ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-87)

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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-81-??)

Unread postby Fornadan » Wed Oct 04, 2017 8:25 am

I find it somewhat amusing that the quarrel between Wang Hun and Wang Jun take up more space in the historical sources than the actual fall of Wu (or at least that's is the impression I get, haven't actually counted the characters)
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-81-??)

Unread postby capnnerefir » Wed Oct 04, 2017 2:51 pm

Consider it this way: it's emblematic of the sort of infighting that would destroy Jin only a few years later. No sooner was unity in reach than the cracks started to show.
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-81-??)

Unread postby vvill » Sat Oct 07, 2017 12:15 pm

Funny how little was worth recording in history in 287, 288 (and 281 to some extent as well). I guess that's a good reflection on Sima Yan in that it appears to have been relatively peaceful. Calm before the storm?
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Re: ZZTJ Translations: Western Jin (Book 79-81-??)

Unread postby DragonAtma » Sat Oct 07, 2017 6:25 pm

Some years are quieter than others. 184 was big, 189 was even bigger, but 185-188 were relatively quiet.
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BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:27 am

太康十年(己酉、二八九)

The Tenth Year of Taikang (The Jiyou Year, 289 AD)


夏,四月,太廟成;乙巳,祫祭;大赦。

1. In summer, the fourth month, the Ancestral Temple was completed. On the day Yisi (May 17th), the sacrifices to the high ancestors were performed. A general amnesty was declared.

〈祫,大合祭也。《公羊傳》曰:大祫者何?合祭也。其合祭柰何?毀廟之主陳于太祖,未毀廟之主皆升,合食於太祖。〉

(This passage refers to the "lined sacrifice"; this is the great combined sacrifice. The Gongyang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "What is the 'great lined'? It is the combined sacrifice. What purpose does the combined sacrifice serve? When the ancestral temple has been damaged, it is to explain oneself to the great ancestors; when it has not yet been damaged, it is to exalt them. In both cases, food is offered to them.")


慕容廆遣使請降;五月,詔拜廆鮮卑都督。廆謁見何龕,以士大夫禮,巾衣到門;龕嚴兵以見之,廆乃改服戎衣而入。人問其故,廆曰:「主人不以禮待客,客何爲哉!」龕聞之,甚慙,深敬異之。時鮮卑宇文氏、段氏方強,數侵掠廆,廆卑辭厚幣以事之。段國單于階以女妻廆,生皝、仁、昭。廆以遼東僻遠,徙居徒河之青山。

2. The Xianbei leader Murong Hui sent notice of his intention to submit to Jin. In the fifth month, Sima Yan bestowed Murong Hui the title Commander of the Xianbei.

Murong Hui came to present himself to the local Jin commander, He Kan. He arrived at the gate of He Kan's camp dressed in the clothing of a scholar-official. He Kan set his guards in strict order before he would received Murong Hui. When Murong Hui saw that, he went and changed his clothing to a military outfit before going in to see He Kan. Someone asked him why he had changed his clothing. Murong Hui told them, “When the host does not receive a guest according to the rites, why should the guest follow them?" When He Kan heard this, he was deeply ashamed, and he greatly respected Murong Hui and marveled at him.

At that time, the power of the Yuwen and Duan clans of the Xianbei was growing ever stronger, and several times they attacked and plundered Murong Hui's territory. By employing modest words and favorable treatment, Murong Hui was able to deal with them. The Chanyu of the Yuwen, Yuwen Kai, gave his daughter to Murong Hui as a wife. This Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Hui's sons Murong Huang, Murong Ren, and Murong Zhao.

Murong Hui felt that Liaodong was too distant and isolated a place, so he moved his people to live at Mount Qing in Tuhe.

〈魏、晉間,士大夫謁見尊貴,以巾褠爲禮。褠,單衣也。〉〈受降如受敵,居邊之帥,嚴兵以見四夷之客,未爲過也,何必以爲慙乎!〉〈段氏,東部鮮卑也。杜佑曰:宇文莫槐出於遼東塞外,代爲鮮卑東部大人。徒河段疾六眷出遼西,因亂,被賣爲漁陽烏桓大人庫傉家奴。庫傉以其健,使將人衆,詣遼西逐食,遂招誘亡叛,以至強盛。余按《晉書‧王浚傳》:段疾六眷,務勿塵之世子。段氏自務勿塵以來,強盛久矣,疾六眷因亂被掠,容或有之;務勿塵旣能爲部落之帥,恐不待其子招誘而後能強盛也。〉〈慕容、段氏遂爲婚姻之國。〉〈徒河縣,前漢屬遼西,後漢屬遼東屬國,魏、晉省,併入昌黎郡界。後慕容氏復置徒河縣,拓跋魏太武眞君八年,併徒河入昌黎郡廣興縣。杜佑曰:徒河青山,在營州郡城東百九十里。〉

(During the Cao-Wei and Jin era, when a scholar-official went to pay his respects to someone of greater honor and esteem than him, it was traditional for him to wear a cloth garment. The term 褠 means an unlined garment.

As the saying goes, 'meeting with a defector is like meeting with an enemy'. He Kan was a border commander, and in setting his guards in strict order before receiving a barbarian from one of the Four Tribes, he did nothing wrong. What reason did he have to feel ashamed?

The Duan clan were another branch of the Xianbei. Du You remarked, "Yuwen Mohuai came from beyond the borders of the realm past Liaodong, where he became a chief of the eastern group of the Xianbei. Duan Jiliujuan of Tuhe came to Liaoxi, where because of the turmoil of the times, he was sold to the chief of the Xianbei of Yuyang, Kunu, and became his household slave. Kunu considered Duan Jiliujuan to be a strong fellow, so he sent him to gather up a host of men and visit Liaoxi to forage for food. After recruiting many men, Duan Jiliujuan fled and rebelled, and he became very powerful."

As for what I, Hu Sanxing, believe, I note that the Biography of 王浚 Wang Jun in the Book of Jin mentions that this Duan Jiliujuan was the eldest son of Duan Shiziwu. Ever since the time that Duan Shizuwu came to power, the Duan clan had been strong and flourishing for quite some time. Perhaps it could have been the case that, because of the turmoil of the times, Duan Jiliujuan was swept up and taken captive. But considering the forces that Duan Shiziwu had at his command, I fear I cannot believe that his son would be allowed to recruit men and so become just as powerful.

The Murong and Duan clans thus became bound by marriage.

During Former Han, Tuhe County was part of Liaoxi commandary. During Later Han, it was part of the Vassal State of Liaodong. Cao-Wei and Jin abolished it, combining the county into the territory of Changli commandary. Later on, the Murong clan recreated Tuhe County. In Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei's eighth year of (Taiping)zhenjun (447), Tuhe County was again combined into Changli commandary, this time as Guangxing County. Du You remarked, "Mount Qing in Tuhe is a hundred and ninety li east of Juncheng in Yingzhou.")


冬,十月,復明堂及南郊五帝位。

3. In winter, the tenth month, Sima Yan restored the veneration of the Five Emperors at the Hall of Distinction and Southern Suburbs.

〈明堂、南郊除五帝座,見七十九卷泰始二年。〉

(The veneration of the Five Emperors had been dropped at these places in Book 79, in the second year of Taishi (266.4).)


十一月,丙辰,尚書令濟北成侯荀勗卒。勗有才思,善伺人主意,以是能固其寵。久在中書,專管機事。及遷尚書,甚罔悵。人有賀之者,勗曰:「奪我鳳皇池,諸君何賀邪!」

4. In the eleventh month, on the day Bingchen (?), the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Xun Xu, passed away. He was posthumously known as Marquis Cheng ("the Accomplished") of Jibei.

Xun Xu had an excellent imagination, and was skilled at playing to people's points of view, so he was able to obtain their favor. He had been in the Palace Secretariat for a long time, where he had a firm grip of control of affairs. When he was then moved to the Masters of Writing, he was very frustrated and disappointed by the assignment. Some people congratulated him, but he replied, "They have stolen my Phoenix Pool, and you gentlemen congratulate me!"

〈惘X失志之貌。悵,亦恨望失志之貌。〉

(Xun Xu had the expression of disappointment and frustration at losing what he desired. The term 悵 expresses the same meaning.)


帝極意聲色,遂至成疾。楊駿忌汝南王亮,排出之。甲申,以亮爲侍中、大司馬、假黃鉞、大都督、督豫州諸軍事,治許昌;徙南陽王柬爲秦王,都督關中諸軍事;始平王瑋爲楚王,都督荊州諸軍事;濮陽王允爲淮南王,都督揚、江二州諸軍事;並假節之國。立皇子乂爲長沙王,穎爲成都王,晏爲吳王,熾爲豫章王,演爲代王;皇孫遹爲廣陵王。又封淮南王子迪爲漢王,楚王子儀爲毗陵王,徙扶風王暢爲順陽王,暢弟歆爲新野公。暢,駿之子也。琅邪王覲弟澹爲東武公,繇爲東安公。覲,伷之子也。

5. Sima Yan exerted himself until he lost color in his face, and he soon developed an illness.

Yang Jun was jealous of the Prince of Runan, Sima Liang, and wanted to have him sent away. On the day Jiashen (December 22nd), an edict was issued appointed Sima Liang as Palace Attendant, Grand Marshal, Grand Commander, and Commander of military affairs in Yuzhou. He was granted the Yellow Battle-axe and sent to administer (or guard) Xuchang.

The Prince of Nanyang, Sima Jian, had his title changed to Prince of Qin, and he was appointed Commander of military affairs in Guanzhong. The Prince of Shiping, Sima Wei, had his title changed to Prince of Chu, and he was appointed Commander of military affairs in Jingzhou. The Prince of Puyang, Sima Yun, had his title changed to Prince of Huainan, and he was appointed Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou and Jiangzhou. All of them were sent to their fiefs, acting as Credential Holders.

Among Sima Yan's sons, Sima Ai was appointed Prince of Changsha, Sima Ying was appointed Prince of Chengdu, Sima Yàn was appointed Prince of Wu, Sima Chi was appointed Prince of Yuzhang, and Sima Yǎn was appointed Prince of Dai. Sima Yan's grandson Sima Yu was appointed Prince of Guangling. Sima Yun's son Sima Di was appointed Prince of Han. Sima Wei's son Sima Yi was appointed Prince of Piling.

The Prince of Fufeng, Sima Chang, had his title changed to Prince of Shunyang, and Sima Chang's younger brother Sima Xin was appointed Duke of Xinye. This Sima Chang was the son of Sima Jun.

The Prince of Langye, Sima Jin, had two younger brothers, Sima Dan and Sima Yao, who were respectively appointed Duke of Dongwu and Duke of Dong'an. This Sima Jin was the son of Sima Zhou.

〈【章:甲十一行本「治」作「鎭」;乙十一行本同;孔本同;張校同。】〉〈按惠帝元康元年,有司奏荊、揚二州,疆土曠遠,統理尤難,於是割揚州之豫章、鄱陽、廬陵、臨川、南康、建安、晉安,荊州之桂陽、安成、武昌,合十郡,置江州。則此時未有江州也。疑「江二」二字衍,更俟博考。濮,博木翻。〉〈晉制:都督諸軍事有使持節,有持節,有假節;使持節得殺二千石以下;持節殺無官位人,若軍事與使持節同;假節惟軍事得殺犯軍令者。〉〈暢嗣駿爵,而不居關中之任,故徙封。〉〈晉制:宗室封郡公者,制度如小國王。〉

(Some versions say that Sima Liang "guarded" Xuchang rather than "administered" it.

Regarding Jiangzhou, it was in Emperor Hui's first year of Yuankang (290) that the Jin officials petitioned that, on account of the territory of Jingzhou and Yangzhou being very extensive and distant, it was especially difficult to govern those two provinces. So they proposed splitting off the commandaries of Yuzhang, Poyang, Luling, Linchuang, Nankang, Jian'an, and Jin'an from Yangzhou, and the commandaries of Guiyang, Ancheng, and Wuchang from Jingzhou, and combining these ten commandaries into the new province of Jiangzhou. At the time of the above passage, there was not yet a Jiangzhou. I suspect that the mention that Sima Yun's authority included "and Jiangzhou" is a redundant entry, as will be seen upon further review.

Under the Jin system, there were three ranks of Commanders bearing the Staff of Authority: Commissioners Bearing Credentials, Credential Bearers, and Credential Holders. Commissioners Bearing Credentials were authorized to execute anyone from Two Thousand 石 Salary officials on down. Credential Bearers were authorized to execute anyone who did not hold a government office, and in military matters they were otherwise the same as the Commissioners. Credential Holders only exercised military authority, and could only execute offenders of military law.

Sima Chang had inherited the title Prince of Fufeng from his father Sima Jun. However, since Sima Chang held no post in Guanzhong, he thus had his title changed to Prince of Shunyang.

Under the Jin system, members of the royal clan who were appointed as Dukes of commandaries administered their fiefs according to the same standards as the smallest tiers of princely fiefs.)


初,帝以才人謝玖賜太子,生皇孫遹。宮中嘗夜失火,帝登樓望之,遹年五歲,牽帝裾入闇中曰:「暮夜倉猝,宜備非常,不可令照見人主。」帝由是奇之。嘗對羣臣稱遹似宣帝,故天下咸歸仰之。帝知太子不才,然恃遹明慧,故無廢立之心。復用王佑之謀,以太子母弟柬、瑋、允分鎭要害。又恐楊氏之偪,復以佑爲北軍中候,典禁兵。帝爲皇孫遹高選僚佐,以散騎常侍劉寔志行清素,命爲廣陵王傅。

6. Earlier, Sima Yan had given one of the Talented Ladies from his harem, Xie Jiu, to Crown Prince Sima Zhong. Xie Jiu had given birth to Sima Zhong's son Sima Yu.

Later on, there had been an incident one night where a fire broke out in the palace. Sima Yan was about to ascend a building to observe the fire. Sima Yu, who was five years old at the time, tugged at Sima Yan's sleeve and told him, "When something happens at evening or night, we should guard against anything unusual. We cannot let the light of the fire show the ruler of men." So Sima Yan felt the boy was remarkable because of this incident.

He once compared Sima Yu to his own grandfather Sima Yi at a feast of his ministers, and thus all the realm was inclined towards and admired the boy. Sima Yan knew that Crown Prince Sima Zhong was not talented, but because he felt that Sima Yu was so intelligent and clever, he decided not to depose Sima Zhong as Crown Prince.

