ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-87)

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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-??)

Unread postby vvill » Mon Sep 18, 2017 1:50 pm

YES!! Always wished for these. Please continue!
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-??)

Unread postby capnnerefir » Tue Sep 19, 2017 2:01 am

You've given the English-speaking scholars a great gift. This is probably the most valuable piece of work done in this field for years. I hope you're proud of yourself, and I hope we can all display our gratitude appropriately.

I might suggest a separate thread for discussion/corrections, though. It could help to keep the translation thread clean/organized so people looking to read your work don't have to hunt it down through everyone else's comments.

PS. Clearly I have been undervaluing Lu Kai. And Sima Yan made more good decisions than I gave him credit for. I really like his "Don't send me memorials telling me you agree with me" stance.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-??)

Unread postby vvill » Tue Sep 19, 2017 6:57 am

Agreed! Will be great to have a more complete timeline through the end of Wu (and maybe beyond? :) :) ) Lu Kang's command is impressive and so far Sima Yan seems to be delegating/ruling quite well. Also quite interested in reading more details of Yang Xin and Jin's struggles in LiangZhou against Shujineng and the XianBei. Especially with Hu Lie and Qian Hong already gone and Sima Jun/Wen Yang yet to be on the scene.

Tiny typo in 272.15 where it has "The Wu generals remonstrated with Wu Kang" => Lu Kang.

One thing here- my understanding was that Sun Xiu 秀 fled to Jin and Sima Yan gave him those titles. And the extra note would be something like making the people of Wu sympathetic to/impressed by Jin, not Sun Hao appeasing them.
In the twelfth month, Sun Hao appointed Sun Xiu as General of Agile Cavalry with equal authority to the Three Excellencies, and as Duke of Kuaiji.

〈秀,吳主權弟匡之孫。〉〈厚其封賞以攜吳人。〉

(This Sun Xiu was the grandson of Sun Quan's younger brother Sun Kuang.

Sun Hao gave Sun Xiu these appointments to appease the people of Wu.)
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-??)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:04 pm

Thanks for the correction; I have made it in the original posts. Let me know if you spot anything else like that.

I'm fine with discussion in this thread; if necessary, I can make a "clean" one later like we have for Fang's Chronicles.
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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:07 pm

泰始九年(癸巳、二七三)

The Ninth Year of Taishi (The Guisi Year, 273 AD)


春,正月,辛酉,密陵元侯鄭袤卒。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Xinyou (February 26th), Zheng Mao passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Yuan of Miling.

〈《考異》曰:按《本傳》:「袤爲司空,固辭。久之,見許,以侯就第,拜儀同三司。」而《帝紀》云「司空鄭袤薨」,誤也。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Zheng Mao in the Book of Jin states, 'Zheng Mao was appointed as Minister of Works, but he firmly declined the appointment. Eventually, after his opposition was accepted, Zheng Mao retired to his marquisate residence, and he was granted equal authority with the Three Excellencies.' Although the Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) from the Book of Jin states, 'The Minister of Works, Zheng Mao, passed away', it is mistaken.")


二月,癸巳,樂陵武公石苞卒。

2. In the second month, on the day Guisi (March 30th), Shi Bao passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wu of Leling.

三月,立皇子祗爲東海王。

3. In the third month, Sima Yan appointed his son Sima Zhi as Prince of Donghai.

吳以陸抗爲大司馬、荊州牧。

4. Lu Kang was appointed Grand Marshal and Governor of Jingzhou.

夏,四月,戊辰朔,日有食之。

5. In summer, the fourth month, on the new moon of the day Wuchen (May 4th), there was an eclipse.

初,鄧艾之死,人皆冤之,而朝廷無爲之辨者。及帝卽位,議郎敦煌段灼上疏曰:「鄧艾心懷至忠而荷反逆之名,平定巴、蜀而受三族之誅;艾性剛急,矜功伐善,不能協同朋類,故莫肯理之。臣竊以爲艾本屯田掌犢人,寵位已極,功名已成,七十老公,復何所求。正以劉禪初降,遠郡未附,矯令承制,權安社稷。鍾會有悖逆之心,畏艾威名,因其疑似,搆成其事。艾被詔書,卽遣強兵,束身就縛,不敢顧望,誠知奉見先帝,必無當死之理也。會受誅之後,艾官屬將吏,愚戇相聚,自共追艾,破壞檻車,解其囚執;艾在困地,狼狽失據,未嘗與腹心之人有平素之謀,獨受腹背之誅,豈不哀哉!陛下龍興,闡弘大度,謂可聽艾歸葬舊墓,還其田宅,以平蜀之功繼封其後,使艾闔棺定諡,死無所恨,則天下徇名之士,思立功之臣,必投湯火,樂爲陛下死矣!」帝善其言而未能從。會帝問給事中樊建以諸葛亮之治蜀,曰:「吾獨不得如亮者而臣之乎?」建稽首曰:「陛下知鄧艾之冤而不能直,雖得亮,得無如馮唐之言乎!」帝笑曰:「卿言起我意。」乃以艾孫朗爲郎中。

6. Before, when Deng Ai had died, people all thought that he was innocent, but the court had taken no action to resolve the matter.

After Sima Yan came to the throne, the Gentleman-Consultant, Duan Zhuo of Dunhuang, sent up a petition stating, "Deng Ai was a man of firm and absolute loyalty, yet he has been saddled with a disobedient and rebellious reputation. He pacified the regions of Ba and Shu, yet his clan has been wiped out to the third degree.

“Now Deng Ai was a man of very stubborn and direct nature. He was arrogant, but skilled in warfare. It is only because he could not form friendships that no one dared to defend him. Though I may be foolish, I believe that Deng Ai was originally a cattle tender on a tuntian farm, but he gained favor and positions to such extent, and his merits and reputation were so secure, that I have seventy aged gentlemen who further wish to argue on his behalf.

“As for his behavior, when Liu Shan had first surrendered, the more distant commandaries of Shu had not yet come over to us; that was why Deng Ai took it upon himself to issue commands and manage affairs, planning to ensure the security of the state. But Zhong Hui, in his traitorous heart, feared Deng Ai's power and reputation, and so he cast suspicion upon him and impeded his work. When Deng Ai received the summons edict, he sent away his strong soldiers, had himself bound up, and did not dare to turn his head back, for he honestly knew that once he presented himself before His Late Majesty (Sima Zhao), there would be no cause for him to be sentenced to death.

“After Zhong Hui received his execution, Deng Ai's subordinate officers and ministers, making wild assumptions, banded together and chased after their leader, smashed open his cage cart, and freed him from his imprisonment. This placed Deng Ai in a difficult situation, for no matter which way he turned, he would lose out. Deng Ai had made no arranged plot with these brave fellows, and yet all of them were executed together just the same. How can that not be lamentable?

“Now Your Majesty has ascended like a dragon, and you have expounded and magnified the grand systems. Therefore, I ask that you have Deng Ai's body sent to be buried in his family grave, return his farmland and residence, and allow his descendants to inherit his legacy on account of his service in pacifying Shu. Have his coffin closed and have his posthumous name settled, so that he may die without regrets, with the reputation as a martyr for the realm. If you would consider establishing the accomplishments of your minister, then even if I were cast into boiling water or blazing fire, I would be happy to die for Your Majesty!"

Sima Yan approved of this petition, but he was not yet able to carry out its proposals.

Not long afterwards, Sima Yan was asking the Attendant Officer of the Palace, Fan Jian, about the ways in which Zhuge Liang had governed Shu-Han. Sima Yan asked him, "Why do you think it is that I have still not obtained a minister of Zhuge Liang's calibur?"

Fan Jian bowed his head and replied, "Your Majesty knows that Deng Ai was innocent, yet you cannot absolve him. Even if you obtained Zhuge Liang, he would be of less use to you than the words of Feng Tang!"

Sima Yan laughed and said, "You've said what I was just thinking."

And Sima Yan appointed Deng Ai's grandson Deng Lang as a Palace Gentleman.

〈事見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉〈鄧艾本義陽棘陽人,魏太祖破荊州,徙汝南,爲農民養犢。〉〈狼前則跋其胡,退則疐其尾。狽,狼屬也。生子或欠一足,二足相附而後能行,離則顚蹶。故猝遽謂之狼狽。〉〈腹在前,背在後,謂前後皆不免於誅。〉〈樊建故蜀臣。〉〈言不能用也。馮唐事見十四卷漢文帝十四年。〉

Deng Ai's death is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Yanxi (264.14 in Fang's Chronicles).

Deng Ai was a native of Jiyang in Yiyang commandary. When Cao Cao conquered Jingzhou, Deng Ai moved to Runan, where he tended cattle for farmers.

The expression that Duan Zhuo uses to describe Deng Ai's position after his men broke him out of his cage cart is "wolf-狽". This is when a wolf, if it moves forward, trips over its own beard, while if it moves backwards, it stumbles over its own tail. A 狽 is a kind of wolf. When they are born, some lack one foot, and must use two feet together in order to move, for if not, they stumble or fall. Thus the expression.

The expression for when Deng Ai is killed with all the others is 腹背之誅 "both stomach and back were executed". The stomach is in the front, while the back is in the rear. It means that no one was able to escape execution.

Fan Jian was a former Shu-Han minister.

Fan Jian meant that Sima Yan would not be able to use Zhuge Liang if he had him. Feng Tang was a Han minister who provided very similar advice to Emperor Wen of Han; he is mentioned in Book 14, in Emperor Wen of Han's fourteenth year (actually in Book 15).)


吳人多言祥瑞者,吳主以問侍中韋昭,昭曰:「此家人筐篋中物耳!」昭領左國史,吳主欲爲其父作紀,昭曰:「文皇不登極位,當爲傳,不當爲紀。」吳主不悅,漸見責怒。昭憂懼,自陳衰老,求去侍、史二官,不聽。時有疾病,醫藥監護,持之益急。吳主飲羣臣酒,不問能否,率以七升爲限。至昭,獨以茶代之,後更見偪強。又酒後常使侍臣嘲弄公卿,發摘私短以爲歡;時有愆失,輒見收縛,至於誅戮。昭以爲外相毀傷,內長尤恨,使羣臣不睦,不爲佳事,故但難問經義而已。吳主以爲不奉詔命,意不忠盡,積前後嫌忿,遂收昭付獄。昭因獄上辭,獻所著書,冀以此求免。而吳主怪其書垢故,更被詰責;遂誅昭,徙其家於零陵。

7. Many people in Wu spoke of auspicious signs and omens. Sun Hao asked the Palace Attendant Wei Zhao about it, and Wei Zhao replied, "These things are nothing more remarkable than the sorts of things I might find in my own basket!"

Wei Zhao was the State Historian of the Left, so Sun Hao asked him to write an imperial Annals entry for his late father, Sun He. Wei Zhao told him, "Emperor Wen did not actually occupy the supreme rank. I can compose a Biography for him, but he cannot receive an Annals entry." Sun Hao was displeased, and he gradually looked burdened and angry. Wei Zhao became afraid, and he asked to resign his two positions as Palace Attendant and State Historian on account of old age and frailness. But Sun Hao would not allow it.

At that time, Wei Zhao became ill. A doctor gave him medicine and tended to him, so he was able to recover. Sun Hao then held a meeting with his ministers where he passed around cups of wine. He did not ask any of them whether they would be able to drink or not, and simply required them to make seven toasts. When the wine came to Wei Zhao, he alone drank tea instead, and so afterwards he looked even healthier and stronger.

After the wine was finished, Sun Hao would often send out his personal attendants to make jests about the gathered nobles and ministers, and they would make light of the ministers' private shortcomings. At the same time, if there was anyone among them who made some offense, the attendants would seize them and bind them in front of everyone, and take them out to be executed. Wei Zhao, believing that such things were causing great harm and ruin without and exacerbating hatreds within, and antagonizing all of the ministers, felt that the whole affair was a rotten business. This was why, to avoid difficulties, he only asked about the classics and about virtues without going into other matters. Sun Hao believed that Wei Zhao was not truly following his commands, and not acting with full loyalty.

So on account of all these suspicions and resentments Sun Hao had against Wei Zhao, he arrested him and had him interrogated. Because of these interrogations (or, the interrogation officials), Wei Zhao made a confession, and he turned over all of his writings, hoping that by doing so he would be released. But Sun Hao was only further incensed by the humiliating things present in Wei Zhao's writings, so he executed Wei Zhao, and exiled his family to Lingling.

〈言祥瑞而謂之家人筐篋中物者,蓋稱引圖緯以言祥瑞之應,故謂其書爲家人筐篋中物也。〉〈吳有左、右國史,皆掌記述。〉〈吳主諡其父和曰文皇帝。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「獄」下有「吏」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

By "these things are nothing more remarkable than the sorts of things I might find in my own basket," Wei Zhao meant the ordinary things that people were interpreting as if they were signs and omens.

Eastern Wu had State Historians of the Left and Right, both of whom were charged with records-keeping.

Sun Hao had posthumously named his father Sun He as Emperor Wen.

Some versions state that Wei Zhao confessed because of the "interrogation officials" rather than just the "interrogation".)


五月,以何曾領司徒。

8. In the fifth month, He Zeng was appointed as acting Minister Over The Masses.

六月,乙未,東海王祗卒。

9. In the sixth month, on the day Yiwei (July 30th), the Prince of Donghai, Sima Zhi, passed away.

秋,七月,丁酉朔,日有食之。

10. In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Dingyou (August 1st), there was an eclipse.

〈《考異》曰:《宋志》無此食,今從《晉書》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Book of Liu-Song does not mention this eclipse. But I follow the account of the Book of Jin.")


詔選公卿以下女備六宮,有蔽匿者以不敬論;采擇未畢,權禁天下嫁娶。帝使楊后擇之,后惟取潔白長大而捨其美者。帝愛卞氏女,欲留之。后曰:「卞氏三世后族,不可屈以卑位。」帝怒,乃自擇之,中選者以絳紗繫臂,公卿之女爲三夫人、九嬪,二千石、將、校女補良人以下。

11. Sima Yan issued an edict that the families of everyone from the chief ministers and nobles on down must prepare their daughters for the six palaces, and those who hid their daughters would be charged with being disrespectful. Until the selection process of the daughters was completed, Sima Yan forbade any marriages in the realm.

Sima Yan had Empress Yang Yan handle the selections. Yang Yan favored those who were pure, fair of skin, tall, and large; she shunned those who were beautiful. There was a Lady Bian whom Sima Yan was fond of, and he wished to keep her as a concubine. Yang Yan told him, "There have been three Empresses that came from the Bian clan already; you could not keep this woman in such a lowly position." Sima Yan was furious, and he took over the selection process himself.

The women he selected were draped in crimson silk tied about their arms. The daughters of the chief ministers and nobles were sorted among the ranks of the Three Wives and the Nine Concubines, while those daughters of the Two Thousand 石 salary rank officials, generals, and officers were sorted into the ranks of the Distinguished Women and below.

〈以律不敬論罪也。〉〈魏武帝卞后諡曰宣后,弟秉生蘭及琳,蘭孫女爲高貴鄕公后,琳女又爲陳留王后,凡三世。〉〈孔穎達曰:夫,扶也。言扶侍於王也。〉〈漢制,後宮之號十有四等,良人視八百石,爵比庶長。〉

(By law, those who were so disrespectful were guilty of crimes.

The first Empress Bian were Cao Cao's Lady Bian, posthumously called Empress Xuan. Lady Bian's younger brother was Bian Bing, who was the father of Bian Lan and Bian Chen. Bian Lan's granddaughter was the second Empress Bian, the wife of Cao Mao. Bian Chen's daughter was the third Empress Bian, the wife of Cao Huan. So they had been Empresses for three generations.

Concerning the Three Wives, the term used is 夫. Kong Anguo remarked, "This 夫 means 'help'. They are helpmates to the king."

Under the Han system, the titles of the women of the rear palace had four tiers; Distinguished Women were on the level of Eight Hundred 石, comparable to a Chieftain of the Multitude.)


