The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms

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Unread postby Beauty Warrior Zhou » Tue Jan 24, 2006 3:53 pm

Really awsome, Liang. You've gainned my respect :D
If you fight for your right,
you will fight till you die
If you fight for your responsibility
you will end with happiness
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Unread postby Gabriel » Thu Jan 26, 2006 2:32 am

Thanks, but I didn't write this if that's what you're thinking. Now, back to the book....

41. The chung-lang-chiang Xu Sheng of Leng-yeh, exceedingly annoyed, turned around to his fellow-officials and spoke to them, "You and I are unable to exert our strength to the utmost in the interest of the State, neither have we annexed Xu Chang and Luo Yang nor have we conquered Ba and Shu; instead we let our Sovereign conclude a covenant with Hsing Chen. What a shame!" And he wept profusely.

Hearing of this, Hsing Chen remarked to his men, "If Jiang-dong [i.e., Wu] has a general and minister like this, it will not remain long in a subordinate position."

42. The King of Wu sent the chung-ta-fu Chao Tzu of Nan-yang to come to the Wei Court and convey his thanks. The Emperor asked, "What kind of sovereign is the King of Wu?" The reply was, "He is a sovereign of intelligence, penetration, benevolence, wisdom, majesty, and resourcefulness." The Emperor asked for an explanation, and the reply was, "He selected Lu Su out of the common run of men; this proves his intelligence. He picked Lu Meng from the rank and file; this proves his penetration. He captured Yu Jin but did not kill him; this proves his benevolence. He took Jing-zhou without any bloodshed; this proves his wisdom. He occupies three provinces and gazes at the empire like the tiger at prey; this proves his majesty. He stoops to Your Majesty; this proves his resoucefulness."

43. The Emperor said, "Is the King of Wu well aquainted with learning?" Chao Tzu said, "The King of Wu has ten thousand ships floating on the Jiang and a million men clad in armor; he trusts the worthy and employs the able; his heart is set on his State and government. When he finds leisure, he reads books from the ancient times extensively; he looks through past history and picks up the wonderful and strange. He does not emulate a petty scholar, whose sole buisness is to plod through chapters and pluck phrases."

The Emperor said, "Can Wu be attacked?" The reply was, "Larger states have troops for campaigns, smaller states have strongholds for defense." The Emperor said, "Does Wu stand in fear of Wei?" The reply was, "With one million men in armor and the Jiang and the Han as her garden-ponds, why should she stand in fear?" The Emperor said, "How many men like you are there in Wu?" The reply was, "There are eighty or ninety who are especially intelligent and wise. As for men like me, they can be loaded on carts and measured by the bushel; the number is innumberable."

44. The Emperor sent an envoy to demand from the Wu Sparrow-head incense, large mussels, pearls, ivory, rhinoceros-horns, tortoise-shells, peacocks, lapis lazuli, fighting ducks, time-keeping cocks. All the officials of Wu said, "There are fixed regulations concerning tribute from the two provinces of Jing and Yang. What the Wei demand are objects for amusement and pleasure; the demand is not in accordance with propriety. We ought not to give them."

The King of Wu said, "Of old, Hui Shih conferred the title of King on the sovereign of Qi. Someone objected to him, 'Your teaching is against showing regard to worldly dignity; now you would confer the title of King on the Qi. Is this not self-contradictory?' Master Hui (Shih) said, 'Suppose there were a man who would knock on the head of his beloved son, when there was a stone which could serve his purpose just as well. The son's head is precious and the stone valueless. If I can substitute the valueless for the precious, why should I not do so?' At present, we are occupied with the affairs of the northwest. The people on this side of the Jiang depend on their sovereign for their life. Are they not my beloved sons? What the Wei sovereign demands are mere tiles and stones to me; what is there to them that I should be niggardly? Besides, even now he is in mouning for his father Cao Cao and yet demands such things; can we speak of propriety with such a man?" He furnished all those things and gave them to him.

45. The King of Wu named his son Sun Deng as Crown Prince. He carefully selected tutors and friends for him. Zhuge Ke, son of the t'ai-shou of Nan-chun Zhuge Jin, Zhang Xiu son of the Sui-yuan chiang-chun Zhang Zhao, Gu Dan, grandson (text has: son) of the ta-li Gu Yang of Wu-chan, , Chen Biao, son of the p'ien chiang-chun Chen Wu of Lu-jiang, all became chung-shu-tzu; within the palace they instructed him in the Shih and the Shu, out of it they followed him in practicing riding and archery. They were called Four Friends. In his relations with his subordinates, Sun Deng simply used the etiquette of a private person.

