SGZ Drafts Thread

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SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 1:31 am

I've done a few SGZ drafts on Tumblr that I'll move over here. If I do any new ones, they'll go here too. Expect a ToC here if this goes past one page.

In most cases I will post the relevant ZZTJ passages under spoiler tags for comparison purposes.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:29 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Bush Leagues » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:18 am

Do you need someone to check your editing, grammar, translation, or something else?

I can't do anything with translations, but I can at least offer some editing and grammar advice. I'm not a professional by any means, but I do write well and others have told me so.
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Yang Fu, Wang Yi, Jiang Xu's Mother

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:29 am

Yang Fu, Wang Yi, Jiang Xu's Mother

About a third of this biography is petitions, which have been fully translated already by Achilles Fang in Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms; in fact, the ZZTJ greatly shortens them, but Fang includes the entire SGZ passages in Chronicles. I reproduce those here with very minor changes. The other ZZTJ passages are from de Crespigny's To Establish Peace. The rest of the SGZ translation is my own.


Yang Fu, styled Yishan, was a native of Ji in Tianshui. While working as an Attendant Officer in the province (Liangzhou), he was sent by the Governor, Wei Guan, to make a visit to Xu. While there, Yang Fu was appointed as Chief Clerk of Anding.

When Yang Fu returned home, the generals of Guanyou were all discussing the conflict between Yuan Shao and Cao Cao, wondering which of them would emerge the victor. Yang Fu said, "Lord Yuan is broad-minded, but he is not determined; he can make many plans, but carries out few. Not being determined, he will be lacking in strength; not being decisive, he will let future opportunities slip away. Though he is strong for the moment, in the end he cannot achieve a grand design. Lord Cao has heroic talent and perceptive cunning, and he makes his decisions without hesitation. His laws are uniform and his soldiers are well-trained, and he is able to use even men beyond his usual familiarity, employing them in roles where each man can be used to the fullest. He is certainly the one who can realize the grand affair."

Not being satisfied with his role as Chief Clerk, Yang Fu resigned his office. When Wei Guan was appointed as Grand Keeper of Equipages, his son Wei Kang replaced him as Inspector, and summoned Yang Fu to serve as his Attendant Official With Separate Carriage. Yang Fu was then recommended as Filial and Incorrupt, and appointed to the Prime Minister's staff, but his province petitioned to keep him as an advisor on army affairs.

(The Weilue states, "When Yang Fu was young, he and two other men from his commandary made names for themselves: Ci Ceng of Yinfeng and Wei Zhang of Zhao'ang. All of them became Attendant Officials in Liangzhou.")


When Ma Chao was defeated south of the Wei River, he fled to defend Zhurong. Cao Cao pursued him as far as Anding, when Su Bo rebelled at Hejian, so Cao Cao was about to bring his army back east again.

At that time, Yang Fu came bringing a petition, and he said to Cao Cao, "Ma Chao has the heroism of Han Xin and Ying Bu. Furthermore, he has the hearts of the Qiang and other tribes on his side. The western provinces all fear him. If you lead the main army back now, without making any preparations against Ma Chao, then the state will lose control of all the commandaries beyond the Long Mountains." Cao Cao approved of this advice, so he brought his army back to Cangcu, where the defenses were insufficient.

Ma Chao led several tribes to attack the commandaries and counties beyond the Long Mountains. All of those commandaries and counties went over to him, and only Jicheng, both the commandary and provincial headquarters, held out against him. Ma Chao controlled all the men of Longyou, and Zhang Lu also sent his great general Yang Ang to assist Ma Chao. Together they led more than ten thousand men to attack the city.

Yang Fu led the sons and younger brothers of the local gentry and the victorious troops, more than a thousand men. He sent his cousin Yang Yue on top of the city walls to build a "half-moon camp". Yang Fu and Ma Chao remained locked in battle, with Yang Fu holding the city against Ma Chao from the first month of the year until the eighth month, but no reinforcements for Yang Fu's side arrived. The province sent the Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Yan Wen, by water to bring reinforcements, but he was killed by Ma Chao. This caused the Inspector and the Administrator to turn pale, and they first began considering surrendering to Ma Chao. Yang Fu tearfully rebuked them, saying, "We, all of us, fathers and sons, elder and younger brothers, have been encouraging one another to continue on through virtue. Though we die, we cannot turn from this. Tian Dan's defense of his city was not so resolute as ours is. To throw away an achievement that has nearly been realized is to court being tarred with an infamous reputation. I shall defend this place to the death." And he continued his wailing. But even so, the Inspector and the Administrator sent troops out to arrange peace terms, and they opened the gates to let in Ma Chao. When Ma Chao entered the city, he detained Yang Yue at Ji, and he sent Yang Ang to kill the Inspector and the Administrator.

初,魏公操追馬超至安定,聞田銀、蘇伯反,引軍還。參涼州軍事楊阜言於操曰:「超有信、布之勇,甚得羌、胡心;若大軍還,不設備,隴上諸郡非國家之有也。」〈隴西、南安、漢陽、永陽,皆隴上諸郡也。《獻帝起居注》,初平四年,分漢陽、上郡爲永陽。〉操還,超果率羌、胡擊隴上諸郡縣,郡縣皆應之,惟冀城奉州郡以固守。〈冀縣,屬漢陽郡,郡及涼州刺史治焉。〉(ZZTJ 66, 211.10)

Before this, Duke Cao of WEI had pursued Ma Chao to Anding, but then he heard that Tian Yin and Su Bo had rebelled, and he drew off his army and came back. [At that time], Yang Fu, Adviser to the Army of Liang province, said to Cao Cao, "Ma Chao has the courage of [Han] Xin and [Ying] Bu, and he is popular with the Qiang and other barbarians. If the imperial army should leave before he is fully dealt with, then all the commanderies west of the Long Mountain will fall from our control."

When Cao Cao withdrew, Ma Chao did lead Qiang and other tribal people against the commanderies and counties west of Long. All those territories joined him and only Ji city, with the headquarters of the province and of [Hanyang] commandery, held firm.