九月,吳主悉封其子弟爲十一王,王給三千兵,大赦。

12. In the ninth month, Sun Hao appointed all of his sons and younger brothers as Princes, eleven in all. He gave each Prince three thousand soldiers to command. A general amnesty was declared.

〈十一王,史逸其名。〉

(In writing "eleven princes", the passage avoids listing their names.)


是歲,鄭沖以壽光公罷。

13. During this year, Zheng Chong was appointed Duke of Shouguang.

吳主愛姬遣人至市奪民物。司市中郎將陳聲素有寵於吳主,繩之以法。姬愬於吳主,吳主怒,假他事燒鋸斷聲頭,投其身於四望之下。

14. Sun Hao's favored concubine sent men to the city market to take the people's things by force. The General of the Household Gentlemen and Market Director, Chen Sheng, had long held Sun Hao's favor. Chen Sheng restrained these men and enforced the law. Sun Hao's concubine complained to Sun Hao about what had happened. Sun Hao was furious, and he ordered Chen Sheng's head cut off with a heated saw. Then he had Chen Sheng's body cast down from Siwang.

〈據《晉書‧溫嶠傳》:嶠討蘇峻於石頭,結壘於四望磯。又據《南史》,石頭有四望山,蓋山下有磯也。〉

(According to the Biography of Wen Jiao in the Book of Jin, when Wen Jiao was later fighting Su Jun at the Shitou fortress near Jianye (~328 AD), he built a rampart at the Rock of Siwang. And according to the Histories of the Southern Dynasties, there was a Mount Siwang at Shitou, and at the base of it was a great rock.)
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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:12 pm

十年(甲午、二七四)

The Tenth Year of Taishi (The Jiawu Year, 274 AD)


春,正月,乙未,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Yiwei (January 26th), there was an eclipse.

閏月,癸酉,壽光成公鄭沖卒。

2. In the intercalary month, on the day Guiyou (March 5th), Zheng Chong passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Cheng of Shouguang.

丁亥,詔曰:「近世以來,多由內寵以登后妃,亂尊卑之序;自今不得以妾媵爲正嫡。」

3. On the day Dinghai, Sima Yan issued an edict stating, "In recent eras, it has often been the practice to favor inner women and have them ascend to the status of imperial concubines. This has caused confusion in the distinction between the honored and the lowly. From now on, palace women shall not rise to the status of formal wives."

〈謂魏三祖立卞、郭、毛爲后。〉

(Sima Yan refers to Cao Cao's Empress Bian and Cao Rui's Empress Guo and Empress Mao.)


分幽州置平州。

4. In Jin, part of Youzhou was split off to form Pingzhou.

〈幽州,言北方太陰幽冥也。杜佑曰:因幽都山爲名。《山海經》有幽都山。今列北荒,統范陽、燕、北平、上谷、代、遼西。漢末,公孫度自號平州牧,今分昌黎、遼東、樂浪、玄菟、帶方五郡,置平州。〉

(Youzhou was named You ("secluded") because it was in the north, in a dark and gloomy place. Du You remarked, "Youzhou is named for Mount Youdu." The Classic of Mountains and Seas mentions a Mount Youdu. It now refers to the northern wastes. Youzhou administered the commandaries of Fanyang, Beiping, Shanggu, Dai, and Liaoxi. At the end of Han, Gongsun Du declared himself Governor of Pingzhou. At this time, the five commandaries of Changli, Liaodong, Lelang, Xuantu, and Daifang were split off from Youzhou and formed into Pingzhou.)


三月,癸亥,日有食之。

5. In the third month, on the day Guihai (April 24th), there was an eclipse.

詔又取良家及小將吏女五千人入宮選之,母子號哭於宮中,聲聞於外。

6. Sima Yan issued an edict that five thousand women among the daughters of the esteemed families and those of minor officers and officials would be selected for the palace. The wails of mothers and their children filled the palace, and they could be heard even outside of it.

夏,四月,己未,臨淮康公荀顗卒。

7. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiwei (June 19th), Xun Yi passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Kang of Linhuai.

〈《諡法》:溫柔好樂曰康。〉

(The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is gentle and soft, delightful and pleasant, may be called 康 Kang ('peaceful').")


吳左夫人王氏卒。吳主哀念,數月不出,葬送甚盛。時何氏以太后故,宗族驕橫。吳主舅子何都貌類吳主,民間訛言:「吳主已死,立者何都也。」會稽又訛言:「章安侯奮當爲天子。」奮母仲姬墓在豫章,豫章太守張俊爲之掃除。臨海太守奚熙與會稽太守郭誕書, 非議國政;誕但白熙書,不白妖言。吳主怒,收誕繫獄,誕懼,功曹邵疇曰:「疇在,明府何憂!」遂詣吏自列曰:「疇廁身本郡,位極朝右,以噂X之言,本非事實,疾其醜聲,不忍聞見,欲含垢藏疾,不彰之翰墨,鎭躁歸靜,使之自息。故誕屈其所是,默以見從。此之爲愆,實由於疇,不敢逃死,歸罪有司。」因自殺。吳主乃免誕死,送付建安作船。遣其舅三郡督何植收奚熙。熙發兵自守,其部曲殺熙,送首建業。又車裂張俊,皆夷三族;幷誅章安侯奮及其五子。

8. Sun Hao's Lady of the Left, Lady Wang, passed away. Sun Hao was in deep mourning for her. He did not go out for several months, and the burial ceremony was very elaborate.

At that time, since Lady He was the Empress Dowager, her imperial relatives acted very arrogant and overbearing. Sun Hao's cousin, He Du, greatly resembled him. So a rumor spread among the people, and they said, "Sun Hao has already died, and the one upon the throne now is He Du." And in Kuaiji there was also a rumor stating, "The Marquis of Zhang'an, Sun Fen, will become the Son of Heaven." Sun Fen's mother Concubine Zhong was buried at Yuzhang, and the Administrator of Yuzhang, Zhang Jun, swept her tomb clear on his behalf.

The Administrator of Linhai, Xi Xi, wrote a letter to the Administrator of Kuaiji, Guo Dan, in which he wrote critically of the handling of state affairs. Although Guo Dan reported Xi Xi's letter, he did not mention the treasonous rumor going around. Sun Hao was furious, and he arrested Guo Dan and had him interrogated in prison. Guo Dan was very afraid.

Guo Dan's Merit Evaluator, Shao Chou, was with him, and he said to Guo Dan, "So long as I am here, what does Your Excellency have to worry about?"

And Shao Chou visited the officials and explained to them, "I held a lowly position in my native commandary, and my rank rose to that of an assistant on the right in the local court. The assorted hubbub spreading through the commandary was without the slightest foundation. I grew sick at the disgusting sound of it, and could not endure hearing or seeing it. I wished to 'take dirt in my mouth and hide noxious things'. So I did not take up my brush and ink, intending to guard against rashness and purge the matter clean, and have it clear up of its own accord. This was why Guo Dan submitted to these things, kept silent and followed my advice. The source of this disrespect is actually from me. I do not dare to avoid death, and that is why I present myself before you and admit my crime." Having said this, Shao Chou killed himself. So Sun Hao spared Guo Dan from death, but he exiled him to Jian'an to build ships.

Sun Hao sent the Commander of the Three Commandaries, his uncle He Zhi, to arrest Xi Xi. Although Xi Xi summoned troops to protect himself, his subordinates killed him and sent his head to Jianye.

Sun Hao also had Zhang Jun torn apart by chariots, and exterminated his clan to the third degree. He executed Sun Fen and his five sons.

〈掃,糞掃也。除,芟除荊棘。〉〈吳主休永安三年,分會稽東部都尉爲臨海郡。〉〈妖言,卽前訛言。〉〈郡功曹,位居郡朝之右。〉〈噂X,聚言語也。〉〈《左傳》曰:川澤納汙,山藪藏疾,國君含垢。〉〈謂誕從疇之說,默而不白妖言也。〉〈宋白曰:吳分候官之地立建安縣。又立曲郍都尉,主謫徙之人作舟船。〉〈《江表傳》作「備海督」,蓋督臨海、建安、會稽三郡也。〉〈《考異》曰:《江表傳》曰:「張布女有寵於晧而死,晧厚葬之。國人見葬太奢麗,皆謂晧已死,所葬者是也。晧舅子何都,顏狀似晧,故民間訛言都代立。臨海太守奚熙信訛言,舉兵欲還秣陵誅都。都叔父植時備海督,擊殺熙,夷三族,訛言乃息。」又云:「奮本在章安,徙還吳城禁錮,使男女不得通婚,或年三十、四十,不得嫁娶。奮上表乞自比禽獸,使男女自相配偶。晧大怒,遣察戰齎藥賜奮父子,皆飲藥死。」裴松之按,「建衡二年至奮之死,孫晧卽位尚未久,若奮未被疑之前,兒女年二十左右,至奮死時,不得年三十、四十也。若先已長大,自失時未婚娶,不由晧之禁錮矣。此雖欲增晧之惡,然非實理。」又《吳志‧孫奮傳》:「鳳凰三年,會稽妖言奮爲天子,遂誅奚熙。」不言誅奮。《孫奮傳》:「建衡二年,左夫人王氏卒,民間訛言,遂誅奮及五子。」《三十國》、《晉春秋》,自晧納張布女至殺奮,皆在天册元年。按奮若以建衡二年死,不容至鳳凰三年會稽方有訛言。不知奮死果在何年,今因奚熙之死終言之。〉

By "swept", it means Zhang Jun swept the tomb of dirt. By "clear", it means he cleared away the thistles and brambles from it.

In Sun Xiu's third year of Yong'an (260), he split off the eastern command posts of Kuaiji commandary and formed them into Linhai commandary.

The "treasonous rumor" means the rumors spreading in the commandary.

The Merit Evaluator of a commandary held a position on the right in the commandary court.

The "assorted hubbub" was the rumors circulating in the commandary.

The Zuo Commentary records these common sayings: "'The rivers and meres receive [much] filth;' 'the hills and thickets hide noxious things;' 'princes of States must [at times] take dirt in their mouths.' (Xuan 15.1)"

Shao Chou was saying that Guo Dan was following his advice, and thus had kept silent about and not reported the treasonous rumors.

Song Bai remarked, "Eastern Wu divided the land of Houguan and formed Jian'an County there. They also made the Qunuo Command Post, whose chief purpose was as a place to send demoted or exiled officials to build ships."

Regarding He Zhi's title Commander of the Three Commandaries, Jiangbiaozhuan records it as Commander of Coastal Defenses. This office held authority over the three commandaries of Linhai, Jian'an, and Kuaiji.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Jiangbiaozhuan states, 'Zhang Bu's daughter was greatly favored by Sun Hao; when she died, Sun Hao held a lavish funeral for her. When the people of the state saw how great and luxurious the funeral was, they said to each other that Sun Hao himself was already dead, and he had been the one buried. Sun Hao's cousin He Du resembled him in bearing and appearance, and so the people spread a rumor saying that He Du was now the one on the throne. The Administrator of Linhai, Xi Xi, believed the rumor, and he raised troops wishing to march back to Moling (Jianye) and punish He Du. He Du's uncle He Zhi was at that time the Commander of Coastal Defenses, and he attacked Xi Xi and killed him, and exterminated his clan to the third degree. This put an end to the rumors.' It also states, 'Sun Fen was originally at Zhang'an, but he was moved back to Wucheng and held in custody. He sent away his sons and daughters who were not yet married; they were in their thirties or forties, but had not yet attained marriages. Sun Feng sent up a petition begging that, though he himself was like a wild beast, that his sons and daughters would be allowed to marry. Sun Hao was greatly angry, and he sent the 察戰 officials to force Sun Fen and his children to consume poison. They all took the poison and died.' Regarding this latter story, Pei Songzhi has remarked, 'By the time of Sun Fen's death in the second year of Jianheng (270), Sun Hao had not been on the throne for a great deal of time. If Sun Sheng had not been suspected before that time, then his sons and daughters would have been about twenty years old, and so by the time of his death, they could not have already been in their thirties or forties. If his children had already grown to that age before the time of this incident, and had still all that time not been married, it cannot have been simply because of their imprisonment by Sun Hao. Although I certainly would like to add to Sun Hao's tyranny, I cannot credit this account.' Regarding the year of Sun Fen's death, the Biography of Sun Fen in the Records of Wu states, 'In the third year of Fenghuang (274), a rumor spread through Kuaiji that Sun Fen would become the Son of Heaven, and so Sun Hao executed Xi Xi.' But it does not say that he executed Sun Fen. The Biography of Sun Fen in the Records of the Three Kingdoms states, 'In the second year of Jianheng (270), the Lady of the Left, Lady Wang, passed away. The people spread rumors about the incident, and so Sun Hao had Sun Fen and his five sons put to death.' And according to the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin, Sun Hao heeded Zhang Bu's daughter and killed Sun Fen in the first year of Tiance (275). Now if Sun Fen had died in the second year of Jianheng (270), clearly no rumor about his taking the throne could have spread as late as the third year of Fenghuang (274). But I do not know for sure which year Sun Fen died, so I place it here after Xi Xi's death.")


秋,七月,丙寅,皇后楊氏殂。初,帝以太子不慧,恐不堪爲嗣,常密以訪后;后曰:「立子以長不以賢,豈可動也!」鎭軍大將軍胡奮女爲貴嬪,有寵於帝,后疾篤,恐帝立貴嬪爲后,致太子不安,枕帝膝泣曰:「叔父駿女芷有德色,願陛下以備六宮。」帝流涕許之。

9. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Bingyin (August 25th), Empress Yang Yan passed away.

Up until this time, Sima Yan had felt that his son Sima Zhong was not very bright, and he feared that Sima Zhong would not be able to succeed him. He often secretly discussed the matter with Yang Yan. She said to him, 'It is the principle that one selects the eldest son to inherit, not the worthiest. How can you do anything to upset this principle?"

The Grand General Who Guards The Army, Hu Fen, had a daughter, Hu Fang, who had become an Honored Concubine, and Sima Yan greatly favored her. When Empress Yang became deathly ill, she was afraid that Sima Yan would make Hu Fang the next Empress in her place, and then Sima Zhong's position as Crown Prince would be threatened. She placed her head on Sima Yan's knee and wept as she said, "My cousin Yang Zhi has both virtue and beauty. I ask that Your Majesty prepare the six palaces for her." Sima Yan, in tears, promised to do so.

〈《春秋公羊傳》之言。〉〈晉制:貴人、夫人、貴嬪,是爲三夫人,皆金章紫綬。〉

(The principle "one selects the eldest son to inherit, not the worthiest" comes from the Gongyang Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals.

Under the Jin system, the ranks of the Three Wives were the Honored Ladies, the Helpmate Ladies, and the Honored Concubines. They all had gold seals and purple ribbons.)


以前太常山濤爲吏部尚書。濤典選十餘年,每一官缺,輒擇才資可爲者啓擬數人,得詔旨有所向,然後顯奏之。帝之所用,或非舉首,衆情不察,以濤輕重作意,言之於帝。帝益親愛之。濤甄拔人物,各爲題目而奏之,時稱「《山公啓事》」。

10. Wei's former Minister of Ceremonies, Shan Tao, was now appointed as Jin's Minister of the Masters of Writing.

For more than ten years, Shan Tao sought out and selected worthy men for office. Whenever there was a vacancy in some office, Shan Tao would always select several people of talent and worth who could fill the role, and when he received the imperial decree regarding the office, he would then have someone on hand for whom he could submit a petition. There were sometimes matters where, when Sima Yan needed to use someone, he would not even lift his head or look into the feelings of the crowd, but he would simply have Shan Tao determine how serious the matter was and come up with his own idea, and then provide his suggestion to Sima Yan. So Sima Yan was intimate with Shan Tao and treasured him.

Whenever Shan Tao selected a worthy person, every time he would first examine them carefully and then submit a petition regarding them. People of that time called him "Lord Shan the Examiner".

〈帝受禪,濤自吏部郎遷尚書,居母喪,復奪情起典選。〉〈才,謂其才足以任;資,謂其資序當爲者。〉〈甄,明也,察也,別也。〉

(When Sima Yan had received the abdication of Cao-Wei, Shan Tao had moved from a Gentleman-Minister to the Masters of Writing. He left office after his mother's death to mourn for her. After returning to office, he was tasked with recruiting.

