Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 1)

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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 2:06 am

光熙元年(丙寅、三○六)

The First Year of Guangxi (The Bingyin Year, 306 AD)


〈六月,帝還洛陽,始改元;此猶是永興三年。〉

(In the sixth month, when Emperor Hui returned to Luoyang, that was when the reign era title changed to Guangxi. Until then, it was still the third year of Yongxing.)


春,正月,戊子朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Wuzi (January 31st), there was an eclipse.

初,太弟中庶子蘭陵繆播有寵於司空越;播從弟右衞率胤,太宰顒前妃之弟也。越之起兵,遣播、胤詣長安說顒,令奉帝還洛,約與顒分陝爲伯。顒素信重播兄弟,卽欲從之。張方自以罪重,恐爲誅首,謂顒曰:「今據形勝之地,國富兵強,奉天子以號令,誰敢不從,柰何拱手受制於人!」顒乃止。及劉喬敗,顒懼,欲罷兵,與山東和解,恐張方不從,猶豫未決。

2. Before, the 中庶子 to the Crown Younger Brother, Mou Bo of Lanling, had been shown favor by Sima Yue. The Guard Commander of the Right, Mou Bo's cousin Mou Yin, was the younger brother of Sima Yong's former concubine. When Sima Yue rose up against Sima Yong, he had sent Mou Bo and Mou Yin to visit Chang'an to inform Sima Yong of the situation, order him to return Emperor Hui to Luoyang, and make arrangements to divide the realm at Shan, each of them serving as one of the Two Lords. Sima Yong had long trusted Mou Bo and his brother, and so he had been inclined to agree with their suggestions.

But Zhang Fang, who knew that he had committed many crimes, was afraid that he would be executed if this came to pass. So he had urged Sima Yong, "You still occupy a land that is suited for victory. You have the legitimacy of the state and the strength of your soldiers. If you make the Son of Heaven give an order, who would dare not to follow it? How then could you bow before another man and let him control you?"

So Sima Yong had changed his mind.

Now, after Liu Qiao was defeated, Sima Yong was afraid. He wanted to send away his soldiers and sue for peace with Sima Yue's forces east of the mountains. But he was afraid that Zhang Fang would not go along with it, so he had still not made a decision.

〈繆,姓也。〉〈以剽掠洛都,劫天子西遷也。〉

(繆 Mou is a surname.

Zhang Fang had plundered the capital at Luoyang and forced Emperor Hui to move to the west.)


初,越以張方劫遷車駕,天下怨憤,唱義與山東諸侯克期奉迎,先遣說顒,令送帝還都,與顒分陝而居。顒欲從之,而方不同。(Book of Jin 59, Biography of Sima Yong)

Now Sima Yue had originally been able to whip the various nobles east of the mountains (east of Luoyang) into a righteous fury because of their indignation against Zhang Fang for having forced Emperor Hui to move to Chang'an. When Sima Yue had set a date with them for a great undertaking to recover Emperor Hui, he had first sent word to explain his intentions to Sima Yong, ordering him to send Emperor Hui back to the capital. He proposed that they might split the realm at Shan, with each of them having their own sphere of influence.

Sima Yong wanted to go along with the proposal, but he feared that Zhang Fang would never agree to it.


方素與長安富人郅輔親善,以爲帳下督。顒參軍河間畢垣,嘗爲方所侮,因說顒曰:「張方久屯霸上,聞山東兵盛,盤桓不進,宜防其未萌。其親信郅輔具知其謀。」繆播、繆胤復說顒:「宜急斬方以謝,山東可不勞而定。」顒使人召輔,垣迎說輔曰:「張方欲反,人謂卿知之。王若問卿,何辭以對?」輔驚曰:「實不聞方反,爲之柰何?」垣曰:「王若問卿,但言爾爾;不然,必不免禍。」輔入,顒問之曰:「張方反,卿知之乎?」輔曰:「爾。」顒曰:「遣卿取之,可乎?」又曰:「爾。」顒於是使輔送書於方,因殺之。輔旣昵於方,持刀而入,守閣者不疑。方火下發函,輔斬其頭。還報,顒以輔爲安定太守。送方頭於越以請和;越不許。

3. Now Zhang Fang had long been friends with a rich man of Chang'an, Zhi Fu, and he employed Zhi Fu as a Commander of his personal tent.

One of Sima Yong's Army Advisors, Bi Yuan, had once suffered harm because of Zhang Fang. So he now took the opportunity to advise Sima Yong, "Zhang Fang has been camped at Bashang for a long time. Even hearing about the great movements of the soldiers east of the mountains, Zhang Fang still lingers and does not advance. He is plotting something, and you should provide against it. His trusted fellow Zhi Fu knows about his plot."

And Mou Bo and Mou Yin also urged Sima Yong, "You should behead Zhang Fang by way of apology, and then the forces east of the mountains will settle down of their own accord."

So Sima Yong sent someone to summon Zhi Fu. When Zhi Fu arrived, Bi Yuan welcomed him and said to him, "Zhang Fang is planning to rebel, and people say that you know about it. If the Prince asks you about it, what do you plan to say?"

Zhi Fu, astonished, replied, "I truly have heard nothing about Zhang Fang rebelling. How could that be?"

Bi Huan said, "If the Prince asks you about it, you must tell him, 'Indeed, indeed.' Otherwise, you will not escape disaster."

Zhi Fu was then brought in to see Sima Yong, who asked him, "Zhang Fang plans to rebel; do you know about it?"

Zhi Fu replied, "Indeed."

Sima Yong continued, "If I send you to deal with him, can you do it?"

Zhi Fu again replied, "Indeed."

So Sima Yong sent Zhi Fu to visit Zhang Fang's camp bearing a letter from Sima Yong, so that Zhi Fu would have an opportunity to kill Zhang Fang. Since Zhi Fu was a friend to Zhang Fang, even when he entered Zhang Fang's tent bearing a sword, the guards did not suspect anything. When Zhi Fu gave Zhang Fang the letter, Zhang Fang moved under the fire to open the envelope, and Zhi Fu then cut off his head. He returned to Chang'an and reported the deed, and Sima Yong appointed him as Administrator of Anding.

Sima Yong sent Zhang Fang's head to Sima Yue, hoping for peace. But Sima Yue would not permit it.

〈《方傳》云:初,方從山東來,甚微賤,郅輔厚相供給;及貴,甚親昵之。〉〈顒遣方與呂朗會劉喬攻許,方屯霸上未進而劉喬敗。馬融曰:盤桓,旋也。〉〈爾爾,猶言如此如此也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「於」下有「司空」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(The Biography of Zhang Fang in the Book of Jin states, "Before, when Zhang Fang came to Chang'an from east of the mountains, he was extremely short of funds. Zhi Fu hosted him and kept him supplied. Zhang Fang thus honored Zhi Fu, and became very intimate with him."

Sima Yong had ordered Zhang Fang and Lü Lang to join together with Liu Qiao to attack Xuchang. But Zhang Fang had remained camped at Bashang and had not advanced, and then Liu Qiao was defeated.

Ma Rong remarked, "The idiom 'coiled-up' means to linger."

Bu Huan tells Zhi Fu to respond "爾爾 indeed, indeed", in the sense of "just so, just so."

Some versions further clarify that Sima Yue was still the Minister of Works.)


及東軍大捷,成都等敗,顒乃令方親信將郅輔夜斬方,送首以示東軍。(Book of Jin 59, Biography of Sima Yong)

Then, after the eastern armies won victory after victory, and Sima Ying and the others were defeated, Sima Yong ordered Zhang Fang's trusted confidant, Zhi Fu, to behead him during the night, and Sima Yong sent Zhang Fang's head to the eastern armies as a display of his intentions.


宋冑襲河橋,樓褒西走。平昌公模遣前鋒督護馮嵩會宋冑逼洛陽。成都王穎西奔長安,至華陰,聞顒已與山東和親,留不敢進。呂朗屯滎陽,劉琨以張方首示之,遂降。司空越遣祁弘、宋冑、司馬纂帥鮮卑西迎車駕,以周馥爲司隸校尉、假節,都督諸軍,屯澠池。

4. Sima Mo's general Song Zhou attacked Heqiao, and Lou Bao was driven away to the west. Sima Mo sent his Vanguard Protector, Feng Song, to join with Song Zhou and threaten Luoyang.

Sima Ying retreated west back towards Chang'an. But when he reached Huayin County, he heard that Sima Yong had already arranged peace with Sima Yue's coalition, so he stopped there and dared not go any further.

Lü Lang was camped at Xingyang, but when Liu Kun showed him Zhang Fang's head, he surrendered.

On the day Jiazi (?), Sima Yue sent Qi Hong, Song Zhou, and Sima Zuan to lead the Xianbei soldiers west to welcome the return of the imperial carriage. He appointed Zhou Fu as Colonel-Director of Retainers, Credential Holder, and Commander of the armies, and stationed him at Mianchi.

〈華陰縣,前漢屬京兆,後漢、晉屬弘農郡,唐屬華州。〉〈【章;甲十一行本「司」上有「甲子」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉

(During Former Han, Huayin County was part of Jingzhao commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Hongnong commandary. During Tang, it was part of Huazhou.

Some versions state that Sima Yue made this appointments "on the day Jiazi (?)".)


加左將軍,隨穎北鎮。行達洛陽,而平昌公模遣前鋒督護馮嵩距穎。穎還長安,未至而聞顒斬張方,求和於越。穎住華陰,志進長安,詣闕陳謝,即還就穎于武關。(Book of Jin 44, Biography of Lu Zhi)

Lu Zhi was further promoted to General of the Left, and he followed Sima Ying back north towards his defense post. They travelled as far as Luoyang, but then the Duke of Pingchang, Sima Mo, sent his Vanguard Commander, Feng Song, to halt Sima Ying’s advance.

So Sima Ying returned towards Chang'an, but he had not yet returned before he head that Sima Yong had beheaded Zhang Fang and asked for peace with Sima Yue. Sima Ying then went to Huayin, while Lu Zhi went on to Chang'an, where he visited to admit his faults, defend his actions, and make apologies. Then he returned to Sima Ying at Wuguan.

穎至洛,而東海王越率眾迎大駕,所在鋒起。穎以北方盛強,懼不可進,自洛陽奔關中。(Book of Jin 59, Biography of Sima Ying)

Sima Ying got as far as Luoyang, but by then the Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, had raised his own army to welcome Emperor Hui’s return from Chang'an, and his vanguard was nearby. Sima Ying feared that the north was now too strong and powerful and that he would not be able to go any further, so he fled from Luoyang back to Guanzhong.

王浚遣督護劉根,將三百騎至河上。闡出戰,為根所殺。。。范陽王虓遣鮮卑騎與平昌、博陵眾襲河橋,樓褒西走,追騎至新安,道路死者不可勝數。。。顒先遣將呂朗等據滎陽,范陽王虓司馬劉琨以方首示朗,於是朗降。(Book of Jin 59, Biography of Sima Yong)

Wang Jun sent his Protector, Liu Gen, who led three hundred riders to Heshang. Wang Chen went out to offer battle, but he was killed by Liu Gen... The Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao, sent the Xianbei cavalry and the armies of Pingchang and Boling commandaries to attack Heqiao. Lou Bao fled to the west, but he was overtaken by pursuit riders at Xin'an. The roads and ways were filled with dead beyond counting... Sima Yong had earlier sent some of his generals, Lü Lang and others, to occupy Xingyang. But when Sima Xiao's Marshal, Liu Kun, showed them Zhang Fang's head, Lü Lang and the others surrendered.


三月,惤令劉伯根反,衆以萬數,自稱惤公。王彌帥家僮從之,柏根以彌爲長史,彌從父弟桑爲東中郎將。柏根寇臨淄,青州都督高密王略使劉暾將兵拒之;暾兵敗,奔洛陽,略走保聊城。王浚遣將討柏根,斬之。王彌亡入長廣山爲羣盜。

5. In the third month, the Prefect of Jian County, Liu Bogen, began a rebellion. He assembled an army of more than ten thousand, and declared himself the Duke of Jian.

It was earlier mentioned that Wang Mi was a local brave fellow of that region. Wang Mi now led his family and servants to join Liu Bogen, who appointed Wang Mi as his Chief Clerk and appointed his cousin Wang Sang as his General of the Household Gentlemen of the East.

Liu Bogen invaded Linzi. The Commander of Qingzhou and Prince of Gaomi, Sima Lue, sent Liu Tun to lead soldiers to resist Liu Bogen. But Liu Tun's men were defeated, and he fled to Luoyang, while Sima Lue fell back to guard Liucheng.

Wang Jun sent his generals to attack Liu Bogen, and they killed him. Wang Mi fled to Mount Zhangguang and became a bandit leader.

〈【章:甲十一行本「伯」作「柏」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈惤縣,自漢以來屬東萊郡,拓跋魏省。魏收《地形志》:東牟郡黃縣有惤城。〉〈青州都督治所。〉〈聊城縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬平原郡,唐爲博州治所。〉〈長廣縣,前漢屬琅邪郡,後漢屬東萊郡。晉武帝咸寧三年,置長廣郡,長廣縣屬焉。隋廢長廣郡及縣,更名膠水縣;唐屬萊州。〉

(Some versions write the first instance of Liu Bogen's name in this passage as 柏根 instead of 伯根, to match all other instances which have 柏根.

Ever since Han, Jian county had been part of Donglai commandary. It was abolished by Northern Wei. The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei states, "The city of Jian was in Huang county in Dongmou commandary."

Linzi was the administrative capital of Qingzhou.

During Han, Liucheng county was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Pingyuan commandary. During Tang, it was administered by Bozhou.

During Former Han, Zhangguang county was part of Langye commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Donglai commandary. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) third year of Xianning (277), he created Zhangguang commandary, with Zhangguang county as a part of it. Sui abolished Zhangguang commandary and county, renaming it to Jiaoshui county. During Tang, it was part of Laizhou.)


惠帝末,妖賊劉柏根起於東萊之惤縣,彌率家僮從之,柏根以為長史。柏根死,聚徒海渚,為苟純所敗,亡入長廣山為群賊。彌多權略,凡有所掠,必豫圖成敗,舉無遺策。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Near the end of Emperor Hui's reign (~307), the crafty bandit Liu Bogen rose up at Jiang county in Donglai commandary. Wang Mi led his family and servants to join Liu Bogen, who appointed Wang Mi as his Chief Clerk. When Liu Bogen died, Wang Mi led his forces to the sea islets. He was defeated by Gou Chun, but he fled to Mount Zhangguang and became a bandit leader. Wang Mi was very calculating and cunning, and whenever he raided a place, he always planned out his victory beforehand and never made tactical mistakes.


寧州頻歲饑疫,死者以十萬計。五苓夷強盛,州兵屢敗。吏民流入交州者甚衆,夷遂圍州城。李毅疾病,救援路絕,乃上疏言:「不能式遏寇虐,坐待殄斃。若不垂矜恤,乞降大使,及臣尚存,加臣重辟;若臣已死,陳尸爲戮。」朝廷不報。積數年,子[李]釗自洛往省之,未至,毅卒。毅女秀,明達有父風,衆推秀領寧州事。秀獎厲戰士,嬰城固守。城中糧盡,炙鼠拔草而食之。伺夷稍怠,輒出兵掩擊,破之。

6. During the last few years, there had been great famine in Ningzhou, and the dead numbered in the hundreds of thousands. The tribes of Wuling had grown strong, and they defeated the soldiers of the province several times. A great number of the provincial officers fled to Jiaozhou, and the tribes laid siege to the cities of the province.

The Inspector of Ningzhou, Li Yi, had become ill. Seeking assistance to help clear the roads, he sent up a petition to the court stating, "I am unable to deal with these cruel invaders, and can do no more than sit here and wait for death. If you are not heedless of my plight, then I beg you to send someone to take over the command. If I am still alive by then, I will accept the heavy fault I deserve. If I have already died, then display my body as my punishment."

But the court made no response to this petition. After several years, Li Zhao was sent from Luoyang to assist Ningzhou, but before he could arrive, Li Yi had already died.

Li Yi had a daughter, Li Xiu, who possessed understanding and had her father's reputation. So the people all acclaimed her as the new leader of Ningzhou's affairs. Li Xiu hired many fierce warriors, and then withdrew into a city to hold out. When the food inside the city was exhausted, the people cooked rats and pulled up grass and ate those. They would wait for the tribesmen to become complacent; whenever they were, the soldiers sallied forth from the city to attack the tribesmen and routed them.

〈五苓夷反,事始上卷太安二年。〉〈《考異》曰:《懷帝紀》:「永嘉元年五月,建寧郡夷攻陷寧州,死者三千餘人。」《李雄載記》曰:「南夷李毅固守不降,雄誘建寧夷使討之。毅病卒,城陷,殺壯士三千餘人,送婦女千口於成都。」《王遜傳》云:「李毅卒,城中奉毅女固守經年。」《華陽國志》有毅卒年月及女秀守城事,今從之。〉

(The beginning of the rebellion of the tribes of Wuling against Ningzhou is mentioned in Book 85, in the second year of Tai'an (303.31).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the fifth month of the first year of Yongjia (307), the tribes of Jianning commandary attacked and plundered Ningzhou, killing more than three thousand people.' The Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Jin's Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes, Li Yi, held out in his city and would not surrender. Li Xiong enticed the tribes of Jianning to attack Li Yi. Li Yi died of illness, and his city fell; more than three thousand fighting men were killed, and a thousand of their wives and daughters were sent to Chengdu.' The Biography of Wang Xun in the Book of Jin states, 'When Li Yi died, the people inside the city acclaimed his daughter as their leader, and she led the defense of the city for some years.' But the Huayang Guozhi lists the specific month and year of Li Yi's death and Li Xiu's defense of the city, and so I follow its account.")


The text states that “子釗 Zi Zhao” was sent from Luoyang to assist Ningzhou. The 子 Zi is likely meant to be 李 Li, because a Li Zhao is mentioned as arriving in Ningzhou below, in 307.34.

先是,南土頻歲饑疫,死者十萬計。南夷校尉李毅固守不降,雄誘建寧夷使討之。毅病卒,城陷,殺壯士三千餘人,送婦女千口于成都。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Up until now, there had been several years of great famine in the south, and the dead numbered in the hundreds of thousands. Jin's Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes, Li Yi, held out in his city and would not surrender. Li Xiong enticed the tribes of Jianning to attack Li Yi. Li Yi died of illness, and his city fell; more than three thousand fighting men were killed, and a thousand of their wives and daughters were sent to Chengdu.


范長生詣成都,成都王雄門迎,執版,拜爲丞相,尊之曰范賢。

7. The hermit Fan Changsheng came to visit Chengdu. The King of Chengdu, Li Xiong, welcomed him at the gate of the city while grasping the tablet of an official, and appointed him as his Prime Minister. He honored Fan Changsheng, calling him Worthy Fan.

〈自青城山詣成都也。〉

(Fan Changsheng had come from Mount Qingcheng to visit Chengdu.)


晏平元年三月,范長生乘素輿詣成都,雄迎于大門,執版延坐。長生請雄對坐,即拜丞相,尊曰範賢。生長勸雄稱尊號。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Xiong)

In the first year of Yanping, in the third month, Fan Chengsheng came in a simple carriage to visit Chengdu, and Li Xiong welcomed him at the main gate. Li Xiong sat in attendance upon him like a teacher and grasped a minister's tablet. Fan Changsheng invited Li Xiong to sit across from him as an equal. Li Xiong appointed Fan Changsheng as his Prime Minister, and honored him with the title Worthy Fan. Fan Changsheng urged Li Xiong to claim an imperial title.

范長生自西山乘素輿詣成都,雄迎之於門,執版延坐,拜丞相,尊曰範賢。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Fan Chengsheng came down from the western hills in a simple carriage to visit Chengdu. Li Xiong welcomed him at the gates, where he sat in attendance upon him like a teacher and grasped a minister's tablet. He appointed Fan Changsheng as his Prime Minister, and honored him with the title Worthy Fan.

迎范賢為丞相。(Huayang Guozhi 9.1)

Li Xiong welcomed Fan Jian (Fan Changsheng) as Prime Minister.


夏,四月,己巳,司空越引兵屯溫。初,太宰顒以爲張方死,東方兵必可解。旣而東方兵聞方死,爭入關,顒悔之,乃斬郅輔,遣弘農太守彭隨、北地太守刁默將兵拒祁弘等於湖。五月,壬辰,弘等擊隨、默,大破之,遂西入關,又敗顒將馬瞻、郭偉於霸水,顒單馬逃入太白山。弘等入長安,所部鮮卑大掠,殺二萬餘人,百官奔散,入山中,拾橡實食之。己亥,弘等奉帝乘牛車東還。以太弟太保梁柳爲鎭西將軍,守關中。六月,丙辰朔,帝至洛陽,復羊后。辛未,大赦,改元。

8. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jisi (May 12th), Sima Yue led his troops to camp at Wen.

Up until now, Sima Yong had believed that by killing Zhang Fang, the eastern forces would certainly end the war. But instead, when they heard that Zhang Fang was dead, they all raced one another to enter Guanzhong. Sima Yong regretted what he had done, and he beheaded Zhi Fu. He sent the Administrator of Hongnong, Peng Sui, and the Administrator of Beidi, Diao Mo, to lead soldiers to oppose Qi Hong and Sima Yue's other allies at Hu.

In the fifth month, on the day Renchen (June 4th), Qi Hong and the others attacked Peng Sui and Diao Mo and greatly routed them. They continued their advance into Guanzhong, and defeated Sima Yong's generals Ma Zhan and Guo Wei at the Ba River. Sima Yong fled on a lone horse to Mount Taibai.

When Qi Hong and the others entered Chang'an, all of their Xianbei soldiers sacked the city, killing more than twenty thousand people. The court officials all ran away and scattered, fleeing into the mountains and gathering acorns to eat.

On the day Jihai (June 11th), Qi Hong and the others put Emperor Hui in an ox-drawn cart and brought him back east. The Grand Guardian to the Crown Younger Brother, Liang Liu, was appointed as General Who Guards The West and left to defend Guanzhong.

In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Bingchen (June 28th), Emperor Hui arrived at Luoyang, and Yang Xianrong was once again restored to her position as Empress. On the day Xinwei (July 13th), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Guangxi.

〈《三秦記》:太白山,在武功縣南,去長安三百里。俗云「武功太白,去天三百。」《新唐書‧地理志》:太白山在鳳翔府郿縣。〉〈橡,栩實也。《爾雅》曰:柞實謂之橡。賢曰:橡,櫟實也。〉〈《晉志》曰:古之貴者不乘牛車。漢武帝推恩之後,諸侯寡弱,至乘牛車,其後稍見貴重,自靈帝以來,天子至士,遂以爲常乘。夫天子出入有大駕、法駕、鹵簿,帝自鄴奔洛,則乘犢車,自長安還洛,則乘牛車,無復出警入蹕之制矣。〉〈《考異》曰:《后傳》曰:「張方首至洛陽,卽日復后位。」按方傳首已久,不至今日。今從《帝紀》。〉〈改元光熙。〉

(The Records of the Three Qins Region states, "Mount Taibai is in the south of Wugong County, three hundred li from Chang'an. It is a common saying that 'Taibai in Wugong is three hundred li from Heaven'." The Geographical Records in the New Book of Tang states, "Mount Taibai is in Mei County in the Fengxiang Garrison Post."

The oak tree is a fruit-bearing tree. The Erya dictionary states, "The fruit of the oak tree is called the acorn." Li Xian remarked, "The acorn is the product of the oak tree."

The Records of Jin states, "The honored people of ancient times did not use ox-drawn carts. But when Emperor Wu of Han wished to spread his grace to future generations, seeing that the nobles were all poor and destitute, he used a ox-drawn cart, in order to give such a thing a sense of honor and respect thereafter. From the time of Emperor Ling on down, when the Emperor had need to travel, this was a common means of his conveyance." Now when the Son of Heaven came or went somewhere, he had his grand carriage, lawful carriage, and 鹵簿 to use. When Emperor Hui fled from Ye to Luoyang, he used a calf-drawn cart, and when he now returned from Chang'an to Luoyang, he used an ox-drawn cart, and there was no word sent ahead to clear the road for the sake of the Emperor.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Empress Yang Xianrong in the Book of Jin states, 'When Zhang Fang's head arrived at Luoyang, Yang Xianrong was restored as Empress the very same day.' Now it had already been some time between Zhang Fang's head being sent out and the day listed here, so it cannot have been the same day. So I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

It was at this time that the reign era title became Guangxi.)


尋變計,更遣刁默守潼關,乃咎輔殺方,又斬輔。顒先遣將呂朗等據滎陽,范陽王虓司馬劉琨以方首示朗,於是朗降。時東軍既盛,破刁默以入關,顒懼,又遣馬瞻、郭傳于霸水禦之,瞻等戰敗散走。顒乘單馬,逃於太白山。東軍入長安,大駕旋,乙太弟太保梁柳為鎮西將軍,守關中。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

Sima Yong soon changed his mind again and sent Diao Mo to hold Tong Gate against the eastern armies. He also blamed Zhi Fu for having killed Zhang Fang, and so he beheaded Zhi Fu.

Sima Yong had earlier sent some of his generals, Lü Lang and others, to occupy Xingyang. But when Sima Xiao's Marshal, Liu Kun, showed them Zhang Fang's head, Lü Lang and the others surrendered.

By then, the eastern armies were numerous, and they routed Diao Mo and entered Guanzhong. Sima Yong, afraid, now sent Ma Zhan and Guo Chuan to hold the line of the Ba River against them. But Ma Zhan and the others were defeated in battle, and they scattered and fled. Sima Yong fled Chang'an on a lone horse, hiding at Mount Taibai. The eastern armies then entered Chang'an and brought Emperor Hui back to the east again. They appointed the Grand Guardian to the Crown Younger Brother, Liang Liu, as General Who Guards The West and left him to guard Chang'an.


馬瞻等入長安,殺梁柳,與始平太守梁邁共迎太宰顒於南山。弘農太守裴廙、秦國內史賈龕、安定太守賈疋等起兵擊顒,斬馬瞻、梁邁。疋,詡之曾孫也。司空越遣督護麋晃將兵擊顒,至鄭,顒使平北將軍牽秀屯馮翊。顒長史楊騰,詐稱顒命,使秀罷兵,騰遂殺秀,關中皆服於越,顒保城而已。

9. Ma Zhan and Sima Yong's other commanders returned to Chang'an and killed Liang Liu. They joined together with the Administrator of Shiping, Liang Mai, to welcome Sima Yong's return from the southern hills.

The Administrator of Hongnong, Pei Yi, the Interior Minister of the Qin princely fief, Jia Kan, the Administrator of Anding, Jia Ya, and others all raised up troops and attacked Sima Yong, and they killed Ma Zhan and Liang Mai. This Jia Ya was the great-grandson of Jia Xu.

Sima Yue sent his Protector Mi Huang to lead troops to attack Sima Yong. When they reached Mei, Sima Yong sent the General Who Pacifies The North, Qian Xiu, to camp at Pingyi. Sima Yong's Chief Clerk, Yang Teng, forged an order from Sima Yong commanding Qian Xiu to disperse his soldiers. After he had done so, Yang Teng then killed Qian Xiu.

All of Guanzhong now submitted to Sima Yue, and only Sima Yong in his lone city still resisted.

〈武帝泰始二年,分扶風,置始平郡,領槐里、始平、武功、鄠、蒯城等縣。南山卽太白山。中南、太白,本一山也。〉〈帝卽位,改扶風爲秦國,以封秦王柬。疋,音雅。賈詡生於漢末,始從李傕、郭汜,中從張繡,後歸魏。〉〈《考異》曰:《牽秀傳》云:「顒密遣使就東海王越求迎,越遣將麋晃等迎顒。」今從《顒傳》。〉〈顒僅保長安城。〉

(In Sima Yan's second year of Taishi (266), he had split off part of Fufeng commandary and formed Shiping commandary. It was made up of the counties of Huaili, Shiping, Wugong, Hu, Kuaicheng, and others.

The "southern hills" meant Mount Taibai. Mount Zhongnan and Mount Taibai were the same mountain.

After Emperor Hui had come to the throne, he had converted Fufeng commandary into the Qin princely fief, and bestowed that title upon Sima Jian.

Jia Ya's given name 疋 is pronounced "ya". Jia Xu was born during the end of the Han dynasty. He first followed Li Jue and Guo Si, later advised Zhang Xiu, and in the end served Cao-Wei.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Qian Xiu in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yong secretly sent word to welcome the arrival of Sima Yue, who then sent his generals Mi Huang and others to receive Sima Yong.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Yong."

Sima Yong's "lone city" was Chang'an, which he was still defending.)


馬瞻等出詣柳,因共殺柳於城內。瞻等與始平太守梁邁合從,迎顒于南山。顒初不肯入府,長安令蘇眾、記室督硃永勸顒表稱柳病卒,輒知方事。弘農太守裴暠、秦國內史賈龕、安定太守賈疋等起義討顒,斬馬瞻、梁邁等。東海王越遣督護麋晃率國兵伐顒。至鄭,顒將牽秀距晃,晃斬秀,並其二子。義軍據有關中,顒保城而已。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong)

Ma Zhan and Sima Yong's other scattered commanders emerged and went to visit Liang Liu, and they killed him together inside the city. Ma Zhan and the rest then joined the Administrator of Shiping, Liang Mai, and welcomed Sima Yong's return from the southern hills. Sima Yong was originally unwilling to enter the government, so the Prefect of Chang'an, Su Zhong, and the 記室督, Zhu Yong, urged him to submit a petition that Liang Liu had merely passed away from illness. But everyone knew the truth.

The Administrator of Hongnong, Pei Gao, the Administrator of Anding, Jia Ya, and others rose up to fight against Sima Yong, and they beheaded Ma Zhan, Liang Mai, and the others. Sima Yue sent his Protector, Mi Huang, to lead soldiers from his fief to campaign against Sima Yong as well. When they arrived at Zheng, Sima Yong's general Qian Xiu fought against Mi Huang, but Mi Huang beheaded him as well as his two sons. The forces that had risen up against Sima Yong occupied all of Guanzhong, and Sima Yong controlled no more than Chang'an itself.


成都王雄卽皇帝位,大赦,改元曰晏平,國號大成。追尊父特曰景皇帝,廟號始祖;尊王太后曰皇太后。以范長生爲天地太師;復其部曲,皆不豫征稅。諸將恃恩,互爭班位,尚書令閻式上疏,請考漢、晉故事,立百官制度;從之。

10. Li Xiong now proclaimed himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty, changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanping, and declared the name of his state as Cheng. He posthumously honored his father Li Te as Emperor Jing, with the temple name Shizu, and he honored his mother the Queen Dowager as Empress Dowager. He appointed Fan Changsheng as the Grand Instructor of Heaven and Earth, and exempted Fan Changsheng's followers from taxation or labor.

The various Cheng generals, relying upon the favor they had been shown up until now, all fought with one another to get positions. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yan Shi, sent up a petition asking that they be tested according to the precedents of Han and Jin, and that the imperial offices be set up to control them. Li Xiong followed his recommendations.

〈雄,字仲雋,特第三子。〉〈《考異》曰:《晉‧帝紀》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》,皆云:「永興二年六月,雄卽帝位。」《華陽國志》:「光熙元年,雄卽帝位。」《後魏書‧序紀》及《李雄傳》,皆云「昭帝十二年,雄稱帝,」卽光熙元年也。《十六國春秋鈔》:「晏平元年六月,雄卽帝位。」《十六國春秋目錄》,雄年號,建興二,晏平五,與《華陽國志》同,今從之。諸書,雄改元晏平,無大武年號;惟《晉‧載記》改元大武,無晏平年號。按雄國號大成。《魏書‧雄傳》云:「雄稱帝,號大成,改元晏平。」故《三十國春秋》誤云「改年大成」,《載記》轉寫,誤爲「大武」。今從諸書去「大武」之號。〉〈雄母羅氏,尊爲王太后,見上卷永興元年。〉〈太師乃有天地之號,侯景未足多怪也。羣盜私立名字以相署置,可勝言哉!《考異》曰:《華陽國志》:「尊長生曰四時八節天地太師。」今從《晉‧載記》。〉

(Li Xiong, styled Zhongjuan, was the third son of Li Te.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all state, 'In the sixth month of the second year of Yongxing (305), Li Xiong assumed the imperial title.' The Huayang Guozhi states, 'In the first year of Guangxi (306), Li Xiong assumed the imperial title.' The Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors in the Book of Northern Wei and the Biography of Li Xiong in that text both state, 'In Emperor Zhao's (Tuoba Luguan's) twelfth year of reign, Li Xiong declared himself Emperor.' That would have been the first year of Guangxi (306). The Biography of Li Xiong in the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'In the sixth month of the first year of Yanping, Li Xiong assumed the imperial title.' According to the table of contents in that text, for Li Xiong's reign eras, it lists two years for Jianxing and five years for Yanping, the same as the Huayang Guozhi. So I follow their accounts.

"All of the texts I have just mentioned state that Li Xiong changed the reign era title to Yanping, and they make no mention of a Dawu reign era. Only the Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that he named the reign era Dawu, and it does not mention a Yanping reign era. Now Li Xiong had named his state, properly, 大成 Great Cheng. The Biography of Li Xiong in the Book of Northern Wei states, 'When Li Xiong declared himself Emperor, 號大成改元晏平 he named his state Great Cheng, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanping.' The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms must have mistakenly copied this as '改年大成 he changed the reign era to Dacheng.' Then the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, keeping that error, compounded it by writing 大武 Dawu, as though he had declared a Dawu reign era. So I follow the accounts of the other texts and ignore this Dawu business."

Li Xiong's mother Lady Luo had earlier been honored as Queen Dowager, as seen in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.27).

Not only does he name Fan Changsheng as Grand Instructor, but he even adds on the title "of Heaven and Earth". Even Hou Jing would not have gone that far. These bandits, all picking their own names and styles and granting one another appointments. If only words could kill!

Sima Guang's commentary further states, "The Huayang Guozhi states, 'Li Xiong honored Fan Changsheng, calling him the Grand Instructor of Heaven, Earth, the Four Seasons, and the Eight Equinoxes.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.")


夏六月,僭即帝位,大赦改元,國號大成。追尊父特為景帝,母羅氏為太皇后。十月,加丞相范長生為天地大師之號,封西山侯。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Xiong)

In summer, the sixth month, Li Xiong proclaimed himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty, changed the reign era title, and declared the name of his state as Cheng. He posthumously honored his father Li Te as Emperor Jing, and he honored his mother Lady Luo as Empress Dowager.

In the tenth month, he promoted the Prime Minister, Fan Changsheng, with the title Grand Instructor of Heaven and Earth, and appointed him as Marquis of the Western Hills.

長生勸雄稱尊號,雄於是僭即帝位,赦其境內,改年曰太[大]武。追尊父特曰景帝,廟號始祖,母羅氏為太后。加范長生為天地太師,封西山侯,復其部曲不豫軍征,租稅一入其家。雄時建國草創,素無法式,諸將恃恩,各爭班位。其尚書令閻式上疏曰:「夫為國制法,勳尚仍舊。漢、晉故事,惟太尉、大司馬執兵,太傅、太保父兄之官,論道之職,司徙、司空掌五教九土之差。秦置丞相,總領萬機。漢武之末,越以大將軍統政。今國業初建,凡百末備,諸公大將班位有差,降而兢請施置,不與典故相應,宜立制度以為楷式。」雄從之。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Fan Changsheng urged Li Xiong to claim an imperial title, so Li Xiong then declared himself Emperor. He declared another amnesty within his domain, and changed his reign era title to Taiwu [Dawu]. He posthumously honored his father Li Te as Emperor Jing, with the temple name Shizu, and he honored his mother Lady Luo as Empress Dowager. He promoted Fan Changsheng to be Grand Instructor of Heaven and Earth and Marquis of the Western Hills, exempting Fan Changsheng's forces from military service or corvee labor and allowing him to manage his own tax and rental policies.

At this time, since the state had only just been established, there were still no real sets of laws or standards. The various generals, relying upon the favor they had been shown up until now, all fought with one another to get positions. Li Xiong's Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yan Shi, sent up a petition stating, "It behooves anyone who would establish laws and regulations for a state to honor and follow the old precedents that have come before. According to the regulations of Han and Jin, only the Grand Commandant and the Grand Marshal retain control of soldiers. The offices of Grand Tutor and Grand Guardian should be filled by paternal uncles of the ruler, and their role should be to guide him on the proper path to follow. The Minister Over The Masses and the Minister of Works are entrusted with the duties of the Five Instructions and the Nine Earths. The position of Prime Minister was created by the Qin dynasty, and it was designed to supervise all general affairs. And at the end of the reign of Emperor Wu of Han, the office of Grand General was created as the overseer of the government. Now our state has only just been established, and we have not yet prepared a real ordering of the offices of our ministries. Yet the various nobles and generals have each already claimed their own lofty titles. You should humble them, while cautiously seeking to establish a more orderly hierarchy of offices. Rather than follow what has been done already, you should establish rules and systems by which to examine and evaluate people for their offices."

Li Xiong followed his advice.

十二年,賨人李雄,僭帝號於蜀,自稱大成。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the twelfth year (306), a leader of the Cong people, Li Xiong, proclaimed himself Emperor in the Shu region, calling his state Great Cheng.

時涪陵人范長生頗有術數,雄篤信之,勸雄即真。十二年,僭稱皇帝,號大成,改年為晏平,拜長生為天地太師,領丞相,西山王。(Book of Northern Wei 96, Biography of Li Xiong)

At that time, there was a native of Fuling, Fan Changsheng, who was considerably adept in the mystic arts. Li Xiong sincerely trusted this Fan Changsheng, who urged him to claim a truly imperial title. In the twelfth year of the reign of Tuoba Luguan of Dai (306), Li Xiong declared himself Emperor. He declared the name of his state would be Cheng, and he changed the reign era title to Yanping. He appointed Fan Changsheng as Grand Instructor of Heaven and Earth, acting Prime Minister, and Prince of the Western Hills.

賢既至,尊為〔四時八節〕天地太師,封西山侯,復其部曲,軍征不預,租稅皆入賢家。賢名長生,一名延久,又名九重。一曰支,字元。涪陵丹興人也。光熙元年,雄稱皇帝,改元晏平,〔國號大成,追尊父特曰景帝,廟號始祖。母羅為皇太后。〕(Huayang Guozhi 9.1)

When Fan Jian arrived, Li Xiong honored him as Grand Instructor of Heaven, Earth (the Four Seasons, and the Eight Equinoxes), and appointed him as Marquis of the Western Hills. Fan Jian kept command of his own followers, who were exempted from military and corvee duty, and the rents and taxes collected on them went to Fan Jian's family.

Fan Jian was called Fan Changsheng, or Fan Yanjiu, or Fan Jiuzhong. He was also called Fan Zhi, styled Yuan. He was a native of Danxing in Fuling.

In the first year of Guangxi (306), Li Xiong declared himself Emperor, and changed his reign era title to the first year of Yanping. (He named his state Great Cheng, and posthumously honored his father Li Te as Emperor Jing, with the temple name Shizu. He honored his mother Lady Luo as Empress Dowager.)

[〔四時八節〕]: 〈(顧廣圻稿云:「(《通鑑考異》)又載:《國志》天地上有四時八節四字。則此本非溫公所見之舊明矣。」廖本據以入注。茲補四字。)〈(依《十六國春秋》與《晉‧載記》補。)〉(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding Fan Changsheng's extended title, Gu Guangqi's Analysis states, "The Textual Analysis of the Zizhi Tongjian states, 'The Huayang Guozhi states, "Fan Changsheng's title in the Huayang Guozhi includes the phrase 'the Four Seasons and the Eight Equinoxes'." But as he did not include them in his own account, my edition will not contradict his precedent." The Liao edition has a note to the same effect. But the phrase should be included.

I have inserted the sentences beginning with "he named his state" in order to align with the accounts of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.)


秋,七月,乙酉朔,日有食之。

11. In autumn, the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Yiyou (?), there was an eclipse.

八月,以司空越爲太傅,錄尚書事;范陽王虓爲司空,鎭鄴;平昌公模爲鎭東大將軍,鎭許昌;王浚爲驃騎大將軍、都督東夷‧河北諸軍事,領幽州刺史。越以吏部郎庾敳爲軍諮祭酒,前太弟中庶子胡母輔之爲從事中郎,黃門侍郎郭象爲主簿,鴻臚丞阮脩爲行參軍,謝鯤爲掾。輔之薦樂安光逸於越,越亦辟之。敳等皆尚虛玄,不以世務嬰心,縱酒放誕;敳殖貨無厭,象薄行,好招權;越皆以其名重於世,故辟之。

12. In the eighth month, Sima Yue was appointed as Grand Tutor and Chief of the Masters of Writing. Sima Xiao was appointed as the new Minister of Works in place of Sima Yue, and he was stationed at Ye. Sima Mo was appointed as Grand General Who Guards The East, and stationed at Xuchang. Wang Jun was appointed as Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Commander over the eastern tribes and the military affairs of Hebei, and acting Inspector of Youzhou.

Sima Yue recruited several people to his official staff. He appointed the Gentleman of the Secretariat, Yu Ai of Yingchuan, as Army Libationer-Consultant. The former 中庶子 to the Crown Younger Brother, Humu Fuzhi, was appointed as Attendant Officer of the Palace Gentlemen. The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Guo Yu of Henan, was appointed as Registrar. The Assistant to the Heralds Bureau, Ruan Xiu, was appointed as acting Army Advisor, with Xie Kun as his deputy. Humu Fuzhi recommended Guang Yi of Le'an to Sima Yue, so Sima Yue summoned him as well.

These people, Yu Ai and the rest, were all men who were falsely esteemed as virtuous; they cared nothing for the affairs of the age, preferring to indulge in wine and act outrageously. Yu Ai amassed more and more money without ever being satisfied, and Guo Yu acted frivolously, delighting in grasping at power and influence. Sima Yue recruited these men because they had a certain reputation during that era.

〈《考異》曰:《虓傳》「爲司徒」,今從《帝紀》。〉〈浚恃鮮卑、烏桓以爲羽翼,故使幷督東夷諸軍。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「庾」上有「潁川」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈漢、魏之間,兵興,始置軍諮祭酒。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「郭」上有「河南」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈晉列卿各置丞。行參軍,在參軍事之下。沈約《志》:晉太傅司馬越府有行參軍、兼行參軍,後加「長兼」字。除拜則爲參軍事,府版則爲行參軍。行參軍始於蜀丞相諸葛亮府。〉〈《姓譜》:光姓,燕人田光之後,秦末,子孫避地,因以爲氏。〉〈史言越所辟置,采虛名而無實用。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Xiao in the Book of Jin states that he was appointed as 'Minister Over The Masses' at this time. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

Wang Jun relied upon the Xianbei and the Wuhuan to serve as the wings of his army, and so he was here given command authority over all of the forces of the eastern tribes.

Some versions state that Yu Ai was "of Yingchuan" and Guo Yu was "of Henan".

During Han and Cao-Wei, when tribes were raised, the post of Army Libationer-Consultant was also created.

Each of Jin's ministerial bureaus had Assistants acting as subordinate offices.

The Assistant Army Advisor handled the subordinate affairs of an Army Advisor. Shen Yue's Annotations states, "Sima Yue's staff as Grand Tutor had the posts of Assistant Army Advisor and Concurrent Assistant Army Advisor, later called the 'Chief Concurrent'. In addition to his staff having Army Advisors, other household affairs were handled by these Assistant Army Advisors. This post was an innovation of the staff household of Shu-Han's Prime Minister Zhuge Liang."

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 光 Guang are the descendants of Tian Guang ot the ancient state of Yan. During the collapse of the Qin dynasty, his descendants fled from that region, and they took Guang as their surname."

This passage demonstrates how Sima Yue recruited such people just because of their empty reputations, though they had no real use.)


祁弘之入關也,成都王穎自武關奔新野。會新城元公劉弘卒,司馬郭勱作亂,欲迎穎爲主;郭舒奉弘子璠以討勱,斬之。詔南中郎將劉陶收穎。穎北渡河,奔朝歌,收故將士,得數百人,欲走公師藩,頓丘太守馮嵩執之,送鄴;范陽王虓不忍殺而幽之。公師藩自白馬南渡河,兗州刺史苟晞討斬之。

13. After Qi Hong entered Guanzhong, Sima Ying fled from Wuguan to Xinye.

At that time, Liu Hong had just passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Yuan ("the Foremost") of Xincheng.

Liu Hong's former Marshal Guo Mai had now become a rebel, and he wanted to welcome Sima Ying to become his leader. But Liu Hong's former 治中, Guo Shu of Shunyang, brought Liu Hong's son Liu Fan with him to campaign against Guo Mai, and he killed Guo Mai.

An imperial edict was issued ordering the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Liu Tao, to arrest Sima Ying. So Sima Ying fled north across the Yellow River and went to Zhaoge, where he rounded up some of his former officers and soldiers, several hundred in all. He planned to go join the forces of the rebel leader Gongshi Fan, who had risen up on his behalf. But in the ninth month, the Administrator of Dunqiu, Feng Song, arrested Sima Ying and sent him to Ye. Sima Xiao could not bear to kill Sima Ying, so he only kept him under house arrest.

Gongshi Fan marched south from Baima and crossed the Yellow River, but the Inspector of Yanzhou, Gou Xi, attacked and killed him.

〈新野縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉屬義陽郡。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「郭」上有「治中順陽」四字;乙十一行同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈【章:甲十一行本「頓」上有「九月」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈頓丘縣,漢屬東郡;武帝泰始元年,分置郡。〉〈白馬縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬濮陽國,唐爲滑州治所。〉

(During Han, Xinye County was part of Nanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Yiyang commandary.

Some versions state that Guo Shu was "the 治中, Guo Shu of Shunyang".

Some versions state that Feng Song arrested Sima Ying "in the ninth month".

During Han, Dunqiu County was part of Dong commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), he split it off as Dunqiu commandary.

During Han, Baima County was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of the Puyang princely fief. During Tang, it was administered by Zhouzhi.)


奔南陽,復為劉陶所驅,回詣河北。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

Lu Zhi and Sima Ying fled from Wuguan to Nanyang, where they were driven out by Liu Tao, and so they returned to Hebei.

值大駕還洛,穎自華陰趨武關,出新野。帝詔鎮南將軍劉弘、南中郎將劉陶收捕穎,於是棄母妻,單車與二子廬江王普、中都王廓渡河赴朝歌,收合故將士數百人,欲就公師籓。頓丘太守馮嵩執穎及普、廓送鄴,范陽王虓幽之,而無他意。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

After Sima Yue’s forces had brought Emperor Hui back to Luoyang, Sima Ying went from Huayin to Wuguan, heading out to Xinye. An imperial edict was issued ordering the General Who Guards The South, Liu Hong, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Liu Tao, to arrest Sima Ying. So Sima Ying abandoned his mother and wife and fled in a lone cart with his two sons, the Prince of Lujiang, Sima Pu, and the Prince of Zhongdu, Sima Kuo. He crossed the Yellow River and went to Zhaoge, where he rounded up some of his former officers and soldiers, several hundred in all, planning to go join Gongshi Fan. But the Administrator of Dunqiu, Feng Song, arrested Sima Ying and his two sons and sent him to Ye.

The Prince of Fanyang, Sima Xiao, placed them under house arrest, but he had no other intentions for them.


進東嬴公騰爵爲東燕王,平昌公模爲南陽王。

14. Sima Teng was promoted from Duke of Dongying to Prince of Dongyan, and Sima Mo was promoted from Duke of Pingchang to Prince of Nanyang.

冬,十月,范陽王虓薨。長史劉輿以穎素爲鄴人所附,祕不發喪,僞令人爲臺使稱詔,夜,賜穎死,幷殺其二子。穎官屬先皆逃散,惟盧志隨從,至死不怠,收而殯之。太傅越召志爲軍諮祭酒。

15. In winter, the tenth month, Sima Xiao passed away.

His Chief Clerk, Liu Yu, knew that the people of Ye had long been attached to Sima Ying, so he kept Sima Xiao's death a secret and did not hold a mourning for him. He ordered men to forge an edict from the capital to use as a pretext for what he was about to do. During the night, he bestowed death upon Sima Ying, and killed his two sons.

By the time of his death, Sima Ying's officials and subordinates who had been with him before had all ran off and scattered. Only Lu Zhi stayed with him until the end and fulfilled his duties until Sima Ying had died. Lu Zhi then claimed Sima Ying's body and buried him.

Sima Yue summoned Lu Zhi to serve as another of his Army Libationer-Consultants.

〈【章:甲十一行本「以」下有「成都王」三字字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(Some versions specify again that Sima Ying was "Prince of Chengdu".)


及穎薨,官屬奔散,唯志親自殯送,時人嘉之。越命志為軍諮祭酒,遷衛尉,永嘉末,轉尚書。(Book of Jin 44 (Lu Zhi))

After Sima Ying’s death (in 306), his officials and subordinates all fled and scattered. Only Lu Zhi personally saw to his burial, and the people of that time all praised him for it.

Sima Yue ordered Lu Zhi to serve as a Army Libationer-Consultant. He was moved to be Commandant of the Guards, and at the end of the Yongjia era (~311), he was moved again to serve as a Master of Writing.

屬虓暴薨,虓長史劉輿見穎為鄴都所服,慮為後患,秘不發喪,偽令人為台使,稱詔夜賜穎死。穎謂守者田徽曰:「范陽王亡乎?」徽曰:「不知。」穎曰:「卿年幾?'徽曰:「五十。」穎曰:「知天命不?」徽曰:「不知。」穎曰:「我死之後,天下安乎不安乎?我自放逐,於今三年,身體手足不見洗沐,取數斗湯來!」其二子號泣,穎敕人將去。乃散發東首臥,命徽縊之,時年二十八。二子亦死。鄴中哀之。穎之敗也,官屬並奔散,惟盧志隨從不怠,論者稱之。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Ying))

Sima Xiao soon passed away from illness. His Chief Clerk, Liu Yu, could see how much regard the people of Ye had for Sima Ying, and he was worried that Sima Ying would become a threat someday. So he did not hold mourning for Sima Xiao. He ordered men to forge an edict from the capital to use as a pretext for what he was about to do. During the night, he ordered Sima Ying to commit suicide.

Sima Ying asked his jailer Tian Hui, “Has the Prince of Fanyang (Sima Xiao) passed away?”

Tian Hui replied, “I don’t know.”

Sima Ying then asked, “How old are you?”

Tian Hui replied, “Forty-nine.”

Sima Ying asked him, “Do you know what the will of Heaven is?”

Tian Hui replied, “I don’t.”

Sima Ying said, “After I die, will the realm know peace or not? It has been three years since I was sent into exile; my hands and my feet have not seen a bath, but my head has been scalded many times!”

His two sons wailed and wept, so Sima Ying ordered someone to take them away. Then Sima Ying stretched out to lay his head towards the east, and then ordered Tian Hui to strangle him. He was twenty-seven years old. His two sons also died. The people of Ye mourned for him.

When Sima Ying had been defeated, his officials and subordinates had all ran off and scattered, and only Lu Zhi stayed with him until the end. Those who discussed the matter all commended him.


越將召劉輿,或曰:「輿猶膩也,近則汚人。」及至,越疏之。輿密視天下兵簿及倉庫、牛馬、器械、水陸之形,皆默識之。時軍國多事,每會議,自長史潘滔以下,莫知所對,輿應機辨畫,越傾膝酬接,卽以爲左長史,軍國之務,悉以委之。輿說越遣其弟琨鎭幷州,以爲北面之重;越表琨爲幷州刺史,以東燕王騰爲車騎將軍、都督鄴城諸軍事,鎭鄴。

16. Sima Yue was going to summon Liu Yu to serve him too, but someone told him, "Liu Yu is still a greasy fellow; anyone who is close to him gets dirty." So when Liu Yu arrived, Sima Yue kept him at arm's length.

Liu Yu quietly observed all of the records of the realm: the troop registries, the warehouse records, the livestock accounts, the equipment lists, and the lay of the land and the rivers. All of these things he committed to memory. At that time, there were so many affairs consuming the army and the state that whenever a council was held to discuss matters, no one from the Chief Clerk, Pan Tao, on down could be sure of what they should say. But Liu Yu was able to interpret everything and devise the necessary plans for them, and this won Sima Yue over to him. He appointed Liu Yu as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and all matters of the army and the state were given over to him.

Liu Yu advised Sima Yue to send his younger brother Liu Kun to garrison Bingzhou, since he recognized the importance of the northern border. So Sima Yue petitioned to have Liu Kun appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou to relieve Sima Teng, who he requested be appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Commander of military affairs in Ye and sent to garrison Ye instead.

〈皮膚之垢,其肥滑者爲膩。〉〈識,音志,記也。〉〈辨者,辨析事宜;畫者,爲之區畫也。〉

(Among the ways that skin can be filthy, when it is slick like fat, that is called being greasy.

To commit to memory meant to memorize or to remember.

The passage says that Liu Yu could 辨畫. To 辨 meant to interpret and understand affairs; to 畫 meant to create and devise plans.)


十一月,己巳,夜,帝食䴵中毒,庚午,崩于顯陽殿。羊后自以於太弟熾爲嫂,恐不得爲太后,將立清河王覃。侍中華混諫曰:「太弟在東宮已久,民望素定,今日寧可易乎!」卽露版馳召太傅越,召太弟入宮。后已召覃至尚書閤,疑變,託疾而返。癸酉,太弟卽皇帝位,大赦,尊皇后曰惠皇后,居弘訓宮;追尊母王才人曰皇太后;立妃梁氏爲皇后。

17. In the eleventh month, during the night of the day Jisi (January 7th of 307), Emperor Hui ate some flour cakes that had poison in them. On the day Gengwu (January 8th of 307), he passed away in the Xianyang Hall.

Since Empress Yang Xianrong was only the Crown Younger Brother's sister-in-law, she feared that she would not be able to become Empress Dowager. So she was about to place the Prince of Qinghe, Sima Tan, on the throne instead. But the Palace Attendant Hua Hun rebuked her, saying, "The Crown Younger Brother has already resided in the Eastern Palace for this long, and the people have been accustomed to his succession. How can you change that today?"

And he sent out notices summoning Sima Yue and Crown Younger Brother Sima Chi to the palace. By then, Yang Xianrong had already summoned Sima Tan to the office of the Masters of Writing. Afraid that something might happen, she pleaded illness and went back.

On the day Guiyou (January 11th of 307), Sima Chi rose to the throne (as Emperor Huai). A general amnesty was declared.

Yang Xianrong was honored with the title Empress Hui, and she was sent to reside in the Hongxun Palace. Emperor Huai posthumously honored his mother, the Talented Lady Wang, as Empress Dowager, and he honored his concubine Lady Liang as Empress.

〈䴵,麪餈也。《釋名》:䴵,幷也,溲麪使合幷也。蒸䴵、湯䴵之屬,隨形而名。食䴵中毒,或云越鴆之也。〉〈年四十八。〉〈熾立爲皇太弟,見上卷永興元年。〉

(The thing that Emperor Hui ate was a 䴵; this is a flour cake. The Shiming dictionary states, "A 䴵 is a cake, one washed in flour and combined together. The steamed 䴵 and boiled 䴵 are types of this cake, named for their forms." As for the cakes having poison in them, some say that Sima Yue poisoned them.

Emperor Hui was forty-seven when he died.

Sima Chi's appointment as the Crown Younger Brother is mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.35).)


懷帝始遵舊制,於東堂聽政,每至宴會,輒與羣官論衆務,考經籍。黃門侍郎傅宣歎曰:「今日復見武帝之世矣!」

18. From the beginning, Emperor Huai followed the old traditions. He listened to the affairs of governance in the Eastern Chamber, and even during feasts, he always discussed government policies with the ministers and reviewed the classic texts. The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Fu Xuan, sighed in admiration, "We are finally back to the days of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan)!"

〈東堂,太極殿東堂也。〉

(The Eastern Chamber was the one in the Taiji Hall.)


十二月,壬午朔,日有食之。

19. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Renwu (January 20th of 307), there was an eclipse.

