Zizhi Tongjian: Western Jin (Book 79-92)

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BOOK 92

Unread postby Taishi Ci 2.0 » Sun Feb 25, 2018 5:27 pm

肅宗明皇帝上

Beginning of the Reign of Suzong, Emperor Ming, Sima Shao


〈諱紹,字道畿,元帝長子也。《諡法》:思慮果遠曰明。〉

(Emperor Ming's name was Sima Shao, styled Daoji. He was Sima Rui's eldest son. The Laws of Posthumous Names states, "One whose foresight extends to distant things may be called Ming ('the Wise').")


太寧元年(癸未、三二三)

The First Year of Taining (The Guiwei Year, 323 AD)


春,正月,成李驤、任回寇臺登,將軍司馬玖戰死,越巂太守李釗、漢嘉太守王載皆以郡降于成。

1. In spring, the first month, the Cheng generals Li Xiang and Ren Hui invaded Jin's region of Taideng in Ningzhou. The Jin general Sima Jiu died in battle, while Jin's Administrator of Yuegui, Li Zhao, and their Administrator of Hanjia, Wang Zai, both surrendered their commandaries to Cheng.

〈臺登縣,屬越巂郡。《九州要記》曰:臺登縣有奴諾川,鸚鸝山、黑水之間,若水出其下;黃帝子昌意降居若水,卽此。〉〈漢嘉本前漢青衣縣,屬蜀郡;後漢順帝陽嘉二年,更名漢嘉;蜀分爲漢嘉郡。〉

(Taideng County was part of Yuegui commandary. The Important Records of the Nine Provinces states, "There is a Nunuo River in Taideng County which runs between Mount Yingli and the Black River, and the Ruo River flows out of it. This was the same Ruo River where the Yellow Emperor's son Changyi set his residence.”

Hanjia commandary had originally been Former Han's Qingyi County, part of Shu commandary. In Emperor Shun of Later Han's second year of Yangjia (133), he renamed it to Hanjia. Shu-Han split it off as Hanjia commandary.)


二月,庚戌,葬元帝于建平陵。

2. In the second month, on the day Gengxu (March 25th), Sima Rui was buried at Jianping Tomb.

三月,戊寅朔,改元。

3. In the third month, on the new moon of the day Wuyin (April 22nd), the Jin reign era title was changed to the first year of Taining.

饒安、東光、安陵三縣災,燒七千餘家,死者萬五千人。

4. There were fires in the three counties of Rao'an, Dongguang, and Anling. More than seven thousand families were burned, and fifteen thousand people died.

〈三縣皆屬渤海郡,惟東光,漢舊縣;饒安縣,前漢之千童縣也,後漢靈帝改曰饒安;安陵縣,晉置。時皆爲後趙之地。〉

(These three counties were all part of Bohai commandary. Only Dongguang had remained unchanged since the Han dynasty. Rao'an County had originally been Qiantong County during Former Han; Emperor Ling of Later Han changed its name to Rao'an. Anling County had been created by Jin. At this time, all three of the counties were within Later Zhao territory.)


後趙寇彭城、下邳,徐州刺史卞敦與征北將軍王邃退保盱眙。敦,壼之從父兄也。

5. Later Zhao attacked Pengcheng and Xiapi. Jin's Inspector of Xuzhou, Bian Dun, and their General Who Conquers The North, Wang Sui, fell back to guard Xuyi. This Bian Dun was a cousin of Bian Kun's father.

王敦謀篡位,諷朝廷徵己;帝手詔徵之。夏,四月,加敦黃鉞、班劍,奏事不名,入朝不趨,劍履上殿。敦移鎭姑孰,屯于湖,以司空導爲司徒,敦自領揚州牧。敦欲爲逆,王彬諫之甚苦。敦變色,目左右,將收之。彬正色曰:「君昔歲殺兄,今又殺弟邪!」敦乃止,以彬爲豫章太守。

6. Wang Dun plotted to usurp the throne, and he mocked any attempt by the court to summon him. Emperor Ming had to write an edict in his own hand summoning him.

In summer, the fourth month, Wang Dun was granted the Golden Battle-axe and an armed honor guard. He was allowed to enter court without having his name called and without hastening his step, and he was allowed to enter the palace still wearing his sword and shoes. Wang Dun shifted his base to Gushu, and camped his soldiers at Yuhu. Emperor Ming appointed Wang Dao as Minister Over The Masses, while Wang Dun appointed himself as acting Governor of Yangzhou.

Wang Dun wanted to seize more power, and so Wang Bin remonstrated very harshly with him. Wang Dun changed color and looked left to right, about to arrest Wang Bin. But Wang Bin sternly declared, "Sir, it was only a few years ago that you killed my elder brother. Now you mean to kill me too?" So Wang Dun did not arrest Wang Bin, but he sent him away to serve as Administrator of Yuzhang.

〈劉良《文選註》曰:班劍,謂執劍而從行者也。呂向曰:班,列也,言使勇士行列持劍以爲儀仗也。李周翰曰:班劍,木劍無刃,假作劍形,畫之以文,故曰班也。《晉志》,文武官公,給虎賁二十人,持班劍。〉〈姑孰,前漢丹楊春穀縣地,今太平州當塗縣,卽姑孰之地。縣南三里,有姑孰溪,西入大江。于湖縣,本吳督農校尉治,武帝太康二年,分丹楊縣立于湖縣。杜佑曰:宣州當塗縣城,卽晉姑孰城。于湖故城在縣南。張舜民曰:今太平州跨姑孰溪。陸游曰:姑孰城在當塗北,今州城正據姑孰溪;溪東南數峯如黛,蓋青山也。自姑孰溪行夾中,三十里至大信口,出口,泝江過大、小褐山磯,又過蟂磯。蕪湖,卽于湖,並大江有王敦城,氣象宏敞。《考異》曰:《晉春秋》及《後魏書‧僭晉傳》云「屯蕪湖」;《晉書‧明帝紀》云「下屯于湖」,今從之。〉〈《晉書‧王彬傳》,以爲彬從兄稜爲敦所害,故云然。余據殺稜者王如,雖出於敦之意,猶假手於如也;且稜於敦爲從弟。此言殺兄,蓋以敦殺王澄也,事見八十八卷懷帝永嘉六年。〉

(Regarding the 班劍 "armed honor guard", Liu Liang's Compiled Literary Notes states, "The 班劍 refers to those who follow behind someone while grasping their swords." Lü Xiang remarked, "The 班 here means 'arrayed', as in, they are warriors who follow in array while grasping their blades, serving as an honor guard." Li Zhouhan remarked, "The 班劍 is a wooden blade without an edge. It is made to look like a sword, but its use is purely ceremonial, which is why it is called 班." According to the Records of Jin, civil and military ministers and nobles were granted twenty members of the Rapid As Tigers Guards, who grasped these blades.

