Zizhi Tongjian: The Jin Dynasty (Part 1)

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BOOK 92

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 25, 2018 5:27 pm

肅宗明皇帝上

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Ming, Sima Shao, Suzong


〈諱紹,字道畿,元帝長子也。《諡法》:思慮果遠曰明。〉

(Emperor Ming's name was Sima Shao. His style name was Daoji. He was Sima Rui's eldest son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One whose foresight extends to distant things may be called Ming ('the Wise').")


太寧元年(癸未、三二三)

The First Year of Taining (The Guiwei Year, 323 AD)


春,正月,成李驤、任回寇臺登,將軍司馬玖戰死,越巂太守李釗、漢嘉太守王載皆以郡降于成。

1. In spring, the first month, the Cheng generals Li Xiang and Ren Hui invaded Jin's region of Taideng in Ningzhou. The Jin general Sima Jiu died in battle, while Jin's Administrator of Yuegui, Li Zhao, and their Administrator of Hanjia, Wang Zai, both surrendered their commandaries to Cheng.

〈臺登縣,屬越巂郡。《九州要記》曰:臺登縣有奴諾川,鸚鸝山、黑水之間,若水出其下;黃帝子昌意降居若水,卽此。〉〈漢嘉本前漢青衣縣,屬蜀郡;後漢順帝陽嘉二年,更名漢嘉;蜀分爲漢嘉郡。〉

(Taideng County was part of Yuegui commandary. The Important Records of the Nine Provinces states, "There is a Nunuo River in Taideng County which runs between Mount Yingli and the Black River, and the Ruo River flows out of it. This was the same Ruo River where the Yellow Emperor's son Changyi set his residence.”

Hanjia commandary had originally been Former Han's Qingyi County, part of Shu commandary. In Emperor Shun of Later Han's second year of Yangjia (133), he renamed it to Hanjia. Shu-Han split it off as Hanjia commandary.)


遣李驤征越巂,太守李釗降... 釗到成都,雄待遇甚厚,朝遷儀式,喪紀之禮,皆決於釗。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong sent Li Xiang to campaign against Yuegui commandary. Jin's Administrator of that place, Li Zhao, surrendered.

When Li Zhao arrived at Chengdu, Li Xiong treated him with exceptional favor. He entrusted Li Zhao with determining the rites and practices of both court ceremonies and mourning affairs.

三年,獲[越嶲]太守西夷校尉李釗。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

In the third year of Taixing (320), Li Xiang captured Jin's Administrator (of Yuexi) and Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, Li Zhao.

[獲]: 此下原省越嶲二字. (Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The passage should clarify that Li Zhao was Administrator "of Yuexi".)


二月,庚戌,葬元帝于建平陵。

2. In the second month, on the day Gengxu (March 25th), Sima Rui was buried at Jianping Tomb.

三月,戊寅朔,改元。

3. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Wuyin (April 22nd), the Jin reign era title was changed to the first year of Taining.

饒安、東光、安陵三縣災,燒七千餘家,死者萬五千人。

4. There were fires in the three counties of Rao'an, Dongguang, and Anling. More than seven thousand families were burned, and fifteen thousand people died.

〈三縣皆屬渤海郡,惟東光,漢舊縣;饒安縣,前漢之千童縣也,後漢靈帝改曰饒安;安陵縣,晉置。時皆爲後趙之地。〉

(These three counties were all part of Bohai commandary. Only Dongguang had remained unchanged since the Han dynasty. Rao'an County had originally been Qiantong County during Former Han; Emperor Ling of Later Han changed its name to Rao'an. Anling County had been created by Jin. At this time, all three of the counties were within Later Zhao territory.)


後趙寇彭城、下邳,徐州刺史卞敦與征北將軍王邃退保盱眙。敦,壼之從父兄也。

5. Later Zhao attacked Pengcheng and Xiapi. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou, Bian Dun, and their General Who Conquers The North, Wang Sui, fell back to guard Xuyi. This Bian Dun was a cousin of Bian Kun's father.

王敦謀篡位,諷朝廷徵己;帝手詔徵之。夏,四月,加敦黃鉞、班劍,奏事不名,入朝不趨,劍履上殿。敦移鎭姑孰,屯于湖,以司空導爲司徒,敦自領揚州牧。敦欲爲逆,王彬諫之甚苦。敦變色,目左右,將收之。彬正色曰:「君昔歲殺兄,今又殺弟邪!」敦乃止,以彬爲豫章太守。

6. Wang Dun plotted to usurp the throne, and he mocked any attempt by the court to summon him. Emperor Ming had to write an edict in his own hand summoning him.

In summer, the fourth month, Wang Dun was granted the Golden Battle-axe and an armed honor guard. He was allowed to enter court without having his name called and without hastening his step, and he was allowed to enter the palace still wearing his sword and shoes. Wang Dun shifted his base to Gushu, and camped his soldiers at Yuhu. Emperor Ming appointed Wang Dao as Minister Over The Masses, while Wang Dun appointed himself as acting Governor of Yangzhou.

Wang Dun wanted to seize more power, and so Wang Bin remonstrated very harshly with him. Wang Dun changed color and looked left to right, about to arrest Wang Bin. But Wang Bin sternly declared, "Sir, it was only a few years ago that you killed my elder brother. Now you mean to kill me too?" So Wang Dun did not arrest Wang Bin, but he sent him away to serve as Administrator of Yuzhang.

〈劉良《文選註》曰:班劍,謂執劍而從行者也。呂向曰:班,列也,言使勇士行列持劍以爲儀仗也。李周翰曰:班劍,木劍無刃,假作劍形,畫之以文,故曰班也。《晉志》,文武官公,給虎賁二十人,持班劍。〉〈姑孰,前漢丹楊春穀縣地,今太平州當塗縣,卽姑孰之地。縣南三里,有姑孰溪,西入大江。于湖縣,本吳督農校尉治,武帝太康二年,分丹楊縣立于湖縣。杜佑曰:宣州當塗縣城,卽晉姑孰城。于湖故城在縣南。張舜民曰:今太平州跨姑孰溪。陸游曰:姑孰城在當塗北,今州城正據姑孰溪;溪東南數峯如黛,蓋青山也。自姑孰溪行夾中,三十里至大信口,出口,泝江過大、小褐山磯,又過蟂磯。蕪湖,卽于湖,並大江有王敦城,氣象宏敞。《考異》曰:《晉春秋》及《後魏書‧僭晉傳》云「屯蕪湖」;《晉書‧明帝紀》云「下屯于湖」,今從之。〉〈《晉書‧王彬傳》,以爲彬從兄稜爲敦所害,故云然。余據殺稜者王如,雖出於敦之意,猶假手於如也;且稜於敦爲從弟。此言殺兄,蓋以敦殺王澄也,事見八十八卷懷帝永嘉六年。〉

(Regarding the 班劍 "armed honor guard", Liu Liang's Compiled Literary Notes states, "The 班劍 refers to those who follow behind someone while grasping their swords." Lü Xiang remarked, "The 班 here means 'arrayed', as in, they are warriors who follow in array while grasping their blades, serving as an honor guard." Li Zhouhan remarked, "The 班劍 is a wooden blade without an edge. It is made to look like a sword, but its use is purely ceremonial, which is why it is called 班." According to the Records of Jin, civil and military ministers and nobles were granted twenty members of the Rapid As Tigers Guards, who grasped these blades.

Gushu was the territory of Former Han's Chungu County in Danyang commandary, the same place as Dangtu County in modern Taipingzhou. Three li south of the county seat is the Gushu Creek, which flows west into the Yangzi. Yuhu County was originally administered by Eastern Wu's Agricultural Commandant. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taikang (281), he split the territory off from Danyang County to form Yuhu County. Du You remarked, "The capital city of Dangtu County in Xuanzhou was Jin's city of Gushu. The city of Yushu was south of that county." Zhang Shunmin remarked, "It was astride Gushu Creek in modern Taipingzhou." Lu You remarked, "The city of Gushu was north of Dangtu, and the modern city in that province is right along Gushu Creek. There are several peaks southwest of the creek like dark makeup, like Mount Qing. The creek passes through them for thirty li, until it reaches Daxinkou. Coming out from the mouth of there, it flows into the Yangzi past Greater and Lesser Heshan Promontories, as well as Xiao Promontory."

Yuhu was the same as Wuhu; they were both places on the Yangzi where Wang Dun had a fortress, possessing a magnificent aura. Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin, and the False Rulers of Jin chapter of the Book of Northern Wei, both state that Wang Dun now camped his soldiers 'at Wuhu'. But the Annals of Emperor Ming in the Book of Jin states he 'moved down and camped at Yuhu'. I follow that account."

According to the Biography of Wang Bin in the Book of Jin, Wang Bin's elder cousin was Wang Leng, whom Wang Dun had earlier killed. This was why he said such a thing here. But from what I (Hu Sanxing) understand, the one who killed Wang Leng was Wang Ru. Even though Wang Dun had put him up to it, he was still only borrowing Wang Ru's hand. Besides, Wang Leng was Wang Dun's younger cousin. So I think that when Wang Bin refers to his elder brother here, he means when Wang Dun killed Wang Cheng, as mentioned in Book 88, in Emperor Huai's sixth year of Yongjia (312.44).)


後趙王勒遣使結好於慕容廆,廆執送建康。

7. Shi Le sent envoys to visit Murong Hui, attempting to establish good relations with him. But Murong Hui arrested the envoys and sent them to Jiankang.

成李驤等進攻寧州,刺史褒中壯公王遜使將軍姚嶽等拒之,戰於螗蜋,成兵大敗。嶽追至瀘水,成兵爭濟,溺死者千餘人。嶽以道遠,不敢濟而還。遜以嶽不窮追,大怒,鞭之;怒甚,冠裂而卒。遜在州十四年,威行殊俗。州人立其子堅行州府事,詔除堅寧州刺史。

8. Li Xiang and the other Cheng generals advanced to attack Ningzhou. Jin's Inspector of Ningzhou, Wang Xun, sent his generals Yao Yue and others to oppose them. The two sides fought at Tanglang, where the Cheng army was greatly defeated. Yao Yue pursued them as far as the Lu River, where the Cheng soldiers fought each other trying to cross over it, and more than a thousand of them drowned.

But because Yao Yue was now far away from his base, he did not dare to cross the river himself in further pursuit, and he returned to Ningzhou. When Wang Xun learned that Yao Yue had not pressed the pursuit, he was greatly angry, and he whipped Yao Yue. Wang Xun became so angry that his head cracked, and he passed away.

Wang Xun had been in command of Ningzhou for fourteen years, and his power and conduct were exceptional. He was posthumously known as Duke Zhuang ("the Valiant") of Baozhong.

The people of Ningzhou acclaimed Wang Xun's son Wang Jian to take over the provincial and staff affairs. Emperor Ming issued an edict confirming Wang Jian as Inspector of Ningzhou.

〈據《水經註》:螗蜋,卽堂狼縣也,前漢屬犍爲郡,後漢省。《郡國志》:犍爲屬國朱提縣有堂狼山,山多毒草,盛夏之月,飛鳥過之不能得去。蜀置朱提郡,堂狼縣屬焉。〉〈懷帝永嘉四年,遜至寧州,至是適十四年。〉〈州,寧州;府,南夷校尉府也。〉

(According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Tanglang was in Tanglang County. During Former Han, that county had been part of Jianwei commandary. Later Han abolished it. The Records of Commandaries and Fiefs states, "There is a Mount Tanglang in Zhuti County in the Jianwei Dependent State. This mountain has many poisonous plants which flourish during the summer months. Birds flying into them cannot pass out again." Shu-Han had created Zhuti commandary, with Tanglang County as a part of it.

Wang Xun had first arrived in Ningzhou in Emperor Huai's fourth year of Yongjia (Book 87, 310.32). From then until now it had been fourteen years.

Wang Jian took over the affairs of both the Inspector of Ningzhou and the staff of the Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes.)


驤進軍由小會攻甯州刺史王遜,遜使其將姚嶽悉眾距戰。驤軍不利,又遇霖雨,驤引軍還,爭濟瀘水,士眾多死。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiang's army then advanced from Xiaohui and attacked Jin's Inspector of Ningzhou, Wang Xun. Wang Xun sent his general Yao Yue to lead his entire army to battle. Li Xiang's army got the worst of the fighting, and it kept raining for a long time, so he led his army away. They struggled with one another to cross the Lu River, and many of them died.

夏,進伐寧州,大敗於螳蜋,還。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

In summer, Li Xiang advanced to campaign in Ningzhou, but after being heavily defeated at Tanglang, he returned.

[螳蜋]: 張、吳、何、王、浙、石本作螂。後文同。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(Regarding the battlefield 螳蜋 Tanglang, the Zhang, Wu, He, Wang, Zhe, and Shi editions write the second character as 螂 Lang. The same below.)


廣州刺史陶侃遣兵救交州;未至,梁碩拔龍編,奪刺史王諒節,諒不與,碩斷其右臂。諒曰:「死且不避,斷臂何爲!」踰旬而卒。

9. Tao Kan sent troops to rescue Jiaozhou from Liang Shuo's siege. But before these troops could arrive, Liang Shuo captured Longbian.

Liang Shuo tried to wrest Wang Liang's staff of authority from out of his grasp, but Wang Liang refused to give it up. So Liang Shuo cut his arm off. Wang Liang said, "Even if you kill me, I won't give in to you. What does an arm matter?" He lived on for another ten days before passing away.

六月,壬子,立妃庾氏爲皇后;以后兄中領軍亮爲中書監。

10. In the sixth month, on the day Renzi (July 25th), Emperor Ming honored his wife Lady Yu as Empress. He appointed the General Who Leads The Army of the Center, her elder brother Yu Liang, as chief of the Palace Secretariat.

梁碩據交州,凶暴失衆心。陶侃遣參軍高寶攻碩,斬之。詔以侃領交州刺史,進號征南大將軍、開府儀同三司。未幾,吏部郎阮放求爲交州刺史,許之。放行至寧浦,遇高寶,爲寶設饌,伏兵殺之。寶兵擊放,放走,得免,至州少時,病卒。

11. During the time that Liang Shuo had occupied Jiaozhou, he had lost the affections of the people through his wicked violence. Tao Kan sent his Army Advisor, Gao Bao, to attack Liang Shuo, and Gao Bao beheaded him. Emperor Ming issued an edict appointing Tao Kan as acting Inspector of Jiaozhou and promoting him as Grand General Who Conquers The South. He was granted the privilege of a Separate Office, with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

However, before the appointment as Inspector went through, a Gentleman of the Imperial Secretariat, Ruan Fang, asked to be appointed as Inspector of Jiaozhou instead. Emperor Ming agreed to do so. Ruan Fang set out, and when he reached Ningpu, he encountered Gao Bao. Ruan Fang prepared a feast for Gao Bao, but he had soldiers in hiding who killed him. Then Gao Bao's soldiers attacked Ruan Fang, who fled and made his escape. He arrived at his province, but he was only there for a short time before he passed away of illness.

〈《廣州記》曰:漢獻帝建安二十三年,吳分鬱林郡立寧浦郡。《晉太康地志》曰:武帝太康七年,改合浦屬國都尉立寧浦郡。唐爲橫州寧浦縣。〉〈《考異》曰:《放傳》云:「成帝幼沖,庾氏執政,放求爲交州,」下乃云「逢高寶平梁碩還,」非成帝時也,《放傳》誤。〉放,咸之族子也。〈阮咸有名於魏、晉之間。〉

(The Records of Guangzhou states, "In Emperor Xian of Han's twenty-third year of Jian'an (218), Eastern Wu split off part of Yulin commandary and formed Ningpu commandary." The Geographical Records of Jin's Taikang Era states, "In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) seventh year of Taikang (286), he changed the Command Post of the Hepu Dependent State into Ningpu commandary." During Tang, it was Ningpu County in Hengzhou.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Ruan Fang in the Book of Jin states, 'Emperor Cheng was still young and tender, and the Yu clan held the reins of power. Ruan Fang asked to be assigned to Jiaozhou.' But after that passage, it then states, 'He encountered Gao Bao, who had just pacified Liang Shuo and was on his way back'. Gao Bao's pacification of Liang Shuo did not take place during Emperor Cheng's reign. The Biography of Ruan Fang is mistaken.")


陳安圍趙征西將軍劉貢于南安,休屠王石武自桑城引兵趣上邽以救之,與貢合擊安,大破之。安收餘騎八千,走保隴城。秋,七月,趙主曜自將圍隴城,別遣兵圍上邽。安頻出戰,輒敗。右軍將軍劉幹攻平襄,克之,隴上諸縣悉降。安留其將楊伯支、姜沖兒守隴城,自帥精騎突圍,出奔陜中。曜遣將軍平先等追之。安左揮七尺大刀,右運丈八蛇矛,近則刀矛俱發,輒殪五六人,遠則左右馳射而走。先亦勇捷如飛,與安搏戰,三交,遂奪其蛇矛。會日暮雨甚,安棄馬與左右匿於山中;趙兵索之,不知所在。明日,安遣其將石容覘趙兵,趙輔威將軍呼延青人獲之,拷問安所在,容卒不肯言,青人殺之。雨霽,青人尋其迹,獲安於澗曲,斬之。安善撫將士,與同甘苦,及死,隴上人思之,爲作《壯士之歌》。楊伯支斬姜沖兒,以隴城降;別將宋亭斬趙募,以上邽降。曜徙秦州大姓楊、姜諸族二千餘戶于長安。氐、羌皆送任請降;以赤亭羌酋姚弋仲爲平西將軍,封平襄公。

12. Chen An besieged Zhao's General Who Conquers The West, Liu Gong, at Nan'an. The King of the Xiutu people, Shi Wu, led his own troops from Sangcheng to march to Shanggui to reinforce Liu Gong. They attacked Chen An together and greatly routed him. Chen An gathered up his remaining eight thousand cavalry and fled to guard Longcheng.

In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Yao himself came to besiege Longcheng, while sending another detachment to besiege Shanggui. Chen An frequently came out to fight, but he was always defeated. Zhao's General of the Army of the Right, Liu Gan, attacked Pingxiang and captured it, and all the counties of Longshang surrendered to Zhao.

Chen An left his generals Yang Bozhi and Jiang Chong’er to hold Longcheng while he led some elite cavalry to break out of the siege and flee to Xiazhong. Liu Yao sent his generals Ping Xian and others to pursue him. Chen An wielded a great blade seven 尺 long in his left hand, and in his right hand he held a serpent spear one zhang and eight 尺 long. Whenever someone came close, he would lash out with both the blade and the spear, and would thus kill five or six people. If people remained far away, Chen An would quickly shoot arrows in either direction and then ride off. But Ping Xian was no less bold, and he was so nimble he moved as though flying. He dueled Chen An; they fought three bouts, and then Ping Xian was able to wrest away Chen An’s serpent spear. But it was dusk just then, and there was a heavy downpour. Chen An abandoned his horse and hid among the hills with his followers. The Zhao soldiers searched for him, but they did not know where he was.

The next day, Chen An sent his general Shi Rong to observe the Zhao soldiers. But soldiers under the command of Zhao's General Who Supports Might, Huyan Qing, captured Shi Rong. They tortured him to make him tell them where Chen An was, but Shi Rong refused to say anything, so they killed him. After the rain let up, Huyan Qing's soldiers followed Shi Rong's traces back the other way, and they captured Chen An at the bend of a river gully, where they beheaded him.

Chen An had been charismatic among his generals and soldiers, and he had shared the same bitter struggles with them. So the people of Longshang missed him, and they composed the Ode to a Stalwart Warrior in his memory.

Yang Bozhi beheaded Jiang Chong’er and surrendered Longcheng to Zhao, and another of Chen An's generals, Song Ting, beheaded Zhao Mu and surrendered Shanggui. Liu Yao relocated more than two thousand households of the great Yang and Jiang clans of Qinzhou back to Chang'an.

The various Di and Qiang tribes all sent hostages and asked to surrender to Zhao as well. Liu Yao appointed the leader of the Qiang of Chiting, Yao Yizhong, as General Who Pacifies The West and Duke of Pingxiang.

〈平襄縣,漢屬天水郡,晉屬略陽郡。〉〈陜中,在隴城南。陜,與陿同,戶夾翻。〉〈三交,戰三合也。〉〈《歌》曰:「隴上壯士有陳安,軀幹雖小腹中寬,愛養將士同心肝,䯀驄交馬鐵瑕鞍。七尺大刀奮如湍,丈八蛇矛左右盤,十盪十決無當前。戰始三交失蛇予,棄我䯀驄竄巖幽,爲我外援而懸頭;西流之水東流河,一去不還柰子何!」〉

(During Han, Pingxiang County was part of Tianshui commandary. During Jin, it was part of Lueyang commandary.

Xiazhong was south of Longcheng. The first character, 陜, is pronounced "xia" or "hia (h-ia)".

Three bouts means that they fought three times.

This was the Ode to a Stalwart Warrior:

Chen An had a hero's soul
A Longshang man, so brave and bold.
Although a slender fellow he
How greatly did his stomach feed!
He loved the men of his command
And kept them safe within his hands.
A feisty piebald he did ride
An iron saddle sat astride.
So swift he waved his fearsome blade
A deadly price it made men pay.
And as his spear swung to and fro
He plunged it into every foe.
Ten duels he'd fight of ten bouts each
With vict'ry never out of reach.
But barely now had swords been crossed
Alas! this time that spear was lost.
He left his horse among the strife
And sought some place to save his life.
But t'was not life, but death he found
And now his head hangs in the town.
Eternal does that river flow
From west to east it always goes.
You cannot turn it back again
Much less change the fate of men!)


帝畏王敦之逼,欲以郗鑒爲外援,拜鑒兗州刺史,都督揚州江西諸軍事,鎭合肥。王敦忌之,表鑒爲尚書令。八月,詔徵鑒還,道經姑孰,敦與之論西朝人士,曰:「樂彥輔,短才耳,考其實,豈勝滿武秋邪!」鑒曰:「彥輔道韻平淡,愍懷之廢,柔而能正;武秋失節之士,安得擬之!」敦曰:「當是時,危機交急。」鑒曰:「丈夫當死生以之。」敦惡其言,不復相見,久留不遣。敦黨皆勸敦殺之,敦不從。鑒還臺,遂與帝謀討敦。

13. Emperor Ming was afraid of the danger that Wang Dun continued to pose, and he wanted to use Chi Jian as his agent on the outside against Wang Dun. So he appointed Chi Jian as Inspector of Yanzhou and Commander of military affairs north of the Yangzi, to be stationed at Hefei. But Wang Dun was suspicious of this move, and he sent up a petition asking that Chi Jian be appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing instead. In the eighth month, Emperor Ming issued an edict summoning Chi Jian back to Jiankang.

On his way back, Chi Jian passed through Wang Dun's base at Gushu, and he stopped in to talk. The two of them were discussing the luminaries of the original western court (at Luoyang). Wang Dun said, "Yue Yanfu (Yue Guang) was really nothing but a man of meager talents. Just consider him, and tell me how he could have been better than Man Wuqiu (Man Fen)!"

Chi Jian replied, "I admit that Yanfu struck a rather dull note. However, when Crown Prince Minhuai (Sima Yu) was being deposed, it was Yanfu who, gentle though he was, could still act properly. Wuqiu, on the other hand, was a man who yielded the proper authority. How could you compare them?"

Wang Dun said, "You have to consider the circumstances. That was when Wuqiu was under severe duress."

Chi Jian replied, "A real man will remain true to himself even in the face of life and death."

Wang Dun resented Chi Jian for this implied criticism, and he would not see him again. He kept Chi Jian at Gushu for some time and would not send him on to Jiankang. Wang Dun's partisans all urged him to kill Chi Jian, but he did not listen to them.

Chi Jian eventually reached Jiankang, where he began plotting with Emperor Ming how they might campaign against Wang Dun.

〈時江東謂洛都爲西朝。樂廣,字彥輔。滿奮,字武秋。〉〈事見八十三卷惠帝永康元年,滿奮旣收東宮官屬之辭太子者,趙王倫之篡,奮又奉璽綬,故謂之失節。〉

(During this time, the people of the Southland called the original Jin court at Luoyang the "western court".

Yue Guang's style name was Yanfu; Man Fen's style name was Wuqiu.

The two incidents which Chi Jian holds against Man Fen were when he arrested the ministers and servants of the Eastern Palace who had been talking with Sima Yu, and when he presented Emperor Hui's seals to Sima Lun when Sima Lun usurped the throne. These things are mentioned in Books 83 and 84, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongkang (300.3) and first year of Yongning (301.2).)


後趙中山公虎帥步騎四萬擊安東將軍曹嶷,青州郡縣多降之,遂圍廣固。嶷出降,送襄國殺之,阬其衆三萬。虎欲盡殺嶷衆,青州刺史劉徵曰:「今留徵,使牧民也;無民焉牧,徵將歸耳!」虎乃留男女七百口配徵,使鎭廣固。

14. Shi Hu led forty thousand horse and foot to attack the warlord Cao Yi, whom Jin had appointed as General Who Maintains The East. Many of the counties and commandaries of Qingzhou surrendered to Shi Hu. He then besieged Cao Yi at his base at Guanggu. Cao Yi came out to surrender, and Shi Hu sent him on to Xiangguo, where Cao Yi was killed.

Shi Hu also buried alive thirty thousand people from Cao Yi's forces. He had intended to kill all of Cao Yi's people, but Later Zhao's Inspector of Qingzhou, Liu Zheng, told him, "I was sent here in order to tend to the people. If there are no people, I'll have no choice but to go back!" So Shi Hu assigned seven hundred men and women to Liu Zheng and had him guard Guanggu.

〈《水經註》:廣固城,在漢齊郡廣縣西北四里,四周絕澗,阻水深隍,曹嶷所築也。《九域志》:廣固城,古樂安城。今按青州益都縣西四十里有廣固城,杜佑曰:有大澗甚廣,因曰廣固。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Guanggu was forty li northwest of Guang County in Han's Qi commandary. The area was cut off on every side by ravines, which served as deep moats, which was why Cao Yi built the city there." The Records on the Nine Regions states, "The city of Guanggu was the old city of Le'an." I (Hu Sanxing) note that there is a city of Guanggu forty li west of Yidu County in modern Qingzhou, about which Du You remarked, "The place has great ravines which are very wide, thus it is called Guanggu ('Wide and Stout').")


趙主曜自隴上西擊涼州,遣其將劉咸攻韓璞於冀城,呼延晏攻寧羌護軍陰鑒於桑壁,曜自將戎卒二十八萬軍于河上,列營百餘里,金鼓之聲動地,河水爲沸,張茂臨河諸戍,皆望風奔潰。曜揚聲欲百道俱濟,直抵姑臧,涼州大震。參軍馬岌勸茂親出拒戰,長史氾禕怒,請斬之。岌曰:「氾公糟粕書生,刺舉小才,不思家國大計。明公父子欲爲朝廷誅劉曜有年矣,今曜自至,遠近之情,共觀明公此舉,當立信勇之驗以副秦、隴之望,力雖不敵,勢不可以不出。」茂曰:「善!」乃出屯石頭。茂謂參軍陳珍曰:「劉曜舉三秦之衆,乘勝席卷而來,將若之何?」珍曰:「曜兵雖多,精卒至少,大抵皆氐、羌烏合之衆,恩信未洽,且有山東之虞,安能捨其腹心之疾,曠日持久,與我爭河西之地邪!若二旬不退,珍請得弊卒數千,爲明公擒之。」茂喜,使珍將兵救韓璞。趙諸將爭欲濟河,趙主曜曰:「吾軍勢雖盛,然畏威而來者三分有二,中軍疲困,其實難用。今但按甲勿動,以吾威聲震之,若出中旬張茂之表不至者,吾爲負卿矣。」茂尋遣使稱藩,獻馬、牛、羊、珍寶不可勝紀。曜拜茂侍中、都督涼‧南‧北秦‧梁‧益‧巴‧漢‧隴右‧西域雜夷‧匈奴諸軍事、太師、涼州牧,封涼王,加九錫。

15. Liu Yao marched west from Longshang, leading his forces to attack Liangzhou. He sent his general Liu Xian to attack the Liangzhou general Han Pu at Jicheng and sent Huyan Yan to attack Liangzhou's Protector-General Who Tranquilizies The Qiang, Yin Jian, at Sangbi, while Liu Yao himself led two hundred and eighty thousand soldiers to Heshang.

Liu Yao's camps stretched for more than a hundred li, and the sound of his army's golden drums shook the earth and churned the Yellow River. Zhang Mao's garrisons along the Yellow River, seeing which way the wind was blowing, scattered and fled. Liu Yao spread word that he was intending to lead his army across the Yellow River into Liangzhou along a hundred different roads, making straight for Liangzhou's capital at Guzang. The whole province was greatly shaken.

Zhang Mao's Army Advisor, Ma Ji, urged him to go and oppose the Zhao army in person. This angered Zhang Mao's Chief Clerk, Fan Yi, who asked that Ma Ji be beheaded. But Ma Ji said, "Lord Fan is just a 'scholar of the dregs'. He has a little talent when it comes to accusing others of their faults, but he does not consider the greater plan for the state. Your Grace, you and your father have long wished to execute Liu Yao on behalf of the Jin court. Now Liu Yao himself has come to you, and the eyes of everyone near and far are upon you, watching to see what you shall do. You should use bold people you can trust in order to fulfill the hopes of those in Qinzhou and Longxi. Although your strength is not equal to Liu Yao's, your power is such that you cannot refuse to face him."

Zhang Mao replied, "Excellent!" And he went out to camp his army at Shitou.

Then Zhang Mao said to another Army Advisor, Chen Zhen, "Liu Yao has summoned the forces of all the Three Qins region, and he has come here having just won a victory. What should we do?"

Chen Zhen replied, "Although Liu Yao has a great army, few of them are actually skilled soldiers. He has swelled his numbers by forcing a great many of the Di and Qiang peoples to join him like a flock of crows, but he has not yet had a chance to really win them over through displays of his grace and trust. Furthermore, he still has enemies east of the mountains (that is, east of Luoyang) to worry about. When he has such threats to his very heart and stomach, how can he remain here in stalemate for days on end and contend with us for mastery of the Hexi region? If he does not retreat within twenty days, then please give me a few thousand weak soldiers, and I shall capture him for you."

Zhang Mao was pleased, and he sent Chen Zhen to lead troops to reinforce Han Pu.

The Zhao generals were all spoiling for a fight and wanted to cross the Yellow River. But Liu Yao said, "Although our army's power has grown, two-thirds of our numbers are just people who came to us because they feared our might. Furthermore, our soldiers are fatigued, and it would be difficult to really put them to use. What we will do for now is merely put on our armor and make a sudden advance, so that we can unnerve them by the sound of our martial activities. If Zhang Mao has not sent us a petition asking to submit by the middle of this month, then I shall do as all of you advise."

Zhang Mao soon sent envoys offering his vassalage to Zhao, as well as uncountable numbers of horses, oxen, sheep, and treasures to present as tribute. Liu Yao appointed Zhang Mao as Palace Attendant, Commander of military affairs in Liangzhou, Northern and Southern Qinzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Bazhou, Hanzhou, Longyou, the Western Reaches, and over the Xiongnu and other various tribal peoples, as well as Grand Tutor, Governor of Liangzhou, and Prince of Liang. He also granted Zhang Mao the Nine Bestowments.

〈桑壁,當在南安界。〉〈《莊子》曰:桓公讀書於堂上,輪扁斲輪於堂下,問桓公曰:「敢問公所讀者何言也?」公曰:「聖人之書也。」曰:「聖人在乎?」曰:「已死矣。」曰:「然則君之所讀者,古人之糟粕已矣,古之人與其不可傳者死矣。」李云:糟,酒滓也。糟爛爲粕。刺者,以直傷人;舉者,招人之過。〉〈石頭,在姑臧城東。〉〈言新破陳安,乘勝而來也。〉〈謂方與石勒相圖也。〉〈果如陳珍所料。〉

(Sangbi was within Nan'an commandary.

The Zhuangxi states, "Duke Huan, seated above in his hall, was reading a book, and the wheelwright Bian was making a wheel below it. Bian asked the Duke, 'I venture to ask Your Grace what words you are reading?' The duke said, 'The words of the sages.' 'Are those sages alive?' Bian continued. 'They are dead,' was the reply. 'Then,' said the other, 'what you, my Ruler, are reading are only the dregs and sediments of those old men. Such ancients, and what it was not possible for them to convey, are all dead.' (13.9)" Li remarked, "The term 糟 'dregs' means the remains of wine."

Ma Ji calls Fan Yi a 刺舉. A 刺er is one who can wound people through blunt remarks; a 舉er is one who brings up people's transgressions.

This Shitou was east of the city of Guzang.

When Zhang Mao says that Liu Yao "has come here having just won a victory", he means how Liu Yao had just defeated Chen An and was now riding the momentum of that victory to attack Liangzhou.

By "enemies east of the mountains", Chen Zhen meant Liu Yao's mutual antagonism with Shi Le.

The situation of Liu Yao's army was just as Chen Zhen had analyzed.)


Bazhou and Hanzhou do not seem to have been existing provinces either. Presumably they covered parts of Sichuan.

楊難敵聞陳安死,大懼,與弟堅頭南奔漢中,趙鎭西將軍劉厚追擊之,大獲而還。趙主曜以大鴻臚田崧爲鎭南大將軍、益州刺史,鎭仇池。難敵送任請降於成,成安北將軍李稚受難敵賂,不送難敵於成都。趙兵退,卽遣歸武都,難敵遂據險不服。稚自悔失計,亟請討之。雄遣稚兄侍中、中領軍琀與稚出白水,征東將軍李壽及琀弟玝出陰平,以擊難敵;羣臣諫,不聽。難敵遣兵拒之,壽、玝不得進,而琀、稚長驅至下辨。難敵遣兵斷其歸路,四面攻之。琀、稚深入無繼,皆爲難敵所殺,死者數千人。琀,蕩之長子,有才望,雄欲以爲嗣,聞其死,不食者數日。

16. When Yang Nandi heard that Chen An was dead, he was very afraid. He and his younger brother Yang Jiantou fled south to Hanzhong. Zhao's General Who Guards The West, Liu Hou, pursued and attacked them, capturing a great many people before returning. Liu Yao appointed his Grand Herald, Tian Song, as Grand General Who Guards The South and Inspector of Yizhou, and stationed him at Chouchi.

Yang Nandi sent hostages to Cheng, asking to surrender to them. Cheng's General Who Maintains The North, Li Zhi, accepted bribes from Yang Nandi and so did not send him on to Chengdu. After the Zhao soldiers withdrew, Li Zhi sent Yang Nandi back to Wudu. Yang Nandi occupied it and then refused to obey Cheng any longer.

Li Zhi, blaming himself for having miscalculated, repeatedly asked to lead a campaign against Yang Nandi. The Emperor of Cheng, Li Xiong, sent the Palace Attendant and General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Li Zhi's elder brother Li Han, to join him in marching out from Baishui. He also sent the General Who Conquers The East, Li Shou, and Li Han's younger brother Li Wu to march to Yinping. These two prongs would attack Yang Nandi. Li Xiong's ministers remonstrated with him, but he did not listen to them.

Yang Nandi sent soldiers to block Li Shou's and Li Wu's advance, so they could go no further. Meanwhile, Li Han and Li Zhi rushed ahead until they reached Xiabian. Then Yang Nandi sent soldiers to cut off their retreat, and he attacked them from all sides. Li Han and Li Zhi, deep in enemy territory and with no way out, were both killed by Yang Nandi, and several thousand Cheng soldiers died.

Li Han had been Li Dang's eldest son, and he had had such talent and influence that Li Xiong had wanted to make him his heir. When Li Xiong heard that Li Han had died, he went several days without eating.

〈亟請,數以爲請也。〉

(The term 亟請 means to repeatedly ask for something.)


氐王楊難敵兄弟為劉曜所破,奔葭萌,遣子入質... 楊難敵之奔葭萌也,雄安北李稚厚撫之,縱其兄弟還武都,難敵遂恃險多為不法,稚請討之。雄遣中領軍琀及將軍樂次、費他、李乾等由白水橋攻下辯,征東李壽督琀弟玝攻陰平。難敵遣軍距之,壽不得進,而琀、稚長驅至武街。難敵遣兵斷其歸道,四面攻之,獲琀、稚,死者數千人。琀、稚,雄兄蕩之子也。雄深悼之,不食者數日,言則流涕,深自咎責焉。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

The King of the Di people of Chouchi, Yang Nandi, and his brothers were all routed by Liu Yao. They fled to Jiameng, where they sent their sons to Li Xiong as hostages. Li Xiong's General Who Maintains The North, Li Zhi, treated him well and comforted him, and he even let him and his brothers return to Wudu. Now secure in defensible terrain, Yang Nandi began to ignore many of Cheng's laws. So Li Zhi asked to campaign against him.

Li Xiong sent his General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Li Han, and his generals Yue Ci, Fei Ta, Li Gan, and others from Baishui Bridge to attack Xiabian, while sending the General Who Conquers The East, Li Shou, to command Li Han's younger brother Li Wu in an attack on Yinping. But Li Han and Li Zhi were captured, and several thousand people died.

Li Han and Li Zhi were sons of Li Xiong's elder brother Li Dang, and Li Xiong deeply regretted their loss. He did not eat for several days, and he wept if he so much as spoke, so deeply did he blame himself.

遷征東將軍。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

Li Xiong later appointed Li Shou as General Who Conquers The East.

初,氐王楊茂搜子難敵、堅頭為劉曜所破,奔晉壽。晉壽守將李稚,蕩第二子也,受其賂遺,不送成都。曜既引還,稚遣難敵兄弟還武都。遂即叛稚。稚悔失計,連白雄求伐氐。雄許之。群臣多諫,雄不從。遣稚兄琀以侍中、中領軍統稚攻難敵,由白水道;「壽」遣〔壽〕與稚弟玝由陰平入,二道討氐。難敵等先拒壽、玝。玝、壽不進。而琀、稚逕至下辨;以深入無繼,大為氐所破,稚、琀皆死;死者千餘人。雄深自咎責,以謝百姓。琀,蕩之元子,有名望志尚,雄欲傳以後嗣,甚痛惜之。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

Earlier, the Di king Yang Maosou had been succeeded by his son Yang Nandi. Then Yang Nandi and his younger brother Yan Jiantou were routed by Liu Yao of Han-Zhao, so they fled to Jinshou. Li Xiong's Administrator of Jinshou, Li Zhi, was the second son of Li Dang. He accepted their bribes and did not send them on to Chengdu. After Liu Yao led his army away, Li Zhi sent Yang Nandi and Yang Jiantou back to Wudu. But having reached that place, they turned against Li Zhi.

Li Zhi, blaming himself for having miscalculated, repeatedly asked Li Xiong for permission to lead a campaign against the Di, and Li Xiong gave his consent. Many of Li Xiong's ministers remonstrated with him, but he did not listen to them. He sent the Palace Attendant and General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Li Zhi's elder brother Li Han, to join him in marching out from Baishui. He also sent Li Shou and Li Zhi's younger brother Li Wu to march from Yinping. These two prongs would attack the Di together. Yang Nandi and the other Di first blocked Li Shou's and Li Wu's advance, so they could go no further. Meanwhile, Li Han and Li Zhi rushed ahead until they reached Xiabian. Deep in enemy territory and with no way out, they were greatly routed by the Di, and Li Han and Li Zhi both died, along with more than a thousand Cheng soldiers.

Li Xiong deeply blamed himself for their deaths, and he apologized to the common people. Li Han had been Li Dang's eldest son, and he had had such ambition and renown that Li Xiong had wanted to make him his heir, so he especially regretted that Li Han had perished.


初,趙主曜長子儉,次子胤。胤年十歲,長七尺五寸,漢主聰奇之,謂曜曰:「此兒神氣,非義眞之比也,當以爲嗣。」曜曰:「藩國之嗣,能守祭祀足矣,不敢亂長幼之序。」聰曰:「卿之勳德,當世受專征之任,非他臣之比也,吾當更以一國封義眞。」乃封儉爲臨海王,立胤爲世子。旣長,多力善射,驍捷如風。靳準之亂,沒於黑匿郁鞠部。陳安旣敗,胤自言於郁鞠,郁鞠大驚,禮而歸之。曜悲喜,謂羣臣曰:「義光雖已爲太子,然沖幼儒謹,恐不堪今之多難。義孫,故世子也,材器過人,且涉歷艱難。吾欲法周文王、漢光武,以固社稷而安義光,何如?」太傅呼延晏等皆曰:「陛下爲國家無窮之計,豈惟臣等賴之,實宗廟四海之慶。」左光祿大夫卜泰、太子太保韓廣進曰:「陛下以廢立爲是,不應更問羣臣;若以爲疑,固樂聞異同之言。臣竊以爲廢太子,非也。昔文王定嗣於未立之前,則可也;光武以母失恩而廢其子,豈足爲聖朝之法!曏以東海爲嗣,未必不如明帝也。胤文武才略,誠高絕於世;然太子孝友仁慈,亦足爲承平賢主。況東宮者,民、神所繫,豈可輕動!陛下誠欲如是,臣等有死而已,不敢奉詔。」曜默然。胤進曰:「父之於子,當愛之如一,今黜熙而立臣,臣何敢自安!陛下苟以臣爲頗堪驅策,豈不能輔熙以承聖業乎!必若以臣代熙,臣請效死於此,不敢聞命。」因歔欷流涕。曜亦以熙羊后所生,不忍廢也,乃追諡前妃卜氏爲元悼皇后。泰,卽胤之舅也,曜嘉其公忠,以爲上光祿大夫、儀同三司、領太子太傅;封胤爲永安王,拜侍中、衞大將軍、都督二宮禁衞諸軍事、開府儀同三司、錄尚書事。命熙於胤盡家人之禮。

17. Originally, Liu Yao had an eldest son named Liu Jian and a second son named Liu Yin. By the time Liu Yin was nine years old, he was already seven 尺 and five 寸 tall. The Emperor of Han at that time, Liu Cong, had said to Liu Yao, "This boy has a remarkable aura to him; there's no comparison between him and Yizhen (Liu Jian). You should make this one your heir."

Liu Yao had replied, "The heir of a border commander need only be good enough to protect the sacrifices. I would not dare to confuse the order of seniority among sons."

Liu Cong had said, "When it comes to your accomplishments, your virtues, and the position you hold as a conquering general, no other minister can compare with you. I shall make a new fief and give that one to Yizhen."

And Liu Cong had appointed Liu Jian as Prince of Linhai, while naming Liu Yin as Liu Yao's heir. When Liu Yin was grown up, he was very strong and was skilled with the bow, and he was valiant and as nimble as the wind.

During Jin Zhun's rebellion and slaughter of the Liu clan, Liu Yin had hid among the tribe of Heini Yuju. Now, after Chen An was defeated, Liu Yin told Heini Yuju who he really was. Greatly astonished, Heini Yuju treated Liu Yin with all due ceremony and sent him back to his father.

Liu Yao felt bittersweet happiness at the return of his son. He said to his ministers, "Although Yiguang (another son, Liu Xi) is already the Crown Prince, he is still young and tender, and he has a bookish and cautious nature. I fear he would not be able to endure the many troubles we face today. And after all, Yisun (Liu Yin) was originally my heir. His talents and abilities are more than human, and has he not already experienced so many travails himself? So I wish to follow the precedents of King Wen of Zhou and Emperor Guangwu of Han. By doing so, I shall both protect the fortunes of state and give peace to Yiguang. What do you say?"

The Grand Tutor, Huyan Yan, and the others ministers all said, "Your Majesty is always making plans for the benefit of the state, and how can we ministers gainsay you? This is truly a moment for celebration for the imperial family and all within the Four Seas."

But then the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Left, Bo Tai, and the Grand Guardian to the Crown Prince, Han Guang, stepped forward and said, "Your Majesty, it is your prerogative to depose or set up whomever you wish. But rather than act at once, you have consulted your ministers about it. If you are uncertain as to whether to carry out your intentions, then may it please you to hear divergent opinions expressed.

"In our humble view, to depose the Crown Prince would be improper. In ancient times, when King Wen of Zhou arranged his succession, that was before he himself had been established, and so it was permissible. As for Emperor Guangwu, he only deposed his Crown Prince because the Crown Prince's mother had lost his favor; how could such a thing as that serve as a precedent for a sage court? If the Prince of Donghai had indeed succeeded to the throne, we cannot be sure that he would have been any worse than Emperor Ming.

"Now Liu Yin is indeed talented and cunning at both civil and military affairs, and he truly does surpass many others of our time. However, the Crown Prince is filial, friendly, benevolent, and kind, and he would also be able to serve as a worthy lord for a peaceful world. Furthermore, it is not just the residents of the Eastern Palace who have become attached to the Crown Prince; even the common people and the spirits are with him. How could you so lightly set him aside? Your Majesty, if you truly wish to do this, we shall have to oppose you to the death. We dare not uphold such an edict."

Liu Yao fell silent in response. Then Liu Yin himself stepped forward and said, "Fathers must show equal love to all their sons. Your Majesty, if you were to depose Liu Xi and set me in his place, how could I dare to feel at ease with that? If you truly believe that I am suited to carry out the long-term plans of the state, then could I not equally serve as an assistant to Liu Xi and help him to achieve the sage design? If you are determined that I should replace Liu Xi, then allow me to give up my life this very moment, for I dare not heed such an order." And he was driven to sobbing and weeping.

Now despite his proposal, Liu Yao could not really bear to depose Liu Xi, because he was the son of the late Empress Yang Xianrong. So he decided not to replace Liu Xi. He posthumously named his former wife and Liu Yin's mother, Lady Bo, as Empress Yuandao ("the Foremost and Grieved"). This Bo Tai was Lady Bo's brother and Liu Yin's uncle. Liu Yao praised him for his just and loyal service, and he appointed him as Upper Household Counselor With Golden Tassel with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies and as acting Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince. He appointed Liu Yin as Prince of Yong'an, Palace Attendant, Grand Guard General, Commander of the guards of the Two Palaces, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. Liu Yao ordered Liu Xi to conduct himself before Liu Yin in all cases by the ceremonies proper between an elder and younger brother.

〈儉,字義眞。〉〈言當世爲方伯,得專征伐也。〉〈事見九十卷太興元年。〉〈黑匿郁鞠旣歸胤,曜嘉其忠款,封爲左賢王,則亦匈奴之種也。〉〈曜太子熙字義光;胤字義孫。〉〈周文王舍伯邑考而立武王,漢光武舍長子彊而立明帝。〉〈二宮,曜宮及熙宮也。〉〈不以儲嗣使熙廢兄弟庸敬。〉

(Liu Jian's style name was Yizhen.

Liu Cong was saying that Liu Yao, although a border commander, had achieved many conquests during his time.

Jin Zhun's rebellion against Liu Can and his slaughter of most of the Liu family is mentioned in Book 90, in the first year of Taixing (318.30).

Since Heini Yuju had returned Liu Yin, Liu Yao commended his loyalty and sincerity and appointed him as Worthy Prince of the Left. So Heini Yuju must have been from another branch of the Xiongnu.

Liu Yao's Crown Prince, Liu Xi, was styled Yiguang; Liu Yin's style name was Yisun.

King Wen of Zhou had set aside his eldest son Bo Yikao in favor of his second son, the later King Wu. Emperor Guangwu of Han had set aside his eldest son Liu Jiang in favor of the later Emperor Ming.

The "two palaces" were Liu Yao's palace and Liu Xi's palace.

Liu Xi was not to show a lack of proper respect as a younger brother to an elder brother just because he was the heir.)


張茂大城姑臧,修靈鈞臺。別駕吳紹諫曰:「明公所以修城築臺者,蓋懲旣往之患耳。愚以爲苟恩未洽於人心,雖處層臺,亦無所益,適足以疑羣下忠信之志,失士民繫託之望,示怯弱之形,啓鄰敵之謀,將何以佐天子,霸諸侯乎!願亟罷茲役,以息勞費。」茂曰:「亡兄一旦失身於物,豈無忠臣義士欲盡節者哉!顧禍生不意,雖有智勇無所施耳。王公設險,勇夫重閉,古之道也。今國家未靖,不可以太平之理責人於屯邅之世也。」卒爲之。

18. Zhang Mao greatly fortified Guzang, and he finished the construction of the Lingjun Terrace. His Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Wu Shao, remonstrated with him, saying, "Your Grace, when you were repairing the walls and building terraces just now, that was just because of the approaching threat from Liu Yao. Foolish as I am, still I do not believe that your grace has spread all through the hearts of the people. Even if you lived in such a tall terrace, it would not do you any good; all it would do is alienate you from the loyalty and trust of your ministers and subordinates, and lose you the hopes of the gentry and common people who have placed their trust in you. You would show yourself to be weak and cowardly, and that would invite your neighboring enemies to plot against you. Then how could you assist the Son of Heaven or serve as a hegemon over the feudal lords? I pray you will fully cease these projects and give rest to such expenditures of funds and labor."

Zhang Mao replied, "When my late elder brother lost his life in a single day, was it because he lacked loyal ministers and righteous men who would serve him with all they had? When disaster creeps up upon you, even intelligence and bravery cannot turn it away. And are there not ancient principles which state, 'the kings and nobles establish defenses', and 'a brave man keeps the leaves of his door shut'? The state is not yet tranquil, and a man living in a difficult age cannot be reproached with a reasoning more suited to an age of peace."

And this was how Zhang Mao remained, to the end of his life.

〈元帝太興四年,茂築靈鈞臺,以閻曾諫而止,今復修之。〉〈謂懲劉曜來攻也。〉〈茂兄寔爲其下所殺,事見上卷太興三年。〉〈《易》曰:王公設險以守其國。《左傳》曰:勇夫重閉,而況國乎!〉

(Zhang Mao had begun construction of the Lingjun Terrace in Emperor Yuan's fourth year of Taixing (Book 91, 321.2). But because of Yan Zeng's remonstration, he had halted the construction. He now completed it.

Wu Shao was referring to when Liu Yao had come to attack Liangzhou.

Zhang Mao's elder brother Zhang Shi had been assassinated by his subordinates, as mentioned in Book 91, in the second year of Taixing (320.11).

The Book of Changes states, "The kings and nobles establish defenses, to maintain their territories (29.1).”

The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "A brave man keeps the leaves of his door shut;—how much more should a State do so! (Cheng 8.7)")


王敦從子允之,方總角,敦愛其聰警,常以自隨。敦常夜飲,允之辭醉先臥。敦與錢鳳謀爲逆,允之悉聞其言;卽於臥處大吐,衣面並汚。鳳出,敦果照視,見允之臥於吐中,不復疑之。會其父舒拜廷尉,允之求歸省父,悉以敦、鳳之謀白舒。舒與王導俱啓帝,陰爲之備。

19. Wang Dun had a cousin's son, Wang Yunzhi, who wore his hair in twin tufts. Wang Dun treasured Wang Yunzhi because of his intelligence and perception, and he often had Wang Yunzhi follow him around. Wang Dun often drank during the night, and when Wang Yunzhi was with him, Wang Yunzhi would get drunk and be the first one to lie down.

On one such night, Wang Dun was making treasonous plans together with his subordinate Qian Feng, and Wang Yunzhi heard everything they were saying. But just then, he was lying in a pool of his own vomit, and both his clothes and his face were filthy. When Qian Feng left, Wang Dun looked around, and seeing Wang Yunzhi lying in a pool of vomit, he did not suspect anything from him.

Soon, Wang Yunzhi's father Wang Shu was appointed as Commandant of Justice, so Wang Yunzhi asked Wang Dun to let him return to help his father. Upon arriving at court, Wang Yunzhi informed his father of all the plotting that Wang Dun and Qian Feng were up to. Wang Shu and Wang Dao then reported to Emperor Ming, and they made secret preparations on his behalf.

〈毛萇曰:總角,聚兩髦也。〉

(Mao Chang remarked, "The term 總角 means to gather the hair in two parts.")


王右軍年裁十歲時,大將軍甚愛之,恆置帳中眠。大將軍嘗先出,右軍猶未起;須臾,錢鳳入,屏人論事,都忘右軍在帳中,便言逆節之謀。右軍覺,既聞所論,知無活理,乃剔吐汙頭面被褥,詐熟眠。敦論事造半,方意右軍未起,相與大驚曰:「不得不除之!」及開帳,乃見吐唾從橫,信其實熟眠,於是得全。于時稱其有智。(New Tales 27.7)

When Wang Xizhi was under ten years old, his uncle, the Grand General Wang Dun, was extremely fond of him, and frequently had him sleep within his own bed curtains.

One morning (in 322?), Wang Dun had gotten out of bed first, before Wang Xizhi had gotten up. A short while later, Qian Feng entered the room and the two men started to discuss business. Forgetting all about the fact that Wang Xizhi was still inside the bed curtains, Wang Dun proceeded to talk about his plot to rebel.

Wang Xizhi woke up, and after he heard what they were discussing, he realized there was no prospect of escaping alive.
Accordingly, he gagged and vomited, soiling his face and bedclothes, then feigned a deep sleep.

Wang Dun was already halfway through discussing his business before he remembered that Wang Xizhi had not yet gotten up.
Then with a shock of alarm he cried, "There's no help for it but to put him out of the way!" But when he opened the curtains and saw the vomit spread in all directions, he believed that Wang Xizhi really was in a deep sleep, and thereby the boy's life was preserved. At the time, people praised Wang Xizhi for his sagacity. (tr. Richard Mather)


敦欲強其宗族,陵弱帝室,冬,十一月,徙王含爲征東將軍、都督揚州江西諸軍事,王舒爲荊州刺史、監荊州沔南諸軍事,王彬爲江州刺史。

20. Wang Dun wanted to strengthen the power of his clan while isolating the power of the imperial clan. In winter, the eleventh month, he reassigned Wang Han as General Who Conquers The East and Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou west of the Yangzi. He also appointed Wang Shu as Inspector of Jingzhou and Chief of military affairs in Jingzhou south of the Mian River, and he appointed Wang Bin as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

後趙王勒以參軍樊坦爲章武內史,勒見其衣冠弊壞,問之。坦率然對曰:「頃爲羯賊所掠,資財蕩盡。」勒笑曰:「羯賊乃爾無道邪!今當相償。」坦大懼,叩頭泣謝。勒賜車馬、衣服、裝錢三百萬而遣之。

21. Shi Le appointed his Army Advisor, Fan Tan, as Interior Minister of Zhangwu.

When Shi Le saw that Fan Tan's clothes and hat were shabby and damaged, he asked him about it. Fan Tan rashly responded, "I was just plundered by the Jie bandits, who stole everything I own."

Shi Le laughed and said, "Those Jie bandits have really done you wrong! I shall have to make it up to you."

Fan Tan was greatly afraid, and he kowtowed as he wept and begged forgiveness. But Shi Le gave him a carriage with horses, new robes and clothes, and three million cash before sending him on his way.

〈章武縣,漢屬勃海郡;武帝泰始元年,分置章武國;隋廢章武,幷入河間郡;唐爲瀛州。〉

(During Han, Zhangwu County was part of Bohai commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), he split it off as the Zhangwu princely fief. Sui abolished Zhangwu as a fief and folded it into Hejian commandary. During Tang, it was Yingzhou.)


是歲,越巂斯叟攻成將任回,成主雄遣征南將軍費黑討之。

22. During this year, the Si-Sou people of Yuegui commandary attacked the Cheng general Ren Hui. Li Xiong sent his General Who Conquers The South, Fei Hei, to campaign against them.

〈《前漢‧西南夷傳》云:自巂以東北,君長以十數,徙、筰都最大。師古曰:徙及筰都二國也。巂,音髓。徙,音斯。此斯,卽漢之斯種也;蜀謂之叟。〉

(The Accounts of the Southwestern Tribes in the Book of Han states, "The Si people live to the northeast of Gui. They have dozens of chiefs and leaders, with the greatest being the Xi/Si and Zuo." Yan Shigu remarked, "The Xi/Si and Zuo were both states." 巂 is pronounced "sui". 徙 is pronounced "si". This Si people were a branch of the Si people known during Han; the people of Shu called them the Sou.)


泰寧元年,越嶲斯叟反,攻圍任回及太守李謙。遣「其」征南費黑救之。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

In the first year of Taining (323), the Si-Sou tribes of Yuexi rebelled. They attacked and besieged Ren Hui and Li Xiong's Administrator of Yuexie, Li Qian. Li Xiong sent his General Who Conquers The South, Fei Hei, to reinforce them.