46. Twelfth month (Jan. 1-29, 222 AD). The Emperor made a tour of inspection to the east.
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Unread postby Beauty Warrior Zhou » Thu Jan 26, 2006 3:24 pm

Liang Shuo wrote:Thanks, but I didn't write this if that's what you're thinking.


I know you didn't. But I always remember every favour that other peoples did to me. You once told me about the Gens site. Now, you write the summary of the Chron by Achilles Fang, which i can access everytime.[/quote]
If you fight for your right,
you will fight till you die
If you fight for your responsibility
you will end with happiness
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Unread postby Gabriel » Fri Jan 27, 2006 6:58 pm

End of AD 221, beginning of AD 222....

47. The Emperor wished to eneoff Sun Deng, son of the King of Wu, as lord of ten thousand households; but the King of Wu sent up a letter in which he declined to accept, alleging that Sun Deng was too young. He sent another envoy, the hsi-ts'ao-yuan Shen Hang of Wu-jun, to come to the Wei Court to express his gratitude as well as offer tribute.

48. The Emperor asked, "Are the Wu suspicious that the Wei are interested in the east?" Shen Hang said, "We are not suspicious." "How so?" The Emeror replied. Shen Hang said, "Trusting to the covenant, we have banished everything contrary to good relations among us. Hence we are not suspicious. Should the Wei break the convenant, we are ready for the eventuality too." The Emperor further asked, "I hear that the Crown Prince is coming. Is that true?" Shen Hang said, "I have no place at the audiences in the Eastern Court, nor do I take part in the feasts. It is not my lot to know of such matters." The Emperor commended him.

49. The King of Wu was drinking himself into drunkenness at the terrace of Lin-tiao-t'ai in Wu-chang. He had a man go around and sprinkle water on his assembled officials, and said, "We shall drink merrily and shall stop only when all of us have so much wine inside us that he fall down on the terrace."

Zhang Zhao put on a solemn face but did not speak a word; he went out and sat down in his carriage. The King sent a man to fetch back Zhang Zhao. When he reentered, he said, "We are all making ourselves merry. Why are you angry, Your Excellency?" Zhang Zhao replied, "Of old, when Zhou made embankments of wine-dregs and a pond of wine, and held night-long orgies, he too thought to be merry; he did not think of any evil in it." The King became silent and ashamed, and the banquet was stopped.

50. The King was drinking with his body of officials; he rose up and went around to toast everyone. Yu Fan lay prostrate on the ground and feigned as if he could not contain any more wine. When the King left him, Yu Fan rose up and took his seat. The King was very angry, and grasped his sword to strike at him. Of those sitting in attendance on him there was not one who was not startled and frightened. It was only the ta-ssu-nung Liu Ji who rose up and embraced the King, remonstrating him, "After three cups the Great King in person will kill an excellent gentleman. Yu Fan deserves his punishment, but will the world believe that? Furthermore, the Great King has been loved by the empire because he is able to tolerate the worthy and nourish the multitudes. Must he give up his good name on the spur of the moment?"

The King said, "Even Cao Mengde killed K'ung Wen-Chu. Why can't I kill Yu Fan?"

Liu Ji said, "Cao Mengde was frivolous enough to kill a gentleman; the empire blamed him for it. But the Great King himself is practicing virtue and justice, with the intention of becoming a peer of Yao and Shun. How can he compare himself with such a man?" Yu Fan's life was thus saved. Then the King ordered to his attendants, that from now on no man should be killed if he, in a moment of intoxication, should issue such a command. Liu Ji was Liu Yu's son.

51. After Cao Cao had conquered Ta Dun, the Wu-huan became weaker and weaker. The chieftains of the Hsien-pei, such as Bu Dugen, Ke Bineng, Su-Li, Mi-Chia, and Chueh-Chi through Yen Jou, as intermediary, had offered tribute, seeking to trade with China; and Cao Cao had memorialized the Han Emperor to confer the title of King on all of them.

Ke Bineng was originally of the Minor Hsien-pei stock; through his courage, strength, honesty, and fairness, he obtained the submission of the multitudes. Thus he was able to subjugate the other tribes and became powerful; the region from Yun-chung and Wu-yuan eastward to the river Liao-shui came entirely under the dominion of the Hsien-pei. Ke Bineng, Su-Li, and Mi-Chia divided the territory among themselves, each ruling over his own domain.