Gushu was the territory of Former Han's Chungu County in Danyang commandary, the same place as Dangtu County in modern Taipingzhou. Three li south of the county seat is the Gushu Creek, which flows west into the Yangzi. Yuhu County was originally administered by Eastern Wu's Agricultural Commandant. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) second year of Taikang (281), he split the territory off from Danyang County to form Yuhu County. Du You remarked, "The capital city of Dangtu County in Xuanzhou was Jin's city of Gushu. The city of Yushu was south of that county." Zhang Shunmin remarked, "It was astride Gushu Creek in modern Taipingzhou." Lu You remarked, "The city of Gushu was north of Dangtu, and the modern city in that province is right along Gushu Creek. There are several peaks southwest of the creek like dark makeup, like Mount Qing. The creek passes through them for thirty li, until it reaches Daxinkou. Coming out from the mouth of there, it flows into the Yangzi past Greater and Lesser Heshan Promontories, as well as Xiao Promontory."

Yuhu was the same as Wuhu; they were both places on the Yangzi where Wang Dun had a fortress, possessing a magnificent aura. Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Annals of Jin, and the False Rulers of Jin chapter of the Book of Northern Wei, both state that Wang Dun now camped his soldiers 'at Wuhu'. But the Annals of Emperor Ming in the Book of Jin states he 'moved down and camped at Yuhu'. I follow that account."

According to the Biography of Wang Bin in the Book of Jin, Wang Bin's elder cousin was Wang Leng, whom Wang Dun had earlier killed. This was why he said such a thing here. But from what I (Hu Sanxing) understand, the one who killed Wang Leng was Wang Ru. Even though Wang Dun had put him up to it, he was still only borrowing Wang Ru's hand. Besides, Wang Leng was Wang Dun's younger cousin. So I think that when Wang Bin refers to his elder brother here, he means when Wang Dun killed Wang Cheng, as mentioned in Book 88, in Emperor Huai's sixth year of Yongjia (312.44).)


後趙王勒遣使結好於慕容廆,廆執送建康。

7. Shi Le sent envoys to visit Murong Hui, attempting to establish good relations with him. But Murong Hui arrested the envoys and sent them to Jiankang.

成李驤等進攻寧州,刺史褒中壯公王遜使將軍姚嶽等拒之,戰於螗蜋,成兵大敗。嶽追至瀘水,成兵爭濟,溺死者千餘人。嶽以道遠,不敢濟而還。遜以嶽不窮追,大怒,鞭之;怒甚,冠裂而卒。遜在州十四年,威行殊俗。州人立其子堅行州府事,詔除堅寧州刺史。

8. Li Xiang and the other Cheng generals advanced to attack Ningzhou. Jin's Inspector of Ningzhou, Wang Xun, sent his generals Yao Yue and others to oppose them. The two sides fought at Tanglang, where the Cheng army was greatly defeated. Yao Yue pursued them as far as the Lu River, where the Cheng soldiers fought each other trying to cross over it, and more than a thousand of them drowned.

But because Yao Yue was now far away from his base, he did not dare to cross the river himself in further pursuit, and he returned to Ningzhou. When Wang Xun learned that Yao Yue had not pressed the pursuit, he was greatly angry, and he whipped Yao Yue. Wang Xun became so angry that his head cracked, and he passed away.

Wang Xun had been in command of Ningzhou for fourteen years, and his power and conduct were exceptional. He was posthumously known as Duke Zhuang ("the Valiant") of Baozhong.

The people of Ningzhou acclaimed Wang Xun's son Wang Jian to take over the provincial and staff affairs. Emperor Ming issued an edict confirming Wang Jian as Inspector of Ningzhou.

〈據《水經註》:螗蜋,卽堂狼縣也,前漢屬犍爲郡,後漢省。《郡國志》:犍爲屬國朱提縣有堂狼山,山多毒草,盛夏之月,飛鳥過之不能得去。蜀置朱提郡,堂狼縣屬焉。〉〈懷帝永嘉四年,遜至寧州,至是適十四年。〉〈州,寧州;府,南夷校尉府也。〉

(According to the Commentary on the Water Classic, Tanglang was in Tanglang County. During Former Han, that county had been part of Jianwei commandary. Later Han abolished it. The Records of Commandaries and Fiefs states, "There is a Mount Tanglang in Zhuti County in the Jianwei Dependent State. This mountain has many poisonous plants which flourish during the summer months. Birds flying into them cannot pass out again." Shu-Han had created Zhuti commandary, with Tanglang County as a part of it.

Wang Xun had first arrived in Ningzhou in Emperor Huai's fourth year of Yongjia (Book 87, 310.32). From then until now it had been fourteen years.

Wang Jian took over the affairs of both the Inspector of Ningzhou and the staff of the Colonel of Southern Yi Tribes.)


廣州刺史陶侃遣兵救交州;未至,梁碩拔龍編,奪刺史王諒節,諒不與,碩斷其右臂。諒曰:「死且不避,斷臂何爲!」踰旬而卒。

9. Tao Kan sent troops to rescue Jiaozhou from Liang Shuo's siege. But before these troops could arrive, Liang Shuo captured Longbian.

Liang Shuo tried to wrest Wang Liang's staff of authority from out of his grasp, but Wang Liang refused to give it up. So Liang Shuo cut his arm off. Wang Liang said, "Even if you kill me, I won't give in to you. What does an arm matter?" He lived on for another ten days before passing away.

六月,壬子,立妃庾氏爲皇后;以后兄中領軍亮爲中書監。

10. In the sixth month, on the day Renzi (July 25th), Emperor Ming honored his wife Lady Yu as Empress. He appointed the General Who Leads The Army of the Center, her elder brother Yu Liang, as chief of the Palace Secretariat.

梁碩據交州,凶暴失衆心。陶侃遣參軍高寶攻碩,斬之。詔以侃領交州刺史,進號征南大將軍、開府儀同三司。未幾,吏部郎阮放求爲交州刺史,許之。放行至寧浦,遇高寶,爲寶設饌,伏兵殺之。寶兵擊放,放走,得免,至州少時,病卒。

11. During the time that Liang Shuo had occupied Jiaozhou, he had lost the affections of the people through his wicked violence. Tao Kan sent his Army Advisor, Gao Bao, to attack Liang Shuo, and Gao Bao beheaded him. Emperor Ming issued an edict appointing Tao Kan as acting Inspector of Jiaozhou and promoting him as Grand General Who Conquers The South. He was granted the privilege of a Separate Office, with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies.

However, before the appointment as Inspector went through, a Gentleman of the Imperial Secretariat, Ruan Fang, asked to be appointed as Inspector of Jiaozhou instead. Emperor Ming agreed to do so. Ruan Fang set out, and when he reached Ningpu, he encountered Gao Bao. Ruan Fang prepared a feast for Gao Bao, but he had soldiers in hiding who killed him. Then Gao Bao's soldiers attacked Ruan Fang, who fled and made his escape. He arrived at his province, but he was only there for a short time before he passed away of illness.

