Lü Ju Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

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Lü Ju Biography [ZZTJ Compilation]

Unread postby capnnerefir » Tue Apr 16, 2013 8:00 pm

I needed to take a break from the fellows in late Wei before my head exploded, so I decided to give a round of applause to some dude from Quan-land.

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Lü Ju (Shiyi)

Lü Ju was the second son of Lü Fan, one of the generals who built the state of Wu.[1]

When Lü Fan fell ill in 228, Lü Ju was made Colonel Who Comforts the Army [fujun xiaowei]. After his father’s death in that same year, Lü Ju was further promoted to General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Tranquilizes the Army [anwei zhonglang jiang]. During this time, he led frequent expeditions against the tribes who lived in the area around the Yue mountains, achieving success each time.[2]

The Man tribes of Wuqi in Wuling had been in revolt against Sun Quan for some time, and by 230, Sun Quan became sufficiently concerned to send an expedition against them.[3] Lu Ju participated in the subsequent campaign, in which he achieved great success.[4] The Master of Ceremonies [taichang] Pan Jun and the General Who Guards the South [zhennan jiangjun] Lü Tai led an army of 50,000 against the Man tribes in 231.[5] The campaign lasted until the end of 234 , when the region was pacified.[6]

In summer of 241, Sun Quan launched a major invasion of Wei. He sent Quan Zong to attack Huainan, Zhuge Ke against Liu’an, Zhuge Jin to Zuzhong, and Zhu Ran to besiege Fan.[7] Lü Ju accompanied Zhu Ran on this expedition. Along with Zhu Yi, he attacked the city walls, achieving some success.[8] However, Wei’s great general Sima Yi personally led an army to reinforce Fan. Zhu Ran fled, but Sima Yi caught his army at Sanzhoukou and the Wu forces suffered a heavy defeat. Following this, Zhuge Jin and Zhuge Ke also retreated.[9] Meanwhile, Quan Zong was defeated by Wang Ling and Sun Li in Huainan.[10]

For his efforts in the campaign, Lü Ju was promoted to Lieutenant General [pian jiangjun].[11]

In winter of 250, Zhu Yi, who had become General of the Border [bian jiangjun], received a letter from Wen Qin, Wei’s Grand Administrator [taishou] of Lujiang commandery. Wen Qin claimed that he wanted to surrender and asked Zhu Yi to bring soldiers to escort him. Zhu Yi informed Sun Quan, also saying that he suspected that this was a trick. Sun Quan decided to sent Zhu Yi anyway, ordering him to capture Wen Qin if his defection proved to be false. Sun Quan also sent Lü Ju with 20,000 soldiers to augment Zhu Yi’s forces. Wen Qin’s defection proved to be false, though he avoided battle.[12]

Lü Ju returned to the court, where he was made Colonel of the Elite Cavalry [yueji xiaowei].[13]

In 251, the Jiang river flooded so badly that the gates of the capital were slowly submerged. Lü Ju took command of a large boat and was using it to help people stranded by the flooding. Sun Quan learned of this and made Lü Ju General Who Sweeps Away Wei [dang wei jiangjun].[14]

In winter of 251, Sun Quan fell badly ill.[15] Given the youth of his heir, Sun Liang, Sun Quan sought several men to serve as guardians and guides for the future emperor.[16] Lü Ju was one of the officials Sun Quan commissioned to guide his son. After Sun Liang took the throne, he promoted Lü Ju to General of the Right [you jiangjun][17] At the same time, the Grand General [da jiangjun] Zhuge Ke was made Grand Tutor [taifu].[18] After that, Zhuge Ke controlled the Wu government.

Some years ago, Sun Quan had begun construction of a dam at Lake Chao in Dongxing, which was in Wei territory. In 252, Zhuge Ke completed construction of the dam.[19] In response, Wei’s Grand General Sima Shi sent his brother Sima Zhao[20] to lead a counteroffensive against Wu.[21] He sent the General Who Conquers the East [zhengdong jiangjun] Hu Zun to attack Zhuge Ke’s fortresses at Lake Chao with 70,000 soldiers.[22] Zhuge Ke advanced with 40,000 to defend the fortresses. Hu Zun experienced early success in capturing the dam, though he was slow to overcome the fortresses to the east and west because he could not attack them directly.[23] Lü Ju led Zhuge Ke’s vanguard, along with Ding Feng, Liu Zan, and Tang Zi. Ding Feng requested to go ahead of the main force and establish a position near the enemy. Zhuge Ke allowed it, so Ding Feng advanced to Xutang.[24] Hu Zun’s forward elements were lax in their discipline and fell victim to a surprise attack by Ding Feng’s elite force. Lü Ju and Zhuge Ke’s main force arrived in the wake of Ding Feng’s attack and intensified the attack. Hu Zun’s forces panicked and fled, with many drowning in Lake Chao. Several Wei generals, including Han Zong and Huan Jia, also died.[25]

