ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 2:06 am

光熙元年(丙寅、三○六)

The First Year of Guangxi (The Bingyin Year, 306 AD)


〈六月,帝還洛陽,始改元;此猶是永興三年。〉

(In the sixth month, when Emperor Hui returned to Luoyang, that was when the reign era title changed to Guangxi. Until then, it was still the third year of Yongxing.)


春,正月,戊子朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Wuzi (January 31st), there was an eclipse.

初,太弟中庶子蘭陵繆播有寵於司空越;播從弟右衞率胤,太宰顒前妃之弟也。越之起兵,遣播、胤詣長安說顒,令奉帝還洛,約與顒分陝爲伯。顒素信重播兄弟,卽欲從之。張方自以罪重,恐爲誅首,謂顒曰:「今據形勝之地,國富兵強,奉天子以號令,誰敢不從,柰何拱手受制於人!」顒乃止。及劉喬敗,顒懼,欲罷兵,與山東和解,恐張方不從,猶豫未決。

2. Before, the 中庶子 to the Crown Younger Brother, Mou Bo of Lanling, had been shown favor by Sima Yue. The Guard Commander of the Right, Mou Bo's cousin Mou Yin, was the younger brother of Sima Yong's former concubine. When Sima Yue rose up against Sima Yong, he had sent Mou Bo and Mou Yin to visit Chang'an to inform Sima Yong of the situation, order him to return Emperor Hui to Luoyang, and make arrangements to divide the realm at Shan, each of them serving as one of the Two Lords. Sima Yong had long trusted Mou Bo and his brother, and so he had been inclined to agree with their suggestions.

But Zhang Fang, who knew that he had committed many crimes, was afraid that he would be executed if this came to pass. So he had urged Sima Yong, "You still occupy a land that is suited for victory. You have the legitimacy of the state and the strength of your soldiers. If you make the Son of Heaven give an order, who would dare not to follow it? How then could you bow before another man and let him control you?"

So Sima Yong had changed his mind.

Now, after Liu Qiao was defeated, Sima Yong was afraid. He wanted to send away his soldiers and sue for peace with Sima Yue's forces east of the mountains. But he was afraid that Zhang Fang would not go along with it, so he had still not made a decision.

〈繆,姓也。〉〈以剽掠洛都,劫天子西遷也。〉

(繆 Mou is a surname.

Zhang Fang had plundered the capital at Luoyang and forced Emperor Hui to move to the west.)


方素與長安富人郅輔親善,以爲帳下督。顒參軍河間畢垣,嘗爲方所侮,因說顒曰:「張方久屯霸上,聞山東兵盛,盤桓不進,宜防其未萌。其親信郅輔具知其謀。」繆播、繆胤復說顒:「宜急斬方以謝,山東可不勞而定。」顒使人召輔,垣迎說輔曰:「張方欲反,人謂卿知之。王若問卿,何辭以對?」輔驚曰:「實不聞方反,爲之柰何?」垣曰:「王若問卿,但言爾爾;不然,必不免禍。」輔入,顒問之曰:「張方反,卿知之乎?」輔曰:「爾。」顒曰:「遣卿取之,可乎?」又曰:「爾。」顒於是使輔送書於方,因殺之。輔旣昵於方,持刀而入,守閣者不疑。方火下發函,輔斬其頭。還報,顒以輔爲安定太守。送方頭於越以請和;越不許。

3. Now Zhang Fang had long been friends with a rich man of Chang'an, Zhi Fu, and he employed Zhi Fu as a Commander of his personal tent.

One of Sima Yong's Army Advisors, Bi Yuan, had once suffered harm because of Zhang Fang. So he now took the opportunity to advise Sima Yong, "Zhang Fang has been camped at Bashang for a long time. Even hearing about the great movements of the soldiers east of the mountains, Zhang Fang still lingers and does not advance. He is plotting something, and you should provide against it. His trusted fellow Zhi Fu knows about his plot."

And Mou Bo and Mou Yin also urged Sima Yong, "You should behead Zhang Fang by way of apology, and then the forces east of the mountains will settle down of their own accord."

So Sima Yong sent someone to summon Zhi Fu. When Zhi Fu arrived, Bi Yuan welcomed him and said to him, "Zhang Fang is planning to rebel, and people say that you know about it. If the Prince asks you about it, what do you plan to say?"

Zhi Fu, astonished, replied, "I truly have heard nothing about Zhang Fang rebelling. How could that be?"

Bi Huan said, "If the Prince asks you about it, you must tell him, 'Indeed, indeed.' Otherwise, you will not escape disaster."

Zhi Fu was then brought in to see Sima Yong, who asked him, "Zhang Fang plans to rebel; do you know about it?"

Zhi Fu replied, "Indeed."

Sima Yong continued, "If I send you to deal with him, can you do it?"

Zhi Fu again replied, "Indeed."

So Sima Yong sent Zhi Fu to visit Zhang Fang's camp bearing a letter from Sima Yong, so that Zhi Fu would have an opportunity to kill Zhang Fang. Since Zhi Fu was a friend to Zhang Fang, even when he entered Zhang Fang's tent bearing a sword, the guards did not suspect anything. When Zhi Fu gave Zhang Fang the letter, Zhang Fang moved under the fire to open the envelope, and Zhi Fu then cut off his head. He returned to Chang'an and reported the deed, and Sima Yong appointed him as Administrator of Anding.

Sima Yong sent Zhang Fang's head to Sima Yue, hoping for peace. But Sima Yue would not permit it.

〈《方傳》云:初,方從山東來,甚微賤,郅輔厚相供給;及貴,甚親昵之。〉〈顒遣方與呂朗會劉喬攻許,方屯霸上未進而劉喬敗。馬融曰:盤桓,旋也。〉〈爾爾,猶言如此如此也。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「於」下有「司空」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(The Biography of Zhang Fang in the Book of Jin states, "Before, when Zhang Fang came to Chang'an from east of the mountains, he was extremely short of funds. Zhi Fu hosted him and kept him supplied. Zhang Fang thus honored Zhi Fu, and became very intimate with him."

Sima Yong had ordered Zhang Fang and Lü Lang to join together with Liu Qiao to attack Xuchang. But Zhang Fang had remained camped at Bashang and had not advanced, and then Liu Qiao was defeated.

Ma Rong remarked, "The idiom 'coiled-up' means to linger."

Bu Huan tells Zhi Fu to respond "爾爾 indeed, indeed", in the sense of "just so, just so."

Some versions further clarify that Sima Yue was still the Minister of Works.)


宋冑襲河橋,樓褒西走。平昌公模遣前鋒督護馮嵩會宋冑逼洛陽。成都王穎西奔長安,至華陰,聞顒已與山東和親,留不敢進。呂朗屯滎陽,劉琨以張方首示之,遂降。司空越遣祁弘、宋冑、司馬纂帥鮮卑西迎車駕,以周馥爲司隸校尉、假節,都督諸軍,屯澠池。

4. Sima Mo's general Song Zhou attacked Heqiao, and Lou Bao was driven away to the west. Sima Mo sent his Vanguard Protector Feng Du to join with Song Zhou and threaten Luoyang.

Sima Ying retreated west back towards Chang'an. But when he reached Huayin County, he heard that Sima Yong had already arranged peace with Sima Yue's coalition, so he stopped there and dared not go any further.

Lü Lang was camped at Xingyang, but when Liu Kun showed him Zhang Fang's head, he surrendered.

On the day Jiazi (?), Sima Yue sent Qi Hong, Song Zhou, and Sima Zuan to lead the Xianbei soldiers west to welcome the return of the imperial carriage. He appointed Zhou Fu as Colonel-Director of Retainers, Credential Holder, and Commander of the armies, and stationed him at Mianchi.

〈華陰縣,前漢屬京兆,後漢、晉屬弘農郡,唐屬華州。〉〈【章;甲十一行本「司」上有「甲子」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉

(During Former Han, Huayin County was part of Jingzhao commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Hongnong commandary. During Tang, it was part of Huazhou.

Some versions state that Sima Yue made this appointments "on the day Jiazi (?)".)


三月,惤令劉伯根反,衆以萬數,自稱惤公。王彌帥家僮從之,柏根以彌爲長史,彌從父弟桑爲東中郎將。柏根寇臨淄,青州都督高密王略使劉暾將兵拒之;暾兵敗,奔洛陽,略走保聊城。王浚遣將討柏根,斬之。王彌亡入長廣山爲羣盜。

5. In the third month, the Prefect of Jian County, Liu Bogen, began a rebellion. He assembled an army of more than ten thousand, and declared himself the Duke of Jian.

It was earlier mentioned that Wang Mi was a local brave fellow of that region. Wang Mi now led his family and servants to join Liu Bogen, who appointed Wang Mi as his Chief Clerk and appointed his cousin Wang Sang as his General of the Household Gentlemen of the East.

Liu Bogen invaded Linzi. The Commander of Qingzhou and Prince of Gaomi, Sima Lue, sent Liu Tun to lead soldiers to resist Liu Bogen. But Liu Tun's men were defeated, and he fled to Luoyang, while Sima Lue fell back to guard Liucheng.

Wang Jun sent his generals to attack Liu Bogen, and they killed him. Wang Mi fled to Mount Changguang and became a bandit leader.

〈【章:甲十一行本「伯」作「柏」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈惤縣,自漢以來屬東萊郡,拓跋魏省。魏收《地形志》:東牟郡黃縣有惤城。〉〈青州都督治所。〉〈聊城縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬平原郡,唐爲博州治所。〉〈長廣縣,前漢屬琅邪郡,後漢屬東萊郡。晉武帝咸寧三年,置長廣郡,長廣縣屬焉。隋廢長廣郡及縣,更名膠水縣;唐屬萊州。〉

(Some versions write the first instance of Liu Bogen's name in this passage as 柏根 instead of 伯根, to match all other instances which have 柏根.

Ever since Han, Jian County had been part of Donglai commandary. It was abolished by Northern Wei. Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "Jian County was in Huang County in Dongmou commandary."

Linzi was the administrative capital of Qingzhou.

During Han, Liucheng County was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Pingyuan commandary. During Tang, it was administered by Bozhou.

During Former Han, Changguang County was part of Langye commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Donglai commandary. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) third year of Xianning (277), he created Changguang commandary, with Changguang County as a part of it. Sui abolished Changguang commandary and county, renaming it to Jiaoshui County. During Tang, it was part of Laizhou.)


寧州頻歲饑疫,死者以十萬計。五苓夷強盛,州兵屢敗。吏民流入交州者甚衆,夷遂圍州城。李毅疾病,救援路絕,乃上疏言:「不能式遏寇虐,坐待殄斃。若不垂矜恤,乞降大使,及臣尚存,加臣重辟;若臣已死,陳尸爲戮。」朝廷不報。積數年,子[李]釗自洛往省之,未至,毅卒。毅女秀,明達有父風,衆推秀領寧州事。秀獎厲戰士,嬰城固守。城中糧盡,炙鼠拔草而食之。伺夷稍怠,輒出兵掩擊,破之。

6. During the last few years, there had been great famine in Ningzhou, and the dead numbered in the hundreds of thousands. The tribes of Wuling had grown strong, and they defeated the soldiers of the province several times. A great number of the provincial officers fled to Jiaozhou, and the tribes laid siege to the cities of the province.

The Inspector of Ningzhou, Li Yi, had become ill. Seeking assistance to help clear the roads, he sent up a petition to the court stating, "I am unable to deal with these cruel invaders, and can do no more than sit here and wait for death. If you are not heedless of my plight, then I beg you to send someone to take over the command. If I am still alive by then, I will accept the heavy fault I deserve. If I have already died, then display my body as my punishment."

But the court made no response to this petition. After several years, Li Zhao was sent from Luoyang to assist Ningzhou, but before he could arrive, Li Yi had already died.

Li Yi had a daughter, Li Xiu, who possessed understanding and had her father's reputation. So the people all acclaimed her as the new leader of Ningzhou's affairs. Li Xiu hired many fierce warriors, and then withdrew into a city to hold out. When the food inside the city was exhausted, the people cooked rats and pulled up grass and ate those. They would wait for the tribesmen to become complacent; whenever they were, the soldiers sallied forth from the city to attack the tribesmen and routed them.

〈五苓夷反,事始上卷太安二年。〉〈《考異》曰:《懷帝紀》:「永嘉元年五月,建寧郡夷攻陷寧州,死者三千餘人。」《李雄載記》曰:「南夷李毅固守不降,雄誘建寧夷使討之。毅病卒,城陷,殺壯士三千餘人,送婦女千口於成都。」《王遜傳》云:「李毅卒,城中奉毅女固守經年。」《華陽國志》有毅卒年月及女秀守城事,今從之。〉

(The beginning of the rebellion of the tribes of Wuling against Ningzhou is mentioned in Book 85, in the second year of Tai'an (303.31).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the fifth month of the first year of Yongjia (307), the tribes of Jianning commandary attacked and plundered Ningzhou, killing more than three thousand people.' The Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'The Colonel of Southern Man Tribes, Li Yi, held out in his city and would not surrender. Li Xiong enticed the tribes of Jianning to attack Li Yi. Li Yi died, and his city fell; more than three thousand fighting men were killed, and a thousand of their wives and daughters were sent to Chengdu.' The Biography of Wang Xun in the Book of Jin states, 'When Li Yi died, the people inside the city acclaimed his daughter as their leader, and she led the defense of the city for some years.' But the Huayang Guozhi lists the specific month and year of Li Yi's death and Li Xiu's defense of the city, and so I follow its account.")


The text states that “子釗 Zi Zhao” was sent from Luoyang to assist Ningzhou. The 子 Zi is likely meant to be 李 Li, because a Li Zhao is mentioned as arriving in Ningzhou below, in 307.34.

范長生詣成都,成都王雄門迎,執版,拜爲丞相,尊之曰范賢。

7. The hermit Fan Changsheng came to visit Chengdu. The King of Chengdu, Li Xiong, welcomed him at the gate of the city, presented him with the tablet of an official, and appointed him as his Prime Minister. He honored Fan Changsheng, calling him "Fan the Worthy".

〈自青城山詣成都也。〉

(Fan Changsheng had come from Mount Qingcheng to visit Chengdu.)


夏,四月,己巳,司空越引兵屯溫。初,太宰顒以爲張方死,東方兵必可解。旣而東方兵聞方死,爭入關,顒悔之,乃斬郅輔,遣弘農太守彭隨、北地太守刁默將兵拒祁弘等於湖。五月,壬辰,弘等擊隨、默,大破之,遂西入關,又敗顒將馬瞻、郭偉於霸水,顒單馬逃入太白山。弘等入長安,所部鮮卑大掠,殺二萬餘人,百官奔散,入山中,拾橡實食之。己亥,弘等奉帝乘牛車東還。以太弟太保梁柳爲鎭西將軍,守關中。六月,丙辰朔,帝至洛陽,復羊后。辛未,大赦,改元。

8. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Jisi (May 12th), Sima Yue led his troops to camp at Wen.

Up until now, Sima Yong had believed that by killing Zhang Fang, the eastern forces would certainly end the war. But instead, when they heard that Zhang Fang was dead, they all raced one another to enter Guanzhong. Sima Yong regretted what he had done, and he beheaded Zhi Fu. He sent the Administrator of Hongnong, Peng Sui, and the Administrator of Beidi, Diao Mo, to lead soldiers to oppose Qi Hong and Sima Yue's other allies at Hu.

In the fifth month, on the day Renchen (June 4th), Qi Hong and the others attacked Peng Sui and Diao Mo and greatly routed them. They continued their advance into Guanzhong, and defeated Sima Yong's generals Ma Zhan and Guo Wei at the Ba River. Sima Yong fled on a lone horse to Mount Taibai.

When Qi Hong and the others entered Chang'an, all of their Xianbei soldiers sacked the city, killing more than twenty thousand people. The court officials all ran away and scattered, fleeing into the mountains and gathering acorns to eat.

