Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

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Unread postby James » Mon Apr 02, 2007 6:01 pm

Starscream wrote:Finally, to commemorate the end of the rebellion and the re-crowning of Emperor James, I present the final annotation to Lu Kang's bios...

Does this mean we have *gasp* a rough draft? :D
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Unread postby Starscream » Tue Apr 03, 2007 11:37 am

James wrote:Does this mean we have *gasp* a rough draft? :D


Oh yes of course. Lu Kang's bio + relevant annotations have been completed. I'm glad there isn't any more of those DREADED PETITIONS. Bless the father and son. They'll live down history as being one of the best petition writers. :evil:

Final touchups will include grammar correction and proof-reading against the original text for accuracy. :wink:

As for me, I shall disappear in a corner at the moment..... @_@;
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Unread postby James » Tue Apr 03, 2007 3:42 pm

I could prepare/tidy bits once they are proofread and edited by someone who knows the original biography. I’ll keep myself away from a repeat of the Hua Tuo incident in which I jumped right in. “Uh, no, James… that’s not quite what it originally meant…” :)
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby SwampBuddha » Thu May 19, 2011 3:51 pm

Any chance on a finished product of this genius work? I have copied and pasted Lu Kangs bio that you guys translated in a word document and am fixing spelling(as far as correcting chinese..lol i can only speak a few phrases)
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby Lady Wu » Thu May 19, 2011 9:11 pm

Omg I tried so hard to block this out of my memory.

This is hilarious. I totally forgot about doing this.
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby SwampBuddha » Thu May 19, 2011 11:17 pm

I've been waiting actually for a year or so, scouring the net for a translated SGZ bio of Lu Kang...lol. So I have it nicely in a Word Document as I am trying to flush out english grammar errors.

I am still confused about Lijie Zhonglang Jiang(or whatevs), and there is ONE sentence that is fully in pinyin...that was never translated..and google translate knows nothing

and i think you just need to check a couple untranslated ranks and you are good.
I have so far also Color coated Regular info(black), Commentary(blue), memorials(Purple), annotations(Green)
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby Lady Wu » Fri May 20, 2011 2:14 am

Do you think you can upload it somewhere, or post the proofread text in this thread? I can fix it up.
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby Starscream » Fri May 20, 2011 4:19 am

I still cannot understand we went through petitions after petitions of this father and son horror. Who's Lu Kang again? :shock:
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby SwampBuddha » Fri May 20, 2011 11:21 am

Lady Wu wrote:Do you think you can upload it somewhere, or post the proofread text in this thread? I can fix it up.


When I get to work (bad..I know..lol) I will go on the work computer(where I did it..lol) and finish up grammar and then post it here I guess. You guys just need to find out a couple rank translations and that one pinyin sentence.
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Re: Lu Xun/Lu Kang relay

Unread postby SwampBuddha » Fri May 20, 2011 3:17 pm

HERE IT IS: THE PARTIALLY EDITED VERSION...IT STILL NEEDS RANK CLARIFICATIONS AND SOME PINYIN TRANSLATED..(sorry for caps)..also there are still some Editor comments(as in Starscream or ladyWu words)

Lu Kang

Lu Kang, styled Youjie, was the grandson of Sun Ce. At the time Lu Xun died, he was 20 years of age and held the title of “Colonel who Builds Might”. Leading 5,000 from his late father’s command, he lead the funeral procession back to the east, and to pay his respects to Sun Quan at the capital city. Sun Quan had a messenger interrogate Lu Kang with regards to the twenty items of accusation Yang Zhu brought against Lu Xun, and forbade outsiders to be present at the interrogation. Although he was not able to consult with anyone, Lu Kang replied to each of the charges appropriately, to Sun Quan’s satisfaction. Thus Sun Quan’s anger [towards his father] was relieved.

In the 9th year of Chiwu (AD 246), Lu Kang was promoted to lijie zhonglangjiang (General of the Gentleman of the household OR General of the Palace Guard), and was ordered to switch garrisons with Zhuge Ke in Chaisang. Before he left his fort, Lu Kang repaired all the walls, houses, and various fortifications. ju lu sang guo, bude wang bai. When Zhuge Ke moved into the fort, it was as if it was newly built; on the other hand, Zhuge Ke’s former fort in Chaisang was quite run-down, causing him to be shamed.

