The Ten Regular Attendants (or Twelve)

Join the Romance of the Three Kingdoms discussion with our resident Scholars. Topics relating to the novel and history are both welcome. Don't forget to check the Forum Rules before posting.
Kongming’s Archives: Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms Officer Biographies
Three Kingdoms Officer Encyclopedia
Scholars of Shen Zhou Search Tool

The Ten Regular Attendants (or Twelve)

Unread postby plunged » Thu Nov 12, 2009 8:27 pm

Just a couple more questions about the Ten Regular Attendants battle.

1) Xun You was part of He Jin's coalition, I presume he was He Jin's advisor or strategist, is this correct?

2) Did He Jin's coalition have a name?

3) I can't find anything on kongming about Qiao Miao, I can find something about Qiao Mao though, are they the same?

4) I also can't find anything about Zhang Zhang...

5) There were 12 Attendants, I've found these names, are they correct?:
- Cao Jie
- Cheng Kuang
- Duan Gui
- Feng Xu
- Guo Sheng
- Hou Lan
- Lu Qiang
- Jian Shuo
- Song Dian
- Xia Yun
- Zhang Rang
- Zhao Zhong
Please check out: Gongjin's Campaign Memorials: a Three Kingdoms Wiki.
Now with translations of: He Jin, Huangfu Song, Zhu Jun, Lu Zhi, Cheng Pu, Sima Shi, Lady Wang and many more.

Read Romance of the Three Kingdoms online (with corrected names)
User avatar
plunged
Scholar of Shen Zhou
 
Posts: 754
Joined: Sat May 17, 2008 8:39 pm
Location: Netherlands

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby James » Thu Nov 12, 2009 10:38 pm

3) I can't find anything on kongming about Qiao Miao, I can find something about Qiao Mao though, are they the same?

Nothing about him in Rafe's tome.

4) I also can't find anything about Zhang Zhang...

Rafe's Tome of Kickass: "Zhang Zhang 張璋 When He Jin was killed by the eunuchs in 189, his officer Zhang Zhang led his troops to attack the palace to slaughter them. -HHS 69/59:2252."

5) There were 12 Attendants, I've found these names, are they correct?:

Twelve Attendants? Ten Regular Attendants.
Kongming’s Archives – Romance of the Three Kingdoms Novel, History and Games
“ They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.”
  — Ben Franklin
User avatar
James
Sausaged Fish
Sausaged Fish
 
Posts: 17996
Joined: Fri Jun 14, 2002 3:21 pm
Location: Happy Valley, UT

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby Qu Hui » Fri Nov 13, 2009 1:03 am

James wrote:
5) There were 12 Attendants, I've found these names, are they correct?:

Twelve Attendants? Ten Regular Attendants.

There were twelve in 184. This passage from ZZTJ proves it:
ZZTJ wrote:In the sixth month Zhang Rang and eleven other Regular Palace Attendants
were enfeoffed as full marquises for their good work during the campaign
against Zhang Jue.

Rafe notes here that Regular Attendant (zhong changshi) was another name for the Regular Palace Attendant, so therefore there were twelve. I wonder why those ten were so important?
My avatar is Roy from Fire Emblem: Binding Blade, as he appears in Fire Emblem: Awakening
Quote of the "Day": "The world always seems brighter when you've just made something that wasn't there before." -Neil Gaiman
User avatar
Qu Hui
Scholar of Shen Zhou
 
Posts: 1797
Joined: Wed Jul 19, 2006 3:34 pm
Location: #SoSZ, 24/7

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby James » Fri Nov 13, 2009 1:19 am

Qu Hui wrote:Rafe notes here that Regular Attendant (zhong changshi) was another name for the Regular Palace Attendant, so therefore there were twelve. I wonder why those ten were so important?

Great. I was curious about that. The list above. The twelve listed above include the more familiar ten and two others. It would be interesting to see a comprehensive list of the twelve.
Kongming’s Archives – Romance of the Three Kingdoms Novel, History and Games
“ They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.”
  — Ben Franklin
User avatar
James
Sausaged Fish
Sausaged Fish
 
Posts: 17996
Joined: Fri Jun 14, 2002 3:21 pm
Location: Happy Valley, UT

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby plunged » Fri Nov 13, 2009 9:13 am

Why is the Regular Attendant Cheng Kuang listed as 'Fictional?' ?
Please check out: Gongjin's Campaign Memorials: a Three Kingdoms Wiki.
Now with translations of: He Jin, Huangfu Song, Zhu Jun, Lu Zhi, Cheng Pu, Sima Shi, Lady Wang and many more.