太傅越以詔書徵河間王顒爲司徒,顒乃就徵。南陽王模遣其將梁臣邀之於新安,車上扼殺之,幷殺其三子。

20. Sima Yue issued an edict summoning Sima Yong to serve as Minister Over The Masses. So Sima Yong answered the summons. But Sima Mo sent his general Liang Chen to intercept Sima Yong at Xin'an. He strangled Sima Yong in his carriage, and also killed his three sons.

〈模,越之弟也。意謂殺顒父子則兄弟身安而無患矣,而不知石勒、趙染之禍已伏於冥冥之中矣。新安縣,漢屬弘農郡,晉屬河南郡。《考異》曰:《三十國》、《晉春秋》云「東海王越殺顒」,今從《顒傳》。〉

(Sima Mo was the younger brother of Sima Yue. Sima Yue wanted to kill Sima Yong and his sons to ensure the safety of himself and his brothers and remove any future threat. Little did he know that the danger of Shi Le and Zhao Ran was already lying in wait.

During Han, Xin'an County was part of Hongnong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Henan commandary.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both state, 'Sima Yue killed Sima Yong'. But I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Yong in the Book of Jin.")


永嘉初,詔書以顒為司徒,乃就征。南陽王模遣將梁臣于新安雍谷車上扼殺之,並其三子。(Book of Jin 59 (Sima Yong))

At the beginning of the Yongjia reign era (307), an imperial edict was issued appointing Sima Yong as Minister Over The Masses. Sima Yong set out to take up this role in the capital. But the Prince of Nanyang, Sima Mo, sent his general Liang Chen to intercept Sima Yong at Yong Valley in Xin'an. Liang Chen climbed into Sima Yong's carriage and strangled him to death, along with his three sons.


辛丑,以中書監溫羨爲左光祿大夫,領司徒;尚書左僕射王衍爲司空。

21. On the day Xinchou (February 8th of 307), the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Wen Xian, was appointed as Household Counselor with Golden Tassel of the Left and acting Minister Over The Masses. The Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yan, was appointed as Minister of Works.

乙酉,葬惠帝于太陽陵。

22. On the day Yiyou (January 23rd of 307), Emperor Hui was buried at Taiyang Tomb.

劉琨至上黨,東燕王騰卽自井陘東下。時幷州饑饉,數爲胡寇所掠,郡縣莫能自保。州將田甄、甄弟蘭、任祉、祁濟、李惲、薄盛等及吏民萬餘人,悉隨騰就穀冀州,號爲「乞活」,所餘之戶不滿二萬;寇賊縱橫,道路斷塞。琨募兵上黨,得五百人,轉鬬而前。至晉陽,府寺焚毀,邑野蕭條,琨撫循勞徠,流民稍集。

23. When Liu Kun arrived at Bingzhou to take up his post there, Sima Teng went east from Jingxing to go to Ye.

At this time, Bingzhou was suffering from famine and crop failure, and the tribes had plundered it many times. None of the commandaries or counties knew whom they could turn to for protection. Many of the provincial generals, including Tian Zhen, his brother Tian Lan, Ren Zhi, Qi Ji, Li Yun, and Bao Sheng, as well as more than ten thousand of the officials of the province, followed after Sima Teng to seek grain in Jizhou; they were called the "Lifeseekers".

Of those who remained behind in Bingzhou, there were not even twenty thousand households left. Invaders and bandits had their way with the province, and the roads and paths were all cut off and blocked. Liu Kun recruited soldiers at Shangdang, gathering five hundred men, and then pressed on into the province. When he arrived at Jinyang, the bureaus and ministries were all burned down, and the towns and countryside were all bleak and barren. Liu Kun provided aid and comfort, and so a few of the various refugees began to gather around him.

〈胡寇,謂劉淵之黨也。〉〈州將,謂幷州諸將也。〉〈聚居城市爲邑。散居在外爲野。〉

("The tribes" meant Liu Yuan's people.

"The provincial generals" meant those of Bingzhou.

Those places with houses gathered around the marketplace were the towns; those places with scattered dwelling places were the countryside.)
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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 2:19 am

孝懷皇帝上

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Huai, Sima Chi


〈諱熾,字豐度,武帝第二十五子也。《諡法》:慈仁短折曰懷。

(Emperor Huai's name was Sima Chi. His style name was Fengdu. He was Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) twenty-fifth son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who, being kind and benevolent, has their life cut short, may be called Huai ('the Cherished').")


永嘉元年(丁卯、三○七)

The First Year of Yongjia (The Dingmao Year, 307 AD)


春,正月,癸丑,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Guichou (February 20th), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Yongjia.

吏部郎周穆,太傅越之姑子也,與其妹夫御史中丞諸葛玫說越曰:「主上之爲太弟,張方意也。清河王本太子,公宜立之。」越不許。重言之,越怒,斬之。

2. The Gentleman of the Secretariat, Zhou Mu, was Sima Yue's cousin. He and the Minister of the Middle of the Imperial Secretaries, his brother-in-law Zhuge Mei, advised Sima Yue, "It was originally Zhang Fang's idea to make our new sovereign into the Crown Younger Brother. The Prince of Qinghe (Sima Tan) was the original Crown Prince. Lord, you should place him on the throne instead."

But Sima Yue would not hear of it. And when they continued to press him, he became angry and executed them.

〈成都王穎之廢,河間王顒立帝爲皇太弟,故以爲張方之意。〉〈清河王,齊王冏立爲太子,經廢者數矣。〉

(After Sima Ying had been deposed as Crown Younger Brother, Sima Yong had appointed Sima Chi as the new Crown Younger Brother. This was why Zhou Mu and Zhuge Mei say that "it was Zhang Fang's idea".

Sima Tan had first been appointed as Crown Prince by Sima Jiong when he was in power, although since then he had been through a string of deposals and restorations to that title.)


二月,王彌寇青、徐二州,自稱征東大將軍,攻殺二千石。太傅越以公車令東萊鞠羨爲本郡太守,以討彌,彌擊殺之。

3. In the second month, Wang Mi of Donglai invaded Qingzhou and Xuzhou. He declared himself the Grand General Who Conquers The East, and he attacked and killed those officials of Two Thousand 石 salary rank.

Sima Yue appointed the Director of the Ducal Carriage, Ju Xian of Donglai, as the Administrator of Donglai, and sent him to campaign against Wang Mi. But Wang Mi attacked and killed him.

〈【張:「月」下脫「東萊」二字。】〉〈《晉志》,公車令,屬衞尉。〉

(Some versions specify that Wang Mi was "of Donglai".

According to the Records of Jin, the Director of the Ducal Carriage was subordinate to the Commandant of the Guards.)


彌後引兵入寇青徐。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Later, Wang Mi led his troops to invade Qingzhou and Xuzhou.


陳敏刑政無章,不爲英俊所附;子弟凶暴,所在爲患;顧榮、周玘等憂之。廬江內史華譚遺榮等書曰:「陳敏盜據吳、會,命危朝露。諸君或剖符名郡,或列爲近臣,而更辱身姦人之朝,降節叛逆之黨,不亦羞乎!吳武烈父子皆以英傑之才,繼承大業。今以陳敏凶狡,七弟頑宂,欲躡桓王之高蹤,蹈大皇之絕軌,遠度諸賢,猶當未許也。皇輿東返,俊彥盈朝,將舉六師以清建業,諸賢何顏復見中州之士邪!」榮等素有圖敏之心,及得書,甚慚,密遣使報征東大將軍劉準,使發兵臨江,己爲內應,剪髮爲信。準遣揚州刺史劉機等出歷陽討敏。

4. It was earlier mentioned that Chen Min had turned rebel and taken control of the Southland. But in his administration of justice and of state affairs, he kept to no standards, so he could not win over the heroic and the talented people of that region. His sons and younger brothers were wild and wicked, and they all menaced the land. Gu Rong, Zhou Qi, and the other respectable people were all concerned about the situation.

The Interior Minister of Lujiang, Hua Tan, wrote a letter to Gu Rong and the others, stating, "Chen Min has stolen and occupied the lands of Wu and Kuaiji, but his rule will be as brief as the morning dew. Gentlemen, some of you have accepted his seals of authority in the commandaries, and some of you have even become his close ministers and shamed yourselves by serving in the court of a wicked fellow. Is it not disgraceful for you to abandon lawful authority and join ranks with a traitor?

"Now Wulie of Wu (Sun Jian) and his sons were all heroes of great talent, continuing the great endeavor of state one after the other. But this Chen Min is a violent and paranoid man, and his seven younger brothers are all stupid and worthless. Yet they want to follow in the great footsteps of Prince Huan (Sun Ce) when he conquered the Southland, and trample on the authority of the Emperor. But the worthy people keep away from him, and they will not go along with his schemes.

"I warn you, the imperial carriage has returned east again, and the imperial court is filled with abundant talents and excellent officials. They will soon raise the six armies to come pacify Jianye. Gentlemen, why do you not once more submit yourselves to the Central Provinces?"

Gu Rong and the others had already long planned to act against Chen Min, and when they received this letter, they were deeply ashamed. So they secretly sent word to inform the actual Grand General Who Conquers The East, Liu Zhun, to tell him about their plot. They asked him to send his soldiers to the banks of the Yangzi, while they would act from within, and they all cut their hair as a pledge of faith. So Liu Zhun ordered the Inspector of Yangzhou, Liu Ji, and others to march out of Liyang to campaign against Chen Min.

〈言若朝露之棲草上,見日卽晞,不得久也。〉〈吳諡孫堅曰武烈皇帝。〉〈孫策追諡長沙桓王,孫權諡大皇帝。〉〈謂自長安還洛陽也。〉〈才過千人曰俊。彥,美士也。〉

(Morning dew lingers for a time on branches and grasses, but when the sun comes out, it does not last for long.

Eastern Wu had posthumously named Sun Jian as Emperor Wulie ("the Martial and Fierce"). Sun Ce was posthumously named as Prince Huan ("the Mighty") of Changsha, and Sun Quan as the Grand Emperor.

Hua Tan was saying that the imperial court had returned from Chang'an to Luoyang.

One whose talent surpasses a thousand men is called 俊. A 彥 is an excellent official.)


敏使其弟廣武將軍昶將兵數萬屯烏江,歷陽太守宏屯牛渚。敏弟處知顧榮等有貳心,勸敏殺之,敏不從。

5. Chen Min sent his General of 廣武, his younger brother Chen Chang, to lead several tens of thousands of soldiers to camp at Wujiang, and his Administrator of Lujiang, his younger brother Chen Hong, to camp at Niuzhu.

Another younger brother, Chen Chu, knew that Gu Rong and the others were of two minds about their situation, and he urged Chen Min to kill them, but Chen Min would not agree.

〈沈約《志》:廣武將軍,晉江左置。蓋始於此時。晉置烏江縣,屬淮南郡,卽烏江亭長檥船待項羽之地以名縣。宋白曰:烏江縣,漢東城縣地,晉太康六年,始於東城界置烏江縣。〉〈《考異》曰:《敏傳》云:「弟昶勸殺榮。」按《晉春秋》:「敏臨死謂處曰:『我負卿!』」時昶已先死。今從《晉春秋》。〉

(Shen Yue's Records states, "General of 廣武 was a Jin office beyond the Yangzi." It was first created at this time.

Jin had created Wujiang County, as part of Huainan commandary. It was named for the place where the Mayor of Wujiang Village had berthed his vessels to wait for Xiang Yu. Song Bai remarked, "Wujiang County was Han's Dongcheng County. In Jin's sixth year of Taikang (285), Wujiang County was created within Dongcheng County."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Chen Min in the Book of Jin states, 'His younger brother Chen Chang urged him to kill Gu Rong.' But in the Annals of Jin it states, 'When Chen Min was on the brink of death, he told Chen Chu, "I have failed you!"' By that time, Chen Chang was already dead. So I follow the account of the Annals of Jin.")


昶司馬錢廣,周玘同郡人也,玘密使廣殺昶,宣言州下已殺敏,敢動者誅三族。廣勒兵朱雀橋南;敏遣甘卓討廣,堅甲精兵悉委之。顧榮慮敏之疑,故往就敏。敏曰:「卿當四出鎭衞,豈得就我邪!」榮乃出,與周玘共說甘卓曰:「若江東之事可濟,當共成之。然卿觀茲事勢,當有濟理不?敏旣常才,政令反覆,計無所定,其子弟各已驕矜,其敗必矣。而吾等安然坐受其官祿,事敗之日,使江西諸軍函首送洛,題曰『逆賊顧榮、甘卓之首』,此萬世之辱也!」卓遂詐稱疾,迎女,斷橋,收船南岸,與玘、榮及前松滋侯相丹楊紀瞻共攻敏。

6. Now Chen Chang's Marshal, Qian Guang, was from the same commandary as Zhou Qi. So Zhou Qi secretly arranged for Qian Guang to kill Chen Chang. Qian Guang then said that the provincial subordinates at Jianye had already killed Chen Min, so that anyone who dared to act against him would have their families killed to the third degree. He brought his soldiers south of Zhuque Bridge. Chen Min sent Gan Zhuo to march against Qian Guang, and all of the sturdy armor and elite soldiers were given over to him.

Gu Rong was worried that Chen Min suspected him, so he asked to remain close at hand. But Chen Min told him, "Sir, you ought to be going ought to protect and guard the four corners of the realm. What point is there in staying here with me?"

Thus reassured, Gu Rong went out, and he and Zhou Ju both advised Gan Zhuo, "If this empire of the Southland could be realized, then we would all achieve it together. But since you can see the current situation for yourself, do you think it is logical that the endeavor can succeed? Chen Min is a man of common talents, and in governing he goes against all that is proper. His plans cannot settle anything, and his sons and younger brothers are all arrogant and proud. His defeat is certain.

"How then can you and the others here work on his behalf? If we are defeated this day, the armies on the north side of the Yangzi will put our heads in a box and send them off to Luoyang, and people will say, 'These are the heads of the vile traitors Gu Rong and Gan Zhuo.' Would that not be a shame that lasts ten thousand generations?"

So Gan Zhuo pretend to be sick until his daughter could be brought to him. Then he broke the bridge, gathered up all the boats on the southern bank, and then went to attack Chen Min, together with Zhou Qi, Gu Rong, and the former Chancellor to the Marquis of Songzi, Yang Ji.

〈揚州刺史治建業,故謂建業爲州下。〉〈朱雀橋在建業宮城之南,跨秦淮水。世傳晉孝武建朱雀門,上有兩銅雀,故橋亦以此得名。余謂朱雀橋自吳以來有之,蓋取前朱雀之義,非晉孝武之寺有此名也。朱雀橋,亦曰大桁。〉〈謂鎭安人心,乃所以衞敏也。〉〈江西諸軍謂劉準所遣臨江者也。〉〈橋,卽朱雀橋也。建業城在秦淮水北,故卓收船傍南岸。〉〈松滋縣,屬廬江郡,後漢省;晉屬安豐郡。劉昫曰:唐壽州霍山縣,漢松滋縣地。今江陵府松滋縣,乃是吳樂鄕之地,晉氏南渡後,以松滋流民僑立松滋縣,非古松滋也。〉

(The Inspector of Yangzhou administered his territory from Jianye, and so the "provincial subordinates" would be at Jianye.

Zhuque Bridge was south of the palace walls of Jianye, over the Qinhuai River. Legend has it that Emperor Xiaowu of Jin built the Zhuque Gate at Jiankang, which had two bronze sparrows on it, and so this bridge was named Zhuque ("Vermillion Sparrow" Bridge) for the same reason. But I, Hu Sanxing, say that the Zhuque Bridge had existed from the time of Eastern Wu, and it must have gained that name from some earlier source, not from what Emperor Xiaowu had done. The Zhuque Bridge was also called the Daheng Bridge.

Chen Min meant for Gu Rong to guard and reassure the people's hearts, in order to provide security for Chen Min himself.

The "armies on the north side of the Yangzi" were those that Liu Zhun had sent to the banks of the Yangzi.

The bridge that Gan Zhuo destroyed was the Zhuque Bridge. The walls of Jianye were north of the Qinhuai River, so Gan Zhuo rounded up all the boats that had been on the southern bank of that river.

Songzi County had been part of Lujiang commandary, but it was abolished during Later Han. During Jin, it was part of Anfeng commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Huoshan County in Tang's Shouzhou was where Han's Songzi County was. The Songzi County that is in the modern Jiangling Garrison Post was originally Eastern Wu's Lexiang County. When the Jin royal family moved south of the Yangzi, the refugees from the original Songzi County converted Lexiang into a new Songzi County, but it was not the original.")


敏自帥萬餘人討卓,軍人隔水語敏衆曰:「本所以戮力陳公者,正以顧丹楊、周安豐耳;今皆異矣,汝等何爲!」敏衆狐疑未決,榮以白羽扇揮之,衆皆潰去。敏單騎北走,追獲之於江乘,歎曰:「諸人誤我,以至今日!」謂弟處曰:「我負卿,卿不負我!」遂斬敏於建業,夷三族。於是會稽等郡盡殺敏諸弟。

7. Chen Min himself led more than ten thousand men to attack Gan Zhuo.

A man in the army, Ge Shui, amonished Chen Min's soldiers by saying, "It was Gu of Danyang and Zhou of Anfeng that had supported Lord Chen to begin with. Now even they are against him. What can you all hope to do?"

Chen Min's soldiers were thus uncertain and could not decide what to do. Gu Rong then waved a white feather fan to disperse them, and the soldiers all scattered and ran away.

Chen Min fled on a lone horse to the north, but he was overtaken and captured at the Yangzi. He lamented, "These people have misled me until the very end!" And he said to his brother Chen Chu, "I have failed you; you did not fail me!"

Chen Min was beheaded at Jianye, and his family was killed to the third degree. Kuaiji and the other commandaries killed all of Chen Min's younger brothers.

〈敏以顧榮爲丹楊太守,周玘爲安豐太守,故以稱之。〉〈白羽扇,編白羽爲之。〉〈謂不用處言殺顧榮等也。〉

(Chen Min had appointed Gu Rong as Administrator of Danyang and Zhou Qi as Administrator of Anfeng, thus they are addressed here.

A white feather fan was a fan made of gathered white feathers.

Chen Min was lamenting that he had not followed Chen Chu's advice to kill Gu Rong and the others before.)


時平東將軍周馥代劉準鎭壽春。三月,己未朔,馥傳敏首至京師。詔徵顧榮爲侍中,紀瞻爲尚書郎。太傅越辟周玘爲參軍,陸玩爲掾。玩,機之從弟也。榮等至徐州,聞北方愈亂,疑不進,越與徐州刺史裴盾書曰:「若榮等顧望,以軍禮發遣!」榮等懼,逃歸。盾,楷之兄子,越妃兄也。

8. At this time, the General Who Pacifies The East, Zhou Fu, replaced Liu Zhun and was stationed at Shouchun. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Jiwei (April 27th), Zhou Fu sent Chen Min's head on to the capital.

An edict was issued summoning Gu Rong to serve in Luoyang as a Palace Attendant, and Ji Zhan to serve as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. And Sima Yue summoned Zhou Qi as an Army Advisor, with Lu Wan as his subordinate. This Lu Wan was the cousin of Lu Ji.

As Gu Rong and the others were passing through Xuzhou, they heard about the rising turmoil in the north, and they were inclined not to go any further. Sima Yue sent a letter to the Inspector of Xuzhou, Pei Dun, stating, "If Gu Rong and the others linger, they are to be driven out by military means!" Now even further frightened, Gu Rong and the others fled back to the Southland. This Pei Dun was the nephew of Pei Kai, and the older brother of Sima Yue's concubine.

西陽夷寇江夏,太守楊珉請督將議之。諸將爭獻方略,騎督朱伺獨不言。珉曰:「朱將軍何以不言?」伺曰:「諸人以舌擊賊,伺惟以力耳。」珉又問:「將軍前後擊賊,何以常勝?」伺曰:「兩敵共對,惟當忍之;彼不能忍,我能忍,是以勝耳。」珉善之。

9. The tribes of Xiyang invaded Jiangxia. The Administrator of Jiangxia, Yang Min, called a council of his commanders to discuss what should be done. His generals all fought to offer their own plans and strategies, and only the Cavalry Commander Zhu Xi remained silent.

Yang Min asked him, "General Zhu, why do you not speak?"

Zhu Xi replied, "The others are fighting the enemy using their wagging tongues. I only have my strength to offer."

Yang Min further asked him, "General, when you fight your enemies, how do you usually defeat them?"

Zhu Xi replied, "When two enemies fight each other, the winner is whoever can take it. They can't take it, and I can. That's how I win."

Yang Min approved of his words.

〈西陽縣,春秋弦子之國,漢爲縣,屬江夏郡,晉屬弋陽郡。漢和帝永元末,巫蠻反,討降之,徙置江夏西陽諸蠻是也。沈約曰:晉惠帝分弋陽爲西陽國。劉昫曰:吳分江夏,置蘄春郡,晉改爲西陽郡,唐蘄州卽其地。宋白曰:光州光山縣,本漢西陽縣。〉〈伺,相吏翻。〉〈凡戰非有智巧以出奇取勝,而以力角力者,莫過於朱伺之說矣。〉

(Xiyang County was the ancient state of Xianxi during the Spring and Autumn era. Han made it a county, as part of Jiangxia commandary. During Jin, it was part of Yiyang commandary. At the end of Emperor He of Han's Yongyuan era (~105), the Wu Man tribes revolted. After they were defeated and surrendered, they were relocated to the various Man tribes in Xiyang in Jiangxia commandary. Shen Yue remarked, "Emperor Hui of Jin split off the Xiyang vassal state from Yiyang commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "Eastern Wu split off part of Jiangxia commandary and created Qichun commandary. Jin renamed this commandary to Xiyang. During Tang, the area was within Qizhou." Song Bai remarked, "Guanghan County in Guangzhou was originally Han's Xiyang County."

Zhu Xi's given name 伺 is pronounced "xi (x-i)".

Many brilliant and ingenious plans are devised in order to win battles. But they always ultimately come down to a contest of strength, and no one has ever put this better than Zhu Xi.)


詔追復楊太后尊號;丁卯,改葬之,諡曰武悼。

10. An edict was issued posthumously restoring the late Empress Dowager Yang Zhi to her former title. On the day Dingmao (May 5th), she was reburied, and granted the posthumous name Empress Wudao ("the Grieved").

〈楊后遇禍,見八十二卷惠帝元康元年。〉

(Yang Zhi's ill treatment and improper burial are mentioned in Book 82, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yuankang (291.8 and 292.1).)


庚午,立清河王覃弟豫章王詮爲皇太子。辛未,大赦。

11. On the day Gengwu (May 8th), the Prince of Yuzhang, Sima Tan's younger brother Sima Quan, was chosen as Crown Prince. On the day Xinwei (May 9th), a general amnesty was declared.

帝觀覽大政,留心庶事;太傅越不悅,固求出藩。庚辰,越出鎭許昌。

12. Emperor Huai oversaw and (or, personally) reflected upon the major affairs of state, and he carefully considered public affairs. Sima Yue was displeased by this, and so he asked to go out to a border post. On the day Gengchen (May 18th), he went out to garrison Xuchang.

〈【章:甲十一行本「觀」作「親」;乙十一行本同;張校同。】〉〈爲越殺繆播等張本。〉

(Some versions phrase the first sentence as "personally".

This was why Sima Yue later killed Mou Bo and the others.)


以高密王略爲征南大將軍,都督荊州諸軍事,鎭襄陽;南陽王模爲征西大將軍,都督秦、雍、梁、益諸軍事,鎭長安;東燕王騰爲新蔡王,都督司、冀二州諸軍事,仍鎭鄴。

13. Sima Lue was appointed as Grand General Who Conquers The South and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, and sent to guard Xiangyang. Sima Mo was appointed as Grand General Who Conquers The West and Commander of military affairs in Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Yizhou, and sent to guard Chang'an. Sima Teng had his princely title changed to Prince of Xincai; he was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Sizhou and Jizhou, and kept on at Ye.

〈【章:甲十一行本「諸」上有「四州」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈去年騰自幷州徙鎭鄴。〉

(Some versions clarify that Sima Mo was Commander of "the four provinces" of Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Yizhou.

Sima Teng had moved from Bingzhou to Ye in the previous year.)


公師藩旣死,汲桑逃還苑中,更聚衆劫掠郡縣,自稱大將軍,聲言爲成都王報仇;以石勒爲前驅,所向輒克,署勒討虜將軍,遂進攻鄴。時鄴中府庫空竭,而新蔡武哀王騰資用甚饒。騰性吝嗇,無所振惠,臨急,乃賜將士米各數升,帛各丈尺,以是人不爲用。夏,五月,桑大破魏郡太守馮嵩,長驅入鄴,騰輕騎出奔,爲桑將李豐所殺。桑出成都王穎棺,載之車中,每事啓而後行。遂燒鄴宮,火旬日不滅;殺士民萬餘人,大掠而去。濟自延津,南擊兗州。太傅越大懼,使苟晞及將軍王讚討之。

14. Now that the Hebei rebel leader Gongshi Fan was dead, his follower Ji Sang fled back to his former pastures, where he once again gathered more men and pillaged the local counties and commandaries. He declared himself Grand General, and said that he was seeking revenge for Sima Ying. He appointed Shi Le as the leader of his vanguard. Because Shi Le was always successful, Ji Sang further appointed him as General Who Routs (or, Sweeps) The Caitiffs, and he advanced to attack Ye.

At this time, the government warehouses at Ye were already empty and exhausted, yet Sima Teng still spent lavishly. Sima Teng was normally a miserly fellow, uninclined to be generous. But when danger approached, then he would give out several 升 of rice to all of his officers and even great lengths of silk, believing that the people could not use them.

In summer, the fifth month, Ji Sang greatly routed the Administrator of Wei commandary, Feng Song. He followed up on this victory to march into Ye. Sima Teng fled the city on a light horse, but he was killed by Ji Sang's general Li Feng. He was posthumously known as Prince Wu'ai ("the Martial and Lamented") of Xincai.

Ji Sang dug up Sima Ying's coffin and placed it on a cart; whenever he had some decision to make, he would first inform the coffin, and only afterwards implement it.

He set fire to the palaces at Ye, and the fires raged for ten days without burning out. His army killed more than ten thousand people and sacked the city before leaving.

Ji Sang crossed the Yellow River at Yan Crossing and marched south to attack Yanzhou. Sima Yue was greatly afraid, and he sent Gou Xi and the general Wang Zan to campaign against Ji Sang.

〈茌平牧苑也,桑於此起兵赴公師藩,藩死,逃還。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「討」作「掃」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈穎之死也,盧志收殯之,今桑出而載之。〉〈袁紹據鄴,始營宮室,魏武帝又增而廣之,至是悉爲灰燼矣。〉

(It was at the horse pastures in Chiping that Ji Sang first raised soldiers and went to join Gongshi Fan. With Gongshi Fan being dead, Ji Sang fled back to this place.

Some versions have Shi Le's title here as General Who "Sweeps" The Caitiffs.

When Sima Ying had died, Lu Zhi had buried his coffin; Ji Sang now dug it up and took it with him.

When Yuan Shao had occupied Ye, he was the first to build palaces there. Emperor Wu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) had added to and expanded these palaces. It was at this time that they were burned to ashes.)


是歲,羯胡石勒與晉馬牧帥汲桑反。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year, a member of the Jie people, Shi Le, rose in rebellion together with a horse tender of Jin, Ji Sang.

其後汲桑害東贏公騰,稱為穎報仇,遂出穎棺,載之於軍中,每事啟靈,以行軍令。(Book of Jin 59, Biography of Sima Ying)

Later on, after Ji Sang killed Sima Teng (in 307), he announced he had avenged Sima Ying. He dug up Sima Ying’s coffin and placed it on a cart; whenever he had some decision to make, he would first inform Sima Ying’s spirit, and only afterwards implement it.

四月,汲桑叛,自稱趙王,選置州郡。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the fourth month, Ji Sang rose in rebellion, declaring himself King of Zhao, and he selected and appointed people as Inspectors and Administrators.

藩戰敗身死,勒與汲桑亡潛苑中。穎之將如河北也,汲桑以勒為伏夜牙門,率牧人劫掠郡縣繫囚,合軍以應之,屯于平石。桑自號大將軍,進軍攻鄴,以勒為前鋒都尉。攻鄴,克之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

After Gongshi Fan was defeated in battle and killed, Shi Le and Ji Sang fled and hid among the pastures. When Sima Ying returned to the region north of the Yellow River, Ji Sang appointed Shi Le as Night Ambush General of the Serrated Gate, and he led the horse shepherds to raid and pillage the commandaries and counties to capture people and imprison them. They gathered an army to support Sima Ying, and they camped at Pingshi. Ji Sang declared himself Grand General and advanced his army to attack Ye, with Shi Le acting as Command of the Vanguard. They assaulted Ye and captured it.


秦州流民鄧定、訇氐等據成固,寇掠漢中,梁州刺史張殷遣巴西太守張燕討之。鄧定等飢窘,詐降於燕,且賂之,燕爲之緩師。定密遣訇氐求救於成,成主雄遣太尉離、司徒雲、司空璜將兵二萬救定,與燕戰,大破之,張殷及漢中太守杜孟治棄城走。稍十餘日,離等引還,盡徙漢中民於蜀。漢中人句方、白落帥吏民還守南鄭。

15. Refugees in Qinzhou, Deng Ding, Hong Di, and others, occupied Chenggu. They invaded and pillaged Hanzhong commandary. The Inspector of Lianzhou, Zhang Yin, ordered the Administrator of Baxi, Zhang Yan, to campaign against them. Deng Ding and the others, left in hunger and distress, pretended to surrender to Zhang Yan. They also bribed him, so that Zhang Yan agreed to delay his march against them.

Then Deng Ding secretly sent Hong Di to ask for help from the Cheng state in the Shu region. Li Xiong sent his Grand Commandant, Li Li, his Minister Over The Masses, Li Yun, and his Minister of Works, Li Huang, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to come assist Deng Ding and the others. They fought Zhang Yan and greatly routed him. Zhang Yin and the Administrator of Hanzhong, Du Mengzhi, abandoned their cities and fled.

Over the course of more than ten days, Li Li and the other Cheng commanders moved the entire population of Hanzhong commandary with them back south into Cheng. Two natives of Hanzhong, Gou Fang and Zi Luo, led the officials of that commandary back to guard Nanzheng commandary.

〈余謂訇姓,氐名。〉〈句,古侯翻,姓也。梁州刺史、漢中太守俱治南鄭。杜佑曰:漢漢中郡故城,在唐梁州南鄭縣東北。〉

(Regarding the person 訇氐 in this passage, I, Hu Sanxing, say that 訇 Hong is his surname and 氐 Di is his given name. 句 Gou, pronounced "gou (g-ou)", is also a surname.

The Inspector of Lianzhou and the Administrator of Hanzhong both governed their territories from Nanzheng. Du You remarked, "The capital city of Han's Hanzhong commandary was in the northeast of Nanzheng County in Tang's Lianzhou.")


遣李國、李雲等率眾二萬寇漢中,梁州刺史張殷奔于長安。國等陷南鄭,盡徙漢中人於蜀。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong sent Li Guo, Li Yun, and others to lead twenty thousand soldiers to invade Hanzhong. Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, ZHang Yin, fled to Chang'an. Li Guo and the others captured Nanzheng, and relocated all of the people of Hanzhong to the Shu region.

永嘉元年,春,尚施置關戍至漢安、僰道。時益州民流移在荊、湘州及越嶲、柯。尚「書」〔施〕置郡縣,就民所在。〔置〕諸村參軍。三月,關中流民鄧定、訇氐等〔據成固〕掠漢中冬辰勢以叛。巴西太守張燕,帥牙門武肇、漢國郡丞宣定遣兵圍之。氐求捄於李雄。夏五月,雄遣李離、李雲、李璜、李鳳入漢中,捄定。杜孟治聞離至,命燕釋圍保州城。初,燕攻定,定眾飢餓,偽降。送金一器與燕。燕納之。居七日,氐至。定還冬辰勢。燕進圍之,不聽孟治言。離至,先攻肇營。營破。次攻定,又破之。燕懼戰,將百騎走。離等大破州軍。牙門蔡松退「告」〔造〕孟治曰:「州軍已破,賊眾,不可待也。」孟治怖。護軍欲城守,謂孟治曰:「賊來雖眾,客氣之常。李區區有東南之逼,必不分宿兵於外,不過迎拔定氐耳。」孟治曰:「不然。雄冒稱帝王,縱橫天下,以遣重眾,必取漢中。雖有牢城,士民破膽,不可與待寇也。」乃開門退走。護軍北還。孟治入大桑谷,民數千家,車數千兩,一〔日〕夜行才數十里。而梓潼荊子以父與孟治有隙,合子弟追之,及於谷口。孟治棄子走。荊子獲之,及吏民千餘家。惟漢國功曹毋建荷檐曰:「吾雖不肖,一國大夫。國亡不能存,終不屬賊也。」餓死谷中。積十餘日,離等引還。漢中民句方、白落率吏民還守南鄭。(Huayang Guozhi 7.8)

In the first year of Yongjia (307), in spring, Luo Shang established defenses and camps as far as Han'an and Bodao. At that time, many refugees had fled into Yizhou from Jingzhou and Xiangzhou and from Yuegui and Zangke commandaries. So Luo Shang established new counties and commandaries to settle the people in. And he established several village advisory posts.

In the third month, refugees from Guanzhong, Deng Ding, Hong Di, and others (occupied Chenggu and) pillaged Dongchen 勢 in Hanzhong in rebellion. Jin's Administrator of Baxi, Zhang Yan, led troops to besiege them, along with the General of the Serrated Gate, Wu Zhao, and the Minister of Hanguo commandary, Xuan Ding. Hong Di asked for help from Li Xiong.

In summer, the fifth month, Li Xiong sent Li Li, Li Yun, Li Huang, and Li Feng into Hanzhong to reinforce Deng Ding.

When Du Mengzhi heard that Li Li was coming, he ordered Zhang Yan to lift his siege against Deng Ding and come protect the provincial capital. Earlier, when Zhang Yan was coming to attack Deng Ding, since Deng Ding's forces were suffering from hunger, he pretended to surrender. He even sent Zhang Yan a 器 of gold, which Zhang Yan accepted. After waiting for seven days, Hong Di returned, and Deng Ding then withdrew back to Dongchen 勢. Zhang Yan then advanced to besiege him, not listening to what Du Mengzhi had ordered.

When Li Li arrived, he first attacked Wu Zhao's camp and routed it. Then he attacked Xuan Ding, and routed him as well. Zhang Yan was afraid to fight him, and he fled at the head of a hundred riders. Li Li and the other Cheng commanders then greatly routed the provincial army.

The General of the Serrated Gate, Cai Song, fled to Du Mengzhi and told him, "The provincial army has already been routed, and the rebels are numerous. We cannot resist them."

This frightened Du Mengzhi.

The General Who Nurtures The Army (Zhang Yin) wished to hold the city, and he told Du Mengzhi, "Even if the coming rebels are numerous, they are merely an annoyance. This is only a threat from the southeast, and we need not divide our garrison soldiers to send some far away. All we need to do is face and capture Deng Ding and Hong Di."

But Du Mengzhi replied, "Not so. Li Xiong has crowned himself as a ruler, and he runs rampart across the realm. Now he sends this great force against us, and he is certain to take Hanzhong. Though we have the defenses of this city, the soldiers and the people have already lost their courage. They will not stand with us against these invaders." And he opened the gates and fled. So (Zhang Yin) returned north again.

Du Mengzhi led several thousand families and carts into Dasang Valley, traveling several dozen li through the night. But the father of Jing Zi of Zitong had a grudge against Du Mengzhi, so he and his sons and younger brothers pursued him. They caught up with him at the mouth of the valley. Du Mengzhi abandoned his children and fled, and Jing Zi captured them and more than a thousand families of officials. Only the Merit Evaluator of Hanguo, He Yan of Wujian, declared, "Though I am no one of importance, I am still a minister of my state. If my state dies, I cannot keep on living. I shall never serve under such bandits." And he starved himself inside the valley.

After more than ten days, Li Li and the other Cheng commanders returned. Two natives of Hanzhong, Gou Fang and Bai Luo, led the officials and people of that commandary back to guard Nanzheng.

[漢安、僰道]: 元豐本脫安字。他各本有。嘉泰當有,李補也。[「書」]: 廖本注云:「當作施。」茲改。[就民所在]: 按謂置僑郡橋縣也。又施廖本注云:「當有置字。」茲補。[訇氐]: 張、吳、何、王、浙石本作氏。[〔據成固〕]: 依《通鑑》補。[次攻定]: 此謂宣定。[州軍已]: 舊各本作以。廖本作已。[定氐]: 吳本作氏。[〔日〕]: 舊脫日字說詳注釋。[荊子]: 此下,元豐、錢、劉、李本並有小注云:「疑字有誤。」廖本加「舊校云」三字。《函海》作:「原注疑字有。字,劉李本作誤。何本無此注。」今案:張、吳、何、王、浙、石本均無此注。蓋唐人舊校原有,張佳胤刪也。[荷檐]: 錢、劉、李三本作擔。杖元豐與廖本作杖。錢寫本與吳、何、石本作仗,劉、李、《函》本作伏。王本作仗。[離等引還]: 《通鑑》有「盡徙漢中民於蜀」句。(Huayang Guozhi Commentary)

(In the name Han'an, the Yuanfeng edition is missing the character An, which the other editions have. It should also mention Jiatai, which the Li edition includes.

Luo Shang should be noted as "wandering through" rather than "writing to" the various locations.

The places which Luo Shang created should be noted as "emigre" counties and commandaries, copies of the original ones. And the Liao edition notes that "it should mention that he created them".

The Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions record the given name of 訇氐 Hong Di as 訇氏 Hong Shi. And the Wu edition repeats this later on.

I have included the phrase "occupied Chenggu" in accordance with the account of these events in the Zizhi Tongjian.

It should be emphasized that the "Ding" whom Li Li attacked was Xuan Ding, not Deng Ding.

The old editions all say "since/once the provincial army has been defeated". The Liao edition writes it as "the provincial army has already been defeated".

The old editions omit notice that Du Mengqi moved "day and" night.

The earlier comments about Jing Zi apply here as well.

Regarding 荷檐 He Yan, the Qian, Liu, and Li editions write his given name as Yan, while the Yuanfeng and Liao editions write it as 杖 Zhang. The Qian edition agrees with the Wu, He, and Shi editions in writing it as 仗 Zhang, while the Liu, Li, and 函 editions have it as 伏 Fu. The Wang edition has it as 仗 Zhang.

The account of this event in the Zizhi Tongjian adds that Li Li and the others "moved the entire population of Hanzhong commandary with them back south into Cheng".)


石勒與苟晞等相持於平原、陽平間數月,大小三十餘戰,互有勝負。秋,七月,己酉朔,太傅越屯官渡,爲晞聲援。

16. Shi Le was locked in stalemate for several months with Gou Xi and the other Jin commanders at Pingyuan and Yangping. They fought more than thirty battles, large and small, and both sides had their share of victories and defeats.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Jiyou (August 15th), Sima Yue camped at Guandu in order to provide Gou Xi with any necessary reinforcements.

己未,以琅邪王睿爲安東將軍、都督揚州‧江南諸軍事、假節,鎭建業。

17. On the day Jiwei (August 25th), Sima Rui was appointed as General Who Maintains The East, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou south of the Yangzi, and Credential Holder, and he was stationed in Jianye.

〈時周馥鎭壽春,督揚州之江北,故睿督揚州之江南。《考異》曰:《元帝紀》曰:「東海王越之收兵下邳,以帝都督揚州;越西迎大駕,留帝居守。永嘉初,用王導計,始鎭建業。」按旣都督揚州,不當猶鎭下邳。又《懷帝紀》,明言「七月己未,睿都督揚州,鎭建業」,今從之。〉

(At this time, Zhou Fu was stationed in Shouchun and was Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou north of the Yangzi; this was why Sima Rui was appointed Commander for military affairs in Yangzhou south of the Yangzi.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yue was then gathering soldiers at Xiapi, and he appointed Sima Rui as Commander of Yangzhou. When Sima Yue went back west to welcome the return of the imperial carriage to Luoyang, he left Sima Rui in charge of that post. At the beginning of the Yongjia era (307), Sima Rui used Wang Dao's plan, and he first stationed himself in Jianye.' But seeing as Sima Rui was Commander of Yangzhou, he could not have still been guarding Xiapi. And the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin clearly states, 'In the seventh month, on the day Jiwei (August 25th), Sima Rui was appointed as Commander of Yangzhou and stationed in Jianye.' So I follow that account.")


八月,己卯朔,苟晞擊汲桑於東武陽,大破之。桑退保清淵。

18. In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Jimao (September 14th), Gou Xi attacked Ji Sang at Dongwuyang County and greatly routed him. Ji Sang retreated to defend Qingyuan County.

〈東武陽縣,漢屬東郡,魏、晉屬陽平郡,後魏去「東」字爲武陽縣。唐貞觀初,廢武陽入魏州莘縣,開元七年,復置,改爲朝城縣。杜佑曰:魏郡莘縣南有東武陽城。〉〈清淵縣,漢屬魏郡。應劭曰:清河在縣西北。晉屬陽平郡,後魏分置臨清縣;後齊廢臨清縣入清淵。唐避高祖諱,改清淵爲臨清,屬貝州。〉

(During Han, Dongwuyang County was part of Dong commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Northern Wei removed the "Dong" part of the name, making it simply Wuyang County. At the beginning of Tang's Zhenguan era (~627), Wuyang County was annexed into Shen County in Weizhou. In the seventh year of the Kaiyuan era (719), it was recreated as Zhaocheng County. Du You remarked, "There is a Dongwuyang City in the south of Shen County in Wei commandary."

During Han, Qingyuan County was part of Wei commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "The Qing River was in the northwest of the county." During Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Northern Wei split off part of it as Linqing County, but Northern Qi annexed that back into Qingyuan County. During Tang, in order to avoid the naming taboo on Gaozu's (Li Yuan's) name, the whole county name was changed to Linqing. It was part of Beizhou.)


分荊州、江州八郡爲湘州。

19. Eight commandaries from Jingzhou and Jiangzhou were split off to form Xiangzhou.

〈《晉志》:帝分荊州之衡陽、長沙、湘東、零陵、邵陽、桂陽及廣州之始安、始興、臨賀九郡,置湘州。《帝紀》曰:分荊、江八郡爲湘州。《紀》、《志》自相抵牾。此從《紀》。沈約亦曰:分荊州之長沙、衡陽、湘東、邵陵、零陵、營陽、建昌,江州之桂陽八郡,立湘州。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Emperor split off Hengyang, Changsha, Xiangdong, Lingling, Shaoyang, and Guiyang commandaries from Jingzhou and Shi'an, Shixing, and Linhe commandaries from Guangzhou, and from these nine commandaries formed Xiangzhou." The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, "He split off eight commandaries from Jingzhou and Jiangzhou to form Xiangzhou." These two accounts naturally contradict each other. This passage of Zizhi Tongjian follows the latter account. And Shen Yue also remarked, "They split off the commandaries of Changsha, Hengyang, Xiangdong, Shaoling, Lingling, Yingyang, and Jianchang from Jingzhou and Guiyang commandary from Jiangzhou, and from these eight commandaries formed Xiangzhou.")


九月,戊申,琅邪王睿至建業。睿以安東司馬王導爲謀主,推心親信,每事咨焉。睿名論素輕,吳人不附,居久之,士大夫莫有至者,導患之。會睿出觀禊,導使睿乘肩輿,具威儀,導與諸名勝皆騎從,紀瞻、顧榮等見之驚異,相帥拜於道左。導因說睿曰:「顧榮、賀循,此土之望,宜引之以結人心;二子旣至,則無不來矣。」睿乃使導躬造循、榮,二人皆應命而至。以循爲吳國內史;榮爲軍司,加散騎常侍,凡軍府政事,皆與之謀議。又以紀瞻爲軍祭酒,卞壼爲從事中郎,周玘爲倉曹屬,琅邪劉超爲舍人,張闓及魯國孔衍爲參軍。壼,粹之子;闓,昭之曾孫也。王導說睿:「謙以接士,儉以足用,以清靜爲政,撫綏新舊;故江東歸心焉。」睿初至,頗以酒廢事;導以爲言。睿命酌,引觴覆之,於此遂絕。

20. In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 13th), Sima Rui arrived at Jianye. Sima Rui appointed his Marshal, Wang Dao, as his chief advisor; he confided in Wang Dao and become very close to him, and he consulted Wang Dao on every matter.

Now Sima Rui had long been regarded as a man of little importance, and the people of the Wu region were not inclined to support him. Even after Sima Rui had been there for some time, none of the great gentlemen of the region would come serve under him. Wang Dao was greatly vexed by this.

At that time, Sima Rui was going out to observe a ritual of purification on the waterfront. Wang Dao had Sima Rui ride on a sedan chair, fitted out to display his power and majesty, while Wang Dao and several other esteemed fellows all rode horses behind him. When Ji Zhan, Gu Rong, and others saw this procession, they were astonished and marveled at it, and they led their people to salute Sima Rui by the side of the road.

Wang Dao then advised Sima Rui, "Gu Rong and He Xun are the great hope of these people. You should bring them over to you and win their hearts. Once you have these two, then there is no one else who will not come to you."

So Sima Rui sent Wang Dao to personally speak to He Xun and Gu Rong, and both of them heeded Sima Rui's command and came to join him. Sima Rui appointed He Xun as Interior Minister of the princely fief of Wu, and he appointed Gu Rong as Marshal to the Army and Cavalier In Regular Attendance. In all military or government matters, both of them were consulted and asked for their suggestions.

Sima Rui aso appointed Ji Zhan as Army Libationer (or, Libationer-Consultant), Bian Ken as Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Zhou Qi as Assistant Granary Manager, Liu Chao of Langye as a Retainer, and Zhang Kai and Kong Yan of the Lu princely fief as Army Advisors. This Bian Ken was the son of Bian Cui; this Zhang Kai was the great-grandson of Zhang Zhao.

Wang Dao advised Sima Rui, "Be modest when meeting with people, and be thrifty and only use what you need to. In this way, you may govern purely and cleanly, and you will reassure both the old residents of this region and the new. That will win you the hearts of the people of the Southland."

When Sima Rui had first arrived at Jianye, he was inclined to drink and to ignore his duties. But by such admonishments, Wang Dao rectified his behavior. Sima Rui had some wine brought to him, and then he deliberately overturned the cup and spilled the wine, thus breaking off his drinking habit.

〈禊,祓除不祥也。《漢儀》:季春上巳,官及百姓皆禊於東流水上。應劭《風俗通》曰:按《周禮》,女巫掌歲時以祓除疾病。禊者,潔也,於水上盥潔之也。肩輿,平肩輿也,人以肩舉之而行。〉〈《考異》曰:《導傳》曰:「元帝鎭建康,居月餘,士庶莫有至者。會從兄敦來朝,導謂之曰:『琅邪王仁德雖厚,而名論猶輕;兄威風已振,宜有以匡濟者。』會三月上巳,帝觀禊,敦、導皆騎從。」《王敦傳》:「東海王越誅繆播後,乃以敦爲揚州刺史,其後徵拜尚書,不就。」《周玘傳》:「錢璯聞劉聰逼洛陽,不敢進,乃謀反。時王敦遷尚書,與璯俱西,欲殺敦,敦奔告元帝。」《懷帝紀》:「永嘉元年七月,琅邪王睿鎭建業。三年三月,殺繆播。四年二月,錢璯反。」是時睿在建業已三年矣,安得言月餘!又睿名論雖輕,安有爲都督數年而士庶莫有至者!陳敏得江東,猶首用周、顧以收人望;導爲睿佐,豈得待數年然後薦之乎!然則《導傳》所云,難以盡信,今删去導語及敦名而已。〉〈軍司,軍司馬也。〉〈職爲軍司,此加官也。〉〈【張:「軍」下脫「諮」字。】〉〈壼,苦本翻。〉〈晉諸王國有謁者四人,中大夫六人,舍人十人。〉〈卞粹見上卷惠帝太安二年。〉〈張昭輔吳爲元臣。〉〈新,謂自中原來者;舊,謂江東人。〉〈史言元帝能用王導所以興於江左。〉

(To purify means to purge all that is ill-omened. The Ceremonies of Han states, "On the day of the Double Third Festival, which is the third day of the third month of spring, the ministers and the common people all purify themselves in east-flowing waters." Ying Shao's Customs and Traditions states, "According to the Rites of Zhou, witches will choose a time each year to purify and cure illnesses. To purify means to clean oneself, by washing oneself in the the river."

A sedan chair is a chair hoisted on a flat board, held aloft on the shoulders of men who then walk forward.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Wang Dao in the Book of Jin states, 'When Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) was stationed at Jiankang (Jianye), he had been there for more than a month already, and yet none of the great gentlemen of the region had come to serve under him. At that time, Wang Dao's cousin Wang Dun arrived from the court. Wang Dao said to him, "The Prince of Langye (Sima Rui) is a benevolent and virtuous man even after all the favor he has been shown, and yet people do not think him of much importance. Cousin, you have already gained considerable power and prestige; you may help me to rectify this situation." It was then the Double Third Festival in the third month, and when Emperor Yuan went to attend the purification festival, Wang Dun and Wang Dao rode behind him.'

"The Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin states, 'After Sima Yue executed Mou Bo, he appointed Wang Dun as the Administrator of Yangzhou. Some time after Wang Dun had left for that post, Sima Yue summoned him back to serve in Luoyang as a Master of Writing, but Wang Dun would not return.'

"The Biography of Zhou Qi in the Book of Jin states, 'When Qian Hui heard that Liu Cong was threatening Luoyang, he dared not advance any further, and he even plotted to rebel himself. At that time, Wang Dun had left his post as a Master of Writing and gone west together with Qian Hui. Qian Hui now wanted to kill Wang Dun, but he fled and informed Emperor Yuan about it.'

"Regarding these three incidents, the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the seventh month of the first year of Yongjia (307), Sima Rui was stationed at Jianye." And, 'In the third month of the third year (309), Mou Bo was killed.' And, 'In the second month of the fourth year (310), Qian Hui rebelled.'

"If we accept all of the three biography entries as correct, then by the time that Wang Dun arrived in the Southland, Sima Rui would have been in Jianye for three years already, so how could the phrase 'more than a month' in the Biography of Wang Dao possibly be correct? And no matter how unimportant Sima Rui had been considered, how could he possibly have held Commander authority for several years and still not have had any gentlemen come to serve him? Even when Chen Min took control of the Southland, he was still able to use Zhou Qi and Gu Rong to bring esteemed people over to him. Besides, Wang Dao was Sima Rui's close advisor, so how could he have waited for several years before recommending such a thing to win people over to Sima Rui? It is thus difficult to believe everything that the Biography of Wang Dao records about this incident. Therefore, I have removed the mentions of Wang Dun and of Wang Dao's words to him, while keeping the rest."

A 軍司 was a Marshal to the Army.

Gu Rong was given his post as Cavalier In Regular Attendance in addition to his post as Marshal to the Army.

Some versions state that Ji Zhan was appointed as "Army Libationer-Consultant".

Bian Ken's given name 壼 is pronounced "ken (k-en)".

In their princely fiefs, the Princes of Jin had four Internuncios, six Household Counselors, and ten Retainers.

Bian Cui was one of the plotters with Li Han who attempted to assassinate Sima Ai. He is mentioned in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (303.12).

Zhang Zhao was a chief minister during Eastern Wu.

By "the new residents and the old", Wang Dao refers to those people who had come to the Southland from the Central Plains and those who were from established families of the south.

This passage demonstrates how Sima Rui was able to use Wang Dao in order to establish his rise in the Southland.)


苟晞追擊汲桑,破其八壘,死者萬餘人。桑與石勒收餘衆,將奔漢,冀州刺史譙國丁紹邀之於赤橋,又破之。桑奔馬牧,勒奔樂平。太傅越還許昌,加苟晞撫軍將軍、都督青‧兗諸軍事,丁紹寧北將軍、監冀州諸軍事,皆假節。

21. Gou Xi pursued and attacked Ji Sang, and broke through his eight ramparts, killing more than ten thousand enemies. Ji Sang and Shi Le gathered up their remaining men and fled towards Liu Yuan's Han state. But the Inspector of Jizhou, Ding Shao of the Qiao princely fief, intercepted them at Chiqiao and routed them again. Ji Sang fled back to the horse pastures, while Shi Le fled to Leping.

Sima Yue then returned to Xuchang. He appointed Gou Xi as General Who Nurtures The Army and Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou and Yanzhou, and he appointed Ding Shao as General Who Tranquilizes The North and Chief of military affairs in Jizhou. Both of them were also appointed as Credential Holders.

〈茌平馬牧也。〉〈《晉志》,陽平郡有樂平縣,前漢東郡之清縣也,後漢章帝改曰樂平。但石勒欲奔漢,則非此樂平也。又幷州有樂平郡,武帝泰始中置,唐之遼州也;勒奔于此。〉

(The "horse pastures" were the ones at Chiping.

According to the Records of Jin, there was a Leping county in Yangping commandary. During Former Han, it was Zhiqing county in Dong commandary. Its name was changed during Later Han by Emperor Zhang to Leping. But seeing as Shi Le meant to flee to Liu Yuan's Han state, he could not have been heading towards this Leping. There was also a Leping commandary in Bingzhou, which Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) had created during the Taishi era (265-274); this Leping commandary was part of Liaozhou during Tang. Shi Le must have fled there.)


桑尋為晉將苟晞所敗。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Ji Sang was later defeated by the Jin general Gou Xi.


晞屢破強寇,威名甚盛,善治繁劇,用法嚴峻。其從母依之,晞奉養甚厚。從母子求爲將,晞不許,曰:「吾不以王法貸人,將無後悔邪!」固求之,晞乃以爲督護;後犯法,晞杖節斬之,從母叩頭救之,不聽。旣而素服哭之曰:「殺卿者,兗州刺史,哭弟者,苟道將也。」

22. Gou Xi had now routed powerful enemies several times, and his might and reputation spread far and wide. He was a man skilled at governing well, and he was strict and exacting in enforcing the law.

Gou Xi had an aunt that relied upon him for support, and he treated her with great kindness, showing the same regard as a child would for a parent. His aunt had a son who wanted to become a general, but Gou Xi would not allow it; he told his cousin, "I cannot bend the royal laws on account of anyone. You will regret this someday!" But his cousin was insistent, so at last Gou Xi appointed him as a Protector.

Later, when his cousin violated the law, Gou Xi held his military tally and sentenced the man to death. Gou Xi's aunt kowtowed before him and begged him to spare her son, but he would not be moved. After her son was executed, she put on white mourning clothing and wept. She said to herself, "The one who killed his subordinate minister was the Inspector of Yanzhou. But the one who wept for the loss of his younger cousin was Gou Daojiang."

〈苟晞,字道將。〉

(Gou Xi's style name was Daojiang.)


胡部大張㔨督、馮莫突等,擁衆數千,壁于上黨,石勒往從之,因說㔨督等曰:「劉單于舉兵擊晉,部大拒而不從,自度終能獨立乎?」曰:「不能。」勒曰:「然則安可不早有所屬!今部落皆已受單于賞募,往往聚議,欲叛部大而歸單于矣。」㔨督等以爲然。冬,十月,㔨督等隨勒單騎歸漢,漢王淵署㔨督爲親漢王,莫突爲都督部大,以勒爲輔漢將軍、平晉王,以統之。

23. Local tribal chiefs, Zhang Beidu, Feng Motu, and others, had gathered together several thousand people at a holdout in Shangdang. Shi Le came to join them, and he advised Zhang Beidu and the other chiefs, "Liu Chanyu (Liu Yuan) has raised his soldiers to attack Jin. Now you chiefs are resisting his rule and do not go along with him. Do you suppose that you will be able to stand independent?"

They replied, "We cannot."

Shi Le continued, "Then why do you not make yourselves subordinates of someone or other? All of the tribes have already become Liu Chanyu's recruits and taken his pay, and whenever they gather together and talk, they want to rebel against you and go join the Chanyu."

Zhang Beidu and the others felt there was reason in what he said.

