Shall we discuss Liu Feng?

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Shall we discuss Liu Feng?

Unread postby James » Mon Nov 27, 2006 5:20 pm

I thought about Liu Feng when I read <a href="/viewtopic.php?t=16164">Was Guan Yu really impatient?</a> and realized I can’t quite recall all the history behind Liu Bei’s adopted son. I’m not even completely sure I remember all the details behind his execution/suicide, and I certainly don’t remember the sources. And then I discovered that nobody has published a reliable biography about him! I’ve jotted everything down as I recall it into this possibly-flawed blurb:

Liu Feng was the adopted son of Liu Bei, and served as a general in Liu Bei’s kingdom of Shu-Han. He participated in Liu Bei’s campaign against Liu Zhang where he was found to possess exceptional martial skill, and was appointed Magistrate of Central Langjiang. In AD 219 Liu Feng was dispatched from Mianshui to assist Meng Da, who Liu Bei did not completely trust. After the campaign, he remained in this region with Meng Da.

Later in the same year Guan Yu, mixed up in warfare with both Wei and Wu in Jingzhou, requested reinforcements from Liu Feng and Meng Da. Meng Da persuaded Liu Feng to refuse on the basis that their own territory was in danger of being surrounded, contributing to Guan Yu’s defeat and execution. Meng Da defected to Wei with Shen Dan, Shen Yi, and several cities, and relations between Liu Feng and Liu Bei fell apart. When Liu Feng returned to Chengdu in AD 220 he was ordered to commit suicide by Liu Bei, a suggestion that came from Zhuge Liang, and he complied.

It is often discussed why Zhuge Liang might have supported such a decision and it is often suspected that the hope may have been to avoid possible contention to Liu Bei’s younger biological son, Liu Shan, but Chinese tradition calls for the biological son to inherit the throne rather than an adopted son. Indeed, in AD 219, Liu Bei had already named Liu Shan to be his heir. It is unknown if Zhuge Liang had any reason to believe there might have been any contention between them.

What do you remember about Liu Feng?
Do you think he was a threat to the kingdom of Shu?
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Unread postby Sun Gongli » Mon Nov 27, 2006 5:58 pm

Liu Feng became Liu Bei's adopted son in Jingzhou. I don't feel that he was a threat so much in that he would try anything, but that there could be those who were unhappy with Liu Chan's succession and would seek to sabotage the empire by forcing Liu Feng into a rival role, so he was ordered to commit suicide as a precaution. I doubt that his inability to save Guan Yu had much to do with it.
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Unread postby Dong Zhou » Mon Nov 27, 2006 6:04 pm

Now, Liu Feng was originally a son of a certain K'ou of Lo-hou. The King of Han-zhong Liu Bei, when he first came to Jing-zhou, had no heir, and so had adopted him as his son. Zhuge Liang feared that Liu Feng, a man of strong will and character, might not remain tractable after the death of his adoptive father, so he now advised the King of Han-zhong to do away with him. Thereupon Liu Feng was ordered to commit suicide.



That’s what the chronicles have, using a mixture of that and the ZZTJ, this is what I know:

Liu Feng was a member of the Imperial Family thanks to marriage to the royal house of Chang Sha. Liu Feng is sent from Han Zhong to reinforce (or rather keep an eye on) Meng Da before they attack Shangyong but Shen Dan surrenders without a fight.

Time passes, Guan Yu is in trouble but Liu Feng doesn't send help, he and friends claiming that the mountainous territory of their commanderies was difficult to control so soon after taking them over. Guan Yu dies, oh very dear.

Meng Da quarrelled with Liu Feng, combined with the criticism for not sending help, Meng Da defects to Wei, persuading Shen Dan to change sides. Liu Feng is driven out and goes to Cheng Du where he is executed/commits suicide.

If Liu Feng is of Imperial blood then maybe his claim would be stronger then normal, risking people revolting in Feng's name but I think Zhuge Liang's fear is that Liu Feng would be a pain to keep under control and may feel he is entitled to things he isn't(command of the army or being one of the "Regents") and undermine Kongming's or Liu Shan's authority.
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Unread postby James » Tue Nov 28, 2006 1:16 am

Sun Gongli wrote:Liu Feng became Liu Bei's adopted son in Jingzhou. I don't feel that he was a threat so much in that he would try anything, but that there could be those who were unhappy with Liu Chan's succession and would seek to sabotage the empire by forcing Liu Feng into a rival role, so he was ordered to commit suicide as a precaution. I doubt that his inability to save Guan Yu had much to do with it.

