The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms

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Unread postby Gabriel » Thu Dec 14, 2006 5:47 pm

First Year of Ch'ing-ling (233 A.D.)
Shu: Eleventh Year of Chien-hsing
Wu: Second Year of Chia-ho

1. Spring, first month. On the day Feb. 19, a blue dragon appeared in a well in Mo-po in Jia-xien.

2. Second month. On the day Mar. 4 the Emperor went to Mo-po to see the dragon. He changed his reign-title.

3. a) Gongsun Yuan had sent his chiao-yu Xu Shu and lang-chung-ling Sun Song together with a memorial in which he called himself a subject of Wu. The Sovereign of Wu was greatly pleased and granted on this occasion a general amnesty.

b) Third month (Apr. 19 - May 15). The Sovereign of Wu sent the t'ai-ch'ang Zhang Mi, the chih-chin-wu Xu Yen, and the chiang-chun He Ta by sea to take ten thousand troops, gold and treasures, precious wares, and the Nine Insignia to be conferred on Gongsun Yuan, to eneoff Gongsun Yuan as King of Yen. The great ministers of the entire Court, from the Prime Minister Gu Yong down, all admonished him that Gongsun Yuan, although not to be trusted, had been given excessive favor, and that it only needed under-officials and troops to escort Xu Shu and Sun Song back. The Sovereign of Wu did not listen to this.

4. Zhang Zhao said, "Having turned his back against Wei, and consequently in fear of attack, Gongsun Yuan has sought help from afar; his submission is not from a sincere heart. If Gongsun Yuan alters his plan with intent to reinstate himself with Wei, and our two envoys fail to return, shall we not become the laughing stock of the world?"

The Sovereign of Wu repeatedly refuted Zhang Zhao, but Zhang Zhao was persistent in his view. The Sovereign of Wu would not bear it, and grasping his sword in his hand, said angrily, "The gentry of the State of Wu bow to me when they enter the palace, and to you when they are outside it. My respect of you has indeed been extreme. But you have frequently opposed me in public; I am constantly afraid I might lose my poise and kill you." Fixing his gaze on the Sovereign of Wu, Zhang Zhao said, "If, knowing as I do that my words are not accepted, I continue to exhaust my stupid loyalty, it is because the posthumous command--the Testamentary Charge given me by the Empress Dowager as she was about to die after summoning me near her bed--is still there, as ever." Thereupon he shed profuse tears. The Sovereign of Wu threw his sword to the ground and joined him in weeping. Nevertheless, in the end he sent Zhang Mi and Xu Yen on the embassy.

Vexed that his advice was not accepted, Zhang Zhao pretended to be ill and did not attend Court any more. The Sovereign of Wu was angered by this and had the entrance to his house filled up with earth. Zhang Zhao on the other hand also sealed it up with earth from the inside.

5. Summer, fifth month. On the day June 13, Cao Rui, Prince of Bo-hai, died.

6. Intercalary fifth month. On the day June 25 the sun was eclipsed.

7. Sixth month (July 25 - Aug. 22). The Zhu-shi in the palace at Luo-yang was burned down.

8. Kebineng of the Xian-bei tribe seduced away Budugen, a Xian-bei guarding the frontiers, and concluded a close alliance with him; leading ten thousand mounted troops in person, he went north of Xing-ling to receive the latter's baggages and belongings. Bi Guei, Governer of Bing-zhou, memorialized the throne that he had immediately sent out an army in order to awe Kebineng on the exterior, and in the interior to quiet Budugen.

Inspecting this memorial, the Emperor said, "Budugen has already been seduced bu Kebineng and hence he must be suspicious in his mind. Now that Bi Guei has sent out the army, he must be careful not to let it go beyond the frontier post of Zhu-zhu.

When the imperial command arrived, Bi Guei had already advanced his troops and stationed them at Yin-guan-xien, and had sent the generals Su Shang and Dong Bi to pursue the Xian-bi. Kebineng sent his son, leading more than a thousand mounted troops, to receive the tribe of Budugen; encountering Su Shang and Dong Bi, he engaged them in a battle at Lou-fan-xien. The two generals were lost. The tribes of Budugen and Xiegueini all rose in rebellion and moved outside the frontiers to join Kebineng in making incursions on the borders. The Emperor sent the hsiao-chi chiang-chun Qin Lang at the head of the Imperial Bodyguards to attack them. Kebineng thereupon fled north of the desert. Xiegueini, leading his tribesmen, came and submitted; Budugen was soon killed by Kebineng.

9. Gongsun Yuan knew that Wu, being so far away from him, could not be relied on; so he beheaded Zhang Mi, Xu Yen, etc., and sent their heads to the capital. He confiscated all their military provisions and valuable treasures.

10. Winter, twelfth month (Jan. 18 - Feb. 15, 234 A.D.). The Emperor appointed Gongsun Yuan ta ssu-ma and eneoffed him as Duke of Luo-lang.
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Unread postby Rastafarian » Thu Jan 04, 2007 1:53 pm

Cao cao claim he bei for the price of guo jia
Liu Bei claim Ba Shu for the price of pang tong
Sun quan claim jingzhou for the price of lu meng

just a coincedence eh ? hehe
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Unread postby Jordan » Thu Jan 04, 2007 5:08 pm

Interesting...Kebineng and Budugen first fought, but then Kebineng allied with Budugen to attack Wei. When this failed, he slew Budugen. I never knew that...
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Unread postby Gabriel » Fri Jan 26, 2007 6:43 pm

11. When he learned of this, the Sovereign of Wu was furious. He said, "I am now sixty years old; there is no hardship in the world that I have not tasted. But recently I suffered a reverse from a mouse; my temper raises up like a mountain. If I do not in person cut off the head of this mouse and throw it into the sea, I shall have no face left to rule over the myriad states. Even if I suffer adversity from it, I will not regret it."

