ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

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Re: BOOK 79

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Tue Nov 21, 2017 6:42 am

I feel like this might be a dumb question... but I was re-reading your Book 79 translation and there's this line:

Taishi Ci 2.0 wrote:The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 俞 Yu are the descendants of the ancient skilled doctor, Yi Yu."

This is stating that those with the surname Yu are descendants of those with the surname Yi, correct? Given the fact that the doctor's name is coincidentally Yi Yu, I just wanted to make sure it was written correctly.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Nov 21, 2017 7:29 pm

That was an error, should be Yu Fu. I have changed it, thanks for catching that.
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"We have. You did. We can. No."
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Tue Nov 21, 2017 10:17 pm

That makes more sense! I was wondering how Yi descended from Yu... :P

I think you're entitled to make one mistake every 100K words. :wink: Thanks again!
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby qqdonut » Wed Nov 22, 2017 7:00 am

Are there two people called Li Han (李含) alive at the same time? The advisor for Sima Yong from Longxi who dies in 304, as well as a senior clansman of Li Te who is the father of Li Guo and Li Li? Or are they the same person somehow?
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Nov 22, 2017 7:49 am

I am fairly certain they are just two different people with the exact same name who happen to be of importance at the same time.
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"We have. You did. We can. No."
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby qqdonut » Wed Nov 22, 2017 8:04 am

Taishi Ci 2.0 wrote:I am fairly certain they are just two different people with the exact same name who happen to be of importance at the same time.


Thanks. Yeah, it's surprising there's no notes in the ZZTJ clarifying that.

JS 120 implies Li Han is a brother-in-law of Li Te, I think?
特弟庠與兄弟及妹夫李含、任回...

which would fit with Li Xiong saying "our uncles refuse to go along" referring to Li Liu and Li Han.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Mon Nov 27, 2017 10:46 pm

I've got a question and a correction.

First, the question: In Book 83, Sima Yu drunkenly writes a letter wherein he says he made sacrifices to the Northern Sovereign. The commentary says: "The Northern Sovereign was the Northern Emperor (Xuanwu)."

Who exactly is the Northern Emperor Xuanwu?

Initially I assumed it meant Emperor Xuanwu of Chu, Huan Wen... er, but he wasn't born until a few years later, much less as the Emperor! Oops, so now I'm confused!

Second, the correction: Later in the same post is this line:
Jia Nanfeng had Dong Meng pretend to bring a message from Empress Changguang to Emperor Hui, saying, "This is a matter that should be decided quickly, yet the ministers are not in agreement.

Changguang was a Princess, not the Empress! If it had been signed as Empress, Nanfeng surely would've had everyone involved killed! :P
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Nov 29, 2017 6:48 pm

Thanks for that catch, I have changed it to Princess.

I don't really know much about Xuanwu, other than him being an ancient/divine being; it's an aspect of Chinese culture I haven't done much study into.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-85)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Wed Nov 29, 2017 8:45 pm

Taishi Ci 2.0 wrote:I don't really know much about Xuanwu, other than him being an ancient/divine being; it's an aspect of Chinese culture I haven't done much study into.

Yeah I don't know a whole lot about the history of the divine either. I'll look into it more and let you know if I find anything, just for curiosity sake!

I'll ask in the "Three Kingdoms Questions" topic too.

---

Edit:

Lord_Cao_Cao had an interesting find in the Three Kingdoms Questions topic that sounds right to me:
Quick research makes me think it's the Black Tortoise.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Tortoise
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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 1:46 am

永興二年(乙丑、三○五)

The Second Year of Yongxing (The Yichou Year, 305 AD)


夏,四月,張方廢羊后。

1. In summer, the fourth month, Zhang Fang once again deposed Empress Yang Xianrong.

游楷等攻皇甫重,累年不能克,重遣其養子昌求救於外。昌詣司空越,越以太宰顒新與山東連和,不肯出兵。昌乃與故殿中人楊篇詐稱越命,迎羊后於金墉城。入宮,以后令發兵討張方,奉迎大駕。事起倉猝,百官初皆從之;俄知其詐,相與誅昌。顒請遣御史宣詔喻重令降。重不奉詔。先是城中不知長沙厲王及皇甫商已死,重獲御史騶人,問曰:「我弟將兵來,欲至未?」騶人曰:「已爲河間王所害。」重失色,立殺騶人。於是城中知無外救,共殺重以降。顒以馮翊太守張輔爲秦州刺史。

2. It was earlier mentioned that the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, had sent his generals You Kai and others west to fight the Prince of Changsha's (Sima Ai's) ally Huangfu Zhong, who had risen up against Sima Yong in Qinzhou. For the past two years, You Kai and the others had kept up their fight against Huangfu Zhong, but they had been unable to overcome him.

Huangfu Zhong sent his adoptive son Huangfu Chang to seek reinforcements. Huangfu Chang went to visit the Minister of Works and Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue. But Sima Yue had just come to terms with Sima Yong that he would handle affairs east of the mountains (that is, east of Luoyang), and so he could not send any troops to assist an enemy of Sima Yong. Zhang Chang then went to see a gentleman of the Central Hall of the Palace, Yang Pian. Zhang Chang brought with him an edict he had forged, supposedly bearing Sima Yue's orders, with a command to fetch Yang Xianrong from the Jinyong fortress. When Zhang Chang then entered the palace, he ordered by authority of Empress Yang that soldiers be raised to attack Sima Yong's general Zhang Fang, so that Emperor Hui's imperial carriage would be rescued from Chang'an. Since events were moving so quickly, the court ministers went along with these orders at first. But when it was soon discovered that Zhang Chang had forged the edict, the ministers all had him put to death.

Sima Yong asked Emperor Hui that he be allowed to send an Imperial Secretary bearing an edict calling on Huangfu Zhong to surrender. But Huangfu Zhong refused to recognize the edict.

Now those inside Huangfu Zhong's city were still unaware that both Sima Ai and Huangfu Zhong's brother Huangfu Shang were already dead. Huangfu Zhong captured a carriage driver from the Imperial Secretary's entourage. He asked the man, "My younger brother's soldiers will arrive here soon. Will you not wait until he gets here?"

The driver told him, "Huangfu Shang has already been killed by the Prince of Hejian."

Huangfu Zhong turned pale, and he killed the driver. But now that those within the city knew that there would be no hope of reinforcements, they all killed Huangfu Zhong and then surrendered.

Sima Yong appointed the Administrator of Pingyi, Zhang Fu, as the new Inspector of Qinzhou.

〈游楷等自太安二年攻皇甫重,至是,首尾三年。〉〈事見上卷上年。〉〈故殿中人,舊屬二衞部曲者。〉〈是年四月,張方廢羊后。其時方已奉帝入關,蓋以威令遙脅留臺百官,使廢羊后耳。今皇甫昌迎后入宮,欲發兵討方,特以是起兵,非因方在洛而討之也。〉〈長沙厲王死,見上卷上年。皇甫商死,見上卷太安二年。先,悉薦翻。〉〈因御史來宣詔,獲其騶人。騶,廐御也。晉制,諸公給騶八人,下至御史,各有差。齊王融曰:「車前無八騶,何得稱丈夫!」則騶蓋辟車之卒。〉〈顒以破劉沈之功用張輔。〉

(You Kai and the other Sima Yong generals had gone west to attack Huangfu Zhong in the second year of Tai'an (303.12). By now, their campaign had stretched into the third year.

Sima Yue's reconciliation with Sima Yong is mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.35).

The so-called "gentleman of the Central Hall of the palace" refers to a traditional subordinate of one of the two Guard Generals.

Regarding Huangfu Chang's plot, Zhang Fang had deposed Yang Xianrong again in the fourth month of this year. At the time of this plot, Zhang Fang had already taken Emperor Hui with him back to Guanzhong; he had only deposed Yang Xianrong again as a display of strength to awe the ministers who remained behind in Luoyang as part of the Separate Terrace administration. So when Huangfu Chang brought Yang Xianrong out of the Jinyong fortress, planning to use her authority to raise troops to attack Zhang Fang, it was purely in order to obtain these soldiers, and not because Zhang Fang was actually present at Luoyang to be attacked.