I suppose that is a very interesting take. So we’ve seen Liu Feng described as strong-willed, which could tie in with this concern. I haven’t seen him described as inept in any regard either. Oddly, I can actually see Liu Bei going along with a plan from Zhuge Liang to have him done away with if a real threat was there. Is there any mention of rebellious intent or concern? Liu Feng should have known in AD 219 that he was not to be heir (if not sooner having been told by Liu Bei himself).

What exactly do we know about the way in which Zhuge Liang suggested Liu Feng’s execution to Liu Bei? I take it we don’t really know his motives, but that we <i>do</i> know the recommendation was made?

Dong Zhou wrote:Now, Liu Feng was originally a son of a certain K'ou of Lo-hou. The King of Han-zhong Liu Bei, when he first came to Jing-zhou, had no heir, and so had adopted him as his son. Zhuge Liang feared that Liu Feng, a man of strong will and character, might not remain tractable after the death of his adoptive father, so he now advised the King of Han-zhong to do away with him. Thereupon Liu Feng was ordered to commit suicide.


So Liu was a Liu before being adopted by Bei, or was his nobility born along another vein? Was this Kou also a Liu? Forgive me if either of those questions sounds ignorant!

What else do we know about Liu Bei’s interest in Meng Da? If he distrusted the fellow enough to send people out to watch him, I wonder why they were trusted with such authority in the first place. Sounds kind of bollixed from the start.

So was the decision not to aid Guan Yu born of Meng Da’s suggestion, or was it more of a mutual choice? I suppose neither expected Guan Yu to actually wind up in trouble over the whole mess or they might have expected Liu Bei’s anger—or if that wasn’t an issue, maybe Liu Feng simply wasn’t expecting to get the axe simply because of his bloodline.

I wonder why Liu Bei would have adopted him given the concern in the first place?

Do we know if he was executed, or if he took his own life? Was it as I read—that he was ordered to do so by Liu Bei (apparently at Zhuge Liang’s suggestion)?

Liu Feng has turned out to be a little more fascinating than I originally expected. I suppose if he did have some noble ties it might be deemed a threat—especially given previous precedent established in other profound cases. In that regard I imagine it might have been much easier to simply do away with him rather than risk greater problems than those Liu Shan could present on his own.
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Unread postby Liu Yuante » Tue Nov 28, 2006 2:41 am

I wasn't going to bother but since a new thread has cropped up on him, here's the first third of Liu Feng's SGZ bio, which is what I finished prior to taking on the Song Dynasty currency records for David Hartill. Some of the phrasing is wonky and unclear, as this is a very rough draft.



Liu Feng was a son of the Kou clan of Luohou and a nephew of the Liu clan of Changsha. When the First Sovereign came to Jing province he did not yet have an heir to succeed him so he adopted Feng to be his son. When the First Sovereign entered Shu, returning from Jiameng to attack Liu Zhang, Feng was at that time twenty two years old. He was possessed of martial ability and outstanding strength, and in command of soldiers he went along with Zhuge Liang and Zhang Fei to travel westward up the river, whereat they fought and were victorious. When Yi province had been fully pacified Feng became General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Assists the Army.

Earlier Liu Zhang had dispatched Meng Da of Fufeng, assisted by Fa Zheng, each in command of two thousand soldiers and tasked with welcoming the First Sovereign. The First Sovereign therefore decreed that Da have combined command over their men and left a garrison at Jiangling. After the pacification of Shu, He had Da become Grand Administrator of Yidu. In the twenty-fourth year of Jianan he ordered Da to go north from Zigui and attack Fangling, and the Grand Administrator of Fangling Kuai Qi was thereat done harm by Da’s army. Da was preparing to attack Shangyong when the First Sovereign, secretly fearful that Da would have difficulty handling the job alone, dispatched Feng from Hanzhong to ride down along the Mian River and join with Da’s army, and he assembled with Da at Shangyong. The Grand Administrator of Shangyong Shen Dan held up his men in surrender and sent his wife, son and clan off to Chengdu. The First Sovereign promoted Dan to the rank of General Who Subdues the North, with command as Grand Administrator of Shangyong and Marquis of Yuan District as in the past. He appointed Dan’s younger brother Yi to serve as General Who Establishes Trust and Grand Administrator of Xicheng and changed Feng’s appointment to General Who Assists the Army. Since Guan Yu had encircled Fancheng and Xiangyang he had repeatedly called out to Feng and Da, commanding them to themselves send out soldiers to provide aid. Feng and Da declined because mountains of the commandery had already been hemmed in and they could not break free, and so they did not undertake Yu’s command. Yu was accordingly defeated and destroyed and the First Sovereign was hateful of this. Feng and Da angrily disputed and were discordant, and Feng advocated sending forces to fight Da. Da was also afraid of punishment and vehemently hated Feng, and so he bid farewell to the First Sovereign and led out those under his command in surrender to Wei. 1 Emperor Wen of Wei admired Da’s appearance and talent and admitted him to be seen. He accordingly was made Palace Attendant In Charge of Tending Horses, General Who Establishes Firmness and was conferred the rank of Marquis of the village of Pingyang. He combined the three commanderies of Fangling, Shangyong and Xicheng to form Xincheng commandery and accordingly made Da Grand Administrator of Xincheng. He dispatched the General Who Subdues the South Xiahou Shang, the General on the Right Xu Huang and Da to attack Feng together. Da sent a letter to Feng saying:

1 The Wei Lue records Da’s farewell memorial to the First Sovereign as stating, “You laid yourself before the emperor, prepared to undertake the enterprise of Yi and Lu, to follow the exploits of Huan and Wen and to begin the great enterprise, availing yourself of the might of Wu and Chu, such that eminent persons were filled with hope at understanding your purpose. I, your servant, have since betrayed my position and transgressed by staying put in the mountains. Your servant is himself well aware, to say nothing of yourself! Presently your imperial court is flourishing and brave heroes are arrayed like scales on a fish. Internally your servant is lacking in capacity to assist in government, and externally am without the ability of a general. Of inferior grade are the talents of your servant and I am truly ashamed. I have heard how Fan Li came to know of a weakness while afloat at Wuhu, and how Jiu Han offered his apologies for holding back and not traveling up the Yellow River. A man then interceded between them and plead on his behalf for his life. How can I follow this? It is my desire that the designation of who takes office be honest and pure. Beyond your servant’s baseness I also am without first-class talent and monumental exploits. Myself being such, then, I secretly envy those foremost in virtue while from afar thinking on my disgrace. In former times, Shen Zheng was of the highest filial piety but was distrusted by his relatives, his son Xu was of the highest loyalty but was executed by his sovereign, Meng Tian expanded the nation’s territory but suffered massive punishment and Le Yi destroyed Qi but met with slander and bitterness. Your servant has often read their stories and never have I failed to shed tears profusely; moreover I am personally in their same situation, my prosperity cut short by injury. What is a person to do? When Jing province was overturned and lost your minister was disobedient and less than one out of every hundred men returned. Your servant sought appointment, delivering over Fangling and Shangyong and moreover, pleading for my life I gave myself over to another. As you submit to and think on the emperor’s imperial favor on being moved and understanding, have pity for your servant’s heart and mourn for your servant’s moving. Your servant is truly a dog of a man, incapable of constancy. Knowing this and acting as such, how could I dare say I am not guilty! Your servant would break off the association between us without angry words, that you take leave of your servant without resentful good-byes, as your servant has passed the time receiving instruction from a man of honor as his former sovereign exhorted him.”

“People of ancient times had a saying, ‘Strangers should not sow discord between intimates, the young should not slander the old.’ This means to be honest with superiors and just with subordinates, and that wickedness and backbiting are unacceptable. Therefore you have deceived the sovereign’s authority and your master, a virtuous person is respectful of his elders and kindly toward his relations. In like manner a loyal servant does his duty when suffering misfortune and a dutiful son adopts a sensitive attitude on falling into adversity. Zhong, Shang, Bai Qi, Xiao Ji and Bo Qi were all of this sort. Such as those are right; what is wrong is for kin to be comfortable with parting ways or for relations to laugh at misfortune. It is possible for a kind act to cause a change to affection and amiability, and it also is so that slander sows discord between persons. Even so, a loyal servant is a person who cannot move away from his sovereign and a dutiful son is a person who cannot move away from his father. It is haughty of those who slander and turn family relations to enmity, moreover between relatives it is wrong! In antiquity Shen Zheng, Wei Ji, Yu Kou and Chu Jian were endowed with a loyal appearance, and to be equal to the uprightness needed to succeed to the throne you must be just as these. Presently you are joined with the King of Hanzhong but are going the road of a solitary person. Regarding relatives you run counter to flesh and blood and overstep authority and with regard to righteousness you run counter to your sovereign and minister and place yourself above the throne. If you are to levy a military force out of inclination for a position of power instead of staying put and assisting when the army calls out, every place, far and near, will learn of it. Once he became crown prince A Dou stood alone but on obtaining knowledge of how he appeared to people he became bitterly disappointed. Shen Zheng heeded the words of Ziyu and so was certain to become Grand Duke; Wei Ji listened to his cousin’s plans and so was without cause for fatherly admonishment. Whereas, Xiao Bai fled his state as a refugee after having come in to act as overlord; and Chong Er fled over the city wall and was killed on being recaptured. Antiquity itself had such as them so you should not be a loner today.