By "talent", it means they had talent sufficient for the office; by "worth", it means they were prepared to accept the office.

The passage says that Shan Tao would 甄 people. This term 甄 means "discern", "examine", or "distinguish".)


濤薦嵇紹於帝,請以爲祕書郎;帝發詔徵之。紹以父康得罪,屛居私門,欲辭不就。濤謂之曰:「爲君思之久矣,天地四時,猶有消息,況於人乎!」紹乃應命,帝以爲祕書丞。

11. Shan Tao recommended Ji Shao to Sima Yan, and asked that Ji Shao be appointed as a Gentleman of the Imperial Library. So Sima Yan issued an edict to summon Ji Shao.

Now Ji Shao's father Ji Kang had been charged with a crime, so Ji Shao had retired to his own household, and he intended to decline this appointment. Shan Tao said to him, "I would ask that you give this further consideration. Even Heaven, Earth, and the four seasons have their periods of waxing and waning, coming and going. Can it be any less for men?"

So Ji Shao heeded the summons, and Sima Yan appointed him as Minister of the Imperial Library.

〈晉制,祕書監屬官有丞、有郎。〉〈事見七十八卷魏元帝景元三年。〉

(Under the Jin system, the Chief of the Imperial Library had subordinate Ministers and Gentlemen.

After being spurned by Ji Kang, Zhong Hui had arranged for Sima Zhao to execute him on trumped-up charges. This is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) third year of Jingyuan (262.12-15 in Fang's Chronicles, where he is called Xi Kang).)


初,東關之敗,文帝問僚屬曰:「近日之事,誰任其咎?」安東司馬王儀,脩之子也,對曰:「責在元帥。」文帝怒曰:「司馬欲委罪孤邪!」引出斬之。儀子裒痛父非命,隱居敎授,三徵七辟,皆不就。未嘗西向而坐,廬於墓側,旦夕攀柏悲號,涕淚著樹,樹爲之枯。讀《詩》至「哀哀父母,生我劬勞」,未嘗不三復流涕,門人爲之廢《蓼莪》。家貧,計口而田,度身而蠶;人或饋之,不受,助之,不聽。諸生密爲刈麥,裒輒棄之,遂不仕而終。

12. Years earlier, following Wei's defeat at the battle of Dongguan, Sima Zhao had asked his subordinate officers, "Who was responsible for our recent defeat?"

Sima Zhao's Marshal, Wang Yi, had replied, "Responsibility lies with the army commander."

Sima Zhao was enraged, and he said, "The Marshal means to make me shoulder the blame?"

He had Wang Yi taken out and beheaded. This Wang Yi was the son of Wang Xiu.

Wang Yi's son Wang Pou was extremely sorrowful and bitter at his father's violent death. He lived a life of seclusion, providing teaching and instruction. Though he received three imperial summons and seven recruitment calls, he refused to answer any of them. When sitting down, he would never face towards the west (towards Luoyang). He lived in a simple hut built beside his parents' grave, where day and night he would climb up into a cypress tree and wail mournfully. His tears and mucus covered the tree so much that it caused the tree to wither.

When Wang Pou would read from the Book of Poetry, every time he came to the verse "Alas! alas! my parents; With what toil ye gave me birth!" he could never help but weep and sniffle, so his students removed the Long Sagebrush poem which contained that verse.

He had a poor household; he tilled the fields only enough to sustain himself, and he tended silkworms only enough to provide for his own clothing. When people tried to give him gifts, he would not accept them; when people tried to help him, he would refuse them. Some of his students secretly cut down the grain for his sake, but Wang Pou threw all of that grain away. To the end of his life, he never held office.

〈事見七十五卷魏邵陵厲公嘉平四年。〉〈王脩見六十四卷漢獻帝建安八年。〉〈文帝時爲安東將軍,監諸軍。〉〈徵,詔召也。辟,公府及州郡辟也。〉〈裒居城陽,晉朝在洛陽,故未嘗西向。〉〈《詩‧蓼莪》之辭。〉〈以裒悲慘,故廢《蓼莪》之篇不敢講習。〉

(The battle of Dongguan, or Dongxing, was fought between Cao-Wei and Eastern Wu. It is mentioned in Book 75, in Cao Fang's fourth year of Jiaping (252.15-19 in Fang's Chronicles).

Wang Xiu is mentioned in Book 64, in Emperor Xian of Han's eighth year of Jian'an (203.B and 206.D in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

Wang Yi's full rank was Marshal to the General Who Maintains The East. Sima Zhao was the General who held that rank, and he was in overall command of the various Cao-Wei armies involved in the Dongguan campaign.

In this passage, the "summons" came directly from an imperial edict, while the "recruitment calls" came from either the central government or the provincial or commandary governments.

Wang Pou lived at Chengyang. The Jin court at Luoyang was to the west, and that was why Wang Pou refused to sit while facing that direction.

The verse "Alas! alas! my parents; With what toil ye gave me birth!" comes from the Long Sagebrush poem in the Book of Poetry. Wang Pou's students removed this poem from the texts and dared not practice it because of the grief it caused him.)


臣光曰:昔舜誅鯀而禹事舜,不敢廢至公也。嵇康、王儀,死皆不以其罪,二子不仕晉室可也;嵇紹苟無蕩陰之忠,殆不免於君子之譏乎!

13. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: In ancient times, when Emperor Shun executed Gun and yet Gun's son Yu worked for Shun, there was nothing to be said against Yu, for his father's death had been just. But when we consider Ji Kang and Wang Yi, both of them were killed despite having committed no crimes. Their sons could not have held office under Jin, yet Ji Shao did so. If it were not for the loyalty which Ji Shao displayed at Tangyin, he would never have escaped the ridicule of superior men!

〈蕩陰事見後八十五卷惠帝永興元年。余謂蕩陰之難,君子以嵇紹爲忠於所事可也,然未足以塞天性之傷也。蕩,音湯。〉

(Ji Shao gave his life to defend Emperor Hui at the battle of Tangyin, as will be seen later on in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (304). The first character in the name of this battle, 蕩, is pronounced "tang".

As for what I, Hu Sanxing, believe, while superior men may indeed praise Ji Shao for his sacrifice at Tangyin, that was still not sufficient to counteract the crime against nature that he committed in the first place. )


吳大司馬陸抗疾病,上疏曰:「西陵、建平,國之蕃表,旣處上流,受敵二境。若敵汎舟順流,星奔電邁,非何可恃援他部以救倒縣也。此乃社稷安危之機,非徒封疆侵陵小害也。臣父遜,昔在西垂上言,『西陵國之西門,雖云易守,亦復易失。若有不守,非但失一郡,荊州非吳有也。如其有虞,當傾國爭之。』臣前乞屯精兵三萬,而主者循常,未肯差走。自步闡以後,益更損耗。今臣所統千里,外禦強對,內懷百蠻,而上下見兵,財有數萬,羸敝日久,難以待變。臣愚以爲諸王幼沖,無用兵馬以妨要務,又,黃門宦官開立占募,兵民避役,逋逃入占。乞特詔簡閱,一切料出,以補疆埸受敵常處,使臣所部足滿八萬,省息衆務,幷力備禦,無幾無虞。若其不然,深可憂也!臣死之後,乞以西方爲屬。」及卒,吳主使其子晏、景、玄、機、雲分將其兵。機、雲皆善屬文,名重於世。

14. Wu's Grand Marshal, Lu Kang, became deathly ill. He sent up a petition stating, "Xiling and Jianping are the barriers of our state. Since they are along the Yangzi, they touch the enemy's border points on two sides. If the enemy were to sail ships down the Yangzi, they could move against us as quickly as a shooting star or a bolt of lightning, before there could be any hope of other places coming to the defense of those threatened points. This represents the issue of either security or peril for our state; it is no minor matter of slight dangers posed by border raids.

"When my father Lu Xun was in the west, he submitted his own petition stating, 'Xiling is the western gate of our state; although it is easy to defend, it would also be easy to lose. And if it is not defended, it is more than a matter of losing a single commandary; it would mean the loss of Jingzhou for Wu. So if this place is threatened, the whole state must be turned out to contend for control of it.' Before, I begged that thirty thousand elite troops might be sent to garrison here, but the chief military officials stuck to their usual ways, and they never did send the soldiers here.

"After Bu Chan's revolt, this region has suffered from even more exhaustion. I am currently in charge of overseeing a thousand li of land, and must guard against a powerful external foe while appeasing the many Man tribes within. Everywhere I look, I see great expenditures among the soldiers; they have been exhausted for days on end, and it would be hard for them to adapt to any changing circumstances.

"Foolish as I am, I propose that, since the Princes are still young, they have no need for the soldiers and horses which are only hindering them in their duties. Furthermore, court eunuchs have been drafting and enlisting men for their own purposes, compelling soldiers and common people to work on their own projects, and people are even fleeing to join these groups. I beg that you issue a special edict to look into this matter and make full provisions to repair the gaps in our border defenses and confront the constant threats posed by the enemy.

"It would be sufficient to send me eighty thousand men; then the soldiers can recover from their numerous labors. They can combine their strength and prepare our defenses, and then there will be no chance of this place being lost. But if you do not do these things, how deeply will you regret it! After I am dead, I beg you to focus on the west."

Lu Kang then passed away.

Sun Hao divided Lu Kang's authority and his soldiers between his sons Lu Yan, Lu Jing, Lu Xuan, Lu Ji, and Lu Yun. Lu Ji and Lu Yun were both exceptional literary talents, and they had a high reputation in that era.

〈疾有加而無瘳,曰病。〉〈謂二郡爲藩籬於外也。〉〈謂二郡之境,西距巴、夔,北接魏興、上庸,二面皆受敵也。〉〈主者,謂居本兵之職者也。〉〈步闡反見上卷八年。〉〈謂十一王各給三千兵也。〉〈陸抗固知吳之將亡,特就職分上言之耳。〉

(When an illness grows worse and there is no recovery, it is called 病.

Lu Kang meant that Xiling and Jianping were the barriers of the state. As for "border points", to the west they were adjacent to the Ba and Kui regions, and to the north they were adjacent to Weixing and Shangyong; both of those adjacent regions were held by their enemy, Jin.

The "chief military officials" were those who were in charge of the army.

Bu Chan's revolt is mentioned in the last book, in the eighth year of Taishi (272.12, 15-17).

By "the Princes", Lu Kang refers to the eleven Princes of Eastern Wu, to each of whom Sun Hao had assigned three thousand soldiers (273.12 above).

Lu Kang knew that Eastern Wu's demise was imminent, and this was why he submitted such a petition that went beyond his usual duties.)


Lu Kang quotes his father Lu Xun's petition from 222.15 in Fang's Chronicles.

初,周魴之子處,膂力絕人,不修細行,鄕里患之。處嘗問父老曰:「今時和歲豐而人不樂,何邪?」父老歎曰:「三害不除,何樂之有!」處曰:「何謂也?」父老曰:「南山白額虎,長橋蛟,幷子爲三矣。」處曰:「若所患止此,吾能除之。」乃入山求虎,射殺之,因投水,搏殺蛟;遂從機、雲受學,篤志讀書,砥節礪行,比及期年,州府交辟。

15. Zhou Chu was the son of the Wu general Zhou Fang. He had abundant strength surpassing other men, and he did not restrain himself, but did just as he liked. He was a terror in his village.

Zhou Chu asked an elder in the village, "This is a time of peace and plenty, yet the people are not happy. Why is that?"

The elder sighed and told him, "How can we be happy so long as the Three Scourges still remain?"

Zhou Chu asked, "What are these Three Scourges?"

The elder told him, "The White-Crested Tiger of the southern hills is one; the Serpent of Zhangqiao is another. Child, you are the third."

Zhou Chu said, "If that is all they are, I can get rid of them."

So Zhou Chu first went into the hills to seek the Tiger, and he shot it with an arrow and killed it. Then he cast himself into the water, wrestled the Serpent, and killed it too.

Zhou Chu then went to study under Lu Kang's sons Lu Ji and Lu Yun, and wholeheartedly pursued his studies and readings. He improved his behavior and rectified his conduct, and after several years of this, the provincial government summoned him.

〈南山,今湖、秀以南諸山也。長橋,在今常州宜興縣。〉

(These "southern hills" were the southern hills in modern Huzhou and Xiuzhou. Zhangqiao is in modern Yixing County in Changzhou.)


八月,戊申,葬元皇后于峻陽陵。帝及羣臣除喪卽吉,博士陳逵議,以爲「今時所行,漢帝權制;太子無有國事,自宜終服。」尚書杜預以爲「古者天子、諸侯三年之喪,始同齊、斬,旣葬除服,諒闇以居,心喪終制。故周公不言高宗服喪三年而云諒闇,此服心喪之文也;叔向不譏景王除喪而譏其宴樂已早,明旣葬應除,而違諒闇之節也。子之於禮,存諸內而已;禮非玉帛之謂,喪豈衰麻之謂乎!太子出則撫軍,守則監國,不爲無事,宜卒哭除衰麻,而以諒闇終三年。」帝從之。

16. In the eighth month, on the day Wushen (October 6th), Empress Yuan (Yang Yan) was buried at Junyang Tomb.

Following the burial, Sima Yan and his ministers ended their mourning as was auspicious. The Court Academician Chen Kui, discussing the matter, said to them, "At this time, we should conduct ourselves according to the systems of the Han emperors. Since the Crown Prince has no hand in state affairs, he should end his mourning."

But the Master of Writing, Du Yu, said, "When the Sons of Heaven and the feudal lords of old conducted their three years of mourning, they all began and ended their mourning at the same times. After the burial was over, they removed their mourning clothes, but they took up residence in the mourning shed and mourned in their hearts for the full measure. This was why, although the Duke of Zhou did not say that Gaozong kept his mourning clothes for the full three years, he did speak of Gaozong retiring to the mourning shed; he wrote this to express the mourning of Gaozong’s heart. And for the same reason, Shuxiang did not indicate that King Jing of Zhou had actually ended his mourning, but he did indicate that King Jing had begun to delight in feasting far too early. He followed the letter of the law in putting away mourning clothes after the burial had ended, but he violated the spirit of the mourning shed.

"When a man (or, a superior man) practices the rites, in all things he must follow them within as well. As it is said, ‘propriety is more than a matter of gems and silks’; how could it not be the case that mourning is more than a matter of hemps and mourning bands?

"As for the Crown Prince himself, when he goes out he is 'Soother of the Host', while when he remains behind he is 'Inspector of the State'; it cannot be that he has no hand in affairs. Although he removes his mourning band and hemp, the Crown Prince ought to maintain his wailing, and he should dwell in the mourning shed for the full three years."

Sima Yan followed his counsel.

〈謂齊衰、斬衰之服,其始自天子達於庶人,無以異也。〉〈周公作《無逸》曰:其在高宗作其卽位,乃或亮陰三年。杜預遂引此言以爲不服喪之證。〉〈《左傳》:晉荀躒如周葬穆后,旣葬,除喪,以文伯宴。叔向曰:「王其不終乎!吾聞之,所樂必卒焉。今王樂憂,若卒以憂,不可謂終。王一歲而有三年之喪二焉,於是乎以喪賓宴,樂憂甚矣。三年之喪,雖貴遂服,禮也。王雖弗遂,宴樂以早,亦非禮也。」〉〈【章:甲十一行本「子」上有「君」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈《論語》:孔子曰:「禮云禮云,玉帛云乎哉!」〉〈《左傳》:晉大夫里克之言。〉

(Du Yu was saying that when it came to the beginning and ending of mourning periods, there was no distinction made between any from the Son of Heaven to the common people.

The Duke of Zhou wrote this passage in the Against Luxuriousness section of the Book of Documents: "When Gaozong came to the throne, he occupied the mourning shed." Du Yu uses this passage to support his point that the mourning period should not be ended.