Sima Yan also used the plan suggested to him by Wang You, and appointed Sima Zhong's younger brothers by the late Empress Yang Yan, Sima Jian, Sima Wei, and Sima Yun, to hold strategic places in the realm. And as Sima Yan was concerned about the threat posed by the Yang clan, he also appointed Wang You as Palace Marquis of the Northern Army and Director of Guards and Canons. To provide a helper for his grandson Sima Yu, Sima Yan charged the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Liu Shi, to instruct Sima Yu in maintaining pure and proper desires and conduct, and he had him appointed as Sima Yu's Tutor.

〈才人,位次美人。李延壽曰:晉武帝采漢、魏之制,三夫人、九嬪之下,有美人、才人、中才人,爵視千石以下。〉〈佑,王濟從兄也,與羊祜等並事文帝,帝寵信之。〉〈要害,謂雍、荊、揚之地。〉〈自魏以來,王國置師、友,晉避景帝諱,改師爲傅。〉

(Talented Lady was a rank among the women of the harem. Li Yanshou remarked, "Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) selected systems from Han and Cao-Wei. In addition to the Three Wives and the Nine Concubines, there were also the Beauties, the Talented Women, and the Middle Talented Women. They were treated like officials of the rank of One Thousand 石 Salary or below."

This Wang You was the cousin of Wang Ji, Wang Hun's son. He had managed affairs together with Yang Hu and others on behalf of Sima Zhao, and so Sima Yan favored and trusted him.

The "strategic places" which the elder Princes held were Yongzhou, Jingzhou, and Yangzhou.

Ever since Cao-Wei, the princely fiefs had the offices of Instructors and Friends. But since during Jin there was a taboo on the given name of Sima 師 Shi, the office of 師 Instructor was changed to Tutor.)


寔以時俗喜進趣,少廉讓,欲令初除官通謝章者,必推賢讓能,乃得通之。一官缺則擇爲人所讓最多者用之。以爲:「人情爭則欲毀己所不如,讓則競推於勝己。故世爭則優劣難分,時讓則賢智顯出。當此時也,能退身脩己,則讓之者多矣;雖欲守貧賤,不可得也。馳騖進趨而欲人見讓,猶卻行而求前也。」

7. Liu Shi felt that it was the common practice of that time for people to exalt in seeking their own advancement and prestige, and few people were humble or yielding. He had once compiled a text called "Discussion on the Sublimity of Yielding". Liu Shi wished to have it so that someone who had newly left their office should send in a memorial expressing their thanks; they would certainly advocate someone worthy whom they could yield their office to, and then such a person could be obtained. When there was a vacant office, the man who was most yielding in temperament should be the one selected to fill it.

Liu Shi believed, "When people tend to be contentious, then they will wish to ruin one another without even benefitting themselves; when people are yielding, they will strive to recommend one another even ahead of themselves. This is why during an age of dissension, it is difficult to discern the excellent from the lacking, but during a time of yielding, the worthy can be known and the exceptional can be discovered. At such a time, when people are able to withdraw and cultivate themselves, then there will be many who wish to yield to them; even if they wished to remain poor and lowly, they could not keep to it. But rushing to advance oneself while still wishing to be seen as yielding is like striving to go back while seeking to go forward."

〈【章:甲十一行本「欲」上有「嘗著《崇讓論》」五字;乙十一行本同;孔本同,退齋校同。】〉

Some versions include the sentence "He had once compiled a text called "Discussion on the Sublimity of Yielding"."


淮南相劉頌上疏曰:「陛下以法禁寬縱,積之有素,未可一旦以直繩御下,此誠時宜也。然至於矯世救弊,自宜漸就清肅;譬猶行舟,雖不橫截迅流,然當漸靡而往,稍向所趨,然後得濟也。自泰始以來,將三十年,凡諸事業,不茂旣往。以陛下明聖,猶未反叔世之敝,以成始初之隆,傳之後世,不無慮乎!使夫異時大業,或有不安,其憂責猶在陛下也。臣聞爲社稷計,莫若封建親賢。然宜審量事勢,使諸侯率義而動者,其力足以維帶京邑;若包藏禍心,其勢不足獨以有爲。其齊此甚難,陛下宜與達古今之士,深共籌之。周之諸侯,有罪誅放其身,而國祚不泯;漢之諸侯,有罪或無子者,國隨以亡。今宜反漢之敝,循周之舊,則下固而上安矣。天下至大,萬事至衆,人君至少,同於天日,是聖王之化,執要於己,委務於下,非惡勞而好逸,誠以政體宜然也。夫居事始以別能否,甚難察也;因成敗以分功罪,甚易識也。今陛下每精於造始而略於考終,此政功所以未善也。人主誠能居易執要,考功罪於成敗之後,則羣下無所逃其誅賞矣。古者六卿分職,冢宰爲師;秦、漢已來,九列執事,丞相都總。今尚書制斷,諸卿奉成,於古制爲太重。可出衆事付外寺,使得專之;尚書統領大綱,若丞相之爲,歲終課功,校簿賞罰而已,斯亦可矣。今動皆受成於上,上之所失,不得復以罪下,歲終事功不建,不知所責也。夫細過謬妄,人情之所必有,而悉糾以法,則朝野無立人矣。近世以來爲監司者,類大綱不振而微過必舉,蓋由畏避豪強而又懼職事之曠,則謹密網以羅微罪,使奏劾相接,狀似盡公,而撓法在其中矣。是以聖王不善碎密之案,必責凶猾之奏,則害政之姦,自然禽矣。夫創業之勳,在於立敎定制,使遺風繫人心,餘烈匡幼弱,後世憑之,雖昏猶明,雖愚若智,乃足尚也。至夫脩飾官署,凡諸作役,恆傷太過,不患不舉,此將來所不須於陛下而自能者也。今勤所不須以傷所憑,竊以爲過矣。」帝皆不能用。

8. The Chancellor of the Huainan princely fief, Liu Song, sent up a petition stating, "In the administration of laws and bans, Your Majesty has been quite indulgent. Since it has never yet been the case that such behavior over a long time has been straightened out and discipline imposed on those below in the space of a single day, now is truly the time for you to begin such changes. In order to achieve the ultimate aim of rectifying the age and providing relief from abuse, one must work gradually to spread pureness and respect. Consider that when steering a boat to cross over a river, one does not make straight for the rapids, but gradually approaches the troublesome spots of the river by and by, and through the accumulation of several careful movements, one is able to get past the danger and reach the other side.

"It has been nearly thirty years since the beginning of the Taishi era (265). In the handling of affairs, one must not be extravagant, but must follow the times. Now Your Majesty is a wise sovereign, and you have never turned towards the abuses of an age of ruin. You have truly established a magnificent beginning for the dynasty. Yet when it comes to passing on your legacy to future generations, you cannot be without concern! If you entrust the grand design to someone who is not suited for the times, then should there be any disturbance, Your Majesty will bear the blame for such sorrows.

"From what I have heard, there is no greater policy for securing the fortunes of state than to appoint and establish those who are intimate and worthy. But one must be sure to properly grasp the importance of affairs and of influence. When you send the various nobles out to guard places in the realm, if there is any disturbance, then their power is sufficient to act as a belt protecting the capital region. And even if any one of these nobles hides evil intent within his heart, his power alone will not be sufficient to accomplish anything. But with the current situation posing such difficulties, Your Majesty should consult with all the gentlemen, both of long and of recent service, and develop a plan together with them to deal with it.

"During the Zhou dynasty, if there was anyone among the feudal lords who committed a crime, they were executed and their body was cast out, yet the fortunes of their feudal state were not therefore extinguished. On the other hand, among the nobles of the Han dynasty who committed a crime, if such an offender had no son, then his fief was consequently abolished. Now you ought to oppose this abuse of the Han dynasty and follow the practice of Zhou; that will bring discipline below and security above.

"The realm is so vast, the numerous affairs are so many, and superior men are so few. It is the same with the power of the ruler. In order for a sage ruler to bring about reform, he must himself occupy an important position while delegating assignments to those below. If he does not disdain hard effort, or take comfort in leisure, then the government will be as it should be. What is truly difficult is to discern at the beginning of some new endeavor who is capable of fulfilling its associated tasks and who is not. Conversely, when the endeavor has either been accomplished or proved a failure, it is much easier to determine who deserves the credit or the blame for it. However, Your Majesty has often begun new endeavors with a burst of enthusiasm while being remiss in following up on their conclusions. Such a thing has never been a policy for good governance. It is simple enough for a ruler of men to occupy an important position. If you would couple that with a determination to examine how affairs are concluded, whether satisfactorily or otherwise, and assign the proper share of credit or blame, then there shall not be any ministers or subordinates who flee from your punishments or your rewards.

"In ancient times, when the duties of government were divided among the Six Ministers, the Chief Minister was the one who supervised them. During the Qin and Han dynasties, when the Nine Offices handled affairs, the Prime Minister oversaw everything. But now, the Masters of Writing divvy up affairs, and the various high ministers only see to their own duties. Compared to the older systems, this is an even more serious situation. You might have the specific assignments sent out to the external ministries so that they completely focus on the details of them. Meanwhile, the Masters of Writing may act to direct the general outline of government planning, fulfilling the role of a Prime Minister, and keeping their direct involvement limited to the annual review of accomplishments and the recording of rewards and punishments; this could also be done. With the current state of affairs, whenever something is undertaken, its completion becomes the burden of those at the top of the administration, and when they make some mistake, they cannot further indicate which subordinate offices are also responsible. Furthermore, when credit for affairs is not established through annual review, then no one knows who deserves what.

"When people are led astray and commit tresspasses, it is certainly because of human feelings. But when people are bound together by the law, then no one either in the court or in the country will set up men above it. In recent times, those who were appointed as leaders over the realm were not fazed by general developments, but they always reacted to slight disturbances; although they feared acting tyrannically, they also feared neglecting the duties of their office. Thus did their nets gradually spread wider, moving from entangling those who had slight offenses to bringing charges against one another. Though they seemed to be doing everything according to the public good, in reality they were harming the law even as they acted in service of it. This is why a sage ruler does not approve of cases which involve secret charges and incriminations, since they necessarily involve ominous and crafty petitions, and the perverse harm that they do to governance naturally causes division. So one who would secure the beginning of a great endeavor must set up a defined system and provide instruction regarding it, so that these customs and traditions may be passed down to later ages and provide solace for the hearts of the people. Stern management of this system may be used in order to provide against young or weak rulers, and future generations may rely upon its use. There will thus be wisdom even in the midst of fatuousness, and intelligence even in the midst of foolishness. So it will be sufficient to pass down.

"When one goes so far as to expand and adorn government offices, and is setting out on numerous building projects, they do lasting harm and great damage to the state. When there is no disaster and no danger present, then people will turn towards those who are able regardless of Your Majesty. For this to be a current trend which is gradually developing harm as something to be relied upon is, I believe, a transgression."

But Sima Yan could not put any of Liu Song's suggestions into practice.

〈王國置相,漢制也;晉後改爲內史。〉〈此引濟川爲譬也。濟大川者,雖曰橫絕大川,亂流而渡,然必因水勢漸靡,而行舟向其所趨,以登陸之路,然後汔濟,否則爲水勢所使,不能制舟以向所趨,不得登岸矣。〉〈帝受禪,改元泰始,至是二十五年。〉〈言立事造業,不加茂於往時也。〉〈帝之使諸王分鎭而內不足以齊之,此劉頌所爲深慮也。〉〈如周烹齊哀公而立其弟靜,宣王誅魯侯伯御而立孝公之類。〉〈見《前》、《後漢紀》。〉〈余謂晉之所以待藩王者,其宜不在此也。〉〈《周禮》:天官冢宰,地官司徒,春官宗伯,夏官司馬,秋官司寇,冬官司空,是爲六卿,而冢宰總之。〉〈此西都以前制也。〉〈自漢光武以來,以吏事責尚書,事歸臺閣,諸卿奉成而已。〉〈外寺,謂諸卿寺。〉〈御史臺官及諸州刺史,皆監司也。〉〈言法制脩明,雖後嗣昏愚,有所據依,則其治猶若明智之爲也。此言蓋指太子不能克隆堂構,而帝又無典則以貽子孫也。然苟非其人,道不虛行,以劉禪之庸而輔之以諸葛亮,則昭烈雖死,猶不死也。孔明死,則孔明治蜀之法制雖存,禪不能守之矣。〉

(It had been the tradition since Han times that the equivalent of an Administrator for princely fiefs was called a Chancellor. Later on, Jin would change the name of this title to Interior Minister.

Liu Song uses the example of navigating a river. When navigating across a great river, although there are places called rapids that interrupt the course of the river and cause a great churning of its flow, even so there are always spots where the strength of the water gradually slacks off, and when one steers the boat towards these spots, it is like climbing onto a road of land. By doing so, one can cross over the river even despite the strength of the water. But if one is not able to steer the boat to keep close to these places, then one cannot reach the other side.

Sima Yan had accepted the abdication from Cao-Wei at the beginning of the Taishi era (265); it had been twenty-five years since then.

Liu Song meant that when setting up affairs and developing an enterprise, one could not be extravagant and must follow the times.

Sima Yan had sent the various Princes to hold various places across the realm, but he had made no provision for security domestically; this was what Liu Song was so deeply concerned about.

The Zhou dynasty had boiled alive Duke Ai of Qi, yet they had set up his younger brother Jing in his place. King Xuan had executed the Lu Marquis Boyu, but had raised up Duke Xiao in his place. Instances of the abolishing of fiefs during the Han dynasty can be found in the Former Han and Later Han portions of the ZZTJ.

I, Hu Sanxing, believe that the Princes of Jin who occupied border posts should not have been treated as Liu Song here suggests (to allow their fiefs to continue even despite the offense of the holder of the noble title).

The Rites of Zhou states, "The minister of Heaven is the Chief Minister; the minister of Earth is the Minister Over The Masses; the minister of Spring is the Superintendent of the Imperial Household; the minister of Summer is the Marshal; the minister of Autumn is the Minister of Justice; the minister of Winter is the Minister of Works. These are the Six Ministers, and the Chief Minister directs them."

The Prime Minister being the chief office was the system used during Former Han, when the capital was at Chang'an. But ever since Emperor Guangwu of Han restored the dynasty, official affairs had been placed in the charge of the Masters of Writing. Matters returned to the care of the government bureaus, and the high ministers did only their own duties and no more.

The "external ministries" were the offices of the high ministers.

The "leaders over the realm" were the officials of the Imperial Secretary bureau in the capital and the Inspectors of the provinces.

