Ji in the Biographies of Filial and Righteous in the History of the Southern Dynasties.)


何無忌夜於屛風裏草檄文,其母,劉牢之姊也,登橙密窺之,泣曰:「吾不及東海呂母矣。汝能如此,吾復何恨!」問所與同謀者,曰:「劉裕。」母尤喜,因爲言玄必敗、舉事必成之理以勸之。

12. During the night, He Wuji was working on writing proclamations, screened by the wind and flanked by the weeds. His mother, who was Liu Laozhi's sister, climbed an orange tree to secretly see what he was up to. She wept as she said to him, "Alas, I could never measure up to Mother Lü of Donghai. But with a son like you, I shall have no regrets!"

She asked him whom he was plotting with, and he told her, "Liu Yu." She was overjoyed, and she told him reasons why Huan Xuan would certainly be defeated and why the uprising would definitely succeed in order to encourage him.

〈橙,床屬。〉〈呂母事見三十八卷王莽天鳳四年。〉

(An orange tree is a type of tree.

Mother Lü led an uprising against the usurper Wang Mang, as mentioned in Book 38, in Wang Mang's fourth year of Tianfeng (17 AD).)


乙卯,裕託以遊獵,與無忌收合徒衆,得百餘人。丙辰,詰旦,京口城開,無忌著傳詔服,稱敕使,居前,徒衆隨之齊入,卽斬桓脩以徇。脩司馬刁弘帥文武佐吏來赴,裕登城,謂之曰:「郭江州已奉乘輿返正於尋陽,我等並被密詔,誅除逆黨,今日賊玄之首已當梟於大航矣。諸君非大晉之臣乎,今來欲何爲!」弘等信之,收衆而退。

13. On the day Yimao (March 24th), Liu Yu left his post on the pretext that he was going out hunting. He and He Wuji gathered together what followers and soldiers they could, forming a group of more than a hundred people.

On the day Bingchen (March 25th), at the break of dawn, the gates of Jingkou were closed. He Wuji posed as the bearer of an imperial decree and, standing in front of Huan Xiu's residence, claimed that he was carrying out instructions. His followers then rushed into the residence, and they beheaded Huan Xiu and displayed his head.

Huan Xiu's Marshal, Diao Hong, led the civil and military officials to come rushing to the scene. Liu Yu mounted the walls and said to them, "Inspector Guo has already restored the Emperor at Xunyang, and we and those like us have a secret decree ordering us to execute and purge the traitor and his partisans. By now, the rebel Huan Xuan's head is already hanging on the great ship. If you all are not subjects of Jin, what have you come here for?" Diao Hong and the others believed him, and they gathered up their forces and withdrew.

〈著傳詔之服,因自稱敕使。〉〈城,謂京口之金城。〉〈郭江州,謂郭昶之也。時帝在尋陽,裕詭言以誑弘等。〉〈《說文》曰:日至,捕梟磔之,以頭掛木上;今謂掛首爲梟。〉

(He Wuji dressed in the clothes of a bearer of a decree in order to act like he was carrying out instructions.

The walls which Liu Yu mounted were those of the citadel at Jingkou.

Guo Changzhi was the Inspector of Jiangzhou. At this time, Emperor An was at Xunyang. So Liu Yu made up this claim in order to deceive Diao Hong and the others.

The Shuowen dictionary states, "When the day came, they dismembered his head and hung it up in a tree." So ever since, the term 梟 has meant to hang up a severed head as a display.)


三年二月己丑朔,乙卯,高祖託以遊獵,與無忌等收集義徒,凡同謀何無忌、魏詠之、詠之弟欣之、順之、檀憑之、憑之從子韶、韶弟祗、隆、道濟、道濟從兄範之、高祖弟道憐、劉毅、毅從弟藩、孟昶、昶族弟懷玉、河內向彌、管義之、陳留周安穆、臨淮劉蔚、從弟珪之、東莞臧熹、從弟寶符、從子穆生、童茂宗、陳郡周道民、漁陽田演、譙國范清等二十七人;願從者百餘人。丙辰,詰旦,城開,無忌服傳詔服,稱詔居前。義眾馳入,齊聲大呼,吏士驚散,莫敢動,即斬脩以徇。高祖哭甚慟,厚加殯斂... 義軍初剋京城,脩司馬刁弘率文武佐吏來赴。高祖登城謂之曰:「郭江州已奉乘輿反正於尋陽,我等並被密詔,誅除逆黨,同會今日。賊玄之首,已當梟於大航矣。諸君非大晉之臣乎,今來欲何為?」弘等信之,收眾而退。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the third year of Yuanxing (404), in the second month, which began on the day Jichou (February 27th), on the day Yimao (March 24th), Liu Yu left his post on the pretext that he was going out hunting. He, He Wuji, and others gathered together their followers to launch the uprising. Liu Yu plotted together with He Wuji, Wei Yongzhi and his younger brothers Wei Xinzhi and Wei Shunzhi, Tan Pingzhi and his cousins' sons Tan Shao, Tan Zhi, Tan Long, and Tan Daoji, Tan Daoji's cousin Tan Fanzhi, Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daolian, Liu Yu and his cousin Liu Fan, Meng Chang and his kinsman Meng Huaiyu, Xiang Mi of Henei commandary, Guan Yizhi, Zhou Anmu of Chenliu commandary, Liu Wei of Linhuai commandary and his cousin Liu Guizhi, Zang Xi of Dongguan commandary and his cousin Zang Baofu and his cousin's son Zang Musheng, Tong Maozong, Zhou Daomin of Chen commandary, Tian Yan of Yuyang commandary, Fan Qing of the Qiao princely fief, and others; twenty-seven people altogether. Beyond that, more than a hundred people joined them to help with the uprising.

On the day Bingchen (March 25th), at the break of dawn, the gates of the city were closed. He Wuji posed as the bearer of an imperial decree and, standing in front of Huan Xiu's residence, claimed that he was carrying out instructions. The loyalists then rushed into the residence, raising a great shout; the officials there panicked and scattered, none daring to move against them. They beheaded Huan Xiu and displayed his head. Liu Yu wept with great feeling, and he granted him a lavish memorial.

When the loyalists had just taken Jingcheng, Huan Xiu's Marshal, Diao Hong, led the civil and military officials to come rushing to the scene. Liu Yu mounted the walls and said to them, "Inspector Guo has already restored the Emperor at Xunyang, and we and those like us have a secret decree ordering us to execute and purge the traitor and his partisans, all acting together on this very day. By now, the rebel Huan Xuan's head is already hanging on the great ship. If you all are not subjects of Jin, what have you come here for?" Diao Hong and the others believed him, and they gathered up their forces and withdrew.

乙卯,建武將軍劉裕帥沛國劉毅、東海何無忌等舉義兵。丙辰,斬桓玄所署徐州刺史桓修于京口。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Yimao (March 24th), the General Who Establishes Valor, Liu Yu, led an uprising of soldiers, together with Liu Yi of Peiguo, He Wuji of Donghai, and others.

On the day Bingchen (March 25th), they beheaded the Inspector of Xuzhou that Huan Xuan had appointed, Huan Xiu, at Jingkou.

與相推結,遂共舉義兵,襲京口。無忌偽著傳詔服,稱敕使,城中無敢動者。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

Having made their arrangements, the loyalists rose together to begin the uprising, and they launched a surprise attack against Jingkou. He Wuji pretended to be the bearer of an imperial decree, and he claimed that he was acting on orders, so no one within the city dared to move against him.


裕問無忌曰:「今急須一府主簿,何由得之?」無忌曰:「無過劉道民。」道民者,東莞劉穆之也。裕曰:「吾亦識之。」卽馳信召焉。時穆之聞京口讙噪聲,晨起,出陌頭,屬與信會。穆之直視不言者久之,卽而返室,壞布裳爲袴,往見裕。裕曰:「始舉大義,方造艱難,須一軍吏甚急,卿謂誰堪其選?」穆之曰:「貴府始建,軍吏實須其才,倉猝之際,略當無見踰者。」裕笑曰:「卿能自屈,吾事濟矣。」卽於坐署主簿。

14. Liu Yu said to He Wuji, "We have an urgent need for a registrar for our staff. But where can we find one?"

He Wuji replied, "You need look no further than Liu Daomin." This Liu Daomin was Liu Muzhi of Dongguan commandary.

Liu Yu said, "Yes, I've heard of him." So he sent a messenger to rush to find him.

At this time, Liu Muzhi had heard that there was some commotion in Jingkou, and since it was now morning, he went out to the road to see what was going on. Just then, the messenger arrived. Liu Muzhi stood there staring at him without a word for a moment, then rushed back into his house and tore his skirt so that it would serve as pants, then hurried to see Liu Yu.

Liu Yu said to him, "We have just begun our righteous cause, and it is at such times that affairs are always the hardest. I am sorely pressed to find good subordinates. Who do you suggest that could handle things?"

Liu Muzhi replied, "Since your staff has only just been formed, you really ought to wait for some talented person. You must have only sent for me because, pressed by your urgency, you could not look any further."

Liu Yu laughed and said, "If you can humble yourself like that, I am sure I will succeed." And he appointed Liu Muzhi as his Registrar.

〈晉陵有南東莞郡,故穆之居京口。〉〈直視,注目直視不他屬。〉〈袴,脛衣也。《晉志》曰:袴褶之制,未詳所起,近世以爲戎服。〉〈言造事之初,事事艱難也。〉

(There was a Southern Dongguan commandary within Jinling commandary; this explained why Liu Muzhi, who was "from Dongguan", was living at Jingkou.

To stare is to focus the eyes on something without looking at other things.

Pants are clothing for the shins. The Records of Jin states, "There was not yet any detailed system for the wearing of pants; recent ages had called them 'barbarian clothes'."

Liu Yu was saying that the most difficult part of an undertaking is at its outset.)


劉穆之,字道和,小字道民,東莞莒人,漢齊悼惠王肥後也。世居京口。少好書、傳,博覽多通,為濟陽江敳所知。敳為建武將軍、琅邪內史,以為府主簿。初,穆之嘗夢與高祖俱泛海,忽值大風,驚懼。俯視船下,見有二白龍夾舫。既而至一山,峯㠋聳秀,林樹繁密,意甚悅之。及高祖克京城,問何無忌曰:「急須一府主簿,何由得之?」無忌曰:「無過劉道民。」高祖曰:「吾亦識之。」即馳信召焉。時穆之聞京城有叫譟之聲,晨起出陌頭,屬與信會。穆之直視不言者久之。既而反室,壞布裳為絝,往見高祖。高祖謂之曰:「我始舉大義,方造艱難,須一軍吏甚急,卿謂誰堪其選?」穆之曰:「貴府始建,軍吏實須其才,倉卒之際,當略無見踰者。」高祖笑曰:「卿能自屈,吾事濟矣。」即於坐受署。(Book of Liu-Song 42, Biography of Liu Muzhi)

Liu Muzhi, styled Daohe, was a native of Ju county in Dongguan commandary. His childhood name was Daomin. He was a descendant of the Han dynasty's Prince Daohui of Qi, Liu Fei. For generations, his family had lived at Jingkou. Even as a youth, Liu Muzhi enjoyed reading the records and histories, and he was very learned and educated in the texts. He came to the attention of Jiang Ai of Jiyang commandary, and when Jiang Ai was appointed as General Who Establishes Valor and Interior Minister of Langye, he recruited Liu Muzhi to serve as Registrar of his staff.

At one point, Liu Muzhi dreamed that he was riding a boat across the sea, together with Liu Yu. Suddenly a great wind came up, and he was shocked and afraid. He looked down below the boat, and saw two white dragons flanking the boat on either side. Then the boat came to a mountain, with a towering and lofty peak and thick with trees all close together. It was a most pleasing vista.

After Liu Yu had taken Jingcheng (Jingkou), he asked He Wuji, "We have an urgent need for a registrar for our staff. But where can we find one?"

He Wuji replied, "You need look no further than Liu Daomin."

Liu Yu said, "Yes, I've heard of him." So he sent a messenger to rush to find him.

At this time, Liu Muzhi had heard that there was some commotion in Jingcheng, and since it was now morning, he went out to the road to see what was going on. Just then, the messenger arrived. Liu Muzhi stood there staring at him without a word for a moment, then rushed back into his house and tore his skirt so that it would serve as pants, then hurried to see Liu Yu.

Liu Yu said to him, "We have just begun our righteous cause, and it is at such times that affairs are always the hardest. I am sorely pressed to find good subordinates for my army. Who do you suggest that could handle things?"

Liu Muzhi replied, "Since your staff has only just been formed, you really ought to wait for some talented person. You must have only sent for me because, pressed by your urgency, you could not look any further."

Liu Yu laughed and said, "If you can humble yourself like that, I am sure I will succeed." And he appointed Liu Muzhi on the spot.


孟昶勸桓弘其日出獵,天未明,開門出獵人;昶與劉毅、劉道規帥壯士數十人直入,弘方噉粥,卽斬之,因收衆濟江。裕使毅誅刁弘。

15. Meanwhile, Meng Chang had urged Huan Hong to go out hunting that same day. The sky was not yet bright when they opened the gates to send out the hunters. Meng Chang, Liu Yi, and Liu Daogui led several dozen warriors to rush inside, and they caught Huan Hong just as he was eating his gruel and beheaded him. They then gathered their forces and crossed the Yangzi.

Liu Yu ordered Liu Yi to execute Diao Hong.

孟昶勸弘其日出獵。未明開門,出獵人,昶、道規、毅等率壯士五六十人因開門直入。弘方噉粥,即斬之,因收眾濟江... 毅既至,高祖命誅弘。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Meanwhile, Meng Chang had urged Huan Hong to go out hunting that same day. The sky was not yet bright when they opened the gates to send out the hunters. Meng Chang, Liu Yi, Liu Daogui, and others led several fifty or sixty warriors to rush inside, and they caught Huan Hong just as he was eating his gruel and beheaded him. They then gathered their forces and crossed the Yangzi.

When Liu Yi arrived, Liu Yu ordered him to execute Diao Hong.

丙辰,斬桓玄所署青州刺史桓弘于廣陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The same day, the loyalists beheaded the Inspector of Qingzhou that Huan Xuan had appointed, Huan Hong, at Guangling.

高祖克京城,道規亦以其日與劉毅、孟昶共斬弘,收眾濟江。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The same day that Liu Yu took Jingcheng, Liu Daogui joined with Liu Yi and Meng Chang to behead Huan Hong. Then they gathered their forces and crossed the Yangzi.

毅討徐州刺史桓修于京口、青州刺史桓弘于廣陵。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi campaigned against the Inspector of Xuzhou, Huan Xiu, at Jingkou and the Inspector of Qingzhou, Huan Hong, at Guangling.


先是,裕遣同謀周安穆入建康報劉邁,邁雖酬許,意甚惶懼;安穆慮事泄,乃馳歸。玄以邁爲竟陵太守,邁欲亟之郡,是夜,玄與邁書曰:「北府人情云何?卿近見劉裕何所道?」邁謂玄已知其謀,晨起,白之。玄大驚,封邁爲重安侯。旣而嫌邁不執安穆,使得逃去,乃殺之,悉誅元德、扈興、厚之等。

16. Earlier, Liu Yu had sent his fellow plotter Zhou Anmu to Jiankang to inform Liu Mai of the plot. Although Liu Mai had seemed agreeable to joining the plot, in reality he was nervous and afraid. Zhou Anmu was afraid that Liu Mai would leak the plot, so he rushed back.

Huan Xuan had already appointed Liu Mai as Administrator of Jingling, and Liu Mai now wished to go there at once. But during that night, Huan Xuan sent Liu Mai a letter stating, "What thoughts did that fellow from the Northern Garrison express to you? Have you seen Liu Yu recently? Do you know how he stands?"

Liu Mai thus believed that Huan Xuan was already aware of the plot, so when dawn came, he reported it to Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan was greatly astonished, and at first he appointed Liu Mai as Marquis of Zhong'an ("Marquis of Ensured Peace"). But then he was suspicious because Liu Mai had let Zhou Anmu get away rather than arrest him, so he killed Liu Mai.

Huan Xuan executed Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing, Tong Houzhi, and other plotters in the capital.

毅兄邁先在京師,事未發數日,高祖遣同謀周安穆報之,使為內應。邁外雖酬許,內甚震懼。安穆見其惶駭,慮事必泄,乃馳歸。時玄以邁為竟陵太守,邁不知所為,便下船欲之郡。是夜,玄與邁書曰:「北府人情云何?卿近見劉裕何所道?」邁謂玄已知其謀,晨起白之。玄驚懼,封邁為重安侯;既而嫌邁不執安穆,使得逃去,乃殺之。誅元德、扈興、厚之等。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yi's elder brother Liu Mai had been at the capital. So several days before the uprising was set to begin, Liu Yu had sent his fellow plotter Zhou Anmu to inform Liu Mai about the uprising and have him support them from within. Although Liu Mai had seemed agreeable to joining the plot, in reality he was nervous and afraid. Zhou Anmu sensed his hesitation and was certain that Liu Mai would leak the plot, so he rushed back.

Huan Xuan had already appointed Liu Mai as Administrator of Jingling, and Liu Mai did not know how to respond to news of the uprising, so he now wished to take a boat and go to Jingling at once. But during that night, Huan Xuan sent Liu Mai a letter stating, "What thoughts did that fellow from the Northern Garrison express to you? Have you seen Liu Yu recently? Do you know how he stands?"

Liu Mai thus believed that Huan Xuan was already aware of the plot, so when dawn came, he reported it to Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan was greatly astonished, and at first he appointed Liu Mai as Marquis of Zhong'an ("Marquis of Ensured Peace"). But then he was suspicious because Liu Mai had let Zhou Anmu get away rather than arrest him, so he killed Liu Mai.

Huan Xuan executed Wang Yuande, Xin Huxing, Tong Houzhi, and other plotters in the capital.

後為竟陵太守。及毅與劉裕等同謀起義,邁將應之,事泄,為玄所害。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Mai)

Later, Huan Xuan appointed Liu Mai as Administrator of Jingling. When Liu Yi joined with Liu Yu and others to plot together to launch an uprising, Liu Mai was planning to support them. But the plot leaked, and he was killed by Huan Xuan.


衆推劉裕爲盟主,總督徐州事,以孟昶爲長史,守京口,檀憑之爲司馬。彭城人應募者,裕悉使郡主簿劉鍾統之。丁巳,裕帥二州之衆千七百人,軍于竹里,移檄遠近,聲言益州刺史毛璩已定荊楚,江州刺史郭昶之奉迎主上返正於尋陽,鎭北參軍王元德等並帥部曲保據石頭,揚武將軍諸葛長民已據歷陽。

17. The loyalists acclaimed Liu Yu as their leader, in general charge of affairs in Xuzhou. Liu Yu appointed Meng Chang as his Chief Clerk, stationed at Jingkou, and he appointed Tan Pingzhi as his Marshal. He assigned all the volunteers or recruits from Pengcheng to the Registrar of that commandary, Liu Zhong.

On the day Dingsi (March 26th), Liu Yu led an army of seventeen hundred people from the two provinces (Yanzhou and Xuzhou) to camp at Zhuli. They spread proclamations near and far, announcing that the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, had already settled the regions of Jing and Chu, that the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, had restored Emperor An at Xunyang, that the General Who Guards The North, Wang Yuande, and others had each led their forces to occupy Shitou, and that the General Who Displays Valor, Zhuge Changmin, had already occupied Liyang.

〈二州,兗、徐也。〉

(The "two provinces" were Yanzhou and Xuzhou.)


眾推高祖為盟主,移檄京邑,曰:夫治亂相因,理不常泰,狡焉肆虐,或值聖明。自我大晉,陽九屢構,隆安以來,難結皇室,忠臣碎於虎口,貞良弊於豺狼。逆臣桓玄,陵虐人鬼,阻兵荊郢,肆暴都邑。天未亡難,凶力繁興,踰年之間,遂傾皇祚。主上播越,流幸非所,神器沉淪,七廟毀墜。夏后之罹浞、豷,有漢之遭莽、卓,方之於玄,未足為喻。自玄纂逆,于今歷年,亢旱彌時,民無生氣。加以士庶疲於轉輸,文武困於造築,父子乖離,室家分散,豈唯大東有杼軸之悲,摽梅有傾筐之塈而已哉。仰觀天文,俯察人事,此而能久,孰有可亡。凡在有心,誰不扼腕。裕等所以叩心泣血,不遑啟處者也。是故夕寐宵興,援獎忠烈,潛搆崎嶇,險過履虎。輔國將軍劉毅、廣武將軍何無忌、鎮北主簿孟昶、兗州主簿魏詠之、寧遠將軍劉道規、龍驤將軍劉藩、振威將軍檀憑之等,忠烈斷金,精貫白日,荷戈奮袂,志在畢命。益州刺史毛璩,萬里齊契,掃定荊楚。江州刺史郭昶之,奉迎主上,宮于尋陽。鎮北參軍王元德等,並率部曲,保據石頭。揚武將軍諸葛長民,收集義士,已據歷陽。征虜參軍庾賾之等,潛相連結,以為內應。同力協規,所在蜂起,即日斬偽徐州刺史安城王脩、青州刺史弘首。義眾既集,文武爭先,咸謂不有一統,則事無以輯。裕辭不獲已,遂總軍要。庶上憑祖宗之靈,下罄義夫之力,剪馘逋逆,蕩清京輦。公侯諸君,或世樹忠貞,或身荷爵寵,而並俛眉猾豎,自効莫由,顧瞻周道,寧不弔乎!今日之舉,良其會也。裕以虛薄,才非古人,勢接於已踐之機,受任於既頹之運。丹誠未宣,感慨憤躍,望霄漢以永懷,眄山川以增厲。授檄之日,神馳賊廷。以孟昶為長史,總攝後事;檀憑之為司馬。百姓願從者千餘人。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The loyalists acclaimed Liu Yu as their leader, and they spread proclamations through the capital region. This was what the proclamations said:

"For those who try to bring order from chaos, it is natural to experience disruptions to the peace. But an age of cruelty and slaughter may sometimes be pierced by sage wisdom. Our Jin dynasty, too, has constantly experienced periods of misery and woe. Ever since the Long'an reign era (since 396), difficulties have gripped the royal household; loyal ministers have been consumed by the tiger's maw, and faithful and good people have been torn apart by the wolves and dholes. The traitor Huan Xuan has oppressed both the living and the dead with his cruelty; he has turned his soldiers against the regions of Jing and Ying, and laid waste to the capital region. As if this were not bad enough, his barbarism and violence have grown all the more, and over the past year, he has toppled the imperial altars. Our sovereign has gone into exile, sent away to some distant place; the throne has sunk into depravity, and the seven ancestral temples have been destroyed. Though the Xia dynasty had its troubles with Han Zhuo and with Yi, and the Han dynasty experienced the usurpations of Wang Mang and Dong Zhuo, Huan Xuan goes so far beyond these past traitors that they cannot even compare with him. And ever since Huan Xuan usurped the throne, all through this year, great droughts have sprung up and the common people have lost their spirits. On top of that, the soldiers and the people have been exhausted by constant transportation duties, and the civil and military officials have been wearied by construction demands. Fathers and sons have been separated from one another, and whole families have been ripped apart. Can even the sorrow expressed by the empty looms of the Great East poem describe our current situation? Will we last even as long as the plums tumbling into the basket in the Falling Plums poem? Examine the signs of the heavens and look into the condition of the people; if this state of affairs continues much longer, who will be able to survive? And who among us who is not heartless does not grip their wrists in anxiety?

"We, Liu Yu and others, have beaten our breasts and wept tears of blood at the condition of the state, and we can no longer stand aside. Thus have we slept at day at risen at night, assisted and rewarded the loyal and zealous, made our way through deadly terrain, and risked danger beyond treading on the tiger's tail. The General Who Upholds The State, Liu Yi, the General of Broad Valor, He Wuji, the Registrar to the General Who Guards The North, Meng Chang, the Registrar of Yanzhou, Wei Yongzhi, the General Who Calms Distant Places, Liu Daogui, the Dragon-Soaring General, Liu Fan, the General Who Spreads Might, Tan Pingzhi, and others all possesses passionate loyalty that breaks gold and great spirit as bright as the sun. We have taken up our weapons and shaken out our sleeves, determined to fulfill our ambition.

"The Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, has joined our pact from ten thousand li away, and he is already sweeping through and pacifying the regions of Jing and Chu. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, has welcomed our sovereign and restored him to the throne at Xunyang. The Army Advisor to the General Who Guards The North, Wang Yuande, and others have all led their own forces to occupy and guard the Shitou fortress. The General Who Displays Valor, Zhuge Changmin, has gathered an army of loyalists and already occupied Liyang. And the Army Advisor to the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yu Zezhi, and others have secretly made arrangements with one another to support us from within the capital.

"As for us, we have joined our strength and combined our efforts, rising up like a swarm. This very day, we have already beheaded the false Inspector of Xuzhou and Prince of Ancheng, Huan Xiu, and the false Inspector of Qingzhou, Huan Hong. But though we have assembled our army of loyalists, all the civil and military officials rush forward to decline the command of this army. Faced with no other option, and though I, Liu Yu, declined the offer as well, I have thus been placed in command of this army. I pledge to support the spirits of my ancestors above, lend all my strength to the loyalist cause below, take the head of the traitor, and restore peace to the capital.

"You Dukes, you Marquises, and all you lords of the state! Some of you come from long lineages renowned for their loyalty and faithfulness to the state, while some of you have yourselves received its favor and become the founder of your own noble lines. Yet every one of you had turned a blind eye to this crafty miscreant, and not a one was willing to redeem yourselves. Unless you follow the right path, how will the dynasty survive? But in the uprising we now declare today, I invite you good people to join with us. For I am a mere nobody, and my talents cannot compare with those of the ancients. Affairs have already taken their course, so do not let the time to take up your responsibilities slip away. If your earnest sincerity is not yet apparent, then let your grief and your indignation move you; look to the skies to stir your passions, and turn to the mountains and rivers to steel your resolve. The very day that you receive this proclamation, hurry to us and abandon the court of the traitor."

Liu Yu appointed Meng Chang as his Chief Clerk and had him handle affairs in the rear, and he appointed Tan Pingzhi as his Marshal.

More than a thousand of the common people came to join the loyalists.

丁巳,義師濟江。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Dingsi (March 26th), the loyalists crossed the Yangzi.

裕率毅等至竹裏。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yu led Liu Yi and the other loyalists to Zhuli.


玄移還上宮,召侍官皆入止省中;加揚州刺史新野王桓謙征討都督,以殷仲文代桓脩爲徐、兗二州刺史。謙等請亟遣兵擊裕。玄曰:「彼兵銳甚,計出萬死,若有蹉跌,則彼氣成而吾事去矣,不如屯大衆於覆舟山以待之。彼空行二百里,無所得,銳氣已挫,忽見大軍,必驚愕;我按兵堅陣,勿與交鋒,彼求戰不得,自然散走,此策之上也。」謙等固請擊之,乃遣頓丘太守吳甫之、右衞將軍皇甫敷相繼北上。

18. Huan Xuan moved back into the main palace, and he summoned in the Attendant officials and halted the government ministries. He promoted the Inspector of Yangzhou and Prince of Xinye, Huan Qian, as Commander of the Expeditionary Forces, and he appointed Yin Zhongwen as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou to replace Huan Xiu.

Huan Qian and others asked Huan Xuan to send troops at once to attack Liu Yu. Huan Xuan said, "The enemy's morale is most keen, and they are prepared to fight to the very death. Any stumble on our part would only embolden them even more, and that would be the end of us. Better for me to assemble a great army at Mount Fuzhou and then wait for them to come to us. They shall have to march for two hundred li without having a single skirmish to keep their blood up, and that alone will ensure that their fighting spirit will ebb away. Then once they arrive, they will see our grand army suddenly before them, which will surely shock and frighten them. I will keep my soldiers well in hand and maintain my defenses, refusing to offer battle to the enemy, and though he seeks to fight, I will not oblige him. After all that, his forces will scatter all on their own. This is the best plan to use."

But Huan Qian and the others continued to insist that Huan Xuan attack Liu Yu. So he sent two forces one after the other to march north and attack the loyalists: one led by the Administrator of Dunqiu, Wu Fuzhi, the other led by the Guard General of the Right, Huangfu Fu.

〈玄始遷東宮,今以裕起,移還上宮。〉〈侍官,自侍中下至黃、散之屬。〉〈成帝咸康八年,於覆舟山南立北郊;山蓋在建康城北也,形如覆舟,故名。〉〈自建康趣京口爲北上。〉

(Huan Xuan had earlier shifted his residence to the Eastern Palace. But now, due to Liu Yu's uprising, he moved back to the main palace.

The Attendant officials were those from the Palace Attendants down to the Yellow Gate Attendants and Cavaliers In Regular Attendance.

In Emperor Cheng's eighth year of Xiankang (342), he had raised a northern suburbs altar south of Mount Fuzhou. The mountains must have been north of the walls of Jiankang. Mount Fuzhou resembled an overturned boat, thus its name ("Mount Overturned Boat").

Huan Xuan's generals marched north from Jiankang to Jingkou.)


召桓謙、卞範之等謀拒高祖。謙等曰:「亟遣兵擊之。」玄曰:「不然。彼兵速銳,計出萬死。若行遣水軍,不足相抗,如有蹉跌,則彼氣成而吾事敗矣。不如屯大眾於覆舟山以待之。彼空行二百里,無所措手,銳氣已挫,既至,忽見大軍,必驚懼駭愕。我案兵堅陣,勿與交鋒,彼求戰不得,自然散走。此計之上也。」謙等固請,乃遣頓丘太守吳甫之、右衞將軍皇甫敷北拒義軍。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan summoned Huan Qian, Bian Fanzhi, and others to seek their advice on how to oppose Liu Yu. Huan Qian and others told him, "You must send troops to attack him at once."

Huan Xuan replied, "Not so. The enemy's morale is still keen, and they are prepared to fight to the very death. If I sent a naval force to attack them, but could not overcome them, we would thus suffer a misstep; that would only embolden them even more, and that would be the end of us. Better for me to assemble a great army at Mount Fuzhou and then wait for them to come to us. They shall have to march for two hundred li without having a single skirmish to keep their blood up, and that alone will ensure that their fighting spirit will ebb away. Then once they arrive, they will see our grand army suddenly before them, which will surely shock and frighten them. I will keep my soldiers well in hand and maintain my defenses, refusing to offer battle to the enemy, and though he seeks to fight, I will not oblige him. After all that, his forces will scatter all on their own. This is the best plan to use."

But Huan Qian and the others continued to insist that Huan Xuan attack Liu Yu. So he sent two forces to march north and attack the loyalists: one led by the Administrator of Dunqiu, Wu Fuzhi, the other led by the Guard General of the Right, Huangfu Fu.

玄使其將皇甫敷、吳甫之北距義軍。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Xuan sent his generals Huangfu Fu and Wu Fuzhi north to oppose the loyalists.


玄憂懼特甚。或曰:「裕等烏合微弱,勢必無成,陛下何慮之深?」玄曰:「劉裕足爲一世之雄;劉毅家無檐石之儲,樗蒲一擲百萬;何無忌酷似其舅;共舉大事,何謂無成!」

19. Huan Xuan was especially worried and afraid. Someone said to him, "Liu Yu and his ilk are just a flock of crows, puny and weak, and they are surely not powerful enough to be successful. Why is Your Majesty so worried?"

Huan Xuan replied, "Liu Yu is bold, great enough to be a hero of the age. Liu Yi is lucky, a gambler from a poor family who can still win a million with a single round of chupu. And He Wuji is wild, as fierce as his uncle (Liu Laozhi). Now that the three of them are acting together for one cause, how can you say they have no hope of success?"

〈檐,言一儋、一石也。儲無儋石,家貧之至也。楊雄家無儋石之儲,應劭《註》曰:齊人名小罌爲儋石,受二斛。晉灼曰:石,斗石也。《前書音義》曰:儋,言一斗之儲。《方言》曰:儋,罌也,齊東北海岱之間謂之儋。余據今江淮人謂一石爲一擔。〉

(Huan Xuan describes Liu Yi as coming from a family "with neither 檐 nor 石 in store"; that is, a poor family without any grain stored up. Yang Xiong was described as coming from such a family lacking in 儋 or 石, and Ying Shao's Annotations to his biography state, "The people of the Qi region used the term 儋石 to refer to a small-mouthed jar, able to store two 斛 of grain." Jin Zhuo remarked, "石 in this case means the unit of measurement for grain stores." The Pronunciation Guide to Old Books states, "儋 means one 斗 of grain stored up." The Regional Dialects dictionary states, "A 儋 is a small-mouthed jar; the term is used by the people living in the eastern Qi region, in Beihai and Taishan." In my (Hu Sanxing's) own experience, even today, the people living along the Yangzi and the Huai River say "one 擔" instead of "one 石".)


玄自聞軍起,憂懼無復為計。或曰:「劉裕等眾力甚弱,豈辦之有成,陛下何慮之甚。」玄曰:「劉裕足為一世之雄;劉毅家無擔石之儲,摴蒲一擲百萬;何無忌,劉牢之甥,酷似其舅。共舉大事,何謂無成。」(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

From the moment that Huan Xuan had heard about Liu Yu's uprising, he was worried and afraid, unable to make any new plans. Someone said to him, "Liu Yu and his ilk are puny and weak, so how could they be successful? Why is Your Majesty so worried?"

Huan Xuan replied, "Liu Yu is bold, great enough to be a hero of the age. Liu Yi is lucky, a gambler from a poor family who can still win a million with a single round of chupu. And He Wuji is wild, as fierce as his uncle (Liu Laozhi). Now that the three of them are acting together for one cause, how can you say they have no hope of success?"

初,桓玄聞裕等及無忌之起兵也,甚懼。其黨曰:「劉裕烏合之眾,勢必無成,願不以為慮。」玄曰:「劉裕勇冠三軍,當今無敵。劉毅家無儋石之儲,樗蒱一擲百萬。何無忌,劉牢之之甥,酷似其舅。共舉大事,何謂無成!」其見憚如此。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

When Huan Xuan first learned that Liu Yu and the others had joined He Wuji in leading an uprising, he was especially afraid. His partisans said to him, "Liu Yu and his ilk are just a flock of crows, puny and weak, and they are surely not powerful enough to be successful. Your Majesty should not be so worried."

Huan Xuan replied, "Liu Yu is bold, a champion of the three armies, and he has no peer in our age. Liu Yi is lucky, a gambler from a poor family who can still win a million with a single round of chupu. And He Wuji is wild, as fierce as his uncle (Liu Laozhi). Now that the three of them are acting together for one cause, how can you say they have no hope of success?" Such were the fears that gripped him.


南涼王傉檀畏秦之強,乃去年號,罷尚書丞郎官,遣參軍關尚使于秦。秦王興曰:「車騎獻款稱藩,而擅興兵造大城,豈爲臣之道乎?」尚曰:「王公設險以守其國,先王之制也。車騎僻在遐藩,密邇勍寇,蓋爲國家重門之防;不圖陛下忽以爲嫌。」興善之。傉檀求領涼州,興不許。

20. Tufa Nutan feared the growing power of Qin. So he stopped using his own separate reign era title, he disbanded his Masters of Writing and associated offices, and he sent his Army Advisor, Guan Shang, as an envoy to Qin.

Yao Xing said to Guan Shang, "The General of Chariots and Cavalry has expressed his sincerity to me and declared himself my vassal. Yet I note that he is gathering soldiers under his own authority and building great fortresses. Are these things proper for a subject to do?"

Guan Shang replied, "Is it not an ancient principle of rulers of old that 'kings and princes establish defenses to maintain their territories'? The General has his domain on your distant frontier, and he is flanked and hemmed in by wild invaders. It is for those reasons that he is preparing heavy gates as defenses for the state. Your Majesty has no need to suddenly be suspicious of him."

Yao Xing praised his remarks.

Tufa Nutan asked to be appointed as Qin's acting Inspector of Liangzhou, but Yao Xing refused.

〈元興元年,傉檀改元弘昌。〉〈興拜傉檀爲車騎將軍,故稱之。〉〈《易‧坎卦‧彖辭》。〉

(Tufa Nutan had declared his own reign era title of Hongchang in the first year of Yuanxing (Book 112, 402.31).

Yao Xing had appointed Tufa Nutan as Later Qin's General of Chariots and Cavalry, thus his use of that title here.

Guan Shang quotes from the Kan section of the Book of Changes.)


傉檀以姚興之盛,又密圖姑臧,乃去其年號,罷尚書丞郎官,遣參軍關尚聘於興。興謂尚曰:「車騎投誠獻款,為國籓屏,擅興兵眾,輒造大城,為臣之道固若是乎?」尚曰:「王侯設險以自固,先王之制也,所以安人衛眾,預備不虞。車騎僻在遐籓,密邇勍寇,南則逆羌未賓,西則蒙遜跋扈,蓋為國家重門之防,不圖陛下忽以為嫌。」興笑曰:「卿言是也。」傉檀遣其將文支討南羌、西虜,大破之。上表姚興,求涼州,不許,加傉檀散騎常侍,增邑二千戶。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan feared the growing power of Yao Xing, and he felt that Guzang was too cramped and exposed. So he stopped using his own separate reign era title, he disbanded his Masters of Writing and associated offices, and he sent his Army Advisor, Guan Shang, as an envoy to Later Qin.

Yao Xing said to Guan Shang, "The General of Chariots and Cavalry has expressed his sincerity to me and is serving as the curtain and shield of our state. Yet I note that he is gathering soldiers under his own authority and building great fortresses. How are these things proper for a subject to do?"

Guan Shang replied, "Is it not an ancient principle of rulers of old that 'kings and princes establish defenses to defend themselves'? Thus is the General calming the people by organizing the army, and he is preparing against any eventuality. The General has his domain on your distant frontier, and he is flanked and hemmed in by wild invaders; to his south are the rebel Qiang who have not yet submitted, and to his west remains the threat of Juqu Mengxun. It is for those reasons that he is preparing heavy gates as defenses for the state. Your Majesty has no need to suddenly be suspicious of him."

Yao Xing laughed and said, "Sir, it is just as you say."

Tufa Nutan sent his general Wen Zhi to campaign against the southern Qiang and western tribes, and Wen Zhi greatly routed them.

Tufa Nutan sent up a petition to Yao Xing, asking to be appointed as Inspector of Liangzhou. Yao Xing denied this request, but he appointed Tufa Nutan as Cavalier In Regular Attendance and increased his fief by two thousand households.


初,袁眞殺朱憲,憲弟綽逃奔桓溫。溫克壽陽,綽輒發眞棺,戮其尸。溫怒,將殺之,桓沖請而免之。綽事沖如父,沖薨,綽嘔血而卒。劉裕克京口,以綽子齡石爲建武參軍。三月,戊午朔,裕軍與吳甫之遇於江乘。將戰,齡石言於裕曰:「齡石世受桓氏厚恩,不欲以兵刃相向,乞在軍後。」裕義而許之。甫之,玄驍將也,其兵甚銳。裕手執長刀,大呼以衝之,衆皆披靡,卽斬甫之,進至羅落橋。皇甫敷帥數千人逆戰,寧遠將軍檀憑之敗死。裕進戰彌厲,敷圍之數重,裕倚大樹挺戰。敷曰:「汝欲作何死!」拔戟將刺之,裕瞋目叱之,敷辟易。裕黨俄至,射敷中額而踣,裕援刀直進。敷曰:「君有天命,以子孫爲託。」裕斬之,厚撫其孤。裕以檀憑之所領兵配參軍檀祗。祗,憑之之從子也。

21. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (March 27th), Liu Yu's army encountered Wu Fuzhi's army at Jiangcheng county.

It was earlier mentioned that during Yuan Zhen's rebellion at Shouyang, he had killed a certain Zhu Xian. Zhu Xian's younger brother Zhu Chuo had fled to Huan Wen. After Huan Wen took Shouyang, Zhu Chuo had dug up Yuan Zhen's coffin and beheaded his corpse. Huan Wen had been furious, and was about to kill Zhu Chuo, but Huan Chong had pleaded on his behalf, so Zhu Chuo had been spared. From then on, Zhu Chuo had treated Huan Chong like his own father, and after Huan Chong passed away, Zhu Chuo spat up blood and died as well. After Liu Yu took Jingkou, he appointed Zhu Chuo's son Zhu Lingshi as the Army Advisor to the General Who Establishes Valor. Before the battle at Jiangcheng, Zhu Lingshi said to Liu Yu, "My family received the favor and grace of the Huan clan, and I cannot bear to take up arms against them. Please allow me to serve in the rear." Liu Yu respected his request and granted it.

Wu Fuzhi was a stalwart general, and his soldiers had keen spirit as well. But Liu Yu grasped a long blade and gave a shout as he charged forward, and his soldiers drove the enemy before them, taking Wu Fuzhi's head.

Liu Yu's army advanced to Luoluo Bridge. Huangfu Fu led several thousand soldiers to counterattack them there, and the General Who Calms Distant Places, Tan Pingzhi, was defeated and killed. Liu Yu rushed forward into the thick of the fighting. Huangfu Fu surrounded him with several lines, but Liu Yu fought on from a large tree. Huangfu Fu said to him, "Why seek your death?" And he wielded his halberd, about to stab Liu Yu. But Liu Yu glared at him and rebuked him in a loud voice, causing Huangfu Fu to flinch. Then one of Liu Yu's partisans suddenly arrived, and he shot Huangfu Fu in the forehead, making him fall. Liu Yu drew his blade and rushed over to Huangfu Fu, who told him, "Heaven is on your side. Take care of my children." So though Liu Yu beheaded Huangfu Fu, he later provided for and cared for his children.

Liu Yu assigned the forces that had been under Tan Pingzhi's command to his Army Advisor, Tan Zhi, who was the son of Tan Pingzhi's cousin.

〈見一百二卷海西公太和五年。〉〈裕本爲建武將軍,以齡石參軍事。〉〈江乘,漢舊縣,屬丹楊郡。成帝咸康元年,桓溫領琅邪太守,鎭江乘之蒲州,奏割丹楊之江乘立南琅邪郡,江乘縣屬焉。〉〈羅落橋在江乘縣南,蓋緣水設羅落,因以爲名。〉〈挺戰,挺身獨戰也。挺,直也。〉

(Yuan Zhen's killing of Zhu Xian is mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (270.1).

Liu Yu was himself the General Who Establishes Valor, so Zhu Lingshi was his Army Advisor in that capacity.

Jiangcheng was an old Han county, part of Danyang commandary. In Emperor Cheng's first year of Xiankang (335), Huan Wen had been appointed as acting Administrator of Langye, with his base at Puzhou in Jiangcheng. He had petitioned to have Jiangcheng carved off from Danyang to form a new Southern Langye commandary, with Jiangcheng county as part of it.

Luoluo Bridge was in the south of Jiangcheng county. It must have been named after nets for capturing animals (luoluo) set up along the river's edge.

This passage describes Liu Yu as being 挺戰. This means to fight on while one's body is straight. 挺 means straight.)


三月戊午朔,遇吳甫之於江乘。甫之,玄驍將也,其兵甚銳。高祖躬執長刀,大呼以衝之,眾皆披靡,即斬甫之。進至羅落橋,皇甫敷率數千人逆戰。寧遠將軍檀憑之與高祖各御一隊,憑之戰敗見殺,其眾退散。高祖進戰彌厲,前後奮擊,應時摧破,即斬敷首。初高祖與何無忌等共建大謀,有善相者相高祖及無忌等並當大貴,其應甚近,惟云憑之無相。高祖與無忌密相謂曰:「吾等既為同舟,理無偏異。吾徒咸皆富貴,則檀不應獨殊。」深不解相者之言。至是而憑之戰死,高祖知其事必捷。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the third month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (March 27th), Liu Yu's army encountered Wu Fuzhi's army at Jiangcheng county. Wu Fuzhi was a stalwart general, and his soldiers had keen spirit as well. But Liu Yu grasped a long blade and gave a shout as he charged forward, and his soldiers drove the enemy before them, taking Wu Fuzhi's head.

Liu Yu's army advanced to Luoluo Bridge. Huangfu Fu led several thousand soldiers to counterattack them there. The General Who Calms Distant Places, Tan Pingzhi, and Liu Yu each lead separate divisions of the loyalists. Tan Pingzhi was defeated and killed in the fighting, and his division retreated and scattered. But Liu Yu rushed forward into the thick of the fighting, striking from front and rear, and he was able to smash the enemy just in time and he took Huangfu Fu's head.

When Liu Yu had first been developing the plans for the uprising with He Wuji and the others, someone who knew how to appraise people looked over all of them and said that they would all enjoy great honors, and the time of this was nearly at hand. But they said Tan Pingzhi alone would not share in it. Liu Yu and He Wuji had said to one another, "We are all in the same boat, so we must surely rise or fall together. If we are all to be rich and honored, how can Tan Pingzhi fail to have a share?" They truly did not understand the appraiser's verdict. But now, when Tan Pingzhi died in battle, Liu Yu realized that the appraiser had been right, and that he would surely triumph in the end.

三月戊午,劉裕斬玄將吳甫之于江乘,斬皇甫敷於羅落。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, on the day Wuwu (March 27th), Liu Yu took the heads of Huan Xuan's generals Wu Fuzhi at Jiangcheng and Huangfu Fu at Luoluo.

遇之于江乘,臨陣斬甫之,進至羅落橋,又斬敷首。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

The loyalists encountered Huan Xuan's forces at Jiangcheng, where in the midst of battle they took Wu Fuzhi's head. Then they advanced to Luoluo Bridge, where they also took Huangfu Fu's head.


玄聞二將死,大懼,召諸道術人推算及爲厭勝。問羣臣曰:「朕其敗乎?」吏部郎曹靖之對曰:「民怨神怒,臣實懼焉。」玄曰:「民或可怨,神或可怨,神何爲怒?」對曰:「晉氏宗廟,飄泊江濱,大楚之祭,上不及祖,此其所以怒也。」玄曰:「卿何不諫?」對曰:「輦上君子皆以爲堯、舜之世,臣何敢言!」玄默然。使桓謙及游擊將軍何澹之屯東陵,侍中、後將軍卞範之屯覆舟山西,衆合二萬。

22. When Huan Xuan heard that both of the generals he had sent north had been killed, he was terrified. He summoned many mystics to make their calculations and find ways to ward off bad omens.

Huan Xuan asked his ministers, "Why have I suffered these defeats?"

One of the Gentlemen of the Personnel Bureau, Cao Jingzhi, replied, "I am afraid you have incurred the resentment of the people and aroused the anger of the spirits."

Huan Xuan said, "The people and even the spirits may, indeed, resent me. But what have I done to anger the spirits?"

Cao Jingzhi replied, "The Jin royal family and their ancestral temple have been set to drift along the banks of the Yangzi, while the sacrifices of your Chu dynasty do not even extend back to your grandfather. These are the things which have angered the spirits."

Huan Xuan asked, "Then why did you not remonstrate with me before?"

Cao Jingzhi replied, "When great people and superior fellows all claimed that we were passing through another age of abdication like that displayed by the ancient Emperors Yao and Shun, how could I have dared to say anything?"

Huan Xuan was left silent.

Huan Xuan sent Huan Qian and the General of Roaming Assault, He Danzhi, to camp at Dongling, and he sent the Palace Attendant and General of the Rear, Bian Fanzhi, to camp west of Mount Fuzhou. They had twenty thousand soldiers between them.

〈謂遷晉宗廟主於琅邪國,尋又隨帝上尋陽也。〉〈謂止祭桓溫於太廟。〉〈游擊將軍,漢雜號將軍也,魏置爲中軍,及晉,以領、護、左‧右衞、驍騎、游擊爲六軍。建康之西有西陵,其東有東陵,東陵在覆舟山東北。〉

(Cao Jingzhi was referring to how Huan Xuan had sent the ancestral tablets of the Jin ancestral temple to the Langye fief, and then had sent Emperor An upriver to Xunyang.

Cao Jingzhi refers to how only Huan Wen was offered sacrifices at Chu's Ancestral Temple.

During Han, the rank of General of Roaming Assault was an irregularly-assigned rank. Cao-Wei made it into an established title. By the time of Jin, it was part of a tier of six ranks: General Who Leads The Army, General Who Protects The Army, Guard General of the Left and Right, General of Agile Cavalry, and General of Roaming Assault.

There was a Xiling to the west of Jiankang and a Dongling to the east of it. Dongling was northeast of Mount Fuzhou.)


玄聞敷等並沒,愈懼。使桓謙屯東陵口,卞範之屯覆舟山西,眾合二萬。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When Huan Xuan heard that Huangfu Fu and the others had been lost, he became even more afraid. He sent Huan Qian to camp at Donglingkou, and he sent Bian Fanzhi to camp west of Mount Fuzhou. They had twenty thousand soldiers between them.

玄大懼,使桓謙、何澹之屯覆舟山。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Xuan was very afraid, and he sent Huan Qian and He Danzhi to camp at Mount Fuzhou.


己未,裕軍食畢,悉棄其餘糧,進至覆舟山東,使羸弱登山,張旗幟爲疑兵,數道並前,布滿山谷。玄偵候者還,云「裕軍四塞,不知多少。」玄益憂恐,遣武衞將軍庾賾之帥精卒副援諸軍。謙等士卒多北府人,素畏伏裕,莫有鬬志。裕與劉毅等分爲數隊,進突謙陳;裕以身先之,將士皆殊死戰,無不一當百,呼聲動天地。時東北風急,因縱火焚之,煙炎熛天,鼓噪之音震動京邑,謙等諸軍大潰。

23. By the day Jiwei (March 28th), Liu Yu's army had exhausted their supplies. They abandoned what little was left and advanced to the east side of Mount Fuzhou.

Liu Yu sent his weaker soldiers to ascend the mountain and display banners and flags as though there were more soldiers up there, then advanced along several roads at once, filling the mountain valleys. When Huan Xuan's scouts returned, they reported, "Liu Yu's army is approaching from all sides, and we don't know how many soldiers he has." Huan Xuan became even more nervous and afraid, and he sent the Guard General of Valor, Yu Zezhi, to lead elite soldiers to reinforce the other armies.

Most of the soldiers serving under Huan Qian and the other Chu generals were veterans of the Northern Garrison; they had long feared and respected Liu Yu, and none wished to fight him.

Liu Yu split up his army into several divisions under Liu Yi and the others, and they charged forward and broke through Huan Qian's formation. With Liu Yu leading the charge, his generals and soldiers all fought for dear life; every one of them fought like a hundred men, and their cries and shouts shook Heaven and Earth. Just then, a strong northeastern wind came up. Liu Yu took advantage of it by setting fires to burn the enemy. The smoke and the flames rose to the sky, and the sound of the drums rumbled in the capital. The armies under Huan Qian and the others greatly scattered.

〈魏文帝踐阼,置領軍將軍,主五校、中壘、武衞等三營,後遂各置將軍。賾,士革翻。〉

(After Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) had become Emperor, he created the rank of General Who Leads The Army, with the three subordinate ranks of the Five Colonels, the Central Ramparts, and the Guard General of Valor. Each of these later became a General rank in their own right.

The first character of Yu Zezhi's given name, 賾, is pronounced "xe (x-e)".)


己未旦,義軍食畢,棄其餘糧,進至覆舟山東,使丐士張旗幟於山上,以為疑兵。玄又遣武騎將軍庾禕之,配以精卒利器,助謙等。高祖躬先士卒以奔之,將士皆殊死戰,無不一當百,呼聲動天地。時東北風急,因命縱火,煙爓張天,鼓噪之音震京邑。謙等諸軍,一時土崩。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

By morning of the day Jiwei (March 28th), the loyalist army had exhausted their supplies. They abandoned what little was left and advanced to the east side of Mount Fuzhou.

Liu Yu sent his weaker soldiers to display banners and flags atop the mountain as though there were more soldiers up there. Huan Xuan then assigned elite soldiers with good equipment to the Guard General of Valor, Yu Yizhi, and sent him to reinforce Huan Qian and the others.

Liu Yu personally led his soldiers to charge the enemy lines, and his generals and soldiers all fought for dear life; every one of them fought like a hundred men, and their cries and shouts shook Heaven and Earth. Just then, a strong northeastern wind came up. Liu Yu took advantage of it by setting fires. The smoke and the flames rose to the sky, and the sound of the drums rumbled in the capital. The armies under Huan Qian and the others collapsed all at once.

己未,玄衆潰而逃。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Jiwei (March 28th), Huan Xuan's army scattered and fled.

毅等軍至蔣山,裕使羸弱登山,多張旗幟,玄不之測,益以危懼。謙等士卒多北府人,素懾伏裕,莫敢出鬥。裕與毅等分為數隊,進突謙陣,皆殊死戰,無不一當百。時東北風急,義軍放火,煙塵張天,鼓噪之音震駭京邑,謙等諸軍一時奔散。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

When the armies of Liu Yi and the other loyalists reached Mount Jiang, Liu Yu sent his tired and weak soldiers to ascend the mountain, where they displayed many banners and flags. Huan Xuan could not be sure of how many troops Liu Yu really had, and his fears only increased further.

Most of the soldiers serving under Huan Qian and the other Chu generals were veterans of the Northern Garrison; they had long feared and respected Liu Yu, and none wished to fight him.

Liu Yu split up his army into several divisions under Liu Yi and the others, and they charged forward and broke through Huan Qian's formation. His generals and soldiers all fought for dear life, and every one of them fought like a hundred men. Just then, a strong northeastern wind came up. The loyalists set fires; the smoke and the flames rose to the sky, and the sound of the drums rumbled in the capital. The armies under Huan Qian and the others all scattered and fled together.


玄時雖遣軍拒裕,而走意已決,潛使領軍將軍殷仲文具舟於石頭;聞謙等敗,帥親信數千人,聲言赴戰,遂將其子昇、兄子濬出南掖門。遇前相國參軍胡藩,執馬鞚諫曰:「今羽林射手猶有八百,皆是義故,西人受累世之恩,不驅令一戰,一旦捨此,欲安之乎!」玄不對,但舉策指天;因鞭馬而走,西趨石頭,與仲文等浮江南走。經日不食,左右進粗飯,玄咽不能下,昇抱其胸而撫之,玄悲不自勝。

24. By now, even though Huan Xuan had been sending armies forward to oppose Liu Yu, he had already decided to flee the capital. He had secretly sent the General Who Leads The Army, Yin Zhongwen, to prepare a ship at Shitou. And when he heard that Huan Qian and the others had been defeated, he gathered together several thousand of his trusted associates, claiming he was preparing to go to battle. Then taking his son Huan Sheng and his nephew Huan Jun, he went out through the southern Ye Gate.

Huan Xuan ran into the former Army Advisor to the Chancellor of State, Hu Fan, who grabbed his horse's bridle and said to him, "You still have eight hundred Feathered Forest guards at hand, men of the west who have enjoyed your family's grace for generations and will fight for your cause. Will you then abandon them overnight rather than lead them on to battle? What is the meaning of this?"

Huan Xuan did not reply, but merely pointed his riding crop towards Heaven. Then he whipped his horse and rode off.

When Huan Xuan arrived at Shitou to the west, he fled south down the Yangzi along with Yin Zhongwen and the others. One day when they had no real food, his attendants made him a crude meal from various bits and pieces. When Huan Xuan swallowed it, he had trouble digesting it. Huan Sheng hugged his chest and stroked it, and Huan Xuan burst into uncontrollable grief.

〈鞚,馬勒也。桓氏世居荊楚,西人皆其義舊,此蓋從玄東下,玄旣篡,因以爲羽林。〉〈玄舉策指天,亦項羽所謂天之亡我之意。〉

(A bridle is a horse bridle.

The Huan clan had been in power in the Jing and Chu region for several generations, and the westerners were all old servants of their cause. The ones mentioned here must have accompanied Huan Xuan on his downriver campaign and then been appointed as Feathered Forest guards after he usurped the throne.

In pointing his riding crop to Heaven, Huan Xuan was conveying the same sentiment that Xiang Yu had once expressed: "Heaven has defeated me.")


玄始雖遣軍置陣,而走意已決,別使領軍將軍殷仲文具舟於石頭,仍將子姪浮江南走。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

By now, even though Huan Xuan had been sending armies forward to oppose Liu Yu, he had already decided to flee the capital. He had secretly sent the General Who Leads The Army, Yin Zhongwen, to prepare a ship at Shitou. So he now took his son and nephew to flee south along the Yangzi.


裕入建康,王仲德抱元德子方回出候裕,裕於馬上抱方回與仲德對哭;追贈元德給事中,以仲德爲中兵參軍。裕止桓謙故營,遣劉鍾據東府。庚申,裕屯石頭城,立留臺百官,焚桓溫神主於宣陽門外,造晉新主,納于太廟。遣諸將追玄,尚書王嘏帥百官奉迎乘輿,誅玄宗族在建康者。裕使臧熹入宮,收圖書、器物,封閉府庫;有金飾樂器,裕問熹:「卿得無欲此乎?」熹正色曰:「皇上幽逼,播越非所,將軍首建大義,劬勞王家,雖復不肖,實無情於樂。」裕笑曰:「聊以戲卿耳。」熹,燾之弟也。

25. As Liu Yu was entering Jiankang, Wang Zhongde brought Wang Yuande's son Wang Fanghui out to meet him. Seated on horseback, Liu Yu cradled Wang Fanghui in his arms, and he wept together with Wang Zhongde. He posthumously appointed Wang Yuande as 給事中, and he appointed Wang Zhongde as Army Advisor of the Central Regiment.

Liu Yu halted at the site of Huan Qian's former camp, while sending Liu Zhong to occupy the Eastern Bureau.

On the day Gengshen (March 29th), Liu Yu camped at the walls of Shitou. He established a Provisional Administration of the government officials, and he burned Huan Wen's ancestral tablet outside the Xuanyang Gate, while making new ancestral tablets for the Jin emperors and placing them inside the Ancestral Temple. He sent his generals to pursue Huan Xuan, with one of the Masters of Writing, Wang Gu, leading the government officials to receive Emperor An with the imperial carriage. He also executed the members of Huan Xuan's clan still present at Jiankang.

Liu Yu sent Zang Xi into the palace, where Zang Xi collected the various maps, record books, and other such things while sealing up the warehouses and arsenals. There had been gold ornamentations and musical instruments inside the palace as well. Liu Yu asked Zang Xi, "Didn't want to take such things for yourself?"

Zang Xi sternly replied, "Our Emperor is still kept under imprisonment and duress, not yet having returned from exile, and you, General, have only just established your great cause and your hard work on behalf of the royal family. And even if that were not the case, I really have no regard for such pleasures."

Liu Yu laughed and said, "I was only joking with you."

This Zang Xi was the younger brother of Zang Dao.

〈桓玄初篡,遷七廟神主于琅邪國,旣而遷帝於尋陽,宗廟主祏皆隨帝西上,故權造新主。〉〈劉裕娶于臧氏。〉

(When Huan Xuan had first usurped the throne, he had moved the ancestral tablets of the seven Jin temples to the Langye fief. Then when he sent Emperor An to Xunyang, the tablets had also accompanied him west upriver. This was why Liu Yu created new ones.

Liu Yu's wife was from the Zang family.)


庚申,高祖鎮石頭城,立留臺官,焚桓溫神主於宣陽門外,造晉新主,立于太廟。遣諸將帥追玄,尚書王嘏率百官奉迎乘輿。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

On the day Gengshen (March 29th), Liu Yu camped at the walls of Shitou. He established a Provisional Administration of the government officials, and he burned Huan Wen's ancestral tablet outside the Xuanyang Gate, while making new ancestral tablets for the Jin emperors and placing them inside the Ancestral Temple. He sent his generals to pursue Huan Xuan, with one of the Masters of Writing, Wang Gu, leading the government officials to receive Emperor An with the imperial carriage.

庚申,劉裕置留臺,具百官。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengshen (March 29th), Liu Yu established a Provisional Administration of the government officials.


壬戌,玄司徒王謐與衆議推裕領揚州,裕固辭。乃以謐爲侍中、領司徒、揚州刺史、錄尚書事,謐推裕爲使持節、都督揚‧徐‧兗‧豫‧青‧冀‧幽‧幷八州諸軍事、徐州刺史,劉毅爲青州刺史,何無忌爲琅邪內史,孟昶爲丹楊尹,劉道規爲義昌太守。

26. On the day Renxu (March 31st), Huan Xuan's Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, led a discussion proposing to acclaim Liu Yu as acting Inspector of Yangzhou. But Liu Yu firmly declined the offer. He appointed Wang Mi as Palace Attendant, acting Minister Over The Masses for the Jin dynasty, Inspector of Yangzhou, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. Wang Mi in turn acclaimed Liu Yu as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou. Liu Yu appointed Liu Yi as Inspector of Qingzhou, He Wuji as Interior Minister of Langye, Meng Chang as Intendant of Danyang, and Liu Daogui as Administrator of Yichang.

〈《宋永初郡國志》,安豐有義昌縣。蓋晉末嘗立郡,宋初廢爲縣也。裕取義昌美名,使道規領太守。〉

(According to the Geographical Records of the Yongchu Era of Liu-Song, there was a Yichang county in Anfeng commandary. It must have been that a Yichang commandary had been created in the last years of the Jin dynasty, but then at the beginning of the Liu-Song dynasty it was demoted to county status. Liu Yu appreciated the beauty of the name Yichang ("Righteous Prosperity"), so he appointed Liu Daogui as its acting Administrator.)


司徒王謐與眾議推高祖領揚州,固辭。乃以謐為錄尚書事,領揚州刺史。於是推高祖為使持節、都督揚、徐、兗、豫、青、冀、幽、并八州諸軍事、領軍將軍、徐州刺史。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, led the other officials to acclaim Liu Yu as acting Inspector of Yangzhou. But Liu Yu strenuously declined. So Wang Mi was appointed as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing and acting Inspector of Yangzhou. Wang Mi in turn acclaimed Liu Yu as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, General Who Leads The Army, and Inspector of Xuzhou.

壬戌,桓玄司徒王謐推劉裕行鎮軍將軍、徐州刺史、都督揚徐兗豫青冀幽幷八州諸軍事、假節。劉裕以謐領揚州刺史、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Renxu (March 31st), Huan Xuan's Minister Over The Masses, Wang Mi, acclaimed Liu Yu as acting General Who Guards The Army, Credential Holder, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou, and Inspector of Xuzhou. Liu Yu appointed Wang Mi as acting Inspector of Yangzhou and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

進平京邑,玄敗走。晉大將軍武陵王遵承制,以道規為振武將軍、義昌太守。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists advanced to take the capital, and Huan Xuan was defeated and fled. Jin's Grand General and Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed control, and he appointed Liu Daogui as General Who Spreads Valor and Administrator of Yichang.

玄既西走,裕以毅為冠軍將軍、青州刺史。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

After Huan Xuan had fled to the west, Liu Yu appointed Liu Yi as Champion General and Inspector of Qingzhou.


裕始至建康,諸大處分皆委於劉穆之,倉猝立定,無不允愜。裕遂託以腹心,動止諮焉;穆之亦竭節盡誠,無所遺隱。時晉政寬弛,綱紀不立,豪族陵縱,小民窮蹙,重以司馬元顯政令違舛,桓玄雖欲釐整,而科條繁密,衆莫之從。穆之斟酌時宜,隨方矯正;裕以身範物,先以威禁;內外百官皆肅然奉職,不盈旬日,風俗頓改。

27. Since Liu Yu had only just arrived in Jiankang, he assigned several major positions to Liu Muzhi. Despite the press of circumstances, Liu Muzhi settled everything completely to Liu Yu's satisfaction. So Liu Yu trusted Liu Muzhi as one of his confidantes, and he discussed his every action with him. Liu Muzhi too was fully earnest and devoted in his duties, leaving nothing overlooked or neglected.

At that time, the policies of Jin were broad and lax, and strict laws were not enforced, so the gentry families did as they wished and the common people were in dire straits. Sima Yuanxian's ordinances and policies had been repeatedly disobeyed or ignored, and though Huan Xuan had tried to fix the situation, his laws had been so dense and meticulous that no one paid them any mind. But Liu Muzhi carefully considered his laws and crafted them in accordance with the circumstances of the times, shaping them so that they would rectify errors and restore proper behavior. Liu Yu himself served as a model, taking the lead in imposing bans. So all the officials, near and far, respected the laws and upheld their duties, and within a week, the state of affairs had changed.

〈揉曲爲矯。言隨事矯揉使歸於正。〉〈史言劉裕有撥亂反正之才。〉

(To unbend what is crooked is to straighten, or rectify. In other words, Liu Muzhi was heeding circumstances in order to straighten and rectify the people and return them to proper behavior.

This passage demonstrates that Liu Yu had the talents to sort out disorderly conduct and restore good behavior and customs.)


先是朝廷承晉氏亂政,百司縱弛,桓玄雖欲釐整,而眾莫從之。高祖以身範物,先以威禁內外,百官皆肅然奉職,二三日間,風俗頓改。且桓玄雖以雄豪見推,而一朝便有極位,晉氏四方牧守及在朝大臣,盡心伏事,臣主之分定矣。高祖位微於朝,眾無一旅,奮臂草萊之中,倡大義以復皇祚。由是王謐等諸人時失民望,莫不愧而憚焉。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Up until this time, the court had failed to properly administer the dynasty, and the officials governed through broad and lax policies. Though Huan Xuan had tried to fix the situation, no one paid him any mind. But Liu Yu himself served as a model, taking the lead in imposing bans and enforcing his will near and far. So all the officials respected the laws and upheld their duties, and within two or three days, the state of affairs had changed.

Furthermore, although Huan Xuan had been considered a bold hero of the age and had occupied the highest position in court, all of the Jin dynasty's administrators and border commanders and their chief ministers at court had followed their own desires, and there was discord between the sovereign and his ministers. Liu Yu, on the other hand, had held only a lowly position at court and did not have much of an army beforehand. But he had shaken out an army from among the grass and weeds and launched a great uprising to restore the dynasty. So Wang Mi and the others whom the people had lost faith in were all terrified of Liu Yu and feared him.

從平京邑,高祖始至,諸大處分,皆倉卒立定,並穆之所建也。遂委以腹心之任,動止咨焉。穆之亦竭節盡誠,無所遺隱。時晉綱寬弛,威禁不行,盛族豪右,負勢陵縱,小民窮蹙,自立無所。重以司馬元顯政令違舛,桓玄科條繁密。穆之斟酌時宜,隨方矯正,不盈旬日,風俗頓改。(Book of Liu-Song 42, Biography of Liu Muzhi)

Liu Muzhi accompanied Liu Yu as he took the capital. Since Liu Yu had only just arrived in Jiankang, he assigned several major positions to Liu Muzhi. Despite the press of circumstances, Liu Muzhi settled everything completely. So Liu Yu trusted Liu Muzhi as one of his confidantes, and he discussed his every action with him. Liu Muzhi too was fully earnest and devoted in his duties, leaving nothing overlooked or neglected.

At that time, the policies of Jin were broad and lax, and strict laws were not enforced, so the gentry families acted haughty, assumed power, and did as they wished, and the common people were in dire straits, unable to do anything. Sima Yuanxian's ordinances and policies had been repeatedly disobeyed or ignored, and Huan Xuan's laws had been too dense and meticulous. But Liu Muzhi carefully considered his laws and crafted them in accordance with the circumstances of the times, shaping them so that they would rectify errors and restore proper behavior. Within a week, the customs and state of affairs had changed.


初,諸葛長民至豫州,失期,不得發。刁逵執長民,檻車送桓玄。至當利而玄敗,送人共破檻出長民,還趣歷陽。逵棄城走,爲其下所執,斬於石頭,子姪無少長皆死,唯赦其季弟給事中騁。逵故吏匿其弟子雍送洛陽,秦王興以爲太子中庶子。裕以魏詠之爲豫州刺史,鎭歷陽,諸葛長民爲宣城內史。

28. Earlier, Zhuge Changmin had gone to Yuzhou as planned. But he had missed the arranged date for the uprising, and he had not acted. Diao Kui had arrested Zhuge Changmin and put him in a cage cart, then sent him to Huan Xuan. But Zhuge Changmin's escort had only gotten as far as Dangli before they learned that Huan Xuan had been defeated. The escorts then broke open the cage cart and freed Zhuge Changmin, then sent him back to Liyang. Diao Kui abandoned the city and fled, but he was arrested by his subordinates. He was beheaded at Shitou, and his sons and daughters were killed as well, regardless of age. Only the 給事中, his youngest brother Diao Cheng, was spared. One of Diao Kui's former officials hid his nephew Diao Yong and sent him to Luoyang, where Yao Xing appointed him as 中庶子 to the Crown Prince.

Liu Yu appointed Wei Yongzhi as Inspector of Yuzhou, stationed at Liyang, and he appointed Zhuge Changmin as Interior Minister of Xuancheng.

〈當利,浦名。〉〈刁雍後自秦入魏。〉

(Dangli was the name of a river mouth.

Diao Yong later left Later Qin and went to Northern Wei.)


諸葛長民失期不得發,刁逵執送之,未至而玄敗。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Zhuge Changmin missed the planned date for the uprising and did not act. Diao Kui arrested him and sent him to the capital, but Zhuge Changmin had not arrived there before Huan Xuan was defeated and driven out.

從裕討桓玄,以功拜輔國將軍、宣城內史。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

Zhuge Changmin accompanied Liu Yu in his campaign against Huan Xuan, and Liu Yu appointed him as General Who Upholds The State and Interior Minister of Xuancheng.


初,裕名微位薄,輕狡無行,盛流皆不與相知,惟王謐獨奇貴之,謂裕曰:「卿當爲一代英雄。」裕嘗與刁逵樗蒲,不時輸直,逵縛之馬枊。謐見之,責逵而釋之,代之還直。由是裕深憾逵而德謐。

29. Years earlier, when Liu Yu had still been a nobody with an obscure position, he been a rascal who did not conduct himself well, and the famous people of that time took no notice of him. Wang Mi was the only one who had found him remarkable and honored him, saying, "You will become a hero of the age."

On one occasion, Liu Yu had been playing chupu against Diao Kui, and having lost the round, he was unable to pay the stakes. Diao Kui had punished him by tying him to a horse post. But when Wang Mi saw this, he had reprimanded Diao Kui, and he untied Liu Yu and paid the stakes in his place.

For both these reasons, Liu Yu had deeply resented Diao Kui while respecting Wang Mi.

〈謂當時貴盛之流。〉〈樗蒲不勝而不卽納其所負之直,此亦博徒輕狡之常態。〉〈枊,繫馬柱也。〉

(The famous people were those who enjoyed high honor at that time.

It was common for such gambling rascals to fail to pay their share of the stakes when they lost at chupu.

Diao Kui tied Liu Yu to a 枊 "hitch"; this was a post for tying a horse to.)


初高祖家貧,嘗負刁逵社錢三萬,經時無以還。逵執錄甚嚴,王謐造逵見之,密以錢代還,由是得釋。高祖名微位薄,盛流皆不與相知,唯謐交焉。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Years earlier, since Liu Yu had come from a poor family, he had once owed thirty thousand money to Diao Kui. But when the time to repay the loan came, he did not return the money. Diao Kui caught him and treated him severely. Wang Mi saw this happening and reprimanded Diao Kui, and he secretly paid off Liu Yu's loan, allowing him to be released. All during the time that Liu Yu had been a nobody with an obscure position, the high and mighty did not interact with or know him; only Wang Mi had any dealings with him.


蕭方等曰:夫蛟龍潛伏,魚蝦褻之。是以漢高赦雍齒,魏武免梁鵠,安可以布衣之嫌而成萬乘之隙也!今王謐爲公,刁逵亡族,醻恩報怨,何其狹哉!

30. Xiao Fangdeng, the compiler of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, made this remark: Before a storm dragon reveals itself in all its glory and splendor, it is often shown disrespect even by mere fish and shrimps. This is the common fate of great figures. Even so, Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) found it in him to pardon Yong Chi, and Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) was able to release Liang Hu. How could a ruler place the petty grudges they held when they were a mere commoner above the concerns of the state itself? Yet we see that Liu Yu made Wang Mi into an Excellency while wiping out Diao Kui's entire family, thus repaying the grace of the one and avenging the insults of the other. How could he have been so narrow-minded as this?

〈蕭方等,梁元帝之嫡長子,撰《三十國春秋》。〉〈雍齒事見十一卷漢高帝十一年。漢靈帝時,梁鵠爲選部尚書,魏武欲爲洛陽令,鵠以爲北部尉。董卓之亂,鵠奔劉表。魏武破荊州,鵠懼而自縛詣門,使在祕書,以勤書自効。〉

(Xiao Fangdeng was the eldest son of Emperor Yuan of Liang by his chief wife. He was the compiler of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms.

Yong Chi had originally been a subordinate of Liu Bang, but had rebelled against him. Although he later surrendered, Liu Bang personally hated him. Yet Liu Bang granted Yong Chi a noble title, which had the effect of persuading others to accept Liu Bang's rule rather than rebel. This is mentioned in Book 11, in the eleventh year of Liu Bang's reign (actually the sixth year, 201 BC).

During the reign of Emperor Ling of Han, Liang Hu had been in charge of personnel decisions for the Masters of Writing. At that time, Cao Cao had put in a request to be appointed as Prefect of Luoyang. But Liang Hu denied the request, merely appointing him as Commandant of the Northern Division. During Dong Zhuo's seizure of power, Liang Hu fled to Liu Biao. After Cao Cao took Jingzhou, Liang Hu was afraid, and he tied himself up and presented himself at the gate of Cao Cao's camp. He worked in the Imperial Library, where he made amends for his past actions through diligent writing.)


尚書左僕射王愉及子荊州刺史綏謀襲裕,事泄,族誅;綏弟子慧龍爲僧彬所匿,得免。

31. The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, and the Inspector of Jingzhou, his son Wang Sui, plotted to launch a surprise attack against Liu Yu. But the plot leaked, and their family was executed. Wang Sui's nephew Wang Huilong was hidden by the monk Bin, and so was able to escape the slaughter.

〈慧龍後遂逃奔秦,又自秦奔魏。〉

(Wang Huilong later fled to Later Qin, and then fled from Later Qin to Northern Wei.)


尚書左僕射王愉、愉子荊州刺史綏等,江左冠族。綏少有重名,以高祖起自布衣,甚相凌忽。綏,桓氏甥,亦有自疑之志。高祖悉誅之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, the Inspector of Jingzhou, his son Wang Sui, and others had long been leading members of the Southland gentry, and Wang Sui enjoyed a prestigious reputation even though he was young. Liu Yu, on the other hand, had risen up from being a mere commoner, yet now he was forcing his will on people like them. Wang Sui was a nephew of the Huan clan, so he was uncertain of his own position. Liu Yu executed them all.

辛酉,劉裕誅尚書左僕射王愉、愉子荊州刺史綏、司州刺史溫詳。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinyou (March 30th), Liu Yu executed the Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yu, the Inspector of Jingzhou, his son Wang Sui, and the Inspector of Sizhou, Wen Xiang.


魏以中土蕭條,詔縣戶不滿百者罷之。

32. Northern Wei reorganized their geographical administration. Considering that so much of the Central Lands had been left desolate and bleak, Tuoba Gui issued an edict abolishing those counties which did not contain at least a hundred households.

天賜元年春正月,遣離石護軍劉託率騎三千襲蒲子。三月丙寅,擒姚興寧北將軍、泰平太守衡譚,獲三千餘口。初限縣戶不滿百罷之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the first year of Tianci (404), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui sent the Protector of Lishi, Liu Tuo, to lead three thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack on Puzi. In the third month, on the day Bingyin (April 4th), Liu Tuo captured Yao Xing's General Who Calms The North and Administrator of Taiping, Heng Tan, along with more than three thousand people.

At this time, Northern Wei abolished those counties which did not contain at least a hundred households.


丁卯,劉裕還鎮東府。

33. On the day Dingmao (April 5th), Liu Yu returned to guard the Eastern Bureau.

桓玄至尋陽,郭昶之給其器用、兵力。辛未,玄逼帝西上,劉毅帥何無忌、劉道規等諸軍追之。玄留龍驤將軍何澹之、前將軍郭銓與郭昶之守湓口。玄於道自作《起居注》,敍討劉裕事,自謂經略舉無遺策,諸軍違節度,以致奔敗。專覃思著述,不暇與羣下議時事。《起居注》旣成,宣示遠近。

34. Once Huan Xuan arrived at Xunyang, Guo Changzhi provided him with his resources, equipment, and soldiers. On the day Xinwei (April 9th), Huan Xuan forced Emperor An to travel west upriver.

Liu Yi led the loyalist armies under He Wuji, Liu Daogui, and others to pursue Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan left the Dragon-Soaring General, He Danzhi, and the General of the Front, Guo Quan, to help Guo Changzhi guard Penkou.

On the road, Huan Xuan wrote his own Notes of Daily Events. When he described the campaign against Liu Yu, Huan Xuan recorded that the plans and strategies which he had proposed lacked any errors, but because his generals had violated their duties and their orders, he had been driven to defeat. And since he devoted himself so thoroughly to thinking deeply about compiling the notes, he had no time left over to discuss the affairs of the day with his subordinates. Once the Notes were completed, he announced and displayed them near and far.

〈杜佑《通典》曰:周官有左右史,蓋今《起居注》之本。動則左史書之,言則右史書之;左史記言,右史記事。漢武帝有《禁中起居注》,後漢馬皇后撰《明帝起居注》,則漢《起居注》似在宮中,爲女史之任,其後起居皆近侍之臣錄記也。歷代有其職而無其官,後魏始置起居令史,每行幸宴會,則在御左右記錄帝言;後又別置脩起居注。〉〈覃,深也,廣也。〉

(Du You's Tongdian states, "During the Zhou dynasty, there were officials called the Recorders of the Left and Right; they were the precursors of our modern system of the imperial Notes of Daily Events. The Recorder of the Left would note down whatever actions the sovereign took or wherever he went, and the Recorder of the Right would note any utterances that the sovereign made. Then the Recorder of the Left would make the official record of the sayings of the sovereign, while the Recorder of the Right did the same with the doings of the sovereign. Later, Emperor Wu of Han had his Notes of Daily Events Within The Palace, and Empress Dowager Ma compiled the Notes of Daily Events of Emperor Ming. So the Han-era Notes of Daily Events seem to have been specifically the events within the palace, and were the job of female recorders. Later on, the Notes were all recorded by closely-attending ministers. And this role was always fulfilled even during subsequent dynasties, though they did not always have official posts for it. It was Northern Wei that first created the office of Prefect-Recorder of Daily Events, who would attend every feast or gathering and, standing by the Emperor's side with his attendants, record his utterances. They also later created Editors of the Notes of Daily Events."

This passage describes Huan Xuan's thinking as being 覃; this means "deep, broad".)


玄經尋陽,江州刺史郭昶之備乘輿法物資之。玄收略得二千餘人,挾天子走江陵。冠軍將軍劉毅、輔國將軍何無忌、振武將軍劉道規率諸軍追討。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yi))

Once Huan Xuan arrived at Xunyang, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, provided him with his resources, equipment, and soldiers. Huan Xuan gathered together more than two thousand soldiers, and he forced Emperor An to flee with him to Jiangling.

The Champion General, Liu Yi, the General Who Upholds The State, He Wuji, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, led their armies to pursue and campaign against Huan Xuan.

辛未,桓玄逼帝西上。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinwei (April 9th), Huan Xuan forced Emperor An to travel west upriver.

