ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-106)

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BOOK 102

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Apr 11, 2017 8:24 pm

太和四年(己巳,公元三六九年)

The Fourth Year of Taihe (The Jisi Year, 369 AD)


春,三月,大司馬溫請與徐、兗二州刺史郗愔、江州刺史桓沖、豫州刺史袁真等伐燕。初,愔在北府,溫常雲:「京口酒可飲,兵可用。」深不欲愔居之;而愔暗於事機,乃遺溫箋,欲共獎王室,請督所部出河上。愔子超為溫參軍,取視,寸寸毀裂,乃更作愔箋,自陳非將帥才,不堪軍旅,老病,乞閒地自養,勸溫並領己所統。溫得箋大喜,即轉愔冠軍將軍、會稽內史,溫自領徐、兗二州刺史。夏,四月,庚戌,溫帥步騎五萬發姑孰。

1. In spring, the third month, Grand Marshal Huan Wen; the Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou, Chi Yin, the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Huan Chong; the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yuan Zhen; and others launched a northern campaign against Yan.

慕容恪死,溫乃伐燕,自謂相時而動,可以制勝,豈知爲慕容垂所敗哉!

After Murong Ke's death, Huan Wen began his campaign against Yan. With the simultaneous advance of all these armies, he must have felt he had the advantage. But how was he to know that all of them would be defeated by Murong Chui?


Up until this time, Chi Yin had been in command of the Northern Garrison. Huan Wen often said, "Jingkou has fine wine, and fine soldiers." He was not at all happy that Chi Yin was posted there. However, Chi Yin knew nothing of Huan Wen’s reservations about him. He sent a letter to Huan Wen, asking to jointly seek the royal family's favor, and to be permitted to lead troops together across the Yellow River. Chi Yin's son Chi Chao was then serving as an advisor in Huan Wen's camp. When he saw the letter before it reached Huan Wen, he tore it to pieces, and then composed a new letter in his father's hand, disclaiming any special talent in leadership, and asking to be allowed to retire on account of age and infirmity, so that he could recuperate, and that Huan Wen himself should take control of his former forces. When Huan Wen saw this doctored letter, he was very pleased, and he had Chi Yin transferred to be Champion General and Interior Minister of Kuaiji. Huan Wen then took over the role of Inspector of Xuzhou and Yanzhou. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengxu, Huan Wen led fifty thousand horse and foot north out of his base at Gushu.

晉都建康,以京口爲北府,歷陽爲西府,姑孰爲南州。京口兵可用,蓋山川風氣然也,豈必至謝玄用之而後敵人知畏哉!會稽爲王國,改太守爲內史。

Since the Eastern Jin capital was at Jiankang, Jingkou was called the "northern garrison", Liyang was called the "western garrison", and Gushe was called the "southern province".

The soldiers of Jingkou were able indeed, not to mention the atmosphere of the terrain. Who could have predicted that Xie Xuan would one day use them to strike fear in the hearts of his enemies?

After Kuaiji became a princely fiefdom, instead of an Administrator, it was administered by an Interior Minister.


甲子,燕主暐立皇後可足渾氏,太后從弟尚書令豫章公翼之女也。

2. On the day Jiazi, Murong Wei honored his mother Lady Kezuhun as Empress Dowager, and married the daughter of her cousin, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing and Duke of Yuzhang, Kezuhun Yi.

大司馬溫自兗州伐燕。郗超曰:「道遠,汴水又淺,恐漕運難通。」溫不從。六月,辛丑,溫至金鄉,天旱,水道絕,溫使冠軍將軍毛虎生鑿鉅野三百裡,引汶水會於清水。虎生,寶之子也。溫引舟師自清水入河,舳艫數百裡。郗超曰:「清水入河,難以通運。若寇不戰,運道又絕,因敵為資,復無所得,此危道也。不若盡舉見眾直趨鄴城,彼畏公威名,必望風逃潰,北歸遼、碣。若能出戰,則事可立決。若欲城鄴而守之,則當此盛夏,難為功力。百姓布野,盡為官有,易水以南必交臂請命矣。但恐明公以此計輕銳,勝負難必,欲務持重,則莫若頓兵河、濟,控引漕運,俟資儲充備,至來夏乃進兵;雖如賒遲,然期於成功而已。捨此二策而連軍北上,進不速決,退必愆乏。賊因此勢以日月相引,漸及秋冬,水更澀滯。且北土早寒,三軍裘褐者少,恐於時所憂,非獨無食而已。」溫又不從。

3. Huan Wen marched north from Yanzhou on campaign against Yan. Chi Chao advised him, "The road to Yan is far, and the Pian River is shallow. I fear water transport will be difficult." Huan Wen did not heed him.

兵亂之餘,汴水塡淤,未嘗有人浚治,故淺。汴,皮變翻。

During the chaos caused by the errant soldiers from Murong Jun's draft in 359-60, the Pian River had become choked with silt, and no one had bothered to dredge the river since then, so it was still shallow. 汴 is pronounced "pian (p-ian)".


In the sixth month, on the day Xinchou, Huan Wen reached Jinxiang. There was a drought, and the water level dropped. Huan sent the Champion General Mao Husheng to cut a canal for three hundred li at Juye, to channel water from the Wen River to the Qing River. Mao Husheng was the son of Mao Bao. Huan Wen ordered boats to sail up the Qing river to enter the Yellow river, and the convoy of these ships stretched for a hundred li.

金鄕縣,後漢屬山陽郡,晉屬高平郡,隋屬濟陰郡,唐屬兗州,我宋屬濟州,縣在州東南九十里。班固《地理志》,汶水出泰山萊蕪縣西南,入濟。《水經註》:濟水東北入鉅野,其故瀆又東北右合洪水;洪水上承鉅野薛訓渚,謂之桓公瀆,濟自是北注。杜佑曰:濟水,因王莽末渠涸不復截河過,今東平、濟南、淄川、北海界中有水流入海,謂之清河,實菏澤、汶水合流,亦曰濟河,蓋因舊名,非濟水也。汶,音問。毛寶預有平蘇峻之功。註又見前。

During Later Han, Jinxiang County was part of Shanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Gaoping commandary. During Sui, it was part of Jiyin commandary. During Tang, it was part of Yanzhou. In our time (that is, the Song dynasty) it is part of Jizhou, and is ninety li southeast of there.

Ban Gu's "Geographical Records" states, "The Wen River flows from Mount Tai southwest through Laiwu County, until it enters the Ji River." The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ji River passes through Juye from the northeast, and it is said that it also drains into the Hong River in the northeast on its right bank. The Hong River flows out of the Xuexun Lake at Juye, and it is called the Huangong Drain; it fills in the Ji River to the north." Du You remarked, "Concerning the Ji River, since Wang Mang's canal had dried up before reaching the Yellow River, the region between modern Dongping, Jinan, Zichuan, and Beihai had rivers flowing into the sea, and so it was called Qinghe (for the Qing and Yellow Rivers). It was where the He Marsh linked up with the flow of the Wen River, so it was also called Jihe, and that was the source of this old name. But it had nothing to do with the Ji River." 汶 is pronounced "wen".

Mao Bao's accomplishments in helping to put down Su Jun's rebellion were listed earlier in the ZZTJ.


Chi Chao said, "Navigation is difficult where the Qing River enters the Yellow River. If we do not force a battle, and our supply line on this river is cut, then the enemy will benefit from it, while we will have trouble gaining more supplies. This situation places us in danger. We would do best to fall upon Ye with full haste. The enemy fears your martial reputation, and they will flee north to the safety of Liao and Jie. And if we can fight a battle, then the matter can even be decided quickly. Or if they attempt to hold out at Ye, then we may spread our influence among the Xia (ethnic Han), and it will be difficult for the enemy to accomplish anything. The common people and the ministers will come south of the Yi River to seek your orders.

“My fear is that you will think little of this plan, since it would be difficult to ensure its success, and you would rather attend to every detail, and secure every camp along the Yellow and Ji Rivers, establish supply lines, and require every preparation, not beginning the actual attack until the summer has passed you by. Although you will prepare credit for yourself, there will not be time enough to spend it.

“Remember the factor of difficulty in logistics and keeping the army supplied in the north when deciding between these two plans: if you cannot quickly force a decisive blow, then you will eventually be compelled to retreat by the lack of grain. The enemy's forces will gather day by day and month by month, and as autumn and winter approach, the river water will become even more shallow and stagnant. The north is suffering from a drought, and our three armies will not long be able to sustain themselves. I fear that time will work against us, and soon there will be no food to maintain the army." But again Huan Wen did not heed him.

自清水入河,皆是泝流,又道里回遠,故言難以通運。郗超之謀略,豈常人所及哉,宜桓溫重之也。重之而不從其計者,直趨鄴城,決勝負於一戰,溫所不敢;頓兵河、濟以待來年,使燕得爲備,溫亦不爲也。

Where the Qing River entered the Yellow River, the Jin ships would be sailing upstream all the way, and it would be a long route to return. This was what Chi Chao meant by transport difficulties.

Alas for Chi Chao's strategy. How could be that even a common man could have grasped it, and yet Huan Wen was too stubborn to accept it? If he had not been obstinate and had followed this strategy, then he might have rushed towards Ye, and decided the war with a single victory in battle. But Huan Wen was not the sort of man who dared to do that. In setting up camps for his soldiers along the Yellow and Ji Rivers, he let the year slip by, and gave Yan time to prepare themselves. He should not have done so.


溫遣建威將軍檀玄攻湖陸,拔之,獲燕寧東將軍慕容忠。燕主暐以下邳王厲為征討大都督,帥步騎二萬逆戰於黃墟,厲兵大敗,單馬奔還。高平太守徐翻舉郡來降。前鋒鄧遐、朱序敗燕將傅顏於林渚。暐復遣樂安王臧統諸軍拒溫,臧不能抗;乃遣散騎常侍李鳳求救於秦。

4. Huan Wen sent the General Who Establishes Valor, Tan Xuan, to attack Hulu, and Tan Xuan took it, capturing Yan's General Who Calms The East, Murong Zhong. Murong Wei appointed the Prince of Xiapi, Murong Li, as Grand Commander of Conquest, and sent him with twenty thousand horse and foot to fight Huan Wen at Huangxu. Murong Li suffered a great defeat, and escaped alone on horseback. Yan’s Administrator of Gaoping, Xu Fan, surrendered his city to Huan Wen. Zhu Xu and the vanguard commander Deng Xia defeated the Yan general Fu Yan at Linzhu. Murong Wei then sent the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, with another army to oppose Huan Wen, but Murong Zang could not stop him. Murong Wei thus sent the 散騎常侍 Li Feng to seek aid from Qin.

湖陸縣,前漢曰湖陵,屬山陽郡,章帝更名湖陸;晉分屬高平郡。賢曰:湖陸故城在今兗州方與縣東南。《水經註》:陳留小黃縣有黃鄕。杜預曰:外黃縣東有黃城,兵亂之後,城邑丘墟,故曰黃墟。《水經註》:華水東逕棐城北,卽北林亭也。《春秋》諸侯會于棐林以救鄭,遇于北林。按林鄕故城在新鄭北;又有白鴈陂,在長社東北,林鄕西南。

During Former Han, Hulu County was called Huling, and was part of Shanyang commandary. Emperor Zhang of Han changed its name to Hulu. Jin split it off as part of Gaoping commandary. Xian remarked, "The old city of Huling was southeast of Fangyu County in Yanzhou in our time."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In Xiaohuang County in Chenliu, there is Huangcheng." Du Yu remarked, "East of Waihuang County was Huangcheng.” After disturbances from the soldiers, the city and its suburbs were ruined, so it was renamed to Huangxu.

The Commentary on the Water Classic also states, "The Hua River flows east, north of Feicheng, at the place called Beilin Pavilion." The Spring and Autumn Annals mention that several of the marquises met at Feilin to rescue the state of Zheng, and that the meeting was at Beilin. The old city of Linxiang was north of Xinzheng. There was also Baiyan Pond, northeast of Changshe, and southwest of Linxiang.


秋,七月,溫屯武陽,燕故兗州刺史孫元帥其族黨起兵應溫。溫至枋頭,暐及太傅評大懼,謀奔和龍。吳王垂曰:「臣請擊之;若其不捷,走未晚也。」暐乃以垂代樂安王臧為使持節、南討大都督,帥征南將軍范陽王德等眾五萬以拒溫。垂表司徒左長史申胤、黃門侍郎封孚、尚書郎悉羅騰皆從軍。胤,鐘之子;孚,放之子也。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, Huan Wen camped at Wuyang. Yan's former Inspector of Yanzhou, Sun Yuan, and his clan and allies led their troops in rebellion against Yan to support Huan Wen. When Huan Wen arrived at Fangtou. Murong Wei and the Grand Tutor Murong Ping were greatly afraid, and wished to flee to Helong. The Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, said, "Please allow me to fight a battle. If I do not meet with success, it will not be too late to flee." Murong Wei therefore appointed Murong Chui as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Grand Commander of Conquest, replacing Murong Zang, and sent him along along with the General Who Conquers The South, the Prince of Fanyang Murong De, and others, with an army of fifty thousand to oppose Huan Wen. For his officers, Murong Chui chose the Chief Clerk of the Left of the Minister Over The Masses, Shen Yin, the Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Feng Fu, and one of the Gentlemen of the Master of Writing, Xiluo Teng. Shen Yin was the son of Shen Zhong. Feng Fu was the son of Feng Fang.

此東武陽也,漢屬東郡,魏、晉屬陽平郡,唐改曰朝城縣、屬魏州。悉羅騰,蓋夷人,以部落爲氏,如《魏書‧官氏志》所載,神元時餘部諸姓內入者叱羅氏、如羅氏之類。申鍾見九十五卷成帝咸和九年。封放見九十九卷穆帝永和七年。

"Wuyang" here means East Wuyang. During Han, it was part of Dong commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Tang renamed it to Chaocheng County, as part of Weizhou.

Xiluo Teng was a tribesman. The barbarians' tribes were each divided up into many clans, as attested in the "Records of Official Families" in the Book of Wei. In Shenyuan's time, the tribes were each divided into several different surnames, such as Chiluo or Ruluo.

Shen Zhong was first mentioned in Book 95, in Emperor Cheng's ninth year of Xianhe (334.21). Although he was originally a Later Zhao minister, he surrendered to Yan after Ran Min's defeat and served them. Feng Fang was mentioned in Book 99, in Emperor Mu's seventh year of Yonghe (351.14).


暐又遣散騎侍郎樂嵩請救於秦,許賂以虎牢以西之地。秦王堅引群臣議於東堂,皆曰:「昔桓溫伐我,至灞上,燕不我救。今溫伐燕,我何救焉!且燕不稱籓於我,我何為救之!」王猛密言於堅曰:「燕雖強大,慕容評非溫敵也。若溫舉山東,進屯洛邑,收幽、冀之兵,引並、豫之粟,觀兵崤、澠,則陛下大事去矣。今不如與燕合兵以退溫;溫退,燕亦病矣,然後我承其弊而取之,不亦善乎!」堅從之。八月,遣將軍苟池、洛州刺史鄧羌帥步騎二萬以救燕,出自洛陽,軍至穎川;又遣散騎侍郎姜撫報使於燕。以王猛為尚書令。

6. Murong Wei then sent his 散騎侍郎 Yue Song to again beg assistance from Qin, offering all the territory west of Hulao (that is, the Luoyang region) in exchange. Fu Jian gathered his ministers for discussion in the Eastern Hall. They all said, "Years ago, when Huan Wen campaigned against us, and he came as far as Bashang, Yan did not assist us. Now Huan Wen is attacking Yan; why should we save them? Yan is no vassal of ours, so why should we save them?"

見九十九卷永和十年。

Huan Wen's invasion of Qin was recounted in Book 99, in the tenth year of Yonghe (354).


Wang Meng secretly said to Fu Jian, "Although Yan is very great and powerful, Murong Ping is no match for Huan Wen. If Huan Wen conquers everything east of the mountains, and advances into the Luoyang region, if he harnesses the soldiers of Youzhou and Jizhou, harvests the grain of Bingzhou and Yuzhou, and posts soldiers at the Xiao Mountains and the Mian River, Your Majesty will lose your chance at achieving your grand design. It would be better to stand with Yan today and repulse Huan Wen. For even after Huan Wen has been defeated, Yan will not have recovered from his invasion, and we may then take it for ourselves. Is that not also excellent?" Fu Jian agreed.

王猛之取李儼,其計亦出此。

This was the same sort of plan that Wang Meng had used to capture the rebel Li Yan.


In the eighth month, Fu Jian sent General Gou Chi and the Inspector of Luozhou, Deng Qiang, with twenty thousand horse and foot to reinforce Yan. They marched out of Luoyang, and the Qin army was at Yingchuan. Fu Jian further sent the 散騎侍郎 Jiang Fu to report back to Yan. Wang Meng was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

潁州郡,治許昌。

Yingchuan commandary was administered from Xuchang.


太子太傅封孚問於申胤曰:「溫眾強士整,乘流直進,今大軍徒逡巡高岸,兵不接刃,未見克殄之理,事將何如?」胤曰:「以溫今日聲勢,似能有為。然在吾觀之,必無成功。何則?晉室衰弱,溫專制其國,晉之朝臣未必皆與之同心。故溫之得志,眾所不願也,必將乖阻以敗其事。又,溫驕而恃眾,怯於應變。大眾深入,值可乘之會,反更逍遙中流,不出赴利,欲望持久,坐取全勝;若糧廩愆懸,情見勢屈,必不戰自敗,此自然之數也。」 溫以燕降人段思為鄉導,悉羅騰與溫戰,生擒思。溫使故趙將李述徇趙、魏,騰又與虎賁中郎將染干津擊斬之,溫軍奪氣。

7. Yan’s Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Feng Fu, asked Shen Yin, "Huan Wen has a mighty host, constantly pressing forward, while our army hesitates to advance. We are on the brink, and no one knows whether victory or annihilation is in store. What will become of us?"

Shen Yin replied, "It would seem that Huan Wen currently has great power and influence, and that he might win. Yet in my view, he will not accomplish anything. How so? The Jin court is weak and vacillating, and if Huan Wen seeks to conquer other states, then the Jin court and ministers need to be of one mind. Yet I do not believe that they agree with Huan's ambitions, and any defeat will make them rein him in. Furthermore, Huan Wen has been overbearing towards them, and they are too timid to go along with any changes. His grand host has penetrated deep into the country, and by now his men will have become unruly. He does not march out to risk a battle, but wants to spend time attending to every possible thing, and will wait until he is certain of victory. If his army’s grain is exhausted, then their morale will drop, and they will be defeated even without fighting, as is natural."

溫之爲計正如此,申胤料之審矣。溫攻秦而不渡霸水,攻燕而徘徊枋頭,人皆咎其不進;知彼知己,溫蓋臨敵而方有見乎此也。溫之智雖不足以禁暴定功,然其去衆人亦遠矣。

This was exactly what Huan Wen's plan was. Shen Yin displayed how keen his analysis was.