The Zuo Commentary records the story of King Jing and Shuxiang: "Xun Li of Jin went to Zhou to attend the funeral of Queen Mu. When the funeral was over, and the King had put off his mourning, he invited Wenbo (Xun Li) to a feast. When Xun Li later told Shuxiang about all this, Shuxiang said, 'The king will, probably, not complete his years. I have heard that a man is sure to die of that in which he delights. Now the king seeks pleasure in the midst of his grief. If he dies [in the midst] of grief, it cannot be said that he has completed his years. In one year, he has experienced two deaths, each of which he should have mourned for three years. At such a time, to feast with the guests at his mourning shows excessively what he delights in in the midst of his grief. When a death that should be mourned for three years has occurred, even the noblest should, according to rule, complete the mourning for it. If the Son of Heaven should not complete that, yet to feast and seek pleasure at an early period, it must be pronounced contrary to propriety.' (Zhao 15.6)"

Some versions have "superior man" instead of simply "man".

The Analects has this passage: "The Master said, 'People claim, 'It is according to the rules of propriety'. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety?' (17.11)"

Du Yu's quote "when the Crown Prince goes out he is 'Soother of the Host', while when he remains behind he is 'Inspector of the State'" comes from Li Ke in the Zuo Commentary (Min 2.8).)


臣光曰:規矩主於方圓,然庸工無規矩則方圓不可得而制也;衰麻主於哀戚,然庸人無衰麻則哀戚不可得而勉也。《素冠》之詩,正爲是矣。杜預飾經、傳以附人情,辯則辯矣,臣謂不若陳逵之言質略而敦實也。

17. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: When taking measurements, the square and the circle are the foundational tools. But it is an inferior craftsman who, lacking these things, cannot attain the measure. In the same way, the hemp and mourning band are the foundational tools of mourning. But it is an inferior man who, lacking them, cannot exert himself in mourning. This is the feeling expressed in the White Cap poem. Du Yu adorns the passages of the Classics and the Zuo Commentary in order to accord with the feelings of men, and so that affairs can be managed. I would say that his counsel was less practical than that of Chen Kui, but more sincere.

〈《詩‧素冠》,刺不能三年也。〉

(In the White Cap poem in the Book of Poetry, the poet laments that he cannot express his three full years of mourning.)


九月,癸亥,以大將軍陳騫爲太尉。

18. In the ninth month, on the day Guihai (October 21st), Jin's Grand General Chen Qian was appointed as Grand Commandant.

杜預以孟津渡險,請建河橋於富平津。議者以爲「殷、周所都,歷聖賢而不作者,必不可立故也。」預固請爲之。及橋成,帝從百寮臨會,舉觴屬預曰:「非君,此橋不立。」對曰:「非陛下之明,臣亦無所施其巧。」

19. Du Yu proposed that, because it was dangerous to cross the Yellow River at Meng Crossing, a bridge over the Yellow River should be built at Fuping Crossing.

There were those who objected, saying, "When the Yin (Shang) and Zhou dynasties set their capitals, there were many sage and worthy men, but they did not build a bridge as he suggests. For that reason, it certainly cannot be done."

But Du Yu insisted, and so the bridge was built.

After the bridge was completed, Sima Yan and his ministers went to the riverbank to view it. Sima Yan raised his wine cup to Du Yu and said, "If not for you, this bridge never would have been completed."

Du Yu replied, "If it were not for Your Majesty's discernment, I never could have made it a reality."

〈《水經註》:孟津又曰富平津。杜佑曰︰富平津在河陽縣南。〉〈殷都河內,周都洛,二代夾河建都,不立河橋,故以爲言。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Meng Crossing is also called Fuping Crossing." Du You remarked, "Fuping Crossing is in the south of Heyang County."

Yin (Shang) had set their capital at Henei, and Zhou had set theirs at Luoyang. Both of them had placed their capitals between the Yellow River, but neither had built a bridge across it. This was the source of the others' objections.)


是歲,邵陵厲公曹芳卒。初,芳之廢遷金墉也,太宰中郎陳留范粲素服拜送,哀動左右;遂稱疾不出,陽狂不言,寢所乘車,足不履地。子孫有婚宦大事,輒密諮焉,合者則色無變,不合則眠寢不安,妻子以此知其旨。子喬等三人,並棄學業,絕人事,侍疾家庭,足不出邑里。及帝卽位,詔以二千石祿養病,加賜帛百匹,喬以父疾篤,辭不敢受。粲不言凡三十六年,年八十四,終於所寢之車。

20. During this year, the former Emperor of Wei, Cao Fang, passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Li of Shaoling.

Before, when Cao Fang had been deposed and moved to the Jinyong fortress, the Palace Gentleman to the Grand Governor, Fan Can of Chenliu, put on plain white clothing and saw him off, and Fan Can's lamentations shook those around him.

Fan Can claimed illness and would not go out, and he acted as though he had a madness that prevented him from speaking. He moved around and slept only in carriages, so that his feet never touched the ground. Whenever his children or grandchildren had some great business like marriage or taking up office, they would always secretly consult him about the matter. If he agreed with what they suggested, he would maintain his usual expression, but if he did not agree, he would act as though he were having a restless slumber. By these things, his wife could understand his intentions.

Three of his sons, including his son Fan Qiao, abandoned their scholarly and business pursuits and cut themselves off from worldly affairs in order to tend to their sick father and his household, and they never set foot outside of their village.

After Sima Yan came to the throne, he ordered Fan Can appointed as a Two Thousand 石 salary official to tend to his illness, and further rewarded him with a hundred bolts of silk. But Fan Qiao said that his father's illness was critical, and he dared not accept these things.

Fan Can refused to speak for thirty-six years, and when he passed away at the age of eighty-four, he was still lying in his carriage.

〈芳之廢也,築宮于河內重門。今言遷金墉,蓋始廢之時,自禁中遷于金墉,後乃居于河內也。〉〈晉旣受禪,避景帝諱,採《周官》名置太宰以代太師。魏因漢制,上公惟有太傅。據《粲傳》,自太宰從事中郎遷太宰中郎。時未置太宰,「宰」,當作「傅」。〉〈陽發見於外,陰蔽伏於中。凡人之作事,外爲是形而內無其實者,皆陽爲之外;若無所營,而內潛經畫,皆陰爲之。〉〈按《晉書》,喬年二歲,祖馨臨終撫其首曰:「恨不見汝成人!」因以所用硯與之。至五歲,祖母以告喬,喬便執硯涕泣。九歲請學,在同輩之中,言無媟辭。李銓常論揚雄才學優於劉向,喬以爲向定一代之書,正羣籍之篇,使雄當之,故非所長,遂著《劉揚優劣論》。前後辟舉,皆不就。邑人臘日盜斫其樹,人有告者,喬陽不聞,邑人愧而歸之。喬曰:「卿節日取柴,欲與父母相歡娛耳,何以愧爲!」嗚呼!觀喬之學行如此,則棄學業絕人事,殆庶幾乎夷、齊餓于首陽之下之意。〉〈自邵陵厲公之廢,至是方二十一年,史因公卒而究言之。〉

(When Cao Fang was deposed, a palace was built for him at Zhongmen in Henei. When the passage says that he was moved to Jinyong, it means at the time when he was first deposed. He was escorted under guard to Jinyong, and afterwards he resided in Henei.

When Jin accepted the abdication from Cao-Wei, in order to avoid the taboo on Sima Shi's given name 師 Shi, they exchanged the office of 太師 Grand Preceptor with that of Grand Governor, which they selected from the Offices of Zhou. Cao-Wei had followed the Han system, in which only the Grand Dukes had Grand Tutors. According to the Biography of Fan Can in the Book of Jin, his position during Cao-Wei changed from Palace Gentleman Attendant Officer to the Grand Governor to that of Palace Gentleman to the Grand Governor. But at this time there was no such office as Grand Governor yet, so he held those subordinate offices under the Grand Tutor, and this passage ought to say Grand Tutor as well.

Fan Can expressed one thing externally, but within he hid another matter. When it comes to interacting with people, if the external condition seems to be one thing, but internally the truth is otherwise, that fits the phrase 陽爲之外. On the other hand, if externally nothing seems amiss, but internally there is some latent issue, that fits the phrase 陰爲之.

According to the Biography of Fan Can in the Book of Jin, when Fan Qiao was two years old, he was at his grandfather Fan Xin's deathbed. Fan Xin stroked Fan Qiao's head and said, "I regret that I shall not be able to see you become a man!" And Fan Xin left his personal inkstone for him. When Fan Qiao became five years old, his grandmother told him about it; Fan Qiao held the inkstone close and wept. Once Fan Qiao turned nine years old, he asked to begin his studies. Whenever he was talking with fellows of the same age, he never used bawdy language. Li Quan often discussed how he believed that the scholar Yang Xiong was superior in talent and scholarship than Liu Xiang. Fan Qiao believed that Liu Xiang was the greatest of his generation, and that considering the collections of all of his writings, he was ahead of Yang Xiong, and this was why he could not be superior. All this was recorded in the text Discussion on the Superiorities and the Shortcomings of Liu Xiang and Yang Xiong. Fan Qiao was frequently offered offices, but he never accepted them. On the day of the winter sacrifice, the people of the village came to chop down his tree and made off with it. But when some of them told him what they had done, he seemed not to hear them. The people of the village were ashamed, and they returned the tree. Fan Qiao said, "You have chosen this day to gather firewood only because you wished to make merry with my mother and father. Where is the shame in that?" Alas! We can see how learned Fan Qiao was, and yet he cast aside his scholarly and business pursuits and cut himself off from the world's affairs, and lived almost as though he were 'Bo Yi and Shu Qi starving at the foot of the Shouyang mountain'.

From Cao Fang being deposed until his death was around twenty-one years; this passage indicates that Fan Can spent all that time without saying a word.)


吳比三年大疫。

21. There was great pestilence in Wu for about three years.
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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:16 pm

咸寧元年(乙未、二七五)

The First Year of Xianning (The Yiwei Year, 275 AD)


春,正月,戊午朔,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Wuwu (February 13th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin. The reign era title was changed to Xianning.

吳掘地得銀尺,上有刻文;吳主大赦,改元天册。

2. In Wu, a piece of silver one 尺 in length was excavated, and there was writing engraved upon it. Sun Hao declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title in Wu to Tiance.

〈《吳志》曰:銀長一尺,廣三分,刻上有年月字。〉

(The Records of Wu states, "The silver was a 尺 in length, and three 分 in breadth. The writing upon it listed the characters for the year and month.")


吳中書令賀卲中風不能言,去職數月。吳主疑其詐,收付酒藏,掠考千數,卒無一言,乃燒鋸斷其頭,徙其家屬於臨海。又誅樓玄子孫。

3. Wu's Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, He Shao, suffered a stroke. He could no longer speak, and he left his office for several months. Sun Hao suspected that He Shao was faking his affliction, so he arrested He Shao, forced wine upon him, and had him interrogated more than a thousand times. He Shao perished without saying a word. Sun Hao then had his head cut off with a heated saw, and he exiled his family to Linhai.

Sun Hao also executed Lou Xuan's sons and grandsons.

〈殺樓玄見上卷泰始八年。〉

(Lou Xuan's death is mentioned in the last book, in the eighth year of Taishi (272.23).)


夏,六月,鮮卑拓跋力微復遣其子沙漠汗入貢,將還,幽州刺史衞瓘表請留之,又密以金賂其諸部大人離間之。

4. In summer, the sixth month, the Xianbei leader Tuoba Liwei once again sent his son Tuoba Shamohan to offer tribute to the Jin court. When Tuoba Shamohan was about to return home, Jin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wei Guan, submitted a request asking to detain him. Wei Guan also secretly bribed the various Xianbei chiefs with gold, in order to sow discord between them.

〈沙漠汗初入貢,見七十八卷元帝景元年。〉〈爲力微信譖殺沙漠汗張本。〉

(Tuoba Shamohan had first come to bring tribute to the Cao-Wei court in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Jingyuan (261.8 in Fang's Chronicles).

Wei Guan's actions were why Tuoba Liwei believed the slander against Tuoba Shamohan and killed him.)


秋,七月,甲申晦,日有食之。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiashen (September 7th), the last day of that month, there was an eclipse.

冬,十二月,丁亥,追尊宣帝廟曰高祖,景帝曰世宗,文帝曰太祖。

6. In winter, the twelfth month, on the day Dinghai (January 8th of 276), temple names were assigned to Sima Yan's ancestors. He honored Sima Yi as Gaozu, Sima Shi as Shizong, and Sima Zhao as Taizu.

大疫,洛陽死者以萬數。

7. There was great pestilence in Jin, and the dead in Luoyang were reckoned in the tens of thousands.
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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:19 pm

二年(丙申、二七六)

The Second Year of Xianning (The Bingshen Year, 276 AD)


春,令狐豐卒,弟宏繼立,楊欣討斬之。

1. In spring, the de facto Administrator of Dunhuang, Linghu Feng, passed away. His younger brother Linghu Hong took over from him. Yang Xin campaigned against Linghu Hong and killed him.

〈豐自爲敦煌太守,見上卷泰始八年。〉

(Linghu Feng's assuming power as Administrator of Dunhuang is mentioned in the last book, in the eighth year of Taishi (272.14).)


帝得疾甚劇,及愈,羣臣上壽。詔曰:「每念疫氣死亡者,爲之愴然。豈以一身之休息,忘百姓之艱難邪!諸上禮者,皆絕之。」

2. Sima Yan himself became seriously ill. However, he recovered, and the officials toasted his longevity.

Sima Yan issued an edict stating, "Whenever I considered those who had perished from the pestilence, I felt deep sorrow for them. How could I let myself be at ease while forgetting the sufferings of the people? Let all the higher ceremonies and rites be dispensed with."

初,齊王攸有寵於文帝,每見攸,輒撫牀呼其小字曰:「此桃符座也!」幾爲太子者數矣。臨終,爲帝敍漢淮南王、魏陳思王事而泣,執攸手以授帝。太后臨終,亦流涕謂帝曰:「桃符性急,而汝爲兄不慈,我若不起,必恐汝不能相容,以是屬汝,勿忘我言!」及帝疾甚,朝野皆屬意於攸。攸妃,賈充之長女也。河南尹夏侯和謂充曰:「卿二壻,親疏等耳。立人當立德。」充不答。攸素惡荀勗及左衞將軍馮紞傾諂,勗乃使紞說帝曰:「陛下前日疾若不愈,齊王爲公卿百姓所歸,太子雖欲高讓,其得免乎!宜遣還藩,以安社稷。」帝陰納之,乃徙和爲光祿勳,奪充兵權,而位遇無替。

3. Before, the Prince of Qi, Sima You, had been greatly favored by Sima Zhao. Whenever Sima Zhao would see Sima You, he would address him by his childhood name; patting a spot on his couch, he would say, "Taofu, come and sit here!" And Sima Zhao had often considered making Sima You the Crown Prince.

When Sima Zhao was on his deathbed, he had reminded Sima Yan about the affairs of Han's Prince of Huainan (Liu Chang) and Wei's Prince of Chenliu (Cao Zhi) with tears in his eyes, and he grasped Sima You's hand and charged him to assist Sima Yan. And when Empress Dowager Wang Yuanji was on her deathbed, she also wept as she told Sima Yan, "Taofu has an eager nature, but you lack the affection of an elder brother. If I do not rise from this bed, I will certainly be afraid that you two will not be able to get along with each other. He is dependent upon you. Do not forget what I tell you!"

When Sima Yan himself lay gravely ill, both the court and the people all believed that Sima You would succeed him. Sima You's concubine was Jia Chong's eldest daughter. The Intendant of Henan, Xiahou He, said to Jia Chong, "You have these two sons-in-law (Sima Zhong and Sima You), and you need only choose between them. When choosing a man, choose the virtuous one." Jia Chong had made no reply.

Sima You had long disliked Xun Xu and the Guard General of the Left, Feng Dan, for their fawning behavior. So Xun Xu sent Feng Dan to say to Sima Yan, "Your Majesty, during the days when it seemed you would not recover from your illness, the Prince of Qi had all the nobles and officials submit to him. Although the Crown Prince wished to magnanimously give way to him, such a thing must be avoided! You should send the Prince back to his border post at once, in order to secure the state."

