Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Sun Oct 14, 2018 6:07 am

I've been eager for this update! Such an interesting time, imo. Not only does it include Emperor Xiaowu's assassination by the hands of Lady Zhang (well, by her attendants' pillows), but also the enthronement of Sima Dezong, who is probably the only Sima family emperor to make Sima Zhong look good. :lol:

Once again you've done us all a huge favor because the amount of English materials discussing ol' Emperor An is close to zero. Happy to finally read about him from the source. :mrgreen: Looking forward to the next.

Also quick correction:

Sima Dezong helped Emperor An by providing for his mouth and his body.)


Should read:

Sima Dewen helped Emperor An by providing for his mouth and his body.)
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BOOK 109

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Oct 18, 2018 8:02 pm

安皇帝甲

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor An


〈諱德宗,字德宗,孝武帝長子也。《諡法》:好和不爭曰安;又曰:生而少斷曰安。帝卽位後,桓玄篡奪,劉裕反正,南征北召[伐]事多,而中原亦多事。《通鑑》所書凡十卷,故以十干書卷數。〉

(Sima Dezong, styled Dezong, was Emperor Xiaowu's eldest son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is peaceful and gets along without arguments may be called An ('the Peaceful')" and, "One who is born lacking discernment may be called An."

It is the usual practice of the Zizhi Tongjian to note the various parts of a ruler's reign by dividing the headings of its books into 上 "the first part of Suchandsuch's reign", 中 "the middle part", and 下 "the last part" at the beginning of each book. However, Emperor An of Jin's reign covers an especially large number of books, ten in all, and contained a great many events; Huan Xuan usurped the throne, and Liu Yu planned his own seizure of power, while there were many campaigns in the north and the states of the Central Plains had numerous incidents as well. So rather than the first/middle/last organization, the Zizhi Tongjian counts off each part of Emperor An's reign with one of the ten Heavenly Stems, in order. Thus, this book is marked as 甲 Jia or "the first part of Emperor An's reign", while the subsequent books are marked as 乙 Yi or "the second part", 丙 Bing or "the third part", and so forth.)


隆安元年(丁酉、三九七)

The First Year of Long'an (The Dingyou Year, 397 AD)


春,正月,己亥朔,帝加元服,改元。以左僕射王珣爲尚書令;領軍將軍王國寶爲左僕射,領選;仍加後將軍、丹楊尹。會稽王道子悉以東宮兵配國寶,使領之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jihai (February 13th), Emperor An put away his mourning clothes and wore his proper attire. The reign era title was changed to the first year of Long'an.

The court appointed the Deputy Director of the Left, Wang Xun, as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. The General Who Directs The Army, Wang Guobao, was appointed as the new Deputy Director of the Left and placed in command of the Personnel Bureau. He was soon promoted to General of the Rear and Intendant of Danyang as well. The Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, assigned all the soldiers of the Eastern Palace to Wang Guobao's command, and placed him in charge of them.

〈領選者,領吏部選。〉

(Wang Guobao was empowered to make personnel decisions as leader of the Personnel Bureau.)


隆安元年春正月己亥朔,帝加元服,改元,增文武位一等。太傅、會稽王道子稽首歸政。以尚書右僕射王珣爲尚書令,領軍將軍王國寶爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the first year of Long'an (397), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jihai (February 13th), Emperor An put away his mourning clothes and wore his proper attire. The reign era title was changed to the first year of Long'an. All civil and military officials were advanced by one rank. The Grand Tutor and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, kowtowed to Emperor An and restored control of the government to him.

The court appointed the Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Wang Xun, as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. The General Who Directs The Army, Wang Guobao, was appointed as the Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


燕范陽王德求救於秦,秦兵不出,鄴中恟懼。賀賴盧自以魏王珪之舅,不受東平公儀節度,由是與儀有隙。儀司馬丁建陰與德通,從而構間之,射書入城中言其狀。甲辰,風霾,晝晦,賴盧營有火,建言於儀曰:「賴盧燒營爲變矣。」儀以爲然,引兵退;賴盧聞之,亦退;建帥其衆詣德降,且言儀師老可擊。德遣桂陽王鎭、南安王青帥騎七千追擊魏軍,大破之。

2. Yan's Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, asked for assistance from Qin. But Qin did not send soldiers to help, and the people within Ye were scared and afraid.

The Wei general He Lailu felt that since Tuoba Gui was his nephew, he should not have to take orders from the Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Gui's cousin Tuoba Yi. So there was friction between the two of them. Tuoba Yi's Marshal, Ding Jian, was secretly in communication with Murong De, and he wanted to further sow discord between the two of them, so he fired an arrow into the city with a letter attached explaining the situation in the Wei camp.

On the day Jiachen (February 18th), there was wind and haze that blocked out the light, and a fire broke out in He Lelai's camp. So Ding Jian said to Tuoba Yi, "He Lelai is burning the camp in rebellion." Tuoba Yi believed him, so he led his troops to fall back. When He Lelai heard this, he also fell back.

Then Ding Jian led his forces to visit Murong De and surrender, and he informed Murong De that Tuoba Yi's army was worn out and vulnerable to attack. So Murong De sent the Prince of Guiyang, Murong Zhen, and the Prince of Nan'an, Murong Qing, to lead seven thousand cavalry to pursue and attack the Wei armies, and they greatly routed them.

〈風雨土曰霾。〉〈師克在和,將帥不和,敗之本也。〉

(When wind covers the ground, it is called haze.

Harmony leads to victory. But the Northern Wei commanders were at odds, so they were defeated.)


德遣其參軍劉藻請救于姚興,且參母兄之問,而興師不至,眾大懼。德於是親饗戰士,厚加撫接,人感其恩,皆樂為致死。會章、盧內相乖爭,各引軍潛遁。章司馬丁建率眾來降,言章師老,可以敗之。德遣將追破章軍,人心始固。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De sent his Army Advisor, Liu Zao, to ask for aid from Yao Xing. He also inquired as to how his mother and elder brother were doing. But Yao Xing did not send an army to reinforce them, and Murong De's army was very afraid. So Murong De personally feasted with his soldiers, and he showed them great magnanimity and cared for them. They appreciated his grace so much that they were pleased to devote their very lives to him.

Meanwhile, a quarrel broke out between Tuoba Zhang and He Lailu, and each side secretly led their soldiers away. Tuoba Zhang's Marshal, Ding Jian, led his forces to come surrender to Murong De, telling him that Tuoba Zhang's army was worn out and could be defeated. So Murong De sent his troops to pursue and rout Tuoba Zhang's army. Then the people became more resolved.


燕主寶使左衞將軍慕輿騰攻博陵,殺魏所置守宰。

3. Murong Bao sent his Guard General of the Left, Muyu Teng, to attack Boling, where Muyu Teng killed all the local officials that Wei had appointed.

二年春正月己亥朔,大饗羣臣於魯口。慕容寶遣其左衞將軍慕容騰寇博陵,殺中山太守及高陽諸縣令長,抄掠租運。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second year of Huangshi (397), in spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jihai (February 13th), Tuoba Gui held a great feast for his ministers at Lukou.

Murong Bao sent his Guard General of the Left, Murong Teng, to invade Boling. Murong Teng killed the local officials whom Tuoba Gui had appointed, the Administrator of Zhongshan and the Prefects and Chiefs of Gaoyang and other counties, and he raided and pillaged the gathered taxes.


王建等攻信都,六十餘日不下,士卒多死。庚申,魏王珪自攻信都。壬戌夜,燕宜都王鳳踰城奔中山。癸亥,信都降魏。

4. Wang Jian and other Wei generals attacked Xindu, but even after more than sixty days they could not subdue the city, and many officers and soldiers died.

On the day Gengshen (March 6th), Tuoba Gui himself came to attack Xindu. During the night of the day Renxu (March 8th), Yan's Prince of Yidu, Murong Feng, climbed over the walls of the city and fled to Zhongshan. On the day Guihai (March 9th), Xindu surrendered to Wei.

〈鳳知珪至,膽破而走。〉

(Murong Feng's courage failed him when he learned that Tuoba Gui had arrived, so he fled.)


是時信都未下,庚申,乃進軍。壬戌,引騎圍之。其夜,寶冀州刺史宜都王慕容鳳踰城奔走,歸于中山。癸亥,寶輔國將軍張驤、護軍將軍徐超率將吏已下舉城降。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

At this time, Xindu had not yet fallen. So on the day Gengshen (March 6th), Tuoba Gui advanced his army to Xindu. On the day Renxu (March 8th), he led his cavalry to besiege the city. That night, Murong Bao's Inspector of Jizhou and Prince of Yidu, Murong Feng, climbed over the walls of the city and fled back to Zhongshan. On the day Guihai (March 9th), Murong Bao's General Who Upholds The State, Zhang Xiang, and his General Who Protects The Army, Xu Chao, led the other generals and officials to surrender Xindu to Tuoba Gui.


涼王光以西秦王乾歸數反覆,舉兵伐之。乾歸羣下請東奔成紀以避之,乾歸曰:「軍之勝敗,在於巧拙,不在衆寡。光兵雖衆而無法,其弟延勇而無謀,不足憚也。且其精兵盡在延所,延敗,光自走矣。」光軍于長最,遣太原公纂等帥步騎三萬攻金城;乾歸帥衆二萬救之,未至,纂等拔金城。光又遣其將梁恭等以甲卒萬餘出陽武下峽,與秦州刺史沒弈干攻其東,天水公延以枹罕之衆攻臨洮、武始、河關,皆克之。乾歸使人紿延云:「乾歸衆潰,奔成紀。」延欲引輕騎追之,司馬耿稚諫曰:「乾歸勇略過人,安肯望風自潰!前破王廣、楊定,皆羸師以誘之。今告者視高色動,殆必有姦,宜整陳而前,使步騎相屬,俟諸軍畢集,然後擊之,無不克矣。」延不從,進,與乾歸遇,延戰死。稚與將軍姜顯收散卒,還屯枹罕。光亦引兵還姑臧。

5. Because of Qifu Gangui's rebellious actions against him, Lü Guang raised his troops to campaign against him. Qifu Gangui's generals all asked him to flee east to Chengji county in order to avoid Lü Guang's army. But Qifu Gangui said, "Military victory or defeat is determined by skill, not by strength of numbers. Although Lü Guang has many soldiers, they have no discipline, and his younger brother Lü Yan may be bold, but he has no cunning. They are not worth worrying about. Besides, all of his best troops are under Lü Yan's command. So once Lü Yan is defeated, Lü Guang will have to retreat too."

Lü Guang's army was at Changzui. He sent his Duke of Taiyuan, Lü Zuan, and others to lead thirty thousand horse and foot to attack Jincheng. Qifu Gangui led twenty thousand soldiers to try to reinforce Jincheng, but before they could arrive, Lü Zuan and the others had already taken the city. Lü Guang also sent his general Liang Gong and others with more than ten thousand armored troops to march out of Yangwu through the gorges and coordinate with the Inspector of Qingzhou, Mei Yigan, to attack Western Qin from the east. And Lü Guang sent his Duke of Tianshui, Lü Yan, to lead the soldiers from Fuhan to attack Lintao, Wushi, and Heguan counties; Lü Yan captured them all.

Qifu Gangui sent agents to report to Lü Yan, "Qifu Gangui's army has scattered, and he has fled to Chengji." So Lü Yan wanted to lead light cavalry to pursue Qifu Gangui.

But his Marshal, Geng Zhi, remonstrated with him, saying, "Qifu Gangui is bolder and more cunning than other men; how could he allow his army to fall apart at the first sign of trouble? When he routed Wang Guang and Yang Ding before, both times he fooled them into attacking by making himself appear weak. And now these people reporting to you seem very expectant and hopeful; they must be up to no good. I advise you to wait to advance until you can put your army in full order, and keep the proper composition of infantry and cavalry. Wait until all preparations are complete, and only then attack. Then you could not help but succeed."

But Lü Yan did not listen to him, and he advanced anyway. When he encountered Qifu Gangui, he was killed in the battle. Geng Zhi and the general Jiang Xian gathered up his scattered soldiers and retreated to camp at Fuhan. Lü Guang also led his troops back to Guzang.

〈謂乾歸旣稱藩於光而悔之也。〉〈成紀縣,自漢以來屬天水郡,治小坑川;唐併顯親縣入成紀縣,移成紀縣治顯親川。〉〈陽武下峽在高平西,河水所經也。〉〈臨洮縣,漢屬隴西郡,惠帝分屬狄道郡。武始郡,故狄道縣地。河關縣,前漢屬金城郡,後漢屬隴西郡,晉屬狄道郡。〉〈破楊定,見上卷孝武太元十九年。太元十一年,王廣爲鮮卑匹蘭所執,送於後秦;此時乾歸未統國事也。乾歸破廣當在乞伏國仁之時。〉

(This passage refers to how Qifu Gangui had earlier declared himself Lü Guang's vassal, but then regretted that decision.

Ever since Han, Chengji county had been part of Tianshui commandary, and it was governed from Lesser Kengchuan. Tang combined Xianqin county into Chengji county and moved its administrative center to Xianqinchuan.

Yangwuxia Gorge was west of Gaoping; the Yellow River passed through it.

During Han, Lintao county was part of Longxi commandary. Emperor Hui split it off as part of Didao commandary.

Wushi commandary was where the old Didao county was.

During Former Han, Heguan county was part of Jincheng commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Longxi commandary. During Jin, it was part of Didao commandary.

Qifu Gangui's defeat of Yang Ding is mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's nineteenth year of Taiyuan (394.16). But Wang Guang had been captured by the Xianbei leader Duan Lan and sent to Later Qin; there had never been any record of Qifu Gangui's having defeated him during his reign. It must have been that this incident had happened during Qifu Guoren's reign.)


三月,呂光子纂爲乞伏乾歸所敗。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, Lü Guang's son Lü Zuan was defeated by Qifu Gangui.

光下書曰:「乾歸狼子野心,前後反覆。朕方東清秦、趙,勒銘會稽,豈令豎子鴟峙洮南!且其兄弟內相離間,可乘之機,勿過今也。其敕中外戒嚴,朕當親討。」光於是次於長最,使呂纂率楊軌、竇苟等步騎三萬攻金城。乾歸率眾二萬救之。光遣其將王寶、徐炅率騎五千邀之,乾歸懼而不進。光又遣其將梁恭、金石生以甲卒萬餘出陽武下峽,與秦州刺史沒奕于攻其東,光弟天水公延以枹罕之眾攻臨洮、武始、河關,皆克之。呂纂克金城,擒乾歸金城太守衛犍,犍瞋目謂光曰:「我寧守節斷頭,不為降虜也。」光義而免之。乾歸因大震,泣歎曰:「死中求生,正在今日也。」乃縱反間,稱乾歸眾潰,東奔成紀。呂延信之,引師輕進。延司馬耿稚諫曰:「乾歸雄勇過人,權略難測,破王廣,克楊定,皆羸師以誘之,雖蕞爾小國,亦不可輕也。困獸猶鬥,況乾歸而可望風自散乎!且告者視高而色動,必為奸計。而今宜部陣而前,步騎相接,徐待諸軍大集,可一舉滅之。」延不從,與乾歸相遇,戰敗,死之。耿稚及將軍姜顯收集散卒,屯於枹罕。光還于姑臧。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang sent out an edict stating, "Qifu Gangui is 'a wolfish child with an evil heart', and he has constantly rebelled and gone against me. When I ought to be restoring peace to the regions of Qin and Zhao and bringing order back to the region of Kuaiji, how can I leave this miscreant perched like an owl on the south side of the Tao River? Besides, his brothers are already warring against him and have been alienated from him. This is an opportunity to take advantage of, and we cannot let it pass by. I hereby order everyone to make military preparations, and I shall personally command the army against him."

Lü Guang marched to Changsui, while sending Lü Zuan to lead thirty thousand horse and foot under the command of Yang Gui, Dou Gou, and others to attack Jincheng. Qifu Gangui led twenty thousand soldiers to reinforce Jincheng. But Lü Guang sent his generals Wang Bao and Xu Jiong to lead five thousand cavalry to intercept them, and Qifu Gangui was too frightened to advance. Lü Guang also sent his generals Liang Gong and Jin Shisheng to lead more than ten thousand armored soldiers out from Yangwu down through the mountain gorges. They joined with the Inspector of Qinzhou, Mei Yiyu, to attack Qifu Gangui from the east. Lü Guang also sent the Duke of Tianshui, his younger brother Lü Yan, to lead the soldiers of Fuhan to attack Lintao, Wushi, and Heguan, and Lü Yan captured them all.

Lü Zuan took Jincheng, where he captured Qifu Gangui's Administrator of Jincheng, Wei Jian. Wei Jian glared at Lü Guang and said, "I will maintain my authority to the end, even if it costs me my head; I will not surrender to a villain like you." Lü Guang was impressed by his sense of righteousness, so he released him.

Qifu Gangui was greatly disturbed by all these events, and he wept as he lamented, "Today is the day I must seek life from the midst of death." So he set loose all his soldiers, who spread word that Qifu Gangui's army had scattered, and he fled east to Chengji. Lü Yan believed that Qifu Gangui's army really was no more, and he led his troops to quickly pursue Qifu Gangui.

His Marshal, Geng Zhi, remonstrated with him, saying, "Qifu Gangui is bolder and braver than other men, and his cunning for planning is hard to fathom. When he routed Wang Guang and defeated Yang Ding, both times he fooled them into attacking by making himself appear weak. Even though he only controls a very small state, you still cannot take him lightly. Even a mere beast will fight back when it is threatened, so how could Qifu Gangui go to pieces at the first sign of trouble? And now these people reporting to you seem very expectant and hopeful; they must be up to no good. I advise you to wait to advance until you can put your army in full order, and keep the proper composition of infantry and cavalry. Wait until all preparations are complete, and only then attack. Then you could vanquish him in a single act."

But Lü Yan did not listen to him. When he encountered Qifu Gangui, he was defeated and killed in the battle. Geng Zhi and the general Jiang Xian gathered up his scattered soldiers and retreated to camp at Fuhan. Lü Guang also led his troops back to Guzang.

乞伏軻殫與乞伏益州不平,奔于呂光。光又伐之,咸勸其東奔成紀,乾歸不從,謂諸將曰:「昔曹孟德敗袁本初於官渡,陸伯言摧劉玄德于白帝,皆以權略取之,豈在眾乎!光雖舉全州之軍,而無經遠之算,不足憚也。且其精卒盡在呂延,延雖勇而愚,易以奇策制之。延軍若敗,光亦遁還,乘勝追奔,可以得志。」眾咸曰:「非所及也。」隆安元年,光遣其子纂伐乾歸,使呂延為前鋒。乾歸泣謂眾曰:「今事勢窮踧,逃命無所,死中求生,正在今日。涼軍雖四面而至,然相去遼遠,山河既阻,力不周接,敗其一軍而眾軍自退。」乃縱反間,稱秦王乾歸眾潰,東奔成紀。延信之,引師輕進,果為乾歸所敗,遂斬之。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Lü Guang once again campaigned against Qifu Gangui, whose generals all urged him to flee east to Chengji. But Qifu Gangui refused, saying, "In former times, when Cao Mengde (Cao Cao) defeated Yuan Benchu (Yuan Shao) at Guandu, or when Lu Boyan (Lu Xun) overcame Liu Xuande (Liu Bei) at Baidi, they achieved victory through strategy and planning; what did numbers have to do with it? Although Lü Guang has formed an army of all the soldiers in his province, he has no long-term plans in mind, and we need not fear him. Besides, all of his best troops are under Lü Yan's command, and though Lü Yan may be bold, he is a fool, and it would be easy to deal with him through special tactics. Once Lü Yan is defeated, Lü Guang will run and hide too, and we can take advantage of our victory and pursue him. Then we can achieve our ambition."

His generals said, "We would not have thought of that."

In the first year of Long'an (397), Lü Guang sent his son Lü Zuan to campaign against Qifu Gangui, with Lü Yan leading the vanguard. Qifu Gangui wept as he said to his generals, "We find ourselves sorely pressed, and there is nowhere we can flee to to save our lives. Today is the day when we must snatch life from the jaws of death. Although the Liang soldiers are coming at us from all sides, they are cut off and distant from each other, and with the mountains and rivers between them, they cannot combine their strength as one. So to defeat one of their armies will cause all the rest to retreat on their own."

So he spread a rumor, claiming that Qifu Gangui's soldiers had all scattered and that he himself had fled to Chengji. Lü Yan believe the rumor, and he led his troops on a quick pursuit. But as expected, he was defeated by Qifu Gangui, who beheaded him.


禿髮烏孤自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、西平王,大赦,改元太初。治兵廣武,攻涼金城,克之。涼王光遣將軍竇苟伐之,戰于街亭,涼兵大敗。

6. Tufa Wugu declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Xiping. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Taichu.

Tufa Wugu arrayed his soldiers, then attacked the Liang garrison at Jincheng and captured the city. Lü Guang sent his general Dou Gou to campaign against him, and they fought at Jieting, where the Liang soldiers were greatly defeated.

二月,呂光將禿髮烏孤自稱大都督、大單于,國號南涼。擊光將竇苟于金昌,大破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second month, Lü Guang's general Tufa Wugu declared himself Grand Commander and Grand Chanyu, calling his state Southern Liang. He attacked Lü Guang's general Dou Gou at Jinchang and greatly routed him.

是歲,鮮卑禿髮烏孤私署大單于、西平王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (397), the Xianbei leader Tufa Wugu declared himself Grand Chanyu and King of Xiping.

太初元年正月,改元,自稱大將軍、大單于、西平王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

In the first year of Taichu (397), in the first month, Tufa Wugu changed the reign era title to the first year of Taichu, and he declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Xiping.

烏孤私署大都督、大將軍、大單于、西平王,年號太初。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Xiping, and he changed the reign era title to Taichu.

隆安元年,自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、西平王,赦其境內,年號太初。曜兵廣武,攻克金城。光遣將軍竇苟來伐,戰於街亭,大敗之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

In the first year of Long'an (397), Tufa Wugu declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Xiping. He declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Taichu.

Tufa Wugu displayed his soldiers at Guangwu, then attacked Jincheng and captured the city. Lü Guang sent his general Dou Gou to come and campaign against him, and they fought at Jieting, where Dou Gou's soldiers were greatly defeated.


燕主寶聞魏王珪攻信都;出屯深澤,遣趙王麟攻楊城,殺守兵三百。寶悉出珍寶及宮人募郡國羣盜以擊魏。

7. When Murong Bao heard that Tuoba Gui was attacking Xindu, he marched out of Zhongshan to camp at Shenze county. He sent his Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, to attack Yangcheng, where Murong Lin killed the three hundred Wei defenders there.

Murong Bao distributed all his treasures and palace servants out among bandit groups in the local commandaries and princely fiefs in order to recruit them to attack Wei.

〈深澤縣,前漢屬涿郡,後漢屬安平國,晉屬博陵郡。宋白曰:深澤縣以界內水澤深廣爲名。〉〈《郡國志》:中山蒲陰縣有楊城。〉

(During Former Han, Shenze county was part of Zhuo commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Anping princely fief. During Jin, it was part of Boling commandary. Song Bai remarked, "There is a deep and wide marsh within Shenze county, thus its name ('Deep Marsh')."

The Records of Commandaries and Fiefs states, "There is a city of Yangcheng in Puyin county in Zhongshan commandary.")


寶聞帝幸信都,乃趣博陵之深澤,屯呼沱水,遣弟賀麟寇楊城,殺常山守兵三百餘人。寶悉出珍寶及宮人招募郡縣,羣盜無賴者多應之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

When Murong Bao heard that Tuoba Gui was at Xindu, he gathered his forces at Shenze in Boling and camped at the Hutuo River. He sent his Prince of Zhao, his younger brother Murong Helin, to attack Yangcheng, where Murong Helin killed more than three hundred Northern Wei defenders there.

Murong Bao distributed all his treasures and palace servants in order to recruit and draft people from the commandaries and counties, and many dastardly bandits came to join him.

太祖及克信都,寶大懼。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

After Tuoba Gui captured Xindu, Murong Bao was very afraid.


二月,己巳朔,珪還屯楊城。沒根兄子醜提爲幷州監軍,聞其叔父降燕,懼誅,帥所部兵還國作亂。珪欲北還,遣其國相涉延求和於燕,且請以其弟爲質。寶聞魏有內難,不許,使宂從僕射蘭眞責珪負恩,悉發其衆步卒十二萬、騎三萬七千屯於曲陽之柏肆,營於滹沱水北以邀之。丁丑,魏軍至,營於水南。寶潛師夜濟,募勇敢萬餘人襲魏營,寶陳於營北以爲之援。募兵因風縱火,急擊魏軍,魏軍大亂,珪驚起,棄營跣走;燕將軍乞特眞帥百餘人至其帳下,得珪衣鞾。旣而募兵無故自驚,互相斫射,珪於營外望見之,乃擊鼓收衆,左右及中軍將士稍稍來集,多布火炬於營外,縱騎衝之。募兵大敗,還赴寶陳,寶引兵復渡水北。戊寅,魏整衆而至,與燕相持,燕軍奪氣。寶引還中山,魏兵隨而擊之,燕兵屢敗。寶懼,棄大軍,帥騎二萬奔還,時大風雪,凍死者相枕。寶恐爲魏軍所及,命士卒皆棄袍仗、兵器數十萬,寸刃不返,燕之朝臣將卒降魏及爲魏所係虜者甚衆。

8. In the second month, on the new moon of the day Jisi (March 15th), Tuoba Gui returned to camp at Yangcheng.

It was earlier mentioned that the Wei commander Meigen had defected to Yan. Meigen's nephew Chouti was still serving as Wei's Directing-General of Bingzhou. When he heard that his uncle had surrendered to Yan, he was afraid that he would be executed, so he led his forces back to his fief (or county) and started a rebellion. Tuoba Gui thus wished to return north to deal with this rebellion, so he sent his Chancellor of State, She Yan, to offer peace to Murong Bao if he would send a younger brother to Wei as a hostage. But when Murong Bao learned that there was a rebellion in Wei, he refused to agree to peace. He sent his 宂從僕射, Lan Zhen, to rebuke Tuoba Gui for being treasonous and ungrateful to Yan.

Murong Bao led an army of two hundred thousand infantry and thirty-seven thousand cavalry to camp at Baisi in Quyang, where he established positions north of the Hutuo River to intercept the Wei army. On the day Dingchou (March 23rd), the Wei army arrived and set up camp south of the river.

Murong Bao secretly led his troops across the river during the night and recruited more than ten thousand bold and daring soldiers to launch a surprise attack against the Wei camps, while Murong Bao kept his main army in readiness north of the camps to support them. The volunteers took advantage of a favorable wind to spread fires through the Wei camps, then launched a full assault against them, throwing the Wei army into a great panic. Shocked, Tuoba Gui got up and abandoned his camp, fleeing barefoot. The Yan general Qite Zhen led some hundred soldiers to Tuoba Gui's tent, where they claimed his clothes and boots.

However, the volunteers then inexplicably became unruly and began attacking and shooting at each other. When Tuoba Gui saw what was going on from outside the camp, he beat the drums and gathered his soldiers together, so that his attendants and his generals and officers gradually began to rally to his position, and many torches were distributed among these forces outside the camps. Then Tuoba Gui set loose his cavalry to charge into the camps. The Yan volunteers were greatly defeated, and they fled back towards Murong Bao's position. Then Murong Bao led his troops north of the river again.

By the day Wuyin (March 24th), the Wei army had once again been reorganized. They remained in stalemate with the Yan army, whose morale began to drop. Then Murong Bao led his army back towards Zhongshan. The Wei soldiers marched after them and attacked them, and the Yan army was defeated several times. Afraid, Murong Bao abandoned his main army and fled back towards Zhongshan with twenty thousand cavalry. There was a heavy wind and snowfall at that time, and the roads were filled with those who froze to death. Afraid that the Wei army would overtake them, Murong Bao ordered his soldiers to throw away all their clothing, equipment, and weapons; hundreds of thousands of such items were abandoned, and not even short knives were brought back. A great many of the Yan court ministers or generals either surrendered to Wei or were captured by the Wei army.

〈【張:「國」作「縣」。】〉〈《兵法》曰:知彼知己,百戰不殆。慕容寶徒欲乘拓跋珪之有內釁而困之,而不知己之才略不足辦也。〉〈此趙國之下曲陽縣也。有柏肆塢,隋開皇十六年置柏肆縣,後廢入常山稾城縣。《魏書‧帝紀》作「鉅鹿之柏肆塢」。按《地形志》:鉅鹿郡治曲陽。〉〈敵出其不意,故走;見敵之不整,乃還戰;善用兵者固觀變而動也。〉

(Some versions state that Chouti returned to his "county" rather than "fief".

The Art of War states, "Know your enemy and know yourself, and you will know victory in a hundred battles." Murong Bao thought that he could take advantage of the domestic troubles in Wei to deal with Tuoba Gui. But he did not realize that he himself lacked the talents or cunning to do so.

The Quyang mentioned in this passage was Lower Quyang County in the Zhao princely fief. There was a Baisi Rampart there. In Sui's sixteenth year of Kaihuang (596), they established Baisi county; it was later folded into Gaocheng county in Changshan commandary. According to the Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui) in the Book of Northern Wei, this battle took place at "Baisi Rampart in Julu". According to the Geographical Records of that text, "Julu commandary was governed from Quyang county."

When the enemy appeared unexpectedly, Tuoba Gui fled. Yet when he saw that the enemy was now in disarray, Tuoba Gui returned to battle. Those who are skilled at using soldiers are able to grasp when circumstances have changed and act accordingly.)


二月己巳,帝進幸楊城。丁丑,軍于鉅鹿之栢肆塢,臨呼沱水。其夜,寶悉眾犯營,燎及行宮,兵人駭散。帝驚起,不及衣冠,跣出擊鼓。俄而左右及中軍將士,稍稍來集。帝設奇陳,列烽營外,縱騎衝之,寶眾大敗,斬首萬餘級,擒其將軍高長等四千餘人。戊寅,寶走中山,獲其器仗輜重數十萬計。寶尚書閔亮、秘書監崔逞、太常孫沂、殿中侍御史孟輔等並降。降者相屬,賜拜職爵各有差。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second month, on the day Jisi (March 15th), Tuoba Gui advanced to camp at Yangcheng.

On the day Dingchou (March 23rd), the Northern Wei army marched to Baisi Rampart in Julu, along the banks of the Hutuo River. That night, Murong Bao led all his forces to storm Tuoba Gui's camp; they set fire to the field palace, and the soldiers panicked and scattered. Tuoba Gui arose in fright, and without even putting on his clothes or cap, he ran out barefoot to beat the drums. Soon his attendants and the soldiers of the central army rallied to him, and his forces slowly began to regather. Tuoba Gui arranged a special formation and set up beacon fires outside of the camp, then set loose his cavalry to charge back into the camp. Murong Bao's army was greatly defeated, and the Northern Wei soldiers took more than ten thousand heads and captured more than four thousand people, including Murong Bao's general Gao Chang and others.

On the day Wuyin (March 24th), Murong Bao retreated to Zhongshan, and Tuoba Gui captured hundreds of thousands of his military equipment and supplies. Murong Bao's Master of Writing, Min Liang, his Chief of the Imperial Library, Cui Cheng, his Minister of Ceremonies, Sun Yi, his Imperial Secretary of the Palace Halls, Meng Fu, and others all surrendered to Tuoba Gui. More people kept coming to surrender to him one after the other, and he granted them all suitable offices and titles.

二年正月,魏使修和,寶不許。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the second year of Yongkang (397), the first month, Northern Wei sent envoys offering to restore peace. But Murong Bao would not accept it.

太祖軍於栢肆,寶夜來犯營,太祖擊破之。寶走還中山。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Tuoba Gui's army camped at Baisi. Murong Bao came to attack his camp during the night, but Tuoba Gui attacked and routed him. Murong Bao fled back to Zhongshan.

寶聞魏有內難,乃盡眾出距,步卒十二萬,騎三萬七千,次於曲陽柏肆。魏軍進至新梁。寶憚魏師之銳,乃遣征北隆夜襲魏軍,敗績而還。魏軍方軌而至,對營相持,上下兇懼,三軍奪氣。農、麟勸寶還中山,乃引歸。魏軍追擊之,寶、農等棄大軍,率騎二萬奔還。時大風雪,凍死者相枕於道。寶恐為魏軍所及,命去袍杖戎器,寸刃無返。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

When Murong Bao heard that there was a rebellion in Northern Wei, he led all his forces out to oppose them, two hundred thousand infantry and thirty-seven thousand cavalry. They marched to Baisi in Quyang. The Northern Wei army advanced to Xinliang.

Murong Bao feared the zeal of the Northern Wei army, so he sent his General Who Conquers The North, Murong Long, to launch a surprise attack against them. But Murong Long was defeated and returned.

The Northern Wei army soon reorganized and returned to their position, and the opposing camps remained locked in stalemate; everyone was restless and afraid, and the morale of the Later Yan three armies sank. Murong Nong and Murong Lin urged Murong Bao to return to Zhongshan, so he led his troops away. Then the Northern Wei army pursued and attacked them. Murong Bao, Murong Nong, and the other generals abandoned the main army and fled back with twenty thousand cavalry. There was a heavy wind and snowfall at that time, and the roads were filled with those who froze to death. Afraid that the Northern Wei army would overtake them, Murong Bao ordered his soldiers to throw away all their clothing, equipment, and weapons; not even short knives were brought back.


先是,張袞嘗爲魏王珪言燕祕書監崔逞之材,珪得之,甚喜,以逞爲尚書,使錄三十六曹,任以政事。

9. Sometime earlier, Tuoba Gui's advisor Zhang Gun had informed Tuoba Gui of the great talents possessed by Yan's Chief of the Palace Library, Cui Cheng. In the aftermath of this battle, Cui Cheng surrendered to him. Tuoba Gui was overjoyed to have obtained him, and he appointed Cui Cheng as a Master of Writing and sent him to supervise the Thirty-Six Bureaus and handle affairs of state.

〈據《張袞傳》,袞未嘗與逞相識也,聞其才而稱之。〉〈漢光武分尚書爲六曹,置郎三十四人,並左、右丞爲三十六人。至魏,尚書郎有殿中、吏部、駕部、金部、虞曹、比部、南主客、祠部、度支、庫部、農部、水部、儀曹、三公、倉部、民曹、二千石、中兵、外兵、都兵、別兵、考功、定課,凡二十三郎。明帝青龍二年,置都官、騎兵,合二十五郎。晉武帝罷農部、定課,置直事、殿中、祠部、儀曹、吏部、三公、比部、金部、倉部、度支、都官、二千石、左民、右民、虞曹、屯田、起部、水部、左‧右主客、駕部、車部、庫部、左‧右中兵、左‧右外兵、別兵、都兵、騎兵、左‧右士、北主客、南主客,凡三十四曹。後又置運曹,凡三十五曹;置郎二十三人,更相統攝。今魏又增爲三十六曹。〉

(According to the Biography of Zhang Gun in the Book of Northern Wei, Zhang Gun had never actually worked alongside Cui Cheng. But he had heard of his talents, so he commended him to Tuoba Gui.

When Emperor Guangwu of Han first split the Masters of Writing into the Six Bureaus, he also established thirty-four Gentlemen as part of them. Combined with the Assistants of the Left and Right, this made thirty-six people. By the time of Cao-Wei, there were Gentlemen-Attendants for many bureaus: the Palace Halls, the Imperial Secretariat, the Carriage Ministry, the Gold Ministry, the Parks Ministry, the 比部, the Directors of Hosts and Guests of the South, the Sacrifices Ministry, the Logistics Department, the Arsenal, the Agricultural Department, the Waterways Department, the Rites Overseers, the Three Excellencies, the Granaries Ministry, the Managers of the People, the Two Thousand 石 salary officials, the Central Regiment, the Outer Regiment, the Capital Regiment, the Separate Regiment, the Examination and Evaluation Department, and the Instruction and Oversight Department; this made twenty-three of these Gentlemen. In Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei's (Cao Rui's) second year of Qinglong (234), he created Gentlemen for the Capital Offices and the Cavalry Regiment, making twenty-five altogether. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) abolished the Gentlemen positions for the Agricultural Department and the Instruction and Oversight Department, while creating them for the 直事, the Palace Halls, the Sacrifices Ministry, the Rites Overseers, the Imperial Secretariat, the Three Excellencies, the 比部, the Gold Ministry, the Granaries Ministry, the Logistical Department, the Capital Offices, the Two Thousand 石 salary officials, the Managers of the People of the Left and of the Right, the Parks Ministry, the Military Farming (Tuntian) Department, the 起部, the Waterways Department, the Directors of Hosts and Guests of the Left and of the Right, the Carriage Ministry, the Vehicles Ministry, the Central Regiment of the Left and of the Right, the Outer Regiment of the Left and of the Right, the Separate Regiment, the Capital Regiment, the Cavalry Regiment, the Officers of the Left and of the Right, and the Directors of Hosts and Guests of the North and of the South; this made thirty-four altogether. Later the Transportation Department was added, making thirty-five. So the originally-appointed twenty-three Gentlemen continued to grow in number. And Northern Wei must have added still another one, to make the Thirty-Six Bureaus.)


魏軍士有自柏肆亡歸者,言大軍敗散,不知王處。道過晉陽,晉陽守將封眞因起兵攻幷州刺史曲陽侯素延,素延擊斬之。

10. There were soldiers from the Wei army who fled during the battle of Baisi and deserted. They claimed that the whole army had been defeated and scattered, and no one knew what had happened to Tuoba Gui. When these deserters passed through Jinyang, the Wei general defending that place, Feng Zhen, decided to raise his troops in rebellion. He attacked Wei's Inspector of Bingzhou and Marquis of Quyang, Tuoba Suyan. But Tuoba Suyan attacked and beheaded him.

平原徐超聚眾反於畔城,詔將軍奚辱捕斬之。并州守將封真率其種族與徒何為逆,將攻刺史元延,延討平之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

A native of Pingyuan, Xu Chao, gathered together an army and rebelled at Pancheng. Tuoba Gui ordered his general Xi Rubu to behead him.

A defending general in Bingzhou, Feng Zhen, led his clan to Tuhe and rebelled there, planning to attack the Inspector, Tuoba Yan. But Tuoba Yan campaigned against him and pacified his rebellion.


南安公順守雲中,聞之,欲自攝國事。幢將代人莫題曰:「此大事,不可輕爾,宜審待後問,不然,爲禍不細。」順乃止。順,什翼鞬之孫也。賀蘭部帥附力眷、紇鄰部帥匿物尼、紇奚部帥叱奴根皆舉兵反,順討之,不克。珪遣安遠將軍庾岳帥萬騎還討三部,皆平之,國人乃安。

11. Wei's Duke of Nan'an, Tuoba Shun, was guarding Yunzhong. When he heard the deserters' rumors, he wanted to seize control of the state for himself. But his close subordinate general, Mo Ti of Dai commandary, said to him, "To do such a thing would be an enormous step, so you cannot act rashly. First take time to investigate and see what the truth is. Otherwise, you might face untold disaster." So Tuoba Shun gave up on the idea. This Tuoba Shun was the grandson of Tuoba Shiyijian.

The Helan leader He Fulijuan, the Helin leader Helin Niwuni, and the Hexi leader Hexi Chinugen all raised their troops in rebellion against the Tuoba. Tuoba Shun campaigned against them, but was unsuccessful. Then Tuoba Gui sent his General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yu Yue, to led ten thousand cavalry back to Wei to campaign against the three rebelling clans, and all of them were pacified. So Wei's territory returned to peace.

〈【章:「鞬」,十二行本作「犍」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(Some versions write the third character of Tuoba Shiyijian's name as 犍 Jian rather than 鞬 Jian.)


是時,栢肆之役,遠近流言,賀蘭部帥附力眷、紇突隣部帥匿物尼、紇奚部帥叱奴根聚黨反於陰館,南安公元順率軍討之,不克,死者數千。詔安遠將軍庾岳總萬騎,還討叱奴根等,滅之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

At this time, rumors spread near and far about what had actually happened at the battle of Baisi. The Helan leader He Fulijuan, the Hetulin leader Hetulin Niwuni, and the Hexi leader Hexi Chinugen all gathered their partisans in rebellion at Yinguan. The Duke of Nan'an, Tuoba Shun, led an army to campaign against them, but he was unsuccessful, and thousands died. Tuoba Gui ordered his General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yu Yue, to lead ten thousand cavalry back to campaign against Hexi Chinugen and the other rebels, and Yu Yue vanquished them.


珪欲撫慰新附,深悔參合之誅,素延坐討反者殺戮過多,免官;以奚牧爲幷州刺史。牧與東秦主興書稱「頓首」,與之均禮。興怒,以告珪,珪爲之殺牧。

12. Tuoba Gui wanted to comfort and console all of the people living in the territory which had now surrendered to Wei, and he deeply regretted having executed the Yan army captives after the battle of Canhe Slope. So he blamed Tuoba Suyan for having killed and executed too many people during his campaign against rebels, and he stripped him of office.

Xi Mu was appointed as Wei's new Inspector of Bingzhou. At one point, Xi Mu wrote a letter to Yao Xing in which he merely referred to himself as "I, who kowtows to you" and addressed Yao Xing as though they were of equal status. Yao Xing was angered by this treatment, and he reported the matter to Tuoba Gui, who then killed Xi Mu.

〈事見上卷孝武太元二十年,珪以燕人懲參合之禍,苦戰不下,故深悔之。〉〈時乞伏氏建國隴西,號秦,故史書姚秦爲東秦以別之。〉

(The massacre of the Yan captives at Canhe Slope is mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's twentieth year of Taiyuan (395.23). However, Tuoba Gui now felt that the people of Later Yan had learned that because these captives had been massacred, now they must fight to the bitter end and not surrender to Northern Wei. So he deeply regretted having killed the captives.

This passage more specifically refers to Yao Xing as the ruler of "Eastern Qin". Since the Qifu clan had established their own Qin state in Longxi, the Zizhi Tongjian refers to their state as Western Qin. So the Yao clan's Qin state is here called Eastern Qin to distinguish it.)


己卯夜,燕尚書郎慕輿皓謀弒燕主寶,立趙王麟;不克,斬關出奔魏,麟由是不自安。

13. On the night of the day Jimao (March 25th), one of Yan's Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing, Muyu Hao, plotted to murder Murong Bao and replace him with Murong Lin. But his plot failed, so Muyu Hao cut his way out through the gates of Zhongshan and fled to Wei. Murong Lin was thus left uneasy.

〈爲麟奔西山張本。〉

(This was why Murong Lin later fled into the western hills.)


二月,魏攻中山,其夜,尚書慕容皓謀殺寶立趙王麟。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the second month, Northern Wei attacked Zhongshan. That night, the Master of Writing, Murong Hao, plotted to kill Murong Bao and set up the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin, in his place.

魏軍進攻中山,屯于芳林園。其夜尚書慕容皓謀殺寶,立慕容麟。皓妻兄蘇泥告之,寶使慕容隆收皓,皓與同謀數十人斬關奔魏。麟懼不自安。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

The Northern Wei army advanced to attack Zhongshan, and they camped at Fanglin Park. That night, one of the Masters of Writing, Murong Hao, plotted to kill Murong Bao and replace him with Murong Ling. But Murong Hao's brother-in-law Su Ni informed Murong Bao of the plot. Murong Bao sent Murong Long to arrest Murong Hao, but Murong Hao and several dozen of his fellow plotters cut their way out through the city gates and fled to Northern Wei. Murong Lin was afraid and did not feel secure.


三月,燕以儀同三司武鄕張崇爲司空。

14. In the third month, Yan appointed its minister who held equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies, Zhang Chong of Wuxiang, as their Minister of Works.

〈石勒分上黨置武鄕郡及武鄕縣,唐遼州榆社縣卽其地。〉

(Shi Le had split off part of Shangdang commandary to form Wuxiang commandary and Wuxiang county. During Tang, it was the area of Yushe county in Liaozhou.)


初,燕清河王會聞魏軍東下,表求赴難,燕主寶許之。會初無去意,使征南將軍庫傉官偉、建威將軍餘崇將兵五千爲前鋒。崇,嵩之子也。偉等頓盧龍百日,無食,噉馬牛且盡;會不發。寶怒,累詔切責;會不得已,以治行簡練爲名,復留月餘。時道路不通,偉欲使輕軍前行通道,偵魏強弱,且張聲勢;諸將皆畏避不欲行。餘崇奮曰:「今巨寇滔天,京都危逼,匹夫猶思致命以救君父,諸君荷國寵任,而更惜生乎!若社稷傾覆,臣節不立,死有餘辱;諸君安居於此,崇請當之。」偉喜,簡給步騎五百人。崇進至漁陽,遇魏千餘騎。崇謂其衆曰:「彼衆我寡,不擊則不得免。」乃鼓譟直進,崇手殺十餘人。魏騎潰去,崇亦引還,斬首獲生,具言敵中闊狹,衆心稍振。會乃上道徐進,是月,始達薊城。

15. Earlier, when Yan's Prince of Qinghe, Murong Hui, heard that the Wei army had marched east, he sent up a petition asking to lead his forces to come to the aid of the capital region, and Murong Bao had approved his request. But Murong Hui never had any real intention of coming. He only sent the General Who Conquers The South, Kunuguan Wei, and the General Who Establishes Might, Yu Chong, to lead five thousand soldiers as his vanguard. This Yu Chong was the son of Yu Song. Kunuguan Wei and the others paused at Lusong for a hundred days, and when they ran out of food, they ate all of their horses and oxen. But Murong Hui still would not move. Murong Bao was furious, and he sent out several edict sharply reproaching Murong Hui for his behavior. But Murong Hui did not want to act, so he put Murong Bao off with excuses, and for more than a month he remained in place.

At this time, the roads were blocked, so Kunuguan Wei wanted to send some light forces forward to clear the roads and see how strong the Wei army was, as well as make their presence known. But all the other generals were afraid, and they held back rather than go forward. Yu Chong reproached them by saying, "We are faced with a vast invasion that blots out the heavens, and the capital region is in grave danger. Even a common person would still think of their homeland and heed their orders so that they could protect their lord and their father. Why then do you gentlemen, who have received so much favor and status from the state, think only of saving your own lives? It would be a greater disgrace to allow the state to fall and fail to uphold your duties as ministers than to merely lose your lives. If you gentlemen intend to sit here and do nothing, then allow me to take your place."

Kunuguan Wei was pleased, so he granted Yu Chong five hundred horse and foot. Yu Chong advanced to Yuyang, where he encountered more than a thousand Wei cavalry. He said to his soldiers, "Though the enemy outnumbers us, if we fail to fight, we cannot escape." So they beat the drums and charged into battle, and Yu Chong personally killed more than ten people. Then the Wei cavalry scattered and fled, so Yu Chong led his troops back again. They handed over the heads they had taken and the prisoners they had captured, and they reported on the enemy's strengths and weaknesses. This somewhat reassured the hearts of the rest of the army.

So Murong Hui set out and advanced, and during this month, he finally arrived at Ji.

〈初無去龍城之意也。〉〈餘嵩見上卷孝武帝太元二十一年。〉〈遼東新昌縣有盧龍山,唐爲平州盧龍縣,慕容令所謂守肥如之險,卽其地也。此遼東新昌,後人置於漢遼西郡界,非漢舊郡縣地也。〉〈京都,謂中山。〉

(Murong Hui had not wanted to leave Longcheng.

Yu Song is mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396.3).

There was a Mount Lulong in Xinchang county in Liaodong commandary. During Tang, it was in Lulong county in Pingzhou. When Murong Chui's son Murong Ling had advised him to go to the northeast and "make for yourself a secure place there", this must have been the area he had in mind. But it should be noted that this Xinchang county was in the area that had been Liaoxi commandary during Han, and it was not the county that had originally been known as Xinchang during Han.

The "capital region" was Zhongshan, the Later Yan capital.)


寶子清河王會,先守龍城,聞寶被圍,率眾赴難。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Later Yan's Prince of Qinghe, Murong Bao's son Murong Hui, had earlier been assigned to defend Longcheng. When he heard that Murong Bao was surrounded, he led his troops to come to Murong Bao's assistance.


魏圍中山旣久,城中將士皆思出戰。征北大將軍隆言於寶曰:「涉珪雖屢獲小利,然頓兵經年,凶勢沮屈,士馬死傷太半,人心思歸,諸部離解,正是可破之時也。加之舉城思奮,若因我之銳,乘彼之衰,往無不克。如其持重不決,將卒氣喪,日益困逼,事久變生,後雖欲用之,不可得也!」寶然之。而衞大將軍麟每沮其議,隆成列而罷者,前後數四。

16. By now, the Wei army had kept Zhongshan under siege for some time, and the Yan generals and soldiers inside the city all wanted to march out and offer battle.

The Grand General Who Conquers The North, Murong Long, said to Murong Bao, "Although Shegui (Tuoba Gui) has gained a few litle advantages, the truth is that he has camped his army here since the previous year. It's only through his violence and power that he compels his soldiers to remain here. But more than half of his soldiers and horses have been killed or wounded, and the rest long to return home. Even the clans in his own territory have been alienated from him. Now is the perfect time to smash him. If you can bolster the spirits of those within the city, appoint someone like me to lead them, and have them take advantage of the enemy's gloom, then our attack cannot help but succeed. But if you act the same as Shegui does, leaving your troops idle without taking any decisive action, then the morale of our own soldiers will drop. And as the days pass and the threat to us grows more serious, who knows what incidents might happen? By then, even if you wanted to use the soldiers, you wouldn't be able to!"

Murong Bao agreed with him. But then the Grand Guard General, Murong Lin, continued to argue against such advice, and so on four different occasions, Murong Bao canceled an attack just as Murong Long had finished preparing the army to march.

〈涉歲爲經年。去年十一月,魏攻中山。〉〈謂賀蘭、紇鄰、紇奚三部。〉〈麟有異志,故沮隆議。〉

(The Northern Wei army had begun their assault on Zhongshan in the eleventh month of the previous year, so by now, they had been besieging the city in two different years.

Murong Long refers to the rebellion of the Helan, Helin, and Hexi clans.

Murong Lin had ulterior motives, so he argued against Murong Long's advice.)


寶使人請於魏王珪,欲還其弟觚,割常山以西皆與魏以求和;珪許之;旣而寶悔之。己酉,珪如盧奴,辛亥,復圍中山。燕將士數千人俱自請於寶曰:「今坐守窮城,終於困弊,臣等願得一出樂戰,而陛下每抑之,此爲坐自摧敗也。且受圍歷時,無他奇變,徒望積久寇賊自退。今內外之勢,強弱懸絕,彼必不自退明矣,宜從衆一決。」寶許之。隆退而勒兵,召諸參佐謂之曰:「皇威不振,寇賊內侮,臣子同恥,義不顧生。今幸而破賊,吉還固善;若其不幸,亦使吾志節獲展。卿等有北見吾母者,爲吾道此情也!」乃被甲上馬,詣門俟命。麟復固止寶,衆大忿恨,隆涕泣而還。

17. Murong Bao sent envoys to offer peace to Tuoba Gui, planning to return his younger brother Tuoba Gu and give him all the territory west of Changshan commandary. Tuoba Gui agreed to the terms. But then Murong Bao regretted having offered them. On the day Jiyou (April 24th), Tuoba Gui moved to Lunu. On the day Xinhai (April 26th), he placed Zhongshan back under siege.

Several thousand of the Yan generals and soldiers all came to ask Murong Bao, "If we continue to sit here and defend this beleaguered city, we will only be destroyed in the end. All of us want to at least go out and fight one last glorious battle. Yet Your Majesty has always forbade us; that is merely to sit still and await defeat. Furthermore, you have provided no strategy beyond merely accepting the siege, vainly hoping that the enemies will wear themselves out and retreat on their own. But considering the strength on our side and on theirs, it has become clear who is strong and who is weak, so the enemy will certainly not retreat of their own accord. You should muster the army and fight a decisive battle."

Murong Bao gave his permission. So Murong Long withdrew and readied the soldiers, and he summoned his advisors and assistants and told them, "It is our common shame as sons and ministers to have allowed the imperial dignity to falter and the invaders and bandits to harm our land, and righteousness demands that we do not think of saving our own lives. If we are fortunate enough to rout the bandits, then we shall return and enjoy our good fortune. But if that is not to be our fate, then at least we shall have fulfilled our hopes and upheld our duties. If any of you should survive and return north to see my mother and my family again, let them know what I expressed this day!"

And Murong Long put on his armor and got on his horse, then went to the gates of the city to await the order to attack. But Murong Lin continued to argue with Murong Bao and eventually convinced him to cancel the attack again. The Yan soldiers were left furious and resentful, and Murong Long wept as he was forced to return.

〈觚留燕事見一百七卷孝武太元十六年。〉〈常山以西,幷州之地也。〉〈《魏書‧地形志》:中山郡治盧奴。酈道元曰:盧奴城內西北隅,有水,淵而不流,南北一百步,東西百餘步;水色正黑曰盧,不流曰奴,故城以此得名。〉〈杜佑曰:後燕都中山,今博陵郡唐昌縣。唐昌本漢苦陘縣,章帝改漢昌,曹魏改魏昌,隋改隋昌,唐武德中改唐昌。〉〈士皆赴死願戰,爲樂戰也。〉〈隆初鎭龍城,與母俱北;及垂召隆伐魏,其母留龍城。〉

(Later Yan had earlier detained Tuoba Gu during a diplomatic visit, as mentioned in Book 107, in Emperor Xiaowu's sixteenth year of Taiyuan (391.11).

"The territory west of Changshan" would have been Bingzhou.

The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Zhongshan commandary is administered from Lunu." Li Daoyuan remarked, "There is a river in the northwest corner of the city of Lunu; it is deep yet does not flow. It is a hundred paces from north to south and more than fifty paces from east to west. The water is absolutely black, so it is called Lu ('black'), and it does not flow, so it is called Nu ('slave'). The city of Lunu takes its name from that."

Du You remarked, "Later Yan's capital at Zhongshan was in Tangchang county in modern Boling commandary. This Tangchang county was originally Kuxing county during Han. Emperor Zhang of Han renamed it to Hanchang. Cao-Wei renamed it to Weichang, Sui renamed it to Suichang, and during Tang's Wude reign era (618-626) it was renamed to Tangchang.”

The soldiers all wanted to meet their deaths in battle, so they called it a glorious battle.

Murong Long had originally been stationed at Longcheng, and he had brought his mother north with him when he went there. But after Murong Chui recalled Murong Long for the campaign against Northern Wei, Murong Long had left his mother at Longcheng.)


三月己酉,車駕次于盧奴。寶遣使求和,請送元觚,割常山以西奉國,乞守中山以東,帝許之。已而寶背約。辛亥,車駕次中山,命諸將圍之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the third month, on the day Jiyou (April 24th), Tuoba Gui moved to Lunu. Murong Bao sent envoys asking for peace, offering to return Tuoba Gu and carve out all the territory west of Changshan commandary to give to Northern Wei, only begging to keep everything from Zhongshan east. Tuoba Gui agreed to the peace terms. But then Murong Bao broke his pledge. On the day Xinhai (April 26th), Tuoba Gui went to Zhongshan and ordered his generals to besiege it.


是夜,麟以兵劫左衞將軍北地王精,使帥禁兵弒寶。精以義拒之,麟怒,殺精,出奔西山,依丁零餘衆。於是城中人情震駭。

18. That night, Murong Lin used soldiers to try to force the Guard General of the Left and Prince of Beidi, Murong Jing, to lead his guards to murder Murong Bao. But Murong Jing righteously opposed Murong Lin, who became angry and killed him. Then Murong Lin fled the city and escaped into the western hills, where he took refuge among the remaining forces of the Dingling. The people inside Zhongshan were shocked and alarmed by what had happened.

〈中山西北二百里有狼山,自狼山而西,南連常山,山谷深險,漢末黑山張燕、五代孫方簡兄弟皆依阻其地。丁零餘衆,翟眞之黨也,爲燕所敗,退聚西山。西山,曲陽之西山也。〉

(There is a Mount Lang two hundred li northwest of Zhongshan. From Mount Lang west, and south to Changshan, the mountains and valleys are deep and narrow. In the final years of the Han dynasty, the Black Mountain bandit leader Zhang Yan used this region as his base, and during the Five Dynasties after the end of the Tang dynasty, Sun Fangjian and his brother did the same.

The remaining Dingling forces were the remaining partisans of Zhai Zhen and the other Dingling leaders. After Zhai Zhao's defeat, they had fled into the western hills and gathered there. These western hills were the western hills of Quyang.)


是夜,寶弟賀麟將妻子出走西山。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

That night, Murong Bao's younger brother Murong Helin led his wife and children to flee the city and into the western hills.

麟懼不自安,以兵劫左衛將軍、北地王精,謀率禁旅弑寶。精以義距之,麟怒,殺精,出奔丁零。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Lin used soldiers to threaten the Guard General of the Left and Prince of Beidi, Murong Jing, planning to use the guards to murder Murong Bao. But Murong Jing righteously opposed Murong Lin, who became angry and killed him. Then Murong Lin left the city and fled to the Dingling.


寶不知麟所之,以清河王會軍在近,恐麟奪會軍,先據龍城,乃召隆及驃騎大將軍農,謀去中山,走保龍城。隆曰:「先帝櫛風沐雨以成中興之業,崩未期年而天下大壞,豈得不謂之孤負邪!今外寇方盛而內難復起,骨肉乖離,百姓疑懼,誠不可以拒敵,北遷舊都,亦事之宜。然龍川地狹民貧,若以中國之意取足其中,復朝夕望有大功,此必不可。若節用愛民,務農訓兵,數年之中,公私充實,而趙、魏之間,厭苦寇暴,民思燕德,庶幾返旆,克復故業。如其未能,則憑險自固,猶足以優游養銳耳。」寶曰:「卿言盡理,朕一從卿意耳。」

19. Murong Bao did not know where Murong Lin had gone. And since Murong Hui's army was approaching, he was worried that Murong Lin would seize control of it, then occupy Longcheng. So Murong Bao summoned Murong Long and the Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Nong, and he planned to leave Zhongshan and flee back to Longcheng to defend it.

Murong Long said, "His Late Majesty (Murong Chui) braved the winds and withstood the storms of adversity in order to fulfill the restoration of our state. Yet it has not even been one year since he passed away and the realm has already been so ruined. How can we not say that we have failed to live up to him? The state is filled with countless invaders, and many difficulties are plaguing our territory; flesh and blood are turning against one another, and the common people are suspicious and afraid. Honestly, we can no longer resist the invaders here, so moving north to the old capital is what ought to be done.

"However, Longchuan is a small region with poor people. If you mean to reconquer the Central Plains by using that region as a base, such a great achievement cannot be completed in a single day and night. You shall have to tend to your duties and cherish the common people, supervise farming and instruct your soldiers, and wait several years until both public and private resources are fully abundant. In the meantime, the people living in the Zhao and Wei regions will grow bitter and resentful against these violent invaders, and they will long for the old virtues of Yan again. At that time, we may bring our banners south again, and we shall be able to restore the grand design once more. Even if we are unable to achieve such a thing, if we can maintain our defenses and protect ourselves, we shall at least still be able to enjoy security and nurture our fighting spirit."

Murong Bao replied, "Everything is just as you say; I need only follow your advice."

〈之,往也。〉〈龍川卽謂和龍之地。〉〈隆策固善,其如運命何!兵家因敗爲成,隆之智不足以及此也。使寶始終一從隆之說,猶可以免蘭汗之禍。〉

(之 here means "to where", as in, where Murong Lin had gone to.

Longchuan was the region around Helong or Longcheng.

Murong Long's advice was well and good, but how could it have opposed Later Yan's fate? Their soldiers and families had now suffered complete defeat, and his planning was not enough to overcome that. However, if Murong Bao had strictly followed his advice, he would have at least been able to avoid the disaster of Lan Han's coup.)


寶見賀麟走,恐先據和龍。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

When Murong Bao noticed that Murong Helin had fled, he was afraid that Murong Helin would first go and occupy Helong.

初,寶聞魏之來伐也,使慕容會率幽、并之眾赴中山,麟既叛,寶恐其逆奪會軍,將遣兵迎之。麟侍郎段平子自丁零奔還,說麟招集丁零,軍眾甚盛,謀襲會軍,東據龍城。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Earlier, when Murong Bao heard that Northern Wei was coming to invade him, he had ordered Murong Hui to lead the soldiers from Youzhou and Bingzhou to come to Zhongshan. But after Murong Lin rebellion, Murong Bao was worried that Murong Lin would seize control of Murong Hui's army. So Murong Bao was going to send troops to welcome Murong Hui's arrival. Then Murong Lin's Gentleman-Attendant, Duang Pingzi, fled back to Zhongshan from the Dingling. He claimed that Murong Lin had been gathering together the Dingling and had already assembled a great army, and that he was plotting to launch a surprise attack against Murong Hui, then march east and occupy Longcheng.


遼東高撫,善卜筮,素爲隆所信厚,私謂隆曰:「殿下北行,終不能達,太妃亦不可得見。若使主上獨往,殿下潛留於此,必有大功。」隆曰:「國有大難,主上蒙塵,且老母在北,吾得北首而死,猶無所恨。卿是何言也!」乃遍召僚佐,問其去留,唯司馬魯恭、參軍成岌願從,餘皆欲留,隆並聽之。

20. There was a certain Gao Fu of Liaodong commandary, a fellow skilled in divination, who had long enjoyed Murong Long's trust and generosity. He privately told Murong Long, "Your Highness, if you go north, you shall suffer an unfortunate fate, and the Grand Concubine shall never see you again. But if you have our sovereign leave by himself, while you secretly remain here, you shall certainly perform a great achievement."

But Murong Long replied, "Our state is faced with great difficulties, and our sovereign is about to suffer the adversity of exile. Besides, my old mother is in the north. Even if I die once I reach the north, I shall have no regrets. How could I do as you suggest?"

Then Murong Long summoned his attendants and followers and asked them who would leave with him and who would stay. Only his Marshal, Lu Gong, and his Army Advisor, Cheng Ji, were willing to go with him; all the rest wanted to stay. So Murong Long heeded all their wishes.

農部將谷會歸說農曰:「城中之人,皆涉珪參合所殺者父兄子弟,泣血踊躍,欲與魏戰,而爲衞軍所抑。今聞主上當北遷,皆曰:『得慕容氏一人奉而立之,以與魏戰,死無所恨。』大王幸而留此,以副衆望,擊退魏軍,撫寧畿甸,奉迎大駕,亦不失爲忠臣也。」農欲殺歸而惜其材力,謂之曰:「必如此以望生,不如就死!」

21. Murong Nong's subordinate general, Gu Hui, came to him and advised him, "The people inside of Zhongshan are all the fathers, brothers, and sons of those whom Shegui (Tuoba Gui) killed at Canhe Slope, and they are so determined to fight the Wei army that they weep tears of blood and tremble with anticipation. It was only that the Guard General (Murong Lin) prevented them from fighting before. Now they are hearing reports that our sovereign is going to go north, and they are telling each other, 'We should acclaim someone else from the Murong family as our leader and follow him into battle against Wei. Then even if we died, we would have no regrets.' Great Prince, you would do well to remain here. Support the wishes of the people; attack the Wei army and drive them out of our land. Then comfort and calm the capital region and welcome the return of the imperial carriage. By doing so, you would not surrender your chance to be a loyal servant of the dynasty."

Murong Nong wanted to kill Gu Hui for this suggestion, but he pitied the prospect of killing someone so talented and strong. So he merely replied, "If I had to do such a thing to save my life, it would be better to die!"

〈慕容麟爲衞大將軍,故稱之爲衞軍。〉〈農、隆皆號爲有智略,而所見類如此。天之廢燕,智者失其智矣。〉

(Murong Lin had been Later Yan's Grand Guard General, which is why Gu Hui calls him the Guard General here.

Murong Nong and Murong Long were both known as intelligent, clever men. Yet this is how they reacted at this time. Heaven had willed Later Yan's destruction; even the clever had lost their cleverness.)


壬子,夜,寶與太子策、遼西王農、高陽王隆、長樂王盛等萬餘騎出赴會軍,河間王熙、勃海王朗、博陵王鑒皆幼,不能出城,隆還入迎之,自爲鞁乘,俱得免。燕將王沈等降魏。樂浪王惠、中書侍郎韓範、員外郎段宏、太史令劉起等帥工伎三百奔鄴。

22. On the night of the day Renzi (April 27th), Murong Bao led more than ten thousand riders to flee Zhongshan and march towards Murong Hui's army. Accompanying him were the Crown Prince, Murong Ce, Murong Nong, Murong Long, the Prince of Changle, Murong Sheng, and others. The Prince of Hejian, Murong Xi, the Prince of Bohai, Murong Lang, and the Prince of Boling, Murong Jian, were still mere children and too young to leave the city on their own. So Murong Long went back into the city to get them, letting them ride on his saddle, so that they could all get away.

Several Yan generals, Wang Chen (or Li Chen) and others, surrendered to Wei. Wang Hui of Lelang commandary, the Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Han Fan, the Gentleman of the 員外, Duan Hong, the Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Liu Qi, and others led three hundred workers and dancers to flee to Ye.

〈《說文》曰:車駕具。〉〈【嚴:「王」改「李」。】〉

(Regarding the term 鞁乘, the Shuowen dictionary states, "It is a piece of gear for a carriage-horse.”

Some versions write Wang Shen's name as Li Shen.)


壬子夜,寶遂將其妻子及兄弟宗族數千騎北遁。寶將李沈、王次多、張超、賈歸等來降。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the night of the day Renzi (April 27th), Murong Bao fled to the north, along with his wife and children, his brothers and kinsmen, and several thousand riders.

Murong Bao's generals Li Chen, Wang Ciduo, Zhang Chao, Jia Gui, and others came and surrendered to Tuoba Gui.

寶與太子榮等萬騎就清河王會于薊。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao, the Crown Prince, Murong Rong, and others led ten thousand cavalry to join the Prince of Qinghe, Murong Hui, at Ji.

寶率萬餘騎奔薊。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao led more than ten thousand riders to flee to Ji.

寶與其太子策及農、隆等萬餘騎迎會於薊。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao led more than ten thousand riders to welcome Murong Hui at Ji. Accompanying him were the Crown Prince, Murong Ce, Murong Nong, Murong Long, and others.

皇始初,遷給事黃門侍郎。太祖南伐,師次中山。袞言於太祖曰:「寶憑三世之資,城池之固,雖皇威震赫,勢必擒殄,然窮兵極武,非王者所宜。昔酈生一說,田橫委質;魯連飛書,聊將授首。臣誠德非古人,略無奇策,仰憑靈威,庶必有感。」太祖從之。袞遺寶書。喻以成敗。寶見書大懼,遂奔和龍。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

At the beginning of the Huangshi reign era (396), Zhang Gun was reassigned as Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate.

When Tuoba Gui campaigned in the south, he led his army to Zhongshan. Zhang Gun said to Tuoba Gui, "Murong Bao has gathered three generations' worth of resources to use for his defenses, and Zhongshan's walls and moats are stout indeed. Although your imperial majesty causes our enemies to tremble in fear, and you would certainly capture the city and break through the walls in the end, that would still mean exhausting our soldiers in a full military effort. Such a thing is not what a ruler should do. But recall that in ancient times, a single word from Li Sheng caused Tian Heng to hand himself over, and a flying letter from Lu Lian caused the allied generals to bow their heads. I certainly cannot claim to match the virtues of those worthy fellows, and I have no special capacity for planning. But by relying on your majestic aura, I shall certainly be able to sway the enemy."

Tuoba Gui agreed with the proposal, so Zhang Gun sent a letter to Murong Bao, explaining to him how greatly he had already been defeated. Murong Bao was very afraid when he read the letter, so he fled to Helong.


中山城中無主,百姓惶惑;東門不閉。魏王珪欲夜入城,冠軍將軍王建志在虜掠,乃言恐士卒盜府庫物,請俟明旦,珪乃止。燕開封公詳從寶不成,城中立以爲主,閉門拒守;珪盡衆攻之,連日不拔。使人登巢車,臨城諭之曰:「慕容寶已棄汝走,汝曹百姓空自取死,欲誰爲乎?」皆曰:「羣小無知,恐復如參合之衆,故苟延旬月之命耳。」珪顧王建而唾其面,使中領將軍長孫肥、左將軍李栗將三千騎追寶至范陽,不及,破其新城戍而還。

23. With Murong Bao's departure, the remaining residents of Zhongshan no longer had a leader, and the common people were left apprehensive.

The eastern gate of the city was left open. Tuoba Gui wanted to enter the city during the night. But his Champion General, Wang Jian, wanted to sack and pillage the city properly. So he told Tuoba Gui that he was worried that the soldiers might steal things from the government ministries and warehouses during the night, and he asked for him to wait for daylight before entering the city. Tuoba Gui decided to wait.

Yan's Duke of Kaifeng, Murong Xiang, had been planning to follow Murong Bao and the others, but he had not completed his preparations to leave (or, he could not catch up with them). So the people inside Zhongshan acclaimed him as their new leader. They closed the gate and maintained a steady defense of the city. Tuoba Gui sent all his troops to assault the city, but even after several days, they could not capture it.

Then Tuoba Gui climbed up atop a nest cart, and he addressed the people standing on the ramparts of the city. He yelled to them, "Murong Bao has already abandoned you and fled. Now you are fighting to the death, but in vain. Who are you even fighting for?"

They all replied, "We no longer know. But we fear to suffer the same fate as the army at Canhe Slope. So we might as well try to survive, even if it's just for another month or another week."

When Tuoba Gui heard this, he turned towards Wang Jian and spat in his face.

Tuoba Gui sent his General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Zhangsun Fei, and his General of the Left, Li Li, to lead three thousand cavalry to pursue Murong Bao as far as Fanyang. But they could not catch up with Murong Bao, so they merely broke into Xincheng and then returned.

〈【章:十二行本「成」作「及」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈杜預曰:巢車,車上爲櫓。陸德明曰:兵車高如巢以望敵也。杜佑曰:以八輪車上樹高竿,竿上安轆轤,以繩挽板屋上竿首,以窺城中。板屋方四尺,高五尺,有十二孔,四面別布車,可進退,圜城而行,於營中遠視,如鳥之巢,亦謂之巢車。〉〈王建旣鼓成參合之誅,又沮止珪乘夜入中山,失計者再,故唾其面。〉〈《前漢志》:中山國有北新城縣。《郡國志》:涿郡有北新城縣,晉省。《水經註》:新城縣在武遂縣南,燕督亢之地也。〉

(Some versions state that Murong Xiang "could not catch up with" Murong Bao rather than that he "had not completed his preparations to leave".

Regarding the "nest cart", Du Yu remarked, "This is a cart which has a raised platform atop it." Lu Deming remarked, "This is a military cart, raised high like a bird's nest, used for observing the enemy." Du You remarked, "This is a cart with eight wheels which has a tall pole atop it which one can ascend by means of a pully; by using a rope, one is hoisted up to a plank room atop the pole, from which one can peer into a city. The plank room is four chi square and five chi tall, and there are twelve openings for looking through. It is shielded by carts on all four sides. So while riding in this plank room, one may move forwards, backwards, and all around the walls of a city, able to see a great distance while in the midst of one's camp. It is like a bird's nest, so the vehicle is also called a nest cart."

Wang Jian was the one who had pushed for Tuoba Gui to execute the captured Later Yan soldiers after the battle of Canhe Slope. And he had also just stopped Tuoba Gui from entering Zhongshan during the night through the open gate. For Wang Jian's two errors in judgment that had cost Tuoba Gui dearly, Tuoba Gui spat in his face.

The Records of Former Han states, "There is a Xincheng county in the Zhongshan princely fief." The Records of Commandaries and Fiefs states, "There was a Northern Xincheng county in Zhuo commandary. Jin abolished it." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Xincheng county was south of Wusui county, in the area of Dukang in the Yan region.")


遣將軍長孫肥追之,至范陽,不及而還。城內共立慕容普隣為主。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tuoba Gui sent his general Zhangsun Fei to pursue Murong Bao and the others. Zhangsun Fei followed them as far as Fanyang, but when he could not catch up with them, he turned back.

The people inside Zhongshan all acclaimed Murong Pulin as their leader.

以開封公慕容詳守中山。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao left the Duke of Kaifeng, Murong Xiang, to guard Zhongshan.

寶以開封公慕容詳守中山。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao left the Duke of Kaifeng, Murong Xiang, to guard Zhongshan.


甲寅,尊皇太后李氏爲太皇太后。戊午,立皇后王氏。

24. On the day Jiayin (April 29th), Emperor An honored the Empress Dowager, Li Lingrong, as Grand Empress Dowager. On the day Wuwu (May 3rd), he honored Lady Wang as his Empress.

戊午,立皇后王氏。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Wuwu (May 3rd), Emperor An honored Lady Wang as his Empress.


燕主寶出中山,與趙王麟遇于X城。麟不意寶至,驚駭,帥其衆奔蒲陰,復出屯望都,土人頗供給之。慕容詳遣兵掩擊麟,獲其妻子,麟脫走,入山中。

25. After Murong Bao left Zhongshan, he encountered Murong Lin at X-cheng (or Jingcheng). Murong Lin had not been expecting to see him, and alarmed at the encounter, he led his forces to flee to Puyin county, then shifted his camp again to Wangdu, where the local residents were inclined towards him and provided for him. Murong Xiang sent troops to deal with and attack Murong Lin, and they captured his wife and children. But Murong Lin still slipped away, and he fled into the hills.

〈考之字書,無「X」字,有「阱」字;疾郢翻。〉〈蒲陰縣,屬中山郡,前漢之曲逆縣也,後漢章帝醜其名,改曰蒲陰。〉

(I (Hu Sanxing) search the dictionaries in vain for any such character as X. But there is a very similar character, 阱, which is pronounced "jing (j-ing)".

Puyin county was part of Zhongshan commandary. It was called Quni county during Former Han. During Later Han, Emperor Zhang disliked its name, so he renamed it Puyin.)


甲寅,寶至薊,殿中親近散亡略盡,惟高陽王隆所領數百騎爲宿衞。清河王會帥騎卒二萬迎于薊南,寶怪會容止怏怏有恨色,密告隆及遼西王農。農、隆俱曰:「會年少,專任方面,習驕所致,豈有他也!臣等當以禮責之。」寶雖從之,然猶詔解會兵以屬隆,隆固辭;乃減會兵分給農、隆。又遣西河公庫傉官驥帥兵三千助守中山。

26. On the day Jiayin (April 29th), Murong Bao arrived at Ji. By now, all the palace attendants and other such personal followers had scattered and fled. Only a few hundred riders of the household guard still remained, under the command of Murong Long.

Murong Hui led twenty thousand cavalry to welcome Murong Bao's arrival south of Ji. Murong Bao felt uneasy when he saw how Murong Hui looked resentful and disgruntled, and he secretly mentioned it to Murong Long and Murong Nong.

They replied, "Murong Hui is still young, but he has held important commands already, so he is used to being arrogant and proud; what other reason could there be for his behavior? We will reproach him for his lack of respect."

Although Murong Bao agreed with their assessment, he still issued an edict ordering Murong Hui to surrender control of his forces to Murong Long. When Murong Long strenuously declined this offer, Murong Bao still decided to reassign some of Murong Hui's soldiers to Murong Nong and Murong Long.

Murong Bao also sent his Duke of Xihe, Kunuguan Ji, to lead three thousand soldiers to go reinforce the defenders at Zhongshan.

〈恨不得爲嗣也,事見上卷孝武帝太元二十一年。〉

(Murong Hui was resentful because he felt he had been denied his place as Murong Bao's heir, as mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396.21).)


會逢寶於路。寶分奪其軍,以授弟遼西王農等。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Hui met Murong Bao along the road. Murong Bao split up Murong Hui's army, granting it to the Prince of Liaoxi, Murong Bao's younger brother Murong Nong, and others.

會傾身誘納,繕甲厲兵,步騎二萬,列陣而進,迎寶薊南。寶分其兵給農,隆,遣西河公庫辱官驥率眾三千助守中山。會以策為太子,有恨色。寶以告農、隆,俱曰:「會一年少,專任方事,習驕所致,豈有他也。臣當以禮責之。」(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Hui had done his utmost to recruit soldiers, and he repaired his armor and drilled his troops. When he had twenty thousand horse and foot, he put his soldiers in order and then advanced, welcoming Murong Bao south of Ji. Murong Bao split up Murong Hui's soldiers to give them to Murong Nong and Murong Long, and he sent the Duke of Xihe, Kunuguan Ji, to lead three thousand soldiers back to help defend Zhongshan.

Murong Hui had a resentful expression, since Murong Ce had been chosen as Crown Prince instead of him. When Murong Bao mentioned the matter to Murong Nong and Murong Long, they replied, "Murong Hui is still young, but he has held important commands already, so he is used to being arrogant and proud; what other reason could there be for his behavior? We will reproach him for his lack of respect."


丙辰,寶盡徙薊中府庫北趣龍城。魏石河頭引兵追之,戊午,及寶於夏謙澤。寶不欲戰,清河王會曰:「臣撫敎士卒,惟敵是求。今大駕蒙塵,人思效命,而虜敢自送,衆心忿憤。《兵法》曰:『歸師勿遏。』又曰:『置之死地而後生。』今我皆得之,何患不克!若其捨去,賊必乘人,或生餘變。」寶乃從之。會整陳與魏兵戰,農、隆等將南來騎衝之,魏兵大敗,追奔百餘里,斬首數千級。隆又獨追數十里而還,謂故吏留臺治書陽璆曰:「中山城中積兵數萬,不得展吾意,今日之捷,令人遺恨。」因慷慨流涕。

27. On the day Bingchen (May 1st), Murong Bao began shifting everything in the government ministries and warehouses at Ji north to Longcheng.

The Wei commander Shi Hetou led troops to pursue Murong Bao. On the day Wuwu (May 3rd), he caught up with Murong Bao at Xiaqian Marsh. Murong Bao did not wish to fight a battle. Murong Hui told him, "You should comfort and instruct the officers and soldiers, and only let the enemy come to you. Since the imperial carriage is going into exile, the men will want to do their best to fulfill their orders, and they will be indignant and agitated at these enemies who dare to chase after us. The Art of War states, 'Do not interfere with an army that is returning home', and it also states, 'Place yourself on deadly ground and you will live'. Since we now occupy such deadly ground, why should we worry that we will not succeed? But if you give up this ground, the enemy will definitely take advantage of you. Then even if we survived, who knows what might happen?"

So Murong Bao followed his advice. Murong Hui set the troops in full formation and then clashed with the Wei soldiers. Then Murong Nong, Murong Long, and the other Yan generals led cavalry up from the south to charge into the Wei army. The Wei soldiers were greatly defeated, and the Yan soldiers pursued them for more than a hundred li and took thousands of heads.

Murong Long only pursued the enemy for several dozen li before he turned back. He said to his former Administrative Officer of the Separate Administration, Yang Qiu, "We had many tens of thousands of soldiers piled up in Zhongshan, yet we could not fight the enemy back then as we had hoped. Yet see how we triumphed this day. The men will vent their pent-up regrets." And he sighed and wept as he thought about it.

〈石河頭時屯漁陽。夏謙澤在薊北二百餘里。〉〈孫武子之言。〉〈留臺治書,爲留臺治書侍御史也。燕建留臺於龍城,見一百七卷孝武太元十四年。隆時錄留臺,故璆爲故吏。〉

(At this time Shi Hetou was camped at Yuyang.

Xiaqian Marsh was more than two hundred li north of Ji.

Both of Murong Hui's quotes are from Sun Tzu's version of the Art of War.

Yang Qiu had been an Administrative Officer of the Imperial Secretariat at the Separate Administration which Later Yan had established at Longcheng, which is mentioned in Book 107, in Emperor Xiaowu's fourteenth year of Taiyuan (389.2). Back then, Murong Long had been in charge of this Separate Administration, so Yang Qiu had been his subordinate.)


慕容寶敗魏師于薊。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Murong Bao defeated the Northern Wei army at Ji.


會旣敗魏兵,矜很滋甚;隆屢訓責之,會益忿恚。會以農、隆皆嘗鎭龍城,屬尊位重,名望素出己右,恐至龍城,權政不復在己,又知終無爲嗣之望,乃謀作亂。

28. Having defeated the Wei soldiers, Murong Hui became even more arrogant than before. Murong Long often reproached and admonished him for his attitude, and this made Murong Hui grow ever more resentful of him as well. And when Murong Hui considered how Murong Nong and Murong Long had both once been in command at Longcheng, and how they held such exalted and important positions and their reputations and influence had long outshone his own, he was afraid that when the army reached Longcheng, he would no longer have any power over affairs of state. He also concluded that by now, there was no longer any prospect that he would be recognized as Murong Bao's heir. So he plotted to start a rebellion.

〈孝武太元十年,農鎭龍城;十四年,隆代農。〉〈以寶違垂命,立策爲太子也。〉

(Murong Nong had been placed in command at Longcheng in Emperor Xiaowu's tenth year of Taiyuan (385.66). Murong Long had been given the command there in the fourteenth year of Taiyuan (389.2), to replace Murong Nong.

Murong Bao had ignored Murong Chui's will and appointed Murong Ce as his Crown Prince instead of Murong Hui.)


幽、平之兵皆懷會恩,不樂屬二王,請於寶曰:「清河王勇略高世,臣等與之誓同生死,願陛下與皇太子、諸王留薊宮,臣等從王南解京師之圍,還迎大駕。」寶左右皆惡會,言於寶曰:「清河王不得爲太子,神色甚不平。且其才武過人,善收人心;陛下若從衆請,臣恐解圍之後,必有衞輒之事。」寶乃謂衆曰:「道通年少,才不及二王,豈可當專征之任!且朕方自統六師,杖會以爲羽翼,何可離左右也!」衆不悅而退。

29. The soldiers of the armies of Youzhou and Pingzhou (or Bingzhou) had all enjoyed Murong Hui's grace, and they were not pleased at the prospect of being placed under the command of Murong Long and Murong Nong. So they said to Murong Bao, "The Prince of Qinghe (Murong Hui) has boldness and cunning which surpasses the age, and we have sworn to live and die together with him. Your Majesty, we ask that you, the Crown Prince, and the other Princes remain at the palace at Ji. Allow us to accompany the Prince of Qinghe south to break the siege of the capital region. Then we shall welcome the return of your imperial carriage."

But Murong Bao's attendants disliked Murong Hui, so they told Murong Bao, "The Prince of Qinghe is disgruntled because he was not chosen to be the Crown Prince, and his expression has been very unsettled. Besides, he indeed has unsurpassed talent and martial prowess, and he is skilled at winning the hearts of people to him. If Your Majesty does as these soldiers suggest, we fear that after the Prince breaks the siege of the capital, he will definitely repeat the example of Prince Zhe of Wey."

So Murong Bao said to the soldiers, "Daotong (Murong Hui) is still young, and his talents do not match those of the two Princes. How could I grant him such an important military assignment? Besides, I myself should be the overall commander of the six armies, while directing Murong Hui to act as one of my wings. How could I let such a wing go off on its own?"

The soldiers withdrew, unhappy with this response.

〈【嚴:「平」改「幷」。】〉〈衞靈公世子蒯聵出奔,靈公立其子輒。靈公卒,輒立,蒯聵復入,輒拒而不納。〉〈會,字道通。〉〈二王,謂農、隆。〉

(Some versions state that these were the soldiers of Bingzhou rather than Pingzhou.

Duke Ling of the ancient state of Wey had an heir, Kuaikui, who fled the state, so Duke Ling appointed Kuaikui's son Zhe as his heir instead. After Duke Ling passed away, Zhe succeeded him. Kuaikui returned to the state, but Zhe barred his way and would not let him enter.

Murong Hui's style name was Daotong.

The "two Princes" were Murong Long and Murong Nong.)


幽平之士皆懷會威德,不樂去之,咸請曰:「清河王天資神武,權略過人,臣等與之誓同生死,感王恩澤,皆勇氣自倍。願陛下與皇太子、諸王止駕薊宮,使王統臣等進解京師之圍,然後奉迎車駕。」寶左右皆害其勇略,譖而不許,眾咸有怨言。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

The soldiers of the armies of Youzhou and Pingzhou had all cherished Murong Hui's power and virtue, and they were not pleased at the prospect of being placed under the command of someone else. So they all asked Murong Bao, "The Prince of Qinghe (Murong Hui) is naturally gifted with divine martial prowess, and his cunning and calculation surpasses others. We have sworn to live and die together with him, and we have all been showered by his grace, which rekindled our fighting spirit. Your Majesty, we ask that you, the Crown Prince, and the other Princes halt your imperial carriage at the palace at Ji. Have the Prince lead us to advance and break the siege of the capital region. Then we shall welcome the return of your imperial carriage."

But those around Murong Bao all slighted Murong Hui's boldness and cunning, and Murong Bao heeded their slander and refused to agree to the plan. The soldiers all muttered resentfully after that.


左右勸寶殺會。侍御史仇尼歸聞之,告會曰:「大王所恃者父,父已異圖;所杖者兵,兵已去手;欲於何所自容乎!不如誅二王,廢太子,大王自處東宮,兼將相之任,以匡復社稷,此上策也。」會猶豫未許。

30. Murong Bao's attendants urged him to kill Murong Hui. When the Imperial Secretary, Chouni Gui, heard this, he told Murong Hui, "Great Prince, up until now you have been depending upon the support of your father and the command of your soldiers. But now your father is planning to get rid of you, and your soldiers have been snatched from your hands. How then can you remain in peace? What you should do is kill the two Princes, depose the Crown Prince, and claim your place in the Eastern Palace (as Crown Prince). Then seize command of the military and the state, so that you may rectify and restore the fortunes of state. That would be the best plan."

But Murong Hui was still unprepared, so he did not agree.