Read Romance of the Three Kingdoms online (with corrected names)
User avatar
plunged
Scholar of Shen Zhou
 
Posts: 754
Joined: Sat May 17, 2008 8:39 pm
Location: Netherlands

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby Dong Zhou » Fri Nov 13, 2009 11:29 am

plunged wrote:
1) Xun You was part of He Jin's coalition, I presume he was He Jin's advisor or strategist, is this correct?

2) Did He Jin's coalition have a name?

3) I can't find anything on kongming about Qiao Miao, I can find something about Qiao Mao though, are they the same?


1) Not senior, just one of the advisers He Jin had and trusted.

2) It wasn't a Coalition, more a political faction. Giving it a name would have been too obvoius and got them in trouble for forming a faction

3) Sorry, typo by me.

Listed as fictional because Kuang isn't in ZZTJ or Rafe's tome

The 12 eunuchs Not a full bio or anything, assuming plunged has the right names. Made Marquis unless I say otherwise. I think this is what you asked for James? If not, sorry

Cao Jie (Hanfeng) from Nanyang. Entered service under Emperor Shun, associate with Liang Shang and friend to Liang Ji. Somehow not punished for the connection after Huan's coup and doesn't emerge in the texts until he escorted the new Emperor Ling to the capital. Established good relations with the wet nurse and the Empress Dowager, it is interesting to note Dou Wu considered him a eunuch leader during Huan's reign. Dou Wu and Chen Fan led a coup against the eunuchs, Cao Jie responded by telling the child Emperor to grab a sword and either encourging him to show valour or treating it as a game. Either way, with the Emperor with him, Jie was able to bring the Palace under his control, gaining control of the Palace Guard and the Masters of Writing ie, he could now have decrees issued. Got Zhang Huan tricked into helping them, the backing of the famed general, the backing of the emperor and the ability to give (or at least, say they could give) appointments proved crucial in undermining Dou Wu's control of the army and the coup collapsed as the army defected. While others were said to play a part, Cao Jie is the one named in all these moves.

Rewarded by being made the effective jailer of the Empress Dowager, later arranged the ministers to accuse Li Ying and others of forming a Faction, which led to persecution of the eunuch's foes. When the Dowager died, Jie wanted her buried as a concubine rather then an Empress but was defeated in debate. Slandered many people, including Cai Yong, and through Duan Jiong, destroyed the University's power-base by purging their ranks of dissenters. When Wang Fu, who was his fellow leader and an old friend, and Duan Jiong the once great general were executed by Yang Qiu, the eunuchs were in trouble. Cao Jie ordered the eunuchs to stay at home and planned, going to Emperor Ling, when Qiu was out of the capital, and persuading him to move Yang Qiu (who had a reputation for being extremely harsh) to another position, a prestigious one but one where Qiu would be unable to do any harm. Took control of the Masters of Writing and when people plotted to get Qiu back as Director of Retainers, he was able to reveal evidence of the plot and get Qiu killed. Installed friends and families in positions all over China, put in charge of Empress He's household, build up contacts, he dealt with several plots and anti eunuch people cleverly. Died in 181

Personally, I find Cao Jie to have been one of the most astute political players of the latter Han. Clearly a man of charm, he had so many contacts and friends in high places, if not for him I suspect the eunuchs would have been destroyed far earlier. Had he been alive and young enough to be at his peak, He Jin would never have got the eunuchs in such a desperate position.

Cheng Kuang: I think he is a novel invention?

Duan Gui (Ziyin) of Jiyin: Punished Teng Yan in 160 for punishing Gui's retainers for pillaging. Enjoyed great favour with Emperor Ling. He and Zhang Rang were concerned about He Jin's failure to turn up to Ling's funeral and acted together, sending a spy on He Jin's meeting with Dowager He then leading men to ambush He Jin. During the last moments of the eunuchs, seems to have been joint or deputy leader with Zhang Rang. Escorting Empress He as the He Jin forces attacked the Palace, frightened by Lu Zhi and had to leave without the Dowager as he sneaked out through a side door. Either killed by Min Gong's posse or drowned himself two days later as Gong pursued the eunuchs and princes.