When Huan Wen attacked Qin, he hesitated to cross the Ba River. When he attacked Yan, he lingered at Fangtou. Men faulted him in both cases for not advancing. One must know the enemy and know oneself, and when Huan Wen came against his enemies, they could perceive this fault of his. But although Huan Wen's knowledge was insufficient for him to press his attacks and ensure his achievements, he still had many who followed him a long ways.


Duan En defected to Huan Wen, and Huan appointed him as an army guide. Xiluo Teng battled with Huan Wen, and captured Duan En. Huan Wen sent the former Zhao general Li Shu to win over the regions of Zhao and Wei. Xiluo Teng then fought with Huan's 虎賁中郎將 Ran Ganjin, and killed him in battle. The morale of Huan Wen's army began to fall.

初,溫使豫州刺史袁真攻譙、梁,開石門以通水運,真克譙、梁而不能開石門,水運路塞。

8. Earlier, Huan Wen had sent the Inspector of Yuzhou, Yuan Zhen, to attack Qiao and Liang, and to then open Shimen to provide supplies by water. Yuan Zhen captured Qiao and Liang, but he could not open Shimin, and the water route was blocked.

譙、梁,譙郡及梁國也。

Qiao and Liang means Qiao commandary and Liangguo.


九月,燕范陽王德帥騎一萬、蘭台治書侍御史劉當帥騎五千屯石門,豫州刺史李邽帥州兵五千斷溫糧道。當,佩之子也。德使將軍慕容宙帥騎一千為前鋒,與晉兵遇。宙曰:「晉人輕剽,怯於陷敵,勇於乘退,宜設餌以釣之。」乃使二百騎挑戰,分餘騎為三伏。挑戰者兵未交而走,晉兵追之;宙帥伏以擊之,晉兵死者甚眾。

9. In the ninth month, Yan's Prince of Fanyang, Murong De, led ten thousand cavalry to camp at Shimen, and the 治書侍御史 of Lantai, Liu Dang, led five thousand cavalry to the same place. Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou, Li Gui, led five thousand of his provincial troops to cut off Huan Wen's supply lines. Liu Dang was the son of Liu Pei.

【章:十二行本「臺」下有「治書」二字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】燕豫州刺史治許昌。劉佩爲慕容皝將,卻石虎,攻宇文,皆有功。

Some versions include 治書 after Lantai in the name of Liu Dang's title.

Yan's Inspector of Yuzhou administered his province from Xuchang.

Liu Pei was one of Murong Huang's generals. He had gained fame from defending against Shi Hu's invasion and attacking the Yuwen.


Murong De sent his general Murong Zhou to lead a thousand cavalry as vanguard leader, and they encountered Jin troops. Murong Zhou said, "Jin soldiers are cowards; they fear to truly face an enemy, but they are heroic in pursuing one. Let's prepare bait as a trap." So he sent two hundred riders to start a skirmish, while splitting up the others to prepare an ambush from three sides. The skirmishers engaged the Jin soldiers and then fled, and the soldiers pursued them. Then Murong Zhou launched the ambush, and all the Jin soldiers were killed.

溫戰數不利,糧儲復竭,又聞秦兵將至,丙申,焚舟,棄輜重、鎧仗,自陸道奔還。以毛虎生督東燕等四郡諸軍事,領東燕太守。

10. Huan Wen fought several battles, but gained no victory, and his grain stores were running low. He also heard reports of the approaching Qin soldiers. On the day Bingshen, he burned his ships, abandoned his impediments and equipment, and retreated by the land route. He sent Mao Husheng to handle military affairs in the four commandaries, including Dongyan, appointing him Administrator of Dongyan.

沈約曰:東燕郡,江左分濮陽所立也。余按石虎分東燕郡屬洛州,則是郡蓋祖逖在豫州時所置也。燕,於賢翻。

Shen Yue remarked, "Dongyan commandary was established at Puyang, north of the Yangzi." I believe that Shi Hu split Dongyan commandary off to be part of Luozhou, including the part of the commandary that Zu Ti held when he was Jin’s Administrator of Yuzhou. 燕 is pronounced "yan (w-ian)".


溫自東燕出倉垣,鑿井而飲,行七百餘里。燕之諸將爭欲追之,吳王垂曰:「不可。溫初退惶恐,必嚴設警備,簡精銳為後拒,擊之未必得志,不如緩之。彼幸吾未至,必晝夜疾趨;俟其士眾力盡氣衰,然後擊之,無不克矣。」乃帥八千騎徐行躡其後。溫果兼道而進。數日,垂告諸將曰:「溫可擊矣。」乃急追之,及溫於襄邑。范陽王德先帥勁騎四千伏於襄邑東澗中,與垂夾擊溫,又破之,死者復以萬計。秦苟池邀擊溫於譙,又破之,死者復以萬計。孫元遂據武陽以拒燕,燕左衛將軍孟高討擒之。

11. Huan Wen’s army fell back from Dongyan to Cangyuan, digging wells for water as they went, and marching over seven hundred li.

汴水、濟瀆皆自北而南,恐追兵毒其上流,故鑿井而飲。

The Pian River and the Ji Canal both flowed from north to south, and Huan Wen's soldiers feared that Yan would poison them from upstream, so they dug wells to obtain water instead.


The Yan generals all wanted to pursue him at once. Murong Chui said, "We cannot. When Huan Wen first begins retreating, he will be in a great panic, and naturally he will have prepared strict defenses, and he will have his best troops protecting his rear. If we attack him now, we will not yet be able to achieve what we want. It would be better for us to shadow his army. Once they have fallen back some ways, then we can begin to needle them with night attacks. After their morale is completely exhausted, that will be the time for us to strike, and we cannot help but succeed." So he led eight thousand cavalry in a light pursuit.

Huan Wen therefore turned his thoughts toward retreating and increased his pace. After several days of this, Murong Chui said to his generals, "Now we may attack him." So they pressed their pursuit, following Huan Wen to Xiangyi. Murong De had earlier ridden to Xiangyi with four thousand cavalry to lie in ambush east of there at Jianzhong. He and Murong Chui both attacked Huan Wen at once, and completely routed his army, killing thirty thousand Jin soldiers.

襄邑縣,自漢以來屬陳留郡。

During Han, Xiangyi County was part of Chenliu commandary.


The Qin general Gou Chi then launched his own attack against Huan Wen at Qiao, defeating his army again, and killing a further ten thousand soldiers. The defector Sun Yuan tried to hold Wuyang against Yan, but Yan's Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, attacked and captured it.

冬,十月,己巳,大司馬溫收散卒,屯於山陽。溫深恥喪敗,乃歸罪於袁真,奏免真為庶人;又免冠軍將軍鄧遐官。真以溫誣己,不服,表溫罪狀,朝廷不報。真遂據壽春叛,降燕,且請救;亦遣使如秦。溫以毛虎生領淮南太守,守歷陽。

12. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jisi, Huan Wen gathered up his remaining soldiers and camped at Shanyang. Huan Wen was deeply ashamed and mournful of his defeat, and shifted the blame onto Yuan Zhen, asking that he be stripped of office and demoted to commoner status, and that his rank be given to Champion General Deng Xian. When Yuan Zhen heard Huan Wen's slander, he did not submit, but sent notice of Huan Wen's own crimes. The Jin court made no response. Yuan Zhen then took over Shouchun and rebelled, offering submission to Yan, and asking for aid; he also sent messengers to Qin. Huan Wen appointed Mao Yusheng as acting Administrator of Huainan, and had him defend Liyang.

劉昫曰:山陽,漢射陽縣地;晉置山陽郡,改爲山陽縣,唐爲楚州治所。以石門不開、糧運不繼爲眞罪。淮南太守本治壽春,壽春旣叛,以虎生領淮南而守歷陽。歷陽本淮南屬縣,虎生守之,外以備壽春,內以衞江南。

Liu Xu remarked, "Shanyang was the same place as the Han dynasty's Sheyang County. Jin made it Shanyang commandary, and then changed it to Shanyang County. During Tang, it was administered by Chuzhou."

Yuan Zhen's crime was that he had not opened Shimen or kept up the grain transports.

The Administrator of Huainan usually administered his territory from Shouchun. Since Shouchun was now in rebellion, Mao Husheng exercised his temporary authority from Liyang. Liyang had originally been a county under Huainan commandary, so Mao Husheng defended from there, both to prepare against Shouchun and to safeguard the region south of the Yangzi.


燕、秦既結好,使者數往來。燕散騎侍郎太原郝晷、給事黃門侍郎梁琛相繼如秦。晷與王猛有舊,猛接以平生,問晷東方之事。晷見燕政不修而秦大治,知燕將亡,陰欲自托於猛,頗洩其實。

13. Yan and Qin now enjoying good relations, they exchanged a series of envoys. Yan's 散騎侍郎, Hao Gui of Taiyuan, and 給事黃門侍郎 Liang Chen were sent to Qin one after the other. Hao Gui was old friends with Wang Meng, and they had long kept in touch. Wang Meng asked Hao Gui about affairs in the east. Hao Gui saw that the Yan court was in disarray while Qin was well managed, and knew that Yan would soon fall, so he secretly spread word to Wang Meng, venting to him his true feelings.

【章:十二行本「郎」下有「太原」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】琛,丑林翻。【章:十二行本「治」下有「知燕將亡」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】

Some versions identify Hao Gui as being "of Taiyuan".

琛 is pronounced "chen (ch-en)".

Some versions include the phrase "he knew Yan would soon fall".


琛至長安,秦王堅方畋於萬年,欲引見琛,琛曰:「秦使至燕,燕之君臣朝服備禮,灑掃宮庭,然後敢見。今秦王欲野見之,使臣不敢聞命!」尚書郎辛勁謂琛曰:「賓客入境,惟主人所以處之,君焉得專制其禮!且天子稱乘輿,所至曰行在所,何堂居之有!又,《春秋》亦有遇禮,何為不可乎!」琛曰:「晉室不綱,靈祚歸德,二方承運,俱受明命。而桓溫猖狂,窺我王略,燕危秦孤,勢不獨立,是以秦主同恤時患,要結好援。東朝君臣,引領西望,愧其不競,以為鄰憂,西使之辱,敬待有加。今強寇既退,交聘方始,謂宜崇禮篤義以固二國之歡;若忽慢使臣,是卑燕也,豈修好之義乎!夫天子以四海為家,故行曰乘輿,止曰行在。今海縣瓜裂,天光分曜,安得以乘輿、行在為言哉!禮,不期而見曰遇;蓋因事權行,其禮簡略,豈平居容與之所為哉!客使單行,誠勢屈於主人;然苟不以禮,亦不敢從也。」堅乃為之設行宮,百僚倍位,然後延客,如燕朝之儀。事畢,堅與之私宴,問:「東朝名臣為誰?」琛曰:「太傅上庸王評,明德茂親,光輔王室;車騎大將軍吳王垂,雄略冠世,折沖御侮;其餘或以文進,或以武用,官皆稱職,野無遺賢。」

14. When Liang Chen arrived at Chang'an, Fu Jian was out hunting at Wannian. He asked for Liang Chen to come see him. Liang Chen said, "When a Qin envoy comes to Yan, the full court prepares the rites for him, receives him in the palace, and afterward sees him off. Now the lord of Qin wishes to meet me in the field, and sends a servant instead, not daring to come hear me in person!"

萬年,秦之櫟陽,漢高帝更名,屬馮翊,晉屬京兆。

Wannian was known as Liyang during the Qin dynasty. Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had changed its name, and it became part of Pingyi. Under Jin, it was part of Jingzhao.


The Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Xin Jing, said to Liang Chen, “When a guest enters a sovereign's territory, only that ruler may set the circumstances of the guest's reception. Yet here you are demanding what sort of rites shall be followed by your own authority! The Son of Heaven rides his imperial carriage where he will, and wheresoever it stops is called his resting place, no matter where he may reside! Further, the Spring and Autumn Annals records these same sorts of reception ceremonies, so how can you say that they cannot be used?”

《春秋》:隱四年,公及宋公遇于清。《公羊傳》曰:遇者何?不期也。杜預曰:遇者,草次之期,二國各簡其禮,若道路相逢遇也。

The Spring and Autumn Annals state, "In the fourth year of Duke Yin's reign, he and the Duke of Song met at Qing." (Yin 4.3) The Gongyang Commentary on the Annals remarked, "What does the use of this word 'met' mean? It means that it was not an arranged conference." And Du Yu remarked, "By 'met', they mean a 'hurried arrangement'. Both states kept to minimal ceremonies, as though they had happened to encounter one another on the road."


Liang Chen replied, “Let us not be like the Jin royal family, with their phantom throne and their discarded virtues. Our two sides have both been ordained by Heaven and received its Mandate to rule. Huan Wen in his ferocity sought to get a glimpse of our 'royal grant'. With Yan threatened, Qin was in danger of standing alone, and in such a state she would not be able to last. That is why the lord of Qin sympathized with us and shared our burden against the dangers of that time, and formed a close covenant. The eastern court, lord and ministers, all placed their hopes in the west, ashamed that they themselves were not strong enough, but believing in their neighbor's sorrow at such a state of affairs. And the west, in order not to be disgraced, treated us with respect and good care. Now, since the strong invader has retreated, we have begun to exchange envoys with one another. This is the time to follow the sublime rites and display earnest righteousness, to promote the happiness and joy of both our states. Yet here you are suddenly sending me off; that is a slight against Yan, and how is that supposed to develop good virtues?

靈祚,猶班彪《王命論》所謂神明之祚也。《左傳》:侵敗王略。杜預《註》曰︰略,經略法度。余謂此略,封略也,如《左傳》「王與之武公之略」之略。

"Phantom throne" refers to the concept of the blessings of the divine mentioned in Ban Biao's "Discourse on the Royal Mandate".

The Zuo Commentary states, "They infringe upon and overreach their royal grants." (Cheng 2.12) In Du Yu's "Notes" on the Zuo Commentary he remarked, "'Grants' here refer to laws and standards. I believe this term 'grants' is also meant in the sense of feudal grants, such as its use in the passage elsewhere in the Zuo Commentary, 'The king granted him what had formerly been granted to Duke Wu'." (Zhuang 21.1)


"A true Son of Heaven takes the whole world within the four seas as his residence: it is indeed true that whatever he rides in is named the imperial carriage, and wherever he stops is called his resting place. But now, all the counties and provinces within the seas are split apart like gourds, and Heaven's splendor is divided among many. How then is it fitting to use such terms as 'imperial carriage' or 'resting place'? According to the Rites, an unarranged encounter is termed a 'meeting'. For such exceptional occasions as this affair, the rites may be simplified, but how can this be held up as the usual standard? I will submit to a simplified meeting place, where I may earnestly prostrate myself before your lord. But to go so far as to entirely neglect the rites, that I dare not abide.”

騶衍曰:中國有赤縣神州,赤縣神州內有九州,禹所敍九州是也;其外有裨海環之。海縣之說,蓋本諸此。

The philosopher Zou Yan said, "The Middle Kingdom has its crimson counties and its divine provinces. These crimson counties and divine provinces make up nine provinces together, the very same ones that Yu the Great laid out. Beyond them lie the the outer ring of seas." Liang Chen's phrase "All the counties and provinces within the seas" refers to this concept.


So Fu Jian constructed a temporary building, invited all the ministers to attend there, and then received his guest, just in the manner of the Yan court. After business had been concluded, Fu Jian invited everyone to a private feast, and asked Liang Chen, "Who are the worthies of the eastern court?"

倣古私覿之禮也。

The building was modeled after private meeting sites from antiquity.


Liang Chen replied, “The Grand Tutor and Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, is a bright and virtuous member of the royal family, fully capable of bringing splendid administration to the state. And the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Wu, Murong Chui, is heroic and insightful, a champion for our age, masterful at smashing the enemy and fending off foreign aggression. But even beyond these two, we have many who have advanced our civil affairs or find great use in our military affairs. Every office has been filled, and we have left no worthy fellow neglected.”

琛從兄弈為秦尚書郎,堅使典客館琛於弈捨。琛曰:「昔諸葛瑾為吳聘蜀,與諸葛亮惟公朝相見,退無私面,余竊慕之。今使之即安私室,所不敢也。」乃不果館。弈數來就邸捨,與琛臥起,閒問琛東國事。琛曰:「今二方分據,兄弟並蒙榮龐,論其本心,各有所在。琛欲言東國之美,恐非西國之所欲聞;欲言其惡,又非使臣之所得論也。兄何用問為!」

15. Liang Chen's cousin, Liang Yi, was serving as one of Qin’s Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing. Fu Jian sent his Director of Guests to Liang Chen to see if Liang Chen would lodge with his cousin. Liang Chen replied, "When Zhuge Jin was serving Wu as envoy to Shu, he did not deign to visit his brother Zhuge Liang in private, but avoided such a meeting; this is to be admired. Now while I am serving as an envoy for the public good, how can I think of private family affairs? I dare not accept." Thus, he did not lodge with his cousin.

漢有典客之官,後改爲大鴻臚。此特臨時使之典客耳。瑾,亮兄弟也。

The Han dynasty had the office of Director of Guests, but it later changed to Minister Herald, and no one held the original title afterwards. Fu Jian had made a special appointment of the office for this occasion.

Zhuge Jin was Zhuge Liang’s elder brother (and he also served as envoy from an eastern to a western state).


Even so, Liang Yi several times came to Liang Chen's residence, rising and sleeping when his cousin did, pestering Liang Chen to tell him about affairs in the eastern state. Liang Chen said, "We two serve different sides, and both of us have labored under and received the favor of our own lords. We would necessarily speak from our hearts, both saying all he could. Now if I were to speak of the splendor of the eastern state, I fear it will not be what the western state wants to hear; while if I were to speak of its failings, such talk is unbecoming of an envoy. What more is there for you to ask of me?"

堅使太子延琛相見。秦人欲使琛拜太子,先諷之曰:「鄰國之君,猶其君也;鄰國之儲君,亦何以異乎!」琛曰:「天子之子視元士,欲其由賤以登貴也。尚不敢臣其父之臣,況它國之臣乎!苟無純敬,則禮有往來,情豈忘恭,但恐降屈為煩耳。」乃不果拜。

16. Fu Jian sent his 太子延 to meet with Liang Chen. The people of Qin wished for Liang Chen to come pay his respects to their Crown Prince. They chanted, "Each local state has their own crown, for lord to wear and then hand down. And nearby states have lords in store, for every lord births many more." Liang Chen said of it, "Even the son of the Son of Heaven is only capped as a normal captain. Yet you seek to lift up even coarser stuff into fine products. I do not claim to recognize another man's father as my own; how much less will I claim to recognize another state's lord as my sovereign? I will not be careless of proper respect, and I will keep to the rites as before, for how can I forget to show reverence? But I fear I cannot trouble myself to so fully submit as that." So they gave up on having him pay his respects.

《禮記‧郊特牲》曰:天子之元子,士也,天下無生而貴者也。言當答拜也。

The "Single Victim at the Border Sacrifices" section of the Book of Rites states, "The eldest son of the Son of Heaven by his proper queen (was capped only as) an ordinary officer. There was nowhere such a thing as being born noble." (33)

This passage was Liang Chen's response to being asked to pay his respects to Qin's crown prince.