In winter, the tenth month, Zhang Beidu and the rest went with Shi Le on lone horses to go to Han. Liu Yuan appointed Zhang Beidu as King Friendly To Han and Feng Motu as Commander of the Tribal Chiefs. He also appointed Shi Le as General Who Upholds Han and Prince Who Pacifies Jin, and put him in command over these tribes.

〈胡人一部之長,呼爲部大。〉〈劉單于,謂劉淵也。〉

(The ruler of one of the tribal groups was called the tribal chief.

"Liu Chanyu" refers to Liu Yuan.)


十一月,石勒及胡部等帥衆來降。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the eleventh month, Shi Le and other tribal groups led their forces to submit to Liu Yuan.

永嘉元年,勒歸劉淵,拜為輔漢將軍、平晉王。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Le)

In the first year of Yongjia (307), Shi Le came to Liu Yuan, who appointed him as General Who Upholds Han and Prince Who Pacifies Jin.

勒往從劉淵,拜為輔漢將軍、平晉王。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le went to join Liu Yuan, who appointed him as General Who Upholds Han and Prince Who Pacifies Jin.


烏桓張伏利度有衆二千,壁于樂平,淵屢招,不能致。勒僞獲罪於淵,往奔伏利度,伏利度喜,結爲兄弟,使勒帥諸胡寇掠,所向無前,諸胡畏服。勒知衆心之附己,乃因會執伏利度,謂諸胡曰:「今起大事,我與伏利度誰堪爲主?」諸胡咸推勒。勒於是釋伏利度,帥其衆歸漢。淵加勒督山東征討諸軍事,以伏利度之衆配之。

24. The Wuhuan leader Zhang Fulidu had a host of two thousand people, at another rampart in Leping. Liu Yuan had often summoned this group, but they would not come to him.

At this time, Shi Le pretended that he had run afoul of some offense against Liu Yuan, and he fled to Zhang Fulidu. Zhang Fulidu was glad to have him, and they formed a bond as brothers. Zhang Fulidu had Shi Le lead his warriors to invade and pillage the land, and no one could stand before him, so all the tribesman feared and obeyed him.

Once Shi Le knew that he had won over these people to his side, he seized Zhang Fulidu at a feast and then demanded the tribesmen, "Who is more suited to lead you to achieve the great design: Zhang Fulidu, or me?" The tribesmen all acclaimed Shi Le as their leader. Shi Le then released Zhang Fulidu, and led all of his former followers to Han.

Liu Yuan promoted Shi Le, placing him in command of all the invading armies east of the mountains, with all of the tribesmen he had just won over as his personal retinue.

〈史言石勒之衆浸盛。〉

(This passage shows how Shi Le's army became ever stronger.)


十一月,戊申朔,日有食之。

25. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Wushen (December 12th), there was an eclipse.

甲寅,以尚書右僕射和郁爲征北將軍,鎭鄴。

26. On the day Jiayin (December 18th), the Supervisor of the Right of the Masters of Writing, He Yu, was appointed as General Who Conquers The North, and stationed at Ye.

乙亥,以王衍爲司徒。衍說太傅越曰:「朝廷危亂,當賴方伯,宜得文武兼資以任之。」乃以弟澄爲荊州都督,族弟敦爲青州刺史,語之曰:「荊州有江、漢之固,青州有負海之險,卿二人在外而吾居中,足以爲三窟矣。」澄至鎭,以郭舒爲別駕,委以府事。澄日夜縱酒,不親庶務,雖寇戎交急,不以爲懷。舒常切諫,以爲宜愛民養兵,保全州境,澄不從。

27. On the day Yihai (January 8th of 308), Wang Yan was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.

Wang Yan advised Sima Yue, "When the court is faced with danger and turmoil, you must rely upon the border commanders. Select those skilled in both civil and military affairs to fill these posts." So Sima Yue appointed Wang Yan's younger brother Wang Cheng as Commander of Jingzhou, and Wang Zu's younger brother Wang Dun as Inspector of Qingzhou. Wang Yan assured Sima Yue, "Jingzhou has the natural defenses of the Yangzi and the Han River, and Qingzhou has the sea to rely on. With these two gentlemen without, and myself within, that shall be sufficient to furnish our 'three burrows'."

When Wang Cheng arrived at his post in Jingzhou, he appointed Guo Shu as his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, and he left all affairs in Guo Shu's hands. Day and night, Wang Cheng acted drunk and outrageously. He did not tend to any of his duties himself, and even the constant invasions of the tribesmen could not move him. Guo Shu often harshly rebuked him, saying that he ought to love the people and tend to the soldiers in order to safeguard the whole territory of the province. But Wang Cheng did not listen to him.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》:「王衍言於太傅越,以王澄爲荊州,敦爲揚州,據吳、楚以爲形援,越從之。於是澄、敦同發,越餞之。」《敦傳》,自青州入爲中書監,東海王越誅繆播後,始出爲揚州。播死在永嘉三年三月,此年越在許昌,不在洛,故以《晉書》爲定。〉〈《戰國策》:馮煖謂孟嘗君曰:「狡兔有三窟,僅得免其死耳。」其後敦、澄自相魚肉,衍亦死於石勒,三窟安在哉!是以忠臣國爾忘家,蓋國安則家亦安也。陸佃《埤雅》曰:俗云兔營窟,必背丘相通,所謂狡兔三窟。〉〈爲王澄不能保荊州張本。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin states, 'Wang Yan made suggestions to Sima Yue, saying that he should send Wang Cheng to Jingzhou and Wang Dun to Yangzhou, so that they would be able to harness the power of the Wu and Chu regions to provide assistance to the realm. Sima Yue agreed with him. So Wang Cheng and Wang Dun went out at the same time, and Sima Yue gave them a farewell banquet.' But according to the Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin, after Wang Dun returned from Qingzhou he became Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and it was only after Sima Yue executed Mou Bo that Wang Dun went out to Yangzhou. Mou Bo's death was in the third month of the third year of Yongjia (309). During this year (307), Sima Yue was still at Xuchang, and was not at Luoyang. So I follow the account from the Book of Jin."

The Strategies of the Warring States states, "Feng Nuan said to Lord Mengcheng, 'The crafty hare digs itself three burrows, and even so, he only barely escapes from death. (Qi 4.2)." Now later on, Wang Dun and Wang Cheng both went to pieces, and Wang Yan also died at Shi Le's hand; where then were these supposed 'three burrows' which Wang Yan here boasts of? A truly loyal minister will focus on the state at the expense of his family, for when the state is secure, his family will also then be secure. Lu Dian's Piya dictionary states, "It is commonly said that when a hare builds his burrows, he makes several passages under the hill, and so we say that 'the crafty hare builds three burrows'."

This passage shows why Wang Cheng was unable to defend Jingzhou.)


十二月,戊寅,乞活田甄、田蘭、薄盛等起兵,爲新蔡王騰報讎,斬汲桑于樂陵。棄成都王穎棺於故井中,穎故臣收葬之。

28. It was earlier mentioned that many of the officials who had fled from Bingzhou to Jizhou after Sima Teng departed that province were in a group now called the Lifeseekers. In the twelfth month, on the day Wuyin (January 11th of 308), the commanders of these Lifeseekers, Tian Zhen, Tian Lan, Bao Sheng, and others, raised soldiers and proclaimed they were fighting to avenge Sima Teng's death at Ji Sang's hand. They killed Ji Sang at Leling, and then threw the coffin of Sima Ying that Ji Sang had been carting around with him into a well. Sima Ying's former subordinates came and claimed the coffin and reburied it.

〈樂陵縣,漢屬平原郡,晉分爲樂陵國,唐爲縣。宋白曰:棣州陽信縣,魏屬樂陵國,晉斬汲桑於此,屬滄州。〉

(During Han, Leling county was part of Pingyuan commandary. Jin had split it off as the Leling princely fief. During Tang, it became a county again. Song Bai remarked, "The Yangxin county in Dizhou was Cao-Wei's Leling princely fief. It was at this place that Jin killed Ji Sang. It is part of Cangzhou.")


桑敗,度棺于故井中。穎故臣收之,改葬於洛陽,懷帝加以縣王禮。(Book of Jin 59, Biography of Sima Ying)

After Ji Sang was defeated, Sima Ying’s coffin was dumped into a well. His former subordinates came and claimed the coffin, and reburied him at Luoyang, with Emperor Huai granting him the ceremonies due to the prince of a county.


甲午,以前太傅劉寔爲太尉,寔以老固辭;不許。庚子,以光祿大夫高光爲尚書令。

29. On the day Jiawu (January 27th of 308), the former Grand Tutor, Liu Shi, was appointed as Grand Commandant. He tried to decline the post on account of old age, but this was refused.

On the day Gengzi (February 2nd of 308), the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Gao Guang, was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

前北軍中候呂雍、度支校尉陳顏等謀立清河王覃爲太子;事覺,太傅越矯詔囚覃於金墉城。

30. The former Palace Marquis of the Northern Army, Lü Yong, the Colonel of Logistical Affairs, Chen Yan, and others plotted to establish Sima Tan as the Crown Prince. The plot was discovered, and Sima Yue forged an edict ordering Sima Tan to be imprisoned in the Jinyong fortress.

〈度支校尉,蓋當時所置,以督漕運者也。〉

(The Colonel of Logistical Affairs was created at this time, in charge of directing logistics and supplies.)


初,太傅越與苟晞親善,引升堂,結爲兄弟。司馬潘滔說越曰:「兗州衝要,魏武以之創業。苟晞有大志,非純臣也,久令處之,則患生心腹矣。若遷于青州,厚其名號,晞必悅。公自牧兗州,經緯諸夏,藩衞本朝,此所謂爲之於未亂者也。」越以爲然。癸卯,越自爲丞相,領兗州牧,都督兗、豫、司、冀、幽、幷諸軍事。以晞爲征東大將軍、開府儀同三司,加侍中、假節、都督青州諸軍事,領青州刺史,封東平郡公。越、晞由是有隙。

31. Up until this time, Sima Yue had been on good terms with Gou Xi, and when he would lead Gou Xi into court, they acted as close as brothers.

But now, Sima Yue's Marshal Pan Tao advised him, "Yanzhou is a strategic crossroads. It was from that region that Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) first got his start on his great enterprise. Gou Xi is a man of grand ambitions, and he will not suffer to remain the subordinate of another. If you continue to manage him as you have been, he will certainly became a threat to the very heart of the dynasty. However, if you were to move him to Qingzhou, while still showing him great respect and showering him with lofty titles, he would certainly be satisfied. Then you yourself could govern Yanzhou, and so wield control over all of the various people while still safeguarding the court. This would be an instance of 'order being secured before disorder has begun.'"

Sima Yue agreed with him.

On the day Guimao (February 5th of 308), Sima Yue appointed himself as Prime Minister, acting Governor of Yanzhou, and Commander of military affairs in Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Sizhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou. He appointed Gou Xi as Grand General Who Conquers The East, Palace Attendant, Credential Holder, Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, acting Inspector of Qingzhou, and Duke of Dongping commandary, as well as granting him a Separate Office with equal authority to the Three Excellencies.

From now on, Sima Yue and Gou Xi became distant from one another.

〈事見六十卷、六十一卷。〉〈《老子》曰:其安易持,其未兆易謀,其脆易破,其微易散;爲之於未有,治之於未亂。〉〈杜佑曰:晉司徒與丞相通職,更置迭廢,未嘗並立,至永嘉元年始兩置焉,王衍爲司徒,東海王越爲丞相。〉〈爲後晞馳檄罪狀越張本。〉

(Cao Cao's beginnings as a warlord in Yanzhou are mentioned in Books 60 and 61 (in de Crespigny’s To Establish Peace).

The Daodejing states, "That which is at rest is easily kept hold of; before a thing has given indications of its presence, it is easy to take measures against it; that which is brittle is easily broken; that which is very small is easily dispersed. Action should be taken before a thing has made its appearance; order should be secured before disorder has begun. (64)"

Du You remarked, "During Jin, since the offices of Minister Over The Masses and Prime Minister had the same duties, it was originally the case that whenever one of these offices was filled, the other was abolished, and they did not both exist at the same time. But in the first year of Yongjia (307), both of them were created: Wang Yan as Minister Over The Masses, and Sima Yue as Prime Minister."

This was why Gou Xi later spread proclamations announcing Sima Yue's crimes and offenses.)


晞至青州,以嚴刻立威,日行斬戮,州人謂之「屠伯」。頓丘太守魏植爲流民所逼,衆五六萬,大掠兗州,晞出屯無鹽以討之。以弟純領青州,刑殺更甚於晞。晞討植,破之。

32. When Gou Xi arrived at Qingzhou, he imposed strict order and displayed his power. Every day, he executed so many people that the people of the province took to calling him "the Butcher Baron".

The Administrator of Dunqiu, Wei Zhi, was swept up by refugees into becoming their leader. This host of fifty or sixty thousand greatly plundered Yanzhou. Gou Xi marched out to camp at Wuyan to campaign against them. He left his younger brother Gou Chun in charge of Qingzhou in his absence, and Gou Chun charged and killed even more people than Gou Xi had.

Gou Xi campaigned against Wei Zhi and routed him.

〈鄧展曰:言殺人若屠兒之殺六畜。伯,長也。〉〈無鹽縣,屬東平國,唐屬濟州界。〉

(Deng Zhan remarked, "They call someone a butcher when he kills people like a butcher would slaughter the Six Livestock."

A baron is a kind of lord.

Wuyan County was part of the Dongping princely fief. It was within Tang's Shuji.)


初,陽平劉靈,少貧賤,力制奔牛,走及奔馬,時人雖異之,莫能舉也。靈撫膺歎曰:「天乎,何當亂也!」及公師藩起,靈自稱將軍,寇掠趙、魏。會王彌爲苟純所敗,靈亦爲王讚所敗,遂俱遣使降漢。漢拜彌鎭東大將軍、青‧徐二州牧、都督緣海諸軍事,封東萊公;以靈爲平北將軍。

33. There lived a certain Liu Ling. As a youth, he had lived in poverty. He was strong enough to control a charging bull, and as swift as a dashing horse. But although the people of that time marveled at him, no one was able to help him. Liu Ling smote his breast and wailed, "O Heavens, whence comes this chaos?"

When the rebel leader Gongshi Fan rose up, Liu Ling also styled himself a General, and he invaded and plundered the regions of Zhao and Wei. Soon after, when the rebel Wang Mi was defeated by Gou Chun, Liu Ling was also defeated by Wang Zan, and they both went to offer their loyalty to Liu Yuan's Han state. Liu Yuan appointed Wang Mi as Grand General Who Conquers The East, Governor of Qingzhou and Xuzhou, Commander of all military affairs along the seacoasts, and Duke of Donglai. He appointed Liu Ling as General Who Pacifies The North.

〈膺,胸也。〉〈《考異》曰:《彌傳》曰:「彌逼洛陽,敗於七里澗,乃與其黨劉靈謀歸漢。」按《十六國春秋》:靈爲王讚所逐,彌爲苟純所敗,乃謀降漢。今年春,靈已在淵所,五月,彌乃如平陽。然則二人先降漢已久矣,《彌傳》誤也。〉

(The breast is the chest.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Wang Mi in the Book of Jin states, 'Wang Mi threatened Luoyang, but he was defeated at Seven Li Gully, and he and his partisan Liu Ling then plotted to go join Han.' According to the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, Liu Ling was defeated by Wang Zan, and Wang Mi was defeated by Gou Chun, and only then did they consider submitting to Han. By the spring of this year (307), Liu Ling was already in Liu Yuan's service, and it was only in the fifth month that Wang Mi journeyed to Pingyang in Han. Since one of these two had already been in service under Han for some time, the Biography of Wang Mi is in error.")


州刺史苟晞逆擊彌,大破之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

The Inspector of Yanzhou, Gou Xi, intercepted Wang Mi and attacked him, greatly routing him.

四部之東萊王彌起兵青徐,遣使來降,拜鎮東大將軍、青州刺史、東萊郡公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

The four divisions of Wang Mi of Donglai rose up with soldiers in Qingzhou and Xuzhou. Wang Mi sent envoys to Liu Yuan to submit to him, and Liu Yuan appointed him as Grand General Who Guards The East, Inspector of Qingzhou, and Duke of Donglai commandary.


李釗至寧州,州人奉釗領州事。治中毛孟詣京師,求刺史,屢上奏,不見省。孟曰:「君亡親喪,幽閉窮城,萬里訴哀,精誠無感,生不如死!」欲自刎,朝廷憐之,以魏興太守王遜爲寧州刺史,仍詔交州出兵救李釗。交州刺史吾彥遣其子咨將兵救之。

34. It was earlier mentioned that the court had sent Li Zhao to Ningzhou to deal with the tribal rebellion there. When he finally arrived during this year, the people of Ningzhou entrusted him with the affairs of the province.

The 治中 of Ningzhou, Mao Meng, went to visit Luoyang, asking that someone be sent to Ningzhou to properly serve as Inspector there. He sent up many petitions to this effect, but they were not reviewed. Mao Meng exclaimed, "My lord is dead and his relatives are in mourning, isolated and enclosed in a destitute city. I have traveled ten thousand li to inform you of this lamentable state of affairs, and yet my earnest appeals have been met with apathy. I ought to die rather than live!" And he made as though to cut his own throat. The court was moved by his display, and so they finally appointed the Administrator of Weixing, Wang Xun, as the new Inspector of Ningzhou.

An edict was also issued ordering Jiaozhou to send troops to support Li Zhao in Ningzhou. The Inspector of Jiaozhou, Wu Yan, sent his son Wu Zi to lead the soldiers to rescue Li Zhao.

〈光熙元年,李毅卒,釗今乃至寧州。〉〈謂李毅已死,寧州受圍不解也。〉〈《考異》曰:《華陽國志》以廣漢太守王遜爲寧州。按時廣漢已爲李雄所陷。今從《遜傳》。〉

(In the first year of Guangxi (306.6), the Inspector of Ningzhou, Li Yi, had passed away, and Li Zhao had been sent to help assist Ningzhou. It was only now that he finally arrived.

Mao Meng's lament was that Li Yi was already dead, and the capital of Ningzhou was under a siege that was still not lifted.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Huayang Guozhi states that this Wang Xun chosen as the new Inspector of Ningzhou was the Administrator of Guanghan. But by this time, Guanghan commandary had already fallen to Li Xiong. So I follow the account of the Biography of Wang Xun in the Book of Jin.")


慕容廆自稱鮮卑大單于。

35. The Xianbei leader Murong Hui declared himself the Grand Chanyu of the Xianbei.

拓跋祿官卒,弟猗盧總攝三部,與廆通好。

36. Tuoba Luguan passed away. His younger brother Tuoba Yilu then combined back together the three divisions that the Tuoba clan had been divided into, and he established good relations with Murong Hui.

〈祿官分國爲三部,事見上八十二卷惠帝元康五年。〉

(Tuoba Luguan had divided the Tuoba state into three divisions, as mentioned in Book 82, in Emperor Hui's fifth year of Yuankang (295.4).)


十三年,昭帝崩。徒何大單于慕容廆遣使朝貢。穆皇帝天姿英特,勇略過人,昭帝崩後,遂總攝三部,以為一統。(Book of Northern Wei 1)

In the thirteenth year (307), Tuoba Luguan himself passed away.

The Grand Chanyu of the Murong clan of Tuhe, Murong Hui, sent envoys to the Tuoba State offering tribute.

Tuoba Yilu had natural talents as an exceptional hero, and his boldness and cunning were more than human. With Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Luguan both having passed away, Tuoba Yilu combined the three divisions back into a single whole, under his rule.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 25, 2018 6:26 pm, edited 13 times in total.
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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 2:25 am

二年(戊辰、三○八)

The Second Year of Yongjia (The Wuchen Year, 308 AD)


春,正月,丙午朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Bingwu (February 8th), there was an eclipse.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《天文志》云「丙子朔」。誤。今從《長曆》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai and the Astrological Records in the Book of Jin both state that this eclipse was 'on the new moon of the day Bingzi (?)'. This is mistaken. I follow the dates of the Calendar Records.")


丁未,大赦。

2. On the day Dingwei (February 9th), a general amnesty was declared.

漢王淵遣撫軍將軍聰等十將南據太行,輔漢將軍石勒等十將東下趙、魏。

3. Liu Yuan sent his General Who Nurtures The Army, his son Liu Cong, and nine other generals to march south and occupy Taixing. He also sent Shi Le and a further nine other generals east into the Zhao and Wei regions.

〈《考異》曰:《石勒載記》曰:「元海使劉聰攻壺關,命勒帥所統七千爲前鋒都督。劉琨遣護軍黃秀等救壺關,勒敗秀於白田,殺之,遂陷壺關。」事在明年。今從《十六國春秋》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Liu Yuan sent Liu Cong to attack Huguan, and ordered Shi Le to lead seven thousand soldiers as Liu Cong's Vanguard Commander. Liu Kun sent the Protector Huang Xiu and others to rescue Huguan. Shi Le defeated Huang Xiu at Baitian, killed him, and then took Huguan.' But that event took place in the following year (309). So I follow the account of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms.")


二月,辛卯,太傅越殺清河王覃。

4. In the second month, on the day Xinmao (March 24th), Sima Yue killed Sima Tan.

庚子,石勒寇常山,王浚擊破之。

5. On the day Gengzi (April 2nd), Shi Le invaded Changshan. Wang Jun attacked him and drove him off.

涼州刺史張軌病風,口不能言,使其子茂攝州事。隴西內史晉昌張越,涼州大族,欲逐軌而代之,與其兄酒泉太守鎭及西平太守曹袪謀遣使詣長安告南陽王模,稱軌廢疾,請以秦州刺史賈龕代之。龕將受之,其兄讓龕曰:「張涼州一時名士,威著西州,汝何德以代之!」龕乃止。鎭、袪上疏,更請刺史,未報,遂移檄廢軌,以軍司杜耽攝州事,使耽表越爲刺史。

6. The Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Gui, developed a severe illness, and his mouth could no longer speak. He had his son Zhang Mao take charge of the provincial affairs.

The Interior Minister of Longxi, Zhang Yue of Jinchang, was a member of one of the great clans of Liangzhou. He wanted to drive out Zhang Gui and replace him. He made plans with some others: the Administrator of Jiuquan, his elder brother Zhang Zhen, and the Administrator of Xiping, Cao Qu. They plotted to send someone to visit Chang'an and explain the situation to Sima Mo, claiming that Zhang Gui was indisposed because of his illness, and so they asked that the Inspector of Qinzhou, Jia Kan, be sent to replace him.

Jia Kan was about to accept this proposal, but his elder brother rebuked him, saying, "Inspector Zhang is a respected man of our times, and his might is felt throughout the western provinces. Are you virtuous enough to replace him?"

So Jia Kan changed his mind.

Zhang Zhen and Cao Qu continued to send up petitions asking for a new Inspector. But before they received a response, they began to distribute proclamations saying that Zhang Gui was unfit to govern. They acclaimed the Military Director Du Geng as the one to manage the provincial affairs, and they had Du Geng submit a petition asking that Zhang Jue be appointed as the new Inspector.

〈惠帝分敦煌、酒泉置晉昌郡。杜佑曰:晉昌,漢冥安縣地。〉〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》作「曹祗」。今從《張軌傳》。〉

(Emperor Hui had split off parts of Dunhuang and Jiuquan commandaries to form Jinchang commandary. Du You remarked, "Jinchang was the site of Han's Ming'an County."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding 曹袪 Cao Qu, The Annals of Jin records his name as 曹祗 Cao Zhi. But I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin.")


軌下敎,欲避位,歸老宜陽。長史王融、參軍孟暢蹋折鎭檄,排閤入言曰:「晉室多故,明公撫寧西夏,張鎭兄弟敢肆凶逆,當鳴皷誅之。」遂出,戒嚴。會軌長子寔自京師還,乃以寔爲中督護,將兵討鎭。遣鎭甥太府主簿令狐亞先往說鎭,爲陳利害,鎭流涕曰:「人誤我!」乃詣寔歸罪。寔南擊曹袪,走之。

7. When Zhang Gui recovered, he wanted to resign his office and live out his old age at Yiyang. But his Chief Clerk Wang Rong and his Army Advisor Meng Chang tore down Zhang Zhen's proclamations, barged through the gates into Zhang Gui's office, and told him, "When the Jin royal family was experiencing many difficulties, Your Excellency nurtured and calmed the people of the western Xia. Now Zhang Zhen and his brother dare to act recklessly and become wicked traitors. You must sound the drums and punish them." And they went out and set all military affairs in order.

Zhang Gui's eldest son Zhang Shi soon returned from Luoyang, so Zhang Gui appointed him as Protector of the Center, and gave him the command of the soldiers to campaign against Zhang Zhen.

Before acting, Zhang Gui ordered the Registrar to the Commander's Staff, Zhang Zhen's nephew Linghu Ya, to go warn Zhang Zhen first and explain to him the advantages and disadvantages of his position. Zhang Zhen wept and said, "I have been misled!" And he came to visit Zhang Shi to admit to his crimes.

Zhang Shi then marched south and attacked Cao Qu, and drove him away.

〈軌少隱宜陽女几山,故下敎欲歸老於宜陽。〉〈此西夏,謂河西之地。〉〈按《張軌傳》,有太府司馬、主簿,又有少府主簿。蓋以都督府爲太府,涼州府爲少府也。〉

(When Zhang Gui was young, he had lived in seclusion at Mount Nüji in Yiyang. This was why he now wished to retire in Yiyang.

The "western Xia" meant the region of Hexi.

According to the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin, there were Marshals and Registrars of the Greater Staff, and Registrars of the Lesser Staff. The staff of the Commander was this Greater Staff, and that of the Inspector was the Lesser Staff.)


朝廷得鎭、袪疏,以侍中袁瑜爲涼州刺史。治中楊澹馳詣長安,割耳盤上,訴軌之被誣。南陽王模表請停瑜,武威太守張琠亦上表留軌;詔依模所表,且命誅曹袪。軌於是命寔帥步騎三萬討袪,斬之。張越奔鄴,涼州乃定。

8. When the court received Zhang Zhen's and Cao Qu's petitions, they appointed the Palace Attendant Yuan Yu as the new Inspector of Liangzhou.

The 治中 of Liangzhou, Yang Dan, was then visiting Chang'an. He reported that Zhang Gui had been the victim of slander, and as a sign of his sincerity, he cut off his own ear onto a plate. So Sima Mo submitted a petition asking that Yuan Yu be halted, and the Administrator of Wuwei, Zhang Tian, also sent up a petition asking that Zhang Gui be kept on as Inspector.

An edict was issued approving Sima Mo's request, and further ordering that Cao Qu be executed. So Zhang Gui ordered Zhang Shi to lead thirty thousand horse and foot against Cao Qu, and Zhang Shi killed him. Zhang Yue fled to Ye. Peace was thus restored to Liangzhou.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》作「張澹」,今從《張軌傳》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin records the name of this 治中 as 'Zhang Dan'. But I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin.")


軌後患風,口不能言,使子茂攝州事。酒泉太守張鎮潛引秦州刺史賈龕以代軌,密使詣京師,請尚書侍郎曹祛為西平太守,圖為輔車之勢。軌別駕麹晁欲專威福,又遣使詣長安,告南陽王模,稱軌廢疾,以請賈龕,而龕將受之。其兄讓龕曰:「張涼州一時名士,威著西州,汝何德以代之!」龕乃止。更以侍中爰瑜為涼州刺史。治中楊澹馳詣長安,割耳盤上,訴軌之被誣,模乃表停之。晉昌張越,涼州大族,讖言張氏霸涼,自以才力應之。從隴西內史遷梁州刺史。越志在涼州,遂託病歸河西,陰圖代軌,乃遣兄鎮及曹祛、麹佩移檄廢軌,以軍司杜耽攝州事,使耽表越為刺史。軌令曰:「吾在州八年,不能綏靖區域,又值中州兵亂,秦隴倒懸,加以寢患委篤,實思斂跡避賢。但負荷任重,未便輒遂。不圖諸人橫興此變,是不明吾心也。吾視去貴州如脫屣耳!」欲遣主簿尉髦奉表詣闕,便速脂轄,將歸老宜陽。長史王融、參軍孟暢蹋折鎮檄,排闔諫曰:「晉室多故,人神塗炭,實賴明公撫寧西夏。張鎮兄弟敢肆凶逆,宜聲其罪而戮之,不可成其志也。」軌嘿然。融等出而戒嚴。武威太守張琠遣子坦馳詣京,表曰:「魏尚安邊而獲戾,充國盡忠而被譴,皆前史之所譏,今曰之明鑒也。順陽之思劉陶,守闕者千人。刺史之蒞臣州,若慈母之于赤子,百姓之愛臣軌,若旱苗之得膏雨。伏聞信惑流言,當有遷代,民情嗷嗷,如失父母。今戎夷猾夏,不宜騷動一方。」尋以子寔為中督護,率兵討鎮。遣鎮外甥太府主簿令狐亞前喻鎮曰:「舅何不審安危,明成敗?主公西河著德,兵馬如雲,此猶烈火已焚,待江漢之水,溺於洪流,望越人之助,其何及哉!今數萬之軍已臨近境,今唯全老親,存門戶,輸誠歸官,必保萬全之福。」鎮流涕曰:「人誤我也!」乃委罪功曹魯連而斬之,詣寔歸罪。南討曹祛,走之。張坦至自京師,帝優詔勞軌,依模所表,命誅曹祛。軌大悅,赦州內殊死已下。命寔率尹員、宋配步騎三萬討祛,別遣從事田迥、王豐率騎八百自姑臧西南出石驢,據長寧。怯[祛?]遣麹晁距戰于黃阪。寔詭道出浩亹,戰於破羌。軌斬祛及牙門田囂。(Book of Jin 86 (Zhang Gui))

Later on, Zhang Gui developed a severe illness, and his mouth could no longer speak. He had his son Zhang Mao take charge of the provincial affairs.

The Administrator of Jiuquan, Zhang Zhen, secretly asked the Inspector of Qinzhou, Jia Kan, to come and replace Zhang Gui. He also secretly sent someone to visit the capital, to ask that the Gentleman-Attendant of the Masters of Writing, Cao Qu, be appointed as Administrator of Xiping, planning to provide for mutual support between them.

Zhang Gui's Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Qu Chao, wanted to claim power and fortune as well, so he also sent someone to visit Chang'an and inform Sima Mo of the situation; claiming that Zhang Gui was indisposed because his illness, he asked for Jia Kan to come replace him.

Jia Kan was about to accept this proposal, but his elder brother rebuked him, saying, "Inspector Zhang is a respected man of our times, and his might is felt throughout the western provinces. Are you virtuous enough to replace him?" So Jia Kan changed his mind.

Instead, the Palace Attendant Yuan Yu was appointed as the new Inspector of Liangzhou. But the 治中 of Liangzhou, Yang Dan, rushed to visit Chang'an himself. He reported that Zhang Gui had been the victim of slander, and as a sign of his sincerity, he cut off his own ear onto a plate. So Sima Mo sent up a petition asking that Yuan Yu's appointment be halted.

Zhang Yue of Jinchang was a member of one of the great clans of Liangzhou. There was a prophecy which stated that the "Zhang clan" would dominate Liangzhou, and Zhang Jue felt that his own talents and strength fit the prophecy. He had been reassigned from Interior Minister of Longxi to Inspector of Lianzhou. But since his ambitions lay in Liangzhou, Zhang Yue pleaded illness and returned to the region west of the Yellow River, secretly plotting to replace Zhang Gui. He had his elder brother Zhang Zhen, as well as Cao Qu and Qu Pei, spread proclamations announcing that Zhang Gui had been deposed, and the Military Director Du Geng was the one managing the provincial affairs. He then had Du Geng submit a petition asking that Zhang Jue be appointed as the new Inspector.

Zhang Gui wrote out his views, stating, "I have been in charge of this province for eight years, yet I was unable to pacify the region. Now soldiers ravage across the Middle Provinces, and the regions of Qin and Long are in dire straits. Compound with my illness and infirmity, I really had considered resigning my post and making way for a worthy successor. But burdened as I was with such a heavy responsibility and a vital post, I was not yet at liberty to do as I wished. Yet I never suspected that these people would band together to bring about this development. They do not understand my heart. Would you see me cast out of your province like an old shoe?"

Zhang Gui wanted to send his Registrar Wei Mao to present a petition and visit the palace, to smooth the way for his replacement, and he was about to retire to live out his old age in Yiyang. But his Chief Clerk Wang Rong and his Army Advisor Meng Chang tore down Zhang Zhen's proclamations, barged through the gates into Zhang Gui's office, and told him, "The royal family is experiencing many difficulties, and the people are wallowing in misery. Your Excellency, it is truly your duty to nurture and calm the people of the west. Now Zhang Zhen and his brother dare to act recklessly and become wicked traitors. You must announce their crimes and punish them; do not let them realize their ambitions." Zhang Gui made no reply. Wang Rong and the others went out and set the army in order.

The Administrator of Wuwei, Zhang Tian, sent his son Zhang Tan to rush to the capital, where he presented a petition stating, "In former times, Wei Shang calmed the border regions yet still fell into dishonor, and Chong Guo was fully loyal yet still met with censure. These things are all attested to in the histories, and we may call them a clear mirror for what is happening now. When the people of Shunyang considered Liu Tao's fate, there were a thousand people who came to watch for him. When Inspector Zhang came to my province, it was like an affectionate mother caring for her infant child; the common people love him, like dry saplings which have now been soaked in rain. If you now put your faith in loose talk meant to mislead you, and have him replaced, the people will cry for him as though they had lost their fathers and mothers. And with the Rong and Yi barbarians already working their cunning on us, you should not further disturb a corner of the realm."

Soon Zhang Gui's son Zhang Shi was appointed as Protector of the Center, and he led troops to campaign against Zhang Zhen. He sent the Registrar to the Greater Staff, Zhang Zhen's nephew Linghu Ya, ahead to persuade Zhang Zhen. Linghu Ya said to him, "Uncle, do you not know the difference between safety and danger, and can you not recognize certain defeat? Our lord's virtue is spread throughout the regions west of the Yellow River, and his soldiers and horses are as numerous as clouds. The fire is already burning this fiercely, and yet you would wait to get water that comes from the Yangzi or the Han River? You are drowning in the floodwaters, and yet you would wait to receive help until someone can come all the way from Yue? How can such things be? Right now, there is an army of tens of thousands already at your doorstep. Only you can ensure the safety of your family, maintain your status, convey your sincerity to return to office, and protect all your good fortune."

Zhang Zhen wept as he replied, "I have been misled by others!" And he pinned the blame on his Merit Evaluator, Cao Lulian, and beheaded him, then visited Zhang Shi to admit to his crime.

Zhang Shi advanced south to campaign against Cao Qu, and drove him out. Zhang Tan then returned from the capital. Emperor Huai had written a special edict commending Zhang Gui's good work, and agreeing with the petition which Sima Mo had written confirming Zhang Gui in his office, further ordering Zhang Gui to execute Cao Qu. Zhang Gui was greatly pleased, and he declared an amnesty within the province for everyone up until those sentenced to death. He ordered Zhang Shi to lead thirty thousand horse and foot under Yin Chun and Song Pei to continue the campaign against Cao Qu, while separately sending his Attendant Officers, Tian Jiong and Wang Feng, to lead eight hundred cavalry from Guzang southwest out through Shilü to occupy Changning. Cao Qu sent Qu Chao to offer battle against Zhang Shi at Huang Slope. Zhang Shi took secret trails to come out through Hao Gorge, and he fought and routed the Qiang. Zhang Gui beheaded Cao Qu and his General of the Standard, Tian Xiao.

張寔字安遜,軌之世子也。學尚明察,敬賢愛士,晉舉秀才,除尚書郎。永嘉元年,固辭驍騎將軍,請還涼州,帝許之。改授議郎、西中郎將。(16K, Former Liang)

Zhang Shi, styled Anxun, was the eldest son of Zhang Gui. He was well-versed in studies and perceptive in analysis, and he respected worthy people and treasured scholar-officials. Jin nominated him as an Abundant Talent candidate and so he received a position in the capital at Luoyang as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing.

At the beginning of the Yongjia reign era (~307), he declined an appointment as General of Agile Cavalry, asking to return to Liangzhou instead. The court allowed it, and changed his position to Consultant-Gentleman and General of the Household Gentlemen of the West.

寔字安遜,學尚明察,敬賢愛士,以秀才為郎中。永嘉初,固辭驍騎將軍,請還涼州,許之,改授議郎。及至姑臧,以討曹祛功,封建武亭侯。尋遷西中郎將,進爵福祿縣侯。建興初,除西中郎將,領護羌校尉。(Jinshu 86 (Zhang Shi))

Zhang Shi, styled Anxun, was well-versed in studies and perceptive in analysis, and he respected worthy people and treasured scholar-officials. He was nominated as an Abundant Talent candidate and so received a position in the capital at Luoyang as a Household Gentleman.

At the beginning of the Yongjia reign era (~307), he declined an appointment as General of Agile Cavalry, asking to return to Liangzhou instead. The court allowed it, and changed his position to Consultant-Gentleman. After arriving at Guzang, for his achievements in defeating the local rebel Cao Qu, Zhang Shi was granted noble title as Marquis of Jianwu Village. Soon, he was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, and his noble title was advanced to Marquis of Fulu County.

At the beginning of the Jianxing reign era (~313), in addition to his existing title as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, he was appointed as acting Colonel Who Protects The Qiang.


三月,太傅越自許昌徙鎭鄄城。

9. In the third month, Sima Yue moved his base from Xuchang to Juancheng.

王彌收集亡散,兵復大振。分遣諸將攻掠青、徐、兗、豫四州,所過攻陷郡縣,多殺守令,有衆數萬;苟晞與之連戰,不能克。夏,四月,丁亥,彌入許昌。

10. Wang Mi gathered up all his scattered soldiers again, and the morale of his soldiers was restored. He sent out his various generals to attack and pillage Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou. They attacked and ravaged all the commandaries and counties, killing many of the Administrators and Prefects, and their numbers swelled to tens of thousands. Gou Xi fought against them several times, but he could not overcome them.

In summer, the fourth month on the day Dinghai (May 19th), Wang Mi entered Xuchang.

彌退集亡散,眾復大振,晞與之連戰,不能克。彌進兵寇泰山、魯國、譙、梁、陳、汝南、潁川、襄城諸郡,入許昌,開府庫,取器杖,所在陷沒,多殺守令,有眾數萬,朝廷不能制。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi fled and gathered up all his scattered soldiers again, and the morale of his soldiers was restored. Gou Xi fought against Wang Mi several times, but he could not overcome him.

Wang Mi advanced, and his soldiers invaded the commandaries of Taishan, Luguo, Qiao, Liang, Chen, Runan, Yingchuan, and Xiangcheng. Wang Mi entered Xuchang, where he opened the Arsenal there and took weapons and equipment. All fell before him, and many Administrators and Prefects were killed. His forces swelled to the tens of thousands, and the Jin court could not control him.


太傅越遣司馬王斌帥甲士五千人入衞京師,張軌亦遣督護北宮純將兵衞京師。五月,彌入自轘轅,敗官軍于伊北,京師大震,宮城門晝閉。壬戌,彌至洛陽,屯于津陽門。詔以王衍都督征討諸軍事。北宮純募勇士百餘人突陳,彌兵大敗。乙丑,彌燒建春門而東,衍遣左衞將軍王秉追之,戰于七里澗,又敗之。

11. Sima Yue sent his Marshal, Wang Bin, to lead five thousand armored soldiers to guard the capital at Luoyang. Zhang Gui also dispatched his Protector, Beigong Chun, to lead troops to guard the capital.

In the fifth month, Wang Mi marched through Huanyuan Pass and defeated the government army at Yibei. The capital was greatly afraid, and all the gates of the palace and the city were completely closed.

On the day Renxu (June 23rd), Wang Mi arrived at Luoyang, and camped at the Jinyang Gate. An edict was issued appointing Wang Yan as Commander of the armies directed against Wang Mi.

On the day Jiazi (June 25th), Wang Yan, Wang Bin, and the others went out to battle. Beigong Chun recruited more than a hundred brave fellows to break through the enemy's formation. Wang Mi's soldiers were greatly defeated.

On the day Yichou (June 26th), Wang Mi set fire to the Jianchun Gate and then marched away to the east. Wang Yan sent the Guard General of the Left, Wang Bing, to pursue Wang Mi. They fought a battle at Seven Li Gully, and Wang Mi was defeated again.

〈伊水之北也。〉〈津陽門,洛陽城南面東頭第二門。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「北」上有「甲子,衍與王斌等出戰」九字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(Wang Mi's initial victory, at Yibei, was north of the Yi River.

The Jinyang Gate was the second gate on the eastern side of Luoyang's southern wall.

Some versions include the sentence "On the day Jiazi (June 25th), Wang Yan, Wang Bin, and the others went out to battle.")


會天下大亂,進逼洛陽,京邑大震,宮城門晝閉。司徒王衍等率百官距守,彌屯七里澗,王師進擊,大破之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

At this time, the realm was wracked by chaos. Wang Mi advanced and threatened Luoyang, and the capital region was greatly disturbed. The palace and city gates were all shut. The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Yan, and others led the Jin government officials to man the walls. Wang Mi camped at Seven Li Gully. The Jin royal army advanced and attacked him, and Wang Mi was greatly routed.


彌走渡河,與王桑自軹關如平陽。漢王淵遣侍中兼御史大夫郊迎,令曰:「孤親行將軍之館,拂席洗爵,敬待將軍。」及至,拜司隸校尉,加侍中、特進;以桑爲散騎侍郎。

12. Wang Mi fled back across the Yellow River, and he and his cousin Wang Sang went from Zhi Pass to Liu Yuan’s Han state at Pingyang. Liu Yuan sent his Palace Attendants and Imperial Secretaries to welcome Wang Mi at the border of his domain, with this message to Wang Mi: "General, I shall personally prepare a place of residence for you, roll out the carpet and wash the vessels for you, and respectfully await your arrival."

When Wang Mi arrived, Liu Yuan appointed him as his Colonel-Director of Retainers and Palace Attendant and gave him the honor of Specially Advanced. He also appointed Wang Sang as a Gentleman-Cavalier In Attendance.

〈軹關在河內軹縣。〉

(Zhi Pass was in Zhi county in Henei commandary.)


彌謂其党劉靈曰:「晉兵尚強,歸無所厝。劉元海昔為質子,我與之周旋京師,深有分契,今稱漢王,將歸之,可乎?」靈然之。乃渡河歸元海。元海聞而大悅,遣其侍中兼御史大夫郊迎,致書於彌曰:「以將軍有不世之功,超時之德,故有此迎耳。遲望將軍之至,孤今親行將軍之館,輒拂席洗爵,敬待將軍。」及彌見元海,勸稱尊號,元海謂彌曰:「孤本謂將軍如竇周公耳,今真吾孔明、仲華也。烈祖有云:'吾之有將軍,如魚之有水。'」於是署彌司隸校尉,加侍中、特進,彌固辭。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi said to his fellow Liu Ling, "The Jin soldiers are strong and numerous, and there is nowhere we can go to for shelter. But there is Liu Yuanhai (Liu Yuan); when he was a hostage in the capital, he and I used to roam around the capital region together, and we formed a deep bond. Now he has declared himself the King of Han. We could go to join him. What do you think?" Liu Ling agreed.

So they crossed the Yellow River and went to join Liu Yuan. When he heard of this, Liu Yuan was overjoyed, and he sent his Palace Attendants and Imperial Secretaries to welcome Wang Mi at the border. He sent Wang Mi a letter stating, "General, your achievements supplant the age, and your virtues surpass the era; that is why I have sent you this welcome. Before you reach here, I shall personally prepare a place of residence for you, roll out the carpet and wash the vessels for you, and respectfully await your arrival."

When Wang Mi met Liu Yuan, he urged him to declare himself Emperor. Liu Yuan said to Wang Mi, "General, I used to consider you as just like Dou Zhougong (Dou Rong). But now I see that you are really more like Kongming (Zhuge Liang) or Zhonghua (Deng Yu). It is as Liezu (Liu Bei) once said: 'General, now that I have you, I am like a fish that has found water'." And he appointed Wang Mi as Colonel-Director of Retainers, Palace Attendant, and Specially Advanced, but Wang Mi firmly declined these things.


北宮純等與漢劉聰戰於河東,敗之。

13. Beigong Chun and others also fought the Han general Liu Cong at Hedong, and defeated him.

詔封張軌西平郡公,軌辭不受。時州郡之使,莫有至者,軌獨遣使貢獻,歲時不絕。

14. An edict was issued appointing Zhang Gui as Duke of Xiping commandary for his efforts, but he declined and would not accept the title.

At this time, things were so chaotic in the realm that no could could really predict when officials from the various provinces and commandaries would come to the capital. Zhang Gui was the only one to regularly send in gifts and tribute, every year without interruption.

俄而王彌寇洛陽,軌遣北宮純、張纂、馬魴、陰浚等率州軍擊破之,又敗劉聰於河東,京師歌之曰:「涼州大馬,橫行天下。涼州鴟苕,寇賊消;鴟苕翩翩,怖殺人。」帝嘉其忠,進封西平郡公,不受。張掖臨松山石有「金馬」字,磨滅粗可識,而「張」字分明,又有文曰:「初祚天下,西方安萬年。」姑臧又有玄石,白點成二十八宿。于時天下既亂,所在使命莫有至者,軌遣使貢獻,歲時不替。朝廷嘉之,屢降璽書慰勞。
(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Gui)

Not long afterwards, the bandit leader Wang Mi invaded the Luoyang region (in 308). Zhang Gui sent his generals Beigong Chun, Zhang Zuan, Ma Fang, Yin Jun, and others to lead the soldiers of Liangzhou to attack and rout Wang Mi's forces, and they also defeated the Han-Zhao general Liu Cong at Hedong. A song spread through the capital after that: "The great horses of Liangzhou can vault across the realm. Whenever those terrible owls of Liangzhou appear, the bandits and invaders take flight. When the terrible owls are flying about, beware lest they kill you." Emperor Hui appreciated Zhang Gui's loyalty, and advanced his noble title to Duke of Xiping commandary, but Zhang Gui would not accept.

At Mount Linsong in Zhangye, someone found a stone with the characters "Golden Horse" written on it. The rock was rubbed down so that it would be easier to recognize the characters, but this revealed another character, Zhang. And there was even more writing, which stated, "A new throne in the realm; ten thousand years of peace in the West." And there was a black stone in Guzang, with white spots on it which formed the Twenty-Eight Mansions constellations.

At this time, since the realm was in such turmoil, no could could really predict when officials from the various provinces and commandaries would come to the capital. Zhang Gui was the only one to regularly send in gifts and tribute, every year without interruption. The court commended him, and often sent him seals and letters in recognition of his service.


秋,七月,甲辰,漢王淵寇平陽,太守宋抽棄郡走,河東太守路述戰死;淵徙都蒲子。上郡鮮卑陸逐延、氐酋單徵並降於漢。

15. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiachen (August 4th), Liu Yuan invaded Pingyang. The Administrator of Pingyang, Song Chou, abandoned his commandary and fled, and the Administrator of Hedong, Lu Shu, died in battle.

Liu Yuan then moved his capital to Puzi. Local tribal leaders of the commandary, the Xianbei leader Luzhuyan and the Di leader Shan Zheng, both submitted to Han.

〈蒲子縣,卽晉公子重耳所居蒲城也;漢屬河東郡,晉屬平陽郡。劉昫曰:唐隰州治隰川縣,漢蒲子縣地。杜佑曰:隰州隰川、蒲縣,漢蒲子縣地。《考異》曰:劉琨《答太傅府書》曰:「潛遣使驛離間其部落,淵遂怖懼,南奔蒲子,雜虜歸降,萬有餘落。」《琨傳》亦然。按時淵強琨弱,豈因畏琨而徙都!蓋琨爲自大之辭,史因承以爲實耳。〉〈單,上演翻。《考異》曰:《載記》作「氐酋大單于徵」。按當時戎狄酋長,皆謂之「大」。徵,卽光文單后之父。「于」衍字也。〉

(Puzi County was the site of Pucheng, where Chong'er, the future Duke Wen of the ancient state of Jin, had once resided. During Han, Puzi County was part of Hedong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Pingyang commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "The Xichuan County in Tang's Xizhou was where Han's Puzi County was." Du You remarked, "Pu and Zichuan counties in Zizhou are were Han's Puzi County was."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Liu Kun's petition 'Response to the Grand Tutor's Staff' states, 'I secretly sent out couriers to spread discord between the tribes. Liu Yuan, thus afraid, fled south to Puzi. The various caitiffs came in submission to me, more than ten thousand tribes all told.’ The Biography of Liu Kun in the Book of Jin states the same thing. Now at this time, Liu Yuan was strong while Liu Kun was weak, so how could Liu Yuan have been induced to move his capital from fear of Liu Kun? This was just an instance of Liu Kun's boasting, which the official history has passed off as a fact."

Sima Guang's commentary further states, "The Biography of Liu Yuan in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records this Di leader who submitted as '氐酋大單于徵' which might be read as 'the Di leader and Grand Chanyu, Zhen'. But at this time, the leaders of the various Rong and Di tribes were all called 大, and that accounts for the 大 here. 單 Shan is rather his surname, and 徵 Zhen his given name. The 于 Yu character is superfluous. This Shan Zheng was the father of Empress Guangwen, Liu Yuan's concubine Lady Shan."

Shan Zheng's surname 單 is here pronouced "shan (sh-an).")


晉光熙元年,淵進據河東,克平陽、蒲坂,遂都平陽。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

In the first year of Jin's Guangxi reign era (306), Liu Yuan advanced and occupied Hedong. He captured Pingyang and Puban, and he set his capital at Pingyang.


八月,丁亥,太傅越自鄄徙屯濮陽;未幾,又徙屯滎陽。

16. In the eighth month, on the day Dinghai (September 16th), Sima Yue moved from Juancheng to camp at Puyang, but he soon moved once again to camp at Xingyang.

〈濮陽,衞墟,漢屬東郡,晉初分置濮陽國,唐鄄城、濮陽二縣,皆屬濮州。濮,音卜。〉

Puyang was built on the ruins of the ancient state of Wey. During Han, it was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was split off to form the Puyang princely fief. Tang's Juancheng and Puyang counties were both part of Puzhou. The 濮 in Puyang is pronounced "bo".)


九月,漢王彌、石勒寇鄴,和郁棄城走。詔豫州刺史裴憲屯白馬以拒彌,車騎將軍王堪屯東燕以拒勒,平北將軍曹武屯大陽以備蒲子。憲,楷之子也。

17. In the ninth month, the Han generals Wang Mi and Shi Le invaded Ye. The local commander, He Yu, abandoned the city and fled. An edict was issued ordering the Inspector of Yuzhou, Pei Xian, to camp at Baima to resist Wang Mi, ordering the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Kan, to camp at Dongyan to resist Shi Le, and ordering the General Who Pacifies The North, Cao Wu, to camp at Dayang to guard against Puzi. This Pei Xian was the son of Pei Kai.

〈漢東郡燕縣,古南燕國,晉省,而故城猶在,曰東燕城;後魏立東燕縣,屬陳留郡。劉昫曰:唐滑州胙城縣,漢南燕縣。〉〈大陽縣,屬河東郡。《地理志》曰:北虢也。應劭曰:在大河之陽,唐併入陝州河北縣界。〉〈裴楷仕武帝、惠帝時。〉

(Han's Yan county in Dong commandary was in the south of the ancient state of Yan. Jin had abolished the county, but the capital city was there there, and it was called Dongyan City. Northern Wei later established Dongyan county, as part of Chenliu commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "The Zuocheng county in Tang's Huazhou was Han's Nanyan county."

Dayang county was part of Hedong commandary. The Geographical Records states, "It was in the north of the ancient Dukedom of Guo." Ying Shao remarked, "It was north of the Yellow River." Tang folded it into the territory of Hebei county in Shanzhou.

Pei Kai had held office under Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) and Emperor Hui.)


使彌隨劉曜寇河內,又與石勒攻臨漳... 又與勒攻鄴,安北將軍和郁棄城而走。懷帝遣北中郎將裴憲次白馬討彌,車騎將軍王堪次東燕討勒,平北將軍曹武次大陽討元海。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Liu Yuan sent Wang Mi to accompany Liu Yao to invade Henei, and they joined with Shi Le to attack Linzhang.

Wang Mi also joined with Shi Le to attack Ye. Jin's General Who Maintain The North, He Yu, abandoned that city and fled.

Emperor Huai sent the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Pei Xian, to march to Baima to campaign against Wang Mi; he sent the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Kan, to Dongyan to campaign against Shi Le; and he sent the General Who Pacifies The North, Cao Wu, to Dayang to campaign against Liu Yuan.


冬,十月,甲戌,漢王淵卽皇帝位,大赦,改元永鳳。十一月,以其子和爲大將軍,聰爲車騎大將軍,族子曜爲龍驤大將軍。

18. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiaxu (November 2nd), Liu Yuan declared himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongfeng. In the eleventh month, he appointed his sons Liu He and Liu Cong as Grand General and Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and he appointed his junior kinsman Liu Yao as Grand Dragon-Soaring General.

元年,劉淵僭帝號,自稱大漢。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the first year of Tuoba Yilu's sole reign (308), Liu Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor, calling his state Great Han.

永鳳元年七月,鳳凰集于蒲子。丞相劉宣等六十四人上尊號。十月,僭即皇帝位於南郊,大赦改元,以衛軍和為大將軍,撫軍聰為車騎大將軍,建武曜為龍驤大將軍。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the first year of Yongfeng (308), the seventh month, phoenixes gathered at Puzi.

Sixty-four people urged Liu Yuan to declare himself Emperor, including the Prime Minister, Liu Xuan. In the tenth month, Liu Yuan declared himself Emperor at the southern suburbs. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongfeng.

Liu Yuan appointed the Guard General, Liu He, as Grand General. He appointed the General Who Nurtures The Army, Liu Cong, as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry. He appointed the General Who Establishes Valor, Liu Yao, as Grand Dragon-Soaring General.

晉永嘉二年,淵稱帝,年號永鳳。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

In the second year of Yongjia (308), Liu Yuan declared himself Emperor, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongfeng.


壬寅,幷州刺史劉琨使上黨太守劉惇帥鮮卑攻壺關,漢鎭東將軍綦毋達戰敗亡歸。

19. On the day Renyin (November 30th), Liu Kun sent the Administrator of Shangdang, Liu Dun, to lead the Xianbei to attack Huguan. Han's General Who Guards The East, Qiwu Da, was defeated in battle and fled back to the Han domain.

〈杜佑曰:唐潞州治上黨。漢壺關縣,後魏移壺關縣當羊腸阪羊頭之阨。〉

(Du You remarked, "During Tang, Shangdang was governed by Luzhou. Han's Huguan County was relocated by Northern Wei to the strategic point at Yangtou at Yangchang Slope.")


丙午,漢都督中外諸軍事、領丞相、右賢王宣卒。

20. On the day Bingwu (December 4th), Han's Commander of all military affairs, Grand Marshal, acting Prime Minister, and Worthy King of the Right, Liu Yuan's great-uncle Liu Xuan, passed away.

〈【章:甲十一行本「事」下有「大司馬」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉

(Some versions state that Liu Xuan was also "Grand Marshal".)


石勒、劉靈帥衆三萬寇魏郡、汲郡、頓丘,百姓望風降附者五十餘壘;皆假壘主將軍、都尉印綬,簡其強壯五萬爲軍士,老弱安堵如故。己酉,勒執魏郡太守王粹于三臺,殺之。

21. Shi Le and Liu Ling led a host of thirty thousand to invade the commandaries of Wei, Ji, and Dunqiu. More than fifty of the local fortresses in those regions, seeing which way the wind was blowing, submitted to them. These local leaders were all appointed as Generals of their fortresses and granted seals and ribbons as Commanders, and fifty thousand of their strongest men were recruited to serve in the main army, while those who were too old or weak were left in peace just as before.

On the day Jiyou (December 7th), Shi Le captured the Administrator of Wei commandary, Wang Cui, at the Three Terraces, and killed him.

