ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-81-??)

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BOOK 80

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Sep 25, 2017 11:28 pm

五年(己亥、二七九)

The Fifth Year of Xianning (The Jihai Year, 279 AD)


春,正月,樹機能攻陷涼州。帝甚悔之,臨朝而歎曰:「誰能爲我討此虜者?」司馬督馬隆進曰:「陛下能任臣,臣能平之。」帝曰:「必能平賊,何爲不任,顧方略何如耳!」隆曰:「臣願募勇士三千人,無問所從來,帥之以西,虜不足平也。」帝許之。乙丑,以隆爲討虜護軍、武威太守。公卿皆曰:「見兵已多,不宜橫設賞募隆小將妄言,不足信也。」帝不聽。隆募能引弓四鈞、挽弩九石者取之,立標簡試,自旦至日中,得三千五百人。隆曰:「足矣。」又請自至武庫選仗,武庫令與隆忿爭,御史中丞劾奏隆。隆曰:「臣當畢命戰場,武庫令乃給以魏時朽仗,非陛下所以使臣之意也。」帝命惟隆所取,仍給三年軍資而遣之。

1. In spring, the first month, Tufa Shujineng attacked and plundered Liangzhou. Sima Yan greatly regretted the situation. When he assembled his court, Sima Yan sighed and said, "Who is able to campaign against this foe for me?"

The Marshal-Commander Ma Long stepped forward and said, "If Your Majesty will entrust me with this task, I can pacify Tufa Shujineng for you."

Sima Yan said, "If you can defeat these bandits, how could I not assign you the task? But tell me what your plan shall be."

Ma Long replied, "If Your Majesty shall allow me to recruit three thousand brave men, no matter where they might come from, and let me lead them west, then the enemy will not be able to overcome them."

Sima Yan agreed to his request. On the day Yichou (?), Ma Long was appointed as Protector General Who Campaigns Against The Caitiffs and Administrator of Wuwei.

The high ministers all claimed, "It is clear that there are already many soldiers at hand, so there is no need for such a special draft. Furthermore, Ma Long is just some minor officer who has spoken out of turn, and you cannot trust him."

But Sima Yan ignored them.

Ma Long sought out people who could draw a bow of four 鈞, and use a crossbow of nine 石. When he found such people, he set up a target and had them practice their accuracy. Ma Long continued this process from dawn until the middle of the day; by then, he had three thousand and five hundred recruits. He said, "This shall be enough."

Ma Long also asked that he be allowed access to equipment from the military storehouses. The Prefect of the Arsenal resented Ma Long and got into an argument with him, and the Palace Assistant of the Imperial Secretaries submitted a petition blaming Ma Long. In response, Ma Long said, "I mean to complete the battlefield assignment I have been given, and yet the Prefect of the Arsenal has only supplied me with worn out equipment from the Wei era; this goes against the intent that Your Majesty has for me."

Sima Yan ordered that Ma Long receive his requested supplies, and after Ma Long's army had enough supplies for three years, they set out.

〈涼州治武威。〉〈應募者,或出於農畝,或出於營伍,或出於逋逃,或出於奴隸,皆不問其所從來也。〉〈三十斤爲鈞,四鈞爲石,石百二十斤。〉〈《晉志》:武庫令,屬衞尉。〉〈自東漢至魏、晉,以中丞爲御史臺主。〉

(Liangzhou was administered from Wuwei.

Of the people that Ma Long recruited, some were fieldhands, some were palace guards, some were fugitives, and some were slaves; none of them were asked where they had come from.

Thirty 斤 makes one 鈞, and four 鈞 makes one 石; in other words, one 石 was a hundred and twenty 斤.

The Records of Jin states, "The Prefect of the Arsenal was subordinate to the Commandant of the Guards."

From the time of Eastern Han on down through Cao-Wei and Jin, the Palace Assistant was the chief of the Imperial Secretary office.)


初,南單于呼廚泉以兄於扶羅子豹爲左賢王,及魏武帝分匈奴爲五部,以豹爲左部帥。豹子淵,幼而雋異,師事上黨崔游,博習經史。嘗謂同門生上黨朱紀、鴈門范隆曰:「吾常恥隨、陸無武,絳、灌無文;隨、陸遇高帝而不能建封侯之業,絳、灌遇文帝而不能興庠序之敎,豈不惜哉!」於是兼學武事。及長,猨臂善射,膂力過人,姿貌魁偉。爲任子在洛陽,王渾及子濟皆重之,屢薦於帝,帝召與語,悅之。濟曰:「淵有文武長才,陛下任以東南之事,吳不足平也。」孔恂、楊珧曰:「非我族類,其心必異。淵才器誠少比,然不可重任也。」及涼州覆沒,帝問將於李憙,對曰:「陛下誠能發匈奴五部之衆,假劉淵一將軍之號,使將之而西,樹機能之首可指日而梟也。」孔恂曰:「淵果梟樹機能,則涼州之患方更深耳。」帝乃止。

2. Before this time, the Chanyu of the Southern Xiongnu, Chuquan, had appointed his elder brother Yufuluo's son Liu Bao as Worthy King of the Left. When Cao Cao had divided the Southern Xiongnu into the Five Divisions, Liu Bao had been appointed the Leader of the Left Division.

Liu Bao had a son, Liu Yuan, who even as a youth was remarkably talented. Liu Yuan took as his teacher Cui You of Shangdang, and he diligently studied the classics and the histories. Liu Yuan once said to his fellow classmates, Zhu Ji of Shangdang and Fan Long of Yanmen, "I have often been ashamed that Sui He and Lu Jia had no talent for martial affairs, and that the Marquis of Jiang (Zhou Bo) and General Guan (Guan Ying) had no art for civil affairs. Sui He and Lu Jia knew Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang), yet they could not achieve enough to become marquises. The Marquis of Jiang and General Guan knew Emperor Wen of Han, yet they could not set up any schools of instruction. How could this not be a pity?" So in addition to his normal studies, Liu Yuan also studied the arts of war.

By the time he was a grown man, Liu Yuan had arms as powerful as an ape and was an expert in archery, and his raw strength was greater than many men. What was more, in his looks and bearing he cut a very stalwart figure.

While Liu Yuan was serving in office in Luoyang, Wang Hun and his son Wang Ji both appreciated him, and they recommended him several times to Sima Yan. Sima Yan summoned Liu Yuan and spoke with him, and was pleased with him. Wang Ji said to Sima Yan, "Liu Yuan is talented in both civil and military matters. If Your Majesty will employ him in the south, Wu will not be able to resist him."

But Kong Xun and Yang Yao said, "It has been said, 'if he be not of our kin, he is sure to have a different mind'. Besides, Liu Yuan's talents and worth are actually relatively meager, and he cannot be entrusted with an important position."

When Liangzhou was suffering from devastation, Sima Yan asked Li Xi who he might send as a general. Li Xi told him, "If Your Majesty can earnestly harness and send out the full force of the Five Divisions of the Xiongnu, and grant Liu Yuan authority as the head of an army, then you may send him as general to the west, and Tufa Shujineng's head will soon be hung up."

But Kong Xun said, "Liu Yuan could indeed overcome Tufa Shujineng, but to send him out would only mean inflicting an even greater menace upon Liangzhou."

So Sima Yan did not do so.

〈五部見上卷泰始六年。〉〈《左傳》,魯季文子曰:「史佚之志有之︰非我族類,其心必異。」〉

(The division of the Southern Xiongnu into the Five Divisions is mentioned in the last book, in the sixth year of Taishi (270.13).

Kong Xun and Yang Yao quote this passage from the Zuo Commentary: "The work of the historiographer Yi says, 'If he be not of our kin, he is sure to have a different mind.' (Cheng 4.5)")


東萊王彌家世二千石,彌有學術勇略,善騎射,青州人謂之「飛豹」。處士陳留董養見而謂之曰:「君好亂樂禍,若天下有事,不作士大夫矣。」淵與彌友善,謂彌曰:「王、李以鄕曲見知,每相稱薦,適足爲吾患耳。」因歔欷流涕。齊王攸聞之,言於帝曰:「陛下不除劉淵,臣恐幷州不得久安。」王渾曰:「大晉方以信懷殊俗,奈何以無形之疑殺人侍子乎?何德度之不弘也!」帝曰:「渾言是也。」會豹卒,以淵代爲左部帥。

3. There was a certain Wang Mi of Donglai, who came from a family of Two Thousand 石 salary rank. Wang Mi was practiced and talented, brave and cunning, and skilled at horseback archery. The people of Qingzhou called him "Flying Panther". He was inclined towards gallantry and chivalry.

The hermit Dong Yang of Chenliu saw Wang Mi and said to him, "You are the sort of fellow who finds happiness in turmoil and delights in misfortune. If anything should befall the realm, it will not be the official's life for you."

Wang Mi was good friends with Liu Yuan, who said to him, "Wang Hun and Li Xi, because of our common background, recognize my worth. Yet every time they try to recommend me, it is said that I am a menace." And he sobbed and wept because of it.

When Sima You heard about this, he said to Sima Yan, "If Your Majesty does not do away with Liu Yuan, I fear that Bingzhou will not remain peaceful for very long."

But Wang Hun said, "Jin's foundations are trust and regard beyond tradition. How then could you put to death a man who serves you and for whom you have no cause for suspicion? How will that make greater your virtue and your magnanimity?"

Sima Yan said, "It is as Wang Hun says."

After Liu Bao passed away, Sima Yan appointed Liu Yuan to replace him as Leader of the Left Division.

〈《世語》曰:彌,魏玄菟太守王頎之孫。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「豹」下有「然喜任俠」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉〈言將爲賊也。〉〈王渾,太原人,李憙,上黨人,與淵同州里。〉〈劉淵事始此。史言晉將有亂。〉

(The 世語 states, "This Wang Mi was the grandson of Cao-Wei's Administrator of Xuantu, Wang Qi."

Some versions add after Wang Mi's nickname that "he was inclined towards gallantry and chivalry".

Dong Yang implied that Wang Mi would become a bandit.

Wang Hun was a native of Taiyuan, and Li Xi was a native of Shangdang; both of them came from the same province as Liu Yuan.

This began the rise of Liu Yuan (the eventual founder of Han-Zhao). The passage shows how Jin would later be thrust into chaos.)


夏,四月,大赦。

4. In summer, the fourth month, a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

除部曲督以下質任。

5. Sima Yan did away with the policy of holding hostages of those who held office as Commander or below.

〈帝受禪之初,除部曲將質任,今又除部曲督質任。〉

(When Sima Yan had first accepted the abdication from Cao-Wei, he had done away with the holding of hostages for those were generals. He now did away with the same policy of hostages regarding Commanders.)


吳桂林太守脩允卒,其部曲應分給諸將。督將郭馬、何典、王族等累世舊軍,不樂離別,會吳主料實廣州戶口,馬等因民心不安,聚衆攻殺廣州督虞授,馬自號都督交、廣二州諸軍事,使典攻蒼梧,族攻始興。秋,八月,吳以軍師張悌爲丞相,牛渚都督何植爲司徒,執金吾滕脩爲司空;未拜,更以脩爲廣州牧,帥萬人從東道討郭馬。馬殺南海太守劉略,逐廣州刺史徐旗。吳主又遣徐陵督陶濬將七千人,從西道與交州牧陶璜共擊馬。

6. Wu's Administrator of Guilin, Xiu Yun, passed away. His subordinates were reassigned among several other generals.

Now the General-Commander Guo Ma, as well as He Dian, Wang Zu, and others, had served for a long time in this army, and they were not happy at being split up. Furthermore, at that time, Sun Hao was rectifying the household rolls of the people living in Guangzhou. Taking advantage of the unease among the people, Guo Ma and the others gathered up a host and attacked and killed the Commander of Guangzhou, Yu Shou. Guo Ma then appointed himself as Commander of military affairs in Jiaozhou and Guangzhou. He sent He Dian to attack Cangwu, and he sent Wang Zu to attack Shixing.

In autumn, the eighth month, Wu appointed the General-Instructor Zhang Ti as Prime Minister, and the Commander of Niuzhu, He Zhi, as Minister Over The Masses.

The Chief of Police, Teng Xiu, was originally going to be appointed as Minister of Works. But before he had actually been granted that office, Teng Xiu was further appointed as Governor of Guangzhou. He led ten thousand men along the eastern roads to campaign against Guo Ma.

Guo Ma killed the Administrator of Nanhai, Liu Lüe, and he drove out the Inspector of Guangzhou, Xu Qi.

Sun Hao also sent the Commander of Xuling, Tao Jun, with another seven thousand men. Tao Jun marched along the western roads to link up with the Governor of Jiaozhou, Tao Huang, and attack Guo Ma together.

〈桂林,漢縣,屬鬱林郡。吳主晧鳳凰三年,分立桂林郡。〉〈吳主晧甘露元年,分桂陽南部都尉立始興郡。〉〈徐陵與洞浦對岸。吳主權時,呂範洞浦之敗,魏臧霸渡江攻徐陵,全琮、徐盛擊卻之。又華覈封徐陵亭侯,則徐陵蓋亭名。吳以其臨江津,置督守之。《南徐州記》曰:京口先爲徐陵,其地蓋丹徒縣之西鄕京口里也。〉

(During Han, Guilin was a county, part of Yulin commandary. In Sun Hao's third year of Fenghuang (275), he split off Guiling as its own commandary.

In Sun Hao's first year of Ganlu (265), he split off the southern command posts of Yangnan commandary and formed Shixing commandary from them.

Xuling was on the opposite bank of the river from Hepu. During Sun Quan's era, when Lü Fan was defeated at Hepu, at the same time the Cao-Wei general Zang Ba crossed the Yangzi and attacked Xuling. Quan Zong and Xu Sheng attacked Zang Ba and drove him off. And Hua He had been appointed as Marquis of Xulingting, so Xuling was named for this place. Since Xuling was at a crossing point of the Yangzi, they created a defense post there to guard it. The Records of Southern Xuzhou states, "Jingkou was originally called Xuling. It covered the region from Dantu County west to the environs of Jingkou.")


吳有鬼目菜,生工人黃耇家;有買菜,生工人吳平家。東觀案圖書,名鬼目曰芝草,買菜曰平慮草。吳主以耇爲侍芝郎,平爲平慮郎,皆銀印青綬。

7. In Wu, Ghost Eye plants grew at the home of the worker Huang Gou, and Merchant plants grew at the home of the worker Wu Ping. The History Bureau consulted the record books, and determined that the Ghost Eye plant should be called the Fungal Grass, and the Merchant plant should be called the Caitiff Pacifying Grass. Sun Hao appointed Huang Gou as the Gentleman Who Attends The Fungus, and Wu Ping as the Gentleman Who Pacifies The Caitiffs. Both of them were given silver seals and green ribbons.

〈《吳志》曰:鬼自菜,依緣棗樹,長丈餘,莖廣四寸,厚三分。買菜,高四尺,厚二分,如枇杷形,莖廣尺八寸,下莖廣五寸,兩邊生葉,綠色。〉〈吳有東觀令。〉〈以漢制言之,銀印青綬,中二千石服之。〉

(The Records of Wu states, "The Ghost Eye plant grows along the fringes of the jujube tree. It grows more than a zhang in height, its stem is four 寸 in breadth, and it is three 分 thick. The Merchant plant is four 尺 in height, and two 分 thick; it is shaped like the loquat. Its stem is a 尺 and eight 寸 in breadth, and its lower stem is five 寸 in breadth. Leaves grow on two sides of it, green in color."

Eastern Wu had the office Prefect of the Historical Bureau.

According to the Han system, those who were granted silver seals and green ribbons belonged to the Fully Two Thousand 石 salary rank.)


吳主每宴羣臣,咸令沈醉。又置黃門郎十人爲司過,宴罷之後,各奏其闕失,迕視謬言,罔有不舉,大者卽加刑戮,小者記錄爲罪,或剝人面,或鑿人眼。由是上下離心,莫爲盡力。

8. Whenever Sun Hao held a banquet for his ministers, he always commanded them to become drunk. He also appointed ten of his Gentlemen of the Yellow Gate as Rectors; after each banquet was over, they would record the names of those who had committed errors or faults, anyone who had cast a disobedient glance or said a stray remark, or anyone who seemed to be hiding something. The greater of these offenders were lead out to execution, while the lesser offenders were registered as criminals. Some had their faces peeled off, and some had their eyes gouged out with chisels. Because of this, everyone became alienated from one another, and no one performed to their utmost.

益州刺史王濬上疏曰:「孫晧荒淫凶逆,宜速征伐。若一旦晧死,更立賢主,則強敵也。臣作船七年,日有朽敗;臣年七十,死亡無日。三者一乖,則難圖也。誠願陛下無失事機。」帝於是決意伐吳。會安東將軍王渾表孫晧欲北上,邊戍皆戒嚴,朝廷乃更議明年出師。王濬參軍何攀奉使在洛,上疏稱:「晧必不敢出,宜因戒嚴,掩取甚易。」

9. Jin's Inspector of Yizhou, Wang Jun, sent up a petition stating, "Sun Hao is wasteful and cruel, wild and disobedient. We should campaign against him at once. If there should come a day when Sun Hao dies, and a worthy lord takes his place, that will only make the enemy stronger. The navy that I built seven years ago is rotting by the day. I myself am seventy years old, and the day of my death is not far off. If any of these three things happens to change, it will become difficult to conquer Wu. I urge Your Majesty not to let this opportunity slip away."

Sima Yan thus made up his mind to conquer Wu.

At that time, the General Who Maintains The East, Wang Hun, sent in a petition stating that Sun Hao wished to advance north. The border camps were all placed in military readiness, and the court then discussed putting off the planned campaign until the following year. Wang Jun's advisor He Pan sent a messenger to Luoyang, stating in his petition, "Sun Hao would not dare to venture forth. However, the camps should maintain their military readiness, in order to make the conquest that much easier."

〈泰始八年,濬始作船,至是蓋七朞年矣。〉

(In the eighth year of Taishi (272.6), Wang Hun had first begun building ships; it had now been seven years since then.)


杜預上表曰:「自閏月以來,賊但敕嚴,下無兵上。以理勢推之,賊之窮計,力不兩完,必保夏口以東以延視息,無緣多兵西上,空其國都。而陛下過聽,便用委棄大計,縱敵患生,誠可惜也。嚮使舉而有敗,勿舉可也。今事爲之制,務從完牢,若或有成,則開太平之基,不成不過費損日月之間,何惜而不一試之!若當須後年,天時人事,不得如常,臣恐其更難也。今有萬安之舉,無傾敗之慮,臣心實了,不敢以曖昧之見自取後累,惟陛下察之。」旬月未報,預復上表曰:「羊祜不先博謀於朝臣,而密與陛下共施此計,故益令朝臣多異同之議。凡事當以利害相校,今此舉之利十有八、九,而其害一、二,止於無功耳。必使朝臣言破敗之形,亦不可得,直是計不出己,功不在身,各恥其前言之失而固守之也。自頃朝廷事無大小,異意鋒起,雖人心不同,亦由恃恩不慮後患,故輕相同異也。自秋已來,討賊之形頗露,今若中止,孫晧或怖而生計,徙都武昌,更完脩江南諸城,遠其居民,城不可攻,野無所掠,則明年之計或無所及矣!」帝方與張華圍碁,預表適至,華推枰斂手曰:「陛下聖武,國富兵強,吳主淫虐,誅殺賢能,當今討之,可不勞而定,願勿以爲疑!」帝乃許之。以華爲度支尚書,量計運漕。賈充、荀勗、馮紞固爭之,帝大怒,充免冠謝罪。僕射山濤退而告人曰:「自非聖人,外寧必有內憂,今釋吳爲外懼,豈非算乎!」

10. Du Yu sent up a petition stating, "Since this year's intercalary month, although the enemy has set their men in readiness, they have no more soldiers to drawn upon. If we threaten them with all our power, it will overwhelm them; unable to have strength enough to defend both fronts completely, they will certainly concentrate their forces east of Xiakou to observe us, watching and waiting. They shall not have many troops left to defend anywhere west of there, leaving their state and their capital exposed. Yet Your Majesty would lend an ear to what has been claimed, and cast aside the great plan because of others. That would allow the enemy to grow ever more powerful; what a pity that would be.

“If you would raise a proposal only with reservations, then you cannot propose it. For the matter which we are now undertaking, we must have absolute firmness in our purpose. If we attain success, then we build the foundation of a lasting peace; if we are not successful, we will have spent no more than a few days' or months' worth of time. But how tragic would it be not to even make the attempt at all! If you put off this affair until some later year, beware: man proposes, but Heaven disposes. You cannot treat it like an ordinary issue, for I fear that it would become even more difficult.

“There are countless reasons to undertake the campaign now, and one cannot become a slave to deviations or doubts. My own heart is set, and I dare not be led astray by the clouded thinking of others. May Your Majesty consider my words."

When there had been no response to this petition for several weeks, Du Yu sent up another petition stating, "When Yang Hu explained his plans before, he did not expound upon them before the court ministers, but only discussed his planning with Your Majesty in personal discussion. This is why so many of the court ministers share the same reservations. It is true that every idea has its share of benefits to some and harm to others. However, the plan now being proposed shall benefit eight or nine of every ten people, while harming merely one or two. To stop simply because of that means that there would be no success at all.

“There are certainly some ministers of the court who speak words of defeatism, but their words cannot be accepted. They are simply saying these things because if their counsel is not followed, then they can claim no successes themselves, while each of them will be ashamed that their earlier words were ignored; thus they guard against such a thing all the more.

“When going against court affairs, whether large or small, an unorthodox idea stands out all the more. Although men's hearts are not in agreement, because of the favor that you have shown me, I cannot help but consider future dangers. This is why I must somewhat go against so many.

“But ever since the arrival of autumn, the concept of our campaign against the enemy has already taken substance. If we were to stop now, Sun Hao might become afraid and develop his own plans. He could move his capital to Wuchang and fully repair his various cities south of the Yangzi, while sending his people far away. Then we would not be able either to take his cities or to forage his countryside for supplies. This is why an invasion that does not come until next year would be bound to fail!"

Sima Yan was playing a game of weiqi with Zhang Hua when this second petition from Du Yu arrived. Zhang Hua pushed aside the board, clasped his hands, and said to Sima Yan, "Your Majesty, you are a sage and martial man; your state is prosperous and your soldiers are strong. The ruler of Wu is a wild and wicked man, and he punishes and kills the worthy and the able. If we campaign against him now, Wu can be taken even without effort. What reason is there for any further doubts?"

And Sima Yan agreed with him. He appointed Zhang Hua as 度支 of the Masters of Writing, and Zhang Hua was in charge of arranging logistics and supplies.

Jia Chong, Xun Xu, and Feng Dan all strenuously objected, but Sima Yan became very angry because of them, and so Jia Chong removed his cap and begged forgiveness.

The Supervisor Shan Tao withdrew and told someone, "It has been said, 'Excepting under a sage ruler, when there is quietness abroad, sorrow is sure to spring up at home'. Now Wu is the foreign dread; how could it be otherwise?"

〈是年閏七月。〉〈吳自建業寇淮、襄,皆自下泝江而上。〉〈凡人目不能視,氣不能息,則赫然死人矣。〉〈此言指出賈充、荀勗、馮紞等肺肝。〉〈《博物志》曰:堯造圍碁,以敎子丹朱。或曰:舜以子商均愚,故作圍碁以敎之,其法非智莫能也。〉〈《左傳》:晉大夫范文子之言。〉〈山濤身爲大臣,不昌言於朝而退以告人,蓋求合於賈充者也。〉

(The intercalary month for that year had been after the seventh month.

When Eastern Wu had sent forces from Jianye to invade the Huai and Xiang river regions, in every case they had crossed over from the Yangzi.

When men's eyes are not able to see, and their spirits are not able to rest, then they will fight to the death with impressive ardor.

When Du Yu refers to the "defeatists" in his second petition, he is talking about the true feelings of Jia Chong, Xun Xu, Feng Dan, and the others of like mind.

The Records of Natural Things states, "Emperor Yao invented the game of weiqi as a way to instruct his son Danzhu." Some say that Emperor Shun had a son, Shangjun, who was foolish, so Shun created weiqi in order to teach him. Because of its rules, no one can be skilled at the game unless they are intelligent.

Shan Tao's quote "excepting under a sage ruler, when there is quietness abroad, sorrow is sure to spring up at home" is taken from the Zuo Commentary, from the words of the Jin minister Fan Wenzi (Cheng 16.6).

Shan Tao was himself a great minister of state. By not saying such a thing openly in court, and merely withdrawing and saying it to someone else later on, he was trying to make peace with Jia Chong.)


冬,十一月,大舉伐吳,遣鎭軍將軍琅邪王伷出涂中,安東將軍王渾出江西,建威將軍王戎出武昌,平南將軍胡奮出夏口,鎭南大將軍杜預出江陵,龍驤將軍王濬、巴東監軍魯國唐彬下巴、蜀,東西凡二十餘萬。命賈充爲使持節、假黃鉞、大都督,以冠軍將軍楊濟副之;充固陳伐吳不利,且自言衰老,不堪元帥之任,詔曰:「君若不行,吾便自出。」充不得已,乃受節鉞,將中軍南屯襄陽,爲諸軍節度。

11. In winter, the eleventh month, the grand campaign against Wu began. Sima Yan sent several generals each to different assigned places. The General Who Guards the Army and Prince of Langye, Sima Zhou, marched to Chuzhong. The General Who Maintains The East, Wang Hun, marched to Jiangxi. The General Who Establishes Might, Wang Rong, marched to Wuchang. The General Who Pacifies The South, Hu Fen, marched to Xiakou. The Grand General Who Conquers The South, Du Yu, marched to Jiangling. The Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Jun, and the Army-Director of Badong, Tang Bin of Luguo, marched out of Ba and Shu. Along the whole front from east to west, Jin fielded more than two hundred thousand soldiers.

Sima Yan appointed Jia Chong as Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Bearer of the Golden Battle-axe, and Grand Commander, with the Champion General Yang Ji as his adjutant. Jia Chong was adamant that a campaign against Wu would bring no benefit, and further stated that old and frail as he was, he would not be able to endure the strain of being the chief commander of the campaign. Sima Yan issued an edict stating, "If you cannot act, then I myself shall take your place." Faced with no other option, Jia Chong then accepted his staff and battle-axe of authority and led the Central Army to camp at Xiangyang, where he coordinated the other Jin armies.