王猛勸堅留琛,堅不許。

17. Wang Meng urged Fu Jian to detain Liang Chen, but Fu Jian would not permit it.

燕主暐遣大鴻臚溫統拜袁真使持節、都督淮南諸軍事、征南大將軍、揚州刺史,封宣城公。統未逾淮而卒。 吳王垂自襄邑還鄴,威名益振,太傅評愈忌之。垂奏:「所募將士忘身立效,將軍孫蓋等摧鋒陷陳,應蒙殊賞。」評皆抑而不行。垂數以為言,與評廷爭,怨隙愈深。太後可足渾氏素惡垂,毀其戰功,與評密謀誅之。太宰恪之子楷及垂舅蘭建知之,以告垂曰:「先發制人,但除評及樂安王臧,餘無能為矣。」垂曰:「骨肉相殘而首亂於國,吾有死而已,不忍為也。」頃之,二人又以告,曰:「內意已決,不可不早發。」垂曰:「必不可彌縫,吾寧避之於外,餘非所議。」

18. It was earlier mentioned that the Jin general Yuan Zhen had rebelled in Shouchun. Murong Wei sent his Minister Herald, Wen Tong, to present Yuan Zhen with the ranks of Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of Huainan military affairs, Grand General Who Conquers The South, Inspector of Yangzhou, and Duke of Xuancheng. But before Wen Tong had crossed the Huai River, he passed away.

Murong Chui returned from the battlefield at Xiangyi back to Ye, with his victories having greatly bolstered his reputation. Murong Ping became exceedingly jealous of him. Murong Chui petitioned the court, stating, "All of our accomplishments were due to the efforts of General Sun Gai and others who faced many dangers. They ought to be rewarded." But Murong Ping refused to promote any of them. Murong Chui continued to advocate for them, getting into arguments with Murong Ping, and their enmity grew deeper.

Empress Dowager Kezuhun still hated Murong Chui, and wishing to wipe out his military accomplishments, she plotted with Murong Ping to kill him. Murong Ke's son, Murong Kai, and Murong Chui's uncle Lan Jian learned of the plot, and told Murong Chui, "’He who acts first controls men’. If you do not get rid of Murong Ping and the Prince of Le'an Murong Zang, you will not be able to accomplish anything."

事見一百卷穆帝升平元年。《兵法》曰:先發制人,後發者人制之。

Empress Dowager Kezuhun's machinations against Murong Chui were mentioned in Book 100 in Emperor Mu's first year of Shengping (actually the second year, 358.17).

The Art of War states, "He who acts first controls men, while he who acts later is controlled by them."


Murong Chui said, "They are my flesh and blood, and to fight with them would cause chaos at the head of the state. So long as I am not dead, I will endure it."

A short while later, the two of them said to him, "Things in the interior are already decided. There is nothing left to do but act at once."

內意,謂可足渾后之意也。

"The interior" here refers to Empress Dowager Kezuhun's planning.


Murong Chui said, "I must not gloss over mistakes. It would not be right for me to upset the stability of the state."

垂內以為憂,而未敢告諸子。世子令請曰:「尊比者如有憂色,豈非以主上幼沖,太傅疾賢,功高望重,愈見猜邪?」垂曰:「然。吾竭力致命以破強寇,本欲保全家國,豈知功成之後,返令身無所容。汝既知吾心,何以為吾謀?」令曰:「主上闇弱,委任太傅,一旦禍發,疾於駭機。今欲保族全身,不失大義,莫若逃之龍城,遜辭謝罪,以待主上之察,若周公之居東,庶幾可以感寤而得還,此幸之大者也。如其不然,則內撫燕、代,外懷群夷,守肥如之險以自保,亦其次也。」垂曰:「善!」

19. But Murong Chui continued to worry, and did not risk broaching the subject to his sons. His eldest son, Murong Ling, asked him, "You seem to have a worried countenance lately. Could there possibly be any other reason for it than because our lord is young, the Grand Tutor is mad, and your great accomplishments have been disregarded? Have I guessed right?"

Murong Chui said, "Just so. When I exerted myself to the utmost in following orders, and routed the powerful invading army, I did everything in order to protect my family and my state. How was I to know that, even being aware of my accomplishments, they still scorn me and cannot bear to put up with me? Since you could guess my heart, what plan do you suggest?"

Murong Ling said, "Our lord is weak, and the Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) has his ear. Calamity will fall upon them very soon, and the snap of the bowstring will catch them by surprise. You should first ensure the safety of yourself and your family, and not let the grand design slip away. Retreat to Longcheng, where you may with humble words ask forgiveness for your offenses and give our lord room to look into what has been said against you. That would be just like when the Duke of Zhou resided in the east, so that he could let good feelings develop before returning. That will also rebound to your great benefit. Or if that does not happen, you may still nurture the people of the regions of Yan and Dai within, and soothe the various tribes without, so as to make for yourself a secure place there, and await some other opportunity."

Murong Chui replied, "Excellent!"

《書》:武王有疾,周公册祝于太王、季王、文王,請以身代。武王旣喪,管叔及其羣弟流言曰:「公將不利於孺子。」周公東征之。周公居東二年,則罪人斯得,乃爲詩以詒王,名之曰《鴟鴞》;王亦未敢誚公。天大雷電以風,王啓金縢,得周公代武王之說,乃執書以泣,迎周公而歸。

In the Book of Documents (The Metal-Bound Coffer), it is written that when King Wu of Zhou once became ill, his brother the Duke of Zhou implored the spirits of his ancestors, King Tai, King Ji, and King Wen, that he might in his own body act as substitute for his elder brother’s illness, so that the royal line could endure. (The king recovered the next day.) The Duke left a record of his prayer in a metal-bound coffer.

When King Wu later died, Guan Shu and his younger brothers spread rumors saying, "The Duke will soon cause our young lord to come to grief." So the Duke of Zhou on his own initiative departed to the east. He resided there for two years, until the criminals were brought to justice, and then he composed a poem as a gift for the young king, the poem being named "The Owl". And so the young king did not dare to find fault with the Duke.

Then Heaven sent forth great lightning and winds, and the King burst open the metal-bound coffer, and within he found the Duke's prayer concerning his late father. He grasped the record with tears in his eyes, and he welcomed the Duke's return home.


十一月,辛亥朔,垂請畋於大陸,因微服出鄴,將趨龍城。至邯鄲,少子麟,素不為垂所愛,逃還告狀,垂左右多亡叛。太傅評白燕主暐,遣西平公強帥精騎追之,及於范陽。世子令斷後,強不敢逼。會日暮,令謂垂曰:「本欲保東都以自全,今事已洩,謀不及設。秦主方招延英傑,不如往歸之。」垂曰:「今日之計,捨此安之!」乃散騎滅跡,傍南山復還鄴,隱於趙之顯原陵。俄有獵者數百騎四面而來,抗之則不能敵,逃之則無路,不知所為。會獵者鷹皆飛揚,眾騎散去。垂乃殺白馬以祭天,且盟從者。

20. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Xinhai, Murong Chui asked leave to go hunting at Dalu. Dressed in that disguise, he and his family departed Ye, planning to hurry towards Longcheng. But when they had reached Handan, Murong Chui's youngest son, Murong Lin, whom he had long shown little regard for, fled back to Ye and informed on them, and everyone about Murong Chui turned on him. Murong Ping informed Murong Wei of the escape attempt, and sent the Duke of Xiping, Murong Qiang, with elite cavalry to pursue Murong Chui. These pursuit troops followed Murong Chui’s trail as far as Fanyang. There, Murong Ling cut them off, and Murong Qiang did not dare to pursue any further.

《續漢志》曰:鉅鹿,故大鹿,有大陸澤,卽廣阿澤。邯鄲縣,漢屬趙國,本趙都也;晉屬廣平郡,東魏廢,隋復置,唐屬磁州。邯鄲,音寒丹。

The 續漢志 states, "In Julu, also called Dalu, there is the Dalu Marsh, also called the Guang'a Marsh."

During Han, Handan County was part of the Zhao princely fief, and it had been the capital of the state of Zhao during the Warring States before that. Jin made it part of Guangping commandary. It was abolished under Eastern Wei, but brought back during Sui, and during Tang it was part of Cizhou. 邯鄲 is pronounced "handan".


When dusk came, Murong Ling said to his father, "We originally planned to hold out at the eastern capital (Longcheng) in order to secure ourselves. But now that affairs have taken this course, the plan must be changed. Qin has been gathering heroes and treating them well; it would be best to go to them now."

Murong Chui said, "Who could have guessed how quickly today’s plan would have to be abandoned?"

So they scattered their cavalry and destroyed the traces of the path they had taken, and went by the southern mountains back towards Ye, secretly making their way to Xianyuan Tomb in the Zhao region. When the party grew hungry, they sent out several hundred hunters in all directions to forage, but the hunters could not resist the enemies they encountered, and after fleeing, they could not find their way back to the roads, and they were not heard from again. After it became clear that the hunters would not come back, the riders all scattered. Then Murong Chui killed a white horse to offer as sacrifice to Heaven, and made a covenant with his remaining followers.

自范陽傍南山,蓋由中山、常山山谷間南還也。顯原陵,趙主石虎虛葬處。

Fanyang was near the southern mountains, including Zhongshan and Changshan. Murong Chui's party rode south through these mountain valleys to return.

Xianyuan Tomb was where Shi Hu had been falsely buried (since he was actually at Dongming Overlook).


世子令言於垂曰:「太傅忌賢疾能,構事以來,人尤忿恨。今鄴城之中,莫知尊處,如嬰兒之思母,夷、夏同之。若順眾心,襲其無備,取之如指掌耳。事定之後,革弊簡能,大匡朝政,以輔主上,安國存家,功之大者也。今日之便,誠不可失,願給騎數人,足以辦之。」垂曰:「如汝之謀,事成誠為大福,不成悔之何及!不如西奔,可以萬全。」子馬奴潛謀逃歸,殺之而行。至河陽,為津吏所禁,斬之而濟。遂自洛陽與段夫人、世子令、令弟寶、農、隆、兄子楷、舅蘭建、郎中令高弼俱奔秦,留妃可足渾氏於鄴。乙泉戌主吳歸追及於閺鄉,世子令擊之而退。

21. Then Murong Ling said to his father, "The Grand Tutor (Murong Ping) already envied the talented and despised the able. Since affairs have taken this turn, you will bear the full brunt of his hatred. Within Ye right now, no one has any regard for those currently in charge. Instead, they are all like little infants, longing for their lost mother. Both the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han) feel the same way. If you appeal to the hearts of the multitude, and strike at once while the city is unprepared, then you may capture Ye as though it were already in the palm of your hand. Once you have Ye under your control, you can rid the city of fraud and abuse and make the state able again. The whole court will be in your hands, and you may act as regent for our young lord. The state will know peace and your family will be safe. That would be a very grand achievement indeed. But the time to act on that is this very day; you cannot let the opportunity slip away. If you simply entrust the job to a few riders, that will be enough to handle the whole business.”

謂搆殺垂之謀也。

Murong Ling referred to Murong Ping's plan to kill Murong Chui.


Murong Chui said, "If I followed your plan, we would indeed reap a great fortune if things turn out well. But should we fail, how greatly would we regret it! I say it would be better to flee to the west, where we can definitely be secure." Another son, Murong Manu, insisted on going back to Ye, but Murong Chui killed him and then began marching west.

When the party reached Heyang, the ford there across the Yellow River was blocked, but they cut their way through and so crossed. Then they met up with several others at Luoyang: Murong Chui’s second wife Lady Duan, and his sons Murong Ling, Murong Bao, Murong Nong, and Murong Long, his nephew Murong Kai, his uncle Lan Jian, and his Prefect of Palace Attendants, Gao Bi. All of them fled to Qin, while Murong Chui’s concubine Lady Kezuhun was left behind in Ye. Yan’s commander of Yiquan Garrison, Wu Gui, sent troops to pursue them towards Minxiang. Murong Ling fought him off before falling back towards the others.

段夫人,垂前妃之女弟。可足渾妃,可足渾太后之妹也,詳見一百卷穆帝升平二年。高弼,垂之國卿。乙泉戍,卽魏該所保乙泉塢也,在宜陽縣西南,洛水之北原上。閺鄕在弘農湖縣。閺,音旻。

This Lady Duan was the younger sister of the Lady Duan who was Murong Chui's original wife. Concubine Kezuhun was the Empress Dowager's younger sister. The affair of how Murong Chui was forced to annul his marriage to the younger Lady Duan and take Concubine Kezuhun as a wife was related in Book 100 in Emperor Mu's second year of Shenping (358.17). Gao Bi was a minister of Murong Chui's princely fief.

Yiquan Garrison was the same place as the defensive outpost Yiquan Fortress, as it had been known under Cao-Wei. It was in the southwest of Yiyang County, in the plains north of the Luo River. Minxiang was in Hu County in Hongnong. 閺 is pronounced "min".


初,秦王堅聞太宰恪卒,陰有圖燕之志,憚垂威名,不敢發。及聞垂至,大喜,郊迎,執手曰:「天生賢傑,必相與共成大功,此自然之數也。要當與卿共定天下,告成岱宗,然後還卿本邦,世封幽州,使卿去國不失為子之孝,歸朕不失事君之忠,不亦美乎!」垂謝曰;「羈旅之臣,免罪為幸。本邦之榮,非所敢望!」堅復愛世子令及慕容楷之才,皆厚禮之,賞賜巨萬,每進見,屬目觀之。關中士民素聞垂父子名,皆向慕之。王猛言於堅曰:「慕容垂父子,譬如龍虎,非可馴之物,若借以風雲,將不可複製,不如早除之。」堅曰:「吾方收攬英雄以清四海,奈何殺之!且其始來,吾已推誠納之矣。匹夫猶不棄言,況萬乘乎!」乃以垂為冠軍將軍,封賓徒侯,楷為積弩將軍。

22. Several years before, when Fu Jian learned of Murong Ke's death, he held secret ambitions of attacking Yan, but because he feared Murong Chui's martial reputation, he did not dare to actually attack Yan. Now, when he heard that Murong Chui had come to Qin, he was overjoyed, and went to welcome him at the border, grasping his hand and saying, “You are an outstanding hero, blessed by Heaven with virtue and skill. Together, we shall certainly be able to accomplish the grand design, and how much stems from our meeting today? The two of us will settle all the realm together, and then we may report our great success on Daizong (Mount Tai). Afterwards, you may return to your homeland, where I will grant you all of Youzhou as a fief. I would send you back so that you could remain a filial son, just as you came to me in order to remain a loyal minister. Is that not also beautiful?"

Murong Chui gratefully replied, "I am a stranger in a strange land; it would be my good fortune merely to avoid committing any offense. I dare not hope for an honor so great as my homeland!"

Fu Jian also greatly appreciated the talents of Murong Ling and Murong Kai, and honored them with feasts and rites, numerous awards, and brought them with him whenever he went on patrol, to take in everything in Qin. The people of Guanzhong had long heard of the famous Murong Chui and his sons, and all respected them.

Wang Meng said to Fu Jian, "Sheltering Murong Chui and his sons is like sheltering dragons and tigers: they cannot be tamed. In treating them well, you are only lending clouds to the dragon and wind to the tiger. There are certainly plotting to be up to no good. It would be better to be rid of them at once."

Fu Jian replied, "I've got a great hero known throughout the four seas within my grasp, and now you want me to kill him? He has only just arrived here, and yet look how sincerely I have treated him. I would not talk of getting rid of him even if he were only a common sort of fellow, much less such a hero!“ And he appointed Murong Chui as Champion General and Marquis of Bintu, and appointed Muong Kai as General of 積弩.

賓徒,漢縣名,屬遼西郡。

Bintu was a county name during Han. It was part of Liaoxi commandary.


燕魏尹范陽王德素與垂善,及車騎從事中郎高泰等,皆坐免官。尚書右丞申紹言於太傅評曰:「今吳王出奔,外口籍籍,宜征王僚屬之賢者顯進之,粗可消謗。」評曰:「誰可者?」紹曰:「高泰其領袖也。」乃以泰為尚書郎。泰,瞻之從子;紹,胤之子也。

23. Yan's Intendent of Wei, the Prince of Fanyang Murong De, had always held Murong Chui in high regard, and so had the Palace Attendant Assistant Officer to the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Gao Tai, and others. They all resigned their offices.

垂在燕爲車騎大將軍,以泰爲從事中郎。

Murong Chui had been Yan's Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, so Gao Tai was his former officer.


The Minister of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Shen Shao, said to the Grand Tutor Murong Ping, "Since the Prince of Wu fled, affairs without are in an uproar. You ought to select some worthy person among the Prince's former ministers and conspicuously promote him, so that he can be the target of slanders."

Murong Ping asked, "Who would be suitable?"

Shen Shao said, "Gao Tai is the best choice." So Gao Tai was appointed as Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. Gao Tai was the son of Gao Zhan. Shen Shao was the son (or older brother) of Shen Yin.

高瞻見九十一卷元帝太興二年。【章:十二行本「子」作「兄」;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】

Gao Zhan was mentioned in Book 91, in Emperor Yuan's second year of Taixing (319).

Some versions record Shen Shao as the older brother of Shen Yin instead of his son.


秦留梁琛月餘,乃遣歸。琛兼程而進,比至鄴,吳王垂已奔秦。琛言於太傅評曰:「秦人日閱軍旅,多聚糧於陝東。以琛觀之,為和必不能久。今吳王又往歸之,秦必有窺燕之謀,宜早為之備。」評曰:「秦豈肯受叛臣而敗和好哉!」琛曰:「今二國分據中原,常有相吞之志。桓溫之入寇,彼以計相救,非愛燕也。若燕有釁,彼豈忘其本志哉!」評曰:「秦主何如人?」琛曰:「明而善斷。」問王猛,曰:「名不虛得。」評皆不以為然。琛又以告燕主暐,暐亦不然之。以告皇甫真,真深憂之,上疏言:「苻堅雖聘問相尋,然實有窺上國之心,非能慕樂德義,不忘久要也。前出兵洛川,及使者繼至,國之險易虛實,彼皆得之矣。今吳王垂又往從之,為其謀主;伍員之禍,不可不備。洛陽、太原、壺關,皆宜選將益兵,以防未然。」暐召太傅評謀之,評曰:「秦國小力弱,恃我為援;且苻堅庶幾善道,終不肯納叛臣之言,絕二國之好。不宜輕自驚擾以啟寇心。」卒不為備。

24. It was earlier mentioned that Yan had sent the envoy Liang Chen to Qin. They retained Liang Chen as an envoy for over a month, before sending him back. Liang Chen traveled back home at double standard. But when he arrived at Ye, Murong Chui had already fled.

謂行者以二驛爲程,若一程而行四驛,是兼程也。

"Double standard" here means that Liang Chen took every other post station as his standard. If we consider that the usual standard was every fourth post station, then this can be called "double standard".


Liang Chen said to Murong Ping, "Qin has been holding daily troop inspections, and storing ample grain east of Shancheng (near their eastern border). Based on what I have seen, peace cannot last for long. Furthermore, now the Prince of Wu had fled to them, and they are certainly planning to find out everything about Yan that they can. We had better prepare for them at once."

Murong Ping replied, "How can it be that Qin is willing to harbor a rebel minister and break the peace?"