(The commandaries west of the Long Mountains were Longxi, Nan'an, Hanyang, and Yongyang. According to the Daily Life of Emperor Xian, in the fourth year of Chuping (193), Yongyang commandary was formed from parts of Hanyang and Shang.

Ji County was part of Hanyang commandary, and was the capital for both that commandary and Liangzhou.)

超盡兼隴右之衆,張魯復遣大將楊昂助之,凡萬餘人,攻冀城,自正月至八月,救兵不至。...已而外救不至,韋康及太守欲降。楊阜號哭諫曰:「阜等率父兄子弟以義相勵,有死無二,以爲使君守此城,今柰何棄垂成之功,陷不義之名乎!」刺史、太守不聽,開城門迎超。超入,遂殺刺史、太守,自稱征西將軍、領幷州牧、督涼州軍事。魏公操使夏侯淵救冀,未到而冀敗。淵去冀二百餘里,超來逆戰,淵軍不利。氐王千萬反應超,屯興國,〈氐王千萬,略陽清水氐種也,其後是爲仇池之楊。興國,城名。〉淵引軍還。(ZZTJ 66, 211.10)

Ma Chao controlled all forces west of the Long Mountains, and Zhang Lu sent his high officer Yang Ang to join him. Their combined force was ten thousand men. They attacked Ji city, and from the first month until the eighth there came no relief... Still, however, there came no help from outside, so Wei Kang and the Grand Administrator resolved to surrender. Yang Fu wept and cried in protest, "We brought our fathers and elder brothers here, our sons and younger brothers, urging them to fight for glory. We can only die for the cause. We have a duty to hold this city. How can we abandon good work just as it is on the point of success, and earn ourselves a name for dishonour?" The Inspector and Grand Administrator paid no attention, and they opened the gates of the city to Ma Chao. As soon as he came in, however, he killed the Inspector and the Grand Administrator. He named himself General Who Subdues the West, with command as Governor of Bing province and Controller of Military Affairs in Liang province.

Duke Cao of WEI sent Xiahou Yuan to relieve Ji city, but the place fell before they reached it, and Ma Chao came out to fight while Xiahou Yuan was still over two hundred li from the city. Xiahou Yuan attacked him without success.

Qianwan, King of the Di, rebelled to join Ma Chao and camped at Xingguo. Xiahou Yuan led his army back.

(The Di King, Qianwan, was from the Qingshui branch of the Di in Lueyang. His descendants were the Yang clan of Chouchi. Xingguo was the name of a place.)


Yang Fu desired to avenge himself against Ma Chao, but he did not yet have any means to do so. Submitting to Ma Chao, Yang Fu asked leave to bury his late wife.

His cousin Jiang Xu was camped at Licheng. When Yang Fu was young, he had grown up with Jiang Xu's family. When he saw Jiang Xu and his mother now, he spoke to them about old times at Ji, with sobbing and great melancholy. Jiang Xu asked him, "What brings this about?"

Yang Fu replied, "I was not able to successfully defend my city, nor could I follow my lord in death. How can I ever show my face before the realm now? Ma Chao abandoned his father to rebel against his lord, and he has cruelly killed the provincial generals. Do you think I am the only one who is burdened by anxiety? Every great man in the whole province must hide their shame over this. Sir, you have men at your disposal and power at hand, yet you show no heart to campaign against these bandits. It was for such reasons that Zhao Dun was recorded as having brought about the murder of his lord. Although Ma Chao is strong, he is without principle. He has many enemies, and he can easily be overcome." Jiang Xu's mother was moved with indignation at Yang Fu's appeal, and she compelled her son to go along with Yang Fu's plan.

Once the plan was determined, they coordinated their plot with several others on the outside: from the same county, they enlisted Jiang Yin, Zhao Ang, Yin Feng, Yao Qiong, and Kong Xin, and from Wudu they enlisted Li Jun and Wang Ling. All of them made a pact together to punish Ma Chao. Yang Fu sent his nephew Yang Mo to Ji to speak to Yang Yue, and they gained the help of Liang Kuan of Anding, Zhao Qu of Nan'an, Pang Gong, and others. Once their pact and vow became known, on the ninth month of the seventeenth year of Jian'an (212), Yang Fu and Jiang Xu rose up at Lucheng.

When Ma Chao heard that Yang Fu and the others had risen up with soldiers, he went himself to attack them. Then Liang Kuan, Zhao Qu, and the others freed Yang Yue, closed the gates of Ji, and punished Ma Chao's wife and children.

Ma Chao raided Licheng, and captured Jiang Xu's mother. She railed at him, "You are a disobedient son who has abandoned his father, a cruel bandit who has murdered his lord. How can Heaven and Earth ever put up with you? And unless you die quickly, how can you ever show your face before men?" Ma Chao was furious, and killed her.

Yang Fu battled with Ma Chao: he personally suffered five wounds, while seven of his clansmen were killed. Ma Chao went south to flee to Zhang Lu.


When Longyou was once again settled, Cao Cao rewarded those who had acted against Ma Chao. Eleven men were made Marquis, and Yang Fu was made a Marquis Within The Passes. Yang Fu submitted a petition stating, "While my lord lived, I could not help him to endure the difficulties; when he died, I could not join him in death. Morally, I deserve censure; legally, I deserve punishment. Ma Chao yet lives. I should not be given rank and reward for an insufficient result."

Cao Cao made a response stating, "You, working together with these other worthies, realized a great achievement, and the people of the west speak highly of you. When Zigong declined rewards, Zhongni (Confucius) said that such a thing would impede goodness. Now you have laid bare your heart in service to the state’s mandate. Jiang Xu's mother urged him to be quick to assist you; in such display of wisdom and intelligence, even such women as Yang Chang's wife could not surpass her. Worthy, worthy indeed! Such a thing must be recorded, and cannot pass into the ground."


