Lü Dai (Dinggong) [a.k.a. Lü Tai]
Before the civil war that destroyed the Han dynasty began in 189, a man named Shi Xie was made Grand Administrator [taishou] of Jiaozhi commandery, in the Jiao territory. In the 190s, the Inspector [cishi] of Jiao, Zhu Fu, was killed and the region fell into disorder. Shi Xie took control of the region and made his brothers Yi, Hui, and Wu the Grand Administrators of Hepu, Jiuzhen, and Nan Hai. Sometime around the year 200, the Han court under Cao Cao recognized Shi Xie as General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Comforts the South [funan zhonglang jiangjun] and instructed him to govern the various commanderies of Jiao, though they did not raise him from his position as Grand Administrator of Jiaozhi. In 210, Sun Quan appointed Bu Zhi as Inspector of Jiao and Shi Xie formally submitted to his authority. For this, Sun Quan made him General of the Left [zuo jiangjun].
In 220, Sun Quan recalled Bu Zhi from Jiao province and appointed Lü Dai as the new Inspector.
Shi Xie passed away in 226, at the age of 90. Sun Quan appointed a Colonel [xiaowei] named Chen Shi to be the new Grand Administrator of Jiaozhi. Shi Xie’s son, Shi Hui, was made General Who Tranquilizes the Borders [anyuan jiangjun] as well as Grand Administrator [taishou] of Jiuzhen commandery. Lü Dai sent a memorial to Sun Quan at this time, suggesting that the southern commanderies of the region be separated from the eastern ones, and that the two areas become different provinces. The southern commanderies remained in Jiao province, under the jurisdiction of the new Inspector, Dai Liang. The four eastern commanderies became Guang province and remained under Lü Dai’s command.
Shi Hui was not pleased with his new appointment, and he declared himself Grand Administrator of Jiaozhi. He also raised troops against Dai Liang and Chen Shi. As a result, Dai Liang situated himself at Hepu. One of Shi Xie’s former officials, Huan Lin, advised Shi Hui to welcome Dai Liang; he was subsequently flogged to death. Huan Lin’s brother, Huan Zhi, gathered soldiers to attack Shi Hui, but he was unsuccessful.
In response to Shi Hui’s actions, Lü Dai gathered a strike force of 3,000 soldiers and advanced swiftly against Jiaozhi, uniting with Dai Liang at Hepu. Lü Dai was friends with Shi Hui’s cousin, Shi Kuang. He promised Shi Kuang that no harm would come to his family if Shi Hui surrendered, then sent Shi Kuang to speak with Shi Hui. Shi Kuang convinced his cousin to lay down his weapons, so Shi Hui and his five brothers surrendered to Lü Dai, so Jiaozhi was pacified without a battle. However, Lü Dai subsequently broke his promise to Shi Kuang and executed Shi Hui along with his siblings.
Two of Si Hui’s generals named Gan Li and Huan Zhi – who had apparently patched things up with Shi Hui following his brother’s death and his own failed rebellion – gathered Shi Hui’s loyalists and attacked Lü Dai. Lü Dai struck back and defeated these generals, crushing their revolt. Lü Dai then advanced on Jiuzhen and pacified rebels in that commandery as well. He continued south, proclaiming Sun Quan’s virtues to the non-Chinese people south of Jiao province. As a result the rulers of Funan, Linyi, and Tangmin all sent tribute to Sun Quan. For his efforts, Lü Dai was made Marquis of Panyu. Later, Guang province was abolished and the region was again known as Jiao province
By 230, Sun Quan deemed that Jiao province was completely secure, so he summoned Lü Dai north, to suppress the rebellion of the Man tribe of Wuqi in Wuling, Jing province. Lü Dai was stationed in Changsha. At the start of 231, Lü Dai united with the Minister of Ceremonies [taichang] Pan Jun to attack the Man with an army of 50,000. Their campaign lasted until 234, during which time Pan Jun and Lü Dai killed and captured tens of thousands. They declared the region pacified around the end of 234 and Pan Jun returned to the capital.
In 234, two men named Li Huan and Luo Li rose up in rebellion in Luling. Lü Dai campaigned against Li Huan from 234 until 238, when Luling was finally pacified.
At one point, Sun Quan appointed a man name Lü Yi as a Gentleman of the Palace Writers [zhongshu lang], with the responsibility of overseeing all of the reports from the various government officials and territories. Lü Yi deliberately misrepresented facts and distorted reports to slander other officials. In 238, Lü Yi was put to death. After Lü Yi’s execution, Sun Quan sent another Gentleman of the Palace Writers [zhongshu lang], Yuan Li, to speak to Lü Dai, Zhuge Jin, Bu Zhi, and Zhu Ran to ask their opinions on current affairs. Because they did not trust Yuan Li due to Lü Yi’s abuses, they refused to speak on state affairs, saying that it was because they were military officials and not civil leaders. They instead told Yuan Li to ask Lu Xun or Pan Jun about matters. Sun Quan issued an edict reprimanding this behavior, reminding them that their job, as high officials, was to provide him with advice.