會稽內史周札,一門五侯,宗族強盛,吳士莫與爲比;王敦忌之。敦有疾,錢鳳勸敦早除周氏,敦然之。周嵩以兄顗之死,心常憤憤。敦無子,養王含子應爲嗣,嵩嘗於衆中言應不宜統兵,敦惡之。嵩與札兄子莚皆爲敦從事中郎。會道士李脫以妖術惑衆,士民頗信事之。

23. Jin's Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Zhou Zha, was a member of a family which boasted five marquises. His clan was powerful and abundant, and there were no others among the gentry families of the Wu region which could compare with them. So Wang Dun was wary of the Zhou clan.

At this time, Wang Dun became ill. Qian Feng urged him to do away with the Zhou clan at once, and Wang Dun was inclined to agree.

Since Zhou Yi had died, his younger brother Zhou Song often felt agitated. Wang Dun had no son, so he adopted Wang Han's son Wang Ying as his heir. This Zhou Song had once accused Wang Ying of being unfit to command soldiers in the midst of the army, and Wang Dun hated him for that. Zhou Song and Zhou Zha's nephew Zhou Yan were both serving under Wang Dun as Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen.

At this time, there was a Daoist named Li Tuo who used magic to beguile the people, and many gentry and common people were inclined to believe in him.

〈札封東遷縣侯;兄靖子懋,清流亭侯;懋弟贊,武康縣侯;贊弟縉,都鄕侯;兄玘子勰,烏程縣侯;凡五侯。〉〈事見元帝永昌元年。〉

(Zhou Zha was himself the Marquis of Dongqian County. His elder brother Zhou Jing had a son, Zhou Mao, who was Marquis of Qingliu Village. Zhou Mao's younger brother Zhou Zan was Marquis of Wukang County. Zhou Zan's younger brother Zhou Jin was Marquis of Du Precinct. And another of Zhou Zha's elder brothers, Zhou Qi, had a son, Zhou Xie, who was Marquis of Wucheng County. This made five marquises.

Zhou Yi's execution by Wang Dun is mentioned above, in the first year of Yongchang (322.30).)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Aug 10, 2018 9:58 pm, edited 8 times in total.
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BOOK 93

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue May 22, 2018 1:38 am

太寧二年(甲申、三二四)

The Second Year of Taining (The Jiashen Year, 324 AD)


春,正月,王敦誣周嵩、周莚與李脫謀爲不軌,收嵩、莚,於軍中殺之;遣參軍賀鸞就沈充於吳,盡殺周札諸兄子;進兵襲會稽,札拒戰而死。

1. In spring, the first month, Wang Dun slandered Zhou Song, Zhou Yan, and Li Tu as plotting against proper authority. He arrested Zhou Song and Zhou Yan and killed them in the midst of the army.

Wang Dun sent one of his Army Advisors, He Luan, to go to Shen Chong in the Wu princely fief, who killed all of Zhou Zha's nephews there. Shen Chong’s soldiers then advanced to attack Kuaiji commandary. Zhou Zha opposed them, but died in battle.

後趙將兵都尉石瞻寇下邳、彭城,取東莞、東海,劉遐退保泗口。

2. Later Zhao's Commandant of Soldiers, Shi Zhan, invaded Xiapi and Pengcheng commandaries and captured Dongguan and Donghai commandaries. The Jin general Liu Xia fell back to guard Sikou.

〈東莞縣,漢屬琅邪郡。武帝泰始元年,分琅邪立東莞郡。〉〈《水經註》:泗水自淮陽城東流逕角城北,而東南流注于淮,謂之泗口。杜佑曰:泗口,在今臨淮郡宿遷縣界。〉

(During Han, Dongguan County was part of Langye commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), he split it off from Langye to form Dongguan commandary.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Si River flows east from the city of Huaiyang, passing north of Juecheng, and then southeast until it merges with the Huai River. That place is called Sikou ('mouth of the Si')." Du You remarked, "Sikou was within Suqian County in modern Linhuai commandary.")


司州刺史石生擊趙河南太守尹平於新安,斬之,掠五千餘戶而歸。自是二趙構隙,日相攻掠,河東、弘農之間,民不聊生矣。

3. Later Zhao's Inspector of Sizhou, Shi Sheng, attacked Zhao's Administrator of Henan, Yin Ping, at Xin'an. Shi Sheng beheaded Yin Ping and captured more than five thousand households before returning.

Thus began a general war between the two Zhao states. From this time on, there were daily incidents of fighting and plunder, and the people living in the region around Hedong and Hongnong commandaries never knew a moment's peace.

〈新安縣,漢屬弘農郡,晉屬河南郡。〉〈河東、弘農,二趙之界上也。〉

(During Han, Xin'an County was part of Hongnong commandary. During Jin, it was part of Henan commandary.

Hedong and Hongnong commandaries were the border between the two Zhao states.)


石生寇許、潁,俘獲萬計。攻郭誦于陽翟,誦與戰,大破之,生退守康城。後趙汲郡內史石聰聞生敗,馳救之,進攻司州刺史李矩、潁川太守郭默,皆破之。

4. Shi Sheng invaded the regions of Xuchang and Yingchuan, capturing around ten thousand people. He attacked the Jin general Guo Song at Yangdi, but Guo Song inflicted a great rout on him, and Shi Sheng retreated to guard Kangcheng.

When Later Zhao's Interior Minister of Ji commandary, Shi Cong, heard that Shi Sheng had been defeated, he rushed to rescue him. He advanced and attacked Jin's Inspector of Sizhou, Li Ju, and their Administrator of Yingchuan, Guo Mo, and routed both of them.

〈許昌、潁川,同是一郡地。〉〈魏收《地形志》,陽翟縣有康城。〉

(This passage refers to "the regions of Xu and Ying"; it means Xuchang and Yingchuan, which were both part of the same commandary.

According to Wei Shou's Geographical Records, there was a city of Kangcheng in Yangdi County.)


成主雄,后任氏無子,有妾子十餘人,雄立其兄蕩之子班爲太子,使任后母之。羣臣請立諸子,雄曰:「吾兄,先帝之嫡統,有奇材大功,事垂克而早世,朕常悼之。且班仁孝好學,必能負荷先烈。」太傅驤、司徒王達諫曰:「先王立嗣必子者,所以明定分而防篡奪也。宋宣公、吳餘祭,足以觀矣!」雄不聽。驤退而流涕曰:「亂自此始矣!」班爲人謙恭下士,動遵禮法,雄每有大議,輒令豫之。

5. The Emperor of Cheng, Li Xiong, had no sons by his Empress, Lady Ren. He did have sons by his concubines, more than ten in all. But rather than select one of these sons to be his heir, Li Xiong instead chose to make Li Ban, the son of his late elder brother Li Dang, the Crown Prince. He had Lady Ren act as a mother to the boy.

Li Xiong's ministers asked him to make one of his own sons the Crown Prince instead. But Li Xiong told them, "My elder brother was His Late Majesty's (Li Te's) primary heir. How remarkable were his talents; how great were his accomplishments! I have often regretted the fact that, just as we were on the cusp of victory, he lost his life too soon. Besides, the boy Li Ban is benevolent, filial, and fond of study. He shall certainly be able to continue our great endeavor."

The Grand Tutor, Li Xiang, and the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Da, remonstrated with him, saying, "The rulers of old always made sure to appoint their sons as their heirs, in order to make clear the line of succession and protect against usurpation. The examples of Duke Xuan of Song and Yuji of Wu should be sufficient proof for why you should not do otherwise!"

But Li Xiong did not listen to them. When Li Xiang withdrew, he wept and said, "This shall bring about turmoil!"

Li Ban was modest and courteous to his subordinates, and conducted himself according to proper ceremony. Whenever Li Xiong held a great council, he always had Li Ban attend as well.

〈蕩死見八十五卷惠帝太安二年。〉〈《漢書》曰:立嗣必子,所從來遠矣。《公羊傳》曰:宋宣公謂繆公曰:「以吾愛與夷則不若愛汝;以爲社稷宗廟主,則與夷不若汝,盍終爲君矣。」宣公死,繆公立,逐其二子莊公馮與左師勃,而致國乎與夷。故君子大居正,宋之禍,宣公爲之也。吳子謁、餘祭、夷昩與季子同母,季子弱而才,兄弟皆愛之,同欲立之以爲君。謁曰:今若迮而與季子國,季子猶不受也,請無與子而與弟,弟兄迭爲君而致國乎季子。夷昩死,則國宜之季子,季子使而亡焉。僚者,長庶也,卽之,季子使反而君之。闔閭曰:「先君所以不與子國而與弟者,凡爲季子故也。將從先君之命歟,則國宜之季子;如不從先君之命,則我宜立者也,僚惡得爲君乎!」於是使專諸刺僚。張守節曰:祭,側界翻。昩,莫葛翻。〉〈爲下雄諸子殺張本。〉

(Li Dang had died in battle shortly before Li Xiong led the rebel forces to capture Chengdu and establish Cheng as a state. This is mentioned in Book 85, in Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (303.3).

Li Xiang and Wang Da quote from the Book of Han: "It is a principle of long provenance that the one selected as heir must be one's son."

Regarding Duke Xuan of the ancient state of Song, the Gongyang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "Duke Xuan of Song said to Duke Mu, 'My regard for my son Yuyi is not so great as my regard for you, and when it comes to the one who can safeguard the fortunes of our state, Yuyi does not compare with you. You must be the one to become lord.' But after Duke Xuan died, when Duke Mu succeeded him, he drove out his own two sons, Duke Zhuang (Feng) and the Instructor of the Left (Bo), and restored the state back to Yuyi. This is why the ruler's son must inherit his seat; Song's misfortunes stemmed from Duke Xuan's decision here."

Regarding Yuji of Wu, the Gongyang Commentary states, "The Earl of Wu, Ye, had three brothers by the same mother: Yuji, Yimo, and Jizi. Jizi was young, but he was talented, and his brothers all treasured him and wished to make him the ruler. Ye said, 'Even if I were to constrain myself and share the state with Jizi, he would still not accept it. So rather than pass the state from father to son, let us pass it from elder brother to younger brother, until it is Jizi's time.' They followed this arrangement, and so when Yimo passed away, Jizi was slated to be the next ruler. However, he shirked such responsibility. There was a certain Liao, the eldest son of their father Shoumeng by a concubine, whom Yizi made the new Earl in his place. But Yimo had a son, Helü, who thought to himself, 'It was His Late Majesty's will that the succession should pass from elder brother to younger brother rather than from father to son. If we are going to follow his will, then Jizi must be the new ruler. But if we are not going to follow it, then I ought to be the new ruler. By what right does Liao claim the throne?' And so he sent Zhuan Zhu to kill Liao." Zhang Shoujie remarked, "The second character in Yuji, 祭, is pronounced 'cie (c-ie)'. And the second character in Yimo, 昩, is pronounced 'me (m-e)'."

This was why Li Xiong's sons later killed Li Ban.)


十四年,立兄子班為太子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Xiong)

In the fourteenth year of Yuheng (324), Li Xiong appointed his nephew Li Ban as his Crown Prince.

其後將立蕩子班為太子。雄有子十餘人,群臣咸欲立雄所生。雄曰:「起兵之初,舉手捍頭,本不希帝王之業也。值天下喪亂,晉氏播蕩,群情義舉,志濟塗炭,而諸君遂見推逼,處王公之上。本之基業,功由先帝。吾兄嫡統,丕祚所歸,恢懿明睿,殆天報命,大事垂克,薨于戎戰。班姿性仁孝,好學夙成,必為名器。」李驤與司徒王達諫曰:「先王樹塚嫡者,所以防篡奪之萌,不可不慎。吳子舍其子而立其弟,所以有專諸之禍;宋宣不立與夷而立穆公,卒有宋督之變。猶子之言,豈若子也?深願陛下思之。」雄不從,竟立班,驤退而流涕曰:「亂自此始矣!」(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

After this, Li Xiong was about to appoint Li Dang's son Li Ban as his Crown Prince. Li Xiong himself had more than ten sons, and his ministers all wished to have Li Xiong appoint one of them as heir instead. But Li Xiong told them, "At the time when I first rose up with soldiers, I lifted my hand merely to protect my head, and it was never my intention to become an emperor or king. It was only because the realm was in grief and turmoil and the Jin royal family was wandering in exile that, heeding the righteous feelings of all and wishing to end their suffering, I bowed to the pressures and wishes of my ministers and rose to this exalted seat. But the foundation for the whole endeavor was thanks to my late father, and my elder brother was His Late Majesty's (Li Te's) primary heir. By right, the throne should return to his lineage. His virtues were vast, and his wisdom was far-sighted. His achievements were almost heavenly. Just as we had nearly achieved the grand design, he perished in the heat of battle. Now Li Ban has a benevolent and filial nature, and he is fond of study and already so accomplished. He shall certainly make a name for himself."

Li Xiang and the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Da, remonstrated with him, saying, "The rulers of old always made sure to appoint the son of their chief wife as their heirs, in order to protect against any budding usurpation. You cannot be too cautious. When the Viscount of Wu put aside his son in favor of his younger brothers, that caused continual chaos for Wu; when Duke Xuan of Song chose Duke Mu as his heir rather than Yuyi, that caused Song's leadership to change hands many times. If you can boast of your nephew, why not the same for your own sons? Your Majesty, we earnestly pray that you will reconsider this."

But Li Xiong did not listen to them, and he indeed made Li Ban his heir. When Li Xiang withdrew, he wept and said, "This shall bring about turmoil!"

班字世文,雄兄蕩第四子,雄妻任氏無子,養班為子。(Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms 6, Biography of Li Qi)

Li Ban, styled Shiwen, was the fourth son of Li Xiong's elder brother Li Dang. Li Xiong had no sons by his wife Lady Ren, so he adopted Li Ban as his son.

班字世文。初署平南將軍,後立為太子。班謙虛博納,敬愛儒賢,自何點、李釗,班皆師之,又引名士王嘏及隴西董融、天水文夔等以為賓友。每謂融等曰:「觀周景王太子晉、魏太子丕、吳太子孫登,文章鑒識,超然卓絕,未嘗不有慚色。何古賢之高朗,後人之莫逮也!」為性汎愛,動修軌度。時諸李子弟皆尚奢靡,而班常戒厲之。每朝有大議,雄輒令豫之。班以「古者墾田均平,貧富獲所,今貴者廣占荒田,貧者種殖無地,富者以己所餘而賣之,此豈王者大均之義乎!」雄納之。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Ban)

Li Ban's style name was Shiwen. He was originally Li Xiong's General Who Pacifies The South, and afterwards became his Crown Prince. Li Ban was modest himself, while welcoming the company of learned people. He respected and treasured scholars and the worthy, such as He Dian and Li Zhao. Li Ban came to visit them all, and he also invited learned scholars like Wang Gu, Dong Rong of Longxi, Wen Kui of Tianshui, and others to be his friends and guests. He was always telling Dong Rong and the others, "When I read about Crown Prince Jin of King Jing of Zhou, about Crown Prince Cao Pi of Wei, and about Crown Prince Sun Deng of Wu, and I see how reflective and knowledgeable their compositions were, how exceptional and outstanding their writings were, I can never help but look ashamed. How outstanding those young men of former times were; no one these days can match them!"

Li Ban had a natural disposition of extensive love, and he was diligent in cultivating the proper standards and conduct. While all the other younger relatives of the Li clan gloried in being arrogant and wasteful, Li Ban often severely admonished them.

Whenever there was a great court discussion, Li Xiong always had Li Ban attend. Li Ban told Li Xiong, "The ancients distributed land evenly to be cultivated by all, so that both the rich and the poor received the bounty of the land. But now, the honorable hold great stretches of farmland lying barren, while the poor barely scratch out a living and have no land of their own. The rich have so much more than they need that they profit by selling the excess. How can a ruler achieve justice and great equality in such a situation?"

Li Xiong accepted his arguments.

雄捨其子,而立兄盪第四子班為太子。(Book of Northern Wei 96, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Xiong set aside his sons and appointed his elder brother Li Dang's fourth son Li Ban as his Crown Prince.

雄妻任無子,養琀弟班為子。雄自有庶子十五人。群臣上立嗣。雄曰:「孫仲謀割有江東,伯符〔基〕兆「基」子止侯爵,《國志》恥之。〔宋〕宣公舍子立弟,君子以為知人。吾將彌縫《國志》之恥,以繼宣公之美。」驤與司徒王達諫,以為不可,雄不從。永昌元年,冬,立班為太子。驤泣曰:「亂始於是矣。」... 班字世文,蕩第四子也。少見養於雄。年二十六,立為太子。好學愛士。每觀書傳,謂其師友天水文夔、隴西董融等曰:「吾見周「景」〔靈〕王太子晉、魏太子丕、吳太子「孫」登,文章鑒識,超然卓絕,未嘗不有慚色。何古人之難及乎!」進止周旋,勤於咨問。但性輕躁,失在田獵。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2-3)

Li Xiong had no sons by his wife Lady Ren, so he adopted Li Han's younger brother Li Ban as his own son. Li Xiong did have fifteen sons by other concubines, and his ministers urged him to appoint one of them as his heir. But Li Xiong told them, "When Sun Zhongmou (Sun Quan) held the Southland as his own territory, it was really Sun Bofu (Sun Ce) who established the foundation of his state. Yet Zhongmou kept Bofu's sons from claiming the succession, and for that the Records of the Three Kingdoms shamed him. On the other hand, Duke Xuan of Song set aside his own son to make his younger brother his heir, and so worthy people felt that he was a wise fellow. As for me, I want to avoid the disgrace of the Records of the Three Kingdoms and emulate the majesty of Duke Xuan."

Li Xiang and the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Da, remonstrated with him and believed that it could not be done, but Li Xiong did not listen to them.

In the first year of Yongchang (322), in winter, Li Xiong made Li Ban the Crown Prince. Li Xiang wept and said, "This shall bring about turmoil."

...

Li Ban, styled Shiwen, was the fourth son of Li Dang. As a child, he was adopted by Li Xiong. When he was twenty-five, Li Xiong appointed him as his Crown Prince.

Li Ban was fond of learning and treasured the company of scholar-officials. Whenever he would read books or accounts of history in the company of his teacher-companions, Kui Wen of Tianshui, Dong Rong of Longxi, and others, he would say to them, "When I read about Crown Prince Jin of King Jing of Zhou, about Crown Prince Cao Pi of Wei, and about Crown Prince Sun Deng of Wu, and I see how reflective and knowledgeable their compositions were, how exceptional and outstanding their writings were, I can never help but look ashamed. How difficult it is to measure up to the ancients!"

In his manners and in his social customs, Li Ban was always diligent to ask questions and listen to counsel. However, he was naturally impulsive and sometimes lost himself in hunting.

[班]: 劉李本作斑。[年二]: 〈舊脫。當補。說詳注釋。〉[「景」〔靈〕]: 〈按《國語》,字當作靈。〉(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The Liu edition writes Li Ban's given name as 斑 Ban rather than 班 Ban.

The old editions all omit the character 二 "two" establishing that Li Ban was "twenty-five" when he became Crown Prince, rather than "fifteen". It should be included.

Li Ban's quote should state that Crown Prince Jin was the son of King 靈 Ling of Zhou, not King 景 Jing, for this is what the Discourses of the States records.)


夏,五月,甲申,張茂疾病,執世子駿手泣曰:「吾家世以孝友忠順著稱,今雖天下大亂,汝奉承之,不可失也。」且下令曰:「吾官非王命,苟以集事,豈敢榮之!死之日,當以白帢入棺,勿以朝服斂。」是日,薨。愍帝使者史淑在姑臧,左長史氾禕、右長史馬謨等使淑拜駿大將軍、涼州牧、西平公,赦境內。前趙主曜遣使贈茂太宰,諡曰成烈王;拜駿上大將軍、涼州牧、涼王。

6. In summer, the fifth month, on the day Jiashen (June 21st), the Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Mao, became deathly ill. He took the hand of his nephew Zhang Jun and wept as he told him, "Our family has been esteemed for several generations now because of our filial, friendly, and loyal service to the dynasty. Though the realm is now wracked by great turmoil, the time has now come for you to inherit this role in my place. Do not lose what we have built here."

And he ordered his officials, "The offices which I now hold were not ones that I was appointed to by the imperial court, and what trivial things have I accomplished that I dare have anyone honor me for them? When I die, just wrap me in a white shroud and lay me in my coffin, and do not bury me as a court minister."

The same day, he passed away.

It was earlier mentioned that Emperor Min had sent the official Shi Shu to Guzang to pass on his will to Zhang Shi. Shi Shu was still there, and so Liangzhou's Chief Clerks of the Left and Right, Fan Yi and Ma Mo, and others had Shi Shu grant Zhang Jun the titles of Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Duke of Xiping, and to declare a general amnesty within his domain.

Since Zhang Mao had been a nominal vassal of Zhao, Liu Yao sent envoys to posthumously appoint him as Grand Governor and give him the posthumous title Prince Chenglie ("the Accomplished and Fierce"), and to appoint Zhang Jun as Supreme Grand General, Governor of Liangzhou, and Prince of Liang under Zhao authority.

〈長安覆沒,淑無所歸,故留姑臧。〉〈禕,吁韋翻。〉

(Since Chang'an had fallen after Shi Shu left, he had nowhere to return to, and so he remained in Guzang.

Fan Yi's given name 禕 is pronounced "xei (x-ei)".)


是年,張茂死,兄寔子駿立,遣使朝貢。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fourth year of the reign of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Henu (324), Zhang Mao of Liangzhou passed away. His elder brother Zhang Shi's son Zhang Jun succeeded him. Zhang Jun sent envoys to the Tuoba court offering tribute.


王敦疾甚,矯詔拜王應爲武衞將軍以自副,以王含爲驃騎大將軍、開府儀同三司。錢鳳謂敦曰:「脫有不諱,便當以後事付應邪?」敦曰:「非常之事,非常人所能爲。且應年少,豈堪大事!我死之後,莫若釋兵散衆,歸身朝廷,保全門戶,上計也;退還武昌,收兵自守,貢獻不廢,中計也;及吾尚存,悉衆而下,萬一僥倖,下計也。」鳳謂其黨曰:「公之下計,乃上策也。」遂與沈充定謀,俟敦死,卽作亂。又以宿衞尚多,奏令三番休二。

7. Wang Dun's illness became critical. He forged an imperial decree appointing his adopted heir Wang Ying as Valiant Guard General to serve as his adjutant, and appointing his elder brother Wang Han as Grand General of Agile Cavalry with the privilege of a Seperate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

Wang Dun's advisor Qian Feng asked him, "If anything should happen to you, should we entrust affairs to Wang Ying?"

Wang Dun replied, "Extraordinary times call for extraordinary men, no less. Besides, Wang Ying is still young. How could he handle such great affairs? After I die, the best thing that all of you could do would be to disband your forces and send your soldiers away, then present yourselves to the court in order to secure your families and households. If you don't want to do that, then you should fall back to Wuchang and concentrate your soldiers there to maintain its defenses, while still sending tribute to the court. The least thing that I would suggest would be for you to have your whole army set out while I am still alive and risk everything on a decisive battle."

But Qian Feng said to the other officers, "This last plan is what our lord calls the worst one, but I see it as the best one." So he made arrangements with Shen Chong for their plot: they would wait until after Wang Dun had died, and then start a rebellion. In the meantime, since their household guards and retainers were so numerous, they sent two-thirds of them home on leave.

〈司馬相如《難蜀父老》曰:蓋世必有非常之人,然後有非常之事。〉〈以王敦之很戾,而濟之以沈充、錢鳳,所謂「凶德參會」。〉

(Sima Xiangru's Refuting The Elders of Shu states, "When the age has extraordinary men, there shall be extraordinary times for them."

Evil as Wang Dun himself was, he was surpassed in villainy by Shen Chong and Qian Feng. Thus it is said, "Virtue and wickedness flock together.")


初,帝親任中書令溫嶠,敦惡之,請嶠爲左司馬。嶠乃繆爲勤敬,綜其府事,時進密謀以附其欲。深結錢鳳,爲之聲譽,每曰:「錢世儀精神滿腹。」嶠素有藻鑑之名,鳳甚悅,深與嶠結好。會丹楊尹缺,嶠言於敦曰;「京尹咽喉之地,公宜自選其才,恐朝廷用人,或不盡理。」敦然之,問嶠:「誰可者?」嶠曰:「愚謂無如錢鳳。」鳳亦推嶠,嶠僞辭之;敦不聽,六月,表嶠爲丹楊尹,且使覘伺朝廷。嶠恐旣去而錢鳳於後間止之,因敦餞別,嶠起行酒,至鳳,鳳未及飲;嶠僞醉,以手版擊鳳幘墜,作色曰:「錢鳳何人,溫太眞行酒而敢不飲!」敦以爲醉,兩釋之。嶠臨去,與敦別,涕泗橫流,出閣復入者再三。行後,鳳謂敦曰:「嶠於朝廷甚密,而與庾亮深交,未可信也。」敦曰:「太眞昨醉,小加聲色,何得便爾相讒!」嶠至建康,盡以敦逆謀告帝,請先爲之備,又與庾亮共畫討敦之謀。敦聞之,大怒曰:「吾乃爲小物所欺!」與司徒導書曰:「太眞別來幾日,作如此事!當募人生致之,自拔其舌。」

8. Up until this time, Emperor Ming had been close to the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Wen Jiao. Wang Dun was wary of Wen Jiao, so he asked that Wen Jiao be transferred to his own command to serve as his Marshal of the Left.

When Wen Jiao arrived to take up this role, he pretended to diligent and respectful, and so involved himself in Wang Dun's staff affairs, humoring his plans in order to win himself over to Wang Dun. He also formed a close connection to Qian Feng and was always extolling his reputation, saying, "Qian Shiyi is full of divine insight." Wen Jiao had long been known as a man of excellent discernment of men's character, and so Qian Feng was greatly pleased to be so well spoken of, and he became good friends with Wen Jiao.

Soon, the post of Intendant of Danyang became vacant. Wen Jiao said to Wang Dun, "The Intendancy of the Capital is a critical post. You should make your own appointment of some talented man to fill it. If you let the court make the appointment, it might be someone whom you cannot control."

Wang Dun agreed, so he asked Wen Jiao, "Whom can I appoint?"

Wen Jiao replied, "In my humble view, there is no better choice than Qian Feng."

Qian Feng then urged Wen Jiao to be the appointee instead, and Wen Jiao pretended to decline. But Wang Dun would not hear of it, and in the sixth month, he petitioned to have Wen Jiao appointed as the new Intendant of Danyang, so that he could keep an eye on the court on Wang Dun's behalf.

However, Wen Jiao was worried that after he had left, Qian Feng might try to put a stop to the appointment anyway. So during the farewell banquet that Wang Dun organized for him, Wen Jiao got up to bring the wine around. When he came to Qian Feng, Qian Feng had not finished his drink yet. Wen Jiao, pretending to be drunk, hit Qian Feng's headdress with his hand board, sternly telling him, "Qian Feng, who are you that you dare not to drink when I, Wen Taizhen, am bringing the wine around?" Wang Dun believed that Wen Jiao was drunk, and he broke up the altercation.

When Wen Jiao was about to depart, he was very tearfully disheveled as he was taking his leave of Wang Dun, and he kept leaving the pavilion only to walk back in again. After he finally left for good, Qian Feng said to Wang Dun, "Wen Jiao is very close to the court, and he has a deep relationship with Yu Liang as well. We cannot trust him yet."

But Wang Dun replied, "Taizhen may have been drunk last night and gotten in a little scuffle with you, but is that any reason for you to slander him now?"

Once Wen Jiao arrived at Jiankang, he revealed all of Wang Dun's treasonous plans to Emperor Ming, and asked him to make preparations against the rebellion. He also plotted with Yu Liang to organize their own campaign against Wang Dun's forces.

When Wang Dun heard of these things, he was furious, and he said, "I was swindled by that little performance!" He wrote a letter to the Minister Over The Masses, his cousin Wang Dao, stating, "Taizhen was with us here only a few days ago, and yet this is how he acts now! You should get some men together to take him alive and cut out his tongue."

〈繆,詐也。〉〈錢鳳,字世儀。藻鑑,謂善於人倫藻鑑也。人有美質而加之褒飾,謂之黼藻,如衣裳之加藻火、黼黻也。鑑,所以別姸醜。故明於知人而能褒獎後進者,有藻鑑之名。〉〈晉都建康,以丹楊太守爲尹,宋、齊、梁皆因之。洪适曰:西漢丹陽郡,則治宛陵,丹陽縣,則今之建康也。東漢史皆作「丹陽」。西晉移郡於建業,元帝改太守爲丹楊尹。《地理志》曰:山多赤柳,故名。他書載漢、晉此郡,少有從「木」者。至唐天寶年,始以京口爲丹陽郡,改曲阿爲丹陽縣,皆非漢舊壤也。〉〈溫嶠,字太眞。〉〈王敦遙制朝權,其所甚害者如郗鑒、溫嶠,終不得以肆其毒,以此知建康綱紀尚能自立也。〉

(繆 means "to pretend".

Qian Feng’s style name was Shiyi. Wen Jiao’s style name was Taizhen.

This passage describes Wen Jiao as being a 藻鑑. This means someone who is as capable of reflecting someone's worth as a splendid mirror. When someone has fine qualities and is dressed in loose clothes and ornaments, we call them a 黼藻, as though their clothing had 藻火 or 黼黻. And the mirror is for distinguishing the beautiful from the ugly. So one who is able to discern worthy people and then commend them and advance them in office is called a 藻鑑.

This passage mentions a 丹楊 Danyang commandary. When Jin moved their capital to Jianyang, the office of Administrator for Danyang commandary was changed to Intendant, as was proper for the capital commandary. It remained so through the Liu-Song, Qi, and Liang dynasties. Hong Shi remarked, "During Former Han, Danyang commandary was administered from Wanling, and Danyang County was where the modern Jiankang is. The histories of Later Han all write it as 丹陽 Danyang. After Western Jin moved their capital to Jianye, Emperor Yuan changed the office of Administrator to Intendant." Wei Shou's Geographical Records states, "The mountains in that commandary had many red willow trees, thus the name 丹楊 Danyang ('Cinnabar Poplar')." In the other books covering the histories of Han and Jin, few write the second character as 楊. During Tang's Tianbao reign era (742-756), Jingkou first became Danyang commandary, and Qu'a County was changed to Danyang County, but these were not the old Han domains.

Wang Dun ruled the court from afar, but in the end, he could not get rid of those who caused him the most trouble, like Chi Jian and Wen Jiao. From this, we can see that Jiankang was still able to maintain its own enforcement of affairs.)


帝將討敦,以問光祿勳應詹,詹勸成之,帝意遂決。丁卯,加司徒導大都督、領揚州刺史,以溫嶠都督東安北部諸軍事,與右將軍卞敦守石頭,應詹爲護軍將軍、都督前鋒及朱雀橋南諸軍事,郗鑒行衞將軍、都督從駕諸軍事,庾亮領左衞將軍,以吏部尚書卞壼行中軍將軍。郗鑒以爲軍號無益事實,固辭不受;請召臨淮太守蘇峻、兗州刺史劉遐同討敦。詔徵峻、遐及徐州刺史王邃、豫州刺史祖約、廣陵太守陶瞻等入衞京師。帝屯于中堂。

9. Emperor Ming was about to begin a campaign against Wang Dun, but first he asked the 勳 With Golden Tassel, Ying Zhan, about it. Ying Zhan urged him to go ahead, and this decided Emperor Ming.

On the day Dingmao (August 3rd), he promoted Wang Dao as Grand Commander and acting Inspector of Yangzhou. He appointed Wen Jiao as Commander of military affairs north of Dong'an, and sent him to guard the Shitou fortress with the General of the Right, Bian Dun. He appointed Ying Zhan as General Who Protects The Army and Commander of the Vanguard and of military affairs south of Zhuque Bridge. He appointed Chi Jian as acting Guard General and Commander of military affairs in the imperial train. He appointed Yu Liang as acting Guard General of the Left, and appointed the Secretary of the Masters of Writing, Bian Kun, as acting General of the Central Army.

Chi Jian believed that there was no real worth in receiving such a title, and he firmly declined his appointment and would not accept it. He also asked that Emperor Ming summon the forces of the Administrator of Linhuai, Su Jun, and the Inspector of Yanzhou, Liu Xia, so that they could assist the campaign against Wang Dun. So Emperor Ming issued an edict summoning the two of them, as well as the Inspector of Xuzhuou, Wang Sui, the Inspector of Yuzhou, Zu Yue, the Administrator of Guangling, Tao Zhan, and others to bring their forces to the capital.

Emperor Ming camped his soldiers at the Central Hall.

〈以下文應詹都督橋南諸軍觀之,則東安北部謂秦淮水北諸軍也。〉〈《考異》曰:《敦傳》云:「王敦表爲征虜將軍、都督石頭軍事;明帝討敦,以爲鎭南將軍、假節。」今從《明帝紀》。〉〈壼,苦本翻。〉〈夫理順者難恃,勢弱則不支。以敦、鳳同惡相濟,率大衆以犯闕,雖諸公忠赤,若只以臺中見兵拒之,是復周、戴石頭之事,微郗鑒建請而召劉遐、蘇峻,殆矣!〉〈按蕭子顯《齊書‧高帝紀》:桂陽王休範之反,諸貴會議,帝曰:「中堂舊是置兵地,領軍宜屯宣陽門,爲諸軍節度,」則中堂當在宣陽門外。〉

(Regarding Wen Jiao's appointment as Commander "north of Dong'an", we see later in the passage that Ying Zhan is appointed as Commander "south of Zhuque Bridge", which ran across the Qinhuai River (that flows south of Jiankang). So it must be that "north of Dong'an" meant "north of the Qinhuai River".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Bian Dun in the Book of Jin states, 'Wang Dun petitioned to have Bian Dun appointed as General Who Campaigns Against The Caitiffs and as Commander of affairs at Shitou. When Emperor Ming campaigned against Wang Dun, he appointed Bian Dun as General Who Guards The South and Credential Holder.’ But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Ming in the Book of Jin."

Bian Kun's given name 壼 is pronounced "ken (k-en)".

The loyalists in the court were too weak on their own, and their strength was insufficient for success. Wang Dun and Qian Feng both opposed them, and they led great hosts of wrongdoers. No matter how loyal and sincere the loyalists were, if they had faced the enemy with only the palace soldiers alone, they would merely have suffered the same defeat that Zhou Yi and Dai Yuan had faced at Shitou before. Thus did Chi Jian have to propose bringing in the forces of Liu Xia and Su Jun as well. How perilous!

According to the Annals of Emperor Gao in Xiao Zixian's Book of Qi, during the rebellion of Wang Xiufan of Guiyang, Emperor Gao said at a meeting of his ministers, "The Central Hall has long been the place to array soldiers. The army should be camped at the Xuanyang Gate, where control of the various divisions may be assigned." So the Central Hall must have been outside the Xuanyang Gate.)


司徒導聞敦疾篤,帥子弟爲敦發哀,衆以爲敦信死,咸有奮志。於是尚書騰詔下敦府,列敦罪曰:「敦輒立兄息以自承代,未有宰相繼體而不由王命者也。頑凶相獎,無所顧忌;志騁凶醜,以窺神器。天不長姦,敦以隕斃;鳳承凶宄,彌復煽逆。今遣司徒導等虎旅三萬,十道並進;平西將軍邃等精銳三萬,水陸齊勢;朕親統諸軍,討鳳之罪。有能殺鳳送首,封五千戶侯。諸文武爲敦所授用者,一無所問,無或猜嫌,以取誅滅。敦之將士,從敦彌年,違離家室,朕甚愍之。其單丁在軍,皆遣歸家,終身不調;其餘皆與假三年;休訖還臺,當與宿衞同例三番。」

10. When Wang Dao heard that Wang Dun was seriously ill, he led his younger relatives in Jiankang to conduct mourning for Wang Dun as though he had already died. People believed that Wang Dun was indeed dead, and this bolstered the morale of all the loyalists.

Then an edict was composed by the Masters of Writing and sent to Wang Dun's staff, outlining his crimes. The edict stated, "Wang Dun had arranged for his elder brother's whelp to succeed him, despite the fact that there has never been such an inheritance of a great office of state that was not condoned by royal decree. Wang Dun wildly presumed to grant such a thing, without any due regard for my consideration. It is clear that he meant to give free reign to his bold desires, and he had his eyes set upon the throne.

"Heaven does not long sustain the wicked, and now Wang Dun has fallen into his grave. Yet his minion Qian Feng, no less of a scoundrel, now means to stir up yet another rebellion in his turn. I now send forth the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, and others to lead thirty thousand of the Tiger Guards to advance against him by every road. The General Who Pacifies The West, Wang Sui, and others shall lead another thirty thousand elite soldiers and advance by land and water to lend their assistance. I shall personally oversee these armies in a campaign to punish Qian Feng for his crimes. Whosoever can deliver Qian Feng's head to me shall be appointed as a Marquis of five thousand households.

"But as for the other civil and military officials employed by Wang Dun, nothing shall be heard against them; let them harbor no suspicions that they will suffer execution or the extermination of their clans. And regarding the officers and soldiers of Wang Dun's army, I deeply pity them, for they have been kept from their homes and hearths for many a year in service to Wang Dun. Those of them who are the only male of military age in their families shall be released to return home, and they will be exempt from the draft for the rest of their lives. All others shall be exempt for three years; at the completion of such time, when they return to service, their leave schedules shall be in accordance with that of the household guards."

〈息,子也;謂以兄含子應爲嗣也。〉〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》此詔在王導爲敦發喪前,故云「有能斬送敦首,封萬戶侯,賞布萬匹。」按此詔云「敦以隕斃」,是稱敦已死也,不應復購敦首。今從《敦傳》。〉〈單丁,謂家止有男丁一人,無兼次者。〉〈謂三番休二也。〉

(Whelp means a child; in this case, it means Wang Dun's nephew Wang Ying, whom he had chosen to be his heir.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the offer of a reward for Qian Feng's head, the Annals of Jin places the timing of this edict as before the mourning held for Wang Dun, and so it instead has the edict read, 'Whosoever can send me Wang Dun's head shall be appointed as a Marquis of ten thousand households and rewarded with fourteen thousand bolts of silk'. But the edict itself already states, 'Wang Dun has fallen into the grave', implying that he was already dead, and so it would not make sense to offer a reward for his head in that case. So I follow the version of the edict that appears in the Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin."

The term 單丁 means a family which only has one male who would be subject to the draft, with no possible replacement.

The term 三番 means 三番休二.)


敦見詔,甚怒;而病轉篤,不能自將。將舉兵伐京師,使記室郭璞筮之,璞曰:「無成。」敦素疑璞助溫嶠、庾亮,及聞卦凶,乃問璞曰:「卿更筮吾壽幾何?」璞曰:「思向卦,明公起事,必禍不久;若往武昌,壽不可測。」敦大怒曰:「卿壽幾何?」曰:「命盡今日日中。」敦乃收璞,斬之。

11. Wang Dun was furious when he saw this edict. However, because his illness was so severe, he could not lead his soldiers in person.

Wang Dun was about to muster his troops to once again have them march on the capital. He ordered his Recordskeeper, Guo Pu, to perform a divination for him. After doing so, Guo Pu's reading was, "No success."

Wang Dun had long suspected that Guo Pu was in league with Wen Jiao and Yu Liang, and when he heard Guo Pu give this response, he asked him, "What does your divination predict about my remaining lifespan?"

Guo Pu replied, "Your Grace, from what I have considered about the divination, if you carry out this plan as you are preparing to do, then your doom shall not be far off. But if you return to Wuchang, your longevity would be beyond measure."

Furious at this response, Wang Dun demanded, "And what of your own lifespan?"

Guo Pu replied, "My life shall expire today at noon."

So Wang Dun arrested Guo Pu and beheaded him.

敦使錢鳳及冠軍將軍鄧岳、前將軍周撫等帥衆向京師。王含謂敦曰:「此乃家事,吾當自行。」於是以含爲元帥。鳳等問曰:「事克之日,天子云何?」敦曰:「尚未南郊,何得稱天子!便盡卿兵勢,保護東海王及裴妃而已。」乃上疏以誅姦臣溫嶠等爲名。秋,七月,壬申朔,王含等水陸五萬奄至江寧南岸,人情恟懼。溫嶠移屯水北,燒朱雀桁以挫其鋒,含等不得渡。帝欲親將兵擊之,聞橋已絕,大怒。嶠曰:「今宿衞寡弱,徵兵未至,若賊豕突,危及社稷,宗廟且恐不保,何愛一橋乎!」

12. To lead his forces against the capital, Wang Dun appointed Qian Feng, as well as the Champion General, Deng Yue, the General of the Front, Zhou Fu, and others. But Wang Han said to him, "This is a matter that concerns our whole family. Allow me to assume the command." So Wang Dun appointed Wang Han as the overall commander.

Qian Feng and the others asked Wang Dun, "On the day of our success, what should we do about the Son of Heaven?"

Wang Dun replied, "That fellow has not even established the Southern Suburbs sacrifices, so how can he call himself the Son of Heaven? So long as you ensure the safety of the Prince of Donghai (Sima Chong) and Concubine Pei, you may let your soldiers do as they will."

Wang Dun sent up a petition to the capital, justifying his actions on the pretext of purging Wen Jiao and the other evil councilors from the court.

In autumn, the seventh month, on the new moon of the day Renshen (August 8th), Wang Han and the others led fifty thousand soldiers and marched as far as the southern bank of the (Qinhuai) river at Jiangning. People were nervous and afraid. Wen Jiao shifted his army's camp to the north side of the river and burned the Zhuque Bridge to halt the enemy's advance. With the bridge burned, Wang Han and the others could not cross the river.

Emperor Ming had wanted to personally lead the loyalist forces to attack the enemy, and when he heard that Wen Jiao had already burned the bridge, he was furious. But Wen Jiao said to him, "The soldiers of the palace guards are few and weak, and the reinforcements we summoned have not yet arrived. If the enemy charged us, the fortunes of state would be in grave peril indeed, and I fear we could not even protect the ancestral temple. Why get so worked up for the sake of a single bridge?"

〈元帝以第三子沖奉東海王越後。裴妃,越妃也。〉〈武帝太康二年,分秣陵立臨江縣,二年,更名江寧。南岸,卽秦淮南岸也。《考異》曰:《敦傳》及《晉春秋》皆云「三萬」,今從《明帝紀》。〉

(Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) third son Sima Chong had been appointed Prince of Donghai to act as the successor to the late Sima Yue, who had earlier held that title. Concubine Pei was Sima Yue's widow.

In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taikang (281), he split off part of Moling County to form Linjiang County. In the second year (of which era?), it was renamed to Jiangning County.

The "southern bank" in this passage must be the southern bank of the Qinhuai River (south of Jiankang).

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the size of Wang Han's army, the Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin and the Annals of Jin both state that it was 'thirty thousand strong'. But I follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Ming in the Book of Jin.")


司徒導遺含書曰:「近承大將軍困篤,或云已有不諱。尋知錢鳳大嚴,欲肆姦逆;謂兄當抑制不逞,還藩武昌,今乃與犬羊俱下。兄之此舉,謂可得如大將軍昔年之事乎?昔者佞臣亂朝,人懷不寧,如導之徒,心思外濟。今則不然。大將軍來屯于湖,漸失人心,君子危怖,百姓勞弊。臨終之日,委重安期;安期斷乳幾日?又於時望,便可襲宰相之迹邪?自開闢以來,頗有宰相以孺子爲之者乎?諸有耳者,皆知將爲禪代,非人臣之事也。先帝中興,遺愛在民;聖主聰明,德洽朝野。兄乃欲妄萌逆節,凡在人臣,誰不憤歎!導門小大受國厚恩,今日之事,明目張膽,爲六軍之首,寧爲忠臣而死,不爲無賴而生矣!」含不答。

13. Wang Dao wrote a letter to Wang Han, stating, "We had heard that the Grand General (Wang Dun) had been bedridden with severe illness lately, and some claimed that he had already passed away. It was not long after that when we learned of Qian Feng's harsh measures and his plans to rush ahead into wicked treason. Elder Cousin, I said that you would restrain him and prevent his evil designs from seeing fruition, and then return to your post at Wuchang. Yet now I find you numbered among the rebel herd.

"Elder Cousin, in undertaking this act, do you suppose you are repeating the Grand General's actions in years past? Back then, there were indeed groveling ministers who caused upheaval among the court; people were uneasy, and I and those with me turned our hearts afar and hoped for success. But the situation now is not the same. The Grand General came to camp his army at Yuhu, and he gradually lost the hearts of the people; men of high standing feared and trembled, while the common people suffered from strain and harm.

"Now, at the end of his life, the Grand General has entrusted affairs to Anqi (Wang Ying). Yet how far removed is the boy from his mother's milk? How is he suited to carry on the legacy of a great minister of state? And when since the establishment of government offices has there ever been a great minister who had a child as his successor?

“All those who have ears to hear know that there is a plan afoot to replace the dynasty. Such a thing is unbecoming of a minister. It was His Late Majesty (Sima Rui) who restored the dynasty and left it behind for the people to treasure, and our current sovereign is a wise and worthy man whose virtue is felt throughout the court and the state. Yet you, Elder Cousin, wish to carry out this absurd plan and go against proper authority. Who among true loyalists is not moved to sigh indignantly at you?

"All members of our family, whether great or small, have received the favor and grace of the state. So I face the current situation clear of eye and stout of heart, and I place myself at the head of the six armies of the court. Better to die in loyalty than to live in treason!"

But Wang Han did not reply to the letter.

〈參問起居,謂之參承;詗候安否,謂之詗承。〉〈言當抑制鳳等,使不得逞其凶逆也。〉〈謂如元帝永昌元年,敦克石頭時也。〉〈謂刁協、劉隗也。〉〈言思投外以自濟也。〉〈王應,字安期。〉〈謂此事深駭衆聽,皆知敦、應謀篡。〉

(Wang Dao had asked around about Wang Dun's daily life and had looked into the truth of the rumors surrounding him; these are what the text refers to as 詗承.

Wang Dao was suggesting that Wang Han restrain Qian Feng and the others, and not allow them to carry out their wicked plans.

"The Grand General's actions" refers to when Wang Dun captured the Shitou fortress in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) first year of Yongchang (322).

The "groveling ministers" were Diao Xie and Liu Wei.

Wang Dao was saying that the other ministers were placing their hopes in outside assistance, that is, Wang Dun, to rectify the situation at court.

Wang Ying’s style name was Anqi.

By "all those who have ears to hear", Wang Dao was implying that the tales of Wang Dun's and Wang Ying's plan to usurp the throne had deeply spread among everyone.)


或以爲「王含、錢鳳衆力百倍,苑城小而不固,宜及軍勢未成,大駕自出拒戰。」郗鑒曰:「羣逆縱逸,勢不可當;可以謀屈,難以力競。且含等號令不一,抄盜相尋,吏民懲往年暴掠,皆人自爲守。乘逆順之勢,何憂不克!且賊無經略遠圖,惟恃豕突一戰;曠日持久,必啓義士之心,令智力得展。今以此弱力敵彼強寇,決勝負於一朝,定成敗於呼吸,萬一蹉跌,雖有申胥之徒,義存投袂,何補於旣往哉!」帝乃止。

14. Some among the loyalists suggested, "Although the forces of Wang Han and Qian Feng are far more numerous than we are, their base at Yuancheng is too small and not suited for defense. Before they can finish their defensive preparations, His Majesty should lead the army to fight back against them."

But Chi Jian said, "The traitors are already spread thick, and we are not strong enough to oppose them. If we plotted to break out, it would be difficult for us to overcome them. However, Wang Han and the others do not give orders in one accord, and they turn their soldiers loose to plunder on all sides. The officials and the people have suffered from such deprivations in recent years that they all look to their own defenses. When we consider the overall strength between those who are loyal and those who are rebellious, how can you worry that we will not be successful in the end?

"Besides, the rebels have no real strategy for the long term, and they are only planning to charge ahead and decide everything in a single battle. The longer we can keep them at bay, the more we will awaken the hearts of righteous people everywhere, and that will allow our knowledge and strength to grow. But if we were to pit our currently weak forces against such a strong enemy as we now face, and allow victory to be determined in a single morning, then the outcome of this war would be settled in a single breath. If there should be any misstep, then even if we had people like Shen Baoxu who would shake out their sleeves and devote themselves utterly to our cause, how could they salvage the situation?"

So Emperor Ming gave up on that plan.

〈苑城,蓋孫氏都秣陵所築。晉置建康於秣陵水北,南渡建都,依苑城以爲守。〉〈《左傳》,吳人入郢,楚大夫申包胥赴秦求救,卒以存楚。投袂,言匆遽也;《傳》曰:楚子聞之,投袂而起。〉

(The Sun clan of Eastern Wu had built Yuancheng when they had their capital at Moling (Jianye). Jin established Jiankang north of the river at Moling, and when they crossed the Yangzi and established Jiankang as their capital, Yuancheng was established as one of its defenses.

According to the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, when the army of the state of Wu entered the Chu capital at Ying, the great Chu minister Shen Baoxu went to Qin to beg them for aid, and so in the end he was able to preserve Chu (Ding 4.15). The expression "to shake out one's sleeves" means to act in a hurry; the Zuo Commentary has the expression, "When the Viscount of Chu heard of it, he shook out his sleeves and rose from his seat. (Xuan 14.4)")


帝帥諸軍出屯南皇堂。癸酉夜,募壯士,遣將軍段秀、中軍司馬曹渾等帥甲卒千人渡水,掩其未備。平旦,戰於越城,大破之,斬其前鋒將何康。秀,匹磾之弟也。

15. Emperor Ming led the loyalist armies out to camp at the Southern Imperial Hall. During the night of the day Guiyou (August 9th), he recruited some strong fellows, and sent the general Duan Xiu, the Marshal of the Central Army, Cao Hun, and others to lead a thousand armored men to cross the river to attack the enemy's unfinished defenses. When dawn came, they fought at Yuecheng, where they greatly routed the enemy and killed their Vanguard Commander, He Kang. This Duan Xiu was the younger brother of Duan Pidi.

〈越城,在秦淮南。〉

(Yuecheng was south of the Qinhuai River.)


敦聞含敗,大怒曰:「我兄,老婢耳;門戶衰,世事去矣!」顧謂參軍呂寶曰:「我當力行。」因作勢而起,困乏,復臥。乃謂其舅少府羊鑒及王應曰:「我死,應便卽位,先立朝廷百官,然後營葬事。」敦尋卒,應祕不發喪,裹尸以席,蠟塗其外,埋於廳事中,與諸葛瑤等日夜縱酒淫樂。

16. When Wang Dun heard that Wang Han had suffered a defeat, he angrily exclaimed, "My fool of an elder brother! Our family is lost, our cause ruined!" And he turned his head to tell one of his Army Advisors, Lü Bao, "I'll take the command myself." So he exerted himself to try to get up, but he was so feeble that he was forced to lie down again. Then he said to the Minister Steward, his uncle Yang Jian, and to Wang Ying, "After I die, Wang Ying shall succeed me. Establish the court offices before you trouble yourselves with arranging my burial."

Soon afterwards, Wang Dun passed away.

Wang Ying kept Wang Dun's death a secret and did not begin mourning for him. He wrapped the body up in a rug, smeared the exterior in wax, and buried it inside the government office. Then he spent his days and nights indulging in wine and sensual pleasures, along with Zhuge Yao and others.

〈氣不能充體爲困,力不能舉身爲乏。〉

(To lack enough energy to move the body is to be tired; to lack enough strength to raise the body is to be feeble.)


帝使吳興沈楨說沈充,許以爲司空。充曰:「三司具瞻之重,豈吾所任!幣厚言甘,古人所畏也。且丈夫共事,終始當同,豈可中道改易,人誰容我乎!」遂舉兵趣建康。宗正卿虞潭以疾歸會稽,聞之,起兵餘姚以討充。帝以潭領會稽內史。前安東將軍劉超、宣城內史鍾雅皆起兵以討充。義興人周蹇殺王敦所署太守劉芳,平西將軍祖約逐敦所署淮南太守任台。

17. Emperor Ming sent Shen Zhen of Wuxing commandary to try to persuade Wang Dun's ally Shen Chong to switch sides, offering to appoint him as Minister of Works. But Shen Chong replied, "The Three Excellencies are lofty offices indeed, for 'the people all look to them'; how could I be worthy enough to be one of them? Even the ancients were suspicious at the offers of abundant gifts and sweet words. Besides, when a real man commits to a common endeavor, he must see it through to the end. How could I change course halfway through? Who could put up with me if I did?" So he raised his soldiers and marched for Jiankang.

Now the Director of the Imperial Clan, Yu Tan, had earlier retired to Kuaiji on account of illness. But when he heard that Shen Chong was on the march, he raised his own soldiers at Yuyao to move to oppose him. Emperor Ming appointed Yu Tan as acting Interior Minister of Kuaiji. The former General Who Maintains The East, Liu Chao, and the Interior Minister of Xuancheng, Zhong Ya, also raised their troops to march against Shen Chong.

A native of Yixing commandary, Zhou Jian, killed the Administrator of that commandary whom Wang Dun had appointed, Liu Fang. And the General Who Pacifies The West, Zu Yue, drove out the Administrator of Huainan whom Wang Dun had appointed, Ren Tai.

〈《詩‧節南山》曰:赫赫師尹,民具爾瞻。《左傳》,晉郤芮曰:「幣重而言甘,誘我也。」〉〈按漢、晉以來,宗正列於九卿,然未以「卿」字繫官;梁置十一寺,始繫「卿」字。此「卿」字衍。〉〈餘姚縣,屬會稽郡。〉〈晉惠帝永興元年,分吳興之陽羨、丹楊之永世立義興郡。〉〈約屯壽春,故得逐台。〉

(The Book of Poetry has the verse, "Awe-inspiring are you, O Grand master Yin, and the people all look to you! (Jie Nan Shan 1)".

In the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, Xi Rui of the state of Jin says, ""The greatness of his gifts and the sweetness of his words are intended to decoy us. (Xi 10.6)."

The text identifies Yu Tan's office as 宗正卿. All through Han and Jin, the office of 宗正, or Director of the Imperial Clan, had been one of the Nine Ministers. However, it was never listed with the added character 卿 on the end. It was only when Southern Liang established the Eleven Ministries that the longer title 宗正卿 came into use. So the presence of the character 卿 here is superfluous.

Yuyao County was part of Kuaiji commandary.

In Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (305), Yangxian County in Wuxing commandary and Yongshi County in Danyang commandary were split off to form Yixing commandary.

Zu Yue had his forces camped at Shouchun, and this was why he was able to “drive out” Ren Tai from Huainan.)


沈充帥衆萬餘人與王含軍合,司馬顧颺說充曰:「今舉大事,而天子已扼其咽喉,鋒摧氣沮,相持日久,必致禍敗。今若決破栅塘,因湖水以灌京邑,乘水勢,縱舟師以攻之,此上策也;藉初至之銳,幷東、西軍之力,十道俱進,衆寡過倍,理必摧陷,中策也;轉禍爲福,召錢鳳計事,因斬之以降,下策也。」充皆不能用,颺逃歸于吳。

18. Shen Chong led more than ten thousand soldiers to join with Wang Han's army. His Marshal, Gu Yang, advised him, "We have begun this great endeavor, yet the Son of Heaven is holding fast to his defenses. The zeal of our vanguard is ebbing away, and if we maintain a stalemate here for too long, we shall certainly come to ruin in the end.

"If you were to burst the dykes, then the lakewater would flood the capital region. Then you could take advantage of the water to lead many boats to attack the capital. That would be the best plan.

"Or you could harness our army's currently high morale, by combining the strength of the eastern and western armies and ordering a general advance against the enemy along every road. We outnumber them so greatly that we could not help but destroy them. That would be the second-best plan.

"Or you might turn disaster to a blessing by summoning Qian Feng to discuss strategy with him, then behead him and use that as your offering to surrender to the court. That would be the least you could do."

Yet Shen Chong would not use any of these plans. So Gu Yang ran away and went back to Wu commandary.

〈此卽玄武湖水也,在建康城北,今在上元縣北十里。〉〈東軍,謂沈充軍;西軍,謂王含、錢鳳等軍也。〉

(The "lakewater" was the water of Lake Xuanwu, to the north of the walls of Jiankang. It is now ten li north of Shangyuan County.

The "eastern army" was Shen Chong's army, while the "western army" was the forces of Wang Han, Qian Feng, and the others.)


丁亥,劉遐、蘇峻等帥精卒萬人至,帝夜見,勞之,賜將士各有差。沈充、錢鳳欲因北軍初到疲困,擊之,乙未夜,充、鳳從竹格渚渡淮。護軍將軍應詹、建威將軍趙胤等拒戰不利,充、鳳至宣陽門,拔栅,將戰,劉遐、蘇峻自南塘橫擊,大破之,赴水死者三千人。遐又破沈充于青溪。尋陽太守周光聞敦舉兵,帥千餘人來赴。旣至,求見敦。王應辭以疾。光退曰:「今我遠來而不得見,公其死乎!」遽見其兄撫曰:「王公已死,兄何爲與錢鳳作賊!」衆皆愕然。

19. On the day Dinghai (August 23rd), Liu Xia, Su Jun, and the other northern border commanders arrived with ten thousand elite soldiers as reinforcements for the loyalists. Emperor Ming came to see them during the night and commended them, distributing rewards among the officers and troops as appropriate.