Prince Li of Changsha's (Sima Ai's) death is mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.2). Huangfu Shang's death is mentioned in the same book, in the second year of Tai'an (303.26).

Since the Imperial Secretary had come to Huangfu Zhong bearing an imperial edict, he had some carriage drivers with him, and so Huangfu Zhong was able to capture one of them. By driver, it means a groomsman of the stable. Under the Jin system, the various nobles were all granted eight men to serve as such drivers. High ministers, from the Imperial Secretary on up, were granted the same honor. Wang Rong of Southern Qi was once quoted as saying, "The cart lacks the eight drivers before it; how then can one be called a gentleman?" So the drivers were some distance from the carriage.

This Zhang Fu had earlier aided Sima Yong by attacking his enemy Liu Chen (Book 85, 304.5).)


六月,甲子,安豐元侯王戎薨于郟。

3. In the sixth month, on the day Jiazi (July 11th), Wang Rong passed away at Jia. He was posthumously known as Marquis Yuan ("the Foremost") of Anfeng.

〈王戎奔郟,見上卷上年。〉

(Wang Rong had fled from Luoyang to Jia after Zhang Fang had compelled Emperor Hui to relocate to Chang'an, as mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.33).)


張輔至秦州,殺天水太守封尚,欲以立威;又召隴西太守韓稚,稚子朴勒兵擊輔,輔軍敗,死。涼州司馬楊胤言於張軌曰:「韓稚擅殺刺史,明公杖鉞一方,不可不討。」軌從之,遣中督護氾瑗帥衆二萬討稚,稚詣軌降。未幾,鮮卑若羅拔能寇涼州,軌遣司馬宋配擊之,斬拔能,俘十餘萬口,威名大振。

4. When Zhang Fu arrived at his post as Inspector of Qinzhou, he killed the Administrator of Tianshui, Feng Shang, wishing to thus display his power. He also summoned the Administrator of Longxi, Han Zhi. But Han Zhi's son Han Pu led his soldiers to attack Zhang Fu; Zhang Fu's army was defeated and he himself was killed.

In Liangzhou, Zhang Gui's Marshal Yang Yin said to him, "Han Zhi has presumptuously killed his Inspector. Your Excellency wields authority over this corner of the realm; you can do no less than march against Han Zhi to punish him."

Zhang Gui heeded his advice, and sent his Protector of the Center, Fan Yuan to lead twenty thousand soldiers to campaign against Han Zhi. Rather than resist, Han Zhi presented himself to Zhang Gui and surrendered.

Not long after this, the Xianbei leader Ruoluo Baneng invaded Liangzhou. Zhang Gui sent his Marshal Song Pei to attack the Xianbei, and they beheaded Ruoluo Baneng and captured more than a hundred thousand Xianbei. Zhang Gui's power and reputation thus spread very far.

〈中督護,中軍督護也。〉〈史言張軌能尊主攘夷以致強盛。〉

(The "Protector of the Center" was the Protector for the Army of the Center.

This passage serves to show Zhang Gui's growing strength through his ability to honor imperial legitimacy and vanquish the barbarians.)


漢王淵攻東嬴公騰,騰復乞師於拓跋猗㐌,衞操勸猗㐌助之。猗㐌帥輕騎數千救騰,斬漢將綦毋豚。詔假猗㐌大單于,加操右將軍。甲申,猗㐌卒,子普根代立。

5. The King of the Han state, Liu Yuan, attacked Jin's Duke of Dongying, Sima Teng. Sima Teng asked for reinforcements from the Xianbei warlord Tuoba Yituo, and Tuoba Yituo's (ethnic Han) advisor Wei Cao urged him to help Sima Teng. So Tuoba Yituo sent several thousand light cavalry to aid Sima Teng, and they beheaded the Han general Qiwu Tun. Jin issued an edict appointing Tuoba Yituo as Grand Chanyu and as General Who Manages The Left.

On the day Jiashen, Tuoba Yituo passed away. His son Tuoba Pugen succeeded him.

〈綦毋,複姓。《北狄傳》:匈奴國人有綦毋氏、勒氏,皆勇健,好反叛。《考異》曰:《後魏書‧桓帝紀》及《劉淵傳》,皆云「淵南走蒲子」。按《晉‧載記》,淵無走蒲子事,下云「自離石遷黎亭」,蓋《後魏書》夸誕妄言耳。〉

(綦毋 Qiwu was a compound surname. The Records of the Northern Di Tribes states, "Among the people of the Xiongnu state are the Qiwu and Le clans; they are bold and strong, and they love to rebel."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huan in the Book of Northern Wei and the Biography of Liu Yuan in that book both state, 'Liu Yuan fled south to Puzi.' But according to the Biography of Liu Yuan in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, there is no such business of Liu Yuan fleeing to Puzi; rather, it later states, 'He moved from Lishi to Liting.' This is just another of the Book of Northern Wei's ridiculous exaggerations.")


Wei Cao came to join Tuoba Yituo a decade earlier, as mentioned in Book 82, 295.4.

東海中尉劉洽以張方劫遷車駕,勸司空越起兵討之。秋,七月,越傳檄山東征、鎭、州、郡云:「欲糾帥義旅,奉迎天子,還復舊都。」東平王楙聞之,懼;長史王脩說楙曰:「東海,宗室重望;今興義兵,公宜舉徐州以授之,則免於難,且有克讓之美矣。」楙從之。越乃以司空領徐州都督,楙自爲兗州刺史;詔卽遣使者劉虔授之。是時,越兄弟並據方任,於是范陽王虓及王浚等共推越爲盟主,越輒選置刺史以下,朝士多赴之。

6. Seeing as Zhang Fang had coerced Emperor Hui into moving the capital to Chang'an, Sima Yue's Staff Commandant Liu Qia urged him to raise troops to campaign against Zhang Fang.

In autumn, the seventh month, Sima Yue sent out proclamations throughout the east of the mountains, calling on all the Inspectors, Administrators, and Generals Who Conquer or Who Guard. This was his message: "I wish to assemble an army for a righteous crusade, to rescue and welcome the Son of Heaven and restore him to the former capital."

When the Prince of Dongping, Sima Mao, heard about the proclamation, he was afraid. His Chief Clerk, Wang Xiu, urged him, "The Prince of Donghai (Sima Yue) is the great hope of the imperial clan. Now he is rising up with soldiers for this righteous cause. Your Highness should raise the soldiers of Xuzhou and assist him. Not only would you thus be able to avoid danger, but you may also claim a measure of the glory of victory." Sima Mao followed his advice. Sima Yue appointed himself as acting Commander of Xuzhou, and Sima Mao appointed himself as Inspector of Yanzhou. An edict was also issued and brought by Liu Qian to assist them.

At this time, Sima Yue and his brothers all held strategic posts, so the Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao, Wang Jun, and the other major commanders east of the mountains acclaimed Sima Yue as their alliance leader. Sima Yue selected his own people to fill all posts from Inspectors on down, and most of the court ministers and gentry flocked to his banner.

〈晉諸王國有郎中令、中尉、大農爲三卿。張方劫遷車駕事見上卷上年。〉〈舊都,謂洛陽。〉〈楙督徐州,始八十四卷永寧元年。去年,范陽王虓以苟晞行兗州,晞留許昌,未及至州,而楙自領之。〉〈越弟略都督青州,模都督冀州。〉〈朝士赴越者,不從帝在長安者也。〉

(The princely fiefs of Jin all had Staff Prefects, Staff Commandants, and Ministers of Finance; these were known as their Three Ministers.

Zhang Fang had forced Emperor Hui to move to Chang'an, as mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.32).

The "former capital" was Luoyang, which Emperor Hui had recently left.