〈汲縣,漢屬河內郡,武帝泰始二年,分置汲郡;唐之衞州卽其地。〉〈三臺註見後八十八卷永嘉六年。〉

(During Han, Ji county was part of Henei commandary. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), it had been split off as Ji commandary. It was where Tang's Weizhou was.

More on the Three Terraces will be mentioned in Book 88, in the sixth year of Yongjia (312).)


彌戰與劉曜、石勒等攻魏郡、汲郡、頓丘,陷五十餘壁,皆調為軍士。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi joined with Liu Yao, Shi Le, and others to attack the commandaries of Wei, Ji, and Dunqiu; they captured more than fifty fortresses and drafted the people there as soldiers.


十二月,辛未朔,大赦。

22. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Xinwei (December 29th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

乙亥,漢主淵以將軍和爲大司馬,封梁王;尚書令歡樂爲司徒,封陳留王;后父御史大夫呼延翼爲大司空,封鴈門郡公;宗室以親疏悉封郡縣王,異姓以功伐悉封郡縣公侯。

23. On the day Yihai (January 2nd of 309), Liu Yuan appointed his son Liu He as Grand Marshal and Prince of Liang. He appointed his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Huan Yue, as Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Chenliu. He appointed his Imperial Secretary, Empress Huyan's father Huyan Yi, as Grand Minister of Works and Duke of Yanmen commandary. All the rest of the imperial clan and their dependents were appointed as Princes of commandaries or counties, while those of different surnames who had won merits were all appointed as Dukes or Marquises of commandaries or counties.

成尚書令楊褒卒。褒好直言,成主雄初得蜀,用度不足,諸將有以獻金銀得官者,褒諫曰:「陛下設官爵,當網羅天下英豪,何有以官買金邪!」雄謝之。雄嘗醉,推中書令杖太官令,褒進曰:「天子穆穆,諸侯皇皇。安有天子而爲酗也!」雄慚而止。

24. Cheng's Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yang Bao, passed away.

Yang Bao enjoyed speaking bluntly to people. When Li Xiong had first taken possession of the Shu region for himself, he did not use proper standards in his administration. Many of his generals had purchased government offices for themselves by giving him gifts of gold and silver. Yang Bao rebuked Li Xiong for this, saying, "Your Majesty, having created the government offices, you ought to cast a wide net to gain the realm's best and brightest to fill them. How can you sell the offices for gold?" Li Xiong apologized to him.

There was one time when Li Xiong, while drunk, pushed over the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and thrashed the Prefect of the Grand Offices with a rod. Yang Bao stepped forward and declared, "As it is said, 'the demeanor of the Son of Heaven should be characterized by majesty; of the princes, by gravity.' How then can the Son of Heaven become a drunkard?" Li Xiong was ashamed, and he stopped.

〈《考異》曰:《載記》云「丞相楊褒」。今從《晉春秋》。〉〈《禮記‧曲禮》言。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that Yang Bao was 'Prime Minister' when he died. But I follow the account of the Annals of Jin."

'The demeanor of the son of Heaven should be characterized by majesty; of the princes, by gravity', is a quote from the Rules of Propriety chapter of the Book of Rites (2.108).)


然雄意在招致遠方,國用不足,故諸將每進金銀珍寶,多有以得官者。丞相楊褒諫曰:「陛下為天下主,當網羅四海,何有以官買金邪!」雄遜辭謝之。後雄嘗酒醉而推中書令,杖太官令,褒進曰:「天子穆穆,諸侯皇皇,安有天子而為酗也!」雄即舍之。雄無事小出,褒於後持矛馳馬過雄。雄怪問之,對曰:「夫統天下之重,如臣乘惡馬而持矛也,急之則慮自傷,緩之則懼其失,是以馬馳而不制也。」雄寤,即還。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

However, Li Xiong did have a habit of collecting things from distant places, and when his own state could not provide enough such trinkets, his generals would offer him gold, silver, and fine treasures, and there were many people who would buy offices in this manner. His Prime Minister, Yang Bao, remonstrated with him for this, saying, "Your Majesty, you are the ruler of all the realm, and you ought to cast a wide net that encompasses all the Four Seas. How can you sell offices for gold?" Li Xiong apologized to him with modest words.

There was one time when Li Xiong, while drunk, pushed over the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and thrashed the Prefect of the Grand Offices with a rod. Yang Bao stepped forward and declared, "As it is said, 'the demeanor of the Son of Heaven should be characterized by majesty; of the princes, by gravity.' How then can the Son of Heaven become a drunkard?" Li Xiong yielded to him.

Once, Li Xiong wandered off for no particular reason. Yang Bao got on a horse and held a spear behind himself, then chased after Li Xiong until he overtook him. When Li Xiong, bewildered by this behavior, asked Yang Bao about it, Yang Bao replied, "When a man bears the troubles of the realm, it is just like me riding a willful horse while grasping a spear: if I press the horse too hard then I am afraid of injuring myself, but if I am too lenient I fear losing control of it, so that it gallops uncontrollably." Li Xiong then realized his meaning, and he turned back.


成平寇將軍李鳳屯晉壽,屢寇漢中,漢中民東走荊沔。詔以張光爲梁州刺史。荊州寇盜不禁,詔起劉璠爲順陽內史,江、漢間翕然歸之。

25. Cheng's General Who Pacifies Invaders, Li Feng, camped at Jinshou, where he invaded Hanzhong several times, causing the people of Hanzhong to flee east into Jing-Mian. An edict was issued appointing Zhang Guang as Inspector of Lianzhou.

Jingzhou was unable to deal with the local invaders and bandits, so an edict was issued appointing Liu Fan as Interior Minister of Shunyang, and the people living around the Yangzi and the Han River all flocked to him.

〈葭萌縣,漢屬廣漢郡,蜀改爲漢壽縣,屬梓潼郡;晉又改漢壽曰晉壽。〉〈沔自梁州入荊州界爲荊沔。〉〈璠父弘之喪未終,起之於苫塊;荊州之民懷其父,故翕然歸其子。〉

(During Han, Jiameng County was part of Guanghan commandary. Shu-Han had changed the name of the county to Hanshou County, as part of Zitong commandary. Jin then changed the name to Jinshou.

The Mian River flowed from Lianzhou into the territory of Jingzhou, thus the term Jing-Mian.

Liu Fan had not yet completed the mourning period for his late father Liu Hong, but he now rose from his mat and earth. The people of Jingzhou had cherished his father, and this was why they all flocked to his son.)


二年,詔書錄尚討特功,加散騎常侍,都督二州,進爵夷陵侯。長子宇,以佩奉車都尉,拜次子延壽騎都尉。梁州以雄所破壞,晉更以皇甫商為梁州。商不能之官。更用順陽內史江夏張光為刺史,治新城。漢中民逼李鳳寇掠,東走荊沔。

In the second year of Yongjia (308), Jin issued an imperial edict commending Luo Shang for his achievements in campaigning against Li Te. He was promoted as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance and as Commander of the two provinces, Yizhou and Lianzhou. His noble title was also advanced to Marquis of Yiling. His elder son Luo Yu was appointed as Chief Chariot Commandant, and his younger son Luo Yanshou was appointed as Chief Cavalry Commandant.

Since Lianzhou had suffered from Li Xiong's assaults and depredations, Jin initially appointed Huangfu Shang to be the new Inspector of Lianzhou. But Huangfu Shang was unable to take up that post. So Jin appointed the Interior Minister of Shunyang, Zhang Guang of Jiangxia, as the Inspector, and he governed from Xincheng.

The people of Hanzhong were threatened by Li Feng's constant raiding and pillaging, and they fled east into the regions of Jingzhou and the Mian River.

[車都]: 劉本誤督。(Huayang Guozhi Commentary)

(The Liu edition records Luo Yu's post as Commandant Leader of Chariots.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 25, 2018 7:10 pm, edited 13 times in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

Unread postby Fornadan » Tue Dec 05, 2017 6:12 am

春,正月,丙午朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Bingwu (February 8th), there was an eclipse.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《天文志》云「丙子朔」。誤。今從《長曆》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai and the Astrological Records in the Book of Jin both state that this eclipse was 'on the new moon of the day Bingzi (?)'. This is mistaken. I follow the dates of the Calendar Records.")


In actual fact, there apparently was no eclipse visible in China at all this year, which I suppose could explain the confusion.
(Bingzi was the first day of the second month)
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

Unread postby Fornadan » Tue Dec 05, 2017 10:15 pm

If you are interested in that sort of things, NASA has computed maps of all solar eclipses in historical times predicted by astronomy.

https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEpubs/5MCSE.html

Though they are usually in agreement, there are a few eclipses recorded in the Chinese histories that according to astronomy did not occur.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Dec 06, 2017 5:25 am

Thanks for that link, I'll see if I can update the eclipse info here and in the other thread.
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BOOK 87

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 12, 2017 7:19 pm

永嘉三年(己巳、三○九)

The Third Year of Yongjia (The Jisi Year, 309 AD)


春,正月,辛丑朔,熒惑犯紫微。漢太史令宣于脩之,言於漢主淵曰︰「不出三年,必克洛陽。蒲子崎嶇,難以久安;平陽氣象方昌,請徙都之。」淵從之。大赦,改元河瑞。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Xinchou (January 28th), Mars trespassed into the Purple Forbidden Enclosure of the night sky. Han's Court Astrologist, Xuanyu Xiuzhi, informed the Emperor of Han, Liu Yuan, "Before three years are out, we will certainly take Luoyang. Puzi is a rugged place, and it is difficult to secure it for long. Pingyang has the aura of great prosperity; I ask that you move the capital there."

Liu Yuan did as he advised. A general amnesty was declared in Han, and the reign era title there was changed to the first year of Herui.

〈紫微,卽紫宮也。〉〈《考異》曰︰《晉春秋》作「鮮于脩之」。今從《載記》、《十六國春秋》。余按姓氏諸書,有鮮于而無宣于。〉〈時汾水得玉璽,淵因改元河瑞。〉

(The Purple Forbidden Enclosure was the Purple Palace Enclosure.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin records this Court Astrologist's name as 'Xianyu Xiuzhi'. But I follow the accounts of the Biography of Liu Yuan in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms." But I, Hu Sanxing, note that the various texts that record the surnames of the clans do have the surname Xianyu, and do not have the surname Xuanyu.

At this time, an imperial jade seal was found in the Fen River, and so the reign era title became Herui ("River Jade").)


河瑞元年,遷都平陽,汾水得玉璽,大赦改元。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the first year of Herui (309), Liu Yuan moved his capital to Pingyang. A jade seal was found at the Fen River, so Liu Yuan declared a general amnesty and changed the reign era title to the first year of Herui.

後汾水中得玉璽,文曰「有新保之」,蓋王莽之璽也。得者因增「淵海光」三字而獻之,淵以為己瑞,號年為河瑞。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

Later, a jade seal was found in the Fen River. There was writing on it that said, "In possession of Xin, may it be protected", so people believed that it must have been the seal of Wang Mang from his Xin dynasty. The person who found the seal carved "Yuanhai Guang" into it and then presented it to Liu Yuan as tribute. Liu Yuan felt that the discovery of the seal meant good fortune for himself, so he changed the reign era title to the first year of Herui.


三月,戊申,高密孝王略薨。以尚書左僕射山簡爲征南將軍、都督荊‧湘‧交‧廣四州諸軍事,鎭襄陽。簡,濤之子也,嗜酒,不恤政事;表「順陽內史劉璠得衆心,恐百姓劫璠爲主」。詔徵璠爲越騎校尉。南州由是遂亂,父老莫不追思劉弘。

2. In the third month, on the day Wushen (April 5th), Sima Lue passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xiao ("the Filial") of Gaomi.

The Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Shan Jian, was appointed as General Who Conquers The South and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou, and he was stationed at Xiangyang. This Shan Jian was the son of Shan Tao. He was given to drinking, and paid no heed to the affairs of governance.

Shan Jian sent up a petition stating, "The Interior Minister of Shunyang, Liu Fan, has the mob on his side. I fear that the common people will compel him to be their leader."

So an edict was issued summoning Liu Fan to the capital at Luoyang to serve as Colonel of Dashing Cavalry. The southern provinces were thus thrown into turmoil, and there was no one among the fathers and elders who did not long for the days of Liu Hong.

〈代略也。〉〈史言劉弘父子得江、漢間民心。〉

(Shan Jian was replacing the late Sima Lue.

This passage shows how Liu Hong and his son Liu Fan had won the hearts of the people living around the Yangzi and the Han River.)


丁巳,太傅越自滎陽入京師。中書監王敦謂所親曰︰「太傅專執威權,而選用表請,尚書猶以舊制裁之,今日之來,必有所誅。」

3. On the day Dingsi (April 14th), Grand Tutor Sima Yue moved from Xingyang to Luoyang.

The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Wang Dun, said to his close associates, "The Grand Tutor has been keeping a close grasp on power, but in the selection and acceptance of petitions and requests, the Masters of Writing have insisted on following their old systems. Now the Grand Tutor has returned; there is sure to be a reckoning."

〈越自去年徙屯滎陽。〉

(Sima Yue had gone out to camp at Xingyang in the previous year (308).)


帝之爲太弟也,與中庶子繆播親善,及卽位,以播爲中書監,繆胤爲太僕卿,委以心膂;帝舅散騎常侍王延、尚書何綏、太史令高堂沖,並參機密。越疑朝臣貳於己,劉輿、潘滔勸越悉誅播等。越乃誣播等欲爲亂,乙丑,遣平東將軍王秉帥甲士三千入宮,執播等十餘人於帝側,付廷尉,殺之。帝歎息流涕而已。

4. During the time that Emperor Huai had been Crown Younger Brother, he had formed a close friendship with the 中庶子, Mou Bo. After Emperor Huai came to the throne, he appointed Mou Bo as Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and he appointed Mou Yin as Minister Coachman, with both of them becoming extremely close to him. The Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Emperor Huai's uncle Wang Yann, the Master of Writing, He Sui, and the Court Astrologist, Gaotang Chong, were all Emperor Huai's close advisors as well.

Sima Yue had suspected that these court officials were ambivalent about him, and Liu Yu and Pan Tao urged him to execute Mou Bo and all the rest of them. So Sima Yue slandered Mou Bo and the rest as wanting to stir up turmoil.

On the day Yichou (April 22nd), Sima Yue sent the General Who Pacifies The East, Wang Bing, to lead three thousand armored soldiers into the palace. They arrested Mou Bo and the others, more than ten people, from right in front of Emperor Huai; all of them were taken to the Minister of Justice and killed. Emperor Huai wailed and wept for them, but did no more.

〈太僕,九卿也;但晉官未有「卿」字,「卿」字衍。〉〈越因繆播兄弟以克河間,今又殺之,權勢之爭可畏哉!〉

(This passage uses the term 太僕卿 for Mou Yin's office. The 太僕 Minister Coachman was indeed one of the 九卿 Nine Ministers, but Jin's ministerial ranks did not include the character 卿 in them, and so this 卿 character is redundant.

Sima Yue had used Mou Bo and Mou Yin earlier to overcome the Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong (Book 86, 306.2). Yet now, he kills them. How terrifying the struggle for power is!)


綏,曾之孫也。初,何曾侍武帝宴,退,謂諸子曰︰「主上開創大業,吾每宴見,未嘗聞經國遠圖,惟說平生常事,非貽厥孫謀之道也;及身而已,後嗣其殆乎!汝輩猶可以免;」指諸孫曰︰「此屬必及於難。」及綏死,兄嵩哭之曰︰「我祖其殆聖乎!」曾日食萬錢,猶云無下箸處。子劭,日食二萬。綏及弟機、羨,汰侈尤甚;與人書疏,詞禮簡傲。河內王尼見綏書,謂人曰︰「伯蔚居亂世而矜豪乃爾,其能免乎!」人曰︰「伯蔚聞卿言,必相危害。」尼曰︰「伯蔚比聞我言,自已死矣!」永嘉之末,何氏無遺種。

5. This He Sui was the grandson of He Zeng.

Decades earlier, He Zeng had attended upon Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) at a feast. When he left the feast, he said to his sons, "Our sovereign has begun this great enterprise. But whenever I see him at a feast, I never discuss policies to benefit the state or plans for the future. I only speak to him about common, everyday things, so as to not leave a path for my descendants to follow. But though I myself am alive, it will be difficult for those who follow me! My sons, you may still avoid the dangers, but..." Here he pointed to his grandsons. "For that generation, there will certainly be trouble."

After He Sui died, his elder brother He Song wept and said, "Our grandfather truly perceived this danger!"

He Zeng spent ten thousand cash every day, and still said there was nothing for his chopsticks to grasp. His son He Shao spent twenty thousand cash every day. He Sui and his younger brothers He Ji and He Xian were even more extravagant than that, and whenever they wrote to other people, their words were always haughty and proud.

When Wang Ni of Henei saw He Sui's letter, he told someone, "Bowei (He Sui) lives in such troubled times, and yet he still uses such arrogant words as these. How can he avoid disaster?"

That person told him, "When Bowei hears what you've said, there is sure to be trouble between you."

Wang Ni replied, "By the time Bowei hears my words, he'll already be dead!"

By the end of the Yongjia era (313), the He clan no longer had any descendants.

〈著,梜也。〉〈何綏,字伯蔚。比,及也。蔚,紆勿翻。〉

(著 in this passage means "chopsticks". 比 means "by then".

He Sui's style name was Bowei. The 蔚 in Bowei is pronounced "yu (y-u)".)


臣光曰︰何曾議武帝偷惰,取過目前,不爲遠慮;知天下將亂,子孫必與其憂;何其明也!然身爲僭侈,使子孫承流,卒以驕奢亡族,其明安在哉!且身爲宰相,知其君之過,不以告而私語於家,非忠臣也。

6. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: He Zeng was remiss in discussing things with (or, in aiding) Emperor Wu (Sima Yan). He thought of no more than what was right in front of his eyes, and he did not consider far-off concerns. He Zeng knew that the realm was about to fall into chaos, and that his sons and grandsons would certainly be swept up in the worries of such times. What sort of wisdom was this? Furthermore, in being so indulgent himself, he left a bad precedent for his sons and grandsons to follow, and in their pride, they ruined their clan. Where was the wisdom or security in this? He Zeng was himself a chief minister of state, and he knew about his lord's trespasses. Yet he did not speak up to his lord, and only gave private advice to his family. He was no loyal servant.

〈【章︰甲十行本「議」作「護」;孔本同。】〉

(Some versions state that He Zeng "aided" rather than "discussed with" Emperor Wu.)


太傅越以王敦爲楊州刺史。

7. Sima Yue appointed Wang Dun as Inspector of Yangzhou.

〈爲敦亂東晉張本。〉

(This was why Wang Dun was later able to rebel against Eastern Jin.)


劉寔連年請老,朝廷不許。尚書左丞劉坦上言︰「古之養老,以不事爲憂,不以吏之爲重,謂宜聽寔所守。」丁卯,詔寔以侯就第。以王衍爲太尉。

8. For many years now, Liu Shi had asked to retire on account of old age, but the Jin court would not permit him to do so. The Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing, Liu Tan, sent up a petition stating, "It has long been a principle that we must care for the old. We cannot burden them with concerns or force heavy responsibilities upon them. I ask that you listen to Liu Shi's request."

On the day Dingmao (April 24th), an edict was issued allowing Liu Shi to retire to his marquisal estate. Wang Yan was appointed to replace Liu Shi as Grand Commandant.

〈不事,謂不使任事也。〉

(The term 不事 here means "not burden with the affairs of office".)


太傅越解兗州牧,領司徒。越以頃來興事,多由殿省,乃奏宿衞有侯爵者皆罷之。時殿中武官並封侯,由是出者略盡,皆泣涕而去。更使右衞將軍何倫、左衞將軍王秉領東海國兵數百人宿衞。

9. Sima Yue resigned his office as Governor of Yanzhou and became acting Minister Over The Masses.

Sima Yue felt that all of the internal coups and other such business in the capital over the previous decades had been facilitated by those within the palace. So he ordered that anyone among the household guards of the palace who had been granted title as Marquis was now to be dismissed from their posts. At this time, all of the military officers in the palace had been granted such titles, and for this reason they were all forced out, weeping as they went. Sima Yue then had the Guard General of the Right, He Lun, and the Guard General of the Left, Wang Bing, lead several hundred of the soldiers from his fief at Donghai to be the new household guards.

〈謂誅楊駿,廢賈后,誅趙王倫、齊王冏及討成都王穎,及羊后、太子覃屢廢屢立,皆殿中人爲之。〉〈自是帝左右皆越私人。〉

(The people of the palace had been responsible for each of the execution of Yang Jun, the overthrow of Empress Jia Nanfeng, the executions of Sima Lun and Sima Jiong, the resistance against Sima Ying, and the successive acclamations and overthrows of Empress Yang Xianrong and Crown Prince Sima Tan.

Following this action, those who kept guard for Emperor Huai were all Sima Yue's personal men.)


左積弩將軍朱誕奔漢,具陳洛陽孤弱,勸漢主淵攻之。淵以誕爲前鋒都督,以滅晉大將軍劉景爲大都督,將兵攻黎陽,克之;又敗王堪於延津,沈男女三萬餘人於河。淵聞之,怒曰︰「景何面復見朕!且天道豈能容之!吾所欲除者,司馬氏耳,細民何罪!」黜景爲平虜將軍。

10. The General Who Amasses Crossbows of the Left, Zhu Dan, fled to Han. He explained to Liu Yuan how Luoyang was currently isolated and weak, and he urged Liu Yuan to attack it. So Liu Yuan appointed Zhu Dan as Commander of the Vanguard, and he appointed the Grand General Who Vanquishes Jin, Liu Jing, as Grand Commander. He sent them to attack Liyang, and they took it. Then they defeated Wang Kan at Yan Crossing, where they drowned more than thirty thousand men and women in the Yellow River.

When Liu Yuan heard of it, he angrily declared, "How can Liu Jing show his face before me again! How can even Heaven put up with him now? The Sima clan were the only ones I wanted to do away with; what crimes were these meager people guilty of?" And he demoted Liu Jing to General Who Pacifies The Caitiffs.

〈武帝泰始四年,罷振威、揚威護軍,置左右積弩將軍。〉〈劉淵之識略,非聰、曜所能及也。〉

(In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) fourth year of Taishi (268), he abolished the offices of Protector-General Who Spreads Might and Who Exalts Might, and he created the offices of Generals Who Amass Crossbows of the Left and Right.

Liu Yuan knew how to plot strategy, but he was not as able as Liu Cong and Liu Yao were.)


夏,大旱,江、漢、河、洛皆竭,可涉。

11. In summer, there was a great drought. The Yangzi, Han River, and Yellow River all sank so low that one could wade across them.

〈川竭,亡國之徵。〉

(The exhaustion of the rivers is a harbinger of the downfall of the state.)


漢安東大將軍石勒寇鉅鹿、常山,衆至十餘萬,集衣冠人物,別爲君子營。以趙郡張賓爲謀主,刁膺爲股肱,夔安、孔萇、支雄、桃豹、逯明爲爪牙。幷州諸胡羯多從之。

12. Han's Grand General Who Maintains The East, Shi Le, invaded the commandaries of Julu and Changshan. His army swelled to more than a hundred thousand. He gathered together men that were dressed in fine robes and hats, and kept them as a separate detachment of "worthy men". Shi Le had Zhang Bin of Zhao commandary as his advisor, Diao Ying as his right-hand man, and Kui An, Kong Chang, Zhi Xiong, Tao Bao, and Lu Ming as his fangs and claws. Many of the various Jie and other tribal peoples of Bingzhou came to join him.

〈石勒起於胡羯餓隸而能如此,此其所以能跨有中原也。〉〈《姓譜》︰夔子之後,以國爲姓。後趙《支雄傳》云,其先,月支胡人也。桃,春秋魯邑,以邑爲姓;一曰:古高士左伯桃之後。〉

(Shi Le rose from being just a starving slave to such a man as this; that was why he was able to stand astride the Central Plains.

The Registry of surnames states, "The descendants of the Viscount of 夔 Kui took the name of that fief as their surname."

The Biography of Zhi Xiong in the Book of Northern Wei states that his ancestors were from the Yuezhi tribal people.

桃 Tao was the name of a district in the Spring and Autumn state of Lu, and the district name became a surname. It is also said, "People with the surname 桃 Tao are the descendants of the ancient high officer Zuo Botao.")


初,張賓好讀書,闊達有大志,常自比張子房。及石勒徇山東,賓謂所親曰︰「吾歷觀諸將,無如此胡將軍者,可與共成大業!」乃提劍詣軍門,大呼請見,勒亦未之奇也。賓數以策干勒,已而皆如所言;勒由是奇之,署爲軍功曹,動靜咨之。

13. Before now, this Zhang Bin had delighted in reading books; he was broad-minded and had great ambitions, often comparing himself to Zhang Zifang (Zhang Liang).

When Shi Le dominated the lands east of the mountains (that is, east of Luoyang), Zhang Bin told his friends, "I have seen many generals in my time, but none that can compared with this barbarian general. I can achieve great things together with him!"

So he drew his sword and came to the gate of Shi Le's camp, where in a loud cry he demanded an audience. Shi Le had never seen anyone so unique either.

Zhang Bin developed many plans for Shi Le, and things all turned out just as he said. So Shi Le treasured him, and appointed him as his army's Merit Evaluator, taking counsel with him on every occasion.

〈勒,本胡也,故謂之胡將軍。〉

(Shi Le was a tribesman, and so Zhang Bin called him a "barbarian general".)


漢主淵以王彌爲侍中、都督青‧徐‧兗‧豫‧荊‧揚六州諸軍事、征東大將軍、青州牧,與楚王聰共攻壺關,以石勒爲前鋒都督。劉琨遣護軍黃肅、韓述救之,聰敗述於西澗,勒敗肅於封田,皆殺之。

14. Liu Yuan appointed Wang Mi as Palace Attendant, Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Jizhou, and Yangzhou, Grand General Who Conquers The East, and Governor of Qingzhou. He sent Wang Mi and his Prince of Chu, his son Liu Cong, to attack Huguan together, with Shi Le serving as their Vanguard Commander. Liu Kun sent the Army Protectors, Huang Su and Han Shu, to reinforce Huguan, but Liu Cong defeated Han Shu at Xijian and Shi Le defeated Huang Su at Fengtian; both of them were killed.

〈西澗、封田,皆當在壺關東南。《考異》曰︰《石勒載記》「肅」作「秀」,「封」作「白」。今從《十六國春秋》及《劉琨集》。〉

(Xijian and Fengtian were both southeast of Huguan. Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records Huang Su's name as 'Huang Xiu', and the battlefield Fengtian as 'Baitian'. But I follow the accounts of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms and of the Collected Writings of Liu Kun.")


永嘉初,寇上黨,圍壺關,東海王越遣淮南內史王曠、安豐太守衛乾等討之,及彌戰于高都、長平間,大敗之,死者十六七。元海進彌征東大將軍,封東萊公。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

At the beginning of the Yongjia reign era (~307), Wang Mi invaded Shangdang and surrounded Huguan. Jin's Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, sent the Interior Minister of Huainan, Wang Kuang, the Administrator of Anfeng, Wei Gan, and others to campaign against Wang Mi. Wang Mi fought them between Gaodu and Changping and greatly defeated them, killing sixty to seventy percent of their forces. Liu Yuan promoted Wang Mi to Grand General Who Conquers The East and Duke of Donglai.


太傅越遣淮南內史王曠、將軍施融、曹超將兵拒聰等。曠濟河,欲長驅而前,融曰︰「彼乘險間出,我雖有數萬之衆,猶是一軍獨受敵也。且當阻水爲固以量形勢,然後圖之。」曠怒曰︰「君欲沮衆邪!」融退曰︰「彼善用兵,曠闇於事勢,吾屬今必死矣!」曠等於太行與聰遇,戰於長平之間,曠兵大敗,融、超皆死。

15. Sima Yue sent the Interior Minister of Huainan, Wang Kuang, and Generals Shi Rong and Cao Chao to lead troops to oppose Liu Cong and the other Han generals.

Wang Kuang crossed the Yellow River and wanted to keep on advancing further. But Shi Rong told him, "The enemy will be taking advantage of their terrain. Even though we have an army of tens of thousands, we are still just one army coming to meet the enemy. It would be better to use the Zu River as a rampart to allow ourselves to consolidate our situation, then we can plan how to deal with the enemy afterwards."

Wang Kuang angrily replied, "You want to let our army seep away!"

Shi Rong withdrew, saying, "The enemy is skilled at using soldiers, while Wang Kuang is blind at such things. We shall all perish!"

Wang Kuang and the others encountered Liu Cong at (or, beyond) Taixing. They fought a battle at Changping, where Wang Kuang's soldiers suffered a great defeat; Shi Rong and Cao Chao both died.

〈《考異》曰︰《十六國春秋》作「王廣」,今從《帝紀》。〉〈【章︰甲十一行本「於」作「踰」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms records the name of this commander as Wang 廣 Guang. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin, which has him as Wang 曠 Kuang."

Some versions say "beyond Taixing" instead of "at Taixing".)


聰遂破屯留、長子,凡斬獲萬九千級。上黨太守龐淳以壺關降漢。劉琨以都尉張倚領上黨太守,據襄垣。

16. Liu Cong then captured Chunliu and Zhangzi, killing or capturing nineteen thousand people.

The Administrator of Shangdang, Pang Chun, surrendered Huguan to Han. Liu Kun appointed the Commander Zhang Yi as acting Administrator of Shangdang, and he occupied Xiangyuan.

〈屯,音純。〉〈《考異》曰︰《十六國春秋》作「劉惇」,《劉琨傳》作「襲醇」。今從《帝紀》。〉〈襄垣縣,屬上黨郡。宋白曰︰襄垣,趙襄子所築,因以爲名。〉

(The 屯 in Chunliu is pronounced "chun".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding Pang Chun, the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms records his name as 'Liu Dun', and the Biography of Liu Kun in the Book of Jin records it as 'Xi Chun'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin."

Xiangyuan County was part of Shangdang commandary. Song Bai remarked, "Xiangyuan was built by Viscount Xiang of Zhao, thus the name Xiangyuan ('Xiang's City').")


初,匈奴劉猛死,右賢王去卑之子誥升爰代領其衆。誥升爰卒,子虎立,居新興,號鐵弗氏,與白部鮮卑皆附於漢。劉琨自將擊虎,劉聰遣兵襲晉陽,不克。

17. Decades earlier, the Xiongnu rebel leader Liu Meng had died. The Xiongnu's Worthy King of the Right, Qubei, had a son, Gaoshengyuan, who took over Liu Meng's forces. After Gaoshengyuan passed away, his son Liu Hu succeeded him. Hu took up residence at Xinxing. He called his people the Tiefu clan, and they and the Xianbei of the Bai tribe both aligned themselves with Han.

Liu Kun led his troops to attack Liu Hu. Liu Cong sent soldiers to launch a surprise attack on Jinyang, but they could not take it.

〈見七十九卷武帝泰始八年。〉〈鐵弗氏之後爲赫連勃勃。〉〈考洪[考異?]曰︰《劉琨集》作「百部」,今從《後魏書》、《晉書》。〉〈《考異》曰︰《帝紀》︰「七月,劉聰及王彌圍壺關,琨使兵救之,爲聰所敗。王廣等及聰戰,又敗。龐淳以郡降賊。」《十六國春秋》︰「淵五月,遣聰攻壺關,敗韓述、黃肅。六月,晉遣王廣等來討。七月,戰於長平,晉師敗,劉惇以壺關降。」按《劉琨集》載六月癸巳,琨《答太傅府書》曰︰「聰、彌入上黨,龐惇不能禦。」又曰︰「安居失利,韓述授首,封田之敗,黃肅不還,浹辰之間,名將仍殄。」又曰︰「卽重遣江陶都尉張倚領上黨太守,疾據襄垣;續遣鷹揚將軍趙擬、梁余都尉李茂與倚倂力,輕行夜襲。賊捐棄輜車,宵遁而退,追尋討截,獲三分之二。當聰、彌之未走,烏丸、劉虎構爲變逆,西招白部,遣使致任,稱臣於淵,殘州困弱,內外受敵,輒背聰而討虎,自四月八日攻圍。」然則琨討虎以上事,皆在四月以前也。蓋《晉》、《漢》二《史》,皆據奏報,事畢而言之;今依《琨集》爲定。〉

(Liu Meng's rebellion is mentioned in Book 79, in Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) eighth year of Taishi (272.1).

Helian Bobo was a descendant of these Tiefu Xiongnu.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Collected Writings of Liu Kun record the name of these 白部 Bai tribe Xianbei as the '百部 Hundred tribe' Xianbei. But I follow the accounts of the Book of Northern Wei and the Book of Jin."

He further comments, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the seventh month, Liu Cong and Wang Mi besieged Huguan. Liu Kun sent soldiers to reinforce it, but they were defeated by Liu Cong. Wang Guang and the others also fought Liu Cong, but they too were defeated. Pang Chun then surrendered the commandary to the enemy.'

"The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'In the fifth month, Liu Yuan sent Liu Cong to attack Huguan, where he defeated Han Shu and Huang Su. In the sixth month, Jin sent Wang Guang and others to come campaign against Liu Cong. In the seventh month, they fought at Changping, where the Jin army was defeated. Liu Dun then surrendered Huguan.'

"According to Liu Kun's Response to the Grand Tutor's Staff in the Collected Writings of Liu Kun, which he submitted in the sixth month on the day Guisi (?), he states, 'Liu Cong and Wang Mi have entered Shangdang, and Pang Chun cannot hold out against them.'

"And, 'We have suffered setbacks here: Han Shu has been decapitated, Feng Tian was defeated, and Huang Su has not returned. 'In the course of twelve days', we have thus lost these famed generals.'

"And, 'I thus sent the Commandant of Jiangtao, Zhang Yi, to take over as Administrator of Shangdang, and to hold fast to Xianghuan; I further sent the General of Hawkish Display, Zhao Ni, and the Commandant of Liangyu, Li Mao, to combine their forces with Zhang Yi, and to lighten their forces for a night attack. The enemy captured the discarded supply carts and withdrew during the night; we then pursued and smote them, and captured two-thirds of them. But Liu Cong and Wang Mi have yet to flee, and the Wuhuan and Liu Hu have also turned against us, bringing the Bai tribe to the west along with them. They sent messengers to take up office under Liu Yuan and call themselves his servants, and they ravage the weak and suffering places in the province. We are thus faced with enemies inside and out. So I have turned my back on Liu Cong in order to campaign against Liu Hu, and I have fought and surrounded him since the eighth day of the fourth month.'

"The fact that Liu Kun mentions all of these other events first, and then states that he is now attacking Liu Hu ‘in the fourth month’, must mean that the other events took place before the fourth month. The Book of Jin and the two Histories of Han-Zhao all contain petitions and reports which outline these events after they were all played out. I follow the account of the Collected Writings of Liu Kun so as to be fully sure of the order of events.")


'In the course of twelve days' is a quote from the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals (Cheng 9.10).

鐵弗劉虎,南單于之苗裔,左賢王去卑之孫,北部帥劉猛之從子,居於新興慮虒之北。北人謂胡父鮮卑母為「鐵弗」,因以為號。猛死,子副崙來奔。虎父誥升爰代領部落。誥升爰一名訓兠。誥升爰死,虎代焉。虎一名烏路孤。始臣附於國,自以眾落稍多,舉兵外叛... 晉并州刺史劉琨共討之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Hu)

The Tiefu leader Liu Hu was a descendant of the Southern Chanyu of the Xiongnu. He was the grandson of the Worthy King of the Left, Qubei, and the nephew of the Chief of the Northern Division, Liu Meng. He lived north of Lüsi county in Xinxing commandary. The northerners called people who had a Xiongnu father and a Xianbei mother "Tiefu", thus the name. After Liu Meng's death, his son Liu Fulunlai fled. So Liu Hu's father Liu Gaoshengyuan took over command of his forces. Liu Gaoshengyuan was also named Liu Xundou.

After Liu Gaoshengyuan passed away, Liu Hu succeeded him. Liu Hu was also named Liu Wulugu. At first, he was submissive to Dai. But after his army and his people gradually grew larger, he raised his troops in rebellion against them. Jin's Inspector of Bingzhou, Liu Kun, campaigned against Liu Hu.


五月,漢主淵封子裕爲齊王,隆爲魯王。

18. In the fifth month, Liu Yuan appointed his sons Liu Yu and Liu Long as Prince of Qi and Prince of Lu.

秋,八月,漢主淵命楚王聰等進攻洛陽;詔平北將軍曹武等拒之,皆爲聰所敗。聰長驅至宜陽,自恃驟勝,怠不設備。九月,弘農太守垣延詐降,夜襲聰軍,聰大敗而還。

19. In autumn, the eighth month, Liu Yuan ordered Liu Cong and others to advance and attack Luoyang. Jin issued an imperial edict ordering the General Who Pacifies The North, Cao Wu, and others to resist this attack, but they were all defeated by Liu Cong. Liu Cong then pressed on, advancing as far as Yiyang. He grew overconfident from his victory, and did not consider setting up any defenses.

In the ninth month, the Administrator of Hongnong, Yuan Yan, pretended to surrender to Liu Cong. But during the night, he launched an attack against Liu Cong's army. Liu Cong was greatly defeated and he retreated.

〈垣,姓;延,名。〉

(垣 Yuan was this man's surname, and 延 Yan his given name.)


武部將軍彭默為劉聰所敗,見害,眾軍皆退。聰渡黃河,帝遣司隸校尉劉暾、將軍宋抽等距之,皆不能抗。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Cao Wu's subordinate general Peng Mo was defeated by Liu Cong; when Cao Wu's troops saw that Peng Mo had been killed, they all retreated. Liu Cong crossed the Yellow River. Emperor Huai sent his Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Tun, the general Song Chou, and others to oppose Liu Cong, but they could not resist him.


王浚遣祁弘與鮮卑段務勿塵擊石勒于飛龍山,大破之,勒退屯黎陽。

20. Wang Jun sent his general Qi Hong and the Xianbei leader Duan Wuwuchen to attack Shi Le at Mount Feilong. They greatly routed Shi Le, who retreated to camp at Liyang.

〈《隋‧地理志》,恆山郡石邑縣有飛龍山。《括地志》︰封龍山,一名飛龍山,在恆山鹿泉縣南四十五里。〉

(According to the Geographical Records of the Book of Sui, there was a Mount Feilong in Shiyi County in Hengshan commandary. And the Comprehensive Gazetteer states, "Mount Fenglong, also called Mount Feilong, is forty-five li southwest of Luquan County in Hengshan.")


浚使務目塵率萬餘騎伐石勒於常山封龍山下,大破之。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Wang Jun sent Duan Wumuchen to lead more than ten thousand cavalry to attack Shi Le below Mount Fenglong in Changshan commandary, where Duan Wumuchen greatly routed Shi Le.


冬,十月,漢主淵復遣楚王聰、王彌、始安王曜、汝陰王景帥精騎五萬寇洛陽,大司空鴈門剛穆公呼延翼帥步卒繼之。丙辰,聰等至宜陽。朝廷以漢兵新敗,不意其復至,大懼。辛酉,聰屯西明門。北宮純等夜帥勇士千餘人出攻漢壁,斬其征虜將軍呼延顥。壬戌,聰南屯洛水。乙丑,呼延翼爲其下所殺,其衆自大陽潰歸。淵敕聰等還師;聰表稱晉兵微弱,不可以翼、顥死故還師,固請留攻洛陽,淵許之。太傅越嬰城自守。戊寅,聰親祈嵩山,留平晉將軍安陽哀王厲、冠軍將軍呼延朗督攝留軍;太傅參軍孫詢說越乘虛出擊朗,斬之,厲赴水死。王彌謂聰曰︰「今軍旣失利,洛陽守備猶固,運車在陝,糧食不支數日。殿下不如與龍驤還平陽,裹糧發卒,更爲後舉;下官亦收兵穀,待命於兗、豫,不亦可乎!」聰自以請留,未敢還。宣于脩之言於淵曰︰「歲在辛未,乃得洛陽。今晉氣猶盛,大軍不歸,必敗。」淵乃召聰等還。

21. In winter, the tenth month, Liu Yuan once again sent Liu Cong, Wang Mi, the Prince of Shi'an, his junior kinsman Liu Yao, and the Prince of Ruyin, Liu Jing, to lead fifty thousand elite cavalry to invade Luoyang, with the Grand Minister of Works, Huyan Yi, leading infantry to support them.

On the day Bingchen (December 9th), Liu Cong and the other Han commanders arrived at Yiyang. Since the Han soldiers had only recently been defeated, the Jin court hardly expected them to launch another attack so soon, and the court were thrown into great fear.

On the day Xinyou (December 14th), Liu Cong camped at the Ximing Gate. Beigong Chun and other Jin commanders led more than a thousand brave fellows on a night attack against Liu Cong's ramparts, and they killed his General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Huyan Hao.

On the day Renxu (December 15th), Liu Cong moved his camp south to the Luo River.

On the day Yichou (?), Huyan Yi was killed by his subordinates, and his forces all scattered and went back. He was posthumously known as Duke Gangmu ("the Stern and Solemn") of Yanmen.

Liu Yuan ordered Liu Cong and the others to bring their armies back as well, but Liu Cong sent in a petition stating that since the Jin soldiers were so weak, there was no point in retreating just because of the deaths of Huyan Hao and Huyan Yi, and he insisted upon remaining in the field to attack Luoyang. Liu Yuan gave his permission. Sima Yue withdrew into Luoyang to hold out there.

On the day Wuyin (?), Liu Cong personally went to pray at Mount Song, leaving the army under the command of the General Who Pacifies Jin, Liu Li, and the Champion General, Huyan Lang. Sima Yue's Army Advisor, Sun Xun, urged Sima Yue to take advantage of Liu Cong's absence to march out and attack Huyang Lang. Sima Yue did so, and Huyan Lang was killed. Liu Li swam into the river and drowned. He was posthumously known as Prince Ai ("the Mourned") of Anyang.

Wang Mi said to Liu Cong, "Our army has now lost the advantage here. Luoyang's defenses are still very sturdy. Furthermore, our transport carts are at Shan, and so our grain supplies are not enough to last us even a few days. Your Highness, it would be best for you and the Dragon-Soaring General (Liu Yao) to retreat to Pingyang. Gather up grain and draft soldiers, and then we may attempt this again at a later time. I shall also collect soldiers and grain and await your orders in Yanzhou and Yuzhou. Could this not be done?"

But Liu Cong still asked to remain in the field, and he did not dare to retreat yet.

Han’s Court Astrologist, Xuanyu Xiu, now said to Liu Yuan, "It will only be in the Xinwei year (311) that we can obtain Luoyang. Jin's aura is currently still too flourishing. If the army does not return, it shall certainly be defeated."

So Liu Yuan summoned Liu Cong and the others back again.

〈《北狄傳》,匈奴四姓,有呼延氏、卜氏、蘭氏、喬氏,而呼延氏最貴。〉〈西明門,洛城西面南頭第二門也。〉〈洛水,過洛城南。〉〈嵩山,在河南陽城縣。〉〈聰自宜陽而東,又南進,屯于洛水,旣爲晉所敗,運車在陝,糧道隔絕。〉〈淵以族子曜爲龍驤大將軍。〉

(According to the Biography of the Northern Di Tribes in the Book of Jin, the Xiongnu had four clans: the Huyan, the Bo, the Lan, and the Qiao. And the Huyan were the most exalted of these.

The Ximing Gate was the second gate on the southern end of Luoyang's western wall.

The Luo River flowed south of Luoyang's walls.

Mount Song is in Yangcheng County in Henan commandary.

Liu Cong had advanced east from Yiyang, and then moved south again to camp on the Luo River. But since he had been defeated by the Jin army, and his supply carts were still at Shan, his supply route was cut off.

Liu Yuan had appointed his junior kinsman Liu Yao as Grand Dragon-Soaring General.)


According to the sixty-year cycle, the next Xinwei year would be 311 AD.

彌、聰以萬騎至京城,焚二學。東海王越距戰於西明門,彌等敗走。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi and Liu Cong led ten thousand cavalry to the Luoyang region, where they burned down the two Academies. The Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, opposed them in battle at the Ximing Gate, and Wang Mi and the others were defeated and driven off.


天水人訇琦等殺成太尉李離、尚書令閻式,以梓潼降羅尚;成主雄遣太傅驤、司徒雲、司空璜攻之,不克,雲、璜戰死。

22. A native of Tianshui, Hong Qi, and others killed Cheng's Grand Commandant, Li Li, and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yan Shi. They surrendered Zitong commandary to Luo Shang.

The Emperor of Cheng, Li Xiong, sent his Grand Tutor, his uncle Li Xiang, his Minister Over The Masses, Li Yun, and his Minister of Works, Li Huang, to attack these defectors. But the Cheng army was unsuccessful, and Li Yun and Li Huang were killed in the fighting.

時李離據梓潼,其部將羅羕、張金苟等殺離及閻式,以梓潼歸於羅尚。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

At this time, Li Li was occupying Zitong. His subordinate commanders, Luo Yang, Zhang Jingou, and others killed both him and Yan Shi, then offered up Zitong to Luo Shang in surrender.

三年冬,天水訇琦、張金苟,略陽羅羕,殺雄太尉李離,〔以梓潼〕降尚。雄太傅驤〔遣〕李雲、李璜攻羕,為所破殺。雲、璜,雄從弟也,為〔司徒〕司空。十有二月,琦等送離母子於尚。尚斬之,分其室... 永嘉三年,羅羕、訇琦等殺李離於梓潼。時閻式去雄依離,并見殺。驤攻不克,時李雲、李璜皆戰死。(Huayang Guozhi 8.8, 9.1)

In the third year of Yongjia (309), in winter, Hong Qi and Zhang Jingou of Tianshui and Luo Yang of Lueyang killed Li Xiong's Grand Commandant, Li Li, and surrendered (Zitong) to Luo Shang.

Li Xiong's Grand Tutor, Li Xiang, sent Li Yun and Li Huang to attack Luo Yang. But they were routed and killed instead. Li Yun and Li Huang were Li Xiong's younger cousins, and he had appointed them as (Minister Over The Masses and) Minister of Works.

In the twelfth month, Hong Qi and the other defectors sent Li Li's mother and children to Luo Shang. Luo Shang executed them and split up his household.

...

In the third year of Yongjia (309), Luo Yang, Hong Qi, and others killed Li Li at Zitong. At this time, Yan Shi had left Li Xiong to accompany Li Li, so he was also killed. Li Xiang attacked the defectors, but without success. Li Yun and Li Huang both died in the fighting.

[〔以梓潼〕]: 依下文及《通鑑》文補。[〔司徒〕]: 廖本注云:「當有司徒二字。雲司徒,璜司空也。」依《通鑑》文,當補。(Huayang Guozhi Commentary)

(I include the fact that the defectors offered up "Zitong" to Luo Shang, in accordance with the Zizhi Tongjian.

The Liao edition notes that "this passage should state that Li Yun was Minister Over The Masses, and Li Huang was Minister of Works." This is also in accordance with the Zizhi Tongjian.)


初,譙周有子居巴西,成巴西太守馬脫殺之,其子登詣劉弘請兵以復讎。弘表登爲梓潼內史,使自募巴、蜀流民,得二千人;西上,至巴郡,從羅尚求益兵,不得。登進攻宕渠,斬馬脫,食其肝。會梓潼降,登進據涪城;雄自攻之,爲登所敗。

23. Earlier, there was a son of the former Shu-Han minister Qiao Zhou who was living in Baxi commandary. Cheng's Administrator of Baxi, Ma Tuo, killed this man. His son Qiao Deng visited Liu Hong and asked him for soldiers in order to avenge his father. Liu Hong petitioned to have Qiao Deng appointed as Interior Minister of Zitong, and let him draft soldiers from among the refugees from Ba and Shu, until Qiao Deng had two thousand of them to fight for him.

Qiao Deng led them west until he reached Ba commandary, where he also asked Luo Shang to give him additional soldiers, but Luo Shang refused. Qiao Deng pressed on, and attacked Dangqu, where he killed Ma Tuo and ate his liver.

It was at this time that Zitong surrendered to Luo Shang, and so Qiao Deng advanced and occupied Fucheng. Li Xiong came himself to attack Qiao Deng, but Qiao Deng defeated him.

〈宕渠縣,漢屬巴郡,自蜀以來,屬巴西郡。賢曰︰宕渠故城,在今渠州流江縣東北。〉

(During Han, Dangqu County was part of Ba commandary. Ever since Shu-Han, it had been part of Baxi commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Dangqu was in the northeast of Liujiang County in modern Quzhou.")


尚遣其將向奮屯安漢之宜福以逼雄,雄率眾攻奮,不克。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Luo Shang sent his general Xiang Fen to camp at Yifu in Anhan in order to threaten Li Xiong. Li Xiong led his forces to attack Xiang Fen, but without success.

初,巴西譙登詣鎮南請兵。鎮南無兵,表為揚烈將軍、梓潼內史,義募三巴蜀漢民為兵,克服州郡。先征宕渠,殺雄巴西太守馬脫。還住涪。(Huayang Guozhi 8.8)

Earlier, Qiao Deng of Baxi had gone to visit Jin's General Who Guards The South (and Commander of Jingzhou, Liu Hong) to ask for troops. (Liu Hong) could not spare him any soldiers, but he petitioned to have Qiao Deng appointed as General Who Spreads Ferocity and Interior Minister of Zitong, and he recruited volunteers from among the people of the three Ba commandaries and from the Shu and Han regions to be his soldiers, in order to regain their old provinces and commandaries. He first marched against Dangqu, where he killed Li Xiong's Administrator of Baxi, Ma Tuo. He then returned to Fu and remained there.

[鎮南]: 謂荊州督鎮南將軍劉弘。[馬脫]: 顧觀光云:「原誤晚。」[還住]: 劉、李、《函》本改作治。無取。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(This passage should clarify that the "General Who Guards The South" was the Commander of Jingzhou, Liu Hong.

Regarding 馬脫 Ma Tuo, Gu Guanguang states, "It was originally miswritten as 馬晚 Ma Wan".

The Liu, Li, and 函 editions state that Qiao Deng "governed" at Fu. But this is not so.)


譙登,字慎明,巴西西充國人,譙周孫也。「仲」〔伯〕父熙,察孝廉,本部大中正,沔陽令。叔父同,字彥紹,少知名,拒州郡之命。梁州刺史壽良與東羌校尉何攀貢之三司及大將軍幕府。為尚書郎,除錫令。亦有為作傳者。登少以公亮義烈聞。郡命功曹,州辟主簿,別駕從事。領陰平太守。郡五官,素大姓,豪擅,侵淩羌、晉,登誅之,郡中皆肅。後以李特作亂,本郡沒寇,父〔賢〕為李雄巴西太守馬脫所殺。乃東詣鎮南劉公請兵。時中原亂,守公三年,不能得兵。表拜揚烈將軍、梓潼內史,使合義募。「登凡」募巴蜀流士,得二千人。「鎮」〔平〕西羅尚以退住巴郡,登從尚索益軍討雄,不得。乃往攻宕渠,斬脫,食其肝。巴西賊破,復詣尚求軍。尚參佐多以必無利;登憤恚,數淩折之。又加責於尚,尚但下之而已。會羅羕殺雄太尉李離,舉梓潼來降,登逕進涪城。雄自攻登,為登所破。(Huayang Guozhi 11, Biography of Qiao Deng)

Qiao Deng, styled Shenming, was a native of the Xichong princely fief in Baxi commandary. He was the grandson of Qiao Zhou. His uncle Qiao Xi was nominated as Filial and Incorrupt, and served as Grand Rectifier of his home place and Prefect of Mianyang. Another uncle was Qiao Tong, styled Yanshao, who was famous even as a youth, but resisted the summons of his province and commandary. The Inspector of Lianzhou, Shou Liang, and the Colonel of Eastern Qiang Tribes, He Pan, recommended him to serve in the staff of the Three Excellencies and the Grand General, and he served as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing and as Prefect of Xi. Shou Liang and He Pan have their own Biographies.

As for Qiao Deng himself, even at a young age he was renowned for his just, bright, and staunch nature. His commandary summoned him to serve as a Merit Evaluator, and his province recruited him first as a Registrar and then as an Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage. Later, he served as Administrator of Yinping. The Officer For All Purposes in that commandary, a fellow from a local gentry clan of long pedigree, acted arrogantly and arbitrarily, harasssing and bullying the Qiang tribes and the Jin people (ethnic Han). So Qiao Deng executed him, and everyone within the commandary respected him.

Later, when Li Te rose in rebellion, Qiao Deng's home commandary of Baxi was lost to the rebels, and Qiao Deng's father Qiao Xian was killed by Li Xiong's Administrator of Baxi, Ma Tuo. So Qiao Deng went east and visited Jin's General Who Guards The South, Liu Hong, to ask him for soldiers. At that time, the Central Plains were in turmoil, and Liu Hong had already had to defend his area of command for three years, so he was unable to grant Qiao Deng any of the soldiers under his command. But he did petition to have Qiao Deng appointed as General Who Spreads Ferocity and Interior Minister of Zitong, and he granted Qiao Deng the authority to gather recruits of his own. So Qiao Deng recruited volunteers from among the refugees from the Ba and Shu regions to be his soldiers, gathering two thousand of them altogether.

By that time, Jin's General Who Pacifies The West, Luo Shang, had already fallen back to Ba commandary. Qiao Deng went to visit him and asked him for an army so that he could campaign against Li Xiong, but Luo Shang refused to grant him one. Qiao Deng pressed on, and attacked Dangqu, where he killed Ma Tuo and ate his liver. With the rebels' control of Baxi commandary having been broken, Qiao Deng once again visited Luo Shang to ask for an army. But most of Luo Shang's advisors and subordinates felt that there would be no profit in granting Qiao Deng any soldiers. Qiao Deng repeatedly rebuked and humiliated them, and he even heaped blame on Luo Shang himself, but Luo Shang only dismissed him and did no more.

Shortly afterwards, Luo Yang killed Li Xiong's Grand Commandant, Li Li, and offered up Zitong to Jin in surrender. So Qiao Deng advanced to Fucheng. Li Xiong himself came to attack Qiao Deng, but Qiao Deng routed him.

[〔賢〕]: [本部]: 〈舊各本皆作郡,廖本獨作部。部字是。〉〈依《三國志‧譙周傳》補。〉[馬脫]: 〈張、吳、何、王、石本作晚。下同。〉[「鎮」〔平〕]: 〈當作平,前屢見。下文亦作平。〉[尚以]: 〈已字通。〉(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The old editions all state that Qiao Xi was Grand Rectifier of his home "commandary", and only the Liao edition writes that it was his home "place". But this is correct.

The original text of the Huayang Guozhi does not state Qiao Deng's father's given name. I have added it in, following the account of the Biography of Qiao Deng in the Records of the Three Kingdoms.

The Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions write 馬脫 Ma Tuo's given name as 晚 Wan. The same below.

This passage states that Luo Shang was the General Who 鎮 "Guards" The West, but it should be 平 "Pacifies" The West, as has been seen several times before. The subsequent text also writes it as "Pacifies".

This passage should state that Luo Shang had "already" fallen back to Ba commandary.)


十一月,甲申,漢楚王聰、始安王曜歸于平陽。王彌南出轘轅,流民之在潁川、襄城、汝南、南陽、河南者數萬家,素爲居民所苦,皆燒城邑,殺二千石、長吏以應彌。

24. In the eleventh month, on the day Jiashen (January 6th of 310), Liu Cong and Liu Yao returned to Pingyang.

Wang Mi marched south out of Huanyuan Pass. There were tens of thousands of refugee families who were now living in Yingchuan, Xiangcheng, Runan, Nanyang, and Henan commandaries. They had been oppressed by the people already living in those places. So they set fire to all the towns and cities in those places and killed the officials of Two Thousand 石 salary rank and the Chief Clerks in order to support Wang Mi.

〈襄陽縣,漢屬潁川郡,武帝泰始二年分立襄城郡。〉

(During Han, Xiangcheng county had been part of Yingchuan commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), he split it off as Xiangcheng commandary.)