Liu Song's rhetoric about "wisdom in the midst of fatuousness" and the like refers to his conception that the laws and systems would be able to inculcate wisdom in the government. Even if, later on, a fatuous and foolish ruler came to the throne, the existing customs and traditions would still be at hand and could be maintained, and thus by governing through them wisdom and intelligence would still be in evidence. The thrust of this argument was directed at the Crown Prince, Sima Zhong, who was not able to successfully maintain the government, and that Sima Yan had also not developed any defined system of canons that he could hand down to his descendants. But, one cannot neglect the importance of having other men who do not themselves conduct their affairs without principle. We may consider how Liu Shan was an inferior sort of man, yet he had the aid of Zhuge Liang. Even though Emperor Zhaolie (Liu Bei) had died, the government of Shu-Han was the same as if he had not died. But following Kongming's death, although the system by which he had wisely governed Shu-Han was still in place, Liu Shan could not maintain it on his own.)


詔以劉淵爲匈奴北部都尉。淵輕財好施,傾心接物,五部豪桀,幽、冀名儒,多往歸之。

9. Sima Yan issued an edict appointing Liu Yuan as Commandant of the Northern Division of the Xiongnu. Liu Yuan thought little of wealth and enjoyed being generous, and he was adept at handling people and forming connections. So many of the famous Confucian scholars of Youzhou and Jizhou flocked to him.

〈時改匈奴五部帥爲五部都尉。〉〈爲劉淵得衆以移晉祚張本。〉

(At this time, the offices of Chiefs of the Five Divisions of the Southern Xiongnu were changed to Commandants of them.

This was why Liu Yuan was able to obtain a great host of people and could threaten the fortunes of Jin.)


奚軻男女十萬口來降。

10. A hundred thousand men and women of the Xike people came to submit to Jin.

〈奚軻,亦夷種也。〉

(The Xike were another branch of tribesmen.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:36 am

孝惠皇帝上之上

Beginning of the Reign of Sima Zhong, Emperor Hui


〈諱衷,字正度,武帝第二子也。《諡法》:柔質慈民曰惠。〉

(Sima Zhong, styled Zhengdu, was Sima Yan's second son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who is of a gentle nature and kind towards the people may be called Hui ('the Gentle').")


永熙元年(庚戌、二九○)

The First Year of Yongxi (The Gengxu Year, 290 AD)


春,正月,辛酉朔,改元太熙。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Xinyou (January 28th), the reign era title was changed to Taixi.

〈太熙,武帝所改。至四月己酉,太子卽位,改元永熙。未踰年改元,猶爲非禮,安有先帝初棄羣臣,太子卽位,而遽以是日改元乎!〉

(It was Sima Yan who changed the reign era title to Taixi. That was the title for this year until the day Jiyou in the fourth month (May 16th), when Emperor Hui rose to the throne and the reign era title was changed to Yongxi. But to change the reign era title before the full year has elapsed is contrary to the rites. How could it be that Sima Yan had only just left his ministers behind in death, and his Crown Prince had risen to the throne, and yet they rushed to change the reign era title on the same day?)


己巳,以王渾爲司徒。

2. On the day Jisi (February 5th), Wang Hun was appointed as Minister Over The Masses.

司空、侍中、尚書令衞瓘子宣,尚繁昌公主。宣嗜酒,多過失,楊駿惡瓘,欲逐之,乃與黃門謀共毀宣,勸武帝奪公主。瓘慙懼,告老遜位。詔進瓘位太保,以公就第。

3. The Minister of Works, Palace Attendant, and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Wei Guan, had a son Wei Xuan who was married to the Princess of Fanchang. Wei Xuan had a fondness for wine, and he committed many transgressions. Yang Jun disliked Wei Guan, and wished to have him expelled, so he plotted with the Yellow Gate officials to defame Wei Xuan, and urged Sima Yan to take back the Princess. Wei Guan was ashamed and afraid, so he said he would be resigning his office on account of age. Sima Yan issued an edict appointing Wei Guan as Grand Guardian, and Wei Guan retired to his ducal estate.

〈瓘封菑陽公。〉

(Wei Guan was Duke of Zaiyang.)


劇陽康子魏舒薨。

4. Wei Shu passed away. He was posthumously known as Baron Kang ("the Peaceful") of Juyang.

三月,甲子,以右光祿大夫石鑒爲司空。

5. In the third month, on the day Jiazi (April 1st), the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Right, Shi Jian, was appointed as Minister of Works.

〈《晉志》:左、右光祿大夫假金章紫綬及光祿大夫加金章紫綬者,品秩第二。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "The Household Counselors With Golden Tassel of the Left and Right had golden seals and purple ribbons, as did the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel. These offices occupied the second tier of the Nine Ranks system.")


帝疾篤,未有顧命。勳舊之臣多已物故,侍中、車騎將軍楊駿獨侍疾禁中,大臣皆不得在左右。駿因輒以私意改易要近,樹其心腹。會帝小間,見其新所用者,正色謂駿曰:「何得便爾!」時汝南王亮尚未發,乃令中書作詔,以亮與駿同輔政,又欲擇朝士有聞望者數人佐之。駿從中書借詔觀之,得便藏去,中書監華廙恐懼,自往索之,終不與。會帝復迷亂,皇后奏以駿輔政,帝頷之。夏,四月,辛丑,皇后召華廙及中書令何劭,口宣帝旨作詔,以駿爲太尉、太子太傅、都督中外諸軍事、侍中、錄尚書事。詔成,后對廙、劭以呈帝,帝視而無言。廙,歆之孫;劭,曾之子也。遂趣汝南王亮赴鎭。帝尋小間,問:「汝南王來未?」左右言未至,帝遂困篤。己酉,崩于含章殿。帝宇量弘厚,明達好謀,容納直言,未嘗失色於人。

6. Sima Yan was critically ill, but he had not yet given an order transferring his authority. Most of his veteran and accomplished ministers had already passed away. Only the Palace Attendant and General of Chariots and Cavalry, Yang Jun, attended Sima Yan during his illness; he forbade access to the palace, and the great ministers could not see him. Yang Jun wished to fulfill his private intentions, so he had people in close positions exchanged for his own agents. At that time, Sima Yan's illness somewhat abated so that he regained lucidity, and when he saw who the people were who were now being used in these close roles, he sternly said to Yang Jun, "How has this come about?"

Sima Liang had not yet set out to go to his post as Commander of Yuzhou, so Sima Yan ordered the Palace Secretariat to compose an edict naming both Sima Liang and Yang Jun as joint regents. Sima Yan also wished to select several influential people among the court gentlemen to provide further assistance. Yang Jun borrowed the edict from the Palace Secretariat in order to look at it, and he then hid it away somewhere. The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Hua Yi, was concerned, and he continually demanded Yang Jun return the edict, but to no avail. Sima Yan then fell back into senility, and when Empress Yang Zhi presented a petition asking that Yang Jun be made the sole regent, Sima Yan nodded in approval.

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Xinchou (May 8th), Yang Zhi summoned Hua Yi and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, He Shao, and told them to compose a decree announcing Sima Yan's wishes. The decree appointed Yang Jun as Grand Commandant, Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, Commander of all military affairs, Palace Attendant, and chief of the affairs of the Masters of Writing. When the edict had been completed, Yang Zhi had Hua Yi and He Shao present it to Sima Yan, who looked at it without saying a word. This Hua Yi was the grandson of Hua Xin; this He Shao was the son of He Zeng.

Sima Liang was then sent to report to his post. Sima Yan recovered his lucidity again for a time, and he asked, "Has the Prince of Runan not arrived yet?" Those who were with him said that Sima Liang had not yet come, and Sima Yan thus felt bitter pain.

On the day Jiyou (May 16th), Sima Yan passed away in the Hanzhang Hall of the palace. He was posthumously known as Emperor Wu (“the Martial”).

Sima Yan was a man of great magnanimity and abundant favor, sensible and adept at making plans. He was tolerant and receptive of blunt talk, and never once lost his composure in front of people.

〈間者,病小差也。〉〈去年,遣亮出督豫州。〉〈華歆仕漢、魏之間,何曾仕魏、晉之間,位皆至公,二人身名相似也。〉〈年五十五。《坤》之六三曰:含章可貞。坤以含弘爲德,后道也。含章殿在皇后宮中。《春秋》書「公薨于小寢」,卽安也。〉

(The term 間 in this instance means when an illness abates for a time.

Sima Liang had been given the assignment as Commander of Yuzhou in the previous year (289.5).

Hua Xin had served under the Han and Cao-Wei dynasties, and He Zeng had served under Cao-Wei and Jin. Both of them became Dukes, and they themselves had reputations as esteemed as Chancellors.

Sima Yan was fifty-five years old when he died.

Regarding the Hanzhang Hall, the Third Six Divided entry of the Kun chapter of the Book of Changes states, "He keeps his excellence under restraint (含章/Han zhang), but firmly maintains it." The Kun chapter views restraint and magnanimity as virtues, and later as principles. The Hanzhang Hall was in the Empress's palace. The Spring and Autumn Annals states, "The Duke died in the Small chamber. (Xi 33.11)" He was at peace.)


太子卽皇帝位,大赦,改元,尊皇后曰皇太后,立妃賈氏爲皇后。

7. Crown Prince Sima Zhong was placed upon the imperial throne, as Emperor Hui. A general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed. Emperor Hui honored Empress Yang Zhi as Empress Dowager, and he honored his concubine Jia Nanfeng as Empress.

〈改太熙爲永熙。〉

(This was when the reign era title was changed to Yongxi.)


I, the translator, will refer to all Jin emperors other than Sima Yan, Sima Lun, and Sima Rui by their posthumous names, since they are mostly historically known by their titles rather than their actual names. They were not known by these names during their lifetimes. Sima Lun is not commonly counted among the legitimate Jin emperors. The rest of the Jin emperors were of little to no consequence before taking the throne, with the exception of Sima Yu / Emperor Jianwen.

楊駿入居太極殿,梓宮將殯,六宮出辭,而駿不下殿,以虎賁百人自衞。

8. Yang Jun moved his residence to the Taiji Hall. Sima Yan's coffin was then placed in the mourning hall, and the people of the six palaces all came to pay their respects. However, Yang Jun did not leave the Taiji Hall, and he had a hundred brave warriors assigned to protect him.

〈前殿也。〉〈時梓宮蓋自含章殿徙殯太極殿。〉

(The Taiji Hall was the front hall.

The mourning procession at this time went from Hanzhang Hall through Taiji Hall.)


詔石鑒與中護軍張劭監作山陵。

9. Shi Jian and the Protector of the Palace, Zhang Shao, were summoned to direct the construction of Sima Yan's tomb.

汝南王亮畏駿,不敢臨喪,哭於大司馬門外。出營城外,表求過葬而行。或告亮欲舉兵討駿者,駿大懼,白太后,令帝爲手詔與石鑒、張劭,使帥陵兵討亮。劭,駿甥也,卽帥所領趣鑒速發;鑒以爲不然,保持之。亮問計於廷尉何勗,勗曰:「今朝野皆歸心於公,公不討人而畏人討邪!」亮不敢發,夜,馳赴許昌,乃得免。駿弟濟及甥河南尹李斌皆勸駿留亮,駿不從。濟謂尚書左丞傅咸曰:「家兄若徵大司馬,退身避之,門戶庶幾可全。」咸曰:「宗室外戚,相恃爲安。但召大司馬還,共崇至公以輔政,無爲避也。」濟又使侍中石崇見駿言之,駿不從。

10. Sima Liang feared Yang Jun, so he did not dare to attend the mourning for Sima Yan. He merely wept outside the gate of his office as the Grand Marshal. He then went outside the walls of his camp, sent in a petition asking for forgiveness in not attending the burial, and then left.

Some people said that Sima Liang wanted to raise troops and lead a campaign against Yang Jun, so Yang Jun was greatly afraid of him as well. He told Empress Dowager Yang Zhi about the matter, and they had Emperor Hui write an edict in his own hand, with Shi Jian and Zhang Shao helping him, to direct the soldiers guarding Sima Yan's tomb to move to attack Sima Liang. Since Zhang Shao was Yang Jun's nephew, he had the soldiers placed under the authority of Shi Jian and planned to have him act at once. But Shi Jian believed it could not be done, and he kept the soldiers close at hand and thus protected Sima Liang.

Sima Liang heard about the plan to move against him from the Minister of Justice, He Xu, who said to him, "Everyone, near and far, all turn their hearts to you. Yet you do not punish these people, and you are even afraid of them moving against you!" But Sima Liang did not dare take any action. That night, he fled the city and left for Xuchang, and thus made his escape.

Yang Jun's younger brother Yang Ji and the Intendant of Henan, his nephew Li Bin, both urged Yang Jun to keep Sima Liang close at hand, but Yang Jun did not follow their suggestion. Yang Ji said to the Minister of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Fu Xian, "If my elder brother could merely humble himself before the Grand Marshal and withdraw himself and keep away from him, then the status of our family could be fully secured."

Fu Xian told him, "The immediate members of the royal family and their more distant relations each rely upon one another for security. But if you summoned the Grand Marshal to come back, and could act in joint regency together with sublime conduct, then there would not even be any need for your elder brother to withdraw."

So Yang Ji further sent the Palace Attendant Shi Chong to see Yang Jun and relay these words to him. But Yang Jun still would not listen.

〈亮自大司馬出鎭,未行,尚居府中,不敢入宮臨喪,而哭於大司馬府門外。君父之喪,哭於門外,非禮也。〉〈保亮不舉兵,而持討亮之兵不發也。〉

(Sima Liang had been ordered to go to Xuchang in his role as Grand Marshal, but he had not yet set out, and was still in residence at his government office in the capital. He did not dare to go into the palace to attend the mourning for Sima Yan, so he merely wept outside the gates of his office as Grand Marshal. But when one is mourning for one's lord or father, to weep outside the gate goes against the rites.

Shi Jian protected Sima Liang by not bringing the tomb troops to bear, as he merely kept the soldiers who were to attack him on hand and did not make any movement.)


五月,辛未,葬武帝于峻陽陵。

11. In the fifth month, on the day Xinwei (June 7th), Sima Yan was buried at Junyang Tomb.

楊駿自知素無美望,欲依魏明帝卽位故事,普進封爵以求媚於衆。左軍將軍傅祗與駿書曰:「未有帝王始崩,臣下論功者也。」駿不從。祗,嘏之子也。丙子,詔中外羣臣皆增位一等,預喪事者增二等,二千石已上皆封關中侯,復租調一年。散騎常侍石崇、散騎侍郎何攀共上奏,以爲:「帝正位東宮二十餘年,今承大業,而班賞行爵,優於泰始革命之初及諸將平吳之功,輕重不稱。且大晉卜世無窮,今之開制,當垂于後,若有爵必進,則數世之後,莫非公侯矣。」不從。

12. Since Yang Jun himself knew that he had little support or favor, he wished to follow the example of Emperor Ming of Wei (Cao Rui), so he planned to make many advancements or appointments among people as a means to win over the multitude.