(Huangfu Mi's Lives of Exemplary Women records this story:

Jiang Xu's mother was the mother of Jiang Boyi of Tianshui (Jiang Xu). During the Jian'an era (196-220), when the Inspector of Liangzhou, Wei Kang, came to harm, the people of the province mourned him, and there was no one who was not indignant about it. Jiang Xu was then the General Who Protects The Barbarians, and he was camped at Li with soldiers.

Jiang Xu's cousin Yang Fu, a former Attendant Officer under Wei Kang, plotted together with more than ten others, making a pact to overthrow Ma Chao and avenge Wei Kang, but as yet nothing had been done. At this time, Yang Fu's wife passed away, so Yang Fu told Ma Chao that he was returning west. Because of that, he went as far as Li, where he met Jiang Xu and his mother, and told them of Wei Kang's fate and the difficulties that had gripped Ji, with each of them weeping for a long time.

Jiang Xu paced around the room in anger and sorrow, and his mother said, "Tsk! Boyi, when Lord Wei came to harm, since that was the whole province's shame, how could you not also be to blame, any less than Yishan (Yang Fu)? You must not think of me, for this matter changes everything. What man does not die? Dying in the service of the state is the highest expression of loyalty and virtue. But you must act quickly. I do this on your behalf, and will not trouble you for the rest of my years." Thus she compelled Jiang Xu to make plans with Yang Fu. They made a promise, and sent men out to speak with men from their county, Yin Feng and Zhao Ang, and also Liang Kuan of Anding and others.

Jiang Xu was the first to give orders for his soldiers to rise up in rebellion against Ma Chao. Ma Chao was furious, and naturally went himself to attack Jiang Xu. Liang Kuan and the others followed after him and closed the gates. The oath pact being settled, Jiang Xu advanced his troops to enter Lu, while Zhao Ang and Yin Feng guarded Qishan. When Ma Chao heard, as expected he went himself to attack Jiang Xu, and Liang Kuan and the others followed behind him and closed the gates of Ji, so Ma Chao lost his base. Ma Chao attacked Lu, but Jiang Xu defended it.

Because of that, Ma Chao advanced on Li instead. When the people of Li saw Ma Chao's army approaching, they believed that Jiang Xu's army was returning. And there had been rumors that Ma Chao had fled to Hanzhong, which was why Li was not prepared to defend itself. So when Ma Chao entered Li, he captured Jiang Xu's mother, who angrily reviled him. Ma Chao was infuriated by her rebukes, so he killed Jiang Xu's mother and his sons, torched the city, and left.

When what Yang Fu and the others had done became known, Cao Cao greatly praised them, and personally issued an edict commending them, as was mentioned in the original account.

Your servant Pei Songzhi remarks: In Huangfu Mi's account, he says that Yang Fu was Jiang Xu's 姑子 (son of the father's sister), while the original account says that Jiang Xu was Yang Fu's 外兄 (a matrilineal cousin). By the current naming rules, inner and outer cousins are not the same.


Huangfu Mi also relates this account of the wife of Zhao Ang:

Zhao Ang's wife Yi was the wife of the Inspector of Yizhou, Zhao Weizhang of Tianshui. She was a daughter of the Wang clan. When Zhao Ang became Prefect of Qiangdao, he left Wang Yi at Xi.

At that time, a man from his same commandary, Liang Shuang, rebelled. Liang Shu attacked and breached Xicheng, and killed Wang Yi's two sons. Wang Yi's daughter Zhao Ying, who was then six years old, was alone with Wang Yi inside the city. When Wang Yi saw that her two sons were already dead, and further feared that Liang Shuang would violate her, she held a blade planning to cut her own throat. But turning to face Zhao Ying, she sighed and said, "Were I to kill myself, I would be abandoning you. Then who could you turn to for help? I heard that Xi Shi once hid in filthy clothing, so that men turned their noses from her. If even someone with her looks could do that, couldn't I do the same?" So she made herself foul with excrement and soiled hempen clothing, and reduced her food to make herself skinny, continuing on like this from spring until winter. Liang Shuang then came to terms with the province and commandaries, so Wang Yi was able to escape from her distress.

Zhao Ang sent an official to escort her. They had not yet gone thirty li when Wang Yi stopped and said to Zhao Ying, "It is not a wife's place to presume upon such measures for protection. This is why they ought not emerge from the confines of the home. Zhao Jiang accepted the waters, and Bo Ji endured the flames; whenever I read accounts of them, it fills my heart with admiration for their fortitude. Yet I have suffered through such turmoil without being able to die, and now how can I ever face those other women again? All that I have gone through to keep myself alive until now, was purely in order to protect you. But the official is already here for you. So I take my leave of you now, and die." So saying, she ingested a poisonous medicine and passed out. But there happened to be on hand some fine antidotal soup. They pried open Wang Yi's mouth and poured the soup down her throat, and after some time she revived.


During the Jian'an era, Zhao Ang was assigned as an army advisor, and he moved his residence to Ji. Soon, Ma Chao attacked Ji. Wang Yi took up a bow and put on an archer's arm guard, and helped Zhao Ang to man the defenses. She took off all of her jade pendants and embroidered robes and gave them away as rewards to the soldiers.

Ma Chao's attack on the city was very fierce, and the people inside the city suffered from hunger and want. The Inspector, Wei Kang, was a benevolent man, and he pitied the people and officials because of their suffering and privation, so he wished to arrange peace terms with Ma Chao. Zhao Ang remonstrated with him, but to no avail. Zhao Ang went and told Wang Yi about it. Wang Yi said, "When a lord has ministers who remonstrate with him, it is virtuous to have something to profitably pass on; it cannot be that he will not pass it on. Who knows whether reinforcements will not come from Guanzhong or the Long Mountains? We must exert ourselves together to encourage the soldiers to do their utmost, and all steady ourselves to fight on to the death. He cannot do such a thing." But by the time Zhao Ang returned, Wei Kang had arranged peace with Ma Chao. Ma Chao then broke his word and killed Wei Yang, and he compelled Zhao Ang to submit by keeping his son by his first wife, Zhao Yue, as a hostage at Nanzheng.