與劉毅、何無忌追玄。玄西走江陵,留郭銓、何澹之等固守盆口。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Daogui joined with Liu Yi and He Wuji to pursue Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan left Guo Quan, He Danzhi, and others to stoutly defend Penkou.

毅與何無忌、劉道規躡玄。玄逼帝及琅邪王西上。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi led He Wuji and Liu Daogui to pursue Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan forced Emperor An and the Prince of Langye (Sima Dewen) to travel west upriver.

南追桓玄,與振武將軍劉道規俱受冠軍將軍劉毅節度。玄留其龍驤將軍何澹之、前將軍郭銓、江州刺史郭昶之守湓口。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji went south to pursue Huan Xuan. He and the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, were placed under the command of the Champion General, Liu Yi.

Huan Xuan left the Dragon-Soaring General, He Danzhi, the General of the Front, Guo Quan, and the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Guo Changzhi, to guard Penkou.


丙戌,劉裕稱受帝密詔,以武陵王遵承制總百官行事,加侍中、大將軍,因大赦,惟桓玄一族不宥。

35. On the day Bingxu (April 24th), Liu Yu claimed that he had received a secret edict from Emperor An, and heeding its directions, he appointed the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, as acting director of all officials and of the administration and promoted him to Palace Attendant and Grand General. He declared a general amnesty, with only Huan Xuan's clan being excluded.

大赦天下,唯桓玄一祖後不在赦例。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

A general amnesty was declared across the realm, except for those descended from Huan Xuan's grandfather.

丙戌,密詔以幽逼於玄,萬機虛曠,令武陵王遵依舊典,承制總百官行事,加侍中,餘如故。幷大赦謀反大逆己下,惟桓玄一祖之後不宥。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Bingxu (April 24th), Emperor An sent a secret edict stating that since he was currently imprisoned and under duress from Huan Xuan and the affairs of state had been left unattended, he now ordered that the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, follow past precedent by becoming acting director of all officials and of the administration and promoted him to Palace Attendant, while keeping his original titles as before. The edict also included a general amnesty for everyone who had joined the usurpers in their treason, except for anyone who was a descendant of Huan Xuan's grandfather.

及玄敗走,武陵王遵承制以無忌為輔國將軍、琅邪內史,以會稽王道子所部精兵悉配之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

After Huan Xuan was defeated and driven from the capital, the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed authority. He appointed He Wuji as General Who Upholds The State and Interior Minister of Langye, and he appointed all the elite soldiers of the late Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, to him.


劉敬宣、高雅之結青州大姓及鮮卑豪帥謀殺南燕王備德,推司馬休之爲主。備德以劉軌爲司空,甚寵信之。雅之欲邀軌同謀,敬宣曰:「劉公衰老,有安齊之志,不可告也。」雅之卒告之,軌不從。謀頗泄,敬宣等南走,南燕人收軌,殺之,追及雅之,又殺之。敬宣、休之至淮、泗間,聞桓玄敗,遂來歸,劉裕以敬宣爲晉陵太守。

36. In Southern Yan, the Jin exiles Liu Jingxuan and Gao Yazhi formed ties with the great families of Qingzhou and with the Xianbei leaders, planning to kill Murong Beide and acclaim Sima Xiuzhi as their leader.

Murong Beide had earlier appointed Liu Gui as his Minister of Works, and he deeply favored and trusted Liu Gui. Gao Yazhi thus wanted to have Liu Gui join in the plot. Liu Jingxuan warned him, "Lord Liu is old and frail, and he wants nothing more than to enjoy peace and tranquility. You had better not tell him anything."

But in the end, Gao Yazhi did mention the plot to Liu Gui, who refused to go along with it. And soon afterwards, the plot leaked. Liu Jingxuan and the other plotters fled south, while the people of Southern Yan arrested Liu Gui and killed him. They pursued the fugitives, catching Gao Yazhi and killing him.

Liu Jingxuan and Sima Xiuzhi made it to the region between the Huai and Si Rivers, where they learned that Huan Xuan had been defeated by the loyalists under Liu Yu. So they returned to Jin again, and Liu Yu appointed Liu Jingxuan as Administrator of Jinling.

〈敬宣等奔南燕事見上卷元興元年。〉

(Liu Jingxuan and the others had earlier fled to Southern Yan to escape from Huan Xuan, as mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxing (402.43).)


敬宣素曉天文,知必有興復晉室者。尋夢丸土服之,既覺,喜曰:「丸者桓也。桓既吞矣,吾復本土乎!」乃結青州大姓諸崔、封,並要鮮卑大帥免逵,謀滅德,推休之為主,克日垂發。時劉軌為德司空,大被委任,雅之又欲要軌。敬宣曰:「此公年老,吾觀其有安齊志,必不動,不可告也。」雅之以為不然,遂告軌,軌果不從。謀頗泄,相與殺軌而去。至淮、泗間,會高祖平京口,手書召敬宣;左右疑其詐,敬宣曰:「吾固知其然矣。下邳不誘我也。」即便馳還。既至京師,以敬宣為輔國將軍、晉陵太守,襲封武岡縣男。是歲,安帝元興三年也。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan had long been skilled at reading the heavens, so he knew that the Jin royal family would rise again. He soon dreamed of a small pellet that was consumed by the ground. When he woke up, he happily said, "The pellet is the Huan clan. Once they are consumed, I shall return to my homeland!" So he formed ties with the great clans of Qingzhou, the Cui and the Feng, as well as the great Xianbei leader Miankui, planning to kill Murong De and acclaim Sima Xiuzhi as their leader. They set a date for when they would carry out the plot.

Murong De had earlier appointed Liu Gui as his Minister of Works, and he deeply favored and trusted Liu Gui. Gao Yazhi thus wanted to have Liu Gui join in the plot. Liu Jingxuan warned him, "That fellow is old and frail, and from what I've seen, he wants nothing more than to enjoy peace and tranquility. He would certainly not support us. You had better not tell him anything."

But Gao Yazhi did not agree, so he did mention the plot to Liu Gui, who indeed refused to go along with it. And soon afterwards, the plot leaked. So they killed Liu Gui and fled.

Liu Jingxuan fled to the region between the Huai and Si Rivers. By then, Liu Yu had launched his uprising and taken Jingkou. He wrote a letter in his own hand summoning Liu Jingxuan back home again. Liu Jingxuan's attendants believed that this was a trap, but Liu Jingxuan declared, "I know Liu Yu of Xiapi well; he would not deceive me." So he rushed back, and when he reached the capital, Liu Yu appointed Liu Jingxuan as General Who Upholds The State, Administrator of Jinling, and Baron of Wugang county (which had been his father Liu Laozhi's title).

All this was in Emperor An's third year of Yuanxing (404).

夢丸土而服之,既覺,喜曰:「丸者桓也,丸既吞矣,我當復土也。」旬日而玄敗,遂與司馬休之還京師。拜輔國將軍、晉陵太守。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan dreamed of a small pellet that was consumed by the ground. When he woke up, he happily said, "The pellet is the Huan clan. Once they are consumed, I shall return to my homeland." Within a few days, Huan Xuan was defeated, so he and Sima Xiuzhi returned to the capital. He was appointed as General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Jinling.


南燕王備德聞桓玄敗,命北地王鍾等將兵欲取江南,會備德有疾而止。

37. When Murong Beide heard that Huan Xuan had been defeated, he ordered his Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, and others to lead an army to conquer the Southland. But just then, Murong Beide fell ill, and the campaign was called off.

〈昔魯莊公伐齊,納子糾,小白自莒先入,所以有乾時之敗。當此之時,建康已定,使慕容鍾等之師果進,劉裕固有以待之矣。〉

(Speed is the essence of war. In ancient times, when the brothers Jiu and Xiaobai raced to take control of the state of Qi, Jiu had the support of Duke Zhuang of Lu. But Xiaobai (the future Duke Huan of Qi) was first to arrive in Qi from Ju, and that led to Jiu's defeat. As for Murong Beide, he had missed his chance; by now, Jiankang was already settled. Even if he had sent Murong Zhong and the others to invade Jin as planned, Liu Yu would have been well prepared to resist them.)


夏,四月,己丑,武陵王遵入居東宮,內外畢敬;遷除百官稱制書,敎稱令書。以司馬休之監荊‧益‧梁‧寧‧秦‧雍六州諸軍事、領荊州刺史。

38. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jichou (April 27th), Sima Zun entered and took up residence in the Eastern Palace, and he was shown universal respect. The bureaucratic records of the government officials were moved, and instructions were granted for the decree books. Sima Xiuzhi was appointed as Chief of military affairs in Jingzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Ningzhou, Qinzhou, and Yongzhou and as Inspector of Jingzhou.

〈劉毅等之兵旣進,故預以休之鎭南蕃。〉

(Since the armies of Liu Yi and the others were advancing west, Sima Xiuzhi was appointed to guard the southern frontier.)


四月,奉武陵王遵為大將軍,承制。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the fourth month, the Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, was appointed as Grand General, and he assumed control of affairs.

夏四月己丑,大將軍、武陵王遵稱制,總萬機。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jichou (April 27th), the Grand General and Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed control of the government and managed affairs.

劉裕誅玄後,還建鄴,裕復以休之為荊州刺史。(Book of Northern Wei 37, Biography of Sima Xiuzhi)

After Liu Yu executed Huan Xuan, Sima Xiuzhi returned to Jianye, where Liu Yu reappointed him as Inspector of Jingzhou.


庚寅,桓玄挾帝至江陵,桓石康納之。玄更署置百官,以卞範之爲尚書僕射。自以奔敗之後,恐威令不行,乃更增峻刑罰,衆益離怨。殷仲文諫,玄怒曰:「今以諸將失律,天文不利,故還都舊楚;而羣小紛紛,妄興異議,方當糾之以猛,未可施之以寬也。」荊、江諸郡聞玄播越,有上表奔問起居者,玄皆不受,更令所在賀遷新都。

39. On the day Gengyin (April 28th), Huan Xuan brought Emperor An with him to Jiangling, where Huan Shikang received them. Huan Xuan once again made appointments to the imperial offices, appointing Bian Fanzhi as his Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing.

After suffering such defeats, Huan Xuan was afraid that his authority and his orders would no longer be carried out. So he became even more strict and severe in his punishments and verdicts, which only made everyone even more alienated from and resentful of him. Yin Zhongwen remonstrated with him, but Huan Xuan angrily replied, "It was all because of my bad luck and the failure of my generals to obey their orders that I was forced to move the capital back to my original territory in the Chu region. Yet you people want to needle me with these petty issues and rashly bring up your objections. My concern right now is to mend together what has been torn asunder; I cannot afford to be lenient."

When the commandaries of Jingzhou and Jiangzhou heard that Huan Xuan had been driven in exile from the capital, several of them sent up petitions offering to house him. But Huan Xuan spurned all their offers, and he even sent out an order commanding people to celebrate the relocation to the new capital.

〈唐人所謂「難將一人手,掩盡天下目」,桓玄是也。〉

(The people of the Tang era had a saying: It is difficult for one man's hand to cover the eyes of all the world. Such a thing describes Huan Xuan.)


庚寅,帝至江陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengyin (April 28th), Emperor An arrived at Jiangling.


初,王謐爲玄佐命元臣,玄之受禪,謐手解帝璽綬;及玄敗,衆謂謐宜誅,劉裕特保全之。劉毅嘗因朝會,問謐璽綬所在。謐內不自安,逃奔曲阿。裕牋白武陵王,迎還復位。

40. It was earlier mentioned that Wang Mi had become one of Huan Xuan's chief ministers. In fact, when Huan Xuan accepted Emperor An's abdication, it was Wang Mi who had personally taken the seals and ribbons of state from Emperor An. So now, after Huan Xuan had been driven from the capital, many people said that Wang Mi should be executed. But Liu Yu made sure to defend and protect him. Even so, during a court meeting, Liu Yi had asked Wang Mi what had happened to the seals and ribbons of state. For such reasons, Wang Mi did not feel secure in his position, and he ran away and fled to Qu'a county. Liu Yu wrote to Sima Zun, and he welcomed Wang Mi back and restored him to his position.

〈劉昫曰:唐潤州丹楊縣,古曲阿縣地。〉

(Liu Xu remarked, "Danyang county in Tang's Runzhou was the same area as the old Qu'a county.")


桓玄將篡,謐手解安帝璽紱,為玄佐命功臣。及義旗建,眾並謂謐宜誅,唯高祖保持之。劉毅嘗因朝會,問謐璽紱所在,謐益懼。及王愉父子誅,謐從弟諶謂謐曰:「王駒無罪,而義旗誅之,此是剪除勝己,以絕民望。兄既桓氏黨附,名位如此,欲求免得乎?」駒,愉小字也。謐懼,奔于曲阿。高祖牋白大將軍,深相保謐,迎還復位。光祿勳卞承之、左衞將軍褚粲、游擊將軍司馬秀役使官人,為御史中丞王禎之所糾察,謝牋言辭怨憤。承之造司宜藏。高祖與大將軍牋,白「粲等備位大臣,所懷必盡。執憲不允,自應據理陳訴,而橫興怨忿,歸咎有司。宜加裁當,以清風軌」。並免官。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When Huan Xuan had usurped the throne, it was Wang Mi who had personally taken the seals and ribbons of state from Emperor An, and he had served as one of Huan Xuan's closest and most accomplished ministers. So now, after the loyalists had established themselves, many people said that Wang Mi should be executed. Only Liu Yu made sure to defend and protect him.

Even so, during a court meeting, Liu Yi had asked Wang Mi what had happened to the seals and ribbons of state, which had made him even more afraid. And after Wang Yu and his son were executed, Wang Mi's cousin Wang Shen said to him, "What crime did Wang Ju commit? Yet the loyalists executed him all the same. They are merely abusing their victory to purge their enemies, and they will lose the hopes of the people. Cousin, you were a partisan of the Huan clan, and you have a known reputation and a conspicuous office. Do you think you will be spared?" Wang Ju had been Wang Yu's childhood name.

So Wang Mi feared for his life, and he ran away and fled to Qu'a county. Liu Yu wrote a letter to the Grand General (Sima Zun), deeply defending Wang Mi, and he welcomed Wang Mi back and restored him to his position.

The 光祿勳, Bian Chengzhi, the Guard General of the Left, Chu Can, and the General of Roaming Assault, Sima Xiu, forced the officials to do their bidding. When they were arrested and examined by the Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretariat, Wang Zhenzhi, their letters defending themselves were full of resentful and indignant language, with Bian Chengzhi accusing the officials of being the ones in the wrong. Liu Yu wrote to the Grand General about the matter, stating, "Chu Can and the others hold high offices, so they should be the most magnanimous people of all. If they have been treated unjustly, then they ought to have defended themselves against the charges through logic and reason. Yet here they are, giving vent to their anger and resentment and passing the blame onto the ministers. You should remove them, in order to demonstrate good and proper behavior." So all of them were stripped of office.


桓玄兄子歆引氐帥楊秋寇歷陽,魏詠之帥諸葛長民、劉敬宣、劉鍾共擊破之,斬楊秋於練固。

41. Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Xin arranged for the Di leader Yang Qiu to attack Liyang. But Wei Yongzhi led Zhuge Changmin, Liu Jingxuan, and Liu Zhong to attack and rout him, and they took Yang Qiu's head at Lian Redoubt.

〈練固在歷陽西北。〉

(Lian Redoubt was northwest of Liyang.)


桓玄兄子歆,聚眾向歷陽,高祖命輔國將軍諸葛長民擊走之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xin's nephew Huan Xin gathered an army and marched towards Liyang. Liu Yu ordered the General Who Upholds The State, Zhuge Changmin, to attack him, and Zhuge Changmin drove him off.

桓歆率氐賊楊秋寇歷陽,敬宣與建威將軍諸葛長民大破之。歆單騎走渡淮,斬楊秋於練固而還。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Huan Xin led the Di rebel leader Yang Qiu to invade Liyang. Liu Jingxuan and the General Who Establishes Might, Zhuge Changmin, greatly routed them. Huan Xin fled on a lone horse across the Huai River, while the loyalists took Yang Qiu's head at Lian Redoubt and then returned.

與諸葛長民破桓歆於芍陂。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan and Zhuge Changmin routed Huan Xin at Shao Slope.

于時桓歆聚眾向曆陽,長民擊走之,又與劉敬宣破歆於芍陂。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

Later, when Huan Xin gathered an army and marched towards Liyang, Zhuge Changmin attacked and drove him off, then joined with Liu Jingxuan to rout Huan Xin at Shao Slope.


玄使武衞將軍庾稚祖、江夏太守桓道恭帥數千人就何澹之等共守湓口。何無忌、劉道規至桑落洲,庚戌,澹之等引舟師逆戰。澹之常所乘舫,羽儀旗幟甚盛。無忌曰:「賊帥必不居此,欲詐我耳,宜亟攻之。」衆曰:「澹之不在其中,得之無益。」無忌曰:「今衆寡不敵,戰無全勝,澹之旣不居此舫,戰士必弱,我以勁兵攻之,必得之,得之,則彼勢沮而我氣倍,因而薄之,破賊必矣。」道規曰:「善!」遂往攻而得之,因傳呼曰:「已得何澹之矣!」澹之軍中驚擾,無忌之衆亦以爲然,乘勝進攻澹之等,大破之。無忌等克湓口,進據尋陽,遣使奉送宗廟主祏還京師。加劉裕都督江州諸軍事。

42. Huan Xuan sent the Guard General of Valor, Yu Zhizu, and the Administrator of Jiangxia, Huan Daogong, to lead several thousand soldiers to reinforce He Danzhi and the others guarding Penkou.

He Wuji and Liu Daogui led their forces to Sangluo Islet. On the day Gengxu (May 18th), He Danzhi and the others led their naval forces to counterattack the loyalists.

The ship which He Danzhi usually rode was decked out with a great many flags and banners. He Wuji remarked to the other generals, "The rebel commander is surely not on that ship; it's only a ruse meant to fool us. We should attack it with full force."

They said, "But if He Danzhi is not on that ship, what point is there in attacking it?"

He Wuji replied, "Right now, our numbers are few, and we are not really a match for the entire enemy army. In a contest of strength, we cannot be certain of victory. But since He Danzhi is certainly not on that ship, it will only be lightly guarded. If we send some strong soldiers to attack that ship, we can certainly take it. And having taken it, our morale will be doubled while the enemy's morale will be sapped. That will weaken them, and then we can be sure of routing them."

Liu Daogui said, "Excellent!"

So he attacked the ship and indeed captured it. Then word began to spread: "We have already captured He Danzhi!" This shocked and alarmed the soldiers of He Danzhi's army, while He Wuji's army believed that they really had captured the enemy commander. They pressed their supposed victory to advance and attack He Danzhi and the others, and greatly routed them.

He Wuji and the others took Penkou, then advanced and occupied Xunyang as well. They had agents bring the Jin ancestral tablets and shrines stored there back to the capital.

Liu Yu was promoted to Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou.

〈桑落洲在湓城東北大江中。杜佑曰:桑落洲在江州都昌縣,漢之彭澤縣也。〉〈舫,方舟也。〉〈廟中臧木主石室也。旣克尋陽,宗廟主祏乃得還。〉

(Sangluo Islet was in the Yangzi, northeast of Pencheng. Du You remarked, "Sangluo Islet is in Duchang county in Jiangzhou, the same place as Han's Pengze county."

He Danzhi's usual ship is described as a 舫; this is a square boat.

These were the hidden wooden tablets and stone shrines of the Jin ancestors. Since the loyalists had captured Xunyang, they sent the tablets and shrines that had been moved there back to the capital.)


無忌、道規破玄大將郭銓等于桑落洲,眾軍進據尋陽。加高祖都督江州諸軍事。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

He Wuji and Liu Daogui routed Huan Xuan's chief commanders, Guo Quan and others, at Sangluo Islet, then advanced and occupied Xunyang.

Liu Yu was promoted to Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou.

庚戌,輔國將軍何無忌、振武將軍劉道規及桓玄將庾稚、何澹之戰于湓口,大破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengyin (April 28th), Emperor An arrived at Jiangling. On the day Gengxu (May 18th), the General Who Upholds The State, He Wuji, and the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, fought Huan Xuan's generals Yu Zhi and He Danzhi at Penkou and greatly routed them.

義軍既至,賊列艦距之。澹之空設羽儀旗幟於一舫,而別在它船,無忌欲攻羽儀所在,眾悉不同,曰:「澹之必不在此舫,雖得無益也。」無忌曰:「澹之不在此舫,固不須言也。既不在此,則戰士必弱,我以勁兵攻之,必可禽也。禽之之日,彼必以為失其軍主,我徒咸謂已得賊帥,我勇而彼懼,懼而薄之,破之必矣。」道規喜曰:「此名計也。」因往彼攻之,即禽此舫。因鼓噪倡曰:「已斬何澹之!」賊徒及義軍竝以為然。因縱兵,賊眾奔敗,即克盆口,進平尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

When the loyalists arrived at Penkou, Huan Xuan's army had an array of ships prepared to oppose them. He Danzhi had prepared one of the ships with a great deal of feathered flags and banners, but it was empty; he was actually on another ship. He Wuji wished to attack the decoy ship, but the others disagreed, saying, "If He Danzhi is truly not on that ship, even if we take it, there will be no benefit."

He Wuji replied, "It goes without saying that He Danzhi is not on that ship. But since that is the case, it will only be lightly guarded. If we send some strong soldiers to attack that ship, we can certainly take it. And on the day we take that ship, the enemy will surely believe that they have lost their commander, while our own soldiers will say that we have captured the rebel general. We will become bold, while they turn afraid. Their fear will weaken them, and then we can be sure of routing them."

Liu Daogui happily said, "This is an outstanding plan."

So he attacked the ship and indeed captured it. Then he beat the drums and announced, "We have already taken He Danzhi's head!" Both the enemies and the loyalists believed this report to be true. The loyalist generals let loose their soldiers to attack, while Huan Xuan's troops scattered in defeat.

The loyalists took Penkou, then advanced and captured Xunyang as well.

無忌等次桑落洲,澹之等率軍來戰。澹之常所乘舫旌旗甚盛,無忌曰:「賊帥必不居此,欲詐我耳,宜亟攻之。」眾咸曰:「澹之不在其中,其徒得之無益。」無忌謂道規曰:「今眾寡不敵,戰無全勝。澹之雖不居此舫,取則易獲,因縱兵騰之,可以一鼓而敗也。」道規從之,遂獲賊舫,因傳呼曰:「已得何澹之矣!」賊中驚擾,無忌之眾亦謂為然。道規乘勝徑進,無忌又鼓噪赴之,澹之遂潰。進據尋陽,遣使奉送宗廟主祏及武康公主、琅邪王妃還京都。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji and the other loyalists advanced to Sangluo Islet. He Danzhi and the other Huan Xuan generals led their army to come fight them.

The ship which He Danzhi usually rode was decked out with a great many flags and banners. He Wuji remarked to the other generals, "The rebel commander is surely not on that ship; it's only a ruse meant to fool us. We should attack it with full force."

They said, "But if He Danzhi is not on that ship, there is no point in attacking it."

He Wuji said to Liu Daogui, "Right now, our numbers are few, and we are not really a match for the entire enemy army. In a contest of strength, we cannot be certain of victory. But since He Danzhi is certainly not on that ship, it will be easy to capture. Afterwards, we can let loose our soldiers to exploit the victory, and then we will defeat the enemy with a single roll of the drums."

Liu Daogui agreed, so his army attacked the ship and indeed captured it. Then word began to spread: "We have already captured He Danzhi!" This shocked and alarmed the soldiers of He Danzhi's army, while He Wuji's army believed that they really had captured the enemy commander. Liu Daogui pressed this supposed victory to advance and attack He Danzhi and the others, while He Wuji also beat the drums and marched to join him. He Danzhi's army scattered.

He Wuji and the others advanced and occupied Xunyang. They had agents bring the Jin ancestral tablets and shrines stored there back to the capital, as well as Princess Wukang and the concubine of the Prince of Langye.


桑落之戰,胡藩所乘艦爲官軍所燒,藩全鎧入水,潛行三十許步,乃得登岸。時江陵路已絕,乃還豫章,劉裕素聞藩爲人忠直,引參領軍軍事。

43. During the battle of Sangluo, the ship that Hu Fan was riding was set on fire by the loyalists. Still dressed in full armor, Hu Fan leapt into the river and walked along the bottom for about thirty paces, then climbed out onto the shore. By then, the road back to Jiangling had already been cut off, so he returned to Yuzhang instead.

Liu Yu had long heard that Hu Fan was a loyal and forthright person, so he summoned him and appointed him as an Army Advisor.

〈官軍旣克尋陽,故江陵之路絕。〉

(Since the loyalists had taken Xunyang, the road back to Jiangling was cut off.)


桓玄收荊州兵,曾未三旬,有衆二萬,樓船、器械甚盛。甲寅,玄復帥諸軍挾帝東下,以苻宏領梁州刺史,爲前鋒;又使散騎常侍徐放先行,說劉裕等曰:「若能旋軍散甲,當與之更始,各授位任,令不失分。」

44. Huan Xuan gathered up soldiers from Jingzhou, and within a month, he had an army of twenty thousand, with great numbers of tower ships and military equipment. On the day Jiayin (May 22nd), he led his forces to bring Emperor An back east downriver. He appointed Fu Hong as Inspector of Lianzhou and had him lead the vanguard. He also sent one of the Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Xu Fang, to travel ahead of the army to advise Liu Yu and the others, "If you will disband your armies and put aside your armor, I shall make a new start with you; we shall each maintain our own positions, and our orders need not be divided."

玄既還荊郢,大聚兵眾,召水軍造樓船、器械,率眾二萬,挾天子發江陵,浮江東下。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Now that Huan Xuan had returned to the regions of Jing and Ying, he gathered together a great army, and he summoned sailors to build tower ships and weapons of war. He led an army of twenty thousand to take Emperor An from Jiangling and sail east downriver again.

玄復逼帝東下。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Huan Xuan forced Emperor An to return east downriver with him.


劉裕以諸葛長民都督淮北諸軍事,鎭山陽;以劉敬宣爲江州刺史。

45. Liu Yu appointed Zhuge Changmin as Commander of military affairs north of the Huai, and he was stationed at Shanyang. He appointed Liu Jingxuan as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

遷建威將軍、江州刺史。敬宣固辭,言於高祖曰:「仇恥既雪,四海清蕩,所願反身草澤,以終餘年。恩遇不遣,遂復僶俛,即目所忝,已為優渥。且盤龍、無忌猶未遇寵,賢二弟位任尚卑,一朝先之,必貽朝野之責。」不許。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Yu appointed Liu Jingxuan as General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Jiangzhou. Liu Jingxuan forcefully declined, saying to Liu Yu, "Now that my shame has been avenged and peace has been restored to the Four Seas, I wish for nothing more than to go back to civilian life and live out my remaining years. Yet you had already shown me more favor than I really deserved, and now you are forcing more such honors upon me; I view myself as entirely unworthy of them, and I worry for myself. Besides, Panlong and He Wuji have still not received such favor from you, and a respectable younger brother should keep a meager office. If you were to promote me ahead of them overnight, I would surely receive the censure of everyone within the court and out in the field." But Liu Yu would not allow him to decline the promotions.

遷建威將軍、江州刺史,鎮尋陽。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan was appointed as General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Jiangzhou, and he was stationed at Xunyang.

封新淦縣公,食邑二千五百戶,以本官督淮北諸軍事,鎮山陽。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

For his achievements, Zhuge Changmin was appointed Duke of Xin'gan county, with a fief of twenty-five hundred households, and he retained his position as Commander of military affairs north of the Huai and was stationed at Shanyang.


柔然可汗社崙從弟悅代大X謀殺社崙,不克,奔魏。

46. The Rouran khan Yujiulü Shelun had cousins, Yujiulü Yuedai and Yujiulü Dana, who plotted to kill him. But they failed in their attempt, and they fled to Wei.

〈X,與那同;奴何翻。〉

(The second character of Yujiulü Dana's given name, X, is pronounced "na" or "ne (n-e)".)


夏四月,詔尚書郎中公孫表使於江南,以觀桓玄之釁也。值玄敗而還。蠕蠕社崙從弟悅伐大那等謀殺社崙而立大那。發覺,來奔。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui sent one of the Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Gongsun Biao, to travel to the Southland to see if Huan Xuan was suffering from any dissensions that Northern Wei would be able to take advantage of. But just at that moment, Huan Xuan had been driven from the Jin capital, so Gongsun Biao returned.

The Rouran khan Yujiulü Shelun had cousins, Yujiulü Yuedai, Yujiulü Dana, and others, who plotted to kill him and replace him with Yujiulü Dana. But their plot was discovered, and they fled to Wei.


燕王熙於龍騰苑起逍遙宮,連房數百,鑿曲光海,盛夏,士卒不得休息,暍死者太半。

47. In Yan, Murong Xi raised the Xiaoyao Palace at the Longteng Garden. It had several hundred linked chambers, and he also carved out the Quguang Sea as well. But the work happened during the height of summer; the soldiers and workers were not allowed to rest and recover, and more than half of them died from heat stroke.

〈去年熙起龍騰苑。暍,傷暑也。〉

(Murong Xi had built the Longteng Garden in the previous year.

Heat stroke means to be hurt by warmth.)


又起逍遙宮、甘露殿,連房數百,觀閣相交,鑿天河渠,引水入宮。又為苻昭儀鑿曲光海、青涼池,季夏暑熱,士卒不得休息,暍死者大半。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi also raised the Xiaoyao Palace and the Ganlu Hall; they had several hundred linked chambers and several terraces within sight of one another, and he carved out the Tianhe Canal in order to divert water into the palace. He also carved out the Quguang Sea and the Qingliang Pond as well, on behalf of Concubine Fu. But the work happened during the height of summer; the soldiers and workers were not allowed to rest and recover, and more than half of them died from heat stroke.

又起逍遙宮、甘露殿,連房數百,觀閣相交。鑿天河渠,引水入宮。又為妻苻氏鑿曲光海、清涼池,季夏盛暑,不得休息,暍死者太半。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi also raised the Xiaoyao Palace and the Ganlu Hall; they had several hundred linked chambers and several terraces within sight of one another, and he carved out the Tianhe Canal in order to divert water into the palace. He also carved out the Quguang Sea and the Qingliang Pond as well, on behalf of his wife Lady Fu. But the work happened during the height of summer; the soldiers and workers were not allowed to rest and recover, and more than half of them died from heat stroke.

又起逍遙宮、甘露殿,連房數百,觀閣相交。鑿天河渠,引水入宮。又為其昭儀苻氏鑿曲光海、清涼池。季夏盛暑,士卒不得休息,暍死者太半。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi also raised the Xiaoyao Palace and the Ganlu Hall; they had several hundred linked chambers and several terraces within sight of one another, and he carved out the Tianhe Canal in order to divert water into the palace. He also carved out the Quguang Sea and the Qingliang Pond as well, on behalf of Concubine Fu. But the work happened during the height of summer; the soldiers and workers were not allowed to rest and recover, and more than half of them died from heat stroke.


西涼世子譚卒。

48. The heir of Western Liang, Li Tan, passed away.

五年正月,立泮宮,增高門學生四百人。四月,敦煌有葛緣木而生,作黃鳥之形。世子譚卒。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 8, Biography of Li Gao)

In the fifth year of Gengzi (404), the first month, Li Gao established a Water College and increased the number of high-level students by four hundred people.

In the fourth month, in Dunhuang, a vine sprang up around some wood, coiled in the shape of a yellow bird.

Li Gao's heir Li Tan passed away.


劉毅、何無忌、劉道規、下邳太守平昌孟懷玉帥衆自尋陽西上,五月,癸酉,與桓玄遇於崢嶸洲。毅等兵不滿萬人,而玄戰士數萬,衆憚之,欲退還尋陽。道規曰:「不可!彼衆我寡,強弱異勢,今若畏懦不進,必爲所乘,雖至尋陽,豈能自固!玄雖竊名雄豪,內實恇怯;加之已經奔敗,衆無固心。決機兩陣,將雄者克,不在衆也。」因麾衆先進,毅等從之。玄常漾舸於舫側以備敗走,由是衆莫有鬬心。毅等乘風縱火,盡銳爭先,玄衆大潰,燒輜重夜遁。郭銓詣毅降。

49. Liu Yi, He Wuji, Liu Daogui, and the Administrator of Xiapi, Meng Huaiyu of Pingchang commandary, led the loyalist forces from Xunyang west upriver. In the fifth month, on the day Guiyou (June 10th), they encountered Huan Xuan's army at Zhengrong Islet.

Liu Yi and the other loyalists did not even have ten thousand troops altogether, while Huan Xuan had tens of thousands of warriors. So the loyalist armies were afraid of Huan Xuan, and they wanted to fall back to Xunyang.

Liu Daogui declared, "Impossible! The enemy is many while we are few, and there is too great of a difference in strength between us. If we tremble in fright and fail to advance right now, then the enemy will surely take advantage of that fact. Even if we made it back to Xunyang, how would we ever defend ourselves? As for Huan Xuan, though he has an empty reputation as a bold hero, in reality he is an anxious coward. And we have already defeated and driven off his armies several times, so they will have no real heart to oppose us. Now is the time to decide this, while our two formations face one another. Damn the numbers; the bolder man will triumph."

He led his forces to advance against the enemy, and Liu Yi and the other commanders then followed his lead.

Huan Xuan often kept a full barge with his navy which he would have ready to use to flee if he were defeated. Because of that, none of his soldiers had any real resolve for fighting.

Liu Yi and the others took advantage of the wind to set fires, and they all charged ahead full of zeal. Huan Xuan's army greatly scattered, setting fire to their supply train and fleeing into the night.

Guo Quan came to visit Liu Yi and surrendered.

〈《水經註》:江水東過武口,又東,右得李姥蒲,北對崢嶸洲,劉毅破桓玄處。在今黃州、壽昌軍之間。杜佑曰:崢嶸洲在鄂州武昌縣。崢,仕耕翻。嶸,戶萌翻。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows east through Wukou, then further east. On the right bank is Lilaopu, which faces Zhengrong Islet to the north, the place where Liu Yi routed Huan Xuan." In our time it is between Huangzhou and the Shouchang Garrison. Du You remarked, "Zhengrong Islet is in Wuchang county in Ezhou." The first character of Zhengrong, 崢, is pronounced "sheng (sh-eng)", and the second character, 嶸, is pronounced "heng (h-eng)".)


與冠軍將軍劉毅等相遇於崢嶸洲,眾軍下擊,大破之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan encountered the Champion General, Liu Yi, and the other loyalists at Zhengrong Islet. The loyalists attacked him and greatly routed him.

五月癸酉,冠軍將軍劉毅及桓玄戰于崢嶸洲,又破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, on the day Guiyou (June 10th), the Champion General, Liu Yi, fought Huan Xuan at Zhengrong Islet and once again routed him.

因復馳進,遇玄於崢嶸洲。道規等兵不滿萬人,而玄戰士數萬,眾並憚之,欲退還尋陽。道規曰:「不可。彼眾我寡,強弱異勢。今若畏懦不進,必為所乘,雖至尋陽,豈能自固。玄雖竊名雄豪,內實恇怯,加已經奔敗,眾無固心。決機兩陣,將雄者克。昔光武昆陽之戰,曹操官渡之師,皆以少制多,共所聞也。今雖才謝古人,豈可先為之弱!」因麾眾而進,毅等從之,大破玄軍。郭銓與玄單舸走。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists continued to rush ahead. They encountered Huan Xuan at Zhengrong Islet.

Liu Daogui and the other loyalists did not even have ten thousand troops altogether, while Huan Xuan had tens of thousands of warriors. So the loyalist armies were afraid of Huan Xuan, and they wanted to fall back to Xunyang.

But Liu Daogui declared, "Impossible. The enemy is many while we are few, and there is too great of a difference in strength between us. If we tremble in fright and fail to advance right now, then the enemy will surely take advantage of that fact. Even if we made it back to Xunyang, how would we ever defend ourselves? As for Huan Xuan, though he has an empty reputation as a bold hero, in reality he is an anxious coward. And we have already defeated and driven off his armies several times, so they will have no real heart to oppose us. Now is the time to decide this, while our two formations face one another. The bolder man will triumph. In former times, though Emperor Guangwu of Han was outnumbered at the battle of Kunyang and Cao Cao had fewer soldiers at the battle of Guandu, both of them overcame such disparities and were victorious. And though I cannot claim the same talents as these ancients, I will not be weak where they were strong!"

He led his forces to advance against the enemy, and Liu Yi and the other commanders then followed his lead. They greatly routed Huan Xuan's army, and Huan Xuan and Guo Quan fled in a lone boat.

毅與道規及下邳太守孟懷玉等追及玄,戰于崢嶸洲。毅乘風縱火。盡銳爭先,玄眾大潰,燒輜重夜走。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi, Liu Daogui, the Administrator of Xiapi, Meng Huaiyu, and others pursued Huan Xuan and caught up with him, fighting him at Zhengrong Islet. Liu Yi took advantage of the wind to set fires, and the loyalists all charged ahead full of zeal. Huan Xuan's army greatly scattered, setting fire to their supply train and fleeing into the night.

又與毅、道規破走玄于崢嶸洲。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji also joined with Liu Yi and Liu Daogui to rout Huan Xuan at Zhengrong Islet and drive him off.


玄故將劉統、馮稚等聚黨四百人襲破尋陽城。毅遣建威將軍劉懷肅討平之。懷肅,懷敬之弟也。

50. Huan Xuan's former generals Liu Tong, Feng Zhi, and others gathered four hundred of their partisans to launch a surprise attack against Xunyang city, and they took it. Liu Yi sent the General Who Establishes Might, Liu Huaisu, to campaign against these rebels, and Liu Huaisu dealt with them. This Liu Huaisu was the younger brother of Liu Huaijing.

〈劉懷敬見一百一十一卷隆安三年。〉

(Liu Huaijing was Liu Yu's cousin; he is mentioned in Book 111, in the third year of Long'an (399.51).)


劉懷肅,彭城人,高祖從母兄也。家世貧窶,而躬耕好學。初為劉敬宣寧朔府司馬,東征孫恩,有戰功,又為龍驤司馬、費令。聞高祖起義,棄縣來奔。京邑平定,振武將軍道規追桓玄,以懷肅為司馬。玄留何澹之、郭銓等戍桑落洲,進擊破之。潁川太守劉統平,除高平太守。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

Liu Huaisu was a native of Pengcheng commandary. He was Liu Yu's cousin. Although he came from a poor family, he applied himself at the plow and he enjoyed learning. He was originally appointed as Liu Jingxuan's Marshal in his capacity as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier. He gained achievements in battle during the eastern campaigns against Sun En, so he was appointed as Marshal to the Dragon-Soaring General and as Prefect of Fei.

When Liu Huaisu heard that Liu Yu had launched his uprising, he abandoned his post at Fei and came to join him.

After the capital was pacified, the General Who Spreads Valor, Liu Daogui, went to pursue Huan Xuan, and he employed Liu Huaisu as his Marshal. Huan Xuan left He Danzhi, Guo Quan, and others to camp at Sangluo Islet, but the loyalists advanced, attacked, and routed them.

After dealing with the Administrator of Yingchuan, Liu Tong, Liu Huaisu was appointed as Administrator of Gaoping.

玄將郭銓、劉雅等襲陷尋陽,毅遣武威將軍劉懷肅討平之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Xuan's generals Guo Quan, Liu Ya, and others gathered four hundred of their partisans to launch a surprise attack against Xunyang, and they took it. Liu Yi sent the General Who Establishes Might, Liu Huaisu, to campaign against these rebels, and Liu Huaisu dealt with them.


玄挾帝單舸西走,留永安何皇后及王皇后於巴陵。殷仲文時在玄艦,求出別船收集散卒,因叛玄,奉二后奔夏口,遂還建康。

51. Huan Xuan took Emperor An and fled west again on a lone boat. He left Empress Yong'an, Lady He, and Empress Wang at Baling. Yin Zhongwen happened to be riding on the same boat as Huan Xuan, and he asked to depart in another boat in order to gather up the scattered soldiers. But having left, he turned against Huan Xuan and took the two Empresses to flee to Xiakou, then returned to Jiankang.

〈永安何皇后,穆帝章皇后也。王皇后,帝之后也。〉

(Empress Yong'an, Lady He, had been the Empress of Emperor Mu. Empress Wang was Emperor An's Empress.)


玄棄眾,復挾天子還復江陵。玄黨殷仲文奉晉二皇后還京師。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Xuan abandoned his army and returned to Jiangling with Emperor An. Huan Xuan's partisan Yin Zhongwen brought the two Jin Empresses back to the capital.


己卯,玄與帝入江陵。馮該勸使更下戰,玄不從;欲奔漢中就桓希,而人情乖沮,號令不行。庚辰,夜中,處分欲發,城內已亂,乃與親近腹心百餘人乘馬出城西走。至城門,左右於闇中斫玄,不中,其徒更相殺害,前後交橫。玄僅得至船,左右分散,惟卞範之在側。

52. On the day Jimao (June 16th), Huan Xuan and Emperor An entered Jiangling. Feng Gai urged Huan Xuan to launch another strike downriver, but Huan Xuan did not listen to him. He planned to flee to Hanzhong to join Huan Xi, but the spirits of his soldiers were too depressed, and they would not obey his orders.

On the day Gengchen (June 17th), during the night, Huan Xuan planned to set out regardless. Since things were already in turmoil within the city, he merely led little more than a hundred of his closest confidantes to ride horses and flee out through the western wall. But when they reached the gate, someone within Huan Xuan's group tried to slash at him, but missed. His followers then began fighting and killing each other, causing complete chaos. Huan Xuan barely made it to his boat. His remaining followers scattered, and only Bian Fanzhi remained by his side.

〈桓希時爲梁州刺史。〉

(At this time, Huan Xi was Inspector of Lianzhou.)


玄至江陵,因西走。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

After reaching Jiangling, Huan Xuan fled to the west.

己卯,帝復幸江陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Jimao (June 16th), Emperor An returned to Jiangling.


辛巳,荊州別駕王康產奉帝入南郡府舍,太守王騰之帥文武爲侍衞。

53. On the day Xinsi (June 18th), the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Jingzhou, Wang Kangchan, led Emperor An into the Staff Bureau of Nan commandary, where the local Administrator, Wang Tengzhi, led the civil and military officials to act as Emperor An's attendants and guards.

南郡太守王騰之、荊州別駕王康產奉天子入南郡府。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Administrator of Nan commandary, Wang Tengzhi, and the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Jingzhou, Wang Kangchan, led Emperor An into the Staff Bureau of Nan commandary.

辛巳,荊州別駕王康產、南郡太守王騰之奉帝居于南郡。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Xinsi (June 18th), the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Jingzhou, Wang Kangchan, and the Administrator of Nan commandary, Wang Tengzhi, established Emperor An's residence at Nan commandary.


玄將之漢中;屯騎校尉毛脩之,璩之弟子也,誘玄入蜀,玄從之。寧州刺史毛璠,璩之弟也,卒於官。璩使其兄孫祐之及參軍費恬帥數百人送璠喪歸江陵,壬午,遇玄於枚回洲。祐之、恬迎擊玄,矢下如雨,玄嬖人丁仙期、萬蓋等以身蔽玄,皆死。益州督護漢嘉馮遷抽刀,前欲擊玄,玄拔頭上玉導與之,曰:「汝何人,敢殺天子!」遷曰:「我殺天子之賊耳!」遂斬之,又斬桓石康、桓濬、庾賾之,執桓昇送江陵,斬於市。乘輿返正於江陵,以毛脩之爲驍騎將軍。甲申,大赦,諸以畏逼從逆者一無所問。戊寅,奉神主于太廟。劉毅等傳送玄首,梟于大桁。

54. Huan Xuan was planning to continue on his way to Hanzhong. But his Colonel of Camped Cavalry, Mao Xiuzhi, was the nephew of Mao Qu, and Mao Xiuzhi tricked Huan Xuan into entering the Shu region instead.

The Inspector of Ningzhou had been Mao Qu's younger brother Mao Fan, and he had recently passed away at his post. Mao Qu had sent his nephew's son Mao Youzhi and his Army Advisor, Fei Tian, to lead several hundred people to escort Mao Fan's coffin back to Jiangling.

On the day Renwu (June 19th), they ran into Huan Xuan at Meihui Islet. Mao Youzhi and Fei Tian moved to attack Huan Xuan, sending arrows down upon him like rain. Huan Xuan's favorites Ding Xianqi, Wan Gai, and others shielded him with their bodies, so that they died instead.

The Protector of Yizhou, Feng Qian of Hanjia commandary, drew his sword and stepped forward, wishing to attack Huan Xuan. Huan Xuan reached up and pulled out the jade stick from his cap, and demanded, "Who are you, that you dare kill the Son of Heaven?"

Feng Qian replied, "I'm merely killing the Son of Heaven of the bandits!"

The Yizhou soldiers took Huan Xuan's head, as well as the heads of Huan Shikang, Huan Jun, and Yu Zezhi (or Yu Yizhi). They also captured Huan Sheng and sent him to Jiangling, where Huan Sheng was beheaded in the marketplace.

Emperor An was restored to the throne at Jiangling, and Mao Xiuzhi was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry. On the day Jiashen (June 21st), a general amnesty was declared; those who had been compelled to join Huan Xuan's forces out of fear or pressure were all pardoned without any further questions. On the day Wuyin (June 15th?), the Jin ancestral tablets were placed at the Ancestral Temple.

Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders sent Huan Xuan's head to the capital, where it was hung up in a great cangue.

〈《水經註》:江水逕江陵縣南,有洲曰枚回洲。〉〈魏、晉以來,冠幘有簪,有導,至尊以玉爲之。導,引也,所以引髮入冠幘之內也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「賾」作「頤」;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】賾,士革翻。〉〈納尋陽所奉送宗廟主祏也。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows through the south of Jiangling county, where there is an islet called Meihui Islet."

Ever since the Cao-Wei and Jin era, caps and headdresses had hairpins and sticks in them, and these were made out of jade for the caps of the most honored people. The stick was used for guiding and shaping; it shaped the hair inside of the cap.

Some versions state that it was "Yu Yizhi" that was killed here, not "Yu Zezhi". 賾 is pronounced "she (sh-e)".

These were the tablets and shrines that had been sent from Xunyang back to the capital.)


初征虜將軍、益州刺史毛璩,遣從孫祐之與參軍費恬送弟喪下,有眾二百。璩弟子脩之時為玄屯騎校尉,[17]誘玄以入蜀。至枚回洲,恬與祐之迎射之。益州督護馮遷斬玄首,傳京師。又斬玄子昇於江陵市。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Earlier, the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, had sent his nephew's son Mao Youzhi and his Army Advisor, Fei Tian, to lead the funeral train of his younger brother downriver, and they numbered two hundred people altogether.

Mao Qu's nephew Mao Xiuzhi was then serving as Huan Xuan's Colonel of Camped Cavalry, and he tricked Huan Xuan into entering the Shu region. When they came to Meihui Islet, they encountered Mao Youzhi and Fei Tian, who shot at them. The Protector of Yizhou, Feng Qian, took Huan Xuan's head and sent it to the capital. Huan Xuan's son Huan Sheng was also beheaded in the marketplace at Jiangling.

壬午,督護馮遷斬桓玄於貊盤洲。乘輿反正于江陵。甲申,詔曰:「姦凶篡逆,自古有之。朕不能式遏杜漸,以致播越。賴鎮軍將軍裕英略奮發,忠勇絕世,冠軍將軍毅等誠心宿著,協助同嘉謀。義聲旣振,士庶效節,社稷載安,四海齊慶。其大赦,凡諸畏逼事屈逆命者,一無所問。」戊寅,奉神主人于太廟。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Renwu (June 19th), the Protector, Feng Qian, beheaded Huan Xuan at Mopan Islet.

Emperor An was restored to the throne at Jiangling. On the day Jiashen (June 21st), Emperor An issued an edict stating, "Ever since ancient times, there have been wicked traitors who usurped the throne. I was unable to check the traitor's villainy and halt his ambitions, and so I was sent into exile. Yet the General Who Guards The Army, Liu Yu, displayed heroic cunning and spirited initiative; his loyalty and courage surpass the age. Likewise, the Champion General, Liu Yi, and others have devoted their hearts to the cause of the royal family, providing their assistance to help bring the happy plot to fruition. Now the cause of righteousness has spread across the land, and the gentry and the people have fully upheld their duty; the fortunes of state have been restored, and all within the Four Seas rejoice. I hereby declare a general amnesty; let those who had been compelled to join the traitor's forces out of fear or pressure be pardoned without any further questions."

On the day Wuyin (June 15th?), the Jin ancestral tablets were placed at the Ancestral Temple.

是歲,島夷劉裕起兵誅桓玄。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (404), Liu Yu rose up with soldiers and executed Huan Xuan.

江陵不復能守,欲入蜀,為馮遷所斬。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Since Huan Xuan could no longer defend Jiangling, he planned to enter the Shu region. But he was beheaded by Feng Qian.


毅等旣戰勝,以爲大事已定,不急追躡,又遇風,船未能進,玄死幾一旬,諸軍猶未至。時桓謙匿於沮中,揚武將軍桓振匿於華容浦,玄故將王稚徽戍巴陵,遣人報振云:「桓歆已克京邑,馮稚復克尋陽,劉毅諸軍並中路敗退。」振大喜,聚黨得二百人,襲江陵,桓謙亦聚衆應之。閏月,己丑,復陷江陵,殺王康產、王騰之。振見帝於行宮,躍馬奮戈,直至階下,問桓昇所在。聞其已死,瞋目謂帝曰:「臣門戶何負國家,而屠滅若是!」琅邪王德文下牀謂曰:「此豈我兄弟意邪!」振欲殺帝,謙苦禁之,乃下馬,斂容致拜而出。壬辰,振爲玄舉哀,立喪庭,諡曰武悼皇帝。

55. Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders had believed that, now that they had won such a decisive battle, the uprising had already succeeded, so they did not press their pursuit very hard. On top of that, they ran into adverse winds, preventing their ships from sailing further upriver. So even nearly ten days after Huan Xuan's death, they had still not arrived at Jiangling yet.

At this time, Huan Qian was in hiding in the Juzhong region, the General Who Displays Valor, Huan Zhen, was in hiding at Huarongpu, and Huan Xuan's former general Wang Zhihui was camped at Baling. Wang Zhihui sent someone to report to Huan Zhen, saying, "Huan Xin has already retaken the capital, Feng Zhi has retaken Xunyang, and Liu Yi and the others have all been defeated along the road and set to flight."

Huan Zhen was overjoyed, and he gathered together two hundred of his partisans and launched a surprise attack against Jiangling. Huan Qian also led his forces to come support Huan Zhen. In the intercalary month, on the day Jichou (June 26th), they retook Jiangling and killed Wang Kangchan and Wang Tengzhi.

When Huan Zhen saw Emperor An at the provisional palace, he marched right up to the foot of the steps, riding his horse and holding out his dagger-axe, and asked where Huan Sheng was. Upon learning that Huan Sheng had already died, Huan Zhen glared at Emperor An and said, "How has my clan betrayed the state, that we are butchered and slaughtered like this?"

The Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, descended from the royal couch and replied, "Do you think either I or my brother intended this?"

Huan Zhen wanted to kill Emperor An, but Huan Qian bitterly forbade it. So Huan Zhen merely got down off his horse and gave a perfunctory salute before leaving.

On the day Renchen (June 29th), Huan Zhen held mourning for Huan Xuan. He established a mourning court for him, and he granted him the posthumous title Emperor Wudao ("the Martial and Mourned").

〈沿沮水上下爲沮中,臨沮、上黃二縣皆其地也。〉〈華容縣自漢以來屬南郡。《水經註》:江水左迤爲中夏口,右則中郎浦出焉。華容縣今在監利縣界。《晉書‧振傳》曰:匿於華容之涌中。《左傳》:閻敖游涌而逸。杜預《註》云:涌水在南郡華容縣。〉

(The region along the Ju River was called Juzhong; it was made up of the counties of Linju and Shanghuang.

Ever since the Han era, Huarong county had been part of Nan commandary. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The left side of the Yangzi extends towards Zhongxiakou, while the right side flows out through Zhonglangpu." The current area of Huarong county is in the modern Jianli county. The Biography of Huan Zhen in the Book of Jin states, "He was in hiding at Yongzhong in Huarong." The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals mentions that "Yan Ao made his escape from them by swimming across the Yong River." Du Yu's Annotations state, "The Yong River is in Huarong county in Nan commandary.")


初玄敗於崢嶸洲,義軍以為大事已定,追躡不速。玄死幾一旬,眾軍猶不至。玄從子振逃於華容之涌中,招聚逆黨數千人,晨襲江陵城,居民競出赴之。騰之、康產皆被殺。桓謙先匿於沮川,亦聚眾以應。振為玄舉哀,立喪廷。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

After Huan Xuan's defeat at Zhengrong Islet, the loyalists had believed that the uprising had already succeeded, so they did not press their pursuit very hard. So even nearly ten days after Huan Xuan's death, the loyalists had still not arrived at Jiangling yet.

Huan Xuan's cousin's son Huan Zhen had fled to Yongzhong in Huarong county, where he gathered together several thousand of his treasonous partisans. He launched a surprise dawn attack against Jiangling, where the residents came out to support him. Wang Kangchan and Wang Tengzhi were both killed. Huan Qian had earlier hidden at Juchuan, and he also gathered an army and came to support Huan Zhen.

Huan Zhen conducted mourning for Huan Xuan and held a mourning court for him.

閏月己丑,桓玄故將揚武將軍桓振陷江陵... 帝復蒙塵于賊營。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the intercalary month, on the day Jichou (June 26th), the General Who Displays Valor, Huan Xuan's former general Huan Zhen, took Jiangling. Emperor An was once again in exile under rebel control.

義軍遇風不進,桓謙、桓振復據江陵。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists encountered adverse winds, so they could not advance upriver.

Huan Qian and Huan Zhen reoccupied Jiangling.


癸巳,謙等帥羣臣奉璽綬於帝曰:「主上法堯禪舜,今楚祚不終,百姓之心復歸於晉矣。」以琅邪王德文領徐州刺史,振爲都督八郡諸軍事、荊州刺史,謙復爲侍中、衞將軍,加江、豫二州刺史,帝侍御左右,皆振之腹心。

56. On the day Guisi (June 30th), Huan Qian and the others at Jiangling led the ministers to present the seals and ribbons of state to Emperor An. They said, "His Late Majesty, following the examples of abdication followed by Yao and Shun, accepted the Mandate from Your Majesty. But now that Chu's fortunes are at an end, the hearts of the common people long to return to Jin again."

Sima Dewen was appointed as the acting Inspector of Xuzhou. Huan Zhen was appointed as Commander of military affairs in eight commandaries and as Inspector of Jingzhou. Huan Qian was confirmed in his former roles as Palace Attendant and Guard General and was further promoted to be Inspector of Jiangzhou and Yuzhou.

All of Emperor An's guards and attendants were replaced by Huan Zhen's trusted confidantes.

謙率眾官奉璽綬于安帝。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Huan Qian led the officials to present the seals and ribbons of state to Emperor An.


振少薄行,玄不以子妷齒之。至是,歎曰:「公昔不早用我,遂致此敗。若使公在,我爲前鋒,天下不足定也。今獨作此,安歸乎?」遂縱意酒色,肆行誅殺。謙勸振引兵下戰,己守江陵,振素輕謙,不從其言。

57. When Huan Zhen had been a boy, he had been a rascal, and Huan Xuan had not felt that he was in the same tier as his own children. At this time, Huan Zhen sighed and said, "If only Lord Huan had used me earlier, he would not have gone down in defeat like this. If he were still here, I could lead his vanguard, and the whole realm would not be able to stop us. But what am I supposed to do now?"

Huan Zhen merely did whatever he pleased and indulged in wine, acting unrestrained and killing and executing as he wished. Huan Qian urged Huan Zhen to led his forces downriver for another battle, while leaving him to guard Jiangling. But Huan Zhen had long thought little of Huan Qian, so he ignored his advice.

〈以年敍長幼爲齒,又,齒,列也。言不使預子姪之列。〉

(The order of seniority is called a tier; it is also a term for rankings. In other words, Huan Xuan did not consider Huan Zhen to be on the same level as his own children.)


劉毅至巴陵,誅王稚徽。何無忌、劉道規進攻桓謙於馬頭,桓蔚於龍泉,皆破之。蔚,祕之子也。

58. When Liu Yi arrived at Baling, he executed Wang Zhihui. He Wuji and Liu Daogui advanced to attack Huan Qian at Matou and Huan Wei at Longquan, and they routed both of them. This Huan Wei was the son of Huan Mi.

〈馬頭岸在大江南岸,北對江津口。〉〈《水經註》:靈溪之東有龍陂,廣員二百餘步,水至淵深,有龍見于其中,故曰龍陂。〉〈桓祕見一百三卷孝武寧康元年。〉

(The Matou Bank was on the southern bank of the Yangzi; it was across from Jiangjinkou to the north.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In the east of Lingxi there is a Long Slope. It is more than two hundred paces broad, and its water is deep and abyssal. A dragon was sighted within its spring, thus the name Long Slope (‘Dragon Slope’).”

Huan Mi is mentioned in Book 103, in Emperor Xiaowu's first year of Ningkang (373.3, 7).)


毅留巴陵,道規與無忌俱進攻桓謐於馬頭,桓蔚於寵洲,皆破之。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Yi remained at Baling, while Liu Daogui and He Wuji both advanced. They attacked Huan Mi at Matou and Huan Wei at Chongzhou, and routed both of them.

無忌進據巴陵。玄從兄謙、從子振乘間陷江陵,無忌、道規進攻謙於馬頭,攻桓蔚于龍泉,皆破之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji advanced and occupied Baling. Huan Xuan's cousin Huan Qian and nephew Huan Zhen had taken advantage of an opening to take Jiangling. He Wuji and Liu Daogui advanced to attack Huan Qian at Matou and Huan Wei at Longquan, and they routed both of them.


無忌欲乘勝直趣江陵,道規曰:「兵法,屈申有時,不可苟進。諸桓世居西楚,羣小皆爲竭力;振勇冠三軍,難與爭鋒。且可息兵養銳,徐以計策縻之,不憂不克。」無忌不從。振逆戰於靈溪,馮該以兵會之,無忌等大敗,死者千餘人。退還尋陽,與劉毅等上牋請罪。劉裕以毅節度諸軍,免其青州刺史。桓振以桓蔚爲雍州刺史,鎭襄陽。

59. He Wuji wished to press these latest victories by marching straight for Jiangling. Liu Daogui warned him, "According to the arts of war, there are times when it is best to hold back. You cannot go charging forward. The Huan clan has lived in the western Chu region for generations, and all their minions will give their full strength on their behalf. If they rouse the bold champions of the three armies, it would be hard for us to clash with them. Better for us to let our soldiers rest and recover their morale, while we take the time to develop a plan for them to follow. If we do that, we need not worry about defeat."

But He Wuji did not listen to him. Huan Zhen counterattacked the loyalist armies at Lingxi, and Feng Gai brought his soldiers to join him. He Wuji and the others were greatly defeated, with more than a thousand of their soldiers killed. They retreated back to Xunyang, where they, Liu Yi, and others sent up a letter apologizing for their offenses. Since Liu Yi was the overall commander of the upriver loyalist armies, Liu Yu punished him by stripping him of his title as Inspector of Qingzhou.

Huan Zhen appointed Huan Wei as Inspector of Yongzhou, and he was stationed at Xiangyang.

〈《水經註》:江水自江陵縣南,東逕燕尾洲,北合靈溪水。江、溪之會有靈溪戍,背阿面江,西帶靈溪。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows from the south of Jiangling county east past Yanwei Islet, where to the north it joins with the Lingxi River. There is a garrison at the conjunction of the Yangzi and the Lingxi River, with its back facing the Yangzi and its western side along the Lingxi River.")


無忌、道規既至江陵,與桓振戰于靈溪。玄黨馮該又設伏于楊林,義軍奔敗,退還尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

When He Wuji and Liu Daogui arrived at Jiangling, they fought Huan Zhen at Lingxi. But Huan Xuan's partisan Feng Gai had also prepared ambushes at Yanglin, so the loyalists fled in defeat, and they retreated back to Xunyang.

劉毅、何無忌退守尋陽。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Liu Yi and He Wuji retreated to defend Xunyang.

玄既死,從子振大破義軍於楊林,義軍退尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

After Huan Xuan's death, his nephew Huan Zhen greatly routed the loyalist army at Yanglin, and they retreated to Xunyang.

無忌欲乘勝直造江陵,道規曰:「兵法屈申有時,不可苟進。諸桓世居西楚,群小皆為竭力,振勇冠三軍,難與爭勝。且可頓兵養銳,徐以計策縻之,不憂不克也。」無忌不從,果為振所敗。乃退還尋陽。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

He Wuji wished to press these latest victories by marching straight for Jiangling. Liu Daogui warned him, "According to the arts of war, there are times when it is best to hold back. You cannot go charging forward. The Huan clan has lived in the western Chu region for generations, and all their minions will give their full strength on their behalf. If they rouse the bold champions of the three armies, it would be hard for us to clash with them. Besides, we should let our soldiers rest and recover their morale, while we take the time to develop a plan for them to follow. If we do that, we need not worry about defeat."

But He Wuji did not listen to him. They were indeed defeated by Huan Zhen, so they retreated back to Xunyang.

及玄死,桓振、桓謙復聚眾距毅於靈溪。玄將馮該以兵會振,毅進擊,為振所敗,退次尋陽,坐免官... 劉裕命何無忌受毅節度,無忌以督攝為煩,輒便解統。毅疾無忌專擅,免其琅邪內史,以輔國將軍攝軍事,無忌遂與毅不平。毅唯自引咎,時論韙之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

After Huan Xuan's death, Huan Zhen and Huan Qian gathered up an army to oppose Liu Yi at Lingxi. Huan Xuan's general Feng Gai brought his troops to join Huan Zhen. Liu Yi advanced and attacked them, but he was defeated by Huan Zhen, and he retreated to Xunyang. He was stripped of his position.

Liu Yu had ordered He Wuji to accept Liu Yi's overall authority. But He Wuji had felt this was too bothersome, and he had continued to do as he felt best. Liu Yi became angry at He Wuji acting on his own, and he stripped him of his title as Interior Minister of Langye, appointing him instead to assist the General Who Upholds The State. This was the beginning of the bad blood between Liu Yi and He Wuji. For his part, Liu Yi took the blame for the defeat, and the people of the time felt that he had done the right thing.

既而為桓振所敗,退還尋陽。(Book of JIn 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji was defeated by Huan Zhen, so he retreated back to Xunyang.


柳約之、羅述、甄季之聞桓玄死,自白帝進軍至枝江,聞何無忌等敗於靈溪,亦引兵退。俄而述、季之皆病,約之詣桓振僞降,欲謀襲振,事泄,振殺之。約之司馬時延祖、涪陵太守文處茂收其餘衆,保涪陵。

60. It was earlier mentioned that Mao Qu had sent his subordinates Liu Yuezhi, Luo Shu, and Zhen Jizhi to camp at Baidi. When they heard that Huan Xuan was dead, they advanced from Baidi to Zhijiang. But then they heard that He Wuji and the other loyalists had been defeated at Lingxi, so they led their soldiers back again. Then Luo Shu and Zhen Jizhi both fell ill. Liu Yuezhi came to visit Huan Zhen, pretending to surrender, in order to plot a surprise attack against him. But the plot leaked, and Huan Zhen killed him. Liu Yuezhi's Marshal, Shi Yanzu, and the Administrator of Fuling, Wen Chumao, gathered up the remaining soldiers and guarded Fuling.

〈枝江縣自漢以來屬南郡,我朝省爲鎭,屬松滋縣。〉〈時,姓也。〉

(Ever since the Han era, Zhijiang county had been part of Nan commandary. Our own dynasty has reduced it to a Garrison, as part of Songzi county.

時 Shi was this man's surname.)


六月,毛璩遣將攻漢中,斬桓希,璩自領梁州。

61. In the sixth month, Mao Qu sent his generals to attack Hanzhong, where they took Huan Xi's head. Mao Qu declared himself acting Inspector of Lianzhou.

六月,益州刺史毛璩討偽梁州刺史桓希,斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, campaigned against the Inspector of Lianzhou that Huan Xuan had appointed, Huan Xi, and beheaded him.


秋,七月,戊申,永安皇后何氏崩。

62. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wushen (September 13th), Empress Yong'an, Lady He, passed away.

秋七月戊申,永安皇后何氏崩。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Wushen (September 13th), Empress Yong'an, Lady He, passed away.


燕苻昭儀有疾,龍城人王榮自言能療之。昭儀卒,燕王熙立榮於公車門,支解而焚之。

63. In Yan, the Zhaoyi concubine Fu Song'e fell ill. A native of Longcheng, Wang Rong, claimed that he could cure her illness. But she passed away regardless. Murong Xi strung up Wang Rong at the Gongche Gate, dismembered him, then burnt him to death.

四年二月,昭儀苻氏卒,立苻貴嬪為皇后。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

In the fourth year of Guangshi (404), the second month, Concubine Fu passed away.

Murong Xi appointed his Honored Concubine, Lady Fu, as Empress.

昭儀苻氏死,偽諡湣皇后。贈苻謨太宰,諡文獻公。二苻並美而豔,好微行遊宴,熙弗之禁也。請謁必從,刑賞大政無不由之。初,昭儀有疾,龍城人王溫稱能療之,未幾而卒,熙忿其妄也,立於公車門支解溫而焚之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

The Zhaoyi concubine, Lady Fu, passed away. Murong Xi granted her the posthumous title Empress Min, and he posthumously appointed her father Fu Mo as Grand Governor and Duke Wenxian.

The two sisters Fu were both beautiful and alluring. They enjoyed doing as they wished, traveling and feasting, and Murong Xi never denied them anything. Whatever they asked for, they were sure to get; punishments, rewards, and the great affairs of state were all thus thrown into disarray.

When Lady Fu had first fallen ill, a native of Longcheng, Wang Wen, claimed that he could cure her illness. But she soon passed away regardless. Murong Xi resented Wang Wen's rash promise, so he strung up Wang Wen at the Gongche Gate, dismembered him, then burnt him to death.


八月,癸酉,葬穆章皇后于永平陵。

64. In the eighth month, on the day Guiyou (October 8th), Empress Muzhang (Lady He) was buried at Yongping Tomb.

八月癸酉,祔葬穆帝章皇后于永平陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eighth month, on the day Guiyou (October 8th), Empress Muzhang (Lady He) was buried at Yongping Tomb.


魏置六謁官,準古六卿。

65. Wei created the Six Heralds Bureaus, equal to the old Six Ministers.

九月,刁騁謀反,伏誅,刁氏遂亡。刁氏素富,奴客縱橫,專固山澤,爲京口之患。劉裕散其資蓄,令民稱力而取之,彌日不盡;時州郡饑弊,民賴之以濟。

66. In the ninth month, Diao Cheng plotted rebellion. But he was soon executed, and that was the end of the Diao clan.

The Diao clan had long been rich, with armies of servants, and they had held fast to their mountains and marshes, posing a menace to Jingkou. Liu Yu distributed all their goods and property, ordering the common people to declare their merits in order to claim some, and even after more than a day all the wealth had not been exhausted. Since at that time the provinces and commandaries were suffering from famine and devastation, the common people relied upon this wealth for their livelihoods.

〈刁逵之誅,惟赦騁,而雍得逃走投北;騁又誅,則江南之刁氏亡矣。〉

(It was earlier mentioned that after Diao Kui's execution, Diao Cheng had been the only one spared, although Diao Yong had managed to flee to the north. Now that Diao Cheng had also been executed, that was the end of the Diao clan in the Southland.)


九月,前給事中刁騁、秘書丞王邁之謀反,伏誅。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, the former 給事中, Diao Cheng, and the Assistant of the Imperial Library, Wang Maizhi, plotted rebellion. But they were executed.


乞伏乾歸及楊盛戰于竹嶺,爲盛所敗。

67. Qifu Gangui fought Yang Sheng at the Zhu Ranges, but Yang Sheng defeated him.

〈上邽西南有南山、竹嶺。〉

(The southern hills and the Zhu Ranges were in the southwest of Shanggui commandary.)


討叛羌党龍頭於滋川,攻楊盛將苻帛于皮氏堡,並克之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui attacked the Qiang rebel leader Dang Longtou at Zichuan and he attacked Yang Sheng's general Fu Bo at Shibao, and in both cases he overcame them.


西涼公暠立子歆爲世子。

68. In Western Liang, Li Gao appointed his son Li Xin as his heir.

九月,立第二子歆為世子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 8, Biography of Li Gao)

In the ninth month, Li Gao appointed his second son Li Xin as his heir.


魏主珪臨昭陽殿改補百官,引朝臣文武,親加銓擇,隨才授任。列爵四等:王封大郡,公封小郡,侯封大縣,伯封小縣。其品第一至第四,舊臣有功無爵者追封之,宗室疏遠及異姓襲封者降爵有差。又置散官五等,其品第五至第九;文官造士才能秀異、武官堪爲將帥者,其品亦比第五至第九;百官有闕,則取於其中以補之。其官名不用漢、魏之舊,倣上古龍官、鳥官,謂諸曹之使爲鳧鴨,取其飛之迅疾也;謂候官伺察者爲白鷺,取其延頸遠望也;餘皆類此。

69. At this time, Tuoba Gui reorganized the bureaucratic structure of Wei. While presiding in the Zhaoyang Hall, he summoned his civil and military court officials and evaluated each of them personally, sorting them into appropriate offices according to their talents.

Tuoba Gui created a sort of forked Nine Ranks System for Wei. The first four ranks were for titles of nobility: Princes would be granted large commandaries as their fief, Dukes would be granted small commandaries, Marquises would be granted large counties, and Earls would be granted small counties. Any deceased ministers who, despite their accomplishments in life, had never been granted a noble title were now posthumously appointed to one of these four noble ranks. Meanwhile, distant relatives of the royal family or those nobles of different surnames from the Tuoba had their noble titles accordingly demoted to the proper places. Below the noble titles, Tuoba Gui created two sets of five ranks for the various government offices, from the fifth rank to the ninth rank, with two forks running through the civil and military tracks. Civil officials who possessed excellent and extraordinary talents and military officials who were competent enough to be generals and commanders were reassessed according to these rank tracks, and any officials who had deficiencies were likewise sorted into lower ranks.

Tuoba Gui no longer used the usual official titles that had become standard during the Han and Cao-Wei dynasties. Instead, he reached into the distant past and used the ancient "dragon offices" and "bird offices" for his officials. For instance, he called the messengers of the various management bureaus the Ducks on account of their swiftness, and he called the sacrificial overseers the Herons on account of their habit of extending their necks to see far away. Others were given like titles for the same reasons.

〈《左傳》:郯子曰:昔太皞氏以龍紀,故爲龍師而龍名。我高祖少皞摯之立也,鳳鳥適至,故爲鳥師而鳥名;鳳鳥氏,曆正也;玄鳥氏,司分者也;伯趙氏,司至者也;青鳥氏,司啓者也;丹鳥氏,司閉者也;祝鳩氏,司徒也;鴡鳩氏,司馬也;鳲鳩氏,司空也;爽鳩氏,司寇也;鶻鳩氏,司事也;五鳩,鳩民者也。五雉爲五工正,九扈爲九農正。杜預《註》曰:太皞氏有龍瑞,故以龍名官。應劭曰:以龍紀其官長:春官爲青龍,夏官爲赤龍,秋官爲白龍,冬官爲黑龍,中官爲黃龍。張晏曰:庖犧將興,神龍負圖而至,因以名官與師也。〉〈《魏書‧官氏志》作「諸曹走使」。〉

(Regarding these dragon and bird offices, the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals quotes the Viscount of Tan thusly: "When Taihao (Fuxi) came to power, there was the omen of a dragon, and therefore he had dragon officers, naming them after dragons. When my ancestor Shaohao Zhi succeeded to the kingdom, there appeared at that time a phoenix, and therefore he arranged his government under the nomenclature of birds, making bird officers, and naming them after birds. There were so and so Phoenix-bird, minister of the calendar; so and so Dark-bird (The swallow), master of the equinoxes; so and so Bozhao (The shrike), master of the solstices; so so and so Greenbird (A kind of sparrow), master of the beginning [of spring and autumn]; and so and so Carnation-bird, (The golden pheasant), master of the close [of spring and autumn];—so and so Zhujiu, minister of Instruction; so and so Jujiu, minister of War; so and so Shijiu, minister of Works; so and so Shuangjiu, minister of Crime; so and so Gujiu, minister of affairs. These five Jiu kept the people collected together. The five Zhi (Pheasants) presided over the five classes of mechanics;—they saw to the provision of implements and utensils, and to the correctness of the measures of length and capacity, keeping 'things equal among the people. The nine Hu were the ministers of the nine departments of husbandry, and kept the people from becoming dissolute (Zhao 17.3)." Du Yu's Annotations states, "Taihao (Fuxi) had a good omen from a dragon, so he named his officials after dragons." Ying Shao remarked, "Taihao named his ministries after dragons. The Spring Ministry was the Green Dragon, the Summer Ministry was the Red Dragon, the Autumn Ministry was the White Dragon, the Winter Ministry was the Black Dragon, and the Central Ministry was the Yellow Dragon." Zhang Yan remarked, "When Paoxi (Fuxi) was about to rise, a divine dragon appeared, bearing a map. So Paoxi named his officials and commanders with dragon titles."

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei writes that the Ducks were the "runners" of the various bureaus.)


五月,置山東諸冶,發州郡徒謫造兵甲。秋九月,帝臨昭陽殿,分置眾職,引朝臣文武,親自簡擇,量能叙用;制爵四等,曰「王、公、侯、子」,除伯、男之號;追錄舊臣,加以封爵,各有差。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fifth month, Northern Wei established several ironworks in the regions east of the mountains (east of Luoyang), and drafted fugitives or exiles in those provinces and commandaries to serve as soldiers.

In autumn, the ninth month, Tuoba Gui reorganized the bureaucratic structure of Wei. While presiding in the Zhaoyang Hall, he divided up people into various offices, and he summoned his civil and military court officials and evaluated each of them personally, sorting them into appropriate offices according to their talents and potential. He established four ranks of nobility: Princes, Dukes, Marquises, and Viscounts. The titles of Earl and Baron were abolished. He posthumously appointed late ministers with noble titles, each as suited.


盧循寇南海,攻番禺。廣州刺史濮陽吳隱之拒守百餘日,冬,十月,壬戌,循夜襲城而陷之,燒府舍、民室俱盡,執吳隱之。循自稱平南將軍,攝廣州事,聚燒骨爲共冢,葬於洲上,得髑髏三萬餘枚。又使徐道覆攻始興,執始興相阮腆之。

70. In Jin, the rebel leader Lu Xun invaded Nanhai commandary and attack Panyu. The Inspector of Guangzhou, Wu Yinzhi of Puyang commandary, opposed the rebels and held the city for more than a hundred days. But in winter, the tenth month, on the day Renxu (November 26th), Lu Xun launched a surprise assault on the walls during the night and broke into the city. He burned down all the government offices and the homes of the people, and he captured Wu Yinzhi. Lu Xun declared himself General Who Pacifies The South, in charge of affairs in Guangzhou. He gathered all the burnt skeletons into a mass grave and buried them on an islet; there were more than thirty thousand skulls.

Lu Xun also sent Xu Daofu to attack Shixing, where Xu Daofu captured the Chancellor of Shixing, Ruan Tianzhi.

〈《說文》曰:髑髏,頂也。〉〈吳孫晧甘露元年,分桂陽南部都尉立始興郡,唐爲韶州。〉

(This passage describes the more than thirty thousand things as 髑髏s. The Shuowen dictionary states, "This means a skull."

In Sun Hao of Eastern Wu's first year of Wufeng (265), he split off the Southern Command Post of Guiyang commandary to form Shixing commandary. During Tang, it was Shaozhou.)


冬十月,盧循寇廣州,刺史吳隱之爲循所敗。執始興相阮腆之而還。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, Lu Xun invaded Guangzhou, where he defeated the Inspector, Wu Yinzhi. Lu Xun captured the Chancellor of Shixing, Ruan Tianzhi, and returned.

循窘急,泛海到番禺,寇廣州,逐刺史吳隱之,自攝州事,號平南將軍。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Lu Xun)

Lu Xun crossed the sea and went to Panyu. He invaded Guangzhou and captured the Inspector there, Wu Yinzhi. He claimed authority over provincial affairs and declared himself General Who Pacifies The South.


劉裕領青州刺史。

71. Liu Yu became acting Inspector of Qingzhou.

〈劉毅免青州,裕自領之。〉

(Since Liu Yi had been stripped of this title, Liu Yu assumed it for himself.)


兗州刺史辛禺懷貳。會北青州刺史劉該反,禺求征該,次淮陰,又反。禺長史羊穆之斬禺,傳首京師。十月,高祖領青州刺史。甲仗百人入殿。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The Inspector of Yanzhou, Xin Yu, harbored thoughts of rebellion. At the same time, the Inspector of Northern Qingzhou, Liu Gai, actually did rebel. Xin Yu asked to lead a campaign against Liu Gai, but by the time he arrived at Huaiyin, he too rebelled. But Xin Yu's Chief Clerk, Yang Muzhi, beheaded him and sent his head to the capital.

In the tenth month, Liu Yu was appointed as acting Inspector of Qingzhou, and he was allowed to enter the palace with a hundred soldiers in armor.


劉敬宣在尋陽,聚糧繕船,未嘗無備,故何無忌等雖敗退,賴以復振。桓玄兄子亮自稱江州刺史,寇豫章,敬宣擊破之。

72. Liu Jingxuan had remained at Xunyang, where he had stockpiled grain and repaired ships, never once overlooking any needed preparations. So even though He Wuji and the other loyalist commanders had been defeated upriver and forced to fall back to Xunyang, they were quickly able to recover thanks to Liu Jingxuan's efforts.

Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Liang declared himself Inspector of Jiangzhou. He attacked Yuzhang, but Liu Jingxuan counterattacked and routed him.

敬宣既至江州,課集軍糧,搜召舟乘,軍戎要用,常有儲擬。故囗征諸軍雖失利退據,因之每即振復。其年,桓玄兄子亮自號江州刺史,寇豫章;亮又遣苻宏寇廬陵,敬宣並討破之。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

After Liu Jingxuan arrived at Jiangzhou as Inspector, he supervised the collection of military supplies and he gathered and summoned ships and other craft; he made all military preparations, and there was often a surplus of supplies. So even when the other loyalist commanders got the worst of the fighting and were forced to fall back, they were always able to quickly recover thanks to Liu Jingxuan's efforts.

During the same year (404), Huan Xuan's nephew Huan Liang declared himself Inspector of Jiangzhou. He attacked Yuzhang, and he sent Fu Hong to invade Luling. But Liu Jingxuan campaigned against and routed both of them.

又擊桓亮、苻宏於湘中,所在有功。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan also attacked Huan Liang and Fu Hong at Xiangzhong, and gained achievements in the fighting.

桓亮自號江州刺史,遣劉敬宣擊走之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Liang declared himself Inspector of Jingzhou. Liu Yi sent Liu Jingxuan to attack Huan Liang, and Liu Jingxuan drove him off.