The General of the Army of the Left, Fu Zhi, wrote to Yang Jun saying, "There has never been an instance when a sovereign had newly perished and yet his ministers and subordinates spoke of merits."

But Yang Jun did not listen to him. This Fu Zhi was the son of Fu Jia.

On the day Bingzi (June 12th), Yang Jun had an edict sent out advancing all officials near and far by one rank, while those who had actually taken part in the mourning for Sima Yan were advanced by two ranks. Officials who were already above the Two Thousand 石 Salary rank were appointed as Marquises Of The Passes, and their taxes were waived for one year.

The Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Shi Chong, and the Gentleman Cavalier In Attendance, He Pan, sent up a joint petition stating, "The new Emperor was living in his residence as Crown Prince in the Eastern Palace for more than twenty years, and he has only just now taken up the reins of government and the grand design, yet you are already distributing these rewards and advancements. Even those ministers who implemented the reforms at the beginning of the Taishi era (~265) or the generals who achieved the conquest of Wu were not treated so generously as this. Furthermore, the Jin dynasty must necessarily continue through the ages, and if we use the system which you have now begun, then as we pass through the generations, everyone who has a title or rank will have to be advanced, and after several generations there will not be anyone who has not been made a Duke or a Marquis."

But Yang Jun did not listen to them.

〈《晉志》曰:按魏明帝時有左軍,則左軍魏官也。〉〈傅嘏仕魏,顯於嘉平、正元之間。〉〈漢獻帝建安二十年,魏武王置關中侯。據《晉書‧帝紀》,關中侯又在關內侯之下。〉〈前書「侍中石崇」,此作「散騎常侍」,必有一誤,蓋因舊史成文也。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "In the time of Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui), there was an Army of the Left.” So the title General of the Army of the Left was a Cao-Wei office.

Fu Jia served Cao-Wei during the Jiaping and Zhengyuan eras (249-256).

In Emperor Xian of Han's twentieth year of Jian'an (215), Cao Cao created the title Marquis Of The Passes. According to the Imperial Annals in the Book of Jin, this title Marquis Of The Passes was below the rank of Marquis Within The Passes.

This passage refers to Shi Chong as a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, but he has just been mentioned above as a Palace Attendant. I fear that this listing of him as Cavalier In Regular Attendance was a mistake on the part of an error in the old histories.)


詔以太尉駿爲太傅、大都督、假黃鉞,錄朝政,百官總己以聽。傅咸謂駿曰:「諒闇不行久矣。今聖上謙沖,委政於公,而天下不以爲善,懼明公未易當也。周公大聖,猶致流言,況聖上春秋非成王之年乎!竊謂山陵旣畢,明公當審思進退之宜,苟有以察其忠款,言豈在多!」駿不從。咸數諫,駿漸不平,欲出咸爲郡守。李斌曰:「斥逐正人,將失人望。」乃止。楊濟遺咸書曰:「諺云:『生子癡,了官事。』官事未易了也。想慮破頭,故具有白。」咸復書曰:「衞公有言:『酒色殺人,甚於作直。』坐酒色死,人不爲悔,而逆畏以直致禍,此由心不能正,欲以苟且爲明哲耳。自古以直致禍者,當由矯枉過正,或不忠篤,欲以亢厲爲聲,故致忿耳,安有悾悾忠益而返見怨疾乎!」

13. An edict was issued appointed Yang Jun as Grand Tutor, Grand Commander, and Bearer of the Yellow Battle-axe. He was placed in charge of the court and the government, and all the ministers had to heed his commands.

Fu Xian said to Yang Jun, "The rites of the mourning shed are not being carried out to their full extent, so the Emperor is not indisposed by that account. When a sage fellow sets himself above a ruler who is humble and young, and administers the affairs of state on behalf of the public good, even so the realm does not really approve of such a situation, so I fear that Your Excellency will not find it easy to occupy such a position for yourself. The Duke of Zhou was a paragon of wisdom, and his sovereign King Cheng was young in age when the Duke began to direct affairs, yet even he was faced with loose talk. How much more will that be the case when the man who would be regent places himself above a lord who is not even a young child like King Cheng was? In my view, since the burial of Emperor Wu has been completed, Your Excellency should should be cautious and circumspect in your movements. When people are able to examine you and see for themselves your loyalty and sincerity, then how much could really be said against you?"

But Yang Jun did not listen to him.

Fu Xian often rebuked Yang Jun, who gradually became uneasy, and he wished to have Fu Xian sent away as an Administrator somewhere. But Li Bin said to Yang Jun, "If you oust a virtuous man like that, you will soon lose people's support." So Yang Jun decided against it.

Yang Ji sent Fu Xian a letter stating, "You know the ditty, 'A child born half-wit is not for office fit'. It has never been a simple thing to maintain one's office. I was worried that you might bring harm to yourself, and this is why I am writing to you."

Fu Xian wrote back stating, "The Duke of Wey had a saying: 'It is decadence that kills a man, not his acting rightly.' When decadence kills someone, people feel no regrets about it. However, what they do fear is coming to disaster by being too direct. This is why their hearts cannot be just, and so they would rather neglect wisdom and intelligence. Since ancient times, whenever someone has come to grief because of being direct, it was said that they went too far in trying to correct transgressions, or else that they were not really loyal and sincere, but merely enjoyed hearing the sound of their own harsh rebukes, and thus they simply stirred up anger. Yet how can someone who is trustworthy or sincere, loyal, and useful look back with malice and envy?"

〈自漢文短喪之詔,嗣君卽吉聽政,諒闇三年之制,不行久矣。〉〈周成王幼沖,周公攝政而四國流言。〉〈武帝泰始二年,帝爲皇太子,時年九歲,至是三十二歲矣。〉〈慮咸以直言致禍也。〉〈《詩》曰:旣明且哲,以保其身。此言世人不能直言,特以苟且爲保身之計耳。〉〈悾悾,信也;包咸曰:慤也。〉

(Ever since Emperor Wen of Han had ordered the mourning period to be curtailed, the tradition of the ruler spending three years dwelling in the mourning shed upon his ascension to the throne in order to bring auspicion to the government had not been carried out.

At the time when the Duke of Zhou became regent for King Cheng of Zhou, King Cheng was still a mere boy. Even so, there was much loose talk concerning the Duke of Zhou from all the states.

In the second year of Taishi (266), Sima Yan had appointed Sima Zhong as his Crown Prince. Sima Zhong was nine years old at that time, so by now, he was thirty-two.

Yang Ji was concerned that Fu Xian would come to grief because of his blunt words.

The Book of Poetry has the verse, "Intelligent is he and wise, protecting his own person. (Zheng Min 4)" Fu Xian's reasoning was that people through the ages who could not speak forthrightly were the ones who especially neglected intelligence and wisdom in order to protect themselves.

The term 悾悾 means trust; Bao Xian says that it means sincerity.)


楊駿以賈后險悍,多權略,忌之,故以其甥段廣爲散騎常侍,管機密;張劭爲中護軍,典禁兵。凡有詔命,帝省訖,入呈太后,然後行之。

14. Since Empress Jia Nanfeng was a bold and sinister woman, with great authority and influence, Yang Jun was wary of her. So he had his nephew Duan Guang appointed as Cavalier In Regular Attendance, with control over secret affairs, and Zhang Shao was appointed as Protector of the Palace, and placed in command of the guards and canons. Whenever an edict was to be sent out, once Emperor Hui had completed the draft, it would first have to be presented to Empress Dowager Yang Zhi for her approval, and only then would it be carried out.

駿爲政,嚴碎專愎,中外多惡之。馮翊太守孫楚謂駿曰:「公以外戚居伊、霍之任,當以至公、誠信、謙順處之。今宗室強盛,而公不與共參萬機,內懷猜忌,外樹私昵,禍至無日矣!」駿不從。楚,資之孫也。

15. With Yang Jun having taken control of the government, he ruled sternly and arbitrarily and monopolized power, so that many people near and far resented him.

The Administrator of Pingyi, Sun Chu, said to Yang Jun, "You are someone who is only related to the imperial family by marriage, yet you now occupy the same regency role as Yi Yin or Huo Guang. In your conduct of affairs, you ought to act justly, honestly, and with humble submission. The imperial clan is great and powerful, and yet you do not solicit their help in attending to the affairs of state. Those within harbor doubts and suspicion about you, and those without are all considering their own personal interests. Disaster is not far off!"

But Yang Jun ignored him. This Sun Chu was the grandson of Sun Zi.

〈愎,很也。〉〈孫資事魏三祖,掌機密。〉

The term 愎 here means very.

Sun Zi had served three generations of Cao-Wei rulers as an intimate servant of the household.)


弘訓少府蒯欽,駿之姑子也,數以直言犯駿,他人皆爲之懼,欽曰:「楊文長雖闇,猶知人之無罪不可妄殺,不過疏我,我得疏,乃可以免;不然,與之俱族矣。」

16. The Privy Treasurer of Hongxun Palace, Kuai Qin, was Yang Jun's cousin. He often scolded Yang Jun with blunt words, and other people feared for what might happen to him. Kuai Qin told them, "Yang Wenchang may be blind, but even he knows that he cannot rashly kill someone who has committed no crime. If he distances himself from me, then by that distance I may escape; otherwise, I am also of his clan."

〈景皇后居弘訓宮,置少府。〉〈楊駿,字文長。〉

(When Empress Jing (Yang Huiyu) had resided in Hongxun Palace, she had created the office of Privy Treasurer for it.

Yang Jun's style name was Wenchang.)


駿辟匈奴東部人王彰爲司馬,彰逃避不受。其友新興張宣子怪而問之,彰曰:「自古一姓二后,未有不敗。況楊太傅昵近小人,疏遠君子,專權自恣,敗無日矣。吾踰海出塞以避之,猶懼及禍,柰何應其辟乎!且武帝不惟社稷大計,嗣子旣不克負荷,受遺者復非其人,天下之亂,可立待也。」

17. Yang Jun summoned a man from the Eastern Division of the Southern Xiongnu, Wang Zhang, to come serve as a Marshal. But Wang Zhang fled the summons and would not accept his appointment. His friend, Zhang Xuanzi of Xinxing, was curious why Wang Zhang would not accept the appointment, and he asked him about it. Wang Zhang told him, "Ever since ancient times, there has never been a family which gave two Empresses to the royal clan which was not destroyed in the end. Can we expect anything different from Grand Tutor Yang Jun, who is close to and favors miscreants while keeping his own lord at arm's length? He hoards all power to himself and does whatever he likes, so the day of his defeat is not far off. I myself have fled across the sea and beyond the borders just to avoid answering his summons, and yet I still fear that the disaster will engulf me too. How could I possibly go along with his call? It was because Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) did not develop any great plan to ensure the fortunes of state that his unworthy son has succeeded him despite being unable to bear the burdens of rulership, and so power is now in the hands of this fellow who is unsuited to it. The realm will soon fall into chaos; wait and see."

〈匈奴東部卽匈奴左部也,居太原茲氏縣。〉〈漢獻帝建安二十年,省雲中、定襄、五原、朔方郡,郡置一縣,領其民,合爲新興郡,屬幷州。〉〈楊駿之敗,人皆知之,獨駿不知耳。凶人吉其凶,其謂是乎!〉

(The Eastern Division of the Southern Xiongnu was also the Left Division, and they resided in Zishi County in Taiyuan commandary.

In Emperor Xian of Han's twentieth year of Jian'an (215), the commandaries of Yunzhong, Dingxiang, Wuyuan, and Shuofang were abolished; they were consolidated into a single county, to which all the residents were sent, and this county was merged into Xinxing commandary, which was part of Bingzhou.

Everyone could recognize that Yang Jun would be ruined; he was the only one who did not realize it. As the saying goes, "Unfortunate people treat their bad fortune as good fortune. (Exemplary Sayings 6.12)" This certainly applied to Yang Jun!)


秋,八月,壬午,立廣陵王遹爲皇太子。以中書監何劭爲太子太師,衞尉裴楷爲少師,吏部尚書王戎爲太傅,前太常張華爲少傅,衞將軍楊濟爲太保,尚書和嶠爲少保。拜太子母謝氏爲淑媛。賈后常置謝氏於別室,不聽與太子相見。初,和嶠嘗從容言於武帝曰:「皇太子有淳古之風,而末世多僞,恐不了陛下家事。」武帝默然。後與荀勗等同侍武帝,武帝曰:「太子近入朝差長進,卿可俱詣之,粗及世事。」旣還,勗等並稱太子明識雅度,誠如明詔。嶠曰:「聖質如初。」武帝不悅而起。及帝卽位,嶠從太子遹入朝,賈后使帝問曰:「卿昔謂我不了家事,今日定如何?」嶠曰:「臣昔事先帝,曾有斯言;言之不效,國之福也。」

18. In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Renwu (October 16th), Sima Yu was appointed as the new Crown Prince. The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, He Shao, was appointed as Grand Instructor to the Crown Prince, and the Commandant of the Guards, Pei Kai, was appointed as the Lesser Instructor. The Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Rong, was appointed as Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince, and the former Minister of Ceremonies, Zhang Hua, was appointed as the Lesser Tutor. The Guard General, Yang Ji, was appointed as Grand Guardian to the Crown Prince, and the Master of Writing, He Jiao, was appointed as the Lesser Guardian.

Sima Yu's mother Xie Jiu was appointed as a Virtuous Beauty. Empress Jia Nanfeng often kept Xie Jiu in a separate residence, and did not listen to her requests to remain in contact with her son.

While Sima Yan had been alive, He Jiao had once casually said to him, "The Crown Prince has a pure and sincere nature, and yet he has been very false of late. I fear that he will not be able to carry on Your Majesty's affairs." Sima Yan had made no reply.

Later on, when Sima Yan was being attended by Xun Xu and others, Sima Yan had said, "Recently, the Crown Prince seems to have made some progress while at court. You gentlemen should go and visit him, and see if he measures up to what will be required of him someday."

After Xun Xu and the others had returned from their visit, they had all said that the Crown Prince was wise, knowledgeable, refined, and disciplined, truly worthy of Sima Yan's expectations for him. He Jiao had objected, "His mind is no different than before." But Sima Yan was displeased by that remark and went away.

Now that Emperor Hui had come to the throne, He Jiao followed behind Crown Prince Sima Yu and entered the court. Jia Nanfeng had Emperor Hui say to He Jiao, "You once said that I was unworthy of handling my family's affairs. Now that the succession is settled, what do you have to say for yourself?"

He Jiao replied, "I do admit that while I was serving His Late Majesty, I said such words to him. But it was a blessing for the state that my words were not heeded."