Sima Mao had been appointed as Commander of Xuzhou earlier, as mentioned in Book 84, in the first year of Yongning (301.37). The year before this one (304.13), Sima Xiao had appointed Gou Xi as the Inspector of Yanzhou, but Gou Xi was still in Xuchang and had not yet gone to his province, so Sima Mao appointed himself to fill the role instead.

Sima Yue's younger brother Sima Lue was the Commander of Qingzhou, and his younger brother Sima Mo was the Commander of Jizhou.

The court ministers and gentry mentioned here as flocking to Sima Yue's banner were those who had not followed Emperor Hui to Chang'an.)


成都王穎旣廢,河北人多憐之。穎故將公師藩等自稱將軍,起兵於趙、魏,衆至數萬。初,上黨武鄕羯人石勒,有膽力,善騎射。幷州大饑,建威將軍閻粹說東嬴公騰執諸胡於山東,賣充軍實。勒亦被掠,賣爲茌平人師懽奴,懽奇其狀貌而免之。懽家鄰於馬牧,勒乃與牧帥汲桑結壯士爲羣盜。及公師藩起,桑與勒帥數百騎赴之。桑始命勒以石爲姓,勒爲名。藩攻陷郡縣,殺二千石、長吏,轉前,攻鄴。平昌公模甚懼;范陽王虓遣其將苟晞救鄴,與廣平太守譙國丁紹共擊藩,走之。

7. Following his loss of power, the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, had been stripped of his position as Crown Younger Brother. But the people of Hebei still sympathized with him. Sima Ying's former commanders, Gongshi Fan and others, now declared themselves Generals on their own authority, and they raised soldiers in the Zhao and Wei regions, until they had gathered an army of tens of thousands.

Before this time, there lived a certain fellow named Shi Le, a native of the Jie people living in Wuxiang in Shangdang commandary. This Shi Le had exceptional courage and boldness, and he was skilled at mounted archery. During a time of great famine in Bingzhou, the General Who Establishes Might, Yan Cui, had urged Sima Teng to round up the various tribal peoples living east of the mountains and sell them as slaves to sustain the army. Shi Le had also been caught up in this, and he was sold as a slave to a man from Chiping County, Shi Huan. This Shi Huan had been greatly impressed by Shi Le's appearance and bearing, and he had freed him from bondage. Shi Huan's family lived among horse shepherds, and Shi Le became friends with one such shepherd, Ji Sang. They recruited several fighting men and became a group of bandits.

When Gongshi Fan rose up, Ji Sang and Shi Le led several hundred riders to come join his forces. It was at this time that Ji Sang first gave Shi Le the surname Shi and the given name Le.

Gongshi Fan attacked the local commandaries and counties, and killed the officials of Two Thousand 石 salary rank and the Chief Clerks. He then pressed on to attack Ye. The Duke of Pingchang, Sima Mo, was greatly afraid. Sima Xiao sent his general Gou Xi to reinforce Ye; Gou Xi joined with the Administrator of Guangping, Ding Shao of the Qiao princely fief, and together they attacked Gongshi Fan and drove him off.

〈穎廢見上卷上年。〉〈穎鎭鄴,初有時譽;後雖以驕侈致禍,河北之人厭亂而思舊,故多憐之。〉〈武鄕縣,晉置,屬上黨郡;後石勒分置武鄕郡。劉昫曰:唐潞州武鄕縣,漢河東之垣縣也。唐遼州榆社縣,分晉武鄕縣置。《載記》曰:勒,匈奴別部羌渠之冑。又《匈奴傳》曰:北狄入居塞內者,有十九種,羯其一也。〉〈茌平縣,前漢屬東郡,後漢屬濟北國,晉屬平原國。應劭曰:在茌山之平地者也。意其地當在唐齊州、博州界。劉昫曰:茌平縣併入唐博州聊城縣。師古曰:茌,音仕疑翻。〉〈石勒始此。〉〈漢武帝置平干國,宣帝改爲廣平國;後漢光武省屬鉅鹿郡;魏文帝黃初二年復置廣平郡;唐爲洛州之地。〉

(Sima Ying's removal as Crown Younger Brother is mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.35).

Sima Ying had originally been posted at Ye, and this was where he first gained a good reputation. Although he later became arrogant and met with misfortune, the people of Hebei were disgusted by the turmoil and felt nostalgia for his rule, and this was why many sympathized with him.

Wuxiang County had been created by Jin, as part of Shangdang commandary. Later, Shi Le himself would split it off as Wuxiang commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "The Wuxiang County in Tang's Luozhou was Han's Zhiyuan County in Hedong commandary. The Wuxiang County in Tang's Luzhou was what Jin split off as their Wuxiang County."

The Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Shi Le was a descendant of the Xiongnu commander Jiangqu." And the Accounts of the Xiongnu in the Book of Jin states, "Among the Northern Di tribes who settled within the borders of the realm were nineteen tribes; the Jie were one of these."

During Former Han, Chiping County was part of Dong commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Jibei princely fief. During Jin, it was part of the Pingyuan princely fief. Ying Shao remarked, "It was at the plains around Mount Chi. The place was within the territory of Tang's Qizhou and Bozhou. Liu Xu remarked, "Chiping County was folded into the Liucheng County in Tang's Bozhou." Yan Shigu remarked, "茌 is pronounced 'shi (sh-i)'."

This began the rise of Shi Le.

Emperor Wu of Han had created the princely fief of Pinggan, and Emperor Xuan had changed its name to the Guangping fief. Emperor Guangwu of Later Han had folded it back into Julu commandary. In Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei's (Cao Pi's) second year of Huangchu (221), he once again created Guangping commandary. During Tang, it became the region of Luozhou.)


八月,辛丑,大赦。

8. In the eighth month, on the day Xinchou (?), a general amnesty was declared.

司空越以琅邪王睿爲平東將軍,監徐州諸軍事,留守下邳。睿請王導爲司馬,委以軍事。越帥甲士三萬,西屯蕭縣;范陽王虓自許屯于滎陽。越承制以豫州刺史劉喬爲冀州刺史,以范陽王虓領豫州刺史;喬以虓非天子命,發兵拒之。虓以劉琨爲司馬,越以劉蕃爲淮北護軍,劉輿爲潁川太守。喬上尚書,列輿兄弟罪惡,因引兵攻許,遣長子祐將兵拒越於蕭縣之靈壁,越兵不能進。東平王楙在兗州,徵求不已,郡縣不堪命。范陽王虓遣苟晞還兗州,徙楙都督青州。楙不受命,背山東諸侯,與劉喬合。

9. Sima Yue appointed the Prince of Langye, Sima Rui, as General Who Pacifies The East and Chief of military affairs in Xuzhou, and left him to guard Xiapi. Sima Rui asked Wang Dao to serve as his Marshal, to advise him on military affairs.

Sima Yue led thirty thousand armored soldiers west to camp at Xiao County. Sima Xiao marched from Xuchang to camp at Xingyang. Under his own authority, Sima Yue appointed the Inspector of Yuzhou, Liu Qiao, as the Inspector of Jizhou, and he appointed Sima Xiao as the new acting Inspector of Yuzhou. But as Liu Qiao felt that Sima Xiao was acting contrary to the Son of Heaven's commands, he raised his soldiers to oppose him.

Sima Xiao appointed Liu Kun as his Marshal, and Sima Yue appointed Liu Fan as the Army Protector of Huaibei and Liu Yu as Administrator of Yingchuan. Liu Qiao sent up a letter to the court, stating that as Liu Yu and Liu Kun had committed great crimes and offenses, he would be leading his soldiers to attack Xuchang. Liu Qiao sent his eldest son Liu You to lead soldiers to block Sima Yue at the Ling Rampart in Xiao County, so Sima Yue's soldiers were unable to advance further.