劉毅、何無忌、劉道規復自尋陽西上,至夏口。桓振遣鎭東將軍馮該守東岸,揚武將軍孟山圖據魯山城,輔國將軍桓仙客守偃月壘,衆合萬人,水陸相援。毅攻魯山城,道規攻偃月壘,無忌遏中流,自辰至午,二城俱潰,生禽山圖、仙客,該走石城。

73. Liu Yi, He Wuji, and Liu Daogui once again departed Xunyang and sailed west upriver, until they reached Xiakou.

Huan Zhen sent the General Who Guards The East, Feng Gai, to defend Dong'an, he sent the General Who Displays Valor, Meng Shantu, to occupy the city of Lushan, and he sent the General Who Upholds The State, Huan Xianke, to guard Yanyue Rampart. They had ten thousand soldiers altogether, and they could support each other across land and water. But Liu Yi attacked Lushan and Liu Daogui attacked Yanyue Rampart, while He Wuji held the river between them. They fought from dawn until noon, and then the two fortifications fell. They captured Meng Shantu and Huan Xianke, while Feng Gai fled to Shicheng.

〈漢水與江會于魯山西南,漢水之左有卻月城,亦曰偃月壘,故曲陵縣也,後更爲沙羨縣治。〉〈竟陵縣,古石城戍也。《郢州圖經曰》:子城三面墉基皆天造,正西絕壁下臨漢江。石城之名蓋本於此。〉

(Where the Han River joins the Yangzi southwest of Mount Lu, there is a city on the left bank of the Han River called Queyue, also called the Yanyue Rampart. It was the site of the old Quling county. Later, it was the administrative center of Shaxian county.

Jingling county was the site of the old Shicheng Garrison. The Geographical Records of Yingzhou states, "Zicheng has natural walls facing three sides, with its western side forming a rampart along the Yangzi and the Han River." This must have been the place here called Shicheng.)


劉毅諸軍復進至夏口。毅攻魯城,道規攻偃月壘,皆拔之。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

The loyalists armies under Liu Yu once again advanced to Xiakou. Liu Yi attacked Lucheng while Liu Daogui attacked Yanyue Rampart, and they took both of them.

懷肅與江夏相張暢之攻澹之於西塞,破之。偽鎮東將軍馮該戍夏口東岸,孟山圖據魯山城,桓仙客守偃月壘,皆連壁相望。懷肅與道規攻之,躬擐甲胄,陷二城,馮該走石城,生擒仙客。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

Liu Huaisu and the Chancellor of Jiangxia, Zhang Changzhi, attacked He Danzhi at Xisai and routed him.

Huan Xuan's General Who Guards The East, Feng Gai, camped at Dong'an, Meng Shantu occupied the city of Lushan, and Huan Xianke guarded Yanyue Rampart. All of these fortifications were in sight of one another. But Liu Huaisu and Liu Daogui attacked them, personally wearing armor and helmets, and they took the two forts. Feng Gai fled to Shicheng, while the loyalists captured Huan Xianke.

繕治舟甲,復進軍夏口。偽鎮軍將軍馮該戍夏口東岸,揚武將軍孟山圖據魯城,輔國將軍桓仙客守偃月壘。於是毅攻魯城,道規、無忌攻偃月,並克之,生禽仙客、山圖。其夕,該遁走。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists repaired and restored their ships and armor, then advanced once again to Xiakou. Huan Zhen's General Who Guards The Army, Feng Gai, was camped at Dong'an at Xiakou; his General Who Displays Valor, Meng Shantu, had occupied the city of Lushan; and his General Who Upholds The State, Huan Xianke, was guarding Yanyue Rampart. Liu Yi attacked Lushan while Liu Daogui and He Wuji attacked Yanyue Rampart, and they took both places. They captured Meng Shantu and Huan Xianke, while that evening, Feng Gai fled into hiding.

毅復與道規發尋陽。桓亮自號江州刺史,遣劉敬宣擊走之。毅軍次夏口。時振党馮該戍大岸,孟山圖據魯城,桓山客守偃月壘,眾合萬人,連艦二岸,水陸相援。毅督眾軍進討,未至復口,遇風飄沒千餘人。毅與劉懷肅、索邈等攻魯城,道規攻偃月壘,何無忌與檀祗列艦于中流,以防越逸。毅躬貫甲胄,陵城半日而二壘俱潰,生擒山客,而馮該遁走。毅進平巴陵。以毅為使持節、兗州刺史,將軍如故。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi and Liu Daogui once again set out from Xunyang.

Liu Yi's army advanced to Xiakou. At that time, Huan Zhen's partisan Feng Gai was camped at Da'an, Meng Shantu had occupied the city of Lushan, and Huan Xianke was guarding Yanyue Rampart. They had ten thousand soldiers altogether, and had a line of ships from bank to bank of the river, so that they could support each other by land or water. Liu Yi ordered his army to advance and attack them, but before reaching Fukou, they encountered winds and gusts, and more than a thousand soldiers were lost. Liu Yi, Liu Huaisu, Suo Miao, and others attacked Lucheng while Liu Daogui attacked Yanyue Rampart and He Wuji and Tanzhi arrayed their ships in the middle of the river to prevent any enemy breakthrough. Liu Yi personally wore helmet and armor as he fought, and after half a day of assaults, the two forts both fell. They captured Meng Shantu and Huan Xianke, while Feng Gai fled.

無忌與毅、道規復進討振,克夏口三城。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji, Liu Yi, and Liu Daogui once again advanced to campaign against Huan Zhen. They took the three forts at Xiakou.


辛巳,魏大赦,改元天賜。築西宮。十一月,魏主珪如西宮,命宗室置宗師,八國置大師、小師,州郡亦各置師,以辨宗黨,舉才行,如魏、晉中正之職。

74. On the day Xinsi (December 15th), Wei declared a general amnesty, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Tianci. They also built the Western Palace.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui went to the Western Palace. He ordered the creation of various offices. For the imperial clan in general, he created the Clan Instructor. For the eight princedoms, he created for each of them a Greater and Lesser Instructor. The provinces and commandaries also each had their own Instructors. These Instructors were responsible for handling the imperial clan and its partisans, as well as recommending people of high talents or good conduct, similar to the Rectifiers from the Cao-Wei and Jin bureaucracies.

〈《魏書‧官氏志》曰:以八國姓族難分,故國立大師、小師,令辨其宗黨,品舉人才。自八國以外,郡各立師,職分如八國,比今之中正也。宗室立宗師,亦如州郡八國之職。〉

(The Records of Ministerial Clans from the Book of Northern Wei states, "Since the clans of the eight princedoms were hard to divide, each princedom was assigned a Greater and Lesser Instructor, with orders to manage the imperial clan and its partisans and evaluate and recommend talented people. Beyond the eight princedoms, each commandary also had its own Instructor, with offices similar to those of the princedoms and comparable to the modern Rectifiers. The imperial clan itself also had the Clan Instructor, which too was similar to the Instructors of the provinces, commandaries, and princedoms.")


冬十月辛巳,大赦,改元。築西宮。十有一月,上幸西宮,大選朝臣,令各辨宗黨,保舉才行,諸部子孫失業賜爵者二千餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinsi (December 15th), Northern Wei declared a general amnesty, and they changed their reign era title to the first year of Tianci. They also built the Western Palace.

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui went to the Western Palace. He made a great selection of court ministers and ordered each of them to handle the imperial clan, as well as guard and recommend those of good talents or conduct. More than two thousand descendants of the imperial clan were granted noble titles and deprived of their livelihoods.


燕王熙與苻后遊畋,北登白鹿山,東踰青嶺,南臨滄海而還,士卒爲虎狼所殺及凍死者五千餘人。

75. In Yan, Murong Xi went hunting and traveling together with Empress Fu. They went north and ascended Mount Bailu, east and crossed the Qing Ranges, and south to Canghai before returning. More than five thousand soldiers were killed by tigers and dholes or froze to death during this journey.

〈《水經註》:大遼水東南過遼東郡房縣西,又右會白狼水,山出右北平白狼縣東南,北屈,逕白鹿山西,卽白狼山也。青嶺卽青陘,在龍城東南四百餘里。魏收《地形志》,建德郡石城縣有白鹿山祠。〉〈滄海在遼西郡海陽縣南。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Great Liao River flows southeast through the west of Fang county in Liaodong commandary, then to the right it joins with the Bailang River. This river flows out of the mountains in the southeast of Bailang county in Youbeiping commandary, then turns north and passes west of Mount Bailu, also called Mount Bailang." According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a shrine on a Mount Bailu in Shicheng county in Jiande commandary.

The Qing Ranges were Qingxing, more than four hundred li southeast of Longcheng.

Canghai was in the south of Haiyang county in Liaoxi commandary.)


九月,苻后遊畋,熙從之,北登白鹿山,東過青嶺,南臨滄海。冬十一月,乃還。百姓苦之,士卒為狼虎所害及凍死者五千餘人。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

In the ninth month, Empress Fu went out traveling and hunting, and Murong Xi accompanied her. They went north and ascended Mount Bailu, east and crossed the Qing Ranges, and south to Canghai. In winter, the eleventh month, they returned. The common people had suffered on the trip, and more than five thousand soldiers were killed by tigers and dholes or froze to death during this journey.

其後好游田,熙從之,北登白鹿山,東過青嶺,南臨滄海,百姓苦之,士卒為豺狼所害及凍死者五千餘人矣。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Empress Fu enjoyed going out traveling through the fields, and Murong Xi accompanied her. They went north and ascended Mount Bailu, east and crossed the Qing Ranges, and south to Canghai. The common people had suffered on the trip, and more than five thousand soldiers were killed by tigers and dholes or froze to death during this journey.


十二月,劉毅等進克巴陵。毅號令嚴整,所過百姓安悅。劉裕復以毅爲兗州刺史。

76. In the twelfth month, Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders advanced and captured Baling. Liu Yi had ordered his soldiers to observe strict discipline and restraint, so the common people were secure and pleased with him.

Liu Yu reappointed Liu Yi as Inspector of Yanzhou.

十二月,諸軍進平巴陵。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the twelfth month, the loyalists advanced and captured Baling.

進平巴陵。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

The loyalists advanced and captured Baling.

尋原之... 毅進平巴陵。以毅為使持節、兗州刺史,將軍如故。毅號令嚴整,所經墟邑,百姓安悅。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi was later restored to his position.

Liu Yi advanced and retook Baling. He was appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Inspector of Yanzhou, while maintaining his position as a general.

Liu Yi had ordered his soldiers to observe strict discipline and restraint, nor to trouble the towns the passed through, so the common people were secure and pleased with him.

遂平巴陵。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji and the others took Baling.


桓振以桓放之爲益州刺史,屯西陵;文處茂擊破之,放之走還江陵。

77. Huan Zhen appointed Huan Fangzhi as Inspector of Yizhou, and he camped at Xiling. But the Yizhou general Wen Chumao attacked and routed him, and Huan Fanzhi fled back to Jiangling.

高句麗侵燕。

78. Goguryeo invaded Yan.

會高句驪寇燕郡,殺略百餘人。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Goguryeo invaded Yan commandary, where they killed about a hundred people.


戊辰,魏主珪如豺山宮。

79. On the day Wuchen (January 31st of 405), Tuoba Gui returned to the palace at Mount Chai.

十有二月戊辰,車駕幸犲山宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the twelfth month, on the day Wuchen (January 31st of 405), Tuoba Gui went to the palace at Mount Chai.


是歲,晉民避亂,襁負之淮北者道路相屬。

80. During this year, many of the common people of Jin filled the roads leading north of the Huai River, carrying their babes on their backs, as they fled the turmoil in Jin.

是秋,江南大亂,流民繈負而奔淮北,行道相尋。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

That autumn, because of the great turmoil in the Southland, many of the common people of Jin fled and filled the roads leading north of the Huai River, carrying their babes on their backs.
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BOOK 114

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat Feb 23, 2019 8:05 pm

義熙元年(乙巳、四○五)

The First Year of Yixi (The Yisi Year, 405 AD)


春,正月,南陽太守扶風魯宗之起兵襲襄陽,桓蔚走江陵。乙丑,劉毅等諸軍至馬頭。桓振挾帝出屯江津,遣使求割江、荊二州,奉送天子;毅等不許。辛卯,宗之擊破振將溫楷于柞溪,進屯紀南。振留桓謙、馮該守江陵,引兵與宗之戰,大破之。劉毅等擊破馮該於豫章口,桓謙棄城走。毅等入江陵,執卞範之等,斬之。桓振還,望見火起,知城已陷,其衆皆潰,振逃于溳川。

1. In spring, the first month, Jin's Administrator of Nanyang, Lu Zongzhi of Fufeng commandary, raised troops and launched a surprise attack against Xiangyang. Huan Wei fled to Jiangling.

On the day Yichou (?; probably Jichou, February 21st), Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders led their forces to Matou. Huan Zhen brought Emperor An out to camp at Jiang Crossing. He sent envoys to the loyalists to propose carving out Jiangzhou and Jingzhou as his own territory if he would return Emperor An to them, but Liu Yi and the others refused.

On the day Xinmao (February 23rd), Lu Zongzhi attacked and routed Huan Zhen's general Wen Kai at Zhaxi, then advanced to camp at Jinan. Huan Zhen left Huan Qian and Feng Gai to guard Jiangling while he led troops to fight Lu Zongzhi, and greatly routed him.

Liu Yi and the others attacked and routed Feng Gai at Yuzhangkou; Huan Qian abandoned Jiangling and fled. Liu Yi and the others entered Jiangling, where they captured Bian Fangzhi and other Huan officers and beheaded then.

When Huan Zhen was on his way back to Jiangling, he saw the fires rising from far off and knew that the city had already fallen. His soldiers scattered, while he went to hide at Yunchuan.

〈蔚,紆勿翻。〉〈江津戍在江陵,南臨江滸。《荊州記》曰:江陵縣東三里有津鄕。《水經註》:江陵城南有馬牧城。此洲始自枚回下迄于此,長七十餘里,洲上有奉城,江津長所治。〉〈《水經註》:柞溪水出江陵縣北,蓋諸池散流,咸所會合,積以成川,東流逕魯宗之壘南,又東注船官湖。柞,才各翻,又音作。〉〈《郡國志》:江陵縣北十餘里有紀南城。〉〈《水經註》:江水過江陵而東,得豫章口,夏水所通也;西北有豫章岡,蓋因岡而得名,其地去江陵城二十里。〉〈《水經註》:溳水出漢南陽郡蔡陽縣東南大洪山,東南流,過隨縣西,又南過江夏安陸縣西,又東南入于夏。〉

(Huan Wei's given name 蔚 is pronounced "wu (w-u)".

The camp at Jiang Crossing was at Jiangling, facing the Yangzi to the south. The Records of Jingzhou states, "There is a crossing village three li east of Jiangling county." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a city of Matou south of the city of Jiangling. The island at this place begins at Meihui and continues until this point, more than seventy li in length. There is a city of Feng on the island; it is governed by the Chief of Jiangling."

The Commentary further states, "The Zhaxi River emerges in the north of Jiangling county, at the confluence of several scattered ponds which all join together to form a river. It flows east, south of the old ramparts of Lu Zongzhi, then further east until it enters Lake Chuanguan." The first character of Zhaxi, 柞, is pronounced "ce (c-e)" or "zuo".

The Records of Commandaries and Fiefs states, "There is a city of Jinan more than ten li north of Jiangling county."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows through Jiangling and then east, passing by Yuzhangkou, where the Xia Rivers intersects it; there is a Yuzhang Ridge northwest of that location, so the rivermouth must take its name from the ridge. It is twenty li from the city of Jiangling."

The Commentary further states, "The Yun River emerges from Mount Dahong in the southeast of Caiyang county in Han's Nanyang commandary. It flows southeast, passing west of Sui county, then flows south, passing west of Anlu county in Jiangxia commandary, and then southeast until it enters the Xia River.")


義熙元年春正月,帝在江陵。南陽太守魯宗之起義兵,襲破襄陽。己丑,劉毅次于馬頭。桓振以帝屯于江津。辛卯,宗之破振將溫楷于柞溪,進次紀南,爲振所敗。振武將軍劉道規擊桓謙,走之。乘輿反正,帝與琅邪王幸道規舟。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the first year of Yixi (405), in spring, the first month, Emperor An was at Jiangling. The Administrator of Nanyang, Lu Zongzhi, started an uprising; he launched a surprise attack against Xiangyang and took it.

On the day Jichou (February 21st), Liu Yi advanced to Matou. Huan Zhen brought Emperor An out to camp at Jiang Crossing.

On the day Xinmao (February 23rd), Lu Zongzhi routed Huan Zhen's general Wen Kai at Zhaxi, then advanced to Jinan, where he was defeated by Huan Zhen.

The General Who Rouses Valor, Liu Daogui, attacked Huan Qian and drove him off. He rescued Emperor An, and Emperor An and the Prince of Langye (Sima Dewen) rode in Liu Daogui's boat.

謙、振遣使求割荊、江二州,奉歸晉帝,不許。會南陽太守魯宗之起義攻襄陽,偽雍州刺史桓蔚走江陵。宗之進至紀南,振自往距之,使桓謙留守。時毅、道規已次馬頭,馳往襲,謙奔走,即日克江陵城。振大破宗之而歸,聞城已陷,亦走。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Huan Qian and Huan Zhen sent envoys to the loyalists to propose carving out Jiangzhou and Jingzhou as their own territory if they would return Emperor An, but the loyalists refused.

Meanwhile, the Administrator of Nanyang, Lu Zongzhi, raised righteous troops and attacked Xiangyang. Huan Zhen's Inspector of Yongzhou, Huan Wei, fled to Jiangling.

Lu Zongzhi then advanced to Jinan. Huan Zhen himself came to oppose Lu Zongzhi, while leaving Huan Qian behind to hold Jiangling. At that time, Liu Yi and Liu Daogui had already advanced to Matou, so they rushed ahead to launch a surprise attack against Jiangling. Huan Qian fled, and the same day, the loyalists took Jiangling. Huan Zhen had greatly routed Lu Zongzhi and was returning, but when he heard that Jiangling had already fallen, he too fled.

南陽太守魯宗之起義,襲襄陽,破桓蔚。毅等諸軍次江陵之馬頭。振擁乘輿,出營江津。宗之又破偽將溫楷,振自擊宗之。毅因率無忌、道規等諸軍破馮該于豫章口,推鋒而進,遂入江陵。振聞城陷,與謙北走,乘輿反正。毅執玄党卞範之、羊僧壽、夏侯崇之、桓道恭等,皆斬之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

The Administrator of Nanyang, Lu Zongzhi, raised righteous troops and launched a surprise attack against Xiangyang, routing Huan Wei.

Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders advanced to Matou at Jiangling. Huan Zhen took Emperor An with him and went out to camp at Jiangjin.

Lu Zongzhi routed Huan Zhen's general Wei Kai, so Huan Zhen himself came to attack Lu Zongzhi. Liu Yi then led the armies of He Wuji, Liu Daogui, and the others to rout Feng Gai at Yuzhangkou, and they pressed their victory to advance and enter Jiangling. When Huan Zhen heard that the city had fallen, he and Huan Qian fled north. Emperor An was then restored to the throne.

Liu Yi captured Huan Xuan's partisans Bian Fanzhi, Yang Sengshou, Xiahou Chongzhi, Huan Daogong, and others and beheaded them all.

進次馬頭。桓謙請割荊、江二州,奉送天子,無忌不許。進軍破江陵,謙等敗走。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji advanced to Matou. Huan Qian proposed carving out Jiangzhou and Jingzhou as his own territory if he would return Emperor An to them, but He Wuji refused. His army advanced and took Jiangling, and Huan Qian and the others were defeated and fled.


乙未,詔大處分悉委冠軍將軍劉毅。

2. On the day Yiwei (February 27th), an edict was issued granting all powers of punishment to the Champion General, Liu Yi.

戊戌,大赦,改元,惟桓氏不原;以桓沖忠於王室,特宥其孫胤。以魯宗之爲雍州刺史,毛璩爲征西將軍、都督益‧梁‧秦‧涼‧寧五州諸軍事,璩弟瑾爲梁、秦二州刺史,瑗爲寧州刺史,劉懷肅追斬馮該於石城,桓謙、桓怡、桓蔚、桓謐、何澹之、溫楷皆奔秦。怡,弘之弟也。

3. On the day Wuxu (March 2nd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Yixi. Only the Huan clan were excluded from the amnesty, and even then, due to the late Huan Chong's loyalty to the royal family, a special pardon was granted for his grandson Huan Yin.

Lu Zongzhi was appointed as Inspector of Yongzhou. Mao Qu was appointed as General Who Conquers The West and Commander of military affairs in Yizhou, Lianzhou, Qinzhou, Liangzhou, and Ningzhou, and his younger brothers Mao Jin and Mao Yuan were respectively appointed as Inspector of Lianzhou and Qinzhou and as Inspector of Ningzhou.

Liu Huaisu pursued Feng Gai to Shicheng and took his head. Huan Qian, Huan Yi, Huan Wei, He Danzhi, and Wen Kai all fled to Qin. This Huan Yi was the younger brother of Huan Hong.

〈桓弘死見上卷上年。〉

(Huan Hong had been killed by the loyalists at the beginning of their uprising, as mentioned in Book 113, in the third year of Yuanxing (404.15).)


是歲,司馬德宗復僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (405), Sima Dezong (Emperor An) was restored to the throne of Jin.

戊戌,詔曰:「朕以寡德,夙纂洪緒。不能緝熙遐邇,式遏姦宄。逆臣桓玄乘釁肆亂,乃誣罔天人,篡據極位。朕躬播越,淪胥荒裔,宣皇之基,眇焉以墜。賴鎮軍將軍裕忠武英斷,誠冠終古。運謀機始,貞賢協其契;抆淚誓衆,義士感其心。故霜戈一揮。巨猾奔迸,三率棱威,大憝授首。而孽振倡狂,嗣凶荊郢。幸天祚社稷,義旗載捷,狡徒沮潰,朕獲反正。斯實宗廟之靈,勤王之勳。豈朕一人,獨享伊祜,思與億兆,幸茲更始。其大赦,改元,唯玄振一祖及同黨不在原例。賜百官爵二級,鰥寡孤獨穀人五斛,大酺五日。」(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Wuxu (March 2nd), Emperor An issued an edict stating, "I, though of meager virtue, succeeded to the grand dynastic reign at a tender age. Yet I was unable to stop the spread of malign influences near and far, or check the march of villainy. Thus the traitor Huan Xuan, taking advantage of the divisions of the state and indulging in the chaos, beguiled Heaven and deceived the people and went so far as to usurp the throne itself. I was sent into exile, sunk into the barren wastes, and the foundation of the dynasty was on the point of collapse.

"But we were blessed to have the support of the General Who Guards The Army, Liu Yu, a loyal, martial, heroic, and decisive fellow, with greater earnesty than the heroes of old. When he began his plan and commenced his uprising, the faithful and worthy pledged to assist him; when he wiped away tears and swore an oath before the multitude, the righteous soldiers were moved by his passion. Every white spear was raised on behalf of the cause.

"When the chief traitor fled, the three generals exerted their might, and the head of the great evil was soon severed. But the savage rebel Huan Zhen succeeded to the traitorous cause, flaunting his strength in the regions of Jing and Ying. Happily, Heaven blessed the altars of state; the righteous banners were triumphant, the despicable traitors melted away and scattered, and I was able to return to the throne.

"These things were all thanks to the intervention of my ancestors and the diligent service of the princes. Shall I alone be the one to reap the benefits of this good fortune? It is a blessing to be shared with all, the marking of a new beginning. Thus I declare a general amnesty and a changing of the reign era title; only those who are the descendants of the grandfather of Huan Xuan and Huan Zhen, and their minions, are exempted from this pardon. And I decree the advancement of all officials by two ranks and the bestowal of five 斛s of grain to widows, widowers, orphans, and the needy, as well as five days of celebration."

義熙元年正月,振敗走,道規遣懷肅平石城,斬馮該及其子山靖。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

In the first year of Yixi (405), the first month, when Huan Zhen was defeated and fled, Liu Daogui sent Liu Huaisu to pacify Shicheng, where Liu Huaisu took the heads of Feng Gai and his son Feng Shanjing.

時劉裕誅桓玄,迎復安帝,玄衛將軍、新安王桓謙,臨原王桓怡,雍州刺史桓蔚,左衛將軍桓謐,中書令桓胤,將軍何澹之等奔於興。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

By this time, Liu Yu had executed Huan Xuan and welcomed Emperor An back to the throne of Jin. Huan Xuan's Guard General and Prince of Xin'an, Huan Qian, his Prince of Linyuan, Huan Yi, his Inspector of Yongzhou, Huan Wei, his Guard General of the Left, Huan Mi, his Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Huan Yin, his general He Danzhi, and others fled to Yao Xing.


燕王熙伐高句麗。戊申,攻遼東;城且陷,熙命將士:「毋得先登,俟剗平其城,朕與皇后乘輦而入。」由是城中得嚴備,不克而還。

4. It was earlier mentioned that Goguryeo had attacked Yan. The Heavenly King of Yan, Murong Xi, led a campaign against them in response. On the day Wushen (March 12th), his forces were attacking Goguryeo's city of Liaodong. They had actually breached the walls, but Murong Xi ordered his generals and soldiers, "Do not rush into the breach. First flatten the walls to the ground, so that I and the Empress may enter the city in our carriage." This gave the defenders of the city enough time to repair their defenses, and the Yan army could no longer take the city, so they returned.

〈後齊高緯之攻晉州,亦若是矣。〉

(A similar episode happened in the life of Gao Wei of Northern Qi, when he was attacking Jinzhou.)


熙伐高句驪,以苻氏從,為沖車地道以攻遼東。熙曰:「待剗平寇城,朕當與後乘輦而入,不聽將士先登。」於是城內嚴備,攻之不能下。會大雨雪,士卒多死,乃引歸。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi campaigned against Goguryeo, and Lady Fu accompanied him. His troops used battering rams and tunnels to assault Goguryeo's city of Liaodong. Murong Xi ordered them, "First flatten the walls to the ground, so that I and the Empress may enter the city in our carriage. Do not rush into the breach." This gave the defenders of the city enough time to repair their defenses, and the Yan army could no longer take the city. Then heavy rain and snow broke out, and many of the soldiers died, so the army returned.


秦王興以鳩摩羅什爲國師,奉之如神,親帥羣臣及沙門聽羅什講佛經,又命羅什翻譯西域《經》、《論》三百餘卷,大營塔寺,沙門坐禪者常以千數。公卿以下皆奉佛,由是州郡化之,事佛者十室而九。

5. By this time, the Buddhist monk Kumarajiva had come to Chang'an. The Emperor of Qin, Yao Xing, appointed him as National Instructor and revered him like a god, and he personally led his ministers and sramana monks to come and listen to Kumarajiva lecture on the Buddhist sutras. He also ordered Kumarajiva to translate more than three hundred sutras and shastras of Buddhist teachings from the Western Reaches, and he built a great many pagodas and temples, which became filled with thousands of monks practicing meditation. Even Yao Xing's ministers, from his nobles and chief officials on down, began believing in Buddhism. The faith spread from the officials out through the provinces and commandaries, and before long nine-tenths of the population of Qin became Buddhist.

〈古之譯者傳四夷之言;今羅什翻夷言爲華言,故曰譯。〉〈禪,靜也,寂也。《傳燈錄》曰:禪有五:有凡夫禪,有外道禪,有小乘禪,有大乘禪,有最上乘禪。〉

(The old translations of Buddhist texts had transmitted the languages of the various foreign peoples. But Kumarajiva translated them into the Hua (ethnic Han) speech, thus these being called translations.

To meditate is to purify oneself or to seek tranquility. The Records of Buddhist Doctrine states, "There are five forms of meditation: the layman's meditation, the outer path meditation, and the meditations of the lesser vehicle, greater vehicle, and most high vehicle.")


十一月,鳩摩羅什至長安。七年正月,興如逍遙園,引諸沙門聽什說佛經。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the fourth year of Hongshi (402), in the eleventh month, Kumarajiva arrived at Chang'an. In the seventh year of Hongshi (405), the first month, Yao Xing went to the Xiaoyao Garden and brought in many sramana monks to listen to Kumarajiva lecture on the Buddhist sutras.

晉汝南太守趙策委守奔於興。興如趙逍園,引諸沙門于澄玄堂聽鳩摩羅什演說佛經。羅什通辯夏言,尋覽舊經,多有乘謬,不與胡本相應。興與羅什及沙門僧略、僧遷、道樹、僧睿、道坦、僧肇、曇順等八百餘人,更出大品,羅什持胡本,興執舊經,以相考校,其新文異舊者皆會於理義。續出諸經並諸論三百餘卷。今之新經皆羅什所譯。興既托意於佛道,公卿已下莫不欽附,沙門自遠而至者五千餘人。起浮圖於永貴裏,立波若台于中宮,沙門坐禪者恆有千數。州郡化之,事佛者十室而九矣。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Jin's Administrator of Runan, Zhao Ce, gave up his post and fled to Yao Xing.

Yao Xing went to the Xiaoyao Garden, where he brought the sramana monks into the Xuantang Hall to have them listen to Kumarajiva lecture on the Buddhist sutras. Kumarajiva was adept at the Xia (ethnic Han) language, and when he reviewed the past translations of the sutras into the Xia language, he saw that there had been many errors made, not corresponding to the original intentions of the foreign authors. So he and Yao Xing begin making new translations of the sutras, along with more than eight hundred monks, including Senglue, Sengqian, Daoshu, Senri, Daotan, Sengzhao, and Tanshun. Kumarajiva would hold the foreign original texts while Yao Xing held the old translations, and through careful review and revisions, they brought the translated sutras back in line with the proper meanings of the originals. Through this process, they produced more than three hundred sutras and shastras. And the new sutras of our own (Tang dynasty) era were all translated by Kumarajiva. Yao Xing thus put his faith in Buddhism, and not a one of his ministers, from the chief nobles on down, failed to admire and gravitate towards Buddhism as well. More than five thousand monks came from distant places to Chang'an as well. Yao Xing raised a floating garden in the Honored Pool and established the Poluo Terrace within the palace, which became filled with thousands of monks practicing meditation. The faith spread from the officials out through the provinces and commandaries, and before long nine-tenths of the population of Qin became Buddhist.


乞伏乾歸擊吐谷渾大孩,大破之,俘萬餘口而還;大孩走死胡園。視羆世子樹洛干帥其餘衆數千家奔莫何川,自稱車騎大將軍、大單于、吐谷渾王。樹洛干輕傜薄賦,信賞必罰,吐谷渾復興,沙、漒諸戎皆附之。

6. Qifu Gangui attacked Murong Dahai of the Tuyuhun people and greatly routed him, capturing more than ten thousand of his people before returning to his territory. Murong Dahai fled, and died at Huyuan.

Murong Shipi's eldest son Murong Shuluogan led several thousand of his remaining families to flee to Mohechuan, where he declared himself Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Grand Chanyu, and King of the Tuyuhun. Murong Shuluogan lightened corvee labor demands and lowered taxes, and he made sure to reward the deserving and punish the guilty. So the Tuyuhun state recovered, and all the tribal peoples of the Sha and Jiang areas adhered to them.

〈《晉書‧吐谷渾傳》:吐谷渾王烏紇堤,一名大孩。「胡園」作「胡國」。〉〈莫何川在西傾山東北。西傾,亦名嵹臺山。〉〈段國曰:澆河郡西南一百七十里有黃沙,南北一百二十里,東西七十里,西極大楊川,望之若人委糒糠於地,不生草木,蕩然黃沙,周迴數百里。洮水出嵹臺山東北,逕吐谷渾中。自洮、嵹南北三百里中,地草皆是龍鬚,而無樵柴,謂之嵹川。嵹,渠良翻。〉

(According to the Account of the Tuyuhun in the Book of Jin, the King of the Tuyuhun, Murong Wuhedi, was also known as Murong Dahai. It also writes "Hu 園 Yuan" as "Hu 國 Guo" (that is, it could be interpreted as "Murong Dahai fled to a barbarian state").

Mohechuan was northeast of Mount Xiqing, also known as Mount Jiangtai.

Regarding Sha and Jiang, Duan Guo remarked, "There is a place called Huangsha ('Yellow Sands') a hundred and seventy li southwest of Huanghe commandary. It stretches for a hundred and twenty li from north to south and seventy li from east to west, with its western extremity at Dayangchuan. The whole place looks as though it had been picked clean; no grasses or trees grow there, for the area is covered by shifting sands which blow about for several hundred li." And, "The Tao River emerges northeast of Mount Jiangtai, and passes through the domain of the Tuyuhun. All vegetation in that region, for three hundred li north and south of the Tao River and Mount Jiangtai, is shaped like dragon whiskers, and there is no kindling or firewood to be found. The area is called Jiangchuan." The first character of Jiangtai, 嵹, is pronounced "qiang (q-iang)".)


十八年正月,乾歸至自長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the eighteenth year of Taichu (405), the first month, Qifu Gangui returned from Chang'an.

又破吐谷渾將大孩,俘獲萬餘人而還。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui also routed Murong Dahai of the Tuyuhun people and capturing more than ten thousand of his people before returning.


西涼公暠自稱大將軍、大都督、領秦‧涼二州牧,大赦,改元建初,遣舍人黃始、梁興間行奉表詣建康。

7. The Duke of Western Liang, Li Gao, declared himself Grand General, Grand Commander, and acting Governor of Qinzhou and Liangzhou. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed his reign era title to the first year of Jianchu. He sent his retainers Huang Shi and Liang Xing to take back roads to bring a petition to the Jin court at Jiankang.

是歲,涼武昭王玄盛遣使奉表稱籓。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During this year (405), Li Gao sent envoys to present a petition to the court declaring his vassalage to Jin.


二月,丁巳,留臺備法駕迎帝於江陵,劉毅、劉道規留屯夏口,何無忌奉帝東還。

8. In the second month, on the day Dingsi (March 21st), a Provisional Administration was prepared to welcome Emperor An at Jiangling. Liu Yi and Liu Daogui remained camped at Xiakou, while He Wuji brought Emperor An back east.

二月丁巳,留臺備乘輿法駕,迎帝于江陵。弘農太守戴寧之、建威主簿徐惠子等謀反,伏誅。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second month, on the day Dingsi (March 21st), a Provisional Administration was prepared to welcome Emperor An at Jiangling.

The Administrator of Hongnong, Dai Ningzhi, the Registrar to the General Who Establishes Might, Xu Huizi, and others plotted rebellion. They were summarily executed.

無忌翼衛天子還京師,道規留夏口。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

He Wuji escorted and protected Emperor An as he brought him back to the capital, while Liu Daogui remained behind at Xiakou.

無忌侍衛安帝還京師。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji escorted and protected Emperor An as he brought him back to the capital.


初,毛璩聞桓振陷江陵,帥衆三萬順流東下,將討之,使其弟西夷校尉瑾、蜀郡太守瑗出外水,參軍巴西譙縱、侯暉出涪水。蜀人不樂遠征,暉至五城水口,與巴西陽昩謀作亂。縱爲人和謹,蜀人愛之,暉、昩共逼縱爲主。縱不可,走投于水;引出,以兵逼縱登輿。縱又投地,叩頭固辭,暉縛縱於輿。還,襲毛瑾於涪城,殺之,推縱爲梁、秦二州刺史。璩至略城,聞變,奔還成都,遣參軍王瓊將兵討之,爲縱弟明子所敗,死者什八九。益州營戶李騰開城納縱兵,殺璩及弟瑗,滅其家。縱稱成都王,以明子爲巴州刺史,屯白帝。於是蜀大亂,漢中空虛,氐王楊盛遣其兄子平南將軍撫據之。

9. Earlier, when Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, had heard that Huan Zhen had taken Jiangling, he had led thirty thousand soldiers east downriver, planning to campaign against him. He had also sent the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, his younger brother Mao Jin, and the Administrator of Shu commandary, his younger brother Mao Yuan, to march out along the outer river, while sending his Army Advisors, Qiao Zong of Baxi commandary and Hou Hui, to march out along the Fu River.

But the people of the Shu region were not pleased at being sent on such a distant campaign. So when Hou Hui's army arrived at the river mouth at Wucheng, he and Yang Mo of Baxi commandary plotted rebellion. Since Qiao Zong was an agreeable and sincere person, the people of the Shu region loved him, so Hou Hui and Yang Mo forced him to be the leader of their rebellion. Qiao Zong did not want to go along with it, and he threw himself into the river, but they fished him back out and had the soldiers force him to mount a carriage. Qiao Zong then threw himself to the ground and kowtowed, begging not to participate in the rebellion, but Hou Hui simply had him tied to the carriage.

Then Hou Hui's army turned back towards the Shu region. They launched a surprise attack against Mao Jin at Fucheng and killed him. Then they acclaimed Qiao Zong as Inspector of Lianzhou and Qinzhou. By the time Mao Qu arrived at Luecheng, he heard about the rebellion, so he fled back to Chengdu. He sent his Army Advisor, Wang Qiong, to lead troops to campaign against the rebels. But Wang Qiong was defeated by Qiao Zong's younger brother Qiao Mingzi, and eighty to ninety percent of his soldiers were killed. The Camp Overseer of Yizhou, Li Teng, opened the gates of Chengdu and welcomed in Qiao Zong's soldiers, who killed Mao Qu and Mao Yuan and exterminated his family. Qiao Zong was declared King of Chengdu; he appointed Qiao Mingzi as Inspector of Bazhou, and he camped at Baidi.

Thanks to this great turmoil in the Shu region, Hanzhong was left barren and empty. The King of the Di people of Chouchi, Yang Sheng, sent his General Who Pacifies The South, his nephew Yang Fu, to occupy Hanzhong.

〈蜀有內水、外水。內水,涪水也;外水,卽蜀江發源於岷山者。〉〈《水經註》:涪水自南安郡南流,其枝流西逕廣漢五城縣爲五城水,又西至成都入于江。又曰:江水東絕綿、洛,逕五城界至廣都北岸,南入于江,謂之五城水口,斯爲北江。沈約《宋志》:五城縣屬廣漢郡,晉武帝咸寧四年立。《華陽國志》云:漢時立倉,發五縣人,尉部主之,晉因立五城縣,在五城山。按《五代志》,蜀郡玄武縣,舊曰伍城。玄武縣,唐屬梓州。〉〈昩,莫葛翻。〉〈據《晉書‧毛璩傳》,略城去成都四百里。〉〈民有流離逃叛分配軍營者爲營戶。〉

(In the Shu region, it was common to speak of the "inner river" and the "outer river". The "inner river" was the Fu River; the "outer river" was the origin of the Yangzi in the Shu region in the Min Mountains.

Regarding Wucheng, the Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Fu River flows south from Nan'an commandary. One fork of the river flows west, where, passing through Wucheng county in Guanghan commandary, it becomes the Wucheng River. From there, it continues west until it reaches Chengdu, where it enters the Yangzi." And, "The Yangzi to the east cuts off the Mian and Luo Rivers, passing through the area of Wucheng until it reaches the northern banks at Guangdu, where to the south it enters the Yangzi; this place is called the rivermouth at Wucheng, this area being north of the Yangzi." The Book of Liu-Song states, "Wucheng county is part of Guanghan commandary; it was established in Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) fourth year of Xianning (278)." The Huayang Guozhi states, "During the Han era, a granary was established in this area which provided for the people of five counties, with a Commandant being appointed to oversee it. During Jin, a Wucheng county was established here, at Mount Wucheng." And according to the Records of the Five Dynasties, Xuanwu county in Shu commandary was formerly called Wucheng. During Tang, this Xuanwu county was part of Zizhou.

Yang Mo's given name 昩 is pronounced "me (m-e)".

According to the Biography of Mao Qu in the Book of Jin, Luecheng was four hundred li from Chengdu.

A Camp Overseer was appointed to supervise those of the common people who had become refugees or had fled rebellion and had then been assigned to military camps.)


平西參軍譙縱害平西將軍、益州刺史毛璩,以蜀叛。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The West, Qiao Zong, killed the General Who Pacifies The West and Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu, and led the Shu region in rebellion.

譙縱,巴西南充人也。祖獻之,有重名於西土。縱少而謹慎,蜀人愛之。為安西府參軍。義熙元年,刺史遣縱及侯暉等領諸縣氐進兵東下。暉有貳志,因梁州人不樂東也,將圖益州刺史毛璩,與巴西陽昧結謀于五城水口,共逼縱為主。縱懼而不當,走投于水,暉引出而請之,至於再三,遂以兵逼縱於輿上。攻璩弟西夷校尉瑾于涪城,城陷,瑾死之,縱乃自號梁、秦二州刺史。璩聞縱反,自略城步還成都,遣參軍王瓊率三千人討縱,又遣弟瑗領四千兵繼瓊後進。縱遣弟明子及暉距瓊於廣漢,瓊擊破暉等,追至綿竹。明子設二伏以待之,大敗瓊眾,死者十八九。益州營戶李騰開城以納縱。毛璩既死,縱以從弟洪為益州刺史,明子為鎮東將軍、巴州刺史,率其眾五千人屯白帝,自稱成都王。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

Qiao Zong was a native of Nanchong county in Baxi commandary. His grandfather was Qiao Xianzhi, who enjoyed a weighty reputation in the west. Even as a youth, Qiao Zong was diligent and careful, and the people of the Shu region loved him. He was employed as an Army Advisor on the staff of the General Who Maintains The West.

In the first year of Yixi (405), the Inspector sent Qiao Zong, Hou Hui, and others to lead the soldiers of the various counties and of the Di tribes to advance east downriver. But Hou Hui had sinister designs, and taking advantage of the discontent among the people of Lianzhou at the prospect of this eastern campaign, he was plotting to move against the Inspector of Yizhou, Mao Qu. At Wuchengshuikou, he and Yang Mei of Baxi commandary hatched their plot, and they forced Qiao Zong to serve as their leader. Qiao Zong was afraid and did not want to do so, and he ran and threw himself into the river. But Hou Hui fished him out and asked him to lead them. When Qiao Zong repeated this behavior twice more, the others eventually had their soldiers force Qiao Zong to be tied to a carriage.

The rebels attacked the Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Mao Qu's younger brother Mao Jin, at Fucheng. The city fell, and Mao Jin died there. Qiao Zong then declared himself Inspector of Lianzhou and Qinzhou. When Mao Qu heard that Qiao Zong had rebelled, he marched back from Luecheng to Chengdu. He sent his Army Advisor, Wang Qiong, to lead three thousand soldiers to campaign against Qiao Zong, and he sent his younger brother Mao Yuan with another four thousand soldiers to follow behind as reserves. But Qiao Zong sent his younger brother Qiao Mingzi and Hou Hui to oppose Wang Qiong at Guanghan. Wang Qiong attacked and routed Hou Hui and others, and he pursued them as far as Mianzhu. But Qiao Mingzi had prepared two ambushes to lie in wait, and they greatly defeated Wang Qiong's army, killing eighty to ninety percent of his troops.

The Camp Overseer of Yizhou, Li Teng, opened the gates of Chengdu and welcomed in Qiao Zong's soldiers.

After Mao Qu died, Qiao Zong appointed his cousin Qiao Hong as Inspector of Yizhou, and he appointed Qiao Mingzi as General Who Guards The East and Inspector of Bazhou. He led an army of five thousand soldiers to camp at Baidi, and declared himself King of Chengdu.


癸亥,魏主珪還自豺山,罷尚書三十六曹。

10. On the day Guihai (March 27th), Tuoba Gui returned from Mount Chai.

It was earlier mentioned that Tuoba Gui had appointed the Thirty-Six Bureaus of the Masters of Writing. But at this time, he abolished these Bureaus.

〈魏三十六曹始見於一百九卷隆安元年。〉

(Northern Wei's original creation of these Bureaus is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.9).)


二年春二月癸亥,車駕還宮。夏四月,車駕有事于西郊,車旗盡黑。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second year of Tianci (405), in spring, the second month, on the day Guihai (March 27th), Tuoba Gui returned to the capital.

In summer, the fourth month, Tuoba Gui had some incident at the western suburbs of the capital. The banners of his carriage were all black.


三月,桓振自鄖城襲江陵,荊州刺史司馬休之戰敗,奔襄陽,振自稱荊州刺史。建威將軍劉懷肅自雲杜引兵馳赴,與振戰於沙橋;劉毅遣廣武將軍唐興助之,臨陳斬振,復取江陵。

11. In the third month, Huan Zhen came from Yuncheng to launch a surprise attack against Jiangling. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, was defeated in battle, and he fled to Xiangyang. Huan Zhen declared himself Inspector of Jingzhou. But then the General Who Establishes Might, Liu Huaisu, led troops from Yundu to reinforce Jiangling, and he fought Huan Zhen at Sha Bridge. Liu Yi sent the General of Broad Valor, Tang Xing, to help him, and they took Huan Zhen's head in the midst of battle, then reclaimed Jiangling.

〈杜預曰:江夏雲杜縣東南有鄖城,古鄖子之國。振先逃于溳川,鄖城蓋在溳川也。〉〈沙橋在江陵城北。〉

(Du Yu remarked, "There is a city of Yuncheng in the southeast of Yundu county in Jiangxia commandary; it was once the fief of the Viscount of Yun." Considering that Huan Zhen had earlier fled to Yunchuan, Yuncheng must have been at that area.

Sha Bridge was north of the walls of Jiangling.)


三月,桓振復襲江陵,荊州刺史司馬休之奔于襄陽。建威將軍劉懷肅討振,斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, Huan Zhen once again launched a surprise attack against Jiangling. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, fled to Xiangyang. But then the General Who Establishes Might, Liu Huaisu, campaigned against Huan Zhen and took his head.

三月,桓振復襲江陵,荊州刺史司馬休之出奔,懷肅自雲杜馳赴,日夜兼行,七日而至。振勒兵三萬,旗幟蔽野,躍馬橫矛,躬自突陳。流矢傷懷肅額,眾懼欲奔,懷肅瞋目奮戰,士氣益壯。於是士卒爭先,臨陣斬振首。江陵既平,休之反鎮,執懷肅手曰:「微子之力,吾無所歸矣。」偽輔國將軍符嗣、馬孫、偽龍驤將軍金符青、樂志等屯結江夏,懷肅又討之,梟樂志等。道規加懷肅督江夏九郡,權鎮夏口。除通直郎。仍為輔國將軍、淮南、歷陽二郡太守。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

In the third month, Huan Zhen once again launched a surprise attack against Jiangling. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Sima Xiuzhi, fled. But Liu Huaisu hurried from Yundu to reinforce Jiangling, traveling day and night, and he arrived after seven days.

Huan Zhen commanded an army of thirty thousand, and his banners and flags covered the field; he rode his horse and grasped his lance as he personally charged through the enemy formations. Liu Huaisu was injured in the forehead by a stray arrow, and his soldiers became afraid and wanted to flee. But Liu Huaisu only glared his eyes and rushed back into the fighting, and this embolded his soldiers again. His soldiers all rushed to be first into battle, and in the midst of the fighting they took Huan Zhen's head.

After Jiangling had been pacified and Sima Xiuzhi returned, he took Liu Huaisu by the hand and told him, "Sir, if it had not been for your strength, I never could have returned."

The false Generals Who Upholds The State, Fu Si and Ma Sun, the false Dragon-Soaring Generals, Jin Fuqing and Yue Zhi, and others were camped around Jiangxia. Liu Huaisu campaigned against them as well, and he took the heads of Yue Zhi and others. Liu Daogui promoted Liu Huaisu to be Commander of nine commandaries, including Jiangxia, and stationed him at Xiakou. He was soon transferred to be a Gentleman With Direct Access, then later appointed as General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Huainan and Liyang.

桓振復與苻宏自鄖城襲陷江陵,與劉懷肅相持。毅遣部將擊振,殺之,並斬偽輔將軍桓珍。毅又攻拔遷陵,斬玄太守劉叔祖于臨幛。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Huan Zhen and Fu Hong came from Yuncheng to once again launch a surprise attack against Jiangling, and they became locked in stalemate with Liu Huaisu. Liu Yi sent a subordinate general to attack Huan Zhen, who was killed, along with the rebel general Huan Zhēn.

Liu Yi also attacked and took Bianling, and he beheaded the Administrator that Huan Xuan had appointed there, Liu Shuzu, in front of his banner.


甲午,帝至建康。乙未,百官詣闕請罪,詔令復職。

12. On the day Jiawu (April 27th), Emperor An arrived at Jiankang. On the day Yiwei (April 28th), the government ministers presented themselves at the palace gates to admit their faults. An edict was issued restoring them to their original positions.

帝至自江陵。乙未,百官詣闕請罪。詔曰:「此非諸卿之過,其還率職。」戊戌,舉章皇后哀三日,臨于西堂。劉裕及何無忌等抗表遜位,不許。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Emperor An arrived from Jiangling. On the day Yiwei (April 28th), the government ministers presented themselves at the palace gates to admit their faults. Emperor An issued an edict stating, "The fault was not with you gentlemen; return to your original offices."

On the day Wuxu (May 1st), Emperor An led three days of mourning for the late Empress, presiding at the Western Hall.

Liu Yu, He Wuji, and others submitted petitions offering to resign their posts, but Emperor An declined.


尚書殷仲文以朝廷音樂未備,言於劉裕,請治之。裕曰:「今日不暇給,且性所不解。」仲文曰:「好之自解。」裕曰:「正以解則好之,故不習耳。」

13. One of the Masters of Writing, Yin Zhongwen, felt that the court music had not yet been properly prepared. He mentioned the matter to Liu Yu and asked him to deal with it.

Liu Yu replied, "I have no free time to handle that. Besides, I don't have the nature to understand such things."

Yin Zhongwen said, "You would understand it if you enjoyed it."

Liu Yu replied, "It's through understanding something that I enjoy it; that's why I don't practice it."

〈英雄之言,政自度越常流;世之嗜音者,可以自省矣。〉

(According to such heroic words, governance comes from the common and the regular; it is through established and familiar tunes that one can examine oneself.)


庚子,以琅邪王德文爲大司馬,武陵王遵爲太保,劉裕爲侍中、車騎將軍、都督中外諸軍事,徐、青二州刺史如故,劉毅爲左將軍,何無忌爲右將軍、督豫州‧揚州五郡軍事、豫州刺史,劉道規爲輔國將軍、督淮北諸軍事、幷州刺史,魏詠之爲征虜將軍、吳國內史。裕固讓不受;加錄尚書事,又不受,屢請歸藩。詔百官敦勸,帝親幸其第;裕惶懼,復詣闕陳請,乃聽歸藩。以魏詠之爲荊州刺史,代司馬休之。

14. On the day Gengzi (May 3rd), the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, was appointed as Grand Marshal. The Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, was appointed as Grand Guardian.

Liu Yu was appointed as Palace Attendant, General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Commander of all military affairs, while maintaining his positions as Inspector of Xuzhou and Qingzhou. Liu Yi was appointed as General of the Left. He Wuji was appointed as General of the Right, Commander of military affairs in five commandaries in Yuzhou and Yangzhou, and Inspector of Yuzhou. Liu Daogui was appointed as General Who Upholds The State, Commander of military affairs north of the Huai River, and Inspector of Bingzhou. Wei Yongzhi was appointed as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Interior Minister of the Wu princely fief.

But Liu Yu forcefully declined his promotions and would not accept them, and even when he was appointed as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, he would not accept that either. He repeatedly asked to be allowed to return to his border post. An edict was issued commanding the government officials to urge Liu Yu, and Emperor An even personally visited his residence. But Liu Yu, quite frightened, once again visited the palace and repeated his request. So Emperor An eventually agreed, and Liu Yu went back to his post.

Wei Yongzhi was appointed as Inspector of Jingzhou to replace Sima Xiuzhi.

〈歸藩,歸京口也。〉

(Liu Yu's "border post" was his post at Jingkou.)


庚子,以琅邪王德文爲大司馬,武陵王遵爲太保,加鎮軍將軍劉裕爲侍中、車騎將軍、都督中外諸軍事。甲辰,詔曰:「自頃國難之後,人物凋殘,常所供奉,猶不改舊,豈所以視人如傷,禹湯歸過之誡哉!可籌量減省。」(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengzi (May 3rd), the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, was appointed as Grand Marshal. The Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, was appointed as Grand Guardian. The General Who Guards The Army, Liu Yu, was appointed as Palace Attendant, General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Commander of all military affairs.

On the day Jiachen (May 7th), Emperor An issued a decree stating, "The people and products of the state have been exhausted ever since the outbreak of troubles in the state. Yet the usual demands upon the people have not been changed from their original levels. How can I look upon the people, suffering as they have, and require more from them than the old warnings of Yu (Shun) and Tang (Yu) described? Let such demands be reduced or abolished."

江陵之平也,道規推毅為元功,無忌為次功,自居其末。進號輔國將軍、督淮北諸軍事、并州刺史,義昌太守如故。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Daogui acclaimed Liu Yi as the one most responsible for having taken Jiangling, with He Wuji being next after him, and Liu Daogui following behind them. He was promoted as General Who Upholds The State, Commander of military affairs north of the Huai River, and Inspector of Bingzhou, while keeping his original position as Inspector of Yichang.

以無忌督豫州揚州淮南廬江安豐曆陽堂邑五郡軍事、右將軍、豫州刺史、加節,甲仗五十人入殿,未之職。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji was appointed as Commander of military affairs in five commandaries in Yuzhou and Yangzhou: Huainan, Lujiang, Anfeng, Liyang, and Tangyi. He was also appointed as General of the Right and Inspector of Yuzhou, and he was granted a Staff of Authority and fifty armed and armored soldiers who would escort him into the palace. However, he did not actually go to his post.


初,劉毅嘗爲劉敬宣寧朔參軍,時人或以雄傑許之。敬宣曰:「夫非常之才自有調度,豈得便謂此君爲人豪邪!此君之性,外寬而內忌,自伐而尚人,若一旦遭遇,亦當以陵上取禍耳。」毅聞而恨之。及敬宣爲江州;辭以無功,不宜授任先於毅等,裕不許。毅使人言於裕曰:「劉敬宣不豫建義。猛將勞臣,方須敍報,如敬宣之比,宜令在後。若使君不忘平生,正可爲員外常侍耳。聞已授郡,實爲過優;尋復爲江州,尤用駭惋。」敬宣愈不自安,自表解職,乃召還爲宣城內史。

15. Sometime earlier, Liu Yi had originally been an Army Advisor serving under Liu Jingxuan during his time as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier. At that time, someone had praised Liu Yi as a talented hero. Liu Jingxuan had replied, "Even a talented fellow must practice self-control, much less someone like that man, so how can you esteem him so! I know his nature; he is outwardly magnanimous but inwardly suspicious, boastful of himself though he honors others. And if I have to deal with him, that would merely be adding insult to injury." When Liu Yi had heard about this comment, he resented Liu Jingxuan.

Later, when Liu Jingxuan was appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou, he had attempted to decline the appointment by stating that he had performed no achievements worthy of it, and he did not want to be granted such an office ahead of Liu Yi and the other loyalist commanders. But Liu Yu had not permitted him to decline. And indeed, Liu Yi had sent someone to convey his thoughts to Liu Yu: "Liu Jingxuan took no part in our righteous uprising. There are fierce generals and accomplished ministers who are still waiting to be granted their deserved rewards, and someone like Liu Jingxuan ought to wait his turn. Commissioner, if this were only a matter of remembering your old regard for your friend, you could have simply appointed him as a Regular Attendant Without Assignment. It was bad enough when I heard that he had been granted a commandary, for that is truly going too far for a favorite. Now he has even been appointed in charge of Jiangzhou, and that is even more astonishing."

For these reasons, Liu Jingxuan had been even more uncertain about his position, and he wrote a petition asking to be relieved of his post as Inspector of Jiangzhou. So he was summoned back again, and appointed as Interior Minister of Xuancheng.

〈劉敬宣爲寧朔將軍,毅爲參軍。〉〈敬宣之論毅,其知之固審矣,然幾以此掇禍;聖人包周身之防,正爲是耳。〉〈裕參劉牢之軍事,牢之父子雅敬待之,故云然。〉〈員外散騎常侍,魏末置。〉〈敬宣自北來歸,裕以爲晉陵太守。〉

(When Liu Jingxuan had been General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Liu Yi had been his Army Advisor.

Judging by Liu Jingxuan's comment, he understood Liu Yi's temperament quite well. Yet he nearly courted disaster for himself by expressing his thoughts as he did. The ancient sages spoke of "protecting the entire self"; this is precisely what they meant.

When Liu Yu had served on Liu Laozhi's staff, Liu Laozhi and Liu Jingxuan had both treated him with courtesy and respect. This was why Liu Yi suggested that Liu Yu had a personal motive for his appointments of Liu Jingxuan.

The office of Cavalier In Regular Attendance Without Assignment had been created near the end of the Cao-Wei dynasty.

After Liu Jingxuan had returned from his exile in the north, Liu Yu had originally appointed him as Administrator of Jinling.)


初,劉毅之少也,為敬宣寧朔參軍。時人或以雄傑許之,敬宣曰:「夫非常之才,當別有調度,豈得便謂此君為人豪邪?其性外寬而內忌,自伐而尚人,若一旦遭逢,亦當以陵上取禍耳。」毅聞之,深以為恨。及在江陵,知敬宣還,乃使人言於高祖曰:「劉敬宣父子,忠國既昧,今又不豫義始。猛將勞臣,方須敘報,如敬宣之比,宜令在後。若使君不忘平生,欲相申起者,論資語事,正可為員外常侍耳。聞已授其郡,實為過優;尋知復為江州,尤所駭惋。」敬宣愈不自安。安帝反正,自表解職。於是散徹,賜給宅宇,月給錢三十萬。高祖數引與遊宴,恩款周洽,所賜錢帛車馬及器服玩好,莫與比焉。尋除冠軍將軍、宣城內史、襄城太守。宣城多山縣,郡舊立屯以供府郡費用,前人多發調工巧,造作器物。敬宣到郡,悉罷私屯,唯伐竹木,治府舍而已。亡叛多首出,遂得三千餘戶。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Many years earlier, when Liu Yi had still been a young man, he had originally been an Army Advisor serving under Liu Jingxuan during his time as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier. At that time, someone had praised Liu Yi as a talented hero. Liu Jingxuan had replied, "Even a talented fellow must practice self-control, much less someone like that man, so how can you esteem him so! I know his nature; he is outwardly magnanimous but inwardly suspicious, boastful of himself though he honors others. And if I have to deal with him, that would merely be adding insult to injury." When Liu Yi had heard about this comment, he had deeply resented Liu Jingxuan.

After Liu Yi arrived at Jiangling, he heard that Liu Jingxuan had returned from exile. He sent someone to convey his thoughts to Liu Yu: "Liu Jingxuan and his father failed in their loyalty to the state, and he took no part in the beginning of our righteous uprising. There are fierce generals and accomplished ministers who are still waiting to be granted their deserved rewards, and someone like Liu Jingxuan ought to wait his turn. Commissioner, if this were only a matter of remembering your old regard for your friend and granting him some position, then based on his worth and the circumstances, you could have simply appointed him as a Regular Attendant Without Assignment. It was bad enough when I heard that he had been granted a commandary, for that is truly going too far for a favorite. Now he has even been appointed in charge of Jiangzhou, and that is even more astonishing."

For these reasons, Liu Jingxuan became even more uncertain about his position, and after Emperor An was restored to the throne, he wrote a petition asking to be relieved of his post as Inspector of Jiangzhou. So he came back to the capital, where he was treated with special favor: he was given his own residence to live in and provided with three hundred thousand money every month. Liu Yu was always bringing Liu Jingxuan along to feasts and trips with him, and his grace and sincerity towards Liu Jingxuan was total; he gave him money, silks, horses and carriages, and fine clothes and wondrous things. No one else was treated so well.

Not long afterwards, Liu Jingxuan was appointed as Champion General, Interior Minister of Xuancheng, and Administrator of Xiangcheng. There were many mountainous counties in Xuancheng, and the previous Administrators there had established labor camps in order to provide funds and resources for the commandary staff office. Many of the past residents had been shifted and moved around in order to work on projects and create various things. But when Liu Jingxuan arrived at the commandary, he abolished all of the private camps, only maintaining what was necessary for gathering bamboo and wood and for keeping the staff office running. Many people who had fled from government control or rebelled against it thus came back to their former lives, so the public rolls expanded by more than three thousand households.

安帝反政,徵拜冠軍將軍、宣城內史,領襄城太守。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

After Emperor An was restored to the throne, Liu Jingxuan was summoned back to the capital and appointed as Champion General, Interior Minister of Xuancheng, and acting Administrator of Xiangcheng.


夏,四月,劉裕旋鎭京口,改授都督荊、司等十六州諸軍事,加領兗州刺史。

16. In summer, the fourth month, Liu Yu returned to his post at Jingkou. He was appointed as Commander of military affairs in sixteen provinces, including Jingzhou and Sizhou, and as acting Inspector of Yanzhou.

夏四月,劉裕旋鎮京口。戊辰,餞于東堂。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, Liu Yu returned to his post at Jingkou. On the day Wuchen (May 31st), a farewell banquet was held in the Eastern Hall.


盧循遣使貢獻。時朝廷新定,未暇征討;壬申,以循爲廣州刺史,徐道覆爲始興相。循遺劉裕益智粽,裕報以續命湯。

17. It was earlier mentioned that the rebel leader Lu Xun had pillaged and occupied Guangzhou. At this time, he sent envoys to the Jin court offering tribute. The court felt that, since they had only just restored peace, they were not yet in a position to launch a campaign to dislodge Lu Xun. So on the day Renshen (June 4th), they appointed Lu Xun as Inspector of Guangzhou and his subordinate Xu Daofu as Chancellor of Shixing.

Lu Xun sent Liu Yu some dumplings made of galangal. Liu Yu sent him back some lifesaver soup.

〈《本草》曰:益智子生崑崙國,今嶺南州郡往往有之。顧微《交州記》曰:益智葉如蘘荷,莖如竹箭,子從心出,一枝有十子,子肉白滑,四破去之,密煮爲粽,味辛。〉〈循以益智調裕,裕以續命報之,此雖淺陋,亦兵機也。〉

(The Records of Roots and Grasses states, "The galangal seed grows in the state of Kunlun, and in our time, the provinces and commandaries south of the mountain ranges often have it as well." Gu Wei's Records of Jiaozhou states, "The galangal plant has leaves like the mioga ginger plant and a stem like a bamboo shoot. It sprouts from the heart out, and each branch has ten buds. The flesh of its buds is white and slick, and flows out on every side when smashed. It can be packed into a dumpling cake, and it has a hot and pungent taste."

Lu Xun sent Liu Yu galangal dumplings, while Liu Yu sent Lu Xun some lifesaver soup; though this seemed like a meager exchange, it was also a military strategy.)


遣使獻貢。時朝廷新誅桓氏,中外多虞,乃權假循征虜將軍、廣州刺史、平越中郎將。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Lu Xun)

Lu Xun sent envoys to the Jin court offering tribute. The court felt that, since they had only just executed the Huan clan and there were still many other threats both within the state and on the borders to deal with, they were not yet in a position to launch a campaign to dislodge Lu Xun. So they appointed Lu Xun as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Inspector of Guangzhou, and General of the Household Gentlemen Who Pacifies The Yue Tribes.


循以前琅邪內史王誕爲平南長史。誕說循曰:「誕本非戎旅,在此無用;素爲劉鎭軍所厚,若得北歸,必蒙寄任,公私際會,仰答厚恩。」循甚然之。劉裕與循書,令遣吳隱之還,循不從。誕復說循曰:「將軍今留吳公,公私非計。孫伯符豈不欲留華子魚邪?但以一境不容二君耳。」於是循遣隱之與誕俱還。

18. Lu Xun appointed the former Interior Minister of Langye, Wang Dan, as his Chief Clerk in his capacity as General Who Pacifies The South. Wang Dan advised Lu Xun, "I am no native of this place, nor do I have any experience among the tribes; I would be of no use to you here. On the other hand, I have long received the favor of General Liu. So if you allowed me to return north, he would surely grant me a trusted role. That would serve both my interests and yours, and I would be in a position to repay your favor and grace as well." Lu Xun deeply agreed with this reasoning.

At the same time, Liu Yu had sent Lu Xun a letter ordering him to send Wu Yinzhi, whom he had earlier captured, back to the capital. Lu Xun did not want to do so. But Wang Dan further advised him, "General, if you keep Lord Wu here, that will not serve anyone's interests. Consider Sun Bofu (Sun Ce); after he captured Hua Ziyu (Hua Xin), didn't he also wish to keep him for himself? But, as they say, one land cannot have two rulers."

So Lu Xun sent both Wang Dan and Wu Yinzhi back to the capital.

〈王氏,江南衣冠稱首,故云本非戎旅。〉〈元興元年,桓玄流王誕於嶺南。二年,盧循破廣州,虜吳隱之,誕幷沒於循所。漢獻帝建安四年,華歆以豫章歸孫策;策死,曹操表召歆,孫權遣還許。〉

(The Wang clan considered themselves the chief ministerial family of the Southland (that is, the greater Yangzhou area); this was why Wang Dan said he had no experience among the tribal peoples living in Guangzhou.

In the first year of Yuanxing (402), after Huan Xuan had taken power in the capital, he had sent Wang Dan south of the mountain ranges (to Guangzhou). In the second year (403), when Lu Xun took Guangzhou and captured Wu Yinzhi, Wang Dan also fell into his grasp.

In Emperor Xian of Han's fourth year of Jian'an (199), Hua Xin surrendered Yuzhang commandary to Sun Ce. After Sun Ce's death (in 200), Cao Cao petitioned to have Hua Xin recalled to the capital, so Sun Quan sent him back to Xu (Xuchang).)


初,南燕主備德仕秦爲張掖太守,其兄納與母公孫氏居于張掖。備德之從秦王堅寇淮南也,留金刀與其母別。備德與燕王垂舉兵於山東,張掖太守苻昌收納及備德諸子,皆誅之,公孫氏以老獲免,納妻段氏方娠,未決。獄掾呼延平,備德之故吏也,竊以公孫氏及段氏逃于羌中。段氏生子超,十歲而公孫氏病,臨卒,以金刀授超曰:「汝得東歸,當以此刀還汝叔也。」呼延平又以超母子奔涼。及呂隆降秦,超隨涼州民徙長安。平卒,段氏爲超娶其女爲婦。

19. Years earlier, when the Emperor of Southern Yan, Murong Beide, had been serving as Former Qin's Administrator of Zhangye, his elder brother Murong Na and his mother Lady Gongsun had been living there with him. When Murong Beide had left Zhangye to accompany Fu Jian on his invasion of the Huainan region, he had left a golden knife with his mother when they said their farewells.

Then after Fu Jian's defeat at Fei River, Murong Beide had joined with Murong Chui to raise troops east of the mountains (in the old Yan territory). In response, Former Qin's new Administrator of Zhangye, Fu Chang, had arrested Murong Na and Murong Beide's sons at Zhangye and executed them all. Lady Gongsun had been spared because she was already very old by then. And Murong Na's wife, Lady Duan, was still pregnant, so no decision had been made as to her fate. So the two of them were left in jail. But the jailer, Huyan Ping, had once been Murong Beide's official, and he secretly took Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and fled to hide among the Qiang. Lady Duan then gave birth to her son, Murong Chao.

When Murong Chao was nine years old, Lady Gongsun became ill. Since she was near death, she gave the golden knife that Murong Beide had left her to Murong Chao and told him, "When you return east again, return this knife to your uncle."

Huyan Ping then took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to flee to Liangzhou. And after the former Heavenly King of Liang, Lü Long, surrendered to Qin and brought many households from Guzang to Chang'an, Murong Chao went with the people of Liangzhou to Chang'an as well.

After Huyan Ping passed away, Lady Duan had Murong Chao take his daughter as a wife.

〈事見一百二卷海西公太和五年。〉〈寇淮南見一百五卷孝武帝太元八年。〉〈秦徙涼州民事見上卷元興二年。〉

(Murong De's appointment as Former Qin's Administrator of Zhangye is mentioned in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (370.38).

Fu Jian's invasion of the Huainan region, which led to the battle of Fei River, is mentioned in Book 105, in Emperor Xiaowu's eighth year of Taiyuan (383).

Later Qin's relocation of the people of Liangzhou after Lü Long's surrender to them is mentioned in Book 113, in the second year of Yuanxing (403.13).)


超恐爲秦人所錄,乃陽狂行乞;秦人賤之,惟東平公紹見而異之,言於秦王興曰:「慕容超姿幹瓌偉,殆非眞狂,願微加官爵以縻之。」興召見,與語,超故爲謬對,或問而不答。興謂紹曰:「諺云『姸皮不裹癡骨』,徒妄語耳。」乃罷遣之。

20. Murong Chao was worried that he would be forced into service by Qin, so he acted insane and pretended to be a beggar. The people of Qin thus thought little of him. Only Qin's Duke of Dongping, Yao Shao, marveled at Murong Chao when he saw him, and he said to Yao Xing, "Murong Chao has a remarkable appearance and extraordinary talents; he cannot truly be insane. You should summon him and appoint him to some office in order to harness him."

So Yao Xing summoned Murong Chao to a meeting and spoke with him. But Murong Chao only made strange responses to his questions, and sometimes he did not answer at all. Yao Xing said to Yao Shao, "As the proverb goes, 'beautiful skin cannot conceal mad bones'. He speaks mere nonsense." So he let him go and sent him away.

〈錄,采也,收也。爲所收采,則不得歸南燕矣。〉

(Murong Chao was worried that Later Qin would 錄 him; this means to be plucked up or taken. If he had been pressed into service by Later Qin, he would not have been able to go to Southern Yan.)


備德聞納有遺腹子在秦,遣濟陰人吳辯往視之,辯因鄕人宗正謙賣卜在長安,以告超。超不敢告其母妻,潛與謙變姓名逃歸南燕。行至梁父,鎭南長史悅壽以告兗州刺史慕容法。法曰:「昔漢有卜者詐稱衞太子,今安知非此類也!」不禮之。超由是與法有隙。

21. When Murong Beide heard that Murong Na had had a posthumous son, and that this son was now in Qin, he sent a native of Jiyin commandary, Wu Bian, to go and seek him out. Wu Bian then had his fellow villager Zongzheng Qian go to Chang'an to act as a fortuneteller, so that he could inform Murong Chao. Murong Chao left immediately, not even daring to inform his mother or wife first, and secretly exchanged his identity with Zongzheng Qian in order to flee to Southern Yan.

When Murong Chao came to Liangfu, Southern Yan's Chief Clerk to the General Who Guards The South, Yue Shou, sent word to their Inspector of Yanzhou, Murong Fa. But Murong Fa said, "Back in the Han dynasty, there was a fortuneteller who claimed to be Crown Prince Wei (Emperor Wu's son Liu Ju). How do I know this isn't the same kind of fraud?" And he did not treat Murong Chao with respect. Murong Chao thus held a grudge against him.

〈宗正,以官爲氏。〉〈南燕以法爲兗州刺史,鎭梁父。〉〈見二十三卷漢昭帝始元五年。〉〈爲超立、法謀反張本。〉

(宗正 Zongzheng was originally the name of a government office, and later some people took it as their surname.

When Southern Yan had appointed Murong Fa as their Inspector of Yanzhou, he had been stationed at Liangfu.

The case of someone pretending to be the late Crown Prince Wei of Han is mentioned in Book 23, in Emperor Zhao of Han's fifth year of Shiyuan (82 BC).

This was why, after Murong Chao came to the throne, Murong Fa plotted against him.)


備德聞超至,大喜,遣騎三百迎之。超至廣固,以金刀獻於備德;備德慟哭,悲不自勝。封超爲北海王,拜侍中、驃騎大將軍、司隸校尉、開府,妙選時賢,爲之僚佐。備德無子,欲以超爲嗣。超入則侍奉盡歡,出則傾身下士,由是內外譽望翕然歸之。

22. When Murong Beide heard that Murong Chao had entered Southern Yan, he was overjoyed, and he sent three hundred riders to escort him. When Murong Chao arrived at Guanggu, he presented the golden knife to Murong Beide. Murong Beide was so stricken with sorrow that he could not control his grief.

Murong Beide appointed Murong Chao as Prince of Beihai, Palace Attendant, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and Colonel-Director of Retainers, and he granted him the privilege of a Separate Office. He also selected worthy people of the age to serve as Murong Chao's assistants.

Since Murong Beide himself had no sons, he wanted to make Murong Chao his heir. And since Murong Chao was fully attentive to Murong Beide inside the palace and did his utmost to help his subordinates outside, he won the respect of many people near and far.

五月,桂陽太守章武王秀及益州刺史司馬軌之謀反,伏誅。秀妻,桓振之妹也,故自疑而反。

23. In the fifth month, Jin's Administrator of Guiyang and Prince of Zhangwu, Sima Xiu, and the Inspector of Yizhou, Sima Guizhi, plotted rebellion. They were executed. Sima Xiu's wife had been Huan Zhen's sister, so he had been uncertain of his own position; this was why he rebelled.

〈義陽王望子河間王洪生子威,徙封章武,傳至孫,無嗣,河間王欽以子範之繼之。秀,範之子也。〉

(Much earlier, the Prince of Yiyang, Sima Wang, had a son Sima Hong, who was Prince of Hejian. Sima Hong's son Sima Wei was assigned to the title Prince of Zhangwu, and that title passed through his family until his grandson, who died without an heir. So the Prince of Hejian at that time, Sima Qin, had his son Sima Fanzhi continue the lineage as the new Prince of Hejian. And Sima Xiu was Sima Fanzhi's son.)


五月,遊擊將軍、章武王秀,益州刺史司馬軌之謀反,伏誅。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, the General of Roaming Assault and Prince of Zhangwu, Sima Xiu, and the Inspector of Yizhou, Sima Guizhi, plotted rebellion. They were summarily executed.


桓玄餘黨桓亮、苻宏等擁衆寇亂郡縣者以十數,劉毅、劉道規、檀祗等分兵討滅之,荊、相、江、豫皆平。詔以毅爲都督淮南等五郡軍事、豫州刺史,何無忌爲都督江東五郡軍事、會稽內史。

24. Huan Xuan's remaining partisans, Huan Liang, Fu Hong, and others, each gathered armies and invaded and pillaged several dozen counties and commandaries. Liu Yi, Liu Daogui, Tan Zhi, and other loyalist generals split their forces and campaigned against each of these remnants, wiping them all out. Thus were Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, Jiangzhou, and Yuzhou finally pacified.

An edict was issued appointing Liu Yi as Commander of military affairs in five commandaries, including Huainan, and as Inspector of Yuzhou. He Wuji was appointed as Commander of military affairs in five commandaries of the Southland and as Interior Minister of Kuaiji.

〈淮南、廬江、歷陽、晉熙、安豐,凡五郡。〉

(The five commandaries under Liu Yi's control were Huainan, Lujiang, Liyang, Jinxi, and Anfeng.)


桓玄故將桓亮、苻宏、刁預寇湘州,守將擊走之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Huan Xuan's former generals, Huan Liang, Fu Hong, and Diao Yu, invaded Xiangzhou. The defending generals there attacked them and drove them off.

時荊州、湘、江、豫猶多桓氏餘燼,往往屯結。復以本官進督江州之武昌、荊州之江夏、隨郡、義陽、綏安、豫州之西陽、汝南、潁川、新蔡九郡諸軍事,隨宜剪撲,皆悉平之。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

At this time, there were still many remnants of the Huan clan in Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, and Jiangzhou, and they had many camps and positions in close contact with one another. So in addition to his existing positions, Liu Daogui was promoted to Commander of military affairs in Wuchang commandary in Jiangzhou, Jiangxia, Sui, Yiyang, and Sui'an commandaries in Jingzhou, and Xiyang, Runan, Yingchuan, and Xincai commandaries in Yuzhou. Then he led a campaign against these pockets of resistance and wiped them all out.

其餘擁眾假號以十數,皆討平之。二州既平,以毅為撫軍將軍。時刁預等作亂,屯於湘中,毅遣將分討,皆滅之。初,毅丁憂在家,及義旗初興,遂墨絰從事。至是,軍役漸寧,上表乞還京口,以終喪禮,曰:「弘道為國者,理盡於仁孝。訴窮歸天者,莫甚於喪親。但臣凡庸,本無感概,不能隕越,故其宜耳。往年國難滔天,故志竭愚忠,靦然苟存。去春鸞駕回軫,而狂狡未滅,雖奸凶時梟,餘燼竄伏,威懷寡方,文武勞弊,微情未申,顧景悲憤。今皇威遐肅,海內清蕩,臣窮毒艱穢,亦已具於聖聽。兼羸患滋甚,眾疾互動,如今寢頓無復人理。臣之情也,本不甘生;語其事也,亦可以沒。乞賜餘骸,終其丘墳,庶幾忠孝之道獲宥於聖世。」不許。詔以毅為都督豫州揚州之淮南曆陽廬江安豐堂邑五郡諸軍事、豫州刺史,持節、將軍、常侍如故,本府文武悉令西屬。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Several dozen remaining Huan partisans gathered armies and claimed titles for themselves. But Liu Yi campaigned against these threats and put them all down. Since the two provinces (Jingzhou and Jiangzhou) were now at peace, Liu Yi was appointed as General Who Nurtures The Army. At that time, Diao Yu and others launched a rebellion and camped at Xiangzhou. Liu Yi sent his generals to split up and campaign against the rebels, and they were all wiped out.

Now before the uprising had begun, Liu Yi had been in the midst of mourning for his family. And during his time leading troops during the uprising, he had been wearing a black mourning belt as a symbol of his grief. By now, since military demands were gradually tapering off, he sent up a petition asking that he be allowed to return home to Jingkou in order to complete his mourning period. He wrote, "The greatest principles one who acts on behalf of the state can display are benevolence and filial piety, and there is no greater distress one can relate to Heaven than that of mourning for one's kin. It was only because I, being a mediocre fellow who could not display his feelings, felt that I had no choice but to join with the cause.

"For many years, the state had faced a flood of difficulties, and so it was my ambition to do all I could to demonstrate my loyalty, though it meant neglecting my duty. And although the imperial carriage had already returned to the capital during this past spring, the wicked villains had still not been extinguished; though the chief villain's head had been hung up, embers of his rebellion were still lying in wait. Yet through all the exercise of my might and my regard, and in the midst of wearing myself out for both civil and military affairs, I have still not yet been able to display the slightest measure of my feelings. It is now my hope that I will be able to properly vent my grief and my agitation.

"Now the imperial majesty of the dynasty is once again respected and the land within the seas has been pacified and made calm, and I too have exhausted the poison and endured the filth in the service of the dynasty. Now I have become weak and weary, full of aches and pains, all of which seem to act together against me, as though everything will end and I will know no more of this life. All this time, I have not enjoyed sweet feelings, and I relate these things to you because it may be that I shall be no more. Thus I beg that you allow these bones to return and end their days at their old grave mound, so that I may fulfill both loyalty and filial piety and receive the pardon of posterity."

But his request was denied.

An edict was issued appointing Liu Yi as Commander of military affairs in five commandaries in Yuzhou and Yangzhou: Huainan, Liyang, Lujiang, Anfeng, and Tangyi. He was also appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, while keeping his original positions as Credential Bearer, General, and Regular Attendant as before, and his original staff of civil and military officials were all ordered to go west with him.

遷會稽內史、督江東五郡軍事,持節、將軍如故,給鼓吹一部。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

He Wuji was transferred to be Interior Minister of Kuaiji and Commander of military affairs of five commandaries of the Southland, while keeping his original positions as Credential Bearer and General. He was also granted a band of drummers and blowers.


