Zhuge Jin (Ziyu) Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

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Zhuge Jin (Ziyu) Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby capnnerefir » Thu Dec 19, 2013 5:17 am

Zhuge Jin (Ziyu)
174-241
Highest Rank:
Grand General

Zhuge Jin was born in 174[1], in Yangdu county of Langye, Xu Province.[2] He was the son of Zhuge Gui and the older brother of Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun. It is recorded that Zhuge Jin mourned his mother’s death deeply and served his stepmother filially, so he may have only been the half-brother of Liang and Jun.[3]

In the late 180s, Zhuge Jin went to Luoyang and studied classical literature, becoming an expert on the mao interpretation of the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and the Zuozhuan. After mastering his studies, he returned home to Langye.[4]

In 193, Zhuge Jin’s father passed away. Because his siblings were still young, they went to reside with their uncle, Zhuge Xuan, in Yuzhang commandery. Zhuge Jin, however, sought refuge away from the rest of his family. [5] Around the year 200, his intellect earned the admiration of a man named Hong Zi, the brother-in-law of local warlord Sun Quan. On Hong Zi’s advice, Sun Quan employed Zhuge Jin as his Chief Clerk [changshi].[6]

Zhuge Jin was highly respected among Sun Quan’s officers for his gentle manner and persuasive words. On separate occasions, Sun Quan was angered by his subordinates Zhu Zhi and Yin Mo. Both times, Zhuge Jin interceded for them and calmed Sun Quan’s temper, sparing both of them.[7]

The scholar Bu Zhi joined Sun Quan around the year 200 but resigned after about a year of service. He traveled around the Wu region and became great friends with Zhuge Jin. They were considered two of the greatest talents of the region.[8]

In 208, Sun Quan repelled an invasion by Cao Cao, beginning a war between the two factions.[9] Following their success at the Battle of Chibi, Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu led an army north to seize Cao Cao’s territory in northern Jing.[10] To the east, Sun Quan personally led an army to attack Hefei in Jiujiang.[11] Sun Quan besieged Hefeif or a time but could not manage to take the city.[12] He eventually retreated after falling victim to a ploy by Jiang Ji.[13]

While Sun Quan fought Cao Cao in the north, Liu Bei turned his attention to the south. The four commanderies in southern Jing were Changsha, Wuling, Guiyang, and Lingling, led by the Grand Administrators [taishou] Han Xuan, Jin Xuan, Zhao Fan, and Liu Du, respectively. These four administrators surrendered with little persuasion.[14]

Zhou Yu fought with Cao Ren in northern Jing for over a year. Eventually, Cao Ren retreated. Zhou Yu was named Grand Administrator of Nan commandery, while Cheng Pu was Grand Administrator of Jiangxia. Sun Quan also established the new commanderies of Pengze and Xunyang, putting them under the control of Lü Fan and Lü Meng, respectively. Shortly after this, Sun Quan appointed Liu Bei as Governor of Jing province. Because of this, Zhou Yu gave him all of the territory south of the Yangzi river.[15]

The next year, in 210, Liu Bei decided that he wanted more territory, so he went to speak to Sun Quan and asked to be put in command of all of Jing. Zhou Yu warned Sun Quan that Liu Bei was wholly untrustworthy and would betray Sun Quan as soon as it became convenient for him, but Sun Quan did not listen.[16] Around this time, Zhou Yu died and Sun Quan made Lu Su his chief adviser in Zhou Yu’s stead.[17] On Lu Su’s advice, Sun Quan ceded territory in northern Jing to Liu Bei, giving him almost the entirety of the province.[18]

In 211, one of the advisers to the Governor [mu] of Yi province, Liu Zhang, was Zhang Song. He urged Liu Zhang to make an alliance with Liu Bei. Liu Zhang sent his official Fa Zheng to speak with Liu Bei.[19] Because Cao Cao was fighting north of Yi, Liu Zhang feared that Cao Cao would move south and attack him next. Zhang Song suggested inviting Liu Bei into Yi to defend the province.[20] Fa Zheng went to invite Liu Bei into Yi and also presented him with a plan to usurp control of the province, which Liu Bei accepted.[21] In 212, Liu Bei was in Jiameng, in the north of Yi province. He betrayed Liu Zhang and executed his officers, Yang Huai and Gao Pei. He then took control of Fu city.[22] Liu Bei fought with Liu Zhang for the next two years. In 214, Liu Zhang surrendered the province to Liu Bei.[23]