〈吳主權作堂邑涂塘卽其地。蓋從今滁州取眞州路。涂,讀曰滁。〉〈今和州出橫江渡路。〉〈魏文帝以曹眞都督中外諸軍事,假黃鉞。明帝大和四年,司馬懿征蜀,加號大都督。此仍魏制也。武王伐紂,左杖黃鉞。黃鉞,天子之器,非人臣所得專用,故曰假。〉

(Sun Quan had built a hall and town at the dyke at Chu, thus the name for Chuzhong. It was located on the road between modern Chuzhou and Zhenzhou. The 涂 in the name of this place is pronounced "chu".

Jiangxi was located on the road where one now crosses over the Yangzi in modern Hezhou.

When Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) had appointed Cao Zhen as Commander over all military affairs, he had further granted him the authority as Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe. In Emperor Ming's (Cao Rui's) fourth year of Taihe (230), when Sima Yi was sent to campaign against Shu-Han, he was granted the title Grand Commander. So both of Jia Chong's appointments were in accordance with the Cao-Wei system. When King Wu of Zhou had campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, King Wu had gripped a yellow battle-axe in his left hand. This battle-axe was a tool of the Son of Heaven, thus when any other person or minister was given its use, they were called the Bearer of it.)


馬隆西渡溫水,樹機能等以衆數萬據險拒之。隆以山路陿隘,乃作扁箱車,爲木屋,施於車上,轉戰而前,行千餘里,殺傷甚衆。自隆之西,音問斷絕,朝廷憂之,或謂已沒。後隆使夜到,帝撫掌歡笑,詰朝,召羣臣謂曰:「若從諸卿言,無涼州矣。」乃詔假隆節,拜宣威將軍。隆至武威,鮮卑大人猝跋韓且萬能帥萬餘落來降。十二月,隆與樹機能大戰,斬之;涼州遂平。

12. Ma Long marched west, and crossed over the Wen River. Tufa Shujineng assembled a host of several tens of thousands and occupied the passes against Ma Long. So Ma Long took narrow roads through the mountains, and he built "flat box carts" in which he placed "wooden rooms". Riding in these carts, he was able to fight and advance, pushing forward more than a thousand li, and killing and wounding a great many enemies.

When Ma Long went to the west, word came back that he and his men had been cut off. The court was afraid of what had happened to him, and some said that he was already no more. But afterwards, Ma Long sent a messenger who arrived during the night. Sima Yan clapped his hands and smiled as he welcomed the messenger. He questioned his court ministers, and summoned them all to tell them, "If I had listened to your words, Liangzhou would have been lost." So Sima Yan issued an edict granting Ma Long a staff of authority, and appointed him as General Who Exhibits Might.

By the time Ma Long reached Wuwei, the Xianbei chieftains Cubahan and Zuwanneng led more than ten thousand tribes to surrender to him. In the twelfth month, Ma Long fought a great battle against Tufa Shujineng and beheaded him. Peace was thus restored to Liangzhou.

〈武威之東有溫圍水。〉〈車箱扁,則可行狹路。〉〈木屋,所以蔽風雨,捍矢石。〉〈《考異》曰:《隆傳》曰:「或夾道累磁石,賊被鐵鎧,行不得前,隆卒悉被犀甲,無所留礙,賊以爲神。」按此說太誕,恐不可信。余謂磁石脅鐵鎧,誠有此理。〉〈沈約《志》:魏置將軍四十號,宣威第二。〉〈且,子閭翻。〉

(The Wenwei River was east of Wuwei.

The "flat box carts" were for movement through the narrow roads. The "wooden rooms" were to guard against wind and rain and defend against slings and arrows.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Ma Long in the Book of Jin states, 'Sometimes he would set up magnetic stones on the road; because of the enemy's iron armor, these stones prevented them from moving forward. Ma Long's troops were all dressed in rhinoceros hide, so the magnetic stones did not hinder them. The enemy believed them to be divine.' This sort of thing is too outlandish; I do not think I can believe it." But I, Hu Sanxing, say that magnetic stones can impede iron armor, and this story does make sense.

Shen Yue's Records states, "Cao-Wei created forty titles of generals. General Who Exhibits Might was the second of these.”

The character 且 in the name of the second chief who surrendered to Ma Long is pronounced "zu (z-u)".)


詔問朝臣以政之損益,司徒左長史傅咸上書,以爲:「公私不足,由設官太多。舊都督有四,今幷監軍乃盈於十;禹分九州,今之刺史幾向一倍;戶口比漢十分之一,而置郡縣更多;虛立軍府,動有百數,而無益宿衞;五等諸侯,坐置官屬;諸所廩給,皆出百姓,此其所以困乏者也。當今之急,在於幷官息役,上下務農而已。」咸,玄之子也。時又議省州、郡、縣半吏以赴農功,中書監荀勗以爲「省吏不如省官,省官不如省事,省事不如清心。昔蕭、曹相漢,載其清靜,民以寧壹,所謂清心也。抑浮說,簡文案,略細苛,宥小失,有好變常以徼利者,必行其誅,所謂省事也。以九寺倂尚書,蘭臺付三府,所謂省官也。若直作大例,凡天下之吏皆減其半,恐文武衆官,郡國職業,劇易不同,不可以一槪施之。若有曠闕,皆須更復,或激而滋繁,亦不可不重也。」

13. Sima Yan issued an edict asking his court ministers about ways to improve the administration of the realm.

The Minister Over The Masses' Chief Clerk of the Left, Fu Xian, sent up a petition stating, "Public and private resources are insufficient, and this is because the government's demands are too great. There were originally only four Commander posts, yet now, combined with the Chief posts, another ten have been created. Yu the Great divided the realm into the Nine Provinces, yet now we have twice as many Inspectors as that. The population rolls are a tenth of what they were during the Han era, yet we have created more and more commandaries and counties. We have pointlessly created many military administrative officials, which has caused countless difficulties without bringing any defensive benefits. The creation of the Five Ranks systems of nobles has necessarily created many more subordinate officials as well. All of these things demand grain supplies, which are all taken from the common people, so having them adds to the people's suffering and exhaustion. The best thing to do now would be to combine offices and put a rest to projects, and let everyone above and below focus their efforts on farming and agriculture." This Fu Xian was the son of Fu Xuan.

At this time there was also discussion of abolishing half of the provincial, commandary, and county officials in order to focus on agriculture.

The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Xun Xu, said, "Rather than abolish officials, it would be better to abolish bureaus; rather than abolish bureaus, it would be better to simplify duties; rather than simplify duties, it would be better to tranquilize hearts. In former times, when Xiao He and Cao Shen served as Chancellors of Han, they imposed light burdens, and so the people felt tranquil and at peace. This is what I mean by tranquilizing hearts. Restrain frivolous talk, simplify administrative correspondence, summarize rather than demand exactness and strictness, and forgive minor faults. Implement these beneficial changes and promulgate their benefits, and demand their certain enforcement under penalty of punishment. This is what I mean by simplifying affairs. Combine the Nine Ministries into the Masters of Records, and merge the Lantai ministers into the Three Excellencies. This is what I mean by abolishing bureaus.

“If you set this great example with determination, then all the officials of the realm will economize half of their own duties as well. I fear that there are so many civil and military officials, and so many offices among the commandaries and fiefs, that they will overlap with one another and they cannot all carry out their duties at the same time. If there is any neglect or error, they will all increase over time, and it might be that someday there will be a growing flood of them. This is nothing less than a serious matter."

〈《晉志》:司徒加置左、右長史各一人。〉〈魏初置都督諸軍,東、南以備吳,西以備蜀,北以備胡,隨其資望輕重而加以征、鎭、安、平之號,有四而已。其後增置,有都督鄴城守諸軍,都督秦、雍、涼諸軍,都督梁、益諸軍,都督荊州諸軍,都督揚州諸軍,都督徐州諸軍,都督淮北諸軍,都督豫州諸軍,都督幽州諸軍,都督幷州諸軍,凡十。其資輕者,爲監軍。〉〈時有司、豫、徐、兗、荊、揚、梁、益、寧、交、秦、雍、涼、冀、幽、幷、青十八州刺史。〉〈漢元始之初,民戶千三百二十三萬三千六百一十二,口五千九百一十九萬四千九百七十八,漢之極盛也。桓帝之初,戶二千六百七萬九百六,口五千六萬六千八百五十六。魏旣幷蜀,景元四年,與蜀通計,民戶九十四萬三千四百二十三,口五百三十七萬二千八百九十一。蓋口猶及漢十分之一,而戶則未幾及也。〉〈軍府,謂驃騎、車騎、衞、伏波、撫軍、都護、鎭軍、中軍、典軍、上軍、撫國、領軍、護軍、左‧右衞、驍騎、游擊、左‧右‧前‧後軍及雜號將軍也。五等諸侯官屬,王置傅、友、文學、郎中令、中尉、大農、左‧右常侍、侍郎、典書‧典祠‧典衞‧學官等令、典書丞、治書、中尉司馬、世子、庶子、陵廟牧長、謁者、中大夫、舍人、典府。公侯以下置官屬,隨國小大,無定制。〉〈事見十二卷漢惠帝二年。〉〈九寺,謂九卿寺也。漢初九卿各有所掌,東都以後,尚書諸曹分掌衆事,九卿殆爲具官,故欲併之尚書。蘭臺,御史臺也。三府,三公府也。漢丞相有長史、司直,御史大夫有中丞、侍御史,掌察舉非法,故勗欲以蘭臺付之三府。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Minister Over The Masses had two Chief Clerks, of the Left and the Right."

Cao-Wei had first created Commander posts to oversee the various armies. They had Commanders of the East and South to guard against Eastern Wu, Commanders of the West to guard against Shu-Han, and Commanders of the North to guard against the tribes. These Commanders were additionally titled as Conquers, Guards, Maintains, or Pacifies depending on their talents and the seriousness of their situations, but there were four of them in all. But later, more Commander offices were created. There was a Commander of military affairs around Ye, a Commander of the armies of Qinzhou, Yongzhou, and Liangzhou, a Commander for Lianzhou and Yizhou, a Commander for Jingzhou, a Commander for Yangzhou, a Commander for Xuzhou, a Commander for Huaibei, a Commander for Yuzhou, a Commander for Youzhou, and a Commander for Bingzhou; ten more in all. In less serious situations, such offices were called Chiefs.

At this time, there were eighteen Inspectors, one each for Sizhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Ningzhou, Jiaozhou, Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Liangzhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, Bingzhou, and Qingzhou. (This makes seventeen; Pingzhou must be the eighteenth.)

At the beginning of Han's Yuanshi reign era (~1 AD), there were 13,233,612 households and a population of 59,174,978; this was Han's greatest extent. At the beginning of Emperor Huan's reign (~146), there were 26,070,906 households and a population of 50,066,856. After Cao-Wei annexed Shu-Han, in the fourth year of Jingyuan (263), combined with Shu-Han's calculated registers, there were 943,423 households and a population of 5,372,891. So one could say that it was a tenth of Han's population, and the household rolls did not add up either.

By "military administrative officials", on the military side, Fu Xian refers to such titles as the Generals of Agile Cavalry, Generals of Chariots and Cavalry, Guard Generals (including of the Right and Left), Generals Who Break And Charge, Generals Who Nuture The Army, Generals Who Protect The Capital, Generals Who Guard The Army, Generals of the Central Army, Generals of Army Canons, Generals Who Oversee The Army, Generals Who Nurture The State, Generals Who Lead The Army, Protector-Generals, Generals of the Valiant Cavalry, Generals of Fierce Assault, Generals of the Left, Right, Front, and Rear, and other such assorted titles. Regarding the various subordinate offices of the Five Ranks nobles, the Princes all created offices for Tutors, Friends, Literary Scholars, Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, Local Commandants, Ministers of Finance, Regular Attendants of the Left and Right, Palace Gentlemen, Directors of Canons for Instruction, Ritual, Guards, Officials, and other such Prefects, Ministers of Canons and Texts, Textual Overseers, Marshals to the Local Commandants, offices for their eldest sons and their other sons, Keepers of their ancestral temples, Internuncios, grand palace officials, servants, and canon officials. The Dukes, Marquises, and other nobles on down created offices in much the same way, and every fiefdom, large or small, kept on with this process without any sort of restraint.

Xiao He's and Cao Shen's service as Chancellors of Han are mentioned in Book 12, in Emperor Hui of Han's second year (193 BC).

The Nine Ministers were the Nine Government Ministries. Han had first created the Nine Ministries, each with their own duties. After the capital moved east, the Masters of Writing were created, and they each had their own duties as well. With the Nine Ministries by now having become almost a moribund bureau, Xun Xu suggested they be combined into the Masters of Writing. The Lantai was the name for the Pavilion of the Imperial Secretaries. The Three Excellencies was the administrative branch of those ministers. The Prime Ministers of Han had Chief Clerks and Directors of Justice, while the Imperial Secretaries had Central Ministers and Attendant Secretaries, who examined into affairs and determined breaches of the law. This was why Xun Xu suggested that the Lantai be combined with the Three Excellencies.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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Taishi Ci 2.0
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 2:43 am

太康元年 (庚子、二八○)

The First Year of Taikang (The Gengzi Year, 280 AD)


〈是年四月,改元。〉

(The reign era title was changed during the fourth month of this year.)


春,正月,吳大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, a general amnesty was declared in Wu.

杜預向江陵,王渾出橫江,攻吳鎭、戍,所向皆克。二月,戊午,王濬、唐彬擊破丹陽監盛紀。吳人於江磧要害之處,並以鐵鎖橫截之;又作鐵錐,長丈餘,暗置江中,以逆拒舟艦。濬作大筏數十,方百餘步,縛草爲人,被甲持仗,令善水者以筏先行,遇鐵錐,錐輒著筏而去。又作大炬,長十餘丈,大數十圍,灌以麻油,在船前,遇鎖,然炬燒之,須臾,融液斷絕,於是船無所礙。庚申,濬克西陵,殺吳都督留憲等。壬戌,克荊門、夷道二城,殺夷道監陸晏。杜預遣牙門周旨等帥奇兵八百汎舟夜渡江,襲樂鄕,多張旗幟,起火巴山。吳都督孫歆懼,與江陵督伍延書曰:「北來諸軍,乃飛渡江也。」旨等伏兵樂鄕城外,歆遣軍出拒王濬,大敗而還。旨等發伏兵隨歆軍而入,歆不覺,直至帳下,虜歆而還。乙丑,王濬擊殺吳水軍都督陸景。杜預進攻江陵,甲戌,克之,斬伍延。於是沅、湘以南,接于交、廣,州郡皆望風送印綬。預杖節稱詔而綏撫之。凡所斬獲吳都督、監軍十四,牙門、郡守百二十餘人。胡奮克江安。

2. Du Yu marched towards Jiangling, while Wang Hun marched to Hengjiang. They attacked Wu's garrisons and camps, and swept all before them.

In the second month, on the day Wuwu (March 18th), Wang Jun and Tang Bin attacked and routed Wu's Chief of Danyang, Sheng Ji. The people of Wu were depending on the sandstone bars in the Yangzi to pose a danger to the enemy fleet, as well as the locked iron boom chains that were strung up. They also built iron awls, more than a zhang in length, and hid them inside the river in order to neutralize the enemy's boats. Wang Jun built several dozen large rafts, more than a hundred paces square in size; he also fashioned men made of straw, dressed in armor and grasping weapons. Wang Jun ordered those who were skilled with water to lead these rafts ahead of the fleet, and when they encountered the awls, the awls stuck into the rafts and were no longer a threat. He also built great torches, more than ten zhang in length, in several dozen great rings, and he soaked the torches in oil and placed them at the fronts of the boats. When the boats reached the boom chains, the torches heated and warmed them, and the chains soon melted and broke away, so that the ships could then pass them by.

On the day Gengshen (March 20th), Wang Jun took Xiling, and killed Wu's Commander there, Liu Xian, and others. On the day Renxu (March 22nd), he took the two forts of Jingmen and Yidao, and killed Wu's Chief of Yidao, Lu Yan.

Du Yu sent his General of the Standard, Zhou Zhi, and others to lead eight hundred elite soldiers to cross over the Yangzi by night on boats. Zhou Zhi's soldiers marched to Lexiang, where they raised many banners and flags and set up a fire on Mount Ba. Wu's Commander there, Sun Xin, was afraid, and he said to the Commander of Jiangling, Wuu Yan, "So many northern armies have come; they must have flown across the Yangzi." Zhou Zhi and the others then lay in hiding outside the walls of Lexiang. When Sun Xin sent his army out to oppose Wang Jun's advance, the Wu army was greatly defeated and returned to Lexiang. Zhou Zhi and the others emerged from hiding and followed Sun Xin's soldiers back inside the city, without Sun Xin being any the wiser. They went straight to Sun Xin's headquarters, captured him, and returned to Du Yu's main army.

On the day Yichou (March 25th), Wang Jun attacked and killed Wu's Commander of the Navy, Lu Jing.

Du Yu advanced and attacked Jiangling; on the day Jiaxu (April 3rd), he took it, and killed Wuu Yan. Since he was now south of the Yuan and Xiang Rivers, he was in contact with Jiaozhou and Guangzhou, and the provinces and commandaries all saw his approach and sent him their seals and ribbons in submission. Grasping his staff of authority, Du Yu acted with imperial command, in order to soothe and nurture these places. His army had killed or captured fourteen of Wu's Commanders or Chiefs, and more than a hundred and twenty subordinate generals and commandary guardians.

Hu Fen took Jiang'an.

〈丹陽城在秭歸縣東八里,昔周武王封熊繹於荊丹陽之地,卽此,今謂之屈沱楚王城。〉〈水渚有沙石曰磧。〉〈以人力設險,而不以人力守之,無益也。〉〈荊門,在西陵之東,夷道之西。〉〈巴山在今江陵府松滋縣,有巴復村。〉〈《考異》曰:《武紀》:「壬戌,濬克夷道、樂鄕城,殺陸景。」《陸抗傳》:「壬戌,殺晏;癸亥,殺景。」《王濬傳》:「壬戌,克夷道,獲晏;乙丑,克樂鄕,獲景。」今從《濬傳》。〉〈《水經》:沅水出牂柯且蘭縣東北,過臨沅縣,又東至長沙下雋縣西北入于江。湘水出零陵始安縣陽海山,東北過洮陽、泉陵、重安、酃、陰山、澧陵、臨湘、羅、下雋等縣,又北至巴丘山,入于江。〉〈江安,卽公安,吳南郡治焉。杜預旣定江南,改曰江安縣,爲南平郡治所。〉

(The city of Danyang was eight li east of Zigui County. In ancient times, King Wu of Zhou had granted Danyang in Jing as a fief to Xiong Yi; this was the same place. It is now the city of Chuwang in Qutuo.

River islets with sandstone on them are called 磧.

To use manpower to set up defenses, and yet to not use manpower to man the defenses, brings no benefit.

Jingmen was east of Xiling; Yidao was west of it.

Mount Ba is in modern Songxi County at the Jiangling Garrison. There is also a Bafu Village.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) in the Book of Jin states, 'On the day Renxu (March 22nd), Wang Jun took Yidao and Lexiang, and killed Lu Jing.' The Biography of Lu Kang in the Records of the Three Kingdoms states, 'On the day Renxu, Wang Jun killed Lu Yan; on the day Guihai (April 12th), he killed Lu Jing.' The Biography of Wang Jun in the Book of Jin states, 'On the day Renxu, he took Yidao, and captured Lu Yan. On the day Yichou (March 25th), he took Lexiang, and captured Lu Jing.' I follow the account of the Biography of Wang Jun."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The 沅 Yuan River flows out of the northeast of Qielan County in Zangke commandary. It passes through Linyuan County, and on east until it reaches the northwest of Xiajuan County in Changsha commandary, where it enters the Yangzi. The 湘 Xiang River flows out of Mount Yanghai in Shi'an County in Lingling commandary. It flows northeast, passing through the counties of Taoyang, Quanling, Zhong'an, Ling, Yinshan, Liling, Linxiang, Luo, Xiajuan, and others. It then flows north until it reaches Mount Baqiu, where it enters the Yangzi."

Jiang'an was the same as Gong'an, Wu's administrative center for Nan commandary. After Du Yu's conquest of the south, its name was changed to Jiang'an County, and it became the administrative center for Nanping commandary.)


乙亥,詔:「王濬、唐彬旣定巴丘,與胡奮、王戎共平夏口、武昌,順流長騖,直造秣陵。杜預當鎭靜零、桂,懷輯衡陽。大兵旣過,荊州南境固當傳檄而定。預等各分兵以益濬、彬,太尉充移屯項。」

3. On the day Yihai (April 4th), Sima Yan issued an edict stating, "Once Wang Jun and Tang Bin have taken Baqiu, they are to rendezvous with Hu Fen and Wang Rong for a joint attack on Xiakou and Wuchang, keep up the pace of their march, and make straight for Moling (Jianye). Du Yu will keep watch over Lingling and Guiyang, with an eye towards taking Hengyang. Since our grand army has already crossed over, the enemy's holdouts in southern Jingzhou shall be sent our declarations and then pacified. Du Yu and the others will divide up their soldiers to reinforce Wang Jun and Tang Bin. Grand Commandant Jia Chong will move his base to Xiang."

〈零陵、桂陽,漢古郡。衡陽,吳主亮太平二年分長沙西部都尉立。〉〈謂重鎭旣破,其餘當望風而靡也。〉〈以荊州已定,不復使賈充南屯襄陽,移屯項爲諸軍節度。〉

(Lingling and Guiyang were the original Han names for these commandaries. As for Hengyang, in Sun Liang's second year of Taiping (257), he had split off the western command posts in Changsha commandary to form Hengyang commandary.

Sima Yan was saying that since the main defensive points had already fallen, the holdout Wu commanders would see how events were going and submit to Jin.

Since Jingzhou was already pacified, there was no need for Jia Chong to remain in the south at Xiangyang, so his base was moved to Xiang to better coordinate the armies.)


王戎遣參軍襄陽羅尚、南陽劉喬將兵與王濬合攻武昌,吳江夏太守劉朗、督武昌諸軍虞昺皆降。昺,翻之子也。

4. Wang Rong sent his advisors, Luo Shang of Xiangyang and Liu Qiao of Nanyang, to lead soldiers to link up with Wang Jun for a joint attack on Wuchang. Wu's Administrator of Jiangxia, Liu Lang, and their Commander of military affairs in Wuchang, Yu Bing, both surrendered. This Yu Bing was the son of Yu Fan.

杜預與衆軍會議,或曰:「百年之寇,未可盡克,方春水生,難於久駐,宜俟來冬,更爲大舉。」預曰:「昔樂毅藉濟西一戰以幷強齊,今兵威已振,譬如破竹,數節之後,皆迎刃而解,無復著手處也。」遂指授羣帥方略,徑造建業。

5. Du Yu held a council with his officers. Someone said, "An enemy of a hundred years cannot yet be fully defeated. The spring flooding will soon be upon us, and it will difficult to remain in this place for long. We should wait until winter comes, and then we can resume the grand advance."

Du Yu replied, "In former times, Yue Yi was able to overcome and annex the state of Qi because of a single battle at Jixi. The might of our soldiers is already mounting; our situation is like cutting bamboo, which welcomes the knife and gives way after the first few joints have been cut. There shall not be much further resistance."

And he discussed with and directed his men to carry out his strategy, to facilitate the advance on Jianye.

〈《考異》曰:《杜預傳》曰:「今向暑,水潦方降,疾疫將起。」按時未暑,今依《三十國春秋》。〉〈事見四卷周赧王三十一年。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Du Yu in the Book of Jin quotes this objector as saying, 'The heat of summer will be here soon, when the rains will fall and pestilence will spring up.' But at that time there was not yet any heat, so I follow the account of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms."

Yue Yi's victory at Jixi is mentioned in Book 4, in King Nan of Zhou's thirty-first year (284 BC).)


吳主聞王渾南下,使丞相張悌督丹陽太守沈瑩、護軍孫震、副軍師諸葛靚帥衆二萬渡江逆戰。至牛渚,沈瑩曰:「晉治水軍於蜀久矣,上流諸軍,素無戒備,名將皆死,幼少當任,恐不能禦也。晉之水軍必至於此,宜畜衆力以待其來,與之一戰,若幸而勝之,江西自清。今渡江與晉大軍戰,不幸而敗,則大事去矣!」悌曰:「吳之將亡,賢愚所知,非今日也。吾恐蜀兵至此,衆心駭懼,不可復整。及今渡江,猶可決戰。若其敗喪,同死社稷,無所復恨。若其克捷,北敵奔走,兵勢萬倍,便當乘勝南上,逆之中道,不憂不破也。若如子計,恐士衆散盡,坐待敵到,君臣俱降,無一人死難者,不亦辱乎!」

6. When Sun Hao heard of Wang Hun's southern advance, he put Prime Minister Zhang Ti in charge of an army of twenty thousand soldiers. Zhang Ti's officers would be the Administrator of Danyang, Shen Ying, the Army Protector, Sun Zhen, and the Adjutant Instructor General, Zhuge Jing. They were ordered to cross the Yangzi and attack Wang Hun.

But when this Wu army reached Niuzhu, Shen Ying said to the others, "Jin has been training their navy in the Shu region for a long time, and our armies upstream have no weapons or defenses against them. Since our more esteemed generals have all died, young and inexperienced men hold those garrisons now, and I fear they will not be able to maintain their positions. Jin's navy will surely be coming this way. We should be mustering our strength to meet their attack and fight a battle with them. If we are fortunate and defeat them, then the enemy west of the Yangzi will fall back of their own accord. But here we are about to cross the Yangzi and fight Jin's main army in battle. If we are unfortunate and suffer a defeat, everything shall be lost!"

Zhang Ti replied, "Anyone, wise or foolish, can see that Wu will fall soon. But it will not be this day. My fear is that when the soldiers from the Shu region reach this place, our soldiers' hearts will be shaken and afraid, and we will not be able to calm them again. But if we cross the Yangzi now, we may still fight a decisive battle. If we should suffer a mournful defeat, then we will die with the state, and there will be no cause for further regrets. But should we win a victory, and the northern foe is driven back, then the strength of our soldiers will swell to unfathomable levels. We may then bring our victorious soldiers south again, and oppose the Shu army's advance, confident that we can rout them. But if we were to do as you suggest, I fear that the officers and the men would all desert us. We would be left merely waiting for the enemy to arrive, and then both lord and ministers would have to surrender without a single man dying for his state. Would that not be shameful?"