北青州刺史劉該反,引魏爲援,清河、陽平二郡太守孫全聚衆應之。六月,魏豫州刺史索度眞、大將斛斯蘭寇徐州,圍彭城。劉裕遣其弟南彭城內史道憐、東海太守孟龍符將兵救之,斬該及全,魏兵敗走。龍符,懷玉之弟也。

25. Jin's Inspector of Northern Qingzhou, Liu Gai, rebelled against them and brought in Wei forces to help him. The Administrator of Qinghe and Yangping commandaries, Sun Quan, also gathered an army to assist them. In the sixth month, Wei's Inspector of Yuzhou, Suodu Zhen, and their great commander Husi Lan invaded Xuzhou and besieged Pengcheng. Liu Yu sent the Interior Minister of Pengcheng, his younger brother Liu Daolian, and the Administrator of Donghai, Meng Longfu, to lead troops to rescue Pengcheng. They took the heads of Liu Gai and Sun Quan, while the Wei soldiers fled in defeat. This Meng Longfu was the younger brother of Meng Huaiyu.

〈隆安五年,劉該固嘗降魏矣。沈約曰:江左青州治廣陵。〉〈斛斯,亦虜姓也。〉

(Liu Gai had already surrendered to Northern Wei once, as mentioned earlier (Book 112, 401.27).

The Book of Liu-Song states, "Eastern Jin's version of Qingzhou was governed from Guangling."

斛斯 Husi was another tribal surname.)


長沙景王道憐,高祖中弟也。初為國子學生。謝琰為徐州,命為從事史。高祖克京城,進平京邑,道憐常留家侍慰太后。桓玄走,大將軍武陵王遵承制,除員外散騎侍郎。尋遷建威將軍、南彭城內史。時北青州刺史劉該反,引索虜為援,清河、陽平二郡太守孫全聚眾應之。義熙元年,索虜托跋開遣偽豫州刺史索度真、大將軍斛斯蘭寇徐州,攻相縣,執鉅鹿太守賀申,進圍寧朔將軍羊穆之於彭城;穆之告急,道憐率眾救之。軍次陵柵,斬全。進至彭城,真、蘭退走。道憐率寧遠將軍孟龍符、龍驤將軍孔隆及穆之等追,真、蘭走奔相城;又追躡至光水溝,斬劉該,虜眾見殺及赴水死略盡。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

Liu Daolian was Liu Yu's middle younger brother. He would be posthumously known as Prince Jing of Changsha. As a youth, he was a student at the Academy for the National Youth. When Xie Yan was Inspector of Xuzhou (~399), he ordered Liu Daolian to serve as a clerk for his Attendant Officer.

During the time that Liu Yu took Jingcheng (Jingkou; in 404) and then advanced to pacify the capital region, Liu Daolian often stayed behind with his family and tended to and looked after Liu Yu's wife. After Huan Xuan fled the capital and the Grand General and Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, assumed control of affairs, he appointed Liu Daolian as a Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant Without Assignment. Later, Liu Daolian was transferred to be General Who Establishes Might and Interior Minister of Southern Pengcheng.

At this time, Jin's Inspector of Northern Qingzhou, Liu Gai, rebelled against them. He called in the Suolu (the Tuoba Xianbei of Northern Wei) to help him. And the Administrator of Qinghe and Yangping, Sun Quan, gathered an army to support him as well. In the first year of Yixi (405), the Suolu leader Tuoba Kai (Tuoba Gui) sent his Inspector of Yuzhou, Suodu Zhen, and his Grand General, Husi Lan, to invade Xuzhou. They attacked Xiang county, where they captured the Administrator of Julu, He Shen, then advanced to besiege the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Yang Muzhi, at Pengcheng.

Yang Muzhi sent word of his predicament, and Liu Daolian led an army to save him. When the army reached Lingshan, they took the head of Sun Quan. Then they advanced to Pengcheng, and Suodu Zhen and Husi Lan retreated and fled. Liu Daolian pursued them, along with Yang Muzhi, the General Who Calms Distant Places, Meng Longfu, the Dragon-Soaring General Kong Long, and others. Suodu Zhen and Husi Lan fled to Xiangcheng. Liu Daolian continued to pursue them as far as Guangshui Ravine; he took Liu Gai's head, while nearly all of the barbarians were either killed or drowned in the river.


秦隴西公碩德伐仇池,屢破楊盛兵;將軍斂俱攻漢中,拔成固,徙流民三千餘家於關中。秋,七月,楊盛請降於秦。秦以盛爲都督益‧寧二州諸軍事、征南大將軍、益州牧。

26. Qin's Duke of Longxi, Yao Shuode, campaigned against Chouchi. He routed Yang Sheng's soldiers several times, and his general Lian Ju attacked Hanzhong, took Chenggu, and relocated more than three thousand families of common people into Guanzhong.

In autumn, the seventh month, Yang Sheng asked to submit to Qin. They appointed him as Qin's Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Ningzhou, Grand General Who Conquers The South, and Governor of Yizhou.

〈斂,羌之種姓;俱,其名。〉

(斂 Lian was this fellow's surname; it was a Qiang surname. 俱 Ju was his given name.)


興遣其將姚碩德、姚斂成、姚壽都等率眾三萬,伐楊盛于仇池。壽都等入自宕昌,斂成從下辯而進。盛遣其弟壽距成,從子斌距都。都逆擊擒之,盡俘其眾。楊壽等懼,率眾請降。碩德還師... 使姚碩德及冠軍徐洛生等伐仇池,又遣建武趙琨自宕昌而進,遣其將斂俱寇漢中... 姚碩德等頻敗楊盛,盛懼,請降,遣子難當及僚佐子弟數十人為質,碩德等引還。署盛為使持節、散騎常侍、都督益、甯州諸軍事、征南大將軍、開府、益州牧、武都侯。斂俱陷城固,徙漢中流人郭陶等三千餘家於關中。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent his generals Yao Shuode, Yao Liancheng, Yao Shoudu, and others to lead an army of thirty thousand to campaign against Yang Sheng at Chouchi. Yao Shoudu and others marched in from Dangchang, while Yao Liancheng advanced from Xiabian. Yang Sheng his younger brother Yang Shou to oppose Yao Liancheng and his cousin's son Yang Bin to oppose Yao Du. But Yao Du counterattacked and captured Yang Bin, along with his whole army. Yang Shou and the others, frightened, led their forces to come surrender. So Yao Shuode led his army back again.

Yao Xing sent Yao Shuode and his Champion General, Xu Luosheng, and others to campaign against Chouchi. He also sent his General Who Establishes Valor, Zhao Kun, to advance from Dangchang, and he sent his general Lian Ju to invade Hanzhong.

Yao Shuode and others continued to inflict defeats against Yang Sheng. Afraid, Yang Sheng asked to surrender, and he sent his son Yang Nandang and the younger relatives of his subordinates, several dozen people in all, as hostages. Yao Shuode then led his army back again. Yang Sheng was appointed as Later Qin's Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Commander of military affairs in Yizhou and Ningzhou, Grand General Who Conquers The South, Governor of Yizhou, and Marquis of Wudu, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office. Lian Ju took Chenggu, and relocated more than three thousand refugees from Hanzhong, including Guo Tao, back to Guanzhong.


劉裕遣使求和於秦,且求南鄕等諸郡,秦王興許之。羣臣咸以爲不可,興曰:「天下之善一也。劉裕拔起細微,能誅討桓玄,興復晉室,內釐庶政,外脩封疆,吾何惜數郡,不以成其美乎!」遂割南鄕、順陽、新野、舞陰等十二郡歸于晉。

27. Liu Yu sent envoys to Qin to arrange for peace terms between them. He also asked that Qin return several commandaries to Jin, including Nanxiang. Yao Xing approved the request. His ministers all objected that this could not be done, but Yao Xing told them, "It is as they say: 'Goodness is the same all under Heaven'. Liu Yu rose up from obscurity, yet he was able to campaign against and execute Huan Xuan and restore the Jin royal family. Now he is handling state affairs within and mending relations with Jin's neighbors without. Why should I begrudge him a few commandaries when it means I can fulfill his good deeds?" And he carved off twelve commandaries, including Nanxiang, Shunyang, Xinye, and Wuyin, and returned them to Jin.

〈隆安二年,淮、漢以北多降於秦,此十二郡蓋皆在漢北。漢建安中,割南陽右壤爲南鄕郡;晉立順陽郡,以南鄕爲縣,蓋其後復分立郡也。按晉南鄕郡,秦漢陰縣及酇縣之地,今爲光化軍。舞陰縣屬南陽郡,未知立郡之始。〉

(In the second year of Long'an (398), most of Jin territory north of the Huai and Han Rivers had surrendered to Later Qin. These twelve commandaries must have been north of the Han River.

During Han's Jian'an reign era (196-219), the right part of Nanyang commandary was carved off as Nanxiang commandary. Jin had later established Shunyang commandary, with Nanxiang as a county as part of it. Nanxiang must have later been split off as a commandary again. Jin's Nanxiang commandary would have been in the areas of Yin county and Zan county as they had been known during the Qin and Han dynasties, where the modern Guanghua Garrison is. As for Wuyin commandary, there had been a Wuyin county as part of Nanyang commandary; I (Hu Sanxing) don't know when it was first established as a commandary.)


劉裕遣大參軍衡凱之詣姚顯,請通和,顯遣吉默報之,自是聘使不絕。晉求南鄉諸郡,興許之。群臣咸諫以為不可,興曰:「天下之善一也,劉裕拔萃起微,匡輔晉室,吾何惜數郡而不成其美乎!」遂割南鄉、順陽、新野、舞陰等十二郡歸於晉。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Liu Yu sent his Grand Army Advisor, Heng Kaizhi, to visit Yao Xing as an envoy to arrange for peace terms between them. Yao Xing sent Ji Mo to repay the visit, and from then on Later Qin and Jin had regular diplomatic exchanges.

Jin also asked that Yao Xing return several commandaries to them, including Nanxiang. Yao Xing approved the request. His ministers all objected that this could not be done, but Yao Xing told them, "It is as they say: 'Goodness is the same all under Heaven'. Liu Yu rose up from obscurity, yet he was able to rectify and restore the Jin royal family. Why should I begrudge him a few commandaries when it means I can fulfill his good deeds?" And he carved off twelve commandaries, including Nanxiang, Shunyang, Xinye, and Wuyin, and returned them to Jin.


八月,燕遼西太守邵頻有罪,亡命爲盜;九月,中常侍郭仲斬之。

28. In the eighth month, Yan's Administrator of Liaoxi, Shao Pin, committed an offense. Rather than face justice, he fled and became a bandit. In the ninth month, one of Yan's Regular Palace Attendants, Guo Zhong, beheaded him.

汝水竭,南燕主備德惡之,俄而寢疾;北海王超請禱之,備德曰:「人主之命,短長在天,非汝水所能制也。」固請,不許。

29. In Southern Yan, the Ru River ran low. Murong Beide was disturbed by this omen, and he soon became bedridden with illness. Murong Chao asked to offer prayers to the river, but Murong Beide replied, "The length of a sovereign's life is in the hands of Heaven; it is not something that the Ru River can control." Murong Chao continued to insist, but Murong Beide would not permit it.

〈「汝」當作「女」。郭緣生《述征記》:齊桓公冢在齊城南二十里,冢東有女水。或曰:齊桓公女冢在其上,故以名水。女水導川東北流,甚有神焉;化隆則水生,政薄則津竭。《地理志》:葂頭山,女水所山,東北至臨菑入鉅淀。鉅淀卽漢鉅定地。《晉書‧地理志》:女水出齊國東安平縣東北。〉

(This passage should be referring to the 女 Nü River, not the 汝 Ru River. Guo Yuansheng's Assorted Notes on Campaigns states, "Duke Huan of Qi's burial mound was twenty li south of Qicheng, west of the Nü River. And some say that his daughter's burial mound was above there, which was what gave rise to the name Nü (‘Daughter’) River. The river flows northeast, and there is the idea that it has some great spiritual affinity to it; in times of good rulership the river floods, but when the land is poorly governed then the river crossings dry out." The Geographical Records states, "The Nü River comes from Mount Miantou. It flows northeast as far as Linzai, where it enters Lake Ju." This Lake Ju was known as Juding during Han. The Geographical Records of the Book of Jin states, "The Nü River emerges from the northeast of Anping county in the Qi princely fief.")


戊午,備德引見羣臣于東陽殿,議立超爲太子。俄而地震,百官驚恐,備德亦不自安,還宮。是夜,疾篤,瞑不能言。段后大呼曰:「今召中書作詔立超,可乎?」備德開目頷之。乃立超爲皇太子,大赦。備德尋卒。爲十餘棺,夜,分出四門,潛瘞山谷。

30. On the day Wuwu (September 18th), Murong Beide summoned his ministers to a meeting in the Dongyang Hall in order to discuss appointing Murong Chao as Crown Prince. But there was a sudden earthquake; the ministers were all frightened and alarmed, and Murong Beide was uneasy as well, so he returned to the palace.

That night, Murong Beide's illness became so critical that his vision blurred and he could not speak. In a loud voice, Empress Duan asked him, "Shall I have the Palace Secretariat write an edict making Murong Chao your successor?" Murong Beide opened his eyes and nodded at her. So an edict was prepared naming Murong Chao as Crown Prince and declaring a general amnesty.

Shortly afterwards, Murong Beide passed away.

More than ten coffins were prepared, and during the night, they were all sent out of the city through all the gates, so that Murong Beide's body would be secretly buried in some mountain or valley.

〈年七十。〉

(Murong De was sixty-nine years old when he died.)


慕容德死,兄子超嗣偽位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During this year (404), Murong De passed away, and his nephew Murong Chao succeeded him.


己未,超卽皇帝位,〈超,子祖明,德兄北海王納之子。〉大赦,改元太上。尊段后爲皇太后。以北地王鍾都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事,慕容法爲征南大將軍、都督徐‧兗‧揚‧南兗四州諸軍事,加慕容鎭開府儀同三司,以尚書令封孚爲太尉,麴仲爲司空,封嵩爲尚書左僕射。癸亥,虛葬備德於東陽陵,諡曰獻武皇帝,廟號世宗。

31. On the day Jiwei (September 19th), Murong Chao became Emperor. He declared the general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Taishang.

Murong Chao honored Empress Duan as Empress Dowager. He appointed the Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, as Commander of all military affairs and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Murong Fa as Grand General Who Conquers The South and Commander of military affairs in Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yangzhou, and Southern Yanzhou. He promoted Murong Zhen to have the privilege of a Seperate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. He appointed the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Feng Fu, as Grand Commandant. He appointed Qu Zhong as Minister of Works and Feng Song as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

On the day Guihai (September 23rd), a false burial ceremony was carried out for Murong Beide at Dongyang Tomb. His posthumous title was Emperor Xianwu ("the Presented and Martial"), and his temple name was Shizong.

〈「麴」,當作「鞠」。〉

(This passage mentions a 麴 Qu Zhong; this should be 鞠 Ju Zhong.)


慕容德死,兄子超僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (405), Murong De passed away, and his nephew Murong Chao succeeded him.


超引所親公孫五樓爲腹心。備德故大臣北地王鍾、段宏等皆不自安,求補外職。超以鍾爲青州牧,宏爲徐州刺史。公孫五樓爲武衞將軍,領屯騎校尉,內參政事。封孚諫曰:「臣聞親不處外,羇不處內。鍾,國之宗臣,社稷所賴;宏,外戚懿望,百姓具瞻;正應參翼百揆,不宜遠鎭外方。今鍾等出藩,五樓內輔,臣竊未安。」超不從。鍾、宏心皆不平,相謂曰:「黃犬之皮,恐終補狐裘也。」五樓聞而恨之。

32. Murong Chao brought in his trusted associate Gongsun Wulou to be his confidant in the government. Murong Beide's former chief officials, including Murong Zhong and Duan Hong, felt uneasy about their current positions, so they asked to be assigned to roles outside of the court. So Murong Chao appointed Murong Zhong as Governor of Qingzhou and Duan Hong as Inspector of Xuzhou. He appointed Gongsun Wulou as Guard General of Valor and acting Colonel of Camped Cavalry, and Gongsun Wulou remained close by to advise him on state affairs.

Feng Fu remonstrated with Murong Chao, telling, him, "I have heard that imperial relatives should not be away from court, nor should outsiders be within it. Now Murong Zhong is a great minister of state and a senior member of your own clan, one whom the state itself relies upon, and Duan Hong is a relative of yours by marriage and virtuous and influential besides, one whom the common people all look up to. You ought to be keeping them close at hand so that they can advise and support you on the affairs of state; you should not send them to be stationed in distant posts. Yet now Murong Zhong and the rest have gone out to the borders, while this Gongsun Wulou has a hand in court affairs. I cannot see how it will end well." But Murong Chao did not listen to him.

Murong Zhong and Duan Hong still did not feel secure, and they said to one another, "Looks like the yellow dog's skin is going to replace the fox fur coat." When Gongsun Wulou heard about this, he resented them.

〈《左傳》申無宇諫楚靈王曰:親不在外,羇不在內。〉〈《史記》:騶忌相齊,淳于髡謂之曰:「狐裘雖弊,不可補以黃狗之皮。」騶忌曰:「謹受令,請謹擇君子,毋雜小人其間。」〉

(In the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, Shen Wuyu remonstrates with King Ling of Chu by saing, "Imperial relatives should not be away from court, nor should outsiders be within it (Zhao 11)".

In the Biography of Tian Jing in the Records of the Grand Historian, there is this exchange between Chunyu Kun and the Chancellor of Qi, Zou Ji: "No matter how shabby a fox fur coat becomes, it can never be replaced by the skin of a yellow dog." And, "I understand: I will be sure to keep superior fellows close at hand, and never mix among miscreants.")


魏詠之卒,江陵令羅脩謀舉兵襲江陵,奉王慧龍爲主。劉裕以幷州刺史劉道規爲都督荊‧寧等六州諸軍事、荊州刺史。脩不果發,奉慧龍奔秦。

33. In Jin, Wei Yongzhi passed away.

The Prefect of Jiangling, Luo Xiu, plotted to raise troops and launch a surprise attack against Jiangling and support Wang Huilong as his leader. But then Liu Yu appointed Liu Daogui as Commander of military affairs in six provinces, including Jingzhou and Ningzhou, and as Inspector of Jingzhou. Luo Xiu did not rise up as planned, and Wang Guilong fled to Qin.

〈慧龍得免,見上卷元興三年。〉

(Wang Huilong had earlier escaped the purge of Wang Yu's family after Wang Yu's plot against Liu Yu had failed, as mentioned in Book 113, in the third year of Yuanxing (404.31).)


遷使持節、都督荊、寧、秦、梁、雍六州、司州之河南諸軍事、領護南蠻校尉、荊州刺史,將軍如故。辭南蠻以授殷叔文。叔文被誅,乃復還領。善於為治,刑政明理,士民莫不畏而愛之。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

Liu Daogui was transferred to be Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Ningzhou, Qinzhou, Lianzhou, and Yongzhou and in Henan commandary in Sizhou, acting Colonel Who Protects Southern Man Tribes, and Inspector of Jingzhou, while keeping his original position as a general. Liu Daogui initially declined the appointment as Colonel in favor of Yin Shuwen. But after Yin Shuwen's execution, he was once again appointed as acting Colonel.

Liu Daogui was a skilled administrator, and his governance and his enforcement of justice were wise and logical. There was no one among the gentry or common people who did not fear and love him.


乞伏乾歸伐仇池,爲楊盛所敗。

34. Qifu Gangui campaigned against Chouchi, but he was defeated by Yang Sheng.

冬十一月,乞付乾歸伐仇池,仇池公楊盛大破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the eleventh month, Qifu Gangui campaigned against Chouchi. But the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Sheng, greatly routed him.

尋復率眾攻楊盛將楊玉于西陽堡,克之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui once again led his army to attack Yang Sheng's general Yang Yu at Fort Xiyang, and he took the fort.


西涼公暠與長史張邈謀徙都酒泉以逼沮渠蒙遜;以張體順爲建康太守,鎭樂涫,以宋繇爲敦煌護軍,與其子敦煌太守讓鎭敦煌,遂遷于酒泉。

35. In Western Liang, Li Gao and his Chief Clerk, Zhang Miao, plotted to move Li Gao's capital to Jiuquan in order to place more pressure on Qin's Marquis of Xihai, Juqu Mengxun. Li Gao appointed Zhang Tishun as his Administrator of Jiankang and stationed him at Leguan, and he appointed Song Yao as Protector-General of Dunhuang and stationed him and his Administrator of Dunhuang, his son Li Rang, at Dunhuang. Li Gao then shifted his capital to Jiuquan.

〈《漢志》,樂涫縣屬酒泉郡;張氏分爲建康郡。〉〈李暠遷酒泉欲以逼沮渠蒙遜,安知反爲蒙遜所逼邪!〉

(According to the Records of Han, there was a Leguan county in Jiuquan commandary. The Zhang family of Former Liang had split it off as Jiankang commandary.

By this move to Jiuquan, Li Gao hoped to threaten Juqu Mengxun. Little did he know that it would only make Juqu Mengxun into an even more dangerous foe!)


暠手令戒諸子,以爲:「從政者當審愼賞罰,勿任愛憎,近忠正,遠佞諛,勿使左右竊弄威福。毀譽之來,當硏覈眞僞;聽訟折獄,必和顏任理,愼勿逆詐憶必,輕加聲色。務廣咨詢,勿自專用。吾蒞事五年,雖未能息民,然含垢匿瑕,朝爲寇讎,夕委心膂,粗無負於新舊,事任公平,坦然無纇,初不容懷,有所損益。計近則如不足,經遠乃爲有餘,庶亦無愧前人也。」

36. Li Gao wrote a set of instructions for his sons. These were his beliefs: "Those who govern must be cautious and considerate in their rewards and their punishments. Do not make decisions of whom to employ based on who you favor or hate. Keep loyal and proper people close at hand, and stay away from flatterers and sycophants.

"Do not allow your close attendants to amass wealth and power for themselves.

"If you hear any disparagement or praise for someone, look into it closely to determine whether it is true or false.

"When you preside over a criminal case and must render a judgment, be sure to keep your composure and judge according to logic; be careful not to be taken in by false witness or mistaken recollection, nor put faith in emotional displays.

"When carrying out your duties, look around and seek out good counsel, and do not decide based upon your own whims.

"I have now governed this land for five years, and though I have not yet been able to bring peace to the people, still I have borne the dust and concealed my flaws. By day, I attack our foes; by night, I pour out my heart in pursuit of my duties.

"Give no consideration to whether someone is an old friend or a new arrival, but act justly and impartial, and do not focus on flaws; those whom you cannot bear at first may later prove to benefit you.

"If you plan for the short-term, you will never feel you have enough; if you plan for the long-term, you will enjoy abundance.

"Do nothing to bring shame to your ancestors."

〈朱子曰:逆,未至而迎之也。詐,謂人欺己也。億,未見而意之也。必,期必也。〉〈纇,絲節也,疵也。〉

(Zhu Xi remarked, "The perverse is that which is accepted before being apparent. False witness means to deceive others. False memory is to remember what has not been seen. Certainty is overstated certainty."

The term 纇 here means a flaw.)


十二月,燕王熙襲契丹。

37. In the twelfth month, Murong Xi launched a raid against the Khitan people.

〈契丹本東胡種,其先爲匈奴所破,保鮮卑山。魏青龍中,部酋軻比能桀驁,爲幽州刺史王雄所殺,部衆遂微,逃潢水之南,黃龍之北,後自號曰契丹,種類繁盛。〉

(The Khitan were originally part of the Eastern Hu tribal people. Their ancestors were routed by the Xiongnu, and they sought protection at Mount Xianbei. During Cao-Wei's Qinglong reign era (233-237), after the Xianbei leader Kebineng became overbearing, he was killed by Cao-Wei's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Xiong, and his forces scattered. Those who would later become the Khitans fled to the region south of the Huang River (the Xar Moron River) and north of Huanglong, where they later called themselves the Khitan. Their various branches became very numerous.)


熙北襲契丹,大破之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi launched a raid north against the Khitan people and greatly routed them.
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BOOK 114

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat Feb 23, 2019 8:11 pm

二年(丙午、四○六)

The Second Year of Yixi (The Bingwu Year, 406 AD)


春,正月,甲申,魏主珪如豺山宮。諸州置三刺史,郡置三太守,縣置三令長;刺史、令長各之州縣,太守雖置而未臨民、功臣爲州者皆徵還京師,以爵歸第。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jiashen (February 11th), Tuoba Gui went back to the palace at Mount Chai.

Tuoba Gui appointed three Inspectors for every province, three Administrators for every commandary, and three Prefects or Chiefs for every county. The new Inspectors and Prefects or Chiefs were each sent out to their assigned provinces and counties, and those Administrators who had already been appointed but had not yet gone to their posts, as well as accomplished ministers who had earlier been appointed as Inspectors, were all recalled back to the capital and sent to their estates according to their noble titles.

三年春正月甲申,車駕北巡,幸犲山宮。校獵,至屋孤山。二月乙亥,幸代園山,建五石亭。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the third year of Tianci (406), in spring, the first month, on the day Jiashen (February 11th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol, and visited the palace at Mount Chai. He went hunting, going as far as Mount Wugu.

In the second month, on the day Yihai (April 3rd), he visited Mount Daiyuan, where he established the Wushi Terrace.


益州刺史司馬榮期擊譙明子于白帝,破之。

2. Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Sima Rongqi, attacked Qiao Mingzi at Baidi and routed him.

二年春正月,益州刺史司馬榮期擊譙縱將譙子明于白帝,破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second year of Yixi (406), the first month, the Inspector of Yizhou, Sima Rongqi, attacked Qiao Zong's general Qiao Ziming at Baidi and routed him.


燕王熙至陘北,畏契丹之衆,欲還,苻后不聽;戊申,遂棄輜重,輕兵襲高句麗。

3. As mentioned above, Murong Xi had begun a campaign against the Khitan people. But when he arrived north of Xing, he became afraid of the great numbers of the Khitan, and he wanted to turn back. Yet Empress Fu would not hear of it. So on the day Wushen (?), he abandoned his supply train and sent light troops to launch a raid against Goguryeo.

〈陘北,冷陘山之北也。〉

("North of Xing" meant north of Mount Lengxing.)


熙與苻氏襲契丹,憚其眾盛,將還,苻氏弗聽,遂棄輜重,輕襲高句驪。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi and Lady Wu launched a raid against the Khitan people. Murong Xi feared the size of their army, and he was about to return home. Yet Empress Fu would not hear of it. So he abandoned his supply train and sent light troops to launch a raid against Goguryeo.


南燕主超猜虐日甚,政出權倖,盤于遊畋,封孚、韓X屢諫不聽。超嘗臨軒問孚曰:「朕可方前世何主?」對曰:「桀、紂。」超慙怒,孚徐步而出,不爲改容。鞠仲謂孚曰:「與天子言,何得如是!宜還謝。」孚曰:「行年七十,惟求死所耳!」竟不謝。超以其時望,優容之。

4. In Southern Yan, Murong Chao grew more cruel and paranoid by the day; he left the government in the hands of his favorites, while he took his pleasure in wandering and hunting. Feng Fu and Han Zhuo often remonstrated with him, but to no avail.

On one occasion, when Murong Chao was in his pavilion, he asked Feng Fu, "Which past sovereigns do I resemble?"

Feng Fu replied, "Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang."

This only made Murong Chao angrier, but Feng Fu calmly walked out without changing his expression.

Ju Zhong told Feng Fu, "How can you say such a thing to the Son of Heaven? You should go back and apologize."

But Feng Fu replied, "I am already past seventy years old; do you think I fear death?" And he would not apologize.

But since Feng Fu still had some influence at that time, Murong Chao decided to put up with him.

〈盤,樂也,言樂于田獵遊逸。〉

(The term 盤 here means "pleasure"; that is, Murong Chao took pleasure in wandering and hunting in the fields.)


桓玄之亂,河間王曇之子國璠、叔璠奔南燕,二月,甲戌,國璠等攻陷弋陽。

5. Jin's late Prince of Hejian, Sima Tanzhi, had had two sons named Sima Guofan and Sima Shufan. During Huan Xuan's march on the capital, both of them had fled to Southern Yan.

At this time, in the second month, on the day Jiaxu (April 2nd), Sima Guofan and Sima Shufan attacked and took Yiyang.

〈河間王顒死,無後,元帝以彭城王植子融爲顒嗣。薨,又無子,帝復尋以彭城王釋子欽爲融嗣。欽薨,曇之嗣;曇之薨,國鎭嗣。國璠蓋國鎭兄弟。劉裕興復,篡意未彰,國璠宜如劉敬宣輩南歸可也。乃攻擾晉邊者,欽孫秀嗣封章武,國璠從兄弟也,秀以桓振妹壻謀反誅,故國璠兄弟不敢南歸耳,豈知裕之必篡哉!〉

(The original Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, had died without any heirs. Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had appointed Sima Rong, the son of the Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Zhi, as Sima Yong's successor as Prince of Hejian. But Sima Rong too died without any sons, so Emperor Yuan appointed Sima Qin, the son of the next Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Zhi, as Sima Rong's successor. After Sima Qin died, Sima Tanzhi succeeded him, and after Sima Tanzhi's death, Sima Guozhen succeeded him. So Sima Guofan must have been Sima Guozhen's brother.

Considering that Liu Yu had just restored the Jin royal family, and had not yet displayed any signs of his later usurpation, Sima Guofan should have done as Liu Jingxuan and his sort had done by returning to Jin. Even among those who had actually attacked Jin's borders, there was the example of Sima Qin's grandson Sima Xiu, who was allowed to succeed to the title of Prince of Zhangwu upon his return, and Sima Xiu was Sima Guofan's own cousin. Sima Guofan must have not dared to return to Jin merely because Sima Xiu, who had been married to Huan Zhen's sister, had plotted against Liu Yu and then been executed, and Sima Guofan would have feared being connected to him. How could he have possibly foreseen Liu Yu's usurpation at this stage?)


燕軍行三千餘里,士馬疲凍,死者屬路,攻高句麗木底城,不克而還。夕陽公雲傷於矢,且畏燕王熙之虐,遂以疾去官。

6. By now, the Yan army had marched for more than three thousand li; their soldiers and horses were worn out and freezing, and their bodies littered the roads. They attacked Goguryeo's city of Mogjeo (Mudi), but could not take it, so they turned back.

Yan's Duke of Xiyang, Murong Un, had been injured by an arrow. Moreover, he was afraid of Murong Xi's cruelty. So he resigned his office on account of illness.

〈木底城在南蘇之東,唐置木底州。〉〈爲後燕人弒熙立雲張本。〉

(Mogjeo was east of Namso. Tang would later organize the area as Dizhou.

This was why the people of Later Yan later killed Murong Xi and acclaimed Go Un in his place.)


周行三千餘里,士馬疲凍,死者屬路。攻木底城,不克而還。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

By now, the Later Yan army had marched for more than three thousand li; their soldiers and horses were worn out and freezing, and their bodies littered the roads. They attacked Goguryeo's city of Mogjeo (Mudi), but could not take it, so they turned back.

以疾去官。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

Murong Un resigned his office due to illness.


三月,庚子,魏主珪還平城;夏,四月,庚申,復如豺山宮;甲午,還平城。

7. In the third month, on the day Gengzi (April 28th), Tuoba Gui returned to Pingcheng. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengshen (May 18th), he went back to the palace at Mount Chai. On the day Jiawu (?) (or, the day Jiazi, May 22nd), he returned to Pingcheng again.

〈【嚴:「午」改「子」。】〉

(The third date listed in this passage should be 甲子 Jiazi, not 甲午 Jiawu.)


三月庚子,車駕還宮。夏四月庚申,復幸犲山宮。占授著作郎王宜弟造兵法孤虛立成圖三百六十時。遂登定襄角史山,又幸馬城。甲午,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the third month, on the day Gengzi (April 28th), Tuoba Gui returned to the capital.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengshen (May 18th), Tuoba Gui went back to the palace at Mount Chai. The younger brother of one of the Gentleman-Authors, Wang Yi, performed a divination for Tuoba Gui based upon the 360 aspects of the arts of war. Tuoba Gui then asended Mount Jiaoshi in Dingxiang commandary and visited Macheng. On the day Jiawu (?), he returned to the capital again.


柔然社崙侵魏邊。

8. The Rouran khan Yujiulü Shelun raided the borders of Wei.

是月,蠕蠕寇邊,夜召兵,將旦,賊走,乃罷。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this month, the Rouran raided the borders. Tuoba Gui summoned troops during the night, intending to fight the Rouran when morning came. But by then, the Rouran had already left, so Tuoba Gui dismissed the soldiers.


五月,燕主寶之子博陵公虔、上黨公昭,皆以嫌疑賜死。

9. In Yan, in the fifth month, Murong Xi was jealous and suspicious of the Duke of Boling and the Duke of Shangdang, Murong Bao's sons Murong Qian and Murong Zhao. He ordered them to commit suicide.

熙遊于城南,止大柳樹下,若有人呼曰:「大王且止。」熙惡之,伐其樹,下有蛇長丈餘。熙盡殺寶諸子。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

When Murong Xi was traveling south of the city, he stopped under a large willow tree. Someone suddenly yelled, "Great King, do not stop there." Disturbed by this, Murong Xi hacked down the tree, and beneath it found a snake more than a zhang long.

Murong Xi killed all of Murong Bao's sons.

熙游于城南,止大柳樹下,若有人呼曰:「大王且止。」熙惡之,伐其樹,乃有蛇長丈餘,從樹中而出... 盡殺寶諸子。大城肥如及宿軍,以仇尼倪為鎮東大將軍、營州刺史,鎮宿軍,上庸公懿為鎮西將軍、幽州刺史,鎮令支;尚書劉木為鎮南大將軍、冀州刺史,鎮肥如。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

When Murong Xi was traveling south of the city, he stopped under a large willow tree. Someone suddenly yelled, "Great King, do not stop there." Disturbed by this, Murong Xi hacked down the tree, where he found a snake more than a zhang long which slithered back inside the tree.

Murong Xi killed all of Murong Bao's sons.

Murong Xi greatly expanded Sujun and Feiru. He appointed Yi Chouni as Grand General Who Guards The East and Inspector of Yingzhou and stationed him at Sujun, and he appointed the Duke of Shangyong, Murong Xi, as General Who Guards The West and Inspector of Youzhou and stationed him at Lingzhi. He appointed one of the Masters of Writing, Liu Mu, as Grand General Who Guards The South and Inspector of Jizhou and stationed him at Feiru.


六月,秦隴西公碩德自上邽入朝,秦王興爲之大赦;及歸,送之至雍,乃還。興事晉公緒及碩德皆如家人禮,車馬、服玩,先奉二叔而自服其次,國家大政,皆咨而後行。

10. In the sixth month, Yao Shuode came to the Qin court from Shanggui. Yao Xing marked the occasion by declaring a general amnesty, and when it was time for Yao Shuode to return to his post, Yao Xing accompanied him as far as Yong before turning back for Chang'an.

Yao Xing treated Yao Shuode and the Duke of Jin, Yao Xu, with all the courtesy due to members of his family, and when it came to horses, carriages, clothes, and ornaments, he gave the best of them to these two uncles and only afterwards used the rest for himself. And whenever Yao Xing was deciding great affairs of state, he would always consult them first and only afterwards carry out his decision.

興班告境內及在朝文武,立名不得犯叔父緒及碩德之名,以彰殊禮。興謙恭孝友,每見緒及碩德,如家人之禮,整服傾悚,言則稱字,車馬服玩,必先二叔,然後服其次者,朝廷大政,必諮之而後行。太史令郭黁言於興曰:「戌亥之歲,當有孤寇起於西北,宜慎其鋒。起兵如流沙,死者如亂麻,戎馬悠悠會隴頭,鮮卑、烏丸居不安,國朝疲於奔命矣。」時所在有泉水湧出,傳云飲則愈病,後多無驗。屢有妖人自稱神女,戮之乃止。興大閱,自杜郵至於羊牧。興以姚碩德來朝,大赦其境內。及碩德歸於秦州,興送之,及雍乃還。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

As a sign of exceptional favor for his uncles Yao Xu and Yao Shuode, Yao Xing imposed a naming taboo for those living within his territory and for the names of his civil and military offices, forbidding the use of their names. Yao Xing was modest, respectful, filial, and friendly, and whenever he met with Yao Xu and Yao Shuode, he always treated them with the rites appropriate between family members; he was fully humble before them, while they addressed him by his style name. When it came to horses, carriages, clothes, and ornaments, he gave the best of them to these two uncles and only afterwards used the rest for himself. And whenever Yao Xing's court was deciding great affairs of state, he would always consult them first and only afterwards carry out his decision.

The Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Guo Nun, said to Yao Xing, "In a Xu or Hai year, a threat will arise in the northwest; you should beware its keen edge. Soldiers will rise up like flowing sand, and the dead will pile like a tangled skein. Soldiers and horses will slowly gather at Longtou, the Xianbei and the Wuhuan will grow restless, and the state and the court will grow exhausted." At that same time, there was some spring water that had burst forth, and rumors spread that drinking this water would heal illnesses, though it lately proved baseless. And there were many witches calling themselves goddesses, until a spate of executions silenced them.

Yao Xing held a grand review, from Duyou to Yangmu.

When Yao Shuode paid a visit to court, Yao Xing declared a general amnesty within his domain. And when it was time for Yao Shuode to return to Qinzhou, Yao Xing escorted him back as far as Yong before returning to Chang'an.


禿髮傉檀伐沮渠蒙遜,蒙遜嬰城固守。傉檀至赤泉而還,獻馬三千匹、羊三萬口于秦。秦王興以爲忠,以傉檀爲都督河右諸軍事、車騎大將軍、涼州刺史,鎭姑臧,徵王尚還長安。涼州人申屠英等遣主簿胡威詣長安請留尚,興弗許。威見興,流涕言曰:「臣州奉戴王化,於茲五年,土宇僻遠,威靈不接,士民嘗膽抆血,共守孤城;仰恃陛下聖德,俯杖良牧仁政,克自保全,以至今日。陛下柰何乃以臣等貿馬三千匹、羊三萬口;賤人貴畜,無乃不可!若軍國須馬,直煩尚書一符,臣州三千餘戶,各輸一馬,朝下夕辦,何難之有!昔漢武傾天下之資力,開拓河西,以斷匈奴右臂。今陛下無故棄五郡之地忠良華族,以資暴虜。豈惟臣州士民墜於塗炭,恐方爲聖朝旰食之憂。」興悔之,使西平人車普馳止王尚,又遣使諭傉檀。會傉檀已帥步騎三萬軍于五澗,普先以狀告之;傉檀遽逼遣王尚;尚出自清陽門,傉檀入自涼風門。

11. Qin's Duke of Guangwu, Tufa Nutan, campaigned against Juqu Mengxun, who withdrew into his city to defend it. Tufa Nutan marched as far as Chiquan before turning back.

Tufa Nutan sent three thousand horses and thirty thousand sheep to the Qin court as tribute. Yao Xing believed that this was a display of his loyalty, and he appointed Tufa Nutan as Qin's Commander of military affairs beyond the Yellow River, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and Inspector of Liangzhou. He stationed Tufa Nutan at Guzang, ordering the current governor of that city, Wang Sheng, to return to the Qin capital at Chang'an.

Natives of Liangzhou, Shentu Ying and others, sent the Registrar of Liangzhou, Hu Wei, to visit Chang'an and ask that Wang Sheng remain in charge at Guzang. Yao Xing was not inclined to grant the request. But when Hu Wei met Yao Xing, he wept as he implored him, "For five years now, my province has been transformed by the influence of your kingly virtue. But our land is distant and remote, and your authority and will do not always reach us; the common people must swallow bile and wipe away bloody tears, each defending their isolated cities. We have been reliant up until now upon Your Majesty's sage wisdom and virtue when you deigned to appoint an excellent governor to provide us with benevolent government, and that is why we have been able to preserve ourselves until this day.

"Does Your Majesty now intend to barter us away for a mere three thousand horses and thirty thousand sheep? Even a mere wastral would treasure his possessions more than that, and not exchange it so! If your army or your state want horses, you need have done no more than order your Masters of Writing to send out a command; there are more than three thousand households in my province which could have each supplied you with a horse. This would have been no tall order; the very morning that you sent out the order, you would have obtained the horses that same evening!

"In former times, Emperor Wu of Han poured out all the resources and strength of the realm in order to obtain the Hexi region, since by doing so it was as if he had cut off the right arm of the Xiongnu. Why then pointlessly throw away the land and resources of five commandaries and loyal and earnest Hua (ethnic Han) people to benefit the barbarians? Do you think that the people of my province alone will be the ones to suffer? I fear such developments will soon provide a great source of concern for your court."

Yao Xing then regretted his decision, and he sent a native of Xiping commandary, Che Pu, to hurry to stop Wang Shang from leaving Liangzhou. He also sent envoys to bring new orders to Tufa Nutan. But by then, Tufa Nutan had already led an army of thirty thousand horse and foot to Wujian. So Che Pu first went to explain the situation to him. But Tufa Nutan made a sudden advance to threaten Wang Shang. Wang Shang left the city through the Qingyang Gate, while Tufa Nutan entered through the Liangfeng Gate.

〈赤泉在張掖氐池縣北。〉〈隆安五年九月呂隆降秦,至是猶未五期。〉〈貿,易也,市賣也。〉〈此五郡,謂漢所開武威、張掖、敦煌、酒泉、金城。〉〈五澗,在姑臧南。〉〈「清陽」當作「青陽」。涼風門,姑臧城南門也。〉

(Chiquan was in the north of Dichi county in Zhangye commandary.

Hu Wei mentions that Later Qin had ruled Liangzhou for "five years" by now. But technically, since it had been in the ninth month of the fifth year of Long'an (401.35) that Lü Long had submitted to Later Qin, it had not quite been five years yet.

The term 貿 here means "to exchange or barter", like when selling in a marketplace.

Wujian was south of Guzang.

This passage mentions the 清陽 Qingyang Gate; it should be the 青陽 Qingyang Gate.

The Liangfeng Gate was the southern gate of Guzang.)


禿髮傉檀獻興馬三千匹,羊三萬頭。興以為忠於己,乃署傉檀為涼州刺史,征涼州刺史王尚還長安。涼州人申屠英等二百餘人,遣主簿胡威詣興,請留尚,興弗許。引威見之,威流涕謂興曰:「臣州奉國五年,王威不接,銜膽棲冰、孤城獨守者,仰恃陛下威靈,俯杖良牧惠化。忽違天人之心,以華土資狄。若傉檀才望應代,臣豈敢言。竊聞乃以臣等貿馬三千匹,羊三萬口,如所傳實者,是為棄人貴畜。苟以馬供軍國,直煩尚書一符,三千餘家戶輸一匹,朝下夕辦,何故以一方委此奸胡!昔漢武傾天下之資,開建河西,隔絕諸戎,斷匈奴右臂,所以終能屠大宛王毋寡。今陛下方布政玉門,流化西域,奈何以五郡之地資之犬嚴狁,忠誠華族棄之虐虜!非但臣州裏塗炭,懼方為聖朝旰食之憂。」興乃遣西平人車普馳止王尚,又遣使喻傉檀。會傉檀已至姑臧,普以狀先告之。傉檀懼,脅遣王尚,遂入姑臧。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Tufa Nutan sent three thousand horses and thirty thousand sheep to the Qin court as tribute. Yao Xing believed that this was a display of his loyalty, and he appointed Tufa Nutan as Later Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou and summoned the current Inspector of Liangzhou, Wang Shang, back to Chang'an.

More than two hundred natives of Liangzhou, Shentu Ying and others, sent the Registrar of Liangzhou, Hu Wei, to visit Chang'an and ask that Wang Sheng remain in charge at Guzang. Yao Xing was not inclined to grant the request. But when he brought in Hu Wei to meet with him, Hu Wei wept as he implored him, "For five years now, my province has been part of your state. But your authority and will do not always reach us; we must swallow bile and perch on ice, each defending our isolated cities. We have been reliant up until now upon Your Majesty's sage wisdom and virtue when you deigned to appoint an excellent governor to provide us with benevolent government, and that is why we have been able to preserve ourselves until this day.

"Yet now you violate the will of Heaven and of the hearts of the people in order to barter away the lands of the Hua (ethnic Han) people to the barbarians. Would I have dared to speak against your decision if it were the case that you felt that Tufa Nutan were really talented and influential enough that he was the best choice to be the new Inspector? But what I have heard is that this is no more than a barter; he has gotten the province in exchange for three thousand horses and thirty thousand sheep, like a deal between merchants. Do you then think so little of the people that you value livestock above them? If your army or your state want horses, you need have done no more than order your Masters of Writing to send out a command; there are more than three thousand households in my province which could have each supplied you with a horse. This would have been no tall order; the very morning that you sent out the order, you would have obtained the horses that same evening! How then can you have sold us out and given the whole place over to this villainous barbarian?

"In former times, Emperor Wu of Han poured out all the resources of the realm in order to obtain and extablish the Hexi region and cut off the barbarians, since by doing so it was as if he had cut off the right arm of the Xiongnu, and in the end he was even able to butcher the King of Dayuan (Ferghana), Wugua. Now Your Majesty has already spread your government all the day to the Jade Gate and spread your culture throughout the Western Regions. Why then cast the land and resources of five commandaries to the dogs and give over loyal and earnest Hua (ethnic Han) people to the cruel barbarians? Do you think that the people of my province alone will be the ones to suffer? I fear such developments will soon provide a great source of concern for your court."

Yao Xing then sent a native of Xiping commandary, Che Pu, to hurry to stop Wang Shang from leaving Liangzhou. He also sent envoys to bring new orders to Tufa Nutan. But by then, Tufa Nutan had already reached Guzang. So Che Pu first went to explain the situation to him. But Tufa Nutan, afraid, forced Wang Shang out of the city, then entered Guzang.

四年六月,秦遣授河右諸軍事、涼州剌史,鎮姑臧。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the fourth year of Hongchang (405), in the sixth month, Later Qin sent envoys to appoint Tufa Nutan as their Commander of military affairs beyond the Yellow River and Inspector of Liangzhou, and he was stationed at Guzang.

天賜中,傉檀詐降姚興,興以傉檀為涼州刺史,遂據姑臧。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

During the Tianci reign era (404-409), Tufa Nutan pretended to submit to Yao Xing, who appointed him as Later Qin's Inspector of Liangzhou. Tufa Nutan thus occupied Guzang.

傉檀於是率師伐沮渠蒙遜,次於氐池。蒙遜嬰城固守,芟其禾苗,至於赤泉而還。獻興馬三千匹,羊三萬頭。興乃署傉檀為使持節、都督河右諸軍事、車騎大將軍、領護匈奴中郎將、涼州刺史,常侍、公如故,鎮姑臧。傉檀率步騎三萬次於五澗,興涼州刺史王尚遣辛晁、孟禕、彭敏出迎。尚出自清陽門,鎮南文支入自涼風門。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan led his forces to campaign against Juqu Mengxun, advancing to Dichi. Juqu Mengxun withdrew into his city to defend himself and cleared his fields of grain. Tufa Nutan marched as far as Chiquan before turning back.

Tufa Nutan sent three thousand horses and thirty thousand sheep to Yao Xing as tribute. Yao Xing appointed Tufa Nutan as Later Qin's Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of all military affairs beyond the Yellow River, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, acting General of the Household Gentlemen Who Protects The Xiongnu, and Inspector of Liangzhou; he maintained his positions as Palace Attendant and Duke as before. He was stationed at Guzang.

Tufa Nutan led an army of thirty thousand horse and foot to Wujian. Yao Xing's Inspector of Liangzhou, Wang Shang, sent Xin Chao, Meng Yi, and Peng Min out to welcome him. Wang Shang left the city through the Qingyang Gate, while Tufa Nutan's General Who Guards The South, Wen Zhi, entered through the Liangfeng Gate.


別駕宗敞送尚還長安,傉檀謂敞曰:「吾得涼州三千餘家,情之所寄,唯卿一人,柰何捨我去乎!」敞曰:「今送舊君,所以忠於殿下也。」傉檀曰:「吾新牧貴州,懷遠安邇之略如何?」敞曰:「涼土雖弊,形勝之地。殿下惠撫其民,收其賢俊以建功名,其何求不獲!」因薦本州文武名士十餘人;傉檀嘉納之。王尚至長安,興以爲尚書。

12. The Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Liangzhou, Zong Chang, was planning to accompany Wang Shang back to Chang'an. Tufa Nutan said to him, "I have just come into possession of the more than three thousand families of Liangzhou, and you are the very person I had hoped to rely upon to win them over. Why abandon me here and leave me?"

Zong Chang replied, "I will accompany my original superior, but my loyalty is to Your Highness."

Tufa Nutan said, "Since I have just become governor of your province, will you give me a plan for how I can 'cherish those distant and calm those nearby'?"

Zong Chang replied, "Although Liangzhou is currently suffering from devastation, it is a region well-suited to victory. If Your Highness will show kindness to its people and comfort them, while gathering worthy and talented people to yourself in order to establish your achievements and your reputation, what worries will you have that the people will not come to you?" And Zong Chang recommended more than ten renowned civil and military gentlemen from Liangzhou. Tufa Nutan commended him and accepted his recommendations.

When Wang Shang arrived at Chang'an, Yao Xing appointed him as a Master of Writing.

〈宗,姓也。漢有南陽宗資。〉

(宗 Zong is a surname. There had been a Zong Zi during the Han dynasty.)


尚既至長安,坐匿呂氏宮人,擅殺逃人薄禾等,禁止南台。涼州別駕宗敞、治中張穆、主簿邊憲、胡威等上疏理尚曰:興覽之大悅,謂其黃門侍郎姚文祖曰:「卿知宗敞乎?」文祖曰:「與臣州裏,西方之英雋。」興曰:「有表理王尚,文義甚佳,當王尚研思耳。」文祖曰:「尚在南台,禁止不與賓客交通,敞寓於楊桓,非尚明矣。」興曰:「若爾,桓為措思乎?」文祖曰:「西方評敞甚重,優於楊桓。敞昔與呂超周旋,陛下試可問之。」興因謂超曰:「宗敞文才何如?可是誰輩?」超曰:「敞在西土,時論甚美,方敞魏之陳、徐,晉之潘、陸。」即以表示超曰:「涼州小地,寧有此才乎?」超曰:「臣以敞余文比之,未足稱多。琳琅出於昆嶺,明珠生於海濱,若必以地求人,則文命大夏之棄夫,姬昌東夷之擯士。但當問其文彩何如,不可以區宇格物。」興悅,赦尚之罪,以為尚書。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

When Wang Shang arrived at Chang'an, he was accused of having hidden away the palace servants of the Lü clan and taken authority upon himself to execute fugitives like Bo He and others, and he was kept under guard at the Southern Terrace. The Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Liangzhou, Zong Chang, the Interior Administrator of Liangzhou, Zhang Mu, the Registrar of Liangzhou, Bian Xian, Hu Wei, and others submitted a petition explaining Wang Shang's actions. This was the petition:

[It was a highly literary petition defending Wang Shang.]

Yao Xing was delighted when he read the petition. He asked his Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Yao Wenzu, "Do you know this Zong Chang?"

Yao Wenzu replied, "He and I am from the same province; he is a heroic talent of the west."

Yao Xing said, "He has written me this petition defending Wang Shang, and look how fine the literary expressions are. He must have had Wang Shang help him put it together."

But Yao Wenzu said, "Wang Shang has been kept under strict watch at the Southern Terrace, and he has not had any contact with other guests. Zong Chang has been staying with Yang Huan. He could not have conferred with Wang Shang."

Yao Xing asked, "Then, did Yang Huan help him to write it?"

Yao Wenzu replied, "The literary critics in the west consider Zong Chang's talents to be exceptional, better than Yang Huan's. I know that Zong Chang used to travel around with Lü Chao; Your Majesty might try asking him more about Zong Chang."

So Yao Xing went and asked Lü Chao, "What sort of literary talents does Zong Chang have? Who is he similar to?"

Lü Chao replied, "The people of the west praise Zong Chang for the exceptional beauty of his writings. He is our own version of Chen Lin and Xu (Gan?) from the Wei era or Pan Yue and Lu Ji from the Jin era."

Yao Xing then showed him the petition and asked, "How can a little place like Liangzhou have such a talent?"

Lü Chao replied, "I'm not familiar enough with the rest of Zong Chang's writings to say more of that. But isn't even beautiful jade found in the far off mountains of Kunlun, and doesn't wondrous coral grow in the depths of the ocean? If one had to seek people based purely on their origin, then Wenming's (Yu the Great's) Xia dynasty would have cast out good people and Ji Chang's (King Wen of Zhou's) eastern tribesmen would have expelled gentlemen. So if you seek to learn of someone's literary skills, you cannot be bothered with their background."

Yao Xing was pleased by this response. He pardoned Wang Shang of his crimes, and appointed him as a Master of Writing.

宗敞以別駕送尚還長安,傉檀曰:「吾得涼州三千餘家,情之所寄,唯卿一人,奈何舍我去乎?」敞曰:「今送舊君,所以忠於殿下。」傉檀曰:「吾今新牧貴州,懷遠安邇之略,為之若何?」敞曰:「涼土雖弊,形勝之地,道由人弘,實在殿下。段懿、孟禕、武威之宿望;辛晁、彭敏,秦、隴之冠冕;斐敏、馬輔,中州之令族;張昶,涼國之舊胤;張穆、邊憲、文齊、楊班、梁崧、趙昌,武同飛、羽。以大王之神略,撫之以威信,農戰並修,文教兼設,可以從橫於天下,河右豈足定乎!」傉檀大悅,賜敞馬二十匹。於是大饗文武于謙光殿,班賜金馬各有差。遣西曹從事史暠聘于姚興。興謂暠曰:「車騎坐定涼州,衣錦本國,其德我乎?」暠曰:「車騎積德河西,少播英問,王威未接,投誠萬里,陛下官方任才,量功授職,彝倫之常,何德之有!」興曰:「朕不以州授車騎者,車騎何從得之。」暠曰:「使河西雲擾、呂氏顛狽者,實由車騎兄弟傾其根本。陛下雖鴻羅遐被,涼州猶在天網之外。故征西以周、召之重,力屈姑臧;齊難以王旅之盛,勢挫張掖。王尚孤城獨守,外逼群狄,陛下不連兵十年,殫竭中國,涼州未易取也。今以虛名假人,內收大利,乃知妙算自天,聖與道合,雖云遷授,蓋亦時宜。」興悅其言,拜騎都尉。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

The Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Liangzhou, Zong Chang, was planning to accompany Wang Shang back to Chang'an. Tufa Nutan said to him, "I have just come into possession of the more than three thousand families of Liangzhou, and you are the very person I had hoped to rely upon to win them over. Why abandon me here and leave me?"

Zong Chang replied, "I will accompany my original superior, but my loyalty is to Your Highness."

Tufa Nutan said, "Since I have just become governor of your province, will you give me a plan for how I can 'cherish those distant and calm those nearby'?"

Zong Chang replied, "Although Liangzhou is currently suffering from devastation, it is a region well-suited to victory, and if Your Highness seeks able subjects, the province is truly full of them. Duan Yi and Meng Yi represent the hopes of Wuwei; Xin Chao and Peng Min are the greatest in all the regions of Qin and Long; Fei Min and Ma Fu are outstanding gentry from the Central Provinces; Zhang Chang is a senior fellow of Liangguo; and Zhang Mu, Bian Xian, Wen Qi, Yang Ban, Liang Song, and Zhao Chang are all martial fellows, the equals of Zhang Fei and Guan Yu. If Your Highness will develop your divine strategies, comfort the people in order to demonstrate your trustworthiness and your might, cultivate both your agricultural potential and your military power, and establish schools and centers of teaching, you will soon spread your domain across the entire realm. How would the Hexi region be enough for you?"

Tufa Nutan was delighted, and he rewarded Zong Chang with two thousand horses. He held a great feast for his civil and military officials at Qianguang Hall, and granted each of them suitable rewards of gold and horses.

Tufa Nutan sent his Attendant Officer of the Western Bureau, Shi Gao, as an envoy to visit Yao Xing. Yao Xing said to him, "The General of Chariots and Cavalry has settled into Liangzhou, and he dresses in finery and ornamentation like he is sovereign of that place. Is this the way to show virtue towards us?"

Shi Gao replied, "The General has amassed abundant virtue in the Hexi region, and he has sown his heroic reputation among the people there. Your Majesty's authority had not yet been established in that place, yet he showed his sincere submission to you from ten thousand li away. Does not Your Majesty employ talented people and appoint people in accordance with their achievements, according to ancient practice? How then has the General been unvirtuous?"

Yao Xing said, "But I have not appointed the General as Inspector of Liangzhou. By what right does he then claim that title?"

Shi Gao replied, "Truly it was General Tufa and his brothers who were the ones that overthrew the deprivations of the Lü clan and the troublemakers of the Hexi region and toppled their foundations. Though the grand net of Your Majesty's rule does spread far and wide, the fact remains that Liangzhou still lies beyond the extent of your royal rule. Was it not for that reason that Your Majesty sent a western campaign, of the same gravity as that campaign led by the ancient Dukes of Zhou and Shao, to bring Guzang to heel and had Qi Nan wield the power of your royal army to smash Zhangye as well? Now Wang Shang held only his lone and isolated city, and he was threatened from without by the various barbarians. Even Your Majesty, who has been in constant campaigns for ten years, has yet to subdue the Middle Kingdoms; Liangzhou would be no easy prize for you to claim. Thus has the General claimed an empty title and borrowed your authority in order to bring great benefit to you. Truly it is an ingenious plan, worthy of Heaven, both wise and proper. Though he says that you have granted him the appointment, really he is just responding to the circumstances of the times."

Yao Xing was pleased with Shi Gao's words, and he appointed him as a Cavalry Commandant.


傉檀燕羣臣於宣德堂,仰視歎曰:「古人有言:『作者不居,居者不作,』信矣。」武威孟禕曰:「昔張文王始爲此堂,於今百年,十有二主矣,惟履信思順者可以久處。」傉檀善之。

13. Tufa Nutan gathered his ministers in the Xuande Hall. He looked up and sighed as he said, "The ancients had a saying: 'Those who act will find no rest, while idleness brings no success.' I believe it."

Meng Yi of Wuwei commandary replied, "It was King Wen of the Zhang clan (Zhang Jun of Former Liang) who first built this hall. It has been a hundred years since then, and in that time this city has had twelve masters. It was only those who followed the path of trustworthiness and pondered obedience that dwelled long here."

Tufa Nutan praised his remarks.

〈張駿卒,私諡曰文王。張氏自駿至重華、曜靈、祚、玄靚、天錫凡六主,梁熙、呂光、呂紹、呂纂、呂隆、王尚又六主,通十二主。〉

(Zhang Jun's posthumous title had been King Wen.

Beginning from Zhang Jun, there had been six rulers of the Zhang clan of Former Liang that had ruled Guzang: Zhang Jun himself, then Zhang Chonghua, Zhang Yaoling, Zhang Zuo, Zhang Xuanjing, and Zhang Tianxi. Then there had been another six men who had ruled it afterwards: Liang Xi, Lü Guang, Lü Shao, Lü Zuan, Lü Long, and Wang Shang. This was twelve altogether.)


七月宴羣臣於宣德堂,仰視而歎曰:「古人言,作者不居,居者不居。信矣!」前昌松太守孟禕進曰:「張文王築城苑、繕宗廟,構此堂,為貽厥之資,萬世之業。秦師濟河,忽然瓦解。此堂之建,年垂百載,十有二主。唯信順可以久安,仁義可以永固。願大王勉之!」檀曰:「非子無以聞讜言也。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the seventh month, Tufa Nutan held a feast for his ministers in the Xuande Hall. He looked up and sighed as he said, "The ancients had a saying: 'Those who act will find no rest, while idleness brings no success.' I believe it!"

The former Administrator of Changsong, Meng Yi, stepped forward and replied, "It was King Wen of the Zhang clan (Zhang Jun of Former Liang) who first built this hall, not to mention the outlying cities around Guzang and the ancestral temple here. Though the spending of his resources, he thus left a legacy to last ten thousand generations. Yet as soon as the (Former) Qin army crossed the Yellow River and campaigned against Liangzhou, the state which King Wen had built crumbled in an instant. It has been nearly a hundred years since King Wen's reign, and in that time this city has had twelve masters. It was only those who followed the path of trustworthiness and pondered obedience that dwelled long here, only those of benevolence and righteousness who held fast to it. Great King, I implore you to consider that fact!"

Tufa Nutan replied, "Sir, without you here, I would never have heard such advice."

傉檀宴群僚於宣德堂,仰視而歎曰:「古人言作者不居,居者不作,信矣。」孟禕進曰:「張文王築城苑,繕宗廟,為貽厥之資,萬世之業,秦師濟河,漼然瓦解。梁熙據全州之地,擁十萬之眾,軍敗於酒泉,身死于彭濟。呂氏以排山之勢,王有西夏,率土崩離,銜璧秦、雍。寬饒有言:'富貴無常,忽輒易人。'此堂之建,年垂百載,十有二主,唯信順可以久安,仁義可以永固,願大王勉之。」傉檀曰:「非君無以聞讜言也。」(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan held a feast for his ministers in the Xuande Hall. He looked up and sighed as he said, "The ancients had a saying: 'Those who act will find no rest, while idleness brings no success.' I believe it."

Meng Yi stepped forward and replied, "It was King Wen of the Zhang clan (Zhang Jun of Former Liang) who first built the outlying cities around Guzang and the ancestral temple here. Though the spending of his resources, he thus left a legacy to last ten thousand generations. Yet as soon as the (Former) Qin army crossed the Yellow River and campaigned against Liangzhou, the state which King Wen had built crumbled in an instant. Liang Xi occupied the whole of the province and had an army of a hundred thousand at his command. Yet his army was defeated at Jiuquan, and he himself died at Pengji. The Lü clan had the rings of mountains to protect themselves, and they ruled over the western Xia. Yet their army crumbled and scattered, and in the end Lü Long bore jade in his mouth and surrendered to the regions of Qin and Yong. It is all as Gai Kuanrao once said: 'Whom fate has blessed, it too soon spurns; the wheel of fortune ever turns'. It has been nearly a hundred years since this hall was built, and in that time this city has had twelve masters. It was only those who followed the path of trustworthiness and pondered obedience that dwelled long here, only those of benevolence and righteousness who held fast to it. Great King, I implore you to consider that fact."

Tufa Nutan replied, "Sir, without you here, I would never have heard such advice."


魏主珪規度平城,欲擬鄴、洛、長安,脩廣宮室。以濟陽太守莫題有巧思,召見,與之商功。題久侍稍怠,珪怒,賜死。題,含之孫也。於是發八部五百里內男丁築灅南宮,闕門高十餘丈,穿溝池,廣苑囿,規立外城,方二十里,分置市里,三十日罷。

14. Tuoba Gui surveyed Pingcheng, planning to restore and expand his palace in imitation of the ones at Ye, Luoyang, and Chang'an. Since Wei's Administrator of Jiyang, Mo Ti, had an ingenious mind, Tuoba Gui summoned him and developed his engineering plans with him. But when, having attended upon Tuoba Gui for some time, Mo Ti made a minor error, Tuoba Gui became angry and ordered him to commit suicide. This Mo Ti was the grandson of Mo Han.

Tuoba Gui then drafted all able-bodied men within five hundred li of the capital, from the Eight Camps, to come and build a palace at the Leinan region. The palace gates were built to be more than ten zhang high, and the workers also dug out ditches and moats, laid out gardens and parks, and surveyed and raised the outer walls of the new city, twenty li square. They also established different markets and districts. After thirty days, they were released from service.

〈惠帝分陳留爲濟陽國,後因以爲郡。〉〈此莫題非高邑公莫題。莫含八十九卷愍帝建興三年。〉〈魏先有八部大人,旣得中原,建平城爲代都,分布八部於畿內。〉

(Emperor Hui of Jin had earlier split off part of Chenliu commandary to form the Jiyang princely fief. It later became a commandary.

The Mo Ti mentioned in this passage should not be confused with Northern Wei's Duke of Gaoyi, Mo Ti, though they had the exact same name.

Mo Han had served under Tuoba Yilu; he is mentioned in Book 89, in Emperor Min's third year of Jianxing (315.6).

Northern Wei had earlier established the Chiefs of the Eight Camps. After having conquered the Central Plains, Northern Wei established Pingcheng as Daidu ("capital of Dai"), and spread these Eight Camps within the Imperial Domain.)


六月,發八部五百里內男丁築灅南宮,門闕高十餘丈;引溝穿池,廣苑囿;規立外城,方二十里,分置市里,經塗洞達。三十日罷。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth month, Tuoba Gui drafted all able-bodied men within five hundred li of the capital, from the Eight Camps, to come and build a palace at the Leinan region. The palace gates were built to be more than ten zhang high, and the workers also dug out ditches and moats, laid out gardens and parks, and surveyed and raised the outer walls of the new city, twenty li square. They also established different markets and districts, and everything was laid out in a thorough manner. After thirty days, they were released from service.


秋,七月,魏太尉宜都丁公穆崇薨。

15. In autumn, the seventh month, Wei's Grand Commandant and Duke Ding ("the Stalwart") of Yidu, Mu Chong, passed away.

〈周公《諡法》:述義不克曰丁。〉

(The Duke of Zhou's Laws of Posthumous Surnames states, "One who upholds righteousness and cannot be overcome may be called Ding ('Stalwart').")


秋七月,太尉穆崇薨。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, the Grand Commandant, Mu Chong, passed away.

詔崇即鎮野王,除豫州刺史,仍本將軍。徵為太尉,又徙宜都公。天賜三年薨... 及有司奏諡,太祖親覽諡法,至述義不克曰「丁」。太祖曰:「此當矣。」乃諡曰丁公... 子孫世奉焉。太和中,追錄功臣,以崇配饗。(Book of Northern Wei 27, Biography of Mu Chong)

Tuoba Gui ordered Mu Chong to guard Yewang; he was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou, while keeping his original position as a general. Later, Mu Chong was summoned back to the capital as Grand Commandant again, and his title was changed to Duke of Yidu.

In the third year of Tianci (406), Mu Chong passed away.

When the officials discussed what Mu Chong's posthumous name should be, Tuoba Gui looked over the Laws of Posthumous Names. When he read the line "One who upholds righteousness and cannot be overcome may be called Ding ('Stalwart')", he declared, "This is the one." So Mu Chong was posthumously called Duke Ding.

Mu Chong's descendants continued to offer regular sacrifices to the spirit of the white wolf that had saved Mu Chong's life during Tuoba Kuduo's invasion. And during the Taihe reign era (477-499), when the deeds of past servants of the dynasty were being recorded, sacrifices were offered to Mu Chong's spirit.


八月,禿髮傉檀以興城侯文支鎭姑臧,自還樂都;雖受秦爵命,然其車服禮儀,皆如王者。

16. In the eighth month, Tufa Nutan appointed his Marquis of Xingcheng, Wen Zhi, to guard Guzang while he returned to Ledu. From then on, although Tufa Nutan continued to receive orders and appointments from Qin, he dressed, conducted, and transported himself as though he were a King.

八月,以鎮南大將軍文支鎮姑臧,檀遷於樂都,雖受制於秦,車服禮制,一如王也。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the eighth month, Tufa Nutan appointed his Grand General Who Guards The South, Wen Zhi, to guard Guzang while he returned to Ledu. From then on, although Tufa Nutan continued to receive orders and appointments from Later Qin, he dressed, conducted, and transported himself as though he were a King.

傉檀雖受制于姚興,然車服禮章一如王者。以宗敞為太府主簿、錄記室事。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Although Tufa Nutan continued to receive orders and appointments from Later Qin, he dressed, conducted, and transported himself as though he were a King.

Tufa Nutan appointed Zong Chang as Registrar to the Greater Staff and Recordskeeping Clerk.


甲辰,魏主珪如豺山宮,遂之石漠。九月,度漠北;癸巳,南還長川。

17. On the day Jiachen (August 30th), Tuoba Gui once again travelled to the palace at Mount Chai, then went to Shi Desert. In the ninth month, he crossed to the north of the desert; on the day Guisi (October 18th), he returned south to Changchuan.

〈自陰山以北皆大漠,有白漠、黑漠、石漠;白、黑二漠以其色爲名,石漠蓋其地皆石。據《北史》,石漠在漢定襄郡武要縣西北塞外。〉〈《水經註》:長川城在柔玄鎭西。〉

(The region north from Mount Yin was all a vast desert. There were places called Bai ("White") Desert, Hei ("Black") Desert, and Shi ("Stone") Desert. Bai and Hei Deserts took their names from their colors; Shi Desert must have been so named because of the rocky terrain. According to the History of the Northern Dynasties, Shi Desert was beyond the borders of the realm, northwest of Wuyao county in Han's Dingxiang commandary.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Changchuan was west of Rouxuan Garrison.")


八月甲辰,行幸犲山宮,遂至青牛山。丙辰,西登武要北原,觀九十九泉,造石亭,遂之石漠。九月甲戌朔,幸漠南鹽池。壬午,至漠中,觀天鹽池;度漠,北之吐鹽池。癸巳,南還長川。丙申,臨觀長陂。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, on the day Jiachen (August 30th), Tuoba Gui once again travelled to the palace at Mount Chai, then travelled to Mount Qingniu. On the day Bingshen (September 11th), he went west and ascended the northern plains at Wuyao, where he saw the Ninety-Nine Springs. He built the Shi Terrace there, at the place called Shi Desert. In the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Jiaxu (September 29th), he visited the Southern Desert Salt Ponds. On the day Renwu (October 7th), he began crossing the desert, and he saw the Heavenly Salt Ponds; after crossing to the north of the desert, he saw the Spat Salt Ponds there. On the day Guisi (October 18th), he returned south to Changchuan. And on the day Bingshen (October 21st), he came to and saw Long Slope.


劉裕聞譙縱反,遣龍驤將軍毛脩之將兵與司馬榮期、文處茂、時延祖共討之。脩之至宕渠,榮期爲其參軍楊承祖所殺,承祖自稱巴州刺史,脩之退還白帝。

18. When Liu Yu heard that Qiao Zong had rebelled in the Shu region, he sent the Dragon-Soaring General, Mao Xiuzhi, to lead troops to campaign against him, along with Sima Rongqi, Wen Chumao, and Shi Yanzu. But when Mao Xiuzhi reached Dangqu, Sima Rongqi was killed by his Army Advisor, Yang Chengzu, who then declared himself Inspector of Bazhou. Mao Xiuzhi retreated back to Baidi.

〈宕渠縣,漢屬巴郡,劉蜀分屬巴西郡,惠帝復分巴西置宕渠郡。按《五代志》,果州南充縣舊置宕渠郡,合州石鏡縣亦置宕渠郡,皆當自白帝上成都之路。〉

(During the Han dynasty, Dangqu county was part of Ba commandary. Shu-Han split it off as part of Baxi commandary. Emperor Hui of Jin further split it off from Baxi to form Dangqu commandary. According to the Records of the Five Dynasties, Nanchong county in Guozhou had originally created a Dangqu commandary, and another Dangqu commandary had been created in Shijing county in Hezhou. In any case, all these places would have been along the route from Baidi to Chengdu.)


禿髮傉檀求好於西涼,西涼公暠許之。

19. Tufa Nutan sought assistance from Western Liang, and Li Gao agreed.

沮渠蒙遜襲酒泉,至安珍。暠戰敗城守,蒙遜引還。

20. Juqu Mengxun launched a surprise attack against Li Gao's Jiuquan commandary, and he marched as far as Anzhen. Li Gao fought him, but was defeated in battle, and he defended the city. Juqu Mengxun then led his forces away.

〈安珍卽漢酒泉郡安彌縣也,後人從省書之,以「彌」爲「弥」;傳寫之訛,又以「弥」爲「珍」。〉

(The 安珍 Anzhen mentioned here must have been the 安彌 Anmi county that was part of Han's Jiuquan commandary; it has been corrupted over time by the copyists. The 彌 would have been corrupted into 弥, and from that to 珍.)


南燕公孫五樓欲擅朝權,譖北地王鍾於南燕主超,請誅之。南燕主備德之卒也,慕容法不奔喪,超遣使讓之;法懼,遂與鍾及段宏謀反。超聞之,徵鍾;鍾稱疾不至,超收其黨侍中慕容統等,殺之。征南司馬卜珍告左僕射封嵩數與法往來,疑有姦,超收嵩下廷尉。太后懼,泣告超曰:「嵩數遣黃門令牟常說吾云:『帝非太后所生,恐依永康故事。』我婦人識淺,恐帝見殺,卽以語法,法爲謀見誤,知復何言。」超乃車裂嵩。西中郎將封融奔魏。

21. In Southern Yan, Gongsun Wulou wanted to claim more power over the court. So he slandered Murong Zhong to Murong Chao, asking that he be executed. And after Murong Beide's death, when Murong Fa had not come to the capital to attend the mourning, Murong Chao had sent envoys to reprimand Murong Fa.

Thus afraid, Murong Fa joined with Murong Zhong and Duan Hong to plot rebellion. When Murong Chao got word of the plot, he summoned Murong Zhong back to the capital. And when Murong Zhong pleaded illness and would not come, Murong Chao arrested the Palace Attendant, Murong Tong, and Murong Zhong's other partisans in the capital and killed them.

Then the Marshal to the General Who Conquers The South, Bo Zhen, reported that the Deputy Director of the Left, Feng Song, had been going off and having several meetings with Murong Fa, and he suspected that the two of them were up to no good. So Murong Chao arrested Feng Song and sent him to the Minister of Justice.

Empress Dowager Duan was afraid, and she wept as she informed Murong Chao, "Feng Song has often sent the Prefect of the Yellow Gate, Mou Chong, to persuade me, 'The Emperor is not your son, and we fear he will follow the example of the Yongkang incident.' Being a mere woman, I have little understanding, and I was afraid that you would indeed kill me. So I mentioned the matter to Murong Fa, but he mistakenly believed that I meant to become part of his plot. Then what else could I say?"

So Murong Chao had Feng Song torn apart by chariots. The General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, Feng Rong, fled to Wei.

〈燕主寶永康元年逼殺其母段氏,事見一百八卷孝武帝太元二十一年。〉

(The "Yongkang incident" would have been when Murong Bao hounded his stepmother Lady Duan to death, which took place in Later Yan's first year of Yongkang; the implication was that Murong Chao would now do the same. This is mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396.11).)


超遣慕容鎭攻青州,慕容昱攻徐州,右僕射濟陽王凝及韓範攻兗州。昱拔莒城,段宏奔魏。封融與羣盜襲石塞城,殺鎭西大將軍餘鬱,國中振恐。濟陽王凝謀殺韓範,襲廣固,範知之,勒兵攻凝,凝奔梁父;範幷將其衆,攻梁父,克之。法出奔魏,凝出奔秦。慕容鎭克青州,鍾殺其妻子,爲地道以出,與高都公始皆奔秦。秦以鍾爲始平太守,凝爲侍中。

22. Murong Chao sent Murong Zhen to attack Qingzhou, Murong Yu to attack Xuzhou, and Han Fan and the Deputy Director of the Right and Prince of Jiyang, Murong Ning, to attack Yanzhou.

Murong Yu took Jucheng, and Duan Hong fled to Wei.

Feng Rong led a group of bandits to launch a surprise attack against the city of Shisai, where they killed Southern Yan's Grand General Who Guards The West, Yu Yu. All those within Southern Yan shook with fear.

Murong Ning plotted to kill Han Fan and then launch a surprise attack against the Southern Yan capital at Guzang. But Han Fan found out about the plot, and he ordered his troops to attack Murong Ning, who fled to Liangfu. Han Fan took over his remaining soldiers, then attacked Liangfu and took it. Murong Fa fled to Wei, while Murong Ning fled to Qin.

Murong Zhen took Yanzhou. Murong Zhong killed his wife and children, then escaped the city through a tunnel and fled to Qin along with the Duke of Gaodu, Murong Shi.

Qin appointed Murong Zhong as their Administrator of Shiping and Murong Ning as one of their Palace Attendants.

〈南燕青州刺史鎭東萊,徐州刺史鎭莒城,兗州刺史鎭梁父。〉

(According to Southern Yan's administrative structure, their Inspector of Qingzhou governed from Donglai, their Inspector of Xuzhou governed from Jucheng, and their Inspector of Yanzhou governed from Liangfu.)


慕容超司徒、北地王鐘,右僕射、濟陽王嶷,高都公始,皆來奔。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Murong Chao's Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, his Deputy Director of the Right and Prince of Jiyang, Murong Ni, and his Duke of Gaodu, Murong Shi, all fled to Yao Xing.


南燕主超好變更舊制,朝野多不悅;又欲復肉刑,增置烹轘之法,衆議不合而止。

23. Murong Chao enjoyed changing and modifying the existing systems, and many people both within the court and far afield were displeased with him. Murong Chao even wished to reinstitute corporal punishment and employ boiling and quartering as regular methods of execution. But many people did not agree with this, so he gave it up.

〈轘,車裂也。〉

(Quartering means the chelie execution method, that is, being torn apart by chariots.)


冬,十月,封孚卒。

24. In winter, the tenth month, Feng Fu passed away.

〈慕容超之立,雖非少主,乃國疑而大臣未附之時,超不能推心和輯,使之阻兵,以至於奔亡,超誰與立哉!雖劉裕之兵未至,固知其必滅矣。〉

(Although Murong Chao was not a child when he came to the throne of Southern Yan, the state was still uncertain about him, and the major ministers had not yet gravitated to him. Yet rather than try to win them over and allay their concerns, Murong Chao sent soldiers against them, to the extent of driving them either off into exile or to their doom. Who then was left to support him in his rule? So by this point, even before Liu Yu had sent a single soldier against him, one could already be sure that Murong Chao's fate was sealed.)


尚書論建義功,奏封劉裕豫章郡公,劉毅南平郡公,何無忌安成郡公,自餘封賞有差。

25. In Jin, the Masters of Writing discussed who had performed great deeds during the uprising against Huan Xuan. Liu Yu was appointed as Duke of Yuzhang commandary, Liu Yi was appointed as Duke of Nanping commandary, and He Wuji was appointed as Duke of Ancheng commandary. Others were granted similar rewards as appropriate.

〈【章:甲十一行本「成」作「城」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(Some versions list the name of He Wuji's fief as 安城 Ancheng commandary rather than 安成 Ancheng commandary.)


冬十月,論匡復之功,封車騎將軍劉裕爲豫章郡公,撫軍將軍劉毅南平郡公,右將軍何無忌安成郡公,自餘封賞各有差。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, discussions were held on who had performed great deeds during the uprising against Huan Xuan. The General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu, was appointed as Duke of Yuzhang commandary. The General Who Nurtures The Army, Liu Yi, was appointed as Duke of Nanping commandary. The General of the Right, He Wuji, was appointed as Duke of Ancheng commandary. Others were granted similar rewards as appropriate.

以平桓玄功,封西華縣五等子。(Book of Liu-Song 42, Biography of Liu Muzhi)

For his achievements in the campaign against Huan Xuan, Liu Muzhi was appointed as Viscount of the fifth rank of Xihua county.

以義功封東興縣侯,食邑千戶。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

For his achievements in the uprising, Liu Huaisu was appointed as Marquis of Dongxing county, with a fief of a thousand households.

以義勳封新興縣五等侯。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

For his achievements in the uprising, Liu Daolian was appointed as Marquis of the fifth rank of Xinxing county.