In winter of 239, Pan Jun passed away. By this point, Lü Dai was made General Who Guards the South [zhennan jiangjun]. Lü Dai was told to take Pan Jun’s responsibilities and work together with Lu Xun to oversee the political affairs of Jing province. Although he was 80 years old by this time, Lü Dai still actively participated in all the affairs of government personally. Shortly after this, an officer named Liao Shi killed the Grand Administrator of Linhe, Yang Gan, and rebelled against Sun Quan. He declared himself General Who Pacifies the South [pingnan jiangjun] and attacked the commanderies of Lingling and Guiyang. This threatened to claim not only southern Jing, but also isolate Jiao province. Lü Dai informed Sun Quan of the situation and then personally led his soldiers to suppress Liao Shi, marching day and night. Sun Quan appointed him Governor [mu] of Jing and sent the general Tang Zi with reinforcements for Lü Dai. Lü Dai’s campaign against Liao Shi lasted for around a year, and ultimately Liao Shi was killed and Jing was pacified.
In 246, Sun Quan conducted a major rearrangement of his civil and military administration. He named Bu Zhi as Chancellor [chengxiang]. Zhu Ran was made Grand Commander of the Left [zuo da sima] and Quan Cong was made Grand Commander of the Right [you da sima]. Sun Quan also divided Jing province into the Left and Right sections. Zhuge Ke, the Grand General [da jiangjun] was put in charge of the eastern half while Lü Dai was promoted to Grand General of the First Army [shang da jiangjun] and put in command of the western section.
In 251, Sun Quan fell badly ill. Because his heir, Sun Liang, was very young, he summoned Zhuge Ke from Wuchang to serve as a guardian for him. Before Zhuge Ke left Wu Chang, Lü Dai met with him. He warned Zhuge Ke that he was going to be responsible for the whole country and admonished him to think any decision over ten times before making it. Zhuge Ke was reminded of a story where Confucious instructed one of his adherents to only think twice before making a decision. Zhuge Ke felt that Lü Dai was implying that he was inferior to the man in the story and seemed very offended.
Sun Quan passed away on May 21 of 252. Sun Liang took the throne. Zhuge Ke was made Grand Tutor [taifu] and Lü Dai was made Grand Commander [da sima].
Sun Fen, the Prince of Ji, repeatedly ignored the law. Furthermore, Zhuge Ke wanted to remove the Princes who were enfeoffed in land along the Jiang river so that those territories could be used for military operations. However, Sun Fen did not want to relocate. Zhuge Ke sent Lü Dai to speak with Sun Fen, but Sun Fen ignored him. Zhuge Ke sent a letter to Sun Fen and managed to persuade him to move.
Lü Dai was known to be a generous man who was good at accepting criticism and acknowledging his own failings. He continued to serve as Grand Commander of Wu until his death on October 21, 256. He lived to the astounding age of 96.
Lü Dai was a skilled commander who crushed several rebellions against the state of Wu. He extended the prestige of Wu beyond China’s borders and received the praise of several foreign leaders. Lü Dai served his liege faithfully and did not allow old age to restrict his actions or keep him from his duties. He was well respected by the chief officials and rose to become one of the highest officers of the state.
 Under the Later Han, the Jiao territory was not considered a province, though this later changed.
 Jian’an 15, J
 Taken from Bu Zhi’s sanguozhi biography.
 This was a move by Sun Quan to consolidate his power in Jiaozhi, by removing Shi Xie’s son to a different commandery and making one of his own supporters heir to Shi Xie’s position.
 These commanderies were Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen, and Jinan.
 The eastern commanderies were Cangwu, Nanhai, Yulin, and Hepu
 Huangchu 6, 29
 Huangchu 6, 29
 Huangchu 6 ,30
 Huangchu 6, 31
 Huangchu 6, 32
 Achilese Fang identifies Funan as Siam, Linyi as Annam, and Tangmin as northern Cambodia.
 Huangchu 6, 4
 Taihe 4, 23
 Taihe 5, 1
 Qinglong 2, 45
 Sun Quan’s sanguozhi biography
 Jingchu 2, 26
 Jingchu 2, 34
 Jingchu 3, 21
 Jingchu 3, 22; there are two passages marked Jingchu 3, 22; this is the first one.
 Zhengshi 7, 3; the ZZTJ identifies Zhuge Ke and Lü Dai as the commanders of the left and right, respectively. Western orientation would put the left to the west and the right to the east. However, at that time, Chinese culture was oriented towards the south, so that the left was east and the right was west. The ZZTJ specifies that Wuchang was where Lü Dai’s jurisdiction met with Zhuge Ke’s. Lü Dai’s territory reached as far as Puchi, which was west of Wuchang.
 Jiaping 3, 21
 Jiaping 3, 23
 Jiaping 3, 24
 Jiaping 4, 7
 Jiaping 4, 9; the rank of Grand Commander [da sima] is somewhat confusing. The exact responsibilities and authority are unclear, and the position was only irregularly filled under the Han and the Three Kingdoms. However, it always indicates one of the most senior military officials, with authority comparable (though generally subordinate to) that of the Grand General [da jiangjun].
 Jiaping 4, 11
 Ganlu 1, 15; regarding his generosity and ability to accept criticism, this passage cites his friendship with the scholar Xu Yuan. Lü Dai recommended him for office and sent him gifts. However, Xu Yuan criticized Lü Dai for any faults or failings in his administration. Rather than be upset by this, Lü Dai praised him for it.