左右勸寶殺會,侍御史仇尼歸聞而告會曰:「左右密謀如是,主上將從之。大王所恃唯父母也,父已異圖;所杖者兵也,兵已去手,進退路窮,恐無自全之理。盍誅二王,廢太子,大王自處東宮,兼領將相,以匡社稷。」會不從。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao's attendants urged him to kill Murong Hui. When the Imperial Secretary, Chouni Gui, heard this, he told Murong Hui, "The attendants are secretly plotting to do this, and our sovereign is about to agree. Great Prince, up until now you have been depending upon the support of your father and mother and the command of your soldiers. But now your father is planning to get rid of you, and your soldiers have been snatched from your hands. No matter what you do, you are in danger; I fear you cannot ensure your safety. Great Prince, what you should do is execute the two Princes, depose the Crown Prince, and claim your place in the Eastern Palace (as Crown Prince). Then seize command of the military and the state, so that you may rectify and restore the fortunes of state."

But Murong Hui did not heed him.


寶謂農、隆曰:「觀道通志趣,必反無疑,宜早除之。」農、隆曰:「今寇敵內侮,中土紛紜,社稷之危,有如累卵。會鎭撫舊都,遠赴國難,其威名之重,足以震動四鄰。逆狀未彰而遽殺之,豈徒傷父子之恩,亦恐大損威望。」寶曰:「會逆志已成,卿等慈恕,不忍早殺,恐一旦爲變,必先害諸父,然後及吾,至時勿悔自負也!」會聞之,益懼。

31. Murong Bao said to Murong Nong and Murong Long, "From what I've seen of Daotong's ambitions, there's no longer any doubt that he plans to rebel. I should get rid of him at once."

But they replied, "The state is currently troubled by outside invaders and internal disturbances, and the Middle Land has been left disturbed and confused; the fortunes of state are in peril, like a stack of eggs about to collapse. Murong Hui has guarded and supported the old capital, and he has come from afar to confront the states' difficulties; his power and reputation are great, sufficient to shake and be felt by all our neighbors. Now you want to rashly kill him, even when proof of his treason is not apparent. How can you thus violate the grace between father and son? We fear that would greatly harm both your prestige and the hopes that people place in you."

Murong Bao said, "Murong Hui's treasonous intentions are already set. It's merely that you two are too kindly disposed toward him, and you can't bear to kill him so soon. But I fear if we wait until something actually happens, he's sure to kill you first and then me afterwards. By then, it will be too late for regrets or to blame yourselves!"

When Murong Hui heard about this discussion, he became even more afraid.

寶謂農、隆曰:「觀會為變,事當必然,宜早殺之。不爾,恐成大禍。」農曰:「寇賊內侮,中州紛亂,會鎮撫舊都,安眾寧境,及京師有難,萬里星赴,威名之重,可以振服戎狄。又逆跡未彰,宜且隱忍。今社稷之危若綴旒然,復內相誅戮,有損威望。」寶曰:「會逆心已成,而王等仁慈,不欲去之,恐一旦釁發,必先害諸父,然後及吾。事敗之後,當思朕言。」農等固諫,乃止。會聞之彌懼。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao said to Murong Nong and Murong Long, "From what I've seen of Murong Hui's actions, there's no longer any doubt that he plans to rebel. I should kill him at once. Otherwise, I fear the great disaster will become a reality."

But Murong Nong replied, "The state is currently troubled by outside invaders and internal disturbances, and the Central Provinces have been left disturbed and confused. Murong Hui has guarded and supported the old capital, settling the people and keeping peace in the territory. When the capital region was threatened, he came a great distance like a shooting star to confront the states' difficulties; his power and reputation are great, sufficient to shake and compel the submission of the Rong and Di barbarians. Besides, proof of his treason is not yet apparent. You should bear with him for a while longer. The fortunes of state are already stretched thin, and if you were to now go far as to engage in mutual killing among your own, I fear that would greatly harm both your prestige and the hopes that people place in you."

Murong Bao said, "Murong Hui's treasonous intentions are already set. It's merely that you two are too kindly disposed toward him, and you can't bear to see him gone. But I fear if we wait until something actually happens, he's sure to kill you first and then me afterwards. After we suffer such loss, you should remember what I said to you."

But Murong Nong and others continued to remonstrate with him, so Murong Bao stopped. When Murong Hui heard about this discussion, he became even more afraid.


夏,四月,癸酉,寶宿廣都黃榆谷,會遣其黨仇尼歸、吳提染干帥壯士二十餘人分道襲農、隆,殺隆於帳下;農被重創,執仇尼歸,逃入山中。會以仇尼歸被執,事終顯發,乃夜詣寶曰:「農、隆謀逆,臣已除之。」寶欲討會,陽爲好言以安之曰:「吾固疑二王久矣,除之甚善。」

32. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Guiyou (May 18th), Murong Bao set up residence at Huangyu Valley in Guangdu county.

Murong Hui sent his partisans Chouni Gui and Wuti Rangan to lead more than two thousand strong fellows along separate roads to launch surprise attacks against Murong Nong and Murong Long. They killed Murong Long in his tent, and Murong Nong was seriously injured, but he captured Chouni Gui and fled into the hills.

Murong Hui realized that since Chouni Gui had been captured, eventually his own responsibility as the mastermind of the plot would come to light. So he came to visit Murong Bao during the night and told him, "Murong Nong and Murong Long were plotting rebellion, but I have already dealt with them."

Murong Bao then wanted to get rid of Murong Hui, but he pretended to reassure him with favorable words to put him at ease, telling him, "I had long suspected the two Princes myself, and you did very well in getting rid of them."

〈魏收《地形志》:廣都縣,屬建德郡,在漢北平白狼縣界,隋省入遼西柳城縣。〉

(The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "Guangdu county is part of Jiande commandary. It was Bailang county in Han's Beiping commandary.” Sui abolished it, folding it into Liucheng county in Liaodong commandary.)


會怒,襲農傷之。農弟高陽王隆,勸寶收會,不獲。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Angry at his soldiers being taken away, Murong Hui launched a surprise attack against Murong Nong and wounded him. The Prince of Gaoyang, Murong Nong's younger brother Murong Long, urged Murong Bao to arrest Murong Hui, but he was not captured.

會奔于廣都黃榆穀。會遣仇尼歸等率壯士二千餘人分襲農、隆,隆是夜見殺,農中重創。既而會歸於寶,寶意在誅會,誘而安之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Hui fled to Huangyu Valley in Guangdu. He sent Chouni Gui and others to lead more than two thousand people to launch separate surprise attacks against Murong Nong and Murong Long. Murong Long was killed during the night, and Murong Nong suffered a serious wound.

Murong Hui then returned to Murong Bao. Murong Bao planned to execute him, but he enticed Murong Hui in order to allay his suspicions.


甲戌,旦,會立仗嚴備,乃引道。會欲棄隆喪,餘崇涕泣固請,乃聽載隨軍。農出,自歸,寶呵之曰:「何以自負邪?」命執之。行十餘里,寶顧召羣臣食,且議農罪。會就坐,寶目衞軍將軍慕輿騰使斬會,傷其首,不能殺。會走赴其軍,勒兵攻寶。寶帥數百騎馳二百里,晡時,至龍城。會遣騎追至石城,不及。

33. On the day Jiaxu (May 19th), at dawn, Murong Hui was setting up the army's equipment and preparing its defenses, getting ready to set out. He wanted to abandon Murong Long's coffin, but Yu Chong pleaded with him through tears, so Murong Hui eventually agreed to bring it with the army.

Murong Nong emerged and tried to come back to the army, but Murong Bao yelled at him, "Taking responsibility now?" And he ordered soldiers to capture him.

Then after the army traveled a dozen li, Murong Bao summoned his ministers to a meal, saying that he would discuss Murong Nong's crimes. Murong Hui also came and sat down. Murong Bao glanced at the General Who Guards The Army, Muyu Teng, to have him decapitate Murong Hui. But although Muyu Teng injured Murong Hui's head, he was unable to kill him.

Murong Hui fled to rejoin his soldiers, and he formed them up to have them attack Murong Bao. Murong Bao fled with several hundred cavalry for two hundred li, reaching Longcheng in the afternoon. Murong Hui sent his own cavalry to pursue Murong Bao as far as Shicheng, but they could not catch up with him.

〈寶陽責農而以前言相擿發。〉〈石城縣,漢屬北平郡,後魏屬建德郡,隋併入柳城縣。〉

(Murong Bao was pretending to blame Murong Nong for rebelling against him, but really he was criticizing him for his advice from earlier.

During Han, Shicheng county was part of Beiping commandary. During Northern Wei, it was part of Jiande commandary. Sui folded it into Liucheng county.)


五月...寶奔黃龍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, Murong Bao fled to Huanglong.

會勒兵攻寶,寶走龍城。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Hui commanded his troops to attack Murong Bao, who fled to Longcheng.

寶潛使左衛慕輿騰斬會,不能傷。會復奔其眾,於是勒兵攻寶。寶率數百騎馳如龍城。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao secretly ordered his Guard General of the Left, Muyu Teng, to decapitate Murong Hui. But Muyu Teng was unable to harm him. Murong Hui fled to rejoin his soldiers, and he formed them up to have them attack Murong Bao. Murong Bao rushed with several hundred cavalry to Longcheng.


乙亥,會遣仇尼歸攻龍城,寶夜遣兵襲擊,破之。會遣使請誅左右佞臣,幷求爲太子;寶不許。會盡收乘輿器服,以後宮分給將帥,署置百官,自稱皇太子、錄尚書事,引兵向龍城,以討慕輿騰爲名;丙子,頓兵城下。寶臨西門,會乘馬遙與寶語,寶責讓之。會命軍士向寶大譟以耀威,城中將士皆憤怒,向暮出戰,大破之。會兵死傷太半,走還營。侍御郎高雲夜帥敢死士百餘人襲會軍,會衆皆潰。會將十餘騎奔中山,開封公詳殺之。寶殺會母及其三子。

34. On the day Yihai (May 20th), Murong Hui sent Chouni Gui to attack Longcheng. But Murong Bao sent soldiers out to surprise attack Chouni Gui during the night, and they routed him.

Then Murong Hui sent envoys to see Murong Bao and ask him to eliminate the flatterers around him, as well as appoint Murong Hui as Crown Prince. But Murong Bao refused to agree. Murong Hui gathered up all the imperial equipment and clothing that he had captured, and he distributed out the servants of the rear palace to his generals and commanders. He appointed his own people to the imperial offices, and he declared himself the Crown Prince and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

Murong Hui led his troops towards Longcheng, claiming to be campaigning against Muyu Teng. On the day Bingzi (May 21st), they halted below the walls of the city. Murong Bao came to the west gate, and Murong Hui spoke to him from afar while riding his horse. Murong Bao blamed and reproached him. Murong Hui ordered his soldiers to make a great clamor in order to impress and overawe the city, and the generals and soldiers inside Longcheng were all agitated and angered. At dawn, they marched out to battle and greatly routed Murong Hui's army. More than half of his soldiers were killed or wounded, and his army fled back to their camp. Then a Gentleman of the Imperial Escort, Go Un, led more than a hundred brave volunteers to launch a surprise attack against Murong Hui's army during the night, and his forces all scattered.

Murong Hui fled back to Zhongshan with a dozen riders, but Murong Xiang killed him. Murong Bao killed Murong Hui's mother and his three sons.

〈寶之爲太子,雲以武藝給事侍東宮,拜侍御郎。〉

(During the time that Murong Bao had been Crown Prince, Go Un had been appointed as a retainer of the Eastern Palace due to his martial skills, and he was then appointed as a Gentleman of the Imperial Escort.)


會追圍之。侍御郎高雲襲敗會,會奔中山... 會至中山,為慕容普隣所殺。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Hui pursued Murong Bao and besieged Longcheng. A Gentleman of the Imperial Escort, Go Un, launched a surprise attack against Murong Hui's army and defeated them, and Murong Hui fled to Zhongshan. When Murong Hui reached Zhongshan, he was killed by Murong Pulin.

會率眾追之,遣使請誅左右佞臣,並求太子,寶弗許。會圍龍城,侍御郎高雲夜率敢死士百餘人襲會,敗之,眾悉逃散,單馬奔還中山,乃逾圍而入,為慕容詳所殺。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Hui led his forces to pursue Murong Bao. He sent envoys asking that Murong Bao eliminate the flatterers around him, as well as appoint Murong Hui as Crown Prince. But Murong Bao refused to agree. Murong Hui then besieged Longcheng. A Gentleman of the Imperial Escort, Go Un, led more than a hundred brave volunteers to launch a surprise attack against Murong Hui's army during the night; he defeated Murong Hui, and his forces all scattered and fled.

Murong Hui fled on a lone horse back to Zhongshan and passed through the siege to enter the city, but Murong Xiang killed him.


丁丑,寶大赦,凡與會同謀者,皆除罪,復舊職;論功行賞,拜將軍、封侯者數百人。遼西王農骨破見腦,寶手自裹創,僅而獲濟。以農爲左僕射,尋拜司空、領尚書令。餘崇出自歸,寶嘉其忠,拜中堅將軍,使典宿衞。贈高陽王隆司徒,諡曰康。

35. On the day Dingchou (May 22nd), Murong Bao declared a general amnesty. All of those who had plotted together with Murong Hui were pardoned and restored to their original positions. Murong Bao discussed who had achieved merits on his behalf and distributed rewards accordingly, and several hundred people were appointed as Generals and Marquises.

Murong Nong had suffered broken bones and his brain was exposed from his injuries, but Murong Bao personally tended to his wounds, so Murong Nong was still barely able to survive. Murong Bao appointed him as Supervisor of the Left, and then as Minister of Works and acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

Yu Chong came and submitted, and Murong Bao commended him for his loyalty; he appointed him as General of Central Firmness and granted him command of the household guards.

Murong Bao posthumously appointed Murong Long as Minister Over The Masses, and his posthumous title was Prince Kang ("the Peaceful").

寶以高雲爲建威將軍,封夕陽公,養以爲子。雲,高句麗之支屬也,燕王皝破高句麗,徙於青山,由是世爲燕臣。雲沈厚寡言,時人莫知,惟中衞將軍長樂馮跋奇其志度,與之爲友。跋父和,事西燕主永爲將軍,永敗,徙和龍。

36. Murong Bao appointed Go Un as General Who Establishes Might and Duke of Xiyang, and he adopted him as a son.

This Go Un was from the people of Goguryeo. When Murong Huang had sacked Goguryeo, he had relocated many of the people of Goguryeo to Mount Qing, where they had lived as subjects of Yan for generations. Go Un himself was a man of profound thinking but few words, so no one from that time knew about him. Only the Guard General of the Center, Feng Ba of Changle commandary, appreciated his ambition and potential and became friends with him. Feng Ba's father Feng He had originally served Murong Yong as a general. After Murong Yong's defeat, Feng He was moved to Helong.

〈高句麗自云高陽氏之後裔,故以高爲氏。〉〈破高句麗見九十七卷成帝咸康八年。青山,遼西徒河縣之青山也。〉〈魏收曰:漢高帝置信都郡,景帝二年,爲廣川國,明帝更名樂成國,安帝改爲安平國,晉改爲長樂郡。考之《晉志》,有安平而無長樂,不知何時更名也。〉〈高雲、馮跋事始見於此,爲後得燕張本。〉

(The people of Goguryeo considered themselves to be the descendants of the clan of Gao Yang (the ancient Emperor Zhuanxu), so they took Gao/Go as their surname.

Murong Huang's campaign against Goguryeo is mentioned in Book 97, in Emperor Cheng's eighth year of Xiankang (342.11-14).

This Mount Qing was the same one in Tuhe county in Liaoxi commandary.

The Book of Northern Wei states, "Xindu commandary was originally created by Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang). In Emperor Jing's second year (156 BC), he changed it to the Guangchuan princely fief. Emperor Ming further renamed it to the Lecheng princely fief, and Emperor An renamed it again to the Anping princely fief. Jin renamed it to Changle commandary." However, although the Records of Jin mentions an Anping commandary, it does not mention a Changle commandary. I (Hu Sanxing) am not certain at what time this last name change took place.

This is the first mention of Go Un and Feng Ba, who would later take over Later Yan for themselves.)


寶命雲為子,封夕陽公。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao adopted Go Un as his son, and he appointed him as Duke of Xiyang.


僕射王國寶、建威將軍王緒依附會稽王道子,納賄窮奢,不知紀極。惡王恭、殷仲堪,勸道子裁損其兵權;中外恟恟不安。恭等各繕甲勒兵,表請北伐;道子疑之,詔以盛夏妨農,悉使解嚴。

37. In Jin, Wang Guobao and the General Who Establishes Might, Wang Xu, continued to support Sima Daozi. They took bribes and acted however they pleased, ignoring all restraints. They hated Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan, and they urged Sima Dao to reduce their military authority. Everyone, inside the court and out on the borders, was left nervous and uncertain because of this situation.

Wang Gong and the others maintained their army equipment and drilled their soldiers, and they sent up petitions asking to launch northern campaigns. But since Sima Daozi suspected them, he arranged for an edict to be issued ordering them to disband their soldiers, claiming that launching campaigns during the height of summer would affect the yearly harvest.

恭遣使與仲堪謀討國寶等。桓玄以仕不得志,欲假仲堪兵勢以作亂,乃說仲堪曰:「國寶與君諸人素已爲對,唯患相斃之不速耳。今旣執大權,與王緒相表裏,其所迴易,無不如志;孝伯居元舅之地,必未敢害之。君爲先帝所拔,超居方任,人情皆以君爲雖有思致,非方伯才。彼若發詔徵君爲中書令,用殷覬爲荊州,君何以處之?」仲堪曰:「憂之久矣,計將安出?」玄曰:「孝伯疾惡深至,君宜潛與之約,興晉陽之甲以除君側之惡,玄雖不肖,願帥荊、楚豪傑,荷戈先驅,此桓、文之勳也。」

38. Wang Gong sent agents to speak with Yin Zhongkan, to arrange for a joint campaign against Wang Guobao and the others in the capital.

Huan Xuan was still unsatisfied with his position, feeling that he had not realized his ambitions, and he wanted to use Yin Zhongkan's soldiers to start a rebellion. So he advised Yin Zhongkan, "Wang Guobao has never been a friend to you and the other gentlemen. But he only failed to act against you up until now because he was worried that if he acted too soon, both sides would destroy each other. Yet see how he now possesses such great authority. He and Wang Xu issue orders as they will, and they can do whatever they please; nothing is beyond them. Xiaobo (Wang Gong) is the Emperor's own uncle, yet even he dares not harm them. Sir, you were chosen by His Late Majesty to hold this important position, yet although the people here have some regard and devotion to you, they do not believe you really have the talent to be a border commander. Suppose Wang Guobao and the others issue an edict summoning you to the capital to serve as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, having Yin Ji take command of Jingzhou in your stead. How could you maintain your position?"

Yin Zhongkan replied, "I have worried about such a thing for a long time. But what do you propose?"

Huan Xuan said, "Xiaobo's hatred and loathing for Wang Guobao and the others runs deep. Sir, you should secretly agree to a pact with him. Together you can declare a 'proclamation of Jinyang' announcing your intent to remove the evil advisors from the side of His Majesty, and advance against the capital from east and west. Although I myself have no official authority, I am willing to lead the local leaders of the Jing and Chu regions to support you, bearing my spear and leading the charge. We shall undertake the same duty as Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin."

〈玄仕不得志,事見孝武太元十七年。〉〈事始一百七卷孝武太元十五年。對,敵也。〉〈王恭字孝伯,孝武王皇后之兄弟也。〉〈亦見太元十五年。〉〈南蠻校尉資次可爲荊州,故云。〉〈《春秋公羊傳》曰:趙鞅興晉陽之甲,以除君側之惡。〉東西齊舉,〈江陵在西,京口在東,故曰東西齊舉也。〉

(Huan Xuan's dissatisfaction with his positions up until now is mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's seventeenth year of Taiyuan (392.19-21).

The beginnings of the conflict between Wang Guobao on one side and Yin Zhongkan and Wang Gong on the other is mentioned in Book 107, in the fifteenth year of Taiyuan (390.3). 對 in this case means "enemy".

Wang Gong was styled Xiaobo; he was the brother of Emperor Xiaowu's Empress Wang.

Yin Zhongkan's shortcomings for his position as a border commander are also mentioned in the fifteenth year of Taiyuan (392.18).

The office of Colonel of Southern Nan Tribes drew its resources from Jingzhou, which was why Huan Xuan proposed that such a thing might happen to replace Yin Zhongkan.

The Gongyang Commentary of the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "The Zhao minister Yang Xing declared his proclamation of Jinyang, announcing his intention to remove the evil advisors surrounding his lord."

Yin Zhongkan was at Jiangling, which was west of Jiankang; Wang Gong was at Jingkou, east of Jiankang. So Huan Xuan says that they can act from both "east and west".)


仲堪心然之,乃外結雍州刺史郗恢,內與從兄南蠻校尉覬、南郡相陳留江績謀之。覬曰:「人臣當各守職分,朝廷是非,豈藩屛之所制也!晉陽之事,不敢預聞。」仲堪固邀之,覬怒曰:「吾進不敢同,退不敢冀。」績亦極言其不可。覬恐績及禍,於坐和解之。績曰:「大丈夫何至以死相脅邪!江仲元行年六十,但未獲死所耳!」仲堪憚其堅正,以楊佺期代之。朝廷聞之,徵績爲御史中丞。覬遂稱散發,辭位,仲堪往省之,謂覬曰:「兄病殊爲可憂。」覬曰:「我病不過身死,汝病乃當滅門。宜深自愛,勿以我爲念!」郗恢亦不肯從。仲堪疑未決,會王恭使至,仲堪許之,恭大喜。甲戌,恭上表罪狀國寶,舉兵討之。

39. Yin Zhongkan deeply agreed with Huan Xuan's advice. So he reached out to form ties with the Inspector of Yongzhou, Chi Hui, and he also mentioned the idea to the Colonel of Southern Nan Tribes, his cousin Yin Ji, and the Chancellor of Nan commandary, Jiang Ji of Chenliu commandary.

Yin Ji said, "Each of us have our assigned roles as ministers of the state. Court affairs have nothing to do with us. How can we, who are the court's shields, try to control it? I dare not support this 'proclamation of Jinyang' business." Yin Zhongkan kept trying to convince him, but Yin Ji angrily replied, "Advancing, I dare not support you; withdrawing, I dare not hope for you."

Jiang Ji also forcefully expressed his view that the plan could not be done. Yin Ji was afraid that Jiang Ji would suffer disaster, and he tried to broker peace between them. But Jiang Ji declared, "What great minister will bow in the face of death? I, Jiang Zhongyuan, am already sixty years old; I will not shrink from death!"

Yin Zhongkan was afraid of Jiang Ji because of his firm sense of justice, so he replaced him with Yang Quanqi. When the court heard this, they summoned Jiang Ji back to the capital to serve as Middle Assistant of the Imperial Secretariat.

Yin Ji claimed to be suffering from an illness stemming from powder consumption, and he left his office. Yin Zhongkan came to visit him, telling him, "Cousin, I was worried about your illness."

Yin Ji replied, "My illness can do no worse than kill me. But the illness afflicting you will lead to the destruction of our entire clan. You should show more consideration for yourself, and not worry about me so much!"

Chi Hui also refused to go along with the plan. So Yin Zhongkan was hesitant and could not make up his mind. But then Wang Gong's agents arrived, and Yin Zhongkan agreed to support Wang Gong, who was greatly pleased.

On the day Jiaxu (May 19th), Wang Gong sent up a petition outlining the crimes of Wang Guobao, and he raised his troops to campaign against the capital.

〈南蠻府、南郡相,與荊州刺史府同治江陵。〉〈江績,字仲元。〉〈晉人多服寒食散,其藥毒發或致死。今《千金方》中有數方。〉

(The Colonel of Southern Nan Tribes, the Chancellor of Nan commandary, and the Inspector of Jingzhou all had their headquarters in Jiangling, so Yin Zhongkan was able to speak to both Yin Ji and Jiang Ji.

Jiang Ji's style name was Zhongyuan.

Many people in Jin took Cold Food Powder (also known as Five Mineral Powder). This was a poisonous drug, and taking it sometimes resulted in death. The modern text 千金方 has several accounts of this drug.)


夏四月甲戌,兗州刺史王恭,豫州刺史庾楷舉兵,以討尚書左僕射王國寶、建威將軍王緒爲名。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiaxu (May 19th), the Inspector of Yanzhou, Wang Gong, and the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yu Kai, raised their troops, stating that they were launching a campaign against the Deputy Director of the Left of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Guobao, and the General Who Establishes Might, Wang Xu.


初,孝武帝委任王珣,及帝暴崩,不及受顧命,珣一旦失勢,循默而已。丁丑,王恭表至,內外戒嚴,道子問珣曰:「二藩作逆,卿知之乎?」珣曰:「朝政得失,珣弗之預,王、殷作難,何由可知!」王國寶惶懼,不知所爲,遣數百人戍竹里,夜遇風雨,各散歸。王緒說國寶矯相王之命召王珣、車胤殺之,以除時望,因挾君相發兵以討二藩。國寶許之。珣、胤至,國寶不敢害,更問計於珣。珣曰:「王、殷與卿素無深怨,所競不過勢利之間耳。」國寶曰:「將曹爽我乎?」珣曰:「是何言歟!卿寧有爽之罪,王孝伯豈宣帝之儔邪?」又問計於胤,胤曰:「昔桓公圍壽陽,彌時乃克。今朝廷遣軍,恭必城守。若京口未拔而上流奄至,君將何以待之?」國寶尤懼,遂上疏解職,詣闕待罪;旣而悔之,詐稱詔復其本官。道子闇懦,欲求姑息,乃委罪國寶,遣驃騎諮議參軍譙王尚之收國寶付廷尉。尚之,恬之子也。甲申,賜國寶死,斬緒於市,遣使詣恭,深謝愆失;恭乃罷兵還京口。國寶兄侍中愷、驃騎司馬愉並請解職;道子以愷、愉與國寶異母,又素不協,皆釋不問。戊子,大赦。

40. Earlier, Wang Xun had been one of Emperor Xiaowu's most trusted ministers. But because Emperor Xiaowu had died so suddenly, Wang Xun had not been included in any will, so he lost his former influence overnight. However, he merely accepted this without a word of complaint.

On the day Dingchou (May 22nd), Wang Gong's petition arrived at the court. People inside and out began preparing for battle. Sima Daozi asked Wang Xun, "Did you know that the two border commanders were plotting treason?"

Wang Xun replied, "I have had nothing to do with the affairs of court or state; how could I have known that Wang Gong or Yin Zhongkan would cause trouble?"

Wang Guobao was nervous and afraid, uncertain of what he should do. So he led several hundred people to camp at Zhuli. But there was wind and rain during the night, and they all scattered.

Wang Xu persuaded Wang Guobao that he should forge a royal decree summoning Wang Xun and Che Yin to come to him, then kill them to remove them as threats; afterwards, he could force the other ministers to support him and raise troops to fight against Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan. Wang Guobao agreed with his plan. But when Wang Xun and Che Yin arrived, Wang Guobao did not dare to harm them. He even asked Wang Xun what he should do.

Wang Xun told him, "It is not that Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan have any real hatred for you personally. They merely feel that you have too much power now."

Wang Guobao said, "Do you mean to make me become another Cao Shuang?"

Wang Xun replied, "Why speak so rashly? In what way have you committed crimes on the same level as Cao Shuang? And how could Wang Xiaobo be the equal of Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi)?"

Wang Guobao also asked Che Yin for advice, and Che Yin told him, "When Lord Huan Wen besieged Shouyang during Yuan Zhen's rebellion, it took a long time before he could capture the city. If you were to have the court send an army against Wang Gong, he would certainly withdraw into Jingkou and hold out there. Then if Jingkou could not be captured before Yin Zhongkan's forces arrive from upstream, how would you be able to deal with them, Sir?"

Wang Guobao was now deeply afraid, so he sent up a memorial resigning his offices and presented himself at the gates of the palace to admit to his crimes. But then he regretted having done so, and he forged a decree restoring himself to his offices.

Sima Daozi was also uncertain and cowardly, and he wanted to make Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan halt their campaign. So he charged Wang Guobao with crimes and sent the Army Consultant to the General of Agile Cavalry and Prince of Qiao, Sima Shangzhi, to arrest Wang Guobao and hand him over to the Minister of Justice. This Sima Shangzhi was the son of Sima Tianzhi.

On the day Jiashen (May 29th), Wang Guobao was forced to commit suicide, and Wang Xu was beheaded in the marketplace. And Sima Daozi sent envoys to visit Wang Gong to deeply apologize for his faults and shortcomings. So Wang Gong disbanded his army and returned to Jingkou.

The Palace Attendant and the Marshal to the General of Agile Cavalry, Wang Guobao's elder brothers Wang Kai and Wang Yu, both asked to resign their offices. But since Wang Kai and Wang Yu had a different mother from Wang Guobao, and they had long opposed him, Sima Daozi pardoned both of them and neither was troubled any further.

On the day Wuzi (June 2nd), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

〈循默者,循常而無一言也。〉〈竹里,今建康府竹篠鎭是其地,在行宮城東北三十許里。〉〈謂珣如蔣濟說曹爽釋權,而司馬懿終族之也。事見七十五卷魏邵陵厲公嘉平元年。〉〈見一百二卷海西公太和五及一百三卷簡文帝咸安元年。〉〈姑,且也。息,止也。姑息,猶言且止。〉〈洪景伯曰:諮議參軍,晉江左初置,因軍諮祭酒也,其位在諸參軍之右。〉

(Wang Xun had acted the same as normal, without a single word of protest.

"Zhulu" refers to the place now known as the Zhuxiao Garrison at Jiankang. It is about thirty li northeast of the field palace complex there.

Wang Guobao was suggesting that Wang Xun was now acting just like Jiang Ji had done during Sima Yi's coup against him: Jiang Ji persuaded Cao Shuang to give up his power and influence, yet Sima Yi still wiped out his clan in the end. This incident is mentioned in Book 75, in Duke Li of Shaoling's (Cao Fang's) first year of Jiaping (249.26 in Fang's Chronicles).

Huan Wen's siege of Shouyang during Yuan Zhen's rebellion began in Book 102, in Emperor Fei's fifth year of Taihe (369.13), and ended in Book 103, in Emperor Jianwen's first year of Xian'an (371.1).

This passage uses the term 姑息. 姑 means to halt, and 息 means to stop. So 姑息 is an expression meaning to put an end to.

Hong Jingbo remarked, "The rank of Army Consultant was first created after Jin moved south of the Yangzi, like the rank of Army Libationer-Consultant. It was an inferior post to the Army Advisors.")


甲申,殺國寶及緒以悅于恭,恭乃罷兵。戊子,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Jiashen (May 29th), Wang Guobao and Wang Xu were killed to appease Wang Gong, who then disbanded his soldiers.

On the day Wuzi (June 2nd), a general amnesty was declared.


殷仲堪雖許王恭,猶豫不敢下;聞國寶等死,乃始抗表舉兵,遣楊佺期屯巴陵。道子以書止之,仲堪乃還。

41. Although Yin Zhongkan had agreed to support Wang Gong's campaign, he had still been indecisive and not dared to move downstream. Only when he heard that Wang Guobao and the others were already dead did he actually send up his own petition and raise his troops, and he sent Yang Quanqi to camp at Baling. Then Sima Daozi sent him a letter to ask him to stop, so Yin Zhongkan returned to his base.

〈沈約曰:巴陵縣,晉武太康元年置,屬長沙。酈道元曰:湘水北至巴丘山入江,山在右岸,有巴陵故城,本吳之巴丘邸閣;晉立巴陵縣,後置建昌郡。〉

(Shen Yue remarked, "Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) created Baling county in the first year of Taikang (280), as part of Changsha commandary." Li Daoyuan remarked, "The Xian River flows north until it reaches Mount Baqiu, where it enters the Yangzi. The capital city of Baling was in the hills there, on the right bank of the river. It was originally the Baling estate built by Eastern Wu. Jin established it as Baling county, and later established it as Jianchang commandary.")


會稽世子元顯,年十六,有儁才,爲侍中,說道子以王、殷終必爲患,請潛爲之備。道子乃拜元顯征虜將軍,以其衞府及徐州文武悉配之。

42. At this time, Sima Daozi's heir as Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yuanxian, was fifteen years old. He had exceptional talents, and he was appointed as a Palace Attendant. He advised Sima Daozi that Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan would certainly be threats to him someday, and asked him to secretly make preparations against them. Sima Daozi appointed him as General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, and he was granted control of all the household guards and all the civil and military officials of Xuzhou.

〈爲元顯討王、殷張本。〉

(This was why Sima Yuanxian later campaigned against Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan.)


魏王珪以軍食不給,命東平公儀去鄴,徙屯鉅鹿,積租楊城。慕容詳出步卒六千人,伺間襲魏諸屯;珪擊破之,斬首五千,生擒七百人,皆縱之。

43. Tuoba Gui's army was short of food, so he ordered Tuoba Yi to leave Ye and shift his forces to camp at Julu instead, where he could amass grain at Yangcheng. Murong Xiang marched out of Zhongshan with six thousand infantry, trying to take advantage of this opening to launch a surprise attack on the Wei camps. But Tuoba Gui routed his army. He took five thousand heads, and he also captured seven hundred people, but he released them all.

〈縱之,所以攜中山城中之人心。〉

(Tuoba Gui released these captives in order to win over the hearts of the people living in Zhongshan.)


夏四月,帝以軍糧未繼,乃詔征東大將軍東平公元儀罷鄴圍,徙屯鉅鹿,積租楊城。普隣出步卒六千餘人,伺間犯諸屯兵,詔將軍長孫肥等輕騎挑之,帝以虎隊五千橫截其後,斬首五千,生虜七百人,宥而遣之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In summer, the fourth month, because the Northern Wei's food supplies had not arrived, Tuoba Gui ordered his Grand General Who Conquers The East and Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Yi, to lift his siege of Ye and shift his camp to Julu in order to gather supplies at Yangcheng. Murong Pulin marched out with more than six thousand infantry, trying to take advantage of this opening to launch a surprise attack on the Wei camps. But Tuoba Gui ordered his generals Zhangsun Fei and others to keep Murong Pulin pinned down with light cavalry, while Tuoba Gui himself led five thousand soldiers of the Tiger Division to smash his rear. He took five thousand heads, and he also captured seven hundred people, but he pardoned and released them all.


初,張掖盧水胡沮渠羅仇,匈奴沮渠王之後也,世爲部帥。涼王光以羅仇爲尚書,從光伐西秦。及呂延敗死,羅仇弟三河太守麴粥謂羅仇曰:「主上荒耄信讒,今軍敗將死,正其猜忌智勇之時也。吾兄弟必不見容,與其死而無名,不若勒兵向西平,出苕藋,奮臂一呼,涼州不足定也。」羅仇曰:「誠如汝言。然吾家世以忠孝著於西土,寧使人負我,我不忍負人也。」光果聽讒,以敗軍之罪殺羅仇及麴粥。羅仇弟子蒙遜,雄傑有策略,涉獵書史,以羅仇、麴粥之喪歸葬;諸部多其族姻,會葬者凡萬餘人。蒙遜哭謂衆曰:「呂王昏荒無道,多殺不辜。吾之上世,虎視河西,今欲與諸部雪二父之恥,復上世之業,何如?」衆咸稱萬歲。遂結盟起兵,攻涼臨松郡,拔之,屯據金山。

44. Up until now, there had lived a certain leader of the Lushui tribes, Juqu Luochou of Zhangye commandary. He was a descendant of the Juqu Prince of the Xiongnu, and for generations his ancestors had been leaders of the local people. Lü Guang had appointed Juqu Luochou as one of his Masters of Writing, and Juqu Luochou had followed him during his campaign against Western Qin.

After Lü Yan was defeated and killed in battle, Lü Guang's Administrator of Sanhe commandary, Juqu Luochou's younger brother Juqu Quzhou, said to him, "Our sovereign is an old fool who trusts in slander. Now the army has just been defeated and our general is dead, so he is certain to be suspicious of anyone who is clever or bold. Surely he won't put up with us either, and we would die in obscurity. It would be better for us to lead our troops west to Xiping and go out to Shaodiao. You could raise your arm and rally people to you, and Liangzhou would not be able to stop us."

Juqu Luochou replied, "What you say is true. Yet our family has served the west with loyalty and filial piety for generations. I'd rather let people betray me than for me to betray them."

Lü Guang indeed listened to slander, and he blamed Juqu Luochou and Juqu Quzhou for Lü Yan's defeat and killed them both.

Juqu Luochou had a nephew, Juqu Mengxun, who was bold, talented, and very cunning and good at developing plans. He even had some knowledge of the classics and the histories. He went home to arrange the mourning for Juqu Luochou and Juqu Quzhou, and many people in his forces were his relatives by blood or marriage, so there were more than ten thousand people present for the funeral. Juqu Mengxun wept as he addressed the crowd, saying, "King Lü is foolish, dull, and without principle, and he has killed many innocent people. For generations, my ancestors looked with tiger's eyes upon the lands west of the Yellow River. Now I ask you all to join with me to avenge my uncles' shame. Let us revive the ambitions of my ancestors. What do you say?"

The crowd all acclaimed him as their leader. They swore an oath together and then raised soldiers, and they attacked Liang's Linsong commandary and took it, then camped at Mount Jin.

〈盧水胡分居安定、張掖,史各以其所居郡繫之。沮,子余翻。《北史》曰:沮渠世居張掖臨松盧水。〉〈呂光得涼州,自號三河王,此郡蓋光置也。賢曰:三河,謂金城河、賜支河、湟河,此郡當置於漢張掖、金城郡界。〉〈河西張氏置西平郡,唐爲鄯州之地。苕藋,地名,在漢張掖郡番禾縣界。〉〈蒙遜之先,世爲匈奴左沮渠。河西,匈奴左地也。世居盧水爲酋豪,其高曾皆雄健有勇名。〉〈臨松郡,張天錫置,後周廢入張掖郡張掖縣。〉〈《五代史志》,張掖删丹縣有金山。沮渠蒙遜事始此。〉

(The Lushui tribes lived in Anding and Zhangye commandaries, and the histories all mention that they lived together there.

The first character of Juqu Luochou's surname, 沮, is pronounced "zu (z-u)".

This passage mentions that Juqu Quzhou was Administrator of "Sanhe" commandary. When Lü Guang had obtained control of Liangzhou, he had declared himself Prince of Sanhe or the Three He's. So he must have also created this Sanhe commandary as well. Li Xian remarked, "The 'Three He's' in this case meant the Yellow River as it flowed through Jincheng, Cizhi, and Huang." So this commandary must have been somewhere around where the Han commandaries of Zhangye and Jincheng were.

The Zhang clan of Former Liang had created Xiping commandary. During Tang, it was part of Shanzhou.

Shaodiao was the name of a place, in Fanhe county in Han's Zhangye commandary.

For generations, Juqu Mengxun's ancestors had been the Juqu Princes of the Left of the Xiongnu. The Hexi region or the region west of the Yellow River had been the left part of the Xiongnu territory. For generations, the Lushi tribes had been local chiefs in that area, and they were all recognized for their boldness and valor and had a reputation for such.

Linsong commandary was created by Zhang Tianxi of Former Liang. Northern Zhou folded it back into Zhangye county in Zhangye commandary.

According to the Histories and Records of the Five Dynasties, there was a Mount Jin in Shandan county in Zhangye commandary.

This is the first mention of Juqu Mengxun.)


光荒耄信讒,殺尚書沮渠羅仇、三河太守沮渠麹粥。羅仇弟子蒙遜叛光,殺中田護軍馬邃,攻陷臨松郡,屯兵金山,大為百姓之患。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

By now, Lü Guang was an old fool who trusted in slander. He killed one of his Masters of Writing, Juqu Luochou, and his Administrator of Sanhe, Juqu Quzhou. Juqu Luochou's nephew Juqu Mengxun rebelled against Lü Guang; he killed the Protector-General of the Central Fields, Ma Sui, attacked and captured Linsong commandary, and camped his soldiers at Mount Jin. He was a great scourge to the common people.

沮渠蒙遜,臨松盧水胡人。其先世為匈奴左沮渠,遂以官為氏。遜好學,涉羣史,雄烈有英畧。後涼龍飛二年,遜伯父羅仇、麴粥從呂光征河南,光前軍大敗,皆為光所殺,宗部會葬者萬餘人,遜哭謂衆曰:「昔漢祚中微,吾之乃祖,翼獎竇融,保寧河右,呂王耄荒,虐民無道,豈可坐觀成敗,不上繼先祖安民之志,下使二父有恨黃泉?」衆咸稱萬歲,遂立盟約,一旬之間,衆至萬餘。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 9, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun was a member of the Lushui tribes of Linsong commandary. His ancestors were the Juqu Princes of the Right of the Xiongnu, and the clan took their name from their title. Juqu Mengxun enjoyed learning, and he was familiar with all the histories; he also had a bold spirit and a heroic bearing.

In Later Liang's second year of Longfei (397), Juqu Mengxun's uncles Juqu Luochou and Juqu Quzhou accompanied Lü Guang on his campaign south of the Yellow River. But after Lü Guang's forward army was greatly defeated, the two of them were killed by Lü Guang. More than ten thousand of their clansmen came together to attend their funeral, where Juqu Mengxun wept as he told them, "In former times, when the reign of the Han dynasty was interrupted, our ancestor, the general Dou Rong, guarded and kept peace in the Heyou region. Now King Lü is foolish, wasteful, cruel to the peace, and without principle. How can we merely stand by and do nothing? Shall we not continue the legacy of our ancestors and settle the people above, while avenging my uncles in the Golden Springs below?"

The crowd all acclaimed Juqu Mengxun and hailed his longevity, and they made him the leader of their alliance. Within ten days, they had gathered an army of more than ten thousand.

胡沮渠蒙遜,本出臨松盧水,其先為匈奴左沮渠,遂以官為氏。蒙遜滑稽有權變,頗曉天文,為諸胡所歸。呂光殺其伯父西平太守羅仇,蒙遜聚眾萬餘,屯於金山。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun was a member of the Lushui tribes. His ancestors were the Juqu Princes of the Right of the Xiongnu, and the clan took their name from the title. Juqu Mengxun was a clever and cunning fellow who was good at adapting to circumstances, and he was inclined towards reading the heavens. The tribes all followed his lead.

When Lü Guang killed his Administrator of Xiping, Juqu Mengxun's uncle Juqu Luochou, Juqu Mengxun gathered together an army of more than ten thousand and camped at Mount Jin.

沮渠蒙遜,臨松盧水胡人也。其先世為匈奴左沮渠,遂以官為氏焉。蒙遜博涉群史,頗曉天文,雄傑有英略,滑稽善權變,梁熙、呂光皆奇而憚之,故常遊飲自晦。會伯父羅仇、麹粥從呂光征河南,光前軍大敗,麹粥言于兄羅仇曰:「主上荒耄驕縱,諸子朋黨相傾,讒人側目。今軍敗將死,正是智勇見猜之日,可不懼乎!吾兄弟素為所憚,與其經死溝瀆,豈若勒眾向西平,出苕藋,奮臂大呼,涼州不足定也。」羅仇曰:「理如汝言,但吾家累世忠孝,為一方所歸,寧人負我,無我負人。」俄而皆為光所殺。宗姻諸部會葬者萬餘人,蒙遜哭謂眾曰:「昔漢祚中微,吾之乃祖翼獎竇融,保寧河右。呂王昏耄,荒虐無道,豈可不上繼先祖安時之志,使二父有恨黃泉!」眾咸稱萬歲。遂斬光中田護軍馬邃、臨松令井祥以盟,一旬之間,眾至萬餘。屯據金山。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun was a member of the Lushui tribes of Linsong commandary. His ancestors were the Juqu Princes of the Right of the Xiongnu, and the clan took their name from their title. Juqu Mengxun was learned and conversant in the old histories, and he was inclined towards reading the heavens. He was a bold hero with grand strategies, a clever and cunning fellow who was good at adapting to circumstances. Both Liang Xi (Fu Jian's Inspector of Liangzhou) and Lü Guang feared and respected him, so Juqu Mengxun often drank and wandered about to divert attention from himself.

Later, Juqu Mengxun's uncles Juqu Luochou and Juqu Quzhou accompanied Lü Guang on his campaign south of the Yellow River. When Lü Guang's forward army suffered a great defeated, Juqu Quzhou said to Juqu Luochou, "Our sovereign is an old fool who does whatever he pleases, his sons surround themselves with their friends and partisans, and there are slanderers all around. Now the army has just been defeated and our general is dead, so he is certain to be suspicious of anyone who is clever or bold; how can we not be worried? He has long been afraid of us, and he would seize on this pretext to make us die in obscurity. It would be better for us to lead our troops west to Xiping and go out to Shaodiao. You could raise your arm and rally people to you, and Liangzhou would not be able to stop us."

Juqu Luochou replied, "What you say is true. Yet our family has with loyalty and filial piety for generations, and that is why the people come to us. I'd rather let people betray me than for me to betray them."

Soon, both of them were killed by Lü Guang. More than ten thousand of their clansmen and marital relatives came together to attend their funeral, where Juqu Mengxun wept as he told them, "In former times, when the reign of the Han dynasty was interrupted, our ancestor, the general Dou Rong, guarded and kept peace in the Heyou region. Now King Lü is foolish, wasteful, cruel to the peace, and without principle. How can we merely stand by and do nothing? Shall we not continue the legacy of our ancestors and settle the people above, while avenging my uncles in the Golden Springs below?"

The crowd all acclaimed Juqu Mengxun and hailed his longevity. He beheaded Lü Guang's Protector-General of Central Fields, Ma Sui, and his Prefect of Linsong, Jing Xiang, as a sign of the new alliance. Within ten days, he had gathered an army of more than ten thousand. He camped at Mount Jin.


司徒左長史王廞,導之孫也,以母喪居吳。王恭之討王國寶也,版廞行吳國內史,使起兵於東方。廞使前吳國內史虞嘯父等入吳興、義興召募兵衆,赴者萬計。未幾,國寶死,恭罷兵,符廞去職,反喪服。廞以起兵之際,誅異己者頗多,勢不得止,遂大怒,不承恭命,使其子泰將兵伐恭,牋於會稽王道子,稱恭罪惡;道子以其牋送恭。五月,恭遣司馬劉牢之帥五千人擊泰,斬之。又與廞戰於曲阿,衆潰,廞單騎走,不知所在。收虞嘯父下廷尉,以其祖潭有功,免爲庶人。

45. Jin's Chief Clerk of the Left to the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Xin, was the grandson of Wang Dao. He was living at home in Wu commandary, mourning the death of his mother. When Wang Gong launched his campaign against Wang Guobao, he sent Wang Xin a provisional appointment as Interior Minister of the Wu princely fief and charged him to raise troops in the east to support the campaign. So Wang Xin sent the former Interior Minister of Wu, Yu Xiaofu, and others into Wuxing and Yixing commandaries to summon and recruit soldiers and form armies, and about ten thousand people assembled for that purpose.

But before anything could actually be done with the new troops, Wang Guobao had died and Wang Gong had disbanded his own army. So Wang Gong now ordered Wang Xin to resign his provisional appointment and put on his mourning clothes again. But Wang Xin had executed many dissenters during the time when he had been raising troops, and he no longer wanted to give up his power, so he was very angry and he would not obey Wang Gong's order. He sent his son Wang Tai to lead the troops to campaign against Wang Gong, and he sent a letter to Sima Daozi calling Wang Gong an evil criminal. Sima Daozi forwarded this letter to Wang Gong.

In the fifth month, Wang Gong sent his Marshal, Liu Laozhi, to lead five thousand troops to attack Wang Tai, and Liu Laozhi beheaded him. Then he fought Wang Xin at Qu'a. Wang Xin's army scattered, and he fled on a lone horse to some unknown place.

Liu Laozhi arrested Yu Xiaofu and handed him over to the Minister of Justice. But because of the merits of his grandfather Yu Tan on behalf of the dynasty, Yu Xiaofu was merely stripped of office and became a commoner.

〈以白版授官,非朝命也。〉〈三吳皆在建康之東。〉〈虞潭有討蘇峻之功。〉

(Wang Gong merely granted Wang Xin a provisional appointment; it was not a full appointment backed by court authority.

The commandaries of the Three Wu regions were all east of Jiankang.

Yu Tan had gained merit in the suppression of Su Jun's rebellion.)


五月,前司徒長史王廞以吳郡反,王恭討平之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, the former Chief Clerk to the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Xin, rebelled in Wu commandary. Wang Gong campaigned against Wang Xin and put down his rebellion.


燕庫傉官驥入中山,與開封公詳相攻。詳殺驥,盡滅庫傉官氏;又殺中山尹苻謨,夷其族。中山城無定主,民恐魏兵乘之,男女結盟,人自爲戰。

46. The Yan general Kunuguan Ji entered Zhongshan, where he began fighting with Murong Xiang. Murong Xiang killed Kunuguan Ji, then massacred the Kunuguan clan. He also killed the Intendant of Zhongshan, Fu Mo, and wiped out his clan. Zhongshan was left without any real leader, and the common people were afraid that the Wei army would take advantage of it. Men and women formed their own bonds, and people fought for themselves.

〈慕容寶遣驥助守中山,因與詳相攻。〉〈使慕容農、慕容隆留中山而用之,未可知也。〉

(Murong Bao had sent Kunuguan Ji back to help support the defense of Zhongshan. This was why he came into conflict with Murong Xiang.

If only Murong Nong and Murong Long had stayed behind in Zhongshan and led these people, who knows what might have happened?)


甲辰,魏王珪罷中山之圍,就穀河間,督諸郡義租。甲寅,以東平公儀爲驃騎大將軍、都督中外諸軍事、兗‧豫‧雍‧荊‧徐‧揚六州牧、左丞相,封衞王。

47. On the day Jiachen (June 18th), Tuoba Gui lifted his siege of Zhongshan. He gathered grain at Hejian, and he began overseeing tax collection from the various local commandaries.

On the day Jiayin (June 28th), he appointed Tuoba Yi as Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Commander of all military affairs, Governor of Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Yongzhou, Jingzhou, Xuzhou, and Yangzhou, Prime Minister of the Left, and Prince of Wey.

夏五月庚子,大賞功臣。帝以中山城內為普隣所脅,而大軍迫之,欲降無路,及密招喻之。甲辰,曜兵揚威以示城內,命諸軍罷圍南徙以待其變。甲寅,以東平公元儀為驃騎大將軍、都督中外諸軍事、兗豫雍荊徐揚六州牧、左丞相,封衞王。襄城公元題,進封為王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the fifth month, on the day Gengzi (June 14th), Tuoba Gui greatly rewarded his ministers for their achievements.

Tuoba Gui believed that the people inside of Zhongshan were being forced to follow Murong Pulin's orders, but although they wanted to surrender to Northern Wei, they had no means to do so, because his own main army was posing such a great threat to the city. So he secretly sent word to explain himself to the people. On the day Jiachen (June 18th), Tuoba Gui displayed his soldiers as a show of force to the people inside the city, then ordered his generals to lift the siege of the city and shift their position south in order to watch and await any new developments.

On the day Jiayin (June 28th), he appointed his Duke of Dongping, Tuoba Yi, as Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Commander of all military affairs, Governor of Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Yongzhou, Jingzhou, Xuzhou, and Yangzhou, Prime Minister of the Left, and Prince of Wey. And he advanced the title of his Duke of Xiangcheng, Tuoba Ti, to Prince.


慕容詳自謂能卻魏兵,威德已振,乃卽皇帝位,改元建始,置百官。以新平公可足渾潭爲車騎大將軍、尚書令,殺拓跋觚以固衆心。

48. Murong Xiang claimed that he would be able to resist the Wei army, and his power and virtue had already spread. So he declared himself the new Emperor of Yan. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianshi, and he established the imperial offices. He appointed the Duke of Xinping, Kezuhun Tan, as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

Murong Xiang also killed Tuoba Gu to harden the resolve of the people.

〈「潭」,當作「譚」。〉〈觚先使燕,爲燕所留,珪之弟也。〉

(This passage writes Kezuhun Tan's given name as 潭 Tan, but it should be 譚 Tan.

This was the same Tuoba Gu who had earlier been sent to Later Yan as an envoy and been detained all this time; he was Tuoba Gui's younger brother.)


慕容寶將慕容詳僭卽皇帝位于中山。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Murong Bao's general Murong Xiang declared himself Emperor at Zhongshan.

五月詳遂僭稱尊號。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the fifth month, Murong Xiang declared himself Emperor.

詳僭稱尊號,置百官,改年號。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Xiang declared himself Emperor; he created the imperial offices, and he changed the reign era title.


鄴中官屬勸范陽王德稱尊號,會有自龍城來者,知燕主寶猶存,乃止。

49. The Yan ministers and officials in Ye urged Murong De to declare himself Emperor. But then agents came to Ye from Longcheng, bringing news that Murong Bao was still alive, so they stopped.

寶既東走,羣僚勸德稱尊號,德不從。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

After Murong Bao fled to the east, the Later Yan ministers urged Murong De to declare himself Emperor, but he would not agree.

時魏師入中山,慕容寶出奔于薊,慕容詳又僭號。會劉藻自姚興而至,興太史令高魯遣其甥王景暉隨藻送玉璽一紐,並圖識秘文,曰:「有德者昌,無德者亡。德受天命,柔而復剛。」又有謠曰:「大風蓬勃揚塵埃,八井三刀卒起來,四海鼎沸中山頹,惟有德人據三台。」於是德之群臣議以慕容詳僭號中山,魏師盛于冀州,未審寶之存亡,因勸德即尊號。德不從。會慕容達自龍城奔鄴,稱寶猶存,群議乃止。尋而寶以德為丞相,領冀州牧,承制南夏。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

At this time, the Northern Wei army entered Zhongshan, and Murong Bao fled the city and went to Ji. Murong Xiang also declared himself Emperor.

Then Liu Zao returned from his diplomatic mission to Yao Xing. Yao Xing's Prefect of the Astrologers Bureau, Gao Yang, had sent his son-in-law Wang Jinghui to accompany Liu Zao back to see Murong De. Wang Jinghui presented Murong De with a gold seal, along with a book of prophecies, which stated, "The one who possesses virtue (De) will prosper, while the one who lacks virtue will be doomed. The virtuous shall receive the mandate of heaven, and though he was supple, he shall be made firm." And there was a ditty which went, "A vigorous wind will kick up the dust; the soldiers of the eight wells and three blades shall rise. The tripods of the Four Seas will boil over as Zhongshan falls into ruin; only the virtuous man shall occupy the Three Terraces (at Ye)."

So Murong De's subordinates discussed the situation. Since Murong Xiang had presumed to declare himself Emperor at Zhongshan, the Northern Wei army was spread across Jizhou, and no one knew whether Murong Bao was still alive or not, they urged Murong De to declare himself Emperor. But he would not agree. And not long afterwards, when Murong Da fled from Longcheng to Ye, he reported that Murong Bao was indeed still alive. So the discussion stopped.


涼王光遣太原公纂將兵擊沮渠蒙遜於怱谷,破之。蒙遜逃入山中。

50. Lü Guang sent Lü Zuan to lead troops to attack Juqu Mengxun at Cong Valley, and Lü Zuan routed Juqu Mengxun. Juqu Mengxun fled into the hills.

〈怱谷,當在删丹縣界。〉

(Cong Valley must have been in Shandan county.)


呂纂敗蒙遜于忽穀。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Zuan defeated Juqu Mengxun at Hu Valley.


蒙遜從兄男成為涼將軍,聞蒙遜起兵,亦合衆數千屯樂涫。酒泉太守壘澄討男成,兵敗,澄死。

51. Juqu Mengxun's cousin Juqu Nancheng was serving as a Liang general. But when he heard that Juqu Mengxun had raised troops in rebellion, he also gathered several thousand soldiers and camped at Leguan county. Liang's Administrator of Jiuquan, Lei Cheng, campaigned against Juqu Nancheng, but his troops were defeated and Lei Cheng was killed.

〈樂涫縣,漢屬酒泉郡,後周廢入福祿縣。〉〈壘,姓;澄,名。〉

(During Han, Leguan county was part of Jiuquan commandary. Northern Zhou folded it into Fulu county.

壘 Lei was this man's surname, and 澄 Cheng was his given name.)


蒙遜從兄男成先為將軍,守晉昌,聞蒙遜起兵,逃奔貲虜,扇動諸夷,眾至數千,進攻福祿、建安。甯戎護軍趙策擊敗之,男成退屯樂涫... 酒泉太守壘澄率將軍趙策、趙陵步騎萬餘討男成于樂涫,戰敗,澄、策死之。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Juqu Mengxun's cousin Juqu Nancheng was serving as one of Lü Guang's generals, guarding Jinchang. But when he heard that Juqu Mengxun had raised troops in rebellion, he fled to Zilu, where he stirred up the various tribes there and gathered several thousand soldiers. He advanced and attacked Fulu and Jian'an. Lü Guang's Protector-General Who Calms The Rong Tribes, Zhao Ce, attacked and defeated him, so Juqu Nancheng retreated to camp at Leguan. Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiuquan, Lei Cheng, led the generals Zhao Ce and Zhao Ling with more than ten thousand horse and foot to campaign against Juqu Nancheng at Leiguan, but their troops were defeated and Lei Cheng and Zhao Ce were killed.


男成進攻建康,遣使說建康太守段業曰:「呂氏政衰,權臣擅命,刑殺無常,人無容處。一州之地,叛者相望,瓦解之形昭然在目,百姓嗷然無所依附。府君柰何以蓋世之才,欲立忠於垂亡之國!男成等旣唱大義,欲屈府君撫臨鄙州,使塗炭之餘,蒙來蘇之惠,何如?」業不從。相持二旬,外救不至,郡人高逵、史惠等勸業從男成之請。業素與涼侍中房晷、僕射王詳不平,懼不自安,乃許之。男成等推業爲大都督、龍驤大將軍、涼州牧、建康公,改元神璽。以男成爲輔國將軍,委以軍國之任。蒙遜帥衆歸業,業以蒙遜爲鎭西將軍。光命太原公纂將兵討業,不克。

52. Juqu Nancheng advanced to attack Jiankang commandary. He sent envoys to visit Liang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, and persuade him, "The Lü clan has governed this land poorly; their great ministers do as they please, people are punished or killed arbitrarily, and the people know no peace. The Lü clan controls only a single province, yet it is filled with rebels on all sides; its imminent destruction is clear for all to see. But the common people lament that they have no one whom they can turn to. Administrator, when you have such talents that surpass the age, why do you continue to uphold such loyalty to a state on the brink of collapse? We, Juqu Nancheng and the rest, are now sounding the call of great righteousness. Administrator, we wish to bow to your leadership, so that you will comfort and assure the people of this province and save them from their misery. Be their prince, so that 'when you come, they revive'. Will you do so?"

Duan Ye would not agree, and the two sides kept up a stalemate for twenty days. But since no reinforcements were coming to help the loyalists, natives of the commandary, Gao Kui, Shi Hui, and others, urged Duan Ye to agree to Juqu Nancheng's proposal. Duan Yue himself had long been uneasy around Liang's Palace Attendant, Fang Gui, and their Supervisor, Wang Xiang, and he was afraid for his position in any case. So he at last agreed to the proposal.

Juqu Nancheng and the others acclaimed Duan Ye as Grand Commander, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Jiankang, and they changed the reign era title to the first year of Shenxi. Juqu Nancheng was appointed as General Who Upholds The State, and he was entrusted with all military and state affairs. Juqu Mengxun led his forces to join Duan Ye, and Duan Ye appointed him as General Who Guards The West.

Lü Guang ordered Lü Zuan to lead troops to campaign against Duan Ye, but Lü Zuan was unsuccessful.

〈《書》曰:傒我后,后來其蘇。〉

(The Book of Documents states, "We have waited for our prince; our prince is come, and we revive. (Announcement of Zhonghui)")


三月... 光建康太守段業自號涼州牧。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, declared himself Governor of Liangzhou.

男成進攻建康,說太守段業曰:「呂氏政衰,權臣擅命,刑罰失中,人不堪役,一州之地,叛者連城,瓦解之勢,昭然在目,百姓嗷然,無所宗附。府君豈可以蓋世之才,而立忠於垂亡之世!男成等既唱大義,欲屈府君撫臨鄙州,使塗炭之余蒙來蘇之惠。」業不從。相持二旬而外救不至,郡人高逵、史惠等言於業曰:「今孤城獨立,台無救援,府君雖心過田單,而地非即墨,宜思高算,轉禍為福。」業先與光侍中房晷、僕射王詳不平,慮不自容,乃許之。男成等推業為大都督、龍驤大將軍、涼州牧、建康公。光命呂纂討業,沮渠蒙遜進屯臨洮,為業聲勢。戰于合離,纂師大敗。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Juqu Nancheng advanced to attack Jiankang commandary. He persuaded Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, saying, "The Lü clan has governed this land poorly; their great ministers do as they please, people are punished or killed arbitrarily, and the people cannot bear the labors enforced upon them. The Lü clan controls only a single province, yet it is filled with rebels on all sides; its imminent destruction is clear for all to see. But the common people lament that they have no one whom they can turn to. Administrator, when you have such talents that surpass the age, why do you continue to uphold such loyalty to a state on the brink of collapse? We, Juqu Nancheng and the rest, are now sounding the call of great righteousness. Administrator, we wish to bow to your leadership, so that you will comfort and assure the people of this province and save them from their misery. Be their prince, so that 'when you come, they revive'."

Duan Ye would not agree, and the two sides kept up a stalemate for twenty days. But since no reinforcements were coming to help the loyalists, natives of the commandary, Gao Kui, Shi Hui, and others, said to Duan Ye, "Why continue to maintain this isolated city all on your own, when you are not being sent any assistance? Administrator, although your determination surpasses even that of the ancient hero Tian Dan, this place is not the equal of his city of Jimo. You should consider the bigger picture, and exchange disaster for blessing." Duan Yue himself had long been uneasy around Lü Guang's Palace Attendant, Fang Gui, and his Supervisor, Wang Xiang, and he was afraid for his position in any case. So he at last agreed to the proposal.

Juqu Nancheng and the others acclaimed Duan Ye as Grand Commander, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Jiankang. Lü Guang ordered Lü Zuan to lead troops to campaign against Duan Ye, but Juqu Mengxun advanced to camp at Lintao in order to provide support for Duan Ye. The two sides fought at Heli, where Lü Zuan's army was greatly defeated.

與從兄男成推光建康太守段業為涼州牧,建康公,改龍飛二年為神璽元年。業以遜為張掖太守,男成為輔國大將軍,委以軍國之任。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 9, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun and his cousin Juqu Nancheng acclaimed Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, as Governor of Liangzhou and Duke of Jiankang. Duan Ye changed the reign era title from the second year of Longfei to the first year of Shenxi. He appointed Juqu Mengxun as his Administrator of Zhangye and Juqu Nancheng as his Grand General Who Upholds The State, and he entrusted them with the affairs of the army and of state.

與從兄晉昌太守男成共推建康太守段業為使持節、大都督、龍驤大將軍、涼州牧、建康公,稱神璽元年。業以蒙遜為張掖太守...男成為輔國將軍,委以軍國之任。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun and the Administrator of Jinchang, his cousin Juqu Nancheng, acclaimed Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, Grand Dragon-Soaring General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Jiankang, and they changed the reign era title to the first year of Shenxi. Duan Ye appointed Juqu Mengxun as his Administrator of Zhangye, and he appointed Juqu Nancheng as his General Who Upholds The State, and entrusted them with the affairs of the army and of state.

與從兄男成推光建康太守段業為使持節、大都督、龍驤大將軍、涼州牧、建康公,改呂光龍飛二年為神璽元年。業以蒙遜為張掖太守,男成為輔國將軍,委以軍國之任。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Juqu Mengxun and his cousin Juqu Nancheng acclaimed Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand Commander, Grand Dragon-Soaring General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Jiankang, and they changed the reign era title from Lü Guang's second year of Longfei to the first year of Shenxi. Duan Ye appointed Juqu Mengxun as his Administrator of Zhangye and Juqu Nancheng as his General Who Upholds The State, and entrusted them with the affairs of the army and of state.


六月,西秦王乾歸徵北河州刺史彭奚念爲鎭衞將軍;以鎭西將軍屋弘破光爲河州牧;定州刺史翟瑥爲興晉太守,鎭枹罕。

53. In the sixth month, Qifu Gangui summoned his Inspector of Northern Hezhou, Peng Xinian, to come and served as his General Who Guards And Protects. He appointed his General Who Guards The West, Wuhong (or Wuyin) Poguang, as Governor of Hezhou. He appointed his Inspector of Dingzhou, Zhai Wen, as Administrator of Xingjin, and Zhai Wen was stationed at Fuhan.

〈「屋弘」,當作「屋引」。《魏書‧官氏志》,內入諸姓有屋引氏,後改爲房氏。張駿分興晉、金城、武始、南安、永晉、大夏、武成、漢中爲河州。北河州,乞伏氏所置也,治枹罕。鎭衞將軍,劉聰所置。〉〈張茂分武興、金城、西平、安故爲定州。興晉郡亦張氏置。枹罕縣,漢屬金城郡,後漢屬隴西郡,後又分屬西平郡,張駿分屬晉興郡,後又分置興晉郡。〉

(The surname 屋弘 Wuhong here should be 屋引 Wuyin. According to the Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei, among the clans that came to join Tuoba Liefen was the Wuyin clan, which later shortened its name to Fang.

Zhang Jun of Former Liang had organized the commandaries of Xingjin, Jincheng, Wushi, Nan'an, Yongjin, Daxia, Wucheng, and Hanzhong into a new province called Hezhou. Northern Hezhou was a creation of the Qifu clan, and it was governed from Fuhan.

The rank of General Who Guards And Protects was created by Liu Cong of Han-Zhao.

Zhang Mao of Former Liang had organized the commandaries of Wuxing, Jincheng, Xiping, and Angu into the new province of Dingzhou. Xingjin commandary was also a creation of the Zhang clan.

During Han, Fuhan county was part of Jincheng commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Longxi commandary. It was later split off as part of Xiping commandary. Zhang Jun split it off again as part of Jinxing commandary. It was later split off yet again as part of Xingjin commandary.)


秋,七月,慕容詳殺可足渾潭。詳嗜酒奢淫,不恤士民,刑殺無度,所誅王公以下五百餘人,羣下離心。城中飢窘,詳不聽民出采稆,死者相枕,舉城皆謀迎趙王麟。詳遣輔國將軍張驤帥五千餘人督租於常山,麟自丁零入驤軍,潛襲中山,城門不閉,執詳,斬之。麟遂稱尊號,聽人四出采稆。人旣飽,求與魏戰,麟不從,稍復窮餒。魏王珪軍魯口,遣長孫肥帥騎七千襲中山,入其郛;麟追至泒水,爲魏所敗而還。

54. In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Xiang killed Kezuhun Tan. Murong Xiang was addicted to wine and indulgent in pleasures, and he did not tend to the gentry and the common people; he punished or killed however he wished, and more than five hundred people were executed, from princes and nobles on down. So the people living under him became alienated from him. The people living in Zhongshan were hungry and suffering, but Murong Xiang would not listen to their pleas to go out and forage wild plants. People died one after the other.

The defenders of the city plotted to welcome Murong Lin as their new leader. Murong Xiang sent the General Who Upholds The State, Zhang Xiang, to lead more than five thousand people to collect taxes from Changshan commandary. While they were there, Murong Lin and the remaining Dingling forces mingled with the other soldiers, and so they secretly entered Zhongshan while the gates were open. They captured Murong Xiang and beheaded him.

Then Murong Lin declared himself Emperor. He listened to the pleas of the people, and sent them out in all directions to forage the wild plants. After eating their fill, the people then asked to fight the Wei army in battle. But Murong Lin refused to allow it, and very soon the people were just as hungry and suffering as before.

Tuoba Gui's army was at Lukou. He sent Zhangsun Fei to lead seven thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against Zhongshan, and they passed through the city's outer walls during their raid. Murong Lin pursued them as they were leaving, and caught up with them at the Gu River, but he was defeated by the Wei army, so he returned to Zhongshan.

〈禾不布種而自生曰稆。〉〈泒水,在中山新市縣。《輿地志》云:盧奴城北臨滱水,面泒河。〉

(Grains that grow on their own, without having been cultivated by farmers, are called wild plants.

The Gu River was in Xinshi county in Zhongshan commandary. The 輿地志 states, "The city of Lunu is adjacent to the Kou River to the north, facing the Gu River.")


秋七月,普隣遣烏丸張驤率五千餘人出城求食,寇常山之靈壽,殺害吏民。賀麟自丁零中入于驤軍,因其眾,復入中山,殺普隣而自立。帝還幸魯口,遣將軍長孫肥一千騎襲中山,入其郛而還。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Pulin sent the Wuhuan leader Zhang Xiang to lead more than five thousand people out of the city to forage for food. They invaded Lingshou in Changshan, where they killed or wounded the officials and common people. Murong Helin came from among the Dingling people to enter Murong Xiang's army, and mixed in with them, he reentered Zhongshan, where he killed Murong Pulin and set himself up as leader instead.

Tuoba Gui returned to Lukou. He sent his general Zhangsun Fei to lead a thousand cavalry to launch a surprise attack against Zhongshan, and they passed through the city's outer walls during their raid before returning.

九月,慕容寶將慕容麟斬慕容祥于中山,因僭卽皇帝位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, Murong Bao's general Murong Lin beheaded Murong Xiang at Zhongshan, then declared himself Emperor.

九月,麟率衆入中山,殺詳。麟復僭尊號。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the ninth month, Murong Lin led troops into Zhongshan and killed Murong Xiang. Murong Lin then declared himself Emperor.

詳荒酒奢淫,殺戮無度,誅其王公以下五百餘人,內外震局,莫敢忤視。城中大饑,公卿餓死者數十人。麟率丁零之眾入中山,斬詳及其親党三百餘人,復僭稱尊號。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Xiang declared himself Emperor; he created the imperial offices, and he changed the reign era title. Murong Xiang was addicted to wine and indulgent in pleasures; he punished or killed however he wished, and more than five hundred people were executed, from princes and nobles on down. Everyone was unsettled and afraid, but no one dared even to look unhappy.

There was great famine in Zhongshan, and several dozen of the nobles and chief ministers starved to death.

Murong Lin led the forces of the Dingling into Zhongshan, and he beheaded Murong Xiang and more than three hundred of his associates and partisans. Murong Lin then declared himself the Emperor.


八月,丙寅朔,魏王珪徙軍常山之九門。軍中大疫,人畜多死,將士皆思歸。珪問疫於諸將,對曰:「在者纔什四、五。」珪曰:「此固天命,將若之何!四海之民,皆可爲國,在吾所以御之耳,何患無民!」羣臣乃不敢言。遣撫軍大將軍略陽公遵襲中山,入其郛而還。

55. In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Bingyin (September 8th), Tuoba Gui shifted his camp to Jiumen county in Changshan commandary. His army was suffering from a great plague, and many of the people and the livestock died. His generals and soldiers all wanted to return home.

Tuoba Gui asked how bad the plague was, and his generals told him, "Barely four or five of every ten people are still alive."

Tuoba Gui replied, "Such a thing is the will of Heaven; what can I do about it? Besides, all the people within the Four Seas may serve as subjects of our state; I need only bring them under my command first. Why should we worry about running out of people?"

His ministers did not dare to respond.

Tuoba Gui sent his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, to launch another surprise attack on Zhongshan. Tuoba Zun too entered the outer walls of the city before turning back.

〈常山郡有九門縣。〉

(There was a Jiumen county in Changshan commandary.)


八月丙寅朔,帝自魯口進軍常山之九門。時大疫,人馬牛多死。帝問疫於諸將,對曰:「在者纔十四五。」是時中山猶拒守,而饑疫並臻,羣下咸思還北。帝知其意,因謂之曰:「斯固天命,將若之何!四海之人,皆可與為國,在吾所以撫之耳,何恤乎無民!」羣臣乃不敢復言。遣撫軍大將軍略陽公元遵襲中山,芟其禾䒩,入郛而還。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Bingyin (September 8th), Tuoba Gui advanced his army from Lukou to Jiumen in Changshan. At that time, his army was suffering from a great plague, and many of the people, horses, and livestock died.

Tuoba Gui asked how bad the plague was, and his generals told him, "Four or five of every ten people are afflicted." And since Zhongshan was still being stoutly defended and the plague and sickness were now spreading, Tuoba Gui's subordinates all wanted to return north.

Tuoba Gui knew what they wanted. So he replied, "Such a thing is the will of Heaven; what can I do about it? Besides, all the people within the Four Seas may serve as subjects of our state; I need only bring them under my command first. Why should we worry about running out of people?"

His ministers did not dare to say anything more.

Tuoba Gui sent his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, to launch another surprise attack on Zhongshan and capture their grain. Tuoba Zun too entered the outer walls of the city before turning back.


燕以遼西王農爲都督中外諸軍事、大司馬、錄尚書事。

56. Murong Bao appointed Murong Nong as Commander of all military affairs, Grand Marshal, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

涼散騎常侍、太常西平郭黁,善天文數術,國人信重之。會熒惑守東井,黁謂僕射王詳曰:「涼之分野,將有大兵。主上老病,太子闇弱,太原公凶悍,一旦不諱,禍亂必起。吾二人久居內要,彼常切齒,將爲誅首矣。田胡王乞基部落最強,二苑之人,多其舊衆。吾欲與公舉大事,推乞基爲主,二苑之衆,盡我有也。得城之後,徐更議之。」詳從之。黁夜以二苑之衆燒洪範門,使詳爲內應;事泄,詳被誅,黁遂據東苑以叛。民間皆言聖人舉兵,事無不成,從之者甚衆。

57. Liang's Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Minister of Ceremonies, Guo Nun of Xiping commandary, was skilled at reading the heavens and knew many mystic arts, so the people of that state trusted and believed in him.

At that time, Mars was residing in the Eastern Well constellation. Guo Nun told the Supervisor, Wang Xiang, "That constellation symbolizes the Liang region. There will soon be a great uprising of soldiers. Our sovereign is old and infirm, the Crown Prince is foolish and weak, and the Duke of Taiyuan (Lü Zuan) is wicked and violent. If anything unfortunate should happen to our sovereign, disaster will surely arise.

"Now you and I have long held important posts at court, and the Duke has long gnashed his teeth at us, so we would surely be the first ones to face execution. The Tianhu leader, Wang Qiji, leads the strongest forces and tribes in this region, and many of the people living in the two Yuancheng cities are old followers of his. We should undertake a great affair by acclaiming Wang Qiji as our leader, then all those people of the two Yuanchengs would be ours to command. Once we have secured control of the capital, then we can discuss what to do next."

Wang Xiang agreed. So during the night, Guo Nun led the people of the two Yuanchengs to set fire to the Hongfan Gate, with Wang Xiang supporting them from the inside. But the plot was discovered before it could be carried out, and Wang Xiang was executed.

Guo Nun then occupied the eastern Yuancheng and openly rebelled. The common people all said that with such a sage having raised troops in rebellion, he would surely succeed at everything, and Guo Nun gained a great many followers.

〈田胡,胡之一種也。〉〈涼州治姑臧,有東、西苑城。〉

(The Tianhu were another kind of tribal people.

Liangzhou was governed from the city of Guzang, which had the eastern and western outlying cities of Yuancheng.)


秋八月,呂光爲其僕射楊軌、散騎常侍郭黁所攻。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the eighth month, Lü Guang was attacked by his Deputy Director, Yang Gui, and his Cavalier In Regular Attendance.

光散騎常侍、太常郭黁明天文,善占候,謂王詳曰:「于天文,涼之分野將有大兵。主上老病,太子沖暗,纂等凶武,一旦不諱,必有難作。以吾二人久居內要,常有不善之言,恐禍及人,深宜慮之。田胡王氣乞機部眾最強,二苑之人多其故眾。吾今與公唱義,推機為主,則二苑之眾盡我有也。克城之後,徐更圖之。」詳以為然。夜燒光洪範門,二苑之眾皆附之,詳為內應。事發,光誅之。黁遂據東苑以叛。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang's Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Minister of Ceremonies, Guo Nun, was skilled at reading the heavens and knew how to perform divinations. Guo Nun said to Wang Xiang, "According to the current state of the heavens, there will soon be a great uprising of soldiers in the Liang region. Our sovereign is old and infirm, the Crown Prince is foolish and weak, and Lü Zuan and the others are wicked and violent. If anything unfortunate should happen to our sovereign, disaster will surely arise.

"Now you and I have long held important posts at court, and Lü Zuan and the others have often had bad words to say about us. I fear that the coming disaster will overtake us too, so we should deeply consider what we ought to do. The Tianhu leader, Wang Qiji, leads the strongest forces in this region, and many of the people living in the two Yuancheng cities are old followers of his. You and I should sound the call of great righteousness and acclaim Wang Qiji as our leader, then all those people of the two Yuanchengs would be ours to command. Once we have secured control of the capital, then we can discuss what to do next."

Wang Xiang agreed. So during the night, Guo Nun planned to set fire to the Hongfan Gate, with the people of the two Yuanchengs all on his side, while Wang Xiang supported them from the inside. But the plot was discovered before it could be carried out, and Lü Guang executed Wang Xiang. Guo Nun then occupied the eastern Yuancheng and openly rebelled.


涼王光召太原公纂使討黁。纂將還,諸將皆曰:「段業必躡軍後,宜潛師夜發。」纂曰:「業無雄才,憑城自守;若潛師夜去,適足張其氣勢耳。」乃遣使告業曰:「郭黁作亂,吾今還都;卿能決者,可早出戰。」於是引還。業不敢出。

58. Lü Guang summoned Lü Zuan back and sent him to campaign against Guo Nun.

As Lü Zuan was about to return, his generals all told him, "Duan Ye will surely trail our army if we leave. You should wait to leave secretly, under cover of night."

But Lü Zuan replied, "Duan Ye has no bold talents; he will do no more than guard his city. Besides, if we slip away during the night, that will only bolster his morale."

And he sent envoys to tell Duan Ye, "Guo Nun has risen in rebellion, and I am now returning to the capital. But if you want to decide things between us quickly, you may come out and fight a battle at once."

Lü Zuan then withdrew in peace; Duan Ye did not dare to come out.

〈都謂姑臧。〉

(Lü Zuan was returning to the Later Liang capital at Guzang.)


光馳使召纂,諸將勸纂曰:「業聞師回,必躡軍後。若潛師夜還,庶無後患矣。」纂曰:「業雖憑城阻眾,無雄略之才,若夜潛還,張其奸志。」乃遣使告業曰:「郭黁作亂,吾今還都。卿能決者,可出戰。」於是引還。業不敢出。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang sent a fast courier summoning Lü Zuan back to the capital.

Lü Zuan's generals all told him, "When Duan Ye hears that our army is returning, he will surely trail us when we leave. You should wait to leave secretly, under cover of night. Then there will be no threat to our rear."

But Lü Zuan replied, "Although Duan Ye has done well enough maintaining his city and having his soldiers defend it, he has no bold or heroic talents. Besides, if we slip away during the night, that will only bolster his evil ambitions."

And he sent envoys to tell Duan Ye, "Guo Nun has risen in rebellion, and I am now returning to the capital. But if you can decide things between us quickly, you may come out and fight a battle."

Lü Zuan then withdrew in peace; Duan Ye did not dare to come out.


纂司馬楊統謂其從兄桓曰:「郭黁舉事,必不虛發。吾欲殺纂,推兄爲主,西襲呂弘,據張掖,號令諸郡,此千載一時也。」桓怒曰:「吾爲呂氏臣,安享其祿,危不能救,豈可復增其難乎!呂氏若亡,吾爲弘演矣!」統至番禾,遂叛歸黁。弘,纂之弟也。

59. Lü Zuan's Marshal, Yang Tong, told his cousin Yang Huan, "Guo Nun would not have undertaken such a great step unless he had good reasons for it. Cousin, allow me to kill Lü Zuan and acclaim you as our leader. Then we can strike west against Lü Hong, occupy Zhangye commandary, and then give out orders to the other commandaries. This is the opportunity of a lifetime."

But Yang Huan angrily replied, "I am a servant of the Lü clan, and I have received their favor and taken their pay. How could I not only not save them during their time of distress, but even further add to their difficulties? If the Lü clan must fall, then let me be another Hong Yan!"

When Yang Tong reached Fanhe county, he rebelled and went over to Guo Nun. This Lü Hong was the younger brother of Lü Zuan.

〈春秋衞懿公與狄人戰于熒澤,爲狄人所殺,弘演納肝以殉之。桓女配纂,其見親異於他臣,故云然。〉〈番禾縣,漢屬張掖郡,晉屬武威郡,唐天寶中,改爲天寶縣。番,音盤。〉

(During the Spring and Autumn era, when Duke Yi of Wey fought the Di people at Ying Marsh, he was killed by the Di. Hong Yan tore out his own liver so that his body would serve as a replacement for his lord's.

As for Yang Huan, his daughter was married to Lü Zuan, and he saw himself as being closer to the Lü clan than their other ministers. This was why he expressed such sentiments.

During Han, Fanhe county was part of Zhangye commandary. During Jin, it was part of Wuwei commandary. In Tang's Tianbao reign era (742-756), it was renamed Tianbao county. The first character of Fanhe, 番, is pronounced "pan".)


纂司馬楊統謂其從兄恆曰:「郭黁明善天文,起兵其當有以。京城之外非復朝廷之有,纂今還都,復何所補!統請除纂,勒兵推兄為盟主,西襲呂弘,據張掖以號令諸郡,亦千載一時也。」桓怒曰:「吾聞臣子之事君親,有隕無二,吾未有包胥存救之效,豈可安榮其祿,亂增其難乎!呂宗若敗,吾為弘演矣。」統懼,至番禾,遂奔郭黁。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Zuan's Marshal, Yang Tong, told his cousin Yang Huan, "Guo Nun is wise and skilled at reading the heavens, and he would not have risen up with soldiers unless he had good reasons for it. The court will no longer control anything outside of the capital, so what good will it do to follow Lü Zuan back there? Cousin, allow me to kill Lü Zuan and gather the troops to acclaim you as our leader. Then we can strike west with a surprise attack against Lü Hong, occupy Zhangye commandary, and then give out orders to the other commandaries. This is the opportunity of a lifetime."

But Yang Huan angrily replied, "I have heard that when it comes to a son's relationship to his father or a minister's relationship to his lord, he does not abandon them even in times of adversity. Although I may not be able to follow the example of Shen Baoxu and so ensure the survival of my state, how could I possibly accept their favor and take their pay in times of peace and then further add to their difficulties in times of turmoil? If the Lü clan must fall, then let me be another Hong Yan."

Yang Tong was afraid, and when they reached Fanhe county, he fled to Guo Nun.


纂與西安太守石元良共擊黁,大破之,乃得入姑臧。黁得光孫八人於東苑,及敗而恚,悉投於鋒上,枝分節解,飲其血以盟衆,衆皆掩目。

60. Lü Zuan joined with the Administrator of Xi'an, Shi Yuanliang, to attack Guo Nun together. They greatly routed him, then forced their way into Guzang. Guo Nun captured eight of Lü Guang's grandsons and took them to the eastern Yuancheng. Furious at his defeat, he impaled the grandsons on blades, broke their limbs and snapped their joints, and drank their blood as he swore an oath to his soldiers, who all covered their eyes.

光子纂擊走之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Lü Guang's son Lü Zuan attacked Yang Gui and Guo Nun and drove them off.

黁遣軍邀纂于白石,纂大敗。光西安太守石元良率步騎五千赴難,與纂共擊黁軍,破之,遂入于姑臧。黁之叛也,得光孫八人于東苑。及軍敗,恚甚,悉投之於鋒刃之上,枝分節解,飲血盟眾,眾皆掩目,不忍視之,黁悠然自若。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Guo Nun sent his army to intercept Lü Zuan's approach at Baishi, and Lü Zuan was greatly defeated. But then Lü Guang's Administrator of Xi'an, Shi Yuanliang, led five thousand horse and foot to reinforce Lü Zuan. They joined together to attack Guo Nun's army and routed it, then entered Guzang.

When Guo Nun had started his rebellion, he had captured eight of Lü Guang's grandsons at the eastern Yuancheng. Greatly shamed by this defeat, he now impaled all of them on blades, broke their limbs and snapped their joints, and drank their blood as he swore an oath to his soldiers. They all covered their eyes, unable to bear the sight, but Guo Nun looked no different from normal.


涼人張捷、宋生等招集戎、夏三千人,反於休屠城。與黁共推涼後將軍楊軌爲盟主。軌,略陽氐也。將軍程肇諫曰:「卿棄龍頭而從虵尾,非計也。」軌不從;自稱大將軍、涼州牧、西平公。

61. Zhang Jie, Song Sheng, and other natives of the Liang region recruited and gathered together three thousand soldiers from the Rong and Xia people, and they rebelled at the city of Xiutu. They joined with Guo Nun to acclaimed Liang's General of the Rear, Yang Gui, as the leader of their alliance. This Yang Gui was a leader of the Di of Lueyang commandary.

His general Cheng Zhao remonstrated with him, stating, "You would be abandoning the dragon's head to follow the serpent's tail; this is not a good plan."

But Yang Gui did not listen to him. He declared himself Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.

〈休屠縣,漢屬武威郡,因休屠王城以爲名也;晉省縣。《水經註》:姑臧城西有馬城,東城卽休屠縣故城也。屠,直於翻。〉

(During Han, Xiutu county was part of Wuwei commandary. It was once the city of the Xiutu Prince of the Xiongnu, this its name. Jin abolished it. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "There is a Macheng west of the city of Guzang; the city east of it was the capital city of Xiutu county." The secon character of Xiutu, 屠, is pronounced "zhu (zh-u)".)


黁推後將軍楊軌為盟主,軌自稱大將軍、涼州牧、西平公。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Guo Nun acclaimed the General of the Rear, Yang Gui, as the leader of the alliance. Yang Gui declared himself Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping.


纂擊破黁將王斐于城西,黁兵勢漸衰,遣使請救于禿髮烏孤。九月,烏孤使其弟驃騎將軍利鹿孤帥騎五千赴之。

62. Lü Zuan attacked and routed Guo Nun's general Wang Fei west of the city.

Guo Nun's soldiers were gradually losing heart, so they sent envoys to visit Tufa Wugu and ask him for help. In the ninth month, Tufu Wugu sent his General of Agile Cavalry, his younger brother Tufa Lilugu, to lead five thousand cavalry to reinforce them.