〈晉東宮六傅,惟此時具官。〉〈《晉志》:淑妃、淑媛、淑儀、脩華、脩容、脩儀、婕妤、容華、充華,是爲九嬪,銀印,青綬。〉

(This was the only time during Jin in which the six Tutor offices of the Eastern Palace (Grand and Lesser Instructor, Tutor, and Guardian) were all filled at the same time.

The Records of Jin states, "The Nine Concubine Ranks were Virtuous Concubine, Virtuous Beauty, Virtuous Wonder, Adorned Splendor, Adorned Bearing, Adorned Wonder, Favored Beauty, Bearing Splendor, and Worthy Splendor. They had silver seals and green ribbons of office.")


冬,十月,辛酉,以石鑒爲太尉,隴西王泰爲司空。

19. In winter, the tenth month, on the day Xinyou (November 24th), Shi Jian was appointed as Grand Commandant, and the Prince of Longxi, Sima Tai, was appointed as Minister of Works.

以劉淵爲建威將軍、匈奴五部大都督。

20. Jin appointed Liu Yuan as General Who Establishes Might and Grand Commander of all the Five Divisions of the Southern Xiongnu.

〈淵爲五部大都督,則左國城大單于之權輿也。〉

(Liu Yuan's appointment as Grand Commander of the Five Divisions would be the seed of his later success as Grand Chanyu of his own state.)
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BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:41 am

元康元年(辛亥、二九一)

The First Year of Yuankang (The Xinhai Year, 291 AD)


春,正月,乙酉朔,改元永平。

1. In spring, the first month, on the new moon of the day Yiyou (February 16th), the reign era title was changed to Yongping.

〈永平,楊駿執政所改元也。駿誅,改元元康。〉

(Yongping was the reign era title which Yang Jun selected while he held control over the government. Following his execution, the reign era title was then changed to Yuankang.)


初,賈后之爲太子妃也,嘗以妬,手殺數人,又以戟擲孕妾,子隨刃墮;武帝大怒,脩金墉城,將廢之。荀勗、馮紞、楊珧及充華趙粲共營救之,曰:「賈妃年少;妬者婦人常情,長自當差。」楊后曰:「賈公閭有大勳於社稷,妃親其女,正復妬忌,豈可遽忘先德邪!」妃由是得不廢。

2. Earlier, while Jia Nanfeng had still been just the concubine of Crown Prince Sima Zhong, in a fit of jealousy she had personally killed several people, and thrown halberds at pregnant women in order to destroy the children they were bearing. Sima Yan was furious at her, and had her imprisoned in the Jinyong fortress near Luoyang.

Sima Yan was about to depose Jia Nanfeng from her position as Concubine. But Xun Xu, Feng Dan, Yang Yao, and the Worthy Splendor concubine Zhao Can had all pleaded on her behalf. They said, "Concubine Jia is still a young woman, and to be jealous is a common feeling even for a wife, much less a woman in her position."

And Empress Yang Zhi had also said, "Jia Gonglü contributed greatly to bringing about the dynasty, and Concubine Jia is his own daughter. Now you are going to repay his just service with jealousy and suspicion. How can you act so rashly that you overlook his past virtues?"

It was thanks to them that Jia Nanfeng was not deposed.

〈賈充,字公閭。晉之代魏,充力居多。〉

(Jia Chong's style name was Gonglü. He had played a considerable part in Jin's having replaced Cao-Wei.)


后數誡厲妃,妃不知后之助己,返以后爲搆己於武帝,更恨之。及帝卽位,賈后不肯以婦道事太后,又欲干預政事,而爲太傅駿所抑。殿中中郎渤海孟觀、李肇,皆駿所不禮也,陰構駿,云將危社稷。黃門董猛,素給事東宮,爲寺人監,賈后密使猛與觀、肇謀誅駿,廢太后。又使肇報汝南王亮,使舉兵討駿,亮不可。肇報都督荊州諸軍事楚王瑋,瑋欣然許之,乃求入朝。駿素憚瑋勇銳,欲召之而未敢,因其求朝,遂聽之。二月,癸酉,瑋及都督揚州諸軍事、淮南王允來朝。

3. Now Empress Yang Zhi had often admonished Jia Nanfeng sternly, and Jia Nanfeng did not know that Yang Zhi had acted on her behalf before, but rather believed that she had felt the same way about her as Sima Yan had, so Jia Nanfeng hated Yang Zhi all the more. After Emperor Hui came to the throne, the now Empress Jia Nanfeng could not endure being inferior in womanly affairs to Empress Dowager Yang Zhi, and she further wished to have a hand in the affairs of government itself, but she was restrained by Yang Jun.

The Palace Gentlemen of the Central Hall, Meng Guan of Bohai and Li Zhao, both felt that Yang Jun was acting contrary to the rites, and they secretly criticized him, saying that he would soon bring danger to the state. And the Yellow Gate Attendant Dong Meng, who had long been involved in the affairs of the Crown Prince's Eastern Palace, was now the Chief of the Ministry Men. So Jia Nanfeng secretly plotted with Dong Meng, Meng Guan, and Li Zhao, planning to execute Yang Jun and depose Yang Zhi.

Jia Nanfeng had Li Zhao go and explain their plan to Sima Liang, hoping that he would raise his soldiers and come attack Yang Jun, but Sima Liang would not act. Then Li Zhao went to explain the plan to the Commander of Jingzhou affairs and Prince of Chu, Sima Wei. Sima Wei was much more receptive to the plot and agreed to help.

Sima Wei then sent a request to the capital asking to enter the court. Yang Jun had long feared Sima Wei as a brave and fierce man, and although he wished to summon him he had never dared to go through with it. So when Sima Wei himself submitted his request to come to court, Yang Jun allowed him to do so.

In the second month, on the day Guiyou (April 5th), Sima Wei came to the capital, as did the Commander of Yangzhou affairs and Prince of Huainan, Sima Yun.

〈晉制:二衞置殿中將軍、中郎、校尉、司馬。〉〈寺人監,主東宮諸閹。〉

(Under the Jin system, the two Guard offices had the subordinate offices of General of the Household, Palace Gentlemen, Colonels, and Marshals.

The Chief of the Ministry Men was the leader of the various eunuchs of the Eastern Palace.)


三月,辛卯,孟觀、李肇啓帝,夜作詔,誣駿謀反,中外戒嚴,遣使奉詔廢駿,以侯就第。命東安公繇帥殿中四百人討駿,楚王瑋屯司馬門,以淮南相劉頌爲三公尚書,屯衞殿中。段廣跪言於帝曰:「楊駿孤公無子,豈有反理,願陛下審之!」帝不答。

4. In the third month, on the day Xinmao (April 23rd), Meng Guan and Li Zhao informed Emperor Hui of the plot. That night, they composed an edict slandering Yang Jun, saying he was plotting rebellion. Everywhere was placed under martial law, while agents were sent to present an edict with orders to depose Yang Jun and force him to his Marquisate estate. The Duke of Dong'an, Sima Yao, was ordered to lead four hundred men from the Central Hall to attack Yang Jun. Sima Wei camped his soldiers at the Sima Gate. Sima Yun's Chancellor Liu Song was named as Master of Writing to the Three Excellencies, and he camped his men at the Central Hall.

Duan Guang knelt before Emperor Hui and said, "Yang Jun is a widower without any sons; how could he have any reason to rebel? Your Majesty, please reconsider!"

But Emperor Hui did not respond to him.

〈駿封臨晉侯。〉〈漢成帝置三公尚書,主斷獄;光武以三公曹主歲盡考課諸州郡事。〉〈廣,駿甥也,使爲近侍,以防左右間己;然終無益也。〉

(Yang Jun was Marquis of Linjin.

Emperor Cheng of Han had created the office of Master of Writing to the Three Excellencies, and it was in charge of determining cases. And Emperor Guangwu had the Evaluator to the Three Excellencies spend the whole year examining the affairs of the provinces and commandaries.

Duan Guang was Yang Jun's nephew, and on account of his closeness to Yang Jun, he sought to defend him to whoever would listen. But it was to no avail.)


時駿居曹爽故府,在武庫南,聞內有變,召衆官議之。太傅主簿朱振說駿曰:「今內有變,其趣可知,必是閹豎爲賈后設謀,不利於公,宜燒雲龍門以脅之,索造事者,首開萬春門,引東宮及外營兵擁皇太子入宮,取姦人,殿內震懼,必斬送之。不然,無以免難。」駿素怯懦,不決,乃曰:「雲龍門,魏明帝所造,功費甚大,柰何燒之!」侍中傅祗白駿,請與尚書武茂入宮觀察事勢,因謂羣僚曰:「宮中不宜空。」遂揖而下階。衆皆走,茂猶坐。祗顧曰:「君非天子臣邪?今內外隔絕,不知國家所在,何得安坐!」茂乃驚起。駿黨左軍將軍劉豫陳兵在門,遇右軍將軍裴頠,問太傅所在,頠紿之曰:「向於西掖門遇公乘素車,從二人西出矣。」豫曰:「吾何之?」頠曰:「宜至廷尉。」豫從頠言,遂委而去。〈委兵而去也。〉尋詔頠代豫領左軍將軍,屯萬春門。頠,秀之子也。皇太后題帛爲書,射之城外,曰:「救太傅者有賞。」賈后因宣言太后同反。尋而殿中兵出,燒駿府,又令弩手於閣上臨駿府而射之,駿兵皆不得出。駿逃于馬廏,就殺之。孟觀等遂收駿弟珧、濟,張劭、李斌、段廣、劉豫、武茂及散騎常侍楊邈、中書令蔣俊、東夷校尉文鴦,皆夷三族,死者數千人。

5. At this time, Yang Jun was living in Cao Shuang's former residence, south of the Arsenal. When he heard that there was some inner disturbance, he summoned his officials to discuss what to do.

His Registrar, Zhu Zhen, urged him, "We may know who the source is of this current disturbance; it is certainly those loathsome eunuchs carrying out Empress Jia's plot, and it will bring no benefit to the public good. You should set fire to the Yunlong Gate to hold them off for a time. Then once your affairs are in order, you may force open the Wanchun Gate, lead the soldiers of the Eastern Palace and the outer camps to lead the Crown Prince into the palace, and arrest the culprits. Anyone inside the palace halls who is trembling with fear should be killed and thus sent off. If you do not do these things, you will have no way to escape from danger."

But Yang Jun was timid and apprehensive, and he could not make up his mind. He even said, "The Yunlong Gate was built by Emperor Ming of Wei (Cao Rui); it took a great deal of effort and resources to build it, so how could we burn it down?"

The Palace Attendant Fu Zhi reported to Yang Jun, and asked that he and the Master of Writing Wu Mao enter the palace to observe the situation and see how things were progressing, for he said to the other officials, "The palace should not be left empty." Fu Zhi then bowed with his hands clasped, and headed down the stairs. The officials all left, but Wu Mao remained sitting there. Fu Zhi turned to him and said, "Are you not a servant of His Majesty? Right now, inside and outside are cut off from one another, and we do not know where His Majesty is. How can you just sit there like nothing?" Wu Mao was startled, and so he got up.

Yang Jun's partisan, the General of the Army of the Left, Liu Yu, put his troops into formation at the gate, where he encountered the General of the Army of the Right, Pei Wei. Liu Yu asked where Yang Jun was, and Pei Wei deceived him by saying, "I saw his carriage pass out through the Xiye Gate, so I sent two men to follow him west."

Liu Yu said, "Then what am I to do?"

Pei Wei replied, "You should go to the Minister of Justice."

So Liu Yu followed Pei Wei's suggestion, let his troops there and departed. Then an edict went out ordering Pei Wei to take over Liu Yu's role as General of the Army of the Left, and Pei Wei camped the soldiers at the Wanchun Gate. This Pei Wei was the son of Pei Xiu.

Empress Dowager Yang Zhi wrote a message on silk, tied it to an arrow, and shot it over the walls. The message said, "Whoever saves Grand Tutor Yang Jun will be rewarded." Because of that, Jia Nanfeng proclaimed that the Empress Dowager was in league with the rebels.

Soon, the soldiers from the Central Hall marched out and set fire to Yang Jun's residence. Crossbowmen were also posted atop a pavilion near the residence, where they began shooting at it, so that Yang Jun's soldiers could not get out. Yang Jun fled to a stable, but was then killed.

Meng Guan and the other coup leaders arrested Yang Jun's younger brothers Yang Yao and Yang Ji, as well as Zhang Shao, Li Bin, Duan Guang, Liu Yu, Wu Mao, the Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Yang Miao, the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Jiang Jun, and the Colonel of Eastern Tribes, Wen Yang. All of them had their clans exterminated to the third degree, and the dead numbered several thousand.

〈雲龍門,洛陽宮城正南門;萬春門,東門也。〉〈國家,謂天子也。自東漢以來,皆然。〉〈魏有左軍,武帝又置前軍、右軍,泰始八年,又置後軍,是爲四軍。〉〈裴秀見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉

(The Yunlong Gate was the main southern gate of the palace complex in Luoyang. The Wanchun Gate was the eastern gate.

Fu Zhi uses the term 國家 "the state" to describe the Son of Heaven. This had been a convention ever since Later Han times.

The Army of the Left had existed since Cao-Wei. Sima Yan also created an Army of the Front and an Army of the Right. In the eighth year of Taishi (272), he also created an Army of the Rear. These were the Four Armies.

Liu Yu left his soldiers behind when he went to the Minister of Justice.

Pei Xiu is first mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Xianxi (264.45 in Fang's Chronicles).)


珧臨刑,告東安公繇曰:「表在石函,可問張華。」衆謂宜依鍾毓例爲之申理。繇不聽,而賈氏族黨趣使行刑。珧號叫不已,刑者以刀破其頭。繇,諸葛誕之外孫也,故忌文鴦,以爲駿黨而誅之。是夜,誅賞皆自繇出,威振內外。王戎謂繇曰:「大事之後,宜深遠權勢。」繇不從。

6. As Yang Yao was being led to his execution, he said to Sima Yao, "I have a petition encased in stone pardoning me. Ask Zhang Hua about it." And everyone said that Yang Yao had been following the same example as Zhong Yu once had. But Sima Yao did not listen to them, and Jia Nanfeng's partisans carried out his execution just the same. Yang Yao continued to plead until the moment that the executioner's blade chopped off his head.

Sima Yao was the grandson of Zhuge Dan through his daughter, and he held a grudge against Wen Yang, so he had Wen Yang lumped in with Yang Jun's partisans and had him executed too.

That night, Sima Yao determined all punishments or rewards stemming from the coup, and his power spread near and far. Wang Rong warned him, "Now that this business is over, you ought not to hoard your power and influence; let it slip away." But Sima Yao did not listen to him.