In 215, Sun Quan sent Zhuge Jin to ask Liu Bei to cede control of Jing back to him, since Liu Bei was now established in Yi. Liu Bei refused to return the territory to Sun Quan. Sun Quan sent Lü Meng to attack Lingling, Guiyang, and Changsha. All three of these commanderies surrendered to him.[24] Meanwhile, Cao Cao moved to attack Zhang Lu in Hanzhong, which was the northernmost commandery of Yi province. Fearing that Cao Cao would attack him after taking Hanzhong, Liu Bei sought to make peace with Sun Quan. Zhuge Jin was sent as Sun Quan’s chief ambassador. Zhuge Jin managed to secure the commandeires of Changsha, Jiangxia, and Guiyang for Sun Quan.[25] Zhuge Jin’s younger brother, Zhuge Liang, served Liu Bei. In order to prevent people from suspecting that he was disloyal, Zhuge Jin only met with his brother in public places.[26]

In 219, Liu Bei’s general Guan Yu attacked Cao Cao’s forces in Jing, and unexpected flooding put Cao Cao’s forces in danger.[27] Cao Cao sent an ambassador to Sun Quan to suggest an alliance against Guan Yu[28]; around the same time, Lü Meng also suggested taking advantage of the situation to retake Jing while Guan Yu was occupied.[29] Sun Quan’s army had a large supply depot at Xiangguan. Around that time, Guan Yu attacked Xiangguan and seized the supplies there without permission. Hearing this, Sun Quan decided to accept Cao Cao’s proposal and attack Guan Yu.[30]

Lü Meng and other officers were sent to claim Nan commandery, Guan Yu’s headquarters in Jing. The leading commanders all surrendered to Lü Meng, and through his benevolent treatment of the surrendered, he secured the loyalty of Guan Yu’s officers and soldiers.[31] Word of Lü Meng’s great kindness spread, and soon all of Guan Yu’s people in Jing surrendered to him.[32] Meanwhile, Guan Yu was defeated by Cao Cao’s forces and retreated to Mai. He attempted to flee, but Sun Quan sent officers to surround him, so Guan Yu was captured and executed.[33]

Zhuge Jin served as a member of Lü Meng’s force. For his efforts during the campaign, he was enfeoffed as a Marquis. After Lü Meng’s death later that year, Zhuge Jin took his place as Grand Administrator of Nan commandery.[34]

Several years later, in 221, Liu Bei decided to attack Sun Quan. He cited Guan Yu’s death as justification.[35] Sun Quan was reluctant to fight, so he sent various officials to seek peace with Liu Bei.[36] By this point, Zhuge Jin had been given the title General Who Soothes the South [suinan jiangjun][37]. On his own initiative, he sent a letter to Liu Bei explaining that Cao Pi – who had succeeded Cao Cao in the north - was a far greater enemy to Liu Bei. He urged Liu Bei to accept Sun Quan’s offers of peace. Liu Bei ignored this letter.[38]

Some in Sun Quan’s court heard that Zhuge Jin had sent a letter to Liu Bei and they said that he was seeking to defect to Liu Bei. Sun Quan ignored these rumors, citing his long and close friendship with Zhuge Jin.[39]

In 222, Liu Bei fought with Sun Quan’s forces and was defeated.[40] Later in 222, Cao Pi – now Emperor of Wei - ordered many of his generals to attack Sun Quan. Zhuge Jin was made General of the Left [zuo jiangjun] and ordered to hold Nanjun along with Pan Zhang and Yang Can.[41] Early in 223, Cao Zhen advanced to besiege Jiangling.[42] Zhuge Jin, Pan Zhang, an Yang Can were sent to relieve the position.[43] Zhuge Jin and the Wei general Xiahou Shang camped on opposite sides of the Yangzi river. Zhuge Jin advanced to occupy an island between their two camps. However, Xiahou Shang anticipated this and launched a night raid against Zhuge Jin’s position, setting fire to Zhuge Jin’s boats and attacking his camp. Zhuge Jin was soundly defeated and fled.[44] Fortunately for Sun Quan’s army, Cao Pi ordered his army to retreat due to a plague in the region before taking the major cities of the region.[45]