〈《廣州記》曰:漢獻帝建安二十三年,吳分鬱林郡立寧浦郡。《晉太康地志》曰:武帝太康七年,改合浦屬國都尉立寧浦郡。唐爲橫州寧浦縣。〉〈《考異》曰:《放傳》云:「成帝幼沖,庾氏執政,放求爲交州,」下乃云「逢高寶平梁碩還,」非成帝時也,《放傳》誤。〉放,咸之族子也。〈阮咸有名於魏、晉之間。〉

(The Records of Guangzhou states, "In Emperor Xian of Han's twenty-third year of Jian'an (218), Eastern Wu split off part of Yulin commandary and formed Ningpu commandary." The Geographical Records of Jin's Taikang Era states, "In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) seventh year of Taikang (286), he changed the Command Post of the Hepu Dependent State into Ningpu commandary." During Tang, it was Ningpu County in Hengzhou.

Sima Guang's commentary in the Textual Analysis states, "The Biography of Ruan Fang in the Book of Jin states, 'Emperor Cheng was still young and tender, and the Yu clan held the reins of power. Ruan Fang asked to be assigned to Jiaozhou.' But after that passage, it then states, 'He encountered Gao Bao, who had just pacified Liang Shuo and was on his way back'. Gao Bao's pacification of Liang Shuo did not take place during Emperor Cheng's reign. The Biography of Ruan Fang is mistaken.")


陳安圍趙征西將軍劉貢于南安,休屠王石武自桑城引兵趣上邽以救之,與貢合擊安,大破之。安收餘騎八千,走保隴城。秋,七月,趙主曜自將圍隴城,別遣兵圍上邽。安頻出戰,輒敗。右軍將軍劉幹攻平襄,克之,隴上諸縣悉降。安留其將楊伯支、姜沖兒守隴城,自帥精騎突圍,出奔陜中。曜遣將軍平先等追之。安左揮七尺大刀,右運丈八蛇矛,近則刀矛俱發,輒殪五六人,遠則左右馳射而走。先亦勇捷如飛,與安搏戰,三交,遂奪其蛇矛。會日暮雨甚,安棄馬與左右匿於山中;趙兵索之,不知所在。明日,安遣其將石容覘趙兵,趙輔威將軍呼延青人獲之,拷問安所在,容卒不肯言,青人殺之。雨霽,青人尋其迹,獲安於澗曲,斬之。安善撫將士,與同甘苦,及死,隴上人思之,爲作《壯士之歌》。楊伯支斬姜沖兒,以隴城降;別將宋亭斬趙募,以上邽降。曜徙秦州大姓楊、姜諸族二千餘戶于長安。氐、羌皆送任請降;以赤亭羌酋姚弋仲爲平西將軍,封平襄公。

12. Chen An besieged Zhao's General Who Conquers The West, Liu Gong, at Nan'an. The King of the Xiutu people, Shi Wu, led his own troops from Sangcheng to march to Shanggui to reinforce Liu Gong. They attacked Chen An together and greatly routed him. Chen An gathered up his remaining eight thousand cavalry and fled to guard Longcheng.

In autumn, the seventh month, Liu Yao himself came to besiege Longcheng, while sending another detachment to besiege Shanggui. Chen An frequently came out to fight, but he was always defeated. Zhao's General of the Army of the Right, Liu Gan, attacked Pingxiang and captured it, and all the counties of Longshang surrendered to Zhao.

Chen An left his generals Yang Bozhi and Jiang Chong’er to hold Longcheng while he led some elite cavalry to break out of the siege and flee to Xiazhong. Liu Yao sent his generals Ping Xian and others to pursue him. Chen An wielded a great blade seven 尺 long in his left hand, and in his right hand he held a serpent spear one zhang and eight 尺 long. Whenever someone came close, he would lash out with both the blade and the spear, and would thus kill five or six people. If people remained far away, Chen An would quickly shoot arrows in either direction and then ride off. But Ping Xian was no less bold, and he was so nimble he moved as though flying. He dueled Chen An; they fought three bouts, and then Ping Xian was able to wrest away Chen An’s serpent spear. But it was dusk just then, and there was a heavy downpour. Chen An abandoned his horse and hid among the hills with his followers. The Zhao soldiers searched for him, but they did not know where he was.

The next day, Chen An sent his general Shi Rong to observe the Zhao soldiers. But soldiers under the command of Zhao's General Who Supports Might, Huyan Qing, captured Shi Rong. They tortured him to make him tell them where Chen An was, but Shi Rong refused to say anything, so they killed him. After the rain let up, Huyan Qing's soldiers followed Shi Rong's traces back the other way, and they captured Chen An at the bend of a river gully, where they beheaded him.

Chen An had been charismatic among his generals and soldiers, and he had shared the same bitter struggles with them. So the people of Longshang missed him, and they composed the Ode to a Stalwart Warrior in his memory.

Yang Bozhi beheaded Jiang Chong’er and surrendered Longcheng to Zhao, and another of Chen An's generals, Song Ting, beheaded Zhao Mu and surrendered Shanggui. Liu Yao relocated more than two thousand households of the great Yang and Jiang clans of Qinzhou back to Chang'an.

The various Di and Qiang tribes all sent hostages and asked to surrender to Zhao as well. Liu Yao appointed the leader of the Qiang of Chiting, Yao Yizhong, as General Who Pacifies The West and Duke of Pingxiang.

〈平襄縣,漢屬天水郡,晉屬略陽郡。〉〈陜中,在隴城南。陜,與陿同,戶夾翻。〉〈三交,戰三合也。〉〈《歌》曰:「隴上壯士有陳安,軀幹雖小腹中寬,愛養將士同心肝,䯀驄交馬鐵瑕鞍。七尺大刀奮如湍,丈八蛇矛左右盤,十盪十決無當前。戰始三交失蛇予,棄我䯀驄竄巖幽,爲我外援而懸頭;西流之水東流河,一去不還柰子何!」〉

(During Han, Pingxiang County was part of Tianshui commandary. During Jin, it was part of Lueyang commandary.

Xiazhong was south of Longcheng. The first character, 陜, is pronounced "xia" or "hia (h-ia)".

Three bouts means that they fought three times.

This was the Ode to a Stalwart Warrior:

Chen An had a hero's soul
A Longshang man, so brave and bold.
Although a slender fellow he
How greatly did his stomach feed!
He loved the men of his command
And kept them safe within his hands.
A feisty piebald he did ride
An iron saddle sat astride.
So swift he waved his fearsome blade
A deadly price it made men pay.
And as his spear swung to and fro
He plunged it into every foe.
Ten duels he'd fight of ten bouts each
With vict'ry never out of reach.
But barely now had swords been crossed
Alas! this time that spear was lost.
He left his horse among the strife
And sought some place to save his life.
But t'was not life, but death he found
And now his head hangs in the town.
Eternal does that river flow
From west to east it always goes.
You cannot turn it back again
Much less change the fate of men!)