Ke Bineng's tribe being near the Chinese frontier, a large number of Chinese deserted their country and went over to him. Su-Li, Mi-Chia, etc., were west of the Liao (river), beyond the frontiers of Yu Po-p'ing and Yu-yang; the way being far, they did not cause any trouble for the frontier regions. The Emperor appointed the p'ing-lu chiao-yu Qian Zhao to be hu Hsien-pei chiao-yu and the t'ai-shou of Nan-yang Tien Yu to be hu Wu-huan chiao-yu; they were to keep them [Hsien-pei and Wu huan respectively] under protection and pacified.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Sat Jan 28, 2006 12:34 am

Third Year of Huang Chu (222 A.D.)
Shu: Second Year of Chang Wu
Wu: First Year of Huang Wu

1. Spring, first month. On the day of the first month (Jan. 30), the sun was eclipsed.

2. On the day Feb. 3, the Emperor went to Xu-chang. He issued an edict: "The [shang-]chi[-li] and hsiao[-lien] of today are indentical with kung-shih of antiquity. 'In a hamlet of ten families, there may be found one honorable and sincere.' If age limit were imposed in the selection of these officials, then Lu Shang and Prince Chin of Zhou could not have become prominent in former ages. Herewith I command prefectures and fuedal states that their selection shall not be restricted by the matter of age. Confucian scholars who are skilled in their Classics and under-officials who are skilled in laws are all to be employed after a trial. The officials in charge are to examine and impeach those who disobey this command."

3. Second month (Mar. 1-29). The Kings of Shan-shan, Kutcha, and Khotan each dispatched an envoy to offer tribute. The Emperor said in an edict: "'The Hsi-jung came to submit to his arrangements,' and 'The Ti-ch'iang came to seek acknowledgment,'--these lines are sung in praise in the Shih and the Shu. Now, the distant barbarian tribes of the Western Regions have all come to offer submission and allegiance to us. Envoys shall be sent to soothe them." From this time on, the Western Regions maintained contact with China, and the wu-chi chiao-yu was appointed.

4. From Tzu-kuei, the Sovereign of Han (i.e., of Han-zhong or Shu--Liu Bei) was about to advance and attack the Wu. The chih-chung ts'ung-shih Huang Quan remonstrated with him, "The Wu are stout-hearted fighters; floating downstream we will advance with facility but it will be hard to retreat. I ask permission to lead the van and make contact with the enemy. Your Majesty ought to stay behind and guard the rear."

The Sovereign of Han did not follow his remonstrances, but appointed Huang Quan to be chen-po chiang-chun and take the command of the various troops on the north of the Jiang. He himself led the various generals and moves forward from the south of the Jiang; climbing mountains and crossing ranges, he halted at Hsiao-t'ing in Yi-tao.

5. The Wu generals all wanted to encounter and attack him. Lu Xun said, "Liu Bei has come eastwards with huge forces; their initial momentum is strong. Furthermore, as he has taken his position on high and steep terrain, it is difficult for us to attack him without ado. Even if we attack him and induce him to move down, it will still be difficult to win a complete victory. On the other hand, if we are defeated, the consequence will be disastrous for our general position; it will be grievous. For the time being we have only to encourage our generals and troops and take recourse to various stratagems, meanwhile waiting for some favorable oppurtunity. If we were to engage in a pitched battle on open and level terrain, I fear it would go badly for us. Now, they have marched by climbing mountains and are not able to expand their position; they are worn out among woods and rocks. The only action we should take is to tire them out gradually."

Not understanding him, the generals all considered Lu Xun faint-hearted; they were vexed and angry.

6. From Hen-shan, the Han penetrated to Wu-ling; they sent the shih-chung Ma Liang of Xiang-yang to bring gold and embroidered silk as gifts to the various Man barbarians of Wu-ch'i and to confer officials titles on them.

7. Third month. On the day Mar. 30, the Emperor eneoffed his imperial son, the Duke of Qi, Cao Rui, as Prince of Ping-yuan and raised the rank of the imperial younger brothers, Duke of Yen-ling Cao Zhang and others, to that of Prince.