In the first year of Taiyuan (AD251), Lu Kang returned to the capital on sick leave. When he had recovered and was about to return to his duties, Sun Quan parted with him in tears, saying, “Formerly I had listened to corruping counsel, and became estranged from your virtuous father. I had disappointed you. As for the records of the accusations, I will burn them all, lest others will see them.”

In the first year of Jianxing (AD252), the Wei general Zhuge Dan defected to Wu, bringing all of Shouchun with him. Consequently Lu Kang was made Chief Inspector of Chaishang. Marching to Shouchun, Lu Kang defeated the Wei General of the Standard and Lieutenant-General, and thus he was promoted to General who Conquers the North. In the second year of Yong’an (AD259), he was given the title of General who Maintains the Army, and was put in command of the lands of Xiling, from Guanyu to Baidi. The jie honours were given him in the following year. When Sun Hao came to the throne, he promoted Lu Kang to General-in-chief who Maintains the Army, and Governor of Yizhou. In the second year of Jianheng (AD 270), the Commander-in-Chief, Shi Ji, died, and Lu Kang was further promoted to be Chief Controller of Xinling, Xiling, Yidao, Lexiang, and Gong’an, and given additional administrative duties at Lexiang.
Sigh... here's Lu Kang:
-----
Lu Kang, having heard that there were many omissions and errors in the policies coming out from the imperial court, became deep in worry for the future [of the kingdom]. Thus he memorialised,

Your servant has heard that only when two powers become equal in virtues that the more populous one be able to defeat the other, and only when their strength is comparable that the one in peace can overcome the one in instability. This was why the Six States were annexed by the strong Qin, and the Western Chu became a vassal of the High Progenitor of the Han. At the present time, the enemy's hold spans across the lands--not just the lands of Guan-you; ruling nine provinces, they are not confined to just the west of Honggou. Our country has neither allies beyond our borders nor strength within that could match even that of the Chu. The civil administration is degenerate, and the common people have not known peace. Yet, the counsellors are complacent, taking comfort in having the long River and the rugged mountains to protect our borders. This is of little importance--holding onto our country--and not [an attitude] that the wise would advocate! Your servant has often contemplated on the rise and fall of the powers of the Warring States from long ago, and observed the recent disastrous demise of the Liu Empire. I study such affairs from the classical texts, comparing them to the going-ons of our day. In the middle of the night I would stroke my pillow; though facing a meal I would forget to eat. In the past, when the Xiongnu was still at large, Qubing declined to have a mansion built for himself; before the codes of Han were made perfect, Jia Yi wept in sorrow. And your servant, being a scion of the royal house as well as a descendent of a family enjoying generations of imperial favours--can I not more so disregard personal fame and safety, and tie my fate to the sorrows of the nation? Can I not set aside life and death, and perform all that my duties require of me? Can I not worry [about the country] day and night, and have my heart pain at the thought of it?

The proper way to serve a lord obliges one to risk the lord's displeasure in order to avoid being deceitful; the code of being a minister despises submissivity but praises dying for a good cause. Thus I dare to present 17 proposals as follows:

The seventeen proposals have been lost and thus are not recorded here.

At that time, He Ding held power, and allowed the eunuchs to interfere with state affairs. Lu Kang memorialised, saying:

[color=#4040BF]Your servant has heard that whether in building a country or carrying on a family enterprise, one does not employ persons of a mean state. [Don’t know the next 2 clauses] This is something that causes learned men to scornfully complain, and Confucius to sigh with regret. Since the Spring and Autumn times, and into the Qin and Han dynasties, the cause of destruction has never been any other than this. The lesser man is ignorant of reason and principles of propriety, and his understanding is shallow. Even if he can be made to serve with all his heart and in all properness, he is still inadequate to the task, let alone that his heart is always deceitful, and inconstant either in love or hate? [Don’t know the next 2 clauses] But now, they are entrusted with the tasks of being your ears and eyes, and given the power to dictate the laws. And yet we wish for sounds of peace and prosperity to be rise, and the era of morality and righteousness to be established. This is clearly impossible.