In 253, the powerful official Sun Jun killed Zhuge Ke.[26] Sun Jun was subsequently made Chancellor [chengxiang], Grand General [da jiangjun], and put in charge of all military affairs.[27] Lü Ju was made General of the Agile Cavalry [biaoji jiangjun].[28]

In 255, the Wei general Guanqiu Jian revolted against Sima Shi in Shouchun.[29] He subsequently moved south of the Huai river to occupy Xiang.[30] Sun Jun learned about this, so he led Lü Ju and Liu Zan in an attack on Shouchun.[31] However, by the time Sun Jun’s force reached Dongxing, Guanqiu Jian was defeated. They received the surrender of Wen Qin, who had been serving under Guanqiu Jian. The Wu army then returned home.[32] While returning to Jianye, Lü Ju met the Wei general Cao Zhen in battle at Gaoting. Lü Ju defeated Cao Zhen.[33]

In 256, Wen Qin persuaded Sun Jun to launch an invasion of Wei. Sun Jun ordered Lü Ju, Tang Zi, Zhu Yi, Wen Qin, and other generals to attack Xu and Qing provinces. However, shortly after the army began marching, Sun Jun died fell ill.[34] He died shortly thereafter and his authority was taken over by his cousin, Sun Chen, who ordered Lü Ju and the others to return.[35]

Lü Ju was greatly distressed by these events, and he sent a letter to the powerful minister Teng Yin suggesting that they remove Sun Lin from power[36]. Sun Lin sent his cousin, Sun Xiang, with soldiers to subdue Lü Ju. He also wrote an edict commanding Wen Qin and the others to attack Lü Ju. Within the capital, Sun Lin attacked and killed Teng Yin, along with his family and loyal retainers.[37] Some of Lü Ju’s loyal officers suggested that he flee to Wei. Lü Ju was unwilling to do so. Seeing no way out of his predicament, he committed suicide. After this, Sun Lin executed every member of Lü Ju’s family he could find.[38]

Lü Ju was the son of one of the founding generals of Wu. He proved to be a skilled military commander who achieved success even when the rest of the army failed. He was highly prized by Sun Quan, who relied upon him as one who could guide the state. Lü Ju showed genuine concern for those in need and helped them at his own expense. He became one of the highest officers of the military. It is a shame that the state’s internal struggles led to his suicide. It is even worse that these struggles led to the extermination of the Lü family.

Notes
[1] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography.
[2] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography.
[3] Taihe 4, 23
[4] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography
[5] Taihe 5, 1
[6] Qinglong 2, 45
[7] Zhengshi 2, 2
[8] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography.
[9] Zhengshi 2, 7
[10] Zhengshi 2, 3
[11] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography
[12] Jiaping 2, 7
[13] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography; under the Later Han, the Northern Army [beijun] was based in the capital and was dispatched to deal with any threats that local forces could not handle. The Northern Army comprised five regiments, each of which was led by a Colonel [xiaowei]. The Elite Cavalry [yueji] were one of these five regiments. Evidentally, Sun Quan created his own version of this army. However, station in this army was most likely honorary rather than substantial.
[14] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography
[15] Jiaping 3, 21
[16] Jiaping 3, 23
[17] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography
[18] Jiaping 4, 9
[19] Jiaping 4, 12
[20] Fang’s note 4.5 of Jiaping 5 indicates that Sima Zhao was in command of the forces arrayed against Wu.
[21] Jiaping 4, 15
[22] Jiaping 4, 16
[23] Jiaping 4, 17
[24] Jiaping 4, 18
[25] Jiaping 4, 19
[26] Jiaping 5, 20
[27] Jiaping 5, 30
[28] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography; the General of the Agile Cavalry [biaoji jiangjun] was one of the highest ranks in the military of the Later Han, second only to that of Grand General.
[29] Zhengyuan 2, 1
[30] Zhengyuan 2, 3
[31] Zhengyuan 2, 13
[32] Zhengyuan 2, 23
[33] From Lü Fan’s sanguozhi biography.
[34] Ganlu 1, 13
[35] Ganlu 1, 14; Sun Lin’s name is sometimes given as Sun Chen. Rafe de Crespigny and Achilles Fang both prefer to say Sun Lin, so I have adopted this convention.
[36] Given the way Sun Lin later abused his authority, it is possible that Lü Ju’s motives were for the good of the state. On the other hand, Lü Ju may have believed that, as the General of the Agile Cavalry, he was the proper legal choice for the now-vacant Grand General position and that Sun Lin was stealing a position that was rightfully his. It is reasonable that Teng Yin felt the same way, given his own high status.
[37] Ganlu 1, 16
[38] Ganlu 1, 18
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