Ma Chao wished to find a way to use Zhao Ang, but he did not fully trust him either. Ma Chao's wife Lady Yang heard of Wang Yi's fortitude and spirit, so she invited her to a winter feast. Wang Yi wanted for Zhao Ang to gain Ma Chao's trust enough for him to be brought into Ma Chao's plans, so she said to Lady Yang, "In former times, when Guan Zhong entered Qi, he achieved the nine accords; when You Yi went to Qin, Duke Mu was able to become Hegemon. Now the altars of state here have only just been settled. You should first manage the turmoil and obtain good men. Then, with the men and horses of Liangzhou, you can contend for dominance with the Central Plains. You cannot be too careful." Lady Yang deeply appreciated this advice, believing that Wang Yi was already loyal to them, and so she formed a close friendship with Wang Yi.


By such means, Zhao Ang gained Ma Chao's trust. That he was able to achieve this and avoid disasters was all thanks to Wang Yi's efforts.

Later, when Zhao Ang made the pact with Yang Fu and the others to overthrow Ma Chao, Zhao Ang told Wang Yi, "I have made this pact, and it is sure to be entirely successful. But what about Zhao Yue?"

Wang Yi sternly replied, "By establishing loyal and virtuous service with one's own body, one can wash away the great shames of one's lord or father. Even your own death is not sufficient reason to mourn. How much less the loss of a son? If Xiang Tuo or Yan Yuan had lived another hundred years, would their virtues still be so honored?"

Zhao Ang said, "Excellent."

So together they closed the gates of the city to shut out Ma Chao. Ma Chao fled to Hanzhong, where he obtained an army from Zhang Lu and then returned. Wang Yi and Zhao Ang then guarded Qishan. They were surrounded by Ma Chao for thirty days, until reinforcements arrived to lift the siege. Ma Chao's soldiers killed Wang Yi's son Zhao Yue. So from the difficulties at Jicheng until the defense at Qishan, in all the nine marvels that Zhao Ang achieved, Wang Yi always had a hand in them.)

會楊阜喪妻,就超求假以葬之。〈求假,猶古之請告請急也。〉阜外兄天水姜敍爲撫夷將軍,擁兵屯歷城。〈《水經註》,歷城在西縣,去仇池一百二十里,後改爲建安城。杜佑曰:歷城,在今同谷郡西七里,去仇池九十里。宋白曰:晉置仇池郡於歷城。今爲成州。〉阜見敍及其母,歔欷悲甚。敍曰:「何爲乃爾?」阜曰:「守城不能完,君亡不能死,亦何面目以視息於天下!〈目之視物,一出入息之頃,則一瞬。〉馬超背父叛君,虐殺州將,豈獨阜之憂責,一州士大夫皆蒙其恥。君擁兵專制而無討賊心,此趙盾所以書弒君也。〈趙盾,晉卿趙宣子也。《左傳》,趙穿攻靈公於桃園,宣子未出疆而復,太史書曰:「趙盾弒其君。」以示於朝。宣子曰:「不然。」對曰:「子爲正卿,亡不越境,反不討賊,非子而誰!」〉超強而無義,多釁,易圖耳。」敍母慨然曰:「咄!伯奕,韋使君遇難,亦汝之負,豈獨義山哉!〈姜敍,字伯奕;楊阜,字義山。〉人誰不死,死於忠義,得其所也。但當速發,勿復顧我;我自爲汝當之,不以餘年累汝也。」敍乃與同郡趙昂、尹奉、武都李俊等合謀討超,又使人至冀,結安定梁寬、南安趙衢使爲內應。超取趙昂子月爲質,昂謂妻異曰:〈據皇甫謐《列女傳》,異,士氏女也。〉「吾謀如是,事必萬全,當柰月何?」異厲聲應曰:「雪君父之大恥,喪元不足爲重,況一子哉!」(ZZTJ 66, 211.10)

About this time Yang Fu's wife died, so he went to Ma Chao and obtained leave to attend her burial. Yang Fu's brother-in-law Jiang Xu of Tianshui was General Who Cherishes Barbarians, commanding troops in camp at Li city. When Yang Fu saw Jiang Xu and his mother, he sobbed in extremity of grief. "Why this?" asked Jiang Xu.

"I was guarding a city and I could not hold it," replied Yang Fu, "my masters are dead and I did not die. How can I face the world even for a moment? Ma Chao has turned from his father and rebelled against his lord. He mistreats and kills the leaders of the province. Am I the only man concerned about this? All the gentlemen of the province are put to shame. You hold an independent command, but you have no intention of attacking those bandits. In such circumstances, Zhao Dun was recorded as the murderer of his master. Ma Chao is strong, but he is a dishonourable fellow. There are many people with grievances and it is easy to plan against him."

Jiang Xu's mother was deeply touched. "Quite right, Boyi!" she exclaimed. "When Commissioner Wei (Kang) came to harm, that was also your responsibility, not just Yishan's (Yang Fu's). What man does not die? And to die for loyalty and for honour, that is something worth while. Just act swiftly, and think no more of me. I can decide this for you now, and for the rest of my life I shall cause you no further trouble."

So Jiang Xu made plans with Zhao Ang and Yin Feng of his own [Hanyang] commandery and with Li Jun of Wudu and others for a joint attack on Ma Chao. He also sent men to Ji city to make contact with Liang Kuan of Anding and Zhao Qu of Nan'an, to have them act as allies within.

Ma Chao held Zhao Ang's son Yue as a hostage. Zhao Ang said to his wife Yi, "I have made my plans, and they will certainly be successful. What are we to do about Yue?"

"If it clears the shame of a lord and father," replied Yi firmly, "to lose one's head is of small moment. That is still more true for a son."

(The term 求假 was an old expression for asking leave.

According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Licheng was in Xi County, a hundred and twenty li from Chouchi. Its name was later changed to Jian'an City. Du You remarked, "Licheng was seven li west of modern Tonggu commandary, ninety li from Chouchi." Song Bai remarked, "The Jin dynasty created Chouchi commandary at Licheng. It is now Chengzhou."