帝畏王敦之逼,欲以郗鑒爲外援,拜鑒兗州刺史,都督揚州江西諸軍事,鎭合肥。王敦忌之,表鑒爲尚書令。八月,詔徵鑒還,道經姑孰,敦與之論西朝人士,曰:「樂彥輔,短才耳,考其實,豈勝滿武秋邪!」鑒曰:「彥輔道韻平淡,愍懷之廢,柔而能正;武秋失節之士,安得擬之!」敦曰:「當是時,危機交急。」鑒曰:「丈夫當死生以之。」敦惡其言,不復相見,久留不遣。敦黨皆勸敦殺之,敦不從。鑒還臺,遂與帝謀討敦。

13. Emperor Ming was afraid of the danger that Wang Dun continued to pose, and he wanted to use Chi Jian as his agent on the outside against Wang Dun. So he appointed Chi Jian as Inspector of Yanzhou and Commander of military affairs north of the Yangzi, to be stationed at Hefei. But Wang Dun was suspicious of this move, and he sent up a petition asking that Chi Jian be appointed as Prefect of the Masters of Writing instead. In the eighth month, Emperor Ming issued an edict summoning Chi Jian back to Jiankang.

On his way back, Chi Jian passed through Wang Dun's base at Gushu, and he stopped in to talk. The two of them were discussing the luminaries of the original western court (at Luoyang). Wang Dun said, "Yue Yanfu (Yue Guang) was really nothing but a man of meager talents. Just consider him, and tell me how he could have been better than Man Wuqiu (Man Fen)!"

Chi Jian replied, "I admit that Yanfu struck a rather dull note. However, when Crown Prince Minhuai (Sima Yu) was being deposed, it was Yanfu who, gentle though he was, could still act properly. Wuqiu, on the other hand, was a man who yielded the proper authority. How could you compare them?"

Wang Dun said, "You have to consider the circumstances. That was when Wuqiu was under severe duress."

Chi Jian replied, "A real man will remain true to himself even in the face of life and death."

Wang Dun resented Chi Jian for this implied criticism, and he would not see him again. He kept Chi Jian at Gushu for some time and would not send him on to Jiankang. Wang Dun's partisans all urged him to kill Chi Jian, but he did not listen to them.

Chi Jian eventually reached Jiankang, where he began plotting with Emperor Ming how they might campaign against Wang Dun.

〈時江東謂洛都爲西朝。樂廣,字彥輔。滿奮,字武秋。〉〈事見八十三卷惠帝永康元年,滿奮旣收東宮官屬之辭太子者,趙王倫之篡,奮又奉璽綬,故謂之失節。〉

(During this time, the people of the Southland called the original Jin court at Luoyang the "western court".

Yue Guang's style name was Yanfu; Man Fen's style name was Wuqiu.

The two incidents which Chi Jian holds against Man Fen were when he arrested the ministers and servants of the Eastern Palace who had been talking with Sima Yu, and when he presented Emperor Hui's seals to Sima Lun when Sima Lun usurped the throne. These things are mentioned in Books 83 and 84, in Emperor Hui's first year of Yongkang (300.3) and first year of Yongning (301.2).)


後趙中山公虎帥步騎四萬擊安東將軍曹嶷,青州郡縣多降之,遂圍廣固。嶷出降,送襄國殺之,阬其衆三萬。虎欲盡殺嶷衆,青州刺史劉徵曰:「今留徵,使牧民也;無民焉牧,徵將歸耳!」虎乃留男女七百口配徵,使鎭廣固。

14. Shi Hu led forty thousand horse and foot to attack the warlord Cao Yi, whom Jin had appointed as General Who Maintains The East. Many of the counties and commandaries of Qingzhou surrendered to Shi Hu. He then besieged Cao Yi at his base at Guanggu. Cao Yi came out to surrender, and Shi Hu sent him on to Xiangguo, where Cao Yi was killed.

Shi Hu also buried alive thirty thousand people from Cao Yi's forces. He had intended to kill all of Cao Yi's people, but Later Zhao's Inspector of Qingzhou, Liu Zheng, told him, "I was sent here in order to tend to the people. If there are no people, I'll have no choice but to go back!" So Shi Hu assigned seven hundred men and women to Liu Zheng and had him guard Guanggu.

〈《水經註》:廣固城,在漢齊郡廣縣西北四里,四周絕澗,阻水深隍,曹嶷所築也。《九域志》:廣固城,古樂安城。今按青州益都縣西四十里有廣固城,杜佑曰:有大澗甚廣,因曰廣固。〉

(The Commentary on the Water Classic states, "The city of Guanggu was forty li northwest of Guang County in Han's Qi commandary. The area was cut off on every side by ravines, which served as deep moats, which was why Cao Yi built the city there." The Records on the Nine Regions states, "The city of Guanggu was the old city of Le'an." I (Hu Sanxing) note that there is a city of Guanggu forty li west of Yidu County in modern Qingzhou, about which Du You remarked, "The place has great ravines which are very wide, thus it is called Guanggu ('Wide and Stout').")


趙主曜自隴上西擊涼州,遣其將劉咸攻韓璞於冀城,呼延晏攻寧羌護軍陰鑒於桑壁,曜自將戎卒二十八萬軍于河上,列營百餘里,金鼓之聲動地,河水爲沸,張茂臨河諸戍,皆望風奔潰。曜揚聲欲百道俱濟,直抵姑臧,涼州大震。參軍馬岌勸茂親出拒戰,長史氾禕怒,請斬之。岌曰:「氾公糟粕書生,刺舉小才,不思家國大計。明公父子欲爲朝廷誅劉曜有年矣,今曜自至,遠近之情,共觀明公此舉,當立信勇之驗以副秦、隴之望,力雖不敵,勢不可以不出。」茂曰:「善!」乃出屯石頭。茂謂參軍陳珍曰:「劉曜舉三秦之衆,乘勝席卷而來,將若之何?」珍曰:「曜兵雖多,精卒至少,大抵皆氐、羌烏合之衆,恩信未洽,且有山東之虞,安能捨其腹心之疾,曠日持久,與我爭河西之地邪!若二旬不退,珍請得弊卒數千,爲明公擒之。」茂喜,使珍將兵救韓璞。趙諸將爭欲濟河,趙主曜曰:「吾軍勢雖盛,然畏威而來者三分有二,中軍疲困,其實難用。今但按甲勿動,以吾威聲震之,若出中旬張茂之表不至者,吾爲負卿矣。」茂尋遣使稱藩,獻馬、牛、羊、珍寶不可勝紀。曜拜茂侍中、都督涼‧南‧北秦‧梁‧益‧巴‧漢‧隴右‧西域雜夷‧匈奴諸軍事、太師、涼州牧,封涼王,加九錫。

15. Liu Yao marched west from Longshang, leading his forces to attack Liangzhou. He sent his general Liu Xian to attack the Liangzhou general Han Pu at Jicheng and sent Huyan Yan to attack Liangzhou's Protector-General Who Tranquilizies The Qiang, Yin Jian, at Sangbi, while Liu Yao himself led two hundred and eighty thousand soldiers to Heshang.