〈謂陸晏、陸景、留憲、孫歆等。〉〈大江北流,自建業言之,歷陽、皖城皆爲江西。〉〈如悌之言,吳人至此,爲計窮矣。然悌之志節,亦可憐也。〉

(By "young and inexperienced men", Shen Ying refers to Lu Yan, Lu Jing, Liu Xian, Sun Xin, and the others.

Shen Ying uses the term "west of the Yangzi". The Yangzi has a bend where it turns north, and so people in Jianye use the term "west of the Yangzi" to refer to Liyang, Wancheng, and the other cities on the western bank of this bend of the river.

By Zhang Ti's words, we can see that the people of Wu had been driven to dire straits indeed, having to make plans from a place of weakness. But Zhang Ti was a man of fortitude and strong will, and one can truly sympathize with him.)


三月,悌等濟江,圍渾部將城陽都尉張喬於楊荷;喬衆纔七千,閉栅請降。諸葛靚欲屠之,悌曰:「強敵在前,不宜先事其小;且殺降不祥。」靚曰:「此屬以救兵未至,力少不敵,故且僞降以緩我,非眞伏也。若捨之而前,必爲後患。」悌不從,撫之而進。悌與揚州刺史汝南周浚,結陳相對,沈瑩帥丹陽銳卒、刀楯五千,三衝晉兵,不動。瑩引退,其衆亂,將軍薛勝、蔣班因其亂而乘之,吳兵以次奔潰,將帥不能止,張喬自後擊之,大敗吳兵于版橋。諸葛靚帥數百人遁去,使過迎張悌,悌不肯去,靚自往牽之曰:「存亡自有大數,非卿一人所支,柰何故自取死!」悌垂涕曰:「仲思,今日是我死日也!且我爲兒童時,便爲卿家丞相所識拔,常恐不得其死,負名賢知顧。今以身徇社稷,復何道邪!」靚再三牽之,不動,乃流淚放去,行百餘步,顧之,已爲晉兵所殺,幷斬孫震、沈瑩等七千八百級,吳人大震。

7. In the third month, Zhang Ti and the others crossed the Yangzi. They surrounded Yanghe, besieging Wang Hun's subordinate commander and Commandant of Chengyang, Zhang Qiao. Zhang Qiao had only seven thousand soldiers, so he opened his barriers and asked to surrender. Zhuge Jing wished to execute him, but Zhang Ti said, "When there is a strong enemy before us, we should not first do something so petty. To kill a surrendered enemy would be a bad sign."

Zhuge Jing replied, "His reinforcements had not even arrived, and our strength is inferior to that of the enemy. He is only pretending to surrender to us, but he does not really mean to submit."

But Zhang Ti ignored him, treated Zhang Qiao well, and continued his army's advance.

Zhang Ti soon found himself locked in a defensive stalemate with Jin's Inspector of Yangzhou, Zhou Jun. Shen Ying led the elite soldiers of Danyang, five thousand swords and shields, on three charges against the Jin lines, but he could not dislodge them. As Shen Ying was leading his men back, they fell into disorder. The Jin generals Xue Sheng and Jiang Ban took advantage of their disorder to attack them. The Wu soldiers then began to flee and rout, and their officers and generals could not halt them. Zhang Qiao attacked them from behind, and greatly defeated the Wu soldiers at Banqiao.

Zhuge Jing broke out with several hundred soldiers. He went back in to find Zhang Ti, but Zhang Ti refused to leave. Zhuge Jing pulled at him, saying, "Victory or ruin has many factors; there is nothing that you alone can do to change it. Why insist upon seeking your own death?"

Zhang Ti wept as he replied, "Zhongsi, today is the day of my death! When I was a mere boy, your family's Prime Minister recognized my worth and promoted me. I have often feared that I could not accept his death, or bear my reputation or the knowing looks of the worthy. Today I shall give my life for the state. What more needs be said?"

Zhuge Jing pulled at Zhang Ti three times, but Zhang Ti would not be moved. At last, with tears in his eyes, Zhuge Jing released him and fled. When he had gone some hundred paces, he looked back, but Zhang Ti had already been killed by the Jin soldiers.

They also killed Sun Zhen, Shen Ying, and others, some 7,800 men in all. The Wu soldiers were greatly afraid.

〈《水經註》:淮水自江夏平春縣北,東北流逕汝南城陽縣故城南。漢高帝十二年,封定侯奚竟爲侯國,王莽之新利也;魏置城陽郡。按干寶《晉紀》,楊荷,橋名。今按《水經註》之城陽郡,乃元魏所置,張喬蓋以渾部將領青州之城陽都尉也。〉〈諸葛靚,字仲思。〉〈丞相,謂諸葛亮也。或曰:謂諸葛瑾。余謂張悌襄陽人,蓋亮在荊州,識之於童幼也。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Huai River comes from the north of Pingchun County in Jiangxia commandary. It flows northeast, passing south of the city of Chengyang in that county in Runan. In Emperor Gao of Han's (Liu Bang's) twelfth year (195 BC), he made that place a marquisate fief for Marquis Ding, Xi Jing. It was the same place as Wang Mang's Xinli. Northern Wei made it into Chengyang commandary." According to Gan Bao's Records of Jin, Yanghe was the name of a bridge. Now since the Chengyang commandary in the Commentary on the Water Classic was created later on, by Northern Wei, Zhang Qiao must have been Wang Hun's acting Commandant of Chengyang in Qingzhou.

Zhongsi was Zhuge Jing's style name.

Zhang Ti refers to "your family's Prime Minister". He means Zhuge Liang. Some say that he means Zhuge Jin. But I, Hu Sanxing, believe that since Zhang Ti was a native of Xiangyang, when Zhuge Liang was in Jingzhou, he would have recognized the boy's worth.)


初,詔書使王濬下建平,受杜預節度,至建業,受王渾節度。預至江陵,謂諸將曰:「若濬得建平,則順流長驅,威名已著,不宜令受制於我;若不能克,則無緣得施節度。」濬至西陵,預與之書曰:「足下旣摧其西藩,便當徑取建業,討累世之逋寇,釋吳人於塗炭,振旅還都,亦曠世一事也!」濬大悅,表陳預書。及張悌敗死,揚州別駕何惲謂周浚曰:「張悌舉全吳精兵殄滅於此,吳之朝野莫不震懾。今王龍驤旣破武昌,乘勝東下,所向輒克,土崩之勢見矣。謂宜速引兵渡江,直指建業,大軍猝至,奪其膽氣,可不戰禽也!」浚善其謀,使白王渾。惲曰:「渾闇於事機,而欲愼己免咎,必不我從。」浚固使白之,渾果曰:「受詔但令屯江北以抗吳軍,不使輕進,貴州雖武,豈能獨平江東乎!今者違命,勝不足多,若其不勝,爲罪已重。且詔令龍驤受我節度,但當具君舟檝,一時俱濟耳。」惲曰:「龍驤克萬里之寇,以旣成之功來受節度,未之聞也。且明公爲上將,見可而進,豈得一一須詔令乎!今乘此渡江,十全必克,何疑何慮而淹留不進!此鄙州上下所以恨恨也。」渾不聽。

8. During the planning for the campaign against Wu, Sima Yan had ordered that after Wang Jun had subdued Jianping, he would fall under Du Yu's authority, and once Wang Jun reached Jianye, he would be under Wang Hun's authority.

When Du Yu arrived at Jiangling, he said to his generals, "If Wang Jun can obtain Jianping, then he ought to press his advance with full speed. His martial reputation is already such that he should not have to submit to my authority."

When Wang Jun reached Xiling, Du Yu wrote to him saying, "Since you have broken through the enemy's western barrier, if you could keep going and take Jianye, defeat this ancient and broken foe, free the people of Wu from their misery, and lead our army back to the capital, would that not be the sort of thing seen only once in a lifetime?" Wang Jun was overjoyed, and he sent in a petition explaining the contents of Du Yu's letter to him.

After Zhang Ti's defeat and death, Jin's Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage of Yangzhou, He Yun, said to his fellow officer Zhou Jun, "Zhang Ti brought the whole might of Wu's elite soldiers with him, and now they have been destroyed here. There is no one in Wu, among the court or in the field, who does not quiver with fear. Right now, the Dragon-Soaring General, Wang Jun, has already broken through Wuchang, and his victorious troops are marching east. They are sweeping all before them, and even the earth collapses at the sight of his power. I say we should lead our own soldiers across the Yangzi, and make straight for Jianye. When our main army suddenly arrives there, the enemy's courage will abandon them, and we can take the city without a battle!"

Zhou Jun deeply approved of what He Yun said, so he told He Yun to explain the situation to Wang Hun. He Yun objected, "Wang Hun is blind, and does not understand the situation. He only wishes to remain cautious and avoid any censure. He will certainly not follow my suggestion." But Zhou Jun insisted, so He Yun went to talk to Wang Hun.

As He Yun had expected, Wang Hun said, "I received a command to camp north of the Yangzi and oppose the Wu army. I cannot lightly make any advance. Although your province (Yangzhou) is martial, how would it be able to overcome the Southland all on its own? If I were to disobey my command, even if I won a battle, it would not (or, would hardly) be enough to make up for the violation. And if I did not win a battle, that would make my crime all the greater. Besides, our orders state that the Dragon-Soaring General is under my authority. He is merely acting as one oar of the boat; we shall all cross over at the same time."

He Yun replied, "The Dragon-Soaring General has already claimed ten thousand li of the enemy's land, and there has never been anyone who was so close to completing their achievement who would submit to someone else's authority. Furthermore, you are the supreme commander. When you see the possibility of advancing, you must advance. Why tarry here merely because you are waiting to receive orders? If we take this opportunity to cross the Yangzi, then we shall meet with success in every place. Why should you sink into doubts and worries that prevent you from moving forward? That is what everyone in my humble province deeply regrets."

But Wang Hun did not listen to him.

〈言歷世所曠見之事。〉〈【張:「不」作「固」。】〉〈此所謂恨恨,悵望不滿之意。〉

(Du Yu was saying that the capture of Jianye and the other things would be the sort of event only seen once in several generations.

Some versions have Wang Jun saying that a victory "would hardly" be enough to make up for disobeying orders, rather than "would not".

He Yun meant that the soldiers of Yangzhou would regret it because they would be disappointed that their hopes would not be fulfilled to the fullest.)


王濬自武昌順流徑趣建業;吳主遣游擊將軍張象帥舟師萬人禦之,象衆望旗而降。濬兵甲滿江,旌旗燭天,威勢甚盛,吳人大懼。

9. From Wuchang, Wang Jun continued down the Yangzi towards Jianye. Sun Hao sent the General of Fierce Assault, Zhang Xian, to lead a naval force of ten thousand soldiers to oppose Wang Jun. But Zhang Xian's men dipped their flags and surrendered. Wang Jun's arms and armor filled the Yangzi, and his flags and banners shone in the sky. His strength and power were immense, and the people of Wu were greatly afraid.

吳主之嬖臣岑昏,以傾險諛佞,致位九列,好興功役,爲衆患苦。及晉兵將至,殿中親近數百人叩頭請於吳主曰:「北軍日近而兵不舉刃,陛下將如之何?」吳主曰:「何故?」對曰:「正坐岑昏耳。」吳主獨言:「若爾,當以奴謝百姓!」衆因曰:「唯!」遂並起收昏;吳主駱驛追止,已屠之矣。

10. Sun Hao had a favored minister, Cen Hun, who was deviant and sinister, fawning and flattering. He held a position as high as the Nine Ministers, and he delighted in engaging in all sorts of plans and projects, so he was a great scourge and brought suffering to many.

When the Jin soldiers were about to arrive at Jianye, several hundred of Sun Hao's palace servants kowtowed before him and said, "The northern army is close at hand today, yet the soldiers will not lift their blades to fight. Does Your Majesty not know why this is?"

Sun Hao asked them, "What is the reason?"

They replied, "It is all because of Cen Hun."

Sun Hao merely told them, "If it is as you say, then I shall have my slave apologize to the people!"

The crowd replied, "Indeed!"

And they all rose up to go arrest Cen Hun. Sun Hao sent men to pursue the crowd and stop them, but by then the crowd had already killed Cen Hun.

〈獨言,謂其言止此耳。〉〈唯,諾也。〉〈駱驛,言相繼遣人不絕也。〉

(By "merely said", the passage means that he intended to do no more than offer this comment.

唯 means "indeed" or "aye".

The term 駱驛 means to continually send men without a pause.)


陶濬將討郭馬,至武昌,聞晉兵大入,引兵東還。至建業,吳主引見,問水軍消息,對曰:「蜀船皆小,今得二萬兵,乘大船以戰,自足破之。」於是合衆,授濬節鉞。明日當發,其夜,衆悉逃潰。

11. It was earlier mentioned that Tao Jun was one of the Wu commanders sent south to campaign against the rebel Guo Ma. Tao Jun had gone as far as Wuchang, where he heard that Jin had launched a great invasion, so he led his soldiers back east again.

When Tao Jun reached Jianye, Sun Hao brought him in to see him, and asked Tao Jun for news about the navy. Tao Jun told him, "Ships from the Shu region are all small vessels. I have twenty thousand soldiers with me; if I am supplied with large ships for battle, that will be enough to rout the foe." So the ships were assembled, and Tao Jun was granted authority to fight against Wang Jun. He set out the next day, but that night, all his soldiers scattered and fled.

〈陶濬蓋以尋常蜀船言之,諜候不明,亦可見矣。〉

(Tao Jun had often seen ships from the Shu region, which was why he made this claim; his understanding of the current situation was not very clear, as we can see.)


時王渾、王濬及琅邪王伷皆臨近境,吳司徒何植、建威將軍孫晏悉送印節詣渾降。吳主用光祿勳薛瑩、中書令胡沖等計,分遣使者奉書於渾、濬、伷以請降。又遺其羣臣,深自咎責,且曰:「今大晉平治四海,是英俊展節之秋,勿以移朝改朔,用損厥志。」使者先送璽綬於琅邪王伷。壬寅,王濬舟師過三山,王渾遣信要濬蹔過論事,濬舉帆直指建業,報曰:「風利,不得泊也。」是日,濬戎卒八萬,方舟百里,鼓譟入于石頭,吳主晧面縛輿櫬,詣軍門降。濬解縛焚櫬,延請相見。收其圖籍,克州四,郡四十三,戶五十二萬三千,兵二十三萬。

12. By that time, Wang Hun, Wang Jun, and the Prince of Langye, Sima Zhou, were all close to Jianye. Wu's Minister Over The Masses, He Zhi, and their General Who Establishes Might, Sun Yan, both handed over their seals and staffs of authority and presented themselves to surrender to Wang Hun's army.

Sun Hao used the plan suggested by the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Xue Ying, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Hu Chong, and others. He sent separate messengers to present letters requesting surrender to Wang Hun, Wang Jun, and Sima Zhou. He also apologized to his various ministers, deeply blaming himself. He further said to them, "Now that Jin has pacified and controls all within the Four Seas, the time of heroics and fortitude is at an end. I will not move the court or change the calendar, and by doing so harm my ambition." Of the messengers that Sun Hao had sent out, the first one presented his seals and tassels to Sima Zhou.

On the day Renyin (May 1st), Wang Jun's ships sailed past the Three Mountains. Wang Hun sent a messenger ordering Wang Jun to temporarily halt and discuss things with him. But Wang Jun hoisted his sails to make straight for Jianye, and his response to Wang Hun was, "One does not moor the ship when the wind is favorable." On that day, Wang Jun had eighty thousand men under arms, and his rafts and boats stretched for a hundred li. He beat the drums as he entered the Shitou fortress.

Sun Hao had himself bound up and tied to a coffin, and then presented himself at the gate of Wang Jun's camp to surrender. Wang Jun loosed the ropes and burned the coffin, and sent for Sun Hao to come and discuss matters with him.

Wang Jun received Wu's maps and records books, which showed that they possessed four provinces, forty-three commandaries, 523,000 households, and 230,000 soldiers.

〈漢光武命耿弇爲建威大將軍,建威之號自此始。〉〈三山,在今建康府上元縣西南四十五里,又西卽江寧夾。陸游曰:三山磯在烈洲下。凡山臨江皆曰磯,三山,距金陵財五十餘里。〉〈《詩》云:就其深矣,方之舟之。《註》:方,泭也。舟,船也。《爾雅》:方木置水曰泭。〉〈吳有荊、揚、交、廣四州。漢獻帝興平二年,孫策始取江東,魏文帝黃初三年,吳王孫權始稱帝,傳四主,五十七年而亡。〉

(Emperor Guangwu of Han had ordered Geng Yan appointed as Grand General Who Establishes Might. That was when the title "Establishes Might" first began to be used.

The Three Mountains are forty-five li southwest of Shangyuan County in the modern Jiankang Garrison, between the Yangzi and the Ning Rivers to the west. Lu You remarked, "The Three Mountains promontories are below Liezhou." When several mountains or hills abutt a river, they are called promontories. The Three Mountains are a little over fifty li from Jinling (Jianye).

The passage mentions that Wang Jun's 方舟 stretched for a hundred li. The Book of Poetry has the verse, "Where the water was deep, I crossed it by a raft or a boat." The Annotations state, "Regarding this verse, the term 方 in this instance means a raft, and 舟 means a boat." The Erya dictionary states, "A square block of wood built for the water is called a raft."

Eastern Wu held four provinces: Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou.

In Emperor Xian of Han's second year of Xingping (195), Sun Ce first obtained the Southland. In Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei's (Cao Pi's) third year of Huangchu (222), the Prince of Wu, Sun Quan, first styled himself as Emperor. Eastern Wu passed through four rulers (Sun Quan, Sun Liang, Sun Xiu, and Sun Hao), and lasted for fifty-seven years, then perished. [Hu Sanxing is somewhat in error here; Sun Quan became King of Wu in 222, and became Emperor in 229.])


朝廷聞吳已平,羣臣皆賀上壽,帝執爵流涕曰:「此羊太傅之功也。」票騎將軍孫秀不賀,南向流涕曰:「昔討逆弱冠以一校尉創業,今後主舉江南而棄之,宗廟山陵,於此爲墟,悠悠蒼天,此何人哉!」

13. When the Jin court heard that Wu had already been conquered, the court ministers all congratulated Sima Yan. But Sima Yan grasped his wine cup and wept, saying, "This achievement belongs to Grand Tutor Yang Hu."

The General of Agile Cavalry, Sun Xiu, did not congratulate Sima Yan. He instead faced to the south and said through tears, "In a past era, the General Who Punishes Rebels (Sun Ce) established the foundation for our state and became a Colonel before he was even of age. Now our last lord was actually raised in the Southland, yet he abandons it. The ancestral temples and the imperial tombs will thus become ruins. 'O thou distant and azure Heaven! Why did you create such a man?'"

〈《異義》︰《韓詩》,一升曰爵,爵,盡也,足也。羊祜,贈太傅。〉〈孫秀來奔,見七十九卷泰始六年。〉〈討逆,孫策也,起兵之初,袁術表爲懷義校尉。〉〈《詩‧黍離》之辭。〉

(The Yiyi states, "According to the Poems of Hann, a cup of wine is called a 爵; it is filled, or sufficient."

Yang Hu had been named Grand Tutor.

Sun Xiu’s defection to Jin is mentioned in Book 79, in the sixth year of Taishi (270.11).

Sun Ce held the title of General Who Punishes Rebels. When he had first raised troops, Yuan Shu had petitioned to appoint him as Colonel Who Cherishes Righteousness.

Sun Xiu quotes a verse from the Drooping Millet poem in the Book of Poetry.)


吳之未下也,大臣皆以爲未可輕進,獨張華堅執以爲必克。賈充上表稱:「吳地未可悉定,方夏,江、淮下濕,疾疫必起,宜召諸軍還,以爲後圖。雖腰斬張華不足以謝天下。」帝曰:「此是吾意,華但與吾同耳。」荀勗復奏,宜如充表。帝不從。杜預聞充奏乞罷兵,馳表固爭,使至轘轅而吳已降。充慚懼,詣闕請罪,帝撫而不問。

14. Earlier, when Wu had not yet been subdued, the chief ministers of Jin had all insisted that no hasty advance could be made against them, and only Zhang Hua remained firm in his belief that Wu would definitely be conquered.

Jia Chong sent up a petition stating, "The territory of Wu cannot yet be fully pacified. Summer is approaching, when the regions of the Yangzi and Huai Rivers will become humid, and pestilence is sure to spring up. You should recall the various armies, so that the conquest may be completed later. Even if you were to cut Zhang Hua in half at the waist, it would not be enough to apologize to the realm."

Sima Yan replied, "This is my own idea; Zhang Hua is merely agreeing with what I already think."

Xun Xu then sent in a petition as well, urging the same advice as Jia Chong's petition. But Sima Yan did not follow his suggestions either.

When Du Yu heard that Jia Chong had submitted a petition begging the armies to return, Du Yu immediately sent in his own petition strenuously objecting. However, Du Yu's messenger only got as far as Huanyuan before news of Wu's surrender arrived.

Jia Chong was ashamed and afraid, and he went to the palace to beg forgiveness for his offenses. Sima Yan comforted him and heard no more of it.

夏,四月,甲申,詔賜孫晧爵歸命侯。

15. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jiashen (June 12th), Sima Yan issued an edict granting Sun Hao the title Marquis of Guiming.

乙酉,大赦,改元。大酺五日。遣使者分詣荊、揚撫慰,吳牧、守已下皆不更易;除其苛政,悉從簡易。

16. On the day Yiyou (June 13th), the reign era title was changed to Taikang. There was great feasting for five days.

Sima Yan sent messengers to the various places in Jingzhou and Yangzhou to comfort and look after the people. Wu's Governors and Administrators who had already submitted were not lightly removed from their offices; however, those whose administration had been oppressive were removed and replaced with those who ruled with a light hand. The people of Wu were greatly pleased.

〈改元太康,自此以前,係咸寧六年事。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「易」下有「吳人大悅」四字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(This was when the Taiking reign era began. Up until this time, it was still the sixth year of Xianning.

Some versions add the final sentence "The people of Wu were greatly pleased".)


滕脩討郭馬未克,聞晉伐吳,帥衆赴難,至巴丘,聞吳亡,縞素流涕,還,與廣州刺史閭豐、蒼梧太守王毅各送印綬請降。孫晧遣陶璜之子融持手書諭璜,璜流涕數日,亦送印綬降。帝皆復其本職。

17. Teng Xiu was the other Wu general sent to put down Guo Ma's rebellion. He had not yet overcome Guo Ma when he heard about Jin's invasion of Wu. Teng Xiu led his soldiers back to face this hardship, but by the time he reached Baqiu, he heard that Wu had already fallen. He put on mourning clothes and wept, and then returned. Teng Xiu sent in his seals and ribbons of office to surrender to Jin, as did the Inspector of Guangzhou, Lü Feng, and the Administrator of Cangwu, Wang Yi.

Sun Hao sent Tao Huang's son Tao Rong to bring his handwritten letter of instructions to Tao Huang. Tao Huang wept for several days, but he also sent in his seal and ribbons to surrender.

Sima Yan kept all of these men in their original posts.

〈去年吳主晧遣滕脩討郭馬。〉〈閭,姓;豐,名。此與後魏閭大肥不同所自出,閭大肥出於柔然郁久閭氏;《左傳》,楚平王之子啓,字子閭,其後以爲氏。〉

(Sun Hao had sent Teng Xiu to attack Guo Ma in the previous year (279.6).

Regarding the Inspector of Guangzhou mentioned here, 閭 Lü was his surname, and 豐 Feng was his given name. But this fellow's surname of 閭 Lü should not be considered to be of the same origin as that of Lü Dafei of Northern Wei. Lü Dafei's surname had its origin in the 郁久閭 Yujiulü clan of the Rouran people. Lü Feng was of those Lüs who were the descendants of King Ping of Chu's son Qi, styled Zilü, as mentioned in the Zuo Commentary.)


王濬之東下也,吳城戍皆望風款附,獨建平太守吾彥嬰城不下,聞吳亡,乃降。帝以彥爲金城太守。

18. As Wang Jun was advancing east through Wu, all of Wu's cities and garrisons saw how things were developing and so surrendered to him. Only the Administrator of Jianping, Wu Yan, held out in his city and would not submit. But when Wu Yan heard that Wu had fallen, he also surrendered. Sima Yan appointed Wu Yan as Administrator of Jincheng.

初,朝廷尊寵孫秀、孫楷,欲以招來吳人。及吳亡,降秀爲伏波將軍,楷爲度遼將軍。

19. Up until this time, the Jin court had treated the defectors Sun Xiu and Sun Kai with great honor and respect, hoping that by doing so they would win over the people of Wu. But since Wu had now fallen, Sun Xiu was demoted to General Who Breaks And Charges, and Sun Kai was demoted to General Who Crosses The Liao.

〈楷降見上卷咸寧二年。〉

(Sun Kai's defection to Jin is mention in the previous book, in the second year of Xianning (276.4).)


琅邪王伷遣使送孫晧及其宗族詣洛陽。五月,丁亥朔,晧至,與其太子瑾等泥頭面縛,詣東陽門。詔遣謁者解其縛,賜衣服、車乘、田三十頃,歲給錢榖、綿絹甚厚。拜瑾爲中郎,諸子爲王者皆爲郎中。吳之舊望,隨才擢敍。孫氏將吏渡江者復十年,百姓復二十年。

20. Sima Zhou sent envoys to escort Sun Hao and the Wu royal family to visit Luoyang. In the fifth month, on the new moon of the day Dinghai (June 15th), Sun Hao arrived at Luoyang. Sun Hao, his Crown Prince Sun Jin, and others bowed their heads in the mud while bound in ropes, and visited the Dongyang Gate. Sima Yan sent officials to loose their ropes. He bestowed upon Sun Hao clothing, carriages, and thirty 頃 of farmland, and every year he greatly favored Sun Hao with money, grains, and silks. He appointed Sun Jin as a Palace Gentleman, and Sun Hao's other sons were all appointed as Palace Gentlemen to the various Princes of Jin.