On the day Jihai (June 11th), Qi Hong and the others put Emperor Hui in an ox-drawn cart and brought him back east. The Grand Guardian to the Crown Younger Brother, Liang Liu, was appointed as General Who Guards The West and left to defend Guanzhong.

In the sixth month, on the new moon of the day Bingchen (June 28th), Emperor Hui arrived at Luoyang, and Yang Xianrong was once again restored to her position as Empress. On the day Xinwei (July 13th), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to Guangxi.

〈《三秦記》:太白山,在武功縣南,去長安三百里。俗云「武功太白,去天三百。」《新唐書‧地理志》:太白山在鳳翔府郿縣。〉〈橡,栩實也。《爾雅》曰:柞實謂之橡。賢曰:橡,櫟實也。〉〈《晉志》曰:古之貴者不乘牛車。漢武帝推恩之後,諸侯寡弱,至乘牛車,其後稍見貴重,自靈帝以來,天子至士,遂以爲常乘。夫天子出入有大駕、法駕、鹵簿,帝自鄴奔洛,則乘犢車,自長安還洛,則乘牛車,無復出警入蹕之制矣。〉〈《考異》曰:《后傳》曰:「張方首至洛陽,卽日復后位。」按方傳首已久,不至今日。今從《帝紀》。〉〈改元光熙。〉

(The Records of the Three Qins Region states, "Mount Taibai is in the south of Wugong County, three hundred li from Chang'an. It is a common saying that 'Taibai in Wugong is three hundred li from Heaven'." The Geographical Records in the New Book of Tang states, "Mount Taibai is in Mei County in the Fengxiang Garrison Post."

The oak tree is a fruit-bearing tree. The Erya dictionary states, "The fruit of the oak tree is called the acorn." Li Xian remarked, "The acorn is the product of the oak tree."

The Records of Jin states, "The honored people of ancient times did not use ox-drawn carts. But when Emperor Wu of Han wished to spread his grace to future generations, seeing that the nobles were all poor and destitute, he used a ox-drawn cart, in order to give such a thing a sense of honor and respect thereafter. From the time of Emperor Ling on down, when the Emperor had need to travel, this was a common means of his conveyance." Now when the Son of Heaven came or went somewhere, he had his grand carriage, lawful carriage, and 鹵簿 to use. When Emperor Hui fled from Ye to Luoyang, he used a calf-drawn cart, and when he now returned from Chang'an to Luoyang, he used an ox-drawn cart, and there was no word sent ahead to clear the road for the sake of the Emperor.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Empress Yang Xianrong in the Book of Jin states, 'When Zhang Fang's head arrived at Luoyang, Yang Xianrong was restored as Empress the very same day.' Now it had already been some time between Zhang Fang's head being sent out and the day listed here, so it cannot have been the same day. So I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

It was at this time that the reign era title became Guangxi.)


馬瞻等入長安,殺梁柳,與始平太守梁邁共迎太宰顒於南山。弘農太守裴廙、秦國內史賈龕、安定太守賈疋等起兵擊顒,斬馬瞻、梁邁。疋,詡之曾孫也。司空越遣督護麋晃將兵擊顒,至鄭,顒使平北將軍牽秀屯馮翊。顒長史楊騰,詐稱顒命,使秀罷兵,騰遂殺秀,關中皆服於越,顒保城而已。

9. Ma Zhan and Sima Yong's other commanders returned to Chang'an and killed Liang Liu. They joined together with the Administrator of Shiping, Liang Mai, to welcome Sima Yong's return from the southern hills.

The Administrator of Hongnong, Pei Yi, the Interior Minister of the Qin princely fief, Jia Kan, the Administrator of Anding, Jia Ya, and others all raised up troops and attacked Sima Yong, and they killed Ma Zhan and Liang Mai. This Jia Ya was the great-grandson of Jia Xu.

Sima Yue sent his Protector Mi Huang to lead troops to attack Sima Yong. When they reached Mei, Sima Yong sent the General Who Pacifies The North, Qian Xiu, to camp at Pingyi. Sima Yong's Chief Clerk, Yang Teng, forged an order from Sima Yong commanding Qian Xiu to disperse his soldiers. After he had done so, Yang Teng then killed Qian Xiu.

All of Guanzhong now submitted to Sima Yue, and only Sima Yong in his lone city still resisted.

〈武帝泰始二年,分扶風,置始平郡,領槐里、始平、武功、鄠、蒯城等縣。南山卽太白山。中南、太白,本一山也。〉〈帝卽位,改扶風爲秦國,以封秦王柬。疋,音雅。賈詡生於漢末,始從李傕、郭汜,中從張繡,後歸魏。〉〈《考異》曰:《牽秀傳》云:「顒密遣使就東海王越求迎,越遣將麋晃等迎顒。」今從《顒傳》。〉〈顒僅保長安城。〉

(In Sima Yan's second year of Taishi (266), he had split off part of Fufeng commandary and formed Shiping commandary. It was made up of the counties of Huaili, Shiping, Wugong, Hu, Kuaicheng, and others.

The "southern hills" meant Mount Taibai. Mount Zhongnan and Mount Taibai were the same mountain.

After Emperor Hui had come to the throne, he had converted Fufeng commandary into the Qin princely fief, and bestowed that title upon Sima Jian.

Jia Ya's given name 疋 is pronounced "ya". Jia Xu was born during the end of the Han dynasty. He first followed Li Jue and Guo Si, later advised Zhang Xiu, and in the end served Cao-Wei.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Qian Xiu in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yong secretly sent word to welcome the arrival of Sima Yue, who then sent his generals Mi Huang and others to receive Sima Yong.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Yong."

Sima Yong's "lone city" was Chang'an, which he was still defending.)


成都王雄卽皇帝位,大赦,改元曰晏平,國號大成。追尊父特曰景皇帝,廟號始祖;尊王太后曰皇太后。以范長生爲天地太師;復其部曲,皆不豫征稅。諸將恃恩,互爭班位,尚書令閻式上疏,請考漢、晉故事,立百官制度;從之。

10. Li Xiong now assumed the imperial title. He issued a general amnesty, changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanping, and declared the name of his state as Cheng. He posthumously honored his father Li Te as Emperor Jing, with the temple name Shizu, and he honored his mother the Queen Dowager as Empress Dowager. He appointed Fan Changsheng as the Grand Instructor of Heaven and Earth, and granted Fan Changsheng his own followers, who were not subject to taxation or labor.

The various Cheng generals, relying upon the favor they had been shown up until now, all fought with one another to get positions. The Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yan Shi, sent up a petition asking that they be tested according to the precedents of Han and Jin, and that the imperial offices be set up to control them. Li Xiong followed his recommendations.

〈雄,字仲雋,特第三子。〉〈《考異》曰:《晉‧帝紀》、《三十國》、《晉春秋》,皆云:「永興二年六月,雄卽帝位。」《華陽國志》:「光熙元年,雄卽帝位。」《後魏書‧序紀》及《李雄傳》,皆云「昭帝十二年,雄稱帝,」卽光熙元年也。《十六國春秋鈔》:「晏平元年六月,雄卽帝位。」《十六國春秋目錄》,雄年號,建興二,晏平五,與《華陽國志》同,今從之。諸書,雄改元晏平,無大武年號;惟《晉‧載記》改元大武,無晏平年號。按雄國號大成。《魏書‧雄傳》云:「雄稱帝,號大成,改元晏平。」故《三十國春秋》誤云「改年大成」,《載記》轉寫,誤爲「大武」。今從諸書去「大武」之號。〉〈雄母羅氏,尊爲王太后,見上卷永興元年。〉〈太師乃有天地之號,侯景未足多怪也。羣盜私立名字以相署置,可勝言哉!《考異》曰:《華陽國志》:「尊長生曰四時八節天地太師。」今從《晉‧載記》。〉

(Li Xiong, styled Zhongjuan, was the third son of Li Te.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin, the Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms, and the Annals of Jin all state, 'In the sixth month of the second year of Yongxing (305), Li Xiong assumed the imperial title.' The Huayang Guozhi states, 'In the first year of Guangxi (306), Li Xiong assumed the imperial title.' The Preceding Annals of the Book of Northern Wei and the Biography of Li Xiong in that text both state, 'In Emperor Zhao's twelfth year, Li Xiong declared himself Emperor.' That would have been the first year of Guangxi (306). The Notes of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms states, 'In the sixth month of the first year of Yanping, Li Xiong assumed the imperial title.' According to the table of contents in that text, for Li Xiong's reign eras, it lists two years for Jianxing and five years for Yanping, the same as the Huayang Guozhi. So I follow their accounts.

"All of the texts I have just mentioned state that Li Xiong changed the reign era title to Yanping, and they make no mention of a Dawu reign era. Only the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that he named the reign era Dawu, and it does not mention a Yanping reign era. Now Li Xiong had named his state, properly, 大成 Great Cheng. The Biography of Li Xiong in the Book of Northern Wei states, 'When Li Xiong declared himself Emperor, 號大成改元晏平 he named his state Great Cheng, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Yanping.' The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms must have mistakenly copied this as '改年大成 he changed the reign era to Dacheng.' Then the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, keeping that error, compounded it by writing 大武 Dawu, as though he had declared a Dawu reign era. So I follow the accounts of the other texts and ignore this Dawu business."

Li Xiong's mother Lady Luo had earlier been honored as Queen Dowager, as seen in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.27).

Not only does he name Fan Changsheng as Grand Instructor, but he even adds on the title "of Heaven and Earth". Even Hou Jing would not have gone that far. These bandits, all picking their own names and styles and granting one another appointments. If only words could kill!

Sima Guang's commentary further states, "The Huayang Guozhi states, 'Li Xiong honored Fan Changsheng, calling him the Grand Instructor of Heaven, Earth, the Four Seasons, and the Eight Equinoxes.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.")


秋,七月,乙酉朔,日有食之。

11. In autumn, the ninth month, on the new moon of the day Yiyou (?), there was an eclipse.

八月,以司空越爲太傅,錄尚書事;范陽王虓爲司空,鎭鄴;平昌公模爲鎭東大將軍,鎭許昌;王浚爲驃騎大將軍、都督東夷‧河北諸軍事,領幽州刺史。越以吏部郎庾敳爲軍諮祭酒,前太弟中庶子胡母輔之爲從事中郎,黃門侍郎郭象爲主簿,鴻臚丞阮脩爲行參軍,謝鯤爲掾。輔之薦樂安光逸於越,越亦辟之。敳等皆尚虛玄,不以世務嬰心,縱酒放誕;敳殖貨無厭,象薄行,好招權;越皆以其名重於世,故辟之。

12. In the eighth month, Sima Yue was appointed as Grand Tutor and Chief of the Masters of Writing. Sima Xiao was appointed as the new Minister of Works in place of Sima Yue, and he was stationed at Ye. Sima Mo was appointed as Grand General Who Guards The East, and stationed at Xuchang. Wang Jun was appointed as Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Commander over the eastern tribes and the military affairs of Hebei, and acting Inspector of Youzhou.

Sima Yue recruited several people to his official staff. He appointed the Gentleman of the Secretariat, Yu Ai of Yingchuan, as Army Libationer-Consultant. The former 中庶子 to the Crown Younger Brother, Humu Fuzhi, was appointed as Attendant Officer of the Palace Gentlemen. The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Guo Yu of Henan, was appointed as Registrar. The Minister of the Heralds Bureau, Ruan Xiu, was appointed as Assistant Army Advisor, with Xie Kun as his deputy. Humu Fuzhi recommended Guang Yi of Le'an to Sima Yue, so Sima Yue summoned him as well.

These people, Yu Ai and the rest, were all men who were falsely esteemed as virtuous; they cared nothing for the affairs of the age, preferring to indulge in wine and act outrageously. Yu Ai amassed more and more money without ever being satisfied, and Guo Yu acted frivolously, delighting in grasping at power and influence. Sima Yue recruited these men because they had a certain reputation during that era.

〈《考異》曰:《虓傳》「爲司徒」,今從《帝紀》。〉〈浚恃鮮卑、烏桓以爲羽翼,故使幷督東夷諸軍。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「庾」上有「潁川」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈漢、魏之間,兵興,始置軍諮祭酒。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「郭」上有「河南」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈晉列卿各置丞。行參軍,在參軍事之下。沈約《志》:晉太傅司馬越府有行參軍、兼行參軍,後加「長兼」字。除拜則爲參軍事,府版則爲行參軍。行參軍始於蜀丞相諸葛亮府。〉〈《姓譜》:光姓,燕人田光之後,秦末,子孫避地,因以爲氏。〉〈史言越所辟置,采虛名而無實用。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Sima Xiao in the Book of Jin states that he was appointed as 'Minister Over The Masses' at this time. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin."

Wang Jun relied upon the Xianbei and the Wuhuan to serve as the wings of his army, and so he was here given command authority over all of the forces of the eastern tribes.

Some versions state that Yu Ai was "of Yingchuan" and Guo Yu was "of Henan".

During Han and Cao-Wei, when tribes were raised, the post of Army Libationer-Consultant was also created.

Jin's exceptional ministerial bureaus all had the post of Minister.

The Assistant Army Advisor handled the subordinate affairs of an Army Advisor. Shen Yue's Annotations states, "Sima Yue's staff as Grand Tutor had the posts of Assistant Army Advisor and Concurrent Assistant Army Advisor, later called the 'Chief Concurrent'. In addition to his staff having Army Advisors, other household affairs were handled by these Assistant Army Advisors. This post was an innovation of the staff household of Shu-Han's Prime Minister Zhuge Liang."

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 光 Guang are the descendants of Tian Guang ot the ancient state of Yan. During the collapse of the Qin dynasty, his descendants fled from that region, and they took Guang as their surname."

This passage demonstrates how Sima Yue recruited such people just because of their empty reputations, though they had no real use.)


祁弘之入關也,成都王穎自武關奔新野。會新城元公劉弘卒,司馬郭勱作亂,欲迎穎爲主;郭舒奉弘子璠以討勱,斬之。詔南中郎將劉陶收穎。穎北渡河,奔朝歌,收故將士,得數百人,欲走公師藩,頓丘太守馮嵩執之,送鄴;范陽王虓不忍殺而幽之。公師藩自白馬南渡河,兗州刺史苟晞討斬之。

13. After Qi Hong entered Guanzhong, Sima Ying fled from Wuguan to Xinye.

At that time, Liu Hong had just passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Yuan ("the Foremost") of Xincheng.

Liu Hong's former Marshal Guo Mai had now become a rebel, and he wanted to welcome Sima Ying to become his leader. But Liu Hong's former 治中, Guo Shu of Shunyang, brought Liu Hong's son Liu Fan with him to campaign against Guo Mai, and he killed Guo Mai.

An imperial edict was issued ordering the General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Liu Tao, to arrest Sima Ying. So Sima Ying fled north across the Yellow River and went to Zhaoge, where he rounded up some of his former officers and soldiers, several hundred in all. He planned to go join the forces of the rebel leader Gongshi Fan, who had risen up on his behalf. But in the ninth month, the Administrator of Dunqiu, Feng Song, arrested Sima Ying and sent him to Ye. Sima Xiao could not bear to kill Sima Ying, so he only kept him under house arrest.

Gongshi Fan marched south from Baima and crossed the Yellow River, but the Inspector of Yanzhou, Gou Xi, attacked and killed him.

〈新野縣,漢屬南陽郡,晉屬義陽郡。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「郭」上有「治中順陽」四字;乙十一行同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉〈【章:甲十一行本「頓」上有「九月」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈頓丘縣,漢屬東郡;武帝泰始元年,分置郡。〉〈白馬縣,漢屬東郡,晉屬濮陽國,唐爲滑州治所。〉

(During Han, Xinye County was part of Nanyang commandary. During Jin, it was part of Yiyang commandary.

Some versions state that Guo Shu was "the 治中, Guo Shu of Shunyang".

Some versions state that Feng Song arrested Sima Ying "in the ninth month".

During Han, Dunqiu County was part of Dong commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), he split it off as Dunqiu commandary.