呂纂擊黁將王斐於城西,大破之,自是黁勢漸衰。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Zuan attacked Guo Nun's general Wang Fei west of the city and greatly routed him. After that, Guo Nun's soldiers were gradually losing heart.

以弟鹿孤為驃騎將軍,傉檀為車騎將軍。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu appointed his younger brothers Tufa Lugu and Tufa Nutan as General of Agile Cavalry and General of Chariots and Cavalry.


秦太后虵氏卒。秦主興哀毀過禮,不親庶政。羣臣請依漢、魏故事,旣葬卽吉。尚書郎李嵩上疏曰:「孝治天下,先王之高事也。宜遵聖性以光道訓,旣葬之後,素服臨朝。」尹緯駮曰:「嵩矯常越禮,請付有司論罪。」興曰:「嵩忠臣孝子,有何罪乎!其一從嵩議。」

63. Qin's Empress Dowager, Lady She, passed away. Yao Xing went into full mourning for her, beyond what was mandated by the rites, and he no longer tended to affairs of state. His ministers asked him to observe the recent precedents of Han and Cao-Wei by ending his mourning after the funeral had taken place.

A Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Li Song, sent up a petition stating, "To display proper filial devotion as you govern the realm is the best way you can honor the kings of old. Besides, you ought to demonstrate what is proper and exemplary by your own sage example. So after the burial has been concluded, you should continue to wear your mourning clothes even as you preside over court again."

Yin Wei argued against this petition, telling Yao Xing, "Li Song is dissembling and advocating for you to violate the rites. I ask that you hand him over to the officials to discuss his crimes."

But Yao Xing replied, "Li Song is a loyal minister and a filial son; what crime has he committed? I shall do just as he suggests."

〈虵,以者翻,虜姓也,又食遮翻,又音他。〉〈尹緯習於聞見,反謂李嵩爲矯常越禮。嗚呼,自短喪之制行,人之不知禮也久矣!〉

(虵 She is a lowly surname. It is pronounced "ye (y-e)", or "she (sh-e)", or else "ta".

Yin Wei was certainly not ignorant in the ways of the world, yet even he could claim that Li Song was advocating violating the rites. Alas! Ever since the mourning rites had been shortened for the sake of expediency, people no longer knew just what the rites were!)


興母虵氏死,興哀毀過禮,不親庶政。群臣議請依漢、魏故事,既葬即吉。興尚書郎李嵩上疏曰「三王異制,五帝殊禮。孝治天下,先王之高事也,宜遵聖性,以光道訓。既葬之後,應素服臨朝,率先天下,仁孝之舉也。」尹緯駁曰:「帝王喪制,漢、魏為准。嵩矯常越禮,愆於軌度,請付有司,以專擅論。既葬即吉,乞依前議。」興曰:「嵩忠臣孝子,有何咎乎?尹僕射棄先王之典,而欲遵漢、魏之權制,豈所望於朝賢哉!其一依嵩議。」(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing's mother Lady She passed away. Yao Xing went into full mourning for her, beyond what was mandated by the rites, and he no longer tended to affairs of state. His ministers asked him to observe the recent precedents of Han and Cao-Wei by ending his mourning after the funeral had taken place.

A Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Li Song, sent up a petition stating, "The Three Sovereigns each had their own systems; the Five Emperors each practiced their own version of the rites. To display proper filial devotion as you govern the realm is the best way you can honor the kings of old. Besides, you ought to demonstrate what is proper and exemplary by your own sage example. So after the burial has been concluded, you should continue to wear your mourning clothes even as you preside over court again. Lead the realm, and present a good example of benevolence and filial piety."

Yin Wei argued against this petition, telling Yao Xing, "It would be proper to observe the mourning rituals for a sovereign that have been set by the Han and Wei dynasties. Li Song is dissembling and advocating for you to violate the rites, and he has committed a fault against proper behavior. I ask that you hand him over to the officials as punishment for his presumptuous remarks. Once the burial has been concluded, then I implore you to do as we have advised you."

But Yao Xing replied, "Li Song is a loyal minister and a filial son; what crime has he committed? Deputy Director Yin, you yourself have cast aside the mourning practices of the ancients, yet you want to have me honor the precedents of Han and Wei. How could that fulfill the hopes of the worthy people of the court? I shall do just as Li Song suggests."


鮮卑薛勃叛秦,秦主興自將討之。勃敗,奔沒弈干,沒弈干執送之。

64. The Xianbei leader Xue Bo rebelled against Qin. Yao Xing came himself to campaign against him. Xue Bo was defeated, and he fled to Mei Yigan, but Mei Yigan arrested him and sent him back to Qin.

〈薛勃據貳城,爲魏所攻而降於秦。〉

(Xue Bo had earlier occupied Ercheng; after being attacked by Northern Wei, he had surrendered to Later Qin.)


鮮卑薛勃叛奔嶺北,上郡、貳川雜胡皆應之,遂圍安遠將軍姚詳于金城。遣姚崇、尹緯討之。勃自三交趣金城,崇列營掎之,而租運不繼,三軍大饑。緯言於崇曰:「輔國彌姐高地、建節杜成等皆諸部之豪,位班三品,督運稽留,令三軍乏絕,宜明置刑書,以懲不肅。」遂斬之。諸部大震,租入者五十餘萬。興率步騎二萬親討之,勃懼,棄其眾奔于高平公沒奕于,於執而送之。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

The Xianbei leader Xue Bo rebelled and fled north of the mountain ranges, where the various tribes of Shang commandary and of Erchang all supported him. Xue Bo then besieged the General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yao Xiang, at Jincheng. Yao Xing sent Yao Chong and Yin Wei to campaign against Xue Bo.

Xue Bo himself came from Sanjiao to Jincheng. Yao Chong set up camps to interfere with him, but his tax funding and his supply lines were cut off, and his three armies suffered from great hunger. Yin Wei said to Yao Chong, "The General Who Upholds The State, Mijie Gaodi, the General Who Establishes Fortitude, Du Cheng, and others are all fellows of good families who occupy the third rank of offices, and they have command of affairs in the rear. Yet now our three armies are left weak and wanting. You should write an explicit letter ordering their punishments, to chasten those who do not respect you." So they were beheaded. The other leaders were greatly disturbed by this, and they sent in more than five hundred thousand in taxes.

Yao Xing personally led twenty thousand horse and foot to join the campaign. Afraid, Xue Bo fled to Mei Yigan, but Mei Yigan arrested him and sent him back.


秦泫氏男姚買得謀弒秦主興,不克而死。

65. Qin's Baron of Xuanshi, Yao Maide, plotted to murder Yao Xing. But he was unsuccessful, and he died.

〈泫,師古曰:工玄翻;楊正衡胡犬翻。〉

(Regarding the first character of Xuanshi, 泫, Yan Shigu remarked, "It is pronounced 'guan (g-uan)'", while Yang Zhengheng remarked, "It is pronounced 'huan (h-uan)'".)


泫氏男姚買得欲因興葬母虵氏殺興,會有告之者,興未之信,遣李嵩詐往。買得具以告嵩,嵩還,以聞,興乃賜買得死,誅其黨與。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

The Baron of Xuanshi, Yao Maide, wanted to use the occasion of Lady She's funeral to kill Yao Xing. Soon, someone informed Yao Xing of the plot, but Yao Xing did not yet believe it. He sent Li Song to pretend to visit Yao Maide. Yao Maide informed him of the plot, and when Li Song returned, he told Yao Xing. Yao Xing then ordered Yao Maide to commit suicide, and he executed his partisans and supporters.


秦主興入寇湖城,弘農太守陶仲山、華山太守董邁皆降之;遂至陝城,進寇上洛,拔之。遣姚崇寇洛陽,河南太守夏侯宗之固守金墉,崇攻之不克,乃徙流民二萬餘戶而還。

66. It was earlier mentioned that Jin had established two defense camps in the Luoyang region, at Hu and Shan. At this time, Yao Xing entered and attacked the camp at Hu, and Jin's Administrators of Hongnong and Huashan, Tao Zhongshan and Dong Mai, both surrendered to him. Then Yao Xing advanced to the camp at Shan, then advanced and captured Shangluo as well.

Yao Xing sent Yao Chong to attack Luoyang. Jin's Administrator of Henan, Xiahou Zongzhi, maintained a steady defense of the Jinyong fortress, and though Yao Chong attacked, he could not capture it. So he relocated more than twenty thousand refugee households from the region and returned.

〈置湖、陝二戍,見一百六卷孝武太元十一年。華山郡,晉分弘農之華陰、京兆之鄭、馮翊之夏陽、郃陽置。上洛縣,前漢屬弘農,後漢屬京兆;晉武帝泰始二年,分京兆南部置上洛郡。〉

(The creation of the Jin camps at Hu and Shan is mentioned in Book 106, in Emperor Xiaowu's eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.27).

Jin had split off Huayin county in Hongnong commandary, Zheng county in Jingzhao commandary, and Xiayang and Heyang counties in Pingyi commandary to form Huashan commandary.

During Former Han, Shangluo county was part of Hongnong commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Jingzhao commandary. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), he split the southern part of Jingzhao commandary off to form Shangluo commandary.)


四年二月,遣齊公崇伐洛陽。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the fourth year of Huangchu (397), the second month, Yao Xing sent the Duke of Qi, Yao Chong, to attack Luoyang.

興率眾寇湖城,晉弘農太守陶仲山、華山太守董邁皆降於興。遂如陝城,進寇上洛,陷之。遣姚崇寇洛陽,晉河南太守夏侯宗之固守金墉,崇攻之不克,乃陷柏穀,徙流人西河嚴彥、河東裴岐、韓襲等二萬餘戶而還。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing led an army to attack Hucheng, and Jin's Administrators of Hongnong and Huashan, Tao Zhongshan and Dong Mai, both surrendered to him. Then Yao Xing advanced to Shancheng, then advanced and captured Shangluo as well.

Yao Xing sent Yao Chong to attack Luoyang. Jin's Administrator of Henan, Xiahou Zongzhi, maintained a steady defense of the Jinyong fortress, and though Yao Chong attacked, he could not capture it. So he captured Baigu and relocated more than twenty thousand refugee households from the region, including Yan Yan of Xihe commandary and Pei Qi and Han Xi of Hedong commandary, before returning.


興勤於政事,延納善言,京兆杜瑾等皆以論事得顯拔,天水姜龕等以儒學見尊禮,給事黃門侍郎古成詵等以文章參機密。詵剛介雅正,以風敎爲己任。京兆韋高慕阮籍之爲人,居母喪,彈琴飲酒。詵聞之而泣,持劍求高,欲殺之,高懼而逃匿。

67. Yao Xing was diligent in tending to state affairs, and he was magnanimous in receiving good advice. He plucked out and exalted Du Jin of Jingzhao commandary and other people who discussed affairs, and he honored and respected Jiang Kan of Tianshui commandary and others who were learned scholars. His Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Gucheng Shen, and others wrote literary compositions and advised him in personal affairs.

Gucheng Shen was stern, upright, refined, and proper, and he saw his duty as correcting and instructing people. Wei Gao of Jingzhao commandary respected the personal qualities of the old sage Ruan Ji, and during Wei Gao's mourning period for his mother, he played the lute and drank wine. When Gucheng Shen heard about this, he wept, and he gripped his sword while asking where Wei Gao was, planning to kill him. Afraid, Wei Gao ran and hid.

〈瑾,渠吝翻。〉〈古成,姓也。〉

(Du Jin's given name, 瑾, is pronounced "qin (q-in)".

古成 Gucheng is a surname.)


興下書禁百姓造錦繡及淫祀... 興下書,令士卒戰亡者守宰所在埋藏之,求其近親為之立後。武都氐屠飛、啖鐵等殺隴東太守姚回,略三千餘家,據方山以叛。興遣姚紹等討之,斬飛、鐵。遣狄伯支迎流人曹會、牛壽萬餘戶於漢中。興留心政事,苞容廣納,一言之善,咸見禮異。京兆杜瑾、馮翊吉默、始平周寶等上陳時事,皆擢處美官。天水姜龕、東平淳于岐、馮翊郭高等皆耆儒碩德,經明行修,各門徒數百,教授長安,諸生自遠而至者萬數千人。興每於聽政之暇,引龕等於東堂,講論道藝,錯綜名理。涼州胡辯,苻堅之末,東徙洛陽,講授弟子千有餘人,關中後進多赴之請業。興敕關尉曰:「諸生諮訪道藝,修己厲身,往來出入,勿拘常限。」於是學者咸勸,儒風盛焉。給事黃門侍郎古成詵、中書侍郎王尚、尚書郎馬岱等,以文章雅正,參管機密。詵風韻秀舉,確然不群,每以天下是非為己任。時京兆韋高慕阮籍之為人,居母喪,彈琴飲酒。詵聞而泣曰:「吾當私刃斬之,以崇風教。」遂持劍求高。高懼,逃匿,終身不敢見詵。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing issued an edict forbidding the common people from crafting ostentatious clothing or offering lavish sacrifices.

Yao Xing issued an edict ordering his local officials to bury those soldiers who had died in battle and find their near relatives to ensure they had descendants.

Di leaders from Wudu, Tufei, Dantie, and others, killed Yao Xing's Administrator of Longdong, Yao Hui, and pillaged more than three thousand families before occupying Fangshan in rebellion. Yao Xing sent Yao Shao and others to campaign against them, and they beheaded Tufei and Dantie.

Yao Xing sent Di Bozhi to welcome more than ten thousand refugee families from Caohui and Niushou to Hanzhong.

Yao Xing was attentive to state affairs, and he was very magnanimous and broadly receptive; a single word of good advice would be rewarded with exceptional courtesy. Du Jin of Jingzhao commandary, Ji Mo of Pingyi commandary, Zhou Bao of Shiping commandary, and others all explained their thoughts on the times to Yao Xing and were all granted exalted offices. Jiang Kan of Tianshui commandary, Chunyu Qi of Dongping commandary, Guo Gao of Pingyi commandary, and others were all elder scholars whom Yao Shuode knew; they explained the Classics and corrected behavior, and each of them had several hundred disciples. They taught at Chang'an, and more than ten thousand people came from afar to become their students. magnanimous in receiving good advice. Whenever Yao Xing had time away from governing the state, he would invite Jiang Kan and the others to see him in the Eastern Hall, where they would lecture him and discuss with him on principles and skills, each explaining their own concepts amongst the others. During the last years of Fu Jian's reign, Hu Ban of Liangzhou had moved east to Luoyang, where he taught more than a thousand younger relatives of people. Later, many people from the Guanzhong region traveled to see him in order to ask to study under him. Yao Xing ordered the captains of the border gates, "These students are seeking to be taught in good principles and fine skills, and they are cultivating themselves and improving their persons. Do not cause them any trouble, but let them come and go as they will." For this policy, the students all praised Yao Xing, and scholarly learning flourished during this time.

Yao Xing's Attendant Officer and Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Gucheng Shen, one of the Gentleman-Attendants of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Shang, one of the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Ma Dai, and others wrote refined and proper literary compositions and advised and assisted Yao Xing in personal affairs.

Gucheng Shen was graceful and aloof, standing apart from others. He saw his duty as correcting what was wrong with the world. At this time, Wei Gao of Jingzhao commandary respected the personal qualities of the old sage Ruan Ji, and during Wei Gao's mourning period for his mother, he played the lute and drank wine. When Gucheng Shen heard about this, he wept and said, "I should behead this fellow with my own blade to honor proper tradition." So he gripped his sword while seeking Wei Gao. Afraid, Wei Gao ran and hid, and to the end of his life he never dared to meet Gucheng Shen.


中山飢甚,慕容麟帥二萬餘人出據新市。甲子晦,魏王珪進軍攻之。太史令鼂崇曰:「不吉。昔紂以甲子亡,謂之疾日,兵家忌之。」珪曰:「紂以甲子亡,周武不以甲子興乎?」崇無以對。冬,十月,丙寅,麟退阻泒水。甲戌,珪與戰於義臺,大破之,斬首九千餘級,麟與數十騎馳取妻子入西山,遂奔鄴。

68. Zhongshan was now suffering from extreme hunger. Murong Lin led more than twenty thousand people out to occupy Xinshi county. On the day Jiazi (November 5th), the last day of the month, Tuoba Gui advanced to attack Murong Lin.

Tuoba Gui's Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Chao Chong, warned him, "This is an inauspicious day for battle. It was on a Jiazi day that King Zhou of Shang was defeated, and it has been called an evil day ever since. The soldiers and the people fear it."

But Tuoba Gui replied, "If King Zhou of Shang met his doom on a Jiazi day, didn't that mean that King Wu of Zhou rose to triumph on the same day?"

To this, Chao Chong made no reply.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Bingyin (November 7th), Murong Lin fell back to hold the line of the Gu River. On the day Jiaxu (November 15th), Tuoba Gui fought Murong Lin at Yitai and greatly routed him, taking more than nine thousand heads. Murong Lin fled into the hills with his wife and children and several dozen riders, then fled to Ye.

〈新市縣,自漢以來屬中山。劉昫曰:新市,古鮮虞子國,唐爲定州新樂縣。杜佑曰:唐鎭州治眞定縣,漢新市縣故城在東北。〉〈《左傳》:辰在子卯,謂之疾日。杜預《註》云:疾,惡也。紂以甲子喪,桀以乙卯亡,故以爲忌日。鼂,直遙翻。〉〈據李延壽《北史》,義臺,塢名。魏收《地形志》,新市縣有義臺城。〉

(Ever since Han, Xinshi county had been part of Zhongshan commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Xinshi was once the fief of the Viscount of Xianyu. During Tang, it was Xinle county in Dingzhou." Du You remarked, "Tang's Zhenzhou is governed from Zhending county, northeast of where the old Xinshi county of Han was."

The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "If the day be Zi or Mao, it is called an ill day. (Zhao 9.3)" Du Yu's commentary adds, "By 'ill' day, it means an evil day. King Zhou of Shang met his end on a Jiazi day, and Jie of Xia was defeated on a Yimao day, so those are seen as ill-omened days."

Chao Chong's surname, 鼂, is pronounced "zhao (zh-ao)".

According to Li Yanshou's History of the Northern Dynasties, Yitai was the name of a fort. But according to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a city of Yitai in Xinshi county.)


九月,賀麟飢窮,率三萬餘人出寇新巿。甲子晦,帝進軍討之,太史令晁崇奏曰:「不吉。」帝曰:「其義云何?」對曰:「昔紂以甲子亡,兵家忌之。」帝曰:「紂以甲子亡,周武不以甲子勝乎?」崇無以對。冬十月丙寅,帝進軍新巿,賀麟退阻泒水,依漸洳澤以自固。甲戌,帝臨其營,戰於義臺塢,大破之,斬首九千餘級。賀麟單馬走西山,遂奔鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the ninth month, due to hunger and weakness, Murong Helin led more than thirty thousand people out to attack Xinshi. On the day Jiazi (November 5th), the last day of the month, Tuoba Gui advanced his army to campaign against Murong Lin.

Tuoba Gui's Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Chao Chong, warned him, "This is an inauspicious day." Tuoba Gui said, "How do you mean?" Chao Chang replied, "It was on a Jiazi day that King Zhou of Shang was defeated, and the soldiers and the people fear it."

But Tuoba Gui replied, "If King Zhou of Shang met his doom on a Jiazi day, didn't that mean that King Wu of Zhou rose to triumph on the same day?"

To this, Chao Chong made no reply.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Bingyin (November 7th), Tuoba Gui advanced his army to Xinshi. Murong Helin fell back to hold the line of the Gu River, using the damp marshland as his defenses. On the day Jiaxu (November 15th), Tuoba Gui approached Murong Helin's camp and fought him at the Yitai Rampart, where he greatly routed Murong Helin and took more than nine thousand heads. Murong Helin fled into the western hills on a lone horse, then fled to Ye.

冬十月,慕容麟爲魏師所敗。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, Murong Lin was defeated by the Northern Wei army.

中山饑,麟出據新市,與魏師戰于義臺,敗績,南奔。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

The people inside Zhongshan were starving, so Murong Lin went out to occupy Xinshi. He fought the Northern Wei army at Yitai, but he was defeated, and he fled to the south.

中山饑甚,麟出據新市,與魏師戰於義台,麟軍敗績。魏師遂人中山,麟乃奔鄴。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Zhongshan was now suffering from extreme hunger. Murong Lin went out to occupy Xinshi, and he fought a battle against the Northern Wei army at Yitai, but his army was defeated. The Northern Wei army then advanced to Zhongshan, and Murong Lin fled to Ye.


甲申,魏克中山,燕公卿、尚書、將吏、士卒降者二萬餘人。張驤、李沈先嘗降魏,復亡去,珪入城,皆赦之。得燕璽綬、圖書、府庫、珍寶以萬數,班賞羣臣將士有差。追諡弟觚爲秦愍王;發慕容詳冢,斬其尸;收殺觚者高霸、程同,皆夷五族,以大刃剉之。

69. On the day Jiashen (November 25th), the Wei army captured Zhongshan. More than twenty thousand of the Yan nobles, chief ministers, Masters of Writing, generals and officials, and officers and soldiers surrendered to Wei. It was earlier mentioned that Zhang Xiang and Li Xian had surrendered to Wei. But since then, they had fled and gone into Zhongshan. Yet when Tuoba Gui entered the city, he pardoned them both.

Tuoba Gui obtained tens of thousands of the Yan seals and tassels, record and map books, government stores, and fine treasures and trinkets. He distributed these things out among his ministers, generals, and soldiers as appropriate.

Tuoba Gui posthumously appointed his younger brother Tuoba Gu as Prince Min ("the Pitied") of Qin. He dug up Murong Xiang's grave and cut off his head. Gao Ba and Cheng Tong had advocated killing Tuoba Gu; Tuoba Gui had them executed along with their families to the fifth degree, smiting them with large blades.

〈五族,謂五服內親也。〉

("The fifth degree" meant their families to the fifth degree.)


明年四月,剋之。(Book of Liu-Song 95, Account of the Suotou)

The following year (397), in the fourth month, Tuoba Kai took Zhongshan.

甲申,其所署公卿、尚書、將吏、士卒降者二萬餘人。其將張驤、李沈、慕容文等先來降,尋皆亡還,是日復獲之,皆赦而不問。獲其所傳皇帝璽綬、圖書、府庫、珍寶,簿列數萬。班賜功臣及將士各有差。中山平。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Jiashen (November 25th), more than twenty thousand of the Later Yan nobles, chief ministers, Masters of Writing, generals and officials, and officers and soldiers surrendered to Wei. The Later Yan generals Zhang Xiang, Li Xian, Murong Wen, and others had earlier surrendered to Northern Wei, but later fled back to Later Yan. On this day, they were captured again. Yet Tuoba Gui pardoned them and asked nothing further.

Tuoba Gui obtained tens of thousands of the Later Yan imperial seals and tassels, record and map books, government stores, and fine treasures and trinkets. He distributed these things out among his ministers, generals, and soldiers as appropriate.

Zhongshan was thus conquered.

魏入中山。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

The Northern Wei army entered Zhongshan.

既克中山,聽入八議,拜袞奮武將軍、幽州刺史,賜爵臨渭侯。袞清儉寡欲,勸課農桑,百姓安之。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

After Tuoba Gui captured Zhongshan, he heeded the Eight Deliberations, and he appointed Zhang Gun as General Who Exerts Valor, Inspector of Youzhou, and Marquis of Linwei. Zhang Gun was honest, frugal, and had few desires. He encouraged and instructed the people in farming and silkworm cultivation, and the common people were satisfied with him.


丁亥,遣三萬騎就衞王儀,將攻鄴。

70. On the day Dinghai (November 28th), Tuoba Gui assigned thirty thousand cavalry to Tuoba Yi and sent him to attack Ye.

乙酉,襄城王題薨。丁亥,遣三萬騎赴衞王儀,將以攻鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Yiyou (November 26th), the Prince of Xiangcheng, Tuoba Ti, passed away.

On the day Dinghai (November 28th), Tuoba Gui assigned thirty thousand cavalry to the Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, and sent him to attack Ye.

皇始二年,既拔中山,太祖遣衞王儀攻鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

In the second year of Huangshi (397), after having taken Zhongshan, Tuoba Gui sent his Prince of Wei, Tuoba Yi, to attack Ye.


秦長水校尉姚珍奔西秦,西秦王乾歸以女妻之。

71. Qin's Colonel of the Chang River Regiment, Yao Zhen, fled to Western Qin. Qifu Gangui married his daughter to him.

河南鮮卑吐秣等十二部大人,皆附於禿髮烏孤。

72. Twelve Xianbei leaders from Henan, Tumo and others, all aligned themselves with Tufa Wugu.

〈此金城河南也。〉

(The "Henan" in this case was the Jincheng region, south of the Yellow River there.)


燕人有自中山至龍城者,言拓跋涉珪衰弱,司徒德完守鄴城。會德表至,勸燕主寶南還,寶於是大簡士馬,將復取中原。遣鴻臚魯邃册拜德爲丞相、冀州牧,南夏公侯牧守皆聽承制封拜。十一月,癸丑,燕大赦。十二月,調兵悉集,戒嚴在頓,遣將軍啓崙南視形勢。

73. There were natives of Yan who had arrived at Longcheng from Zhongshan, claiming that Tuoba Shegui was weak and feeble now and Murong De had completely defended Ye. Then a petition from Murong De arrived as well, urging Murong Bao to return south. So Murong Bao began gathering a great host of soldiers and horses, planning to return south and regain the Central Plains. He sent his Herald, Sui Ce of Lu commandary, to appoint Murong De as Prime Minister and Governor of Jizhou, and he was granted authority to appoint Dukes, Marquises, Governors, Administrators, and other titles in the south.

In the eleventh month, on the day Guichou (December 24th), a general amnesty was declared in Yan.

In the twelfth month, the soldiers for the southern campaign had all been assembled, and preparations were made to quarter them. Murong Bao sent his general Qi Lun south to scout out the situation.

〈頓者,次舍之所。〉

(The troops were "quartered" in that residences were provided for them.)


寶遣御史中丞兼鴻臚魯遂持節授司空范陽王德丞相、冀州牧,承制南夏,封公封侯牧守。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao sent his Middle Minister of the Imperial Secretariat and Herald, Lu Sui, bearing a Staff of Authority to appoint the Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, as Prime Minister and Governor of Jizhou, and he was granted authority to appoint Dukes, Marquises, Governors, Administrators, and other titles in the south.

及寶失中山,自龍城奔鄴,以德為丞相,領冀州牧,承制南夏。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

After Murong Bao lost Zhongshan, he fled from Longcheng to Ye, and he appointed Murong De as Prime Minister and acting Governor of Jizhou, and he was granted authority over the southern Xia (ethnic Han).

寶後拜丞相。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong Bao later appointed Murong De as Prime Minister.

尋而寶以德為丞相,領冀州牧,承制南夏。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong Bao soon appointed Murong De as Prime Minister and acting Governor of Jizhou, and he was granted authority over the southern Xia (ethnic Han).


乙亥,慕容麟至鄴,復稱趙王,說范陽王德曰:「魏旣克中山,將乘勝攻鄴,鄴中雖有蓄積,然城大難固,且人心恇懼,不可守也。不如南趣滑臺,阻河以待魏,伺釁而動,河北庶可復也。」時魯陽王和鎭滑臺,和,垂之弟子也,亦遣使迎德;德許之。

74. On the day Yihai (January 15th of 398), Murong Lin arrived at Ye. He began calling himself merely Prince of Zhao again.

Murong Lin said to Murong De, "Now that Wei has taken Zhongshan, they will press their victory by attacking Ye. And even though Ye has ample stores of grain, it is a difficult city to defend. Nor will the people be steadfast in their defense of the city, since their hearts are trembling in fear. It would be better to go south to Huatai, where you can guard the line of the Yellow River against Ye. Then you can watch and wait for a better opportunity, and then recross the Yellow River to reclaim the territory."

At this time, Yan's Prince of Luyang, Murong He, was guarding Huatai. This Murong He was the nephew of Murong Chui. He also sent envoys welcoming Murong De. So Murong De agreed to the plan.

德兄子麟自義臺來奔,因說德曰:「中山既沒,魏必乘勝攻鄴,雖糧儲素積,而城大難固。且人情沮動,不可以戰。及魏軍未至,擁衆南渡,就魯陽王和,據滑臺而聚兵積穀,伺隙而動,計之上也。魏雖拔中山,勢不久留,不過驅掠而返。人不樂從,理自生變。然後振威以援之,魏則內外受敵,使戀舊之士,有所依憑。廣開恩信,招集遺黎,可一舉而取之。 」先是慕容和亦勸德南徙,於是許之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De's nephew Murong Lin fled to him from Yitai. He persuaded Murong De, saying, "Now that Zhongshan has been lost, Wei will definitely press their victory by attacking Ye. And even though Ye has ample stores of grain, its walls are so large that they are difficult to defend. Furthermore, the people are trembling in fear, and they will not fight. Before the Wei army comes here, you should gather up your forces and go south across the Yellow River. Join the Prince of Luyang, Murong He, and occupy Huatai. From there, you can gather soldiers and store grain, then wait for an opening to act. That would be the best plan. Even though Wei has captured Zhongshan, they are not strong enough to hold it for long; they will do no more than pillage the region and then turn back. The people will not be happy to follow them, and that will naturally give you the opportunity you need. Afterwards, you can spread your might to help the people. Once Wei is faced with enemies from both without and within, their soldiers will long to go back to their homeland, and you can count on that. Spread your virtue and trust far and wide, and recruit and gather those who have scattered. Then you can regain the territory in a single undertaking."

Murong He had already earlier urged Murong De to move south as well. So Murong De heeded their advice.

德兄子麟自義台奔鄴,因說德曰:「中山既沒,魏必乘勝攻鄴,雖糧儲素積,而城大難固,且人情沮動,不可以戰。及魏軍未至,擁眾南渡,就魯陽王和,據滑台而聚兵積穀,伺隙而動,計之上也。魏雖拔中山,勢不久留,不過驅掠而返。人不樂徙,理自生變,然後振威以援之,魏則內外受敵,使戀舊之士有所依憑,廣開恩信,招集遺黎,可一舉而取之。」先是,慕容和亦勸德南徙,於是許之。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De's nephew Murong Lin fled to Ye from Yitai. He persuaded Murong De, saying, "Now that Zhongshan has been lost, Wei will definitely press their victory by attacking Ye. And even though Ye has ample stores of grain, its walls are so large that they are difficult to defend. Furthermore, the people are trembling in fear, and they will not fight. Before the Wei army comes here, you should gather up your forces and go south across the Yellow River. Join the Prince of Luyang, Murong He, and occupy Huatai. From there, you can gather soldiers and store grain, then wait for an opening to act. That would be the best plan. Even though Wei has captured Zhongshan, they are not strong enough to hold it for long; they will do no more than pillage the region and then turn back. The people will not be happy to follow them, and that will naturally give you the opportunity you need. Afterwards, you can spread your might to help the people. Once Wei is faced with enemies from both without and within, their soldiers will long to go back to their homeland, and you can count on that. Spread your virtue and trust far and wide, and recruit and gather those who have scattered. Then you can regain the territory in a single undertaking."

Murong He had already earlier urged Murong De to move south as well. So Murong De heeded their advice.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Dec 07, 2018 10:41 pm, edited 34 times in total.
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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

Unread postby DaoLunOfShiji » Thu Oct 18, 2018 10:58 pm

A huge thank you for all the work you've done in translating this stuff. I learn more and more, and it's always enjoyable. Sima Dezong is just a... character. That's all I can say. He's a real character. Liu Yu's coming "regency" is going to be an interesting read.
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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sat Oct 20, 2018 12:49 am

Thank you, glad folks are enjoying it. I continue to add stuff interstitially, should probably make a better front page for these threads.

Let me know if folks have any suggestions in particular.
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BOOK 110

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Thu Nov 01, 2018 1:56 am

隆安二年(戊戌、三九八)

The Second Year of Long'an (The Wuxu Year, 398 AD)


春,正月,燕范陽王德自鄴帥戶四萬南徙滑臺。魏衞王儀入鄴,收其倉庫,追德至河,弗及。

1. In spring, the first month, Murong De led forty thousand soldiers from Ye south to relocate to Huatai. Wei's Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, entered Ye and captured all of Murong De's supplies and military stores. He pursued Murong De as far as the Yellow River, but did not catch up with him.

天興元年春正月,慕容德走保滑臺,儀克鄴,收其倉庫。詔賞將士各有差。儀追德至於河,不及而還。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the first year of Tianxing (398), in spring, the first month, Murong De fled to defend Huatai. Tuoba Yi took Ye and captured Murong De's military stores. Tuoba Gui ordered them to be distributed among his generals and soldiers as appropriate. Tuoba Yi pursued Murong De as far as the Yellow River, but unable to catch up with him, Tuoba Yi turned back.

隆安元年正月,德率戶四萬三千,車二萬七千乘,自鄴徙滑臺。黎陽魏軍垂至,三軍危懼,欲堡據黎陽,昏日流澌冰合,是夜濟訖,冰亦尋消。德大悅,改黎陽津為天子津。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

In the first year of Long'an (397), the first month, Murong De led forty-three thousand soldiers and twenty-seven thousand carts from Ye towards Huatai. By the time they reached Liyang, the Northern Wei army was almost upon them. Murong De's soldiers were frightened and alarmed, and they wanted to occupy Liyang and defend against the enemy. But at dusk that day, the river ran dry and the river ice froze together, so during the night, Murong De's army was able to march across the river. The ice soon broke apart again afterwards. Greatly pleased by this occurrence, Murong De renamed Liyang Crossed to Tianzi ("Son of Heaven") Crossing.

德率戶四萬南走滑臺。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De led forty thousand households south to flee to Huatai.

隆安二年,乃率戶四萬、車二萬七千乘,自鄴將徙於滑台。遇風,船沒,魏軍垂至,眾懼,議欲退保黎陽。其夕流澌凍合,是夜濟師,旦,魏師至而冰泮,若有神焉。遂改黎陽津為天橋津。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

In the second year of Long'an (398), Murong De led forty thousand households and twenty-seven thousand carts from Ye, about to move to Huatai. But there was a sudden wind, and the boats on the Yellow River were lost. The Northern Wei army was about to arrive, and Murong De's soldiers were afraid; they discussed falling back to guard Liyang. But at dusk that day, the river ran dry and the river ice froze together, so during the night, Murong De's army was able to march across the river. By dawn, when the Northern Wei army had arrived, the ice had already broken up again, as though by divine intervention. So Murong De renamed that crossing point from Liyang Crossing to Tianqiao ("Heavenly Bridge") Crossing.


趙王麟上尊號於德,德用兄垂故事,稱燕王,改永康三年爲元年,以統府行帝制,置百官。以趙王麟爲司空、領尚書令,慕容法爲中軍將軍,慕輿拔爲尚書左僕射,丁通爲右僕射。麟復謀反,德殺之。

2. Murong Lin urged Murong De to declare himself Emperor. But Murong De only went so far as to follow his elder brother Murong Chui's example, and he declared himself Prince of Yan. He changed Yan's reign era title from the third year of Yongkang to the first year of his reign as Prince of Yan, and he appointed people to his staff and wielded imperial authority, as well as creating the imperial offices. He appointed Murong Lin as his Minister of Works and acting Prefect of the Palace Secretariat. He appointed Murong Fa as his General of the Central Army. He appointed Muyu Ba as his Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Ding Tong as his Supervisor of the Right.

Murong Lin once again plotted rebellion, so Murong De killed him.

〈事見一百五卷孝武太元九年。〉〈統府者,諸方鎭皆統於燕王府;行帝制者,稱制以行事。〉〈慕容麟背父叛兄,姦詐反覆,天下其誰能容之!〉

(In similar circumstances, when Murong Wei was a prisoner in Chang'an, Murong Chui had declared himself the Prince of Yan. This is mentioned in Book 105, in Emperor Xiaowu's ninth year of Taiyuan (384.3).

Murong De appointed people to his staff in the sense that he appointed border commanders subordinate to himself as Prince of Yan, and he wielded imperial authority in that he oversaw government affairs.

Murong Lin had already betrayed his father and rebelled against his elder brother. It is a wonder that anyone in all the realm was able to put up with such a crafty, evil, conniving man!)


慕容德殺賀麟... 慕容德自稱燕王。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Murong De killed Murong Helin.

During this year (398), Murong De declared himself Prince of Yan.

德入滑臺,趙王麟等九十八人上言:「今中土傾陷,龍都蕭條,趙魏遺黎,鵠企澤臯,伏願仰承俯順,以承宗廟,謹上皇帝尊號。」德許之,令曰:「假順來議,且以燕元故事,統符行帝制奏詔而已。」改永康三年為元年,大赦殊死已下,置百官,封進有差。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

After Murong De entered Huatai, ninety-eight people spoke to him, including the Prince of Zhao, Murong Lin. They said, "The Central Plains have now been overturned and ravaged, and the old capital at Longcheng is left desolate and bleak; the regions of Zhao and Wei are filled with refugees, and even the swans hide in the swamps. We implore you to bow to the wishes of the people and safeguard the ancestral temple, and venture to propose that you claim the imperial title."

Murong De agreed with them in sentiment, but he issued an order stating, "I shall do as you propose, but I will do so by following the precedent of when His Late Majesty (Murong Chui) assumed title as Prince of Yan; I shall act provisionally with imperial authority and issue imperial edicts, but I will go no further."

So he changed the reign era title from the third year of Yongkang to the first year of his reign as Prince of Yan. He declared a general amnesty for everyone except those sentenced to death, he created the imperial offices, and he appointed or advanced people as appropriate.

德自稱燕王,號年為燕元,置百官。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De declared himself Prince of Yan. He changed the reign era title to the first year of his reign as Prince of Yan, and he created the imperial offices.

及至滑台,景星見於尾箕。漳水得白玉,狀若璽。於是德依燕元故事,稱元年,大赦境內殊死已下,置百官。以慕容麟為司空、領尚書令,慕容法為中軍將軍,慕輿拔為尚書左僕射,丁通為尚書右僕射,自余封授各有差。初,河間有麟見,慕容麟以為已瑞。及此,潛謀為亂,事覺,賜死。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

When Murong De reached Huatai, a bright star was seen in the Tail and Winnowing Basket constellations, and a piece of white jade shapped like an imperial seal was found in the Zhang River. So, following Murong Chui's precedent when he declared himself Prince of Yan, Murong De too declared himself Prince of Yan. He changed the reign era title to the first year of his reign as Prince, he declared a general amnesty within his domain for everyone except those sentenced to death, and he created the imperial offices. He appointed Murong Lin as Minister Over The Masses and acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing. He appointed Murong Fa as his General of the Central Army. He appointed Muyu Ba as his Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Ding Tong as his Supervisor of the Right. Others were also granted suitable appointments.

Earlier, a lin (unicorn) had been spotted at Hejian, and Murong Lin had believed that this was a good omen for himself. So at this time, he secretly plotted rebellion. But his plot was discovered, and he was forced to take his own life.


庚子,魏王珪自中山南巡至高邑,得王永之子憲,喜曰:「王景略之孫也。」以爲本州中正,領選曹事,兼掌門下。至鄴,置行臺,以龍驤將軍日南公和跋爲尚書,與左丞賈彝帥吏兵五千人鎭鄴。

3. In Wei, on the day Gengzi (February 9th), Tuoba Gui went south from Zhongshan on patrol.

It was earlier mentioned that Wang Meng's son Wang Yong had been supporting Fu Jian's son Fu Pi. During this patrol, when Tuoba Gui came to Gaoyi, he discovered Wang Yong's son Wang Xian. Delighted, Tuoba Gui remarked, "Here is the grandson of Wang Jinglüe himself." And he appointed Wang Xian as Rectifier of his native province and as manager of recruitment, as well as to a post within the palace.

When Tuoba Gui arrived at Ye, he created a Provisional Administration there, and he appointed his Dragon-Soaring General and Duke of Rinan, He Ba, as a Master of Writing and had him lead five thousand officials and soldiers to garrison Ye, along with his Assistant of the Left, Jia Yi.

〈王猛,青州北海劇縣人。太康中,分劇屬東莞郡,晉東莞屬徐州。《晉書‧載記》以北海劇縣書之,蓋猛自占漢郡縣也。然家于魏郡而隱於華陰,由是歸秦。其子永鎭幽州,從苻丕戰死於襄陵,故憲流寓高邑。今魏以爲本州中正,則未得青、徐,蓋使之銓敍東夏人士耳。〉〈選曹,吏部尚書之職;門下,侍中、常侍、給事黃門之職。〉〈鄭樵曰:行臺自魏、晉有之,晉文王討諸葛誕,散騎常侍裴秀、尚書僕射陳泰以行臺從。東海王越帥衆屯許昌,以行臺自隨。後魏謂之尚書大行臺,別置官屬。〉〈自漢光武委任尚書,事歸臺閣,謂尚書省曰尚書臺。晉惠帝西遷長安,置留臺於洛陽,主留事,於是有留臺之名。至拓跋氏置行臺,隨其所置,掌一道之事。《魏書‧官氏志》:內入諸姓有素和氏,後改爲和氏。〉

(Wang Meng had been a native of Ju county in Beihai commandary in Qingzhou. It is true that during the Taikang reign era (280-289), Ju county was split off as part of Dongguan commandary, which during the Jin dynasty was part of Xuzhou. But the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records Wang Meng's birthplace as Ju county in Beihai commandary, so Wang Meng must have been from the region as it had been known during the Han dynasty. Regardless, he lived with his family in Wei commandary, then became a hermit at Huayin, and from there he went to join Former Qin. His son Wang Yong guarded Youzhou, and he accompanied Fu Pi until he died in battle at Xiangling. So Wang Xian must have been a refugee when Tuoba Gui found him living in Gaoyi. But this passage claims that Tuoba Gui appointed Wang Xian as a Rectifier for "his native province". Whether or not that is supposed to mean Qingzhou or Xuzhou, neither were under the control of Northern Wei at this time. So the appointment must have just been that Wang Xian was selected to recruit and appraise prospects from among "his native people", or the Xia (ethnic Han) people living in the eastern part of the realm.

Wang Xian was "manager of recruitment" in that he had a position with the Personnel Bureau of the Masters of Writing, and "a post within the palace" meant positions like Palace Attendant, Regular Attendant, or Attendant Officer of the Yellow Gate.

Regarding these kinds of Provisional Administrations, Zheng Qiao remarked, "Provisional Administrations were known beginning in the Cao-Wei and Jin era. When King Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) campaigned against Zhuge Dan, he left his Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Pei Xiu, and his Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Chen Tai, in charge of a Provisional Administration. When the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, led his forces to camp at Xuchang, he established a Provisional Administration as well. And Northern Wei had positions known as Masters of Writing of the Grand Provisional Administration, which oversaw affairs and subordinate offices for these administrations."

When Emperor Guangwu of Han established his Masters of Writing, they ran their affairs from inside the terrace of the palace, so the bureau became known as the Masters of Writing Terrace. When Emperor Hui of Jin moved west to Chang'an and a Separate Administration was established at Luoyang, since they oversaw these detached affairs, that became called the Masters of Writing of the Separate Terrace. And now Northern Wei created the same sort of bureau, for its Provisional Administrations. All of these bureaus did the same kind of work.

The Records of Ministerial Clans in the Book of Northern Wei states, "Among the tribes that joined the Tuoba during the time of Tuoba Jiefen was the Suhe clan, which later changed their surname to He.")


庚子,車駕自中山行幸常山之真定,次趙郡之高邑,遂幸于鄴。民有老不能自存者,詔郡縣賑恤之。帝至鄴,巡登臺榭,遍覽宮城,將有定都之意。乃置行臺,以龍驤將軍日南公和跋為尚書,與左丞賈彝率郎吏及兵五千人鎮鄴。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Gengzi (February 9th), Tuoba Gui traveled from Zhongshan to Zhending in Changshan, then to Gaoyi in Zhao commandary, and then went to visit Ye. He ordered the commandaries and counties to provide aid and support for those among the common people who were old and could not take care of themselves.

When Tuoba Gui arrived at Ye, he wandered through the terraces and pavilions and looked through the palace, wondering if he should make Ye his capital. So he established a Provisional Administration at Ye, and he appointed his Dragon-Soaring General and Duke of Rinan, He Ba, as a Master of Writing and had him lead five thousand officials and soldiers to garrison Ye, along with his Assistant of the Left, Jia Yi.


珪自鄴還中山,將北歸,發卒萬人治直道,自望都鑿恆嶺至代五百餘里。珪恐己旣去,山東有變,復置行臺於中山,命衞王儀鎭之;以撫軍大將軍略陽公遵爲尚書左僕射,鎭勃海之合口。

4. Tuoba Gui returned from Ye to Zhongshan. As he was about to lead his forces to return north to his original domain, he drafted ten thousand soldiers to clear straight roads connecting it with his newly conquered territory. They carved a road for more than five hundred li through the Heng Ranges, from Wangdu to Dai. But then Tuoba Gui became concerned, now that the road was completed, what might happen if there were any sudden developments in the former Yan territory. So he created another Provisional Administration at Zhongshan and ordered Tuoba Yi to be stationed there. He appointed his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, as his Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and he stationed Tuoba Zun at Hekou in Bohai commandary.

〈恆嶺,恆山之嶺也,在上曲陽西北,卽倒馬關路,《晉書‧地道記》謂之鴻上關。沈括曰:北岳恆山,今謂之大茂山者是也。岳祠舊在山下,石晉之後,稍遷近裏,今其地謂之神棚。今祠乃在曲陽,祠北有望岳亭,新晴氣清,則望見大茂。飛狐路在大茂之西,自銀冶寨北出倒馬關,卻自石門子、令水鋪,入缾形、梅回兩寨之間,至代州。然沈括所謂代州,乃鴈門也。自此亦可至魏之代都,但恐非直道耳。《水經註》:祁夷水出平舒縣東,東北流逕蘭亭南,又東北逕石門關北,舊道出中山故關也。《魏土地記》:代城西九里有平舒城。此則古代城也。〉

(The "Heng Ranges" were the mountain ranges around Mount Heng, to the northwest of Quyang. So this road must have gone through Daoma Pass, or what the Records of Roads and Regions in the Book of Jin calls Hongshang Pass. Shen Kuo remarked, "The Northern Mountain or Mount Heng were what we now call Mount Damao. There had long been a shrine at the base of the mountain. After the Later Jin dynasty (of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period), the shrine was moved a little closer, at the place now called Shen Canopy. The shrine is now at Quyang, and north of the shrine is Wangyue Point. The air there is pure and eye-catching, so it is called a place for viewing great luxuriance (damou). The Feihu Road is west of Damou, and it goes north from the Yinye border pass of the realm out through Daoma Pass. It goes from Shimenzi and Lingshui Station and in between the two border passes at Pingxing and Meihui, ending at Daizhou." Since Shen Kuo mentions Daizhou, it must have been at Yanmen commandary. One could also conclude that the road ended at Daidu at Wei, but that would hardly be a straight road. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Qiyi River emerges from the east of Pingshu county. It flows northeast, passing south of Lanting, and then further northeast, passing north of Shimen Pass, where the old road through the pass out from Zhongshan was." The Geographical Records of the Wei Region states, "There is a city of Pingshu nine li west of the city of Dai." This would have been the old city of Dai.)


車駕自鄴還中山,所過存問百姓。詔大軍所經州郡,復貲租一年,除山東民租賦之半。東駕將北還,發卒萬人治直道,自望都鐵關鑿恒嶺至代五百餘里。帝慮還後山東有變,乃置行臺於中山,詔左丞相、守尚書令、衞王儀鎮中山,撫軍大將軍、略陽公元遵鎮勃海之合口。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tuoba Gui returned from Ye to Zhongshan. As he passed through the region, he asked after the lives of the common people. He ordered that the people living in the provinces and commandaries which his main army had passed through would be exempted from taxes for one year, and he reduced the taxes and rent of the people living in the conquered Later Yan territory by one half.

As Tuoba Gui was about to lead his forces to return north to his original domain, he drafted ten thousand soldiers to clear straight roads connecting it with his newly conquered territory. They carved iron passes for more than five hundred li through the Heng Ranges, from Wangdu to Dai. But then Tuoba Gui became concerned, now that the road was completed, what might happen if there were any sudden developments in the new territory. So he created another Provisional Administration at Zhongshan and ordered his Prime Minister of the Left, acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, to be stationed there. He appointed his Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, to be stationed at Hekou in Bohai.


右將軍尹國督租于冀州,聞珪將北還,謀襲信都;安南將軍長孫嵩執國,斬之。

5. Tuoba Gui's General of the Right, Yin Guo, was overseeing tax collection in Jizhou. When he heard that Tuoba Gui was returning north, he plotted to secretly occupy Xindu. But the General Who Maintains The South, Zhangsun Song, captured Yin Guo and beheaded him.

右軍將軍尹國先督租于冀州,聞帝將還,謀反,欲襲信都,安南將軍長孫嵩執送,斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

The General of the Right Army, Yin Guo, was overseeing tax collection in Jizhou. When he heard that Tuoba Gui was returning north, he plotted to rebel, hoping to launch a surprise attack against Xindu. But the General Who Maintains The South, Zhangsun Song, captured Yin Guo and sent him to Tuoba Gui, who beheaded him.


燕啓倫還至龍城,言中山已陷;燕主寶命罷兵。遼西王農言於寶曰:「今遷都尚新,未可南征,宜因成師襲庫莫奚,取其牛馬以充軍資,更審虛實,俟明年而議之。」寶從之。己未,北行。庚申,渡澆洛水,會南燕王德遣侍郎李延詣寶,言「涉珪西上,中國空虛。」延追寶及之,寶大喜,卽日引還。

6. The Yan general Qi Lun returned to Longcheng and reported that Zhongshan had already fallen to Wei. So Murong Bao ordered him to disband his soldiers.

Murong Nong said to Murong Bao, "Since we have only just moved the capital here, we cannot launch a southern campaign yet. Instead, you should lead an expedition against the Kuimoxi people and capture their cattle and horses to supplement your military resources. In the meantime, we can further scout out the situation and see what the enemy's true strength is. Wait until next year, and then we can discuss this further."

Murong Bao agreed. On the day Jiwei (February 28th), he marched north. On the day Gengshen (March 1st), he crossed the Jiaoluo River.

But meanwhile, Murong De sent his Gentleman-Attendant, Li Yan, to visit Murong Bao and inform him, "Shegui (Tuoba Gui) has gone west, and the Middle Land is now left exposed." Li Yan pursued Murong Bao and caught up with him. Murong Bao was greatly pleased by this report, so he led his forces south again.

去年寶遣啓崙南觀形勢。「倫」,當作「崙」。〉〈澆洛水,蓋卽饒樂水也。賢曰:水在今營州北。唐太宗時,奚內附,置饒樂都督府。〉〈西上,謂自中山取恆嶺而西歸雲、代也。〉

(Murong Bao had sent Qi Lun south at the end of the previous year to scout out the situation around Zhongshan. This passage lists his given name as 倫 Lun, but it should be 崙 Lun.

This "Jiaoluo" River must have been the Raoyao River. Li Xian remarked, "This river is in the north of modern Yingzhou." During the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang (Li Shimin), when the Moxi people submitted, he created a Raoyao Command Staff in that area.

Li Yan's report was that Tuoba Gui had "gone west" away from Zhongshan and through the Heng Ranges back to Yunzhong and Dai.)


慕容德遣侍郎李延勸寶南伐,寶大悅。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong De sent his Gentleman-Attendant, Li Yan, to urge Murong Bao to launch a southern campaign to regain the Yan territory. Murong Bao was greatly pleased by this prospect.


辛酉,魏王珪發中山,徙山東六州吏民雜夷十餘萬口以實代。博陵、勃海、章武羣盜並起,略陽公遵等討平之。

7. On the day Xinyou (March 2nd), Tuoba Gui set out from Zhongshan. He relocated more than a hundred thousand people from the officials and the various tribes living in the six provinces of the conquered Yan territory to Dai to bolster the population there.

Various bandits sprang up in Boling, Bohai, and Zhangwu commandaries. But Tuoba Zun and others campaigned against them and pacified them.

〈此漢高帝徙關東豪傑以實關中之策也。〉〈漢時,章武城屬勃海平舒縣界;晉武帝泰始元年,置章武國,後爲郡;隋廢,屬瀛州,入平舒縣。〉

(Tuoba Gui here followed the same policy as Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang), who relocated the leading families of Guandong west into Guanzhong to bolster the population there.

During the Han dynasty, the city of Zhangwu was part of Pingshu county in Bohai commandary. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), he split the region off as the Zhangwu princely fief. It later became a commandary. Sui abolished it, making it part of Yingzhou, and it was folded back into Pingshu county.)


辛酉,車駕發自中山,至于望都堯山。徙山東六州民吏及徒何、高麗雜夷三十六萬,百工伎巧十萬餘口,以充京師。車駕次于恒山之陽。博陵、勃海、章武羣盜並起,略陽公元遵等討平之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Xinyou (March 2nd), Tuoba Gui set out from Zhongshan, traveling to Mount Yao in Wangdu. He relocated three hundred and sixty thousand people from the people living in the six provinces of the conquered Later Yan territory and from the tribes in Tuhe and Goguryeo, as well as more than a hundred thousand skilled artisans, to fill the population of the capital region.

Tuoba Gui went to the south side of Mount Heng. Various bandits sprang up in Boling, Bohai, and Zhangwu commandaries. But the Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, and others campaigned against them and pacified them.


廣川太守賀賴盧,性豪健,恥居冀州刺史王輔之下,襲輔,殺之,驅勒守兵,掠陽平、頓丘諸郡,南渡河,奔南燕。南燕王德以賴盧爲幷州刺史,封廣甯王。

8. Wei's Administrator of Guanchuan, He Lailu, was naturally overbearing and proud, and he felt ashamed at having to be the subordinate of the Inspector of Jizhou, Wang Fu. So he launched a surprise attack against Wang Fu and killed him, then seized control of the commandary soldiers. He pillaged Yangping and Dunqiu commandaries, then marched south across the Yellow River and fled to Southern Yan. Murong De appointed him as his Inspector of Bingzhou and Prince of Guangning.

〈廣川縣,前漢屬信都國,後漢屬清河郡,晉屬勃海郡,後分爲廣川郡。〉

(During Former Han, Guangchuan county was part of the Xindu princely fief. During Later Han, it was part of Qinghe commandary. During Jin, it was part of Bohai commandary. It was later split off as Guangchuan commandary.)


廣川太守賀盧殺冀州刺史王輔,驅勒守兵,抄掠陽平、頓丘諸郡,遂南渡河,奔慕容德。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

The Administrator of Guangchuan, He Lu, killed the Inspector of Jizhou, Wang Fu. He seized control of the commandary soldiers and pillaged Yangping and Dunqiu commandaries, then marched south across the Yellow River and fled to Murong De.

其夏,魏將賀賴盧率眾附之。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

That summer, the Northern Wei general He Lailu led his troops to join Murong De.


西秦王乾歸遣乞伏益州攻涼支陽、鸇武、允吾三城,克之;虜萬餘人而去。

9. In Western Qin, Qifu Gangui sent Qifu Yizhou to attack Liang's cities of Zhiyang, Zhanwu, and Yunwu, and Qifu Yizhou took them all, capturing more than ten thousand people before returning.

〈支陽、允吾,皆漢古縣,屬金城縣;鸇武城當在二縣之間。張寔分支陽屬廣武郡;允吾蓋仍爲金城郡治所。劉昫曰:唐蘭州廣武縣,漢枝陽縣;鄯州龍支縣,漢允吾縣。允吾,音鉛牙。〉

(Zhiyang and Yunwu had been counties since the Han dynasty, as part of Jincheng county; Zhanwu must have been between the other two. Zhang Shi of Former Liang split off Zhiyang as part of Guangwu commandary. Yunwu must have been administered by Jincheng commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Guangwu county in Tang's Lanzhou was the Han dynasty's Zhiyang county; Longzhi county in Shanzhou was the Han dynasty's Yunwu county." Yunwu is pronounced "qianya".)


禿髮烏孤遣使來結和親。使乞伏益州攻克支陽、鸇武、允吾三城,俘獲萬餘人而還。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Tufa Wugu sent envoys to come and establish a marriage alliance with Qifu Gangui.

Qifu Gangui sent Qifu Yizhou to attack and take the three cities of Zhiyang, Zhanwu, and Yunwu, and Qifu Yizhou captured more than ten thousand people before returning.


燕主寶還龍城宮,詔諸軍就頓,不聽罷散,文武將士皆以家屬隨駕。遼西王農、長樂王盛切諫,以爲兵疲力弱,魏新得志,未可與敵,宜且養兵觀釁。寶將從之,撫軍將軍慕輿騰曰:「百姓可與樂成,難與圖始。今師衆已集,宜獨決聖心,乘機進取,不宜廣采異同以沮大計。」寶乃曰:「吾計決矣,敢諫者斬!」二月,乙亥,寶出就頓,留盛統後事。己卯,燕軍發龍城,慕輿騰爲前軍,司空農爲中軍,寶爲後軍,相去各一頓,連營百里。

10. When Murong Bao returned to the palace at Longcheng, he issued an edict ordering his armies to be quartered there and canceling the earlier order to have them disbanded and dispersed. Civil and military officials and generals and officers were ordered to have their families and dependants accompany the army in carriages.

Murong Nong and the Prince of Changle, Murong Sheng, forcefully remonstrated with Murong Bao for these decisions. They felt that the soldiers were exhausted and their strength was spent. In their view, since Wei had just achieved its ambition to conquer much of the Yan territory, the remaining Yan forces were not yet a match for it. They advised Murong Bao to let the soldiers rest while watching for internal disputes in Wei that he would be able to exploit.

Murong Bao was about to agree with them. But then his General Who Nurtures The Army, Muyu Teng, said to him, "It is always easy to have the common people help you complete something, but hard to get them to go along with starting something new. But you have already assembled the armies here, and the only thing missing is your sage determination. You should take advantage of this opportunity and advance to recapture our territory. Don't let this nitpicking distract you from the greater goal."

Then Murong Bao declared, "My plan is decided; anyone who remonstrates further will be beheaded!"

In the second month, on the day Yihai (March 16th), Murong Bao had his armies set out from their residences, leaving Murong Sheng in charge of affairs in the rear. On the day Jimao (March 20th), the Yan armies set out from Longcheng. Muyu Teng commanded the front army, Murong Nong commanded the central army, and Murong Bao commanded the rear army. There was one dun between each army, and they established camps across a hundred li.

〈頓者,軍行頓舍之地。〉〈駕,謂車駕,猶漢人言乘輿也。〉〈用商鞅語意。〉〈觀下文連營百里,蓋三十里爲一頓。〉

(The troops were quartered in that residences were provided for them.

The 駕 were carriage carts, or what the Han people call riding chariots.

Muyu Teng quotes the words of Shang Yang in his first sentence.

Judging by the fact that the armies established camps across a hundred li, one 頓 dun must have been thirty li.)


三年二月,寶發龍城,以撫軍慕容滕為前軍,步騎三萬,將南伐。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the third year of Yongkang (398), the second month, Murong Bao set out from Longcheng, appointing the General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong Teng, as leader of the front army. Murong Bao commanded an army of thirty thousand horse and foot, and he led them on a southern campaign.

寶率眾自龍城而南,將攻中山。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao led his troops south from Longcheng, planning to attack Zhongshan.

慕容盛切諫,以為兵疲師老,魏新平中原,宜養兵觀釁,更俟他年。寶將從之。撫軍慕輿騰進曰:「今眾旅已集,宜乘新定之機以成進取之功。人可使由之,而難與圖始,惟當獨決聖慮,不足廣采異同,以沮亂軍議也。」寶曰:「吾計決矣,敢諫者斬!」寶發龍城,以慕輿騰為前軍大司馬,慕容農為中軍,寶為後軍,步騎三萬。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Sheng fiercely remonstrated against the proposed campaign. He felt that the soldiers were exhausted and their strength was spent. In his view, since Northern Wei had newly conquered the Central Plains, Murong Bao should let the soldiers rest while watching for internal disputes in Northern Wei that he would be able to exploit, and put off the planned campaign for another year.

Murong Bao was about to agree with him. But then his General Who Nurtures The Army, Muyu Teng, said to him, "You have already assembled the armies here, and you ought to take advantage of the fact that Northern Wei has only just settled the territory to advance and regain it for yourself. As for making the people go along, it is always hard to have them help with something new. But the only thing waiting now is your sage determination. Don't let this nitpicking confuse what the army should do."

Then Murong Bao declared, "My plan is decided; anyone who remonstrates further will be beheaded!"

Murong Bao set out from Longcheng. He appointed Muyu Teng as Grand Marshal of the front army; Murong Nong commanded the central army, and Murong Bao commanded the rear army. There were thirty thousand horse and foot altogether.

寶自龍城南伐,盛留統後事。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Murong Bao became Emperor, he advanced Murong Sheng's title to Prince. When Murong Bao marched south from Longcheng on campaign, he left Murong Sheng in charge of affairs in his rear.


壬午,寶至乙連,長上段速骨、宋赤眉等因衆心之憚征役,遂作亂。速骨等皆高陽王隆舊隊,共逼隆子高陽王崇爲主,殺樂浪威王宙、中牟熙公段誼及宗室諸王。河間王熙素與崇善,崇擁佑之,故獨得免。燕主寶將十餘騎奔司空農營,農將出迎,左右抱其腰,止之曰:「宜小清澄,不可便出。」農引刀將斫之,遂出見寶,又馳信追慕輿騰。癸未,寶、農引兵還趣大營,討速骨等。農營兵亦厭征役,皆棄仗走,騰營亦潰。寶、農奔還龍城。長樂王盛聞亂,引兵出迎,寶、農僅而得免。

11. On the day Renwu (March 23rd), Murong Bao's army reached Yilian.

Knowing that the army was afraid of the upcoming campaign and labor, some of Murong Bao's subordinates began a rebellion, including Duan Sugu and Song Chimei. Since they had originally been subordinates of the late Murong Long, they forced the Prince of Gaoyang, his son Murong Chong, to become their leader. They also killed the Prince of Lelang, Murong Zhou, and the Duke of Zhongmou, Duan Yi, and many of the other princes of the imperial clan were killed. The Prince of Hejian, Murong Xi, had long been on good terms with Murong Chong, so he held Murong Xi close and protected him, and Murong Xi thus survived the purge. Murong Zhou was posthumously known as Prince Wei ("the Mighty"); Duan Yi was posthumously known as Duke Xi ("the Bright").

Murong Bao led some ten riders to flee to Murong Nong's camp. Murong Nong was about to go out to welcome him, but his attendants grabbed him by the waist and said, "You should wait until things clear up a little; don't be so quick to go out." But Murong Nong drew his blade as though to hack at them, so he was able to go out and see Murong Bao. He also sent a fast courier to inform Muyu Teng of the situation.

On the day Guiwei (March 24th), Murong Bao and Murong Nong led troops back to the main camp to attack Duan Sugu and the other rebels. But the soldiers of Murong Nong's camp were also tired of the campaigns and labor, and they all threw down their weapons and ran away. Muyu Teng's camp also scattered.

Murong Bao and Murong Nong fled back to Longcheng. When Murong Sheng heard about the rebellion, he led troops out to welcome their arrival, so Murong Bao and Murong Nong barely got away.

〈凡衞兵皆更番迭上;長上者,不番代也。唐官制,懷化執戟長上,歸德執戟長上,皆武散階,九品。長上之官尚矣。〉〈言衆方亂,如水之溷濁;宜少俟其定,如水之清澄,不可輕出也。〉〈大營,謂寶營也。〉〈以佚道使民,雖勞不怨;以生道殺民,雖死不怨殺者;違是,鮮有不敗者也。〉

(Duan Sugu is described in this passage as having the position of 長上 Commander. I (Hu Sanxing) have searched repeatedly for mentions of this position existing as an office among the guards at this time, to no avail. During the Tang dynasty, there did exist the offices of 懷化執戟長上 Halberdbearer Commander Who Cherishes Culture and 歸德執戟長上 Halberdbearer Commander Who Returns To Virtue, both of which were military ranks as part of the Nine Ranks System. This must have been the same sort of office as 長上.

Murong Nong's attendants were saying that a rebellion among the army is like a swirl of water; he should wait a short time until things become settled, like waiting for the water to clear up, and he should not go out rashly.

The "main camp" was Murong Bao's camp.

As it is said, 'Let the people be employed in the way which is intended to secure their ease, and though they be toiled, they will not murmur. Let them be put to death in the way which is intended to preserve their lives, and though they die, they will not murmur at him who puts them to death.' It is rare indeed for those who violate this principle not to be defeated.)


次于乙連,長上段速骨、宋赤眉因民之憚遠役,殺司空樂浪王宙。衆既幸亂,投仗奔走。寶馳還龍城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

When Murong Bao's army reached Yilian, the Commanders, Duan Sugu and Song Chimei, took advantage of the people's fear over going on such a distant campaign. They killed the Minister of Works and Prince of Lelang, Murong Zhou. With a mutiny having broken out, the soldiers threw aside their weapons and fled. Murong Bao rushed back to Longcheng.

眾憚征,逃潰。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao's army feared the coming campaign, and they scattered and fled.

寶次於乙連。長上段速骨、宋赤眉因眾軍之憚役也,殺司空、樂浪王宙,逼立高陽王崇。寶單騎奔農,仍引軍討速骨。眾咸憚征幸亂,投杖奔之。騰眾亦潰,寶、農馳還龍城。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao's army advanced to Yilian. Then the Commanders, Duan Sugu and Song Chimei, took advantage of the army's fear at the coming labor. They killed the Minister of Works and Prince of Lelang, Murong Zhou, and they compelled the Prince of Gaoyang, Murong Chong, to be their leader.

Murong Bao fled on a lone horse to Murong Nong, and they led his army to attack Duan Sugu. But the soldiers all feared that the coming campaign would be a disaster, and they threw down their weapons and fled. Muyu Teng's army also scattered. Murong Bao and Murong Nong rushed back to Longcheng.

及段速骨作亂,馳出迎衛。寶幾為速骨所獲,賴盛以免。盛屢進奇策於寶,寶不能從,是以屢敗。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Duan Sugu launched his rebellion, Murong Sheng hurried out with guards to protect Murong Bao. Murong Bao was nearly captured by Duan Sugu, but thanks to Murong Sheng he was able to escape. Murong Sheng offered many unique plans to Murong Bao, but Murong Bao could not follow them, and so they suffered several defeats.


會稽王道子忌王、殷之逼,以譙王尚之及弟休之有才略,引爲腹心。尚之說道子曰:「今方鎭強盛,宰相權輕,宜密樹腹心於外以自藩衞。」道子從之,以其司馬王愉爲江州刺史,都督江州及豫州之四郡軍事,用爲形援,日夜與尚之謀議,以伺四方之隙。

12. In Jin, Sima Daozi still felt suspicious about Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan. So he took counsel with the Prince of Qiao, Sima Shangzhi, and his younger brother Sima Xiuzhi, both of whom had talents for planning; they became his close companions.

Sima Shangzhi persuaded Sima Daozi, "The power of the border commanders is currently growing, while your authority here as chief minister is shrinking. You should secretly send out your own people to other border posts to serve as a screen to protect yourself."

Sima Daozi agreed. He appointed his Marshal, Wang Yu, as Inspector of Jiangzhou and Commander of military affairs in four commandaries in Jiangzhou and Yuzhou, using him as assistance.

Sima Daozi spent day and night discussing plans with Sima Shangzhi, watching for good opportunities.

〈爲庾楷說王、殷復舉兵張本。〉

(This was why Yu Kai later persuaded Wang Gong and Yin Zhongkan to rise against Sima Daozi again.)


魏王珪如繁畤宮,給新徙民田及牛。

13. Tuoba Gui went to the palace at Fanzhi. He granted farmland and cattle to the people who had just been relocated from the conquered Yan territory.

〈繁畤縣,屬鴈門郡,魏築宮於此。天平初,置繁畤郡,隋復爲縣,唐屬代州。〉

(Fanzhi county was part of Yanmen commandary. Northern Wei built a palace here. At the beginning of the Tianping reign era (~534), they created Fanzhi commandary. During Sui, it reverted to a county again. During Tang, it was part of Daizhou.)


二月,車駕自中山幸繁畤宮,更選屯衞。詔給內徙新民耕牛,計口受田。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second month, Tuoba Gui went from Zhongshan to the palace at Fanzhi, where he selected camp guards. He granted plow oxen to the people who had just been relocated from the conquered Later Yan territory, and he took count of their population and gave them farmland.


珪畋於白登山,見熊將數子,謂冠軍將軍于栗磾曰:「卿名勇健,能搏此乎?」對曰:「獸賤人貴,若搏而不勝,豈不虛斃一壯士乎!」乃驅致珪前,盡射而獲之。珪顧謝之。

14. Tuoba Gui went hunting at Mount Baideng, where he saw a bear leading its cubs. His Champion General, Yu Lidi, had accompanied him. Tuoba Gui asked Yu Lidi, "I've heard you're famous for your courage and strength. I wonder if you could wrestle that bear?"

But Yu Lidi replied, "A man is worth much more than a mere beast. Suppose I tried to wrestle it and did not emerge the victor. Wouldn't that mean you would lose a strong fellow for no good reason?"

So instead, he rushed in front of Tuoba Gui and shot some arrows at the bear, taking it that way. Tuoba Gui turned and apologized to him.

〈酈道元曰:今平城東十七里有臺,卽白登臺,臺南對岡阜,卽白登山。〉

(Li Daoyuan remarked, "There is a terrace seventeen li east of the modern city of Pingcheng, called the Baideng Terrace. It faces a mound to the south, called Mount Baideng.")


秀容川酋長爾朱羽健從珪攻晉陽、中山有功,拜散騎常侍,環其所居,割地三百里以封之。

15. There was a local tribal leader from the Xiurong river valley, Erzhu Yujian, who had accompanied Tuoba Gui during his attacks against Jinyang and Zhongshan and had won merit at those times. So Tuoba Gui appointed him as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, circled off his residence, and carved out three hundred li of land to grant him as a fief.

〈此北秀容也。爲爾朱榮亂魏張本。《爾朱榮傳》云:羽健之先,世爲部落酋帥,居爾朱川,因氏焉。珪初以南秀容川原衍沃,欲令居之。羽健曰:「家世奉國,給侍左右。北秀容旣在剗內,差近京師,豈以沃塉更遷遠地!」珪許之。則北秀容蓋近平城也。〉

(This was the Northern Xiurong.

This was why Erzhu Yujian’s descendant Erzhu Rong was later powerful enough to rebel against Northern Wei.

The Biography of Erzhu Rong states, "For generations, Erzhu Yujian's ancestors had been local leaders that resided in the Erzhu river valley, and they took their clan name from that place. Tuoba Gui had felt that the Southern Xiurong river valley was a rich and fertile region, and he was planning to have Erzhu Yujian's fief be there. But Erzhu Yujian told him, 'My family has supported the state for generations, constantly being granted places by the side of the sovereign. There is Northern Xiurong; it may be somewhat smaller, but it is relatively close to the capital region. Why should I enjoy Southern Xiurong, no matter how abundant it may be, when it is such a distant region?' So Tuoba Gui agreed to grant him Northern Xiurong instead." So Northern Xiurong must have been close to Pingyang.)


柔然數侵魏邊,尚書中兵郎李先請擊之;珪從之,大破柔然而還。

16. The Rouran raided the borders of Wei several times, and the Master of Writing and Gentleman of the Central Regiment, Li Xian, asked to attack them. Tuoba Gui agreed, and he greatly routed the Rouran before returning.

楊軌以其司馬郭緯爲西平相,帥步騎二萬北赴郭黁。禿髮烏孤遣其弟騎將軍傉檀帥騎一萬助軌。軌至姑臧,營于城北。

17. In Liang, it was earlier mentioned that Yang Gui had agreed to become the leader of Guo Nun's rebellion against Lü Guang. He now appointed his Marshal, Guo Wei, as Chancellor of Xiping and sent him to lead twenty thousand horse and foot north to reinforce Guo Nun's forces. Tufa Wugu sent his General of Cavalry, his younger brother Tufa Nutan, to lead another ten thousand cavalry to assist Yang Gui. When Yang Gui arrived at Guzang, he camped north of the city.

〈緯,于季翻。〉

(Guo Wei's given name 緯 is pronounced "yi (y-i)".)


光遺楊軌書曰:「自羌胡不靖,郭黁叛逆,南籓安否,音問兩絕。行人風傳,雲卿擁逼百姓,為黁脣齒。卿雅志忠貞,有史魚之操,鑒察成敗,遠侔古人,豈宜聽納奸邪,以虧大美!陵霜不凋者松柏也,臨難不移者君子也,何圖松柏凋於微霜,雞鳴已於風雨!郭黁巫卜小數,時或誤中,考之大理,率多虛謬。朕宰化寡方,澤不逮遠,致世事紛紜,百城離叛。戮力一心,同濟巨海者,望之於卿也。今中倉積粟數百千萬,東人戰士一當百餘,入則言笑晏晏,出則武步涼州,吞黁咀業,綽有餘暇。但與卿形雖君臣,心過父子,欲全卿名節,不使貽笑將來。」軌不答,率步騎二萬北赴郭黁。至姑臧,壘於城北。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang sent a letter to Yang Gui stating, "With the recent disturbances of the Qiang and other tribes, and the traitor Guo Nun rising in rebellion, the southern frontier has been in turmoil, and I am hearing reports of countless things. Lately, travelers have even been spreading rumors that you have been oppressing the common people and forcing them to serve you, assisting Guo Nun like the lips help the teeth. Sir, are you not refined, spirited, loyal, and dutiful, steadfast as the ancient minister Shi Yu, perceptive enough to recognize the difference between victory and defeat, and with foresight to match the ancients? Why then have you paid heed to such villains and cast aside true goodness? The pine tree does not wither at the touch of frost; the superior fellow does not flinch at the sign of trouble. What sort of pine bends at the lightest dusting of frost? What sort of man trembles at the cock's crow as though it were the wind and rain?

"Guo Nun may have bewitched some people into following him for a time through his skill at magic and divination, but if one investigates the overall situation, one finds that most of his followers are just those who have been led astray. I myself govern and oversee only this little corner, and my glory does not extend very far. Now affairs have become such a mess that a hundred cities turn away and rebel. The one I had hoped would devote their full efforts to assisting me to cross this vast ocean was you yourself, Sir.

"As for me, my storehouses have grain stacked up by the hundreds, thousands, and tens of thousands, and my eastern soldiers are each worth more than a hundred men; when they go in, they laugh and talk as they feast, and when they go out, they fight and march all across Liangzhou. They will swallow up Guo Nun and chew up Duan Ye with plenty of free time to spare afterwards. But with you, Sir, our relationship may be that of lord and minister, but in my heart we are even closer than father and son. I want to protect your reputation and your dignity; I would not have you become a laughingstock for future ages."

But Yang Gui did not reply. He led twenty thousand horse and foot north to join with Guo Nun. When he arrived at Guzang, he set up ramparts north of the city.


燕尚書頓丘王蘭汗陰與段速骨等通謀,引兵營龍城之東;城中留守兵至少,長樂王盛徙內近城之民,得丁夫萬餘,乘城以禦之。速骨等同謀纔百餘人,餘皆爲所驅脅,莫有鬬志。三月,甲午,速骨等將攻城,遼西桓烈王農恐不能守,且爲蘭汗所誘,夜,潛出赴之,冀以自全。明旦,速骨等攻城,城上拒戰甚力,速骨之衆死者以百數。速骨乃將農循城,農素有忠節威名,城中之衆恃以爲強,忽見在城下,無不驚愕喪氣,遂皆逃潰。速骨入城,縱兵殺掠,死者狼籍。寶、盛與慕輿騰、餘崇、張眞、李旱、趙恩等輕騎南走。速骨幽農於殿內。長上阿交羅,速骨之謀主也,以高陽王崇幼弱,更欲立農。崇親信鬷讓、出力犍等聞之,丁酉,殺羅及農。速骨卽爲之誅讓等。農故吏左衞將軍宇文拔亡奔遼西。

18. Yan's Master of Writing and Prince of Dunqiu, Lan Han, was secretly communicating with Duan Sugu and the other rebels. He led his troops to camp east of Longcheng. There were only a few soldiers still inside the city, so Murong Sheng relocated everyone living nearby inside the city, and thus gained more than ten thousand strong fellows which he used to man the walls. Among the rebels, there were only about a hundred who really supported the cause of Duan Sugu and the other leaders; the rest had all been forced to go along, but they had no real heart for fighting.

In the third month, on the day Jiawu (April 4th), Duan Sugu and the others were about to assault Longcheng. Murong Nong was afraid that the city would not be able to hold out against them, and he was also misled by Lan Han. So during the night, he secretly went out to Duan Sugu's camp, hoping to ensure the safety of the city.

However, the next morning, Duan Sugu and the others launched an assault against the city. But the defenders on the walls fought with all their strength to oppose them, and hundreds of Duan Sugu's soldiers died. Then Duan Sugu brought Murong Nong up to the walls of the city. Murong Nong had long been famous and renowned for his loyalty and his sense of duty, and the people inside the city had all been relying upon him for their strength. But when they suddenly saw him appear below the walls, there was not one of them who was not shocked and grieved to see him among the enemy, and they all scattered and fled.

Duan Sugu then entered the city and let loose his soldiers to sack it, and there was a great slaughter. Murong Bao fled to the south with some light cavalry, along with Murong Sheng, Muyu Teng, Yu Chong, Zhang Zhen, Li Han, Zhao En, and others.

Duan Sugu kept Murong Nong isolated inside the palace. It was earlier mentioned that the rebels had made Murong Long's son Murong Chong their figurehead leader. But the Commander, Ajiao Luo, who was Duan Sugu's chief advisor, felt that Murong Chong was too young and frail to really fulfill that role, and he proposed making Murong Nong act as their leader instead. However, Murong Chong's close attendants, including Zong Rang and Chuli Jian, found out about this proposal. So on the day Dingyou (April 7th), they killed Ajiao Luo and Murong Nong. Duan Sugu then executed Zong Rang and the other plotters. Murong Nong was posthumously known as Prince Huanlie ("the Stalwart and Fierce") of Liaoxi. The Guard General of the Left, his former subordinate Yuwen Ba, fled to Liaoxi.

〈農號爲有智略,乃欲投段速骨以自全,不知適以速死,殆天奪之鑒也。〉〈《春秋左氏傳》有鬷蔑,晉有鬷戾。《姓譜》:鬷姓,古鬷夷氏之後。〉〈使速骨果立農,亦必同死於蘭汗之手,蓋事勢已去,智無所施也。〉

(Murong Nong had been known for his keen mind and his cunning plans. Yet he threw himself on Duan Sugu's mercy as though that would ensure the safety of the city, and he did not realize that he was only rushing towards his own death. It is almost as though Heaven had robbed him of his senses.

Regarding the surname 鬷 Zong, the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals mentions a Zong Mie, and the state of Jin had a Zong Li. And the Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname Zong are the descendants of the old Zong tribal clan."

Even if Murong Nong had not been killed now, and Duan Sugu had made him the new leader of the rebels, he surely would have just died at Lan Han's hand alongside Duan Sugu and the others. It must have been that events had already gone so far along that no amount of genius could have prevented it.)


寶與長樂王盛等南奔。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao, the Prince of Changle, Murong Sheng, and others fled to the south.

寶還龍城,垂舅蘭汗拒之,寶南走,奔薊。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao returned to Longcheng, but he was opposed by Murong Chui's uncle Lan Han. So Murong Bao went south, fleeing to Ji.

蘭汗潛與速骨通謀,速骨進師攻城,農為蘭汗所譎,潛出赴賊,為速骨所殺。眾皆奔散,寶與慕容盛、慕輿騰等南奔。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Lan Han was secretly in communication with Duan Sugu. Duan Sugu advanced and led his troops to attack Longcheng. Murong Nong was tricked by Lan Han, and he secretly came out of the city to go to the rebels, but he was killed by Duan Sugu. The soldiers all scattered and fled, and Murong Bao fled south with Murong Sheng, Muyu Teng, and others.


庚子,蘭汗襲擊速骨,幷其黨盡殺之。廢崇,奉太子策,承制大赦,遣使迎寶,及於薊城。寶欲還,長樂王盛等皆曰:「汗之忠詐未可知,今單騎赴之,萬一汗有異志,悔之無及。不如南就范陽王,合衆以取冀州;若其不捷,收南方之衆,徐歸龍都,亦未晚也。」寶從之。

19. On the day Gengzi (April 10th), Lan Han suddenly attacked Duan Sugu; he and all his partisans were killed. Then Lan Han deposed Murong Chong and honored the Crown Prince, Murong Ce, in his place, while Lan Han himself exercised authority. He declared a general amnesty, and he sent messengers to Murong Bao welcoming his return.

The messengers caught up with Murong Bao at Ji. He wanted to return, but Murong Sheng and others told him, "We cannot be certain yet whether Lan Han is truly loyal or not, yet now you want to rush off to go to him at once. If by any chance he has some sinister intention, it would be too late for regrets. It would be better to go south to the Prince of Fanyang (Murong De), and combine our forces to regain Jizhou. Even if we are not successful at doing that, we can at least gather up forces from the south. Then if you wanted to go back to Longdu, it would not be too late to do so."

Murong Bao followed their advice.

〈龍城,燕故都,故謂之龍都。慕容盛智慮逾其父遠矣。〉

(Longcheng had once been the capital of Former Yan, so Murong Sheng and the others here call it Longdu or "the capital at Long".

Murong Sheng's intelligence and foresight far surpassed that of his father Murong Bao.)


尚書蘭汗殺速骨等十餘人,奉太子榮,承制大赦,遣迎寶還於薊。寶欲北還,盛等咸以汗忠款虛實未明,宜就范陽王德,寶從之。乃自薊而南。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

The Master of Writing, Lan Han, killed Duan Sugu and the other rebel leaders, more than ten in all. He supported the Crown Prince, Murong Rong, and he assumed authority over the state and declared a general amnesty. He sent envoys to welcome Murong Bao's return from Ji. Murong Bao anted to return north, but Murong Sheng and the others all argued that they could not yet be sure of Lan Han's loyalty and sincerity. They felt that Murong Bao should go to the Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, instead. Murong Bao agreed. So he went south from Ji.

汗遣使誘迎寶,寶殺之。將南奔叔父范陽王德。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Lan Han sent envoys to pretend to welcome Murong Bao back to Longcheng, but Murong Bao killed them. He went south to join the Prince of Fanyang, his uncle Murong De.

蘭汗奉太子策承制,遣使迎寶,及於薊城。寶欲還北,盛等咸以汗之忠款虛實未明,今單馬而還,汗有貳志者,悔之無及。寶從之,乃自薊而南。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Lan Han supported the Crown Prince, Murong Ce, while assuming control of affairs. He sent envoys to welcome Murong Bao's return, and they caught up with him at Ji. Murong Bao wanted to return north, but Murong Sheng and others all argued that they could not yet be sure of Lan Han's loyalty and sincerity, yet here was Murong Bao about to rush back on a lone horse to see him; if he had any sinister motives, it would be too late for regrets. Murong Bao agreed. So he went south from Ji.


離石胡帥呼延鐵、西河胡帥張崇等不樂徙代,聚衆叛魏,魏安遠將軍庾岳討平之。

20. Among those local tribal leaders from the former Yan territory who had been forced to relocate to Wei's heartland were Huyan Tie of Lishi commandary, Zhang Chong of Xihe commandary, and others. They were not pleased at having been forced to move, and they gathered their forces together and rebelled against Wei. But Wei's General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yu Yue, campaigned against them and pacified them.

三月,離石胡帥呼延鐵、西河胡帥張崇等聚黨數千人叛,詔安遠將軍庾岳討平之。漁陽羣盜庫傉官韜聚眾反。詔中堅將軍伊謂討之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the third month, the tribal leader Huyan Tie of Lishi commandary, the tribal leader Zhang Chong of Xihe commandary, and others gathered together several thousand of their partisans and rebelled against Northern Wei. But Tuoba Gui ordered his General Who Maintains Distant Places, Yu Yue, to campaign against them and pacify them.

The bandit leader Kunuguan Tao of Yuyang commandary gathered together an army and rebelled. Tuoba Gui ordered his General of Central Firmness, Yi Wei, to campaign against him.


魏王珪召衞王儀入輔,以略陽公遵代鎭中山。夏,四月,壬戌,以征虜將軍穆崇爲太尉,安南將軍長孫嵩爲司徒。

21. Tuoba Gui summoned Tuoba Yi back to court, and he had Tuoba Zun replace him at Zhongshan.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Renxu (May 2nd), Tuoba Gui appointed his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Mu Chong, as Grand Commandant. He appointed his General Who Maintains The South, Zhangsun Song, as Minister Over The Masses.

徵左丞相、衞王儀還京師,詔略陽公遵代鎮中山。帝祠天於西郊,麾幟有加焉。廣平太守、遼西公元意烈謀反,於郡賜死,原其妻子。鄜城屠各董羌、杏城盧水郝奴、河東蜀薛榆、氐帥符興,各率其種內附。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tuoba Gui summoned his Prime Minister of the Left and Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, back to the capital. He ordered his Duke of Lueyang, Tuoba Zun, to replace Tuoba Yi at Zhongshan.

Tuoba Gui offered sacrifices to Heaven in the western suburbs of the capital, accompanied by great pomp and ceremony.

The Administrator of Guangping and Duke of Liaoxi, Tuoba Yilie, plotted rebellion. He was compelled to take his own life at his commandary, but his wife and children were spared.

The Zhuge Xiongnu leader Dong Qiang of Fucheng, the Lushui tribal leader Hao Nu of Xingcheng, the Shu native Xue Yu of Hedong, and the Di leader Fu Xing all led their forces to come submit to Northern Wei.


