Local Administration - Ranks and Titles - Later Han

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Local Administration - Ranks and Titles - Later Han

Unread postby dskod1 » Sun Nov 11, 2012 3:18 pm

Local Administration - Ranks and Titles - Later Han
Shepard - 2000 shih
Inspector - 600 shih
The two ranks of shepherd and inspector were constantly being replaced by one another. Whilst the names differ the role of a shepherd or Inspector was exactly the same. The repeated altercation in rank and title from 600 shih and 200 shih stemmed from attempting to devise a system of scrutiny of the local administration that would work as intended. Would you appoint a young person at the start of their career or an old senior. A young person would work vigorously in order to make his way up OR would they be careful and cautious as not to offend much higher ranking officials. An old senior might do his job without fear as he is at the end of his life OR he could just as well not being so close to retirement and not wanting to get embroiled. The rank and title of this position was constantly changing throughout the later Han Empire and the last rank on use was shepherd at 2000 shih. This cycle only stopped due to the death of emperor ling and the eventual collapse of the central government

The inspectors/shepherds audited the administration of the commandaries and kingdoms. They reported directly to the three Excellencies. They examined all aspects of local conditions, such as honesty and competence of the officials, their obedience to the central government, justice, the treatment of prisoners and convict labourers, favouritism, extortion, factionalism, and abuse by powerful families. After a check by the three Excellencies in the later Han, impeachment could result in dismissal, demotion, or prosecution of a culpable official.

In the later Han the inspectors/shepherds were transferred to the local administration. During the eighth month of each year he conducted his official regular tour but he started from and returned to his provincial capital and no longer went in person to the capital.

The Commandery Staff
Each province consisted of a varying number of commandaries. If a commandery was granted as a fief to the son of an emperor and his heirs, it was called a Kingdom (wang Kuo). By A.D. 14- the total number of commandaries and kingdoms was 99.

Grand Administrator (2000 shih): in charge of all civilian and military affairs in his commandery, including the administration of criminal and civil law. On appointment, each grand administrator was to investigate his predecessor's performance in office, and, if he discovered dereliction of duty, had to impeach him. Failure to do so was punishable by law. Personally visited the prefectures of his commandery each spring, and inspected agriculture and sericulture. In cases of hardship he arranged for relief. In the fall and winter, he dispatched "officials who cause no harm" to inquire whether criminal cases in prefectures have been judged fairly. At the End of Each year, the Grand Administrator also recommended the required number of Filially Pious and Incorrupt as candidates for office.
-Assistant (600 shih, presumably): Only Appointed in non-border commandaries. Assisted the grand administrator and carried the annual accounts of the commandery to the imperial capital, for this purpose he was called the Official in Charge of Accounts. If the Grand Administrator fell ill the Assistant was to act for him
-Chief Clerk (600 shih): Only assigned in border provinces. Responsible for armament and horses. Assisted the grand administrator and carried the annual accounts of the commandery to the imperial capital, for this purpose he was called the Official in Charge of Accounts. If the Grand Administrator fell ill the Assistant was to act for him
-Master of Records (): Presumably in charge of keeping records of the annual accounts of the commendery
-Secretary Clerk (): responsible for keeping records of the Grand Administrator's activates and for maintaining his calendar of appointments.
-Chief of the Checkpoint Gate (): Stationed at the main gate leading into the official compound of the Grand Administrator

Bureaus:
The Grand Administrator was further assisted by lesser staff organised into bureaus. The Bureaus across the empire were not uniform and there existed many different bureaus depending on the region. The Grand Administrator could thus disband and form bureaus as he needed to assist with certain areas. Each Bureau is led by a Division Head. Here are some known common bureaus:
Bureau of Merit: In Charge of identifying worthy men
Bureau for All Purposes: Concerned itself with all matters of administration and consequently had an authority overlapping other bureaus
Bureau of Investigation: Each commandery was divided into up to five "regional divisions" for each of which the Bureau of Investigation employed one investigator. They reported on all aspects of prefectural administration and conditions within his regional division.
Bureau of Banditry: Concerned with the suppression of banditry
Bureau of Arms: Concerned with military matters
Bureau of Arms and Horses: Concerned with Calvary equipment
Bureau of Decisions: Concerned with Criminal law
Bureau of Statement: Concerned with Litigation
Bureau of households: Concerned with population registers, and the sacrifices agriculture, and sericulture of the common people
Bureau of Ranking: Concerned with ranking people by age for possible governmental honours.
Bureau of Command: Concerned with convict soldiers, convict labourers, and transportation
Bureau of Laws: Concerned with Postal Stations and Couriers
Bureau of Gathering: concerned with the keeping of accounts
Bureau of Granaries: concerned with grain and tax grain
Bureau of Markets: concerned with market traders and, presumably, the tax collected from traders
Bureau of Memorials: concerned with the transmission of memorials
Bureau of Consultation: Concerned with giving advice

The Prefectural Staff
Every Commandery was divided into a varying number of Prefectures. There total was 1179 in A.D. 140. In some certain sensitive areas containing primarily barbarian races the territory was not called a prefecture but a March. All prefectures were divided further more into districts, then into communes, then into hamlets.