Looking at the officers in employment now, I see few of exceptional talent; however, they either are scions of noble families and have been exposed to teachings of proper conduct since their youth, or men who raised themselves up from a poor environment, proving their sufficient abilities. These could be given positions according to their talents, in order to restrain the lesser men. Only then can the muddied values be cleared, and the administration purified.
In the first year of Feng Huang, Bu Chan, the grand administrator of Xi Ling, led a revolt in the city he governed and dispatched a man to Jin to offer his surrender. After getting news of this, Lu Kang prepared his soldiers day and night, ordering the generals Zuo Yi, Wu Yan, Cai Gong, etc to lead an attack on Xi Ling directly and also to re-construct and strengthen the surrounding walls for every units stretching from Chi Xi to Gu Shi. This served the purpose of surrounding Bu Chan from the inside and defending against invaders from the outside. Lu Kang hastened his generals with the task day and night as if the enemies had already arrived. As a result, the troops complained of the harsh task. The generals pleaded, "With the battle-readiness of the three armies, we could swiftly attack Bu Chan before the Jin army arrives. Why do we need to construct the walls and wear down the soldiers?" Lu Kang replied, "The surroundings of Xi Ling are treacherous and it has a solid defence and ample food supplies. Besides, the defence systems and weaponry of Xi Ling were designed by me before. Now if we turn to attack it, not only can we not conquer it swiftly, the northern army would most likely arrive. If we do not have preparations, how do we defend ourselves against attacks from both outside and within?"[/color] All the generals were still adamant to attack Bu Chan, but Lu Kang still disagreed. The governor of Yi Du, Lei Tan, reasoned with much sincerity, so Lu Kang allowed a single attack in order to convince them all. Indeed, the attack failed, thus, the construction of the walls could continue and be completed.

Yang Hu, General of Chariots and Cavalry of Jin, attacked Jiang Ling and the Wu officers disagreed with Lu Kang's decision to lead the troops westwards. Lu Kang reasoned, "Jiang Ling's defence is very strong and it has plenty of troops so we need not worry. Should the enemy conquer Jiang Ling, they would not be able to hold it and we have little to lose. If there are collaborations between Xi Ling and the enemy, there might be unrest among the tribes at Nan Shan. Should that happen, worrisome matters will persist. I would rather abandon Jiang Ling to go to Xi Ling, especially with Jiang Ling's strong defence."

In the beginning, Jiang Ling's terrain was flat with passable roads, but Lu Kang ordered for the construction of a dam to block the water, resulting in the flooding of the flat plains that also prevented entry by the potential enemies. Yang Hu wanted to make use of the dam water for the transportation of food and he announced to destroy the dam. After hearing this, Lu Kang immediately ordered Zhang Xian to destroy the dam. The officers were very puzzled and tried many times to stop this, but Lu Kang refused to listen. Upon reaching Dang Yang, Yang Hu got news that the dam had been destroyed and had to use carts instead of boats for transportation, thus wasting great amounts of effort and time.

Xu Yin, the army supervisor of Ba Dong of Jin empire, led naval forces to Jian Ping, while Yang Zhao, the Inspector of Jing Zhou, reached Xi Ling. Lu Kang ordered Zhang Xian to defend Jiang Ling city; Sun Zun, the Inspector of Gong An, to patrol the southern shores of Chang Jiang river and defend against Yang Hu; Naval officer Liu Lu and Zhu Wan, General Who Defends the West, to defend against Xu Yin. Lu Kang himself led the three armies to the walls to fight against Yang Zhao. Wu general Zhu Qiao and Camp Chief Controller Yu Zan surrendered to Yang Zhao. Lu Kang said, "Yu Zan served the army for a long time and understands much of our army. I am often worried about the lack of training of the tribal soldiers. Should the enemies attack the walls, they are likely to strike at here." Therefore, he dismissed the tribal soldiers and mobilized reservists in their place. The next day, Yang Zhao indeed led army to attack the position where the tribal troops used to be stationed at. Lu Kang ordered for a counter-attack, and arrows, rocks fell like rain on Yang Zhao's troops, wounding and killing many of them. Yang Zhao could not do anything after more than a month at Xi Ling and he fled in the night. Lu Kang wanted to pursue him but was wary if Bu Chan was to concentrate his forces to attack their weak spot, they might not have sufficient troops to defend, hence he merely ordered for drums to be beaten to warn the army and made it seemed as if he intended to pursue. Yang Zhao's army was in great disarray and fear and everyone discarded their weapons and fled. Lu Kang sent light-armoured troops to pursue from the rear, and Yang Zhao's army suffered a great defeat, while Yang Hu and the rest also led their troops to retreat.