Liang Chen said, "Currently our two sides divide the Central Plains, and both sides wish to swallow the other. When Huan Wen invaded, Qin planned to send aid, but not because they have any love for Yan. If any sort of quarrel breaks out in Yan, do you think that Qin will forget about their original intentions to conquer it?"

苻堅、王猛之爲謀,梁琛固已窺見之矣。

Liang Chen had already surmised Fu Jian's and Wang Meng's plan to conquer Yan.


Murong Ping asked, "What sort of man is the ruler of Qin?"

Liang Chen replied, "Perceptive and benevolent."

Murong Ping asked about Wang Meng, and Liang Chen replied, "As good as they claim."

But Murong Ping did not believe him. Liang Chen further spoke to Murong Wei, but he did not believe Liang Chen either.

Liang Chen then spoke to Huangfu Zhen, and Huangfu Zhen was greatly worried. He sent in a petition stating, "Although Fu Jian has sent us envoys asking after mutual division, he is really trying to find out more about our state. We cannot simply trust in his good intentions or his virtue and benevolence, for this war will soon become a reality. When they sent us reinforcements before, and passed through the Luoyang region, they sent men to scout out all the strategic places, and they saw how empty we have left them. They will definitely plan to take those. And the Prince of Wu has fled, so he is surely planning to make himself ruler. We cannot allow him to become another Wu Yuan. Troops and officers should be sent at once to reinforce the defenses of Luoyang, Taiyuan, and Huguan."

謂苟池、鄧羌救燕時也。伍員去楚奔吳,借吳兵以報楚入郢,事見《左傳》。秦後伐燕之路,果如眞所料。杜佑曰:潞州上黨縣,漢爲壺關縣。

Huangfu Zhen refers to the soldiers that Gou Chi and Deng Qiang led to reinforce Yan during Huan Wen's invasion.

During the Warring States era, the Chu minister Wu Yuan, better known as Wu Zixu, fled from Chu and sought refuge in Wu. He borrowed the might of the Wu army to enter the Chu capital at Ying and avenge himself, as mentioned in the Zuo Commentary.

Qin's avenues of invasions against Yan were exactly as Huangfu Zhen predicted. Du You remarked, "Shangdang County in Luzhou was known during Han as Huguan County."


Murong Wei ordered Murong Ping to develop a plan of defense. Murong Ping said, "Qin is a small and weak state that relies upon us for their protection. Although Fu Jian may not have entirely good intentions, in the end, he will not heed the words of traitorous ministers and so destroy the good relations between our two states. There's no need to panic and provoke them." So he made no preparations against them.

言苻堅雖未能純以善道交鄰,猶庶幾焉。

He is saying that Fu Jian did not have purely good intentions, so he used the term "although".


秦遣黃門郎石越聘於燕,太傅評示之以奢,欲以誇燕之富盛。高泰及太傅參軍河間劉靖言於評曰:「越言誕而視遠,非求好也,乃觀釁也。宜耀兵以示之,用折其謀。今乃示之以奢,益為其所輕矣。」評不從。泰遂謝病歸。

25. Qin sent their Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Shi Yue, as envoy to Yan, and Murong Ping treated him lavishly, wishing to show off Yan's wealth and bounty. Gao Tai and the Advisor to the Grand Tutor, Liu Jing of Hejian, remonstrated with Murong Ping and said, "Shi Yue has come all this way not to keep good relations, but to see if we have any internal disputes. You should dazzle him with troop displays, so as to break off any of Qin’s plans. But by showing off our wealth, you treat him lightly." Murong Ping did not heed them. Gao Tai pleaded illness and withdrew from court.

是時太后可足渾氏侵橈國政,太傅評貪昧無厭,貨賂上流,官非才舉,群下怨憤。尚書左丞申紹上疏,以為:「守宰者,致治之本。今之守宰,率非其人,或武人出於行伍,或貴戚生長綺紈,既非鄉曲之選,又不更朝廷之職。加之黜陟無法,貪惰者無刑罰之懼,清修者無旌賞之勸。是以百姓困弊,寇盜棄斥,綱頹紀紊,莫相糾攝。又官吏猥多,逾於前世,公私紛然,不勝煩擾。大燕戶口,數兼二寇,弓馬之勁,四方莫及;而比者戰則屢北,皆由守宰賦調不平,侵漁無已,行留俱窘,莫肯致命故也。後宮之女四千餘人,僮侍廝役尚在其外,一日之費,厥直萬金。士民承風,競為奢靡。彼秦、吳僭僻,猶能條治所部,有兼併之心,而我上下因循,日失其序。我之不修,彼之願也。謂宜精擇守宰,並官省職,存恤兵家,使公私兩遂,節抑浮靡,愛惜用度,賞必當功,罰必當罪。如此,則溫、猛可梟,二方可取,豈特保境安民而已哉!又,索頭什翼犍疲病昏悖,雖乏貢御,無能為患;而勞兵遠戌,有損無益。不若移於並土,控制西河,南堅壺關,北重晉陽,西寇來則拒守,過則斷後,猶愈於戌孤城守無用之地也。」疏奏,不省。

26. During this time, Empress Dowager Kezuhun began to intrude more into government affairs, and Murong Ping’s corruption grew even more open and shameless. Bribes were demanded from anyone sending in petitions, talentless officials were promoted, and the people grew angry.

The Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Shen Shao, sent in a memorial stating, “Those who protect the state's fortunes are charged with governing it. But those who currently have that duty are unsuitable for their positions, whether it is unworthy men being placed over the soldiers or official's relatives being dressed in fine silks and fabrics. This would be unacceptable even if it were taking place in some backwater, much less among the officials of the court itself. Furthermore, ministers are being arbitrarily demoted or removed from office. Those who are corrupt or lax have no fear of being punished for their crimes, while those who work hard have no prospect of recognition or reward. The people still suffer from heavy burdens, and since the invaders have only just been thrown back out of our land, confusion and disorder still reign, and no one dares get mixed up with anyone else. In addition, the demands of the ministers and clerks have become more and more numerous, and compared to before, they have more often mixed public and private business together. The people cannot endure these disturbances.

“The population of Yan is several times greater than either of the two threats we face, and our bows and horses are second to none. Yet those who fought against the invaders recently were not rewarded equally by the people entrusted with our state's fortunes: they took all they wanted by force, while those who were ignored were left in dire straits, and no one was satisfied with what had been ordered. Now the rear palaces are filled with more than four thousand women, and the palace servants are rewarded for their service more than those far afield. In a single day, more than ten thousand jin is spent, and the gentry vie with one another to see who can be the most extravagant and wasteful. Meanwhile, even while Qin and Wu are in more isolated places than us, they still act to reform their policies, and both of them wish to increase what they have, while we lose more and more by the day, since everyone from top to bottom follows this trend. Our lack of reform is exactly what the other sides want. We must choose the best guardians to guide our state, combine offices and eliminate needless positions, give comfort and aid to the families of our soldiers, make clear the division between public and private affairs, restrain spending and curb expenditures, and show real appreciation for the systems we use by ensuring that those who achieve merit are rewarded while those who commit offenses are punished.

謂秦僭號而吳僻在一隅也。

He is referring to how Qin claims the imperial title while Wu (Eastern Jin) remains secluded in their territory.


“If we do that, then no matter how capable Huan Wen or Wang Meng are, we will even be able to capture both of their states for ourselves, nevermind just ensuring the safety of our own territory and people! As for that braid-head Tuoba Shiyijian, he is an doddering codger by now. Though he pays us tribute to keep us away, and is incapable of posing a threat to us, it would trouble the soldiers to march so far to get at him; we would suffer much and gain little by it. It would be better for us to relocate the people who are currently in Bingzhou (on the border with Dai) to places where we could have them guard the region west of the Yellow River. In the south, they can defend Huguan, and in the north, they can guard Jinyang. When the western invaders come to attack us, these people can guard against them, and after the invaders pass by, they can emerge to cut off their rear. That would be a far better plan than to leave people in isolated cities in useless territory.”

Many memorials and petitions were sent in to that effect, but to no avail.

蕭子顯曰:鮮卑被髮左衽,故呼爲索頭。燕戍雲中以備代。

Xiao Zixian remarked, "The Xianbei placed their hair on the left side of the front of their clothes, and so they were often called Suotou or 'braid-head'."

Yan had a garrison at Yunzhong to guard against Dai.


辛丑,丞相昱與大司馬溫會塗中,以謀後舉;以溫世子熙為豫州刺史、假節。

27. On the day Xinchou, Jin’s Prime Minister Sima Yu and Grand Marshal Huan Wen met at Chuzhong, developing plans for who should receive appointments. Huan Wen's eldest son, Huan Xi, was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou and Credential Holder.

楊正衡曰:涂,音除。涂中,今滁州全椒縣、眞州六合縣地。

Yang Zhengheng remarked, "涂 is pronounced 'chu'. Chuzhong covered the territory which is now split between Quanjiao County and Liuhe County in Chuzhou in our time.”


初,燕人許割虎牢以西賂秦。晉兵既退,燕人悔之,謂秦人曰:「行人失辭。有國有家者,分災救患,理之常也。」秦王堅大怒,遣輔國將軍王猛、建威將軍梁成、洛州刺史鄧羌帥步騎三萬伐燕。十二月,進攻洛陽。

28. Originally, Yan had agreed to hand over the territory west of Hulao (the Luoyang region) to Qin as reward for their help against Huan Wen. But after the Jin invasion had subsided, Yan regretted this decision, and they said to Qin, "The messenger we sent before misspoke. We have our state and our families, and to divide them invites calamity. That has long been a principle." Fu Jian was enraged, and he sent the General Who Upholds The State, Wang Meng, the General Who Establishes Valor, Liang Cheng, and the Inspector of Sizhou, Deng Qiang, with thirty thousand horse and foot to invade Yan. In the twelfth month, they advanced and attacked Luoyang.

謂使者許割地爲失辭也。《考異》曰:《燕少帝紀》,此年十二月,王猛攻洛,明年正月,拔洛。《十六國‧秦春秋》,十一月,王猛伐燕,遺慕容紀書,紀請降;十二月,猛受降而歸。今按《獻莊紀》云,慕容令之奔還鄴,建熙元年二月也,時王猛猶在洛。又猛遺紀書云:「去年桓溫起師。」故從《燕書》。

They are saying that the messenger who agreed to divide the territory misspoke.

Sima Guang commented in the 考異, "According to the 燕少帝紀 (presumably in the Book of Yan), in the twelfth month of this year, Wang Meng attacked Luoyang, and in the first month of the following year, he took it. According to the 'Annals of Qin' in the 'Sixteen Kingdoms', in the eleventh month, Wang Meng invaded Yan, and sent a letter to Murong Ji at Luoyang, demanding his surrender; in the twelfth month, Wang Meng received Murong Ji's surrender and returned. Now according to the 獻莊紀, when Murong Ling fled back to Ye (as part of Wang Meng’s plot, mentioned below), that was in the second month of the first year of Jianxi, when Wang Meng was still at Luoyang. And in Wang Meng's letter to Murong Ji he said, ‘Huan Wen invaded you last year’. So I follow the account in the Book of Yan."


大司馬溫發徐、兗州民築廣陵城,徙鎮之。時征役既頻,加之疫癘,死者什四五,百姓嗟怨。秘書監太原孫盛作《晉春秋》,直書時事;大司馬溫見之,怒,謂盛子曰:「枋頭誠為失利,何至乃如尊君所言!若此史遂行,自是關君門戶事!」其子遽拜謝,請改之。時盛年老家居,性方嚴,有軌度,子孫雖斑白,待之愈峻。至是諸子乃共號泣稽顙,請為百口切計。盛大怒,不許,諸子遂私改之。盛先已寫別本,傳之外國。及孝武帝購求異書,得之於遼東人,與見本不同,遂兩存之。

29. Huan Wen compelled the people of Xuzhou and Yanzhou to construct a fortress at Guangling, and to move there to defend it. At that time, there were frequent such demands of military and corvee service, and four or five of every ten people perished. The common people were greatly sorrowful.

The Custodian of the Private Library, Sun Sheng of Taiyuan, composed his “Annals of Jin", recording the events of that time. When Huan Wen saw it, he became angry, and said to Sun Sheng's son, "It may be true that I gained nothing at Fangtou, but how can your father go so far as to say such things? If he distributes this history, that will be the end of your family’s career!" Sun Sheng's son then paid his respects to his father, and asked him to change what he had written. But at that time Sun Sheng was old and already retired at his residence. He was of a stern temperament, and not inclined to turn away from his chosen path. Even though his sons and grandsons had grown older and greyer, he still treated them severely. Although all his sons kowtowed before him with tears in their eyes, asking him to make the changes on their behalf, he angrily refused. They therefore made the changes to his writings on their own. However, Sun Sheng had already made another copy of his original text, which he sent out to the other states. Later on, Emperor Xiaowu tried to buy up all the copies of the book, but it had already reached as far as Liaodong, so that people could see the differences between the two versions, and both copies remained in circulation.

【章:十二行本「孫」上有「太原」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】漢桓帝置祕書監;晉武帝以祕書併中書省;惠帝復置祕書監,其屬有丞、有郎,幷統著作省。晉人於人子之前稱其父爲尊君、尊公。言欲滅其門也。史言桓溫雖以威逼改孫盛之書,終不能沒其實。

Some versions identify Sun Sheng as being "of Taiyuan".

Emperor Huan of Han had created the office of Custodian of the Private Library. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) had combined the Custodian with the office of Secretariat Supervisor. Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) had created the Custodian office again, and also assigned to it Ministers and Gentlemen as subordinate offices. All of them oversaw the Collected Works.

People in Jin would address a man's father in the third person as 尊君 or 尊公.

Huan Wen means to say that their family would be extinguished.

The text means that although Huan Wen tried mightily to censor Sun Sheng's work, in the end he was not able to erase its existence.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat Apr 22, 2017 5:57 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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BOOK 102

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Apr 11, 2017 8:42 pm

太和五年(庚午,公元三七零年)

The Fifth Year of Taihe (The Gengwu Year, 370 AD)


春,正月,己亥,袁真以梁國內史沛郡朱憲及弟汝南內史斌陰通大司馬溫,殺之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jihai, the rebel general Yuan Zhen sent his Interior Minister of Liang, Zhu Xian of Pei, and his younger brother the Interior Minister of Runan, Zhu Bin, to secretly meet with Huan Wen, but Huan Wen killed them.

斌,音彬。

斌 is pronounced "bin".


秦王猛遺燕荊州刺史武威王築書曰:「國家今已塞成皋之險,杜盟津之路,大駕虎旅百萬,自軹關取鄴都,金墉窮戍,外無救援,城下之師,將軍所監,豈三百弊卒所能支也!」築懼,以洛陽降,猛陳師受之。燕衛大將軍樂安王臧城新樂,破秦兵於石門,執秦將楊猛。

2. Wang Meng was still besieging Luoyang. He sent a letter to Yan's Inspector of Jingzhou, the Prince of Wuwei Murong Zhu, stating, "We have already cut off the routes to Chenggao and Dumeng Ford. While your ferocious soldiers lingered here, we already sent troops to capture Ye. You cannot hold out at Jinyong any longer, and there is no prospect of reinforcements for you. General, you have the lives of everyone in the city in your hands. How can it be that you will let them all come to harm?" Murong Zhu was afraid, and he surrendered Luoyang, which Wang Meng led his troops into the city to accept.

燕荊州治洛陽。

Yan administered Jingzhou from Luoyang.


Yan's Grand Guard General, the Prince of Le'an Murong Zang, guarded Xinle. He defeated a Qin army at Shimen, and captured the Qin general Yang Meng.

石門在滎陽;新樂亦當在滎陽界。宋白曰:衞州新鄕縣治古新樂城。新樂城,十六國時,燕將樂安王臧所築。

Shimen was at Xingyang. Xinle was also within the borders of Xingyang. Song Bai remarked, "The old city of Xinle is governed by Xinxiang County in Weizhou. Xinle was from the Sixteen Kingdoms era, when the Yan general and Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, built it."


王猛之發長安也,請慕容令參其軍事,以為鄉導。將行,造慕容垂飲酒,從容謂垂曰:「今當遠別,卿何以贈我,使我睹物思人?」垂脫佩刀贈之。猛至洛陽,賂垂所親金熙,使詐為垂使者,謂令曰:「吾父子來此,以逃死也。今王猛疾人如仇,讒毀日深;秦王雖外相厚善,其心難知。丈夫逃死而卒不免,將為天下笑。吾聞東朝比來始更悔悟,主、後相尤。吾今還東,故遣告汝;吾已行矣,便可速發。」令疑之,躊躇終日,又不可審覆。乃將舊騎,詐為出獵,遂奔樂安王臧於石門。猛表令叛狀,垂懼而出走,及藍田,為追騎所獲。秦王堅引見東堂,勞之曰:「卿家國失和,委身投朕。賢子心不忘本,猶懷首丘,亦各其志,不足深咎。然燕之將亡,非令所能存,惜其徒入虎口耳。且父子兄弟,罪不相及,卿何為過懼而狼狽如是乎!」待之如舊。燕人以令叛而復還,其父為秦所厚,疑令為反間,徙之沙城,在龍都東北六百裡。

3. When Wang Meng had left Chang'an, he had brought Murong Ling with him as an advisor, believing he could help serve as a guide. Before leaving, Wang Meng had a drink with Murong Chui, and leisurely said to him, "I will be a long ways from you; what would you like to give me, to serve as a reminder of you?" Murong Chui unbuckled his sword from his waist and gave it to Wang Meng.

When Wang Meng reached Luoyang, he bribed Murong Chui's attendant Jin Xi, and had him falsely act as a messenger from Murong Chui. Jin Xi conveyed this false message (presumably along with the sword) to Murong Ling from his father: "All of us fled to Qin only to escape death. But now Wang Meng holds a grudge against us, and slanders our reputation more each day. Although the Heavenly Prince of Qin seems benevolent on the outside, it is difficult to know what lies in his heart. Even though it is true that I was able to escape death, now I have only become the laughingstock of all the realm. I have heard that the Yan court has come to regret what happened, and our lord and the Empress Dowager regret it most of all. So now I wish to go back east again, and I have sent this message to inform you as well. By now I have already left, so you should hurry on."

謂燕主暐及可足渾后也。

The message refers to Murong Wei and Empress Dowager Kezuhun.


Murong Ling was at first doubtful, and hesitated for several days, but in the end could not go against it. Therefore he saddled up his old horse, pretending he was going out hunting, and fled to Murong Zang at Shimen. Wang Meng declared Murong Ling a traitor. Murong Chui, in a panic, tried to flee as well, but when he reached Lantian, pursuit troops overtook him and captured him. Fu Jian met with him in the Eastern Hall, and told him, “There was discord in your clan, and that is why you were cast out and came to me. But your worthy son could not forget where he came from, and he still yearned for his homeland. Everyone has their own desires, and this is no grave fault. Yet Yan will soon be destroyed. Your son disobeyed orders so that he could live, and what a pity that now he has thrown himself into the tiger's maw. But crimes do not extend between brother and brother or between father and son. What need did you have to fear that you were cornered like a wolf?” And so he treated Murong Chui just as before.