Those who had served Wu a long time were inspected for their talents and employed accordingly. Those generals and ministers of the Sun family who had crossed the Yangzi were restored for ten years, while the common people were restored for twenty years.

〈《考異》曰:《吳志‧晧傳》:「天紀四年,三月,丙寅,殺岑昏。戊辰,陶濬從武昌還。壬申,王濬到,受晧降。五月,丁亥,集于京邑。四月,甲申,封歸命侯。」《晉武紀》:「太康元年,二月,王濬等破武昌,王渾斬張悌。三月,壬申,濬下石頭,晧降。乙酉,大赦,改元。四月,遣朱震等慰撫。五月,辛亥,封歸命侯。丙寅,引晧升殿。庚午,詔士卒六十歸家。庚辰,以濬爲輔國將軍。」《王濬傳》:「二月,庚申,克西陵,」又云:「壬寅,濬入石頭,」而無月。又上書曰:「臣十四日至牛渚,十五日至秣陵。」亦無月。又曰:「去二月武昌失守,晧左右皆得寶散走。」《三十國春秋》:「四月,甲子,王渾斬張悌。丙寅,殺岑昏,與何楨書。庚午,送降書。壬申,濬入石頭。甲申,封歸命侯。五月,丁亥,至洛陽。」《晉春秋》略與之同。按《長曆》,去年閏七月,今年二月戊午朔,三月戊子朔,四月丁巳朔,五月丁亥朔,六月丙辰朔。然則三月無戊辰、丙寅、壬申,五月無庚午、庚辰,與《吳志》、《晉書》不合。若依《三十國春秋》,月日雖合,然二月武昌失守,晧左右離散,不容四月十六日王濬乃至秣陵而晧降。又,晧以四月十六日降,舉家西上,至五月一日未能至洛。今事之先後並依《吳志》、《晉書》,但削去其日之不與《曆》合者。〉〈《晉志》:洛陽城東有建春、東陽、清明三門。泥頭者,以泥塗其首也。瑾,渠吝翻。〉〈武王伐紂,斬其首,懸於太白之旗。如孫晧之凶暴,斬之以謝吳人可也。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sun Hao in the Records of Wu states, 'In the third month of the fourth year of Tianji (280), on the day Bingyin (April 25th), Sun Hao killed Cen Hun. On the day Wuchen (?), Tao Jun returned from Wuchang. On the day Renshen (?), Wang Jun arrived, and accepted Sun Hao's surrender. In the fifth month, on the day Dinghai (June 15th), they gathered at the capital (Luoyang). In the fourth month, on the day Jiashen (June 12th), Sun Hao had been appointed as Marquis of Guiming.'

The Records of Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) states, 'In the second month of the first year of Taikang (280), Wang Jun and the others broke through Wuchang, and Wang Hun killed Zhang Ti. In the third month, on the day Renshen (?), Wang Jun subdued Shitou, and Sun Hao surrendered. On the day Yiyou (?), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed. In the fourth month, Sima Yan sent Zhu Zhen and the others to comfort and console the people of Wu. In the fifth month, on the day Xinhai (July 9th), Sima Yan appointed Sun Hao as Marquis of Guiming. On the day Bingyin (?), he summoned Sun Hao to the palace. On the day Gengwu (?), Sima Yan ordered those officers and soldiers who were sixty years old to return to their families. On the day Gengchen (?), Sima Yan appointed Wang Jun as General Who Upholds The State.'

“If we look at the Biography of Wang Jun in the Book of Jin, it states, 'In the second month, on the day Gengshen (March 20th), Wang Jun took Xiling'. It further states, 'On the day Renyin, Wang Jun entered Shitou.' But it does not clarify in which month this particular Renyin day was. The biography also has a petition from Wang Jun in which he says, 'I arrived at Niuzhu on the fourteenth day of the month, and at Moling (Jianye) on the fifthteenth day.' But again, no month is specified. The biography then quotes Wang Jun’s second petition, in which he states, 'In the late second month, Wuchang fell. Those who were with Sun Hao all took valuables and then scattered and fled.'

“The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'In the fourth month, on the day Jiazi (May 23rd), Wang Hun killed Zhang Ti. On the day Bingyin (May 25th), Sun Hao killed Cen Hun, and wrote a letter with He Zhi. On the day Gengwu (May 29th), Sun Hao sent in his letter of surrender. On the day Renshen (May 31st), Wang Jun entered Shitou. On the day Jiashen (June 12th), Sun Hao was appointed as Marquis of Guiming. In the fifth month, on the day Dinghai (June 15th), he arrived at Luoyang.'

“The Annals of Jin has the same account.

“Now according to the 長曆 calendar records, the previous year (279) had had an intercalary month following the seventh month. That would mean that for this year (280), the first day of the second month would be a Wuwu day, the first day of the third month would be a Wuzi day, the first day of the fourth month would be a Dingsi day, the first day of the fifth month would be a Dinghai day, and the first day of the sixth month would be a Bingchen day. Therefore, the third month cannot have had any Wuchen, Bingyin, or Renshen days, and the fifth month cannot have had any Gengwu or Gengchen days. That conflicts with the accounts of the Records of Wu and the Book of Jin.

“But if we follow the account of the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, although it lines up with the correct days and months, if we are to believe that 'Wuchang fell, and those who were with Sun Hao all took valuables and then scattered and fled', then it could not have taken Wang Jun until the sixteenth day of the fourth month to reach Moling and accept Sun Hao's surrender. Furthermore, if Sun Hao had surrendered on the sixteenth day of the fourth month, and then had set out with his family for the west, he could not have arrived at Luoyang by the first day of the fifth month.

“So in compiling my work, I have followed the accounts of the conquest of Eastern Wu as they are listed in the Records of Wu and the Book of Jin, but I have removed the dates that they list which conflict with the calendar records."

The Records of Jin states, "The eastern walls of Luoyang had the three gates of Jianchun, Dongyang, and Qingming."

To 泥頭 means to sink one's head into the mud.

The given name of Sun Hao's crown prince, 瑾, is pronounced "Jin (q-in)".

After King Wu of Zhou campaigned against King Zhou of Shang, he cut off King Zhou's head and hung it before his great white banner. As wild and savage as Sun Hao was, Sima Yan could have beheaded him to appease the people of Wu.)


庚寅,帝臨軒,大會文武有位及四方使者,國子學生皆預焉。引見歸命侯晧及吳降人。晧登殿稽顙。帝謂晧曰:「朕設此座以待卿久矣。」晧曰:「臣於南方,亦設此座以待陛下。」賈充謂晧曰:「聞君在南方鑿人目,剝人面皮,此何等刑也?」晧曰:「人臣有弒其君及姦回不忠者,則加此刑耳。」充默然甚愧,而晧頻色無怍。

21. On the day Gengyin (June 18th), Sima Yan attended his audience chamber. He held a great meeting of civil and military officials and those who had been sent from all corners, and even the students of the National Youth attended. Sun Hao and the surrendered people of Wu were brought in. Sun Hao entered the hall and bowed his forehead to the ground in sign of mourning.

Sima Yan said to Sun Hao, "I have had a seat prepared here for you for a long time."

Sun Hao replied, "When I was in the south, I also had a seat prepared for Your Majesty."

Jia Chong said to Sun Hao, "I have heard that when you were in the south, you had men's eyes gouged out and their faces peeled off. What sort of punishment was this?"

Sun Hao replied, "People or ministers who had murdered their sovereigns and had acted perversely disloyal were the ones who received such punishments."

Jia Chong made no reply, for he was deeply shamed. However, Sun Hao often looked as though he had no shame.

〈稽顙,周之喪拜。稽顙,額觸地無容。〉〈斥充世受魏恩而姦回附晉,弒高貴鄕公也。〉

(To touch the forehead to the ground is a Zhou rite signifying a mournful obeisance. When one does so, the forehead touches the ground without any space in between.

Sun Hao was denouncing Jia Chong for having sided with Jin despite having received Cao-Wei's favor, and for murdering the Duke of Gaogui (Cao Mao).)


帝從容問散騎常侍薛瑩,孫晧所以亡,對曰:「晧昵近小人,刑罰放濫,大臣諸將,人不自保,此其所以亡也。」他日,又問吾彥,對曰:「吳主英俊,宰輔賢明。」帝笑曰:「若是,何故亡?」彥曰:「天祿永終,曆數有屬,故爲陛下禽耳。」帝善之。

22. Sima Yan casually asked Wu's Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Xue Ying, why Sun Hao had fallen. Xue Ying told him, "Sun Hao surrounded himself with miscreants, and in his punishments he was wanton and excessive. His great ministers and his generals could not protect themselves. This was the cause of his downfall."

That same day, Sima Yan asked the surrendered Wu general Wu Yan the same question. Wu Yan told him, "The lord of Wu was a heroic man, and his great ministers were worthy and wise."

Sima Yan laughed and said, "If that was the case, then why have they fallen?"

Wu Yan replied, "It is Heaven that dictates who will endure and who will perish, as has been been shown time and again. This was the only reason why we were subdued by Your Majesty."

Sima Yan approved of his words.

〈有學而無識,此薛瑩所以不及吾彥也。〉

(To be educated is not necessarily to be intelligent. In like manner, this Xue Ying was not the equal of Wu Yan.)


王濬之入建業也,其明日,王渾乃濟江,以濬不待己至,先受孫晧降,意甚愧忿,將攻濬。何攀勸濬送晧與渾,由是事得解。何惲以渾與濬爭功,與周浚牋曰:「《書》貴克讓,《易》大謙光。前破張悌,吳人失氣,龍驤因之,陷其區宇。論其前後,我實緩師,旣失機會,不及於事,而今方競其功;彼旣不吞聲,將虧雍穆之弘,興矜爭之鄙,斯實愚情之所不取也。」浚得牋,卽諫止渾。渾不納,表濬違詔不受節度,誣以罪狀。渾子濟,尚常山公主,宗黨強盛。有司奏請檻車徵濬,帝弗許,但以詔書責讓濬以不從渾命,違制昧利。濬上書自理曰:「前被詔書,令臣直造秣陵,又令受太尉充節度。臣以十五日至三山,見渾軍在北岸,遣書邀臣;臣水軍風發,徑造賊城,無緣廻船過渾。臣以日中至秣陵,暮乃被渾所下當受節度之符,欲令臣明十六日悉將所領還圍石頭,又索蜀兵及鎭南諸軍人名定見。臣以爲晧已來降,無緣空圍石頭;又,兵人定見,不可倉猝得就,皆非當今之急,不可承用,非敢忽棄明制也。晧衆叛親離,匹夫獨坐,雀鼠貪生,苟乞一活耳;而江北諸軍不知虛實,不早縛取,自爲小誤。臣至便得,更見怨恚,並云守賊百日,而令他人得之。臣愚以爲事君之道,苟利社稷,死生以之。若其顧嫌疑以避咎責,此是人臣不忠之利,實非明主社稷之福也!」渾又騰周浚書云:「濬軍得吳寶物。」又云:「濬牙門將李高放火燒晧僞宮。」濬復表曰:「臣孤根獨立,結恨強宗。夫犯上干主,其罪可救;乖忤貴臣,禍在不測。僞中郎將孔攄說:去二月武昌失守,水軍行至,晧按行石頭還,左右人皆跳刀大呼云:『要當爲陛下一死戰決之,』晧意大喜,意必能然,便盡出金寶以賜與之。小人無狀,得便馳走。晧懼,乃圖降首。降使適去,左右劫奪財物,略取妻妾,放火燒宮。晧逃身竄首,恐不脫死。臣至,遣參軍主者救斷其火耳。周浚先入晧宮,渾又先登晧舟,臣之入觀,皆在其後。晧宮之中,乃無席可坐,若有遺寶,則浚與渾先得之矣。浚等云臣屯聚蜀人,不時送晧,欲有反狀。又恐動吳人,言臣皆當誅殺,取其妻子,冀其作亂,得騁私忿。謀反大逆,尚以見加,其餘謗X,故其宜耳。今年平吳,誠爲大慶;於臣之身,更受咎累。」濬至京師,有司奏「濬違詔,大不敬,請付廷尉科罪。」詔不許。又奏濬赦後燒賊船百三十五艘,輒敕付廷尉禁推。詔勿推。

23. When Wang Jun had entered Jianye, the very next day, Wang Hun crossed over the Yangzi. Since Wang Jun had not waited for Wang Hun, but had gone on ahead and had thus been the first to accept Sun Hao's surrender, Wang Hun felt very ashamed and indignant, and was even on the point of attacking Wang Jun. He Pan urged Wang Jun to send Sun Hao to Wang Hun's army, and because of that, the tension was released.

Since Wang Hun and Wang Jun were disputing credit for the achievement, He Yun wrote to Zhou Jun, saying, "The Book of Documents shows us that it is honorable to be capable of complaisance, and the Book of Changes teaches that great humility adds to brilliance. When we routed Zhang Ti earlier, the people of Wu lost their will to fight, and it was because of that that the Dragon-Soaring General was able to claim their world. In discussing this matter fully, we really ought to have led the attack. But since we let the opportunity slip away, and did not rise to the occasion, now there is this dispute over who should have the credit. The other side is not going to bite their tongue, and even greater harm to harmonious relations is about to break out. This misguided clash of pride and ego is what my foolish feelings really cannot accept."

When Zhou Jun got this letter, he used it to rebuke Wang Hun to make him give in. But Wang Hun would not do so. He petitioned that Wang Jun had violated orders in not submitting to his authority, and he slandered him with criminal charges.

Now Wang Hun's son Wang Ji was married to the Princess of Changshan, and his clan and partisans were great and powerful. The officials sent in a petition asking that a prison cart be sent to bring Wang Jun back. Sima Yan refused to allow it. However, he did issue an edict blaming Wang Jun for not following Wang Hun's orders, and for violating the command system in order to chase after gains.

Wang Jun wrote a response explaining himself, stating, "According to my original orders at your command, I was to make straight for Moling (Jianye), and I was also ordered to be under the authority of Grand Commandant Jia Chong. I arrived at the Three Mountains on the fifteenth day of the month, where I saw that Wang Hun's army was on the north bank of the Yangzi, and Wang Hun sent me a letter asking to meet with me. But my navy was full of energy and seizing the moment, and we were advancing straight for the rebel's city. There was no reason for me to turn my boats around to stop for Wang Hun.

“By the middle of that day, I arrived at Moling, and that same evening I placed myself under Wang Hun's command. He wished to order me to spend the following day, the sixteenth day of the month, to have all my officers return and besiege Shitou. He also meant to have the soldiers from the Shu region join together with the various armies of the General Who Conquers The South (Du Yu). I believe that, as Sun Hao had already come to surrender, there was no need to pointlessly besiege Shitou. Furthermore, we could not easily combine with all of the scattered armies, and that goes against the urgency with which we were acting. It was not a system that could be used, so I dared not cast aside a wise set of operations.

“Sun Hao's armies had defected and his close followers had fled; only he himself, a common man, still remained, a sparrow and mouse merely out to save himself, begging that his life alone might be spared. It was only because the northern armies did not know what the true situation was that they did not bind him up earlier; it was nothing but a small misunderstanding.

“I had done the thing, and yet I was met with anger and resentment, saying that I should have let the enemy alone for another hundred days so that some other man could get them. Foolish as I am, I believe that affairs should follow the path of a superior man. Waste or profit in regards to the state is a matter of life and death. If I had merely looked my head around suspiciously to protect myself from censure or blame, that would only be something beneficial to a disloyal minister; it would certainly not bring fortune to the state of a wise sovereign!"

Wang Hun also circulated a letter from Zhou Jun. It said, "Wang Jun's army has taken the treasures of Wu." It also said, "Wang Jun's General of the Standard, Li Gao, set fire to Sun Hao's false palace and burned it."

Wang Jun sent up another petition stating, "I am someone standing on their own who has run afoul of a powerful family. If I have offended my sovereign, then let me be rescued from my offenses; if I have slighted a powerful minister, such misfortune was not intentional.

“This is the testimony which I have from Wu's General of the Household, Kong Shu: During the late second month, when Wuchang had fallen, our navy was advancing ever closer. Sun Hao wished to lead troops back to Shitou. Those who were with him all waved their blades and cried out, 'We shall fight a decisive battle to the death for Your Majesty!' Sun Hao was greatly pleased, for he now felt that he could certainly fight back. So he brought out all of his gold and treasures and distributed them as rewards among these men. But the miscreants were insolent, and having obtained these treasures, they all ran away with them. Sun Hao was afraid, and so he planned to bow his head in surrender. After his messenger for surrender had gone out, he himself left to follow him. Those who were still with him seized his treasures and valuables, plotted to take his wives for themselves, and set fire to and burned his palace. Sun Hao scampered away, fearing that he would not escape from death.

“When I arrived on the scene, I sent my advisors to the palace merely to help put out the fires. Zhou Jun had already entered the palace before I had, and Wang Hun had already gone up into Sun Hao's ship. Everything which I saw in those places was what was left there after they had been through. Inside Sun Hao's palace, there was not even a mat left to sit on. If there had been any treasures there, Zhou Jun and Wang Hun must have obtained them first.

“Zhou Jun and the others say that I camped and gathered together the men from the Shu region, and did not send over Sun Hao in a timely manner, because I intended to rebel. And fearing that I would stir up the people of Wu, they claimed that I meant to execute and kill men and claim their wives and children, and that I hoped to stir up chaos in order to give free rein to personal grudges. I have given my responses to the claims of disobedience and rebellion; the rest is mere slander and gossip, and should be treated as such.

“This was the year that we pacified Wu, which should be cause for great celebration. Yet my body has become even more burdened by blame and strain."

When Wang Jun arrived at the capital, the officials petitioned that "Wang Jun has disobeyed the imperial order, and he has been greatly disrespectful. He should be turned over to the Commandant of Justice and judged for his crimes." Sima Yan would not allow it.

They also petitioned that Wang Jun had pardoned and then burned a hundred and thirty-five of the enemy's ships, and that they should all be ordered arrested and turned over to the Commandant of Justice and a ban be held on them. Sima Yan refused to do so.

〈《書》曰:允恭克讓。《易》曰:謙尊而光。〉〈雍穆,和也。《書》曰:汝惟不矜,天下莫與汝爭能。〉〈公主,帝女也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「發」下有「乘勢」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈鎭南諸軍,杜預所統,蓋分以隨濬東下者也。定見,謂軍人在行定數。〉〈騰其書,使上聞。〉〈二月已過,故云去二月。行至,猶言行將至也。〉〈X,語相惡也,音達合翻。〉〈此皆王渾親黨使爲之。〉

(The Book of Documents has the phrase "sincerely courteous, and capable of all complaisance (Canon of Yao 1)". The Book of Changes states "Humility in a position of honour makes that still more brilliant (Tuan Zhuan 1)".

Harmony means peace or accord.

The Book of Documents states, "You are without any prideful assumption, but no one under heaven can contest with you the palm of ability (Counsels of Yu the Great 13)".

A Princess is the daughter of an Emperor. (According to the Taiping Yunlan, the Princess of Changshan was Sima Zhao’s daughter.)

Some versions have Wang Jun add that his navy was "seizing the moment".

The armies of the General Who Guards The South were under Du Yu's command. They had been divided up to follow Wang Jun to the east. Wang Jun says that Wang Hun meant to have him combine his army with these forces.

By “circulating” the letter from Zhou Jun, Wang Hun sent it up for review.

Wang Jun says "the late second month" because he refers to the second month earlier in that same year. "Advancing ever closer" means that they were about to arrive.

The term X means "mutually speaking words of evil", or "gossip".

The second request from the officials refers to Wang Jun's personal associates and partisans.)


渾、濬爭功不已,帝命守廷尉廣陵劉頌校其事,以渾爲上功,濬爲中功。帝以頌折法失理,左遷京兆太守。

24. Since Wang Hun's and Wang Jun's dispute over the credit had not been resolved, Sima Yan ordered the acting Commandant of Justice, Liu Song of Guangling, to render a judgment on the matter. Liu Song gave Wang Hun the chief achievement, and Wang Jun was given only the middle achievement. Sima Yan felt that Liu Song had gone against the laws and decided without logic, and had him transferred to be Administrator of Jingzhao.

〈魏文帝受禪,改京兆尹爲太守,夷於列郡。〉

(When Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) had accepted the abdication from Han, he had changed the office of Intendant of Jingzhao to Administrator of Jingzhao, and removed its status as a special commandary.)


庚辰,增賈充邑八千戶;以王濬爲輔國大將軍,封襄陽縣侯;杜預爲當陽縣侯;王戎爲安豐縣侯;封琅邪王伷二子爲亭侯;增京陵侯王渾邑八千戶,進爵爲公;尚書關內侯張華進封廣武縣侯,增邑萬戶;荀勗以專典詔命功,封一子爲亭侯;其餘諸將及公卿以下,賞賜各有差。帝以平吳功,策告羊祜廟,乃封其夫人夏侯氏爲萬歲鄕君,食邑五千戶。

25. On the day Gengchen (?), Jia Chong's fief was increased to eight thousand households. Wang Jun was appointed Grand General Who Upholds The State and Marquis of Xiangyang County. Du Yu was appointed Marquis of Dangyang County. Wang Rong was appointed Marquis of Anfeng County. Sima Zhou's two sons were both made 亭 Marquises. Wang Jun's fief was increased to eight thousand households, and his title as Marquis of Jingling was advanced to Duke. Zhang Hua's fief was increased to ten thousand households, and his title as a Marquis Within The Passes was advanced to Marquis of Guangwu County. For Xun Xu's efforts in controlling the canons and issuing the imperial commands, his son was made a 亭 Marquis. The other generals, nobles, and ministers were all granted rewards as befitted them.

Sima Yan sent word to Yang Hu's temple to report the achievement of having pacified Wu. He appointed Yang Hu's widow Lady Xiahou as the Lady of Wansui Village, and gave her a fief of five thousand households.

〈王渾除京陵舊食邑之外,增八千戶,張華則增廣武侯邑爲萬戶。〉〈勗爲中書監,專典詔命。〉

(Not counting Wang Hun's old fief in Jingling, he was given an additional eight thousand households. Zhang Hua was given the fief of Marquis of Guangwu, and so had ten thousand households.

Xun Xu had controlled the canons and issued the imperial commands in his role as Chief of the Palace Secretariat.)


王濬自以功大,而爲渾父子及黨與所挫抑,每進見,陳其攻伐之勞及見枉之狀,或不勝忿憤,徑出不辭;帝每容恕之。益州護軍范通謂濬曰:「卿功則美矣,然恨所以居美者未盡善也。卿旋旆之日,角巾私第,口不言平吳之事;若有問者,則曰:『聖人之德,羣帥之力,老夫何力之有!』此藺生所以屈廉頗也,王渾能無愧乎!」濬曰:「吾始懲鄧艾之事,懼禍及身,不得無言;其終不能遣諸胸中,是吾褊也。」時人咸以濬功重報輕,爲之憤邑;博士秦秀等並上表訟濬之屈,帝乃遷濬鎭軍大將軍。王渾嘗詣濬,濬嚴設備衞,然後見之。

26. Wang Jun had himself made great achievements, but he was constrained by Wang Hun, his son, and Wang Hun's partisans. Whenever Wang Hun entered court, he was always going on about his labors during his attack and campaign and presenting his distorted views of what had happened. Sometimes, Wang Hun would be so resentful and incensed at not having claimed victory that he would depart without taking his leave. But Sima Yan was tolerant of him.

The Army-Protector of Yizhou, Fan Tong, said to Wang Jun, "Your achievement was indeed a beautiful one. I only regret that the one who occupies the highest spot now is not the one who did the most good. That day, your banners flew, but now you just have the triangle cloth over your personal home, and you do not speak about the conquest of Wu. If anyone asks about it, you tell them, 'How could the virtues of a sage man (or, sovereign) or the strength of a leader of armies be things that an old fellow like me would possess?' It would be one thing if it were a case of 'Lin Xiangru humbling himself before Lian Po', but Wang Hun is not the sort of man who can feel shame!"

Wang Jun replied, "I have been seeking to guard myself against Deng Ai's fate. I feared misfortune for myself, and so I have not said anything. I do not think I shall ever be able to explain myself fully; that is the constraint I am under."

The people of that time were all indignant on Wang Jun's behalf, because his achievements were great and yet his rewards were slight. The Court Academician Qin Xiu and others all submitted petitions arguing against Wang Jun's lowly place. Sima Yan therefore appointed Wang Jun as Grand General Who Guards The Army.

Wang Hun once paid a visit to Wang Jun. Wang Jun first prepared strict guards for himself, and only afterwards did he admit Wang Hun in to see him.

〈晉武之量,弘於隋文。〉〈《晉志》曰:巾以葛爲之,形如幍而橫著之,古者尊卑共服之。余謂幅巾以橫幅爲之,角巾則巾之有角者。郭林宗遇雨,巾一角墊,則角巾也。〉〈【張:「人」作「主」。】〉〈事見四卷周赧王三十六年。〉〈鄧艾之死,以鍾會所蔽,艾情不得上通也。〉〈自知數陳其功及爲渾所枉爲褊。〉〈自知數陳其功及爲渾所枉爲褊。〉〈《考異》曰:《濬傳》云:「領步兵校尉,舊校唯五,置此營自濬始也。」按《職官志》:「屯騎、步兵、長水、越騎、射聲校尉,是爲五校,並漢官也。」然則步兵之名,非自濬始。《武帝紀》:「是年六月,丁丑,初置翊軍校尉官,」疑濬所領者翊軍也。〉〈周勃就國,絳及河東吏至,常令家人被甲持兵以見之,亦猶王濬之嚴設備衞以見王渾也。此二人者,力足以定天下之難,智足以取一國,而其所以包周身之防乃爾,可笑也哉!〉

(Sima Yan's tolerance was much greater than that of Emperor Wen of Sui.

The Records of Jin states, "The cloth is made of poplin; it is shaped like a 幍, but is worn horizontally. The ancients all wore it, whether exalted or lowly." I, Hu Sanxing, say that the 幅 cloth is like the horizontal 幅, and the triangle cloth is a cloth that has corners. When Guo Linzhong (Guo Tai) encountered rain, he used a corner of the cloth as a cover, so it must have been a corner cloth.

Some versions have Wang Jun say "a sage sovereign" rather than "a sage man".

Lin Xiangru's sense of guilt and his humbling of himself before his rival Lian Po is mentioned in Book 4, in King Nan of Zhou's thirty-sixth year (279 BC).