8. On the day Apr. 8, the imperial son Cao Lin was eneoffed as Prince of Ho-tung.

9. On the day Apr. 28, the Emperor went to Hsiang-i.

10. Summer, fourth month. On the day June 12, the Lord of Chen-ch'eng Cao Zhi was eneoffed Prince of Chen-ch'eng.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Sat Jan 28, 2006 9:14 pm

11. At this time, the princes of the blood who were feudal lords possessed their fiefs only nominally, and enjoyed empty names, rather than substance. In each of the states of the feudal princes, a hundred-odd aged soldiers served as guards. Removed from the imperial court by a distance of a thousand li, they were not permitted to visit it. The officials fang-fu and chien-kuo [yueh-che] were appointed to spy on them. They had, to be sure, the ranks of princes and lords, but their actual status was no more then that of a commoner. They all wanted to become commoners, but could not. Laws being strict and harsh, the faults of the feudal princes were reported every day.

12. The Prince of Po-hai, Cao Kun, alone was prudent and cautious and was fond of study, never commiting any fault. His wen-hsueh and fang-fu said to one another, "We are charged by the Emperor to watch over the prince's conduct; when he commits a fault, we ought to report; when he has some good conduct to his credit, we also ought to report and not leave his good deed concealed."

Accordingly they reported to the throne how good Cao Kun was. Hearing this, Cao Kun was greatly surprised and afraid. He reproved the wen-hsueh, "It is merely a duty devolving on an ordinary man to cultivate his person and keep watch over himself. Now you gentlemen have reported to the Emperor in my favor. This is merely increasing my troubles. Furthermore, should there be any good conduct to my credit, what danger is there of its not being heard of that you should hasten to make your report like this? This is not helping my cause."

13. On the day June 27, the Emperor returned to Xu-chang.

14. Fifth month (June 28 - July 26). The eight prefectures on the south of the Jiang were named Jing-zhou and the various prefectures on the north of the Jiang, Ying-zhou.

15. From Chien-p'ing along the gorge of Wu-hsia to the region of Yi-ling, the Han had a continuous line of encampments, and set up tens of barracks. They appointed Feng Xi to be Commander of the Main Force, Zhang Nan to be Commander of the Vanguard, and Fu K'uang, Chao Jung, Liao Ch'un, Fu Tong, etc. to be Divisional Commanders.

From the first month (Jan. 31 - Feb. 29) they had been engaged with the Wu, but still in the sixth month (June 27 - July 25) the outcome was undecided. The Sovereign of Han sent Wu Ban with several thousand men to sut up barracks on the level terrain. The Wu generals all wanted to attack him. Lu Xun said, "This must be a ruse; let's wait and see." The Sovereign of Han knew that his plan had not worked, so he then led out eight thousand men whom he had laid in ambush and appeared in the valleys. Lu Xun said, "The reason I did not listen to you gentlemen when you advised me to strike at Wu Ban was that I guessed some plot."

Lu Xun sent up a letter to the King of Wu, "Yi-ling is a strategic point, for it is the place where the frontier pass of our state lies. It is indeed easy to take it, but it is equally easy to lose it. Once we lose it, we shall be losing not only a prefecture of Yi-ling but also the entire Jing-zhou will be endangered. In our contest for it today, we must arrange things in perfect harmony. Liu Bei has violated the heavenly norm; he would not stick to his whole but has dared to bring himself forth to us. Incompetent as I am, I shall rely on the protection of your ancestors' spirits and attack him who is acting contrary to nature while we act in conformity to it. His destruction is imminent; there is nothing to worry about. At first I was worried because he advanced both on land and water. Now he was left his boats to walk on foot, setting up encampments here and there. From my observation of his tactics, I am convinced that he has no special plan. In prostration I beg Your August Person to set your mind at ease and have no anxiety."

In the intercalary sixth month (July 26 - Aug. 24), Lu Xun was about to advance and attack the Han army. The generals all said, "We ought to have attacked Liu Bei in the beginning. Now he has been allowed to penetrate five or six hundred li and we have been engaged with him for seven or eight months. He is defending all the strategic points with strong forces. We shall reap no advantage if we strike at him now."

Lu Xun said, "Liu Bei is a sly fellow and moreover has much experience. When his troops were first assembled, his thoughts were concentrated and his mind sharp. We could not possibly wrangle with him. Now he has been staying here for a long time without obtaining any advantage over us. His troops are fatigued and their spirit low; he does not have any fresh plan. Today is the right time for us to take him by head and tail."