Because the northern troops had only just arrived and were still tired from their march, Shen Chong and Qian Feng wanted to attack them at once. So on the night of the day Yiwei (August 31st), they crossed over the Qinhuai River at Zhuge Islet. They were opposed by Ying Zhan, the General Who Establishes Might, Zhao Yin, and others, but the loyalists had the worst of the fighting.

Shen Chong and Qian Feng then advanced as far as the Xuanyang Gate, where they captured the barriers and were about to fight a battle. But then Liu Xia and Su Jun flank attacked them from the southern dyke, and greatly routed them. Three thousand people drowned in the river. Liu Xia then routed Shen Chong again at Qingxi.

When the Administrator of Xunyang, Zhou Guang, heard that Wang Dun had raised his soldiers, he led more than a thousand of his own men to come join him. When Zhou Guang arrived, he asked to meet with Wang Dun. But Wang Ying refused, claiming that Wang Dun was ill. Zhou Guang withdrew and said to himself, "I've come all this way, and yet I can't get a meeting with him. Lord Wang must already be dead!" And he rushed to see his elder brother Zhou Fu and told him, "Lord Wang is already dead. Elder Brother, how can you play the rebel together with Qian Feng?" Everyone was astounded to hear this.

〈秦淮在今建康上元縣南三里。秦始皇時,望氣者言金陵有天子氣,使鑿山爲瀆以斷地脈,故曰秦淮。或云:淮水發源屈曲,不類人工。〉〈晉都建康,外城環之以籬,諸門皆用洛城門名;宣陽門在城南面。〉〈晉都建康,自江口沿淮築堤;南塘,秦淮之南塘岸也。〉〈青溪水發源於鍾山,接於秦淮,吳孫權鑿城北塹以洩玄武湖水。〉〈沈約曰:尋陽,本縣名,因水名縣,水南注江,漢屬廬江郡;惠帝永興元年,分廬江、武昌立尋陽郡,治柴桑縣。〉

(The Qinhuai River is three li south of modern Shangyuan County at Jiankang. Some say that in the time of Qin Shihuang, those who could read the ethers said that Jinling had the aura of a Son of Heaven, so Qin Shihuang had passages drilled through the hills there to let a river flow through the land, and it was thus called the Qinhuai River. But others say that it had its origin in a bend of the Huai River, and was not artificially made by human design.

When Jin set their capital at Jiankang, they established a ring of defenses around the walls of the city, and named the gates after the gates of Luoyang. The Xuanyang Gate was on the southern wall of the city. They also built dykes along the Huai River from Jiangkou; the "southern dyke" was the dyke on the southern bank of the Qinhuai River.

The Qingxi River flowed out of Mount Zhong, and joined the Qinhuai River. Sun Quan of Eastern Wu carved a channel north of Jianye to divert the river into Lake Xuanwu.

Shen Yue remarked, "Xunyang was originally the name of a county; it took its name from the Xunyang River, which flowed south into the Yangzi. During Han, it was part of Lujiang commandary. In Emperor Hui's first year of Yongxing (305), parts of Lujiang and Wuchang commandaries were split off to form Xunyang commandary, which was administered from Chaisang County.")


丙申,王含等燒營夜遁。丁酉,帝還宮,大赦,惟敦黨不原。命庾亮督蘇峻等追沈充於吳興,溫嶠督劉遐等追王含、錢鳳於江寧,分命諸將追其黨與。劉遐軍人頗縱虜掠,嶠責之曰:「天道助順,故王含勦絕,豈可因亂爲亂也!」遐惶恐拜謝。

20. On the day Bingshen (September 1st), Wang Han and the others burned their camps and fled during the night. On the day Dingyou (September 2nd), Emperor Ming returned to the palace. A general amnesty was declared, except for Wang Dun's partisans. Emperor Ming ordered Yu Liang to lead Su Jun and others to pursue Shen Chong back to Wuxing, while Wen Jiao led Liu Xia and others to pursue Wang Han and Qian Feng back to Jiangning, and other commanders pursued the other Wang Dun partisans.

Liu Xia allowed his troops to pillage and plunder. But Wen Jiao castigated him, saying, "Heaven has aided the loyalists, and that was why we were able to suppress Wang Han. How can you take advantage of turmoil by causing it yourself?" Liu Xia, very much afraid, made obeisance and apologized to Wen Jiao.

王含欲奔荊州,王應曰:「不如江州。」含曰:「大將軍平素與江州云何,而欲歸之?」應曰:「此乃所以宜歸也。江州當人強盛時,能立同異,此非常人所及;今覩困厄,必有愍惻之心。荊州守文,豈能意外行事邪!」含不從,遂奔荊州。王舒遣軍迎之,沈含父子於江。王彬聞應當來,密具舟以待之;不至,深以爲恨。錢鳳走至闔廬洲,周光斬之,詣闕自贖。沈充走失道,誤入故將吳儒家。儒誘充內重壁中,因笑謂充曰:「三千戶侯矣!」充曰:「爾以義存我,我家必厚報汝;若以利殺我,我死,汝族滅矣。」儒遂殺之,傳首建康。敦黨悉平。充子勁當坐誅,鄕人錢舉匿之,得免。其後,勁竟滅吳氏。

21. Wang Han wanted to flee to Jingzhou. Wang Ying told him, "It would be better to go to Jiangzhou."

But Wang Han said, "What connection did the Grand General have with the Inspector of Jiangzhou (Wang Bin), that makes you want to go there?"

Wang Ying explained, "That's exactly why we ought to go there. The Inspector of Jiangzhou is the sort of man who will stand up to anyone who is currently strong and powerful, even if he agrees with him; that's far beyond what an ordinary man would do. And when he sees us in such distress and danger, he is certain to feel sympathy for us. On the other hand, the Inspector of Jingzhou (Wang Shu) will keep strictly to the law; how could he possibly act in any way unexpected of him?"

But Wang Han would not listen, so they fled to Jingzhou. However, Wang Shu sent an army to intercept them, and the two of them were drowned in the Yangzi. When Wang Bin heard that Wang Ying was planning to come there, he secretly sent a boat to welcome Wang Ying's arrival. But Wang Ying never arrived, and Wang Bin deeply regretted his fate.

Qian Feng fled as far as Helu Islet, where Zhou Guang beheaded him, then presented himself at the palace to offer up the head.

Shen Chong lost his way as he fled, and he mistakenly entered the household of his former general Wu Ru. Wu Ru enticed Shen Chong into entering his compound, and then laughed and said to him, "Now that marquisate of three thousand households is all mine!"

Shen Chong replied, "If you will be so good as to preserve me, my family will surely repay you well. But if you kill me for your own gain, though I die, your whole clan will be exterminated."

But Wu Ru killed Shen Chong anyway, and sent his head to Jiankang. Wang Dun's partisans were thus pacified.

Shen Chong's son Shen Jing was also marked for death, but his neighbors pooled their resources and hid him, so he escaped with his life. Later on, just as his father had sworn, Shen Jing exterminated the clan of Wu Ru.

〈荊州,王舒;江州,王彬。〉〈王應之見,猶能出乎尋常,此敦所以以之爲後歟!能立同異,謂哭周顗、數敦罪、及諫敦爲逆也。〉〈闔廬洲,在江中。賀循曰:江中劇地,惟有闔廬一處,地勢險奧,亡逃所聚。〉〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》云「戴淵弟良斬鳳」,今從《敦傳》。〉〈重壁,複壁也。〉〈時臺格募斬錢鳳者封五千戶侯,斬沈充者封三千戶侯。〉

(Jingzhou was under the control of Wang Shu; Jiangzhou, of Wang Bin.

In Wang Ying's view, there was still a chance for them to go back and carry on as normal. This was who Wang Dun chose to be his heir!

The phrase 能立同異 meant those who wailed for Zhou Yi, blamed Wang Dun for his crimes, and rebuked him as a traitor.

Helu Islet was in the Yangzi. He Xun remarked, "Among the treacherous territory in the Yangzi, there is Helu Islet: it is a place of difficult terrain, and many fugitives gather there."

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin states, 'Dai Yuan's younger brother Dai Liang beheaded Qian Feng.' But I follow the account of the Biography of Wang Dun in the Book of Jin."

Wu Ru's compound was his fortified place.

At this time, the court had offered a reward of a marquisate of five thousand households for anyone who beheaded Qian Feng, and a marquisate of three thousand households for anyone who beheaded Shen Chong.)


沈勁,字世堅,吳興武康人也。父充,與王敦構逆,眾敗而逃,為部曲將吳儒所殺。勁當坐誅,鄉人錢舉匿之得免。其後竟殺仇人。(Book of Jin 89, Biography of Shen Jing)

Shen Jing, styled Shijian, was a native of Wukang in Wuxing. His father Shen Chong was one of the traitor Wang Dun's partisans, but his army was defeated and he fled, and was killed by his subordinate general Wu Ru. Shen Jing too was marked for execution, but his neighbors used their funds to hide him and help him escape his fate. He was later able to achieve vengeance and killed his enemy.

王大將軍既亡,王應欲投世儒,世儒為江州。王含欲投王舒,舒為荊州。含語應曰:「大將軍平素與江州云何?而汝欲歸之。」應曰:「此迺所以宜往也。江州當人彊盛時,能抗同異,此非常人所行。及覩衰厄,必興愍惻。荊州守文,豈能作意表行事?」含不從,遂共投舒。舒果沈含父子于江。彬聞應當來,密具船以待之,竟不得來,深以為恨。(New Tales of the World 7.15)

After Wang Dun had met his end, his nephew, Wang Ying, wished to take refuge with Wang Dun's cousin, Wang Bin, who was Inspector of Jiangzhou. Wang Ying's father, Wang Han, on the other hand, wished to take refuge with another cousin, Wang Shu, who was Inspector of Jingzhou. Wang Han said to Wang Yin, "What connection did the Grand General ever have in his life with Wang Bin, that you want to join forces with him?"

Wang Ying said, "This is precisely the reason we should go to him. Whenever a person is strong and influential Wang Bin is capable of standing up to him, whether he agrees with him or not, which is not what ordinary people would do. And when he sees a person in weakness or danger, it's sure to arouse his sympathy. Wang Shu, on the other hand, sticks to the letter of the law and is totally incapable of doing anything beyond what is expected."

Wang Han did not follow this advice, and consequently they both took refuge with Wang Shu. As predicted, Wang Shu had both father and son drowned in the Yangzi.

When Wang Bin learned that Wang Ying was going to come, he secretly provided a boat to take care of him, and in the end, when Wang Ying failed to come, it was a matter of deep regret to him. (tr. Richard Mather)


有司發王敦瘞,出尸,焚其衣冠,跽而斬之,與沈充首同懸於南桁。郗鑒言於帝曰:「前朝誅楊駿等,皆先極官刑,後聽私殯。臣以爲王誅加於上,私義行於下,宜聽敦家收葬,於義爲弘。」帝許之。司徒導等皆以討敦功受封賞。

22. The officials dug up Wang Dun's burial site, exhumed his corpse, burned his clothing and headgear, and placed the corpse in a kneeling position before beheading it. Both Wang Dun's and Shen Chong's heads were hung up for display at the southern stocks.

Then Chi Jian said to Emperor Ming, "When the former court executed Yang Jun and the others, the court first passed their full sentence against the criminals, and afterwards heeded the pleas of their families for proper burials. I believe that, just as you display your majesty above by executing these criminals, so too may you demonstrate your righteousness by fulfilling the hopes of their families below. You should heed the requests of Wang Dun's family to collect his body for burial, and thus let your righteousness spread."

Emperor Ming allowed it.

Wang Dao and the other loyalist commanders who had successfully campaigned against Wang Dun were granted titles and rewards.

〈跽,跪也。〉〈南桁,卽朱雀桁。〉

(The term 跽 means to kneel.

The "southern stocks" were those at the Zhuque Bridge, to the south of the city.)


周撫與鄧岳俱亡,周光欲資給其兄而取岳。撫怒曰:「我與伯山同亡,何不先斬我!」會岳至,撫出門遙謂之曰:「何不速去!今骨肉尚欲相危,況他人乎!」岳迴舟而走,與撫共入西陽蠻中。明年,詔原敦黨,撫、岳出首,得免死禁錮。

23. Zhou Fu and Deng Yue both fled. Zhou Guang was going to shelter his brother, in order to get possession of Deng Yue. But Zhou Fu angrily told him, "Boshan and I are both on the run; why shouldn't you behead me first?" And when Deng Yue arrived, Zhou Fu came out of the gate to intercept him and said, "Why don't you run away at once? Even people as close to one another as flesh and bone are at odds, so how could a stranger like you be any safer?" So Deng Yue returned to his boat and fled, and he and Zhou Fu both took refuge among the Man tribes in Xiyang commandary.

The following year, Emperor Ming issued an edict pardoning Wang Dun's remaining partisans. Zhou Fu and Deng Yue then came out of hiding, and their lives were spared, though they were banned from office.

〈鄧岳,字伯山。〉

(Deng Yue’s style name was Boshan.)


故吳內史張茂妻陸氏,傾家產,帥茂部曲爲先登以討沈充,報其夫仇。充敗,陸氏詣闕上書,爲茂謝不克之責;詔贈茂太僕。

24. It was earlier mentioned that Shen Chong had killed the Interior Minister of the Wu princely fief, Zhang Mao. During this period, Zhang Mao's widow, Lady Lu, exhausted her family's wealth in order to lead her husband's former soldiers as the spearhead in the campaign against Shen Chong, to avenge him. Following Shen Chong's defeat, Lady Lu visited the palace and sent up a letter, apologizing on her husband's behalf for his failure to defend his commandary against Shen Chong. Emperor Ming issued an edict posthumously appointing Zhang Mao as Minister Coachman.

〈沈充殺張茂見上卷元帝永昌元年。〉〈克,能也;謝茂守郡不能式遏寇虐,爲充所殺也。〉

(Shen Chong's defeat of Zheng Mao if mentioned in Book 92, in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) first year of Yongchang (322.33).

The term 克 in this case means ability; that is, Lady Lu was apologizing that Zheng Mao had not been able to hold back such a cruel invader, and had been killed by Shen Chong.)


有司奏:「王彬等敦之親族,皆當除名。」詔曰:「司徒導以大義滅親,猶將百世宥之,況彬等皆公之近親乎!」悉無所問。

25. Some of the officials proposed, "Wang Bin and the other members of the Wang family were close kin to Wang Dun. They should all be removed from office."

But Emperor Ming issued an edict stating, "The Minister of Works, Wang Dao, put aside his family ties for the sake of righteousness. I would extend pardon to his family even to the hundredth generation, much less to such close relatives of his as Wang Bin and the others!"

And nothing more was heard of that matter.

有詔:「王敦綱紀除名,參佐禁錮。」溫嶠上疏曰:「王敦剛愎不仁,忍行殺戮,朝廷所不能制,骨肉所不能諫;處其朝者,恆懼危亡,故人士結舌,道路以目,誠賢人君子道窮數盡,遵養時晦之辰也;原其私心,豈遑晏處!如陸玩、劉胤、郭璞之徒常與臣言,備知之矣。必其贊導凶悖,自當正以典刑;如其枉陷姦黨,謂宜施之寬貸。臣以玩等之誠,聞於聖聽,當受同賊之責;苟默而不言,實負其心。惟陛下仁聖裁之!」郗鑒以爲「先王立君臣之敎,貴於伏節死義。王敦佐吏,雖多逼迫,然進不能止其逆謀,退不能脫身遠遁,準之前訓,宜加義責。」帝卒從嶠議。

26. Emperor Ming issued an edict stating, "The people whom Wang Dun appointed to office shall be removed from office, and his advisors and associates shall be banned from holding office."

Wen Jiao sent up a petition arguing against this policy, stating, "Wang Dun was the sort of man who was obstinate and would brook no disagreements. He killed people as he pleased; the court could not control him, and even his own flesh and blood could not remonstrate against him. Those who staffed his administration were in constant fear for their lives, which kept them tongue-tied and not daring to do anything more than glance at one another when they passed on the roads. But it was still truly an instance of worthy men and superior fellows exerting their full measure of principles given their situation, a time of 'nursing things in obedience to circumstances while the time is yet dark'. Such was their personal intentions. How can you rush to condemn them?

"People like Lu Wan, Liu Yin, and Guo Pu often spoke to me of such things before, furnishing me with the knowledge which I recount today. They did their best to steer such a wicked and perverse man towards proper conduct, in order to rectify the application of laws and the administration of justice. Rather than treat them as Wang Dun's immoral minions, I say that they ought to be pardoned. For I believe in the sincerity of Lu Wan and the others, and I have heard of their virtuous behavior. They should not be condemned alongside the traitors. If they kept their tongues silent, still they burdened their hearts with this duty. May Your Majesty treat them with benevolence and wisdom!"

Chi Jian argued for the other side, stating, "When the kings of old instructed the people on the proper behavior between ministers and their sovereign, the greatest honor was that of upholding legitimate authority and sacrificing one's own life for the sake of righteousness. Even if many of Wang Dun's advisors and officials may have been under duress, still we must acknowledge that they failed either to press forward by putting a stop to his treasonous plotting or to withdraw themselves by abandoning him. According to established tradition, it is just to hold them accountable."

In the end, Emperor Ming followed Wen Jiao's advice.

〈綱紀,綜理府事者也;參佐,諸僚屬也。〉〈朝,府朝也。〉〈但以目相視,不敢發言。〉〈《周頌‧酌》之詩曰:遵養時晦。毛氏《註》云:遵,率;養,取;晦,昧也。鄭氏《箋》云:養是闇昧之君以老其惡。〉〈晏處,猶言安處。〉〈謂以大義責之。〉

(The term 綱紀 means those who administered Wang Dun's staff in his official capacities; the term 參佐 means his various subordinates and officials.

The term 朝 "court" in this instance means Wang Dun's staff.

Wen Jiao refers to the phrase "people passing one another on the road only glanced at one another without daring to utter a word".

Wen Jiao quotes from the first Zhuo poem of the Sacrificial Odes of Zhou section of the Book of Poetry: 遵養時晦 "He nursed it in obedience to circumstances while the time was yet dark". Master Mao's Annotations states, "遵 here means to lead; 養, to obtain; 晦, blind." Master Zheng's Commentary states, "The subject accommodates a blind, occluded lord in order to outlast their evil."

To 晏處 means to charge or accuse someone.

Chi Jian was saying it would be fully just to punish Wang Dun's officials.)


冬,十月,以司徒導爲太保、領司徒,加殊禮,西陽王羕領太尉,應詹爲江州刺史,劉遐爲徐州刺史,代王邃鎭淮陰,蘇峻爲歷陽內史,加庾亮護軍將軍,溫嶠前將軍。導固辭不受。應詹至江州,吏民未安,詹撫而懷之,莫不悅服。

27. In winter, the tenth month, Wang Dao was appointed as Grand Guardian while maintaining his position as Minister Over The Masses, and he was shown exceptional ceremony. The Prince of Xiyang, Sima Yang, was appointed as acting Grand Commandant. Ying Zhan was appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou. Liu Xia was appointed as Inspector of Xuzhou, and he was sent to defend Huaiyin, replacing Wang Sui. Su Jun was appointed as Interior Minister of Liyang. Yu Liang was promoted as General Who Protects The Army, and Wen Jiao was promoted as General of the Front. Wang Dao firmly declined his promotions and would not accept them.

When Ying Zhan arrived at Jiangzhou, the officials and the common people there were still not settled. But he comforted and cherished them, and there was no one there who did not admire him.

〈爲蘇峻以歷陽稱兵張本。〉

(This was why Su Jun was in command of soldiers at Liyang.)


十二月,涼州將辛晏據枹罕,不服,張駿將討之。從事劉慶諫曰:「霸王之師,必須天時、人事相得,然後乃起。辛晏凶狂安忍,其亡可必,柰何以饑年大舉,盛寒攻城乎!」駿乃止。

28. In the twelfth month, a general of Liangzhou, Xin Yan, occupied the city of Fuhan and refused to obey the orders of the new Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Jun.

Zhang Jun was about to launch a campaign against Xin Yan. But his Attendant Officer, Liu Qing, remonstrated with him, saying, "A leader who would be a hegemon king must heed the opportunities of Heaven and the affairs of men before acting. Now Xin Yan is a wicked and cruel man, a cold-blooded killer. His downfall is already certain. Why then should you raise a great host during a year of famine and lead an assault against a city in the dead of winter?" So Zhang Jun halted the planned campaign.

〈枹罕縣,前漢屬金城郡,後漢屬隴西郡;晉自張軌鎭河西,表分西平界置晉興郡,枹罕縣屬焉。枹,音膚。〉〈殺人而心不矜惻、顏不顰蹙者爲忍,忍而安之,則其亡必矣。〉

(During Former Han, Fuhan County was part of Jincheng commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Longxi commandary. After Zhang Gui assumed command of the Liang region during Jin, he petitioned to split off part of Xiping commandary to form Jinxing commandary, with Fuhan County as a part of it. The first character of Fuhan, 枹, is pronounced "fu".

One who can kill people without pity or remorse, whose expression shows no hint of a furrowed brow, is cold-blooded. He might be tolerated for a time, but his ultimate downfall is certain.)


駿遣參軍王騭聘於趙,趙主曜謂之曰:「貴州款誠和好,卿能保之乎?」騭曰:「不能。」侍中徐邈曰:「君來結好,而云不能保,何也?」騭曰:「齊桓貫澤之盟,憂心兢兢,諸侯不召自至;葵丘之會,振而矜之,叛者九國。趙國之化,常如今日,可也;若政敎陵遲,尚未能察邇者之變,況鄙州乎!」曜曰︰「此涼州之君子也,擇使可謂得人矣!」厚禮而遣之。

29. Zhang Jun sent one of his Army Advisors, Wang Zhi, as an envoy to visit Zhao. Liu Yao asked Wang Zhi, "Can you guarantee the good intentions and desire for peace of your honorable province?"

Wang Zhi replied, "I cannot promise that."

The Palace Attendant, Xu Miao, said, "Sir, you've come here to establish good relations, yet you say you cannot guarantee such things. How can that be?"

Wang Zhi replied, "When Duke Huan of the ancient state of Qi established the alliance at Guan Marsh, he displayed proper caution and concern, and so the feudal lords came to the meeting without his having to summon them. But at the meeting at Kuiqiu, he exerted his will and acted arrogant, and so nine states turned against him. Your own state of Zhao has been changing. Should proper governance and conduct decline, there is no telling what sorts of developments might occur, to say nothing of my province alone!"

Liu Yao declared, "Here is a superior fellow of Liangzhou! They've chosen the right man for the job!" And he treated Wang Zhi with great respect before sending him back.

〈《公羊傳》:僖二年,齊侯、宋公、江人、黃人盟于貫澤。江人、黃人者何?遠國之辭也。遠國至矣,則中國曷爲獨言齊、宋至爾?大國言齊、宋,小國言江、黃,則其餘爲莫敢不至也。九年,九月,戊辰,諸侯盟于葵丘。桓之盟不日,此何以日?危之也。何危爾?貫澤之會,桓公有憂中國之心,不召而至者,江人、黃人也;葵丘之會,桓公震而矜之,叛者九國。震之者何?猶曰振振然。矜之者何?猶曰莫若我也。〉

(The Gongyang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "The Annals record that 'In the second year of the reign of Duke Xi of Lu, the Marquis of Qi, the Duke of Song, an officer of Jiang, and an officer of Huang arranged an alliance at Guan Marsh'. What were these places, Jiang and Huang, that the latter two came from? They were distant states. With people from distant states having come to the meeting, why then does it only list Qi and Song from among the states of the Middle Kingdom? It must have been the case that, since such great states as Qi and Song attended, and such distant states as Jiang and Huang attended, that there cannot have been any other states who dared not to attend as well. Later on, the Annals state that 'In the ninth year, the ninth month, on the day Wuchen, the various lords arranged an alliance at Kuiqiu'. No day was listed for Duke Huan's alliance; why then was there a set day for this one? Because of danger. What was the danger? When Duke Huan held the meeting at Guan Marsh, he showed concern for the feelings of the people of the Middle Kingdom, and even the officers of Jiang and Huang came to attend without having been summoned. But at the meeting at Kuiqiu, Duke Huan exerted his will and acted arrogant, and so nine states turned against him. How was it that he exerted his will? Because he compelled them to attend. How was he arrogant? Because he acted as though no one else could compare.")


是歲,代王賀傉始親國政,以諸部多未服,乃築城於東木根山,徙居之。

30. It was earlier mentioned that the new Prince of Dai, Tuoba Henu, had been too young to rule in person, and so his mother has acted as regent. During this year, Tuoba Henu first began to personally oversee the affairs of state.

Because many of the Tuoba tribes were not yet loyal to him, Tuoba Henu built a city at Mount Dongmugen, and shifted his residence there.

〈元帝大[太]興四年,賀傉立,至是始能親政。〉〈河西有木根山,在五原郡東北。此木根山在河東,故曰東木根山。〉

(Tuoba Henu had inherited the title Prince of Dai in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) fourth year of Taixing (321.19). But it was not until now that he actually began to rule the state.

There is a Mount Mugen in the Hexi region, in the northeast of Wuyuan commandary. Because this Mount Mugen is east of the Yellow River, it is also called Mount Dongmugen ("Eastern Mugen").)


四年,帝始臨朝。以諸部人情未悉欵順,乃築城於東木根山,徙都之。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fourth year of the reign of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Henu (324), he first began to personally lead the court. Because many of the Tuoba tribes were not yet fully loyal to him, Tuoba Henu built a city at Mount Dongmugen, and shifted his capital there.
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BOOK 93

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue May 22, 2018 1:51 am

三年(乙酉、三二五)

The Third Year of Taining (The Yiyou Year, 325 AD)


春,正月,張駿承元帝凶問,大臨三日。會黃龍見嘉泉,氾禕等請改年以章休祥;駿不許。辛晏以枹罕降,駿復收河南之地。

1. In spring, the first month, Zhang Jun learned of Sima Rui's cruel fate. He held a great mourning for Sima Rui for three days.

At that time, a yellow dragon was spotted at Jia Spring. Fan Yi and other Liangzhou officials asked that Zhang Jun declare a new reign era title to acknowledge this good omen, but Zhang Jun refused.

The erstwhile rebel Xin Yan surrendered Fuhan, and so Zhang Jun once again possessed territory south of the Yellow River.

〈據《駿傳》,嘉泉在武威揖次縣。「揖次」,前漢作「揟次」。孟康曰:揟,子如翻。次,音咨。〉〈涼州諸郡,獨金城在河南。〉

(According to the Biography of Zhang Jun in the Book of Jin, Jia Spring was in Yici County in Wuwei commandary. The name of that county, 揖次 Yici, had been written as 揟次 Xuci during Former Han. Meng Kang remared, "揟 is pronounced 'zu (z-u)'. 次 is pronounced 'zi'."

Among the commandaries of Liangzhou, only Jincheng was south of the Yellow River.)


贈故譙王承、甘卓、戴淵、周顗、虞望、郭璞、王澄等官。周札故吏爲札訟冤,尚書卞壼議以爲:「札守石頭,開門延寇,不當贈諡。」司徒導以爲:「往年之事,敦姦逆未彰,自臣等有識以上,皆所未悟,與札無異;旣悟其姦,札便以身許國,尋取梟夷。臣謂宜與周、戴同例。」郗鑒以爲:「周、戴死節,周札延寇,事異賞均,何以勸沮!如司徒議,謂往年有識以上皆與札無異,則譙王、周、戴皆應受責,何贈諡之有!今三臣旣褒,則札宜受貶明矣。」導曰:「札與譙王、周、戴,雖所見有異同,皆人臣之節也。」鑒曰:「敦之逆謀,履霜日久,緣札開門,令王師不振。若敦前者之舉,義同桓、文,則先帝可爲幽、厲邪!」然卒用導議,贈札衞尉。

2. The Jin court made posthumous appointments for those loyalists who had died during Wang Dun's rebellions: Sima Zheng, Gan Zhuo, Dai Yuan, Zhou Yi, Yu Wang, Guo Pu, Wang Cheng, and others.

Zhou Zha's former officials testified on his behalf as well. But the Master of Writing, Bian Kun, argued against it, saying, "Zhou Zha was in charge of defending Shitou, yet he opened the gates and admitted the enemy. He does not deserve a posthumous appointment."

Wang Dao argued, "At that time, Wang Dun's wicked intentions were not yet apparent. Even people such as myself who held higher office still did not realize it. Zhou Zha was no different from us. Once we did realize Wang Dun's foul intent, Zhou Zha defended the state at the cost of his life, and even had his head hung up and his family wiped out. I say that he was no different than Zhou Yi and Dai Yuan."

Chi Jian responded, "Zhou Yi and Dai Yuan upheld proper authority even unto death, while Zhou Zha let the enemy enter. How can you propose that they receive the same rewards when they acted so differently? If things really are as the Minister Over The Masses suggests, and those who held higher office back then were really no different from Zhou Zha, then the Prince of Qiao (Sima Zheng), Zhou Yi, and Dai Yuan should all be receiving blame right now, and what reason would we have for giving them posthumous appointments? But since we are indeed commending those three, then it is clear that Zhou Zha deserves censure instead."

Wang Dao said, "Although one can see that there were differences between Zhou Zha and Zhou Yi, Dai Yuan, and the Prince of Qiao, they all still upheld proper authority."

Chi Jian replied, "Wang Dun's evil plans were building up all along, just like ‘treaded hoarfrost’, and it was thanks to Zhou Zha opening the gates that the royal army was put to flight. If during Wang Dun's first uprising his intentions really had been as pure as those of Duke Huan of Qi or Duke Wen of Jin, then His Late Majesty (Sima Rui) would have had to have been another King You or King Li of Zhou!"

But in the end, Wang Dao's advice won out, and Zhou Zha was posthumously appointed as Commandant of the Guards.

〈「承」,當作「氶」。王敦之難,諸人死之,故贈以官。〉〈事見上卷元帝永昌元年。〉〈事見上太寧二年。〉〈《易》曰:履霜堅冰至。〉

(This passage records the given name of the Prince of Qiao as 承 Cheng; it should be 氶 Zheng.

These people had all died during Wang Dun's de facto reign, and so they were now receiving posthumous appointments.

Zhou Zha's opening of the gates of the Shitou fortress during Wang Dun's march on Jiankang is mentioned in Book 92, in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) first year of Yongchang (322.21).

Zhou Zha's death and the extermination of his family are mentioned above, in the second year of Taining (324.1).

Chi Jian quotes from the Book of Changes: "He treads on the hoarfrost; the strong ice will come by and by (2.2)".)


Kings You and Li of Zhou were poor rulers who led to the downfall of the Western Zhou dynasty, resulting in its crippled form in the Eastern Zhou as the feudal lords claimed more power.

後趙王勒加宇文乞得歸官爵,使之擊慕容廆。廆遣世子皝、索頭、段國共擊之,以遼東相裴嶷爲右翼,慕容仁爲左翼。乞得歸據澆水以拒皝,遣兄子悉拔雄拒仁。仁擊悉拔雄,斬之;乘勝與皝攻乞得歸,大破之。乞得歸棄軍走,皝、仁進入其國城,使輕兵追乞得歸,過其國三百餘里而還,盡獲其國重器,畜產以百萬計,民之降附者數萬。

3. It was earlier mentioned that the King of Later Zhao, Shi Le, had tried to established good relations with the Xianbei leader Murong Hui, but Murong Hui had spurned him. Shi Le now granted ranks and titles to the leader of the Yuwen tribe of the Xianbei, Yuwen Qidegui, and ordered him to attack Murong Hui.

Murong Hui sent his eldest son by his wife, Murong Huang, to attack the Yuwen, and he enlisted the aid of the Suotou and Duan states to join in the fighting. His Chancellor of Liaodong, Pei Yi, commanded the right wing of the army, while his son Murong Ren commanded the left wing.

Yuwen Qidegui held the line of the Jiao River to oppose Murong Huang, while sending his nephew Yuwen Xibaxiong to oppose Murong Ren. Murong Ren attacked Yuwen Xibaxiong and beheaded him. Then he pressed his victory by joining with Murong Huang to attack Yuwen Qidegui, and they greatly routed him.

Yuwen Qidegui abandoned his army and fled, and Murong Huang and Murong Ren advanced and entered the cities of his state. They sent light infantry to pursue Yuwen Qidegui, and they chased him through his state for over three hundred li before turning back. They captured all of his treasures of state, along with millions of his livestock, and tens of thousand of his people submitted to the Murong clan and went over to them.

〈以元年廆執其使送建康也。〉〈索頭,卽拓跋氏。〉〈澆水,卽澆洛水也。澆,古堯翻。〉〈《考異》曰:《燕書‧征虜仁傳》作「悉拔堆」,《後魏書‧宇文莫槐傳》作「乞得龜、悉拔堆」,《載記》亦作「龜」,《燕書‧武宣紀》作「乞得歸、悉拔雄」,今從之。〉

(Shi Le had sent envoys to Murong Hui during the first year of Taining (323.7), but Murong Hui had arrested them and sent them to Jiankang.

The Suotou, or "braid-heads", referred to the Tuoba clan.

The Jiao River was the Jiaoluo River. 澆 is pronounced "gao (g-ao)".

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding the names of Yuwen 乞得歸 Qidegui and his nephew, the Biography of the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Murong Ren, in the Book of Yan records the nephew's given name as 悉拔堆 Xibadui, while the Biography of Yuwen Mohuai in the Book of Northern Wei records the names of these two Yuwen leaders as 乞得龜 Qidegui and 悉拔堆 Xibadui. The Biography of Murong Hui in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin also records the third character of Yuwen Qidegui's given name as 龜 rather than 歸. But the Annals of Emperor Wuxuan (Murong Hui) in the Book of Yan records their names as 乞得歸 Qidegui and 悉拔雄 Xibaxiong, and I follow that account.")


三月,段末柸卒,弟牙立。

4. In the third month, Duan Mopei passed away. His younger brother Duan Ya succeeded him.

戊辰,立皇子衍爲太子,大赦。

5. On the day Wuchen (April 1st), Emperor Ming established his son Sima Yan as Crown Prince. A general amnesty was declared.

成皇帝諱衍,字世根,明帝長子也。太寧三年三月戊辰,立爲皇太子。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Emperor Cheng, named Sima Yan, was styled Shigen. He was the eldest son of Emperor Ming.

In the third year of Taining (325), in the third month, on the day Wuchen (April 1st), he was established as the Crown Prince.


趙主曜立皇后劉氏。

6. Liu Yao honored a certain Lady Liu as his Empress.

北羌王盆句除附於趙,後趙將石佗自鴈門出上郡襲之,俘三千餘落,獲牛、馬、羊百餘萬而歸。趙主曜遣中山王岳追之,曜屯于富平,爲岳聲援,岳與石佗戰於河濱,斬之,後趙兵死者六千餘人,岳悉收所虜而歸。

7. The King of the Northern Qiang, Pengouchu, aligned himself with Zhao. In response, the Later Zhao general Shi Tuo marched out from Yanmen commandary to attack him, and he captured more than three thousand tribes and more than a million oxen, horses, and sheep before returning. Liu Yao sent his Prince of Zhongshan, Liu Yue, to pursue Shi Tuo, while Liu Yao himself camped at Fuping to act as reserves for Liu Yue. Liu Yue fought Shi Tuo on the banks of the Yellow River and beheaded him. More than six thousand Later Zhao soldiers died, and Liu Yue reclaimed all the captives before returning.

〈句,古侯翻,又權俱翻,又音駒。〉〈佗,徒河翻。富平縣,屬北地郡。河濱,大河之濱也。《水經》:河水過富平縣西。唐勝州河濱縣,隋榆林縣地。杜佑曰:富平,本漢舊縣,後漢移富平縣於今彭原郡界,富平故城是也。按:靈州乃漢富平縣地,今京兆富平縣西南有漢懷德故城,此富平蓋漢懷德縣地。〉

(句 is variously pronounced "gou (g-ou)", "qu (q-u)", and "ju".

Shi Tuo's given name 佗 is pronounced "te (t-e)".

Fuping County was part of Beidi commandary. The "banks of the river" means the banks of the Yellow River. According to the Water Classic, the Yellow River flowed through the west of Fuping County. Hebin ("banks of the Yellow River") County in Tang's Tengzhou was the same place as Sui's Yulin County. Du You remarked, "Fuping was originally a Han county. Later Han shifted Fuping County to within modern Pengyuan commandary, where the city of Fuping is." It is also said, "Lingzhou is where Han's Fuping County was. In the southwest of the Fuping County in modern Jingzhao commandary, there is the city of Huaide from the Han era. This Fuping was the same as Han's Huaide County.")


楊難敵襲仇池,克之;執田崧,立之於前,左右令崧拜;崧瞋目叱之曰:「氐狗!安有天子牧伯而向賊拜乎!」難敵字謂之曰:「子岱,吾當與子共定大業,子忠於劉氏,豈不能忠於我乎!」崧厲色大言曰:「賊氐,汝本奴才,何謂大業!我寧爲趙鬼,不爲汝臣!」顧排一人,奪其劍,前刺難敵,不中。難敵殺之。

8. It was earlier mentioned that the ruler of Chouchi, Yang Nandi, had abandoned that city and fled to Hanzhong out of fear of Liu Yao, and Liu Yao had appointed Tian Song to guard Chouchi. At this time, Yang Nandi attacked Chouchi and retook it, and he captured Tian Song.

Yang Nandi placed Tian Song before him, and those with him ordered Tian Song to perform obeisance. But Tian Song only glared at Yang Nandi and said, "You Di cur! How can a border commander appointed by the Son of Heaven bow down before a bandit?"

Yang Nandi addressed Tian Song by his style name, saying, "Zidai, I want to achieve the grand design together with you. You have been loyal to the Liu clan; can you not be loyal to me as well?"

But Tian Song sternly shouted, "Di bandit! You're nothing more than a slave! How can you speak of the grand design? Better for me to serve Zhao as a ghost than serve you as a minister!" And he suddenly turned towards someone and grabbed their sword, then moved to strike Yang Nandi, but he did not injure him. Yang Nandi killed him.

〈田崧,字子岱。趙使崧鎭仇池見上卷太寧元年。〉

(Tian Song’s style name was Zidai. Liu Yao had appointed him to guard Chouchi in Book 92, in the first year of Taining (323.16).)


都尉魯潛以許昌叛,降于後趙。

9. Jin's Capital Commandant, Lu Qian, rebelled at Xuchang and surrendered to Later Zhao.

夏,四月,後趙將石瞻攻兗州刺史檀斌于鄒山,殺之。

10. In summer, the fourth month, the Later Zhao general Shi Zhan attacked Jin's Inspector of Yanzhou, Tan Bin, at Mount Zou and killed him.

〈《晉本紀》,「斌」作「贇」,《載記》作「斌」。《考異》曰:《帝紀》作「石良」,今從《石勒載記》。〉

(The Basic Annals of the Book of Jin records the given name of this Inspector as 贇 Yun, while the Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin records it as 斌 Bin.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Ming in the Book of Jin records the name of this Later Zhao general as Shi Liang. But I follow the account of the Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin.")


後趙西夷中郎將王騰殺幷州刺史崔琨、上黨內史王眘,據幷州降趙。

11. Later Zhao's General of the Household Gentlemen of the Western Yi Tribes, Wang Teng, killed their Inspector of Bingzhou, Cui Kun, and their Interior Minister of Shangdang, Wang Shen. Having occupied Bingzhou, he surrendered it to Zhao.

〈劉琨鎭幷州,愍帝建興四年爲石勒所破,置幷州刺史治上黨。王眘,章武人,初起兵,擾勒渤海、河間諸郡,後歸于勒,使守上黨。眘,古愼字。〉

(Liu Kun had originally held Bingzhou on behalf of Jin. But in Emperor Min's fourth year of Jianxing (316.31), Shi Le routed him and took control of Bingzhou. Shi Le then appointed his own Inspector of Bingzhou, who administered the province from Shangdang.

This Wang Shen was a native of Zhangwu. When he had first risen up with soldiers, he caused trouble in Shi Le's various commandaries around Bohai and Henei. But later he joined Shi Le, who assigned him command of Shangdang. His given name 眘 is pronounced "gen (g-en)".)


五月,以陶侃爲征西大將軍、都督荊‧湘‧雍‧梁四州諸軍事、荊州刺史,荊州士女相慶。侃性聰敏恭勤,終日斂膝危坐,軍府衆事,檢攝無遺,未嘗少閒。常語人曰:「大禹聖人,乃惜寸陰,至於衆人,當惜分陰。豈可但逸遊荒醉,生無益於時,死無聞於後,是自棄也!」諸參佐或以談戲廢事者,命取其酒器、蒱博之具,悉投之於江,將吏則加鞭扑,曰:「樗蒱者,牧猪奴戲耳!老、莊浮華,非先王之法言,不益實用。君子當正其威儀,何有蓬頭、跣足,自謂宏達邪!」有奉饋者,必問其所由,若力作所致,雖微必喜,慰賜參倍;若非理得之,則切厲訶辱,還其所饋。嘗出遊,見人持一把未熟稻,侃問:「用此何爲?」人云:「行道所見,聊取之耳。」侃大怒曰:「汝旣不佃,而戲賊人稻!」執而鞭之。是以百姓勤於農作,家給人足。嘗造船,其木屑竹頭,侃皆令籍而掌之,人咸不解所以。後正會,積雪始晴,聽事前餘雪猶濕,乃以木屑布地。乃桓溫伐蜀,又以侃所貯竹頭作丁裝船。其綜理微密,皆此類也。

12. In the fifth month, Jin appointed Tao Kan as Grand General Who Conquers The West, Commander of military affairs in the four provinces of Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, Yongzhou, and Lianzhou, and Inspector of Jingzhou. The men and women of Jingzhou all celebrated his appointment.

Tao Kan was naturally quick-witted, respectful, and diligent, and he would keep an upright posture all through the day while gripping his knees. He closely investigated and kept track of all army and government affairs, never leaving any issues unresolved and never granting himself free time. Tao Kan often exhorted people by saying, "Even a sage like Yu the Great took careful notice of such short amounts of time as the time it takes for a shadow to move an inch. So too should everyone appreciate how short time is. How can one while away their hours in idleness or debauchery, so that in being born they contribute nothing to their era, and after death they leave no legacy? That is simply to throw one's life away!"

There were some among Tao Kan's assistants and officials who liked to spend their time in rhetoric and wordplay and so neglected their duties. Tao Kan ordered their wine vessels and their gambling game boards to be gathered up and all thrown into the Yangzi. When his generals and officials then objected, Tao Kan replied, "People who play the chupu game are no better than pig-tenders and slaves! The teachings of Laozi and Zhuangzi befuddle the Hua people (ethnic Han), and they go against the laws and the words of the kings of old. They have no real use. And a superior fellow ought to maintain a proper bearing and appearance: how then can you go about with unkempt hair and bare feet while declaring yourselves to be enlightened?"

When there were people who presented gifts to Tao Kan, he always looked into the source of the offerings. If the gift had come about through the person's own efforts, he was always pleased to receive it, no matter how trifling it was, and he repaid them thrice over. But if the gift went against reason, then he would sternly scold and humiliate the giver and send their gift back.

Tao Kan once went out on a patrol, where he saw someone holding some uncooked rice. Tao Kan asked the person, "What use do you have for that?"

The person replied, "I saw it as I was walking along the road, so I took a little, that's all."

Tao Kan furiously replied, "So, instead of tending a field, you would rather play the bandit and steal another man's rice!" And he arrested the person and whipped them. Thus did the common people diligently tend to their farmwork, and the households had enough food to eat.

Tao Kan was once building boats. During the construction, he ordered all the wood shavings and heads of bamboo to be recorded and gathered up. No one understood the reason for this. Later on, during the New Year's Meeting, the accumulated snow had only just begun to melt, and the snow in front of the government office was still wet. So Tao Kan spread the wood shavings out over the ground there. And many years afterwards, when Huan Wen was in command in Jingzhou and was preparing for his campaign against Cheng-Han (in 347), he used the heads of bamboo that Tao Kan had saved during this time to build compound ships.

Such were the ways that Tao Kan paid attention to even the smallest and most obscure details during his administration.

〈攝,錄也,整也。〉〈禹不貴尺璧而重寸陰。〉〈晉人多好樗蒱,以五木擲之,其采有黑犢,有雉,有盧;得盧勝。〉〈參,猶三也。〉〈切,峻切;厲,嚴厲也。〉〈佃,治田也。〉〈皆令籍記而典掌之。〉〈解,曉也。以,猶用也。〉

(The term 攝 here means "record" or "rectify".

Yu the Great "treasured the shortness of time more than a 尺 of jade".

Many people of Jin loved playing the chupu board game, which involved casting the five pieces. Each of them had a black calf side. Possible results included the Pheasant and the Lu (black). Getting the Lu result meant victory.

The term 參 here means "three".

Here, 切 means "sternly" and 厲 means "severely".

Tao Kan accuses the person on the road of not being a 佃; this is someone who tends fields.

Tao Kan ordered the wood shavings and bamboo heads to be recorded and collected up.

Here, 解 means "realize" and 以 means "the use of".)


陶公性檢厲,勤於事。作荊州時,敕船官悉錄鋸木屑,不限多少,咸不解此意。後正會,值積雪始晴,聽事前除雪後猶濕,於是悉用木屑覆之,都無所妨。官用竹,皆令錄厚頭,積之如山。後桓宣武伐蜀,裝船,悉以作釘。又云:嘗發所在竹篙,有一官長連根取之,仍當足,乃超兩階用之。(New Tales of the World 3.16)

Tao Kan was by nature frugal and strict and conscientious in his work. While he was Inspector of Jingzhou, he ordered the shipbuilding officers to save all the sawdust regardless of whether there was much or little. At the time nobody understood the purpose of this. Later at a New Year's assembly, it happened that the skies had just cleared after a heavy snowfall. On the front steps of the audience hall it was still wet after the snow had been removed, so they used all the sawdust to cover them, yet Tao Kan offered no objection whatsoever.

Whenever the shipbuilding officers used bamboo, he always ordered them to save the butt ends, piling them up like mountains. Later, when Huan Wen led an expedition against Cheng-Han (in 347) and was outfitting his fleet, they used all the butt ends to make nails.

It is also told how on one occasion Tao Kan was issuing bamboo punting poles when one of the foremen took the poles, roots and all, to serve just as they were for pole ends. After that Tao Kan employed him at an advance of two ranks. (tr. Richard Mather)


後趙將石生屯洛陽,寇掠河南,司州刺史李矩、潁川太守郭默軍數敗,又乏食,乃遣使附於趙。趙主曜使中山王岳將兵萬五千人趣孟津,鎭東將軍呼延謨帥荊、司之衆自崤、澠而東,欲會矩、默共攻石生。岳克孟津、石梁二戍,斬獲五千餘級,進圍石生於金墉。後趙中山公虎帥步騎四萬,入自成皋關,與岳戰于洛西。岳兵敗,中流矢,退保石梁。虎作塹栅環之,遏絕內外。岳衆飢甚,殺馬食之。虎又擊呼延謨,斬之。曜自將兵救岳,虎帥騎三萬逆戰。趙前軍將軍劉黑擊虎將石聰於八特阪,大破之。曜屯于金谷,夜,軍中無故大驚,士卒奔潰,乃退屯澠池;夜,又驚潰,遂歸長安。六月,虎拔石梁,禽岳及其將佐八十餘人,氐、羌三千餘人,皆送襄國,阬其士卒九千人。遂攻王騰於幷州,執騰,殺之,阬其士卒七千餘人。曜還長安,素服郊次,哭,七日乃入城,因憤恚成疾。郭默復爲石聰所敗,棄妻子南奔建康。李矩將士陰謀叛降後趙,矩不能討,亦帥衆南歸,衆皆道亡,惟郭誦等百餘人隨之,卒於魯陽。矩長史崔宣帥其餘衆二千降于後趙。於是司、豫、徐、兗之地,率皆入於後趙,以淮爲境矣。

13. Shi Sheng camped at Luoyang, where he invaded and plundered Henan.

Since the armies of the Jin generals Li Ju and Guo Mo had been defeated several times and their food was exhausted, they sent messengers asking to align themselves with Zhao. So Liu Yao sent Liu Yue to lead fifteen thousand soldiers to meet them at Meng Crossing, while Zhao's General Who Guards The East, Huyan Mo, led the Zhao forces of Jingzhou and Sizhou east from the Xiao mountains and the Mian River. Their hope was to link up with Li Ju and Guo Mo in order to attack Shi Sheng together.

Liu Yue overran the two Later Zhao camps at Meng Crossing and Shiliang, where he captured or killed more than five thousand. Then he advanced and besieged Shi Sheng at the Jinyong fortress. In response, Later Zhao's Duke of Zhongshan, Shi Hu, led forty thousand horse and foot and entered the region through Chenggao Pass, where he fought a battle against Liu Yue west of the Luo River. Liu Yue's troops were defeated and he was struck by a stray arrow, so he retreated to defend Shiliang. Then Shi Hu built moats and barricades to encircle Liu Yue and cut him off from the outside. Liu Yue's army suffered from extreme hunger, so they killed their horses and ate them. Shi Hu also attacked Huyan Mo and beheaded him.

Liu Yao himself led troops to rescue Liu Yue, and Shi Hu led thirty thousand cavalry to face him in battle. Zhao's General of the Forward Army, Liu Mo, attacked Shi Hu's general Shi Cong at Bate Slope and greatly routed him. Liu Yao camped at Jin Valley. But during the night, for unknown reasons, there was a great disturbance in Liu Yao's camp. His officers and soldiers all fled and scattered, and so he fell back to camp at Mianchi. But again, during the night, there was another disturbance and the soldiers once again scattered. Liu Yao was forced to return to Chang'an.

In the sixth month, Shi Hu took Shiliang, capturing Liu Yue and more than eighty of his generals and assistants, as well as more than three thousand Di and Qiang. He sent them all to Xiangguo, while he had the rest of Liu Yue's officers and soldiers, nine thousand, buried alive.

Then Shi Hu attacked the defector Wang Teng at Bingzhou. He captured Wang Teng and killed him, and then buried alive his officers and soldiers, more than seven thousand.

When Liu Yao returned to Chang'an, he wore white mourning clothing and remained in the suburbs for seven days, weeping over the losses, before he entered the city. His agitation and anger thus made him become ill.

Guo Mo was once again defeated by Shi Sheng. He abandoned his wife and children and fled south to Jiankang.

Li Ju's generals and officers secretly plotted to rebel against him and surrender to Later Zhao. Since Li Ju was powerless to stop them, he also led his forces south. But they abandoned him along the way, and only some hundred men like Guo Song stayed with him. Li Ju passed away at Luyang. His Chief Clerk, Cui Xuan, led two thousand of his remaining soldiers to surrender to Later Zhao.

All of Sizhou, Yuzhou, Xuzhou, and Yanzhou was now Later Zhao territory, with the Huai River serving as their border with Jin.

〈時荊州仍屬晉,司州之地多入後趙,劉曜得其民處之關中者,使謨帥而東耳。或曰:劉聰以洛陽爲荊州,此所謂荊、司,皆晉司州之衆也。〉〈此孟津戍,蓋置於河陰;石梁戍在洛北。〉〈《水經註》:澗水出河南新安縣東南,東北流,逕函谷東阪東,謂之八特阪。〉〈《水經註》:金谷水出太白原,東南流,歷金谷,又東南流,逕晉石崇故居,在河南界。〉〈魯陽縣,屬南陽郡。〉

(At this time, Jingzhou was under the control of Jin, while most of Sizhou was under the control of Later Zhao. Liu Yao had relocated the people of those areas which he controlled into the Guanzhong region, and this was why this passage says that Liu Yue led them "east". Some say that Liu Cong had designated Luoyang as Jingzhou, and so by that logic, "Jingzhou and Sizhou" to Zhao would have been the same as the original Sizhou established by Jin.

The camp at Meng Crossing would have been south of the Yellow River; the camp at Shiliang would have been north of the Luo River.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Jian River emerges from the southeast of Xin'an County in Henan commandary. It flows northeast, passing east through a valley at Dong Slope, at the place called Bate Slope."

It further states, "The Jingu River emerges from the Taibai Plain. It flows southeast, passing through Jin Valley, and on southeast, passing by the residence of Shi Chong of Jin in Henan."

Luyang County was part of Nanyang commandary.)


趙主曜以永安王胤爲大司馬、大單于,徙封南陽王,置單于臺于渭城,其左、右賢王以下,皆以胡、羯、鮮卑、氐、羌豪桀爲之。

14. Liu Yao appointed his Prince of Yong'an, his son Liu Yin, as Grand Marshal and Grand Chanyu, and changed his noble title to Prince of Nanyang. He established a Chanyu Terrace administration for Liu Yin at Weicheng. All the great heroes of the tribal forces of the Xiongnu, Jie, Xianbei, Di, and Qiang, from the Worthy Princes of the Left and Right, were assigned to him.

秋,七月,辛未,以尚書令郗鑒爲車騎將軍、都督徐‧兗‧青三州諸軍事、兗州刺史,鎭廣陵。

15. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Xinwei (August 2nd), Emperor Ming appointed the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Chi Jian, as General of Chariots and Cavalry, Commander of military affairs in the three provinces of Xuzhou, Yanzhou, and Qingzhou, and Inspector of Yanzhou, and sent him to guard Guangling.

閏月,以尚書左僕射荀松爲光祿大夫、錄尚書事,尚書鄧攸爲左僕射。

16. In the intercalary month, Emperor Ming appointed the Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, Xun Song, as Household Counselor With Golden Tassel and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. One of the Masters of Writing, Deng You, was appointed as the new Supervisor of the Left.

〈【章:甲十一行本「松」作「崧」;乙十一行本同;孔本同。】〉

(The character for Xun Song's given name should be 崧 Song instead of 松 Song.)


右衞將軍虞胤,元敬皇后之弟也,與左衞將軍南頓王宗俱爲帝所親任,典禁兵,直殿內,多聚勇士以爲羽翼;王導、庾亮皆忌之,頗以爲言,帝待之愈厚,宮門管鑰,皆以委之。帝寢疾,亮夜有所表,從宗求鑰;宗不與,叱亮使曰:「此汝家門戶邪!」亮益忿之。及帝疾篤,不欲見人,羣臣無得進者。亮疑宗、胤及宗兄西陽王羕有異謀,排闥入升御床,見帝流涕,言羕與宗等謀廢大臣,自求輔政,請黜之;帝不納。壬午,帝引太宰羕、司徒導、尚書令卞壼、車騎將軍郗鑒、護軍將軍庾亮、領軍將軍陸曄、丹楊尹溫嶠,並受遺詔輔太子,更入殿將兵直宿;復拜壼右將軍,亮中書令,曄錄尚書事。丁亥,降遺詔;戊子,帝崩。帝明敏有機斷,故能以弱制強,誅翦逆臣,克復大業。

17. The Guard General of the Right, Yu Yin, was the younger brother of Empress Yuanjing (Sima Rui’s Empress). He and the Guard General of the Left and Prince of Nandun, Sima Zong, both held positions close to Emperor Ming. They wielded commanded of the guards, and whenever they entered the palace, they were often flanked by groups of strong fellows. Wang Dao and Yu Liang were both wary of them, and said as much to Emperor Ming, but he only showed them even greater favor.

Yu Yin and Sima Zong possessed the keys to the palace gates. When Emperor Ming was bedridden with illness, Yu Liang wanted to present a petition to him during the night, so he went to Sima Zong to ask for the key. But Sima Zong refused, shouting at his messenger, "This is just about your family's status!" This made Yu Liang hate him even more.

When Emperor Ming's illness worsened, he did not wish to see anyone, and so none of the ministers could get an audience with him. Yu Liang suspected that Sima Zong, Yu Yin, and the Prince of Xiyang, Sima Zong's elder brother Sima Yang, had some sinister plot afoot. So he forced his way in, ascended the steps, and climbed onto the imperial bed, where he saw Emperor Ming weeping. Yu Liang said that Sima Yang was plotting with Sima Zong and the others to depose the great ministers and claim control of the government, and he asked that they be demoted. But Emperor Ming would not allow it.