When Deng Ai died, it was because of Zhong Hui's covering up of his deeds, and Deng Ai's feelings were not able to be conveyed to his superiors.

Wang Jun was constrained because he knew he could explain all of his deeds, yet he was being misrepresented by Wang Hun's claims.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Wang Jun in the Book of Jin states, 'Wang Jun was appointed as acting Colonel of Infantry. Originally, there were only five Colonel posts; this post was newly created, beginning with Wang Jun.' But according to the chapter on Government Offices, 'The five Colonel offices were Colonel of the Garrison Cavalry, Colonel of Infantry, Colonel of 長水, Colonel of the Elite Cavalry, and Colonel of Archers Who Shoot at a Sound; all of them were Han offices.' Colonel of Infantry was therefore an established office, and did not begin with Wang Jun. The Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) in the Book of Jin states, 'In the sixth month of this year (280), on the day Dingchou (August 4th), Sima Yan created the new office of Colonel of the Adjunct Army.' I suspect that the office which Wang Jun was appointed to was this newly-made Colonel of the Adjunct Army."

After the Han general Zhou Bo was sent to his fief as Marquis of Jiang, whenever the officials of Hedong came to see him, he would often order his family members to put on armor and grasp weapons before seeing the officials. In the same manner, Wang Jun prepared strict guards before he would receive Wang Hun. Men like these two had strength enough to pacify the difficulties of the realm, and intelligence enough to obtain the entire state, yet they wrapped themselves entirely in defenses like this. How ridiculous this was!)


杜預還襄陽,以爲天下雖安,忘戰必危,乃勤於講武,申嚴戍守。又引滍、淯水以浸田萬餘頃,開揚口通零、桂之漕,公私賴之。預身不跨馬,射不穿札,而用兵制勝,諸將莫及。預在鎭,數餉遺洛中貴要,或問其故,預曰:「吾但恐爲害,不求益也。」

27. Du Yu returned to Xiangyang. He believed that although the realm was now at peace, even though there were no battles, there was certainly still danger. So he was diligent in instructing people in warfare, and he kept his camps and garrisons in strict order. He diverted the waters of the Zhi and Yu Rivers to water more than ten thousand 頃 of farmland, and he opened up Yangkou to permit water transport through Lingling and Guiyang. Both the government and the people relied upon him.

Du Yu's body was such that he could not mount a horse, and when he shot arrows they did not have enough force to pierce lamellar armor. But there was no one who could match him in using soldiers to achieve victory.

While Du Yu was at his garrison post, several times he would give money and gifts to those who held important positions at Luoyang. Someone asked him the reason for this, and Du Yu told them, "It is not because I wish to seek profit for myself; I only fear that I might come to harm."

〈《水經註》:滍水出南陽魯山縣西堯山,東逕犨縣,又東南逕昆陽縣,又東北逕潁川定陵縣,東入于汝。淯水出弘農盧氏縣攻離山,東南逕南陽西鄂縣、宛縣而屈,南過淯陽縣,又南過新野縣,西過鄧縣,南入于沔。〉〈《水經註》:揚水上承江陵縣赤湖,東北流逕郢城南,又東北與三湖水會。三湖者,合爲一水,東通荒谷,東岸有冶父城。《春秋傳》曰:「莫敖縊于荒谷,羣帥囚於冶父,」謂此處也。春夏水盛,則南通大江,否則南迄江隄。揚水又東入華容縣,又東北與柞溪水合;又北逕竟陵縣,又北注于沔,謂之揚口。《預傳》曰:舊水道惟沔、漢達江陵千數百里,北無通路,預乃開揚口,起夏水,達巴陵千餘里,內瀉長江之險,外通零、桂之漕。杜佑曰:夏水、揚口,在今江陵郡江陵縣界。〉〈札,甲札也。《左傳》:潘尫之黨與養由基蹲甲而射之,徹七札焉。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Zhi River comes from Mount Xiyao in Lushan County in Nanyang commandary. It flows east through Chou County, and then southeast through Kunyang County, and then northeast through Dingling County in Yingchuan commandary, and then further east until it enters the Ru River. The Yu River comes from Mount Gongli in Lushi County in Hongnong commandary. It flows east through Xi'e and Wan counties in Nanyang commandary before vanishing. It also flows south through Yuyang County, and further south through Xinye County, then west through Deng County, and south again until it enters the Mian River."

It also states, "The Yang River comes from Lake Chi in Jiangling County. It flows northeast, passing south of Yingcheng, and further northeast to where it meets in the Three Lakes River. The Three Lakes all become a single river, which then flows east through Huang Valley. On its eastern bank is the city of Yefu. The Zuo Commentary has this passage: 'The Mo'ao strangled himself in the valley of Huang, and all the principal officers of the expedition rendered themselves as prisoners at Yefu to await their punishment. (Huan 13.1)' This Yefu was the same place. During the Spring and Autumn era, the river was very great, and so was in contact with the Yangzi to the south, although it did not go so far south as the Yangzi's dykes. The Yang River also flowed east into Huarong County, and then northeast until it joined with the Zhaxi River. It also flowed east through Jingling County, and north until it entered the Mian River. This last point was called Yangkou." The Biography of Du Yu in the Book of Jin states, "The old river routes along the Mian and Han Rivers extended a thousand and several hundred li to Jiangling. However, there was no route to the north. So Du Yu opened up Yangkou, raised the Xia River, and extended more than a thousand li to Baling. Internally, this swept away the dangers of the Yangzi, and externally, it allowed for water transport through Lingling and Guiyang." Du You remarked, "The Xia River and Yangkou were within the territory of Jiangling County in modern Jiangling commandary."

The passage mentions that Du Yu's arrows could not pierce a 札. This is the same as buff-coats or lamellar armor. The Zuo Commentary states, "Dang, [the son] of Pan Wang, and Yang Youji had set buff-coats and shot at them, their arrows going through seven at once. (Cheng 16.6)")


王渾遷征東大將軍,復鎭壽陽。

28. Wang Hun was reassigned as Grand General Who Conquers The East, and he returned to garrison Shouyang (Shouchun).

諸葛靚逃竄不出。帝與靚有舊,靚姊爲琅邪王妃,帝知靚在姊間,因就見焉。靚逃于廁,帝又逼見之,謂曰:「不謂今日復得相見!」靚流涕曰:「臣不能漆身皮面,復覩聖顏,誠爲慙恨!」詔以爲侍中;固辭不拜,歸于鄕里,終身不向朝廷而坐。

29. Zhuge Jing had fled and would not come out of hiding. Now Sima Yan had had a long relationship with Zhuge Jing, because Zhuge Jing's younger sister was the wife of Sima Zhou. Sima Yan knew that Zhuge Jing was hiding at his sister's home, so he went there to see him. Zhuge Jing fled into the lavatory, and Sima Yan was on the point of coming in to see him. Sima Yan said to him, "Do not say that we cannot see each other again today!"

Zhuge Jing, in tears, replied, "I could not lacquer my body and peel off my face! Were I to look upon your sage countenance again, I would be truly ashamed and regretful!"

Sima Yan ordered Zhuge Jing to be appointed as a Palace Attendant, but Zhuge Jing firmly refused and would not accept it. He went back to his home village, and to the end of his life, he never sat facing towards the court.

〈靚入吳見七十七卷魏高貴鄕公甘露二年。〉〈自謂不能如豫讓、聶政也。〉〈諸葛氏之子皆有志節。〉

(Zhuge Jing had gone to Wu as a hostage for his father Zhuge Dan, as mentioned in Book 77, in Cao Mao's second year of Ganlu (257.6 in Fang's Chronicles).

Zhuge Jing means that he could not be like the assassins Yu Rang and Nie Zheng.

The sons of the Zhuge clan all had such determination and fortitude.)


六月,復封丹水侯X爲高陽王。

30. In the sixth month, the Marquis of Danshui, Sima Mu, had his princely title restored, now as Prince of Gaoyang.

〈X貶爵見上卷咸寧三年。〉

(Sima Mu had been demoted in the previous book, in the third year of Xianning (277.5).)


秋,八月,己未,封皇弟延祚爲樂平王,尋薨。

31. In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Jiwei (September 15th), Sima Yan appointed his younger brother Sima Yanzuo as Prince of Leping. Sima Yanzuo soon passed away.

九月,庚寅,賈充等以天下一統,屢請封禪;帝不許。

32. In the ninth month, on the day Gengyin (October 16th), Jia Chong and others asked several times that as the realm had now been united, the Fengshan sacrifices to Heaven and Earth should be performed. Sima Yan did not allow it.

冬,十月,前將軍青州刺史淮南胡威卒。威爲尚書,嘗諫時政之寬。帝曰:「尚書郎以下,吾無所假借。」威曰:「臣之所陳,豈在丞、郎、令史,正謂如臣等輩,始可以肅化明法耳!」

33. In winter, the tenth month, the General of the Front and Inspector of Qingzhou, Hu Wei of Huainan, passed away.

When Hu Wei had been a Master of Writing, he had once criticized the leniency of the government at that time. Sima Yan had said, "I do not use the ideas of Gentlemen of the Masters of Writing or those below them."

Hu Wei had replied, "Everyone of my generation, whether Minister, Gentleman, or Clerk, agrees with the things I have just said! Why not begin now to implement and bring about wise laws?"

〈帝以左、右、前、後四將軍爲四軍。〉〈威,質之子也。〉

(Sima Yan had Generals of the Left, Right, Front, and Rear; these were the Four Generals.

This Hu Wei was the son of the Cao-Wei minister Hu Zhi.)


是歲,以司隸所統郡置司州,凡州十九,郡國一百七十三,戶二百四十五萬九千八百四十。

34. During this year, the commandaries administered by the Colonel-Director were appointed as the new province of Sizhou. There were now nineteen provinces, a hundred and seventy-three commandaries and fiefs, and 2,459,840 households.

〈《考異》曰:《宋書‧州郡志》云:「太康元年,天下一統,凡十六州,後又分雍、梁爲秦,分荊、揚爲江,分益爲寧,分幽爲平,而爲二十矣。」按杜佑《通典》:「平吳,分十九州:司、兗、豫、冀、幷、青、徐、荊、揚、涼、雍、秦、益、梁、寧、幽、平、交、廣。」今從之。杜佑曰:司州治洛陽。兗治廩丘,今濮陽郡雷澤縣。豫治項,今淮陽郡項城縣。冀治房子,今趙郡縣。幷治晉陽。青治臨菑。徐治彭城。荊初治襄陽,後治江陵。揚治壽春,後治建業。涼治武威。分三輔爲雍,治京兆。分隴山之西爲秦,治上邽。益治成都。分巴、漢之地爲梁,治南鄭。分雲南爲寧,治雲南。幽治涿。分遼東爲平,治昌黎。交治龍編。分合浦之北爲廣,治番禺。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The chapter on Provinces and Commandaries in the Book of Liu-Song states, 'In the first year of Taikang (280), the realm was united. There were sixteen provinces. Later on, parts of Yongzhou and Lianzhou were split off to form Qinzhou, parts of Jingzhou and Yangzhou were split off to form Jiangzhou, part of Yizhou was split off to form Ningzhou, and part of Youzhou were split off to form Pingzhou. There were then twenty provinces.'

According to Du You's Tongdian, 'After Eastern Wu was conquered, the realm was divided into nineteen provinces: Sizhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Bingzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Jingzhou, Yangzhou, Liangzhou, Yongzhou, Qinzhou, Yizhou, Lianzhou, Ningzhou, Youzhou, Pingzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou.'

I follow Du You's account.

He further states, 'Sizhou was administered from Luoyang. Yanzhou, from Linqiu, in modern Leize County in Puyang commandary. Yuzhou, from Xiang, in modern Xiangcheng County in Huaiyang commandary. Jizhou, from Fangzhi, in modern Zhaojun County. Bingzhou, from Jinyang. Qingzhou, from Linzai. Xuzhou, from Pengcheng. Jingzhou, originally from Xiangyang, later from Jiangling. Yangzhou, originally from Shouchun, later from Jianye. Liangzhou, from Wuwei. The Three Adjuncts around Chang'an were made Yongzhou, and administered from Jingzhao. The areas west of the Long Mountains were made Qinzhou, and administered from Shanggui. Yizhou, from Chengdu. The Ba and Han regions were made Lianzhou, and administered from Nanzheng. Yunnan was made Ningzhou, and administered from Yunnan. Youzhou, from Zhuo. Liaodong was made Pingzhou, and administered from Changli. Jiaozhou, from Longbian. The region north of Hepu was made Guangzhou, and administered from Panyu.")


詔曰:「昔自漢末,四海分崩,刺史內親民事,外領兵馬。今天下爲一,當韜戢干戈,刺史分職,皆如漢氏故事;悉去州郡兵,大郡置武吏百人,小郡五十人。」交州牧陶璜上言:「交、廣東西數千里,不賓屬者六萬餘戶,至於服從官役,纔五千餘家。二州脣齒,唯兵是鎭。又,寧州諸夷,接據上流,水陸並通,州兵未宜約損,以示單虛。」僕射山濤亦言「不宜去州郡武備」;帝不聽。及永寧以後,盜賊羣起,州郡無備,不能禽制,天下遂大亂,如濤所言。然其後刺史復兼兵民之政,州鎭愈重矣。

35. Sima Yan issued an edict stating, "Since the end of the Han dynasty, all within the Four Seas had been divided and destroyed. The provincial Inspectors consequentially both tended to the people's affairs within and prepared weapons and horses without. Now the realm is united, so it is time to sheath and put away our weapons of war. Let the duties of the Inspectors now be divided, so that their role becomes the same as it was during the days of Han. They shall send away the soldiers in their provinces and commandaries. The larger commandaries may retain a hundred military officials; the smaller ones may retain fifty."

The Governor of Jiaozhou, Tao Huang, sent up a petition stating, "Jiaozhou and Guangzhou are several thousand li across from east to west, and there are more than sixty thousand unsubmissive households within them. Even those families which submit to government service merely account for some five thousand families. These two provinces are as lips and teeth to one another, and they have only the soldiers to guard them. Furthermore, there are many tribes in Ningzhou which lie close to the rivers upstream, and they can advance by land and by water. It is not yet time for the provincial soldiers to be reduced, lest these provinces be left as ruins."

And the Supervisor Shan Tao also said to Sima Yan, "You should not disband the military preparations of the provinces and commandaries."

But Sima Yan did not listen to them.

During the chaos of the Yongning era (301-303) and later on, when robbers and bandits rose up on every side, the provinces and commandaries had no defenses against them, and they could not overcome them. The realm was thrown into great turmoil, just as Shan Tao here predicted. Then the provincial Inspectors once again combined the duties of civil and military roles, and provincial defense became ever more important.

〈察舉郡縣長吏而已。〉〈交州統合浦、交趾、新昌、武平、九眞、九德、日南。廣州統南海、臨賀、始安、始興、蒼梧、鬱林、桂林、高興、寧浦郡。〉〈僕水、葉榆水、勞水、橋水皆出寧州界,入交、廣界。又霍弋自寧州遣楊稷等經略交、廣,是水陸並通也。〉〈《考異》曰:《濤傳》云「與盧欽論之」。按欽,咸寧四年三月已卒。〉

(Sima Yan's intention was that the Inspectors should return to their roles as supervisors of the chief officials of their commandaries and counties, but no more than that.

Jiaozhou administered the commandaries of Hepu, Jiaozhi, Xinchang, Wuping, Cửu Chân (Jiuzhen), Jiude, and Nhật Nam (Rinan). Guangzhou administered the commandaries of Nanhai, Linhe, Shi'an, Shixing, Cangwu, Yulin, Guilin, Gaoxing, and Ningpu.

The Pu, Yeyu, Lao, and Qiao Rivers all began in Ningzhou and flowed into Jiaozhou's and Guangzhou's territory. And when Huo Yi was in Ningzhou, he had sent Yang Ji and the other Jin commanders from there to attack Jiaozhou and Guangzhou, advancing by both land and water.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shan Tao in the Book of Jin states that 'Shan Tao discussed this matter with Lu Qin.' But according to the Biography of Lu Qin in the Book of Jin, Lu Qin had already passed away in the third month of the fourth year of Xianning (278).")


漢、魏以來,羌、胡、鮮卑降者,多處之塞內諸郡。其後數因忿恨,殺害長吏,漸爲民患。侍御史西河郭欽上疏曰:「戎狄強獷,歷古爲患。魏初民少,西北諸郡,皆爲戎居,內及京兆、魏郡、弘農,往往有之。今雖服從,若百年之後有風塵之警,胡騎自平陽、上黨不三日而至孟津,北地、西河、太原、馮翊、安定、上郡盡爲狄庭矣。宜及平吳之威,謀臣猛將之略,漸徙內郡雜胡於邊地,峻四夷出入之防,明先王荒服之制,此萬世之長策也。」帝不聽。

36. Ever since the time of Han and Wei, whenever people from the Qiang, Xiongnu, or Xianbei tribes had come to submit to the dynasty, most of them had been settled within the borders of the realm, in the various commandaries. Because of this, they became a source of constant nuisance and anger. They killed or harmed the chief officials, and they gradually became a threat to the common people.

The Attendant Imperial Secretary, Guo Qin of Xihe, sent up a petition stating, "The barbarians are powerful and bold, and they have been a threat since ancient times. When Wei first began, the population was low, and the various commandaries of the northwest were all inhabited by barbarians. Then Jingzhao, Wei commandary, and Hongnong all began to have them too. Although the barbarians are obedient for the moment, if, a hundred years from now, there were some trouble caused by suffering and misery, the tribal cavalry would be able to ride from Pingyang and Shangdang and reach Meng Crossing (near Luoyang) within three days. The commandaries of Beidi, Xihe, Taiyuan, Fengyi, Anding, and Shang are all fully populated by the barbarians.

"Since Wu has now been pacified, you should consider plans with your ministers and your mighty generals to gradually move all of the various tribes living in the internal commandaries back out to the borderlands. Have strict controls on the movements of the Four Tribes. The wise kings of old used the Domains of Wilderness and of Restraint to control them; this is a policy to endure for ten thousand generations."

But Sima Yan did not listen to him.

〈獷,粗惡貌。〉〈《禹貢》:五服相距方五千里,荒服內距甸服二千里。〉〈爲後諸胡亂華張本。〉

(The term 獷 means an uncouth and wicked countenance.

The Tribute of Yu in the Book of Documents states, "There were five thousand li of difference between the Five Domains; the Domain of Wilderness was two thousand li from the Domain of the Sovereign. (25)"

This was why the various tribes were able to cause chaos for the Hua people (ethnic Han).)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Oct 10, 2017 4:26 am, edited 3 times in total.
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 2:51 am

二年(辛丑、二八一)

The Second Year of Taikang (The Xinchou Year, 281 AD)


春,三月,詔選孫晧宮人五千人入宮。帝旣平吳,頗事遊宴,怠於政事,掖庭殆將萬人。常乘羊車,恣其所之,至便宴寢;宮人競以竹葉插戶,鹽汁灑地,以引帝車。而后父楊駿及弟珧、濟始用事,交通請謁,勢傾內外,時人謂之三楊,舊臣多被疏退。山濤數有規諷,帝雖知而不能改。

1. In spring, the third month, Sima Yan issued an edict selecting five thousand of Sun Hao's palace women to enter his palace.

Since Sima Yan had conquered Wu, he began to turn his thoughts towards personal delights, and neglected the affairs of government. His lateral courts were filled with nearly ten thousand women. Sima Yan would often ride in a cart pulled by goats, letting the goats pull him anywhere they pleased. Wherever the goats stopped, that was where he would spend the night. The palace women would compete with each other by planting bamboo leaves at their doorways and sprinkling salt juice on the ground, in order to attract the goats pulling Sima Yan's cart.

Empress Yang Zhi's father Yang Jun and his younger brothers Yang Yao and Yang Ji took control of affairs, and everyone had to make requests of them and call upon them in order to get anything done. Their power spread near and far, and the people of that time called them the Three Yangs. Most of the old ministers were sent away by memorials. Shan Tao often admonished and mocked them. Although Sima Yan knew what was going on, he could not change his ways.

〈《晉志》曰:羊車,一名輦車,上如軺,伏兔箱,漆畫輪軛。〉〈羊嗜竹葉而喜鹹,故以二者引帝車。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "A goat cart was a name for an imperial carriage. One got into it like a small cart, then reclined in the 'rabbit chest'. It had lacquer-painted wheels and yoke."

The palace women hoped that the goats would like the bamboo leaves and enjoy the salt, and this is why they did these two things in order to lure Sima Yan's cart to them.)


初,鮮卑莫護跋始自塞外入居遼西棘城之北,號曰慕容部。莫護跋生木延,木延生涉歸,遷於遼東之北,世附中國,數從征討有功,拜大單于。冬,十月,涉歸始寇昌黎。

2. Many years earlier, when the Xianbei leader Mohuba had first led his people into the borders of the realm to settle north of Jicheng in Liaoxi, he had called his clan Murong. This Murong Mohuba was the father of Murong Muyan. Murong Muyan was the father of Murong Shegui.

Murong Shegui moved to the north of Liaodong, where for many years he remained aligned with the Middle Kingdom. Several times he fought in campaigns on their behalf and gained merit, so he was granted the title Grand Chanyu.

It was in the winter of this year, in the tenth month, that Murong Shegui first invaded Changli.

〈棘城在昌黎縣界,是後慕容氏置棘城縣。拓跋魏太武眞君八年,併棘城入昌黎郡龍城縣。《載記》曰:莫護跋從宣帝伐公孫氏有功,拜率義王,始建國于棘城之北。〉〈《魏書》曰:漢桓帝時,鮮卑檀石槐分其地爲東、中、西三部,中部大人曰柯最、闕居、慕容等,爲大帥,是則慕容部之始也。《載記》曰:莫護跋國于棘城之北,時燕、代多冠步搖冠,莫護跋見而好之,乃斂髮襲冠,諸部因呼之爲「步搖」,其後音訛,遂爲慕容。或云:慕二儀之德,繼三光之容,遂以慕容爲氏。余謂步搖之說誕;或云之說,慕容氏旣得中國,其臣子從而爲之辭。〉〈昌黎,漢之交黎縣,屬遼西郡,東漢屬遼東屬國都尉。魏正始五年,鮮卑內附,復置遼東屬國,立昌黎縣以居之,後立昌黎郡。慕容氏始此。《考異》曰:《帝紀》云「慕容廆」,按范亨《燕書‧武宣紀》:「廆,泰始五年生,年十五,父單于涉歸卒,」太康四年也。此年入寇,當是涉歸。〉

(The city of Jicheng was within the territory of Changli County, where the Murong clan later created Jicheng County. In Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei's eighth year of (Taiping)zhenjun (447), Jicheng County was folded into Longcheng County in Changli commandary. The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Mohuba had gained merit through assisting Sima Yi in his campaign against Gongsun Yuan, and was named as Commanding and Virtuous King. He first held his vassal fief in the north of Jicheng."

The Book of Cao-Wei states, "During the time of Emperor Huan of Han, the Xianbei leader Tanshihuai divided his territory into three parts: the eastern, middle, and western parts. The chiefs of the middle part were called Kezui, Queju, Murong, and other such things. They served as great commanders." It is from here that the Murong clan had its source. The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Mohuba had his vassal fief in the north of Jicheng. At that time, many of the headpieces worn in the Yan and Dai regions were the 'step wave headpiece'. Mohuba saw this headpiece and liked it, so he fashioned his hair in such a way to suit wearing the headpiece. His people thus called him 'Buyao (Step Wave)', and over time the nickname was corrupted into 'Murong'. And some say that the name Murong comes from the phrase 'Yearn for (Mu) the virtues of the Two Rites (of Heaven and Earth), and continue the bearing (Rong) of the Three Luminaries (Sun, Moon, and Stars)'." As for what I, Hu Sanxing, believe, the Buyao story is an absurdity, while the latter story may have been come up with by the Murong clan's ministers and descendants after they had obtained the Middle Kingdom (as Former Yan) to explain the source of their clan's name.

Changli was the Han dynasty's Jiaoli County, which was part of Liaoxi commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Vassal State Colonel Post of Liaodong. In Cao-Wei's fifth year of Zhenshi (244), the Xianbei entered that place, and so the Vassal State of Liaodong was restored, and Changli County was created for them to reside in. This later became Changli commandary.

This marked the beginning of the Murong clan.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) in the Book of Jin states that it was 'Murong Hui' who invaded Changli during this year. But according to the Annals of Emperor Xuanwu (Murong Hui) in Fan Heng's Book of Yan, 'Murong Hui was born in the fifth year of Taishi (269). When he was fifteen years old, his father, the Chanyu Murong Shegui, passed away.' That would have been the fourth year of Taikang (283). So the one who invaded Changli during this year (281) must have been Murong Shegui.")


十一月,壬寅,高平武公陳騫薨。

3. In the eleventh month, on the day Renyin (December 22nd), Chen Qian passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Wu ("the Martial") of Gaoping.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》云「大司馬」。按騫以咸寧三年辭位,以高平公還第。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) in the Book of Jin lists Chen Qian's rank at the time of his death as 'Grand Marshal'. But Chen Qian had resigned his offices in the third year of Xianning (277.12 in Book 80) and had retired to his ducal mansion.)


是歲,揚州刺史周浚移鎭秣陵。吳民之未服者,屢爲寇亂,浚皆討平之;賓禮故老,搜求俊乂,威惠並行,吳人悅服。

4. During this year, the Inspector of Yangzhou, Zhou Jun, moved his headquarters to Moling (Jianye). There were people in Wu who had not yet submitted, and they caused several attacks and rebellions. Zhou Jun campaigned against and pacified them. He also treated guests like old acquaintances, and sought out talented and virtuous people to request their help. So in ruling by both might and kindness, the people of Wu both loved and feared him.