A man of wisdom places importance on avoiding misfortune and one who sees clearly values pre-existing customs. Retainers are pressing the King of Hanzhong to reflect on stability within and to be suspicious of offspring born to an outsider. When he reflects on stability his heart is sure but uncertainty over his progeny fills his heart with dread that an outbreak of chaos and disorder will come into being and that the one not having will not obey and sow discord by deposing the one on the throne. It is evil to be resentful of family relationships, you must see and be afraid that those all around must accordingly come between you and the King of Hanzhong. It is true that he will be doubtful of your succession when he hears your complaints and as such if you go forth you will wipe out your only chance. Presently you are far away and can yet provide false information temporarily; but if the main army then advances and you lose your ground and retreat then you will encroach on each other and cause them to be endangered In antiquity Wei Zi went away from Yin and Zhi Guo left his clan, but in fleeing adversity they brought disaster to those behind them, and just like these is this situation.


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Unread postby Jordan » Tue Nov 28, 2006 3:08 am

I wonder why Liu Bei would have adopted him given the concern in the first place?


He might of thought that he was personally unable to birth a child. Thus he would have Liu Feng as backup in case he couldn't. Lords tend to want an heir and a spare. In Liu Bei's case though, once he got his heir he figured that the spare could only cause trouble. Thus no need for Liu Feng.
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Unread postby Dong Zhou » Tue Nov 28, 2006 8:12 am

So Liu was a Liu before being adopted by Bei, or was his nobility born along another vein? Was this Kou also a Liu? Forgive me if either of those questions sounds ignorant!

What else do we know about Liu Bei’s interest in Meng Da? If he distrusted the fellow enough to send people out to watch him, I wonder why they were trusted with such authority in the first place. Sounds kind of bollixed from the start.

So was the decision not to aid Guan Yu born of Meng Da’s suggestion, or was it more of a mutual choice? I suppose neither expected Guan Yu to actually wind up in trouble over the whole mess or they might have expected Liu Bei’s anger—or if that wasn’t an issue, maybe Liu Feng simply wasn’t expecting to get the axe simply because of his bloodline.

I wonder why Liu Bei would have adopted him given the concern in the first place?


Either a relative of Feng was married into the line or Feng himself is my guess, to be honest I don't really know the answer.

I think Liu Bei saw Meng Da as talented but didn't trust him yet so wanted an eye on Da until he could either kill hom or trust him. Maybe Liu Bei';s feelings where erratic on this subject like Cao Cao about Sima Yi?

Seems to be a mutal agreement not to send aid and it does seem neither of them where going to be punished, perhaps becuase the refusal seems to be while Guan Yu was on the attack. I wonder what they meant by hemmed in? There has a to be a route out if there was just mountains? I think Liu Feng got killed becuase he a) lost Meng, b) lost his land, c) returned to Cheng Du

He had no son at the time so I would go with what SlickSlicer said.

Edit: I'm an idiot. Liu Feng is a nephew of Liu Mi, a member of the Imperial clan, in the novel. I expect something similar in history.
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Unread postby Jedi » Wed Nov 29, 2006 1:41 am

Any one else other than me think he might have been a even worst leader of Shu than Liu Chan? :lol:
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Unread postby James » Wed Nov 29, 2006 2:52 am

Updated the little mini-biography of Liu Feng. :)

Short Biography wrote:Liu Feng was the son of the Kou clan of Luohou and nephew to the Liu clan of Changsha (1), and thus possessed ties to the imperial clan. Liu Bei adopted him while in Jingzhou because he did not presently have a heir. Liu Feng served as a general in his army and was known for his martial ability and outstanding strength.