12. Lu Xun sends up a memorial
13. Xue Song sends up a memorial
14. Lu Mao sends up a memorial

Sun Quan desists.

15. The Sovereign of Wu repeatedly sent his messengers to console Zhang Zhao and apologize to him, but Zhang Zhao persisted in not appearing. On one occasion the Sovereign of Wu, being out, passed by the gate of his house and called Zhang Zhao. Zhang Zhao refused to see him on the pretense of being severely ill. The Sovereign of Wu set fire to the gate to frighten him out. Still Zhang Zhao did not come out. The Sovereign of Wu had his men put out the fire and he himself stayed at the gate for a long time. The sons of Zhang Zhao supported Zhang Zhao to his feet, and the Sovereign of Wu carried him in his carriage to the palace, where he profoundly apologized in person. So, finding no way out, Zhang Zhao attended court.

16. When Zhang Mi and Xu Yen had arrived at Xiang-ping, Gongsun Yuan plotted against them. First, therefore, he scattered their subordinate officials and soldiers. He placed assistant envoys such as Qin Dan, Zhang Qun, Du Fe, Huang Qiang, with sixty of the subordinate officials and soldiers, at Xuan-tu-chun. Xuan-tu-chun was two hundred li away in the north if Liao-dong. The Prefect Wang Can ruled over two hundred households, in all about three or four hundred men. Qin Dan and his men were all quartered in the people's houses, on which they also depended for supply of their food and drink.

After more than forty days elapsed, Qin Dan held a discussion with Zhang Qun and others saying, "We have been sent afar by the state to execute its orders, but here we live like castaways; this is no different from death. Now I have observed that this prefecture is very weak. If we put all our effort together, set fire to the city walls and kill the chief officials, thus making good the disgrace our state suffers, then there will be no regret even if we are put to death. Is this not better than to live a dishonest life, remaining prisoners?"

Zhang Qun and the others approved. Thereupon they secretly made an agreement that they would rise up during the night of the nineteenth day of the eight month (Oct. 9). But at noon on that very day, Zhang Song, a man of the prefecture, informed against them. Wang Can thereupon got his soldiers together and closed the city gates. Qin Dan, Zhang Qun, Du Fe, and Huang Qiang scaled the city walls and escaped. At the time, Zhang Qun had been suffering from an ulcer on his knee, and he could not keep up with his companions. Du Fe was always at his side supporting him. Over steep mountains and valleys they went on for six or seven hundred li. The ulcer became more and more serious, so that the man could go no farther. He lay down on the grass, while all the others watched him and shed tears.

Zhang Qun said, "Unfortunetly my wound is grave; in no time I shall die. All of you had better hasten ahead in hope of reaching some place. By this uselss watching, we shall all die in this desolate valley. What profit will there be in that?"

Du Fe said, "Wandering in this place ten thousand li from home, we share life and death. I cannot bear to leave you behind."

He then urged Qin Dan and Huang Qiang to go ahead. Du Fe alone stayed and took care of Zhang Qun, gathering vegetables and fruits to feed him.

After going on for a few days Qin Dan and Huang Qiang reached Gou-li. They proclaimed a rescript of the Sovereign of Wu to Wei-Gong, King of Gou-li and his chu-pu, and dissembled that there had been a gift for them, but that it had been seized by the people of Liao-dong. Wei-Gong and his men were greatly pleased and immediately accepted the order as given in the rescript. He sent men to go along with Qin Dan and fetch Zhang Qun, and then sent twentyfive of his tsao-i to escort Qin Dan and his men on their return voyage to Wu. He sent up a memorial in which he called himself a vassal and offered as tribute a thousand sable skins and ten sets of falcon skins.

When received in audience by the Sovereign of Wu, Qin Dan and his men could not contain their mixed feeling of joy and sorrow. The Sovereign of Wu commended them and appointed them all to be chiao-yu.

17. In this year the Sovereign of Wu led out his army with the intention of laying seige to the New City (Xin-cheng) of He-fei. Because the place was distant from the water, he dared not leave his boat for more than twenty days. Man Chong said to his various generals, "As we have moved the site of our fortress, Sun Quan is certain to boast among his people. Now he has come with his large forces with the aim of some acheivement. Although he does not dare to come to us, he certainly will land on the bank and display his forces, to show that his strength is ample."

He then secretly sent sixty thousand horse and infantry to lay an ambush at a concealed place along the Fei-shui and wait for him. The Sovereign of Wu, as predicted, landed on the bank and displayed his forces. Man Chong's ambush troops rose up suddenly and attacked them. Several hundred men were slaughtered, and there were also some who drowned.

The Sovereign of Wu also had Quan Song attack Liu-an, but he likewise was not successful.

18. In Shu, Zhang Yi, the tu-tu of Lai-xiang, had been strict in enforcement of laws; he was unable to win the hearts of the outland peoples. The cheiftain of the southern barbarians, Liu Zhou, rebelled, and Zhang Yi put his troops into action to chastise Liu Zhou. The Prime Minister Zhuge Liang had the ts'an-chun Ma Zhong of Ba-xi replace Zhang Yi, and summoned Zhang Yi to return. The messenger said that Zhang Yi was to return speedily and receive his disgrace.