〈魏揚州治壽春,晉平吳,乃移治秣陵。揚者,江南之氣躁勁,厥性輕揚。亦曰:州界多水,水波揚也。統丹楊、宣城、淮南、廬陵、廬江、毗陵、吳、吳興、會稽、東陽、新安、臨海、建安、晉安、豫章、臨川、鄱陽、南康,凡十八郡。〉

(During Cao-Wei, Yangzhou had been administered from Shouchun. Following Jin's conquest of Eastern Wu, they moved Yangzhou's headquarters to Moling (Jianye). The province was called Yang ("spread") because the air of the Southland is full of restless energy, and those of faint nature can easily succumb. It is also said to be because the province has many rivers in it, and the waves of the water spread out. Yangzhou administered the commandaries of Danyang, Xuancheng, Huainan, Luling, Lujiang, Piling, Wu, Wuxing, Kuaiji, Dongyang, Xin'an, Linhai, ian'an, Jin'an, Yuzhang, Linchuan, Poyang, Nankang, and Fan.)
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 2:55 am

三年(壬寅、二八二)

The Third Year of Taikang (The Renyin Year, 282 AD)


春,正月,丁丑朔,帝親祀南郊。禮畢,喟然問司隸校尉劉毅曰:「朕可方漢之何帝?」對曰:「桓、靈。」帝曰:「何至於此?」對曰:「桓、靈賣官錢入官庫,陛下賣官錢入私門,以此言之,殆不如也。」帝大笑曰:「桓、靈之世,不聞此言,今朕有直臣,固爲勝之。」

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Dingchou (January 26th), Sima Yan personally conducted the Southern Suburb sacrifices. After the ceremony was concluded, Sima Yan sighed and asked the Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Yi, "Which of the emperors of Han do I resemble?"

Liu Yi told him, "Emperors Huan and Ling."

Sima Yan asked, "How can it be so bad as that?"

Liu Yi replied, "Those emperors sold offices to provide money for the government treasury. Your Majesty sells offices to provide money for personal uses. When I put it that way, you almost do not even measure up to those emperors."

Sima Yan greatly laughed and said, "During their day, they never heard such words said to them. But as for me, I have a minister who will speak forthrightly, and so I may profit by it."

〈《考異》曰:《地理志》:「太康元年,省司隸,置司州。」《毅傳》:「毅爲司隸校尉,帝嘗南郊,禮畢,問毅,」而無年月。《晉春秋》問毅在此月,而不言毅官。按《毅傳》,「六年,自司隸遷左僕射,」或者此年尚未改爲司州也,今從《毅傳》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Geographical Records in the Book of Jin states, 'In the first year of Taikang (280), the Metropolitan District was abolished, replaced by the province of Sizhou.' The Biography of Liu Yi in the Book of Jin states, 'Liu Yi was appointed the Colonel-Director of Retainers. Sima Yan was once conducting the Southern Suburbs sacrifices. When the ceremony was concluded, he asked Liu Yi...' and so forth. But it does not mention the month or year of this incident. The Annals of Jin mentions that Sima Yan asked Liu Yi these questions during the month where I have placed it, but it does not say what office Liu Yi held. But looking back to the Biography of Liu Yi, it further states, 'In the sixth year of Taikang (285), Liu Yi was transferred from the Colonel-Director to the Supervisor of the Left'. It may be the case that during this year (282), the Metropolitan District had not yet been replaced with Sizhou. I follow the account of the Biography of Liu Yi.")


毅爲司隸,糾繩豪貴,無所顧忌。皇太子鼓吹入東掖門,毅劾奏之。中護軍、散騎常侍羊琇,與帝有舊恩,典禁兵,豫機密十餘年,恃寵驕侈,數犯法。毅劾奏琇罪當死;帝遣齊王攸私請琇於毅,毅許之。都官從事廣平程衞徑馳入護軍營,收琇屬吏,考問陰私,先奏琇所犯狼籍,然後言於毅。帝不得已,免琇官。未幾,復使以白衣領職。

2. While Liu Yi served as Colonel-Director, he kept a firm watch over the high and mighty and restrained them; no one was shown special consideration. Crown Prince Sima Zhong once demanded to be let in through the eastern side door of the palace, and Liu Yi submitted a petition listing his offenses.

The Army-Protector of the Center and Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Yang Xiu, had long received Sima Yan's favor. He commanded the guards, and he lived a life of ease and closeness for more than ten years. Thanks to the favor that he was shown, he became very arrogant, and he committed many violations against the law. Liu Yi petitioned that Yang Xiu deserved death for his crimes. Sima Yan sent Sima You to see Liu Yi and privately plead on Yang Xiu's behalf, and Liu Yi allowed it. But then the Attendant Officer of the Capital Office, Cheng Wei of Guangping, rode his horse into Yang Xiu's camp, arrested Yang Xiu's subordinates, and interrogated them about secret and private things. Cheng Wei first sent in a petition listing all of Yang Xiu's notorious crimes, and only afterwards did he report to Liu Yi. Faced with no other option, Sima Yan was compelled to strip Yang Xiu of office. But before long, Yang Xiu was instead demoted to a commoner while still retaining his office.

〈繩,彈正也。糾,督也。〉〈臣子至宮掖門,屛儀導,下車而入。太子鼓吹入掖門爲不敬。〉〈事見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉

(To keep watch means to oversee; to restrain means to keep rectified.

When ministers and sons came to the palace's side doors, according to custom, they were to step down from their carriages and enter on foot. By Sima Zhong demanding to be let in, he had been disrespectful.

Yang Xiu's relationship with Sima Yan is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Xianxi (264.45 in Fang's Chronicles).)


琇,景獻皇后之從父弟也;後將軍王愷,文明皇后之弟也;散騎常侍石崇,苞之子也。三人皆富於財,競以奢侈相高:愷以X澳釜,崇以蠟代薪;愷作紫絲步障四十里,崇作錦步障五十里;崇塗屋以椒,愷用赤石脂。帝每助愷,嘗以珊瑚樹賜之,高二尺許。愷以示石崇,崇便以鐵如意碎之;愷怒,以爲疾己之寶。崇曰:「不足多恨,今還卿!」乃命左右悉取其家珊瑚樹,高三、四尺者六、七株,如愷比者甚衆,愷怳然自失。

3. Now Yang Xiu was the uncle of Empress Jingxian (Yang Huiyu). The General of the Rear, Wang Kai, was the younger brother of Empress Wenming (Wang Yuanji). The Cavalier In Regular Attendance and Palace Attendant, Shi Chong, was the son of Shi Bao. These three men were rich with money, and they competed with one another to see which of them could be the most extravagant and wasteful. When Wang Kai would wash his cauldrons with malted sugar, Shi Chong would burn wax in place of firewood. When Wang Kai would create screens of purple silk that stretched for forty li, Shi Chong would make his screens of brocade and have them stretch for fifty li. When Shi Chong would spread warm spices through his rooms, Wang Kai would use redstone tallow.

Sima Yan was always helping Wang Kai, and he once gave Wang Kai a tree of coral that was about two 尺 tall. Wang Kai showed it off to Shi Chong. Shi Chong grasped a ruyi stone and smashed the tree. Wang Kai became angry, believing that Shi Chong had been jealous of his treasure. Shi Chong said, "What is there to be so angry about? I return it to you!" And Shi Chong ordered his attendants to go and fetch the coral trees which he had at his home. When they brought out the trees, there were a great many of them which were similar to Wang Kai's tree, and six or seven of them that were three or four 尺 tall. Wang Kai, disappointed to see this, was at a loss.

〈景帝羊后諡景獻。文帝王后諡文明。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「石」上有「侍中」二字;乙十一行本;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈X,餳也;《說文》曰:米糵煎也;一曰:濡弱者爲X。澳,今台、明謂以水沃釜爲澳鑊。〉〈蠟,蜜滓也。〉〈步障,夾道設之以障蔽,若今之罣罳。〉〈椒性溫而芬馥。〉〈《本草圖經》曰:赤石脂,出濟南射陽及太山之陰。蘇恭云:濟南、太山不聞出者;惟虢州盧氏縣、澤州陵川縣、慈州昌鄕縣並有,及宜州諸山亦出,今出潞州,以色理鮮膩者爲勝。〉〈《本草》:珊瑚,生海底,柯枝明潤如紅玉。〉〈鐵如意,手撾也,以鐵爲之,若今之骨朵子。〉〈自失,不得意貌。〉

(Sima Shi's wife Yang Huiyu was posthumously known as Empress Jingxian. Sima Zhao's wife Wang Yuanji was posthumously known as Empress Wenming.

Some versions say that Shi Chong was also "Palace Attendant".

The thing which Wang Kai made in his cauldron was X; this was malt sugar. The Shuowen states, "It is the fried stumps of rice; it is also said that when it is moistened and softened, it becomes X." The 澳 cauldron is what the modern Lan and Ming call a cauldron filled with water.

Wax is the remnants from honey.

The 步障 curtains are those set up on either side of a road in order to provide cover and shielding, like modern screens.

The 椒 spice plants are warm and give off a sweet fragrance.

The 本草圖經 text states, "Redstone tallow comes from Sheyang in Jinan and from the north side of Mount Tai." Su Gong remarked, "I have not heard that redstone tallow comes from Jinan or Mount Tai. It is only found in Lushi County in Guozhou, Lingchuan County in Zezhou, and Changxiang County in Cizhou. It is also found in the mountains of Yizhou. In modern times, it comes from Luozhou. In color and style, those that are fresh and oiled are superior."

The 本草圖經 further states, "Coral comes from the depths of the sea. Its stalks and branches are clear and moist, like carnelian."

Shi Chong grasped the ruyi stone in order to smash the coral tree with it. He held it like a modern gudao weapon.

To be at a loss means to have an uncertain expression.)


車騎司馬傅咸上書曰:「先王之治天下,食肉衣帛,皆有其制,竊謂奢侈之費,甚於天災。古者人稠地狹,而有儲蓄,由於節也。今者土廣人稀,而患不足,由於奢也。欲人崇儉,當詰其奢,奢不見詰,轉相高尚,無有窮極矣!」

4. The Marshal to the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Fu Xian, sent up a petition stating, "When the kings of old managed the realm, meats and adorned clothing both had their assigned limits. It is my belief that great decadence and extravagance should be viewed like a natural calamity. In ancient times, there were many people close together and little land for them, but everyone saved up, and thus they demonstrated restraint. But now, the land is broad while the people are spread out, but disaster is not enough to threaten them, so they become extravagant. If you wish for men to conduct themselves sublimely and frugally, you must look into their extravagance; if people's extravagance is not looked into, it will only grow all the more, and there will be no end to it!"

〈《晉志》曰:驃騎以下及諸大將軍不開府、非持節都督者,置長史、司馬各一人。〉〈古者黎民五十而後食肉,六十而後衣帛。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The General ranks from General of Agile Cavalry on down, as well as the Grand Generals, which did not have their own staffs and did not exercise Commander authority, had a single Chief Clerk and a single Marshal."

Among the common people of ancient times, no one ate meat until they were fifty, and no one wore adorned clothing until they were sixty.)


尚書張華,以文學才識,名重一時,論者皆謂華宜爲三公;中書監荀勗、侍中馮紞以伐吳之謀深疾之。會帝問華:「誰可託後事者?」華對以「明德至親,莫如齊王。」由是忤旨,勗因而譖之。甲午,以華都督幽州諸軍事。華至鎭,撫循夷夏,譽望益振,帝復欲徵之。馮紞侍帝,從容語及鍾會,紞曰:「會之反,頗由太祖。」帝變色曰:「卿是何言邪!」紞免冠謝曰:「臣聞善御者必知六轡緩急之宜,故孔子以仲由兼人而退之,冉求退弱而進之。漢高祖尊寵五王而夷滅,光武抑損諸將而克終。非上有仁暴之殊,下有愚智之異也,蓋抑揚與奪,使之然耳。鍾會才智有限,而太祖誇獎無極,居以重勢,委以大兵,使會自謂算無遺策,功在不賞,遂搆凶逆耳。向令太祖錄其小能,節以大禮,抑之以威權,納之以軌則,則亂心無由生矣。」帝曰:「然。」紞稽首曰:「陛下旣然臣之言,宜思堅冰之漸,勿使如會之徒復致傾覆。」帝曰:「當今豈復有如會者邪?」紞因屛左右而言曰:「陛下謀畫之臣,著大功於天下,據方鎭,總戎馬者,皆在陛下聖慮矣。」帝默然,由是止不徵華。

5. The Master of Writing Zhang Hua was talented and knowledgeable in literary studies, and he had a great reputation during this age. Many people suggested that Zhang Hua should become one of the Three Excellencies. The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Xun Xu, and the Palace Attendant Feng Dan hated Zhang Hua because of his plans for the campaign against Wu.

Around this time, Sima Yan had asked Zhang Hua, "Whom can I entrust affairs to after I am gone?"

Zhang Hua had replied, "In perception, in virtue, and in closeness to you, no one can compare with the Prince of Qi (Sima You)."

So Zhang Hua had a divergent aim, and Xun Xu slandered him because of it.

On the day Jiawu (February 12th), Sima Yan appointed Zhang Hua as Commander of military affairs in Youzhou. When Zhang Hua arrived at his post there, he nurtured and calmed the tribes and the Xia (ethnic Han), and his prestige rose even higher. Sima Yan wished to summon Zhang Hua back to the capital.

Feng Dan was then attending upon Sima Yan, and they happened to be speaking about Zhong Hui. Feng Dan said, "It must be said that Taizu (Sima Zhao) was responsible for Zhong Hui's rebellion."

Sima Yan's expression changed, and he demanded, "What nonsense are you speaking?"

Feng Dan took off his cap by way of apology, and said, "I have heard that those who are good at restraining affairs must know how to properly employ the Six Reins. This was why when Zhong You participated in men's affairs, Confucius withdrew from him, but when Ran Qiu retired on account of infirmity, Confucius advanced him. Emperor Gaozu of Han (Liu Bang) honored and favored the Five Kings, yet he had to eliminate them all; Emperor Guangwu restrained and reduced his various generals, and by doing so he secured them. When those above do not make a distinction between benevolence and cruelty, and those below do not distinguish between foolishness and wisdom, so that the rising and falling contend with each other, this is merely the natural result.

“Now Zhong Hui's talents and intelligence had their limits, yet Taizu was overly proud of him and rewarded him without restraint. He gave Zhong Hui greater power, and placed him at the head of a grand army. He had Zhong Hui follow his own council without a plan to restrain him, and when Zhong Hui felt that his achievements had not been rewarded as he saw fit, his bold disobedience naturally followed. If Taizu had properly noted Zhong Hui's meager abilities, dealt with him by the highest rites, pressed down on his power and influence, and kept him on his proper course, then there would have been nothing to stir up a rebellious heart."

Sima Yan replied, "Well said.”

Feng Dan then kowtowed and said, "Your Majesty, since you approve of what I have just said, then I must ask you to 'wear away the strong ice'. Do not allow one of your followers to be like Zhong Hui, where he can reach the point of overturning you."

Sima Yan asked, "But who is there today who is like Zhong Hui?"

Feng Dan turned his head to either side, and then said, "Your Majesty has a minister with whom you have developed all your plans, who has achieved great deeds in the realm, who occupies an important garrison, and who has a great number of arms and horses. May Your Majesty, in your sage wisdom, ponder these things."

Sima Yan made no reply. But because of this discussion, he changed his mind and did not summon Zhang Hua back again.

〈會反見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。文帝,廟號太祖。〉〈事見《論語》。〉〈事並見《漢高帝紀》。五王,兩韓信、彭越、英布、盧綰。〉〈光武不使功臣預政事,故皆保其福祿,無誅譴者。〉〈《易‧坤》之初六曰:履霜堅冰至。《象》曰:履霜堅冰,陰始凝也。馴致其道,至堅冰也。〉

(Zhong Hui's rebellion is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Xianxi (264.5-13 in Fang's Chronicles).

Taizu was Sima Zhao's temple name.

The stories of Confucius and his disciples Zhong You and Ran Qiu are mentioned in the Analects.

Liu Bang's dealings with the generals whom he made Kings are mentioned in the Imperial Annals of Emperor Gao of Han. The Five Kings were Han Xin, Hann Xin, Peng Yue, Ying Bu, and Lu Wan.

Emperor Guangwu did not reward his generals with government posts, but this was done in order to protect their fortunes and posterity. In the end, he did not have cause to condemn or execute any of them.

The First Six entry of the Kun section of the Book of Changes states, "(We see its subject) treading on hoarfrost. The strong ice will come (by and by)." The Interpretation of that entry states, "'He is treading on hoarfrost; - the strong ice will come (by and by):' - the cold (air) has begun to take form. Allow it to go on quietly according to its nature, and (the hoarfrost) will come to strong ice.")


三月,安北將軍嚴詢敗慕容涉歸於昌黎,斬獲萬計。

6. In the third month, the General Who Maintains The North, Yan Xun, defeated Murong Shegui at Changli, killing or capturing tens of thousands.

魯公賈充老病,上遣皇太子省視起居,充自憂諡傳,從子模曰:「是非久自見,不可掩也!」夏,四月,庚午,充薨,世子黎民早卒,無嗣,妻郭槐欲以充外孫韓謐爲世孫,郎中令韓咸、中尉曹軫諫曰:「禮無異姓爲後之文,今而行之,是使先公受譏於後世而懷愧於地下也。」槐不聽。咸等上書,求改立嗣,事寢不報。槐遂表陳之,云充遺意。帝許之,仍詔「自非功如太宰,始封、無後者,皆不得以爲比。」及太常議諡,博士秦秀曰:「充悖禮溺情,以亂大倫。昔鄫養外孫莒公子爲後,《春秋》書『莒人滅鄫』。絕父祖之血食,開朝廷之亂原。按《諡法》:『昏亂紀度曰荒』,請諡荒公。」帝不從,更諡曰武。

7. By this time, Jia Chong was old and frail. Sima Yan sent Crown Prince Sima Zhong to see Jia Chong and help with his daily affairs. Jia Chong was afraid about what his posthumous record would be. His nephew Jia Mo told him, "It will not be very long before you see for yourself. You cannot hide from it!"

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Gengwu (May 19th), Jia Chong passed away.

Now Jia Chong's son Jia Limin had already passed away before him, and so he had no heir. Jia Chong's wife Guo Huai wished to have Jia Chong's grandson Han Mi, the son of his daughter, succeed to his noble title. The Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, Han Xian, and the Palace Commandant Cao Zhen remonstrated with her, saying, "According to the rites, no one of a different surname may serve as heir. If you insist upon doing so, it will bring ridicule upon your late husband in future ages, and trouble his ghost in the world below." But Guo Huai did not listen to them.

So Han Xian and the others sent up a petition, asking that the choice of heir be changed, but there was no response to it. Then Guo Huai wrote her own petition defending herself, saying that she was acting according to Jia Chong's last wishes. Sima Yan allowed it, and he issued an edict stating, "No one made achievements like the late Grand Governor. For him to be the first to hold his noble title and yet to have no heir is a situation that cannot be countenanced."

The Minister of Ceremonies held a discussion on what Jia Chong's posthumous name should be. The Court Academician Qin Xiu said, "Jia Chong acted contrary to the rites and heeded his own feelings, and caused turmoil in the proper hierarchy of relationships. In ancient times, the state of Zeng allowed a matrilineal grandson of their line, the son of the Duke of Ju, to become their heir. The Spring and Autumn annals records that as 'The people of Ju destroyed Zeng'. To cut off the bloodline of the father and grandfather opens the door to chaos in the court. According to the Laws of Posthumous Names, 'One whose confusion and turmoil is recorded and noted may be called Wasteful.' I propose that his posthumous name should be Duke Huang ('the Wasteful')."

But Sima Yan did not agree, and he gave Jia Chong the posthumous name Duke Wu ("the Martial").

〈充自知姦回弒逆,後當加惡諡,且不能逃良史之筆誅。〉〈韓謐,充壻韓壽之子。世孫,謂嫡孫承祖父之世者。〉〈晉制,諸王及諸郡公國有郎中令、中尉、大農爲三卿。〉〈《春秋》:襄六年,莒人滅鄫。《公羊傳》曰:取後於莒也。莒女有爲鄫夫人者,立其出也。《榖梁傳》曰:莒人滅鄫,非滅也,立異姓以涖祭祀,滅亡之道也。〉

(Jia Chong knew that he had been perverse, disloyal, a murderer, and disobedient. He feared that later on, scorn would be heaped upon his name, and he would not be able to escape the censorious brushes of great historians.

Han Mi was the son of Jia Chong's son-in-law Han Shou. The term 世孫 means a grandson through the formal wife who inherits directly from his grandfather.

Under the Jin system, the fiefs of the various Princes and Dukes each had Prefects of Household Gentlemen, Palace Commandants, and Ministers of Finance, known as the Three Ministers.

The Spring and Autumn Annals states, "In the sixth year of Duke Xiang of Lu, the people of Ju destroyed Zeng." The Gongyang Commentary says of this passage, "Zeng's inheritance was obtained by Ju. A daughter of the house of Zeng was taken as wife by a son of the house of Ju, and from that they claimed the inheritance." The Guliang Commentary says of it, "The passage says, 'the people of Ju destroyed Zeng', but it is not that Zeng itself was destroyed, only that they raised up someone of a different surname to inherit their sacrifices, and so their line was destroyed.")


閏月,丙子,廣陸成侯李胤薨。

8. In the intercalary month, on the day Bingzi (May 25th), Li Yin passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Cheng ("the Accomplished") of Guangling.

齊王攸德望日隆,荀勗、馮紞、楊珧皆惡之。紞言於帝曰:「陛下詔諸侯之國,宜從親者始。親者莫如齊王,今獨留京師,可乎?」勗曰:「百僚內外皆歸心齊王,陛下萬歲後,太子不得立矣。陛下試詔齊王之國,必舉朝以爲不可,則臣言驗矣。」帝以爲然。冬,十二月,甲申,詔曰:「古者九命作伯,或入毗朝政,或出御方嶽,其揆一也。侍中、司空齊王攸,佐命立勳,劬勞王室,其以爲大司馬、都督青州諸軍事,侍中如故,仍加崇典禮,主者詳按舊制施行。」以汝南王亮爲太尉、錄尚書事、領太子太傅,光祿大夫山濤爲司徒,尚書令衞瓘爲司空。

9. Sima You's virtue and influence grew by the day. Xun Xu, Feng Dan, and Yang Yao all disapproved of him. Feng Dan said to Sima Yan, "When Your Majesty ordered the nobles to their fiefs, those who were closest to you should have been the first to go. And who is as close to you as the Prince of Qi? Yet he alone is still in the capital. Why is that?"

And Xun Xu said, "All the officials, near and far, have turned their hearts to the Prince of Qi. Your Majesty, after you are gone, the Crown Prince will not be able to obtain your throne. You should try ordering the Prince of Qi to his fief. He will certainly make the court believe that he cannot go, and then you will see the truth of my words."

Sima Yan agreed with them.

In winter, the twelfth month, on the day Jiashen (January 28th of 283), Sima Yan issued an edict stating, "When the ministers of the Nine Symbols of old were made earls, some went into the court to provide assistance, while some went out to guard the borders, but the principle of their service was the same. The Palace Attendant, Minister of Works, and Prince of Qi, Sima You, has aided the mandate and established achievements, working diligently on behalf of the royal family. He shall be appointed as Grand Marshal and Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, while acting as Palace Attendant as before, so that he may continue to bring sublimity to the canons and the rites, examine the chief effects of the old system, and put them into practice."

The Prince of Runan, Sima Liang, was appointed Grand Commandant, Chief of the affairs of the Palace Secretariat, and acting Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince. The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Shan Tao, was appointed Minister Over The Masses. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wei Guan, was appointed as the new Minister of Works.

〈《周禮》九命作伯。鄭玄曰:上公有功德者,加命爲二伯,得征五侯、九伯者也。鄭司農云:長諸侯爲方伯。〉

(The Rites of Zhou states, "Those of the Nine Symbols were made Earls." Zheng Xuan remarked, "Of the highest lords possessing achievement and virtue, two of them were made Earls, and five of them became Marquises; these were the Nine Earls." Zheng Sinong remarked, "The chief Marquises were made marcher lords as Earls.")


征東大將軍王渾上書,以爲:「攸至親盛德,侔於周公,宜贊皇朝,與聞政事。今出攸之國,假以都督虛號,而無典戎幹方之實,虧友于款篤之義,懼非陛下追述先帝、文明太后待攸之宿意也。若以同姓寵之太厚,則有吳、楚逆亂之謀,漢之呂、霍、王氏,皆何人也!歷觀古今,苟事之輕重所在,無不爲害,唯當任正道而求忠良耳。若以智計猜物,雖親見疑,至於疏者,庸可保乎!愚以爲太子太保缺,宜留攸居之,與汝南王亮、楊珧共幹朝事。三人齊位,足相持正,旣無偏重相傾之勢,又不失親親仁覆之恩,計之盡善者也。」於是抹風王駿、光祿大夫李憙、中護軍羊琇、侍中王濟、甄德皆切諫;帝並不從。濟使其妻常山公主及德妻長廣公主俱入,稽顙涕泣,請帝留攸。帝怒,謂侍中王戎曰:「兄弟至親,今出齊王,自是朕家事,而甄德、王濟連遣婦來生哭人邪!」乃出濟爲國子祭酒,德爲大鴻臚。羊琇與北軍中候成粲謀見楊珧,手刃殺之;珧知之,辭疾不出,諷有司奏琇,左遷太僕,琇憤怨,發病卒。李憙亦以年老遜位,卒於家。憙在朝,姻親故人,與之分衣共食,而未嘗私以王官,人以此稱之。

10. Wang Hun sent up a petition stating, "Sima You is an intimate of the royal family, greatly possessing in virtue; he is the equal of the Duke of Zhou. He should be supporting the imperial court, and consulted with on the affairs of governance. Yet now Sima You is being sent out to his fief; although he has been granted an empty title as Commander, he does not command soldiers or arms of any real substance. In harming a friend through empty and false righteousness, I fear that Your Majesty is not heeding His Late Majesty's and Empress Wenming's admonishments to you regarding the treatment of Sima You.

“If those of the same surname were treated with favor and great magnanimity, then how could the rebellions of Han's Princes of Wu and Chu have arisen? How could the clans of Empress Lü Zhi, of Huo Guang, or of Wang Mang have ever threatened the dynasty? We see in history from ancient times to now the seriousness of neglecting affairs. In order to avoid harm, one only needs to employ those who are just and principled, and seek out those who are loyal and excellent. But if you turn your thoughts towards doubtful things, so that even those close to you are seen with suspicion, and you go so far as to send them away, how then could you possibly secure yourself?