Feng Xu: Favored by Emperor Ling and a close associate of Dowager Dong, who allegedly helped her gain money for her own treasury from provincial officials, he was a follower of Zhang Jue's religious sect. Joined in Ma Yuanyi's plot for a coup but it was discovered and Xu was killed. Ling was furious with the eunuchs over this

Guo Sheng, also known as Guo Mai, from Nanyeng: Favored by Emperor Ling and from the same commandry as He Jin. Closely involved with the fortunes of the He family, he was a loyal friend to them and so when Jian Shi (or Shou) tried to intrest the eunuchs in an anti He plot, Sheng helped persuade the eunuchs not to join. He then showed Shi's letter to He Jin which led to Shi's death. Vanishes from history though perhaps not too far-fetched to speculate he was killed during the chaos after He Jin's death.

Hou Lan from Fangdong county in Shanyang: Notorious for corruption and for gathering wealth, he gave five thousand rolls of silk to Emperor Ling after the coup. Ling then announced Lan had been part of the coup so got two big rank raises. Got Teng Yan dismissed (see Duan Gui, Lan's retainers were also pillaging at same time), Lan and his mother (plus retainers) bullied in Shangyang, seizing property with Lan gaining vast estates including 16 mansions with parks. In 165, the Investigator Zhang Jian reported all this and demolished the elaborate tomb Lan was building for his mother. Lan was able to intercept these complaints while slandering two other officials who had attacked Lan's retainers. Unfortunately at around the same time, his younger brother Can was arrested as Inspector of Yi for extortion and committed suicide. An investigation found the treasures filled more then three hundred wagons and Grand Commandant Yang Bing forced Lan's sacking despite efforts to protect the eunuch.

Several eunuchs soon lost power but Lan would be restored, his actions soon got other enemies executed which helped bring a rift between the University and the Emperor, leading to the eunuchs regaining favor. Nursing resentment against Zhang Jian, Lan had to wait till 169, in Emperor Ling's reign, before finding a chance to get revenge, finding a disgruntled officer to claim faction was being formed by Jian. Jian fled into exile while Cao Jie used it to attack Li Ying and others, starting the Great Proscription. In 171, he was given charge of Dowager Dou's imprisonment and took p[art in the enthronement of Empress Song. The next year Dou died and Lan was accused of excessive conduct (ie being a greedy evil sod) and acting without authority, Lan was forced to surrender his office and killed himself. His retainers were dismissed, Professor Rafe suggests that the reason Lan wasn't immune this time was possibly Lan being guilty or made scapegoat for Dou's death.

Lu (u has one of those double dots over it) Qiang (Hansheng) from Henan. Become a eunuch when young, described as honest and loyal with strong concern for the public good. Refused to become a Marquis as he lacked good service and felt the rank had been corrupted by the likes of Cao Jie, despite refusal Ling persisted with the idea for awhile. In 179, sent in a memorial in defense of Cai Yong and Duan Jiong, which Ling agreed with. Then when refusing the enoffment, Qiang criticized the luxury and excessive eunuch influence at court which Ling didn't agree with but appreciated the loyalty. Qiang also protested about putting public money into Ling's private treasury the means, excessive taxation and selling ranks, used to raise cash. During the Turban revolt, backed Huangfu Song's plan to use Ling's private money to raise an army and the end of the Proscription of officials, Qiang managing to frighten Ling in the process and so a general amnesty was issued.

Zhao Zhong and co were concerned by this, that and Qiang suggesting they be executed, so slandered Qiang that same year. They claimed he was corrupt, working with men of faction and read a biogrophy of Huo Guang several times so Ling sent an armed escort to get Qiang to answer the charges. Qiang was furious at this sign of distrust and killed himself after declaring "When I die, disorder is come. If a man gives all his loyalty to the state, why should he have to answer to a jailer?" The eunuchs persuaded Ling that this was proof of his guilt and Qiang's family suffered.

Personally, think Qiang may have overreacted there.

Jian Shuo or Jian Shi from Yingchuan. Strong, active, warlike and good at planning for war, in 188 he was made the First Colonel of Ling's new private army, Ling putting Shi as it's leader and as superior to He Jin. A serious insult and demotion for the General-in-Chief, Jian Shi began to enter the political game. He sent away He Xun, who was plotting against the eunchs with Yuan Shao and, in a bid to destroy his hated rival He Jin, got the eunuchs to memorialize that He Jin should lead an army against Han Sui in 189. Ling agreed but He Jin heard of the plot and memorialized that Yuan Shao should gather troops in Xu and Yan. Yuan Shao was thus a considerable distance from the capital so when He Jin formally received the orders, he still had to wait for Yuan Shao to return before he could go west.