During Han, Baima County was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was part of the Puyang princely fief. During Tang, it was administered by Zhouzhi.)


進東嬴公騰爵爲東燕王,平昌公模爲南陽王。

14. Sima Teng was promoted from Duke of Dongying to Prince of Dongyan, and Sima Mo was promoted from Duke of Pingchang to Prince of Nanyang.

冬,十月,范陽王虓薨。長史劉輿以穎素爲鄴人所附,祕不發喪,僞令人爲臺使稱詔,夜,賜穎死,幷殺其二子。穎官屬先皆逃散,惟盧志隨從,至死不怠,收而殯之。太傅越召志爲軍諮祭酒。

15. In winter, the tenth month, Sima Xiao passed away.

His Chief Clerk, Liu Yi, knew that the people of Ye had long been attached to Sima Ying, so he kept Sima Xiao's death a secret and did not hold a mourning for him. He ordered men to forge an edict from the capital to use as a pretext for what he was about to do. During the night, he bestowed death upon Sima Ying, and killed his two sons.

By the time of his death, Sima Ying's officials and subordinates who had been with him before had all ran off and scattered. Only Lu Zhi stayed with him until the end and fulfilled his duties until Sima Ying had died. Lu Zhi then claimed Sima Ying's body and buried him.

Sima Yue summoned Lu Zhi to serve as another of his Army Libationer-Consultants.

〈【章:甲十一行本「以」下有「成都王」三字字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(Some versions specify again that Sima Ying was "Prince of Chengdu".)


越將召劉輿,或曰:「輿猶膩也,近則汚人。」及至,越疏之。輿密視天下兵簿及倉庫、牛馬、器械、水陸之形,皆默識之。時軍國多事,每會議,自長史潘滔以下,莫知所對,輿應機辨畫,越傾膝酬接,卽以爲左長史,軍國之務,悉以委之。輿說越遣其弟琨鎭幷州,以爲北面之重;越表琨爲幷州刺史,以東燕王騰爲車騎將軍、都督鄴城諸軍事,鎭鄴。

16. Sima Yue was going to summon Liu Yu to serve him too, but someone told him, "Liu Yu is still a greasy fellow; anyone who is close to him gets dirty." So when Liu Yu arrived, Sima Yue kept him at arm's length.

Liu Yu quietly observed all of the records of the realm: the troop registries, the warehouse records, the livestock accounts, the equipment lists, and the lay of the land and the rivers. All of these things he committed to memory. At that time, there were so many affairs consuming the army and the state that whenever a council was held to discuss matters, no one from the Chief Clerk Pan Tao on down could be sure of what they should say. But Liu Yu was able to interpret everything and devise the necessary plans for them, and this won Sima Yue over to him. He appointed Liu Yu as his Chief Clerk of the Left, and all matters of the army and the state were given over to him.

Liu Yu advised Sima Yue to send his younger brother Liu Kun to garrison Bingzhou, since he recognized the importance of the northern border. So Sima Yue petitioned to have Liu Kun appointed as Inspector of Bingzhou to relieve Sima Teng, who he requested be appointed as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Commander of military affairs in Ye and sent to garrison Ye instead.

〈皮膚之垢,其肥滑者爲膩。〉〈識,音志,記也。〉〈辨者,辨析事宜;畫者,爲之區畫也。〉

(Among the ways that skin can be filthy, when it is slick like fat, that is called being greasy.

To commit to memory meant to memorize or to remember.

The passage says that Liu Yu could 辨畫. To 辨 meant to interpret and understand affairs; to 畫 meant to create and devise plans.)


十一月,己巳,夜,帝食䴵中毒,庚午,崩于顯陽殿。羊后自以於太弟熾爲嫂,恐不得爲太后,將立清河王覃。侍中華混諫曰:「太弟在東宮已久,民望素定,今日寧可易乎!」卽露版馳召太傅越,召太弟入宮。后已召覃至尚書閤,疑變,託疾而返。癸酉,太弟卽皇帝位,大赦,尊皇后曰惠皇后,居弘訓宮;追尊母王才人曰皇太后;立妃梁氏爲皇后。

17. In the eleventh month, during the night of the day Jisi (January 7th of 307), Emperor Hui ate some flour cakes that had poison in them. On the day Gengwu (January 8th of 307), he passed away in the Xianyang Hall.

Since Empress Yang Xianrong was only the Crown Younger Brother's sister-in-law, she feared that she would not be able to become Empress Dowager. So she was about to place the Prince of Qinghe, Sima Tan, on the throne instead. But the Palace Attendant Hua Hun rebuked her, saying, "The Crown Younger Brother has already resided in the Eastern Palace for this long, and the people have been accustomed to his succession. How can you change that today?"

And he sent out notices summoning Sima Yue and Crown Younger Brother Sima Chi to the palace. By then, Yang Xianrong had already summoned Sima Tan to the office of the Masters of Writing. Afraid that something might happen, she pleaded illness and went back.

On the day Guiyou (January 11th of 307), Sima Chi rose to the throne (as Emperor Huai). A general amnesty was declared.

Yang Xianrong was honored with the title Empress Hui, and she was sent to reside in the Hongxun Palace. Emperor Huai posthumously honored his mother, the Talented Lady Wang, as Empress Dowager, and he honored his concubine Lady Liang as Empress.

〈䴵,麪餈也。《釋名》:䴵,幷也,溲麪使合幷也。蒸䴵、湯䴵之屬,隨形而名。食䴵中毒,或云越鴆之也。〉〈年四十八。〉〈熾立爲皇太弟,見上卷永興元年。〉

(The thing that Emperor Hui ate was a 䴵; this is a flour cake. The Shiming dictionary states, "A 䴵 is a cake, one washed in flour and combined together. The steamed 䴵 and boiled 䴵 are types of this cake, named for their forms." As for the cakes having poison in them, some say that Sima Yue poisoned them.

Emperor Hui was forty-seven when he died.

Sima Chi's appointment as the Crown Younger Brother is mentioned in Book 85, in the first year of Yongxing (304.35).)


懷帝始遵舊制,於東堂聽政,每至宴會,輒與羣官論衆務,考經籍。黃門侍郎傅宣歎曰:「今日復見武帝之世矣!」

18. From the beginning, Emperor Huai followed the old traditions. He listened to the affairs of governance in the Eastern Chamber, and even during feasts, he always discussed government policies with the ministers and reviewed the classic texts. The Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Fu Xuan, sighed in admiration, "We are finally back to the days of Emperor Wu (Sima Yan)!"

〈東堂,太極殿東堂也。〉

(The Eastern Chamber was the one in the Taiji Hall.)


十二月,壬午朔,日有食之。

19. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Renwu (January 20th of 307), there was an eclipse.

太傅越以詔書徵河間王顒爲司徒,顒乃就徵。南陽王模遣其將梁臣邀之於新安,車上扼殺之,幷殺其三子。

20. Sima Yue issued an edict summoning Sima Yong to serve as Minister Over The Masses. So Sima Yong answered the summons. But Sima Mo sent his general Liang Chen to intercept Sima Yong at Xin'an. He strangled Sima Yong in his carriage, and also killed his three sons.

〈模,越之弟也。意謂殺顒父子則兄弟身安而無患矣,而不知石勒、趙染之禍已伏於冥冥之中矣。新安縣,漢屬弘農郡,晉屬河南郡。《考異》曰:《三十國》、《晉春秋》云「東海王越殺顒」,今從《顒傳》。〉

(Sima Mo was the younger brother of Sima Yue. Sima Yue wanted to kill Sima Yong and his sons to ensure the safety of himself and his brothers and remove any future threat. Little did he know that the danger of Shi Le and Zhao Ran was already lying in wait.

During Han, Xin'an County was part of Hongnong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Henan commandary.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both state, 'Sima Yue killed Sima Yong'. But I follow the account of the Biography of Sima Yong in the Book of Jin.")


辛丑,以中書監溫羨爲左光祿大夫,領司徒;尚書左僕射王衍爲司空。

21. On the day Xinchou (February 8th of 307), the Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Wen Xian, was appointed as Household Counselor with Golden Tassel of the Left and acting Minister Over The Masses. The Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Wang Yan, was appointed as Minister of Works.

乙酉,葬惠帝于太陽陵。

22. On the day Yiyou (January 23rd of 307), Emperor Hui was buried at Taiyang Tomb.

劉琨至上黨,東燕王騰卽自井陘東下。時幷州饑饉,數爲胡寇所掠,郡縣莫能自保。州將田甄、甄弟蘭、任祉、祁濟、李惲、薄盛等及吏民萬餘人,悉隨騰就穀冀州,號爲「乞活」,所餘之戶不滿二萬;寇賊縱橫,道路斷塞。琨募兵上黨,得五百人,轉鬬而前。至晉陽,府寺焚毀,邑野蕭條,琨撫循勞徠,流民稍集。

23. When Liu Kun arrived at Bingzhou to take up his post there, Sima Teng went east from Jingxing to go to Ye.

At this time, Bingzhou was suffering from famine and crop failure, and the tribes had plundered it many times. None of the commandaries or counties knew whom they could turn to for protection. Many of the provincial generals, including Tian Zhen, his brother Tian Lan, Ren Zhi, Qi Ji, Li Yun, and Bao Sheng, as well as more than ten thousand of the officials of the province, followed after Sima Teng to seek grain in Jizhou; they were called the "Lifeseekers".

Of those who remained behind in Bingzhou, there were not even twenty thousand households left. Invaders and bandits had their way with the province, and the roads and paths were all cut off and blocked. Liu Kun recruited soldiers at Shangdang, gathering five hundred men, and then pressed on into the province. When he arrived at Jinyang, the bureaus and ministries were all burned down, and the towns and countryside were all bleak and barren. Liu Kun provided aid and comfort, and so a few of the various refugees began to gather around him.

〈胡寇,謂劉淵之黨也。〉〈州將,謂幷州諸將也。〉〈聚居城市爲邑。散居在外爲野。〉

("The tribes" meant Liu Yuan's people.

"The provincial generals" meant those of Bingzhou.

Those places with houses gathered around the marketplace were the towns; those places with scattered dwelling places were the countryside.)
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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 2:19 am

孝懷皇帝上

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Huai


〈諱熾,字豐度,武帝第二十五子也。《諡法》:慈仁短折曰懷。

(Sima Chi, styled Fengdu, was Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) twenty-fifth son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who, being kind and benevolent, has their life cut short, may be called Huai ('the Cherished').")


永嘉元年(丁卯、三○七)

The First Year of Yongjia (The Dingmao Year, 307 AD)


春,正月,癸丑,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Guichou (February 20th), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Yongjia.

吏部郎周穆,太傅越之姑子也,與其妹夫御史中丞諸葛玫說越曰:「主上之爲太弟,張方意也。清河王本太子,公宜立之。」越不許。重言之,越怒,斬之。

2. The Gentleman of the Secretariat, Zhou Mu, was Sima Yue's cousin. He and the Minister of the Middle of the Imperial Secretaries, his brother-in-law Zhuge Mei, advised Sima Yue, "It was originally Zhang Fang's idea to make our new sovereign into the Crown Younger Brother. The Prince of Qinghe (Sima Tan) was the original Crown Prince. Lord, you should place him on the throne instead."

But Sima Yue would not hear of it. And when they continued to press him, he became angry and executed them.

〈成都王穎之廢,河間王顒立帝爲皇太弟,故以爲張方之意。〉〈清河王,齊王冏立爲太子,經廢者數矣。〉

(After Sima Ying had been deposed as Crown Younger Brother, Sima Yong had appointed Sima Chi as the new Crown Younger Brother. This was why Zhou Mu and Zhuge Mei say that "it was Zhang Fang's idea".

Sima Tan had first been appointed as Crown Prince by Sima Jiong when he was in power, although since then he had been through a string of deposals and restorations to that title.)


二月,王彌寇青、徐二州,自稱征東大將軍,攻殺二千石。太傅越以公車令東萊鞠羨爲本郡太守,以討彌,彌擊殺之。

3. In the second month, Wang Mi of Donglai invaded Qingzhou and Xuzhou. He declared himself the Grand General Who Conquers The East, and he attacked and killed those officials of Two Thousand 石 salary rank.

Sima Yue appointed the Director of the Ducal Carriage, Ju Xian of Donglai, as the Administrator of Donglai, and sent him to campaign against Wang Mi. But Wang Mi attacked and killed him.

〈【張:「月」下脫「東萊」二字。】〉〈《晉志》,公車令,屬衞尉。〉

(Some versions specify that Wang Mi was "of Donglai".

According to the Records of Jin, the Director of the Ducal Carriage was subordinate to the Commandant of the Guards.)


陳敏刑政無章,不爲英俊所附;子弟凶暴,所在爲患;顧榮、周玘等憂之。廬江內史華譚遺榮等書曰:「陳敏盜據吳、會,命危朝露。諸君或剖符名郡,或列爲近臣,而更辱身姦人之朝,降節叛逆之黨,不亦羞乎!吳武烈父子皆以英傑之才,繼承大業。今以陳敏凶狡,七弟頑宂,欲躡桓王之高蹤,蹈大皇之絕軌,遠度諸賢,猶當未許也。皇輿東返,俊彥盈朝,將舉六師以清建業,諸賢何顏復見中州之士邪!」榮等素有圖敏之心,及得書,甚慚,密遣使報征東大將軍劉準,使發兵臨江,己爲內應,剪髮爲信。準遣揚州刺史劉機等出歷陽討敏。

4. It was earlier mentioned that Chen Min had turned rebel and taken control of the Southland. But in his administration of justice and of state affairs, he kept to no standards, so he could not win over the heroic and the talented people of that region. His sons and younger brothers were wild and wicked, and they all menaced the land. Gu Rong, Zhou Qi, and the other respectable people were all concerned about the situation.

The Interior Minister of Lujiang, Hua Tan, wrote a letter to Gu Rong and the others, stating, "Chen Min has stolen and occupied the lands of Wu and Kuaiji, but his rule will be as brief as the morning dew. Gentlemen, some of you have accepted his seals of authority in the commandaries, and some of you have even become his close ministers and shamed yourselves by serving in the court of a wicked fellow. Is it not disgraceful for you to abandon lawful authority and join ranks with a traitor?

"Now Wulie of Wu (Sun Jian) and his sons were all heroes of great talent, continuing the great endeavor of state one after the other. But this Chen Min is a violent and paranoid man, and his seven younger brothers are all stupid and worthless. Yet they want to follow in the great footsteps of Prince Huan (Sun Ce) when he conquered the Southland, and trample on the authority of the Emperor. But the worthy people keep away from him, and they will not go along with his schemes.

"I warn you, the imperial carriage has returned east again, and the imperial court is filled with abundant talents and excellent officials. They will soon raise the six armies to come pacify Jianye. Gentlemen, why do you not once more submit yourselves to the Central Provinces?"

Gu Rong and the others had already long planned to act against Chen Min, and when they received this letter, they were deeply ashamed. So they secretly sent word to inform the actual Grand General Who Conquers The East, Liu Zhun, to tell him about their plot. They asked him to send his soldiers to the banks of the Yangzi, while they would act from within, and they all cut their hair as a pledge of faith. So Liu Zhun ordered the Inspector of Yangzhou, Liu Ji, and others to march out of Liyang to campaign against Chen Min.

〈言若朝露之棲草上,見日卽晞,不得久也。〉〈吳諡孫堅曰武烈皇帝。〉〈孫策追諡長沙桓王,孫權諡大皇帝。〉〈謂自長安還洛陽也。〉〈才過千人曰俊。彥,美士也。〉

(Morning dew lingers for a time on branches and grasses, but when the sun comes out, it does not last for long.

Eastern Wu had posthumously named Sun Jian as Emperor Wulie ("the Martial and Fierce"). Sun Ce was posthumously named as Prince Huan ("the Mighty") of Changsha, and Sun Quan as the Grand Emperor.

Hua Tan was saying that the imperial court had returned from Chang'an to Luoyang.

One whose talent surpasses a thousand men is called 俊. A 彥 is an excellent official.)