At this time, Sima Mao was in Yanzhou, and though he had sent out incessant summons and requests, the commandaries and counties of Yanzhou were not inclined to obey him. So Sima Xiao order Gou Xi to go back to Yanzhou, and relocated Sima Mao to a new post as Commander of Qinzhou. But Sima Mao was not willing to accept such an order either, so he defected from Sima Yue's coalition and allied himself with Liu Qiao instead.

〈《考異》曰:《導傳》曰:「元帝鎭下邳,請導爲安東司馬。」按元帝時爲平東,及徙揚州,乃爲安東耳。或者「平」字誤爲「安」,或後爲安東司馬,故但云司馬。〉〈蕭縣,自漢以來屬沛郡,唐屬徐州。〉〈許,卽許昌。〉〈輿、琨,蕃之子也。〉〈豫州刺史時治項。〉〈虓用苟晞爲兗州刺史,見上卷上年。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Wang Dao in the Book of Jin states, 'During the time that Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) was stationed at Xiapi as General Who Maintains The East, he asked Wang Dao to serve under him as Marshal.' Now while Emperor Yuan was in Xuzhou, he was General Who Pacifies The East; it was only when he was moved to Yangzhou that he became General Who Maintains The East. Perhaps the word 'Maintains' in this passage of Wang Dao's biography was meant to be 'Pacifies', or perhaps he only became Marshal in that capacity later on when Emperor Yuan really did hold the title General Who Maintains The East. Regardless, I have listed his title in this passage merely as Marshal."

Ever since Han, Xiao County had been part of Pei commandary. During Tang, it was part of Xuzhou.

This passage mentions Sima Xiao was at "Xu"; it means Xuchang.

Liu Yu and Liu Kun were the sons of Liu Fan.

At this time, the Inspector of Yuzhou governed from Xiang.

Sima Xiao had originally appointed Gou Xi as Inspector of Yanzhou, as mentioned in Book 85 in the first year of Yongxing (304.13), and this is why this passage says that Sima Xiao ordered him to "go back to Yanzhou".)


太宰顒聞山東兵起,甚懼。以公師藩爲成都王穎起兵,壬午,表穎鎭軍大將軍、都督河北諸軍事,給兵千人;以盧志爲魏郡太守,隨穎鎭鄴,欲以撫安之。又遣建武將軍呂朗屯洛陽。

10. When Sima Yong heard that the soldiers east of the mountains had risen up against him, he was greatly afraid. Seeing as Gongshi Fan had risen up on Sima Ying's behalf, and Sima Yong still had Sima Ying close at hand, he resolved to use him. On the day Renwu (September 27th), he petitioned to appointed Sima Ying as Grand General Who Guards The Army and Commander of military affairs in Hebei, and granted him a thousand soldiers. He also appointed Sima Ying's advisor Lu Zhi as Administrator of Wei commandary. Sima Yong sent Sima Ying off to garrison Ye, hoping to thereby settle the people there. He also sent the General Who Establishes Valor, Lü Lang, to camp at Luoyang.

顒發詔,令東海王越等各就國,越等不從。會得劉喬上事,冬,十月,丙子,下詔稱:「劉輿迫脅范陽王虓,造搆凶逆。其令鎭南大將軍劉弘、平南將軍彭城王釋、征東大將軍劉準,各勒所統,與劉喬幷力;以張方爲大都督,統精卒十萬,與呂朗共會許昌,誅輿兄弟。」釋,宣帝弟子穆王權之孫也。丁丑,顒使成都王穎領將軍劉褒等,前車騎將軍石超領北中郎將王闡等據河穚,爲劉喬繼援;進喬鎭東將軍,假節。

11. Sima Yong sent out an edict, ordering Sima Yue and his allies to each return to their respective fiefs, but Sima Yue and the others refused to obey. News soon arrived of Liu Qiao's efforts as well.

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Bingzi (November 20th), an edict was issued stating, "Liu Yu has compelled and beguiled the Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao; he has acted treacherously, violent and disobedient. We hereby order the Grand General Who Guards The South, Liu Hong, the General Who Pacifies The South and Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Shi, and the Grand General Who Conquers The East, Liu Zhun, to each assemble their soldiers and join forces with Liu Qiao. Zhang Fang is hereby appointed as Grand Commander and ordered to lead an army of one hundred thousand elite soldiers to rendezvous with Lü Lang at Xuchang and punish Liu Yu and his brother." This Sima Shi was the grandson of the late Prince Mu ("the Solemn"), Sima Yi's nephew Sima Quan.

On the day Dingchou (November 21st), Sima Yong ordered Sima Ying to lead the generals Liu Bao (or, Lou Bao) and others, and ordered the former General of Chariots and Cavalry, Shi Chao, to lead the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Wang Chan, and others to occupy Heqiao, in order to act as reserves for Liu Qiao's forces. Liu Qiao was promoted to General Who Guards The East and Credential Holder.

〈上事者,言東海王越等起兵及喬攻許拒越之事。〉〈劉弘都督荊州。〉〈彭城王釋蓋代羊伊屯宛。〉〈劉準都督揚州。〉〈權,宣帝弟東武城侯馗之子。《考異》曰:《劉喬傳》「釋」作「繹」。《帝紀》、《宗室傳》皆作「釋」,蓋《喬傳》誤。《帝紀》:「八月,車騎大將軍劉弘逐平南將軍彭城王釋于宛。」《弘》、《釋傳》及衆書皆無之。《弘傳》但云彭城前東奔有不善之言。按弘,晉室純臣,劉喬與范陽搆難,弘猶以書和解之,以安天下,尊王室。釋受王命鎭宛,而弘肯更自逐之乎!據此詔,令弘、釋共討劉輿,疑無弘逐釋事。《帝紀》必誤。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「劉」作「樓」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉

("Liu Qiao's efforts" refers to the events mentioned above, where Sima Yue and his allies rose up and Liu Qiao moved to block their advance.

At this time, Liu Hong was Commander of Jingzhou, Sima Shi had replaced Yang Yi and was camped at Wan, and Liu Zhun was Commander of Yangzhou.

Sima Quan was the son of the Marquis of Dongwu, Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Kui.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Liu Qiao in the Book of Jin records this Sima 釋 Shi as Sima 繹 Yi. But the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin and the Biographies of the Imperial Clan in the Book of Jin both have it as 釋 Shi. The Biography of Liu Qiao must be mistaken.

"The Annals of Emperor Hui also states, 'In the eighth month, the Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Liu Hong, drove the General Who Pacifies The South and Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Shi, out of Wan." But the Biography of Liu Hong in the Book of Jin and the Biography of Sima Shi in the Book of Jin, as well as many other texts, make no mention of such a thing. The Biography of Liu Hong merely records someone as saying to Liu Hong, 'When the Prince of Pengcheng fled to the east before, you spoke ill of him.' Now Liu Hong was a pure servant of the Jin royal clan; even when Liu Qiao and Sima Xiao came to blows, Liu Hong still wrote to them trying to arrange peace between them, in order to safeguard the realm and honor the royal clan. Sima Shi had accepted an imperial order to garrison Wan, so how could Liu Hong have possibly driven him out of there? Furthermore, the edict quoted in the above passage ordered Liu Hong and Sima Shi to work together to campaign against Liu Yu. I suspect that there was no such business as 'Liu Hong drove Sima Shi out of Wan'. The Annals of Emperor Hui must be mistaken about it."

Some versions record the surname of the general Sima Ying was accompanying in this passage as Lou instead of Liu (and it is likely meant to be Lou, because a Lou Bao is mentioned below, at 306.4).)


劉弘遺喬及司空越書,欲使之解怨釋兵,同獎王室,皆不聽。弘又上表曰:「自頃兵戈紛亂,猜禍鋒生,疑隙搆於羣王,災難延于宗子。今日爲忠,明日爲逆,翩其反而,互爲戎首。載籍以來,骨肉之禍未有如今者也,臣竊悲之!今邊陲無備豫之儲,中華有杼軸之困,而股肱之臣,不惟國體,職競尋常,自相楚剝。萬一四夷乘虛爲變,此亦猛虎交鬬自效於卞莊者矣。臣以爲宜速發明詔詔越等,令兩釋猜嫌,各保分局。自今以後,其有不被詔書,擅興兵馬者,天下共伐之。」時太宰顒方拒關東,倚喬爲助,不納其言。

12. Liu Hong wrote a letter to Liu Qiao and to Sima Yue, wishing to have them let go of their anger and disband their soldiers for the mutual protection of the imperial clan. But neither of them would listen.