燕主寶從間道過鄴,鄴人請留,寶不許。南至黎陽,伏於河西,遣中黃門令趙思告北地王鍾曰:「上以二月得丞相表,卽時南征,至乙連,會長上作亂,失據來此。王亟白丞相奉迎!」鍾,德之從弟也,首勸德稱尊號,聞而惡之,執思付獄,以狀白南燕王德。德謂羣下曰:「卿等以社稷大計,勸吾攝政;吾亦以嗣帝播越,民神乏主,故權順羣議以繫衆心。今天方悔禍,嗣帝得還,吾將具法駕奉迎,謝罪行闕,何如?」黃門侍郎張華曰:「今天下大亂,非雄才無以寧濟羣生。嗣帝闇懦,不能紹隆先統。陛下若蹈匹夫之節,捨天授之業,威權一去,身首不保,況社稷其得血食乎!」慕輿護曰:「嗣帝不達時宜,委棄國都,自取敗亡,不堪多難,亦已明矣。昔蒯聵出奔,衞輒不納,《春秋》是之。以子拒父猶可,況以父拒子乎!今趙思之言,未明虛實,臣請爲陛下馳往詗之。」德流涕遣之。

22. Murong Bao traveled along backroads. As he passed through Ye, the people there asked him to stay, but he would not agree.

When Murong Bao reached Liyang, he halted on the west bank of the Yellow River. He sent his Prefect of the Yellow Gate Palace Attendants, Zhao Si, to report to the Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, "Our sovereign received the Prime Minister's (Murong De's) petition this past second month, and thus began a southern campaign. Unfortunately, when he reached Yilian, the Commander rose in rebellion against him. Having lost his position, he is now coming here. Prince, inform the Prime Minister at once so that he can welcome our sovereign's arrival!"

This Murong Zhong was Murong De's cousin, and he had been the main one to urge Murong De to declare himself Emperor, so he was vexed at hearing this report. He arrested Zhao Si and put him in prison, while sending word to Murong De explaining the situation.

Murong De said to his ministers and subordinates, "You all urged me that for the good of the state, I should assume command of affairs. I felt that since the young master had fled into exile, and the people and spirits were left without a ruler, I ought to heed your advice to calm the hearts of the people. Yet now it seems that Heaven has regretted inflicting this disaster upon us, and the young master is about to return again. I ought to prepare an imperial carriage to welcome his arrival and apologize for my crimes at his chamber gate. What do you think?"

Murong De's Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Zhang Hua, replied, "The realm is current in great turmoil, and no one can quell the chaos or gather the people if he lacks boldness or talent. The young master is blind and foolish, unable to continue the endeavors of his ancestors. Your Majesty, if you did as you suggest, you would only be upholding the meager conduct of a common fellow while throwing away the grand enterprise that Heaven has bestowed you. And without your power and majesty, you would not even be able to protect your own head, much less ensure the continuation of the sacrifices to the altars of state!"

And Muyu Hu said, "The young master is unsuited to the current times or circumstances. He abandoned the capital of the state and so brought about his own ruin. It is already clear to see that he cannot bear the many difficulties the state faces. In ancient times, when Kuaikui fled from his position as lord of Wey, he was not allowed to return again, as the Spring and Autumn Annals attests. If it is acceptable for a son to thus refuse to welcome the return of his father, how much more permissible is it for a father to do so for his son? And we do not even know the truth behind Zhao Si's claims. I ask that Your Majesty let me go and take a look."

Murong De sent him, weeping as he did so.

〈河水自遮害亭屈而東北流,過黎陽縣南,河之西岸爲黎陽界,東岸爲滑臺界。〉〈寶以德爲司徒,故稱之爲丞相。〉〈人主所據者,勢也,衆叛親離,大勢已去,失所據矣。〉〈播,逋也,遷也。越,遠也,走也。〉〈天子行幸所至有行宮,宮前闕門,謂之行闕。〉〈寶棄中山,見上卷上年。〉〈德於寶爲叔父。〉〈詗,候俟也,刺探也。〉〈流涕遣護,將使之殺寶也。〉

(At Zhetai Point, the Yellow River bends to the northeast, passing through the south of Liyang county. So Liyang is on the west bank of the river, while Huatai is on the east bank.

Murong Bao had earlier appointed Murong De as Minister Over The Masses, a rank which was roughly equivalent to Prime Minister when that title was not in use, so Zhao Si addresses Murong De as Prime Minister here for that reason.

The main thing which a ruler of people possesses is power. But with Murong Bao's army having mutinied against him and his relatives having deserted him, he had already lost most of his power. This was the position he had lost.

Murong De describes Murong Bao as being 播越. 播 means "move, relocate", and 越 "distant" or "to flee", so he meant that Murong Bao had gone into distant exile, off to Longcheng in the northeast.

When the Son of Heaven is on the move through the land, at whichever place he stops, a field palace is erected. The front of this palace is the chamber gate, so Murong De refers to going to this gate to apologize.

Zhongshan had been the Later Yan capital, but Murong Bao had abandoned it, as mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.22).

Murong De was Murong Bao's uncle, which was why Muyu Hu made this comparison.

To 詗 means to scout out the situation or spy on an area.

Since Murong De wept as he dispatched Muyu Hu, he must have intended for him to kill Murong Bao.)


四月,寶至鄴鄴中遺民固請留之,寶不從,南至黎陽城。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the fourth month, Murong Bao came to Ye. The people of Ye sent people earnestly asking Murong Bao to stay at Ye, but he would not do so. Murong Bao continued south until he reached the city of Liyang.

寶自龍城南奔至黎陽城西數里,伏於河西,遣中黃門趙思告北地王鍾曰:「上以去二月得丞相表,即自南征,段速骨作逆於乙連,今失據來此,呼丞相奉迎。」鐘馳使白狀。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

When Murong Bao fled south from Longcheng, he stopped several li west of the city of Liyang, pausing on the west side of the Yellow River. He sent his Palace Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Zhao Si, to inform the Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, of his arrival. Zhao Si said, "Our sovereign received the Prime Minister's (Murong De's) petition this past second month, and thus began a southern campaign. But Duan Sugu traitorously rebelled against him at Yilian. Having lost his position, he is now coming here. Inform the Prime Minister to welcome our sovereign's arrival." Murong Zhong sent a courier to explain the situation to Murong De.

至是,慕容寶自龍城南奔至黎陽,遣其中黃門令趙思召慕容鍾來迎。鍾本首議勸德稱尊號,聞而惡之,執思付獄,馳使白狀。德謂其下曰:「卿等前以社稷大計,勸吾攝政。吾亦以嗣帝奔亡,人神曠主,故權順群議,以系眾望。今天方悔禍,嗣帝得還,吾將具駕奉迎,謝罪行闕,然後角巾私第,卿等以為何如?」其黃門侍郎張華進曰:「夫爭奪之世,非雄才不振;從橫之時,豈懦夫能濟!陛下若蹈匹婦之仁,舍天授之業,威權一去,則身首不保,何退讓之有乎!」德曰:「吾以古人逆取順守,其道未足,所以中路徘徊,悵然未決耳。」慕輿護請馳問寶虛實,德流涕而遣之。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Later on, Murong Bao fled from Longcheng south to Liyang. He sent his Prefect of the Palace Yellow Gate, Zhao Si, to summon Murong Zhong to come and welcome his arrival. Murong Zhong had been the main one to urge Murong De to declare himself Emperor, so he was vexed at hearing this report. He arrested Zhao Si and put him in prison, while sending word to Murong De explaining the situation.

Murong De said to his subordinates, "You all urged me that for the good of the state, I should assume command of affairs. I too felt that since the young master had fled into exile, and the people and spirits were left without a ruler, I ought to heed your advice to calm the hearts of the people. Yet now it seems that Heaven has regretted inflicting this disaster upon us, and the young master is about to return again. I ought to prepare an imperial carriage to welcome his arrival and apologize for my crimes at his chamber gate, then put on a headband and retire to my private estate. What do you think?"

Murong De's Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Zhang Hua, stepped forward and said, "This is an age of strife and struggle, and no one can quell the chaos if he lacks boldness or talent; how could a cowardly man guide us through this time of troubles? The young master is blind and foolish, unable to continue the endeavors of his ancestors. Your Majesty, if you did as you suggest, you would only be upholding the meager conduct of a common fellow while throwing away the grand enterprise that Heaven has bestowed you. And without your power and majesty, you would not even be able to protect your own head. How could you retire and give up your power so?"

Murong De replied, "The ancients captured the traitorous and protected the obedient, but I am not yet good enough to follow their course; It is just that I stand hesitating in the middle of the road, despondent and indecisive."

Then Muyu Hu asked to go and ask about Murong Bao to see what the truth of the situation was. Murong De sent him, weeping as he did so.


護帥壯士數百人隨思而北,聲言迎衞,其實圖之。寶旣遣思詣鍾,於後得樵者,言德已稱制,懼而北走。護至,無所見,執思以還。德以思練習典故,欲留而用之;思曰:「犬馬猶知戀主,思雖刑臣,乞還就上。」德固留之,思怒曰:「周室東遷,晉、鄭是依。殿下親則叔父,位爲上公,不能帥先羣后以匡帝室,而幸本根之傾,爲趙王倫之事,思雖不能如申包胥之存楚,猶慕龔君賓不偷生於莽世也!」德斬之。

23. Muyu Hu led several hundred strong fellows to accompany Zhao Si back north; they claimed they were coming to welcome and protect Murong Bao, but really they planned to get rid of him. But after Murong Bao had sent Zhao Si to visit Murong Zhong, he later learned from some woodgatherers that Murong De had already claimed power for himself. Afraid, he fled north again. By the time Muyu Hu arrived, there was no one to be found, so he arrested Zhao Si and returned to Huatai.

Since Zhao Si had long been practiced in the rites and canons, Murong De wanted to keep him as part of his own court. But Zhao Si said, "Even beasts as brainless as dogs or horses know when they have been forced to change masters. Though I am a mere 'tortured minister' (a eunuch), I still beg you to allow me to return to my sovereign."

When Murong De insisted on keeping Zhao Si at Huatai, Zhao Si angrily said, "When the Zhou dynasty moved to the east, Jin and Zheng assisted it. Your Highness is our sovereign's own uncle, and you held a position as the most honored excellency. Yet not only did you fail to lead the others to join the imperial household and rectify the mistakes of the state, you have overturned the very foundation of the state and imitated the example of the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun. As for me, if I cannot be like Shen Baoxu when he preserved the state of Chu, at least I can be like Gong Junbin, who refused to live if it meant serving Wang Mang!"

So Murong De beheaded him.

〈宦者,謂之刑臣。上,謂寶也。〉〈周平王東遷洛邑,晉文侯、鄭武寔定王室,故周桓公曰:「我周之東遷,晉、鄭焉依。」〉〈事見八十九卷惠帝永寧元年。言趙王倫以宗室而篡晉,德所爲類之。倫於惠帝,叔祖也;德於寶,叔父也。〉〈吳破楚入郢,申包胥乞師於秦,遂破吳師,楚昭王復國。〉〈龔勝,字君賓,事見三十七卷王莽始建國三年。〉

(A "tortured minister" meant a eunuch.

When Zhao Si uses the term 上, he means Murong Bao.

When King Ping of Zhou moved the capital east to Luoyang, Marquis Wen of Jin and Wushi of Zheng assisted the royal family. Thus Duke Huan of Zhou said, "When our Zhou dynasty moved east, Jin and Zheng assisted it."

Sima Lun's usurpation of the Jin throne from Emperor Hui is mentioned in Book 84, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongning (301.2). Zhao Si mentioned this as a precedent because Sima Lun was a member of the royal clan, yet he usurped the throne, so Murong De was following his example. Sima Lun was Emperor Hui's great-uncle; Murong De was Murong Bao's uncle.

When the state of Wu routed the state of Chu and entered its capital at Ying, Shen Baoxu begged the state of Qin for an army, with which he routed the Wu army and restored King Zhao of Chu to his state.

Gong Teng, styled Junbin, had died rather than serve under the usurper Wang Mang, as mentioned in Book 37, in Wang Mang's third year of Shijianguo (11 AD).)


寶西聞范陽王德稱制,懼而退。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

At Liyang, Murong Bao heard that the Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, had already assumed power for himself. Afraid, he fled back north.

寶聞德稱制,退潛辟陽。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

When Murong Bao heard that Murong De had already claimed power for himself, he ran away and hid at Piyang.

寶至黎陽,聞慕容德稱制,懼而退。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

When Murong Bao arrived at Liyang, he heard that Murong De had already claimed power for himself. Afraid, he fled.

寶遣思之後,見採樵者,知德稱帝,懼而北奔。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

After Murong Bao had sent Zhao Si, he met some people gathering wood and learning that Murong De had declared himself Emperor. Afraid, Murong Bao fled north.

護乃率壯士數百,隨思而北,因謀殺寶。初,寶遣思之後,知德攝位,懼而北奔。護至無所見,執思而還。德以思閑習典故,將任之。思曰:「昔關羽見重曹公,猶不忘先主之恩。思雖刑餘賤隸,荷國寵靈,犬馬有心,而況人乎!乞還就上,以明微節。」德固留之,思怒曰:「周室衰微,晉、鄭夾輔;漢有七國之難,實賴梁王。殿下親則叔父,位則上臺,不能率先群後以匡王室,而幸根本之傾為趙倫之事。思雖無申胥哭秦之效,猶慕君賓不生莽世。」德怒,斬之。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Muyu Hu led several hundred strong fellows to accompany Zhao Si back north, because they were plotting to kill Murong Bao. But earlier, after Murong Bao had sent Zhao Si to visit Murong Zhong, he later learned that Murong De had already claimed power for himself. Afraid, he fled north again. By the time Muyu Hu arrived, there was no one to be found, so he arrested Zhao Si and returned to Huatai.

Since Zhao Si had long been practiced in the rites and canons, Murong De wanted to keep him as part of his own court. But Zhao Si said, "In former times, although Guan Yu was shown great appreciation and favor by Cao Cao, he still did not forget the grace that his original master Liu Bei had shown him. Though I am merely a 'tortured minister' and a lowly servant, I have still been shown the favor and grace of the state. Even a horse or a dog has regard for their master, much less a man! I beg you to allow me to return to my sovereign, so that I can display my meager duty."

When Murong De insisted on keeping Zhao Si at Huatai, Zhao Si angrily said, "When the Zhou dynasty moved to the east, Jin and Zheng assisted it; when the Seven Princes rebelled against the Han dynasty, they could still count on the help of the Prince of Liang. Your Highness is our sovereign's own uncle, and you held a position as the most honored minister. Yet not only did you fail to lead the others to join the imperial household and rectify the mistakes of the state, you have overturned the very foundation of the state and imitated the example of the Prince of Zhao, Sima Lun. As for me, if I cannot be like Shen Baoxu when he wept to the state of Qin to preserve the state of Chu, at least I can be like Junbin, who refused to live if it meant serving Wang Mang."

Angry, Murong De beheaded him.


寶遣扶風忠公慕輿騰與長樂王盛收兵冀州,盛以騰素暴橫,爲民所怨,乃殺之,行至鉅鹿、長樂,說諸豪傑,皆願起兵奉寶。寶以蘭汗祀燕宗廟,所爲似順,意欲還龍城,不肯留冀州,乃北行;至建安,抵民張曹家。曹素武健,請爲寶合衆;盛亦勸寶宜且駐留,察汗情狀。寶乃遣宂從僕射李旱先往見汗,寶留頓石城。會汗遣左將軍蘇超奉迎,陳汗忠款。寶以汗燕王垂之舅,盛之妃父也,謂必無他,不待旱返,遂行。盛流涕固諫,寶不聽,留盛在後,盛與將軍張眞下道避匿。

24. Murong Bao sent Muyu Teng and Murong Sheng to gather up soldiers in Jizhou. Since Murong Sheng felt that Muyu Teng had long been violent and perverse, and the people resented him, he killed Muyu Teng. Muyu Teng was posthumously known as Duke Zhong ("the Loyal") of Fufeng. Murong Sheng traveled as far as Julu and Changle commandaries, where he persuaded the various leading families, and they all raised troops to support Murong Bao.

By this time, Murong Bao had reconsidered his stance on Lan Han. He felt that since Lan Han had continued to offer sacrifices to the Yan royal family, he seemed to be obedient. So Murong Bao wanted to return to Longcheng, and unable to bear remaining in Jizhou, he departed for the north.

When Murong Bao reached Jian'an, he stayed with the family of the commoner Zhang Cao. This Zhang Cao had long been a martial and strong fellow, and he asked to gather an army on Murong Bao's behalf. Murong Sheng also urged Murong Bao to wait there and find out more about the situation in the north with Lan Han first. So Murong Bao sent his 宂從僕射, Li Han, on ahead to see Lan Han, while Murong Bao halted at Shicheng.

Meanwhile, Lan Han sent his General of the Left, Su Chao, to come and welcome Murong Bao, professing Lan Han's loyalty and sincerity. Murong Bao considered that Lan Han had been Murong Chui's uncle, and he was Murong Sheng's father-in-law. So he said that Lan Han surely had no sinister motives, and he set out for Longcheng again without waiting for Li Han to return first. Murong Sheng tearfully remonstrated against this, but Murong Bao would not listen; he merely left Murong Sheng to maintain the rear. Murong Sheng and the general Zhang Zhen ran and hid, taking backroads.

〈建安城在令支之北,乙連之南。〉〈石城縣,前漢屬右北平郡,後漢、晉省縣,屬建德郡,隋、唐併入營州柳城縣界。宋白曰:石城縣取碣石立如城以名之。〉

(The city of Jian'an was north of Lingzhi and south of Yilian.

During Former Han, Shicheng county was part of Youbeiping commandary. Later Han and Jin abolished the county, and the territory became part of Jiande commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was folded into Liucheng county in Yingzhou. Song Bai remarked, "In Shicheng county there was a raised stone tablet, resembling a wall, thus the name Shicheng ('Stone Wall').")


乃還龍城,次於廣都。蘭汗又遣左將軍蘇超迎寶,具申款誠,忠節無差。寶於是命發。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao decided to return to Longcheng, and he came to Guangdu. Lan Han also sent his General of the Left, Su Chao, to welcome Murong Bao's return, professing Lan Han's full sincerity and that he was completely loyal and dutiful. So Murong Bao heeded his order.

汗復遣迎寶。寶以汗垂之季舅,子盛又汗之壻也,必謂無二。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Lan Han once again sent envoys to welcome Murong Bao's return to Longcheng. Murong Bao felt that since Lan Han had been Murong Chui's uncle, and he was the father-in-law of Murong Bao's son Murong Sheng, he surely did not have sinister intentions.

遣慕輿騰招集散兵于钜鹿,慕容盛結豪桀于冀州,段儀、段溫收部曲于內黃,眾皆響會,克期將集。會蘭汗遣左將軍蘇超迎寶,寶以汗垂之季舅,盛又汗之壻也,必謂忠款無貳。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao sent Muyu Teng to gather together his scattered soldiers at Julu, and he sent Murong Sheng to form ties with the local gentry in Jizhou. He sent Duan Yi and Duan Wen to gather up their forces at Neihuang. All of these forces were planned to gather together at a set date.

But then, Lan Han sent his General of the Left, Su Chao, to once again welcome Murong Bao's return to Longcheng. Murong Bao felt that because Lan Han had been Murong Chui's uncle, and he was Murong Sheng's father-in-law, he was surely loyal and sincere without any sinister motives.

寶既如龍城,盛留在後。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

When Murong Bao returned to Longcheng, he left Murong Sheng to look after affairs in the rear.


丁亥,寶至索莫汗陘,去龍城四十里,城中皆喜。汗惶佈,欲自出請罪,兄弟共諫止之。汗乃遣弟加難帥五百騎出迎;又遣兄堤閉門止仗,禁人出入。城中皆知其將爲變,而無如之何。加難見寶於陘北,拜謁已,從寶俱進。潁陰烈公餘崇密言於寶曰:「觀加難形色,禍變甚逼,宜留三思,柰何徑前!」寶不從。行數里,加難先執崇,崇大呼駡曰:「汝家幸緣肺附,蒙國寵榮,覆宗不足以報。今乃敢謀篡逆,此天地所不容,計旦暮卽屠滅,但恨我不得手膾汝曹耳!」加難殺之。引寶入龍城外邸,弒之。汗諡寶曰靈帝;殺獻哀太子策及王公卿士百餘人;自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、昌黎王,改元青龍;以堤爲太尉,加難爲車騎將軍,封河間王熙爲遼東公,如杞、宋故事。

25. On the day Dinghai (May 27th), Murong Bao arrived at Suomohan Pass, forty li from Longcheng. Those within the city all rejoiced.

Lan Han was afraid, and he wanted to go out to personally apologize to Murong Bao for his crimes, but his brothers all remonstrated with him and stopped him. So Lan Han sent his younger brother Lan Jia'nan to lead five thousand riders to go out and welcome Murong Bao's arrival. He also sent his elder brother Lan Di to close the gates and post guards there to forbid anyone from going in or out. Those within the city all knew that these acts foretold some kind of development, but they did not know what sort.

When Lan Jia'nan met Murong Bao north of the pass, he performed obeisance to him; then he and his riders all followed Murong Bao as the procession advanced towards the city. Yu Chong secretly told Murong Bao, "Judging by Lan Jia'nan's expression, there must be some great disaster or coup right at hand. Please stay here and reconsider; why rush ahead so quickly?"

But Murong Bao did not listen. After they had traveled a few li, Lan Jia'nan arrested Yu Chong. Yu Chong denounced him in a loud voice, yelling, "Your family is as close to the royal family as the lungs and heart, and you have received the favor and grace of the state. Even if your whole clan gave themselves in sacrifice, it would not be enough to repay all the favor you have been shown. Yet now you dare go so far as to plot usurpation and treason. Heaven and Earth shall never put up with you; I reckon it will not be long until your whole clan is exterminated. I only regret that I will not be able to tear you to mincemeat myself!"

Lan Jia'nan killed him. Then he led Murong Bao into the outer suburbs of Longcheng and murdered him too.

Lan Han posthumously named Murong Bao as Emperor Ling ("the Ghostly"). He then killed the Crown Prince, Murong Ce, and more than a hundred other members of the royal family and their leading nobles and ministers. Murong Ce was later posthumously known as Crown Prince Xian'ai ("the Presented and Mourned"), and Yu Chong was posthumously known as Duke Lie ("the Fierce") of Yingyin.

Lan Han then declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Changli, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Qinglong. He appointed Lan Di as Grand Commandant and Lan Jia'nan as General of Chariots and Cavalry. He appointed Murong Xi as Duke of Liaodong, continuing the precedent of Qi and Song.

〈已者,拜謁之禮畢。〉〈師古曰:肺附,謂親戚也。舊解云︰肺附,如肺腑之相附著。一說︰肺,斫木札也。喻其輕薄附著大材也。〉〈膾,細切肉也。〉〈年四十四。〉〈周武王封夏之後於杞,殷之後於宋。〉

(已 in this passage means "after the ceremony of obeisance was concluded".

Yu Chong describes Lan Han and his family as being 肺附 "close as the lungs" to the Yan royal family. Regarding this phrase, Yan Shigu remarked, "To be 'close as the lungs' means to be close kin. An old explanation of this phrase is, 'it is like being as close together as the lungs and the heart'. Another is, 'the lungs break down bits of wood'; that is to say, the lungs convert little pieces of wood into great timber."

Yu Chong says that he wants to tear Lan Jia'nan to "mincemeat"; this is finely-cut meat.

Murong Bao was forty-three years old when he died.

After King Wu of Zhou established the Zhou dynasty, he granted the descendants of the Xia dynasty a fief at Qi, and he granted the descendants of the Yin (Shang) dynasty a fief at Song. So the 'precedent of Qi and Song' meant to grant a fief to the descendants of a past dynasty, and this was what Lan Han was doing for Murong Xi in appointing him as Duke of Liaodong.)


是歲,蘭汗殺慕容寶而自立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (398), Lan Han killed Murong Bao and claimed power for himself.

夏五月,蘭汗弑慕容寶而自稱大將軍、昌黎王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fifth month, Lan Han murdered Murong Bao, then declared himself Grand General and King of Changli.

汗遣弟難率五百騎迎寶至龍城,汗引寶入於外邸,殺之,年四十四。殺太子榮及王公卿士百餘人。汗自稱大將軍、大單于、昌黎王,年號青龍。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

Lan Han sent his younger brother Lan Nan to lead five hundred cavalry to welcome Murong Bao's arrival at Longcheng. Lan Han led Murong Bao to outside his official residence and then killed him. Murong Bao was forty-three years old when he died. Lan Han then killed the Crown Prince, Murong Rong, and more than a hundred other members of the royal family and their leading nobles and ministers. He declared himself Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Changli, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Qinglong.

寶乃還龍城。汗殺之,及子弟等百餘人。汗自稱大都督、大單于、昌黎王,號年青龍。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao returned to Longcheng. Lan Han killed him, along with more than a hundred of his younger relatives. Lan Han then declared himself Grand Commander, Grand Chanyu, and King of Changli, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Qinglong.

寶以汗垂之季舅,盛又汗之壻也,必謂忠款無貳,乃還至龍城。汗引寶入于外邸,弑之,時年四十四,在位三年,即隆安三年也。汗又殺其太子策及王公卿士百餘人。汗自稱大都督、大將軍、大單于、昌黎王。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

Murong Bao returned to Longcheng. Lan Han led Murong Bao to outside his official residence and then murdered him. Murong Bao was forty-three years old, and had reigned for three years; the year of his death was the third year of Long'an (399). Lan Han also killed Murong Bao's Crown Prince, Murong Ce, and more than a hundred of his nobles and chief ministers.

Lan Han then declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Grand Chanyu, and King of Changli.


長樂王盛聞之,馳欲赴哀;張眞止之。盛曰:「我今以窮歸汗,汗性愚淺,必念婚姻,不忍殺我,旬月之間,足以展吾情志。」遂往見汗。汗妻乙氏及盛妃皆泣涕請盛於汗,盛妃復頓頭於諸兄弟。汗惻然哀之,乃舍盛於宮中,以爲侍中、左光祿大夫,親待如舊。堤、加難屢請殺盛,汗不從。堤驕很荒淫,事汗多無禮,盛因而間之。由是汗兄弟浸相嫌忌。

26. When Murong Sheng heard about the death of Murong Bao and the other members of the Murong clan at Longcheng, he wanted to rush to attend the mourning for him. Zhang Zhen tried to stop him. But Murong Sheng replied, "My intention is to go and see what the situation is with Lan Han. He is naturally foolish and sentimental, so he will surely consider that I am his son-in-law, and he will not bear to kill me. In less than a month, I shall be able to put my own plans into effect." So he went off to see Lan Han.

Lan Han's wife, Lady Yi, and Murong Sheng's wife both tearfully pleaded for Lan Han to spare Murong Sheng's life, and Murong Sheng's wife also kowtowed before Lan Han's brothers as well. Lan Han sympathized with Murong Sheng because of his grief, so he granted him residence within the palace, and he appointed him as a Palace Attendant and as Household Counselor with Golden Tassel of the Left. He treated Murong Sheng with the same kind regard as before.

Lan Di and Lan Jia'nan kept asking Lan Han to kill Murong Sheng, but Lan Han refused to do so. And since Lan Di was naturally arrogant and very unrestrained, he was often completely disrespectful to Lan Han. Taking advantage of that, Murong Sheng started to sow discord between the brothers. So Lan Han and his brothers began to view one another with more and more suspicion and paranoia.

〈爲盛誅汗張本。〉

(This was why Murong Sheng later executed Lan Han.)


汗以盛子壻,哀而宥之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Bao)

Because Murong Sheng was Lan Han's son-in-law, Lan Han sympathized with his grief and pardoned him.

及寶為蘭汗所殺,盛馳赴哀。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Murong Bao was killed by Lan Han, Murong Sheng hurried to attend the mourning for his father.

蘭汗之殺寶也,以盛為侍中、左光祿大夫。盛乃間汗兄弟,使相疑害。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Lan Han killed Murong Bao, he appointed Murong Sheng as a Palace Attendant and as Household Gentleman With Golden Tassel of the Left. Murong Sheng thus sowed discord between Lan Han and his brothers, causing them to suspect and harm each other.

寶為蘭汗所殺,盛馳進赴哀,將軍張真固諫以為不可,盛曰:「我今投命,告以哀窮。汗性愚近,必顧念婚姻,不忍害我。旬月之間,足展吾志。」遂人赴喪。汗妻乙氏泣涕請盛,汗亦哀之,遣其子穆迎盛,舍之宮內,親敬如舊。汗兄提、弟難勸汗殺盛,汗不從。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

After Murong Bao had been killed by Lan Han, he wanted to rush to attend the mourning for him. His general Zhang Zhen urgently remonstrated that this was impossible. But Murong Sheng replied, "I would be throwing my life at Lan Han's mercy and displaying to him my grief and my adversity. He is naturally foolish and sentimental, so he will surely consider that I am his son-in-law, and he will not bear to harm me. In less than a month, I shall be able to put my own plans into effect." So he went off to attend the mourning.

Lan Han's wife, Lady Yi, tearfully pleaded on Murong Sheng's behalf. Lan Han sympathized with Murong Sheng because of his grief, so he sent his own son Lan Mu to welcome Murong Sheng's arrival, he granted him residence within the palace, and he treated Murong Sheng with the same kind regard as before. Lan Han's elder brother Lan Ti and his younger brother Lan Nan urged him to kill Murong Sheng, but Lan Han did not listen to them.


涼太原公纂將兵擊楊軌,郭黁救之,纂敗還。

27. Liang's Duke of Taiyuan, Lü Zuan, led troops to attack the rebel leader Yang Gui. But Guo Nun came to reinforce Yang Gui, and Lü Zuan was defeated and returned.

段業使沮渠蒙遜攻西郡,執太守呂純以歸。純,光之弟子也。於是晉昌太守王德、敦煌太守趙郡孟敏皆以郡降業。業封蒙遜爲臨池侯,以德爲酒泉太守,敏爲沙州刺史。

28. Duan Ye sent Juqu Mengxun to attack Xi commandary, where Juqu Mengxun captured the Administrator, Lü Chun, and then returned. This Lü Chun was the nephew of Lü Guang.

The fall of Xi commandary caused the Administrator of Jinchang, Wang De, and the Administrator of Dunhuang, Meng Min of Zhao commandary, to surrender their commandaries to Duan Ye as well. Duan Ye appointed Juqu Mengxun as Marquis of Linchi, he appointed Wang De as Administrator of Jiuquan, and he appointed Meng Min as Inspector of Shazhou.

〈郡在武威西,據嶺之要,蒙遜得之,故晉昌、敦煌皆降。〉

(Xi commandary was so named ("West") because it was west of Wuwei. It occupied a strategic place through the mountains ranges. So when Juqu Mengxun conquered it, Jinchang and Dunhuang commandaries further to the west were compelled to surrender to Duan Ye as well.)


業以蒙遜為封臨池侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 9, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Duan Ye appointed Juqu Mengxun as Marquis of Linchi.

業將使蒙遜攻西郡,眾咸疑之。蒙遜曰:「此郡據嶺之要,不可不取。」業曰:「卿言是也。」遂遣之。蒙遜引水灌城,城潰,執太守呂純以歸。於是王德以晉昌,孟敏以敦煌降業。業封蒙遜臨池侯。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

When Duan Ye decided to send Juqu Mengxun to attack Xi commandary, everyone suspected that it could not be done. But Juqu Mengxun declared, "The commandary occupies a critical strategic point through the mountain ranges. We have no choice but to take it."

Duan Ye said, "It is as you say." So he sent Juqu Mengxun off.

Juqu Mengxun diverted a river into the city, flooding it, and he captured the Administrator, Lü Chun, before returning. This caused Wang De to surrender Jinchang commandary and Meng Min to surrender Dunhuang commandary. Duan Ye appointed Juqu Mengxun as Marquis of Linchi.


六月,丙子,魏王珪命羣臣議國號。皆曰:「周、秦以前,皆自諸侯升爲天子,因以其國爲天下號。漢氏以來,皆無尺土之資。我國家百世相承,開基代北,遂撫有方夏,今宜以代爲號。」黃門侍郎崔宏曰:「昔商人不常厥居,故兩稱殷、商,代雖舊邦,其命維新,登國之初,已更曰魏。夫魏者,大名,神州之上國也,宜稱魏如故。」珪從之。

29. It was earlier mentioned that the name of the state that Tuoba Gui's ancestors had ruled had been called Dai. But after Tuoba Gui became stronger, he had declared himself as the King of Wei. Now, in the sixth month, on the day Bingzi (July 15th), Tuoba Gui ordered his ministers to gather and discuss which should be the proper name of the state, Dai or Wei.

Most of them said, "The founding sovereigns of all the dynasties from the Qin and Zhou dynasties back were originally members of the feudal lords who ascended from that status to becoming the Son of Heaven, and having possessed a fiefdom before attaining the realm, they transferred the name of their fiefdom to become the name of the dynasty for all the realm. It was just that the rulers who have sprung up since the time of the Han dynasty originally possessed not a single foot of land. But as for us, our rulers and our families established themselves through a hundred generations in the regions of Dai and the north. In order that you might 'soothe the regions of our great land', it is therefore fitting that the name of our state be Dai."

But the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Cui Hong, said, "Even the rulers of the Shang dynasty did not maintain a constant capital residence for their state, and that is why we have the two names Shang and Yin for that dynasty. Although the Dai region was the homeland of our state, the actual foundation of rule was only recently established. Furthermore, Your Majesty already declared at the beginning of the Dengguo reign era (386) that the state would be named Wei. And Wei is a great name indeed, for the state of Wei was one of the greatest states of the Sacred Provinces in ancient times. So you should maintain the name Wei, as it has been until now."

Tuoba Gui followed his advice.

〈據孔安國《尚書註》,方夏,謂四方中夏。〉〈契始封於商。皇甫謐曰:今上洛商是也。契孫相土居商丘。自契至于成湯,八遷,湯始居亳,從先王居。後仲丁遷於囂,河亶甲居相,祖乙居耿。《書》曰:盤庚五遷,將治亳殷,從先王居。謂從帝嚳所居,居亳也。〉〈事見一百六卷孝武太元十一年。〉〈《左傳》,卜偃曰:「魏,大名也。」戰國之時,魏爲大國。中國謂之神州。〉

(The Northern Wei ministers use the term Fangxia; this term appears in the Book of Documents. According to Kong Anguo's Commentary on that text, Fangxia means "the four corners (方) of the Chinese (夏) heartland".

The ancestor of the rulers of the Shang dynasty, Xie, was granted his original fief at Shang. Huangfu Mi remarked, "This place was at Shang in modern Shangluo commandary." But Xie's grandson Xiang Tu had his residence at Shangqiu. And from Xie until the time of Cheng Tang, the actual founder of the Shang dynasty, the family had moved eight times. Tang himself had his residence at Bo, following the example of past kings. But later Shang kings shifted their residences as well: Zhong Di moved his residence to Ju, He Dan Jia resided at Xiang, and Zu Yi resided at Geng. And according to the Book of Documents, "Pan-geng moved the capital five times, governing the realm from Haoyin, following the example of kings of old"; that is, he followed the example of the ancient Emperor Ku, who had also governed from Hao.

Tuoba Gui's assumption of the title of King of Wei, a perceived ascension from his original title as King of Dai, is mentioned in Book 106, in Emperor Xiaowu's eleventh year of Taiyuan (386.21).

In the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, Bo Yan said, "Wei is a great name." And during the Warring States era, Wei was one of the great states.

The Middle Kingdom was also called the Sacred Provinces.)


遂王有中州,自稱曰魏。(Book of Liu-Song 95, Accounts of the Suotou)

Now that he was master of the Central Plains, Tuoba Kai named his state Wei.

六月丙子,詔有司議定國號。羣臣曰:「昔周秦以前,世居所生之土,有國有家,及王天下,即承為號。自漢以來,罷侯置守,時無世繼,其應運而起者,皆不由尺土之資。今國家萬世相承,啟基雲代。臣等以為若取長遠,應以代為號。」詔曰:「昔朕遠祖,總御幽都,控制遐國,雖踐王位,未定九州。逮于朕躬,處百代之季,天下分裂,諸華乏主。民俗雖殊,撫之在德,故躬率六軍,掃平中土,凶逆蕩除,遐邇率服。宜仍先號,以為魏焉。布告天下,咸知朕意。」(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the sixth month, on the day Bingzi (July 15th), Tuoba Gui ordered his ministers to gather and discuss which should be the proper name of the state, Dai or Wei.

They said, "The founding sovereigns of all the dynasties from the Qin and Zhou dynasties back were originally members of the feudal lords who ascended from that status to becoming the Son of Heaven, and having possessed a fiefdom before attaining the realm, they transferred the name of their fiefdom to become the name of the dynasty for all the realm. But ever since the time of the Han dynasty, when the old feudal fiefs were abolished and the commandaries were established instead, there were no longer any great aristocratic lines, and those who did rise up to become rulers originally possessed not a single foot of land. But as for us, our rulers and our families established themselves through a hundred generations, with our foundation in the regions of Yunzhong and Dai. We believe that if you wish to ensure the longevity of the state, then it is fitting that the name of our state be Dai."

Tuoba Gui issued an edict stating, "It is true that my ancient ancestors established their rule over the region of Youdu and brought distant states under their control. But although they claimed title as Kings, they never controlled the Nine Provinces. Their legacy of a hundred generations thus passed to me, and in my time I found the realm torn asunder and the Hua (ethnic Han) people left without a ruler. Though the common people were bereft of good customs, I could nurture them and bring them virtue. That is why I led the six armies to restore peace to the Central Land; I swept away and purged the wicked traitors, and those near and far all came to submit to me. So I should adhere to earlier titles that existed before, and take Wei to be the name of my state. Let this proclamation be spread across the realm, so that all may know my will."


楊軌自恃其衆,欲與涼王光決戰,郭黁每以天道抑止之。涼常山公弘鎭張掖,段業使沮渠男成及王德攻之;光使太原公纂將兵迎之。楊軌曰:「呂弘精兵一萬,若與光合,則姑臧益強,不可取矣。」乃與禿髮利鹿孤共邀擊纂,纂與戰,大破之;軌奔王乞基。黁性褊急殘忍,不爲士民所附,聞軌敗走,降西秦;西秦王乾歸以爲建忠將軍、散騎常侍。

30. Yang Gui was confident in the power of his army, and he now wished to fight a decisive battle against Lü Guang, but Guo Nun kept stopping him by warning him that the omens were unfavorable.

Liang's Duke of Changshan, Lü Hong, was guarding Zhangye commandary. Duan Ye sent Juqu Nancheng and Wang De to attack him. So Lü Guang sent Lü Zuan to lead troops to assist Lü Hong. Yang Gui mused, "Lü Hong already has ten thousand elite soldiers at his command. If Lü Guang reinforces him further, then Guzang will become even stronger, and I will not be able to capture it." So he and Tufa Lilugu joined forces to intercept and attack Lü Zuan, and they fought him. But Lü Zuan greatly routed them. Yang Gui fled to Wang Qiji.

By now, Guo Nun had proved himself to be a short-tempered and cruel man, and he had alienated the common people and the gentry. So when he heard that Yang Gui had been defeated and fled, he surrendered to Western Qin. Qifu Gangui appointed Guo Nun as his General Who Establishes Loyalty and Cavalier In Regular Attendance.

〈言天道未利也,郭黁善數,故如此。〉〈王乞基,田胡也。〉

(Guo Nun was saying that the omens were not favorable; he was skilled in these sorts of mystic divinations.

Wang Qiji was a leader of the Tianhu people.)


軌以士馬之盛,議欲大決成敗,黁每以天文裁之。呂弘為段業所逼,光遣呂纂迎之。軌謀於眾曰:「呂弘精兵一萬,若與光合,則敵強我弱。養獸不討,將為後患。」遂率兵邀纂,纂擊敗之。郭黁聞軌敗,東走魏安,遂奔於乞伏乾歸。楊軌聞黁走,南奔廉川。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Yang Gui had a great many soldiers and horses, and he now wished to fight a great decisive battle against Lü Guang, but Guo Nun kept stopping him by warning him that the omens were unfavorable.

Lü Hong was under threat from Duan Ye. So Lü Guang sent Lü Zuan to assist Lü Hong. Yang Gui said to his soldiers, "Lü Hong already has ten thousand elite soldiers at his command. If Lü Guang reinforces him further, then the enemy will be too strong and we shall be too weak. One who lets a beast be rather than deal with it only builds up trouble for himself later on." So he led his troops to intercept Lü Zuan, but Lü Zuan attacked and defeated him.

When Guo Nun heard that Yang Gui had been defeated, he fled east to Wei'an, and then fled to Qifu Gangui. And when Yang Gui heard that Guo Nun had fled, he too fled south to Lianchuan.


弘引兵棄張掖東走,段業徙治張掖,將追擊弘。沮渠蒙遜諫曰:「歸師勿遏,窮寇勿追,此兵家之戒也。」業不從,大敗而還,賴蒙遜以免。業城西安,以其將臧莫孩爲太守。蒙遜曰:「莫孩勇而無謀,知進不知退;此乃爲之築冢,非築城也!」業不從,莫孩尋爲呂纂所破。

31. Lü Hong led his troops to abandon Zhangye and flee back to the east. Duan Ye shifted his base to Zhangye, and he led troops to pursue and attack Lü Hong. Juqu Mengxun had remonstrated with him, saying, "It is said, 'Do not interfere with an army that is returning home; do not press a desperate foe too hard.' This is a basis of warfare." But Duan Ye had not listened, and indeed, he was greatly defeated and turned back, but was able to escape thanks to Juqu Mengxun.

Duan Ye fortified Xi'an, and he appointed his general Zang Mohai as the Administrator of Xi'an. Juqu Mengxun said, "Zang Mohai is a bold fellow, but he has no cunning; he knows when to advance, but he does not know when to retreat. You are not building walls for him; you are building his grave!" But Duan Ye did not listen. And Zang Mohai was later routed by Lü Zuan.

〈孫子之言。〉〈業置西安郡於張掖東境。〉

(Juqu Mengxun quotes from Sun Tzu's Art of War.

Duan Ye established Xi'an commandary on the eastern border of Zhangye commandary.)


呂弘去張掖,將東走,業議欲擊之。蒙遜諫曰:「歸師勿遏,窮寇弗追,此兵家之戎也。不如縱之,以為後圖。」業曰:「一日縱敵,悔將無及。」遂率眾追之,為弘所敗。業賴蒙遜而免,歎曰:「孤不能用子房之言,以至於此!」業築西安城,以其將臧莫孩為太守。蒙遜曰:「莫孩勇而無謀,知進忘退,所謂為之築塚,非築城也。」業不從。俄而為呂纂所敗。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

When Lü Hong abandoned Zhangye and was about to flee to the east, Duan Ye held a council, wanting to attack him. Juqu Mengxun remonstrated with him, saying, "It is said, 'Do not interfere with an army that is returning home; do not press a desperate foe too hard.' This is a basis of warfare. It would be better to let him go for now; we can deal with him later."

But Duan Ye replied, "If I let the enemy get away today, it will be too late for regrets later."

So he led his troops to pursue Lü Hong, but Lü Hong defeated him. However, Duan Ye was able to escape thanks to Juqu Mengxun. He sighed as he said, "I could not heed Zifang's (Zhang Liang's) advice, and that was how things came to this!"

Duan Ye fortified Xi'an, and he appointed his general Zang Mohai as the Administrator of Xi'an. Juqu Mengxun said, "Zang Mohai is a bold fellow, but he has no cunning; he knows when to advance, but he does not know when to retreat. You are not building walls for him; you are building his grave!"

But Duan Ye did not listen. And Zang Mohai was later defeated by Lü Zuan.


燕太原王奇,楷之子,蘭汗之外孫也,汗亦不殺,以爲征南將軍。得入見長樂王盛,盛潛使奇逃出起兵。奇起兵於建安,衆至數千,汗遣蘭堤討之。盛謂汗曰:「善駒小兒,未能辦此,豈非有假託其名欲爲內應者乎!太尉素驕,難信,不宜委以大衆。」汗然之,罷堤兵,更遣撫軍將軍仇尼慕將兵討奇。

32. Yan's Prince of Taiyuan, Murong Qi, was the son of Murong Kai. He was also Lan Han's maternal grandson, so Lan Han had not killed him during his purge of the Murong clan; he even appointed Murong Qi as his General Who Conquers The South. Murong Qi came to see Murong Sheng, and together they plotted to secretly have Murong Qi go out and raise troops in rebellion. Murong Qi raised his troops at Jian'an, gathering several thousand soldiers.

Lan Han sent Lan Di to campaign against Murong Qi. But Murong Sheng said to Lan Han, "Shanju (Murong Qi) is just a boy; he could not have been behind this rebellion. How could there not be someone who is manipulating him as a figurehead while really being behind everything? The Grand Commandant (Lan Di) has long been arrogant, and it is difficult to trust him. You should not grant him such a large army."

Lan Han agreed, so he disbanded Lan Di's soldiers, and he sent his General Who Nurtures The Army, Chouni Mu, to lead troops to campaign against Murong Qi instead.

〈善駒,奇小字也。〉〈汗以堤爲太尉,故稱之。〉〈蘇軾有言:「木必先蠹,然後蟲生之;人必先疑,然後讒入之。」蘭汗凶逆,兄弟自相嫌忌,故慕容盛得間之以奮其智,報君父之讎。〉

(Shanju was Murong Qi's childhood name.

Lan Han had appointed Lan Di as his Grand Commandant, so Murong Sheng here identifies Lan Di by that title.

Su Dongpo had a saying: "The wood that first contains moths will later contain worms; the man who first nurses suspicions will later believe slander." Lan Han was a violent and traitorous man, and he and his brothers were already suspicious of one another. This was why Murong Sheng was able to sow discord between Lan Han and his brothers and rob him of his senses, and in the end, to avenge the death of his lord father Murong Bao.)


慕容奇,汗之外孫也,汗亦宥之。奇入見盛,遂相與謀。盛遣奇起兵於外,眾至數千。汗遣蘭提討奇。提驕很淫荒,事汗無禮,盛因間之於汗曰:「奇,小兒也,未能辦此,必內有應之者。提素驕,不可委以大眾。」汗因發怒,收提誅之,遣其撫軍仇尼慕率眾討奇。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Qi was Lan Han's maternal grandson, so Lan Han had pardoned him as well. Murong Qi came in to see Murong Sheng, and together they made a secret plot. Murong Sheng sent Murong Qi to go out and raise troops in rebellion, and Murong Qi gathered several thousand soldiers.

Lan Han sent Lan Ti to campaign against Murong Qi. But Lan Di was naturally arrogant and very unrestrained, and he was often completely disrespectful to Lan Han. Taking advantage of that, Murong Sheng sowed discord between the brothers by telling Lan Han, "Murong Qi is just a boy; he could not have been behind this rebellion. There must be someone who is manipulating him as a figurehead while acting from within. Lan Ti has long been arrogant; you cannot not grant him such a large army."

This made Lan Han angry at Lan Ti, so he arrested Lan Ti and executed him, while sending his General Who Nutures The Army, Chouni Mu, to lead an army against Murong Qi instead.


於是龍城自夏不雨至于秋七月,汗日詣燕諸廟及寶神座頓首禱請,委罪於蘭加難。堤及加難聞之怒,且懼誅,乙巳,相與率所部襲仇尼慕軍,敗之。汗大懼,遣太子穆將兵討之。穆謂汗曰:「慕容盛我之仇讎,必與奇相表裏,此乃腹心之疾,不可養也,宜先除之。」汗欲殺盛,先引見,察之。盛妃知之,密以告盛,盛稱疾不出,汗亦止不殺。

33. It had not rained at Longcheng since the beginning of summer, and it was now the beginning of autumn, the seventh month. Every day, Lan Han paid visits to the ancestral temple of Yan and to Murong Bao's shrine to bow his head and pray and ask for rain, attributing all the blame for what had happened to Lan Jia'nan. When Lan Di and Lan Jia'nan heard about this, they were furious, and they were also afraid that Lan Han planned to execute them. So on the day Yisi (August 13th), they led their forces to launch a surprise attack on Chouni Mu's army and defeated it.

Lan Han was very afraid, and he sent his Crown Prince, Lan Mu, to campaign against them. Lan Mu said to Lan Han, "Murong Sheng is our sworn enemy, and he is surely in communication with Murong Qi. He is a boil on our very vitals, and you should not allow it to fester. Best get rid of him at once."

So Lan Han planned to kill Murong Sheng. But first he summoned Murong Sheng to come see him, so that Lan Han could check and see if Murong Sheng indeed seemed to be a threat. Murong Sheng's wife knew what her father intended, so she secretly informed her husband, and Murong Sheng claimed illness and did not come to Lan Han. Lan Han thus dropped his intention to kill Murong Sheng.

〈言弒寶者加難之罪。〉〈蘭妃之爲,異於雍姞。雖曰婦人內夫家而外父母家,若蘭妃者,處夫妻父子之變,得其一而失其一者也。〉

(Lan Han blamed Lan Jia'nan for having murdered Murong Bao.

In supporting Murong Sheng her husband over Lan Han her father, how different Lady Lan was from Yong Ji of the Spring and Autumn era! Although it is true that a wife is supposed to support the interests of her husband's family and distance herself from her parent's family, Lady Lan was put into the greatest sense of that divergence, a direct conflict between her husband and her father. So to help one was to hurt the other.)


汗兄弟見提之誅,莫不危懼,皆阻兵背汗,襲敗慕軍。汗大懼,遣其子穆率眾討之。穆謂汗曰:「慕容盛,我之仇也。奇今起逆,盛必應之。兼內有蕭牆之難,不宜養心腹之疾。」汗將誅盛,引見察之。盛妻以告,於是偽稱疾篤,不復出入,汗乃止。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

When Lan Han's other brothers saw that he had executed Lan Ti, all of them became nervous and afraid. They all took control of their troops and turned against Lan Han, and they launched a surprise attack against Chouni Mu's army and defeated. Lan Han was very afraid, and he sent his son Lan Mu to lead an army to campaign against them.

Lan Mu said to Lan Han, "Murong Sheng is our sworn enemy; he must have been the one behind Murong Qi's rebellion. He poses a threat within the screen of our own court. Do not let him endanger your very vitals."

So Lan Han planned to execute Murong Sheng. But first he summoned Murong Sheng to come see him, so that Lan Han could check and see if Murong Sheng indeed seemed to be a threat. Murong Sheng's wife secretly informed her husband, and Murong Sheng claimed illness and did not go in or out of his residence. Lan Han thus dropped his intention to kill Murong Sheng.


李旱、衞雙、劉忠、張豪、張眞,皆盛所厚也,而穆引以爲腹心,旱、雙得出入至盛所,潛與盛結謀。丁未,穆擊堤、加難等,破之。庚戌,饗將士,汗、穆皆醉,盛夜如廁,因踰垣入于東宮,與旱等共殺穆。時軍未解嚴,皆聚在穆舍,聞盛得出,呼躍爭先,攻汗,斬之。汗子魯公和、陳公揚分屯令支、白狼,盛遣旱、眞襲誅之。堤、加難亡匿,捕得,斬之。於是內外帖然,士女相慶。宇文拔率壯士數百來赴,盛拜拔爲大宗正。

34. Li Han, Wei Shuang, Liu Zhong, Zhang Hao, and Zhang Zhen had all received Murong Sheng's favor. But Lan Mu took them in as his confidantes. Li Han and Wei Shuang were able to go in and out to see Murong Sheng, and they secretly formed a plot together with him. On the day Dingwei (August 15th), Lan Mu attacked Lan Di, Lan Jia'nan, and their fellow generals and routed them.

On the day Gengxu (August 18th), Lan Mu held a feast for his generals and officers. Lan Han and Lan Mu both became drunk. During the night, Murong Sheng left as though to go the lavatory, then climbed over the wall into the Eastern Palace, where he joined Li Han and the others and killed Lan Mu. At this time, the army had not yet disbanded, and everyone was still gathered at Lan Mu's residence. When they heard that Murong Sheng had come inside, with a great shout they all lept up and raced to join him, and they attacked Lan Han and beheaded him.

The Dukes of Qi and Chen, Lan Han's sons Lan He and Lan Yang, were camped at Lingzhi and Bailang respectively. Murong Sheng sent Li Han and Zhang Zhen to launch surprise attacks against them and execute them. Lan Di and Lan Jia'nan ran and hid, but they were found, captured, and beheaded. Everywhere was thus made obedient to Murong Sheng, and men and women all celebrated.

Yuwen Ba led several hundred strong fellows to come join Murong Sheng, who appointed Yuwen Ba as Grand Steward of the Imperial Household.

〈宇文拔自遼西來也。〉

(Yuwen Ba came back from Liaoxi to join Murong Sheng.)


寶子盛殺汗僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year (398), Murong Bao's son Murong Sheng killed Lan Han and succeeded his father.

秋七月,慕容寶子盛斬蘭汗。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, Murong Bao's son Murong Sheng beheaded Lan Han.

七月,長樂公盛襲誅汗。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

In the seventh month, the Duke of Changle, Murong Sheng, launched a surprise attack against Lan Han and executed him.

因潛結大衆,謀討難及汗等,斬之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Taking advantage of his presence at Longcheng, Murong Sheng secretly assembled a great army, and he plotted a surprise attack against Lan Nan, Lan Han, and the other coup leaders and beheaded them.

李旱、衞雙、劉志、張真等,皆盛之舊昵,汗太子穆並引為腹心。盛要結旱等,因汗、穆等酒醉,夜襲殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Li Han, Wei Shuang, Liu Zhong, Zhang Zhen, and others had all received Murong Sheng's favor. But Lan Han's son Lan Mu took them in as his confidantes. Murong Sheng thus kept connections with Li Han and the others. And when Lan Han, Lan Mu, and the other coup leaders were drunk, Murong Sheng suddenly attacked them during the night and killed them.

有李旱、衛雙、劉志、張豪、張真者,皆盛之舊昵,蘭穆引為腹心。旱等屢入見盛,潛結大謀。會穆討蘭難等斬之,大饗將士,汗、穆皆醉。盛夜因如廁,袒而逾牆,入於東宮,與李旱等誅穆,眾皆踴呼,進攻汗,斬之。汗二子魯公和、陳公楊分屯令支、白狼,遣李旱、張真襲誅之。於是內外怗然,士女咸悅。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Li Han, Wei Shuang, Liu Zhi, Zhang Hao, Zhang Zhen, and others had all received Murong Sheng's favor. But Lan Mu took them in as his confidantes. Li Han and the others often went in to see Murong Sheng, and they secretly formed a plot together with him. Meanwhile, Lan Mu attacked Lan Nan and the others who had rebelled against Lan Han and beheaded them.

Lan Mu held a feast for his generals and officers, where Lan Han and Lan Mu both became drunk. During the night, Murong Sheng left as though to go the lavatory, then disrobed and climbed over the wall into the Eastern Palace, where he joined Li Han and the others and executed Lan Mu. With a great shout, the soldiers all lept up and raced to attack Lan Han, and they beheaded him.

The Dukes of Lu and Chen, Lan Han's sons Lan He and Lan Yang, were camped at Lingzhi and Bailang respectively. Murong Sheng sent Li Han and Zhang Zhen to launch surprise attacks against them and execute them. Everywhere was thus made obedient to Murong Sheng, and men and women all celebrated.


辛亥,告于太廟,令曰:「賴五祖之休,文武之力,宗廟社稷幽而復顯。不獨孤眇眇之身免不同天之責,凡在臣民皆得明目當世。」因大赦,改元建平。盛謙不敢稱尊號,以長樂王攝行統制。諸王皆降稱公,以東陽公根爲尚書左僕射,衞倫、陽璆、魯恭、王滕爲尚書,悅眞爲侍中,陽哲爲中書監,張通爲中領軍,自餘文武各復舊位。改諡寶曰惠閔皇帝,廟號烈宗。

35. On the day Xinhai (August 19th), Murong Sheng reported what had happened at the Grand Temple. He issued an order stating, "It was through the support of the Five Ancestors and the efforts of the civil and military officials that the ancestral temples and the altars of state, once hidden away, have now been restored and exalted. Nor did I do this to escape personal censure for the trifle of 'living under the same sky' with my father's killer; I did it so that all the ministers and all the people could enjoy a wise and proper rule." So he declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping.

Murong Sheng was modest and he did not dare to declare himself Emperor. He merely named himself Prince of Changle and assumed control of affairs. All those who were princes had their titles lowered to Dukes. Murong Sheng appointed the Duke of Dongyang, Murong Gen, as his Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and he named Wei Lun, Yang Qiu, Lu Gong, and Wang Teng as Masters of Writing. He appointed Yue Zhen as a Palace Attendant. He appointed Yang Zhe as Chief of the Palace Secretariat. And he appointed Zhang Tong as General Who Leads The Army of the Center. All other civil and military officials were restored to their former ranks.

Murong Sheng changed Murong Bao's posthumous title to Emperor Huimin ("the Kind and Pitied"), and granted him the temple name Liezong.

〈五祖,謂慕容涉歸、廆、皝、儁、垂,凡五廟。〉〈《禮記》曰:父之讎不與共戴天。〉〈盛,字道運,寶之庶長子也。〉〈【章:十二行本「滕」作「騰」;乙十一行本同。】〉

(The Five Ancestors were Murong Shegui, Murong Hui, Murong Huang, Murong Jun, and Murong Chui; these were the five temples.

The Book of Rites states, "With the enemy who has slain his father, one should not live under the same sky."

Murong Sheng, styled Daoyun, was Murong Bao's eldest son, born of a concubine.

Some versions write Wang Teng's given name as 騰 Teng rather than 滕 Teng.)


盛僭稱長樂王,攝天子位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Murong Sheng merely called himself the Prince of Changle, but he ruled as though he were the Son of Heaven.

盛即位,偽諡寶惠湣皇帝,廟號烈祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Bao)

After coming to the throne, Murong Sheng granted Murong Bao the posthumous name Emperor Huimin and the temple name Liezu.

盛僭位,偽諡寶惠湣皇帝,廟號烈宗。皝之遷于龍城也,植松為社主。及秦滅燕,大風吹拔之。後數年,社處忽有桑二根生焉。先是,遼川無桑,及廆通于晉,求種江南,平州桑悉由吳來。廆終而垂以吳王中興,寶之將敗,大風又拔其一。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Bao)

After Murong Sheng became Emperor, he posthumously named Murong Bao as Emperor Huimin, with the temple name Liezong.

Many years earlier, when Murong Huang had moved to Longcheng, he had planted a pine tree there as a symbol of the fortunes of his state. When Former Qin conquered Former Yan, a great wind had blown down the pine tree. But several years later, in the spot where the pine had been, two mulberry trees suddenly sprouted. Now originally, the greater Liao River region had not had any mulberry trees at all. They had only arrived in Pingzhou after Murong Hui had established contacts with the Jin dynasty in the south and requested some seeds from the Southland, so all the mulberry trees came from the Wu region. And Murong Chui, who had been Prince of Wu during Former Yan, was the one to restore the state as Later Yan. But after Murong Bao's defeat, once again a great wind blew down one of the trees.

建平元年七月,告成宗廟,大赦,改元青龍。謙揖自卑,不稱尊號,以長樂王稱制,諸王貶爵為公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

In the first year of Jianping (398), the seventh month, he reported his success at the ancestral temple. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Qinglong. Murong Sheng was modest and self-effacing, and he did not grant himself the imperial title; he continued to wield authority as Prince of Changle, and all other princes had their titles demoted to Dukes.

僭尊號,改年為建平。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng declared himself Emperor, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping.

盛謙揖自卑,不稱尊號。其年,以長樂王稱制,赦其境內,改元曰建平。諸王降爵為公,文武各復舊位。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng was modest and self-effacing, and he did not grant himself the imperial title; during this year, he continued to wield authority as Prince of Changle, and all other princes had their titles demoted to Dukes. He declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping. All civil and military officials were restored to their former positions.


初,太原王奇舉兵建安,南、北之人翕然從之。蘭汗遣其兄子全討奇,奇擊滅之,匹馬不返,進屯乙連。盛旣誅汗,命奇罷兵。奇用丁零嚴生、烏桓王龍之謀,遂不受命,甲寅,勒兵三萬餘人進至橫溝,去龍城十里。盛出擊,大破之,執奇而還,斬其黨與百餘人,賜奇死,桓王之嗣遂絕。羣臣固請上尊號,盛弗許。

36. Earlier, when Murong Qi had raised his soldiers in rebellion at Jian'an, the people from both the north and south had joined together to follow him. Lan Han had sent his nephew Lan Quan to campaign against Murong Qi, but Murong Qi had attacked and annihilated his army; not a single soldier or horse returned alive. Murong Qi had then advanced to camp at Yilian. But by then, Murong Sheng had already executed Lan Han. So he now ordered Murong Qi to disband his army. However, Murong Qi followed the advice of the Dingling leader Yan Sheng and the Wuhuan leader Wang Long instead, and he refused to obey the order.

On the day Jiayin (August 22nd), Murong Qi ordered his army of more than thirty thousand to advance to Heng Ravine, only ten li from Longcheng. Murong Sheng came out to attack Murong Qi, and he greatly routed him, capturing Murong Qi before returning to the city. More than a hundred of Murong Qi's partisans and associates were beheaded, while Murong Qi himself was forced to commit suicide. The family line of Prince Huan (Murong Ke) was thus ended.

Murong Sheng's ministers insisted that he declare himself Emperor, but he would not consent.

〈南人,謂自中原來者;北人,則鮮卑也。〉〈慕容恪封太原王,諡曰桓。楚莊王滅若敖氏而赦箴尹克黃,曰:「子文無後,何以勸善!」以慕容恪之輔成燕業,而可使之絕祀乎!〉

(The "southerners" were those who had come to the region from the Central Plains, while the "northerners" were the Xianbei.

Murong Ke's title was Prince of Taiyuan, and his posthumous name was Prince Huan.

Even when King Zhuang of the ancient state of Chu exterminated the Ruo'ao clan, he still spared one of them, the Remonstrant Intendant, Ke Huang. As he stated, "If I leave the clan with no descendants at all, how can I urge people to be good?" Now Murong Ke had helped to uphold and fulfill the grand design of Yan. How then could Murong Sheng snuff out his line and end the sacrifices to his lineage?)


東陽公慕容根等九十八人上尊號,盛不許。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Ninety-eight of Murong Sheng's ministers, including the Duke of Dongyang, Murong Gen, urged him to claim the title of Emperor, but Murong Sheng refused to do so.

初,慕容奇聚眾于建安,將討蘭汗,百姓翕然從之。汗遣兄子全討奇,奇擊滅之,進屯乙連。盛既誅汗,命奇罷兵,奇遂與丁零嚴生、烏丸王龍之阻兵叛盛,引軍至橫溝,去龍城十里。盛出兵擊敗之,執奇而還,斬龍、生等百餘人。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Earlier, when Murong Qi had raised his soldiers in rebellion at Jian'an, planning to march against Lan Han, the common people had joined together to follow him. Lan Han had sent his nephew Lan Quan to campaign against Murong Qi, but Murong Qi had attacked and annihilated his army, then advanced to camp at Yilian. But by then, Murong Sheng had already executed Lan Han. So he now ordered Murong Qi to disband his army. However, Murong Qi followed the advice of the Dingling leader Yan Sheng and the Wuhuan leader Wang Long instead, and he kept control of his soldiers and rebelled against Murong Sheng.

Murong Qi led his army to Heng Ravine, only ten li from Longcheng. Murong Sheng led his own troops out to attack Murong Qi, and he defeated him, capturing Murong Qi before returning to the city. More than a hundred of Murong Qi's partisans and associates were beheaded, including Wang Long and Yan Sheng.


魏王珪遷都平城,始營宮室,建宗廟,立社稷。宗廟歲五祭,用分、至及臘。

37. Tuoba Gui moved his capital to Pingcheng, and it was at this time that he first built the palace there, established an ancestral temple, and raised altars to soil and grain. The ancestral temple conducted the Five Sacrifices annually, at separate times, up until the year-end sacrifice.

〈魏都平城,置代尹及司州於平城。杜佑曰:後魏都平城,今雲中郡治。雲中縣是今馬邑郡;北平城卽今郡,隋爲雲內縣恆安鎭。此所謂宗廟,卽代都之東廟也。〉

(After Northern Wei established their capital at Pingcheng, they created the offices of Intendant of Dai (since Dai was now the commandary containing the capital) and the Inspector of Sizhou (the "metropolitan province"). Du You remarked, "Northern Wei had its capital at Pingcheng, which is now governed by modern Yunzhong commandary. Yunzhong county was the modern Mayi commandary. Northern Pingcheng was in that modern commandary; during Sui, it was Heng'an county in Yunnei county." So the ancestral temple mentioned here was the eastern temple in the capital at Dai.)


秋七月,遷都平城,始營宮室,建宗廟,立社稷。漁陽烏丸庫傉官韜復聚黨為寇。詔冠軍將軍王建討平之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Gui moved his capital to Pingcheng, and it was at this time that he first built the palace there, established an ancestral temple, and raised altars to soil and grain.

The Wuhuan leader Kunuguan Tao of Yuyang once again raised an army and invaded. Tuoba Gui ordered his Champion General, Wang Jian, to campaign against Kunuguan Tao and pacify him.


桓玄求爲廣州,會稽王道子忌玄,不欲使居荊州,因其所欲,以玄爲督交‧廣二州軍事、廣州刺史;玄受命而不行。豫州刺史庾楷以道子割其四郡使王愉督之,上疏言:「江州內地,而西府北帶寇戎,不應使愉分督。」朝廷不許。楷怒,遣其子鴻說王恭曰:「尚之兄弟復秉機權,過於國寶;欲假朝威削弱方鎭,懲艾前事,爲禍不測,今及其謀議未成,宜早圖之。」恭以爲然,以告殷仲堪、桓玄。仲堪、玄許之,推恭爲盟主,刻期同趣京師。

38. In Jin, Huan Xuan asked to be assigned to Guangzhou. Sima Daozi had already been suspicious of Huan Xuan, not wanting to let him remain where he was in Jingzhou. So when Huan Xuan expressed this desire, Sima Daozi appointed Huan Xuan as Commander of military affairs in Jiaozhou and Guangzhou and as Inspector of Guangzhou. But although Huan Xuan accepted this commission, he did not actually depart for Guangzhou.

The Inspector of Yuzhou, Yu Kai, resented Sima Daozi for having taken four commandaries away from his area of authority and having assigned Wang Yu to command them instead. So he sent up a petition stating, "Although Jiangzhou is an internal territory, the Western Garrison is threatened by enemies to the north. You should not dispatch Wang Yu to the indicated post and thus divide authority."

But the court would not agree to this request. Angered, Yu Kai sent his son Yu Hong to persuade Wang Gong, saying, "Sima Shangzhi and his brothers are now ascendant and wielding power, and they are worse than Wang Guobao ever was. Now they want to use the power of the court to weaken the border commanders and cut them down to size. It was thanks to your actions before, meting out punishment to the evildoers, that the recent disaster was averted. Now, while the plans of these miscreants are still incomplete, you should make the first move and get rid of them."

Wang Gong believed him, so he informed Yin Zhongkan and Huan Xuan of his intentions. They too agreed to support the cause, and they acclaimed Wang Gong as leader of their alliance. They set a date for a common advance against the capital region.

〈江州治尋陽,在江南,故云內地。〉〈晉以京口爲北府,歷陽爲西府。豫州治歷陽,在江西,故云北帶寇戎。〉〈謂譙王尚之及弟休之也。〉

(Jiangzhou was governed from Xunyang commandary, which was south of the Yangzi. This was why Yu Kai describes it here as an "internal territory".

Jin had established their Northern Garrison at Jingkou, and Liyang was the Western Garrison. The Inspector of Yuzhou administered that province from Liyang, which was west of the Yangzi. This was why Yu Kai states that the Western Garrison was "threatened by enemies to the north".)


時內外疑阻,津邏嚴急,仲堪以斜絹爲書,內箭簳中,合鏑漆之,因庾楷以送恭。恭發書,絹文角戾,不復能辨仲堪手書,疑楷詐爲之,且謂仲堪去年已違期不赴,今必不動,乃先期舉兵。司馬劉牢之諫曰:「將軍,國之元舅;會稽王,天子叔父也。會稽王又當國秉政,曏爲將軍戮其所愛王國寶、王緒,又送王廞書,其深伏將軍已多矣。頃所授任,雖未允愜,亦非大失。割庾楷四郡以配王愉,於將軍何損!晉陽之甲,豈可數興乎!」恭不從,上表請討王愉、司馬尚之兄弟。

39. At this time, everyone within Jin was suspicious and on alert, and guards were posted at all of the river crossing points.

Yin Zhongkan used thin strands of silk to write a letter, then put them inside of an arrow shaft and lacquered the shaft together with the arrowhead, then sent the letter inside the arrow to Wang Gong by way of Yu Kai. But when Wang Gong opened the letter, the writing looked all slanted and crooked. Wang Gong suspected that Yu Kai had forged the letter. Furthermore, he recalled how Yin Zhongkan had been slow to act during their campaign the previous year, waiting until after the arranged starting time before he raised his troops. Wang Gong was certain that Yin Zhongkan was not going to act, so he decided to raise his own troops before the date set for the current campaign.

Wang Gong's Marshal, Liu Laozhi, remonstrated with him, saying, "General, you are the Emperor’s maternal uncle, while the Prince of Kuaiji (Sima Daozi) is the Son of Heaven's paternal uncle. On the one hand, he wields authority over the state in general and controls affairs; on the other hand, he has many reasons to deeply resent you personally. General, recall how you forced the Prince to execute his favorites, Wang Guobao and Wang Xu, and how you sent that letter to Wang Xin. If the Prince were inclined to merely remain in his current role, although the situation would not be ideal, at least it would not be a terrible loss for you. But see how he now has taken four commandaries away from Yu Kai and granted them to Wang Yu. If he does that much to Yu Kai, General, how much more will he do to you? How many times do you plan to declare a 'proclamation of Jinyang'?"

But Wang Gong did not follow his advice; he sent up a petition stating his intentions to campaign, where he identified Wang Yu and Sima Shangzhi and his brothers as his targets.

〈邏,巡也。津邏者,凡江津之要皆置邏卒。〉〈《字林》曰:箭笴也。〉〈鏑,箭鏃也。〉〈戾,曲也,乖也。斜絹無邊幅,經緯不相持,故斜角乖曲。〉〈事見上卷。〉〈事見上卷。〉

(邏 means "to patrol". So the "river patrols" were guards posted at all of the critical river crossing points.

The Forest of Characters states, "A 簳 is the shaft of an arrow." And a 鏑 is an arrowhead.

This passage describes the writing on the letter as 戾; this means "crooked, slanted". That is to say, because the silk strands had no defined edges and their warp and weft was not closely bound together, the writing turned out pointed and slanted.

Yin Zhongkan had been late to respond to the campaign against Wang Guobao, as mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.41).

Wang Gong had sent a letter to Wang Xin ordering him to raise troops in the Wu region against Wang Guobao, as mentioned in the same book and year (397.45).)


道子使人說楷曰:「昔我與卿,恩如骨肉,帳中之飲,結帶之言,可謂親矣。卿今棄舊交,結新援,忘王恭疇昔陵侮之恥乎!若欲委體而臣之,使恭得志,必以卿爲反覆之人,安肯深相親信!首身且不可保,況富貴乎!」楷怒曰:「王恭昔赴山陵,相王憂懼無計,我知事急,尋勒兵而至,恭不敢發。去年之事,我亦俟命而動。我事相王,無相負者。相王不能拒恭,反殺國寶及緒,自爾已來,誰敢復爲相王盡力者!庾楷實不能以百口助人屠滅。」時楷已應恭檄,正徵士馬。信返,朝廷憂懼,內外戒嚴。

40. Sima Daozi sent someone to tell Yu Kai, "Sir, you and I were once as close as flesh and bones; we drank under the same canopy and spoke while tying our belts, and we could be said to be family. Yet now you have abandoned our old friendship and formed this new connection; have you forgotten the shame of Wang Gong's bullying you before? If you cast aside your safety and become his subject, thus allowing him to attain his ambition, you will surely be the next one to suffer. How then can you trust and depend on him so greatly? You will not even be able to save your own head, much less attain wealth and honor!"

But Yu Kai angrily replied, "Prince-Chancellor, when Wang Gong came to visit the imperial tombs before, you were the one who was terrified of him and had no plan to deal with him. I was the one who had the measure of him, and when I soon readied my troops and waited for him to make a move, Wang Gong did not dare to act. And in the campaign last year, again I heeded your orders and acted. By no means, Prince-Chancellor, could anyone claim that I betrayed you in these things. You were the one who was unable to resist Wang Gong, and instead you killed Wang Guobao and Wang Xu. Ever since, who has dared to show their full devotion to your cause? I cannot risk the lives of my family to help someone who will be destroyed."

By now, Yu Kai had already heeded Wang Gong's proclamation, and he was gathering together soldiers and horses. When Yu Kai's response reached the capital, the court was left nervous and afraid, and everyone began making military preparations.

〈楷先黨於王國寶,道子亦親之。〉〈此必太元二十一年庾楷赴難時事。〉〈王恭以元舅之親,風神簡貴,志氣方嚴,視庾楷蔑如也,故道子以爲陵侮楷。〉〈事見一百八卷孝武太元二十一年。〉〈自爾以來,猶今言自那時以來也。又爾,言如此也。〉

(Yu Kai had originally been one of Wang Guobao's partisans, and Sima Daozi had been close to him then.

Sima Daozi must have been referring to the incident where Yu Kai came to assist him, mentioned in Book 108, in the twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396.31).

Wang Gong was Emperor An's maternal uncle. In manner and bearing, he was simple and dignified; in actions and attitude, he was strict and stern. So he had looked upon Yu Kai with disdain, and this was why Sima Daozi here describes Wang Gong as having bullied Yu Kai.

Wang Gong's hesitance to act in the face of Yu Kai's potential resistance is mentioned in the same book and year as above (396.31).

"Ever since" means from that particular time until now.)


會稽世子元顯言於道子曰:「前不討王恭,故有今日之難。今若復從其欲,則太宰之禍至矣。」道子不知所爲,悉以事委元顯,日飲醇酒而已。元顯聰警,頗涉文義,志氣果銳,以安危爲己任。附會之者,謂元顯神武,有明帝之風。

41. At this time, Sima Daozi's son Sima Yuanxian said to him, "You did not campaign against Wang Gong before, and that has led to our current sorry state. If you appease him again, Grand Governor, you will be next."

Sima Daozi did not know what to do, so he entrusted everything to Sima Yuanxian, and he spent his days getting drunk on wine and nothing more. Sima Yuanxian was intelligent and vigilant, he was inclined towards culture and righteousness, he was stalwart and resolute in his ambitions, and he guided affairs between safety and danger. Those who saw him in action said he had divine military prowess and the same bearing as Emperor Ming.

〈道子時爲太宰。〉

(By this time, Sima Daozi was the Grand Governor.)


殷仲堪聞恭舉兵,自以去歲後期,乃勒兵趣發。仲堪素不習爲將,悉以軍事委南郡相楊佺期兄弟,使佺期帥舟師五千爲前鋒,桓玄次之,仲堪帥兵二萬,相繼而下。佺期自以其先漢太尉震至父亮,九世皆以才德著名,矜其門地,謂江左莫及。有以比王珣者,佺期猶恚恨。而時流以其晚過江,婚宦失類;佺期及兄廣、弟思平、從弟孜敬皆粗獷,每排抑之。佺期常慷慨切齒,欲因事際以逞其志,故亦贊成仲堪之謀。

42. Yin Zhongkan heard that Wang Gong had raised his troops. Not wanting to repeat what had happened the previous year, when he had missed the date set for beginning the campaign, Yin Zhongkan put his troops in order and set out. Since Yin Zhongkan had no experience as a general, he entrusted all military affairs to the Chancellor of Nan commandary, Yang Quanqi, and his brothers. He sent Yang Quanqi forward to lead five thousand soldiers on boats as his vanguard, with Huan Xuan following behind him. Yin Zhongkan commanded twenty thousand soldiers, acting as their reserves.

Yang Quanqi was proud of his family background and heritage: for nine generations, his ancestors had been famous for their talents and virtues, from his father Yang Liang all the way back to his ancestor Yang Zhen, who had been Grand Commandant during the Han dynasty. He said that no other family in the Southland could match his pedigree, so he resented that people like Wang Xun were above him. But people of that time claimed that the Yang family had been latecomers to the Southland, and they had married women of low birth. And since Yang Quanqi, his elder brother Yang Guang, his younger brother Yang Siping, and his cousin Yang Dizi were all rough and boorish men, they were always being kept down. All this shamed Yang Quanqi so much that he was always gnashing his teeth, and he had been hoping that something would happen to let him indulge his ambitions. This was why he too supported and encouraged Yin Zhongkan to join the campaign.

〈佺期曾祖準,晉太常。自震至準七世,有名德。祖林,少有才望,值亂沒胡。父亮,少仕僞朝,後歸晉,比王、謝諸家爲晚。亮及佺期皆以武力爲官,又與傖荒爲婚,故云失類。時流,猶言時輩也。〉〈獷獷,不可附。〉

(Yang Quanqi's great-grandfather was Yang Zhun, who had been Jin's Minister of Ceremonies. There were seven generations from Yang Zhen to Yang Zhun, all of whom were famous and virtuous. Yang Quanqi's grandfather was Yang Chen, who had been talented and influential even as a youth, but who had been lost to the tribesmen during the Disaster of Yongjia. His father was Yang Liang. Yang Liang had originally served a false court in his youth, and only later did he join Jin. So compared to the Wang and Xie families, Yang Quanqi's families had been "late" to serve the restored Jin dynasty.

Yang Liang and Yang Quanqi both gained office due to their military skills. And both had married crude and rough women, so it was said that they had "diluted themselves".

"People of that time" meant the people of that generation.

To be boorish means to repulse people.)


兗州刺史王恭、豫州刺史庾楷、荊州刺史殷仲堪、廣州刺史桓玄、南蠻校尉楊佺期等舉兵反。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Inspector of Yanzhou, Wang Gong, the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yu Kai, the Inspector of Jingzhou, Yin Zhongkan, the Inspector of Guangzhou, Huan Xuan, the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Yang Quanqi, and others all raised their soldiers in rebellion.


八月,佺期、玄奄至湓口,王愉無備,惶遽奔臨川,玄遣偏軍追獲之。

43. In the eighth month, Yang Quanqi and Huan Xuan suddenly arrived at Penkou. Wang Yu, caught off guard, had not made any preparations against them, and he fled to Linchuan. Huan Xuan sent his subordinate commanders to pursue and capture him.

〈湓口,湓浦口也,晉人於此築城置戍。今其地在江州德化縣西一里。〉〈吳孫亮太平二年,分豫章東部都尉立臨川郡,隋、唐爲撫州。〉

(Penkou was Penpukou; the people of Jin had built walls here for a garrison. The place is now one li west of Dehua county in Jiangzhou.

In Sun Liang of Eastern Wu's second year of Taiping (257), he split off the Eastern Command Post of Yuzhang commandary to form Linchuang commandary. During Sui and Tang, it was Fuzhou.)


八月,江州刺史王愉奔于臨川。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eighth month, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Wang Yu, fled to Linchuan.


燕以河間公熙爲侍中、車騎大將軍、中領軍、司隸校尉,城陽公元爲衞將軍。元,寶之子也。又以劉忠爲左將軍,張豪爲後將軍,並賜姓慕容氏。李旱爲中常侍、輔國將軍,衞雙爲前將軍,張順爲鎭西將軍,昌黎尹張眞爲右將軍;皆封公。

44. Yan appointed Murong Xi as Palace Attendant, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry (or, Grand General of Agile Cavalry), General Who Leads The Army of the Center, and Colonel-Director of Retainers. They appointed the Duke of Chengyang, Murong Yuan, as Guard General. This Murong Yuan was the son of Murong Bao. They also appointed Liu Zhong as General of the Left and Zhang Hao as General of the Rear, and both of them were granted the surname Murong.

Li Han was appointed as Palace Regular Attendant and General Who Upholds The State. Wei Shuang was appointed as General of the Front. Zhang Shun was appointed as General Who Guards The West. And the Intendant of Changli, Zhang Zhen, was appointed as General of the Right. All of them were appointed as Dukes.

〈【嚴:「車」改「驃」。】〉〈燕都龍城,以昌黎太守爲昌黎尹。〉

(Some versions state that Murong Xi was appointed as Grand General of "Agile" Cavalry rather than of "Chariots and" Cavalry.

When Later Yan set their capital at Longcheng, the office of Administrator of Changli was changed to Intendant of Changli.)


乙亥,燕步兵校尉馬勒等謀反,伏誅;事連驃騎將軍高陽公崇、崇弟東平公澄,皆賜死。

45. On the day Yihai (September 12th), Yan's Colonel of Infantry, Ma Le (or Ma Qin), and others plotted to rebel, but they were caught and executed. The General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Gaoyang, Murong Chong, and the Duke of Dongping, his younger brother Murong Cheng, were found to be associated with the plot, and both were forced to commit suicide.

〈【章:十二行本「勒」作「勤」;乙十一行本同。】〉

(Some versions write the Colonel of Infantry's name as Ma 勤 Qin rather than Ma 勒 Le.)


寧朔將軍鄧啓方、南陽太守閭丘羨將兵二萬擊南燕,與南燕中軍將軍法、撫軍將軍和戰於管城,啓方等兵敗,單騎走免。

46. Jin's General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Deng Qifang, and their Administrator of Nanyang, Lü Qiuxian, led twenty thousand soldiers to attack Southern Yan. They fought Southern Yan's General of the Central Army, Murong Fa, and their General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong He, at Guancheng. But Deng Qifang and the other Jin generals were defeated, and they fled alone on horseback to make their escape.

〈燕自慕容寶之敗,北歸龍城,慕容德稱號於滑臺,故稱南燕以別之。〉〈魏收《志》,滎陽郡京縣有管城,故管城邑也。杜預曰:在京縣東北。〉

(After Murong Bao's defeat, Later Yan split into two halves. One half went north to Longcheng, and this half is what history continues to refer to as Later Yan. Meanwhile, Murong De declared his own reign at Huatai, ruling a different Yan state. So Murong De's state is called Southern Yan to distinguish it from the state based out of Longcheng.

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a Guancheng in Jing county in Xingyang commandary, in the Guancheng district. Du You remarked, "It was in the northeast of Jing county.")


丙子,寧朔將軍鄧啓方及慕容德將慕容法戰于管城,王師敗績。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Bingzi (September 13th), the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Deng Qifang, fought Murong De's general Murong Fa at Guanzhong. But the Jin army was defeated.

晉南陽太守閭丘羨、甯朔將軍鄧啟方率眾二萬來伐,師次管城。德遣其中軍慕容法、撫軍慕容和等距之,王師敗績。德怒法不窮追晉師,斬其撫軍司馬靳瑰。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Jin's Administrator of Nanyang, Lü Qiuxian, and their General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Deng Qifang, led twenty thousand soldiers to come attack Murong De, and they marched to Guancheng. Murong De sent his General of the Central Army, Murong Fa, his General Who Nurtures The Army, Murong He, and others to oppose them, and the Jin army was defeated. But Murong De was angry that Murong Fa had not pressed his pursuit of the Jin army, so he beheaded his Marshal Who Nurtures The Army, Jin Gui.


魏王珪命有司正封畿,標道里,平權衡,審度量;遣使循行郡國,舉奏守宰不法者,親考察黜陟之。

47. Tuoba Gui ordered his ministers to properly survey his territory in order to establish the boundaries for the different "domains". He placed mile markers on the roads, and he scrutinized and standardized weights and measures. He also sent his agents out among the commandaries and counties to have them inform him which local officials were not upholding the law, and he personally investigated the reports and decided which officials should be demoted or promoted.

〈宋白曰:魏道武都平城,東至上谷軍都關,西至河,南至中山隘門塞,北至五原,地方千里,以爲甸服。〉

(Song Bai remarked, "When Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei (Tuoba Gui) set his capital at Pingcheng, he established a 'domain of the sovereign' for a thousand li around the city. It stretched east to Jundu Pass in Shanggu commandary, west to the Yellow River, south to the Aimen border pass of the realm in Zhongshan commandary, and north to Wuyuan.")


八月,詔有司正封畿,制郊甸,端徑術,標道里,平五權,較五量,定五度。遣使循行郡國,舉奏守宰不法者,親覽察黜陟之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui ordered his ministers to properly survey his territory in order to establish the boundaries for the different "domains". He measured out the roads and placed mile markers on them, and he established the Five Weights, Five Measures, and Five Scales. He also sent his agents out among the commandaries and counties to have them inform him which local officials were not upholding the law, and he personally investigated the reports and decided which officials should be demoted or promoted.


九月,辛卯,加會稽王道子黃鉞,以世子元顯爲征討都督;遣衞將軍王珣、右將軍謝琰將兵討王恭,譙王尚之將兵討庾楷。

48. In the ninth month, on the day Xinmao (September 28th), Sima Daozi was granted the Yellow Battle-axe of authority, and his heir Sima Yuanxian was appointed as Commander of the expeditionary forces. Sima Yuanxian sent the Guard General, Wang Xun, and the General of the Right, Xie Yan, to lead troops to campaign against Wang Gong, and he sent Sima Shangzhi to lead troops against Yu Kai.

九月辛卯,加太傅、會稽王道子黃鉞。遣征虜將軍會稽王世子元顯、前將軍王珣、右將軍謝琰討桓玄等。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, on the day Xinmao (September 28th), the Grand Tutor and Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, was granted the Yellow Battle-axe of authority. He sent the General Who Campaigns Against the Caitiffs and Crown Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yuanxian, the General of the Front, Wang Xun, and the General of the Right, Xie Yan, to lead troops to campaign against Huan Xuan and the others.


乙未,燕以東陽公根爲尚書令,張通爲左僕射,衞倫爲右僕射;慕容豪爲幽州刺史,鎭肥如。

49. On the day Yiwei (October 2nd), Yan appointed Murong Gen as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. They appointed Zhang Tong and Wei Lun as Supervisors of the Left and Right. They appointed Murong Hao as Inspector of Youzhou, and he was stationed at Feiru.

己亥,譙王尚之大破庾楷於牛渚,楷單騎奔桓玄。會稽王道子以尚之爲豫州刺史,弟恢之爲驃騎司馬、丹楊尹,允之爲吳國內史,休之爲襄城太守,各擁兵馬以爲己援。乙巳,桓玄大破官軍於白石。玄與楊佺期進至橫江;尚之退走,恢之所領水軍皆沒。丙午,道子屯中堂,元顯守石頭;己酉,王珣守北郊,謝琰屯宣陽門以備之。

50. On the day Jihai (October 6th), Sima Shangzhi greatly routed Yu Kai at Niuzhu. Yu Kai fled on a lone horse to Huan Xuan.