敏使其弟廣武將軍昶將兵數萬屯烏江,歷陽太守宏屯牛渚。敏弟處知顧榮等有貳心,勸敏殺之,敏不從。

5. Chen Min sent his General of 廣武, his younger brother Chen Chang, to lead several tens of thousands of soldiers to camp at Wujiang, and his Administrator of Lujiang, his younger brother Chen Hong, to camp at Niuzhu.

Another younger brother, Chen Chu, knew that Gu Rong and the others were of two minds about their situation, and he urged Chen Min to kill them, but Chen Min would not agree.

〈沈約《志》:廣武將軍,晉江左置。蓋始於此時。晉置烏江縣,屬淮南郡,卽烏江亭長檥船待項羽之地以名縣。宋白曰:烏江縣,漢東城縣地,晉太康六年,始於東城界置烏江縣。〉〈《考異》曰:《敏傳》云:「弟昶勸殺榮。」按《晉春秋》:「敏臨死謂處曰:『我負卿!』」時昶已先死。今從《晉春秋》。〉

(Shen Yue's Records states, "General of 廣武 was a Jin office beyond the Yangzi." It was first created at this time.

Jin had created Wujiang County, as part of Huainan commandary. It was named for the place where the Mayor of Wujiang Village had berthed his vessels to wait for Xiang Yu. Song Bai remarked, "Wujiang County was Han's Dongcheng County. In Jin's sixth year of Taikang (285), Wujiang County was created within Dongcheng County."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Chen Min in the Book of Jin states, 'His younger brother Chen Chang urged him to kill Gu Rong.' But in the Annals of Jin it states, 'When Chen Min was on the brink of death, he told Chen Chu, "I have failed you!"' By that time, Chen Chang was already dead. So I follow the account of the Annals of Jin.")


昶司馬錢廣,周玘同郡人也,玘密使廣殺昶,宣言州下已殺敏,敢動者誅三族。廣勒兵朱雀橋南;敏遣甘卓討廣,堅甲精兵悉委之。顧榮慮敏之疑,故往就敏。敏曰:「卿當四出鎭衞,豈得就我邪!」榮乃出,與周玘共說甘卓曰:「若江東之事可濟,當共成之。然卿觀茲事勢,當有濟理不?敏旣常才,政令反覆,計無所定,其子弟各已驕矜,其敗必矣。而吾等安然坐受其官祿,事敗之日,使江西諸軍函首送洛,題曰『逆賊顧榮、甘卓之首』,此萬世之辱也!」卓遂詐稱疾,迎女,斷橋,收船南岸,與玘、榮及前松滋侯相丹楊紀瞻共攻敏。

6. Now Chen Chang's Marshal, Qian Guang, was from the same commandary as Zhou Qi. So Zhou Qi secretly arranged for Qian Guang to kill Chen Chang. Qian Guang then said that the provincial subordinates at Jianye had already killed Chen Min, so that anyone who dared to act against him would have their families killed to the third degree. He brought his soldiers south of Zhuque Bridge. Chen Min sent Gan Zhuo to march against Qian Guang, and all of the sturdy armor and elite soldiers were given over to him.

Gu Rong was worried that Chen Min suspected him, so he asked to remain close at hand. But Chen Min told him, "Sir, you ought to be going ought to protect and guard the four corners of the realm. What point is there in staying here with me?"

Thus reassured, Gu Rong went out, and he and Zhou Ju both advised Gan Zhuo, "If this empire of the Southland could be realized, then we would all achieve it together. But since you can see the current situation for yourself, do you think it is logical that the endeavor can succeed? Chen Min is a man of common talents, and in governing he goes against all that is proper. His plans cannot settle anything, and his sons and younger brothers are all arrogant and proud. His defeat is certain.

"How then can you and the others here work on his behalf? If we are defeated this day, the armies on the north side of the Yangzi will put our heads in a box and send them off to Luoyang, and people will say, 'These are the heads of the vile traitors Gu Rong and Gan Zhuo.' Would that not be a shame that lasts ten thousand generations?"

So Gan Zhuo pretend to be sick until his daughter could be brought to him. Then he broke the bridge, gathered up all the boats on the southern bank, and then went to attack Chen Min, together with Zhou Qi, Gu Rong, and the former Chancellor to the Marquis of Songzi, Yang Ji.

〈揚州刺史治建業,故謂建業爲州下。〉〈朱雀橋在建業宮城之南,跨秦淮水。世傳晉孝武建朱雀門,上有兩銅雀,故橋亦以此得名。余謂朱雀橋自吳以來有之,蓋取前朱雀之義,非晉孝武之寺有此名也。朱雀橋,亦曰大桁。〉〈謂鎭安人心,乃所以衞敏也。〉〈江西諸軍謂劉準所遣臨江者也。〉〈橋,卽朱雀橋也。建業城在秦淮水北,故卓收船傍南岸。〉〈松滋縣,屬廬江郡,後漢省;晉屬安豐郡。劉昫曰:唐壽州霍山縣,漢松滋縣地。今江陵府松滋縣,乃是吳樂鄕之地,晉氏南渡後,以松滋流民僑立松滋縣,非古松滋也。〉

(The Inspector of Yangzhou administered his territory from Jianye, and so the "provincial subordinates" would be at Jianye.

Zhuque Bridge was south of the palace walls of Jianye, over the Taihuai River. Legend has it that Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) had built the Zhuque Gate, which had two bronze sparrows on it, and this bridge was named Zhuque ("Vermillion Sparrow" Bridge) for the same reason. But I, Hu Sanxing, say that the Zhuque Bridge had existed from the time of Eastern Wu, and it must have gained that name from some earlier source, not from what Emperor Wu had done. The Zhuque Bridge was also called the Daheng Bridge.

Chen Min meant for Gu Rong to guard and reassure the people's hearts, in order to provide security for Chen Min himself.

The "armies on the north side of the Yangzi" were those that Liu Zhun had sent to the banks of the Yangzi.

The bridge that Gan Zhuo destroyed was the Zhuque Bridge. The walls of Jianye were north of the Taihuai River, so Gan Zhuo rounded up all the boats that had been on the southern bank of that river.

Songzi County had been part of Lujiang commandary, but it was abolished during Later Han. During Jin, it was part of Anfeng commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "Huoshan County in Tang's Shouzhou was where Han's Songzi County was. The Songzi County that is in the modern Jiangling Garrison Post was originally Eastern Wu's Lexiang County. When the Jin royal family moved south of the Yangzi, the refugees from the original Songzi County converted Lexiang into a new Songzi County, but it was not the original.")


敏自帥萬餘人討卓,軍人隔水語敏衆曰:「本所以戮力陳公者,正以顧丹楊、周安豐耳;今皆異矣,汝等何爲!」敏衆狐疑未決,榮以白羽扇揮之,衆皆潰去。敏單騎北走,追獲之於江乘,歎曰:「諸人誤我,以至今日!」謂弟處曰:「我負卿,卿不負我!」遂斬敏於建業,夷三族。於是會稽等郡盡殺敏諸弟。

7. Chen Min himself led more than ten thousand men to attack Gan Zhuo.

A man in the army, Ge Shui, amonished Chen Min's soldiers by saying, "It was Gu of Danyang and Zhou of Anfeng that had supported Lord Chen to begin with. Now even they are against him. What can you all hope to do?"

Chen Min's soldiers were thus uncertain and could not decide what to do. Gu Rong then waved a white feather fan to disperse them, and the soldiers all scattered and ran away.

Chen Min fled on a lone horse to the north, but he was overtaken and captured at the Yangzi. He lamented, "These people have misled me until the very end!" And he said to his brother Chen Chu, "I have failed you; you did not fail me!"

Chen Min was beheaded at Jianye, and his family was killed to the third degree. Kuaiji and the other commandaries killed all of Chen Min's younger brothers.

〈敏以顧榮爲丹楊太守,周玘爲安豐太守,故以稱之。〉〈白羽扇,編白羽爲之。〉〈謂不用處言殺顧榮等也。〉

(Chen Min had appointed Gu Rong as Administrator of Danyang and Zhou Qi as Administrator of Anfeng, thus they are addressed here.

A white feather fan was a fan made of gathered white feathers.

Chen Min was lamenting that he had not followed Chen Chu's advice to kill Gu Rong and the others before.)


時平東將軍周馥代劉準鎭壽春。三月,己未朔,馥傳敏首至京師。詔徵顧榮爲侍中,紀瞻爲尚書郎。太傅越辟周玘爲參軍,陸玩爲掾。玩,機之從弟也。榮等至徐州,聞北方愈亂,疑不進,越與徐州刺史裴盾書曰:「若榮等顧望,以軍禮發遣!」榮等懼,逃歸。盾,楷之兄子,越妃兄也。

8. At this time, the General Who Pacifies The East, Zhou Fu, replaced Liu Zhun and was stationed at Shouchun. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Jiwei (April 27th), Zhou Fu sent Chen Min's head on to the capital.

An edict was issued summoning Gu Rong to serve in Luoyang as a Palace Attendant, and Ji Zhan to serve as a Gentleman of the Masters of Writing. And Sima Yue summoned Zhou Qi as an Army Advisor, with Lu Wan as his subordinate. This Lu Wan was the cousin of Lu Ji.

As Gu Rong and the others were passing through Xuzhou, they heard about the rising turmoil in the north, and they were inclined not to go any further. Sima Yue sent a letter to the Inspector of Xuzhou, Pei Dun, stating, "If Gu Rong and the others linger, they are to be driven out by military means!" Now even further frightened, Gu Rong and the others fled back to the Southland. This Pei Dun was the nephew of Pei Kai, and the older brother of Sima Yue's concubine.

西陽夷寇江夏,太守楊珉請督將議之。諸將爭獻方略,騎督朱伺獨不言。珉曰:「朱將軍何以不言?」伺曰:「諸人以舌擊賊,伺惟以力耳。」珉又問:「將軍前後擊賊,何以常勝?」伺曰:「兩敵共對,惟當忍之;彼不能忍,我能忍,是以勝耳。」珉善之。

9. The tribes of Xiyang invaded Jiangxia. The Administrator of Jiangxia, Yang Min, called a council of his commanders to discuss what should be done. His generals all fought to offer their own plans and strategies, and only the Cavalry Commander Zhu Xi remained silent.

Yang Min asked him, "General Zhu, why do you not speak?"

Zhu Xi replied, "The others are fighting the enemy using their wagging tongues. I only have my strength to offer."

Yang Min further asked him, "General, when you fight your enemies, how do you usually defeat them?"

Zhu Xi replied, "When two enemies fight each other, the winner is whoever can take it. They can't take it, and I can. That's how I win."

Yang Min approved of his words.

〈西陽縣,春秋弦子之國,漢爲縣,屬江夏郡,晉屬弋陽郡。漢和帝永元末,巫蠻反,討降之,徙置江夏西陽諸蠻是也。沈約曰:晉惠帝分弋陽爲西陽國。劉昫曰:吳分江夏,置蘄春郡,晉改爲西陽郡,唐蘄州卽其地。宋白曰:光州光山縣,本漢西陽縣。〉〈伺,相吏翻。〉〈凡戰非有智巧以出奇取勝,而以力角力者,莫過於朱伺之說矣。〉

(Xiyang County was the ancient state of Xianxi during the Spring and Autumn era. Han made it a county, as part of Jiangxia commandary. During Jin, it was part of Yiyang commandary. At the end of Emperor He of Han's Yongyuan era (~105), the Wu Man tribes revolted. After they were defeated and surrendered, they were relocated to the various Man tribes in Xiyang in Jiangxia commandary. Shen Yue remarked, "Emperor Hui of Jin split off the Xiyang vassal state from Yiyang commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "Eastern Wu split off part of Jiangxia commandary and created Qichun commandary. Jin renamed this commandary to Xiyang. During Tang, the area was within Qizhou." Song Bai remarked, "Guanghan County in Guangzhou was originally Han's Xiyang County."

Zhu Xi's given name 伺 is pronounced "xi (x-i)".

Many brilliant and ingenious plans are devised in order to win battles. But they always ultimately come down to a contest of strength, and no one has ever put this better than Zhu Xi.)


詔追復楊太后尊號;丁卯,改葬之,諡曰武悼。

10. An edict was issued posthumously restoring the late Empress Dowager Yang Zhi to her former title. On the day Dingmao (May 5th), she was reburied, and granted the posthumous name Empress Wudao ("the Grieved").

〈楊后遇禍,見八十二卷惠帝元康元年。〉

(Yang Zhi's ill treatment and improper burial are mentioned in Book 82, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yuankang (291.8 and 292.1).)


庚午,立清河王覃弟豫章王詮爲皇太子。辛未,大赦。

11. On the day Gengwu (May 8th), the Prince of Yuzhang, Sima Tan's younger brother Sima Quan, was chosen as Crown Prince. On the day Xinwei (May 9th), a general amnesty was declared.

帝觀覽大政,留心庶事;太傅越不悅,固求出藩。庚辰,越出鎭許昌。

12. Emperor Huai oversaw and (or, personally) reflected upon the major affairs of state, and he carefully considered public affairs. Sima Yue was displeased by this, and so he asked to go out to a border post. On the day Gengchen (May 18th), he went out to garrison Xuchang.

〈【章:甲十一行本「觀」作「親」;乙十一行本同;張校同。】〉〈爲越殺繆播等張本。〉

(Some versions phrase the first sentence as "personally".

This was why Sima Yue later killed Mou Bo and the others.)


以高密王略爲征南大將軍,都督荊州諸軍事,鎭襄陽;南陽王模爲征西大將軍,都督秦、雍、梁、益諸軍事,鎭長安;東燕王騰爲新蔡王,都督司、冀二州諸軍事,仍鎭鄴。

13. Sima Lue was appointed as Grand General Who Conquers The South and Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou, and sent to guard Xiangyang. Sima Mo was appointed as Grand General Who Conquers The West and Commander of military affairs in Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Yizhou, and sent to guard Chang'an. Sima Teng had his princely title changed to Prince of Xincai; he was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Sizhou and Jizhou, and kept on at Ye.

〈【章:甲十一行本「諸」上有「四州」二字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈去年騰自幷州徙鎭鄴。〉

(Some versions clarify that Sima Mo was Commander of "the four provinces" of Qinzhou, Yongzhou, Lianzhou, and Yizhou.

Sima Teng had moved from Bingzhou to Ye in the previous year.)


公師藩旣死,汲桑逃還苑中,更聚衆劫掠郡縣,自稱大將軍,聲言爲成都王報仇;以石勒爲前驅,所向輒克,署勒討虜將軍,遂進攻鄴。時鄴中府庫空竭,而新蔡武哀王騰資用甚饒。騰性吝嗇,無所振惠,臨急,乃賜將士米各數升,帛各丈尺,以是人不爲用。夏,五月,桑大破魏郡太守馮嵩,長驅入鄴,騰輕騎出奔,爲桑將李豐所殺。桑出成都王穎棺,載之車中,每事啓而後行。遂燒鄴宮,火旬日不滅;殺士民萬餘人,大掠而去。濟自延津,南擊兗州。太傅越大懼,使苟晞及將軍王讚討之。

14. Now that the Hebei rebel leader Gongshi Fan was dead, his follower Ji Sang fled back to his former pastures, where he once again gathered more men and pillaged the local counties and commandaries. He declared himself Grand General, and said that he was seeking revenge for Sima Ying. He appointed Shi Le as the leader of his vanguard. Because Shi Le was always successful, Ji Sang further appointed him as General Who Routs (or, Sweeps) The Caitiffs, and he advanced to attack Ye.

At this time, the government warehouses at Ye were already empty and exhausted, yet Sima Teng still spent lavishly. Sima Teng was normally a miserly fellow, uninclined to be generous. But when danger approached, then he would give out several 升 of rice to all of his officers and even great lengths of silk, believing that the people could not use them.

In summer, the fifth month, Ji Sang greatly routed the Administrator of Wei commandary, Feng Song. He followed up on this victory to march into Ye. Sima Teng fled the city on a light horse, but he was killed by Ji Sang's general Li Feng. He was posthumously known as Prince Wu'ai ("the Martial and Lamented") of Xincai.