舊騎,自燕奔秦所從者。《禮記‧檀弓》曰:太公封於齊,五世皆反葬於周。君子曰:樂樂其所自生,禮不忘其本。古之人有言曰:「狐死正丘首,仁也。」晉臼季薦冀缺於晉文公,公曰:「其父有罪,可乎?」對曰:「舜之罪也,殛鯀;其舉也,興禹。」《康誥》曰:父不慈,子不祗,兄不友,弟不共,不相及也。狼,進則跋其胡,退則疐其尾。狽,狼屬也。生子,欠一足。二者相附而後能行,故世謂進退不可而不能行者爲狼狽。

The old horse Murong Ling took was the one which he had ridden when he fled from Yan to Qin.

Concerning Murong Ling's yearning for home, the Tan Gong section of the Book of Rites states, "Tai-gong was invested with his fief of Qi, but for five generations (his descendants, the marquises of Qi) were all taken back and buried in Zhou. A superior man has said, 'For music, we use that of him from whom we sprang; in ceremonies, we do not forget him to whom we trace our root.' The ancients had a saying, that a fox, when dying, adjusts its head in the direction of the mound (where it was whelped); manifesting thereby (how it shares in the feeling of) humanity." (Tan Gong Part 1 #27)

It is mentioned in the Zuo Commentary (Duke Xi, 33.8) that in the ancient state of Jin, Ji of Jiu (Xu Chen) recommended Ji Que to Duke Wen of Jin. Duke Wen asked, "Considering that Ji Que's father tried to murder me, can I really give his son office?" The reply was, "The one whom Shun punished was Gun, but the one whom Shun raised to the imperial dignity was Gun's son Yu. In the Announcement to the Prince of Kang it is said, 'The father who is devoid of affection, and the son who is devoid of reverence; the elder brother who is unkind, and the younger who is disrespectful,' are all to be punished, but not one for the offense of the other."

When a wolf rushes forward, it stumbles over its beard, and when it darts away, it trips over its own tail. A 狽 bei is a kind of wolf. When one is born, it is not enough to use one foot. One must use both feet together in order to move forward. So 狼狽 was an expression to mean someone who can neither go forward nor backwards, and had no way to escape.


Yan, seeing that although Murong Ling had rebelled and then had returned, while his father was still treated well in Qin, doubted whether or not Murong Ling had only been sent to plot against them from within. So he was sent away to Shacheng, which was six hundred li northeast of Longdu.

沙城,在沙野。龍都,卽龍城。

Shacheng was in Shaye. Longdu was another name for Longcheng, since it used to be the Yan capital.


臣光曰:昔周得微子而革商命,秦得由余而霸西戎,吳得伍員而克強楚,漢得陳平而誅項籍,魏得許攸而破袁紹。彼敵國之材臣,來為己用,進取之良資也。王猛知慕容垂之心久而難信,獨不念燕尚未滅,垂以材高功盛,無罪見疑,窮困歸秦,未有異心,遽以猜忌殺之,是助燕為無道而塞來者之門也,如何其可哉!故秦王堅禮以收燕望,親之以盡燕情,寵之以傾燕眾,信之以結燕心,未為過矣。猛何汲汲於殺垂,至乃為市井鬻賣之行,有如嫉其寵而讒之者,豈雅德君子所宜為哉!

4. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: At the end of the Yin (Shang) dynasty, Weizi rebelled against Yin’s orders. In the age of Duke Mu of Qin, You Yu’s defection led to the conquest of the Western Rong. In King Helü of Wu’s day, Wu Yuan’s (Zixu) flight led to Chu’s defeat. During the rise of Han, Chen Ping defected from and then helped to kill Xiang Ji (Yu). In the early days of Wei, Xu You’s defection led to the rout of Yuan Shao. When it comes to talented ministers of enemy states, it is helpful enough for them to leave their lords, and even more of a benefit to acquire them yourself. Wang Meng knew of Murong Chui's heart and yet did not trust him, nor seek his aid to bring about Yan's downfall. Murong Chui was an officer of immense renown and talents, and had done nothing to arouse suspicion, but had earnestly fled to Qin in his adversity. Wang Meng had no cause to suspect him, and yet out of his paranoia he tried to arrange his death. Such a thing would have only helped Yan to no benefit, and deterred others from seeking refuge with Qin, and for what purpose? Fu Jian had extended himself to gather Yan officers, personally worked to assuage their feelings, favored those working for Yan, and instilled good trust with them. Yet a thing like this came about. Why was Wang Meng so anxious to kill Murong Chui, even so far as to purchase it with filthy lucre? Was he so jealous of the favor shown to Murong Chui that he slandered him? Is this how a virtuous gentleman is meant to act?

殷紂暴虐日甚,微子抱祭器而奔周。武王乃告諸侯曰:「殷有重罪,不可不伐。」遂伐紂,殺之,而革殷命。《史記》:戎使由余使於秦,繆公留由余而遺戎王女樂,戎王受而說之,繆公乃歸由余。由余數諫不聽,繆公使人間要由余,由余遂降秦。繆公問以伐戎之形,幷國十二,開地千里,遂霸西戎。楚殺伍奢,其子員奔吳,吳王闔閭用其謀而伐楚,破楚入郢。事見九卷漢高帝二年至四年。事見六十三卷漢獻帝建安五年。

King Zhou of Yin (Shang) became more and more cruel by the day. His brother Weizi cast away his sacrificial utensils and fled to Zhou. King Wu of Zhou then told his nobles, "Yin (Shang) bears a heavy crime. We are compelled to campaign against them." So he attacked King Zhou, and killed him. This was the reference for "rebelled against Yin's orders".

It is mentioned in the Records of the Grand Historian that the Western Rong sent You Yu as a messenger to Qin. Duke Mu of Qin retained You Yu for a time, in the meantime sending back to the Rong some royal song-girls, which the King of the Rong was happy to accept. Only then did Duke Mu send You Yu back as well. You Yu remonstrated with the King several times, but to no avail. Duke Mu then sent someone to demand You Yu, and You Yu submitted to Qin. Duke Mu asked You Yu how he might campaign against the Rong, and You Yu described to him their twelve states and the lay of their thousand li of land. Thus was Duke Mu able to conquer the Rong.

The state of Chu killed Wu She. His son Wu Yuan, or Wu Zixu, fled to their neighbor Wu, where King Helü used him to plot against Chu. The Wu army later routed Chu's army, and occupied their capital Ying.

Chen Ping's service under Han is mentioned in Book 9, in the second through fourth years of Emperor Gao's (Liu Bang) reign (205-3 BC).

Xu You's defection from Yuan Shao is mentioned in Book 63, in Emperor Xian of Han's fifth year of Jian'an (200).


This incident is covered in To Establish Peace, in the same year mentioned here.

樂安王臧進屯滎陽,王猛遣建威將軍梁成、洛州刺史鄧羌擊走之;留羌鎮金墉,以輔國司馬桓寅為弘農太守,代羌戍陝城而還。

5. Murong Zang advanced to camp at Xingyang. Wang Meng sent the General Who Establishes Might, Liang Cheng, and the Inspector of Luozhou, Deng Qiang, to attack him, and they drove him off. Deng Qiang remained behind to defend Jinyong, while the Marshal Who Upholds The State, Huan Yin, was appointed as Administrator of Hongnong, and went back to guard Shancheng in Deng Qiang's place.

猛爲輔國將軍,以寅爲司馬。秦初以洛州刺史鎭陝;今鄧羌旣進金屯金墉,故以桓寅代戍陝。

Wang Meng was still General Who Upholds The State, so Huan Yin was his direct subordinate as Marshal.

Up until now, Qin had governed Luozhou from Shancheng. Since the Inspector, Deng Qiang, had now advanced to camp at Jinyong, this was why Huan Yin took over for him in guarding Shancheng.


秦王堅以王猛為司徒,錄尚書事,封平陽郡侯。猛固辭曰:「今燕、吳未平,戎車方駕,而始得一城,即受三事之賞,若克殄二寇,將何以加之!」堅曰:「苟不暫抑朕心,何以顯卿謙光之美!已詔有司權聽所守;封爵酬庸,其勉從朕命!」

6. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Minister Over The Masses and Marquis of Pingyang, with authority over the imperial secretariat. But Wang Meng declined these appointments, saying, "Yan and Wu have not yet been pacified, and you are putting the cart before the horse. I have merely taken a single city, and yet you offer me these three things as a reward for it. Wait until we can overcome these two threats first, then it will be time to talk about promotions!"

三事,三公也。

By the three things, he meant the Three Excellencies (of which the Minister Over The Masses was one).


Fu Jian replied, “Do you then trample on my heart, just to glorify your own modesty? I have already commanded the ministers to heed you in everything. Even in granting fiefs and conveying awards, you must strive to follow my orders!”

二月,癸酉,袁真卒。陳郡太守朱輔立真子瑾為建威將軍,豫州刺史,以保壽春,遣其子乾之及司馬爨亮如鄴請命。燕人以瑾為揚州刺史,輔為荊州刺史。

7. In the second month, on the day Guiyou, the rebel general Yuan Zhen died. The Administrator of Chen, Zhu Fu, raised Yuan Zhen's son Yuan Qin as the new General Who Establishes Might and Inspector of Yuzhou, leaving him to guard Shouchun, while he sent another son, Yuan Ganzhi, and the Marshal Cuan Liang to Ye to ask for aid. Yan recognized Yuan Qin as Inspector of Yuzhou, and Zhu Fu as Inspector of Yangzhou.

瑾,渠吝翻。

瑾 is pronounced "qin (q-in)".


三月,秦王堅以吏部尚書權翼為尚書右僕射。夏,四月,復以王猛為司徒,錄尚書事;猛固辭,乃止。

8. In the third month, Fu Jian appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Quan Yi, as Deputy Director of the Right of the Masters of Writing.

In summer, the fourth month, Fu Jian again tried to appoint Wang Meng as Minister Over The Masses and grant him authority over the imperial secretariat, but Wang Meng continued to decline, so Fu Jian gave up on the attempt.

燕、秦皆遣兵助袁瑾,大司馬溫遣督護竺瑤等御之。燕兵先至,瑤等與戰於武丘,破之。南頓太守桓石虔克其南城。石虔,溫之弟子也。

9. Yan and Qin both sent troops to aid Yuan Qin. Grand Marshal Huan Wen sent his Protector Zhu Yao and others to block them. The Yan soldiers arrived first; Zhu Yao and the others fought them at Wuqiu, and routed them. Jin's Administrator of Nandun, Huan Shiqian, then took the southern city. Huan Shiqian was Huan Wen's nephew.

武丘,卽丘頭,文王平諸葛誕,改曰武丘,以旌武功。杜佑曰:丘頭卽潁州沈丘縣。惠帝分汝南,立南頓郡。南城,壽春南城也。

Wuqiu was originally called Qiutou. When Prince Wen of Jin (Sima Zhao) put down Zhuge Dan's rebellion, he renamed the place to Wuqiu, to celebrate his martial (武 Wu) achievement. Du You remarked, "Wuqiu is in Chenqiu County in Yingzhou."

Emperor Hui of Jin (Sima Zhong) divided Runan, and formed Nandun commandary from part of it. The "southern city" means the southern city of Shouchun.


秦王堅復遣王猛督鎮南將軍楊安等十將步騎六萬以伐燕。

10. Fu Jian sent reinforcements to Wang Meng, sixty thousand horse and foot under General Who Guards The South, Yang An, and nine other generals, to continue the campaign against Yan.

慕容令自度終不得免,密謀起兵,沙城中謫戍士數千人,令皆厚撫之。五月,庚午,令殺牙門孟媯。城大涉圭懼,請自效。令信之,引置左右。遂帥謫戍士東襲威德城,殺城郎慕容倉,據城部署,遣人招東西諸戍,翕然皆應之。鎮東將軍勃海王亮鎮龍城,令將襲之;其弟麟以告亮,亮閉城拒守。癸酉,涉圭因侍直擊令,令單馬走,其黨皆潰。涉圭追令至薛黎澤,擒而殺之,詣龍城白亮。亮為之誅涉圭,收令屍而葬之。

11. Murong Ling, unable to escape his situation in exile, secretly made plans to start an uprising. He built up support among many thousands of exiles in Shacheng, and treated them all well.

In the fifth month, on the day Gengwu, Murong Ling killed Meng Gui of Yanmen. The city chief She Gui was greatly afraid, and asked to join him. Murong Ling trusted them, and made him one of his personal attendants. He sent his followers east to attack Weide, and killed the City Gentleman Murong Cang. Murong Ling then sent the people of that city to many places east and west, among the various army camps, and all of them went over to him. The General Who Guards The East, the Prince of Bohai Murong Liang, was guarding Longcheng. Murong Ling planned to attack it. However, his younger brother Murong Lin informed Murong Liang, and so Murong Liang closed the gates of the city and held fast.

《姓譜》:涉,姓也。《左傳》晉有大夫涉佗。嬀,居爲翻。

The Registry of Surnames states, "涉 She is a surname. The Zuo Commentary mentions that the state of Jin had a 'Master She Tuo'. (Duke Ding)" 嬀 is pronounced "gui (j-ei)".


On the day Guiyou, She Gui turned on Murong Ling and attacked him. Murong Ling fled alone on horseback, while all his followers dispersed. She Gui pursued Murong Ling to Xueli Marsh, where he captured and killed him, and then went to Longcheng to report the deed to Murong Liang. Murong Liang executed She Gui, and then had Murong Ling's body collected and buried.

令引涉圭置左右,故得因侍直而擊之。

Murong Ling had only made She Gui one of his personal attendants, and this was why She Gui was dissatisfied and attacked him.


六月,乙卯,秦王堅送王猛於灞上,曰:「今委卿以關東之任,當先破壺關,平上黨,長驅取鄴,所謂『疾雷不及掩耳』。吾當親督萬眾,繼卿星發,舟車糧運,水陸俱進,卿勿以為後慮也。」猛曰:「臣杖威靈,奉成算,蕩平殘胡,如風掃葉,願不煩鑾輿親犯塵霧,但願速敕所司部置鮮卑之所。」堅大悅。

12. In the sixth month, on the day Yimao, Fu Jian sent for Wang Meng to meet him at Bashang. He said to Wang Meng, "You will be my agent in Guandong. First break through Huguan, pacify Shangdang, then push quickly against Ye, for they say 'one cannot cover their ears before the thunder roars’. I will personally oversee affairs in the rear, and follow behind in your wake. I will keep you supplied by carts and boats, and advance by land and sea, so that you may fall upon the enemy suddenly."

魏收曰:秦置上黨郡,治壺關城,前漢治長子城,董卓治壺關城,慕容氏治安民城,後遷壺關城。《淮南子》之言。星發,謂戴星而發行也。

The Northern Wei records state, "The Qin dynasty formed Shangdang commandary, which was administered from Huguan. During Former Han, it was administered from Zhangzi. Dong Zhuo changed it back to Huguan. Under the Murong clan, it was administered from Anmin, and afterwards it was moved to Huguan again."

Fu Jian quotes a saying from the Huainanzi (Writings of the Masters of Huainan).


Wang Meng replied, "I shall wield your authority, and so bring you a victory. I shall clear out these savage barbarians like the autumn wind blows aside the leaves, so that you may drive your carriage through without even the dust to offend you. However, you must quickly order all the Xianbei under your authority." Fu Jian was greatly pleased.

言預爲治舍,以待其至。

Wang Meng meant that Fu Jian needed to bring the Xianbei under control.


秋,七月,癸酉朔,日有食之。

13. In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Guiyou, there was an eclipse.

秦王猛攻壺關,楊安攻晉陽。八月,燕主暐命太傅上庸王評將中外精兵三十萬以拒秦。暐以秦寇為憂,召散騎侍郎李鳳、黃門侍郎梁琛、中書侍郎樂嵩問曰:「秦兵眾寡何如?今大軍既出,秦能戰乎?」鳳曰:「秦國小兵弱,非王師之敵;景略常才,又非太傅之比,不足憂也。」琛、嵩曰:「勝敗在謀,不在眾寡。秦遠來為寇,安肯不戰!且吾當用謀以求勝,豈可冀其不戰而已乎!」暐不悅。王猛克壺關,執上黨太守南安王越,所過郡縣,皆望風降附,燕人大震。

14. Wang Meng attacked Huguan, while Yang An attacked Jinyang. In the eighth month, Murong Wei ordered the Prince of Shangyong, Murong Ping, to lead an army of three hundred thousand elite soldiers to oppose Qin.

《考異》曰:《載記》云「四十萬」,今從《晉春秋》。

Sima Guang comments in the 考異, "The Chronicles of the Book of Jin say that Murong Ping's army was four hundred thousand, but I follow the account of the 'Annals of Jin'."

苻堅又使王猛、楊安率眾伐暐,猛攻壺關,安攻晉陽。暐使慕容評等率中外精卒四十餘萬距之。(Jinshu 111.24)

Fu Jian then sent Wang Meng and Yan An to lead troops to attack Murong Wei. Wang Meng attacked Huguan, and Yang An attacked Jinyang. Murong Wei sent Murong Ping and others to lead more than four hundred thousand elite soldiers to oppose them.


Murong Wei was concerned about Qin’s invasion, so he summoned the 散騎侍郎 Li Feng, the Attendant of the Yellow Gate Liang Chen, and the Gentleman Attendant of the Palace Secretariat Yue Song to ask them: "What are the Qin soldiers like? Our army has marched to oppose them; will Qin actually offer battle?"

Li Feng answered, "Qin is a small state with weak soldiers; they cannot stand up to our army. Jinglüe (Wang Meng) has only ordinary talent, and cannot compare with the Grand Tutor. There is no cause for concern."

But Liang Chen and Yue Song replied, "When determining victory or defeat, numbers are not important. The Qin soldiers have come a long way and are hungry for battle, and how could they turn it down? We ought to be coming up with a plan for victory, not simply hoping that the Qin army will not offer battle!" Murong Wei was not pleased.

Wang Meng captured Huguan, and took captive the Administrator of Shangdang and Prince of Nan’an, Murong Yue. As he advanced, the counties and commandaries he passed through all surrendered to him, and Yan was greatly afraid.

黃門侍郎封孚問司徒長史申胤曰:「事將何如?」胤歎曰:「鄴必亡矣,吾屬今茲將為秦虜。然越得歲而吳伐之,卒受其禍。今福德在燕,秦雖得志,而燕之復建,不過一紀耳。」

15. Yan's Attendant of the Yellow Gate Feng Fu asked the Chief Clerk to the Minister Over The Masses Shen Yin, "What will happen now?"

Shen Yin replied, "Ye will certainly fall, and we shall all be taken captive by Qin. But remember that Yue had the year-star (Jupiter) over it when Wu conquered it, and that led to Wu’s calamity. Fortune and virtue are on the side of Yan, and although Qin may temporarily achieve their ambition, Yan will rise again, less than a generation from now."