As Ling lay dieing, He Jin still in capital, the Emperor entrusted Xian (yes yes, I know his name was Liu Xie at the time) to the care of Jian Shi. On Ling's death, Shi summoned He Jin in an effort to kill the General and put Xian on the throne but Shi's subordinate, Major Pan Yin was an old friend of the intended victim and warned He Jin who raced back home, refusing to even come for Emperor Ling's funeral. Bian became Emperor and He Jin was understandably angry, plotting Jian Shi's death, the eunuch was now suspicious and uneasy as He Jin began gathering support. Jian Shi wrote to the eunuchs seeking their support but they refused, Sheng handed letter to He Jin, who promptly had Jian Shi executed. Never enoffed

I wonder what would have happened if the eunuchs had allied with Shi.

Song Dian: Favored, placed in charge of repairing the Jade Hall in the Southern Palace, which was very expensive. One of those Jian Shi wrote to, probably killed either then or in the latter massacre.

Xia Yun: Close associate of Dowager Dong and favored by Ling, like Feng Xu helped her gain money. Joined in the slander of Lu Qiang, probably died in the eunuch massacre of 189.

Zhang Rang from Yingchuan: Young when he entered Huan's service as a eunuch, became influential during Ling's time. Didn't start too well though when his younger brother, Shou, was pursued by Li Ying. Shou hid in Rang's house which was promptly broken into and searched till they found the secret compartment. Rang complained, Li Ying pointed out the facts and Ling criticized Rang, pointing out Shou was a criminal. Resented the famed scholars for not turning up to his father's funeral but the exception, Chen Shi, would receive Rang's protection from the other eunuchs.

Only really starts to emerge openly in history books as a power in 184 when Ling said he considered Rang as a father though people had known of Rang's influence long before. His clients and supporters had sent letters to the Turbans, Wang Yun found these but Rang managed to survive that scandal. Slandered Wang Yun twice (got amnestied the first time and He Jin came to the rescue the second time), as well as one or two others, in 185 suggested (along with Zhao Zhong) that Emperor Ling rebuild the Southern Palace that had recently been badly damaged by a fire. They also suggested a special tax, forced down prices by claiming the materials sent were of poor quality and managed to corrupt the building process at every level. Became so wealthy that they built huge mansions, concealing their extravagance by persuading Ling that climbing towers would bring ill luck.

Wanted 50 million cash from Huangfu Song but was refused so got Song recalled from campaign against the Qiang. Recognized as one of the leader's of the eunuchs, he was out maneuvered by He Jin after Ling's death. Mr Cuddles (aka Mr Dong) specifically mentioned Rang in his memorial when he marched to aid He Jin, the eunuchs were sacked but Zhang Rang had one last trick up his sleeve. His (adopted) son had married a sister of He Jin and he told her "I am old and have acted wrongly. You and I, daughter-in-law, should retire together to private life. Our family, however, has received imperial favour for generations, and although I must leave the inner apartments my heart yet holds great attachment to them. I wish to return once more to the forbidden palace, to gaze from afar for one last time upon the countenance of her majesty the Empress-Dowager. Then I can go back to the mud of the ditches and die without regret." This got back to Dowager He and got the eunuchs recalled. Suspicious of He Jin's visit to Dowager He, he sent a spy (see Duan Gui) and played his part in He Jin's death, abusing the General for lack of gratitude. "If the empire is troubled, it is not our fault alone. When the late Emperor was angry with the Empress-Dowager and she was on the brink of destruction, it was we who wept and
managed to save her, and each of us gave thousands and tens of thousands from our private fortunes to make the Emperor contented again.48 All we sought was the patronage of your house. Now you want to destroy us and our families, this is surely too much!"
. He and Duan Gui also attempted to seize control of the Masters of Writing, demanding they write decree's appointing certain allies to key posts. The clerks wanted to check with He Jin so the eunuchs showed them He Jin's head, claiming He Jin was a rebel who was executed.

Told the Dowager that the troops had mutinied but attempt to get her out failed thanks to Lu Zhi. Two days later, fled with the Imperial Princes but was caught by Min Gong and leaped into the river to die: Zhang Rang and the others, in fear and dread, clasped fingers, bowed
twice and kowtowed towards the Emperor, "Now we must die. May Your Majesty maintain yourself."