Lu Kang occupied Xi Ling city and executed Bu Chan's family and his generals and officers. Those below the rank of officers pleaded mercy for release and some tens of thousands of them were not prosecuted. Lu Kang repaired the walls of Xi Ling and rebuilt its structures before he returned back. His face revealed no sign of arrogance and was as humble as usual. This was why he was respected and loved by the officers. --> go to Annotation 1

Lu Kang was conferred another rank of Du Hu 都护 (Note: to check). Upon hearing that Xue Ying, the commander of the left army of Wu Cang, was imprisoned for a crime, Lu Kang petitioned saying, "talented individuals are the nation's jewels and the society's treasures; because of them, different administrative matters could be carried out orderly to benefit all. In the past, the Da Si Nong (equivalent to Finance Minister) Lou Xuan, 散骑中常侍 (Note: to check) Wang Fan, the Lord in charge of royal treasury and welfare 少府 Li Xu were talented individuals back then and were famous for their abilities. They were initially favoured by their lords and the way they carried out their duties were socially and legally acceptable. However, they were executed not long after. Either their families were exterminated or they were abandoned in some distant wild lands. Zhou Li (Note: Zhou Rites) explicitly stated a law to release talented individuals for minor errors. Chun Qiu (Note: Spring and Autumn penned by Confucius) explained about forgiving virtuous people. In Shang Shu (Note: one of the main Confucian literatures), it says that, "It is better to err by breaking the law than killing an innocent". However, Wang Fan and the rest were executed even though their crimes were not proven. Their hearts were loyal but yet they were killed, is this not a pity? Moreover, though they were already executed and could not feel any pain, their bodies were burnt and their ashes scattered into the waters. I fear that this action might not be with accordance to what was decreed by the kings nor the objective of the laws laid down to deter wrongdoers. As a result, the civilians are fearful and uncertain and both court officials and the commoners are distraught. Wang Fan and Li Xu were both already dead, so it is too late to regret. However, I sincerely plead with your majesty to spare Lou Xuan and release him from imprisonment. Lately, I have heard that Xue Ying had been arrested. Xue Ying's late father, Xue Zong, was an advisor at the First Emperor (aka Sun Quan)'s side and he had also served Emperor Wen. Xue Ying succeeded his father's position and had been careful in maintaining his actions within ethical boundaries, hence the crime that he has committed now is forgivable. I am worried that the officials in charge (of his arrest) could not understand the background of this matter and should they once more carry out capital punishment, it will cause greater disappointment amongst the civilians. Therefore, I plead for mercy from your majesty to forgive Xue Ying of his wrongdoings, have mercy on all who have erred and carry out penal duties justly. In this way, there will be a cause for joy for all."
And now, Lu Kang continues to petition....