The eye is a seeing thing. The moment when it withdraws to rest is called a blink.

Zhao Dun was another name for Zhao Xuanzi, a minister of the ancient state of Jin. In the Zuo Commentary, when Zhao Chuan attacks Duke Ling at Taoyuan, Zhao Xuanzi did not leave his border post to return and aid him. The grand historian recorded this act as "Zhao Dun murdered his lord" and displayed it before the court. Zhao Xuanzi objected, "That is not so." The reply was, "You are the chief minister of state. But when you fled, you did not go beyond the border; when you returned, you did not punish the bandits. If you did not murder him, who did?"

Jiang Xu's style name was Boyi; Yang Fu's style name was Yishan.

According to Huangfu Mi's Lives of Exemplary Women, Zhao Ang's wife Yi was a daughter of the Shi clan. (The above passage from Huangfu Mi's book claims she was of the Wang clan. The characters 士 Shi and 王 Wang could have been confused.))

九月,阜與敍進兵,入鹵城,〈鹵城,當在西縣、冀縣之間。〉昂、奉據祁山,以討超。〈《水經註》:祁山,在嶓冢之西七十許里,山上有城,極爲險固,漢水逕其南。又曰:祁山,在上邽西南二百四十里。杜佑曰:祁山,在今同谷郡長道縣東十里。余據今西和州長道縣南十里有祁山,古來南北二岈,有萬餘家。諸葛亮表言「祁山去沮五百里,有人萬戶」者,此也。〉超聞之,大怒,趙衢因譎說超,使自出擊之。超出,衢與梁寬閉冀城門,盡殺超妻子。超進退失據,乃襲歷城,得敍母。敍母罵之曰:「汝背父之逆子,殺君之桀賊,〈背父,謂馬騰在鄴,不顧而反;殺君,謂殺韋康也。〉天地豈久容汝,而不早死,敢以面目視人乎!」超殺之,又殺趙昂之子月。楊阜與超戰,身被五創。超兵敗,遂南奔張魯。〈《考異》曰:《楊阜傳》云「十七年九月」,《武帝紀》,「十八年超在漢陽,復因羌、胡爲害。十九年正月,趙衢等討超,超奔漢中。」按姜敍九月起兵,超卽應出討,超出,衢等卽應閉門,不應至來年正月。蓋《魏史》書捷音到鄴之月耳。《楊阜傳》誤也。〉...操封討超之功,侯者十一人,賜楊阜爵關內侯。(ZZTJ 66, 211.10)

In the ninth month, Yang Fu and Jiang Xu brought their forces forward and entered Lucheng, while Zhao Ang and Yin Feng occupied Qi Mountain and attacked Ma Chao. When Ma Chao learnt of this he became very angry. Zhao Qu tricked him into going out immediately to attack them. As soon as Ma Chao left, however, Zhao Qu and Liang Kuan barred the gates of Ji city and killed all his family.

Ma Chao had lost his base and had nowhere to move, but then he made a surprise attack on Li city and captured Jiang Xu's mother. "You," she abused him, "are a rebellious son who abandoned his father. You are a cruel brigand who murdered his lord. How can Heaven and Earth put up with you for long? And unless you die soon, how can you face the sight of men?" Ma Chao killed her. He also killed Zhao Ang's son Zhao Yue.

Yang Fu fought Ma Chao. He was wounded five times, but the enemy were defeated. Ma Chao fled south to Zhang Lu.

Cao Cao gave honours for the good work against Ma Chao, and eleven men were enfeoffed as marquises. Yang Fu was awarded rank as Marquis Within the Imperial Domain.

(Lucheng was between Xi County and Ji County.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Qishan is about seventy li west of Bozhong. There is a city on the mountain, which occupies a perilous defile, and the Han River flows south of it." It also states, "Qishan is two hundred and forty li southwest of Shanggui." Du You remarked, "Qishan is ten li east of Changdao County in modern Tonggu commandary." From what I (Hu Sanxing) know, ten li south of Changdao County in modern Xihe province, there is a Qishan which of old has had two passes running through it north to south, and more than ten thousand families live there. In Zhuge Liang's petition, he states, "Qishan is five hundred li from Ju, and it has ten thousand households." It must be the same place.

When Jiang Xu's mother says that Ma Chao "abandoned his father", she means Ma Teng, who was at Ye; Ma Chao rebelled without considering him. When she says that Ma Chao "murdered his lord", she means his killing of Wei Kang.

Sima Guang comments in the Textual Analysis, "According to the Biography of Yang Fu, this uprising began 'in the ninth month of the seventeenth year of Jian'an (212)'. The Records of Emperor Wu (Cao Cao) states that 'in the eighteenth year (213), Ma Chao was at Hanyang, where the Qiang and other tribes once again caused harm. In the first month of the nineteenth year (214), Zhao Qu and the others campaigned against Ma Chao, who fled to Hanzhong.' Now if Jiang Xu had risen up in the ninth month, Ma Chao had then gone out himself to campaign against him, and once having left, Zhao Qu and the others had closed the gates of the city, all this could not have lasted so long as to go on to the first month of the following year. The History of Wei says that news of the victory reached Ye within the month. The Biography of Yang Fu is mistaken.")


When Cao Cao conquered Hanzhong, he appointed Yang Fu as Inspector of Yizhou. When Cao Cao returned, Yang Fu was appointed as Administrator of Jincheng, but before he had even set out, he was reassigned as Administrator of Wudu. Since that commandary was close to Shu-Han, Yang Fu asked to follow the example of Gong Sui, and bear it as he had.

Soon, Liu Bei sent Zhang Fei, Ma Chao, and others to march from Judao to attack Xiabian. The Di leader Leiding and others went over to them, in seven groups and more than ten thousand tribes. Cao Cao sent the Capital Protector Cao Hong to repulse Ma Chao and the others, and they retreated and went back.