彌復以二千騎寇襄城諸縣,河東、平陽、弘農、上党諸流人之在潁川、襄城、汝南、南陽、河南者數萬家,為舊居人所不禮,皆焚燒城邑,殺二千石長吏以應彌。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi led another two thousand cavalry to invade the counties of Xiangcheng commandary. There were tens of thousands of refugee families from Hedong, Pingyang, Hongnong, and Shangdang commandaries who were now living in Yingchuan, Xiangcheng, Runan, Nanyang, and Henan commandaries. They had been oppressed by the people already living in those places. So they set fire to all the towns and cities in those places and killed the officials of Two Thousand 石 salary rank and the Chief Clerks in order to support Wang Mi.


石勒寇信都,殺冀州刺史王斌。王浚自領冀州。詔車騎將軍王堪、北中郎將裴憲將兵討勒,勒引兵還,拒之;魏郡太守劉矩以郡降勒。勒至黎陽,裴憲棄軍奔淮南,王堪退保倉垣。

25. Shi Le invaded Xindu, where he killed Jin’s Inspector of Jizhou, Wang Bin. Wang Jun assumed acting command of Jizhou.

Jin issued an edict ordering the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Kan, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Pei Xian, to lead troops to campaign against Shi Le. So Shi Le brought his soldiers back to oppose them. The Administrator of Wei commandary, Liu Ju, surrendered his commandary to Shi Le. When Shi Le arrived at Liyang, Pei Xian abandoned his army and fled to Huainan, while Wang Kan fell back to defend Cangyuan.

〈信都縣,漢屬信都國,後漢屬安平國,晉同。〉〈倉垣城,在陳留浚儀縣。《水經》︰汴水出浚儀縣北,東逕倉垣城南,卽大梁縣之倉垣亭也,城臨汴水。〉

(During Former Han, Xindu County was part of the Xindu princely fief. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of the Anping princely fief.

The city of Cangyuan was in Junyi County in Chenliu commandary. The Water Classic states, "The Bian River flows through the north of Junyi County, and on east flowing south of the city of Cangyuan. At Cangyuan Point in Daliang County, the city walls abutt the Bian River.")


十二月,漢主淵以陳留王歡樂爲太傅,楚王聰爲司徒,江都王延年爲大司空。遣都護大將軍曲陽王賢與征北大將軍劉靈、安北將軍趙固、平北將軍王桑,東屯內黃。王彌表左長史曹嶷行安東將軍,東徇青州,且迎其家;淵許之。

26. In the twelfth month, Liu Yuan appointed his Prince of Chenliu, Liu Huanle, as Grand Tutor, he appointed Liu Cong as Minister Over The Masses, and he appointed his Prince of Jiangdu, Liu Yannian, as Grand Minister of Works.

Liu Yuan sent his Grand General Protector and Prince of Quyang, Liu Xian, his Grand General Who Conquers The North, Liu Ling, his General Who Maintains The North, Zhao Gu, and his General Who Pacifies The North, Wang Sang, to march east and camp at Neihuang.

Wang Mi petitioned Liu Yuan to appoint his Chief Clerk of the Left, Cao Yi, as acting General Who Maintains The East, and to send Cao Yi east into Qingzhou, where he could secure Wang Mi's family. Liu Yuan permitted it.

〈內黃縣,屬魏郡。應劭曰︰陳留有外黃,故加「內」云。〉〈爲曹嶷據青州張本。王彌家在東萊。〉

(Neihuang county was part of Wei commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "There was a Waihuang ('outer Huang') county in Chenliu commandary, and so this place was called Neihuang ('inner Huang')."

This was why Cao Yi was able to occupy Qingzhou. Wang Mi's family was in Donglai.)


彌乃以左長史曹嶷為鎮東將軍,給兵五千,多齎寶物還鄉里,招誘亡命,且迎其室。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi appointed his Chief Clerk of the Left, Cao Yi, as General Who Guards The East, and he gave him five thousand soldiers and many treasures and sent him back to his home district in order to recruit and entice fugitives to join him and protect Wang Mi's family.


初,東夷校尉勃海李臻,與王浚約共輔晉室,浚內有異志,臻恨之。和演之死也,別駕昌黎王誕亡歸李臻,說臻舉兵討浚。臻遣其子成將兵擊浚。遼東太守龐本,素與臻有隙,乘虛襲殺臻,遣人殺成於無慮。誕亡歸慕容廆。詔以勃海封釋代臻爲東夷校尉,龐本復謀殺之;釋子悛勸釋伏兵請本,收斬之,悉誅其家。

27. Up until this time, the Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, Li Zhen of Bohai, had been working together with Wang Jun to support the Jin royal family. But Wang Jun secretly had other ambitions, and Li Zhen resented him.

When the Inspector of Youzhou, He Yan, had been killed by Wang Jun, his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Wang Dan of Changli, had fled to Li Zhen, and urged Li Zhen to raise his troops to march against Wang Jun. Li Zhen sent his son Li Cheng to lead soldiers to attack Wang Jun. The Administrator of Liaodong, Pang Ben, had long been on bad terms with Li Zhen, and he took advantage of this opening to attack and kill Li Zhen, while also sending men to kill Li Cheng at Wulü. Wang Dan then fled to the Xianbei leader Murong Hui.

Jin issued an edict ordering Feng Shi of Bohai to replace Li Zhen as Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, but Pang Ben plotted to kill him as well. Feng Yi's son Feng Quan urged his father to prepare an ambush and then invite Pang Ben to come see him. They then arrested and executed Pang Ben, and killed his entire family.

〈見八十五卷惠帝永興元年。〉〈《考異》曰︰《燕書‧王誕傳》,「成」作「咸」,今從《李洪傳》。〉〈無慮縣,前漢屬遼東,後漢屬遼東屬國,晉省。〉

(He Yan's death at the hands of Wang Jun is mentioned in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (304.14).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding this Li 成 Cheng, the Biography of Wang Dan records his name as Li 咸 Xian. But I follow the account of the Biography of Li Hong in the Book of Yan."

During Former Han, Wulü County was part of Liaodong commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Liaodong Vassal State. Jin abolished it.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 25, 2018 8:01 pm, edited 18 times in total.
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BOOK 87

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 12, 2017 7:26 pm

四年(庚午、三一○)

The Fourth Year of Yongjia (The Gengwu Year, 310 AD)


春,正月,乙丑朔,大赦。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yichou (February 16th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

漢主淵立單徵女爲皇后,梁王和爲皇太子,大赦;封子义爲北海王;以長樂王洋爲大司馬。

2. Liu Yuan honored Shan Zheng's daughter as his Empress. He appointed the Prince of Liang, his son Liu He, as Crown Prince, and he declared a general amnesty within his domain. He appointed his son Liu Yi as Prince of Beihai, and he appointed the Prince of Changle, Liu Yang, as Grand Marshal.

〈單徵,氐酋也,歸漢見上卷二年。單,音善。〉

(Shan Zheng was a Di leader; his submission to Han-Zhao is mentioned in Book 86, in the second year of Yongjia (308.15). His surname 單 is pronounced "shan".)


二年,以大司馬梁王和為皇太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the second year of Herui (310), Liu Yuan appointed the Grand Marshal and Prince of Liang, Liu He, as his Crown Prince.


漢鎭東大將軍石勒濟河,拔白馬,王彌以三萬衆會之,共寇徐、豫、兗州。二月,勒襲鄄城,殺兗州刺史袁孚,遂拔倉垣,殺王堪。復北濟河,攻冀州諸郡,民從之者九萬餘口。

3. Han's Grand General Who Guards The East, Shi Le, crossed the Yellow River and captured Baima. Wang Mi brought a host of thirty thousand to join him, and together they invaded Xuzhou, Yuzhou, and Yanzhou. In the second month, Shi Le attacked Juancheng, where he killed Jin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Yuan Fu. He then captured Cangyuan and killed Wang Kan.

Shi Le's forces then went north back across the Yellow River, and attacked the various commandaries of Jizhou. More than ninety thousand people followed them.

彌又以二萬人會石勒寇陳郡、潁川,屯陽曜,遣弟璋與石勒共寇徐兗,因破越軍。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi also led twenty thousand soldiers to join with Shi Le and invade Chen and Yingchuan commandaries. They camped at Yangyao. Wang Mi sent his younger brother Wang Zhang to join with Shi Le and invade Xuzhou and Yanzhou, and they routed the local generals.

勒將北攻晉幽州刺史王浚。會浚將王甲始率遼西鮮卑萬餘騎敗劉聰安北大將軍趙固于津北,勒乃燒船棄營,引軍向柏門,迎重門輜重,合于石門而濟。南攻晉豫州刺史馮嵩于陳郡,不克,進攻襄城太守崔廣於繁昌,斬之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le marched north and attacked Jin's Inspector of Youzhou, Wang Jun. But then, Wang Jun's general Wang Jiashi led more than ten thousand Xianbei cavalry to defeat Liu Cong's Grand General Who Maintains The North, Zhao Gu, north of the crossing. So Shi Le burned his boats and abandoned his camps, leading his army towards Baimen. He reclaimed his supply train from Zhongmen, then gathered his army at the Stone Gate and crossed the Yellow River.

Then Shi Le marched south to attack Jin's Inspector of Yuzhou, Feng Song, at Chen commandary. But Shi Le was unsuccessful. Shi Le advanced and attacked the Administrator of Xiangcheng, Cui Guang, at Fanchang and killed him.


成太尉李國鎭巴西,帳下文石殺國,以巴西降羅尚。

4. Cheng's Grand Commandant, Li Guo, was guarding Baxi commandary. His close subordinate Wen Shi killed Li Guo and surrendered Baxi to Luo Shang.

時李國鎮巴西,其帳下文碩又殺國,以巴西降尚。雄乃引還。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Meanwhile, Li Guo was guarding Baxi. His underling Wen Shuo killed him, then offered up Baxi to Luo Shang as well. So Li Xiong brought his soldiers back.

四年,天水文石殺雄太宰李國,以巴西降尚。梓潼、巴西還屬... 折衝將軍張羅進據犍為之合水。巴蜀為語曰:「譙登治涪城,文石在巴西,張羅守合水,巴氐那得前。」... 「明」〔四〕年,文碩殺李國,以巴西「梓潼」為晉。平寇將軍李鳳在晉壽。梁州先以為雄所破,不守。而譙登在涪,平西參軍向奮屯「安」漢〔安〕之宜福,張羅屯平無逼雄。(Huayang Guozhi 8.8, 9.1)

In the fourth year of Yongjia (310), Wen Shi of Tianshui killed Li Xiong's Grand Governor, Li Guo, and offered up Baxi to Luo Shang in surrender. So Zitong and Baxi came back under Luo Shang's control.

Jin's General Who Breaks And Charges, Zhang Luo, advanced to occupy Heshui in Jianwei commandary. So a ditty spread in the Ba-Shu region: "Qiao Deng holds Fucheng, Wen Shi's at Baxi, Zhang Luo guards Heshui, what can the Ba-Di reclaim?"

...

In the fourth year of Yongjia (310), Wen Shuo killed Li Guo, and handed Baxi commandary over to Jin.

Li Xiong's General Who Pacifies Invaders, Li Feng, was at Jinshou. Lianzhou had already been smashed by Li Xiong, so it could not hold. But Qiao Deng was at Fu, Jin's Army Advisor to the General Who Pacifies The West, Xiang Fen, was camped at Yifu in Han'an, and Zhang Luo was camped at Pingwu to threaten Li Xiong.

[文石]: 《載記》作碩,《通鑑》作石。顧廣圻校稿云:「後作碩。」今按石、碩古字通。[得前]: 顧廣圻校稿云:「廣圻按,西先合韻」。意謂前當作先。茲不取。民謠無韻也。[「明」〔四〕]: 舊各本作明年,承上文也。茲用本紀體,當作「四年。」[「梓潼」]: 廖本注云:「當衍此二字。」[「安」漢〔安〕]: 舊各本皆作漢安,廖本誤倒作安漢。[平無]: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本並有小注云:「《後漢書》,越嶲郡有會無城。」蓋張佳胤不明地理,妄以會無擬平無也。顧廣圻校稿云:「平無已見《公孫述志》。」謂彭亡聚。參看卷三12章之注〔8〕。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding 文石 Wen Shi, the Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin writes his name as 文碩 Wen Shuo. The Zizhi Tongjian follows the account of the Huayang Guozhi. The 顧廣圻校稿 states, "It was later written as Shuo." So it must be that these two characters were once connected.

In the folk ditty, the 顧廣圻校稿 states, "The last character of the fourth line should be 先 Xian ('earlier'), so as to suggest a rhyme with the last character of the second line, 西 Xi ('[Ba]xi')." By which it means 先 instead of the actual character, which is 前 Qian ("before"). But this need not be so. Folk songs do not have to rhyme.

The old versions all begin this passage with "the following year", that is, the one following after the year from the previous passage. But to more closely follow the usual annals format, it should be changed to "the fourth year".

The original text lists that Wen Shuo handed over both Baxi and "Zitong" to Jin. The Liao edition here notes that "the word Zitong should be omitted".

The old editions all write the name of the county Zhang Luo was in as Han'an; the Liao edition mistakenly writes it as Anhan.

Regarding Pingwu, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions all include a little note stating, "The Book of Later Han lists a city of Huiwu in Yuexi commandary." It must be that Zhang Jiayin did not really understand the geography, and rashly suspected that the Pingwu mentioned here was really this place Huiwu. But Gu Guangqi's Analysis states, "Pingwu is earlier mentioned in the Biography of Gongsun Shu in the Huayang Guozhi." He is referring to the gathering at Pengwang. For more on Pingwu, see the Jianwei commandary section of the Records of the Shu Region in the Huayang Guozhi.)


而尚將張羅進屯犍為之合水,文碩殺雄太宰李國,以巴西降。羅遣軍掠廣漢,破雄叔父驤,虜其妻子,募人斫雄頭,賊以向困。(Huayang Guozhi 11, Biography of Qiao Deng)

Then Luo Shang's general Zhang Luo advanced to camp at Heshui, and Wen Shuo killed Li Xiong's Grand Governor, Li Guo, and surrendered Baxi commandary to Jin. Zhang Luo sent an army to raid Guanghan commandary, where they routed Li Xiong's uncle Li Xiang and captured his wife and sons. Zhang Luo also bribed a man to strike Li Xiong in the head. All these events sent the rebels reeling.


太傅越徵建威將軍吳興錢璯及揚州刺史王敦。璯謀殺敦以反,敦奔建業,告琅邪王睿。璯遂反,進寇陽羨,睿遣將軍郭逸等討之;周玘糾合鄕里,與逸等共討璯,斬之。玘三定江南,睿以玘爲吳興太守,於其鄕里置義興郡,以旌之。

5. Sima Yue summoned to the capital the General Who Establishes Might, Qian Hui of Wuxing commandary, and the Inspector of Yangzhou, Wang Dun. Rather than respond, Qian Hui plotted to kill Wang Dun and then rebel. Wang Dun fled to Jianye and informed the Prince of Langye, Sima Rui, of the situation.

Qian Hui did indeed rebel, and he advanced to invade Yangxian. Sima Rui sent General Guo Yi and others to campaign against Qian Hui. Zhou Qi also gathered together people from his district and joined Guo Yi and the others in their campaign. They attack Qian Hui and killed him.

By now, Zhou Qi had helped to restore stability to the Southland three times. Sima Rui appointed him as Administrator of Wuxing, and he converted his home district into Yixing commandary to honor him.

〈吳分吳郡、丹陽置吳興郡,以自烏程興故也。〉〈陽羨縣,前漢屬會稽郡,後漢屬吳郡,自吳以來,分屬吳興郡。賢曰︰陽羨故城,在今常州義興縣南。〉〈惠帝永興元年討石冰,永嘉元年討陳敏,今又誅璯,是三定江南。〉〈時分吳興之陽羨及長城縣之西鄕、丹陽之永世爲義興郡。〉

(Eastern Wu had split off parts of Wu and Danyang commanaries to form Wuxing commanary, from where Wucheng rose up.

During Former Han, Yangxian County was part of Kuaiji commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Wu commandary. Ever since Eastern Wu, it had been split off as Yangxian commandary. Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Yangxian was in the south of Yixing commandary in modern Changzhou."

In Emperor Hui's first year of Yongning (304.8), Zhou Qi had helped to defeat the rebel leader Shi Bing. In the first year of Yongjia (307.6-7), Zhou Qi had participated in the campaign against the rebel Chen Min. Now, he had helped to defeat the rebel Qian Hui. These were the three times he had helped to restore stability to the Southland.

At this time, Yangxian and the western district of Zhangcheng County in Wuxing commandary, and Yongshi in Danyang commandary, were split off to form Yixing commandary.)


曹嶷自大梁引兵而東,所至皆下,遂克東平,進攻琅邪。

6. Cao Yi brought his soldiers east from Daliang, sweeping all before him. Having taken Dongping, he advanced to attack Langye.

夏,四月,王浚將祁弘敗漢冀州刺史劉靈於廣宗,殺之。

7. In summer, the fourth month, Wang Jun's general Qi Hong defeated Han's Inspector of Jizhou, Liu Ling, at Guangzong, and he killed Liu Ling.

〈廣宗縣,漢屬鉅鹿郡,晉屬安平國。〉

(During Han, Guangzong County was part of Julu commandary. During Jin, it was part of the Anping princely fief.)


成主雄謂其將張寶曰︰「汝能得梓潼,吾以李離之官賞汝。」寶乃先殺人而亡奔梓潼,訇琦等信之,委以心腹。會羅尚遣使至梓潼,琦等出送之;寶從後閉門,琦等奔巴西。雄以寶爲太尉。

8. Li Xiong told his general Zhang Bao, "If you are able to obtain Zitong, then I will award you with Li Li's former rank as Grand Commandant."

So Zhang Bao first killed a man, and then fled to Zitong. Hong Qi and the other defectors trusted him and brought him into their inner council.

Soon, Luo Shang sent a messenger to Zitong. Hong Qi and the others went out to welcome (or, to see off) the messenger. Zhang Bao followed after them and closed the gates of the city behind them. Hong Qi and the others fled to Baxi.

Li Xiong appointed Zhang Bao as Grand Commandant.

〈【嚴︰「送」改「迎」。】〉

(Some versions say that Hong Qi and the others "saw off" rather than "welcomed" the messenger.)


遣其將張寶襲梓潼,陷之。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

In the meantime, Li Xiong sent his general Zhang Bao to attack Zitong, and Zhang Bao took it.

雄將張寶,弟全在訇琦中。雄遣寶反為奸,許以代離。寶素凶勇,先殺人,而後奔梓潼,密結心腹。會羅尚遣使慰勞琦。琦等出送其使,寶從後閉城門。琦等奔巴西。雄得梓潼,拜寶為太尉。(Huayang Guozhi 9.1)

Li Xiong's general Zhang Bao had a younger brother, Zhang Quan, who was with Hong Qi and the other defectors at Zitong. Li Xiong ordered Zhang Bao to infiltrate the defectors, promising to have him replace Li Li. Since Zhang Bao had always had a wild and violent nature, he first killed someone and then fled to Zitong, where he won over the defectors and became their close confidant. Not long afterwards, Luo Shang sent an envoy to visit the defectors and commend Hong Qi for his good work. Hong Qi and the others went out of the city to see the envoy off, and Zhang Bao followed after them and closed the gates behind them. Hong Qi and the others fled to Baxi. Now that Zitong was once again his, Li Xiong appointed Zhang Bao as Grand Commandant.

[張寶]: 元豐本作賢。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding 張寶 Zhang Bao, the Yuanfeng edition writes his given name as 賢 Xian.)


幽、幷、司、冀、秦、雍六州大蝗,食草木、牛馬毛皆盡。

9. There was a great swarm of locusts in Youzhou, Bingzhou, Sizhou, Jizhou, Qinzhou, and Yongzhou. They ate all the grass and trees and all the hairs on the cattle and horses.

秋,七月,漢楚王聰、始安王曜、石勒及安北大將軍趙國圍河內太守裴整于懷,詔征虜將軍宋抽救懷。勒與平北大將軍王桑逆擊抽,殺之;河內人執整以降,漢主淵以整爲尚書左丞。河內督將郭默收整餘衆,自爲塢主,劉琨以默爲河內太守。

10. In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Cong, Liu Yao, Shi Le, and Han's Grand General Who Maintains The North, Zhao Guo (or, Gu), besieged Jin's Administrator of Henei, Pei Zheng, at Huai.

Jin issued an edict ordering the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Song Chou, to reinforce Huai. Shi Le and the Grand General Who Pacifies The North, Wang Sang, counter-attacked Song Chou and killed him.

The people of Henei then arrested Pei Zheng and surrendered to the Han army. Liu Yuan appointed Pei Zheng as his Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing.

A local commander in Henei, Guo Mo, gathered up Pei Zheng's remaining soldiers and declared himself Ramparts Master. Liu Kun appointed this Guo Mo as the new Administrator of Henei.

〈【嚴︰「國」改「固」。】〉〈城之小者曰塢。天下兵爭,聚衆築塢以自守;未有朝命,故自爲塢主。〉

(Some versions record Zhao Guo as Zhao Gu (likely correct, as a "General Who Maintains The North, Zhao Gu" is mentioned above, at 309.26).

A small wall is called a rampart. Due to the contending soldiers throughout the realm, many people had built such ramparts in order to defend themselves. Guo Mo had no official authority from the court, so he merely styled himself Ramparts Master.)


羅尚卒於巴郡,詔以長沙太守下邳皮素代之。

11. Luo Shang passed away at Ba commandary. An edict was issued appointing the Administrator of Changsha, Pi Su of Xiapi commandary, to replace him.

〈《姓譜》︰皮姓,樊仲皮之後。〉

(The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 皮 Pi are the descendants of Zhong Pi of Fan.")


秋七月,尚薨於巴郡。尚字敬之,一名仲,字敬真,襄陽人也。歷尚書丞、郎,武陵、汝南太守,徙梁州,臨州。詔書除長沙太守「下邳」皮素「泰昆」為益州刺史,兼西夷校尉、揚烈將軍,領義募人及平西「將」軍。當進治三關。(Huayang Guozhi 7.8)

In summer, the seventh month, Luo Shang passed away at Ba commandary.

Luo Shang, styled Jingzhi, was a native of Xiangyang; he was also called Luo Zhong, styled Jingzhen. He served as a Minister and then as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing, as Administrator of Wuling and then Runan, and then as Inspector of Lianzhou, before he came to Yizhou (as Inspector).

An edict was issued appointing the Administrator of Changsha, Pi Su of Xiapi commandary, as the new Inspector of Yizhou, as well as Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, General Who Spreads Ferocity, leader of the volunteer soldiers, and General Who Pacifies The West. So Pi Su advanced to establish his headquarters at Sanguan.

[臨州]: 此謂益州刺史。[「下邳」]: 廖本注云「當衍此二字」。是。後文複見。按羅尚前例,此為衍文也。[「泰昆」]: 舊各本作混。張、吳、何、王、浙、石本并作「字泰混」。然當衍,說同上注。(Huayang Guozhi Commentary)

(The line "when Luo Shang came to the province", it means in his capacity as Inspector of Yizhou.

At the first mention of Pi Su, the Liao edition inserts the phrase "of Xiapi" with the note "this should be included". This is correct; see the comment below. But its inclusion at the first mention is redundant, because the format should match the same style as Luo Shang's listing of names, homeland, and offices just above, and which this passage does for Pi Su below. For the same reason, the mention of his style name at this place should also be omitted as redundant.)


庚午,漢主淵寢疾;辛未,以陳留王歡樂爲太宰,長樂王洋爲太傅,江都王延年爲太保,楚王聰爲大司馬、大單于,並錄尚書事。置單于臺於平陽西。以齊王裕爲大司徒,魯王隆爲尚書令,北海王义爲撫軍大將軍、領司隸校尉,始安王曜爲征討大都督、領單于左輔,廷尉喬智明爲冠軍大將軍、領單于右輔,光祿大夫劉殷爲左僕射,王育爲右僕射,任顗爲吏部尚書,朱紀爲中書監,護軍馬景領左衞將軍,永安王安國領右衞將軍,安昌王盛、安邑王欽、西陽王璿皆領武衞將軍,分典禁兵。初,盛少時,不好讀書,唯讀《孝經》、《論語》,曰︰「誦此能行,足矣,安用多誦而不行乎!」李熹見之,歎曰︰「望之如可易,及至,肅如嚴君,可謂君子矣!」淵以其忠篤,故臨終委以要任。丁丑,淵召太宰歡樂等入禁中,受遺詔輔政。己卯,淵卒;太子和卽位。

12. On the day Gengwu (August 20th), Liu Yuan was bedridden by illness.

On the day Xinwei (August 21st), he appointed Liu Huanle as Grand Governor, he appointed Liu Yang as Grand Tutor, he appointed Liu Yannian as Grand Guardian, and he appointed the Prince of Chu, Liu Cong, as Grand Marshal and Grand Chanyu. All of these men were granted authority over the affairs of the Masters of Writing.

Liu Yuan created the Chanyu Terrace ministry west of Pingyang.

Among his sons, Liu Yuan appointed Liu Yu as Grand Minister Over The Masses, he appointed Liu Long as Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed Liu Yi as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and acting Colonel-Director of Retainers.

He appointed Liu Yao as Grand Commander of Expeditionary Forces and acting Regent Chanyu of the Left, and he appointed the Commandant of Justice, Qiao Zhiming, as Grand Champion General and acting Regent Chanyu of the Right.

He appointed the Household Counselor Liu Yin as Supervisor of the Left and Wang Yu as Supervisor of the Right.

He appointed Ren Yi as Director of the Masters of Writing and Zhu Ji as Chief of the Palace Secretariat.

He appointed the Army Protector, Ma Jing, as acting Guard General of the Left, and he appointed the Prince of Yong’an, Liu Anguo, as Guard General of the Right.

He appointed the Prince of Anchang, Liu Sheng, the Prince of Anyi, Liu Qin, and the Prince of Xiyang, Liu Xuan, as acting Generals of the Valorous Guards, and divided authority over the guards among them.

Before, when this Liu Sheng had still been a child, he took no pleasure in reading. After merely reading the Classic of Filial Piety and the Analects, he declared, "Having read this much, I can act; that is enough. What is the use in reading over and over without acting?"

When Li Xi saw this, he sighed, "I have been waiting for such a man. Now he has come. A fellow as solemn and firm as this may truly be called a superior man!"

Liu Yuan felt that Liu Sheng was loyal and earnest, and so he trusted him with such an important post on his deathbed.

On the day Dingchou (August 27th), Liu Yuan summoned Liu Huanle and the others into the palace, and he presented them with his testament making them regents over the government.

On the day Jimao (August 29th), Liu Yuan passed away.

The Crown Prince, Liu He, succeeded him.

〈易,慢易也。〉〈《考異》曰︰《十六國春秋》︰「八月丁丑,淵召太宰歡樂等受遺詔,己卯卒,辛未葬。」按《長曆》,七月壬戌朔,十六日丁丑,十八日己卯,八月辛卯朔,無丁丑、己卯及辛未。辛未乃九月十一日。蓋淵以七月卒,九月葬。《十六國春秋》誤也。〉〈和,字玄泰,淵之嫡子。〉

(The 易 here means "to slowly change".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'In the eighth month, on the day Dingchou, Liu Yuan summoned the Grand Guardian, Liu Huanle, and the others to receive his final testament. On the day Jimao, he passed away. On the day Xinwei, he was buried.' Now according to the Calendar Records, the new moon of the seventh month of that year (310) was a Renxu day. So the sixteenth day of that month was a Dingchou day, and the eighteenth day was a Jimao day. The new moon of the eighth month was a Xinmao day, so that month did not have a Dingchou, Jimao, or Xinwei day. The next Xinwei day was the eleventh day of the ninth month. So it must be that Liu Yuan passed away in the seventh month, and was buried in the ninth month. The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms is mistaken."

Liu He, styled Xuantai, was Liu Yuan's son by his first wife.)


是年,劉淵死,子聰僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

During this year (310), Liu Yuan passed away, and his son Liu Cong succeeded him.

八月,淵寢疾,以劉洋為太尉,延平為太宰,司徒聰為大司馬大單于,並錄尚書事。置單于臺于平陽西。薨於光極殿。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the eighth month, Liu Yuan was bedridden by illness. He appointed Liu Yang as Grand Commandant, he appointed Liu Yannian as Grand Governor, and he appointed the Minister Over The Masses, as Grand Marshal and Grand Chanyu, and all of them were granted authority over the Masters of Writing. He created the Chanyu Terrace ministry west of Pingyang.

Liu Yuan passed away in the Guangji Palace. His Crown Prince, Liu He, succeeded him.

淵以為己瑞,號年為河瑞。以聰為大司馬、大單于、錄尚書事,置單于臺於平陽西。淵死,子和僭立... 淵稱大號,拜大司馬,封楚王。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

Liu Yuan appointed Liu Cong as Grand Marshal, Grand Chanyu, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. He created the Chanyu Terrace ministry west of Pingyang.

When Liu Yuan passed away, his son Liu He succeeded him.

When Liu Yuan declared himself Emperor, he appointed Liu Cong as Grand Marshal and Prince of Chu.


和性猜忌無恩。宗正呼延攸,翼之子也,淵以其無才行,終身不遷官;侍中劉乘,素惡楚王聰;衞尉西昌王銳,恥不預顧命;乃相與謀,說和曰︰「先帝不惟輕重之勢,使三王總強兵於內,大司馬擁十萬衆屯於近郊,陛下便爲寄坐耳。宜早爲之計。」和,攸之甥也,深信之。辛巳夜,召安昌王盛、安邑王欽等告之。盛曰︰「先帝梓宮在殯,四王未有逆節,一旦自相魚肉,天下謂陛下何!且大業甫爾,陛下勿信讒夫之言以疑兄弟;兄弟尚不可信,他人誰足信哉!」攸、銳怒之曰︰「今日之議,理無有二,領軍是何言乎!」命左右刃之。盛旣死,欽懼曰︰「惟陛下命。」壬午,銳帥馬景攻楚王聰于單于臺,攸帥永安王安國攻齊王裕于司徒府,乘帥安邑王欽攻魯王隆,使尚書田密、武衞將軍劉璿攻北海王义。密、璿挾义斬關歸于聰,聰命貫甲以待之。銳知聰有備,馳還,與攸、乘共攻隆、裕。攸、乘疑安國、欽有異志,殺之;是日,斬裕,癸未,斬隆。甲申,聰攻西明門,克之;銳等走入南宮,前鋒隨之。乙酉,殺和於光極西室,收銳、攸、乘,梟首通衢。

13. Liu He was naturally paranoid, suspicious, and ungrateful.

Liu He's kinsman Huyan You was the son of Huyan Yi; Liu Yuan had considered him talentless, and to the end of his life he never advanced Huyan You in office. The Palace Attendant Liu Cheng had long despised Liu Cong. The Commandant of the Guards and Prince of Xichang, Liu Rui, was ashamed that he had not been trusted as one of the regents.

So these three all plotted together, and they advised Liu He, "His Late Majesty did not really consider the seriousness of what he was doing when he sent the three Princes to gather and strengthen the soldiers within, while the Grand Marshal (Liu Cong) has gathered a host of a hundred thousand and is camped nearby on the borders. Your Majesty, you have merely been given the throne. You must make a plan to move against them all at once."

Liu He was Huyan You's nephew, and he deeply trusted him.

On the night of the day Xinsi (August 31st), Liu He summoned Liu Sheng, Liu Qin, and the others to inform them of his intentions. Liu Sheng said, "His Late Majesty's coffin is still in the palace, and the Fourth Prince has displayed no treasonous intentions. If we all turn on one another overnight, what will the realm say about Your Majesty? We should all be working towards the grand design together. Your Majesty must not trust the words of slanderous ministers and so doubt your own brothers. If you cannot even trust your brothers, how can you trust anyone else?"

Huyan You and Liu Rui angrily replied, "There can be no dissension from what we discuss today. How dare the General speak such words?"

And they ordered the soldiers to kill him with their blades. After Liu Sheng was dead, Liu Qin was afraid and said, "Everything according to Your Majesty's orders."

On the day Renwu (September 1st), Liu Rui led Ma Jing to attack Liu Cong at the Chanyu Terrace, Huyan You led Liu Anguo to attack Liu Yu at the Minister Over The Masses' office, and Liu Cheng led Liu Qin to attack Liu Long.

They sent the Master of Writing, Tian Mi, and Liu Xuan to attack Liu Yi. Tian Mi and Liu Xuan compelled Liu Yi to break through the gates and go to Liu Cong, who sent soldiers in linked armor to receive him.

Liu Rui knew that Liu Cong had defenses prepared, so he rushed back and joined with Huyan You and Liu Cheng to attack Liu Long and Liu Yu together. Huyan You and Liu Cheng suspected that Liu Anguo and Liu Qin were not really on their side, so they killed them. The same day, they executed Liu Yu, and on the day Guiwei (September 2nd), they executed Liu Long.

On the day Jiashen (September 3rd), Liu Cong attacked the Ximing Gate and took it. Liu Rui and the other plotters fled into the Southern Palace, and Liu Cong's vanguard chased after them.

On the day Yiyou (September 4th), they killed Liu He in the Western Hall of the Guangji Palace, and they arrested Liu Rui, Huyan You, and Liu Cheng and displayed their heads in the market thoroughfare.

〈惟,思也。三王,謂安昌王盛、安邑王欽、西陽王璿也;或曰︰三王,謂齊王裕、魯王隆、北海王义。〉〈謂聰屯平陽西也。〉〈言大權非己出,託位於臣民之上,勢同寄寓也。〉〈聰,淵之第四子,故曰四王。或曰︰謂聰、裕、隆、义也。〉〈貫甲,擐甲也。〉〈劉淵都平陽,諸城門皆用洛陽諸城門名。〉〈劉淵起光極殿於平陽。〉

(惟 in this passage means "consider".

By the "three Princes", they meant Liu Sheng, Liu Qin, and Liu Xuan. Some say that they meant Liu Yu, Liu Long, and Liu Yi.

They were saying that Liu Cong was camped west of Pingyang.

They were saying that most of the power of state had been divided out and entrust among great ministers, so that power was spread among them.

Liu Sheng mentions the 四王. This could mean "the Fourth Prince", and as Liu Cong was Liu Yuan's fourth son, that could refer to him. But some say that it means "the four Princes", namely, Liu Cong, Liu Yu, Liu Long, and Liu Yi.

Liu Cong's soldiers are described as having "linked armor"; this means "chained armor".

When Liu Yuan had made Pingyang his capital, he named all the gates of the city after the gates of Luoyang.

Liu Yuan had raised the Guangji Hall at Pingyang.)


聰自西明門攻斬和於西室。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

Liu Cong marched from the Ximing Gate to attack and kill Liu He at the Western Hall.

聰即和第四弟也,殺和而自立。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

Liu Cong was the fourth of Liu He's younger brothers. He killed Liu He and took control.


羣臣請聰卽帝位;聰以北海王义,單后之子也,以位讓之。义涕泣固請,聰久而許之,曰︰「义及羣公正以禍難尚殷,貪孤年長故耳。此家國之事,孤何敢辭!俟义年長,當以大業歸之。」遂卽位。大赦,改元光興。尊單氏曰皇太后,其母張氏曰帝太后。以义爲皇太弟、領大單于、大司徒。立其妻呼延氏爲皇后。呼延氏,淵后之從父妹也。封其子粲爲河內王,易爲河間王,翼爲彭城王,悝爲高平王;仍以粲爲撫軍大將軍、都督中外諸軍事。以石勒爲幷州刺史,封汲郡公。

14. With Liu He dead, the Han ministers asked Liu Cong to assume the imperial throne. Seeing as Liu Yi was the son of Empress Shan, Liu Cong offered the throne to him instead. But Liu Yi wept as he insisted that Liu Cong take the throne instead, and so Liu Cong at last agreed. But he said, "This is all merely because Liu Yi and the ministers are concerned about all these recent disasters, and they want me because I am a grown man. But how dare I say anything about the affairs of state or of my family? Once Liu Yi has grown up, I will return the grand design to him."

Thus did Liu Cong declare himself Emperor. He declared a general amnesty within his domain, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Guangxing.

He honored Lady Shan as Empress Dowager, and he honored his own mother Lady Zhang as Imperial Dowager. He appointed Liu Yi as Crown Younger Brother, acting Grand Chanyu, and Grand Minister Over The Masses. He honored his wife Lady Huyan as Empress. This Lady Huyan was the cousin of Liu Yuan's Empress Huyan.

Among his sons, Liu Cong appointed Liu Can as Prince of Henei, Liu Yii as Prince of Hejian, Liu Yiy as Prince of Pengcheng, and Liu Kui as Prince of Gaoping. He further appointed Liu Can as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army and Commander of all military affairs.

He appointed Shi Le as Inspector of Bingzhou and Duke of Ji commandary.

〈《考異》曰︰《載記》作「乂」。按《十六國春秋》作「义」,今從之。〉〈聰,字玄明,淵第四子。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding Liu 义 Yi, the Biography of Liu Cong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records his name as Liu 乂 Ai. But the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms records it as Liu 义 Yi, and I follow its account."

Liu Cong, styled Xuanming, was Liu Yuan's fourth son.)


永嘉四年,僭即帝位于光極前殿,大赦,改元光興元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Cong)

In the fourth year of Yongjia (310), Liu Cong declared himself Emperor in the Front Hall of the Guangji Palace. He declared a general amnesty, and he changed the reign era title to the first year of Guangxing.

聰及僭位,年號光興。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

After claiming the throne, Liu Cong changed the reign era title to the first year of Guangxing.

劉聰立,以勒為并州刺史、汲郡公。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

After Liu Cong came to the throne, he appointed Shi Le as Inspector of Bingzhou and Duke of Ji commandary.


略陽臨渭氐酋蒲洪,驍勇多權略,羣氐畏服之。漢主聰遣使拜洪平遠將軍,洪不受,自稱護氐校尉、秦州刺史、略陽公。

15. There lived a certain Di leader, Pu Hong of Linwei in Lueyang. He was valiant and bold and had great power and cunning, and the various Di people all feared and obeyed him.

Liu Cong sent envoys to appoint Pu Hong as General Who Pacifies Distant Places, but Pu Hong would not accept it. Instead, he declared himself as Colonel Who Protects The Di, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Duke of Lueyang.

〈《晉志》,略陽郡有臨渭縣,蓋魏所置也。《載記》曰︰氐之先,蓋有扈氏之苗裔,世爲西戎酋長。洪家池中生蒲,長五丈五,節如竹形,時咸謂之「蒲家」,因以爲氏。其後,洪以讖文有「草付應王」,又其孫堅背文有「艸付」字,遂改姓苻氏。〉〈蒲洪事始此。〉

(According to the Records of Jin, there was a Linwei county in Lueyang commandary; it was created by Cao-Wei.

The Biography of Fu Hong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "The ancestors of the Di people were the progeny of the Youhu clan, and for generations they were chieftains of the Western Rong. Pu Hong's family's home had a pond behind it with a large 蒲 'bullrush' in it, five zhang in length, with joints like bamboo. People thus called them the 蒲 Pu family, and so that became the clan's surname. Later on, Pu Hong learned of a prophecy that stated, 'The one marked by grass will be King.' Pu Hong's grandson Fu Jian had characters on his back that said '艸付 marked by grass'. So Pu Hong combined these two characters into 苻 Fu, and made that his family's surname."

This is the first mention of Fu/Pu Hong.)


苻洪,字廣世,畧陽臨渭氐人。其先有扈氏之苗裔,子孫強盛,世為氐酋。其後家池生蒲,長五丈,節如竹形,時咸異之,謂之蒲家,因以為氏焉。父懷歸,為部落小帥。母姜氏,寢產洪。先是,隴右大雨霖,百姓苦之。謠曰:「雨若不止,洪水必起」,故名之曰洪。年十二,父卒,代為部帥,好學,多權畧,善騎射,屬劉氏之亂,乃散千金,招延俊傑之士,襁負奔之,推為盟主。劉聰遣使拜平遠將軍,不受。自稱護氐校尉、秦州刺史、畧陽公。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 4, Biography of Fu Hong)

Fu Hong, styled Guangshi, was a member of the Di people and a native of Linwei in Lueyang. His ancestors were the descendants of the Youhu clan; their people became strong and numerous, and for generations they were leaders of the Di. Fu Hong's family's home had a pond behind it with a large 蒲 'bullrush' in it, five zhang in length, with five joints like bamboo. Everyone marveled at it, and they called Fu Hong's family the 蒲 Pu family, so that became the clan's surname. Fu Hong's father was Fu Huaigui, who was a minor leader of their tribe. His mother was Lady Jiang, who gave birth to Fu Hong while sleeping. At the time of Fu Hong's birth, there was a great storm in Longyou, and the people all suffered. There was a ditty at that time which went, "If this rain does not stop, the flood waters will rise." And so he was named Hong (“flood”). When Fu Hong was eleven, his father passed away, so he took command of the tribe. He enjoyed learning, developed many plans and strategies, and was skilled at mounted archery.

During the turmoil caused by the Liu clan of Han-Zhao, Fu Hong distributed gold generously and recruited many heroes and talented people to join him. People fled from the chaos to take refuge with him, carrying their children on their backs, and they acclaimed him as the chief of their allied tribes. Liu Cong sent envoys to appoint Fu Hong as General Who Pacifies Distant Places, but Fu Hong would not accept it. Instead, he declared himself as Colonel Who Protects The Di, Inspector of Qinzhou, and Duke of Lueyang.

苻洪,字廣世,略陽臨渭氐人也。其先蓋有扈之苗裔,世為西戎酋長。始其家池中蒲生,長五丈,五節如竹形,時咸謂之蒲家,因以為氏焉。父懷歸,部落小帥。先是,隴右大雨,百姓苦之,謠曰:「雨若不止,洪水必起。」故因名曰洪。好施,多權略,驍武善騎射。屬永嘉之亂,乃散千金,召英傑之士訪安危變通之術。宗人蒲光、蒲突遂推洪為盟主。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Fu/Pu Hong)

Pu Hong, styled Guangshi, was a member of the Di people from Linwei county in Lueyang commandary. The ancestors of the Di people were the progeny of the Youhu clan, and for generations they were chieftains of the Western Rong. Pu Hong's family's home had a pond behind it with a large 蒲 'bullrush' in it, five zhang in length, with five joints like bamboo. People thus called them the 蒲 Pu family, and so that became the clan's surname. Pu Hong's father was Pu Huaigui, who was a minor leader of their tribe. At the time of Fu Hong's birth, there was a great storm in Longyou, and the people all suffered. There was a ditty at that time which went, "If this rain does not stop, the flood waters will rise." And so he was named Hong (“flood”). He was an active man, clever and cunning, brave, martial, and adept at horse archery. During the Disaster of Yongjia, he distributed gold generously and recruited many heroes to manage the dangers of that era with their skills. His kinsmen Pu Guang and Pu Tu acclaimed Pu Hong as the chief of their allied tribes.

臨渭氐苻健,字建業,本出略陽臨渭。祖懷歸,為部落小帥。父洪,字廣世。洪之生也,隴右霖雨,百姓苦之。時有謠曰:「雨若不止,洪水必起。」故名之曰洪。年十二而父死,為部帥。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Fu Jiàn)

Fu Jiàn, styled Jianye, was a member of the Di people. He originally came from Linwei in Lueyang. His grandfather, Fu Huaigui, was a minor commander of their tribe. His father was Fu Hong, styled Guangshi. When Fu Hong was born, there was a great storm in Longyou, and the common people suffered from it. There was a ditty at that time which went, "If this rain does not stop, the flood waters will rise." And so he was named Hong (“flood”). When Fu Hong was eleven, his father passed away, so he took command of the tribe.


九月,辛未,葬漢主淵于永光陵,諡曰光文皇帝,廟號高祖。

16. In the ninth month, on the day Xinwei (October 20th), Liu Yuan was buried at Yongguang Tomb. He was posthumously known as Emperor Guangwen ("the Brilliant and Cultured"), and his temple name was Gaozu.

九月,葬淵於永光陵,諡曰:光文皇帝,廟號高祖。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Yuan)

In the ninth month, Liu Yuan was buried at Yongguang Tomb. His posthumous title was Emperor Guangwen, and his temple name was Gaozu.


雍州流民多在南陽,詔書遣還鄕里。流民以關中荒殘,皆不願歸;征南將軍山簡、南中郎將杜蕤各遣兵送之,促期令發。京兆王如遂潛結壯士,夜襲二軍,破之。於是馮翊嚴嶷、京兆侯脫各聚衆攻城鎭,殺令長以應之,未幾,衆至四五萬,自號大將軍、領司‧雍二州牧,稱藩于漢。

17. Many refugees from Yongzhou had gone to Nanyang. Jin issued an edict ordering these refugees to return to their homeland. The refugees felt that Guanzhong was now a barren waste, and none of them wanted to return there. The General Who Conquers The South, Shan Jian, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Du Rui, both sent soldiers to escort the refugees back, and sent them out to quickly enforce the edict.

One of the refugees, Wang Ru of Jingzhao commandary, secretly gathered together some strong fellows and launched a night attack on these two armies, routing them. Yan Yi of Pingyi commandary and Hou Tuo of Jingzhao then each gathered up a host and attacked the cities and forts, killing the county Prefects and Chiefs, to support Wang Ru.

Very soon, Wang Ru's host had swelled to forty or fifty thousand soldiers. He declared himself Grand General and acting Governor of Sizhou and Yongzhou, proclaiming himself a vassal of Han.

〈二軍,山簡及杜蕤所遣之軍也。〉

(The two armies were those that Shan Jian and Du Rui had sent out.)


王如,京兆新豐人也。初為州武吏,遇亂流移至宛。時諸流人有詔並遣還鄉里,如以關中荒殘,不願歸。征南將軍山簡、南中郎將杜蕤各遣兵送之,而促期令發。如遂潛結諸無賴少年,夜襲二軍,破之。杜蕤悉眾擊如,戰于涅陽,蕤軍大敗。山簡不能禦,移屯夏口,如又破襄城。於是南安龐實、馮翊嚴嶷、長安侯脫等各帥其党攻諸城鎮,多殺令長以應之。未幾,眾至四五萬,自號大將軍,領司、雍二州牧。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Ru)

Wang Ru was a native of Xinfeng county in Jingzhao commandary. He was originally a provincial military official. When the realm fell into turmoil, he became a refugee and went to Wan. At that time, there was an edict ordering all refugees to return to their home districts again. But Wang Ru felt that Guanzhong was now so ruined and destitute that he did not want to go back.

The General Who Conquers The South, Shan Jian, and the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Du Rui, each sent soldiers to escort the refugees back and to ensure that the edict was promptly carried out. So Wang Ru secretly gathered together some unruly youths and launched a surprise attack on the two camps during the night, routing them. Du Rui led his whole army to attack Wang Ru, and they fought at Nieyang, where Du Rui's army was greatly defeated. Shan Jian could not resist Wang Ru's army, so he fell back to camp at Xiakou. Wang Ru then took Xiangcheng.

Then others led their own forces to attack local cities and garrisons and kill the Prefects and Chiefs in order to support Wang Ru's cause, including Pang Shi of Nan'an, Yan Yi of Fengyi, and Hou Tuo of Chang'an. Before long, their combined forces had swelled to forty or fifty thousand. Wang Ru declared himself Grand General and acting Governor of Sizhou and Yongzhou.

先是,雍州流民王如、侯脫、嚴嶷等,起兵江淮間,受劉淵官位。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Earlier, refugess from Yongzhou had raised troops in the region between the Yangzi and the Huai River and accepted ranks and titles from Liu Yuan, including Wang Ru, Hou Tuo, Yan Yi, and others.


冬,十月,漢河內王粲、始安王曜及王彌帥衆四萬寇洛陽,石勒帥騎二萬會粲于大陽,敗監軍裴邈于澠池,遂長驅入洛川。粲出轘轅,掠梁、陳、汝、潁間。勒出成皋關,壬寅,圍陳留太守王讚於倉垣,爲讚所敗,退屯文石津。

18. In winter, the tenth month, Liu Can, Liu Yao, and Wang Mi led an army of forty thousand to attack Luoyang. Shi Le led twenty thousand cavalry to join Liu Can at Dayang. The Han forces defeated the Army Leader, Pei Miao at Mianchi, and continued their advance and entered Luochuan.

Liu Can marched out of Huanyuan Pass, and plundered Liangguo, Chenliu, Runan, and Yingchuan commandaries.

Shi Le marched out through Chenggao Pass. On the day Renyin (November 20th), he besieged Jin's Administrator of Chenliu, Wang Zan, at Cangyuan. But Shi Le was defeated by Wang Zan, and he retreated to camp at Wenshi Crossing.

〈《晉志》,河南成皋縣有關。〉〈據《帝紀》,文石津在河北。又據永嘉六年,勒自葛陂北行,至東燕,使孔萇自文石津潛渡枋頭,取向水船,則文石津在東燕之東北,枋頭之東南。〉

(According to the Records of Jin, there was a Chenggao Pass in Chenggao county in Henan commandary.

According to the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin, Wenshi Crossing was in Hebei. The Annals also state that in the sixth year of Yongjia (312), Shi Le advanced north from Ge Slope, and when he reached Dongyan, he sent Kong Chang to march from Wenshi Crossing to secretly cross to Fangtou, where he could obtain river boats. So it must be that Wenshi Crossing was northeast of Dongyan, and southeast of Fangtou.)


彌後與曜寇襄城,遂逼京師。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi later joined with Liu Yao to invade Xiangcheng, then advanced to threaten the Luoyang region.

淵薨,聰襲位,劉曜、王彌圍洛陽,勒帥精騎二萬會之。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Le)

After Liu Yuan passed away and Liu Cong succeeded him, Liu Yao and Wang Mi surrounded Luoyang. Shi Le led twenty thousand elite cavalry to join them.

劉粲攻洛陽,勒留長史刁膺統步卒九萬,徙輜重于重門,率輕騎二萬會粲於太陽,大敗晉監軍裴邈于澠池,遂至洛川。勒出成臯,圍晉陳留太守王譖於倉垣,為譖所敗。屯文石津。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

When Liu Can attacked Luoyang, Shi Le left his Chief Clerk, Diao Ying, to command ninety thousand infantry and sent his supply train to Zhongmen, while he led twenty thousand cavalry to join Liu Can at Taiyang. They greatly defeated Jin's General Who Supervises The Army, Pei Miao, at Mianchi, then advanced into the Luoyang region. Shi Le marched out through Chenggao, and besieged Jin's Administrator of Chenliu, Wang Zen, at Cangyuan. But he was defeated by Wang Zen. He camped at Wenshi Crossing.


劉琨自將討劉虎及白部,遣使卑辭厚禮說鮮卑拓拔猗盧以請兵。猗盧使其弟弗之子鬱律帥騎二萬助之,遂破劉虎、白部,屠其營。琨與猗盧結爲兄弟,表猗盧爲大單于,以代郡封之爲代公。時代郡屬幽州,王浚不許,遣兵擊猗盧,猗盧拒破之。浚由是與琨有隙。

19. Since Liu Kun was campaigning against the Xiongnu leader Liu Hu and the Xianbei Bai tribe, he sent messengers to the Xianbei leader Tuoba Yilu, offering him humble words and respectful ceremony, and asking him to send troops to help his campaign. So Tuoba Yilu sent his younger brother Tuoba Fu's son Tuoba Yulü to lead twenty thousand cavalry to assist Liu Kun. Together, they routed Liu Hu and the Bai tribe, and butchered their camps.

Liu Kun formed a bond with Tuoba Yilu as close as brothers, and he petitioned to have Tuoba Yilu appointed as Grand Chanyu and that he should be granted Dai commandary as his fief as Duke of Dai. But at this time, Dai commandary was part of Youzhou, and so Wang Jun refused to agree. He sent troops to attack Tuoba Yilu, but Tuoba Yilu fought back and routed them.

This led to a grudge between Wang Jun and Liu Kun.

〈白部,鮮卑也。琨以劉虎及白部皆附漢,故討之。〉

(The Bai tribe were a group of the Xianbei. Liu Kun was campaigning against them and Liu Hu because they had aligned themselves with Han-Zhao.)


三年,晉并州刺史劉琨遣使,以子遵為質。帝嘉其意,厚報饋之。白部大人叛入西河,鐵弗劉虎舉眾於雁門以應之,攻琨新興、雁門二郡。琨來乞師,帝使弟子平文皇帝將騎二萬,助琨擊之,大破白部;次攻劉虎,屠其營落... 晉懷帝進帝大單于,封代公。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the third year (310), Jin's Inspector of Bingzhou, Liu Kun, sent envoys to visit the Tuoba state, with his son Liu Zun coming to serve as a hostage. Tuoba Yilu praised Liu Kun's intentions, and he repaid his trust and kept him well-supplied.

The leaders of the Bai tribe rebelled and went into Xihe, and the leader of the Tiefu Xiongnu, Liu Hu, raised troops at Yamen to join them. They attacked Liu Kun's commandaries Xinxing and Yanmen. Liu Kun begged for military assistance, so Tuoba Yilu sent his nephew Tuoba Yulü to lead twenty thousand cavalry to help Liu Kun fight these enemies. They greatly routed the Bai tribe, and then attacked Liu Hu and slaughtered all his camps and tribes.

Emperor Huai of Jin promoted Tuoba Yilu as Grand Chanyu and granted him noble title as Duke of Dai.

平文討虎。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Hu)

Tuoba Yulü campaigned against Liu Hu.


猗盧以封邑去國懸遠,民不相接,乃帥部落萬餘家自雲中入鴈門,從琨求陘北之地。琨不能制,且欲倚之爲援,乃徙樓煩、馬邑、陰館、繁畤、崞五縣民於陘南,以其地與猗盧;由是猗盧益盛。

20. Since the fief of Dai which Tuoba Yilu had now been granted was far away from his original territory, and his people would be cut off from one another, he led more than ten thousand families of his tribes and divisions from Yunzhong into Yanmen. He asked Liu Kun to grant him the territories north of the mountain passes. Liu Kun had no means to stop him in any case, and he also wanted to retain Tuoba Yilu's assistance. So he relocated all of the people in the five counties of Loufan, Mayi, Yinguan, Fanzhi, and Guo to the south of the mountains, and granted those lands to Tuoba Yilu. Thus did Tuoba Yilu grow ever stronger.

〈陘北,石陘關之北也。〉〈樓煩,匈奴之所居,其地在北河之南;今嵐州樓煩郡,非古樓煩也。漢馬邑縣,唐之大同軍是其地。漢陰館縣,在句注西北。繁畤縣,在武州川。崞縣,爲北齊北顯州平寇縣。今五縣雖存,皆非古縣地矣。〉〈《考異》曰︰《懷帝紀》︰「永嘉五年,十一月,猗盧寇太原,劉琨徙五縣居之。六年,八月,辛亥,劉琨乞師于猗盧,表盧爲代公。」《宋書‧索虜傳》在永嘉三年。《晉春秋》在永嘉四年,且云︰「猗盧率萬餘家避難,自雲中入鴈門。」《後魏‧序紀》在穆帝三年,卽永嘉四年也。《琨集》,永嘉四年,六月,癸巳,《上太傅府牋》,云「盧感封代之恩」,故知在四年六月之前。又琨《與丞相牋》曰︰「昔車騎感猗㐌救州之勳,表以代郡封㐌爲代公,見聽。時大駕在長安,會值戎事,道路不通,竟未施行。盧以封事見託,琨實爲表上,追述車騎前意,卽蒙聽許,遣兼謁者僕射拜盧,賜印及符册,浚以此見責。戎狄封華郡,誠爲失禮;然蓋以救弊耳,亦猶浚先以遼西封務勿塵。此禮之失,浚實啓之。浚遂與盧爭代郡,舉兵擊盧,爲所破,紛錯之由,始結於此。鴈門郡有五縣在陘北,盧新幷塵官,國甚強盛,從琨求陘北地,以並遣三萬餘家,散在五縣間,旣非所制;又於琨殘弱之計,得相聚集,未爲失宜,卽徙陘北五縣著陘南。盧因移,頗侵逼浚西陲圍塞諸軍營,浚不復見恕危弱而見罪責。」以此觀之,盧非避難而來也。〉

(The lands "north of the mountain passes" in this case meant north of Shixing Pass. Loufan County was a dwelling place of the Xiongnu. It was south of the northern bend of the Yellow River. There is a Loufan commandary in modern Lanzhou, but it is not the same as this old Loufan. Han's Mayi County was where Tang's Datong Garrison was. Han's Yinguan County was northwest of Juzhu. Fanzhi County was in Wuzhouchuan. Guo County became Pingkou County in Northern Qi's Beixianzhou. There are modern counties that have the same names as this five counties, but they are not the same ones as the old ones.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), in the eleventh month, Tuoba Yilu invaded Taiyuan commandary, and Liu Kun relocated the people living in five counties.' And, 'In the sixth year (312), in the eighth month, on the day Xinhai, Liu Kun asked Tuoba Yilu for military aid, and petitioned that he be appointed as Duke of Dai.'