Sima Yan secretly believed him, and he reassigned Xiahou He as Superintendent of the Imperial Court and deprived Jia Chong of his military authority. But Jia Chong's positions and treatment at court remained otherwise unchanged.

〈事見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉〈漢文帝誅淮南厲王長,魏文帝不能容陳思王植,引此二事以戒切帝也。〉〈充先娶李氏,豐女也,生二女,長曰荃,爲齊王攸妃。〉〈二壻,謂攸及太子也。〉〈充自文帝時領兵。〉

(Sima Zhao's consideration of Sima You as Crown Prince is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Xianxi (264.45 in Fang's Chronicles, where he is called Sima Yu).

Emperor Wen of Han had executed Prince Li of Huainan, his brother Liu Chang; Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) could not put up with Prince Si of Chenliu, his brother Cao Zhi. Sima Zhao used these two examples to instruct and warn Sima Yan.

Jia Chong had married Lady Li, the daughter of Li Feng, and had two daughters by her. The elder daughter was named Jia Quan, and she became Sima You's concubine. When Xiahou He says 'you have these two sons-in-law', he means Sima You and Sima Zhong, who was married to his other daughter, Jia Nanfeng.

Jia Chong had held military authority since Sima Zhao's day.)


吳施但之亂,或譖京下督孫楷於吳主曰:「楷不時赴討,懷兩端。」吳主數詰讓之,徵爲宮下鎭、驃騎將軍。楷自疑懼,夏,六月,將妻子來奔,拜車騎將軍,封丹陽侯。

4. During Shi Dan's rebellion in Wu, someone had slandered the Commander of the Lower Capital Region, Sun Kai, to Sun Hao. They had told Sun Hao, "Sun Kai had not come quickly to deal with the rebels, because he meant to play both sides." Sun Hao had Sun Kai closely questioned several times, and he reassigned him as Guardian of the Lower Palace and General of Agile Cavalry. Sun Kai became apprehensive, so in summer, the sixth month, he fled to Jin with his wife and children. Jin appointed him as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Marquis of Danyang.

〈事見上卷泰始二年。〉〈京下督鎭京口。宮下鎭在建業。楷,孫韶之子。〉

(Shi Dan's rebellion is mentioned in the last book, in the second year of Taishi (266.21).

The Commander of the Lower Capital Region guarded Jingkou. The Guardian of the Lower Palace was stationed at Jianye itself.

This Sun Kai was the son of Sun Shao.)


秋,七月,吳人或言於吳主曰:「臨平湖自漢末薉塞,長老言:『此湖塞,天下亂;此湖開,天下平。』近無故忽更開通,此天下當太平,青蓋入洛之祥也。」吳主以問奉禁都尉歷陽陳訓,對曰:「臣止能望氣,不能達湖之開塞。」退而告其友曰:「青蓋入洛者,將有銜璧之事,非吉祥也。」

5. In autumn, the seventh month, some of the people of Wu said to Sun Hao, "Ever since the end of Han, Lake Linping has been stopped up by weeds. The elders would say, 'So long as this lake is stopped up, the realm will be in turmoil. But when the lake is open again, the realm shall know peace.' Recently, for no reason, the lake suddenly opened up again. This shows that the realm will soon know great peace, just as in the omen of your green canopy entering Luoyang."

Sun Hao asked the Commandant of the Attendants and Guards, Li Yang, to explain the matter. Li Yang replied, "I can only read the ethers; I cannot interpret the opening or stopping up of lakes." Li Yang then withdrew, and he mentioned to his friends, "This matter of the green canopy entering Luoyang will soon become a 'holding the jade in the mouth' affair (indicating surrender); it is no good omen."

〈臨平湖,今在臨安府仁和縣界,有臨平鎭,在臨安府城西北四十八里。〉〈青蓋之占,見上卷泰始八年。〉〈吳置奉禁都尉,蓋以侍奉宮禁爲稱。〉

(Lake Linping was within the territory of modern Renhe County in Lin'an commandary. There is a Linping Garrison, forty-eight li northwest of Fucheng in Lin'an.

The fortune predicting Sun Hao's green canopy would enter Luoyang is mentioned in the last book, in the eighth year of Taishi (272.18).

Eastern Wu had created the office of Commandant of the Attendants and Guards. It oversaw the palace servants and guards.)


或獻小石刻「皇帝」字,云得於湖邊;吳主大赦,改元天璽。

6. Someone presented to Sun Hao a little stone with the characters for "Emperor" carved into it, saying they had found it beside the lake. Sun Hao declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title again to Tianxi.

湘東太守張詠不出算緡,吳主就在所斬之,徇首諸郡。會稽太守車浚公清有政績,值郡旱饑,表求振貸,吳主以爲收私恩,遣使梟首。尚書熊睦微有所諫,吳主以刀鐶撞殺之,身無完肌。

7. Wu's Administrator of Xiangdong, Zhang Yong, did not send in the taxes collected on mercantile affairs. Sun Hao had him beheaded, and sent his head around various commandaries.

The Administrator of Kuaiji, Che Jun, was just, pure, and had many administrative achievements. When his commandary happened to suffer from famine and hunger, Che Jun sent in a request for aid. Sun Hao believed that he was currying private favor, so he sent officials to behead Che Jun and display his head as punishment.

The Master of Writing, Xiong Mu, offered some slight remonstrations. Sun Hao beat him to death with the ring of his sword, and then flayed the skin from his body.

〈吳主亮太平二年,分長沙東部都尉立湘東郡。〉〈車姓,出於田千秋。〉〈黃帝有熊氏,《姓譜》:楚鬻熊之後。此以名爲氏者也。〉〈史詳言吳主之昏虐。〉

(In Sun Liang's second year of Taiping (257), he had split off the eastern command posts of Changsha commandary and formed Xiangdong commandary.

The surname 車 Che comes from Tian Qianqiu.

There had been a Master 熊 Xiong with the Yellow Emperor. The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 熊 Xiong are the descendants of Yu Xiong of Chu. His given name became the name of their clan."

This passage demonstrates Sun Hao's wanton cruelty.)


八月,己亥,以何曾爲太傅,陳騫爲大司馬,賈充爲太尉,齊王攸爲司空。

8. In the eighth month, on the day Jihai (September 16th), Sima Yan appointed He Zeng as Grand Tutor, Chen Qian as Grand Marshal, Jia Chong as the new Grand Commandant, and Sima You as Minister of Works.

吳歷陽山有七穿騈羅,穿中黃赤,俗謂之石印,云:「石印封發,天下當太平。」歷陽長上言石印發,吳主遣使者以太牢祠之。使者作高梯登其上,以朱書石曰:「楚九州渚,吳九州都。揚州士,作天子,四世治,太平始。」還以聞。吳主大喜,封其山神爲王,大赦,改明年元曰天紀。

9. At Mount Liyang in Wu, there were seven great burrows parallel to one another. The inside of the burrows was yellow and crimson. People claimed that there was a stone with writing on it, and they claimed, "Since this printed stone has been discovered, peace will come to the realm." The Mayor of Liyang sent up a report stating that the printed stone had been excavated, and Sun Hao sent an emissary to Liyang to make sacrifices and honor it.

The emissary built a tall ladder so he could climb onto the stone, where he saw these words printed in crimson: "Chu shall be the redoubt of the Nine Provinces. Wu shall be the capital of the Nine Provinces. The gentleman of Yangzhou shall be the Son of Heaven. After four eras have ruled, the age of peace will arrive."

The emissary returned and reported these things. Sun Hao was greatly pleased, and he appointed the spirit of the mountain as a Prince. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title for the following year to Tianji.

〈據《吳志》:鄱陽上言:歷陽山石文理成字。又《江表傳》曰:歷陽縣有石山,臨水高百丈,其三十丈所有七穿騈羅。今考《晉志》,鄱陽郡無歷陽縣,有歷陵縣。「陽」,當作「陵」。今《饒州圖經》亦載鄱陽歷陵縣有石印山。〉

(According to the Records of Wu, a report came in from Poyang stating, "A stone with raised characters on it has been discovered at Mount Liyang." The Jiangbiaozhuan states, "There was a mountain in Liyang County, facing the river and a hundred zhang in height. Thirty-six zhang up, it had seven great burrows in parallel." Now according to the Records of Jin, Poyang commandary did not have a Liyang County, but it did have a Liling County. So the Liyang in this passage should be Liling. And according to the modern Atlas Classic of Raozhou, there is a Mount Shiyin ("Mount Inscripted Stone") at Liling County in Poyang commandary.)


冬,十月,以汝陰王駿爲征西大將軍,羊祜爲征南大將軍,皆開府辟召,儀同三司。

10. In winter, the tenth month, Sima Yan appointed the Prince of Ruyin, Sima Jun, as Grand General Who Conquers The West, and he appointed Yang Hu as Grand General Who Conquers The South. Both were granted general powers of governing, recruiting, and gathering soldiers, and they held authority equal to the Three Excellencies.

〈此位從公也。〉

(This position was below that of Dukes.)


祜上疏請伐吳曰:「先帝西平巴、蜀,南和吳、會,庶幾海內得以休息;而吳復背信,使邊事更興。夫期運雖天所授,而功業必因人而成,不一大舉掃滅,則兵役無時得息也。蜀平之時,天下皆謂吳當幷亡,自是以來,十有三年矣。夫謀之雖多,決之欲獨。凡以險阻得全者,謂其勢均力敵耳。若輕重不齊,強弱異勢,雖有險阻,不可保也。蜀之爲國,非不險也,皆云一夫荷戟,千人莫當。及進兵之日,曾無藩籬之限,乘勝席卷,徑至成都,漢中諸城,皆鳥栖而不敢出,非無戰心,誠力不足以相抗也。及劉禪請降,諸營堡索然俱散。今江、淮之險不如劍閣,孫晧之暴過於劉禪,吳人之困甚於巴、蜀,而大晉兵力盛於往時,不於此際平壹四海,而更阻兵相守,使天下困於征戍,經歷盛衰,不可長久也。今若引梁、益之兵水陸俱下,荊、楚之衆進臨江陵,平南、豫州直指夏口,徐、揚、青、兗並會秣陵;以一隅之吳當天下之衆,勢分形散,所備皆急。巴、漢奇兵出其空虛,一處傾壞,則上下震蕩,雖有智者不能爲吳謀矣。吳緣江爲國,東西數千里,所敵者大,無有寧息。孫晧恣情任意,與下多忌,將疑於朝,士困於野,無有保世之計,一定之心;平常之日,猶懷去就,兵臨之際,必有應者,終不能齊力致死,已可知也。其俗急速不能持久,弓弩戟楯不如中國;唯有水戰是其所便,一入其境,則長江非復所保,還趣城池,去長入短,非吾敵也。官軍縣進,人有致死之志,吳人內顧,各有離散之心,如此,軍不踰時,克可必矣。」帝深納之。而朝議方以秦、涼爲憂,祜復表曰:「吳平則胡自定,但當速濟大功耳。」議者多有不同,賈充、荀勗、馮紞尤以伐吳爲不可。祜歎曰:「天下不如意事十常居七、八。天與不取,豈非更事者恨於後時哉!」唯度支尚書杜預、中書令張華與帝意合,贊成其計。

11. Yang Hu sent up a petition requesting a campaign against Wu. The petition stated, "His Late Majesty (Sima Zhao) pacified the lands of Ba and Shu in the west, and made peace with the lands of Wu and Kuaiji in the south. Thus were the people within the seas able to attain a moment's rest. But then Wu broke their peace agreements, and caused even greater incidents on the border. When the time to act has arrived, although Heaven may provide assistance in its own way, success shall not be realized without the actions of men. If we do not launch a grand undertaking now to sweep aside and vanquish the foe, then the soldiers must be kept ever ready and will never have a time for repose.

“When Shu was conquered, the whole realm said that Wu ought to be annexed as well. It has been thirteen years since that time. Although men may develop many strategies, only one of them can be decided upon. There are those who say that natural defenses are everything, and believe that such things can counter the strength of an enemy. But if there is already a difference in strength, and the strong and the weak are not of the same power, then even if the one side has natural defenses, those defenses cannot protect them.

“If we consider the state of Shu, it did not lack natural defenses. Everyone said of Shu’s defenses that one man armed with spear could hold back a thousand enemies. Yet on the day our soldiers in advanced into Shu, though Shu did have such border defenses, we won victories as easily as rolling up a carpet; we advanced all the way to Chengdu, while the fortresses of Hanzhong sat by like birds on their perches and did not dare to march out. It is not that the enemy had no heart for battle, but it was because their strength was not sufficient to oppose us. And when Liu Shan asked to surrender, their camps and forts all submitted and dispersed.

“Now the natural defenses of the Yangzi and the Huai River do not compare with that of Jiange. Sun Hao's cruelty exceeds that of Liu Shan's, and the people of Wu suffer much more than the people of Ba and Shu did. Furthermore, the strength of our soldiers in Jin has been flourishing all the more. If we do not take this moment to pacify all within the Four Seas, then the soldiers and defenses of both sides will be locked into stalemate: the realm will be burdened by the campaigns and garrisons, sufferings will grow and grow, and the situation could not be sustained for long.

“This is what I propose: the armies of Lianzhou and Yizhou should advance together by land and by water. The armies of Jingzhou and Chu should be brought up to the riverbank at Jiangling. The armies of the General Who Pacifies The South (Hu Fen) and the Inspector of Yuzhou (Wang Rong) should advance to Xiakou. The armies of Xuzhou, Yangzhou, Qingzhou, and Yanzhou should all combine their forces at Moling (Jianye). Wu occupies only its corner, and faced with the forces of all the realm, it shall have to divide its soldiers and disperse its power, so all its defenses shall be overwhelmed. The elite soldiers of Ba and Han can pierce Wu's weak points, and then the state will tumble and collapse in one stroke; even if they had a man of intelligence, he could devise no strategy to save Wu. Wu’s great bulwark is the Yangzi, stretching thousands of li from east to west. But against so great an enemy, it can provide them no security.

“Sun Hao is a wanton and arbitrary ruler, very suspicious of his subjects. His generals are uncertain of their court, and his gentry toil in the fields. He has no strategy to safeguard his legacy or settle the hearts of the people. Even on a normal day, there are those who desire to abandon him. When his soldiers encounter actual danger, certainly there are those who will follow him, but in the end they will not fight to the death on his behalf, as we already know. Their men exert themselves and are quick to battle, but they are unable to endure. Their bows, crossbows, spears, and shields cannot compare with those of the Middle Kingdom. It is only in naval warfare where they are superior, but once we enter their territory, the Yangzi can no longer protect them, and then they shall have to fall back upon their walls and moats. They will be abandoning their advantages in favor of their disadvantages, where they are no match for us. When our army marches forth, the men will have the ardor of fighting even unto death, while the people of Wu will be internally conflicted, and each man will think only of where he can flee to. In such a situation, even without the army taking much time, our victory will be certain."

Sima Yan agreed with his thoughts. But the court was concerned about the situation in Qinzhou and Liangzhou.

Yang Hu submitted another petition stating, "Once Wu is pacified, the barbarians will settle down of their own accord. Only you must act quickly to secure the great achievement."

But most of the court ministers did not agree, with Jia Chong, Xun Xu, and Feng Dan especially opposing a campaign against Wu.

Yang Hu sighed and said, "In every affair, there are usually seven or eight people out of every ten who oppose the idea. If we do not accept what Heaven is offering, surely we shall regret it all the more later!"

Only the Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing, Du Yu, and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Hua, agreed with Sima Yan's stance on the campaign, and approved of his plans.