On the day Renwu (October 12th), Emperor Ming summoned the Grand Governor, Sima Yang, the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, the Prefect of the Masters of Writing, Bian Kun, the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Chi Jian, the General Who Protects The Army, Yu Liang, the General Who Directs The Army, Lu Ye, and the Intendant of Danyang, Wen Jiao. He charged them all to accept his final testament and to administer the government as regents for the Crown Prince, as well as assigning them command of the palace soldiers. He also appointed Bian Kun as General of the Right, Yu Liang as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, and Lu Ye as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

On the day Dinghai (October 17th), Emperor Ming published his last testament. On the day Wuzi (October 18th), he passed away.

Emperor Ming's posthumous title was Ming ("the Wise"). He was indeed wise, nimble, and decisive, and this was why he was able to overcome a stronger enemy from a weaker position. He executed and destroyed traitorous ministers, and successfully restored the grand design.

〈元帝爲琅邪,虞爲妃,卽位,追諡曰敬皇后,祔廟,從元帝諡曰元敬。〉〈宗,汝南王亮之子也。〉〈管,鍵也;鑰,關牡也,今謂之鎖匙。〉〈爲下亮殺宗張本。〉〈按晉制,領軍將軍在護軍將軍之上;今先書庾亮而後陸曄,亮以外戚受遺專權故也。〉〈更,迭也。〉〈年二十七。〉

(During the time that Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) had been Prince of Langye, Lady Yu had been his consort. After Emperor Yuan claimed imperial title, he posthumously granted Lady Yu the title Empress Jing. Following Emperor Yuan's own death, they were buried together in the ancestral temple, and her title was changed to Yuanjing to match Sima Rui’s title as Emperor Yuan.

Sima Zong was the son of the late Prince of Runan, Sima Liang.

The term 管 here means "key", and the term 鑰 means a gate-bolt, what we would now call a key.

This was why Yu Liang later killed Sima Zong.

According to the Jin system, General Who Directs The Army was a higher rank than General Who Protects The Army. Yet in the list of future regents, Yu Liang is mentioned before Lu Ye. This was because of the greater power Yu Liang wielded as a marital relative of the royal family.

The term 更 here means "in addition".

Emperor Ming was twenty-six years old when he died.)


閏月戊子,明帝崩。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the intercalary month, on the day Wuzi (October 18th), Emperor Ming passed away.

是年,司馬紹死,子衍僭立。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fifth year of the reign of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Henu (325), Sima Shao (Emperor Ming) passed away. His son Sima Yan (Emperor Cheng) succeeded him.


己丑,太子卽皇帝位,生五年矣。羣臣進璽,司徒導以疾不至。卞壼正色於朝曰:「王公豈社稷之臣邪!大行在殯,嗣皇未立,寧是人臣辭疾之時也!」導聞之,輿疾而至。大赦,增文武位二等,尊庾后爲皇太后。

18. On the day Jichou (October 19th), Crown Prince Sima Yan ascended the throne, a mere four years old. He would be known as Emperor Cheng.

When the ministers were about to present the seal of state to the new sovereign, Wang Dao claimed illness and did not attend. Bian Dun sternly declared before the court, "How can Lord Wang consider himself a minister concerned with the fortunes of state? We are on the cusp of a great ceremony, when our new ruler has not yet ascended; how could any man or minister refuse to arrive on account of illness at this of all times?" When Wang Dao heard, he had himself brought in despite his illness and so attended.

A general amnesty was declared, and all civil and military officials were advanced by two ranks. Empress Yu was honored as the Empress Dowager.

〈進璽於嗣君也。〉

(They would be presenting the seal as a sign of the new ruler's ascension.)


己丑,太子卽皇帝位,大赦,增文武位二等,賜鰥寡孤老帛,人二匹,尊皇后庾氏爲皇太后。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Jichou (October 19th), the Crown Prince ascended the throne as Emperor Cheng. A general amnesty was declared. All civil and military officials were advanced by two ranks. Gifts of silk were distributed to widows and widowers, to orphans, and to the aged, with each person receiving two bolts.

Emperor Cheng honored the Empress Lady Yu as Empress Dowager.


羣臣以帝幼沖,奏請太后依漢和熹皇后故事;太后辭讓數四,乃從之。秋,九月,癸卯,太后臨朝稱制。以司徒導錄尚書事,中書令庾亮、尚書令卞壼參輔朝政,然事之大要皆決於亮。加郗鑒車騎將軍,陸曄左光祿大夫,皆開府儀同三司。以南頓王宗爲驃騎將軍,虞胤爲大宗正。

19. Because Emperor Cheng was so young, the ministers submitted a petition asking the new Empress Dowager to follow the example of Empress Hexi of Han (Deng Sui) by assuming regency over the court on his behalf. She declined the offer some four times, before at last agreeing to the request. In the ninth month, on the day Guimao (November 2nd), Empress Dowager Yu oversaw the court and exercised authority.

Empress Dowager Yu appointed Wang Dao as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, with Yu Liang and Bian Kun to act as his assistants as regents over the government. However, in the event, all major issues were decided by Yu Liang. She also promoted Chi Jian as General of Chariots and Cavalry and Lu Ye as Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Left, and both of them were granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. She appointed Sima Zong as General of Agile Cavalry, and Yu Yin as Grand Director of the Imperial Clan.

〈言臨朝稱制也。〉

(Empress Hexi had become regent for her late husband's infant son after Emperor He of Han's death; this was the example that the ministers proposed that Empress Dowager Yu follow.)


秋九月癸卯,皇太后臨朝稱制。司徒王導錄尚書事,與中書令庾亮參輔朝政。以撫軍將軍、南頓王宗爲驃騎將軍,領軍將軍、汝南王祐爲衛將軍。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the ninth month, on the day Guimao (November 2nd), Empress Dowager Yu oversaw the court and exercised authority.

Empress Dowager Yu appointed Wang Dao as chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he and the Prefect of the Palace Secretariat, Yu Liang, acted as regents over the government. The General Who Comforts The Army and Prince of Nandun, Sima Zong, was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry, and the General Who Leads The Army and Prince of Runan, Sima You, was appointed as Guard General.


尚書召樂廣之子謨爲郡中正,庾珉族人怡爲廷尉評,謨、怡各稱父命不就。卞壼奏曰:「人非無父而生,職非無事而立;有父必有命,居職必有悔。有家各私其子,則爲王者無民,君臣之道廢矣。樂廣、庾珉受寵聖世,身非己有,況及後嗣而可專哉!所居之職,若順夫羣心,則戰戍者之父母皆當命子以不處也。」謨、怡不得已,各就職。

20. The Masters of Writing summoned Yue Guang's son Yue Mo to serve as a Rectifier in his commandary, and they summoned Yu Min's kinsman Yu Yi to serve as Evaluator to the Minister of Justice. Both of them declined the offices, citing their late fathers' wills.

Bian Kun submitted a memorial stating, "No one is born without a father; no office is created without a purpose. Since one has a father, one would certainly have a will from him; serving in office is never without its regrets. But if families were to be allowed to hoard their sons, then there would be no one to serve the king, and the proper relationship between sovereign and minister would crumble. Yue Guang and Yu Min were blessed to live in a good age, yet are they now meant to be allowed to determine not only their own fates, but those of their descendants as well? If everyone now serving in office was allowed to follow the inclinations of their own hearts, then even the parents of soldiers away at war or in camps would summon them home to protect them."

Yue Mo and Yu Yi, seeing as they had no other choice, took up their offices.

〈樂廣,南陽人。蓋召謨爲本郡中正。〉〈漢置廷尉平,晉曰廷尉評。〉〈《易‧繫辭》曰:「悔吝者,憂虞之象也。〉〈言人莫不惡死,若各順其心,則有戰戍之事,爲父母者皆不欲使其子就死地也。〉

(Yue Guang had been a native of Nanyang commandary. Yue Mo was now being summoned to serve as a Rectifier there.

Han had created the office of Adjudicator to the Minister of Justice. Jin changed the name of the office from 平 Adjudicator to 評 Evaluator.

The Great Treatise in the Book of Changes states, "Repentance and regret are the indications of one's sorrow and anxiety. (1.2)"

Bian Kun was saying that, since there is no one who does not hate the thought of death, if everyone were allowed to follow their own desires, then if any battle or war should spring up, parents would not wish to send their sons to such places of death.)


辛丑,葬明帝于武平陵。

21. On the day Xinchou (October 31st), Emperor Ming was buried at Wuping Tomb.

辛丑,葬明帝於武平陵。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Xinchou (October 31st), Emperor Ming was buried at Wuping Tomb.

冬,十一月,癸巳朔,日有食之。

22. In winter, the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (December 22nd), there was an eclipse.

冬十一月癸巳朔,日有蝕之。廣陵相曹渾有罪,下獄死。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In winter, the eleventh month, on the new moon of the day Guisi (December 22nd), there was an eclipse.

The Chancellor of Guangling, Cao Hun, committed an offense. He passed away in prison.


慕容廆與段氏方睦,爲段牙謀,使之徙都;牙從之,卽去令支,國人不樂。段疾陸眷之孫遼欲奪其位,以徙都爲牙罪,十二月,帥國人攻牙,殺之,自立。段氏自務勿塵以來,日益強盛,其地西接漁陽,東界遼水,所統胡、晉三萬餘戶,控弦四五萬騎。

23. Murong Hui enjoyed peaceful relations with the Duan clan. He proposed that Duan Ya should move his capital. Duan Ya followed his advice, leaving his former capital at Lingzhi. However, this displeased the people of his domain. A grandson of Duan Jilujuan, Duan Liao, wished to usurp Duan Ya's position, and he used this moving of the capital as a pretext against Duan Ya. In the twelfth month, Duan Liao led the people of the Duan domain to attack Duan Ya. He killed Duan Ya and took control himself.

Ever since the time of Duan Wuwuchen (~304) until now, the Duan clan had grown stronger and more abundant by the day. Their territory reached from Yuyang commandary in the west to the Liao River in the east. They controlled more than thirty thousand households of tribal and Jin peoples, and they had an army of forty or fifty thousand mounted archers.

據有遼西之地,而臣於晉。其所統三萬餘家,控絃上馬四五萬騎... 末波死,國人立日陸眷弟護遼為主。烈帝時,假護遼驃騎大將軍、幽州刺史、大單于、北平公,弟鬱蘭撫軍將軍、冀州刺史、勃海公。(Book of Northern Wei 103, Biography of Duan Jiuliujuan)

Duan Wumuchen occupied the territory of Liaoxi as a vassal of Jin. He commanded more than thirty thousand families, and he had forty or fifty thousand mounted archers.

...

After Duan Mobo passed away, the people of his domain acclaimed Duan Rilujuan's younger brother Duan Huliao as their leader. During the reign of Tuoba Yihuai (329-335), Jin appointed Duan Huliao as Grand General of Chariots and Cavalry, Inspector of Youzhou, Grand Chanyu, and Duke of Beiping, and they appointed his younger brother Duan Yulan as General Who Nurtures The Army, Inspector of Jizhou, and Duke of Bohai.

[國人立日陸眷弟護遼為主] 按日陸眷是末波祖父輩,其弟亦是從祖,似不能嗣末波位。晉書卷六三段匹磾傳稱末波死,弟牙立,牙死,其後從祖就陸眷之孫遼〈即護遼〉立。此傳之「就六眷」,晉書作「疾陸眷」,而晉書之「就陸眷」當即此傳之「日陸眷」。乃同名異譯。這裏「弟」疑當作「孫」。(Book of Northern Wei commentary)

(This passage claims that Duan Huliao was "Duan Rilujuan's younger brother". Now Duan Rilujuan had been from Duan Mobo's grandfather's generation, which would have made Duan Rilujuan's younger brother Duan Mobo's great-uncle. Surely such a person could not have inherited Duan Mobo's position. The Biography of Duan Pidi in the Book of Jin states that after Duan Mobo passed away, it was his younger brother Duan Ya who succeed him, and after Duan Ya passed away, his successor Duan Liao (who must have been the same person as Duan Huliao) was the grandson of Duan Ya's great-uncle Duan Jiulujuan. The Book of Northern Wei writes Duan Jiulujuan's given name as 就六眷 Jiuliujuan while the Book of Jin writes it as 疾陸眷 Jiulujuan, and 疾陸眷 is awfully similar to the 日陸眷 Rilujuan mentioned in this passage. So it must be that the Rilujuan here is meant to be Jiuliujuan, and it should say his "grandson" instead of his "younger brother".)


荊州刺史陶侃以寧州刺史王堅不能禦寇,是歲,表零陵太守南陽尹奉爲寧州刺史以代之。先是,王遜在寧州,蠻酋梁水太守爨量、益州太守李逷,皆叛附於成,遜討之不能克。奉至州,重募徼外夷刺爨量,殺之,諭降李逷,州境遂安。

24. Tao Kan felt that the Inspector of Ningzhou, Wang Jian, was unable to resist the invaders of that province. So during this year, he submitted a petition asking that the Administrator of Lingling, Yin Feng of Nanyang, be appointed as Inspector of Ningzhou to replace him.

Before this time, when Wang Xun had been Inspector of Ningzhou (~310), the Man chieftain and Administrator of Liangshui, Cuan Liang, and the Administrator of Yizhou, Li Ti, had both rebelled and aligned themselves with Cheng. Wang Xun had campaigned against them, but without success. When Yin Feng arrived in Ningzhou, he hired a tribesman from beyond the border to assassinate Cuan Liang, who thus died. Then Yin Feng ordered Li Ti to submit. Peace was thus restored to Ningzhou.

〈沈約曰:梁水太守,晉成帝分興古郡立,蓋先以授蠻酋,殺爨量之後,始用王官也。益州郡,後漢置,蜀更名建寧郡。惠帝太安二年,分建寧以西七縣別立益州郡,懷帝永嘉二年更名晉寧郡。此復有益州太守,蓋亦以爲位號,授蠻酋也。〉

(Shen Yue remarked, "Emperor Cheng of Jin split off part of Xinggu commandary to form Liangshui commandary. It was originally granted to the chieftain of the Man tribes. After Cuan Liang was killed, then the office began to be filled directly by royal appointees. As for Yizhou commandary, it was created by Later Han. Shu-Han renamed it to Jianning. In Emperor Hui's second year of Tai'an (304), seven counties in the west of Jianning commandary were split off to form a new Yizhou commandary. In Emperor Huai's second year of Yongjia (308), this commandary was renamed Jinning commandary." By there once again being reference here to an Administrator of Yizhou, it must have been another official title which was given to a tribal leader.)


代王賀傉卒,弟紇那立。

25. Tuoba Henu passed away. His younger brother Tuoba Hena succeeded him.

五年,帝崩。煬皇帝諱紇那立,惠帝之弟也。以五年為元年。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

Tuoba Henu passed away in the fifth year of his reign (325).

Emperor Yang, Tuoba Hena, was the younger brother of Tuoba Henu. He succeeded Tuoba Henu, and took the fifth year of Tuoba Henu's reign to be the first year of his own reign.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Mon Jul 02, 2018 1:52 am, edited 6 times in total.
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BOOK 93

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue May 22, 2018 2:00 am

顯宗成皇帝上之上

Beginning of the Reign of Emperor Cheng, Sima Yan, Xianzong


〈諱衍,字世根,明帝長子也。《諡法》:安民立政曰成。〉

(Emperor Cheng's name was Sima Yan. His style name was Shigen. He was Emperor Ming's eldest son. The Laws of Posthumous Surnames states, "One who settles the people and establishes government may be called Cheng ('the Accomplished').")


咸和元年(丙戌、三二六)

The First Year of Xianhe (The Bingxu Year, 326 AD)


春,二月,大赦,改元。

1. In spring, the second month, a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Xianhe.

咸和元年春二月丁亥,大赦,改元,大酺五日,賜鰥寡孤老米,二人斛,京師百里內復一年。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the first year of Xianhe (326), in spring, the second month, on the day Dinghai (April 15th), a general amnesty was declared, and the reign era title was changed to the first year of Xianhe. There were five days of great festivities, and gifts of rice were granted to widows and widowers, to orphans, and to the aged, with each person receiving two 斛 of rice. The region within a hundred li of the capital was exempted from taxes for one year.


趙以汝南王咸爲太尉、錄尚書事,光祿大夫劉綏爲大司徒,卜泰爲大司空。劉后疾病,趙主曜問所欲言,劉氏泣曰:「妾幼鞠於叔父昶,願陛下貴之;叔父皚之女芳有德色,願以備後宮。」言終而卒。曜以昶爲侍中、大司徒、錄尚書事,立芳爲皇后;尋又以昶爲太保。

2. Zhao appointed their Prince of Runan, Liu Xian, as Grand Commandant and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. They appointed their Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Liu Sui, as Grand Minister Over The Masses. They appointed Bo Tai as Grand Minister of Works.

Empress Liu became ill. When Liu Yao asked her what her final wishes were, she tearfully replied, "When I was young, my uncle Liu Chang raised me; may Your Majesty treat him with honor. And my uncle Liu Ai has a daughter, Liu Fang, who possesses both virtue and beauty; may Your Majesty prepare the rear palace for her." Having said these things, she passed away.

Liu Yao appointed Liu Chang as Palace Attendant, Grand Minister Over The Masses, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and he honored Liu Fang as his new Empress. Soon, he further appointed Liu Chang as Grand Guardian.

〈鞠,養也。〉

(The term 鞠 here means "to raise".)


三月,後趙主勒夜微行,檢察諸營衞,齎金帛以賂門者,求出。永昌門候王假欲收捕之,從者至,乃止。旦,召假,以爲振忠都尉,爵關內侯。勒召記室參軍徐光,光醉不至,黜爲牙門。光侍直,有慍色,勒怒,幷其妻子囚之。

3. In the third month, Shi Le disguised himself and went for a nighttime patrol of his camps to inspect them. He offered bribes of gold and silks to the gate guards, asking to be let inside. The Keeper of the Yongchang Gate, Wang Jia, wanted to seize Shi Le and arrest him, but then his followers arrived, so Wang Jia stopped. When morning came, Shi Le summoned Wang Jia and appointed him as Capital Commandant Who Spreads Loyalty and as a Marquis Within The Passes.

Shi Le summoned his Recordskeeping Army Advisor, Xu Guang, but Xu Guang was drunk and did not come. So Shi Le demoted him to be a 牙門. When Xu Guang was later attending upon Shi Le, he nursed an irritated expression. This angered Shi Le, who had Xu Guang and his wife and children thrown into prison.

〈振忠都尉,後趙所置也。〉〈慍色者,含怒而見於色也。〉

(The title Capital Commandant Who Spreads Loyalty was a creation of Later Zhao.

Xu Guang is described as being 慍色; this means when one is holding back anger, but it still shows up in one's expression.)


夏,四月,後趙將石生寇汝南,執內史祖濟。

4. In summer, the fourth month, Shi Sheng invaded Runan, and captured Jin's Interior Minister of that commandary, Zu Ji.

夏四月,石勒遣其將石生寇汝南,汝南人執內史祖濟以叛。甲子,尚書左僕射鄧攸卒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, Shi Le sent his general Shi Sheng to invade Runan. The people of Runan arrested their Interior Minister, Zu Ji, and defected to Zhao.


六月,癸亥,泉陵公劉遐卒。癸酉,以車騎大將軍郗鑒領徐州刺史;征虜將軍郭默爲北中郎將、監淮北諸軍事,領遐部曲。遐子肇尚幼,遐妹夫田防及故將史迭等不樂他屬,共以肇襲遐故位而叛。臨淮太守劉矯掩襲遐營,斬防等。遐妻,邵續女也,驍果有父風。遐嘗爲後趙所圍,妻單將數騎,拔遐出於萬衆之中。及田防等欲作亂,遐妻止之,不從,乃密起火,燒甲仗都盡,故防等卒敗。詔以肇襲遐爵。

5. In the sixth month, on the day Guihai (July 20th), the Jin general Liu Xia passed away. He was posthumously known as the Duke of Quanling.

On the day Guiyou (July 30th), Chi Jian was appointed as acting Inspector of Xuzhou, and the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Guo Mo, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Chief of military affairs north of the Huai River, and acting commander of Liu Xia's forces.

Liu Xia's son Liu Zhao was still young. Liu Xia's brother-in-law, Tian Fang, and his former generals, Shi Die and others, were not pleased to now be assigned as the subordinates of someone else. So they acclaimed Liu Zhao as the successor to his father's position and rebelled. The Administrator of Linhuai, Liu Jiao, suddenly attacked Liu Xia's camp, and he beheaded Tian Fang and the other rebels.

Now Liu Xia's widow, Lady Shao, was the daughter of Shao Xu, and she shared her father's bravery and resolution. Liu Xia had once been surrounded by Later Zhao soldiers, when Lady Shao herself led several riders to rescue her husband from out of a host of ten thousand enemies. And when Tian Fang and the others wanted to start their rebellion, Lady Shao tried to stop them, but they would not listen to her. So she secretly set a fire, and completely burned up all their stores of arms and armor. This was why the rebels were defeated.

An imperial edict was issued appointing Liu Zhao to inherit his father's noble title.

〈泉陵縣,屬零陵郡。〉〈劉遐屯泗口,在臨淮、下邳之間,故矯得以掩襲其營。〉〈襲爵泉陵公。〉

(Quanling County was part of Lingling commandary.

Liu Xia had been camped at Sikou, between Linhuai and Xiapi. This was why Liu Jiao was able to launch a surprise attack on the camp.

Liu Zhao inherited Liu Xia's title as Duke of Quanling.)


六月癸亥,使持節、散騎常侍、監淮北諸軍事、北中郎將、徐州刺史、泉陵公劉遐卒。癸酉,以車騎將軍郗鑒領徐州刺史,征虜將軍郭默爲北中郎將、假節、監淮北諸軍。劉遐部曲將李龍、史迭奉遐子肇代遐位以距默,臨淮太守劉矯擊破之,斬龍,傳首京師。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the sixth month, on the day Guihai (July 20th), the Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Cavalier In Regular Attendance, Chief of military affairs north of the Huai River, General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Inspector of Xuzhou, and Duke of Quanling, Liu Xia, passed away.

On the day Guiyou (July 30th), the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Chi Jian, was appointed as acting Inspector of Xuzhou, and the General Who Conquers The Caitiffs, Guo Mo, was appointed as General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Credential Holder, and Chief of military affairs north of the Huai River.

Liu Xia's subordinate commanders, Li Long and Shi Die, acclaimed Liu Xia's son Liu Zhao to replace his father, in opposition to Guo Mo. The Administrator of Linhuai, Liu Jiao, attacked and routed them, and he beheaded Li Long and sent his head to the capital.


司徒導稱疾不朝,而私送郗鑒。卞壼奏「導虧法從私,無大臣之節,請免官。」雖事寢不行,舉朝憚之。壼儉素廉絜,裁斷切直,當官幹實,性不弘裕,不肯苟同時好,故爲諸名士所少。阮孚謂之曰:「卿常無閒泰,如含瓦石,不亦勞乎!」壼曰:「諸君子以道德恢弘,風流相尚,執鄙吝者,非壼而誰!」時貴游子弟多慕王澄、謝鯤爲放達,壼厲色於朝曰:「悖禮傷敎,罪莫大焉;中朝傾覆,實由於此。」欲奏推之,王導、庾亮不聽,乃止。

6. Wang Dao claimed illness as a reason for not attending court. But meanwhile, he went to see Chi Jian off from the capital. Bian Kun submitted a petition stating, "Wang Dao flouts the law and follows his own personal inclinations. This is unbecoming of a great minister of state. I ask that he be removed from office." Although this proposal was set aside and nothing came of it, this act still aroused dread among the court.

Bian Kun was a frugal, plain, honest, and pure fellow, known for his biting candor and his blunt words. He took the duties of his position very seriously; he was not the sort of man to make much of himself, nor could he stand to just go along with whatever was in style at the time. Because of that, few famous gentlemen thought much of him.

Ruan Fu once said to him, "You never allow yourself a moment's rest. It's like you're harboring a dull stone. Isn't that exhausting?"

Bian Kun replied, "You gentlemen take such a broad view of what is good and right that you honor every passing trend in turn. Someone must hold fast to what is proper, and if not me, then who?"

During this time, many of the idle young men of leisure among the nobles respected Wang Cheng and Xie Kun for their unrestrained behavior. Bian Kun sternly told the court, "There is no greater crime than to pervert the rites and harm proper education. This was the very thing which brought about the downfall of the central court." He wanted to submit a petition to officially propose this, but Wang Dao and Yu Liang paid it no heed, so he let the matter drop.

〈重之曰多,輕之曰之[少]。〉〈中朝,謂西晉。奏推,奏之於上,推按其罪也。〉

(When you think much of someone, that is called 多 "approving" them, while when you think little of someone, that is called 少 "slighting" them.

The "central court" was the Western Jin court, at Luoyang.

Bian Kun intended to formally submit a petition which would have listed the offenses which he believed Wang Cheng and Xie Kun were guilty of.)


成人討越巂斯叟,破之。

7. The soldiers of Cheng campaigned against the Si-Sou people of Yuegui commandary, and routed them.

〈討斯叟事始上卷明帝太興元年。巂,音髓。〉

(The beginning of this campaign is mentioned in Book 92, in Emperor Ming's first year of Taixing (323.22).

The second character of Yuegui, 巂, is pronounced "sui".)


咸和元年夏,斯叟破。二年,謙越嶲太守李謙。移郡民於蜀。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

In the first year of Xianhe (326), the Si-Sou were routed. In the second year of Xianhe (327), Li Xiong humbled the Administrator of Yuexi, Li Qian, and moved the people of that commandary into the Shu region.


秋,七月,癸丑,觀陽烈侯應詹卒。

8. In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Guichou (September 8th), Jin's Marquis Lie ("the Fierce") of Guanyang, Ying Zhan, passed away.

〈觀陽縣,屬零陵郡,吳立。〉

(Guanyang County was part of Lingling commandary. It was established by Eastern Wu.)


秋七月癸丑,使持節、都督江州諸軍事、江州刺史、平南將軍、觀陽伯應詹卒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the seventh month, on the day Guichou (September 8th), the Commissioner Bearing Credentials, Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou, Inspector of Jiangzhou, General Who Pacifies The South, and Earl of Guanyang, Ying Zhan, passed away.


初,王導輔政,以寬和得衆。及庾亮用事,任法裁物,頗失人心。豫州刺史祖約,自以名輩不後郗、卞,而不豫顧命,又望開府復不得,及諸表請多不見許,遂懷怨望。及遺詔褒進大臣,又不及約與陶侃,二人皆疑庾亮删之。歷陽內史蘇峻,有功於國,威望漸著,有銳卒萬人,器械甚精,朝廷以江外寄之;而峻頗懷驕溢,有輕朝廷之志,招納亡命,衆力日多,皆仰食縣官,運漕相屬,稍不如意,輒肆忿言。亮旣疑浚、約,又畏侃之得衆,八月,以丹楊尹溫嶠爲都督江州諸軍事、江州刺史,鎭武昌;尚書僕射王舒爲會稽內史,以廣聲援;又修石頭以備之。

9. Up until now, during the time that Wang Dao had been in charge of the government, he had won over many people through his magnanimous and agreeable policies. But when Yu Liang now took command of affairs, he hewed strictly to the laws, and thus he lost the hearts of many.

Now the Inspector of Yuzhou, Zu Yue, considered himself equal in stature and seniority with Chi Jian and Bian Kun, so he did not wish to pay any regard to the orders of the central government. Beyond that, he had hoped to receive the privilege of opening a Separate Office, but had been denied. He had sent in many petitions, but most of them were ignored or rejected. All these things made him burn with resentment. Furthermore, when an imperial edict was sent out commending and promoting great ministers, Zu Yue and Tao Kan were not mentioned; both of them suspected that Yu Liang had arranged for them to be left out.

The Interior Minister of Liyang, Su Jun, had also performed achievements on behalf of the state, and his power and influence had gradually increased. By now, he had ten thousand elite troops at his command, equipped with exceptional arms and armor. The court had entrusted him with affairs beyond the Yangzi. Yet Su Jun let himself grow more and more arrogant and excessive, and he had ambitions of humbling the court. He gathered up and harbored fugitives from justice, and the strength of his forces grew higher by the day, all sustained by the county officials. Su Jun compelled them to handle all his shipments of supplies, and the slightest objections were met with his blistering indignation.

So Yu Liang was suspicious of Su Jun and Zu Yue, and he was also afraid of Tao Kan getting command of forces as well. Thus, in the eighth month, Yu Liang appointed the Intendant of Danyang, Wen Jiao, as Commander of military affairs in Jiangzhou and Inspector of Jiangzhou, stationed at Wuchang. He also appointed the Supervisor of the Masters of Writing, Wang Shu, as Interior Minister of Kuaiji, in order to enlarge his own base of support.

Yu Liang also repaired the defenses at the Shitou fortress, to guard against any circumstance.

〈名爲一時所稱,輩以年齒爲等。〉〈晉制:四征、四鎭大將軍乃得開府。約平西將軍耳,烏得望開府邪!〉〈删,削除也。〉〈謂破沈充、錢鳳也。〉〈亮修石頭,適以資蘇峻拒義師耳。〉

(Stature means one's reputation of the time; seniority means one's position in regards to age.

According to the Jin system, the privilege of administering a Separate Office was only granted to Grand Generals of the ranks of Generals Who Conquer or Who Guard one of the four directions. Now Zu Yue was merely General Who Pacifies The West, and yet he hoped to claim this honor for himself!

To be left out means to be deleted.

Su Jun had gained merits through routing the forces of the rebels Shen Chong and Qian Feng.

How ironic that in restoring the Shitou fortress, Yu Liang was merely furnishing Su Jun with the means to oppose the royal army.)


八月,以給事中、前將軍、丹陽尹溫嶠爲平南將軍、假節、都督,江州刺史。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the eighth month, the 給事中, General of the Front, and Intendant of Danyang, Wen Jiao, was appointed as General Who Pacifies The South, Credential Holder, Commander, and Inspector of Jiangzhou.


丹楊尹阮孚以太后臨朝,政出舅族,謂所親曰:「今江東創業尚淺,主幼,時艱,庾亮年少,德信未孚,以吾觀之,亂將作矣。」遂求出爲廣州刺史。孚,咸之子也。

10. The new Intendant of Danyang was Ruan Fu. But when he considered that since the court was under the leadership of the Empress Dowager and the government was being run by her brother Yu Liang, he said to his own relatives, "The great enterprise of state in the Southland has lost its way; our sovereign is a child, and so we face troubled times. Yu Liang is a mere youth, and he has not yet garnered trust and acclaim. The way I see it, turmoil is not far off." So he asked to be sent away as Inspector of Guangzhou. This Ruan Fu was the son of Ruan Xian.

冬,十月,立帝母弟岳爲吳王。

11. In winter, the tenth month, Emperor Cheng's younger brother by the same mother, Sima Yue, was appointed as Prince of Wu.

冬十月...己巳,封皇弟岳爲吳王。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In winter, the tenth month, on the day Jisi (November 23rd), Emperor Cheng's younger brother Sima Yue was appointed as the Prince of Wu.

康皇帝諱岳,字世同,成帝母弟也。咸和元年封吳王。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Kang)

Emperor Kang, named Sima Yue, had the style name Shitong. He was the younger brother of Emperor Cheng by the same mother. In the first year of Xianhe (326), he was appointed as Prince of Wu.


南頓王宗自以失職怨望,又素與蘇峻善;庾亮欲誅之,宗亦欲廢執政。御史中丞鍾雅劾宗謀反,亮使右衞將軍趙胤收之。宗以兵拒戰,爲胤所殺,貶其族爲馬氏,三子綽、超、演皆廢爲庶人。免太宰西陽王羕,降封弋陽縣王,大宗正虞胤左遷桂陽太守。宗,宗室近屬;羕,先帝保傅,亮一旦翦黜,由是愈失遠近之心。宗黨卞闡亡奔蘇峻,亮符峻送闡,峻保匿不與。宗之死也,帝不之知,久之,帝問亮曰:「常日白頭公何在?」亮對以謀反伏誅。帝泣曰:「舅言人作賊,便殺之;人言舅作賊,當如何?」亮懼,變色。

12. Ever since Sima Zong had lost his position, he had harbored resentment. Beyond that, he had long been on good terms with Su Jun. On the one side, Yu Liang wanted to execute Sima Zong; on the other, Sima Zong wanted to depose Yu Liang from his position in command of the government.

The Assistant of the Middle to the Imperial Secretary, Zhong Ya, reported that Sima Zong was plotting rebellion. So Yu Liang ordered the Guard General of the Right, Zhao Yin, to arrest him. Sima Zong commanded his own soldiers to fight back, but he was killed by Zhao Yin. Sima Zong's branch of the royal family were punished by having their surname changed from Sima to merely Ma, and his three sons Sima Chuo, Sima Chao, and Sima Yan were all reduced to commoner status. Yu Liang also had the Grand Governor and Prince of Xiyang, Sima Yang, stripped of office and demoted his title to Prince of Yiyang County. The Grand Director of the Imperial Clan, Yu Yin, was sent away to serve as Administrator of Guiyang.

Now Sima Zong had been a close relative of the royal family, and Sima Yang had been a chief minister under Emperor Ming. Yet Yu Liang had demoted and wiped them out in a single day. This only increased the resentment against him by those near and far.

Sima Zong's partisan Bian Chan fled to Su Jun. Yu Liang ordered Su Jun to hand him over, but Su Jun kept Bian Chan hidden and did not obey.

Emperor Cheng was unaware of Sima Zong's death. Sometime later, he asked Yu Liang, "Where has Lord White Head been lately?" Yu Liang replied that Sima Zong had been plotting rebellion and had thus been executed. Emperor Cheng wept as he said, "Uncle, when you say someone is plotting rebellion, then you just kill them. What will happen when someone tells me that you are the one plotting rebellion?" Yu Liang was frightened, and his expression changed.

〈宗解兵衞,故自以爲失職。〉〈羕、宗,兄弟也;宗言近屬,羕言保傅,宗敍族,羕敍官也。〉

(Sima Zong had lost his position in command of the palace guards, which is what this passage means by his having "lost his position".

Sima Yang and Sima Zong were elder and younger brothers. This passage mentions Sima Zong's closeness and Sima Yang's chief position to recount how Sima Zong was a close member of the royal clan and Sima Yang had held high office.)


十月... 車騎將軍、南頓王宗有罪,伏誅,貶其族爲馬氏。免太宰、西陽王羕,降爲弋陽縣王... 帝少而聰敏,有成人之量。南頓王宗之誅也,帝不之知,及蘇峻平,問庾亮曰:「常曰白頭公何在?」亮對以謀反伏誅,帝泣謂亮曰:「舅言人作賊,便殺之,人言舅作賊,復若何?」亮懼,變色。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the tenth month, the General of Chariots and Cavalry and Prince of Nandun, Sima Zong, committed an offense. He was put to death, and his clan was demoted to being the Ma clan. The Grand Governor and Prince of Xiyang, Sima Yang, was stripped of office and had his title demoted to Prince of Yiyang County.

...

Emperor Cheng was precocious even as a child, and had the same capabilities as a grown man. When the Prince of Nandun, Sima Zong, was executed, Emperor Cheng was unaware of his death. After Su Jun's rebellion had been put down, Emperor Cheng asked Yu Liang, "Where has Lord White Head been lately?" Yu Liang replied that Sima Zong had been plotting rebellion and had thus been executed. Emperor Cheng wept as he said, "Uncle, when you say someone is plotting rebellion, then you just kill them. What will happen when someone tells me that you are the one plotting rebellion?" Yu Liang was frightened, and his expression changed.


趙將黃秀等寇酇,順陽太守魏該帥衆奔襄陽。

13. Several Zhao generals, Huang Xiu and others, invaded Zan County. Jin's Administrator of Shunyang, Wei Gai, led his forces to fall back to Xiangyang.

〈酇縣,漢屬南陽郡,及晉,分爲順陽郡治所。〉

(During Han, Zan County was part of Nanyang commandary. By Jin, it had been split off as part of Shunyang commandary.)


十月...劉曜將黃秀、帛成寇酂,平北將軍魏該帥衆奔襄陽。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the tenth month, Liu Yao's generals Huang Xiu and Bo Cheng invaded Zan. The General Who Pacifies The North, Wei Gai, led his forces to fall back to Xiangyang.


後趙王勒用程遐之謀,營鄴宮,使世子弘鎭鄴,配禁兵萬人,車騎所統五十四營悉配之,以驍騎將軍領門臣祭酒王陽專統六夷以輔之。中山公虎自以功多,無去鄴之意,及修三臺,遷其家室,虎由是怨程遐。

14. Shi Le, following the advice of Cheng Xia, commandeered the palaces at Ye. He placed his eldest son Shi Hong in command of Ye, and assigned him ten thousand guards as soldiers. Fifty-four commanders of chariots or cavalry were placed under his command, and the General of Agile Cavalry and Libationer of the Gates, Wang Yang, was given command of the Six Tribes in order to aid Shi Hong.

Now Shi Hu had originally had control of Ye, and as he felt that he had achieved much on behalf of the state, he had no intention of leaving Ye. So he restored the Three Terraces near the city and moved his family and household into them. And it was from this time that Shi Hu's resentment grew against Cheng Xia.

〈爲後虎殺遐及弘張本。〉

(This was why Shi Hu later killed Cheng Xia and Shi Hong.)


十一月,後趙石聰攻壽春,祖約屢表請救,朝廷不爲出兵。聰遂寇浚遒、阜陵,殺掠五千餘人。建康大震,詔加司徒導大司馬、假黃鉞、都督中外諸軍事以禦之,軍于江寧。蘇峻遣其將韓晃擊石聰,走之;導解大司馬。朝議又欲作涂塘以遏胡寇,祖約曰:「是棄我也!」益懷憤恚。

15. In the eleventh month, the Later Zhao general Shi Cong attacked Shouchun. Zu Yue sent several petitions to the Jin court asking for aid, but the court would not send out soldiers.

Shi Cong then invaded Junqiu and Fuling, where he killed or captured more than five thousand people. Jiankang was greatly shaken, and an imperial edict was issued promoting Wang Dao as Grand Marshal, Bearer of the Yellow Battle-Axe, and Commander of all military forces in order to resist Shi Cong. The army was at Jiangning. Then Su Jun sent his general Han Huang to attack Shi Cong, and Han Huang drove him off. Wang Dao relinquished his role as Grand Marshal.

The court discussed building a dyke to forestall any further invasions by the barbarians. Zu Yue said to himself, "They are going to leave me cut off!" And his resentment and anger only grew.

〈二縣皆屬淮南郡。師古曰:逡,音峻;遒,音才由翻。《春秋》:公會吳于橐皋;杜預云:淮南逡遒縣。劉昫曰:唐廬州愼縣,漢逡遒縣地。〉〈作涂塘,則壽春在涂塘之外。〉

(Junqiu and Fuling were two counties under Huainan commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "The characters in Junqiu are pronounced 'jun' and 'cou (c-ou)'." The Spring and Autumn Annals states, "Duke Ai of Lu had a meeting with Wu in Tuogao (Ai 12.3)." Du Yu's commentary on that text states, "This place Tuogao was in Junqiu County in Huainan commandary." Liu Xu remarked, "Tang's Shen County in Luzhou was the territory of Han's Junqiu County."

Zu Yue made this remark because Shouchun would have been on the far side of the proposed dyke.)


石勒將石聰攻壽陽,不克,遂侵逡遒、阜陵。加司徒王導大司馬、假黃鉞、都督中外征討諸軍事以禦之。歷陽太守蘇峻遣其將韓晃討石聰,走之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Shi Le's general Shi Cong attacked Shouyang, but without success. He then raided Qunqiu and Fuling. The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, was appointed as Grand Marshal, Bearer of the Yellow Battle-Axe, and Commander of all expeditionary forces in order to resist this threat. The Administrator of Liyang, Su Jun, sent his general Han Huang to campaign against Shi Cong, and Han Huang drove him off.


十二月,濟岷太守劉闓等殺下邳內史夏侯嘉,以下邳叛,降于後趙。石瞻攻河南太守王瞻于邾,拔之。彭城內史劉續復據蘭陵石城,石瞻攻拔之。

16. In the twelfth month, Jin's Administrator of Jimin, Liu Kai, and others killed the Interior Minister of Xiapi, Xiahou Jia, and rebelled at Xiapi, surrendering it to Later Zhao. The Later Zhao general Shi Zhan attacked Jin's Inspector of Henan, Wang Zhan (or Xian), at Zhu and captured him. Jin's Interior Minister of Pengcheng, Liu Xu, recaptured Shicheng in Lanling, but Shi Zhan attacked and captured him as well.

〈《晉志》曰:或云:魏平蜀,徙其豪將家於濟河北,爲濟岷郡。《太康地志》無此郡,未詳。〉〈【嚴:「瞻」改「羨」。】〉〈劉薈《鄒山記》曰:邾城,在魯國鄒縣鄒山之南,去山二里。《左傳》文十三年,邾遷于繹,卽此城也。〉〈魏收《地形志》,蘭陵縣有石城山。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "Some say that when Cao-Wei conquered Shu-Han, they moved the families of their great generals to the north of the Ji River, where they formed Jimin commandary." The Geographical Records of the Taikang Era does not mention this Jimin commandary. The matter remains uncertain.

The name of the Administrator of Henan mentioned here should be Wang Xian, not Wang Zhan.

Liu Hui's Records of Mount Zou states, "The city of Zhu was south of Mount Zou in Zou County in the Lu princely fief. It was two li from the mountain." The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals mentions that "Zhu moved their capital to Yi" in the thirteenth year of Duke Wen; this city must have been that place.

According to Wei Shou's Geographical Records, there was a Mount Shicheng in Lanling County.)


十二月,濟㟭太守劉闓殺下邳內史夏侯嘉,叛降石勒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the twelfth month, the Administrator of Jimin, Liu Kai, killed the Interior Minister of Xiapi, Xiahou Jia, and surrendered to Shi Le.


後趙王勒以牙門將王波爲記室參軍,典定九流,始立秀、孝試經之制。

17. Shi Le appointed his General of the Serrated Gates, Wang Bo, as Recordskeeping Army Advisor, charging him with maintaining and settling the Nine Schools of Thought. He also began conducting the systems of examinations on the Classics for Abundant Talent and Filial and Incorrupt candidates.

〈秀、孝試經,晉制也,後趙至此始行之。〉

(It was the policy of Jin to examine Abundant Talent and Filial and Incorrupt candidates through testing them on the Classics. At this time, Later Zhao began implementing the same system.)


張駿畏趙人之逼,是歲,徙隴西、南安民二千餘家于姑臧,又遣使脩好於成,以書勸成主雄去尊號,稱藩於晉。雄復書曰:「吾過爲士大夫所推,然本無心於帝王,思爲晉室元功之臣,掃除氛埃;而晉室陵遲,德聲不振,引領東望,有年月矣。會獲來貺,情在闇至,有何已已。」自是聘使相繼。

18. In Liangzhou, Zhang Jun feared the threat posed by Zhao. So during this year, he relocated more than two thousand families in Longxi and Nan'an commandaries to Guzang.

He also sent envoys to Cheng to restore good relations with them, and wrote a letter to Li Xiong asking him to give up his imperial title and declare himself a vassal of Jin. Li Xiong wrote back stating, "I was acclaimed to this position by the gentlemen who serve me, but it was never my original intention to claim a royal title. My inclination is to perform the greatest merit as a servant of Jin, by sweeping away the turmoil. However, the Jin royal family has declined, and their virtue and sound make little impact. I have been looking to the east for many a year. Now I have received your gifts, and my feelings are unclear as to what shall come next."

From then on, both sides regularly exchanged envoys.

〈言引領望晉,此情常在,而駿書適至,闇與之合也。〉

(Li Xiong was saying that his usual feeling was looking to the east towards Jin, yet now Zhang Jun had sent him this letter, and he was unclear if he should join with him.)


張駿遣使遺雄書,勸去尊號,稱籓于晉。雄復書曰:「吾過為士大夫所推,然本無心於帝王也,進思為晉室元功之臣,退思共為守籓之將,掃除氛埃,以康帝宇。而晉室陵遲,德聲不振,引領東望,有年月矣。會獲來貺,情在暗室,有何已已。知欲遠遵楚、漢,尊崇義帝,《春秋》之義,于斯莫大。」駿重其言,使聘相繼。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Zhang Jun sent Li Xiong a letter, urging him to give up his imperial title and declare himself a vassal of Jin. Li Xiong wrote back stating, "I was acclaimed to this position by the gentlemen who serve me, but it was never my original intention to claim a royal title. If I advance, then my inclination is to perform the greatest merit as a servant of Jin; if I fall back, then I want to serve to protect them as one of their generals. I wish to sweep away the turmoil and bring tranquility to the imperial domain. However, the Jin royal family has declined, and their virtue and sound make little impact. I have been looking to the east for many a year. Now I have received your gifts, and my feelings are unclear as to what shall come next. But do know that I wish to 'obey Chu and Han from afar and honor Emperor Yi'. Of all the principles of the Spring and Autumn Annals, none is so great as this."

Zhang Jun believed his words, and so both sides regularly exchanged envoys.

晉涼州刺史張駿遣信交好... 張駿使參軍傅穎、治中張淳遺雄書,勸去尊號,稱藩於晉。雄引見,謂曰:「吾過為士大夫所推,然本無心於帝王也。貴州令行河、沙,常所希冀。進思共為晉室元功之臣,退思共為守藩之將,掃除氛埃,以康帝宇。而晉室「淩」〔陵〕遲,德聲不振。引領東望有年月矣。會獲來貺,情鈞闇至,有何已已。」穎、淳以為然。使聘相繼。(Huayang Guozhi 9.1-2)

Jin's Inspector of Liangzhou, Zhang Jun, sent a letter to Li Xiong pledging mutual friendship.

...

Zhang Jun sent his Army Advisor, Fu Ying, and his 治中, Zhang Chun, to present a letter to Li Xiong which Zhang Jun had written to him, urging him to put aside his imperial title and declare himself a vassal of Jin. When Li Xiong met with them, he told them, "I was acclaimed to this position by the gentlemen who serve me, but it was never my original intention to claim a royal title. Your honorable Inspector still exercises control of Hezhou and Shazhou, and I have often hoped to establish a relationship with him. If we advance together, then we may perform the greatest merits as servants of Jin, while if not, we may still act as generals guarding their borders. We could sweep away the turmoil and restore tranquility to the imperial domain. However, the Jin royal family has declined, and their virtue and sound make little impact. I have been looking to the east for many a year now. Now I have received your gifts, and my feelings are unclear as to what shall come next."

Fu Ying and Zhang Chun believed him. From then on, both sides regularly exchanged envoys.

[貴州]: 將指張駿也。[沙]: 顧校稿云:「河州、沙州也。」(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The original text of the Huayang Guozhi here states that Cuan Shen was "of Jianning". But this fact was already mentioned when Cuan Shen was first mentioned above, so it should be omitted here.

"Your honorable Inspector" refers to Zhang Jun.

Li Xiong more specifically refers to "He and Sha". Gu Guangqi's Analysis states, "By these, he means Hezhou and Shazhou, the provinces which the Zhang clan had established in the original territory of Liangzhou".
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Aug 10, 2018 9:58 pm, edited 12 times in total.
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BOOK 93

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Tue May 22, 2018 2:15 am

二年(丁亥、三二七)

The Second Year of Xianhe (The Dinghai Year, 327 AD)


春,正月,朱提太守楊術與成將羅恆戰于臺登,兵敗,術死。

1. In spring, the first month, Jin's Administrator of Zhuti, Yang Shu, fought the Cheng general Luo Heng at Taideng. But Yang Shu's army was defeated, and he died.

二年春正月,甯州秀才龐遺起義兵,攻李雄將任回、李謙等,雄遣其將羅恆、費黑救之。寧州刺史尹奉遣裨將姚岳、朱提太守楊術援遺,戰於臺登,岳等敗績,術死之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the second year of Xianhe (327), in spring, the first month, an Abundant Talent candidate in the Cheng-controlled territory of Ningzhou, Pang Yi, led a local rebellion in support of Jin. He attacked Li Xiong's generals Ren Hui, Li Qian, and others. Li Xiong sent his generals Luo Heng and Fei Hei to reinforce them. In response, Jin's Inspector of Ningzhou, Yin Feng, sent his subordinate commander Yao Yue and the Administrator of Zhuti, Yang Shu, to support the rebels. The two armies fought at Taideng, where Yao Yue and the other Jin commanders were defeated. Yang Shu died in the battle.


夏,五月,甲申朔,日有食之。

2. In summer, the fifth month, on the new moon of the day Jiashen (June 6th), there was an eclipse.

五月甲申朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fifth month, on the new moon of the day Jiashen (June 6th), there was an eclipse.


趙武衞將軍劉朗帥騎三萬襲楊難敵於仇池,弗克,掠三千餘戶而歸。

3. Zhao's Martial Guard General, Liu Lang, led thirty thousand cavalry to attack Yang Nandi at Chouchi. They were unsuccessful, and only captured some three thousand households before returning.

張駿聞趙兵爲後趙所敗,乃去趙官爵,復稱晉大將軍、涼州牧,遣武威太守竇濤、金城太守張閬、武興太守辛巖、揚烈將軍宋輯等帥衆數萬,會韓璞攻掠趙秦州諸郡。趙南陽王胤將兵擊之,屯狄道。枹罕護軍辛晏告急,秋,駿使韓璞、辛巖救之。璞進度沃干嶺。巖欲速戰,璞曰:「夏末以來,日星數有變,不可輕動。且曜與石勒相攻,胤必不能久與我相守也。」與胤夾洮相持七十餘日。冬,十月,璞遣辛巖督運於金城,胤聞之,曰:「韓璞之衆,十倍於吾。吾糧不多,難以持久。今虜分兵運糧,天授我也。若敗辛巖,璞等自潰。」乃帥騎三千襲巖于沃干嶺,敗之;遂前逼璞營,璞衆大潰。胤乘勝追奔,濟河,攻拔令居,斬首二萬級,進據振武。河西大駭。張閬、辛晏帥其衆數萬降趙,駿遂失河南之地。

4. It was earlier mentioned that Zhang Jun had accepted titles from Zhao as their nominal vassal. But now, when he heard about the defeats which Zhao had suffered at the hands of Later Zhao, he cast off these Zhao titles. He rebranded himself as a subject of Jin, assuming the titles of Grand General and Governor of Liangzhou under Jin authority.

Zhang Jun sent the Administrator of Wuwei, Dou Tao, the Administrator of Jincheng, Zhang Lang, the Administrator of Wuxing, Xin Yán, the General Who Arouses Ferocity, Song Ji, and others to lead an army of several tens of thousands to join together with the forces under Han Pu and attack Zhao's commandaries in Qinzhou.

Liu Yao's son Liu Yin led Zhao troops to attack the Liangzhou armies, and he camped at Didao. The Liangzhou General Who Protects The Army, Xin Yan, was still at Fuhan. With the Zhao forces closing in on him, Xin Yan sent word to Zhang Jun of how dire his situation was. In response, Zhang Jun ordered Han Pu and Xin Yán to march to reinforce him. Han Pu advanced and crossed the Wogan Range.

Xin Yán wanted to strike the enemy at once, but Han Pu said to him, "The end of summer is approaching, and there have been many changes among the sun and stars. We cannot make any rash movements. Besides, Liu Yao is already at war with Shi Le. Liu Yin cannot afford to remain here facing us down for very long." So Han Pu and Liu Yin settled into a stalemate for more than seventy days, each of them occupying one side of the Tao River.

In winter, the tenth month, Han Pu sent Xin Yán to escort some supplies to Jincheng. When Liu Yin heard about it, he mused, "Han Pu's forces are ten times the size of my own, and my food stores are so sparse that it would be difficult for me to hold this position for much longer. Yet now the enemy has split their forces, and they are moving grain shipments. Thus does Heaven help us. If I can just defeat Xin Yán, Han Pu and the others will melt away on their own."

So Liu Yin led three thousand cavalry to attack Xin Yán at the Wogan Range, and they defeated him. Then Liu Yin advanced to threaten Han Pu's camp, and most of Han Pu's army scattered. Liu Yin pressed this victory by pursuing the fleeing Liangzhou soldiers, and he even crossed over the Yellow River, attacked and captured Lingju, took the heads of about twenty thousand people, and then advanced further and occupied Zhenwu. The Liangzhou region was greatly afraid.

Zhang Lang and Xin Yan led their forces, several tens of thousands, to surrender to Zhao. Zhang Jun thus lost the position across the Yellow River that he had earlier regained.

〈惠帝永寧中,張軌表請合秦、雍流移人,於姑臧西北置武興郡。〉〈韓璞時在冀。〉〈沃干嶺,在晉興郡大夏縣東南,洮水西北。〉〈《水經註》:洮水過狄道城西。〉〈令居縣,漢屬金城郡;張寔置廣武郡,令居分屬焉。〉〈振武,在姑臧東南,廣武西北。〉

During Emperor Hui's Yongning reign era (301-303), Zhang Gui had petitioned the court requesting that the refugees from Qinzhou and Yongzhou who had fled to Liangzhou be established in a new commandary, Wuxing, to be created northwest of Guzang.

At this time, Han Pu was at Ji.

The Wogan Range was in the southeast of Daxia County in Jinxing commandary, northwest of the Tao River.

According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, the Tao River passed through the west of the city of Didao.

During Han, Lingju County was part of Jincheng commandary. When Zhang Shi created Guangwu commandary, Lingju became part of it.

Zhenwu was southeast of Guzang, northwest of Guangwu.)


冬十月,劉曜使其子胤侵枹罕,遂略河南地。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In winter, the tenth month, Liu Yao sent his son Liu Yin to attack Fuhan. Zhao thus gained all the northwestern territory south of the Yellow River.


庾亮以蘇峻在歷陽,終爲禍亂,欲下詔徵之;訪於司徒導,導曰:「峻猜險,必不奉詔,不若且苞容之。」亮言於朝曰:「峻狼子野心,終必爲亂。今日徵之,縱不順命,爲禍猶淺;若復經年,不可復制,猶七國之於漢也。」朝臣無敢難者,獨光祿大夫卞壼爭之曰:「峻擁強兵,逼近京邑,路不終朝,一旦有變,易爲蹉跌,宜深思之!」亮不從。壼知必敗,與溫嶠書曰:「元規召峻意定,此國之大事。峻已出狂意,而召之,是更速其禍也,必縱毒蠚以向朝廷。朝廷威力雖盛,不知果可擒不;王公亦同此情。吾與之爭甚懇切,不能如之何。本出足下以爲外援,而今更恨足下在外,不得相與共諫止之,或當相從耳。」嶠亦累書止亮。舉朝以爲不可,亮皆不聽。

5. By now, Yu Liang was certain that if Su Jun remained at Liyang, he was certain to rebel or cause some other misfortune. Yu Liang wanted to issue an imperial edict summoning Su Jun to the capital, to get him away from his soldiers. He broached the matter with Wang Dao, who advised him, "Su Jun is very suspicious, and he occupies a stout position. He will definitely ignore any such edict. You had best just put up with him for now."

Then Yu Liang discussed the issue before the court, saying, "Su Jun is what they call 'a wolf-like child with an evil heart'. He is certain to rebel sooner or later. If we summon him now and he obstinately disobeys the summons, at least the disaster will not be as serious. But if we wait a few more years, then he will be beyond all control. We face the same situation now as when the Seven Princedoms threatened the stability of the Han dynasty."

No one else in the court dared to mention the difficulties that might arise from Yu Liang's proposal. Only the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel, Bian Kun, vigorously objected. He said, "Su Jun has powerful soldiers right at hand, and he poses a very near threat to the capital region. He could descend upon us in an instant. Any sudden development could cost us everything. You must reconsider this plan!"

But Yu Liang would not listen to him.

Certain that the plan would fail, Bian Kun then wrote a letter to Wen Jiao, stating, "Yuangui (Yu Liang) is set upon his plan to summon Su Jun here. This is a serious matter of state. Su Jun is already paranoid about his position; when he is summoned here, that will just bring on the coming disaster even faster, and the court will feel the venom of his sting. The court's strength may be recovering, but I do not know if it will be sufficient to overcome Su Jun or not. Lord Wang Dao feels the same as I do. I have done my utmost to fiercely argue against this plan, but my words were in vain. Sir, you were originally sent out so that you could provide assistance from outside, but now I regret that you are such a long way away from us. If only you could have been here to add your own voice to ours and help oppose the plan, perhaps we could have carried the day."

Wen Jiao himself wrote several letters to Yu Liang advising against the plan, and the court believed that it could not be done. But Yu Liang still did not listen.