"The Accounts of the Suolu in the Book of Liu-Song places this event in the third year of Yongjia (309). The Annals of Jin places it in the fourth year (310), and it further states, 'Tuoba Yilu led more than ten thousand families to escape from difficulties, moving from Yunzhong into Yanmen.' The Preceding Annals of the Book of Northern Wei places it in the third year of Emperor Mu's (Tuoba Yilu’s) reign, which would have been the fourth year of Yongjia (310).

"In the Collected Writings of Liu Kun, in his Letter to the Grand Tutor's Staff from the day Guisi (July 14th) of the sixth month of the fourth year of Yongjia (311), he states, 'Tuoba Yilu was moved by the grace shown him by receiving Dai as his fief'. We can therefore conclude that such a grant took place before the sixth month of the fourth year.

"And Liu Kun's Response to the Prime Minister (Sima Rui) states, 'Before, as a sign of appreciation for Tuoba Yilu's achievements in assisting the province, the General of Chariots and Cavalry (Sima Teng) petitioned that he be granted Dai commandary as Duke of Dai, and this was seen and heeded. Now the imperial carriage is at Chang'an, military affairs consume everything, the roads are blocked, and nothing can be enforced. Tuoba Yilu is expecting to receive his grant, and so I have sent up a petition to that effect, following the original intentions of the General of Chariots and Cavalry. Not having received permission, I have gone ahead and sent messengers to direct Tuoba Yilu and grant him his seals and tallies of office. This is what Wang Jun has blamed me for. Now it is true that when the Rong and Di barbarians were granted Hua commandary, that was a slight against proper ceremony. But that was only something done in order to obtain their help, and besides, Wang Jun has already done the same thing by granting Liaoxi commandary to Duan Wuwuchen. So this slight against ceremony already has a precedent from Wang Jun. Now Wang Jun and Tuoba Yilu are fighting over Dai commandary. He has raised troops to attack Tuoba Yilu, but they have been routed. This is the source of the confusion and the accusations. Yanmen commandary has five counties north of the mountain passes. With Tuoba Yilu's newly granted possessions, his state has grown very strong and flourishing, and he came to me to request this land north of the passes. He has brought more than thirty thousand families altogether and scattered them throughout these five counties, and there is no way to control them. To make the best of this situation considering my weakness, I have obtained the people of those places, who have never done anything wrong, and relocated them south from out of the five counties north of the passes. With Tuoba Yilu having moved there, he now happens to be infringing on the western fringes of Wang Jun's camps and territory, and Wang Jun, angry at this new weakness and danger, has laid the blame upon me.'

"We can see from this that Tuoba Yilu did not move to escape any danger on his part.")


帝以封邑去國懸遠,民不相接,乃從琨求句注陘北之地。琨自以託附,聞之大喜,乃徙馬邑、陰館、樓煩、繁畤、崞五縣之民於陘南,更立城邑,盡獻其地,東接代郡,西連西河、朔方,方數百里。帝乃徙十萬家以充之。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

However, since Tuoba Yilu felt that since the fief he had been granted as Duke of Dai was a long way from his original domain and the people were not adjacent to each other, he asked Liu Kun to grant him the lands in between that were north of Gouzhu Pass, at the border of the Jin realm. Liu Kun was dependant upon the Tuoba, and when he heard this request he was overjoyed. He relocated the people who were living in the five counties of that region, Mayi, Yinguan, Loufan, Fanzhi, and Guo, to the south so that they would be within the borders of the realm. Then Liu Kun set up cities and towns and granted the whole region to Tuoba Yilu: it stretched east to link up with Dai commandary, and west as far as Xihe and Shuofang; it was several hundred square li in size. Tuoba Yilu relocated a hundred thousand families to fill the new land.


琨遣使言於太傅越,請出兵共討劉聰、石勒;越忌苟晞及豫州刺史馮嵩,恐爲後患,不許。琨乃謝猗盧之兵,遣歸國。

21. Liu Kun sent word to Sima Yue, asking that he send troops to campaign together against Liu Cong and Shi Le. But Sima Yue was suspicious of Gou Xi and the Inspector of Yuzhou, Feng Song, and he feared they would cause trouble in his rear if he marched north, so he would not agree to the plan. So Liu Kun apologized to Tuoba Yilu's soldiers, and sent them back to their fief.

〈越、晞有隙,事見上卷二年。嵩蓋亦不心附越者。〉〈《考異》曰︰《後魏‧序紀》曰︰「劉琨乞師救洛,穆帝遣步騎二萬助之,東海王越以洛陽饑荒,不許。」按琨《與丞相牋》曰︰「琨傾身竭辭,北和猗盧,遂引大衆,躬啓戎行。卽具白太傅,切陳愚見,取賊之計,聰宜時討,勒不可縱。而宰相意異,所慮不同;更憂苟晞、馮嵩之徒而稽二寇之誅,遣使節抑,挫臣銳氣。臣卽解甲,遣盧衆歸國。」若猗盧果遣衆赴洛,琨牋安得不言也!〉

(The beginning of Sima Yue's and Gou Xi's animosity is mentioned in Book 86, in the second year of Yongjia (308.31).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Preceding Annals of the Book of Northern Wei states, 'Liu Kun asked for military aid to save Luoyang, and Emperor Mu (Tuoba Yilu) sent twenty thousand horse and foot to assist him. But Sima Yue felt that Luoyang was barren and starving, and he would not agree.'

"But according to Liu Kun's Response to the Prime Minister (Sima Rui), he states, 'After prostrating myself and offering my every word, in the north I formed a great army together with Tuoba Yilu, with our bows prepared and our arms in order. I then sent word to the Grand Tutor (Sima Yue), explaining the situation as I in my foolishness could see it. We obtained the enemy's plan, that Liu Cong would march at that time, and Shi Le would not be able to restrain him. But the Chancellor (Sima Yue) felt differently from me, and he did not share my concerns. Rather, he feared that Gou Xi and Feng Song and their followers and so delayed punishing the two invaders; he sent men to restrain me and blunt the ardor of my ministers. So I took off my armor and sent Tuoba Yilu's soldiers back to their fief.'

"If Tuoba Yilu really had sent his army to Luoyang, how could Liu Kun’s letter not have mentioned it?")


劉琨又遣使乞師救洛陽,帝遣步騎二萬助之,晉太傅東海王司馬越辭以洛中飢饉,師乃還。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Liu Kun once again sent envoys begging for aid, this time to help save Luoyang. Tuoba Yilu sent twenty thousand troops to help him, but Jin's Grand Tutor and Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, claimed that Luoyang was suffering from famine, so Tuoba Yilu led his army back again.


劉虎收餘衆,西渡河,居朔方肆盧川,漢主聰以虎宗室,封樓煩公。

22. Liu Hu gathered up his remaining soldiers and marched west across the Yellow River, where he dwelt at Siluchuan in Shuofang. Since Liu Hu was Liu Cong's distant kin, Liu Cong appointed him as Duke of Loufan.

〈肆盧川,在朔方塞內,後拓跋氏於其地置肆盧郡,眞君七年,倂入秀容郡。魏收《地形志》,秀容郡秀容縣有肆盧城。〉

(Siluchuan was within the borders of Shuofang. The Tuoba clan of Northern Wei later created it as Silu commandary. In the seventh year of (Taiping)zhenjun (446), it was folded into Xiurong commandary. According to the Geographic Records of the Book of Northern Wei, there was a city of Silu in Xiurong County in Xiurong commandary.)


虎收其餘燼,西走度河,竄居朔方。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Liu Hu gathered up the remnants of his forces and fled west back across the Yellow River, scurrying away to reside at Shuofang.

虎走據朔方,歸附劉聰,聰以虎宗室,拜安北將軍、監鮮卑諸軍事、丁零中郎將。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Hu)

Liu Hu fled and occupied Shuofang, where he aligned himself to Liu Cong. Liu Cong felt that Liu Hu was part of his clan, so he appointed Liu Hu as General Who Maintains The North, Chief of military affairs of the Xianbei, and General of the Household Gentlemen of the Dingling.


壬子,以劉琨爲平北將軍,王浚爲司空,進鮮卑段務勿塵爲大單于。

23. On the day Renzi (November 30th), Liu Kun was appointed as General Who Pacifies The North, and Wang Jun was appointed as Minister of Works. The Xianbei leader Duan Wuwuchen had his noble title advanced to Grand Chanyu.

假大單于印綬。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Wang Jun falsely granted Duan Wumuchen the seals and ribbons of a Grand Chanyu.


京師饑困日甚,太傅越遣使以羽檄徵天下兵,使入援京師。帝謂使者曰︰「爲我語諸征、鎭,今日尚可救,後則無及矣!」旣而卒無至者。征南將軍山簡遣督護王萬將兵入援,軍于涅陽,爲王如所敗。如遂大掠沔、漢,進逼襄陽,簡嬰城自守。荊州刺史王澄自將,欲援京師,至沶口,聞簡敗,衆散而還。朝議多欲遷都以避難,王衍以爲不可,賣車牛以安衆心。山簡爲嚴嶷所逼,自襄陽徙屯夏口。

24. The suffering and lack of food in the capital region around Luoyang became worse by the day. Sima Yue sent out feather proclamations to summon the soldiers of the realm, ordering them to come assist the capital. Emperor Huai told these messengers, "You are going to visit the various Generals Who Conquer and Who Guard on my behalf. If you can obtain assistance from them today, there will be no one in ages to come who can compare with you."

So the messengers went out, but no soldiers came to help Luoyang.

The General Who Conquers The South, Shan Jian, sent the Protector, Wang Wan, to lead soldiers to go assist Luoyang, but when this army reached Nieyang County, they were defeated by the rebel leader Wang Ru. Wang Ru then greatly plundered the regions around the Mian and Han Rivers, and he advanced to threaten Xiangyang. Shan Jian withdrew into the city to hold out.

The Inspector of Jingzhou, Wang Cheng, personally took charge of an army, also wanting to come assist Luoyang. But when his army reached Yikou, they heard that Shan Jian had been defeated, and the soldiers all scattered, so Wang Cheng returned as well.

Many in the court in Luoyang wanted to move the capital to get away from the dangers. But Wang Yan felt that this could not be done, and he sold off his carriage and his oxen in order to calm the hearts of the crowd.

Shan Jian, threatened by the rebel leader Yan Yi, moved away from Xiangyang to camp at Xiakou.

〈涅陽縣,屬南陽郡。應劭曰︰在涅水之陽。〉〈澄時治江陵。〉〈《水經註》︰零水上通梁州沔陽縣,東逕新城郡之沶鄕縣,謂之沶水;又東歷宜城西山,謂之沶溪;東流合於夷水,謂之沶口。〉

(Nieyang county was part of Nanyang commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "It was north of the Nie River (thus the name Nieyang, 'north of the Nie')."

At this time, Wang Cheng governed Jingzhou from Jiangling.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Ling River passes out of Mianyang county in Lianzhou. It flows east through Yixiang county in Xincheng commandary, and at that place it is called the 沶 Yi River. It continues on east, passing through the western hills of Yicheng, and that place is called Yixi ('Yi Stream'). It continues to flow east until it flows into the 夷 Yi River, and that place is called Yikou ('mouth of the Yi').")


時京邑大饑,人相食,百姓流亡,公卿奔河陰。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

There was great hunger in the capital region at this time, and people ate each other. The common people all scattered and fled, and the nobles and chief ministers fled south of the Yellow River.

如於是大掠沔漢,進逼襄陽。征南山簡使將趙同帥師擊之,經年不能克,智力並屈,遂嬰城自守。王澄帥軍赴京都,如邀擊破之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Ru)

Wang Ru greatly plundered the regions around the Mian and Han Rivers, then advanced to threaten Xiangyang. Jin's General Who Conquers The South, Shan Jian, sent his general Zhao Tong to lead troops to attack Wang Ru, but for more than a year he could not overcome him. When his intellect and strength were both exhausted, Shan Jian withdrew into the city to hold out. Wang Cheng led an army to march to the capital region, but Wang Ru intercepted him, and he attacked Wang Cheng and routed him.


石勒引兵濟河,將趣南陽,王如、侯脫、嚴嶷等聞之,遣衆一萬屯襄城以拒勒。勒擊之,盡俘其衆,進屯宛北。是時,侯脫據宛,王如據穰。如素與脫不協,遣使重賂勒,結爲兄弟,說勒使攻脫。勒攻宛,克之;嚴嶷引兵救宛,不及而降。勒斬脫;囚嶷,送于平陽,盡幷其衆。遂南寇襄陽,攻拔江西壘壁三十餘所。還,趣襄城,王如遣弟璃襲勒;勒迎擊,滅之,復屯江西。

25. Shi Le led his troops to cross the Yellow River, planning to go to Nanyang. When the rebels Wang Ru, Hou Tuo, Yan Yi, and others heard about it, they sent a host of ten thousand soldiers to camp at Xiangcheng to oppose Shi Le. Shi Le attacked them and captured the whole army, and then advanced to camp north of Wan.

At this time, Hou Tuo was occupying Wan, while Wang Ru was occupying Rang county. Wang Ru had long been on bad terms with Hou Tuo, so he sent messengers to heavily bribe Shi Le, forming a close bond with him like brothers, and he advised Shi Le to attack Hou Tuo. So Shi Le attacked Wan, and took it. Yan Yi was bringing his soldiers to rescue Wan, but the city had surrendered before he arrived. Shi Le beheaded Hou Tuo, and he imprisoned Yan Yi and sent him off to Pingyang while annexing his entire army.

Shi Le then moved south to invade Xiangyang, where he attacked and captured more than thirty ramparts and forts west of the Yangzi.

Shi Le turned back and camped at Xiangcheng. Wang Ru sent his younger brother Wang Li to attack Shi Le, but Shi Le met his attack and vanquished him, before returning to camp in Jiangxi.

〈穰縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉屬義陽郡。〉〈勒旣南寇襄陽,循漢而下,攻掠江西。〉〈江西,大江之西也。〉

(During Han, Rang county was part of Nanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Yiyang commandary.

Since Shi Le had marched south to invade Xiangyang, he followed the Han River down and attacked and plundered Jiangxi. Jiangxi was west of the Yangzi.)


如懼石勒之攻己也,乃厚賄於勒,結為兄弟,勒亦假其強而納之。時侯脫據宛,與如不協,如說勒曰:「侯脫雖名漢臣,其實漢賊。如常恐其來襲,兄宜備之。」勒素怒脫貳己,憚如脣齒,故不攻之。及聞如言,甚悅,遂夜令三軍蓐食待命,雞鳴而駕,後出者斬,晨壓宛門攻之,旬有二日而克之,勒遂斬脫。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Ru)

Wang Ru was afraid that Shi Le would attack him, so he heavily bribed Shi Le and formed a bond with him like brothers. Shi Le was also uncertain of his strength, so he accepted. At this time, Hou Tuo was occupying Wan, and he was not cooperating with Wang Ru. So Wang Ru advised Shi Le, "Although Hou Tuo claims to be a subject of Han, he really plans to rebel against them. I had often feared that he would come and attack me by surprise. Elder Brother, you should guard against him."

Shi Le was already angry at Hou Tuo for refusing to submit to him, but he had been worried about what might happen if Wang Ru and Hou Tuo joined their forces against him, so he had not attacked Hou Tuo yet. But he was overjoyed when he heard Wang Ru give this advice. So he ordered his three armies to eat their meals during the night while laying on their mats, and to be ready to receive his orders: they would march at the sound of the rooster's crow, and anyone who was late to set out would be beheaded. By morning, they had cut off the gates of Wan. They assaulted the city, and took it after twenty-two days. Shi Le beheaded Hou Tuo.

如等聞勒之來也,懼,遣眾一萬拒於襄城,勒擊敗之,盡俘其眾。勒至南陽,屯于宛之北山。王如遣使通好。勒進攻宛,克之,斬侯脫,降嚴嶷,盡并其眾。南至襄陽,攻克江西三十餘壘。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

When Wang Ru and the other refugee commanders now heard that Shi Le was coming, they were afraid. They sent an army of ten thousand to oppose him at Xiangcheng, but Shi Le attacked and defeated them, then captured the whole army. Shi Le advanced to Nanyang, and camped at the northern hills of Wan. Wang Ru sent envoys to establish good relations with him. Shi Le advanced and attacked Wan; he took the city, executed Hou Tuo, accepted Yan Yi's surrender, and annexed all his soldiers. Shi Le then moved south to Xiangyang, where he attacked and captured more than thirty ramparts and forts west of the Yangzi.


太傅越旣殺王延等,大失衆望;又以胡寇益盛,內不自安,乃戎服入見,請討石勒,且鎭集兗、豫。帝曰︰「今胡虜侵逼郊畿,人無固志,朝廷社稷,倚賴於公,豈可遠出以孤根本!」對曰︰「臣出,幸而破賊,則國威可振,猶愈於坐待困窮也。」十一月,甲戌,越帥甲士四萬向許昌,留妃裴氏、世子毗及龍驤將軍李惲、右衞將軍何倫守衞京師,防察宮省;以潘滔爲河南尹,總留事。越表以行臺自隨,用太尉衍爲軍司,朝賢素望,悉爲佐吏,名將勁卒,咸入其府。於是宮省無復守衞,荒饉日甚,殿內死人交橫;盜賊公行,府寺營署,並掘塹自守。越東屯項,以馮嵩爲左司馬,自領豫州牧。

26. When Sima Yue had killed Wang Yann and Emperor Huai's other close advisors, he had greatly squandered the hopes of the crowd. And seeing as the tribal invasions continued to grow worse and worse, while things in the interior were not secure either, Sima Yue entered the court dressed in military attire and asked that he be allowed to go out to campaign against Shi Le and to guard the various places in Yanzhou and Yuzhou.

Emperor Huai told him, "The barbarian slaves are threatening the capital districts, and the people have lost their resolve. Sir, the court and the altars of state all rely upon you. How can you go somewhere far away and leave us on our own?"

Sima Yue replied, "By marching out, I may be fortunate enough to rout the enemy, and then the power of the state will spread far. Better to do that than to sit here and wait to suffer."

In the eleventh month, on the day Jiaxu (December 22nd), Sima Yue led forty thousand armored soldiers out to Xuchang. He left his concubine Lady Pei, his eldest son Sima Pi, the Dragon-Soaring General, Li Yun, and the Guard General of the Right, He Lun, to defend the capital and keep a close watch on the palace. Sima Yue appointed Pan Tao as Intendant of Henan, and left him in charge of all affairs.

Sima Yue petitioned that he be allowed to act on his own authority. He used Wang Yan as his Army Director. The worthy and veteran court ministers all became his subordinates, and all the famous officers and elite troops followed after him.

The palace at Luoyang was thus left without anyone to guard it. Luoyang became more barren and starving by the day, and the dead fell atop each other in the palace halls. Bandits and thieves roamed in the open, and the barracks of the government ministries dug moats to defend themselves.

Sima Yue marched east to camp at Xiang. He appointed Feng Song as his Marshal of the Left, and he himself acted as Governor of Yuzhou.

〈見上永嘉三年。〉

(Sima Yue had returned to Luoyang and killed Mou Bo, Wang Yann, and Emperor Huai's other close advisors, as mentioned above, in the third year of Yongjia (309.4).)


竟陵王楙白帝遣兵襲何倫,不克;帝委罪於楙,楙逃竄,得免。

27. The Prince of Jingling, Sima Mao, persuaded Emperor Huai to send troops to attack He Lun. But the plan was a failure. Emperor Huai placed the blame on Sima Mao, who then scurried away and so escaped his fate.

〈楙,卽東平王楙;帝踐阼,改封竟陵王。〉

(This Sima Mao was the same Sima Mao who was previously known as the Prince of Dongping. After Emperor Huai came to the throne, he changed Sima Mao's title to Prince of Jingling.)


揚州都督周馥以洛陽孤危,上書請遷都壽春。太傅越以馥不先白己而直上書,大怒,召馥及淮南太守裴碩。馥不肯行,令碩帥兵先進。碩詐稱受越密旨,襲馥,爲馥所敗,退保東城。

28. The Commander of Yangzhou, Zhou Fu, could see that Luoyang was isolated and in danger. He sent up a letter asking that the capital be moved to Shouchun. Sima Yue was greatly offended that Zhou Fu had submitted this letter directly to the court without consulting with him first, so he recalled Zhou Fu and the Administrator of Huainan, Pei Shuo. Zhou Fu was not willing to go, so he ordered Pei Shuo to advance first, leading his soldiers. Pei Shuo falsely declared that he had received a secret order from Sima Yue, and he attacked Zhou Fu, but Zhou Fu defeated him, so Pei Shuo retreated to defend Dongcheng.

〈東城縣,漢屬九江郡,後漢屬下邳國,晉屬淮南郡。宋白曰︰濠州定遠縣,漢東城縣地。〉

(During Former Han, Dongcheng County was part of Jiujiang commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Xiapi princely fief. During Jin, it was part of Huainan commandary. Song Bai remarked, "Dingyuan County in Haozhou is where Han's Dongcheng County was.")


詔加張軌鎭西將軍、都督隴右諸軍事。光祿大夫傅祗、太常摯虞遺軌書,告以京師飢匱。軌遣參軍杜勳獻馬五百匹,毯布三萬匹。

29. Jin issued an edict promoting Zhang Gui to General Who Guards The West and Commander of military affairs in Longyou.

The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Fu Zhi, and the Minister of Ceremonies, Zhi Yu, sent Zhang Gui a letter informing him of the great starvation and want in the capital region. So Zhang Gui sent his Army Advisor Du Xun to bring tribute of five hundred horses and thirty thousand rolls of "blanket cloth".

〈《考異》曰︰《帝紀》云「安西」。按惠帝永興二年,已加軌安西將軍。今從《本傳》。〉〈毯布,織毳爲布也。毯,吐敢翻。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states that Zhang Gui was given the rank of 'General Who Maintains The West'. But Zhang Gui had already been granted that rank in Emperor Hui's second year of Yongxing (305). So I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin."

The "blanket cloth" was cloth made of woven fine animal hairs.)


永嘉四年十一月,黃龍出于臨羌河,發水昇天,身長十餘丈。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, Biography of Zhang Gui)

In the eleventh month of the fourth year of Yongjia (310), a yellow dragon emerged from the Linqiang River; rising from the water and ascending towards the sky, its body was more than ten zhang in length.

遣治中張閬送義兵五千及郡國秀孝貢計、器甲方物歸於京師。令有司可推詳立州已來清貞德素,嘉遁遺榮:「高才碩學,著述經史;臨危殉義,殺身為君;忠諫而嬰禍,專對而釋患;權智雄勇,為時除難;謅佞誤主,傷陷忠賢;具狀以聞。州中父老莫不相慶。」光祿傅祗、太常摯虞遺軌書,告京師饑匱,軌即遣參軍杜勳獻馬五百匹、毯布三萬匹。帝遣使者進拜鎮西將軍、都督隴右諸軍事,封霸城侯。(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Gui)

Zhang Gui sent his 治中, Zhang Lang, to lead five thousand righteous soldiers and assorted armor and equipment to the capital, as well as the tribute records and lists of Abundant Talent and Filial and Incorrupt candidates from his local commandaries and princely fiefs. Zhang Gui ordered his officials to look into and nominate people who had come to the province and who were honest, faithful, virtuous, and steadfast, praising these unsung heroes: "Those of great talent and broad learning who have compiled classical texts and histories; those who have encountered danger and made sacrifices for justice, losing their own lives in the service of their lord; those who, by offering words of loyal remonstration in the midst of disaster, kept to the right and cleared up threats; those who have used their power and influence, heroism and bravery to do away with the difficulties of the age; and those who have misled and flattered their superiors and brought harm and ruin to the loyal and worthy. All of these things have I heard. There is no one among the fathers and elders of the province who is not congratulating one another."

The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Fu Zhi, and the Minister of Ceremonies, Zhi Yu, sent a letter to Zhang Gui informing him of the great hunger and want in the capital region at Luoyang. So Zhang Gui sent his Army Advisor Du Xun to present five hundred horses and thirty thousand rolls of blankets as tribute. Emperor Huai sent an envoy to advance Zhang Gui's rank to General Who Guards The West and Commander of military affairs in Longyou, as well as granting him the noble title Marquis of Bacheng.


成太傅驤攻譙登於涪城。羅尚子宇及參佐素惡登,不給其糧。益州刺史皮素怒,欲治其罪;十二月,素至巴郡,羅宇使人夜殺素,建平都尉暴重殺宇,巴郡亂。驤知登食盡援絕,攻涪愈急。士民皆熏鼠食之,餓死甚衆,無一人離叛者。驤子壽先在登所,登乃歸之。三府官屬表巴東監軍南陽韓松爲益州刺史,治巴東。

30. Cheng's Grand Tutor, Li Xiang, attacked Qiao Deng at Fucheng.

Luo Shang's son Luo Yu and his advisors had long hated Qiao Deng, so they did not send him any grain. Jin's new Inspector of Yizhou, Pi Su, was furious at them for this, and he wanted to deal with their crime. In the twelfth month, Pi Su arrived at Ba commandary. Luo Yu sent someone to kill Pi Su during the night. The Commandant of Jianping, Bao Zhong, then killed Luo Yu, and Ba commandary was thrown into chaos.

Li Xiang knew that Qiao Deng's food was exhausted and he was cut off from reinforcements, so he pressed his assault against Fucheng. The officials and people in the city cooked and ate mice, and a great many of them starved, but not one of them thought of turning against Qiao Deng.

Qiao Deng had earlier brought Li Xiang's son Li Shou along with him; he now sent Li Shou back to his father.

The officials and subordinates of Jin's Three Offices in the region petitioned that the Army Chief of Badong, Han Song of Nanyang, be appointed as the new Inspector of Yizhou, and Han Song governed the region from Badong.

〈永興元年,羅尚掠得驤妻及其子壽,因在登所。〉〈三府,平西將軍府、益州刺史府、西戎校尉府,皆羅尚兼領者也。〉

(In the first year of Yongxing (304.34), Luo Shang had pillaged the region and captured Li Xiang's wife and his son Li Shou. This was why Li Shou was with Qiao Deng.

The Three Offices were the offices of the General Who Pacifies The East, the Inspector of Yizhou, and the Colonel of Western Rong Tribes. Luo Shang had held all of these titles at the same time.)


會羅尚卒,巴郡亂,李驤攻涪。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Then Luo Shang passed away, throwing Ba commandary into turmoil. Li Xiang attacked Fu.

時李驤急攻譙登,素次巴東,敕平西將「軍」張順、楊顯捄登。尚子宇恚恨。加登糧運不給,素「至涪」欲治執事,執事懷懼。冬十有二月,素至巴郡,降人天水趙攀、閻蘭等夜殺素。素字泰混,下邳人也。建平都尉暴重殺宇及攀,巴郡亂,不果救登。三府官屬上巴東監軍,冠軍將軍,南陽韓松為刺史,校尉,治巴東... 雄自攻奮。奮走。遣驤攻登。登初將驤子壽,欲以誘驤;被攻急,救援不至,還驤壽。(Huayang Guozhi 8.8, 9.1)

At this time, Li Xiang was fiercely assaulting Qiao Deng. So when Pi Su passed through Badong, he ordered the General Who Pacifies The West, Zhang Shun, and Yang Xiang to reinforce Qiao Deng. But Luo Shang's son Luo Yu was angry and held a grudge, so he refused to send Qiao Deng any supplies.

When Pi Su arrived at Fu, he wanted to assume full command of affairs, and the local staff was anxious and afraid. In winter, the twelfth month, when Pi Su arrive at Ba commandary, several defectors, including Zhao Pan and Yan Lan of Tianshui, killed him during the night.

Pi Su, styled Taihun, was a native of Xiapi.

The Commandant of Jianping, Bao Zhong, then killed Luo Yu and Zhao Pan, and Ba commandary was thrown into chaos, so Qiao Deng received no reinforcements.

The officials and subordinates of Jin's Three Offices in the region petitioned that the Army Chief of Badong and Champion General, Han Song of Nanyang, be appointed as the new Inspector of Yizhou and Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, and Han Song governed the region from Badong.

...

Li Xiong himself marched to attack Xiang Fen, who fled. He sent Li Xiang to attack Qiao Deng. Qiao Deng had earlier taken along Li Xiang's son Li Shou, hoping to entice Li Xiang. But when Li Xiang fiercely assaulted him, and Qiao Deng realized that no reinforcements would be coming to help him, he released Li Shou back to Li Xiang.

[素字泰混,下邳人也。]: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本無此八字。張佳胤刪也。元豐及他各本並有。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions do not include the sentence "Pi Su, styled Taihun, was a native of Xiapi". Zhang Jiayin has added it in. And the Yuanfeng and other editions all contain it.)


而尚本參佐恨登之見矜侮,不供其軍食。益州刺史皮素至巴東,敕平西送故遣將張順、楊顯救登。至墊江,素遇害,順、顯還。雄知登乏食,遣驤致攻。兵窮士餓,誓死不退。眾亦餓死而無去者。(Huayang Guozhi 11, Biography of Qiao Deng)

But Luo Shang's advisors and subordinates still hated Qiao Deng for what they saw as his conceitedness and bullying, and so they refused to keep Qiao Deng's army supplied. When Luo Shang's successor as Inspector of Yizhou, Pi Su, arrived at Badong, he ordered the staff of the General Who Pacifies The West to send the generals Zhang Shun and Yang Xian to reinforce Qiao Deng. But by the time they had marched as far as Pianjiang, Pi Su was killed, so they marched back.

Li Xiong knew that Qiao Deng's supplies had run out, so he sent Li Xiang to attack him. But though Qiao Deng's soldiers were exhausted and starving, they swore to fight to the death rather than retreat. Nor did anyone inside the city abandon him, though they were starving as well.

[順]:〈張、吳、何、王、浙、石本無順字。〉(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(In the sentence mentioning that Zhang Shun and Yang Xian marched back following Pi Su's death, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions omit the character for Zhang Shun.)


初,帝以王彌、石勒侵逼京畿,詔苟晞督帥州郡討之。會曹嶷破琅邪,北收齊地,兵勢甚盛,苟純閉城自守。晞還救青州,與嶷連戰,破之。

31. Earlier, because Wang Mi and Shi Le were posing a great threat to the capital region, Emperor Huai had issued an edict ordering Gou Xi to lead the armies of the provinces and commandaries under his control to campaign against these threats.

By now, Cao Yi had broken into Langye, and he went north and took all of the Qi region under his control. His soldiers and his power were growing ever greater, so Gou Chun withdrew into his city to defend himself. Gou Xi returned to rescue Qingzhou, and he fought with Cao Yi several times and routed him.

〈永嘉元年,苟晞討魏植,留弟純守青州。〉

(In the first year of Yongjia (307.32), Gou Xi had gone out to campaign against the rebel leader Wei Zhi and left his younger brother Gou Chun to defend Qingzhou in his place.)


是歲,寧州刺史王遜到官,表李釗爲朱提太守。時寧州外逼於成,內有夷寇,城邑丘墟。遜惡衣菜食,招集離散,勞來不倦,數年之間,州境復安。誅豪右不奉法者十餘家;以五苓夷昔爲亂首,擊滅之,內外震服。

32. During this year, the newly-appointed Inspector of Ningzhou, Wang Xun, arrived at his office. He petitioned to appoint his de facto predecessor Li Zhao as Administrator of Zhuti.

At this time, Ningzhou was threatened by Cheng on the outside and ravaged by the tribes within, and the cities and towns were all left in ruins. So Wang Xun ignored fashionable clothing and restricted meals, and he gathered together all those who had scattered about, working tirelessly to achieve his goals. Within a few years, the province was restored to peace.

Wang Xun executed more than ten families of local gentry who would not heed the law. Since the tribes of Wuling were the instigators of the local uprisings, he attacked and vanquished them. Everyone, near and far, feared and obeyed him.

〈朱提,音銖時。〉〈見八十五卷惠帝太安二年。〉

(Li Zhao's commandary 朱提 is pronounced "zhusi".

The outbreak of the tribal uprisings under the Wuling tribes is mentioned in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (303.31).)


漢主聰自以越次而立,忌其嫡兄恭;因恭寢,穴其壁間,刺而殺之。

33. Since Liu Cong had made himself the new Emperor of Han despite not being Liu Yuan’s eldest living son, he suspected his elder brother by his father's first wife, Liu Gong. So while Liu Gong was asleep in bed, Liu Cong bored a hole through his wall, pricked him and killed him.

漢太后單氏卒;漢主聰尊母張氏爲皇太后。單氏年少美色,聰烝焉。太弟义屢以爲言,單氏慙恚而死。义寵由是漸衰,然以單氏故,尚未之廢也。呼延后言於聰曰︰「父死子繼,古今常道。陛下承高祖之業,太弟何爲者哉!陛下百年後,粲兄弟必無種矣。」聰曰︰「然,吾當徐思之。」呼延氏曰︰「事留變生。太弟見粲兄弟浸長,必有不安之志;萬一有小人交構其間,未必不禍發于今日也。」聰心然之。义舅光祿大夫單沖泣謂义曰︰「疏不間親。主上有意於河內王矣,殿下何不避之!」义曰︰「河瑞之末,主上自惟嫡庶之分,以大位讓义。义以主上齒長,故相推奉。天下者,高祖之天下,兄終弟及,何爲不可!粲兄弟旣壯,猶今日也。且子弟之間,親疏詎幾,主上寧可有此意乎!」

34. Han's Empress Dowager Lady Shan passed away. Liu Cong honored his mother Lady Zhang as the new Empress Dowager.

Now Lady Shan had been a young and beautiful woman, and she had seduced Liu Cong. The Crown Younger Brother, her son Liu Yi, had often rebuked her for this relationship. Lady Shan, ashamed and angry, passed away. After that, the favor that Liu Cong had once shown Liu Yi began to fade away, but because he was still Lady Shan's son, Liu Cong had no thoughts of deposing him from his position.

But then Empress Huyan said to Liu Cong, "For a son to succeed his late father has been a tradition from ancient times until now. Your Majesty, you are now continuing the enterprise begun by Gaozu (Liu Yuan). What need is there for the Crown Younger Brother any longer? A hundred years from now, Your Majesty, Liu Can and your other sons will surely not have any descendants left."

Liu Cong told her, "You speak well, but let me consider this matter further."

Empress Huyan replied, "He who hesitates is lost. The Crown Younger Brother is watching your sons growing older, and he definitely has something unsettling in mind. If by any chance some miscreant drives a wedge between you, who knows what disaster might occur?"

In his heart, Liu Cong believed her.

The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Liu Yi's uncle Shan Zhong, wept as he told his nephew, "The distant cannot compare to the intimate. Our sovereign has a mind to have the Prince of Henei (Liu Can) succeed him, so how can Your Highness not avoid him?"

Liu Yi said, "At the end of the Herui era (when Liu Yuan died), it was our sovereign himself who considered the difference between the line of the chief wife and the line of the concubine, and that is why he offered the throne to me. It was just because Liu Cong is longer in the tooth than I am that we offered the throne to each other. The realm was started because of Gaozu, and when the elder brother dies, the younger brother inherits from him; how could that not be so? It is just that Liu Can and his brothers are growing strong now. Besides, is there really much difference in the level of intimacy between a father and his son and an elder brother and his younger brother? How can our sovereign be thinking as you suggest?"

〈下淫上曰烝,上淫下曰報。〉〈劉淵,廟號高祖。〉〈言义將殺聰。〉〈爲元帝建武元年聰殺义張本。〉〈惟,思也。〉〈聰讓义事見上。义此言必不發於是年,《通鑑》因呼延氏之言,遂連書之。〉

(This passage uses the term 烝. When an inferior seduces a superior, that is called 烝; when a superior seduces an inferior, that is called 報.

Liu Yuan's temple name was Gaozu.

Empress Huyan was suggesting that Liu Yi was planning to kill Liu Cong.

This was why Liu Cong killed Liu Yi in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) first year of Jianwu (317).

惟 in this passage means "to consider".

Liu Cong's offering of the throne to Liu Yi is mentioned above (310.14).

Liu Yi certainly did not say these words in this year. The Tongdian encyclopedia says that because of Empress Huyan's words, Liu Yi sent several letters.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 25, 2018 8:44 pm, edited 35 times in total.
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BOOK 87

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 12, 2017 7:36 pm

五年(辛未、三一一)

The Fifth Year of Yongjia (The Xinwei Year, 311 AD)


春,正月,壬申,苟晞爲曹嶷所敗,棄城奔高平。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Renshen (February 18th), Gou Xi was defeated by Cao Yi, and he abandoned his city and fled to Gaoping.

〈高平縣,舊屬梁國,晉爲高平國。泗水逕其西,有高平山。山東西十里,南北五里,高四里。其山最高,頂上方平,故謂之高平山,縣亦取名焉。〉

(Gaoping County had originally been part of the Liang princely fief. Jin made it into the Gaoping princely fief. The Si River flowed through the west of it, and Mount Gaoping was within it. This mountain was ten li from east to west, five li from north to south, and four li in height. At the highest point of this mountain, the summit was flat ground. This was the reason it was called Mount Gaoping ("high and flat"), and the county also had the name from the mountain.)


石勒謀保據江、漢,參軍都尉張賓以爲不可。會軍中飢疫,死者太半,乃渡沔,寇江夏,癸酉,拔之。

2. Shi Le considered holding the region around the Yangzi and Han River, but his Commandant of Army Advisors, Zhang Bin, advised him that this was not possible. At that time there was great hunger and plague in Shi Le's army, and more than half of them perished. So Shi Le crossed the Mian River and invaded Jiangxia. On the day Guiyou (February 19th), he took it.

勒有據江漢之志。勒右長史張賓以為不可,引軍而北。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le had ambitions of occupying the region between the Yangzi and the Han River. But his Chief Clerk of the Right, Zhang Bin, argued that this would not be possible, so Shi Le led his forces back north.


乙亥,成太傅驤拔涪城,獲譙登;太保始拔巴西,殺文石。於是成主雄大赦,改元玉衡。譙登至成都,雄欲宥之;登詞氣不屈,雄殺之。

3. On the day Yihai (February 21st), Li Xiang took Fucheng and captured Qiao Deng. Cheng's Grand Guardian, Li Shi, captured Baxi commandary and killed Wen Shi. So Li Xiong declared an amnesty within his domain, and he changed his reign era title to the first year of Yuheng.

When Qiao Deng was brought to Chengdu, Li Xiong wanted to pardon him. But it was clear from his words and his spirit that Qiao Deng would not bow to him, so Li Xiong killed him.

李驤攻涪,又陷之,執梓潼太守譙登,遂乘勝進軍討文碩,害之。雄大悅,赦其境內,改元曰玉衡。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiang attacked Fu and took it, and he captured Jin's Administrator of Zitong, Qiao Deng. Li Xiang then pressed his victory by advancing to attack Wen Shuo, and killed him as well. Li Xiong was greatly pleased. He declared an amnesty within his domain, and changed his reign era title to Yuheng.

又改年為玉衡。(Book of Northern Wei 96, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong later changed his reign era title to Yuheng.

五年,春正月,李驤破涪城,獲登。巴西、梓潼復為雄有... 五年春,驤獲登。遣李始督李鳳攻巴西,殺文碩。是歲,雄姨弟任小受張羅募,手刃雄頭,雄幾死。改元玉衡。(Huayang Guozhi 8.9, 9.1)

In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), in spring, the first month, Li Xiang took Fucheng and captured Qiao Deng. Li Xiong also reclaimed Baxi and Zitong.

...

In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), in spring, Li Xiang captured Qiao Deng. Li Xiong sent Li Shi to lead Li Feng to attack Baxi, where they killed Wen Shuo.

During this year, Li Xiong's brother-in-law Ren Xiao took a bribe from Zhang Luo and personally struck Li Xiong in the head with a blade, nearly killing him.

Li Xiong changed his reign era title to Yuheng.

[張羅]募人斫雄頭... 永嘉「三」〔五〕年,為驤所生得,輿登致雄。言辭慷慨,涕泣歔欷,無服降臣折情,雄乃殺之。囚其軍士,皆以為奴虜,畀兵士。而連陰雨百餘日,雄中以登為枉,而所領無辜,怒氣感天。〔雄〕下赦,出登軍士湮沒者。(Huayang Guozhi 11, Biography of Qiao Deng)

Zhang Luo also bribed a man to strike Li Xiong in the head.

...

In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), Qiao Deng and his forces were captured alive by Li Xiang, who sent them on to Li Xiong. Qiao Deng spoke so vehemently and wept and sobbed so greatly that it was clear he would never submit or serve Li Xiong, so Li Xiong killed him.

Li Xiong imprisoned Qiao Deng's former soldiers, and he made all of them slaves and distributed them among his own soldiers. But then there was a period of continuous clouds and rain for more than a hundred days. Li Xiong feared that Qiao Deng had cursed him for treating his soldiers unjustly, and had brought this misfortune upon him, since his spirit of rage had moved the heavens. So Li Xiong declared an amnesty, sparing Qiao Deng's former soldiers from oblivion.

[「三」〔五〕]: 〈《大同志》作五年,是。〉(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(This passage states that Qiao Deng was captured in the third year of Yongjia (309). But the parallel account of this incident in the Records of the Grand Union chapter of the Huayang Guozhi states that it was in the fifth year (311), and that is correct.)


巴、蜀流民布在荊、湘間,數爲土民所侵苦,蜀人李驤聚衆據樂鄕反,南平太守應詹與醴陵令杜弢共擊破之。王澄使成都內史王機討驤,驤請降,澄僞許而襲殺之,以其妻子爲賞,沈八千餘人於江;流民益怨忿。

4. Refugees from Ba and Shu had spread throughout Jingzhou and Xiangzhou, and they had often been oppressed by the local gentry and people.

A native of Shu, Li Xiang, gathered together a host, occupied Lexiang, and rebelled. The Administrator of Nanping, Ying Zhan, and the Prefect of Liling, Du Tao, joined together to attack and rout them. The Inspector of Jingzhou, Wang Cheng, sent the Interior Minister of Chengdu, Wang Ji, to march against Li Xiang. Li Xiang asked to surrender. Wang Cheng pretended to agree, but then attacked and killed Li Xiang, took his wife as a prize, and drowned more than eight thousand people in the Yangzi.

The suffering of the refugees thus grew all the more.

〈此又一李驤也,非成太傅之李驤。〉〈醴陵縣,屬長沙郡。〉〈惠帝時蜀亂,割南郡之華谷、州陵、監利三縣,別立豐都一縣,置成都郡爲成都王穎國。〉

(Despite having the exact same name, this 李驤 Li Xiang was not the same as Cheng's Grand Tutor 李驤 Li Xiang.

Liling County was part of Changsha commandary.

During Emperor Hui's reign, because Shu fell into chaos, the three counties of Huagu, Zhouling, and Jianli in Nan commandary were carved out, and a Fengdu County was also created; this territory was designed as Chengdu commandary, granted to the Prince of Chengdu, Sima Ying, as his fief.)


蜀人杜疇等復反,湘州參軍馮素與蜀人汝班有隙,言於刺史荀眺曰︰「巴、蜀流民皆欲反。」眺信之,欲盡誅流民。流民大懼,四五萬家一時俱反,以杜弢州里重望,共推爲主。弢自稱梁‧益二州牧、領湘州刺史。

5. More of the refugees, Du Chou of Shu and others, rebelled again.

The Army Advisor of Xiangzhou, Feng Su, had long held a grudge against a native of Shu, Ru Ban. So he said to the Inspector of Xiangzhou, Xun Tiao, "The refugees from Ba and Shu all want to rebel."

Xun Tiao believe him, and he wanted to execute all of the refugees. The refugees were greatly afraid by this prospect, and forty or fifty thousand of their families all rose in rebellion at the same time. Since their fellow provincial Du Tao was highly regarded, they all acclaimed him as their leader. This Du Tao declared himself Governor of Lianzhou and Yizhou and as acting Inspector of Xiangzhou.

〈汝,姓也。商有汝鳩、汝方,晉有汝寬、汝齊。〉〈弢,蜀郡人,以才學著稱於西州。〉

(汝 Ru is a surname. During the Shang dynasty, there had been a Ru Jiu and a Ru Fang. During Jin, there was a Ru Kuan and a Ru Qi.

Du Tao was a native of Shu commandary, and his talents and learning were well-known in the western provinces.)


裴碩求救於琅邪王睿,睿使揚威將軍甘卓等攻周馥於壽春。馥衆潰,奔項,豫州都督、新蔡王確執之,馥憂憤而卒。確,騰之子也。

6. The Administrator of Huainan, Pei Shuo, asked for assistance from Sima Rui at Jianye for his struggle against Zhou Fu. Sima Rui sent the General Who Displays Might, Gan Zhuo, and others to attack Zhou Fu at Shouchun. Zhou Fu's forces scattered, and he fled to Xiang. The Commander of Yuzhou and Prince of Xincha, Sima Que, captured him, and Zhou Fu was so worried and agitated that he passed away. This Sima Que was the son of Sima Teng.

〈《考異》曰︰《帝紀》︰「戊寅,睿使卓攻馥於壽春,馥衆潰。」未知其爲命卓之日與攻日、潰日,故闕之。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'On the day Wuyin (February 24th), Sima Rui sent Gan Zhuo to attack Zhou Fu at Shouchun, and Zhou Fu's forces scattered.' But I do not know if this date was when Sima Rui gave the order to Gan Zhuo, or if it was when Gan Zhuo attacked Zhou Fu, or when his forces scattered. So I did not include it.")


揚州刺史劉陶卒。琅邪王睿復以安東軍諮祭酒王敦爲揚州刺史,尋加都督征討諸軍事。

7. The Inspector of Yangzhou, Liu Tao, passed away. Sima Rui reappointed the Consultant-Libationer to the General Who Maintains The East, Wang Dun, as the new Inspector of Yangzhou, and further appointed him as Commander of the armies fighting in that region.

〈去年敦奔建業。〉

(Wang Dun had fled to Jianye in the previous year (310.5).)


庚辰,平原王幹薨。

8. On the day Gengchen (February 26th), the Prince of Pingyuan, Sima Gan, passed away.

二月,石勒攻新蔡,殺新蔡莊王確於南頓;進拔許昌,殺平東將軍王康。

9. In the second month, Shi Le attacked Xincai, where he killed Sima Que at Nandun. He then advanced and captured Xuchang, where he killed the General Who Pacifies The East, Wang Kang. Sima Que was posthumously known as Prince Zhuang ("the Dignified") of Xincai.

氐苻成、隗文復叛,自宜都趣巴東;建平都尉暴重討之。重因殺韓松,自領三府事。

10. In the Shu region, the Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Wen rebelled against Jin again, marching from Yidu to Badong. Jin's Commandant of Jianping, Bao Zhong, campaigned against them. Because of that, Bao Zhong killed Han Song, and he then took over the affairs of the Three Offices.

〈苻成等歸羅尚,見八十五卷惠帝太安二年。〉

(Fu Cheng and the other Di leaders had earlier submitted to Luo Shang, as seen in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (303.3).)


荊湘有亂。氐符成、隗文作亂宜都,西上巴東。雄眾攻僰道,走犍為太守魏紀,殺江陽太守姚襲。二月,氐隗文等反於巴東。暴重討之。未下,「重」殺刺史韓松。松字公治,南陽人,魏大司徒暨孫也。〔重〕自領三府事。(Huayang Guozhi 7.9)

There was chaos in the Jing and Xiang regions. The Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Wen caused trouble at Yidu, and then went west upriver to Badong. Li Xiong's forces attacked Bodao, where they drove out Jin's Administrator of Jianwei, Wei Ji, and killed Jin's Administrator of Jiangyang, Yao Xi.

In the second month, Kui Wen and the other Di leaders rebelled against Jin in Badong. Bao Zhong went to campaign against them. Before he subdued them, Bao Zhong killed the new Inspector of Yizhou, Han Song.

Han Song, styled Gongzhi, was a native of Nanyang. He was the grandson of Cao-Wei's Grand Minister Over The Masses, Han Ji.

Bao Zhong himself assumed control of the Three Offices.

[〔重〕]: 上文重字,不當有。此自領三府是重,字不當闕。舊校誤移也。茲移正。(Huayang Guozhi Commentary)

(This passage should be clarified by saying that "Bao Zhong" took over the affairs of the Three Offices.)


東海孝獻王越旣與苟晞有隙,河南尹潘滔、尚書劉望等復從而譖之。晞怒,表求滔等首,揚言︰「司馬元超爲宰相不平,使天下淆亂,苟道將豈可以不義使之!」乃移檄諸州,自稱功伐,陳越罪狀。帝亦惡越專權,多違詔命;所留將士何倫等,抄掠公卿,逼辱公主;密賜晞手詔,使討之。晞數與帝文書往來,越疑之,使遊騎於成皋間伺之,果獲晞使及詔書。乃下檄罪狀晞,以從事中郎楊瑁爲兗州刺史,使與徐州刺史裴盾共討晞。晞遣騎收潘滔,滔夜遁,得免;執尚書劉曾、侍中程延,斬之。越憂憤成疾,以後事付王衍;三月,丙子,薨于項,祕不發喪。衆共推衍爲元帥,衍不敢當;以讓襄陽王範,範亦不受。範,瑋之子也。於是衍等相與奉越喪還葬東海。何倫、李惲等聞越薨,奉裴妃及世子毗自洛陽東走,城中士民爭隨之。帝追貶越爲縣王,以苟晞爲大將軍、大都督,督青、徐、兗、豫、荊、揚六州諸軍事。

11. By now, Sima Yue was on bad terms with Gou Xi. So Pan Tao, the Master of Writing, Liu Wang, and others all slandered Gou Xi to him. Gou Xi was furious about this, and he petitioned the court demanding the heads of Pan Tao and the rest. He further announced, "Sima Yuanchao (Sima Yue) is acting unjustly as the chief minister, and he is causing confusion and turmoil in the realm. How can I, Gou Daojiang, act unjustly by following his orders?"

And he spread such proclamations throughout the provinces, boasting of his own achievements and the reasons for his campaign and denouncing Sima Yue's crimes and offenses.

Emperor Huai also resented Sima Yue for monopolizing power and for his many violations of imperial edicts. He further resented him for leaving his generals and officers, He Lun and others, to keep watch over the capital for him, since they plundered the nobles and ministers and oppressed and besmirched the imperial princesses. So Emperor Huai handwrote an edict and secretly sent it to Gou Xi, ordering him to campaign against Sima Yue.

Now Gou Xi and Emperor Huai had exchanged letters between one another several times before this, and this had aroused Sima Yue's suspicions. So he sent swift riders to wait at Chenggao just in case, and as expected, they captured Gou Xi's messenger and got the edict letter from Emperor Huai. Sima Yue then sent out his own proclamations denouncing Gou Xi's crimes and offenses. He appointed the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Yang Mao, as Inspector of Yanzhou, and ordered him and the Inspector of Xuzhou, Pei Dun, to campaign against Gou Xi together.

Gou Xi sent riders to arrest Pan Tao, but Pan Tao fled during the night and so made his escape. However, the riders still captured the Master of Writing, Liu Zeng, and the Palace Attendant, Cheng Yan, and beheaded them.

Sima Yue was so anxious and agitated about the situation that he developed an illness, so he left Wang Yan in charge of affairs thereafter.

In the third month, on the day Bingzi (April 23rd), Sima Yue passed away at Xiang; his death was kept secret, and the mourning was not announced. Sima Yue was posthumously known as Prince Xiaoxian ("the Filial and Presented") of Donghai.

Sima Yue's army all acclaimed Wang Yan as their new leader. Wang Yan did not dare to accept, and he offered leadership to the Prince of Xiangyang, Sima Fan, but Sima Fan would not accept the role either. This Sima Fan was the son of Sima Wei. Wang Yan and the others all decided to escort Sima Yue's coffin back to his fief at Donghai.

When He Lun, Li Yun, and Sima Yue's other agents in Luoyang heard that he was dead, they took his concubine Lady Pei and his eldest son by his wife, Sima Pi, and fled east out of Luoyang. All the gentry and people within the city struggled to follow after them.

Emperor Huai posthumously demoted Sima Yue's title to Prince of a county, and he appointed Gou Xi as Grand General, Grand Commander, and Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Jingzhou, and Yangzhou.

〈事始上卷永嘉二年。〉〈東海王越,字元超。〉〈《考異》曰︰《帝紀》︰「五年,正月,帝密詔苟晞討越。乙未,越遣楊瑁、裴盾共擊晞。三月,戊午,詔下越罪狀,告方鎭討之,以晞爲大將軍。丙子,越薨。」《晞傳》︰「晞移告諸州,陳越罪狀。帝惡越專權,乃詔晞施檄六州,協同大舉。晞移諸征鎭,帝又密詔晞討越。晞復上表稱李初至,奉被手詔,卷甲長驅,次于倉垣。五年,帝復詔晞,陳越罪惡,詔至之日,宣告天下,率齊大舉。晞表稱,輒遣王讚將兵詣項。越使騎於成皋間獲晞使,遂大搆嫌隙。」《晉春秋》︰「五年,正月,上遣李初詔晞討越。」按越若已得晞使,則帝亦不能自安,潘滔、何倫等不容晏然在洛。且滔等未去,則帝亦不敢明言使晞討越。年月事迹,旣前後參差如此,今並置於越薨之時,庶爲不失。〉

(The source of the strain between Sima Yue and Gou Xi is mentioned in Book 86, in the second year of Yongjia (308.31).

Sima Yue's style name was Yuanchao.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the first month of the fifth year of Yongjia (311), Emperor Huai secretly sent an edict ordering Gou Xi to campaign against Sima Yue.' And, 'On the day Yiwei (?), Sima Yue sent Yang Mao and Pei Dun to jointly attack Gou Xi.' And, 'In the third month, on the day Wuwu (April 5th), an edict went out denouncing Sima Yue's crimes and offenses and ordering the border generals to campaign against him, appointing Gou Xi as Grand General. On the day Bingzi (April 23rd), Sima Yue passed away.'

"The Biography of Gou Xi in the Book of Jin states, 'Gou Xi moved through and spoke to the various provinces, outlining Sima Yue's crimes and offenses to them. Emperor Huai resented Sima Yue for monopolizing power, so he issued an edict granting Gou Xi command over six provinces, so that he would be able to harness them all for a joint rising against Sima Yue. Gou Xi continued his rounds, now among the various Generals Who Conquered and Who Guard, and Emperor Huai also secretly sent an edict to Gou Xi ordering him to campaign against Sima Yue. Gou Xi sent back a petition stating that Li Chu had arrived and given him the handwritten edict, and that he had put on his armor and driven his army forward and was now at Cangyuan. In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), Emperor Huai sent another edict to Gou Xi, outlining Sima Yue's crimes and offenses. On the day the edict arrived, Gou Xi proclaimed it to all the realm, and assembled his troops for a great rising. Gou Xi sent back another petition, stating that he was sending Wang Zan to lead soldiers to visit Xiang. Sima Yue sent riders to Chenggao to capture Gou Xi's messenger. This brought the enmity between them to the breaking point.'

"The Annals of Jin states, 'In the first month of the fifth year of Yongjia (311), Emperor Huai sent Li Chu to bring his edict to Gou Xi ordering him to campaign against Sima Yue.'