Ji Sang dug up Sima Ying's coffin and placed it on a cart; whenever he had some decision to make, he would first inform the coffin, and only afterwards implement it.

He set fire to the palaces at Ye, and the fires raged for ten days without burning out. His army killed more than ten thousand people and sacked the city before leaving.

Ji Sang crossed the Yellow River at Yan Crossing and marched south to attack Yanzhou. Sima Yue was greatly afraid, and he sent Gou Xi and the general Wang Zan to campaign against Ji Sang.

〈茌平牧苑也,桑於此起兵赴公師藩,藩死,逃還。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「討」作「掃」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈穎之死也,盧志收殯之,今桑出而載之。〉〈袁紹據鄴,始營宮室,魏武帝又增而廣之,至是悉爲灰燼矣。〉

(It was at the horse pastures in Chiping that Ji Sang first raised soldiers and went to join Gongshi Fan. With Gongshi Fan being dead, Ji Sang fled back to this place.

Some versions have Shi Le's title here as General Who "Sweeps" The Caitiffs.

When Sima Ying had died, Lu Zhi had buried his coffin; Ji Sang now dug it up and took it with him.

When Yuan Shao had occupied Ye, he was the first to build palaces there. Emperor Wu of Cao-Wei (Cao Cao) had added to and expanded these palaces. It was at this time that they were burned to ashes.)


秦州流民鄧定、訇氐等據成固,寇掠漢中,梁州刺史張殷遣巴西太守張燕討之。鄧定等飢窘,詐降於燕,且賂之,燕爲之緩師。定密遣訇氐求救於成,成主雄遣太尉離、司徒雲、司空璜將兵二萬救定,與燕戰,大破之,張殷及漢中太守杜孟治棄城走。稍十餘日,離等引還,盡徙漢中民於蜀。漢中人句方、白落帥吏民還守南鄭。

15. Refugees in Qinzhou, Deng Ding, Hong Di, and others, occupied Chenggu. They invaded and pillaged Hanzhong commandary. The Inspector of Lianzhou, Zhang Yin, ordered the Administrator of Baxi, Zhang Yan, to campaign against them. Deng Ding and the others, left in hunger and distress, pretended to surrender to Zhang Yan. They also bribed him, so that Zhang Yan agreed to delay his march against them.

Then Deng Ding secretly sent Hong Di to ask for help from the Cheng state in the Shu region. Li Xiong sent his Grand Commandant, Li Li, his Minister Over The Masses, Li Yun, and his Minister of Works, Li Huang, to lead twenty thousand soldiers to come assist Deng Ding and the others. They fought Zhang Yan and greatly routed him. Zhang Yin and the Administrator of Hanzhong, Du Mengzhi, abandoned their cities and fled.

Over the course of more than ten days, Li Li and the other Cheng commanders moved the entire population of Hanzhong commandary with them back south into Cheng. Two natives of Hanzhong, Gou Fang and Zi Luo, led the officials of that commandary back to guard Nanzheng commandary.

〈余謂訇姓,氐名。〉〈句,古侯翻,姓也。梁州刺史、漢中太守俱治南鄭。杜佑曰:漢漢中郡故城,在唐梁州南鄭縣東北。〉

(I, Hu Sanxing, say that 訇 Hong is a surname and 氐 is a given name. 句 Gou, pronounced "gou (g-ou)", is also a surname.

The Inspector of Lianzhou and the Administrator of Hanzhong both governed their territories from Nanzheng. Du You remarked, "The capital city of Han's Hanzhong commandary was in the northeast of Nanzheng County in Tang's Lianzhou.")


石勒與苟晞等相持於平原、陽平間數月,大小三十餘戰,互有勝負。秋,七月,己酉朔,太傅越屯官渡,爲晞聲援。

16. Shi Le was locked in stalemate for several months with Gou Xi and the other Jin commanders at Pingyuan and Yangping. They fought more than thirty battles, large and small, and both sides had their share of victories and defeats.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Jiyou (August 15th), Sima Yue camped at Guandu in order to provide Gou Xi with any necessary reinforcements.

己未,以琅邪王睿爲安東將軍、都督揚州‧江南諸軍事、假節,鎭建業。

17. On the day Jiwei (August 25th), Sima Rui was appointed as General Who Maintains The East, Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou south of the Yangzi, and Credential Holder, and he was stationed in Jianye.

〈時周馥鎭壽春,督揚州之江北,故睿督揚州之江南。《考異》曰:《元帝紀》曰:「東海王越之收兵下邳,以帝都督揚州;越西迎大駕,留帝居守。永嘉初,用王導計,始鎭建業。」按旣都督揚州,不當猶鎭下邳。又《懷帝紀》,明言「七月己未,睿都督揚州,鎭建業」,今從之。〉

(At this time, Zhou Fu was stationed in Shouchun and was Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou north of the Yangzi; this was why Sima Rui was appointed Commander for military affairs in Yangzhou south of the Yangzi.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) in the Book of Jin states, 'Sima Yue was then gathering soldiers at Xiapi, and he appointed Sima Rui as Commander of Yangzhou. When Sima Yue went back west to welcome the return of the imperial carriage to Luoyang, he left Sima Rui in charge of that post. At the beginning of the Yongjia era (307), Sima Rui used Wang Dao's plan, and he first stationed himself in Jianye.' But seeing as Sima Rui was Commander of Yangzhou, he could not have still been guarding Xiapi. And the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin clearly states, 'In the seventh month, on the day Jiwei (August 25th), Sima Rui was appointed as Commander of Yangzhou and stationed in Jianye.' So I follow that account.")


八月,己卯朔,苟晞擊汲桑於東武陽,大破之。桑退保清淵。

18. In the eighth month, on the new moon of the day Jimao (September 14th), Gou Xi attacked Ji Sang at Dongwuyang County and greatly routed him. Ji Sang retreated to defend Qingyuan County.

〈東武陽縣,漢屬東郡,魏、晉屬陽平郡,後魏去「東」字爲武陽縣。唐貞觀初,廢武陽入魏州莘縣,開元七年,復置,改爲朝城縣。杜佑曰:魏郡莘縣南有東武陽城。〉〈清淵縣,漢屬魏郡。應劭曰:清河在縣西北。晉屬陽平郡,後魏分置臨清縣;後齊廢臨清縣入清淵。唐避高祖諱,改清淵爲臨清,屬貝州。〉

(During Han, Dongwuyang County was part of Dong commandary. During Cao-Wei and Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Northern Wei removed the "Dong" part of the name, making it simply Wuyang County. At the beginning of Tang's Zhenguan era (~627), Wuyang County was annexed into Shen County in Weizhou. In the seventh year of the Kaiyuan era (719), it was recreated as Zhaocheng County. Du You remarked, "There is a Dongwuyang City in the south of Shen County in Wei commandary."

During Han, Qingyuan County was part of Wei commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "The Qing River was in the northwest of the county." During Jin, it was part of Yangping commandary. Northern Wei split off part of it as Linqing County, but Northern Qi annexed that back into Qingyuan County. During Tang, in order to avoid the naming taboo on Gaozu's (Li Yuan's) name, the whole county name was changed to Linqing. It was part of Beizhou.)


分荊州、江州八郡爲湘州。

19. Eight commandaries from Jingzhou and Jiangzhou were split off to form Xiangzhou.

〈《晉志》:帝分荊州之衡陽、長沙、湘東、零陵、邵陽、桂陽及廣州之始安、始興、臨賀九郡,置湘州。《帝紀》曰:分荊、江八郡爲湘州。《紀》、《志》自相抵牾。此從《紀》。沈約亦曰:分荊州之長沙、衡陽、湘東、邵陵、零陵、營陽、建昌,江州之桂陽八郡,立湘州。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Emperor split off Hengyang, Changsha, Xiangdong, Lingling, Shaoyang, and Guiyang commandaries from Jingzhou and Shi'an, Shixing, and Linhe commandaries from Guangzhou, and from these nine commandaries formed Xiangzhou." The Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, "He split off eight commandaries from Jingzhou and Jiangzhou to form Xiangzhou." These two accounts naturally contradict each other. This passage of Zizhi Tongjian follows the latter account. And Shen Yue also remarked, "They split off the commandaries of Changsha, Hengyang, Xiangdong, Shaoling, Lingling, Yingyang, and Jianchang from Jingzhou and Guiyang commandary from Jiangzhou, and from these eight commandaries formed Xiangzhou.")


九月,戊申,琅邪王睿至建業。睿以安東司馬王導爲謀主,推心親信,每事咨焉。睿名論素輕,吳人不附,居久之,士大夫莫有至者,導患之。會睿出觀禊,導使睿乘肩輿,具威儀,導與諸名勝皆騎從,紀瞻、顧榮等見之驚異,相帥拜於道左。導因說睿曰:「顧榮、賀循,此土之望,宜引之以結人心;二子旣至,則無不來矣。」睿乃使導躬造循、榮,二人皆應命而至。以循爲吳國內史;榮爲軍司,加散騎常侍,凡軍府政事,皆與之謀議。又以紀瞻爲軍祭酒,卞壼爲從事中郎,周玘爲倉曹屬,琅邪劉超爲舍人,張闓及魯國孔衍爲參軍。壼,粹之子;闓,昭之曾孫也。王導說睿:「謙以接士,儉以足用,以清靜爲政,撫綏新舊;故江東歸心焉。」睿初至,頗以酒廢事;導以爲言。睿命酌,引觴覆之,於此遂絕。

20. In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 13th), Sima Rui arrived at Jianye. Sima Rui appointed his Marshal, Wang Dao, as his chief advisor; he confided in Wang Dao and become very close to him, and he consulted Wang Dao on every matter.

Now Sima Rui had long been regarded as a man of little importance, and the people of the Wu region were not inclined to support him. Even after Sima Rui had been there for some time, none of the great gentlemen of the region would come serve under him. Wang Dao was greatly vexed by this.

At that time, Sima Rui was going out to observe a ritual of purification on the waterfront. Wang Dao had Sima Rui ride on a sedan chair, fitted out to display his power and majesty, while Wang Dao and several other esteemed fellows all rode horses behind him. When Ji Zhan, Gu Rong, and others saw this procession, they were astonished and marveled at it, and they led their people to salute Sima Rui by the side of the road.

Wang Dao then advised Sima Rui, "Gu Rong and He Xun are the great hope of these people. You should bring them over to you and win their hearts. Once you have these two, then there is no one else who will not come to you."

So Sima Rui sent Wang Dao to personally speak to He Xun and Gu Rong, and both of them heeded Sima Rui's command and came to join him. Sima Rui appointed He Xun as Interior Minister of the princely fief of Wu, and he appointed Gu Rong as Marshal to the Army and Cavalier In Regular Attendance. In all military or government matters, both of them were consulted and asked for their suggestions.

Sima Rui aso appointed Ji Zhan as Army Libationer (or, Libationer-Consultant), Bian Ken as Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Zhou Qi as Assistant Granary Manager, Liu Chao of Langye as a Retainer, and Zhang Kai and Kong Yan of the Lu princely fief as Army Advisors. This Bian Ken was the son of Bian Cui; this Zhang Kai was the great-grandson of Zhang Zhao.

Wang Dao advised Sima Rui, "Be modest when meeting with people, and be thrifty and only use what you need to. In this way, you may govern purely and cleanly, and you will reassure both the old residents of this region and the new. That will win you the hearts of the people of the Southland."

When Sima Rui had first arrived at Jianye, he was inclined to drink and to ignore his duties. But by such admonishments, Wang Dao rectified his behavior. Sima Rui had some wine brought to him, and then he deliberately overturned the cup and spilled the wine, thus breaking off his drinking habit.

〈禊,祓除不祥也。《漢儀》:季春上巳,官及百姓皆禊於東流水上。應劭《風俗通》曰:按《周禮》,女巫掌歲時以祓除疾病。禊者,潔也,於水上盥潔之也。肩輿,平肩輿也,人以肩舉之而行。〉〈《考異》曰:《導傳》曰:「元帝鎭建康,居月餘,士庶莫有至者。會從兄敦來朝,導謂之曰:『琅邪王仁德雖厚,而名論猶輕;兄威風已振,宜有以匡濟者。』會三月上巳,帝觀禊,敦、導皆騎從。」《王敦傳》:「東海王越誅繆播後,乃以敦爲揚州刺史,其後徵拜尚書,不就。」《周玘傳》:「錢璯聞劉聰逼洛陽,不敢進,乃謀反。時王敦遷尚書,與璯俱西,欲殺敦,敦奔告元帝。」《懷帝紀》:「永嘉元年七月,琅邪王睿鎭建業。三年三月,殺繆播。四年二月,錢璯反。」是時睿在建業已三年矣,安得言月餘!又睿名論雖輕,安有爲都督數年而士庶莫有至者!陳敏得江東,猶首用周、顧以收人望;導爲睿佐,豈得待數年然後薦之乎!然則《導傳》所云,難以盡信,今删去導語及敦名而已。〉〈軍司,軍司馬也。〉〈職爲軍司,此加官也。〉〈【張:「軍」下脫「諮」字。】〉〈壼,苦本翻。〉〈晉諸王國有謁者四人,中大夫六人,舍人十人。〉〈卞粹見上卷惠帝太安二年。〉〈張昭輔吳爲元臣。〉〈新,謂自中原來者;舊,謂江東人。〉〈史言元帝能用王導所以興於江左。〉

(To purify means to purge all that is ill-omened. The Ceremonies of Han states, "On the day of the Double Third Festival, which is the third day of the third month of spring, the ministers and the common people all purify themselves in east-flowing waters." Ying Shao's Customs and Traditions states, "According to the Rites of Zhou, witches will choose a time each year to purify and cure illnesses. To purify means to clean oneself, by washing oneself in the the river."

A sedan chair is a chair hoisted on a flat board, held aloft on the shoulders of men who then walk forward.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Wang Dao in the Book of Jin states, 'When Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) was stationed at Jiankang (Jianye), he had been there for more than a month already, and yet none of the great gentlemen of the region had come to serve under him. At that time, Wang Dao's cousin Wang Dun arrived from the court. Wang Dao said to him, "The Prince of Langye (Sima Rui) is a benevolent and virtuous man even after all the favor he has been shown, and yet people do not think him of much importance. Cousin, you have already gained considerable power and prestige; you may help me to rectify this situation." It was then the Double Third Festival in the third month, and when Emperor Yuan went to attend the purification festival, Wang Dun and Wang Dao rode behind him.'

"The Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin states, 'After Sima Yue executed Mou Bo, he appointed Wang Dun as the Administrator of Yangzhou. Some time after Wang Dun had left for that post, Sima Yue summoned him back to serve in Luoyang as a Master of Writing, but Wang Dun would not return.'

"The Biography of Zhou Qi in the Book of Jin states, 'When Qian Hui heard that Liu Cong was threatening Luoyang, he dared not advance any further, and he even plotted to rebel himself. At that time, Wang Dun had left his post as a Master of Writing and gone west together with Qian Hui. Qian Hui now wanted to kill Wang Dun, but he fled and informed Emperor Yuan about it.'

"Regarding these three incidents, the Annals of Emperor Huai in the Book of Jin states, 'In the seventh month of the first year of Yongjia (307), Sima Rui was stationed at Jianye." And, 'In the third month of the third year (309), Mou Bo was killed.' And, 'In the second month of the fourth year (310), Qian Hui rebelled.'

"If we accept all of the three biography entries as correct, then by the time that Wang Dun arrived in the Southland, Sima Rui would have been in Jianye for three years already, so how could the phrase 'more than a month' in the Biography of Wang Dao possibly be correct? And no matter how unimportant Sima Rui had been considered, how could he possibly have held Commander authority for several years and still not have had any gentlemen come to serve him? Even when Chen Min took control of the Southland, he was still able to use Zhou Qi and Gu Rong to bring esteemed people over to him. Besides, Wang Dao was Sima Rui's close advisor, so how could he have waited for several years before recommending such a thing to win people over to Sima Rui? It is thus difficult to believe everything that the Biography of Wang Dao records about this incident. Therefore, I have removed the mentions of Wang Dun and of Wang Dao's words to him, while keeping the rest."