In 226, Sun Quan attacked Wei. In the eighth month of that year (Sept 10 - Oct. 8), he personally attacked Jiangxia, though he could not take the commandery from Wei’s general Wen Pin.[46] Meanwhile, he sent Zhuge Jin to attack Xiangyang. [47] Initially, the defense of the city was under the command of Xu Huang, however he left his command due to illness.[48] Sima Yi replaced Xu Huang and defended Xiangyang. He defeated Zhuge Jin and killed one of his subordinate generals, Zhang Ba.[49]

Later that year, Sun Quan decided to revise the legal code of his state. He authorized Zhuge Jin and Lu Xun to modify anything in the new code that they found unsatisfactory.[50]

In 229, Sun Quan declared himself Emperor of Wu.[51] At this time, Zhuge Jin was made Grand General [da jiangjun] and Governor of Yu province.[52] Zhuge Jin was also given the title Protectorate of the Left [zuo duhu].[53]

At this time, Sun Deng was made Crown Prince of Wu. He sent a letter to Bu Zhi, asking with whom he should associate himself. Bu Zhi gave him the names of eleven people of great talent, and he listed Zhuge Jin first among them.

In the fifth month (June 15 - July 13) of 234, Sun Quan made another campaign against Wei. While he personally led an army against Hefei, Sun Quan sent Zhuge Jin and Lu Xun to attack Xiangyang.[54] Sun Quan’s attack against Hefei failed and the campaign fell apart.[55]

Meanwhile, one of Lu Xun’s messengers, Han Bian, had been captured by Wei. Zhuge Jin was very concerned about this because it meant that the Wei forces now knew all of Lu Xun’s plans. Zhuge Jin sent a letter to Lu Xun suggesting that they retreat back to Jiangxia quickly. Instead, Lu Xun ordered his soldiers to grow crops and flowers and otherwise engage in non-military activities. Zhuge Jin went to speak to Lu Xun about this to find out why. Lu Xun explained that this was a show to keep their soldiers calm and prevent them from realizing that they were isolated in enemy territory. As the next part of the plan, Zhuge Jin and Lu Xun made a feint attack against Xiangyang. The Wei soldiers in the area withdrew to the city and prepared to defend it. With their potential pursuers temporarily occupied with defending the city, Zhuge Jin and Lu Xun were able to retreat. While retreating, Lu Xun sent his generals Zhou Jun and Zhang Liang to attack the villages of Xinshi, Anlu, and Shiyang. Zhou Jun massacred many civilians in Shiyang.[56]

Later, Sun Quan appointed a man name Lü Yi as a Gentleman of the Palace Secretaries [zhongshu lang], with the responsibility of overseeing all of the reports from the various government officials and territories. Lü Yi deliberately misrepresented facts and distorted reports to slander other officials. [57] In 238, Lü Yi was put to death.[58] After Lü Yi’s execution, Sun Quan sent the new [zhongshu lang], Yuan Li, to speak to Zhuge Jin, Bu Zhi, Zhu Ran, and Lü Tai and ask their opinions on current affairs. Due to their poor relationship with Lü Yi, these officials did not trust Yuan Li and the four of them refused to discuss affairs with him. Instead, they only said that they had nothing to discuss as they were military officials, rather than civil ones, and told Yuan Li to ask Lu Xun and Pan Jun any questions he had. In turn, Lu Xun and Pan Jun were quite bitter towards Yuan Li and expressed great fear for their positions and their lives. Hearing of this, Sun Quan expressed regret over this falling out in an edict, saying that they were all old friends and should laugh when they discussed affairs rather than fear for their positions.[59]

In 239, Sun Quan banished an official named Zhou Yin due to a misdeed. Because Zhou Yin was the son of Zhou Yu, Zhuge Jin and Bu Zhi spoke in his defense. Initially, Sun Quan would not repeal his punishment.[60] However, he subsequently received letters from Zhu Ran and Quan Zong also arguing on Zhou Yin’s behalf, at which point he decided to reverse his decision and recall Zhou Yin. However, the man in question passed away due to a sudden illness before he could return home.[61]