以義勳封華容縣公,食邑三千戶。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

For his achievements in the uprising, Liu Daogui was appointed as Duke of Huarong county, with a fief of three thousand households.

以匡復功,封南平郡開國公,兼都督宣城軍事,給鼓吹一部。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

For his achievements in rectifying and restoring the dynasty, Liu Yi was appointed as Duke of Nanping commandary and granted a separate fiefdom; he was also appointed as Commander of military affairs in Xuancheng, and granted a band of drummers and blowers.

以興復之功,封安成郡開國公,食邑三千戶,增督司州之弘農揚州之松滋,加散騎侍郎,進鎮南將軍。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

For his achievements in the uprising, He Wuji was appointed as Duke of Ancheng commandary and granted a separate fiefdom, with an overall fief of three thousand households, and he had Hongnong commandary in Sizhou and Songzi commandary in Yangzhou added to his sphere of authority as Commander (below, #31). He was promoted to be a Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, then promoted again as General Who Guards The South.


梁州刺史劉稚反,劉毅遣將討禽之。

26. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Liu Zhi, rebelled. Liu Yi sent a general to campaign against and capture him.

梁州刺史劉稚反,毅遣將討擒之。初,桓玄于南州起齋,悉畫盤龍於其上,號為盤龍齋。毅小字盤龍,至是,遂居之。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

The Inspector of Lianzhou, Liu Zhi, rebelled. Liu Yi sent a general to campaign against and capture him.

Earlier, Huan Xuan had built a residence in the southern province, all painted overtop with coiled dragons, which he named the Coiled Dragon Chamber. Liu Yi's childhood name had been Panlong ("Coiled Dragon"), and at this time, he indeed took up residence at this place.


庚申,魏主珪還平城。

27. On the day Gengshen (November 14th), Tuoba Gui returned to Pingcheng.

冬十月庚申,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Gengshen (November 14th), Tuoba Gui returned to the capital.


乙亥,以左將軍孔安國爲尚書左僕射。

28. On the day Yihai (?), Jin’s General of the Left, Kong Anguo, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

乙亥,以左將軍孔安國爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Yihai (?), the General of the Left, Kong Anguo, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


十一月,禿髮傉檀遷于姑臧。

29. In the eleventh month, Tufa Nutan moved his capital to Guzang.

十一月,遷於姑臧。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the eleventh month, Tufa Nutan moved his capital to Guzang.


乞伏乾歸入朝于秦。

30. Qifu Gangui returned to the Qin court at Chang'an.

十九年五月,苑川地震裂。十一月,又朝於長安。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the nineteenth year of Taichu (406), in the fifth month, the earth shook at Yuanchuan.

In the eleventh month, Qifu Gangui once again went to the Later Qin court at Chang'an.

既而苑川地震裂生毛,狐雉入於寢內,乾歸甚惡之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Later, the earth shook at Yuanchuan; hair sprouted from the ground, and foxes and pheasants fled into the bedchamber. Qifu Gangui was greatly disturbed by this event.


十二月,以何無忌爲都督荊‧江‧豫三州八郡軍事、江州刺史。

31. In the twelfth month, He Wuji was appointed as Commander of military affairs in eight commandaries in Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, and Yuzhou and as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

〈八郡,蓋荊州之武昌,江州之尋陽、豫章、廬陵、臨川、鄱陽、南康,豫州之晉熙。〉

(These eight commandaries must have been Wuchang in Jingzhou, Xunyang, Yuzhang, Luling, Linchuan, Poyang, and Nankang in Jiangzhou, and Jinxi in Yuzhou.)


義熙二年,遷都督江荊二州江夏隨義陽綏安豫州西陽新蔡汝南潁川八郡軍事、江州刺史,將軍、持節如故。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of He Wuji)

In the second year of Yixi (406), He Wuji was transferred to be Commander of military affairs in eight commandaries: Jiangxia, Sui, Yiyang, and Sui'an in Jiangzhou and Jingzhou and Xiyang, Xincai, Runan, and Yingchuan in Yuzhou. He was also appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou, while keeping his original positions as General and Credential Bearer.


是歲,桓石綏與司馬國璠、陳襲聚衆胡桃山爲寇,劉毅遣司馬劉懷肅討破之。石綏,石生之弟也。

32. During this year, Huan Shisui joined with Sima Guofan and Chen Xi to gather an army at Mount Hutao and invade Jin. Liu Yi sent his Marshal, Liu Huaisu, to campaign against and rout them. This Huan Shisui was the younger brother of Huan Shisheng.

〈胡桃山當在歷陽郡界。〉

(Mount Hutao was within Liyang commandary.)


二年,又領劉毅撫軍司馬,軍、郡如故... 其冬,桓石綏、司馬國璠、陳襲於胡桃山聚眾為寇,懷肅率步騎討破之。江淮間群蠻及桓氏餘黨為亂,自請出討,既行失旨,毅上表免懷肅官。三年,卒,時年四十一。追贈左將軍。無子,弟懷慎以子蔚祖嗣封,官至江夏內史。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Huaisu)

In the second year of Yixi (406), Liu Huaisu was appointed as Liu Yi's acting Marshal in his capacity as General Who Nurtures The Army, while keeping his original positions as General Who Upholds The State and Administrator of Huainan and LIyang.

That winter, Huan Shisui, Sima Guofan, and Chen Xi gathered an army at Mount Hutao and invaded Jin. Liu Huaisu led horse and foot to campaign against and rout them.

The various tribes and remaining partisans of the Huan clan continued to cause trouble in the regions between the Yangzi and the Huai River. Liu Huaisu asked to go out and campaign against them. But when he violated a decree, Liu Yi sent up a petition stripping Liu Huaisu of office.

In the third year of Yixi (407), Liu Huaisu passed away; he was forty years old. He was posthumously appointed as General of the Left. Because he had no sons, his younger brother Liu Huaishen's son Liu Weizu succeeded him. Liu Weizu rose in office as high as Interior Minister of Jiangxia.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Apr 19, 2019 9:59 pm, edited 26 times in total.
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BOOK 114

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat Feb 23, 2019 8:17 pm

三年(丁未、四○七)

The Third Year of Yixi (The Dingwei Year, 407 AD)


春,正月,辛丑朔,燕大赦,改元建始。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou (?), a general amnesty was declared in Yan, and their reign era title was changed to the first year of Jianshi.

五年十月,擬鄴之鳳陽作弘光門,累級三層。建始元年正月,大赦天下。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

In the fifth year of Guangshi (405), the tenth month, Murong Xi built the Hongguang Gate at Fengyang at Ye; it towered three stories tall.

In the first year of Jianshi (407), in the first month, Murong Xi declared a general amnesty.

改年為建始。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianshi.

擬鄴之鳳陽門,作弘光門,累級三層。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi built the Hongguang Gate at Fengyang Gate at Ye; it towered three stories tall.


秦王興以乞伏乾歸寖強難制,留爲主客尚書,以其世子熾磐行西夷校尉,監其部衆。

2. Yao Xing felt that Qifu Gangui was gradually regaining his strength and becoming difficult to control. So he detained Qifu Gangui at Chang'an, keeping him as a Master of Writing of the Guests and Host Bureau, while appointing his heir Qifu Chipan as acting Colonel of Western Yi Tribes and leaving him in charge of Qifu Gangui's forces.

〈漢成帝置四曹尚書,其四曰主客,主外國夷狄事。〉〈是後秦政漸衰,熾磐日以盛,而乾歸亦不可得而留矣。〉

(Emperor Cheng of Han had established Four Bureaus of the Masters of Writing, the fourth of which being called the Bureau of Guests and Host; it dealt with relations with foreign tribes outside of the state.

From this time on, Later Qin's government gradually weakened while Qifu Chipan's strength gradually rose. However, Qifu Gangui still had no choice but to remain in Chang'an.)


二十年,姚興慮乾歸終為西州之患,留拜主客尚書,以其子熾盤為西夷校尉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the twentieth year of Taichu (407), Yao Xing was worried that Qifu Gangui would eventually become a threat to his western provinces. So he detained Qifu Gangui at Chang'an, keeping him as a Master of Writing of the Guests and Host Bureau, while appointing his son Qifu Chipan as Colonel of Western Yi Tribes.

姚興慮乾歸終為西州之患,因其朝也,興留為主客尚書,以熾磐為建武將軍、行西夷校尉,監撫其眾。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing was worried that Qifu Gangui would eventually become a threat to his western provinces. So while Qifu Gangui was at his court at Chang'an, Yao Xing detained him there, keeping him as a Master of Writing of the Guests and Host Bureau, while appointing Qifu Chipan as Later Qin's General Who Establishes Valor and provisional Colonel of Western Yi Tribes and leaving him in charge of Qifu Gangui's forces.

又拜建武將軍、行西夷校尉,留其眾鎮苑川。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

Yao Xing later appointed Qifu Chipan as his General Who Establishes Valor and acting Colonel of Western Yi Tribes and stationed him in command of Qifu Gangui's forces at Yuanchuan.


二月,己酉,劉裕詣建康,固辭新所除官,欲詣廷尉;詔從其所守,裕乃還丹徒。

3. In the second month, on the day Jiyou (March 3rd), Liu Yu paid a visit to Jiankang. He declined all of the titles to which he had recently been appointed, and he asked to present himself to the Minister of Justice. The court accepted his reservations, and Liu Yu then returned to Dantu.

三年春二月己酉,車騎將軍劉裕來朝。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Yixi (407), in spring, the second month, on the day Jiyou (March 3rd), the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu, came to court.


魏主珪立其子脩爲河間王,處文爲長樂王,連爲廣平王,黎爲京兆王。

4. Among his sons, Tuoba Gui appointed Tuoba Xiu as Prince of Hejian, Tuoba Chuwen as Prince of Changle, Tuoba Lian as Prince of Guangping, and Tuoba Li as Prince of Jingzhao.

四年春二月,封皇子脩為河間王,處文為長樂王,連為廣平王,黎為京兆王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fourth year of Tianci (407), in spring, the second month, among his sons, Tuoba Gui appointed Tuoba Xiu as Prince of Hejian, Tuoba Chuwen as Prince of Changle, Tuoba Lian as Prince of Guangping, and Tuoba Li as Prince of Jingzhao.


殷仲文素有才望,自謂宜當朝政,悒悒不得志;出爲東陽太守,尤不樂。何無忌素慕其名;東陽,無忌所統,仲文許便道脩謁,無忌喜,欽遲之。而仲文失志恍惚,遂不過府;無忌以爲薄己,大怒。會南燕入寇,無忌言於劉裕曰:「桓胤、殷仲文乃腹心之疾,北虜不足憂也。」閏月,劉裕府將駱冰謀作亂,事覺,裕斬之。因言冰與仲文、桓石松、曹靖之、卞承之、劉延祖潛相連結,謀立桓胤爲主,皆族誅之。

5. In Jin, Yin Zhongwen had long been renowned for his talent and influence. He himself said that he deserved a position at court, and he was disgruntled at not attaining his ambition. And when he was sent out to serve as Administrator of Dongyang, he was even more unhappy.

Now He Wuji had long respected Yin Zhongwen's reputation, and Dongyang commandary was within He Wuji's sphere of command. And when Yin Zhongwen took the time while on the road to call upon and visit with worthy people, He Wuji was pleased and admired him even more. However, since Yin Zhongwen was still frustrated at having been denied his ambitions, he did not happen to pass through He Wuji's staff headquarters to visit him as well. This greatly angered He Wuji, who believed that Yin Zhongwen had snubbed him. So around that time, even though Southern Yan was making some incursions against the border, He Wuji told Liu Yu, "The northern barbarians are not worthy worrying about; it's Huan Yin and Yin Zhongwen who pose threats to our very heart and lungs."

In the intercalary month, a general on Liu Yu's staff, Luo Bing, plotted rebellion. But the plot was discovered, and Liu Yu executed him. Liu Yu then took the opportunity to claim that Luo Bing had been in secret communication with Yin Zhongwen, Huan Shisong, Cao Jingzhi, Bian Chengzhi, and Liu Yanzu, and that all of them had been plotting to support Huan Yin as their new ruler. So he had all of them executed, along with their clans.

〈悒悒,憂悒不自安之意。仲文黨於桓玄,以才望希進而不得進,故不自安也。〉〈無忌都督浙江東五郡,東陽其一也。〉〈府,謂督府,何無忌治所也。〉

(To be disgruntled is to be upset and not settled in one's position. Yin Zhongwen had been a partisan of Huan Xuan, and he felt that because of his talents and influence, he should be promoted. Yet he was not, and this was why he was unsettled.

He Wuji was Commander of military affairs over five commandaries around the Zhejiang region; Dongyang was one of these.

The staff office was He Wuji's staff headquarters as Commander.)


誅東陽太守殷仲文、南蠻校尉殷叔文、晉陵太守殷道叔、永嘉太守駱球。己丑,大赦,除酒禁。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Yixi (407), in spring, the second month, on the day Jiyou (March 3rd), the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu, came to court. Liu Yu executed the Administrator of Dongyang, Yin Zhongwen, the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Yin Shuwen, the Administrator of Jinling, Yin Daoshu, and the Administrator of Yongjia, Luo Qiu.

On the day Jichou (April 12th), a general amnesty was declared, and the ban on wine was lifted.


燕王熙爲其后苻氏起承華殿,負土於北門,土與穀同價。宿軍典軍杜靜載棺詣闕極諫,熙斬之。

6. In Yan, Murong Xi built the Chenghua Hall for Empress Fu; he piled so much dirt at the North Gate that dirt became as valuable as grain. The Director of Canons of Sujun, Du Jing, presented himself at the gates of the palace tied to his coffin and harshly remonstrated against what Murong Xi was doing. Murong Xi beheaded him.

〈北燕營州刺史鎭宿軍。〉

(Later Yan's and Northern Yan's Inspector of Yingzhou administered that province from Sujun.)


三月,太史丞梁延年夢月化為五白龍,夢中占之曰:「月臣也,龍君也,月化為龍,當有臣為君。」寤而告人曰:「國祚其將盡乎是月苻後起太華殿,高承光一倍,負土於北門,土與榖同價。」典軍杜靜載棺詣闕上書諫,熙大怒,斬之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

In the third month, the Assistant to the Astrology Bureau, Liang Yannian, dreamed that the moon transformed into five white dragons. There was a diviner in his dream who told him, "The moon is a subject, but a dragon is a sovereign. Thus the moon turning into a dragon is an omen that a subject shall become a sovereign."

After waking up, Liang Yannian told someone, "The thing that shall exhaust the fortunes of state is this business of the Taihua Hall being raised for Empress Fu this month; it is twice as tall as the Chengguang Hall, and so much dirt has been piled up at the north gate that dirt has become as valuable as grain."

The Director of Canons of Sujun, Du Jing, presented himself at the gates of the palace tied to his coffin and offered up a petition harshly remonstrating against what Murong Xi was doing. Furious, Murong Xi beheaded him.

又為其妻起承華殿,負土於北門,土與穀同價。典軍杜靜,載棺詣闕,上書極諫。熙大怒,斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi also built the Chenghua Hall for his wife; he piled so much dirt at the North Gate that dirt became as valuable as grain. Du Jing of Sujun presented himself at the gates of the palace tied to his coffin and sent up a letter fully remonstrating against what Murong Xi was doing. Furious, Murong Xi beheaded him.

為苻氏起承華殿,高承光一倍,負土於北門,土與穀同價。典軍杜靜載棺詣闕,上書極諫。熙大怒,斬之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi built the Chenghua Hall for Lady Fu; it was twice as tall as the Chengguang Hall, and he piled so much dirt at the North Gate that dirt became as valuable as grain. Du Jing of Sujun presented himself at the gates of the palace tied to his coffin and sent up a letter harshly remonstrating against what Murong Xi was doing. Furious, Murong Xi beheaded him.


苻氏嘗季夏思凍魚,仲冬須生地黃,熙下有司切責不得而斬之。

7. Empress Fu once desired to have jellied fish during the height of summer, and she once asked to have fresh Rehmannia roots during the dead of winter. Since these things could not be provided, Murong Xi blamed the officials and executed some of them.

〈煎魚爲凍,今人多能之;季夏六月暑盛,則不能凍。〉〈《本草》曰:地黃葉如甘露子,花如脂麻花,但有細斑點,北人謂之牛嬭子;二月、八月,採根陰乾;解諸熱,破血,通利月水。〉

(Even today, many eat jellied fish, which is fish that has been soaked in water until cold. But in the height of summer, around the sixth month, the heat is too great and it cannot be jellied.

The Records of Roots and Grasses states, "The leaves of the Rehmannia plot are shaped like little artichokes, and its flowers are like the sesame flower, but it has small speckled spots on it. Northerners call it the cow-suckle plant. From the second month to the eighth month, it can be plucked in the shade, and when placed in heat, the fluid seeps out, which is beneficial for moon water.")


后嘗季夏思凍魚鲙,冬須生地黃,皆下有司切責,不得,加以大辟。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

Empress Fu once desired to have jellied fish during the height of summer, and she once asked to have fresh Rehmannia roots during the dead of winter. Since these things could not be provided, Murong Xi blamed the officials and executed some of them.

熙妻嘗季夏思凍魚鱠,仲冬須生地黃,皆下有司切責,不得,加之以大辟,其虐也如此。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi's wife once desired to have jellied fish during the height of summer, and she once asked to have fresh Rehmannia roots during the dead of winter. Since these things could not be provided, Murong Xi blamed the officials and executed some of them. Such was his cruelty.

苻氏嘗季夏思凍魚膾,仲冬須生地黃,皆下有司切責,不得,加以大辟,其虐也如此。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Lady Fu once desired to have jellied fish during the height of summer, and she once asked to have fresh Rehmannia roots during the dead of winter. Since these things could not be provided, Murong Xi blamed the officials and executed some of them. Such was his cruelty.


夏,四月,癸丑,苻氏卒,熙哭之懣絕,久而復蘇;喪之如父母,服斬衰,食粥。命百官於宮內設位而哭,使人按檢哭者,無淚則罪之,羣臣皆含辛以爲淚。高陽王妃張氏,熙之嫂也,美而有巧思,熙欲以爲殉,乃毀其襚鞾中得弊氈,遂賜死。右僕射韋璆等皆恐爲殉,沐浴俟命。公卿以下至兵民,戶率營陵,費殫府藏。陵周圍數里,熙謂監作者曰:「善爲之,朕將繼往。」

8. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Guichou (?), Empress Fu passed away. Murong Xi displayed extreme grief for her, and it was some time before he was himself again. He mourned for her like he had lost a parent, wearing his mourning clothes and eating only gruel. He ordered his ministers to visit the palace and take their places in order to weep for Empress Fu, and he accused as a criminal anyone who restrained their feelings and failed to weep for her. So his ministers all held hot things in their mouths in order to induce tears.

The Princess of Gaoyang, Lady Zhang, was Murong Xi's sister-in-law; she was beautiful and had an ingenious mind, and Murong Xi felt that she should accompany Empress Fu in death. So he tore out the felt from her grave-clothes and boots and ordered her to commit suicide. The Deputy Director of the Right, Wei Qiu, and others all feared that they too would be forced to join the Empress in death as well, and they washed themselves and waited for that final command.

Many households, from the nobles and chief ministers on down to the soldiers and common people, were moved to be around Empress Fu's tomb, and the state treasury was nearly exhausted to build the tomb, which was several li square. Murong Xi said to the chief builder, "This is how it should be. I will follow her soon."

〈高陽王隆之妃也。〉〈觀熙此言,死期將至。〉

(The late Prince of Gaoyang, Murong Long, had been Murong Xi's brother, so the Princess of Gaoyang was his sister-in-law.

Judging by Murong Xi's comment, his death was not far off.)


四月,苻后崩,熙悲號躄踴,若喪考妣,擁其尸而撫之曰:「體已就冷,命遂斷矣。」於是僵仆絕息,久而乃蘇。服斬縗,食粥。百僚於宮內設位哭臨,使有司按校,哭者有淚,以為忠孝;無淚則加罪。羣臣震懼,莫不舍辛以為淚。高陽王妃張氏,熙之嫂也,美姿容,熙欲以為殉。乃毀其襚鞾,中有弊氈,遂賜死。三女叩頭求哀,熙弗許。營陵周輪數里,下涸三泉,內圖畫尚書八座之像。熙曰:「善為之,朕將隨後入此陵。」(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

In the fourth month, Empress Fu passed away. Murong Xi was so stricken by grief that he alternated between falling to his knees and leaping to his feet, mourning as though he had lost a parent. He held her body and stroked her, saying, "She's already gone cold; her life's been cut short." Then Murong Xi himself fell into a stunned stupor, not even breathing, and it was some time before he was himself again.

Murong Xi began wearing his mourning clothes and eating only gruel. He ordered his servants to keep a close watch on the ministers who came to visit the palace and take their places in order to weep for Empress Fu; he praised as loyal and filial anyone who wept copiously for her, while he accused as a criminal anyone who restrained their feelings and failed to weep for her. So his ministers, afraid, all held hot things in their mouths in order to induce tears.

The Princess of Gaoyang, Lady Zhang, was Murong Xi's sister-in-law; she was beautiful in form and figure, and Murong Xi felt that she should accompany Empress Fu in death. So he tore out the felt from her grave-clothes and boots and ordered her to commit suicide. Her three daughters kowtowed to Murong Xi and begged for her life, but Murong Xi refused.

Murong Xi built a tomb for Empress Fu; it was several li square and contained three dry springs, and it was all painted in the likeness of the Eight Seats of the Masters of Writing. Murong Xi said, "This is how it should be. I will follow her into the tomb soon."

及苻氏死,熙擁其屍而撫之,曰:「體已就冷,命遂斷矣。」於是僵仆絕息,久而乃蘇,悲號擗踴,斬衰食粥。大斂之後,復啟而交接。制百官哭臨,沙門素服,令有司案檢,有淚者為忠孝,無淚者罪之。於是羣臣震懼,莫不含辛以為淚焉。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

When Lady Fu passed away, Murong Xi held her body and stroked her, saying, "She's already gone cold; her life's been cut short." Then Murong Xi himself fell into a stunned stupor, not even breathing, and it was some time before he was himself again. He was so stricken by grief that he alternated between falling to his knees and leaping to his feet.

Murong Xi began wearing his mourning clothes and eating only gruel, and only after Lady Fu's coffin was prepared did he begin interacting with others again. He ordered his ministers to attend the mourning service and weep for Lady Fu, with the Buddhist sramana monks dressed in unmarked clothing. He also ordered his servants to keep a close watch on the ministers; he praised as loyal and filial anyone who wept copiously for her, while he accused as a criminal anyone who failed to weep for her. So his ministers, afraid, all held hot things in their mouths in order to induce tears.

苻氏死,熙悲號躃踴,若喪考妣,擁其屍而撫之曰:「體已就冷,命遂斷矣!」於是僵僕氣絕,久而乃蘇。大斂既訖,復啟其棺而與交接。服斬縗,食粥。制百僚于宮內哭臨,令沙門素服。使有司案檢哭者,有淚以為忠孝,無則罪之,於是群臣震懼,莫不含辛以為淚焉。慕容隆妻張氏,熙之嫂也,美姿容,有巧思。熙將以為苻氏之殉,欲以罪殺之,乃毀其禭靴,中有弊氈,遂賜死。三女叩頭求哀,熙不許。制公卿已下至於百姓,率戶營墓,費殫府藏。下錮三泉,周輸數里,內則圖畫尚書八坐之象。熙曰:「善為之,朕將隨後入此陵。」識者以為不祥。其右僕射韋璆等並懼為殉,沐浴而待死焉。號苻氏墓曰征平陵。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

When Lady Fu passed away, Murong Xi was so stricken by grief that he alternated between falling to his knees and leaping to his feet, mourning as though he had lost a parent. He held her body and stroked her, saying, "She's already gone cold; her life's been cut short!" Then Murong Xi himself fell into a stunned stupor, not even breathing, and it was some time before he was himself again. He stayed with her while the coffin was being prepared, and only after it was ready did he begin interacting with others again.

Murong Xi began wearing his mourning clothes and eating only gruel. He ordered his ministers to come to the palace and attend the mourning service and weep for Lady Fu, with the Buddhist sramana monks dressed in unmarked clothing. He also ordered his servants to keep a close watch on the ministers; he praised as loyal and filial anyone who wept copiously for her, while he accused as a criminal anyone who failed to weep for her. So his ministers, afraid, all held hot things in their mouths in order to induce tears.

Murong Long's wife, Lady Zhang, was Murong Xi's sister-in-law; she was beautiful and had an ingenious mind. Murong Xi felt that she should accompany Empress Fu in death, so he wanted to come up with a crime as a pretext to kill her. So he tore out the felt from her grave-clothes and boots and ordered her to commit suicide. Her three daughters kowtowed to Murong Xi and begged for her life, but Murong Xi refused.

Murong Xi ordered everyone, from the nobles and ministers down to the common people, to bring their households to build the tomb for Lady Fu. The tomb was several li square and contained three dry springs, and the interior was all painted in the likeness of the Eight Seats of the Masters of Writing. Murong Xi said, "This is how it should be. I will follow her into the tomb soon." Those who knew about this all felt it to be a bad omen.

The Deputy Director of the Right, Wei Qiu, and others all feared that they too would be forced to join Lady Fu in death as well, and they washed themselves and waited for that final command.

Lady Fu's tomb was called Zhengping Tomb.


丁酉,燕太后段氏去尊號,出居外宮。

9. On the day Dingyou (June 19th), Yan's Empress Dowager, Lady Duan, resigned that title and went out to live in a separate palace.

〈段氏,熙之慈母也,見上卷元興二年。〉

(This Lady Duan was Murong Xi's birth-mother, as mentioned in Book 113, in the second year of Yuanxing (403.29).)


氐王楊盛以平北將軍苻宣爲梁州督護,將兵入漢中,秦梁州別駕呂瑩等起兵應之;刺史王敏攻之。瑩等求援於盛,盛遣軍臨濜口,敏退屯武興。盛復通於晉,晉以盛爲都督隴右諸軍事、征西大將軍、開府儀同三司,盛因以宣行梁州刺史。

10. In Chouchi, Yang Sheng appointed his General Who Pacifies The North, Fu Xuan, as his Protector of Lianzhou and had him lead troops into Hanzhong. Qin's Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Lianzhou, Lü Ying, and others raised troops in rebellion to support the Chouchi army. Qin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Wang Min, attacked them. Lü Ying and the others asked for help from Yang Sheng, who sent an army to Jinkou, causing Wang Min to fall back to camp at Wuxing.

Yang Sheng then reopened communications with Jin, who appointed him as their Commander of Military affairs in Longyou and Grand General Who Conquers The West and granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. Yang Sheng thus appointed Fu Xuan as provisional Inspector of Lianzhou.

〈呂瑩蓋爲秦之梁州別駕,以後面秦王興遣南梁州刺史王敏敕譙縱觀之可見。〉〈《水經》:沔水東逕白馬戍南,濜水入焉。《註》云:濜水北發武都氐中,南逕張魯城東,又南過陽平關西而南入于沔,謂之濜口,有濜口城。《郡國縣道記》:梁州西縣本名白馬城,又曰濜口城。劉蜀置武興督於漢中沔陽縣,隋、唐爲興州,今沔州城古武興城也。〉〈孝武太元十九年,楊盛來稱藩;其所以不與晉通者,以桓玄之亂也。〉〈《通鑑》以晉紀年,則以盛爲都督之上不必書晉,「晉」字當作「詔」字。〉

(Lü Ying must have been Later Qin's Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Lianzhou. We later see Yao Xing sending his Inspector of Lianzhou, Wang Min, to reinforce Qiao Zong.

Regarding Jinkou, the Water Classic states, "The Mian River flows east, passing south of the Baima Garrison, where the Jin River enters it." The Commentary adds, "The Jin River emerges to the north among the Di people in Wudu, then flows south, passing east of Zhang Lu's city, and then further south, passing east of Yangping Pass, before continuing south to where it enters the Mian River, at the place called Jinkou ('Mouth of the Jin River'), where there is a city of Jinkou." The Records of Commandaries, Fiefs, Counties, and Circuits states, "Xi county in Lianzhou was originally the city of Baima, also called Jinkou. Shu-Han established the Commanderate of Wudu at Mianyang county in Hanzhong commandary; this place was organized as Xingzhou during Sui and Tang. It is now the city of Wuxing in Chenggu county in Mianzhou."

We have already seen it mentioned earlier, in Emperor Xiaowu's nineteenth year of Taiyuan (394.17), that Yang Sheng had declared himself a vassal of Jin. So this matter of his having to "reopen communications" with Jin at this time must have meant that he had broken off his relations with them during Huan Xuan's revolt.

A slight stylistic criticism here: when stating that Jin appointed Yang Sheng to these offices, the Zizhi Tongjian frankly uses the term 晉 Jin, as though there were no superiority in Jin's appointments compared to any other state, who are also listed by their state, for instance, 秦 Qin. But we are still in the Jin dynasty section of the Zizhi Tongjian, which has determined that they were the legitimate dynasty during this era, and according to the usual stylistic practice of the Zizhi Tongjian, decrees or decisions of the legitimate dynasty are marked by the term 詔, signifying an imperial decree. But this has been neglected here.)


晉義熙二年,平北將軍、梁州督護苻宣入漢中,興梁州別駕呂營、漢中徐逸、席難起兵應宣,求救于楊盛。盛遣軍臨濜口,南梁州刺史王敏退守武興。楊盛復通于晉。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

In Jin's second year of Yixi (406), the General Who Pacifies The North and Protector of Lianzhou, Fu Xuan, entered Hanzhong. Yao Xing's Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Lianzhou, Lü Ying, Xu Yi of Hanzhong commandary, and Xi Nan raised troops to support Fu Xuan, and they sought aid from Yang Sheng. Yang Sheng sent an army to Linjinkou, while the Inspector of Southern Lianzhou, Wang Min, fled to Wuxing.

Yang Sheng once again opened communications with Jin.


五月,丙戌,燕尚書郎苻進謀反,誅。進,定之子也。

11. In the fifth month, on the day Bingxu (?; or, the day Renxu, July 14th), one of Yan's Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Fu Jin, plotted rebellion. He was executed. This Fu Jin was the son of Fu Ding.

〈【章:甲十一行本「丙」作「壬」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;熊校同。】〉〈孝武太元十一年苻定降燕,見一百六卷。〉

(Some versions list the date as being Renxu rather than Bingxu.

Fu Ding had earlier surrendered to Later Yan, as mentioned in Book 106, in Emperor Xiaowu's eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.29).)


魏主珪北巡至濡源。

12. Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol as far as Ruyuan.

〈濡,乃官翻。〉

(The first character of Ruyuan, 濡, is pronounced "nuan (n-uan)".)


夏五月,北巡。自參合陂東過蟠羊山,大雨,暴水流輜重數百乘,殺百餘人。遂東北踰石漠,至長川,幸濡源。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In summer, the fifth month, Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. From Canhe Slope, he went east through Mount Panyang. There was a great storm which washed away several hundred supply carts and killed more than a hundred people. Tuoba Gui then went northeast, across Shi Desert, and came as far as Changchuan, where he visited Ruyuan.


魏常山王遵以罪賜死。

13. Wei's Prince of Changshan, Tuoba Zun, was charged with a crime and ordered to commit suicide.

常山王遵有罪賜死。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

The Prince of Changshan, Tuoba Zun, was charged with a crime and ordered to commit suicide.

遵好酒,天賜四年,坐醉亂失禮於太原公主,賜死,葬以庶人禮。(Book of Northern Wei 15, Biography of Tuoba Zun)

Tuoba Zun was fond of wine, and in the fourth year of Tianci (407), he was charged with committing improprieties against Princess Taiyuan while drunk. He was forced to commit suicide, and he was buried with the rites fit for a commoner.


初,魏主珪滅劉衞辰,其子勃勃奔秦,秦高平公沒弈干以女妻之。勃勃魁岸,美容儀,性辯慧,秦王興見而奇之,與論軍國大事,寵遇踰於勳舊。興弟邕曰:「勃勃不可近也。」興曰:「勃勃有濟世之才,吾方與之平天下,柰何逆忌之!」乃以爲安遠將軍,使助沒弈干鎭高平,以三城、朔方雜夷及衞辰部衆三萬配之,使伺魏間隙。邕固爭以爲不可。興曰:「卿何以知其爲人?」邕曰:「勃勃奉上慢,御衆殘,貪猾不仁,輕爲去就;寵之踰分,恐終爲邊患。」興乃止;久之,竟以勃勃爲安北將軍、五原公,配以三交五部鮮卑及雜虜二萬餘落,鎭朔方。

14. It was earlier mentioned that after Tuoba Gui had conquered Liu Weichen and slaughtered his clan, Liu Weichen's son Liu Bobo had fled to Qin, where Qin's Duke of Gaoping, Mei Yigan, had given him his daughter as a wife.

This Liu Bobo grew into a sturdy fellow, with a fine and beautiful appearance, and he was naturally quick and clever. Yao Xing marveled at him when he saw him; he discussed the great affairs of army and state with him, and he favored Liu Bobo more than his senior ministers.

Yao Xing's younger brother Yao Yong warned him, "You should not let Liu Bobo get so close to you."

But Yao Xing replied, "Liu Bobo has the talents to help guide us out of this age of turmoil, and I intend to settle the realm together with him. How can you be so suspicious of him?" And he appointed Liu Bobo as General Who Maintains Distant Places and sent him to help Mei Yigan guard Gaoping. He assigned the various tribal people of Sancheng and Shuofang and thirty thousand soldiers from Liu Weichen's former command to Liu Bobo and had him watch and guard the border with Wei.

Yao Yong continued to object to this policy, saying that it should not be done. Yao Xing asked him, "How can you be so sure what kind of person he is?"

Yao Yong replied, "Liu Bobo is sluggish in respecting his superiors and severe in treating his soldiers; he is corrupt, crafty, lacking in benevolence, and quick to resign his positions. Yet you favor him more than he deserves. I fear he will eventually become a threat on our border."

So Yao Xing stopped for the moment. But before long, he appointed Liu Bobo as General Who Maintains The North and Duke of Wuyuan and assigned him the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu of Sanjiao and more than twenty thousand tribes of the tribal people and stationed him at Shuofang.

〈見一百七卷孝武太元十六年。〉〈魏收《地形志》,偏城郡廣武縣有三城。唐延州豐林縣,古廣武縣地。〉〈爲勃勃病秦,興悔不用邕言張本。〉

(Tuoba Gui's conquest of Liu Weichen's domain is mentioned in Book 107, in Emperor Xiaowu's sixteenth year of Taiyuan (391.20-21).

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a city of Sancheng in Guangwu county in Piancheng commandary. Fenglin county in Tang's Yanzhou was where Guangwu county had once been.

Yao Xing would regret not having followed Yao Yong's advice when Helian Bobo indeed became a plague against Later Qin.)


姚興以勃勃為持節安北將軍、五原公,配以三交五部鮮卑及雜虜二萬餘落,鎮朔方。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Yao Xing appointed Helian Bobo as Later Qin's Credential Bearer, General Who Maintains The North, and Duke of Wuyuan and assigned him the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu of Sanjiao and more than twenty thousand tribes of the tribal people and stationed him at Shuofang.

屈孑身長八尺五寸,興見而奇之,拜驍騎將軍,加奉車都尉,常參軍國大議,寵遇踰於勳舊。興弟濟南公邕言於興曰:「屈孑天性不仁,難以親育,寵之太甚,臣竊惑之。」興曰:「屈孑有濟世之才,吾方收其藝用,與之共平天下,有何不可?」乃以屈孑為安遠將軍,封陽川侯,使助沒弈于鎮高平,議以義城、朔方雜夷及衞辰部眾三萬配之,以候邊隙。邕固諫以為不可,興曰:「卿何以知其氣性?」邕曰:「屈孑奉上慢,御眾殘,貪暴無親,輕為去就,寵之踰分,終為邊害。」興乃止,以屈孑為持節、安北將軍、五原公,配以三交五部鮮卑二萬餘落,鎮朔方。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo grew to be eight chi five cun tall. Yao Xing was amazed when he saw him, and he appointed Helian Bobo as his General of Agile Cavalry and Commandant of Chariots. Helian Bobo often advised him during the great councils on army or state, and Yao Xing favored him more than his accomplished or senior ministers.

Yao Xing's Duke of Jinan, his younger brother Yao Yong, warned him, "Helian Bobo is naturally lacking in benevolence, and it is hard to become friends or close to him. Yet you favor him far too highly. I think he has charmed you."

But Yao Xing replied, "Helian Bobo has the talents to help guide us out of this age of turmoil, and I am just about to take advantage of his skills and uses, for I intend to settle the realm together with him. How can I fail to use him?" And he appointed Helian Bobo as General Who Maintains Distant Places and Marquis of Yangchuan and sent him to help Mei Yigan guard Gaoping. He even proposed assigning the various tribal people of Yicheng and Shuofang and thirty thousand soldiers from Liu Weichen's former command to Helian Bobo in order to have him watch and guard the border with Northern Wei.

Yao Yong continued to object to this policy, saying that it should not be done. Yao Xing asked him, "How can you be so sure what kind of person he is?"

Yao Yong replied, "Helian Bobo is sluggish in respecting his superiors and severe in treating his soldiers; he is corrupt, crafty, lacking in intimacy, and quick to resign his positions. Yet you favor him more than he deserves. I fear he will eventually become a threat on our border."

So Yao Xing stopped for the moment. But before long, he appointed Helian Bobo as Credential Bearer, General Who Maintains The North, and Duke of Wuyuan and assigned him the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu of Sanjiao and more than twenty thousand tribes of the tribal people and stationed him at Shuofang.

勃勃身長八尺五寸,腰帶十圍,性辯慧,美風儀。興見而奇之,深加禮敬,拜驍騎將軍,加奉車都尉,常參軍國大議,寵遇逾於勳舊。興弟邕言于興曰:「勃勃天性不仁,難以親近。陛下寵遇太甚,臣竊惑之。」興曰:「勃勃有濟世之才,吾方收其藝用,與之共平天下,有何不可!」乃以勃勃為安遠將軍,封陽川侯,使助沒奕于鎮高平,以三城、朔方雜夷及衛辰部眾三萬配之,使為伐魏偵候。姚邕固諫以為不可。興曰:「卿何以知其性氣?」邕曰:「勃勃奉上慢,禦眾殘,貪暴無親,輕為去就,寵之逾分,終為邊害。」興乃止。頃之,以勃勃為持節、安北將軍、五原公,配以三交五部鮮卑及雜虜二萬餘落,鎮朔方。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo grew to be eight chi five cun tall, and his waist was ten 圍; he was naturally quick and clever, with a fine and beautiful appearance. Yao Xing was amazed when he saw him, and he deeply respected and appreciated Helian Bobo; he appointed Helian Bobo as his General of Agile Cavalry and Commandant of Chariots. Helian Bobo often advised him during the great councils on army or state, and Yao Xing favored him more than his accomplished or senior ministers. Yao Xing's younger brother Yao Yong warned him, "Helian Bobo is naturally lacking in benevolence, and it is hard to become friends or close to him. Yet Your Majesty favors him far too highly. I think he has charmed you."

But Yao Xing replied, "Helian Bobo has the talents to help guide us out of this age of turmoil, and I am just about to take advantage of his skills and uses, for I intend to settle the realm together with him. How can I fail to use him?" And he appointed Helian Bobo as General Who Maintains Distant Places and Marquis of Yangchuan and sent him to help Mei Yigan guard Gaoping. He also assigned the various tribal people of Sancheng and Shuofang and thirty thousand soldiers from Liu Weichen's former command to Helian Bobo in order to have him watch and guard the border with Northern Wei.

Yao Yong continued to object to this policy, saying that it should not be done. Yao Xing asked him, "How can you be so sure what kind of person he is?"

Yao Yong replied, "Helian Bobo is sluggish in respecting his superiors and severe in treating his soldiers; he is corrupt, crafty, lacking in intimacy, and quick to resign his positions. Yet you favor him more than he deserves. I fear he will eventually become a threat on our border."

So Yao Xing stopped for the moment. But before long, he appointed Helian Bobo as Credential Bearer, General Who Maintains The North, and Duke of Wuyuan and assigned him the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu of Sanjiao and more than twenty thousand tribes of the tribal people and stationed him at Shuofang.


魏主珪歸所虜秦將唐小方于秦。秦王興請歸賀狄干,仍送良馬千匹以贖狄伯支,珪許之。

15. Tuoba Gui returned the captured Qin general Tang Xiaofang to Qin. Yao Xing then returned the detained Wei envoy He Digan to Wei, and he sent a thousand fine horses to Wei in order to purchase the return of Di Bozhi as well. Tuoba Gui agreed to these exchanges.

〈秦留賀狄干見一百十二卷元興元年。狄伯支、唐小方被禽亦見是年。〉

(Later Qin had earlier detained He Digan when he had come on a diplomatic visit, as mentioned in Book 112, in the first year of Yuanxing (402.5).

Di Bozhi and Tang Xiaofang had been captured by Northern Wei during Later Qin's invasion of Northern Wei, mentioned in the same year (402.40).)


興弟平率眾寇平陽,太祖討平之,擒其將狄伯支、唐小方等三十餘人。天賜中,詔北新侯安同送唐小方於長安。後蠕蠕社崘與興和親,送馬八千匹。始濟河,赫連屈孑忿興與國交好,乃叛興,邀留社崘馬。興乃遣使,請以駿馬千匹贖伯支而遣狄干還。太祖意在離間二寇,於是許之。(Book of Northern Wei 28, Biography of He Digan)

Earlier, when Yao Xing's younger brother Yao Ping had led an army to attack Pingyang, Tuoba Gui had campaigned against Yao Ping and defeated him. At that time, Tuoba Gui had captured more than thirty of Yao Xing's ministers, including Di Bozhi and Tang Xiaofang.

During the Tianci reign era (404-409), Tuoba Gui ordered his Marquis of Beixin, An Tong, to escort Tang Xiaofang back to Yao Xing's capital at Chang'an.

Later, the Rouran leader Yujiulü Shelun arranged a marriage alliance with Yao Xing and sent eight thousand horses to him. But just after the convoy crossed the Yellow River, it was intercepted and seized by Helian Qujie (Helian Bobo), who was resentful that Yao Xing was establishing good relations with Northern Wei and so rebelled against Yao Xing.

Yao Xing then sent envoys to Tuoba Gui asking to purchase the return of Di Bozhi with a thousand fine horses; he also returned He Digan. Tuoba Gui was happy to exploit this division between his two foes, so he agreed to the exchange.

詔同送姚興將越騎校尉唐小方等於長安。(Book of Northern Wei 30, Biography of An Tong)

Tuoba Gui ordered An Tong to escort Yao Xing's Colonel of Camped Cavalry, Tang Xiaofang, and other captives back to Yao Xing's capital at Chang'an.

十年,與魏通和,貢馬千匹。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the tenth year of Hongshi (408), Yao Xing arranged for peace terms with Northern Wei, and he sent them a thousand horses.

至是,復與魏通和,魏放狄伯支、姚伯禽、唐小方、姚良國、康宦還長安,皆復其爵位。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Yao Xing once again established peace with Northern Wei. Northern Wei released their captives Di Bozhi, Yao Boqin, Tang Xiaofang, Yao Liangguo, and Kang Huan and sent them back to Chang'an, and they were all restored to their original ranks and titles.


勃勃聞秦復與魏通而怒,乃謀叛秦。柔然可汗社崙獻馬八千匹于秦,至大城,勃勃掠取之,悉集其衆三萬餘人僞畋於高平川,因襲殺沒弈干而幷其衆。

16. Liu Bobo was angry when he heard about these talks between Qin and Wei, and he plotted to rebel against Qin.

The Rouran khan Yujiulü Shelun had sent eight thousand horses as tribute to Qin, but when the horses were passing through Dacheng, Liu Bobo attacked and took them for himself. He gathered his forces, more than thirty thousand soldiers, at Gaopingchuan under the pretext of going on a hunt, then launched a surprise attack against Mei Yigan, killed him, and took over his forces.

〈楚白公勝所以作亂於楚者,其事正如此,〉〈大城縣前漢屬西河郡,後漢屬朔方郡,魏、晉省。〉

(In ancient times, Baigong Sheng of Chu launched a rebellion in Chu because they would not let him avenge himself against his father's killers in Zheng. Helian Bobo was another fellow of this sort.

During Former Han, Dacheng county was part of Xihe commandary; during Later Han, it was part of Shuofang commandary. Cao-Wei and Jin abolished it.)


華山郡地湧沸,廣袤百餘步,燒生物皆熟,曆五月乃止。赫連勃勃殺高平公沒奕於,收其眾以叛。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

The ground in Huashan commandary split and broke open, splitting more than a hundred paces wide, and flames shot up to scorch things, continuing until the fifth month.

Helian Bobo killed the Duke of Gaoping, Mei Yiyu, then took over his forces and rebelled.

時河西鮮卑杜崙獻馬八千匹於秦,濟河至大城,勃勃留之,召其衆二萬襲殺高平公沒奕干而併其衆。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

At that time, the Khan of the Xianbei of Hexi (the Rouran), Yujiulü Shelun, had sent eight thousand horses as tribute to Later Qin, but when the horses had crossed the Yellow River and were passing through Dacheng, Helian Bobo confiscated them. He summoned his forces, twenty thousand soldiers, and launched a surprise attack against Later Qin's Duke of Gaoping, Mei Yigan, killed him, and took over his forces.

太祖末,屈孑襲殺沒弈于而并其眾。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Near the end of Tuoba Gui's reign (~409), Helian Bobo launched a surprise attack against Mei Yigan, killed him, and took over his forces.

時河西鮮卑杜崘獻馬八千匹于姚興,濟河,至大城,勃勃留之,召其眾三萬餘人偽獵高平川,襲殺沒奕於而並其眾,眾至數萬。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

At that time, the Khan of the Xianbei of Hexi (the Rouran), Yujiulü Dulun, had sent eight thousand horses as tribute to Yao Xing, but when the horses had crossed the Yellow River and were passing through Dacheng, Helian Bobo confiscated them. He summoned his forces, more than thousand soldiers, at Gaopingchuan under the pretext of going on a hunt, then launched a surprise attack against Later Qin's Duke of Gaoping, Mei Yigan, killed him, and took over his forces. He now commanded an army of several tens of thousands.


勃勃自謂夏后氏之苗裔,六月,自稱大夏天王、大單于,大赦,改元龍升,置百官。以其兄右地代爲丞相,封代公;力俟提爲大將軍,封魏公;叱于阿利爲御史大夫,封梁公;弟阿利羅引爲司隸校尉,若門爲尚令,叱以鞬爲左僕射,乙斗爲右僕射。

17. Liu Bobo claimed to be a descendant of the rulers of the ancient Xia dynasty. In the sixth month, he declared himself Heavenly King of Great Xia and Grand Chanyu. He declared a general amnesty, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Longsheng, and he created the imperial offices.

Among his elder brothers, Liu Bobo appointed Liu Youdedai as Prime Minister and Duke of Dai, Liu Liqiti as Grand General and Duke of Wei, and Liu Chiyuali as Imperial Secretary and Duke of Liang, and among his younger brothers, he appointed Liu Aliluoyin as Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Ruomen as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liu Chiyijian as Deputy Director of the Left, and Liu Yidou as Deputy Director of the Right.

〈《史記》及《漢書》皆云匈奴夏后氏苗裔淳維之後,勃勃,匈奴餘種,故云然。〉〈《晉書》曰:勃勃,字屈孑,匈奴右賢王去卑之後,劉元海之族,劉武之曾孫,劉衞辰之子。劉武,卽劉虎,《晉書》避唐國諱,改虎爲武。〉

(The Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han both state that the Xiongnu were the descendants of Chunwei, who was the progeny of the Xia royal family. Helian Bobo, being a Xiongnu himself, was repeating this claim.

The Book of Jin states, "Helian Bobo, styled Qujie, was a descendant of the Xiongnu's Worthy Prince of the Right, Qubei. He was a kinsman of Liu Yuan (of Han-Zhao), and the great-grandson of Liu Wu and the son of Liu Weichen." Liu Wu's name was really Liu Hu, but the Book of Jin writes it as Wu to avoid a Tang-era naming taboo on the name 虎 Hu.)


是歲,赫連屈丐自稱大單于、大夏天王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (407), Helian Qugai (Helian Bobo) declared himself Grand Chanyu and Heavely King of Great Xia.

六月,姚興將赫連勃勃僭稱天王于朔方,國號夏。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, Yao Xing's general Helian Bobo declared himself Heavenly King at Shuofang, naming his state Xia.

衆至數萬,自稱天王大單于。大赦,改弘始十年為龍昇元年,置百官。以匈奴夏后氏之苗裔,僭稱大夏。以大兄右地代為丞相,代公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 16, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo gathered an army several tens of thousands strong, and he declared himself Heavenly King and Grand Chanyu. He declared a general amnesty, he changed the reign era title from Later Qin's tenth year of Hongshi to his own first year of Longsheng, and he created the imperial offices. Since he claimed descent from the descendants of the Xia dynasty's royal family by way of the Xiongnu, he declared his state Great Xia.

Helian Bobo appointed his elder brother Helian Youdedai as Prime Minister and Duke of Dai.

僭稱大夏天王,號年龍昇,置百官。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo declared himself Heavenly King of Great Xia. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Longsheng, and he created the imperial offices.

義熙三年,僭稱天王、大單于,赦其境內,建元曰龍昇,署置百官。自以匈奴夏後氏之苗裔也,國稱大夏。以其長兄右地代為丞相、代公,次兄力俟提為大將軍、魏公,叱幹阿利為御史大夫、梁公,弟阿利羅引為征南將軍、司隸校尉,若門為尚書令,叱以鞬為征西將軍、尚書左僕射,乙鬥為征北將軍、尚書右僕射,自余以次授任。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

In the third year of Yixi (407), Helian Bobo declared himself Heavenly King and Grand Chanyu. He declared an amnesty within his domain, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Longsheng, and he created the imperial offices. Since he claimed descent from the descendants of the Xia dynasty's royal family by way of the Xiongnu, he declared his state Great Xia.

Among his elder brothers, Helian Bobo appointed his eldest brother Liu Youdedai as Prime Minister and Duke of Dai, his second-eldest brother Liu Liqiti as Grand General and Duke of Wei, and Liu Chiganali as Imperial Secretary and Duke of Liang, and among his younger brothers, he appointed Liu Aliluoyin as General Who Conquers The South and Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Ruomen as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Liu Chiyijian as General Who Conquers The West and Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Liu Yidou as General Who Conquers The North and Deputy Director of the Right. Others were appointed to suitable ranks as appropriate.


賀狄干久在長安,常幽閉,因習讀經史,舉止如儒者。及還,魏主珪見其言語衣服皆類秦人,以爲慕而效之,怒,幷其弟歸殺之。

18. During the time that He Digan had been living in Chang'an, he had often spent his time in seclusion, so he had passed the time by reading through the Classics and Histories, and he began to imitate the movements of a Confucian scholar.

After He Digan returned to Wei, Tuoba Gui saw that he now resembled the people of Qin in speech and in dress. He believed that He Digan had respected them so much that he was now one of them, and angered by this, he killed He Digan and his younger brother He Gui.

狄干在長安幽閉,因習讀書史,通論語、尚書諸經,舉止風流,有似儒者。初,太祖普封功臣,狄干雖為姚興所留,遙賜爵襄武侯,加秦兵將軍。及狄干至,太祖見其言語衣服,有類羌俗,以為慕而習之,故忿焉,既而殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 28, Biography of He Digan)

During the time that He Digan had been living in Chang'an, he had often spent his time in seclusion, so he had passed the time by reading through old books and texts. He became conversant in the Analects, the Book of Documents, and the other Classics, and he began to imitate the movements of a Confucian scholar.

Tuoba Gui had earlier granted many noble titles to his accomplished ministers, and even though He Digan was still Yao Xing's prisoner, he had still been appointed in absentia as Marquis of Xiangwu and General of Qin Soldiers. But after He Digan returned to Northern Wei, Tuoba Gui saw that he now resembled the Qiang people of Later Qin in speech, in dress, and in customs. He believed that He Digan had respected them so much that he was now one of them, and angered by this, he killed He Digan.

弟歸,亦剛直方雅。與狄干俱死。(Book of Northern Wei 28, Biography of He Gui)

He Gui was He Digan's younger brother. He too was stubborn, forthright, proper, and refined. He was killed along with He Digan.


秦王興以太子泓錄尚書事。

19. Yao Xing appointed his Crown Prince, Yao Hong, as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

九年,以太子泓錄尚書事。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the ninth year of Hongshi (407), Yao Xing appointed his Crown Prince, Yao Hong, as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

興以太子泓錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing appointed his Crown Prince, Yao Hong, as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.


秋,七月,戊戌朔,日有食之。

20. In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Wuxu (August 18th), there was an eclipse.

秋七月戊戌朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Wuxu (August 18th), there was an eclipse.


汝南王遵之坐事死。遵之,亮之五世孫也。

21. Jin's Prince of Runan, Sima Zunzhi, was charged with a crime and killed. This Sima Zunzhi was the fifth-generation descendant of Sima Liang.

〈汝南王亮死於楚王瑋之難。〉

(The earlier Prince of Runan, Sima Liang, had been killed during the coup led by the Prince of Chu, Sima Wei.)


汝南王遵之有罪,伏誅。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Prince of Runan, Sima Zunzhi, was charged with a crime and summarily executed.


癸亥,燕王熙葬其后苻氏于徽平陵,喪車高大,毁北門而出,熙被髮徒跣,步從二十餘里。甲子,大赦。

22. On the day Guihai (September 13th), Murong Xi buried Empress Fu at Huiping Tomb. Since the wheels of the mourning carriage were too big and tall, Murong Xi had the Northern Gate broken open in order to let it go out. Murong Xi followed on foot with bound hair, walking behind for more than twenty li. On the day Jiazi (September 14th), he declared a general amnesty in Yan.

轜車高大,毀北門而出。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

The wheels of Empress Fu's hearse were too large, so Murong Xi broke the North Gate so that the hearse could leave the city.

及葬,熙被髮徒跣步從。轜車高大,毀城門而出,長老相謂曰:「慕容氏自毀其門,將不入矣。」(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

When it was time for Lady Fu's funeral, Murong Xi bound his hair and followed the funeral procession on foot. Since the wheels of the mourning carriage were too big and tall, Murong Xi had the Northern Gate broken open in order to let it go out. The city elders said to one another, "The Murong clan have broken their own gate; they will not return to the city."

熙被髮徒跣,步從苻氏喪。轜車高大,毀北門而出。長老竊相謂曰:「慕容氏自毀其門,將不久也。」(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

When it was time for Lady Fu's funeral, Murong Xi bound his hair and followed the funeral procession on foot. Since the wheels of the mourning carriage were too big and tall, Murong Xi had the Northern Gate broken open in order to let it go out. The city elders said to one another, "The Murong clan have broken their own gate; they will not return to the city."


初,中衞將軍馮跋及弟侍御郎素弗皆得罪於熙,熙欲殺之,跋亡命山澤。熙賦役繁數,民不堪命;跋、素弗與其從弟萬泥謀曰:「吾輩還首無路,不若因民之怨,共舉大事,可以建公侯之業;事之不捷,死未晚也。」遂相與乘車,使婦人御,潛入龍城,匿於北部司馬孫護之家。及熙出送葬,跋等與左衞將軍張興及苻進餘黨作亂。跋素與慕容雲善,乃推雲爲主。雲以疾辭,跋曰:「河間淫虐,人神共怒,此天亡之時也。公,高氏名家,何能爲人養子,而棄難得之運乎?」扶之而出。跋弟乳陳等帥衆攻弘光門,鼓噪而進,禁衞皆散走;遂入宮授甲,閉門拒守。中黃門趙洛生走告于熙,熙曰:「鼠盜何能爲!朕當還誅之。」乃置后柩於南苑,收髮貫甲,馳還赴難。夜,至龍城,攻北門,不克,宿於門外。乙丑,雲卽天王位,大赦,改元正始。

23. Sometime earlier, the Guard General of the Center, Feng Ba, and the Gentleman-Attendant of the Guards, Feng Ba's younger brother Feng Sufu, had both been charged with crimes against Murong Xi, who was thus planning to kill them. Feng Ba and his brother fled the law and hid among the mountains and marshes.

In the meantime, Murong Xi imposed repeated taxes and corvee labor demands, and the people could not bear to follow his orders. So Feng Ba, Feng Sufu, and their cousin Feng Wanni plotted together, saying, "We are already marked for death as it is, and there is no way out for us. We might as well take advantage of the people's anger to carry out some great plan together, by which we can establish ourselves as Dukes and Marquises. What does it matter if we fail, since we are going to die anyway?" So they hid inside a cart and had women guide it, and thus secretly entered Longcheng, where they hid with the family of the Marshal of the Northern Division, Sun Hu.

When Murong Xi left the city to accompany Empress Fu's funeral procession, Feng Ba and the others joined with the Guard General of the Left, Zhang Xing, and Fu Jin's remaining partisans to launch a rebellion.

Since Feng Ba had long had a good relationship with Murong Un, he acclaimed Murong Un as their leader. Murong Un tried to decline on account of his illness, but Feng Ba told him, "The Prince of Hejian (Murong Xi) is licentious and cruel, and both the people and the spirits rage against him. Heaven has decreed his end. Sir, you are really a member of the Go clan. How can you let the matter of an adoption make you turn aside from grasping such a rare opportunity?" And he lifted him up and brought him out.

Feng Ba's younger brother Feng Ruchen and others led an army to attack the Hongguang Gate of the palace, beating the drums as they advanced; the palace guards all scattered and fled. The rebels entered the palace and put on armor, then closed the gates and organized defenses.

A member of the Palace Yellow Gate, Zhao Luosheng, fled the city and went to inform Murong Xi of the uprising. Murong Xi declared, "What can a bunch of scurrying bandits like them accomplish? I shall return and execute them all." So he left Empress Fu's coffin at the Southern Park, unbound his hair and put on his armor, and rushed back to confront the rebellion.

That night, Murong Xi arrived at Longcheng. He attacked the northern gate of the city, but could not take it, so he took up residence outside of the walls.

On the day Yichou (September 15th), Murong Un declared himself Heavenly King. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Zhengshi.

〈【章:甲十一行本「亡」上有「兄弟」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈還首,自歸請罪也。〉〈雲稱疾見上年。〉〈爲養子事見一百九卷隆安元年。〉〈雲,字子雨,祖父高和,句麗之支庶,慕容寶養以爲子。〉

(Some versions add that Feng Ba "and his brother" became fugitives and went into hiding.

Feng Ba states that he and his family have no 還首; this means a method of returning and asking forgiveness for one's crime.

Go Un had earlier been injured during the campaign against Goguryeo, as seen above (406.6).

Go Un had earlier been adopted into the Murong clan by Murong Bao, as mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.34, 36).

Go Un, styled Ziyu, was the grandson of Go Hwa, a member of the people of Goguryeo. Murong Bao had adopted him as a son.)


中衛將軍馮跋、左衛將軍張興先皆坐事亡奔,以熙政之虐也。與跋從兄萬泥等三十二人結盟,推夕陽公慕容雲為主,發尚方徒五千人,分屯四門,入宮授甲,閉門拒守。中黃門趙洛生奔告熙,熙曰:「此鼠盜耳,朕還當誅之。乃收發貫甲,馳還赴難,夜至龍城,攻北門不尅。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

The Guard General of the Center, Feng Ba, and the Guard General of the Left, Zhang Xing, had earlier been charged with crimes and had then fled, fearing the cruelty of Murong Xi's government. They now joined with Feng Ba's cousin Feng Wanni and others, thirty-two people in all, to form a pact, and they acclaimed the Duke of Xiyang, Murong Un, as their leader. They drafted five thousand followers from among the guards, which they split up to camp at the four gates of the city, then led some to enter the palace and put on armor, then shut the gates to hold the city.

A member of the Palace Yellow Gate, Zhao Luosheng, fled the city and went to inform Murong Xi of the uprising. Murong Xi declared, "What can a bunch of scurrying bandits like them accomplish? I shall return and execute them all." So he gathered and put on his armor, and rushed back to confront the rebellion.

That night, Murong Xi arrived at Longcheng. He attacked the northern gate of the city, but could not take it.

中衞將軍馮跋兄弟閉門拒熙。立夕陽公雲為主。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

The Guard General of the Center, Feng Ba, and his brothers closed the gates of the city and opposed Murong Xi. They supported the Duke of Xiyang, Murong Un, as their leader.

中衛將軍馮跋、左衛將軍張興,先皆坐事亡奔,以熙政之虐也,與跋從兄萬泥等二十二人結盟,推慕容雲為主,發尚方徒五千餘人閉門距守。中黃門趙洛生奔告之,熙曰:「此鼠盜耳,朕還當誅之。」乃收發貫甲,馳還赴難。夜至龍城,攻北門不克。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

The Guard General of the Center, Feng Ba, and the Guard General of the Left, Zhang Xing, had earlier been charged with crimes and had then fled, fearing the cruelty of Murong Xi's government. They now joined with Feng Ba's cousin Feng Wanni and others, twenty-two people in all, to form a pact, and they acclaimed Murong Un as their leader. They drafted more than five thousand followers from among the guards, then shut the gates to hold the city.

A member of the Palace Yellow Gate, Zhao Luosheng, fled the city and went to inform Murong Xi of the uprising. Murong Xi declared, "What can a bunch of scurrying bandits like them accomplish? I shall return and execute them all." So he gathered and put on his armor, and rushed back to confront the rebellion.

That night, Murong Xi arrived at Longcheng. He attacked the northern gate of the city, but could not take it.

及熙葬後,馮跋詣之,告以大謀,雲懼,跋等強之。四月,即天王位...大赦,改建始元年為正始元年。國仍號大燕。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

After Murong Xi had left for a funeral, Feng Ba visited Murong Un and informed him of their plot. Murong Un was afraid to get involved, but Feng Ba and the others forced him to join.

In the fourth month, Murong Un declared himself Heavenly King. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Zhengshi. He kept the name of the state as Yan.

年號正始。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Un)

Murong Un changed the reign era title to the first year of Zhengshi.

熙之葬苻氏也,馮跋詣雲,告之以謀。雲懼曰:「吾嬰疾歷年,卿等所知,願更圖之。」跋逼曰:「慕容氏世衰,河間虐暴,惑妖淫之女而逆亂天常,百姓不堪其害,思亂者十室九焉,此天亡之時也。公自高氏名家,何能為他養子!機運難邀,千歲一時,公焉得辭也!」扶之而出。雲曰:「吾疾苦日久,廢絕世務。卿今興建大事,謬見推逼。所以徘徊,非為身也,實惟否德不足以濟元元故耳。」跋等強之,雲遂即天王位... 大赦境內殊死以下,改元曰正始,國號大燕。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Un)

When Murong Xi left to attend Lady Fu's funeral, Feng Ba went to visit Murong Un and told him about his plot. Afraid, Murong Un said, "I have been ill for more than a year know, as you all well know. Please reconsider."

But Feng Ba compelled him, saying, "The Murong clan has already fallen into decline, and the Prince of Hejian (Murong Xi) is violent and cruel; he is licentious and decadent with his women while violating the laws of Heaven. The common people can no longer put up with the harm he does, and nine-tenths of them are already considering rebellion. Heaven wills his downfall. Sir, you are really a member of the Go clan. How can you get hung up on the matter of an adoption? A rare opportunity, the chance of a thousand years, has now presented itself; how can you decline it?" And he lifted him up and brought him out.

Murong Un said, "My illness is growing worse by the day, and I will not be long for this world. You are on the cusp of establishing this great endeavor, yet you are mistakenly forcing me along with you. The reason I hesitate to accept is not for myself alone, but because I fear that my virtues are insufficient to bring you success."

But Feng Ba and the others forced him into it. Murong Un thus declared himself Heavenly King. He declared a general amnesty within his domain up until those sentenced to death, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Zhengshi. He kept the name of the state as Yan.


熙退入龍騰苑,尚方兵褚頭踰城從熙,稱營兵同心效順,唯俟軍至。熙聞之,驚走而出,左右莫敢迫。熙從溝下潛遁,良久,左右怪其不還,相與尋之,唯得衣冠,不知所適。中領軍慕容拔謂中常侍郭仲曰:「大事垂捷,而帝無故自驚,深可怪也。然城內企遲,至必成功,不可稽留。吾當先往趣城,卿留待帝,得帝,速來;若帝未還,吾得如意安撫城中,徐迎未晚。」乃分將壯士二千餘人登北城。將士謂熙至,皆投仗請降。旣而熙久不至,拔兵無後繼,衆心疑懼,復下城赴苑,遂皆潰去。拔爲城中人所殺。丙寅,熙微服匿於林中,爲人所執,送於雲,雲數而殺之,幷其諸子。雲復姓高氏。

24. Murong Xi fell back to the Longteng Garden.

One of the Imperial Guards, Chu Tou, climbed over the walls of Longcheng to escape the city and then came to Murong Xi, claiming that the palace guards were all of one heart and willing to obey him; they were only waiting for the army's arrival. But when Murong Xi heard this, he panicked and fled; his attendants did not dare to stop him. Murong Xi ran through a ditch to secretly hide. When, after some time, his attendants began to wonder why he had not come back, they all went to look for him. But they found only his hat and clothing, and they did not know where he had gone.

The General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Murong Ba, said to one of the Palace Regular Attendants, Guo Zhong, "How strange it is that, when we are on the brink of success, the Emperor has run away for no reason. Yet the people inside the city are still waiting for us all the same, and as soon as we approach, we can be sure of success. We cannot wait around for him. I will go ahead and march to the city, while you wait here for the Emperor. Once you find him, hurry to join us. Even if he does not return soon, I will do as he would wish by calming and comforting the people inside the city. After that, it will not be too late to welcome him back later."

So Murong Ba split off and led more than two thousand soldiers to scale the northern wall. The officers and soldiers in the city all believed that Murong Xi had arrived, and they threw down their weapons and asked to surrender. But, when Murong Xi still did not appear, and Murong Ba's soldiers were not reinforced, his army became uncertain and afraid, and they descended the walls and fled back to Longteng Garden, before scattering and running off. Murong Ba was killed by those within the city.

On the day Bingyin (September 16th), Murong Xi was discovered hiding in a forest dressed in civilian clothing, and he was captured and sent to Murong Un. Murong Un denounced Murong Xi and then killed him, along with his sons.

Murong Un changed his surname back to Go.

〈年二十三。史言慕容熙淫虐,天奪其魄,身死國滅。《載記》曰:自垂至熙四世,凡二十四年而滅。〉

(Murong Xi was twenty-two years old when he died.

This passage demonstrates that, because of Murong Xi's debauchery and cruelty, it was Heaven who stole away his spirit from him. And with his death, so too died Later Yan. As the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Later Yan lasted for four generations and twenty-four years, from Murong Chui to Murong Xi, and then perished.")


是歲,慕容寶養子高雲殺熙自立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (407), Murong Bao's adopted son Go Un killed Murong Xi and set himself up.

是歲,高雲、馮跋殺慕容熙,雲僭卽帝位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During this year (407), Go Yun and Feng Ba killed Murong Xi. Go Un declared himself Emperor.

遂入龍騰苑,左右潰散。熙微服逃于林中,為人執送,雲等殺之。年三十二。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi fell back to the Longteng Garden, while his followers scattered and fled. He disguised himself and fled into the woods, but he was captured and sent back to the capital, where Murong Un and the others killed him. He was thirty-one years old.

執而殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Xi)

Feng Ba and his brothers captured Murong Xi and killed him.

遂敗,走入龍騰宛,微服隱于林中,為人所執,雲得而弑之,及其諸子同殯城北。時年二十三,在位六年。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Having been defeated, Murong Xi fled into the Longteng Garden. He disguised himself and hid in the woods, but he was captured and sent back to the capital, where Murong Un obtained and murdered him. He and his sons were all laid out in coffins north of the city. Murong Xi was twenty-two years old, and had been in power for six years.

復姓高氏。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

Murong Un changed his surname back to Go.

復姓高氏。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Un)

Murong Un changed his surname back to Go.

復姓高氏。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Un)

Murong Un changed his surname back to Go.


幽州刺史上庸公懿以令支降魏,魏以懿爲平州牧、昌黎王。懿,評之孫也。

25. Yan's Inspector of Youzhou and Duke of Shangyong, Murong Yi, surrendered Lingzhi to Wei. They appointed him as Wei's Governor of Pingzhou and Prince of Changli. This Murong Yi was the grandson of Murong Ping.

〈前燕之亡,慕容評之罪也。〉

(Murong Ping had been the one chiefly responsible for the downfall of Former Yan.)


雲之立也,熙幽州刺史、上庸公慕容懿以遼西歸降,太祖以懿為征東將軍、平州牧、昌黎王。後坐反,伏誅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Un)

When Go Un claimed power, Murong Xi's Inspector of Youzhou and Duke of Shangyong, Murong Yi, surrendered Liaoxi commandary to Northern Wei. Tuoba Gui appointed him as Northern Wei's General Who Conquers The East, Governor of Pingzhou, and Prince of Changli. He was later charged with rebellion and was executed.


魏主珪自濡源西如參合陂,乃還平城。

26. Tuoba Gui went west from Ruyuan as far as Canhe Slope, then returned to Pingcheng.

秋七月,車駕自濡源西幸參合陂。築北宮垣,三旬而罷,乃還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Gui returned west from Ruyuan and visited Canhe Slope. He built a northern field palace and stayed there for thirty days, then disbanded it and returned to the capital.


禿髮傉檀復貳於秦,遣使邀乞伏熾磐,熾磐斬其使送長安。

27. Tufa Nutan now broke off his relations with Qin. He sent envoys to ask for aid from Qifu Chipan, but Qifu Chipan beheaded the envoys and sent them to Chang'an.

〈爲秦襲傉檀張本。〉

(This was why Later Qin later launched a surprise attack against Tufa Nutan.)


南燕主超母妻猶在秦,超遣御史中丞封愷使於秦以請之。秦王興曰:「昔苻氏之敗,太樂諸伎悉入于燕。燕今稱藩,送伎或送吳口千人,所請乃可得也。」超與羣臣議之,左僕射段暉曰:「陛下嗣守社稷,不宜以私親之故遂降尊號;且太樂先代遺音,不可與也,不如掠吳口與之。」尚書張華曰:「侵掠鄰國,兵連禍結,此旣能往,彼亦能來,非國家之福也。陛下慈親在人掌握,豈可靳惜虛名,不爲之降屈乎!中書令韓範嘗與秦王俱爲苻氏太子舍人,若使之往,必得如志。」超從之,乃使韓範聘于秦,稱藩奉表。

28. It was earlier mentioned that Murong Chao had fled Qin without informing his mother or wife beforehand. They were still in Qin. So Murong Chao sent his Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, Feng Kai, as an envoy to Qin to ask for them to be sent to him.

Yao Xing told Feng Kai, "When the Fu clan (of Former Qin) was defeated years ago, the musicians of their Music Bureau entered Yan. If Yan will now declare themselves our vassal, and either send us those musicians or a thousand people from the Wu region, then I will grant this request."

Murong Chao held a meeting of his ministers to discuss this proposal. The Deputy Director of the Left, Duan Hui, said, "Your Majesty, you are the successor to and the guardian of the altars of our state. You cannot demean your title purely on account of your personal family concerns. Furthermore, the musicians of the Fu clan's Music Bureau are a legacy passed down to us from past reigns, and we cannot hand them over. It would be better for you to raid the Wu region to take some households from there and then send them to Qin."

The Master of Writing, Zhang Hua, said, "To raid and pillage our neighbor is to invite a string of military disasters; if we can go to attack Jin, they too can come and attack us. This would bring no benefit to the state. Besides, how can we leave Your Majesty's beloved family under the control of another? And why should you be such a miser or cling to an empty title, to the extent that you will not humble yourself? Now the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Han Fan, and the King of Qin were both once Retainers to the Crown Prince of the Fu clan (during Former Qin). So if you were to send him as an envoy to Qin, he would surely fulfill your desire."

Murong Chao followed his advice, and he sent Han Fan on a diplomatic mission to Qin, declaring himself their vassal and presenting his petition to them.

〈長安之陷,太樂諸伎入于西燕;西燕之亡,慕容垂收以歸于中山;中山之陷,相率奔鄴,由是南燕得之。〉

(After Former Qin's capital at Chang'an had fallen to the forces of Western Yan, they had taken the musicians of Former Qin's Music Bureau with them when they left for the east. And after Western Yan was conquered, Murong Chui had brought them to the Later Yan capital at Zhongshan. Then after Zhongshan fell to Northern Wei, the musicians had fled to Ye, and from there they had eventually ended up in Southern Yan.)


九年,燕王慕容超遣使稱藩。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the ninth year of Hongshi (407), the King of Yan, Murong Chao, sent envoys declaring himself Yao Xing's vassal.


慕容凝言於興曰:「燕王得其母妻,不可復臣,宜先使送伎。」興乃謂範曰:「朕歸燕王家屬必矣;然今天時尚熱,當俟秋涼。」八月,秦使員外散騎常侍韋宗聘於燕。超與羣臣議見宗之禮,張華曰:「陛下前旣奉表,今宜北面受詔。」封逞曰:「大燕七聖重光,柰何一旦爲豎子屈節!」超曰:「吾爲太后屈,願諸君勿復言!」遂北面受詔。

29. Murong Ning told Yao Xing, "If the King of Yan gets his mother and wife back, he will no longer be your subject. You should make him send the musicians to you first."

So Yao Xing said to Han Fan, "I have already decided that I will return the King of Yan's family to him. However, this time of year is very hot. I should wait until autumn, when the weather cools, before sending them."

In the eighth month, Qin sent their Cavalier In Regular Attendance Without Assignment, Wei Zong, as an envoy to Southern Yan. Murong Chao and his ministers discussed what rites they ought to follow when officially receiving Wei Zong.

Zhang Hua said, "Your Majesty has already presented your petition to Qin as their vassal. It would therefore be proper that you face north (as a subject) and receive their edict."

Feng Cheng objected, "Great Yan has stood in glory for seven reigns! Why should we, overnight, bow down before the authority of this whelp?"

Murong Chao replied, "For the sake of the Empress Dowager, I will bow; not another word from you gentlemen!" And he faced north and accepted the edict.

〈自廆、皝、儁、暐至垂、德、超凡七主。〉

(Assuming that the legitimate line of succession for Yan ran through Murong De, then the seven reigns were those of Murong Hui, Murong Huang, Murong Jun, Murong Wei, Murong Chui, Murong De, and Murong Chao.)


毛脩之與漢嘉太守馮遷合兵擊楊承祖,斬之。脩之欲進討譙縱,益州刺史鮑陋不可。脩之上表言:「人之所以重生,實有生理可保。臣之情地,生塗已竭;所以借命朝露者,庶憑天威誅夷讎逆。今屢有可乘之機,而陋每違期不赴;臣雖効死寇庭,而救援理絕,將何以濟!」劉裕乃表襄城太守劉敬宣帥衆五千伐蜀,以劉道規爲征蜀都督。

30. In Jin, it was earlier mentioned that Mao Xiuzhi's attempted campaign against Qiao Zong and the rebels in the Shu region had been thwarted by Yang Chengzu's revolt. At this time, Mao Xiuzhi joined with the Administrator of Hanjia, Feng Qian, to combine their soldiers to attack Yang Chengzu, and they took his head.

Mao Xiuzhi then wished to advance and once again try to campaign against Qiao Zong. But the Inspector of Yizhou, Bao Lou, believed that this was not possible. Mao Xiuzhi then sent up a petition to the court stating, "Men's lives have meaning, and there are truly things worth preserving one's life for. Yet I feel that the value of my own life has already been spent. I need live no longer than the morning dew, so long as it will allow me to borrow the might of Heaven in order to execute the wicked and avenge myself against the traitors. We have been presented with several such opportunities to do so. Yet Bao Lou never rises to the occasion and refuses to support me. Though I am willing to lay down my life in the service of the state, if I am not supported by assistance, how can I succeed?"

So Liu Yu petitioned to have the Administrator of Xuancheng, Liu Jingxuan, lead an army of five thousand to campaign against the Shu region, and to have Liu Daogui appointed as Commander of the Campaign Against Shu.

〈謂其父瑾、伯璩舉家爲蜀人所滅,脩之欲致死復讎,不復求生路也。〉〈朝露易晞,言不久生也。〉〈晉氏南渡,置襄城郡於江南,仍領繁昌等縣。孝武罷襄城郡爲繁昌縣,屬淮南僑郡,今太平州繁昌縣卽其地。繁昌本漢潁川郡屬縣,因僑立而是縣之名遂移於江南。此襄城蓋敬宣以舊郡僑領太守也。〉

(Mao Xiuzhi was saying that since his father Mao Jin, his uncle Mao Qu, and their families had been killed by the people of Shu, he wanted to risk his own life to avenge them, and did not seek any means of ensuring his own survival.

Morning dew fades with the first light. In other words, one who does not have long to live.

When the Jin dynasty fled south of the Yangzi, they created a Xiangcheng commandary in the Southland, along with provisional versions of a Fanchang county and other counties. Emperor Xiaowu later abolished Xiangcheng as a commandary, merging it into Fancheng county, which was now part of the surrogate version of Huainan commandary. The area was where the modern Fancheng county in Taipingzhou is. The original Fanchang county had been part of Han's Yingchuan commandary; this one was a surrogate county which borrowed that name, but was located in the Southland. So it must have been that Liu Jingxuan had been appointed as acting Administrator of the old Xiangcheng surrogate commandary.)


八月,遣冠軍將軍劉敬宣持節監征蜀諸軍事。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eighth month, the court sent the Champion General, Liu Jingxuan, as Credential Holder and Commander of the Campaign Against Shu.

高祖方大相寵任,欲先令立功。義熙三年,表遣敬宣率眾五千伐蜀。國子博士周祗書諫高祖曰:「自義旗之建,所征無不必克,此可謂天人交助,信順之徵也。今大難已夷,君臣俱泰。頃五穀轉豐,民無饑苦,劫盜之患,亦為弭息,比誠漸足無事,宜大寧治本。蜀賊宜平,六合宜一,非為不爾也。古人有言,天時不如地利,地利不如人和。今往伐蜀,萬有餘里,溯流天險,動經時歲。若此軍直指成都,徑禽譙氏者,復是將帥奮威,一快之舉耳。然益士荒殘,野無青草,成都之內,殆無孑遺。計得彼利,與今行軍之費,不足相補也。而今往艱險,雨雪方降,驅三州三吳之人,投之三巴三蜀之土,其中疾病死亡,豈可稱計。此一疑也。賊必不守窮城,將決力戰。今我往勞困,彼來甚逸。若忽使師行不利,人情波駭,大勢挫衂。此二疑也。且千里饋糧,士有饑色。況今溯險萬里,所在無儲。若連兵不解,運漕不繼,雖韓、白之將,何以成功。此三疑也。今云可征者皆云:『彼親離眾叛。』愚謂不然。彼以一匹夫,而能致今日之事,若眾力離散,亦何以至此。官所遣兵皆烏合受募之人,亦必無千人一心,有前無退矣。為治者固先定其內而理其外,先安其近而懷其遠。自頃狂狡不息,誅戮相繼,未可謂人和也。天險如彼,未可謂地利也。毛脩之家仇不雪,不應以得死為恨;劉敬宣蒙生存之恩,亦宜性命仰報。今將軍欲驅二死之甘心,而忘國家之重計,愚情竊所未安。闕門之外,非所宜豫,苟其有心,不覺披盡。」不從。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Yu was just about to claim a favored position as a chief chancellor of the state. In order to do so, he first wished to organize a campaign for which he could claim credit. So in the third year of Yixi (407), he petitioned to send Liu Jingxuan with an army of five thousand soldiers to campaign against the Shu region.