So Liu Hong sent up another petition, this time to the court, stating, "Ever since this chaotic clash of arms has broken out, suspicions have led to disaster and fighting has sprung up all around. The enmity and strife between the Princes has extended this calamity through the whole of the imperial clan. Today's loyalist becomes tomorrow's traitor, and positions change so rapidly that every side becomes responsible for a new round of fighting. Nowhere in the history books do we see any such mutual cleaving of the flesh from the bones as we see today, and foolish though I am, how can I not feel sorrow?

"The frontiers of the realm no longer have any defenses prepared, and all the Middle Kingdom is experiencing 'the bitterness of the empty loom'. The chief ministers of state care nothing for the fate of the realm, for their only concerns are how they might gain 'a few feet of territory', and so we are all painfully flaying one another. If the barbarians should take advantage of our weakness to rise against us, we shall end up like those tigers who, in attempting to overcome each other, both fell to Bian Zhuang in the end.

"I believe that a wise edict should be sent out to Sima Yue and the others, ordering both sides to put aside their suspicions and their grudges and for each of them to return to protect their proper posts. And from now on, anyone who dares to assemble men and horses without imperial authorization shall have the whole realm march against them."

But at this time, Sima Yong was securely holding Guanzhong and was relying on Liu Qiao's assistance, and he would not accept Liu Hong's words.

〈言是非反覆之易,冏、乂、穎、顒之事誠如此。〉〈言迭爲興戎之首也。〉〈《詩》曰:小東大東,杼軸其空。杼,持緯器。「軸」,亦作「柚」;皆織具也。〉〈惟,思也。職,主也。競,爭也。八尺曰尋,倍尋曰常。言所爭者尋丈之間,不足爲長短也。《左傳》曰:爭尋常以盡其民。〉〈楚,痛也。〉〈劉、石之禍,劉弘蓋知之矣。〉

(Liu Hong speaks of "positions changing rapidly"; it had been thus for Sima Jiong, Sima Ai, Sima Ying, and Sima Yong.

By "those responsible", he means those who were chiefly responsible for repeatedly raising soldiers for war.

The Book of Poetry has the verse, "In the States of the east, large and small, the looms are empty." Both this verse and Liu Hong's reference to it use the term 杼軸. A 杼 is a device for gathering thread. A 軸, also written as 柚, is also a tool for weaving.

The line "they care nothing for the fate of the realm, for their only concerns are how they might gain 'a few feet of territory'" is originally written as 不惟國體,職競尋常. In this instance, 惟 means "to consider"; 職 means "chief" or "main"; 競 means "contend" or "struggle for". 尋 and 常 are here units of length measurement: eight 尺 makes a 尋, and ten 尋 makes a 常. Liu Hong's point was that all the fighting was over a mere few feet of ground, not worth such a struggle. He quotes the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, which contains the sentence, "For a few feet (尋常) of territory, they will destroy their people. (Cheng 12.3)."

In the sense that Liu Hong uses 楚 in this petition, it means "pain".

Liu Hong knew well the dangers posed by Liu Yuan and Shi Le.)


喬乘虛襲許,破之。劉琨將兵救許,不及,遂與兄輿及范陽王虓俱奔河北;琨父母爲喬所執。劉弘以張方殘暴,知顒必敗,乃遣參軍劉盤爲都護,帥諸軍受司空越節度。

13. Liu Qiao took advantage of the lack of defenses left at Xuchang to attack it, and he broke into the city. Liu Kun was leading soldiers to rescue Xuchang from this attack, but he did not arrive in time. So he, Liu Yu, and Sima Xiao all fled to Hebei. Liu Kun's parents were captured by Liu Qiao.

Liu Hong felt that since Zhang Fang was so wicked and cruel, Sima Yong was sure to lose the war in the end, so he appointed his Army Advisor Liu Pan as his Chief Protector and he led several armies to accept commissions from Sima Yue.

〈盡護行營諸將爲都護,督護則止督一軍耳。〉

(One who protects all of the army camps is called a Chief Protector; a mere Protector was therefore only in charge of a single army.)


時天下大亂,弘專督江、漢,威行南服。謀事有成者,則曰「某人之功」,如有負敗,則曰「老子之罪」。每有興發,手書守相,丁寧款密。所以人皆感悅,爭赴之,咸曰:「得劉公一紙書,賢於十部從事。」前廣漢太守辛冉說弘以從橫之事,弘怒,斬之。

14. At this time, the realm was in great disorder. Liu Hong held full authority over the regions around the Yangzi and the Han River, and his might spread throughout the South. Whenever he undertook affairs, if they turned out well, he would say, "This is someone's good deed". But if the thing failed, then he would say, "This was my own fault." Whenever he had to make a movement of soldiers, he would personally write letters to the Administrators and Chancellors of the commandaries and princely fiefs, warning them with kind and intimate words. So everyone was very pleased with Liu Hong, and people rushed to be first to come join him. They all said, "Anyone who receives a letter from Lord Liu is worthy enough to be ten Regional Attendant Officers."

The former Administrator of Guanghan, Xin Mao, urged Liu Hong towards presumptuous actions. Liu Hong, enraged, beheaded Xin Mao.

〈南服,南方也;謂之服者,責以服事天子爲職。〉〈興發,謂興師動衆,調發財賦。〉〈州有部從事,部管內諸郡。〉〈益州之破,辛冉去羅尚從劉弘,冉以事尚者事弘,猶將不免於誅,況以從橫說之邪!史言劉弘忠純。〉

(The term 南服 here means the South; it uses the character 服 to mean that the people of the South obeyed him, because Liu Hong conducted himself in obedience to the Son of Heaven.

興發 here means the raising and moving of a body of soldiers, or else the imposing of a tax.

The provinces had Regional Attendant Officers, who oversaw the various commandaries within that province.

After the fall of Yizhou to Li Xiong and the other former refugees, Xin Mao had abandoned Luo Shang and come to Liu Hong. Xin Mao had done such a thing to Luo Shang by leaving him for Liu Hong, and yet he still nearly escaped being executed; how could he then go so far as to advise Liu Hong to do presumptuous things?

The purpose of this passage is to demonstrate Liu Hong's loyalty and purity.)


有星孛于北斗。

15. There were shooting stars in the Northern Dipper constellation of the night sky.

平昌公模遣將軍宋冑趣河橋。

16. Sima Mo sent his general Song Zhou to march against Heqiao.

〈模自鄴遣冑進兵。〉

(Sima Mo sent Song Zhou and his soldiers from Ye.)


十一月,立節將軍周權,詐被檄,自稱平西將軍,復立羊后。洛陽令何喬攻權,殺之,復廢羊后。太宰顒矯詔,以羊后屢爲姦人所立,遣尚書田淑敕留臺賜后死。詔書屢至,司隸校尉劉暾等上奏,固執以爲:「羊庶人門戶殘破,廢放空宮,門禁峻密,無緣得與姦人搆亂;衆無愚智,皆謂其冤。今殺一枯窮之人,而令天下傷慘,何益於治!」顒怒,遣呂朗收暾;暾奔青州,依高密王略。然羊后亦以是得免。

17. In the eleventh month, the General Who Raises Fortitude, Zhou Quan, forged a proclamation. Using its authority, he declared himself General Who Pacifies The West, and restored Yang Xianrong to her position as Empress. But the Prefect of Luoyang, He Qiao, attacked Zhou Quan and killed him, and once again deposed Yang Xianrong.

