A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdoms

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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby waywardauthor » Tue Jan 24, 2017 2:43 am

If we want to call people a source, Dr. Rafe de Crespigny's email is Rafe.deCrespigny@anu.edu.au according to ANU. I am not sure how well he responds to inquiries, but it seems like its worth mentioning.
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby Sun Fin » Tue Jan 24, 2017 8:04 am

I know that in the past he has responded positively to the occasional email when members of the board have asked him to clear up queries about his books. I don't know what he'd think if lots of people started emailing him though! At some point I'll go through and update it! :lol:
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby Dong Zhou » Wed Jan 25, 2017 7:45 pm

I emailed him once to thank for him his work and got a nice reply. I think he is a source one should use with care so not to ruin it for everyone else

Edit: Aaron's right
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby Aaron.K » Thu Jan 26, 2017 8:57 pm

I think when it comes to Rafe, it's best if you're going to email him with specific questions rather than general ones (and preferably ones relating to his books). It would be incredibly rude to inundate his email box with questions that you could easily look up on Google or ask here.
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby Sun Fin » Thu Jan 26, 2017 9:58 pm

I don't think I'll add his email. I'm not sure I'd want mine on a list of resources open to the public, I would rather have discretion to point people towards at when they have particular questions!
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby Aaron.K » Thu Jan 26, 2017 11:10 pm

I mean, his email is listed publicly on his Australian National University page, so it's not difficult to find. But I agree, best not to have it completely out in the open. If someone wants to ask him a specific question, I think they're probably smart enough to know how to search for his email.
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby waywardauthor » Thu Feb 02, 2017 4:20 am

I am coming across more information ever since I started looking into Howard Goodman.

The Birth of Early-Medieval China Studies in a Global and Interconnective Context by Howard Goodman [Covers Three Kingdoms to Formation of the Tang]

Review of Discoveries in Wei-Jin: Nanbeichao Archeology since 2000 by Li Yuqun and translated by Howard Goodman

Rethinking Chinese Kinship in the Han and the Six Dynasties: A Preliminary Observation by Hou Xudong and translated by Howard Goodman [Contains an interesting anecdote where Guo Huai's daughter manages to get the Jin Emperor to recognize Jia Chong's grandson through a daughter as his direct heir instead of his brother]

The Moment of Dying: Representations in Liu Xiang’s Anthologies Xin xu and Shuo yuan by Charles Sanft [A glimpse into how members of the Han Dynasty viewed death and dying]

Chinese Polymaths, 100–300 ad: The Tung-kuan, Taoist Dissent, and Technical Skills by Howard Goodman [Pei Songzhi is in this, alongside some others. Unfortunately, wade-giles]

A History of Court Lyrics in China during Wei-Chin Times by Howard Goodman [More wade-giles, but an interesting look at court music in the Wei and Jin court.]

Rotten Pedant! The Literary and Historical Afterlife of Qiao Zhou by J. Michael Farmer [Appears to be a companion to his book on The Talent of Shu]

The Orphan Ts’ao P’i, His Odd Poem, and Its Historiographic Frame by Howard Goodman

Celestial Master Taoism and the Founding of the Tsao Wei Dynasty: The Li Fu Document by Howard Goodman

Transforming Achetypes in Chinese Poetry and Painting: The Case for Cai Yan by Dore J. Levy

Tsao Chih and the Immortals (Cao Zhi) by Donald Holzman

The Liangchou Rebellion 184-221 by G. Haloun[This is much older than the rest, from 1949]

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And by looking into J. Michael Farmer, there are some things to look out for.

Zhang Hua (232-300) is available to view.

“Scholarship in Shu,” [introduction and translation] in Robert F. Campany, Wendy Swartz, and Lu Yang eds., Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook (publisher not determined), forthcoming.

Not Available Publications:

On the Composition of Zhang Hua's 'Niishi zhen,' Early Medieval China 10/11.1 (2004): 151-75.

Zhang Hua, and Zuo Si, in Dictionary of Literary Biography: Classical Chinese Writers, v. 1, The Pre-Tang Era (Columbia, South Carolina: Bruccoli Clark Layman, 2010).

Yang Yan: The Prime Empress Yang of Emperor Wu of jin, Yang Zhi: The Grievous Empress Yang of Emperor Wu ofjin,and jia Nanfeng: Empress of Emperor Hui of jin, in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women (Armonk: ME Sharpe), 2007.

The Three Chaste Ones of Ba: Local Perspectives on the Yellow Turban Rebellion on the Chengdu Plain. Journal ofthe American Oriental Society 125.2 (April-june 2005).

How I Came to Doubt Qing scholarship: The Case ofYao zhenzong and Qiao zhou's Records ofthe Later Han, Monumenta Serica 51 (2003): 237-51.

Qiao zhou and the Historiography of Early Medieval Sichuan, Early Medieval China 7 (2001): 31-69.

What's in a Name? On the Appellative 'shu' in Early Medieval Chinese Historiography, Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.2 (2001): 44-59.

Conference Report. The Historical, Fictional, Theatrical, and Artistic Three Kingdoms: A Sino-American Colloquium, Early Medieval China 7 (2001), 153-57.

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I've been going through Journal Publications, and... well, there's more out there. J. Michael Farmer currently edits a journal on Early Medieval China. A couple can be read without subscription, while others can probably be looked for if you are at a university. Even where you can't see it, its a helpful reference. I used to be irritated that there were so few sources when I first fell in love with the period, while now my frustration is I cannot read them all!

You can contact the authors listed here.

BECOMING WEN: THE RHETORIC IN THE “FINAL EDICTS” OF HAN EMPEROR WEN AND WEI EMPEROR WEN by Meow Hui Goh [Compares the statements of Cao Pi to Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty]

THE XIANBEI IN CHINESE HISTORY by Charles Holcolme [Contained a relatively small section about the Three Kingdoms section]
the excerpt
From among the Wuhuan who had submitted to the Han dynasty select “shock cavalry” (tuqi 突騎) troops were recruited, and a substantial contingent of Wuhuan even served in the Han imperial bodyguard. As the Chinese presence along the northern frontier began to decline towards the end of the dynasty, the Han government increasingly relied upon non-Chinese peoples such as the Wuhuan for border defense.2626 Lin Gan, 44. Uchida Ginpū, 46–47. Xing Yitian 刑義田, “Dong-Han de Hu bing” 東漢的胡兵, Guoli zhengzhi daxue xuebao 國立政治大學學報 28 (1973): 155–56.