Cao Hong arranged for a great drinking meeting, with women singers dressed in nets and fine silk gauze; as they danced on drums, everyone sat around and laughed. Yang Fu sternly charged Cao Hong, saying, "The separation of men and women is a great principle of the state. How dare you so wantonly expose these womens' bare physiques in the midst of a meeting like this? Even Jie of Xia and King Zhou of Shang were not so depraved as that." And he lifted his robe and went out complaining. Cao Hong rose and sent away the women and music, and asked Yang Fu to return and take his seat; he both respected and feared him.


After Liu Bei obtained Hanzhong, he posed a threat to Xiabian. Since Wudu was now a distant and isolated post, Cao Cao wished to relocate it, but he feared that the people and officials would oppose the move. Yang Fu had great power and influence there, and so he was able to relocate the people and the Di tribes there. He moved them to reside within Jingzhao, Fufeng, and Tianshui, more than ten thousand households. When he relocated the village of Xiaohuai from the commandary, the common people wrapped themselves around him and followed him. He submitted an outline report of how he had governed, and could not bear to include any deceptions.

While Emperor, Cao Pi asked the Palace Attendent Liu Ye and others, "What sort of man is the Administrator of Wudu?" They all said that Yang Fu had the fortitude to be a great minister of state. But before he could receive such an appointment, Cao Pi passed away. Yang Fu was in his commandary for more than a decade, until he was appointed as Colonel of the City Gates.


Yang Fu often saw the new Emperor, Cao Rui, wearing an embroidered cap, and wearing thin, pale-green silk clothing with half-sleeves. Yang Fu asked Cao Rui, "By what standard do you wear such clothing?" Cao Rui was silent and could not respond. From then on, whenever he was wearing such unorthodox clothing, he did not see Yang Fu.

帝嘗著帽,被縹綾半袖。阜問帝曰:「此於禮何法服也?」帝默不答。自是不法服不以見阜。(ZZTJ 73, 235.6)

Cao Rui once was wearing a cap and silken gown with half sleeves. Yang Fu asked him, "What sort of court garment, in the eyes of propriety, is this?" Cao Rui remained silent and did not answer. From then on, he would not see Yang Fu without having put on court dress.


Yang Fu was assigned as Grand Artisan. At that time, the new palace was just being built. Many beautiful women were filling the rear palaces, and Cao Rui often went out hunting. During the winter, there was heavy rain and shaking thunder, which killed many birds and sparrows.

Yang Fu submitted a petition stating, "I have heard that when an enlightened Sovereign is above, all his subjects exhaust their words (for his benefit). Yao and Shun were of sage virtue; they sought to have their faults pointed out and asked for advice. The great Yu was assiduous in his work; he made it a duty to have his palace lowly and mean. Meeting with drought, Cheng Tang attributed the blame to himself. The example of King Wen of Zhou acted on his wife, and was felt by all the clans and states. Emperor Wen of Han personally practiced frugality and wore black garments. These are all men who were able to make their renown illustrious and leave their plans to their descendants. I observe that Your Majesty has succeeded to the great work of Emperor Wu (Cao Cao) in founding the dynasty, and follows the great line of Emperor Wen's (Cao Pi's) accomplishments. You should bend your thoughts to equaling the sagely and talented of antiquity in their good rule, and keep in mind the wicked government of later ages, how lax and extravagant.

"The so-called good rule means to adhere to frugality and appreciate the strength of the people; the so-called wicked government means to indulge one's desires and act according to whim. I presume Your Majesty has examined the reasons why at the beginning of a new dynasty there is brilliance and clarity, and why in its last days there is decline, weakness, even extinction. If one studies the changes at the end of the Han dynasty, one can indeed be moved and take warning from them.

"If in the past, Emperors Huan and Ling of Han had not discarded the regulations of Emperor Gaozu (Liu Bang) and the reverence and frugality of Emperors Wen and Jing, how could Taizu (Cao Cao), be he ever so divinely martial, have found opportunity to exercise his powers? If such were the case, how could Your Majesty find yourself in such an exalted position?”

言文帝克終武帝之志,受禪易制,此絲端所從始也。(ZZTJ Commentary to the above)

Yang Fu refers to Emperor Wen's (Cao Pi's) securing the fruits of Emperor Wu's (Cao Cao's) ambitions, by accepting the abdication and establishing new systems. These were the new accomplishments that Emperor Wen achieved and needed defending.


"Now, Wu and Shu are not yet conquered, and the army is on the frontiers. I would wish Your Majesty to think thrice before acting, and take your coming out and going in seriously, so as to derive lessons from the past for the future. My words seem to be of little importance, but prosperity and fall is a serious matter. Recently it has rained heavily, and there have also been such severe thunder and lightning as to kill birds and sparrows. The spirits of heaven and earth take the royal personage as their own son; when there is anything amiss in the government, they manifest calamities. To subdue the self, to accuse one's own self inwardly is what the sagely noted down. I hope Your Majesty will take precautions while things are yet shapeless, will be prudent while things are still budding, and emulate Emperor Xiao-Wen of Han, who sent out the women of Emperor Hui so they could be married. Your recent levies of young girls will not be savory among the distant people; you ought to take this matter up later.

"As for the various building and repair projects, I hope Your Majesty will see that they are executed economically.

"The Book of Documents states, 'The nine classes of his kindred all became harmonious; he united and harmonized the myriad states'. In all matters one ought to think of what is proper so that one follows the golden mean. One should exert one's mind and counsel toward economy. Only after Wu and Shu are conquered can the high be at ease and the low rejoice, the nine classes of kindred be glad. Only thus will the spirits of your ancestor be happy. 'Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this.' Now, you ought to open up your great trust throughout the empire, in order to put the people at ease and manifest example of those afar."

At that time, the Prince of Yongqiu, Cao Zhi, was angry that he was held in contempt; all those assigned to fiefs, even close members of the royal family, were treated with laws and regulations that were very strict and pressing. This was why Yang Fu extolled the nine classes of kin. Cao Rui sent Cao Zhi a response edict stating, "I have received your personal petition, in which you first praise the enlightened kings and saintly rulers of past ages, to mock my benighted governance. You words cut close to the mark, being earnestly honest and sincerely true. ‘When a minister retires from court, his thought is how to amend his errors. He advances and implements what is good, rectifies and rescues from what is evil.’ You have done no less. You have worthy thinking and difficult words; I greatly commend you."