He then attacked one encampment, but without success. The generals all said, "This was killing our troops to no purpose." Lu Xun said, " I have already discovered a plan for destroying him." There upon he ordered each of his soldiers to hold a bundle of rushes; he attacked the Han troops with fire and thus destroyed them. With this one stroke the thing was accomplished. He then led various troops to lauch a simultanious attack. He killed Zhang Nan and Feng Xi, as well as Shamoke, the King of the Hu barbarians, and others, and destroyed more then forty of their encampments. The Han generals Tu Lu, Liu Ning, etc. were hard pressed and surrenderd. The Sovereign of Han climbed the mountain Ma-an-shan and deployed his troops around himself. Lu Xun urged on his various troops to trample them from four directions. The Han generals crumbled down like tiles and mud, the number dead amounting to some ten thousand.

The Soveregin of Han fled during the night. Keepers of post-houses set fire to them, carrying bells and armor away in their shoulders, thereby defending the rear of the retreating army. The Sovereign of Han barely escaped to the city of Po-ti-ch'eng. His boats and military equipment, as well as the provisions of his marine and land forces, were completely lost. The bodies of the dead drifted down in a thick mass along the Jiang. The Sovereign of Han was greatly ashamed and said, "I am now defeated and put to shame by this Lu Xun. Is it not the will of Heaven?"
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Unread postby Gabriel » Sun Jan 29, 2006 6:56 pm

16. The General Fu Tong of Yi-yang was defending the rear. The troops under his command were all killed, but Fu Tong kept his spirits up. The Wu advised his to surrender. Fu Tong abused them, saying, "You dogs of Wu, does a Han general ever surrender?" And so he died for his cause.

17. The ts'ung-shih chi-chiu Ch'eng Chi was retreating upstream against the current. His men said, "The pursuers are about to overtake us; we must untie the boats and go unhampered." Ch'eng Chi said, "In the army I have never accustomed myself to taking to flight before the enemy." He likewise died for the cause.

18. The an-tung chung-lang-chiang Sun Huan of Wu led a detachment to attack the Han vangaurd at Yi-tao. Besieged by the Han, he asked Lu Xun to send him reinforcements. Lu Xun rejected this request. The generals said, "The an-tung chung-lang-chiang Sun Huan is of royal clan. He is besieged and is in difficulty. Why is it you do not send him reinforcements?"

Lu Xun said, "The an-tung chung-lang-chiang Sun Huan has under him men who are attached to him. The city is strongly fortified and provisions are sufficient. There is nothing to worry about. Wait until my plans are realized."

He did not want to send any reinforcements to the an-tung chung-lang-chiang, and the an-tung chung-lang-chiang was relieved of the siege without his help. When Lu Xun's plans were executed, the Han were routed and took flight. Later Sun Huan saw Lu Xun and said, "At first I was resentful because you would not send me reinforcements. Today I am convinced how proper all your arrangements were."

19. When Lu Xun was first appointed Commander in-chief, his generals, who were either former generals of the t'ao-ni chiang-chun or of the royal clan and relatives to the ruling house by marriage, behaved haughtily and would not listen to him. Holding his sword in his hand, Lu Xun said, "Liu Bei is renowned throughout the empire; he was feared by Cao Cao himself. Now he is at our frontiers, a formidable foe. You gentlemen, who all owe gratitude of the State, ought to stand in harmony in order that we together may pare off this enemy; thus you will repay our Sovereign. But you would not obey me? What does this mean?

"Mere scholar though I am, I have recieved my charge from our Sovereign. The reason why the State has had you gentlemen condescend to me is that I possess a little ability, and can swallow insult and carry a heavy load. Each of us has his duty, which no one should refuse to preform. The army has constant regulations; you should not violate them."

When Liu Bei was defeated, it turned out that most of the plans came from Lu Xun; the generals then submitted to his authority. Hearing of this, the King of Wu said, "Why did you not report to me those generals who would not obey your commands?"

The reply was, "I received too great a bounty from you, the task imposed on me being for from beyond my ability. Furthermore, these generals either serve as stomach and heart of Your Majesty, or are worthy of being your nails and teeth, or are officials of merits; they are all men with whom the State may accomplish great work. Doltish and timid though I am, I presume to emulate the humility of Lin Hsiang-Ju and K'ou Hsun in order that the buisness of the state be facilitated."

The King laughed heartly and commended him. He gave the additional title of fu-kuo chiang-chun to Lu Xun, appointed him Governer of Jing-zhou, and changed his eneoffment to Lord of Jiang-ling.