Non-Chinese soldiers were active in many of the warlord conflicts attending the demise of the Han dynasty, but after the greatest warlord of them all, Cao Cao 曹操 (155–220), decisively defeated the Wuhuan at the battle of White Wolf Mountain 白狼山 (in modern Liaoning) in 207, Wuhuan identity was permanently disrupted. Large numbers of Wuhuan were relocated south onto the Central Plain, blending into the general Chinese population, while their more able-bodied men were mobilized into cavalry units in the service of Cao Cao. Those Wuhuan people who remained north of China Proper, meanwhile, were gradually absorbed into the emerging Xianbei identity.2727 Sanguo zhi, 30.835. Li Dalong 李大龙, “Jianlun Cao Cao dui Wuhuan de zhengtao ji yiyi” 简论曹操对乌桓的征讨及意义, Shixue jikan 史学集刋 (2005.3): 35–40. Lin Gan, 60–70. Uchida Ginpū, 67–68. On the battle of White Wolf Mountain, see also Rafe de Crespigny, Imperial Warlord: A Biography of Cao Cao, 155–220 ad (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 230–36.

As the Wuhuan people had moved south towards Chinese borders during the late Han dynasty, the Xianbei had followed along behind, not only entering former Wuhuan territory but also spreading west as far as modern Gansu. After the decisive Han dynasty defeat of the Northern Xiongnu, and the Xiongnu leadership’s abandonment of all of what is now Mongolia by 91 ce, the Xianbei occupied the old Xiongnu pastures in Mongolia. The residual Xiongnu people who lingered in the area reportedly now began to call themselves Xianbei: “there were still over a hundred-thousand camps of remaining Xiongnu descendants, and they all proclaimed themselves Xianbei. After this, the Xianbei gradually flourished” (匈奴餘種留者尚有十餘萬落,皆自號鮮卑,鮮卑由此漸盛).28

The various Xianbei groups in Mongolia were initially not unified, but in the mid-second century a mighty leader named Tanshihuai 檀石槐 (ca. 136–181 ce) briefly pulled together much of the population of the eastern steppes. The story is told that when Tanshihuai was fourteen or fifteen sui (his age by Chinese reckoning), another tribe stole some cattle and sheep from his mother’s family, and he rode alone in pursuit, successfully retrieving all the purloined livestock. With this impressive feat he began to build an awe-inspiring reputation and, thanks also supposedly to his fairness in judging legal cases, he became a great chieftain. From his court roughly a hundred miles north of modern Datong he presided over an empire covering all the former Xiongnu lands, and oriented especially towards raiding Han dynasty China. After 168 there reportedly were annual Xianbei incursions across the entire northern frontier of the Han, from modern Hebei in the east to Shanxi and Gansu in the west. In 177 a large-scale Han punitive expedition against the Xianbei was spectacularly defeated.2929 Hou Han shu, 90.2989–2990. Rafe de Crespigny, “The Military Culture of Later Han,” Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009), 106–8.
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By the time Tanshihuai died, around 181, although he himself had been of illegitimate birth and achieved ascendance through his personal charisma and ability, the hereditary principle was already familiar enough for leadership over his huge empire to be bequeathed directly to Tanshihuai’s son. The rule of hereditary succession was insufficiently firmly established, however, for this inheritance to win universal acceptance, and the huge empire soon began to disintegrate.3030 Thomas J. Barfield, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, 221 bc to ad 1757 (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1989), 89–90.

A man from a lesser Xianbei lineage named Kebineng 軻比能 (d. 235) then emerged in the central and western portions of Tanshihuai’s former empire on the strength of his ability, and by around 233 he had unified much of the area south of the Gobi desert.

According to the Sanguo zhi [Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms], because Kebineng’s lands were near the Chinese border, many Chinese people (Zhongguo ren 中國人) fled the warlord depredations of late Han and Three Kingdoms China to join Kebineng, teaching the Xianbei how to make Chinese-style arms and armor, and even introducing some literacy. Kebineng supposedly learned to command his following somewhat in the Chinese military style, and Kebineng alternately offered tribute to and fought with the Cao-Wei dynasty in north China. In 235, he was killed by a Cao-Wei assassin, after which his empire disintegrated.3131 Sanguo zhi, 30.838–839. Lin Gan, 75–76. Tamura Jitsuzō 田村實造, Kita Ajia ni okeru rekishi sekai no keisei 北アジアにおける歷史世界の形成 (Kyōto: Hābādo-Enkei Dōshisha tōhō bunka kōza iinkai, 1956), 13–14.

If it is true that by this time the Xianbei were acquiring certain Chinese skills and technologies, it is equally true that they could still appear very alien to the Chinese. In 268 one Chinese Censor wrote with venom: “I regard the Hu and Yi [non-Chinese peoples] as having the hearts of beasts, [they are] not the same as the Chinese, and the Xianbei are the worst” (臣以為胡夷獸心,不與華同,鮮卑最甚).32


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Only Abstracts from here on, and some will show you an index instead.

History and the Three Kingdoms: Three Recent Approaches by Andrew Chittick

Zhuge Liang and the Northern Campaign of 228–234 by John Killigrew [36 Glorious Pages, no doubt]

The Accession of Sima Yan, AD 265: Legitimation by Ritual Replication by Carl Leban & Albert E. Dien [Almost 50 Pages]

The Reunification of China in AD 280: Jin's Conquest of Eastern Wu by John W. Killigrew

Perspective and Appreciation in Xie Lingyun's "Imitations of the Crown Prince of Wei's Gatherings in Ye" by Rebecca Doran

He Yan, Xuanxue and the Editorship of the Lunyu jijie by John Makeham [May show a greater emphasis on early Wei Confucian/Daoist thought]

Sites of Recognition: Burial, Mourning, and Commemoration in the Xun Family of Yingchuan, AD 140–305 by Sujane Wu

Heaven and Death According to Huangfu Mi, A Third-century Confucian by Keith N. Knapp

Self as Historical Artifact: Ge Hong and Early Chinese Autobiographical Writing by Matthew Wells

Educational Frustration, Shape-Shifting Texts, and the Abiding Power of Anthologies: Three Versions of Wang Can Ascends the Tower by Wilt L. Idema

The Biography of Lu Yun (262-303) in Jin shu 54 by Sujane Wu [Lu Yun is an unusually popular man born near the end of the Three Kingdoms Period]