Sima Daozi appointed Sima Shangzhi as Inspector of Yuzhou. Among Sima Shangzhi's younger brothers, Sima Daozi appointed Sima Huizhi as Marshal to the General of Agile Cavalry and as Intendant of Danyang, he appointed Sima Yunzhi as Interior Minister of Wu, and he appointed Sima Xiuzhi as Administrator of Xiangcheng, and all of them gathered soldiers and horses to assist Sima Daozi's cause.

On the day Yisi (October 12th), Huan Xuan greatly routed the capital army at Baishi. He and Yang Quanqi advanced to Hengjiang. Sima Shangzhi retreated, and Sima Huizhi's navy was lost.

On the day Bingwu (October 13th), Sima Daozi camped at Zhongtang, while Sima Yuanxian guarded the Shitou fortress. On the day Jiyou (October 16th), Wang Xun guarded the northern suburbs of Jiankang, while Xie Yan camped at the Xuanyang Gate of the city to defend it.

〈爲後玄殺楷張本。〉〈元帝渡江,以丹楊春穀縣置襄城郡。〉〈白石在巢縣界。《水經註》:栅江水導源巢湖東,左會清溪水,謂之清溪口。栅水又東,左會白石山水,水發白石山西,逕李鵲城南,西南注栅水。〉〈宣陽門,建康城南面西頭第一門。〉

(This was why Huan Xuan was later able to kill Yu Kai.

When Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) crossed the Yangzi, he converted Chungu county in Danyang commandary into Xiangcheng commandary.

Baishi was in Chao county. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zhajiang River has its origin east of Lake Chao. On the left, it joins with the Qingxi River, at the place called Qingxikou ('mouth of the Qingxi'). The Zhajiang continues to flow east, where again on the left it joins with the river at Mount Baishi. The Zhajiang reemerges west of Mount Baishi, flowing through the south of the city of Lique. Then to the southeast, it empties into the Zha River."

The Xuanyang Gate was the westernmost gate on the southern wall of Jiankang.)


桓玄大敗王師于白石... 己亥,破庾楷于牛渚。丙午,會稽王道子屯中堂,元顯守石頭。己酉,前將軍王珣守北郊,右將軍謝琰備宣陽門。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Huan Xuan greatly defeated the capital army at Baishi.

In the ninth month, on the day Jihai (October 6th), Sima Yuanxian and the others routed Yu Kai at Niuzhu.

On the day Bingwu (October 13th), the Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Daozi, camped at Zhongtang, while Sima Yuanxian guarded the Shitou fortress.

On the day Jiyou (October 16th), the General of the Front, Wang Xun, guarded the northern suburbs of Jiankang, while the General of the Right, Xie Yan, prepared defenses at the Xuanyang Gate of the city.


王恭素以才地陵物,旣殺王國寶,自謂威無不行;仗劉牢之爲爪牙而但以部曲將遇之,牢之負其才,深懷恥恨。元顯知之,遣廬江太守高素說牢之,使叛恭,許事成卽以恭位號授之;又以道子書遺牢之,爲陳禍福。牢之謂其子敬宣曰:「王恭昔受先帝大恩,今爲帝舅,不能翼戴王室,數舉兵向京師,吾不能審恭之志,事捷之日,必能爲天子相王之下乎?吾欲奉國威靈,以順討逆,何如?」敬宣曰:「朝廷雖無成、康之美,亦無幽、厲之惡;而恭恃其兵威,暴蔑王室。大人親非骨肉,義非君臣,雖共事少時,意好不協,今日討之,於情義何有!」恭參軍何澹之知其謀,以告恭。

51. Wang Gong had long thought highly of his own talents and position. After having brought about the execution of Wang Guobao, he began to claim that he was so powerful that there was nothing he could not make happen. And though he relied upon Liu Laozhi as one of his own fangs and claws, he always required Liu Laozhi to submit to him as a subordinate commander. Liu Laozhi too thought much of his own talents, and he was deeply ashamed and resentful of Wang Gong's treatment of him.

Sima Yuanxian knew about this division between the two of them. So he sent the Administrator of Lujiang, Gao Su, to persuade Liu Laozhi, saying that if he rebelled against Wang Gong, then once the affair was concluded, he would be granted Wang Gong's current ranks and titles. Sima Yuanxian also had Sima Daozi write a letter to Liu Laozhi, explaining the situation to him and pointing out what good fortune he might enjoy or what disaster if he refused.

Liu Laozhi said to his son Liu Jingxuan, "Wang Gong received great favor from His Late Majesty (Emperor Xiaowu), and he is currently the Emperor's uncle. Yet he has not been able to support the royal house; in fact, he has often raised troops and pointed them towards the capital region. I cannot be sure of his intentions. If he is successful in this current campaign, surely he will not be satisfied to remain subordinate to the Son of Heaven or the Prince-Chancellor (Sima Daozi)? Now I want to uphold the power and majesty of the state by supporting the obedient and campaigning against the traitors. What do you think?"

Liu Jingxuan replied, "If we compare the current court to the rulers of the Zhou dynasty, even though it cannot compare with the beauty of the reigns of Kings Cheng or Kang, it surely does not have the same wickedness as Kings You or Li. Yet here is Wang Gong, relying upon the might of his army to coerce and disdain the royal family. Though he is our superior, we do not owe him the intimacy of a close family member, nor does he demand the righteous service due a sovereign from his minister. And though we may have worked together with him for a little while, it would be best for us not to support him. So to campaign against him now would be right and proper; why hesitate?"

Wang Gong's Army Advisor, He Danzhi, knew about Liu Laozhi's plot, and he informed Wang Gong.

〈高素亦北府將,故使說之。〉〈相王,謂道子也。〉〈蔑之者,視之若無也。〉〈少時,言不多時也。〉

(Gao Su was also a general of the Northern Garrison, so Sima Yuanxian sent him to speak to Liu Laozhi.

"Prince-Chancellor" referred to Sima Daozi.

To disdain someone is to look upon them as though they do not compare with you.

"A short time" means not for a long time.)


恭以澹之素與牢之有隙,不信。乃置酒請牢之,於衆中拜之爲兄,精兵堅甲,悉以配之,使帥帳下督顏延爲前鋒。牢之至竹里,斬延以降;遣敬宣及其壻東莞太守高雅之還襲恭。恭方出城曜兵,敬宣縱騎橫擊之,恭兵皆潰。恭將入城,雅之已閉城門。恭單騎奔曲阿,素不習馬,髀中生瘡。曲阿人殷確,恭故吏也,以船載恭,將奔桓玄,至長塘湖,爲人所告,獲之,送京師,斬於倪塘。恭臨刑,猶理須鬢,神色自若,謂監刑者曰:「我闇於信人,所以至此;原其本心,豈不忠於社稷邪!但令百世之下知有王恭耳。」幷其子弟黨與皆死。以劉牢之爲都督兗、青、冀、幷、徐、揚州晉陵諸軍事以代恭。

52. Wang Gong knew that He Danzhi had long held a grudge against Liu Laozhi, so he did not believe his report that Liu Laozhi was plotting against him. He even held a feast and invited Liu Laozhi to join him, and before the whole army he saluted Liu Laozhi as an elder brother. He granted Liu Laozhi all his best troops and sturdiest armor, and he had Liu Laozhi lead the forces of his personal commander, Yan Yan, as the vanguard of the army.

But when Liu Laozhi reached Zhuli, he beheaded Yan Yan and defected to Sima Daozi's side. He sent Liu Jingxuan and the Administrator of Dongguan, his son-in-law Gao Ya, back to launch a surprise attack against Wang Gong. Wang Gong had just left the city to inspect his troops, and Liu Jingxuan set loose his cavalry to launch a flank attack against them, scattering all of Wang Gong's soldiers. Wang Gong tried to flee back into the city, but Gao Ya had already closed the gates by then. Wang Gong fled on a lone horse to Qu'a. Gao Ya was unaccustomed to riding horses, and he developed an ulcer on his thigh. A native of Qu'a, Yin Que, had once been one of Wang Gong's subordinate officials. So he placed Wang Gong in a boat and tried to flee to Huan Xuan's position. But as they reached Lake Zhangtang, someone reported who they were, and they were captured.

Wang Gong was sent to the capital and beheaded at Ni Dyke. As Wang Gong was being led to his execution, he still maintained a dignified appearance, and his expression was no different from normal. He told the executioners, "I blindly placed my trust in another, and so I have come to this. But considering my original intention, how could I have been disloyal to the state? I tell you, a hundred generations from now, the world will still know that there was a Wang Gong." Wang Gong's sons, younger brothers, and partisans were all killed as well.

Liu Laozhi was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, Xuzhou, and Jinling commandary in Yangzhou, replacing Wang Gong.

〈王恭素以部曲將遇牢之,及聞何澹之言,則拜之爲兄,此豈能得其死力邪?適足以速其背己耳。〉〈東莞,漢舊縣;武帝泰始元年,分琅邪立東莞郡;南渡後,又置南東莞郡於晉陵界。〉〈長塘湖在晉陵延陵縣。杜佑曰:在潤州金壇縣。《風土記》:陽羨縣有洮湖,別名長塘湖。洮,余招翻。單鍔曰:長塘湖在義興西。〉〈倪塘在建康東北方山埭南,倪氏築塘,因以爲名。〉〈自悔悉以軍事委劉牢之也。〉

(The problem was that Wang Gong had treated Liu Laozhi as a subordinate commander for so long. Yet after hearing He Danzhi's reported, he tried to treat Liu Laozhi as an elder brother. What did he think was going to happen, other than speeding up his own death? He did no more than hurry Liu Laozhi along in his betrayal.

Dongguan was the name of an old Han county. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi, he split off part of Langye commandary to form Dongguan commandary. After the Jin dynasty moved south of the Yangzi, they established a Southern Dongguan commandary, within the borders of Jinling commandary.

Lake Zhangtang was in Yanling county in Jinling commandary. Du You remarked, "It is in Jintan county in Runzhou." The Records of Local Customs states, "There is a Lake Tao in Yangxian county, also called Lake Zhangtang; the name of this lake is pronounced 'yao (y-ao)'." Dan E remarked, "Lake Zhangtang is west of Yixing."

Ni Dyke was south of Mount Fang, northeast of Jiankang. The dyke was built by the Ni clan, thus the name.

Wang Gong regretted that he had entrusted Liu Laozhi with all military affairs.)


輔國將軍劉牢之次新亭,使子敬宣擊敗恭,恭奔曲阿長塘湖,湖尉收送京師,斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The General Who Upholds The State, Liu Laozhi, marched to Xinting. He sent his son Liu Jingxuan to attack Wang Gong, and Liu Jingxuan defeated him. Wang Gong fled to Lake Zhangtang in Qu'a, but the Lake Supervisor arrested him and sent him back to the capital, where he was beheaded.


俄而楊佺期、桓玄至石頭,殷仲堪至蕪湖。元顯自竹里馳還京師,遣丹楊尹王愷等發京邑士民數萬人據石頭以拒之。佺期、玄等上表理王恭,求誅劉牢之。牢之帥北府之衆馳赴京師,軍于新亭,佺期、玄見之失色,回軍蔡洲。朝廷未知西軍虛實,仲堪等擁衆數萬,充斥郊畿,內外憂逼。

53. Not long afterwards, Yang Quanqi and Huan Xuan arrived at Shitou, and Yin Zhongkan arrived at Wuhu. Sima Yuanxian sent a fast courier from Zhuli back to the capital, ordering the Intendant of Danyang, Wang Kai, and others to draft tens of thousands of people from the capital region to occupy Shitou and resist the rebels. Yang Quanqi, Huan Xuan, and the other rebel leaders sent up a petition to the capital defending Wang Gong and demanding Liu Laozhi's execution.

Liu Laozhi led the soldiers of the Northern Garrison to rush to the capital, and his army came to Xinting. Yang Quanqi and Huan Xuan turned pale when they saw the army, and they fell back to Caizhou. But the court was still not certain just how strong the western army of the rebels was, for Yin Zhongkan and others still commanded an army of tens of thousands, and bodies of soldiers filled the nearby regions. Everything was in a state of fear and danger.

〈蔡洲,在今建康府上元縣西二十五里。〉〈言內憂而外逼也。〉

(Caizhou was twenty-five li west of Shangyuan county in the modern Jiankang Garrison.

This final expression means that people were afraid within, while soldiers menaced them from without.)


左衞將軍桓脩,沖之子也,言於道子曰:「西軍可說而解也,脩知其情矣。殷、桓之下,專恃王恭,恭旣破滅,西軍沮恐。今若以重利啗玄及佺期,二人必內喜;玄能制仲堪,佺期可使倒戈,取仲堪矣。」道子納之,以玄爲江州刺史;召郗恢爲尚書,以佺期代恢爲都督梁‧雍‧秦三州諸軍事、雍州刺史。以脩爲荊州刺史,權領左衞文武之鎭,又令劉牢之以千人送之。黜仲堪爲廣州刺史,遣仲堪叔父太常茂宣詔,敕仲堪回軍。

54. The Guard General of the Left, Huan Xiu, was the son of Huan Chong. He told Sima Daozi, "You can break up the western army with but a word; I know just how to do it. Yin Zhongkan's and Huan Xuan's subordinates were all counting on Wang Gong. Now that Wang Gong has been routed and destroyed, the western army is fearful and depressed. So if you were to offer great advantages to Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi, they would surely be secretly glad at the offer. Huan Xuan can control Yin Zhongkan, and Yang Quanqi can defeat him and capture Yin Zhongkan."

Sima Daozi accepted this advice. So he appointed Huan Xuan as Inspector of Jiangzhou, and he summoned back Chi Hui to be a Master of Writing, while appointing Yang Quanqi as Commander of military affairs in Lianzhou, Yongzhou, and Qinzhou and as Inspector of Yongzhou. He also appointed Huan Xiu as Inspector of Jingzhou, while still allowing him to keep his civil and military subordinates from his post as Guard General of the Left. He further ordered Liu Laozhi to send a thousand soldiers to welcome Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi. Yin Zhongkan was demoted to Inspector of Guangzhou. Sima Daozi sent the Minister of Ceremonies, Yin Zhongkan's uncle Yin Mao, to announce the imperial edict to this effect and to order Yin Zhongkan's army to return to their base.

〈沮恐,言氣沮而心恐也。〉〈啗,餌也。〉〈左衞文武,左衞將軍府之僚屬及部曲也。〉

(The western army was depressed in spirit and fearful in their hearts.

To entice means to lure or tempt.

"Civil and military officials of Guard General of the Left" meant those officials and subordinate commanders who reported to Huan Xiu in his capacity as that title.)


於是遣太常殷茂喻仲堪及玄。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The court sent the Minister of Ceremonies, Yin Mao, to convey their instructions to Yin Zhongkan and Huan Xuan.


張驤子超收合三千餘家據南皮,自號烏桓王,抄掠諸郡。魏王珪命庾岳討之。

55. In Wei, Zhang Xiang's son Zhang Chao gathered together more than three thousand families and occupied Nanpi. He declared himself King of the Wuhuan, and he ravaged and pillaged several commandaries. Tuoba Gui ordered Yu Yue to campaign against him.

〈張驤,烏桓種也;奉燕見一百五卷孝武帝太元九年;歸魏見上卷元年。〉

(Zhang Xiang was of the Wuhuan people. He had originally offered his submission to Later Yan, as mentioned in Book 105, in Emperor Xiaowu's ninth year of Taiyuan (384.4). Later, he surrendered to Northern Wei, as mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.69).)


九月,烏丸張驤子超,收合亡命,聚黨三千餘家,據勃海之南皮,自號征東大將軍、烏丸王,抄掠諸郡。詔將軍庾岳討之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the ninth month, the Wuhuan leader Zhang Xiang's son Zhang Chao gathered together convicts and fugitives and more than three thousand families of his partisans and occupied Nanpi in Bohai. He declared himself Grand General Who Conquers The East and King of the Wuhuan, and he ravaged and pillaged several commandaries. Tuoba Gui ordered his general Yu Yue to campaign against him.


楊軌屯廉川,收集夷、夏,衆至萬餘。王乞基謂軌曰:「禿髮氏才高而兵盛,且乞基之主也,不如歸之。」軌乃遣使降於西平王烏孤。軌尋爲羌酋梁飢所敗,西奔X海,襲乙弗鮮卑而據其地。烏孤謂羣臣曰:「楊軌、王乞基歸誠於我,卿等不速救,使爲羌人所覆,孤甚愧之。」平西將軍渾屯曰:「梁飢無經遠大略,可一戰擒也。」

56. In Liang, Yang Gui was camped at Lianchuan. He gathered together the tribes and Xia (ethnic Han), until he had an army of more than ten thousand. Wang Qiji said to him, "The Tufa clan leaders have great talent, and they command numerous soldiers. Rather than have me as the leader, you should go to them." So Yang Gui sent envoys to surrender to Tufa Wugu. But soon afterwards, Yang Gui was defeated by the Qiang leader Liang Ji, and he fled west to Xianhai, where he suddenly attacked the Yifu Xianbei and occupied their land.

Tufa Wugu said to his ministers, "Yang Gui and Wang Qiji earnestly surrendered to us, yet you all did not quickly reinforce them, and you allowed them to be overturned by the Qiang. I am deeply shamed by this."

His General Who Pacifies The West, Hun Tun, replied, "Liang Ji has no great cunning or distant foresight. We can capture him in a single battle."

〈闞駰曰:金城臨羌縣西有卑和羌海。酈道元曰:古西零之地也。X,音憐。〉〈渾,古有是姓。《左傳》鄭有渾罕,衞有渾良夫。吐谷渾氏後改爲渾姓。〉

Regarding Xianhai, Kan Yin remarked, "In the west of Linqiang county in Jincheng commandary are the Bei and Qiang Seas." Li Daoyuan remarked, "This was the territory of the ancient Xiling tribe." The first character of Xianhai is pronounced "lian".

The surname 渾 Hun has existed since ancient times. The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals mentions a Hun Han in the state of Zheng and a Hun Liangfu in the state of Wey. And the Tuyuhun clan also later changed their surname to Hun.)


飢進攻西平,西平人田玄明執太守郭倖而代之,以拒飢,遣子爲質於烏孤。烏孤欲救之,羣臣憚飢兵強,多以爲疑。左司馬趙振曰:「楊軌新敗,呂氏方強,洪池以北,未可冀也,嶺南五郡,庶幾可取。大王若無開拓之志,振不敢言;若欲經營四方,此機不可失也。使羌得西平,華、夷震動,非我之利也。」烏孤喜曰:「吾亦欲乘時立功,安能坐守窮谷乎!」乃謂羣臣曰:「梁飢若得西平,保據山河,不可復制。飢雖驍猛,軍令不整,易破也。」遂進擊飢,大破之。飢退屯龍支堡。烏孤進攻,拔之,飢單騎奔澆河,俘斬數萬。以田玄明爲西平內史。樂都太守田瑤、湟河太守張裯、澆河太守王稚皆以郡降,嶺南羌、胡數萬落皆附於烏孤。

57. Liang Ji advanced to attack Xiping. A native of Xiping, Tian Xuanming, arrested the Administrator, Guo Xing, and took over from him to oppose Liang Ji's attack. Tian Xuanming sent his son to Tufa Wugu as a hostage. So Tufa Wugu wanted to go and rescue Xiping, but his ministers all feared the strength of Liang Ji's soldiers, and many of them were doubtful of success.

The Marshal of the Left, Zhao Zhen, said, "Yang Gui has just been defeated, and the Lü clan is on the rise again. We have no hope of taking anything north of Hongchi at the moment; the five commandaries south of the mountain ranges should be our objective. Great King, if you have no grand ambitions, then I dare not say another word. But if you wish to extend your camps to all the four directions, then you cannot let this opportunity slip away. If you allow the Qiang to capture Xiping, then the Hua (ethnic Han) and the tribes will all be shaken and disturbed, and it will not be to our benefit."

Tufa Wugu happily replied, "I too wished to take advantage of these circumstances to achieve something; how could I just sit behind my defenses and hide in my valleys?" And he said to his ministers, "If Liang Ji takes Xiping, he will be able to occupy and defend the mountains and rivers there, and we will not be able to control him. But although Liang Ji is personally dashing and bold, his army has no discipline. We can easily rout them."

So Tufa Wugu advanced to attack Liang Ji, and he greatly routed him. Liang Ji retreated to camp at Fort Longzhi. Tufa Wugu advanced and attacked the fort and took it; Liang Ji fled on a lone horse to Jiaohe, while Tufa Wugu captured or killed tens of thousands. He appointed Tian Xuanming as Interior Minister of Xiping.

The Administrator of Ledu, Tian Yao, the Administrator of Huanghe, Zhang Chou, and the Administrator of Jiaohe, Wang Zhi, all surrendered their commandaries to Tufa Wugu. Tens of thousands of tribes of the Qiang and other tribal peoples living south of the mountain ranges all came over to the Tufa clan.

〈洪池,嶺名,在涼州姑臧之南。唐涼州有洪池府。〉〈嶺南,謂洪池嶺南也。五郡,謂廣武、西平、樂都、澆河、湟河也。〉〈廉川在塞外,故謂之窮谷。〉〈西平據湟河之要,有大、小榆谷之饒,故云然。〉〈唐鄯州有龍支縣。劉昫曰:龍支,漢允吾縣地。此時當爲西平界。〉〈澆河,吐谷渾之地,呂光開以爲郡,隋、唐之廓州卽其地也。水洄洑曰澆。此郡蓋置於洮河洄曲處。杜佑曰:澆河城在廓州達化縣賀蘭山。劉昫曰:廓州,隋澆河郡,治廣威縣,卽後漢燒當羌之地,前涼置湟河郡,後魏置石城郡,廢帝因縣內化隆谷置化隆縣,後周置廓州,唐天寶元年,改爲廣威縣,管下有達化縣。吐渾澆河城,在縣西百二十里。杜佑曰:澆河城,吐谷渾阿豺所築。〉〈樂都,註已見二十六卷漢宣帝神爵元年。《五代志》:西平郡湟水縣,後周置樂都郡。觀此,則呂氏已置郡矣。杜佑曰:湟水一名樂都水,唐鄯州治。〉〈湟河郡蓋置於此地。〉

(Hongchi was the name of a mountain range in Liangzhou, south of Guzang. During Tang, there was a Hongchi Garrison in Liangzhou.

"South of the mountain ranges" meant south of the Hongchi range. These five commandaries would have been Guangwu, Xiping, Ledu, Jiaohe, and Huanghe.

Lianchuan was beyond the border passes of the realm, which was why Tufa Wugu dismissed the thought of "hiding in his valleys".

Xiping commandary contained the Huanghe River and the Greater and Lesser Yu Valleys of the Rao River; this was why Tufa Wugu discussed the possibility of Liang Ji occupying these "mountains and rivers" in Xiping.

Regarding Fort Longzhi, during Tang, there was a Longzhi county in Shanzhou. Liu Xu remarked, "Longzhi was the Han dynasty's Yunwu county." So at this time, it must have been part of Xiping commandary.

Jiaohe was part of the Tuyuhun state's domain. Lü Guang established it as Jiaohe commandary, and during Sui and Tang it was part of Kuozhou. The part of a river where it whirls or spins is called its jiao, so this commandary must have been established at the place where the Tao River whirls and bends. Du You remarked, "The city of Jiaohe is at Mount Jialan in Dahua county in Kuozhou." Liu Xu remarked, "During Sui, Kuozhou was Jiaohe commandary, governed from Guangwei county. It was the territory of the Shaodang branch of the Qiang during Later Han."

Former Liang established Huanghe commandary. Northern Wei later established Shicheng commandary. Emperor Fei of Northern Wei renamed it to Hualong county, since the county contained a Hualong Valley. Northern Zhou established Kuozhou. In Tang's first year of Tianbao (742), they renamed it to Guangwei county, and subordinate to it was Dahua county. The Tuhun had a city of Huanghe, twenty li west of the county. Du You remarked, "The city of Huanghe was built by Achai of the Tuyuhun state."

For more on Ledu, see Book 26, in Emperor Xuan of Han's first year of Shenjue (61 BC). The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "At Huangshui county in Xiping commandary, Northern Zhou established Ledu commandary." But judging by the mention of Ledu commandary in this passage, the Lü clan of Later Liang must have already made it a commandary by now. Du You remarked, "The Huang River is also called the Ledu river; it is governed by Tang's Shanzhou."

Huanghe commandary must have been established at this place.)


降光樂都、湟河、澆河三郡,嶺南羌胡數萬落皆附之。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu accepted the surrender of Lü Guang's Administrators of Ledu, Huanghe, and Jiaohe. Tens of thousands of the Southern Qiang and other tribes south of the mountain ranges all came to join him.


西秦王乾歸遣秦州牧益州、武衞將軍慕兀、冠軍將軍翟瑥帥騎二萬伐吐谷渾。

58. Qifu Gangui sent his Governor of Qinzhou, Qifu Yizhou, his Guard General of Might, Qifu Muwu, and his Champion General, Zhai Wen, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to campaign against the Tuyuhun.

〈「慕兀」,《晉書‧載記》作「慕容兀」。慕兀蓋亦乞伏氏,《載記》誤也。〉

(The Biography of Qifu Gangui in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin identifies this "Muwu" as "Murong Wu". But surely he was also a member of the Qifu clan, i.e., Qifu Muwu, so the Book of Jin's account is mistaken.)


又遣益州與武衛慕容允、冠軍翟瑥率騎二萬伐吐谷渾視羆。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui also sent Qifu Yizhou and his Guard General of Might, Murong Yun, and his Champion General, Zhai Wen, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to campaign against the Tuyuhun leader Murong Shipi.


冬,十月,癸酉,燕羣臣復上尊號,丙子,長樂王盛始卽皇帝位,大赦,尊皇后段氏曰皇太后,太妃丁氏曰獻莊皇后。初,蘭汗之當國也,盛從燕主寶出亡,蘭妃奉事丁后愈謹。及汗誅,盛以妃當從坐,欲殺之;丁后以妃有保全之功,固爭之,得免,然終不爲后。

59. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Guiyou (November 9th), the Yan ministers once again urged Murong Sheng to declare himself Emperor. So on the day Bingzi (November 12th), Murong Sheng first declared himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty.

Murong Sheng honored the Empress, Lady Duan, as Empress Dowager, and he honored the Grand Concubine, Lady Ding, as Empress Xianzhuang ("the Presented and Grave").

Earlier, when Lan Han had seized control of Yan and Murong Sheng had followed Murong Bao to flee, Murong Sheng's wife Lady Lan had behaved even more cautiously and carefully around Lady Ding. After executing Lan Han, Murong Sheng felt that Lady Lan should die with the rest of her family, and he wished to kill her. But Empress Ding felt that it was thanks to Lady Lan that Murong Sheng and all their family had been spared, and she strenuously opposed this. Lady Lan was thus spared, but Murong Sheng never made her his Empress.

丙戌,慕容盛僭卽皇帝位于黃龍。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Bingxu (September 23rd), Murong Sheng declared himself Emperor at Huanglong.

丙子,僭即皇帝位。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

In the tenth month, Murong Gen and the others again asked that Murong Sheng assume the imperial title. This time, Murong Sheng agreed to do so. On the day Bingzi (November 12th), he declared himself Emperor.

盛於是僭即尊位,大赦殊死已下,追尊伯考獻莊太子全為獻莊皇帝,尊寶後段氏為皇太后,全妃丁氏為獻莊皇后,諡太子策為獻哀太子。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng declared himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty up until those sentenced to death.

Murong Sheng posthumously honored his uncle Crown Prince Murong Quan as Emperor Xianzhuang. He honored Murong Bao's Empress, Lady Duan, as Empress Dowager, and he honored Murong Quan's concubine, Lady Ding, as Empress Xianzhuang ("the Presented and Grave"). He posthumously honored his brother Crown Prince Murong Ce as Crown Prince Xian'ai.


大赦。

60. A general amnesty was declared in Jin.

冬十月,新野言騶虞見。丙子,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, a report came from Xinye that a zouyu had been spotted there. On the day Bingzi (November 12th), a general amnesty was declared.


殷仲堪得詔書,大怒,趣桓玄、楊佺期進軍。玄等喜於朝命,欲受之,猶豫未決。仲堪聞之,遽自蕪湖南歸,遣使告諭蔡洲軍士曰:「汝輩不各自散歸,吾至江陵,盡誅汝餘口。」佺期部將劉系帥二千人先歸。玄等大懼,狼狽西還,追仲堪至尋陽,及之。仲堪旣失職,倚玄等爲援,玄等亦資仲堪兵,雖內相疑阻,勢不得不合。乃以子弟交質,壬午,盟于尋陽;俱不受朝命,連名上疏申理王恭,求誅劉牢之及譙王尚之,幷訴仲堪無罪,獨被降黜。朝廷深憚之,內外騷然。乃復罷桓脩,以荊州還仲堪,優詔慰諭,以求和解,仲堪等乃受詔。御史中丞江績劾奏桓脩專爲身計,疑誤朝廷,詔免脩官。

61. When Yin Zhongkan received the edict letter demoting him, he was furious, and he rushed forward to join with Huan Xuan's and Yang Quanqi's army. But Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi were quite pleased when they received the court's order, and they were inclined to accept the offered posts. However, they still hesitated and could not decide. Yin Zhongkan learned that they were wavering from his side, so he rushed back south from Wuhu, and he sent messengers to tell their soldiers at Caizhou, "If you fellows do not disband and go your separate ways, then when I return to Jiangling, I will exterminate all of your remaining family members." Yang Quanqi's subordinate general Liu Xi led two thousand soldiers on ahead to return to Yin Zhongkan. Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi were now very afraid, and having no other choice, they returned west again. They followed after Yin Zhongkan, catching up with him at Xunyang.

By now, since Yin Zhongkan had been stripped of his official post, he had to rely on Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi to lend him legitimacy. And for their part, Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi had to rely on Yin Zhongkan's troops. So although there was now mutual suspicion among them, circumstances compelled them to work together. They exchanged sons and younger brothers between each other as hostages, and on the day Renwu (November 18th), they swore an alliance together at Xunyang. They all resolved to ignore the court order, and they all signed their signatures on a petition that they sent to the court defending Wang Gong, demanding the execution of Liu Laozhi and Sima Shangzhi, and asserting that Yin Zhongkan had committed no crime deserving of such a demotion.

The court was aghast at this result and deeply feared them, and everyone was in an uproar. They stripped Huan Xiu of his new appointment as Inspector of Jingzhou and restored Yin Zhongkan to that position, and they sent out edicts with more conciliatory language, seeking peace and an end to hostilities. Yin Zhongkan and the others then accepted these orders.

The Middle Assistant to the Imperial Secretary, Jiang Ji, charged that Huan Xiu had been the mastermind of this latest scheme and had misled and fooled the court. An edict was issued dismissing Huan Xiu from office.

〈得黜廣州之詔書也。〉〈餘口,謂蔡洲之軍所餘家口留在江陵者。〉〈謂分江、雍以授桓玄、楊佺期,自取荊州也。〉

(Yin Zhongkan was angry at the edict letter demoting him to be Inspector of Guangzhou.

The "remaining" family members were the family members of the soldiers at Caizhou whom they had left behind at their base at Jiangling.

It had been thanks to Huan Xiu's suggestion that Jiangzhou and Yongzhou were granted to Huan Xuan and Yang Quanqi, while Jingzhou was given to Huan Xiu himself.)


玄等走于尋陽。十月... 壬午,仲堪等盟于尋陽,推桓玄爲盟主。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Huan Xuan and the others fled to Xunyang.

In the tenth month, on the day Renwu (November 18th), Yin Zhongkan and the others swore an alliance at Xunyang, acclaiming Huan Xuan as their leader.


初,桓玄在荊州,所爲豪縱,仲堪親黨皆勸仲堪殺之,仲堪不聽。及在尋陽,資其聲地,推玄爲盟主,玄愈自矜倨。楊佺期爲人驕悍,玄每以寒士裁之,佺期甚恨,密說仲堪以玄終爲患,請於壇所襲之。仲堪忌佺期兄弟勇健,恐旣殺玄,不可復制,苦禁之。於是各還所鎭。玄亦知佺期之謀,陰有取佺期之志,乃屯於夏口,引始安太守濟陰卞範之爲長史以爲謀主。是時,詔書獨不赦庾楷,玄以楷爲武昌太守。

62. Earlier, all during the time that Huan Xuan was at Jingzhou, he had been overbearing and unrestrained. Yin Zhongkan's family and partisans had all urged him to kill Huan Xuan, but Yin Zhongkan had never agreed to do so. And now, when the rebel leaders swore their alliance at Xunyang, thanks to Huan Xuan's power and pedigree, he was acclaimed as the leader of the alliance. This made him grow even more arrogant and conceited. And though Yang Quanqi too was haughty and proud towards others, Huan Xuan was always belittling him because of his relatively poor household. This made Yang Quanqi more resentful at him.

Yang Quanqi secretly tried to persuade Yin Zhongkan that Huan Xuan would be a threat someday, and asked to surprise attack him at the altar. But Yin Zhongkan was suspicious of Yang Quanqi and his brothers, because of how bold and strong they were, and he was afraid that if Yang Quanqi killed Huan Xuan, he would no longer be able to control Yang Quanqi or his brothers. So he absolutely forbade the idea. Then each of the rebel leaders withdrew to their own bases.

Huan Xuan was aware that Yang Quanqi wanted to plot against him, and he too had his own secret wish to get the better of Yang Quanqi as well. So he camped at Xiakou, and summoned the Administrator of Shi'an, Bian Fan of Jiyin commandary, to serve as his Chief Clerk so that Bian Fan could be his chief advisor.

Although it was just mentioned that a general amnesty had been declared, the court's edict letter issuing the amnesty had exempted Yu Kai. But Huan Xuan appointed Yu Kai as Administrator of Wuchang.

〈聲,謂威聲;地,謂門地。〉〈爲後玄殺殷、楊張本。〉〈吳孫晧甘露元年,分零陵南部都尉立始安郡,屬廣州;晉成帝度屬荊州;隋、唐爲桂州之地。〉

(Huan Xuan's "power" was his might and influence; his "pedigree" was his family background as Huan Wen's son.

This was why Huan Xuan later killed Yin Zhongkan and Yang Quanqi.

In Sun Hao of Eastern Wu's first year of Ganlu (265), he split off the southern Command Post of Lingling commandary to form Shi'an commandary, as part of Guangzhou. During the reign of Emperor Cheng of Jin, it became part of Jingzhou. During Sui and Tang, it was part of Guizhou.)


初,郗恢爲朝廷拒西軍,玄未得江州,欲奪恢雍州,以恢爲廣州。恢聞之,懼,詢於衆,衆皆曰:「楊佺期來者,誰不戮力;若桓玄來,恐難與爲敵。」旣而聞佺期代己,乃與閭丘羨謀阻兵拒之。佺期聞之,聲言玄來入沔,以佺期爲前驅。恢衆信之,望風皆潰,恢請降。佺期入府,斬閭丘羨,放恢還都,至楊口,殷仲堪陰使人殺之,及其四子,託言羣蠻所殺。

63. Earlier, Chi Hui had been sent by the court to oppose the western army. Since Huan Xuan had not yet been able to accept the offered post as Inspector of Jiangzhou, he had wanted to usurp Chi Hui's position as Inspector of Yongzhou instead, and send him off to be Inspector of Guangzhou. When Chi Hui heard of this possibility, he was afraid. He asked his soldiers what his prospects were. They told him, "If Yang Quanqi is the one who comes against us, who will not devote their full efforts for you against him? But if it is Huan Xuan who comes, we fear it would be difficult for us to oppose him."

Later, Chi Hui heard that Yang Quanqi was actually going to be the one to replace him. So he plotted with Lü Qiuxian to block Yang Quanqi's troops and oppose him. When Yang Quanqi heard this, he spread rumors that Huan Xuan himself was coming across the Mian River, and Yang Quanqi was just acting as his vanguard. Chi Hui's soldiers believed this, and they felt that they could not oppose Huan Xuan, so they all scattered. Chi Hui asked to surrender.

When Yang Quanqi arrived at the Yongzhou headquarters, he beheaded Lü Qiuxian. He released Chi Hui and sent him back to the capital, but when Chi Hui reached Yangkou, Yin Zhongkan secretly had someone kill him and his four sons, though he claimed that they had been killed by the Man tribes.

〈桓氏世居西楚,故衆畏之。〉〈閭丘羨時爲南陽太守,雍之部屬也。〉

(The Huan family had exerted their power and influence over the Western Chu region for generations; this was why Chi Hui's army feared Huan Xuan.

At this time, Lü Qiuxian was Administrator of Nanyang, which was part of Yongzhou.)


西秦乞伏益州與吐谷渾王視羆戰於度周川,視羆大敗,走保白蘭山,遣子宕豈爲質於西秦以請和,西秦王乾歸以宗女妻之。

64. Qifu Yizhou fought the King of the Tuyuhun, Murong Shipi, at Duzhouchuang. Murong Shipi was greatly defeated, and he fled to hold out at Mount Bailan. He sent his son Murong Dangqi as a hostage to Western Qin and asked for peace. Qifu Gangui married off a daughter of his clan to Murong Shipi.

〈度周川,在臨洮塞外龍涸之西。〉

(Duzhouchuan was west of Longhe, beyond the Lintao border pass of the realm.)


至於度周川,大破之。視羆遁保白蘭山,遣使謝罪,貢其方物,以子宕豈為質。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

When Qifu Yizhou and the other Western Qin generals came to Duzhouchuan, they greatly routed Murong Shipi, who fled to hold out at Mount Bailan. He sent envoys begging forgiveness for his crimes and presenting his rare treasures, and he sent his son Murong Xiezui as a hostage.


涼建武將軍李鸞以興城降於禿髮烏孤。

65. Liang's General Who Establishes Valor, Li Luan, offered up Xingcheng in surrender to Tufa Wugu.

〈興城在允吾縣西南龍支堡之東。〉

(Xingcheng was east of Fort Longzhi, in the southwest of Yunwu county.)


十一月,以琅邪王德文爲衞將軍、開府儀同三司,征虜將軍元顯爲中領軍,領軍將軍王雅爲尚書左僕射。

66. In the eleventh month, Jin's Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, was appointed as Guard General and granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. The General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Sima Yuanxian, was appointed as General Who Leads The Army of the Center. The General Who Leads The Army, Wang Ya, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

十一月,以琅邪王德文爲衛將軍、開府儀同三司,領軍將軍王雅爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eleventh month, the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, was appointed as Guard General and granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. The General Who Leads The Army, Wang Ya, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


辛亥,魏王珪命尚書吏部郎鄧淵立官制,協音律,儀曹郎清河董謐制禮儀,三公郎王德定律令,太史令鼂崇考天象,吏部尚書崔宏總而裁之,以爲永式。淵,羌之孫也。

67. On the day Xinhai (December 17th), Tuoba Gui began directing his ministers to establish lasting forms and procedures for his government. He appointed the Master of Writing and Gentleman of the Personnel Bureau, Deng Yuan, to establish a hierarchy of offices and oversee the choice of musical tones. He appointed the Gentleman-Manager of Rites, Dong Mi of Qinghe commandary, to establish systems for the rites and ceremonies. He appointed the Gentleman to the Three Excellencies, Wang De, to finalize the law codes and ordinances. He appointed the Prefect of the Astrologist Bureau, Chao Chong, to conduct surveys of the heavenly omens. And he appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Cui Hong, to supervise all these efforts and modify the final results as needed, in order to produce permanent forms. This Deng Yuan was the grandson of Deng Qiang.

〈吏部、儀曹、三公郎,皆曹魏所置。〉〈鄧羌,苻秦之名將。〉

(The offices of Personnel Bureau, Manager of Rites, and Gentleman to the Three Excellencies had all been created by Cao-Wei.

Deng Qiang was a famous Former Qin general.)


冬十月,起天文殿。十有一月辛亥,詔尚書吏部郎中鄧淵典官制,立爵品,定律呂,協音樂;儀曹郎中董謐撰郊廟、社稷、朝覲、饗宴之儀;三公郎中王德定律令,申科禁;太史令晁崇造渾儀,考天象;吏部尚書崔玄伯總而裁之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, Tuoba Gui raised the Tianwen Hall.

In the eleventh month, on the day Xinhai (December 17th), Tuoba Gui began directing his ministers to establish lasting forms and procedures for his government. He appointed the Master of Writing and Gentleman of the Personnel Bureau, Deng Yuan, to establish a hierarchy of offices, establish a system of ranks for noble titles, establish the bamboo pitch-pipe sounds, and oversee the choice of musical tones. He appointed the Gentleman-Manager of Rites, Dong Mi of Qinghe commandary, to establish systems for the rites and ceremonies for the suburban and ancestral tomb sacrifices, for the altars of soil and grain, for court meetings, and for feasts and banquets. He appointed the Gentleman to the Three Excellencies, Wang De, to finalize the law codes and ordinances and publish forbidden actions. He appointed the Prefect of the Astrologist Bureau, Chao Chong, to conduct surveys of the armillary alignments of the heavenly bodies and of the heavenly omens. And he appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Cui Hong, to supervise all these efforts and modify the final results as needed, in order to produce permanent forms.


楊軌、王乞基帥戶數千自歸於西平王烏孤。

68. Yang Gui and Wang Qiji led several thousand households to submit to Tufa Wugu.

光將楊軌、王乞基率戶數千來奔。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Lü Guang's generals Yang Gui and Wang Qiji led several thousand households to flee to Tufa Wugu.


十二月,己丑,魏王珪卽皇帝位,大赦,改元天興。命朝野皆束髮加帽。追尊遠祖毛以下二十七人皆爲皇帝;諡六世祖力微曰神元皇帝,廟號始祖;祖什翼犍曰昭成皇帝,廟號高祖;父寔曰獻明皇帝。魏之舊俗,孟夏祀天及東廟,季夏帥衆卻霜於陰山,孟秋祀天於西郊。至是,始依倣古制,定郊廟朝饗禮樂,然惟孟夏祀天親行,其餘多有司攝事。又用崔宏議,自謂黃帝之後,以土德王。徙六州二十二郡守宰、豪傑二千家于代都,東至代郡,西及善無,南極陰館,北盡參合,皆爲畿內,其外四方、四維置八部師以監之。

69. In the twelfth month, on the day Jichou (January 24th of 399), Tuoba Gui declared himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Tianxing. He ordered everyone, both in the court and in the country, to bind their hair and put on caps.

Tuoba Gui posthumously honored twenty-seven generations of his ancestors as Emperors, from his distant ancestor Tuoba Mao on down. In particular, he honored his sixth-generation ancestor Tuoba Liwei as Emperor Shenyuan ("the Divine and Foremost"), with the temple name Shizu; he honored his grandfather Tuoba Shiyijian as Emperor Zhaocheng ("the Bright and Accomplished"), with the temple name Gaozu; and he honored his father Tuoba Shi as Emperor Xianming ("the Presented and Wise").

According to longstanding Wei traditions, the ruler offered sacrifices to Heaven during the first month of summer at the eastern temple, he led the people to Mount Yin during the last month of summer to "drive back the frost", and he offered sacrifices to Heaven again during the first month of autumn at the western suburbs. So at this time, in deference to and in imitation of these old traditions, Tuoba Gui established suburbs and temple sites, where he entertained his court with ceremony and song. But the only one of these yearly ceremonies that he personally conducted was the sacrifices offered in the first month of summer, and he left the other ones to his officials to carry out.

Tuoba Gui accepted the proposal of Cui Hong, and began to claim that he was a descendant of the Yellow Emperor of distant antiquity, who 'ruled according to the virtues of Earth'.

Tuoba Gui relocated two thousand local officials and gentry families from the six conquered Yan provinces, placing them at the capital at Dai. He officially established an "Inner Domain", which stretched east to Dai commandary, west as far as Shanwu, south down to Yinguan, and north all the way to Canhe. Around the edges of this domain, in each of the eight directions, he established the Eight Camps to supervise each area.

〈《說文》曰:帽,小兒蠻夷蒙頭衣。《晉書‧輿服志》曰:帽,猶冠也,義取於蒙覆其首;其本纚也。古者冠無幘,冠下有纚,以繒爲之。後世施幘於冠,因復裁纚爲帽,自乘輿宴居下至庶人無爵者皆服之。江左時,野人已著帽,人士亦往往而然,但其頂圓耳,後乃高其屋云。〉〈魏諡毛爲成皇帝。五世至推寅,南遷大澤,方千餘里,諡宣皇帝。七世至鄰始南出,居匈奴故地,諡獻皇帝。獻帝之子曰詰汾,諡聖武皇帝。〉〈諡力微曰神元皇帝,子沙漠汗曰文皇帝,沙漠汗之子弗政曰思皇帝。弗政卒,力微之子祿官立,諡曰昭皇帝,分國爲三部,猗㐌、猗盧,沙漠汗之二子,與祿官分統三部。猗㐌西略,服屬諸國,諡曰桓皇帝。猗盧自祿官之卒,合三部爲一,又助晉國以益強,諡穆皇帝。猗盧死,祿官之子鬱律繼之,諡平文皇帝。鬱律弒,猗㐌之子賀傉立,諡惠皇帝。賀傉卒,弟紇那立,諡煬皇帝。翳魏者,鬱律之子,國人逐紇那而立之,諡烈皇帝。〉〈宗廟在東,蓋亦左祖之義。〉〈杜佑曰:魏道武天賜二年,祀天于西郊,爲方壇,東爲二陛,土陛無等,周垣四門,各依方色爲名。置木主七於壇上,牲用白犢、黃駒、白羊各一。祭之日,帝御大駕至郊所,立青門內,近南,西面;內朝臣皆位於壇北,外朝臣及大人、方客咸位於青門外,后率六宮自黑門入,列於青門內,近北,並西面。廩犧令掌牲,陳於壇前。女巫執鼓,立於壇東,西面。帝七族子弟七子執酒在巫南,西面北上。女巫升壇搖鼓,帝拜,后肅拜,內外百官拜祀訖,乃殺牲七;執酒七人,西向,以酒洒天、神主,復拜。如此者三,禮畢而退。自是歲一祭。〉〈魏收曰:魏之先出自黃帝,黃帝子曰昌意。昌意之子受封北國,有大鮮卑山,因以爲號。其後世爲君長,統幽都之北,廣漠之野。黃帝以土德王,北俗謂土爲「托」,謂后爲「跋」,故以托跋爲氏。〉〈魏都平城,以平城爲代都,依漢建國之名也。漢平城縣本屬鴈門郡,而代郡治桑乾,後漢徙高柳,晉徙平舒。魏收《地形志》之上谷郡,晉之代郡也,唐爲蔚州之地。魏之代都,唐爲雲州雲中縣之地。〉〈善無縣,漢屬鴈郡,後漢屬定襄郡,元魏天平二年置善無郡。班《志》,陰館縣屬鴈門郡,本熡煩鄕,景帝後三年置。陰館縣有累頭山,治水所出。《五代史志》,代州鴈門縣有纍頭山。則漢之陰館縣已併入鴈門縣矣。〉〈《魏書》作「八部帥」。八部帥勸課農耕,量校收入,以爲殿最。〉

(The Shuowen dictionary states, "A 帽 'cap' is what barbarian children wear to cover their heads." The Records of Carriages and Clothing in the Book of Jin states, "A 帽 'cap' is a kind of headgear, worn to cover the head at suitable occasions. It is made up of ropes or ribbons. The headgear that the ancients wore did not include caps; the headgear had ribbons below them which were used to fasten them. Later generations added headdresses to the headgear, so the ribbons were cut to use as caps. Everyone followed this trend, from the most exalted down to commoners without titles. When the court moved to the Southland, the people in the countryside were already accustomed to wearing these caps, so the trend continued among commoners and gentry, but with the ribbon along the neck around the ears, and later up in their rooms."

The account of the Tuoba ancestors whom Tuoba Gui here posthumously appointed as Emperors begins with Tuoba Mao, now named Emperor Cheng. Five generations later came Tuoba Tuiyin, who moved his residence south to Daze, more than a thousand square li around; he now became Emperor Xuan. Seven generations after him was Tuoba Lin, who was next to move south, out of the ancient Tuoba homeland and into the territory formerly occupied by the Xiongnu; he now became Emperor Xian. Tuoba Lin's son was called Tuoba Jiefen, who now became Emperor Shengwu. His son was Tuoba Liwei, here called Emperor Shenyuan and Shizu. Tuoba Liwei's son was Tuoba Shamohan, now named Emperor Wen. Tuoba Shamohan's son was Tuoba Fuzheng; he became Emperor Si. After Tuoba Fuzheng died, Tuoba Liwei's son Tuoba Luguan rose to power; his title now became Emperor Zhao. Tuoba Liwei split the Tuoba domain into three parts, sharing two of them with two sons of Tuoba Shamohan: Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu. Tuoba Yituo went on a western campaign, where he compelled the submission of several states; he now became Emperor Huan. Following the deaths of the other two, Tuoba Yilu reunited the three parts of the Tuoba domain, and he grew stronger though assisting the Jin dynasty; his title here became Emperor Mu. After his death, Tuoba Luguan's son Tuoba Yulü succeeded him; he became Emperor Pingwen. Tuoba Yulü was murdered, and Tuoba Yituo's son Tuoba Henu reigned; he now became Emperor Hui. And after his death, his younger brother Tuoba Hena succeeded him; his title became Emperor Yang. Then the people of the state drove out Tuoba Hena and acclaimed Tuoba Yulü's son Tuoba Yihuai, who now became Emperor Lie.

Since the ancestral temple was in the east, this must have been the "eastern ancestral worship" ceremony.

Du You remarked, "In Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei's (Tuoba Gui's) second year of Tianci (405), he offered sacrifices to Heaven at the western suburbs. He made a square altar, with two steps on the eastern side, so that there were no distinctions among the gentry. There were four gates all around the walls, each taking its name from the colors of the square. He built seven wooden statues atop the altar to represent his seven ancestors, and he sacrificed a white calf, a yellow foal, and a white sheep. On the day of the sacrifice, Emperor Daowu rode a grand carriage to the suburbs, and rose inside the Green Gate. When he reached the west, he faced south, and his inner court ministers all took their place north of the altar, while the outer court ministers and the great chieftains and other guests all took their place outside the Green Gate. The Empress led the residents of the six palaces in through the Black Gate, and they lined up inside the Green Gate; when they came to the north, they all faced west. Then the Director of Sacrifices took the sacrificial animals and displayed them in front of the altar. The witches held their drums and took their place east of the altar, facing west. There were also seven of the Emperor's younger kinfolk, and seven of his sons grasping cups of wine, south of the witches, and facing northwest. The witches ascended the altar while shaking their drums, and the Emperor performed an obeisance, the Empress a solemn obeisance, and all the ministers inside and out made obeisance and prayed for the sacrifice to be finished. The seven sacrificial animals were killed, and the seven sons holding the cups of wine faced west and offered their wine up to Heaven and the spirits of the ancestral lords, then made another obeisance. Things of this nature were done for three times; then the ceremony was concluded, and all returned. And this sacrificial ceremony was performed once annually."

Regarding the claim of Tuoba Gui's descent from the Yellow Emperor, the Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors in the Book of Northern Wei states, "The ancestors of Northern Wei came from the Yellow Emperor, through his son named Changyi. Changyi's son was given a fief in the northern lands. Within that state was a certain Mount Xianbei, and that became the name of these people. Among his descendants was Shijun, who ruled to the north of Yudu, in the wide expanses of the desert. Now the Yellow Emperor ruled according to the virtues of earth. These northern people tended to pronounce the word for earth, ‘tu’, as ‘tuo’, and the word for sovereign as ‘ba’; this was the origin of ‘Tuoba’, the name of the clan."

When Northern Wei had their capital at Pingcheng, Pingcheng became known as Daidu or "the capital at Dai", following the Han dynasty name of the fief there. During Han, Pingcheng county was part of Yanmeng commandary, but Dai commandary was administered by Sanggan. During Later Han, it was shifted to Gaoliu, and during Jin, it was shifted to Pingshu. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states that their Shanggu commandary was the same as Jin's Dai commandary. During Tang, it was part of Weizhou. The "Daidu" of Northern Wei was part of Yunzhong county in Yunzhou during Tang.

During Han, Shanwu county was part of Yan commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Dingxiang commandary. In Northern Wei's second year of Tianping (535), Shanwu commandary was established.

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Later Han, Yinguan county was part of Yanmen commandary. It was originally the Loufan district; during the third year of the last part of Emperor Jing of Han's reign (141 BC), it was established as Yinguan county. There was a Mount 累頭 Leitou in Yinguan county, where the Zhi River had its origin. According to the Historical Records of the Five Dynasties, there was a Mount 纍頭 Leitou in Yanmen county in Daizhou. So the Yinguan county of the Han era must have already been folded into Yanmen county.

The Book of Northern Wei records the name of these eight new posts as the Eight Camps. They encouraged and instructed the people in farming and plowing, assessed, collected, and submitted taxes, and conducted examinations and appraisals.)


閏月,左丞相、驃騎大將軍、衞王儀及諸王公卿士,詣闕上書曰:「臣等聞宸極居中,則列宿齊其晷;帝王順天,則羣后仰其度。伏惟陛下德協二儀,道隆三五,仁風被於四海,盛化塞于大區,澤及昆蟲,恩霑行葦,謳歌所屬,八表歸心,軍威所及,如風靡草,萬姓顒顒,咸思係命。而躬履謙虛,退身後己,宸儀未彰,袞服未御,非所以上允皇天之意,下副樂推之心。宜光崇聖烈,示軌憲於萬世。臣等謹昧死以聞。」帝三讓乃許之。十有二月己丑,帝臨天文殿,太尉、司徒進璽綬,百官咸稱萬歲。大赦,改年。追尊成帝已下及后號諡。樂用皇始之舞。詔百司議定行次,尚書崔玄伯等奏從土德,服色尚黃,數用五,未祖辰臘,犧牲用白,五郊立氣,宣贊時令,敬授民時,行夏之正。徙六州二十二郡守宰、豪傑、吏民二千家于代都。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the intercalary month, the Prime Minister of the Left, Grand General of Agile Cavalry, and Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, and the other princes, nobles, and chief ministers all came to Tuoba Gui's chamber and presented him a letter stating, "We have heard that when the palace occupies the utmost central position, the other mansions will seek to be in its shadow; when a king or emperor heeds the wishes of Heaven, then others will seek to follow his commands. Now only Your Majesty has the virtue to assist the two ceremonies and the principle to swell through the three fives; your benevolence spreads throughout the Four Seas and your culture fills the great region, thick as a swarm of insects and deep as soaked reeds. Songs are sung of you near and far, and the eight corners are all inclined towards you; the power of your army is like wind sweeping away grass, and it has no equal. The common people admire you, and all of them wish to heed your orders. Yet you continue to act modestly and debase yourself, placing yourself lower than your due. By declining to make manifest your imperial majesty and failing to garb yourself in imperial cap and robe, you deny the fulfillment of the wishes of the Yellow Heaven above and dismiss the hopes and wishes of the people below. So we urge you to glorify and honor your sage wisdom and your martial zeal, and establish precedents and legacies to last for countless generations. We presume to inform you of these our wishes, even at the risk of our lives."

Tuoba Gui declined the proposal three times, but eventually he accepted.

In the twelfth month, on the day Jichou (January 24th of 399), Tuoba Gui went to the Tianwen Hall. The Grand Commandant and the Minister Over The Masses stepped forward and presented him with the imperial seals and ribbons, and the ministers all shouted, "Long live the Emperor!" Tuoba Gui declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Tianxing. He granted posthumous titles to all of his ancestors, from Emperor Cheng on down, along with their Empresses. For music, he used the dances of the Huangshi reign era.

Tuoba Gui ordered his officials to discuss and decide on his dynasty's relations to the Five Elements. The Master of Writing, Cui Hong, and others sent up a memorial advising him that he should follow the virtues of Earth; his clothing should display yellow, and in the observance of the Elements he should follow Weizu Chenla (the Yellow Emperor); he should use white animals when offering sacrifical animals, he should establish places for observing the ethers at the five suburbs of the capital, and he should proclaim his edicts in accordance with the times and respect and help the common people at their times, at the beginning of summer.

Tuoba Gui relocated two thousand administrative officials, gentry families, and other officials from the twenty-two commandaries of the six conquered Later Yan provinces, placing them at the capital at Dai.

十二月己丑,魏王珪卽尊位,年號天興。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the twelfth month, on the day Jichou (January 24th of 399), Tuoba Gui declared himself Emperor, and he changed his reign era title to the first year of Tianxing.


己亥,燕幽州刺史慕容豪、尚書左僕射張通、昌黎尹張順坐謀反誅。

70. On the day Jihai (February 3rd of 399), Yan's Inspector of Youzhou, Murong Hao, their Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Zhang Tong, and their Intendant of Changli, Zhang Shun, were charged with plotting rebellion and were executed.

盛幽州刺史慕容豪、尚書左僕射張通、昌黎尹張順謀叛,盛皆誅之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng's Inspector of Youzhou, Murong Hao, his Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Zhang Tong, and his Intendant of Changli, Zhang Shun, plotted rebellion. Murong Sheng executed them all.


初,琅邪人孫泰學妖術於錢唐杜子恭,士民多奉之。王珣惡之,流泰於廣州。王雅薦泰於孝武帝,云知養性之方,召還,累官至新安太守。泰知晉祚將終,因王恭之亂,以討恭爲名,收合兵衆,聚貨鉅億,三吳之人多從之;識者皆憂其爲亂,以中領軍元顯與之善,無敢言者。會稽內史謝輶發其謀,己酉,會稽王道子使元顯誘而斬之,幷其六子;兄子恩逃入海,愚民猶以泰蟬蛻不死,就海中資給恩。恩乃聚合亡命百餘人,以謀復讎。

71. In Jin, before this time, a certain native of Langye, Sun Tai, had learned sorcery and mystic arts from Du Zigong of Qiantong. Many of the gentry and common people supported him. Wang Xun, wary of Sun Tai, had exiled him to Guangzhou. But Wang Ya had recommended Sun Tai to Emperor Xiaowu, saying that Sun Tai knew the methods of cultivating one's inner being. So Sun Tai was summoned back, and he rose in office until he became Administrator of Xin'an.

Sun Tai knew that the fortunes of the Jin dynasty were nearly at an end. So during the turmoil caused by Wang Gong's campaigns, Sun Tai gathered together an army of his own, under the pretext that he was going to campaign against Wang Gong. He amassed an absurdly large amount of resources, and many of the people living in the Three Wu regions followed him. Those who knew about the situation all feared that he would launch a rebellion. However, since Sun Tai was on good terms with Sima Yuanxian, no one dared say anything against him. But then the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Xie You, discovered Sun Tai's plot. So on the day Jiyou (February 13th of 399), Sima Daozi had Sima Yuanxian trick Sun Tai and then had him executed, along with his six sons.

Sun Tai's nephew Sun En ran and hid along the sea. He misled the common people, claiming that Sun Tai had not died, but had shed his mortal being, and had entrusted his resources along the sea to Sun En. Then Sun En gathered together more than a hundred fugitives, plotting revenge for Sun Tai.

〈億億爲鉅億。〉〈蟬解殼曰蛻。神仙家有尸解之說,言尸解登仙,如蟬之蛻殼也。〉〈爲後孫恩反張本。〉

(This passage states that Sun Tai had a 鉅億 of resources. A 鉅 is a 億 of 億, or, a hundred million of a hundred million.

When a cicada sloughs off its shell, it is called "shedding" the shell. Likewise, among the immortals there is an expression of "shedding the body", saying that one sheds the body and ascends as an immortal, like when a cicada sheds its shell.

This was why Sun En later rebelled against Jin.)


京兆人韋禮帥襄陽流人叛,降于姚興。己酉,前新安太守杜炯反于京口,會稽王世子元顯討斬之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

A native of Jingzhao commandary, Wei Li, led the refugees at Xiangyang in rebellion, and they surrendered to Yao Xing.

On the day Jiyou (February 13th of 399), the former Administrator of Xin'an, Du Jiong, rebelled at Jingkou. The Crown Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yuanxian, campaigned against him and beheaded him.


西平王禿髮烏孤更稱武威王。

72. Tufa Wugu declared himself King of Wuwei.

禿髮烏孤自稱武威王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Tufa Wugu declared himself King of Wuwei.

二年,改稱武威王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

In the second year of Taichu (398), Tufa Wugu changed his title to King of Wuwei.

天興初,烏孤又稱武威王。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

At the beginning of the Tianxing era (~398), Tufa Wugu further declared himself King of Wuwei.

烏孤更稱武威王。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu further declared himself King of Wuwei.


是歲,楊盛遣使附魏,魏以盛爲仇池王。

73. During this year, the ruler of the Chouchi region, Yang Sheng, sent envoys aligning himself with Wei. They appointed him as Prince of Chouchi.

二月...仇池公楊盛遣使稱籓,獻方物。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Long'an (399), in the second month, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Sheng, sent envoys to the Jin court declaring himself a vassal and presenting tribute.
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BOOK 111

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Nov 25, 2018 3:57 am

隆安三年(己亥、三九九)

The Third Year of Long'an (The Jihai Year, 399 AD)


春,正月,辛酉,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 25th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

三年春正月辛酉,封宗室蘊爲淮陵王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Long'an (399), in spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 25th), a member of the royal family, Sima Wei, was appointed as Prince of Huailing.


戊辰,燕昌黎尹留忠謀反,誅;事連尚書令東陽公根、尚書段成,皆坐死;遣中衞將軍衞雙就誅忠弟志於凡城。以衞將軍平原公元爲司徒、尚書令。

2. On the day Wuchen (March 4th), Yan's Intendant of Changli, Liu Zhong, plotted rebellion and was executed. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Dongyang, Murong Gen, and one of the Masters of Writing, Duang Cheng, were blamed as being part of the plot and also died. Murong Sheng sent the Guard General of the Center, Wei Shuang, to execute the Inspector of Youzhou, Liu Zhong's younger brother Liu Zhi, at Fancheng. He appointed the Guard General and Duke of Pingyuan, Murong Yuan, as Minister Over The Masses and the new Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

〈【章:十二行本「弟」下有「幽州刺史」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校云:夾註「弟幽州刺史志於凡」八字作正文。】〉

(Some versions add that Liu Zhi was the "Inspector of Youzhou".)


庚午,魏主珪北巡,分命大將軍常山王遵等三軍從東道出長川,鎭北將軍高涼王樂眞等七軍從西道出牛川,珪自將大軍從中道出駮髯水以襲高車。

3. On the day Gengwu (March 6th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol. He also ordered his Grand General and Prince of Changshan, Tuoba Zun, and others to lead three armies from along the eastern roads out of Changchuan, and he ordered his General Who Guards The North and Prince of Gaoliang, Tuoba Yuezhen, and others to lead seven armies from along the western roads out of Niuchuan. Tuoba Gui himself led the main army from along the central roads from the Boran River to raid the Gaoche people.

〈長川在禦夷鎭西北,大漠之東垂也。下所謂西道、中道,蓋絕漠分爲三路。〉

(Changchuan was northwest of the Yuyi Garrison, and the great desert was just east of it. And since the rest of this passage mentions "western" and "central" roads as well, there must have been three separate roads through the desert.)


二年春正月甲子,初祠上帝于南郊,以始祖神元皇帝配,降壇視燎,成禮而反。乙丑,曲赦京師。始制三駕之法。庚午,車駕北巡,分命諸將大襲高車,大將軍、常山王遵等三軍從東道出長川,鎮北將軍高涼王樂真等七軍從西道出牛川,車駕親勒六軍從中道自駮髯水西北。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second year of Tianxing (399), in spring, the first month, on the day Jiazi (February 28th), Tuoba began conducting annual sacrifices to the Supreme Deity (Shangdi) in the southern suburbs of the capital, and he offered sacrifices to his ancestor Emperor Shenyuan or Shizu (Tuoba Liwei). He ascended the altar and observed the burnings, then left once the ceremony was concluded.

On the day Yichou (March 1st), Tuoba Gui declared a special amnesty for the capital region, and he began following the system of the Three Carriages.

On the day Gengwu (March 6th), Tuoba Gui went on a northern patrol, ordering his various generals to launch a great raid against the Gaoche people. He ordered his Grand General and Prince of Changshan, Tuoba Zun, and others to lead three armies from along the eastern roads out of Changchuan, and he ordered his General Who Guards The North and Prince of Gaoliang, Tuoba Yuezhen, and others to lead seven armies from along the western roads out of Niuchuan. Tuoba Gui himself led the main six armies from along the central roads northwest from the Boran River.


壬午,燕右將軍張眞、城門校尉和翰坐謀反,誅。

4. On the day Renwu (March 18th), Yan's General of the Right, Zhang Zhen, and their Colonel of the City Gates, He Han, were also charged with plotting rebellion and were executed.

癸未,燕大赦,改元長樂。燕主盛每十日一自決獄,不加拷掠,多得其情。

5. On the day Guiwei (March 19th), a general amnesty was declared in Yan, and the reign era title was changed to Changle.

Every ten days, Murong Sheng would personally judge a criminal case. He did not use torture, yet he usually won over the suspects.

〈史言慕容盛以聰察殺身。〉

(This passage demonstrates how Murong Sheng wisely decided cases by taxing his body.)


正月,朝羣臣於承乾殿,大赦,改建平元年為長樂元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

In the first year of Changle (399), the first month, the Later Yan ministers gathered in the Chengqian Palace. Murong Sheng declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title from the first year of Jianping to the first year of Changle.

又號年為長樂。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng then changed the reign era title to the first year of Changle.

改年為長樂。有犯罪者,十日一自決之,無撾捶之罰,而獄情多實。高句驪王安遣使貢方物,有雀素身綠首,集於端門,棲翔東園,二旬而去,改東園為白雀園。盛聽詩歌及周公之事,顧謂群臣曰:「周公之輔成王,不能以至誠感上下,誅兄弟以杜流言,猶擅美于經傳,歌德於管弦。至如我之太宰桓王,承百王之季,主在可奪之年,二寇窺窬,難過往日,臨朝輔政,群情緝穆,經略外敷,辟境千里,以禮讓維宗親,德刑制群後,敦睦雍熙,時無二論。勳道之茂,豈可與周公同日而言乎!而燕詠闕而不論,盛德掩而不述,非所謂也。」乃命中書更為《燕頌》以述恪之功焉。又引中書令常忠、尚書陽璆、秘書監郎敷於東堂,問曰:「古來君子皆謂周公忠聖,豈不謬哉!」璆曰:「周公居攝政之重,而能達群臣之名,及流言之謗,致烈風以悟主,道契神靈,義光萬代,故累葉稱其高,後王無以奪其美。」盛曰:「常令以為何如?」忠曰:「昔武王疾篤,周公有請令之誠,流言之際,義感天地,楚撻伯禽以訓就王德。周公為臣之忠,聖達之美,《詩》《書》已來未之有也。」盛曰:「異哉二君之言!朕見周公之詐,未見其忠聖也。昔武王得九齡之夢,白文王,文王曰:「我百,爾九十,吾與爾三焉。」及文王之終,已驗武王之壽矣。武王之算未盡而求代其死,是非詐乎!若惑於天命,是不聖也。據攝天位而丹誠不見,致兄弟之間有干戈之事。夫文王之化,自近及遠,故曰刑于寡妻,至於兄弟。周公親違聖父之典而蹈嫌疑之蹤,戮罰同氣以逞私忿,何忠之有乎!但時無直筆之史,後儒承其謬談故也。」忠曰:「啟金縢而返風,亦足以明其不詐。遭二叔流言之變,而能大義滅親,終安宗國,復子明辟,輔成大業,以致太平,制禮作樂,流慶無窮,亦不可謂非至德也。」盛曰:「卿徒因成文而未原大理,朕今相為論之。昔周自後稷積德累仁,至於文、武。文、武以大聖應期,遂有天下。生靈仰其德,四海歸其仁。成王雖幼統洪業,而卜世修長,加呂、召、毛、畢為之師傅。若無周公攝政,王道足以成也。周公無故以安危為己任,專臨朝之權,闕北面之禮。管、蔡忠存王室,以為周公代主非人臣之道,故言公將不利於孺子。周公當明大順之節,陳誠義以曉群疑,而乃阻兵都邑,擅行誅戮。不臣之罪彰于海內,方貽王《鴟鴞》之詩,歸非於主,是何謂乎!又周公舉事,稱告二公,二公足明周公之無罪而坐觀成王之疑,此則二公之心亦有猜于周公也。但以疏不間親,故寄言于管、蔡,可謂忠不見於當時,仁不及于兄弟。知群望之有歸,天命之不在己,然後返政成王,以為忠耳。大風拔木之征,乃皇天祐存周道,不忘文、武之德,是以赦周公之始愆,欲成周室之大美。考周公之心,原周公之行,乃天下之罪人,何至德之謂也!周公復位,二公所以杜口不言其本心者,以明管、蔡之忠也。」又謂常忠曰:「伊尹、周公孰賢?」忠曰:「伊尹非有周公之親而功濟一代,太甲亂德,放于桐宮,思愆改善,然後復之。使主無怨言,臣無流謗,道存社稷,美溢來今,臣謂伊尹之勳有高周旦。」盛曰:「伊尹以舊臣之重,顯阿衡之任,太甲嗣位,君道未洽,不能竭忠輔導。而放黜桐宮,事同夷羿,何周公之可擬乎!」郎敷曰:「伊尹處人臣之位,不能匡制其君,恐成、湯之道墜而莫就,是以居之桐宮,與小人從事,使知稼穡之艱難,然後返之天位,此其忠也。」盛曰:「伊尹能廢而立之,何不能輔之以至於善乎?若太甲性同桀紂,則三載之間未應便成賢後,如其性本休明,義心易發,當務盡匡規之理以弼成君德,安有人臣幽主而據其位哉!且臣之事君,惟力是視,奈何挾智藏仁以成君惡!夫太甲之事,朕已鑒之矣。太甲,至賢之主也,以伊尹曆奉三朝,績無異稱,將失顯祖委授之功,故匿其日月之明,受伊尹之黜,所以濟其忠貞之美。夫非常之人,然後能立非常之事,非常人之所見也,亦猶太伯之三讓,人無德而稱焉。」敷曰:「太伯三以天下讓,至仲尼而後顯其至德。太甲受謗於天下,遭陛下乃申其美。」因而談宴賦詩,賜金帛各有差。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng changed the reign era title to the first year of Changle.

When there were criminal cases, every ten days, Murong Sheng would personally judge a case. He did not use physical methods of interrogation, yet most of the prisoners revealed the truth to him.

King An of Goguryeo sent envoys to Murong Sheng presenting fine things as tribute. Among them were sparrows with white bodies and green heads. They gathered at the Duan Gates, and they perched and flew around the Eastern Garden. After twenty days, they left. So Murong Sheng renamed the Eastern Garden to the White Sparrow Garden.

After having heard many poems and songs praising the virtues of the Duke of Zhou, Murong Sheng instructed his ministers, "When the Duke of Zhou served as regent for King Cheng of Zhou, even he was unable to command universal respect in his own time, and he had to go so far as to execute some of his own brothers in order to silence their words. Yet the old classics and histories are full of praise for him, and the odes sing of his virtues.

"What then of our own Grand Governor, the late Prince Huan (Murong Ke)? He was the inheritor of the royal line, and in the year that his sovereign was taken from him, the old court was threatened by its two great foes (Former Qin and Jin) watching and waiting, with the press of danger from day to day. Yet he presided over the court and administered the government, and he was careful and solemn in his feelings; he developed and executed many plans and strategies, and he expanded the territory of the state by a thousand li; he was respectful and yielding before the imperial kin and relatives, and he was virtuous and judicious in exerting control over the various princes; he promoted harmony and good feelings, and in his time there was no disagreement.

"With such abundant achievements and such great virtues, how can the Duke of Zhou even deserve to be mentioned in the same breath as him? Yet there is no mention of Prince Huan in the songs and odes of Yan; so many virtues, yet they lay buried and untold. This shall not be." So he ordered the Palace Secretariat to compose the Odes of Yan to recount the achievements of Murong Ke.

At one point, Murong Sheng summoned the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Chang Zhong, one of the Masters of Writing, Yang Qiu, and the Chief of the Palace Library, Lang Fu, to the Eastern Hall. He said to them, "Ever since ancient times, good people have all acclaimed the Duke of Zhou as being sage and loyal. How could they be more wrong?"

Yang Qiu said, "The Duke of Zhou occupied a most important post at the head of the government, yet he was able to maintain a good reputation. And even in the face of slander against him, he pushed against the storm to enlighten his sovereign. His principles were noticed even by the gods and spirits, and his righteousness has shown all down through the generations. That is why he is so often exalted, and no later ruler has matched his greatness."

Murong Sheng said, "And Prefect Chang, what do you think?"

Chang Zhong replied, "When King Wu of Zhou was bedridden with illness, the Duke of Zhou implored Heaven to take his life instead of King Wu's, and this later put an end to slander against him, for Heaven and Earth were moved by his righteousness. And he punished his own son Boqin in order to instruct King Cheng of Wu on proper behavior. The Duke was a loyal subject, and his sagacity and achievements were so great that ever since the era when the Book of Poetry and the Book of Documents were written, no one has ever rivaled them."

Murong Sheng declared, "How far you two gentleman are from the truth! I have seen well how crafty the Duke of Zhou was; I have yet to see evidence of his loyalty or his sage wisdom.

"First of all, there was that time when King Wu had that dream about the nine ling. When he mentioned it to King Wen, King Wen told him, 'I am a hundred years old, and you are ninety; I predict you only have three more years left.' So we know that by the time of King Wen's death, King Wu was already an old man. Was it not then mere falsehood for the Duke to beg to take King Wu's death on himself before King Wu's designs had been realized? It cannot be called sagacity if one seeks to mislead the will of Heaven.

"And I will grant you that the Duke occupied a high position, but I do not see proof of his sincerity. After all, he even went so far as to take up arms against his brothers when there was a dispute between them. The poet says of King Wen that his goodness extended both near and far, such that 'his example acted on his wife, and extended to his brethren'. But the Duke of Zhou violated his father's policy and trod the path of jealousy and suspicion instead, and he punished and executed his own kin to vent his personal resentments. How could this be called loyalty?

"The whole thing has come about because there were no historians in the Duke of Zhou's day willing to record the truth, and so ever since, scholars have kept repeating such falsehoods."

Chang Zhong said, "Regarding the Duke's plea to Heaven, that was not revealed until after King Cheng opened the metal-bound coffer in which the Duke had sealed his pledge, and upon reading it, King Cheng had the Duke return from his voluntary exile. That in itself is sufficient proof that he was earnest in his plea, and no artifice was involved. And King Cheng's two uncles whom the Duke acted against were guilty of spreading words of slander; the Duke was 'putting aside family for the sake of righteousness' in acting against them, and in the end he restored peace to his clan and to the state. Furthermore, he instilled wisdom in his charge King Cheng, he helped to achieve the grand design, he brought the realm to an age of peace, and he put together the systems of rites and created the musical traditions. There was celebrating without end; you cannot say that what he did was not virtuous."

Murong Sheng replied, "You and your kind are so taken with these perceptions that you have failed to grasp the bigger picture. Allow me to instruct you.

"All the ancestors of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty, from Houji all the way down to King Wen and King Wu, accumulated virtue and stored up benevolence. And King Wen and King Wu themselves displayed supreme wisdom by heeding the circumstances of the times before acting; it was for that reason that they were able to attain the realm. Both the living and the spirits bowed before their virtue, and all within the Four Seas were drawn to their benevolence. And though King Wu's son King Cheng found himself at the head of such a grand enterprise at a young and tender age, the divinations predicted that he would enjoy a long life. Nor was he lacking in good helpers to instruct him and teach him: there were Lü Shang (Jiang Ziya), the Duke of Shao, the Duke of Mao, and the Duke of Bi. So even if the Duke of Zhou had not controlled the government, the royal road would still have been secured.

"But the Duke of Zhou baselessly claimed authority over the state and the court, failing to observe the rite of facing north in submission to his sovereign, just because he was uncertain of his position. It was his brothers the Duke of Guan and the Duke of Cai who were loyal to the royal family, for they believed that the Duke of Zhou meant to replace his sovereign and was acting unbecoming of a proper minister. That was why they said that the Duke planned to do harm to his young charge, King Cheng. After that happened, the Duke of Zhou ought to have acted with clear signs of utmost obedience by demonstrating his sincerity and sense of righteousness to dispel the doubts against him. Yet instead of doing that, he took command of soldiers in the capital region and presumed to have the authority to execute others. His crimes of failing to act according to what was proper for a minister were thus displayed throughout all the realm. That was why the Duke of Zhou later presented his poem The Owl to King Cheng; if that was not why, then why did he say such things? And when the Duke of Zhou mentioned the matter to the Duke of Shao and the Duke of Tai, though it says that the two Dukes knew that the Duke of Zhou was blameless, it also mentions that they sat by and saw King Cheng's suspicions; it must have been that the two Dukes also felt some suspicion against the Duke of Zhou in their hearts. But in order to prevent discord among relatives, these words were attributed to the Dukes of Guan and Cai. So we might say that loyalty was not displayed at this time, nor was benevolence shown between brothers.

"The Duke of Zhou realized that the people hoped that power would be restored to King Cheng, and it was not the will of Heaven that he should maintain it. That was why he returned control of the government to King Cheng, merely as a show of loyalty. And though that great storm pulled up the trees, still the Yellow Heaven maintained the fortunes of the Zhou dynasty; it did not forget the virtues of King Wen and King Wu, and it forgave the Duke of Zhou's faults at the beginning of the dynasty because it wished for Zhou to realize its enterprise. When we examine the Duke of Zhou's heart and study his actions, we see that he was a criminal against all the realm; how then can he be called virtuous? And it is by the fact that the Duke of Zhou returned control of the government and Duke Shao and Duke Tai held their tongues and did not express their hearts that Duke Guan and Duke Cai were the truly loyal ones."

Murong Sheng also said to Chang Zhong, "Who was the better man: Yi Yin, or the Duke of Zhou?"

Chang Zhong replied, "Unlike the Duke of Zhou, Yi Yin was not a member of the royal family. Yet he accomplished a great achievement of the age. When his sovereign Taijia acted without virtue, Yi Yin exiled him to Tong Palace, and after Taijia considered his faults and reformed his behavior, Yi Yin then restored him to the throne. Yet Yi Yin's sovereign expressed no resentment against him, and the ministers spread no slander against him; his good principles secured the fortunes of the dynasty, and his greatness has extended even down to our time. So I would say that Yi Yin's achievements were greater than the Duke of Zhou's were."

Murong Sheng replied, "At the time when those things took place, Yi Yin had already been a chief minister for a long time, for they say he had 'the position of A-heng', while Taijia had only just come to the throne. When the sovereign's proper principles had not yet been formed, his minister should have shown utmost loyalty in helping and guiding him. Yet Yi Yin deposed Taijia and exiled him to Tong Palace, the same as Huoyi. How could he have been better than the Duke of Zhou?"

Lang Fu remarked, "Yi Yin was a minister of the Shang dynasty, and when he could not rectify or control his sovereign, he feared that the principles established by Cheng-Tang (Tang of Shang) would falter without anyone to maintain them. That was why he placed Taijia at Tong Palace, taught him the fates of miscreants, and showed him what would happen when he reaped what he had sown. Afterwards, he restored him to the throne. Such was Yi Yin's loyalty."

Murong Sheng replied, "So Yi Yin could depose his sovereign and restore him. Why then could he not help his sovereign to achieve the same goodness? If Taijia's character was truly as bad as that of Jie of Xie and King Zhou of Shang, he could hardly have reformed himself into such a worthy ruler after just three years. And if he really did have such dormant wisdom and a righteous heart waiting to be awakened, then it would have been Yi Yin's duty to do all he could to rectify and correct Taijia and help him to realize this hidden virtue. By what right did Yi Yin, a minister, cloister his sovereign and occupy his position? It is only by a man's actions that we may judge him. Why then did Yi Yin suppress his intelligence and hide away his benevolence in order to correct his sovereign's vices?

"As for Taijia himself, I have been considering him. In my view, Taijia was already a worthy sovereign. He considered that Yi Yin had served the court for three generations, and no one had said anything against him. It was in order to prevent the glory of the achievements that Yi Yin had performed during the reign of his grandfather Tang of Shang from being lost that Taijia voluntarily hid away his glory, great as the sun or moon, and accepted Yi Yin's banishment in order to maintain Yi Yin's reputation as a loyal and dutiful man. A remarkable man can only establish his reputation for greatness in later ages, when a remarkable man perceives them. After all, Taibo declined the throne three times, yet the people could not perceive his virtue, so they did not commend him."

Lang Fu said, "Indeed, Taibo declined the realm three times, yet not until Confucius was his virtue recognized. Taijia too received the slander of the realm, but now Your Majesty has expressed his worth."

The discussion continued, as they talked together and composed rhapsodies and poems, and Murong Sheng bestowed each of them with suitable gifts of gold and silk.


武威王烏孤徙治樂都,以其弟西平公利鹿孤鎭安夷,廣武公傉檀鎭西平,叔父素渥鎭湟河,若留鎭澆河,從弟替引鎭嶺南,洛回鎭廉川,從叔吐若留鎭浩亹;夷、夏俊傑,隨才授任,內居顯位,外典郡縣,咸得其宜。

6. Tufa Wugu shifted his capital to Ledu. He appointed his Duke of Xiping, his younger brother Tufa Lilugu, to guard Anyi county, and his Duke of Guangwu, his younger brother Tufa Nutan, to guard Xiping. He appointed his uncles Tufa Suwo and Tufa Ruoliu to guard Huanghe and Jiaohe. He appointed his cousins Tufa Tiyin and Tufa Luohui to guard the region south of the mountain ranges and Lianchuan. He appointed his great-uncle Tufa Turuoliu to guard Haomen.

Tufa Wugu appointed the talented and worthy people among the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) each according to their abilities, so that those within his court held exalted positions and those serving in the commandaries and counties enforced the law canons, and all achieved their aims.

〈安夷縣,漢屬金城郡,晉分屬西平郡。〉〈西平治樂都縣,唐鄯州之湟水縣也。〉〈嶺南,卽洪池嶺之南。〉〈浩亹在樂都之東,隋、唐併入湟水縣。浩,音誥。〉

(During Han, Anyi county was part of Jincheng commandary. Jin split it off as part of Xiping commandary.

Xiping commandary was governed from Ledu county. During Tang, this area was Huangshui county in Shanzhou.

"South of the mountain ranges" meant south of the Hongchi Ranges.

Haomen was east of Ledu. During Sui and Tang, it was folded into Huangshui county. The first character of Haomen, 浩, is pronounced "gao".)


三年正月,徒於樂都。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

In the third year of Taichu (399), the first month, Tufa Wugu shifted his capital to Ledu.

烏孤徙治樂都,置車騎將軍已下,分立郡縣。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu shifted his capital to Ledu. He established the imperial offices from General of Chariots and Cavalry on down, and he divided up his domain into commandaries and counties.

後三歲,徙于樂都,署弟利鹿孤為驃騎大將軍、西平公,鎮安夷,傉檀為車騎大將軍、廣武公,鎮西平。以楊軌為賓客。金石生、時連珍,四夷之豪雋;陰訓、郭倖,西州之德望;楊統、楊貞、衛殷、麹丞明、郭黃、郭奮、史暠、鹿嵩,文武之秀傑;梁昶、韓疋、張昶、郭韶,中州之才令;金樹、薛翹、趙振、王忠、趙晁、蘇霸,秦雍之世門,皆內居顯位,外宰郡縣。官方授才,咸得其所。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Later, in the third year of Long’an (399), Tufa Wugu shifted his capital to Ledu. He appointed his younger brother Tufa Lilugu as Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Xiping, and stationed him at Anyi. He appointed his younger brother Tufa Nutan as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Duke of Guangwu, and stationed him at Xiping. He recognized Yang Gui as an Honored Guest.

As for his other appointments, Jin Shisheng and Shilian Zhen were talented gentlemen from the tribes; Yin Xun and Guo Xing were virtuous fellows from the western provinces; Yang Tong, Yang Zhen, Wei Yin, Qu Chengming, Guo Huang, Guo Fen, Shi Gao, and Lu Song were exceptionally talented at both civil and military affairs; Liang Chang, Han Pi, Zhang Chang, and Guo Shao were skilled administrators from the Central Provinces; and Jin Shu, Xue Qiao, Zhao Zhen, Wang Zhong, Zhao Chao, and Su Ba were from established families in the Qin and Yong regions. Those within Tufa Wugu's court held exalted positions and those afar governed the commandaries and counties. Everyone was appointed as suited to their abilities, and all achieved their aims.


烏孤謂羣臣曰:「隴右、河西,本數郡之地,遭亂,分裂至十餘國,呂氏、乞伏氏、段氏最強,今欲取之,三者何先?」楊統曰:「乞伏氏本吾之部落,終當服從。段氏書生,無能爲患,且結好於我,攻之不義。呂光衰耄,嗣子微弱,纂、弘雖有才而內相猜忌,若使浩亹、廉川乘虛迭出,彼必疲於奔命,不過二年,兵勞民困,則姑臧可圖也。姑臧舉,則二寇不待攻而服矣。」烏孤曰:「善!」

7. Tufa Wugu said to his ministers, "The Longyou and Hexi regions were originally just a handful of commandaries. But ever since the chaos arose, they've been split apart into more than ten states. The strongest of these are the Lü clan, the Qifu clan, and the Duan clan. I mean to conquer them all. But which of these three should be first?"

Yang Tong replied, "We and the Qifu clan had our origins in the same people, so they will submit to us in the end anyway. As for the Duan clan, Duan Ye is just a bookish scholar, and he cannot pose a threat to us. Besides, he has already established good ties with us, so it would not be right to attack him. But Lü Guang is an old fool, and his heir is young and weak. And though his sons Lü Zuan and Lü Hong may be talented, they are suspicious and paranoid about one another. If we sent the forces of Haomen and Lianchuan to take advantage of their absence by launching an attack, the enemy will surely flee for their lives. Within two years, their soldiers will be exhausted and their people spent, and then we can take Guzang. Once Guzang is ours, then the other two threats will submit to us without our even having to attack them."

