Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

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Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby capnnerefir » Thu Apr 18, 2013 9:32 pm

Zhu Jun (Gongwei)

Zhu Jun was from Kuaiji commandery in Yang province.

The Jiaozhi territory was located in the far south of China. Jiaozhi was so distant from the capital at Luoyang, it was difficult for the government to impose order on the local population. Additionally, foreign groups were constantly interfering with Chinese affairs in Jiaozhi and were a constant danger. In 178, a particularly troublesome rebellion led by a man calling himself Dragon Liang came to the attention of the Han court.[1]

In 181, Zhu Jun was a minor official in the Han government, serving as Magistrate of Lanling county. However, in that year he received an order from the court promoting him to Inspector of Jiaozhi and ordering him to suppress Dragon Long. Zhu Jun arrived in Jiaozhi and subdued Dragon Long in a matter of weeks, putting an end to a revolt that had lasted for four years. For this, he was made Marquis of a Chief Commune and was summoned to the court as a Grandee Remonstrant and Consultant.[2]

In 184, the religious leader Zhang Jue led his followers in rebellion against the Han. They rose up in many different provinces and were said to number as many as 360,000. They called themselves the Yellow Turbans. In order to suppress this army, the Han court dispatched experienced commanders to lead imperial troops against them. Zhu Jun was made General of the Gentlemen of the Household on the Right [you zhonglang jiangjun] and was sent along with Huangfu Song, who was General of the Gentlemen of the Household on the Left [zuo zhonglang jiangjun].[3]

Zhu Jun and Huangfu Song took 40,000 soldiers to attack a large group of Turbans in Yingchuan. Their leader was a man named Bo Cao. Zhu Jun advanced ahead of Huangfu Song and engaged Bo Cai first. Bo Cai proved victorious, which was surely a shock to the Han forces. In light of this defeat, Huangfu Song took a defensive stance nearby at Changshe.[4] Bo Cai besieged Huangfu Song, but Huangfu Song drove him back with a fire attack. At this time, Cao Cao arrived with reinforcements from the capital. Huangfu Song, Cao Cao, and Zhu Jun combined their armies and counterattacked Bo Cai, defeating him.[5] They pursued Bo Cai to Yangdi, where they defeated and killed him. Next, they attacked a Turban leader named Peng Tuo at Xiaha, killing him as well. Zhu Jun’s enfeoffment was raised to Marquis of Xi district and he was promoted to General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Maintains the Rebels in Order. Huangfu Song was sent to Yan province to attack the Turbans in Dong commander while Zhu Jun was sent to fight the rebels in Jing province.[6]

The Jing turbans had occupied the city of Wan in Nanyang under the leadership of Zhao Hong. They were said to number over 100,000 but this figure is almost certainly an exaggeration on the part of the Han historians. Zhu Jun arrived in Nanyang and united with other local commanders under the Inspector [cishi] of Jing, Xu Qiu. They laid siege to Wan from the sixth month [June 26 – August 23]to the eighth month [September 10 - October 9] without success. At the capital, some senior officials advised the emperor to recall Zhu Jun because he was not achieving success in Wan. The Minister of Works [sigong] Zhang Wen argued against this and the emperor agreed with him. Inspired by this pressure, Zhu Jun redoubled his efforts against Zhang Hong and managed to kill him.

The Wan Turbans, however, proved to be resilient. They selected a man named Han Zhong as their new leader and continued to hold Wan. In an attempt to seize the city, Zhu Jun sent a large number of soldiers to lead an attack at the southwest corner of the city. When Han Zhong’s forces went to engage them, Zhu Jun personally led a group of elite soldiers over the northeast wall. He fought with Han Zhong inside of the city walls as Han Zhong attempted to hold his inner fortress. Han Zhong asked to surrender, but Zhu Jun would not permit it. The Turbans became desperate and managed to drive Zhu Jun out of the city. Zhu Jun’s next ploy was another old classic. He opened part of the encirclement around the city, giving Han Zhong’s forces the impression that they could flee that way. When Han Zhong came out, Zhu Jun attacked him from all sides and killed him. Unfortunately for Zhu Jun, the Wan turbans still had some fight left in them. They returned to the city under the command of their new leader, Sun Xia.[7] The matter was finally settled in the twelfth month of the year. On January 11, one of Zhu Jun’s officers, Sun Jian, led elite soldiers over the walls of Wan and drove Sun Xia out. He pursued the Turbans to the Jing Hills in Xi’e, where Sun Xia was killed. Due to the efforts of other commanders such as Huangfu Song, Lu Zhi, and Dong Zhuo, the other major groups of Turbans had already been vanquished, so Sun Jian’s victory put an end to the last major rebel army.[8]