At that juncture, soldiers continued to be mobilised and the civilians were very much exhausted. Lu Kang petitioned saying, "I have heard that Zhou Rites emphasises on following the flow of events and Zuo Zhuan applauds offense when the opportunity is ripe. That is why in the past, Shang Tang mobilised forces to attack Xia Dynasty when the latter was in the state of decadence and for the same reason, King Wu of Zhou campaigned against the fatuous King Zhou of Shang. If the opportunity was not ripe, Shang Tang would rather stay imprisoned in fear and King Wu would wait in Meng Jin and not make unnecessary moves. At present, we are not spending our energies in making the country more prosperous and strengthening our troops, engaging in agriculture, stocking up our granaries, allowing all the officials to have opportunities to utilise their abilities, defining a clear promotion / demotion system to encourage officers at all levels to perform, defining the objectives of punishments and rewards, stating what is prohibited, educating code of ethics to all officials, ruling the people with benevolence, and finally, following Heaven's will; and when the opportunity arises, we conquer the world. Instead, the advices of generals who want only their glory are heeded and the troops are mobilised non-stop for conquest. Our treasury is strained within a short period of time and the soldiers are now suffering from injuries and fatigue. Even if the enemies do not attack us, we have already exhausted ourselves. If we now attempt to fight for rights of sovereignty, and our visions blurred by small gains due to the ill advices of officers seeking personal interests, this is certainly not in the interest of the country's welfare. In the past, Qi and Lu engaged in battle 3 times. Lu won 2 of the battles but was vanquished thereafter. Why was that so? That is due to the difference in strength between the two states. Whatever that was gained in the victory of war was insufficient to cover the losses needed to wage a war. Moreover, relying on military strengths alone without the support of civilians has been proven since the ancient times that, it would be better instead to cease conquest for the moment and invest efforts in building up military strengths and civilians' welfare. When the time is ripe, we have nothing to regret."
A year later, Lu Kang continued to live up to his father's name and the petitions went on...

In the spring of the second year of Feng Huang, Lu Kang was conferred the rank of Da Si Ma and Governor of Jingzhou at where he was stationed. In the summer of the third year of Feng Huang, Lu Kang fell seriously ill. He petitioned saying, "Xi Ling and Jian Ping are border regions of our country. They are located at the lower tributaries of River Chang Jiang and are threatened by the two enemy states. If the enemy ships follow the flow of the river, their ships can travel very swiftly and reach these region in a very short period of time. At this rate, no reinforcements can ever assist in defending these regions should there be attacks. This concerns the safety of our country and not just a petty border invasion. My late father Lu Xun had memorialised his concerns when he was at the western borders and he felt that Xi Ling is the western gate to our country. Although it is easy to defend, it is also easy to lose. Once this place has fallen, it is not a mere lost of a county; the entire Jing Zhou prefecture may not belong to Wu anymore. If there are any troubles arising in these regions, the entire country's forces should be mobilised to defend them. I was previously stationed at Xi Ling and have read my late father's records of events. A request for reinforcement of thirty thousand crack soldiers was made but the officer in charge followed the protocol and did not dispatch the requested number of troops. Ever since Bu Chan's rebellion, the army suffered a great loss. Now the thousand li of land under my jurisdiction can be threatened by enemies from all directions. We have to defend against external invasions and at the same time, maintain peace and order amongst the various tribes internally. I have only a few thousand soldiers on hand and many of them are either old or suffering from fatigue for a long period of time and it is very difficult to handle any crisis in this state. I feel that since the princes are still quite young and have never managed state affairs before, the post of tutors should be established to educate them not to use troops unnecessarily, to avoid hindrance to more crucial matters. Eunuchs in the palaces are establishing their personal recruitment system and thus, those soldiers or commoners who resent against military enlistment would all prefer to enlist themselves as the eunuchs' personal guards. I sincerely plead to your majesty to issue a special decree to make careful investigation and selections in order to reorganize the enlistment of troops. Excessive manpower should be removed from the palaces to replenish the armies at the borders that often have to defend against enemy invasions. By doing so, I hope to have a sufficient eighty thousand troops under my command and at the same time excesses can be reduced, accomplishments rewarded, and wrongdoings suitably punished. If Han Xin or Bai Qi are alive today, they can do nought about the present situation even with their talents. If we do not increase the number of soldiers, if the palace system does not change, I truly worry how this can affect our ultimate goal. After my death, please give more emphasis on the defence at the western regions. I sincerely hope your majesty will give consideration to my words, and after my death, may this spirit live on."