Yang Fu was later appointed Privy Treasurer. At that time, Grand General Cao Zhen was campaigning against Shu-Han, but he encountered rains and could not advance. Yang Fu submitted a petition stating, "In former times, King Wen of Zhou was the recipient of the auspicious augury of a red crow, yet throughout the whole day he did not have time to take a meal. A white fish leaped into the boat of King Wu of Zhou; the Sovereign and his subjects all lost their color. In spite of having received downright auspicious signs, they were still fearful. Is one to remain without shivering when there are calamities and evil omens?

"At present Wu and Shu are not yet conquered, yet Heaven has frequently sent down strange omens. Your Majesty ought to devote yourself to concentrating your energy and obtaining advice, sitting humbly on the edge of the mat. You should think of demonstrating your liberality to the distant people and pacifying the nearer ones by your frugality.

"Our forces had barely moved forward when there came the calamity of great rain from heaven; for many days already they have been marooned in mountains and defiles. The toil of transport and the suffering from carrying burdens on the shoulders have already cost much. If this is not continued, our original plan will fail. Tradition says, 'To advance when you see advance is possible, and withdraw in face of difficulties, is a good way of moving an army.' To let the 'Six Armies' be harassed in mountains and valleys to no purpose, with nothing to conquer when they advance and not being able to retreat--this is not the way for the troops of a Sovereign.

"King Wu of Zhou withdrew his troops, but in the end (his enemy) Yin perished; King Wu knew the time appointed by Heaven. At present, the crops are bad and the people are starving. An illustrious edict should be issued announcing reduced government use of food and clothing; works of art, and rare and strange objects should be put aside. In former times, when Shao Xinchen was Privy Treasurer, he did away with superfluous food consumption though no pressing matter was at hand. Now that army provisions are insufficient, temperance should be exercised all the more."

So Cao Rui ordered the army to return.

《史記》:周文王崩,武王奉文王木主東觀兵于孟津。武王渡河,中流,白魚躍入王舟。是時諸侯不期而會者八百,皆曰:「紂可伐矣。」武王曰:「汝未知天命,未可也。」乃還師。《左傳》:隨武子之言。(ZZTJ Commentary to the above passage)

The Records of the Grand Historian states, "After the death of King Wen of Zhou, King Wu made offerings to a wooden image of King Wen and reviewed his troops in the east at Meng Crossing. As King Wu was crossing over the river, a white fish lept into the king's boat. During that time, lords and nobles came one after another to meet with King Wu, eight hundred of them; they all told him, "King Zhou can be conquered." But King Wu replied, "Until I know Heaven's mandate, it cannot be." So he led his troops back.

Yang Fu's quote "To advance..." is from Viscount Wu of Sui, as recorded in the Zuo Commentary.


Cao Rui later summoned a grand council to discuss things in the government that were not suitable to the people. Yang Fu expressed his views: "Able government comes from employing the worthy, and a rising state comes from attending to the farmers. Now if one abandons worthy people and instead employs their personal favorites, that is to truly abandon the ways of governing. And if one widens and expands the palaces and builds tall the terraces and pavilions, such that it interferes with the affairs of the people, that is to truly harm the farmers. And if the artisans are forced to set aside their tools, and expend their efforts on building strange creations to suit the whims of those above, that is to truly harm the foundation of the state. Confucius said, 'Harsh governance is like a wild tiger'. Now you must defend the achievements and customs of the officials; if by your governance you obstruct them from tending to themselves, your neglegence will be bothersome and harsh to them, and that is to truly throw the people into confusion. What ought to be done at this moment is to search around on every side, calling on the ministers of the commandaries and the fiefs, seeking out those who are worthy, excellent, upright, just, and sincere, and selecting them for use in office. This is also the means of helping the worthy."


Yang Fu also submitted a petition in which he asked that the palace women be reduced, removing those who had not received favor. To that end, Yang Fu summoned an official from the Office of the Imperial Wardrobe to inquire how many people were in the rear palaces. The official, adhering to old traditions, refused to answer, saying, "That is a secret, and I cannot divulge it." Yang Fu was furious, and he caned the official a hundred times, constantly saying, "The state itself keeps no secret from the chief ministers. How much less can a mere official like you?" When Cao Rui heard of the incident, both his respect and his dread of Yang Fu increased.

阜又上疏欲省宮人諸不見幸者,乃召御府吏問後宮人數。〈少府屬官有御府令,典官婢,員吏七十人,吏從官二十人。〉吏守舊令,對曰:「禁密,不得宣露!」阜怒,杖吏一百,數之曰:「國家不與九卿爲密,反與小吏爲密乎!」帝愈嚴憚之。(ZZTJ 73, 235.6)

Yang Fu further sent up a memorial requesting dismissal of those harem women who had not received imperial favors. He then summoned an official of the Imperial Wardrobe and asked him about the number of the harem women. The official, sticking to an ancient regulation, said, "This matter is of an intimate nature, I cannot divulge it." In anger, Yang Fu administered the official a hundred blows, saying in accusation, "If the State does not stand in intimacy with the Nine Ministers, must it be intimate with petty officials?"

Cao Rui feared him the more.

(The Prefect of the Imperial Wardrobe was a subordinate office of the Privy Treasurer (which was Yang Fu's office). It administered the palace women, and had a staff of seventy ministers, each of which had twenty subordinates.)


Cao Rui loved his daughter Cao Shu, but she died before her time, and Cao Rui was deeply sorrowful. He posthumously named her Princess of Pingyuan, raised a temple for her at Luoyang, and buried her at Nanling. Cao Rui was about to go himself to attend the funeral for her. Yang Fu submitted a petition stating, "When Emperor Wen (Cao Pi) and Empress Dowager Wuxuan (Lady Bian) died, Your Majesty in both cases did not attend the funeral; this was because the foundation of the dynasty had to be regarded as important, and untoward happenings guarded against. Why must you attend the funeral of a mere infant still held in the arms?" Cao Rui did not heed him.