The Academician for the National Youth, Zhou Zhishu, remonstrated with Liu Yu. He said, "Ever since you raised your righteous banners, all have fallen before you; we could say that this was because Heaven and the people stood behind and supported your cause, and your ranks were filled with those who trusted and obeyed you. Now the great danger to the state has already been extinguished, and both sovereign and subjects are at peace. Soon there will be an abundant harvest of the Five Grains, and the common people do not suffer from famine or hardship. Even the threat of bandits and raiders has gone away. We can truly say that soon there will be no emergencies facing the state. This is the time to secure the peace and govern well the foundation of the state.

“Now I do not mean to say that the rebels in the Shu region should not be dealt with, nor that the Six Directions of the realm should not eventually be united. But the ancients had a saying: heavensent opportunities cannot compare with favorable terrain, nor can favorable terrain compare with harmony among the people. Were you to undertake a campaign against the Shu region, that would mean a march of more than ten thousand li; you would be travelling upriver and through sturdy natural defenses, and several seasons or years would be required to see it through. Perhaps if this army were able to advance straight to Chengdu and quickly capture the Qiao clan, and it had bold leadership and passionate soldiers, then things could be decided in a mere single undertaking. But I have some uncertainties about the prospect of that.

“For one thing, the region of Yizhou is currently barren and devastated; the fields are bereft of grasses or greenery, and even within Chengdu itself there are pitifully few survivors. But this grants an advantage to the enemy, because it means that our army would not be able to forage enough supplies to sustain itself on the march. Furthermore, the terrain in that region is difficult and treacherous at any time, and even moreso right now, when the rains and snow are about to fall. You would be driving soldiers from the three provinces (Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, and Yangzhou?) and the Three Wu regions into the Three Ba and Three Shu regions, where under such conditions untold numbers of them will fall sick or ill and die or be lost. That is my first uncertainty.

“The rebels will certainly not sit around defending such a barren city; they will come try to force a decisive battle and fight against you with all their strength. And since we are the ones who will have to come to them, our troops will suffer from toil and hardship from the march while the enemy may come oppose them at their leisure. If it should happen that the battle goes against us, then our soldiers will panic, and there would be great bloodshed. That is my second uncertainty.

“Even soldiers who are called upon to march no more than a thousand li and are well-provisioned with supplies will still act as though they are famished. How much more will this be the case when we call upon them to march for ten thousand li, upriver and in the face of difficult terrain, and without such stores of supplies? If the soldiers become cut off from one another, or if the supply shipments are disrupted, even generals like Bai Qi or Han Xin would not be able to make the campaign a success. That is my third uncertainty.

“Those who are arguing in favor of the campaign all claim, 'Our foe (Qiao Zong) is alienated from his allies and his soldiers are rebelling against him.' But I humbly suggest that this is not the case. Our opponent was no more than a mere common fellow, yet he was able to get himself into the position he currently enjoys. That could not have been the case if he really could not count upon the strength and cohesion of his army. Meanwhile, if the government were to draft an army to send against the rebels, they would be a mere flock of crows and band of conscripts; they would not all feel they had the same cause, nor have the zeal to ever advance and never retreat.

“One who would govern a state must be sure to stabilize it within before they look beyond its borders; they must calm those who are nearby before they can cherish those who are far away. But the recent paranoia and continuous killings and execution within our state cannot be called harmony among the people, nor can the enemy's natural defenses be called favorable terrain for us.

“Certainly the two prospective commanders of this campaign have good cause for wanting to carry it out. Mao Xiuzhi has yet to avenge the slaughter of his family, and he will seek to slay his hated foes even at the cost of his own life; Liu Jingxuan has enjoyed a life of great favor from you, and he too will want to carry out your orders in order to repay you. Yet I cannot feel at ease about a plan that places the interests of these two, so eager to court death, above the greater concerns of the state.

“One who is outside the palace gates cannot be at ease; those who are set on this campaign do not realize all its concerns."

But Liu Yu did not listen to him.

譙縱反,以敬宣督征蜀軍事、假節,與甯朔將軍臧喜西伐。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

When Qiao Zong rebelled, Liu Jingxuan was appointed as Commander of the Campaign Against Shu and as Credential Holder, and he went on a western campaign along with the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Zang Xi.


魏主珪如豺山宮。候官告:「司空庾岳,服飾鮮麗,行止風采,擬則人君。」珪收岳,殺之。

31. Tuoba Gui went back to the palace at Mount Chai.

The sacrificial officials informed Tuoba Gui, "The Minister of Works, Yu Yue, is ostentatious in his dress and ornamentation, and he strikes a most graceful display in his movements, as though he were a sovereign." So Tuoba Gui arrested Yu Yue and killed him.

〈候官見上卷元興三年。〉

(These sacrificial officials were earlier mentioned in Book 113, in the third year of Yuanxing (404.69).)


八月,幸犲山宮。是月,誅司空庾岳。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui went back to the palace at Mount Chai.

That same month, he executed the Minister of Works, Yu Yue.

天賜四年,詔賜岳舍地於南宮,岳將家僮治之。候官告岳衣服鮮麗,行止風采,擬儀人君。太祖時既不豫,多所猜惡,遂誅之。時人咸冤惜焉。岳葬在代西善無之界。後世祖討赫連氏,經其墓宅,愴然動容,遂下詔為立廟,令一州之民,四時致祭。求其子孫任為將帥者,得其子陵。從征有功,聽襲爵。(Book of Northern Wei 28, Biography of Yu Yue)

In the fourth year of Tianci (407), Tuoba Gui granted Yu Yue a residence at the southern palace, and Yu Yue brought his family and servants to live there.

The sacrificial officials informed Tuoba Gui that Yu Yue was ostentatious in his dress and struck a most graceful display in his movements, as though he were observing the rites proper to a sovereign. Although Tuoba Gui was unfazed about this at first, he soon became very doubtful and resentful of Yu Yue, and in the end he executed him. But the people of that time all considered Yu Yue to have been innocent of any crime, and they lamented his death. Yu Yue was buried in Western Shanwu county in Dai commandary.

Years later, when Shizu (Emperor Taiwu) was campaigning against the Helian clan, he passed by Yu Yue's tomb, where he became moved by grief for him. So he ordered that an ancestral temple be raised for Yu Yue, and he ordered the common people of a whole province to offer sacrifices to his memory every season. He sought out Yu Yue's sons or grandsons to employ them as generals and commanders, and he found his son Yu Ling, who had accomplishments while accompanying him on campaigns and received ranks and titles.


北燕王雲以馮跋爲都督中外諸軍事、開府儀同三司、錄尚書事,馮萬泥爲尚事令,馮素弗爲昌黎尹,馮弘爲征東大將,孫護爲尚書左僕射,張興爲輔國大將軍。弘,跋之弟也。

32. The Heavenly King of Northern Yan, Go Un, appointed Feng Ba as Commander of all military affairs and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. He appointed Feng Wanni as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Feng Sufu as Intendant of Changli, Feng Hong as Grand General Who Conquers The East, Sun Hu as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Zhang Xing as Grand General Who Upholds The State. This Feng Hong was another younger brother of Feng Ba.

From this point on, the Zizhi Tongjian refers to the state that Go Un ruled as Northern Yan, distinct from Later Yan.

以馮跋為侍中、都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事,武邑公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

Go Un appointed Feng Ba as Palace Attendant, Commander of all military affairs, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Wuyi.

署馮跋侍中、都督中外諸軍事、征北大將軍、開府儀同三司、錄尚書事、武邑公,封伯、子、男,鄉、亭侯者五十餘人,士卒賜穀帛有差。熙之群官,復其爵位。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Un)

Go Un appointed Feng Ba as Palace Attendant, Commander of all military affairs, Grand General Who Conquers The North, chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and Duke of Wuyi, and he granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. He further appointed more than fifty other people as Earls, Viscounts, Barons, and district or village Marquises, and he rewarded his officers and soldiers with suitable rewards of grain and silks. Murong Xi's former officials all maintained their positions.


九月,譙縱稱藩於秦。

33. In the ninth month, Qiao Zong declared himself a vassal of Qin.

明年,遣使稱籓于姚興。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

The following year (406), Qiao Zong sent envoys to Yao Xing to declare himself his vassal.


禿髮傉檀將五萬餘人伐沮渠蒙遜,蒙遜與戰於均石,大破之。蒙遜進攻西郡太守楊統於日勒,降之。

34. Tufa Nutan led more than fifty thousand soldiers to campaign against Juqu Mengxun. But Juqu Mengxun fought him at Junshi and greatly routed him. Juqu Mengxun then advanced and attacked Tufa Nutan's Administrator of Xi commandary, Yang Tong, at Rilei and accepted his surrender.

〈均石在張掖之東,西陝之西,蓋西郡界。〉〈日勒縣,漢屬張掖郡,後分置西郡,治日勒。賢曰:日勒故城,在今甘州删丹縣東南。〉

(Junshi was east of Zhangye and west of Xishan; it must have been within Xi commandary.

During Han, Rilei county was part of Zhangye commandary. Later, when Xi commandary was split off from Zhangye, it was administered from Rilei. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Rilei was in the southeast of Shandan county in modern Ganzhou.")


與沮渠蒙遜戰於均石,為蒙遜所敗。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Nutan fought Juqu Mengxun at Junshi, but Juqu Mengxun defeated him.

傉檀偽遊澆河,襲徙西平、湟河諸羌三萬餘戶于武興、番禾、武威、昌松四郡。徵集戎夏之兵五萬餘人,大閱于方亭,遂伐沮渠蒙遜,入西陝。蒙遜率眾來距,戰于均石,為蒙遜所敗。傉檀率騎二萬,運谷四萬石以給西郡。蒙遜攻西郡,陷之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan pretended to be going to Jiaohe, but then raided the various Qiang tribes in Xiping and Huanghe commandaries. He relocated more than thirty thousand households of them to Wuxing, Fanhe, Wuwei, and Changsong commandaries.

Tufa Nutan gathered together more than fifty thousand soldiers from among the tribal peoples and the Xia (ethnic Han), and held a grand review of them at Fangting. He then led a campaign against Juqu Mengxun, advancing into the western ridges. Juqu Mengxun led an army to oppose him. They fought at Junshi, where Juqu Mengxun defeated Tufa Nutan.

Tufa Nutan led twenty thousand cavalry to transport forty thousand 石 of grain to supply Xi commandary. But Juqu Mengxun attacked Xi commandary and took it.

時地震,山崩折木。太史令劉梁言于蒙遜曰:「辛酉,金也。地動于金,金動刻木,大軍東行無前之征。」時張掖城每有光色,蒙遜曰:「王氣將成,百戰百勝之象也。」遂攻禿髮西郡太守楊統于日勒。統降,拜為右長史,寵逾功舊。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

At this time, the earth shook, causing mountains to collapse and trees to break apart. Juqu Mengxun's Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Liu Liang, said to him, "In the sequence of the Five Elements, the combination Xinyou represents Metal. The earth shaking is also a symbol of Metal, demonstrating how Metal is overcoming Wood. You will lead a great army on an eastern campaign, where no one will stand before you."

And at the same time, there had frequently been a brilliant glow in the city of Zhangye. Juqu Mengxun said, "The kingly aura is nearly complete; this is an omen of my being ever victorious."

So he attacked Tufa Nutan's Administrator of Xi commandary, Yang Tong, at Rilei. Yang Tong surrendered, and Juqu Mengxun appointed him as his Chief Clerk of the Right and treated him better than his own accomplished and senior ministers.


冬,十月,秦河州刺史彭奚念叛,降於禿髮傉檀,秦以乞伏熾磐行河州刺史。

35. In winter, the tenth month, Qin's Inspector of Hezhou, Peng Xinian, rebelled against them and surrendered to Tufa Nutan. Qin appointed Qifu Chipan as their provisional Inspector of Hezhou.

時禿髮傉檀、沮渠蒙遜迭相攻擊,傉檀遂東招河州刺史西羌彭奚念,奚念阻河以叛。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Tufa Nutan and Juqu Mengxun were fighting one another. Tufa Nutan also enticed Yao Xing's Inspector of Hezhou, Peng Xinian of the Western Qiang, who rebelled against Yao Xing and used the Yellow River as his defense.

以其子熾盤為行河州剌史。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing appointed Qifu Chipan as his provisional Inspector of Hezhou.


南燕主超使左僕射張華、給事中宗正元獻太樂伎一百二十人於秦,秦王興乃還超母妻,厚其資禮而遣之,超親帥六宮迎於馬耳關。

36. Murong Chao sent his Deputy Director of the Left, Zhang Hua, and his 給事中, Zong Zhengyuan, to present a hundred and twenty musicians from the Fu clan's Music Bureau to Qin. Yao Xing then returned Murong Chao's mother and wife, whom he treated respectfully and granted provisions to before sending them off. Murong Chao personally led the residents of the six palaces to welcome them at Ma'er Pass.

〈據《水經》,濟南臺縣有馬耳山關,盧水出焉。魏收《地形志》,泰山郡臺縣有馬耳山。〉

(According to the Water Classic, there was a Mount Ma'er Pass in Tai county in Jinan commandary; it was the source of the Lu River. And according to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a Mount Ma'er in Tai county in Taishan commandary.)


夏王勃勃破鮮卑薛千等三部,降其衆以萬數,進攻秦三城已北諸戍,斬秦將楊五、姚石生等。諸將皆曰:「陛下欲經營關中,宜先固根本,使人心有所憑係。高平山川險固,土田饒沃,可以定都。」勃勃曰:「卿知其一,未知其二。吾大業草創,士衆未多;姚興亦一時之雄,諸將用命,關中未可圖也。我今專固一城,彼必幷力於我,衆非其敵,亡可立待。不如以驍騎風馳,出其不意,救前則擊後,救後則擊前,使彼疲於奔命,我則游食自若。不及十年,嶺北、河東盡爲我有。待興旣死,嗣子闇弱,徐取長安,在吾計中矣。」於是侵掠嶺北,嶺北諸城門不晝啓。興乃歎曰:「吾不用黃兒之言,以至於此!」

37. In Xia, Liu Bobo routed three divisions of the Xianbei, the Xueqian and others; he accepted the surrender of their forces, more than ten thousand. Liu Bobo then advanced and attacked all of Qin's encampments from Sancheng north; he took the heads of the Qin generals Yang Wu, Yao Shisheng, and others.

Liu Bobo's generals all advised him, "If Your Majesty wishes to claim Guanzhong for yourself, you must first establish a firm foundation, and give the people something to rely upon. There is Gaoping; it has strong and sturdy natural defenses, and its soil and fields are rich and abundant. You might make your capital there."

But Liu Bobo replied, "You all understand part of our situation, but you do not grasp the whole thing. I have only just begun my grand endeavor, and I do not yet have a great deal of soldiers to call my own. Meanwhile, Yao Xing is a hero of the age, and he has many generals who will heed his commands. It is not yet possible for me to conquer Guanzhong at all. And if we were to muster all our forces together into a single city as you propose, then our enemy would surely send their full strength to concentrate against us at that single point; we would be no match for them, and would merely be waiting for our doom.

"Far better for us to wander and roam as we will, staying mobile on horseback. We can then act where the enemy will not expect us; if he goes to save his front, then we attack his rear, while if he reinforces his rear, we shall strike his front. By doing so, we will harry the enemy and make his soldiers flee for their lives, while we can sustain ourselves just as we always have. Within ten years, all the regions north of the mountain ranges and of Hedong commandary will be under our control. And if we wait until Yao Xing is dead, then once his blind and weak son succeeds him, then we can take Chang'an for ourselves. This is all part of my plan."

So Liu Bobo raided and plundered the region north of the mountain ranges, and all of the cities there kept their gates shut even during the day. Yao Xing lamented, "If only I had listened to Huang'er!"

〈「薛千」,《晉書‧載記》作「薛千」,蜀本作「薛干」。〉〈黃兒,興弟邕小字也。〉

(Regarding the person mentioned here as 薛千 Xueqian, the Chronicles of the Book of Jin does refer to him by that name, but the Shu edition writes his name as 薛干 Xuegan.

Huang'er was the childhood name of Yao Xing's younger brother Yao Yong, who had recently warned him not to trust Helian Bobo.)


興乃悔之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Yao Xing regretted having trusted Helian Bobo.

其年,討鮮卑薛幹等三部,破之,降眾萬數千。進討姚興三城已北諸戍,斬其將楊丕、姚石生等。諸將諫固險,不從,又復言於勃勃曰:「陛下將欲經營宇內,南取長安,宜先固根本,使人心有所憑系,然後大業可成。高平險固,山川沃饒,可以都也。」勃勃曰:「卿徒知其一,未知其二。吾大業草創,眾旅未多,姚興亦一時之雄,關中未可圖也。且其諸鎮用命,我若專固一城,彼必並力於我,眾非其敵,亡可立待。吾以雲騎風馳,出其不意,救前則擊其後,救後則擊其前,使彼疲於奔命,我則游食自若,不及十年,嶺北、河東盡我有也。待姚興死後,徐取長安。姚泓凡弱小兒,擒之方略,已在吾計中矣。昔軒轅氏亦遷居無常二十餘年,豈獨我乎!」於是侵掠嶺北,嶺北諸城門不晝啟。興歎曰:「吾不用黃兒之言,以至於此!」黃兒,姚邕小字也。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

The same year (407), Helian Bobo campaigned against three divisions of the Xianbei, the Xuegan and others; he routed them, then accepted the surrender of their forces, more than ten thousand. He then advanced and campaigned against all of Yao Xing's encampments from Sancheng north; he took the heads of the Later Qin generals Yang Pi, Yao Shisheng, and others.

Helian Bobo's generals all remonstrated with him, saying that the terrain was too difficult, and they advised him, "If Your Majesty wishes to pass through these camps into the interior of the realm and claim Guanzhong to the south, you must first establish a firm foundation, and give the people something to rely upon; only afterwards may you achieve your grand design. There is Gaoping; it has strong and sturdy natural defenses, and its soil and fields are rich and abundant. You might make your capital there."

But Helian Bobo replied, "You all understand part of our situation, but you do not grasp the whole thing. I have only just begun my grand endeavor, and I do not yet have a great deal of soldiers to call my own. Meanwhile, Yao Xing is a hero of the age. It is not yet possible for me to conquer Guanzhong at all. Besides, he has many garrisons to call upon. And if we were to muster all our forces together into a single city as you propose, then our enemy would surely send their full strength to concentrate against us at that single point; we would be no match for them, and would merely be waiting for our doom.

"I say that we should ride the clouds and roam the winds. We can then act where the enemy will not expect us; if he goes to save his front, then we attack his rear, while if he reinforces his rear, we shall strike his front. By doing so, we will harry the enemy and make his soldiers flee for their lives, while we can sustain ourselves just as we always have. Within ten years, all the regions north of the mountain ranges and of Hedong commandary will be under our control. And if we wait until Yao Xing is dead, then we can take Chang'an for ourselves. Yao Hong is a weak little whelp, and capturing him would be a simple matter. This is all part of my plan. Besides, even the Yellow Emperor himself kept no fixed residence for more than twenty years. How could I do any less?"

So Helian Bobo raided and plundered the region north of the mountain ranges, and all of the cities there kept their gates shut even during the day. Yao Xing lamented, "If only I had listened to Huang'er!" Huang'er was Yao Yong's childhood name.


勃勃求婚於禿髮傉檀,傉檀不許。十一月,勃勃帥騎二萬擊傉檀,至于支陽,殺傷萬餘人,驅掠二萬七千餘口、牛馬羊數十萬而還。傉檀帥衆追之,焦朗曰:「勃勃天姿雄健,御軍嚴整,未可輕也。不如從溫圍北渡,趣萬斛堆,阻水結營,扼其咽喉,百戰百勝之術也。」傉檀將賀連怒曰:「勃勃敗亡之餘,烏合之衆,柰何避之,示之以弱,宜急追之!」傉檀從之。勃勃於陽武下峽鑿凌埋車以塞路,勒兵逆擊傉檀,大破之,追奔八十餘里,殺傷萬計,名臣勇將死者什六七。傉檀與數騎奔南山,幾爲追騎所得。勃勃積尸而封之,號曰髑髏臺。勃勃又敗秦將張佛生於青石原,俘斬五千餘人。

38. Liu Bobo asked for a wife from Tufa Nutan, but Tufa Nutan refused to give him one. So in the eleventh month, Liu Bobo led twenty thousand cavalry to attack Tufa Nutan's domain. They rode as far as Zhiyang, while they killed or wounded more than ten thousand people and kidnapped more than twenty-seven thousand people and hundreds of thousands of cattle, horses, and sheep before returning.

Tufa Nutan led an army to pursue the Xia army. Jiao Lang warned him, "Liu Bobo has a heavenly figure and heroic talent, and he keeps his army under strict and total control. You cannot underestimate him. Rather than pursue him directly, you ought to follow the Wenwei River and cross north of it until you get to Wanhu Mound, where you can use the river as your rampart and establish camps. Then you will have Liu Bobo by the throat, and that will ensure that you can defeat him in every battle."

But Tufa Nutan's general Helian Nu said, "Liu Bobo is just the meager remains of a fallen state, and his army is no more than a flock of crows. Why should you avoid him? That would only show yourself to be a weakling. You should pursue him with all speed!"

Tufa Nutan followed his advice.

At a canyon in Yangwu, Liu Bobo carved out ice and placed carts to block the passage through the canyon, then ordered his soldiers to counter-attack Tufa Nutan. He greatly routed Tufa Nutan, then pursued his fleeing troops for more than eighty li; he killed or wounded tens of thousands, and sixty to seventy percent of Tufa Nutan's famous ministers and bold generals died. Tufa Nutan himself fled to the southern hills with several riders, and was nearly caught by Liu Bobo's pursuit riders. Liu Bobo piled up the bodies and made a mound out of them, calling it Dulou ("Skull") Terrace.

Liu Bobo also defeated the Qin general Zhang Fusheng at Qingshi Plain, where he captured or killed more than five thousand people.

〈枝陽縣,漢屬金城郡,晉張寔分屬廣武郡。劉昫曰:唐蘭州廣武縣,漢枝陽縣。杜佑曰:唐會州會寧縣,漢枝陽縣。〉〈溫圍,水名。《水經》:河水北過武威媼圍縣東北。溫圍其卽漢之媼圍縣歟?〉〈凌,冰也。鑿冰塞路,置兵死地,使人自爲戰。〉〈《漢書‧地理志》:武威郡蒼松縣有南山、松陜。余謂此南山自羌中連延西平、金城之界,東出秦、雍,至于終南,皆此山也。傉檀所奔,枝陽之南山也。〉〈《後漢書‧西羌傳》:安定有青石岸。安定,唐之涇州;涇州有青石嶺。〉

(During Han, Zhiyang county was part of Jincheng commandary. Zhang Shi of Former Liang split it off as part of Guangwu commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Guangwu county in Tang's Lanzhou was Han's Zhiyang county." Du You remarked, "Huining county in Tang's Huizhou was Han's Zhiyang county."

溫圍 Wenwei was the name of a river. The Water Classic states, "The Yellow River flows north, passing through the northeast of 媼圍 Aowei county in Wuwei commandary." Surely 溫圍 Wenwei was the same as Han's 媼圍 Aowei county?

The term 凌 here means "ice". Helian Bobo carved out ice and blocked off the passage in order to place his troops on deadly ground, causing the soldiers to fight for their lives.

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Han, there were "Southern Hills" and a Song Pass in Cangsong county in Wuwei commandary. I (Hu Sanxing) reckon that these "southern hills" were the mountainous region stretching from the Qiang territory down to the area of Xiping and Jincheng and stretching east out into Qinzhou and Yongzhou as far as Zhongnan; that whole area was mountainous. More particularly, Tufa Nutan must have fled to the southern hills of Zhiyang.

According to the Account of the Western Qiang in the Book of Later Han, there was a Qingshi Plateau in Anding commandary. And Anding was Jīngzhou during Tang, and Jīngzhou had a Qingshi Range.)


冬十一月,赫連勃勃大敗禿髮傉檀,傉檀奔于南山。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the eleventh month, Helian Bobo greatly defeated Tufa Nutan, who fled into the southern hills.

傉檀又為赫連屈丐所破於陽武,以數千騎奔南山,幾為追騎所得。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Nutan was also routed by Helian Qugai (Helian Bobo) at Yangwu. He fled into the southern hills with several thousand riders, and was nearly captured by Helian Qugai's pursuit riders.

其後傉檀又與赫連勃勃戰于陽武,為勃勃所敗,將佐死者十餘人,傉檀與數騎奔南山,幾為追騎所得。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Later, Tufa Nutan also fought Helian Bobo at Yangwu. But he was defeated by Helian Bobo, and more than ten of his generals and assistants died in the fighting. Tufa Nutan fled into the southern hills with several riders, and was nearly caught by Helian Bobo's pursuit riders.

勃勃初僭號,求婚於禿髮傉檀,傉檀弗許。勃勃怒,率騎二萬伐之,自楊非至於支陽三百餘里,殺傷萬餘人,驅掠二萬七千口、牛馬羊數十萬而還。傉檀率眾追之,其將焦朗謂傉檀曰:「勃勃天姿雄驁,禦軍齊肅,未可輕也。今因抄掠之資,率思歸之士,人自為戰,難與爭鋒。不如從溫圍北渡,趣萬斛堆,阻水結營,制其咽喉,百戰百勝之術也。」傉檀將賀連怒曰:「勃勃以死亡之餘,率烏合之眾,犯順結禍,幸有大功。今牛羊塞路,財寶若山,窘弊之餘,人懷貪競,不能督厲士眾以抗我也。我以大軍臨之,必土崩魚潰。今引軍避之,示敵以弱。我眾氣銳,宜在速追。」傉檀曰:「吾追計決矣,敢諫者斬!」勃勃聞而大喜,乃于陽武下陝鑿淩埋車以塞路。傉檀遣善射者射之,中勃勃左臂。勃勃乃勒眾逆擊,大敗之,追奔八十餘里,殺傷萬計,斬其大將十餘人,以為京觀,號「髑髏台」,還於嶺北。勃勃與姚興將張佛生戰于青石原,又敗之,俘斬五千七百人。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

When Helian Bobo had first declared himself Heavenly King, he had asked for a wife from Tufa Nutan, but Tufa Nutan had refused to give him one. Angered by this, Helian Bobo led twenty thousand cavalry to campaign against Tufa Nutan. They rode more than three hundred li, from Yangfei as far as Zhiyang, while they killed or wounded more than ten thousand people and kidnapped more than twenty-seven thousand people and hundreds of thousands of cattle, horses, and sheep before returning.

Tufa Nutan led an army to pursue the Xia army. His general Jiao Lang warned him, "Helian Bobo has a heavenly figure and heroic bearing, and he keeps his army under strict control and respect. You cannot underestimate him. His soldiers are now laden down with their booty and are thinking only of returning home again, and if pressed to fight, it would be hard to resist their zeal. Better for you to follow the Wenwei River and cross north of it until you get to Wanhu Mound, where you can use the river as your rampart and establish camps. Then you will have Helian Bobo by the throat, and that will ensure that you can defeat him in every battle."

But Tufa Nutan's general Helian Nu said, "Helian Bobo is just the meager remains of a fallen state, and his army is no more than a flock of crows. He is just some fellow who is harassing the loyal and courting disaster, and who has found himself a lucky break. Yet now his plundered livestock will be filling the roads and his pilfered wealth will be piled up like a mountain. His soldiers have just finished their thievery and are now thinking only of their own greed. They will not be able to remain a disciplined fighting force to oppose us. As soon as our great army draws near, they will surely break apart and scatter like fish. Yet you would have our army avoid him? That would only show yourself to be a weakling. Our soldiers have high morale, so you should pursue him with all speed."

So Tufa Nutan declared, "I am determined upon pursuit; whoever dares go against me will be beheaded!"

Helian Bobo was delighted when he heard that Tufa Nutan was pursuing him. At a canyon in Yangwu, he carved out ice and placed carts to block the passage along the road. Tufa Nutan sent skilled archers ahead to shoot at Helian Bobo, and they struck him in the left arm. But Helian Bobo then ordered his soldiers to counterattack, and they greatly routed Tufa Nutan, then pursued his fleeing troops for more than eighty li; they killed or wounded tens of thousands, and took the heads of more than ten of Tufa Nutan's chief generals. Helian Bobo made a viewing mound, calling it Dulou ("Skull") Terrace, before returning north of the mountain ranges.

Helian Bobo fought Yao Xing's general Zhang Fusheng at Qingshi Plains and defeated him as well, capturing or killing fifty-seven hundred people.


傉檀懼外寇之逼,徙三百里內民皆入姑臧;國人駭怨,屠各成七兒因之作亂,一夕聚衆至數千人。殿中都尉張猛大言於衆曰:「主上陽武之敗,蓋恃衆故也,責躬悔過,何損於明,而諸君遽從此小人爲不義之事!殿中兵今至,禍在目前矣!」衆聞之,皆散;七兒奔晏然,追斬之。軍諮祭酒梁裒、輔國司馬邊憲等謀反,傉檀皆殺之。

39. Tufa Nutan now felt that he was in danger from external threats. So he relocated all the households living within three hundred li into Guzang. The people of his state were shocked and upset at this decision, and a leader of the Chuge branch of the Xianbei, Cheng Qi'er, took advantage of their resentment to launch a rebellion, gathering an army of several thousand people overnight. But Tufa Nutan's Commandant of the Palace Halls, Zhang Meng, shouted at this army, "Our sovereign was defeated at Yangwu because he relied too much upon his army. He has taken the blame upon himself, and he regrets his faults. How has his wisdom thus diminished? Yet you all have rushed to follow this miscreant to serve an unrighteous cause! But now the palace soldiers have come; disaster is right before your eyes!" When the rebel army heard this, they all scattered. Cheng Qi'er fled to Yanran, but he was pursued and beheaded.

Tufa Nutan's Army Libationer-Consultant, Liang Pou, his Marshal to the General Who Upholds The State, Bian Xian, and others plotted rebellion. But Tufa Nutan killed them all.

〈自是之後,禿髮氏之勢日以衰矣。〉

(From this time on, the Tufa clan's power gradually diminished.)


懼東西寇至,乃徙三百里內民於姑臧。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Nutan now feared attack from both east and west. So he relocated all the households living within three hundred li into Guzang.

傉檀懼東西寇至,徙三百里內百姓入于姑臧,國中駭怨。屠各成七兒因百姓之擾也,率其屬三百人,叛傉檀於北城。推梁貴為盟主,貴閉門不應。一夜眾至數千。殿中都尉張猛大言於眾曰:「主上陽武之敗,蓋恃眾故也。責躬悔過,明君之義,諸君何故從此小人作不義之事!殿內武旅正爾相尋,目前之危,悔將無及。」眾聞之,咸散。七兒奔晏然,殿中騎將白路等追斬之。軍諮祭酒梁裒、輔國司馬邊憲等七人謀反,傉檀悉誅之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan now felt that he was in danger from both east and west. So he relocated all the households living within three hundred li into Guzang. The people of his state were shocked and upset at this decision, and a leader of the Chuge branch of the Xianbei, Cheng Qi'er, took advantage of their resentment to stir them up; he led three hundred of his dependants to rebel against Tufa Nutan at the northern city at Guzang. They acclaimed Liang Gui as the leader of their alliance, but Liang Gui shut his gates and would not join them. Overnight, the rebels gathered an army of several thousand. But Tufa Nutan's Commandant of the Palace Halls, Zhang Meng, shouted at this army, "Our sovereign was defeated at Yangwu because he relied too much upon his army. He has taken the blame upon himself, and he regrets his faults; this is how a wise man should conduct himself. Yet you all have rushed to follow this miscreant to serve an unrighteous cause! But now the palace soldiers are gathering against you. If you wait until the danger is right in front of your eyes, it will be too late for regrets."

When the rebel army heard this, they all scattered. Cheng Qi'er fled to Yanran, but he was pursued by the Cavalry General of the Palace Halls, Bai Luo, and others and was beheaded.

Tufa Nutan's Army Libationer-Consultant, Liang Pou, his Marshal to the General Who Upholds The State, Bian Xian, and others, seven people in all, plotted rebellion. But Tufa Nutan executed them all.


魏主珪還平城。

40. Tuoba Gui returned to Pingcheng.

冬十有一月,車駕還宮。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eleventh month, Tuoba Gui returned to the capital.


十二月,戊子,武岡文恭侯王謐薨。

41. In the twelfth month, on the day Wuzi (February 5th of 408), Jin's Marquis Wengong ("the Cultured and Penitent") of Wugang, Wang Mi, passed away.

〈《諡法》:旣過能改曰恭。〉

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who, having committed a fault, is able to reform themselves may be called Gong ('Penitent').")


是歲,西涼公暠以前表未報,復遣沙門法泉間行奉表詣建康。

42. It was earlier mentioned that Li Gao had sent a petition to the Jin court in Jiankang. During this year, since he had received no response to the earlier petition, Li Gao sent the Buddhist sramana monk, Faquan, along back roads to visit Jiankang and present another petition.

〈前奉表見上元年。〉

(Li Gao's original petition is mentioned above, in the first year of Yixi (405.7).)
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BOOK 114

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat Feb 23, 2019 8:21 pm

四年(戊申、四○八)

The Fourth Year of Yixi (The Wushen Year, 408 AD)


春,正月,甲辰,以琅邪王德文領司徒。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jiachen (February 21st), Sima Dewen was appointed as acting Minister Over The Masses.

四年春正月甲辰,以琅邪王德文領司徒。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fourth year of Yixi (408), in spring, the first month, on the day Jiachen (February 21st), Sima Dewen was appointed as acting Minister Over The Masses.


劉毅等不欲劉裕入輔政,議以中領軍謝混爲揚州刺史;或欲令裕於丹徒領揚州,以內事付孟昶。遣尚書右丞皮沈以二議諮裕,沈先見裕記室錄事參軍劉穆之,具道朝議。穆之僞起如廁,密疏白裕曰:「皮沈之言不可從。」裕旣見沈,且令出外,呼穆之問之。穆之曰:「晉朝失政日久,天命已移。公興復皇祚,勳高位重,今日形勢,豈得居謙,遂爲守藩之將耶!劉、孟諸公,與公俱起布衣,共立大義以取富貴,事有先後,故一時相推,非爲委體心服,宿定臣主之分也;力敵勢均,終相吞噬。揚州根本所係,不可假人,前者以授王謐,事出權道;今若復以他授,便應受制於人。一失權柄,無由可得,將來之危,難可熟念。今朝議如此,宜相酬答,必云在我,措辭又難,唯應云:『神州治本,宰輔崇要,此事旣大,非可懸論,便蹔入朝,共盡同異。』公至京邑,彼必不敢越公更授餘人明矣。」裕從之。朝廷乃徵裕爲侍中、車騎將軍、開府儀同三司、揚州刺史、錄尚書事,徐、兗二州刺史如故。裕表解兗州,以諸葛長民爲青州刺史,鎭丹徒,劉道憐爲幷州刺史,戍石頭。

2. It was earlier mentioned that Liu Yu had returned to Jingkou. By now, Liu Yi and others wanted to ensure that Liu Yu would not return to the capital and wield power over the government any longer. They discussed appointing the General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Xie Hun, as the new Inspector of Yangzhou, although some of them wanted to commission Liu Yu as acting Inspector of Yangzhou from his post at Dantu while internal affairs would be entrusted to Meng Chang.

Liu Yi and the others then sent the Assistant of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Pi Chen, to visit Liu Yu and see what he thought of these two proposals. But Pi Chen happened to first meet with Liu Yu's Recordskeeping Army Advisor, Liu Muzhi, and discussed court affairs with him. Liu Muzhi then got up, pretending to go to the lavatory, but he secretly sent a message to Liu Yu saying, "Do not agree to either of Pi Chen's proposals."

Shortly afterwards, once Liu Yu met with Pi Chen, he sent him out and called in Liu Muzhi to ask him his thoughts.

Liu Muzhi told him, "The Jin court has lost more and more control over the government by the day, and Heaven's mandate has already left them. Sir, you were the one who restored the dynasty's fortunes; your achievements were great, and your position was most important. How then, considering the current situation, can you modestly stand by and serve as no more than some border general?

"Lords Liu and Meng, like you, rose up from the ranks of the common people, and they sought to restore the dynasty in order to obtain wealth and honor for themselves. It is true that, for a time, they acclaimed you as their leader. But this was no indication that they meant to serve and obey you with all their hearts, as though you were the sovereign and they were your subjects. Your power is no greater than theirs, and their influence is no less than yours; they will swallow you up in the end, unless you make the first move.

"Now the post of Inspector of Yangzhou is a critical office; you cannot afford to give it to someone else. You already made this mistake once before, when you appointed Wang Mi to that position, and thus allowed your own authority to be diminished. If you repeat this error now, then you will be under the control of someone else. And having let this authority slip away, you will have no means to regain it; danger will quickly be upon you, and it will be hard for you to achieve what you wish.

"By discussing this sort of thing, those in the court are like people who begin the first lines of a poem and then wait for you to make your response to continue it. They are indeed waiting to see what you will say now, and it will be hard to put your words in the right order. But let me suggest this: 'The sacred province of our state and court affairs are both so great that miring in such debate is what I cannot contemplate. My trip to court you may await, where quickly we shall set things straight.' For clearly, once you yourself are present in the capital, they will surely not dare to grant such posts to someone else."

Liu Yu followed his advice. The court thus summoned Liu Yu and appointed him as Palace Attendant, General of Chariots and Cavalry, Inspector of Yangzhou, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies; he also maintained his original titles as Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou. But Liu Yu petitioned to relinquish his position as Inspector of Yanzhou. So Zhuge Changmin was appointed as Inspector of Qingzhou and stationed at Dantu, while Liu Daolian was appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou and stationed at the Shitou fortress.

〈王謐薨,揚州刺史缺官,故議用其人。〉〈皮,姓也。〉〈後果如穆之之言。〉〈見上卷元興三年。〉

(Until his death, Wang Mi had been the Inspector of Yangzhou. The post was now vacant, so Liu Yi and the others discussed who would fill it.

皮 Pi is a surname.

Liu Yu and his former allies would eventually turn on one another, just as Liu Muzhi here predicted.

Liu Yu had earlier appointed Wang Mi as Inspector of Yangzhou, as seen in Book 113, in the third year of Yuanxing (404.26).)


車騎將軍劉裕爲揚州刺史、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu, was appointed as Inspector of Yangzhou and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

遷尚書祠部郎,復為府主簿,記室錄事參軍,領堂邑太守... 義熙三年,揚州刺史王謐薨,高祖次應入輔,劉毅等不欲高祖入,議以中領軍謝混為揚州。或欲令高祖於丹徒領州,以內事付尚書僕射孟昶。遣尚書右丞皮沈以二議咨高祖。沈先見穆之,具說朝議。穆之偽起如廁,即密疏白高祖曰:「皮沈始至,其言不可從。」高祖既見沈,且令出外,呼穆之問曰:「卿云沈言不可從,其意何也?」穆之曰:「昔晉朝失政,非復一日,加以桓玄篡奪,天命已移。公興復皇祚,勳高萬古。既有大功,便有大位。位大勳高,非可持久。公今日形勢,豈得居謙自弱,遂為守藩之將邪?劉、孟諸公,與公俱起布衣,共立大義,本欲匡主成勳,以取富貴耳。事有前後,故一時推功,非為委體心服,宿定臣主之分也。力敵勢均,終相吞咀。揚州根本所係,不可假人。前者以授王謐,事出權道,豈是始終大計必宜若此而已哉。今若復以他授,便應受制於人。一失權柄,無由可得。而公功高勳重,不可直置,疑畏交加,異端互起,將來之危難,可不熟念。今朝議如此,宜相酬答,必云在我,厝辭又難。唯應云『神州治本,宰輔崇要,興喪所階,宜加詳擇。此事既大,非可懸論,便暫入朝,共盡同異』。公至京,彼必不敢越公更授餘人明矣。」高祖從其言,由是入輔。(Book of Liu-Song 42, Biography of Liu Muzhi)

Liu Muzhi was transferred to be a Gentleman of the Sacrificial Bureau of the Masters of Writing. He later returned to Liu Yu's staff as Registrar and as Recordskeeping Army Advisor and acting Administrator of Tangyi.

In the third year of Yixi (407), the Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Mi, passed away. Liu Yu was thus planning to return to court. But Liu Yi and others wanted to ensure that Liu Yu would not return to the capital and wield power over the government any longer. They discussed appointing the General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Xie Hun, as the new Inspector of Yangzhou, although some of them wanted to commission Liu Yu as acting Inspector of Yangzhou from his post at Dantu while internal affairs would be entrusted to the Deputy Director of the Masters of Writing, Meng Chang.

Liu Yi and the others then sent the Assistant of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Pi Chen, to visit Liu Yu and see what he thought of these two proposals. But Pi Chen happened to first meet with Liu Muzhi and discussed court affairs with him. Liu Muzhi then got up, pretending to go to the lavatory, but he secretly sent a message to Liu Yu saying, "Pi Chen has just arrived; do not agree to either of his proposals."

Shortly afterwards, once Liu Yu met with Pi Chen, he sent him out and called in Liu Muzhi and said, "Sir, you told me not to go along with Pi Chen's proposals. Why was that?"

Liu Muzhi told him, "The truth is, the Jin court had already been losing more and more control over the government by the day, and then Huan Xuan usurped the throne from them. Heaven's mandate has already left them. Sir, you were the one who restored the dynasty's fortunes; your achievement was so great that it will endure through the ages. And having done such a great deed, you must have a great position. Nor can one of great achievements and a high office afford to linger for long. How then, considering the current situation, can you modestly stand by and weaken youself, and serve as no more than some border general?

"Lords Liu and Meng, like you, rose up from the ranks of the common people, and their wish to restore our sovereign and perform great deeds was for no greater reason than to obtain wealth and honor. It is true that, for a time, they acclaimed you as their leader. But this was no indication that they meant to serve and obey you with all their hearts, as though you were the sovereign and they were your subjects. Your power is no greater than theirs, and their influence is no less than yours; they will swallow you up in the end, unless you make the first move.

"Now the post of Inspector of Yangzhou is a critical office; you cannot afford to give it to someone else. You already made this mistake once before, when you appointed Wang Mi to that position, and thus allowed your own authority to be diminished. How can this be the full extent of your grand plan, to do things like this and nothing more? If you once again give away the office, then you will be under the control of someone else. And having let this authority slip away, you will have no means to regain it. Sir, your achievements are so great and your service has been so conspicuous that if you do not take the post at once, then suspicion and paranoia will spring up on every side, and soon conflict will emerge; danger will quickly be upon you, and it will be hard for you to achieve what you wish.

"By discussing this sort of thing, those in the court are like people who begin the first lines of a poem and then wait for you to make your response to continue it. They are indeed waiting to see what you will say now, and it will be hard to put your words in the right order. But let me suggest this: 'The sacred province of our state and wardship of our potentate, indeed the future of our fate, are things I must appreciate. For matters that still weigh so great, to mire now in such debate is what I cannot contemplate. My trip to court you may await, where quickly we shall set things straight.' For clearly, once you yourself are present in the capital, they will surely not dare to grant such posts to someone else."

Liu Yu followed his advice, and he returned to court.

高祖鎮京口,進道憐號龍驤將軍,又領堂邑太守,戍石頭。明年,加使持節、監征蜀諸軍事,率冠軍將軍劉敬宣等伐譙縱,而文處茂、溫祚據險不得進,故不果行... 四年,代諸葛長民為并州刺史、義昌太守,將軍、內史如故。猶戍石頭。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

After Liu Yu returned to his post at Jingkou (in 405), he promoted Liu Daolian to Dragon-Soaring General, and he appointed him as acting Administrator of Tangyi and had him camp at the Shitou fortress.

The following year (406), Liu Daolian was further appointed as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Chief of the Campaign Against Shu, and he was going to lead the armies of the Champion General, Liu Jingxuan, and others to campaign against Qiao Zong. But the Jin generals Wen Chumao and Wen Zuo held fast to their defenses and would not advance, so the campaign was never carried out.

In the fourth year of Yixi (408), Liu Daolian replaced Zhuge Changmin as Inspector of Bingzhou and Administrator of Yichang, though he kept his original positions as general and Interior Minister and he remained camped at Shitou.

義熙初,慕容超寇下邳,長民遣部將徐琰擊走之,進位使持節、督青揚二州諸軍事、青州刺史,領晉陵太守,鎮丹徒,本號及公如故。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Zhuge Changmin)

At the beginning of the Yixi reign era (~405), Murong Chao invaded Xiapi. Zhuge Changmin sent his subordinate general Xu Yan to attack Murong Chao, and Xu Yan drove him off.

Zhuge Changmin was promoted to Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou and Yangzhou, Inspector of Qingzhou, and acting Administrator of Jinling, and he was stationed at Dantu. He kept his same ranks and titles as before.


庚申,武陵忠敬王遵薨。

3. On the day Gengshen (March 8th), Prince Zhongjing ("the Loyal and Respectful") of Wuling, Sima Zun, passed away.

庚申,侍中、太保、武陵王遵薨。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengshen (March 8th), the Palace Attendant, Grand Guardian, and Prince of Wuling, Sima Zun, passed away.


魏主珪如豺山宮,遂至寧川。

4. Tuoba Gui once again went to the palace at Mount Chai, then traveled as far as Ningchuan.

〈寧川卽後漢上谷郡之寧縣也,前漢曰寧縣。《地理志》曰:于延水出代郡且如縣塞外,東至寧入沽。《水經註》曰:于延水逕罡城南,又東左與寧川水合,水出小寧縣西北,東南流注于延水,又東逕小寧縣故城南,《地理志》寧縣也。師古曰:且,子如翻。〉

("Ningchuan" would have been Zhining county in Later Han's Shanggu commandary; it was called Ning county during Former Han. The Geographical Records states, "The Yuyan River emerges beyond the borders of the realm, in Qieru county in Dai commandary, then flows east until Ning, where it enters the Gu River." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Yuyan River flows south of Gangcheng, then east, where on the left it joins with the Ningchuan River, which has its origin in the northwest of Xiaoning county and flows southeast into the Yuyan River, then east, passing south of the capital city of Xiaoning county, what the Geographical Records calls 'Ning county'." According to Yan Shigu, the first character of Qieru county, 且, is pronounced "zu (z-u)".)


五年春正月,行幸犲山宮,遂如參合陂,觀漁於延水,至寧川。三月,姚興遣使朝貢。是歲,皇孫燾生。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fifth year of Tianci (408), in spring, the first month, Tuoba Gui once again went to the palace at Mount Chai. He returned to Canhe Slope, viewed the fish at the Yuyan River, then traveled as far as Ningchuan.

In the third month, Yao Xing sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute.

During this year, Tuoba Gui's grandson Tuoba Dao (Emperor Taiwu) was born.

世祖之初育也,太祖喜,夜召儀入。太祖曰:「卿聞夜喚,乃不怪懼乎?」儀曰:「臣推誠以事陛下,陛下明察,臣輒自安。忽奉夜詔,怪有之,懼實無也。」太祖告以世祖生,儀起拜而歌舞,遂對飲申旦。召羣臣入,賜儀御馬、御帶、縑錦等。(Book of Northern Wei 15, Biography of Tuoba Yi)

When Tuoba Gui's grandson Tuoba Dao (Emperor Taiwu) had just been born, Tuoba Gui was pleased, and even though it was the middle of the night, he summoned Tuoba Yi to come see him. When Tuoba Yi arrived, Tuoba Gui asked him, "You didn't think it strange or frightening that I called for you during the night?"

Tuoba Yi replied, "Your Majesty, you are wise and understanding, and I fully trust in your judgment, so I feel secure in your orders. I did find it somewhat unusual that you suddenly summoned me at night, but truly I felt no fear."

Tuoba Gui then informed him that Tuoba Dao had just been born, causing Tuoba Yi to rise from his posture of obeisance and begin singing and dancing. They talked and drank together until dawn. Then Tuoba Gui summoned in his other ministers, and he rewarded Tuoba Yi with imperial horses, imperial belts, silks and brocades, and other things.


南燕主超尊其母段氏爲皇太后,妻呼延氏爲皇后。超祀南郊,有獸如鼠而赤,大如馬,來至壇側。須臾,大風晝晦,羽儀帷幄皆毀裂。超懼,以問太史令成公綏,對曰:「陛下信用姦佞,誅戮賢良,賦斂繁多,事役殷重之所致也。」超乃大赦,黜公孫五樓等,俄而復用之。

5. Murong Chao honored his mother Lady Duan as Empress Dowager and his wife Lady Huyan as Empress.

When Murong Chao held a sacrifice at the southern suburbs, some strange beast, shaped like a rat but red in hue and as large as a horse, came up to the side of the altar. And shortly after that, there was a great wind; everything was obscured, and all the feathered canopies and curtains broke and collapsed. Murong Chao was afraid of these omens, and he asked the Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Chenggong Sui, what they meant. Chenggong Sui replied, "Your Majesty has been trusting and employing flatterers and sycophants while killing and executing good and worthy people, and you impose numerous and heavy taxes. That is why such omens have been sent."

So Murong Chao declared a general amnesty, and he dismissed Gongsun Wulou and other such people. However, it was not long before he brought them back into office.

〈賈公彥曰:在旁曰帷,四合象宮室曰幄。〉

(Jia Gongyan remarked, "Something that hangs down on one side is called a curtain, while if it hangs down on all sides like the walls of a palace, it is called a tent or canopy.")


北燕王雲立妻李氏爲皇后,子彭城爲太子。

6. In Northern Yan, Go Un honored his wife Lady Li as Empress, and he appointed his son Go Pengcheng as Crown Prince.

立妻李氏為天王後,子彭為太子。越騎校尉慕輿良謀叛,雲誅之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Un)

Go Un honored his wife Lady Li as Empress, and he appointed his son Go Peng as Crown Prince.

The Colonel of Charging Cavalry, Muyu Liang, plotted rebellion. Go Un executed him.


三月,庚申,葬燕王熙及苻后于徽平陵,諡熙曰昭文皇帝。

7. In the third month, on the day Gengshen (May 7th), Murong Xi and Empress Fu were buried at Huiping Tomb. Murong Xi was granted the posthumous title Emperor Zhaowen ("the Clear and Cultured").

葬徽平陵,諡曰昭文皇帝。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Xi)

Murong Xi was buried at Huiping Tomb. His posthumous title was Emperor Zhaowen.

雲葬之於苻氏墓,偽諡昭文皇帝。垂以孝武帝太元八年僭立,至熙四世,凡二十四年,以安帝義熙三年滅。初,童謠曰:「一束槁,兩頭然,禿頭小兒來滅燕。」槁字上有草,下有禾,兩頭然則禾草俱盡而成高字。雲父名拔,小字禿頭,三子,而雲季也。熙竟為雲所滅,如謠言焉。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Xi)

Go Un buried Murong Xi at Lady Fu's tomb, and granted him the posthumous title Emperor Zhaowen.

Murong Chui had claimed power in Emperor Xiaowu's eighth year of Taiyuan (383), and Later Yan had passed through four reigns until the reign of Murong Xi and lasted twenty-four years, until Emperor An's third year of Yixi (407), then perished.

Earlier, there had been a children's ditty which went, "The withered tree, two heads like man; Bald-Head's babe will destroy Yan." Now the character 槁 "withered tree" has the "grass" component on top and the "seed" component below; these were the "two heads", and when combined, they form the character 高 Gao or Go. Go Un's father Go Bal had had the childhood name Tutou or "Bald-Head", and though he had had three sons, Go Un was the youngest of them. And in the end, Murong Xi was indeed vanquished by Go Un, just as the song predicted.


高句麗遣使聘北燕,且敍宗族,北燕王雲遣侍御史李拔報之。

8. Goguryeo sent their envoys to Northern Yan; beyond regular diplomacy, they also wished to see in what way they might be related to Go Un. Go Un sent his Imperial Secretary, Li Ba, to return the visit.

〈雲本高句麗支屬,詳見一百九卷隆安元年。〉

(Go Un was of Goguryeo descent, as mentioned further in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.36).)


夏,四月,尚書左僕射孔安國卒;甲午,以吏部尚書孟昶代之。

9. In summer, the fourth month, Jin's Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Kong Anguo, passed away.

On the day Jiawu (?), the Director of Personnel of the Masters of Writing, Meng Chang, was appointed as Kong Anguo's replacement.

夏四月,散騎常侍、尚書左僕射孔安國卒。甲午,加吏部尚書孟昶尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, the Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Kong Anguo, passed away.

On the day Jiawu (?), the Director of Personnel of the Masters of Writing, Meng Chang, was appointed as Kong Anguo's replacement.


北燕大赦。

10. A general amnesty was declared in Northern Yan.

五月,北燕以尚書令馮萬泥爲幽、冀二州牧,鎭肥如;中軍將軍馮乳陳爲幷州牧,鎭白狼;撫軍大將軍馮素弗爲司隸校尉,司隸校尉務銀提爲尚書令。

11. In the fifth month, Northern Yan appointed their Prefect of the Master of Writing, Feng Wanni, as Governor of Youzhou and Jizhou and stationed him at Feiru. They appointed their General of the Central Army, Feng Ruchen, as Governor of Bingzhou and stationed him at Bailang. They appointed their Grand General Who Nurtures The Army, Feng Sufu, as Colonel-Director of Retainers. And they appointed their current Colonel-Director of Retainers, Wu Yinti, as the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

〈前漢右北平郡有白狼縣。師古曰:有白狼山,故以名縣。後漢、晉省縣。魏收《地形志》曰:世祖太平眞君八年置建德郡,治白狼城。其地屬唐營州柳城縣界。〉

(During Former Han, Youbeiping commandary had had a Bailang county. Yan Shigu remarked, "The county was named for Mount Bailang, which was within its territory." Later Han and Jin abolished it. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "In Shizu's (Emperor Taiwu's) eighth year of Taipingzhenjun (447), he created Jiande commandary; it was governed from the city of Bailang." This region was within Liucheng county in Tang's Yingzhou.)


譙縱遣使稱藩於秦,又與盧循潛通。縱上表請桓謙於秦,欲與之共擊劉裕。秦王興以問謙,謙曰:「臣之累世,著恩荊、楚,若得因巴、蜀之資,順流東下,士民必翕然響應。」興曰:「小水不容巨魚,若縱之才力自足辦事,亦不假君以爲鱗翼。宜自求多福。」遂遣之。謙至成都,虛懷引士;縱疑之,置於龍格,使人守之。謙泣謂諸弟曰:「姚主之言神矣!」

12. In the Shu region, Qiao Zong sent envoys to Qin to declare himself their vassal. He also opened secret talks with the rebel leader Lu Xun.

It was earlier mentioned that Huan Qian had fled to Qin. In Qiao Zong's petition to Qin, he asked for them to send Huan Qian to him, so that together they could fight against Liu Yu. Yao Xing asked Huan Qian what he thought of the proposal. Huan Qian said, "My clan has long held power in the regions of Jing and Chu, and the people there will not have forgotten the grace we showed them. If we now add the resources of the regions of Ba and Shu to the cause, then follow the course of the Yangzi east downriver, the gentry and the people will surely flock to us."

Yao Xing replied, "They say that a small pond cannot contain a big fish. If Qiao Zong is himself talented and strong enough to deal with affairs, I fear he will see you as nothing more than a hindrance. You had better look out for yourself." But he sent him along to Shu.

When Huan Qian arrived at Chengdu, he acted humbly and attracted worthy people to him. This made Qiao Zong suspicious of him, so he sent Huan Qian to Longge and assigned people to keep watch over him. Huan Qian wept as he told his younger brothers, "How sagacious Lord Yao was!"

〈龍格蓋卽今成都府廣都縣龍爪灘之地。〉

(Longge must have been the area of Longgua Shoal in Guangdu county in the modern Chengdu Garrison.)


將順流東寇,以討車騎將軍劉裕為名,乞師于姚興,且請桓謙為助,興遣之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Qiao Zong)

Qiao Zong was planning to move east downriver and invade Jin, with the pretext of campaigning against their General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu. He asked for an army from Yao Xing. He also asked for Yao Xing to send him Huan Qian to help him, and Yao Xing sent him.

十一年,蜀譙縱遣使稱藩。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the eleventh year of Hongshi (409), Qiao Zong of Shu sent envoys declaring himself Yao Xing's vassal.

興還長安。有雀數萬頭,鬬於興廟,毛羽折落,多有死者,月餘乃止。識者曰:「今雀鬬廟上,子孫當有爭亂者乎?」又興殿有聲如牛吼。有二狐入長安,一登興殿屋,走入宮,一入于巿,求之不得。先是,譙縱略有益寧之地,僭稱尊號,遣使稱蕃於興。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing returned to Chang'an. There were tens of thousands of sparrows who alighted on Yao Xing's ancestral temple, but their wings and feathers were all smashed and broken, and many of them died; this went on for more than a month before stopping. Prophets remarked, "Isn't this omen of the sparrows alighting on the ancestral temple a sign of civil strife between our lord's descendants?" And there was a sound within Yao Xing's palace like the howling of an ox. There were also two foxes who dashed into Chang'an; once ascended into the palace chambers, then fled somewhere into the palace, while the other dashed into the market and could not be found.

Earlier, Qiao Zong had occupied the regions of Yizhou and Ningzhou and declared himself sovereign. He sent envoys to declare himself Yao Xing's vassal.

蜀譙縱遣使稱籓,請桓謙,欲令順流東伐劉裕。興以問謙,謙請行,遂許之。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Qiao Zong in the Shu region sent envoys to Yao Xing declaring himself a vassal of Later Qin. He also asked for them to send Huan Qian to him, so that together they could campaign to the east downriver against Liu Yu. Yao Xing asked Huan Qian about it, and Huan Qian asked to go, so Yao Xing gave his permission.


秦王興以禿髮傉檀外內多難,欲因而取之,使尚書郎韋宗往覘之。傉檀與宗論當世大略,縱橫無窮。宗退,歎曰:「奇才英器,不必華夏,明智敏識,不必讀書,吾乃今知九州之外,《五經》之表,復自有人也。」歸,言於與曰:「涼州雖弊,傉檀權譎過人,未可圖也。」興曰:「劉勃勃以烏合之衆猶能破之,況我舉天下之兵以加之乎!」宗曰:「不然。形移勢變,返覆萬端,陵人者易敗,戒懼者難攻。傉檀之所以敗於勃勃者,輕之也。今我以大軍臨之,彼必懼而求全。臣竊觀羣臣才略,無傉檀之比者,雖以天威臨之,亦未敢保其必勝也。」興不聽,使其子中軍將軍廣平公弼、後軍將軍斂成、鎭遠將軍乞伏乾歸帥步騎三萬襲傉檀,左僕射齊難帥騎二萬討勃勃。吏部尚書尹昭諫曰:「傉檀恃其險遠,故敢違慢;不若詔沮渠蒙遜及李暠討之,使自相困斃,不必煩中國之兵也。」亦不聽。

13. Yao Xing felt that, since Tufa Nutan was dealing with many threats both without and within, now would be a good time to attack him and conquer his territory. So he sent a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Wei Zong, to go scout him out. But when Wei Zong came to see Tufa Nutan, they talked about the grand plans of past ages, and Tufa Nutan discussed every aspect of strategy, overlooking nothing. As Wei Zong was leaving, he lamented, "Those of great talents and heroic potential are not necessarily one of the Huaxia (ethnic Han); those of clever mind and broad education are not necessarily book-learners. Now I know that there are real men even beyond the Nine Provinces and true learning outside of the Five Classics." And when he returned to Chang'an, he told Yao Xing, "Liangzhou itself may be devastated, but Tufa Nutan has greater power and guile than any ordinary man. You cannot move against him yet."

Yao Xing objected, "Even Liu Bobo was able to rout Tufa Nutan with his mere flock of crows! I command all the soldiers of the realm, so how could I fail?"

Wei Zong replied, "You would fail. Situations often change, and circumstances are ever in flux. It is when someone has become arrogant that they are easily defeated, but when the same person is cautious and afraid, then they are difficult to attack. The reason that Tufa Nutan was defeated by Liu Bobo was because he had underestimated him. But now, if our great army approaches Tufa Nutan's borders, he will surely fear us and thus take every precaution to save himself. And I humbly observe that based on the talents and strategies of our own generals, none of them would be a match for Tufa Nutan. Even if you yourself led the campaign, I still would not dare to say that your victory against him would be assured."

But Yao Xing did not listen. He sent the General of the Central Army and Duke of Guangping, his son Yao Bi, the General of the Rear Army, Lian Cheng, and the General Who Guards Distant Places, Qifu Gangui, to lead thirty thousand horse and foot to launch a surprise attack against Tufa Nutan. He also sent the Deputy Director of the Left, Qi Nan, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to campaign against Liu Bobo.

The Personnel Director of the Masters of Writing, Yin Zhao, remonstrated with Yao Xing, saying, "It is thanks to his natural defenses and his distant location that Tufa Nutan dares to violate your will. It would be better for you to order Juqu Mengxun and Li Gao to campaign against him, and thus have all three of them wear each other out. You need not trouble the soldiers of the Middle Kingdom for this matter."

But Yao Xing did not listen to him either.

〈時傉檀軍諮祭酒梁裒、輔國司馬邊憲等謀反,傉檀悉誅之。《晉書‧載記》曰:傉檀外有陽武之敗,內有邊梁之亂。〉〈傉檀之才辨,內足以欺其父兄,外足以欺敵人之覘國者,而卒以敗亡者,輕用兵也。揆之於古,蓋智伯瑤之流,而才識又不及焉。〉

(At this time, Tufa Nutan was dealing with the rebellions of Liang Pou, Bian Xian, and others and had just executed them. The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Externally, Tufa Nutan had suffered defeat at Yangwu; internally, Bian Xian and Liang Pou had rebelled against him."

It is true that Tufa Nutan had enough talent and capability to give his father and brothers the mistaken impression that he was the best of them and to make foreign envoys think that he was a potent threat. Yet he led his state to ruin in the end, and the reason was because he was so quick to launch campaigns. If we seek to compare him with someone from ancient times, he would make a good pair with Zhi Boyao, although he was still not as talented or knowledgeable as Zhi Boyao had been.)


使中軍姚弼、後軍斂成、鎮遠乞伏乾歸等率步騎三萬伐傉檀,左僕射齊難等率騎二萬討勃勃。吏部尚書尹昭諫曰:「傉檀恃遠,輕敢違逆,宜詔蒙遜及李玄盛,使自相攻擊。待其斃也,然後取之,此卞莊之舉也。」興不從。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent his General of the Central Army, Yao Bi, his General of the Rear Army, Lian Cheng, the General Who Guards Distant Places, Qifu Gangui, and others to lead thirty thousand horse and foot to campaign against Tufa Nutan. He also sent the Deputy Director of the Left, Qi Nan, and others to lead twenty thousand cavalry to campaign against Liu Bobo.

The Personnel Director of the Masters of Writing, Yin Zhao, remonstrated with Yao Xing, saying, "It is thanks to his distant location that Tufa Nutan so lightly dares to violate your will. It would be better for you to order Juqu Mengxun and Li Gao to campaign against him, and thus have all three of them attack one another. Wait until they wear each other out, and then you may take them all. This is the same strategy as Bian Zhuangzhi."

But Yao Xing did not listen to him.

姚興乘釁遣將姚弼等。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Seeking to take advantage of the quarreling in Liangzhou, Yao Xing sent his generals Yao Bi and others to attack Tufa Nutan.

姚興以傉檀外有陽武之敗,內有邊、梁之亂,遣其尚書郎韋宗來觀釁。傉檀與宗論六國從橫之規,三家戰爭之略,遠言天命廢興,近陳人事成敗,機變無窮,辭致清辯。宗出而歎曰:「命世大才、經綸名教者,不必華宗夏士;撥煩理亂、澄氣濟世者,亦未必《八索》、《九丘》。五經之外,冠冕之表,復自有人。車騎神機秀髮,信一代之偉人,由余、日磾豈足為多也!」宗還長安,言於興曰:「涼州雖殘弊之後,風化未頹,傉檀權詐多方,憑山河之固,未可圖也。」興曰:「勃勃以烏合之眾尚能破之,吾以天下之兵,何足克也!」宗曰:「形移勢變,終始殊途,陵人者易敗,自守者難攻。陽武之役,傉檀以輕勃勃致敗。今以大軍臨之,必自固求全,臣竊料群臣無傉檀匹也。雖以天威臨之,未見其利。」興不從,乃遣其將姚弼及斂成等率步騎三萬來伐。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Yao Xing felt that, since Tufa Nutan had just been defeated at Yangwu and was still dealing with the rebellions of Bian Xian and Liang Pou, now would be a good time to attack him and conquer his territory. So he sent a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Wei Zong, to go scout him out. But when Wei Zong came to see Tufa Nutan, they talked about the affairs of past ages, such as the horizontal and vertical alliances of the Six States of the Warring States in their fighting with and against Qin, or the strategies of the three ruling families of the ancient state of Jin as they fought for control of the state. They of the broad sweep of history, of who had gained the Mandate of Heaven and then lost it, and also of the narrow details, of the lives of individuals and their successes and failures. Tufa Nutan discussed every aspect of strategy, overlooking nothing, and his rhetoric was adept and clear.

As Wei Zong was leaving, he lamented, "Those of great talents to command the age or erudite wisdom sufficient to instruct others are not necessarily one of the Huaxia (ethnic Han); those who are able to quell the chaos and ascend above this time of troubles are not necessarily those familiar with the eight Suo or the nine Qiu. There are true men even beyond those scholars familiar with the Five Classics. What divine skill and amazing appearance General Tufa has; he is truly one of the greats of our era. Can even You Yu or Jin Midi compare with him?"

And when he returned to Chang'an, he told Yao Xing, "Liangzhou itself may be devastated, but the spirits of its people are not yet broken. Tufa Nutan has greater power and guile than any ordinary man, and he has sturdy mountains and rivers with which to protect himself. You cannot move against him yet."

Yao Xing objected, "Even Helian Bobo was able to rout Tufa Nutan with his mere flock of crows! I command all the soldiers of the realm, so how could I fail?"

Wei Zong replied, "Situations often change, and circumstances are ever in flux. It is when someone has become arrogant that they are easily defeated, but when the same person is cautious, then they are difficult to attack. The reason that Tufa Nutan was defeated at Yangwu was because he had underestimated Helian Bobo. But now, if our great army approaches Tufa Nutan's borders, he will surely stick to his defenses and thus take every precaution to save himself. And I humbly observe that based on the talents and strategies of our own generals, none of them would be a match for Tufa Nutan. Even if you yourself led the campaign, I would see no benefit from it."

But Yao Xing did not listen. He sent his generals Yao Bi, Lian Cheng, and others to lead thirty thousand horse and foot to come campaign against Tufa Nutan.


興遺傉檀書曰:「今遣齊難討勃勃,恐其西逸,故令弼等於河西邀之。」傉檀以爲然,遂不設備。弼濟自金城,姜紀言於弼曰:「今王師聲言討勃勃,傉檀猶豫,守備未嚴,願給輕騎五千,掩其城門,則山澤之民皆爲吾有,孤城無援,可坐克也。」弼不從,進至漠口,昌松太守蘇霸閉城拒之。弼遣人諭之使降,霸曰:「汝棄信誓而伐與國,吾有死而已,何降之有!」弼進攻,斬之,長驅至姑臧。傉檀嬰城固守,出奇兵擊弼,破之,弼退據西苑。城中人王鍾等謀爲內應,事泄,傉檀欲誅首謀者而赦其餘。前軍將軍伊力延侯曰:「今強寇在外,而姦人竊發於內,危孰甚焉,不悉阬之,何以懲後!」傉檀從之,殺五千餘人。命郡縣悉散牛羊於野,斂成縱兵鈔掠;傉檀遣鎭北大將軍俱延、鎭軍將軍敬歸等擊之,秦兵大敗,斬首七千餘級。姚弼固壘不出,傉檀攻之,未克。

14. Yao Xing sent Tufa Nutan a letter stating, "I am sending Qi Nan to campaign against Liu Bobo. However, since I am concerned about his western flank, I am also sending Yao Bi and others to the Hexi region to cut Liu Bobo off." Tufa Nutan believed this pretext for Yao Xing's actions, so he did not make any defensive preparations.

After Yao Bi crossed the Yellow River at Jincheng, Jiang Ji said to him, "Tufa Nutan still believes that our army is coming to campaign against Liu Bobo, and his defenses are not yet in order. Please give me five thousand light cavalry; with them, I will seal Tufa Nutan within the gates of his city. Then all the people living in the fields will fall under our control, while Tufa Nutan will be trapped in an isolated city without assistance, and we can overcome him at our leisure." But Yao Bi did not listen, and he continued to advance as normal.

When Yao Bi arrived at Mokou, the Administrator of Changsong, Su Ba, closed the gates of his city and opposed the Qin army. Yao Bi sent agents to command him to send notice of his surrender. But Su Ba replied, "You have thrown away your sworn pledge and come to campaign against my state. I will oppose you even to the death; how could I surrender?" So Yao Bi advanced and attacked the city, then took Su Ba's head.

Yao Bi then pressed forward to march to Guzang. Tufa Nutan initially withdrew into the city and manned its defenses, then sent out special troops to attack Yao Bi, routing him. Yao Bi fell back to occupy the western Yuancheng at Guzang.

Some people within the city, Wang Zhong and others, plotted to support the Qin army from within. When their plot leaked, Tufa Nutan initially planned to execute the ringleaders but spare their remaining followers. But the General of the Front Army, Yili Yanhou, told him, "We are already facing a strong enemy without, and now these villains dare to rise against us from within. They pose a serious danger to us; unless you bury alive all the rebels, how can you guard against another such plot?" Tufa Nutan followed his advice, and he killed more than five thousand people.

Tufa Nutan sent out orders for his commandaries and counties to scatter their cattle and sheep across the countryside. Lian Cheng allowed his soldiers to go raiding and plundering to gather up the livestock. But Tufa Nutan then sent his Grand General Who Guards The North, Tufa Juyan, his General Who Guards The Army, Tufa Jinggui, and others to attack these soldiers. The Qin soldiers were greatly defeated, with Tufa Nutan's army taking more than seven thousand heads.

Yao Bi fortified his position and would not come out. Tufa Nutan attacked him, but could not overcome him.

〈自金城濟河也。〉〈漠口在昌松郡界,謂之昌松漠口。魏收《地形志》,昌松郡有漠口縣。〉〈傉檀散牛羊以餌敵,而斂成掠之,宜其敗也。〉

(Yao Bi had crossed the Yellow River from Jincheng.

Mokou was within Changsong commandary, at the place called "Mokou at Changsong". According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a Mokou county in Changsong commandary.

Tufa Nutan scattered the livestock in order to bait his enemy, and Lian Cheng indeed took the bait by having his soldiers plunder them. He deserved his defeat.)


弼濟自金城,弼部將姜紀言於弼曰:「今王師聲討勃勃,傉檀猶豫,未為嚴防,請給輕騎五千,掩其城門,則山澤之人皆為吾有,孤城獨立,坐可克也。」弼不從,進拔昌松,長驅至姑臧。傉檀嬰城固守,出其兵擊弼,弼敗,退據西苑。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

After Yao Bi crossed the Yellow River at Jincheng, his subordinate general Jiang Ji said to him, "Tufa Nutan still believes that our army is coming to campaign against Liu Bobo, and his defenses are not yet in order. Please give me five thousand light cavalry; with them, I will seal Tufa Nutan within the gates of his city. Then all the people living in the countryside will fall under our control, while Tufa Nutan will be trapped in an isolated city, and we can overcome him at our leisure."

But Yao Bi did not listen. He advanced and captured Changsong, then marched straight for Guzang. Tufa Nutan initially withdrew into the city and manned its defenses, then sent out his troops to attack Yao Bi, defeating him. Yao Bi fell back to occupy the western Yuancheng at Guzang.

姚弼等至於城下,傉檀驅牛羊於野,弼眾採掠,傉檀因分擊大破之。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Yao Bi and the other Later Qin generals marched as far as the walls of Guzang. Tufa Nutan drove his cattle and sheep into the fields, and Yao Bi's soldiers rushed to round them all up. Tufa Nutan then took advantage to attack the scattered enemy forces and greatly routed them.

遺傉檀書云「遣尚書左僕射齊難討勃勃,懼其西逸,故令弼等於河西邀之。」傉檀以為然,遂不設備。弼眾至漠口,昌松太守蘇霸嬰城固守,弼喻霸令降,霸曰:「汝違負盟誓,伐委順之籓,天地有靈,將不祐汝!吾甯為涼鬼,何降之有!」城陷,斬霸。弼至姑臧,屯於西苑。州人王鐘、宋鐘、王娥等密為內應,候人執其使送之。傉檀欲誅其元首,前軍伊力延侯曰:「今強敵在外,內有奸豎,兵交勢踧,禍難不輕,宜悉坑之以安內外。」傉檀從之,殺五千餘人,以婦女為軍賞。命諸郡縣悉驅牛羊於野,斂成縱兵虜掠。傉檀遣其鎮北俱延、鎮軍敬歸等十將率騎分擊,大敗之,斬首七千餘級。姚弼固壘不出,傉檀攻之未克,乃斷水上流,欲以持久斃之。會雨甚,堰壞,弼軍乃振。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Yao Xing sent Tufa Nutan a letter stating, "I am sending the Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Qi Nan, to campaign against Helian Bobo. However, since I am concerned about his western flank, I am also sending Yao Bi and others to the Hexi region to cut Helian Bobo off." Tufa Nutan believed this pretext for Yao Xing's actions, so he did not make any defensive preparations.

When Yao Bi arrived at Mokou, the Administrator of Changsong, Su Ba, withdrew into the city and opposed the Later Qin army. Yao Bi sent agents to command him to send notice of his surrender. But Su Ba replied, "You have thrown away your sworn pledge and solemn oath and have come to campaign against an obedient vassal. If Heaven and Earth are sentient, they will not bless you! I will serve Liangzhou even as a ghost; how could I surrender?" So Yao Bi advanced and attacked the city, then took Su Ba's head.

When Yao Bi reached Guzang, he camped at the western Yuancheng.

Some people within the city, Wang Zhong, Song Zhong, Wang E, and others, plotted to support the Later Qin army from within. But Tufa Nutan's scouts captured their agents and sent them to Tufa Nutan. Tufa Nutan initially planned to execute only the ringleaders. But the General of the Front Army, Yili Yanhou, told him, "We are already facing a strong enemy without, and now these villains dare to rise against us from within. Considering that the enemy soldiers are so close at hand, how can you take such a serious threat so lightly? You should bury alive all the rebels in order to restore stability both within and without." Tufa Nutan followed his advice, and he killed more than five thousand people, distributing their wives and daughters among the army as rewards.

Tufa Nutan sent out orders for his commandaries and counties to scatter their cattle and sheep across the countryside. Lian Cheng allowed his soldiers to go raiding and plundering to gather up the livestock. But Tufa Nutan then sent his Grand General Who Guards The North, Tufa Juyan, his General Who Guards The Army, Tufa Jinggui, and others, ten generals in all, to lead cavalry detachments to attack these soldiers. The Later Qin soldiers were greatly defeated, with Tufa Nutan's army taking more than seven thousand heads.

Yao Bi fortified his position and would not come out. Tufa Nutan attacked him, but could not overcome him. Tufa Nutan then cut Yao Bi's source of water and redirected the river, hoping to wear him out by attrition. But then a heavy storm arrived and broke the dam, relieving Yao Bi's army.


秋,七月,興遣衞大將軍常山公顯帥騎二萬爲諸軍後繼,至高平,聞弼敗,倍道赴之。顯遣善射者孟欽五人挑戰於涼風門,弦未及發,傉檀材官將軍宋益等迎擊,斬之。顯乃委罪斂成,遣使謝傉檀,慰撫河外,引兵還。傉檀遣使者徐宿詣秦謝罪。

15. In autumn, the seventh month, Yao Xing sent his Grand Guard General and Duke of Changshan, Yao Xian, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to act as reserves for his other armies. When Yao Xian reached Gaoping, he heard that Yao Bi had been defeated, so he rushed ahead along multiple roads to join him.

Yao Xian sent five men who were skilled at archery, Meng Qin and others, to duel in front of the Liangfeng Gate. But before they had even loosed their arrows, Tufa Nutan's General of 材官, Song Yi, and others met them in battle and took their heads.

Yao Xian then assigned the blame to Lian Cheng, and he sent envoys to apologize to Tufa Nutan and console and comfort the people of the Hexi region, before leading his troops back again. Tufa Nutan too sent envoys to Chang'an and presented a memorial apologizing for his crimes.

興又遣衛大將軍姚顯率騎二萬,為諸軍節度。至高平,聞弼敗績,兼道赴之,撫慰河外,率眾而還。傉檀遣使人徐宿詣興謝罪。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing also sent his Grand Guard General, Yao Xian, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to act as reserves for his other armies. When Yao Xian reached Gaoping, he heard that Yao Bi had been defeated, so he rushed ahead along multiple roads to join him. Yao Xian consoled and comforted the people of the region beyond the Yellow River, before leading his troops back again. Tufa Nutan sent envoys to Chang'an and apologize for his crimes.

弼乃退還。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Yao Bi thus retreated back to Later Qin.

又使其將姚顯為弼等後繼... 姚顯聞弼敗,兼道赴之,軍勢甚盛。遣射將孟欽等五人挑戰於涼風門,弦未及發,材官將軍宋益等馳擊斬之。顯乃委罪斂成。遣使謝傉檀,引師而歸。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Yao Xing also sent his general Yao Xian to act as reserves for Yao Bi and the others. When Yao Xian heard that Yao Bi had been defeated, he rushed ahead along multiple roads to join him. His military strength was immense.

Yao Xian sent five men who were skilled at archery, Meng Qin and others, to duel in front of the Liangfeng Gate. But before they had even loosed their arrows, Tufa Nutan's General of 材官, Song Yi, and others met them in battle and took their heads.

Yao Xian then assigned the blame to Lian Cheng, and he sent envoys to apologize to Tufa Nutan, before leading his troops back again.


夏王勃勃聞秦兵且至,退保河曲。齊難以勃勃旣遠,縱兵野掠;勃勃潛師襲之,俘斬七千餘人。難引兵退走,勃勃追至木城,禽之,虜其將士萬三千人。於是嶺北夷、夏附於勃勃者以萬數,勃勃皆置守宰以撫之。

16. When Liu Bobo heard that Qin soldiers were approaching, he fell back to guard the bend of the Yellow River. Since Liu Bobo was now far away, Qi Nan allowed his soldiers to pillage the countryside. But Liu Bobo secretly led his army back and launched a surprise attack against Qi Nan, killing or capturing more than seven thousand people. Qi Nan led his soldiers to retreat, but Liu Bobo pursued them to Mucheng and then captured Qi Nan, along with his generals, officers, and soldiers, thirteen thousand in all.

After this, all the tribes north of the mountain ranges and tens of thousands of other people aligned themselves with Liu Bobo's Xia state, and he appointed local officials to watch over them.

〈河曲在朔方東北;黃河千里一曲。〉〈姚弼之敗,禿髮未能爲秦患也。齊難之敗,則赫連之患熾矣。〉

(The bend of the Yellow River is northeast of Shuofang; the river bends for a thousand li.