The Last Word? Lu Yun's "Nanzheng Fu" by Sujane Wu [Lu Yun is an unusually popular man born near the end of the Three Kingdoms Period]

Praising a Ruler at a Dangerous Time: Two Poems by Lu Yun for Sima Ying by Fusheng Wu [Lu Yun is an unusually popular man born near the end of the Three Kingdoms Period]

Fan Ye's Biography in the Song Shu: Form, Content, and Impact by Sebastian Eicher [A biography of the man who wrote the Book of Later Han, which tells us about He Jin, Yuan Shu, Lu Bu, and others]

From Spirited Youth to Loyal Official: Life Writing and Didacticism in the Jin shu Biography of Wang Dao by Matthew Wells [The biography of the lead Jin official shortly after reunification of China, and who was born a few years before Shu fell]

The Scholar-Official and His Community: The Character of the Aristocracy in Medieval China by Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer & Thomas Jansen [Covers an expansive history of time, should have some mention of Later Han/Three Kingdoms]

Recruitment Revisited: the Commissioned Civil Service of Later Han by Rafe de Crespigny [Seems like a relatively new publication]

The Way of the Warrior in Early Medieval China, Examined through the "Northern Yuefu" by Scott Pearce [Not sure how much Later Han/Three Kingdoms is present]

Climate Change and Migrations of People during the Jin Dynasty by Connie Chin [And for the flood that followed]

Overviews of Other Research:
Japanese Studies on Wei-Jin Nanbeichao History in 1991
Studies of Wei-Jin Nanbeichao (A.D. 220-589) History in Mainland China (1990-1991): A Bibliographical Review
Wei-Jin Nanbeichao Studies in Japan in 1993
Research on Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties History from Taiwan and Hong Kong
Wei-Jin Nanbeichao Studies in Japan in 1994
Last edited by waywardauthor on Thu Feb 02, 2017 7:41 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby Xu Yuan » Thu Feb 02, 2017 6:25 am

Those are some amazing links there Waywardauthor. I should have headed to bed an hour and a half ago, but instead spent it reading that wonderful companion piece "Rotten Pedant!" Now I really should head to bed, but I have even more respect for Qiao Zhou (historically and novelwise) than before, thank you very much.
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby waywardauthor » Thu Feb 02, 2017 7:12 am

Xu Yuan wrote:Those are some amazing links there Waywardauthor. I should have headed to bed an hour and a half ago, but instead spent it reading that wonderful companion piece "Rotten Pedant!" Now I really should head to bed, but I have even more respect for Qiao Zhou (historically and novelwise) than before, thank you very much.

Glad to be of assistance! :mrgreen:

When you wake up tomorrow, maybe they'll be even more to see!
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Re: A Guide to English Language Sources on the Three Kingdom

Unread postby waywardauthor » Thu Feb 02, 2017 10:14 am

Continuing down the Rabbit Hole of looking into the publications and journals of the authors, we get to Dore Levy of Brown University. She is a Chinese Literature kind of professor, and appears to have only two publications directly in our era - both about Cai Yan. No copy for this one.

"Cai Yan yishu yuanxing shihua zhong di zhuanhuan" ("The Transformation of the Image of Cai Yan in Poetry and Painting"), translated with the assistance of Wu Fu-sheng, Zhongwai wenxue, (April 1994), 108-124.

Donald Holzman is a Harvard Man, and way too many of his publications are not in English.

“The Place of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove in Chinese History,” Kansai Asiatic Society Occasional Papers (Kyoto) III (1955), pp. 1-13.

“Literary Criticism in China in the Early Third Century A.D.,” Asiatische Studien/Études Asiatiques 28, no. 2 (1974), pp. 113-149 (reprinted in Chinese Literature in Transition V).

“From Scepticism to Belief in Third-Century China,” A Festschrift in Honour of Professor Jao Tsung-i on the Occasion of His Seventy-fifth Anniversary, Hong Kong: The Institute of Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1993, pp. 311-317 (reprinted in Immortlas, Festivals, and Poetry in Medieval China IV).

“Protest in Third-Century China: Ruan Ji et Ji Kang Against the Sima Usurpers,” in Jacques Gernet and Marc Kalinowski, eds, En suivant la Voie royale: Mélanges en hommage à Léon Vandermeersch (Études thématiques 7), Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient, 1997, pp. 345-359.

“A New Interpretation of Wang Wei’s Poem ‘The Ballad of Peach Blossom Spring’,” Chinese Literature (Peking) 1999, no. 2, pp. 182-187.

“Wei Shou, Treatise on Buddhism and Taoism: An English Translation of the Original Chinese Text of Wei-shu CXIV and the Japanese Annotation of Tsukamoto Zenryû,” by Leon Hurvitz, reprinted from Yün-kang, the Buddhist Cave-Temples of the Fifth Century A.D. in North China, Volume XVI, Supplement, Kyoto: Jimbunkagaku Kenkyûsho, Kyoto University, 1956, pp. 25-103. Journal of Asian Studies (below, JAS) XVII, 3, 1958, pp. 474-476.

Poetry and Politics: The Life and Works of Juan Chi (A.D. 210-263), Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, : i-viii, 1-316 (Chapters 8 and 9 are translated by Qian Nanxiu 錢南秀 in Qian Linsen 錢林森, ed., Munü yü canniang: Faguo hanxuejia lun Zhongguo gushi 牧女與蠶娘:法國漢學家論中國古詩, Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1990, pp. 242-284)

Gustav Haloun is a Czech Sinologist who died in the 50s, making his work on the Liang rebellion one of the last he ever published. All of those articles provided first were primarily through his efforts though, as this was the man who revived the publication after the German one fell into disrepair. It also appears to be the only thing he wrote for this era.

Andrew Chittick is a somewhat younger professor from Eckerd College. He does not have many publications to his name at the moment. The Patronage and Community in Medieval China: The Xiangyang Garrison, 400-600 CE he's published is sadly outside of the TK period.

The Development of Local Writing in Early Medieval China is far more general, based on the Han Dynasty. There are a few mentions, in passing, and very briefly, about the Later Han/Three Kingdoms.

Vernacular Languages in the Medieval Jiankang Empire is a bit odd, and is primarily linguistics, but it includes some study of Wu in it.

John W. Killigrew is horrendously difficult to track down, but after obtaining a 700 page book of references I tracked down a few of his publications:

KILLIGREW, John [W.] “The Role of the moushi in the Sanguo zhi.” JAH 32.1 (1998): 49-67.