In 185, for his merits against the Yellow Turbans, Zhu Jun was further promoted to General of the Chariots and Cavalry on the Right [you juji jiangjun].[9] He was also made Imperial Household Grandee [guanglu dafu] and his enfeoffment was enhanced to Marquis of Qiantang.[10]

In 189, Emperor Ling died and the powerful officials in the capital struggled for power. Events came to a head when the Grand General [da jiangjun] He Jin was killed by several eunuchs and He Jin’s subordinates attacked the palace. During the chaos, the general Dong Zhuo brought his army to Luoyang in the name of restoring order. He took the new Emperor Shao into his custody and, only days later, deposed Emperor Shao, enthroning the child Emperor Xian instead. Warlords east of Loyang began to raise armies against Dong Zhuo, hoping to drive him out of Luoyang and either liberate the government from his control or take Dong Zhuo’s place as the true power in China.

By this point, in 190, Zhu Jun was serving as Intendant [yin] of Henan.[11] Dong Zhuo sent a messenger to appoint Zhu Jun as Minister Coachman [taipu; also called Grand Coachman][12] and his assistant. Zhu Jun refused the appointment.[13] A little later, Zhu Jun attempted to give Dong Zhuo some military advice. Dong Zhuo grew furious, claiming to have won over one hundred battles and insisting he did not need Zhu Jun’s advice, threatening to kill him if he continued to speak. He Xun, the Intendent of Jingzhao, managed to calm Dong Zhuo down.[14]

Fearing the strength of the armies arrayed against him, Dong Zhuo decided to move the capital from Luoyang to Chang’an. In 191, having been defeated by Sun Jian, Dong Zhuo withdrew his army to Chang’an.[15] He left Zhu Jun behind to guard Luoyang after Sun Jian withdrew. However, Zhu Jun was in communication with leaders east of the capital.[16] He feared that Dong Zhuo would attack him, so he began to move his soldiers to Jing. Dong Zhuo appointed Yang Yi of Hongnong as Intendant of Henan. When Yang Yi arrived, Zhu Jun turned his army around and attacked him, driving him out of Luoyang. Zhu Jun then set up camp at Zhongmou and asked the leaders who opposed Dong Zhuo to send him soldiers. He is said to have received several thousand armed men. The commanders agreed to appoint Zhu Jun as General of the Chariots and Cavalry [juji jiangjun][17]

Early in 192, Dong Zhuo’s general and son-in-law Niu Fu sent his colonels – Li Jue, Guo Si, and Zhang Ji – to attack Zhu Jun at Zhongmou. Zhu Jun was overwhelmed and defeated.[18]

In 192, Dong Zhuo was assassinated by his commander Lü Bu. Lü Bu was subsequently driven out of the capital by Dong Zhuo’s loyalists under Li Jue. Li Jue’s faction then took control of government affairs.

After Li Jue came to power, various leaders offered Zhu Jun the position of Grand Master. On the advice of Zhou Zhong and Jia Xu, Li Jue offered Zhu Jun the position of Minister Coachman. Zhu Jun chose to accept the appointment offered to him by Li Jue, so he returned to the capital.[19] The rank of Grand Master was created by Wang Mang, who usurped control of the Han dynasty several hundred years ago. It had not been maintained by the Han emperors but was revived by Dong Zhuo. It was an honorific rank that stood even above the Grand Tutor [taifu].[20]

In the sixth month of 193, the Grand Commandant [taiwei] Zhou Zhong was dismissed from office and Zhu Jun was made Grand Commandant. He was also given control over the affairs of the Masters of Writing.[21]

On August 11 of 194, Zhu Jun was dismissed from his position as Grand Commandant and replaced by Yang Biao.[22] Zhu Jun appears to have been demoted to Grand Minister of Agriculture.[23]

While Li Jue initially ruled in conjunction with his allies Guo Si and Fan Chou, tensions quickly rose between the three of them. Fan Chou was murdered by Li Jue, who then contended with Guo Si for control. On April 26 of 195, Li Jue sent his nephew to retrieve the emperor from the palace and force him to come to Li Jue’s camp outside of the city. The emperor urged his chief ministers to go to Guo Si to try and negotiate peace between the two warlords, and Zhu Jun was one of these ministers. However, when they arrived at Guo Si’s camp, he held them as hostages. Zhu Jun became so infuriated by this treatment that his health failed him and he passed away.[24]

Zhu Jun enjoyed a bright career when he began to campaign against rebels. He achieved great initial success and rose to high position, but his rise to glory was cut short by turmoil in the capital. He refused high honors offered to him by Dong Zhuo and instead was one of few commanders to actually lead soldiers against the usurper. After Dong Zhuo’s death, he returned to the capital to serve the emperor as well as he was able and became one of the highest officials of the state. Tragically, the stress of the times was too much for him and claimed his life.