Zhao Zhong from Anping. Like Cao Jie, seems to have been from a gentry background whereas most eunuchs were of more common birth. When his father died, took ornaments from the Imperial workshop, the Inspector of Ji heard about this, arrested family members, broke the tomb and moved the body out. The Inspector was punished with Zhong being a favorite of Emperor Huan. Not involved in Huan's coup but rewarded anyway. Under Emperor Ling, was made the adjudicator in a full court debate over whether Dowager Dong should be buried as Empress or concubine. Professor Rafe says he was spokesman for the eunuchs but the ZZTJ makes it seem more like the president of the debate (or the Speaker in the House of Commons), seemed to handle it fairly. On Cao Jie's death, was put in charge of Empress He's household, described as mother to Emperor Ling and greatly favored. Slandered Lu Qiang, had his house in Ye confiscated by Huangfu Song during the Turbans revolt (later got Song recalled from Qiang campaign), slandered Fu Xie. After the fire at the palace, did the same as Zhang Rang (see Rang's entry).

Ordered to recommended those who performed well against Turbans in 186 and asked Fu Xie for a bribe, was furious when Xie insulted him but dared do nothing against the famous general. Got letter from Jian Shi but refused to join in plot, he was killed by the rampaging troops of Yuan Shao and He Miao.
User avatar
Dong Zhou
A-Dou
A-Dou
 
Posts: 16867
Joined: Sun Apr 10, 2005 12:32 pm
Location: "Now we must die. May Your Majesty maintain yourself"

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby plunged » Fri Nov 13, 2009 12:22 pm

thanks for the detailed answer :wink:
Please check out: Gongjin's Campaign Memorials: a Three Kingdoms Wiki.
Now with translations of: He Jin, Huangfu Song, Zhu Jun, Lu Zhi, Cheng Pu, Sima Shi, Lady Wang and many more.

Read Romance of the Three Kingdoms online (with corrected names)
User avatar
plunged
Scholar of Shen Zhou
 
Posts: 754
Joined: Sat May 17, 2008 8:39 pm
Location: Netherlands

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby James » Fri Nov 13, 2009 4:44 pm

Dong Zhou wrote:The 12 eunuchs Not a full bio or anything, assuming plunged has the right names. Made Marquis unless I say otherwise. I think this is what you asked for James? If not, sorry

I'm just curious where the names come from, especially if the historic nature of one is in question. IIRC, the novel references ten. I've probably read this before, but I cannot recall an historic listing of them. It would be nice to update the encyclopedia with information about the twelve (and a quick search term to bring them up).
Kongming’s Archives – Romance of the Three Kingdoms Novel, History and Games
“ They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.”
  — Ben Franklin
User avatar
James
Sausaged Fish
Sausaged Fish
 
Posts: 17996
Joined: Fri Jun 14, 2002 3:21 pm
Location: Happy Valley, UT

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby Dong Zhou » Fri Nov 13, 2009 6:15 pm

I think it was just meant as a phrase to save time, rather then memorializing about "Zhang Rang, Duan Gui, Feng Xu, Harry Potter" and so on, they go "Zhang Rang and the Ten Attendants", representing the corrupt eunuchs as a whole rather then a specific set of names. I think LGZ just decided to assign names to the phrase
User avatar
Dong Zhou
A-Dou
A-Dou
 
Posts: 16867
Joined: Sun Apr 10, 2005 12:32 pm
Location: "Now we must die. May Your Majesty maintain yourself"

Re: Three kingdoms questions (you ask, we answer)

Unread postby James » Fri Nov 13, 2009 6:36 pm

Dong Zhou wrote:I think it was just meant as a phrase to save time, rather then memorializing about "Zhang Rang, Duan Gui, Feng Xu, Harry Potter" and so on, they go "Zhang Rang and the Ten Attendants", representing the corrupt eunuchs as a whole rather then a specific set of names. I think LGZ just decided to assign names to the phrase

Yeah, I figured. I'm just wondering if we have any way to verify who these other attendants were, especially given the historic validity of one of them is in question.
Kongming’s Archives – Romance of the Three Kingdoms Novel, History and Games
“ They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.”
  — Ben Franklin
User avatar
James
Sausaged Fish
Sausaged Fish
 
Posts: 17996
Joined: Fri Jun 14, 2002 3:21 pm
Location: Happy Valley, UT

Next

Return to Sanguo Yanyi Symposium

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 4 guests

Copyright © 2002–2008 Kongming’s Archives. All Rights Reserved