KILLIGREW, John [W.] “Zhuge Liang and the Northern Campaign of 228-234.” EMC5 (1999): 55-91.

KILLIGREW, John [W.] “A Case Study of Chinese Civil Warfare: The Cao-Wei Conquest of Shu Han in A.D. 263.” Civil Wars 4.4 (2001): 95-114.

KILLIGREW, John W. “The Reunification of China in A.D. 280: Jin’s Conquest of Eastern Wu.” EMC 9 (2003): 1-34.

Andrew E Dien is a Stanford Professor who appears phobic of even mentioning a detail about himself other than that he exists. However, he is widely published - just not much in Three Kingdoms. His look into Sima Yan appears to be the earliest detail he'll go in the Northern and Southern Dynastic Period. He may have been pulled into it by Carl Leban, as Dien shares credit with the man even though Leban was dead for several decades by the point of publication. Its a bit of nuance that makes me really want to read Sima Yan's ascension. Leban also wrote Ts'ao Ts'ao and the Rise of Wei: The Early Years, Columbia University, 1971 as a dissertation and Managing Heaven's Mandate: Coded Communication in the Accession of Ts'ao P'ei, AD 220 in Ancient China: Studies in Early Civilization which also suggests that it was Leban who pushed for it before he died. There are some manuscripts that he was writing that never got published, I would be surprised if Sima Yan was not one of them.

Rebecca Doran is a Harvard Grad teaching at the University of Miami after leaving Boston University. While her first publication was on Cao Pi, she has moved later on in Chinese history. “Education and the Examination System” will be coming out eventually, and it will no doubt cover some of this period. She's also young, so there's a good chance there will be at least a dozen more publications from her.

John Makeham appears to be a younger colleague of Rafe de Crespigny, as he's another one from the Australian National Univeristy. He has a monstrous amount of publications, but only a few deal with the past, and even fewer for our period. Xu Gan peaked his interest because of his Confucianism and scholarship.

Balanced Discourses: An Annotated Translation of Xu Gan’s (170-217) Zhonglun, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002,xl+366pp.

Study Notes on Xu Gan and Han Classical Scholarship,” Journal of Oriental Studies, 28.2(1990):188-214.

Sujane Wu teaches at Smith College, and I may end up falling in love with her. "Her co-translated volume of the selected biographies from the History of the Later Han will be published soon." Scholarship seems to be something that happened to her by accident though, since she's a teacher of Chinese and only seems to have reviews of other works to her name.

Keith N. Knapp, along with Dien, is in the process of editing the Cambridge History of China Volume 2. You'll know that if you look through Cambridge looking for a history for the Three Kingdoms period, you won't find it even though you can find almost every other piece of Chinese history. Its been decades, but it looks like they're finally doing it. Still don't know when that glorious gift to the world will happen, but in the meantime this professor from the Citadel has a lot of publications...

Scriptural Knowledge and Impeccable Behavior: The Continued Relevance of Confucian Scholars in Wei-Jin Times.” In Wei-Jin wenhua yanjiu 魏晉文化研究, edited by Ma Baoji 馬寶記, 412-444. Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe, 2012.

"Moral Immortality: Ge Hong's Reconciliation of Daoism and Confucianism." In Ge Hong, Daojia, Daojiao and Science: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ge Hong and Chinese Culture. El Monte, CA: World Hongming Academy Press, 2004, 123-127.

"The First International Conference on Ge Hong and Chinese Culture," Early Medieval China, 9 (2003): 179-180.

Selfless Offspring: Filial Children and Social Order in Medieval China is a general work, but its a book - put up by the guy for free - that contains a number of relevant anecdotes to Later Han, Three Kingdoms, and early Jin.

Did the Middle Kingdom have a Middle Period? The Problem of “Medieval” in China’s History Generic, very brief, paper on the Middle Ages of China.

Matthew Wells teaches at the University of Kentucky, but appears to have popped over to UC Berkley as a visiting professor. The article on Wang Dao is just the first step, as he is currently writing what no doubt will prove to be a tome for early Jin court life. I'll want to buy that book, and since its from Purdue, it won't cost 150-400 dollars to purchase from Brill.

“Seeing is Believing: Faith, Doubt and Self-Presentation in Ge Hong’s Baopuzi Neipian.” Lifewriting Annual 4 (2014).

Wilt L. Idema is another Harvard Professor, and just like the other he publishes in too many languages. Even more detrimentally, his focus has almost nothing to do with medieval China, let alone the Later Han and Three Kingdoms period.

Now Wu Fusheng is our kind of scholar, straight out of the Univeristy of Utah. My only issue is that his field is poetry, so poetry is what he writes about.

Selected Poems of the Three Caos: Cao Cao, Cao Pi, and Cao Zhi (《三曹诗选英译》), translation from classical Chinese into English, with a critical introduction and textual annotations, with Graham Hartill. Beijing: The Commercial Press, 2016; 267 pages. Published, 07/2016.

《曹植诗歌英译》Selected Poems of Cao Zhi (translation into English from classical Chinese, with a critical itroduction). Beijing: The Acaemy Pres, 2013, 181 pages. Published, 12/07/2013.

“Death and Immortality in Early Medieval Chinese Poetry: Cao Zhi and Ruan Ji,” Chinese Literature, Essays, Articles, and Reviews, 33 (2011): 15-26. Published, 12/2011.

“’I Roamed and Rambled with You’: A Look at Liu Zhen’s (?-217) Four Poems to Cao Pi (187-226),” Journal of American Oriental Society, 129.4 (2009): 619-633. (page numbers were not available in last year's report). Published, 2009.

Yang Jingqing, "The Chan Interpretation of Wang Wei’s Poetry: A Critical Review," for "Journal of Asian Studies," 67. 2 (2008): 28—29. Published, 2008.

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Found two treasure troves of information. The Early Medieval China Journal's collective bibliography and the University of Oregon reference work for Eastern Han / Sanguo sources.

Fanning the Flames of War: Considering the Military Value of the Three Kingdoms Period in Chinese History at the Battle of Chi Bi. Lopez, Vincent 2010, American Journal of Chinese Studies, volume 17, issue 2, starting on page 145

[Medieval Group]

Hung, Shun-lung, ed. Bibliography of Chinese and foreign studies on literature of the Six dynasties. Taipei: Center for Chinese Studies, 1992.