Tufa Wugu replied, "Well said!"

〈漢時河西置武威、張掖、酒泉四郡;隴右置隴西、金城二郡。〉〈乞伏與禿髮氏,皆鮮卑也。〉〈謂光以子紹爲嗣也。〉〈姑臧,呂光所都。〉

(During the Han dynasty, the Hexi region contained the four commandaries of Hexi, Wuwei, Zhangye, and Jiuquan; the Longyou region was Longxi and Jincheng commandaries.

The Qifu and the Tufa clans were both Xianbei.

Yang Tong refers to Lü Guang's heir Lü Shao.

Guzang was Lü Guang's capital.)


烏孤從容謂其群下曰:「隴右區區數郡地耳!因其兵亂,分裂遂至十餘。乾歸擅命河南,段業阻兵張掖,虐氐假息,偷據姑臧。吾藉父兄遣烈。思郭清西夏。兼弱攻昧,三者何先?」楊統進曰:「乾歸本我所部,終必歸服。段業儒生,才非經世,權臣擅命,制不由已,千里伐人,糧運懸絕,且與我鄰好,許以分災共患,乘其危弊,非義舉也。呂光衰老,嗣紹沖暗,二子纂、弘,雖頗有文武,而內相猜忌。若天威臨之,必應鋒瓦解。宜遣車騎鎮浩亹,鎮北據廉川,乘虛迭出,多方以誤之,救右則擊其左,救左則擊其右,使纂疲於奔命,人不得安其農業。兼弱攻昧,於是乎在,不出二年,可以坐定姑臧。姑臧既拔,二寇不待兵戈,自然服矣。」烏孤然之,遂陰有吞併之志。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu casually remarked to his ministers, "The Longyou region used to be nothing more than a mere handful of commandaries! But thanks to all this conflict and chaos, it was split apart into more than ten fragments. Qifu Gangui wields his authority south of the Yellow River, Duan Ye has his soldiers in hand at Zhangye, and those wicked Di (the Lü clan) took advantage of things to steal their way into Guzang. I recall my father's and my elder brother's last charge to me, and I consider how I might pacify the western Xia region. As it is said, one must 'absorb the weak, and punish the wilfully blind'. But which of these three should be first?"

Yang Tong stepped forward and said, "Qifu Gangui is of our own kind, and he will certainly submit to us in the end. As for Duan Ye, he is a bookish scholar, unsuited to being a ruler; his authority was forced upon him by his subordinates, whom he is unable to control. Were he to attempt to campaign a thousand li away, his supply lines would be unsustainable. Besides, he has already established good relations with us, and we have agreed to share weal and woe together with him. It would not be right to take advantage of his weakness and danger to exploit him. But Lü Guang is an old fool, and his heir Lü Shao is young and blind. And though his sons Lü Zuan and Lü Hong may be skilled at civil and military affairs, they are suspicious and paranoid about one another. If we sent our heavenly might against them, they would certainly crumble at our zeal and break to pieces.

"You should send the General of Chariots and Cavalry to guard Haomen and the General Who Guards The North to occupy Lianchuan, then have them make alternating movements when openings present themselves. You would thus mislead the enemy; if they try to save their right flank, you may strike their left, while if they protect their left flank, you go for their right. That would wear out Lü Zuan and make him flee for his life, and the enemy's people would not be able to practice their livelihoods in peace. It would thus be as you say: we would absorb the weak and punish the willfully blind. Within two years, you could claim Guzang as your own. Once Guzang is taken, then the other two threats will submit to us without our even having to attack them."

Tufa Wugu agreed, and he had secret ambitions of conquest.


二月,丁亥朔,魏軍大破高車三十餘部,獲七萬餘口,馬三十餘萬匹,牛羊百四十餘萬頭。衞王儀別將三萬騎絕漠千餘里,破其七部,獲二萬餘口,馬五萬餘匹,牛羊二萬餘頭。高車諸部大震。

8. In the second month, on the new moon of the day Dinghai (March 23rd), the Wei armies greatly routed more than thirty tribes of the Gaoche people. They captured more than seventy thousand people, more than three hundred thousand horses, and more than four hundred thousand cattle and sheep. The Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, also led thirty thousand cavalry to ride more than a thousand li across the desert, where he routed a further seven tribes. He captured more than twenty thousand people, more than fifty thousand horses, and more than two hundred thousand cattle and sheep. The Gaoche tribes all greatly feared Wei.

二月丁亥朔,諸軍同會,破高車雜種三十餘部,獲七萬餘口,馬三十餘萬匹,牛羊百四十餘萬。驃騎大將軍、衞王儀督三萬騎別從西北絕漠千餘里,破其遺迸七部,獲二萬餘口,馬五萬餘匹,牛羊二十餘萬頭,高車二十餘萬乘,并服玩諸物。還次牛川及薄山,並刻石記功,班賜從臣各有差。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second month, on the new moon of the day Dinghai (March 23rd), the Northern Wei armies converged. They routed more than thirty tribes of the Gaoche people. They captured more than seventy thousand people, more than three hundred thousand horses, and more than four hundred thousand cattle and sheep.

The Grand General of Agile Cavalry and Prince of Wey, Tuoba Yi, also led thirty thousand cavalry to ride more than a thousand li northwest across the desert, where he routed a further seven tribes. He captured more than twenty thousand people, more than fifty thousand horses, and more than two hundred thousand cattle and sheep, more than two hundred thousand of the Gaoche carts, and various clothes and other items.

As the Northern Wei armies were passing back through Niuchuan and Baoshan, Tuoba Gui carved steles to commemorate their achievements, and he distributed rewards among his ministers and followers as appropriate.


林邑王范達陷日南、九眞,遂寇交趾,太守杜瑗擊破之。

9. The King of Lâm Ấp (Linyi), Phạm Đạt, captured the commandaries of Nhật Nam (Rinan) and Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen), then invaded Jiaozhi commandary. But Jin’s Administrator there, Du Yuan, attacked and routed him.

二月甲辰,河間王國鎮薨。林邑范胡達陷日南、九真,遂寇交阯,太守杜瑗討破之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the second month, on the day Jiachen (April 9th), the Prince of Hejian, Sima Guozhen, passed away.

Phạm Đạt of Lâm Ấp (Linyi) captured the commandaries of Nhật Nam (Rinan) and Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen), then invaded Jiaozhi commandary. But Jin’s Administrator there, Du Yuan, attacked and routed him.


庚戌,魏征虜將軍庾岳破張超於勃海,斬之。

10. On the day Gengxu (April 15th), Wei's General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yu Yue, routed Zhang Chao at Bohai and beheaded him.

〈張超據南皮,見上卷上年。〉

(Zhang Chao had earlier occupied Nanpi in rebellion against Northern Wei, as mentioned in Book 110, in the second year of Long'an (398.55).)


庚戌,征虜將軍庾岳破張超於勃海。超走平原,為其黨所殺。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Gengxu (April 15th), the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yu Yue, routed Zhang Chao at Bohai. Zhang Chao fled to Pingyuan, but he was killed by his partisans.


段業卽涼王位,改元天璽;以沮渠蒙遜爲尚書左丞,梁中庸爲右丞。

11. Duan Ye declared himself King of Liang, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Tianxi. He appointed Juqu Mengxun as his Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Liang Zhongyong as Assistant of the Right.

〈是爲北涼。〉

(This was the beginning of the state known to history as Northern Liang.)


段業自稱涼王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Duan Ye declared himself King of Liang.

業自稱涼王,以蒙遜為尚書左丞。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

When Duan Ye declared himself King of Liang, he appointed Juqu Mengxun as his Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing.

業僭稱涼王,以蒙遜為尚書左丞,梁中庸為右丞。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

When Duan Ye declared himself King of Liang, he appointed Juqu Mengxun as his Assistant of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and Liang Zhongyong as Assistant of the Right.


魏主珪大獵於牛川之南,以高車人爲圍,周七百餘里;因驅其禽獸,南抵平城,使高車築鹿苑,廣數十里。三月,己未,珪還平城。

12. Tuoba Gui organized a grand hunt south of Niuchuan. He used the Gaoche people to form a circle, more than seven hundred square li around, which they used to drive the wild animals south to Pingcheng. He also had the Gaoche build a deer park, dozens of li wide.

In the third month, on the day Jiwei (April 24th), Tuoba Gui returned to Pingcheng.

以所獲高車眾起鹿苑,南因臺陰,北距長城,東包白登,屬之西山,廣輪數十里,鑿渠引武川水注之苑中,疏為三溝,分流宮城內外。又穿鴻雁池。三月己未,車駕至自北伐。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tuoba Gui made the captured Gaoche people form a deer park. It was several dozen li around, reaching north to Taiyin, south to Changcheng, east to Baideng, and west to the western hills. He also made them carve a channel to divert the water of the Wuchuan River into the park, channeling them into three trenches, and they established field palaces inside and out. They also dug out the Hongyan Pond.

In the third month, on the day Jiwei (April 24th), Tuoba Gui returned from his northern campaign.


甲子,珪分尚書三十六曹及外署,凡置三百六十曹,令八部大夫主之。吏部尚書崔宏通署三十六曹,如令、僕統事。置《五經》博士,增國子太學生員合三千人。

13. On the day Jiazi (April 29th), Tuoba Gui further divided the Thirty-Six Bureaus of the Masters of Writing and of the outer bureaus, creating three hundred and sixty bureaus, and ordering the Eight Gentlemen to supervise them. The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Cui Hong, oversaw the Thirty-Six Bureaus, acting in the same role as a Prefect or Deputy Director. Tuoba Gui also appointed Instructors of the Five Classics, and increased the number of students in the Imperial Academy for the National Youth to three thousand altogether.

〈八部大夫,恐當作「八部大人」。魏王珪天興元年,置八部大人於皇城,四方、四維一面置一人,以擬八座,謂之八國,各有屬官,常侍、待詔直左右,出入王命。〉

(I (Hu Sanxing) believe that the "Eight Gentlemen" in this passage should be the "Eight Chieftains". In the first year of Tianxing (398), Tuoba Gui had established the Eight Chieftains at Pingcheng, with each of them assigned to one of the eight directions, so they were also called the Eight Seats or the Eight States. Each of them had their own subordinates offices, like the Regular Attendants or the Enforcers of Decrees of the Left and Right, and they executed the royal will.)


甲子,初令五經羣書各置博士,增國子太學生員三千人。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Jiazi (April 29th), Tuoba Gui first appointed Instructors for each of the Five Classics, and increased the number of students in the Imperial Academy for the National Youth to three thousand altogether.


珪問博士李先曰:「天下何物最善,可以益人神智?」對曰:「莫若書籍。」珪曰:「書籍凡有幾何,如何可集?」對曰:「自書契以來,世有滋益,以至于今,不可勝計。苟人主所好,何憂不集。」珪從之,命郡縣大索書籍,悉送平城。

14. Tuoba Gui asked one of his Academicians, Li Xian, "What is the greatest thing in the world, best able to increase the divine understanding of people?"

Li Xian replied, "Nothing can compare with books and records."

Tuoba Gui said, "How many books and records exist? Could we gather them all together?"

Li Xian replied, "Ever since books were first invented, so many of them have been written through the ages that by now, you would not be able to count them all. But if you approve of collecting them, why worry that we would not be able to gather them up?"

Tuoba Gui approved, and he ordered his officials in the commandaries and counties to gather together as many books and records as they could and send them all to Pingcheng.

〈魏主珪之崇文如此,而魏之儒風及平涼州之後始振,蓋代北以右武爲俗,雖其君尚文,未能回也。嗚呼!平涼之後,儒風雖振,而北人胡服,至孝文遷洛之時,未盡改也。用夏變夷之難如是夫!〉

(We see in this passage how highly Tuoba Gui honored learning and culture. Yet the cultural transformation of Northern Wei did not really begin until they had conquered Liangzhou and fully united the north, decades later. It must have been that at this time, the people of Dai and the north still prized military pursuits above all, and although their sovereign honored learning and culture, he could not transform the society just yet. Alas! And even after the conquest of the Liang states, although the culture of Northern Wei did begin to rise, the northerners still dressed themselves in barbarian clothes. The transformation was not really complete until the reign of Emperor Xiaowen, when he moved the capital to Luoyang. Such is the difficulty of using Xia (ethnic Han) ways to transform the barbarians!)


初,秦王登之弟廣帥衆三千依南燕王德,德以爲冠軍將軍,處之乞活堡。會熒惑守東井,或言秦當復興,廣乃自稱秦王,擊南燕北地王鍾,破之。是時,滑臺孤弱,土無十城,衆不過一萬,鍾旣敗,附德者多去德而附廣。德乃留魯陽王和守滑臺,自帥衆討廣,斬之。

15. Earlier, Fu Deng's younger brother Fu Guang had led three thousand soldiers to submit to Murong De, who appointed him as his Champion General and placed him at Fort Qihuo.

At this time, Mars was residing in the Eastern Well constellation, and some said this was an omen that Qin would rise again. So Fu Guang declared himself King of Qin, and he attacked Southern Yan's Prince of Beidi, Murong Zhong, and routed him. Since at this time, Huatai was isolated and weak, with no more than ten walled settlements under its command and no more than ten thousand soldiers, many of the people who had initially supported Murong De abandoned him to support Fu Guang after Murong Zhong's defeat. So Murong De left his Prince of Luyang, Murong He, to guard Huatai. He himself led his forces to campaign against Fu Guang, whom he beheaded.

〈乞活堡,晉惠帝時諸賊保聚之地。〉〈德徙滑臺,事見上卷上年。〉

(During the reign of Emperor Hui of Jin, several bandit groups had gathered together at this Fort Qituo ("Lifeseeker").

Murong De had moved his base from Ye to Huatai, as mentioned in Book 110, in the second year of Long'an (398.1).)


初、苻登既滅、登弟廣率所部二千來降,拜冠軍,處之乞活堡。至是復叛,稱秦王。德留撫軍魯陽王和守滑臺,德率衆攻廣,斬之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

Earlier, after Fu Deng had been vanquished, his younger brother Fu Guang had led two thousand soldiers to come submit to Murong De, who appointed him as his Champion General and placed him at Fort Qihuo.

At this time, Fu Guang rebelled, and declared himself King of Qin. Murong De left his General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Luyang, Murong He, to guard Huatai. He himself led his forces to attack Fu Guang, whom he beheaded.

德冠軍將軍苻廣叛於乞活壘,德留兄子和守滑臺,率眾攻廣,斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De's Champion General, Fu Guang, rebelled against him at Qihuo Rampart. Murong De left his nephew Murong He to guard Huaitai, while he led his forces to attack Fu Guang and behead him.

初,苻登既為姚興所滅,登弟廣率部落降於德,拜冠軍將軍,處之乞活堡。會熒惑守東井,或言秦當復興者,廣乃自稱秦王,敗德將慕容鐘。時德始都滑台,介於晉、魏之間,地無十城,眾不過數萬。及鐘喪師,反側之徒多歸於廣。德乃留慕容和守滑台,親率眾討廣,斬之。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Earlier, after Fu Deng had been vanquished by Yao Xing, his younger brother Fu Guang had led his forces to come submit to Murong De, who appointed him as his Champion General and placed him at Fort Qihuo.

At this time, Mars was residing in the Eastern Well constellation, and some said this was an omen that Former Qin would rise again. So Fu Guang declared himself King of Qin, and he attacked Murong De's general Murong Zhong. At this time, Murong De had only recently made Huatai his capital, and it was located between Jin and Northern Wei, with no more than ten walled settlements under its command and no more than a few dozen thousand soldiers. So when Murong Zhong was defeated, many of the people who had initially supported Murong De abandoned him to support Fu Guang. Murong De left Murong He to guard Huatai, while he himself led his forces to campaign against Fu Guang, whom he beheaded.


燕主寶之至黎陽也,魯陽王和長史李辯勸和納之,和不從。辯懼,故潛引晉軍至管城,欲因德出戰而作亂。旣而德不出,辯愈不自安。及德討苻廣,辯復勸和反,和不從,辯乃殺和,以滑臺降魏。魏行臺尚書和跋在鄴,帥輕騎自鄴赴之,旣至,辯悔之,閉門拒守。跋使尚書郎鄧暉說之,辯乃開門內跋,跋悉收德宮人府庫。德遣兵擊跋,跋逆擊,破之,又破德將桂陽王鎭,俘獲千餘人。陳、潁之民多附於魏。

16. When Murong Bao had come to Liyang earlier, during his planned flight to Murong De, Murong He's Chief Clerk, Li Bian, had urged Murong He to accept him, but Murong He had not done so. This made Li Bian afraid, and he had secretly invited the Jin army mentioned earlier that had marched to Guancheng, hoping to draw Murong De out to battle so that he could start a rebellion in his absence. But on that occasion, Murong De had not himself left the city, and this left Li Bian even more unsettled.

So now, after Murong De left to go campaign against Fu Guang, Li Bian urged Murong He to start a rebellion. And when Murong He refused, Li Bian killed him. He then offered up Huatai to Wei in surrender. Wei's Master of Writing of the Provisional Administration at Ye, He Ba, led light cavalry from Ye to ride to Huatai. But when they arrived, Li Bian regretted having contacted Wei, so he closed the gates of the city and would not let them enter. However, He Ba sent the Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Deng Hui, to persuade Li Bian, who then opened the gates and welcomed in the Wei army. He Ba captured all of Murong De's palace servants and his stores and supplies.

Murong De sent troops to attack He Ba, but he counter-attacked and routed them. He Ba then routed Murong De's general and Prince of Guiyang, Murong Zhen, capturing more than a thousand people. Many of the people of Chen and Yingchuan commandaries went over to Wei.

〈事見上卷上年。〉〈事亦見上卷上年。〉〈鄧暉,魏之鄴臺尚書郎也。〉〈陳、潁,陳郡、潁川也。〉

(Murong Bao's flight to Liyang is mentioned in Book 110, in the second year of Long'an (398.22).

The Jin army's attack on Guancheng is mentioned in the same book and year (398.46).

Deng Hui was a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing in Northern Wei's Provisional Administration at Ye.

This passage refers to "Chen and Ying"; it means the commandaries of Chen and Yingchuan.)


是月,氐人李辯叛慕容德,求援於鄴行臺尚書和跋,跋輕騎往應之,克滑臺,收德宮人府藏;又破德桂林王鎮及郎吏將士千餘人。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this month, one of the Di people, Li Bian, betrayed Murong De and asked for aid from the chief of affairs of the Provisional Administration at Ye, He Ba. He Ba led light cavalry to come assist Li Bian, and he took Huatai, where he captured Murong De's palace servants and his secret staff items. He also routed Murong De's Prince of Guiyang, Murong Zhen, capturing more than a thousand of his cadets, officials, generals, and officers.

和長史季辨殺和,以滑臺降魏。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

Murong He's Chief Clerk, Ji Bian, killed Murong He and offered up Huatai to Northern Wei in surrender.

而和長史李辯殺和,以城來降。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong He's Chief Clerk, Li Bian, killed him and surrendered Huatai to Northern Wei.

初,寶之至黎陽也,和長史李辯勸和納之,和不從。辯懼謀泄,乃引晉軍至管城,冀德親率師,於後作亂。會德不出,愈不自安。及德此行也,辯又勸和反,和不從。辯怒,殺和,以滑台降于魏。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

When Murong Bao had come to Liyang earlier, during his planned flight to Murong De, Murong He's Chief Clerk, Li Bian, had urged Murong He to accept him, but Murong He had not done so. Li Bian had then been afraid that his proposal would leak, so he had secretly invited the Jin army that had marched to Guancheng, hoping to draw Murong De out to battle so that he could start a rebellion in his absence. But on that occasion, Murong De had not himself left the city, and this left Li Bian even more unsettled.

So now, after Murong De left to go campaign against Fu Guang, Li Bian again urged Murong He to start a rebellion. And when Murong He refused, in anger, Li Bian killed him. He then offered up Huatai to Northern Wei in surrender.


南燕右衞將軍慕容雲斬李辯,帥將士家屬二萬餘口出滑臺赴德。德欲攻滑臺,韓範曰:「嚮也魏爲客,吾爲主人;今也吾爲客,魏爲主人。人心危懼,不可復戰,不如先據一方,自立基本,乃圖進取。」張華曰:「彭城,楚之舊都,可攻而據之。」北地王鍾等皆勸德攻滑臺。尚書潘聰曰:「滑臺四通八達之地,北有魏,南有晉,西有秦,居之未嘗一日安也。彭城土曠人稀,平夷無嶮,且晉之舊鎭,未易可取。又密邇江、淮,夏秋多水。乘舟而戰者,吳之所長,我之所短也。青州沃野二千里,精兵十餘萬,左有負海之饒,右有山河之固,廣固城曹嶷所築,地形阻峻,足爲帝王之都。三齊英傑,思得明主以立功於世久矣。辟閭渾昔爲燕臣,今宜遣辯士馳說於前,大兵繼踵於後,若其不服,取之如拾芥耳。旣得其地,然後閉關養銳,伺隙而動,此乃陛下之關中、河內也。」德猶豫未決。沙門竺朗素善占候,德使牙門蘇撫問之,朗曰:「敬覽三策,潘尚書之議,興邦之言也。且今歲之初,彗星起奎、婁,掃虛、危;彗者,除舊布新之象,奎、婁爲魯,虛、危爲齊。宜先取兗州,巡撫琅邪,至秋乃北徇齊地,此天道也。」撫又密問以年世,朗以《周易》筮之曰:「燕衰庚戌,年則一紀,世則及子。」撫還報德,德乃引師而南,兗州北鄙諸郡縣皆降之。德置守宰以撫之,禁軍士無得虜掠。百姓大悅,牛酒屬路。

17. Southern Yan's Guard General of the Right, Murong Yun, beheaded Li Bian and led more than twenty thousand people from the households and dependents of the soldiers from Huatai to march to Murong De's position.

Murong De wished to attack Huatai, but Han Fan said to him, "Before, the situation was that the Wei army were the guests and we were the hosts. But now, we have become the guests while they are the hosts. The people's hearts are trembling in fear, and they will not fight another battle. It would be better for us to first occupy somewhere that we can use as a foundation, then consider advancing to attack again."

Zhang Hua offered, "Pengcheng was the old capital of the state of Chu. You might attack that place and occupy it."

Murong Zhong and others all urged Murong De to attack Huatai.

One of the Masters of Writing, Pan Cong, said, "Huatai occupies a location that is a crossroads of routes and a confluence of rivers; Wei is to the north, Jin is to the south, and Qin is to the west. If you occupied it, you would never know a single day of peace. As for Pengcheng, it sits on broad land and has few people nearby, and the terrain is flat and without natural defenses. Besides, it used to be one of Jin's garrison cities. You could not easily take it yet. It also lies close to the Yangzi and the Huai River, both of which rise during the summer and winter. It is the people of the Wu region that possess the advantage when it comes to naval warfare, while that is one of our shortcomings.

“Why not go to Qingzhou? After all, it has two thousand li of fertile fields and more than a hundred thousand skilled soldiers. On the one hand, you may enjoy the bounty of the sea to provide you with resources; on the other, you may rely upon the mountains and rivers to protect you. And there is the city of Guanggu, which Cao Yi built; it occupies rough terrain, and it is suited to be the capital of a king or emperor. The heroes and talents of the Three Qi region are seeking a wise ruler to serve under, so that they may accomplish lasting achievements.

“The local leader there, Pilü Hun, was once a subject of Yan. You might send some fellows skilled at rhetoric to go on ahead and persuade him to welcome you, while you follow behind with the main army. Even if he does not submit, it would be as easy to defeat him as plucking something off the ground. Then once you have secured Qingzhou, you can close the passes and nurture your strength, while watching for disputes that you can take advantage of. By doing so, Your Majesty might obtain Guanzhong and Henei."

Murong De was still hesitant and could not decide what to do. The Buddhist sramana monk Zhu Lang had long been skilled at divination. So Murong De sent his General of the Serrated Gate, Su Fu, to ask Zhu Lang about what ought to be done.

Zhu Lang replied, "When I consider the three proposals, I feel that Master Pan's advice is what will ensure the rise of the state. Furthermore, this year has only just begun, yet I have seen shooting stars rise in the Kui and Lou constellations and pass through the Xu and Wei constellations. These shooting stars are an omen representing out with the old and in with the new, while the Kui and Lou constellations represent the Lu region and the Xu and Wei constellations represent the Qi region. So you should first occupy Yanzhou and patrol and comfort the region of Langye. Then once autumn comes, you should pass north into the Qi region. This is the will of Heaven."

Su Fu also secretly asked Zhu Lang to perform a divination based on the years and the generations. Zhu Lang performed a milfoil divination based on the Book of Changes, then reported, "Yan's doom shall be in a Gengxu year; it will be within one generation, during the reign of the son."

Su Fu returned to report Zhu Lang's advice to Murong De. Murong De then led his forces south, and all the commandaries and counties in the north of Yanzhou surrendered to him. Murong De appointed local officials to soothe the people, and he forbade his soldiers from plundering and pillaging. The common people were delighted with him, and they welcomed him along the road with cattle and wine.

〈微韓範之言,德若進攻滑臺,必至喪敗,固不待慕容超之時也。〉〈項羽都彭城,故云然。〉〈滑臺當河津之要,魏自北渡河而南向晉,從清水入河,秦沿渭順河而下,皆湊於滑臺。又其城旁無山陵可依,車騎、舟師皆可以騁,故謂之四通八達之地。〉〈孝武太元十九年,辟閭渾爲慕容農所破,遂臣於燕。〉〈兼弱攻昧,取亂侮亡,自三代之時仲虺已有是言,夫子定《書》,弗之删也。後人泥古,專言王者之師,以仁義行之,若宋襄公可以爲鑒矣。〉〈用荀彧說魏武之言。〉〈竺,朗之俗姓。〉〈《晉‧天文志》:奎、婁、胃,魯、徐州。虛、危,齊、青州。〉〈其後燕亡於義熙六年,歲在上章閹茂。上章,庚也;閹茂,戌也。〉

(Judging by Han Fan's words, if Murong De had tried to attack Huatai at this moment, that would have been the end of Southern Yan, and they would not have had to wait until Murong Chao's reign.

When Xiang Yu controlled Chu, he had his capital at Pengcheng; thus Zhang Hua's remark.

Huatai occupied an important crossing point on the Yellow River. Northern Wei could reach it by crossing the river and marching south towards Jin, or following the Qing River down into the Yellow River. And Later Qin could follow the Wei River downstream to the Yellow River, so both of them could converge on Huatai. Beyond that, Huatai itself had no hills or mounds around the city to use for defense, and both cavalry and chariots and boats and ships could easily access the city. This was why Pan Cong describes it as being "a crossroads of routes and a confluence of rivers".

Pilü Hun had earlier been routed by Murong Nong, after which he became a subject of Later Yan, as mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's nineteenth year of Taiyuan (394.20).

Resorting to brute force is an ancient tradition. Even the Book of Documents from the Three Dynasties era (Xia, Shang, Zhou) records Zhonghui as saying, "Absorb the weak, and punish the wilfully blind; take their states from the disorderly, and deal summarily with those going to ruin." Nor did those who compiled the text choose to leave this comment out. It is only those who came afterwards who have distorted the words of the ancients, claiming that rulers must act justly and benevolently. They should reflect on the fate of Duke Xiang of Song.

Pan Cong's advice mirrors the advice that Xun Yu gave to Cao Cao (Book 61, 195.N in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Zhu was the monk Lang's common surname.

The Astrological Records in the Book of Jin states, "The Kui, Lou, and Wei constellations represent the Lu region and Xuzhou", and, "The Xu and Wei constellations represent the Qi region and Qingzou".

Southern Yan met its end in the sixth year of Yixi (410), which was a Shangzhang Yanmao year. Shangzhang meant the Geng stem for counting years in the sixty-year cycle; Yanmao meant the Xu stem. That is, the Gengxu year (410).)


德曰:「苻廣雖平,撫軍失據,進有強敵,退無所託,計將安出。」尚書潘聰曰:「滑臺四通八達,非帝王之居,青齊沃壤,號曰東秦。地方二千里,戶餘十萬,四塞之固,可謂用武之國。」德猶預未決,於是遣牙門蘇撫問沙門朗公,報曰:「山棲絕俗之士,不應預聞朝議,但有待之累,非有託無以立。陛下今來,即朗之檀越。敬覽潘尚書之議,可謂興邦之術矣。」撫又問以年世,朗以《周易》筮之曰:「燕衰庚戌。」撫曰:「幾何?」曰:「年則一紀世則及子。」撫曰:「何其促乎?」朗曰:「卦兆然也,豈關人哉。」撫秘不敢言。德大悅。三月,德引師而南。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De said, "Although I have dealt with Fu Guang, now the General Who Nurtures The Army has lost my position. If I advance, I will be facing a powerful enemy. But if I withdraw, there is nowhere for me to turn. How can I plan for security?"

One of his Masters of Writing, Pan Cong, replied, "Huatai occupies a location that is a crossroads of routes and a confluence of rivers; it is not suited to be the residence of a king or emperor. But the regions of Qing and Qi have bountiful earth, and it is for that reason that it is called the Eastern Qin. The land is two thousand li, and the population is more than a hundred thousand households. It has stout natural defenses on every side. It is a state suited for military purposes."

But Murong De still could not decide. He sent his General of the Serrated Gate, Su Fu, to ask the Buddhist sramana monk Lord Lang about what ought to be done. Lord Lang replied, "I am just a mountain recluse who takes no part in court discussions. But based on my experience, one cannot rise unless one has a foundation to rely upon. Since Your Majesty has come to me, I shall do what I can. When I respectfully consider Master Pan's proposal, I feel it can be called suited to bringing about the rise of a state."

Su Fu also asked Lord Lang to perform a divination based on the years and the generations. Lord Lang performed a milfoil divination based on the Book of Changes, then reported, "Yan's doom shall be in a Gengxu year."

Su Fu said, "How soon will this Gengxu year be?"

Lord Lang replied, "Within one generation, during the reign of the son."

Su Fu said, "How can it be so soon as that?"

But Lord Lang replied, "Can mortals stop what the omens have declared?"

Su Fu kept this prediction to himself and did not dare to mention it.

Murong De was overjoyed with Lord Lang's analysis. In the third month, he led his troops south.

德無所據,乃謀於眾。其給事黃門侍郎張華勸德取彭城而據之。其尚書潘聰曰:「青齊沃壤,號曰『東秦』。土方二千里,戶餘十萬,四塞之固,負海之饒,可謂用武之國。宜攻取據之,以為關中、河內也。」德從之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Now that he had lost his position, Murong De took council with his ministers on what to do. His Gentleman-Attendant of Affairs of the Yellow Gate, Zhang Hua, urged him to take Pengcheng and occupy it.

But one of his Masters of Writing, Pan Cong, advised him, "The regions of Qing and Qi have bountiful earth, and it is for that reason that it is called the Eastern Qin. The land is two thousand li, and the population is more than a hundred thousand households. It has stout natural defenses on every side, and it enjoys the bounty of the seacoast. It is a state suited for military purposes. You should attack, obtain, and occupy it. Then you may claim Guanzhong and Henei."

Murong De believed him.

時將士家悉在城內,德將攻之,韓范言於德曰:「魏師已入城,據國成資,客主之勢,翻然復異,人情既危,不可以戰。宜先據一方,為關中之基,然後畜力而圖之,計之上也。」德乃止。德右衛將軍慕容雲斬李辯,率將士家累二萬餘人而出,三軍慶悅。德謀於眾曰:「苻廣雖平,而撫軍失據,進有強敵,退無所托,計將安出?」張華進曰:「彭城阻帶山川,楚之舊都,地險人殷,可攻而據之,以為基本。」慕容鐘、慕輿護、封逞、韓訁卓等固勸攻滑台,潘聰曰:「滑台四通八達,非帝王之居。且北通大魏,西接強秦,此二國者,未可以高枕而待之。彭城土曠人稀,地平無險,晉之歸鎮,必距王師。又密邇江、淮,水路通浚,秋夏霖潦,千里為湖。且水戰國之所短,吳之所長,今雖克之,非久安之計也。青、齊沃壤,號曰東秦,土方二千,戶餘十萬,四塞之固,負海之饒,可謂用武之國。三齊英傑,蓄志以待,孰不思得明主以立尺寸之功!廣固者,曹嶷之所營,山川阻峻,足為帝王之都。宜遣辯士馳說于前,大兵繼進於後,避閭渾昔負國恩,必翻然向化。如其守迷不順,大軍臨之,自然瓦解。既據之後,閉關養銳,伺隙而動,此亦二漢之有關中、河內也。」德猶豫未決。沙門郎公素知占候,德因訪其所適。郎曰:「敬覽三策,潘尚書之議可謂興邦之術矣。今歲初,長星起于奎婁,遂掃虛危,而虛危,齊之分野,除舊佈新之象。宜先定舊魯,巡撫琅邪,待秋風戒節,然後北圍臨齊,天之道也。」德大悅,引師而南,兗州北鄙諸縣悉降,置守宰以撫之。存問高年,軍無私掠,百姓安之,牛酒屬路。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

At that time, since the families of Murong De's generals and soldiers were all inside of Huatai, Murong De was about to attack it. But Han Fan told him, "Since the Wei army has already entered the city and captured all the resources of our state, the situation of guest and host has been reversed. The people's hearts are trembling in fear, and they will not fight another battle. It would be better for us to first occupy somewhere that we can use, like Guanzhong, as a foundation. Afterwards, we can muster our strength and conquer the enemy. That would be the best plan." So Murong De stopped.

Murong De's General of the Right, Murong Yun, beheaded Li Bian and led more than twenty thousand people from the households and dependents of the soldiers from Huatai to march to Murong De's position. The three armies were overjoyed.

Murong De said to his generals, "Although I have dealt with Fu Guang, now the General Who Nurtures The Army (Murong He) has lost my position. If I advance, I will be facing a powerful enemy. But if I withdraw, there is nowhere for me to turn. How can I plan for security?"

Zhang Hua stepped forward and said, "Pengcheng is flanked by mountains and rivers, and it was the old capital of the state of Chu. It has sturdy natural defenses and an abundant population. You might attack that place and occupy it, to serve as your foundation."

But Murong Zhong, Muyu Hu, Feng Cheng, Han (given name is 訁+ 卓, pronunciation unknown), and others implored Murong De to attack Huatai.

Then Pan Cong said, "Huatai occupies a location that is a crossroads of routes and a confluence of rivers; it is not a place fit for a king or emperor to reside. Furthermore, it is adjacent to the great Wei to the north and the mighty Qin to the west; when it comes to those two states, you are not yet capable of sitting peacefully on your pillow and awaiting them. As for Pengcheng, it sits on broad land and has few people nearby, and the terrain is flat and without natural defenses. Besides, it used to be one of Jin's garrison cities, and they would remain close to your royal army. It also lies close to the Yangzi and the Huai River; there are already water routes present to that city, and during the drenching storms of summer and autumn, the land all around turns into lakes. It is the people of the Wu region that possess the advantage when it comes to naval warfare, while that is one of our shortcomings. So even if you took Pengcheng, you could never be secure in holding it.

“Why not go to Qingzhou? After all, the regions of Qing and Qi have fertile earth, and it is for that reason that it is called the 'Eastern Qin'. It has two thousand li of land and more than a hundred thousand households. You would have the mountains and rivers to protect you, and you would have the bounty of the seacoast to sustain you. It is a state which would be suited to supporting military endeavors. The heroes and talents of the Three Qi regions have been nursing their ambitions while awaiting an opportunity to achieve them. Which of them does not seek a wise ruler to serve under, so that they may accomplish some slight measure of achievement? And there is the city of Guanggu, which Cao Yi built; it occupies rough terrain with mountains and rivers, and it is suited to be the capital of a king or emperor.

“You might send some fellows skilled at rhetoric to go on ahead and persuade the locals to welcome you, while you follow behind with the main army. The local leader there, Pilü Hun, once enjoyed the favor of our state, and he will surely return to his former allegiance. Even if he sticks to his obstinance and does not submit, once your great army draws near, he will surely fall to pieces on his own. Then once you have secured Qingzhou, you can close the passes and nurture your strength, while watching for disputes that you can take advantage of. This was the same strategy that the two founders of the Han dynasty (Liu Bang and Emperor Guangwu) used when they first established their bases in Guanzhong and Henei and then went on to unite the realm."

But Murong De was still uncertain. The Buddhist sramana monk, Lord Lang, had long had a reputation as a skilled diviner. So Murong De visited him to find out what plan would be best. Lord Lang told him, "When I consider the three plans, I feel that Master Pan's proposal is the one that can be called suited to bringing about the rise of a state. Furthermore, this year has only just begun, yet I have seen shooting stars rise in the Kui and Lou constellations and sweep through the Xu and Wei constellations. These shooting stars are an omen representing out with the old and in with the new, while the Xu and Wei constellations represent the Qi region. So you should first settle the old Lu region and patrol and comfort the region of Langye. Then wait for the autumn winds while preparing your army, and afterwards you may pass north into the Qi region. This is the will of Heaven."

Murong De was overjoyed. He led his army south, where all the counties in the north of Yanzhou surrendered to him. Murong De appointed local officials to soothe the people. He asked after the old, and his army did not engage in plunder. The common people were satisfied with him, and they welcomed him along the road with cattle and wine.


丙子,魏主珪遣建義將軍庾眞、越騎校尉奚斤擊庫狄、宥連、侯莫陳三部,皆破之,追奔至大峨谷,置戍而還。

18. On the day Bingzi (May 11th), Tuoba Gui sent his General Who Establishes Righteousness, Yu Zhen, and his Colonel of Gathered Cavalry, Xi Jin, to attack the Kudi, Youlian, and Houmochen clans. They routed the clans, pursuing them as far as Da'e Valley, then established local camps and returned.

〈其後庫狄、侯莫陳二姓皆貴顯,而宥連之種微矣。〉

(The Kudi and Houmochen clans later become honored and distinguished ones. However, the Youlian clan declined.)


丙子,遣建義將軍庾真、越騎校尉奚斤討厙狄部帥葉亦干、宥連部帥竇羽泥於太渾川,破之,厙狄懃支子沓亦干率其部落內附。真等進破侯莫陳部,獲馬牛羊十餘萬頭,追殄遺迸,入大峨谷。中山太守仇儒亡匿趙郡,推羣盜趙准為主,號使持節、征西大將軍、冀青二州牧、鉅鹿公,仇儒為准長史,聚黨扇惑。詔中領軍長孫肥討平之。夏四月,前清河太守傅世聚黨千餘家,自號撫軍將軍。五月癸亥,征虜將軍庾岳討破之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Bingzi (May 11th), Tuoba Gui sent his General Who Establishes Righteousness, Yu Zhen, and his Colonel of Gathered Cavalry, Xi Jin, to campaign against the Shedi leader Yeyigan and the Youlian leader Douyuni at Taihunchuan. They routed these foes, and the son of the Shedi leader Qinzhi, Dayigan, led his forces and tribes to come and join them. Yu Zhen and the others then advanced and routed the Houmochen clan; they captured more than a hundred thousand horses, cattle, and sheep, and they pursued and eliminated the remaining elements, entering into Da'e Valley.

Northern Wei's Administrator of Zhongshan, Chou Ru, abandoned his post and took refuge in Zhao commandary, where he acclaimed the bandit leader Zhao Zhun as his superior. He named Zhao Zhun as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General Who Conquers The West, Governor of Jizhou and Qingzhou, and Duke of Julu. Chou Ru himself served as Zhao Zhun's Chief Clerk, and he gathered together partisans and misled people. Tuoba Gui ordered the General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Zhangsun Fei, to campaign against these rebels and pacify them.

In summer, the fourth month, the former Administrator of Qinghe, Fu Shi, gathered together more than a hundred families of partisans and declared himself General Who Nurtures The Army.

In the fifth month, on the day Guihai (June 27th), the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Yu Yue, campaigned against Fu Shi and routed him.


己卯,追尊帝所生母陳夫人爲德皇太后。

19. On the day Jimao (May 14th), Emperor An's birth mother Lady Chen was posthumously honored as Empress Dowager De.

三月己卯,追尊所生陳夫人爲德皇太后。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third month, on the day Jimao (May 14th), Emperor An's birth mother Lady Chen was posthumously honored as Empress Dowager De.


夏,四月,鮮卑疊掘河內帥戶五千降于西秦。西秦王乾歸以河內爲疊掘都統,以宗女妻之。

20. In summer, the fourth month, a leader of the Diejue branch of the Xianbei, Henei, led five thousand households to surrender to Western Qin. Qifu Gangui appointed Henei as Overseer of the Diejue, and he married a woman of his clan to him.

〈疊掘亦鮮卑一種也;河內其名。掘,其月翻。〉

(The Diejue were another branch of the Xianbei. Henei was this man's given name. The second character of Diejue, 掘, is pronounced "que (q-ue)".)


鮮卑疊掘河內率屍五千,自魏降乾歸。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

A leader of the Diejue branch of the Xianbei, Henei, led five thousand households from Northern Wei to surrender to Qifu Gangui.


甲午,燕大赦。

21. On the day Jiawu (May 29th), a general amnesty was declared in Yan.

會稽王道子有疾,且無日不醉。世子元顯知朝望去之,乃諷朝廷解道子司徒、揚州刺史。乙未,以元顯爲揚州刺史。道子醒而後知之,大怒,無如之何。元顯以廬江太守會稽張法順爲謀主,多引樹親黨,朝貴皆畏事之。

22. Sima Daozi developed an illness; moreover, there was not one day that he did not spend drinking. His heir, Sima Yuanxian, knew that Sima Daozi had lost the respect of the Jin court. So he arranged for the court to remove Sima Daozi from his positions as Minister Over The Masses and Inspector of Yangzhou. On the day Yiwei (May 30th), Sima Yuanxian was appointed as the new Inspector of Yangzhou. Sima Daozi was drunk at the time, so he only found out later. He was furious, but there was nothing he could do.

Sima Yuanxian appointed the Administrator of Lujiang, Zhang Fashun of Kuaiji commandary, as his chief advisor. He also brought in more of his associates and partisans. The court ministers all feared what would happen next.

〈爲元顯、張法順俱被誅張本。〉

(This was why Sima Yuanxian and Zhang Fashun were later executed.)


夏四月乙未,加尚書令王珣衛將軍,以會稽王世子元顯爲揚州刺史。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yiwei (May 30th), the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wang Xun, was appointed as Guard General, and the Crown Prince of Kuaiji, Sima Yuanxian, was appointed as Inspector of Yangzhou.


燕散騎常侍餘超、左將軍高和等坐謀反,誅。

23. Yan's Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Yu Chao, their General of the Left, Gao He, and others were charged with plotting rebellion and were executed.

涼太子紹、太原公纂將兵伐北涼,北涼王業求救於武威王烏孤,烏孤遣驃騎大將軍利鹿孤及楊軌救之。業將戰,沮渠蒙遜諫曰:「楊軌恃鮮卑之強,有窺窬之志,紹、纂深入,置兵死地,不可敵也。今不戰則有泰山之安,戰則有累卵之危。」業從之,按兵不戰。紹、纂引兵歸。

24. Liang's Crown Prince, Lü Shao, and their Duke of Taiyuan, Lü Zuan, led troops to campaign against Northern Liang. Duan Ye asked for aid from Tufa Wugu, so Tufa Wugu sent his Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Tufa Lilugu, and Yang Gui to assist him.

Duan Ye was about to march out to battle, but Juqu Mengxun remonstrated with him, saying, "Yang Gui is relying upon the power of his Xianbei allies to gratify his own ambitions, while Lü Shao and Lü Zuan have marched deep into our territory and placed their troops on deadly ground. You would not be a match for them. If you refuse battle, then you shall be as secure here as Mount Tai. But if you do offer battle, you will be in as much danger as a stack of eggs."

So Duan Ye heeded him, and he held back his troops and did not march out to battle. Lü Shao and Lü Zuan led their forces back home.

〈河西四郡,張掖在北,故號北涼。〉〈禿髮,本鮮卑種也。〉

(The four commandaries of the Hexi region were north of Zhangye, so historians called Duan Ye's state Northern Liang.

The Tufa clan were Xianbei.)


段業為呂纂所侵,遣利鹿孤救之。纂懼,燒氐池、張掖穀麥而還。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Duan Ye was attacked by Lü Zuan. Tufa Wugu sent Tufa Lilugu to reinforce him. Lü Zuan was afraid, so he burned the grain at Dichi and Zhangye before turning back.

呂光遣其二子紹、纂伐業,業請救于禿髮烏孤,烏孤遣其弟鹿孤及楊軌救業。紹以業等軍盛,欲從三門關挾山而東。纂曰:「挾山示弱,取敗之道,不如結陣衛之,彼必憚我而不戰也。」紹乃引軍而南。業將擊之,蒙遜諫曰:「楊軌恃虜騎之強,有窺覦之志。紹、纂兵在死地,必決戰求生。不戰則有太山之安,戰則有累卵之危。」業曰:「卿言是也。」乃按兵不戰。紹亦難之,各引兵歸。(Book of Jin 129, Biography of Juqu Mengxun)

Lü Guang sent his sons Lü Shao and Lü Zuan to campaign against Duan Ye. Duan Ye asked for aid from Tufa Wugu, so Tufa Wugu sent his younger brother Tufa Lilugu and Yang Gui to assist him.

Lü Shao felt that since Duan Ye and his allies now outnumbered his own forces, he should fall back to the east and occupy the hills at Sanmen Pass. But Lü Zuan told him, "If we occupy the hills, that will display our weakness, and it will lead to our defeat. It would be better to form a tight formation and defend it. The enemy will surely dread us and refuse to fight." So Lü Shao led his army south instead.

Duan Ye was about to march out to attack him, but Juqu Mengxun remonstrated with him, saying, "Yang Gui is relying upon the power of his barbarian cavalry to look for an opportunity to gratify his own ambitions, while Lü Shao and Lü Zuan have placed their troops on deadly ground and are surely seeking a decisive battle to extricate themselves from their position. If you refuse battle, then you shall be as secure here as Mount Tai. But if you do offer battle, you will be in as much danger as a stack of eggs."

Duan Ye replied, "It is as you say." So he held back his troops and did not march out to battle. Lü Shao also avoided fighting, and all sides eventually led their troops away.


六月,烏孤以利鹿孤爲涼州牧,鎭西平,召車騎大將軍傉檀入錄府國事。

25. In the sixth month, Tufa Wugu appointed Tufa Lilugu as Governor of Liangzhou and stationed him at Xiping. He summoned his Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Tufa Nutan, to the capital to assist with the affairs of state.

以利鹿孤為涼州牧,鎮西平,追傉檀入錄府國事。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu appointed Tufa Lilugu as Governor of Liangzhou and stationed him at Xiping. He summoned Tufa Nutan to the capital to assist with the affairs of state.


會稽世子元顯自以少年,不欲頓居重任;戊子,以琅邪王德文爲司徒。

26. Sima Yuanxian felt that he was too young to hold the chief title over the court. So on the day Wuzi (July 22nd), he appointed the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, as Minister Over The Masses.

六月戊子,以琅邪王德文爲司徒。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, on the day Wuzi (July 22nd), the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.


魏前河間太守盧溥帥其部曲數千家就食漁陽,遂據有數郡。秋,七月,己未,燕主盛遣使拜溥幽州刺史。

27. Wei's former Administrator of Hejian, Lu Pu of Fanyang commandary, led several thousand families of his forces to settle at Yuyang, where he then occupied several commandaries. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiwei (August 22nd), Murong Sheng sent envoys to appointed Lu Pu as Yan's Inspector of Youzhou.

〈【章:十二行本「守」下有「范陽」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈爲下魏黜張袞、襲禽盧溥張本。〉

(Some versions identify Lu Pu as being "of Fanyang commandary".

This was why Northern Wei later demoted Zhang Gun, and surprise attacked and captured Lu Pu.)


范陽人盧溥,聚眾海濱,稱使持節、征北大將軍、幽州刺史。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

A native of Fanyang commandary, Lu Pu, gathered an army on the seacoast. He declared himself Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Grand General Who Conquers The North, and Inspector of Youzhou.


辛酉,燕主盛下詔曰:「法例律,公侯有罪,得以金帛贖,此不足以懲惡而利於王府,甚無謂也。自今皆令立功以自贖,勿復輸金帛。」

28. On the day Xinyou (August 24th), Murong Sheng issued a decree stating, "It was once the custom that nobles who committed a crime could redeem themselves by paying gold and silks. But such a thing was insufficient either to punish the guilty or to benefit the royal administration, and I shall hear no further of it. From now on, redemption may only come through establishing achievements, and there shall be no more exchanging of gold and silks."

〈戰國時,魏文侯師李悝撰次諸國法,著《法經》。以爲王者之政,莫急盜賊,盜賊須劾捕,故著《網》、《捕》二篇。其輕狡、越城、博戲、假借、不廉、淫侈、踰制,以爲《雜律》一篇。又以其律具其加減。故所著六篇,皆罪名之制也。漢蕭何條益事律《興》、《廏》、《戶》三篇,合爲九篇。魏陳羣等采漢律,制《新律》十八篇。集罪例爲《刑名》,冠於律首。《盜律》有劫略、恐猲、和賣買人,科有持質,皆非盜事,分以爲《劫略律》。《賊律》有欺謾、詐僞、踰封、矯制,《囚律》有詐僞、生死,《令丙》有詐自復免,事類衆多,分爲《詐律》。《賊律》有賊伐樹木,殺傷人畜產及諸亡印,《金布律》有毀傷、亡失縣官財物,分爲《毀亡律》。《囚律》有告劾、傳覆,《廏律》有告反、逮受,科有登聞道辭,分爲《告劾律》。《囚律》有繫囚、鞠獄、斷獄之法,《興律》有上獄之事,科有考事、報讞,宜別爲篇,分爲《繫訊斷獄律》。《盜律》有受所監、受財枉法,《雜律》有假借、不廉,《令乙》有呵人受錢,科有使者驗賂,其事相類,分爲《請賕律》。《盜律》有勃辱、強賊,《興律》有擅興傜役,《具律》有出賣,科有擅作脩舍事,分爲《興擅律》。《興律》有乏傜、稽留,《賊律》有儲峙不辦,《廏律》有乏軍、乏興及舊典有奉法不謹、不承用詔書,漢氏施行,不宜復以爲法,別爲之《留律》。秦世舊有廏置、乘傳、副車、食廚,後漢但設騎置,無車馬,而律猶著其文,則爲虛設,故除《廏律》,取其可用合科者爲《郵驛令》。《告劾律》上言變事、令以驚事告急與《興律》烽燧及科令者,以爲《驚事律》。《盜律》有還贓畀主,《金布律》有罰贖入責、以呈黃金爲價,科有平庸坐贓事,以爲《償贓律》。律之初制,無免坐之文,張湯、趙禹始作監臨部主見知故縱之例,其見知而故不舉劾,以贖論;其不見、不知者不坐,科條免坐繁多,宜總爲免例,以省科文,故更定以爲《免坐律》。晉初賈充定法,就漢九章增十一篇,改舊律爲刑名法例,《辨囚律》爲告劾、繫訊、斷獄,分《盜律》爲請賕、詐僞、水火、毀亡,因事類爲衞禁、違制,撰周官爲《諸侯律》,合二十篇。孔穎達曰:古之贖罪皆用銅,漢始改用黃金,但少其斤兩,令與金相敵。漢及後魏,贖罪皆用黃金,後魏以金難得,合金一兩,收絹十匹。今律乃復依古贖銅。〉

(During the Warring States era, Marquis Wen of Wei's instructor Li Kui compiled an assortment of the state's laws into his work the Canon of Laws. (etc.))


西秦丞相南川宣公出連乞都卒。

29. The Prime Minister of Western Qin, Chulian Qidu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Xuan ("the Understanding") of Nanchuan.

〈南川,地名。宣,諡也。〉

(Nanchuan was the name of a place. Xuan was the posthumous title.)


秦齊公崇、鎭東將軍楊佛嵩寇洛陽,河南太守隴西辛恭靖嬰城固守。雍州刺史楊佺期遣使求救於魏常山王遵,魏主珪以散騎侍郎西河張濟爲遵從事中郎以報之。佺期問於濟曰:「魏之伐中山,戎士幾何?」濟曰:「四十餘萬。」佺期曰:「以魏之強,小羌不足滅也。且晉之與魏,本爲一家,今旣結好,義無所隱。此間兵弱糧寡,洛陽之救,恃魏而已。若其保全,必有厚報;若其不守,與其使羌得之,不若使魏得之。」濟還報。八月,珪遣太尉穆崇將六萬騎往救之。

30. Qin's Duke of Qi, Yao Chong, and their General Who Guards The East, Yang Fusong, invaded the Luoyang region. Jin's Administrator of Henan, Xin Gongjing of Longxi commandary, held fast to the city to defend against them. The Inspector of Yongzhou, Yang Quanqi, sent envoys to ask for assistance from Tuoba Zun. Tuoba Gui appointed his Cavalier Gentleman-Attendant, Zhang Ji of Xihe commandary, as Tuoba Zun's Gentleman-Attendant Officer and sent him to respond to Jin.

Yang Quanqi asked Zhang Ji, "When Wei campaigned against Zhongshan, how many soldiers did they have?"

Zhang Ji replied, "More than four hundred thousand."

Yang Quanqi said, "Considering Wei's strength, the puny Qiang could never conquer them. Furthermore, Jin and Wei were once on the same side and part of one family, and now that we are forming this friendship, it is proper that we keep nothing hidden from each other. To tell you the truth, we only have weak soldiers and scant supplies at this place. It is all up to Wei whether or not Luoyang shall fall. If this place can be defended, we would certainly repay you. But if it cannot be defended, then rather than let the Qiang take it, it would be better for Wei to take it."

Zhang Ji returned and reported to Tuoba Gui. In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui sent his Grand Commandant, Mu Chong, to lead sixty thousand cavalry to reinforce Luoyang.

〈事見一百八卷孝武太元二十一年。〉〈謂猗盧救劉琨時也。〉〈若楊佺期者,豈可使之扞禦封疆哉!〉

(Northern Wei's campaign against Later Yan is first mentioned in Book 108, in Emperor Xiaowu's twenty-first year of Taiyuan (396).

Yang Quanqi refers to the times when the Dai ruler Tuoba Yilü helped Jin's Inspector of Bingzhou, Liu Kun, against the enemies of the Jin dynasty.

If things were as Yang Quanqi suggested, then why was he sent to guard the border?)


秋七月,起天華殿。辛酉,大閱于鹿苑,饗賜各有差。陳郡、河南流民萬餘口內徙,遣使者存勞之。姚興遣眾圍洛陽,司馬德宗將辛恭靖請救。八月,遣太尉穆崇率騎六千往赴之。增啟京師十二門。作西武庫。除州郡民租賦之半。辛亥,詔禮官備撰眾儀,著于新令。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In autumn, the seventh month, Tuoba Gui began construction on the Tianhua Palace. On the day Xinyou (August 24th), he held a great hunt at the deer park, and he distributed awards as appropriate.

More than ten thousand refugees from Chen and Henan commandaries came to Northern Wei territory. Tuoba Gui sent agents to console and comfort them.

Yao Xing sent an army to besiege Luoyang. Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) general Xin Gongjing requested assistance from Northern Wei. In the eighth month, Tuoba Gui sent his Grand Commandant, Mu Chong, to lead sixty thousand cavalry to reinforce Luoyang.

Tuoba Gui increased the number of gates of the capital to twelve. He built the Western Arsenal. He cut the tax rate for the people of the provinces and commandaries in half. On the day Xinhai (October 13th), Tuoba Gui ordered his rites officials to prepare and select rites for the masses and establish new ordinances for them.

興遣將鎮東楊佛嵩攻陷洛陽。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent his General Who Guards The East, Yang Fusong, to attack and capture Luoyang.


燕遼西太守李朗在郡十年,威行境內,恐燕主盛疑之,累徵不赴。以其家在龍城,未敢顯叛,陰召魏兵,許以郡降魏;遣使馳詣龍城,廣張寇勢。盛曰:「此必詐也。」召使者詰問,果無事實。盛盡滅朗族;丁酉,遣輔國將軍李旱討之。

31. Yan's Administrator of Liaoxi, Li Lang, had been in charge of that commandary for ten years, and his power was felt throughout the region. He was afraid that Murong Sheng suspected him, and so he repeatedly ignored summons to come to the capital. Although he never dared openly rebel, since his family was at Longcheng, he did secretly summon Wei soldiers, offering to surrender his commandary to Wei. He then sent a courier to visit Longcheng, reporting that an invasion was at hand. But Murong Sheng mused, "This is certainly false." So he summoned the messenger and question him closely, and as expected, there was no substance to Li Lang's report. Murong Sheng exterminated Li Lang's clan, and on the day Dingyou (September 29th), he sent his General Who Upholds The State, Li Han, to campaign against Li Lang.

〈燕遼西郡治令支。〉

(Later Yan's version of Liaoxi commandary was governed from Lingzhi.)


慕容盛遼西太守李朗,舉郡內屬。西河胡帥護諾于、丁零帥翟同、蜀帥韓礱,並相率內附。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Murong Sheng's Administrator of Liaoxi, Li Lang, offered up his commandary to Northern Wei and offered to support them from within.

Several leaders led their forces to surrender to Northern Wei: the tribal leader Hunuoyu of Xihe commandary, the Dingling leader Zhai Tong, and the leader Han Long from the Shu region.

遼西太守李郎在郡十年,威制境內,盛疑之,累征不赴。以母在龍城,未敢顯叛,乃陰引魏軍,將為自安之計,因表請發兵以距寇。盛曰:「此必詐也。」召其使而詰之,果驗,盡滅其族,遣輔國將軍李旱率騎討之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng's Administrator of Liaoxi, Li Lang, had been in charge of that commandary for ten years, and his power was felt throughout the region. Murong Sheng suspected him, and he repeatedly ignored summons to come to the capital. Since his mother was at Longcheng, he never dared openly rebel. But he did secretly summon Northern Wei soldiers, so that he would have a way to secure himself. He then sent Murong Sheng a petition asking for permission to raise troops, so that he could oppose the Northern Wei invasion. But Murong Sheng mused, "This is certainly false." So he summoned Li Lang's messenger and question him closely, and as expected, there was no substance to Li Lang's report. Murong Sheng exterminated Li Lang's clan, and he sent his General Who Upholds The State, Li Han, to campaign against Li Lang.


初,魏奮武將軍張袞以才謀爲魏主珪所信重,委以腹心。珪問中州士人於袞,袞薦盧溥及崔逞,珪皆用之。

32. Up until this time, Wei's General Who Grasps Might, Zhang Gun, had been highly trusted and appreciated by Tuoba Gui because of his talents and strategies, and he was one of Tuoba Gui's close companions. Tuoba Gui was always asking Zhang Gun about people from the Central Provinces, and when Zhang Gun recommended Lu Pu and Cui Cheng, Tuoba Gui employed them both.

袞遇創業之始,以有才謨見任,率心奉上,不顧嫌疑。太祖曾問南州人於袞。袞與盧溥州里,數談薦之。又袞未嘗與崔逞相見,聞風稱美。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

Zhang Gun had been present from the beginning of Tuoba Gui's rise, and due to his skill at planning, he always found employment; he offered himself with devotion, nor was he inclined towards suspicion. Tuoba Gui was always asking him about the people of the southern provinces. Since Zhang Gun came from the same province as Lu Pu, he recommended him to Tuoba Gui several times. And since Zhang Gun had once met Cui Cheng, he commended him to Tuoba Gui for his good reputation.


珪圍中山久未下,軍食乏,問計於羣臣,逞爲御史中丞,對曰:「桑椹可以佐糧;飛鴞食椹而改音,詩人所稱也。」珪雖用其言,聽民以椹當租,然以逞爲侮慢,心銜之。秦人寇襄陽,雍州刺史郗恢以書求救於魏常山王遵曰:「賢兄虎步中原。」珪以恢無君臣之禮,命袞及逞爲復書,必貶其主。袞、逞謂帝爲貴主。珪怒曰:「命汝貶之而謂之『貴主』,何如『賢兄』也!」逞之降魏也,以天下方亂,恐無復遺種,使其妻張氏與四子留冀州,逞獨與幼子賾詣平城,所留妻子遂奔南燕。珪幷以是責逞,賜逞死。盧溥受燕爵命,侵掠魏郡縣,殺魏幽州刺史封沓干。珪謂袞所舉皆非其人,黜袞爲尚書令史。袞乃闔門不通人事,惟手校經籍,歲餘而終。

33. During the time when Tuoba Gui had been besieging Zhongshan, there was a point when the city had still not submitted after a long time, and the Wei army was hungry and tired. Tuoba Gui had asked his advisors for advice. At that time, Cui Cheng was the Middle Assistant of the Imperial Secretariat. He had replied, "We might forage the fruits of the mulberry trees to feed the army. After all, the poets praised the owls who 'ate of the mulberry fruits and regaled us with fine notes'." Although at that time, Tuoba Gui had followed Cui Cheng's advice, he later heard that the common people used the fruits of the mulberry trees to pay their taxes, and he also felt that Cui Cheng had been slighting him by comparing him to an owl. So his heart was hardened against Cui Cheng.

On another occasion, when the soldiers of Qin invaded the Xiangyang region, Jin's Inspector of Yongzhou, Chi Hui, wrote a letter to Tuoba Zun asking for reinforcements. In the letter, Chi Hui identified Tuoba Gui as "Worthy Elder Brother who prowls like a tiger across the Central Plains". Tuoba Gui felt that Chi Hui had not properly addressed him according to the acceptable standards between a sovereign and his minister, so when Zhang Gun and Cui Cheng were preparing a response, he ordered them to likewise use a degrading title to refer to Chi Hui's master. Zhang Gun and Cui Cheng decided to identify Emperor An as "Honored Ruler". But Tuoba Gui angrily said, "I ordered you to degrade him! How does 'Honored Ruler' possibly compare to 'Worthy Elder Brother'?"

At the time when Cui Cheng had surrendered to Wei, since the realm was still in chaos, he was afraid that if anything happened, he might not have any descendants. So he had sent his wife Lady Zhang and four of his sons to stay in Jizhou, while Cui Cheng himself only came to visit Pingcheng with his youngest son Cui Ze (or Cui Yi). Cui Cheng's wife and other sons later fled to Southern Yan.

For all these reasons, Tuoba Gui held Cui Cheng responsible, and he forced him to commit suicide.

And as was just mentioned above, Lu Pu had become a subject of Yan and accepted their titles, and he was now invading and pillaging Wei's commandaries and counties, even killing their Inspector of Youzhou, Feng Dagan.

So Tuoba Gui blamed Zhang Gun for having recommended such unworthy people as Cui Cheng and Lu Pu, and he demoted Zhang Gun to be a Clerk of the Masters of Writing. From then on, Zhang Gun kept his doors closed and no longer took part in greater affairs, merely revising the classics and records by hand. He passed away a few years later.

〈見一百九卷隆安元年。〉〈《詩》:翩彼飛鴞,集于泮林,食我桑椹,懷我好音。《註》云:鴞,惡聲之鳥也。鴞恆惡鳴,今食桑椹,故改其鳴,歸就我以善音。珪本北人而入中原,故銜逞以爲侮慢。〉〈見一百九卷隆安元年。〉〈【嚴:「賾」改「頤」。】〉〈賾,士革翻。〉

(The Northern Wei army's siege of Zhongshan is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397).

Cui Cheng referred to this verse from the Book of Poetry: "They come flying on the wing, those owls, and settle on the trees about the college; they eat the fruit of our mulberry trees, and salute us with fine notes." The Annotations to the Book of Poetry states, "The owl is a bird that has a displeasing hoot sound. This is the sound that it normally makes, but in this verse, after having eaten the fruit of the mulberry tree, it changes its sound to something that is pleasing for us to hear." Tuoba Gui was a northerner who had entered the Central Plains. So he resented Cui Cheng, feeling Cui Cheng had been comparing him to the owls.

Cui Cheng's surrender to Northern Wei is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.9).

Some versions write the given name of Cui Cheng's son as 頤 Yi rather than 賾 Ze. 賾 is pronounced "she (sh-e)".)


盧溥攻掠郡縣,殺幽州刺史封沓干。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Lu Pu attacked and pillaged several commandaries and counties, and he killed Northern Wei's Inspector of Youzhou, Feng Dagan.

天興初,徵還京師。後與崔逞答司馬德宗將郗恢書失旨,黜袞為尚書令史... 及中山平,盧溥聚黨為逆,崔逞答書不允,並乖本言,故忿之。袞年過七十,闔門守靜,手執經書,刊定乖失,愛好人物,善誘無倦,士類以此高之。永興二年疾篤,上疏曰:「臣既庸人,志無殊操,值太祖誕膺期運,天地始開,參戎氛霧之初,馳驅革命之會,託翼鄧林,寄鱗溟海,遂荷恩寵,榮兼出內。陛下龍飛九五,仍參顧問,曾無微誠,塵山露海。今舊疾彌留,氣力虛頓,天罰有罪,將填溝壑。然犬馬戀主,敢不盡言。方今中夏雖平,九域未一,西有不賓之羌,南有逆命之虜,岷蜀殊風,遼海異教。雖天挺明聖,撥亂乘時,而因幾撫會,實須經略。介焉易失,功在人謀。伏願恢崇叡道,克廣德心,使揖讓與干戈並陳,文德與武功俱運,則太平之化,康哉之美,復隆於今,不獨前世。昔子囊將終,寄言城郢;荀偃辭唅,遺恨在齊。臣雖闇劣,敢忘前志,魂而有靈,結草泉壤。」後數日卒,年七十二。後世祖追錄舊勳,遣大鴻臚即墓策贈太保,諡曰文康公。(Book of Northern Wei 24, Biography of Zhang Gun)

At the beginning of the Tianxing era (~398), Zhang Gun was summoned back to the capital. Later, because he and Cui Cheng failed to heed Tuoba Gui's will when they were drafting a response to Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) general Chi Hui, Zhang Gun was demoted to be a Clerk of the Masters of Writing.

After the conquest of Zhongshan, Lu Pu led his forces to rebel against Northern Wei, and Cui Cheng failed to fulfill Tuoba Gui's will in his draft response. Tuoba Gui thus blamed Zhang Gun for having recommended the two of them, and he resented Zhang Gun.

By now, Zhang Gun was more than seventy years old. He kept the doors of his residence closed and maintained his peace, taking up the old classics and books by hand and revising them to correct the gaps and errors. He loved and enjoyed meeting with people, never tiring of enticing them to see him, and for this the gentry appreciated him.

In the second year of Yongxing (410), Zhang Gun was bedridden by illness. He sent up a petition to Emperor Mingyuan stating, "I was originally a mere common fellow without any special ambitions to speak of. But when Taizu (Tuoba Gui) grandly recognized the appointed hour when Heaven and Earth would clear the way for him and took up arms to clear away the fog and haze, I rushed to join him in his revolution, just as a bird looks for its perch or a whale longs for the sea. Serving under him, I received much grace and favor, and I saw glory both far afield and within the court. Now it is Your Majesty who has ascended like a dragon to the imperial throne, and you are seeking good advice and counsel, but those who have not the slightest sincerity are as many as a mountain of dirt or a sea of dew. As for myself, my old illness is returning, and my strength and spirit are nearly at an end. Truly, Heaven punishes the guilty, and I shall soon be filling my ditch. But even a dog or a horse has fond regard for its master, so how dare I fail to express all that I can to you before the end?

"Now although the heartland of the Xia (ethnic Han) people has now been settled, the Nine Regions are not yet united. To the west are the restless Qiang, and to the south are the disobedient caitiffs; the ridges of Shu maintain their divergent customs, and the people of Liao and the seacoast keep their strange beliefs. Though Heaven will supply the wise and the sage and it will provide opportunities to quell the chaos, such opportunities must be taken when they are presented, and they must be realized through the use of plans and strategies. Opportunities are easily lost; men's achievements are what make them reality. So I implore you to maintain lofty honor and lasting principles, and spread magnanimity and a virtuous heart; let both a sense of yielding and the weapons of war preserve you, and let both cultured virtue and martial achievements advance. Then the world will know the transformation of an age of peace and the wonder of an era of tranquility, grander than our time, nor surpassed by former generations.

"In former times, Zinang gave the advice to fortify the walls of Ying while he was on his deathbed, and Xun Yan still expressed his rage against the state of Qi even after he could no longer speak. I myself am growing dark and dull, yet how could I forget my former ambitions? If the dead still have feeling, I will demonstrate my gratitude in the world below."

Several days later, he passed away; he was seventy-one years old.

Later, when Shizu (Emperor Taiwu) was posthumously recognizing the achievements of the past servants of the dynasty, he sent his Grand Herald to Zhang Gun's grave to posthumously appoint him as Grand Guardian and grant him the title Duke Wenkang.


燕主寶之敗也,中書令、民部尚書封懿降於魏。珪以懿爲給事黃門侍郎、都坐大官。珪問懿以燕氏舊事,懿應對疏慢,亦坐廢於家。

34. After Murong Bao's defeat, Yan's Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and Master of Writing of the People's Bureau, Feng Yi, had surrendered to Wei. Tuoba Gui had appointed him as Gentleman-Attendant Officer of the Yellow Gate and as Grand Minister of the Capital Steps.

Tuoba Gui asked Feng Yi about the old affairs of the Yan royal family. When Feng Yi replied scornfully, he too was blamed and exiled to his home.

〈魏官有三都大官:都坐大官、外都大官、內都大都。〉〈珪蓋自疑,以爲衣冠之士慢之也。〉

(Northern Wei had three Grand Ministers of the Capital, those being of the Capital Steps, of the Outer Capital, and of the Inner Capital.

Tuoba Gui must have suspected for himself that the caps and robes of his gentlemen were disreputable.)


武威王禿髮烏孤醉,走馬傷脅而卒,遺令立長君。國人立其弟利鹿孤,諡烏孤曰武王,廟號烈祖。利鹿孤大赦,徙治西平。

35. Tufa Wugu was injured in the side while running a horse while drunk, and he passed away. His last will was that an adult should succeed him. So the people of Southern Liang acclaimed his younger brother Tufa Lilugu, who declared a general amnesty and shifted his capital to Xiping. Tufa Wugu's posthumous title was King Wu ("the Martial"), and his temple name was Liezu.

禿髮烏孤死,弟鹿孤代立,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Tufa Wugu passed away. His younger brother Tufa Lugu succeeded him, and he sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute.

秋八月,禿髮烏孤死,其弟利鹿孤嗣偽位。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the eighth month, Tufa Wugu passed away. His younger brother Tufa Lilugu succeeded him.

八月,孤因酒走馬,馬倒傷脇。笑曰:「幾使呂光父子大喜。」俄而患甚,顧謂羣臣曰:「方難未靖,宜立長君。」言終而薨。在王位三年,偽諡武王,廟號烈祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 12, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

In the eighth month, Tufa Wugu was riding a horse while drunk, when the horse fell and injured him in the side. Tufa Wugu laughed and said, “This will certainly make Lü Guang and his sons very pleased.” But soon the wound became critical. Tufa Wugu turned to his ministers and said, “Since the danger is still not past, you should support an adult to be the new ruler.” Having said this, he passed away.

Tufa Wugu had been King for three years. His posthumous title was King Wu, and his temple name was Liezu.

烏孤因酒走馬,馬倒傷脅,笑曰:「幾為呂光父子所喜。」既而遂死。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

Tufa Wugu was riding a horse while drunk, when the horse fell and injured him in the side. Tufa Wugu laughed and said, “This will make Lü Guang and his sons pleased.” He soon passed away.

是歲,烏孤因酒墜馬傷脅,笑曰:「幾使呂光父子大喜。」俄而患甚,顧謂群下曰:「方難未靜,宜立長君。」言終而死,在王位三年,偽諡武王,廟號烈祖。弟利鹿孤立。(Book of Jin 126, Biography of Tufa Wugu)

During this year (399), Tufa Wugu was injured in his side by a collapsed horse while drunk. He laughed and said, “This will certainly make Lü Guang and his sons very pleased.” But soon the wound became critical. Tufa Wugu turned to his ministers and said, “Since the danger is still not past, you should support an adult to be the new ruler.” Having said this, he passed away. Tufa Wugu had been King for three years. His posthumous title was King Wu, and his temple name was Liezu. His younger brother Tufa Lilugu succeeded him.


南燕王德遣使說幽州刺史辟閭渾,欲下之;渾不從;德遣北地王鍾帥步騎二萬擊之。德進據琅邪,徐、兗之民歸附者十餘萬。德自琅邪引兵而北,以南海王法爲兗州刺史,鎭梁父。進攻莒城,守將任安委城走。德以潘聰爲徐州刺史,鎭莒城。蘭汗之亂,燕吏部尚書封孚南奔辟閭渾,渾表爲勃海太守;及德至,孚出降,德大喜曰:「孤得青州不爲喜,喜得卿耳!」遂委以機密。北地王鍾傳檄青州諸郡,諭以禍福。辟閭渾徙八千餘家入守廣固,遣司馬崔誕戍薄荀固,平原太守張豁戍柳泉;誕、豁承檄皆降於德。渾懼,攜妻子奔魏,德遣射聲校尉劉綱追之,及於莒城,斬之。渾子道秀自詣德,請與父俱死。德曰:「父雖不忠而子能孝。」特赦之。渾參軍張瑛爲渾作檄,辭多不遜,德執而讓之。瑛神色自若,徐曰:「渾之有臣,猶韓信之有蒯通。通遇漢祖而生,臣遭陛下而死,比之古人,竊爲不幸耳!」德殺之。遂定都廣固。

36. Murong De sent his agents to visit Jin's Inspector of Youzhou, Pilü Hun, hoping to have him submit to Murong De. But Pilü Hun refused. So Murong De sent Murong Zhong with twenty thousand horse and foot to attack him.

Murong De himself advanced to occupy Langye, and more than a hundred thousand people from Xuzhou and Yanzhou came to join him. He then led his troops north from Langye, while appointing his Prince of Nanhai, Murong Fa, as Inspector of Yanzhou and stationing him at Liangfu. Murong De advanced to attack Jucheng, where the defending general Ren An abandoned the city and fled. So Murong De appointed Pan Cong as Inspector of Xuzhou and stationed him at Jucheng.

During Lan Han's coup, Yan's Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Feng Fu, had fled to Pilü Hun, and Pilü Hun had petitioned the Jin court to appoint him as their Administrator of Bohai. But now, when Murong De arrived, Feng Fu came out and surrendered him. Delighted, Murong De said, "You are the one I am happy to have obtained, not Qingzhou!" And he employed him in a close role.

Murong Zhong spread proclamations through the commandaries of Qingzhou, telling people the circumstances and outlining why they should give in. Pilü Hun had shifted more than eight thousand families into Guanggu to help defend it, and he had sent his Marshal, Cui Dan, to camp at Baoxun (or Baogou) Redoubt and the Administrator of Pingyuan, Zhang Huo, to camp at Liuquan. But when Cui Dan and Zhang Huo saw the proclamations, they both surrendered to Murong De.

Now afraid, Pilü Hun took his wife and children and fled towards Wei. But Murong De sent his Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Liu Gang, who pursued Pilü Hun and caught up with him at Jucheng, where he beheaded him. Then Pilü Hun's son Pilü Daoxiu voluntarily came to visit the gate of Murong De's camp, to ask that he be allowed to die together with his father. Murong De mused, "Though the father was disloyal, here is the filial son." So he granted Pilü Daoxiu a special pardon.

Pilü Hun's Army Advisor, Zhang Ying, had written a proclamation on Pilü Hun's behalf which included many rude words in it. So when Murong De caught Zhang Ying, he reprimanded him. But Zhang Ying had a serene and calm expression, and he simply said, "Pilü Hun had me as a minister, just as Han Xin had Kuai Tong as his minister. Yet I think about how Kuai Tong was spared when he met Han Gaozu (Liu Bang), while now that I have met Your Majesty, I am going to die. How unfortunate I am, compared to the ancients!" Murong De killed him.

Murong De chose Guanggu to be his new capital.

〈晉氏南渡,僑立幽、冀、青、幷四州於江北;秦圍幽州刺史田洛于三阿,是其證也。孝武太元之季,復取齊地,徙幽、冀二州於齊,是後鎭齊者,率領青、冀二州刺史。渾領幽州刺史,蓋自北而南,未純爲晉臣,使領幽州而鎭廣固也。〉〈莒縣,前漢屬城陽國,後漢屬琅邪,晉分屬東莞郡。〉〈【張:「荀」作「苟」。】〉〈薄荀,蓋人姓名,遇亂聚衆保固此地,因以爲名。齊人率謂保聚之地爲固。《漢書‧地理志》:北海郡有柳泉侯國,後漢、晉省。〉〈以辟閭渾背燕爲不忠。〉〈事見十二卷高祖十一年。〉

(After the Jin dynasty crossed the Yangzi, they established surrogate versions of Youzhou, Jizhou, Qingzhou, and Bingzhou on the north side of the Yangzi. This was earlier seen when Former Qin had besieged Jin's Inspector of Youzhou, Tian Luo, at San'an (Book 104, 379.10). At the beginning of Emperor Xiaowu's Taiyuan reign era (~383), Jin had regained the Qi region, so they shifted the Inspectors of Youzhou and Jizhou to Qi instead. And afterwards, those who guarded the Qi region commanded the soldiers of the acting Inspectors of Qingzhou and Jizhou. Since Pilü Hun had been appointed as Jin's acting Inspector of Youzhou, he must have moved from the north of his region to the south, but he must not have really been a true Jin subject; he must have just received the appointment while merely guarding Guanggu.

During Former Han, Ju county was part of the Chengyang princely fief. During Later Han, it was part of Langye commandary. During Jin, it was split off as part of Dongguan commandary.

Some versions write the second character of Baoxun as 苟 Gou instead of 荀 Xun. As for the name itself, Baoxun must have been the name of someone, Bao Xun, who gathered together people during the chaos and established a redoubt at this place, thus the name Baoxun Redoubt. The people of the Qi region tended to call the places where people gathered together for defense "redoubts".

According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Han, there was a Liuquan marquisate in Beihai commandary. It was abolished during Later Han and Jin.

Murong De accused Pilü Hun of being "disloyal" in that he had abandoned Later Yan.

The incident with Kuai Tong and Liu Bang is mentioned in Book 12, in the eleventh year of the reign of Emperor Gaozu of Han (196 BC).)


慕容德陷青州,害龍驤將軍辟閭渾。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Murong De invaded Qingzhou and killed the Dragon-Soaring General, Pilü Hun.

五月,次薛城,八月入廣固。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

In the fifth month, Murong De advanced to Xuecheng. In the eighth month, he entered Guanggu.

德從之,引師克薛城,徐兗之民盡附之。以其南海王法為兗州刺史,鎮梁父。進克莒城,以潘聰為徐州刺史,鎮莒城。北伐廣固,司馬德宗幽州刺史辟閭渾聞德將至,徙民八千餘戶入廣固,遣司馬崔誕率千餘人戍薄荀固,平原太守張豁屯柳泉。誕、豁皆承檄遣子降德。渾懼,攜妻子北走,德追騎斬之。渾少子道秀自歸,請與父俱死。德曰:「渾雖不忠,而子能孝,其特赦之。」德入都廣固。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De led his army and captured Xuecheng. All the people of Xuzhou and Yanzhou came over to him. He appointed his Prince of Nanhai, Murong Fa, as Inspector of Yanzhou and stationed him at Liangfu. Then Murong De advanced and took Jucheng, where he appointed Pan Cong as Inspector of Xuzhou and stationed him at Jucheng.

Murong De marched north and campaigned against Guanggu. When Sima Dezong's (Emperor An's) Inspector of Youzhou, Pilü Hun, heard that Murong De was approaching, he relocated more than eight thousand households of the common people into Guanggu. He sent his Marshal, Cui Dan, to lead more than a thousand people to camp at Baoxun Redoubt and the Administrator of Pingyuan, Zhang Huo, to camp at Liuquan. But Cui Dan and Zhang Huo both heeded Murong De's proclamations, and they sent their sons to surrender to him.

Now afraid, Pilü Hun took his wife and children and fled north, but Murong De sent cavalry to pursue and kill him. Then Pilü Hun's young son Pilü Daoxiu voluntarily presented himself, to ask that he be allowed to die together with his father. Murong De mused, "Though the father was disloyal, the son can still be filial. I grant him a special pardon."

Murong De then entered Guanggu and made it his capital.

德遣使喻齊郡太守避閭渾,渾不從,遣慕容鐘率步騎二萬擊之。德進據琅邪,徐、兗之土附者十餘萬,自琅邪而北,迎者四萬餘人。德進寇莒城,守將任安委城而遁,以潘聰鎮莒城。鐘傳檄青州諸郡曰:「隆替有時,義列昔經;困難啟聖,事彰中籙。是以宣王龍飛于危周,光武鳳起於絕漢,斯蓋歷數大期,帝王之興廢也。自我永康多難,長鯨逸網,華夏四分,黎元五裂。逆賊辟閭渾父蔚,昔同段龕阻亂淄川,太宰東征,剿絕凶命。渾于覆巢之下,蒙全卵之施,曾微犬馬識養之心,復襲凶父樂禍之志,盜據東秦,遠附吳、越,割剝黎元,委輸南海。皇上應期,大命再集,矜彼營丘,暫阻王略,故以七州之眾二十餘萬,巡省貸宗,問罪齊、魯。昔韓信以裨將伐齊,有征無戰;耿弇以偏軍討步,克不移朔。況以萬乘之師,掃一隅之寇,傾山碎卵,方之非易。孤以不才,忝荷先驅,都督元戎一十二萬,皆烏丸突騎,三河猛士,奮劍與夕火爭光,揮戈與秋月競色。以此攻城,何城不克;以此眾戰,何敵不平!昔竇融以河西歸漢,榮被于後裔;彭寵盜逆漁陽,身死于奴僕。近則曹嶷跋扈,見擒于後趙;段龕幹紀,取滅於前朝。此非古今之吉凶,已然之成敗乎?渾若先迷後悟,榮寵有加。如其敢抗王師,敗滅必無遣燼。稷下之雄,岱北之士,有能斬送渾者,賞同佐命。脫履機不發,必玉石俱摧。」渾聞德軍將至,從八千餘家入廣固。諸郡皆承檄降於德。渾懼,將妻子奔于魏。德遣射聲校尉劉綱追斬於莒城。渾參軍張瑛常與渾作檄,辭多不遜。及此,德擒而讓之。瑛神色自若,徐對曰:「渾之有臣,猶韓信之有蒯通。通遇漢祖而蒙恕,臣遭陛下而嬰戮,比之古人,竊為不幸。防風之誅,臣實甘之,但恐堯、舜之化未弘于四海耳。」德初善其言,後竟殺之。德遂入廣固。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De sent envoys to convey his instructions to Jin's Administrator of Qi, Pilü Hun. But Pilü Hun refused to listen. So Murong De sent Murong Zhong with twenty thousand horse and foot to attack him.

Murong De himself advanced to occupy Langye, and more than a hundred thousand people from Xuzhou and Yanzhou came to join him. He then led his troops north from Langye, welcoming more than forty thousand people to his side. Murong De advanced to attack Jucheng, where the defending general Ren An abandoned the city and fled. So Murong De appointed Pan Cong to defend Jucheng.

Murong Zhong sent out proclamations throughout the commandaries of Qingzhou. This is what the proclamation said: "The rise and fall of states are well attested in the ancient classics. But equally recorded in the old histories is that when danger threatens, a sage ruler shall arise to meet them. Such was the case when King Xuan of Zhou soared like a dragon to protect the threatened rule of Zhou, and such was the case when Emperor Guangwu of Han rose like a phoenix to restore the interrupted reign of Han. Now we find ourselves in another such great moment, which will determine the rise and fall of kings and emperors. Ever since our Yongkang era (since 396), Yan has faced many difficulties; even great whales can slip through the gaps in the net of laws, while the Huaxia (ethnic Han) people have been split apart and the common people have been torn asunder.

"You will recall how the traitor and bandit Pilü Hun had a father, Pilü Yu, who formed common cause with the rebel Duan Kan as he fomented rebellion behind the Zi River. But when the Grand Governor (Murong Ke) came east to campaign against them, he put them down and smashed their treason. As for Pilü Hun himself, even when he came from a nest that was thus toppled, we kept his egg safe and protected him. Even a dog or a horse would appreciate the one that raised it. Yet now Pilü Hun seeks to succeed to the legacy and the doom of his traitorous father. His horde of bandits have occupied the Eastern Qin, while he aligns himself with the distant regions of Wu and Yue. He has harmed and injured the common people, sending their goods away to the southern seas. Our imperial sovereign, responding to the times, issued a grand order commanding him to rejoin the royal flock. But this foe, relying upon his camps and his natural defenses, thinks to hinder the royal command. Thus does our sovereign lead the army of the seven provinces, more than two hundred thousand strong, to patrol and pay visit at Daizong (Mount Tai) and punish the criminals of Qi and Lu.

"In ancient times, though Han Xin was merely an independent commander, when he campaigned against Qi, he was victorious without even fighting a battle. Likewise, Geng Yan was a mere subordinate general, yet when he campaigned against the general Zhang Bu in the Qi region, he triumphed over him in less than a month. How much more easily, then, will the lord of ten thousand chariots himself sweep aside the bandits from this corner of the realm? He will overturn the mountains as easily as one smashes eggs; he cannot be stopped.

"I myself, Murong Zhong, am no talented fellow. But I have been fortunate enough to be granted the charge of our sovereign's vanguard forces, and I command a hundred and twenty thousand soldiers. All of them are charging cavalry of the Wuhuan people, mighty warriors from the Three He regions. They grasp swords that shine greater than the fires of dusk; they wield halberds that shimmer more than the autumn moon. If I assault a city leading such soldiers, which will not fall? If I attack an army leading such warriors, who will not falter?