Zhang Yi said, "Not so. I am returning because with the Man barbarians in an upheaval I have not been able to execute my duties; but until my substitute comes, I must keep my post in the battlefield, transport and store provisions in preparation for exterminating the rebels. Shall I, merely because I am demoted, neglect the business of the state?"

With this he continued to superintend and direct, without being remiss. When his substitute came, he left. Ma Zhong, depending on this foundation, destroyed Liu Zhou and killed him. Upon learning this the Prime Minister Zhuge Liang commended him.

19. Zhuge Liang encouraged agriculture and trained his troops. He made wooden oxen and flying horses. He transported rice to the entrance of Ye-gu and repaired the storehouses at Ye-gu. He rested the people and the troops, and only after three years did he put them to the task.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Mon Jan 29, 2007 8:37 pm

Second Year of Ch'ing-lung (234 A.D.)
Shu: Twelfth Year of Chien-hsing
Wu: Third Year of Chia-ho

1. Spring, second month (Mar. 18 - Apr. 15). Zhuge Liang leading all his hundred thousand troops, invaded from Ye-gu. He sent an envoy to Wu to arrange simultaneous action on a large scale.

2. Third month. On the day Apr. 21, the Duke of Shan-yang died. The Emperor put on white garments and mourned him, sending an envoy to carry the Tally and take charge of the funeral.

3. On the day May 10, a general amnesty was given.

4. Summer, fourth month (May 16 - June 14). A great epidemic prevailed.

5. The palace Chong-hua-dien caught fire.

6. On the day June 17 the Emperor ordered officials in charge to sacrifice a bull, a ram, and a boar at the temple of Wen-Di and announce the death of the Duke of Shan-yang. He canonized the Duke of Shan-yang as Emperor Xiao-Xien of Han and buried him in accordance with the Han ceremonies.

7. Zhuge Liang reached Mei and stationed his troops south of the Wei river. Sima Yi led his troops across the Wei and took up his position with the river at his rear and constructed fortifications for resistance. He said to his various generals, "If Zhuge Liang comes forth to Wu-gong and moves east along the mountain, it will be a matter for concern to us; if he moves west to Wu-zhang-yuan, you generals will be left in peace."

Zhuge Liang did indeed quarter his troops at Wu-zhang-yuan.

8. Guo Huai, Governer of Yong-zhou, advised Sima Yi: "Zhuge Liang is sure to try for Bo-yuan. We must occupy it first."

Most of those disscussing the matter dissented, but Gui Huai said, "If Zhuge Liang straddles the Wei and climbs Bei-yuan, connecting his forces with Bo-shan, the route in the region of Long will be cut off, the aborigines and Chinese people will be shaken. This would not be to the advantage of our state."

Sima Yi thereupon had Guo Huai encamp in Bo-yuan. Before the fortifications were completed, the Han troops came in force; Guo Huai met and struck at them.

9. Although Zhuge Liang had indeed issued forth many times before, his aims had not materialized due to lack of steady transport of provisions. So he divided his troops and settled them in military agricultural colonies as a foundation for permanent encampment. The troops who tilled land were mixed among the inhabitants on the bank of the Wei; the people lived in peace, the troops showing themselves no partiality.

10. Fifth month (June 15 - July 13). The Sovereign of Wu entered Chao-hu k'ou and took up quarters there; then he proceeded towards the New City of He-fei. His men were said to number a hundred thousand. He also sent Lu Xun and Zhuge Jin to lead more than ten thousand men in Jiang-xia and Mien-k'ou and then proceed to Xiang-yang and the generals Sun Shao and Zhang Cheng to enter the Huai and proceed to Guang-ling and Huai-yin.

11. Sixth month (July 14 - Aug. 12). Man Chong wished to lead his various troops to reinforce the New City of He-fei. The chen-i chiang-chun Tien Yu said, "The rebels have mobilized their entire forces; they are planning for no small profit, but are using the New City as a bait for attracting our main forces. We ought to let them attack the City and dissipate their initial vigor; we should not fight them while their strength is rampant. Failing to take the City, their troops will be fatigued and off guard; we are sure to win a great victory. If the rebels become aware of our scheme, they will be forced to withdraw. To advance our troops at this point will be only to fall into their trap. Furthermore, when our forces advance toward them, we should do it so that it will be difficult for the advance to be known. We should not allow them to take appropriate measures."

12. At that time, officers and soldiers in the easten region were all given leave by turns. Man Chong memorialized the throne requesting the Imperial Bodyguard troops, and asking that the generals and soldiers on leave be recalled, so that the enemy could be attacked when they were collected together. The san-chi ch'ang-shih Liu Shao of Guang-ping maintained, "The rebel forces having come only recently, they are concentrated in mind and keen in spirit. Man Chong will be fighting with a numerically inferior force on their own ground; if they advance and strike, he will certainly be unable to control them. Man Chong asks to wait for the troops; there is nothing for us to lose by so doing. I urge that we first send five thousand infantry and three thousand cavalry ahead of our army, marching forth with clamor and making display of their strength. When the cavalry troops reach He-fei, they will scatter their formation, and put out banners and drums in large number, making a show of force outside the city. Then they will get behind the rebels' line, aim for their route of retreat and intercept their supply route. When they hear that large forces of ours have arrived, and how our cavalry is cutting off their line from behind, the rebels are sure to be shaken and alarmed and take to flight. They will be put to rout without a battle."