In the fourth month (April 28-May 27) of 241, Sun Quan launched a major invasion of Wei. He sent Quan Zong to Huainan, Zhu Ran to Fan, and Zhuge Jin to attack Zuzhong. His son, Zhuge Ke, was sent to attack Liu’an.[62] Quan Zong initially experiences great success, but he was ultimately driven away by the Wei forces.[63] Zhu Ran was likewise defeated by Sima Yi[64]. However, it appears that Zhuge Jin’s operations were successful and he was able to capture Zuzhong.[65]

In the sixth month (July 26-August 23), Zhuge Jin passed away at the age of 67. Because his eldest son, Zhuge Ke, had already earned his own enfeoffment, his second son Zhuge Rong inherited Zhuge Jin’s enfeoffment and some of his authority.[66]

Zhuge Jin outlived his wife, and after her death he took a woman he loved as a concubine, though he never remarried. Nevertheless, this woman bore him children and they appear to have had a contented life together. Zhuge Jin remained one of Sun Quan’s closest advisers throughout his lifetime. He was noted for both his simplicity and his elegance. He was a man of refined taste, but he was not given to ostentatious displays.[67]
-----------------------------------------------
Notes
[1] de Crespigny gives the year of Zhuge Jin’s birth in “Generals of the South”, chapter 6.
[2] Zhuge Liang’s sanguozhi biography.
[3] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
[4] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
[5] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
[6] Jian’an 13, GG; the Chief Clerk was a general’s head administrative officer.
[7] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
[8] Bu Zhi’s SGZ
[9] Jian’an 13, PP
[10] Jian’an 13, SS
[11] Jian’an 13, UU
[12] Jian’an 14, B
[13] Jian’an 14, C
[14] Jian’an 13, VV
[15] Jian’an 14 H
[16] Jian’an 15, E
[17] Jian’an 15, F
[18] Jian’an 15, G; there is some discussion over whether or not Sun Quan formally “loaned” this territory to Liu Bei or not. de Crespigny, in note 26 of Jian’an 15, notes that after the death of Zhou Yu, it would have been difficult for Sun Quan to hold Jiangling and the rest of northern Jing if Liu Bei turned hostile, so ceding him the territory allowed Sun Quan to spare himself the conflict.
[19] Jian’an 16, J
[20] Jian’an 16, K
[21] Jian’an 16, L
[22] Jian’an 17, D
[23] Jian’an 19, H
[24] Jian’an 20, D
[25] Jian’an 20, F
[26] Jian’an 20, G; in his Biographical Dictionary, de Crespigny says that this was the first time Zhuge Jin and Zhuge Liang had seen each other in almost 20 years, but that seems unlikely. Zhuge Liang served as Liu Bei’s ambassador to Sun Quan during the operations in 208, and it seems improbable that he did not encounter his brother during that time.
[27] Jian’an 24, O
[28] Guan Yu’s SGZ
[29] Jian’an 24, X
[30] JIan’an 24, Z
[31] Jian’an 24, FF
[32] Jian’an 24, II
[33] Jian’an 24, LL
[34] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
[35] Huangchu 2, 14
[36] Huangchu 2, 18
[37] Fang’s note 19 of Huangchu 2
[38] Huangchu 2, 19
[39] Huangchu 2, 20
[40] Huangchu 3, 15
[41] Huangchu 3, 32
[42] Huangchu 4, 1
[43] Huangchu 4, 4
[44] Fang’s note 4.6 of Huangchu 4
[45] Huangchu 4, 6
[46] Huangchu 7, 21
[47] Huangchu 7, 23
[48] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
[49] Huangchu 7, 23
[50] Huangchu 7, 26
[51] Taihe 3, 2
[52] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms; it should be noted that Sun Quan did not actually control Yu province at this time; the appointment as Governor was purely honorary.
[53] Lu Xun’s SGZ
[54] Qinglong 2, 10
[55] Qinglong 2, 18
[56] Qinglong 2, 19
[57] Jingchu 2, 26
[58] Jingchu 2, 33
[59] Jingchu 2, 34
[60] Jingchu 3, 22
[61] Fang’s note 22 of Jingchu 3
[62] Zhengshi 2, 2
[63] Zhengshi 2, 3
[64] Zhengshi 2, 7
[65] Fang’s note 2 of Zhengshi 2
[66] Zhengshi 2, 8
[67] de Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Later Han and Three Kingdoms
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