〈珧表見八十卷武帝咸寧三年,作石函藏之宗廟。摯虞云:廟主藏於戶之外,西墉之中,有石函,名曰宗祏,函中笥以盛主。〉〈鍾毓例見七十八卷魏元帝咸熙元年。〉〈諸葛誕、文鴦事見七十七卷魏高貴鄕公甘露三年。〉

(Yang Yao had obtained an edict from Sima Yan pardoning him ahead of time, which was stored in the ancestral temple, as seen in Book 80 in the third year of Xianning (276.12). Zhi Yun remarked, "Besides the ancestral temple's chief purpose of housing the bodies of one's ancestors, there was also a stone container in the western wall, which was called the ancestral stone shrine. Within this container was a basket that held important edicts."

Zhong Yu had warned Sima Zhao ahead of time that his brother Zhong Hui was likely to rebel; because of that, when Zhong Hui's family was executed, Zhong Yu's sons were spared. This is mentioned in Book 78, in Emperor Yuan of Cao-Wei's (Cao Huan's) first year of Xianxi (264.17 in Fang's Chronicles).

During Zhuge Dan's rebellion, Wen Yang had defected from his side and helped Sima Zhao to crush the rebellion and kill Zhuge Dan. This is mentioned in Book 77, in Cao Mao's third year of Ganlu (258.2 in Fang's Chronicles).)


壬辰,赦天下,改元。

7. On the day Renchen (April 24th), an amnesty was declared throughout the realm, and the reign era title was changed.

〈改元元康。〉

(This was when the title was changed to Yuankang.)


賈后矯詔,使後軍將軍荀悝送太后於永寧宮,特全太后母高都君龐氏之命,聽就太后居。尋復諷羣公有司奏曰:「皇太后陰漸姦謀,圖危社稷,飛箭繫書,要募將士,同惡相濟,自絕于天。魯侯絕文姜,《春秋》所許。蓋奉祖宗,任至公於天下,陛下雖懷無已之情,臣下不敢奉詔。」詔曰:「此大事,更詳之。」有司又奏:「宜廢太后曰峻陽庶人。」中書監張華議:「太后非得罪於先帝,今黨其所親,爲不母於聖世,宜依漢廢趙太后爲孝成后故事,貶皇太后之號,還稱武皇后,居異宮,以全始終之恩。」左僕射荀愷與太子少師下邳王晃等議曰:「皇太后謀危社稷,不可復配先帝,宜貶尊號,廢詣金墉城。」於是有司奏從晃等議,廢太后爲庶人;詔可。又奏:「楊駿造亂,家屬應誅,詔原其妻龐命,以尉太后之心。今太后廢爲庶人,請以龐付廷尉行刑。」詔不許;有司復固請,乃從之。龐臨刑,太后抱持號叫,截髮稽顙,上表詣賈后稱妾,請全母命;不見省。董養遊太學,升堂歎曰:「朝廷建斯堂,將以何爲乎!每覽國家赦書,謀反大逆皆赦,至於殺祖父母、父母不赦者,以爲王法所不容故也。柰何公卿處議,文飾禮典,乃至此乎!天人之理旣滅,大亂將作矣。」

8. Jia Nanfeng forged an edict ordering the General of the Rear Army, Xun Kui, to place Empress Dowager Yang Zhi under house arrest at the Yongning Palace. There was also a special order that the Lady of Gaodu, Yang Zhi's mother Lady Pang, would be sent to live in the Yongning Palace with her.

Jia Nanfeng soon arranged for the various nobles to send in a petition stating, "The Empress Dowager has gradually been developing secret sinister plans and plotting to bring danger to the state. She fired arrows containing messages meant to draw the generals over to her side and make common cause with her evil, thus cutting herself off from Heaven. In ancient times, the Marquis of Lu had the lady Wen Jiang cut off, as the Spring and Autumn Annals attest. You act on behalf of your honored ancestors, and you hold a place responsible for the good of all the realm. Although Your Majesty must cherish unfathomable feelings for the Empress Dowager, we dare not wait upon your orders."

An edict was then sent out stating, "This is a serious matter, and requires further consideration."

The officials then submitted another petition stating, "You should depose the Empress Dowager, as a common person of Junyang."

The Chief of the Palace Secretariat, Zhang Hua, proposed, "The Empress Dowager committed no crime against His Late Majesty, and although the criminals today were her intimates, their offenses do not extend to their mother's exalted generation. We ought to follow the example of when Han deposed Empress Dowager Zhao Feiyan to become merely Empress Cheng. In the same manner, we may depose the Empress Dowager to become merely Empress Wu, and have her reside in a separate palace. Then the grace she has been shown will be fulfilled."

But the Supervisor of the Left, Xun Kai, the Lesser Instructor to the Crown Prince and Prince of Xiapi, Sima Huang, and others objected, "The Empress Dowager plotted to bring danger to the state. She can no longer be associated with His Late Majesty. Her honored title should be besmirched, and she should be deposed and sent to the Jinyong fortress."

The views of Sima Huang and the others won the debate, and so the ministers petitioned that Yang Zhi be deposed as a commoner. Emperor Hui permitted it.

Then the ministers submitted another petition stating, "Because Yang Jun caused turmoil, his family and his dependents were all executed along with him. You originally gave an order to spare his wife, Lady Pang, in order to soothe the Empress Dowager's heart. But as the Empress Dowager has now been deposed as a common woman, we ask that you now have Lady Pang handed over to the Minister of Justice and slated for execution."

Emperor Hui would not agree at first, but after the ministers continued to press this request, he at last relented.

As Lady Pang was being led to her execution, Yang Zhi held onto her and pleaded for her life. Yang Zhi pulled at her own hair and kowtowed on the ground, and she even sent a request to Jia Nanfeng begging her, saying that she would be Jia Nanfeng's servant if only she would spare her mother's life. But this was all to no avail.

Dong Yang wandered to the Imperial Academy, where he ascended into the hall and lamented, "It was the court that raised this hall, and yet what use will it be soon? Whenever I look at the letters of pardon of the state, the names of those being pardoned are always those who plotted rebellion and were most disobedient, and the only reason that those who went so far as to kill their grandparents and parents were not pardoned was because the royal laws simply could not encompass their crimes. What is to be done when the chief ministers of state all discuss with one another how they may gloss over the rites and canons, even to go so far as all this? The ways of Heaven and of humanity are wasting away. Great turmoil will soon engulf us."

〈魏建永寧宮,太后居之。〉〈履霜者,堅冰之漸,言陰始凝而至於堅冰也。此誣楊太后以爲與駿爲姦謀,非一日之積也。〉〈文姜,魯桓公之夫人也。齊襄公殺桓公,文姜與焉。魯莊公旣立,夫人孫于齊。《穀梁傳》曰:不言氏姓,貶之也。人之於天也,以道受命;於人也,以言受命。不若於道者,天絕之也;不若於人者,人絕之也。〉〈武帝陵曰峻陽。〉〈事見三十五卷漢哀帝元壽元年。〉〈董養,浚儀隱者也。〉〈言庠序所以申孝弟之義,今滅母子之大倫,則建學果何爲也。〉〈養後與妻荷擔入蜀,不知所終。〉

(Cao-Wei had established the Yongning Palace as the residence of the Empress Dowager.

As the Book of Changes states, "'He is treading on hoarfrost; - the strong ice will come (by and by):' - the cold (air) has begun to take form. Allow it to go on quietly according to its nature, and (the hoarfrost) will come to strong ice." The petition was slandering Empress Dowager Yang Zhi as having long plotted sinister things together with Yang Jun, not merely engaging in the actions of a single day.

Wen Jiang was the wife of Duke Huan of Lu. When Duke Xiang of Qi killed Duke Huan, it was at Wen Jiang's instigation. Duke Zhuang then inherited the dukedom of Lu. The Spring and Autumn Annals mention regarding Wen Jiang's subsequent flight to Qi that "The late Duke Huan's wife retired to Qi. (Zhuang 1.2)" The Guliang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals says of this incident, "The Annals does not record Wen Jiang's name or clan in this passage because it means to censure her for what she had done. When one is with Heaven, one accepts its mandate with principle; when one is with men, it accepts their commands with trust. If one does not act with principle, Heaven cuts them off; if one does not act with trust, men cut them off."

Sima Yan's tomb was called Junyang.

The debate over the accusations of malicious plotting towards Empress Zhao Feiyan of Han and how she ought to be dealt with are mentioned in Book 35, in Emperor Ai's first year of Yuanshou (2 BC).

Dong Yang was a native of some place in Junyi County.

Dong Yang's first statement was a lament that the court had established the Imperial Academy in order to instill the virtues of filial brotherhood in its students, and yet now it was tearing away at the great relationship between mother and child. What use would the Academy then serve any longer?

Dong Yang and his wife He Dan later left for the Shu region. It is unknown what their ultimate fates were.)


有司收駿官屬,欲誅之。侍中傅祗啓曰:「昔魯芝爲曹爽司馬,斬關赴爽,宣帝用爲青州刺史。駿之僚佐,不可悉加罪。」詔赦之。

9. The ministers asked that Yang Jun's subordinate officers be arrested, and they wished to execute them. But the Palace Attendant Fu Zhi kneeled and said, "When Cao Shuang of Wei was overthrown, Lu Zhi was serving as his Marshal, and Lu Zhi went so far as to force his way through the gates of Luoyang to go and join Cao Shuang outside the city. But even so, Emperor Xuan (Sima Yi) still employed him as Inspector of Qingzhou. In the same way, Yang Jun's assistants cannot all be charged with his crimes."

So they were granted letters of pardon.

〈事見七十五卷魏邵陵厲公嘉平元年。〉

(Lu Zhi's actions during Sima Yi's coup against Cao Shuang, and Sima Yi's pardon of him, are mentioned in Book 75, in Cao Fang's first year of Jiaping (249.12 in Fang's Chronicles).)


壬寅,徵汝南王亮爲太宰,與太保衞瓘皆錄尚書事,輔政。以秦王柬爲大將軍,東平王楙爲撫軍大將軍,楚王瑋爲衞將軍、領北軍中候,下邳王晃爲尚書令,東安公繇爲尚書左僕射,進爵爲王。楙,望之子也。封董猛爲武安侯,三兄皆爲亭侯。

10. On the day Renyin (May 4th), Sima Liang was summoned to be appointed as Grand Governor. He and the Grand Guardian, Wei Guan, were both placed in command of the affairs of the Masters of Writing and made joint regents. Sima Jian was appointed as Grand General. The Prince of Dongping, Sima Mao, was appointed as Grand General Who Nurtures The Army. Sima Wei was appointed as Guard General and acting Palace Marquis of the Northern Army. Sima Huang was appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Sima Yao was appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, and his noble title was advanced from Duke to Prince. This Sima Mao was the son of Sima Wang.

Dong Meng was appointed as Marquis of Wu'an, and his three elder brothers were all made Village Marquises.

亮欲取悅衆心,論誅楊駿之功,督將侯者千八十一人。御史中丞傅咸遺亮書曰:「今封賞熏赫,震動天地,自古以來,未之有也。無功而獲賞,則人莫不樂國之有禍,是禍原無窮也。凡作此者,由東安公。人謂殿下旣至,當有以正之,正之以道,衆亦何怒!衆之所怒者,在於不平耳;而今皆更倍論,莫不失望。」亮頗專權勢,咸復諫曰:「楊駿有震主之威,委任親戚,此天下所以諠譁。今之處重,宜反此失,靜默頤神,有大得失,乃維持之,自非大事,一皆抑遣。比過尊門,冠蓋車馬,塡塞街衢,此之翕習,旣宜弭息。又夏侯長容無功而暴擢爲少府,論者謂長容,公之姻家,故至於此,流聞四方,非所以爲益也。」亮皆不從。

11. Sima Liang wished to win over the hearts of the multitude. At that time, discussions were being held on who deserved merits for bringing about Yang Jun's execution, and Sima Liang arranged for as many as 1,081 people to be given title as officers or marquises.

The Central Minister of the Imperial Secretary, Fu Xian, sent a letter to Sima Liang stating, "Ranks and rewards are being handed out so liberally that it causes a great stir throughout Heaven and Earth. From ancient times until now, such a thing as this has never been done before. When people who have no merits are still being given rewards, then there will be no one who is not happy when the state suffers such misfortunes, and that will cause those disasters to continue endlessly.

"All of this was originally just being done by the Duke of Dong'an, Sima Yao. People said that once Your Highness arrived, you would be acting righteously to thus rectify this situation. When even you yourself have done such things, how could they not be angry about it? At the moment, the people who are angry about the situation are merely unsettled. But if this sort of discussion continues on and on several times greater than it already has, then there will be no one who will not lose hope."

Sima Liang continued to monopolize power and influence, so Fu Xian further rebuked him, saying, "Yang Jun had overweening power that eclipsed his sovereign, and he wielded great influence through his offices and his associations. These are the things which the realm made such an uproar about. When you are handling such serious matters, you should turn away from his example. Silently contemplate and relax yourself, and let the great things fall away, so that you may maintain yourself. You may thus prevent anything serious from occurring, and all can be repressed and diffused.

“When you pass through your honored gate, cover your horse cart with a canopy, and obstruct the streets as you pass, these things turn the crowd against you, and you should put a stop to them. Furthermore, that fellow Xiahou Changrong (Xiahou Jun) has no merit to speak of, and yet he has risen so quickly to a post as high as Privy Treasurer, and people all say it is just because he is related to you by marriage. When you go so far as to do such things, word spreads to every corner, and it does not bring any benefit."

But Sima Liang did not listen to anything he said.

〈濫賞所以開覬幸之心,其禍誠如此。〉〈言亮論功行賞,又倍於東安公之時也。〉〈翕,衆也,合也。習,重也,因也,仍也。言衆人翕合,相因而至也。〉〈夏侯駿,字長容。壻家女之所因,故曰姻。鄭玄曰:壻父曰姻。〉

(When rewards were given out so abundantly, people would desire for more such situations to come about that would provide them the same sorts of opportunities, and this would lead to disasters.

Fu Xian meant how Sima Liang was discussing merits and handing out rewards, even more than how such things were being done when Sima Yao was supervising them.

In this passage, 翕 means gathered or together, and 習 means serious, because of, or still. Fu Xian means that Sima Liang's actions are turning people against him, and that he should thus put an end to them.

Xiahou Jun's style name was Changrong. He was Sima Liang's son-in-law, and was thus 姻 "related by marriage". Zheng Xuan remarked, "The relation between a son-in-law and father-in-law is called 姻.")