A 軍司 was a Marshal to the Army.

Gu Rong was given his post as Cavalier In Regular Attendance in addition to his post as Marshal to the Army.

Some versions state that Ji Zhan was appointed as "Army Libationer-Consultant".

Bian Ken's given name 壼 is pronounced "ken (k-en)".

In their princely fiefs, the Princes of Jin had four Internuncios, six Household Counselors, and ten Retainers.

Bian Cui was one of the plotters with Li Han who attempted to assassinate Sima Ai. He is mentioned in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (303.12).

Zhang Zhao was a chief minister during Eastern Wu.

By "the new residents and the old", Wang Dao refers to those people who had come to the Southland from the Central Plains and those who were from established families of the south.

This passage demonstrates how Sima Rui was able to use Wang Dao in order to establish his rise in the Southland.)


苟晞追擊汲桑,破其八壘,死者萬餘人。桑與石勒收餘衆,將奔漢,冀州刺史譙國丁紹邀之於赤橋,又破之。桑奔馬牧,勒奔樂平。太傅越還許昌,加苟晞撫軍將軍、都督青‧兗諸軍事,丁紹寧北將軍、監冀州諸軍事,皆假節。

21. Gou Xi pursued and attacked Ji Sang, and broke through his eight ramparts, killing more than ten thousand enemies. Ji Sang and Shi Le gathered up their remaining men and fled towards Liu Yuan's Han state. But the Inspector of Jizhou, Ding Shao of the Qiao princely fief, intercepted them at Chiqiao and routed them again. Ji Sang fled back to the horse pastures, while Shi Le fled to Leping.

Sima Yue then returned to Xuchang. He appointed Gou Xi as General Who Nurtures The Army and Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou and Yanzhou, and he appointed Ding Shao as General Who Tranquilizes The North and Chief of military affairs in Jizhou. Both of them were also appointed as Credential Holders.

〈茌平馬牧也。〉〈《晉志》,陽平郡有樂平縣,前漢東郡之清縣也,後漢章帝改曰樂平。但石勒欲奔漢,則非此樂平也。又幷州有樂平郡,武帝泰始中置,唐之遼州也;勒奔于此。〉

(The "horse pastures" were the ones at Chiping.

According to the Records of Jin, there was a Leping County in Yangping commandary. During Former Han, it was Zhiqing County in Dong commandary. Its name was changed during Later Han by Emperor Zhang to Leping. But seeing as Shi Le meant to flee to Liu Yuan's Han state, he could not have been heading towards this Leping. There was also a Leping commandary in Bingzhou, which Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) had created during the Taishi era (265-274); this Leping commandary was part of Liaozhou during Tang. Shi Le must have fled there.)


晞屢破強寇,威名甚盛,善治繁劇,用法嚴峻。其從母依之,晞奉養甚厚。從母子求爲將,晞不許,曰:「吾不以王法貸人,將無後悔邪!」固求之,晞乃以爲督護;後犯法,晞杖節斬之,從母叩頭救之,不聽。旣而素服哭之曰:「殺卿者,兗州刺史,哭弟者,苟道將也。」

22. Gou Xi had now routed powerful enemies several times, and his might and reputation spread far and wide. He was a man skilled at governing well, and he was strict and exacting in enforcing the law.

Gou Xi had an aunt that relied upon him for support, and he treated her with great kindness, showing the same regard as a child would for a parent. His aunt had a son who wanted to become a general, but Gou Xi would not allow it; he told his cousin, "I cannot bend the royal laws on account of anyone. You will regret this someday!" But his cousin was insistent, so at last Gou Xi appointed him as a Protector.

Later, when his cousin violated the law, Gou Xi held his military tally and sentenced the man to death. Gou Xi's aunt kowtowed before him and begged him to spare her son, but he would not be moved. After her son was executed, she put on white mourning clothing and wept. She said to herself, "The one who killed his subordinate minister was the Inspector of Yanzhou. But the one who wept for the loss of his younger cousin was Gou Daojiang."

〈苟晞,字道將。〉

(Gou Xi's style name was Daojiang.)


胡部大張㔨督、馮莫突等,擁衆數千,壁于上黨,石勒往從之,因說㔨督等曰:「劉單于舉兵擊晉,部大拒而不從,自度終能獨立乎?」曰:「不能。」勒曰:「然則安可不早有所屬!今部落皆已受單于賞募,往往聚議,欲叛部大而歸單于矣。」㔨督等以爲然。冬,十月,㔨督等隨勒單騎歸漢,漢王淵署㔨督爲親漢王,莫突爲都督部大,以勒爲輔漢將軍、平晉王,以統之。

23. Local tribal chiefs, Zhang Beidu, Feng Motu, and others, had gathered together several thousand people at a holdout in Shangdang. Shi Le came to join them, and he advised Zhang Beidu and the other chiefs, "Liu Chanyu (Liu Yuan) has raised his soldiers to attack Jin. Now you chiefs are resisting his rule and do not go along with him. Do you suppose that you will be able to stand independent?"

They replied, "We cannot."

Shi Le continued, "Then why do you not make yourselves subordinates of someone or other? All of the tribes have already become Liu Chanyu's recruits and taken his pay, and whenever they gather together and talk, they want to rebel against you and go join the Chanyu."

Zhang Beidu and the others felt there was reason in what he said.

In winter, the tenth month, Zhang Beidu and the rest went with Shi Le on lone horses to go to Han. Liu Yuan appointed Zhang Beidu as King Friendly To Han and Feng Motu as Commander of the Tribal Chiefs. He also appointed Shi Le as General Who Upholds The Han and King Who Pacifies Jin, and put him in command over these tribes.

〈胡人一部之長,呼爲部大。〉〈劉單于,謂劉淵也。〉

(The ruler of one of the tribal groups was called the tribal chief.

"Liu Chanyu" refers to Liu Yuan.)


烏桓張伏利度有衆二千,壁于樂平,淵屢招,不能致。勒僞獲罪於淵,往奔伏利度,伏利度喜,結爲兄弟,使勒帥諸胡寇掠,所向無前,諸胡畏服。勒知衆心之附己,乃因會執伏利度,謂諸胡曰:「今起大事,我與伏利度誰堪爲主?」諸胡咸推勒。勒於是釋伏利度,帥其衆歸漢。淵加勒督山東征討諸軍事,以伏利度之衆配之。

24. The Wuhuan leader Zhang Fulidu had a host of two thousand people, at another rampart in Leping. Liu Yuan had often summoned this group, but they would not come to him.

At this time, Shi Le pretended that he had run afoul of some offense against Liu Yuan, and he fled to Zhang Fulidu. Zhang Fulidu was glad to have him, and they formed a bond as brothers. Zhang Fulidu had Shi Le lead his warriors to invade and pillage the land, and no one could stand before him, so all the tribesman feared and obeyed him.

Once Shi Le knew that he had won over these people to his side, he seized Zhang Fulidu at a feast and then demanded the tribesmen, "Who is more suited to lead you to achieve the great design: Zhang Fulidu, or me?" The tribesmen all acclaimed Shi Le as their leader. Shi Le then released Zhang Fulidu, and led all of his former followers to Han.

Liu Yuan promoted Shi Le, placing him in command of all the invading armies east of the mountains, with all of the tribesmen he had just won over as his personal retinue.

〈史言石勒之衆浸盛。〉

(This passage shows how Shi Le's army became ever stronger.)


十一月,戊申朔,日有食之。

25. In the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Wushen (December 12th), there was an eclipse.

甲寅,以尚書右僕射和郁爲征北將軍,鎭鄴。

26. On the day Jiayin (December 18th), the Supervisor of the Right of the Masters of Writing, He Yu, was appointed as General Who Conquers The North, and stationed at Ye.

乙亥,以王衍爲司徒。衍說太傅越曰:「朝廷危亂,當賴方伯,宜得文武兼資以任之。」乃以弟澄爲荊州都督,族弟敦爲青州刺史,語之曰:「荊州有江、漢之固,青州有負海之險,卿二人在外而吾居中,足以爲三窟矣。」澄至鎭,以郭舒爲別駕,委以府事。澄日夜縱酒,不親庶務,雖寇戎交急,不以爲懷。舒常切諫,以爲宜愛民養兵,保全州境,澄不從。

27. On the day Yihai (January 8th of 308), Wang Yan was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.

Wang Yan advised Sima Yue, "When the court is faced with danger and turmoil, you must rely upon the border commanders. Select those skilled in both civil and military affairs to fill these posts." So Sima Yue appointed Wang Yan's younger brother Wang Cheng as Commander of Jingzhou, and Wang Zu's younger brother Wang Dun as Inspector of Qingzhou. Wang Yan assured Sima Yue, "Jingzhou has the natural defenses of the Yangzi and the Han River, and Qingzhou has the sea to rely on. With these two gentlemen without, and myself within, that shall be sufficient to furnish our 'three burrows'."

When Wang Cheng arrived at Ye, he appointed Guo Shu as his Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, and he left all affairs in Guo Shu's hands. Day and night, Wang Cheng acted drunk and outrageously. He did not tend to any of his duties himself, and even the constant invasions of the tribesmen could not move him. Guo Shu often harshly rebuked him, saying that he ought to love the people and tend to the soldiers in order to safeguard the whole territory of the province. But Wang Cheng did not listen to him.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》:「王衍言於太傅越,以王澄爲荊州,敦爲揚州,據吳、楚以爲形援,越從之。於是澄、敦同發,越餞之。」《敦傳》,自青州入爲中書監,東海王越誅繆播後,始出爲揚州。播死在永嘉三年三月,此年越在許昌,不在洛,故以《晉書》爲定。〉〈《戰國策》:馮煖謂孟嘗君曰:「狡兔有三窟,僅得免其死耳。」其後敦、澄自相魚肉,衍亦死於石勒,三窟安在哉!是以忠臣國爾忘家,蓋國安則家亦安也。陸佃《埤雅》曰:俗云兔營窟,必背丘相通,所謂狡兔三窟。〉〈爲王澄不能保荊州張本。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin states, 'Wang Yan made suggestions to Sima Yue, saying that he should send Wang Cheng to Jingzhou and Wang Dun to Yangzhou, so that they would be able to harness the power of the Wu and Chu regions to provide assistance to the realm. Sima Yue agreed with him. So Wang Cheng and Wang Dun went out at the same time, and Sima Yue gave them a farewell banquet.' But according to the Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin, after Wang Dun returned from Qingzhou he became Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and it was only after Sima Yue executed Mou Bo that Wang Dun went out to Yangzhou. Mou Bo's death was in the third month of the third year of Yongjia (309). During this year (307), Sima Yue was still at Xuchang, and was not at Luoyang. So I follow the account from the Book of Jin."

The Strategies of the Warring States states, "Feng Nuan said to Lord Mengcheng, 'The crafty hare digs itself three burrows, and even so, he only barely escapes from death. (Qi 4.2)." Now later on, Wang Dun and Wang Cheng both went to pieces, and Wang Yan also died at Shi Le's hand; where then were these supposed 'three burrows' which Wang Yan here boasts of? A truly loyal minister will focus on the state at the expense of his family, for when the state is secure, his family will also then be secure. Lu Dian's Piya dictionary states, "It is commonly said that when a hare builds his burrows, he makes several passages under the hill, and so we say that 'the crafty hare builds three burrows'."

This passage shows why Wang Cheng was unable to defend Jingzhou.)


十二月,戊寅,乞活田甄、田蘭、薄盛等起兵,爲新蔡王騰報讎,斬汲桑于樂陵。棄成都王穎棺於故井中,穎故臣收葬之。

28. It was earlier mentioned that many of the officials who had fled from Bingzhou to Jizhou after Sima Teng departed that province were in a group now called the Lifeseekers. In the twelfth month, on the day Wuyin (January 11th of 308), the commanders of these Lifeseekers, Tian Zhen, Tian Lan, Bao Sheng, and others, raised soldiers and proclaimed they were fighting to avenge Sima Teng's death at Ji Sang's hand. They killed Ji Sang at Leling, and then threw the coffin of Sima Ying that Ji Sang had been carting around with him into a well. Sima Ying's former subordinates came and claimed the coffin and reburied it.

〈樂陵縣,漢屬平原郡,晉分爲樂陵國,唐爲縣。宋白曰:棣州陽信縣,魏屬樂陵國,晉斬汲桑於此,屬滄州。〉

(During Han, Leling County was part of Pingyuan commandary. Jin had split it off as the Leling princely fief. During Tang, it became a county again. Song Bai remarked, "The Yangxin County in Dizhou was Cao-Wei's Leling princely fief. It was at this place that Jin killed Ji Sang. It is part of Cangzhou.")


甲午,以前太傅劉寔爲太尉,寔以老固辭;不許。庚子,以光祿大夫高光爲尚書令。

29. On the day Jiawu (January 27th of 308), the former Grand Tutor, Liu Shi, was appointed as Grand Commandant. He tried to decline the post on account of old age, but this was refused.

On the day Gengzi (February 2nd of 308), the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Gao Guang, was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing.

前北軍中候呂雍、度支校尉陳顏等謀立清河王覃爲太子;事覺,太傅越矯詔囚覃於金墉城。

30. The former Palace Marquis of the Northern Army, Lü Yong, the Colonel of Logistical Affairs, Chen Yan, and others plotted to establish Sima Tan as the Crown Prince. The plot was discovered, and Sima Yue forged an edict ordering Sima Tan to be imprisoned in the Jinyong fortress.

〈度支校尉,蓋當時所置,以督漕運者也。〉

(The Colonel of Logistical Affairs was created at this time, in charge of directing logistics and supplies.)


初,太傅越與苟晞親善,引升堂,結爲兄弟。司馬潘滔說越曰:「兗州衝要,魏武以之創業。苟晞有大志,非純臣也,久令處之,則患生心腹矣。若遷于青州,厚其名號,晞必悅。公自牧兗州,經緯諸夏,藩衞本朝,此所謂爲之於未亂者也。」越以爲然。癸卯,越自爲丞相,領兗州牧,都督兗、豫、司、冀、幽、幷諸軍事。以晞爲征東大將軍、開府儀同三司,加侍中、假節、都督青州諸軍事,領青州刺史,封東平郡公。越、晞由是有隙。

31. Up until this time, Sima Yue had been on good terms with Gou Xi, and when he would lead Gou Xi into court, they acted as close as brothers.

But now, Sima Yue's Marshal Pan Tao advised him, "Yanzhou is a strategic crossroads. It was from that region that Wu of Wei (Cao Cao) first got his start on his great enterprise. Gou Xi is a man of grand ambitions, and he will not suffer to remain the subordinate of another. If you continue to manage him as you have been, he will certainly became a threat to the very heart of the dynasty. However, if you were to move him to Qingzhou, while still showing him great respect and showering him with lofty titles, he would certainly be satisfied. Then you yourself could govern Yanzhou, and so wield control over all of the various people while still safeguarding the court. This would be an instance of 'order being secured before disorder has begun.'"

Sima Yue agreed with him.

On the day Guimao (February 5th of 308), Sima Yue appointed himself as Prime Minister, acting Governor of Yanzhou, and Commander of military affairs in Yanzhou, Yuzhou, Sizhou, Jizhou, Youzhou, and Bingzhou. He appointed Gou Xi as Grand General Who Conquers The East, Palace Attendant, Credential Holder, Commander of military affairs in Qingzhou, acting Inspector of Qingzhou, and Duke of Dongping commandary, as well as granting him a Separate Office with equal authority to the Three Excellencies.

From now on, Sima Yue and Gou Xi became distant from one another.