“Foolish as I am, I believe that the post of Grand Guardian to the Crown Prince is currently vacant. You should grant that post to Sima You and have him remain here, and he may manage court affairs together with the Prince of Runan, Sima Liang, and with Yang Yao. If these three men hold such posts, that will be enough for them to work together to hold fast to justice, and no other great minister will have the power to overturn them. Furthermore, you would not lose the chance to repay the favor shown to you by your benevolent intimate, and you could carry out a plan to do the most good."

In addition, the 抹風 Wang Jun, the Household Counselor with Golden Tassel, Li Xi, the Army-Protector of the Center, Yang Xiu, and the Palace Attendants Wang Ji and Zhen De all remonstrated sharply with Sima Yan. But Sima Yan did not listen to any of them.

This is a different Wang Jun from the conqueror of Eastern Wu.

Wang Ji sent his wife, the Princess of Changshan, and Zhen De's wife, the Princess of Zhangguang, to the palace to see Sima Yan. The Princesses kowtowed before Sima Yan and wept, begging that he allow Sima You to remain in the capital. Sima Yan was furious, and he said to the Palace Attendant Wang Rong, "This is an intimate affair between an older and a younger brother. My sending the Prince of Qi out of the capital is simply a personal family affair. Yet Zhen De and Wang Ji go so far as to send their wives to come weep at me!" And he sent Wang Ji and Zhen De out of the palace; Wang Ji was made a Libationer for the National Youth, while Zhen De was made Grand Herald.

Yang Xiu and the 北軍中候, Cheng Can, plotted to go see Yang Yao, holding blades in their hands to kill him. Yang Yao knew about it, and he claimed illness and would not come out. He arranged for the officials to censure Yang Xiu, and Yang Xiu was laterally transferred to be Minister Coachman. Yang Xiu was so indignant and angry that he developed an illness and passed away.

Li Xi also resigned his office on account of his old age, and he also passed away at home. While Li Xi was in the court, his in-laws and his old friends would split their clothing and share their food with him. Li Xi never once mixed private and royal affairs, and this was why he gained such a name among people.

〈典戎,典兵也。《詩‧韓奕》曰:榦不庭方。言爲楨榦也。〉〈待攸事見上卷咸寧二年。〉〈渾之意,蓋謂齊王不當疑,三楊不當信也。〉〈自侍中出爲外朝官。〉〈北軍中候,漢官,掌北軍五營;魏省。泰始四年,罷中軍將軍,置北軍中候;七年,又罷中領軍併焉。〉

"Command of arms" means command of soldiers.

Wang Hun uses the term 榦. The Hanyi poem in the Book of Poetry has the verse, "Be a support against those princes who do not come to court." It means a support pole.

Sima Zhao's and Wang Yuanji's warnings to Sima Yan about how to treat Sima You are mentioned in the previous book, in the second year of Xianning (276.3).

In his references to the Han dynasty figures, Wang Hun means to say that Sima You should not be doubted, and the Three Yangs should not be trusted.

Sima Yan appointed Wang Ji and Zhen De to new positions to remove them from their roles as Palace Attendants; now they would be away from the palace.

The office of 北軍中候 was a Han office, in charge of administering the five camps of the Northern Army. Cao-Wei abolished the office. In the fourth year of Taishi (268), the office of General of the Central Army was dropped, and the 北軍中候 was reestablished. In the seventh year (271), the office of General Who Directs The Army of the Center was also merged with that office.)


是歲,散騎常侍薛瑩卒。或謂吳郡陸喜曰:「瑩於吳士當爲第一乎?」喜曰:「瑩在四五之間,安得爲第一!夫以孫晧無道,吳國之士,沈默其體,潛而勿用者,第一也;避尊居卑,祿以代耕者,第二也;侃然體國,執正不懼者,第三也;斟酌時宜,時獻微益者,第四也;溫恭脩愼,不爲諂首者,第五也;過此以往,不足復數。故彼上士多淪沒而遠悔吝,中士有聲位而近禍殃。觀瑩之處身本末,又安得爲第一乎!」

11. During this year, Wu's Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Xue Ying, passed away.

Someone asked Lu Xi of Wu commandary, "Was Xue Ying not of the greatest sort of men of the gentlemen of Wu?"

Lu Xi replied, "Xue Ying was only between the fourth and fifth sort of men. How could he be considered among the greatest? When we consider that Sun Hao was a man without principle, then for the gentlemen of Wu, those who remained silent and hid themselves, kept secluded and refused to be used by him, should be considered the greatest sort. Those who shunned the honored and dwelt with the lowly, and who took up the plow rather than claim a salary, should be considered the second sort. Those who forthrightly gave their service to the state, and held fast to justice without fear, should be considered the third sort. Those who considered the trends of the age and followed them, in order to gain meager gains for a time, should be considered the fourth sort. Those who acted agreeably and conducted themselves cautiously, though they did not flatter their ruler, should be considered the fifth sort. Those who went beyond these things are not even worth considering. This is why the greatest of these gentlemen kept to themselves and so were far from regrets and grudges, while those of the common sort, though they gained notice and held office, found themselves close to disaster and calamity. We see that Xue Ying held office through the entire period; how then could he be considered of the greatest sort of men?"
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 2:58 am

四年(癸卯、二八三)

The Fourth Year of Taikang (The Guimao Year, 283 AD)


春,正月,甲申,以尚書右僕射魏舒爲左僕射,下邳王晃爲右僕射。晃,孚之子也。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jiashen (?), the Supervisor of the Right of the Masters of Writing, Wei Shu, was appointed Supervisor of the Left, and the Prince of Xiapi, Sima Huang, replaced him as Supervisor of the Right. This Sima Huang was another son of Sima Fu, the late Prince of Anping.

戊午,新沓康伯山濤薨。

2. On the day Wuwu (March 3rd), Shan Tao passed away. He was posthumously known as Earl Kang ("the Peaceful") of Xinda.

〈魏明帝景初三年,以遼東東沓縣吏民過海居齊郡界者,立爲新沓縣。〉

(In Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei's (Cao Rui's) third year of Jingchu (239), the officials and people of Dongda County in Liaodong commandary crossed over the sea and settled in the commandaries of Qi (Qingzhou), where they established Xinda County.)


帝命太常議崇錫齊王之物。博士庾旉、太叔廣、劉暾、繆蔚、郭頤、秦秀、傅珍上表曰:「昔周選建明德以左右王室,周公、康叔、耼季,皆入爲三公,明股肱之任重,守地之位輕也。漢諸侯王,位在丞相、三公上,其入讚朝政者,乃有兼官,其出之國,亦不復假台司虛名爲隆寵也。今使齊王賢邪,則不宜以母弟之親尊居魯、衞之常職;不賢邪,不宜大啓土宇,表建東海也。古禮,三公無職,坐而論道,不聞以方任嬰之。惟宣王救急朝夕,然後命召穆公征淮夷,故其《詩》曰:『徐方不回,王曰旋歸。」宰相不得久在外也。今天下已定,六合爲家,將數延三事,與論太平之基,而更出之,去王城二千里,違舊章矣。」旉,純之子;暾,毅之子也。旉旣具草,先以呈純,純不禁。

3. Sima Yan ordered the Minister of Ceremonies to lead a discussion regarding the matter of Sima You’s upcoming “sublime bestowment” of a fief.

The Court Academicians Yu Fu, Taishu Guang, Liu Tun, Mou Wei, Guo Yi, Qin Xiu, and Fu Zhen sent up a petition stating, "In ancient times, when the Zhou dynasty set up wise and virtuous men to support the royal family, the Duke of Zhou, Kang Shu, and Dan Ji were all made the Three Dukes. The offices acting as chief support to the throne were the important offices, and those which guarded territory were the lesser ones. Regarding the various Princes and nobles of the Han dynasty, their positions were above those of the Prime Minister and the Three Excellencies. Those who approved of the court's policies were given actual offices, while those who were sent out to their fiefs were also not given any authority or command to make empty names for themselves or build favor.

"Now if you feel that the Prince of Qi is a worthy man, then you should not give a common office to your brother by the same mother, who shares the same close exaltedness to you as the Dukes of Lu and Wey did with each other. Or if you feel that the Prince is not a worthy man, then you should not give him a great base of territory, and allow him to establish himself by the Eastern Sea. According to the old rites, when one of the Three Excellencies lacks office, and sits while discussing the road, you should not listen to him and give him a great office to wrap himself in. King Xuan of Zhou sought help all day and night, and afterwards he made an edict summoning Duke Mu of Qin to campaign against the Huai tribes. This is why the poem in the Book of Poetry says, 'The chiefs would not again change their minds, and the kings said, "Let us return."' A great minister should not be kept at a distance for a long time.

"Now the realm is already settled, and the Six Directions are all part of the same family. It will soon be the time to tend to the Three Affairs, and discuss the foundation of a lasting peace. Yet you go so far as to send the Prince away, two thousand li from the royal city. That violates the rules of old."

This Yu Fu was the son of Yu Chun; this Liu Tun was the son of Liu Yi. Since Yu Fu had been the one to compose the petition, he had first shown it to his father to inspect, and Yu Chun had not forbidden it.

〈太叔,複姓。鄭莊公之弟段封於京,謂之京城太叔,其後以爲氏。又衞有太叔儀。〉〈繆,姓也。蔚,紆勿翻。〉〈《左傳》:衞太祝子魚曰:武王之母弟八人,周公爲太宰,康叔爲司寇,耼季爲司空。耼,乃甘翻。〉〈漢諸侯王讚朝政者,惟東平王蒼耳。〉〈見《詩‧江漢》、《常武》篇。〉〈司馬彪《郡國志》:齊國在洛陽東千八百里。〉

(太叔 Taishu was a compound surname. Duke Zhuang of Zheng's younger brother Duan was granted a fief at the capital. He was called the Taishu ("great uncle") of the Capital, and his descendants took this as their surname. There was also a Taishu Yi in the state of Wey.

繆 Mou is a surname. The given name 蔚 is pronounced "wei (y-u)".

In the Zuo Commentary, the Grand Supplicator of Zheng, Ziyu, states, "The own brothers of King Wu were eight. The Duke of Zhou was prime minister; Tang Shu was minister of Crime; Dan Ji was Minister of Works. (Ding 3.4)". The character 耼 in the last of these brothers is pronounced "dan (n-an)".

The only one of Han's princes who agreed with the court's policies was the Prince of Dongping, Liu Cang.

The poem quoted is from the Jiang-Han and Changwu sections of the Book of Poetry.

Sima Biao's Records of Commandaries and Fiefs states, "The fief of Qi is a thousand and eight hundred li east of Luoyang.")


事過太常鄭默、傅士祭酒曹志,志愴然歎曰:「安有如此之才,如此之親,不得樹本助化,而遠出海隅!晉室之隆,其殆矣乎!」乃奏議曰:「古之夾輔王室,同姓則周公,異姓則太公,皆身居朝廷,五世反葬。及其衰也,雖有五霸代興,豈與周、召之治同日而論哉!自羲皇以來,豈一姓所能獨有!當推至公之心,與天下共其利害,乃能享國久長。是以秦、魏欲獨擅其權而纔得沒身,周、漢能分其利而親疏爲用,此前事之明驗也。志以爲當如博士等議。」帝覽之,大怒曰:「曹志尚不明吾心,況四海乎!」且謂:「博士不答所問而答所不問,橫造異論。」下有司策免鄭默。於是尚書朱整、褚䂮奏:「志等侵官離局,迷罔朝廷,崇飾惡言,假託無諱,請收志等付廷尉科罪。」詔免志官,以公還第;其餘皆付廷尉科罪。

4. The matter then turned to the Minister of Ceremonies, Zheng Mo, and the Erudite Libationer, Cao Zhi. Cao Zhi sighed sorrowfully and said, "How can it be that a man with such talent and such closeness to the royal family not be allowed to provide aid and shape to the trunk of the state's tree, and is instead sent away to the ends of the sea! The rise of the Jin royal family is nearly at an end!"

And Cao Zhi submitted a petition stating, "In ancient times, of those who provided close personal aid to the royal family, there were those of the same surname as the royal clan, like the Duke of Zhou, and there were those of differing surnames, like the Grand Duke (Jiang Ziya). They all lived themselves at court, and for five generations their bodies were brought back to be buried at Zhou. After this state of affairs was lost, although the age of the Five Hegemons came about, how could that compare to when the Dukes of Zhou and Shao ruled at the same time and discussed affairs? Of all the sovereigns since Fuxi, how could any of their families have ruled alone?

“This is why the state must extend itself to the hearts of the Dukes, so that the realm shares its weal and woe together, and then the state is able to enjoy a long existence. This was why the Qin and Wei dynasties, in seeking to monopolize all power to themselves, did not long outlive their own founders, while the Zhou and Han dynasties, who were able to divide their gains among their intimates and could make use of them, lasted long. This is a wise precedent from the past. I believe that the rest of the Court Academicians believe the same as I do."

When Sima Yan read this petition, he was enraged, and he said, "Cao Zhi does not even understand my own beliefs, much less those of all within the Four Seas!"

And Sima Yan further said, "The Court Academicians have not answered what was asked of them, and they have presumed to answer what was not asked of them. They have conducted a perverse and unsought discussion." And he ordered the officials to prepare to have Zheng Mo stripped of office.

The Masters of Writing, Zhu Zheng and Cheng Lüe, composed a petition stating, "Cao Zhi and the others have infringed upon things beyond their offices and exceeded the bounds of what they were assigned, and they seek to deceive and mislead the court, adorning their wicked words with sublime rhetoric and assuming the disguise of being allowed to speak freely. We ask that Cao Zhi and the others be arrested and handed over to the Minister of Justice so that he may examine their crimes."

Sima Yan issued an edict stripping Cao Zhi of office and exiling him to his ducal manor. The other Court Academicians were all handed over to the Minister of Justice and had their crimes examined.

〈《續漢志》:博士祭酒一人;本僕射,中興轉爲祭酒。胡廣曰:官名祭酒,皆一位之元長也。〉〈《禮記‧檀弓》曰:太公封於營丘,比及五世,皆反葬於周。古人曰:「狐死正丘首,仁也。」〉〈言五霸代興以尊周室,不可與周、召夾輔之治同日而論也。〉〈謂曹志本魏陳思王植之子,植於魏文帝,兄弟也。文帝之禁制植者爲何如,今尚不能明吾之心乎!〉〈所問者,崇錫齊王禮物而已,不問齊王當出與不當出也。〉〈志在魏嗣爵陳王,晉受禪,降爲鄄城縣公。〉

(The Continued Records of Han states, "There is a single Erudite Libationer; it was originally the Supervisor, but after the Restoration, it was changed to the Libationer." Hu Guang remarked, "Of the offices with the name Libationer, this one is the most senior."

The Tan Gong chapter of the Book of Rites states, "The Grand Duke (Jiang Ziya) was invested with his state, (and had his capital) in Yingqiu; but for five generations (his descendants, the Marquises of Qi) were all taken back and buried in Zhou. The ancients had a saying, that a fox, when dying, adjusts its head in the direction of the mound (where it was whelped); manifesting thereby (how it shares in the feeling of) humanity. (1.27)"

Cao Zhi was saying that although during the age of the Five Hegemons, they honored the royal house of Zhou, that still could not compare with the age when the Dukes of Zhou and Shao ruled together at the same time and discussed things.

The 曹志 Cao Zhi mentioned in this passage was the son of Cao-Wei's Prince Si of Chen, 曹植 Cao Zhi, who was the younger brother of Cao-Wei's Emperor Wen (Cao Pi). Cao Pi had restricted the Princes of Cao-Wei in the same manner which this Cao Zhi now describes. Sima Yan means to say that because of that, he could hardly understand "my own beliefs".

The Court Academicians had been asked to discuss Sima You's "sublime bestowment", the details of his fief, and go no further; they had not actually responded to this request, so they "had not answered what was asked of them". Furthermore, they had discussed the very question of whether Sima You should or should not be sent out in the first place, which was not theirs to question, so they "had presumed to answer what was not asked of them".

The current Cao Zhi had inherited his father's title as Prince of Chen after the elder Cao Zhi's death. When Jin accepted the abdication of Cao-Wei, Cao Zhi's title as Prince of Chen was downgraded to Duke of Juancheng County.)


庾純詣廷尉自首:「旉以議草見示,愚淺聽之。」詔免純罪。廷尉劉頌奏旉等大不敬,當棄市。尚書奏請報聽廷尉行刑。尚書夏侯駿曰:「官立八座,正爲此時。」乃獨爲駮議。左僕射下邳王晃亦從駿議。奏留中七日,乃詔曰:「旉是議主,應爲戮首;但旉家人自首,宜幷廣等七人皆丐其死命,並除名。」

5. Yu Chun went to the Minister of Justice and confessed, "Yu Fu discussed and composed the edict and showed it to me, and in my foolishness, I gave my superficial approval." Sima Yan ordered Yu Chun stripped of office.

The Minister of Justice, Liu Song, submitted a petition that Yu Fu and the others should be charged with gross disrespect and be executed and have their bodies cast out into the marketplace as punishment. The Masters of Writing sent in petitions asking that the Minister of Justice lighten the sentence on the condemned. The Master of Writing Xiahou Jun objected, "The offices of the Eight Seats were created for just such a purpose as this." But he was the only one of them who felt so. The Supervisor of the Left, Sima Huang, also agreed with what Xiahou Jun said.

The petitions flooded the palace for seven days, until Sima Yan at last issued an edict stating, "Yu Fu was leader of the discussion, and he ought to pay with his head. But as his family has confessed, he will share the same fate as Taishu Guang and the other six men. They will be spared the death penalty, and they will all be removed from the rolls of office."

〈六曹尚書幷令、僕爲八座。〉

(The six Bureaus of the Masters of Writing, along with the Prefect and the Supervisor, made the Eight Seats.)


二月,詔以濟南郡益齊國。己丑,立齊王攸子長樂亭侯寔爲北海王,命攸備物典策,設軒縣之樂,六佾之舞,黃鉞朝車,乘輿之副從焉。

6. In the second month, Sima Yan issued an edict converting the commandary of Jinan into the princely fief of Qi. On the day Jichou (April 3rd), the Marquis of Zhangle Village, Sima You's son Sima Shi, was appointed Prince of Beihai, and ordered to prepare Sima You's canons and plans, construct the curtained room for music, the six lines of dancers, the yellow battle-axe and court carriage, and its attendant carriages to follow behind.

〈樂,天子宮縣,諸侯軒縣。軒縣者,缺其一面。〉

(The music was in the Son of Heaven's palace room and the various noble's curtained room. This curtained room had one face exposed.)


三月,辛丑朔,日有食之。

7. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou (April 15th), there was an eclipse.

齊獻王攸憤怨發病,乞守先后陵。帝不許,遣御醫診視,諸醫希旨,皆言無疾。河南尹向雄諫曰:「陛下子弟雖多,然有德望者少;齊王臥居京邑,所益實深,不可不思也。」帝不納,雄憤恚而卒。攸疾轉篤,帝猶催上道。攸自強入辭,素持容儀,疾雖困,尚自整厲,舉止如常,帝益疑其無疾;辭出數日,歐血而薨。帝往臨喪,攸子冏號踊,訴父病爲醫所誣。詔卽誅醫,以冏爲嗣。

8. Sima You had become so indignant and angry by his treatment that he developed an illness. He begged that he be allowed to guard the tomb of the late Empress Dowager (Wang Yuanji). But Sima Yan would not permit it. Sima Yan also sent doctors to see to Sima You's illness. Several doctors, hoping for gain, reported that Sima You had no illness.

The Intendant of Henan, Yin Xiang, remonstrated with Sima Yan, saying, "Although Your Majesty has many sons and younger brothers, there are few of them which have much virtue or influence. The Prince of Qi is lying ill and residing in the capital district, and he is of true and great benefit to you. You must reconsider this."

But Sima Yan would not follow his counsel, and Yin Xiong became so indignant and angry that he passed away.

Sima You's illness soon became critical, but Sima Yan still urged him to set out on the road. So Sima You gathered his strength and went to see Sima Yan. He conducted himself with such bearing that, although his illness was painful to him, he seemed to act in full control of himself and his movements appeared unaffected compared to normal. Sima Yan was even more suspicious that Sima You was not actually ill. But several days after his visit, Sima You spat up blood and then passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xian (“the Presented”) of Qi.

Sima Yan attended the mourning service for Sima You, where Sima You's son Sima Jiong approached him, claiming that the doctors had given false reports about Sima You's illness. Sima Yan ordered the doctors put to death, and Sima Jiong inherited his father's title.

初,帝愛攸甚篤,爲荀勗、馮紞等所構,欲爲身後之慮,故出之。及薨,帝哀慟不已。馮紞侍側,曰:「齊王名過其實,天下歸之,今自薨殞,社稷之福也,陛下何哀之過!」帝收淚而止。詔攸喪禮依安平獻王故事。

9. At first, Sima Yan had greatly loved Sima You. It was afterwards, when he was led astray by the words of Xun Xu, Feng Dan, and others, that he became concerned about Sima You, and this was why he wanted to send him away.

After Sima You passed away, Sima Yan was inconsolable with grief for him. Feng Dan came near him and said, "The Prince of Qi's reputation went further than his true worth, and the realm would have followed him. His recent passing will prove to have been a blessing for the fortunes of state. How can Your Majesty show so much grief for him?" So Sima Yan dried his tears and ceased his grief for Sima You.

Sima Yan ordered that the mourning rites for Sima You follow those of the late Prince of Anping, Sima Fu.

〈事見七十九卷泰始八年。〉

(Sima Fu's mourning rites are mentioned in Book 79, in the eighth year of Taishi (272.3).)


攸舉動以禮,鮮有過事,雖帝亦敬憚之。每引之同處,必擇言而後發。

10. Sima You conducted himself in accordance with the rites, and he rarely made any trespasses; even Sima Yan himself respected and feared him. Whenever Sima You was sought out for his views, he would always select his words carefully and only afterwards express his thoughts.

夏,五月,己亥,琅邪武王伷薨。

11. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Jihai (June 12th), Sima Zhou passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Wu ("the Martial") of Langye.

冬,十一月,以尚書左僕射魏舒爲司徒。

12. In winter, the eleventh month, Wei Shu was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.

河南及荊、揚等六州大水。

13. There was great flooding in Henan and in six provinces including Jingzhou and Yangzhou.

〈荊,強也,言其氣躁強;亦曰警也,言南蠻數爲寇逆,其人有道後服,無道先強,常警備也;又云,取荊山以名州。統江夏、南郡、襄陽、南陽、順陽、義陽、新城、魏興、上庸、建平、宜都、南平、武陵、天門、長沙、衡陽、湘東、零陵、邵陵、桂陽、武昌、安成。〉

(Jing means strong, and expresses an air of powerful strength; it also means vigilance, for the southern Man tribes were often disobedient invaders, and while some of them later became obedient, others retained their former strength, so constant vigilance was required to prepare against them. The province also gets its name from Mount Jing. Jingzhou administered the commandaries of Jiangxia, Nan, Xiangyang, Nanyang, Shunyang, Yiyang, Xincheng, Weixing, Shangyong, Jianping, Yidu, Nanping, Wuling, Tianmen, Changsha, Hengyang, Xiangdong, Lingling, Shaoling, Guiyang, Wuchang, and Ancheng.)


歸命侯孫晧卒。

14. The Marquis of Guiming, Sun Hao, passed away.

是歲,鮮卑慕容涉歸卒。弟删篡立,將殺涉歸子廆,廆亡匿於遼東徐郁家。

15. During this year, Murong Shegui passed away. His younger brother Murong Shan usurped his position. Murong Shan was about to kill Murong Shegui's son Murong Hui, but Murong Hui ran away and hid himself with the family of Xu Yu of Liaodong.

〈《考異》曰:《載記》「删」作「耐」。今從《燕書》。〉〈廆,戶賄翻,又五罪翻。《載記》曰:廆,字弈洛瓌。杜佑曰:本名若洛廆。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Chronicles of the Book of Jin records the name of Murong Shegui's younger brother as Murong Nai rather than Murong Shan. But I follow the account of the Book of Yan."

The given name of Murong Shegui's son, 廆, is pronounced "hui (h-ui)" or "hui (w-ui)". The Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "Murong Hui was styled Yiluogui." Du You remarked, "Murong Hui's given name was originally Ruoluohui.")
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 3:00 am

五年(乙巳、二八四)

The Fifth Year of Taikang (The Yisi Year, 284 AD)


The following year is also listed as a Yisi year; this year being listed as one might be a mistake.

春,正月,己亥,有青龍二見武庫井中。帝觀之,有喜色。百官將賀,尚書僕射劉毅表曰:「昔龍降夏庭,卒爲周禍。《易》稱『潛龍勿用,陽在下也。』尋案舊典,無賀龍之禮。」帝從之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Jihai (?), a green dragon was twice spotted inside a well in the arsenal. When Sima Yan saw it, he looked very pleased. The ministers were about to congratulate him.

But the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Liu Yi, submitted a petition stating, "In ancient times, when a dragon descended upon the palace of Xia, that led to the destruction of Zhou. And the Book of Changes states, '"The dragon lies hid in the deep; - it is not the time for active doing;" - (this appears from) the strong and undivided line's being in the lowest place.' You should maintain the old canons, and do not hold a rite of congratulations for the dragon."

Sima Yan followed his advice.

〈《考異》曰:《五行志》作「癸卯」。今從《帝紀》。〉〈《國語》曰:夏之衰也,褒人之神化爲二龍以同于夏庭。夏后卜殺之與去之與止之,莫吉;卜請其漦而藏之,吉。乃布幣而策告之。龍亡而漦在,櫝而藏之,及殷、周,莫之發也。及厲王之末,發而觀之,漦流於庭,不可除也。王使婦人不幃而譟之,化爲玄蚖以入于王府。府之童妾未旣齓而遭之,旣筓而孕,當宣王而生。不夫而育,故懼而棄之,鬻弧服者取之,以逃于褒。褒人有獄,以入于幽王,王遂嬖之,使爲后,生伯服。欲殺太子,以成伯服,太子奔申。申侯與犬戎伐王,殺之驪山下。〉〈《易‧乾》之初九《爻辭》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Records of the Five Elements chapter of the Book of Jin states that the dragon sightings were on 'the day Guimao (?)'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Wu (Sima Ya) in the Book of Jin."