Sima Yong forged an edict, stating that as villains had constantly tried to restore Yang Xianrong to her former position as Empress, Emperor Hui was now ordering the Master of Writing, Tian Shu, to make the Separate Terrace administration in Luoyang bestow death upon her.

This edict letter was sent to Luoyang several times, but the Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Tun, and others sent up a petition protesting it, stating, "The household of the commoner Yang Xianrong is broken up and scattered, and she has been deposed from an empty palace. Her gates are under strict watch, and she has no opportunity to plot with villains to cause mischief. Everyone, wise or foolish, attests to her innocence. If you now insist upon killing so pathetic a person as her, you will inflict a great harm upon the realm; of what benefit would that be?"

Sima Yong was furious at this response, and he ordered Lü Lang to arrest Liu Tun. But Liu Tun fled to Qingzhou, and took refuge under the Prince of Gaomi, Sima Lue. And Yang Xianrong was also able to avoid her death sentence.

〈詐,言被司空越檄也。〉〈時荀藩、劉暾、周馥居留臺。〉〈《考異》曰:《暾傳》云:「顒遣陳顏、呂朗帥騎五千收暾。」按暾匹夫,安用五千騎!蓋朗時在洛,顒敕使收暾耳。說者欲大其事,故云爾。〉

(Zhou Quan forged a proclamation that was supposedly from Sima Yue.

At this time, Gou Fan, Liu Tun, and Zhou Fu were in Luoyang as part of the Separate Terrace administration there.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Liu Tun in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yong ordered Chen Yan and Lü Lang to lead five thousand riders to arrest Liu Tun.' Now Liu Tun was just some ordinary fellow; why would they need five thousand riders to get at him? Besides, Lü Lang was already in Luoyang at the time, so Sima Yong must have simply ordered Lü Lang to arrest Liu Tun. I say this in order to convey the general idea, and so I have chosen the words that I did.")


十二月,呂朗等東屯滎陽,成都王穎進據洛陽。

18. In the twelfth month, Lü Lang and other Sima Yong commanders marched east to camp at Xingyang. Sima Ying moved forward to occupy Luoyang.

劉琨說冀州刺史太原溫羨,使讓位於范陽王虓。虓領冀州,遣琨詣幽州乞師於王浚;浚以突騎資之,擊王闡於河上,殺之。琨遂與虓引兵濟河,斬石超於滎陽。劉喬自考城引退。虓遣琨及督護田徽東擊東平王楙於廩丘,楙走還國。琨、徽引兵東迎越,擊劉祐於譙;祐敗死,喬衆遂潰,喬奔平氏。司空越進屯陽武,王浚遣其將祁弘帥突騎鮮卑、烏桓爲越先驅。

19. Liu Kun persuaded the Inspector of Jizhou, Wen Xian of Taiyuan, to resign his post in favor of Sima Xiao. With Sima Xiao now assuming command over Jizhou, he sent Liu Kun to Youzhou to ask for military assistance from Wang Jun. Wang Jun granted them some "charging cavalry", and they attacked Wang Chan at Heshang and killed him.

Liu Kun then joined with Sima Xiao to lead their soldiers across the Yellow River, and they killed Shi Chao at Xingyang. Liu Qiao fell back from Kaocheng.

Sima Xiao sent Liu Kun and the Protector Tian Hui east to attack Sima Mao at Linqiu, and Sima Mao retreated back to his fief at Dongping.

Liu Kun and Tian Hui then continued west to link up with Sima Yue, and they attacked Liu You at Qiao; Liu You was defeated and killed. Liu Qiao's army all scattered, and Liu Qiao himself fled to Pingshi. Sima Yue advanced to camp at Yangwu, and Wang Jun sent his general Qi Hong to bring Xianbei and Wuhuan charging cavalry riders to serve as Sima Yue's vanguard.

〈魏收曰:袁紹、曹操爲冀州,治鄴;魏、晉治信都。杜佑曰:治房子。〉〈突騎,天下精兵。燕人致梟騎,助漢高祖以破項羽。光武得漁陽、上谷突騎以平河北。《考異》曰:《琨傳》曰:「得突騎八百人。」按《劉喬傳》云:「琨率突騎五千濟河攻喬。」疑八百太少,或因下文迎東海王之數,致有此誤。今闕疑。〉〈考城縣屬陳留郡,前漢梁國之菑縣也,章帝更名;晉省。後魏置考陽縣及北梁郡;北齊郡縣並廢,爲城安縣;隋改曰考城縣,屬梁郡;至唐,屬曹州。〉〈廩丘縣,前漢屬濟陰,晉屬濮陽郡,爲兗州刺史治所。賢曰:廩丘故城在今濮州雷澤縣北。〉〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》云:「喬奔南陽。」按《地理地》:南陽無平氏縣。武帝分南陽置義陽郡,有西平氏縣。或者南陽有東平氏而非縣與!今按《前漢書‧地理志》,平氏縣屬南陽郡。《晉書‧地理志》,平氏縣屬義陽郡。平氏之上有厥西縣。沈約《宋書‧地理志》:南義陽太守領厥西、平氏二縣。且曰:厥西令,二漢無;《晉太康地志》屬義陽。以此證之,蓋後人傳寫《晉書》者,誤以厥西之「西」字聯平氏而書之。其實晉義陽之平氏,卽漢南陽之平氏也。《帝紀》所謂「喬奔南陽」,以漢古郡大界書之也。劉昫曰:唐申州義陽縣,漢南陽郡平氏縣之義陽鄕與唐州之桐柏、平氏二縣,皆漢南陽平氏縣地。〉〈陽武縣,漢屬河南郡,晉屬滎陽郡,唐屬鄭州。〉

(Wei Shou remarked, "During the time that Yuan Shao and Cao Cao controlled Ji, it was governed from Ye. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was governed from Xindu." Du You remarked, "It was governed from Fangzi."

The "charging cavalry" were elite soldiers of the realm. The men of the Yan region had once sent valiant cavalry to assist Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) to defeat Xiang Yu. And Emperor Guangwu used the charging cavalry of Yuyang and Shanggu to conquer Hebei. Regarding their use in this passage, Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Liu Kun in the Book of Jin states, 'He thus obtained eight hundred charging cavalry.' But according to the Biography of Liu Qiao in the Book of Jin, 'Liu Kun led five thousand charging cavalry across the Yellow River to attack Liu Qiao.' So I suspect that the eight hundred listed was too few. Perhaps he later received the rest of them from among Sima Yue's forces, which would make up the balance. But I remain uncertain."

Kaocheng County was part of Chenliu commandary. During Former Han, it was the Zhizai County that was part of the Liang princely fief; Emperor Zhang changed its name. Jin abolished it. Northern Wei later created Kaoyang County and Beiliang commandary. Beiliang commandary and its counties were then consolidated, becoming Cheng'an County. Sui renamed it to Kaocheng County, as part of Liang commandary. By the time of Tang, it was part of Caozhou.

During Former Han, Linqiu County was part of Jiyin commandary. During Jin, it was part of Puyang commandary, and was governed by the Inspector of Yanzhou. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Linqiu County was in the north of Leize County in modern Puzhou."