In autumn that year, Lu Kang passed away. His son Lu Yan succeeded his nobilities. Lu Yan's younger brother Lu Jing, Lu Xuan, Lu Ji and Lu Yun each respectively commanded Lu Kang's army. Lu Yan was Shan Jiang Jun 禅将军 and Yi Dao Jian 夷道监 (note: to check; sounds like "guardian of the foreign passes to me"). In the fourth year of Tian Ji, Jin army invaded Wu. General of Dragon Valour 龙骧将军, Wang Jun followed the river flow and wherever he reached, he conquered the areas with ease, just as what Lu Kang was worried about when he was alive. Lu Jing, styled Shi Ren, married a princess and was bestowed the rank of Calvary commander, conferred the rank of Marquis of Pi Ling. He led Lu Kang's army and was further given the rank of Pian Jiang Jun and Zhong Xia Du 中夏督. He was well-versed in literature and was an ardent learner. He penned some ten over books ^(Annotation 2 Part 1). On the fifth day of the second lunar month, Lu Yan was killed by Wang Jun's subsidiary army. on the sixth day of the second lunar month, Lu Jing was also killed and was thirty one years old when he died. Lu Jing's wife was the sister of Sun Hao and like Lu Jing, they were Zhang Cheng's maternal grandsons ^^(Annotation 2 Part 2).

Commentary by Chen Shou: Liu Bei was known to be a hero of his time and was feared by many. When Lu Xun was young, he was not prominent but when he fought battles, he had never lost. I am in awe of Lu Xun's strategies and praise Sun Quan for his ability to recognise talents, and this is the very key to achieving success! Lu Xun was loyal and sincere and worried about state affairs until his dying day, hence he can be said to be a pillar of the state. Lu Kang was righteous and trustworthy, full of talent and strategies. He had his father's persona and was praised by all. He possessed all the good qualities except that perhaps he was less fearsome than his father. Nevertheless, he can be said to succeed his father fully.

Annotation 1 of Lu Kang's bio:

Jin Yang Qiu 晋阳秋 stated that, "Lu Kang and Yang Hu promoted amicable relationship between themselves. Lu Kang tried sending Yang Hu wine on one occasion and the latter tasted it without any suspicion. When Lu Kang fell ill, Yang Hu delivered some medicine to him and Lu Kang also took it. It seemed as if Hua Yuan and Zi Fan were alive again.

Sidenote: Song Hua Yuan and Sima Zi Fan were mentioned in one of the main Spring and Autumn texts called Gong Yang Zhuan. Both were from opposing camps. Sima Zi Fan surrounded the city of Song but he had only 7 days of food supply left, so it was a strike-or-leave situation. He sounded out Song Hua Yuan who told him that the situation inside the city was bad as well. Both men were willing to be truthful to each other as they judged the latter to be a gentleman and would not resort to taking advantage of others' dire situation to score a battle victory. Hence, the annotation compared the amicable relationship of Lu Kang and Yang Hu with these two ancient gentlemen.

Han Jin Chun Qiu 汉晋春秋 says, “Though Yang Hu returned soon after, he practiced benevolence to win the Wu people’s trust. Lu Kang always told the border garrison that, “He (Yang Hu) came from the point of benevolence; we are here only for violence. Thus, without having to do battle, we already know who the victor is. We must each maintain our boundary and not attempt to gain any petty advantage.” Henceforth, at the borders of Wu and Jin, neither side tried to snatch the other’s land or food. If cows and horses accidentally crossed the borders, the cattle can be returned by just informing the other party. During a hunt at Mian, Wu army caught some of the animals that Jin army had shot and returned them promptly. When Lu Kang was ill, he asked Yang Hu for medicine. Yang Hu delivered some to him, saying, “This is a good medicine. I mixed it only recently. With your illness, you must take it promptly.” Lu Kang immediately took the medicine. His generals advised him against it but Lu Kang did not reply. Sun Hao heard about the friendly relations at the borders and reprimanded Lu Kang. Lu Kang replied, “We must not lose the trust of others, whether it is a city or village, and more so if it is a large entity like a country. If I do not act as such, I am merely spreading the benevolence of Yang Hu and (our invasion) will not hurt Yang Hu.” Sun Hao thought both Lu Kang and Yang Hu to have forgotten their oaths as subordinates and jeered at them.