〈陸抗沒,羊祜始抗疏請伐吳。〉〈見七十八卷魏元帝景元四年。〉〈見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉〈事見上卷泰始元年。〉〈景元四年蜀亡,至是十三年。〉〈謂漢、樂諸城也。〉〈謂兵將以盛壯之年出戍,經歷營陳,至於衰者也。〉〈王濬、唐彬統梁、益兵。〉〈荊、楚,祜所統也。〉〈胡奮爲平南將軍;王戎爲豫州刺史。〉〈徐、揚,王渾所統;青、兗,琅邪王伷所統。〉〈其後平吳皆如祜所規。〉〈謂樹機能未平也。〉〈言吳可取而不取,機會一失,經見其事者,豈不有後時之恨!〉〈魏置度支尚書。〉

(Now that Lu Kang was gone, Yang Hu began to submit petitions requesting a campaign against Eastern Wu.

Cao-Wei's conquest of Shu-Han is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) fourth year of Jingyuan (263).

Cao-Wei's peace agreement with Eastern Wu is mentioned in the same book, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's first year of Xianxi (264.44 in Fang's Chronicles).

Sun Hao's breaking off of relations with Jin is mentioned in the last book, in the first year of Taishi (265.8).

Shu-Han had been conquered in the fourth year of Jingyuan (263), so it had been thirteen years between that year and this one.

By "the cities of Hanzhong", Yang Hu means Han, Luo, and the other cities in that area.

When Yang Hu says "the situation could not be sustained for long", he refers to how the number of soldiers and officers would have to grow year by year, with greater numbers of camps and garrisons, which would cause sorrow to the people.

Regarding the commanders of the forces which Yang Hu suggests make these military movements, Wang Jun and Tang Bin were in command of the soldiers of Lianzhou and Yizhou; Jingzhou and the Chu region were under Yang Hu's own command; Hu Fen was the General Who Pacifies The South and Wang Rong was the Inspector of Yuzhou; Wang Hun held the command over Xuzhou and Yangzhou; and Sima You was in command over Qingzhou and Yanzhou. When the actual conquest of Eastern Wu was carried out, the troop movements were all exactly as Yang Hu suggested here.

Qinzhou and Liangzhou were still in turmoil because Tufa Shujineng had not yet been pacified.

Yang Hu's final lament in this passage was that if Eastern Wu could be conquered, and yet was not, then the opportunity to conquer it would slip away, and once this fact was realized, how could the people of later times not regret it?

Cao-Wei had created the office of Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing.)


丁卯,立皇后楊氏,大赦。后,元皇后之從妹也,美而有婦德。帝初聘后,后叔父珧上表曰:「自古一門二后,未有能全其宗者,乞藏此表於宗廟,異日如臣之言,得以免禍。」帝許之。

12. On the day Dingmao (December 13th), Sima Yan made Lady Yang Zhi his Empress, and he declared a general amnesty. Yang Zhi was the cousin of Empress Yuan (Yang Yan). She was beautiful and possessed of wifely virtues.

When Sima Yan had first been betrothed to Yang Zhi, her uncle Yang Yao had sent up a petition stating, "Since old times, whenever the same household has provided two empresses, it has never been able to save every member of its clan. I beg that you hide this petition in the ancestral temple, and if by chance a day should come which seems to agree with what I have just said, then I may use this petition to avoid disaster." Sima Yan agreed to his request.

〈珧雖有此表,終不能以免禍。〉

(Although Yang Yao had this petition, in the end, it could not save him from disaster.)


十二月,以后父鎭軍將軍駿爲車騎將軍,封臨晉侯。尚書褚䂮、郭奕皆表駿小器,不可任社稷之重。帝不從。駿驕傲自得,胡奮謂駿曰:「卿恃女更益豪邪!歷觀前世,與天家婚,未有不滅門者,但早晚事耳。」駿曰:「卿女不在天家乎?」奮曰:「我女與卿女作婢耳,何能爲損益乎!」

13. In the twelfth month, the General Who Guards The Army, Yang Zhi's father Yang Jun, was appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Marquis of Linjin. The Masters of Writing, Chu Lüe and Guo Yi, both petitioned that Yang Jun was a man of meager talents, and could not be entrusted with important matters of state. Sima Yan ignored them.

Yang Jun began to grow very arrogant and proud because of his new position. Hu Fen said to him, "You are acting like more of a braggart just because of your daughter's position! One can see from history that those connected with the heavenly family by marriage have never yet escaped the fate of having their clans exterminated. You will suffer the same fate, sooner or later."

Yang Jun asked him, "Isn't your own daughter also connected to the heavenly family?"

Hu Fen replied, "My daughter merely works as a servant girl for yours; how can that have any effect on my rise or fall?"

〈國號晉而封后父爲臨晉侯,不祥之徵也。〉〈天子尊無二上,故曰天家,言其尊如天也。〉

(The state itself was called 晉 Jin, and yet the Empress's father was given the title Marquis of 臨晉 Linjin. This was an inauspicious portent.

There can be no other person who is as honored as the Son of Heaven, so his family is called the heavenly family, since he is as honored as Heaven is.)
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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:21 pm

三年(丁酉、二七七)

The Third Year of Xianning (The Dingyou Year, 277 AD)


春,正月,丙子朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Bingzi (February 20th), there was an eclipse.

立皇子裕爲始平王;庚寅,裕卒。

2. Sima Yan had appointed his son Sima Yu as Prince of Shiping. On the day Gengyin (March 6th), Sima Yu passed away.

三月,平虜護軍文鴦督涼、秦、雍州諸軍討樹機能,破之,諸胡二十萬口來降。

3. In the third month, the Army Protector Who Pacifies The Caitiffs, Wen Yang, led the armies of Qinzhou and Yongzhou to campaign against Tufa Shujineng. Wen Yang routed him, and he accepted the surrender of two hundred thousand various tribesmen.

夏,五月,吳將邵顗、夏祥帥衆七千餘人來降。

4. In summer, the fifth month, the Wu generals Shao Yi and Xia Xiang led a group of more than seven thousand people to come surrender to Jin.

〈《考異》曰:《武紀》作邵凱,今從《羊祜傳》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) in the Book of Jin record this first general as Shao Kai. But I follow the account of the Biography of Yang Hu in the Book of Jin.")


秋,七月,中山王睦坐招誘逋亡,貶爲丹水縣侯。

5. In autumn, the seventh month, Jin's Prince of Zhongshan, Sima Mu, was charged with recruiting people for his own purposes and helping them to avoid their draft duties. He was demoted to Marquis of Danshui County.

有星孛于紫宮。

6. There were shooting stars in the Purple Palace portion of the night sky.

衞將軍楊珧等建議,以爲「古者封建諸侯,所以藩衞王室;今諸王公皆在京師,非扞城之義。又,異姓諸將居邊,宜參以親戚。」帝乃詔諸王各以戶邑多少爲三等,大國置三軍五千人,次國二軍三千人,小國一軍一千一百人;諸王爲都督者,各徙其國使相近。八月,癸亥,徙扶風王亮爲汝南王,出爲鎭南大將軍,都督豫州諸軍事;琅邪王倫爲趙王,督鄴城守事;勃海王輔爲太原王,監幷州諸軍事;以東莞王伷在徐州,徙封琅邪王;汝陰王駿在關中,徙封扶風王;又徙太原王顒爲河間王;汝南王柬爲南陽王。輔,孚之子;顒,孚之孫也。其無官者,皆遣就國。諸王公戀京師,皆涕泣而去。又封皇子瑋爲始平王,允爲濮陽王,該爲新都王,遐爲清河王。

7. Jin’s Guard General, Yang Yao, and others held council, and said to Sima Yan, "In ancient times, the reasons that the feudal lords were granted their titles was so that they could guard the borders in order to protect the royal family. But now, the Princes and Dukes are all in residence at the capital, which is contrary to their duties of guarding their cities. Furthermore, the people who actually are on the borders of the state are those who are not of the same family as the royal clan. You should have them be advised by your relatives."

So Sima Yan issued an edict dividing the fiefs of the various Princes into three tiers. The largest fiefs would have command of three armies made up of five thousand men; the next largest fiefs would have command of two armies, with three thousand men; the smallest fiefs, one army and eleven hundred men. The Princes, being made Commanders, would thus each be sent to reside in their fiefs to be close at hand to their soldiers.

In the eighth month, on the day Guihai (?), Sima Yan made adjustments to the ranks and titles of several of the Princes. The Prince of Fufeng, Sima Liang, was made Prince of Runan, Grand General Who Guards The South, and Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou. The Prince of Langye, Sima Lun, was made Prince of Zhao and charged with defending Ye. The Prince of Bohai, Sima Fu, was made Prince of Taiyuan and Chief of military affairs in Bingzhou. Since the Prince of Dongguan, Sima Zhou, was in Xuzhou, he was made the new Prince of Langye. Since the Prince of Ruyin, Sima Jun, was in Guanzhong, he was made the new Prince of Fufeng. Sima Yan also made the Prince of Taiyuan, Sima Yong, into the Prince of Hejian, and he made the current Prince of Runan, Sima Jian, into the Prince of Nanyang. This Sima Fu was the son of the late Sima Fu, Prince Xian of Anping, and Sima Yong was his grandson.

Those princes who held no government office were all sent to their fiefs. The various Princes and Dukes all loved being in the capital, and they wept at being sent away.

Sima Yan also appointed several more of his own sons as Princes. Sima Wei was appointed as Prince of Shiping, Sima Yun was appointed Prince of Puyang, Sima Gai was appointed Prince of Xindu, and Sima Xia was appointed Prince of Qinghe.

〈《考異》曰:《職官志》以爲珧與荀勗以齊王攸有時望,懼太子有後難,故建此議,使諸王之國。帝初未之察,於是下詔議其制。按《勗傳》有異議,又,時齊王不之國,疑此說非實。今不取。〉〈時以平原、汝南、琅邪、扶風、齊爲大國,梁、趙、樂安、燕、安平、義陽爲次國,餘國爲小國。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "According to the Records of Government Service in the Book of Jin, Yang Yao and Xun Xu proposed moving the princes to their fiefs because Sima You enjoyed popularity at that time, and they feared that the Crown Prince (Sima Zhong) might face difficulties later on because of that. Sima Yan had not yet looked closely into the issue, so he sent down an edict ordering them to discuss a system for it. But according to the Biography of Xun Xu in the Book of Jin, Xun Xu actually disagreed with the proposal. Furthermore, at this time, Sima You was not at his fief. I suspect that these sayings were untrue, so I did not include them."

At this time, the fiefs of the greatest tier were Pingyuan, Runan, Langye, Fufeng, and Qi. The next greatest fiefs were Liang, Zhao, Le'an, Yan, Anping, and Yiyang. All the other fiefs were of the smallest tier.)


其異姓之臣有大功者,皆封郡公、郡侯。封賈充爲魯郡公。追封王沈爲博陵郡公。

8. Those ministers who were not of the royal clan but who had made great achievements were all appointed as Dukes of commandaries or Marquises of counties. Jia Chong was appointed Duke of Lu commandary. Wang Chen's posthumous title was changed to Duke of Boling commandary.

徙封鉅平侯羊祜爲南城郡侯,祜固辭不受。祜每拜官爵,常多讓,至心素著,故特見申於分列之外。祜歷事二世,職典樞要,凡謀議損益,皆焚其草,世莫得聞;所進達之皆不知所由。常曰:「拜官公朝,謝恩私門,吾所不敢也。」

9. Yang Hu’s title was changed from Marquis of Juping to Marquis of Nancheng commandary. However, Yang Hu firmly declined it and would not accept it. Whenever Yang Hu was granted ranks or titles, he would usually decline them many times until his heart was satisfied; this was why he was treated with special indulgence in the matter of ranks and titles.

Yang Hu served under two generations of rulers, and in offices and canons he played a pivotal role. Many people tried to plot and discuss with him on how he could help them advance themselves, but Yang Hu always burned their writings, and never lent an ear to their words. Whenever he did help with someone's advancement, he never let them know that he was the one responsible. Yang Hu often said, "I dare not be the kind of man who uses the powers of my office and of the court to gain favors and build private advantages."

〈時詔以泰山之南武陽、牟、南城、梁父、平陽五縣爲南城郡。羊祜本泰山南城人也。帝制公侯邑萬戶以上爲大國,五千戶以上爲次國,不滿五千戶爲小國。〉〈見申,謂許之辭爵,其志獲申也。分列,謂分封列爵也。〉〈謂事文帝及帝也。〉〈謂人由祜薦引而進達,不知其所由來也。〉

(At this time, Sima Yan had split off part of southern Taishan commandary to form Nancheng commandary. Nancheng was made up of the five counties of Wuyang, Mou, Nancheng, Liangfu, and Pingyang. Yang Hu was himself a native of Nancheng County in Taishan commandary. Under Sima Yan's system for Dukes and Marquises, the greatest fiefs had villages totaling more than ten thousand households; the next greatest fiefs, more than five thousand households; and the smallest fiefs, less than five thousand households.

By "indulgence", it means he was treated with courtesy when it came to his repeatedly declining the offered ranks and titles.

Yang Hu had served under Sima Zhao and Sima Yan.

When someone gained success due to Yang Hu's recommendations, they did not know that he was the source of it.)


兗、豫、青、徐、荊、益、梁七州大水。

10. There were great floods in the seven provinces of Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Jingzhou, Yizhou, and Lianzhou.

冬,十二月,吳夏口督孫愼入江夏、汝南,略千餘家而去。詔遣侍臣詰羊祜不追討之意,幷欲移荊州。祜曰:「江夏去襄陽八百里,比知賊問,賊已去經日,步軍安能追之!勞師以免責,非臣志也。昔魏武帝置都督,類皆與州相近,以兵勢好合惡離故也。疆埸之間,一彼一此,愼守而已。若輒徙州,賊出無常,亦未知州之所宜據也。」

11. In winter, the twelfth month, Wu's Commander of Xiakou, Sun Shen, invaded Jiangxia and Runan. Sun Shen captured more than a thousand families before returning to Wu.

Sima Yan sent his ministers to scold Yang Hu for not pursuing Sun Shen and attacking him, and they wished for him to move to Jingzhou. Yang Hu said, "Jiangxia is eight hundred li from Xiangyang; by the time we had heard of the invaders, they would have already been gone for days. How could the infantry ever catch up with them? I have no intention of troubling the soldiers just to escape censure myself.

“Years ago, when Emperor Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) created the Commanders, they were of a similar sort to provincial ministers, and they kept their strength together so that the combined power of the soldiers would be a match for any scattered detachment of the enemy. On the borders, when the enemy is like this, we ought to guard ourselves carefully most of all. If we are always shifting around the provinces, then when the enemy makes some unusual invasion, we shall not know which places in the province we ought to rely upon."

〈江夏郡屬荊州,汝南郡屬豫州,相去甚遠。沈約《宋志》:江夏太守治汝南縣,本沙羨土,晉末汝南郡民流寓夏口,因立爲汝南,則此江夏郡未有汝南縣也,無亦史追書乎!〉〈如揚州刺史治壽春,都督揚州諸軍事亦治壽春之類。〉〈《左傳》魯桓公曰:「疆埸之間,愼守其一,而備其不虞。」〉

(Jiangxia commandary was part of Jingzhou, while Runan commandary was part of Yuzhou; they were a considerable distance from one another. Shen Yue's Records of Liu-Song states, "The Administrator of Jiangxia governed the territory from Runan County. It was originally the land of Shayi, but in the final years of Jin, the people of Runan commandary fled that place and settled at Xiakou, and that place was made Runan." So this Jiangxia commandary did not yet have a Runan County, yet the historian backdates it!

Regarding the Inspectors and Commanders, for instance, if the Inspector of Yangzhou had his base at Shouchun, then the Commander of the armies of Yangzhou would also have his base there.

In the Zuo Commentary, Duke Huan of Lu says, "On the borders it is for you carefully to guard your own particular charge, and to be prepared for anything unexpected. (Huan 17.3)")


是歲,大司馬陳騫自揚州入朝,以高平公罷。

12. During this year, Chen Qian returned from Yangzhou and entered the court, where he was appointed Duke of Gaoping.

吳主以會稽張俶多所譖白,甚見寵任,累遷司直中郎將,封侯。其父爲山陰縣卒,知俶不良,上表曰:「若用俶爲司直,有罪乞不從坐。」吳主許之。俶表置彈曲二十人,專糾司不法,於是吏民各以愛憎互相告訐,獄犴盈溢,上下囂然。俶大爲姦利,驕奢暴橫,事發,父子皆車裂。

13. Sun Hao often listened to the slanders and false reports given to him by a certain Zhang Chu of Kuaiji. He greatly favored Zhang Chu, and gave him many offices. Zhang Chu eventually became Director of Justice, General of the Household Gentlemen, and a Marquis.