〈《左傳》,楚令尹子文曰:諺曰「狼子野心」,是乃狼也,其可畜乎!〉〈漢鼂錯議削吳、楚曰:「今削之亦反,不削亦反,削之,反疾禍小,不削,反遲禍大。」亮以爲比。〉〈歷陽之與建康,一江之隔耳。〉〈庾亮,字元規。〉〈蠚,螫也。〉〈謂以嶠鎭尋陽也。〉

(In the Zuo Commentary, the Chu minister Yin Ziwen says, "As the saying goes, 'a wolf-like child will have an evil heart'. Just so with this one; he is a wolf, so how shall he be brought up in your family? (Xuan 4.3)"

Before the Rebellion of the Seven Princedoms during the Han dynasty, the minister Chao Cuo proposed carving out territories from the fiefs of the Princes of Wu and Chu. This was his logic: "They will rebel if you carve out the territories, but they will still rebel even if you do not. So if you carve their territories out, they will be quick to rebel and thus the misfortune will be smaller. But if you do not carve them out, they will take their time in rebelling and thus the misfortune will be greater." This was the precedent which Yu Liang was comparing the present situation to.

Only the Yangzi served as a barrier between the capital at Jiankang and Su Jun's post at Liyang.

Yu Liang's style name was Yuangui.

The term 蠚 means the bite or sting of an insect.

Bian Kun refers to the fact that Wen Jiao was away from the capital, at his post at Xunyang.)


峻聞之,遣司馬何仍詣亮曰:「討賊外任,遠近惟命,至於內輔,實非所堪。」亮不許,召北中郎將郭默爲後將軍、領屯騎校尉,司徒右長史庾冰爲吳國內史,皆將兵以備峻。冰,亮之弟也。於是下優詔,徵峻爲大司農,加散騎常侍,位特進,以弟逸代領部曲。峻上表曰:「昔明皇帝親執臣手,使臣北討胡寇。今中原未靖,臣何敢卽安!乞補青州界一荒郡,以展鷹犬之用。」復不許。峻嚴裝將赴召,猶豫未決。參軍任讓謂峻曰:「將軍求處荒郡而不見許,事勢如此,恐無生路,不如勒兵自守。」阜陵令匡術亦勸峻反,峻遂不應命。

6. When Su Jun heard about the imminent summons, he sent his Marshal, He Reng, to visit Yu Liang and convey his thoughts: "I have a commission to campaign against the enemy on the border. Send me anywhere to attack them, near or far, and I will heed the order. But I truly cannot bear to come serve in the capital."

But Yu Liang refused this proposal.

He recalled the General of the Household Gentlemen of the North, Guo Mo, to serve as General of the Rear and acting Colonel of Bivouacked Cavalry, and he appointed the Chief Clerk of the Right to the Minister Over The Masses, Yu Bing, as Interior Minister of the Wu princely fief. Both of these things were meant to prepare against Su Jun. This Yu Bing was Yu Liang's younger brother.

Then Yu Liang issued the imperial edict, commending Su Jun for his achievements and summoning him to serve in the capital as Grand Minister of Finance, as well as promoting him to the rank of Cavalier In Regular Attendance and granting him the distinction of being Specially Advanced. Su Jun's younger brother Su Yi was ordered to take command of Su Jun's forces.

Su Jun sent up a petition stating, "It was not so long ago that Emperor Ming himself took me by the hand and sent me north to campaign against our barbarous foes. The Central Plains have not been quelled yet, and so how can I dare to be at ease? I beg you to allot me even just one barren commandary in Qingzhou, and let me serve you as your falcon or your hound."

But again, Yu Liang refused to accept this offer.

Su Jun dressed himself all in readiness to heed the summons. But he still hesitated and could not make up his mind. Then one of his Army Advisors, Ren Rang, said to him, "General, even your request for one measly commandary was brushed aside. With things how they are now, I fear there is no way out for you. You ought to prepare your soldiers so that you can defend yourself." And the Prefect of Fuling, Kuang Shu, also urged Su Jun to rebel. So Su Jun decided not to obey the summons.

〈郭默時監淮北軍。〉〈阜陵縣,屬淮南郡。《晉志》曰:阜陵,漢明帝時淪爲麻湖。麻湖在今和州歷陽縣西三十里。〉

(At this time, Guo Mo was in command of the Jin armies north of the Huai River.

Fuling County was part of Huainan commandary. The Records of Jin states, "During Emperor Ming of Han's era, Fuling was submerged in Lake Ma." This Lake Ma is thirty li west of Liyang County in modern Hezhou.)


溫嶠聞之,卽欲帥衆下衞建康,三吳亦欲起義兵;亮並不聽,而報嶠書曰:「吾憂西陲,過於歷陽,足下無過雷池一步也。」朝廷遣使諭峻,峻曰:「臺下云我欲反,豈得活邪!我寧山頭望廷尉,不能廷尉望山頭。往者國家危如累卵,非我不濟;狡兔旣死,獵犬宜烹。但當死報造謀者耳!」

7. When Wen Jiao heard how serious things had gotten, he wanted to lead the forces under his command downriver to protect Jiankang. And the commandaries of the three Wu regions also wanted to assemble their own soldiers for the same purpose. But Yu Liang would not listen to any of these suggestions. He responded to Wen Jiao, "I am more worried about the 'western border' than I am about Liyang. Sir, you must not pass one step beyond Lei Pond."

The court sent envoys to Su Jun in an attempt to dissuade him. But he replied, "When the government itself insists that I mean to rebel, how can I survive? Better for me to look upon my prison from atop this mount, rather than look upon the mount from within my prison! And this is not my special fate; it has always been the doom of those who are seen as threats to the state. 'When the crafty hare has been killed, let the hunting dog be boiled', as the saying goes. But before then, I mean to avenge myself against the one who brought all this about!"

〈西陲,謂陶侃也。〉〈雷池,卽在大雷之東,今池州界。《水經註》:青林水西南歷尋陽,分爲二水,一水東流,通大雷。(原缺十八字。)〉〈越范蠡遺大夫種曰:狡兔死,走狗烹。〉〈言欲報庾亮也。〉

(The "western border" meant Tao Kan, who held command in the west in Jingzhou.

Lei Pond was east of Dalei, within modern Chizhou. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "As the Qinglin River flows southeast through Xunyang, it splits into two rivers. One river flows east, passing through Dalei." But note that the original edition did not contain this passage.

Fan Li of the ancient state of Yue resigned his office with the words, "When the crafty hare has been killed, the running dog is boiled."

Su Jun was saying he meant to get revenge against Yu Liang.)


峻知祖約怨朝廷,乃遣參軍徐會推崇約,請共討庾亮。約大喜,其從子智、衍並勸成之。譙國內史桓宣謂智曰:「本以強胡未滅,將勠力討之。使君若欲爲雄霸,何不助國討峻,則威名自舉。今乃與峻俱反,此安得久乎!」智不從。宣詣約請見,約知其欲諫,拒而不內。宣遂絕約,不與之同。十一月,約遣兄子沛內史渙、女壻淮南太守許柳以兵會峻。逖妻,柳之姊也,固諫不從。詔復以卞壼爲尚書令、領右衞將軍,以鄶稽內史王舒行揚州刺史事,吳興太守虞潭督三吳等諸郡軍事。

8. Su Jun knew that Zu Yue had his own grievances against the court. So he sent one of his Army Advisors, Xu Hui, to meet with Zu Yue and urge him to join together with Su Jun for a joint campaign against Yu Liang. Zu Yue was overjoyed at the offer, and his nephews Zu Zhi and Zu Yan urged him to make the alliance.

The Interior Minister of the Qiao princely fief, Huan Xuan, said to Zu Zhi, "Our enemy is the barbarians, and they remain powerful and unvanquished. We ought to be exerting our strength to campaign against them. If Commissioner Zu wants to be a conquering hero, why does he not aid the state by campaigning against Su Jun? If he did that, his power and majesty would naturally rise. But to go so far as to ally with Su Jun and help with his rebellion? How long will he be able to last?"

But Zu Zhi did not listen to him.

Then Huan Xuan went to visit Zu Yue, asking to see him. But Zu Yue knew that Huan Xuan meant to remonstrate with him, so he would not agree to a meeting. So Huan Xuan cut his ties with Zu Yue and refused to associate with him.

In the eleventh month, Zu Yue sent the Interior Minister of Pei, his elder brother's son Zu Huan, and the Administrator of Huainan, his brother-in-law Xu Liu, to lead soldiers to join with Su Jun. Zu Yue's widow was this Xu Liu's sister. She fiercely remonstrated with him, but to no avail.

An imperial edict was issued appointing Bian Kun as Prefect of the Masters of Writing and acting Guard General of the Right. The Interior Minister of Guaiji, Wang Shu, was appointing as acting Inspector of Yangzhou. The Administrator of Wuxing, Yu Tan, was placed in command of military affairs for the commandaries of the Three Wu regions.

〈約於是赴歷陽,宣將其衆營於馬頭山。〉〈鄶稽,卽會稽,音古外翻。《王舒傳》曰:時徵蘇峻,王導欲出舒爲外援,授會稽內史。舒以父名會,辭。朝議以字同音異,於禮無嫌。舒復陳音雖異而字同,求改他郡,於是改「會」字爲「鄶」。〉

(Zu Yue had led his forces to Liyang; Huan Xuan led his own soldiers to camp at Mount Matou.

This 鄶稽 "Guaiji" was the same commandary as 會稽 Kuaiji; the first character was pronounced "guai (g-ai)". It was mentioned earlier (326.9) that Wang Shu had been appointed to Kuaiji commandary. The Biography of Wang Shu in the Book of Jin states, "At the time that Su Jun was being summoned to the capital, Wang Dao wanted to send Wang Shu out to help provide assistance from the outside, so he had Wang Shu appointed as Interior Minister of Kuaiji. Wang Shu protested, on the grounds that his father's given name was 會 Hui, the same as the first character in 會稽 Kuaiji, so this would constitute a personal impropriety for him. The court felt that, although they happened to share the same character, since the pronunciation was different, there was no impropriety. But Wang Shu, insisting that sharing the same character was sufficient reason for him to object, requested he be assigned to a different commandary. To appease him, the 會 character in Kuaiji was changed to 鄶 Guai.)


十一月,豫州刺史祖約、歷陽太守蘇峻等反。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the eleventh month, the Inspector of Yuzhou, Zu Yue, the Administrator of Liyang, Su Jun, and others rebelled.


尚書左丞孔坦、司徒司馬丹楊陶回言於王導,請「及峻未至,急斷阜陵,守江西當利諸口,彼少我衆,一戰決矣。若峻未來,可往逼其城。今不先往,峻必先至,峻至則人心危駭,難與戰矣。此時不可失也。」導然之,庾亮不從。十二月,辛亥,蘇峻使其將韓晃、張健等襲陷姑孰,取鹽米,亮方悔之。

9. The Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing, Kong Tan, and the Marshal to the Minister Over The Masses, Tao Hui of Danyang, spoke to Wang Dao. They proposed, "Before Su Jun gets here, we should move to cut him off at Fuling. From there, we can guard all the river mouths on the north side of the Yangzi. The rebels are few compared to us, and we can decide everything in a single battle. And if Su Jun does not come, then we can move forward and threaten his position. But if we do not occupy Fuling first, Su Jun is sure to get there ahead of us. If he does so, then he will make the people's hearts tremble in shock, and it will be hard to oppose him. There is no time to waste."

Wang Dao agreed with them. But Yu Liang would not listen.

In the twelfth month, on the day Xinhai (December 30th), Su Jun sent his generals Han Huang, Zhang Jian, and others to attack and capture Gushu, where they captured the stores of salt and rice there. Yu Liang now regretted what had happened.

〈阜陵有麻湖之阻,守當利諸口,則峻兵不得渡江。〉〈姑孰臨江渚,舟船所湊,晉積鹽米於此。〉

(Fuling had Lake Ma as a defensive barrier, where one could guard the various river mouths. Holding this place would prevent Su Jun's soldiers from being able to cross the Yangzi.

Gushu was adjacent to the islets in the Yangzi. Boats were stored there, and Jin accumulated stores of salt and rice there.)


十二月辛亥,蘇峻使其將韓晃入姑孰,屠于湖。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the twelfth month, on the day Xinhai (December 30th), Su Jun sent his general Han Huang into Gushu, and there was a slaughter at Yuhu.


壬子,彭城王雄、章武王休叛奔峻。雄,釋之子也。

10. On the day Renzi (December 31st), the Princes of Pengcheng and Zhangwu, Sima Xiong and Sima Xiu, defected to Su Jun's side. This Sima Xiong was the son of Sima Shi.

〈彭城王釋,宣帝弟穆王權之子;章武王休,義陽王望之孫。〉

(This Sima 釋 Shi (not to be confused with the more famous Sima 師 Shi or Emperor Jing), the earlier Prince of Pengcheng, was the son of Prince Mu ("the Solemn"), Emperor Xuan's (Sima Yi's) younger brother Sima Quan. And this Sima Xiu was the grandson of the Prince of Yiyang, Sima Wang.)


壬子,彭城王雄、章武王休叛,奔峻。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Renzi (December 31st), the Princes of Pengcheng and Zhangwu, Sima Xiong and Sima Xiu, rebelled and fled to Su Jun.


庚申,京師戒嚴,假庾亮節,都督征討諸軍事;以左衞將軍趙胤爲歷陽太守,使左將軍司馬流將兵據慈湖以拒峻;以前射聲校尉劉超爲左衞將軍,侍中褚翜典征討軍事。亮使弟翼以白衣領數百人備石頭。

11. On the day Gengshen (January 8th of 328), the capital region was placed under martial law. Yu Liang was temporarily granted the Staff of Authority and placed in command of all forces opposing the rebels. The Guard General of the Left, Zhao Yin, was appointed as Administrator of Liyang. He sent the General of the Left, Sima Liu, to lead soldiers to occupy Lake Ci in order to oppose Su Jun. The former Colonel of Archers Who Shoot at a Sound, Liu Chao, was appointed as the new Guard General of the Left. The Palace Attendant, Chu Sha, was appointed to provide assistance with the campaign.

Yu Liang ordered his younger brother Yu Yi to lead several hundred soldiers to guard the Shitou fortress.

〈慈湖,在姑孰,今在太平州當塗縣北六十五里。泝江而上,過三山十餘里,至溧洲,自溧洲過白土磯,入慈湖夾。〉

(Lake Ci was at Gushu, sixty-five li north of Dangtu County in modern Taipingzhou. For some ten li, the Yangzi passes through three mountains, until it reaches Lizhou. From Lizhou, it passes the Baitu Promontory and then flows through Lake Ci.)


庚申,京師戒嚴。假護軍將軍庾亮節爲征討都督,以右衛將軍趙胤爲冠軍將軍、歷陽太守,使與左將軍司馬流帥師距峻... 假驍騎將軍鐘雅節,帥舟軍,與趙胤爲前鋒,以距峻。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Gengshen (January 8th of 328), the capital region was placed under martial law. The acting General Who Protects The Army, Yu Liang, was granted the Staff of Authority and placed in command of all forces opposing the rebels. The Guard General of the Right, Zhao Yin, was appointed as Champion General and Administrator of Liyang. He and the General of the Left, Sima Liu, were sent to lead soldiers to oppose Su Jun... The acting General of Chariots and Cavalry, Zhong Ya, was granted a Staff of Authority. He led the naval forces, advancing with Zhao Yin as the vanguard against Su Jun.


丙寅,徙琅邪王昱爲會稽王,吳王岳爲琅邪王。

12. On the day Bingyin (January 14th of 328), the Prince of Langye, Sima Yu, had his title changed to Prince of Kuaiji. The Prince of Wu, Sima Yue, was made the new Prince of Langye.

丙寅,徒封琅邪王昱爲會稽王,吳王岳爲琅邪王。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Bingyin (January 14th of 328), the Prince of Langye, Sima Yu, had his title changed to Prince of Kuaiji. The Prince of Wu, Sima Yue, was made the new Prince of Langye.

二年徙封琅邪王。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Kang)

In the second year of Xianhe (327), Sima Yue's title was changed to Prince of Langye.


宣城內史桓彝欲起兵以赴朝廷,其長史裨惠以郡兵寡弱,山民易擾,謂宜且按甲以待之。彝厲色曰:「『見無禮於其君者,若鷹鸇之逐鳥雀。』今社稷危逼,義無宴安。」辛未,彝進屯蕪湖。韓晃擊破之,因進攻宣城,彝退保廣德,晃大掠諸縣而還。徐州刺史郗鑒欲帥所領赴難,詔以北寇,不許。

13. The Interior Minister of Xuancheng, Huan Yi, wanted to raise his troops to come to the aid of the court. His Chief Clerk, Bi Hui, advised him that since the troops of their commandary were so few and weak, while the local mountain peoples were so easily riled up, he ought to keep his troops in readiness to defend against them. But Huan Yi sternly replied, "It is said, 'When you see a man who transgresses propriety towards his ruler, take him off as an eagle or a hawk pursues a small bird.' The very fortunes of state are in peril, and it would be unjust to remain at ease here."

On the day Xinwei (January 19th of 328), Huan Yi advanced to camp at Wuhu. Han Huang attacked and routed him. He then advanced to attack Xuancheng, while Huan Yi retreated to guard Guangde. Han Huang greatly pillaged several counties in the area before turning back.

Chi Jian wanted to lead the forces of Xuzhou to come reinforce the court as well, but the court issued an edict refusing permission, on account of the enemies to the north.

〈《姓譜》:裨姓,鄭裨諶之後。〉〈宣城西南,山越居之,自吳以來屢爲寇亂。〉〈《左傳》魯大夫臧文仲之言。〉〈宣城郡治宛陵縣,宣城別爲縣。賢曰:宣城故城,在今宣州南陵縣東。〉〈何承天曰:廣德,漢舊縣。沈約曰:二《漢志》並無,疑是吳所立,屬宣城郡。《桐川志》:後漢置廣德縣,晉幷入宣城,今廣德軍是也。〉

(The Registry of Surnames states, "Those with the surname 裨 Bi are the descendants of Bi Chen of the ancient state of Zheng."

The Shanyue or Mountain Yue peoples lived in the southwestern part of Xuancheng commandary. Ever since the era of Eastern Wu, they had invaded or stirred up rebellion several times.

Huan Yi quotes the words of the Lu minister Zang Wenzhong from the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals (Wen 18.9).

Xuancheng commandary was administered from Wanling County; it also had a separate Xuancheng County. Li Xian remarked, "The city of Xuancheng was in the east of Nanling County in modern Xuanzhou."

He Chengtian remarked, "Guangdu was an old Han county." Shen Yue remarked, "Neither of the two Records of Han lists a Guangde County. I suspect it was first established by Eastern Wu, as part of Xuancheng commandary." The Records of Tongchuan states, "Later Han established Guangde County. Jin combined it into Xuancheng. It is now the Guangde Garrison.")


辛未,宣城內桓彝及峻戰于蕪湖,彝軍敗績。軍騎將軍郗鑒遣廣陵相劉矩帥師赴京師。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Xinwei (January 19th of 328), the Interior Minister of Xuancheng, Huan Yi, fought Su Jun at Wuhu. But Huan Yi's army suffered several defeats. The General of the Army Cavalry, Chi Jian, sent the Chancellor of Guangling, Liu Ju, to lead his forces towards the capital region.


是歲,後趙中山公虎擊代王紇那,戰于句注陘北;紇那兵敗,徙都大甯以避之。

14. During this year, Shi Hu attacked the new Prince of Dai, Tuoba Hena. They fought north of the border pass at Gouzhu, where Tuoba Hena's soldiers were defeated.

Tuoba Hena shifted his capital to Daning in order to avoid the threat now posed by Later Zhao.

〈張守節曰:句注山在代州鴈門縣西北三十里。據《唐志》,鴈門縣有東陘關、西陘關,卽其地也。〉〈據《水經註》,大甯卽廣甯也。廣甯,前漢曰廣寧,屬上谷郡;後漢曰廣甯;晉武帝太康中分置廣甯郡。〉

(Zhang Shoujie remarked, "Mount Gouzhu was thirty li northwest of Yanmen County in Daizhou." According to the Records of Tang, Yanmen County had an eastern pass and a western pass; this must have been the place.

According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, this Daning was the same as Guangning. 廣甯 Guangning, called 廣寧 Guangning during Former Han, was part of Shanggu commandary. It became called 廣甯 Guangning during Later Han. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) created Guangning commandary during the Taikang reign era (280-89).)


三年,石勒遣石虎率騎五千來寇邊部,帝禦之於句注陘北,不利,遷於大寧。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the third year of Tuoba Hena's reign (327), Shi Le sent Shi Hu to invade the border regions of the Tuoba realm with five thousand cavalry. Tuoba Hena attempted to oppose him north of the border pass at Gouzhu, but he suffered the worst of it. So Tuoba Hena shifted his capital to Daning.


代王鬱律之子翳槐居於其舅賀蘭部,紇那遣使求之,賀蘭大人藹頭擁護不遣。紇那與宇文部共擊藹頭,不克。

15. The late Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yulü, had a son Tuoba Yihuai who was living with the clan of his uncle, the Helan clan. Tuoba Hena sent messengers demanding Tuoba Yihuai be handed over to him. But the leader of the Helan clan, Helan Aitou, protected Tuoba Yihuai and would not give him up. Tuoba Hena and the Yuwen tribe of the Xianbei attacked Helan Aitou together, but without success.

時烈帝居於舅賀蘭部,帝遣使求之,賀蘭部帥藹頭,擁護不遣。帝怒,召宇文部并勢擊藹頭。宇文眾敗,帝還大寧。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

At this time, Emperor Lie, Tuoba Yihuai, was living with the clan of his uncle, the Helan clan. Tuoba Hena sent messengers demanding Tuoba Yihuai be handed over to him. But the leader of the Helan clan, Helan Aitou, protected Tuoba Yihuai and would not give him up. Angered by this, Tuoba Hena summoned the Yuwen clan, and they attacked Helan Aitou together. But the Yuwen army was defeated, so Tuoba Hena returned to Daning.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Aug 02, 2018 10:48 pm, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Zizhi Tongjian: Western Jin (Book 79-93)

Unread postby Jia Nanfeng » Tue May 22, 2018 4:58 am

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BOOK 94

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Jun 11, 2018 4:53 am

咸和三年(戊子、三二八)

The Third Year of Xianhe (The Wuzi Year, 328 AD)


春,正月,溫嶠入救建康,軍于尋陽。

1. In spring, the first month, Wen Jiao marched to the aid of Jiankang. His army arrived at Xunyang.

三年春正月,平南將軍溫嶠帥師救京師,次於尋陽,遣督護王愆期、西陽太守鄧嶽、鄱陽太守紀X爲前鋒。征西大將軍陶侃遣督護龔登受嶠節度。鐘雅、趙胤等次慈湖,王愆期、鄧嶽等次直瀆。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third year of Xianhe (328), in spring, the first month, the General Who Conquers The South, Wen Jiao, led his forces to the aid of the capital region. He marched to Xunyang, while sending ahead the Protector, Wang Qianqi, the Administrator of Xiyang, Deng Yue, and the Administrator of Poyang, Ji Mu, as his vanguard. The Grand General Who Conquers The West, Tao Kan, sent his Protector, Gong Deng, to serve under Wen Jiao's authority. Zhong Ya, Zhao Yin, and other generals of the court marched to Lake Ci, while Wang Qianqi, Deng Yue, and Wen Jiao's other generals marched to Zhidu.


〈自武昌東下,軍于尋陽。〉

(Wen Jiao was marching east from Wuchang, so his army came to Xunyang.)


韓晃襲司馬流於慈湖;流素懦怯,將戰,食炙不知口處,兵敗而死。

2. Su Jun's general Han Huang attacked the loyalist general Sima Liu at Lake Ci. Sima Liu was so timid and nervous before the battle that he ate burnt meat without realizing it. His soldiers were defeated and he died.

〈炙,燔肉也。〉

(The term 炙 here means burnt or roasted meat.)


戰於慈湖,流敗,死之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Zhao Yin and Sima Liu fought Su Jun at Lake Ci, where Sima Liu was defeated and died in battle.


丁未,蘇峻帥祖渙、許柳等衆二萬人,濟自橫江,登牛渚,軍于陵口。臺兵禦之,屢敗。二月,庚戌,峻至蔣陵覆舟山。陶回謂庾亮曰:「峻知石頭有重戍,不敢直下,必向小丹楊南道步來;宜伏兵邀之,可一戰擒也。」亮不從。峻果自小丹楊來,迷失道,夜行,無復部分。亮聞,乃悔之。

3. On the day Dingwei (February 24th), Su Jun marched at the head of twenty thousand soldiers, along with his generals Zu Huan, Xu Liu, and others. They crossed the Yangzi at Hengjiang, ascended Niuzhu, and camped their forces at Lingkou. The government soldiers opposed their advance, but were defeated several times. In the second month, on the day Gengxu (February 27th), Su Jun arrived at Mount Fuzhou in Jiangling.

Tao Hui said to Yu Liang, "Su Jun knows that the Shitou fortress has been heavily fortified, and he would not dare to launch a direct assault against it. He will certainly try to approach us from the south by taking the foot trails through Lesser Danyang. We should post ambush troops along the trails there to intercept him, then we can capture him in a single battle."

But Yu Liang would not listen.

As Tao Hui had predicted, Su Jun marched through Lesser Danyang. He could not keep track of the trails, and since his army was marching by night, they could not maintain their formations either. When Yu Liang learned of this, he regretted his decision.

〈牛渚山,在今太平州當塗縣北三十里,山下有磯,津渡之處,與和州橫江渡相對。陵口,當在牛渚山東北,卽東陵口也。〉〈陵,阜也;蔣陵,蔣山之阜也。覆舟山,形如覆舟,故名。〉〈漢丹陽郡治宛陵縣;武帝太康二年,分丹陽置宣城郡,治宛陵,而丹陽移治建業。建業,本漢之秣陵也,吳改曰建業,晉復曰秣陵;至太康三年,分秣陵之水北爲建業,後避愍帝諱,改曰建康。元帝南渡,建康置丹陽尹,治於臺城西,而丹楊太守舊治秣陵縣,俗謂之小丹楊。其路卽今太平州取建康之路也。〉

(Mount Niuzhu is thirty li north of Dangtu County in modern Taipingzhou. There is a promotory under the mountain, which serves as a crossing point over the Yangzi, since it is across the river from Hengjiang in Hezhou. Lingkou was northeast of Mount Niuzhu, and so is also known as Donglingkou ("East Lingkou").

The term ling can mean "mound", so "Jiangling" here would mean "the mound at Mount Jiang". And Mount Fuzhou resembled an overturned boat, thus its name ("Mount Overturned Boat").

Regarding the name "Lesser Danyang", during Han, Danyang commandary was administered from Wanling County. In Emperor Wu of Jin's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taikang (281), he split off part of Danyang commandary to form Xuancheng commandary, and Wanling now served as the administrative center for this new commandary. Danyang was then administered from Jianye. As for Jianye itself, it was originally called Moling during Han. Eastern Wu changed its name to Jianye. Jin restored the original name of Moling, but in the third year of Taikang (282), the portion of Moling north of the (Qinhuai) river was split off and renamed Jianye. After Emperor Min came to the throne (in 313), Jianye's name was changed to Jiankang in order to observe the naming taboo on Emperor Min's given name, Ye. When Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) crossed south of the Yangzi, he established the office of Intendant of Danyang (Intendant being the traditional title for the administrator of the capital region's commandary), and the Intendancy had its administrative center in the west of the governmental complex. But the office of Administrator of Danyang was still retained, administered from Moling County as before. People commonly called this Danyang the "Lesser Danyang". And the roads mentioned there are the ones now leading to Jiankang in Taipingzhou.)


丁未,峻濟自橫江,登牛渚。二月庚戌,峻至于蔣山。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Dingwei (February 24th), Su Jun crossed the Yangzi at Hengjiang and ascended Niuzhu. In the second month, on the day Gengxu (February 27th), Su Jun arrived at Mount Jiang.


朝士以京邑危逼,多遣家人入東避難,左衞將軍劉超獨遷妻孥入居宮內。

4. With the capital region now facing great danger, most of the court officials sent their families east to seek safety. Only the Guard General of the Left, Liu Chao, sent his wife and children to stay inside the palace.

〈建康以吳、會稽爲東。〉〈孥,子也。〉

(The regions of Wu and Kuaiji were to the east of Jiankang.

The term 孥 here means children.)


詔以卞壼都督大桁東諸軍事,與侍中鍾雅帥郭默、趙胤等軍及峻戰于西陵。壼等大敗,死傷以千數。丙辰,峻攻青溪栅;卞壼率諸軍拒擊,不能禁。峻因風縱火,燒臺省及諸營寺署,一時蕩盡。壼背癰新愈,創猶未合,力疾帥左右苦戰而死;二子眕、盱隨父後,亦赴散而死。其母撫尸哭曰:「父爲忠臣,子爲孝子,夫何恨乎!」

5. An imperial edict was issued appointing Bian Kun as Commander of the eastern armies to punish the criminals. He and the Palace Attendant, Zhong Ya, led the armies of Guo Mo, Zhao Yin, and other loyalists to oppose Su Jun at Xiling. But Bian Kun and the other loyalists were greatly defeated, and thousands of their soldiers were killed or wounded.

On the day Bingchen (March 4th), Su Jun attacked the barricades at Qingxi. Bian Kun led several armies to fight back against him, but they could not hold the line. There was a wind in the air, and Su Jun took advantage of it by spreading fires. The government ministries and the other offices were soon reduced to ashes.

Now Bian Kun had an ulcer on his back which had only just begun healing, and he had taken wounds from which he had not yet recovered. But even so, he exerted himself through his pain and spurred on those with him to fight to the bitter end, and so he died fighting. His two sons Bian Zhen and Bian Xu followed after their father, and they each met their own ends as well.

Their mother held their bodies in her arms and wept as she said, "The father was a loyal minister, and the sons were filial children. What do I have to regret?"

〈據《壼傳》,峻至東陵口,壼與戰於陵西,《成帝紀》作「西陵」。〉〈杜佑曰:宋、齊有三臺、五省之號。三臺,蓋兩漢舊名;五省,謂尚書、中書、門下、祕書、集書省也。〉

(According to the Biography of Bian Kun in the Book of Jin, Su Jin was at Donglingkou during the first battle mentioned in this passage, and Bian Kun fought with him at "Lingxi" or "west of Ling, west of the mound". But the Annals of Emperor Cheng in the Book of Jin records the place as "Xiling".

This passage describes the government offices which Su Jun burned down as the 臺省s. Du You remarked, "The Liu-Song and Southern Qi dynasties which followed Jin had the terms 'the Three 臺 Terraces' and 'the Five 省 Bureaus' to describe their government ministries. The Three Terraces were the same offices which that term described during Former and Later Han [presumably the Three Excellencies], while the Five Bureaus referred to the Masters of Writing, the Palace Secretariat, the Gatekeepers, the Library Custodians, and the Archivists.")


假領軍將軍卞壼節,帥六軍,及峻戰于西陵,王師敗績。丙辰,峻攻青溪柵,因風縱火,王師又大敗。尚書令、領軍將軍卞壼... 遇害,死者數千人。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The Prefect of the Masters of Writing and acting General Who Leads The Army, Bian Kun, holding a Staff of Authority, led the six armies of the court and fought Su Jun at Xiling, where the loyalist army suffered a defeat. On the day Bingchen (March 4th), Su Jun attacked the barricades at Qingxi. Bian Kun led several armies to fight back against him, but they could not hold the line. There was a wind in the air, and Su Jun took advantage of it by spreading fires. The loyalist army was once again greatly defeated. Bian Kun perished in battle, and thousands of others died.


丹楊尹羊曼勒兵守雲龍門,與黃門侍郎周導、廬江太守陶X皆戰死。庾亮帥衆將陳于宣陽門內,未及成列,士衆皆棄甲走,亮與弟懌、條、翼及郭默、趙胤俱奔尋陽。將行,顧謂鍾雅曰:「後事深以相委。」雅曰:「棟折榱崩,誰之咎也!」亮曰:「今日之事,不容復言。」亮乘小船,亂兵相剝掠;亮左右射賊,誤中柁工,應弦而倒。船上咸失色欲散,亮不動,徐曰:「此手何可使著賊!」衆乃安。

6. The Intendant of Danyang, Yang Man, arrayed his soldiers to defend the Yunlong Gate at Jiankang. There he died fighting, along with the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gate, Zhou Dao, and the Administrator of Lujiang, Tao Zhan.

Yu Liang gathered up his own soldiers, planning to make a stand behind the Xuanyang Gate. But before he could finish getting his soldiers into a defensive formation, the men all cast aside their armor and fled. So Yu Liang too prepared to flee the city and head for Xunyang, along with his younger brothers Yu Yi, Yu Tiao, and Yu Yì, and with Guo Mo and Zhao Yin.

As Yu Liang was about to depart, he turned to Zhong Ya and told him, "From here on out, Sir, I leave everything in your care."

Zhong Ya replied, "Just whose fault is it that the pillars have snapped and the rafters collapsed?"

Yu Liang said, "Not another word of all this."

Yu Liang got into a small boat. There were soldiers smashing and plundering all around. One of Yu Liang's attendants shot an arrow at the rebels, but he accidentally hit the helmsman, who dropped even at the snap of the bowstring. Everyone else on the boat turned pale and wanted to scatter, but Yu Liang himself did not move. He only said slowly, "How could such a hand be used against the rebels?" So the others calmed down.

〈依溫嶠也。〉〈秦曰屋椽,齊魯曰桷,周曰榱。〉〈柁以正船,柁工,一船之司命也。〉〈言射不能殺賊而反射殺柁工,自恨之辭也。〉

(Yu Liang and the others were fleeing to join Wen Jiao.

The term 榱 "rafters" was one of several terms for this concept in ancient times. The people of the state of Qin called this part of a house the 屋椽; the people of the states of Qi and Lu called it the 桷; the people of the general domain of Zhou called it the 榱.

The helm or rudder is used to keep a boat on its proper course. So the helmsman is the one who oversees the craft.

Yu Liang was expressing regret for the fact that his attendant's shot had not only not killed a rebel, but had in fact killed the helmsman.)


丹陽尹羊曼,黃門侍郎周導,廬江太守陶X並遇害,死者數千人。庾亮又敗于宣陽門內,遂攜其諸弟與郭默、趙胤奔尋陽。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The Intendant of Danyang, Yang Man, the Gentleman-Attendant of the Yellow Gates, Zhou Dao, and the Administrator of Lujiang, Tao Zhan, all perished in battle, and thousands of others died. Yu Liang was also defeated inside the Xuanyang Gate, so he took his younger brothers, along with Guo Mo and Zhao Yin, and fled to Xunyang.

庾公臨去,顧語鍾後事,深以相委。鍾曰:「棟折榱崩,誰之責邪?」庾曰:「今日之事,不容復言,卿當期克復之效耳!」鍾曰:「想足下不愧荀林父耳。」(New Tales of the World 5.35)

As Yu Liang was about to leave the capital (during Su Jun's rebellion), he turned back and said to Zhong Ya, "All subsequent affairs I completely entrust to your care."

Zhong Ya said, "And when 'the central pillar is broken and the rafters cave in', who will be to blame?"

Yu Liang said, "Of today's events there's nothing more to say. You should just hope for success some day in reconquest and restoration, that's all."

Zhong Ya replied, "I hope Your Excellency wouldn't be ashamed of me if I were merely a Xun Linfu, and nothing more." (tr. Richard Mather)

庾太尉與蘇峻戰,敗,率左右十餘人,乘小船西奔。亂兵相剝掠,射誤中柂工,應弦而倒。舉船上咸失色分散,亮不動容,徐曰:「此手那可使箸賊!」眾迺安。(New Tales of the World 6.23)

Yu Liang had joined battle with Su Jun and been defeated. With ten or so attendants he boarded a small boat and fled westward (up the Yangzi toward Wuchang). When rebel soldiers came raiding and looting, one of Yu Liang's attendants shot at them and accidentally hit Yu Liang's own helmsman, who fell instantaneously with the twang of the bowstring. Everyone on board turned pale and scattered in confusion. Without changing his expression Yu Liang calmly said, "How could a marksman as poor as this be used to hit the rebels?" Whereupon everyone became calm. (tr. Richard Mather)


峻兵入臺城,司徒導謂侍中褚翜曰:「至尊當御正殿,君可啓令速出。」翜卽入上閤,躬自抱帝登太極前殿;導及光祿大夫陸曄、荀崧、尚書張闓共登御床,擁衞帝。以劉超爲右衞將軍,使與鍾雅、褚翜侍立左右,太常孔愉朝服守宗廟。時百官奔散,殿省蕭然。峻兵旣入,叱褚翜令下。翜正立不動,呵之曰:「蘇冠軍來覲至尊,軍人豈得侵逼!」由是峻兵不敢上殿,突入後宮,宮人及太后左右侍人皆見掠奪。峻兵驅役百官,光祿勳王彬等皆被捶撻,令負擔登蔣山。裸剝士女,皆以壞席苫草自鄣,無草者坐地以土自覆;哀號之聲,震動內外。

7. Su Jun's soldiers poured into the governmental complex. The Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, said to the Palace Attendant, Chu Sha, "His Majesty should be brought to the Front Hall. Sir, prepare the order to be sent out right away." So Chu Sha went into the Main Pavilion, where he personally carried Emperor Cheng to the front of the Taiji Hall. Wang Dao and the Household Counsellors With Golden Tassel, Lu Ye and Xun Song, and the Master of Writing, Zhang Kai, all got onto the Imperial Bed and kept Emperor Cheng in a protective embrace. They appointed Liu Chao as the Guard General of the Right, and had him, Zhong Ya, and Chu Sha stand in attendance on either side. The Minister of Ceremonies, Kong Yu, put on court attire and guarded the ancestral temple. By now, the ministers had all fled, and the ministries lay empty.

When Su Jun's soldiers entered the hall, they yelled at Chu Sha and ordered him out. But Chu Sha stayed right where he was, and he chastised the soldiers by telling them, "It is Champion General Su that is coming to see His Majesty; how dare you soldiers threaten and endanger him?" Thus cowed, the soldiers no longer dared to enter the hall.

But they went into the rear palaces instead, where they kidnapped and plundered the palace servants and the Empress Dowager's attendants. They oppressed the remaining ministers, including the 勳 With Golden Tassel, Wang Bin, beating and whipping them and forcing them to carry packs while marching up Mount Jiang. They stripped the clothes from the women, who were forced to cover themselves with old mats and grass and straw from Zhang; those who had no grass sat on the ground and covered themselves with dirt. The sound of their cries and wails shook the whole region.

〈《晉志》:文帝初置中衞及衞將軍,武帝受命,分爲左、右衞,以羊琇爲左,趙序爲右。〉〈峻先以討沈充功進冠軍將軍,故稱之。〉〈蔣山,卽鍾山,在今上元縣東北十八里。《輿地志》曰:古曰金陵山,縣名因此;又名蔣山,漢末,秣陵尉蔣子文討賊,戰死于此,吳大帝爲立廟,子文祖諱鍾,因改曰蔣山。余謂孫權祖亦諱鍾,當因是改也。〉

(The Records of Jin states, "Emperor Wen (Sima Zhao) first created the ranks of Guard General and Guard General of the Center. After Emperor Wu (Sima Yan) accepted the abdication of Cao-Wei, he split these ranks into Guard Generals of the Left and Right, appointing Yang Xiu as Guard General of the Left and Zhao Xu as Guard General of the Right."

Su Jun had earlier been promoted to Champion General for his success in campaigning against Wang Dun's ally Shen Chong, thus Chu Sha identifies him by that rank here.

Mount Jiang was also called Mount Zhong. It is eighteen li northeast of modern Shangyuan County. The Regional Survey Records states, "In ancient times, this mountain was called Mount Jinling, and the county got its name from there. The name later changed to Mount Jiang. At the end of the Han dynasty, when the Commandant of Moling, Jiang Ziwen, was campaigning against bandits, he died in battle at this mountain, and the Grand Emperor of Eastern Wu (Sun Quan) established a temple for him. Since Jiang Ziwen's grandfather's given name was Zhong, in order to recognize a naming taboo for him, the name of the mountain was changed to Mount Jiang." But from what I, Hu Sanxing, understand, it was Sun Quan's own grandfather who had the given name Zhong which thus needed to be covered by the naming taboo, and the mountain's name was changed for that reason. [This is the modern Purple Mountain.])


於是司徒王導、右光祿大夫陸曄、荀崧等衛帝於太極殿,太常孔愉守宗廟。賊乘勝麾戈接於帝座,突入太后後宮,左右侍人皆見掠奪... 百姓號泣,響震都邑。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

After this, the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Right, Lu Ye, Xun Song, and others guarded Emperor Cheng in the Taiji Hall, while the Minister of Ceremonies, Kong Yu, protected the Ancestral Temple. The rebels pressed their victories by bringing their banners and dagger-axes right up to Emperor Cheng's seat, and they rushed into the Empress Dowager's rear palace, where all the attendants and palace servants were plundered and kidnapped. The common people wailed and wept, and the sound of their lamentations shook the capital region.


初,姑孰旣陷,尚書左丞孔坦謂人曰:「觀峻之勢,必破臺城,自非戰士,不須戎服。」及臺城陷,戎服者多死,白衣者無他。

8. Earlier, when Gushu had just fallen to the rebels, the Assistant of the Left to the Masters of Writing, Kong Tan, told people, "Look how powerful Su Jun has become. He will certainly capture the government as well. No one who is not a warrior should be dressed in martial attire." And indeed, when the government fell, many of those who were so dressed died, while those dressed in plain clothes were left alone.

時官有布二十萬匹,金銀五千斤,錢億萬,絹數萬匹,他物稱是,峻盡費之;太官惟有燒餘米數石以供御膳。

9. At this time, the government storehouses contained two hundred thousand bolts of cloth, five thousand catties of gold and silver, hundreds of millions of cash, tens of thousands of bolts of silk, and similar amounts of other such things. Su Jun distributed all of it. The chief ministers were left with only a few measures of cooked rice with which to supply the imperial household.

〈言他物與布金銀錢絹相稱也。〉

(This passage is saying that the other things in the storehouses were similar to the cloth, gold and silver, cash, and silk being stored there.)


是時太官唯有燒余米數石,以供御膳。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

At this time, the government stores only had a few measures of cooked rice with which to supply the imperial household.


或謂鍾雅曰:「君性亮直,必不容於寇讎,盍早爲之計!」雅曰:「國亂不能匡,君危不能濟,各遁逃以求免,何以爲臣!」

10. Someone said to Zhong Ya, "Sir, you are an honest and direct man. Surely these invaders shall not spare you. Why not make plans for yourself?"

Zhong Ya replied, "If the state is in chaos and I cannot rectify it, if my sovereign is in peril and I cannot protect him, if I would rather run and hide just to save my own life, how could I call myself a minister?"

蘇峻既至石頭,百僚奔散,唯侍中鍾雅獨在帝側。或謂鍾曰:「見可而進,知難而退,古之道也。君性亮直,必不容於寇讎;何不用隨時之宜,而坐待其弊邪?」鍾曰:「國亂不能匡,君危不能濟,而各遜遁以求免,吾懼董狐將執簡而進矣!」(New Tales of the World 5.34)

After Su Jun had arrived at Shitou, all the officials in the capital scattered and fled. Only the Palace Attendant, Zhong Ya, remained by Emperor Cheng's side. Someone said to Zhong Ya, "To 'advance when you see the possibilities, and retreat when you know the difficulties' is the way of antiquity. Since your nature, Sir, is transparent and straightforward, you'll certainly not be spared in the rebels' vengeance. Why don't you use the expedient of following what's appropriate to the time, instead of sitting here waiting for death?"

Zhong Ya replied, "I 'couldn't correct the state when it was in disorder, or save the ruler when he was in danger', yet now everyone is running away to hide, seeking to avoid trouble. I'm just afraid a Dong Hu will 'come forward, holding the bamboo slips in his hand'." (tr. Richard Mather)


丁巳,峻稱詔大赦,惟庾亮兄弟不在原例。以王導有德望,猶使以本官居己之右。祖約爲侍中、太尉、尚書令,峻自爲驃騎將軍、錄尚書事,許柳爲丹楊尹,馬雄爲左衞將軍,祖渙爲驍騎將軍。弋陽王羕詣峻,稱述峻功,峻復以羕爲西陽王、太宰、錄尚書事。

11. On the day Dingsi (March 5th), Su Jun arranged for an imperial edict to be issued, declaring a general amnesty in Jin. Only Yu Liang and his brothers were excluded from the amnesty. Because of Wang Dao's virtue and influence, Su Jun allowed him to retain the same office he held before; in fact, Wang Dao technically outranked Su Jun himself. Zu Yue was appointed as Palace Attendant, Grand Commandant, and Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Su Jun appointed himself as General of Chariots and Cavalry and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing. Xu Liu was appointed as Intendant of Danyang. Ma Xiong was appointed as Guard General of the Left. Zu Huan was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry.

It was earlier mentioned that Yu Liang had demoted the Prince of Yiyang, Sima Yang. At this time, Sima Yang came to visit Su Jun, praising and extolling Su Jun's accomplishments. So Su Jun restored Sima Yang's former title as Prince of Xiyang, and appointed him as Grand Governor with control of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

〈不在見赦之例。〉〈羕降爵見上卷咸和元年。〉

(Yu Liang and his brothers were excluded from the amnesty.

Sima Yang's demotion and loss of his positions are mentioned in Book 93, in the first year of Xianhe (326.12).)


丁巳,峻矯詔大赦,又以祖約爲侍中、太尉、尚書令,自爲驃騎將軍、錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Dingsi (March 5th), Su Jun forged an edict granting a general amnesty, and he appointed Zu Yue as Palace Attendant, Grand Commandant, and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, while appointing himself as General of Chariots and Cavalry and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.


峻遣兵攻吳國內史庾冰,冰不能禦,棄郡奔會稽,至浙江,峻購之甚急。吳鈴下卒引冰入船,以X蒢覆之,吟嘯鼓X,泝流而去。每逢邏所,輒以杖叩船曰:「何處覓庾冰,庾冰正在此。」人以爲醉,不疑之,冰僅免。峻以侍中蔡謨爲吳國內史。

12. Su Jun sent troops to attack the Interior Minister of the Wu princely fief, Yu Bing. Since Yu Bing could not resist them, he abandoned the commandary and fled to Kuaiji. By the time he reached Zhejiang, Su Jun had put out a heavy bounty on his head. One of his attendant soldiers from Wu brought him into a boat and covered him under reed mats and hedysarum. Then they would chant and sing while rapping their oars, sailing along as they went. Whenever they reached a checkpoint at a crossing, they would always beat the boat with their sticks and boast, "Who's looking for Yu Bing? I got him right here!" The soldiers at the checkpoints believed the attendant were drunk, so they did not suspect anything. Yu Bing thus narrowly escaped with his life.

Su Jun appointed the Palace Attendant, Cai Mo, as the new Interior Minister of Wu.

〈時以吳郡爲吳國,太守爲內史。〉〈《說文》曰:X篨,竹席也。余謂從「艸」者,今蘆䕠也。楫謂之X。逆流曰泝。〉〈邏所,謂津要置邏卒之所。〉

(At this time, Wu had been changed from a commandary to a princely fief, so the Administrator was now an Interior Minister.

Regarding the term X [not possible to display in this format], the Shuowen dictionary states, "The X mat is a mat made of bamboo." But I, Hu Sanxing, reckon that since the grass radical is part of this character, it would be what we now call a reed mat.

The term X [as above] refers to oars. To push against the current is to row.

The checkpoints were crossing places where soldiers were stationed.)


吳郡太守庾冰奔于會稽。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The Administrator of Wu commandary, Yu Bing, fled to Kuaiji.

蘇峻亂,諸庾逃散。庾冰時為吳郡,單身奔亡,民吏皆去。唯郡卒獨以小船載冰出錢塘口,蘧篨覆之。時峻賞募覓冰,屬所在搜檢甚急。卒捨船市渚,因飲酒醉還,舞棹向船曰:「何處覓庾吳郡?此中便是。」冰大惶怖,然不敢動。監司見船小裝狹,謂卒狂醉,都不復疑。自送過淛江,寄山陰魏家,得免。後事平,冰欲報卒,適其所願。卒曰:「出自廝下,不願名器。少苦執鞭,恆患不得快飲酒。使其酒足餘年畢矣,無所復須。」冰為起大舍,市奴婢,使門內有百斛酒,終其身。時謂此卒非唯有智,且亦達生。(New Tales of the World 23.30)

At the time of Su Jun's rebellion, all the members of the Yu family scattered and fled. Yu Bing, who at the time was serving as Administrator of Wu commandary, made his escape alone; all his underlings had deserted him. A lone runner of the commandary office single-handidly took Yu Bing in a small boat out through the mouth of the Qiantang River, concealing him under some coarse bamboo matting. At the time Su Jun was offering a reward and had instituted a manhunt for Yu Bing, and his orders for the search and investigation of every place where he might be staying were extremely urgent. The runner, leaving the boat moored at a market wharf, had gone ashore for a drink, and came back drunk. Waving his oar in the direction of the boat he said to one of the investigators, "Ya lookin' for Yu Bing? He's right in here!"

Yu Bing was filled with great fear and panic, but dared not move. When the investigator saw how small the boat was, and how narrow its capacity, he figured the runner was just raving drunk, and never gave it another thought. Instead he personally escorted the boat to the opposite shore of the Zhe River, where Yu Bing took refuge with the Wei family of Shanyin and so managed to escape.

Later, after the rebellion had been put down, Yu Bing wanted to requite the runner and offered him whatever his heart desired. The man said, "My origins being as humble as they are, I don't want either fame or rank. Ever since I was young I've worked hard at menial jobs like wielding the whips as a charioteer, and I've always felt that I wasn't able to drink to my heart's content. If I could just have enough wine to last the rest of my life, I wouldn't need another thing!"

Yu Bing built a large house for him, purchased male and famel slaves, and made sure there were a hundred hu of wine on the premises to last til the end of his life. Contemporaries said that the runner not only had wisdom; he had "mastered the meaning of life". (tr. Richard Mather)


溫嶠聞建康不守,號慟;人有候之者,悲哭相對。庾亮至尋陽宣太后詔,以嶠爲驃騎將軍、開府儀同三司,又加徐州刺史郗鑒司空。嶠曰:「今日當以滅賊爲急,未有功而先拜官,將何以示天下!」遂不受。嶠素重亮,亮雖奔敗,嶠愈推奉之,分兵給亮。

13. When Wen Jiao heard that Jiankang had fallen, he was struck by grief. Whenever someone came to see him, both of them were soon moved to tears.

Yu Liang arrived at Xunyang. He showed Wen Jiao an edict from the Empress Dowager, appointing Wen Jiao as General of Agile Cavalry and granting him the privelage of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. The Inspector of Xuzhou, Chi Jian, was also promoted to Minister of Works. But Wen Jiao replied, "I should be devoting all my current efforts to the destruction of the rebels. If I were to accept these offices before having achieved that, how could I explain myself to the realm?" So he would not accept the promotions.

Wen Jiao had long respected Yu Liang, and although Yu Liang had now fled to him after having just suffered defeat, Wen Jiao still encouraged and supported him, and he gave some of his own troops to Yu Liang.

三月,丙子,庾太后以憂崩。

14. In the third month, on the day Bingzi (?), Empress Dowager Yu passed away from sorrow.

三月丙子,皇太后庾氏崩。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third month, on the day Bingzi (?), Empress Dowager Yu passed away.


蘇峻南屯于湖。

15. Su Jun marched his soldiers south to camp at Yuhu.

夏,四月,後趙將石堪攻宛,南陽太守王國降之;遂進攻祖約軍于淮上。約將陳光起兵攻約,約左右閻禿,貌類約,光謂爲約而擒之,約踰垣獲免。光奔後趙。

16. In summer, the fourth month, the Later Zhao general Shi Kan attacked Jin's city of Wan. The Administrator of Nanyang, Wang Guo, surrendered the commandary to him.

Shi Kan then advanced and attacked Zu Yue's army at Huaishang. Zu Yue's general Chen Guang rose up with soldiers and attacked Zu Yue. One of Zu Yue's attendants, Yan Tu, strongly resembled him, and Chen Guang captured him after claiming that he was Zu Yue. Zu Yue himself slipped over the walls of the city and made his escape. Chen Guang fled to Later Zhao.

夏四月,石勒攻宛,南陽太守王國叛,降於勒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, Shi Le attacked Wan. The Administrator of Nanyang, Wang Guo, rebelled and surrendered the commandary to him.


壬申,葬明穆皇后于武平陵。

17. On the day Renshen (May 19th), Empress Mingmu ("the Wise and Solemn"; Empress Dowager Yu) was buried at Wuping Mound.

壬申,葬明穆皇后于武平陵。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Renshen (May 19th), Empress Mingmu ("the Wise and Solemn"; Empress Dowager Yu) was buried at Wuping Mound.


庾亮、溫嶠將起兵討蘇峻,而道路斷絕,不知建康聲聞。會南陽范汪至尋陽,言「峻政令不壹,貪暴縱橫,滅亡已兆,雖強易弱,朝廷有倒懸之急,宜時進討。」嶠深納之。亮辟汪參護軍事。

18. Yu Liang and Wen Jiao were about to ready their soldiers to march against Su Jun. But the roads were all cut off, and they could get no news of what was going on in Jiankang. Soon, a certain Fan Wang of Nanyang arrived at Xunyang, and he told them, "Su Jun is not uniform in his decrees, and his greed is insatiable and unrestrained. His downfall is only a matter of time. Although he is strong now, he can easily be made weak. The court is in dire straits indeed. Now is the time to march against him." Wen Jiao deeply appreciated Fan Wang's advice, and Yu Liang recruited him as an advisor on army affairs.

亮、嶠互相推爲盟主;嶠從弟充曰:「陶征西位重兵強,宜共推之。」嶠乃遣督護王愆期詣荊州,邀陶侃與之同赴國難。侃猶以不豫顧命爲恨,答曰:「吾疆埸外將,不敢越局。」嶠屢說,不能回;乃順侃意,遣使謂之曰:「仁公且守,僕當先下。」使者去已二日,平南參軍滎陽毛寶別使還,聞之,說嶠曰:「凡舉大事,當與天下共之。師克在和,不宜異同。假令可疑,猶當外示不覺,況自爲攜貳邪!宜急追信改書,言必應俱進;若不及前信,當更遣使。」嶠意悟,卽追使者改書;侃果許之,遣督護龔登帥兵詣嶠。嶠有衆七千,於是列上尚書,陳祖約、蘇峻罪狀,移告征鎭,灑泣登舟。

19. Yu Liang and Wen Jiao were urging each other to serve as leader of their combined forces. Then Wen Jiao's younger cousin Wen Chong said, "Doesn't the General Who Conquers The West, Tao Kan, have a high position and a strong army at hand? You should both acclaim him to be our leader."

So Wen Jiao sent the Protector, Wang Qian to visit Tao Kan in Jingzhou, bearing a proclamation that Tao Kan should join them in facing the troubles of the state. But Tao Kan was still resentful and not inclined to heed the order, and he replied, "I am a general who has been assigned to guard the border, and I dare not involve myself in internal affairs."

Wen Jiao kept trying to order Tao Kan to come, but to no avail. Then, seeking to appeal to Tao Kan, Wen Jiao sent him a messenger with a letter to say, "Esteemed Sir, if you might join our endeavor for a time, I shall serve under you."

After the messenger had been gone for two days, Wen Jiao's Army Advisor, Mao Bao of Xingyang, encountered the messenger on the road. When he heard of what Wen Jiao was planning, he told him, "Whenever undertaking great affairs, the whole realm must act in one accord. As it is said, 'an army conquers by its harmony'. There must be no disputes between us. Even if you do have some suspicions, you must not let them show, especially not by sending such a half-hearted message as this one! You should overtake that messenger at once and change the letter, saying that we will certainly all advance together as one. And if you cannot recall the letter in time, then send another messenger."

Wen Jiao realized that Mao Bao was right, and so he pursued the messenger and changed the letter. Tao Kan indeed accepted his new request, and sent his Protector, Gong Deng, to lead troops to join Wen Jiao.

Wen Jiao had seven thousand soldiers at this point. He composed an edict letter in the style of the Masters of Writing under the names of himself and his two fellows, listing the crimes and offenses of Zu Yue and Su Jun, and sending word to all the border commanders, tearfully imploring them to help the state.

〈《考異》曰:《晉春秋》作「從兄」,今從《晉書‧嶠傳》。〉〈侃時爲征西大將軍、都督荊‧湘‧雍‧梁,專制上流。〉〈事見上卷咸和元年。〉〈謂內輔外禦,各有局分,不敢踰越也。〉〈漢、魏以來,率呼宰輔、岳牧爲明公;今嶠呼侃爲仁公,蓋取天下歸仁之義,言晉之征、鎭皆歸重於侃也。〉〈嶠爲平南將軍,以寶爲參軍。〉〈《左傳》:楚鬬廉曰:師克在和,不在衆也。〉〈信,卽使也。〉〈以侃爲盟主,與亮、嶠列名上之尚書。〉

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "Regarding Wen Jiao's cousin Wen Chong, the Annals of Jin states that he was Wen Jiao's 'elder cousin'. But I follow the account of the Biography of Wen Jiao in the Book of Jin by calling him a younger cousin."