Liu Yao's camps stretched for more than a hundred li, and the sound of his army's golden drums shook the earth and churned the Yellow River. Zhang Mao's garrisons along the Yellow River, seeing which way the wind was blowing, scattered and fled. Liu Yao spread word that he was intending to lead his army across the Yellow River into Liangzhou along a hundred different roads, making straight for Liangzhou's capital at Guzang. The whole province was greatly shaken.

Zhang Mao's Army Advisor, Ma Ji, urged him to go and oppose the Zhao army in person. This angered Zhang Mao's Chief Clerk, Fan Yi, who asked that Ma Ji be beheaded. But Ma Ji said, "Lord Fan is just a 'scholar of the dregs'. He has a little talent when it comes to accusing others of their faults, but he does not consider the greater plan for the state. Your Grace, you and your father have long wished to execute Liu Yao on behalf of the Jin court. Now Liu Yao himself has come to you, and the eyes of everyone near and far are upon you, watching to see what you shall do. You should use bold people you can trust in order to fulfill the hopes of those in Qinzhou and Longxi. Although your strength is not equal to Liu Yao's, your power is such that you cannot refuse to face him."

Zhang Mao replied, "Excellent!" And he went out to camp his army at Shitou.

Then Zhang Mao said to another Army Advisor, Chen Zhen, "Liu Yao has summoned the forces of all the Three Qins region, and he has come here having just won a victory. What should we do?"

Chen Zhen replied, "Although Liu Yao has a great army, few of them are actually skilled soldiers. He has swelled his numbers by forcing a great many of the Di and Qiang peoples to join him like a flock of crows, but he has not yet had a chance to really win them over through displays of his grace and trust. Furthermore, he still has enemies east of the mountains (that is, east of Luoyang) to worry about. When he has such threats to his very heart and stomach, how can he remain here in stalemate for days on end and contend with us for mastery of the Hexi region? If he does not retreat within twenty days, then please give me a few thousand weak soldiers, and I shall capture him for you."

Zhang Mao was pleased, and he sent Chen Zhen to lead troops to reinforce Han Pu.

The Zhao generals were all spoiling for a fight and wanted to cross the Yellow River. But Liu Yao said, "Although our army's power has grown, two-thirds of our numbers are just people who came to us because they feared our might. Furthermore, our soldiers are fatigued, and it would be difficult to really put them to use. What we will do for now is merely put on our armor and make a sudden advance, so that we can unnerve them by the sound of our martial activities. If Zhang Mao has not sent us a petition asking to submit by the middle of this month, then I shall do as all of you advise."

Zhang Mao soon sent envoys offering his vassalage to Zhao, as well as uncountable numbers of horses, oxen, sheep, and treasures to present as tribute. Liu Yao appointed Zhang Mao as Palace Attendant, Commander of military affairs in Liangzhou, Northern and Southern Qinzhou, Lianzhou, Yizhou, Bazhou, Hanzhou, Longyou, the Western Reaches, and over the Xiongnu and other various tribal peoples, as well as Grand Tutor, Governor of Liangzhou, and Prince of Liang. He also granted Zhang Mao the Nine Bestowments.

〈桑壁,當在南安界。〉〈《莊子》曰:桓公讀書於堂上,輪扁斲輪於堂下,問桓公曰:「敢問公所讀者何言也?」公曰:「聖人之書也。」曰:「聖人在乎?」曰:「已死矣。」曰:「然則君之所讀者,古人之糟粕已矣,古之人與其不可傳者死矣。」李云:糟,酒滓也。糟爛爲粕。刺者,以直傷人;舉者,招人之過。〉〈石頭,在姑臧城東。〉〈言新破陳安,乘勝而來也。〉〈謂方與石勒相圖也。〉〈果如陳珍所料。〉

(Sangbi was within Nan'an commandary.

The Zhuangxi states, "Duke Huan, seated above in his hall, was reading a book, and the wheelwright Bian was making a wheel below it. Bian asked the Duke, 'I venture to ask Your Grace what words you are reading?' The duke said, 'The words of the sages.' 'Are those sages alive?' Bian continued. 'They are dead,' was the reply. 'Then,' said the other, 'what you, my Ruler, are reading are only the dregs and sediments of those old men. Such ancients, and what it was not possible for them to convey, are all dead.' (13.9)" Li remarked, "The term 糟 'dregs' means the remains of wine."

Ma Ji calls Fan Yi a 刺舉. A 刺er is one who can wound people through blunt remarks; a 舉er is one who brings up people's transgressions.

This Shitou was east of the city of Guzang.

When Zhang Mao says that Liu Yao "has come here having just won a victory", he means how Liu Yao had just defeated Chen An and was now riding the momentum of that victory to attack Liangzhou.

By "enemies east of the mountains", Chen Zhen meant Liu Yao's mutual antagonism with Shi Le.

The situation of Liu Yao's army was just as Chen Zhen had analyzed.)


Bazhou and Hanzhou do not seem to have been existing provinces either. Presumably they covered parts of Sichuan.

楊難敵聞陳安死,大懼,與弟堅頭南奔漢中,趙鎭西將軍劉厚追擊之,大獲而還。趙主曜以大鴻臚田崧爲鎭南大將軍、益州刺史,鎭仇池。難敵送任請降於成,成安北將軍李稚受難敵賂,不送難敵於成都。趙兵退,卽遣歸武都,難敵遂據險不服。稚自悔失計,亟請討之。雄遣稚兄侍中、中領軍琀與稚出白水,征東將軍李壽及琀弟玝出陰平,以擊難敵;羣臣諫,不聽。難敵遣兵拒之,壽、玝不得進,而琀、稚長驅至下辨。難敵遣兵斷其歸路,四面攻之。琀、稚深入無繼,皆爲難敵所殺,死者數千人。琀,蕩之長子,有才望,雄欲以爲嗣,聞其死,不食者數日。

16. When Yang Nandi heard that Chen An was dead, he was very afraid. He and his younger brother Yang Jiantou fled south to Hanzhong. Zhao's General Who Guards The West, Liu Hou, pursued and attacked them, capturing a great many people before returning. Liu Yao appointed his Grand Herald, Tian Song, as Grand General Who Guards The South and Inspector of Yizhou, and stationed him at Chouchi.

Yang Nandi sent hostages to Cheng, asking to surrender to them. Cheng's General Who Maintains The North, Li Zhi, accepted bribes from Yang Nandi and so did not send him on to Chengdu. After the Zhao soldiers withdrew, Li Zhi sent Yang Nandi back to Wudu. Yang Nandi occupied it and then refused to obey Cheng any longer.