Sima Guang's commentary further states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui states, 'Liu Qiao fled to Nanyang.' Now the Geographical Records of the Book of Jin does not list a Pingshi County in Nanyang commandary. Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) split off part of Nanyang to form Yiyang commandary, which did contain a Western Pingshi County. It may be that Nanyang commandary had a corresponding Eastern Pingshi County, or it may be that there was no such county! If we consult the Geographical Records of the Book of Former Han, it lists a Pingshi County in Nanyang commandary. But the Geographical Records in the Book of Jin lists Pingshi County in Yiyang commandary. Above Pingshi County, there was a Juexi County. The Geographical Records in Shen Yue's Book of Liu-Song states, "The Administrator of Southern Yiyang commandary governed Juexi and Pingshi Counties." It further states, "The Prefect of Juexi County was not a position during Former or Later Han." The Geographical Records of the Taikang Era of Jin lists Juexi as part of Yiyang commandary. With all these things in mind, it must be that when the Book of Jin was later compiled and written, the authors must have mistaken the 西 Xi in 厥西 Juexi for the 西 ‘Western’ that might have been paired to 西平氏 Western Pingshi, and so they wrote it. This is really the Pingshi County of Jin's Yiyang commandary, and thus the Pingshi County of Han's Nanyang commandary. So when the Annals of Emperor Hui states 'Liu Qiao fled to Nanyang', the authors have put it in the territory of the old Han commandary of that name." Liu Xu remarked, "The Yiyang Village in the Yiyang County in Tang's Shenzhou, and the two counties of Tongbai and Pingshi in Tang's Tangzhou, were all the territory of the old Pingshi County of Han's Nanyang commandary."

During Han, Yangwu County was part of Henan commandary. During Jin, it was part of Xingyang commandary. During Tang, it was part of Zhengzhou.)


初,陳敏旣克石冰,自謂勇略無敵,有割據江東之志。其父怒曰:「滅我門者,必此兒也!」遂以憂卒。敏以喪去職。司空越起敏爲右將軍、前鋒都督。越爲劉祐所敗,敏請東歸收兵,遂據歷陽叛。吳王常侍甘卓,棄官東歸,至歷陽,敏爲子景娶卓女,使卓假稱皇太弟令,拜敏揚州刺史。敏使弟恢及別將錢端等南略江州,弟斌東略諸郡,揚州刺史劉機、丹楊太守王曠皆棄城走。

20. It was earlier mentioned that Chen Min had been one of the loyalist Jin commanders who had defeated Zhang Chang's fellow rebel Shi Bing. Ever since Chen Min had defeated Shi Bing, he had considered himself a bold and calculating man without any peer, and he harbored ambitions of taking the Southland for himself. His father, angry about such things, said, "This boy shall be the ruin of our family!" He became so anxious that he passed away. Chen Min resigned his office to mourn for his father.

Sima Yue had Chen Min reappointed as General of the Left and Commander of the Vanguard. After Sima Yue defeated Liu You, Chen Min asked leave to go back east to gather up more soldiers. But having gone there, he occupied Liyang and rebelled.

The Regular Attendant to the Prince of Wu, Gan Zhuo, abandoned his office and returned east as well. When he arrived at Liyang, Chen Min married his son Chen Jing to Gan Zhuo's daughter, and taking advantage of Gan Zhuo's supposed authority as Prefect to the Crown Younger Brother, he had Gan Zhuo appoint him as Inspector of Yangzhou.

Chen Min sent his younger brother Chen Hui and his subordinate generals, Qian Duan and others, south to invade Jiangzhou, while he sent his younger brother Chen Bin east to invade the various commandaries of Yangzhou. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Ying Miao, the actual Inspector of Yangzhou, Liu Ji, and the Administrator of Danyang, Wang Kuang, all abandoned their cities and fled.

〈事見上卷太安二年。〉〈歷陽縣,漢屬九江郡,魏改九江曰淮南,晉因之。今和州,卽歷陽縣之地。宋白曰:縣南有歷水,故曰歷陽。〉〈晉諸王國,大國置左、右常侍各一人。《考異》曰:《卓傳》云:「州舉秀才,爲吳王常侍。討石冰,以功賜爵都亭侯。東海王越引爲參軍,出補離狐令。棄官東歸,遇陳敏。」《敏傳》云:「吳王常侍甘卓自洛至。」按卓爲常侍,不應討石冰;爲離狐令,不應自洛至。今從《敏傳》。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「揚」上有「江州刺史應邈」六字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈時揚州刺史蓋與丹楊太守同治秣陵。〉

(Chen Min's victory over Shi Bing is mentioned in Book 85, in the second year of Tai'an (303.28 and 304.8).

During Han, Liyang County was part of Jiujiang commandary. Cao-Wei renamed Jiujiang to Huainan, and so it was during Jin. Modern Hezhou is where Liyang County once was. Song Bai remarked, "The Li River flowed through the south of the county, and thus it was named Liyang (‘north of the Li River’)."

Among the princely fiefs of Jin, the largest fiefs had the two offices of Regular Attendant of the Left and of the Right, each one man.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Gan Zhuo in the Book of Jin states, 'His province nominated him as Abundant Talent, and he was appointed as Regular Attendant to the Prince of Wu. In the campaign against Shi Bing, he was rewarded for his merits with title as Marquis of Douting. Sima Yue employed him as an Army Advisor, and sent him out to fill the vacant post of Prefect of Lihu. But he abandoned that post and returned east, where he encountered Chen Min.' The Biography of Chen Min in the Book of Jin states, 'The Regular Attendant to the Prince of Wu, Gan Zhuo, came from Luoyang.' Now if Gan Zhuo were a Regular Attendant, he could not have participated in the campaign against Shi Bing, while if he were Prefect of Lihu, he could not have arrived from Luoyang. So I follow the account of the Biography of Chen Min."

Some versions add that "the Inspector of Jiangzhou, Ying Miao" also abandoned his city and fled.

At this time, both the Inspector of Yangzhou and the Administrator of Danyang administered their territories from Moling (Jianye).)


敏遂據有江東,以顧榮爲右將軍,賀循爲丹楊內史,周玘爲安豐太守,凡江東豪傑、名士,咸加收禮,爲將軍、郡守者四十餘人;或有老疾,就加秩命。循詐爲狂疾,得免;乃以榮領丹楊內史。玘亦稱疾,不之郡。敏疑諸名士終不爲己用,欲盡誅之。榮說敏曰:「中國喪亂,胡夷內侮,觀今日之勢,不能復振,百姓將無遺種。江南雖經石冰之亂,人物尚全,榮常憂無孫、劉之主有以存之。今將軍神武不世,勳效已著,帶甲數萬,舳艫山積,若能委信君子,使各盡懷,散蔕芥之嫌,塞讒諂之口,則上方數州,可傳檄而定;不然,終不濟也。」敏命僚佐推己爲都督江東諸軍事、大司馬、楚公,加九錫,列上尚書,稱被中詔,自江入沔、漢,奉迎鑾駕。

21. Now that Chen Min had occupied the Southland, he appointed Gu Rong as his General of the Right, He Xun as his Interior Minister of Danyang, and Zhou Qi as his Administrator of Anfeng. He treated all the heroes and famous people of the Southland with courtesy, and appointed more than forty people as Generals or Administrators. Even those who were too old or sick to take such employments were given salaries. He Xun pretended to be insane, and so he got out of the situation; Gu Rong acted as Interior Minister of Danyang in his stead. Zhou Qi also claimed illness, and would not accept his commandary post.

Chen Min thus began to suspect that the famous people would not end up supporting him, so he wanted to kill all of them. Gu Rong advised him, "The Middle Kingdom is in mourning and turmoil, and the barbarians are posing a threat to us. Considering the current situation, unless we can find a way to turn the tide, the common people will soon be no more.

"Now although the Southland has just suffered from Shi Bing's rebellion, its people and its products are both intact. I had long been concerned that we had no leader of the caliber of Sun Quan or Liu Bei. General, you have a martial spirit that goes beyond the age; you have already done great deeds, you have tens of thousands of men in armor, and you have a fleet of ships gathered like a mountain. If you are able to act the part of a superior gentleman by quenching the feelings of everyone, nipping enmity in the bud, and stopping up the mouths of slander, then you may go forth and claim many provinces. Otherwise, you will not succeed."

So Chen Min changed his mind.

Chen Min ordered his subordinates to acclaim him as Commander of military affairs in the Southland, Grand Marshal, and Duke of Chu, and to grant him the Nine Bestowments. He also set up a special imperial secretariat, and he claimed to have received an edict from the imperial palace ordering him to come from the Yangzi to the Mian and Han Rivers, where he would welcome the imperial carriage.