Tao Kan felt he had been slighted by Yu Liang, as mentioned in Book 93, in the first year of Xianhe (326.9).

Tao Kan's objection was that it was the duty of those at the capital to govern the state and those on the borders to defend it; each of them having their own roles, he did not presume to overstep his authority by intervening in an internal affair.

Ever since Han and Cao-Wei, it had been the custom to address chief ministers of state and chief border commanders as 明公. But in this letter and the below one, Wen Jiao addresses Tao Kan as 仁公; by doing so, he means to say that the whole realm esteems Tao Kan for his righteousness, and places him above all the other border commanders of Jin.

The Zuo Commentary states, "Dou Lian of the state of Chu said, 'An army conquers by its harmony, not by its numbers.' (Huan 11.1)"

Mao Bao refers to Wen Jiao's messenger whenever he mentions his "letter".

Wen Jiao listed Tao Kan as the leader of the alliance, with his and Yu Liang's names listed below, in his letter to the Masters of Writing.)


陶侃復追龔登還。嶠遺侃書曰:「夫軍有進而無退,可增而不可減。近已移檄遠近,言於盟府,刻後月半大舉,諸郡軍並在路次,惟須仁公軍至,便齊進耳。仁公今召軍還,疑惑遠近,成敗之由,將在於此。僕才輕任重,實憑仁公篤愛,遠稟成規;至於首啓戎行,不敢有辭,僕與仁公,如藐尾相衞,脣齒相依也。恐或者不達高旨,將謂仁公緩於討賊,此聲難追。僕與仁公並受方嶽之任,安危休戚,理旣同之。且自頃之顧,綢繆往來,情深義重,一旦有急,亦望仁公悉衆見救,況社稷之難乎!今日之憂,豈惟僕一州,文武莫不翹首企。假令此州不守,約、峻樹置官長於此,荊、楚西逼強胡,東接逆賊,因之以饑饉,將來之危,乃當甚於此州之今日也。仁公進當爲大晉之忠臣,參桓、文之功;退當以慈父之情,雪愛子之痛。今約、峻凶逆無道,痛感天地,人心齊壹,咸皆切齒。今之進討,若以石投卵耳;苟復召兵還,是爲敗於幾成也。願深察所陳!」王愆期謂侃曰:「蘇峻,豺狼也,如得遂志,四海雖廣,公寧有容足之地乎!」侃深感悟,卽戎服登舟。X喪至不臨,晝夜兼道而進。

20. Tao Kan ordered Gong Deng to bring his soldiers back. Wen Jiao now wrote Tao Kan another letter, stating, "An army may advance, but it may not retreat; it may grow larger, it cannot grow smaller. Proclamations have already been sent out near and far, announcing you as the leader of our alliance. The date for the great undertaking has been set for half a month hence, and the armies of the various commandaries are all already on the road. We are only awaiting the arrival of your own army, Esteemed Sir, in order to begin our general advance. Yet now you recall your soldiers. By doing so, you are spreading doubt and uncertainty to every corner. The seeds of our ultimate defeat are being sown by this very act.

“Though I possess but slight talents, I have been entrusted with a great responsibility. Greatly dependant am I upon your earnest sincerity in order to set all the distant places to rights. When your war chariot 'leads the way in front', no one will dare to speak against you. When we are together, we shall be as tails that guard one another, as the lips and teeth which protect one another.

“But I fear there are some who do not grasp your lofty purpose, and so they urge you to delay your campaign against the rebels. It shall be difficult for me to follow after such advice. Yet we have both been entrusted with great border commands, and it is only natural that whether we experience peace or danger, weal or woe, we will face it together. Furthermore, when one considers all that has already been expended, and the attachments that have been developed, the beliefs in the depths of your righteousness run deep. Esteemed Sir, people look to your forces to come to the rescue even when there is a passing danger, much less when the very fortunes of state are in peril!

“The difficulties which we now face cannot be overcome by my province alone; there is not one civil or military official who is not raising their head and standing on tiptoe to watch for your arrival. If it should happen that this province cannot be held, then Zu Yue and Su Jun will extend the roots of their rebellion and place their own minions even at your own doorstep. Then your region of Jing and Chu would be threatened by strong barbarians to the west and menaced by rebels and traitors to the east. When hunger and famine appear, and danger is close at hand, your own province will face much greater danger than this one does today.

“Esteemed Sir, if you advance now then you act as a loyal servant of Jin, and you emulate the great deeds of Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin; if you withdraw now then you shame the affections of a father and besmirch the pain of your beloved son.

“Zu Yue and Su Jun are wild traitors without principle, a festering sickness against Heaven and Earth, and the people join as one in gnashing their teeth against them. If you advance and campaign against them, you will destroy them as easily as casting a stone against an egg. Only through your withdrawal of your soldiers will you give them opportunity to defeat us. I implore you to consider carefully the things I have told you!"

And Wang Qian took the opportunity to tell Tao Kan, "Su Jun is a cruel wolf; if he attains his ambition now, no matter how wide the world within the Four Seas may be, what place will there be left for you?"

Tao Kan realized the truth of all these things. So he put on martial attire and set out. Though he was still in mourning for his son Tao Zhan, he marched all through the night along every road to join Wen Jiao.

〈盟府,謂侃府也;侃爲盟主,故稱爲盟府。〉〈《詩》:元戎十乘,以先啓行。〉〈繆,纏綿也。〉〈言翹首企足以望侃兵之來。〉〈此,謂江州也。〉〈謂侃子X爲峻所殺。〉

(Wen Jiao refers to Tao Kan at one point as 盟府, by which he more particularly means Tao Kan's staff. Since Tao Kan was the leader of the alliance, he was addressed as "alliance leader".

The Book of Poetry has the verse, "Ten large war chariots led the way in front (Liu Yue 4)."

The term 綢繆 means lingering affections or attachments.

Wen Jiao was saying that people were craning their necks and standing on their toes hoping to see Tao Kan's soldiers coming.

By "this province" and such, Wen Jiao refers to his own province of Jiangzhou.

Wen Jiao refers to Tao Kan's son Tao Zhan, who had been killed by Su Jun's forces during the fighting at Jiankang, as mentioned above (6).)


郗鑒在廣陵,城孤糧少,逼近胡寇,人無固志。得詔書,卽流涕誓衆,入赴國難,將士爭奮。遣將軍夏侯長等間行謂溫嶠曰:「或聞賊欲挾天子東入會稽,當先立營壘,屯據要害,旣防其越逸,又斷賊糧運,然後清野堅壁以待賊。賊攻城不拔,野無所掠,東道旣斷,糧運自絕,必自潰矣。」嶠深以爲然。

21. The Jin loyalist general Chi Jian was at Guangling. That city was isolated, and its supplies had run low; it was sorely threatened by the barbarians close at hand to the north, and the people there had no heart for maintaining its defense. So when Chi Jian received the edict letter, he tearfully swore an oath before his soldiers to march to the aid of the state, and his generals and soldiers all competed with each other to exert themselves.

Chi Jian sent some of his generals, Xiahou Chang and others, to go on ahead by back roads to visit Wen Jiao and pass on a message. They told him, "There have been rumors that the rebels want to compel the Son of Heaven to go with them east into Kuaiji. The first thing we ought to do is to set up camps and barricades and occupy all the critical and strategic positions, so that we can contain the rebels and prevent them from escaping. This will also cut off their shipments of grain.

"Then we should scorch the earth and remain behind sturdy defenses to await the enemy. If they attack our fortifications, they will not be able to capture them, and if they try to forage in the fields, they will not be able to find any food to plunder. With their road to the east cut off, and their grain shipments halted, they will definitely fall to pieces."

Wen Jiao deeply appreciated this advice.

〈晉都建康,糧運皆仰三吳,故欲先斷東道。王敦、蘇峻之亂,匡復之謀,郗鑒爲多。〉

(The Eastern Jin capital at Jiankang was kept supplied by grain from the region of the Three Wus: the three commandaries of Wu, Wuxing, and Kuaiji to the east. This was why Chi Jian proposed this strategy of cutting off their access to the east. Chi Jian provided many such plans for rectifying and recovering the state during the rebellions of Wang Dun and Su Jun.)


五月,陶侃率衆至尋陽。議者咸謂侃欲誅庾亮以謝天下;亮甚懼,用溫嶠計,詣侃拜謝。侃驚,止之曰:「庾元規乃拜陶士行邪!」亮引咎自責,風止可觀,侃不覺釋然,曰:「君侯脩石頭以擬老子,今日反見求邪!」卽與之談宴終日,遂與亮、嶠同趣建康。戎卒四萬,旌旗七百餘里,鉦鼓之聲,震於遠近。

22. In the fifth month, Tao Kan arrived at Xunyang with his army.

There were many people who had been predicting that Tao Kan would execute Yu Liang when he arrived, in order to make amends to the realm for everything that Yu Liang had done. Yu Liang himself was exceedingly afraid of this possibility. So, following Wen Jiao's suggestion, Yu Liang went to visit Tao Kan when he arrived, where he made obeisance before Tao Kan and begged his forgiveness. Tao Kan was quite alarmed to see this, and he stopped Yu Liang, telling him, "Why should Yu Yuangui bow before Tao Shixing?" Yu Liang acknowledged all the mistakes he had made and blamed himself for what had happened, and his bearing and demeanor were quite remarkable. Tao Kan became relieved without even realizing it, and he only said, "Sir, it was not so long ago that you were reinforcing the Shitou fortress to guard against me, yet now here you are coming to see me and begging for my help!" The two of them talked and feasted all through the day.

The loyalists under Tao Kan, Yu Liang, and Wen Jiao began their grand advance against Jiankang. The combined army had forty thousand soldiers, and their banners and flags stretched for more than seven hundred li. The rolls of their drums shook the land near and far.

〈陶侃,字士行。〉〈見上卷咸和元年。〉

(Tao Kan's style name was Shixing.

Yu Liang's restoring of the Shitou fortress is mentioned in Book 93, in the first year of Xianhe (326.9).)


陶公自上流來,赴蘇峻之難,令誅庾公。謂必戮庾,可以謝峻。庾欲奔竄,則不可;欲會,恐見執,進退無計。溫公勸庾詣陶,曰:「卿但遙拜,必無它。我為卿保之。」庾從溫言詣陶。至,便拜。陶自起止之,曰:「庾元規何緣拜陶士衡?」畢,又降就下坐。陶又自要起同坐。坐定,庾乃引咎責躬,深相遜謝。陶不覺釋然。(New Tales of the World 27.8)

Tao Kan, having come down from the upper reaches of the Yangzi to the aid of the capital during the troubles over Su Jun, ordered the execution of Yu Liang, saying, "It's necessary to sacrifice Yu Liang in order to mollify Su Jun."

If Yu Liang had wanted to take refuge or hide somewhere it would have been impossible, or if he had wanted to meet Tao Kan face to face, he was afraid he would be apprehended, and he was in a quandry whether to go forward or backward. Wen Jiao urged Yu Liang to go and visit Tao Kan, saying, "Just prostrate yourself before him from a distance, and nothing further will come of it; I guarantee it for you."

Yu Liang followed Wen Jiao's advice and went to see Tao Kan. As soon as he arrived he prostrated himself. Tao Kan himself got to his feet and stopped him, saying, "For what reason is Yu Yuangui prostrating himself before Tao Shixing?"

When Yu Liang had finished he again made his way down to the lowest seat. Again Tao Kan himself demanded that he come up and sit with him. After he was seated, Yu Liang finally confessed his faults and blamed himself and made his profound apologies. Quite unconsciously Tao Kan found himself becoming generous and forgiving. (tr. Richard Mather)


蘇峻聞西方兵起,用參軍賈寧計,自姑孰還據石頭,分兵以拒侃等。

23. When Su Jun heard that soldiers were rising up against him in the west, he followed the advice of his Army Advisor, Jia Ning, and marched back from Gushu to defend Shitou. He also split off detachments of his forces to guard against Tao Kan and the others.

乙未,峻逼遷帝於石頭,司徒導固爭,不從。帝哀泣升車,宮中慟哭。時天大雨,道路泥濘,劉超、鍾雅步侍左右,峻給馬,不肯乘,而悲哀慷慨。峻聞而惡之,然未敢殺也。以其親信許方等補司馬督、殿中監,外託宿衞,內實防禦超等。峻以倉屋爲帝宮,日來帝前肆醜言。劉超、鍾雅與右光祿大夫荀崧、金紫光祿大夫華恆、尚書荀邃、侍中丁潭侍從,不離帝側。時饑饉米貴,峻問遺,超一無所受。繾綣朝夕,臣節愈恭;雖居幽厄之中,超猶啓帝,授《孝經》、《論語》。

24. On the day Yiwei (June 11th), Su Jun forced Emperor Cheng to join him at Shitou. Wang Dao strenuously objected, but to no avail. Emperor Cheng cried and wailed as he got into his carriage, and the palace was filled with grief and sorrow.

At that time, there was a great storm, and the roads were choked with mud and mire. Even so, Liu Chao and Zhong Ya walked on foot as they accompanied the imperial procession. Su Jun offered them horses, but they refused to ride, and they maintained impassioned expressions of mourning. Su Jun was vexed when he heard about it, but he did not yet dare to kill them. But he did appoint some of his close companions, Xu Fang and others, to fill the vacant posts of Director of Marshals and Leader of the Palace Guards. Ostensibly this was to provide protection, but really it was to guard against anything Liu Chao and the others might attempt.

Su Jun converted the grain storehouse into a makeshift palace for Emperor Cheng, and as the days went on, he spoke to Emperor Cheng with less and less restraint. There were several ministers who remained with Emperor Cheng and never left his side: Liu Chao and Zhong Ya, the Household Counsellor With Golden Tassel of the Right, Xun Song, the Household Counsellor With Gold And Purple Tassels, Hua Heng, the Master of Writing, Xun Sui, and the Palace Attendant, Ding Tan. When hunger and famine began to spread, and the cost of rice became very dear, Su Jun offered to supply Emperor Cheng with some, but Liu Chao would not accept a single grain.

Liu Chao remained deeply attached to Emperor Cheng, staying with him day and night, and he only became all the more reverent in his conduct towards Emperor Cheng as befit a minister to his sovereign. Though they were secluded in the midst of adversity, Liu Chao remained by his side, instructing him from the Classic of Filial Piety and from the Analects.

〈濘,淖也。〉〈左、右光祿大夫,金章紫綬;光祿大夫,銀章青綬;加金章紫綬者,謂之金紫光祿大夫。〉〈繾綣,反覆不相離也。孔穎達曰:繾綣,牢固相著之意。《左傳》曰:繾綣從公,毋通內外。〉

(The term 濘 here means "mire".

The Household Counselors With Golden Tassels of the Left and Right had golden seals and purple ribbons; the unqualified Household Counselor With Golden Tassel had silver seals and green ribbons. So the calling of this office "Household Counsellor With Gold And Purple Tassels" in this passage indicated that he additionally had golden seals and purple ribbons.

The term 繾綣 means something that does not come apart even when pushed over. Kong Yingda remarked, "繾綣 means something that is durable, resilient, and joined together well." The Zuo Commentary states, "We will follow the duke and 繾綣 [not separate ourselves from] him, nor will we allow any communication between us here abroad and those who are here with us (Zhao 25.6).")


五月乙未,峻逼遷天子于石頭,帝哀泣升車,宮中慟哭。峻以倉屋爲宮。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fifth month, on the day Yiwei (June 11th), Su Jun forced Emperor Cheng to join him at Shitou. Emperor Cheng cried and wailed as he got into his carriage, and the palace was filled with grief and sorrow.

Su Jun converted the grain storehouse into a makeshift palace for Emperor Cheng.


峻使左光祿大夫陸曄守留臺,逼迫居民,盡聚之後苑;使匡術守苑城。

25. Su Jun ordered the Household Counselor of the Left, Lu Ye, to guard the remaining administrative places in the capital. He compelled all the people living there to all gather together in the rear gardens. Su Jun also sent Kuang Shu to guard Yuancheng.

尚書左丞孔坦奔陶侃,侃以爲長史。

26. Kong Tan fled to Tao Kan, who appointed him as his Chief Clerk.

初,蘇峻遣尚書張闓權督東軍,司徒導密令以太后詔諭三吳吏士,使起義兵救天子。會稽內史王舒以庾冰行奮武將軍,使將兵一萬,西渡浙江;於是吳興太守虞潭、吳國內史蔡謨、前義興太守顧衆等皆舉兵應之。潭母孫氏謂潭曰:「汝當捨生取義,勿以吾老爲累!」盡遣其家僮從軍,鬻其環珮以爲軍資。謨以庾冰當還舊任,卽去郡以讓冰。

27. Earlier, Su Jun had sent the Master of Writing, Zhang Kai, to take command of all the Jin forces in the eastern regions.

But Wang Dao had secretly distributed orders among the officials of the Three Wu regions, instructing them in the name of the Empress Dowager to rise up with their soldiers and rescue the Son of Heaven. The Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Wang Shu, appointed Yu Bing as acting General Who Asserts Valor, and placed him in command of an army of ten thousand soldiers, sending him west to cross over at Zhejiang. The Administrator of Wuxing, Yu Tan, the Interior Minister of the Wu princely fief, Cai Mo, the former Administrator of Yixing, Gu Zhong, and other local leaders each raised their own forces to join the loyalist cause.

Yu Tan's mother, Lady Sun, said to him, "You must devote your life to avenge this injustice; don't lose any sleep on account of your old mother!" She sent all the male servants of their household off to join the ranks of the army, and sold off all her baubles and ornaments for funds to sustain the war effort.

Cai Mo felt that Yu Bing should have his old position back as Interior Minister of Wu, so he left the commandary to make way for Yu Bing.

〈漢置吳郡;吳分吳郡置吳興郡;晉又分吳興、丹楊置義興郡,是爲三吳。酈道元曰:世謂吳郡、吳興、會稽爲三吳。杜佑曰:晉、宋之間,以吳郡、吳興、丹楊爲三吳。〉

(Han had originally created the single Wu commandary. Eastern Wu had split this commandary and formed Wuxing commandary as well. Jin further split off parts of Wuxing and Danyang commandaries to form Yixing commandary. These were the Three Wu. But note that Li Daoyuan remarked, "Tradition has it that the three commandaries of Wu, Wuxing, and Kuaiji formed the Three Wu." And Du You remarked, "During the era of Jin and Liu-Song, the three commandaries of Wu, Wuxing, and Danyang were the Three Wu.")


蘇峻聞東方兵起,遣其將管商、張健、弘徽等拒之;虞潭等與戰,互有勝負,未能得前。

28. When Su Jun heard that troops were now rising up against him in the east as well, he sent his generals Guang Shang, Zhang Jian, Hong Hui, and others to oppose them. Yu Tan and the other loyalists fought several battles with them, but each side had their share of victories and defeats, and neither could make any headway.

遣管商、張X、弘徽寇晉陵,韓晃寇義興。吳興太守虞潭與庚冰、王舒等起義兵于三吳。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Su Jun sent Guan Shang, Zhang Jin, and Hong Hui to invade Jinling, while sending Han Huang to invade Yixing. The Administrator of Wuxing, Yu Tan, joined with Yu Bing, Wang Shu, and others in raising loyalist troops in the Three Wu regions against Su Jun.


陶侃、溫嶠軍于茄子浦;嶠以南兵習水,蘇峻兵便步,令:「將士有上岸者死!」會峻送米萬斛饋祖約,約遣司馬桓撫等迎之。毛寶帥千人爲嶠前鋒,告其衆曰:「兵法,『軍令有所不從』,豈可視賊可擊,不上岸擊之邪!」乃擅往襲撫,悉獲其米,斬獲萬計,約由是飢乏。嶠表寶爲廬江太守。

29. The armies of Tao Kan and Wen Jiao arrived at the Qiezi Rivermouth.

Since Wen Jiao felt that the southern soldiers had the advantage in naval fighting while Su Jun's men were more skilled on foot, he issued an order stating, "Any general or soldier who goes onto the riverbank shall die!"

But it happened that at that time, Su Jun was sending a rice shipment of ten thousand 斛 to supply Zu Yue. Zu Yue had sent his Marshal, Huan Fu, and others to meet the shipment and escort it. Mao Bao was in charge of a thousand soldiers, serving as Wen Jiao's vanguard. He told his soldiers, "Even the Art of War states that 'some military directives may be disregarded'. When we can see the enemy exposed to attack right in front of us, how can we not go up the riverbank?" So, acting without orders, he led an attack against Huan Fu. He captured the whole shipment of rice, and killed or captured about ten thousand enemies. Zu Yue was thus left starving and weak.

Wen Jiao petitioned to have Mao Bao appointed as Administrator of Lujiang.

〈南兵,謂侃、嶠之兵。便步,謂便於步戰。〉

(This passage identifies the "southern soldiers"; it means the soldiers of Tao Kan and Wen Jiao. And by the term "more skilled on foot", it means better at fighting on land.)


陶侃表王舒監浙東軍事,虞潭監浙西軍事,郗鋻都督揚州八郡諸軍事;令舒、潭皆受鑒節度。鑒帥衆渡江,與侃等會于茄子浦,雍州刺史魏該亦以兵會之。

30. Tao Kan petitioned to have Wang Shu appointed as Chief of military affairs east of the Zhe River, Yu Tan appointed as Chief west of the Zhe River, and Chi Jian appointed as Commander of military affairs for the eight commandaries of Yangzhou. He ordered Wang Shu and Yu Tan to defer to Chi Jian's overall authority. Chi Jian led the eastern forces to cross the Yangzi, and they joined with the forces of Tao Kan and the others at the Qiezi Rivermouth.

The Inspector of Yongzhou, Wei Gai, also led his soldiers to join them.

〈《類篇》:茄,菜名,子可食。茄葉似蒿蓼葉而青,子熟於夏秋之間,大如秤棰,有紫色者,有白色者,及其熟也,色正黃。蓋其地宜茄子,人多於此樹藝,因以名浦。〉

(Regarding the name of Qiezi, the Leipian states, "Qiezi 'eggplant' is the name of a plant which children eat. The leaves of this plant resemble those of sagebrush or knotwood, although they are green. Children cook them during the summer and autumn. They grow as large as a xylocarpa. Some are purple and some white, but when cooked, they turn a deep yellow color." So this place must have had these plants, with many people skilled at cultivating them, thus the name of the location.)


丙辰[午],侃等舟師直指石頭,至于蔡洲;侃屯查浦,嶠屯沙門浦。峻登烽火樓,望見士衆之盛,有懼色,謂左右曰:「吾本知溫嶠能得衆也。」

31. On the day Bingchen (?) [probably Bingwu, June 22nd], Tao Kan and the others led their forces by boat straight towards Shitou, arriving at Cai Islet. Tao Kan posted his troops at Cha Rivermouth, while Wen Jiao posted his at Shamen Rivermouth.

Su Jun climbed a signal tower and looked out over the mass of troops that had come to fight him. Looking frightened, he told those who were with him, "I always knew that Wen Jiao could assemble such a host."

〈蔡洲,在石頭西岸;查浦,在大江南岸,直秦淮口。〉

(Cai Islet was on the west bank at Shitou; Cha Rivermouth was on the south bank of the Yangzi, at the mouth of the Qinhuai River.)


丙午,征西大將軍陶侃、平南將軍溫嶠、護軍將軍庾亮、平北將軍魏該舟軍四萬,次于蔡洲。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Bingwu (June 22nd), the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Tao Kan, the General Who Pacifies The South, Wen Jiao, the General Who Protects The Army, Yu Liang, and the General Who Pacifies The North, Wei Gai, arrived at Cai Islet at the head of a naval force of forty thousand.


庾亮遣督護王彰擊峻黨張曜,反爲所敗。亮送節傳以謝侃。侃答曰:「古人三敗,君侯始二;當今事急,不宜數爾。」亮司馬陳郡殷融詣侃謝曰:「將軍爲此,非融等所裁。」王彰至曰:「彰自爲之,將軍不知也。」侃曰:「昔殷融爲君子,王彰爲小人;今王彰爲君子,殷融爲小人。」

32. Yu Liang sent his Protector, Wang Zhang, to attack Su Jun's partisan Zhang Yao. However, Wang Zhang was defeated. Yu Liang sent his staff of authority and seal of office to Tao Kan as tokens of apology for this failure. Tao Kan replied to him, "Sir, the ancients endured three defeats; you have only suffered two. Go and redouble your efforts, and no more of this business."

Yu Liang's Marshal, Yin Rong of Chen commandary, visited Tao Kan to apologize. He said, "This was the General's fault, not mine or the others'."

When Wang Zhang arrived, he said, "I myself am to blame; the General knew nothing of it."

Tao Kan declared, "It used to be that Yin Rong was the worthy fellow while Wang Zhang was the miscreant. But now, Wang Zhang has become worthy, and it is Yin Rong who acts meanly."

〈謂魯將曹沫也。〉〈言不宜數數如此。〉

(Tao Kan refers to the general Cao Mo of the ancient state of Lu, who suffered three defeats.

Tao Kan meant that Yu Liang should not keep doing such things like this.)


宣城內史桓彝,聞京城不守,慷慨流涕,進屯涇縣。時州郡多遣使降蘇峻,裨惠復勸彝宜且與通使,以紓交至之禍。彝曰:「吾受國厚恩,義在致死,焉能忍恥與逆臣通問!如其不濟,此則命也。」彝遣將軍俞縱守蘭石,峻遣其將韓晃攻之。縱將敗,左右勸縱退軍。縱曰:「吾受桓侯厚恩,當以死報。吾之不可負桓侯,猶桓侯之不負國也。」遂力戰而死。晃進軍攻彝,六月,城陷,執彝,殺之。

33. When the Interior Minister of Xuancheng, Huan Yi, heard that Jiankang had fallen to the rebels, he was stricked by grief and moved to tears. He advanced his forces into Jing County. At that time, many of the provinces and commandaries had already sent messengers to Su Jun surrendering to him. Bi Hui urged Huan Yi to begin talks with Su Jun as well, if only just to stave off disaster by being surrounded. But Huan Yi replied, "I have received the bountiful favor of the state, and it would be righteousess for me to die on its behalf. How could I bear the shame of holding talks with traitorous ministers? If it means that I perish, such is my fate."

Huan Yi sent his general Yu Zong to guard Lanshi; Su Jun sent his general Han Huang to attack him. Yu Zong was about to be defeated, and those with him urged him to retreat. But Yu Zong replied, "I have received much favor from Marquis Huan, and I shall repay him by dying on his behalf. I cannot abandon Marquis Huan, no more than he can abandon the state." So he fought on and died in battle.

Han Huang's army then advanced to attack Huan Yi. In the sixth month, Han Huang captured his city, took Huan Yi prisoner, and killed him.

〈彝自廣德進屯涇縣。〉〈紓,緩也。交至之禍,言州郡多降,峻兵將四合而交至也。〉〈蘭石,在涇縣東北。〉

(Huan Yi advanced from Guangde to camp at Jing County.

The term 紓 here means "delay". By "being surrounded", it means that with so many provinces and commandaries surrendering to the rebels, Su Jun would be able to march against Huan Yi from every side.

Lanshi was northeast of Jing County.)


六月,韓晃攻宣城,內史桓彝力戰,死之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the sixth month, Han Huang attacked Xuancheng. The Interior Minister, Huan Yi, fought back with all his strength and died in battle.


諸軍初至石頭,卽欲決戰,陶侃曰:「賊衆方盛,難與爭鋒,當以歲月,智計破之。」旣而屢戰無功,監軍部將李根請築白石壘,侃從之。夜築壘,至曉而成。聞峻軍嚴聲,諸將咸懼其來攻。孔坦曰:「不然。若峻攻壘,必須東北風急,令我水軍不得往救;今天清靜,賊必不來。所以嚴者,必遣軍出江乘,掠京口以東矣。」已而果然。侃使庾亮以二千人守白石,峻帥步騎萬餘四面攻之,不克。

34. Now that the loyalist armies had gathered at Shitou, many people wanted to fight a decisive battle at once. But Tao Kan said, "The bandits still have a great host of men, and it would be difficult to overcome their zeal immediately. Let us wait for some time first, and develop a plan to rout them."

Several skirmishes took place, but without anything being accomplished. The Chief of the Army Divisions (or, Chi Jian's general) Li Gen asked to build the Baishi Rampart, and Tao Kan agreed. Work on the rampart continued all through the night, and by dawn it was completed.

At one point, the loyalists could hear the sounds of Su Jun's army preparing itself for some movement, and the generals feared that Su Jun was coming to attack them soon. But Kong Tan said, "Not so. If Su Jun planned to attack the rampart, he would do it when the northeastern wind was blowing most fiercely, so that our naval forces would not be able to sail to its defense. But you see that the sky is clear and still today, so the rebels must not be coming here. All these preparations must mean that they are sending their army away from the Yangzi, to plunder Jingkou and further east." And indeed things proved to be just as he said.

Tao Kan sent Yu Liang with two thousand troops to guard Baishi. Su Jun led more than ten thousand horse and foot to assault Baishi from every side, but he could not capture it.

〈是時同盟諸將無監軍事者,竊意李根蓋郗鑒軍部將也。前史旣逸「郗」字,後人遂改「鑒」爲「監」。白石壘,在石頭東北,峻極險固。杜佑曰:白石里,在臺城西,宋武帝大明四年爲蠶所,置大殿於此。〉〈聞峻軍擊鼓嚴隊之聲。〉

(This passage identifies Li Gen as 監軍. At this time, there was no one among the various loyalist generals who had this title. I suspect that what the history meant to say was "one of Chi Jian's generals". Chi Jian's name being written 郗鑒, the earlier histories had dropped the surname 郗 to leave just the 鑒, and then later on people must have incorrectly copied 鑒 as 監.

The Baishi Rampart was northeast of Shitou, where the mountain rides were extremely narrow and difficult terrain. Du You remarked, "The village of Baishi was west of the governmental complex at Jiankang. In Emperor Xiaowu of Liu-Song's fourth year of Daming (460), he built a Grand Hall at that place for watching the silkworms there."

The loyalists could hear Su Jun's army beating the drums to signal an attack and calling their units into formation.)


王舒、虞潭等數與峻兵戰,不利。孔坦曰:「本不須召郗公,遂使東門無限,今宜遣還,雖晚,猶勝不也。」侃乃令鑒與後將軍郭默還據京口,立大業、曲阿、庱亭三壘以分峻之兵勢,使郭默守大業。

35. Wang Shu, Yu Tan, and the other eastern loyalist commanders continued fighting with Su Jun's forces, but they could gain no advantage. Kong Tan said, "We were too quick to summon Lord Chi Jian to join us here, and now we've left the eastern border undermanned. We should send him back there now; better late than never." So Tao Kan ordered Chi Jian and the General of the Rear, Guo Mo, to return to hold Jingkou. They set up three barricades at Daye, Qu'a, and Chengting in order to dilute the power of Su Jun's soldiers, and Guo Mo was sent to guard Daye.

〈言雖遣還之晚,猶勝不遣還也。〉〈曲阿,秦雲陽縣也,前漢屬會稽郡,後漢屬吳郡,晉屬毗陵郡。大業,里名,在曲阿北。丁度曰:庱亭,在吳興。庱,丑升翻。裴松之曰:庱,攄陵翻。〉

(Kong Tan was saying that being late in sending Chi Jian back to the east would still be better than not sending him back at all.

Qu'a was the Qin dynasty's Yunyang County. During Former Han, Qu'a was part of Kuaiji commandary. During Later Han, it was part of Wu commandary. During Jin, it was part of Piling commandary.

Daye was the name of a place, north of Qu'a.

Regarding Chengting, Ding Du remarked, "Chengting was in Wuxing comandary; the character 庱 is pronounced 'cheng (ch-eng)'." But Pei Songzhi remarked, "庱 is pronounced 'shing (sh-ing)'.")


壬辰,魏該卒。

36. On the day Renchen (August 7th), Wei Gai passed away.

壬辰,平北將軍、雍州刺史魏該卒于師。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Renchen (August 7th), the General Who Pacifies The North and Inspector of Yongzhou, Wei Gai, passed away in the midst of the army.


祖約遣祖渙、桓撫襲湓口;陶侃聞之,將自擊之。毛寶曰:「義軍恃公,公不可動,寶請討之。」侃從之。渙、撫過皖,因攻譙國內史桓宣。寶往救之,爲渙、撫所敗。箭貫寶髀,徹鞍,寶使人蹋鞍拔箭,血流滿鞾。還擊煥、撫,破走之,宣乃得出,歸于溫嶠。寶進攻祖約軍于東關,拔合肥戍;會嶠召之,復歸石頭。

37. Zu Yue sent Zu Huan and Huan Fu to attack Penkou. When Tao Kan heard of it, he was about to lead soldiers in person to fight them. But Mao Bao said to him, "Sir, the loyalist army is dependant upon you. You cannot make any rash decisions. Allow me to lead in your stead." So Tao Kan agreed.

Zu Huan and Huan Fu passed through Wan, where they attacked the Interior Minister of the Qiao princely fief, Huan Xuan. So Mao Bao marched to reinforce Huan Xuan. Mao Bao was initially defeated by Zu Huan and Huan Fu. He was hit by an arrow which pierced through his thigh and lodged into his saddle. He ordered someone to stand against the saddle and pull out the arrow, and so much blood flowed out that it filled his boot. But even so, he returned and attacked Zu Huan and Huan Fu again, and routed them and drove them off. Huan Xuan was thus able to make his escape, and he went to join Wen Jiao.

Mao Bao advanced and attacked Zu Yue's army at Dongguan, capturing his camps at Hefei. Then Wen Jiao ordered him to return, so Mao Bao marched back to the loyalists' position at Shitou.

〈湓口,在尋陽,今江州德化縣西一里有湓浦。〉〈宣時屯皖縣馬頭山。皖,戶版翻。〉

(Penkou was in Xunyang commandary. There is a Pen Rivermouth one li west of Dehua County in modern Jiangzhou.

At this time, Huan Xuan was camped at Mount Matou in Wan County. The name of that county, 皖, is pronounced "han (h-an)".)


廬江太守毛寶攻賊合肥戍,拔之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The Administrator of Lujiang, Mao Bao, attacked the rebels' camp at Hefei and captured it.


祖約諸將陰與後趙通謀,許爲內應。後趙將石聰、石堪引兵濟淮,攻壽春。秋,七月,約衆潰,奔歷陽,聰等虜壽春二萬餘戶而歸。

38. Zu Yue's generals secretly plotted against him. They contacted Later Zhao, offering to collude with them from the inside. So Shi Cong and Shi Kan led their troops to cross the Huai River and attack Zu Yue's base at Shouchun. In autumn, the seventh month, Zu Yue's forces scattered, and he fled to Liyang. Shi Cong and the other Later Zhao generals took more than twenty thousand households captive from Shouchun before returning to their territory.

秋七月,祖約爲石勒將石聰所攻,衆潰,奔于歷陽。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the seventh month, Zu Yue was attacked by Shi Le's general Shi Cong. His army scattered, and he fled to Liyang.


後趙中山公虎帥衆四萬自軹關西入,擊趙河東,應之者五十餘縣,遂進攻蒲阪。趙主曜遣河間王述發氐、羌之衆屯秦州以備張駿、楊難敵,自將中外精銳水陸諸軍以救蒲阪,自衞關北濟;虎懼,引退。曜追之,八月,及於高候;與虎戰,大破之,斬石瞻,枕尸二百餘里,收其資仗億計。虎奔朝歌。曜濟自大陽,攻石生于金墉,決千金堨以灌之。分遣諸將攻汲郡、河內,後趙滎陽太守尹矩、野王太守張進等皆降之。襄國大震。

39. Later Zhao's Duke of Zhongshan, Shi Hu, led forty thousand troops west from Zhi Pass, and attacked Zhao's commandary of Hedong. As he advanced, more than fifty counties submitted to him. He marched on and attacked Puban.

Liu Yao sent his Prince of Hejian, Liu Shu, to gather up an army from among the Di and Qiang peoples in Qinzhou and have them defend that region against Zhang Jun and Yang Nandi to the west. Meanwhile, he himself led all of his elite armies by land and water to march to the relief of Puban, crossing the Yellow River north from Wei Pass. Shi Hu was afraid of this development, and he led his army away. But Liu Yao pursued him, and in the eighth month, he caught up with Shi Hu at Gaohou. The two sides fought a battle, where Liu Yao greatly routed Shi Hu and killed Shi Zhan. The dead littered the ground for more than two hundred li, while Liu Yao captured many millions of Shi Hu's supplies and war materials. Shi Hu fled to Zhaoge.

Then Liu Yao recrossed the Yellow River at Dayang and attacked Shi Sheng at the Jinyong fortress near Luoyang, where he burst the Qianjin Dam to flood him out.

Liu Yao split up his forces to attacked the commandaries of Ji and Henei, and Later Zhao's Administrators of Xingyang and Yewang, Yin Ju and Zhang Jin, and others all surrendered to him. The Later Zhao capital at Xiangguo was greatly disturbed.

〈軹關,在河內軹縣。〉〈《晉書‧地理志》,汲郡汲縣有衞關。〉〈杜佑曰:今絳州聞喜縣北有高候原。〉〈杜佑曰:衞州衞縣,漢朝歌縣。紂都朝歌,在今縣西。〉〈大陽屬河東郡。應劭曰:在大河之陽,故曰大陽。《唐志》,陝州陝縣有大陽故關,春秋之茅津也。〉〈野王縣自漢以來屬河內郡,後趙始置郡也。〉

(Zhi Pass was in Zhi County in Henei commandary.

According to the Geographical Records in the Book of Jin, there was a Wei Pass in Ji County in Ji commandary.

Regarding Gaohou, Du You remarked, "There is a Gaohou Plain in the north of Wenxi County in modern Jiangzhou."

Du You further remarked, "Wei County in Weizhou was known as Zhaoge County during Han. King Zhou of Shang had his capital at the city of Zhaoge, in the western part of the modern county."

Dayang was part of Hedong commandary. Ying Shao remarked, "It was north of the Yellow River, thus the name Dayang ('North of the Great [Yellow] River')." According to the Records of Tang, there was a Dayang Pass in Shan County in Shanzhou; this was the Mao Crossing from the Spring and Autumn era.

Ever since Han, Yewang County had been part of Henei commandary. But Later Zhao had just recently made it into its own commandary.)


石勒將石季龍攻劉曜於蒲阪。八月,曜及石季龍戰于高候,季龍敗績,曜遂圍石生于洛陽。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Shi Le's general Shi Hu attacked Liu Yao at Puban. In the eighth month, Liu Yao and Shi Hu fought at Gaohou. Shi Hu was defeated, and Liu Yao then besieged Shi Sheng at Luoyang.


張駿治兵,欲乘虛襲長安。理曹郎中索詢諫曰:「劉曜雖東征,其子胤守長安,未易輕也。借使小有所獲,彼若釋東方之圖,還與我校;禍難之期,未可量也。」駿乃止。

40. Zhang Jun was preparing his soldiers for a campaign, wishing to take advantage of Zhao's weakened defenses in the west to strike at Chang'an. But his 理曹郎中, Suo Xun, remonstrated with him, saying, "Although Liu Yao may have gone east on campaign, his son Liu Yin is still guarding Chang'an, and you cannot take Liu Yin lightly. And even if you take advantage of this moment of weakness now to capture their territory, the enemy might break off their eastern campaign and return to match their army against ours. It is impossible to say how great of a disaster we would face then." So Zhang Jun gave up on the idea.

〈理曹郎中,張氏所置,以掌刑獄。〉

(The office of 理曹郎中 was created by the Zhang clan of Liangzhou; it was in charge of administering punishments and imprisonments.)


蘇峻腹心路永、匡術、賈寧聞祖約敗,恐事不濟,勸峻盡誅司徒導等諸大臣,更樹腹心;峻雅敬導,不許。永等更貳於峻,導使參軍袁耽潛誘永使歸順,九月,戊申,導攜二子與永奔白石。耽,渙之曾孫也。

41. When Su Jun's close companions Lu Yong, Kuang Shu, and Jia Ning heard that Zu Yue had been defeated, they feared that the rebellion would fail. They urged Su Jun to execute Wang Dao and all of the other chief ministers and replace them with his own trusted subordinates. But Su Jun had long respected Wang Dao, and he refused to do so. This only further alienated Lu Yong and the others from Su Jun. Wang Dao then sent the Army Advisor, Yuan Dan, to secretly entice them to switch sides to the loyalist cause. This Yuan Dan was the great-grandson of Yuan Huan.

In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 22nd), Wang Dao took his two sons and fled to Baishi along with Lu Yong.

〈貳者,其心攜而兩向。〉〈袁渙事曹操。〉

(By alienated, the passage means that they were of two minds about Su Jun.

Yuan Huan had served under Cao Cao.)


九月戊申,司徒王導奔于白石。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the ninth month, on the day Wushen (October 22nd), the Minister Over The Masses, Wang Dao, fled to Baishi.


陶侃、溫嶠等與蘇峻久相持不決,峻分遣諸將東西攻掠,所嚮多捷,人情恟懼。朝士之奔西軍者皆曰:「峻狡黠有膽決,其徒驍勇,所向無敵。若天討有罪,則峻終滅亡;止以人事言之,未易除也。」溫嶠怒曰:「諸君怯懦,乃更譽賊!」及累戰不勝,嶠亦憚之。

42. By now, Tao Kan, Wen Jiao, and the other loyalists had been locked in stalemate with Su Jun for some time, with neither side being able to achieve anything decisive. Su Jun sent several of his generals away to plunder and pillage all around, and they won many victories wherever they went. People who fled from the court to the loyalist armies all reported, "Su Jun is crafty and cunning, bold and decisive, and his followers are fierce and valiant. No one can stand against them. If Heaven smites the guilty, then Su Jun will be vanquished in the end. But from what everyone says, it won't be easy to get rid of him."

Wen Jiao angrily said, "Gentlemen, you are just praising the rebels because you are so terrified of them!" But when the loyalists continued to have the worst of the fighting against the rebels, even Wen Jiao became afraid.

〈譽,羊諸翻,稱揚之也。〉

(To praise meant to boast of the achievements of someone.)


嶠軍食盡,貸於陶侃。侃怒曰:「使君前云不憂無良將及兵食,惟欲得老僕爲主耳。今數戰皆北,良將安在!荊州接胡、蜀二虜,當備不虞;若復無食,僕便欲西歸,更思良算,徐來殄賊,不爲晚也。」嶠曰:「凡師克在和,古之善敎也。光武之濟昆陽,曹公之拔官渡,以寡敵衆,杖義故也。峻、約小豎,凶逆滔天,何憂不滅!峻驟勝而驕,自謂無前,今挑之戰,可一鼓而擒也。柰何捨垂立之功,設進退之計乎!且天子幽逼,社稷危殆,乃四海臣子肝腦塗地之日。嶠等與公並受國恩,事若克濟,則臣主同祚;如其不捷,當灰身以謝先帝耳。今之事勢,義無旋踵,譬如騎虎,安可中下哉!公若違衆獨返,人心必沮;沮衆敗事,義旗將迴指於公矣。」毛寶言於嶠曰:「下官能留陶公。」乃往說侃曰:「公本鎭蕪湖,爲南北勢援,前旣已下,勢不可還。且軍政有進無退,非直整齊三軍,示衆必死而已,亦謂退無所據,終至滅亡。往者杜弢非不強盛,公竟滅之,何至於峻,獨不可破邪!賊亦畏死,非皆勇健,公可試與寶兵,使上岸斷賊資糧;若寶不立效,然後公去,人心不恨矣。」侃然之,加寶督護而遣之。竟陵太守李陽說侃曰:「今大事若不濟,公雖有粟,安得而食諸!」侃乃分米五萬石以餉嶠軍。毛寶燒峻句容、湖孰積聚,峻軍乏食,侃遂留不去。

43. When Wen Jiao's army's food ran out, he borrowed supplies from Tao Kan's stores. Tao Kan became angry, and he said, "Commissioner Wen, you told me before that there would be no need to worry about a lack of skilled generals here, and that there would be plenty of troops and supplies at hand. You merely wished to ask this old servant to come serve as your leader. Yet now we have fought this many battles without result; where are the skilled generals? Besides, Jingzhou's borders are still threatened by the Xiongnu and by Shu, and I ought to make sure that my defenses there are in order so that there will be no cause for concern. So if the grain is all gone here, then I want to return to the west again. I will come up with my own fine plans, and then come back later to smash the rebels; it will not be too late to achieve it."

Wen Jiao replied, "It was a fine principle of the ancients that an army conquers by its harmony. When Emperor Guangwu of Han won his victory at Kunyang, and Duke Cao Cao triumphed at Guandu, both of them used a smaller army to defeat a larger one, and that was because they adhered to righteousness. Now Su Jun and Zu Yue are just some upstarts, and their wild and wicked behavior fills the heavens; what reason is there to worry that we might not defeat them? Su Jun has grown arrogant because of his victories, and now he thinks no one can stand against him. But if we face him now, we will capture him with a single roll of the drums. When we are on the very cusp of victory, why would you make such plans to move this way and that?

"Besides, the Son of Heaven is still imprisoned and in danger, and the fortunes of state are in grave peril. This is the day that all loyal ministers and filial sons must be prepared to make the ultimate sacrifice on behalf of the state. We have all of us received great favor from the state, and if we succeed in this endeavor, then we save our sovereign and ourselves. And should we fail, then at least we will repay our gratitude to the late emperors with our lives.

"Justice demands that we stand firm; we are riding the tiger, and how can we climb down now? Sir, if you abandon this army and depart on your own, then the morale of our people will collapse. When we lose heart and are defeated, the banners of our righteous army shall point back towards you, Sir."

Then Mao Bao said to Wen Jiao, "I shall convince Lord Tao to stay."

And Mao Bao went to Tao Kan and told him, "Sir, you were originally guarding Wuhu, where you were aided from both the north and the south. Having advanced this far, you cannot go back now. Besides, it is the policy of an army to not retreat from the positions it has already taken. If the three armies do not all advance together, then you will be saying that our forces are doomed, and by saying that we must retreat without holding these positions, then we will be destroyed in the end.

"It was not so long ago when you fought the rebel Du Tao, and Du Tao did not lack for strength or numbers, yet you defeated him in the end. So how can it be that you think we cannot rout someone like Su Jun? The rebels fear death as much as we do; they are not all stalwart braves. Sir, allow me to test our soldiers against them, and let me go up on the riverbank to destroy their supplies. If I do not meet your expectations, then you may leave, and no one could hold it against you."

So Tao Kan assented, and he placed Mao Bao in command of the troops and sent him to battle.

The Administrator of Jingling, Li Yang, also warned Tao Kan, "If our endeavor here fails, Sir, then even if you yourself have grain on hand, why hoard it for yourself instead of sharing it with the others?" So Tao Kan gave Wen Jiao's army fifty thousand 石 of rice to sustain themselves.

Mao Bao torched Su Jun's grain stores at Gourong and Hushu, leaving Su Jun's army weak and starving. So Tao Kan stayed with the loyalists instead of leaving.

〈貸,借也。〉〈見三十九卷漢淮陽王更始元年。〉〈見六十三卷漢獻帝建安五年。〉〈溫嶠辭嚴義正,所以能留陶侃,共成大功。〉〈見八十九卷愍帝建興三年。〉〈惠帝元康九年,分江夏西界立竟陵郡。〉〈句容、湖孰二縣,屬丹楊郡。〉

(The term 貸 here means "to borrow".

Emperor Guangwu's victory at the battle of Kunyang is mentioned in Book 39, in the first year of the reign of the Gengshi Emperor (23 AD).

Cao Cao's victory at the battle of Guandu is mentioned in Book 63, in Emperor Xian of Han's fifth year of Jian'an (200.Y-AA in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace).

By his last expression, Wen Jiao was trying to instill justice and righteousness in order to convince Tao Kan to stay, so that they could achieve ultimate success together.

Tao Kan's victory over Du Tao is mentioned in Book 89, in Emperor Min's third year of Jianxing (315.17).

In Emperor Hui's ninth year of Yuankang (299), he split the western part of Jiangxia commandary off to form Jingling commandary.

The two counties of Gourong and Hushu were part of Danyang commandary.)


張健、韓晃等急攻大業;壘中乏水,人飲糞汁。郭默懼,潛突圍出外,留兵守之;郗鑒在京口,軍士聞之皆失色。參軍曹納曰:「大業,京口之扞蔽也,一旦不守,則賊兵徑至,不可當也。請還廣陵,以俟後舉。」鑒大會僚佐,責納曰:「吾受先帝顧託之重,正復捐軀九泉,不足報塞。今強寇在近,衆心危逼,君腹心之佐,而生長異端,當何以帥先義衆,鎭壹三軍邪!」將斬之,久乃得釋。

44. Zhang Jian, Han Huang, and Su Jun's other generals were launching a heavy assault against the loyalist outpost at Daye. The water supplies ran out inside the rampart there, and the soldiers restored to drinking juice wrung from droppings. Their commander Guo Mo was so afraid that he secretly slipped through the siege lines and fled, leaving his soldiers to hold the rampart.

Chi Jian was at Jingkou. When his officers heard what was happening at Daye, they all turned pale. His Army Advisor, Cao Na, said to him, "Daye is the shield of Jingkou; if it should fall, then the rebels will advance here, and we could not face them. Please retreat to Guangling, where you can wait to rise up again later on."

Chi Jian summoned a great meeting of his subordinates, where he castigated Cao Na. He said, "I received great favor from the late emperors. Even if my body were cast into the Nine Springs below, that would still not be enough to repay my debt to them. We face a strong enemy close at hand, and the morale of our army is already wavering and in peril. Sir, you are one of my closest advisors, yet you advocate this despicable advice, as though I should not be the first to lead the loyalist troops or stand together with three armies!"

He was about to behead Cao Na, but eventually he let him go.

陶侃將救大業,長史殷羨曰:「吾兵不習步戰,救大業而不捷,則大事去矣。不如急攻石頭,則大業自解。」侃從之。羨,融之兄也。庚午,侃督水軍向石頭。庾亮、溫嶠、趙胤帥步兵萬人從白石南上,欲挑戰。峻將八千人逆戰,遣其子碩及其將匡孝分兵先薄趙胤軍,敗之。峻方勞其將士,乘醉望見胤走,曰:「孝能破賊,我更不如邪!」因舍其衆,與數騎北下突陳,不得入,將回趨白木陂;馬躓,侃部將彭世、李千等投之以矛,峻墜馬;斬首,臠割之,焚其骨,三軍皆稱萬歲。餘衆大潰。峻司馬任讓等共立峻弟逸爲主,閉城自守。溫嶠乃立行臺,布告遠近,凡故吏二千石以下,皆令赴臺;於是至者雲集。韓晃聞峻死,引兵趣石頭。管商、弘徽攻庱亭壘,督護李閎、輕車長史滕含擊破之。含,脩之孫也。商走詣庾亮降,餘衆皆歸張健。

45. Tao Kan was about to march to save Daye. But his Chief Clerk, Yin Xian, advised him, "Our troops do not have the advantage when it comes to fighting on land. If we try to rescue Daye but are defeated, that will be the end of our cause. It would be better to launch a full assault against Shitou. Then the siege against Daye will lift of its own accord."

Tao Kan agreed with him. This Yin Xian was the elder brother of Yin Rong.

On the day Gengwu (November 13th), Tao Kan led the loyalist naval forces towards Shitou. Yu Liang, Wen Jiao, and Zhao Yin led ten thousand infantry south from Baishi, wishing to offer battle to Su Jun. Su Jun led eight thousand soldiers of his own to counter-attack them. He sent his son Su Shuo and his general Kuang Xiao to lead an initial thrust against Zhao Yin's forces, and they defeated Zhao Yin.

Su Jun was in the midst of rallying his generals and officers, and since he was a little tipsy by then, when he looked and saw Zhao Yin fleeing in defeat, he said, "If Kuang Xiao can smash the enemy like that, I can do even better!" So he left his army behind and charged north with a few riders, trying to plunge into the enemy's formation. Unable to break through, he was about to turn about and regroup at Baimu Slope. But his horse stumbled, and then Tao Kan's subordinate commanders Peng Shu and Li Qian and some others threw their spears at it, causing Su Jun to tumble off the horse. They cut off his head and chopped his body to pieces, then burned his bones. The three armies of the loyalists all cheered.

Su Jun's remaining forces all scattered and melted away. Su Jun's Marshal, Ren Rang, and others acclaimed Su Jun's younger brother Su Yi as their new leader, and they withdrew into Shitou to hold out.

Wen Jiao then established a Separate Terrace administration and sent out notice near and far of what had happened, ordering all officials from Two Thousand 石 salary rank on down to gather there. They soon began to arrive like gathering clouds.

When Han Huang heard that Su Jun was dead, he led his own troops to Shitou.

Some of Su Jun's other generals, Guan Shang and Hong Hui, were attacking the loyalist outpost at Chengting. The Protector, Li Hong, and the Chief Clerk to the General of Chariots and Cavalry, Teng Han, attacked and routed them. This Teng Han was the grandson of Teng Xiu. Guan Shang fled, then came to visit Yu Liang and surrendered. The rest of his forces all went to join Zhang Jian.

〈謂急攻蘇峻,健、晃必還救之,大業之兵自解。〉〈薄,迫也。〉〈躓,跲也。白木陂,在東陵東。〉〈一鼓禽峻,果如溫嶠之言。〉〈輕車長史,輕車將軍長史也。〉

(Yin Xian was saying that if they attacked Su Jun, then Zhang Jian and Han Huang would certainly come back to reinforce him, thus lifting the siege on Daye.

The term 薄 here means to threaten, by a sudden thrust.

The term 躓 means to stumble.

Baimu Slope is east of Dongling.

Su Jun was captured in a single roll of the drums, just as Wen Jiao predicted.

The Chief Clerk of Chariots and Cavalry was the Chief Clerk to the General of Chariots and Cavalry.)


庚午,陶侃使督護楊謙攻峻于石頭。溫嶠、庾亮陣于白石,竟陵太守李陽距賊南偏。峻輕騎出戰,墜馬,斬之,衆遂大潰。賊黨復立峻弟逸爲帥。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Gengwu (November 13th), Tao Kan sent his Protector, Yang Qian, to attack Su Jun at Shitou. Wen Jiao and Yu Liang set up their formation at Baishi, while the Administrator of Jingling, Li Yang, opposed the rebels from the southern flank. Su Jun charged into battle with some light cavalry when he fell off his horse. He was beheaded, and his army greatly scattered. His partisans acclaimed Su Jun's younger brother Su Yi as their new leader.


冬,十一月,後趙王勒欲自將救洛陽,僚佐程遐等固諫曰:「劉曜懸軍千里,勢不支久。大王不宜親動,動無萬全。」勒大怒,按劍叱遐等出。乃赦徐光,召而謂之曰:「劉曜乘一戰之勝,圍守洛陽,庸人之情皆謂其鋒不可當。曜帶甲十萬,攻一城而百日不克,師老卒怠,以我初銳擊之,可一戰而擒也。若洛陽不守,曜必送死冀州,自河已北,席卷而來,吾事去矣。程遐等不欲吾行,卿以爲何如?」對曰:「劉曜乘高候之勢,不能進臨襄國,更守金墉,此其無能爲可知也。以大王威略臨之,彼必望旗奔敗。平定天下,在今一舉,不可失也。」勒笑曰:「光言是也。」乃使內外戒嚴,有諫者斬。命石堪、石聰及豫州刺史桃豹等各統見衆會滎陽;中山公虎進據石門,勒自統步騎四萬趣金墉,濟自大堨。

46. In winter, the eleventh month, Shi Le wished to lead his forces to save Luoyang. Cheng Xia and his other subordinates all fiercely remonstrated with him, saying, "Liu Yao has marched his army a thousand li, and he cannot last for long. Great King, you should not go yourself, for your safety cannot be assured."

Furious at this response, Shi Le drew his sword and shouted at Cheng Xia and the others until they left.

It was earlier mentioned that Shi Le had imprisoned his minister Xu Guang. He now pardoned Xu Guang and summoned him, then said to him, "Liu Yao is following up on having won this one battle to lay siege to Luoyang. Those inferior fellows all say that his line cannot be broken. But Liu Yao has a hundred thousand armored soldiers, yet they've been assaulting a single city for a hundred days without being able to capture it. The commander is washed up and the soldiers are complacent; if we attack him with fresh troops, we can capture him in a single battle. But if Luoyang falls, then Liu Yao will definitely court death by marching into Jizhou. He'll capture everything north of the Yellow River like rolling up a mat, and then that'll be the end of me. Cheng Xia and the rest don't want me to set out. Sir, what do you think?"