Li Zhi, blaming himself for having miscalculated, repeatedly asked to lead a campaign against Yang Nandi. The Emperor of Cheng, Li Xiong, sent the Palace Attendant and General Who Leads The Army of the Center, Li Zhi's elder brother Li Han, to join him in marching out to Baishui. He also sent the General Who Conquers The East, Li Shou, and Li Han's younger brother Li Wu to march to Yinping. These two prongs would attack Yang Nandi. Li Xiong's ministers remonstrated with him, but he did not listen to them.

Yang Nandi sent soldiers to block Li Shou's and Li Wu's advance, so they could go no further. Meanwhile, Li Han and Li Zhi rushed ahead until they reached Xiabian. Then Yang Nandi sent soldiers to cut off their retreat, and he attacked them from all sides. Li Han and Li Zhi, deep in enemy territory and with no way out, were both killed by Yang Nandi, and several thousand Cheng soldiers died.

Li Han had been Li Dang's eldest son, and he had had such talent and influence that Li Xiong had wanted to make him his heir. When Li Xiong heard that Li Han had died, he went several days without eating.

〈亟請,數以爲請也。〉

(The term 亟請 means to repeatedly ask for something.)


初,趙主曜長子儉,次子胤。胤年十歲,長七尺五寸,漢主聰奇之,謂曜曰:「此兒神氣,非義眞之比也,當以爲嗣。」曜曰:「藩國之嗣,能守祭祀足矣,不敢亂長幼之序。」聰曰:「卿之勳德,當世受專征之任,非他臣之比也,吾當更以一國封義眞。」乃封儉爲臨海王,立胤爲世子。旣長,多力善射,驍捷如風。靳準之亂,沒於黑匿郁鞠部。陳安旣敗,胤自言於郁鞠,郁鞠大驚,禮而歸之。曜悲喜,謂羣臣曰:「義光雖已爲太子,然沖幼儒謹,恐不堪今之多難。義孫,故世子也,材器過人,且涉歷艱難。吾欲法周文王、漢光武,以固社稷而安義光,何如?」太傅呼延晏等皆曰:「陛下爲國家無窮之計,豈惟臣等賴之,實宗廟四海之慶。」左光祿大夫卜泰、太子太保韓廣進曰:「陛下以廢立爲是,不應更問羣臣;若以爲疑,固樂聞異同之言。臣竊以爲廢太子,非也。昔文王定嗣於未立之前,則可也;光武以母失恩而廢其子,豈足爲聖朝之法!曏以東海爲嗣,未必不如明帝也。胤文武才略,誠高絕於世;然太子孝友仁慈,亦足爲承平賢主。況東宮者,民、神所繫,豈可輕動!陛下誠欲如是,臣等有死而已,不敢奉詔。」曜默然。胤進曰:「父之於子,當愛之如一,今黜熙而立臣,臣何敢自安!陛下苟以臣爲頗堪驅策,豈不能輔熙以承聖業乎!必若以臣代熙,臣請效死於此,不敢聞命。」因歔欷流涕。曜亦以熙羊后所生,不忍廢也,乃追諡前妃卜氏爲元悼皇后。泰,卽胤之舅也,曜嘉其公忠,以爲上光祿大夫、儀同三司、領太子太傅;封胤爲永安王,拜侍中、衞大將軍、都督二宮禁衞諸軍事、開府儀同三司、錄尚書事。命熙於胤盡家人之禮。

17. Originally, Liu Yao had an eldest son named Liu Jian and a second son named Liu Yin. By the time Liu Yin was nine years old, he was already seven 尺 and five 寸 tall. The Emperor of Han at that time, Liu Cong, had said to Liu Yao, "This boy has a remarkable aura to him; there's no comparison between him and Yizhen (Liu Jian). You should make this one your heir."

Liu Yao had replied, "The heir of a border commander need only be good enough to protect the sacrifices. I would not dare to confuse the order of seniority among sons."

Liu Cong had said, "When it comes to your accomplishments, your virtues, and the position you hold as a conquering general, no other minister can compare with you. I shall make a new fief and give that one to Yizhen."

And Liu Cong had appointed Liu Jian as Prince of Linhai, while naming Liu Yin as Liu Yao's heir. When Liu Yin was grown up, he was very strong and was skilled with the bow, and he was valiant and as nimble as the wind.

During Jin Zhun's rebellion and slaughter of the Liu clan, Liu Yin had hid among the tribe of Heini Yuju. Now, after Chen An was defeated, Liu Yin told Heini Yuju who he really was. Greatly astonished, Heini Yuju treated Liu Yin with all due ceremony and sent him back to his father.

Liu Yao felt bittersweet happiness at the return of his son. He said to his ministers, "Although Yiguang (another son, Liu Xi) is already the Crown Prince, he is still young and tender, and he has a bookish and cautious nature. I fear he would not be able to endure the many troubles we face today. And after all, Yisun (Liu Yin) was originally my heir. His talents and abilities are more than human, and has he not already experienced so many travails himself? So I wish to follow the precedents of King Wen of Zhou and Emperor Guangwu of Han. By doing so, I shall both protect the fortunes of state and give peace to Yiguang. What do you say?"

The Grand Tutor, Huyan Yan, and the others ministers all said, "Your Majesty is always making plans for the benefit of the state, and how can we ministers gainsay you? This is truly a moment for celebration for the imperial family and all within the Four Seas."

But then the Household Counselor With Golden Tassel of the Left, Bo Tai, and the Grand Guardian to the Crown Prince, Han Guang, stepped forward and said, "Your Majesty, it is your prerogative to depose or set up whomever you wish. But rather than act at once, you have consulted your ministers about it. If you are uncertain as to whether to carry out your intentions, then may it please you to hear divergent opinions expressed.

"In our humble view, to depose the Crown Prince would be improper. In ancient times, when King Wen of Zhou arranged his succession, that was before he himself had been established, and so it was permissible. As for Emperor Guangwu, he only deposed his Crown Prince because the Crown Prince's mother had lost his favor; how could such a thing as that serve as a precedent for a sage court? If the Prince of Donghai had indeed succeeded to the throne, we cannot be sure that he would have been any worse than Emperor Ming.

"Now Liu Yin is indeed talented and cunning at both civil and military affairs, and he truly does surpass many others of our time. However, the Crown Prince is filial, friendly, benevolent, and kind, and he would also be able to serve as a worthy lord for a peaceful world. Furthermore, it is not just the residents of the Eastern Palace who have become attached to the Crown Prince; even the common people and the spirits are with him. How could you so lightly set him aside? Your Majesty, if you truly wish to do this, we shall have to oppose you to the death. We dare not uphold such an edict."