"Now if Sima Yue had already captured Gou Xi's messenger, then Emperor Huai could not have felt secure, and Pan Tao, He Lun, and Sima Yue's other agents would not have been comfortable remaining at Luoyang. Furthermore, since Pan Tao and the others had not left Luoyang yet, Emperor Huai also would not have dared to openly order Gou Xi to campaign against Sima Yue. So the years and months of these accounts are confused, and I have fixed them around the time of Sima Yue's death, in order not to leave them out.")


晉太傅、東海王越率洛陽之眾二十餘萬討勒。越薨於軍,軍人推太尉王衍為主,率眾而東。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Jin's Grand Tutor and Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, led an army of more than two hundred thousand from Luoyang to campaign against Shi Le. Sima Yue passed away in the midst of his army. His soldiers acclaimed the Grand Commandant, Wang Yan, as their new leader, and he led the army east.


益州將吏共殺暴重,表巴郡太守張羅行三府事。羅與隗文等戰,死,文等驅掠吏民,西降於成。三府文武共表平西司馬蜀郡王異行三府事,領巴郡太守。

12. Jin's generals and officials in Yizhou all killed Bao Zhong, and then sent up a petition asking that the Administrator of Ba commandary, Zhang Luo, serve as acting head of the Three Offices. Zhang Luo fought against Kui Wen and the other Di rebels, but he died in battle. Kui Wen and the others rushed to plunder the officials and the people, and then went west to submit to Cheng. The civil and military officials of the Three Offices now petitioned that the Marshal to the General Who Pacifies The West, Wang Yi of Ba, serve as the new acting head of the Three Offices and as the acting Administrator of Ba commandary.

〈益州殘兵自不足以進取,未及朞年而五易帥,適爲秦氐兼幷州之資耳。〉

(By now, the Jin soldiers left in Yizhou were too weak to advance or capture anything, and they had gone through five different leaders in less than a year. It was no wonder that the Qinzhou Di could plunder their valuables.)


雄性寬厚,簡刑約法,甚有名稱。氐苻成、隗文既降復叛,手傷雄母,及其來也,咸釋其罪,厚加待納。由是夷夏安之,威震四土。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong had a generous and tolerant nature, and was forgiving in punishments and lenient in laws, for which he gained a great name. The Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Wen had at first surrendered to him, but then rebelled against him, and had even wounded his own mother Lady Luo. But when they came to him again, he absolved them of their crimes and even treated them well. Thus did he settle all the Xia (ethnic Han) and tribal peoples, and his might shook every region.

三月,三府文武與巴東太守吏共囚重及妻子,於宜都殺之。共表巴郡太守張羅「字景治」行三府事。羅治枳,自討隗文於宮圻,破降之。旬月復叛,劫巴郡太守黃龕,託以為主。龕窮急,〔欲〕自殺。主簿楊預諫曰:「文之宿惡,江川所知。拘劫明府,誰不危心。虛假之名,孰當信之。可使張將軍知其丹誠。何遽如此?」龕曰:「賊已道斷,何緣得令景治知之。」預乃作龕書「遺」〔遣〕弟逃氐詣羅。羅曰:「子宣宣誠,吾自明之耳。」隗文聞,怒,囚龕,執預,問遣信狀。龕曰:「不遣也。」文乃考預,一日夜,預不言。文欲殺龕。預死杖下,文義之,赦龕。羅遣軍討之,字[文]破還。羅自討之,敗績,身死。羅字景治,河南梁人也。「巴中無復餘種矣」文驅略吏民,西上降雄。〔巴中無復餘種矣〕。〔雄〕將任回獲犍為太守魏紀。三府文武共表平西司馬王異行三府事,又領巴郡太守... 氐符成、隗文既降復叛,手傷雄母;及其來也,咸釋其罪,厚加待納,皆以為將。(Huayang Guozhi 8.9, 9.1)

In the third month, the civil and military officials of the Three Offices joined with the Administrator of Badong, Li Gong, to imprison Bao Zhong and his wife and children, and they killed them at Yidu. Li Gong petitioned that the Administrator of Ba commandary, Zhang Luo, serve as acting head of the Three Offices. Zhang Luo set his base at Zhi.

Zhang Luo campaigned against Kui Wen at Gongqi, where he routed Kui Wen and forced him to submit. But within half a month, Kui Wen rebelled again. He kidnapped the new Administrator of Ba commandary, Huang Kan, and forced him to serve as the figurehead of the rebels. Greatly distressed at his predicament, Huang Kan wanted to kill himself. But his Registrar, Yang Yu, remonstrated with him, saying, "Everyone along the Yangzi know of Kui Wen's constant evil acts. He is oppressing you, and who does not sympathize with your position? Who could believe Kui Wen's empty claiming of your authority for his rebellion? You can let General Zhang know of your sincerity. Why be so rash as to kill yourself?"

Huang Kan replied, "But the rebels have already blocked the roads. How am I to let Jingzhi (Zhang Luo) know this?"

Then Yang Yu wrote a letter in Huang Kan's hand and sent his younger brother to flee from the Di rebels and visit Zhang Luo. Zhang Luo said, "I knew that Zixuan (Huang Kan) was sincere and honest, right from the start."

When Kui Wen heard that this fugitive had escaped with a letter, he was furious. He imprisoned Huang Kan and beat Yang Yu, demanding to know the contents of the letter. Huang Kan said, "I sent no letter." So Kui Wen closely questioned Yang Yu for a full day and night, but Yang Yu would say nothing. Kui Wen had been planning to kill Huang Kan. But when Yang Yu died from the force of his caning, Kui Wen respected his sense of righteousness, and so he pardoned Huang Kan.

Zhang Luo first sent an army to campaign against Kui Wen, but Kui Wen routed them and drove them off. Then Zhang Luo himself came to fight Kui Wen, but his army was defeated again and he died.

Zhang Luo, styled Jingzhi, was a native of Liang in Henan commandary. Kui Wen and the other Di leaders expelled and captured Zhang Luo's officials, and then went west to submit to Li Xiong. Nothing further would grow in the Ba region.

Li Xiong's general Ren Hui captured Jin's Administrator of Jianwei, Wei Ji.

The civil and military officials of the Three Offices jointly petitioned that the Marshal to the General Who Pacifies The West, Wang Yi of Ba, serve as the new acting head of the Three Offices and as the acting Administrator of Ba commandary.

...

The Di leaders Fu Cheng and Kui Wen had earlier surrendered to Li Xiong, but then rebelled against him, and they had even personally wounded his mother Lady Luo. But when they came to surrender to him again now, he absolved them of their crimes, and treated them with special favor, making them both generals.

[「字景治」]: 廖本注云:「當衍此三字。」[〔欲〕]: 《函海》注云:「疑脫字。」顧廣圻校稿云:「疑脫欲字。」廖本據以入注。茲補。[江川]: 《四部備要》本改作州字。非。江川,謂沿江郡縣。[「遺」〔遣〕]: 舊各本作遣。廖本作遺。訛。[宣誠]: 張、吳、何、王、石本訛作城。浙本剜改誠。[之,字]: 當作文。[「巴中無復餘種矣」]: 七字,當乙至「西上降雄」下。[〔雄〕]: 此下廖本注云:「當重有雄字。」(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The first mention of Zhang Luo in this passage is followed by "styled Jingzhi". The Liao edition notes, "the mention of his style name here is redundant (since it is mentioned below, in the same format as others immediately following their deaths)".

The original text of the Huayang Guozhi simply says that "Huang Kan killed himself". Several editions note that "I suspect it should say that he 'wished to kill himself'." I have corrected the omission.

This passage uses the term 江川. The 四部備要 edition sees this as an error, and changes it to 江州 Jiangzhou. But this is not so. The term 江川 means "all of the counties and commandaries along the Yangzi".

The old editions all state that Yang Yu 遣 "sent" the letter. The Liao edition writes this as 遺 "bequeathed" the letter. But this is a corruption.

The Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, and Shi editions miswrite 宣誠 "sincere and honest" as 宣城 Xuancheng. The Zhe edition corrects it.

There is a mention of 字 Zi routing Zhang Luo's first army; this should be 文 Kui Wen.

The sentence "Nothing further would grow in the Ba region" should be moved to after "Kui Wen went west to submit to Li Xiong".

The Liao edition notes that "The character for Li Xiong should be repeated before Ren Hui's name, to clarify that he was Li Xiong's general".)


初,梁州刺史張光會諸郡守於魏興,共謀進取。張燕唱言︰「漢中荒敗,迫近大賊,克復之事,當俟英雄。」光以燕受鄧定賂,致失漢中,今復沮衆,呵出,斬之。治兵進戰,累年乃得至漢中,綏撫荒殘,百姓悅服。

13. It was earlier mentioned that Deng Ding and other refugee rebels had risen up in Hanzhong and invited Cheng to send an army to take over that region. Afterwards, Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Zhang Guang, assembled the forces of several commandaries at Weixing, and they plotted together to advance and retake Hanzhong.

The Administrator of Baxi, Zhang Yan, began chanting, "Hanzhong is a barren land, where enemies are close at hand. If to save it is our fate, some hero first we must await."

Zhang Guang considered that it was because Zhang Yan had taken bribes from Deng Ding that Hanzhong had been lost in the first place, and now he was just depressing the morale of the others, so he beheaded Zhang Yan.

Then Zhang Guang led the soldiers and advanced into battle. Over the course of several years, he finally pushed his way back into Hanzhong. He brought peace and comfort to the ruined and wrecked places, so the common people loved and obeyed him.

〈事見上卷永嘉元年。〉〈光爲梁州刺史,見上卷二年。〉

(Deng Ding's rebellion in Hanzhong is mentioned in Book 86, in the first year of Yongjia (307.15). Zhang Guang's appointment as Inspector of Lianzhou is mentioned in the second year (308.25).)


梁州刺史張光復治漢中。(Huayang Guozhi 7.9)

Jin's Inspector of Lianzhou, Zhang Guang, shifted his base back to Hanzhong.


夏,四月,石勒率輕騎追太傅越之喪,及於苦縣寧平城,大敗晉兵,縱騎圍而射之,將士十餘萬人相踐如山,無一人得免者。執太尉衍、襄陽王範、任城王濟、武陵莊王澹、西河王喜、梁懷王禧、齊王超、吏部尚書劉望、廷尉諸葛銓、豫州刺史劉喬、太傅長史庾敳等,坐之幕下,問以晉故。衍具陳禍敗之由,云計不在己;且自言少無宦情,不豫世事;因勸勒稱尊號,冀以自免。勒曰︰「君少壯登朝,名蓋四海,身居重任,何得言無宦情邪!破壞天下,非君而誰!」命左右扶出。衆人畏死,多自陳述。獨襄陽王範神色儼然,顧呵之曰︰「今日之事,何復紛紜!」勒謂孔萇曰︰「吾行天下多矣,未嘗見此輩人,當可存乎?」萇曰︰「彼皆晉之王公,終不爲吾用。」勒曰︰「雖然,要不可加以鋒刃。」夜,使人排牆殺之。濟,宣帝弟子景王陵之子;禧,澹之子也。剖越柩,焚其尸,曰︰「亂天下者此人也,吾爲天下報之,故焚其骨以告天地。」

14. In summer, the fourth month, Shi Le sent his light cavalry to pursue Sima Yue's funeral procession, catching up with them at the city of Ningping in Ku County. He greatly defeated the Jin soldiers, sending his cavalry out to surround them and then shoot arrows at them. More than a hundred thousand of the Jin officers and soldiers fell dead, their bodies piling atop one another like a mountain; not a single one of them escaped.

Shi Le captured many people, including Wang Yan, Sima Fan, the Prince of Rencheng, Sima Ji, the Prince of Wuling, Sima Dan, the Prince of Xihe, Sima Xi, the Prince of Liang, Sima Xi, the Prince of Qi, Sima Chao, the Director of the Masters of Writing, Liu Wang, the Commandant of Justice, Zhuge Quan, the Inspector of Yuzhou, Liu Qiao, the Chief Clerk to the Grand Tutor, Yu Ai, and others. He made all of these captives sit below his tent as he questioned them about conditions in Jin.

Wang Yan told him all the reasons for Jin's misfortunes and its defeats, saying that they had not made plans as well as Shi Le had. He spoke of himself as though he were just some insignificant person like a eunuch, not pleased with how things had been going, and he even urged Shi Le to proclaim himself Emperor, hoping that he would thereby save himself.

But Shi Le told him, "Sir, you have supported the court ever since you were young; your fame spreads throughout the Four Seas, and you occupy a very important office. How can you speak as though you were some nobody? If you are not the one responsible for wrecking the realm, then who is?" And he ordered his attendants to hustle Wang Yan out.

All the prisoners were afraid they would die, and most of them sought to defend themselves. Only Sima Fan maintained an unperturbed expression and remained dignified. He turned towards the others and scolded them, "Today is how it is; why try to tangle things up?"

Shi Le said to Kong Chang, "In all my travels across the realm, I have never seen a man like him before. Could I spare him?"

Kong Chang replied, "They are princes and nobles of Jin, one and all. They will be no use to you in the end."

Shi Le said, "Though you are right, I will not further turn the sword on them."

So during the night, he had his men push over a wall to kill them.

This Sima Ji was the son of the late Prince Jing ("the Splendid"), Sima Yi's nephew Sima Ling; this Sima Xi was the son of Sima Dan. Sima Dan was posthumously known as Prince Zhuang ("the Martyred") of Wuling, and Sima Xi was posthumously known as Prince Huai ("the Cherished") of Liang.

Shi Le broke open Sima Yue's coffin and burned his body, saying, "Here is the man who has brought turmoil to the realm. In order to avenge the realm, I have burned his bones to inform Heaven and Earth."

〈苦縣,屬陳郡。《水經註》︰寧平城在沙水北,本前漢淮陽國之寧平縣也;後漢改淮陽爲陳國。晉省寧平縣,而故城猶在。賢曰︰寧平故城,在今亳州谷陽縣西南。〉〈西河王喜,宣帝弟西河繆王斌之後。超,齊王冏之子。〉〈勒欲存之,以諸人儀觀之清楚耳。〉

(Ku County was part of Chen commandary.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Ningping was north of the Sha River, where Ningping County in Former Han's princely fief of Huaiyang once was; Later Han changed this Huaiyang fief into Chen. Jin abolished Ningping County, but the name of the city remained the same." Li Xian remarked, "The capital city of Ningping County was in the southwest of Guyang County in modern Bozhou."

This Sima Xi was a descendant of Prince Mou ("the Dignified") of Xihe, Sima Yi's younger brother Sima Bin. This Sima Chao was the son of Sima Jiong.

Shi Le only wanted to spare Sima Fan because his bearing was so distinct compared to the others.)


勒追擊,破之於苦縣。勒分騎圍而射之,相登如山,殺王衍及晉襄陽王範等十餘萬人。越世子毗聞越薨,出自洛陽,從者傾城。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le pursued and attacked Wang Yan's army, routig them at Ku county. He sent out his cavalry to surround the enemy army and shoot arrows at them, and the bodies piled up like a mountain. Shi Le killed more than a hundred thousand people, including Wang Yan, the Prince of Xiangyang, Sima Fan, and others. When Sima Yue's heir Sima Pi heard that he had passed away, he left Luoyang and went towards Qingcheng.


何倫等至洧倉,遇勒,戰敗,東海世子及宗室四十八王皆沒於勒,何倫奔下邳,李惲奔廣宗。裴妃爲人所掠賣,久之,渡江。初,琅邪王睿之鎭建業,裴妃意也,故睿德之,厚加存撫,以其子沖繼越後。

15. He Lun and Sima Yue's other former agents fled as far as Weicang, where they ran into Shi Le. He defeated them, and Sima Pi and forty-eight other princes of the royal family were all lost to Shi Le. He Lun fled to Xiapi, while Li Yun fled to Guangzong.

Sima Yue’s concubine Lady Pei was taken captive by someone and sold as a slave. After some time, she crossed the Yangzi. When Sima Rui had been sent to his post at Jianye before, it had been Lady Pei's idea. So Sima Rui respected her, granting her everything she needed to live on and be comfortable, and he had his own son Sima Chong act as Sima Yue's heir.

〈《水經》︰洧水,東南過潁川長社縣,分一枝東流過許昌縣,又東入汶倉城內。俗以是水爲汶水,故有汶倉之名,蓋洧水之邸閣耳。〉〈《考異》曰︰《東海王越傳》云「三十六王」。今從《帝紀》。〉

(The Water Classic states, "The 洧 Wei River, flowing southeast, passes through Changshe County in Yingchuan, with one branch flowing east through Xuchang County, and then further into the city of Wencang. This part of the river is commonly called the Wen River, and so the place is called Wencang ('warehouse of the Wen'), since it is a chamber for the Wei River."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Yue in the Book of Jin states that ‘thirty-six’ princes were lost in this encounter. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin.")


勒逆毗於洧倉,破之,執毗及晉宗室二十六王并諸卿士,皆殺之。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le intercepted Sima Pi at Weicang and routed him; he captured Sima Pi and twenty-six princes of the Jin royal family, as well as the various nobles and gentry, and killed them all.


漢趙固、王桑攻裴盾,殺之。

16. The Han generals Zhao Gu and Wang Sang attacked Pei Dun and killed him.

〈盾時在彭城。〉

(At this time, Pei Dun was at Pengcheng.)


杜弢攻長沙。五月,荀眺棄城奔廣州,弢追擒之。於是弢南破零、桂,東掠武昌,殺二千石、長吏甚衆。

17. The Jingzhou rebel leader Du Tao attacked Changsha. In the fifth month, Xun Tiao abandoned the city and fled towards Guangzhou, but Du Tao pursued and captured him. Du Tao then marched south and broke into Lingling and Guiyang, before turning east to plunder Wuchang. He killed a great many of the officials of Two Thousand 石 salary rank and the Chief Clerks.

以太子太傅傅祗爲司徒,尚書令荀藩爲司空,加王浚大司馬、侍中、大都督,督幽、冀諸軍事,南陽王模爲太尉、大都督,張軌爲車騎大將軍,琅邪王睿爲鎭東大將軍,兼督揚、江、湘、交、廣五州諸軍事。

18. Jin's Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Fu Zhi, was appointed as Minister Over The Masses, and the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xun Fan, was appointed as Minister of Works. Wang Jun was further promoted as Grand Marshal, Palace Attendant, Grand Commander, and Commander of military affairs in Youzhou and Jizhou. The Prince of Nanyang, Sima Mo, was appointed as Grand Commandant and Grand Commander. Zhang Gui was appointed as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry. Sima Rui was appointed as Grand General Who Guards The East, as well as Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou, Jiangzhou, Xiangzhou, Jiaozhou, and Guangzhou.

五年,帝遣使拜車騎大將軍、開府儀同三司。榮命未至,而劉曜攻陷長安,遷晉帝于平陽。(16 Kingdoms)

In the fifth year (311), Emperor Huai appointed Zhang Gui as General of Chariots and Cavalry, and granted him the authority to establish a Separate Office, with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. But the commendation order had not yet arrived before the Han-Zhao general Liu Yao attacked and captured Chang'an, and Emperor Huai was taken to the Han-Zhao capital at Pingyang.

進車騎將軍、開府辟如、儀同三司。策未至,而王彌遂逼洛陽,軌遣將軍張斐、北宮純、郭敷等率精騎五千來衛京都。及京都陷,斐等皆沒於賊。中州避難來者日月相繼,分武威置武興郡以居之。太府主簿馬魴言於軌曰:「四海傾覆,乘輿未反,明公以全州之力徑造平陽,必當萬里風披,有征無戰。未審何憚不為此舉?」軌曰:「是孤心也。」(Book of Jin 86, Biography of Zhang Gui)

Zhang Gui was then promoted again to General of Chariots and Cavalry and granted the authority to establish a Separate Office, with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. But these notices had not yet arrived in Liangzhou before the rebel leader Wang Mi threatened Luoyang. So Zhang Gui sent his generals Zhang Fei, Beigong Chun, Guo Fu, and others to lead five thousand elite cavalry to guard Luoyang. However, Luoyang fell, and Zhang Fei and the others were lost to the enemy.

People came from the Central Provinces by many roads, every day and every month, seeking refuge in Liangzhou. Zhang Gui split off part of Wuwei commandary and formed Wuxing commandary for these people to live in.

The Registrar to the Greater Staff (of Zhang Gui's status as Commander), Ma Fang, said to Zhang Gui, "All within the Four Seas has been overthrown, and the imperial carriage has not returned. Your Excellency, you should use the full strength of your province to make straight for the Han capital of Pingyang. You shall be like a billowing wind of ten thousand li, and you can campaign without even fighting a battle. What else is there to consider that should make you fear that you cannot achieve this?"

Zhang Gui replied, "You are after my own heart."


初,太傅越以南陽王模不能綏撫關中,表徵爲司空。將軍淳于定說模使不就徵,模從之;表遣世子保爲平西中郎將,鎭上邽,秦州刺史裴苞拒之。模使帳下都尉陳安攻苞,苞奔安定,太守賈疋納之。

19. Sometime earlier, Sima Yue had felt that Sima Mo was not able to bring peace and stability to Guanzhong, so he had petitioned to have Sima Mo recalled to Luoyang to serve as Minister of Works. The general Chunyu Ding had advised Sima Mo not to accept the summons, and Sima Mo had followed his advice.

Sima Mo had also petitioned to send his eldest son by his wife, Sima Bao, to serve as General of the Household Gentlemen of the West, stationed at Shanggui. But the Inspector of Qinzhou, Pei Bao, had opposed him. Sima Mo had sent his Commander of the Personal Retainers, Chen An, to attack Pei Bao. Pei Bao had fled to Anding, where the local Administrator, Jia Ya, sheltered him.

〈時關中饑荒疾癘,盜賊公行,模不能制。〉〈疋,音雅。〉

(At this time, Guanzhong was suffering from hunger, want, pestilence, and plague, and bandits and robbers roamed in the open. Sima Mo was unable to control the situation.

Jia Ya's given name 疋 is pronounced "ya".)


苟晞表請遷都倉垣,使從事中郎劉會將船數十艘、宿衞五百人、穀千斛迎帝。帝將從之,公卿猶豫,左右戀資財,遂不果行。旣而洛陽饑困,人相食,百官流亡者什八九。帝召公卿議,將行而衞從不備。帝撫手歎曰︰「如何曾無車輿!」乃使傅祗出詣河陰,治舟楫,朝士數十人導從。帝步出西掖門,至銅駝街,爲盜所掠,不得進而還。度支校尉東郡魏浚率流民數百家保河陰之峽石,時劫掠得穀麥,獻之,帝以爲揚威將軍、平陽太守,度支如故。

20. Gou Xi sent up a petition asking to move the capital to Cangyuan. He sent the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Liu Hui, to bring several dozen boats, five hundred household guards, and a thousand 斛 of grain to welcome Emperor Huai. Emperor Huai was about to go to him, but the chief ministers were still complacent in Luoyang and Emperor Huai's attendants did not want to leave all their goods and wealth behind, so Emperor Huai did not go as expected.

But the famine and suffering in Luoyang was now so bad that people were eating one another, and eight or nine of every ten of the government officials fled the city. Emperor Huai called his chief ministers to a council, once again preparing to leave, but his guards and followers were not prepared. Emperor Huai wrung his hands together and lamented, "How is it that no cart or carriage has been made ready?" So he sent Fu Zhi out to visit Heyin in order to obtain boats and oars, and several dozen court officials went out with him.

Emperor Huai went out by foot through the western Ye gate, but when he came to the Copper Camels Street, he was accosted by thieves and could go no further, so he returned to the palace.

The Colonel of Logistical Affairs, Wei Jun of Dong commandary, had earlier led several hundred families of refugees to defend themselves at Xiashi in Heyin. At this time, he raided the area to obtain grain and wheat and sent it to Luoyang as tribute. Emperor Huai appointed Wei Jun as General Who Displays Might and Administrator of Pingyang, while keeping his original logistical authority.

〈河陰,本漢平陰縣,魏文帝改曰河陰,在洛陽東北,屬河南郡。〉〈《水經註》︰洛陽城中太尉、司徒兩坊間,謂之銅駝街,魏明帝置銅駝於閶闔南街,卽此。陸機《洛陽記》曰︰洛陽有銅駝街,漢鑄銅駝二枚,在宮南四會道相對。俗語曰︰「金馬門外集衆賢,銅駝陌上集少年。」〉〈藉使帝得至倉垣,亦遭石勒禽矣。〉〈《水經註》︰河南新安縣東有千秋亭,亭東有雍谷溪,回岫縈紆,石路阻峽,故亦有峽石之稱。〉

(Heyin County was originally Pingyin County during Han. Emperor Wen of Cao-Wei (Cao Pi) changed its name to Heyin. It was northeast of Luoyang, as part of Henan commandary.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Within Luoyang, the lane between the two offices of the Grand Commandant and the Minister Over The Masses is called the Copper Camels Street. Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) had placed the Copper Camel statues on the street south of the palace complex, and so the street gained this name." Lu Ji's Records of Luoyang states, "There is a Copper Camels Street in Luoyang. During Han, two Copper Camels were cast and placed at a four-way intersection south of the palace complex. It is commonly said, 'Many worthies gather outside the Golden Horse Gate, and many youths gather on the Copper Camels Road.'"

Even if Emperor Huai had indeed made it to Cangyuan, he would have just run into Shi Le there.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "In the eastern part of Xinan County in Henan commandary, there is a Qianqiu Point. East of the Point is the Yonggu Creek, which meanders all around and through the mountains there. The stone road there passes through a narrow gorge, and so it is also called Xiashi ('gorge of stone').")


漢主聰使前軍大將軍呼延晏將兵二萬七千寇洛陽,比及河南,晉兵前後十二敗,死者三萬餘人。始安王曜、王彌、石勒皆引兵會之,未至,晏留輜重於張方故壘,癸未,先至洛陽,甲申,攻平昌門,丙戌,克之,遂焚東陽門及諸府寺。六月,丁亥朔,晏以外繼不至,俘掠而去。帝具舟於洛水,將東走,晏盡焚之。庚寅,荀藩及弟光祿大夫組奔轘轅。辛卯,王彌至宣陽門;壬辰,始安王曜至西明門;丁酉,王彌、呼延晏克宣陽門,入南宮,升太極前殿,縱兵大掠,悉收宮人、珍寶。帝出華林園門,欲奔長安,漢兵追執之,幽於端門。曜自西明門入屯武庫。戊戌,曜殺太子詮、吳孝王晏、竟陵王楙、右僕射曹馥、尚書閭丘沖、河南尹劉默等,士民死者三萬餘人。遂發掘諸陵,焚宮廟、官府皆盡。曜納惠帝羊皇后,遷帝及六璽於平陽。石勒引兵出轘轅,屯許昌。光祿大夫劉蕃、尚書盧志奔幷州。

21. Liu Cong sent his Grand General of the Forward Army, Huyan Yan, to lead twenty-seven thousand soldiers to attack Luoyang. By the time this Han army reached Henan, the Jin soldiers had been defeated twelve times, with more than thirty thousand dead. Liu Yao, Wang Mi, and Shi Le all brought their soldiers to join forces with Huyan Yan, but since they had not arrived, Huyan Yan deposited his supply carts at the ramparts near Luoyang that Zhang Fang had built years before.

On the day Guiwei (June 29th), Huyan Yan first arrived at Luoyang itself. On the day Jiashen (June 30th), he attacked the Pingchang Gate, and on the day Bingxu (July 2nd), he took the gate, then set fire to the Dongyang Gate and the various government ministries. In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Dinghai (July 3rd), since Huyan Yan's reinforcements had not arrived yet, he took his plunder and captives and fell back. Emperor Huai had boats prepared on the Luo River, planning to use them to flee to the east, but Huyan Yan burned them all.

On the day Gengyin (July 6th), Xun Fan and the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, his younger brother Xun Zu, fled to Huanyuan Pass.

On the day Xinmao (July 7th), Wang Mi arrived at the Xuanyang Gate, and on the day Renchen (July 8th), Liu Yao arrived at the Ximing Gate.

On the day Dingyin (July 13th), Wang Mi and Huyan Yan captured the Xuanyang Gate. They entered the Southern Palace, ascending the steps of the Front Hall of the Taiji Palace. Their soldiers sacked the palace, looting all the treasures and taking all the palace servants captive. Emperor Huai fled through the Hualin Garden gates, wishing to escape to Chang'an, but the Han soldiers pursued and captured him and confined him at the Duan Gate.

Liu Yao entered through the Ximing Gate and camped at the Arsenal. On the day Wuxu (July 14th), Liu Yao killed the Crown Prince, Sima Quan, the Prince of Wu, Sima Yann, Sima Mao, the Supervisor of the Left, Cao Fu, the Master of Writing, Lüqiu Chong, the Intendant of Henan, Liu Mo, and others; more than thirty thousand people were killed. Liu Yao also dug up the various imperial tombs and burned down the palaces, ancestral temples, and government ministries. He claimed Emperor Hui's former empress, Yang Xianrong, and he sent Emperor Huai and his six seals off to Pingyang. Sima Yann was posthumously known as Prince Xiao (“the Filial”) of Wu.

Shi Le led his troops back out through Huanyuan Pass and camped at Xuchang.

The Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Liu Fan, and the Master of Writing, Lu Zhi, fled to Bingzhou.

〈河南縣,屬河南尹,周東都王城郟鄏也。〉〈張方故壘在洛陽西七里。〉〈平昌門,洛城南面東頭第一門。〉〈宣陽門,洛城南面東來第四門,亦謂之謻門。〉〈從劉琨也。蕃,琨之父也。〉

(Henan County was under the authority of the Intendant of Henan. It was where the Zhou dynasty's eastern capital Jiaru was.

Zhang Fang had previously built these ramparts seven li west of Luoyang, as seen in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (303.24).

The Pingchang Gate was the first gate on the eastern corner of Luoyang's southern wall.

The Xuanyang Gate was the fourth gate on the eastern side of Luoyang's southern wall. It was also called the Yi Gate.

Liu Fan and Lu Zhi fled to join Liu Kun; Liu Fan was Liu Kun's father.)


洛陽沒,志將妻子北投并州刺史劉琨。(Book of Jin 44, Biography of Lu Zhi)

When Luoyang fell to the Xiongnu armies of Han-Zhao (in 311), Lu Zhi led his wife and sons north to seek refuge with the Inspector of Bingzhou, Liu Kun.

曜、彌等遂陷宮城,至太極前殿,縱兵大掠。幽帝於端門,逼辱羊皇后,殺皇太子詮,發掘陵墓,焚燒宮廟,城府蕩盡,百官及男女遇害者三萬餘人,遂遷帝於平陽。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Liu Yao, Wang Mi, and the others broke through the palace walls, and when they reached the Front Hall of the Taiji Palace, they set their soldiers loose to sack it. They imprisoned Emperor Huai at the Duan Gate, threatened and disgraced Empress Yang, and killed the Crown Prince, Sima Quan. They dug up the old tombs and graves and burned down the palaces and temples. The governmental offices were entirely destroyed. More than thirty thousand people among the government officials and the nobles were killed. Then they moved Emperor Huai to Pingyang.

聰以衛尉呼延晏為使持節、前鋒大都督,配禁兵二萬七千,自宜陽入洛川。命東萊王彌,劉曜及鎮軍石勒進軍會之。晏比及河南,十二敗晉帥,長驅圍洛陽,陷之。縱兵大掠,幽晉帝于端門,害太子及百官已下三萬餘人于洛水北,築為京觀。遷帝及太后侍中庾瑉等于平陽。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Cong)

Liu Cong appointed his Commandant of the Guards, Huyan Yan, as Commissioner Bearing Credentials and Grand Commander of the Vanguard. He assigned him twenty-seven thousand of the imperial guards and sent him from Yiyang to enter the Luoyang region. He also ordered Wang Mi of Donglai, Liu Yao, and the General Who Guards The Army, Shi Le, to advance their own armies to join with Huyan Yan.

By the time Huyan Yan reached Henan, he had defeated the Jin armies twelve times. They rushed forward to besiege Luoyang, and took it. They set loose their soldiers to sack the city. They imprisoned Emperor Huai at the Ye Gates, and they killed more than thirty thousand people north of the Luo River, including the Crown Prince and the Jin ministers and subordinates. They built a viewing stand at the capital. They moved Emperor Huai, the Empress Dowager, the Palace Attendant, Yu Min, and others to Pingyang.

聰遣王彌、劉曜攻陷洛陽,執晉懷帝。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

Liu Cong sent Wang Mi and Liu Yao to attack and capture Luoyang. They took Emperor Huai prisoner.

勒與王彌、劉曜攻陷洛陽,歸功彌曜。遂出轘轅。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le assaulted and captured Luoyang, together with Wang Mi and Liu Yao. Shi Le gave the credit to Liu Yao, and he went back out through Huanyuan Pass.


丁未,漢主聰大赦,改元嘉平。以帝爲特進左光祿大夫,封平阿公,以侍中庾珉、王儁爲光祿大夫。珉,敳之兄也。

22. On the day Dingwei (July 23rd), Liu Cong declared a general amnesty, and changed his reign era title to the first year of Jiaping. He appointed Emperor Huai as Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Left and as Specially Advanced, changing his noble title to Duke of Ping'a. Liu Cong also appointed the Palace Attendants, Yu Min and Wang Junn, as Household Counselors With Golden Tassel. This Yu Min was the elder brother of Yu Ai.

〈《考異》曰︰《帝紀》︰「聰以帝爲會稽公」。《載記》、《三十國春秋》云「平阿公」。《晉春秋》云「平河公」。「河」字蓋誤。《十六國》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》︰「明年二月,乃封帝會稽公。」蓋先封平陽,後進會稽。《帝紀》闕略,今從諸書。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'Liu Cong appointed Emperor Huai as Duke of Kuaiji.' The Biography of Liu Cong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin and the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms both state he became 'Duke of Ping'a'. The Annals of Jin states that he became 'Duke of Pinghe'. But the character 阿 A must have been miswritten as 河 He. The Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all state, 'In the second month of the following year, Emperor Huai was further appointed as Duke of Kuaiji.' So he must have first have been appointed as Duke of Pingyang (Ping'a?), and then as Duke of Kuaiji afterwards. The Annals of Emperor Huai has thus compressed the timeline of what happened, so I follow the accounts of the other texts.")


聰大赦,改元嘉平元年。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 1, Biography of Liu Cong)

Liu Cong declared a general amnesty, and changed his reign era title to the first year of Jiaping.

聰改年為嘉平。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Liu Cong)

Liu Cong changed the reign era title to the first year of Jiaping.


初,始安王曜以王彌不待己至,先入洛陽,怨之。彌說曜曰︰「洛陽天下之中,山河四塞,城池、宮室不假修營,宜白主上自平陽徙都之。」曜以天下未定,洛陽四面受敵,不可守,不用彌策而焚之。彌罵曰︰「屠各子,豈有帝王之意邪!」遂與曜有隙,引兵東屯項關。前司隸校尉劉暾說彌曰︰「今九州糜沸,羣雄競逐,將軍於漢建不世之功,又與始安王相失,將何以自容!不如東據本州,徐觀天下之勢,上可以混壹四海,下不失鼎峙之業,策之上者也。」彌心然之。

23. Now Liu Yao resented that Wang Mi had not waited for him to arrive at Luoyang, but had gone on ahead and entered the city before him. Wang Mi had advised Liu Yao, "Luoyang is in the center of the realm. It is enveloped by mountains and rivers, and considering the walls, moats, and palaces, there would be no need to prepare camps. You ought to advise our sovereign to move the capital from Pingyang to here."

But Liu Yao had felt that since the realm was not yet settled, and since Luoyang would be faced by enemies on every side, that the city could not be held. So he had ignored Wang Mi's advice and burned the city. Wang Mi had scolded him, "You Zhuge brat, is this how a king or an emperor acts?" So this division had sprung up between the two of them, and Wang Mi led his soldiers east to camp at Xiang Pass.

Jin's former Colonel-Director of Retainers, Liu Tun, advised Wang Mi, "The Nine Provinces are boiling over, and many heroes are fighting for power. General, you have made unparalleled achievements in establishing Han, and now you have this quarrel with the Prince of Shi'an (Liu Yao); how will he ever put up with you? It would be better for you to go back east to your native province (Qingzhou), and wait and see how things play out in the realm. If all goes well, you will be able to unite all within the Four Seas, and even if not, you can still maintain your third of the land. This would be the best strategy to use."

Wang Mi deeply agreed with him.

〈《晉書》曰︰北狄以部落爲類,其入居塞內者,有屠各等十九種,皆有部落,不相雜錯。屠各最豪貴,故得爲單于,統理諸種。屠,直於翻。杜佑曰︰頭曼、冒頓,卽屠各種也。〉〈陳郡項縣有項關。〉〈彌,青州東萊人。〉

(The Accounts of the Northern Di Tribes in the Book of Jin states, "There are many kinds of tribes and divisions among the Northern Di. Among those that came to dwell within the borders of the realm, there are nineteen different tribes, including the 屠各 Zhuge. They all keep their own divisions, not intermixing with one another. The Zhuge are the most honored and exalted of them, and so they became Chanyus and gained dominance and leadership over the rest." 屠 is pronounced "zhu (zh-u)". Du You remarked, "Touman and Modu Chanyu were of the Zhuge tribe."

There was a Xiang Pass in Xiang County in Chen commandary.

Wang Mi was a native of Donglai commandary in Qingzhou.)


彌之掠也,曜禁之,彌不從。曜斬其牙門王延以徇,彌怒,與曜阻兵相攻,死者千餘人。彌長史張嵩諫曰:「明公與國家共興大事,事業甫耳,便相攻討,何面見主上乎!平洛之功誠在將軍,然劉曜皇族,宜小下之。晉二王平吳之鑒,其則不遠,願明將軍以為慮。縱將軍阻兵不還,其若子弟宗族何!」彌曰:「善,微子,吾不聞此過也。」於是詣曜謝,結分如初。彌曰:「下官聞過,乃是張長史之功。」曜謂嵩曰:「君為硃建矣,豈況範生乎!」各賜嵩金百斤。彌謂曜曰:「洛陽天下之中,山河四險之固,城池宮室無假營造,可徙平陽都之。」曜不從,焚燒而去。彌怒曰:「屠各子,豈有帝王之意乎!汝柰天下何!」遂引眾東屯項關。初,曜以彌先入洛,不待己,怨之,至是嫌隙遂構。劉暾說彌還據青州,彌然之。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

When Wang Mi wanted to pillage, Liu Yao forbade it, but Wang Mi did not listen. So Liu Yao beheaded Wang Mi's General of the Serrated Gate, Wang Yan, as punishment. This angered Wang Mi, and he had his soldiers block Liu Yao's; they fought each other, and more than a thousand people died.

Then Wang Mi's Chief Clerk, Zhang Song, remonstrated with him, saying, "General, you are supposed to be working together with the royal family of our state to achieve the grand design. We have only just accomplished this great feat, yet now you are fighting with one another. How will you be able to show your face to our sovereign? Although taking Luoyang was indeed primarily your achievement, Liu Yao is part of the royal clan, so you should yield a little to him. Remember what happened during the dispute between the two Jin generals (Wang Jun and Wang Hun) when they argued over who deserved merit for the conquest of Wu. That incident was not so long ago. I implore you, General, to consider that. If you continue to obstruct Liu Yao, what will become of your younger relatives and your clan?"

Wang Mi replied, "You are right. If not for you, I would not have realized my fault." So he went to visit Liu Yao and apologize, and they patched up their relationship to be like before.

Wang Mi said, "It was all thanks to Chief Clerk Zhang that I realized that I was at fault."

Liu Yao said to Zhang Song, "Sir, you are another Zhu Jian; how could you be a mere common sort?" And both of them rewarded Zhang Song with a hundred catties of gold.

Wang Mi advised Liu Yao, "Luoyang is in the center of the realm. It is enveloped by mountains and rivers, and considering the walls, moats, and palaces, there would be no need to prepare camps. You ought to advise our sovereign to move the capital from Pingyang to here."

But Liu Yao did not listen, and he burned the city before leaving. Wang Mi angrily said, "You Zhuge brat, is this how a king or an emperor acts?" Wang Mi led his soldiers east to camp at Xiang Pass.

Earlier, Liu Yao had entered Luoyang before Wang Mi instead of waiting for him, and this angered Wang Mi. So this suspicion and division had sprung up between the two of them.

Liu Tun persuaded Wang Mi to return and occupy Qingzhou. Wang Mi agreed with him.


司徒傅祗建行臺於河陰,司空荀藩在陽城,河南尹華薈在成皋,汝陰太守平陽李矩爲之立屋,輸穀以給之。薈,歆之曾孫也。

24. With Luoyang have fallen, Fu Zhi established an Acting Terrace ministry at Heyin.

Xun Fan was at Yangcheng, while the Intendant of Henan, Hua Hui, was at Chenggao. The Administrator of Ruyin, Li Ju of Pingyang, established residences for them and provided them with grain. This Hua Hui was the great-grandson of Hua Xin.

〈陽城縣,漢屬潁川郡,晉屬河南郡。〉〈汝陰縣,漢屬汝南郡,魏分置汝陰郡,後廢,武帝泰始二年復爲郡。〉

(During Han, Yangcheng county was part of Yingchuan commandary. During Jin, it was part of Henan commandary.

During Han, Ruyin county was part of Runan commandary. Cao-Wei had split it off as Ruyin commandary, but later abolished it. Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) had restored it to commandary status in the second year of Taishi (266).)


李矩,字世回,平陽人也。童齔時,與群兒聚戲,便為其率,計畫指授,有成人之量。及長,為吏,送故縣令于長安,征西將軍梁王肜以為牙門。伐氐齊萬年有殊功,封東明亭侯。還為本郡督護。太守宋胄欲以所親吳畿代之,矩謝病去。畿恐矩復還,陰使人刺矩,會有人救之,故得免。屬劉元海攻平陽,百姓奔走,矩素為鄉人所愛,乃推為塢主,東屯滎陽,後移新鄭。矩勇毅多權略,志在立功,東海王越以為汝陰太守。永嘉初,使矩與汝南太守袁孚率眾修洛陽千金堨,以利運漕。及洛陽不守,太尉荀籓奔陽城,衛將軍華薈奔成皋。時大饑,賊帥侯都等每略人而食之,籓、薈部曲多為所啖。矩討都等滅之,乃營護籓、薈,各為立屋宇,輸穀以給之。(Book of Jin 63, Biography of Li Ju)

Li Ju, styled Shihui, was a native of Pingyang. Even as a mere boy, when he played with other children, he always acted as their leader, devising plans and directing the others just like an adult.

After he grew up, he became a local official. When he escorted the Prefect of his native county to Chang'an, the General Who Conquers The West and Prince of Liang, Sima Rong, appointed him as a General of the Serrated Gates. Li Ju gained special achievements during the campaign against the Di rebel leader Qiwannian, for which he was appointed as Marquis of Dongming Village. He returned to Pingyang, where he was appointed as Protector of that commandary.

At one point, the Administrator of Pingyang, Song Zhou, wanted to have his kinsman Wu Ji replace Li Ju, so Li Ju pleaded illness and left. Wu Ji was worried that Li Ju might return to reclaim his position, so he secretly sent someone to kill Li Ju, but someone happened to save Li Ju and he escaped with his life.

Later on, when Liu Yuan of Han-Zhao attacked Pingyang and the common people all fled, Li Ju was acclaimed as the leader of a local fortress, because he had long held the love of the people of his district. He moved east to camp at Xingyang, and later moved again to Xinzheng.

Li Ju was brave and stalwart, and he developed many plans and strategies. His ambition was to make a name for himself through achievements. The Prince of Donghai, Sima Yue, appointed him as Inspector of Ruyin.

At the beginning of the Yongjia era (~307), Sima Yue sent Li Ju and the Inspector of Runan, Yuan Fu, to lead their forces to restore the Qianjin Dam at Luoyang, in order to improve supply routes. After Luoyang fell, the Grand Commandant, Xun Fan, fled to Yangcheng, while the Guard General, Hua Hui, fled to Chenggao. At that time, there was widespread hunger, and local bandit leaders, Hou Dou and others, were raiding people in order to eat their flesh. Many of Xun Fan's and Hua Hui's followers suffered this fate. But Li Ju vanquished Hou Dou and the other bandits, then established camps to protect Xun Fan and Hua Hui; he built houses for each of them, and provided them with constant shipments of grain.


藩與弟組、族子中護軍崧,薈與弟中領軍恆建行臺於密,傳檄四方,推琅邪王睿爲盟主。藩承制以崧爲襄城太守,矩爲滎陽太守,前冠軍將軍河南褚翜爲梁國內史。揚威將軍魏浚屯洛北石梁塢,劉琨承制假浚河南尹。浚詣荀藩諮謀軍事,藩邀李矩同會,矩夜赴之。矩官屬皆曰︰「浚不可信,不宜夜往。」矩曰︰「忠臣同心,何所疑乎!」遂往,相與結歡而去。浚族子該,聚衆據一泉塢,藩以爲武威將軍。

25. Xun Fan, Xun Zu, the Army Protector of the Center, their junior kinsman Xun Song, Hua Hui, and the Army Director of the Center, his younger brother Hua Heng, established their own Acting Terrace ministry at Mi. They sent out proclamations to every corner, acclaiming Sima Rui as the leader of their alliance. Xun Fan, claiming authority, appointed Xun Song as Administrator of Xiangcheng, Liu Ji as Administrator of Xingyang, and the former Champion General, Chu Sha of Henan, as Interior Minister of the Liang princely fief.

Wei Jun camped at the Shiliang Fortress north of Luoyang, and Liu Kun, claiming his own authority, appointed Wei Jun as the new Intendant of Henan.

Wei Jun went to visit Xun Fan to discuss army affairs; Xun Fan invited Li Ju to attend as well, and Li Ju arrived during the night. Li Ju's officials and subordinates all told him, "You cannot trust Wei Jun; do not travel at night." But Li Ju replied, "Loyal ministers all have the same heart. What is there to be suspicious of?" When he arrived, they all formed a close friendship before departing.

Wei Jun's junior kinsman Wei Gai had assembled a host and occupied the Yicheng Fortress, and Xun Fan appointed him as General of Martial Might.

〈密縣,漢屬河南郡,晉屬滎陽郡。〉〈翜,山立翻,又所甲翻。〉〈《水經註》︰洛水過盧丘縣南,又東逕一合塢南。城在川北原上,高二十丈,南北東三箱,天險峭絕,惟築西面,卽爲全固,一合之名,起於是矣。劉曜之攻河南也,晉將軍魏該奔於此。《該傳》曰,一泉塢在宜陽。〉〈沈約《志》,魏置將軍四十號,威武第十,無武威。〉

(During Han, Mi County was part of Henan commandary. During Jin, it was part of Xingyang commandary.

Chu Sha's given name 翜 is pronounced "shi (sh-i)" or "sia (s-ia)".

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Luo River passes through the south of Luqiu County, and on east passing south of the Yihe Fortress. The fort is on the plains north of the river; its walls are twenty zhang in height. It has strong natural defenses on its north, south, and east sides, and there is only a wall built on its west side. This one wall gives it a complete defense, thus the name Yihe ('one completes)'. When Liu Yao attacked Henan, Jin's general Wei Gai fled to this place." According to the Biography of Wei Gai in the Book of Jin, the Yicheng Fortress was in Yiyang.

According to Shen Yue's Annotations, Cao-Wei created forty General titles. The tenth of these was General of 威武 Mighty Valor, but there was no General of 武威 Martial Might.)


及籓承制,建行台,假矩滎陽太守。矩招懷離散,遠近多附之。(Book of Jin 63, Biography of Li Ju)

After Xun Fan begin to claim authority and he established a Provisional Administration, he provisionally appointed Li Ju as Administrator of Xingyang. Li Ju gathered together people who had scattered and cared for them, so many people came from near and far to join him.


豫章王端,太子詮之弟也,東奔倉垣,苟晞率羣官奉以爲皇太子,置行臺。端承制以晞領太子太傅、都督中外諸軍、錄尚書事,自倉垣徙屯蒙城。

26. The Prince of Yuzhang, Sima Duan, was the younger brother of the late Crown Prince Sima Quan. Sima Duan fled east to Cangyuan, where Gou Xi led the ministers to acclaim him as the new Crown Prince, and they established still another Acting Terrace ministry. Sima Duan claimed his own authority and appointed Gou Xi as Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince and Commander over all military affairs, as well as giving him authority over the Masters of Writing. He moved his camp from Cangyuan to Mengcheng.

〈蒙縣,屬梁國。〉

(Meng County was part of the Liang princely fief.)


撫軍將軍秦王業,吳孝王之子,荀藩之甥也,年十二,南奔密,藩等奉之,南趣許昌。前豫州刺史天水閻鼎,聚西州流民數千人於密,欲還鄕里。荀藩以鼎有才而擁衆,用鼎爲豫州刺史,以中書令李絚、司徒左長史彭城劉疇、鎭軍長史周顗、司馬李述等爲之參佐。顗,浚之子也。

27. The General Who Nurtures The Army and Prince of Qin, Sima Ye, was the son of the late Sima Yann, as well as the nephew of Xun Fan. At this time, he was eleven years old. He fled south to Mi, where Xun Fan and the others welcomed him, and they continued south to meet at Xuchang.

The former Inspector of Yuzhou, Yan Ding of Tianshui commandary, had assembled several thousand refugees from the western provinces at Mi, wanting to led them all back their native lands. Since Xun Fan considered that Yan Ding was both talented and possessed such a host, he appointed Yan Ding as Inspector of Yuzhou. To assist Yan Ding, Xun Fan also appointed the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Li Geng, the Chief Clerk of the Left to the Minister Over The Masses, Liu Chou of Pengcheng commendary, the Chief Clerk to the General Who Guards The Army, Zhou Yi, the Marshal Li Shu, and others as his assistants. This Zhou Yi was the son of Zhou Jun.

〈《考異》曰︰《晉書》,愍帝諱鄴,又改建鄴爲建康。按《三十國》、《晉春秋》,愍帝,名子業,或作「鄴」。又《吳志》,孫權改秣陵爲建業,取興建基業爲名,皆不爲「鄴」字。今從之。〉〈《考異》曰︰《閻鼎傳》作「李恆。」今從《王浚傳》。〉〈東海王越子毗,爲鎭軍將軍,以顗爲長史。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "According to the Book of Jin, because Sima Ye's given name was 鄴 Ye, after he became Emperor Min and his given name became taboo, the name of the city Jianye, supposedly written 建鄴, was changed to Jiankang. According to the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin, Emperor Min's given name was 業 Ye, although it is sometimes written as 鄴. Now according to the Records of Eastern Wu, Sun Quan had changed the name of Moling to 建業 Jianye in order to signify that he was raising and 建 establishing a base for his 業 endeavor, and it does not list the second character as 鄴. I follow its account.

"Regarding Li 絚 Geng, the Biography of Yan Ding in the Book of Jin records his name as Li 絚 Heng. But I follow the account of the Biography of Wang Jun in the Book of Jin."

Sima Yue's son Sima Pi had been General Who Guards The Army, so Zhou Yi had been his Chief Clerk.)


時海內大亂,獨江東差安,中國士民避亂者多南渡江。鎭東司馬王導說琅邪王睿,收其賢俊,與之共事。睿從之,辟掾屬百餘人,時人謂之百六掾。以前潁川太守勃海刁協爲軍諮祭酒,前東海太守王承、廣陵相卞壼爲從事中郎,江寧令諸葛恢、歷陽參軍陳國陳頵爲行參軍,前太傅掾庾亮爲西曹掾。承,渾之弟子;恢,靚之子;亮,兗之弟子也。

28. At this time, everywhere within the Four Seas was engulfed in complete chaos. Only the Southland still had some measure of stability. Therefore, many people from the Middle Kingdom went south across the Yangzi. Wang Dao advised Sima Rui to gather up the worthy and able among these refugees and plan matters together with them. Sima Rui followed his advice, and he recruited more than a hundred such people as officials; the people of that time called them the 106 Officials.

Sima Rui appointed the former Administrator of Yingchuan, Diao Xie of Bohai commandary, as Army Libationer-Consultant. He appointed the former Administrator of Donghai, Wang Cheng, and the Chancellor of Guangling, Bian Kun, as Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen. He appointed the Prefect of Jiangling, Zhuge Hui, and the Army Advisor of Liyang, Chen Yun of the Chen princely fief, as acting Army Advisors. He appointed the former Assistant to the Grand Tutor, Yu Liang, as Official Managing The West. This Wang Cheng was the younger brother of Wang Hun; this Zhuge Hui was the son of Zhuge Jing; this Yu Liang was the nephew of Yu Yan (or, Yu Gun).

〈自漢以來,公府有掾,有屬。《職官分紀》曰︰掾屬常敦明信義,肅清風俗,非禮不言,非法不行,以訓羣吏。〉〈壼,苦本翻。吳孫權改秣陵爲建業,晉平吳,復曰秣陵。武帝太康二年,分秣陵立江寧縣。〉〈頵,居筠翻。〉〈【章︰甲十一行本「兗」作「袞」;乙十一行本同;張校同。】〉

(Ever since Han, the staffs of the nobles had had Officials and Subordinates. The Records on the Varying Offices and Ministries states, "The Officials and Subordinates were often honest and wise, trusting and righteous, and they sought to rectify traditions. They would not speak unceremonious words, and they would not carry out unlawful actions, by way of admonishing the other officials."

Bian Kun's given name 壼 is pronounced "ken (k-en)".

Sun Quan of Eastern Wu had renamed Moling to Jianye. After Jin conquered Eastern Wu, they restored the name to Moling. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taikang (281), he split off part of Moling to form Jiangning County.

Chen Yun's given name 頵 is pronounced "jun (j-un)".

Some versions write Yu 兗 Yan's given name as Yu 袞 Gun.)


江州刺史華軼,歆之曾孫也,自以受朝廷之命而爲琅邪王睿所督,多不受其教令。郡縣多諫之,軼曰︰「吾欲見詔書耳。」及睿承荀藩檄,承制署置官司,改易長吏,軼與豫州刺史裴憲皆不從命。睿遣揚州刺史王敦、歷陽內史甘卓與揚烈將軍廬江周訪合兵擊軼。軼兵敗,奔安成,訪追斬之,及其五子。裴憲奔幽州。睿以甘卓爲湘州刺史,周訪爲尋陽太守,又以揚武將軍陶侃爲武昌太守。

29. The Inspector of Jiangzhou, Hua Yi, was the great-grandnephew of Hua Xin. He accepted commands that were sent by the court in Luoyang, but after he came under Sima Rui's authority, most of the time he would not accept his orders or instructions. The commandaries and counties often admonished him for this, but he would say, "I just want to see the imperial edict letter."

After Sima Rui received Xun Fan's proclamation stating that he would now be creating offices and appointing and swapping around Chief Clerks and other officials, Hua Yi and the Inspector of Yuzhou, Pei Xian, refused to obey Sima Rui's commands any longer. So Sima Rui sent Wang Dun, the Interior Minister of Liyang, Gan Zhuo, and the General Who Displays Ferocity, Zhou Fang of Lujiang commandary, to attack Hua Yi together. Hua Yi's soldiers were defeated, and he fled to Ancheng. Zhou Fang pursued and executed Hua Yi, along with his five sons. Pei Xian fled to Youzhou.

Sima Rui appointed Gan Zhuo as Inspector of Xiangzhou and Zhou Fang as Administrator of Shunyang; he also appointed the General Who Displays Valor, Tao Kan, as Administrator of Wuchang.

〈軼,永嘉中除江州。〉〈吳孫晧寶鼎二年,分豫章、廬陵、長沙立安成郡。宋白曰︰吉州安福縣,本漢安成縣,今縣西六十里有安成故城。〉〈吳孫權改鄂曰武昌;晉武帝太康元年,復立鄂縣,而武昌如故;改吳之江夏曰武昌郡。漢尋陽縣,屬廬江郡,其地在江北。惠帝永興元年,分廬江武昌立尋陽郡,治豫章之柴桑,尋陽遂在江南。〉

(Hua Yi had been sent to Jiangzhou during the middle of the Yongjia era (~309-310).