20. Zhuge Liang and the shang-shu-ling Fa Zheng were different from one another in what they liked and prized, but in matters dealing with the public weal they stood by one another. Zhuge Liang used to admire Fa Zheng for his sagacity. When the Sovereign of Han was defeated in his campaign against Wu, Fa Zheng was already dead. Zhuge Liang heaved a sigh, saying, "Had Fa Zheng been alive, he would certainly have stopped the Sovereign from going eastwards; and even if he went eastwards, he would certainly have warded off the catastrophe."

21. While the Sovereign of Han was in Po-ti[-ch'eng], Xu Sheng, Pan Zhang, Song Qian, etc. eagerly memorialized the throne that Liu Bei could be captured, and petitioned to attack him together. The King of Wu asked Lu Xun for his opinion. Lu Xun together with Zhu Ran and Lo T'ung sent their words to the throne: "Cao Pi has been assembling his troops on a large scale. Ostensibly he claims that he is helping our State in attacking Liu Bei, but in his heart he cherishes a treacherous design. I have respectfully come to a decision that we should speedily respond with war."
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Unread postby Gabriel » Sat Feb 04, 2006 4:10 pm

22. Learning that the Han troops had constructed stockades and set up encampments for a distance of more then seven hundred li, the Emperor told his officials, "Liu Bei is ignorant of conducting war. Have you ever heard of any one resisting the enemy by means of encampments strewn along a distance of seven hundred li? One who encamps in grassy, damp open country or in steep places will be captured by the enemy; hence such terrain is avoided in war. Sun Quan's letter to me announcing his victory is soon to come."

Seven days after this, the letter announcing the defeat of the Han by Wu came.

23. Autumn, seventh month (Aug. 25 - Sept. 23). Ji-zhou suffered heavily from locusts and famine.

24. When the Sovereign of Han fled in defeat, Huang Quan, who was north of the Jiang, could not return because the road was cut off. Eight month (Sept. 24 - Oct. 22). Leading his men, he came and surrendered to the Wei. In Han, officials in charge requested to arrest Huang Quan's wife and children. The Sovereign of Han said, "It is I who have done a bad turn to Huang Quan; Huang Quan has not done any wrong to me." Huang Quan's family was treated as before.

In Wei, the Emperor said to Huang Quan, "You have left the rebels to resign yourself to us. Do you intend to follow in the footsteps of Ch'en P'ing and Han Xin?"

The reply was, "I have abundantly received cordial treatment from my Sovereign Liu Bei. I could not surrender to Wu, nor was there a road for me to take and return to Shu, hence I surrendered to you. Being a general of the defeated army, I deem it my good fortune to have escaped from death. How can I pretend to emulate the ancients?"

The Emperor commended him for this; he appointed him to be chen-nan chiang-chun, eneoffed him as Lord of Yu-yang, gave him the title of shih-chung, and gave him a seat in his carriage.

Some of the Shu who had surrendered said that the Han had put Huang Quan's wife and children to death. The Emperor ordered Huang Quan to hold mourning, but Huang Quan said, "The relationship between me, Liu Bei and Zhuge Liang is based on sincerity and trust; they clearly understand my mind. This news I presume to suspect as untrue, and request to wait."

When afterwards more detailed news was brought, it turned out to be as he had surmised.

25. Ma Liang also died in Wu-ch'i.

26. Ninth month. On the day Oct. 25, the Emperor commanded in an edict, "Women's participation in the government is the beginning of disorder. From now on, no official will be allowed to report state affairs to the Empress Dowager, nor shall any member of the clans of the imperial consorts be appointed regents [during the minority of young Emperors], nor shall they be given eneoffment without due merit. This edict shall be transmitted to later generations. Any transgression of this, the empire shall punish with death."

27. The Empress Dowager nee Pien did not put on any especially amiable expression when she recieved in audience members of her clan. She always exhorted them, "Be temperate and frugal in your daily life. Do not expect any largesse from me nor think of enjoying ease. My relatives probably think this strange, and consider that I treat them stingily; I act thus because I live up to a constant principle. I served the Martial Emperor (i.e., Cao Cao) forty to fifty years and during this long time I lived frugally; now I cannot change all of a sudden to become fond of extravagance. If any one of my own clan should commit a crime, I shall be the one to augment his punishment by one degree. Do not look forward to any gift in the form of money and grain or loan."
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Unread postby Gabriel » Sat Feb 04, 2006 6:11 pm

28. When the Emperor was about to appoint the kuei-pin nee Kuo as his Empress, the chung-lang Zhan Qian sent up his memorial, "The virtue of imperial consorts is one on which prosperity or decline, good rule or misrule depends.