Zhang Chu's father was a gentleman living in Shanyin County; he knew that his son was not a good man, so he sent up a petition stating, "If you use my son as Director of Justice, and he commits some crime, I beg that you do not charge me as well." Sun Hao agreed to the request.

Zhang Chu employed twenty people as musicians, and he conducted all of his affairs lawlessly. Whether out of love or hate, all the ministers and common people informed on each other's misdeeds to him. The prisons were soon filled to the brim, while hue and cry spread on every side. Zhang Chu made many perverse profits, and he was arrogant, impulsive, and cruel.

When all these things came to light, Sun Hao had both Zhang Chu and his father torn apart by chariots.

〈山陰縣屬會稽郡。〉〈犴,野犬也。野犬所以守,故爲獄,又胡地謂犬爲犴。〉

(Shanyin County was part of Kuaiji commandary.

The term 犴 means a wild dog. Wild dogs can be used to guard things, and this was the origin of the term 獄 for prison. The tribal regions also call a dog a 犴.)


衞瓘遣拓跋沙漠汗歸國。自沙漠汗入質,力微可汗諸子在側者多有寵。及沙漠汗歸,諸部大人共譖而殺之。旣而力微疾篤,烏桓王庫賢親近用事,受衞瓘賂,欲擾動諸部,乃礪斧於庭,謂諸大人曰:「可汗恨汝曹讒殺太子,欲盡收汝曹長子殺之。」諸大人懼,皆散走。力微以憂卒,時年一百四。子悉祿立,其國遂衰。

14. Wei Guan sent Tuoba Shamohan back to his state.

When Tuoba Shamohan had first gone to Wei as a hostage, the khan Tuoba Liwei's other sons all had their favored followers. After Tuoba Shamohan returned, the various chiefs all slandered him and killed him.

Tuoba Liwei then became deathly ill. The King of the Wuhuan, Kuxian, was a close friend to Tuoba Liwei, and he handled affairs. Kuxian had taken bribes from Wei Guan, and he wished to cause turmoil among the chiefs. So he brought a whetstone and an axe into the court, and he said to the assembled chiefs, "The khan regrets that you brought about the slander and death of the Crown Prince. He wants to arrest all of you who were responsible for the death of his eldest son." The chiefs were very afraid, and they all fled, each going his own way.

Tuoba Liwei then passed away from grief; he was a hundred and four years old. His son Tuoba Xilu inherited his position, and the state mourned for him.

〈前年瓘表留沙漠汗,讒間旣行,乃遣歸。〉〈入質見七十七卷魏元帝景元二年。〉〈此時鮮卑君長已有可汗之稱。〉〈「悉祿」,魏收《魏書》作「悉鹿」。〉

(In the previous year, Wei Guan had detained Tuoba Shamohan while stirring up slander against him, and now he released him to return to his state.

Tuoba Shamohan's first journey to Cao-Wei to serve as a hostage is mentioned in Book 77, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) second year of Jingyuan (261.8 in Fang’s Chronicles).

We see from this passage that by this time, the Xianbei chiefs and elders were already being addressed by the term "khan".

This passage records Tuoba Liwei's successor as Tuoba 悉祿 Xilu. Wei Shou's Book of Northern Wei records his name as Tuoba 悉鹿 Xilu.)


初,幽、幷二州皆與鮮卑接,東有務桓,西有力微,多爲邊患。衞瓘密以計間之,務桓降而力微死。朝廷嘉瓘功,封其弟爲亭侯。

15. Up until now, Youzhou and Bingzhou had both been menaced by the Xianbei on their borders. With (Liu?) Wuhuan in the east, and Tuoba Liwei in the west, there had been many dangers. But thanks to Wei Guan's secret machinations, (Liu?) Wuhuan had submitted and Tuoba Liwei was dead. The Jin court commended Wei Guan's achievement, and his younger brother was made a 亭 Marquis.

〈《考異》曰:魏收《後魏書》:「鐵弗劉虎,匈奴去卑之孫,昭成四年死,子務桓立。」按昭成四年,晉成帝咸康七年也,務桓不應與瓘同時,蓋二人皆名務桓耳。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Wei Shou's Book of Later (Northern) Wei mentions a certain Liu Wuhuan: 'The Tiefu leader Liu Hu was a lowborn descendant of the Xiongnu. In the fourth year of Zhaocheng, his son Liu Wuhuan succeeded him.' Now the fourth year of Zhaocheng was the same as Emperor Cheng of Jin's seventh year of Xiankang (341), so the Liu Wuhuan mentioned here could not have been alive at the same time as Wei Guan. It must be that there were two men who both had the given name Wuhuan.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat Nov 18, 2017 7:25 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:24 pm

四年(戊戌、二七八)

The Fourth Year of Xianning (The Wuxu Year, 278 AD)


春,正月,庚午朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Gengwu (February 9th), there was an eclipse.

司馬督東平馬隆上言:「涼州刺史楊欣失羌戎之和,必敗。」夏,六月,欣與樹機能之黨若羅拔能等戰于武威,敗死。

2. The Marshal-Commander, Ma Long of Dongping, sent up a petition stating, "The Inspector of Liangzhou, Yang Xin, has lost the goodwill of the Qiang and Rong tribes. He is sure to be defeated." In summer, the sixth month, Yang Xin fought Tufa Shujineng's subordinates, Ruoluobaneng and others, at Wuwei, but he was defeated and killed.

〈晉制:二衞,前驅、由基、強弩爲三部司馬,各置督。沈約曰:殿中司馬督,晉武帝時殿內宿衞,號曰三部司馬,與殿中將軍分隸左右二衞。〉〈隆言欣必敗,猶漢皇甫規之言馬賢,蓋懷才欲用,故以此自顯耳。〉

(Under the Jin system, the two Guard Generals each had a Marshal for the Vanguard, the Main Camp, and the Heavy Crossbows; each of these Marshals were designated as Commanders. Shen Yue remarked, "During Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) reign, there were Marshal-Commanders of the Palace, who were in charge of the palace guards; they were called the Three Marshals, and they had divided authority with the General of the Palace and the two Guard Generals of the Left and Right.

Ma Long declared that Yang Xin would certainly be defeated, just as during Han, Huangfu Gui had said that Ma Xian would be defeated (see Note 20 to 161.H in de Crespigny’s Emperors Huan and Ling). Ma Long cherished his own talents and wished to use them, and this was why he nominated himself.)


弘訓皇后羊氏殂。

3. Jin’s Empress Hongxun, Yang Huiyu, passed away.

〈景皇后,居弘訓宮。〉

(She had been Sima Shi's wife, and she had resided in Hongxun Palace after Sima Yan's ascension.)


羊祜以病求入朝,旣至,帝命乘輦入殿,不拜而坐。祜面陳伐吳之計,帝善之。以祜病,不宜數入,更遣張華就問籌策,祜曰:「孫晧暴虐已甚,於今可不戰而克。若晧不幸而沒,吳人更立令主,雖有百萬之衆,長江未可窺也,將爲後患矣!」華深然之。祜曰:「成吾志者,子也。」帝欲使祜臥護諸將,祜曰:「取吳不必臣行,但旣平之後,當勞聖慮耳。功名之際,臣不敢居;若事了,當有所付授,願審擇其人也。」

4. Yang Hu became sick, and he asked to come to court. When he arrived, Sima Yan ordered him to be carried into the palace in a sedan chair, and Yang Hu sat down without having to salute. Yang Hu sat face to face with Sima Yan and explained his plans for a campaign against Wu, and Sima Yan praised them.

Since Yang Hu was sick, Sima Yan did not wish to trouble him by having him constantly come to see him, so Sima Yan sent Zhang Hua to ask Yang Hu about his plans and strategies. Yang Hu told him, "Sun Hao is especially violent and cruel; we could overcome him right now even without fighting. But if something should happen to Sun Hao and he is no more, then the people of Wu will set up a new sovereign in his place. If that happened, even if we had an army of a million men, we would not even make it past the Yangzi. This is a great danger lying in wait for us!" Zhang Hua was in deep agreement. Yang Hu then said, "You yourself are the one who can realize my ambition."

Sima Yan wished to send Yang Hu to lead the various generals, even as a convalescent. Yang Hu said to him, "You do not need for me to go myself in order to obtain Wu. But after Wu has been pacified, then you ought to exert your sage wisdom and consideration. I dare not claim the reputation for success myself; if the thing can be done, I ought to hand authority over to someone else. Look to the borders, and choose some other man."

〈以東南壤界闊遠,當得人以鎭撫之。〉

(Since the southeast region was a broad and distant area, Yang Hu was saying that Sima Yan ought to find a man who could guard and protect it.)


秋,七月,己丑,葬景獻皇后于峻平陵。

5. In summer, the seventh month, on the day Jichou (August 27th), Empress Jingxian (Yang Huiyu) was buried at Junping Tomb.

〈卽弘訓后也。〉

(This was the same Empress Hongxun just mentioned.)


司、冀、兗、豫、荊、揚州大水,螟傷稼。詔問主者:「何以佐百姓?」度支尚書杜預上疏,以爲:「今者水災東南尤劇,宜敕兗、豫等諸州留漢氏舊陂,繕以蓄水,餘皆決瀝,令飢者盡得魚菜螺蜯之饒,此目下日給之益也。水去之後,滇淤之田,畝收數鍾,此又明年之益也。典牧種牛有四萬五千餘頭,不供耕駕,至有老不穿鼻者,可分以給民,使及春耕種,榖登之後,責其租稅,此又數年以後之益也。」帝從之,民賴其利。預在尚書在七年,損益庶政,不可勝數,時人謂之「杜武庫」,言其無所不有也。

6. There were great floods in the provinces of Sizhou, Jizhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Jingzhou, and Yangzhou, and the snout moth larva harmed the crops.

Sima Yan issued an edict asking his ministers, "What can be done to help the common people?"

The Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing, Du Yu, sent up a petition stating, "The recent flooding has been especially hard on the southeast. You should order Yanzhou, Yuzhou, and the other provinces to restore the old Han retaining ponds and channel out the floodwaters, so that the excess water can be decisively reduced. Then those who are starving can eat up all of the fish, vegetables, cicadas, and other insects there in abundance. This will be a benefit they can see immediately, right before their eyes.

“Then, once the floodwaters have been brought under control, the silt can be repurposed as fertilizer for the fields, and their harvest will be several times greater. This will be a benefit for the following year.

“Furthermore, the Livestock Overseer officials have more than 45,000 oxen that are not being used either plowing or pulling carts, and some of them have grown up without ever even being put to work. We can divide up these oxen and give them to the common people, and let them use the oxen to plow their fields in the spring. The grain supplies will rise ever higher, which will let the people bear the burden of higher taxes in the future. This will be a benefit for many years to come."

Sima Yan followed Du Yu's suggestions, and the common people greatly appreciated the benefits that they brought. The people of that time gave Du Yu the name "Arsenal Du", by which they meant there was nothing which he had not provided for.

〈司州,卽漢司隸校尉所部也。漢司隸部察郡縣與州刺史同,晉遂定名司州,統河南、滎陽、弘農、上洛、平陽、河東、汲郡、河內、廣平、陽平、魏郡、頓丘。冀州者,亂則冀安,弱則冀強,荒則冀豐,統趙國、鉅鹿、安平、平原、樂陵、勃海、河間、高陽、博陵、清河、中山、常山等郡國。〉〈螟,食苗心之蟲。〉〈主者,謂左民及度支二曹也。〉〈《晉志》:典牧令,屬太僕。〉〈《考異》曰:《食貨志》云「咸寧三年」,《杜預傳》云「四年」。按《五行志》,三年大水,無蟲災,四年螟。今從《預傳》。〉〈泰始六年,預自秦州刺史得罪歸,拜度支尚書,至是七年矣。〉

(Sizhou was so named ("direct") because during Han, it was the domain of the Colonel-Director of Retainers. During Han, that officer oversaw commandaries and counties just like an Inspector of a province would. So Jin named the region Sizhou. It administered the commandaries of Henan, Xingyang, Hongnong, Shangluo, Pingyang, Hedong, Ji, Henei, Guangping, Yangping, Wei, and Dunqiu. Jizhou was so named ("hope") because during turmoil, people hope for stability; during weakness, they hope for strength; during want, they hope for plenty. It administered the princely fief of Zhao, the commandaries of Julu, Anping, Pingyuan, Leling, Bohai, Hejian, Gaoyang, Boling, Qinghe, Zhongshan, Changshan, and other commandaries and fiefs.

The snout moth larva is an insect that consumes the heart of seedlings.

The ministers to whom Sima Yan appealed were his 左民 and Logistical Director ministers.

According to the Records of Jin, "The Livestock Officials were subordinate to the Minister Coachman."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Records of Food and Commodities in the Book of Jin states that Du Yu's policies stated in this passage were put into effect in 'the third year of Xianning (277)', while the Biography of Du Yu in the Book of Jin states it was 'the fourth year (278)'. According to the Records of the Five Elements, there was indeed great flooding in the third year, but there is no mention of insect-related disasters; it mentions the snout moth larva in the fourth year. So I follow the account of the Biography of Du Yu."

In the sixth year of Taishi (270), Du Yu had been recalled from his post as Inspector of Qinzhou to defend himself against charges in the capital. At that time, he was appointed as Logistical Director of the Masters of Writing. By now, he had served in that office for seven years.)


九月,以何曾爲太宰;辛巳,以侍中、尚書令李胤爲司徒。

7. In the ninth month, He Zeng was appointed as Grand Governor. On the day Xinsi (October 18th), the Palace Attendant and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Li Yin, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.

吳主忌勝己者,侍中、中書令張尚,紘之孫也,爲人辯捷,談論每出其表,吳主積以致恨。後問:「孤飲酒可以方誰?」尚曰:「陛下有百觚之量。」吳主曰:「尚知孔丘不王,而以孤方之。」因發怒,收尚。公卿已下百餘人,詣宮叩頭,請尚罪,得減死,送建安作船,尋就殺之。

8. Sun Hao was suspicious of anyone who seemed to be better than him. One such target of his suspicions was the Palace Attendant and Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Shang. This Zhang Shang was the grandson of Zhang Hong. He was skilled at debating with other people, and people discussed his every utterance, so Sun Hao gradually began to hate him.

At one point, Sun Hao asked Zhang Shang, "In drinking wine, whom do I take after?"

Zhang Shang replied, "Your Majesty has 'the capacity of a hundred goblets'."

Sun Hao said, "You know very well that Confucius was not a king, and yet you would have me take after him." He became suddenly angry, and ordered Zhang Shang to be arrested.

More than a hundred of the nobles and chief officials came to the palace and kowtowed before Sun Hao, asking that he forgive Zhang Shang's offense. So Sun Hao at first merely exiled Zhang Shang to Jian'an to build ships, but he later had Zhang Shang killed anyway.

〈張紘事孫策、孫權,見《漢獻帝紀》。〉〈《孔叢子》曰:趙平原君與孔子高飲,強子高酒,曰:「諺云,堯飲千鍾,孔子百觚,子路嗑嗑,尚飲十榼。古之聖賢,無不能飲,子何辭焉。」觚,飲器也,受二升。〉〈《考異》曰:《三十國春秋》云:「岑昏等泥頭請代尚死,尚得免死,徙廣州。」今從《尚傳》,參取環氏《吳紀》。余觀尚之爲人,蓋以辯給得親近於孫晧,而亦以辯給取怒,請其死者必岑昏之徒。《三十國春秋》所書,蓋得其實。〉

(Zhang Hong served under Sun Ce and Sun Quan, as seen in the Annals of Emperor Xian of Han.