Xi Zuo Chi wrote, “Those who embrace morals to achieve victory will be supported by the world as the ruler; those who use trust to gain the support of others will be regarded as the leader by all. Although principles are already gone from this world, and voices of righteousness are hardly heard these days, (and in its place,) crafty men are boldly walking in the main streets, and those who manipulate power are in control of the state of affairs, it is always the case that those who possess the power to rule over others are able to do so because they have morals and are trustworthy. This was the reason why in the past, Jin Wen Gong retreated ninety li* and Yuan City surrendered to him; Mu Zi surrounded and pacified the city of Gu**; Ye Fu presented his strategy that subdued the people of Fei ***; and Yue Yi waited for the right opportunity to attack and his conquest was strong like the wind and flowed like the river. It is essential to observe the situation, and victory through brute force or trickery is never complete! Up till this point, the three houses (Wei, Shu and Wu) had been standing for more than forty years. Wu could not cross River Huai and River Mian to enter the Central Plains. Neither could the forces from the Central Plains cross River Chang Jiang to attain victory. The strengths were equally matched therefore it was not feasible to clash forces. Rather than to make others suffer at your own benefit, would it not be better to benefit yourself without causing others to suffer? Rather than to use force and scare others into submission, would it not be better to spread benevolence and gain the love of the people? If you cannot subdue a man by force, how can you make a nation submit? If compliance by power is not possible, why not use benevolence to achieve the same result? Thus, Yang Hu adopted the same strategy in consideration of military manoeuvres. He garnered the support of the people and treated all fairly. He spread the net of kindness to even encompass Wu and adopted universal love to demolish ill practices. His deeds were well-known to the civilians while he maintained his non-offensive stand across the river. Not only was he able to make himself known for benevolence, he gathered the support and friendship of many from far and wide. For all the enemies that the state of Wu had encountered, there was none like him. Lu Kang viewed his country as weaker and his lord fatuous, and in contrast, Jin was known for its virtue. While Jin had the ability to gather the support of the masses, Wu did not have the means to preserve its stand. The civilians (of Wu) might embrace the goodwill of the stronger enemy and there was a worry that the borderlands would switch allegiance. Hence, to preserve the loyalty of the civilians and maintain order both internally and externally, it was essential to combat their own weaknesses, and against a stronger country, it was best not to initiate an attack so that victory could still be achieved. To be touched by the benevolence of others and to spread words of such goodwill to the country will have the same effect like a wind blowing from afar. News of virtuous deeds can reach even the most obscure places and achieve better results than that of using sheer force. (It is thus better) to overcome an enemy without using a single troop or weapon, to protect a country without relying on physical defences, and this means using faith and trust to prevail over hatred and animosity, and moving others with your sincerity. In contrast, what folly it would be to harm talented individuals with evil schemes, destroy one’s own reputation, covet the property of others to benefit yourself and feign allegiance to harm those who have dropped their guard on us! Therefore, to protect the territory through maintaining the defences is achievable by a soldier; harming others through unfair means is but the deed of a petty man; scheming to protect material wealth is like the over-anxiety of lowly slaves; using force to obtain peace is disdained by the wise. This is the reason why the good deeds of gentlemen and virtuous people are remembered and their actions continue to be followed by others.

* Jin Wen Gong (Chong Er) was a political refugee escaping his homeland, the state of Jin. He was invited as a guest in the courts of Chu and was treated cordially. The ruler of Chu asked him how he would repay this favour in the future. Jin Wen Gong replied that should their forces meet in battle, he would be willing to retreat ninety li.

** A messenger from the city of Gu informed Mu Zi that they were willing to betray the city to let his forces in. Mu Zi refused to accept the surrender as it may seem that he supported the betrayal of the citizens and his forces were coming from the direction of malice. Hence, he surrounded the city for more than three months till the point that the enemy depleted their food supply. Thereafter, he conquered the city without killing a single man.

*** In the thirteenth year of Lu Zhao Gong, Shu Gong surrounded the city of Fei but not only was he unsuccessful in taking down the city, he suffered military losses. Ping Zi was angry and ordered for the arrest of some Fei people. Ye Fu advised him to treat the people well. Cruelty would only cause the people to be fearful and they would revolt against the new ruler. Kindness and benevolence would win their support instead. Ping Zi listened to his advice and as predicted, the Fei people forego their previous lord.

Finally, to commemorate the end of the rebellion and the re-crowning of Emperor James, I present the final annotation to Lu Kang's bios...