Liu Yao fell silent in response. Then Liu Yin himself stepped forward and said, "Fathers must show equal love to all their sons. Your Majesty, if you were to depose Liu Xi and set me in his place, how could I dare to feel at ease with that? If you truly believe that I am suited to carry out the long-term plans of the state, then could I not equally serve as an assistant to Liu Xi and help him to achieve the sage design? If you are determined that I should replace Liu Xi, then allow me to give up my life this very moment, for I dare not heed such an order." And he was driven to sobbing and weeping.

Now despite his proposal, Liu Yao could not really bear to depose Liu Xi, because he was the son of the late Empress Yang Xianrong. So he decided not to replace Liu Xi. He posthumously named his former wife and Liu Yin's mother, Lady Bo, as Empress Yuandao ("the Foremost and Grieved"). This Bo Tai was Lady Bo's brother and Liu Yin's uncle. Liu Yao praised him for his just and loyal service, and he appointed him as Upper Household Counselor With Golden Tassel with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies and as acting Grand Tutor to the Crown Prince. He appointed Liu Yin as Prince of Yong'an, Palace Attendant, Grand Guard General, Commander of the guards of the Two Palaces, and chief of affairs of the Masters of Writing, and granted him the privilege of a Separate Office with equal ceremonial to the Three Excellencies. Liu Yao ordered Liu Xi to conduct himself before Liu Yin in all cases by the ceremonies proper between an elder and younger brother.

〈儉,字義眞。〉〈言當世爲方伯,得專征伐也。〉〈事見九十卷太興元年。〉〈黑匿郁鞠旣歸胤,曜嘉其忠款,封爲左賢王,則亦匈奴之種也。〉〈曜太子熙字義光;胤字義孫。〉〈周文王舍伯邑考而立武王,漢光武舍長子彊而立明帝。〉〈二宮,曜宮及熙宮也。〉〈不以儲嗣使熙廢兄弟庸敬。〉

(Liu Jian's style name was Yizhen.

Liu Cong was saying that Liu Yao, although a border commander, had achieved many conquests during his time.

Jin Zhun's rebellion against Liu Can and his slaughter of most of the Liu family is mentioned in Book 90, in the first year of Taixing (318.30).

Since Heini Yuju had returned Liu Yin, Liu Yao commended his loyalty and sincerity and appointed him as Worthy Prince of the Left. So Heini Yuju must have been from another branch of the Xiongnu.

Liu Yao's Crown Prince, Liu Xi, was styled Yiguang; Liu Yin's style name was Yisun.

King Wen of Zhou had set aside his eldest son Bo Yikao in favor of his second son, the later King Wu. Emperor Guangwu of Han had set aside his eldest son Liu Jiang in favor of the later Emperor Ming.

The "two palaces" were Liu Yao's palace and Liu Xi's palace.

Liu Xi was not to show a lack of proper respect as a younger brother to an elder brother just because he was the heir.)


張茂大城姑臧,修靈鈞臺。別駕吳紹諫曰:「明公所以修城築臺者,蓋懲旣往之患耳。愚以爲苟恩未洽於人心,雖處層臺,亦無所益,適足以疑羣下忠信之志,失士民繫託之望,示怯弱之形,啓鄰敵之謀,將何以佐天子,霸諸侯乎!願亟罷茲役,以息勞費。」茂曰:「亡兄一旦失身於物,豈無忠臣義士欲盡節者哉!顧禍生不意,雖有智勇無所施耳。王公設險,勇夫重閉,古之道也。今國家未靖,不可以太平之理責人於屯邅之世也。」卒爲之。

18. Zhang Mao greatly fortified Guzang, and he finished the construction of the Lingjun Terrace. His Attendant Officer With Separate Carriage, Wu Shao, remonstrated with him, saying, "Your Grace, when you were repairing the walls and building terraces just now, that was just because of the approaching threat from Liu Yao. Foolish as I am, still I do not believe that your grace has spread all through the hearts of the people. Even if you lived in such a tall terrace, it would not do you any good; all it would do is alienate you from the loyalty and trust of your ministers and subordinates, and lose you the hopes of the gentry and common people who have placed their trust in you. You would show yourself to be weak and cowardly, and that would invite your neighboring enemies to plot against you. Then how could you assist the Son of Heaven or serve as a hegemon over the feudal lords? I pray you will fully cease these projects and give rest to such expenditures of funds and labor."

Zhang Mao replied, "When my late elder brother lost his life in a single day, was it because he lacked loyal ministers and righteous men who would serve him with all they had? When disaster creeps up upon you, even intelligence and bravery cannot turn it away. And are there not ancient principles which state, 'the kings and nobles establish defenses', and 'a brave man keeps the leaves of his door shut'? The state is not yet tranquil, and a man living in a difficult age cannot be reproached with a reasoning more suited to an age of peace."

And this was how Zhang Mao remained, to the end of his life.

〈元帝太興四年,茂築靈鈞臺,以閻曾諫而止,今復修之。〉〈謂懲劉曜來攻也。〉〈茂兄寔爲其下所殺,事見上卷太興三年。〉〈《易》曰:王公設險以守其國。《左傳》曰:勇夫重閉,而況國乎!〉

(Zhang Mao had begun construction of the Lingjun Terrace in Emperor Yuan's fourth year of Taixing (Book 91, 321.2). But because of Yan Zeng's remonstration, he had halted the construction. He now completed it.

Wu Shao was referring to when Liu Yao had come to attack Liangzhou.

Zhang Mao's elder brother Zhang Shi had been assassinated by his subordinates, as mentioned in Book 91, in the second year of Taixing (320.11).

The Book of Changes states, "The kings and nobles establish defenses, to maintain their territories (29.1).”

The Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals states, "A brave man keeps the leaves of his door shut;—how much more should a State do so! (Cheng 8.7)")


王敦從子允之,方總角,敦愛其聰警,常以自隨。敦常夜飲,允之辭醉先臥。敦與錢鳳謀爲逆,允之悉聞其言;卽於臥處大吐,衣面並汚。鳳出,敦果照視,見允之臥於吐中,不復疑之。會其父舒拜廷尉,允之求歸省父,悉以敦、鳳之謀白舒。舒與王導俱啓帝,陰爲之備。

19. Wang Dun had a cousin's son, Wang Yunzhi, who wore his hair in twin tufts. Wang Dun treasured Wang Yunzhi because of his intelligence and perception, and he often had Wang Yunzhi follow him around. Wang Dun often drank during the night, and when Wang Yunzhi was with him, Wang Yunzhi would get drunk and be the first one to lie down.

On one such night, Wang Dun was making treasonous plans together with his subordinate Qian Feng, and Wang Yunzhi heard everything they were saying. But just then, he was lying in a pool of his own vomit, and both his clothes and his face were filthy. When Qian Feng left, Wang Dun looked around, and seeing Wang Yunzhi lying in a pool of vomit, he did not suspect anything from him.

Soon, Wang Yunzhi's father Wang Shu was appointed as Commandant of Justice, so Wang Yunzhi asked Wang Dun to let him return to help his father. Upon arriving at court, Wang Yunzhi informed his father of all the plotting that Wang Dun and Qian Feng were up to. Wang Shu and Wang Dao then reported to Emperor Ming, and they made secret preparations on his behalf.