The 孔叢子 has this story: "Lord Pingyuan of Zhao was drinking heavily together with Confucius, and he urged strong wine on him. Lord Pingyuan said to Confucius, 'It has been said that Emperor Yao could drink a thousand 鍾 of wine. You yourself can drink a hundred goblets, and from what your disciple Zilu claims, he can drink ten vessels himself. Now the sages and worthies of old had no capacity for wine. Master, how are you able to manage?" A goblet is a kind of wine vessel, which can hold two 升 of wine.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms states, 'Cen Hun and the other officials bowed their heads in the mud and begged that they might suffer death in place of Zhang Shang. So Zhang Shang was able to avoid the death sentence, and was instead exiled to Guangzhou.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Shang in the Records of the Three Kingdoms (at the end of the Biography of Zhang Hong), with some additions from Master Huan's Records of Wu." As for what I, Hu Sanxing, believe, it was Zhang Shang's skill in dealing with people that allowed him to attain a position so close to Sun Hao, but it was that same skill which also brought on Sun Hao's rage against him. The people who pleaded for his life must have been Cen Hun's followers. The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms must have been correct about this as well.)


冬,十月,徵征北大將軍衞瓘爲尚書令。是時,朝野咸知太子昏愚,不堪爲嗣,瓘每欲陳啓而未敢發;會侍宴陵雲臺,瓘陽醉,跪帝牀前曰:「臣欲有所啓。」帝曰:「公所言何邪?」瓘欲言而止者三,因以手撫牀曰:「此座可惜!」帝意悟,因謬曰:「公眞大醉邪?」瓘於此不復有言。帝悉召東宮官屬,爲設宴會,而密封尚書疑事,令太子決之。賈妃大懼,倩外人代對,多引古義。給使張泓曰:「太子不學,陛下所知,而答詔多引古義,必責作草主,更益譴負,不如直以意對。」妃大喜,謂泓曰:「便爲我好答,富貴與汝共之。」泓卽具草,令太子自寫,帝省之甚悅。先以示瓘,瓘大踧踖,衆人乃知瓘嘗有言也。賈充密遣人語妃云:「衞瓘老奴,幾破汝家!」

9. In winter, the tenth month, Jin's Grand General Who Conquers The North, Wei Guan, was summoned to the capital and appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

At this time, it was an open secret that the Crown Prince, Sima Zhong, was muddled and confused, and he was not fit to succeed his father. Wei Guan often wished to broach the subject to Sima Yan, but he dared not actually say anything.

At one point, the officials were holding a banquet at the Lingyun Terrace. Wei Guan became tipsy, and he kneeled before Sima Yan's couch and said to him, "There is something I wish to discuss with you."

Sima Yan said, "What do you wish to say?"

Wei Guan began to say what he wanted, but three times, he stopped himself from actually saying it. At last, he only stroked the couch with his hand and said, "What a pity for this seat!"

Sima Yan finally realized what Wei Guan had in mind. But to cover it up, he replied, "Surely you have had too much to drink?"

Wei Guan would say nothing further.

Then Sima Yan summoned all the officials and attendants of the Eastern Palace, the residence of the Crown Prince, supposedly to prepare for another banquet. But he secretly had sent along some questions, with orders for the Crown Prince to make responses to them. His wife Jia Nanfeng was greatly afraid. She had some other person write the responses in Sima Zhong's place, and many of the responses drew from ancient principles.

The palace messenger Zhang Hong told her, "His Majesty knows that the Crown Prince is uneducated. Yet there are many places in these responses which draw from ancient principles. He will certainly place responsibility on whoever arranged the forgery, and then you will receive even greater condemnation and blame. It would be better if the responses are simply direct answers to the questions."

Jia Nanfeng was very pleased, and she said to Zhang Hong, "Help me to compose good responses, and you will share in wealth and honor."

So Zhang Hong first composed a draft himself, and then had Sima Zhong copy it in his own hand.

When Sima Yan received these responses, he was exceptionally pleased. The first person he showed them to was Wei Guan, who looked ill at ease at the sight of them. Thus everyone knew that Wei Guan had mentioned something about the issue before.

Jia Chong secretly sent someone to tell his daughter, "That old slave Wei Guan has nearly ruined you and our family!"

〈陵雲臺,魏文帝所築。〉〈假手於人也。〉〈言將責問作對草之主名也。〉〈給使,給東宮使令。張泓蓋庸中之佼佼者,後爲趙王倫拒齊王冏於陽翟者,必是人也。〉〈踧踖,不自安貌。〉〈爲賈妃怨衞瓘張本。《考異》曰:《三十國春秋》在泰始八年。按《瓘傳》,「泰始初,爲青州刺史,徙幽州,八年不得在京師。」《瓘傳》在遷司空後。按《帝紀》:「太康三年,賈充卒,十二月,瓘爲司空」,故移在入爲尚書令下。〉

(The Lingyun Terrace had been built by Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi; see 221.25 in Fang's Chronicles).

Jia Nanfeng had this other person forge a response for Sima Zhong.

Zhang Hong meant that when Sima Yan saw the forgery, he would seek out who had been the culprit responsible for having it made.

This Zhang Hong's office was 給使; the duties of that office were managing the messengers of the Eastern Palace. Zhang Hong himself could be said to have been a giant among dwarfs; he certainly must have been the same Zhang Hong who later opposed Sima Jiong at Yangdi on behalf of Sima Lun.

Wei Guan is described as being 踧踖, which means having an uneasy expression.

This affair was why Jia Nanfeng resented Wei Guan.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms places this affair in the eighth year of Taishi (272). According to the Biography of Wei Guan in the Book of Jin, 'At the beginning of the Taishi era (~265), Wei Guan was appointed as Inspector of Qingzhou, and was later moved to Youzhou. For eight years, he did not return to the capital.' The Biography lists the affair after Wei Guan's appointment as Minister of Works. But according to the Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) in the Book of Jin, 'In the third year of Taikang (282), Jia Chong passed away; in the twelfth month of that year, Wei Guan was appointed as Minister of Works.' This is why I move the event backwards to when Wei Guan received his appointment as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.")


吳人大佃皖城,欲謀入寇。都督揚州諸軍事王渾遣揚州刺史應綽攻破之,斬首五千級,焚其積榖百八十餘萬斛,踐稻田四千餘頃,毀船六百餘艘。

10. The people of Wu were greatly tilling the land at Wancheng, planning to use the harvest stores for an invasion. Jin's Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Wang Hun, sent the Inspector of Yangzhou, Ying Chuo, to attack and rout them. The Jin army took five thousand heads, and torched more than 1,800,000 斛 of grain. They trampled over more than four thousand 頃 of farms and paddies, and destroyed more than six hundred boats.

十一月,辛巳,太醫司馬程據獻雉頭裘,帝焚之於殿前。甲申,敕內外敢有獻奇技異服者,罪之。

11. In the eleventh month, on the day Xinsi (December 17th), the Imperial Physician Sima Cheng wore a pheasant hair coat that he had obtained. Sima Yan had it burned in the front hall of the palace. On the day Jiashen (December 20th), Sima Yan ordered that anyone, near or far, who dared to wear such unusual or remarkable clothing would be charged with a crime.

〈《晉志》:太醫,屬宗正。雉頭毛采炫燿,集以爲裘。〉〈《記‧王制》:作淫聲異服奇技奇器以疑衆,殺。〉

(According to the Records of Jin, the Imperial Physician was subordinate to the Director of the Imperial Clan.

The hair on a pheasant's head was prized for its dazzling display, and it was gathered up to fashion into coats.

The Royal Regulations chapter of the Book of Rites states, "Using licentious music; strange garments; wonderful contrivances and extraordinary implements, thus raising doubts among the multitudes: all who used or formed such things were put to death. (5.50)")


羊祜疾篤,舉杜預自代。辛卯,以預爲鎭南大將軍、都督荊州諸軍事。祜卒,帝哭之甚哀。是日,大寒,涕淚霑須鬢皆爲冰。祜遺令不得以南城侯印入柩。帝曰:「祜固讓歷年,身沒讓存,今聽復本封,以彰高美。」南州民聞祜卒,爲之罷市,巷哭聲相接。吳守邊將士亦爲之泣。祜好遊峴山,襄陽人建碑立廟於其地,歲時祭祀,望其碑者無不流涕,因謂之墮淚碑。

12. Yang Hu became deathly ill, and he recommended Du Yu as his replacement. On the day Xinmao (December 27th), Du Yu was appointed as Grand General Who Guards The South and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou.

Yang Hu then passed away, and Sima Yan greatly mourned for him. It was very cold that day, and his tears froze even as they ran down his face.

It had been Yang Hu's wish that he not be buried with his noble seal as Marquis of Nancheng. Sima Yan said, "How yielding Yang Hu was for so many years; even when his body is no more, he yields even so. I will heed his wish, and restore his original noble title, as a sign of his great excellence."

When the people of the southern province (Jingzhou) heard that Yang Hu had passed away, they all closed down their markets, and the sound of wailing and weeping filled every alley. Even the officers and soldiers of Wu who guarded the border against Jin wept for Yang Hu.

Yang Hu had enjoyed traveling to Mount Xian, and so the people of Xiangyang raised a stele and built a shrine to him there. Every year, they would make sacrifices to him there. No one could look at his stele without bursting into tears, and so it gained the name of the Stele of Tears.

〈謂身沒而遺令讓侯印也。〉〈祜本封鉅平侯。〉〈南州,謂荊州也。〉

(Sima Yan refers to Yang Hu's final act of yielding in not having his noble seal buried with him.

Sima Yan restored Yang Hu's original title as Marquis of Juping.

The "southern province" was Jingzhou.)


杜預至鎭,簡精銳,襲吳西陵督張政,大破之。政,吳之名將也,恥以無備取敗,不以實告吳主。預欲間之,乃表還其所獲。吳主果召政還,遣武昌監留憲代之。

13. When Du Yu arrived at his post, to improve morale, he led a raid against Wu's Commander of Xiling, Zhang Zheng, and greatly routed him. Now Zhang Zheng was a famous general of Wu, and he felt ashamed at not being prepared to defend against this attack, so he did not report the truth of what had happened to Sun Hao. When Du Yu learned of that, he asked that all the prisoners he had just taken in the raid be released. Sun Hao naturally had Zhang Zheng recalled, and he sent the Chief of Wuchang, Liu Xian, to replace him.

〈吳之邊鎭有督、有監,督者,督諸軍事之職;監者,監諸軍事之職。〉

(Eastern Wu had both Commanders and Chiefs of their borders. The Commanders were in command over the military affairs of several armies; the Chiefs merely oversaw such affairs.)


十二月,丁未,朗陵公何曾卒。曾厚自奉養,過於人主。司隸校尉東萊劉毅數劾奏曾侈汰無度,帝以其重臣,不問。及卒,博士新興秦秀議曰:「曾驕奢過度,名被九域。宰相大臣,人之表儀,若生極其情,死又無貶,王公貴人復何畏哉!謹按《諡法》,『名與實爽曰繆,怙亂肆行曰醜,』宜諡醜繆公。」帝策諡曰孝。

14. In the twelfth month, on the day Dingwei (January 12th of 279), Jin's Duke of Langling, He Zeng, passed away.

He Zeng had been known to live extravagantly, even moreso than his own lord. The Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Yi of Donglai, had often sent in petitions outlining He Zeng's offenses in being wasteful and without discipline. But as He Zeng was one of Sima Yan's most important ministers, Sima Yan did not heed these complaints.

After He Zeng passed away, there was the matter of what his posthumous name should be. The Court Academician, Qin Xiu of Xinxing, said, "He Zeng was arrogant even beyond what could be called normal, and his reputation was known throughout the Nine Regions. When one serves as a chief minister or other grand servant of state, people take note of one's conduct. If such a man indulges his desires to the fullest while alive, and receives no censure after death, then what will any other prince, noble, or honored person have left to fear? If we inspect the Laws of Posthumous Names, it states that 'one whose reputation is at odds with his true nature may be called Errant' and 'one who takes advantage of turmoil to act without restraint may be called Shameful'. So He Zeng's posthumous name ought to be Duke Muchou ('errant' and 'shameful')."

However, Sima Yan granted He Zeng the posthumous name Xiao ("filial").

〈秀,新興雲中人,朗之子也。〉〈九域,九州之域。〉〈《諡法》始於周公,以行爲諡。〉〈策諡者,不用博士議,以詔策賜諡。〉

This Qin Xiu was a native of Yunzhong in Xinxing; he was the son of the Cao-Wei minister Qin Lang.

The Nine Regions were the same as the Nine Provinces (that is, the realm).

The Laws of Posthumous Names was first used by the Duke of Zhou; it is used for the determination of posthumous names.

Sima Yan did not use Qin Xiu's counsel, but instead ordered that He Zeng be granted a different posthumous name.)


前司隸校尉傅玄卒。玄性峻急,每有奏劾,或值日暮,捧白簡,整簪帶,竦踊不寐,坐而待旦;由是貴游震懾,臺閣生風。玄與尚書左丞博陵崔洪善,洪亦清厲骨鯁,好面折人過,而退無後言,人以是重之。

15. Jin's former Colonel-Director of Retainers, Fu Xuan, passed away.

Fu Xuan had a very severe nature. Whenever he had a petition or charge to present, even if it was already dusk, he would prepare the petition, grasp his brush and put on his belt, set out at once without sleeping, and sit waiting until dawn came. From such things he was held in awe by the 'noble wanderers', and he had great influence among the government.

Fu Xuan was good friends with the Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Cui Hong of Boling. Cui Hong was himself a clear and strict man and a candid speaker. He often liked to scold people to their faces for their transgressions. But he never said anything about them behind their backs, so people appreciated him.

〈《考異》曰:《玄傳》曰:「五年,遷太僕,轉司隸,景獻皇后崩,坐爭位罵尚書免,尋卒。」按景獻后崩在四年,《玄傳》誤也。〉〈《文選》:任昉《彈曹景宗》曰:謹奉白簡以聞。呂向《註》云:簡,略狀也。《晉志》曰:古者執笏,有事則書之,故常簪筆;今之白筆,是其遺意。三臺、五省二品文官簪之。帶,革帶也,古之鞶帶。〉〈《周官》師氏,凡國之貴游子弟學焉。《註》云:貴游子弟,王公之子弟,游無官司者。〉〈漢安帝分安平,置博陵。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Fu Xuan in the Book of Jin states, 'In the fifth year of Xianning (279), Fu Xuan was appointed as Minister Coachman. He then became Colonel-Director. After Empress Jingxian (Yang Huiyu) passed away, Fu Xuan became a target of accusations from others and was removed from office in the Masters of Writing. He died not long afterwards.' But Empress Jingxian passed away in the fourth year (278); the Biography of Fu Xuan is mistaken."

Ren Fang's 彈曹景宗 in the Literary Selections has the line, "He sincerely presents the 白簡 to be heard." Lü Xiang's Annotations notes, "This 簡 is a summarized record." The Records of Jin states, "When the ancients held their audience tablets, if there was any business, they recorded it using what was commonly called the hairpin brush. It is now called the white brush, but retains the same meaning. It was the tool of the civil officials of the Three Terraces and Five Offices.” The belt is a leather belt, the 鞶 belt of old (also leather).

The Offices (or Rites) of Zhou states, "The Master of Warders instructs the noble wanderers, the sons and younger brothers, of the various states." The Annotations notes, "The 'noble wanderers, sons and younger brothers' are those of the princes and dukes; they ‘wander’, not having any office."

Emperor An of Han split off part of Anping commandary and made it Boling commandary.)


鮮卑樹機能久爲邊患,僕射李憙請發兵討之,朝議皆以爲出兵重事,虜不足憂。

16. Tufa Shujineng had posed a constant threat on the borders of Jin. The Supervisor Li Xi asked that troops be sent to campaign against him, but the court officials felt that sending out troops would be a very serious matter, and there was no need for concern about the Xianbei.

〈泰始六年樹機能爲寇,至是九年矣。〉

(Tufa Shujineng's raids had first started in the sixth year of Taishi (270), and by now they had been going on for nine years.)
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