《左傳》:昭三十二年,吳伐越。史墨曰:「不及四十年,越其有吳乎!越得歲而吳伐之,必受其凶。」杜預《註》曰︰此年歲在星紀,星紀,吳、越之分也。歲星所在,其國有福,吳先用兵,故反受其殃。福德在燕,亦謂歲星在燕分也。後苻堅所謂「昔吾滅燕,亦犯歲而捷」是也。爲後燕復興張本。

According to the Zuo Commentary, in the thirty-second year of Duke Zhao, Wu conquered Yue. The historiographer Mo said, "In less than forty years, Yue is likely to have possession of Wu! The year is now in Yue's quarter of the heavens, and Wu, invading that State, is sure to experience an evil influence from it." Du Yu remarked in his Notes, "This 'year' means the 'year-star' (Jupiter). It was divided between Wu and Yue then. Whichever state the year-star hangs over, that state is bound to have good fortune. Wu attacked Yue while Yue had the year-star, and so it acted contrary to nature and suffered misfortune later on."

When Shen Yin mentions "fortune and virtue", he also means that the year-star was hanging over Yan during this time. When Fu Jian later says, "When I extinguished Yan, I violated the year and still achieved victory", he refers to this.

This was the reason for the rise of Later Yan.


大司馬溫自廣陵帥眾二萬討袁瑾;以襄城太守劉波為淮南內史,將五千人鎮石頭。波,隗之孫也。癸丑,溫敗瑾於壽春,遂圍之。燕左衛將軍孟高將騎兵救瑾,至淮北,未渡,會秦伐燕,燕召高還。

16. Huan Wen marched from Guangling with twenty thousand soldiers against Yuan Qin. He appointed the Administrator of Xiangcheng, Liu Bo, as Interior Minister of Huainan, and ordered him to guard Shitou with five thousand men. Liu Bo was the grandson of Liu Kui.

元帝之末,劉隗避王敦之難,因北奔于後趙。

After the death of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui), Liu Kui had suffered defeat during Wang Dun's revolt, and he fled north to Later Zhao. (This was the same Liu Kui who was killed during Shi Sheng's rebellion, in Book 95).


On the day Guichou, Huan Wen defeated Yuan Qin at Shouchun, and put it under siege. Yan's Guard General of the Left, Meng Gao, advanced with cavalry troops to aid Yuan Qin. When he reached the north bank of the Huai, he was preparing to cross it, but by then Qin's invasion of Yan had resumed, and he was ordered to return.

廣漢妖賊李弘,詐稱漢歸義侯勢之子,聚眾萬餘人,自稱聖王,年號鳳凰。隴西人李高,詐稱成主雄之子,攻破涪城,逐梁州刺史楊亮。九月,益州刺史周楚遣子瓊討高,又使瓊子梓潼太守颺討弘,皆平之。

16. In Shu, the outlaw Li Hong of Guanghan proclaimed a restoration of Cheng-Han, falsely claiming to be the son of Li Shi, and he gathered several tens of thousands of men to him. He declared himself the Sagely King, and his reign title was Fenghuang. Li Gao of Longxi then falsely claimed to be the son of Li Xiong, and attacked and conquered Fucheng, expelling Jin’s Inspector of Liangzhou, Yang Liang.

In the ninth month, Jin’s Inspector of Yizhou, Zhou Chu, sent his son Zhou Qiong to attack Li Gao, and sent Zhou Qiong's son, the Administrator of Zitong, Zhou Yang, to attack Li Hong. Both of them were crushed.

秦楊安攻晉陽,晉陽兵多糧足,久之未下。王猛留屯騎校尉苟長戍壺關,引兵助安攻晉陽。為地道,使虎牙將軍張蚝帥壯士數百潛入城中,大呼斬關,納秦兵。辛巳,猛、安入晉陽,執燕并州刺史東海王莊。太傅評畏猛,不敢進,屯於潞川。冬,十月,辛亥,猛留將軍武都毛當戍晉陽,進兵潞川,與慕容評相持。

17. Yang An attacked Jinyang. However, Jinyang had many soldiers and ample food, and would be able to hold out for a long time. Wang Meng left the Colonel of 屯騎 Gou Chang to hold Huguan, while he led troops to assist Yang An at Jinyang. They dug a tunnel, and sent the General of Tiger Fang, Zhang Qi, with several hundred braves to go into the city, and with a loud cry they broke the gate, and let in the Qin army. On the day Xinsi, Wang Meng and Yang An entered Jinyang, taking captive Yan's Inspector of Bingzhou, the Prince of Donghai, Murong Zhuang.

「苟長」,恐當作「苟萇」。

The text here writes 苟長 Gou Chang. I believe it should be 苟萇 Gou Chang (a Qin general mentioned several times later on).


Murong Ping feared Wang Meng, and did not dare to advance, but camped at Luchuan. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinhai, Wang Meng left General Mao Dang of Wudu to guard Jinyang, while he advanced to Luchuan. There he began a stalemate with Murong Ping.

據《水經註》:潞川在上黨潞縣北。闞駰曰:潞水,卽漳水也。爲冀州浸。

According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Luchuan was in the north of Lu County in Shangdang. Kan Yin remarked, "The Lu River was the same as the Zhang River. It flowed through Jizhou."


壬戌,猛遣將軍徐成覘燕軍形要,期以日中;及昏而返,猛怒,將斬之。鄧羌請之曰:「今賊眾我寡,詰朝將戰;成,大將也,宜且宥之。」猛曰:「若不殺成,軍法不立。」羌固請曰:「成,羌之郡將也,雖違期應斬,羌願與成效戰以贖之。」猛弗許。羌怒,還營,嚴鼓勒兵,將攻猛。猛問其故,羌曰:「受詔討遠賊;今有近賊,自相殺,欲先除之!」猛謂羌義而有勇,使語之曰:「將軍止,吾今赦之。」成既免,羌詣猛謝。猛執其手曰:「吾試將軍耳,將軍於郡將尚爾,況國家乎!吾不復憂賊矣!」

18. On the day Renqu, Wang Meng sent General Xu Cheng to scout out the Yan army’s layout and condition. Xu Cheng was out all day, not returning until dusk. Wang Meng was furious, and planned to execute him.

形者,見於外;要者,有諸中。覘見其形,未足以決勝負;覘見其要,則勝負之機決矣。

The layout means how things stood in terms of the enemy's camp layout, formations, and such. The condition means how things were among the actual enemy soldiers and commanders. Knowing just the physical layout of the enemy camp was not enough to determine victory. Knowing the condition of the enemy's soldiers and commanders, that would provide the means for victory.


Deng Qiang asked him not to execute Xu Cheng, and said to him, "Currently, the enemy are numerous and we few, and we are on the eve of battle. Further, Xu Cheng is a high officer, so show him mercy."

Wang Meng said, "If I do not kill him, the military law will not be upheld."

Deng Qiang stubbornly said, "Xu Cheng is an officer from my commandary. If he must die, I ask that you let him spend his life in this battle." But Wang Meng would not agree.

成蓋爲羌本郡太守。

Xu Cheng was the Administrator of Deng Qiang's native commandary.


Deng Qiang became angry, and returned to his camp, ordering his soldiers to beat the drums and arm themselves, to prepare to attack Wang Meng. When Wang Meng inquired into the commotion, Deng Qiang said, "I have an order to attack a distant foe. Yet now that the enemy is at hand, we are planning to kill each other instead. If that’s the case, I might as well strike first!" Wang Meng spoke to Deng Qiang about his righteousness and his heroism, and he sent word stating, "Let the general halt; I will issue a pardon."

Xu Cheng then emerged, and Deng Qiang sent him to offer his apologies to Wang Meng. Wang Meng took him by the hand and said, "I was only testing General Deng, and yet see how much he treasures even you, just a man from his commandary, much less how much he treasures the entire state! I no longer need fear the enemy!"

太傅評以猛懸軍深入,欲以持久制之。評為人貪鄙,鄣固山泉,鬻樵及水,積錢帛如丘陵;士卒怨憤,莫有鬥志。猛聞之,笑曰:「慕容評真奴才,雖億兆之眾不足畏,況數十萬乎!吾今茲破之必矣。」乃遣游擊將軍郭慶帥騎五千,夜從間道出評營後,燒評輜重,火見鄴中。燕主暐懼,遣侍中蘭伊讓評曰:「王,高祖之子也,當以宗廟社稷為憂,奈何不撫戰士而榷賣樵水,專以貨殖為心乎!府庫之積,朕與王共之,何憂於貧!若賊兵遂進,家國喪亡,王持錢帛欲安所置之!」乃命悉以其錢帛散之軍士,且趨使戰。評大懼,遣使請戰於猛。

19. Murong Ping believed that Wang Meng was worried about how deep into Yan his army had marched, and that he wished to maintain his position for some time. So Murong Ping began to brazenly extort his own soldiers. He blocked off the hills and springs, charged the soldiers for firewood and water, and piled up hills of money and silks. The Yan soldiers became indignant, and none of them was willing to fight.

山者,樵之所仰;泉者,汲之所仰。障固山泉,使軍士不得樵汲,而鬻薪水以牟利。賈公彥曰:高曰丘,大阜曰陵。

Hills are a natural source of firewood, and springs a natural source of water. By "blocking off" the hills and springs, it means he sent officers to stop anyone from collecting firewood or drawing water, and demanded money in exchange for access to them.

Jia Gongyan remarked, "Something tall can be called a mound, and a large mound can be called a tomb."


When Wang Meng heard of it, he laughed and said, "How base Murong Ping is! We would not need to fear him even if he had millions of soldiers, much less hundreds of thousands! Now I can definitely destroy him." So he sent the General of Fierce Assault Guo Qing with five thousand riders, and at night they rode by secret trails into the rear of Murong Ping's camp and set his supplies on fire, and the flames could be seen from Ye.

潞川地形高而近鄴,且火盛,故鄴中望而見之。

The area around Luchuan was high, and close to Ye. This was why when the fires spread, they could be seen from Ye.


Murong Wei became afraid, and sent the Palace Attendant Lan Yi to reproach Murong Ping, saying, "Prince, you are one of the sons of Emperor Gaozu (Murong Hui). You ought to be praying at the temple of your ancestors for the worries of the state. How could you have gone so far as to vex the soldiers by charging them for firewood and water, and transformed yourself into a merchant? You had full access to all the government stores, so how could anything have been inadequate for you? If the enemy should advance, and the state perish, what good will your money and your silks do you then?" And he ordered the misbegotten money and silks to be distributed amongst the army, and to fight a battle. Murong Ping was greatly afraid, and requested that Wang Meng offer battle.

慕容廆廟號高祖。酈道元曰:評鬻水與軍人,絹匹,與水二石。

Murong Hui's temple name was Gaozu.

Li Daoyuan remarked, "When Murong Ping extorted the soldiers, he charged a roll of silk for two 石 of water."


甲子,猛陳於渭源而誓之曰:「王景略受國厚恩,任兼內外,今與諸君深入賊地,當竭力致死,有進無退,共立大功,以報國家。受爵明君之朝,稱觴父母之室,不亦美乎!」眾皆踴躍,破釜棄糧,大呼競進。

20. On the day Jiazi, Wang Meng went to Weiyuan and swore this oath before the soldiers: "I, Wang Jinglüe, have received the favor of the state, and I have been given greater and greater responsibilities both within the court and among the army. Today, together with all of you, I have penetrated deep into enemy territory. I will exert my utmost to fight even unto death. We will ever advance and never retreat, and together we shall be triumphant, and report our victory to the state. Will it not be glorious when we receive our lord’s favor, and share a cup of wine with our fathers and mothers?" And the multitude all lept up eagerly, each vying with one another to be first. They smashed their pots and abandoned their grain, and with a great shout they surged forward to battle.

按渭水不出潞縣。《水經註》有涅水出潞縣西覆甑山。或者「渭」字其「涅」字之誤乎?又按溫公《稽古錄》,書王猛破評于清原。杜預曰:河東聞喜縣北有清原。其地又與潞川相遠,姑存疑以待知者。杜佑《通典》作「潞源」。受爵明君之朝,謂有功而受賞於朝也。稱觴父母之室,謂受賞而歸,舉酒爲父母壽也。

The Wei River did not pass through Lu County. The Commentary on the Water Classic mentions a Nie River which flows through western Lu County from Mount Fuzeng. Perhaps the text mistakenly wrote 渭 Wei instead of 涅 Nie? Furthermore, according to Duke Wen's (Sima Guang) 稽古錄, it records Wang Meng as having routed Murong Ping at Qingyuan. Du Yu remarked, "I have heard that there is a Qingyuan in the north of Xi County in Hedong." The other place is relatively far from Luchuan, and I doubt many knew of it. Du You's Tongdian writes it as "Luyuan".

By "receive our lord's favor", he means that once they achieve victory they shall all receive rewards from the court. By "share a cup of wine", he means that once they receive their rewards and return, they may raise a toast to their parents' longevity.


猛望燕兵之眾,謂鄧羌曰:「今日之事,非將軍不能破勍敵。成敗之機,在茲一舉,將軍勉之!」羌曰:「若能以司隸見與者,公勿以為憂。」猛曰:「此非吾所及也,必以安定太守、萬戶侯相處。」羌不悅而退。俄而兵交,猛召羌,羌寢弗應。猛馳就許之,羌乃大飲帳中,與張蚝、徐成等跨馬運矛,馳赴燕陳;出入數四,旁若無人,所殺傷數百。及日中,燕兵大敗,俘斬五萬餘人,乘勝追擊,所殺及降者又十萬餘人,評單騎走還鄴。

21. When Wang Meng considered the Yan army, he said to Deng Qiang, "In today's affair, we will not be able to defeat the enemy without your help. Victory or defeat is in the offing, so General, exert yourself!"

Deng Qiang replied, "If you can promote me to Colonel Director of Retainers, then you shall have nothing to fear."

Wang Meng replied, "That is beyond what I can do, but I will certainly make you Administrator of Anding and Marquis of ten thousand households." But Deng Qiang was unsatisfied and withdrew.

秦雍州刺史治安定,安定在秦中爲大郡。

Qin's Inspector of Yongzhou administered from Anding, which was Qin's largest commandary at that time.


When the battle began, Wang Meng called for Deng Qiang, but Deng Qiang was sleeping and would not heed the summons. So Wang Meng quickly rode to see Deng Qiang and assented to his earlier request. Deng Qiang then eagerly joined the fight. Along with Zhang Qi, Xu Cheng, and others, he plunged into battle on horseback with spear in hand, riding amongst the Yan army. He went in and out among them four times, and no one could match him. In all, he killed or wounded several hundred. In the end, the Yan army suffered a great defeat, and over fifty thousand of their soldiers were captured or killed. As they fled, Qin's forces pursued them, and killed or captured more than another hundred thousand. Murong Ping fled alone on horseback to Ye.

崔鴻曰:鄧羌請郡將以撓法,徇私也;勒兵欲攻王猛,無上也;臨戰豫求司隸,邀君也。有此三者,罪孰大焉!猛能容其所短,收其所長,若馴猛虎,馭悍馬,以成大功。《詩》雲:「采葑采菲,無以下體。」猛之謂矣。

22. Cui Hong, the compiler of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, made this remark: Deng Qiang asked for the laws to be relaxed on account of his fellow officer and countryman, for selfish reasons; he even threatened to attack Wang Meng, baselessly; and on the eve of battle, he demanded the Colonel Director of Retainers post, and compelled his lord to give it to him. For these three reasons, he should have been harshly punished! Yet Wang Meng could contain these shortcomings, and still draw out Deng Qiang’s advantages, like a man who can tame a fierce tiger, or ride a wild stallion, and thereby achieve great success. The Book of Poems says, "When we gather the mustard plant and earth melons, we do not reject them because of their roots." Such could be said of Wang Meng.

《詩‧谷風》之辭。

This is a verse from the Gufeng poem from the Odes of Bei.


秦兵長驅而東,丁卯,圍鄴。猛上疏稱:「臣以甲子之日,大殲丑類。順陛下仁愛之志,使六州士庶,不覺易主,自非守迷違命,一無所害。」秦王堅報之曰:「將軍役不逾時,而元惡克舉,勳高前古。朕今親帥六軍,星言電赴。將軍其休養將士,以待朕至,然後取之。」

23. The Qin soldiers continued their rapid march to the east. On the day Dingmao, they put Ye under siege.

Wang Meng sent in a memorial stating, "On the day of Jiazi, I completely destroyed the filth of Yan. Now I will fulfill Your Majesty's wishes for benevolence and love. I will appease the people of Yan's six provinces, so that they will not notice the change of lords. In doing so, I shall give no cause for confusion or disobedience, and no harm shall be done."

謂甲子之日克勝,事同周武王克紂。

Wang Meng emphasizes that his victory was on a Jiazi day because it was also on a Jiazi day that King Wu of Zhou defeated King Zhou of Shang.


When Fu Jian read this memorial, he sent back a reply stating, “General, you boast of what has not yet been achieved. The original evil has not been vanquished, and yet you are comparing yourself to the worthies of old. I myself shall follow behind you leading the six armies, ordering them forward like lightning when I see the morning starlight. General, let your soldiers rest and recuperate, and await my arrival. Then we may complete our achievement.”

《詩》曰:星言夙駕。謂早駕見星而行也。電赴,言其疾也。

The Book of Odes has this verse: "By starlight, in the morning, to yoke his carriage." (Ding Zhi Fang Zhong 3, Odes of Yong) It means to order the carriage to set out at first light, just after one sees the stars in the morning. Fu Jian has changed the verse, mentioning lightning instead of the carriage.


猛之未至也,鄴帝剽劫公行,及猛至,遠近貼然。號令嚴明,軍無私犯,法簡政寬,燕民各安其業,更相謂曰:「不圖今日復見太原王!」猛聞之,歎曰:「慕容玄恭信奇士也,可謂古之遺愛矣!」設太牢以祭之。

24. While Wang Meng was on his way to Ye, the Yan soldiers had plundered the area and then fled. Once Wang Meng arrived, he provided aid and relief to areas near and far. Wang Meng gave out orders for strict discipline, ordering the army not to plunder or harm anyone, and to tightly enforce the laws. When the people of Yan saw that all was at peace, they said to one another, "We never thought that the old Prince of Taiyuan (Murong Ke) would come again!" When Wang Meng heard of it, he sighed as he said, "So this is the trust that Murong Xuangong enjoyed of old from the people!" He ordered a Grand Sacrifice (of a bull, a ram, and a pig) be made in honor of Murong Ke.

言軍士不敢私犯鄴民也。慕容恪,字玄恭,封太原王。

Wang Meng's soldiers did not dare to harm anyone around Ye.

Murong Ke's style name was Xuangong, and his noble title was Prince of Taiyuan.


十一月,秦王堅留李威輔太子守長安,陽平公融鎮洛陽,自帥精銳十萬赴鄴,七日而至安陽,宴祖父時故老。猛潛如安陽謁堅,堅曰:「昔周亞夫不迎漢文帝,今將軍臨敵而棄軍,何也?」猛曰:「亞夫前卻人主以求名,臣竊少之。且臣奉陛下威靈,擊垂亡之虜,譬如釜中之魚,何足慮也!監國沖幼,鸞駕遠臨,脫有不虞,悔之何及!陛下忘臣灞上之言邪!」

25. In the eleventh month, Fu Jian left Li Wei at Chang'an to take care of his Crown Prince, and the Duke of Yangping Fu Rong to guard Luoyang, while he led another hundred thousand elite troops to Ye. In seven days, he reached Anyang, and there attended a feast for those veterans who had served his father and grandfather of old.