The Emperor followed him.

13. Man Chong wished to give up the defense of the New City of He-fei to attract the rebels of Shou-chun. The Emperor did not listen to him and said, "Of old, the Emperor Guang-Wu sent troops to occupy Lue-yang and so eventually destroyed Wei Xiao. The late Emperor set up He-fei on the east, defended Xiang-yang in the south, and consolidated Qi-shan in the west. The rebels were invariably destroyed at the ourskirts of these three walled cities; this shows that certain places must be contended for. Even if Sun Quan does attack the New City, he certainly cannot capture it. I will order the various generals to make a strong defense of the New City, and I myself will go forth and direct the campaign against him. I am anxious lest Sun Quan be gone when I come."

14. Thereupon he had the cheng-shu hu-chun Qin Lang lead twenty thousand infantry and cavalry to help Sima Yi ward off Zhuge Liang.

15. He ordered Sima Yi, "You only need to make your defense within fortified walls, to blunt his edge. Advancing, he cannot accomplish his aims; retreating, he shall not be given battle. If he stays long, his provisions will be exhausted, nor will he obtain anything by foraging. This being so he will have to flee. When he flees, you shall pursue him. 'We await at our ease the tired army.' This is the way to complete victory."
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Unread postby Gabriel » Wed Feb 21, 2007 7:28 pm

16. Autumn, seventh month. On the day Aug. 30 the Emperor embarked in the imperial vessel ("dragon boat") for his eastern campaign.

17. Man Chong, enlisting brave men, burnt down the attacking machines of the Wu. He shot and killed Sun Tai, a son of a younger brother of the Sovereign of Wu.

Furthermore, many of the officers and soldiers of Wu suffered from diseases.

18. When the Emperor reached a place several hundred li distant from the New City, his surprise troops had arrived. The Sovereign of Wu had at first thought that the Emperor would not be able to come out; hearing that large forces had arrived, he fled. Sun Shao also withdrew.

19. Lu Xun had dispatched his confidant Han Bian to carry a memorial to the Sovereign of Wu, and Wei scouts seized him. Hearing of this, Zhuge Jin was very anxious and wrote a letter to Lu Xun saying: "The Emperor (i.e., Sun Quan) has returned. The rebels have seized Han Bian; they will know our whole situation. Furthermore the water is drying up. We ought to leave speedily."

Lu Xun did not answer him, but urged his men to plant tulips and beans, and with his various generals played chess and practiced archery as usual.

Zhuge Jin said, "Boyan is full of resources. There must be some reason in his behavior." So he came to see Lu Xun in person.

Lu Xun said, "The rebels are aware that our Emperor has returned, and consequently they have nothing to worry about; they can concentrate their attention on us. Furthermore, we are defending an important position, and the minds of the rank and file as well as generals are moved. So we ought to keep ourselves calm to put them at ease. We must first apply our minds to discovering some tactic of getting away. If we now exhibit our withdrawal without further ado, the rebels will certainly think we are afraid and advance to harass us, and we will inevitably suffer disaster."

He then devised a secret plan with Zhuge Jin: placing Zhuge Jin in charge of the boats, Lu Xun would put aboard his troops and take them toward the city of Xiang-yang. The Wei, who were always fearful of Lu Xun's fame, suddenly went back in their walls. Zhuge Jin then brought out the boats; Lu Xun carefully put his troops in order, and in full martial array they marched toward the vessels. The Wei did not venture to come near. When he reached Bo-wei he pretended to stop and hunt. Secretly, he sent his generals Zhou Jun and Zhang Liang to go attack Xin-shi, An-lu, and Shi-yang, all in Jiang-xia.

At Shi-yang, the market happened to be crowded; as Zhou Jun and his men suddenly came, the people threw away all their belongings to go inside the walls. But the gates were crammed and could not be closed, and only after the officials of the city hewed down and slaughtered their own people could they close them.

They returned after having killed and captured more than a thousand men.

20. The officials all maintained that with the ta chiang-chun Sima Yi engaged with Zhuge Liang without relief, the Emperor should go west to Chang-an. The Emperor said, "With Sun Quan in flight, Zhuge Liang must be disheartened. Our large forces are sufficient to control him; I have nothing to worry about."

He then advanced with his army and reached Shou-chun, where he recorded the achievements of his various generals, granting enfeoffment and rewards in accordance with their individual merits.

21. Eighth month. On the day Sept. 30 the Han Emperor Xiao Xian was buried at the mausoleum of Chan-ling.

22. On the day Oct. 9 the Emperor returned to Xu-chang.

23. a) Sima Yi and Zhuge Liang had been holding their positions against one another for more than a hundred days. Zhuge Liang challenged for battle many a time, but Sima Yi would not come out.

b) Zhuge Liang then sent Sima Yi a bonnet and woman's dress. Sima Yi was angered and sent up a memorial to the throne to be permitted to fight.

c) The Emperor sent the wei-yu Xin Pi to carry the Plenipotentiary Tally and serve as Military Advisor, thus to restrain him. The hu-chun Jiang Wei said to Zhuge Liang, "Since Xin Pi has come carrying the Plenipotentiary Tally, the rebels will not come out at all." Zhuge Liang said, "He has been indisposed to fight from the beginning. The reason why he persistently asked to fight was to make a martial showing to his own men. While with his army the general sometimes does not accept his Sovereign's commands. If he were sure that he could get the better of us, would he have to ask for a permission to fight, from a thousand li away?"