〈事見六十卷、六十一卷。〉〈《老子》曰:其安易持,其未兆易謀,其脆易破,其微易散;爲之於未有,治之於未亂。〉〈杜佑曰:晉司徒與丞相通職,更置迭廢,未嘗並立,至永嘉元年始兩置焉,王衍爲司徒,東海王越爲丞相。〉〈爲後晞馳檄罪狀越張本。〉

(Cao Cao's beginnings as a warlord in Yanzhou are mentioned in Books 60 and 61 (in de Crespigny’s To Establish Peace).

The Daodejing states, "That which is at rest is easily kept hold of; before a thing has given indications of its presence, it is easy to take measures against it; that which is brittle is easily broken; that which is very small is easily dispersed. Action should be taken before a thing has made its appearance; order should be secured before disorder has begun. (64)"

Du You remarked, "During Jin, since the offices of Minister Over The Masses and Prime Minister had the same duties, it was originally the case that whenever one of these offices was filled, the other was abolished, and they did not both exist at the same time. But in the first year of Yongjia (307), both of them were created: Wang Yan as Minister Over The Masses, and Sima Yue as Prime Minister."

This was why Gou Xi later spread proclamations announcing Sima Yue's crimes and offenses.)


晞至青州,以嚴刻立威,日行斬戮,州人謂之「屠伯」。頓丘太守魏植爲流民所逼,衆五六萬,大掠兗州,晞出屯無鹽以討之。以弟純領青州,刑殺更甚於晞。晞討植,破之。

32. When Gou Xi arrived at Qingzhou, he imposed strict order and displayed his power. Every day, he executed so many people that the people of the province took to calling him "the Butcher Baron".

The Administrator of Dunqiu, Wei Zhi, was swept up by refugees into becoming their leader. This host of fifty or sixty thousand greatly plundered Yanzhou. Gou Xi marched out to camp at Wuyan to campaign against them. He left his younger brother Gou Chun in charge of Qingzhou in his absence, and Gou Chun charged and killed even more people than Gou Xi had.

Gou Xi campaigned against Wei Zhi and routed him.

〈鄧展曰:言殺人若屠兒之殺六畜。伯,長也。〉〈無鹽縣,屬東平國,唐屬濟州界。〉

(Deng Zhan remarked, "They call someone a butcher when he kills people like a butcher would slaughter the Six Livestock."

A baron is a kind of lord.

Wuyan County was part of the Dongping princely fief. It was within Tang's Shuji.)


初,陽平劉靈,少貧賤,力制奔牛,走及奔馬,時人雖異之,莫能舉也。靈撫膺歎曰:「天乎,何當亂也!」及公師藩起,靈自稱將軍,寇掠趙、魏。會王彌爲苟純所敗,靈亦爲王讚所敗,遂俱遣使降漢。漢拜彌鎭東大將軍、青‧徐二州牧、都督緣海諸軍事,封東萊公;以靈爲平北將軍。

33. There lived a certain Liu Ling. As a youth, he had lived in poverty. He was strong enough to control a charging bull, and as swift as a dashing horse. But although the people of that time marveled at him, no one was able to help him. Liu Ling smote his breast and wailed, "O Heavens, whence comes this chaos?"

When the rebel leader Gongshi Fan rose up, Liu Ling also styled himself a General, and he invaded and plundered the regions of Zhao and Wei. Soon after, when the rebel Wang Mi was defeated by Gou Chun, Liu Ling was also defeated by Wang Zan, and they both went to offer their loyalty to Liu Yuan's Han state. Liu Yuan appointed Wang Mi as Grand General Who Conquers The East, Governor of Qingzhou and Xuzhou, Commander of all military affairs along the seacoasts, and Duke of Donglai. He appointed Liu Ling as General Who Pacifies The North.

〈膺,胸也。〉〈《考異》曰:《彌傳》曰:「彌逼洛陽,敗於七里澗,乃與其黨劉靈謀歸漢。」按《十六國春秋》:靈爲王讚所逐,彌爲苟純所敗,乃謀降漢。今年春,靈已在淵所,五月,彌乃如平陽。然則二人先降漢已久矣,《彌傳》誤也。〉

(The breast is the chest.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Wang Mi in the Book of Jin states, 'Wang Mi threatened Luoyang, but he was defeated at Seven Li Gully, and he and his partisan Liu Ling then plotted to go join Han.' According to the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, Liu Ling was defeated by Wang Zan, and Wang Mi was defeated by Gou Chun, and only then did they consider submitting to Han. By the spring of this year (307), Liu Li was already in Liu Yuan's service, and it was only in the fifth month that Wang Mi journeyed to Pingyang in Han. Since one of these two had already been in service under Han for some time, the Biography of Wang Mi is in error.")


李釗至寧州,州人奉釗領州事。治中毛孟詣京師,求刺史,屢上奏,不見省。孟曰:「君亡親喪,幽閉窮城,萬里訴哀,精誠無感,生不如死!」欲自刎,朝廷憐之,以魏興太守王遜爲寧州刺史,仍詔交州出兵救李釗。交州刺史吾彥遣其子咨將兵救之。

34. It was earlier mentioned that the court had sent Li Zhao to Ningzhou to deal with the tribal rebellion there. When he finally arrived during this year, the people of Ningzhou entrusted him with the affairs of the province.

The 治中 of Ningzhou, Mao Meng, went to visit Luoyang, asking that someone be sent to Ningzhou to properly serve as Inspector there. He sent up many petitions to this effect, but they were not reviewed. Mao Meng exclaimed, "My lord is dead and his relatives are in mourning, isolated and enclosed in a destitute city. I have traveled ten thousand li to inform you of this lamentable state of affairs, and yet my earnest appeals have been met with apathy. I ought to die rather than live!" And he made as though to cut his own throat. The court was moved by his display, and so they finally appointed the Administrator of Weixing, Wang Xun, as the new Inspector of Ningzhou.

An edict was also issued ordering Jiaozhou to send troops to support Li Zhao in Ningzhou. The Inspector of Jiaozhou, Wu Yan, sent his son Wu Zi to lead the soldiers to rescue Li Zhao.

〈光熙元年,李毅卒,釗今乃至寧州。〉〈謂李毅已死,寧州受圍不解也。〉〈《考異》曰:《華陽國志》以廣漢太守王遜爲寧州。按時廣漢已爲李雄所陷。今從《遜傳》。〉

(In the first year of Guangxi (306.6), the Inspector of Ningzhou, Li Yi, had passed away, and Li Zhao had been sent to help assist Ningzhou. It was only now that he finally arrived.

Mao Meng's lament was that Li Yi was already dead, and the capital of Ningzhou was under a siege that was still not lifted.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Huayang Guozhi states that this Wang Xun chosen as the new Inspector of Ningzhou was the Administrator of Guanghan. But by this time, Guanghan commandary had already fallen to Li Xiong. So I follow the account of the Biography of Wang Xun in the Book of Jin.")


慕容廆自稱鮮卑大單于。

35. The Xianbei leader Murong Hui declared himself the Grand Chanyu of the Xianbei.

拓跋祿官卒,弟猗盧總攝三部,與廆通好。

36. Tuoba Luguan passed away. His younger brother Tuoba Yilu then combined back together the three divisions that the Tuoba clan had been divided into, and he established good relations with Murong Hui.

〈祿官分國爲三部,事見上八十二卷惠帝元康五年。〉

(Tuoba Luguan had divided the Tuoba state into three divisions, as mentioned in Book 82, in Emperor Hui's fifth year of Yuankang (295.4).)
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BOOK 86

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue Dec 05, 2017 2:25 am

二年(戊辰、三○八)

The Second Year of Yongjia (The Wuchen Year, 308 AD)


春,正月,丙午朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Bingwu (February 8th), there was an eclipse.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《天文志》云「丙子朔」。誤。今從《長曆》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai and the Astrological Records in the Book of Jin both state that this eclipse was 'on the new moon of the day Bingzi (?)'. This is mistaken. I follow the dates of the Calendar Records.")


丁未,大赦。

2. On the day Dingwei (February 9th), a general amnesty was declared.

漢王淵遣撫軍將軍聰等十將南據太行,輔漢將軍石勒等十將東下趙、魏。

3. Liu Yuan sent his General Who Nurtures The Army, his son Liu Cong, and nine other generals to march south and occupy Taixing. He also sent Shi Le and a further nine other generals east into the Zhao and Wei regions.

〈《考異》曰:《石勒載記》曰:「元海使劉聰攻壺關,命勒帥所統七千爲前鋒都督。劉琨遣護軍黃秀等救壺關,勒敗秀於白田,殺之,遂陷壺關。」事在明年。今從《十六國春秋》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Liu Yuan sent Liu Cong to attack Huguan, and ordered Shi Le to lead seven thousand soldiers as Liu Cong's Vanguard Commander. Liu Kun sent the Protector Huang Xiu and others to rescue Huguan. Shi Le defeated Huang Xiu at Baitian, killed him, and then took Huguan.' But that event took place in the following year (309). So I follow the account of the Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms.")


二月,辛卯,太傅越殺清河王覃。

4. In the second month, on the day Xinmao (March 24th), Sima Yue killed Sima Tan.

庚子,石勒寇常山,王浚擊破之。

5. On the day Gengzi (April 2nd), Shi Le invaded Changshan. Wang Jun attacked him and drove him off.

涼州刺史張軌病風,口不能言,使其子茂攝州事。隴西內史晉昌張越,涼州大族,欲逐軌而代之,與其兄酒泉太守鎭及西平太守曹袪謀遣使詣長安告南陽王模,稱軌廢疾,請以秦州刺史賈龕代之。龕將受之,其兄讓龕曰:「張涼州一時名士,威著西州,汝何德以代之!」龕乃止。鎭、袪上疏,更請刺史,未報,遂移檄廢軌,以軍司杜耽攝州事,使耽表越爲刺史。

6. The Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Gui, developed a severe illness, and his mouth could no longer speak. He had his son Zhang Mao take charge of the provincial affairs.

The Interior Minister of Longxi, Zhang Yue of Jinchang, was a member of one of the great clans of Liangzhou. He wanted to drive out Zhang Gui and replace him. He made plans with some others: the Administrator of Jiuquan, his elder brother Zhang Zhen, and the Administrator of Xiping, Cao Qu. They plotted to send someone to visit Chang'an and explain the situation to Sima Mo, claiming that Zhang Gui was indisposed because of his illness, and so they asked that the Inspector of Qinzhou, Jia Kan, be sent to replace him.

Jia Kan was about to accept this proposal, but his elder brother rebuked him, saying, "Inspector Zhang is a respected man of our times, and his might is felt throughout the western provinces. Are you virtuous enough to replace him?"

So Jia Kan changed his mind.

Zhang Zhen and Cao Qu continued to send up petitions asking for a new Inspector. But before they received a response, they began to distribute proclamations saying that Zhang Gui was unfit to govern. They acclaimed the Military Director Du Geng as the one to manage the provincial affairs, and they had Du Geng submit a petition asking that Zhang Jue be appointed as the new Inspector.

〈惠帝分敦煌、酒泉置晉昌郡。杜佑曰:晉昌,漢冥安縣地。〉〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》作「曹祗」。今從《張軌傳》。〉

(Emperor Hui had split off parts of Dunhuang and Jiuquan commandaries to form Jinchang commandary. Du You remarked, "Jinchang was the site of Han's Ming'an County."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding 曹袪 Cao Qu, The Annals of Jin records his name as 曹祗 Cao Zhi. But I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin.")


軌下敎,欲避位,歸老宜陽。長史王融、參軍孟暢蹋折鎭檄,排閤入言曰:「晉室多故,明公撫寧西夏,張鎭兄弟敢肆凶逆,當鳴皷誅之。」遂出,戒嚴。會軌長子寔自京師還,乃以寔爲中督護,將兵討鎭。遣鎭甥太府主簿令狐亞先往說鎭,爲陳利害,鎭流涕曰:「人誤我!」乃詣寔歸罪。寔南擊曹袪,走之。

7. When Zhang Gui recovered, he wanted to resign his office and live out his old age at Yiyang. But his Chief Clerk Wang Rong and his Army Advisor Meng Chang tore down Zhang Zhen's proclamations, barged through the gates into Zhang Gui's office, and told him, "When the Jin royal family was experiencing many difficulties, Your Excellency nurtured and calmed the people of the western Xia. Now Zhang Zhen and his brother dare to act recklessly and become wicked traitors. You must sound the drums and punish them."

So Zhang Gui went out and set all military affairs in order. Zhang Gui's eldest son Zhang Shi soon returned from Luoyang, so Zhang Gui appointed him as Protector of the Center, and gave him the command of the soldiers to campaign against Zhang Zhen.

Before acting, Zhang Gui ordered the Registrar to the Commander's Staff, Zhang Zhen's uncle Linghu Ya, to go warn Zhang Zhen first and explain to him the advantages and disadvantages of his position. Zhang Zhen wept and said, "I have been misled!" And he came to visit Zhang Shi to admit to his crimes.

Zhang Shi then marched south and attacked Cao Qu, and drove him away.

〈軌少隱宜陽女几山,故下敎欲歸老於宜陽。〉〈此西夏,謂河西之地。〉〈按《張軌傳》,有太府司馬、主簿,又有少府主簿。蓋以都督府爲太府,涼州府爲少府也。〉

(When Zhang Gui was young, he had lived in seclusion at Mount Nüji in Yiyang. This was why he now wished to retire in Yiyang.

The "western Xia" meant the region of Hexi.

According to the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin, there were Marshals and Registrars of the Greater Staff, and Registrars of the Lesser Staff. The staff of the Commander was this Greater Staff, and that of the Inspector was the Lesser Staff.)


朝廷得鎭、袪疏,以侍中袁瑜爲涼州刺史。治中楊澹馳詣長安,割耳盤上,訴軌之被誣。南陽王模表請停瑜,武威太守張琠亦上表留軌;詔依模所表,且命誅曹袪。軌於是命寔帥步騎三萬討袪,斬之。張越奔鄴,涼州乃定。

8. When the court received Zhang Zhen's and Cao Qu's petitions, they appointed the Palace Attendant Yuan Yu as the new Inspector of Liangzhou.

The 治中 of Liangzhou, Yang Dan, was then visiting Chang'an. He reported that Zhang Gui had been the victim of slander, and as a sign of his sincerity, he cut off his own ear onto a plate. So Sima Mo submitted a petition asking that Yuan Yu be halted, and the Administrator of Wuwei, Zhang Tian, also sent up a petition asking that Zhang Gui be kept on as Inspector.

An edict was issued approving Sima Mo's request, and further ordering that Cao Qu be executed. So Zhang Gui ordered Zhang Shi to lead thirty thousand horse and foot against Cao Qu, and Zhang Shi killed him. Zhang Yue fled to Ye. Peace was thus restored to Liangzhou.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》作「張澹」,今從《張軌傳》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin records the name of this 治中 as 'Zhang Dan'. But I follow the account of the Biography of Zhang Gui in the Book of Jin.")


三月,太傅越自許昌徙鎭鄄城。

9. In the third month, Sima Yue moved his base from Xuchang to Juancheng.

王彌收集亡散,兵復大振。分遣諸將攻掠青、徐、兗、豫四州,所過攻陷郡縣,多殺守令,有衆數萬;苟晞與之連戰,不能克。夏,四月,丁亥,彌入許昌。

10. Wang Mi gathered up all his scattered soldiers again, until he once again had a great host. He sent out his various generals to attack and pillage Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Yuzhou. They attacked and ravaged all the commandaries and counties, killing many of the Administrators and Prefects, and their numbers swelled to tens of thousands. Gou Xi fought against them several times, but he could not overcome them.

In summer, the fourth month on the day Dinghai (May 19th), Wang Mi entered Xuchang.

太傅越遣司馬王斌帥甲士五千人入衞京師,張軌亦遣督護北宮純將兵衞京師。五月,彌入自轘轅,敗官軍于伊北,京師大震,宮城門晝閉。壬戌,彌至洛陽,屯于津陽門。詔以王衍都督征討諸軍事。北宮純募勇士百餘人突陳,彌兵大敗。乙丑,彌燒建春門而東,衍遣左衞將軍王秉追之,戰于七里澗,又敗之。

11. Sima Yue sent his Marshal Wang Bin to lead five thousand armored soldiers to guard the capital at Luoyang. Zhang Gui also dispatched his Protector Beigong Chun to lead troops to guard the capital.