(1): In the novel Liu Feng is listed as nephew to Liu Mi. It is presently unclear if Liu Bei’s nephew was indeed named Liu Mi, or if this is a name Luo Guanzhong assigned him.

When Liu Bei marched on Liu Zhang, Liu Feng commanded with Zhuge Liang and Zhang Fei and was victorious in battle. Afterward he was promoted to General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Assists the Army and Magistrate of Central Langjiang. Later Meng Da was prepared to attack Shangyong, but Liu Bei doubted his ability to handle the battle on his own. In AD 219 he sent Feng to aid him, but Shen Dan of Shangyong surrendered without a conflict. Feng’s appointment was changed to General Who Assists the Army.

When Guan Yu had encircled Fancheng and Xiangyang he repeatedly called out to Feng and Da, commanding them to themselves send soldiers to provide aid. Together they declined under reason that the mountains of their commandery had been hemmed in, and they could not break free. Guan Yu was accordingly defeated and executed, and for this Liu Bei was hateful. Feng and Da disputed heavily and Feng advised Liu Bei to send troops to suppress Da. Meng Da grew very resentful and defected to Cao Cao with Shen Dan, Shen Yi, and several territories. Received warmly, Meng Da was given command, and in turn attacked Liu Feng. Liu Feng returned to Chengdu.

In Chengdu, at the advice of Zhuge Liang, Liu Bei ordered Liu Feng to commit suicide. An action which was likely influenced in part by his failures not only to Guan Yu, but also in losing his territory, but also very likely due to the threat he posed to Liu Shan, Liu Bei’s biological son and heir as announced in AD 219 (2). Liu Feng thus died in AD 220, at Liu Bei's command.

(2): It is not specified why Zhuge Liang made this suggestion, and why Liu Be went along with it, but the true motivation was likely a combination of the above-mentioned factors. Aside from his failure to support Guan Yu, and his failure to control Meng Da, he did pose a legitimate threat to Liu Shan’s authority. With his ties to the imperial clan, despite tradition, he could have expected significant authority under Liu Shan, or even contended for leadership of the kingdom. In light of this possibility the decision may not have been very difficult to make.

A few questions inspired by Adrian, but open to anyone. :)

Some sources list Liu Feng’s appointment after the suppression of Liu Zhang as Magistrate of Central Langjiang while the partial <i>Sanguozhi</i> translation above uses the seemingly different appointment of General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Assists the Army. Was he appointed to both?

Later, on his way to join Meng Da, he is appointed General Who Assists the Army (again looking at the partial <i>Sanguozhi</i> translation). How does that differ from General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Assists the Army?

And finally, I can see Meng Da marched on Liu Feng. What became of this?

<hr>
LiuYuanTe wrote:I wasn't going to bother but since a new thread has cropped up on him, here's the first third of Liu Feng's SGZ bio, which is what I finished prior to taking on the Song Dynasty currency records for David Hartill. Some of the phrasing is wonky and unclear, as this is a very rough draft.

Wow… I can see why people avoid the letters and Songzhi notes! If that is 1/3rd of the biography, a lot of his life is covered in the first section before moving on to the lengthy intermission. Still, I’m glad historic notes such as that were preserved, as they add much insight into the happenings of these kingdoms. Thank you so much, Adrian, for sharing that partial translation.

If circumstances in your life ever permit, I would enjoy reading the rest one day. :)

SlickSlicer wrote:
I wonder why Liu Bei would have adopted him given the concern in the first place?

He might of thought that he was personally unable to birth a child. Thus he would have Liu Feng as backup in case he couldn't. Lords tend to want an heir and a spare. In Liu Bei's case though, once he got his heir he figured that the spare could only cause trouble. Thus no need for Liu Feng.

After reading the rest of the thread, I think you hit it right on the head. It does make sense for him to pick up Liu Feng as a just in case sort of thing, and the thought of them (rulers) discarding their temporary fallback solution (in this case, Liu Feng) as a shoe that no longer fits their feet. This is the stuff I love reading about the Three Kingdoms period.

Dong Zhou wrote:I think Liu Bei saw Meng Da as talented but didn't trust him yet so wanted an eye on Da until he could either kill hom or trust him. Maybe Liu Bei';s feelings where erratic on this subject like Cao Cao about Sima Yi?

Here’s another possible perspective. Reading some of Liu Feng’s <i>Sanguozhi</i> biography up there, maybe he was not in a position to rank Meng Da lowly? It would be like trying to rank Ma Chao lowly. It could have been a shrewd political move. Also, by the wording above it would seem more as if Liu Bei doubted Meng Da’s capabilities rather than his loyalty—what do you think?