24. When Zhuge Liang's envoy came to Sima Yi's camp, Sima Yi asked his about his sleep and food, and how busy he was; he did not make any inquiry on military matters. The envoy answered, "His Excellency Zhuge rises early and goes to sleep late. Punishments of twenty blows or more he always supervises personally. As for what he eats, it does not amount to a few sheng.

Sima Yi said to his men, "Zhuge Kongming takes little food and does much work; how can he last long?"

25. When Zhuge Liang was seriously ill, the Sovereign of Han sent the shang-shu p'u-i Li Fu to inquire after his health. On this occasion he consulted him on important matters of state. Li Fu came and spoke with Zhuge Liang; after he had taken leave and was gone a few days, he returned.

Zhuge Liang said, "I know why you have returned. Although we spoke during the past days through the length of the day, yet there still are matters that have not been exhaustively discussed. Hence you have come back to settle them. Your question is whether Gongyan is the right man for my successor."

Li Fu apologized, "On the former occasion I forgot to consult you as to who, after Your Excellency's demise, might be competent to fill the great post. It is for this that I have returned. I beg you tell me the name of a competent successor to Jiang Wan."

Zhuge Liang said, "Wenwei can be his successor." When asked for still the next successor, Zhuge Liang made no reply.

26. In this month Zhuge Liang died, with the army.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Tue Feb 27, 2007 6:33 pm

27. The chang-shih Yang Yi put the army in order and marched off; the population rushed to Sima Yi and informed him, and Sima Yi pursued them. Jiang Wei ordered Yang Yi to turn the banners and beat the drums, as if intending to meet Sima Yi. Sima Yi held back his troops and withdrew, not daring to press hard. Yang Yi thereupon departed, with his troops in battle formation. Entering Ye-gu he announced the death of Zhuge Liang.

The people made it a saying, "Dead Zhuge has put live Zhongda to flight!" When he heard this Sima Yi laughed and said, "It is because I can take the measure of the living, but not of the dead."

28. Sima Yi inspected Zhuge Liang's camps one after another and exclaimed, "He was a genius." He pursued them to Chi-an; but not overtaking them, he turned back.

29. Now, the Han ch'ien-chun-shih, Wei Yan, was surpassingly brave and martial, and he took good care of his troops.

Each time he went out under Zhuge Liang, he invariably wanted to take ten thousand men by a different route and rejoin Zhuge Liang's forces at Tong-guan, as had been done earlier by Han Xin. Zhuge Liang held him back and did not let him. Wei Yan used to consider Zhuge Liang faint-hearted and complained that his ability was not employed to the full.

As a man Yang Yi was able and quick. Each time Zhuge Liang went out on a campaign, Yang Yi always regulated and directed the organization of the troops and took charge of supply. He did not have to mull things over, but completed his arrangements in no time at all. All matters pertaining to the army were taken care of by Yang Yi.

Wei Yan was proud and arrogant by nature; his contemporaries were all humble to him. Yang Yi alone made no concession to Wei Yan, so that Wei Yan was extremely resentful of him; their relation was an antagonism as of water and fire.

Zhuge Liang deeply appreciated the endowments of both men and was unwilling to be partial to either.

30. Earlier Fei Yi was in Wu as an envoy. The Sovereign of Wu was intoxicated and said to Fei Yi, "Yang Yi and Wei Yan are low fellows, no better than shepherds. Although they were once useful in the management of affairs of the time by their howling and barking, one cannot neglect the fact that they have been entrusted with some power. Should one day there be no Zhuge Liang, they are sure to make trouble. You gentlemen of Shu, muddle-headed, do not think of taking precaution at this point; can you be said to have left your plans to your descendants?"

Fei Yi answered, "The disagreement between Yang Yi and Wei Yan is simply a matter of private antipathy; their disposition is not like that of Jing Bu and Han Xin, who could not be bridled. At present, we are exterminating the powerful rebel and unifying China; achievements are accomplished and works extended by men of talent. To discard them as precaution against some eventuality would be like not using boats because one would prepare against a storm. This is not a farsighted counsel."

31. During his grave illness, Zhuge Liang had given instructions to Yang Yi, as well as the ssu-ma Fei Yi, Jiang Wei, and others, concerning the army's retreat after his death. He ordered Wei Yan to defend the rear, with Jiang Wei after him; should Wei Yan disobey, the army was to march off without him. After Zhuge Liang's death, Yang Yi kept the death secret and did not announce it. He ordered Fei Yi to go forward and probe into Wei Yan's intentions.

Wei Yan said, "Although the Prime Minister had died, I am still here. The officials belonging to the Prime Minister may carry his mortal remains to be buried. I on the other hand ought to command the various troops and strike at the rebels. Because of the death of one man, must we neglect the business of the world? Besides, who am I, Wei Yan, that I should be commanded by Yang Yi to serve as general of the rear guard?"

So he and Fei Yi took charge of the troops left behind; he ordered Fei Yi to write a proclamation in his own hand, to be signed by them together and announced to the various generals. Fei Yi deceived Wei Yan saying, "I had better go back on your behalf and make the chang-shih Yang Yi understand. The chang-shih is a mere civil official with little experience in military matters, and will certainly not disobey you."