Annotation 2
Part 1: Wen Shi Zhuan says that, “Lu Jing’s mother was the daughter of Zhang Cheng and niece of Zhuge Ke. When Zhuge Ke was killed, Lu Jing’s mother was subsequently demoted. When Lu Jing was young, he was taken care of by his grandmother. When his grandmother passed away, Lu Jing mourned for her for three years.

Part 2: Lu Jing’s brothers Lu Ji, was styled Shi Heng; and Lu Yun was styled Shi Long.
Ji Yun Bie Zhuan (Other Records of Lu Ji and Lu Yun) says that, “During the end of the Jin dynastic period of Tai Kang (A.D. 280 – A.D. 290), (the two brothers) entered Luo Yang together and met up with Minister of Works (or Si Kong) Zhang Hua. Upon seeing them, Hua was amazed and commented, “In the campaign against Wu, one benefit was the obtaining of these two talented individuals.” Thereupon, he spread the fame of the brothers and introduced them to the other lords. Grand Tutor (or Tai Fu) Yang Jun appointed Lu Ji as Ji Jiu (or head of the education department in the imperial court) and later transferred as Tai Zi Xi Ma (or the officer in-charge of directing formalities for the Crown Prince’s procession when he travels) and Shang Shu Zhu Zuo Lang (or officer in-charge of keeping national records (tiny note: different from Imperial Secretariat)). Lu Yun was Lang Zhong Ling (or Head of the Palace Guard) for King Wu and was given an appointment to govern at Jun Yi. He was benevolent in his rule, thus was well-loved by the people and even worshipped when he was living. Thereafter, he was honoured most highly. Lu Ji was a natural talent and his literary skill was the best of his time. Lu Yun was also good at literature but his expressions not as inspirational. However, in terms of debating skills, he outclassed his brother. During a certain period of time, many incidents occurred in the imperial court and both Ji and Yun got acquainted with Prince of Cheng Du, Ying. Ying appointed Ji as Ping Yuan Xiang (or Chancellor of Ping Yuan) and Yun Qing He Nei Shi (or officer in-charge of rewards and punishments for commoners in Yun Qing He). Yun was subsequently transferred to be You Si Ma (one of the officers in-charge of military matters in a state) and was often delegated duties for war. Not long after, hatred with the Prince of Chang Sha arose, causing an attack on Loyang, of which Lu Ji was appointed as a general of the rear forces, commanding Wang Sui, Qian Sui and others, comprising of two hundred thousand men. Shi Long wrote an Ode of the Southern Campaign (or Nan Zheng Fu) to honour this event. Ji came from Wu and allowed travelers from his hometown to stay amongst his men regardless of their social status, but many could not trust these foreigners. Ji suffered consecutive losses in battle, during which, more than half the number died or fled. Initially, a eunuch called Meng Jiu was favoured by Ying. He (Meng Jiu) made use of his favoured position to seek power. Yun spoke of his shortcomings but Ying did not listen to his words. From that, Jiu took the opportunity to slander Yun. In an incident, (Meng) Chao, the younger brother of Jiu led a coup against Ji and refused to obey military orders. Ji arrested him but Chao declared that Lu Ji had intentions to rebel (against Ying). Moreover, Qian Xiu and others slandered Lu Ji in front of Ying and through a two-pronged attack, with Jiu lending a hand to the libels from the inside, Ying trusted their words and ordered for the arrest of Ji and his brothers, Yun and Dan and they were executed. Ji and his brothers were talents of Jiang Nan and famous in the lands but were executed without a crime. For this reason, their demise was mourned by the world. Ji’s essays were treasured by all and the books by Yun were passed down to many generations. In the beginning, when Lu Kang defeated Bu Chan, he slaughtered even the babies. A person who came across this incident remarked that, “retribution will befall your descendants!” Subsequently, with the execution of Lu Ji, there was no heir in the family. Sun Hui and Zhu Dan wrote, “The story of Ma Yuan choosing his lord was known even to the commoners. Unfortunately, the three Lu (Lu Xun, Lu Kang and Lu Ji) served terrible dynasties, killed many and tarnished their reputations. It was lamentable indeed!” This was also recorded in the Book of Jin.
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