Kubozoe Yoshifumi. "Japanese research in recent years on the history of Wei, Chin and the Northern and Southern Dynasties." Acta Asiatica 60 (1991): 104-134.

Capon, Edmund. "Chinese tomb figures of the six dynasties period," Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society 41 (1975-77):279-308.

Chen, Kenneth K.S. "Inscribed stelae during the Wei, Chin, and Nan-ch'ao." In: Studia Asiatica: essays in Asian studies in felicitation of the seventy-fifth anniversary of Professor Ch'en Shou-yi, L.G. Thompson, ed. San Francisco : 1975. pp.75-84

Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Neo-Taoism and the 'seven sages of the bamboo grove' in Chinese painting," Artibus Asiae 36:1-2 (1974):5-54.

Yao, Qian & Gu Bing. The art of the six dynasties. Beijing: Wen Wu, 1982.

Lai, Ming-chiu. "On the procession in China from the second to the sixth centuries A.D.: an interpretation of an elephant sculpture at the Kongwangshan site." In: Politics and Religion in Ancient and Medieval Europe and China, edited by Frederick Hok-ming Cheung and Ming-chiu Lai (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1999), pp. 41-75.

Wu, Hung. "Buddhist elements in early Chinese art (2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.)." Artibus Asiae 47:3-4 (1986): 263-352.

Bray, Francesca. "Swords into plowshares: a study of agricultural technology and society in early China," Technology and Culture 19:1 (January 1978):1-31.

Ikeuchi, Hiroshi. "A study on Lo-lang and Tai-fang, ancient Chinese prefectures in Korean peninsula," Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 5 (1930):79-95. ****

Perelomov, L.S. "China and Vietnam from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D." In Tikhvinsky, S.L. and Perelomov, L.S., ed. China and her neighbors, from ancient times o the Middle Ages: a collection of essays. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1981. pp. 59-70.

Wang, Zhenping. "Speaking with a forked tongue : diplomatic correspondence between China and Japan, 238-608 A.D." Journal of the American Oriental Society 114:1(January-March 1994):23-32.

Cutter, Robert Joe. "The death of Empress Zhen: fiction and historiography in early medieval China." Journal of the American Oriental Society 112:4 (Oct-Dec 1992): 577-583.

Declercq, Dominik. Writing Against the State: Political Rhetorics in Third and Fourth Century China. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1998.

DeWoskin, Kenneth J. "A source guide to the lives and techniques of Han and six dynasties Fang-shih." Society for the Study of Chinese Religions Bulletin 9 (Fall 1981): 79-105.

Goodman, Howard L. "The calligrapher Chung Yu (ca.163-230) and the demographics of a myth." Journal of the American Oriental Society 114:4(October-December 1994):555-71.

Henderson, Keith M. "The Han-Sui bureaucratic system in ancient China." Philippine Journal of Public Administration (9:3 (1965).

Holcombe, Charles. "The exemplar state: ideology, self-cultivation, and power in fourth-century China." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49:1 (June 1989): 93-139.

Ochi, Shigeaki. "Thoughts on the understanding of the Han and the Six Dynasties," Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 35 (1977):1-73.

Silk, Mitchell A. "The apotheosis of Kuan Yu." Asian Culture Quarterly 11:2 (Summer 1983): 41-47.

Brewitt-Taylor, C.H. "The San-kuo," China Review 19:3 (1890):168-78. .

Gutzlaff, C. "Notice of the San kwo che or History of the Three Kingdoms, during a period of one hundred and forty seven years, from A.D. 170 to 317," Chinese Repository 7 ( ):233-

Han, Fu-chih. "Economic thought and policies of China during the Three Kingdoms period," Bulletin of the National Compilation and Translation Committee 4:2 (December 1975).

Jiao, Jian. "Troublous times--Three Kingdoms, Western and Eastern Jin," China Reconstructs 28:5 (May 1979):75-8.

Killigrew, John W. "The role of the mou-shi in the Sanguo Zhi." Journal of Asian History 32:1 (1998):49-67.

Shen, Yueh. "Historical characters should be analyzed: briefly about the Legalists during the San Kuo (Three Kingdoms) period," Selections from People's Republic of China Magazines 810 (February 24, 1975):13-7.

Cutter, Robert Joe. "The incident at the gate: Cao Zhi, the succession, and literary fame." T'oung Pao 71:4-5 (1985).

Gardiner, K.H.J. "The Kung-sun warriors of Liao-tung (189-238)," Papers on Far Eastern History 5 (March 1972): 59-107; and 6 (September 1972):141-201.

Ho, Tzu-ch'uan. "Early development of manorial economy in Wei and Tsin." In: Chinese Social History, edited by E-Tu Zen Sun and John DeFrancis. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956.

Holzman, Donald. "Ts'ao Chih and the immortals." Asia Major third series 1:1 (1988).

Ikeuchi, Hiroshi. "The Chinese expeditions to Manchuria under the Wei dynasty," Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 4 (1929):71-119.

Ikeuchi, Hiroshi. "The establishment of Tai-fang prefecture by the Kung-suns and Lo-lang and Tai-fang prefectures as under the Wei dynasty," in Shi-en 2:6 (September 1929).

Cao Cao. "Tsao Tsao and others: poems." Chinese Literature 2 (1979):94-108.

de Crespigny, Rafe. "Civil War in Early China: Ts'ao Ts'ao at the Battle of Kuan-tu," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 5:1-2 (December 1967)51-64

de Crespigny, Rafe. "The Chinese Warlord in Fact and Fiction: a study of Ts'ao Ts'ao," Bulletin of the Chinese Historical Association, Taipei, 4 (1972):304-328 [translated into Chinese by Lu Jianrong, Cao Cao, Taipei 1980, 195-217]

Eikenberry, Karl W. "Cao Cao: Ancient China's Military Master." Military history 12:1 (April 1995):38.

Kuo, Mo-jo. "A reappraisal of the case of Ts'ao Ts'ao." Chinese Studies in History and Philosophy 1:4 (1968).

Wen, Chun. "Tsao Tsao and his poetry." Chinese literature 3 (1975):102-8.

Wu, An-chia. "The new image of Ts'ao Ts'ao: controversies over the reappraisal of historical figures," Issues and studies 11:11 (November 1975):39-47. .