Fei Yi went through the gate and galloped away. Wei Yan soon regretted this, but it was too late to catch him. Wei Yan sent one of his men to Yang Yi and his men, who were intending to follow Zhuge Liang's plan, so that the various encampments were departing one after another. Wei Yan was very angry. Taking advantage of Yang Yi's not having started, he led fourth the troops under his command and marched directly south before them, burning the plank roads by which he had passed.

Wei Yan and Yang Yi each sent up a memorial that the other had revolted. Their express dispatches arrived in succession on the same day. The Sovereign of Han consulted the shih-chung Dong Yun and the chang-shih in charge of the ch'eng-hsiang-fu left behind, Jiang Wan, who both stood guarantee for Yang Yi and doubted Wei Yan. Yang Yi and his men had trees hewn to make roads and marched day and night, thus coming close behind Wei Yan. Wei Yan, who had reached the entrance of the Southern Valley, sent troops to meet and attack Yang Yi and his men. Yang Yi and his men ordered the chiang-chun He Ping to take the vanguard and ward off Wei Yan.

He Ping railed at Wei Yan, climbing to the valley entrance before others and saying, "His Excellency so lately died that his body in not yet cold; how dare you people act this way?"

Wei Yan's officers and troops knew Wei Yan was in the wrong and none dared to act; they all scattered. Wei Yan, alone with his several sons, fled to Han-zhong. Yang Yi sent a general, Ma Dai, to pursue and kill him. He sent the severed head to Yang Yi, who got up and kicked it, saying, "You slave, can you do your wicked deeds any more?" In the end the members of Wei Yan's family, to the third degree, were exterminated.

Now Jiang Wan had led the various camps of the imperial bodyguards towards the north to cope with the disorders; he had gone some tens of li when the news of Wei Yan's death was brought to him, and so he returned.

From the beginning, Wei Yan had wanted to kill Yang Yi and others in the hope that the opinion of the time would make him Zhuge Liang's successor in administrating the state's business. That was why he did not surrender to Wei in the north, but returned to the south to attack Yang Yi. In reality he did not intend to revolt.
Last edited by Gabriel on Thu Mar 22, 2007 3:03 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Tue Mar 13, 2007 10:34 pm

32. The various troops returned to Cheng-du, and a general amnesty was granted. Zhuge Liang was canonized "Loyal and Martial" Lord.

33. Now Zhuge Liang had memorialized the Sovereign of Han saying: "In Cheng-du I have eight hundred mulberry trees and fifteen ch'ing of poor land; my sons and younger brothers have thus clothes and food in abundance. While serving outside, I have not drawn any emolument. As for the clothes and food I need for my person, I have depended entirely on the state. I have accumulated no other property. On the day I die, there will be no superfluous silk inside my house nor any extra wealth outside, for such would make me ashamed toward Your Majesty."

When he died, it was just as he had said.

34. The chang-shih to the Prime Minister Zhang Yi, used to say in praise of Zhuge Liang, "His Excellency does not leave out those afar when he deals out rewards, nor does he show partiality to the near when he metes out punishments. Rank cannot be obtained when one does not deserve it, nor can one escape punishment by dint of powerful influence. This is why all, regardless of wise or foolish, forget their own selves in serving him."

35. Chen Shou's "Comment" says:
As chancellor of the state, Zhuge Liang soothed the people, demonstrated rules and regulations, simplified the official hierarchy, followed compromise measures, opened up his sincere heart, and spread fairness and justice. Those who served loyally and assiduously he would always reward even if they might be his enemies; those who violated laws or were remiss in their duties, he would always punish even in they were his relatives. Those who recognized their guilt and apologized, he would always pardon even if their misdeeds were heavy; those who cunningly prevaricated and elaborated, he would always put to death even if their misdeeds were light. There were no good deeds, however trifling, that he did not reward; there were no wicked deeds, however small, that he did not punish. He was well versed in the manifold affairs and took basic measures; he demanded reality corresponding to the name, and did not appreciate falsity. In the end, all within the land stood in awe of him and loved him. His punishments were indeed harsh and strict, yet there were none who complained; this was because he was equitable and fair in mind and clear in his exhortations. He could be said to be a man of outstanding ability who knew how to govern, a peer of Guan Zhong and Xiao He. Nevertheless, he made campaigns every year without achieving result. In would seem that resourceful generalship in response to changing situations was not his forte."

36. From the beginning, the chang-shui chiao-yu Liao Li thought his talent and renown deserved a position next to that of Zhuge Liang. Because of his unimportant position, he was constantly dissatisfied, ceaselessly complaining and slandering. Zhuge Liang degraded him to the rank of a commoner and banished him to Wen-shan. When Zhuge Liang died, Liao Li wept and said, "After all, I shall wear the lappets of my coat buttoned on the left side."

37. Li Ping heard of it (Zhuge Liang's death) and died of a broken heart. This was because Li Ping had hoped Zhuge Liang would reinstate him so that he might make good his misdeeds, and reckoned that his successor could not do so.

38. Xi Zuochi in his Discourse says: "In ancient times, Guan Zhong took the city of Pian, with three hundred families, from the chief of the Bo family, yet the latter did not utter a murmur to the end of his life. The sage (i.e., Confucius) thought this not easy. Zhuge Liang's causing Liao Li to weep and Li Ping to die are not mere cases of not uttering a murmur. Now, water is as level as anything can be, yet the wicked take their warning from it; a mirror is as perspicacious as can be, yet an ugly person has no anger when he looks into it. The reason why water and mirror probe into the depth of things, and yet cause no murmur, is that they are impartial. Being impartial, water and mirror escape slander. Then how much more is it so with a great and superior man, who cherishes the desire to let live and spreads the virtue of pity; whose laws are applied because they cannot but be applied, and whose punishments are meted out to those who have transgressed of themselves; who confers ranks but not out of favoritism, and punishes to death without showing anger? Can there be any one in the world who does not submit to him? Thus can Zhuge Liang be called one who knows how to mete out punishments; there never has been such a one since Qin and Han.