In the fifth month, Wang Mi marched through Huanyuan Pass and defeated the government army at Yibei. The capital was greatly afraid, and all the gates of the palace walls were completely closed.

On the day Renxu (June 23rd), Wang Mi arrived at Luoyang, and camped at the Jinyang Gate. An edict was issued appointing Wang Yan as Commander of the armies directed against Wang Mi.

On the day Jiazi (June 25th), Wang Yan, Wang Bin, and the others went out to battle. Beigong Chun recruited more than a hundred brave fellows to break through the enemy's formation. Wang Mi's soldiers were greatly defeated.

On the day Yichou (June 26th), Wang Mi set fire to the Jianchun Gate and then marched away to the east. Wang Yan sent the Guard General of the Left, Wang Bing, to pursue Wang Mi. They fought a battle at Seven Li Gully, and Wang Mi was defeated again.

〈伊水之北也。〉〈津陽門,洛陽城南面東頭第二門。〉〈【章:甲十一行本「北」上有「甲子,衍與王斌等出戰」九字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同;退齋校同。】〉

(Wang Mi's initial victory, at Yibei, was north of the Yi River.

The Jinyang Gate was the second gate on the eastern side of Luoyang's southern wall.

Some versions include the sentence "On the day Jiazi (June 25th), Wang Yan, Wang Bin, and the others went out to battle.")


彌走渡河,與王桑自軹關如平陽。漢王淵遣侍中兼御史大夫郊迎,令曰:「孤親行將軍之館,拂席洗爵,敬待將軍。」及至,拜司隸校尉,加侍中、特進;以桑爲散騎侍郎。

12. Wang Mi fled back across the Yellow River, and he and his cousin Wang Sang went from Zhi Pass to Liu Yuan’s Han state at Pingyang. Liu Yuan sent his Palace Attendants and Imperial Secretaries to welcome Wang Mi at the border of his domain, with this message to Wang Mi: "General, I shall personally prepare a place of residence for you, roll out the carpet and wash the vessels for you, and respectfully await your arrival."

When Wang Mi arrived, Liu Yuan appointed him as his Colonel-Director of Retainers and Palace Attendant and gave him the honor of Specially Advanced. He also appointed Wang Sang as a Gentleman-Cavalier In Attendance.

〈軹關在河內軹縣。〉

(Zhi Pass was in Zhi County in Henei commandary.)


北宮純等與漢劉聰戰於河東,敗之。

13. Beigong Chun and others also fought the Han general Liu Cong at Hedong, and defeated him.

詔封張軌西平郡公,軌辭不受。時州郡之使,莫有至者,軌獨遣使貢獻,歲時不絕。

14. An edict was issued appointing Zhang Gui as Duke of Xiping commandary for his efforts, but he declined and would not accept the title.

At this time, things were so chaotic in the realm that no could could really predict when officials from the various provinces and commandaries would come to the capital. Zhang Gui was the only one to regularly send in gifts and tribute, every year without interruption.

秋,七月,甲辰,漢王淵寇平陽,太守宋抽棄郡走,河東太守路述戰死;淵徙都蒲子。上郡鮮卑陸逐延、氐酋單徵並降於漢。

15. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Jiachen (August 4th), Liu Yuan invaded Pingyang. The Administrator of Pingyang, Song Chou, abandoned his commandary and fled, and the Administrator of Hedong, Lu Shu, died in battle.

Liu Yuan then moved his capital to Puzi. Local tribal leaders of the commandary, the Xianbei leader Luzhuyan and the Di leader Shan Zheng, both submitted to Han.

〈蒲子縣,卽晉公子重耳所居蒲城也;漢屬河東郡,晉屬平陽郡。劉昫曰:唐隰州治隰川縣,漢蒲子縣地。杜佑曰:隰州隰川、蒲縣,漢蒲子縣地。《考異》曰:劉琨《答太傅府書》曰:「潛遣使驛離間其部落,淵遂怖懼,南奔蒲子,雜虜歸降,萬有餘落。」《琨傳》亦然。按時淵強琨弱,豈因畏琨而徙都!蓋琨爲自大之辭,史因承以爲實耳。〉〈單,上演翻。《考異》曰:《載記》作「氐酋大單于徵」。按當時戎狄酋長,皆謂之「大」。徵,卽光文單后之父。「于」衍字也。〉

(Puzi County was the site of Pucheng, where Chong'er, the future Duke Wen of the ancient state of Jin, had once resided. During Han, Puzi County was part of Hedong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Pingyang commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "The Xichuan County in Tang's Xizhou was where Han's Puzi County was." Du You remarked, "Pu and Zichuan counties in Zizhou are were Han's Puzi County was."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Liu Kun's petition 'Response to the Grand Tutor's Staff' states, 'I secretly sent out couriers to spread discord between the tribes. Liu Yuan, thus afraid, fled south to Puzi. The various caitiffs came in submission to me, more than ten thousand tribes all told.’ The Biography of Liu Kun in the Book of Jin states the same thing. Now at this time, Liu Yuan was strong while Liu Kun was weak, so how could Liu Yuan have been induced to move his capital from fear of Liu Kun? This was just an instance of Liu Kun's boasting, which the official history has passed off as a fact."

Sima Guang's commentary further states, "The Biography of Liu Yuan in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records this Di leader who submitted as '氐酋大單于徵' which might be read as 'the Di leader and Grand Chanyu, Zhen'. But at this time, the leaders of the various Rong and Di tribes were all called 大, and that accounts for the 大 here. 單 Shan is rather his surname, and 徵 Zhen his given name. The 于 Yu character is superfluous. This Shan Zheng was the father of Empress Guangwen, Liu Yuan's concubine Lady Shan."

Shan Zheng's surname 單 is here pronouced "shan (sh-an).")


八月,丁亥,太傅越自鄄徙屯濮陽;未幾,又徙屯滎陽。

16. In the eighth month, on the day Dinghai (September 16th), Sima Yue moved from Juancheng to camp at Puyang, but he soon moved once again to camp at Xingyang.

〈濮陽,衞墟,漢屬東郡,晉初分置濮陽國,唐鄄城、濮陽二縣,皆屬濮州。濮,音卜。〉

Puyang was built on the ruins of the ancient state of Wey. During Han, it was part of Dong commandary. During Jin, it was split off to form the Puyang princely fief. Tang's Juancheng and Puyang counties were both part of Puzhou. The 濮 in Puyang is pronounced "bo".)


九月,漢王彌、石勒寇鄴,和郁棄城走。詔豫州刺史裴憲屯白馬以拒彌,車騎將軍王堪屯東燕以拒勒,平北將軍曹武屯大陽以備蒲子。憲,楷之子也。

17. In the ninth month, the Han generals Wang Mi and Shi Le invaded Ye. The local commander, He Yu, abandoned the city and fled. An edict was issued ordering the Inspector of Yuzhou, Pei Xian, to camp at Baima to resist Wang Mi, ordering the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Wang Kan, to camp at Dongyan to resist Shi Le, and ordering the General Who Pacifies The North, Cao Wu, to camp at Dayang to guard against Puzi. This Pei Xian was the son of Pei Kai.

〈漢東郡燕縣,古南燕國,晉省,而故城猶在,曰東燕城;後魏立東燕縣,屬陳留郡。劉昫曰:唐滑州胙城縣,漢南燕縣。〉〈大陽縣,屬河東郡。《地理志》曰:北虢也。應劭曰:在大河之陽,唐併入陝州河北縣界。〉〈裴楷仕武帝、惠帝時。〉

(Han's Yan County in Dong commandary was in the south of the ancient state of Yan. Jin had abolished the county, but the capital city was there there, and it was called Dongyan City. Northern Wei later established Dongyan County, as part of Chenliu commandary. Liu Xu remarked, "The Zuocheng County in Tang's Huazhou was Han's Nanyan County."

Dayang County was part of Hedong commandary. The Geographical Records states, "It was in the north of the ancient Dukedom of Guo." Ying Shao remarked, "It was north of the Yellow River. Tang folded it into the territory of Hebei County in Shanzhou."

Pei Kai had held office under Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) and Emperor Hui.)


冬,十月,甲戌,漢王淵卽皇帝位,大赦,改元永鳳。十一月,以其子和爲大將軍,聰爲車騎大將軍,族子曜爲龍驤大將軍。

18. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jiaxu (November 2nd), Liu Yuan assumed the imperial title. He declared a general amnesty, and changed the reign era title to the first year of Yongfeng. In the eleventh month, he appointed his sons Liu He and Liu Cong as Grand General and Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, and he appointed his junior kinsman Liu Yao as Grand Dragon-Soaring General.

壬寅,幷州刺史劉琨使上黨太守劉惇帥鮮卑攻壺關,漢鎭東將軍綦毋達戰敗亡歸。

19. On the day Renyin (November 30th), Liu Kun sent the Administrator of Shangdang, Liu Dun, to lead the Xianbei to attack Huguan. Han's General Who Guards The East, Qiwu Da, was defeated in battle and fled back to the Han domain.

〈杜佑曰:唐潞州治上黨。漢壺關縣,後魏移壺關縣當羊腸阪羊頭之阨。〉

(Du You remarked, "During Tang, Shangdang was governed by Luzhou. Han's Huguan County was relocated by Northern Wei to the strategic point at Yangtou at Yangchang Slope.")


丙午,漢都督中外諸軍事、領丞相、右賢王宣卒。

20. On the day Bingwu (December 4th), Han's Commander of all military affairs, Grand Marshal, acting Prime Minister, and Worthy King of the Right, Liu Yuan's great-uncle Liu Xuan, passed away.

〈【章:甲十一行本「事」下有「大司馬」三字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉

(Some versions state that Liu Xuan was also "Grand Marshal".)


石勒、劉靈帥衆三萬寇魏郡、汲郡、頓丘,百姓望風降附者五十餘壘;皆假壘主將軍、都尉印綬,簡其強壯五萬爲軍士,老弱安堵如故。己酉,勒執魏郡太守王粹于三臺,殺之。

21. Shi Le and Liu Ling led a host of thirty thousand to invade the commandaries of Wei, Ji, and Dunqiu. More than fifty of the local fortresses in those regions, seeing which way the wind was blowing, submitted to them. These local leaders were all appointed as Generals of their fortresses and granted seals and ribbons as Commanders, and fifty thousand of their strongest men were recruited to serve in the main army, while those who were too old or weak were left in peace just as before.

On the day Jiyou (December 7th), Shi Le captured the Administrator of Wei commandary, Wang Cui, at the Three Terraces, and killed him.

〈汲縣,漢屬河內郡,武帝泰始二年,分置汲郡;唐之衞州卽其地。〉〈三臺註見後八十八卷永嘉六年。〉

(During Han, Ji County was part of Henei commandary. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taishi (266), it had been split off as Ji commandary. It was where Tang's Weizhou was.

More on the Three Terraces will be mentioned in Book 88, in the sixth year of Yongjia (312).)


十二月,辛未朔,大赦。

22. In the twelfth month, on the new moon of the day Xinwei (December 29th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

乙亥,漢主淵以將軍和爲大司馬,封梁王;尚書令歡樂爲司徒,封陳留王;后父御史大夫呼延翼爲大司空,封鴈門郡公;宗室以親疏悉封郡縣王,異姓以功伐悉封郡縣公侯。

23. On the day Yihai (January 2nd of 309), Liu Yuan appointed his son Liu He as Grand Marshal and Prince of Liang. He appointed his Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Huan Yue, as Minister Over The Masses and Prince of Chenliu. He appointed his Imperial Secretary, Empress Huyan's father Huyan Yi, as Grand Minister of Works and Duke of Yanmen commandary. All the rest of the imperial clan and their dependents were appointed as Princes of commandaries or counties, while those of different surnames who had won merits were all appointed as Dukes or Marquises of commandaries or counties.

成尚書令楊褒卒。褒好直言,成主雄初得蜀,用度不足,諸將有以獻金銀得官者,褒諫曰:「陛下設官爵,當網羅天下英豪,何有以官買金邪!」雄謝之。雄嘗醉,推中書令杖太官令,褒進曰:「天子穆穆,諸侯皇皇。安有天子而爲酗也!」雄慚而止。

24. Cheng's Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Yang Bao, passed away.

Yang Bao enjoyed speaking bluntly to people. When Li Xiong had first taken possession of the Shu region for himself, he did not use proper standards in his administration. Many of his generals had purchased government offices for themselves by giving him gifts of gold and silver. Yang Bao rebuked Li Xiong for this, saying, "Your Majesty, having created the government offices, you ought to cast a wide net to gain the realm's best and brightest to fill them. How can you sell the offices for gold?" Li Xiong apologized to him.

There was one time when Li Xiong, while drunk, pushed over the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and thrashed the Prefect of the Grand Offices with a rod. Yang Bao stepped forward and declared, "'The demeanour of the Son of Heaven should be characterised by majesty; of the princes, by gravity.' How then can the Son of Heaven become a drunkard?" Li Xiong was ashamed, and he stopped.

〈《考異》曰:《載記》云「丞相楊褒」。今從《晉春秋》。〉〈《禮記‧曲禮》言。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states that Yang Bao was 'Prime Minister' when he died. But I follow the account of the Annals of Jin."

'The demeanour of the son of Heaven should be characterised by majesty; of the princes, by gravity', is a quote from the Rules of Propriety chapter of the Book of Rites (2.108).)


成平寇將軍李鳳屯晉壽,屢寇漢中,漢中民東走荊沔。詔以張光爲梁州刺史。荊州寇盜不禁,詔起劉璠爲順陽內史,江、漢間翕然歸之。

25. Cheng's General Who Pacifies Invaders, Li Feng, camped at Jinshou, where he invaded Hanzhong several times, causing the people of Hanzhong to flee east into Jing-Mian. An edict was issued appointing Zhang Guang as Inspector of Lianzhou.

Jingzhou was unable to deal with the local invaders and bandits, so an edict was issued appointing Liu Fan as Interior Minister of Shunyang, and the people living around the Yangzi and the Han River all flocked to him.

〈葭萌縣,漢屬廣漢郡,蜀改爲漢壽縣,屬梓潼郡;晉又改漢壽曰晉壽。〉〈沔自梁州入荊州界爲荊沔。〉〈璠父弘之喪未終,起之於苫塊;荊州之民懷其父,故翕然歸其子。〉

(During Han, Jiameng County was part of Guanghan commandary. Shu-Han had changed the name of the county to Hanshou County, as part of Zitong commandary. Jin then changed the name to Jinshou.

The Mian River flowed from Lianzhou into the territory of Jingzhou, thus the term Jing-Mian.

Liu Fan had not yet completed the mourning period for his late father Liu Hong, but he now rose from his mat and earth. The people of Jingzhou had cherished his father, and this was why they all flocked to his son.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Dec 07, 2017 7:37 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

Unread postby Fornadan » Tue Dec 05, 2017 6:12 am

春,正月,丙午朔,日有食之。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Bingwu (February 8th), there was an eclipse.

〈《考異》曰:《帝紀》、《天文志》云「丙子朔」。誤。今從《長曆》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Huai and the Astrological Records in the Book of Jin both state that this eclipse was 'on the new moon of the day Bingzi (?)'. This is mistaken. I follow the dates of the Calendar Records.")


In actual fact, there apparently was no eclipse visible in China at all this year, which I suppose could explain the confusion.
(Bingzi was the first day of the second month)
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

Unread postby Fornadan » Tue Dec 05, 2017 10:15 pm

If you are interested in that sort of things, NASA has computed maps of all solar eclipses in historical times predicted by astronomy.

https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEpubs/5MCSE.html

Though they are usually in agreement, there are a few eclipses recorded in the Chinese histories that according to astronomy did not occur.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-86)

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Wed Dec 06, 2017 5:25 am

Thanks for that link, I'll see if I can update the eclipse info here and in the other thread.
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