"To illustrate, the girl from Xi-ling was married to Huang(-Di) (Yellow Emperor), (Nu-)Ying and O(-Huang) were sent down to the north of Kuei as wives to Shun; in both cases, they proved themselves to be worthy and wise, and thus their good fame spread in ancient times. Jie was banished to Nan-chao, a calamity due to his fondness for Mo-Xi; by means of the punishment of burning and roasting, Zhou pleased Ta-Chi.

"Therefore, the sage and wise were prudent in their appointment of Empresses. They made a point of selecting them from among families renowned for generations, and selected the virtuous among them, who could govern the imperial concubines; they paid reverence to the Ancestral Temple and cultivated their womanly virtue.

"The Yi[-chang] says, 'When the family is brought to its normal state, all under heaven will be established.' The Ch'un ch'iu records that the Director of Ceremonies Xin Xia said, 'Do not accord a concubine the ceremonies proper to the principal consort.' Duke Huan of Qi also swore at K'uei-ch'iu, 'Exalt not a concubine to be the wife.'

"At present, your concubines receive favors to such a degree that their status in only second to that of Your Majesty. If a woman of lowly birth is suddenly exalted because you love her, I fear that in the future the inferior will prosper and the superior will suffer decline. This is not in conformity with the normal state of things; troubles will begin from on high."

The Emperor did not listen to him. On the day Nov. 1, he enthroned Lady Kuo as his Empress.

29. In the beginning, the King of Wu sent Yu Jin's hu-chun Hao Zhou and his chun-ssu-ma Tung-Li Kun to the Emperor to offer his allegiance; his words were very respectful and sincere. The Emperor asked Hao Zhou, etc., "Is Sun Quan to be trusted?" Hao Zhou maintained that Sun Quan was certain to remain a vassal, but Tung-Li Kun said that he was not certain that he would remain so.

The Emperor was delighted at Hao Zhou's words, believing that he knew whereof he spoke. Hence he named Sun Quan King of Wu. Then he sent Hao Zhou to Wu as his envoy. Hao Zhou said to the King of Wu, "As His Majesty did not believe that you would send your son to attend him as hostage, I pledged for you by the hundred members of my own family."

Hearing this the King of Wu shed tears which soaked his coat-lapels, and furthermore took his oath by pointing to heaven. Hao Zhou came back, but the royal Wu son to wait upon the Emperor was not forthcoming; the King of Wu did no more than offer profuse apology and excuse.

30. The Emperor wanted to send the shih-chung Xin Pi and the shang-shu Huan Jie to exact a covenant from him and demand his son as hostage. The King of Wu politely refused to receive the envoys.

31. Angry at this, the Emperor wanted to attack him. Liu Ye said, "He has recently scored a success in his campaign against the Shu, and in his country high and low are exerting their strength in harmony. Furthermore, the Jiang and lakes give him protection. We cannot dispose of him without due preparation." The Emperor did not follow his advice.

32. Ninth month (Oct. 23 - Nov. 21). The Emperor ordered the cheng-tung ta-chiang-chun Cao Xiu, the ch'ien chiang-chun Zhang Liao, and the chen-tung chiang-chun Ts'ang Pa to march out to Tung-k'ou; the ta chiang-chun Cao Ren to march out to Ju-xu; and the shang-chun ta chiang-chun Cao Zhen, the cheng-nan ta chiang-chun Xiahou Shang, the tso chiang-chun Zhang He, and the yu chiang-chun Xu Huang to beseige Nan-jun.

In Wu, the chien-wei chiang-chun Lu Fan took command of five armies and opposed Cao Xiu, etc., with marine troops. The tso chiang-chun Zhuge Jin, the p'ing-po chiang-chun Pan Zhang, and the chiang-chun Yang Ts'an reinforced Nan-jun; the p'i chiang-chun Zhu Huan, in the capacity of Commander of Ju-xu, resisted Cao Ren.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Sat Feb 04, 2006 11:49 pm

End of AD 222, beginning of AD 223....