After Yao Bi's defeat, Tufa Nutan was no longer threatened by Later Qin; after Qi Nan's defeat, Helian Bobo became an even greater threat to Later Qin.)


勃勃退保河曲... 齊難為勃勃所擒。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Helian Bobo fell back to guard the bend of the Yellow River.

Qi Nan was captured by Helian Bobo.

興遣將齊難率眾二萬來伐,勃勃退如河曲。難以去勃勃既遠,縱兵掠野,勃勃潛軍覆之,俘獲七千餘人,收其戎馬兵杖。難引軍而退,勃勃復追擊於木城,拔之,擒難,俘其將士萬有三千,戎馬萬匹。嶺北夷夏降附者數萬計,勃勃於是拜置守宰以撫之。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Yao Xing sent his general Qi Nan to lead twenty thousand soldiers to come campaign against Helian Bobo, who fell back to guard the bend of the Yellow River. Since Liu Bobo was now far away, Qi Nan allowed his soldiers to pillage the countryside. But Liu Bobo secretly led his army back, capturing more than seven thousand people and capturing all of Qi Nan's horses and military equipment. Qi Nan led his soldiers to retreat, but Liu Bobo pursued them to Mucheng and then attacked and captured Qi Nan, along with his generals, officers, and soldiers, thirteen thousand in all, and ten thousand horses.

After this, all the tribes and Xia (ethnic Han) people north of the mountain ranges, tens of thousands altogether, aligned themselves with Helian Bobo's Xia state, and he appointed local officials to watch over them.


司馬叔璠自蕃城寇鄒山,魯郡太守徐邕棄城走,車騎長史劉鍾擊卻之。

17. The Southern Yan general Sima Shufan marched from Fancheng and invaded Zoushan. Jin's Inspector of Lu commandary, Xu Yong, abandoned his city and fled. But the Chief Clerk to the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Zhong, attacked Sima Shufan and drove him off.

北燕王雲封慕容歸爲遼東公,使主燕祀。

18. In Northern Yan, Go Un appointed Murong Gui as Duke of Liaodong and had him continue the sacrifices to the former Yan royal line.

慕容歸為遼東公,立燕之宗社。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

Go Un appointed Murong Gui as Duke of Liaodong and had him continue the sacrifices to the former Yan royal line.


劉敬宣旣入峽,遣巴東太守溫祚以二千人出外水,自帥益州刺史鮑陋、輔國將軍文處茂、龍驤將軍時延祖由墊江轉戰而前。譙縱求救於秦,秦王興遣平西將軍姚賞、南梁州刺史王敏將兵二萬赴之。敬宣軍至黃虎,去成都五百里。縱輔國將軍譙道福悉衆拒嶮,相持六十餘日,敬宣不得進;食盡,軍中疾疫,死者太半,乃引軍還。敬宣坐免官,削封三分之一,荊州刺史劉道規以督統降號建威將軍。九月,劉裕以敬宣失利,請遜位,詔降爲中軍將軍,開府如故。劉毅欲以重法繩敬宣,裕保護之;何無忌謂毅曰:「柰何以私憾傷至公!」毅乃止。

19. It was earlier mentioned that Liu Yu had sent Liu Jingxuan with five thousand troops to campaign against the rebels in the Shu region. Liu Jingxuan entered the Gorges, and he sent the Administrator of Badong, Wen Zuo, with two thousand soldiers to go along the outer river, while he advanced from Dianjiang and fought as he moved forward, along with the Inspector of Yizhou, Bao Lou, the General Who Upholds The State, Wen Chumao, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Shi Yanzu.

Qiao Zong asked for aid from Qin. Yao Xing sent Qin's General Who Pacifies The West, Yao Shang, and their Inspector of Southern Lianzhou, Wang Min, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to reinforce Qiao Zong.

Liu Jingxuan's army arrived at Huanghu, five hundred li from Chengdu. Qiao Zong's General Who Upholds The State, Qiao Daofu, brought all his troops to oppose Liu Jingxuan at the mountain passes. The two sides were locked in a stalemate for more than sixty days, and Liu Jingxuan could not advance. Then his supplies ran out, while sickness and plague spread through the Jin army, and more than half of the soldiers died. So he led his army back again.

Liu Jingxuan was blamed for the failure of the campaign and stripped of office, and his fief was reduced by a third. And since Liu Daogui had been the overall Commander on that front, he too had his title demoted to General Who Establishes Might.

In the ninth month, taking his share of Liu Jingxuan's failure, Liu Yu asked to resign his positions. An edict was issued demoting him to General of the Central Army, although he kept his Separate Office authority as before.

Liu Yi wanted to have Liu Jingxuan punished according to the full extent of the law. But Liu Yu guarded and protected him, and He Wuji said to Liu Yi, "How can you let a private grudge hurt the common good?" So Liu Yi gave it up.

〈所謂三峽也。〉〈此由內水而進也。墊,音疊。〉〈黃虎近涪城。〉〈《春秋》責帥之義也;道規時爲征蜀都督。〉〈私憾見上元年。〉

(The "Gorges" were the Three Gorges.

As might be implied, Liu Jingxuan's route of advance followed the inner river.

The first character of Dianjiang, 墊, is pronounced "die".

Huanghu was near Fucheng.

According to the Spring and Autumn Annals, it is proper for the commander to shoulder responsibility. At this time, Liu Daogui was Commander of the Campaign Against Shu.

Liu Yi's causes for resentment against Liu Jingxuan are mentioned above, in the first year of Yixi (405.15).)


假敬宣節,監征蜀諸軍事,郡如故。既入峽,分遣振武將軍、巴東太守溫祚以二千人揚聲外水,自率益州刺史鮑陋、輔國將軍文處茂、龍驤將軍時延祖由墊江而進。敬宣率先士卒,轉戰而前,達遂寧郡之黃虎,去成都五百里。偽輔國將軍譙道福等悉眾距險,相持六十餘日,大小十餘戰,賊固守不敢出。敬宣不得進,食糧盡,軍中多疾疫,死者太半,引軍還。譙縱送毛璩一門諸喪,其妻女、文處茂母何,并諸士人喪柩,浮之中流,敬宣皆拯接致歸。為有司所奏,免官,削封三分之一... 初,敬宣回師於蜀,劉毅欲以重法繩之;高祖既相任待,又何無忌明言於毅,謂不宜以私憾傷至公,若必文致為戮,己當入朝以廷議決之。毅雖止,猶謂高祖曰:「夫生平之舊,豈可孤信。光武悔之於龐萌,曹公失之於孟卓,公宜深慮之。」(Book of Liu-Song 47, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan was appointed as Credential Holder and Chief of military affairs in the Campaign Against Shu, while maintaining his original position as Administrator.

After entering the Gorges, Liu Jingxuan sent the General Who Displays Valor and Administrator of Badong, Wen Zuo, with two thousand soldiers to make a diversion along the outer river, while he himself advanced from Dianjiang, along with the Inspector of Yizhou, Bao Lou, the General Who Upholds The State, Wen Chumao, and the Dragon-Soaring General, Shi Yanzu.

Liu Jingxuan led his officers and soldiers from the front, fighting as he pressed forward, until he reached Huanghu in Suining commandary, five hundred li from Chengdu. But then the rebel General Who Upholds The State, Qiao Daofu, and others brought all their troops to oppose Liu Jingxuan at the mountain passes. The two sides were locked in a stalemate for more than sixty days, yet despite fighting more than ten battles, large and small, the rebels held fast to their defenses and would not dare to come out, nor could Liu Jingxuan advance. Then his supplies and grain ran out, while sickness and plague spread through the Jin army, and more than half of the soldiers died. So he led his army back again.

Qiao Zong held mourning for Mao Qu's clan, and he made coffins for them all, along with his wife, his daughter, and Wen Chumao's mother Lady He. He floated the coffins downriver, and Liu Jingxuan retrieved them and brought them back with him.

Because of Liu Jingxuan's failure, the officials submitted a memorial to the court, and he was stripped of office and had his fief reduced by a third.

When Liu Jingxuan had returned from his campaign in the Shu region, Liu Yi wanted to have him punished according to the full extent of the law. But Liu Yu still employed him and treated him well, and He Wuji explained the situation to Liu Yi, telling him not to let a private grudge hurt the common good, and that if Liu Jingxuan's failings had merited execution, the court would surely have already let the Ministry of Justice decide his fate. So Liu Yi gave it up, but he still said to Liu Yu, "How can you continue to trust someone just because of old friendships? It was for such reasons that Emperor Guangwu of Han regretted his trust in Pang Meng, and Lord Cao (Cao Cao) suffered because of Mengzhuo (Zhang Miao). Sir, please deeply consider this."

敬宣人自白帝,所攻皆克。軍次黃獸,與偽將譙道福相持六十餘日,遇癘疫,又以食盡,班師,為有司所劾,免官。(Book of Jin 84, Biography of Liu Jingxuan)

Liu Jingxuan's army set out from Baidi, and they captured everything in their way. But when they reached Huangshou, they became locked in a stalemate for more than sixty days with the rebel general Qiao Daofu. The army also suffered from pestilence and plague, and the supplies ran out. So Liu Jingxuan led the army back. He was censured by the officials, and he was stripped of office.

劉敬宣征蜀不克,道規以督統降為建威將軍。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daogui)

After the failure of Liu Jingxuan's campaign against the Shu region, since Liu Daogui had been the Commander on that front, he was demoted to General Who Establishes Might.

時王師伐譙縱,大敗之,縱遣使乞師於興。興遣平西姚賞、南梁州刺史王敏率眾二萬救之,王師引還。縱遣使拜師,仍貢其方物。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

At this time, Jin sent an army to campaign against Qiao Zong, and greatly defeated him. Qiao Zong sent envoys to Yao Xing to ask for reinforcements. Yao Xing sent his General Who Pacifies The West, Yao Shang, and his Inspector of Southern Lianzhou, Wang Min, to lead twenty thousand troops to assist him. The Jin army then withdrew. Qiao Zong sent envoys to salute Yao Xing's troops, and the envoys presented them with tribute.


乞伏熾磐以秦政浸衰,且畏秦之攻襲,冬,十月,招結諸部二萬餘人築城于嵻㟍山而據之。

20. Qifu Chipan saw that Qin was gradually falling into decline, and he was afraid that Qin might try to surprise attack him as well. So in winter, the tenth month, he gathered together more than twenty thousand people from his forces to build a city at Mount Kanglang and then occupied it as his base.

〈丁度曰:嵻㟍山在西羌。予據乞伏氏據苑川,其地西至枹罕,東極隴坻,北限赫連,南界吐谷渾。嵻㟍山當在苑川西南。宋朝西境盡秦、渭,嵻㟍山始在西羌中。〉

(Ding Du remarked, "Mount Kanglang is in the western Qiang territory." From what I (Hu Sanxing) understand, when the Qifu clan occupied Yuanchuan, their territory extended west to Fuhan, east to Longchi, north to Helian, and south to the Tuyuhun domain. So Mount Kanglang must have been southwest of Yuanchaun. It was because the extent of the Song dynasty's western border was at Qinzhou and the Wei River valley that Mount Kanglang first began to be considered as being "in the western Qiang territory".)


二十一年,熾盤以長安亂將始,乃招結諸部,築城於嵻良山以據之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the twenty-first year of Taichu (408), Qifu Chipan saw that the Later Qin government at Chang'an was starting to fall into chaos. So he gathered together his forces and built a city at Mount Kangliang and then occupied it as his base.

熾磐以長安兵亂將始,乃招結諸部二萬七千,築城於嵻良山以據之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Chipan saw that the Later Qin government at Chang'an was starting to fall into chaos. So he gathered together twenty-seven thousand people of his forces and built a city at Mount Kangliang and then occupied it as his base.


十一月,禿髮傉檀復稱涼王,大赦,改元嘉平,置百官。立夫人折掘氏爲王后,世子武臺爲太子,錄尚書事。左長史趙鼂、右長史郭倖爲尚書左、右僕射,昌松侯俱延爲太尉。

21. In the eleventh month, Tufa Nutan once again declared himself King of Liang. He declared a general amnesty, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jiaping, and he created the imperial offices.

Tufa Nutan honored his wife Lady Zhejue as Empress. He appointed his eldest son Tufa Wutai as Crown Prince and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right, Zhao Chao and Guo Xing, as Deputy Directors of the Left and Right of the Masters of Writing. He appointed the Marquis of Changsong, Tufa Juyan, as Grand Commandant.

〈武臺,本名虎臺,唐人作《晉書》,避唐祖諱,改「虎」爲「武」,《通鑑》因之。〉〈鼂,古朝字,音直遙翻。〉

(Tufa Wutai's given name was really Hutai. But the Tang-era writers of the Book of Jin, in order to observe a Tang naming taboo on the name 虎 Hu, changed it to Wu, and the Zizhi Tongjian has continued this change.

Zhao Chao's given name 鼂 is an old form of the character 朝, and is pronounced "zhao (zh-ao)".)


是月,禿髮傉檀僭卽涼王位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eleventh month, Tufa Nutan declared himself King of Liang.

嘉平元年十一月,僭即涼王位於南郊,大赦,改年嘉平。置百官,立世子虎臺為太子。二年正月,以子明德歸為南中郎將,領昌松太守。歸雋爽聰悟,檀甚寵之,年始十三,命為《高昌殿賦》,援筆即成,影不移漏,檀覽而喜之,擬之曹子建。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

In the first year of Jiaping (408), in the eleventh month, Tufa Nutan once again declared himself King of Liang at the southern suburbs of the city. He declared a general amnesty, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jiaping, and he created the imperial offices. He appointed his eldest son Tufa Hutai as Crown Prince.

In the second year of Jiaping (409), the first month, Tufa Nutan appointed his son Tufa Mingdegui as General of the Household Gentlemen of the South and acting Administrator of Changsong. This Tufa Mingdegui was talented, bright, intelligent, and perceptive, and Tufa Nutan greatly favored him. Although Tufa Mingdegui was a mere twelve years old, Tufa Nutan ordered him to compose a rhapsody called Rhapsody to Gaochang Hall. No sooner had Tufa Mingdegui picked up his brush than he was finished writing; the shadows had not even moved. Tufa Nutan was overjoyed when he read it, comparing Tufa Mingdegui to Cao Zijian (Cao Zhi).

傉檀又自署涼王,署百官,改號嘉平。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Nutan once again declared himself King of Liang. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Jiaping, and he created the imperial offices.

傉檀於是僭即涼王位,赦其境內,改年為嘉平,置百官。立夫人折掘氏為五後,世子武台為太子、錄尚書事,左長史趙晁、右長史郭倖為尚書左右僕射,鎮北俱延為太尉,鎮軍敬歸為司隸校尉,自余封署各有差。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Nutan)

Tufa Nutan once again declared himself King of Liang. He declared an amnesty within his domain, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jiaping, and he created the imperial offices.

Tufa Nutan honored his wife Lady Zhejue as Empress. He appointed his eldest son Tufa Wutai as Crown Prince and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed his Chief Clerks of the Left and Right, Zhao Chao and Guo Xing, as Deputy Directors of the Left and Right of the Masters of Writing. He appointed the General Who Guards The North, Tufa Juyan, as Grand Commandant. And he appointed the General Who Guards The Army, Tufa Jinggui, as Colonel-Director of Retainers. Others were granted appointments as appropriate.


南燕汝水竭;河凍皆合,而澠水不冰。南燕主超惡之,問於李宣,對曰:「澠水無冰,良由逼帶京城,近日月也。」超大悅,賜朝服一具。

22. In Southern Yan, the Ru River ran low, and the chunks of ice in the Yellow River all froze together, yet the Sheng River did not freeze. Murong Chao was disturbed by these events. He asked Li Xuan what they meant. Li Xuan replied, "The Sheng River not freezing is a good sign for the area around the capital in the coming days and months." Murong Chao was delighted, and he granted Li Xuan a set of court clothes.

〈「汝」,當作「女」。〉〈《水經註》:澠水出營城東,西北流入時水。營城卽臨淄城。時水通有澠水之名,亦謂之時澠水。時水東北入淄水,淄水又東北合濁水,濁水東北流逕廣固城西,濁水亦或通名之爲澠水。昔趙攻廣固,望氣者以爲澠水帶城非可攻拔,若塞五龍口,城必當陷,指是水也。〉

(Again, the 汝 Ru River mentioned here should be the 女 Nü River.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Sheng River emerges east of Yingcheng, then flows northwest into the Shi River. Yingcheng is the same place as Linzai. Parts of the Shi River are also called the Sheng River, or else the Shisheng River. The Shi River flows northeast into the Lin River, and the Lin River flows further northeast into the Zhuo River, which then flows northeast as well, passing west of Guanggu. The Zhuo River is also sometimes called the Sheng River. When Later Zhao attacked Guanggu, those who could read the ethers said that so long as the Sheng River was surrounding the city, it could not be taken, but if Wulongkou was stopped up, then the city would surely fall; they were talking about this river.")


十二月,乞伏熾磐攻彭奚念於枹罕,爲奚念所敗而還。

23. In the twelfth month, Qifu Chipan attacked Peng Xinian at Fuhan. But he was defeated by Peng Xinian, so he turned back.

是歲,魏主珪殺高邑公莫題。初,拓跋窟咄之伐珪也,題以珪年少,潛以箭遺窟咄曰:「三歲犢豈能勝重載邪!」珪心銜之。至是,或告題居處倨傲、擬則人主者,珪使人以箭示題而謂之曰:「三歲犢果如何?」題父子對泣;詰朝,收斬之。

24. During this year, Tuoba Gui killed Wei's Duke of Gaoyi, Mo Ti.

Years earlier, when Tuoba Kudei had been campaigning against Tuoba Gui, Mo Ti had considered Tuoba Gui to be too young to be a successful ruler, and he had secretly sent a message by arrow to Tuoba Kudei stating, "How can a three-year-old calf triumph over a grown man like you?" Tuoba Gui had thus nursed a grudge against him.

At this time, someone told Tuoba Gui that Mo Ti was living in an ostentatious dwelling that looked like a sovereign's residence. So Tuoba Gui sent someone to show the arrow to Mo Ti and ask him, "How about that three-year-old calf?" Mo Ti and his sons wept. When morning came, they were arrested and beheaded.

〈見一百六卷孝武太元十一年。〉

(Tuoba Kudei's campaign against Tuoba Gui during the beginning of Tuoba Gui's reign and Mo Ti's involvement in a plot against Tuoba Gui at that time are mentioned in Book 106, in Emperor Xiaowu's eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.40).)


以功拜平遠將軍,賜爵扶柳公,進號左將軍,改為高邑公。出除中山太守,督司州之山東七郡事。車駕征姚興,次於晉陽,而上黨羣盜秦頗、丁零翟都等聚眾於壺關,詔題帥眾三千以討之。上黨太守捕頗,斬之。都走林慮。詔題搜山窮討,盡平之... 題時貳於太祖,遺箭於窟咄,謂之曰「三歲犢豈勝重載」,言窟咄長而太祖少也。太祖既銜之。天賜五年,有告題居處倨傲,擬則人主。太祖乃使人示之箭,告之曰:「三歲犢,能勝重載不?」題奉詔,父子對泣,詰朝乃刑之。(Book of Northern Wei 28, Biography of Mo Ti)

For his achievements, Mo Ti was appointed as General Who Pacifies Distant Places and Duke of Fuliu. He was later promoted to General of the Left and had his title changed to Duke of Gaoyi. He was sent out to serve as Administrator of Zhongshan and Commander of military affairs in seven commandaries of Sizhou east of the mountains.

When Tuoba Gui campaigned against Yao Xing, he had reached Jinyang when a bandit leader from Shangdang commandary, Qin Po, a leader of the Dingling people, Zhai Du, and others gathered an army at Huguan. Tuoba Gui ordered Mo Ti to lead three thousand soldiers to campaign against them. The Administrator of Shangdang captured Qin Po and beheaded him, but Zhai Du fled to Linlü. Tuoba Gui ordered Mo Ti to sweep through the mountains and root out the remaining rebels, and Mo Ti pacified them all.

Years earlier, during the time that Tuoba Kuduo had been campaigning against Tuoba Gui, Mo Ti had been estranged from Tuoba Gui, and he had sent a message by arrow to Tuoba Kuduo stating, "How can a three-year-old calf triumph over a grown man like you?" By this he meant that Tuoba Kuduo was a grown man while Tuoba Gui was just a youth. Tuoba Gui had thus nursed a grudge against him.

In the fifth year of Tianci (408), someone told Tuoba Gui that Mo Ti was living in an ostentatious dwelling that looked like a sovereign's residence. So Tuoba Gui sent someone to show the arrow to Mo Ti and ask him, "Still think that three-year-old calf cannot triumph over a grown man?" When Mo Ti accepted the edict, he and his sons wept. When morning came, they were executed.
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BOOK 115

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Mar 10, 2019 3:19 am

義熙五年(己酉、四〇九)

The Fifth Year of Yixi (The Jiyou Year, 409 AD)


春,正月,庚寅朔,南燕主超朝會羣臣,歎太樂不備,議掠晉人以補伎。領軍將軍韓X曰:「先帝以舊京傾覆,戢翼三齊。陛下不養士息民,以伺魏釁,恢復先業,而更侵掠南鄰以讎敵,可乎!」超曰:「我計已定,不與卿言。」

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Gengyin (February 1st), the Emperor of Southern Yan, Murong Chao, held a court meeting of his ministers. He lamented that the Music Bureau was no longer staffed with musicians for the court ceremonies, and he proposed kidnapping people from Jin in order to train them as new musicians.

The General Who Leads The Army, Han Zhuo, objected, "It was because Yan's original capital (at Zhongshan) was lost that His Late Majesty was compelled to take shelter in the Three Qi regions. Yet now, rather than rest your soldiers and give your people respite while watching for divisions among our foes in Wei for you to take advantage of in order to restore Yan to its former glory, Your Majesty plans to go so far as to raid our southern neighbor and make an enemy of them too. How can this be?"

But Murong Chao declared, "My plan is already decided; I need consult you all no further."

〈三年,超獻太樂伎于秦,故歎其不備。〉〈中山陷,慕容德棄鄴,保滑臺;旣而復失滑臺,乃東取齊地而據之。事並見前。〉〈史言慕容超愎諫致寇而亡。〉

(Murong Chao had earlier given his Music Bureau musicians to Later Qin as tribute, as mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (407.36). This was why he now lamented their absence in his court.

After the Later Yan capital at Zhongshan fell to Northern Wei, Murong De abandoned his post at Ye and withdrew to defend Huatai instead. Then, after losing Huatai as well, he took over the Qi region and occupied it. These things are all mentioned in the previous Books.

This passage demonstrates how Murong Chao was too wilful to accept criticism, insisting upon his invasions, and this led to his doom.)


辛卯,大赦。

2. On the day Xinmao (February 2nd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

五年春正月辛卯,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth year of Yixi (409), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinmao (February 2nd), a general amnesty was declared.


庚戌,以劉毅爲衞將軍、開府儀同三司。毅愛才好士,當世名流莫不輻湊,獨揚州主簿吳郡張卲不往。或問之,卲曰:「主公命世人傑,何煩多問!」

3. On the day Gengxu (February 21st), the Jin general Liu Yi was appointed as Guard General, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal Ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

Liu Yi treasured talented people and respected gentlemen, and almost everyone who had some reputation at that time flocked to visit him. Only the Registrar of Yangzhou, Zhang Shao of Wu commandary, did not go to see him. When someone asked Zhang Shao why this was, he replied, "My lord (Liu Yu) is himself a great talent of the age; how could I bother with visiting so many others?"

〈劉裕領揚州,故稱之爲主公。〉

(At this time, Liu Yu was acting Inspector of Yangzhou, so he was Zhang Shao's personal superior; this was why Zhang Shao referred to him as "my lord".)


庚戌,以撫軍將軍劉毅爲衛將軍、開府儀同三司,加輔國將軍何無忌鎮南將軍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Gengxu (February 21st), the General Who Nurtures The Army, Liu Yi, was appointed as Guard General, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal Ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. The General Who Upholds The State, He Wuji, was appointed as General Who Guards The South.

俄進拜衛將軍、開府儀同三司。(Book of Jin 85, Biography of Liu Yi)

Liu Yi was soon appointed as Guard General, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal Ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.


秦王興遣其弟平北將軍沖、征虜將軍狄伯支等帥騎四萬,擊夏王勃勃。沖至嶺北,謀還襲長安,伯支不從而止,因酖殺伯支以滅口。

4. Yao Xing sent his General Who Pacifies The North, his younger brother Yao Chong, his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Di Bozhi, and others to lead forty thousand cavalry to attack the Heavenly King of Xia, Liu Bobo. But when Yao Chong arrived north of the mountain ranges, he plotted to turn back and launch a surprise attack against Yao Xing's capital at Chang'an. When Di Bozhi refused to go along with the plot, Yao Chong gave it up. But he poisoned Di Bozhi, killing him, in order to ensure his silence.

興遣平北姚沖、征虜狄伯支、輔國斂曼嵬、鎮東楊佛嵩率騎四萬討勃勃。沖次於嶺北,欲回師襲長安,伯支不從,乃止,懼其謀泄,遂鴆殺伯支。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent his General Who Pacifies The North, Yao Chong, his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Di Bozhi, his General Who Upholds The State, Lian Manwei, and his General Who Guards The East, Yang Fusong, to lead forty thousand cavalry to campaign against Helian Bobo. But when Yao Chong arrived north of the mountain ranges, he wanted to turn back and launch a surprise attack against Chang'an. When Di Bozhi refused to go along with the plot, Yao Chong gave it up. But fearing that Di Bozhi would leak the plot, he poisoned Di Bozhi, killing him.


秦王興遣使再拜譙縱爲大都督、相國、蜀王,加九錫,承制封拜,悉如王者之儀。

5. It was earlier mentioned that the rebel leader of the Shu region, Qiao Zong, had declared himself Yao Xing's vassal. Yao Xing now sent envoys to appoint Qiao Zong as Qin's Grand Commander, Chancellor of State, and Prince of Shu. He also granted him the Nine Bestowments. Qiao Zong was empowered to make his own appointments, and in all things he was shown the rites due to a Prince.

興遣其兼司徒韋華持節策拜縱為大都督、相國、蜀王,加九錫,備物典策一如魏、晉故事,承制封拜悉如王者之儀。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent his combined Minister Over The Masses, Wei Hua, with a Staff of Authority to appoint Qiao Zong as Later Qin's Grand Commander, Chancellor of State, and Prince of Shu. He also granted him the Nine Bestowments, given all the equipment and texts suited to that honor as had been practiced during similar conferments from the Cao-Wei and Jin dynasties. Qiao Zong was empowered to make his own appointments, and in all things he was shown the rites due to a Prince.


二月,南燕將慕容興宗、斛穀提、公孫歸等帥騎寇宿豫,拔之,大掠而去,簡男女二千五百付太樂敎之。歸,五樓之兄也。是時,五樓爲侍中、尚書、領左衞將軍,專總朝政,宗親並居顯要,王公內外無不憚之。南燕主超論宿豫之功,封斛穀提等並爲郡、縣公。桂林王鎭諫曰:「此數人者,勤民頓兵,爲國結怨,何功而封?」超怒,不答。尚書都令史王儼諂事五樓,比歲屢遷,官至左丞。國人爲之言曰:「欲得侯,事五樓。」超又遣公孫歸等寇濟南,俘男女千餘人而去。自彭城以南,民皆堡聚以自固。詔幷州刺史劉道憐鎭淮陰以備之。

6. In the second month, the Southern Yan generals Murong Xingzong, Hu Guti, Gongsun Gui, and others led cavalry to attack Jin's city of Suyu, and they took it, sacking the city before leaving and taking twenty-five hundred people back to be instructed as musicians in the Music Bureau. This Gongsun Gui was the elder brother of Gongsun Wulou.

By now, Gongsun Wulou was a Palace Attendant, a Master of Writing, and acting Guard General of the Left, and he had consolidated power over the court and the government; his relatives all held conspicuous and important offices, and not a one of the nobles, inside and out, did not fear him.

When Murong Chao discussed the deeds of those who had attacked Suyu, he appointed Hu Guti and the rest as Dukes of commandaries or counties. The Prince of Guilin (or Guiyang), Murong Zhen, remonstrated against this, saying, "These fellows were merely toiling the people and prolonging the labor of the soldiers, and they are bringing hatred against our state. What deeds have they done, that you reward them so?"

Murong Chao, angered, did not respond.

The Chief Clerk of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yan, constantly flattered Gongsun Wulou, such that in the space of a year, he received many promotions and eventually became Left Assistant of the Masters of Writing. The people of that time came up with a rhyme: "If you want to be a Hou (Marquis), flatter Wulou."

Murong Chao also sent Gongsun Gui and others to invade Jinan commandary, where they kidnapped more than a thousand people before returning. All the common people from Pengcheng south gathered together into forts in order to protect themselves from further raids. The Jin court stationed the Inspector of Bingzhou, Liu Daolian, at Huaiyin in order to defend against Southern Yan.

〈宿豫城在淮北,帝置宿豫郡及宿豫縣;唐代宗諱豫,改爲宿遷縣,屬徐州。宋白曰:宿豫城在下邳東南百八十里,蓋本宋人遷宿處也,宋滅,爲邑;漢爲仇猶縣,屬臨淮郡;晉安帝立宿豫縣,唐改宿遷縣。〉〈【嚴:「林」改「陽」。】〉〈漢尚書有令史十八人,後增爲二十一人,其後員數愈增,置都令史以總之。〉〈《禮記》:比年入學。《註》:每歲也。《漢書》,比年,頻年也。〉〈此濟南郡亦是僑置於淮北。〉

(The city of Suyu was north of the Huai River. Emperor An had created both a Suyu commandary and a Suyu county. During the Tang dynasty, because of the naming taboo on Emperor Daizong (Li Yu), Suyu county was renamed to Suqian county, as part of Xuzhou. Song Bai remarked, "The city of Suyu was a hundred and eighty li southeast of Xiapi. It must have been named Suyu (Rest and Comfort) because the people of Liu-Song had fled there seeking refuge. After Liu-Song was no more, it became a county. During the Han dynasty, this area had been Chouyou county, as part of Linhuai commandary. Emperor An of Jin established it as Suyu county, and during Tang it was renamed to Suqian."

Some versions have Murong Zhen's title here as Prince of Guiyang, not Guilin.

This passage uses the term 比年. The Book of Rites states, "Every year (比年) some entered the college." The Annotations to that text state, "This term 比年 means 'every year'." And in the Book of Han, the term is used to mean every year.

The Han dynasty's Masters of Writing had eighteen Clerks. Later on, this number was increased to twenty-one Clerks, and after that, the number increased even more. So the office of Chief Clerk was created to supervise them.

This Jinan commandary was another surrogate commandary, established north of the Huai River.)


二月,慕容超將慕容興宗寇宿豫,陽平太守劉千載、南陽太守趙元並爲賊所執。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second month, Murong Chao's general Murong Xingzong invaded Suyu. The Administrator of Yangping, Liu Qianzai, and the Administrator of Nanyang, Zhao Yuan, were both captured by the enemy.

時鮮卑侵逼,自彭城以南,民皆保聚,山陽、淮陰諸戍,並不復立。道憐請據彭城,以漸脩創,朝議以彭城縣遠,使鎮山陽。進號征虜將軍、督淮北軍郡事、北東海太守,并州刺史、義昌太守如故。以破索度真功,封新渝縣男,食邑五百戶。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

At this time, the Xianbei (of Southern Yan) were launching raids across and threatening the border. All the common people from Pengcheng south gathered together into forts in order to protect themselves from further raids, and the Jin camps at Shanyang and Huaiyin could no longer be defended. Liu Daolian asked to occupy Pengcheng as his base, so that he could gradually restore the situation. But the court ministers felt that Pengcheng was too far and isolated, so they stationed him at Shanyang.

Liu Daolian was promoted to General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Commander of military affairs north of the Huai River, and Administrator of Northern Donghai, while maintaining his positions as Inspector of Bingzhou and Administrator of Yichang. And for his achievements in routing Suodu Zhen, he was granted the title Baron of Xinyu county, with a fief of five hundred households.


乞伏熾磐入見秦太原公懿於上邽,彭奚念乘虛伐之。熾磐聞之,怒,不告懿而歸,擊奚念,破之,遂圍枹罕。乞伏乾歸從秦王興如平涼;熾磐克枹罕,遣人告乾歸,乾歸逃還苑川。

7. In Liangzhou, Qifu Chipan went to see Qin's Duke of Taiyuan, Yao Yi, at Shanggui. Peng Xinian took advantage of Qifu Chipan's absence to attack his domain. Angered when he learned of it, Qifu Chipan immediately left without informing Yao Yi and attacked Peng Xinian. He routed Peng Xinian, then laid siege to his base at Fuhan.

At this time, Qifu Chipan's father Qifu Gangui had accompanied Yao Xing to Pingliang. After Qifu Chipan took Fuhan, he sent agents to inform Qifu Gangui that he was nearby. Qifu Gangui then fled back to his original domain at Yuanchuan.

〈彭奚念據枹罕。〉〈乾歸爲秦所留,見上卷三年。〉

(Peng Xinian's base was at Fuhan.

Qifu Gangui had earlier been detained at Chang'an by Yao Xing, as mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (407.2).)


更始元年,乾歸隨姚興如平涼,熾盤攻枹罕,剋之,遂遣使來告乾歸。乾歸奔還苑川。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the first year of Gengshi (409), Qifu Gangui accompanied Yao Xing to Pingliang. Qifu Chipan was attacking Fuhan and had taken it, and he sent agents to inform Qifu Gangui that he was nearby. Qifu Gangui then fled back to his original domain at Yuanchuan.

熾磐攻克枹罕,遣使告之,乾歸奔還苑川。鮮卑悅大堅有眾五千,自龍馬苑降乾歸。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

When Qifu Chipan took Fuhan, he sent agents to inform Qifu Gangui that he was nearby. Qifu Gangui then fled back to his original domain at Yuanchuan. The Xianbei leader Yue Dajian had an army of five thousand, and he came from Longma Garden to submit to Qifu Gangui.


馮翊人劉厥聚衆數千,據萬年作亂,秦太子泓遣鎭軍將軍彭白狼帥東宮禁兵討之,斬厥,赦其餘黨。諸將請露布,表言廣其首級。泓不許,曰:「主上委吾後事,不能式遏寇逆,當責躬請罪,尚敢矜誕自爲功乎!」

8. A native of Pingyi commandary, Liu Jue, gathered together an army of several thousand and occupied Wannian in rebellion. Yao Xing's Crown Prince, Yao Hong, sent the General Who Guards The Army, Peng Bailang, to lead the guards and soldiers of the Eastern Palace to campaign against the rebels. They took Liu Jue's head, but the other rebels were all pardoned.

The Qin generals asked that Yao Hong issue a declaration of his victory and claim greater credit for his achievements in suppressing the rebellion. But Yao Hong refused, telling them, "Our sovereign entrusted me with affairs in the rear, yet I was unable to stop this rebellion from breaking out. I ought to be accepting responsibility for my failures and asking forgiveness for my offenses. How could I be so conceited as to boast of having accomplished anything?"

〈秦王興在平涼,故厥乘間作亂。〉〈姚泓優游文義,自儒者觀之,似得子道,然非撥亂才也。〉

(Liu Jue had taken advantage of Yao Xing's absence due to his trip to Pingliang to launch this rebellion.

How excellent and refined Yao Hong was at cultured and righteous thinking. By Confucian standards, he was indeed a superior fellow. Yet he lacked the talents to guide a state through turmoil.)


秦王興自平涼如朝那,聞姚沖之謀,賜沖死。

9. When Yao Xing went from Pingliang to Chaona, he learned of Yao Chong's plot, and forced him to commit suicide.

〈謂欲還襲長安也。〉

(This was Yao Chong's plot to launch a surprise attack against Chang'an.)


興自平涼如朝那,聞沖謀逆,以其弟中最少,雄武絕人,猶欲隱忍容之。斂成泣謂興曰:「沖凶險不仁,每侍左右,臣常寢不安席,願早為之所。」興曰:「沖何能為也!但輕害名將,吾欲明其罪于四海。」乃下書賜沖死,葬以庶人之禮。(Book of JIn 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

When Yao Xing went from Pingliang to Chaona, he learned of Yao Chong's plot. Since Yao Chong was the youngest of Yao Xing's brothers, and was an exceptionally heroic and bold fellow, Yao Xing wanted to cover up his crime and tolerate him. But Lian Cheng implored Yao Xing while weeping, "Yao Chong is violent, sinister, and lacking in benevolence, yet he is often around you. I have rarely been able to sleep peacefully at night. Please get rid of him at once!"

Yao Xing replied, "How could I spare him? It's merely that, since he is a famous general, I wanted to publicize his crimes to all within the Four Seas rather than rush to kill him." So he sent out a letter compelling Yao Chong to commit suicide, and Yao Chong was buried with the rites fit for a commoner.


三月,劉裕抗表伐南燕,朝議皆以爲不可,惟左僕射孟昶、車騎司馬謝裕、參軍臧熹以爲必克,勸裕行。裕以昶監中軍留府事。謝裕,安之兄孫也。

10. In the third month, Liu Yu presented a petition asking to campaign against Southern Yan. Most of the court ministers believed that it would be impossible. Only the Deputy Director of the Left, Meng Chang, the Marshal to the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Xie Yu, and Liu Yu's Army Advisor, Zang Xi, believed that he would definitely succeed, and they urged Liu Yu to carry out the campaign. Liu Yu appointed Meng Chang as acting Chief of Internal Affairs to the General of the Central Army. This Xie Yu was the great-nephew of Xie An.

〈監中軍將軍留府事也。〉

(Meng Cheng was appointed as acting Chief of Internal Affairs to the General of the Central Army.)


三月,車騎將軍劉裕帥師伐慕容超。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Yu, led an army to campaign against Murong Chao.


初,苻氏之敗也,王猛之孫鎭惡來奔,以爲臨澧令。鎭惡騎乘非長,關弓甚弱,而有謀略,善果斷,喜論軍國大事。或薦鎭惡於劉裕,裕與語,說之,因留宿;明旦,謂參佐曰:「吾聞將門有將,鎭惡信然。」卽以爲中軍參軍。

11. It was earlier mentioned that during Former Qin, Wang Meng had been Fu Jian's chief minister. During the collapse of Former Qin, Wang Meng's grandson Wang Zhen'e had fled to Jin, where he was appointed as Jin's Prefect of Linli.

This Wang Zhen'e had no great skill at riding, and he was a weakling at wielding a bow. Yet he was skilled at developing plans and strategies, he was stalwart and decisive, and he delighted in discussing the great affairs of army and state. Someone recommended Wang Zhen'e to Liu Yu, who met with him, talked to him, and lodged him overnight. The next morning, Liu Yu told his advisors and attendants, "I've heard that a general's family will produce more generals. This Wang Zhen'e proves it." So he appointed Wang Zhen'e as Army Advisor to the General of the Central Army.

〈武帝太康四年立臨澧縣,屬天門郡,隋、唐併入澧州澧陽縣。〉

(In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) fourth year of Taikang (283), he created Linli county, as part of Tianmen commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was Liyang county in Lizhou.)


王鎮惡,北海劇人也。祖猛,字景略,苻堅僭號關中,猛為將相,有文武才,北土重之。父休,為河東太守。鎮惡以五月五日生,家人以俗忌,欲令出繼疏宗。猛見奇之,曰:「此非常兒,昔孟嘗君惡月生而相齊,是兒亦將興吾門矣!」故名之為鎮惡。年十三而苻氏敗亡,關中擾亂,流寓崤、澠之間。嘗寄食澠池人李方家,方善遇之。謂方曰:「若遭遇英雄主,要取萬戶侯,當厚相報。」方答曰:「君丞相孫,人才如此,何患不富貴。至時願見用為本縣令,足矣。」後隨叔父曜歸晉,客居荊州。頗讀諸子兵書,論軍國大事,騎乘非所長,關弓亦甚弱,而意略縱橫,果決能斷。廣固之役,或薦鎮惡於高祖,時鎮惡為天門臨澧令,即遣召之。既至與語,甚異焉,因留宿。明旦謂諸佐曰:「鎮惡,王猛之孫,所謂將門有將也。」即以為青州治中從事史,行參中軍太尉軍事,署前部賊曹。(Book of Liu-Song 45, Biography of Wang Zhen'e)

Wang Zhen'e was a native of Ju county in Beihai commandary. His grandfather Wang Meng, styled Jinglüe, had served Fu Jian of Former Qin as both general and chancellor; he was talented in both civil and military affairs, and the people of the north though very highly of him. Wang Zhen'e's father was Wang Xiu, who served as Administrator of Hedong. Wang Zhen'e was born on the fifth day of the fifth month, which had long been considered an inauspicious day for births. Trusting in this superstitution, his family members were planning to cast him out and cut him off from the clan. But when Wang Meng saw the babe, he was amazed at his appearance, and he declared, "This is no ordinary child. In ancient times, Lord Mengchang too was born on the same ill-omened day, yet he eventually became Chancellor of Qi. So too will this child make our clan rise!" And he named the child Zhen'e ("Guards Against Evil").

When Wang Zhen'e was twelve years old, Former Qin collapsed, and the Guanzhong region was in chaos. He fled and took refuge in the region between the Xiao Mountains and the Mian River. On one occasion, he was lodging with the family of a native of Mianchi, Li Fang, who treated him well. Wang Zhen'e told Li Fang, "If I ever find a heroic lord to serve and can make myself a marquis of ten thousand households, I will be sure to repay your generosity."

Li Fang replied, "Sir, you are the grandson of the Prime Minister (Wang Meng), and you yourself are greatly talented. What need is there to worry that you might not obtain wealth and glory? When the time comes, I only ask that you appoint me as Prefect of my home county; I need nothing further."

Later, Wang Zhen'e accompanied his uncle Wang Yao and went to Jin, where he lived in Jingzhou. He was inclined towards reading the various military treatises written by the ancient masters and discussing the grand affairs of army and state. Although he was no master at riding a horse, and was rather weak at drawing a bow, he had a broad and impressive mind for thinking, and he was stalwart, resolute, capable, and decisive.

During Liu Yu's campaign against Southern Yan, someone recommended Wang Zhen'e to him. At that time, Wang Zhen'e was serving as Prefect of Linli county in Tianmen commandary. So Liu Yu sent word to summon him, and when they met and talked, Liu Yu was so amazed by Wang Zhen'e that he kept him to stay the night with him. The next morning, Liu Yu told his advisors and attendants, "This Wang Zhen'e is the grandson of Wang Meng, and they say that a general's family will produce more generals." So he appointed Wang Zhen'e as Attendant Officer and Interior Manager to the Inspector of Qingzhou, acting Army Advisor to the General of the Central Army and Grand Commandant, and Bandit Manager of the Front Division.


恆山崩。

12. Mount Heng collapsed.

夏,四月,乞伏乾歸如枹罕,留世子熾磐鎭之,收其衆得二萬,徙都度堅山。

13. In summer, the fourth month, Qifu Gangui arrived at Fuhan. He left Qifu Chipan there to guard it, while he gathered together an army of twenty thousand soldiers and shifted his capital to Mount Dujian.

〈度堅山,乞伏之先司繁所居也。〉

(Qifu Gangui's father Qifu Sifan had originally had his residence at Mount Dujian as well.)


遂如枹罕,留熾盤鎮之。乾歸將衆二萬。遷於度堅山。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui arrived at Fuhan. He left Qifu Chipan there to guard it, while he led an army of twenty thousand soldiers and shifted his capital to Mount Dujian.

乾歸遂如枹罕,留熾磐鎮之。乾歸收眾三萬,遷於度堅山。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui arrived at Fuhan. He left Qifu Chipan there to guard it, while he gathered together an army of thirty thousand soldiers and shifted his capital to Mount Dujian.


雷震魏天安殿東序;魏主珪惡之,命左校以衝車攻東、西序,皆毀之。初,珪服寒食散,久之,藥發,性多躁擾,忿怒無常,至是寖劇。又災異數見,占者多言當有急變生肘腋。珪憂懣不安,或數日不食,或達旦不寐,追計平生成敗得失,獨語不止。疑羣臣左右皆不可信,每百官奏事至前,追記其舊惡,輒殺之;其餘或顏色變動,或鼻息不調,或步趨失節,或言辭差繆,皆以爲懷惡在心,發形於外,往往手擊殺之,死者皆陳天安殿前。朝廷人不自保,百官苟免,莫相督攝,盜賊公行,里巷之間,人爲希少。珪亦知之,曰:「朕故縱之使然,待過災年,更當清治之耳。」是時,羣臣畏罪,多不敢求親近;唯著作郎崔浩恭勤不懈,或終日不歸。浩,吏部尚書宏之子也。宏未嘗忤旨,亦不諂諛,故宏父子獨不被譴。

14. Lightning shook the Eastern School at Wei's Tian'an Hall. Tuoba Gui was disturbed by this, and he ordered his officers to knock down the Eastern and Western Schools with battering rams, destroying them.

Up until this time, Tuoba Gui had been taking Cold Food Powder, and this constant consumption had made his personality more impetuous and arbitrary; he developed outbursts of anger, which grew worse over time. Furthermore, there had been several natural disasters lately, and many diviners had stated that these foretold the outbreak of a rebellion within Wei's very vitals. Tuoba Gui was thus very unsettled; sometimes he would go for days without eating, sometimes he would stay awake all night, and sometimes he would dwell on the past events of his life, all his past successes or defeats, and talk about them without stopping.

Tuoba Gui began to believe that he could no longer trust the people around him. Whenever one of his officials presented a petition before him, he would bring up their past mistakes and then kill them. And even beyond this, if Tuoba Gui noticed someone with a strange expression, unusual breathing, uneven movement, or suspicious words, he would always believe that they were now revealing through their actions the hidden evil within their heart, and he would kill them with his own hands. The dead were all placed in the front of the Tian'an Hall.

So the court ministers could not protect themselves, and no one performed their duties anymore or supervised anything; bandits and robbers openly walked the roads, while the streets and alleys became deserted. Tuoba Gui too was aware of this, but he said, "It's because I let these people do as they wished up until now that these natural disasters have been happening lately. I only need to purge them all."

By now, Tuoba Gui's ministers were so afraid of being charged with some crime that most of them did not dare to face him. Only one of the Gentlemen-Authors, Cui Hao, remained fully respectful and cautious, sometimes not returning home even when it was the end of the day. This Cui Hao was the son of the Personnel Director of the Masters of Writing, Cui Hong. Cui Hong never once acted either obstinate nor sycophantic; this was why he and his son never suffered such a fate.

〈晉人多服寒食散,今《千金方》中有數方。蘇軾曰:世有食鍾孔、烏喙而縱酒色以求長年者,蓋始於何晏。晏少而富貴,故服寒食散以濟其欲。凡服之者,疽背、嘔血相踵也。〉〈氣一出一入謂之息。〉〈史言魏主珪死期將至。〉

(Many people of the Jin era consumed Cold Food Powder (also called Five Mineral Powder), and the modern Thousand Minerals Codex lists several examples of it. Su Shi (Su Dongpo) remarked, "Through the ages, there have been people like Zhong Kong and Wu Hui who indulged in wine in order to extend their lifespans. This sort of process must have started with He Yan, who though a young man enjoyed wealth and honor, so he consumed Cold Food Powder to gratify his desires. Those who consume this powder suffer in turn from ulcers on their back and spitting up blood."

One cycle of breathing in and out is called a 息.

This passage demonstrates how Tuoba Gui's death was not far off.)


六年夏,帝不豫。初,帝服寒食散,自太醫令陰羌死後,藥數動發,至此逾甚。而災變屢見,憂懣不安,或數日不食,或不寢達旦。歸咎羣下,喜怒乖常,謂百僚左右人不可信,慮如天文之占,或有肘腋之虞。追思既往成敗得失,終日竟夜獨語不止,若旁有鬼物對揚者。朝臣至前,追其舊惡皆見殺害,其餘或以顏色變動,或以喘息不調,或以行步乖節,或以言辭失措,帝皆以為懷惡在心,變見於外,乃手自毆擊,死者皆陳天安殿前。於是朝野人情各懷危懼,有司懈怠,莫相督攝,百工偷劫,盜賊公行,巷里之間人為希少。帝亦聞之,曰:「朕縱之使然,待過災年,當更清治之爾。」(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth year of Tianci (409), in summer, Tuoba Gui was indisposed.

Up until this time, Tuoba Gui had been taking Cold Food Powder, and after the death of the Prefect of the Imperial Doctors, Yin Qiang, Tuoba Gui's consumption had only increased further. Furthermore, there had been several natural disasters lately. Tuoba Gui was thus worried and very unsettled; sometimes he would go for days without eating, sometimes he would stay awake all night. When among his attendants, he would constantly shift between joy and anger. He said that he could no longer trust his officials or his attendants, and he worried about the prophecies of the diviners, some of whom had predicted that Tuoba Gui would face a threat from among those closest to him. He would dwell on the past events of his life, all his past successes or defeats, and talk about them all day without stopping, as though he were responding to ghosts all around him.

Whenever one of Tuoba Gui's court officials appeared before him, he would bring up their past mistakes and then kill them. And even beyond this, if Tuoba Gui noticed someone with a strange expression, unusual breathing, uneven movement, or suspicious words, he would always believe that they were now revealing through their actions the hidden evil within their heart, and he would kill them with his own hands. The dead were all placed in the front of the Tian'an Hall.

So Tuoba Gui's ministers, both at court and out in the state, all held fear and worry in their hearts, and his officials grew negligent and remiss; no one performed their duties anymore or supervised anything. Workers stole and mugged people, bandits and robbers openly walked the roads, and the streets and alleys became deserted. But when Tuoba Gui heard these things, he said, "It's because I let these people do as they wished up until now that these natural disasters have been happening lately. I only need to purge them all."


夏王勃勃率騎二萬攻秦,掠取平涼雜胡七千餘戶,進屯依力川。

15. Liu Bobo led twenty thousand cavalry to attack Qin. He captured more than seven thousand households of various tribal peoples from Pingliang, then advanced to camp at Yilichuan.

〈魏收《地形志》:平涼城在漢安定鶉陰界,唐爲原州之地。依力川又當在其東南。〉

(The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The city of Pingliang was within Chunyin county in Han's Anding commandary, the area of Tang's Yuanzhou. Yilichuan was also southeast of there.")


勃勃又率騎二萬入高岡,及于五井,掠平涼雜胡七千餘戶以配後軍,進屯依力川。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Helian Bobo led twenty thousand cavalry into Gaogang, marching as far as Wujing. He captured more than seven thousand households of various tribal peoples from Pingliang and assigned them to his rear army, then advanced to camp at Yilichuan.


己巳,劉裕發建康,帥舟師自淮入泗。五月,至下邳,留船艦、輜重,步進至琅邪,所過皆築城,留兵守之。或謂裕曰:「燕人若塞大峴之險,或堅壁清野,大軍深入,不唯無功,將不能自歸,柰何?」裕曰:「吾慮之熟矣,鮮卑貪婪,不知遠計,進利虜獲,退惜禾苗,謂我孤軍遠入,不能持久;不過進據臨朐,退守廣固,必不能守險清野,敢爲諸君保之。」

16. On the day Jisi (May 11th), Liu Yu set out from Jiankang, leading a fleet from the Huai River to enter the Si River. In the fifth month, he arrived at Xiapi. He left his fleet and his baggage there while having his soldiers advance on foot as far as Langye, and in every place he passed through, he built outposts and left garrisons to maintain them.

Someone said to Liu Yu, "Suppose the Yan soldiers guard the passes at Daxian while fortifying their ramparts and scorching the earth. If they do that, then once our great army has advanced deep into their territory, not only will our campaign be a failure, it will even be difficult for us to retreat again. What then?"

Liu Yu replied, "I have already considered such fears. But the Xianbei are greedy and possessive, and they would not be able to consider such plans for the long-term. When they have the advantage in war, they rush forward to plunder and capture, while if the fighting goes against them, they fall back and try to protect their harvest crops. They think that our army, being unsupported, will not be able to wage a long campaign once deep within their territory. So at best, they will merely hold a forward position at Linqu, while at worst they will hold out at Guanggu. I am certain that they will not hold the passes or scorch the earth; on that point, gentlemen, I pledge my word."

〈慮南燕以奇兵斷其後也。〉〈《水經註》:沭水出琅邪東莞縣西北山,東南流,右合峴水。水北出大峴山,今有大峴關。魏收《志》,齊郡盤陽縣有大峴山。《五代志》,臨朐縣有峴山。杜佑曰:大峴在沂州沂水縣北。〉〈魏收《志》曰:臨朐卽漢之朐縣也,屬東海郡;晉曰臨朐,屬東莞郡。宋白曰:因臨朐山而名。〉

(Liu Yu posted these garrisons out of concern that Southern Yan might send troops to cut off his rear.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Shu River emerges from the northwestern mountains of Eastern Dongguan county in Langye commandary. The river flows southeast, until it joins with the Xian River on the right. The Xian River emerges from Mount Daxian, at the site of the modern Daxian Pass." According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a Mount Daxian in Panyang county in Qi commandary. According to the Records of the Five Dynasties, there was a Mount Xian in Linqu county. Du You remarked, "Daxian is in the north of Shushui county in Shuzhou."

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Linqu county was Han's Qu county, part of Donghai commandary. Jin renamed it to Linqu, as part of Dongguan commandary." Song Bai remarked, "It was named after Mount Linqu.")


南燕主超聞有晉師,引羣臣會議。征虜將軍公孫五樓曰:「吳兵輕果,利在速戰,不可爭;宜據大峴,使不得入,曠日延時,沮其銳氣,然後徐簡精騎二千,循海而南,絕其糧道,別敕段暉帥兗州之衆,緣山東下,腹背擊之,此上策也。各命守宰依險自固,校其資儲之外,餘悉焚蕩,芟除禾苗,使敵無所資,彼僑軍無食,求戰不得,旬月之間,可以坐制,此中策也。縱賊入峴,出城逆戰,此下策也。」超曰:「今歲星居齊,以天道推之,不戰自克。客主勢殊,以人事言之,彼遠來疲弊,勢不能久。吾據五州之地,擁富庶之民,鐵騎萬羣,麥禾布野,柰何芟苗徙民,先自蹙弱乎!不如縱使入峴,以精騎蹂之,何憂不克。」輔國將軍廣寧王賀賴盧苦諫不從,退謂五樓曰:「必若此,亡無日矣!」太尉桂林王鎭曰:「陛下必以騎兵利平地者,宜出峴逆戰,戰而不勝,猶可退守;不宜縱敵入峴,自棄險固也。」超不從。鎭出,謂韓X曰:「主上旣不能逆戰卻敵,又不肯徙民清野,延敵入腹,坐待攻圍,酷似劉璋矣。今年國滅,吾必死之。卿中華之士,復爲文身矣。」超聞之,大怒,收鎭下獄。乃攝莒、梁父二戍,修城隍,簡士馬,以待之。

17. When Murong Chao heard that the Jin army was approaching, he gathered his ministers for a council.

The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Gongsun Wulou, advised him, "The soldiers from the Wu region excel at maneuver, and they do best when they are able to bring about a quick fight. We cannot attack them head-on. You should occupy Daxian and prevent them from penetrating any further into our territory. Force them to wait it out, and their morale and zeal will ebb away. After that, you can send two thousand elite cavalry to ride south along the coast and cut off the enemy's supply lines, while also ordering Duan Hui to lead the Yanzhou soldiers east along the mountains and have him strike the enemy from the flank and rear. That would be the best strategy.

“Otherwise, you could order all of our local commanders and officials to fortify their local defenses and guard their posts, while storing up as many resources as they can and torching the rest of the grain. Destroy the crops in the field, and you deny the enemy any chance to forage. They will not be able to sustain themselves, nor will they be able to force us into a battle, and within a week or a month, they will be compelled to retreat without our having done anything. That would be the second-best plan.

“But to allow the enemy free reign to pass through Xian, and then for you to march out of the city to face them in battle, would be the worst plan of all."

But Murong Chao replied, "The Year Star (Jupiter) is currently hanging over the Qi region. That is a sign that Heaven supports us, and we will win even without fighting. Besides, there is a clear difference in strength between invaders and defenders here, as even the people have said. The enemy will exhaust themselves from their long march, and they will not be strong enough to last for long. I control five provinces, I possess the rich bounty of the people, I command a mighty host of iron cavalry, and my fields are thick with grain. Why then should I destroy my grain and relocate my people, and thus constrain and weaken myself before the battle? No, I will let the enemy pass through Xian and then trample them with my elite cavalry. Why should I be worried about failure?"

The General Who Upholds The State and Prince of Guangning, He Lailu, bitterly remonstrated against this plan, but Murong Chao did not listen to him. As He Lailu left court, he told Gongsun Wulou, "We won't last a day like this!"

The Grand Commandant, Murong Zhen, said to Murong Chao, "Your Majesty surely knows that cavalry have the advantage on level ground. So you should send the cavalry out beyond Xian and face the enemy on the plains beyond. Then even if the battle goes against us, it will not be too late for us to pull back and guard our defenses. You should not allow the enemy to simply pass through Xian and thus throw away our natural defenses."

But Murong Chao did not listen to him. As Murong Zhen left court, he told Han Zhuo, "Our sovereign refuses either to sally forth and hold off the enemy or to relocate the people into our cities and scorch the earth. He would rather allow the enemy to advance right into our heartland and wait for them to attack and lay siege to him. At this rate, he might as well be another Liu Zhang. This year will be the end of our state, and I too shall perish. You Hua (ethnic Han) gentlemen from the Central Plains are going to become a bunch of tattooed fellows again." Murong Chao was furious when he heard about this remark, and he arrested Murong Zhen and imprisoned him.

Then Murong Chao organized two camps at Ju and Liangfu, repaired his walls and moats, drilled his soldiers and horses, and awaited the Jin army.

〈南燕兗州治梁父;緣梁父之山而東下也。〉〈南燕以幷州牧鎭陰平,幽州刺史鎭發干,徐州刺史鎭莒城,兗州刺鎭梁父,青州刺史鎭東萊,所謂五州也。〉〈劉璋事見六十七卷漢獻帝建安十八年。〉〈古者東南之民斷髮文身,故鎭云然。〉

(Southern Yan's version of Yanzhou was governed from Liangfu, so in Gongsun Wulou's proposal, Duan Hui would be marching east along the mountains from Liangfu.

Southern Yan had five provinces: their Governor of Bingzhou was stationed at Yinping, their Inspector of Youzhou at Fagan, their Inspector of Xuzhou at Jucheng, their Inspector of Yanzhou at Liangfu, and their Inspector of Qingzhou at Donglai.

During his war against Liu Bei, Liu Zhang had likewise rejected advice to scorch his fields and wage a war of attrition against Liu Bei. This is mentioned in Book 67, in Emperor Han of Xian's eighteenth year of Jian'an (213.E in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

In ancient times, the people of the southeast had cut their hair and tattooed their bodies; Murong Zhen now repeated this stereotype (since a Southland army was coming to attack Southern Yan).)


劉裕過大峴,燕兵不出。裕舉手指天,喜形于色。左右曰:「公未見敵而先喜,何也?」裕曰:「兵已過險,士有必死之志;餘糧棲畝,人無匱乏之憂。虜已入吾掌中矣。」六月,己巳,裕至東莞。超先遣公孫五樓、賀賴盧及左將軍段暉等將步騎五萬屯臨朐;聞晉兵入峴,自將步騎四萬往就之,使五樓帥騎進據巨蔑水。前鋒孟龍符與戰,破之,五樓退走。裕以車四千乘爲左右翼,方軌徐進,與燕兵戰於臨朐南,日向昃,勝負猶未決。參軍胡藩言於裕曰:「燕悉兵出戰,臨朐城中留守必寡,願以奇兵從間道取其城,此韓信所以破趙也。」裕遣藩及諮議參軍檀韶、建威將軍河內向彌潛師出燕兵之後,攻臨朐,聲言輕兵自海道至矣。向彌擐甲先登,遂克之。超大驚,單騎就段暉於城南。裕因縱兵奮擊,燕衆大敗,斬段暉等大將十餘人,超遁還廣固,獲其玉璽、輦及豹尾。裕乘勝逐北至廣固;丙子,克其大城。超收衆入保小城。裕築長圍守之,圍高三丈,穿塹三重;撫納降附,采拔賢俊,華、夷大悅。於是因齊地糧儲,悉停江、淮漕運。

18. When Liu Yu marched through Daxian, there was no sign of the Southern Yan soldiers. Liu Yu raised his hand and pointed to the heavens, looking most pleased. His attendants asked him, "Why are you so happy when we have not yet seen the enemy?"

Liu Yu replied, "Our soldiers have already passed through the enemy's natural defenses, and now they will be prepared to fight to the death. Not only that, but the grain is still in the fields, so my troops will have no worries about staying supplied. The enemy has already fallen into my hands."

In the sixth month, on the day Jisi (July 10th), Liu Yu arrived at Dongguan. Murong Chao had earlier sent Gongsun Wulou, He Lailu, his General of the Left, Duan Hui, and others to lead fifty thousand horse and foot to camp at Linqu. And when Murong Chao heard that the Jin soldiers had passed through Xian, he personally led another forty thousand soldiers to join his frontline troops, while sending Gongsun Wulou to lead the cavalry forward to hold the line of the Jumie River. But Liu Yu's vanguard under Meng Longfu clashed with Gongsun Wulou and routed him, and he pulled back.

Liu Yu then put four thousand carts on either wing of his army and, forming a square formation, he advanced to join battle with the Southern Yan soldiers south of Linqu. The battle kept going on into the afternoon, yet still the victor had not yet been decided.

Then one of Liu Yu's Army Advisors, Hu Fan, said to him, "Yan has brought all its soldiers out to fight us, so the garrison at Linqu must be very small. You should send some of your troops along back roads to attack and take the city. This was the method by which Han Xin conquered Zhao."

So Liu Yu sent Hu Fan, the Consultant Army Advisor, Tan Shao, and the General Who Establishes Might, Xiang Mi of Henei commandary, to secretly lead troops to attack the rear of the Southern Yan lines. They attacked Linqu, and they spread word that light troops were advancing from the seashore. Xiang Mi put on armor and was first over the wall, and they took the city. Murong Chao panicked, and he fled on a lone horse to join Duan Hui south of the city. Liu Yu then let loose his main army to press his advantage and attack the Southern Yan army, which was greatly defeated; the Jin troops took the heads of more than ten major Southern Yan generals, including Duan Hui. Murong Chao fled back to Guanggu, while the Jin army captured his jade and treasures, his imperial carriage, and his leopard tail.

Liu Yu followed up on his victory and advanced north to Guanggu, and on the day Bingzi (July 17th), he took the outer walls of the city. Murong Chao gathered his soldiers within the inner city to defend it. Liu Yu built long siege lines to surround the city; his siege lines were three zhang tall and his moats were three 重 deep.

Liu Yu accepted and comforted those who came to surrender to or join him, and he plucked out and selected worthy and talented people. Both the Hua (ethnic Han) and tribal peoples were pleased with him. And since there was sufficient grain already present in the Qi region, he halted all the supply shipments along the Yangzi and the Huai River that he had been receiving.

〈謂已得過大峴之險。〉〈謂燕人不芟除禾苗。〉〈巨蔑水,《國語》謂之具水,袁宏謂之巨昧水,《水經》謂之巨洋水。水出朱虛縣太山北,過其縣西,又北過臨朐縣東。上下沿水,悉是劉裕伐廣固營壘所在。〉〈日過中爲向昃。〉〈韓信事見九卷漢高帝三年。〉〈超自臨朐城中出城南就暉。〉〈服虔曰:大駕屬車八十一乘,作三行,尚書、御史乘之,最後一乘,懸豹尾,豹尾以前皆爲省中。《晉志》:法駕屬車三十六乘,最後車懸豹尾。〉

(Liu Yu was saying that his army had already passed through the natural defenses at Daxian, and that the Southern Yan army had not destroyed the grain in the fields.

Regarding the Jumie River, the Discourses of the States calls it the Ju River, Yuan Hong calls it the Jumei River, and the Water Classic calls it the Juyang River. It emerges from Mount Tai in Zhuxu county, and it passes through the west of the county, then north through the east of Linqu county. All along either side of the river are the remains of the forts and ramparts that Liu Yu built during his campaign against Guanggu.

The time after noon is called afternoon.

Han Xin's indirect campaign against the state of Zhao is mentioned in Book 9, in the third year of the reign of Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang).

Murong Chao fled from the city of Linqu south to join Duan Hui.

Regarding the leopard's tail, Shu Qian remarked, "The imperial procession has eighty-one carriages in three columns, which the Masters of Writing and members of the Imperial Secretariat ride in. The rear-most carriage has a leopard tail hanging on it; everyone in front of the leopard tail is part of the government." The Records of Jin states, "The imperial procession has thirty-six carriages, and a leopard tail hangs from the rear-most carriage.")


六月,劉裕大破慕容超于臨朐。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, Liu Yu greatly routed Murong Chao at Linqu.

五年,高祖伐鮮卑,除中軍諮議參軍,加冠軍將軍。從至臨朐,慕容超出軍距戰,敬宣與兗州刺史劉藩等奮擊,大破之。龍驤將軍孟龍符戰沒,敬宣并領其眾,圍廣固,屢獻規略。(Book of Liu-Song 47, Liu Jingxuan)

In the fifth year of Yixi (409), when Liu Yu campaigned against the Xianbei (of Southern Yan), he appointed Liu Jingxuan as Counsultant Army Advisor to the General of the Central Army, then promoted him to Champion General.

Liu Jingxuan accompanied Liu Yu to Linqu, where Murong Chao led his army out to fight them. But Liu Jingxuan, the Inspector of Yanzhou, Liu Fan, and others fought hard and greatly routed them. Since the Dragon-Soaring General, Meng Longfu, died in the fighting, Liu Jingxuan took command of his forces.

During the siege of Guanggu, Liu Jingxuan often offered plans and advice.


超遣尚書郎張綱乞師於秦,赦桂林王鎭,以爲錄尚書、都督中外諸軍事,引見,謝之,且問計焉。鎭曰:「百姓之心,係於一人。今陛下親董六師,奔敗而還,羣臣離心,士民喪氣。聞秦人自有內患,恐不暇分兵救人。散卒還者尚有數萬,宜悉出金帛以餌之,更決一戰。若天命助我,必能破敵;如其不然,死亦爲美,比於閉門待盡,不猶愈乎!」司徒樂浪王惠曰:「不然。晉兵乘勝,氣勢百倍,我以敗軍之卒當之,不亦難乎!秦雖與勃勃相持,不足爲患;且與我分據中原,勢如脣齒,安得不來相救!但不遣大臣則不能得重兵。尚書令韓範爲燕、秦所重,宜遣乞師。」超從之。

19. Murong Chao sent one of his Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Zhang Gang, to beg for reinforcements from Qin. He also pardoned Murong Zhen, appointed him as Chief of the Masters of Writing and Commander of all military affairs, and came to meet him, where he apologized to him and asked him for advice.

Murong Zhen told him, "The hearts of the common people are all depending upon you alone. Yet Your Majesty, personally leading the six armies, fled in the face of defeat and returned here. That has caused your ministers to lose heart in you, and your soldiers and your people are depressed. Besides, I have heard that the people of Qin are dealing with their own internal struggles, so I fear they will not have enough of a free hand to send some of their soldiers to rescue us. However, our straggling soldiers are returning to us here, and we now have some several tens of thousands of them at the capital. Why not distribute all your gold and silks to ensure their loyalty, then march out to fight a decisive battle? If Heaven favors us, we will surely rout the enemy, and if not, at least we will die gloriously. Wouldn't that be a much better fate than to shut the gates and wait for the end?"

But the Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Lelang, Murong Hui, objected, "That would be pointless. The Jin soldiers are riding high on their victory, and their morale has increased a hundred-fold. If we send out our recently-defeated soldiers to face them, how could we hope to win? Furthermore, though Qin may be locked in struggle with Liu Bobo, he is not an all-consuming threat to them. And our two states occupy the Central Plains between us, so Yao Xing will recognize that we must support each other like the lips protect the teeth. How could he not come to reinforce us? However, it will be hard to ensure that he will send a great deal of soldiers unless we send a great minister to see him. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Han Fan, is respected both in Yan and in Qin; you should send him to ask for an army."

Murong Chao followed his advice.

〈謂秦內有赫連之患也。〉〈事見上卷三年。〉

(Murong Zhen was referring to the danger that Helian Bobo posed to Later Qin.

Han Fan's esteem in Later Qin is mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (407.28).)


秋,七月,加劉裕北青、冀二州刺史。

20. In autumn, the seventh month, Jin appointed Liu Yu as their Inspector of Northern Qingzhou and Yanzhou.

〈晉氏南渡,立南青、冀二州於淮南,北青、冀二州於齊地。〉

(After Jin crossed the Yangzi, they established the provinces of Southern Qingzhou and Southern Jizhou on the south side of the Yangzi. Northern Qingzhou and Northern Jizhou were within the Qi region.)


南燕尚書略陽垣尊及弟京兆太守苗踰城來降,裕以爲行參軍。尊、苗皆超所委任以爲腹心者也。

21. One of Southern Yan's Masters of Writing, Yuan Zun of Lueyang commandary, and their Administrator of Jingzhao, Yuan Zun's younger brother Yuan Miao, climbed over the walls of Guanggu and came to surrender to Jin. Liu Yu appointed them as acting Army Advisors. Yuan Zun and Yuan Miao had both been close confidantes of Murong Chao.

〈垣氏子孫後遂爲南國邊將,著功名。〉

(The descendants of the Yuan clan later became border generals of the Southern Dynasties and won achievements and renown.)


或謂裕曰:「張綱有巧思,若得綱使爲攻具,廣固必可拔也。」會綱自長安還,太山太守申宣執之,送於裕。裕升綱於樓車,使周城呼曰:「劉勃勃大破秦軍,無兵相救。」城中莫不失色。江南每發兵及遣使者至廣固,裕輒潛遣兵夜迎之,明日,張旗鳴鼓而至,北方之民執兵負糧歸裕者,日以千數,圍城益急。張華、封愷皆爲裕所獲。超請割大峴以南地爲藩臣,裕不許。

22. Someone suggested to Liu Yu, "The Southern Yan minister Zhang Gang has an ingenious mind; if you got him for yourself, you could have him make siege engines for you, and then you could certainly take Guanggu."

At that time, Zhang Gang had returned from his mission to Chang'an and was on his way back to Guanggu. But Jin's Administrator of Taishan, Shen Xuan, captured him and sent him to Liu Yu. Liu Yu had Zhang Gang ascend a nest cart and instructed him to tell the people inside Guanggu, "Liu Bobo has greatly routed the Qin army, so there will be no soldiers coming to save you." When Zhang Gang reported this, all the people inside the city lost color.

Whenever the Jin court drafted more troops in the Southland and sent them to reinforce the siege at Guanggu, Liu Yu always sent away some of his existing troops during the night to join the approaching reinforcements. Then once morning came, the combined soldiers would wave their banners and beat their drums as they arrived together.

Every day, thousands of northerners came to join Liu Yu's army, wielding weapons or bearing grain, so the siege around Guanggu became even tighter.

Liu Yu captured both Zhang Hua and Feng Kai.

Murong Chao offered to surrender all the land south of Daxian to Jin and become their border vassal, but Liu Yu refused.

〈杜預曰:樓車,車上望櫓。〉〈董卓之入洛,計亦出此。〉

(Du You remarked, "A nest cart was a platform perched atop a cart."

Dong Zhuo had earlier used the same trick to make his army seem larger (as mentioned in Book 59, 189.X in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).)


秦王興遣使謂裕曰:「慕容氏相與鄰好,今晉攻之急,秦已遣鐵騎十萬屯洛陽;晉軍不還,當長驅而進。」裕呼秦使者謂曰:「語汝姚興:我克燕之後,息兵三年,當取關、洛;今能自送,便可速來!」劉穆之聞有秦使,馳入見裕,而秦使者已去。裕以所言告穆之。穆之尤之曰:「常日事無大小,必賜預謀,此宜善詳,云何遽爾答之!此語不足以威敵,適足以怒之。若廣固未下,羌寇奄至,不審何以待之?」裕笑曰:「此是兵機,非卿所解,故不相語耳。夫兵貴神速,彼若審能赴救,必畏我知,寧容先遣信命,逆設此言!是自張大之辭也。晉師不出,爲日久矣。羌見伐齊,殆將內懼,自保不暇,何能救人邪!」

23. Yao Xing sent envoys to tell Liu Yu, "The Murong clan are our good neighbors, yet now Jin is attacking them with full force. Qin has already dispatched a hundred thousand iron cavalry to camp at Luoyang, and if the Jin army does not withdraw, then this army shall come straight for them."

But Liu Yu yelled at the envoys, "You tell Yao Xing this: After I have taken Yan, I plan to let my soldiers rest for three years, then come and take Guanzhong and Luoyang as well. So if he sends this army for me now, that just means I'll be conquering him that much sooner!"

When Liu Muzhi heard that Qin envoys had arrived at Liu Yu's camp, he rushed to see them, but saw that the envoys were already leaving. Liu Yu told Liu Muzhi what he had just said to the envoys.

Liu Muzhi reproached him, saying, "Even in everyday matters, regardless of how big or small they are, one has to respond suitably to the occasion. This was just such an instance in which you should have chosen your words carefully and cautiously. Why then did you respond so brashly? Your boasting will not intimidate the enemy, it will only rile them up even more. And if the Qiang arrive here before we can take Guanggu, how do you plan to deal with them?"

But Liu Yu laughed and said, "Sir, if you understood military thinking as I do, then you would realize why I said something like that. For the strategist, speed is the essence of war. If Yao Xing truly believed that he could quickly move against me, then he would take pains to ensure that I would not be aware of that fact. Why would he go so far as to inform me ahead of time of his movements and so upset his planning? No, he sent his envoys only to make himself seem bigger than he is. We can take our time here; we need not leave. The Qiang may see that we are campaigning against the Qi region, but they have their own internal fears to deal with. They are having enough trouble defending themselves, let alone sending reinforcements to help someone else!"

乞伏乾歸復卽秦王位,大赦,改元更始,公卿以下皆復本位。

24. Qifu Gangui resumed his former title as King of Qin. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengshi. His followers who had originally been nobles or imperial ministers now resumed their former titles as well.

〈乾歸降公卿將帥爲僚佐偏裨,見一百十二卷隆安五年。〉

(When Qifu Gangui had surrendered to Later Qin, he had demoted his followers from their imperial titles to merely being his assistants, as mentioned in Book 112, in the fifth year of Long'an (401.12).)


是歲,乞伏乾歸據金城自稱秦王。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (409), Qifu Gangui occupied Jincheng and declared himself King of Qin.

秋七月,姚興將乞伏乾歸僭稱西秦王于苑川。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, Yao Xing's general Qifu Gangui declared himself King of Western Qin at Yuanchuan.

諸將勸稱王。七月,僭補秦王,大赦,改年,置百官。公卿以下,皆復本位。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui's generals urged him to declare himself King. So in the seventh month, Qifu Gangui resumed his former title as King of Qin. He declared a general amnesty, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengshi, and he created the imperial offices. His followers who had originally been nobles or imperial ministers now resumed their former titles as well.

乾歸乃背姚興,私稱秦王,置百官,年號更始。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui abandoned Yao Xing and declared himself King of Qin. He created the imperial offices, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengshi.

群下勸乾歸稱王,乾歸以寡弱弗許。固請曰:「夫道應符曆,雖廢必興;圖籙所棄,雖成必敗。本初之眾,非不多也,魏武運籌,四州瓦解。尋、邑之兵,非不盛也,世祖龍申,亡新鳥散。固天命不可虛邀,符籙不可妄冀。姚數將終,否極斯泰,乘機撫運,實系聖人。今見眾三萬,足可以疆理秦、隴,清蕩洮河。陛下應運再興,四海鵠望,豈宜固守謙沖,不以社稷為本!願時即大位,允副群心。」乾歸從之。義熙三年,僭稱秦王,赦其境內,改元更始,置百官,公卿已下皆復本位。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui's subordinates urged him to declare himself King. At first, Qifu Gangui refused, believing that he was still too weak and had too few troops. But they insisted, telling him, "If a man heeds virtue and follows circumstances, though he falters at first he will rise in the end. But if he casts aside the will of Heaven, his initial triumphs will end in defeat. Benchu's (Yuan Shao's) army was not a small one, yet Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) developed his strategies and was able to smash the four provinces of his enemy. And during the usurpation of Wang Mang, the soldiers of Wang Xun and Wang Yi were numerous indeed, yet Shizu (Emperor Guangwu of Han) soared like a dragon and put them all to flight. Truly, the will of Heaven cannot be brushed aside, nor can the prophecies be ignored. Now Yao Xing is approaching his end, nor will he enjoy peace. The opportunity has already presented itself, and it is merely awaiting a sage ruler to fulfill it. You have an army of thirty thousand, more than sufficient to extend your reach across the regions of Qin and Long and pacify the areas along the Tao and Yellow Rivers. Your Majesty must heed the circumstances and rise again; all within the Four Seas are looking towards you. How can you insist on keeping to a modest role, and not consider the fortunes of state as your foundation? We implore you to recognize the situation by claiming the grand title, and thus fulfill your subjects' hearts."

So Qifu Gangui heeded their advice. In the third year of Yixi (407), Qifu Gangui resumed his former title as King of Qin. He declared an amnesty within his domain, he changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengshi, and he created the imperial offices. His followers who had originally been nobles or imperial ministers now resumed their former titles as well.


慕容氏在魏者百餘家,謀逃去,魏主珪盡殺之。

25. There were more than a hundred families of the Murong clan in Wei who now plotted to flee from Wei territory. Tuoba Gui killed them all.

秋七月,慕容支屬百餘家,謀欲外奔,發覺,伏誅,死者三百餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, more than a hundred families of the Murong clan and their dependents plotting to flee from Northern Wei territory. But their plot was discovered, and more than three hundred people were executed.


初,魏太尉穆崇與衞王儀伏甲謀弒魏主珪,不果;珪惜崇、儀之功,祕而不問。及珪有疾,殺大臣。儀自疑而出亡,追獲之。八月,賜儀死。

26. Earlier, Wei's Grand Commandant, Mu Chong, and their Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, had placed troops in ambush as part of a plot to murder Tuoba Gui. But the plot had never gone through, and Tuoba Gui, feeling grateful to Mu Chong and Tuoba Yi for all that they had done on his behalf until then, had covered up the plot and did not question anyone.

By this time, Tuoba Gui was ill, and he was killing many major ministers. Tuoba Yi, uncertain of his own fate, tried to flee, but he was pursued and captured. In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui forced Tuoba Yi to kill himself.

〈【章:甲十一行本「殺」上有「多」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉

(Some versions add that Tuoba Gui was killing "many" major ministers.)


八月,衞王儀謀叛,賜死。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, the Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, plotted rebellion. He was forced to commit suicide.