39. The people of Shu begged to erect Zhuge Liang's shrines everywhere, but the Sovereign of Han did not let them. So the people offered their private sacrifices to him at different seasons on the roads and paths. The pu-ping chiao-yu Xi Long and others sent a memorial to the throne requesting erection of a shrine in Mian-yang, near where his tomb was, and prohibition of private sacrifices. The Sovereign of Han acceeded to them.

40. The Sovereign of Han appointed the tso chiang-chun Wu Yi to be chu-chi chiang-chun, in this capacity to carry the Plenipotentiary Tally and direct affairs in Han-zhong; and the chang-shih to the Prime Minister, Jiang Wan, to be shang-shu-ling, in this capacity to direct all business of state.

41. Soon afterwards he added to Jiang Wan the titles of hsing-tu-tu with the Plenipotentiary Tally, and governer of Yi-zhou. At this time the commander-in-chief had recently died, and far and near were in fear and panic. Jiang Wan, unique and without peer, stood above the crowd of officials. He wore no expression of sorrow, nor showed any color of joy; his mind and behavior were just at they used to be. Because of this, the massses gradually submitted to him.

42. Hearing of Zhuge Liang's death, the Wu feared that Wei might take advantage of this weakening and take Shu. They increased the number of garrison troops at Ba-qiu to/by ten thousand. In the first place they wished to come to the aid of Shu, secondly they wished to join in it's partition. When they heard this the Han also increased their garrison at Yong-an against any eventualities. They Sovereign of Han sent the yu chung-lang-chiang Zong Yu as his envoy to Wu. The Sovereign of Wu asked him, "We of the east and you of the west are like a single family, but I hear that you of the west have increased the garrison at Bo-di (i.e., Yong-an). What does this mean?"

He answered, "I think the east's increase of the garrison at Ba-qiu and the west's increase of the garrison at Bo-di are both due to the necessity of the time, and it is not a matter worthy of putting in an interrogation."

The Sovereign of Wu laughed heartily and commended him for his proud report. His ceremony toward him was inferior only to his treatment of Deng Zhi.

43. In Wu, Zhuge Ke maintained that, the mountains of Dan-yang being so steep and its people for the most part so resolute and strong, the earlier expedition had resulted merely in annexing the common people of adjacent hsien, and had been unable to capture completely the more distant inhabitants. He repeatedly sought to have himself appointed as official of the place, saying that by the time he had been out there three years he could obtain forty thousand armed men.

General opinion however had it: The Dan-yang terrain is steep and full of defiles. Adjacent to the four prefectures of Wu-zhun, Kuai-ji, Xin-du, and Po-yang, it is several thousand li in circumference, its mountains and valleys ten-thousandfold. Inhabitants of the secluded regions have never entered any walled towns to take commands from officials. They all live by weapons and roam in the wilderness. To the end of their lives they stay in woods and jungles. All those who escape the law, and habitual criminals, take refuge with them. The mountains produce copper and iron, which they cast into armor and weapons. By habit they are fond of war and versed in fighting, and place high value on strength. They climb mountains, cross precipices, and rush into jungles like fish darting in pools and monkeys climbing trees. From time to time, watching for the oppurtunity, they come out to plunder; whenever we send troops against them, they seek their holes. When they fight they gather like wasps; when defeated they scatter like birds and beasts. From early times it has never been possible to control them."

All held the task difficult. Zhuge Ke's father Zhuge Jin hearing about it, considered the thing in the end could not be done. He sighed and said, "Ke will not prosper our house, he is going to bring our clan to ruin!"

Zhuge Ke persistantly set forth his certainty of success. So the Sovereign of Wu appointed Zhuge Ke General for Pacification of the Mountain Yue and Prefect of Dan-yang, and had him carry out his plan.

44. Winter, eleventh month (Dec. 9, 234, to Jan. 6, 235). Earthquake in Luo-yang.

45. In Wu, Pan Jun had been campaigning against the Man of Wu-ling. In several years he killed and captured several tens of thousands. From this time the various Man tribes were weakened and their whole region was traquil. In the eleventh month Pan Jun returned to Wu-chang.
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Unread postby Gabriel » Tue May 15, 2007 6:33 pm

Third Year of Ch'ing-lung (235 A.D.)
Shu: Thirteenth Year of Chien-hsing
Wu: Fourth Year of Chia'ho

1. Spring, first month. On the day Feb. 13, the ta chiang-chun Sima Yi was appointed t'ai-yu.

2. On the day Mar. 14, the Empress Dowager nee Guo died. The Emperor had asked the Empress Dowager time and again how the Empress nee Zhen had come to die, and the Empress Dowager died of anxiety.

3. In Han, Yang Yi, having killed Wei Yan, felt that his own merits were great enough to succeed Zhuge Liang in administering the state. He summoned the tu-yu Zhao Zheng to divine for him the Zhou Yi. The hexagram he obtained was the chia-jen, at which he became sullen and silent. But Zhuge Liang privately had felt that Yang Yi was by nature temperamental and intolerant, and his heart was set on Jiang Wan. Jiang Wan hence was appointed shang-shu-ling and tz-u-shih of Yi-zhou. On his arrival at Cheng-du Yang Yi was appointed chang chun-shih, without any troops to command; he was given an idle position.