《晉志》:安陽縣屬魏郡。魏收《志》曰:天平初,併蕩陰、安陽屬鄴。又汲郡北脩武縣有安陽城。苻洪父子先屯枋頭,有故老尚存,聞堅之來,迎於安陽,故宴之。

The Records of Jin states, "Anyang County was part of Wei commandary." The "Records" compiled during Northern Wei states, "At the beginning of the Tianping era (534-7), Dangyin and Anyang counties were folded into Ye." There was also an Anyang city in the north of Xiuwu County in Ji commandary.

Fu Hong and his sons had first set out from Fangtou, so there were many of their old veterans who still lived around there. When they heard that Fu Jian was coming, they came to welcome him at Anyang, and held a feast for him.


Wang Meng came to Anyang to pay his respects to Fu Jian. Fu Jian said to him, "In former times, Zhou Yafu did not welcome Emperor Wen of Han at his army camp. Now our army is still a before the enemy, yet you have abandoned your men to come here. How can that be?"

見十五卷漢文帝後六年。

This story about Zhou Yafu is mentioned in Book 15, in Emperor Wen of Han's sixth year (158 BC).


When Emperor Wen went on an inspection of the military camps, all the other commanders left their camps to come welcome him, but Zhou Yafu kept his camp under strict discipline, and he did not welcome the Emperor's group or allow them to enter the camp except by the usual strict supervision. Emperor Wen was impressed, and Zhou Yafu was promoted.

Wang Meng replied, “Zhou Yafu refused admittance to his lord because he sought to build a reputation for himself, but such a thing would be of little use to me. Your Majesty has already granted me a powerful authority, which I have used to annihilate the enemy like fish in a kettle. What then do I have to be worried about? But you, on the other hand, have left the state in the hands of your young son, and brought the imperial carriage so far as to come here. If anything unexpected happened, would there be any time for regrets? Your Majesty has forgotten what I warned you about at Bashang!”

初,燕宜都王桓帥眾萬餘屯沙亭,為太傅評後繼,聞評敗,引兵屯內黃。堅使鄧羌攻信都。丁丑,桓帥鮮卑五千奔龍城。戊寅,燕散騎侍郎餘蔚帥扶餘、高句麗及上黨質子五百餘人,夜,開鄴北門,納秦兵,燕主暐與上庸王評、樂安王臧、字襄王淵、左衛將軍孟高、殿中將軍艾朗等奔龍城。辛巳,秦王堅入鄴宮。

26. Before, Yan's Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, had led more than ten thousand soldiers to camp at Shating, to act as a rearguard for Murong Ping. When Murong Huan heard of Murong Ping’s defeat, he led his soldiers to camp at Neihuang. Fu Jian sent Deng Qiang to attack Xindu. On the day Dingchou, Murong Huan fled to Longcheng with five thousand Xianbei.

杜預曰:陽平元城縣有沙亭。內黃縣自漢以來屬魏郡。

Du Yu remarked, "Shating is in Yuancheng County in Yangping commandary."

Since the Han era, Neihuang County had been part of Wei commandary.


On the day Wuyin, Yan's 散騎侍郎 Yu Wei led a group of more than five hundred people, made up of people from Buyeo, Goguryeo, and hostages from Shangdang, and that night, they opened the north gate of Ye and welcomed in the Qin army. Murong Wei, Murong Ping, Murong Zang, the Prince of Zixiang Murong Yuan, the Guard General of the Left Meng Gao, the General of the Palace Ai Lang, and others all fled towards Longcheng. On the day Xinsi, Fu Jian entered the palace at Ye.

燕蓋遣兵戍上黨,取其子弟留於鄴以爲質。餘蔚,扶餘王子,故陰率諸質子開門以納秦兵。《姓譜》:艾姓,《晏子春秋》齊有大夫艾孔。《風俗通》有龐儉母艾氏。

When Yan had sent soldiers to guard Shangdang, they kept the soldiers’ sons and younger brothers at Ye as hostages. Yu Wei was a son of the King of Buyeo, and he secretly led the hostages to open the gate and let in the Qin army.

The Registry of Surnames states, "Regarding the surname Ai, the Annals of Master Yan mentions a Master Ai in Qi, and the Fengsu Tong mentions a Pang Jian whose mother was Lady Ai."


慕容垂見燕公卿大夫及故時僚吏,有慍色。高弼言於垂曰:「大王憑祖宗積累之資,負英傑高世之略,遭值迍阨,棲集外邦。今雖家國傾覆,安知其不為興運之始邪!愚謂國之舊人,宜恢江海之量,有以慰結其心,以立覆簣之基,成九仞之功,奈何以一怒捐之?愚竊為大王不取也!」垂悅,從之。

27. When Murong Chui saw all the former Yan nobles, ministers, and servants, he began to look resentful at them. But his minister Gao Bi said to him, "A great king depends upon the materials that his ancestors have left for him, and he relies upon the heroes of an age to support him. If he fails to make use of them when he finds them, be assured that they will all flock to other branches elsewhere. Although our state has been destroyed for now, who knows whether or not it will rise again someday? In my view, you should display a boundless magnanimity towards the old Yan officials. Make yourself as broad as the Yangzi and as vast as the sea, and in so doing you can comfort the people and bind their hearts to you. Every man you win over will be another basket of earth towards your foundation, and soon enough your achievement will rise to a height of nine ren. What good would it do you to get rid of them all because of your anger? That would never help you to become a great king!" Murong Chui approved of this advice, and followed it.

言譬如爲山,自覆一簣而進成九仞之功。八尺曰仞。高弼先從垂奔秦,故敢進言。

Gao Bi illustrates his point by talking about a mountain, saying that Murong Chui's achievement can, one basket of earth at a time, reach a height of nine ren. One ren equals eight chi. (In other words, nine ren was twenty-four miles.)

Gao Bi dared to offer such advice because he had earlier fled to Qin along with Murong Chui.


燕主暐之出鄴也,衛士猶千餘騎,既出城,皆散,惟十餘騎從行;秦王堅使游擊將軍郭慶追之。時道路艱難,孟高扶侍暐,經護二王,極其勤瘁,又所在遇盜,轉斗而前。數日,行至福祿,依塚解息,盜二十餘人猝至,皆挾弓矢,高持刀與戰,殺傷數人。高力極,自度必死,乃直前抱一賊,頓擊於地,大呼曰:「男兒窮矣!」餘賊從帝射高,殺之。艾朗見高獨戰,亦還趨賊,並死。暐失馬步走,郭慶追及於高陽,部將巨武將縛之,暐曰:「汝何小人,敢縛天子!」武曰:「我受詔追賊,何謂天子!」執以詣秦王堅。堅詰其不降而走之狀,對曰:「狐死首丘,欲歸死於先人墳墓耳。」堅哀而釋之,令還宮,帥文武出降。暐稱孟高、艾朗之忠於堅,堅命厚加斂葬,拜其子為郎中。

28. When Murong Wei fled from Ye, he had more than a thousand riders with him, but after they fled from the city, the riders all scattered, and only a few more than ten remained to follow him. Fu Jian sent the General of Fierce Assault, Guo Qing, to pursue the royal fugitives. During that time, all the roads were filled with difficulties and disorders, so Meng Gao worked to protect Murong Wei and the two Princes, diligently working himself even unto sickness. Whenever they encountered the enemy, Meng Gao would turn and charge forward to face them.

二王,謂樂安王臧、定襄王淵也。

The two Princes were the Prince of Le'an, Murong Zang, and the Prince of Dingxiang, Murong Yuan.


After several days, the group reached Fulu, where they stopped to rest their horses by a tomb. More than twenty enemy soldiers suddenly appeared, each firing arrows. Meng Gao grasped his sword and fought them, slaying or wounding several. But, having exhausted himself, and seeing that his death was inevitable, he rushed upon one enemy and pulled him to the ground, crying out, "What pathetic men you all are!" The remaining enemies, ignoring the emperor, turned their bows against Meng Gao and killed him. When Ai Lang saw that Meng Gao had plunged into battle alone, he rushed to join him in fighting the enemies, until he too was killed.

解息,解鞍息馬也。

When they stopped to rest, they removed the saddles from their horses and let them recover.


Murong Wei had lost his horse, but he continued to flee on foot. Guo Qing pursued him and caught up to him at Gaoyang, and ordered his officer Ju Wu to capture the emperor. Murong Wei said, "You miscreant, you dare lay hands on the Son of Heaven?" Ju Wu replied, "I have orders to pursue a rebel; who claims to be Son of Heaven?" So they captured him and brought him back to Fu Jian.

《姓譜》:巨,姓也。

The Registry of Surnames states, "Ju is a surname."


Fu Jian asked Murong Wei why he had refused to surrender and had tried to flee to the northeast. The response was, "A fox dies with its face towards its den. A man who seeks death must first find his tomb." Fu Jian sorrowfully released him, ordering him returned to the palace where the others who had surrendered were.

慕容氏之先皆葬昌黎。晉穆帝永和八年,燕主儁改元稱帝,傳子暐,共十九年而亡。

Murong Wei made this remark because the Murong clan members had all originally been buried at Changli, in the northeast.

From Emperor Mu's eighth year of Yonghe (352), when Murong Jun had first assumed the imperial title, and then handed it down to his son Murong Wei, until this time, Former Yan had existed for nineteen years, and then perished.


Murong Wei reported to Fu Jian on Meng Gao's and Ai Lang's loyalty to him. Fu Jian granted them honorable burials, and appointed their sons as Palace Attendants.

郭慶進至龍城,太傅評奔高句麗,高句麗執評,送於秦。宜都王桓殺鎮東將軍勃海王亮,並其眾,奔遼東。遼東太守韓稠,先已降秦,桓至,不得入,攻之,不克。郭慶遣將軍朱嶷擊之,桓充眾單走,嶷獲而殺之。

29. When Guo Qing pressed on and arrived at Longcheng, Murong Ping fled to Goguryeo, but they apprehended him and sent him back to Qin.

Yan’s Prince of Yidu, Murong Huan, killed the General Who Guards The East, the Prince of Bohai Murong Liang, and with his remaining soldiers fled to Liaodong. But the Administrator of Liaodong, Han Chou, had already surrendered to Qin. When Murong Huan arrived, Han did not allow him to enter the city; although Murong Huan tried to force his way in, he was unsuccessful. Guo Qing sent his general Zhu Yi to attack Murong Huan. Murong Huan abandoned his army and fled alone, but Zhu Yi caught and killed him.

諸州牧守及六夷渠帥盡降於秦,凡得郡百五十七,戶二百四十六萬,口九百九十九萬。以燕宮人、珍寶分賜將士。下詔大赦曰:「朕以寡薄,猥承休命,不能懷遠以德,柔服四維,至使戎車屢駕,有害斯民,雖百姓之過,然亦朕之罪也。其大赦天下,與之更始。」

30. Yan’s various governors, administrators, and commanders all surrendered to Qin. In the various commandaries there were a hundred and fifty seven, with 2,460,000 households, and 9,990,000 people. Yan's palace attendants and treasures were distributed among the officers. Fu Jian issued a general pardon, proclaiming, "I say now regarding those few who are still in hiding, and fear that they cannot submit to my authority, believing that my virtue does not extend to every distant corner, and cannot bring comfort to the four directions, that the weapons of war are now to be put away. Whoever harms one of these people, or trespasses against the commoners, he has also committed a crime against me. Thus do I extend this amnesty over the realm, to offer a new beginning to all."

四維,東南維,西南維,東北維,西北維。

The four directions were the southeast, the southwest, the northeast, and the northwest.


初,梁琛之使秦也,以侍輦苟純為副。琛每應對,不先告純;純恨之,歸,言於燕主暐曰:「琛在長安,與王猛甚親善,疑有異謀。」琛又數稱秦王堅及王猛之美,且言秦將興師,宜為之備。已而秦果伐燕,皆如琛言,暐乃疑琛知其情。及慕容評敗,遂收琛系獄。秦王堅入鄴而釋之,除中書著作郎,引見,謂之曰:「卿昔言上庸王、吳王皆將相奇材,何為不能謀畫,自使亡國?」對曰:「天命廢興,豈二人所能移也!」堅曰:「卿不能見幾而作,虛稱燕美,忠不自防,返為身禍,可謂智乎?」對曰:「臣聞『幾者動之微,吉兇之先見者也。』如臣愚闇,實所不及。然為臣莫如忠,為子莫如孝,自非有一至之心者,莫能保忠孝之始終。是以古之烈士,臨危不改,見死不避,以徇君親。彼知幾者,心達安危,身擇去就,不顧家國,臣就使知之,尚不忍為,況非所及邪!」

31. Before the war, when Liang Chen had been an envoy to Qin, he brought along the 侍輦 Gou Chun as his assistant. Whenever Liang Chen made a reply, he never told Gou Chun what it would be, so Gou Chun resented him. When they returned to Yan, Gou Chun said to Murong Wei, "When Liang Chen was at Chang'an, he became very close to Wang Meng. They may be plotting something." Liang Chen then spoke several times of his great esteem for Fu Jian and Wang Meng, and spoke of the need to prepare for Qin's army, since he said they would invade soon.

侍輦之官,蓋燕所置近臣也。

The office of 侍輦 was created by Yan. It was an office for a minister's assistant.


When Qin indeed invaded Yan, everyone remembered what Liang Chen had said, and Murong Wei then questioned why Liang Chen had known ahead of time that it would happen. After Murong Ping's defeat at Luchuan, he arrested Liang Chen and put him in jail. When Fu Jian entered Ye, he released Liang Chen, appointed him as 中書著作郎, and had him brought to him.

秦蓋循晉初之制,併祕書於中書省也。

Qin had followed the system that Jin originally had, combining the offices of Custodian of the Private Library and Secretariat Supervisor together.


Fu Jian asked Liang Chen, "Before, you told me that Murong Ping and Murong Chui were both men of rare talents. How was it that they could not come up with some plan to save their state?"

Liang Chen replied, "Heaven directs the rise and fall of states; how can a mere two men oppose it?"

Fu Jian said, “You yourself were not able to find an opportunity to act. You vacuously spoke of Yan's splendor, but in your loyalty you could not save yourself, and rather suffered personal misfortune. Are we meant to call that wisdom?”

Liang Chen replied, “I have heard it said that 'By studying the slightest movements of opportunity, good or ill fortune can be predicted.' But as I am blind and foolish, I could not claim that much. It is fitting that a minister remain loyal, just as it is fitting that a son remain filial. No matter what conclusions his heart may come to, he must ensure his loyalty and his piety from beginning til end. The martyrs of old did not shrink from danger or blink at suffering death, but they died alongside their lords. There have been some among you who, knowing what lay ahead, and choosing between danger and security, they abandoned their state and took no heed of it. But as for me, I could not endure such a thing, much less be given reward for it!”

【章:十二行本「吉」下有「凶」字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】《易‧大傳》之辭。梁琛忠於所事,秦王堅不能顯而庸之,識者有以知秦祚之不長矣。

Some versions add "or ill (fortune)" to Liang Chen's quote.

Liang Chen quotes from the 易‧大傳.

There were many who saw in Liang Chen's fierce loyalty in all things, and Fu Jian's inability to employ the most worthy and having to settle for the mediocre, the imminent downfall of Qin's fortunes.


堅聞悅綰之忠,恨不及見,拜其子為郎中。

32. When Fu Jian heard of Yue Wan's loyal service, he regretted not having been able to meet him. He appointed Yue Wan's sons as Palace Attendants.

悅綰事見上卷三年。

The story about Yue Wan's reforms was mentioned in the last book, Book 101, in the third year (368.12).


堅以王猛為使持節、都督關東六州諸軍事、車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司、冀州牧,鎮鄴,進爵清河郡侯,悉以慕容評第中之物賜之。賜楊安爵博平縣侯;以鄧羌為使持節、征虜將軍、安定太守,賜爵真定郡侯;郭慶為持節、都督幽州諸軍事、幽州刺史,鎮薊,賜爵襄城侯。其餘將士封賞各有差。

33. Fu Jian appointed Wang Meng as Credential Bearer, Commander over the six former Yan provinces, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, with authority equal to the Three Excellencies, and Governor of Jizhou, with his headquarters at Ye. He promoted Wang Meng’s noble title to Marquis of Qinghe, and granted him the former personal items of Murong Ping. He promoted Yang An to be Marquis of Boping; Deng Qiang to be Credential Bearer (or Commissioner Bearing Credentials), General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Administrator of Anding, and Marquis of Zhending; Guo Qing to be Credential Bearer, Commander of affairs in Youzhou, and Inspector of Youzhou, with his headquarters at Ji, and he was bestowed the title Marquis of Xiangcheng. The other generals also received like rewards according to their merits.

【章:十二行本無「使」字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同。】賜爵者,賜之侯爵,非有國有土也。一曰:先未列爵,今始賜之。

Some versions record Deng Qiang as receiving the rank "Commissioner Bearing Credentials" rather than "Credential Bearer".

To be "bestowed" a noble title meant to receive the actual title, but with no fief or territory along with it. Yi remarked, "At first we had yet to arrange titles, now we began to bestow them."


堅以京兆韋鐘為魏郡太守,彭豹為陽平太守;其餘州縣牧、守、令、長,皆因舊而授之。以燕常山太守申紹為散騎侍郎,使與散騎侍郎京兆韋儒俱為繡衣使者,循行關東州郡,觀省風俗,勸課農桑,振恤窮困,收葬死亡,旌顯節行,燕政有不便於民者,皆變除之。

34. Fu Jian appointed Wei Zhong of Jingzhao as Administrator of Wei, and Peng Bao as Administrator of Yangping. The other former Yan Governors, Administrators, Prefects, chiefs, and other officials were kept on in their former posts. He appointed Yan's Administrator of Changshan, Shen Shao, as 散騎侍郎, and sent him and the 散騎侍郎, Wei Ruju of Jingzhao, to craft garments to distribute to the people, patrol through the Guandong provinces and commandaries, observe and reform the local customs, help to cultivate farming and silkworm raising efforts, ease the suffering of the people, collect and bury the dead, and spread his authority throughout the region. Any parts of the Yan administration that did not benefit the people were changed.

燕都鄴,以魏郡太守爲京尹。陽平,輔郡也,故堅皆以秦人守之。盡易州縣牧、守、令、長,旣駭觀聽,且人情新舊不相安,故皆因舊。並用燕、秦之人爲繡衣使者。用燕人者,以其習關東風俗;用秦人者,使宣堅之德意也。

Ye was in Wei commandary, and its Administrator had been a capital Intendent under Yan. Yangping commandary was an adjunct to Wei. This was why Fu Jian changed the administrators of those commandaries.

The remaining former Yan officials were all still shocked and waiting to see what would happen, so in order to calm their anxieties, Fu Jian kept them on in their posts.

Both the people of Yan and Qin were used to craft the garments for distribution. The people in Yan followed the customs of Guandong, while the people in Qin did what appealed to Fu Jian's sense of virtue.


十二月,秦王堅遷慕容暐及燕後妃、王公、百官並鮮卑四萬餘戶於長安。

35. In the twelfth month, Fu Jian sent Murong Wei and Empress Dowager Kezuhun, along with the former Yan princes, dukes, and officials, and forty thousand Xianbei households, to Chang'an.