賈后族兄車騎司馬模、從舅右衞將軍郭彰、女弟之子賈謐與楚王瑋、東安王繇,並預國政。賈后暴戾日甚,繇密謀廢后,賈氏憚之。繇兄東武公澹,素惡繇,屢譖之於太宰亮曰:「繇專行誅賞,欲擅朝政。」庚戌,詔免繇官;又坐有悖言,廢徙帶方。

12. The affairs of state were now in the hands of several people: the Marshal to the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Jia Nanfeng's elder kinsman Jia Mo; the Guard General of the Right, her uncle Guo Zhang; her nephew Jia Mi; Sima Wei; and Sima Yao.

Jia Nanfeng became more and more tyrannical by the day. Sima Yao was secretly plotting to depose her, and the Jia clan was wary of him. And the Duke of Dongwu, Sima Yao's elder brother Sima Dan, had long disliked him, so he often slandered him to Sima Liang by saying, "Sima Yao is monopolizing the power of advancements, punishments, and rewards because he wishes to control the court and the government."

On the day Gengxu (May 12th), an edict was sent out stripping Sima Yao of office; he was also charged with sinister talk, and he was deposed and exiled to Daifang.

〈晉文帝置中衞及衞將軍,武帝受命,分爲左右衞將軍。〉〈賈后女弟賈午適韓壽,生謐。賈充無後,以謐爲後。〉〈帶方縣,漢屬樂浪郡,公孫度置帶方郡。杜佑曰:建安中,公孫康分屯有、有鹽縣以南荒地,置帶方郡。〉

(Sima Zhao had created the offices of Guard General and Guard General of the Palace. When Sima Yan accepted the mandate, he divided the latter office into Guard Generals of the Left and Right.

Jia Nanfeng's younger sister Jia Wu had married Han Shou, and gave birth to Han Mi. After Jia Chong died without an heir, Han Mi's name was changed to Jia Mi, and he became Jia Chong's heir.

During Han, Daifang County was part of Lelang commandary. Gongsun Du created a Daifang commandary. Du You remarked, "During the Jian'an era (196-220), Gongsun Kang split off the southern wastes of Tunyou and Youyan counties and made that place into Daifang commandary.")


於是賈謐、郭彰權勢愈盛,賓客盈門。謐雖驕奢而好學,喜延士大夫,郭彰、石崇、陸機、機弟雲、和郁及滎陽潘岳、清河崔基、勃海歐陽建、蘭陵繆徵、京兆杜斌、摯虞、琅邪諸葛詮、弘農王粹、襄城杜育、南陽鄒捷、齊國左思、沛國劉瓌、周恢、安平牽秀、潁川陳眕、高陽許猛、彭城劉訥、中山劉輿、輿弟琨皆附於謐,號曰二十四友。郁,嶠之弟也。崇與岳尤諂事謐,每候謐及廣城君郭槐出,皆降車路左,望塵而拜。

13. Thus did Jia Mi's and Guo Zhang's power and influence flourish more and more, and their houses were filled with guests.

Although Jia Mi was an extravagant man, he also appreciated learning and scholarship, and he delighted in meeting with scholar-officials. He had several men in particular who all became attached to him, and they were called the Twenty-Four Friends. These men were Guo Zhang, Shi Chong, Lu Ji and his younger brother Lu Yun, He Yu, Pan Yue of Xingyang, Cui Ji of Qinghe, Ouyang Jian of Bohai, Mou Zheng of Lanling, Du Bin of Jingzhao, Zhi Yu, Zhuge Quan of Langye, Wang Cui of Hongnong, Du Yu of Xiangcheng, Zou Jie of Nanyang, Zuo Si of the Qi princely fief, Liu Gui of the Pei princely fief, Zhou Hui, Qian Xiu of Anping, Chen Zhen of Yingchuan, Xu Meng of Gaoyang, Liu Ne of Pengcheng, and Liu Yu of Zhongshan and his younger brother Liu Kun. This He Yu was the son of He Jiao.

Shi Chong and Pan Yue were especially flattering towards Jia Mi. Whenever they saw Jia Mi and the Lady of Guangcheng, his grandmother Guo Huai, out and about, they would always alight from their carriages, stand on the side of the road, bow down into the dust, and salute them.

〈泰始元年,分河間涿郡置高陽國。〉〈武帝泰始二年,分河南置滎陽郡。〉〈武帝泰始二年,分汝南置襄城郡。〉〈齊大夫崔氏之後。〉〈《姓譜》:越王句踐之後封於烏程歐陽,子孫因以爲氏。〉〈是年,分東海置蘭陵郡。〉〈按《毛詩傳》,摯國出於任姓,子孫以國爲氏。〉

(In the first year of Taishi (265), Sima Yan had split off parts of Hejian and Zhuo commandaries to form the princely fief of Gaoyang. In the second year (266), he had split off part of Henan commandary to form Xingyang commandary, and he had split off part of Runan commandary to form Xiangcheng commandary.

Cui Ji was a descendant of the great Qi minister Cui Zhu.

The Registry of Surnames states, "A descendant of King Goujian of Yue was granted his fief at Ouyang in Wucheng, and his descendants took the name of the fief as their clan name."

It was during this year (291) that part of Bohai commandary had been split off to form Lanling commandary.

According to the Biography of Mao Shi, the ancient state of Zhi was ruled by the Ren clan, and their descendants took their clan name from the name of the state.)


太宰亮、太保瓘以楚王瑋剛愎好殺,惡之,欲奪其兵權,以臨海侯裴楷代瑋爲北軍中候,瑋怒;楷聞之,不敢拜。亮復與瓘謀,遣瑋與諸王之國,瑋益忿怨。瑋長史公孫宏、舍人岐盛,皆有寵於瑋,勸瑋自昵於賈后;后留瑋領太子少傅。盛素善於楊駿,衞瓘惡其反覆,將收之。盛乃與宏謀,因積弩將軍李肇矯稱瑋命,譖亮、瓘於賈后,云將謀廢立。后素怨瓘,且患二公執政,己不得專恣,夏,六月,后使帝作手詔賜瑋曰:「太宰、太保欲爲伊、霍之事,王宜宣詔,令淮南、長沙、成都王屯諸宮門,免亮及瓘官。」夜,使黃門齎以授瑋。瑋欲覆奏,黃門曰:「事恐漏泄,非密詔本意也。」瑋亦欲因此復私怨,遂勒本軍,復矯詔召三十六軍,告以「二公潛圖不軌,吾今受詔都督中外諸軍,諸在直衞者,皆嚴加警備;其在外營,便相帥徑詣行府,助順討逆。」又矯詔「亮、瓘官屬,一無所問,皆罷遣之;若不奉詔,便軍法從事。」遣公孫宏、李肇以兵圍亮府,侍中清河王遐收瓘。

14. Sima Liang and Wei Guan were wary of Sima Wei, because they felt he was obstinate and delighted in killing, so they sought to seize his military authority. They appointed the Marquis of Linhai, Pei Kai, to replace Sima Wei as Palace Marquis of the Northern Army. This incited Sima Wei's fury, and when Pei Kai heard of his appointment, he did not dare to accept it. Sima Liang then continued to plot with Wei Guan, planning to have Sima Wei sent back to his fief, which stoked Sima Wei's anger and indignation all the more.

Now Sima Wei had greatly favored his Chief Clerk, Gongsun Hong, and his servant Qi Sheng, and they urged him to align himself with Jia Nanfeng, who kept him close with an appointment as acting Lesser Tutor to the Crown Prince. Qi Sheng had long been on friendly terms with Yang Jun, and Wei Guan was concerned lest Qi Sheng might come to power again, so he was about to have Qi Sheng arrested. So Qi Sheng plotted with Gongsun Hong, and they arranged for the General Who Amasses Crossbows, Li Zhao, to report to Jia Nanfeng with a pretend order he had from Sima Wei, slandering Sima Liang and Wei Guan and saying they were plotting to overthrow her soon. Jia Nanfeng had long borne a grudge against Wei Guan, and she already felt that the two of them held the reins of government so tightly that she herself could not obtain any power.

So in summer, the sixth month, Jia Nanfeng had Emperor Hui compose an edict in his own hand to be delivered to Sima Wei. The edict stated, "Grand Governor Sima Liang and Grand Guardian Wei Guan wish to follow the examples of Yi Yin and Huo Guang. Let the royal will hereby be made known. The Princes of Huainan, Changsha, and Chengdu are ordered to camp their armies at the palace gates, and remove Sima Liang and Wei Guan from office."

That night, Jia Nanfeng sent a eunuch from the Yellow Gate to deliver the edict to Sima Wei. Sima Wei wanted to first send a petition back in response to the edict, but the eunuch told him, "We fear if you did that, the plot might leak out. Letting that happen would go against the wishes expressed by the edict."

Sima Wei already had his own personal hatred for Sima Liang and Wei Guan, so he gave orders to his own army while writing an order summoning the thirty-six armies. This edict stated, "The two lords, Sima Liang and Wei Guan, are making plots and acting without discipline. I now summon and order all of the Commandants, within and without, to bring their armies into the city and place the roads under strict order, and make all needed preparations to maintain order. Those bodies of men who are not engaged in keeping order shall march to secure the government offices, aiding those who are obedient and punishing those who are not."

Sima Wei also composed another order stating, "No fault is to be held against the subordinates of Sima Liang and Wei Guan. All of them are to be released and sent on their way. But if there is any of them who refuses to accept the imperial edict, then those people are to be dealt with according to military law."

Sima Wei sent Gongsun Hong and Li Zhao with soldiers to surround Sima Liang's residence, while he sent the Palace Attendant and Prince of Qinghe, Sima Xia, to arrest Wei Guan.

〈不敢拜受中候之職。〉〈《姓譜》:古有岐伯爲黃帝師。又周太王居岐山,文王遷豐,其支庶留岐者,爲岐氏。〉〈武帝泰始四年,罷振威、揚威護軍,置左、右積弩將軍。一說:晉太康中,置積射、積弩營,營二千五百人,並以將軍領之。〉〈以瓘撫牀事也,見八十卷武帝咸康四年。〉〈本軍,瑋所掌北軍也。〉〈晉洛城內外三十六軍。〉

(Pei Kai did not dare to accept the appointment as Palace Marquis of the Northern Army.

The Registry of Surnames states, "In ancient times, there was a 岐 Qi Bo who served as the instructor of the Yellow Emperor. And King Tai of Zhou resided at Mount Qi. When King Wen moved to Feng, he left his extended kinsmen behind at Qi, and they took their surname from the place."

In the fourth year of Taishi (268), Sima Yan had abolished the posts of Protector-General Who Spreads Might and Who Displays Might. He had created the posts of Generals Who Amass Crossbows of the Left and Right. It is also said, "During Jin's Taikang era (280-89), the camps of Soldiers Who Shoot At Sounds and Soldiers Who Amass Crossbows were formed. Each camp had twenty-five hundred soldiers, and both were under the direction of a general."

Jia Nanfeng resented Wei Guan's attempt to have Sima Zhong removed as Crown Prince, as mentioned in Book 80, in the fourth year of Xianning (278.9).

By "his own army", the passage means the Northern Army over which Sima Wei had direct control.

During Jin, there were thirty-six armies in and around Luoyang.)


亮帳下督李龍,白「外有變,請拒之」;亮不聽。俄而兵登牆大呼,亮驚曰:「吾無貳心,何故至此!詔書其可見乎?」宏等不許,趣兵攻之。長史劉準謂亮曰:「觀此必是姦謀。府中俊乂如林,猶可力戰。」又不聽,遂爲肇所執,歎曰:「我之赤心,可破示天下也。」與世子矩俱死。

15. Sima Liang's Commandant Outside The Tent, Li Long, reported to him, "There is some disturbance going on outside. Please do something to protect yourself against it." But Sima Liang would not listen to him.

Soon, there were soldiers mounting the walls of the residence and shouting loudly. Sima Liang was alarmed and said, "I am no traitor; why have things come to this? Will you not let me see the edict letter?" But Gongsun Hong and the others refused to show it to him, and simply ordered their soldiers to arrest Sima Liang.

Sima Liang's Chief Clerk, Liu Zhun, said to him, "You can see that all this is part of some evil plot. Your residence is filled with talented men, numerous as a forest. We still have the strength to fight back." But Sima Liang still would not listen, and he was soon taken prisoner by Li Zhao.

Sima Liang lamented, "I had a loyal heart; let my destruction demonstrate that to the realm." He and his eldest son Sima Ju both died.

〈晉制:諸公及諸大將軍皆置帳下督及門下督。〉

(Under the Jin system, the various Princes and Grand Generals each created Commandants Outside The Tents and Commandants Outside The Gates.)


衞瓘左右亦疑遐矯詔,請拒之,須自表得報,就戮未晚;瓘不聽。初,瓘爲司空,帳下督榮晦有罪,斥遣之。至是,晦從遐收瓘,輒殺瓘及子孫共九人,遐不能禁。

16. Those who were with Wei Guan also suspected that Sima Xia was carrying a false edict, and they asked Wei Guan to oppose Sima Xia's soldiers; if he could hold out until he could get a response to his own petition, it would not be too late to avoid execution. But Wei Guan would not listen to such pleas either.

Before, when Wei Guan had been Minister of Works, his Commandant Outside The Tent, Rong Hui, had committed some offense, and Wei Guan had rebuked Rong Hui and sent him away. At this time, Rong Hui was with Sima Xia's men as they came to arrest Wei Guan. Rong Hui killed Wei Guan and his sons and grandsons, nine people altogether, and Sima Xia was unable to stop him.

〈武帝太康三年,瓘爲司空,永熙元年免。〉〈《姓譜》:榮姓,周榮公之後。《莊子》有榮啓期。〉

(Wei Guan had been appointed Minister of Works in the third year of Taikang (282.9), and had held that office until he resigned in the first year of Yongxi (290.3).

The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 榮 Rong are the descendants of Duke Rong of Zhou. The Zhuangzi also mentions a Rong Qiqi.")


岐盛說瑋:「宜因兵勢,遂誅賈、郭以正王室,安天下。」瑋猶豫未決。會天明,太子少傅張華使董猛說賈后曰:「楚王旣誅二公,則天下威權盡歸之矣,人主何以自安!宜以瑋專殺之罪誅之。」賈后亦欲因此除瑋,深然之。是時內外擾亂,朝廷恟懼,不知所出。張華白帝,遣殿中將軍王宮齎騶虞幡出麾衆曰:「楚王矯詔,勿聽也!」衆皆釋仗而走。瑋左右無復一人,窘迫不知所爲,遂執之,下廷尉;乙丑,斬之。瑋出懷中青紙詔,流涕以示監刑尚書劉頌曰:「幸託體先帝,而受枉乃如此乎!」公孫宏、岐盛並夷三族。

17. Qi Sheng urged Sima Wei, "Now that you have so much military strength, you ought to execute Jia Mi and Guo Zhang in order to bring justice to the royal house and settle the realm." But Sima Wei was hesitant and could not decide.