"The fate of men like Pilü Hun is all too clear. In former times, Dou Rong stood astride the northwest beyond the Yellow River and menaced the Han realm, yet his glory was snuffed out by his descendants; Peng Chong led his rebels to raid Yuyang, yet in the end he died a mere slave. And in recent times, Cao Yi was a domineering warlord, yet he was captured by Later Zhao; Duan Kan held sway for a time, but he was vanquished by the old Yan court. Considering such things, is it not already clear that Pilü Hun's doom is certain? Though Pilü Hun has already gone down the wrong path, if he will now realize his errors and repent, he may still enjoy glory and favor even greater than before. But if he dares to oppose the royal army, his destruction will be so great that not even one cinder will remain.

"Heroes of Jixia, gentlemen of Dai and the north! If any among you can deliver the head of Pilü Hun, they shall be rewarded for heeding the royal will. But if you fail to heed this chance, you shall be destroyed with the rest of the jade."

When Pilü Hun heard that Murong De's army was approaching, he relocated more than eight thousand families into Guanggu. But the commandaries of Qingzhou all heeded Murong Zhong's proclamations and surrendered to Murong De. Now afraid, Pilü Hun took his wife and children and fled towards Northern Wei. But Murong De sent his Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Liu Gang, who pursued Pilü Hun and caught up with him at Jucheng, where he beheaded him.

Pilü Hun's Army Advisor, Zhang Ying, had written several proclamations on Pilü Hun's behalf which included many rude words in them. So when Murong De caught Zhang Ying, he reprimanded him. But Zhang Ying had a serene and calm expression, and he simply said, "Pilü Hun had me as a minister, just as Han Xin had Kuai Tong as his minister. Yet I think about how Kuai Tong was shown forgiveness when he met Han Gaozu (Liu Bang), while now that I have met Your Majesty, I am going to suffer execution. How unfortunate I am, compared to the ancients. It is not that I resent being executed; in fact, I welcome it. But I fear that through this act, the good traditions of the ancient emperors Yao and Shun will fail to spread throughout the Four Seas." Murong De approved of Zhang Ying's words at first, but later he killed him.

Murong De then entered Guanggu.


燕李旱行至建安,燕主盛急召之,羣臣莫測其故。九月,辛未,復遣之。李朗聞其家被誅,擁二千餘戶以自固;及聞旱還,謂有內變,不復設備,留其子養守令支,自迎魏師於北平。壬子,旱襲令支,克之,遣廣威將軍孟廣平追及朗於無終,斬之。

37. It was earlier mentioned that Murong Sheng had dispatched Li Han to campaign against Li Lang. Li Han had made it as far as Jian'an, when suddenly Murong Sheng urgently summoned him back again; none of Murong Sheng's ministers could understand his reasoning for this. And in the ninth month, on the day Xinwei (November 2nd), Murong Sheng sent Li Han back out again.

Now when Li Lang had heard that his family had been executed, he had gathered together more than two thousand households to help defend his position. But then when he heard that Li Han had turned back, he said that there must have been some kind of coup in the capital. So he did not bother to prepare any further defenses, and he left his son Li Yang to guard Lingzhi while he himself went to Beiping to welcome the Wei army.

On the day Renzi (?), Li Han launched a surprise attack against Lingzhi and took it. He sent the General Who Spreads Might, Meng Guangping, to pursue Li Lang; Meng Guangping caught up with Li Lang at Wuzhong and beheaded him.

〈前漢北平郡治平剛,後漢治土垠,晉治徐無,後魏治盧龍。〉〈無終,春秋無終子之國,自漢以來,爲縣,屬右北平。劉昫曰:唐薊州玉田縣,漢無終縣地。〉

(During Former Han, Beiping commandary was governed from Pinggang. During Later Han, it was governed from Tuyin; during Jin, from Xuwu; and during Northern Wei, from Lulong.

Wuzhong had once been the Barony of Wuzhong during the Spring and Autumn era. Ever since the Han dynasty, it had been a county, as part of Zuobeiping commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Yutian county in Tang's Jizhou was once Han's Wuzhong county.")


師次建安,召旱旋師。朗聞其家被誅也,擁三千餘戶以自固。及聞旱中路而還,謂有內變,不復為備,留其子養守令支,躬迎魏師于北平。旱候知之,襲克令支,遣廣威孟廣平率騎追朗,及於無終,斬之。初,盛之追旱還也,群臣莫知其故。旱既斬朗,盛謂群臣曰:「前以追旱還者,正為此耳。朗新為叛逆,必忌官威,一則鳩合同類,劫掠良善,二則亡竄山澤,未可卒平,故非意而還,以盈怠其志,卒然掩之,必克之理也。」群臣皆曰:「非所及也。」(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Li Han had made it as far as Jian'an, when suddenly Murong Sheng urgently summoned him back again. When Li Lang had heard that his family had been executed, he had gathered together more than three thousand households to help defend his position. But then when he heard that Li Han had turned back, he said that there must have been some kind of coup in the capital. So he did not bother to prepare any further defenses, and he left his son Li Yang to guard Lingzhi while he himself went to Beiping to welcome the Wei army. Li Han's scouts learned of this, so he launched a surprise attack against Lingzhi and took it. He sent the General Who Spreads Might, Meng Guangping, to lead riders to pursue Li Lang; Meng Guangping caught up with Li Lang at Wuzhong and beheaded him.

At first, when Murong Sheng had urgently summoned Li Han back again, none of Murong Sheng's ministers understood why he had done so. After Li Han beheaded Li Lang, Murong Sheng told his ministers, "When I summoned Li Han back before, it was merely part of my plan to arrange this situation. Li Lang had only newly rebelled, and so he definitely would have been afraid of the power which the government army would pose. So his firsr resort would have been to gather together all his partisans in one place while abusing and compelling good and excellent people, and failing that, he would have scurried away into the mountains and marshes. I never would have dealt with him that way. That was why, for no reason, I summoned Li Han back again. By doing so, I puffed up Li Lang's ambitions, which allowed me to take him in the end. This was the way to ensure success."

His ministers all said, "We would not have thought of that."


秦主興以災異屢見,降號稱王,下詔令羣公、卿士、將牧、守宰各降一等;大赦,改元弘始。存問孤貧,舉拔賢俊,簡省法令,清察獄訟,守令之有政迹者賞之,貪殘者誅之,遠近肅然。

38. Since Yao Xing had noticed the occurrence of several natural disasters, he degraded his title from Emperor to King. He also issued an edict ordering all of his nobles, chief ministers, generals and governors, and local officials to demote themselves by one rank. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Hongshi.

Yao Xing asked after those who were orphaned or poor, and he promoted or plucked out the worthy or talented; he simplified and trimmed the law codes, and he was pure in investigating into criminal cases. He rewarded any local officials who governed well, while executing those who were greedy or corrupt. People near and far respected him.

弘始元年九月,大赦改元。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the first year of Hongshi (399), in the ninth month, Yao Xing declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Hongshi.

天興元年,興去皇帝之號,降稱天王,號年洪始。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the first year of Tianxing (398), Yao Xing discard his title of Emperor and demoted himself to Heavenly King. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Hongshi.

班命郡國,百姓因荒自賣為奴婢者,悉免為良人。興以日月薄蝕,災眚屢見,降號稱王,下書令群公卿士將牧守宰各降一等。於是其太尉趙公旻等五十三人上疏諫曰:「伏惟陛下勳格皇天,功濟四海,威靈振於殊域,聲教暨于遐方,雖成湯之隆殷基,武王之崇周業,未足比喻。方當廓靖江、吳,告成中嶽,豈宜過垂沖損,違皇天之眷命乎!」興曰:「殷湯、夏禹德冠百王,然猶順守謙沖,未居崇極,況朕寡昧,安可以處之哉!」乃遣旻告於社稷宗廟,大赦,改元弘始。賜孤獨鰥寡栗帛有差,年七十已上加衣杖。始平太守周班、槐里令李青彡皆以黷貨誅,於是郡國肅然矣... 興下書聽祖父母昆弟得相容隱。姚緒、姚碩德以興降號,固讓王爵,興弗許... 興如河東。時姚緒鎮河東,興待以家人之禮。下書封其先朝舊臣姚驢磑、趙惡地、王平、馬萬載、黃世等子為五等子男。命百僚舉殊才異行之士,刑政有不便於時者,皆除之。兵部郎金城邊熙上陳軍令煩苛,宜遵簡約。興覽而善之,乃依孫吳誓眾之法以損益之。興立律學于長安,召郡縣散吏以授之。其通明者還之郡縣,論決刑獄。若州郡縣所不能決者,讞之廷尉。興常臨諮議堂聽斷疑獄,于時號無冤滯。姚緒、姚碩德固讓王爵,許之。緒、碩德威權日盛,興恐奸佞小人沮惑之,乃簡清正君子為之輔佐。興以司隸校尉郭撫、扶風太守強超、長安令魚佩、槐里令彭明、倉部郎王年等清勤貞白,下書褒美,增撫邑一百戶,賜超爵關內侯,佩等進位一級。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing ordered the administrators of the commandaries and princely fiefs to liberate all the common people who had sold themselves as slaves because of their adversity and make them all free people.

Because there had been an eclipse and several reports of natural disasters, Yao Xing degraded his title to King, and he issued an order commanding all his nobles, chief ministers, generals and officers, governors and administrators, and other officials to all demote themselves by one rank.

This resulted in fifty-three people, including Yao Xing's Grand Commandant and Duke of Zhao, Yao Min, and others sending up a memorial remonstrating against the decision, stating, "We implore Your Majesty to recognize your worth. Your diligence is equal to that of the Yellow Heaven, and your achievements fill all within the Four Seas; your power and majesty extend even to distant regions, and your word and command reach out to the furthest places. Even when Cheng-Tang (Tang of Shang) established the foundation of the Yin (Shang) dynasty and King Wu of Zhou realized the enterprise of the Zhou dynasty, their rises could not be compared with yours. What you ought to be doing now is restoring peace to the Jiang and Wu regions and then reporting the completion of your achievement at Zhongyue (Mount Song). Why then would you go so far as to degrade yourself now and violate Heaven's regard for you?"

But Yao Xing replied, "The virtues of Tang of Yin (Shang) and of Yu the Great of the Xia dynasty surpassed all other kings, yet even they remained meek and modest and they never claimed the highest rank for themselves. How then could I, being so foolish and blind, rest easy while claiming such a title?"

So he sent Yao Min to report what he had done at the altars of soil and grain and at the ancestral temple. Yao Xing declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Hongshi. He bestowed suitable amounts of grain and silk to provide for orphans, widows and widowers, and those unable to sustain themselves, and he granted clothing and canes to those who were seventy years old or older.

For the crimes of financial graft, the Administrator of Shiping, Zhou Ban, and the Prefect of Huaili, Li Qingshan, were executed. This made the commandaries and princely fiefs respectful.

Yao Xing issued an order commanding legal immunity for relatives, reaching between grandparents, parents, and elder and younger brothers.

Because Yao Xing had demoted himself to King, Yao Xu and Yao Shuode earnestly asked that they be allowed to demote their own titles as Princes. But Yao Xing did not allow it.

Yao Xing went to Hedong. At this time, Yao Xu was stationed at Hedong, and Yao Xing treated his family with courtesy.

Yao Xing issued an edict ordering that the sons of old ministers of his father's court be appointed as Earls and Barons; these included Yao Lüwei, Zhao Wudi, Wang Ping, Ma Wanzai, and Huang Shi.

Yao Xing ordered that his officials nominate anyone who showed exceptional talent or unusual conduct, while those who were not suited to their offices were all removed.

The Gentleman of the Infantry Bureau, Bian Xi of Jincheng commandary, sent up a petition stating that the military regulations were too troublesome and severe, and he recommended that they be simplified and reorganized. Yao Xing reflected upon the proposal and approved of it, so he reformed the regulations along the lines of Sun Tzu's Art of War in order to improve them.

Yao Xing established a School of Law at Chang'an and summoned various officials from the commandaries and counties to be instructed there. After these students returned to their commandaries and counties, they discussed and decided upon criminal cases. Any cases which the provincial, commandary, or county officials could not decided were referred to the Minister of Justice at the capital. And Yao Xing himself often presided over the court cases to hear and rule on suspects. People called it an age without injustice or delayed rulings.

Yao Xu and Yao Shuode once again urged that they be allowed to demote their titles as Princes. This time, Yao Xing allowed it. Since the power and authority of Yao Xu and Yao Shuode grew by the day, Yao Xing was worried that miscreants and sycophants might gradually mislead them. So he appointed honest, pure, and proper gentlemen as their assistants to help them.

Yao Xing considered several of his officials to be pure, diligent, faithful, and honest; these included the Colonel-Director of Retainers, Guo Fu, the Administrator of Fufeng, Qiang Chao, the Prefect of Chang'an, Yu Pei, the Prefect of Huaili, Peng Ming, and the Gentleman of the Granary Bureau, Wang Nian. He issued an edict commending all of them. He advanced Guo Fu's fief by one hundred households, he appointed Qiang Chao as a Marquis Within The Passes, and he advanced the ranks of Yu Pei and the others by one rank.


冬,十月,甲午,燕中衞將軍衞雙有罪,賜死。李旱還,聞雙死,懼,棄軍而亡,至板陘,復還歸罪。燕主盛復其爵位,謂侍中孫勍曰:「旱爲將而棄軍,罪在不赦。然昔先帝蒙塵,骨肉離心,公卿失節,惟旱以宦者忠勤不懈,始終如一,故吾念其功而赦之耳。」

39. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiawu (November 25th), Yan's Guard General of the Center, Wei Shuang, committed an offense and was compelled to commit suicide. When Li Han returned, he heard that Wei Shuang was dead. Afraid for his own life, he abandoned his army and fled. But when he reached Banxing, he turned back and returned to atone for his crime. Murong Sheng restored his ranks and titles.

Murong Sheng mentioned to one of his Palace Attendants, Sun Qing, "Li Han was a general who abandoned his army, and that is a crime that cannot be pardoned. But during the time when my late father was traveling in exile, and when his own flesh and blood had turned against him and his nobles and chief ministers had all abandoned their duty to him, Li Han was the only one of the eunuchs who remained tirelessly faithful and true, loyal to the last. So I pardoned him merely in remembrance of his former deeds."

〈事見上卷二年。〉

(Li Han is listed among those ministers who accompanied Murong Bao during his flight from Longcheng, as mentioned in Book 110, in the second year of Long'an (398.18). )


李旱自遼西還,聞盛殺其將衛雙,懼,棄軍奔走。既而歸罪,復其爵位。盛謂侍中孫勍曰:「旱總三軍之任,荷專征之重,不能杖節死綏,無故逃亡,考之軍正,不赦之罪也。然當先帝之避難,眾情離貳,骨肉忘其親,股肱失忠節,旱以刑餘之體,效力盡命,忠款之至,精貫白日。朕故錄其忘身之功,免其丘山之罪耳。」(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

When Li Han returned from Liaoxi, he heard that Murong Sheng had killed his general Wei Shuang. Afraid for his own life, Li Han abandoned his army and fled. But later he turned back and returned to atone for his crime. Murong Sheng restored his ranks and titles.

Murong Sheng mentioned to one of his Palace Attendants, Sun Qing, "Li Han was a general of the three armies and was charged with the leadership of a campaign. Yet rather than maintain his authority to the end, he abandoned his army for no reason. According to the military regulations, that is a crime that cannot be pardoned. But during the time when my late father was traveling in exile, when everyone had turned against him, his own flesh and blood had forgotten their family ties, and his closest companions had all abandoned their duty to him, Li Han, though he was a eunuch, still devoted his utmost strength to heeding my father; he was loyal and sincere to the last, and his excellence was bright as the sun. So I pardoned his mountain of crimes merely in remembrance of his tireless former deeds."


辛恭靖固守百餘日,魏救未至,秦兵拔洛陽,獲恭靖。恭靖見秦王興,不拜,曰:「吾不爲羌賊臣!」興囚之,恭靖逃歸。自淮、漢以北,諸城多請降,送任於秦。

40. Xin Gongjing defended Luoyang for more than a hundred days, yet reinforcements from Wei still never arrived. Then the Qin army took Luoyang and captured Xin Gongjing. When he was brought to see Yao Xing, he would not perform obeisance to him, saying, "I'll never become the servant of a Qiang bandit!" Yao Xing imprisoned him, but Xin Gongjing managed to escape.

Many of the Jin cities north of the Huai River and the Han River asked to surrender to Qin, and they sent hostages as well.

冬十月,姚興陷洛陽,執河南太守辛恭靖。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In winter, the tenth month, Yao Xing took Luoyang and captured the Administrator of Henan, Xin Gongjing.

冬十月,尅洛陽,以東平公紹為都督山東諸軍事、豫州牧,鎮洛陽。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 5, Biography of Yao Xing)

In winter, the tenth month, Yao Xing took Luoyang. He appointed the Duke of Dongping, Yao Shao, as Commander of military affairs East of Shan (east of Luoyang) and Governor of Yuzhou, and he stationed Yao Shao at Luoyang.

興克洛陽,以其弟東平公紹鎮之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing took Luoyang, and he appointed his Duke of Dongping, his younger brother Yao Shao, to guard it.

洛陽既陷,自淮、漢已北諸城,多請降送任... 京兆韋華、譙郡夏侯軌、始平龐眺等率襄陽流人一萬叛晉,奔於興。興引見東堂,謂華曰:「晉自南遷,承平已久,今政化風俗何如?」華曰:「晉主雖有南面之尊,無總禦之實,宰輔執政,政出多門,權去公家,遂成習俗,刑網峻急,風俗奢宕。自桓溫、謝安已後,未見寬猛之中。」興大悅,拜華中書令。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

After Luoyang was taken, many of the Jin cities north of the Huai River and the Yangzi surrendered to Yao Xing and sent hostages to him.

Wei Hua of Jingzhao commandary, Xiahou Gui of Qiao commandary, Pang Tiao of Shiping commandary, and others led ten thousand refugees from Xiangyang to rebel against Jin and flee to Yao Xing. Yao Xing brought the leaders to the Eastern Hall to meet with him. He asked Wei Hua, "It has been a long time since the Jin dynasty moved south, and they have been settled in that region for some time now. What are their current customs and policies like?"

Wei Hua replied, "Although the lords of Jin still face south as sovereigns, they are not really in control of the state. The power over the government is really held by the chief ministers; the administration is spread out among many clans and power is wielded by the noble families, so much so that this has become the established practice. Furthermore, enforcement and punishments are harsh and severe, and the local customs tend towards extravagance and sloth. Ever since the days of Huan Wen and Xie An, there has not been any 'moderation between mildness and sternness' to be seen."

Yao Xing was delighted, and he appointed Wei Hua as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat.


魏主珪以穆崇爲豫州刺史,鎭野王。

41. Tuoba Gui appointed Mu Chong as Inspector of Yuzhou and stationed him at Yewang.

〈秦旣克洛陽,魏置鎭於野王,以備其渡河侵軼。〉

(Since Later Qin had taken Luoyang, Northern Wei established a garrison at Yewang, to guard against any potential thrusts or attacks by Later Qin across the Yellow River.)


會稽世子元顯,性苛刻,生殺任意;發東土諸郡免奴爲客者,號曰樂屬,移置京師,以充兵役,東土囂然苦之。

42. Sima Yuanxian was harsh and severe, and he killed or spared people as he pleased. He drafted the manumitted slaves from the eastern commandaries who had become "household guests", calling them "happy dependents", and he moved and settled them in the capital region in order to draw upon them for military or corvee service. This turned the people of the east against him.

〈奴戶者,有罪沒爲官奴;公卿以下至九品官及宗室、國賓、先賢之後及士人子孫占蔭以爲客戶,是謂免奴爲客。〉

(These slave households were those who had committed crimes and became government slaves. Nobles and chief ministers, officeholders of the Nine Ranks System, imperial relatives, descendants of ancient worthies, and the sons and grandsons of local gentry all kept these "guest households", and so these manumitted slaves were called "guests".)


孫恩因民心騷動,自海島帥其黨殺上虞令,遂攻會稽。會稽內史王凝之,羲之之子也,世奉天師道,不出兵,亦不設備,日於道室稽顙跪呪。官屬請出兵討恩,凝之曰:「我已請大道,借鬼兵守諸津要,各數萬,賊不足憂也。」及恩漸近,乃聽出兵,恩已至郡下。甲寅,恩陷會稽,凝之出走,恩執而殺之,幷其諸子。凝之妻謝道蘊,奕之女也,聞寇至,舉措自若,命婢肩輿,抽刀出門,手殺數人,乃被執。吳國內史桓謙、臨海太守新秦王崇、義興太守魏隱皆棄郡走。於是會稽謝鍼、吳郡陸瓌、吳興丘尩、義興許允之、臨海周冑、永嘉張永等及東陽、新安凡八郡人,一時起兵,殺長吏以應恩,旬日之中,衆數十萬。吳興太守謝邈、永嘉太守司馬逸、嘉興公顧胤、南康公謝明慧、黃門郎謝沖、張琨、中書郎孔道等皆爲恩黨所殺。邈、沖,皆安之弟子也。時三吳承平日久,民不習戰,故郡縣兵皆望風奔潰。

43. It was earlier mentioned that the mystic Sun En had been biding his time in the east. Taking advantage of the people's hearts being stirred up, Sun En now led his followers from the sea islands to kill the Prefect of Shangyu.

The rebels then attacked Kuaiji. The Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Ningzhi, was the son of Wang Xizhi. For generations his family had followed the Way of the Celestial Masters, so he did not send his troops out to battle, nor did he prepare any defenses against the enemy. Instead, he spent all day in the Daoist chamber, kowtowing, kneeling, and chanting incantations. When his ministers asked him to send soldiers out to fight Sun En, Wang Ningzhi replied, "I have already asked for assistance from the Great Way, and I have borrowed spirit soldiers to guard the river crossings. Each of them are now defended by tens of thousands of these spirit soldiers. The rebels are nothing to fear." Later, as Sun En marched ever closer, Wang Ningzhi finally heeded his ministers and sent out his soldiers. But by then, Sun En was already beneath the walls of the commandary capital. On the day Jiayin (?), Sun En took Kuaiji. Wang Ningzhi tried to flee, but Sun En captured and killed him, along with his sons.

Wang Ningzhi's wife was Xie Daoyun, the daughter of Xie Yi. When she heard that the enemy was coming, she calmly collected herself, ordered her maids to carry her out on a palanquin, and took up a blade and went out of the gate, where she personally killed several people before being captured.

The Interior Minister of Wu, Huan Qian, the Administrator of Linhai and Prince of Xinqin (or Xincai), Sima Chong, and the Administrator of Yixing, Wei Yin, all abandoned their commandaries and fled. After that, several other locals from eight eastern commandaries, including Dongyang and Xin'an, all rose up with troops and killed the local chief officials to support Sun En's rebellion, including Xie Zhen of Kuaiji, Lu Gui of Wu, Qui Wang of Wuxing, Xu Yunzhi of Yixing, Zhou Zhou of Linhai, and Zhang Yong of Yongjia. Within ten days, Sun En's forces had swelled to several hundred thousand. The Administrator of Wuxing, Xie Miao, the Administrator of Yongjia, Sima Yi, the Duke of Yongxing, Gu Yin, the Duke of Nankang, Xie Minghui, the Gentlemen of the Yellow Gate, Xie Chong and Zhang Kun, the Gentleman of the Palace Secretariat, Kong Dao, and others were all killed by Sun En's followers. Xie Miao and Xie Chong were both nephews of Xie An.

Since the Three Wu regions had enjoyed peace for such a long time before this rebellion, the people there were not practiced in the arts of war, and so the soldiers of the commandaries and counties all gave in to the rebellion and scattered and fled.

〈上虞縣,自漢以來屬會稽郡,西北距郡城百餘里。〉〈天師道,卽張道陵之所傳也。〉〈道室,奉道之室也。〉〈《晉書》作「新蔡王崇」。崇,汝南王祐之曾孫,自其祖父以來,嗣新蔡國封。「秦」,當作「蔡」。〉〈鍼,其廉翻。〉

(Ever since Han, Shangyu county had been part of Kuaiji commandary. It was more than a hundred li northwest of the commandary capital.

The Way of the Celestial Masters was a teaching spread by Zhang Daoling.

The Daoist chamber was the chamber for venerating the Way.

Regarding Sima Chong, the Book of Jin lists his title as Prince of "Xincai" rather than "Xinqin". This Sima Chong was the great-grandson of the Prince of Runan, Sima You, and ever since his grandfather's generation, the family had succeeded one another to the Xincai fief. So "Xinqin" in this passage should indeed be "Xincai".

Xie Zhen's given name, 鍼, is pronounced "qian (q-ian)".)


十一月甲寅,妖賊孫恩陷會稽,內史王凝之死之,吳國內史桓謙、臨海太守新蔡王崇、義興太守魏隱並委官而遁,吳興太守謝邈、永嘉太守司馬逸皆遇害。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eleventh month, on the day Jiayin (?), the bandit mystic Sun En took Kuaiji. The Interior Minister, Wang Ningzhi, was killed. The Interior Minister of Wu, Huan Qian, the Administrator of Linhai and Prince of Xincai, Sima Chong, and the Administrator of Yixing, Wei Yin, all abandoned their posts and hid. The Administrator of Wuxing, Xie Miao, and the Administrator of Yongjia, Sima Yi, were both killed.


恩據會稽,自稱征東將軍,逼人士爲官屬,號其黨曰「長生人」,民有不與之同者,戮及嬰孩,死者什七、八。醢諸縣令以食其妻子,不肯食者,輒支解之。所過掠財物,燒邑屋,焚倉廩,刊木,堙井,相帥聚於會稽,婦人有嬰兒不能去者,投於水中,曰:「賀汝先登仙堂,我當尋後就汝。」恩表會稽王道子及世子元顯之罪,請誅之。

44. Having occupied Kuaiji, Sun En declared himself General Who Conquers The East. He forced local people to serve as his ministers and officials, and he called his followers "Immortals". If anyone among the common people would not go along with Sun En, he killed them along with their infant children; seventy to eighty percent of the people died. Sun En chopped the Prefects of the local counties into mincemeat and fed them to their wives and children, and if anyone could not bear to eat the flesh, they were dismembered.

Sun En and his followers pillaged the goods of all the places they passed through, burned down the village houses, torched the grain stores, chopped the trees to pieces, and stopped up the wells. His followers came to gather in Kuaiji. Wives who had infants too young to walk cast them into the rivers, telling them, "How fortunate you are to ascend to the house of the immortals before us. We shall join you soon."

Sun En sent a petition to the Jin court listing the crimes of Sima Daozi and Sima Yuanxian and demanding their execution.

〈支解者,隨其支節解剝,若解牛然。〉〈孔安國曰:刊,槎其木也;堙,塞也。〉

(Dismemberment is cutting off one's limbs at the joints, like butchering cattle.

Kong Anguo remarked, "To chop is to cut into pieces, and to stop up is to block.")


自帝卽位以來,內外乖異,石頭以南皆爲荊、江所據,以西皆豫州所專,京口及江北皆劉牢之及廣陵相高雅之所制,朝政所行,惟三吳而已。及孫恩作亂,八郡皆爲恩有,畿內諸縣,盜賊處處蠭起,恩黨亦有潛伏在建康者,人情危懼,常慮竊發,於是內外戒嚴。加道子黃鉞,元顯領中軍將軍,命徐州刺史謝琰兼督吳興、義興軍事以討恩;劉牢之亦發兵討恩,拜表輒行。

45. Ever since Emperor An had ascended to the throne, the Jin court had lost all real power over most of its territory. Everything south of the Shitou fortress was really under the control of the Inspectors of Jingzhou and Jiangzhou, everything west of it was really controlled by the Inspector of Yuzhou, and everything from Jingkou and the Yangzi north was really under the control of Liu Laozhi and the Chancellor of Gaoling, Gao Yazhi. The only territory that the court had directly controlled was the Three Wus region. Yet now that Sun En had launched this rebellion, those eight commandaries were now under his power. Bandits sprang up like swarms of ants in the counties near the capital, and Sun En's followers also secretly hid themselves at Jiankang. The people trembled with fear, often worried of some sudden attack, and everyone near and far prepared for war.

Sima Daozi was appointed as Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe, and Sima Yuanxian was appointed as acting General of the Central Army. They ordered the Inspector of Xuzhou, Xie Yan, to assume command of the armies of Wuxing and Yixing commandaries and campaign against Sun En. Liu Laozhi also raised his troops to campaign against Sun En, sending up petitions to the court before acting.

〈江水自荊、江二州界入揚州界,皆東北流;歷陽在江西,建康在江東。孫權築石頭城,蓋據江津之要衝也。〉〈八郡:會稽、臨海、永嘉、東陽、新安、吳、吳興、義興也。〉〈牢之鎭京口。〉

(The Yangzi flowed through Jingzhou and Jiangzhou before entering Yangzhou, so the Inspectors of those two provinces controlled the flow of the river to the northeast. Liyang was on the west side of the Yangzi, while Jiankang was on the east side. Sun Quan had built the Shitou fortress; it must had occupied a critical crossing point of the Yangzi.

The eight eastern commandaries were Kuaiji, Linhai, Yongjia, Dongyang, Xin'an, Wu, Wuxing, and Yixing.

Liu Laozhi was stationed at Jingkou.)


遣衛將軍謝琰、輔國將軍劉牢之逆擊。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The court sent the Guard General, Xie Yan, and the General Who Upholds The State, Liu Laozhi, to counter-attack Sun En.


西秦以金城太守辛靜爲右丞相。

46. Western Qin appointed their Inspector of Jincheng, Xin Jing, as their Prime Minister of the Right.

十二月,甲午,燕燕郡太守高湖帥戶三千降魏。湖,泰之子也。

47. In the twelfth month, on the day Jiawu (January 24th of 400), Yan's Administrator of Yan commandary, Gao Hu, led three thousand households to surrender to Wei. This Gao Hu was the son of Gao Tai.

〈爲後高歡篡魏張本。〉

(This was why Gao Hu's descendant Gao Huan was later present to usurp control of Northern Wei.)


冬十月,太廟成,遷神元、平文、昭成、獻明皇帝神主于太廟。十有二月甲午,慕容盛征虜將軍、燕郡太守高湖,率戶三千內屬。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In winter, the tenth month, the Ancestral Temple was completed. The statues of Emperors Shenyuan (Tuoba Liwei), Pingwen (Tuoba Yulü), Zhaocheng (Tuoba Shiyijian) and Xianming (Tuoba Shi) were moved there.

In the twelfth month, on the day Jiawu (January 24th of 400), Murong Sheng's General Who Conquers The Caitiffs and Administrator of Yan commandary, Gao Hu, led three thousand households to surrender to Northern Wei.


丙午,燕主盛封弟淵爲章武公,虔爲博陵公,子定爲遼西公。

48. On the day Bingwu (February 5th of 400), Murong Sheng appointed his younger brothers Murong Yuan and Murong Qian as Duke of Zhangwu and Duke of Boling, and he appointed his son Murong Ding as Duke of Liaoxi.

丁未,燕太后段氏卒,諡曰惠德皇后。

49. On the day Dingwei (February 6th of 400), Yan's Empress Dowager, Lady Duan, passed away. She was posthumously known as Empress Huide (“the Kind and Virtuous”).

謝琰擊斬許允之,迎魏隱還郡,進擊丘尩,破之,與劉牢之轉鬬而前,所向輒克。琰留屯烏程,遣司馬高素助牢之,進臨浙江。詔以牢之都督吳郡諸軍事。

50. Xie Yan attacked and beheaded Sun En's partisan Xu Yunzhi, and he welcomed Wei Yin back to his commandary. Then he advanced and attacked Qiu Wang and routed him. After that, he joined with Liu Laozhi to press the advance together, and everything fell before them. Xie Yan remained in camp at Wucheng county, while sending his Marshal, Gao Su, to assist Liu Laozhi, who advanced to the banks of the Zhe River and the Yangzi. An edict was issued appointing Liu Laozhi as Commander of military affairs in Wu commandary.

〈烏程縣,前漢屬會稽郡,後漢屬吳郡,魏、晉以來屬吳興郡。〉

(During Former Han, Wucheng county was part of Kuaiji commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Wu commandary. Ever since Cao-Wei and Jin, it had been part of Wuxing commandary.)


初,彭城劉裕,生而母死,父翹僑居京口,家貧,將棄之。同郡劉懷敬之母,裕之從母也,生懷敬未期,走往救之,斷懷敬乳而乳之。及長,勇健有大志。僅識文字,以賣履爲業,好樗蒲,爲鄕閭所賤。劉牢之擊孫恩,引裕參軍事,使將數十人覘賊。遇賊數千人,卽迎擊之,從者皆死,裕墜岸下。賊臨岸欲下,裕奮長刀仰斫殺數人,乃得登岸,仍大呼逐之,賊皆走,裕所殺傷甚衆。劉敬宣怪裕久不返,引兵尋之,見裕獨驅數千人,咸共歎息。因進擊賊,大破之,斬獲千餘人。

51. There lived a certain Liu Yu of Pengcheng. His mother had died when he was born, and his father Liu Qiao was living away from home at Jingkou. Because Liu Qiao's family was so poor, he had been about to abandon Liu Yu. But the mother of Liu Qiao's fellow commandary native Liu Huaijing was Liu Yu's aunt, and although she had only given birth to Liu Huaijing a short time ago, she had rushed to save Liu Yu from being abandoned; she had even weaned Liu Huaijing and nursed Liu Yu instead. When Liu Yu grew up, he was bold, strong, and very ambitious. He could hardly read any characters at all, so he sold shoes to sustain himself, and he loved to play the game chupu, gambling in the town alleyways.

When Liu Laozhi campaigned against Sun En, he brought Liu Yu along to advise him on army affairs. He sent Liu Yu to lead several dozen soldiers to scout out the rebels. But they encountered several thousand of the rebels, who quickly attacked them. All of Liu Yu's soldiers were killed, and Liu Yu fell to the bottom of a river bank. The rebels approached the bank and planned to go down to get Liu Yu, but he brandished a long blade and smote and killed several of the enemy until he could ascend the bank. Then with a loud cry he drove them back, and the rebels all fled as Liu Yu killed or wounded a great many of them. Liu Jingxuan felt it strange that Liu Yu had still not returned from his scouting mission by now, so he led troops to look for him. When they saw Liu Yu driving back thousands of enemies all by himself, everyone was moved with admiration for him. So they too advanced to attack the enemy and greatly routed them, killing or capturing more than a thousand of them.

〈晉、宋之制,參軍不署曹者無定員。〉〈劉裕事始此。〉

(According to the Jin and Liu-Song systems, Army Advisors did not have any established roles.

This is the first mention of Liu Yu.)


高祖武皇帝諱裕,字德輿,小名寄奴,彭城縣綏輿里人,漢高帝弟楚元王交之後也。交生紅懿侯富,富生宗正辟彊,辟彊生陽城繆侯德,德生陽城節侯安民,安民生陽城釐侯慶忌,慶忌生陽城肅侯岑,岑生宗正平,平生東武城令某,某生東萊太守景,景生明經洽,洽生博士弘,弘生瑯邪都尉悝,悝生魏定襄太守某,某生邪城令亮,亮生晉北平太守膺,膺生相國掾熙,熙生開封令旭孫。旭孫生混,始過江,居晉陵郡丹徒縣之京口里,官至武原令。混生東安太守靖,靖生郡功曹翹,是為皇考。高祖以晉哀帝興寧元年歲次癸亥三月壬寅夜生。及長,身長七尺六寸,風骨奇特。家貧,有大志,不治廉隅。事繼母以孝謹稱。初為冠軍孫無終司馬。安帝隆安三年十一月,妖賊孫恩作亂於會稽,晉朝衞將軍謝琰、前將軍劉牢之東討。牢之請高祖參府軍事。十二月,牢之至吳,而賊緣道屯結,牢之命高祖與數十人覘賊遠近。會遇賊至,眾數千人,高祖便進與戰。所將人多死,而戰意方厲,手奮長刀,所殺傷甚眾。牢之子敬宣疑高祖淹久,恐為賊所困,乃輕騎尋之。既而眾騎並至,賊乃奔退,斬獲千餘人。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yu, styled Deyu, would later be known as Emperor Wu of Liu-Song, with the temple name Gaozu. His childhood name was Jinu. He was a native of Suiyu village in Pengcheng county.

Liu Yu was a descendant of the Han dynasty's Prince Yuan of Chu, Liu Jiao, the younger brother of Emperor Gao (Liu Bang). Liu Jiao was the father of Marquis Yi of Jiang, Liu Fu. Liu Fu was the father of the Household Rectifier, Liu Pijiang. Liu Pijiang was the father of Marquis Mou of Yangcheng, Liu De. Liu De was the father of Marquis Jie of Yangcheng, Liu Anmin. Liu Anmin was the father of Marquis Li of Yangcheng, Liu Qingji. Liu Qingji was the father of Marquis Su of Yangcheng, Liu Cen. Liu Cen was the father of the Household Rectifier, Liu Ping. Liu Ping was the father of the Prefect of Eastern Wucheng, Liu Mou. Liu Mou was the father of the Administrator of Donglai, Liu Jing. Liu Jing was the father of the Instructor of the Classics, Liu Qia. Liu Qia was the father of the Academician, Liu Hong. Liu Hong was the father of the Commandant of Langye, Liu Kui. Liu Kui was the father of Cao-Wei's Administrator of Dingxiang, Liu Mou. Liu Mou was the father of the Prefect of Xiecheng, Liu Liang. Liu Liang was the father of Jin's Prefect of Beiping, Liu Ying. Liu Ying was the father of the Official of the Chancellor of State, Liu Xi. Liu Xi was the father of the Prefect of Kaifeng, Liu Xusun.

Liu Xusun was the father of Liu Kun. It was during Liu Kun's life that the family went south across the Yangzi and settled at Jingkou village in Dantu county in Jinling commandary. Liu Kun rose in office as high as Prefect of Wuyuan. Liu Kun was the father of the Administrator of Dong'an, Liu Jing. Liu Jing was the father of the Merit Evaluator for that county, Liu Qiao. Liu Qiao was the father of Liu Yu.

Liu Yu was born in Emperor Ai of Jin's first year of Xingning (363), which was a Guihai year, in the third month, during the night of the day Renyin (April 16th). By the time he grew up, he was seven chi eight cun tall, and both his aura and his physique were strange and exceptional. And though Liu Yu came from a poor family, he was very ambitious and unwilling to remain modest and obscure. He was commended for his filial piety and his diligence because he looked after his stepmother.

Liu Yu initially served as Marshal to the Champion General, Sun Wuzhong.

In Emperor An's third year of Long'an (399), in the eleventh month, the bandit mystic Sun En launched a rebellion in Kuaiji. The court's Guard General, Xie Yan, and the General of the Front, Liu Laozhi, went east to campaign against Sun En. Liu Laozhi asked Liu Yu to serve on his staff as a military advisor.

In the twelfth month, Liu Laozhi arrived in Wu commandary. But the roads were filled with various camps of the rebels. Liu Laozhi ordered Liu Yu to lead several dozen soldiers to scout out the bandit camps, near and far. But they suddenly encountered the rebels, several thousand strong. So Liu Yu went forward to fight them. Most of Liu Yu's soldiers were killed, but Liu Yu maintained a fierce determination for the fight; he grasp a long blade in his own hand and killed or wounded a great many of the enemy.

Liu Laozhi's son Liu Jingxuan felt it strange that Liu Yu had still not returned from his scouting mission by now, and he was afraid that the rebels had him in a tough spot, so he led light cavalry to look for him. Once the time the cavalry arrived on the scene, the rebels were put to flight, and more than a thousand of them were beheaded or captured. When they saw Liu Yu driving back thousands of enemies all by himself, everyone was moved with admiration for him. So they too advanced to attack the enemy and greatly routed them, killing or capturing more than a thousand of them.


初,恩聞八郡響應,謂其屬曰:「天下無復事矣,當與諸君朝服至建康。」旣而聞牢之臨江,曰:「我割浙江以東,不失作句踐!」戊申,牢之引兵濟江,恩聞之曰:「孤不羞走。」遂驅男女二十餘萬口東走,多棄寶物、子女於道,官軍競取之,恩由是得脫,復逃入海島。高素破恩黨於山陰,斬恩所署吳郡太守陸瓌,吳興太守丘尩、餘姚令吳興沈穆夫。

52. At first, when Sun En heard that the eight commandaries of the east were now supporting him, he told his followers, "The realm is finished; I shall accompany you all to Jiankang, where we shall dress in court robes." Later, when he heard that Liu Laozhi was now along the Yangzi, he began to say, "I can carve out all the territory east of the Zhe River and the Yangzi, and I shall be no worse off than Goujian!" Then on the day Wushen (February 7th of 400), Liu Laozhi led his troops across the Yangzi. When Sun En heard this, he declared, "I am not ashamed to retreat." So he forced more than two hundred thousand men and women to flee east with him, many of whom abandoned their valuables and even their children along the road. The government army rushed to capture these things, allowing Sun En to make his escape, and he fled back to the islands on the seacoast.

Gao Su routed Sun En's followers at Shanyin county. He executed the officials that Sun En had appointed: the Administrator of Wu commandary, Lu Gui, the Administrator of Wuxing, Qiu Wang, and the Prefect of Yuyao, Chen Mufu of Wuxing.

〈言欲踐位也。〉〈欲如越王句踐保有會稽也。〉〈《江表傳》:周瑜之破魏軍也,曹公曰:「孤不羞走。」故恩引以爲言。〉〈山陰縣屬會稽郡,郡城以北皆縣界。〉〈餘姚縣屬會稽郡,在郡城東二百餘里。〉

(Sun En's first statement implied that he planned to make himself Emperor. His second statement was comparing himself to King Goujian, the ruler of the ancient southeastern state of Yue. His final statement was a quote, a reference to the Jiangbiao Zhuan: "When Zhou Yu routed the Wei army, Cao Cao declared, 'I am not ashamed to retreat.'"

Shanyin county was part of Kuaiji commandary; everything north of the commandary capital was part of that county.

Yuyao county was also part of Kuaiji commandary, more than two hundred li east of the commandary capital.)


謝琰、劉牢之走之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Xie Yan and Liu Laozhi drove Sun En off.

推鋒而進,平山陰,恩遁還入海。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

Liu Yu's troops pressed their advantage and advanced; they pacified Shanyin, and Sun En fled back into the sea.


東土遭亂,企望官軍之至,旣而牢之等縱軍士暴掠,士民失望,郡縣城中無復人跡,月餘乃稍有還者。朝廷憂恩復至,以謝琰爲會稽太守、都督五郡軍事,帥徐州文武戍海浦。

53. The eastern territories had been ravaged by the rebellion, so now that the government army had arrived, they had hoped for relief. But Liu Laozhi and the others let loose their soldiers to pillage the countryside, and the gentry and common people lost faith. Many of the cities in the commandaries and counties were left empty, and even after a month only a handful of people had returned to them.

The court was worried that Sun En might return, so they appointed Xie Yan as Administrator of Kuaiji and Commander of military affairs in five commandaries, and Xie Yan led the civil and military officials of Xuzhou to camp along the seashore.

〈五郡,會稽、臨海、東陽、永嘉、新安也。今自龕山而東至蘭風、石堰、鳴鶴、松浦、蟹浦、定海,皆海浦也。〉

(These five commandaries were Kuaiji, Linhai, Dongyang, Yongjia, and Xin'an.

In our time, the places along the seashore are from Kanshan east to Lanfeng, Shiyan, Minghe, Songpu, Xiepu, and Dinghai.)


以元顯錄尚書事。時人謂道子爲東錄,元顯爲西錄;西府車騎塡湊,東第門可張羅矣。元顯無良師友,所親信者率皆佞諛之人,或以爲一時英傑,或以爲風流名士。由是元顯日益驕侈,諷禮官立議,以己德隆望重,旣錄百揆,百揆皆應盡敬。於是公卿以下,見元顯皆拜。時軍旅數起,國用虛竭,自司徒以下,日廩七升,而元顯聚斂不已,富踰帝室。

54. Sima Yuanxian was appointed as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. The people of that time referred to Sima Daozi as the Eastern Chief and Sima Yuanxian as the Western Chief; the Western Bureau was filled with horses and chariots, and the Eastern Residence was so swarmed that one could "catch people with a net" there.

Sima Yuanxian did not surround himself with excellent leaders or friends; all his trusted associates were mere flatterers. Some of them called him the hero of the age, while others proclaimed him a refined gentleman. These things caused Sima Yuanxian to become more and more arrogant by the day. He ignored official protocol and involved himself in discussions, and feeling that his virtue was abundant and his influence was considerable, he assumed the title of General Regulator; all his acts in that capacity were heeded and respected. So everyone from the nobles and chief ministers on down performed obeisance to Sima Yuanxian whenever they saw him. Since by this time several military operations had been conducted, thus draining the resources of the state, everyone from the Minister of Works on down was compelled to donate seven 升 of grain per day to sustain the government. But Sima Yuanxian gathered his grain together and did not give it up, and he was more wealthy even than the imperial residence.

〈舜納于百揆。禹宅百揆。《周官》曰:唐、虞稽古,建官維百,內有百揆四岳,外有州牧侯伯。皆以百揆爲官名。孔安國曰:揆,度也;舜舉八凱,使揆度百事,是言以百揆名官之義也。晉人多以百揆爲百官。〉〈爲元顯亡國敗家張本。〉

(Regarding the term 百揆 General Regulator, the ancient Emperor Shun received a 百揆, and Emperor Yao housed a 百揆. The Offices of Zhou states, "Tang (Yao) and Yu (Shun) studied the ancient texts, and they established offices for the hundred affairs; within, they had the 百揆 and the Four 岳s, and without, they had the provincial governors and the marquises and barons." In all these instances, we see 百揆 being used in the sense of the title of an office. Kong Anguo remarked, "揆 means to regulate. When Shun raised up the Eight Kais as his officials, he charged them with regulating the hundred affairs. This led to the title of the office as the 百揆 General Regulator." Many of the people of Jin called the General Regulator the General Official.

This was why Sima Yuanxian later led to the downfall of his state and the doom of his family.)


殷仲堪恐桓玄跋扈,乃與楊佺期結昏爲援。佺期屢欲攻玄,仲堪每抑止之。玄恐終爲殷、楊所滅,乃告執政,求廣其所統;執政亦欲交構,使之乖離,乃加玄都督荊州四郡軍事,又以玄兄偉代佺期兄廣爲南蠻校尉。佺期忿懼。楊廣欲拒桓偉,仲堪不聽,出廣爲宜都、建平二郡太守。楊孜敬先爲江夏相,玄以兵襲而劫之,以爲諮議參軍。

55. Yin Zhongkan was afraid of Huan Xuan's growing domination, so he arranged for mutual support with Yang Quanqi. Yang Quanqi kept wanting to attack Huan Xuan, but Yin Zhongkan always restrained and stopped him.

Huan Xuan too was afraid that Yin Zhongkan and Yang Quanqi would destroy him in the end. So he sent word to those in power at the capital, asking them to expand his area of command. Those in power also wished to take advantage of the divisions between the Jingzhou leaders to sow discord between them. So they further promoted Huan Xuan as Commander of military affairs in four commandaries of Jingzhou, and they had Huan Xuan's elder brother Huan Wei replace Yang Quanqi's elder brother Yang Guang as Colonel of Southern Man Tribes. Yang Quanqi was indignant and afraid. Yang Guang wanted to oppose Huan Wei, but Yin Zhongkan would not hear of it, and he sent Yang Guang away to serve as Administrator of Yidu and Jianping.

Yang Zijing had earlier been appointed as Chancellor of Jiangxia. But Huan Xuan had his soldiers launch a surprise attack against Yang Zijing and capture him, then appointed him as an Army Consultant-Advisor.

〈執政,謂元顯。荊州四郡,謂長沙、衡陽、湘東、零陵也。〉

("Those in power" meant Sima Yuanxian. The four commandaries in Jingzhou were Changsha, Hengyang, Xiangdong, and Lingling.)


佺期勒兵建牙,聲云援洛,欲與仲堪襲玄。仲堪雖外結佺期而內疑其心,苦止之;猶慮弗能禁,遣從弟遹屯于北境,以遏佺期。佺期旣不能獨舉,又不測仲堪本意,乃解兵。

56. Yang Quanqi assembled his soldiers at Jianya. He claimed that he was planning to go reinforce Luoyang, but really he wanted to work together with Yin Zhongkan to launch a surprise attack against Huan Xuan. But even though Yin Zhongkan could count on Yang Quanqi's support from without, he still harbored suspicions in his own heart. So he bitterly halted Yang Quanqi's planned movement. And still concerned that he might not be able to prevent Yang Quanqi from acting anyway, Yin Zhongkan sent his cousin Yin Yu to camp on the northern border to block Yang Quanqi. Since Yang Quanqi could not act against Huan Xuan on his own, nor could he win Yin Zhongkan over to his line of thinking, he disbanded his troops.

〈雍州治襄陽,在江陵之北。〉

(Yang Quanqi had earlier been appointed as Inspector of Yongzhou. Jin's version of Yongzhou was administered from Xiangyang, north of Yin Zhongkan's base at Jiangling.)


仲堪多疑少決,諮議參軍羅企生謂其弟遵生曰:「殷侯仁而無斷,必及於難。吾蒙知遇,義不可去,必將死之。」

57. Yin Zhongkan was full of doubts and could hardly make up his mind about anything. His Army Consultant-Advisor, Luo Qisheng, said to his younger brother Luo Zunsheng, "Although Marquis Yin is benevolent, he is not decisive. He is sure to come to grief. But I have been favored by him and shown regard, and it would not be right for me to abandon him. So my death too is near at hand."

是歲,荊州大水,平地三丈,仲堪竭倉廩以賑飢民。桓玄欲乘其虛而代之,乃發兵西上,亦聲言救洛,與仲堪書曰:「佺期受國恩而棄山陵,宜共罪之。今當入沔討除佺期,已頓兵江口。若見與無貳,可收楊廣殺之;如其不爾,便當帥兵入江。」時巴陵有積穀,玄先遣兵襲取之。梁州刺史郭銓當之官,路經夏口,玄詐稱朝廷遣銓爲己前鋒,乃授以江夏之衆,使督諸軍並進,密報兄偉令爲內應。偉遑遽不知所爲,自齎疏示仲堪。仲堪執偉爲質,令與玄書,辭甚苦至。玄曰:「仲堪爲人無決,常懷成敗之計,爲兒子作慮,我兄必無憂也!」

58. During this year, there was flooding in Jingzhou, rising three zhang above the ground. Yin Zhongkan emptied his granaries to send supplies to the people who were thus left starving. Huan Xuan wanted to take advantage of Yin Zhongkan's now lack of supplies to replace him, so he raised his troops and marched west upstream. He too claimed to be marching to Luoyang's aid, and he sent Yin Zhongkan a letter stating, "Yang Quanqi had received the grace of the state, yet he abandoned the imperial tombs at the old capital. We should both hold him to account for this crime. I am now entering the Mian River to march against and get rid of Yang Quanqi, and I have already camped my troops at Jiangkou. If you agree with my proposal, you may arrest Yang Guang and kill him; if not, I shall have to lead my troops up the Yangzi."

At this time, there was grain stockpiled at Baling. So Huan Xuan first sent troops to raid Baling and capture the grain. The new Inspector of Lianzhou, Guo Quan, had just been appointed to that office and was on the road, passing through Xiakou. Huan Xuan forged a court order appointing Guo Quan as his leader of the vanguard and granting him command of the soldiers of Jiangxia. He sent all his forces to advance at once, while secretly sending Huan Wei an order to support him from within. Huan Wei, pressed by circumstances and not knowing what was going on, himself delivered this order to Yin Zhongkan, who took Huan Wei as a hostage. He then sent an order to Huan Xuan in response, castigating him with bitter language. But Huan Xuan only declared, "Yin Zhongkan can't decide on anything; he is always concerned about planning against defeat, and even a child would make him worried. My elder brother has nothing to fear!"

〈晉復洛陽以屬雍州統內,故玄以棄山陵罪佺期。〉〈與,許也,從也,黨也。心持兩端爲貳。〉〈入江,則欲攻江陵。〉〈遑,急也。遽,亦急也。〉

(Jin had once again placed Luoyang under the control of the Inspector of Yongzhou, a post which Yang Quanqi now held. This was why Huan Xuan accused him of having abandoned the imperial tombs at Luoyang.

The term 與 here means "to permit, to heed, to associate with". And one whose heart is torn between two sides is ambivalent.

By "up the Yangzi", Huan Xuan meant he intended to attack Jiangling itself.

The terms 遑 and 遽 here both mean "pressed".)


是歲,荊州大水,平地三丈。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During this year, there was flooding in Jingzhou; the water rose three zhang above the ground.


仲堪遣殷遹帥水軍七千至西江口,玄使郭銓、苻宏擊之,遹等敗走。玄頓巴陵,食其穀;仲堪遣楊廣及弟子道護等拒之,皆爲玄所敗。江陵震駭。

59. Yin Zhongkan sent Yin Yu to lead a naval force of seven thousand soldiers to Western Jiangkou. But Huan Xuan sent Guo Quan and Fu Hong to attack them, and Yin Yu and the others were defeated and fled. Huan Xuan halted at Baling, where he consumed the grain there. Yin Zhongkan sent Yang Guang, his nephew Yin Daohu, and others to oppose Huan Xuan, but they were all defeated. Jiangling shook with fear.

〈《水經》:江水東至長沙下雋縣北,湘水從南來注之。江水又東左得二夏浦。《註》云:夏浦,俗謂之西江口。〉〈孝武太元十年,苻宏來奔,處之江州,玄因以爲將。〉

(The Water Classic states, "The Yangzi flows east, through the north of Xiajuan county in Changsha commandary. At that point, the Xian River flows up from the south to join it. And further on to the east, the Yangzi also joins the two Xiapu." The Commentary adds, "Xiapu was commonly called Western Jiangkou."

This was the same Fu Hong that had been Fu Jian's heir. In Emperor Xiaowu's tenth year of Taiyuan (385.38), Fu Hong had fled to Jin, where he had been placed in Jiangzhou. Huan Xuan had since employed him as a general.)


城中乏食,以胡麻廩軍士。玄乘勝至零口,去江陵二十里,仲堪急召楊佺期以自救。佺期曰:「江陵無食,何以待敵!可來見就,共守襄陽。」仲堪志在全軍保境,不欲棄州逆走,乃紿之曰:「比來收集,已有儲矣。」佺期信之,帥步騎八千,精甲耀日,至江陵,仲堪唯以飯餉其軍。佺期大怒曰:「今茲敗矣!」不見仲堪,與其兄廣共擊玄;玄畏其銳,退軍馬頭。明日,佺期引兵急擊郭銓,幾獲之;會玄兵至,佺期大敗,單騎奔襄陽。仲堪出奔酇城。玄遣將軍馮該追佺期及廣,皆獲而殺之,傳首建康。佺期弟思平,從弟尚保、孜敬逃入蠻中。仲堪聞佺期死,將數百人將奔長安,至冠軍城,該追獲之,還至柞溪,逼令自殺,幷殺殷道護。仲堪奉天師道,禱請鬼神,不吝財賄,而嗇於周急;好爲小惠以悅人,病者自爲診脈分藥;用計倚伏煩密,而短於鑒略,故至於敗。

60. Those inside of Jiangling were so hungry and weak that the soldiers ate sesame seeds. Huan Xuan pressed his victories to advance to Lingkou, twenty li from Jiangling.

Yin Zhongkan urgently summoned Yang Quanqi to come reinforce him. But Yang Quanqi replied, "Jiangling has no food; how could you possibly resist the enemy? What you ought to do is come to me, and we can hold Xiangyang together."

Yet Yin Zhongkan wished to defend all of his territory, and he did not want to abandon his province and flee. So he deceived Yang Quanqi by telling him, "I had been gathering food lately, and my stores here are already replenished."

Yang Quanqi believed him, so he led eight thousand horse and foot to Jiangling; they wore fine armor, brilliant as the sun. When they arrived, Yin Zhongkan could only offer them some cooked rice. Furious, Yang Quanqi exclaimed, "We're as good as defeated already!" Refusing to meet with Yin Zhongkan, he and Yang Guang instead went to attack Huan Xuan together. Huan Xuan was afraid of the zeal of Yang Quanqi's soldiers, and he had his army fall back to Matou. The next day, Yang Quanqi led his soldiers to launch a fierce assault against Guo Quan. They had nearly captured him, but then Huan Xuan's soldiers arrived, and Yang Quanqi's army was greatly defeated; he fled on a lone horse back to Xiangyang. Yin Zhongkan marched away to flee to Zancheng.

Huan Xuan sent his general Feng Gai to pursue Yang Quanqi and Yang Guang, and Feng Gai captured them both and killed them, then sent their heads to Jiankang. Yang Quanqi's younger brother Yang Siping and his cousins Yang Shangbao and Yang Zijing fled to take refuge among the Man tribes. When Yin Zhongkan heard that Yang Quanqi was dead, he led several hundred people to flee towards Chang'an. But he made it only as far as the city of Guanjun before Feng Gai caught up with him and captured him. They returned as far as Zhaxi before Feng Gai compelled Yin Zhongkan to kill himself, then killed Yin Daohu as well.

Yin Zhongkan was a follower of the Celestial Masters sect, and he had prayed for the support of the gods and spirits. He had no greed for wealth or bribes, but he was unwilling to expend what was needed when danger loomed. He enjoyed small acts of kindness that would please people, and he even went so far as to personally diagnose sick people and prescribe medicine for them. But though he had some skill at needling plans, he was deficient at reflecting upon strategies. This was why he suffered defeat.

〈胡麻,今謂之芝麻,粒小於粟,而黑,可以爲油。九炊九曝,以爲飯,食之,使人不飢。「廩」,當作「稟」,給也。〉〈零口,卽靈溪入江之口。〉〈比,近也。〉〈江陵縣南有江津戍,戍南對馬頭岸。〉〈酇縣,卽蕭何所封之邑;漢屬南陽郡,晉分屬順陽郡。〉〈冠軍縣,卽霍去病所封之邑,屬南陽郡,其地在唐鄧州臨湍縣南界。〉〈《水經註》:柞溪水出江陵縣北,蓋諸池散流,咸所會合,積以成川;東流逕驛路水,上有大橋,仲堪縊處也;又東注船官湖。柞,子各翻,又在各翻。〉〈按脈以候病爲診。〉

(Sesame seeds are what we now call flax seeds. They are small like with millet, only black, and they can be used as oil. They are edible with enough cooking and enough heat, and by eating them one can stave off hunger.

This passage uses the term 廩, but it should be 稟; that is, the seeds "sustained" the troops.

Lingkou was the mouth of the Lingxi River where it enters the Yangzi.

比 here means "lately".

There were camps at the crossing points over the Yangzi in the south of Jiangling county. These camps faced the Matou Gorge to the south across the river.

Zan county was the region which the Han minister Xiao He had been granted as his fief. During Han, it was part of Nanyang commandary; during Jin, it was split off as part of Shunyang commandary.

Guancheng ("Champion General") county was the region which the Han general Huo Qubing had been granted as his fief. It was part of Nanyang commandary. During Tang, it was in the south of Lintuan county in Dengzhou.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zhaxi River has its origin in the north of Jiangling county, where the waters of several ponds all scatter their flows but then join together, gathering at Chengchuan. It flows east into the Yilu River. There is a great bridge at that place; this was where Yin Zhongkan was hanged. It also flows east into Lake Chuanguan." The first character of Zhaxi, 柞, is pronounced "ze (z-e)".

To check someone's pulse and investigate their illness is to diagnose them.)


十二月,桓玄襲江陵,荊州刺史殷仲堪、南蠻校尉楊佺期並遇害。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the twelfth month, Huan Xuan launched a surprise attack against Jiangling. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Yin Zhongkan, and the Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Yang Quanqi, were both killed.


仲堪之走也,文武無送者,惟羅企生從之。路經家門,弟遵生曰:「作如此分離,何可不一執手!」企生旋馬授手,遵生有力,因牽下之,曰:「家有老母,去將何之?」企生揮淚曰:「今日之事,我必死之;汝等奉養,不失子道。一門之中,有忠與孝,亦復何恨!」遵生抱之愈急,仲堪於路待之,見企生無脫理,策馬而去。及玄至,荊州人士無不詣玄者,企生獨不往,而營理仲堪家事。或曰:「如此,禍必至矣!」企生曰:「殷侯遇我以國士,爲弟所制,不得隨之共殄醜逆,復何面目就桓求生乎!」玄聞之怒,然待企生素厚,先遣人謂曰:「若謝我,當釋汝。」企生曰:「吾爲殷荊州吏,荊州敗,不能救,尚何謝爲!」玄乃收之,復遣人問企生欲何言。企生曰:「文帝殺嵇康,嵇紹爲晉忠臣,從公乞一弟以養老母!」玄乃殺企生而赦其弟。

61. When Yin Zhongkan had fled, most of his civil and military officials had abandoned him. Luo Qisheng was the only one to remain by his side. As they were fleeing along the road, they passed by the gate of Luo Qisheng's house, where his younger brother Luo Zunsheng said to him, "If we are going to be apart like this, will you not at least take my hand for a moment?"

So Luo Qisheng reached his hand down to take his brother's hand. But Luo Zunsheng, being a strong fellow, pulled Luo Qisheng down off his horse and told him, "How can you go away when you have an aged mother at home?"

Luo Qisheng wiped away tears as he replied, "With how things have gone, I am certain to die. But you and the others may support our mother, and not abandon your duties as children. Thus may our household both uphold loyalty and fulfill filial piety. What regrets would I have then?"

But Luo Zunsheng gripped him fiercely and would not let him go. Yin Zhongkan had been waiting in the road for Luo Qisheng, but when he saw that Luo Qisheng could not get away, Yin Zhongkan whipped his horse and rode off.

When Huan Xuan arrived, almost all of the gentry of Jingzhou came to visit him. But Luo Qisheng would not go, and he even settled the affairs of Yin Zhongkan's family. Someone told him, "By doing these things, you'll meet with disaster too!"

But Luo Qisheng replied, "Though Marquis Yin met me when I was just a mere country fellow, he treated me like his younger brother. Yet I was unable to accompany him to destroy the wicked traitors together. How could I ever show my face to Huan Xuan and beg for my life?"

When Huan Xuan heard about this, he was angered, but because he had always treated Luo Qisheng with favor, he first sent an agent to tell him, "If you will apologize to me, I will release you."

But Luo Qisheng replied, "I was an official of Inspector Yin, but the Inspector was defeated and I could not save him. What do I have to apologize for?"

So Huan Xuan arrested him, and had someone ask Luo Qisheng if he had any last requests. Luo Qisheng replied, "Although Emperor Wen (Sima Zhao) once killed Ji Kang, his son Ji Shao still became a loyal servant of Jin. I beg Lord Huan to spare my younger brother, so that he can support my old mother!"

Thus, although Huan Xuan killed Luo Qisheng, he pardoned his younger brother.

〈殺嵇康事見七十八卷魏元帝景元三年。嵇紹死事見八十五卷惠帝永興元年。〉

(Sima Zhao's execution of Ji Kang is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) third year of Jingyuan (262.12-15 in Fang's Chronicles).

Ji Shao's martyrdom on behalf of Emperor Hui of Jin is mentioned in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (304.12).)


涼王光疾甚,立太子紹爲天王,自號太上皇帝;以太原公纂爲太尉,常山公弘爲司徒。謂紹曰:「今國家多難,三鄰伺隙,吾沒之後,使纂統六軍,弘管朝政,汝恭己無爲,委重二兄,庶幾可濟,若內相猜忌,則蕭牆之變,旦夕至矣!」又謂纂、弘曰:「永業才非撥亂,直以立嫡有常,猥居元首。今外有強寇,人心未寧,汝兄弟緝X,則祚流萬世;若內自相圖,則禍不旋踵矣!」纂、弘泣曰:「不敢。」又執纂手戒之曰:「汝性粗暴,深爲吾憂。善輔永業,勿聽讒言!」是日,光卒。紹祕不發喪,纂排閤入哭,盡哀而出。紹懼,以位讓之,曰:「兄功高年長,宜承大統。」纂曰:「陛下國之冢嫡,臣敢奸之!」紹固讓,纂不許。

62. Lü Guang became seriously ill. He had his heir Lü Shao replace him as Heavenly King, while Lü Guang named himself the Retired Emperor. He appointed Lü Zuan as Grand Commandant, and he appointed the Duke of Changshan, Lü Hong, as Minister Over The Masses.

Lü Guang said to Lü Shao, "The state is currently facing many difficulties, and our three neighbors are spying on us to see where they can take advantage. After I am gone, put Lü Zuan in charge of the six armies while having Lü Hong oversee affairs of court and state. You must show them your respect, and place your trust in your two elder brothers. With their help, you may succeed. But if there is internal suspicion and distrust, then overnight there will be upheavals within the screen of our own court!"

And he said to Lü Zuan and Lü Hong, "I know that Yongye's (Lü Shao's) talents are not suited to dealing with turmoil. But it has always been the principle to have the eldest son of the wife inherit, even when it comes to the head of the state. Now we are faced with powerful enemies without, and the people's hearts are not yet settled. If you brothers can stay bound together, then our posterity will extend for ten thousand generations. But if you plot against each other, disaster will be upon you in an instant!"

They wept as they said, "We dare not do any such thing."

Lü Guang then took Lü Zuan by the hand and instructed him, "I have been deeply worried about your rough and violent nature. You would do well to support Yongye. Do not listen to slander!"

The same day, Lü Guang passed away.

Lü Shao hid his death and did not conduct mourning. But Lü Zuan forced his way into the pavilion to mourn, only leaving after fully expressing his grief.

Lü Shao was afraid, and he offered to yield his position to Lü Zuan, saying, "Elder Brother, you are older than I am and you have achieved great things. The succession should be yours."

But Lü Zuan replied, "Your Majesty is the lawful heir; could I dare to go against your claim?"

Although Lü Shao continued to insist, Lü Zuan would not accept.

〈三鄰,謂禿髮、乞伏、段業也。〉〈呂紹字永業。〉〈君爲元首。〉〈年六十三。〉

(The "three neighbors" were the Tufa clan, the Qifu clan, and Duan Ye.

Lü Shao's style name was Yongye.

The sovereign was the head of the state.

Lü Guang was sixty-two years old when he died.)


是歲,呂光立其子紹為天王,自稱太上皇。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year, Lü Guang established his son Lü Shao as Heavenly King, while naming himself Retired Emperor.

呂光立其太子紹爲天王,自號太上皇。是日,光死。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Lü Guang appointed his Crown Prince, Lü Guang, as Heavenly King, while naming himself as Retired Emperor. The same day, Lü Guang passed away.

四年九月,光寢疾。十二月,疾甚,立太子紹為天王,光自號太上皇帝,以子纂為太尉,弘為司徒。詔曰:「吾疾病不濟,吾終之後,使纂統六軍,弘管朝政,汝恭己無為,委重二兄,庶可以濟。今外有強寇,民心未寧,汝兄弟輯睦,貽厥萬世,若內相圖,則禍不旋踵。」纂、弘泣曰:「不敢有二心。」薨。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

In the fourth year of Longfei (399), the ninth month, Lü Guang was bedridden by illness. In the twelfth month, the illness became critical. He appointed his Crown Prince, Lü Shao, as Heavenly King, while Lü Guang changed his own title to Retired Emperor. He appointed his sons Lü Zuan and Lü Hong as Grand Commandant and Minister Over The Masses. Lü Guang issued an edict declaring, "I shall not recover from this illness. After I am gone, place Lü Zuan in command of the six armies while Lü Hong oversees the court and state affairs. You must show them your respect, and place your trust in your two elder brothers. With their help, you may succeed. The state is threatened by powerful enemies without, and the hearts of the people are not settled within. If you brothers can stay bound together, then our posterity will extend for ten thousand generations. But if you plot against each other, disaster will be upon you in an instant!"

Lü Zuan and Lü Hong wept as they said, "We dare not be of two hearts."

Lü Guang passed away.

光疾甚,立紹為天王,自號太上皇帝。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang became critically ill. He appointed Lü Shao as Heavenly King, while he named himself the Retired Emperor.

光疾甚,立其太子紹為天王,自號太上皇帝。以呂纂為太尉,呂弘為司徒。謂紹曰:「吾疾病唯增,恐將不濟。三寇窺窬,迭伺國隙。吾終以後,使纂統六軍,弘管朝政,汝恭己無為,委重二兄,庶可以濟。若內相猜貳,釁起蕭牆,則晉、趙之變旦夕至矣。」又謂纂、弘曰:「永業才非撥亂,直以正嫡有常,猥居元首。今外有強寇,人心未甯,汝兄弟緝穆,則貽厥萬世。若內自相圖,則禍不旋踵。」纂、弘泣曰:「不敢有二心。」光以安帝隆安三年死,時年六十三,在位十年。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang became critically ill. He appointed his Crown Prince, Lü Shao, as Heavenly King, while Lü Guang changed his own title to Retired Emperor. He appointed Lü Zuan and Lü Hong as Grand Commandant and Minister Over The Masses.

Lü Guang said to Lü Shao, "My illness and pain are only getting worse, and I fear I shall not recover. Our three neighbors are spying on us to see where they can take advantage. After I am gone, put Lü Zuan in charge of the six armies while having Lü Hong oversee affairs of court and state. You must show them your respect, and place your trust in your two elder brothers. With their help, you may succeed. But if there is internal suspicion and distrust, then overnight there will be upheavels within the screen of our own court. Remember how such constant changes plagued the courts of the Jin and (Later) Zhao dynasties."

And he said to Lü Zuan and Lü Hong, "I know that Yongye's (Lü Shao's) talents are not suited to dealing with turmoil. But it has always been the principle to have the eldest son of the wife inherit, even when it comes to the head of the state. Now we are faced with powerful enemies without, and the people's hearts are not yet settled. If you brothers can stay bound together, then our posterity will extend for ten thousand generations. But if you plot against each other, disaster will be upon you in an instant!"

Lü Zuan and Lü Hong wept as they said, "We dare not be of two hearts."

Lü Guang passed away in Emperor An's third year of Long'an (399). He was sixty-two years old, and had reigned for ten years.


驃騎將軍呂超謂紹曰:「纂爲將積年,威震內外,臨喪不哀,步高視遠,必有異志,宜早除之。」紹曰:「先帝言猶在耳,柰何棄之!吾以弱年負荷大任,方賴二兄以寧家國,縱其圖我,我視死如歸,終不忍有此意也。卿勿復言!」纂見紹於湛露堂,超執刀侍側,目纂請收之,紹弗許。超,光弟寶之子也。

63. Liang's General of Agile Cavalry, Lü Chao, said to Lü Shao, "Lü Zuan has been a general for many years, and his power is felt near and far. We have barely finished mourning our late lord, yet he is already stepping high and looking afar. He is surely planning something sinister. You had better get rid of him at once."

But Lü Shao replied, "I can still hear my late father's words ringing in my ears; how could I cast them aside? Though I am still a mere youth, I have had this great role thrust upon me. I must rely upon my two elder brothers if I am to bring peace to the state. If they mean to plot against me, let them; I shall look upon my death as returning home. I could never do as you suggest. Never say such things again!"

When Lü Zuan came to see Lü Shao at the Zhanlu Hall, Lü Chao stood at Lü Shao's side, holding a blade. He glared at Lü Zuan and asked to arrest him, but Lü Shao refused to allow it. This Lü Chao was the son of Lü Guang's younger brother Lü Bao.

〈爲超終殺纂張本。〉

(This was why Lü Chao later killed Lü Zuan.)


弘密遣尚書姜紀謂纂曰:「主上闇弱,未堪多難;兄威恩素著,宜爲社稷計,不可徇小節也。」纂於是夜帥壯士數百踰北城,攻廣夏門,弘帥東苑之衆斧洪範門。左衞將軍齊從守融明觀,逆問之曰:「誰也?」衆曰:「太原公。」從曰:「國有大故,主上新立,太原公行不由道,夜入禁城,將爲亂邪?」因抽劍直前,斫纂中額,纂左右禽之。纂曰:「義士也,勿殺!」紹遣虎賁中郎將呂開帥禁兵拒戰於端門,呂超帥卒二千赴之,衆素憚纂,皆不戰而潰。纂入自青角門,升謙光殿。紹登紫閤自殺。呂超奔廣武。

64. Lü Hong secretly sent one of the Masters of Writing, Jiang Ji, to tell Lü Zuan, "Our lord is foolish and young, and he is not up to the task of dealing with the many difficulties we face. Elder Brother, your power and grace have long been renowned, and you are the one we should entrust the fortunes of state to. Do not continue to insist upon such a meager duty."

So Lü Zuan led several hundred strong fellows to march from the northern city during the night, and they attacked the Guangxia Gate, while Lü Hong led the soldiers of the eastern Yuancheng to break through the Hongfan Gate.

The Guard General of the Left, Qi Cong, was guarding the Rongming Outlook. He turned and demanded, "Who commands you?"

The army replied, "The Duke of Taiyuan (Lü Zuan)."

Qi Cong mused, "The state has just exchanged leaders, and our sovereign is newly enthroned. The Duke of Taiyuan is acting without principle, forcing his way into the forbidden city during the night. Is he starting a rebellion?"

So he drew his sword and charged ahead, and was able to smite Lü Zuan right in the forehead before Lü Zuan's attendants captured him. Lü Zuan told them, "He is a righteous man; don't kill him!"

Lü Shao sent the General of the Household Gentlemen Rapid As Tigers, Lü Kai, to lead the palace guards to oppose the rebels at the Duan Gates, and Lü Chao led two thousand soldiers to join them. But the soldiers had long feared Lü Zuan, and they all scattered without fighting. Lü Zuan entered through the Qingjiao Gate and ascended into the Qianguang Palace. Lü Shao climbed to the top of the Purple Pavilion and then killed himself. Lü Chao fled to Guangwu.

〈王隱《晉書》曰:涼州城東西三里,南北七里,本匈奴所築。及張氏之世,又增築四城,箱各千步;東城命曰講武場,北城名曰玄武圃,皆殖園果,有宮殿。廣夏門、洪範門,皆中城門也。〉〈青角門,蓋涼州中城之東門也。謙光殿,張駿所起;自以專制河右而世執臣節,雖謙而光,故以名殿。〉

(Wang Yin's Book of Jin states, "The walls of the city of Liangzhou are three li from east to west and seven li from north to south. The city was originally built by the Xiongnu. During the era of the Zhang clan of Former Liang, they also built four other cities around it, each one thousand paces square. The eastern city was called the Jiangwu Stage, and the northern city was called the Xuanwu Garden; both were filled with gardens and fruits, and had their own palaces and halls."

The Guangxia Gate and the Hongfan Gate were both gates of the central city. The Qingjiao Gate must have been the eastern gate of the central city.

Zhang Jun of Former Liang had raised the Qianguang Palace, and though control over the Heyou region changed hands, for generations this place was maintained. Although it was modest, it still shone exceptionally, thus the name Qianguang ("modest and brilliant").)


纂憚弘兵強,以位讓弘。弘曰:「弘以紹弟也而承大統,衆心不順,是以違先帝遺命而廢之,慙負黃泉!今復踰兄而立,豈弘之本志乎!」纂乃使弘出告衆曰:「先帝臨終受詔如此。」羣臣皆曰:「苟社稷有主,誰敢違者!」纂遂卽天王位。大赦,改元咸寧,諡光曰懿武皇帝,廟號太祖;諡紹曰隱王。以弘爲大都督、督中外諸軍事、大司馬、車騎大將軍、司隸校尉、錄尚書事,改封番禾郡公。

65. Lü Zuan was afraid of the strength of Lü Hong's army, and he offered the throne to Lü Hong. But Lü Hong said, "Lü Shao was my younger brother, and he was the heir to the throne. It was only that the people did not wish for him to rule that I violated our late father's will by deposing him. Even so, I am ashamed to have thus turned my back on the Golden Springs! How could it have been my intention to go so far as to surpass you, Elder Brother, and set myself up instead?"

So Lü Zuan had Lü Hong go out and tell the people, "On his deathbed, His Late Majesty gave us an edict expressing this wish."

The ministers all said, "So long as the state has a sovereign, who will dare disobey him?"

Lü Zuan thus declared himself Heavenly King. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Xiankang. He posthumously named Lü Guang as Emperor Yiwu ("the Exemplary and Martial") with the temple name Taizu. He granted Lü Shao the posthumous title Prince Yin ("the Hidden").

Lü Zuan appointed Lü Hong as Grand Commander, Commander of all military affairs, Grand Marshal, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Colonel-Director of Retainers, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he changed Lü Hong's title to Duke of Fanhe commandary.

〈杜預曰:地中之泉,故曰黃泉。〉〈纂字永緒,光之庶長子也。〉〈番,音盤。〉

(Du Yu remarked, "The springs of the underworld are called the Golden Springs."

Lü Zuan, styled Yongxu, was Lü Guang's eldest son, born of a concubine.

The first character in Fanhe, 番, is pronounced "pan".)


光死,庶子纂殺紹僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

After Lü Guang's death, his eldest common-born son Lü Zuan killed Lü Shao and claimed power for himself.

呂纂弑紹而自立。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

Lü Zuan murdered Lü Shao and took power for himself.

光葬高陵。諡武皇帝,廟號太祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 10, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang was buried at Gao Tomb. His posthumous title was Emperor Wu, and his temple name was Taizu.

光死,長子纂殺紹僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Lü Guang)

After Lü Guang's death, his eldest son Lü Zuan killed Lü Shao and claimed power for himself.

偽諡懿武皇帝,廟號太祖,墓號高陵。(Book of Jin 122, Biography of Lü Guang)

Lü Guang's posthumous title was Emperor Yiwu, and his temple name was Taizu. His tomb was called Gao Tomb.


纂謂齊從曰:「卿前斫我,一何甚也!」從泣曰:「隱王,先帝所立;陛下雖應天順人,而微心未達,唯恐陛下不死,何謂甚也!」纂賞其忠,善遇之。

66. Lü Zuan said to Qi Cong, "When you struck me before, why did you smite me so hard?"

Qi Cong wept as he replied, "Prince Yin was the heir that His Late Majesty had chosen. Even if Your Majesty was heeding the will of Heaven and the wishes of the people, you had not won me over. I only regret that I did not kill Your Majesty. How can you say that I hit you too hard?"

Lü Zuan rewarded his loyalty, and he treated him well.

纂叔父征東將軍方鎭廣武,纂遣使謂方曰:「超實忠臣,義勇可嘉;但不識國家大體,權變之宜。方賴其用,以濟世難,可以此意諭之。」超上疏陳謝,纂復其爵位。

67. The General Who Conquers The East, Lü Zuan's uncle Lü Fang, was stationed at Guangwu. Lü Zuan sent agents to tell Lü Fang, "Lü Chao is a fully loyal subject, and he should be commended for his boldness and sense of righteousness. It is only that he did not understand the greater good of the affairs of state, which required such a change. I shall be depending upon him to help us get through the difficulties of this age. You may convey my thoughts to him." So Lü Chao sent up a memorial listing his apologies, and Lü Zuan restored him to his ranks and titles.

是歲,燕主盛以河間公熙爲都督中外諸軍事、尚書左僕射,領中領軍。

68. During this year, Murong Sheng appointed his Duke of Hejian, Murong Xi, as Commander of all military affairs, Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and acting General Who Directs The Central Army.

劉衞辰子文陳降魏;魏主珪妻以宗女,拜上將軍,賜姓宿氏。

69. Liu Weichen's son Liu Wenchen surrendered to Wei. Tuoba Gui gave him a woman of his clan as a wife, appointed him as a chief general, and granted him the surname Su.

〈魏內入諸姓有宿六斤氏,改爲宿氏;蓋使文陳與之合族屬。〉

(When the Northern Wei ancestors moved south, among the clans that joined them was the Suliujin clan, later changed to the Su clan. Tuoba Gui must have sent Liu Wenchen to live among this clan.)
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BOOK 111

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Nov 25, 2018 4:04 am

四年(庚子、四○○)

The Fourth Year of Long'an (The Gengzi Year, 400 AD)


春,正月,壬子朔,燕主盛大赦,自貶號爲庶人天王。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renzi (February 11th), Murong Sheng declared a general amnesty in Yan. He degraded his title to Commoner Heavenly King.

二年正月,大赦,盛去皇帝之號,稱庶民天王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 11, Biography of Murong Sheng)

In the second year of Changle (400), the first month, Murong Sheng declared a general amnesty. He put away his title as Emperor, instead calling himself Commoner Heavenly King.

盛改稱庶民大王。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng changed his title to Commoner Heavenly King.

盛去皇帝之號,稱庶人大王。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng put aside his title as Emperor and degraded his title to Commoner Heavenly King.


魏材官將軍和跋襲盧溥於遼西,戊午,克之,禽溥及其子煥送平城,車裂之。燕主盛遣廣威將軍孟廣平救溥不及,斬魏遼西守宰而還。

2. Wei's General of 材官, He Ba (or He Tu), launched a surprise attack against Lu Pu at Liaoxi. On the day Wuwu (February 17th), he took the city. He captured Lu Pu and his son Lu Huan and sent them to Pingcheng, where they were torn apart by chariots. Murong Sheng had sent Meng Guangping to reinforce Lu Pu, but he did not arrive in time. So he merely beheaded the local officials in Liaoxi that Wei had appointed and then returned.

〈【嚴:「跋」改「突」。】漢置材官將軍,領郡國材官士以出征,師還則省。晉、魏以後,置材官將軍,主工匠、土木之事,則漢右校令之任也。〉〈溥附燕,見上年。〉

(Some versions write the name of this Northern Wei general as He 突 Tu rather than He 跋 Ba.

The Han dynasty had originally created the position of General of 材官. It directed the 材官 officials of the commandaries and princely fiefs when they were out on campaigns, and the office was rescinded after the campaign had ended. But from the Jin and Northern Wei dynasties on, when they created Generals of 材官, they directed the affairs of architects and wood materials, the same position as the Han dynasty's 校令 of the Right.

Lu Pu had earlier gone over to Later Yan, as mentioned above (399.27).)


辛亥,詔材官將軍和突討盧溥。天華殿成。三年春正月戊午,和突破盧溥於遼西,生獲溥及其子煥,傳送京師,轘之。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In the second year of Tianxing (399), in the twelfth month, on the day Xinhai (February 10th of 400), Tuoba Gui ordered his General of 材官, He Tu, to campaign against Lu Pu.

The Tianhua Palace was completed.

In the third year of Tianxing (400), in spring, the first month, on the day Wuwu (February 17th), He Tu routed Lu Pu at Liaoxi commandary. He captured Lu Pu and his son Lu Huan and sent them back to the capital, where they were torn apart by chariots.

魏襲幽州,執刺史盧溥而去。遣孟廣平援之,無及。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Northern Wei launched a raid against Youzhou, capturing Murong Sheng's Inspector there, Lu Pu, before leaving. Murong Sheng sent Meng Guangping to assist Lu Pu, but he could not catch up with the Northern Wei army.


乙亥,大赦。

3. On the day Yihai (March 5th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

四年春正月乙亥,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fourth year of Long'an (400), in spring, the first month, on the day Yihai (March 5th), a general amnesty was declared.


西秦王乾歸遷都苑川。

4. Qifu Gangui shifted his capital to Yuanchuan.

〈乞伏氏本居苑川,乾歸遷于金城,今復都苑川。〉

(The Qifu clan had originally had their base at Yuanchuan. Qifu Gangui had earlier changed it to Jincheng, but he now shifted it back to Yuanchuan.)


南門自壞,乾歸惡之,遷於苑川。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The southern gate collapsed for no apparent reason. Qifu Gangui felt this was a bad omen, so he moved his capital back to Yuanchuan.

乾歸所居南景門崩,惡之,遂遷于苑川。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The southern Jing Gate of Qifu Gangui's residence collapsed for no apparent reason. Qifu Gangui felt that this was a bad omen, so he shifted his capital back to Yuanchuan.


禿髮利鹿孤大赦,改元建和。

5. Tufa Lilugu declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianhe.

高句麗王安事燕禮慢;二月,丙申,燕王盛自將兵三萬襲之,以驃騎大將軍熙爲前鋒,拔新城、南蘇二城,開境七百餘里,徙五千餘戶而還。熙勇冠諸將,盛曰:「叔父雄果,有世祖之風,但弘略不如耳!」

6. King An of Goguryeo was lax in properly responding to Yan. In the second month, on the day Bingshen (March 26th), Murong Sheng personally led thirty thousand soldiers to launch a surprise attack against them, with the Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Murong Xi, leading the vanguard. Murong Sheng captured the two cities of Sinseong and Namso, expanded his territory by more than seven hundred li, and relocated more than five thousand households before returning.

Murong Xi's boldness surpassed all the other generals. Murong Sheng said, "My uncle is indeed heroic and stalwart; he has the same spirit as Shizu (Murong Chui). If only he were better at grand planning!"

〈慕容垂廟號世祖。〉

(Murong Chui's temple name was Shizu.)


盛率眾三萬伐高句驪,襲其新城、南蘇,皆克之,散其積聚,徙其五千餘戶於遼西。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng led thirty thousand soldiers to campaign against Goguryeo. He launched a surprise attack against Sinseong and Namso and took them both, distributing their grain stores, and relocated more than five thousand households from Goguryeo to Liaoxi.


初,魏主珪納劉頭眷之女,寵冠後庭,生子嗣。及克中山,獲燕主寶之幼女。將立皇后,用其國故事,鑄金人以卜之,劉氏所鑄不成,慕容氏成,三月,戊午,立慕容氏爲皇后。

7. Earlier, Tuoba Gui had accepted the daughter of Liu Toujuan as his concubine; he favored her more than anyone else in the rear palace, and she gave birth to his son Tuoba Si. And after Tuoba Gui conquered Zhongshan, he had captured Murong Bao's young daughter.

At this time, Tuoba Gui was going to appoint an empress. Following the tradition of his state, he ordered the two of them to carve golden statues to see which of them enjoyed divine favor. Lady Liu was unable to complete her carving, while Lady Murong did complete hers. So in the third month, on the day Wuwu (April 17th), Tuoba Gui honored Lady Murong as his Empress.

〈克中山見一百九卷隆安元年。〉〈《北史》曰:魏故事,將立皇后,必令手鑄金人,以成者爲吉,不則不得立也。〉

(Tuoba Gui's conquest of Zhongshan is mentioned in Book 109, in the first year of Long'an (397.69).