帝愛女淑卒,帝痛之甚,追諡平原懿公主,立廟洛陽,葬於南陵... 帝欲自臨送葬,又欲幸許。...少府楊阜曰:「文皇帝、武宣皇后崩,陛下皆不送葬,所以重社稷,備不虞也;何至孩抱之赤子而送葬也哉!」帝皆不聽。(ZZTJ 72, 232.3)

Cao Rui's favorite daughter Cao Shu died, and he was deeply grieved. He canonized her posthumously as "Virtuous" Princess of Ping-yuan and built a temple to house her spirit in Luoyang, burying her at the mausoleum of Nanling. ...Cao Rui wished to attend the funeral in person and further wished to travel to Xuchang.

...The Privy Treasurer, Yang Fu, said, "When Emperor Wen (Cao Pi) and Empress Dowager Wuxuan (Lady Bian) died, Your Majesty in both cases did not attend the funeral; this was because the foundation of the dynasty had to be regarded as important, and untoward happenings guarded against. Why must you attend the funeral of a mere infant still held in the arms?"

Cao Rui listened to neither of them.


Since Cao Rui had built the new palace at Xu, he also went to Luoyang to build palaces, halls, and viewing pavilions there. Yang Fu submitted a petition stating, "Yao valued his grass-thatched house, so that the myriad states enjoyed peace. Yu lived in a low, mean house, so the people of the empire rejoiced in their own occupations. Coming down to the Yin and Zhou dynasties, the hall was raised to three feet and was measurable by nine mats, and that was all. Sage Emperors and enlightened Kings of antiquity never made their palaces too high or too handsome, lest the people be exhausted of their wealth and energy.

"But Jie of Xia made bejewelled rooms and ivory corridors; King Zhou of Yin exhausted the resources of his palace to make the terrace Lutai. In the end they lost their dominions. King Ling of Chu built the terrace of Zhanghua, and personally suffered disaster thereby. Qin Shihuang built the Epang palace; disaster fell upon his sons and the empire revolted, and the house perished in two generations. There has never been one who, not measuring the strength of the myriad people, gave free rein to his desires and yet did not perish. Your Majesty should take as models Yao, Shu, Yu, Tang of Shang, and Kings Wen and Wu; you should take as profound warnings Jie of Xia, King Zhou of Yin, King Ling of Chu, and Qin Shihuang.

"The exalted (heaven) is high above and watches over the virtue of the Sovereign. You must be prudent to keep the heaven-conferred position and continue the line of your ancestors. Their great work, high and soaring, you must always be afraid of losing. You can not desist (from indulgences) day or night to show respect and pity to the people. Instead, you exult and indulge in your pleasures, minding only to lavish and ornament your palaces and terraces. Inevitably there will be the disaster of fall or destruction.

"The Book of Changes states, '(The topmost line, divided, shows) its subjects with his house made large, but only serving as a screen to his household. When he looks at his door, it is still, and there is nobody about it.' A royal personage takes the whole realm as his house; the passage means that the disaster due to enlarging his private house will go to the extent of having nobody in the house. At present, the two rebels (Wu and Shu-Han) are united in their plot to endanger our dynasty. Our army of a hundred thousand men rushes hither and thither, east and west; there is not a single day's leisure along the frontiers. Farmers are obliged to give up their occupation, and the people show the face of hunger. Your Majesty, however, does not take this to his heart, but builds palaces without ceasing. Should it be the case that I myself might be preserved though the state perish, I would not ask it. The Sovereign is the head, and his ministers constitute his legs and arms; their preservation or destruction is as of a single body, and their interests are identical.

"The Classic of Filial Piety states, '(Anciently,) if the Son of Heaven had seven ministers who would remonstrate with him, although he had not right methods of government, he would not lose his possession of the kingdom.' Faint in heart though I am, dare I lose sight of the meaning of 'remonstrating ministers'? If my language were not sharp and to the point, it would not be sufficient to move Your Majesty, and if Your Majesty does not need my words, I fear that the lineage of your ancestors will fall to the ground. Should my death serve towards mending the situation in the least, the day I die will be as good as the year when I began to live. Respectfully knocking at the coffin and having purified myself, in prostration I await the punishment of severest death."

When the memorial was presented, Cao Rui, moved by Yang Fu's loyal language, replied with his own hand.

Whenever there was a court discussion, Yang Fu often spoke forthrightly, taking the condition of the realm as his personal duty. He offered many remonstrations, but they were not heeded. He begged several times to resign his office, but it was not granted. Not long afterwards, he died; his family had no excess wealth. His grandson Yang Bao inherited his positions.

(Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that utmost loyalty is the true way, and should be followed even unto death. If it is possible to rectify and rescue a lord from evil, no consideration should be made for one's own life. But Yang Fu's petition has the expression, "should it be the case that I myself might be preserved though the state perish, I would not ask it." To be this resolute regarding oneself, how can one not be so for one's state? In saying this, how can one not be forthright for justice through it wounds them, and present such petitions though it pains them?)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:53 am, edited 7 times in total.
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Du Ji

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:30 am

"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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Tian Yu

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:31 am

"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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Qian Zhao

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:32 am

"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
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Guo Huai

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:33 am

Guo Huai placeholder link

This is an update of an existing translation.
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Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Fri Aug 25, 2017 2:36 am

Bush Leagues wrote:Do you need someone to check your editing, grammar, translation, or something else?

I can't do anything with translations, but I can at least offer some editing and grammar advice. I'm not a professional by any means, but I do write well and others have told me so.

Mostly accuracy, but editing and other things are always helpful.
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Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Dong Zhou » Fri Aug 25, 2017 5:55 pm

Really intresting reading about Yang Fu and Wang Yi, thank you.
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Re: SGZ Drafts Thread

Unread postby Han » Mon Aug 28, 2017 2:13 am

Will these be added here:

Liu Bei did nothing wrong.
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