I suppose it <i>could</i> have been a measure to test Meng Da.

Dong Zhou wrote:Seems to be a mutal agreement not to send aid and it does seem neither of them where going to be punished, perhaps becuase the refusal seems to be while Guan Yu was on the attack. I wonder what they meant by hemmed in? There has a to be a route out if there was just mountains? I think Liu Feng got killed becuase he a) lost Meng, b) lost his land, c) returned to Cheng Du

We’ll never know, I suppose, but it looks like Liu Feng and Meng Da really didn’t get along—not in the slightest. If Liu Feng was intelligent at all he probably understood a little bit about his situation, and as long as he wasn’t truly unable to assist Guan Yu, I suspect he may have wished to do so. He may have gone to Chengdu <i>expecting</i> a serious punishment. It is interesting to ponder. The animosity that built up between the two of them must have been born of something.

Dong Zhou wrote:Edit: I'm an idiot. Liu Feng is a nephew of Liu Mi, a member of the Imperial clan, in the novel. I expect something similar in history.

This is the sort of stuff that Luo Guangzhong tended to grab directly out of history books, and as such I suspect there may be a great deal of truth behind it. It is in accord with the early lines of the <i>Sanguozhi</i> above. The only real question is his name, Mi. I wonder if this Mi is mentioned in historic texts anywhere?

Jedi wrote:Any one else other than me think he might have been a even worst leader of Shu than Liu Chan? :lol:

I imagine he probably wouldn’t have been. It looks like he wasn’t an idiot, and what we’ve read about him doesn’t speak about how he struck out against orders in any case. I suppose it is simply possible that the act of going against tradition (in choosing Feng over Shan) may very well have caused more problems than simply doing away with Feng. That, and Liu Bei may have wanted his blood to carry on, even if he expected less of Shan than Feng. It is conjecture, I suppose.
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Unread postby Liu Yuante » Wed Nov 29, 2006 4:03 am

To answer James' questions:

In simple terms, a General is a higher rank than a General of the Gentlemen of the Household, so that Liu Feng received a promotion on leaving the immediate vicinity of Chengdu. More specifically, the duties of the GOTGOTH were in the higher ranks of that service devoted to the security of the capital and of the emperor himself. These would be your GOTGOTH Rapid As Tigers, Of The Feathered Forest, etc. The lower ranks, such as Liu Feng was appointed to, were positions over a cadre of soldiers stationed at the capital, responsible for general defense of the area. Each GOTGOTH would hold command over a group of men. Thus, though his rise to General was a promotion, Liu Bei could hardly have done otherwise as, though sometimes GOTGOTH would be sent on missions to serve the imperial interest (as against the Xiongnu, for example, under Eastern Han) outside the capital, it was more usual for posts outside the capital/abroad to be headed by generals. Liu Feng could not have been the head of a group of soldiers responsible for defense of the capital if he was not at the capital.

As for being Magistrate of Central Langjiang, there are a couple of possibilities, depending on what the characters in question are. The head of a commandery/kingdom is a Grand Administrator or Chancellor, but in personal address they were referred to as fujun - magistrates. As an example, Sun Jian was Grand Administrator of Changsha at one point, but when being inquired of personally by Wang Rui he was referred to as Magistrate Sun. However, since no mention is made of Liu Feng heading a commandery, and since he was stationed at the capital, we must assume the term is being used generically to refer to him as a local magistrate. In this situation he could have been a Prefect or Chancellor over a county/marquis' fiefdom. Central Langjiang was not a commandery that I am aware of, so most likely this is the case - he was in charge of a group of soldiers under his command as a GOTGOTH but was not stationed directly inside the capital, instead in one of the "suburbs", a county by the name of Central Langjiang.

To the best of my knowledge Feng was defeated thoroughly by the Wei forces including Meng Da and this precipitated his return west, where he was summoned to Chengdu and ordered to commit suicide. Da in his letter seems to be trying to warn Feng off from taking them on himself, instead hanging back and getting support and authorized aid/action from the rest of the army, by appealing to his presumed desire to succeed Liu Bei to the throne. Da must have known that this was unlikely to happen even if Feng behaved himself, so he may have been trying to warn his former ally off, despite their enmity, possibly out of continued feelings of closeness for Liu Bei, whom Da was, as can be seen, exceptionally deferential to on defecting to Wei.

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