Leban, Carl. "Managing heaven's mandate: coded communication in the accession of Ts'ao P'i, A.D. 220." In: David T. Roy and Tsien Tsuen-hsuin, ed. Ancient China: studies in early civilization. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1978. pp. 315-42.

Henry, Eric. "Chu-ko Liang in the eyes of his contemporaries." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 52:2 (December 1992): 589-612.

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The aristocratic families of early imperial China: a case study of the Po-ling Ts'ui family. [Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Chin, Frank Fa-ken. "Wang Tao (A.D. 276-339) and the founding of the Eastern Jin dynasty," Journal of Oriental Studies 14 (1976):83-4. (English summary of an article in Chinese, pp.45-64).

Straughair, Anna. Chang Hua: a statesman-poet of the Western Chin dynasty. [Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies Occasional Paper : 15] Canberra: 1973.

Waley, Arthur. "The fall of Lo-yang," History today (April 1951):7-10.

Coblin, W. South. "Th initials of the Wei-Chin period as revealed in the phonological glosses of Kuo P'u and others," Monumenta Serica 31 (1974-5):288-318.

Kiyose, Gisaburo N. "Tunguz and other elements in the languages of the Three Kingdoms." Korean Linguistics 4 (1986): 17-26.

Declercq, D. "The perils of orthodoxy : a Western Jin 'hypothetical discourse'." T'oung Pao 80:1-3(1994):27-60.

Lo, Chin-t'ang. "Popular stories of the Wei and Chin periods," Journal of Oriental Studies 17:1-2 (1979):1-9.

Yang, Winston L.Y. "From history to fiction--the popular image of Kuan Yu." Renditions 15 (Spring 1981): 67-79.

Cutter, Robert Joe. "The incident at the gate: Cao Zhi, the succession, and literary fame." T'oung Pao 71:4-5 (1985): 228-262.

Dunn, Hugh, translator. Cao Zhi: life of a princely Chinese poet. Beijing: New World Press : distributed by China Publications Centre, 1983. 95p.

Frankel, Hans H. "Fifteen poems by Ts'ao Chih: an attempt at a new approach." Journal of the American Oriental Society 84:11 (1963):39-48.

Kent, George W., translator. Worlds of dust and jade: 47 poems and ballads of the third century Chinese poet Ts'ao Chih. New York: Philosophical Library, 1969. 82p.

Roy, David T. "The themes of the neglected wife in the poetry of Ts'ao Chih." Journal of Asian Studies 19 (1959-60):25- 31.

Frankel, Hans H. "The development of Han and Wei yueh-fu as a high literary genre." In Lin, Shuen-fu; Owen, Stephen, eds. The vitality of the lyric voice: 'shih' poetry from the late Han to the T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. pp.255-286.

Frodsham, John David and Ch'eng Hsi. An anthology of Chinese verse: Han Wei Chin and the Northern and Southern Dynasties. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Lin, Shuen-fu. "The nature of the quatrain from the late Han to the high T'ang." In Lin, Shuen-fu; Owen, Stephen, eds. The vitality of the lyric voice: 'shih' poetry from the late Han to the T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. pp.296-331.

Lin, Shuen-fu; Owen, Stephen, eds. The vitality of the lyric voice: 'shih' poetry from the late Han to the T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. 405p.

Marney, Meilan. Index to the titles and authors in Ting Fu-pao: complete poetry of the Han, San-kuo, Chin, Northern and Southern dynasties. Taipei: Chinese Materials Center, 1971.

Miao, Ronald. "The Ch'i ai shih of the late Han and Chin periods," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 33 (1973):183-223.

Zhou, Zhenfu. "The legacy of Han, Wei, and Six Dynasties yueh-fu tradition and its further development in T'ang poetry. In Lin, Shuen-fu; Owen, Stephen, eds. The vitality of the lyric voice: 'shih' poetry from the late Han to the T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. pp.287-295.

Chen, Shih-hsiang, transl. Essay on literature: written by the third century Chinese poet Lu Chi. Portland, ME: Anthoensen Press, 1953.

Fang, Achilles. "Rhymeprose on literature: the Wen-fu of Lu Chi." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 14 (1951):527-66. [Also in: Studies in Chinese literature, edited by John L. Bishop, pp. 3-44.]

Holzman, Donald. Poetry and politics: the life and works of Juan Chi (A.D. 210-263). [Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Tung, Constantine. "Juan Chi, an escapist, and his inescapable world." Journal of the Blaisdell Institute 5:2 (June 1970):9-22.

Wang Yi-t'ung. "The political and intellectual world in the poetry of Juan Chi," Renditions 7 (1977):48-61.

Loewe, Michael. "Chinese relations with Central Asia, 260- 290," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 32:1 (1969):91-103.

Gardiner, K.H.J. and de Crespigny, R.R.C. "T'an-shih-huai and the Hsien-pi tribes of the second century A.D.," Papers on Far Easterm History 15 (1977):1-44.

Duman, L.I. "Chinese relations with the Xiongnu in the first to third centuries A.D." In Tikhvinsky, S.L. and Perelomov, L.S., ed. China and her neighbors, from ancient times o the Middle Ages: a collection of essays. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1981. pp. 43-58.

Ariel, Yoav. "The K'ung-Family-Masters' Anthology and third-century Confucianism." In Eber, Irene, ed. Confucianism: the dynamics of tradition. New York: Macmillan, 1986. pp.39-59.

Hu, Baoguo. "Elite Scholars from Runan and Yingchuan Prefectures During the Transitional Period from the Wei to the Jin Dynasty." Social Sciences in China 13:2 (Summer 1992): pp.181-190.

Paper, Jordon D. "Confucianism in the post-Han era (an analysis of the thought of Fu Hsuan from an historical perspective," Chinese culture 16:2 (June 1975):37-44.

Shryock, John K., transl. The study of human abilities: the Jen wu chih, by Liu Shao. New York: Kraus Reprint Corp., 1960/1937.

Bielenstein, Hans. "The census of China during the period 2-742 A.D." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 19 (1947).

de Crespigny, Rafe. "Prefectures and Population in South China in the first three centuries AD," Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan 40:1 (1968):139-154

Link, Arthur E. "Evidence for doctrinal continuity of Han Buddhism from the second through the fourth centuries: the prefaces to An Shh-kao's Grand Sutra on Mindfulness of the Respiration and K'ang Seng-hui's introduction to 'The Perfection of Dhyana'." In: Papers in Honor of Professor Woodbridge Bingham: a festschrift for his seventy-fifth birthday (editied by J.B. Parsons, San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1976). pp.55-126.