爲後鮮卑乘亂攻秦張本。

These were the Xianbei who would later rebel and attack Qin.


王猛表留梁琛為主簿,領記室督。它日,猛與僚屬宴,語及燕朝使者,猛曰:「人心不同。昔梁君至長安,專美本朝;樂君但言桓溫軍盛;郝君微說國弊。」參軍馮誕曰:「今三子皆為國臣,敢問取臣之道何先?」猛曰:「郝君知幾為先。」誕曰:「然則明公賞丁公而誅季布也。」猛大笑。

36. Wang Meng asked that Liang Chen be appointed as his household’s Registrar and acting 記室督. That day, he held a feast with his ministers where he invited the new ministers to attend. During the feast, he said to them, "Men's hearts are truly different. Not so long ago, three Yan ministers came to Qin as envoys. Lord Liang spoke of his court's splendor; Lord Yue spoke of how its army compared to Huan Wen's; Lord Hao spoke of its iniquities."

晉制:諸公府有主簿、記室督各一人。今猛以琛兼之。梁琛、樂嵩、郝晷也。

According to the Jin system, each Duke's household had both a Registrar and a 記室督. Wang Meng combined them in the person of Liang Chen.

The three envoys were Liang Chen, Yue Song, and Hao Gui.


Feng Yan said, "All three of them are now Qin ministers. Might I ask which of them you most agreed with?"

Wang Meng said, "I would have to side with Lord Hao."

Feng Yan replied, "In that case, you would do well to 'reward Duke Ding and punish Ji Bu.'" And Wang Meng laughed heartily.

言取臣之道,與漢高帝異。

Feng Yan gave the opposite advice regarding those two ministers to how Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) had dealt with them.


During the Chu-Han Contention between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, Ji Bu had remained loyal to Xiang Yu to the very end, while Duke Ding had betrayed him and helped Liu Bang. After the war ended, Liu Bang blamed Duke Ding for his disloyalty, saying that it was because of him that Xiang Yu lost, and he executed him. Meanwhile, he pardoned Ji Bu on account of his loyal service.

秦王堅自鄴如枋頭,宴父老,改枋頭為永昌,復之終世。甲寅,至長安,封慕容暐為新興侯;以燕故臣慕容評為給事中,皇甫真為奉車都尉,李洪為駙馬都尉,皆奉朝請。李邽為尚書,封衡為尚書郎,慕容德為張掖太守,燕國平睿為宣威將軍,悉羅騰為三署郎。其餘封授各有差。衡,裕之子也.

37. Fu Jian went from Ye to Fangtou, where he held a feast for his father’s veterans, and changed the name of the place from Fangtou to Yongchang, and exempted it from taxation for a generation.

復,除賦役也;復除賦役,終秦王之世也。

復 here means to exempt from taxation. The "generation" meant during the lifetime of the current lord of Qin.


On the day Jiayin, he arrived at Chang'an, and granted Murong Wei the title of Marquis of Xinxing. He appointed Murong Ping as 給事中, Huangfu Zhen as Commandant of 奉車 and Li Hong as Commandant of 駙馬, and all served the court. He appointed Li Gui as Master of Writing, Feng Heng as Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, Murong De as Administrator of Zhangye, Ping Rui of Yanguo as General Who 宣 Might, and Xiluo Teng as 三署郎. Others were appointed as needed. Feng Heng was the son of Feng Yu.

三人者,燕之三公也。爲德兄子超留張掖而入姚氏張本。漢有五官署郎、左署郎、右署郎,故曰三署郎。舊制:郎年五十以上,屬五官,其次分在左右署;秦遂以三署郎爲官稱。慕容皝之興也,封裕以忠諫顯。

Murong Ping, Huangfu Zhen, and Li Hong had held the ranks of the Three Excellencies in Yan.

Murong De's appointment as Administrator of Zhangye was why his nephew Murong Chao later fled from Zhangye to the Yao clan.

Han had the offices of 五官署郎, 左署郎, and 右署郎, and so they were usually called the Three 署郎. Under the Jin system, Gentlemen that were over fifty years old were part of the 五官, subordinate to the 左署 or 右署. Qin used this same system of Three 署郎.

During Murong Huang's rise, Feng Yi had made many loyal remonstrances to him.


燕故太史黃泓歎曰:「燕必中興,其在吳王乎!恨吾老,不及見耳!」汲郡趙秋曰:「天道在燕,而秦滅之。不及十五年,秦必復為燕有。」

38. Yan's former Court Historian, Huang Hong, said with a sigh, "Yan will rise again, thanks to the Prince of Wu (Murong Chui)! But I regret that, old as I am, I will not be able to witness it!" And Zhao Qiu of Jijun said, "Heaven lies with Yan, and Qin must crumble. In less than fifteen years, Qin will give way to Yan."

慕容之初興,黃泓歸之。及儁之取中原,黃泓贊其決:泓知數者也。謂歲星在燕分也。【章:十二行本「不」上有「而秦滅之」四字;乙十一行本同;退齋校同;張校同,云無註本亦脫。】

Huang Hong had come to Yan during the initial rise of the Murong clan. When Murong Jun seized the Central Plains, Huang Hong approved of the decision. Many knew of his predictions.

Zhao Qiu refers to the year-star (Jupiter) hanging over Yan at the time of its conquest.

Some versions add the words "and Qin must crumble" to Zhao Qiu's prophecy.


慕容桓之子鳳,年十一,陰有復仇之志。鮮卑、丁零有氣干者,皆傾身與之交結。權翼見而謂之曰:「兒方以才望自顯,勿效爾父不識天命!」鳳厲色曰:「先王欲建忠而不遂,此乃人臣之節;君侯之言,豈獎勸將來之義乎!」翼改容謝之,言於秦王堅曰:「慕容鳳忼慨有才器,但狼子野心,恐終不為人用耳。」

39. Murong Huan's son, Murong Feng, was then eleven years old. He secretly harbored a grudge against Qin. The Xianbei and the Dingling peoples had an affinity, and they often had social dealings with each other.

爲後慕容鳳與丁零起兵攻秦張本。

This was why Murong Feng later rose in rebellion together with the Dingling to attack Qin.


When the Qin minister Quan Yi saw Murong Feng, he said to him, "Child, you have exceptional talents and abilities. Don't be like your father, who went against Heaven's will!"

Feng Yi fiercely replied, “My late father wished to act with loyalty. Although he failed, he behaved as a loyal servant ought to. If I followed your advice, how could that steer me towards virtue?”

Quan Yi quickly made his apologies to Murong Feng. He then mentioned the matter to Fu Jian, and told him, “Murong Feng has such abundant talent, but alas, a wolf-like child has a evil heart. I fear you will not be able to use him.”

《左傳》:楚令尹子文曰:「狼子野心。」史言燕之臣子非久下人者。

In the Zuo Commentary, the Chu minister Ziwen says, "A wolf-like child will have an evil heart." (Huan 4) The text means that the son of a Yan official could not long remain a Qin subordinate.


秦省雍州。

40. Qin abolished Yongzhou.

秦置雍州於安定,今省雍州入司隸校尉。

Qin had originally split Yongzhou off from Anding, but they now combined the Yongzhou territory back under the region of the Colonel Director of Retainers.


是歲,仇池公楊世卒,子纂立,始與秦絕。叔父武都太守統與之爭國,起兵相攻。

41. During this year, the Duke of Chouchi, Yang Chu, passed away. His son Yang Cuan inherited his position, and broke off relations with Qin. Yang Cuan’s uncle, the Administrator of Wudu, Yang Tong, began to fight with him, and both sides raised troops and attacked each other.

爲秦攻仇池張本。

This would be Qin's cassus belli for invading Chouchi.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Sun Apr 16, 2017 2:37 am

My backlog is getting depressing.

347AD - The year of mass extinctions in Zhao

2. 將贏兵 = to lead weak soldiers

3. 昝堅至犍為,乃知與溫異道: Zan Jian should become friends with LoJW Zang Ba.

4. 笮橋 = suspension bridges made of bamboo

而鼓吏誤鳴進鼓 = the drum guy beat the drums for sounding the advance, by mistake (there was no order; I guess he meant to beat the gongs for retreating but got his percussion set mixed up)

舉賢旌善 = Huan Wen promoted the wise and praised the good

5. 侵刻胡商 = he bullied and took from the foreign merchants

又科調船材,雲欲有所討,由是諸國恚憤 = he also levied boats and building materials (from the people), saying that he was planning to launch a campaign; because of that,the whole state was angry and indignant.

7. 大事去矣: I hate these phrases about great causes and great achievements, and am wonder if it’d be better to translate this as something along the lines of “we’ll be done for”. The original phrase isn’t supposed to be read literally anyway.

8. 帥戶二萬降於趙 = I wonder if this is 20k households instead of 20k men.

乘軺車 = light carriage (civilian use—this and the white headdress were supposed to indicate that he’s in a chill scholar outfit and not taking Ma Qiu seriously)

鳴鼓而行 = had the drums sounded as he advanced

輕我也: more like “he’s making fun of me/he’s belittling me” than a personal hatred

黑槊龍驤: Best name for a unit/band name ever

胡床 = folding chair ( like what you bring to the beach)

獲首虜一萬三千級 = cut off 13k heads of enemy soldeirs

9. 行衛將軍 = Acting Guard General

遐為軍正將軍

12. 以妖異惑眾,蜀人多歸之 = They deluded the populace with occult and mystical things, and most of the people of Shu joined them.

13. 遂城長最 = And they built a walled city at Changzui.

謝艾建牙誓眾: 誓眾 = 誓師 = to rally the troops before a campaign, to make an oath for victory

吾以偏師定九州,今以九州之力困於枹罕 = I had conquered the Nine Provinces with just an auxiliary force, and yet today , with the combined strength of the Nine Provinces, I am stuck at Baohan.

討叛虜斯骨真等萬餘落,皆破平之。= He waged war against some 10k rebel tribes, including Siguzhen’s, and destroyed them all. [落 is technically a tribe, but maybe here it’d make more sense to translate it as “settlement”? Either way it’s a LOT of people. We had something like that back in Cheng-Han too. Makes me wonder if “tribe” was just the glorified term for a tribal family.]

15. What kind of Buddhist monk is this, to advocate enslaving people?!?!

白鹿七 = white deer or goats?

16. 命太子宣出祈福於山川,因行遊獵 = He ordered the Crown Prince to go make sacrifices for blessings around the land, and to go for hunts while he was at it. (don’t ask me why Shi Xuan had to be ordered to go out and play)

但抱子弄孫,日為樂耳 = [I can’t ask for more] but to spend my days enjoying playing with my sons and grandsons.

17. 宣所捨: 捨 should probably be 舍, as in “to stay”. I.e. “every place where Shi Xuan stayed at”

使文武跪立,重行圍守 = he had the civil and military officers to kneel upright (i.e. knees at 90 degrees) in a circle around the barrier

獸盡而止 = until all the animals had been killed

士卒饑凍死者萬有餘人,所過三州十五郡,資儲皆無孑遺: The way you broke up the sentence was a bit weird... should be “over 10k soldiers (not necessarily the locals) died of hunger or cold; in the 15 commandaries of the 3 provinces that Shi Xuan passed through, all the stores were depleted.”

18. 宣怒其與己鈞敵,愈嫉之。 = Shi Xuan was angry that Shi Tao was now put on the same footing as himself, and his jealousy grew.

20. 重華欲稱涼王,未肯受詔 = Zhang Chonghua was unwilling to accept the conferrals as he wanted to become Prince of Liang.

主公弈世為晉忠臣 = For generations, my lord’s family had been loyal servants to Jin

明台宜移河右,共勸州主為涼王。人臣出使,苟利社稷,專之可也。= Sir, why don’t you mobilize the people of the West of the Yellow River to jointly recommend the ruler of their province to become Prince of Liang. When a minister is sent out on a mission, it is all right for him to make such executive decisions as long as it is to the Nation’s benefit.

吾子失言!= Sir, wrongly have you spoken!

昔三代之王也,爵之貴者莫若上公 = During the reigns of the Three Dynasties (Xia/Shang/Zhou), the most noble rank conferred was High Duke.

及周之衰,吳、楚始僭號稱王,而諸侯亦不之非,蓋以蠻夷畜之也;= Only when the power of the Zhou began to fade did Wu and Chu start to assume the kingly title. The only reason why the other feudal lords put up with them was because they had treated Wu and Chu as mere barbarians.

借使齊、魯稱王,諸侯豈不四面攻之乎!= If rulers of states like Qi and Lu [i.e. the powerful and legit/original states] declared themselves kings, would the other lords not rush to attack them?

漢高祖封韓、彭為王,尋皆誅滅,蓋權時之宜,非厚之也。= When Emperor Gaozu of Han made kings of Han Xin and Peng Chao, he later executed them; he was just making them kings to buy time (or, just to deal with the situation at hand), and not because he meant to do them honour.

聖上以貴公忠賢,故爵以上公,任以方伯,寵榮極矣 = As your honourable lord is loyal and wise, His Majesty conferred the title of High Duke on him, entrusting him to the protection of a corner of the empire. This is the highest possible favour and honour.

今貴公始繼世而為王,若帥河右之眾,東平胡、羯,修復陵廟,迎天子返洛陽,將何以加之乎?= Now, your honourable lord has just inherited his position. If he is to be made Prince now, and later he goes on [and kicks ass and restores Jin in Luoyang], with what additional honour could he be rewarded?
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: The Sixteen Kingdoms Era (Books 95-10

Unread postby Lady Wu » Tue Apr 18, 2017 1:13 am

348 – The year of jaw-dropping developments

2. 欲立之,以太子宣長,猶豫未决: The grammar is weird here, but I think this makes more sense to have Shi Hu as the subject of the sentence (“Shi Hu wanted to make Shi Tao his heir, but because Xuan was older, he couldn’t make a decision”)

韜由是益驕 = because of that, Shi Tao became increasingly more arrogant

造堂于太尉府 = He built a hall at the Grand Commandant’s residence (his own property)

號曰宣光殿 = 殿 is really more of a tall building or a lofty hall, so maybe call this “Xuanguang Hall”

梁 = beam (horizontal)

西宮: HSX’s comment here is actually useful—that was where Shi Hu lived, so Shi Xuan was saying “once I become emperor, I will give Shi Tao’s land to you”

3. 佛精舍: It’s really just a nice term for a Buddhist temple (maybe just say that here and omit the Hu note)

《水經註》:石氏... : 石氏should be read as “Mr. Shi”, aka Hu.

立東明觀於鄴東城上= built Dongming Pavilion by the eastern city walls of Ye

京師 = capital city (not necessarily inside the palace)

將委之以罪 = was planning to put the blame on them

哀過危惙 = was deathly ill from grief

虎悲怒彌甚,囚宣于席庫,以鐵環穿其頷而鏁之= Shi Hu’s grief and anger became even greater. He had Shi Xuan imprisoned in a storehouse for... sitting mats? chairs?, had a ring of iron put through his jaw and used that to lock him up

是重禍也 = you’d be doubling your misfortune

倚梯柴積 = a ladder was leaned against the firewood pile

使韜所幸宦者郝稚、劉霸拔其發,抽其舌,牽之登梯 = He had Shi Tao’s favourite eunuchs Hao Zhi and Liu Ba drag him up the ladder by his hair and tongue.

郝稚以繩貫其頷,鹿盧絞上。= Hao Zhi strung a rope through his jaw and used that and the pulley to hoist him up.

虎從昭儀已下數千人: Not sure where you got Empress Du from, but this is referring to some thousands of female attendants from the rank 昭儀and lower

取灰分置諸門交道中 = the ashes were gathered and spread at the main intersection of each city gate

銅爵臺 = 銅雀臺 (aka Cao Cao’s Hangout)

妻子九人 = 9 including wives and children

兒挽虎衣 大叫,至于絕帶 = The boy grabbed onto Shi Hu’s robes and screamed (as they tried to tear him away from Shi Hu), until [Shi Hu’s] belt broke [and the boy was taken away]

誅其四率已下三百人,宦者五十人 = He executed 300 soldiers under the Eastern Palace’s command and 50 of his eunuchs; they were all ripped apart by chariots

洿其東宮以養猪牛 = defiled the Eastern Palace and made it into a place for keeping livestock

有變 = there will be a disaster (變 can either mean change or disaster)

宜備之 = it’s advisable to be on guard for it

4.相與建行臺於密: 行臺 was the field office of the 尚書, like a local executive branch of the imperial court. 密 is a place name. See Book 87: “⑲司徒傅祗建行臺於河陰,司空荀藩在陽城,〈陽城縣,漢屬潁川郡,晉屬河南郡。〉河南尹華薈在成皋,汝陰太守平陽李矩爲之立屋,輸穀以給之。薈,歆之曾孫也。〈華,戶化翻。汝陰縣,漢屬汝南郡,魏分置汝陰郡,後廢,武帝泰始二年復爲郡。薈,烏外翻。爲,於僞翻。〉藩與弟組、族子中護軍崧,薈與弟中領軍恆建行臺於密,〈密縣,漢屬河南郡,晉屬滎陽郡。〉"

5. 朝野推服 = and is respected by all both in office and not in office

引爲心膂 = took him on to be a trusted supporter(心膂 = someone you trust and rely on like your own heart and spine)

與參綜朝權 = he had him get involved in deciding on affairs of the court

6. 王羲之 = this is a X之

to have them serve as his wings: Is this idiomatic in English? (Almost sounds like he’s going after a girl and needed them to be his wingmen...)

內外協和,然後國家可安 = only by having harmony between those responsible for internal affairs and those responsible for military affairs, can the nation be safe

7. 屬之 = admonished him (there’s no several times)

才堪任重,汝其委之,以成吾志 = he is talented and can be entrusted with weighty affairs. You should make make use of him, to achieve my ambition

皝嘗畋於西鄙 = Murong Huang once went hunting in the western region

見一父老,服硃衣,乘白馬 : GANDALF THE RED

舉手麾皝曰:「此非獵所,王其還也。」: [Gandalf] raised his hand and gestured to Murong Huang, saying, “This is not a hunting ground. You shall not pass You should turn around.”

秘之不言 = Murong Huang didn’t tell anyone about this

乃說所見 = and only then did he tell what he had seen

彭城公母前 以太子事廢 = The Duke of Pengcheng’s mother had been demoted before due to the former Crown Prince’s affair

臣恐不能無微恨 = I fear that [she] may not be completely free of grudge (i.e. she might bear a grudge)

位在左右衞上 = their positions are above those of the Guard of the Left and the Guard of the Right.

陛下再立太子,其母皆出于倡賤,故禍亂相尋 = When Your Majesty chose new crown princes in the past, their mothers were all of common blood, and that’s why disasters happened one after another.

今宜擇母貴子孝者立之 = You should now choose as your crown prince one who has a noble-born mother and who is filial himself.

虎再與群臣議于東堂 = Shi Hu gathered his ministers at the Eastern Hall to discuss the matter again.

何爲專生惡子 = why do I keep giving birth to evil sons?

乃與張舉、李農定議 = thus, he made a plan with Zhang Ju and Li Nong
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