Formerly, Yang Yi had served under the Emperor Zhao-Lie as shang-shu, while Jiang Wan was a shang-shu-lang. Although they afterwards became ts'an-chun and chang-shih to the Prime Minister, Yang Yi, in serving him, was always given the more toilsome duty. He considered himself senior to Jiang Wan both in age and office, and superior to him in talent and ability. Therefore his discontent and vexation showed in his words and in his expression, sighs and groans issuing from his innermost being. His contemporaries feared his intemperate language, and none dared to associate with him. Only the chou chun-shih Fei Yi visited and consoled him. Yang Yi told Fei Yi he hated to look backward or glance forward. He also said to Fei Yi, "If I had gone with the entire army over to Wei back when the Prime Minister died, could I have come down to such a plight as now I am in? I regret in vain."

Fei Yi secretly reported his words, and the Sovereign of Han dismissed Yang Yi to become a commoner, and banished him to Han-jia-jun. When he arrived at the place of his banishment, Yang Yi sent up a letter to the throne casting aspersions in strongest language. At this the prefect of Han-jia-jun was ordered to arrest Yang Yi, who committed suicide.

4. Third month. On the day Apr. 16, the Virtuous Empress, Consort of Wen-Di was buried.

5. Summer, fourth month (May 5 - June 3). The Sovereign of Han appointed Jiang Wan ta chiang-chun and lu shang-shu shih; the hou chun-shih Fei Yi replaced Jiang Wan as shang-shu-ling.

6. The Emperor was fond of construction work. Having built his palace in Xu-chang, he also built a palace in Luo-yang, erecting the halls of Zhao-yang-tien and T'ai-chi-tien and constructing the Song-zhang-guan terrace, a hundred and some tens of feet high. The work was carried on without ever coming to an end, interfering with the seasons of the people's agriculture and sericulture.

The ssu-k'ung Chen Qun sent up a memorial saying: "Of old, Yu succeeded to the great days of Tang and Yu, yet lived in a low and humble dwelling and his ordinary garments were poor. How much more should it now be thus! This is a time following hard upon disorders and troubles, when the population is extremely low, amounting to no more than that of a good-sized chun in the time of Han Wen-Di and Jing-Di. Added to this there is warfare on the frontiers, generals and soldiers suffering from toil. Should calamities of flood and drought befall, there will be much to worry you about the states. Furthermore Wu and Shu have not yet been brought to extermination, so that the foundation of our state is not yet secure; before they make any move, we must train our people in arms and encourage them in agriculture, so that we will be prepared. Now we neglect these urgent matters, and bring palaces to the forefront. I fear the people will suffer. How are we going to meet the enemy.

"Back when Liu Bei came to Bo-shui from Cheng-du, he built a large number of post-houses, incurring expenses and putting people to task. Cao Cao knew that he was wearing his people out this way. Now, it is indeed the fond wish of Wu and Shu that China Proper should exert itself in labor. This is the dividing-line between security and danger. I hope Your Majesty will reflect on this."

The Emperor replied, "The royal work and the palace must be attended to simultaneously. When he exterminate the rebels, we will retire only to the task of preservation; how can we then ever undertake any construction? This indeed is your work, and something that pertains to Xiao He's great scheme."

Chen Qun further said, "Of old, Gao-Zu had to contend for domination of the empire with Xiang Yu alone. When Xiang Yu was destroyed, the palaces had all been burnt down. This is why Xiao He built the Storehouse and Granary, which were both urgent. Yet Gao-Zu disapproved of them for their magnificence and grandeur. At present the two rebels remain unconquered; it is by no means a time comparable with antiquity. Whatever we desire, we always have some excuse. The desire being that of the Son of Heaven, who will dare oppose? When formerly it was desired that the Storehouse be razed, it was said, 'It cannot but be razed!' Later when it was desired to rebuild it, it was said, 'It cannot but be rebuilt!'

"If it is to be built at all, certainly you need pay no heed to the words of your own subjects. Should you, on the other hand, pay a little attention and change your mind completely, it also is not your own subjects whom you must attend to. Han-Ming-Di desired to build the Te-yang-tien palace, but because of Zhong Li's advice against this plan, he followed his words. Eventually however he did build it. When the palace was about to be completed, he said to his ministers, 'The shang-shu Zhang Li is still with us; the palace should not be completed.' Should a royal person stand in fear of a single man? It was but for the sake of the people. Since I have not been able to arrest your sage hearing a little, I am far inferior to Zhang Li."

Thereupon the Emperor made a slight reduction in his plans.

7. The Emperor delighted in showing favor to his women. The ranks and emoluments of the court ladies were fixed in imitation of the heirarchy of the hundred officials. From the kuei-jen down to those who did menial work in the harem, there were in all several thousand. He selected six girls who were literate and could be entrusted with documents, and appointed them nu-shang-shu, to inspect and judge memorials from the officials.
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Unread postby Dong Zhou » Thu May 31, 2007 9:09 pm

In the end Liu Ye became demented. He was given an appointment outside the palace as ta hung-lu and died of worry.

That made me so very sad, a brilliant but seemingly unloved advisor.

Excellent work Gabriel, thank you, I have learnt a lot from this
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