Bauer, Wolfgang. "The hermit's temptation: aspects of eremitism in China and the West in the third and early fourth century A.D." In Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology: section on thought and philosophy. Taipei: Chung Yang Yen Chiu Yuan, 1981. pp.73-115.

Chen, Kenneth. "Neo-Taoism and the prajna school during the Wei and Chin dynasties." Chinese Culture 1:2 (1957).

Feifel, Eugene, transl. "Pao-p'u tzu nei-p'ien," Monumenta Serica 6:1-2 (1941):112-211; 9 (1944):1-33; 11 (1946):1-32.

Lai, Chi Tim. The Taoist vision of physical immortality: a study of Ko Hung's Pao-p'u tzu. 1995. 423p.

McNaughton, William. "Ko Hung's Lives of the Taoists," University of Denver Quarterly 12 : 64-8.

Sailey, Jay. The master who embraces simplicity: a study of the philosopher Ko Hung, A.D. 283-343. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, Inc., 1978.

Sivin, Nathan. "On the Pao p'u tzu ne p'ien and the life of Ko Hung," Isis 60 (1969):388-90.

Torchinov, E.A., translator and commentary. Ge Hong. Baopuzi nei pian (Russian). St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Centre for Oriental Studies, 1999.

Ware, James R., transl. Alchemy, medicine, and religion in the China of A.D. 320: the Nei p'ien of Ko Hung (Pao-p'u tzu). Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966.

Bergeron, Marie-Ina. Wang Pi, philosophe du non-avoir. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986. 314p.

Chan, Alan K.L. Two visions of the Way: a study of the Wang Pi and the Ho-shang Kung commentaries on the Lao-Tze. New York: State University of New York Press, 1991. 314p.

Chang, Chung-yue. Wang Pi on the mind. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 9:1 (March 1982): 77-106.

Lin, Paul J. A Translation of Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching and Wang Pi's Commentary. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 1977.

Lynn, Richard. The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Ching, as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. [Also issued as: The I Ching on CD ROM. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. (A multi-media format, user-interactive electronic version, Windows and Macintosh compatible)].

Lynn, Richard. The Classic of the Way and Virtue: A New Translation of the Daodejing of Laozi as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Petrov, A.A. Wang Pi, his place in the history of Chinese Philosophy. [Institute of Oriental Studies Monograph : 13] Moscow: Moscow Academy of Science, 1936.

T'ang, Yun-t'ung. "Wang Pi's new interpretation of I-ching and Lun-yu," (translated by Walter Liebenthal), Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 10 (1947):124-61.

Wagner, Rudolf G. The craft of a Chinese commentator: Wang Bi on the Laozi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000.

Eberhard, Wolfram and Rolf Muller. "Contributions to the astronomy of the San-kuo period," Monumenta Serica 2:1 (1936). Also in Eberhard's Sternkunde und Welbild im alten China: gesammelte Ausatze (Taipei: Ch'eng-wen Publishing Co., 1970) pp. 229-44.

Wagner, Donald B. "An early Chinese derivation of the volume of a pyramid: Liu Hui, third century A.D.," Historia Mathematica 6 (1979):164-88.

Wagner, Donald B. "Doubts concerning the attributions of Liu Hui's commentary on the Chiu-chang suan-shu," Acta Orientalia (Copenhagen) 39 (1978):199-212.

Wagner, Donald B. "Liu Hui and Tsu Keng-chih on the volume of a sphere," Chinese science 3 (1978):59-79.

Wagner, Donald B. "A proof of the Pythagorean theorem by Liu Hui (third century A.D.)", Historia mathematica 12 (1985):71-73.

Ishizuka, Harumichi. "The texts of Lun-Yu, with commentaries by Cheng Hsuan, discovered in Tunhuang and Turfan." Journal Asiatique 269 (1981): 101-108.


University of Oregon

Frankel, Hans. comp. Catalogue of Translations from the Chinese Dynastic Histories for the Period 220-960. Chinese Dynastic History Translations, Supplement no. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.

Bielenstein, Hans The Restoration of the Han Dynasty, with Prolegomena on the Historiography of the Hou Han Shu. Göteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1953. Reprinted in BMFEA 26 (1954). The author advanced the novel contention that Wang Mang's fall resulted from the devastation and turmoil caused by the Yellow River's breaching its dikes. For the counterview, see Yu Yingshi 余英時. “Dong Han zhengquan zhi jianli yu shizu daxing zhi guanxi" 東漢政權之建立與士族大姓之關係 Xinya xuebao 新亞學報 1.2 (Feb. 1956): 270-80.

_____. “Lo-yang in Later Han Times,” BMFEA 48 (1976): 3-142. Meticulous description of the physical setting of the city based on literary sources.

Chittick, Andrew. “The Life and Legacy of Liu Biao: Governor, Warlord, and Imperial Pretender in Late Han China.” Journal of Asian History 37.2 (2003):155-86.

______. "Civil War in Early China: Ts'ao Ts'ao at the Battle of Kuan-tu," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 5:1-2 (December 1967): 51

______. "The military geography of the Yangtse and the early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 4:1 (June 1966): 61-76.

Eikenberry, Karl W. "Cao Cao: Ancient China's Military Master." Military History 12:1 (April 1995): 38.

Goodrich, Chauncey. "Two Chapters in the Life of an Empress of the Later Han." Part 1 and 2. HJAS 25 (1964–1965): 165–177; 26 (1966): 187–210.

Ho, Tzu-ch'uan. "Early Development of Manorial Economy in Wei and Tsin." In E-Tu Zen Sun and John DeFrancis, eds. Chinese Social History. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956.

Hsü, Cho-yun. “The Roles of the Literati and of Regionalism in the Fall of the Han Dynasty.” In Norman Yoffee and George L. Cowgill, eds. The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988. 176-95.

Henry, Eric. "Chu-ko Liang in the Eyes of his Contemporaries," HJAS 52:2 (December 1992): 589-612.

Kuo, Mo-jo. "A Reappraisal of the Case of Ts'ao Ts'ao," Chinese Studies in History and Philosophy 1:4 (1968).

Mansvelt Beck, B. J. “The Fall of Han.” CHC 1.317–376.

Michaud, Paul. "The Yellow Turbans." MS 17 (1958): 47-127.

Wu, An-chia. "The New Image of Ts'ao Ts'ao: Controversies over The Reappraisal of Historical Figures," Issues and Studies 11:11 (November 1975): 39-47.