Prefect (600 to 1000 shih, depending on population): in charge of a prefecture with 10,000 or more households. One of the lowest officials in local administration appointed by the central administration. held a staggering amount of responsibility for enforcing law and order in the prefectures, of supervising the people's seasonal work, or storing grain as a precaution to famine, of registering people and property, or collecting taxes, of mobilising the people for corvee, of supervising public works, of performing rituals, or keeping schools, of promoting the worthy, and of judging criminal and civil cases. Had to keep an up to date register on all these responsibilities and then sent to the Grand Administrator in the capital of the commandery.
-Assistant (200 to 400 shih): In charge of documents, granaries, and legal matters.
-Commandant of the Left (200 to 400 shih): Responsible for supressing banditry and for identifying the chief culprits.
-Commandant of the Right (200 to 400 shih): Responsible for supressing banditry and for identifying the chief culprits.
-Patrol Leaders (): one or several
-Bailiff of the Markets ():
-Bailiff of the Stables ():

Chief (300 to 400 shih, Depending on population): In charge of a prefecture with less than 10,000 households. One of the lowest officials in local administration appointed by the central administration. held a staggering amount of responsibility for enforcing law and order in the prefectures, of supervising the people's seasonal work, or storing grain as a precaution to famine, of registering people and property, or collecting taxes, of mobilising the people for corvee, of supervising public works, of performing rituals, or keeping schools, of promoting the worthy, and of judging criminal and civil cases.
Had to keep an up to date register on all these responsibilities and then sent to the Grand Administrator in the capital of the commandery.
-Assistant (200 to 400 shih): In charge of documents, granaries, and legal matters.
-Commandant (200 to 400 shih): Responsible for supressing banditry and for identifying the chief culprits.
-Patrol Leaders (): one or several
-Bailiff of the Markets ():
-Bailiff of the Stables ():

Bureaus:
The Prefectural staff were organised into Bureaus much like the Commandery staff. Each Bureau was led by a "Division Head".
Bureau of all purposes: Had staff consisting of "Officials of Justice" who inspected the various settlements in the prefectural level.
Bureau of Banditry: Concerned with the suppression of banditry
Bureau of Arms: Concerned with military matters
Bureau of Arms and Horses: Concerned with Calvary equipment
Bureau of Decisions: Concerned with Criminal law
Bureau of Statement: Concerned with Litigation
Bureau of households: Concerned with population registers, and the sacrifices agriculture, and sericulture of the common people
Bureau of Ranking: Concerned with ranking people by age for possible governmental honours.
Bureau of Command: Concerned with convict soldiers, convict labourers, and transportation
Bureau of Laws: Concerned with Postal Stations and Couriers
Bureau of Gathering: concerned with the keeping of accounts
Bureau of Granaries: concerned with grain and tax grain
Bureau of Markets: concerned with market traders and, presumably, the tax collected from traders
Bureau of Memorials: concerned with the transmission of memorials
Bureau of Consultation: Concerned with giving advice

The Kingdoms:
Only Members of the Imperial household should be made kings. All sons of emperors, except the heir-apparent, were given kingdoms and these were normally inherited by the eldest son of each Queen. His brothers, if grandsons of the emperor, were made full marquises. The number of kingdoms fluctuated throughout both Han dynasties. Never more than 25 or less than 8. All "Kingdoms" were presumably the size of commandaries. All positions at or below 400 shih were directly appointed by the king whilst any above this rank were appointed by the Central Government. Kings had no privy treasurer which means kings had no fiscal control over there fiefs and were reduced to receiving a stripend from the government.

King (???): The head of a kingdom. By the time of later Han held little to no power and had barely any staff reporting directly to him
-Tutor (2000 shih): Moral Guide and Mentor of the King. Primarily an honorary role
-Prefect of the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace (1000 shih): Commanded the bodyguards in the royal palace, the messengers to the king (particularly to the imperial court), the ceremony assistants, and errand runners.
-Coachman (1000 shih): Responsible for horses and carriages
-Preparers of Documents (Equivalent 600 shih): up to 4 at any one time were the king's secretaries.
-chief of the Guards (Equivalent 400 shih): Commanded the guards at the gates into the royal palace compound.
-Chief of Ritual Music (Equivalent 400 shih): In charge of musicians
-Chief Invocator (Equivalent 400 shih): The Prayer-master
-Chief of Physicians (Equivalent 400 shih): in charge of physicians and medicines
-Chief of Long lanes (Equivalent 400 shih): In charge of female slaves. Only eunuch position in kingdoms

Chancellor (2000 shih): Held the same responsibilities as a Grand Administrator. Only responsible to the central government.
-Chief Clerk (): Held same responsibilities as Assistant of Grand Administrators.
-Commandant of the Capital (Equivalent 2000 shih): Responsible for Suppression of banditry and enforcement of law and order

Bureaus:
Presumably held the same bureaus as normal commandaries.

The Marquisates:
The sisters and daughters of emperor were given the title or senior princess or princess. The Former ranked equal to a king, the latter equal to a full marquis. Their estates consisted of prefecture. The heir to each was the eldest son, who, on acceding to the fief, became a full marquis. The daughters of kings were all enfeoffed as princess, but their estates normally consisted of districts and communes, and these were not handed down to their heirs. The household staffs of a princess were appointed by the central government and were responsible to the Director of the Imperial clan. The Marquisates of full marquises consisted of a specific number of households in prefectures, districts, or communes. The full marquises did NOT hold any actual power over there estates as the administrators of their estates were appointed and responsible to the central government. The administration of Marquisates was exactly the same of the corresponding prefecture, district, or commune. The noble held no influence on it and merely received a stripend from the central government. As a courtesy the prefect or chief of a prefecture that currently was marquisates was given the title Chancellor, his rank depending on the size of the population. The household of officials for full marquises were appointed by the central government but not formally responsible to any ministry.

Senior Princess/Princess/Full Marquise (): Noble in charge of the estate. Held no actual power/influence and merely collected a stripend from the central government. Expected to reside in their estates, unless they had been granted special permission to reside in the capital. Held their own sizeable servants and retinues who were either privately acquired or gifts from the central government and thus not inside the bureaucracy.
-Assistant of the Household (Equivalent to 100 shih): Only for Marquisates with 1000 or more households
-Cadets (): Presumably the bodyguards
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dskod1
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