〈安豐縣,後漢屬廬江郡。魏分廬江爲安豐郡,其地爲唐之壽州安豐、霍丘縣。玘,墟里翻。〉〈孫、劉,謂孫權、劉備。〉〈《漢武帝紀》:舳艫千里。《註》云:舳、船後持柂處。艫,船前刺櫂處。又漢律名船方長爲舳艫。此言山積,蓋取漢律之義。〉〈張晏曰:蔕芥,刺鯁也。〉〈上方數州,謂揚州以西荊、江、豫、益等州也。〉〈【章;甲十一行本「也」下有「敏乃止」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(During Later Han, Anfeng County was part of Lujiang commandary. Cao-Wei split it off from Lujiang to become Anfeng commandary. Its territory covered the Anfeng and Huoqiu counties in Tang's Shouzhou.

Zhou Qi's given name 玘 is pronounced "xi (x-i)".

Gu Rong refers to "Sun and Liu"; he means Sun Quan and Liu Bei.

Regarding the term 舳艫, the Annals of Emperor Wu of Han contains the sentence, "The fleet (舳艫) stretched for a thousand li." The Annotations to that text state, "The 舳 stern is the rear point of a ship, and the 艫 bow is the front point of it." And under Han law, the highest point on the ship was called the 舳艫. So this invoking of ships "gathered like a mountain" was meant to invoke that Han law.

Gu Rong's idiom is really "sweep away the 蔕芥s of enmity". Zhang Yan remarked, "蔕芥 are standing thorns."

When Gu Rong speaks of "claiming many provinces", he means by going west out of Yangzhou to gain Jingzhou, Jiangzhou, Yuzhou, Yizhou, and other provinces.

Some versions include the sentence "So Chen Min changed his mind (about killing them)" after Gu Rong's advice to him.)


太宰顒以張光爲順陽太守,帥步騎五千詣荊州討敏。劉弘遣江夏太守陶侃、武陵太守苗光屯夏口,又遣南平太守汝南應詹督水軍以繼之。

22. Sima Yong appointed Zhang Guang as Administrator of Shunyang, and had him lead five thousand horse and foot to Jingzhou to campaign against Chen Min. Liu Hong sent the Administrator of Jiangxia, Tao Kan, and the Administrator of Wuling, Miao Guang, to camp at Xiakou. He also sent the Administrator of Nanping, Ying Zhan of Runan, to lead a naval force as their reserves.

〈順陽縣,前漢曰博山,後漢明帝更名順陽,屬南陽郡;至建安中,割南陽右壤爲南鄕郡;晉太康中,立順陽郡,以南鄕爲縣;唐鄧州之臨湍、菊潭縣,皆順陽郡地。〉

(During Former Han, Shunyang County was called Boshan County. During Later Han, Emperor Ming renamed it to Shunyang, as part of Nanyang commandary. During Han's Jian'an era (196-219), the right portion of Nanyang commandary was carved out as Nanxiang commandary. During Jin's Taikang era (280-289), Shunyang commandary was formed, with Nanxiang becoming a county within it. The Lintuan and Jutan counties in Tang's Dengzhou were both part of where Shunyang commandary was.)


侃與敏同郡,又同歲舉吏。隨郡內史扈懷言於弘曰:「侃居大郡,統強兵,脫有異志,則荊州無東門矣!」弘曰:「侃之忠能,吾得之已久,必無是也。」侃聞之,遣子洪及兄子臻詣弘以自固,弘引爲參軍,資而遣之。曰:「賢叔征行,君祖母年高,便可歸也。匹夫之交,尚不負心,況大丈夫乎!」

23. Now Tao Kan was from the same commandary as Chen Min, and they had both began their official careers in the same year. The Interior Minister of Sui commandary, Hu Huai, said to Liu Hong, "Tao Kan is now stationed at a large commandary, and he has the command of strong soldiers. If he should have any malicious intent, then Jingzhou's eastern gate will be lost!"

Liu Hong replied, "I have already seen ample proof of Tao Kan's loyalty and ability. He cannot be as you say."

When Tao Kan heard about this incident, he sent his son Tao Hong and his nephew Tao Zhen to visit Liu Hong in order to defend himself. Liu Hong sought their advice for army affairs, then gave them gifts and sent them back. He told them, "Your worthy uncle is setting off on his campaign, and your esteemed grandmother is old in years, so you ought to return. Even ordinary people keep faith between one another; how can it be any less between great gentlemen?"

〈侃與敏皆廬江人。〉〈同歲舉赴京師。〉〈隨縣,漢屬南陽郡,春秋之隨國也。晉武帝分南陽立義陽國,後又分義陽立隨郡,隋爲漢東郡,唐爲隋州。〉〈旣引爲參軍,又以貨物資送而遣其歸。〉

(Tao Kan and Chen Min were both natives of Lujiang, and had both gone to the capital in the same year to begin their careers.

During Han, Sui County was part of Nanyang commandary; it was the site of the ancient state of Sui from the Spring and Autumn era. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) split off part of Nanyang to form the princely fief of Yiyang, and later he further split off part of Yiyang to form Sui commandary. During the Sui dynasty, this commandary became Handong commandary, and during Tang it became Suizhou.

Having solicited their advice for army affairs, Liu Hong further gave the young men gifts and then sent them back home.)


敏以陳恢爲荊州刺史,寇武昌,弘加侃前鋒督護以禦之。侃以運船爲戰艦,或以爲不可。侃曰:「用官船擊官賊,何爲不可!」侃與恢戰,屢破之;又與皮初、張光、苗光共破錢端於長岐。

24. Chen Min appointed Chen Hui as his Inspector of Jingzhou, and Chen Hui attacked Wuchang. Liu Hong further appointed Tao Kan as Vanguard Protector and had him oppose Chen Hui.

Tao Kan planned to convert supply ships into warships. Some believed that he was not allowed to do that. Tao Kan told them, "I would be using the government's ships to fight the government's enemies; how can that not be allowed?"

Tao Kan fought Chen Hui, and routed him several times. He also joined with Pi Chu, Zhang Guang, and Miao Guang to rout Qian Duan at Zhangqi.

〈據《張光傳》,長岐之戰,光設伏於步路,苗光爲水軍,藏舟船於沔水,則長岐當在江夏郡界。〉

(According to the Biography of Zhang Guang in the Book of Jin, at the battle of Zhangqi, Zhang Guang prepared an ambush along the footpaths, while Miao Guang led the naval force and hid his ships along the Mian River. So Zhangqi must have been within Jiangxia commandary.)


南陽太守衞展說弘曰:「張光,太宰腹心,公旣與東海,宜斬光以明向背。」弘曰:「宰輔得失,豈張光之罪!危人自安,君子弗爲也。」乃表光殊勳,乞加遷擢。

25. The Administrator of Nanyang, Wei Zhan, warned Liu Hong, "Zhang Guang is a close confidant of Grand Governor Sima Yong. Since you are in league with the Prince of Donghai (Sima Yue), you ought to behead Zhang Guang to demonstrate which side you support."

Liu Hong told him, "The Chancellor has his faults, but how can I blame Zhang Guang for that? To endanger another man simply to protect myself is not the sort of thing a superior man would do."

And he even petitioned the court to further promote Zhang Guang on account of his exceptional service.

是歲,離石大饑,漢王淵徙屯黎亭,就邸閣穀;留太尉宏守離石,使大司農卜豫運糧以給之。

26. During this year, there was great famine in Lishi, so Liu Yuan moved his camp to Liting, and set up grain stores there. He left his Grand Commandant, Liu Hong, to guard Lishi, and he sent his Grand Minister of Finance, Bo Yu, to transport grain there.

〈《續漢志》:上黨郡壺關縣有黎亭,《書》西伯戡黎卽此。〉

(The Continued Records of Han states, "There is a Liting in Huguan County in Shangdang commandary; it is the place mentioned in the Book of Document's Conquest of Li By The Chief Of The West.")
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