〈毛萇曰:總角,聚兩髦也。〉

(Mao Chang remarked, "The term 總角 means to gather the hair in two parts.")


王右軍年裁十歲時,大將軍甚愛之,恆置帳中眠。大將軍嘗先出,右軍猶未起;須臾,錢鳳入,屏人論事,都忘右軍在帳中,便言逆節之謀。右軍覺,既聞所論,知無活理,乃剔吐汙頭面被褥,詐熟眠。敦論事造半,方意右軍未起,相與大驚曰:「不得不除之!」及開帳,乃見吐唾從橫,信其實熟眠,於是得全。于時稱其有智。(New Tales 27.7)

When Wang Xizhi was under ten years old, his uncle, the Grand General Wang Dun, was extremely fond of him, and frequently had him sleep within his own bed curtains.

One morning (in 322?), Wang Dun had gotten out of bed first, before Wang Xizhi had gotten up. A short while later, Qian Feng entered the room and the two men started to discuss business. Forgetting all about the fact that Wang Xizhi was still inside the bed curtains, Wang Dun proceeded to talk about his plot to rebel.

Wang Xizhi woke up, and after he heard what they were discussing, he realized there was no prospect of escaping alive.
Accordingly, he gagged and vomited, soiling his face and bedclothes, then feigned a deep sleep.

Wang Dun was already halfway through discussing his business before he remembered that Wang Xizhi had not yet gotten up.
Then with a shock of alarm he cried, "There's no help for it but to put him out of the way!" But when he opened the curtains and saw the vomit spread in all directions, he believed that Wang Xizhi really was in a deep sleep, and thereby the boy's life was preserved. At the time, people praised Wang Xizhi for his sagacity. (tr. Richard Mather)


敦欲強其宗族,陵弱帝室,冬,十一月,徙王含爲征東將軍、都督揚州江西諸軍事,王舒爲荊州刺史、監荊州沔南諸軍事,王彬爲江州刺史。

20. Wang Dun wanted to strengthen the power of his clan while isolating the power of the imperial clan. In winter, the eleventh month, he reassigned Wang Han as General Who Conquers The East and Commander of military affairs in Yangzhou west of the Yangzi. He also appointed Wang Shu as Inspector of Jingzhou and Chief of military affairs in Jingzhou south of the Mian River, and he appointed Wang Bin as Inspector of Jiangzhou.

後趙王勒以參軍樊坦爲章武內史,勒見其衣冠弊壞,問之。坦率然對曰:「頃爲羯賊所掠,資財蕩盡。」勒笑曰:「羯賊乃爾無道邪!今當相償。」坦大懼,叩頭泣謝。勒賜車馬、衣服、裝錢三百萬而遣之。

21. Shi Le appointed his Army Advisor, Fan Tan, as Interior Minister of Zhangwu.

When Shi Le saw that Fan Tan's clothes and hat were shabby and damaged, he asked him about it. Fan Tan rashly responded, "I was just plundered by the Jie bandits, who stole everything I own."

Shi Le laughed and said, "Those Jie bandits have really done you wrong! I shall have to make it up to you."

Fan Tan was greatly afraid, and he kowtowed as he wept and begged forgiveness. But Shi Le gave him a carriage with horses, new robes and clothes, and three million cash before sending him on his way.

〈章武縣,漢屬勃海郡;武帝泰始元年,分置章武國;隋廢章武,幷入河間郡;唐爲瀛州。〉

(During Han, Zhangwu County was part of Bohai commandary. In Emperor Wu's (Sima Yan's) first year of Taishi (265), he split it off as the Zhangwu princely fief. Sui abolished Zhangwu as a fief and folded it into Hejian commandary. During Tang, it was Yingzhou.)


是歲,越巂斯叟攻成將任回,成主雄遣征南將軍費黑討之。

22. During this year, the Si-Sou people of Yuegui commandary attacked the Cheng general Ren Hui. Li Xiong sent his General Who Conquers The South, Fei Hei, to campaign against them.

〈《前漢‧西南夷傳》云:自巂以東北,君長以十數,徙、筰都最大。師古曰:徙及筰都二國也。巂,音髓。徙,音斯。此斯,卽漢之斯種也;蜀謂之叟。〉

(The Accounts of the Southwestern Tribes in the Book of Han states, "The Si people live to the northeast of Gui. They have dozens of chiefs and leaders, with the greatest being the Xi/Si and Zuo." Yan Shigu remarked, "The Xi/Si and Zuo were both states." 巂 is pronounced "sui". 徙 is pronounced "si". This Si people were a branch of the Si people known during Han; the people of Shu called them the Sou.)


會稽內史周札,一門五侯,宗族強盛,吳士莫與爲比;王敦忌之。敦有疾,錢鳳勸敦早除周氏,敦然之。周嵩以兄顗之死,心常憤憤。敦無子,養王含子應爲嗣,嵩嘗於衆中言應不宜統兵,敦惡之。嵩與札兄子莚皆爲敦從事中郎。會道士李脫以妖術惑衆,士民頗信事之。

23. Jin's Interior Minister of Kuaiji, Zhou Zha, was a member of a family which boasted five marquises. His clan was powerful and abundant, and there were no others among the gentry families of the Wu region which could compare with them. So Wang Dun was wary of the Zhou clan.

At this time, Wang Dun became ill. Qian Feng urged him to do away with the Zhou clan at once, and Wang Dun was inclined to agree.

Since Zhou Yi had died, his younger brother Zhou Song often felt agitated. Wang Dun had no son, so he adopted Wang Han's son Wang Ying as his heir. This Zhou Song had once accused Wang Ying of being unfit to command soldiers in the midst of the army, and Wang Dun hated him for that. Zhou Song and Zhou Zha's nephew Zhou Yan were both serving under Wang Dun as Attendant Officers of the Household Gentlemen.

At this time, there was a Daoist named Li Tuo who used magic to beguile the people, and many gentry and common people were inclined to believe in him.

〈札封東遷縣侯;兄靖子懋,清流亭侯;懋弟贊,武康縣侯;贊弟縉,都鄕侯;兄玘子勰,烏程縣侯;凡五侯。〉〈事見元帝永昌元年。〉

(Zhou Zha was himself the Marquis of Dongqian County. His elder brother Zhou Jing had a son, Zhou Mao, who was Marquis of Qingliu Village. Zhou Mao's younger brother Zhou Zan was Marquis of Wukang County. Zhou Zan's younger brother Zhou Jin was Marquis of Du Precinct. And another of Zhou Zha's elder brothers, Zhou Qi, had a son, Zhou Xie, who was Marquis of Wucheng County. This made five marquises.

Zhou Yi's execution by Wang Dun is mentioned above, in the first year of Yongchang (322.30).)
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