Xu Guang replied, "Liu Yao gained an advantage when he won at Gaohou. But rather than advance straight for Xiangguo, he lay siege to Luoyang instead. This shows his lack of ability. Great King, you need only match your valor and cunning against his, and then he will certainly strike his banners and flee in defeat. By this one act, you will settle and bring peace to the realm. You cannot squander this chance."

Shi Le laughed and said, "It's just as Xu Guang says."

So he ordered all his soldiers near and far to make ready for war, and ordered that anyone who remonstrated with him now would be beheaded. Shi Le ordered Shi Kan, Shi Cong, his Inspector of Yuzhou, Tao Bao, and others to each lead their forces to join together with his at Xingyang. Shi Hu advanced to occupy Shimen, while Shi Le himself lead forty thousand horse and foot towards Jinyong, crossing over the Yellow River from the Great Dam.

〈光被囚見上卷咸和元年。〉〈後趙都襄國,冀州之地。〉〈《水經註》:漢靈帝於敖城西北,壘石爲門,以遏浚儀渠口,謂之石門,而滎瀆受河水,亦有石門。〉〈《水經註》:石勒襲劉曜,塗出延津,以河冰冸爲神靈之助,號是處爲靈昌津。〉

(Xu Guang's imprisonment is mentioned in Book 93, in the first year of Xianhe (326.3).

Later Zhao's capital of Xiangguo was in Jizhou.

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Emperor Ling of Han built a stone rampart northwest of Aocheng to serve as a gate, in order to regulate and dredge the mouth of the Yiqu River; the place was thus called Shimen ('Stone Gate'). But there was also a Shimen at the place where the Xing Ditch receives the waters of the Yellow River."

The Commentary further states, "When Shi Le attacked Liu Yao, he came by way of Yan Crossing, where he received divine assistance when the river ice there melted to make way for his approach. He named that place the Lingchang Crossing ('Spiritual Prosperity').")


勒謂徐光曰:「曜盛兵成皋關,上策也;阻洛水,其次也;坐守洛陽,此成擒耳。」十二月,乙亥,後趙諸軍集于成皋,步卒六萬,騎二萬七千。勒見趙無守兵,大喜,舉手指天復加額曰:「天也!」卷甲銜枚,詭道兼行,出于鞏、訾之間。

47. Shi Le said to Xu Guang, "If Liu Yao brings his whole army to guard Chenggao Pass, that will be the best strategy for him. If he guards the line of the Luo River, that would be second best. But if he sits where he is and continues to besiege Luoyang, then I'll capture his entire army."

In the twelfth month, on the day Yihai (January 17th of 329), the various Later Zhao armies converged at Chenggao; they were sixty thousand infantry and twenty-seven thousand cavalry altogether. When Shi Le saw that there were no Zhao soldiers there prepared to stop them, he was exceptionally pleased. He raised his hand to point towards the sky, and then turned it to point to his forehead, exclaiming, "This is Heaven's will!" Then tying up their armor and grasping their spears, the Later Zhao soldiers furtively advanced together, passing between Gong and Zi.

〈鞏縣,屬河南郡,有東訾城。《左傳》,單子取訾。杜預曰︰在鞏縣西南。《晉‧地道記》曰︰在縣之東。〉

(Gong County was part of Henan commandary; there was a Donggong city there.

According to the Zuo Commentary, "the Viscount of Shan took Zi (Zhao 23.8)". Du Yu's commentary states, "This Zi was in the southwest of Gong County." The Records of Roads and Places in the Book of Jin states, "It was in the east of that county.")


趙主曜專與嬖臣飲博,不撫士卒;左右或諫,曜怒,以爲妖言,斬之。聞勒已濟河,始議增滎陽戍,杜黃馬關。俄而洛水候者與後趙前鋒交戰,擒羯送之。曜問:「大胡自來邪?其衆幾何?」羯曰:「王自來,軍勢甚盛。」曜色變,使攝金墉之湋,陳于洛西,衆十餘萬,南北十餘里。勒望見,益喜。謂左右曰:「可以賀我矣!」勒帥步騎四萬入洛陽城。

48. Liu Yao had been spending his time drinking and chatting with his closest ministers, and he showed no regard for his officers or soldiers. When some of those with him remonstrated him for this, Liu Yao became angry at their supposed slander, and he beheaded them. Only once Liu Yao heard that Shi Le had already crossed the Yellow River did he begin to fortify his camps at Xingyang and garrison Huangma Pass.

A skirmish soon took place between the Zhao sentries posted on the Luo River and some of the Later Zhao vanguard. The sentries captured one of the Later Zhao soldiers, a Jie man, and sent him on to Liu Yao. Liu Yao asked the captive, "Has the great barbarian himself come in person? How large is his army?"

The Jie said, "The king himself has come, and his army's strength is immense indeed."

Liu Yao changed expression, and he ordered the siege on Jinyong to be lifted so that the Zhao army could mount a defense of the west side of the Luo River. The Zhao army of more than a hundred thousand soldiers stretched for more than ten li from north to south.

When Shi Le saw it, he became even more pleased, and he said to those with him, "Now you may congratulate me!" He led forty thousand horse and foot to enter the walls of Luoyang.

〈據《水經》,黃馬坂在成皋縣,河水逕其北,謂之黃馬關。〉〈攝,收也。〉

(According to the Water Classic, Huangma Slope was in Chenggao County. The Yellow River flowed north of it, at the place called Huangma Pass.

The term 攝 here means to gather or call away.)


己卯,中山公虎引步卒三萬自城北而西,攻趙中軍,石堪、石聰等各以精騎八千自城西而北,擊趙前鋒,大戰于西陽門。勒躬貫甲冑,出自閶闔門,夾擊之。曜少而嗜酒,末年尤甚;將戰,飲酒數斗。常乘赤馬無故跼頓,乃乘小馬。比出,復飲酒斗餘。至西陽門,揮陳就平。石堪因而乘之,趙兵大潰。曜昏醉退走,馬陷石渠,墜于冰上,被瘡十餘,通中者三,爲堪所執。勒遂大破趙兵,斬首五萬餘級。下令曰:「所欲擒者一人耳,今已獲之。其敕將士抑鋒止銳,縱其歸命之路。」

49. On the day Jimao (January 21st of 329), Shi Hu led thirty thousand infantry west from the northern wall to attack the central Zhao army, while Shi Kan and Shi Cong each led eight thousand elite cavalry north from the western wall to attack Zhao's vanguard. They fought a great battle at the Xiyang Gate. Shi Le put on his armor and came out through the Changhe Gate, flank attacking the Zhao army.

Ever since he had been a young man, Liu Yao had been fond of wine, and in recent years his appetite for it had only grown. Before going to battle, he would drink several 斗 of wine. There was a red horse which Liu Yao usually rode, but for some reason, this time it suffered from some malady where it could not extend its feet or lift its head, so Liu Yao rode a smaller horse instead. Before heading out, Liu Yao once again drank more than a 斗 of wine.

When he arrived at the Xiyang Gate, he gestured for his army to recenter its formation. Shi Kan took advantage of that to launch an attack, and the Zhao soldiers all scattered. Drunk as he was, Liu Yao also tried to flee, but at Shiqu his horse collapsed, and he fell on the ice. He was stabbed more than ten times, with three of them piercing through him, before Shi Kan captured him. Shi Le then greatly routed the Zhao soldiers, taking more than fifty thousand heads.

Shi Le issued an order saying, "I have already captured the one man I sought to take prisoner. He has ordered his generals and officers to lay down their weapons and cease their fighting, and submit to my commands."

〈西陽門,卽洛城宣陽門也,城西面南頭第一門;或曰:西陽門,卽第二門西明門也。〉〈閶闔門,洛城西面北頭門。〉〈跼,足踡曲不能伸也;頓,首低下不能舉也。〉

(The Xiyang Gate was the Xuanyang Gate in the walls of Luoyang; it was the southernmost gate of the western wall of the city. But some say that the Xiyang Gate was the Ximing Gate, the next gate up to the north.

The Changhe Gate was the northernmost gate in Luoyang's western wall.

This passage describes Liu Yao's usual horse as being 跼頓. 跼 means when the foot is curled up and cannot extend; 頓 means when the head hangs down and cannot lift up.)


十二月乙未,石勒敗劉曜于洛陽,獲之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the twelfth month, on the day Yiwei (February 6th of 329), Shi Le defeated Liu Yao at Luoyang and captured him.


曜見勒曰:「石王,頗憶重門之盟否?」勒使徐光謂之曰:「今日之事,天使其然,復云何邪!」乙酉,勒班師。使征東將軍石邃將兵衞送曜。邃,虎之子也。曜瘡甚,載以馬輿,使醫李永與同載。己亥,至襄國,舍曜於永豐小城,給其妓妾,嚴兵圍守。遣劉岳、劉震等從男女盛服以見之,曜曰:「吾謂卿等久爲灰土,石王仁厚,乃全宥至今邪!我殺石佗,愧之多矣。今日之禍,自其分耳。」留宴終日而去。勒使曜與其太子熙書,諭令速降;曜但敕熙與諸大臣「匡維社稷,勿以吾易意也。」勒見而惡之,久之,乃殺曜。

50. When Liu Yao saw Shi Le, he called to him, "King Shi, have you forgotten the pledge we made together at Zhongmen?"

Shi Le sent Xu Guang to tell Liu Yao, "Today's events were dictated by Heaven's will; what use is there of saying anything further?"

On the day Yiyou (January 27th of 329), Shi Le turned back in triumph. He ordered the General Who Conquers The East, Shi Sui, to lead troops to escort Liu Yao back to Xiangguo. This Shi Sui was the son of Shi Hu. Liu Yao had been heavily wounded, so he rode in a horse-drawn cart, and Shi Le ordered the doctor Li Yong to ride in the cart with him.

On the day Jihai (February 10th of 329), Shi Le arrived at Xiangguo. He placed Liu Yao in the little fort at Yongfeng, gave him women to indulge himself with, and posted guards to keep a close watch on him.

It was earlier mentioned that Later Zhao had captured the Zhao generals Liu Yue, Liu Zhen, and others in earlier battles. Shi Le now sent these captured generals to visit Liu Yao, along with their male and female relatives, and all of them were dressed in fine attire. Liu Yao said to them, "I'd long believed that you all were nothing more than dust by now. Yet I see King Shi has treated you kindly and generously, even showing you so much favor as this! It makes me deeply ashamed to have killed Shi Tuo. This misfortune we have suffered all stems from that." The other prisoners stayed feasting with Liu Yao for the whole day before leaving.

Shi Le ordered Liu Yao to write a letter to his crown prince Liu Xi, ordering him to be quick to submit himself and surrender to Later Zhao. But Liu Yao instead ordered Liu Xi and his chief ministers, "Rectify and safeguard the fortunes of state, and give no further thought to me." When Shi Le saw the letter, he was most displeased. Not long afterwards, he killed Liu Yao.

〈據《水經註》,重門城,在河內共縣故城西北二十里。此盟當在懷帝永嘉四年同圍河內之時。〉〈岳被禽見上卷明帝太寧三年。〉〈見上卷太寧三年。〉

(According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, the city of Zhongmen was twenty li northwest of the capital city of Gong County in Henei commandary.

This "pledge" that Liu Yao mentioned must have been made when he and Shi Le were besieging Henei together in Emperor Huai's fourth year of Yongjia (Book 87, 310.10).

Liu Yue's capture is mentioned in Book 93, in Emperor Ming's third year of Taining (325.13).

Shi Tuo's death is mentioned earlier in the same year (325.7).)


四年,石勒擒劉曜。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fourth year of the reign of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Hena (328), Shi Le captured Liu Yao.


是歲,成漢獻王驤卒,其子征東將軍壽以喪還成都。成主雄以李玝爲征北將軍、梁州刺史,代壽屯晉壽。

51. During this year, Cheng's Prince Xian ("the Presented") of Han, Li Xiang, passed away. The General Who Conquers The East, his son Li Shou, returned to Chengdu to mourn for him. Li Xiong appointed Li Wu as General Who Conquers The North and Inspector of Lianzhou, and sent him to replace Li Shou in camp at Jinshou.

〈成封李驤爲漢王。〉〈玝,阮古翻。〉

(Cheng had appointed Li Xiang as Prince of Han.

Li Wu's given name 玝 is pronounced "ru (r-u)".)


時李驤死,以其子壽為大將軍、西夷校尉。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

When Li Xiang passed away, Li Xiong appointed Li Xiang's son Li Shou as Grand General and Colonel of Western Yi Tribes.

驤死,遷大將軍、大都督、侍中,封扶風公,錄尚書事。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Shou)

After Li Xiang passed away, Li Shou was appointed as Grand General, Grand Commander, Palace Attendant, Duke of Fufeng, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing.

三年冬,驤死,追贈相國,謚曰漢獻王。壽以喪還。拜玝征北、梁州,代壽。以班行撫軍將軍,脩晉壽軍屯。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

In the third year of Xianhe (328), in winter, Li Xiang passed away. Li Xiong posthumously appointed him as Chancellor of State and gave him the posthumous title Prince Xian of Han. Li Shou returned to Chengdu to attend the mourning for his father. Li Xiong appointed Li Wu as General Who Conquers The North and Inspector of Lianzhou to take over for Li Shou. He appointed Li Ban as acting General Who Nurtures The Army, and Li Ban repaired the army camps at Jinshou.
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Tue Aug 07, 2018 5:22 pm, edited 18 times in total.
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BOOK 94

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Jun 11, 2018 4:59 am

四年(己丑、三二九)

The Fourth Year of Xianhe (The Jichou Year, 329 AD)


春,正月,光祿大夫陸曄及弟尚書左僕射玩說匡術,以苑城附于西軍;百官皆赴之,推曄督宮城軍事。陶侃命毛寶守南城,鄧岳守西城。

1. In spring, the first month, Lu Ye and the Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing, his younger brother Lu Wan, persuaded Kuang Shu to surrender Yuancheng to the loyalists. The various officials all converged there, acclaiming Lu Ye as Commander of military affairs within the palace. Tao Kan ordered Mao Bao to guard the southern fort at Yuancheng, while Deng Yue guarded the western fort.

〈苑城之南城、西城也。〉

(These were the southern and western forts at Yuancheng.)


四年春正月,帝在石頭,賊將匡術以苑城歸順,百官赴焉。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fourth year of Xianhe (329), in spring, the first month, Emperor Cheng was at Shitou. The rebel general Kuang Shu surrendered Yuancheng to the loyalists, and the government officials gathered there.


右衞將軍劉超、侍中鍾雅與建康令管斾等謀奉帝出赴西軍;事泄,蘇逸使其將平原任讓將兵入宮收超、雅。帝抱持悲泣曰:「還我侍中、右衞!」讓奪而殺之。初,讓少無行,太常華恆爲本州大中正,黜其品。及讓爲蘇峻將,乘勢多所誅殺,見恆輒恭敬,不敢縱暴。及鍾、劉之死,蘇逸欲幷殺恆,讓盡心救衞,恆乃得免。

2. Liu Chao, Zhong Ya, the Prefect of Jiankang, Guan Pei, and others plotted to smuggle Emperor Cheng out of Shitou and join the loyalists. But their plot was discovered, and Su Yi ordered his general, Ren Rang of Pingyuan, to lead soldiers into the makeshift palace and arrest Liu Chao and Zhong Ya. Emperor Cheng grabbed hold of them and wept as he demanded, "Give me back my Palace Attendant and my Guard General of the Right!" But Ren Rang took them anyway and killed them.

This Ren Rang had once been a young man without any principles. Back then, the Minister of Ceremonies, Hua Heng, had been the Grand Rectifier for Ren Rang's province, and he had demoted Ren Rang's rank. After Ren Rang became a general under Su Jun, he took advantage of his power to kill and execute many people. But when he saw Hua Heng, he still respected and honored him, and he did not dare to lay a hand upon him. After Zhong Ya and Liu Chao were dead, Su Yi wanted to kill Hua Heng as well. But Ren Rang did everything he could to keep Hua Heng safe, and so Hua Heng's life was spared.

〈華恆,平原高唐人。〉

(Hua Heng was a native of Gaotang in Pingyuan commandary.)


侍中鐘雅、右衛將軍劉超謀奉帝出,爲賊所害。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The Palace Attendant, Zhong Ya, and the Guard General of the Right, Liu Chao, plotted to smuggle Emperor Cheng out of Shitou to join the loyalists, but they were killed by the rebels.


冠軍將軍趙胤遣部將甘苗擊祖約于歷陽,戊辰,約夜帥左右數百人奔後趙,其將牽騰率衆出降。

3. The Champion General, Zhao Yin, sent his subordinate general Gan Miao to attack Zu Yue at Liyang. On the day Wuchen (March 11th), Zu Yue fled during the night with several hundred of his followers to seek refuge in Later Zhao. His general Qian Teng led the rest of his troops out to surrender to Gan Miao.

〈爲後石勒殺祖約張本。〉

(This was why Shi Le was able to later kill Zu Yue.)


戊辰,冠軍將軍趙胤遣將甘苗討祖約于歷陽,敗之,約奔于石勒,其將牽騰帥衆降。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Wuchen (March 11th), the Champion General, Zhao Yin, sent his general Gan Miao to attack Zu Yue at Liyang. Gan Miao defeated Zu Yue, who fled to Shi Le, and his general Qian Teng led his remaining forces to surrender to the loyalists.


蘇逸、蘇碩、韓晃幷力攻臺城,焚太極東堂及祕閣,毛寶登城,射殺數十人。晃謂寶曰:「君名勇果,何不出鬬?」寶曰:「君名健將,何不入鬬?」晃笑而退。

4. Su Yi, Su Shuo, and Han Huang led their combined forces to launch an attack on the governmental complex at Jiankang, where they burned down the eastern hall of the Grand Hall and the Forbidden Pavilion.

Mao Bao ascended the ramparts and shot arrows down at the enemy, killing several dozen people in this manner. Han Huang yelled up at him, "Sir, aren't you reknowned for your valor and skill? Why not come out and fight?"

Mao Bao replied, "Sir, aren't you reknowned for your stalwart leadership? Why don't you come in here and fight?"

Han Huang laughed before falling back.

峻子碩攻臺城,又焚太極東堂、秘閣,皆盡。城中大饑,米斗萬錢。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Su Jun's son Su Shuo attacked the government complex at Jiankang, where he burned down the eastern hall of the Grand Hall and the Forbidden Pavilion. There was great hunger inside the city, and a 斗 of rice cost ten thousand cash.


趙太子熙聞趙主曜被擒,大懼,與南陽王胤謀西保秦州。尚書胡勳曰:「今雖喪君,境土尚完,將士不叛,且當幷力拒之;力不能拒,走未晚也。」胤怒,以爲沮衆,斬之,遂帥百官奔上邽,諸征鎭亦皆棄所守從之,關中大亂。將軍蔣英、辛恕擁衆數十萬據長安,遣使降于後趙,後趙遣石生帥洛陽之衆赴之。

5. When Liu Xi heard that Liu Yao had been captured, he was greatly afraid. He and Liu Yin plotted to withdraw to the west to hold out in Qinzhou. The Master of Writing, Hu Xun, said to them, "Although we are currently mourning the loss of our lord, we still hold extensive territory completely intact, and none of our generals and officers have turned against us. We should muster all our strength to oppose the enemy. Should we still not be strong enough to overcome them, it will not be too late to run away then." But this only angered Liu Yin, who believed that Hu Xun was trying to sap the spirits of the people, so he beheaded Hu Xun. Then he and Liu Xi led the Zhao officials to flee to Shanggui. The various Zhao border commanders all abandoned their post and followed after them, and Guanzhong was thrown into total chaos.

The generals Jiang Ying and Xin Shu gathered up several tens of thousands of soldiers and led them to occupy Chang'an, then sent messengers to Later Zhao offering their surrender. Later Zhao sent Shi Sheng to lead an army from Luoyang to receive them.

〈以劉胤之才武,不能守長安以抗石勒,劉曜旣禽,胤膽破矣。〉

(Liu Yin had exceptional martial prowess, and yet he could not hold Chang'an or oppose Shi Le; this was merely because after Liu Yao had been captured, Liu Yin's courage failed him.)


劉曜太子毗與其大司馬劉胤帥百官奔於上邽,關中大亂。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Liu Yao's Crown Prince, Liu Pi, and his Grand Marshal, Liu Yin, led the government officials of Han-Zhao to flee to Shanggui. Guanzhong was thrown into total chaos.


二月,丙戌,諸軍攻石頭。建威長史滕含擊蘇逸,大破之。蘇碩帥驍勇數百,渡淮而戰,溫嶠擊斬之。韓晃等懼,以其衆就張健於曲阿,門隘不得出,更相蹈藉,死者萬數。西軍獲蘇逸,斬之。滕含部將曹據抱帝奔溫嶠船,羣臣見帝,頓首號泣請罪。殺西陽王羕,幷其二子播、充、孫崧及彭城王雄。陶侃與任讓有舊,爲請其死。帝曰:「是殺吾侍中、右衞者,不可赦也。」乃殺之。司徒導入石頭,令取故節,陶侃笑曰:「蘇武節似不如是。」導有慙色。丁亥,大赦。

6. In the second month, on the day Bingxu (March 29th), the loyalist armies assaulted Shitou. The Chief Clerk to the General Who Establishes Might, Teng Han, attacked Su Yi and greatly routed him. Su Shuo led several hundred elite cavalry to cross the Qinhuai River and attack the loyalists, but Wen Jiao struck back against Su Shuo and killed him. Han Huang and the other rebel generals were afraid, and they gathered up their remaining forces, planning to join Zhang Jian at Qu'a. But the gates and passes of Shitou were so narrow that it was difficult for them to get out, and in their wild stampede to flee, some ten thousand of them were killed. The loyalists captured Su Yi and killed him.

Teng Han's subordinate commander Cao Ju located Emperor Cheng and fled with him to Wen Jiao's ship. When the loyalist ministers saw Emperor Cheng, they all kowtowed before him and wept as they begged forgiveness for their failures.

The loyalists killed the defector prince Sima Yang, his two sons Sima Bo and Sima Chong, his grandson Sima Song, and the Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Xiong.

Tao Kan had a prior relationship with Su Jun's general Ren Rang, and so he asked whether Ren Rang might be spared. But Emperor Cheng declared, "He killed my Palace Attendant and my Guard General of the Right; there will be no pardon for him." So Ren Rang was killed as well.

When Wang Dao entered Shitou, he ordered his missing Staff of Authority to be retrieved. Tao Kan joked, "It looks much finer than Su Wu's staff." Wang Dao looked ashamed.

On the day Dinghai (March 30th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin.

〈滕含自輕車長史進建威將軍長史。〉〈淮,秦淮也。〉〈羕附蘇峻見上咸和三年,雄奔峻見上卷二年。〉〈導自討王敦時假節;其自石頭出奔也,棄之。〉〈導爲侃所譏,自愧其失節。〉

(Teng Han had been promoted from Chief Clerk of the General of Chariots and Cavalry to Chief Clerk of the General Who Establishes Might.

This passage mentioned the "Huai" River; it means the Qinhuai River.

Sima Yang's defection to Su Jun is mentioned above, in the third year of Xianhe (328.11). Sima Xiong's defection is mentioned in Book 93, in the second year of Xianhe (327.10).

Wang Dao had been granted a Staff of Authority when he was appointed as commander of the forces against Wang Dun. When he fled from Shitou, he had left it behind.

Su Wu was a Chinese envoy who was held captive for nineteen years by the Xiongnu. He famously always kept his Staff of Authority close at hand during his captivity and never lost it, even after it had seriously deteriorated. Wang Dao understood that Tao Kan's joke was a rebuke, and he looked ashamed because he had not kept his staff as Su Wu had done.)


丙戌,諸軍攻石頭。李陽與蘇逸戰於柤浦,陽軍敗。建威長史滕含以銳卒擊之,逸等大敗。含奉帝御于溫嶠舟,羣臣頓首號泣請罪。弋陽王羕有罪,伏誅。丁亥,大赦。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Bingxu (March 29th), the loyalist armies assaulted Shitou. Li Yang fought Su Yi at Zhapu, but Li Yang's army was defeated. Then the Chief Clerk to the General Who Establishes Might, Teng Han, attacked Su Yi and the other rebels with elite troops and greatly defeated them. Teng Han escorted Emperor Cheng to Wen Jiao's ship, where the loyalist ministers all kowtowed before him and wept as they begged forgiveness for their failures.

For his past crimes, the Prince of Yiyang, Sima Yang, was executed.

On the day Dinghai (March 30th), a general amnesty was declared.

成帝在石頭,任讓在帝前戮侍中鍾雅,右衛將軍劉超。帝泣曰:「還我侍中!」讓不奉詔,遂斬超、雅。事平之後,陶公與讓有舊,欲宥之。許柳兒思妣者至佳,諸公欲全之。若全思妣,則不得不為陶全讓,於是欲并宥之。事奏,帝曰:「讓是殺我侍中者,不可宥!」諸公以少主不可違,并斬二人。(New Tales of the World 3.11)

During the time that Emperor Cheng was held prisoner in the Shitou fortress, Ren Rang, in Emperor Cheng's presence, seized his Palace Attendant, Zhong Ya, and his Guard General of the Right, Liu Chao. Emperor Cheng cried out in tears, "Give me back my Palace Attendant!"

Ren Rang, disregarding the imperial command, decapitated Liu Chao and Zhong Ya.

After Su Jun's uprising had been suppressed, Tao Kan, who had a long-standing friendship with Ren Rang, wanted to have him pardoned. Now Xu Liu's son, Xu Si (who had been involved in Su Jun's revolt through his father), was an exceedingly fine man, and all the court dignitaries wanted to spare him. But if they spared Xu Si, then they had no recourse but to spare Ren Rang as well, for Tao Kan's sake, so they asked to have both men pardoned. But when the matter was presented to the throne, Emperor Cheng said, "Ren Rang is the one who killed my Palace Attendant; he may not be pardoned."

All the dignitaries felt the young ruler could not be disobeyed, so they decapitated both men. (tr. Richard Mather)


張健疑弘徽等貳於己,皆殺之;帥舟師自延陵將入吳興,乙未,揚烈將軍王允之與戰,大破之,獲男女萬餘口。健復與韓晃、馬雄等西趨故鄣,郗鑒遣參軍李閎追之,及於平陵山,皆斬之。

7. Zhang Jian suspected that Hong Hui and the other rebel generals with him were about to turn against him, so he killed them all. Then he led his naval forces from Yanling down into Wuxing. On the day Yiwei (April 7th), the General Who Spreads Ferocity, Wang Yunzhi, fought Zhang Jian and greatly routed him, capturing more than ten thousand men and women. Zhang Jian then went to join Han Huang, Ma Xiong, and the other remaining rebel leaders as they fled west to Guzhang. Chi Jian sent his Army Advisor, Li Hong, to pursue them. Li Hong caught up with them at Mount Pingling and killed them all.

〈毗陵縣,前漢屬會稽郡,後漢分屬吳郡,晉分屬毗陵郡。師古曰:毗陵,舊延陵,漢改之。晉分毗陵、延陵爲兩縣,毗陵則今常州晉陵縣之地,延陵則今潤州丹徒、金壇之地。宋白曰:延陵縣,本漢曲阿縣地,晉太康二年,分曲阿之延陵鄕置。〉〈故鄣縣,漢屬丹陽郡;吳分吳郡丹楊置吳興郡,故鄣屬焉。其地本秦鄣郡所治,故曰故鄣。今湖州安吉縣,故鄣之南鄕也;今廣德軍,漢故鄣縣之地。杜佑曰:湖州長城縣西八十里鄣郡故城,卽秦鄣郡縣城也。〉〈《蘇峻傳》作「巖山」。據《帝紀》,平陵山當在溧陽界。沈約曰:吳分溧陽爲永平縣,晉武帝更名永世。董覽《吳地志》云:晉分永世爲平陵縣,宋文帝元嘉九年,併入永世、溧陽二縣。〉

(During Former Han, Piling County was part of Kuaiji commandary. During Later Han, it was split off as part of Wu commandary. During Jin, it was again split off, this time to form its own Piling commandary. Yan Shigu remarked, "Piling was once known as Yanling; Han changed its name." Jin split it into the two counties of Piling and Yanling. So Piling was within Jinling County in modern Changzhou, while Yanling was within the counties of Dantu and Jintan in modern Runzhou. Song Bai remarked, "Yanling County was originally the territory of Han's Qu'a County. In Jin's second year of Taikang (281), the town of Yanling in Qu'a was split off."

During Han, Guzhang County was part of Danyang commandary. Eastern Wu split off parts of Wu and Danyang to form Wuxing commandary, and Guzhang became a part of it. The area was originally administered by the Qin dynasty's Zhang commandary, thus the name Guzhang ("formerly Zhang"). Anji County in modern Huzhou was the southern part of Guzhang; the modern Guangde Garrison is where Han's Guzhang County was. Du You remarked, "The capital city of Zhang commandary was eighty li west of Changcheng County in Huzhou; it was the county city of the Qin dynasty's Zhang commandary."

Regarding the place where the remaining rebel leaders were killed, the Biography of Su Jun in the Book of Jin records its name as "Mount Yan". If we follow the account of the Annals of Emperor Cheng in the Book of Jin, Mount Pingling must have been within 溧 Liyang. Shen Yue remarked, "Eastern Wu split off part of this Liyang to form Yongping County. Emperor Wu of Jin (Sima Yan) renamed it to Yongshi." Dong Lan's Geographical Records of Wu states, "Jin split off part of Yongshi to form Pingling County. In Emperor Wen of Liu-Song's ninth year of Yuanjia (432), Pingling was combined back into the two counties of Yongshi and Liyang.")


甲午,蘇逸以萬餘人自延陵湖將入吳興。乙未,將軍王允之及逸戰于溧陽,獲之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Jiawu (April 6th), Su Yi led more than ten thousand soldiers to march from Lake Yanling into Wuxing commandary. On the day Yiwei (April 7th), the general Wang Yunzhi caught up with Su Yi and fought him at Liyang, where he captured Su Yi.


是時宮闕灰燼,以建平園爲宮。溫嶠欲遷都豫章,三吳之豪請都會稽,二論紛紜未決。司徒導曰:「孫仲謀、劉玄德俱言『建康王者之宅』。古之帝王,不必以豐儉移都;苟務本節用,何憂彫弊!若農事不修,則樂土爲墟矣。且北寇游魂,伺我之隙,一旦示弱,竄於蠻越,求之望實,懼非良計。今特宜鎭之以靜,羣情自安。」由是不復徙都。以褚翜爲丹楊尹。時兵火之後,民物彫殘,翜收集散亡,京邑遂安。

8. During the course of Su Jun's rebellion, the palace complex at Jiankang had burned down. The Jianping Park was converted into a temporary palace.

Wen Jiao proposed moving the capital to Yuzhang, while the gentry of the Three Wu region asked that it be moved to Kuaiji instead. Both sides argued passionately for their sides, and nothing could be decided. Then Wang Dao said, "Both Sun Zhongmou (Sun Quan) and Liu Xuande (Liu Bei) declared, 'Jiankang is the residence of kings'. The kings and emperors of old did not always move their capitals based on prosperity or want. So long as we see to our duties and tend to our authority, what need is there to fear adversity or decay? But if we ignore our agricultural concerns, then our paradise will become a wasteland. Furthermore, the northern barbarians are restless, lying in wait upon our border. At the first sign of weakness, they are ready to pounce on us. I fear it would be no fine plan to make their hopes a reality. We must be sure to guard this place securely and peacefully, now more than ever. Gentlemen, please cease your arguing." So there was no further discussion of moving the capital.

Chu Sha was appointed as Intendant of Danyang. The common people of the capital region and their goods had suffered greatly from the soldiers and the fires of war. But Chu Sha gathered together all those who had scattered and fled, and the capital region once again became secure.

〈見六十六卷漢獻帝建安十七年。〉〈望者,見於外者也;實者,有諸中者也。〉

(Sun Quan's and Liu Bei's comments about Jianye are mentioned in Book 66, in Emperor Xian's seventeenth year of Jian'an (212.H in de Crespigny's To Establish Peace.)

Wang Dao uses the term 望實. 望 means looking afar; 實 means the various things within.)


時兵火之後,宮闕灰燼,以建平園爲宮。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

During the course of Su Jun's rebellion, the palace complex at Jiankang had burned down. The Jianping Park was converted into a temporary palace.


壬寅,以湘州幷荊州。

9. On the day Renyin (April 14th), Jin folded Xiangzhou back into Jingzhou.

〈分湘州見八十六卷懷帝永嘉元年。〉

(Xiangzhou was created in Book 86, in Emperor Huai's first year of Yongjia (307.19).)


壬寅,以湘州幷荊州。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Renyin (April 14th), Xiangzhou was folded back into Jingzhou.


三月,壬子,論平蘇峻功,以陶侃爲侍中、太尉,封長沙郡公,加都督交、廣、寧州諸軍事;郗鑒爲侍中、司空、南昌縣公;溫嶠爲驃騎將軍、開府儀同三司,加散騎常侍、始安郡公;陸曄進爵江陵公;自餘賜爵侯、伯、子、男者甚衆。卞壼及二子眕、盱、桓彝、劉超、鍾雅、羊曼、陶X,皆加贈諡。路永、匡術、賈寧,皆蘇峻之黨也;峻未敗,永等去峻歸朝廷;王導欲賞以官爵。溫嶠曰:「永等皆峻之腹心,首爲亂階,罪莫大焉。晚雖改悟,未足以贖前罪;得全首領,爲幸多矣,豈可復褒寵之哉!」導乃止。

10. In the third month, on the day Renzi (April 24th), a discussion was held on who had achieved merits in the campaign against Su Jun. Tao Kan was appointed as Palace Attendant, Grand Commandant, and Duke of Changsha commandary, and his authority as Commander was extended to Jiaozhou, Guangzhou, and Ningzhou. Chi Jian was appointed as Palace Attendant, Minister of Works, and Duke of Nanchang County. Wen Jiao was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry, Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and Duke of Shi'an commandary, and was also granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. Lu Ye's title was advanced to Duke of Jiangling. And there were a great many other people who were appointed as Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons. Posthumous appointments were granted to Bian Kun and his two sons Bian Zhen and Bian Xu, to Huan Yi, to Liu Chao, to Zhong Ya, to Yang Man, and to Tao Zhan.

Lu Yong, Kuang Shu, and Jia Ning had all been Su Jun's partisans, but they had abandoned him before his ultimate defeat and switched sides to the loyalists. Wang Dao wanted to award them with ranks and titles as well. But Wen Jiao said, "Lu Yong and these others were Wen Jiao's personal companions, the instigators of his rebellion. There is no greater crime than this. Although they eventually saw the error of their ways, that does not make up for their earlier crimes. They are already fortunate indeed to keep their heads attached to their necks. How can you go so far as to praise and favor them like this?" So Wang Dao changed his mind.

〈侃先督荊、襄、雍、梁四州,今加都督三州。〉〈晉制,驃騎將軍位從公。〉

(Tao Kan had earlier been appointed as Commander of military affairs for Jingzhou, Xiangzhou, Yongzhou, and Lianzhou. He was now being granted additional authority over Jiaozhou, Guangzhou, and Ningzhou.

Under the Jin system, the office of General of Agile Cavalry was below that of a Duke.)


三月壬子,以征西大將軍陶侃爲太尉,封長沙郡公;車騎將軍郗鑒爲司空,封南昌縣公;平南將軍溫嶠爲驃騎將軍、開府儀同三司,封始安郡公。其餘封拜各有差。庚午,以右光祿大夫陸曄爲衛將軍、開府儀同三司。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third month, on the day Renzi (April 24th), the Grand General Who Conquers The West, Tao Kan, was appointed as Grand Commandant and Duke of Changsha commandary. The General of Chariots and Cavalry, Chi Jian, was appointed as Minister of Works and Duke of Nanchang County. The General Who Pacifies The South, Wen Jiao, was appointed as General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Shi'an commandary, and was also granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. The other loyalists were each granted ranks and titles as appropriate. On the day Gengwu (May 12th), the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Right, Lu Ye, was appointed as Guard General, and was also granted the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.


陶侃以江陵偏遠,移鎭巴陵。

11. Tao Kan felt that Jiangling was too distant and isolated a base, and he wanted to shift his command post to Baling.

〈江陵偏在江北,又遠建康。武帝太康元年,立巴陵縣,屬長沙郡,後置建昌郡。《水經註》曰:湘水北至巴丘山,入于江,右岸有巴陵故城,本吳之巴丘邸閣也。巴丘山,一名天岳山,一名幕阜;前有培塿,曰巴蛇冢。〉

(Jiangling was isolated in that it was north of the Yangzi; it was also a long ways from Jiankang.

In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taikang (280), he created Baling County as part of Changsha commandary; it later became Jianchang commandary. The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The Xiang River flows north until it reaches Mount Baqiu, where it enters the Yangzi. There is a city of Baling on the right bank of the river there, where Eastern Wu once had its Baqiu Mansion. Mount Baqiu was also called Mount Tianyue or Mu Mound; there was once a mound there called the Ba Snake Mound.)


朝議欲留溫嶠輔政,嶠以王導先帝所任,固辭還藩;又以京邑荒殘,資用不給,乃留資蓄,具器用,而後旋于武昌。

12. Many people wanted to have Wen Jiao remain in Jiankang to serve as regent over the government. But since Wen Jiao felt that Wang Dao was the one whom Emperor Ming had appointed to fulfill that role, he declined this offer and returned to his border post instead. And since the capital region had been devastated and laid waste, and it lacked critical supplies, Wen Jiao left behind everything that he had stored up and all of his materials before he went back to Wuchang.

帝之出石頭也,庾亮見帝,稽顙哽咽,詔亮與大臣俱升御座。明日,亮復泥首謝罪,乞骸骨,欲闔門投竄山海。帝遣尚書、侍中手詔慰喻曰:「此社稷之難,非舅之責也。」亮上疏自陳:「祖約、蘇峻縱肆凶逆,罪由臣發,寸斬屠戮,不足以謝七廟之靈,塞四海之責。朝廷復何理齒臣於人次,臣亦何顏自次於人理!願陛下雖垂寬宥,全其首領;猶宜棄之,任其自存自沒,則天下粗知勸戒之綱矣。」優詔不許。亮又欲遁逃山海,自曁陽東出,詔有司錄奪舟船。亮乃求外鎭自效,出爲都督豫州‧揚州之江西‧宣城諸軍事、豫州刺史,領宣城內史,鎭蕪湖。

13. When Emperor Cheng had emerged from the Shitou fortress and Yu Liang had seen him, Yu Liang had kowtowed before him while choking back sobs. But Emperor Cheng still ordered him to take his place with the other ministers as Emperor Cheng's escorts and attendants. The following day, Yu Liang once again lay his head in the dirt and begged forgiveness for all his crimes. He asked to resign his position, that he would give up all he had and go into exile somewhere in the wilderness. But Emperor Cheng sent his Masters of Writing and Palace Attendants to personally present his edict to Yu Liang, consoling and assuring him, "This was a misfortune of the state itself; Uncle, you are not to blame."

Yu Liang sent up a petition explaining himself, stating, "It was all because of what I did that Zu Yue's and Su Jun's wild behavior and wicked treason were allowed to spread so far. Even if my body were chopped up into tiny pieces, it would still not be enough for me to make amends to the spirits of the Seven Ancestors or shoulder the condemnation of all within the Four Seas. By what right am I still to be counted among the other ministers of court? How can I bear to show my face among them again? Your Majesty has already been generous enough to leave my head attached to my neck; you should get rid of me now and leave me to fend for myself, then the realm will have some idea that you were urged to be strict with me."

But Emperor Cheng praised him in an edict and would not permit him to go into exile. Yu Liang was even planning to run off on his own, to go out east of Jiyang, but Emperor Cheng ordered the officials to impound the boats so that Yu Liang could not leave.

Then Yu Liang asked that he at least be sent out to a border post where he could redeem himself. So he was sent off to serve as Commander of military affairs in the portions of Yuzhou and Yangzhou that were west of the Yangzi, along with Xuancheng. He was appointed as Inspector of Yuzhou and acting Interior Minister of Xuancheng, and he was stationed at Wuhu.

〈事見上卷元年。〉〈武帝太康二年,分毗陵、無錫立曁陽縣,屬毗陵郡,其地在今平江府常熟縣界。杜佑曰:江陰,晉曰曁陽。按:曁陽,今江陰軍地,秦、漢爲曁陽鄕,晉置曁陽縣城;更曁陽湖。〉〈錄,拘也,收也。〉〈豫州、揚州之江西,淮南、廬江、弋陽、安豐、歷陽等郡也。宣城郡,屬揚州。〉

(Yu Liang's role in causing the rebellion of Su Jun and Zu Yue is mentioned in Book 93, in the first year of Xianhe (326.9).

In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taikang (281), he had split off parts of Piling and Wuxi to form Jiyang County, as part of Piling commandary. This region was within Changshu County in the modern Pingzhou Outpost. Du You remarked, "During Jin, Jiangyin was named Jiyang." Note that Jiyang was where the modern Jiangyin Garrison is. During Qin and Han, it was Jiyang Village. Jin split it off as the city of Jiyang County. There was also a Lake Jiyang.

To impound is to gather up or collect.

"Yuzhou and Yangzhou west of the Yangzi" meant Huainan, Lujiang, Yiyang, Anfeng, Liyang, and the other commandaries in that area. Xuancheng commandary was part of Yangzhou.)


以護軍將軍庾亮爲平西將軍、都督揚州之宣城江西諸軍事、假節,領豫州刺史,鎮蕪湖。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The General Who Protects The Army, Yu Liang, was appointed as General Who Pacifies The West, Commander of all military affairs in Yangzhou and Xuancheng west of the Yangzi, Credential Holder, and acting Inspector of Yuzhou, and he was stationed at Wuhu.


陶侃、溫嶠之討蘇逡[峻]也,移檄征、鎭,使各引兵入援。湘州刺史益陽侯卞敦擁兵不赴,又不給軍糧,遣督護將數百人隨大軍而已,朝野莫不怪歎。及峻平,陶侃奏敦沮軍,顧望不赴國難,請檻車收付廷尉。王導以喪亂之後,宜加寬宥,轉敦安南將軍、廣州刺史;病不赴,徵爲光祿大夫、領少府。敦憂愧而卒,追贈本官,加散騎常侍,諡曰敬。

14. During Tao Kan's and Wen Jiao's campaign against Su Jun, they had sent out proclamations to all the border commanders to bring their troops and join the loyalist cause. But the Inspector of Xiangzhou and Marquis of Yiyang, Bian Dun, had kept his troops close at hand and did not go to join the loyalists, nor did he send them any grain or supplies. He merely sent his Protector to lead several hundred men to follow in the wake of the loyalists' main army, and did no more. There was no one in the court or among the people who did not blame or sigh at him.

After Su Jun was put down, Tao Kan petitioned to have Bian Dun stripped of his command, since he did not come to the aid of the state in its time of difficulty. He further asked that a cage cart be sent to arrest Bian Dun and bring him to the Minister of Justice. But Wang Dao believed that now that the time of sorrow and turmoil was at an end, it was best to show favor instead. So he intended to merely transfer Bian Dun to be General Who Maintains The South and Inspector of Guangzhou instead. But when Bian Dun was not able to go to that post on account of his illness, Wang Dao instead summoned him to the capital to serve as Household Attendant With Golden Tassel and as acting Minister Steward.

Bian Dun passed away from worry and shame; he was posthumously restored to his former positions, as well as made a Cavalier In Regular Attendance, and he was granted the posthumous name Jing ("the Esteemed").

〈不料其如此而乃如此,故怪之;又念其平昔爲何如人而今乃爲此,故歎之。〉〈勤王之師,侃爲盟主;湘州又侃所督也,故侃奏收敦。〉〈《諡法》:夙夜警戒曰敬;合善典法曰敬。卞敦何足以當之!〉

(This passage states that people were 怪歎 at Bian Dun. They blamed him for acting unexpectedly, and they sighed when considering his past behavior as opposed to what he had done now.

Tao Kan had served as the leader of the loyalist alliance; since Xiangzhou was also part of his area of authority as Commander, he also submitted this petition requesting that Bian Dun be arrested.

The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One who remains prepared and ready day or night may be called Esteemed; one who keeps to the good and maintains the laws and canons may be called Esteemed." How could this possibly describe Bian Dun?)


臣光曰:庾亮以外戚輔政,首發禍機,國破君危,竄身苟免;卞敦位列方鎭,兵糧俱足,朝廷顚覆,坐觀勝負;人臣之罪,孰大於此!旣不能明正典刑,又以寵祿報之,晉室無政,亦可知矣。任是責者,豈非王導乎!

15. Your servant Sima Guang remarks: Yu Liang served as regent owing to his marital connections to the royal family, and in that capacity he was the chief culprit for unleashing disaster upon the realm. It was thanks to what he did that the state was smashed and the ruler was endangered, yet he himself scurried away to save his own life. In the same manner, Bian Dun held an important command on the border, and he had plenty of soldiers and supplies at hand. But when the court was thrown into chaos, he merely stood by, watching to see which side would be victorious. Are there any greater crimes that a man or minister can commit than to be so selfish as these two were? Yet in dealing with them, the wise and proper writs of justice were dispensed with, and they were even rewarded with favor. From this, we can see that the house of Jin was not properly governed. And who else was most to blame for this but Wang Dao?

徙高密王紘爲彭城王。紘,雄之弟也。

16. The Prince of Gaomi, Sima Hong, had his title changed to Prince of Pengcheng. This Sima Hong was the younger brother of the recently executed Sima Xiong, former holder of that title.

復封高密王紘爲彭城王。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

The Prince of Gaomi, Sima Hong, had his title restored to Prince of Pengcheng.


夏,四月,乙未,始安忠武公溫嶠卒,葬於豫章。朝廷欲爲之造大墓於元、明二帝陵之北,太尉侃上表曰:「嶠忠誠著於聖世,勳義感於人神,使亡而有知,豈樂今日勞費之事!願陛下慈恩,停其移葬。」詔從之。

17. In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yiwei (June 6th), Wen Jiao passed away; he was posthumously known as Duke Zhongwu ("the Loyal and Martial") of Shi'an. He was buried at Yuzhang.

The court wished to build a great tomb for Wen Jiao north of the tombs of Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) and Emperor Ming. But Tao Kan sent up a petition stating, "Wen Jiao was so loyal and upright that he surpassed all others of the age, and his achievements and sense of virtue were grand enough to affect all people and all spirits. If he still knows of our affairs, would he be pleased at all this labor and expenditure on such a thing? I ask that Your Majesty show kindness and grace, and do not move his burial place."

Emperor Cheng issued an edict agreeing with Tao Kan.

夏四月乙未,驃騎將軍、始安公溫嶠卒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In summer, the fourth month, on the day Yiwei (June 6th), the General of Agile Cavalry and Duke of Shi'an, Wen Jiao, passed away.


以平南軍司劉胤爲江州刺史。陶侃、郗鑒皆言胤非方伯才,司徒導不從。或謂導子悅曰:「今大難之後,紀綱弛頓,自江陵至于建康三千餘里,流民萬計,布在江州。江州,國之南藩,要害之地,而胤以忲侈之性,臥而對之,不有外變,必有內患矣。」悅曰:「此溫平南之意也。」

18. The Army Instructor to the General Who Pacifies The South, Liu Yin, was appointed as Inspector of Jiangzhou. Tao Kan and Chi Jian both said that Liu Yin lacked the talent to serve as a border commander, but Wang Dao did not listen to them.

Someone said to Wang Dao's son Wang Yue, "We have only just emerged from the rebellion, and yet the laws are already this lax. Furthermore, Jiangling is more than three thousand li from Jiankang, and Jiangzhou is filled with tens of thousands of refugees. Jiangzhou is our state's southern border, a critical position to hold. But Liu Yin has a luxurious nature. You wait and see; if there is not external trouble there, Liu Yin will still up an internal problem just the same."

But Wang Yue replied, "This was what General Wen wished."

〈胤本爲溫嶠軍司。〉〈忲,奢也;〉〈溫嶠爲平南將軍。〉

(Liu Yin had served as Army Instructor under Wen Jiao in his capacity as General Who Pacifies The South.

The term 忲 means luxurious.)


This Liu Yin is not to be confused with Liu Yao’s son Liu Yin, of Zhao.

秋,八月,趙南陽王胤帥衆數萬自上邽趣長安,隴東、武都、安定、新平、北地、扶風、始平諸郡戎、夏皆起兵應之。胤軍于仲橋;石生嬰城自守,後趙中山公虎帥騎二萬救之。九月,虎大破趙兵於義渠,胤奔還上邽。虎乘勝追擊,枕尸千里。上邽潰,虎執趙太子熙、南陽王胤及其將王公卿校以下三千餘人,皆殺之,徙其臺省文武、關東流民、秦‧雍大族九千餘人于襄國;又阬五郡屠各五千餘人于洛陽。進攻集木且羌于河西,克之,俘獲數萬,秦、隴悉平。氐王蒲洪、羌酋姚戈仲俱降于虎,虎表洪監六夷軍事,弋仲爲六夷左都督。徙氐、羌十五萬落于司、冀州。

19. In autumn, the eighth month, Liu Yin of Zhao led several tens of thousands of Zhao soldiers from Shanggui to march towards Chang'an. The Rong tribes and the Xia people (ethnic Han) of the commandaries of Longdong, Wudu, Anding, Xinping, Beidi, Fufeng, and Shiping all raised troops to support him. Liu Yin's army marched to Zhongqiao. Shi Sheng closed the gates of Chang'an to mount a defense, while Shi Hu led twenty thousand cavalry to reinforce him.

In the ninth month, Shi Hu greatly routed the Zhao soldiers at Yiqu. Liu Yin fled back to Shanggui. Shi Hu pressed his victory and pursued the Zhao army, leaving corpses along the road for a thousand li. Then Shanggui also fell, and Shi Hu captured Liu Xi, Liu Yin, and more than three thousand other Zhao princes, nobles, ministers, commanders, and other such officials. He killed them all.

Shi Hu forced all of the remaining Zhao civil and military officials, all the refugees west of the passes, and more than nine thousand members of the great families of Qinzhou and Yongzhou to relocate east to Xiangguo. He also buried alive more than five thousand of the Chuge Xiongnu of the Five Commandaries at Luoyang. Shi Hu advanced and attacked the Jimuqie Qiang tribe at Hexi, and he defeated them, taking captive tens of thousands of them. The regions of Qin and Long were thus all pacified by Later Zhao.

The Di king Pu Hong and the Qiang chieftain Yao Yizhong both surrendered to Shi Hu as well. Shi Hu petitioned to have Pu Hong appointed as Chief of military affairs of the Six Tribes, and Yao Yizhong appointed as Commander of the Left of the Six Tribes. He forced a hundred and fifty thousand tribes of the Di and Qiang to relocate to Sizhou and Jizhou.

〈魏收《地形志》有隴東郡,領涇陽、祖厲、撫夷三縣,蓋後趙分安定置也。應劭曰:祖,音罝。師古曰:厲,音賴。〉〈鄭國渠逕仲山,渠上有橋,謂之仲橋,在九嵕山之東。宋白曰:雍州醴泉縣城,卽仲橋城。〉〈義渠,戰國時義渠戎之地,前漢爲義渠縣,後漢、晉省。〉〈《載記》曰:自劉淵至曜,三世二十七年而滅。〉〈屠各,匈奴種,前趙之族類也;五郡屠各,卽匈奴五部之衆。集木且,羌種落之名。〉

(The Geographical Records of the Book of Northern Wei mentions a Longdong commandary, which contained the three counties of Jingyang, Zuli, and Fuyi. Later Zhao must have created it, by splitting it off from Anding commandary. Regarding Zuli county, according to Ying Shao the first character in its name is pronounced "ju", and according to Yan Shigu the second character is pronounced "lai".

There was a bridge above the Zhengguo Canal at the point where it flowed through Mount Zhong, and so that place was called Zhongqiao ("Zhong Bridge"). It was east of Mount Jiuzong. Song Bai remarked, "The city of Zhongqiao was the capital city of Quanxian county in Yongzhou."

Yiqu was the territory of the Rong tribes of Yiqu during the Warring States era. Former Han had organized the territory as Yiqu county, but Later Han and Jin abolished it.

The Biography of Liu Yao in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, "From Liu Yuan through Liu Yao, Han-Zhao lasted for three generations and twenty-seven years, then perished."

The Chuge were a branch of the Xiongnu, and the chief clan of Former Zhao. The Chuge of the Five Commandaries were the Xiongnu of the Five Divisions (of the Southern Xiongnu).

The Jumuqie were a branch of the Qiang.)


From now on, since there is only one state of Zhao, Sima Guang drops the term Later Zhao and refers to Shi Le's state as simply Zhao. I shall do the same.

八月,利曜將劉胤等帥衆侵石生,次于雍。九月,石勒將石季龍擊胤,斬之,進屠上邽,盡滅劉氏,坑其黨三千餘人... 是歲,石勒將石季龍攻氐帥蒲洪於隴山,降之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the eighth month, Liu Yao's general Liu Yin and other Han-Zhao generals led their forces to attack Shi Sheng. They marched to Yong. In the ninth month, Shi Le's general Shi Hu attacked Liu Yin and killed him. Shi Hu then advanced and massacred Shanggui, completely exterminating the Liu clan of Han-Zhao and burying alive more than three thousand of their partisans.

...

During this year (328), Shi Le's general Shi Hu attacked the Di chieftain Pu Hong at Mount Long, and accepted his surrender.

曜敗,洪西保隴山。石季龍將攻上邽,洪又請降。季龍大悅,拜冠軍將軍,委以西方之事。(Book of Jin 112, Biography of Pu/Fu Hong)

After Liu Yao was defeated, Pu Hong took refuge at Mount Long. Shi Hu came and attacked Shanggui, and Pu Hong asked to surrender to him. Shi Hu was grealy overjoyed, and appointed Pu Hong as Champion General, entrusting him in affairs in the west.


初,隴西鮮卑乞伏述延居于苑川,侵幷鄰部,士馬強盛。及趙亡,述延懼,遷于麥田。述延卒,子傉大寒立;傉大寒卒,子司繁立。

20. Before this time, there was a certain leader of the Xianbei of Longxi, Qifu Shuyan, who dwelt at Yuanchuan. He would raid and annex the neighboring areas, and his warriors and horses were strong and numerous. But when Zhao fell to Later Zhao, Qifu Shuyan became afraid, and he shifted his base to Maitian. In the course of time, Qifu Shuyan passed away, and his son Qifu Nudahan succeeded him. And when Qifu Nudahan passed away, his own son Qifu Sifan succeed him.

〈乞伏,鮮卑部落之名,後以爲姓。苑川水,出天水勇士縣之子城南山,東流歷子城川,又北逕牧師苑,故漢牧苑之地也,有東、西苑城,相去七里,西城卽乞伏所都也。杜佑曰:苑川,在蘭州五泉縣界。〉〈《水經註》:麥田山,在安定北界;山之東北,有麥田城,又北有麥田泉。乞伏始見于此。〉

(The Qifu were a branch of the Xianbei; it later became their surname.

The Yuanchuan River flowed out of the mountains south of Zicheng in Yongshi County in Tianshui commandary, and flowed east through Zichengchuan, then north through Mushi Garden, so named for having once been stable land during the Han dynasty. There were two cities of Yuancheng, east and west, seven li from one another; it was the western one which served as Qifu Shuyan's capital. Du You remarked, "Yuanchuan was within Wuquan County in Lanzhou."

The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "Mount Maitian is within the northern part of Anding commandary. There is a city of Maitian northeast of the mountain, and a Maitian Spring to the north.

This is the first mention of the Qifu clan.)