太祖以儀器望,待之尤重,數幸其第,如家人禮。儀矜功恃寵,遂與宜都公穆崇謀為亂,伏武士伺太祖,欲為逆。崇子遂留在伏士中,太祖召之,將有所使。遂留聞召,恐發,踰牆告狀,太祖祕而恕之。天賜六年,天文多變,占者云「當有逆臣伏尸流血」。太祖惡之,頗殺公卿,欲以厭當天災。儀內不自安,單騎遁走。太祖使人追執之,遂賜死,葬以庶人禮。儀十五子。(Book of Northern Wei 15, Biography of Tuoba Yi)

Tuoba Gui appreciated Tuoba Yi's talents and reputation, and he treated him exceptionally well; he was often visiting Tuoba Yi's residence, where they treated one another with no more formalities than between family members.

But Tuoba Yi began to grow confident in his achievements and reliant upon this favor. He secretly plotted with the Duke of Yidu, Mu Chong, to rebel; they meant to place warriors in hiding to attack Tuoba Gui and thus turn traitor. Mu Chong's son Mu Suiliu was among these warriors, and when Tuoba Gui summoned him, they were about to carry out the plot. But when Mu Suiliu received the summons, he became afraid that the plot would be discovered. So he climbed over the wall and confessed the plot to Tuoba Gui, who forgave him and the others and concealed the plot.

In the sixth year of Tianci (409), there were many changes in the heavens. The diviners predicted, "A minister will betray our lord, and there will be mountains of bodies and rivers of blood." Tuoba Gui believed them, and he was inclined to kill his nobles and major ministers in order to dispel the coming disaster. Tuoba Yi did not feel secure, so he fled on a lone horse. But Tuoba Gui sent people to pursue and capture him. He forced Tuoba Yi to commit suicide, then buried him with the rites fit for a commoner.

Tuoba Yi had fifteen sons.

先是,衞王儀謀逆,崇豫焉,太祖惜其功而祕之。(Book of Northern Wei 27, Biography of Mu Chong)

Earlier, when the Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, had plotted treason, Mu Chong had had some involvement with the plot. But Tuoba Gui, regretting that Mu Chong and Tuoba Yi had done so much on his behalf, kept their involvement a secret.


封融詣劉裕降。

27. Feng Rong visited Liu Yu and surrendered to him.

〈封融奔魏,見上卷二年。魏殺慕容氏,故融歸裕。〉

(Feng Rong had earlier fled from Southern Yan to Northern Wei after Murong Chao executed his brother Feng Song, as mentioned in Book 114, in the second year of Yixi (406.21). He now came to join Liu Yu since Northern Wei was slaughtering the local Murong families.)


九月,加劉裕太尉;裕固辭。

28. In the ninth month, the Jin court promoted Liu Yu to Grand Commandant. But he strenuously declined the appointment.

秦王興自將擊夏王勃勃,至貳城,遣安遠將軍姚詳等分督租運。勃勃乘虛奄至,興懼,欲輕騎就詳等。右僕射韋華曰:「若鑾輿一動,衆心駭懼,必不戰自潰,詳營亦未必可至也。」興與勃勃戰,秦兵大敗,將軍姚榆生爲勃勃所禽,左將軍姚文崇等力戰,勃勃乃退,興還長安。勃勃復攻秦敕奇堡、黃石固、我羅城,皆拔之,徙七千餘家於大城,以其丞相右地代領幽州牧以鎭之。

29. Yao Xing personally led an army to attack Liu Bobo. After advancing to Ercheng, he sent off his General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yao Xiang, and others in separate detachments to gather taxes and supplies. Since Yao Xing was now exposed, Liu Bobo took advantage of the opening and rushed towards him.

Afraid, Yao Xing planned to flee with some light cavalry to join Yao Xiang and the others. But his Deputy Director of the Right, Wei Hua, told him, "If you make any sudden movement, the army will panic with fear, and they will surely scatter even without fighting a battle. Besides, there is no guarantee that you could reach Yao Xiang's camp anyway."

So Yao Xing fought a battle against Liu Bobo. The Qin soldiers were greatly defeated, and their general Yao Yusheng was captured by Liu Bobo. But their General of the Left, Yao Wenchong (or Yao Wenzong), and others fought against the Xia forces with all their strength, so Liu Bobo fell back. Yao Xing then returned to Chang'an.

Liu Bobo also launched attacks against Qin's Fort Chiqi, Huangshi Redoubt, and city of Woluo and took them all. He relocated more than seven thousand families to Dacheng and appointed his Prime Minister, Liu Youdedai, as acting Governor of Youzhou in order to guard them.

〈貳城,貳縣城也,在杏城西北、平涼東南。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「崇」作「宗」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈魏收《地形志》:原州長城郡有黃石縣。《五代志》,西魏改黃石爲長城;隋開皇初,廢郡爲縣,大業初,改長城縣爲百泉縣。〉

(Ercheng was the capital city of Er county; it was northeast of Xingcheng and southeast of Pingliang.

Some versions write the second character of Yao Wenchong's given name as 宗 Zong rather than 崇 Chong.

The Geographical Records of Northern Wei states, "There is a Huangshi county in Changcheng commandary in Yuanzhou." According to the Records of the Five Dynasties, Western Wei renamed Huangshi to Changcheng; at the beginning of Sui's Kaihuang reign era (~581), it was demoted from a commandary to a county, and at the beginning of the Daye reign era (~605), Changcheng county was renamed to Baiquan county.)


興如貳城,將討赫連勃勃,遣安遠姚詳及斂曼嵬、鎮軍彭白狼分督租運。諸軍未集而勃勃騎大至,興欲留步軍,輕如嵬營。眾咸惶懼,群臣固以為不可,興弗納。尚書郎韋宗希旨勸興行。蘭台侍御史姜楞越次而進曰:「韋宗傾險不忠,沮敗國計,宜先腰斬以謝天下。脫車駕動軫,六軍駭懼,人無守志,取危之道也,宜遣單使以征詳等。」興默然。右僕射韋華等諫曰:「若車騎輕動,必不戰自潰,嵬營亦未必可至,惟陛下圖之。」興乃遣左將軍姚文宗率禁兵距戰,中壘齊莫統氐兵以繼之。文宗與莫皆勇果兼人,以死力戰,勃勃乃退。留禁兵五千配姚詳守貳城,興還長安。(Book of Jin 118, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing went to Ercheng, planning to personally led an army to campaign against Helian Bobo. He sent off the General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yao Xiang, Lian Manwei, and the General Who Guards The Army, Peng Bailang, in separate detachments to gather taxes and supplies. Before these detachments could concentrate once again, Helian Bobo arrived with a large group of cavalry.

Yao Xing planned to leave his infantry behind and hurry to Lian Manwei's camp. Although his soldiers were all nervous and afraid and his ministers insisted that this could not be done, Yao Xing refused to listen. A Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Wei Zong, even drafted a decree urging Yao Xing to leave. But then the Imperial Secretary of the Lantai Bureau, Jiang Leng, ignored the edict and stepped forward to say, "Wei Zong has acted completely unloyaly, and he is sapping the army's morale and frustrating the strategy of the state. You should have him cut in half at the waist as an apology to the realm. Besides, any movement that you make would be critical; the six armies would become afraid, and no one would have the resolve to stand and fight. That way lies destruction. What you should do is send messengers to summon Yao Xiang and the others back here." Yao Xing was left silent.

Then the Deputy Director of the Right, Wei Hua, and others remonstrated with Yao Xing, tellig him, "If you make any sudden movement, the army will surely scatter even without fighting a battle. Besides, there is no guarantee that you could reach Lian Manwei's camp anyway. Your Majesty, you must consider this."

So Yao Xing sent his General of the Left, Yao Wenzong, to lead his personal guard troops to fight a battle, with the General of the Central Ramparts, Qi Mo, leading the Di troops as a reserve. Yao Wenzong and Qi Mo were both brave and stalwart fellows, and they fought with all their strength. Helian Bobo thus withdrew. Yao Xing assigned five thousand of the guards to Yao Xiang and left him to guard Ercheng, while Yao Xing returned to Chang'an.

姚興來伐,至三城,勃勃候興諸軍未集,率騎擊之。興大懼,遣其將姚文宗距戰,勃勃偽退,設伏以待之。興遣其將姚榆生等追之,伏兵夾擊,皆擒之。興將王奚聚羌胡三千餘戶於敕奇堡,勃勃進攻之。奚驍悍有膂力,短兵接戰,勃勃之眾多為所傷。於是堰斷其水,堡人窘迫,執奚出降。勃勃謂奚曰:「卿忠臣也!朕方與卿共平天下。」奚曰:「若蒙大恩,速死為惠。」乃與所親數十人自刎而死。勃勃又攻興將金洛生於黃石固,彌姐豪地于我羅城,皆拔之,徙七千餘家於大城,以其丞相右地代領幽州牧以鎮之。(Book of Jin 130, Biography of Helian Bobo)

Yao Xing came to campaign against Helian Bobo. When Yao Xing reached Sancheng, Helian Bobo's scouts saw that his armies had not converged, so Helian Bobo led his cavalry to attack him. Greatly afraid, Yao Xing sent his general Yao Wenzong to oppose him. Helian Bobo pretended to retreat, but he laid an ambush and waited for the enemy. When Yao Xing sent his generals, Yao Yusheng and others, to pursue Helian Bobo, the ambush troops emerged and attacked the Later Qin soldiers, capturing them all.

Yao Xing's general Wang Xi gathered together more than three thousand households of Qiang and other tribal people at Fort Chiqi. Helian Bobo advanced and attacked the fort. Wang Xi was a valiant and ferocious fighter, with exceptional arm strength, and though he was outnumbered by the enemy, he managed to wound many of Helian Bobo's soldiers in the fighting. But Helian Bobo built a weir to divert the flow of water away from the fort, causing the people within to become exhausted and weary, and they arrested Wang Xi and then surrendered to the Xia troops.

Helian Bobo said to Wang Xi, "You are a loyal minister! You and I should conquer the realm together."

But Wang Xi replied, "If you wish to be generous, a quick death would be a blessing." So Wang Xi and several dozen of his men cut their own throats and died.

Helian Bobo also attacked Yao Xing's general Jin Luosheng at Huangshi Redoubt and his general Mijie Haodi at the city of Woluo and captured both places. He relocated more than seven thousand families to Dacheng and appointed his Prime Minister, Liu Youdedai, as acting Governor of Youzhou in order to guard them.


初,興遣衞將軍姚強帥步騎一萬隨韓範往就姚紹於洛陽,幷兵以救南燕,及爲勃勃所敗,追強兵還長安。韓範歎曰:「天滅燕矣!」南燕尚書張俊自長安還,降於劉裕,因說裕曰:「燕人所恃者,謂韓範必能致秦師也,今得範以示之,燕必降矣。」裕乃表範爲散騎常侍,且以書招之。長水校尉王蒲勸範奔秦,範曰:「裕起布衣,滅桓玄,復晉室,今興師伐燕,所向崩潰,此殆天授,非人力也。燕亡,則秦爲之次矣,吾不可以再辱。」遂降於裕。裕將範循城,城中人情離沮。或勸燕主超誅範家。超以範弟X盡忠無貳,幷範家赦之。

30. Yao Xing had earlier sent his Guard General, Yao Qiang, to lead ten thousand horse and foot to accompany the Southern Yan envoy Han Fan to Yao Shao's army at Luoyang, where Yao Qiang was to combine both armies together and lead them to reinforce Southern Yan. But after his defeat by Liu Bobo, Yao Xing recalled Yao Qiang's army back to Chang'an. Han Fan lamented, "Thus has Heaven destroyed Yan!"

One of Southern Yan's Masters of Writing, Zhang Jun, was also on his way back from Chang'an, but he came and surrendered to Liu Yu. He then advised Liu Yu, "The only reason that the people of Yan are still resisting you is because they tell each other that Han Fan will surely bring reinforcements from Qin to save them. If you gained Han Fan for yourself and then demonstrated that fact, Yan would definitely surrender to you."

So Liu Yu petitioned to have Han Fan appointed as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and he sent Han Fan a letter inviting him to join Jin.

The Commandant of Camped Cavalry, Wang Pu, urged Han Fan to flee back to Qin. But Han Fan said, "Liu Yu rose up from the mere common folk, yet he was able to vanquish Huan Xuan and restore the Jin royal family. Now he has raised an army and is campaigning against Yan, and everything has fallen before him. He is practically an instrument of Heaven's will, which no mortal strength can oppose. Once Yan falls, Qin will be next; I do not wish to twice be humiliated." So he surrendered to Liu Yu. When Liu Yu brought Han Fan to the walls of Guanggu, the people inside the city were disheartened and depressed.

There were those who urged Murong Chao to execute Han Fan's family. But Murong Chao considered how Han Fan's younger brother Han Zhuo had been fully loyal and never turned against him, so he pardoned him and Han Fan's family.

〈漢李陵降匈奴,霍光、上官桀使其故人任立政招之使歸,陵曰:「大丈夫不能再辱。」〉

(After the Han general Li Ling had surrendered to the Xiongnu, Huo Guang and Shangguan Jie sent Li Ling's former subordinate Ren Lizheng to persuade him to come back to Han. But Li Ling declared, "A real man does not twice humiliate himself.")


冬,十月,段宏自魏奔于裕。

31. In winter, the tenth month, Duan Hong fled from Wei to join Liu Yu.

〈宏奔魏見上卷三年。〉

(Duan Hong had fled to Northern Wei after his failed rebellion against Murong Chao, as mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (actually the second year, 406.22).)


張綱爲裕造攻具,盡諸奇巧;超怒,縣其母於城上,支解之。

32. Zhang Gang built siege engines for Liu Yu, all of wondrous and ingenious design. Furious, Murong Chao hung Zhang Gang's mother from the walls of Guanggu and then dismembered her.

西秦王乾歸立夫人邊氏爲皇后,世子熾磐爲太子,仍命熾磐都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事。以屋引破光爲河州刺史,鎭枹罕;以南安焦遺爲太子太師,與參軍國大謀。乾歸曰:「焦生非特名儒,乃王佐之才也。」謂熾磐曰:「汝事之當如事吾。」熾磐拜遺於床下。遺子華至孝,乾歸欲以女妻之。辭曰:「凡娶妻者,欲與之共事二親也。今以王姬之貴,下嫁蓬茅之士,誠非其匹,臣懼其闕於中饋,非所願也。」乾歸曰:「卿之所行,古人之事,孤女不足以強卿。」乃以爲尚書民部郎。

33. Now that he was King of Qin again, Qifu Gangui honored his wife Lady Bian as Empress (or Queen), and he appointed his son Qifu Chipan as Crown Prince. He also ordered Qifu Chipan to act as Commander of all military affairs and as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Wuyin Poguang as Inspector of Hezhou and stationed him at Fuhan.

Qifu Gangui appointed Jiao Yi of Nan'an commandary as Grand Instructor to the Crown Prince and sought his advice on the grand strategies of army and state. He said of Jiao Yi, "Master Jiao is renowned as an exceptional Confucian scholar, well-suited to be the assistant to a sovereign." And he told Qifu Chipan, "Treat him the same as you would treat me." So Qifu Chipan performed obeisance to Jiao Yi below the royal seat.

Jiao Yi's son Jiao Hua was most filial, and Qifu Gangui wanted to marry his daughter to him. But Jiao Hua declined the offer, saying, "When arranging a marriage, one should make a union with a family of equal standing. Yet your daughter is the child of a king, and she would be marrying down to a lowly scholar like myself; we are in no way equals. I fear that your daughter would hardly be willing to 'tend to my meals'."

Qifu Gangui replied, "All your conduct mirrors that of the ancients; it is my daughter who cannot match you." And he appointed Jiao Hua as a Gentleman of the People's Bureau of the Masters of Writing.

〈【章:甲十一行本「皇」作「王」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈周,姬姓也,故王女謂之王姬,後世因而稱之,凡王者之女皆謂之王姬。〉〈《易‧家人》之六二曰:在中饋。言以陰應陽,居中得正,盡婦人之義,職乎中饋,巽順而已。〉〈魏尚書郎有民曹,晉初分置左民、右民,江左以後,省右民郎,有左民郎。民部郎至是始見于《通鑑》。〉

(Some versions write Lady Bian's title as "Queen" rather than "Empress".

Jiao Hua refers to Qifu Gangui's daughter as a 王姬. 姬 Ji was the surname of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty, thus the term 王姬 was used to refer to the daughter of the Zhou king, and later became a more general term. The daughters of a king were thus all called 王姬s.

The second six divided entry of the Book of Changes mentions "her central place attending to the preparation of the food". The sentiment is that the Yin (feminine force) will follow the wishes of the Yang (masculine force) and occupy her proper place in the home, fully fulfilling the duties of a wife and preparing the meals, acting docile and humble to her husband's wishes.

Cao-Wei had established the People's Bureau among their Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. At the beginning of the Jin dynasty, they had split this into the Left and Right Gentlemen of that bureau. After Jin crossed the Yangzi, they abolished the Right Gentleman, leaving only the Left Gentleman. This is the first mention of such Gentlemen of the People's Bureau in the Zizhi Tongjian.)


及乾歸返政,復立熾磐為太子,領冠軍大將軍、都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Chipan)

After Qifu Gangui reestablished his own government, he restored Qifu Chipan to his position as Crown Prince, as well as acting Grand Champion General, Commander of all military affairs, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.


北燕王雲自以無功德而居大位,內懷危懼,常畜養壯士以爲腹心、爪牙。寵臣離班、桃仁專典禁衞,賞賜以巨萬計,衣食起居皆與之同,而班、仁志願無厭,猶有怨憾。戊辰,雲臨東堂,班、仁懷劍執帋而入,稱有所啓。班抽劍擊雲,雲以几扞之,仁從旁擊雲,弒之。

34. The Heavenly King of Northern Yan, Go Un, felt uncertain and afraid about his position, since he did not believe that he had performed any great achievements that merited him holding such a lofty title. He often cultivated strong warriors to serve as his close confidantes, his fangs and claws. His favorites, Li Ban and Tao Ren, wielded command of the palace guards, and Go Un granted them millions of money and had them live in houses and dress in clothes equal in splendor to his own. Yet Li Ban and Tao Ren were still not satisfied, and they both nursed resentments and regrets.

On the day Wuchen (November 6th), when Go Un was in the Eastern Hall, Li Ban and Tao Ren entered while hiding blades within their documents, claiming they were coming to inform Go Un of something. Li Ban then drew his sword and attacked Go Un, who was able to fend him off, but Tao Ren attacked Go Un from the side and killed him.

〈離、桃,皆姓也;班、仁,其名。〉〈帋,通俗書也。〉〈高雲以勇力發身,叨居君位,自謂非壯士以爲翼衞不足以防其身,豈知小人之難養也。是以古之綴衣虎賁,左右攜僕,必用吉士,其慮患誠深遠也。雲得燕見上卷三年。〉

(Li and Tao were these fellows' surnames; Ban and Ren were their given names.

A 帋 is a book of common documents.

Go Un had lived his life as a warrior, yet he was suddenly thrust into his role as a ruler. Yet if he could not even have these strong warriors protect and guard his own person, how would he have known how to deal with the simmering troubles of miscreants? Thus do the ancients advise that for those who serve as a ruler's "keeper of the robes and Guards Rapid As Tigers", their closest servants, they must choose good people, whose worries and concerns are sincere and farsighted.

Go Un's sudden rise to become Heavenly King of Northern Yan is mentioned in Book 114, in the third year of Yixi (407.23).)


九月戊辰,離班弑高雲。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, on the day Wuchen (November 6th), Li Ban murdered Go Un.

三年冬十月,雲臨東堂,幸臣離班、桃仁懷劍執紙而入,稱有所啟,抽劍擊雲。雲以几拒班,桃仁進而殺之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

In the third year of Zhengshi (409), in winter, the tenth month, when Go Un was in the Eastern Hall, his trusted subordinates Li Ban and Tao Ren entered while hiding blades within their documents, claiming they were coming to inform Go Un of something. They then drew their swords and attacked Go Un, who was able to fend off Li Ban, but Tao Ren advanced and killed him.

雲臨東堂,幸臣離班、桃仁懷劍執紙而入,稱有所啟,拔劍擊雲,雲以幾距班,桃仁進而弑之... 雲自以無功德而為豪桀所推,常內懷懼,故寵養壯士以為腹心。離班、桃仁等並專典禁衛,委之以爪牙之任,賞賜月至數千萬,衣食臥起皆與之同,終以此致敗雲。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Un)

When Go Un was in the Eastern Hall, his trusted ministers Li Ban and Tao Ren entered while hiding blades within their documents, claiming they were coming to inform Go Un of something. They then drew their swords and attacked Go Un, who was able to fend Li Ban off, but Tao Ren then advanced and murdered him.

Go Un had felt uncertain and afraid about having been acclaimed to his position, since he did not believe that he had performed any great achievements or possessed any virtues that merited him holding such a lofty title. So he had often cultivated strong warriors to serve as his close confidantes. Li Ban, Tao Ren, and others had wielded command of the palace guards, and they served as Go Un's fangs and claws. Go Un had granted them millions of money each month, and they had been granted the same clothing, meals, and residences as he had possessed. This was what had led to his ultimate downfall.


馮跋升洪光門以觀變,帳下督張泰、李桑言於跋曰:「此豎勢何所至,請爲公斬之!」乃奮劍而下,桑斬班于西門,泰殺仁于庭中。衆推跋爲主,跋以讓其弟范陽公素弗,素弗不可。跋乃卽天王位於昌黎,大赦,詔曰:「陳氏代姜,不改齊國,宜卽國號曰燕。」改元太平,諡雲曰惠懿皇帝。跋尊母張氏爲太后,立妻孫氏爲王后,子永爲太子,以范陽公素弗爲車騎大將軍、錄尚書事,孫護爲尚書令,張興爲左僕射,汲郡公弘爲右僕射,廣川公萬泥爲幽、平二州牧,上谷公乳陳爲幷、青二州牧。素弗少豪俠放蕩,嘗請婚於尚書左丞韓業,業拒之。及爲宰輔,待業尤厚;好申拔舊門,謙恭儉約,以身帥下,百僚憚之,論者美其有宰相之度。

35. Feng Ba ascended through the Hongguang Gate to see what the commotion was. His guard captains Zhang Tai and Li Sang told him, "How can these whelps have done such a thing? We ask to behead them on your behalf!" So they drew their swords and rushed in; Li Sang beheaded Li Ban at the western gate, while Zhang Tai killed Tao Ren in the courtyard.

The soldiers acclaimed Feng Ba as the new ruler. Feng Ba offered to decline in favor of the Duke of Fanyang, his younger brother Feng Sufu, but Feng Sufu did not think that was possible. So Feng Ba declared himself Heavenly King at Changli, and he declared a general amnesty.

Feng Ba issued an edict stating, "When the Chen family replaced the Jiang family as the rulers of the state of Qi, they did not rename the state. I too will maintain the name Yan." He changed the reign era title to the first year of Taiping, and he granted Go Un the posthumous title Emperor Huiyi ("the Kind and Esteemed").

Feng Ba honored his mother Lady Zhang as Queen Dowager and his wife Lady Sun as Queen. He appointed his son Feng Yong as Crown Prince. He appointed Feng Sunu as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Sun Hu as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed Zhang Xing as Deputy Director of the Left and Gong Hong of Ji commandary as Deputy Director of the Right. He appointed the Duke of Guangchuan, Feng Wanni, as Governor of Youzhou and Pingzhou, and he appointed the Duke of Shanggu, Feng Ruchen, as Governor of Bingzhou and Qingzhou.

As a youth, Feng Sunu had been a local thug of loose morals, and when he had asked to marry the daughter of the Left Assistant of the Masters of Writing, Han Ye, Han Ye had refused him. But after becoming a chief minister of state, Feng Sunu treated Han Ye with outstanding respect. He also enjoyed plucking out and displaying people from old families. Feng Sunu was cautious, respectful, frugal, and restrained. He guided his subordinates through his own efforts, and the Northern Yan officials stood in awe of him. People agreed that he was an outstanding fellow, well-suited to be a chief minister.

〈《載記》:馮跋,字文起,長樂信都人,其先畢萬之後也;萬之子孫有食采馮鄕者,因氏焉。〉〈周師尚父始封於齊,姜姓也。戰國時,齊太公田和,陳敬仲之後也,篡姜氏之後而取其國,仍號曰齊。〉〈溫公作《通鑑》,雖相小國者,苟有片善,必因舊史而表章之,以言爲輔之難。〉

(According to the Biography of Feng Ba in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, "Feng Ba, styled Wenqi, was a native of Xindu county in Changle commandary. His ancestors were the descendants of Biwan; some of Biwan's descendants had had a fief at Feng district, thus they took it as their surname."

During the Zhou dynasty, the original ruler of the state of Qi had been Jiang Ziya, thus the ruling family had the surname Jiang. During the Warring States, the Grand Duke of Qi was Tian He, a descendant of Chen Jingzhong. He usurped power from the descendants of the Jiang clan and stole their state, but kept its name as Qi.

When writing the Zizhi Tongjian, Sima Guang would scour the old histories for the slightest signs of goodness among the chief officials of even the smallest states and display them in his work, to demonstrate the difficulties of helping to administer the state.)


是歲,高雲為海夷馮跋所滅,跋僭號,自稱大燕天王。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (409), Go Un was killed by the coastal barbarian Feng Ba, who claimed his throne, naming himself Heavenly King of Yan.

雲將馮跋攻班,殺之。跋僭卽王位,仍號燕。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Go Un's general Feng Ba attacked Li Ban and killed him. Feng Ba then declared himself King, naming his state Yan.

立馮跋為主。跋即位,偽諡為惠懿皇帝。始垂以丙戌之歲建號中山,至馮跋之歲,歲在已酉,二十四年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Un)

The people of Yan supported Feng Ba as the new ruler. So he became Heavenly King, and granted Go Un the posthumous title Emperor Huiyi.

Later Yan had begun in a Bingxu year, when Murong Chui declared himself Emperor at Zhongshan, and it ended in a Yiyou year, when Feng Ba took the throne; it had lasted for twenty-four years (386-409).

跋又殺雲自立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Un)

Feng Ba later killed Go Un and took power for himself.

馮跋遷雲屍於東宮,偽諡惠懿皇帝。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Un)

Feng Ba placed Go Un's body in the Eastern Palace, and granted him the posthumous title Emperor Huiyi.


魏主珪將立齊王嗣爲太子;魏故事,凡立嗣子輒先殺其母,乃賜嗣母劉貴人死。珪召嗣諭之曰:「漢武帝殺鉤弋夫人,以防母后豫政,外家爲亂也。汝當繼統,吾故遠迹古人,爲國家長久之計耳。」嗣性孝,哀泣不自勝。珪怒之。嗣還舍,日夜號泣,珪知而復召之。左右曰:「上怒甚,入將不測,不如且避之,俟上怒解而入。」嗣乃逃匿於外,惟帳下代人車路頭、京兆王洛兒二人隨之。

36. Tuoba Gui was about to appoint the Prince of Qi, his son Tuoba Si, as Crown Prince. According to Wei tradition, before a Crown Prince could be confirmed, the ruler must first kill his mother. So Tuoba Gui ordered Tuoba Si's mother, Honored Lady Liu, to kill herself.

Tuoba Gui then summoned Tuoba Si and explained to him, "Emperor Wu of Han once killed Consort Gouyi in order to guard against the prospect of an Empress Dowager seizing control of the government and letting marital relatives cause trouble. Since you are about to succeed me, I am thus following the distant example of the ancients. I did this to your mother only to ensure the longevity of the state."

But Tuoba Si was a filial son, and he wept and mourned for his mother so greatly that he could not control himself, which angered Tuoba Gui. When Tuoba Si returned home, he spent all day and night weeping and wailing. When Tuoba Gui learned of this, he summoned Tuoba Si back again.

But Tuoba Si's attendants told him, "Our sovereign is extremely angry right now, and who knows what would happen if you went to see him right away? Better to steer clear of him for now, and wait for his anger to run its course, before you go to see him."

So Tuoba Si fled and hid somewhere, with only his two guard captains, Che Lutou of Dai commandary and Wang Luo'er of Jingzhao commandary, accompanying him.

〈事見二十二卷漢武帝後元元年。〉〈蜀本作「故吾」。〉〈車焜氏,拓跋氏之疏屬也,至後魏孝文改爲車氏。〉

(Emperor Wu of Han's killing of Consort Gouyi is mentioned in Book 22, in Emperor Wu's first year of Houyuan (88 BC).

The Shu version has a slight grammatical change in Tuoba Gui's penultimate sentence: "I am thus" instead of "thus I am".

Che Luotou's surname was really Chekun; the Chekun clan was one of the clans that had originally come to join the Tuoba clan. During the reign of Emperor Xiaowen, their name was shortened to Che.)


初,帝母劉貴人賜死,太祖告帝曰:「昔漢武帝將立其子而殺其母,不令婦人後與國政,使外家為亂。汝當繼統,故吾遠同漢武,為長久之計。」帝素純孝,哀泣不能自勝,太祖怒之。帝還宮,哀不自止,日夜號泣。太祖知而又召之。帝欲入,左右曰:「孝子事父,小杖則受,大杖避之。今陛下怒盛,入或不測,陷帝於不義。不如且出,待怒解而進,不晚也。」帝懼,從之,乃遊行逃於外。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Earlier, when Tuoba Gui had ordered Tuoba Si's mother, Honored Lady Liu, to commit suicide, he had explained to Tuoba Si, "In former times, when Emperor Wu of Han was about to choose his Crown Prince, he too killed the boy's mother in order to guard against the prospect of an Empress Dowager seizing control of the government and letting marital relatives cause trouble. Since you are about to succeed me, I am thus following Emperor Wu's distant example. This is all to ensure the longevity of the state."

But Tuoba Si had always been a pure and filial son, and he wept and mourned for his mother so greatly that he could not control himself, which angered Tuoba Gui. When Tuoba Si returned home, his grief did not cease, and he spent all day and night weeping and wailing. When Tuoba Gui learned of this, he summoned Tuoba Si back again.

Tuoba Si was about to go, but his attendants told him, "When dealing with his father, a filial son should accept a reasonable punishment, but avoid an outrageous one. His Majesty is extremely angry right now, and who knows what would happen if you went to see him right away? You would be acting unjustly if you allowed him to harm you in his passion. Better to steer clear of him for now, and wait for his anger to run its course, before you go to see him; it would not be too late by then."

Tuoba Si was afraid, so he took their advice; he fled and hid somewhere.


初,珪如賀蘭部,見獻明賀太后之妹美,言於賀太后,請納之。賀太后曰:「不可。是過美,必有不善。且已有夫,不可奪也。」珪密令人殺其夫而納之,生清河王紹。紹兇很無賴,好輕遊里巷,劫剝行人以爲樂。珪怒之,嘗倒懸井中,垂死,乃出之。齊王嗣屢誨責之,紹由是與嗣不協。

37. Many years earlier, while Tuoba Gui was staying with the Helan clan, he had seen the Empress Dowager Xianming's (his mother Lady He's) younger sister was beautiful. He had mentioned this to Lady He, asking to claim his aunt for himself. Lady He had objected, "You cannot. She is of surpassing beauty, and no goodness can come from that. Besides, she already has a husband, and you cannot take her from him." But Tuoba Gui had secretly had someone kill her husband, then took his aunt for himself, and she gave birth to his son Tuoba Shao.

This Tuoba Shao was an utterly wicked and violent youth; he enjoyed aimlessly wandering through the streets and alleys and robbing and stripping random passersby for his amusement. Furious at him, Tuoba Gui once hung him upside-down in a well, only pulling him back out when Tuoba Shao was about to die. Tuoba Si had often rebuked Tuoba Shao and tried to make him see the error of his ways, but this had only made Tuoba Shao hold a grudge against Tuoba Si.

〈珪父寔,魏昭成帝什翼犍之嫡子也,先昭成而薨,追諡獻明皇帝。賀太后從夫諡。〉〈《左傳》:晉叔向欲娶於申公巫臣氏,其母止之曰:「甚美必甚惡。」此言類之。〉

(Tuoba Gui's father was Tuoba Shi, who was Tuoba Shiyijian's eldest son by his wife. Tuoba Shi had died before his father. He was posthumously known as Emperor Xianming, so his wife Lady He inherited the same posthumous name when she passed away.

In the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, when Shuxiang wished to marry a daughter of the Duke of Sheng, Wuchen, Shuxiang's mother stopped him, warning him, "Where there is extreme beauty, there is sure to be extreme wickedness (Zhao 28.4)". Lady He was saying the same sort of thing here.)


戊辰,珪譴責賀夫人,囚,將殺之,會日暮,未決。夫人密使告紹曰:「汝何以救我?」左右以珪殘忍,人人危懼。紹年十六,夜,與帳下及宦者宮人數人通謀,踰垣入宮,至天安殿。左右呼曰:「賊至!」珪驚起,求弓刀不獲,遂弒之。

38. On the day Wuchen (November 6th), Tuoba Gui condemned Consort He. He imprisoned her and was going to kill her, but since by then it was already dusk, he decided to wait until the following day. Consort He secretly sent word to Tuoba Shao saying, "Will you not rescue me?"

Tuoba Gui's attendants were all afraid of him, since they felt that Tuoba Gui was so ruthless and cruel. At this time, Tuoba Shao was fifteen years old. That night, he arranged a plot with several of the eunuchs and guard captains in the palace. They climbed over the wall and entered the palace, then came to the Tian'an Hall. Tuoba Shao's fellows all shouted, "Bandits are here!" Tuoba Gui arose in a panic and searched for his bow and blade, but could not find them. Tuoba Shao killed him.

〈年三十九。明元帝永興二年,上諡曰宣武皇帝,廟號烈祖;泰常五年,改諡道武。〉

(Tuoba Gui was thirty-eight years old when he died.

In Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei's second year of Yongxing (410.42), he granted Tuoba Gui the posthumous title Emperor Xuanwu, with the temple name Liezu; in the fifth year of Taichang (420), Emperor Mingyuan changed his father's posthumous title to Emperor Daowu.)


冬十月戊辰,帝崩於天安殿,時年三十九。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Wuchen (November 6th), Tuoba Gui passed away in the Tian'an Hall; he was thirty-eight years old.

天賜六年冬十月,清河王紹作逆,太祖崩。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the sixth year of Tianci (409), in winter, the tenth month, the Prince of Qinghe, Tuoba Shao, launched a coup; Tuoba Gui died.

冬十月,魏清河王紹弑其主珪。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, Northern Wei's Prince of Qinghe, Tuoba Shao, murdered his sovereign, Tuoba Gui.


己巳,宮門至日中不開。紹稱詔,集百官於端門前,北面立。紹從門扉間謂百官曰:「我有叔父,亦有兄,公卿欲從誰?」衆愕然失色,莫有對者。良久,南平公長孫嵩曰:「從王。」衆乃知宮車晏駕,而不測其故,莫敢出聲,唯陰平公烈大哭而去。烈,儀之弟也。於是朝野恟恟,人懷異志。肥如侯賀護舉烽於安陽城北,賀蘭部人皆赴之,其餘諸部亦各屯聚。紹聞人情不安,大出布帛賜王公以下,崔宏獨不受。

39. On the day Jisi (November 7th), the palace gates remained closed until noon. Tuoba Shao then issued an edict ordering the officials to assemble in front of the Duan Gate, facing north. Tuoba Shao then came out from the gate and asked the officials, "I have an uncle and an elder brother; whom do you wish to follow?"

The implications of this question stunned the officials; they all turned pale, and no one dared to respond. After a while, the Duke of Nanping, Zhangsun Song, replied, "We shall follow the Prince."

By now, everyone realized that Tuoba Gui was no more, but no one knew what the circumstances were, so no one dared to leave or make a sound. Only the Duke of Yinping, Tuoba Lie, greatly wept and then left. This Tuoba Lie was the younger brother of Tuoba Yi.

Both the people at court and far afield were unsettled at what had happened, and some began to harbor rebellious ambitions. The Marquis of Feiru, He Hu, lit the beacon fire north of the city of Anyang, and the members of the Helan clan all rallied to him. Other clans also gathered together into their own camps. When Tuoba Shao saw that the feelings of the people were unsettled, he greatly distributed cloth and silks to everyone from the princes and dukes on down. Only Cui Hong did not accept them.

〈宮門正南門曰端門。〉〈扉,門扇也。〉〈魏之克燕,儀有功焉;是年八月賜死。〉〈安陽城,卽漢代郡之東安陽縣城也。魏收《地形志》:永熙中,置高柳郡,治安陽。〉〈史言崔宏有識。〉

(The main southern gate of the palace was called the Duan Gate.

The term 扉 means the door of a gate.

Tuoba Yi had performed many achievements during Northern Wei's campaign against Later Yan. He had been forced to commit suicide earlier this year, as mentioned above (409.26).

The city of Anyang was the capital city of Eastern Anyang county in Han's Dai commandary. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "During the Yongxi reign era (532-534), Gaoliu commandary was created, administered from Anyang."

This passage demonstrates Cui Hong's perceptiveness.)


儀弟烈,剛武有智略。元紹之逆,百僚莫敢有聲,惟烈行出外,詐附紹募執太宗。紹信之,自延秋門出,遂迎立太宗。(Book of Northern Wei 15, Biography of Tuoba Lie)

Tuoba Yi's younger brother Tuoba Lie was adamant, valorous, and very cunning and crafty. During Tuoba Shao's coup, when none of the other officials dared to make any noise, only Tuoba Lie dared to go out. He pretended to support Tuoba Shao and offered to go and arrest Tuoba Si (Emperor Mingyuan). Tuoba Shao believed him. But after going out through the Yanqiu Gate, Tuoba Lie welcomed Tuoba Si instead.

相州刺史,封南平公,所在著稱。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Song)

Zhangsun Song was later appointed as Inspector of Xiangzhou and Duke of Nanping, and he was commended in all the offices he held.


齊王嗣聞變,乃自外還,晝伏匿山中,夜宿王洛兒家。洛兒鄰人李道潛奉給嗣,民間頗知之,喜而相告;紹聞之,收道,斬之。紹募人求訪嗣,欲殺之。獵郎叔孫俊與宗室疏屬拓跋磨渾自云知嗣所在,紹使帳下二人與之偕往;俊、磨渾得出,卽執帳下詣嗣,斬之。俊,建之子也。王洛兒爲嗣往來平城,通問大臣,夜,告安遠將軍安同等。衆聞之,翕然響應,爭出奉迎。嗣至城西,衞士執紹送之。嗣殺紹及其母賀氏,幷誅紹帳下及宦官宮人爲內應者十餘人;其先犯乘輿者,羣臣臠食之。

40. When Tuoba Si heard what had happened in the capital, he returned from his hiding place; he remained hidden in the nearby hills during the day, then came to stay with Wang Luo'er's family during the night. Wang Luo'er's neighbor Li Dao secretly provided Tuoba Si with supplies, and when the common people learned of it, they were overjoyed and told each other about it. Once Tuoba Shao found out, he arrested Li Dao and beheaded him.

Tuoba Shao sought to recruit people to go find Tuoba Si and kill him. A Hunting Gentleman, Shusun Jun, and a distant relative of the royal family, Tuoba Mohun, claimed that they knew where Tuoba Si was. So Tuoba Shao sent two guard captains to go with them to find Tuoba Si. But as soon as the group went out, Shusun Jun and Tuoba Mohun arrested the guard captains and brought them to Tuoba Si, then beheaded them. This Shusun Jun was the son of Shusun Jian.

Wang Luo'er went inside Pingcheng on Tuoba Si's behalf, going around visiting the major ministers, and that night, he sent word to the General Who Maintains Distant Places, An Tong, and others. When the ministers heard that Tuoba Si was nearby, they all responded to his call, rushing to come support him. And once Tuoba Si arrived west of the city, the guards arrested Tuoba Shao and sent him to Tuoba Si. Tuoba Si killed Tuoba Shao and his mother Consort He, along with the guard captains, eunuchs, and palace servants who had supported Tuoba Shao's coup, more than ten people in all. Those who had earlier violated the imperial will were all carved up and eaten by the ministers.

〈拓跋氏起於代北,俗尚獵,故置獵郎,以豪望子弟有材勇者爲之,亦漢期門郎、羽林郎之類也。《魏書‧官氏志》:天賜元年置散騎郎、獵郎、諸省令史、省事、典籤等。後魏孝文以獻帝叔父之後乙旃氏爲叔孫氏。〉〈磨渾,元城侯屈之子也。〉

(Since the Tuoba clan had originally risen in Dai and the far north, they often practiced hunting, and so they created the office of Hunting Gentleman, to which were appointed promising and bold younger relatives of influential families. The office was similar to the Han dynasty posts of Gentleman of the Appointed Gate or Gentleman of the Feathered Forest. The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "In the first year of Tianci (404), several offices were created: those of Gentleman Cavalier, Hunting Gentleman, the Clerks of the various Bureaus, the Departments, the Canons Recordings, and others."

Shusun Jun's surname was really Yizhan. Later, Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei would rename people with the surname Yizhan, who were the descendants of Tuoba Shi's uncle, to Shusun ("descendants of the uncle").

This Tuoba Mohun was the son of the Marquis of Yuancheng, Tuoba Qu.)


帝入誅紹。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Tuoba Si entered the capital and executed Tuoba Shao.

清河王紹之亂,太宗在外,使夜告同,令收合百工伎巧,眾皆響應奉迎。(Book of Northern Wei 30, Biography of An Tong)

During the coup of the Prince of Qinghe, Tuoba Shao, Tuoba Si (Emperor Mingyuan) was outside of the capital. He sent agents during the night to reach out to An Tong, ordering him to gather together the workers and acrobats. They all came to welcome his arrival to the capital.


壬申,嗣卽皇帝位,大赦,改元永興。追尊劉貴人曰宣穆皇后;公卿先罷歸第不預朝政者,悉召用之。詔長孫嵩與北新侯安同、山陽侯奚斤、白馬侯崔宏、元城侯拓跋屈等八人坐止車門右,共聽朝政,時人謂之八公。屈,磨渾之父也。嗣以尚書燕鳳逮事什翼犍,使與都坐大官封懿等入侍講論,出議政事。以王洛兒、車路頭爲散騎常侍,叔孫俊爲衞將軍。拓跋磨渾爲尚書,皆賜爵郡、縣公。嗣問舊臣爲先帝所親信者爲誰。王洛兒言李先。嗣召問先:「卿以何才何功爲先帝所知?」對曰:「臣不才無功,但以忠直爲先帝所知耳。」詔以先爲安東將軍,常宿於內,以備顧問。

41. On the day Renshen (November 10th), Tuoba Si became Emperor of Wei. He would later be known as Emperor Mingyuan.

Emperor Mingyuan declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongxing. He posthumously honored his mother, Honored Lady Liu, as Empress Xuanmu.

Emperor Mingyuan summoned back and employed all those nobles and ministers who had earlier resigned their offices and gone to their fiefs, unwilling to participate in court affairs while Tuoba Gui was still alive. He formed a council of eight people to sit beside the Carriage-Halting Gate and discuss the affairs of court and state together: these included Zhangsun Song, the Marquis of Beidi, An Tong, the Marquis of Shanyang, Xi Jin, the Marquis of Baima, Cui Hong, and the Marquis of Yuancheng, Tuoba Qu. People called them the Eight Worthies. This Tuoba Qu was the father of Tuoba Mohun.

Emperor Mingyuan commissioned one of the Masters of Writing, Yan Feng, to record the affairs of the reign of Tuoba Shiyijian, and had Yan Feng work together with the chief officials of the Capital Seats, Feng Yi and others, to teach and instruct him personally and provide advice on governmental affairs generally.

Emperor Mingyuan appointed Wang Luo'er and Che Lutou as Cavaliers In Regular Attendance, Shusun Jun as Guard General, and Tuoba Mohun as a Master of Writing, and all of them were granted titles as Dukes of commandaries or counties.

Emperor Mingyuan asked the senior ministers who the person was that his late father had trusted most. Wang Luo'er told him it was Li Xian. So Emperor Mingyuan summoned Li Xian and asked him, "What talents or achievements do you have, for my late father to have regarded you so highly?"

Li Xian replied, "I have neither talents nor achievements to speak of. It was merely my loyalty and candor which His Late Majesty held in high regard."

Emperor Mingyuan appointed Li Xian as General Who Maintains The East, and Li Xian often resided within the palace and served as an advisor.

〈嗣,道武皇帝之長子也。蕭子顯曰:嗣,字木末。〉〈後魏孝文以獻帝第三兄之後爲達奚氏,尋又改爲奚氏。〉〈臣子至宮門皆下車而入,故謂之止車門。〉〈什翼犍爲代王,以鳳爲左長史。〉〈魏謂尚書都省爲尚書都坐。都坐大官蓋尚書長官也。〉〈先,慕容永之謀主也,永滅,徙中山,魏伐燕,先歸魏,道武親信之。〉

(Tuoba Si was Tuoba Gui's eldest son. The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms states, "Tuoba Si was styled Mumo."

Emperor Xiaowen would later give the descendants of Tuoba Shi's third elder brother the surname Daxi, afterwards shortened to Xi.

When Tuoba Shiyijian had been Prince of Dai, Yan Feng had been his Chief Clerk of the Left.

Northern Wei called the Capital Department of the Masters of Writing the Capital Steps. The chief officials of the Capital Steps must have been the chief officials of the Masters of Writing.

Li Xian had originally been Murong Yong's chief strategist. After Murong Yong was vanquished, Li Xian had been relocated to Zhongshan. When Northern Wei campaigned against Later Yan, Li Xian came to join them, and Tuoba Gui trusted and became close to him.)


壬申,即皇帝位,大赦,改年為永興元年。追尊皇妣為宣穆皇后。公卿大臣先罷歸第不與朝政者,悉復登用之。詔南平公長孫嵩、北新侯安同對理民訟,簡賢任能,彝倫攸敍... 詔鄭兵將軍、山陽侯奚斤巡行諸州,問民疾苦,撫恤窮乏。十有二月戊戌,封衞王儀子良為南陽王,陰平公元烈進爵為王,高涼王樂真改封平陽王。己亥,帝始居西宮,御天文殿。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

On the day Renshen (November 10th), Tuoba Si became Emperor of Wei. He would later be known as Emperor Mingyuan.

Emperor Mingyuan declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongxing. He posthumously honored his mother, Honored Lady Liu, as Empress Xuanmu.

Emperor Mingyuan summoned back and employed all those nobles and ministers who had earlier resigned their offices and gone to their fiefs, unwilling to participate in court affairs while Tuoba Gui was still alive. He held a council with the Duke of Nanping, Zhangson Song, and the Marquis of Beidi, An Tong, to discuss the cases of the people, discover the worthy and employ the talented, and repair and restore the laws and canons.

Emperor Mingyuan went on a tour through the various provinces, along with the General of Zheng Soldiers and Marquis of Shanyang, Xi Jin; they inquired into the concerns and suffering of the common people, and comforted and consoled their exhaustion and want.

In the twelfth month, on the day Wuxu (February 4th of 410), Emperor Mingyuan appointed Tuoba Yi's son Tuoba Liang as Prince of Nanyang, he promoted the Duke of Yinping, Tuoba Lie, to Prince of Yinping, and he changed the title of the Prince of Gaoliang, Tuoba Yuezhen, to Prince of Pingyang. On the day Jihai (February 5th), Emperor Mingyuan first took up residence in the Western Palace, presiding in the Tianwen Hall.

以功進爵陰平王。薨,諡曰熹。子裘襲。(Book of Northern Wei 15, Biography of Tuoba Lie)

For his achievements, Tuoba Lie was promoted to Prince of Yinping.

When Tuoba Lie later passed away, he was granted the posthumous title Xi ("the Bright"). His son Tuoba Qiu succeeded him.

太宗世,與崔玄伯、封懿、梁越等入講經傳,出議朝政。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Yan Feng)

During Emperor Mingyuan's reign, Yan Feng worked together with Cui Hong, Feng Yi, Liang Yue, and others to teach and instruct Emperor Mingyuan on the Classics and Histories and provide advice on court and state affairs.

太宗即位,與山陽侯奚斤、北新侯安同、白馬侯崔宏等八人,坐止車門右,聽理萬幾,故世號八公。(Book of Northern Wei 25, Biography of Zhangsun Song)

After Emperor Mingyuan came to the throne, Zhangsun Song, the Marquis of Beidi, An Tong, the Marquis of Shanyang, Xi Jin, the Marquis of Baima, Cui Hong, and others formed a council of eight people to sit beside the Carriage-Halting Gate and discuss the affairs of state together. People called them the Eight Worthies.

遷都水使者,出為晉兵將軍,幽州刺史,賜爵山陽侯。太宗即位,為鄭兵將軍,循行州郡,問民疾苦。(Book of Northern Wei 29, Biography of Xi Jin)

Xi Jin was later transferred to be Manager of the Capital Waterways, then sent out to be General of Jin Soldiers and Inspector of Youzhou. He was also appointed as Marquis of Shanyang.

When Emperor Mingyuan came to the throne, he appointed Xi Jin as General of Zheng Soldiers. They traveled together through the provinces and commandaries, asking after the concerns and suffering of the common people.

太宗即位,命同與南平公長孫嵩並理民訟。(Book of Northern Wei 30, Biography of An Tong)

After Emperor Mingyuan came to the throne, he ordered An Tong and the Duke of Nanping, Zhangsun Song to discuss and judge the cases of the people together.


朱提王悅,虔之子也,有罪,自疑懼。閏十一月,丁亥,悅懷匕首入侍,將作亂。叔孫俊覺其舉止有異,引手掣之,索懷中,得匕首,遂殺之。

42. The Prince of Zhuti, Tuoba Yue, was the son of Tuoba Qian. He had committed a crime, so he was scared and uncertain of his position. In the intercalary eleventh month, on the day Dinghai (November 25th), Tuoba Yue came to court while hiding a dagger, planning to cause trouble. But Shusun Jun noticed that Tuoba Yue's movements were irregular, so he reached out and grabbed Tuoba Yue and frisked his chest, where he found the hidden dagger. Tuoba Yue was thus killed.

〈拓跋虔見一百八卷孝武太元二十一年。〉

(Tuoba Qian was a cousin of Tuoba Gui; his death is mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396.4).)


閏十月丁亥,朱提王悅謀反,賜死。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the intercalary tenth month, on the day Dinghai (November 25th), the Prince of Zhuti, Tuoba Yue, plotted rebellion. He was forced to commit suicide.

悅外和內佷。太祖常以桓王死王事,特加親寵。為左將軍,襲封。後為宗師。悅恃寵驕矜,每謂所親王洛生之徒言曰:「一旦宮車晏駕,吾止避衞公,除此誰在吾前?」衞王儀,美髯,為內外所重,悅故云。初,姚興之贖狄伯支,悅送之,路由雁門,悅因背誘姦豪,以取其意。後遇事譴,逃亡,投雁門,規收豪傑,欲為不軌,為土人執送,太祖恕而不罪。太宗即位,引悅入侍,仍懷姦計,說帝云:「京師雜人,不可保信,宜誅其非類者。又雁門人多詐,并可誅之。」欲以雪其私忿。太宗不從。悅內自疑懼,懷刀入侍,謀為大逆。叔孫俊疑之,竊視其懷,有刀,執而賜死。(Book of Northern Wei 15, Biography of Tuoba Yue)

Tuoba Yue was the son of Prince Huan, Tuoba Qian. He was outwardly agreeable, but inwardly he held grudges.

Tuoba Gui was very close to him and showed him special favor, on account of all that his father Tuoba Qian had done for him and because of his death in battle. He appointed Tuoba Yue as General of the Left and Prince of Zhuti, and later he became Instructor of the Imperial Clan. Tuoba Yue grew proud and conceited because of the favor he had been shown. He was always saying to his friends like Wang Luosheng, "If someday our sovereign should be no more, though I will give way to the Duke of Wey (Tuoba Yi), is there anyone else out there whom I would be second to?" The Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, had a beautiful beard and was respected by all, thus this comment.

Earlier, when Yao Xing had purchased the return of his captured minister Di Bozhi, Tuoba Yue had gone to escort Di Bozhi back to Later Qin. Along the way, in Yanmen commandary, Tuoba Yue took the opportunity to entice some wicked locals there in order to gain his desires.

Later, when Tuoba Yue met with censure, he fled and sought refuge in Yanmen commandary, hoping to gather together local talents in order to become an outlaw. But he was apprehended by the local gentry and sent back to the capital. However, Tuoba Gui forgave him and did not charge him with a crime.

After Emperor Mingyuan rose to the throne, he brought Tuoba Yue into the palace as an attendant. Tuoba Yue cherished wicked plans, so he tried to persuade Emperor Mingyuan, "There are several people in the capital region whom you cannot trust; you should execute such wrongdoers. And the people of Yanmen are very false; you should execute them as well." But these things were merely to avenge his own personal grudges, and Emperor Mingyuan refused.

Tuoba Yue was now scared and uncertain of his position. He entered the palace while hiding a dagger, planning to kill Emperor Mingyuan. But Shusun Jun was suspicious of Tuoba Yue, so he checked his chest, where he found the hidden dagger. Tuoba Yue was arrested and forced to commit suicide.


十二月,乙巳,太白犯虛、危。南燕靈臺令張光勸南燕主超出降,超手殺之。

43. In the twelfth month, on the day Yisi (February 11th of 410), Venus violated the Xu and Wei constellations of the night sky. Southern Yan's Prefect of Divination, Zhang Guang, urged Murong Chao to go out and surrender. But Murong Chao killed him with his own hand.

〈虛二星,危三星。《晉‧天文志》:自須女八度至危十五度爲玄枵,齊之分野,屬青州。〉

(The Xu constellation has two stars, and the Wei constellation has three. The Astrological Records of the Book of Jin states, "The area from the eighth section, the Daughter, to the fifteenth section, the Danger, is the Dark Hollow; it represents the Qi region and Qingzhou.")


柔然侵魏。

44. The Rouran raided Wei.

蠕蠕犯塞。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

The Rouran raided Wei.
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BOOK 115

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Mar 10, 2019 3:41 am

六年(庚戌、四一○)

The Sixth Year of Yixi (The Gengxu Year, 410 AD)


春,正月,甲寅朔,南燕主超登天門,朝羣臣於城上。乙卯,超與寵姬魏夫人登城,見晉兵之盛,握手對泣。韓X諫曰:「陛下遭堙厄之運,正當努力自強以壯士民之志,而更爲兒女子泣邪!」超拭目謝之。尚書令董詵勸超降,超怒,囚之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jiayin (February 20th), Murong Chao ascended the Tian Gate, and his court ministers gathered atop the wall.

On the day Yimao (March 13th), Murong Chao and his favored consort, Lady Wei, ascended the walls. When they saw how numerous the Jin army was, they held each other's hands and wept. Han Zhuo remonstrated with them, saying, "Your Majesty is enduring a moment of great adversity. You most of all should be gathering your strength and stiffening your will in order to encourage your soldiers and your people. How can you go so far as to weep together like children?" Murong Chao dried his eyes and apologized to him.

The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Dong Shen, urged Murong Chao to surrender. Angered by this, Murong Chao imprisoned him.

〈天門,廣固內城南門也。〉

(The Tian Gate was the southern gate of the inner walls of Guanggu.)


魏長孫嵩將兵伐柔然。

2. In Wei, Zhangsun Song led troops to campaign against the Rouran.

二年春正月甲寅朔,詔南平公長孫嵩等北伐蠕蠕。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

In the second year of Yongxing (410), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jiayin (February 20th), Emperor Mingyuan ordered the Duke of Nanping, Zhangsun Song, and others to lead a northern campaign against the Rouran.


魏主嗣以郡縣豪右多爲民患,悉以優詔徵之。民戀土不樂內徙,長吏逼遣之,於是無賴少年逃亡相聚,所在寇盜羣起。嗣引八公議之曰:「朕欲爲民除蠹,而守宰不能綏撫,使之紛亂。今犯者旣衆,不可盡誅,吾欲大赦以安之,何如?」元成侯屈曰:「民逃亡爲盜,不罪而赦之,是爲上者反求於下也,不如誅其首惡,赦其餘黨。」崔宏曰:「聖王之御民,務在安之而已,不與之較勝負也。夫赦雖非正,可以行權。屈欲先誅後赦,要爲兩不能去,曷若一赦而遂定乎!赦而不從,誅未晚也。」嗣從之。二月,癸未朔,遣將軍于栗磾將騎一萬討不從命者,所向皆平。

3. Emperor Mingyuan of Wei felt that many of the local gentry in the commandaries and counties were blights upon the common people, so he issued a special edict calling a draft. The common people cherished their original homelands and were not been happy at the prospect of being forced to move into the interior of Wei's territory, but the chief local officials forced them to move. This led to many impetuous youths running off and joining together into bandit groups, which then caused troubles in their local areas.

So Emperor Mingyuan gathered the Eight Worthies into council and said to them, "I wanted to remove these pests against the common people. Yet the local officials, far from being able to comfort and console the people, are the very ones responsible for stirring up this chaos. By now, there are too many outlaws, and we cannot execute all of them. I plan to declare a general amnesty in order to make them settle down. What do you think?"

Tuoba Qu said, "These people have fled from the law and become bandits, yet you propose to pardon them all rather than charge them with crimes. That would be the high bowing before the low. Better to execute the bandit leaders, then pardon the rest of them."

But Cui Hong objected, "A sage ruler's duty when managing his people is to provide them with peace, not to keep score with them. It may not be proper to grant an amnesty, but it is expedient. Tuoba Qu would have you execute some of them first and then pardon the rest, but that would be an instance of trying to go down two roads at once; you would not get anywhere like that. Far better to simply issue a general amnesty for them all and gain peace that way! If they refuse to respond to the amnesty, it will not be too late to execute them afterwards."

Emperor Mingyuan followed his advice.

In the second month, on the new moon of the day Guiwei (March 21st), Emperor Mingyuan sent the general Yuli Di to lead ten thousand cavalry to campaign against those who refused to heed the imperial command, and Yuli Di pacified all those he faced.

〈兩不能去,言先不能去誅,後又不能去赦也。〉〈史言魏有謀臣,所以靖亂。〉

(The two roads would have been at first trying to execute some bandits, while later trying to pardon others; neither would have been successful.

This passage demonstrates that Northern Wei had clever ministers, able to quell turmoil.)


平陽民黃苗等,依汾自固,受姚興官號。并州刺史元六頭討平之。二月癸未朔,詔將軍于栗磾領步騎一萬鎮平陽。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

Natives of Pingyang commandary, Huang Miao and others, fortified themselves along the Fen River and accepted rank and title from Yao Xing. The Inspector of Bingzhou, Tuoba Liutou, campaigned against and pacified them.

In the second month, on the new moon of the day Guiwei (March 21st), Emperor Mingyuan sent the general Yuli Di to lead ten thousand horse and foot to guard Pingyang.


南燕賀賴盧、公孫五樓爲地道擊晉兵,不能卻。城久閉,城中男女病腳弱者太半,出降者相繼。超輦而登城,尚書悅壽說超曰:「今天助寇爲虐,戰士凋瘁,獨守窮城,絕望外援,天時人事亦可知矣。苟曆數有終,堯、舜避位,陛下豈可不思變通之計乎!」超歎曰:「廢興,命也。吾寧奮劍而死,不能銜璧而生!」

4. At Guanggu, He Lailu and Gongsun Wulou led troops through a tunnel to attack the Jin army, but they could not drive them away.

By now, the gates of Guanggu had been shut for so long that more than half of the men and women inside the city had fallen ill or weak, and a constant stream of them came out to surrender. When Murong Chao went atop the wall, one of his Masters of Writing, Yue Shou, advised him, "Heaven is granting its aid to the invaders, while our warriors are withering away. We hold only this lone and exhausted city, and we have no hope of reinforcements. You have to recognize what Heaven wills and the people demand. Every era has its end; even Yao and Shun gave up their thrones. Why will Your Majesty not consider the situation before you?"

Murong Chao lamented, "One's rise or fall is up to fate. But I will die with my sword in hand; I will not live if it means holding jade in my mouth and surrendering!"

丁亥,劉裕悉衆攻城。或曰:「今日往亡,不利行師。」裕曰:「我往彼亡,何爲不利!」四面急攻之。悅壽開門納晉師,超與左右數十騎踰城突圍出走,追獲之。裕數以不降之罪,超神色自若,一無所言,惟以母託劉敬宣而已。

5. On the day Dinghai (March 25th), Liu Yu gathered all his soldiers together to prepare to assault Guanggu. Someone told him, "It is a 'Rising and Falling Day'. The army will not meet with success."

But Liu Yu said, "We are the ones rising, while our foes are the ones falling. How can we fail?" And he launched a fierce assault against the city on all sides.

Yue Shou opened the gates and welcomed in the Jin army. Murong Chao and several dozen of his attendant riders scaled the walls of the city and broke out through the siege lines to flee, but they were pursued and captured.

Liu Yu reproached Murong Chao for having refused to surrender. But Murong Chao kept a serene expression as though nothing were amiss, and he said not a word; he merely entrusted his mother to the care of Liu Jingxuan.

〈《曆書》二月以驚蟄後十四日爲往亡日。〉〈敬宣先嘗奔燕,故超以母託之。夫孝莫大於寧親,超以母之故,屈節事秦,竭聲伎以奉之,旣又掠取晉人以足聲伎,由是致寇,至於母子並爲俘虜,乃更欲以託劉敬宣,何庸淺也!〉

(According to the Calendar Records, the fourteen days of the second month after the Insects Wake day are known as Rising and Falling Days.

Liu Jingxuan had earlier fled in exile to Southern Yan; this was why Murong Chao now entrusted his mother to him.

There is no greater aspect of filial piety than to ensure the security of one's relatives. But if we consider Murong Chao and his mother, he bowed to Later Qin and gave up all of his musicians to get her back, then raided and kidnapped people from Jin to train them as new musicians. This was what had brought on the Jin invasion in the first place, and in the end both Murong Chao and his mother became captives. Yet he now "entrusted" her to Liu Jingxuan. What shallow, mediocre consideration!)


是歲,司馬德宗將劉裕,滅慕容超於廣固。(Book of Northern Wei 3, Annals of Emperor Mingyuan)

During this year (410), Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) general Liu Yu conquered Murong Chao at Guanggu.

六年春正月丁亥,劉裕攻慕容超,克之,齊地悉平。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth year of Yixi (410), in spring, the first month, on the day Dinghai (?), Liu Yu attacked Murong Chao and defeated him; the Qi region was thus pacified.

從高祖征廣固,常為軍鋒。及城陷,慕容超將親兵突圍走,道憐所部獲之。加使持節,進號左將軍。(Book of Liu-Song 51, Biography of Liu Daolian)

Liu Daolian accompanied Liu Yu on his campaign against Guanggu, where he often served in the vanguard. After Guanggu fell, Murong Chao led his personal soldiers to break out of the siege lines and flee, but Liu Daolian's soldiers captured him. Liu Daolian was promoted to Commissioner Bearing Credentials and General of the Left.


裕忿廣固久不下,欲盡阬之,以妻女賞將士。韓範諫曰:「晉室南遷,中原鼎沸,士民無援,強則附之,旣爲君臣,必須爲之盡力。彼皆衣冠舊族,先帝遺民;今王師弔伐而盡阬之,使安所歸乎!竊恐西北之人無復來蘇之望矣。」裕改容謝之,然猶斬王公以下三千人,沒入家口萬餘,夷其城隍,送超詣建康,斬之。

6. Liu Yu resented the fact that Guanggu had held out so long against him, and he now wanted to bury alive all the enemy soldiers and distribute their wives and daughters as rewards for his generals and soldiers.

But Han Fan remonstrated with him, saying, "After the Jin royal family moved south of the Yangzi, the Central Plains were roiling like a cauldron; the common people had no one to rely upon, so they aligned themselves with whoever was strongest. Thus they formed bonds with each other as sovereign and subject, and it would only be natural to expect such people to fight with all their strength for their rulers. Besides, your enemy came from a long-established line of sovereigns, and his ancestors had entrusted him with the care of his people.

“Your royal army came here on campaign in order to console the people, yet now you would bury them all alive? Where then are they meant to turn to for peace? I fear if you do this, the people of the north and the west shall not look upon your arrival as the revival of their hopes."

Liu Yu's expression changed, and he apologized to Han Fan. He only beheaded three thousand of the leading Southern Yan ministers, from their princes and dukes on down, while sending more than ten thousand other people into government bondage. He also destroyed the walls and moats of Guanggu.

Liu Yu sent Murong Chao to Jiankang, where Murong Chao was beheaded.

〈湯征諸侯,東面而征西夷怨,南面而征北狄怨,曰:「奚爲後我?」攸徂之民,室家胥慶,曰:「傒我后,后來其蘇。」〉〈隆安二年,慕容德建國,號南燕,二主,十三年而亡。〉

(When Tang of Xia went on campaign against his enemies, if he focused on the east then the Yi people of the west complained that he was not helping them, while if he faced south then the Di people of the north were angry that he was ignoring them, saying, "Does he mean to leave us for last?" To whatever people he went, they congratulated one another in their families, saying, "We have waited for our prince; our prince is come, and we revive."

Murong De had founded Southern Yan in the second year of Long'an (398). It had two sovereigns and lasted for thirteen years, then perished.)


臣光曰:晉自濟江以來,威靈不競,戎狄橫騖,虎噬中原。劉裕始以王師翦平東夏,不於此際旌禮賢俊,慰撫疲民,宣愷悌之風,滌殘穢之政,使羣士嚮風,遺黎企踵,而更恣行屠戮以快忿心;迹其施設,曾苻、姚之不如,宜其不能蕩壹四海,成美大之業,豈非雖有智勇而無仁義使之然哉!

7. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: After Jin crossed the Yangzi and their power and authority were no longer felt, the barbarians laid waste to the land, gnawing like tigers upon the Central Plains. Yet in Liu Yu's very first campaign to lead the royal army to reclaim the eastern part of the dynastic heartlands, he did not recognize this fact by doing the things he ought to have done: show honor and respect to the local worthies and talents, comfort and console the suffering common people, promote a good and joyful spirit, clean up corrupt and harmful policies, steer the gentry towards the right path, and give other people hopes to look forward to. Instead, he even went so far as to impetuously kill and slaughter people just to gratify his own resentment. Even the Fu clan of Former Qin or the Yao clan of Later Qin never stooped to such levels as this. Is it any wonder that, in the end, Liu Yu was not able to restore peace to all within the Four Seas or finally complete his grand design? How can anyone be successful, no matter how clever or bold they are, if they lack benevolence or righteousness?

初,徐道覆聞劉裕北伐,勸盧循乘虛襲建康,循不從。道覆自至番禺說循曰:「本住嶺外,豈以理極於此,傳之子孫邪?正以劉裕難與爲敵故也。今裕頓兵堅城之下,未有還期,我以此思歸死士掩擊何、劉之徒,如反掌耳。不乘此機而苟求一日之安,朝廷常以君爲腹心之疾;若裕平齊之後,息甲歲餘,以璽書徵君,裕自將屯豫章,遣諸將帥銳師過嶺,雖復以將軍之神武,恐必不能當也。今日之機,萬不可失。若先克建康,傾其根蔕,裕雖南還,無能爲也。君若不同,便當帥始興之衆直指尋陽。」循甚不樂此舉,而無以奪其計,乃從之。

8. It was earlier mentioned that the rebel leader Lu Xun had taken control of Jin's territory in Guangzhou. And during the time that Liu Yu had first set out on his northern campaign against Southern Yan, Lu Xun's general Xu Daofu had sent word to Lu Xun urging him to take advantage of Liu Yu's absence to launch a surprise attack against the Jin capital at Jiankang. But Lu Xun had not accepted.

Xu Daofu then came to Lu Xun's base at Panyu and advised him, "Are you thus satisfied to hold merely the territory beyond the mountain ranges as your domain? Is this the extent of the legacy which you will pass down to your descendants?

"Now the one enemy we would have a difficult time dealing with is Liu Yu. But now, Liu Yu has his soldiers sitting around beneath the walls of a foreign capital, and who knows when he will return? And we have at our command warriors who long to return to their homeland and who will fight to the death for that cause. We can sweep aside people like He Wuji and Liu Yi as easily as turning over one's palm.

"Besides, you cannot ignore this opportunity and remain at east a moment longer; the court has always considered you to be a threat against their very vitals. Suppose you give Liu Yu enough time to pacify the Qi region and return, then rest his troops for a year. By then, the court will have sent you a letter summoning you to come to the capital, while Liu Yu will have marched to camp at Yuzhang while sending his generals to lead zealous soldiers through the mountain ranges to come attack you. Once that happens, General, even with your divine martial prowess, I fear you could not be certain of victory. So today's opportunity is one not to be missed. Furthermore, if you take Jiankang first, you will have toppled Jin's foundation, and even if Liu Yu returns south, he will no longer be able to stop you.

"And if you still refuse to agree, then I will simply lead my forces at Shixing straight towards Xunyang."

Lu Xun was very displeased by this last threat, but he had no way to prevent Xu Daofu from carrying it out, so he agreed to go along with the proposed campaign.

〈交、廣之地在五嶺之外。〉〈孫泰徒黨本三吳之人,孫恩所掠者又三吳人也;久在海中,故皆懷土思歸。〉〈何、劉,謂何無忌、劉毅也。〉〈元興三年,循使道覆攻陷始興,因使守之。〉

(The regions of Jiaozhou and Guangzhou were south of the Five Ranges.

The original leader of Lu Xun's rebels, Sun Tai, had gathered his followers from among the people of the Three Wu regions, and his nephew Sun En too had kidnapped people from the same area to bolster his forces. By now, these people had all been living far away, on the distant southern coast, and so they all longed to return home again.

Xu Daofu refers to "He and Liu"; he means He Wuji and Liu Yi.

Lu Xun had earlier sent Xu Daofu to attack and capture Shixing, in the third year of Yuanxing (404.70). Xu Daofu now commanded the garrison there.)


義熙中,劉裕伐慕容超,循所署始興太守徐道覆,循之姊夫也,使人勸循乘虛而出,循不從。道覆乃至番禺,說循曰:「朝廷恆以君為腹心之疾,劉公未有旋日,不乘此機而保一日之安,若平齊之後,劉公自率眾至豫章,遣銳師過嶺,雖復君之神武,必不能當也。今日之機,萬不可失。既克都邑,劉裕雖還,無能為也。君若不同,便當率始興之眾直指尋陽。」循甚不樂此舉,無以奪其計,乃從之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Lu Xun)

During the Yixi reign era (405-418), Liu Yu went on campaign against Murong Chao. The Administrator of Shixing that Lu Xun had appointed, Xu Daofu, was his brother-in-law. He sent word to Lu Xun urging him to take advantage of Liu Yu's absence to launch a surprise attack against the Jin capital at Jiankang. But Lu Xun had not accepted.

Xu Daofu then came to Lu Xun's base at Panyu and advised him, "The court has always considered you to be a threat against their very vitals. It's only that Lord Liu has not had the free time to deal with you. But if you do not take advantage of this opportunity and think only of maintaining yourself for another day, then once Liu Yu has conquered the Qi region, he will personally lead an army to Yuzhang while sending his generals to lead zealous soldiers through the mountain ranges to come attack you. Once that happens, even despite your divine martial prowess, I fear you could not be certain of victory. So today's opportunity is one not to be missed. Furthermore, if you take Jiankang first, even if Liu Yu returns south, he will no longer be able to stop you.

"And if you still refuse to agree, then I will simply lead my forces at Shixing straight towards Xunyang."

Lu Xun was very displeased by this last threat, but he had no way to prevent Xu Daofu from carrying it out, so he agreed to go along with the proposed campaign.


初,道覆使人伐船材於南康山,至始興,賤賣之,居人爭市之,船材大積而人不疑,至是,悉取以裝艦,旬日而辦。循自始興寇長沙,道覆寇南康、廬陵、豫章,諸守相皆委任奔走。道覆順流而下,舟械甚盛。時克燕之問未至,朝廷急徵劉裕。裕方議留鎭下邳,經營司、雍,會得詔書,乃以韓範爲都督八郡軍事、燕郡太守,封融爲勃海太守,檀韶爲琅邪太守;戊申,引兵還。韶,祗之兄也。久之,劉穆之稱範、融謀反,皆殺之。

9. Xu Daofu had earlier sent agents to gather lumber for building boats at the mountains in Nankang, then bring them back to Shixing and sell them for cheap. The residents of Shixing rushed to buy them, and so the pile of lumber grew larger and larger without anyone suspecting anything. So at this time, now that Xu Daofu was sure the campaign would happen, he simply seized all of the lumber and used it to build ships, which were ready for use after a few days.

Lu Xun himself advanced from Shixing and invaded Changsha commandary, while Xu Daofu invaded the commandaries of Nankang, Luling, and Yuzhang. The Administrators and Chancellors of those commandaries all abandoned their posts and fled. Xu Daofu then advanced downriver, commanding a great fleet of ships.

Since reports of Liu Yu's victory over Southern Yan had not yet arrived at the capital, the court urgently summoned him to come back again. At that moment, Liu Yu was about to propose leaving a garrison to defend Xiapi while advancing further into Sizhou and Yongzhou. But when he soon received the edict letter, he decided to appoint Han Fan as Commander of military affairs in eight commandaries and Administrator of Yan commandary, Feng Rong as Administrator of Bohai, and Tan Shao as Administrator of Langye, and on the day Wushen (April 15th), he led his army back south again. This Tan Shao was the elder brother of Tan Zhi.

Sometime afterwards, Liu Muzhi accused Han Fan and Feng Rong of plotting rebellion and killed them.

〈南康山,南康縣之山也。吳立安南縣於漢豫章梅嶺,武帝太康元年更名南康。所謂梅嶺,今大庾嶺是也。南康山,卽大庾諸山,皆在今南安軍界。〉〈自南康西至始興四百里。〉〈順贛石之流而下。〉〈青州舊督齊、濟南、樂安、城陽、東萊、長廣、平昌、高密八郡;而所謂燕郡者,蓋南燕於廣固置燕都尹而今改爲燕郡太守耳。〉〈二人燕之舊臣,穆之恐其爲變,故殺之。〉

(The mountains at Nankang were the mountains in Nankang county. Eastern Wu had established Annan county at the Mei Ranges in Han's Yuzhang commandary, and in Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280) the county was renamed to Nankang. These Mei Ranges are what we now call the Dayu Ranges. So the mountains at Nankang would have been the mountains of the Dayu Ranges, all of which are in the modern Nan'an Garrison.

It was four hundred li from Nankang west to Shixing.

Xu Daofu followed the Yangzi downriver from Ganshi.

Qingzhou had indeed originally consisted of eight commandaries: Qi, Jinan, Le'an, Chengyang, Donglai, Changguang, Pingchang, and Gaomi. Yet this passage also says that Han Fan was appointed as Administrator of Yan commandary. It must have been that when Southern Yan established their capital at Guanggu, they created a Yan commandary around the capital with an Intendant to govern it, which now reverted to being merely Administrator of that commandary.

Han Fan and Feng Rong had originally been subjects of Southern Yan, and Liu Muzhi feared that they would cause a rebellion, so he killed them.)


是月,廣州刺史盧循反,寇江州。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During the same (first) month, the Inspector of Guangzhou, Lu Xun, rebelled and invaded Jiangzhou.

初,道覆密欲裝舟艦,乃使人伐船材于南康山,偽雲將下都貨之。後稱力少不能得致,即於郡賤賣之,價減數倍,居人貪賤,賣衣物而市之。贛石水急,出船甚難,皆儲之。如是者數四,故船版大積,而百姓弗之疑。及道覆舉兵,案賣券而取之,無得隱匿者,乃並力裝之,旬日而辦。遂舉眾寇南康、廬陵、豫章諸郡,守相皆委任奔走。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Lu Xun)

Xu Daofu had been planning to secretly build a fleet. So he had earlier sent agents to gather shipbuilding materials at the mountains in Nankang, pretending that he was going to bring them to the capital to sell them. Later, claiming that he lacked enough manpower to bring the goods to the capital, he had his agents bring them back to Shixing and sell them at a severe discount. The residents of Shixing rushed to buy them at such a steal, selling their own clothing and possessions to purchase them. And since the Ganshi River was rushing, making it very difficult to launch boats, people believed Xu Daofu's claims. He repeated this act several times, and the pile of lumber thus grew larger and larger without anyone suspecting anything. Then once Xu Daofu raised his troops for the campaign, he simply seized all of the lumber, and none of it remained hidden away. He used it to build ships, which were ready for use after a few days.

Xu Daofu then set out and invaded the commandaries of Nankang, Luling, and Yuzhang. The Administrators and Chancellors of those commandaries all abandoned their posts and fled.


安成忠肅公何無忌自尋陽引兵拒盧循。長史鄧潛之諫曰:「國家安危,在此一舉。聞循兵艦大盛,勢居上流,宜決南塘,守二城以待之,彼必不敢捨我遠下。蓄力養銳,俟其疲老,然後擊之,此萬全之策也。今決成敗於一戰,萬一失利,悔將無及。」參軍殷闡曰:「循所將之衆皆三吳舊賊,百戰餘勇,始興溪子,拳捷善鬬,未易輕也。將軍宜留屯豫章,徵兵屬城,兵至合戰,未爲晚也;若以此衆輕進,殆必有悔。」無忌不聽。三月,壬申,與徐道覆遇於豫章,賊令強弩數百登西岸小山邀射之。會西風暴急,飄無忌所乘小艦向東岸。賊乘風以大艦逼之,衆遂奔潰。無忌厲聲曰:「取我蘇武節來!」節至,執以督戰。賊衆雲集,無忌辭色無撓,握節而死。於是中外震駭,朝議欲奉乘輿北走,就劉裕;旣而知賊未至,乃止。

10. He Wuji was going to personally lead his troops from Xunyang to oppose Lu Xun. His Chief Clerk, Deng Qianzhi, remonstrated with him, saying, "The peace or danger of the state will be decided by this one action. I have heard that Lu Xun possesses a great many soldiers and ships, and he has established his influence upriver. You ought to burst the Southern Dyke and guard the two cities (Yuzhang and Xunyang) against the rebels. The enemy would surely not dare to come so far downriver to face us. You can gather your strength and boost the morale of your soldiers, while waiting for the rebels to exhaust themselves, then attack them afterwards; you could be certain of victory then. Yet now you plan to risk victory or defeat on a single battle. If things should go against us, it will be too late for regrets."

And He Wuji's Army Advisor, Yin Chan, said to him, "Lu Xun commands an army of rebel veterans from the Three Wu regions, whose courage is never exhausted even after a hundred battles, and they have been bolstered by the new recruits from Shixing. Their spirit and strength are indomitable; you cannot take them lightly. General, you should remain in camp at Yuzhang while drafting soldiers from the local cities. If you want to join battle after your reinforcements arrive, it will not be too late. But if you rush ahead now with only the forces currently at your command, you are almost certain to regret it."

But He Wuji did not listen to them.

In the third month, on the day Renshen (May 9th), He Wuji encountered Xu Daofu at Yuzhang. The rebels ordered several hundred strong crossbowmen to stand atop the hills on the west bank of the Yangzi and provide crossfire against the government soldiers. Before long, a fierce western wind sprang up, tossing the light ship that He Wuji was riding in against the east bank. The rebels took advantage of the wind to send their large ships forward to threaten him, and He Wuji's soldiers began to scatter. But He Wuji himself sternly declared, "Bring me my staff of Su Wu!" And when his Staff of Authority was brought to him, he wielded it while directing the battle. The rebels descended like clouds on his position, but He Wuji never panicked or wavered; staff in hand, he fought on until the end. He was later granted the posthumous title of Duke Zhongsu ("the Loyal and Solemn") of Ancheng.

There was general panic following He Wuji's defeat, and the court even proposed taking Emperor An and fleeing to the north to take refuge with Liu Yu's army