_____. "Sale of Office or ‘Fines' in the Later Han: A Matter of Interpretation." In Albert E. Dien, ed. State and Society in Early Medieval China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990, 31-47.

______. “Ts’ao Ts’ao and the Rise of Wei: the Early Years.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia, 1971. A meticulously researched and detailed description
of the events surrounding Cao Cao's rise to power.

Young, Gregory C. “Court Politics in the Later Han: Officials and the Consort Clan, A.D. 132–144.” PFEH 34 (1986): 1–36.

Asslein, Mark Laurent. "'A Significant Season': Literature in a Time of Endings: Cai Yong and a Few Contemporaries." Ph. D. dissertation. University of Washinton, 1997. AAT 9736238.

Kinney, Anne Behnke. The Art of the Han Essay: Wang Fu's Ch'ien-fu lun. Arizona State University Center for Asian Studies Monograph Series 26. Tempe: Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University, 1990.

Pearson, Margaret. Wang Fu and the Comments of a Recluse. Tempe, AZ: Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University, 1989.

Blue, Rhea C. “The Argumentation of the Shih-Huo Chih Chapters of the Han, Wei, and Sui Dynastic Histories.” HJAS 11.1-2 (1948): 1-118.

de Crespigny, Rafe, trans. The Biography of Sun Chien. Centre of Oriental Studies Occasional Paper no. 5. Canberra: Australian National University, 1966. Translation of Sgz 46.

McLaren, Anne E. "History Repackaged in the Age of Print: The Sanguozhi and Sanguo yanyi," BSOAS 69.2 (2006): 293-313.

Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland. “Historic Analogies and Evaluative Judgments: Zhuge Liang as Portrayed in Chen Shou’s ‘Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms’ and Pei Songzhi’s Commentary,” OE 43 (2002): 60-70.

______. “Cao Zhi (192–232) and His Poetry.” Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1983.

______. “On Reading Cao Zhi’s ‘Three Good Men’: Yong shi shi or Deng lin shi?” CLEAR 11 (December 1989): 1–11.

______. “The Death of Empress Zhen: Fiction and Historiography in Early Medieval China,” JAOS 112 (1992): 577–583.

______. “The Incident at the Gate: Cao Zhi, the Succession, and Literary Fame,” TP 71 (1985): 228–262.

Graham, William T. , Jr. "Mi Heng's 'Rhapsody on a Parrot,'" HJAS 39.1 (June 1979):39-54.

_____. Poetry and Politics: The Life and Works of Juan Chi (A.D. 210-263). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1976.

Kroll, Paul W. “Portraits of Ts’ao Ts’ao: Literary Studies on the Man and the Myth.” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1976.

Miao, Ronald C. “The ‘Ch’i ai shih’ of the Late Han and Chin Periods (I).” HJAS 33 (1973): 183–223.

______. Early Medieval Chinese Poetry: The Life and Verse of Wang Ts’an (A.D. 177–217). Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982.

Roy, David T. “The Theme of the Neglected Wife in the Poetry of Ts’ao Chih.” JAS 19 (1959): 25–31.

Ariel, Yoav. "The K'ung Family Masters' Anthology and Third-Century Confucianism." In Irene Eber, ed., Confucianism: the Dynamics of Tradition, ed. Irene Eber. New York, Macmillan, 1986, 39-59.

Chan, Alan K. L. Two Visions of the Way: A Study of the Wang Pi and the Ho-shang Kung Commentaries on the Lao-tzu. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.

Chan, Tim Wai-keung. "Ruan Ji's and Xi Kang's Visits to Two "Immortals," MS 44 (1996):142-165.

______. Hsün Yüeh (a.d. 148–209): The Life and Reflections of an Early Medieval Confucian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

_____. Hsün Yüeh and The Mind of Late Han China: A Translation of The Shen-chien With Introduction and Annotations. Reviewed Edward T. Ch’ien, HJAS 43.1 (June 1983):333-44.

Paper, Jordan D. The Fu-Tzu: A Post-Han Confucian Text. Leiden : E.J. Brill, 1987. Reviewed Charles Holcombe, HJAS 50.2 (Dec., 1990): 733-740.

T’ang Yung-t’ung. “Wang Pi’s New Interpetation of the I ching and Lun you,” HJAS 10 (1947): 124-61.

Wagner, Rudolf G. “Interlocking Parallel Style: Laozi and Wang Bi,” Etudes Asiatiques 34.1 (1980): 18-58.

_____. “Wang Bi, ‘The Structure of the Laozi’s Pointers’ (Laozi weizhi lilüe).” TP 72.1-3 (1986): 92-129.

_____. The Craft of a Chinese Commentator: Wang Bi on the Laozi. Albany: SUNY Press, 2000.

_____. Language, Ontology, and Political Philosophy in China: Wang Bi’s Scholarly Exploration of the Dark (Xuanxue). Albany: SUNY Press, 2003.

Ebrey, Patricia B. The Aristocratic Families Of Early Imperial China : A Case Study Of The Po-Ling Ts‘ui Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Rev. Michael Dalby, HJAS 40.1 (June 1980):249-263.

_____. "The Economic and Social History of Later Han." In CHC 1.608-48.

_____. "Patron-Client Relations in the Later Han." JAOS 103.3 (1983): 533-42.

_____. “Toward a Better Understanding of the Later Han Upper Class.” State and Society in Early Medieval China. Ed. Albert E. Dien. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990, 49–72.

Farmer, J.Michael. "The Three Chaste Ones of Ba: Local Perspectives on the Yellow Turban Rebellion on the Chengdu Plain," JAOS 125.1 (2005):191-202.

Swann, Nancy Lee, trans. “Biography of the Empress Têng, A Translation from the Annals of the Later Han Dynasty (Hou Han shu, Chüan 10a).” JAOS 51 (1931): 138–59.

Liu, Cary, Michael Nylan and Anthony Barbieri-Low. Recarving China's Past: Art, Archeology, and Architecture of the "Wu Family Shrines." New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. A stunning book containing articles on the Wu family shrines, Han tombs in general, funerary objects, tomb construction, and funerary practice by leading specialists.
Alone I lean under the wispy shade of an aged tree,
Scornfully I raise to parted lips a cup of warm wine,
Longingly I cast an empty vessel aside those exposed roots,
And leave behind forgotten memories and forsaken dreams.
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