Notes
[1] de Crespigny’s note 3 of Guanghe 4.
[2] Guanghe 4, B
[3] Zhongping 1, F
[4] Zhongping 1, M
[5] Zhongping 1, O
[6] Zhongpping 1, V
[7] Zhongping 1, FF; the previous paragraphs about the siege of Wan all come from this passage.
[8] Zhongping 1, GG
[9] Zhongping 2, E; the title General of the Chariots and Cavalry was usually an honorific given to reward favored Imperial relatives or eunuchs and did not necessarily carry a military commission with it.
[10] de Crespigny’s note 10 of Zhongping 2
[11] Henan was the commandery in which the capital, Luoyang, was located. While commanderies were usually governed by a Grand Administrator [taishou], Henan’s top administrator was called the Intendant [yin]. Likewise, the governor of Sili province was called the Colonel Director of Retainers [sili xiaowei] rather than an Inspector [cishi] or Governor [mu].
[12] The Minister Coachman [taipu] was one of the Nine Ministers, the highest civil officials below the Three Excellencies. He was responsible for the horses and carriages of the emperor. He was also responsible for overseeing all of the horses for the army and, at some points during the Han, was responsible for all weapons for themilitary.
[13] Chuping 1, E
[14] Chuping 1, H; Like Henan, Jingzhao was also headed by an Intendant [yin].
[15] Chuping 2, F
[16] It is not stated who, exactly, Zhu Jun was in contact with. However, given that Sun Jian had recently occupied Luoyang and had served as one of Zhu Jun’s commanders during the Yellow Turban Rebellion, it seems likely that the two were in contact with each other.
[17] Chuping 2, HH
[18] Chuping 3, B
[19] Chuping 3, KK
[20] de Crespigny’s note 7 of Chuping 2
[21] Chuping 4, G; the Masters of Writing handled memorials to the court and edicts from the emperor. As such, they worked very closely with the emperor and held a great deal of power.
[22] Xingping 1, Q; Zhu Jun was dismissed due to natural disasters that happened while he was Grand Commandant. It was the official position of the Han government that natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes indicated that the Heavens were displeased with the government, so when these disasters occurred, they were officially blamed on high officials, so many high officials were dismissed needlessly. Zhu Jun’s predecessor, Zhou Zhong was also dismissed because of natural disasters.
[23] Xingping 2, H gives his rank as such.
[24] Xingping 2, H; the most likely cause of death for Zhu Jun under these circumstances is a stress-induced heart attack.
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Re: Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby Korin » Fri May 03, 2013 2:52 am

Thanks, I wanted to always know more about Zhu Jun. :mrgreen:
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Re: Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby Jordan » Fri May 03, 2013 3:07 am

Good character to write about. He was one of the few good major Han generals during this period.
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Re: Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby capnnerefir » Fri May 03, 2013 6:20 pm

Thanks. I like him too. Not a whole lot of people really stood up for what was right at that time.

I kinda wish I had done him, Huangfu Song, and Fu Xie altogether, though; it was a pain to re-write the same things over and over again.
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Re: Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby Mitsunari » Tue Apr 12, 2016 6:57 pm

Excellent read, thanks mate.

Plus, always nice to see Sun Xia popping up in a Yellow Turban. :lol:
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Re: Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby ky9ersfan » Thu Apr 14, 2016 4:25 am

Very interesting read, thanks for sharing. I always did like Han loyalist generals like Lu Zhi, Huangfu Song, and Zhu Jun.
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Re: Zhu Jun Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby waywardauthor » Wed Jun 01, 2016 6:44 pm

From Rafe de Crespigny's biographical dictionary:

Zhu Jun [Gongwei] (d. 195); Kuaiji. Zhu Jun's father died when he was young and his mother was a silk-seller. He was admired for both his filial piety and his generosity: on one occasion in the 150s he took from his mother's stock to assist Zhou Gui, a colleague of a poor family. He justified his conduct as part of the natural order. As a clerk in his county office, Zhu Jun was admired and recommended by the magistrate Du Shang He joined the commandery staff, and after almost twenty years he was Registrar to the Administrator Yin Duan. In 173 Yin Duan was reported by the provincial authorities for failing to defeat the rebels led by Xu Chang, but Zhu Jun hasted to Luoyang and bribed his way to intercept and amend the letter. Yin Duan was glad to be sentenced only to convict service rather than execution, but Zhu Jun never revealed his role.