In Sun Hao of Eastern Wu's second year of Baoding (267), he had split off parts of the commandaries of Yuzhang, Luling, and Changsha to form Ancheng commandary. Song Bai remarked, "Anfu County in Jizhou was Han's Ancheng County. The capital city of Ancheng was sixty li west of where the modern county is."

Sun Quan of Eastern Wu had renamed the city of E to Wuchang. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280), he had restored the name of the county to E County, but the city remained Wuchang. Eastern Wu's commandary of Jiangxia was also changed to Wuchang commandary.

During Han, Shunyang County was part of Lujiang commandary; it was located north of the Yangzi. In Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (305), he had split off parts of Lujiang and Wuchang to form Shunyang commandary. It was administered from Chaisang in what had been Yuzhang, so Shunyang commandary was south of the Yangzi.)


秋,七月,王浚設壇告類,立皇太子,布告天下,稱受中詔承制封拜,備置百官,列署征、鎭,以荀藩爲太尉,琅邪王睿爲大將軍。浚自領尚書令,以裴憲及其壻棗嵩爲尚書,以田徽爲兗州刺史,李惲爲青州刺史。

30. In autumn, the seventh month, Wang Jun set up an altar to offer sacrifices and inform the spirits, and he established someone as a new Crown Prince. He sent word throughout the realm, claiming authority by right of imperial edicts to grant appointments. He prepared to establish the imperial offices and make special appointments of Generals Who Conquer and Who Guard. He appointed Xun Fan as Grand Commandant and Sima Rui as Grand General. Wang Jun appointed himself as acting Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he appointed Pei Xian and his son-in-law Zao Song as Masters of Writing. He appointed Tian Hui as Inspector of Yanzhou and Li Yun as Inspector of Qingzhou.

〈告類,祭也,以事類告天及五帝也。〉〈《考異》曰︰《晉書》初無其名,劉琨《與丞相牋》曰︰「浚設壇場,有所建立,稱皇太子,」不知爲誰。〉

(To 告類 inform the spirits meant to make sacrifices, and thus inform Heaven and the Five Emperors of the events of the day.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding this person whom Wang Jun set up as Crown Prince, the Biography of Wang Jun in the Book of Jin makes no mention of him. Liu Kun's Response to the Prime Minister (Sima Rui) does state, 'Wang Jun has set up an altar, in order to name someone as Crown Prince.' But I do not know who it was.")


南陽王模使牙門趙染戍蒲坂,染求馮翊太守不得而怒,帥衆降漢,漢主聰以染爲平西將軍。八月,聰遣染與安西將軍劉雅帥騎二萬攻模于長安,河內王粲、始安王曜帥大衆繼之。染敗模兵於潼關,長驅至下邽。涼州將北宮純自長安帥其衆降漢。漢兵圍長安,模遣淳于定出戰而敗。模倉庫虛竭,士卒離散,遂降於漢。趙染送模於河內王粲;九月,粲殺模。關西饑饉,白骨蔽野,士民存者百無一二。聰以始安王曜爲車騎大將軍、雍州牧,更封中山王,鎭長安。以王彌爲大將軍,封齊公。

31. Sima Mo sent his General of the Standard, Zhao Ran, to camp at Puban. Zhao Ran asked for aid from the Administrator of Pingyi, but when he did not receive it, he became angry, and he led his troops to surrender to Han. Liu Cong appointed him as General Who Pacifies The West.

In the eighth month, Liu Cong sent Zhao Ran and his General Who Maintains The West, Liu Ya, to lead twenty thousand cavalry to attack Sima Mo at Chang'an, with Liu Can and Liu Yao leading the main body behind them. Zhao Ran defeated Sima Mo at Tong Gate, and pressed on to march as far as Xiagui. The Liangzhou general Beigong Chun led his troops from Chang'an to surrender to Han as well. The Han soldiers besieged Chang'an; Sima Mo sent Chunyu Ding out to fight them, but he was defeated. Sima Mo's granaries and warehouses were empty and exhausted, and his officers and soldiers all scattered, so he too surrendered to Han. Zhao Ran sent Sima Mo on to Liu Can, who killed him in the ninth month.

Guanxi was suffering from hunger and want; bones bleached in shallow graves, and only one or two of every hundred people survived.

Liu Cong appointed Liu Yao as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry and as Governor of Yongzhou, stationed at Chang'an. He also advanced Liu Yao's title from Prince of Shi'an to Prince of Zhongshan.

Liu Cong appointed Wang Mi as Grand General and as Duke of Qi.

〈劉聰在平陽,欲窺關中;蒲坂,兵衝也。坂,音反。〉〈下邽縣,前漢屬京兆;後漢省,併入鄭縣;桓帝復置;晉屬馮翊郡。應劭曰:有上邽,故稱下,秦武公伐邽戎置。宋白曰︰《四夷縣道記》︰下邽縣東南二十五里有下邽故城,在渭水北。〉〈《考異》曰︰《帝紀》︰「八月,模遇害。」按劉琨《上丞相牋》曰︰「平昌以九月遇禍,世子時鎭隴右,故得無恙。」今以爲據。〉

(Liu Cong being in Pingyang, he wanted to peer into Guanzhong; Puban was a military checkpoint against that. The second character of Puban, 坂, is pronounced "fan".

During Former Han, Xiagui County was part of Jingzhao commandary. During Later Han, it was initially folded into Zheng County, but Emperor Huan recreated it. During Jin, it was part of Pingyi commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "Since there was a Shanggui ('upper Gui') County, this one was called Xiagui ('lower Gui') County. When Duke Wu of Qin campaigned against the Gui region during the Spring and Autumn era, he created the counties." Song Bai remarked, "In the Records of Travels Through the Counties of the Four Tribes, it states, 'There was a city of Xiagui twenty-five li southeast of Xiagui County, north of the Wei River.'"

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the eighth month, Sima Mo came to harm.' Now according to Liu Kun's Response to the Prime Minister (Sima Rui), he states, 'Pingchang (Sima Mo) met with misfortune in the ninth month. But his eldest son (Sima Bao) is currently guarding Longyou, and this is cause for good cheer.' So I follow that account.")


是歲,北宮純降劉聰。(Book of Jin 86.1)

During the same year (~313), Zhang Gui's general Beigong Chun surrendered to the Han-Zhao general Liu Yao.

Note the conflicting years here.


苟晞驕奢苛暴,前遼西太守閻亨,纘之子也,數諫晞,晞殺之。從事中郎明預有疾,自轝入諫。晞怒曰︰「我殺閻亨,何關人事,而轝病罵我!」預曰︰「明公以禮待預,故預以禮自盡。今明公怒預,其如遠近怒明公何!桀爲天子,猶以驕暴而亡,況人臣乎!願明公且置是怒,思預之言。」晞不從。由是衆心離怨,加以疾疫、饑饉。石勒攻王讚於陽夏,擒之;遂襲蒙城,執晞及豫章王端,鎖晞頸,以爲左司馬。漢主聰拜勒幽州牧。

32. Gou Xi became indulgent, tyrannical, and cruel. The former Administrator of Liaoxi, Yan Heng, was the son of Yan Zuan. He often rebuked Gou Xi, so Gou Xi killed him. The Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Ming Yu, was sick, but he had himself brought to see Gou Xi on a sedan chair so he could criticize him. Gou Xi angrily replied, "What business is it of yours that I killed Yan Heng, that a sick man on a sedan chair like you dares to scold me for it?"

Ming Yu replied, "Your Grace has waited on me as is proper, so I shall respond with full propriety as well. If Your Grace is angry at me, how can that compare with how angry everyone else, near and far, is with you? King Jie of Xia was the Son of Heaven himself, and yet even he was brought low through his decadence and his tyranny; how much less can a mere mortal minister avoid such a fate? Be angry as you like, so long as you consider my words to you."

But Gou Xi would not listen. Thus did he alienate the hearts of the people, on top of pestilence and plague, hunger and want.

Shi Le attacked Wang Zan at Yangxia and captured him. He then pressed on to attack Mengcheng, and captured Gou Xi and Sima Duan as well. He put a lock around Gou Xi's neck, and made him serve as his Marshal of the Left.

Liu Cong appointed Shi Le as Governor of Youzhou.

〈《姓譜》︰明,秦大夫孟明之後,爲平原望姓。〉〈陽夏縣,屬陳郡。〉

(The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 明 Ming are the descendants of the great Qin minister Meng Ming; they took this surname at Pingyuan."

Yangxia County was part of Chen commandary.)


勒執晉大將軍苟晞於蒙城,以為左司馬。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Shi Le captured Jin's Grand General, Gou Xi, at Mengcheng, and appointed him as his Marshal of the Left.


王彌與勒,外相親而內相忌,劉暾說彌使召曹嶷之兵以圖勒。彌爲書,使暾召嶷,且邀勒共向青州。暾至東阿,勒游騎獲之,勒潛殺暾而彌不知。會彌將徐邈、高梁輒引所部兵去,彌兵漸衰。彌聞勒擒苟晞,心惡之,以書賀勒曰︰「公獲苟晞而用之,何其神也!使晞爲公左,彌爲公右,天下不足定也。」勒謂張賓曰︰「王公位重而言卑,其圖我必矣。」賓因勸勒乘彌小衰,誘而取之。時勒方與乞活陳午相攻於蓬關,彌亦與劉瑞相持甚急。彌請救於勒,勒未之許。張賓曰︰「公常恐不得王公之便,今天以王公授我矣。陳午小豎,不足憂;王公人傑,當早除之。」勒乃引兵擊瑞,斬之。彌大喜,謂勒實親己,不復疑也。冬,十月,勒請彌燕于己吾。彌將往,長史張嵩諫,不聽。酒酣,勒手斬彌而幷其衆,表漢主聰,稱彌叛逆。聰大怒,遣使讓勒「專害公輔,有無君之心」;然猶加勒鎭東大將軍、督幷‧幽二州諸軍事、領幷州刺史,以慰其心。苟晞、王讚潛謀叛勒,勒殺之,幷晞弟純。

33. Now outwardly, Wang Mi and Shi Le seemed to be good friends. But inwardly, they were both suspicious of one another.

Liu Tun advised Wang Mi to send word to Cao Yi in Qingzhou, summoning him to bring his soldiers so they could defeat Shi Le together. Wang Mi wrote a letter to this effect and gave it to Liu Tun to bring to Cao Yi, as well as proclamations denouncing Shi Le to spread throughout Qingzhou. But when Liu Tun reached Dong'a, Shi Le's scout riders captured him. Shi Le secretly killed Liu Tun without Wang Mi knowing about it.

Soon, Wang Mi's generals Xu Miao and Gao Liang both took their soldiers and abandoned him, and so Wang Mi's forces were gradually diminishing.

When Wang Mi heard that Shi Le had captured Gou Xi, he secretly resented him. He wrote Shi Le a letter supposedly praising him, writing, "Sir, you have captured Gou Xi and put him to work for you; how divine you are! If you can make Gou Xi your left hand, and have me as your right hand, there is no one in the realm who would be able to stop you."

Shi Le said to Zhang Bin, "Lord Wang holds a high position, and yet he uses such lowly words. He means to ensnare my heart."

Zhang Bin advised Shi Le to wait until Wang Mi's soldiers had further dwindled, and then entice him in order to take him.

At this time, Shi Le was in a stalemate with the Lifeseeker commander Chen Wu at Peng Pass, while Wang Mi was also in a fierce stalemate with Liu Rui. Wang Mi had asked Shi Le to send him reinforcements, but Shi Le had not yet agreed to do so. Zhang Bin advised Shi Le, "Sir, you have often feared that you would not be able to get the better of Lord Wang. But now, Heaven itself is giving Lord Wang over to us. Chen Wu is an insignificant, mediocre fellow, not worth worrying about. But Lord Wang is a hero among men, so you ought to get rid of him as soon as you can."

So Shi Le led his soldiers to attack Liu Rui and killed him. Wang Mi was overjoyed, and he said that Shi Le was a true friend after all, so he no longer suspected him.

In winter, the tenth month, Shi Le invited Wang Mi to a feast at Jiwu. Wang Mi was about to go when his Chief Clerk Zhang Song remonstrated with him, but Wang Mi did not listen. At the feast, Wang Mi became drunk, and Shi Le personally beheaded him.

He then took over Wang Mi's forces, and petitioned Liu Cong claiming that Wang Mi was a rebel and a traitor. Liu Cong was infuriated, and he sent a messenger to denounce Shi Le, saying, "You have manipulated and brought to harm a great minister who was upholding the state. Yours is a heart that knows no sovereign." Still, in order to appease Shi Le, he promoted him to Grand General Who Guards The East, Commander of military affairs in Bingzhou and Youzhou, and acting Inspector of Bingzhou.

Gou Xi and Wang Zan secretly plotted to rebel against Shi Le, so Shi Le killed them, along with Gou Xi's younger brother Gou Chun.

〈東阿縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬濟北國。〉〈蓬關,在陳留浚儀縣。班《志》曰︰蓬澤在河南開封縣東北。臣瓚曰︰今浚儀有蓬陂是也。〉〈己吾縣,後漢屬陳留郡,魏、晉省。《陳留風俗傳》曰︰縣,故宋地,雜以陳、楚之地,故梁國寧陵縣之徙種龍鄕也。以成、哀之世,戶至八九千,冠帶之士求置縣。永元十一年,陳王削地,以大棘鄕、直陽鄕自X隸之,命以嘉名曰己吾,猶有陳、楚之俗焉。〉

(During Han, Dong'a county was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of the Jibei princely fief.

Peng Pass was in Junyi county in Chenliu commandary. The Ban family's Annotations states, "Peng Marsh is in the northeast of Kaifeng county in Henan commandary." Chen Zan remarked, "There is a Peng Slope in modern Junyi."

During Han, Jiwu county was part of Chenliu commandary. Cao-Wei and Jin abolished it. The Account of Common Customs of Chenliu states, "This county was once the territory of the ancient state of Song, mixed between the states of Chen and Chu. So it was moved to Zhonglong District in Ningling county in the Liang princely fief. During the era of Emperors Cheng and Ai of Han (33-1 BC), its population reached eight or nine thousand households, so the land was partitioned off as its own county. In the eleventh year of Yongyuan (99 AD), the Prince of Chen carved off the land, taking Daji and Zhiyang districts for himself, while ordering that Jia be renamed to Jiwu. So there was still that old division between Chen and Chu.")


彌將徐邈、高梁輒率部曲數千人隨嶷去,彌益衰弱。初,石勒惡彌驍勇,常密為之備。彌之破洛陽也,多遺勒美女寶貨以結之。時勒擒苟晞,以為左司馬,彌謂勒曰:「公獲苟晞而用之,何其神妙!使晞為公左,彌為公右,天下不足定也!」勒愈忌彌,陰圖之。劉暾又勸彌征曹嶷,藉其眾以誅勒。於是彌使暾詣青州,令曹嶷引兵會己,而詐要勒共向青州。暾至東阿,為勒遊騎所獲。勒見彌與嶷書,大怒,乃殺暾。彌未之知,勒伏兵襲彌,殺之,並其眾。(Book of Jin 100, Biography of Wang Mi)

Wang Mi's generals Xu Miao and Gao Liang both took several thousands their soldiers and abandoned him to go join Cao Yi, and so Wang Mi's forces were gradually diminishing.

Earlier, Shi Le had been wary of Wang Mi for his bold and valiant spirit, and he often secretly made plans against him. After Wang Mi captured Luoyang, he kept sending Shi Le beautiful women and fine treasures in order to win him over. And when Shi Le captured Gou Xi and appointed him as his Marshal of the Left, Wang Mi said to Shi Le, "Sir, you have captured Gou Xi and put him to work for you; how divine and ingenous you are! If you can make Gou Xi your left hand, and have me as your right hand, there is no one in the realm who would be able to stop you!" But these things only made Shi Le even more suspicious of Wang Mi, and he secretly planned to get rid of him.

Liu Tun also urged Wang Mi to summon Cao Yi and have him bring his forces to execute Shi Le. So Wang Mi sent Liu Tun to visit Cao Yi in Qingzhou and order him to bring his troops to join with Wang Mi's forces, as well as entice Shi Le and attack him together at Qingzhou. But when Liu Tun reached Dong'a, he was captured by Shi Le's scout riders. When Shi Le saw the letter that Wang Mi had written to Cao Yi, he was furious, and he killed Liu Tun, but Wang Mi did not know.

Then Shi Le placed troops in ambush to surprise attack Wang Mi, and he killed Wang Mi and took over his forces.

王彌既平洛陽,將先誅勒,勒請彌燕于己營,手斬彌而并其衆。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Le)

After Wang Mi had pacified Luoyang, he planned to execute Shi Le. Shi Le invited Wang Mi to a feast at his own camp, then executed Wang Mi by his own hand and took over his forces.

劉聰授勒鎮軍大將軍、幽州牧,領并州刺史。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Le)

Liu Cong appointed Shi Le as Grand General Who Guards The Army, Governor of Bingzhou, and acting Inspector of Bingzhou.


勒引兵掠豫州諸郡,臨江而還,屯于葛陂。

34. Shi Le led his soldiers to pillage the commandaries of Yuzhou, going as far as the bank of the Yangzi before returning, and he camped at Ge Slope.

〈《續漢書‧郡國志》,汝南郡鮦陽縣有葛陂。賢曰︰葛陂,在今豫州新蔡縣西北。〉

(According to the Records of Commandaries and Fiefs in the Continued Book of Han, there was a Ge Slope in Tongyang County in Runan commandary. Li Xian remarked, "Ge Slope is in the northwest of Xincai County in modern Yuzhou.")


初,勒之爲人所掠賣也,與其母王氏相失。劉琨得之,幷其從子虎送於勒,因遺勒書曰︰「將軍用兵如神,所向無敵,所以周流天下而無容足之地,百戰百勝而無尺寸之功者,蓋得主則爲義兵,附逆則爲賊衆故也。成敗之數,有似呼吸,吹之則寒,噓之則溫。今相授侍中、車騎大將軍、領護匈奴中郎將、襄城郡公,將軍其受之!」勒報書曰︰「事功殊途,非腐儒所知。君當逞節本朝,吾自夷難爲效。」遺琨名馬、珍寶,厚禮其使,謝而絕之。

35. Earlier, Shi Le had been separated from his mother Lady Wang. Liu Kun now found Lady Wang and sent a messenger, and sent her and Shi Le's cousin's son Shi Hu to Shi Le, along with a letter he had written to Shi Le: "General, you lead your soldiers like an immortal, and no one is a match for you. Yet you roam all across the land without any place to call your home, and though you have won a hundred victories in a hundred battles, your efforts have not gained you a single inch of land. To serve one's lord makes one's soldiers righteous men, but to side with traitors makes them a mob of bandits. Successes and failures come like puffs of breath; in one breath you are cold, by the next warm. General, why not accept appointment as Palace Attendant, Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, acting General of the Household Gentlemen Who Protects the Xiongnu, and Duke of Xiangcheng commandary?"

Shi Le wrote back stating, "There are many roads to success, ones a rotten pedant would not know anything about. Sir, you ought to attend to your own duties to your court, and leave me to see to my own hardships."

Shi Le sent Liu Kun famous horses and fine treasures, and treated his messenger with favor and courtesy, apologizing to him, but still breaking off relations.

〈事見上卷惠帝永興二年。〉〈【章︰甲十一行本「之」下有「遣使」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈勒書意度雄爽,此必張賓爲之。〉

(The incident of Shi Le being sold into slavery is mentioned in Book 86, in Emperor Hui's second year of Yongxing (305.7).

Some versions add that Liu Kun "sent a messenger".

Shi Le expressed himself in this letter with such heroic consideration and regard that Zhang Bin must have written it for him.)


石虎字季龍,勒之從子。勒父朱幼而子之,故或謂之勒弟。晉永興中,與勒相失。嘉平元年,劉琨送勒母王及虎于葛陂。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Hu, styled Jilong, was the son of Shi Le's cousin. Shi Le's father Zhouhezhu had adopted Shi Hu when he was still a child, so some people called him Shi Le's younger brother.

During Jin's Yongxing reign era (304-306), he was separated from Shi Le. In the first year of Jiaping (311), Liu Kun sent Shi Le's mother Lady Wang and Shi Hu to join Shi Le at Ge Slope.

虎,字季龍,勒之從子也。祖曰匐邪,父曰寇覓。寇覓有七子,虎第四。勒父幼而子之,故或謂之為勒弟也。晉永興中,與勒相失。永嘉五年,劉琨送勒母王氏及虎於葛陂。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

Shi Hu, styled Jilong, was the son of Shi Le's cousin. His grandfather was Fuxie, and his father was Koumi. Koumi had seven sons, and Shi Hu was the fourth. Shi Le's father adopted Shi Hu when he was still young, so some people called him Shi Le's younger brother.

During Jin's Yongxing reign era (304-306), he was separated from Shi Le. In the fifth year of Yongjia (311), Liu Kun sent Shi Le's mother Lady Wang and Shi Hu to join Shi Le at Ge Slope.


時虎年十七,殘忍無度,爲軍中患。勒白母曰︰「此兒凶暴無賴,使軍人殺之,聲名可惜,不若自除之。」母曰︰「快牛爲犢,多能破車,汝小忍之!」及長,便弓馬,勇冠當時。勒以爲征虜將軍,每屠城邑,鮮有遺類。然御衆嚴而不煩,莫敢犯者,指授攻討,所向無前,勒遂寵任之。

36. At this time, this Shi Hu was sixteen years old. He was a cruel and reckless youth, a scourge among the army. Shi Le told his mother, "This wild child will make the soldiers kill him sooner or later. I hate to say it, but I ought to get rid of him before then."

Lady Wang replied, "When a fast bull is still a calf, it can often break the carts it is hitched to. Can you not bear with him for a while longer?"

By the time Shi Hu grew up, he was proficient at mounted archery, and was a true hero of the age. Shi Le appointed him as General Who Routs The Caitiffs. Whenever Shi Hu sacked a city, he hardly ever left anyone alive. But he kept his troops in strict order so that they did not cause any trouble, and no one dared to violate his orders. Whenever he ordered an attack, nothing could stand before him. So Shi Le favored him and gave him many positions.

〈應劭曰︰賴者,恃也。晉灼曰︰許愼曰︰賴,利也,無利入於家也。或曰︰江、淮之間,謂小兒多詐狡獪爲無賴。師古曰︰晉說是也。〉〈石虎始此。爲虎誅夷勒諸子張本。〉

(Shi Le uses the term 無賴 to describe Shi Hu. Ying Shao remarked, "One who is 賴 is reliable, so 無賴 is unreliable." Jin Zhuo remarked, "Xu Shen remarked, '賴 means of use, so someone who is 無賴 is of no use to his family.'" Some say, "In the region between the Yangzi and the Huai River, a child who is very crafting and cunning is called a 無賴." Yan Shigu remarked, "This was a Jin term."

This is the first mention of Shi Hu.

This was the reason why Shi Hu killed and exterminated Shi Le's sons later on.)


虎時年十七。性殘忍,好馳獵,喧游無紀度,尤善彈,數彈人,軍中每患之。勒白王曰:「此是兇暴,無使軍人殺之,聲名可惜,宜自除也。」王曰:「快牛犢子小時多能破車,汝當小忍,勿怯之。」至十八,檢攝恭謹,嚴重愛士,弓馬迅捷,勇冠當時,勒深喜焉,拜征虜將軍。性酷虐無道,軍中勇幹策略與已侔者,輒因事害之。至於降城陷壘,坑斬士女,鮮有遺類,勒屢加責誨,而行意自若。然御衆嚴而不煩,莫敢犯者,指授攻討,所向無前。故勒寵信彌隆,仗以專征之任。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 2, Biography of Shi Hu)

At this time, Shi Hu was sixteen years old. He was a cruel and reckless youth who enjoyed hunting. He made noise and wandered about without any restraint or disciple. He was especially skilled at flinging pellets, which he often flung at people. He was a scourge among the army. Shi Le told his mother, "This wild child will make the soldiers kill him sooner or later. I hate to say it, but I ought to get rid of him before then."

Lady Wang replied, "When a fast bull is still a calf, it can often break the carts it is hitched to. Can you not bear with him for a while longer? Do not be so hasty."

By the time Shi Hu was seventeen, he had become more restrained, respectful, and disciplined in his conduct. He kept his troops in order and treasured the scholar-officials, and he was proficient at mounted archery. His boldness surpassed anyone else of the age. Shi Le deeply liked him, and he appointed him as General Who Routs The Caitiffs.

However, Shi Hu was still naturally violent, cruel, and without principle. Whenever there was someone in the army whose bold talents and cunning strategies seemed to rival Shi Hu's own talents, Shi Hu always killed them. Whenever Shi Hu accepted the surrender of a city or sacked a fortress, he would kill everyone, man or woman; there were rarely any survivors. Shi Le often reproached him for this, but Shi Hu did not change his ways.

But he kept his troops in strict order so that they did not cause any trouble, and no one dared to violate his orders. Whenever he ordered an attack, nothing could stand before him. So Shi Le favored him highly, and gave him many positions.

虎時年十七矣。性殘忍,遊獵無度,能左右射,好以彈彈人,軍中甚患之。勒白母曰:「此兒凶暴無賴,使軍人殺之,聲名可惜,宜自除也。」王曰:「快牛為犢子時,多能破車。為復小忍,勿却之。」至年十八,身長七尺五寸,弓馬迅捷,勇冠當時。將佐親戚,莫不敬憚,勒深嘉之。而酷害過差,軍中有壯健與己齊者,因獵戲謔,輒殺之。至於降城陷壘,不復斷別善惡,坑斬士女,尠有遺類。御眾嚴整,莫敢犯者,指授攻討,所向無前。故勒寵信彌隆,仗以專征之任。(Book of Northern Wei 95, Biography of Shi Hu)

At this time, Shi Hu was sixteen years old. He was a cruel and reckless youth who wandered about and hunted without any restraint or disciple. He was able to fling pellets, which he liked to fling at people. He was a scourge among the army. Shi Le told his mother, "This wild child is hopeless; he will make the soldiers kill him sooner or later. I hate to say it, but I ought to get rid of him before then."

Lady Wang replied, "When a fast bull is still a calf, it can often break the carts it is hitched to. Bear with him for a while longer. Do not be so hasty."

By the time Shi Hu was seventeen, he had grown to a height of seven chi five cun. He was swift with horse and bow, and his boldness surpassed anyone else of the age. Not a one of the generals or family members did not fear and respect him. Shi Le deeply liked him.

However, Shi Hu was still naturally violent, cruel, and reckless. Whenever there was someone in the army whose bold talents and cunning strategies seemed to rival Shi Hu's own talents, or someone who made fun of him while hunting, Shi Hu always killed them. Whenever Shi Hu accepted the surrender of a city or sacked a fortress, he would kill everyone, with no distinction between good or evil and no regard for man or woman; there were rarely any survivors.

But he kept his troops in strict order so that they did not cause any trouble, and no one dared to violate his orders. Whenever he ordered an attack, nothing could stand before him. So Shi Le favored and trusted him highly, and gave him many positions.


勒攻滎陽太守李矩,矩擊卻之。

37. Shi Le attacked Jin's Administrator of Xingyang, Li Ju, but Li Ju struck back and resisted him.

石勒親率大眾襲矩,矩遣老弱入山,令所在散牛馬,因設伏以待之。賊爭取牛馬。伏發,齊呼,聲動山谷,遂大破之,斬獲甚眾,勒乃退。籓表元帝,加矩冠軍將軍,軺車幢蓋,進封陽武縣侯,領河東、平陽太守。時饑饉相仍,又多疫癘,矩垂心撫恤,百姓賴焉。會長安群盜東下,所在多虜掠,矩遣部將擊破之,盡得賊所略婦女千餘人。諸將以非矩所部。欲遂留之。矩曰:「俱是國家臣妾,焉有此彼此!」乃一時遣之。(Book of Jin 63, Biography of Li Ju)

Shi Le led a large army to attack Li Ju. So Li Ju sent his old and weak people into the hills, and he set loose all his cattle and horses to mill about, while preparing an ambush for when the enemy arrived. Shi Le's soldiers all struggled to grab the wandering cattle and horses. Then Li Ju launched his ambush, and with a great cry that shook the hills and valleys, his soldiers greatly routed Shi Le's army, killing or capturing a great many of the enemy. Shi Le retreated. Xun Fan petitioned Sima Rui, and so Li Ju was promoted to Champion General, Marquis of Yangwu county, and acting Administrator of Hedong and Pingyang, and he was granted a horse-drawn carriage with canopy covers.

At that time, there was hunger and famine on every side, and a great deal of pestilence and plague. But Li Ju poured out his heart to support and comfort the people, and they relied upon him. Soon, bandits came east from Chang'an, plundering and capturing many people. Li Ju sent his subordinate generals to attack the bandits, and they routed them and freed more than a thousand wives and daughters that the bandits had taken captive. His generals felt that since these women were not part of the people under Li Ju's direct care, they should be entitled to keep the women for themselves. But Li Ju told them, "They are all the wives of the servants of our state. How can you act just the same as the bandits?" And he sent all the women back to their homes.


初,南陽王模以從事中郎索綝爲馮翊太守。綝,靖之子也。模死,綝與安夷護軍金城麴允、頻陽令梁肅,俱奔安定。時安定太守賈疋與諸氐、羌皆送任子於漢,綝等遇之於陰密,擁還臨涇,與疋謀興復晉室,疋從之。乃共推疋爲平西將軍,率衆五萬向長安。雍州刺史麴特、新平太守竺恢皆不降於漢,聞疋起兵,與扶風太守梁綜帥衆十萬會之。綜,肅之兄也。漢河內王粲在新豐,使其將劉雅、趙染攻新平,不克。索綝救新平,大小百戰,雅等敗退。中山王曜與疋等戰於黃丘,曜衆大敗。疋遂襲漢梁州刺史彭蕩仲,殺之。麴特等擊破粲於新豐,粲還平陽。於是疋等兵勢大振,關西胡、晉翕然響應。

38. Earlier, Sima Mo had appointed the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Suo Chen, as Administrator of Pingyi. This Suo Chen was the son of Suo Jing. After Sima Mo's death, Suo Chen fled to Anding together with the Army Protector Who Calms The Tribes, Qu Yun of Jincheng commandary, and the Prefect of Pinyang County, Liang Su.

At this time, the Administrator of Anding, Jia Ya, and the various Di and Qiang tribes in the region had sent the sons of their officials off to Han as hostages. Suo Chen and the others ran into these hostages at Yinmi, and they gathered them up and brought them back to Linjing. They plotted with Jia Ya to restore the Jin dynasty, and Jia Ya agreed with them. So they all acclaimed Jia Ya as General Who Pacifies The West, and Jia Ya led an army of fifty thousand back towards Chang'an. The Inspector of Yongzhou, Qu Te, and the Administrator of Xinping, Zhu Hui, had both refused to surrender to Han, and when they heard that Jia Ya had risen up with soldiers, they led a hundred thousand soldiers to join him, along with the Administrator of Fufeng, Liang Zong. This Liang Zong was Liang Su's elder brother.

Liu Can was at Xinfeng, and he sent his generals Liu Ya and Zhao Ran to attack Xinping, but they were unsuccessful. Suo Chen went to rescue Xinping; he fought a hundred battles large and small, and in the end Liu Ya and the other Han generals were defeated and they retreated. Liu Yao fought Jia Ya at Huangqiu, but Liu Yao's army was greatly defeated. Jia Ya then marched on to attack Han's Inspector of Lianzhou, Peng Dangzhong, and killed him. Qu Te and others attacked Liu Can at Xinfeng, and Liu Can retreated to Pingyang. So the power of Jia Ya's and the others' soldiers became felt very far, and all the tribes and the Jin people in Guanxi all went to join their side.

〈索,昔各翻,姓也。頻陽縣,屬馮翊郡,秦厲公置。應劭曰︰在頻水之陽。杜佑曰︰京兆同官縣,漢祋祤縣,晉爲頻陽縣。時綝等自京兆南山奔安定。安夷護軍蓋亦置司於長安。〉〈陰密縣,屬安定郡,商之密國,《詩》所謂「密人不恭,敢距大邦」者也。臨涇縣時爲安定郡治所。〉〈特與恢同守新平。〉〈黃丘,在馮翊雲陽縣黃嶔山下。〉〈蕩仲,安定盧水胡也,據後蕩仲子天護,漢以爲涼州刺史,此「梁」當作「涼」。〉

Suo Chen's surname 索 is pronounced "xe (x-e)".

Pinyang County was part of Pingyi commandary; it was created by Duke Li of Qin. Ying Shao remarked, "It was north of the Pin River, thus the name Pinyang ('north of the Pin')." Du You remarked, "Tongguan County in Jingzhao commandary was Han's Duiyu County. During Jin, it was Pinyang County."

At this time, Suo Chen and the others fled from the southern hills of Jingzhao to Anding. So the office of Army Protector Who Calms The Tribes must have also been stationed at Chang'an.

Yinmi County was part of Anding commandary. It was the state of Mi during the Shang dynasty. The Book of Poetry has the verse, "The people of Mi were disobedient, daring to oppose our great country. (Huang Yi 5)" This is the place that verse describes.

At this time, Linjing County was administered by Anding commandary.

Qu Te and Zhu Hui were both defending Xinping commandary.

Huangqiu was below Mount Huangqin in Yunyang County in Pingyi commandary.

Peng Dangzhong was part of the Lushui tribe of Anding; we later see his son Peng Tianhu. Han had appointed Peng Dangzhong as Inspector of Liangzhou, not Lianzhou, so he ought to be called Inspector of Liangzhou in this passage.)


閻鼎欲奉秦王業入關,據長安以號令四方;河陰令傅暢,祗之子也,亦以書勸之,鼎遂行。荀藩、劉疇、周顗、李述等,皆山東人,不欲西行,中塗逃散,鼎遣兵追之,不及,殺李絚等。鼎與業自宛趣武關,遇盜於上洛,士卒敗散,收其餘衆,進至藍田,使人告賈疋,疋遣兵迎之;十二月,入于雍城,使梁綜將兵衞之。

39. Yan Ding wanted to take Sima Ye with him into Guanzhong, and occupy Chang'an in order to issue orders to every corner of the realm. The Prefect of Heyin, Fu Chang, was the son of Fu Zhi, and he also wrote to Yan Ding urging him to do so, so Yan Ding acted on his plan.

Xun Fan, Liu Chou, Zhou Yi, Li Shu, and others were all natives of the region east of the mountains, and they did not want to go west, so they all began to scatter and flee. Yan Ding sent troops to pursue them, but the soldiers could not overtake them, although they did kill Li Geng and others.

Yan Ding and Sima Ye went from Wan to meet at Wu Pass. They encountered bandits at Shangluo, where their officers and soldiers were defeated and scattered. Yan Ding gathered up his remaining soldiers and pressed on to Lantian, where he sent a messenger to inform Jia Ya that he was coming. Jia Ya sent soldiers to receive them.

In the twelfth month, Jia Ya entered Yongcheng, and sent Liang Zong to lead soldiers to guard it.

〈上洛縣,漢屬弘農郡,漢元鼎四年置,居洛水上,因以爲名;晉初,改爲京兆南部;武帝泰始二年,分京兆南部置上洛郡。杜佑曰︰上洛,漢長利縣。〉

(During Han, Shangluo County was part of Hongnong commandary. In Han's fourth year of Yuanding (113 BC), the county was on the Luo River, and so it was named Shangluo ('on the Luo'). At the beginning of Jin, it was changed to the Southern Division of Jingzhao commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), he split off the Southern Division as Shangluo commandary. Du You remarked, "Shangluo was Han's Changli County.")


周顗奔琅邪王睿,睿以顗爲軍諮祭酒。前騎都尉譙國桓彝亦避亂過江,見睿微弱,謂顗曰︰「我以中州多故,來此求全,而單弱如此,將何以濟!」旣而見王導,共論世事,退,謂顗曰︰「向見管夷吾,無復憂矣!」

40. Zhou Yi fled to Sima Rui, who appointed him as Army Libationer-Consultant.

The former Cavalry Colonel, Huan Yi of the Qiao princely fief, also crossed the Yangzi to escape the difficulties in the north. At first, seeing that Sima Rui was meager and weak, he said to Zhou Yi, "Many of us fled from the Central Provinces to this place seeking security. But when the Prince is so isolated and weak, how can we ever succeed?"

But later, Huan Yi met with Wang Dao and spoke with him on the affairs of the day. After he left, he said to Zhou Yi, "I have seen Guan Yiwu (Guan Zhong); now we have nothing to fear!"

〈以王導比管仲也。〉

(Huan Yi was comparing Wang Dao to Guan Zhong, the famous minister of Duke Huan of Qi from the Spring and Autumn era.)


溫嶠初為劉琨使來過江。于時江左營建始爾,綱紀未舉。溫新至,深有諸慮。既詣王丞相,陳主上幽越,社稷焚滅,山陵夷毀之酷,有黍離之痛。溫忠慨深烈,言與泗俱,丞相亦與之對泣。敘情既畢,便深自陳結,丞相亦厚相酬納。既出,懽然言曰:「江左自有管夷吾,此復何憂?」(New Tales 2.36)

Wen Jiao had just been sent south by Liu Kun and had crossed the Yangzi (~317). At that time, imperial government south of the Yangzi had only just been established, and the lines of government had not yet been raised up. Since Wen Jiao was a newcomer, he was deeply troubled by numerous anxieties, so he went to have an interview with Prime Minister Wang Dao. His recitation of the bitter tale of Emperor Huai's cruel abduction (in 311), of the burning of the altars of grain and soil at Luoyang, and of the leveling of the imperial tombs there, had all the pathos of the song "The Millet Bends Down" from the Book of Poetry. Wen Jiao's loyalty and grief were deep and intense, and his words welled up with his tears, so that Wang Dao was moved to tears as well while he listened. After Wen Jiao had finished recounting his tale, he solemnly declared his allegiance, and Wang Dao warmly reciprocated and accepted him.

When Wen Jiao emerged from the interview, he exclaimed with delight, "There is a Guan Yiwu (Guan Zhong) south of the Yangzi; what cause is there for worry?" (Tr. Richard Mather)


諸名士相與登新亭遊宴,周顗中坐歎曰︰「風景不殊,舉目有江河之異!」因相視流涕。王導愀然變色曰︰「當共戮力王室,克復神州,何至作楚囚對泣邪!」衆皆收淚謝之。

41. Many famous gentlemen of the Jianye court all went up to Xinting to while away the time and have a feast. Zhou Yi, who was sitting among them, lamented, "The scenery here is indeed similar. But look and see how the Yangzi pales in comparison with the Yellow River!"

The others all looked at one another and began to weep. Wang Dao, ashamed, changed his expression and declared, "We ought to be exerting our strength on behalf of the royal family, in order to recover the Sacred Provinces. How can we just sit around weeping like so many 'captives of Chu'?"

The others all dried their tears and apologized to him.

〈《金陵覽古》曰︰新亭,在江寧縣十里,近臨江渚。按︰新亭蓋近勞勞亭。〉〈言洛都遊宴,多在河濱,而新亭臨江渚也。〉〈戰國時,騶衍以爲中國者,於天下乃八十一分居其一分耳。中國名曰赤縣神州。赤縣神州內自有九州,禹之所序九州是也。孔穎達曰︰按《地統書‧括地象》云︰地中央曰崐崙。又云︰其東南方五千里曰神州。以此言之,崐崙在西北,別統四方九州,其神州者,是崐崙東南一州耳,於一州中更分九州,則《禹貢》之九州是也。又,隋祭北郊,有神州、迎州、冀州、戎州、拾州,柱州、宮州、咸州、揚州從祀,其崐崙所統之四方九州歟。〉

(The Jinling (Nanjing) Gazetteer states, "Xin Point is ten li from Jiangning County, near the banks of the Yangzi. It is close to Laolao Point."

Zhou Yi was saying that many of the same pleasure trips at Luoyang had also been along the banks of the Yellow River; Xin Point was on the banks of the Yangzi.

During the Warring States era, Zou Yan believed that the Middle Kingdom merely occupied one part of the eighty-one parts of the realm. The Middle Kingdom's name was the Crimson County and the Sacred Province. Within this Crimson County and Sacred Province were nine more provinces, which were the Nine Provinces which Yu the Great had laid out. Kong Yingda remarked, "The Image Encompassing The Land from the Book of the Land and Dominance states, 'The center of the land is called Kunlun.' It also states, 'The place five thousand li southeast of there is called the Sacred Province.' Going by these words, Kunlun is to the northwest, and faces nine provinces all around it. This Sacred Province is merely the one to the southeast of Kunlun, and within this one province are an additional nine provinces, which are the Nine Provinces described in the Tributes of Yu. Also, when Sui offered sacrifices at the Northern Suburbs, they made them to not only the Sacred Province, but also to Yingzhou, Jizhou, Rongzhou, Shizhou, Zhuzhou, Gongzhou, Xianzhou, and Yangzhou as well; these were presumably the Nine Provinces under the sway of Kunlun.")


過江諸人,每至美日,輒相邀新亭,藉卉飲宴。周侯中坐而嘆曰:「風景不殊,正自有山河之異。」皆相視流涕,唯王丞相愀然變色曰:「當共戮力王室,克復神州,何至作楚囚相對邪?」(New Tales 2.31)

Whenever the day was fair, those who had crossed the Yangzi would always gather at Xinting to drink and feast on the grass.
On one occasion, Zhou Yi, who was among them, sighed and said, "The scene is not dissimilar to the old days in the north;
it's just that naturally there's a difference between these mountains and rivers and those."

All those present looked at each other and wept. It was only Prime Minister Wang Dao who, looking very grave, remarked with deep emotion, "We should all unite our strength around the royal house and recover the sacred provinces. To what end do we sit here facing each other like so many 'captives of Chu'?" (Tr. Richard Mather)


陳頵遺王導書曰︰「中華所以傾弊者,正以取才失所,先白望而後實事,浮競驅馳,互相貢薦,言重者先顯,言輕者後敍,遂相波扇,乃至陵遲。加有莊、老之俗,傾惑朝廷,養望者爲弘雅,政事者爲俗人,王職不卹,法物墜喪。夫欲制遠,先由近始。今宜改張,明賞信罰,拔卓茂於密縣,顯朱邑於桐鄕,然後大業可舉,中興可冀耳。」導不能從。

42. Chen Yun wrote a letter to Wang Dao, stating, "The reason that the Middle Land was lost and ruined was because those of true talent were turned out; the vapid took precedence, while the genuine were left behind. Ministers contended with one another to see who could be the most detached and above it all. They all recommended one another, with whoever spoke the best words being exalted above all, while whoever spoke the worst words was left behind. Thus were they swept up by the flood, and brought to such ruin. Furthermore, the traditions of Zhuangzi and Laozi bedazzled the court; those who practiced such things were seen as refined and elegant, while those who tended to good governance were seen as crude fellows. No thought was given to the royal offices, and so the laws fell into decline.

"If you wish to control what is far away, you must start with what is close at hand. You ought to 'straighten out the strings', and thus clearly display rewards and demonstrate punishments. 'Pluck Zhuo Mao from Mi County', and 'exalt Zhu Yi from Tong District'. Then afterwards you may undertake the grand enterprise, and only then can the land be restored."

But Wang Dao could not follow his advice.

〈頵,紆倫翻,又居筠翻。〉〈白望,猶虛名也。〉〈以水爲譬也。波者,水之動也,風起則波生,相扇而動。〉〈漢董仲舒論政曰︰譬猶琴瑟,必改而更張之,乃可鼓也。〉〈事見四十卷漢光武建武元年。〉〈朱邑爲舒桐鄕嗇夫,廉平不苛,以愛利爲行,漢宣帝舉而用之,官至大司農。〉

(Chen Yun's given name 頵 is pronounced "yun (y-un)" or as "jun (j-un)".

To be vapid means to have an empty reputation.

To be swept up is to be led off by water. Swept means to be pushed along by the force of water. When the wind rises, waves form, moving forward as they are fanned by the wind.

The Han minister Dong Zhongshu once said about governance, "Consider the pipa zither; one must first tune and then straighten out the strings before one can pluck them."

Zhuo Mao was recruited from relative obscurity in Mi County, as mentioned in Book 40, in Emperor Guangwu of Han's first year of Jianwu (25 AD).

Zhu Yi was a stingy fellow from Shutong District, but he was honest, fair, and not severe, and he did what was respectable and profitable. Emperor Xuan of Han recruited him and employed him, and he rose in office as far as Grand Minister of Finance.)


劉琨長於招懷而短於撫御,一日之中,雖歸者數千,而去者亦相繼。琨遣子遵請兵於代公猗盧,又遣族人高陽內史希合衆於中山,幽州所統代郡、上谷、廣寧之民多歸之,衆至三萬。王浚怒,遣燕相胡矩督諸軍,與遼西公段疾陸眷共攻希,殺之,驅略三郡士女而去。疾陸眷,務勿塵之子也。猗盧遣其子六脩將兵助琨戍新興。

43. Liu Kun was skilled at bringing people to him, but he was insufficient in keeping them reassured and under control. In the space of one day, though thousands of people came to him, just as many people left him. So Liu Kun sent his son Liu Zun to ask for soldiers from Tuoba Yilu.

Liu Kun also sent the Interior Minister of Gaoyang, his kinsman Liu Xi, to gather up more people at Zhongshan. Liu Xi went and gathered up many people who were living in the commandaries of Dai, Shanggu, and Guangning, eventually reaching a host of thirty thousand. But these commandaries were under the control of Youzhou, and Wang Jun was furious at this interference in his domain. So he placed the Chancellor of Yan, Hu Ju, at the head of his armies, and sent him and the Duke of Liaoxi, Duan Jilujuan, to attack Liu Xi together, and they killed Liu Xi. This Duan Jilujuan was the son of Duan Wuwuchen.

Tuoba Yilu sent his son Tuoba Liuxiu to lead troops to assist Liu Kun, and they camped at Xinxing.

〈廣寧縣,漢屬上谷郡,晉武帝太康中,分立廣寧郡;唐屬嬀州界。〉〈《考異》曰︰《晉春秋》作「利孫」。按利孫卽六脩也,胡語訛轉耳。余按孔穎達曰︰聲相近者,聲轉字異。〉

(During Han, Guangning County was part of Shanggu commandary. During Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) Taikang era (280-89), he split off the county as Guangning commandary. During Tang, it was within Guizhou.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin records the name of Tuoba Yilu's son as 'Tuoba Lisun'. They must be the same person, and the barbarian tongue has just corrupted the pronunciation." I, Hu Sanxing, note that Kong Yingda remarks, "Sounds which are similar to one another all have different characters.")


務目塵死,就六眷立。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

After Duan Wumuchen passed away, his son Duan Jiuliujuan succeeded him.

劉琨善能招延,而拙於撫御。一日雖有數千人歸投,其逃散而去亦復如此。所以卒無所建。(New Tales of the World 33.4)

Liu Kun was skillful in rallying men to his cause, but inept at governing them. Although in one day there might be several thousand men who would throw in their lot with him, their dispersal and defection was also like this, so that in the end he never established anything permanent. (tr. Richard Mather)


琨牙門將邢延以碧石獻琨,琨以與六脩,六脩復就延求之,不得,執延妻子。延怒,以所部兵襲六脩,六脩走,延遂以新興附漢,請兵以攻幷州。

44. Liu Kun's General of the Standard, Xing Yan, showed Liu Kun some green jade that he possessed. When Tuoba Liuxiu was with Liu Kun, he asked Xing Yan for the jade, but when Xing Yan would not give it to him, Tuoba Liuxiu captured his wife and children. Furious, Xing Yan led his troops to attack Tuoba Liuxiu, who fled. Xing Yan then offered Xinxing in surrender to Han, and asked them for soldiers to attack Bingzhou.

四年,劉琨牙門將邢延據新興叛,招引劉聰。帝遣軍討之,聰退走。(Book of Northern Wei)

In the fourth year (311), Liu Kun's General of the Standard, Xing Yan, occupied Xinxing and rebelled, and he sent word to Liu Cong asking him to send aid. But Tuoba Yilu sent an army to campaign against him, and Liu Cong retreated.


李臻之死也,遼東附塞鮮卑素喜連、木丸津託爲臻報仇,攻陷諸縣,殺掠士民,屢敗郡兵,連年爲寇。東夷校尉封釋不能討,請與連和,連、津不從。民失業,歸慕容廆者甚衆,廆稟給遣還,願留者卽撫存之。

45. Earlier, after Jin's Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, Li Zhen, had died, two Xianbei leaders living near the borders of Liaodong, Suxi Lian and Muwan Jin, swore that they would avenge his death. They attacked and ravaged the various counties, killing and plundering the local people, and defeating the commandary soldiers several times. For several years, they invaded. The new Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, Feng Shi, was unable to campaign against them; he tried to ask them for peace terms, but they refused to accept.

The people could no longer sustain their livelihoods, and a great many of them fled to the domain of the Xianbei leader Murong Hui. Murong Hui granted them supplies and sent them on their way home, and he comforted and sustained those who wanted to remain in his territory.

〈【張︰「李」上脫「初東夷校尉」五字。】〉〈事見上永嘉三年。〉〈素喜連、木丸津二部也。〉

(Some versions begin this passage with "Earlier, after Jin's Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes".

Li Zhen's death is mentioned above, in the third year of Yongjia (309.27).

Suxi Lian and Muwan Jin were two different leaders.)


廆少子鷹揚將軍翰言於廆曰︰「自古有爲之君,莫不尊天子以從民望,成大業。今連、津外以龐本爲名,內實幸災爲亂。封使君已誅本請和,而寇暴不已。中原離亂,州師不振,遼東荒散,莫之救恤,單于不若數其罪而討之。上則興復遼東,下則幷吞二部,忠義彰於本朝,私利歸於我國,此霸王之基也。」廆笑曰︰「孺子乃能及此乎!」遂帥衆東擊連、津,以翰爲前鋒,破斬之,盡倂二部之衆。得所掠民三千餘家,及前歸廆者悉以付郡,遼東賴以復存。

46. Murong Hui's young son, Murong Han, was serving as his General of Hawkish Display. He told his father, "Ever since ancient times, there has never been a lord who achieved ultimate success who did not honor the Son of Heaven or follow the wishes of the people.

"Suxi Lian and Muwan Jin claim to be seeking revenge against Pang Ben, but really they are just taking advantage of the land's misfortune to cause chaos. Commissioner Feng has already put Pang Ben to death and asked them for peace, but the brigands are cruel and refuse to agree. The Central Plains are broken and in turmoil, and the provincial command can do nothing; Liaodong is a barren waste, and the people have no one whom they can turn to.

"For all their crimes, o Chanyu, you must punish these robbers. Above, you will be restoring peace to Liaodong, and below, you may take over their forces as your own. You will both display loyalty and righteousness to the original court, while privately bringing benefits to our state. This is the foundation for a hegemon king."

Murong Hui laughed and replied, "A mere whelp, and yet you can talk like this!"

So Murong Hui led his forces east to attack Suxi Lian and Muwan Jin, with Murong Han serving as the vanguard leader. They routed and killed Suxi Lian and Muwan Jin, and Murong Hui took over all their forces for himself. He gathered up more than three thousand families that had been plundered, and brought them and all the others who had fled to him before back into the commandary. Liaodong was thus made sustainable once more.

〈據《載記》,翰於皝爲庶兄;皝,廆第三子,則翰非少子也。〉〈誅龐本見上永嘉三年。〉〈州師,謂平州之兵、東夷校尉所統者是也。〉〈廆自稱鮮卑大單于。〉〈二部,謂素喜連及木丸津也。〉

(This passage technically calls Murong Han Murong Hui's youngest son. But according to the Biography of Murong Huang in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, Murong Han was the elder brother of Murong Huang by a concubine. Murong Huang was Murong Hui's third son, so Murong Han could not have been his youngest son.

Feng Shi's execution of Pang Ben is mentioned above, in the third year of Yongjia (309.27).

The "provincial command" meant the soldiers of Pingzhou, the soldiers under the command of the Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes.

Murong Hui had earlier styled himself as Grand Chanyu of the Xianbei.

The two divisions were those of Suxi Lian and Muwan Jin.)


慕容翰,字元邕,廆之庶長子也。性雄豪,多權略,猿臂工射,膂力過人。廆甚奇之,委以折沖之任。行師征伐,所在有功,威聲大振,為遠近所憚... 善撫接,愛儒學,自士大夫至於卒伍,莫不樂而從之。(Book of Jin 109, Biography of Murong Han)

Murong Han, styled Yuanyong, was Murong Hui's eldest son, born of a concubine. He had a bold nature, and was very clever and cunning. He was a powerful archer, for he had arms muscular as an ape, and his strength far surpassed other men. Murong Hui was very impressed by him, and appointed him as his General Who Breaks And Charges. In battle and on campaign he was invariably successful, and so his prowess spread far and wide, and everyone near and far feared him. But he was also skilled at comforting people and drawing them to him, and he had great appreciation for scholars and learning. So from the loftiest scholar-official to the lowliest soldier in the ranks, there was no one who was not happy to follow him.


封釋疾病,屬其孫奕於廆。釋卒,廆召奕與語,說之,曰︰「奇士也!」補小都督。釋子冀州主簿悛、幽州參軍抽來奔喪。廆見之曰︰「此家抎抎千斤犍也。」以道不通,喪不得還,皆留仕廆,廆以抽爲長史,悛爲參軍。

47. Feng Shi become ill, and he sent his grandson Feng Yi to Murong Huang. Feng Shi then passed away. Murong Hui summoned Feng Yi and spoke with him; after their talk, he mused, "What a marvelous fellow!" And he appointed Feng Yi as a minor commander.

The Registrar of Jizhou, Feng Shi's son Feng Quan, and the Army Advisor of Youzhou, his son Feng Chou, both came to attend the mourning for their father. When Murong Hui saw them, he said, "This family is as heavensent as a castrated bull that weighs a thousand catties."

The roads were blocked, and after the mourning, Feng Shi's sons could not return to their original posts. So they stayed behind and took up offices under Murong Hui. He appointed Feng Chou as Chief Clerk and Feng Quan as Army Advisor.

〈悛,丑緣翻,又七倫翻。〉〈《說文》︰從高而下也。犍,犗牛也。言千斥之犍,人間不可多得,若從天而下也。〉〈史言封氏諸子遂爲慕容佐命之臣。〉

(Feng Quan's given name 悛 is pronounced "chuan (ch-uan)" or "qun (q-un)".

Regarding the term 抎抎, the Shuowen dictionary states, "It means something that comes down from on high." And a 犍 is a castrated bull. Now it is very rare for a castrated bull that weighs a thousand catties to be found among men, and so Murong Hui was saying that the Feng family had been sent by Heaven.

This passage shows how the sons of the Feng clan came to serve as Murong Hui's ministers.)


王浚以妻舅崔毖爲東夷校尉。毖,琰之曾孫也。

48. Wang Jun appointed his wife's brother, Cui Bi, as the new Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes. This Cui Bi was the great-grandson of Cui Yan.

〈爲毖與慕容氏搆怨張本。崔琰,事曹公。毖,音祕。〉

(Cui Bi's given name 毖 is pronounced "mi".

This was why Cui Bi and the Murong clan resented one another.

Cui Yan had served under Cao Cao.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Sep 25, 2018 8:14 pm, edited 36 times in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-87)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Tue Dec 19, 2017 10:17 pm

Question regarding this paragraph in this post:

5. Jia Nanfeng's wanton and cruel behavior grew worse by the day. She would secretly order the Prefect of the Imperial Physicians, Cheng Ju, and others to kidnap youths from off the road and spirit them into the palace inside of a box, and since she worried that the youths would reveal what had happened to them, she would have them killed off.

What exactly is this implying? It gives no explanation why these youths were abducted. Was it for medical experimentation? Was it just for fun?

The text also suggests that the subsequent admonishments from Jia Mo, Pei Wei, and Zhang Hua were related to these random abductions but a finer reading of their rebukes (especially Jia Mo's regarding the Crown Prince) make it seem, rightfully imo, that they were actually angry about the spat between Jia Mi and Sima Ying that occurred just before.

In all my studies about Jia Nanfeng, I haven't come across a claim like this elsewhere, that I can recall. It feels like yet another random story to disparage her reign, though I'm open to any explanation in case something was lost in translation!
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