Regarding the dragon that visited Xia, the Discourses on the States has this story: "During the waning days of the Xia dynasty, a native of the state of Bao was divinely transformed into two dragons, both of whom visited the Xia palace. The Xia Empress, Bo, killed them and chased them out and so stopped them, but this meant misfortune. Empress Bo asked that their saliva be gathered up and hidden away, which would be good fortune. So spade money was used to deal with the situation. The dragons having gone but their saliva remaining, the saliva was gathered up into a box and then hidden away. All through the Yin (Shang) and Zhou dynasties, no one dared to open the box. But during the last years of King Li of Zhou, he opened the box and looked inside it. The saliva flew out into the palace, and no one could stop it. King Li sent his wife out of the bedchamber to make a clamor about it, and the saliva transformed into a black lizard and entered into the royal residence. It encountered a young girl there who was not yet old enough to have gained all her adult teeth. When the girl later came of age, she became pregnant; it was thought the child was King Xuan's, so she gave birth to it. But as she knew that she had become pregnant while still a virgin, she was afraid, and she abandoned the baby girl. The child was obtained by a peddlar of bows and clothing, who then fled to Bao. When the people of Bao later had an investigation, they sent the grown girl to King You of Zhou, and King Zhou took her for himself and made her his Empress. The young woman, Bao Si, gave birth to a son, Bofu. Bao Si wished to kill King You's Crown Prince and set Bofu in his place. The Crown Prince fled to Shen. The Marquis of Shen then allied with the Quanrong tribe to attack King You, and killed him below Mount Li."

Liu Yi quotes from the Yao Commentary on the First Ninth entry in the Qian chapter of the Book of Changes.)


初,陳羣以吏部不能審覈天下之士,故令郡國各置中正,州置大中正,皆取本土之人任朝廷官、德充才盛者爲之,使銓次等級以爲九品,有言行脩著則升之,道義虧缺則降之,吏部憑之以補授百官。行之浸久,中正或非其人,姦敝日滋。劉毅上疏曰:「今立中正,定九品,高下任意,榮辱在手,操人主之威福,奪天朝之權勢,公無考校之負,私無告訐之忌,用心百態,營求萬端,廉讓之風滅,爭訟之俗成,臣竊爲聖朝恥之!蓋中正之設,於損政之道有八:高下逐強弱,是非隨興衰,一人之身,旬日異狀,上品無寒門,下品無勢族,一也。置州都者,本取州里清議咸所歸服,將以鎭異同,一言議也。今重其任而輕其人,使駁違之論橫於州里,嫌讎之隙結於大臣,二也。本立格之體,爲九品者,謂才德有優劣,倫輩有首尾也。今乃使優劣易地,首尾倒錯,三也。陛下賞善罰惡,無不裁之以法,獨置中正,委以一國之重,曾無賞罰之防,又禁人不得訴訟,使之縱橫任意,無所顧憚,諸受枉者,抱怨積直,不獲上聞,四也。一國之士,多者千數,或流徙異邦,或取給殊方,面猶不識,況盡其才!而中正知與不知,皆當品狀,采譽於臺府,納毀於流言,任己則有不識之蔽,聽受則有彼此之偏,五也。凡求人才,欲以治民也,今當官著效者或附卑品,在官無績者更獲高敍,是爲抑功實而隆空名,長浮華而廢考績,六也。凡官不同人,事不同能。今不狀其才之所宜而但第爲九品,以品取人,或非才能之所長,以狀取人,則爲本品之所限,徒結白論而品狀相妨,七也。九品所下不彰其罪,所上不列其善,各任愛憎,以植其私,天下之人焉得不懈德行而銳人事,八也。由此論之,職名中正,實爲姦府;事名九品,而有八損;古今之失,莫大於此!愚臣以爲宜罷中正,除九品,棄魏氏之敝法,更立一代之美制。」太尉‧汝南王亮、司空衞瓘亦上疏曰:「魏氏承喪亂之後,人士流移,考詳無地,故立九品之制,粗且爲一時選用之本耳。今九域同規,大化方始,臣等以爲宜皆蕩除末法,咸用土斷,自公卿以下,以所居爲正,無復縣客,遠屬異土,盡除中正九品之制,使舉善進才,各由鄕論,則華競自息,各求於己矣。」始平王文學江夏李重上疏以爲:「九品旣除,宜先開移徙,聽相幷就,則土斷之實行矣。」帝雖善其言而終不能改也。

2. During the Wei era, Chen Qun felt that the Ministry of Personnel could not properly assess the gentlemen of the realm, and this was why he created a new system. He ordered every commandary or fief to have a Rectifier appointed to it, and every province would have a Grand Rectifier. Each of these Rectifiers would recommend people from their own territories who would be suitable for holding government offices, and those possessing virtue and talent in abundance would be selected and sorted into nine ranks. Those who in word and deed acted properly would accordingly rise up, while those whose principles and virtues were insufficient would accordingly drop down. The Ministry of Personnel thus relied upon this Nine Rank system for the selection of officials. But over time, some of the Rectifiers failed to live up to the expected standards, and their degeneracy swelled by the day.

Liu Yi sent up a petition stating, "In our time, we have set up Rectifiers and established the Nine Ranks. But now, these examiners are acting arbitrarily. Honor or disgrace is in their hands, and they wield power and fortune over the people and their lords, wresting the authority of the celestial court for themselves. Publically, they shirk their duty of examining people; privately, they have no qualms in spreading talk of misdeeds. Their hearts require a hundred conditions, and their offices demand ten thousand requirements. The spirit of meekly giving ground is squelched, while common sorts of suits and debates are brought about. I believe they are a disgrace to the sagely court!

“In setting up these Rectifiers, eight harms to the principles of governance have been done. The strength or weakness of these men is not in accordance with their rise or decline; the same man's condition may change within the span of ten days. There are no men of common birth among the higher ranks, and no one from an influential clan is found among the lower ranks. This is the first harm.

“These Rectifiers have been set up over all the province, so that everyone within the province must heed the things which they say, and with a single word they can stifle dissent against them. So importance has been placed in the office itself and not in the man who holds it. This allows oppressive and disobedient talk to spread throughout the length of the province, and suspicions and hatreds are given ground to gather against great ministers. This is the second harm.

“The Rectifiers are allowed to use their own standards for sorting people into the Nine Ranks, so that they are able to claim who has talent and virtue, who is superior and who inferior, as the body has its head and its tail. But now the superior and inferior are easily exchanged places, so that the head and tail fall into error. This is the third harm.

“When Your Majesty rewards the good and punishes the evil, in all instances you resort to the law. But when it comes to these Rectifiers, they are given importance over the whole state, and there is no defense against their decisions of rewards or punishments, nor do their guards permit any appeal. Everyone must heed their decisions, and no one can turn aside in fear. Those whom their wickedness is inflicted upon nurse grudges against them and build up their resentments, but those above do not hear of it. This is the fourth harm.

“Among the gentlemen of a state, there are all sorts of men. Some leave to follow foreign neighboring states, and some arrive from foreign places. If, even when facing such people, one still does not even recognize them, how then can one determine their talents to the fullest? Yet whether the Rectifiers know things or do not know them, still they sort people into the ranks either way, selecting and raising people into government offices, and accepting slander as loose talk. These are already people in office who do not know what they are doing, and yet we are meant to accept their judgments concerning other people and follow them. This is the fifth harm.

“Whenever seeking men of talent, one wishes to find men who can manage the people. Yet some of those in office who set a good example in this regard are merely attached to the lowliest ranks, while those who have accomplished nothing while in office are given even higher positions. This is to restrain those who have real achievements while exalting those with empty reputations, to empower the ostentatious and demean those who have proven themselves with merit. This is the sixth harm.

“The people who are in office are not all the same sort of men; their abilities at managing affairs are not all the same. But now, people are assigned to their rank in the Nine Ranks without taking regard of the suitability of their talents. When the rank is assigned to suit the man, then sometimes those whose talents and abilities are insufficient are nevertheless given the highest ranks. If men were assigned to the rank suited to them, then they would receive only the rank they were fitted for and no further. But the current system accomplishes only empty talk and sets the ranks against one another. This is the seventh harm.

“Thanks to the Nine Ranks system, those below do not have their crimes exposed, while those above need not trouble themselves about good deeds. Each person follows their loves and their hates just as they are in their personal views, so that the people of the realm no longer hold themselves to moral conduct, but only consider the affairs of men. This is the eighth harm.

“From what I have discussed, you may see that the so-called Rectifiers are really defilers of the government, and the so-called Nine Ranks are more properly called the Eight Harms. From ancient times until now, what loss has been so great as the one caused by this system? Foolish as I am, I believe that the Rectifiers should be abolished and the Nine Ranks done away with. Cast out the misguided laws of the Wei government, and create a new and superior system for our time."

Sima Liang and Wei Guan also sent up a petition stating, "The Wei government was established following a long period of bloodshed and disorder, when people and gentlemen had moved all about and there could be no detailed examination into where they were. This was the reason for the establishment of the Nine Ranks system; it was only meant as a crude, temporary measure to suit the needs of the moment. But now, the Nine Regions are once again under the same rule, and the great transformation may begin. We believe that the old laws should now be swept away and done away with, and that using the current demarcations of territory, those from nobles and chief ministers on down may have the records of their residences be rectified, so that no one need be considered as residing in a guest county or have to dwell far away in strange lands. We advise that the whole system of the Nine Ranks be done away with. In raising up the good and advancing the talented, all should be done according to the judgments of those of the same county as the candidates. Then the greatest of them will exert themselves, and each one request for their own."

The Literary Scholar to the Prince of Shiping, Li Zhong of Jiangxia, also sent up a petition stating, "In order to do away with the Nine Ranks system, you should first permit the movement of peoples, listen to everyone set themselves where they will, and then you may truly implement the demarcation of territory."

Although Sima Yan approved of all these suggestions, in the end, he was unable to make the changes that they proposed.

〈事見六十九卷魏文帝黃初元年。〉〈謂銓次高下或有不當,而在公不以考校失實爲罪負,發人隱慝,無所不至,而在私不以告訐爲避忌。〉〈州都,謂中正。〉〈謂衣食有不給者,客於殊方以取給也。〉〈白,素也。釋素餐者以爲空餐,白論,猶空言也。〉〈以土著爲斷也。〉〈自魏以來,王國置師友、文學各一人。〉

(Chen Qun's establishment of the Nine Ranks system is mentioned in Book 69, in Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei's (Cao Pi's) first year of Huangchu (220.21 in Fang's Chronicles.).

Liu Yi claims that some of the people selected as Rectifiers were not suitable for their positions, because in public they did not examine people to see whether or not there was any truth to whether they had committed crimes or offenses, so men with hidden wickedness were selected, while in private they did not shy away from spreading talk to have men shunned.

Liu Yi uses the term 州都; he means the Rectifiers.

In discussing the different sorts of people, Liu Yi means that there are those who, having clothing and food, will not share it, while there are those who are guests in foreign countries who can obtain such things.

Liu Yi uses the term "white discussion". White is used in the sense of "basic" or "simple". To explain simple meals, believing that they are empty meals, is white discussion. In other words, empty talk.

The territory was to be divided up.

Ever since Cao-Wei, the princely fiefs had created the offices of Directing-Friend and Literary Scholar, each of which was one person.)


冬,十二月,庚午,大赦。

3. In winter, the twelfth month, on the day Gengwu (?), a general amnesty was declared.

閏月,當陽成侯杜預卒。

4. In the intercalary month, Du Yu passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Cheng ("the Accomplished") of Dangyang.

是歲,塞外匈奴胡太阿厚帥部落二萬九千三百人來降;帝處之塞內西河。

5. During this year, the Xiongnu leader Hutai’ehou led his tribes from outside the borders of the realm to submit to Jin, 29,300 people in all. Sima Yan settled him within the realm at Xihe.

罷寧州入益州,置南夷校尉以護之。

6. Ningzhou as a province was folded back into Yizhou. The post of Colonel of Southern Tribes was created in order to protect that region.

〈置寧州,見七十九卷泰始七年。《考異》曰:《地理志》:「太康三年,廢寧州,置南夷校尉。」今從《華陽國志》。〉

(The creation of Ningzhou is mentioned in Book 79, in the seventh year of Taishi (271.13).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Geographical Records in the Book of Jin states, 'In the third year of Taikang (282), Ningzhou was abolished, and the post of Colonel of Southern Tribes was created.' But I follow the account of the Huayang Guozhi in placing the event in this year.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Sat Oct 07, 2017 6:55 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 3:01 am

六年(乙巳、二八五)

The Sixth Year of Taikang (The Yisi Year, 285 AD)


春,正月,尚書左僕射劉毅致仕,尋卒。

1. In spring, the first month, Liu Yi resigned his post as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing. He soon passed away.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》在七年十月,今從《本傳》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin states that Liu Yi's death took place in the tenth month of the seventh year of Taikang (286). But I follow the account of the Biography of Liu Yi in the Book of Jin.")


戊辰,以王渾爲尚書左僕射,渾子濟爲侍中。渾主者處事不當,濟明法繩之。濟從兄佑,素與濟不協,因毀濟不能容其父,帝由是疏濟,後坐事免官。濟性豪侈,帝謂侍中和嶠曰:「我將罵濟而後官之,如何?」嶠曰:「濟俊爽,恐不可屈。」帝召濟,切讓之,旣而曰:「頗知愧不?」濟曰:「尺布、斗粟之謠,常爲陛下愧之。他人能令親者疏,臣不能令親者親,以此愧陛下耳。」帝默然。嶠,洽之孫也。

2. On the day Wuchen (March 2nd), Wang Hun was appointed as the new Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and his son Wang Ji was restored to his post as Palace Attendant. Wang Hun was inappropriate in his handling of affairs; Wang Ji knew the law, and so kept his father in order.

Now Wang Ji had a cousin, Wang You, who had long been at odds with him. Because of that, Wang You slandered Wang Ji by saying that he was unable to handle his father. Sima Yan thus distanced himself from Wang Ji, and then blamed him for the matter and stripped him of office.

Wang Ji had a very extravagant disposition. Sima Yan spoke to the Palace Attendant He Jiao, and asked him, "I plan to censure Wang Ji, but then restore him to office later on. What do you think?"

He Jiao replied, "Wang Ji is a talented and straightforward man. I fear he will not bend to you."

Sima Yan summoned Wang Ji and rebuked him harshly, and having done so, he then demanded, "Have you no shame?"

Wang Ji retorted, "It is the 'song of a chi of cloth and a dou of grain' that has often brought shame upon Your Majesty. Other men can treat those that are close to them as though they were distant, but I could not treat someone close to me as anything less. This must be Your Majesty's shame."

Sima Yan was silent and could make no response.

This He Jiao was the grandson of He Qia.

〈尚書主者也。〉〈侍中管門下諸事,故得繩以法。〉〈謂帝不能容齊王攸也。〉〈謂諫而不聽也。〉〈和洽見六十六卷漢獻帝建安十四年。〉

(Wang Hun was inappropriate in his duties as overseer of the Masters of Writing.

The Palace Attendants directed the affairs of the lower offices, and this was why Wang Ji was in a position to keep his father in order.

Wang Ji made the implied accusation that Sima Yan himself had not been able to put up with his brother, Sima You. He makes the additional charge that Sima Yan could rebuke without hearing himself.

He Qia was a Han minister, mentioned in Book 66, in Emperor Xian of Han's fourteenth year of Jian'an (209.K in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace, where he is called He Xia).)


青、梁、幽、冀州旱。

3. There was drought in Qingzhou, Lianzhou, Youzhou, and Jizhou.

秋,八月,丙戌朔,日有食之。

4. In autumn, the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Bingxu (September 16th), there was an eclipse.

冬,十二月,庚子,襄陽武侯王濬卒。

5. In winter, the twelfth month, on the day Gengzi (January 28th of 286), Wang Jun passed away. He was posthumously named Marquis Wu ("the Martial") of Xiangyang.

是歲,慕容删爲其下所殺,部衆復迎涉歸子廆而立之。涉歸與宇文部素有隙,廆請討之,朝廷弗許。廆怒,入寇遼西,殺略甚衆。帝遣幽州軍討廆,戰于肥如,廆衆大敗。自是每歲犯邊,又東擊扶餘,扶餘王依慮自殺,子弟走保沃沮。廆夷其國城,驅萬餘人而歸。

6. During this year, the Xianbei usurper Murong Shan was killed by his subordinates, and they welcomed the return of Murong Shegui's son Murong Hui and placed him in command.

The Murong clan had long been in contention with the rival Xianbei clan of the Yuwen. Murong Hui asked that he be allowed to campaign against the Yuwen, but the Jin court refused permission. Murong Hui was angry, so he invaded Liaoxi, and killed or captured a great number of people. Sima Yan sent the army of Youzhou to campaign against Murong Hui. They fought a battle at Feiru, where Murong Hui's army suffered a great defeat. From this time on, Murong Hui raided the borders of the realm every year.

Murong Hui also marched east and attacked the Buyeo state. The King of Buyeo, Lyeo (Lü), killed himself, while his sons and younger brothers all fled to seek refuge with the Okjeo state. Murong Hui ravaged the state and the cities of Buyeo, and drove away more than ten thousand people before returning.

〈宇文部亦鮮卑種,其先有大人曰普回,因狩得玉璽三紐,文曰「皇帝璽」。普回以爲天授,其俗謂天子曰「宇文」,故國號宇文,併以爲氏。何氏《姓苑》曰:宇文氏出自炎帝,其後以嘗草之功,鮮卑呼草爲俟汾,遂號爲俟汾氏,後世通稱俟汾,蓋音訛也。代爲鮮卑單于。〉〈肥如縣屬遼西郡。應劭曰:肥子奔燕、燕封於此,賢曰:肥如,今平州。〉

(The Yuwen were also originally a branch of the Xianbei. Their ancestor was a chief called Puhui. While hunting, this Puhui discovered a treasure seal with three handles, and the seal said, "Seal of the Emperor". Puhui believed that this were a sign of Heaven's aid, and as the Xianbei commonly called the Son of Heaven "Yuwen", he took it as the name of his state, and eventually also of his people. Master He's Garden of Surnames states, "The Yuwen clan came from Emperor Yan. One of his descendants once had an achievement involving grass. The Xianbei called grass 'sifen', and so they called him Master Sifen. His descendants kept the name Sifen, but over time the pronunciation of the name became corrupted. They became Chanyus of the Xianbei."

Feiru County was part of Liaoxi commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "When Feizi fled to Yan, Yan gave him this place as a fief." Li Xian remarked, "Feiru is part of modern Pingzhou.")
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 3:03 am

七年(丙午、二八六)

The Seventh Year of Taikang (The Bingwu Year, 286 AD)


春,正月,甲寅朔,日有食之。魏舒稱疾,固請遜位,以劇陽子罷。舒所爲,必先行而後言,遜位之際,莫有知者。衞瓘與舒書曰:「每與足下共論此事,日日未果,可謂『瞻之在前,忽焉在後』矣。」

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Jiayin (February 11th), there was an eclipse.

Wei Shu claimed illness and asked to resign his position on account of the eclipse, and relinquish his title as Baron of Juyang. In his conduct of affairs, Wei Shu would always act first and then report later. At the time when he resigned his office, no one knew about it. Wei Guan wrote to Wei Shu saying, "I had always wished to discuss this affair with you, but day by day the opportunity never came. One could say that 'I looked at you before me, and suddenly you seemed to be behind.'"

〈《考異》曰:舒遜位,《紀》、《傳》皆無年月。《本傳》曰:「以災異遜位,帝不聽;後因正旦朝罷還第,表送章綬。」《本傳》又曰:「遜位之際,人莫知者。」若今年正旦日食遜位,至他年正旦乃送章綬,不云「人無知者」。蓋止因今者正旦朝罷,遂以災遜位,不復起耳。〉〈瓘言亦欲遜位,與共論此事,日復一日,未果如言。〉〈用《論語》顏淵之言。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "When Wei Shu resigned his office, neither the Imperial Annals nor his Biography in the Book of Jin state which year or month it was in. The Biography of Wei Shu states, 'Wei Shu wished to resign his office on account of natural disasters, but Sima Yan would not hear of it. On the first day of the year, Wei Shu left the court and returned to his residence, writing a letter to return his seal and ribbons of office." The Biography further states, "At the time when he resigned his office, no one knew about it." Now if he resigned his office during this year, when there was an eclipse on the first day of the year, and did not return his seal and ribbons of office until the eclipse on the first day of the following year, it could not be said that 'no one knew about it'. So it must be because of this eclipse on the first day of the year that he left the court and resigned his office on account of the natural disaster, and there was no more to it than that."

Wei Guan's meaning was that he had also wished to resign his office, and wanted to discuss the matter with Wei Shu, but as one day passed to another, he never found the chance to speak of it to him.

Wei Guan quotes the words of Yan Yuan in the Analects (9.11).)


夏,慕容廆寇遼東,故扶餘王依慮子依羅求帥見人還復舊國,請援於東夷校尉何龕,龕遣督護賈沈將兵送之。廆遣其將孫丁帥騎邀之於路,沈力戰,斬丁,遂復扶餘。

2. In summer, Murong Hui invaded Liaodong. The son of King Lyeo of Buyeo, Uina (Yilu), sought aid from Jin for help in restoring him to his old state, and he asked for help from the Colonel of Eastern Tribes, He Kan. He Kan sent the Protector Jia Chen to lead troops in support of Uina. Murong Hui sent his general Sun Ding to lead cavalry to intercept these troops along the road. Jia Chen fought well, killed Sun Ding, and restored Buyeo.

〈見人,謂見存之人也。《晉志》曰:武帝置南蠻校尉於襄陽,西戎校尉於長安,南夷校尉於寧州;東夷校尉,蓋亦帝所置,治遼東。〉〈魏、晉之間,方鎭各置督護,領兵之官也。〉

(The term 見人 means that Uina sought someone in order to present himself as being alive.

The Records of Jin states, "Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) created the posts of Colonel of Southern Man Tribes at Xiangyang, Colonel of Western Rong Tribes at Chang'an, and Colonel of Southern Tribes at Ningzhou. The post of Colonel of Eastern Tribes, also created by Sima Yan, was based at Liaodong."

During Cao-Wei and Jin, the border command posts each created the offices of Protector and of Director of Soldiers.)


秋,匈奴胡都大博及萎莎胡各帥種落十萬餘口詣雍州降。

3. In autumn, the Xiongnu leaders Hududabo and Weise Hu each led their tribes to visit Yongzhou and submit to Jin, more than a hundred thousand people in all.

〈楊正衡曰:莎,素和翻。據《晉書》,萎莎胡,北狄種,蓋亦匈奴類也。杜佑曰:《晉史》云:北狄各以部落爲類,其入居塞內者,有屠各、萎莎、羌渠、賀賴等種。〉

(Yang Zhengheng remarked, "In this name, 莎 is pronounced "se (s-e)". According to the Book of Jin, this Weise Hu was of the Northern Di branch, which was also a kind of Xiongnu. Du You remarked, "In the History of Jin it states, 'The Northern Di barbarians each had their various kinds of tribes and branches. Of those that dwelt within the borders of the realm, there were the Tuge, the Weise, the Qiangqu, the Helai, and others.")


九月,戊寅,扶風武王駿薨。

4. In the ninth month, on the day Wuyin (November 2nd), Sima Jun passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Wu ("the Martial") of Fufeng.

冬,十一月,壬子,以隴西王泰都督關中諸軍事。泰,宣帝弟馗之子也。

5. In winter, the eleventh month, on the day Renzi (December 6th), the Prince of Longxi, Sima Tai, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong. This Sima Tai was the son of Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Kui.

〈馗,渠龜翻。〉

(The given name of this younger brother of Sima Yi, 馗, is pronounced "kui (q-ui)".)


是歲,鮮卑拓拔悉鹿卒,弟綽立。

6. During this year, the Xianbei leader Tuoba Xilu passed away. His younger brother Tuoba Chuo succeeded him.

〈「鹿」,一作「祿」。〉〈自泰始以來,鮮卑慕容、拓拔二部日以強盛,故史著其世。〉

(The 鹿 Lu in Tuoba Xilu's name was also written as 祿 Lu.

Ever since the Taishi era (~265), the Murong and Tuoba clans of the Xianbei had been growing stronger by the day. This is why the history now includes the records of their successions.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Wed Oct 04, 2017 6:59 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 3:04 am

八年(丁未、二八七)

The Eighth Year of Taikang (The Dingwei Year, 287 AD)


春,正月,戊申朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Wushen (January 31st), there was an eclipse.

太廟殿陷,九月,改營太廟,作者六萬人。

2. The hall of the Ancestral Temple collapsed. In autumn, the ninth month, the Ancestral Temple was restored. Sixty thousand people were involved in the construction.

〈【章:甲本十一行本「九」上有「秋」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(Some versions include that it was during "autumn".)


是歲,匈奴都督大豆得一育鞠等復帥種落萬一千五百口來降。

3. During this year, the Xiongnu Commanders Dadoude, Yiyuju and others led their tribes to come submit to Jin, 11,500 people in all.

〈魏旣分塞內匈奴爲五部矣,自去年來,匈奴帥種落來降者十有餘萬口,史不言所以處之之地,此必自塞外來,北匈奴之種落也。〉

(Cao-Wei had divided the Southern Xiongnu into the Five Divisions. But since the previous year until now, more than a hundred thousand further Xiongnu had come to submit to Jin. The history does not mention which place they came from, but these must have come from outside the borders of the realm, so they must have been a branch of the Northern Xiongnu.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 81

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Oct 04, 2017 3:05 am

九年(戊申、二八八)

The Ninth Year of Taikang (The Wushen Year, 288 AD)


春,正月,壬申朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Renshen (February 19th), there was an eclipse.

〈比三年正旦日食,帝尋晏駕,晉以大亂;天之示戒,蓋昭昭矣。〉

(There had now been three successive years of an eclipse on the first day of the year. Sima Yan soon passed away, and then Jin was thrown into great turmoil. Heaven was displaying its admonishment, and so made it very clear.)


夏,六月,庚子朔,日有食之。

2. In summer, the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Gengzi (July 16th), there was an eclipse.

郡國三十三大旱。

3. There was a great drought in thirty-three commandaries and fiefs.

秋,八月,壬子,星隕如雨。

4. In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Renzi (September 26th), stars fell like rain.

地震。

5. The earth shook.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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