Nominated Filial and Incorrupt, Zhu Jun became a magistrate in Donghai. His rule was excellent, he was commended by the Chancellor, and in 181 he was sent to Jiaozhi as inspector to deal with the rebellion led by Liang Long. Haing received authority to raise troops in his home commandery of Kuaiji, he took five thousand men to the south Holding back at the provincial border, he first sent agents to spy on the rebels, then advanced into the territory. He killed the administrator of Cangwu, Chen Shao, who had sided with the rebels, and called up loyal commandery troops to support his advance. The local officials were encouraged, the people turned to him and the insurgents surrendered. Within a few weeks the trouble was ended and Liang Long had been executed. Zhu Jun was rewarded and enfeoffed, and was called to the capital as a Counsellor Remonstrant.

As the Yellow Turban rebellion broke out in 184, Zhu Jun was appointed a General of the Household with the Staff of Authority and was sent with Huangfu Song to attack the enemy in the south. They suffered some setbacks, but by the autumn they had pacified Yingchuan, Runan, and Chen, and Zhu Jun was awarded a larger fief and a more substantial title. He then went to Nanyang, where the rebels had killed the Administrator Chu Gong and occupied Wan, chief city of the commandery. Joining forces with loyal troops from the province and commandery, he attacked the place for several months. At one time there was a proposal to recall him for lack of success, but the Excellency Zhang Wen argued in his favour, and Zhu Jun was left in command. He defeated various sorties of the enemy, and eventually deceived the enemy with a feint attack and stormed the city. The rebels took refuge in the citadel and asked to surrender, but Zhu Jun refused. After direct attacks proved unsuccessful, he withdrew his troops to give an apparent route of escape, but then pursued and slaughtered the rebels as they fled. The remnants returned to Wan, but a further fierce attack destroyed them completely.

Early in 185 Zhu Jun was appointed General of Chariots and Cavalry on the Right and enfeoffed with special honors. He was made a Household Counsellor, but left office when his mother died. He later became Court Architect, Minister Steward, and Minister Coachman, and was then sent out as Administrator of Henei, commanding levies of private armies against Zhang Yan and other bandits of the Black Mountains. They were restrained but not suppressed, and Zhang Yan received a nominal commission into the imperial service. Zhu Jun returned to the capital once more as a Household Counsellor, was then a colonel in the Northern Army, and later Colonel of the City Gates. As Dong Zhuo seized power in 189, Zhu Jun was Intendant of Henan. In the follow year Dong Zhuo sought to make him his chief assistant, but Zhu Jun refused, protesting at the same time about the shift of the capital to Chang'an.

As Dong Zhuo withdrew to the West, he left Zhu Jun in charge of Luoyang, but Zhu Jun joined the eastern warlords against him, and in 191 left his post and moved south into Jing province. Dong Zhuo sent Yang Yi to replace him, but Zhu Jun drove him away. The desolate city of Luoyang was now abandoned, and Zhu Jun set his headquarters set his headquarters in eastern Henan, attempting to restore unity in the east an seeking allies against Dong Zhuo. He obtained troops from Tao Qian in Xu province and others, but in 192 he was defeated by Dong Zhuo's commanders Li Jue and Guo Si, who then ravaged Yingchuang and Chenliu.

After the assassination of Dong Zhuo, Tao Qian and other leaders urged Zhu Jun to take title as Grand Master and lead an army west to rescue the EMperor. The new regime of Li Jue and his colleagues, however, called him to Chang'an to become Minister Coachman and, despite its provenance, Zhu Jun felt obliged to obey the imperial command. In 193 he became Grand Commandant, but left office after an eclipse in 194. It was intended that Zhu Jun should lead an embassy to the east butin 195, before he could go, Li Jue and Guo Si embarked on open warfare in the capital. Emperor Xian sent Zhu Jun and other senior officials to persuade Guo Si to settle the quarrel, but Guo Si took the whole party hostage. Zhu Jun, humiliated and angry, became humiliated and died.
Alone I lean under the wispy shade of an aged tree,
Scornfully I raise to parted lips a cup of warm wine,
Longingly I cast an empty vessel aside those exposed roots,
And leave behind forgotten memories and forsaken dreams.
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