33. Winter, tenth month. On the day Nov. 24, the Emperor announced that the east side if the mountain Shou-yang-shan was to be his mousolem Shou-ling. He made a testament specifying that his funeral should be simple and frugal; the tomb should contain no gold and jade, only pottery wares being used. He commanded that this edict be kept in the ancestral temple, copies being preserved in the archives of the shang-shu, pi-shu, and the Three Ducal Ministers.

34. Because a large number of the Man barbarians in Yang and Yueh had not yet submitted to him, the King of Wu sent the Emperor a letter in humble language begging that he be permitted to reform: "If my transgressions are such that you cannot pardon me and would not leave me in peace, I will return the land and the people to you and retire to Jiao-zhou to seek refuge for the rest of my life." He also sent a letter to Hao Zhou saying that he wished to find a wife for his son Sun Deng among the members of the imperial clan.

He further said that since Sun Deng was too young, he wanted to send Sun Chang-Xu and Zhang Tzu-Pu along with Sun Deng.

The Emperor answered him, "... Between me and you, the great relationship of sovereign and subject has already been fixed. Is it that I find pleasure in belaboring my army that I send them on a distant expedition to the Jiang and the Han?...When Sun Deng comes in the mourning, I will recall my troops in the evening of the same day. My words are as sincere as the great Jiang."

At this, the King of Wu altered his reign-title to Huang-wu and continued resistance and defense along the Jiang.

35. The Emperor left Xu-chang on his southern expedition; he abolished Ying-zhou and restored the former name Jing-zhou.

36. Eleventh month. On the day Dec. 31 the Emperor reached Wan.

37. Cao Xiu, who was at Tung-k'ou, memorialized, "I am willing to lead picked troops and stride like a tiger on the south of the Jiang. I shall be able to obtain supplies from the enemy; the adventure will end in certain success. Your Majesty need not mind if I meet my end thus." Anxious lest Cao Xiu cross the Jiang without further ado, the Emperor dispatched post-horses to stop him.

The shih-chung Dong Zhao, who was attending the Emperor, said, "I observe that Your Majesty wears an expression of worry on the face. Is it because Cao Xiu might cross the Jiang? Now as for crossing the Jiang, that is something nobody wants to do. Even if Cao Xiu harbors such intention, it is impossible for him to execute it single-handed; he needs the cooperation of other generals. Ts'ang Pa and others are not only rich but in high positions, hence they look for nothing more from life than to die natural death and keep their emoluments and ranks. How can they be willing to risk throwing themselves into a dangerous place to court uncertain fortune?

"If Ts'ang Pa and his men do not advance, then Cao Xiu will of himself desist. I fear that even if Your Majesty were to issue an edict commanding him to cross the Jiang, he would have to devise some way to do so and not be able to obey the command immediately."

Soon afterwards, a storm lashed the boats of Lu Fan and others of Wu, cutting asunder all the ropes that tied the boats, so that they were rushed straight toward the camp of Cao Xiu and his men. These killed and captured some ten thousand, and the Wu troops were dispersed. Upon hearing this the Emperor ordered the various troops to cross the Jiang in a hurry. The army did not advance immediately; the Wu boats came with reinforcements and, taking their own troops, returned to the south of the Jiang. Cao Xiu sent Ts'ang Pa to pursue them, but without success, the General Yin Lu dying in battle.

38. On the last day of the month, Jan. 19, 223 A.D., the sun was eclipsed.

39. The King of Wu sent the t'ai-chung ta-fu Zheng Quan as his envoy to Han. The t'ai-chung ta-fu Tsung Wei of Han returned the visit. Wu and Han thus came into contact.

40. Learning that the Wei army was in the field in large numbers, the Sovereign of Han sent a letter to Lu Xun: "The rebels [i.e., the Wei] are now along the Jiang and the Han. I am about to preceed eastwards again. Does the General think I shall succeed?"

Lu Xun replied, "I am afraid that your army, recently destroyed, has not yet healed it's wounds. Now that you have concluded peace with us, you ought to try to achieve recovery; there will be no leisure for you to pursue to its extremity. If you do not measure your own strength and wish to bring us from afar the remnants of your own wreckage as gifts, there will be no escaping with your life!"

41. In Han, the prefect of Han-jia, Huang Yuan rebelled.

42. The Wu general Sun Sheng leading ten thousand men occupied the river-islet (Chung-chou) in Jiang-ling to give support to Nan-jun from the outside.
You don't need to go to church to be saved, and you don't need to go to rehab to get off drugs. You just need to make the right decisions.
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