在昔有如弗斯、出連、叱盧三部,自漠北南出大陰山,遇一巨蟲于路,狀若神龜,大如陵阜,乃殺馬而祭之,祝曰:「若善神也,便開路;惡神也,遂塞不通。」俄而不見,乃有一小兒在焉。時又有乞伏部有老父無子者,請養為子,眾咸許之。老父欣然自以有所依憑,字之曰紇幹。紇幹者,夏言依倚也。年十歲,驍勇善騎射,彎弓五百斤。四部服其雄武,推為統主,號之曰乞伏可汗托鐸莫何。托鐸者,言非神非人之稱也。其後有祐鄰者,即國仁五世祖也。泰始初,率戶五千遷于夏緣,部眾稍盛。鮮卑鹿結七萬餘落,屯于高平川,與祐鄰迭相攻擊。鹿結敗,南奔略陽,祐鄰盡並其眾,固居高平川。祐鄰死,子結權立,徙於牽屯。結權死,子利那立,擊鮮卑吐賴于烏樹山,討尉遲渴權于大非川,收眾三萬餘落。利那死,弟祁埿立。祁埿死,利那子述延立。討鮮卑莫侯于苑川,大破之,降其眾二萬餘落,固居苑川。以叔父軻埿為師傅,委以國政,斯引烏埿為左輔將軍,鎮蔡園川,出連高胡為右輔將軍,鎮至便川,叱盧那胡為率義將軍,鎮牽屯山。述延死,子傉大寒立。會石勒滅劉曜,懼而遷于麥田無孤山。大寒死,子司繁立,始遷於度堅山。(Book of Jin 125, Biography of Qifu Guoren)

Of old, there were the three tribes of Rufusi, Chulian, and Chilu which came from the northern deserts south to Mount Dayin. They encountered a giant insect on the road, which resembled a divine tortoise, and was enormous as a funeral mound. So they killed a horse and offered it up as a sacrifice, praying, "If it is a good spirit, then it will permit us passage on this road. If it is an evil one, then we shall not pass through here." The being soon disappeared, and only a small boy remained.

At that time, there was an old man among the Qifu tribe who had no son. He asked that he be allowed to adopt the child as his son, and the group approved of it because of his honesty. The old man was delighted to have someone whom he could now rely on, and he named his new son Gegan. This word Gegan in the Xia (Han) language means 依倚 "reliable". He was ten years old, but he was brave and heroic, skilled at riding and at archery, and he could bend a bow of five hundred 斤. Everyone among the tribes considered him to be a mighty hero, and they acclaimed him as their leader, and he was called the Qifu Khan, Tuoduo Mohe. This word Tuoduo means a title given by neither spirits nor men.

Later on, there was a Youlin, who was five generations removed from Qifu Guoren. At the beginning of the Taishi era (265), Youlin led five thousand households to move to Xialu, and from that place his tribe grew large and flourishing. The Xianbei leader Lujie was camped at Gaopingchuan with more than seventy thousand tribes, and he fought repeatedly with Qifu Youlin. Lujie was defeated and fled south to Lueyang, while Qifu Youlin took over all of his people and resided at Gaopingchuan himself.

After Qifu Youlin died, his son Qifu Jiequan succeeded him, and moved to Qiantun. After Qifu Jiequan died, his son Qifu Lina succeeded him. Qifu Lina attacked the Xianbei leader Tulai at Mount Wushu, and campaigned against Yuchi Kequan at Dafeichuan. Altogether he gathered up more than thirty thousand tribes. After Qifu Lina's death, his younger brother Qifu Qini succeeded him. After Qifu Qini's death, Qifu Lina's son Qifu Shuyan succeeded him.

Qifu Shuyan campaigned against the Xianbei leader Mohou at Yuanchuan, and greatly routed him. He captured more than twenty thousand of Mohou's tribes, and he settled at Yuanchuan. Qifu Shuyan appointed his uncle Qifu Keni as Directing Instructor, and charged him with helping to run the state. He appointed Siyin Wuni as General Who Supports of the Left, and Siyin Wuni was stationed at Caiyuanchuan. He appointed Chulian Gaohu as General Who Supports of the Right, and Chulian Gaohu was stationed at Bianchuan. He appointed Chilu Nahu as General Who Spreads Righteousness, and Chilu Nahu was stationed at Mount Qiantun.

After Qifu Shuyan's death, his son Qifu Nudahan succeeded him. Soon afterwards, Shi Le vanquished Liu Yao. Out of fear of him, Qifu Nudahan moved to Mount Wudu at Maitian. After Qifu Nudahan's death, his son Qifu Sifan succeeded him, and this was when the group first moved to Mount Dujian.


江州刺史劉胤矜豪日甚,專務商販,殖財百萬,縱酒耽樂,不恤政事。冬,十二月,詔徵後將軍郭默爲右軍將軍。默樂爲邊將,不願宿衞,以情愬於胤。胤曰:「此非小人之所及也。」默將赴召,求資於胤,胤不與,默由是怨胤。胤長史張滿等素輕默,或倮露見之,默常切齒。臘日,胤餉默豚酒,默對信投之水中。會有司奏:「今朝廷空竭,百官無祿,惟資江州運漕;而胤商旅繼路,以私廢公,請免胤官。」書下,胤不卽歸罪,方自申理。僑人蓋肫掠人女爲妻,張滿使還其家,肫不從,而謂郭默曰:「劉江州不受免,密有異圖,與張滿等日夜計議,惟忌郭侯一人,欲先除之。」默以爲然,帥其徒候旦門開襲胤。胤將吏欲拒默,默呵之曰:「我被詔有所討,動者誅三族!」遂入至內寢,牽胤下,斬之;出,取胤僚佐張滿等,誣以大逆,悉斬之。傳胤首于京師,詐作詔書,宣示內外。掠胤女及諸妾幷金寶還船,袑云下都,旣而停胤故府。招引譙國內史桓宣,宣固守不從。

21. Jin's new Inspector of Jiangzhou, Liu Yin, became more and more unrestrained and arrogant by the day. He spent all his time engaging in commercial endeavors, growing his wealth by the millions. He indulged himself in wine and song, paying no heed to his administrative duties.

In winter, the twelfth month, an imperial edict was issued summoning the General of the Rear, Guo Mo, to come to the capital to serve as General of the Army of the Right. But Guo Mo was happy with his current position as a border general, and he did not want to serve among the palace guards, so he was inclined to complain to Liu Yin. But Liu Yin only replied, "This has nothing to do with a little fellow like me." And when Guo Mo was about to answer the summons, he asked for some assistance from Liu Yin, but Liu Yin would not give him anything. So Guo Mo began to resent Liu Yin. Liu Yin's Chief Clerk, Zhang Man, and his other subordinates had long thought little of Guo Mo, and some of them expressed such sentiments even to his face, so Guo Mo often gnashed his teeth at them too. On the day of the Laba Festival, Liu Yin sent Guo Mo some "pig wine" as payment; Guo Mo threw the messenger who had brought it into the river.

Not long afterwards, the court officials gathered and said, "The court is all used up, and the officials have no salaries; we can only get what is sent from Jiangzhou. But Liu Yin's merchant ventures fill the roads, and he is neglecting the public good in favor of his own interests. We should have him removed from office." The letter of removal was sent out, but Liu Yin did not go to answer for his crimes, and only did what he thought best.

The emigre Gai Zhun kidnapped a man's daughter to be his concubine. Zhang Man ordered Gai Zhun to return her to her family, but he refused. Instead, he approached Guo Mo and told him, "Inspector Liu refused to accept the recall order, because he secretly has sinister intentions. He has been plotting day and night with Zhang Man and the others. The only person they fear is you, Marquis Guo, and so they want to get rid of you first."

Guo Mo believed him, so he led his followers to rush to the government center, where they charged in to attack Liu Yin. Liu Yin's generals and officials wanted to stop him, but Guo Mo shouted at them, "I have been given imperial orders! Anyone who moves against me will have their clan exterminated to the third degree!" Then Guo Mo entered the inner chamber, dragged Liu Yin out, and beheaded him. After he came out, he arrested Zhang Man and Liu Yin's other assistants as well, and slandered them as great traitors before beheading all of them too.

Guo Mo sent Liu Yin's head to the capital, while forging an imperial decree and showing it to everyone near and far to justify his actions. He raped Liu Yin's daughter and his concubines. He put all of Liu Yin's gold and treasures on a ship, saying that he was sending it to the capital, but he actually kept them at Liu Yin's former residence.

Guo Mo ordered Huan Xuan to come join him, but Huan Xuan guarded his post and refused to join him.

〈默蓋自平蘇峻,還至尋陽而被徵也。《晉志》,按魏明帝時有左軍,則左軍,魏官也;武帝時,又置前軍、右軍,泰始八年,又置後軍,是爲四軍,皆宿衞兵也。〉〈晉以後,文武之士率稱小人,今西北之人猶然。〉〈信,使也。〉〈寄寓者爲僑人。〉〈謂胤不受免官之命也。〉〈桓宣自去年歸溫嶠,屯于武昌。〉

(Guo Mo returned to his post at Xunyang after the campaign against Su Jun had ended. He was now being summoned back from there. According to the Records of Jin, it was Emperor Ming of Cao-Wei (Cao Rui) that had created the office of General of the Army of the Left, so that was a Cao-Wei office. During Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) reign, he had further created the offices of General of the Army of the Front and of the Right, and in the eighth year of Taishi (272), he also created General of the Army of the Rear. These were the Generals of the Four Armies, which were all made up of imperial guards.

Ever since Jin, civil and military officials had taken to calling themselves 小人. The people of the northwest still follow this practice.

The term 信 here means a messenger.

An emigre is someone who lives as a guest in another place.

Gai Zhun refers to the fact that Liu Yin had ignored the recall order.

Huan Xuan had gone to Wen Jiao in the previous year, and was now camped at Wuchang.)


十二月壬辰,右將軍郭默害平南將軍、江州刺史劉胤,太尉陶侃帥衆討默。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the twelfth month, on the day Renchen (January 29th of 330), the General of the Right, Guo Ma, killed the General Who Pacifies The South and Inspector of Jiangzhou, Liu Yin. The Grand Commandant, Tao Kan, led his troops to campaign against Guo Mo.


是歲,賀蘭部及諸大人共立拓拔翳槐爲代王,代王紇那奔宇文部。翳槐遣其弟什翼犍質於趙以請和。

22. During this year, the Helan clan and the other leaders of the Xianbei in Dai all acclaimed Tuoba Yihuai as the Prince of Dai. The current Prince, Tuoba Hena, fled to seek refuge with the Yuwen clan. Tuoba Yihuai sent his younger brother Tuoba Shiyijian to Zhao as a hostage in order to ensure peace between them.

〈賀蘭部擁護翳槐,見上卷咸和二年。〉〈《後周書》言宇文之先出自炎帝,炎帝爲黃帝所滅,其子孫遁居朔野。後有大人普回,因狩得玉璽,文曰「皇帝璽」,普回以爲天授。其俗謂天子曰「宇文」,故國號宇文,因以爲氏。余謂此蓋宇文氏旣興於關西,其臣子爲之緣飾耳。李延壽曰:宇文部出遼東塞外,其先南單于之遠屬也,世爲東部大人。此言爲得其實。〉

(The Helan clan had protected Tuoba Yihuai until now, as mentioned in Book 93, in the second year of Xianhe (327.15).

The Book of Northern Zhou records that the ancestors of the Yuwen clan were the descendants of the ancient Flame Emperor. After the Flame Emperor was defeated by the Yellow Emperor, his descendants fled to settle in Shuoye. One of these descendants was a leader named Puhui. While out hunting, this Puhui discovered a jade seal, upon which was written "Emperor's Seal". Puhui believed that this was a sign of Heaven's assistance. The people commonly called the Son of Heaven the "Yuwen", and so Yuwen became the name of their state, and eventually of their clan. But I, Hu Sanxing, reckon that this was just a fancy tale spun by their descendants and their ministers after the Yuwen rose to prominence in Guanxi (during Northern Zhou). Li Yanshou remarked, "The Yuwen clan emerged from beyond the borders of the realm at Liaodong. Their ancestors were distant subordinates of the Southern Chanyu, and they served as leaders of the east for generations." This report seems closer to the truth.)


五年,帝出居於宇文部。賀蘭及諸部大人,共立烈帝。烈皇帝諱翳槐立,平文之長子也。以五年為元年。石勒遣使求和,帝遣弟昭成皇帝如襄國,從者五千餘家。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the fifth year, Tuoba Hena left to reside among the Yuwen clan. The leaders of the Helan and other great clans of Dai acclaimed Tuoba Yihuai as their new lord.

Emperor Lie, Tuoba Yihuai, was the eldest son of Tuoba Yulü. He took the fifth year of Tuoba Hena's reign to be the first year of his own reign. Shi Le sent envoys to the Tuoba court asking for peace, so Tuoba Yihuai sent his younger brother, Emperor Zhaocheng or Tuoba Shiyijian, to the Later Zhao capital at Xiangguo, along with more than five thousand families.


河南王吐延,雄勇多猜忌,羌酋姜聰刺之;吐延不抽劍,召其將紇扢埿,使輔其子葉延,保于白蘭,抽劍而死。葉延孝而好學,以爲:「禮,公孫之子得以王父字爲氏,」乃自號其國曰吐谷渾。

23. It was earlier mentioned that Murong Tuyuhun's son Murong Tuyan had succeeded him as Prince of Henan and leader of the Tuyuhun people in the far northwest. Murong Tuyan was heroic and bold, but very suspicious and envious. The Qiang chieftain Jiang Cong stabbed him with a blade. Before pulling out the blade, Murong Tuyan called his general Heguni and ordered him to act as regent for his son Murong Yeyan and to guard him at Bailan. Only then did Murong Tuyan pull out the blade, after which he died.

Murong Yeyan was filial and enjoyed studying. He believed, "Propriety demands that the great-grandson of a duke take his lord father's style name to be the name of his clan." And this was why he called his state Tuyuhun.

〈紇,胡骨翻,又恨竭翻。扢,古齕翻,又胡骨翻。〉〈白蘭,在吐谷渾西南,其地險遠,羌之別種居之;西北接利摸徒,南界郍鄂;風俗物產與宕昌略同。〉〈《左傳》,魯衆仲曰:「天子建德,因生以賜姓,胙之土而命之氏:諸侯以字。」杜預《註》曰:諸侯之子稱公子,公子之子稱公孫,公孫之子以王父字爲氏。〉

(Regarding the name Heguni, 紇 is pronounced "hu (h-u)" or "hie (h-ie)", and 扢 is pronounced "ge (g-e)" or "hu (h-u)".

Bailan was in the southwest of the Tuyuhun domain. It was in a rugged and distant region, and a branch of the Qiang lived there. It was adjacent to the Limotu to the northwest and Nuo'e to the south. Its customs and products were essentially the same as the Tanchang.

The Zuo Commentary states, "Zhongzhong of the state of Lu said, "When the Son of Heaven ennobles the virtuous, he gives them surnames from their birthplaces; he rewards them with territory, and the name of it becomes their clan-name. And the feudal lords take it as their style names (Yin 8.10)." Du Yu's commentary adds, "The son of a feudal lord was the Ducal Son, the son of the Ducal Son was the Ducal Grandson. The son of the Ducal Grandson took his lord father's style name as his clan name.")
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Aug 09, 2018 2:31 am, edited 9 times in total.
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BOOK 94

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Jun 11, 2018 5:02 am

五年(庚寅、三三○)

The Fifth Year of Xianhe (The Gengyin Year, 330 AD)


春,正月,劉胤首至建康。司徒導以郭默驍勇難制,己亥,大赦,梟胤首於大航,以默爲江州刺史。太尉侃聞之,投袂起曰:「此必詐也。」卽將兵討之。默遣使送妓妾及絹,幷寫中詔呈侃。參佐多諫曰:「默不被詖,豈敢爲此!若欲進軍,宜待詔報。」侃厲色曰:「國家年幼,詔令不出胸懷。劉胤爲朝廷所禮,雖方任非才,何緣猥加極刑!郭默恃勇,所在貪暴;以大難新除,禁網寬簡,欲因際會騁其從橫耳!」發使上表言狀,且與導書曰:「郭默殺方州卽用爲方州,害宰相便爲宰相乎?」導乃收胤首,答侃書曰:「默據上流之勢,加有船艦成資,故苞含隱忍,使有其地,朝廷得以潛嚴;俟足下軍到,風發相赴,豈非遵養時晦以定大事者邪!」侃笑曰:「是乃遵養時賊也!」

1. In spring, the first month, Liu Yin's head arrived at Jiankang. Wang Dao felt that Guo Mo was so valiant and bold that it would be difficult to control him. So on the day Jihai (February 5th), a general amnesty was declared in Jin, and Liu Yin's head was hung up on a great ship. Guo Mo was even appointed as the new Inspector of Jiangzhou.

When Tao Kan heard of all this, he shook out his sleeves and rose to say, "This must be false." And he led his troops to campaign against Guo Mo.

Guo Mo sent messengers to present women and silks to Tao Kan, along with the edict that he had written. And Tao Kan's advisors and assistants all remonstrated with him, saying, "There has been no order issued to move against Guo Mo, so how dare you launch this campaign? If you want to lead the army, you must wait until you receive an edict ordering you to do so."

But Tao Kan sternly replied, "The Emperor is young, and this edict could not have come from him. Liu Yin was appointed by the court, and though he may have lacked the talents to be a border commander, how dare Guo Mo pass the ultimate judgment against him? Guo Mo is just using his bold behavior to grasp at whatever he wants. We have only just gotten rid of the great threat endangering the state, and so the laws are still lax and permissive; Guo Mo just wants to take advantage of that fact to do as he pleases!"

Tao Kan sent up a petition explaining the situation, and he wrote a letter to Wang Dao stating, "If Guo Mo can kill a provincial border commander and then be appointed as one, can someone kill a chief minister and then take their place too?"

Wang Dao took down Liu Yin's head, but he wrote back to Tao Kan, "Guo Mo occupies the upper reaches of the Yangzi, and he has a full navy prepared as well. That is why we ought to tolerate him for now and let him hold what he has, while the court makes secret preparations against him. If we wait until your army is at hand, people will gather with the rise of the wind; wouldn't that be an instance of 'nursing things in obedience to circumstances while the time is yet dark', and thereby achieving the grand design in the end?"

Tao Kan only laughed and said, "This is more like nursing a thief!"

〈謂蘇峻新平也。〉〈潛,密也;潛嚴,密敕諸軍嚴裝也。〉〈風發,言其速也。〉

(The "great threat" was Su Jun, who had only just been defeated.

The term 潛 here means "secret"; these secret preparations would be secretly sending out orders to all the other armies to prepare for military endeavors against Guo Mo.

The term 風發 means "quickly done".)


五年春正月己亥,大赦。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the fifth month of Xianhe (330), in spring, the first month, on the day Jihai (February 5th), a general amnesty was declared.


豫州刺史庾亮亦請討默。詔加亮征討都督,帥步騎二萬往與侃會。

2. Yu Liang also asked to campaign against Guo Mo. An edict was issued promoting him to Expeditionary Commander, and Yu Liang led twenty thousand horse and foot to join with Tao Kan.

西陽太守鄧岳、武昌太守劉詡皆疑桓宣與默同。豫州西曹王隨曰:「宣尚不附祖約,豈肯同郭默邪!」岳、詡遣隨詣宣觀之,隨說宣:「明府心雖不爾,無以自明,惟有以賢子付隨耳!」宣乃遣其子戎與隨俱迎陶侃。侃辟戎爲掾,上宣爲武昌太守。

3. Jin's Administrator of Xiyang, Deng Yue, and its Administrator of Wuchang, Liu Xu, both wondered whether Huan Xuan was in league with Guo Mo. The Western Manager of Yuzhou, Wang Sui, said, "Huan Xuan clearly demonstrated that he would not side with Zu Yue before. How could he ever join with Guo Mo now?"

Deng Yue and Liu Xu sent Wang Sui to visit Huan Xuan to observe him. Wang Sui advised Huan Xuan, "Although you have no inclination to help the rebel, you have not yet clearly demonstrated that. But if you send your worthy son to come with me, that will be sufficient!" So Huan Xuan sent his son Huan Rong to go together with Wang Sui to welcome Tao Kan. Tao Kan appointed Huan Rong as a minor subordinate, and promoted Huan Xuan to Administrator of Wuchang.

事見上卷咸和二年。不爾,猶言如此也。

(Huan Xuan's stance regarding Zu Yue is mentioned in Book 93, in the second year of Xianhe (327.8).

By 不爾, Wang Sui meant "like this".)


二月,後趙羣臣請後趙王勒卽皇帝位;勒乃稱大趙天王,行皇帝事。立妃劉氏爲王后,世子弘爲太子。以其子宏爲驃騎大將軍、都督中外諸軍事、大單于,封秦王;斌爲左衞將軍,封太原王;恢爲輔國將軍,封南陽王。以中山公虎爲太尉、尚書令,進爵爲王;虎子邃爲冀州刺史,封齊王;宣爲左將軍;挺爲侍中、封梁王。又封石生爲河東王,石堪爲彭城王。以左長史郭敖爲尚書左僕射,右長史程遐爲右僕射、領吏部尚書,左司馬夔安、右司馬郭殷、從事中郎李鳳、前郎中令裴憲,皆爲尚書,參軍事徐光爲中書令、領祕書監。自餘文武,封拜各有差。

4. In the second month, the ministers of Zhao asked that Shi Le assume the imperial title. Shi Le then declared himself the Heavenly King of Zhao, with acting imperial authority. He honored his wife Lady Liu as Princess, and appointed his eldest son Shi Hong as his Crown Prince.

Shi Le appointed his son Shi Hóng as Grand General of Agile Cavalry, Commander of all military affairs, Grand Chanyu, and Prince of Qin. He appointed his son Shi Bin as Guard General of the Left and Prince of Taiyuan. He appointed his son Shi Kui as General Who Upholds The State and Prince of Nanyang.

Shi Hu was appointed as Grand Commandant and Prefect of the Masters of Writing, and he was advanced to Prince of Zhongshan. Among Shi Hu's sons, Shi Sui was appointed Inspector of Jizhou and Prince of Qi, Shi Xuan was appointed General of the Left, and Shi Ting was appointed Palace Attendant and Prince of Liang.

Shi Le also appointed Shi Sheng as Prince of Hedong and Shi Kan as Prince of Pengcheng.

The Chief Clerk of the Left, Guo Ao, was appointed as Supervisor of the Left of the Masters of Writing. The Chief Clerk of the Right, Cheng Xia, was appointed Supervisor of the Right and acting Supervisor of the Masters of Writing. The Marshal of the Left, Kui An, the Marshal of the Right, Guo Yin, the Attendant Officer of the Household Gentlemen, Li Feng, and the former Prefect of the Household Gentlemen, Pei Xian, were all appointed as Masters of Writing. Shi Le's advisor Xu Guang was appointed as Prefect of the Palace Secretariat and acting Custodian of the Private Library. All other civil and military officials were granted ranks as appropriate.

勒,字世龍,初名㔨,上黨武鄕羯人也。其先匈奴別部羌渠之冑,祖耶奕千,父周曷朱,一名乞翼加,並爲部落小帥。

(Shi Le, styled Shilong, was originally named Bei. He was a Jie from Wuxiang in Shangdang. They were descendants of the branch of the Xiongnu under Qiangqu. Shi Le's grandfather was Yeyiqian, and his father was Zhouhezhu, also called Qiyijia. Both were minor tribal chiefs.)


二年,石勒僭立,自稱大趙王。(Book of Northern Wei 1, Annals of the Tuoba Ancestors)

In the second year of the reign of the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai (330), Shi Le claimed royal title, proclaiming himself King of Great Zhao.


中山王虎怒,私謂齊王邃曰:「主上自都襄國以來,端拱仰成,以吾身當矢石,二十餘年,南擒劉岳,北走索頭,東平齊、魯,西定秦、雍,克十有三州。成大趙之業者,我也;大單于當以授我,今乃以與黃吻婢兒,念之令人氣塞,不能寢食!待主上晏駕之後,不足復留種也。」

5. Shi Hu was furious, feeling that he had been snubbed. He secretly said to Shi Sui, "Ever since our lord made Xiangguo the capital, he has sat with folded hands while relying on others to finish the job. I myself have endured the slings and arrows for more than twenty years. In the south, I captured Liu Yue; in the north, I put the Suotou to flight; in the east, I pacified Qi and Lu; in the west, I settled Qin and Yong. I took thirteen provinces altogether. I am the one who made Zhao a reality; the role of Grand Chanyu should have been mine. But now he gives it to this yellow-lipped whelp from a slave girl. Whenever I think about it, I can't even sleep or eat at all! But just wait until after our lord has perished. I will not leave any of his family behind."

懷帝永嘉六年,勒據襄國。見上卷明帝大寧三年。見上卷咸和二年。平齊、魯,謂滅徐龕、曹嶷也,見九十二卷元帝永昌元年、明帝太寧元年。定秦、雍,謂滅劉氏,降苻、姚也。口邊曰吻。鳥雛始出巢者,口黃未褪,目之曰黃吻,言少艾也。

(Shi Le’s capture of Xiangguo is mentioned in Emperor Huai's sixth year of Yongjia (Book 88, 312.23).

Shi Hu's capture of Liu Yue is mentioned in Book 93, in Emperor Ming's third year of Taining (325.13).

Shi Hu's attack on the Suotou (a common name for the Tuoba Xianbei) is mentioned in the same book, in the second year of Xianhe (327.14).

By "pacifying Qi and Lu", Shi Hu means when he conquered the rebel Jin general Xu Kan and the Qingzhou warlord Cao Yi, as mentioned in Book 92 in Emperor Yuan's (Sima Rui's) first year of Yongchang (322.44) and Emperor Ming's first year of Taining (323.14). By "settling Qin and Yong", he means when he extinguished the Liu clan of Former Zhao, and accepted the surrender of Fu Hong and Yao Yizhong.

The parts around the mouth are called the 吻 lips. When chicks first leave the nest, the yellow of their mouths has not yet faded, and this appearance is called "yellow-lipped". It is an expression suggesting the flush of youth.)


程遐言於勒曰:「天下粗定,當顯明逆順,故漢高祖赦季布,斬丁公。大王自起兵以來,見忠於其君者輒褒之,背叛不臣者輒誅之,此天下所以歸盛德也。今祖約猶存,臣竊惑之。」安西將軍姚弋仲亦以爲言。勒乃收約,幷其親屬中外百餘人悉誅之,妻妾、兒女分賜諸胡。

6. Cheng Xia said to Shi Le, "The realm has only just been settled, so you ought to make clear distinctions between those who are loyal and those who are traitorous. This was the reason why Emperor Gao of Han (Liu Bang) pardoned Ji Bu, but beheaded Duke Ding. Great King, ever since you first rose up with your soldiers, you have always commended those who remained loyal to their lords, while you have always executed those ministers who rebelled against theirs. This is the reason why abundant virtue has begun to return to the realm. Yet Zu Yue still exists. This is what I do not understand."

The General Who Maintains The West, Yao Yizhong, also expressed the same sentiment.

So Shi Le arrested Zu Yue and put him to death, along with more than a hundred of his relatives and close associates. His wives and daughters were each awarded to various tribesmen.

事見十一卷高祖五年。

(Emperor Gaozu's pardoning of Ji Bu, though Ji Bu fought against him to the last, and his execution of Duke Ding, though Duke Ding's defection helped him attain victory, are mentioned in Book 11, in Emperor Gaozu's fifth year (202 BC).)


初,祖逖有胡奴曰王安,逖甚愛之。在雍丘,謂安曰:「石勒是汝種類,吾亦無在爾一人。」厚資送而遣之。安以勇幹,仕趙爲左衞將軍。及約之誅,安歎曰:「豈可使祖士稚無後乎?」乃往就市觀刑。逖庶子道重,始十歲,安竊取以歸,匿之,變服爲沙門。及石氏亡,道重復歸江南。

7. Before, the Jin border commander Zu Ti had had a tribal slave named Wang An, and Zu Ti showed him special love and favor. At Yongqiu, he told Wang An, "Shi Le is one of your own kind. I am not the same sort of man as you either." So he gave Wang An a great amount of resources to see to his needs, and then sent him on his way. Wang An was heroic and capable, and under Zhao he became Guard General of the Left.

When Zu Yue was slated for execution, Wang An sighed and said, "How can Zu Shizhi not be allowed to have any descendants?" So he went to the market to watch the punishment. Zu Ti had a natural son, Zu Daozhong, who had just turned nine years old. Wang An stole him away and kept him in hiding, disguising him in the clothes of a monk. Many years later, after the fall of the Shi clan, Zu Daozhong returned to the Southland again.

祖逖,字士稚。

(Zu Ti's style name was Shizhi.)


郭默欲南據豫章,會太尉侃兵至,默出利戰不利,入城固守,聚米爲壘,以示有餘。侃築土山臨之。三月,庾亮兵至湓口,諸軍大集。夏,五月,乙卯,默將宋侯縛默父子出降。侃斬默于軍門,傳首建康,同黨死者四十人。詔以侃都督江州,領刺史;以鄧岳督交、廣諸軍事,領廣州刺史。侃還巴陵,因移鎭武昌。庾亮還蕪湖,辭爵賞不受。

8. Guo Mo wished to march south and capture Yuzhang. But Tao Kan's soldiers soon came to meet him there. Guo Mo marched out to fight, but he got the worst of it. He withdrew into the city to man his defenses. He gathered up all his rice into giant piles, to display how much excess he had. Tao Kan built earth mounds in order to observe him.

In the third month, Yu Liang's soldiers arrived at Penkou, and the two armies joined together.

In summer, the fifth month, on the day Yimao (June 21st), Guo Mo's general Song Hou tied up Guo Mo and his sons, and came out to offer surrender. Tao Kan beheaded Guo Mo at the army camp's gate, and sent his head on to Jiankang. Forty of his partisans were also killed.

An imperial edict was issued appointing Tao Kan as Commander of Jiangzhou and acting Inspector of Jiangzhou. Deng Yue was appointed as Commander of military affairs in Jiaozhou and Guangzhou and as acting Inspector of Guangzhou. Tao Kan returned to Baling, in order to transfer his defense post to Wuchang. Yu Liang returned to Wuhu, and he declined to accept any offered titles and rewards.

欲自尋陽而南據也。湓口,湓浦口也。湓,蒲奔翻。至是侃都督八州。

(Guo Mo wished to march from Xunyang south to capture that region.

Penkou was also called Penpukou. 湓 is pronounced "pen (p-en)".

With this appointment, Tao Kan now held Command authority over eight provinces.)


乙卯,太尉陶侃擒郭默于尋陽,斬之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Yimao (June 21st), the Grand Commandant, Tao Kan, captured Guo Mo at Xunyang and beheaded him.


趙將劉徵帥衆數千,浮海抄東南諸縣,殺南沙都尉許儒。

9. The Zhao general Liu Zheng led a host of several thousand. They crossed over the sea on pontoons and raided Jin's southeastern counties, where they killed the Commandant of Nansha, Xu Ru.

沈約《志》,晉陵太守有南沙令,本吳縣司鹽都尉署;吳時名沙中,吳平後,立曁陽,割屬之;晉成帝咸康七年,罷鹽署,立以爲南沙縣。今平江府常熟縣地。

(According to Shen Yue's Annotations, the Prefect of Nansha served under the Administrator of Jinling. Wu County originally had a Commandant-Director of Salt. During Eastern Wu, its name was changed to Shazhong. After Eastern Wu was conquered, Jiyang was formed and divided off from it. In Emperor Cheng's seventh year of Xiankang (340), the Salt office was discontinued, and the region became Nansha County. It is now the region of Changshu County in Pingjiang Garrison.)


石勒將劉徵寇南沙,都尉許儒遇害,進入海虞。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Shi Le's general Liu Zheng invaded Nansha, where he killed the Capital Commandant, Xu Ru. Liu Zheng then advanced and entered Haiyu.


張駿因前趙之亡,復收河南地,至于狄道,置五屯護軍,與趙分境。六月,趙遣鴻臚孟毅拜駿征西大將軍、涼州牧,加九錫。駿恥爲之臣,不受,留毅不遣。

10. Since Former Zhao had collapsed, Zhang Jun recovered his former territory south of the Yellow River, as far as Didao. He formed Protector Generals of five outposts, and he divided the territory with Zhao.

In the sixth month, Shi Le sent his Minister Herald, Meng Yi, to confer upon Zhang Jun the titles Grand General Who Conquers The West and Governor of Liangzhou, and to give him the Nine Bestowments. But Zhang Jun felt ashamed to consider himself their subject, so he would not accept these things. He even detained Meng Yi and did not send him back.

駿失河南地見上卷咸和二年。五屯護軍,武街、石門、侯和、漒川、甘松也。

(Zhang Jun's loss of the territory south of the Yellow River is mentioned in Book 93, in the second year of Xianhe (327.4). The five outposts over which he appointed generals were Wujie, Shimen, Houhe, Qiangchuan, and Gansong.)


十二月,張駿稱臣于石勒。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the twelfth month, Zhang Jun declared himself a vassal of Shi Le.


初,丁零翟斌,世居康居,後徙中國,至是入朝於趙;趙以斌爲句町王。

11. There lived a certain Zhai Bin of the Dingling people. For generations, his people had resided in Kangju (Sogdia?). But they later moved to the Middle Kingdom, and came under the authority of Zhao. Zhao appointed Zhai Bin as Prince of Gouting.

句,音朐。町,音挺。《考異》曰:《晉書春秋》作「翟眞」。按:秦亡後,慕容垂誅翟斌,斌兄子眞北走,故知此乃斌也。

(句 is here pronounced "qu"; 町 is pronounced "ting". Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of the Book of Shu records this Dingling leader as 'Zhai Zhen'. But later on, after the downfall of Former Qin, the one whom Murong Chui executes is Zhai Bin, and Zhai Zhen is his nephew who flees north. So we can know that the figure mentioned at this time must have also been Zhai Bin.")


趙羣臣固請正尊號,秋,九月,趙王勒卽皇帝位。大赦,改元建平。文武封進各有差。立其妻劉氏爲皇后,太子弘爲皇太子。

12. The Zhao ministers continued to urge that Shi Le assume the true imperial title. In autumn, the ninth month, Shi Le claimed the throne as Emperor. A general amnesty was declared in Zhao, and the reign era title was changed to Jianping. Civil and military officials all had their ranks granted or advanced accordingly. Shi Le honored his wife Lady Liu as Empress, and he appointed his Crown Prince Shi Hong as the imperial Crown Prince.

《考異》曰:《載記》云:「自襄國都臨漳。」卽鄴也。按建平二年四月,勒如鄴,議營新宮;三年,勒如鄴,臨石虎第;勒疾,虎詐召石宏還襄國,至虎建武元年九月,始遷鄴。是勒未嘗都鄴也。

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Shi Le in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin states, 'Shi Le moved the capital from Xiangguo to the banks of the Zhang River'; that is to say, to Ye. But consider that in the fourth month of the second year of Jianping (331), it says that when Shi Le went to Ye, he discussed building a new palace there. In the third year (332), it says Shi Le again returned to Ye, visiting Shi Hu at his estate there. When Shi Le fell ill and Shi Hu composed a false edict summoning Shi Hong, it was to Xiangguo that he ordered Shi Hong to report to. And in the ninth month of Shi Hu's first year of Jianwu (335), it says that he moved to Ye. So it must be that Shi Le had never made Ye the capital.")


秋八月,石勒僭卽皇帝位。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the eighth month, Shi Le declared himself Emperor.


弘好屬文,親敬儒素。勒謂徐光曰:「大雅愔愔,殊不似將家子。」光曰:「漢祖以馬上取天下,孝文以玄默守之。聖人之後,必有勝殘去殺者,天之道也。」勒甚悅。光因說曰:「皇太子仁孝溫恭,中山王雄暴多詐,陛下一旦不諱,臣恐社稷非太子所有也。宜漸奪中山王權,使太子早參朝政。」勒心然之,而未能從。

13. Shi Hong was a very cultured man, and he kept close and respectful contacts with Confucianists. Shi Le said to Xu Guang, "Daya (Shi Hong) is a solemn child. He does not seem like someone from a general's family."

Xu Guang replied, "Although the founder of Han gained the realm from the back of a horse, his son Emperor Xiaowen maintained it through profound tranquility. ‘After the rule of a sage, the violent and wicked can be reformed, and the need for capital punishment can be done away with’. This is the path that Heaven intends."

Shi Le was very pleased to hear this.

Because of that, Xu Guang further said, "The Crown Prince is benevolent, filial, warm, and respectful. But the Prince of Zhongshan (Shi Hu) is forceful, violent, grasping, and deceitful. Your Majesty, when you are no more, I fear that the state may not pass to the Crown Prince. You should gradually remove the Prince of Zhongshan’s authority, and send the Crown Prince to have an early start in advising court affairs."

Although Shi Le took this advice to heart, he could not heed it.

弘,字大雅。愔愔,安和貌。《論語》:孔子曰:善人爲邦百年,亦可以勝殘去殺矣。王氏《註》曰:勝殘,能使殘暴之人不爲惡也;去殺,去刑殺也。

(Shi Yong's style name was Daya.

By solemn, it meant that he appeared peaceful and tolerant.

The Analects states, "The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments.' (13.11)" Master Wang's Annotations states, "To 'transform the violently bad' means to transform the wild people so that they do not become evil. To 'dispense with capital punishments' means to discard the necessity for using capital punishments.")


趙荊州監軍郭敬寇襄陽。南中郎將周撫監沔北軍事,屯襄陽。趙主勒以驛書敕敬退屯樊城,使之偃藏旗幟,寂若無人。曰:「彼若使人觀察,則告之曰:『汝宜自愛堅守,後七八日,大騎將至,相策,不復得走矣。』」敬使人浴馬于津,周而復始,晝夜不絕。偵者還以告周撫,撫以爲趙兵大至,懼,奔武昌。敬入襄陽,中州流民悉降于趙;魏該弟遐帥其部衆自石城降敬。敬毀襄陽城,遷其民于沔北,城樊城以戍之。趙以敬爲荊州刺史。周撫坐免官。

14. Zhao's Chief of military affairs in Jingzhou, Guo Jing, invaded Xiangyang. Jin's General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Zhou Fu, was Chief of military affairs north of the Mian River, and he was camped at Xiangyang.

Shi Le sent a fast messenger to bring an edict ordering Guo Jing to fall back to camp at Fancheng, where he was to hide away all of his flags and banners and remain quiet as though no one were there. Shi Le's edict said, "If the enemy sends men to find out what is going on, you are to tell them this: 'You had better look out for yourselves and hold fast to your defenses. Seven or eight days from now, the main army of cavalry will soon arrive. Then we will both strike, and there will be no escape for you.'"

Then Guo Jing sent his men to wash their horses at the river crossing. They kept up this act for a full week, and did not stop even at night. The Jin scouts returned and informed Zhou Fu about all of this. Zhou Fu believed that the main Zhao army was almost there. He was so afraid that he fled to Wuchang.

Guo Jing then entered Xiangyang, and all the refugees from the Central Provinces surrendered to Zhao. Wei Gai's younger brother Wei Xia also led his body of soldiers from Shicheng to surrender to Guo Jing. Guo Jing demolished Xiangyang's fortifications, and forced all the people there to move north of the Mian River. He raised his own fortifications at Fancheng to contain them.

Zhao appointed Guo Jing as Inspector of Jingzhou. Zhou Fu was stripped of office.

相策,謂相策應也,杜佑《通典》作「相禁」。一曰:「相策」屬下句;策,計也,猶言計汝不復得而走也。

(By 相策 "both strike", he meant that the two armies would act in conjunction. Du You's Tongdian dictionary records this term as 相禁. One says, "相策 is a phrase. By 策, it means planning, or to say that you would have no other recourse and would have to flee.")


石勒使其將郭敬寇襄陽。南中郎將周撫退歸武昌,中州流人悉降於勒。郭敬遂寇襄陽,屯于樊城。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Shi Le sent his general Guo Jing to invade Xiangyang. The General of the Household Gentlemen of the South, Zhou Fu, fell back to Wuchang, and the refugees from the Central Provinces all surrendered to Shi Le. Guo Jing then invaded Xiangyang, and camped at Fancheng.


休屠王羌叛趙,趙河東王生擊破之,羌奔涼州。西平公駿懼,遣孟毅還,使其長史馬詵稱臣入貢於趙。

15. The Xiuzhuwang Qiang rebelled against Zhao. Zhao's Prince of Hedong, Shi Sheng, attacked and routed them, and the Qiang fled to Liangzhou.

The Duke of Xiping, Zhang Jun, became afraid, and he sent Meng Yi back. He also sent his Chief Clerk Ma Shen to proclaim himself as a Zhao vassal, and to bring tribute to Zhao.

休屠王羌,石武之部落也。屠,直於翻。

(The Xiuzhuwang Qiang were a tribe from Shiwu. 屠 is pronounced "zhu (zh-u)".)


更造新宮。

16. A new palace was built in Jin.

蘇峻之亂,宮闕焚毀,故更造之。

(During Su Jun's rebellion, the imperial palace had been burned down and ruined, and this was why another one was built.)


九月,造新宮,始繕苑城。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the ninth month, construction began on the new palace in the capital, as well as renovations to Yuancheng.


甲辰,徙樂成王欽爲河間王,封彭城王紘子俊爲高密王。

17. On the day Jiachen (October 8th), Jin's Prince of Lecheng, Sima Qin, had his title changed to Prince of Hejian. Sima Hong’s son Sima Jun was appointed as Prince of Gaomi.

河間王顒之死也,詔以彭城王植子融爲顒嗣,改封樂成縣王,薨,無子,元帝又以彭城王釋子欽爲融嗣;今復其河間舊封。初,元帝以紘繼高密王據後,及彭城王雄以附蘇峻誅,紘還繼本宗,以俊奉高密王後。《考異》曰:《宗室傳》作「浚」。今從《帝紀》。

(After the death of the former Prince of Hejian, Sima Yong, the court ordered that the Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Zhi, send his son Sima Rong to inherit Sima Yong's title. His title was changed to Prince of Lecheng County. When he passed away, he had no son, so Emperor Yuan (Sima Rui) then ordered the next Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Shi, to send his son Sima Qin to inherit Sima Rong's title. At this time, the original title of Prince of Hejian was restored to that line.

Before, Emperor Yuan had Sima Hong continue the line of the Prince of Gaomi, Sima Ju. After the Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Xiong, was executed for his defection to the rebel Su Jun, Sima Hong returned to his original clan, and Sima Jun was raised up to continue the line of the Prince of Gaomi. Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of the Imperial Family writes Sima Jun's given name as 浚 Jun. But I follow the Imperial Annals, where it is 俊 Jun.")


甲辰,徒樂成王欽爲河間王,封彭城王紘子浚爲高密王。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

On the day Jiachen (October 8th), the Prince of Lecheng, Sima Qin, had his title changed to Prince of Hejian. The Prince of Pengcheng, Sima Hong, had a son, Sima Jun, who was appointed as Prince of Gaomi.


冬,十月,成大將軍壽督征南將軍費黑等攻巴東建平,拔之。巴東太守楊謙、監軍毌丘奧退保宜都。

18. In winter, the tenth month, Cheng's Grand General, Li Shou, led the General Who Conquers The South, Fei Hei, and others to attack Jianping in Jin's Badong commandary, and they took it. Jin's Administrator of Badong, Yang Qian, and their Military Director of Badong, Guanqiu Ao, fell back to defend Yidu.

《考異》曰:《帝紀》作「陽謙」,今從《李雄載記》。

(Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Emperor Cheng in the Book of Jin lists this Administrator as 陽 Yang Qian. But I follow the Biography of Li Xiong in the Chronicles of the Book of Jin, which lists him as 楊 Yang Qian.")


李雄將李壽寇巴東、建平,監軍毌丘奧、太守楊[陽]謙退歸宜都。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

Li Xiong's general Li Shou invaded Jianping in Badong. The Military Director, Guanqiu Ao, and the Administrator, Yang Qian, fell back to Yidu.

督征南費黑、征東任巳攻陷巴東,太守楊謙退保建平。壽別遣費黑寇建平,晉巴東監軍毌丘奧退保宜都。(Book of Jin 121, Biography of Li Xiong)

Li Shou led the General Who Conquers The South, Fei Hei, and the General Who Conquers The East, Ren [X]si, to attack Badong, and they took it. Jin's Administrator of Badong, Yang Qian, retreated to guard Jianping. Li Shou then sent Fei Hei off to invade Jianping, and Jin's Military Director of Badong, Guanqiu Ao, fell back to guard Yidu.

五年,拜壽都督中外諸軍大將軍、中護軍、西夷校尉,錄尚書,總統如驤。冬,壽率征南費黑、征東任邵伐巴東,至建平。〔晉〕監軍毌丘奧退保宜都... 自[壽]代父為將,志在功名,故東征南伐,每有效事。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2, 9.4)

In the fifth year of Xianhe (330), Li Xiong appointed Li Shou as Commander of all military affairs, Grand General, General Who Nurtures The Army of the Center, Colonel of Western Yi Tribes, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing; he possessed all the same authority as his father Li Xiang had once wielded.

In winter, Li Shou led the General Who Conquers The South, Fei Hei, and the General Who Conquers The East, Ren Shao, in a campaign against Badong, and they marched as far as Jianping. Jin's Military Director, Guanqiu Ao, fell back to guard Yidu.

...

After Li Shou took over from his father as general, his ambition was to make a name himself through his achievements. This was why he was fully devoted to his work when he campaigned in the east and conquered in the south.

[毌]: 舊本作毋,誤,當作毌,音貫。(Huayang Guozhi commentary)

(The old editions all write the first character of 毌丘奧 Guanqiu Ao's surname as 毋 Wu. But this is a mistake; it should be 毌, pronounced "guan".)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Fri Jul 13, 2018 8:55 pm, edited 6 times in total.
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BOOK 94

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Mon Jun 11, 2018 5:04 am

咸和六年(辛卯、三三一)

The Sixth Year of Xianhe (The Xinmao Year, 331 AD)


春,正月,趙劉徵復寇婁縣,掠武進,郗鑒擊欲之。

1. In spring, the first month, Liu Zheng attacked Lou County again, and plundered Wujin. Chi Jian attacked him and drove him off.

婁縣,前漢屬會稽郡,後漢、晉屬吳郡。吳孫權嘉禾三年,改丹徒曰武進;晉武太康三年,復曰丹徒,仍分丹徒、曲阿立武進縣,屬毗陵郡;晉改毗陵曰晉陵。劉昫曰:唐蘇州崑山縣,漢婁縣地。

(During Former Han, Lou County was part of Kuaiji commandary. During Later Han and Jin, it was part of Wu commandary. In Sun Quan of Eastern Wu's third year of Jiahe (234), he renamed Dantu to Wujin. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) third year of Taikang (282), he changed the name back to Dantu. He then combined Dantu County and Qu'a County together as Wujin County, as part of Piling commandary. Jin further renamed Piling to Jinling. Liu Xu remarked, "Han's Lou County was the same place as Tang's Kunshan County in Suzhou.")


六年春正月癸巳,劉徵復寇婁縣,遂掠武進。乙未,進司空郗鑒都督吳國諸軍事。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the sixth year of Xianhe (331), in spring, the first month, on the day Guisi (January 25th), Liu Zheng again invaded Lou County, then plundered Wujin. On the day Yiwei (January 27th), the Minister of Works, Chi Jian, was appointed as Commander of military affairs in the princely fief of Wu.


三月,壬戌朔,日有食之。

2. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Renxu (April 24th), there was an eclipse.

三月壬戌朔,日有蝕之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In the third month, on the new moon of the day Renxu (April 24th), there was an eclipse.


夏,趙主勒如鄴,將營新宮;廷尉上黨續咸苦諫,勒怒,欲斬之。中書令徐光曰:「咸言不可用,亦當容之,柰何一旦以直言斬列卿乎!」勒嘆曰:「爲人君,不得自專如是乎!匹夫家貲滿百匹,猶欲市宅,況富有四海乎!此宮終當營之,且敕停作,以成吾直臣之氣。」因賜咸絹百匹,稻百斛。又詔公卿以下歲舉賢良方正,仍令舉人得更相薦引,以廣求賢之路。起明堂、辟雍、靈臺于襄國城西。

3. In summer, Shi Le went to Ye. He was about to begin construction on a new palace. The Minister of Justice, Xu Xian of Shangdang, bitterly remonstrated with him. Shi Le was furious, and wanted to behead Xu Xian. But Xu Guang said to him, "If Xu Xian has offered advise which you cannot use, even so you ought to tolerate it. But how can honest talk so suddenly compel you to put your minister to death?"

Shi Le sighed and said, "Indeed, a ruler of men cannot simply act however he pleases! But even a common person who owns no more than a hundred bolts of cloth still wishes to have a house in the marketplace. How can it be any less for one whose fortune fills the four seas? Eventually, I will build the palace. But for now, I shall halt its construction, to reward the spirit of my forthright minister."

And he awarded Xu Xian with a hundred bolts of silk and a hundred 斛 of rice.

Shi Le ordered each of the ministers, from the nobles and high officials on down, to annually recommend a person who was virtuous, exceptional, direct, and true. Each person so selected would further be able to recommend others. In this way, avenues of recommending worthy people would be greatly expanded.

Shi Le also built a Mingtang Hall, a Piyong school, and a Lingtai tower west of Xiangguo.

史言石勒能矯其獷悍之習而脩文。

(This passage demonstrates how Shi Le was able to rectify his rustic character through practice, and paid heed to men of culture.)


秋,七月,成大將軍壽攻陰平、武都,楊難敵降之。

4. In autumn, the seventh month, Li Shou attacked Yinping and Wudu. Yang Nandi submitted to him.

秋七月,李雄將李壽侵陰平,武都氐帥楊難敵降之。(Book of Jin 7, Annals of Emperor Cheng)

In autumn, the seventh month, Li Xiong's general Li Shou attacked Yinping. The leader of the Di people in Wudu, Yang Nandi, submitted to him.

六年春,壽還,遣任邵屯巴。雄以子越為車騎〔將軍〕,住廣漢。秋,壽伐陰平。〔楊難敵降〕。冬,城涪「陵」。(Huayang Guozhi 9.2)

In the sixth year of Xianhe (331), in spring, Li Shou returned from his campaign in Badong. He sent Ren Shao to camp at Ba.

Li Xiong appointed his son Li Yue as General of Chariots and Cavalry, and sent him to Guanghan.

In autumn, Li Shou campaigned against Yinping. (Yang Nandi surrendered to him.) In winter, he raised walls at Fu.

[涪「陵」]: 舊各本俱作「涪縣」。廖本作涪陵,當是訛。然縣字亦當省。

(The old editions all wrote that Li Shou raised walls at "Fu county". The Liao edition writes it as "Fuling". But this is a corruption, and even the character for "county" should be omitted.)


九月,趙主勒復營鄴宮;以洛陽爲南都,置行臺。

5. In the ninth month, Shi Le resumed construction on the palace at Ye. He designated Luoyang as a southern capital, and set up an Acting Administration there.

冬,蒸祭太廟,詔歸胙於司徒導,且命無下拜;導辭疾不敢當。初,帝卽位沖幼,每見導必拜;與導手詔則云「惶恐言」,中書作詔則曰「敬問」。有司議:「元會日,帝應敬導不?」博士郭熙、杜援議,以爲:「禮無拜臣之文,謂宜除敬。」侍中馮懷議,以爲:「天子臨辟雍,拜三老,況先帝師傅;謂宜盡敬。」侍中荀奕議,以爲:「三朝之首,宜明君臣之體,則不應敬;若他日小會,自可盡禮。」詔從之。奕,組之子也。

6. In winter, Jin made the Zheng sacrifices at the ancestral temple. Emperor Cheng ordered the sacrificial meat to be sent to Wang Dao, and further ordered that he would be temporarily be allowed not to perform obeisance. But Wang Dao pleaded illness and did not dare to attend.

Before, when Emperor Cheng first came to the throne, he was still young, and so every time he saw Wang Dao, he would always bow to him. If he gave an edict to Wang Dao in person, he would say, "With trepidation, I venture to say..." Or if he had the edict sent out by the palace secretariat, he would preface it with "I respectfully venture to ask..."

The officials discussed this matter between them: "On the New Year's Day meeting, should the Emperor show particular respect to Wang Dao or not?"

The Court Academicians Guo Xi and Du Yuan discussed it, and they concluded, "It is the proper ceremony for a lord not to humble himself before his minister. The Emperor should cease his undue respect toward Wang Dao."

But the Palace Attendant Feng Huai also discussed it, and he concluded, "When the Son of Heaven is in the Piyong school, he even humbles himself before the Thrice Venerable. Ought he do any less to our late emperor's counselor? I say that he should show Wang Dao the utmost respect."

Then the Palace Attendant Xun Yi discussed it, and he concluded, "At the Three Court (New Year's Day) meeting, we ought to clearly define the roles of sovereign and minister, and so the Emperor should not humble himself before Wang Dao. If it is at smaller meetings on other days, then the Emperor may fully observe the rites of his own accord."

The court agreed with this last proposal. This Xun Yi was the son of Xun Zu.

《禮記》,冬祭曰「烝」,《史》、《漢》亦作「蒸祭」。餘肉曰胙,今謂之祭福肉。晉以周之禮齊桓公者禮王導。元旦爲三朝,謂歲之朝、月之朝、日之朝。以君拜臣,謂之盡禮,可乎?

(According to the Book of Rites, the sacrifice offered in winter is called the 烝 Zheng sacrifice. The Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han also mention this, as the 蒸 sacrifice. The excess meat used for the sacrifice is called 胙, what we now call the sacrificial 福肉.

Jin was honoring Wang Dao according to the rite used during Zhou to honor Duke Huan of Qi.

The "Three Court" Meeting was the New Year's Day meeting, since it was the combination of the annual court meeting, the monthly court meeting, and the daily court meeting.

The sovereign was paying homage to the minister, and yet Xun Yi says this is "fully observing the rites". How can that be?)


慕容廆遣使與太尉陶侃牋,勸以興兵北伐,共清中原。僚屬宋該等共議,以「廆立功一隅,位卑任重,等差無別,不足以鎭華、夷,宜表請進廆官爵。」參軍韓恆駁曰:「夫立功者患信義不著,不患名位不高。桓、文有匡復之功,不先求禮命以令諸侯。宜繕甲兵,除羣凶,功成之後,九錫自至。比於邀君以求寵,不亦榮乎!」廆不悅,出恆爲新昌令。於是東夷校尉封抽等疏上侃府,請封廆爲燕王,行大將軍事。侃復書曰:「夫功成進爵,古之成制也。車騎雖未能爲官摧勒,然忠義竭誠;今騰牋上聽,可不、遲速,當在天臺也。」

7. Murong Hui sent a letter to Tao Kan, urging him to raise soldiers for a northern campaign, so that they could recover the Central Plains together.

Murong Hui's subordinates, Song Gai and others, discussed this matter. They said, "Murong Hui has achieved successes in his corner of the realm. Though he holds a low rank, he has an important position. There is no one who is really his peer. It is not enough for him merely to guard the Hua (ethnic Han) and tribals peoples. We should petition the court, asking them to advance Murong Hui in rank and title."

But Murong Hui’s Army Advisor, Han Hengbiao, said, "When a man seeks to achieve something, the danger is whether or not he acts with trust or justice, not whether or not his reputation or position are high enough. When Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Wen of Jin achieved their successes in rectifying the Zhou dynasty, they did not first ask to be shown special favor before giving orders to the feudal lords. We ought to put our men and our arms in order, and then purge the traitors from the Central Plains. Once we have achieved such a success, the Nine Bestowments will come to us of their own accord. Wouldn't that be much more glorious than a lord who makes much of himself in a bid to curry favor?"

Murong Hui was not pleased by this sentiment, and he sent Han Hengbiao away to be Prefect of Xinchang.

Then the Colonel of Eastern Yi Tribes, Feng Chou, and others submitted a petition to Tao Kan's staff, asking that Murong Hui be appointed as Prince of Yan, and granted the authority of a Grand General. Tao Kan wrote back a response stated, “Once a man achieves success, then his position is advanced; this has been so since antiquity. Although the General of Chariots and Cavalry has not yet been able to destroy Shi Le on behalf of the court, he is wholeheartedly loyal and just. I have quickly passed on your letter to my superiors, but whether they grant it or not, whether it is done slowly or quickly, is all up to the Heavenly Terrace (the royal family)."

駁,北角翻。新昌縣,屬遼東郡。廆加車騎將軍,故侃稱之。官,謂天子;勒,謂石勒也。騰牋以達上聽。陶侃復書殊得體。天臺,尊晉室也。

(駁 is pronounced "biao (b-iao)".

Xinchang County was part of Liaodong commandary.

At this time, Murong Hui held the Jin-appointed title General of Chariots and Cavalry, and this was why Tao Kan addressed him as such. By "the court", he meant the Son of Heaven; by "Le", he meant Shi Le.

Tao Kan had quickly passed on the letter to his superiors.

Tao Kan's response here was most fitting.

By "Heavenly Terrace", he honored the Jin royal family.)
Last edited by Taishi Ci 2.0 on Thu Jun 28, 2018 7:42 pm, edited 2 times in total.
"You have attacked us before, and we survived! You cannot defeat us. Submit!"
"We have. You did. We can. No."
User avatar
Taishi Ci 2.0
Grand Historian Friendly to Cats
 
Posts: 762
Joined: Fri Aug 11, 2006 6:55 pm
Location: My life is brilliant

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