The following day, the Lesser Tutor to the Crown Prince, Zhang Hua, sent Dong Meng to urge Jia Nanfeng, "Since the Prince of Chu has put the two regents to death, the realm will surely bow before his power and majesty, and then how will either the people or the sovereign know peace? You should charge Sima Wei with having carried out these killings through his own presumption, and then execute him."

Jia Nanfeng already wished to get rid of Sima Wei for the same reasons, so she readily agreed.

At this time, there was confusion and fear inside and out, and the court was gripped by terror, not knowing what the final result would be. Zhang Hua reported to Emperor Hui, and then sent the General of the Middle Hall, Wang Gong, to send his soldiers out among the various armies while streaming the Zouyu Banners. They told the posted soldiers, "The Prince of Chu forged the edict; do not listen to his orders!" So Sima Wei's soldiers all cast down their weapons and dispersed. Sima Wei was left without anyone to support him, and as he no longer knew what there was left he could do, he was soon taken prisoner and handed over to the Minister of Justice.

On the day Yichou (July 26th), Sima Wei was beheaded. Before his death, Sima Wei produced the green sheet of the edict from within his bosom, and wept as he showed it to the execution overseer and Master of Writing, Liu Song. Sima Wei said, "I was fortunate enough to have been entrusted by His Late Majesty, yet now I endure such unjust treatment as this!"

Gongsun Hong and Qi Sheng both had their clans exterminated to the third degree.

〈晉制,有白虎幡、騶虞幡。白虎威猛主殺,故以督戰;騶虞仁獸,故以解兵。〉

(Under the Jin system, there were White Tiger Banners and Zouyu Banners. The white tiger is wild, fierce, and a great killer, so the White Tiger Banner calls the soldiers to battle. But the zouyu is a benevolent creature, and so the Zouyu Banner calls the soldiers to disperse.)


瑋之起兵也,隴西王泰嚴兵將助瑋,祭酒丁綏諫曰:「公爲宰相,不可輕動。且夜中倉猝,宜遣人參審定問。」泰乃止。

18. When Sima Wei had raised his soldiers to move against Sima Liang and Wei Guan, the Prince of Longxi, Sima Tai, had put his soldiers in readiness and was about to come assist Sima Wei. But his Libationer Ding Sui had remonstrated with him, saying, "You are a great minister of state, and you cannot make any rash movements. It is the middle of the night, and things are moving quickly. You should send someone to ask around and ascertain what is going on."

So Sima Tai did not move.

〈泰,宣帝弟子。〉〈泰時爲司空。晉公府有西東閣祭酒。〉〈定問,猶言實音問也。〉

(Sima Tai was Sima Yi's nephew by a younger brother. At this time, he was Minister of Works. During Jin, the Excellencies had Libationers of the Western and Eastern Chambers.

By ascertain, Ding Sui meant to find out what was really happening.)


衞瓘女與國臣書曰:「先公名諡未顯,每怪一國蔑然無言,《春秋》之失,其咎安在?」於是太保主簿劉繇等執黃幡,撾登聞鼓,上言曰:「初,矯詔者至,公卽奉送章綬,單車從命。如矯詔之文唯免公官,而故給使榮晦,輒收公父子及孫,一時斬戮。乞驗盡情僞,加以明刑。」乃詔族誅榮晦,追復亮爵位,諡曰文成。封瓘爲蘭陵郡公,諡曰成。

19. Wei Guan's daughter wrote a letter to the ministers of state, saying, "My late father has not yet been assigned a posthumous name to demonstrate his worth, and I often wonder why the state has yet to offer the slightest word in his defense. These are the faults of the Spring and Autumn Annals; how can we let this censure stand?"

And Wei Guan's former Registrar, Liu Yao, and others held aloft a yellow banner and struck the Announcement Drum, saying to those above, "When those who were enforcing the forged edict arrived, Lord Wei fully complied with their orders, and heeded their commands in a single carriage. Even by the words of the edict, they had been commanded only to remove Lord Wei from office. But they went further, and sent Rong Hui to arrest Lord Wei, his sons, and his grandsons, putting them all to death at once. We beg that you rectify this false feeling at once, and submit Rong Hui to execution."

So an edict went out ordering the execution of Rong Hui and his clan, and posthumously restoring Sima Liang's titles. Sima Liang was posthumously named Prince Wencheng ("the Cultured and Accomplished"). Wei Guan was given the posthumous title Duke Cheng of Lanling Commandary.

〈《春秋公羊傳》曰:《春秋》,君弒,賊不討,以爲無臣子也。子沈子曰:君弒,臣不討賊,非臣也;子不復讎,非子也。〉〈古者,設諫鼓、立謗木,所以通下情也。《周禮》,太僕建路鼓於大寢之門外,以待達窮者。鄭司農《註》云:窮,謂窮寃失職者,來擊此鼓,以達於王,若今時上變事擊鼓矣。此則登聞鼓之始也。登聞鼓之名,蓋始於魏、晉之間。撾,擊也。〉

(The Gongyang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "According to the Annals, when a lord is murdered and the bandits are not punished, then he has no ministers or sons. Zi Shenzi remarked, 'When a lord is murdered, if his ministers do not punish the bandits, they are not his ministers; when his son does not avenge him, he is not his son.'"

The ancients built the Rebuke Drum and raised the Slander Pole to express their feelings below. According to the Rites of Zhou, the Minister Coachman raised the Street Drum outside the gates of the Grand Chamber to receive those who were exhausted. Zheng Sinong's Annotations on this passage states, "The exhausted means those who were fully innocent and yet had lost their offices; they came and beat this drum in order to appeal to the king, and this has led to our modern tradition of beating the drum when some development occurs." This was the origin of the Announcement Drum. Its name as Announcement Drum first came about during Cao-Wei and Jin. To strike the drum means to hit it.)


於是賈后專朝,委任親黨,以賈模爲散騎常侍,加侍中。賈謐與后謀,以張華庶姓,無逼上之嫌,而儒雅有籌略,爲衆望所依,欲委以朝政。疑未決,以問裴頠,頠贊成之。乃以華爲侍中、中書監,頠爲侍中,又以安南將軍裴楷爲中書令,加侍中,與右僕射王戎並管機要。華盡忠帝室,彌縫遺闕,賈后雖凶險,猶知敬重華;賈模與華、頠同心輔政,故數年之間,雖闇主在上而朝野安靜,華等之功也。

20. As Jia Nanfeng now controlled the government, she filled all offices with her relatives and partisans. Jia Mo was appointed as Cavalier In Regular Attendance and promoted to Palace Attendant.

Jia Mi discussed the matter of Zhang Hua with Jia Nanfeng. Although Zhang Hua was not of the same family as them, he posed no threat to their superiority. Furthermore, he was a learned scholar and skilled at making plans, and he held the regard of many, so they wished to employ him at court. But they were still uncertain and could not yet decide, so they asked Pei Wei about it. Pei Wei agreed with them. So Zhang Hua was appointed as Palace Attendant and Chief of the Palace Secretariat, and Pei Wei was also appointed as Palace Attendant. The General Who Maintains The South, Pei Kai, was appointed as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and promoted to Palace Attendant, and he handled critical affairs together with the Supervisor of the Right, Wang Rong.

Zhang Hua was fully loyal to the imperial family, willing to overlook faults and ignore shortcomings. As ruthless as Jia Nanfeng was, she still knew to respect Zhang Hua.

Jia Mo, Zhang Hua, and Pei Wei all acted in one accord as regents. This was why for the next several years, although a befuddled sovereign was seated on the throne, the court and the land both knew peace and serenity, thanks to the efforts of Zhang Hua and the others.

〈據杜預《左傳註》,庶姓,非同姓。〉〈廣城君郭槐,頠從母也,故賈氏親信頠。〉

(This passage uses the term 庶姓 to describe Zhang Hua. Du Yu's Annotations to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "This term 庶姓 means someone of a different surname."

The Lady of Guangcheng, Guo Huai, was Pei Wei's aunt, and this was why the Jia clan was close to and trusted Pei Wei.)


秋,七月,分荊、揚十郡爲江州。

21. In autumn, the seventh month, ten commandaries were split off from Jingzhou and Yangzhou to form Jiangzhou.

〈是時,方因江水之名,置江州。〉

(Jiangzhou was formed at this time, taking its name from the Yangzi or Changjiang River.)


八月,辛未,立隴西王泰世子越爲東海王。

22. In the eighth month, on the day Xinwei (September 30th), Sima Tai's eldest son Sima Yue was appointed as Prince of Donghai.

九月,甲午,秦獻王柬薨。

23. In the ninth month, on the day Jiawu (October 23rd), Sima Jian passed away. He was posthumously known as Prince Xian ("the Presented") of Qin.

辛丑,徵征西大將軍梁王肜爲衞將軍、錄尚書事。

24. On the day Xinchou (October 30th), the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Sima Rong, was summoned to the capital to be Guard General and Chief of the Masters of Writing.

〈肜,余中翻。〉

(Sima Rong's given name 肜 is pronounced "yong (y-ong)".)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:42 am

二年(壬子、二九二)

The Second Year of Yuankang (The Renzi Year, 292 AD)


春,二月,己酉,故楊太后卒于金墉城。是時,太后尚有侍御十餘人,賈后悉奪之,絕膳八日而卒。賈后恐太后有靈,或訴冤於先帝,乃覆而殯之,仍施諸厭劾符書、藥物等。

1. In spring, the second month, on the day Jiyou (March 6th), the former Empress Dowager Yang Zhi passed away at the Jinyong fortress.

Up until this time, Yang Zhi had had more than ten palace attendants who were staying with her. But Jia Nanfeng had all of them taken away from her, and restricted Yang Zhi's meals for eight days until she passed away. Jia Nanfeng feared that Yang Zhi's spirit might appeal to Sima Yan's spirit against her, so she had Yang Zhi's coffin turned upside-down before burying it, and she was buried with several talismans, letters, medicines, and other such things to suppress her spirit.

〈厭,伏也。治鬼曰劾。〉

(In this passage, 厭 means to keep subdued. Things meant to suppress spirits are called 劾.)


秋,八月,壬子,赦天下。

2. In autumn, the eighth month, on the day Renzi (September 5th), an amnesty was declared throughout the realm.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:43 am

三年(癸丑、二九三)

The Third Year of Yuankang (The Guichou Year, 293 AD)


夏,六月,弘農雨雹,深三尺。

1. In summer, the sixth month, it rained hailstones in Hongnong, three 尺 thick.

鮮卑宇文莫槐爲其下所殺,弟普撥立。

2. The Xianbei leader Yuwen Mohuai was killed by his subordinates. They replaced him with his younger brother Yuwen Pubo.

拓拔綽卒,子弗立。

3. Tuoba Chuo passed away. His son (or, nephew) Tuoba Fu succeeded him.

〈【退︰「拔」作「跋」。】〉〈【章︰甲十一行本「子」上有「弟」字;乙十一行本同;孔本同;退齋校同。】〉

(This passage records the Ba in Tuoba Chuo's name as 拔; it should be 跋.

Some versions say that Tuoba Fu was the son of Tuoba Chuo's younger brother, rather than his own son.)
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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BOOK 82

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:45 am

四年(甲寅、二九四)

The Fourth Year of Yuankang (The Jiayin Year, 294 AD)


春,正月,丁酉,安昌元公石鑒薨。

1. In spring, the first month, on the day Dingyou (February 12th), Shi Jian passed away. He was posthumously known as Duke Yuan ("the Foremost") of Anchang.

〈《考異》曰︰《本傳》,「鑒封昌安縣侯」,今從《帝紀》。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shi Jian in the Book of Jin states that 'Shi Jian was appointed as Marquis of Chang'an County'. But I follow the Annals of Emperor Hui in the Book of Jin.")


夏,五月,匈奴郝散反,攻上黨,殺長吏。秋,八月,郝散帥衆降,馮翊都尉殺之。

2. In summer, the fifth month, the Xiongnu leader He San rebelled. He attacked Shangdang and killed its Chief Clerk.

In autumn, the eighth month, He San led his troops to surrender, and the Commandant of Pingyi killed him.

〈郝,呼各翻。郝散若自上黨帥衆向洛陽歸降,當入河內界。今爲馮翊都尉所殺,蓋自穀遠歷河東界,渡河至馮翊界而被殺也。〉

(The 郝 in He San's name is pronounced "he (h-e)".

If He San were marching from Shangdang to lead his troops to surrender themselves at Luoyang, then he must have entered into Henei. For the Commandant of Pingyi to have killed him, then He San must have passed clear through Hedong, crossed over the Yellow River, and gone as far as Pingyi before being killed by the Commandant there.)


是歲,大饑。

3. During this year, there was great famine.

司隸校尉傅咸卒。咸性剛簡,風格峻整,初爲司隸校尉,上言:「貨賂流行,所宜深絕。」時朝政寬弛,權豪放恣,咸奏免河南尹澹等官,京師肅然。

4. The Colonel-Director of Retainers, Fu Xian, passed away.

Fu Xian was of a direct and simple nature, severe and strict in manner. When he was first appointed as Colonel-Director of Retainers, he sent up a petition stating, "Bribes are widespread and flowing freely; they should be fully curtailed." The court at that time was tolerant and lenient, letting the powerful do whatever they wished, so Fu Xian submitted charges against Yin Dan of Henan and others, and had them stripped from office. The capital region respected him.

〈《考異》曰:《三十國》、《晉春秋》:「元康四年七月,傅咸爲司隸,五年五月,始親職,十月卒。」二書附年月多差舛,故以《本傳》爲定。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Thirty Kingdoms and the Annals of Jin both state, "In the seventh month of the fourth year of Yuankang (294), Fu Xian was appointed as Colonel-Director. In the fifth month of the fifth year of Yuankang (295), he first took up his office. He passed away in the tenth month." These two accounts are both too far of the mark regarding the years and months, so I follow the account of the Biography of Fu Xian in the Book of Jin.")


慕容廆徙居大棘城。

5. Murong Hui moved his residence to Dajicheng.

〈廆自徒河之青山徙大棘城。杜佑曰:棘城,卽帝顓頊之墟,在營州郡城東南一百七十里。〉

(Murong Hui was moving from Mount Qing to Dajicheng. Du You remarked, "Jicheng was at the ruins of Emperor Zhuanxu. It is a hundred and eighty li southeast of the commandary capital of Yingzhou.")


拓跋弗卒,叔父祿官立。

6. Tuoba Fu passed away. His uncle Tuoba Luguan succeeded him.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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