The Histories of the Northern Dynasties states, "According to Wei custom, before appointing an empress, the women must first carve golden statues by hand. The one who is able to complete it is fortunate, while the unsuccessful cannot become Empress.")


癸亥,有事於北郊。分命諸官循行州郡,觀民風俗,察舉不法。賜羣臣布帛各有差。二月丁亥,詔有司祀日于東郊。始耕籍田。壬寅,皇子聰薨。三月戊午,立皇后慕容氏。是月,穿城南渠通於城內,作東西魚池。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

On the day Guihai (February 22nd), there was an incident at the northern suburbs of the capital.

Tuoba Gui ordered his ministers to go out among the various provinces and commandaries, observe the customs and traditions of the common people, and report on anything which was unlawful. He bestowed cloth and silk among his ministers as appropriate.

In the second month, on the day Dinghai (March 17th), Tuoba Gui ordered his ministers to offer sacrifices to the sun at the eastern suburbs of the capital.

Tuoba Gui first began observing the tradition of plowing the Sacred Field.

On the day Renyin (April 1st), Tuoba Gui's son Tuoba Cong passed away.

In the third month, on the day Wuwu (April 17th), Tuoba Gui honored Lady Murong as his Empress.

During this month, Tuoba Gui had a canal carved from the southern wall into the city, where he built the East-West Fish Pond.


桓玄旣克荊、雍,表求領荊、江二州。詔以玄爲都督荊‧司‧雍‧秦‧梁‧益‧寧七州諸軍事、荊州刺史,以中護軍桓脩爲江州刺史。玄上疏固求江州;於是進玄督八州及揚、豫八郡諸軍事,復領江州刺史。玄輒以兄偉爲雍州刺史,朝廷不能違。又以從子振爲淮南太守。

8. Now that Huan Xuan had taken control of Jingzhou and Yongzhou, he sent a petition to the Jin court asking to be granted authority over Jingzhou and Jiangzhou. The court issued an edict appointing Huan Xuan as Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Qinzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, and Ningzhou and as Inspector of Jingzhou. They appointed the General Who Guards The Central Army, Huan Xiu, as Inspector of Jiangzhou. But Huan Xuan sent up a memorial insisting on being given Jiangzhou as well. So the court advanced his area of responsibility as Commander to include eight provinces and eight commandaries in Yangzhou and Yuzhou, and they also appointed him as acting Inspector of Jiangzhou. Huan Xuan also appointed his elder brother Huan Wei as Inspector of Yongzhou; the court could not stop him. He even appointed his cousin's son Huan Zhen as Administrator of Huainan.

〈玄旣督八州及揚、豫八郡,則西極岷、嶓,東盡歷陽、蕪湖,皆其統內矣。漢、晉淮南郡本治壽春,成帝時,祖約、蘇峻爲亂,胡寇又屢至,民南渡江者轉多,乃於江南僑立淮南郡,後又割丹楊之于湖爲淮南境。玄遣振守之,是逼建康之漸也。〉

(Now that Huan Xuan was the Commander of eight provinces and of eight commandaries in Yangzhou and Yuzhou, his territory stretched from the Min and Bo mountains in the west to Liyang and Wuhu in the east.

During the Han and Jin dynasties, Huainan commandary had originally been administered from Shouchun. But during the reign of Emperor Cheng, Zu Yue and Su Jun had rebelled from there. And the barbarians had also invaded as far as Shouchun several times. Many people had thus moved south to the far side of the Yangzi, so a surrogate Huainan commandary had been set up on the south side of the Yangzi. Later, part of Yuhu in Danyang commandary was split off as part of the new Huainan commandary. So when Huan Xuan sent Huan Zhen to administer this Huainan commandary, the threat to Jiankang grew ever closer.)


涼王纂以大司馬弘功高地逼,忌之;弘亦自疑,遂以東苑之兵作亂,攻纂。纂遣其將焦辨擊之,弘衆潰,出走。纂縱兵大掠,悉以東苑婦女賞軍,弘之妻子亦在中。纂笑謂羣臣曰:「今日之戰何如?」侍中房晷對曰:「天禍涼室,憂患仍臻。先帝始崩,隱王廢黜;山陵甫訖,大司馬稱兵;京師流血,昆弟接刃。雖弘自取夷滅,亦由陛下無常棣之恩,當省己責躬以謝百姓。乃更縱兵大掠,囚辱士女,釁自弘起,百姓何罪!且弘妻,陛下之弟婦,弘女,陛下之姪也,柰何使無賴小人辱爲婢妾,天地神明,豈忍見此!」遂歔欷流涕。纂改容謝之;召弘妻子寘於東宮,厚撫之。

9. Lü Zuan felt suspicious of Lü Hong, because of Lü Hong's many achievements and his position at the eastern Yuancheng, close to the capital. For his part, Lü Hong was also uncertain of Lü Zuan. So he raised the troops of the eastern Yuancheng in rebellion and attacked Lü Zuan. But Lü Zuan sent his general Jiao Bian to attack Lü Hong; Lü Hong's army scattered, and he fled the city. Then Lü Zuan set loose his soldiers to sack the city. They claimed all the wives and daughters living in the eastern Yuancheng as prizes for the soldiers, including Lü Hong's own wife and daughters.

Lü Zuan laughed and said to his ministers, "Well, what did you think of today's battle?"

One of his Palace Attendants, Fang Gui, said to him, "Heaven has brought misfortune upon the royal house of Liang, to have our worries and concerns rise to such an extent as this. His Late Majesty had only just passed away when Prince Yin was deposed and overthrown, and the imperial tomb had only just been completed when the Grand Marshal raised his troops; the capital region flows with blood, and brothers bear their blades against each other.

"Although Lü Hong brought doom down on his own head, Your Majesty too failed to show him the proper brotherly grace as mentioned in the 'cherry tree' ode. You ought to be reproaching yourself and admitting your own faults as penance before the common people. Yet instead you went so far as to let your soldiers sack the city, and you imprisoned good people and shamed women. It was Lü Hong you had a dispute with; what crimes did the common people commit, that you resorted to such measures against them? And you even went so far as to let the same things to happen to Lü Hong's wife, who is your sister-in-law, and Lü Hong's daughters, who are your nieces. How could you allow a bunch of worthless ruffians to shame them like they were prostitutes? And how could Heaven and Earth, in all their divine wisdom, bear to be witness to such things?"

And Fang Gui sighed and wept. Lü Zuan then changed his expression and apologized to him, and he had Lü Hong's wife and children brought to the Eastern Palace, where he nurtured and comforted them.

〈《左傳》:富辰曰:「召穆公思周德之不類,糾合宗族於成周,而作詩曰:『常棣之華,鄂不XX。凡今之人,莫如兄弟。』其四章曰:『兄弟鬩于牆,外禦其侮。』如是,則兄弟雖有小忿,不廢懿親。」〉

Fang Gui refers to a story from the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals: "Fu Chen said, 'Duke Mu of Shao, thinking of the defectiveness of the virtue of Zhou, assembled all the members of the royal House in Chengzhou, and made the ode which says, "The flowers of the cherry tree,—Are they not gorgeously displayed? Of all the men in the world, There are none like brothers." And in the fourth stanza it is said, "Brothers may squabble inside the walls, but they will resist insult from without." Thus, although brothers may have small quarrels among themselves, they will not for them cast away their relative affection. (Xi 24.2)'")


弘將奔禿髮利鹿孤,道過廣武,詣呂方,方見之,大哭曰:「天下甚寬,汝何爲至此!」乃執弘送獄,纂遣力士康龍就拉殺之。

10. Lü Hong was fleeing to take refuge with Tufa Lilugu. As he was passing through Guangwu commandary on the road, he went to visit Lü Fang. When Lü Fang saw him, he greatly wept as he said, "The world is large, and you could have gone anywhere at all; why did you have to come to me?" And he arrested Lü Hong and sent him to prison. Lü Zuan ordered a strong fellow, Kang Long, to beat Lü Hong to death.

纂立妃楊氏爲后,以后父桓爲尚書左僕射、涼都尹。

11. Lü Zuan honored his concubine Lady Yang as his Empress. He appointed Lady Yang's father Yang Huan as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing and as Intendant of Liangdu.

〈涼都姑臧,改武威太守爲涼都尹。〉

(Since Later Liang's capital was at Guzang, they changed the name of the supervisor of the capital commandary from Administrator of Wuwei to Intendant of Liangdu ("Liang's Capital").)


辛卯,燕襄平令段登等謀反,誅。

12. On the day Xinmao (?), Yan's Prefect of Xiangping, Duan Deng, and others plotted rebellion. They were executed.

涼王纂將伐武威王利鹿孤,中書令楊穎諫曰:「利鹿孤上下用命,國未有釁,不可伐也。」不從。利鹿孤使其弟傉檀拒之,夏,四月,傉檀敗涼兵於三堆,斬首二千餘級。

13. Lü Zuan was about to campaign against Tufa Lilugu. His Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Yang Ying, remonstrated with him, saying, "Everyone in Tufa Lilugu's domain heeds his orders, and there are not yet any internal disputes there we could exploit. You cannot campaign against him." But Lü Zuan did not listen to him.

Tufa Lilugu sent his younger brother Tufa Nutan to oppose Lü Zuan. In summer, the fourth month, Tufa Nutan defeated the Liang army at Sandui, taking more than two thousand heads.

〈三堆,在浩亹河南。〉

(Sandui was south of the Yellow River at Haomen.)


初,隴西李暠好文學,有令名。嘗與郭黁及同母弟敦煌宋繇同宿,黁起謂繇曰:「君當位極人臣,李君終當有國家,有騍馬生白額駒,此其時也。」及孟敏爲沙州刺史,以暠爲效穀令;宋繇事北涼王業,爲中散常侍。孟敏卒,敦煌護軍馮翊郭謙、沙州治中敦煌索仙等以暠溫毅有惠政,推爲敦煌太守。暠初難之。會宋繇自張掖告歸,謂暠曰:「段王無遠略,終必無成。兄忘郭黁之言邪?白額駒今已生矣。」暠乃從之,遣使請命於業;業因以暠爲敦煌太守。

14. There lived a certain Li Gao of Longxi commandary. This Li Gao delighted in study and learning, and he had a good reputation. There was a time when he and his younger brother by the same mother, Song Yao of Dunhuang commandary, were sharing a residence with Guo Nun. When Guo Nun got up, he mentioned to Song Yao, "Sir, you will occupy the highest office a minister can attain. But Master Li will be the ruler of a state in the end. When a mare gives birth to a foal with a white forehead, that will be the time."

It was earlier mentioned that Meng Min had surrendered to Duan Ye's authority and had been appointed by him as Inspector of Shazhou. During the time Meng Min held that office, he appointed Li Gao to serve as Prefect of Xiaogu. At the same time, Song Yao was serving directly under Duan Ye, as a Central Cavalier In Regular Attendance.

By the time Meng Min passed away, there were several people who were impressed with Li Gao because of his warmth, his resolve, and his kind administration; these included the Army Protector of Dunhuang, Guo Qian of Pingyi commandary, the 治中 of Shazhou, Suo Xian of Dunhuang commandary, and others. They acclaimed Li Gao as the Administrator of Dunhuang.

At first Li Gao felt it difficult to accept this title. But then Song Yao sent him a message from Duan Ye's capital at Zhangye, telling him, "King Duan has no long-term strategy, and in the end he will fail. Elder Brother, have you forgotten the words of Guo Nun? The time of the foal with the white forehead is already at hand."

So Li Gao accepted the title, and he sent agents to Duan Ye to seek his instructions. Duan Ye confirmed Li Gao as Administrator of Dunhuang.

〈騍馬,牝馬也。《晉書》作「騧」。〉〈效穀縣,自漢以來,屬敦煌郡。師古曰:本魚澤障也。桑欽說:孝武元封六年,濟南崔不意爲魚澤尉,敎力田,以勤效得穀,因立爲縣名。後周併入敦煌縣。〉〈以中散大夫常侍左右也。〉

(A 騍 "mare" is a female horse. But the Biography of Li Gao in the Book of Jin records this as a 騧 "piebald" horse instead.

Ever since the Han dynasty, Xiaogu county had been part of Dunhuang commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "This region was originally known as the Yuze Barrier. According to Sang Qin's account, in Emperor Wu (of Han's) sixth year of Yuanfeng (105 BC), Cui Buyi of Jinan commandary was appointed as Commandant of Yuze. He instructed the people in hard farming, and by following his example they were able to produce grain there. So the place became established as Xiaogu county ('Rendered Grain')." Northern Zhou later folded it into Dunhuang county.

The Central Cavalier was an attendant of the Central Grandee Regular Attendant.)


李暠,字玄盛,隴西狄道人也。漢前將軍廣十六世孫,廣子侍中敢之後。李氏世為西州著姓,祖父弇,前涼武衛將軍,天水郡太守、安世亭侯。父昶,字中堅,幼有令名,世子侍講,年十八卒。暠,昶之遺腹子,少而好學,沈敏有器度。後涼龍飛二年,建康太守段業自稱涼州牧,號神璽元年,拜暠效穀令。二年,敦煌索仙等以暠溫毅有惠政,推暠為敦煌太守。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 8, Biography of Li Gao)

Li Gao, styled Xuansheng, was a native of Didao county in Longxi commandary. He was the sixteenth-generation descendant of the Han dynasty's General of the Front, Li Guang, through the line of the Palace Attendant, Li Guang's son Li Gan. The Li clan remained a renowned local family in the western provinces for generations. Li Gao's grandfather Li Yan served Former Liang as their Guard General of Might, Administrator of Tianshui, and Marquis of Anshi Village. Li Gao's father was Li Chang, styled Zhongjian. Even as a youth, Li Chang enjoyed a good reputation. Li Gao had an elder brother, Li Shijiang, but he died when he was only seventeen. Li Gao himself was born after the death of his father. Though young, he enjoyed studying, and he was deeply intelligent and had great potential.

In Later Liang's second year of Longfei (397), their Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, declared himself Governor of Liang in his own right, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Shenxi. Duan Ye appointed Li Gao as Prefect of Xiaogu.

In the second year of Shenxi (398), Suo Xian of Dunhuang commandary and others were impressed with Li Gao because of his warmth, his resolve, and his kind administration. They acclaimed Li Gao as the Administrator of Dunhuang.

李暠,字玄盛,小字長生,隴西狄道人也,漢前將軍廣之後。曾祖柔,晉相國從事中郎、北地太守。祖太,張祚武衞將軍。父昶,早卒,暠,遺腹子也。皇始中,呂光建康太守段業自稱涼州牧,以敦煌太守孟敏為沙州刺史,暠為效穀令。敏死,敦煌護軍郭謙等推暠為寧朔將軍、敦煌太守。業私稱涼王,暠詐臣於業。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Li Gao)

Li Gao was styled Xuansheng; his childhood name was Changsheng. He was a native of Didao county in Longxi commandary. He was a descendant of the Han dynasty's General of the Front, Li Guang. His great-grandfather Li Rou was Jin's Gentleman-Attendant Officer to the Chancellor of State and Administrator of Beidi. His grandfather Li Tai was Zhang Zuo's (of Former Liang) Guard General of Might. His father was Li Chang; Li Chang died an early death, and Li Gao was born posthumously.

During the Huangshi era (396-398), Lü Guang's Administrator of Jiankang, Duan Ye, declared himself Governor of Liangzhou in his own right. He appointed Lü Guang's Administrator of Dunhuang, Meng Min, as his Inspector of Shazhou, and he appointed Li Gao as Prefect of Xiaogu. After Meng Min passed away, the Army Protector of Dunhuang, Guo Qian, and others acclaimed Li Gao as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier and Administrator of Dunhuang. When Duan Ye declared himself King of Liang, Li Gao declared himself Duan Ye's subject.

武昭王諱暠,字玄盛,小字長生,隴西成紀人,姓李氏,漢前將軍廣之十六世孫也。廣曾祖仲翔,漢初為將軍,討叛羌於素昌,素昌即狄道也,眾寡不敵,死之。仲翔子伯考奔喪,因葬于狄道之東川,遂家焉,世為西州右姓。高祖雍,曾祖柔,仕晉並歷位郡守。祖弇,仕張軌為武衛將軍、安世亭侯。父昶,幼有令名,早卒,遺腹生玄盛。少而好學,性沈敏寬和,美器度,通涉經史,尤善文義。及長,頗習武藝,誦孫吳兵法。嘗與呂光太史令郭黁及其同母弟宋繇同宿,黁起謂繇曰:「君當位極人臣,李君有國土之分,家有騧草馬生白額駒,此其時也。」呂光末,京兆段業自稱涼州牧,以敦煌太守趙郡孟敏為沙州刺史,署玄盛效穀令。敏尋卒,敦煌護軍馮翊郭謙、沙州治中敦煌索仙等以玄盛溫毅有惠政,推為甯朔將軍、敦煌太守。玄盛初難之,會宋繇仕於業,告歸敦煌,言于玄盛曰:「兄忘郭黁之言邪?白額駒今已生矣。」玄盛乃從之。尋進號冠軍,稱籓於業。業以玄盛為安西將軍、敦煌太守,領護西胡校尉。(Book of Jin 87, Biography of Li Gao)

Li Gao was styled Xuansheng; his childhood name was Changsheng. He was a native of Chengji county in Longxi commandary. Because he was an ancestor of the Li royal family of the Tang dynasty which ruled when the Book of Jin was written, he is referred to in this biography not by his name, but as his style name Xuansheng.

Li Gao was the sixteenth-generation descendant of the Han dynasty's General of the Front, Li Guang. Li Guang's great-grandfather Li Zhongxiang served the Han dynasty in its first years as a general; he campaigned against rebelling Qiang at Suchang, the region later known as Didao, but his army was too small and no match for the enemy, and he died there. Li Zhongxiang's son Li Bokao came there to conduct the mourning for his father, and since he buried his father at Dongchuan in Didao, he settled his family in that region. From that time on, the Li clan remained a leading local family in the western provinces. Li Gao's great-great-grandfather Li Yong and his great-grandfather Li Sou both served Jin as Administrators. His grandfather Li Yan served Zhang Gui (of Former Liang) as his Guard General of Might and Marquis of Anshi Village. His father was Li Chang. Even as a youth, Li Chang enjoyed a good reputation. But he passed away at a young age, and Li Gao was born posthumously.

Though young, Li Gao enjoyed studying, and he was naturally deeply clever, generous, agreeable; he had wonderful potential, he was conversant in the Classics and the histories, and he was especially skilled at literary compositions. When Li Gao grew older, he practiced martial skills as well, and he studied the Arts of War of Sun Tzu and Wu Qi. Li Gao had a younger brother by the same mother, Song Yao, and on one occasion they were staying in the same residence as Lü Guang's Prefect of the Astrology Bureau, Guo Nun. When Guo Nun got up, he told Song Yao, "Sir, you will occupy the highest office a minister can attain. But Master Li will be the ruler of his own state. When a piebald horse from your family gives birth to a foal with a white forehead, that will be the time."

Near the end of Lü Guang's life, Duan Ye of Jingzhao commandary declared himself Governor of Liangzhou in his own right. He appointed Lü Guang's Administrator of Dunhuang, Meng Min of Zhao commandary, as his Inspector of Shazhou, and he appointed Li Gao as Prefect of Xiaogu. When Meng Min soon passed away, there were several people who were impressed with Li Gao because of his warmth, his resolve, and his kind administration; these included the Army Protector of Dunhuang, Guo Qian of Pingyi commandary, the 治中 of Shazhou, Suo Xian of Dunhuang commandary, and others. They acclaimed Li Gao as General Who Calms The Northern Frontier and Administrator of Dunhuang.

At first Li Gao felt it difficult to accept this title. But then Song Yao, who was serving under Duan Ye, sent word back to Dunhuang, telling Li Gao, "Elder Brother, have you forgotten the words of Guo Nun? The time of the foal with the white forehead is already at hand."

So Li Gao accepted his advice, and soon he also promoted himself as Champion General, while declaring himself Duan Ye's subject. Duan Ye appointed him as General Who Maintains The West, Administrator of Dunhuang, and acting Colonel Who Protects The Western Barbarians.


右衞將軍敦煌索嗣言於業曰:「李暠不可使處敦煌。」業遂以嗣代暠爲敦煌太守,使帥五百騎之官。嗣未至二十里,移暠迎己;暠驚疑,將出迎之。效穀令張邈及宋繇止之曰:「段王闇弱,正是英豪有爲之日;將軍據一國成資,奈何拱手授人!嗣自恃本郡,謂人情附己,不意將軍猝能拒之,可一戰擒也。」暠從之。先遣繇見嗣,啗以甘言。繇還,謂暠曰:「嗣志驕兵弱,易取也。」暠乃遣邈、繇與其二子歆、讓逆擊嗣,嗣敗走,還張掖。暠素與嗣善,尤恨之,表業請誅嗣。沮渠男成亦惡嗣,勸業除之;業乃殺嗣,遣使謝暠,進暠都督涼興以西諸軍事、鎭西將軍。

15. Duan Ye's Guard General of the Right, Suo Si of Dunhuang, said to him, "You cannot let Li Gao occupy Dunhuang." So Duan Ye appointed Suo Si as the new Administrator of Dunhuang to replace Li Gao, and sent him to take up that office with an escort of five hundred cavalry.

When Suo Si was less than twenty li from the commandary capital, he sent word ahead to Li Gao to have him come and welcome his arrival. Li Gao was shocked and uncertain when he heard, and he was about to go out to welcome Suo Si. But the Prefect of Xiaogu, Zhang Miao, and Song Yao stopped him and said, "King Duan is blind and weak, and this is the very day that a bold hero should overtake him. General, you occupy a good domain furnished with resources; why bind your hands and submit to another? Suo Si thinks that because Dunhuang is his native commandary, the people here will be inclined to support him. He would never expect that you would be able to oppose him, General. You could capture him in a single battle."

Li Gao heeded their advice. First he sent Song Yao on ahead to see Suo Si and entice him with sweet talk. When Song Yao returned, he reported, "Suo Si is arrogant and his soldiers are weak; you can easily capture him." Then Li Gao sent Zhang Miao, Song Yao, and his own sons Li Xin and Li Xiang to counter-attack Suo Si. Suo Si was defeated, and he fled back to Zhangye.

Li Gao had long been on good terms with Suo Si, so he now deeply resented him, and he sent a petition to Duan Ye asking him to execute Suo Si. Juqu Nancheng also hated Suo Si, so he too urged Duan Ye to get rid of him. Duan Ye then killed Suo Si, and he sent envoys to apologize to Li Gao and to appoint him as Commander of military affairs from Liangxing commandary west and as General Who Guards The West.

〈未至敦煌纔二十里,移書於暠使迎己也。〉〈段業旣失張掖,又殺索嗣以自翦其羽翼,所以終死於沮渠蒙遜之手。〉〈段業分敦煌之涼興、烏澤,晉昌之宜禾爲涼興郡。至宇文氏,併晉之廣至、宜安、淵泉,合爲涼興縣;隋、唐瓜州之常樂縣卽其地也。〉

(When Suo Si was less than twenty li from the capital of Dunhuang, he sent a letter ahead to Li Gao ordering him to come welcome his arrival.

When Duan Ye soon lost Zhangye commandary, he had already clipped his own wings by having killed Suo Si. This was why he eventually died at Juqu Mengxun's hand.

Duan Ye had split off the counties of Liangxing and Wuze from Dunhuang commandary and Yihe county from Jinchang commandary to form a new Lingxiang commandary. During the time when the Yuwen clan held sway over Western Wei, they combined the counties of Guangzhi, Yi'an, and Yuanquan from Jinchang commandary into Lingxiang county. During Sui and Tang, this place was Changle county in Guazhou.)


段業复暠鎮西將軍,領護西夷校尉。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 8, Biography of Li Gao)

Duan Ye also appointed Li Gao as General Who Guards The West and acting Colonel Who Protects Western Yi Tribes.

業以暠為鎮西將軍。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Li Gao)

Duan Ye appointed Li Gao as his General Who Guards The West.

及業僭稱涼王,其右衛將軍索嗣構玄盛於業,乃以嗣為敦煌太守,率騎五百而西,未至二十里,移玄盛使迫己。玄盛驚疑,將出迎之,效穀令經邈及宋繇止之曰:「呂氏政衰,段業暗弱,正是英豪有為之日,將軍處一國成資,奈何束手於人!索嗣自以本邦,謂人情附己,不虞將軍卒能距之,可一戰而擒矣。」宋繇亦曰:「大丈夫已為世所推,今日便授首於嗣,豈不為天下笑乎!大兄英姿挺傑,有雄霸之風,張王之業不足繼也。」玄盛曰:「吾少無風雲之志,因官至此,不圖此郡士人忽爾見推。向言出迎者,未知士大夫之意故也。」因遣繇覘嗣。繇見嗣,啖以甘言,還謂玄盛曰:「嗣志驕兵弱,易擒耳。」於是遣其二子士業、讓與邈、繇及以司馬尹建興等逆戰,破之,嗣奔還張掖。玄盛素與嗣善,結為刎頸交,反為所構,故深恨之,乃罪狀嗣于段業。業將且渠男又惡嗣,至是,因勸除之。業乃殺嗣,遣使謝玄盛,分敦煌之涼興、烏澤、晉昌之宜禾三縣為涼興郡,進玄盛持節、都督涼興已西諸軍事、鎮西將軍,領護西夷校尉。時有赤氣起于玄盛後園,龍跡見於小城。(Book of Jin 87, Biography of Li Gao)

After Duan Ye declared himself King of Liang, his Guard General of the Right, Suo Si, slandered Li Gao to Duan Ye. So Duan Ye appointed Suo Si as the new Administrator of Dunhuang, and sent him west with an escort of five hundred riders.

When Suo Si was less than twenty li from the commandary capital, he sent word ahead to Li Gao to have him come and welcome his arrival. Li Gao was shocked and uncertain when he heard, and he was about to go out to welcome Suo Si. But the Prefect of Xiaogu, Jing Miao, and Song Yao stopped him and said, "The Lü clan's governance has faltered, while King Duan is blind and weak. This is the very day that a bold hero should rise. General, you occupy a good domain furnished with resources; why bind your hands and submit to another? Suo Si thinks that because Dunhuang is his native commandary, the people here will be inclined to support him. He would never expect that you would be able to oppose him, General. You could capture him in a single battle."

And Song Yao added, "You are a great man, and you have already been acclaimed by the people of this age. If you were to now bow your head to Suo Si, you would certainly become the laughingstock of the realm! Great Elder Brother, you have the visage of a hero, the posture of a legend, and the aura of a hegemon-king. Merely continuing the legacy of the Zhang kings is not good enough for you."

Li Gao replied, "I did not originally have any great ambitions, and I only attained this office because the people of this commandary acclaimed me, through no part of my own. If you had not told me these things, I never would have recognized my worth as a great man."

So Li Gao sent Song Yao on ahead to see Suo Si. Once Song Yao met Suo Si, he enticed him with sweet talk. When Song Yao returned, he reported, "Suo Si is arrogant and his soldiers are weak; you can easily capture him." Then Li Gao sent Jing Miao, Song Yao, his own sons Li Xin and Li Xiang, his Marshal, Yin Jianxing, and others to counter-attack Suo Si. Suo Si was routed, and he fled back to Zhangye.

Li Gao had long been on good terms with Suo Si, and they had once been friends ready to give their lives for one another. Yet now Suo Si had turned against him like this, so Li Gao deeply resented him, and he listed out Suo Si's crimes to Duan Ye. Duan Ye's general Juqu Nancheng also hated Suo Si, so he now urged Duan Ye to get rid of him. Duan Ye then killed Suo Si, and he sent envoys to apologize to Li Gao. He split off Liangxing and Wuze counties from Dunhuang commandary and Yihe county from Jinchang commandary to form Liangxing commandary, and he promoted Li Gao to be Credential Bearer, Commander of military affairs from Liangxing commandary west, General Who Guards The West, and acting Colonel Who Protects Western Yi Tribes.

At this time, a red aura also rose above Li Gao's rear garden, and a dragon's footprints were spotted in the lesser city.


吐谷渾視羆卒,世子樹洛干方九歲,弟烏紇堤立,妻樹洛干之母念氏,生慕璝、慕延。烏紇堤懦弱荒淫,不能治國;念氏專制國事,有膽智,國人畏服之。

16. The leader of the Tuyuhun, Murong Shipi, passed away. His eldest son Murong Shuluogan was a mere eight years old, so Murong Shipi's younger brother Murong Wuhedi succeeded him instead. He married Murong Shuluogan's mother Lady Nian, and she gave birth to his sons Murong Mugui and Murong Muyan.

Murong Wuhedi himself was cowardly and weak, decadent and licentious, and unable to govern his domain. But Lady Nian wielded control over the affairs of state, and she was courageous and intelligent. The people of the Tuyuhun domain all obeyed her.

燕前將軍段璣,太后段氏之兄子也,爲段登辭所連及,五月,壬子,逃奔遼西。

17. Yan's General of the Front, Duan Ji, was the nephew of Empress Dowager Duan. He too was implicated in Duan Deng's plotting, so in the fifth month, on the day Renzi (June 10th), he fled to Liaoxi.

〈爲後段璣等弒盛張本。盛懲蘭汗,嚴刑以繩下,亦終於身死人手。人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也。〉

(This was why Duan Ji and others later murdered Murong Sheng. Having dealt with Lan Han's coup, Murong Sheng was very strict with punishments to prevent any further attempt, yet he too eventually died by the hand of another. When a man is not benevolent and acts with such passion, chaos results.)


丙寅,衞將軍東亭獻侯王珣卒。

18. On the day Bingyin (June 24th), Jin's Guard General, Wang Xun, passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Xian ("the Presented") of Dongting.

五月丙寅,散騎常侍、衛將軍、東亭侯王珣卒。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the fifth month, on the day Bingyin (June 24th), the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Guard General, and Marquis of Dongting, Wang Xun, passed away.


己巳,魏主珪東如涿鹿,西如馬邑,觀灅源。

19. On the day Jisi (June 27th), Tuoba Gui went east to Zhuolu and west to Mayi, to observe the source of the Lei River.

夏四月,姚興遣使朝貢。五月戊辰,詔謁者僕射張濟使於姚興。己巳,車駕東巡,遂幸涿鹿,遣使者以太牢祠帝堯、帝舜廟。西幸馬邑,觀灅源。秋七月壬子,車駕還宮。起中天殿及雲母堂、金華室。十有一月,高車別帥敕力犍,率九百餘落內屬。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

In summer, the fourth month, Yao Xing sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute. In the fifth month, on the day Wuchen (June 26th), Tuoba Gui sent his diplomat and Colonel of Archers Who Shoot At A Sound, Zhang Ji, as an envoy to return the diplomatic visit to Yao Xing.

On the day Jisi (June 27th), Tuoba Gui went east on patrol. He visited Zhuolu, where he sent agents to conduct a Grand Sacrifice and pray at the temple of the ancients Emperors Yao and Shun. Then Tuoba Gui went west to Mayi, to observe the source of the Lei River.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renzi (August 9th), Tuoba Gui returned to the palace. He raised the Zhongtian Palace, the Yunmu Hall, and the Jinhua Chamber.

In the eleventh month, a leader of the Gaoche people, Chilijian, led more than nine hundred tribes to submit to Tuoba Gui.


戊寅,燕段璣復還歸罪;燕王盛赦之,賜號曰思悔侯,使尚公主,入直殿內。

20. On the day Wuyin (July 6th), Duan Ji returned from Liaoxi and admitted to his crimes. Murong Sheng pardoned him, granting him the title Marquis Sihui ("Marquis Who Considers His Regrets"). He gave him a princess to marry, and allowed him to enter the palace halls.

謝琰以資望鎭會稽,不能綏懷,又不爲武備。諸將咸諫曰:「賊近在海浦,伺人形便,宜開其自新之路。」琰不從,曰:「苻堅之衆百萬,尚送死淮南;孫恩小賊,敗死入海,何能復出!若其果出,是天欲殺之也。」旣而恩寇浹口,入餘姚,破上虞,進及邢浦,琰遣參軍劉宣之擊破之,恩退走。少日,復寇邢浦,官軍失利,恩乘勝徑進。己卯,至會稽。琰尚未食,曰:「要當先滅此賊而後食。」因跨馬出戰,兵敗,爲帳下都督張猛所殺。吳興太守庾桓恐郡民復應恩,殺男女數千人,恩轉寇臨海。朝廷大震,遣冠軍將軍桓不才、輔國將軍孫無終、寧朔將軍高雅之拒之。

21. Because of his lineage and influence, Xie Yan was stationed in Kuaiji. He could not show any cares or concerns about the potential for another outbreak of rebellion there, nor did he prepare any military defenses. His generals all remonstrated with him, telling him, "The rebels are nearby along the sea shore, and they are watching and waiting for another chance. You should guard against any new opening that they might exploit."

But Xie Yan did not listen, telling them, "Fu Jian had an army one million strong, yet he still nearly died at Huainan. Sun En is just some bandit, and he has already been mortally defeated and driven into the sea. How could he ever rise again? If he does appear, it will be because Heaven wishes to kill him."

Not long afterwards, Sun En invaded Jiakou; he entered Yuyao county and took Shangyu, then advanced as far as Xingpu. Xie Yan sent his Army Advisor, Liu Xuanzhi, to attack Sun En; Liu Xuanzhi routed him, and Sun En fled. But a few days later, he again invaded Xingpu. This time, the government army had the worst of the fighting, and Sun En exploited his victory to charge ahead.

On the day Jimao (July 7th), Sun En's army arrived at Kuaiji. Xie Yan had not yet had his meal, so he declared, "I'll go out and vanquish this bandit first, then eat." And he jumped onto his horse and went out to battle. But Xie Yan's army was defeated, and he was killed by his Commander of Personal Guards, Zhang Meng.

The Administrator of Wuxing, Yu Huan, feared that the people of his commandary would once again side with Sun En. So he killed several thousand men and women.

Sun En then turned to invade Linhai. The court was greatly shocked, and they sent the Champion General, Huan Bucai, the General Who Upholds The State, Sun Wuzhong, and the General Who Pacifies The Northern Frontier, Gao Yazhi, to oppose Sun En.

〈資,謂門地成資;望,謂時望。〉〈琰與謝玄同破苻堅,遂輕孫恩。〉〈浹口,今在明州定海縣虎蹲山外。杜佑曰:浹口在明州鄮縣東北七十里。〉〈《晉書》曰:邢浦去山陰北三十五里。〉

(Xie Yan's 資 was his household background; his 望 was his influence at that time.

Xie Yan, along with Xie Xuan, had been one of the Jin generals present at the victory against Fu Jian at Fei River. This was why he now underestimated Sun En.

Jiakou was beyond Mount Hudun in Dinghai county in modern Mingzhou. Du You remarked, "Jiakou was seventy li northeast of Mao county in Mingzhou."

The Book of Jin states, "Xingpu was thirty-five li north of Shanyin.")


夏四月... 孫恩寇浹口。五月...己卯,會稽內史謝琰爲孫恩所敗,死之。恩轉寇臨海。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In summer, the fourth month, Sun En invaded Jiakou.

In the fifth month, on the day Jimao (July 7th), the Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Xie Yan, was defeated by Sun En and killed. Sun En moved to invade Linhai.

四年五月,恩復入會稽,殺衞將軍謝琰。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the fourth year of Long'an (400), the fifth month, Sun En once again invaded Kuaiji. He killed the Guard General, Xie Yan.


秦征西大將軍隴西公碩德將兵五千伐西秦,入自南安峽。西秦王乾歸帥諸將拒之,軍于隴西。

22. Qin's Grand General Who Conquers The West and Duke of Longxi, Yao Shuode, led five thousand (or, fifty thousand) soldiers to campaign against Western Qin. His army entered Nan'an Gorge. Qifu Gangui led his generals to oppose Yao Shuode, and they camped at Longxi.

〈【嚴:「千」改「萬」。】〉〈五千,恐少,當考。〉〈南安峽,在唐秦州隴城縣界。〉

(Some versions state that the size of Yao Shuode's army was "fifty" thousand rather than "five" thousand. I (Hu Sanxing) fear that five thousand is too low a number. This merits further investigation.

Nan'an Gorge was in Longcheng county in Tang's Qinzhou.)


使碩德率隴右諸軍伐乞伏乾歸。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing sent Yao Shuode to lead the armies of Longxi to campaign against Qifu Gangui.

十三年,秦征西大將軍姚碩德率衆來伐,入自南安峽,歸次於隴西,以拒碩德。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

In the thirteenth year of Taichu (400), Later Qin's Grand General Who Conquers The West, Yao Shuode, led an army to campaign against Qifu Gangui. His army entered Nan'an Gorge. Qifu Gangui moved to Longxi to oppose Yao Shuode.

姚興將姚碩德率眾五萬伐之,入自南安峽。乾歸次於隴西以距碩德。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing's general Yao Shuode led fifty thousand soldiers to campaign against Western Qin. His army entered Nan'an Gorge. Qifu Gangui marched to Longxi to oppose Yao Shuode.


楊軌、田玄明謀殺武威王利鹿孤,利鹿孤殺之。

23. Yang Gui and Tian Xuanming plotted to kill Tufa Lilugu. He killed them.

〈隆安二年,楊軌降利鹿孤。〉

(Yang Gui had surrendered to Tufa Lilugu in the second year of Long'an (398.68).)


六月,庚辰朔,日有食之。

24. In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Gengchen (July 8th), there was an eclipse.

六月庚辰朔,日有蝕之。旱。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Gengchen (July 8th), there was an eclipse. There was drought.


以琅邪王師何澄爲尚書左僕射。澄,準之子也。

25. The Instructor to the Prince of Langye, He Deng, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing. This He Deng was the son of He Zhun.

以琅邪王師何澄爲尚書左僕射。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Instructor to the Prince of Langye, He Deng, was appointed as Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing.


〈晉諸王置師、友、文學各一人;初避景帝諱,改「師」爲「傅」;後以祧廟不諱,復爲「師」。〉〈何準見一百卷穆帝升平元年。〉

(The princes of the Jin dynasty each had an Instructor, a Friend, and a Literary Scholar. Originally, in order to avoid the naming taboo for Emperor Jing (Sima 師 Shi), the title of 師 Instructor was changed to Tutor. Later, after the taboo was lifted, the title was restored to Instructor.

He Zhun is mentioned in Book 100, in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (357.18, where he is listed as He 淮 Huai rather than He 準 Zhun).)


甲子,燕大赦。

26. On the day Jiazi (?), a general amnesty was declared in Yan.

涼王纂將襲北涼,姜紀諫曰:「盛夏農事方殷,且宜息兵。今遠出嶺西,禿髮氏乘虛襲京師,將若之何!」不從。進圍張掖,西掠建康。禿髮傉檀聞之,將萬騎襲姑臧,纂弟隴西公緯憑北城以自固。傉檀置酒朱明門上,鳴鐘鼓,饗將士,曜兵於青陽門,掠八千餘戶而去。纂聞之,引兵還。

27. Lü Zuan was about to launch a surprise attack against Duan Ye's state of Northern Liang. Jiang Ji remonstrated with him, saying, "It is the height of summer, when the farmwork is at its greatest. You ought to let the soldiers rest. If you were to go on a distant campaign, west beyond the mountain ranges, then the Tufa clan would take advantage of your absence to surprise attack our capital. Then what would we do?"

But Lü Zuan did not listen. He advanced and besieged Zhangye, while raiding as far west as Jiankang. When Tufa Nutan heard that Lü Zuan was away, he led ten thousand cavalry to raid Guzang. Liang's Duke of Longxi, Lü Zuan's younger brother Lü Wei, guarded the northern city at Guzang to hold out. Tufa Nutan poured out wine atop the Zhuming Gate, struck the bells and drums, feasted his generals and officers, displayed his soldiers at the Qingyang Gate, and took more than eight thousand households as captives before leaving. When Lü Zuan heard, he led his troops back again.

〈自姑臧西北出張掖,其間有大嶺,度嶺而西,西郡當其要。〉〈朱明門,姑臧城南門也;青陽門,東門也。〉

(Zhangye was northwest of Guzang, and between them was a great mountain range. It was necessary to pass through this range in order to go west, so it was a critical strategic point for the western commandaries.

The Zhuming Gate was the southern gate of the walls of Guzang; the Qingyang Gate was the eastern gate.)


秋,七月,壬子,太皇太后李氏崩。

28. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renzi (August 9th), Jin's Grand Empress Dowager, Li Lingrong, passed away.

秋七月壬子,太皇太后李氏崩... 八月壬寅,葬文太后于脩平陵。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Renzi (August 9th), the Grand Empress Dowager, Li Lingrong, passed away.

In the eighth month, on the day Renyin (September 16th), Empress Dowager Wen was buried at Xiuping Tomb.


丁卯,大赦。

29. On the day Dingmao (August 24th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

丁卯,大赦。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

On the day Dingmao (August 24th), a general amnesty was declared.


西秦王乾歸使武衞將軍慕兀等屯守,秦軍樵采路絕,秦王興潛引兵救之。乾歸聞之,使慕兀帥中軍二萬屯柏楊。鎭軍將軍羅敦帥外軍四萬屯侯辰谷。乾歸自將輕騎數千前候秦兵,會大風昏霧,與中軍相失,爲追騎所逼,入於外軍,旦,與秦戰,大敗,走歸苑川,其部衆三萬六千皆降於秦。興進軍枹罕。

30. Qifu Gangui sent his Guard General of Might, Qifu Muwu, and others to set up defensive camps. The Qin army was cut off while gathering firewood. Yao Xing secretly led troops to come reinforce them. When Qifu Gangui learned of it, he sent Qifu Muwu to lead a main army of twenty thousand soldiers to camp at Baiyang. His General Who Guards The Army, Luo Dun, led an outer army of forty thousand soldiers to camp at Houcheng Valley. Qifu Gangui himself led several thousand light cavalry forward to scout out the Qin army. But then a sudden great wind sprang up, leaving a bewildering fog. Qifu Gangui's riders were cut off from the main army, and they were pursued by Yao Xing's cavalry. They entered the outer army, and when the sun came out, they fought the Qin army, but were greatly defeated. Qifu Gangui fled back to Yuanchuan, while his thirty-six thousand soldiers all surrendered to Qin. Yao Xing advanced to camp at Fuhan.

〈《水經註》:伯陽水出伯陽谷,在董亭東;又東有伯陽城,城南謂之伯陽川。蓋李耳西入往逕所由,故川原畎谷,往往播其名,後又訛爲柏楊。《五代志》:天水郡秦嶺縣,後魏置伯陽縣,隋開皇中更名秦嶺,唐併秦嶺入清水縣。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Boyang River flows out of Boyang Valley, east of Dongting. To the east there is a Boyang city, and the southern side of that city is called Boyangchuan." It must have been that when Li Er (Laozi) passed west through places, passing by river origins and valleys, he picked out this name for the place, which was later corrupted to Baiyang. The Records of the Five Dynasties states, "Regarding Qinling county in Tianshui commandary, Northern Wei originally created it as Boyang county. During Sui's Kaihuang era (581-600), its name was changed to Qinling. Tang folded Qinling into Qingshui county.")


是歲,乞伏乾歸為姚興所破。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

During this year, Qifu Gangui was routed by Yao Xing.

三年,興遣使朝貢,太祖遣謁者僕射張濟使於興。興又大破乞伏乾歸,遂入枹罕,獲鎧馬六萬匹。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

In the third year of Tianxing (400), Yao Xing sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute. Tuoba Gui sent his Deputy Director, the envoy Zhang Ji, on a return visit to Yao Xing's court.

Yao Xing also greatly routed Qifu Gangui, then entered Fuhan and captured sixty thousand armored horses.

興潛軍赴之,乾歸敗走,降其部眾三萬六千,收鎧馬六萬匹。軍無私掠,百姓懷之。興進如枹罕,班賜王公以下,遍于卒伍。興之西也,沒奕於密欲乘虛襲安定,長史皇甫序切諫乃止。于自恨失言,陰欲殺序。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing secretly led an army to reinforce Yao Shuode. Qifu Gangui was defeated and he fled, while Yao Xing accepted the surrender of his army of thirty-six thousand soldiers, along with sixty thousand armored horses. Yao Xing's army committed no plunder, and the common people cherished him. Yao Xing then advanced to Fuhan, where he rewarded everyone from his princes and nobles on down, even the rank and file soldiers.

While Yao Xing was away in the west, Mei Yiyu secretly plotted to take advantage of his absence to launch a surprise attack against Anding. But his Chief CLerk, Huangfu Xu, remonstrated harshly against Mei Yiyu and made him give up the idea. But Mei Yiyu regretted having given way, and he secretly wanted to kill Huangfu Xu.

興潛師繼發,乾歸聞興將至,率輕騎數千侯興,俄與中軍相失,為興追騎所逼,戰敗,遁歸苑川。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing secretly led an army to reinforce Yao Shuode. When Qifu Gangui heard that Yao Xing was coming, he led several thousand light cavalry ahead to scout out the enemy. But they were soon cut off from the central army, and they were pursued by Yao Xing's cavalry. They fought and were defeated, and Qifu Gangui fled back to Yuanchuan.

乾歸尋為姚興所破。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui was later routed by Yao Xing.

興潛師繼發。乾歸聞興將到,謂諸將曰:「吾自開建以來,屢摧勍敵,乘機籍算,舉無遺策。今姚興盡中國之師,軍勢甚盛。山川阻狹,無從騎之地,宜引師平川,伺其怠而擊之。存亡之機,在斯一舉,卿等戮力勉之。若梟翦姚興,關中之地盡吾有也。」於是遣其衛軍慕容允率中軍二萬遷于柏陽,鎮軍羅敦將外軍四萬遷于侯辰穀,乾歸自率輕騎數千候興軍勢。俄而大風昏霧,遂與中軍相失,為興追騎所逼,入於外軍。旦而交戰,為興所敗。乾歸遁還苑川。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing secretly led troops to come reinforce Yao Shuode. When Qifu Gangui learned of it, he told his generals, "Ever since I established myself, I have constantly smashed powerful enemies and exploited opportunities to carry out my plans, and nothing I have attempted has failed. Now Yao Xing is leading all the soldiers of the Middle Kingdom, and his army is numerous indeed. But the mountains and rivers of this region are cramped and close, not suited for cavalry. I plan to lead an army into the river plains, where I can watch for an opening and then attack Yao Xing. This is the very moment which will determine the life or death of our state. Gentlemen, you must exert yourselves to the utmost. If we can take Yao Xing's head, all of Guanzhong will be ours."

So he sent his Guard General, Murong Yu, to lead a main army of twenty thousand soldiers to camp at Baiyang. His General Who Guards The Army, Luo Dun, led an outer army of forty thousand soldiers to camp at Houcheng Valley. Qifu Gangui himself led several thousand light cavalry forward to scout out the Qin army. But then a sudden great wind sprang up, leaving a bewildering fog. Qifu Gangui's riders were cut off from the main army, and they were pursued by Yao Xing's cavalry. They entered the outer army, and when the sun came out, they fought the Qin army, but were defeated. Qifu Gangui fled back to Yuanchuan.


乾歸奔金城,謂諸豪帥曰:「吾不才,叨竊名號,已踰一紀,今敗散如此,無以待敵,欲西保允吾。若舉國而去,必不得免;卿等留此,各以其衆降秦,以全宗族,勿吾隨也。」皆曰:「死生願從陛下。」乾歸曰:「吾今將寄食於人,若天未亡我,庶幾異日克復舊業,復與卿等相見,今相隨而死,無益也。」乃大哭而別。乾歸獨引數百騎奔允吾,乞降於武威王利鹿孤,利鹿孤遣廣武公傉檀迎之,寘於晉興,待以上賓之禮。鎭北將軍禿髮俱延言於利鹿孤曰:「乾歸本吾之屬國,因亂自尊,今勢窮歸命,非其誠款,若逃歸姚氏,必爲國患,不如徙置乙弗之間,使不得去。」利鹿孤曰:「彼窮來歸我,而逆疑其心,何以勸來者!」俱延,利鹿孤之弟也。

31. Qifu Gangui fled to Jincheng. He said to his commanders, "I am lacking in talent, and unworthy of my reputation. Furthermore, I have already been in power for more than a decade, yet I was still defeated and driven to pieces like this. I can no longer resist the enemy. My plan now is to go west to hold out at Yunwu. But if I raise the whole strength of my state to bring with me, I shall never make my escape. Gentlemen, it would be best for you all to remain here. Let each of you lead your own forces to surrender to Qin, to ensure the safety of your clans and families. Do not follow after me."

They all said, "Your Majesty, we want to follow you through life and death."

But Qifu Gangui replied, "It is time for me to depend upon the mercy of another for now. If it is not Heaven's will that I should be doomed, then perhaps someday I shall be able to restore the old endeavor again, and be reunited with all of you once more. But there would be no point in all of you coming with me now; it would mean your deaths." So they all wept as they parted ways.

Qifu Gangui fled to Yunwu with a mere few hundred riders, where he begged to surrender to Tufa Lilugu. Tufa Lilugu sent Tufa Nutan to welcome him; he placed Qifu Gangui in Jinxing and treated him with the courtesy due to an honored guest.

Tufa Lilugu's General Who Guards The North, Tufa Juyan, said to him, "Qifu Gangui was originally one of our vassals; he only got away with proclaiming himself because of the chaos of the times. Although in his adversity he now seems to have returned to his former allegiance, he is not really sincere. If he were to flee to the Yao clan (of Qin), he would certainly became a threat to our state. It would be better for you to place him among the Yifu people, so that he could not get away from us."

But Tufa Lilugu replied, "He came back to us because of his dire situation. If I were to suspect his heart, how could I encourage others to come to me as well?"

This Tufa Juyan was Tufa Lilugu's younger brother.

〈孝武太元十三年,乾歸嗣國,至是十三年。〉〈允吾縣,漢屬金城郡,《晉志》省。劉昫曰:唐鄯州龍支縣,漢允吾縣。〉〈張軌分西平界,置晉興郡。闞駰曰:允吾縣西四十里,有小晉興城。〉〈乙弗,亦鮮卑種,居西海。《北史》曰:吐谷渾北有乙弗勿敵國,國有曲海,海周四千餘里,種有萬落,風俗與吐谷渾同。《北史》又曰:乙弗世爲吐谷渾渠帥,居青海,號青海王。〉

(Qifu Gangui had inherited control of Western Qin in Emperor Xiaowu's thirteenth year of Taiyuan (388.14). It had been twelve years since then, so he said he had been in power for "more than a decade".

During Han, Yunwu county was part of Jincheng commandary. The Records of Jin does not list it. Liu Xu remarked, "Longzhi county in Tang's Shanzhou was Han's Yunwu county."

Zhang Jun of Former Liang had split off part of Xiping commandary to form Jinxing commandary. Kan Yin remarked, "Forty li west of Yunwu county, there is the Lesser Jinxing city."

The Yifu people were another branch of the Xianbei; they resided at the Western Sea. The Histories of the Northern Dynasties states, "North of the Tuyuhun domain was the Wudi state of the Yifu people. Their state had a bending sea, more than four thousand li all around. They had ten thousand tribes, and their customs and traditions were the same as the Tuyuhun." It further states, "The Yifu served as commanders under the Tuyuhun for generations. They resided at Qinghai, and were called the Princes of Qinghai.")


乾歸乃率騎數百馳至允吾。禿發利鹿孤逆歸,處之於晉興。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui led several hundred riders to flee to Yunwu. Tufa Lilugu welcomed him, and placed him at Jinxing.

乾歸遂走金城,謂諸豪帥曰:「吾才非命世,謬為諸君所推,心存撥亂,而德非時雄,叨竊名器,年逾一紀,負乘致寇,傾喪若斯!今人眾已散,勢不得安,吾欲西保允吾,以避其鋒。若方軌西邁,理難俱濟,卿等宜安土降秦,保全妻子。」群下咸曰:「昔古公杖策,豳人歸懷;玄德南奔,荊、楚繈負。分岐之感,古人所悲,況臣等義深父子,而有心離背!請死生與陛下俱。」乾歸曰:「自古無不亡之國,廢興命也。苟天未亡我,冀興復有期。德之不建,何為俱死!公等自愛,吾將寄食以終餘年。」於是大哭而別,乃率騎數百馳至允吾,禿髮利鹿孤遣弟傉檀迎乾歸,處之于晉興。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui fled to Jincheng. He said to his commanders, "I lacked the talents to lead the age, and only became the ruler when I was misled by your acclamation. In my heart, I sought to restore order from the chaos, yet my virtues were insufficient for such an age of heroism, and I proved unworthy of my reputation. By now, I have already been in power for more than a decade, yet when I was faced with this invasion, I was still defeated and driven to pieces like this! Now my army has already scattered, and my strength is not enough to be secure here. My plan now is to go west to hold out at Yunwu, to avoid the enemy's strength. But if I raise the whole strength of my state to bring with me, it would be difficult for all of us to escape. Gentlemen, it would be best for you all to remain here and surrender to Qin, to ensure the safety of your wives and children."

His subordinates all said, "In ancient times, when the old Duke of Bin wielded authority, didn't the people of Bin follow and cherish him? And when Xuande (Liu Bei) fled south, didn't the people of Jing and Chu go with him even while carrying their children on their back? The ancients sighed in mourning when mountains divided them; how much more would we do the same? For we are like a father and his children, so how can we bear to be parted from you? Your Majesty, let us follow you through life and death."

But Qifu Gangui replied, "There has never been a state which has not fallen; the rise and fall of states is a matter of fate. If it is not Heaven's will that I should be doomed, then I hope to restore the state once more. But when my virtue is not established, how can I cause you all to die? Gentlemen, you must look after yourselves; it is time for me to depend upon the mercy of another now." So they all wept as they parted ways.

Qifu Gangui fled to Yunwu with a mere few hundred riders. Tufa Lilugu sent his younger brother Tufa Nutan to welcome him, and he placed Qifu Gangui in Jinxing.


秦兵旣退,南羌梁戈等密招乾歸,乾歸將應之。其臣屋引阿洛以告晉興太守陰暢,暢馳白利鹿孤,利鹿孤遣其弟吐雷帥騎三千屯捫天嶺。乾歸懼爲利鹿孤所殺,謂其太子熾磐曰:「吾父子居此,必不爲利鹿孤所容。今姚氏方強,吾將歸之,若盡室俱行,必爲追騎所及,吾以汝兄弟及汝母爲質,彼必不疑,吾在長安,彼終不敢害汝也。」乃送熾磐等於西平。八月,乾歸南奔枹罕,遂降於秦。

32. Once the Qin soldiers had withdrawn, the Southern Qiang leader Liang Ge and others secretly summoned Qifu Gangui. He was about to heed their call. But his subordinate Wuyin Aluo reported the matter to Tufa Lilugu's Administrator of Jinxing, Yin Chang, who sent a courier to forward the information to Tufa Lilugu. Tufa Lilugu sent his younger brother Tufa Tulei to lead three thousand cavalry to camp at the Mentian Ranges. Qifu Gangui was afraid that Tufa Lilugu was going to kill him, so he told his Crown Prince, Qifu Chipan, "If all of us remain here, Tufa Lilugu will never put up with us. Right now, the Yao clan is strong, and I mean to go over to them. But if our entire family goes to them at once, we will certainly be overtaken by Tufa Lilugu's pursuit riders. However, if I leave you, your brothers, and your mother as hostages, then Tufa Lilugu will not suspect me. Even once I am at Chang'an, he will never dare to harm you." So he sent Qifu Chipan and the others to Tufa Lilugu's capital at Xiping. In the eighth month, Qifu Gangui fled south to Fuhan, then surrendered to Qin.

〈捫天嶺,在允吾東南。〉

(The Mentian Ranges were southeast of Yunwu.)


是月,姚興伐乞伏乾歸,降之。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During this month, Yao Xing campaigned against Qifu Gangui, who surrendered to him.

乾歸降於興。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Yao Xing)

Qifu Gangui surrendered to Yao Xing.

乞伏乾歸以窮蹙來降。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Compelled by adversity, Qifu Gangui came to surrender to Yao Xing.

乾歸將叛,謀泄,懼為利鹿孤所害,謂其子熾盤曰:「姚興方盛,吾將歸之,今送汝兄弟及汝母為質」。於是送熾盤兄弟於西平。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui was planning to rebel against Tufa Lilugu, but his plot leaked. Afraid that Tufa Lilugu would kill him, Qifu Gangui told his son Qifu Chipan, "Right now, the Yao clan is strong, and I mean to go over to them. I am going to leave you, your brothers, and your mother here as hostages." He sent Qifu Chipan and his brothers to Xiping.

乾歸又奔枹罕,遂降姚興。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui fled to Fuhan, then surrendered to Yao Xing.

南羌梁戈等遣使招之。乾歸將叛,謀泄,利鹿孤遣弟吐雷屯於捫天嶺。乾歸懼為利鹿孤所害,謂其子熾磐曰:「吾不能負荷大業,致茲顛覆。以利鹿孤義兼姻好,冀存脣齒之援,方乃忘義背親,謀人父子,忌吾威名,勢不全立。姚興方盛,吾將歸之。若其俱去,必為追騎所及。今送汝兄弟及汝母為質,彼必不疑。吾既在秦,終不害汝。」於是送熾磐兄弟于西平。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

The Southern Qiang leader Liang Ge and others sent agents to summon Qifu Gangui. He was thus planning to rebel, but the plot leaked. Tufa Lilugu sent his younger brother Tufa Tulei to camp at the Mentian Ranges.

Qifu Gangui was afraid that Tufa Lilugu was going to kill him, so he told his son Qifu Chipan, "I could not give up my responsibility to revive our grand endeavor, and that was what led to this attempt. Since we are related to Tufa Lilugu by marriage and enjoy good relations, I came to him, hoping that he would support me as the lips support the teeth. Yet now I have rashly forgotten the virtue that he showed us and turned my back on our family ties. Now he is sure to be suspicious of my martial reputation, and we can no longer remain here in peace. Right now, Yao Xing is strong, and I mean to go over to him. But if our entire family goes to him at once, we will certainly be overtaken by Tufa Lilugu's pursuit riders. However, if I leave you, your brothers, and your mother as hostages, then Tufa Lilugu will not suspect me. Even once I am in Qin, he will never dare to harm you."

So he sent Qifu Chipan and his brothers to Tufa Lilugu's capital at Xiping.


丁亥,尚書右僕射王雅卒。

33. On the day Dinghai (September 13th), Jin's Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Wang Ya, passed away.

八月丁亥,尚書右僕射王雅卒。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the eighth month, on the day Dinghai (September 13th), the Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Wang Ya, passed away.


九月,癸亥,地震。

34. In the ninth month, on the day Guihai (October 19th), the earth shook.

九月癸丑,地震。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the ninth month, on the day Guichou (October 9th), the earth shook.


涼呂方降於秦,廣武民三千餘戶奔武威王利鹿孤。

35. The Liang general Lü Fang surrendered to Qin. More than three thousand households from Guangwu commandary fled to Tufa Lilugu.

〈呂方鎭廣武,旣降於秦,其民無主,故奔禿髮氏。〉

(Lü Fang had been Later Liang's commander at Guangwu, so when he surrendered to Later Qin, these people were left without a leader, which was why they fled to the Tufa clan.)


冬,十一月,高雅之與孫恩戰於餘姚,雅之敗,走山陰,死者什七、八。詔以劉牢之都督會稽等五郡,帥衆擊恩,恩走入海。牢之東屯上虞,使劉裕戍句章。吳國內史袁崧築滬瀆壘以備恩。崧,喬之孫也。

36. In winter, the eleventh month, the Jin minister Gao Yazhi fought Sun En at Yuyao. But Gao Yazhi was defeated, and he fled into the hills to hide, while seventy to eighty percent of his troops died.

The Jin court issued an edict appointing Liu Laozhi as Commander of military affairs in five commandaries, including Kuaiji. Liu Laozhi led his forces to attack Sun En, who fled back into the sea. Liu Laozhi marched east and camped at Shangyu, while sending Liu Yu to camp at Gouzhang county.

The Interior Minister of Wu, Yuan Song (or Yuan Shansong), built the Hudu Rampart as a defense against Sun En. This Yuan Song (or Yuan Shansong) was the grandson of Yuan Qiao.

〈句章縣,自漢以來屬會稽郡,今鄞縣以東定海、昌國,皆其地也。〉〈【嚴:「崧」改「山松」。】〉〈「袁崧」,當作「袁山松」。滬瀆,今在平江府吳縣東。陸龜蒙敍矢魚之具云:列竹於海澨曰滬。是瀆以此得名。《吳都記》:松江東瀉海,名曰扈瀆。《輿地志》曰:扈,業者濱海捕魚之名。插竹列於海中,以繩編之,向岸張兩翼,潮上卽沒,潮落卽出,魚隨海潮,礙竹不得去,名曰扈瀆。范成大《吳郡志》曰:列竹於海澨曰滬,吳之滬瀆是也。自滬瀆泝松江至吳郡將門,將門今訛爲匠門。袁喬,見九十七卷穆帝永和二年、三年。〉

(Ever since Han, Gouzhang county had been part of Kuaiji commandary. It is now the region from Yin county east to Dinghai and Changguo.

Some versions list Yuan Song's name as Yuan Shansong; that is how it ought to be listed.

Hudu was in the east of modern Wu county in the Pingjiang Garrison. Lu Guimeng mentions in his account of fishing implements that "an array of bamboo along the seashore is called a Hu". As for the Du ("ditch") part of the name, that came from a ditch at that area. The Records of the Capital of Wu states, "The Songjiang river drains east into the sea, at the place called Hedu." The Geographical Records states, "A Hu is the place along the seashore where fisherman practice their trade. They plant an array of bamboo along the sea and fasten ropes along them, forming two wings from the shore. When the tide rises, there is no gain, but as the tide ebbs, the fish following the tide are snared by the bamboo and cannot escape. It is called a Hudu." Fan Chengda's Records of Wu commandary states, "An array of bamboo along the seashore is called a Hu, the same as in Hudu in Wu. From Hudu down to Songjiang as far as 將門 Jiangmen in Wu commandary, which name has by now been corrupted to 匠門 Jiangmen.”

Yuan Qiao had accompanied Huan Wen in his conquest of Cheng-Han, as mentioned in Book 97, in Emperor Mu's second and third years of Yonghe (346-347).)


六月...輔國司馬劉裕破恩於南山。恩將盧循陷廣陵,死者三千餘人...冬十一月,寧朔將軍高雅之及孫恩戰於餘姚,王師敗績。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the sixth month, the Marshal to the General Who Upholds The State, Liu Yu, routed Sun En at the southern hills.

Sun En's general Lu Xun invaded Guangling, where he killed more than three thousand people.

In winter, the eleventh month, the General Who Calms The Northern Frontier, Gao Yazhi, fought Sun En at Yuyao, but the royal army was defeated.

十一月,劉牢之復率眾東征,恩退走。牢之屯上虞,使高祖戍句章城。句章城既卑小,戰士不盈數百人,高祖常被堅執銳,為士卒先,每戰輒摧鋒陷陣,賊乃退還浹口。于時東伐諸帥,御軍無律,士卒暴掠,甚為百姓所苦。唯高祖法令明整,所至莫不親賴焉。(Book of Liu-Song 1, Annals of Emperor Wu (Liu Yu))

In the eleventh month, Liu Laozhi once again led his forces east to campaign against Sun En, who retreated and fled. Liu Laozhi camped at Shangyu, while sending Liu Yu to camp at the city of Gouzhang.

Gouzhang was a small and meager city, and it had no more than a few hundred fighters. But Liu Yu bolstered their resolve and inspired their zeal; he made them the foremost soldiers, and in each battle they would all charge forward and break the enemy's formation. The rebels then retreated back to Jiakou.

During this time, due to the constant marches of both the government armies and the rebel forces across the east, the area suffered from constant pillaging, and the soldiers observed no sense of law. The common people suffered greatly. Only Liu Yu was clear and strict in enforcing the military regulations, so there was no one who did not become close to him and rely upon him.


會稽世子元顯求領徐州,詔以元顯爲開府儀同三司、都督揚‧豫‧徐‧兗‧青‧幽‧冀‧幷‧荊‧江‧司‧雍‧梁‧益‧交‧廣十六州諸軍事、領徐州刺史,封其子彥瑋爲東海王。

37. Sima Yuanxian asked to be granted authority over Xuzhou. So the court issued an edict appointing him as Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Youzhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou and as acting Inspector of Xuzhou, and they granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. They also appointed his son Sima Yanwei (or Sima Yanzhang) as Prince of Donghai.

〈【嚴:「瑋」改「璋」。】〉

(Some versions write Sima 彥瑋 Yanwei's given name as Sima 彥璋 Yanzhang.)


以揚州刺史元顯爲後將軍、開府儀同三司、都督揚豫徐兗青幽冀幷荊江司雍梁益交廣十六州諸軍事,前將軍劉牢之爲鎮北將軍,封元顯子彥璋爲東海王。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

The Inspector of Yangzhou, Sima Yuanxian, was appointed as General of the Rear and as Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Youzhou, Jizhou, Bingzhou, Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, Sizhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou, and he was granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. The General of the Front, Liu Laozhi, was appointed as General Who Guards The North. Sima Yuanxian's son Sima Yanzhang was appointed as Prince of Donghai.


乞伏乾歸至長安,秦王興以爲都督河南諸軍事、河州刺史、歸義侯。

38. When Qifu Gangui arrived at Chang'an, Yao Xing appointed him as Commander of military affairs south of the Yellow River, Inspector of Hezhou, and Marquis of Guiyi ("Marquis Who Has Returned To Virtue").

〈此河南謂金城河之南。〉

("South of the Yellow River" here means south of the river at Jincheng.)


拜鎮遠將軍、河州刺史、歸義侯。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing appointed Qifu Gangui as his General Who Guards Distant Places, Inspector of Hezhou, and Marquis of Guiyi

乾歸遂奔長安。姚興大悅,拜持節都督河南諸軍事、河州剌史、歸義侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 14, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui himself soon fled to Chang'an. Yao Xing was overjoyed, and he appointed Qifu Gangui as Commander of military affairs south of the Yellow River, Inspector of Hezhou, and Marquis of Guiyi ("Marquis Who Has Returned To Virtue").

興拜為河州刺史,封歸義侯。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Yao Xing appointed Qifu Gangui as Inspector of Hezhou and Marquis of Guiyi ("Marquis Who Has Returned To Virtue").

乾歸遂奔長安。姚興見而大悅,署乾歸持節、都督河南諸軍事、鎮遠將軍、河州刺史、歸義侯。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Gangui)

Qifu Gangui then fled to Chang'an. Yao Xing was overjoyed when he saw him, and he appointed Qifu Gangui as his Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs south of the Yellow River, General Who Guards Distant Places, Inspector of Hezhou, and Marquis of Guiyi ("Marquis Who Has Returned To Virtue").


久之,乞伏熾磐欲逃詣乾歸,武威王利鹿孤追獲之。利鹿孤將殺熾磐,廣武公傉檀曰:「子而歸父,無足深責,宜宥之以示大度。」利鹿孤從之。

39. Sometime later, Qifu Chipan tried to flee to visit Qifu Gangui, but Tufa Lilugu pursued him and captured him. Tufa Lilugu was about to kill Qifu Chipan, but Tufa Nutan told him, "This was merely a case of a son wishing to return to his father. He has not really done anything worth blaming him for. You should forgive him, as a display of your great magnanimity." Tufa Lilugu heeded his advice.

〈禿髮傉檀勸其兄宥熾磐,而卒死於熾磐之手,豈非養虎自遺患乎!〉

(Tufa Nutan urged his elder brother to forgive Qifu Chipan in this instance, and yet in the end Tufa Nutan died at Qifu Chipan's hand. Isn't this what they mean by raising a tiger to store up trouble for yourself?)


秦王興遣晉將劉嵩等二百餘人來歸。

40. Yao Xing sent more than two hundred Jin captives, including the general Liu Song, back to Jin.

〈劉嵩等蓋因洛陽陷而沒於秦。〉

(Liu Song and the others must have been captured when Later Qin took Luoyang from Jin.)


興下書,將帥遭大喪,非在疆埸險要之所,皆聽奔赴,及期,乃從王役。臨戎遭喪,聽假百日。若身為邊將,家有大變,交代未至,敢輒去者,以擅去官罪罪之。遣晉將軍劉嵩等二百三十七人歸於建鄴。(Book of Jin 117, Biography of Yao Xing)

Yao Xing issued an edict ordering that any of his commanders or generals who experienced the death of a close family member should leave their posts to attend the funeral and conduct mourning, returning to royal service once their mourning period had been concluded; the only exceptions were those generals who were posted at critical locations on the borders. The mourning period was set at one hundred days. But anyone who was serving as a border general and, due to such a death, dared to leave their posts before their replacement had arrived would be charged with a crime for such presumption.

Yao Xing sent two hundred and thirty-seven Jin captives, including the general Liu Song, back to Jiankang.


北涼晉昌太守唐瑤叛,移檄六郡,推李暠爲冠軍大將軍、沙州刺史、涼公、領敦煌太守。暠赦其境內,改元庚子。以瑤爲征東將軍,郭謙爲軍諮祭酒,索仙爲左長史,張邈爲右長史,尹建興爲左司馬,張體順爲右司馬。遣從事中郎宋繇東伐涼興,幷擊玉門已西諸城,皆下之。

41. Northern Liang's Administrator of Jinchang, Tang Yao, rebelled against them. He spread proclamations through six commandaries, acclaiming Li Gao as Grand Champion General, Inspector of Shazhou, Duke of Liang, and acting Administrator of Dunhuang.

Li Gao declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengzi (the same as the yearly cycle year for 400 AD). He appointed Tang Yao as his General Who Conquers The East, Guo Qian as his Army Libationer-Consultant, Suo Xian as his Chief Clerk of the Left, Zhang Miao as his Chief Clerk of the Right, Yin Jianxing as his Marshal of the Left, and Zhang Tishun as his Marshal of the Right.

Li Gao sent his Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Song Yao, east to attack Liangxing, as well as all the cities west of Yumen. They all submitted to him.

〈六郡,蓋敦煌、酒泉、晉昌、涼興、建康、祁連也。〉〈北涼之地至此又分爲西涼。〉

(These six commandaries must have been Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Jinchang, Liangxing, Jiankang, and Qilian.

This was when part of Northern Liang split off as the state known as Western Liang.)


李暠私署涼州牧、涼公。(Book of Northern Wei 2, Annals of Emperor Daowu (Tuoba Gui))

Li Gao declared himself Governor of Liangzhou and Duke of Liang.

是歲,河右諸郡奉涼武昭王李玄盛爲秦涼二州牧、涼公,年號庚子。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

During this year, several commandaries in the far northwest beyond the Yellow River acclaimed Li Gao as Governor of Qinzhou and Liangzhou and Duke of Liang. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengzi.

庚子元年十一月,晉昌太守唐瑤移檄六郡,推暠為大將軍、涼公,領秦涼二州牧,大赦改年,追尊祖弇涼景公,父昶涼簡公,以瑤為征東將軍。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdos 8, Biography of Li Gao)

In the first year of Li Gao's reign, which was a Gengzi year (400), in the eleventh month, Duan Ye's Administrator of Jinchang, Tang Yao, spread many proclamations through six commandaries, acclaiming Li Gao as Grand General and Duke of Liang. So Li Gao declared himself acting Governor of Qinzhou and Liangzhou. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title. He posthumously honored his grandfather Li Yan as Duke Jing of Liang and his father Li Chang as Duke Jian of Liang. He appointed Tang Yao as his General Who Conquers The East.

天興中,暠私署大都督、大將軍、護羌校尉、秦涼二州牧、涼公,年號庚子,居敦煌,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 99, Biography of Li Gao)

During the Tianxing era (398-404), Li Gao declared himself Grand Commander, Grand General, Colonel Who Protects The Qiang, Governor of Qinzhou and Liangzhou, and Duke of Liang. He changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengzi, and he resided at Dunhuang. He sent envoys to the Northern Wei court bearing tribute.

隆安四年,晉昌太守唐瑤移檄六郡,推玄盛為大都督、大將軍、涼公、領秦涼二州牧、護羌校尉。玄盛乃赦其境內,建年為庚子,追尊祖弇曰涼景公,父昶涼簡公。以唐瑤為征東將軍,郭謙為軍諮祭酒,索仙為左長史,張邈為右長史,尹建興為左司馬,張體順為右司馬,張條為牧府左長史,令狐溢為右長史,張林為太府主簿,宋繇、張謖為從事中郎,繇加折沖將軍,謖加揚武將軍,索承明為牧府右司馬,令狐遷為武衛將軍、晉興太守,氾德瑜為甯遠將軍、西郡太守,張靖為折沖將軍、河湟太守,索訓為威遠將軍,西平太守,趙開為騂馬護軍、大夏太守,索慈為廣武太守,陰亮為西安太守,令狐赫為武威太守,索術為武興太守,以招懷東夏。又遣宋繇東伐涼興,並擊玉門已西諸城,皆下之,遂屯玉門、陽關,廣田積穀,為東伐之資。(Book of Jin 87, Biography of Li Gao)

In the fourth year of Long'an (400), Duan Ye's Administrator of Jinchang, Tang Yao, sent out proclamations through six commandaries, acclaiming Li Gao as Grand Commander, Grand General, Duke of Liang, acting Governor of Qinzhou and Liangzhou, and Colonel Who Protects The Qiang.

Li Gao then declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Gengzi. He posthumously honored his grandfather Li Yan as Duke Jing of Liang and his father Li Chang as Duke Jian of Liang.

Li Gao appointed Tang Yao as his General Who Conquers The East, Guo Qian as his Army Libationer-Consultant, Suo Xian as his Chief Clerk of the Left, Zhang Miao as his Chief Clerk of the Right, Yin Jianxing as his Marshal of the Left, Zhang Tishun as his Marshal of the Right, Zhang Tiao as his Chief Clerk of the Left of the Governor's Staff, Linghu Yi as his Chief Clerk of the Right in that capacity, Zhang Chen as his Registrar of the Commander's Staff, and Song Yao and Zhang Su as his Gentlemen-Attendant Officers. He further appointed Song Yao as his General Who Breaks And Charges and Zhang Su as his General Who Spreads Might. He appointed Suo Chengming as his Marshal of the Right of the Governor's Staff, Linghu Qian as his Guard General of Might and Administrator of Jinxing, Fan Deyu as his General Who Calms Distant Places and Administrator of Xi commandary, Zhang Jing as his General Who Breaks And Charges and Administrator of Hehuang, Suo Xun as his General Who Awes Distant Places and Administrator of Xiping, Zhao Kai as his Protector-General of Red Horses and Administrator of Daxia, Suo Ci as his Administrator of Guangwu, Yin Liang as his Administrator of Xi'an, Linghu He as his Administrator of Wuwei, and Suo Shu as his Administrator of Wuxing, in order to attract and cherish the eastern Xia (ethnic Han).

Li Gao also sent Song Yao east to attack Liangxing, as well as attack all the cities west of Yumen. They all submitted to him. Song Yao then camped at Yumen and Yangguan, where he expanded the farmland and stockpiled grain in order to prepare for an eastern campaign.


酒泉太守王德亦叛北涼,自稱河州刺史。北涼王業使沮渠蒙遜討之。德焚城,將部曲奔唐瑤,蒙遜追至沙頭,大破之,虜其妻子、部落而還。

42. Northern Liang's Administrator of Jiuquan, Wang De, also rebelled against them. He declared himself the Inspector of Hezhou. Duan Ye sent Juqu Mengxun to campaign against Wang De. Wang De torched his city and led his forces to flee to Tang Yao, but Juqu Mengxun pursued him and caught up with Wang De at Shatou county, where he greatly routed him and captured his wife, children, and forces before returning.

〈沙頭縣本屬酒泉郡,惠帝分屬晉昌郡。〉

(Shatou county was originally part of Jiuquan commandary. Emperor Hui of Jin split it off as part of Jinchang commandary.)


十二月,戊寅,有星孛于天津。會稽世子元顯以星變解錄尚書事,復加尚書令。吏部尚書車胤以元顯驕恣,白會稽王道子,請禁抑之。元顯聞而未察,以問道子曰:「車武子屛人言及何事?」道子弗答。固問之,道子怒曰:「爾欲幽我,不令我與朝士語邪!」元顯出,謂其徒曰:「車胤間我父子。」密遣人責之。胤懼,自殺。

43. In the twelfth month, on the day Wuyin (January 2nd of 401), there was a shooting star in the Heavenly Crossings constellation. Sima Yuanxian believed that this was a sign of a change in the affairs of the Masters of Writing, so he once again made himself Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Che Yin, felt that Sima Yuanxian was too arrogant and overbearing, and he reported to Sima Daozi, asking him to restrain his son. Sima Yuanxian heard about this, but he had not yet investigated further. He asked Sima Daozi, "Are the reports of what Che Wuzi said true?"

Sima Daozi would not answer. But Sima Yuanxian continued to ask him, until Sima Daozi angrily replied, "You want to isolate me and keep me from being able to talk with the court ministers!"

Sima Yuanxian left, telling his followers, "Che Yin means to divide me and my father." And he secretly sent someone to reproach Che Yin. Afraid, Che Yin killed himself.

〈《天文志》:天津九星橫河中,一曰天漢,一曰天江;主四瀆津梁,所以度神通四方也。〉〈車胤,字武子。〉

(The Astrological Records states, "The Heavenly Crossings constellation has nine stars, astride the Yellow River. One is called the Heavenly Han River, and another is called the Heavenly Yangzi. They are the lords of the four canals and crossings, and the power of their magic stretches to every corner."

Che Yin's style name was Wuzi.)


壬辰,燕主盛立燕臺,統諸部雜夷。

44. On the day Renchen (January 16th of 401), Murong Sheng established the Yan Ministry, which supervised the various tribes.

〈二趙以來,皆立單于臺以統雜夷,盛仍此立之。〉

(Ever since the era of Han-Zhao and Later Zhao, the states of the Sixteen Kingdoms had established Chanyu ministries to supervise the various tribes. Murong Sheng was here following that tradition.)


魏太史屢奏天文乖亂。魏主珪自覽占書,多云改王易政;乃下詔風勵羣下,以帝王繼統,皆有天命,不可妄干;又數變易官名,欲以厭塞災異。

45. Wei's Bureau of Astrologers submitted several memorials reporting that the heavenly omens foretold disorder. Tuoba Gui personally reviewed the books of omens, and he expressed many desires to change around his princes and altar his governmental policies. So he issued an edict encouraging his subjects, feeling that the succession of kings and emperors owes itself to the will of Heaven, so they cannot forget their origins. He also often changed the names of his government offices, hoping to thereby ward off disaster and avoid disorder.

儀曹郎董謐獻《服餌僊經》,珪置仙人博士,立仙坊,煑鍊百藥,封西山以供薪蒸。藥成,令死罪者試服之,多死,不驗,而珪猶信之,訪求不已。

46. The Gentleman of the Bureau of Rites, Dong Mi, composed the Treatise On Luring And Attracting The Celestials. Tuoba Gui appointed Immortal Academicians, raised the Immortal Archway, concocted and smelted various drugs, and used the western hills to provide rough or fine ingredients for them. When the drugs were completed, he made condemned criminals ingest them to test them. Most of the criminals died in this manner, and nothing was learned. But Tuoba Gui still believed in the sages, and he continued to demand more of the drugs without end.

〈西山,平城西山也。毛晃曰:粗曰薪,細曰蒸。〉

(The western hills were the western hills of Pingcheng.

Regarding the term 薪蒸, Mao Huang remarked, "薪 means rough, and 蒸 means fine.")


珪常以燕主垂諸子分據勢要,使權柄下移,遂至敗亡,深非之。博士公孫表希旨,上《韓非書》,勸珪以法制御下。左將軍李粟性簡慢,常對珪舒放不肅,咳唾任情;珪積其宿過,遂誅之,羣下震栗。

47. Tuoba Gui often expressed his belief that Yan had fallen because Murong Chui had divided power between his sons and allowed them all to occupy critical positions, thus letting power and authority be spread out, and this had led to Yan's defeat. He was thus deeply opposed to letting the same thing happen in Wei. One of the Academicians, Gongsun Biao, appealing to this desire, sent Tuoba Gui a "Treatise on Han Feizi", urging Tuoba Gui to consolidate power and restrain his subjects.

The General of the Left, Li Su (or Li Li), was naturally straightforward and simple, and he often addressed Tuoba Gui in a direct and familiar manner, not even restraining his spittle. Tuoba Gui castigated him for his lack of decorum and executed him. His other subordinates trembled in fear.

〈「粟」,或作「栗」。〉〈史言魏主珪悖暴于治。〉

(Some versions write Li 粟 Su's given name as Li 栗 Li.

This passage demonstrates how Tuoba Gui's rule was now becoming haphazard and violent.)


丁酉,燕王盛尊獻莊后丁氏爲皇太后;立遼西公定爲皇太子;大赦。

48. On the day Dingyou (January 21st of 401), Murong Sheng honored Empress Xianzhuang (Lady Ding) as Empress Dowager. He appointed the Duke of Liaoxi, Murong Ding, as his Crown Prince. He declared a general amnesty.

盛引見百遼於東堂,考詳器藝,超拔者十有二人。命百司舉文武之士才堪佐世者各一人。立其子遼西公定為太子,大赦殊死已下。宴其群臣於新昌殿,盛曰:「諸卿各言其志,朕將覽之。」七兵尚書丁信年十五,盛之舅子也,進曰:「在上不驕,高而不危,臣之願也。」盛笑曰:「丁尚書年少,安得長者之言乎!」盛以威嚴馭下,驕暴少親,多所猜忌,故信言及之。(Book of Jin 124, Biography of Murong Sheng)

Murong Sheng summoned the 百遼 to see them in the Eastern Hall. He tested and instructed them on their equipment and skills, and he promoted twelve of them. Murong Sheng ordered his ministers to each nominate someone who was skilled enough in civil and military affairs to support the age.

Murong Sheng appointed the Duke of Liaoxi, his son Murong Ding, as his Crown Prince. He declared a general amnesty up until those sentenced to death.

Murong Sheng held a feast for his ministers at Xinchang Palace, where he told them, "Let each of you express your desires, and let me see what I think of them."

The Master of Writing of the Seven Regiments, Ding Xin, was fourteen years old; he was Murong Sheng's brother-in-law. He stepped forward and said, "My hope is to rise without becoming arrogant and become great without being in danger."

Murong Sheng laughed and said, "How young you are, Master Ding; how do you expect to grow up when you say such things?"

Murong Sheng kept a firm grip of power over his subordinates, and he was arrogant and cruel towards his younger relatives, suspecting many of them. This was why Ding Xin said such things.


是歲,南燕王德卽皇帝位于廣固,大赦,改元建平。更名備德,欲使吏民易避。追諡燕主暐曰幽皇帝。以北地王鍾爲司徒,慕輿拔爲司空,封孚爲左僕射,慕輿護爲右僕射。立妃段氏爲皇后。

49. During this year, Murong De declared himself Emperor at Guanggu. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping. He changed his given name to Beide, in order to help the people avoid the naming taboo for his name.

Murong De posthumously honored Murong Wei as Emperor You ("the Obscure"). He appointed Murong Zhong as his Minister Over The Masses. He appointed Muyu Ba as his Minister of Works. He appointed Feng Fu as his Deputy Director of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed Muyu Hu as Deputy Director of the Right.

Murong De honored his concubine Lady Duan as his Empress.

〈德,字玄明,皝之少子也。〉

(Murong De, styled Xuanming, was Murong Huang's youngest son.)


六月... 慕容德... 遂僭卽皇帝位于廣固。(Book of Jin 10, Annals of Emperor An)

In the third year of Long'an (399), in the sixth month, Murong De declared himself Emperor at Guanggu.

即皇帝位於南郊,大赦,改元為建平元年。又曰:「漢宣憫吏民犯諱,故改名。朕今增一備字,以為復名,庶開臣子避諱之路。」於是敘賞有差,新舊咸悅。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 13, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De declared himself Emperor at the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping.

Murong De also said, "In the past, Emperor Xuan of Han felt sympathy for the people because of how difficult it would be to observe the naming taboo for his given name, so he changed it. Likewise, I shall add the character Bei to my given name and thus change it to Beide, to allow my subjects an avenue to avoid the naming taboo for myself."

Murong De rewarded people as appropriate. Both those who had served him for a long time and those who had newly come over to him were pleased with him.

德僭稱尊號,號年建平。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Murong De)

Murong De declared himself Emperor, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Jianping.

四年,僭即皇帝位於南郊,大赦,改元為建平,設行廟于宮南,遣使奉策告成焉。進慕容鐘為司徒,慕輿拔為司空,封孚為左僕射,慕輿護為右僕射。遣其度支尚書封愷、中書侍郎封逞觀省風俗,所在大饗將士。以其妻段氏為皇后。建立學官,簡公卿已下子弟及二品士門二百人為太學生。(Book of Jin 127, Biography of Murong De)

In the fourth year of Long'an (400), Murong De declared himself Emperor at the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign year era to the first year of Jianping. He established a provisional ancestral temple south of the palace, and he sent agents to present plans and reported successes there.

Murong De promoted Murong Zhong to be Minister Over The Masses, Muyu Ba as Minister of Works, Feng Fu as Deputy Director of the Left, and Muyu Hu as Deputy Director of the Right. He sent his Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing, Feng Kai, and his Gentleman-Attendant of the Palace Secretariat, Feng Cheng, to observe and improve local customs and traditions, and he held a great feast for his generals and officers.

Murong De honored his wife Lady Duan as his Empress.

Murong De established a Government Academy. Two hundred people from among the sons and younger brothers of his subordinates from the chief officials and nobles down to families of the second rank became students at this academy.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat Dec 08, 2018 6:19 am, edited 20 times in total.
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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 2)

Unread postby DaoLunOfShiji » Sun Nov 25, 2018 4:46 am

A: I'm still loving every bit of this work you put out.
B: In 20 years we get the sitcom known as Liu-Song
C: If I had a dime for every time some version of the phrase "Due to naming tabboos with Jing-di (Sima Shi), X had to be renamed" came up in some book related to the time period, I'd be rich! Rich I say!
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